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H„ 






ANNUAL MESSAGE 



OF ^ 



WILLIAM A. BAESTOW, 



GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF WISCONSIN, 



ABDBEBSED TO THE 



SENATE AND ASSEMBLY. 



JANUARY 12, 1866. 



MADISON: • 
BBRIAH BBOWN, PBINTBB. 

liis! 



MESSAGE. 



Fellow Citizens of the Senate cmd Assembly : 

You, having assembled to discharge the high and responsible 
trust confided by the Constitution to the representatives of the 
people, it becomes my duty to lay before you such information, 
concerning the condition of the State, as I may possess ; and to 
recommend for your consideration and action, such matters as, in 
my judgment, the wants and interests of the people demand at 
your hands. But, before proceeding to the performance of that 
duty, I regard it as not only proper, but even obligatory upon me 
to advert to the results of the year which has just closed ; and to 
indulge in congratulations to an extent never before warrantable 
in the History of Wisconsin. With the exception of the epidemic, 
which has prevailed so generally throughout our country, it may 
be truly said, that the past year has been one of more than ordi- 
naiy good health, even in this State — so remarkable for its salu- 
brity. Prosperity has crowned enterprize and industry, in what- 
ever honorable channel exerted, until the admission is compelled 
from all, both at home and abroad, who are acquainted with its 
Teeonrces, that no State presents greater inducements to the vari. 
ons industrial classes than our own. It has been ascertained that 
the amountof our exports, during the past year (including Lumber 
and Mineral) has exceeded the sum of thirteen millions of dollars. 

While a great Commercial revulsion seems to be visiting many 
aebtiona of the Union, crippling their resources and impairing 



their prosperity, no State shares less in its effects, or is better pre- 
pared for its consequences. We have bat to pursue that onward, 
though cautions policy, which has chafacterized our course thus 
far, in order to ensure the occupancy of that desirable position 
among the confederated States, which an energetic and intelligent 
population — favored by our advantages of soil and climate, joined 
to a fortunate commercial position — are so well calculated to com- 
mand. Let us faithfully endeavor to perpetuate our prosperity 
and happiness — ^relying with conlSdence upon the Supreme Euler 
for strength and wisdom. 

While the wants and varied interests of a young and growing 
State like ours, necessarily call for much legislation, there is not 
at this time apparent an, amount of legislative labor necessary to 
be performed, sufficient to justify a protracted session. Excessive 
legislation is too frequently indulged ia— resulting in onerous 
taxes and the enactment of conflicting and unwholesome laws. — 
Still, while I believe it to be my duty to urge upoif you the pro- 
priety of a brief session, and a rigid observance of economy in 
the expenditure of the public monies; I am far from meaning to 
be understood, as wishing to curtail either, to the prejudice of 
any interest which it may be your duty to provide for or protect. 

Among the important matters to which I wish particularly to 
invite your attention, and on which, in order to secure a proper 
and timely result, it will become your duty to act at an early day, 
is that of a careful examination of the Official Beports, and the 
real condition of the several departments of the State Govern* 
ment. These reports will immediately be laid before you, and 
they will be found to be fall and explicit Your constituents have 
a right to claim at your hands, such information as you may be 
able to obtain ; and it is your duty to investigate closely into the 
doings of those intrusted with their interests. The conduct of 
all public servants, under our form of Government and Laws, i»^ 
and should be, subject to inspection ; and, upon a thorough and 
careful examination, it is but simple justice to all parties concern- 
ed that the people should know and nnderstand the result. TUm 



dntj of the Legislature, thongh frequently demanded of them by 
the officers themselvee, has, I regret to say, been too long neglect* 
ed and shamefully avoided. 

The Eeports of the Secretary of State, and State Treasurer, will 
exhibit to you in detail, a full statement of the receipts and dis-- 
bursements of the Treasury Department, during the fiscal year, 
closing on the 81st day of December — ^from which I am enabled to 
lay before you, such information concerning the same, as I deem 
important for v the purposes of this communication. It appears 
that the entire amount paid into the Treasury, during the year 
1854, on account of the yarious funds, was, $401,738,43 

Yiz: Account of General Fund, $191,299,46 

do Principal of School Fund, 85,583,27 
do do University do 9,945,69 

do Income of School do 106,235,03 
do ' do University do 8,775,07 

Add balance in the Treasury January Ist, 1854, on 

account of all Funds, $57,486,48 

Total $459,274,90 

Daring the same period the disbursements appear to have beea 
as follows, viz: 
Account of Gteneral Fund, $222,154,12 

do Principal of School Fund including loans, 84,996,06 

do do University do . do do 21,898,93 

do Income of School do 97,188,88 

do do University do 10,640,44 

do Fox & Wis. Improvement Fund, 129,00 

$437,007,43 
Showing a balance in the Treasnry, on the first day 
o£ Janary^ 1855, on account of the various funds of $22,267,47 

The Secretary of State, in his report, estimates the 
amount probably necessary to be drawn from the Treas- 
ury, on account of the General Fund, during the pres- 
eat year, to meet present and accruing liabilities, at $258,059,69 



6 

In this estimate, it is proper to state, that the stim of $141,638,73 
is included, as necessary to meet arrearages, arising from the erec- 
tion of Penitentiary buildings and support of convicts during the 
past and present year, also the sum necessary to be applied 
toward the erection of a Lunatic Asylum, and the completion of a 
portion of the buildin^js designed, and the support of, the Institu- 
tions established, for the education of the Blind, and Deaf and 
Dumb. 

To meet the foregoing liabilities, the resources are stated as fol* 
lows, viz: 

State Tax as levied and equalized under the act of 1854, $225,000,00 
Bank Tax, (estimated) 30,000,00 

Eail and Plank Eoad Tax, ( do ) 9,0 0,00 

Miscellaneous Resourcos,^( do ) 24,829,91 



Total, $288,829,91 

Among the matters of interest presented by this Eeport, is a 
brief review of the public expenditures, since the admission of 
Wisconsin into the Union — showing the yearly appropriations 
therefor, from 1848 to 1854, inclusive — ^amounting in the aggre- 
gate, to the sum of $830,244,30; of which $94,071,31 was in the 
years of 1848-9; $71,675,38 in 1850; $112,420,80 in 1851; $123,474,- 
06 in 1852; $163,910,58 in 1853, and $264,692,07 in 1854. Of 
the last named sum, appearing under the head of expenses for 1854, 
$63,696.03 was for the expenses of other years; so that the actual 
expenses, for the objects of 1854, were $209,996,04, inclusive of 
Buch as are provided for by permanent provisions — ^thus only 
exhibiting that annual increase in public expenses, consequent 
upon the organization and progress of a new state, and growing in 
a great measure out of the necessary expenditures in providing 
Penitentiary and other public buildings, and the establishment of 
charitable institutions. While, from the foregoing, it would ap- 
pear that the expenses for the year 1854, were between thirty and 
forty thousand dollars more than for any previous year, yet the 
aggregate, for general purposes, for that year, was evidently some 



i 



forty thousand dollars less than for 185S. This is accounted for 
bj the fact that upwards of $80,000 more than in any previous 
year for such purposes, was appropriated for the erection of a State 
Prison, Lunatic, Deaf and Dumb, and Blind Asylums — including 
the moderate appropriations made for the benefit of the State Ag- 
sricultaral and Historical Societies; all of which did then, as tiiey 
do now, appear to be just and worthy objects of Legislative favor; 
and some of which, at least, must continue to be objects of that 
^aracter and destined to create no smll proportion of the public 
•expenses, unless other provisions than at present exist, are made 
for their defrayal. 

With the suggestions of the Secretary, in relation to existing 
laws, on the subjects of die registration of marriages, births and 
•deaths — ^foreign insurance agencies — ^die judiciary fund — ^the fix- 
ing of a penalty in the event of a failure of Town Assessors to 
make return, and the publication of the election laws, I most fiiUy 
<H>ncur. His exibit, however, of the expense heretofore incurred 
by the Legislature, for newspapers and postage, is worthy of more 
than a passing notice at this time ; and can but impress you with 
the importance of a reform, in respect to these matters. It ap- 
pears that the expense for those two items alone, has for several 
years, averaged nearly ten thousand dollars aimuaily — a very 
large proportion of which, I have ever regarded as unnecessary 
^^nd unwarmntable in its character, and should be reduced and 
vconfined to such sum, as the legitimate objects of legislation may 
properly demand. 

The report of the Board of Commissioners of School and XTni- 
versityLandSy has been elaborately prepared, and comprises much 
of interest, connected with the responsible trust committed to their 
charge. ' 

It appears that the aggregate principal of the School fund, 
amounted on the first day of January, to the sum of $1,670,258 7T 
— being an increase, during the past year, of $528,454 49 ; 
flerived chiefly from the sale of lands. The gross amount of in- 
terest, received since the last apportionment made to common 



sohools, including the sum payable prior to the^ tenth day of March 
next, (that being the time fixed by law for the annual distribution) 
is $142,434 29 ; which, according to the estimate of the State Su- 
perintendant of Schools, is equal to 93 cents for each scholar — an 
increase of 21 cents over the previous year. 

The claim of the State to the quantity unselected of the 500,000 
acre grant, amounting to about 125,000 aci^ee, belonging to the 
School fund, and heretofore denied by the General Qovettiment^ 
upon the ground that there was an arrearage due the Govemmeftt | 

from the State, arising from the connection of the Territory with , 

the Rock River Canal, has, during the past year, been amicably i 

adjusted, upon terms entirely favorable to the State ; andihe lands 
thereby accruing, have been chiefly selected. It seems highly 
probable that a like favorable adjustment will be had, of our claims 
to the five per centum of the nett proceeds, arising from the sales 
of Government lands, to which the State is entitled — amounting 
at this time, it is supposed, to about $60,000 ; and wit&held by the 
Government, for the same cause ; as will more fully appekr froioa 
Statement of the facts of the case, and the argument of th^ mattef, 
which will be laid before you. Oonsiderable additions have been 
made to this ftind, during the past year, arising from fines collect- 
ed by agents appointed for that purpose, udder all act authorising 
the same — a large proportion of which, it is believed, never would 
have reached the Treasury, except through the operation of some 
similar enactment. A defect in the law, however, il is said, has 
in some instances, been made an excuse for not paying ; to the 
correction of which^ your attention is invited. The rapid increase 
of this fund, exceeding so greatly the early anticipations formed 
in regard to it, affords cheering evidence of its ultimate sufficietey, 
for the purpose intended. To know that the means of obtaining 
a common school education, are within the reach of all, is a source 
of just pride and congratulation, and should prompt us to protect 
them by the erection of such safeguards, as the interests and well 
being of posterity demand. Under an act of the Legislature of 
1854, requiring the commissioners and Governor to revise the 



'9 

XQode of keeping the School and Universitj acconnts and recordsr 
important improvements have been made, and the work contem* 
plated by said act, is rapidly progressing. In order, however, to 
ensure the continuance of this^ a more permanent provision for 
the expenses, than at present exists, should be made therefor, at 
the present session ; and I can conceive of no just cause why such 
expenses should not be paid &om the fund, for which they are in- 
curred. 

Ab the law now is, in cases %vbere the interest due upon School 
and University Lands purchased has not been promptly paid on 
the day it became due, there have been a number of instances 
where the lands thus forfeited have been entered by others ; and 
upon their making the payments required, the original purchasers 
have been deprived of all of their rights in the property. This, 
in many instances, is calculated to work extreme hardship to 
those who, through ignorance or accident, fail to pay the interest 
due upon the day fixed ; and some provision should be made, 
either ibr extending the time after advertisement, or giving the 
parties concerned such reasonable equity of redemption as will 
enable them to retain their lands, if they wish so to do. In this 
connection, and with a' view of subserveing^the best interests of the 
State, without prejudice to the fund, I submit to you the propriety 
of providing a reasonable limit to the quantity of School and 
TJniversity land which any one individual may hereafter pur- 
chase ; and, as far as practicable, insure the occupation of the 
same to actual settlers. This I deem to be the best policy to be 
pursued on the part of the State, and by the encouragement thus 
rendered to a class of citizens whose principal resources consist 
in their energy and industry, the fund may be advantaged to as 
great a degree as under the present system; and the State at 
large will be benefitted to an extent, which the 'practice of mo- 
nopolizing large tracts, by a few individuals, has a tendency to 
prevent. The only class whose interests such action will have a 
detrimental effect upon, is one composed of speculators merely, 
and who are not the tillers of the soil. An instance^of such 
2 



10 

attempted monopol/ occnrred during the year 1853, when a few- 
parties combined, and bought in connection, npwrards of 130,000 
acres ; and also during the last year, a single individual purchaser 
appears upon the books of the department as the proprietor of 
nearly 60,000 acres ; and in sundry other instances, similar ope- 
rations, on a smaller scale, have occurred. If, without detracting 
from the proper fund, and the income arisiag therefrom, this 
growing evil can be prevented, I deem it to be your duty to pro- 
vide the same by such enactments as are best calculated to ensure 
the desired result. 

I recommend to your especial notice, the very full and clear 
report of the State Superintendant, as exhibiting ample evidence 
that our common school'system was well devised, and is now thor- 
oughly organized ; having, by its practical operations, demonstra- 
ted that the hopes early formed in regard to it, were not extrava- 
gant. The cause of education in this State, has manifested a de- 
gree of prosperity that furnishes us with good reason for rejoicing; 
and the degree of interest, not only exhibited, but felt by all in 
its advancement and permanent establishment, affords strong tes- 
timony of its continuance and value. The various institutions of 
learning, established in different parts of the State, and not assisted 
from any fund over which it has the charge, are all as flourishing 
and prosperous as we could, at this early day, have any reason to 
Lope they might be. Wo have cause to be proud of the fact 
that so many of them, conducted as they are by able and learned 
men, have already been reared in our cities and villages, and 
are spreading widely their beneficial influence. The second dor- 
mitory building of the State ITniversity is now nearly completed, 
and will be ready for the reception of students by the first day of 
June. It affords me pleasure to state that this valuable institil- 
tion continues to increase its influence and usefulness, and is 
Bteadily progressing in all of its departments. The report of the 
TJoard of Regents, which has not yet been received, but which 
will in a short time be laid before you, will exhibit particularly 
ail matters of interest connected with the University, and will 



11 

■doubtless merit your attention. The gross amount of the TJnirer- 
sitj fund, on the first day of January, amounted to $161,146 61. 
The amount of income applicable to the support of this institution 
for the present year, including the accruing interest for 1855, is 
^12,405 45. 

The report of the Bank Comptroller enables me to lay before 
you reliable information, concerning the operations of the various 
l)ank8, under the General Banking law of the State. It appears 
that the whole number of Banks established, and transacting busi- 
'ness, under the law is twenty-four^ with an aggregate capital of 
$1,450,000 00. The amount of securities, consisting entirely of 
£tate Stocks, deposited with the Comptroller, is $1,033,000 00 ; 
upon which the issue of circulating notes, amounted on the first 
day of the present year, to $937,692 00 — ^yielding a revenue to the 
£tate, by tax, for the year 1854, of $18,165 63. 

It is a gratifying fact, and one upon which we may congratulate 
-ourselves, that thus far the practical working of our banking sys- 
tem, gives evidence of its superiority over many, if not over all, 
those adopted by other States. Notwithstanding the numerous 
failures of banking institutions in other States, and the money 
panic, which of late has so generally prevailed, but one of the 
institutions, organized under the general law of this State, is re- 
ported to have failed, to redeem promptly its notes. As an evi- 
dence of great determination, on the part of bankers, to merit 
-confidence, in nearly every instance, upon the request of the 
OomptroUer, additional securities have been deposited, to an 
amount corresponding with the recent decline in the market value 
of stocks ; or by the return to the Comptroller, of an amount of 
circulating notes, equal to such depreciation. The promptness 
evinced by the banks, in thus responding, and the sound discretion 
exercised in the management of a department so important, to the 
credit and business interests of the State, cannot but command 
yonr approbation. 

Our banking law, although generally regarded as being as well 
adapted to secure the interests of the bill holder, as any which 



12 

could well be framed, yet it is not void of defects, which are pointed 
ont in the report of the Comptroller, and will, I trust, recieve 
your attentire consideration, and in that connection it may be well 
to consider whether there is not a class of secarities within our 
own State, of the nature of bonds issued by some of the principal 
cities, that may under proper restrictions be received as the basis 
of banking. 

The present unsettled condition of monetary affairs, which i» 
pervading the country so generally, and more recently brought 
nearer home to us, with increased^deleterious effects, in conse- 
quence of numerous Bank failures in neighboring Statesj'inducea 
me to invite you to the examination of the subject, and urge upon 
you the necessity of such enactments as will, as far as practicable, 
provide a remedy, and protect the people against the imposition 
and fraud, so frequently practiced by the introduction and circu- 
lation of doubtful currency, brought to our State and forced into 
very general use — not unfrequently^through the aid of our local 
bankers, who neither hold themselves responsible for its redemp- 
^tion, nor make it a source of revenue to the State, by the payment 
of a tax upon the capital, if any there is, thus employed. The 
effects of this practice upon the legitimate business of bankings 
under the law of this State, is to discourage, and frequently crip- 
ple those institutions which were established in good faith under 
it. For while the banker, under our law, is required to amply 
secure every dollar issued — redeem those issues, on demand, in 
coin, and pay a State tax upon his whole capital, he is frequently 
compelled, in self defence, to place foreign insecure issues, to a 
certain extent, upon an equality with his own — thereby giving 
countenance and credit to a currency, having its origin in parts too 
for removed to insure safety, and liable, sooner or later, to become 
worthless to the holder. 

Yiewing this matter in the light I do, I can arrive at no other 
conclusion, than that justice^to the State, as well as the banking 
institutions established under its laws, and the safety of the bill 
holder, demand of you, either to provide for prohibiting the 



18 

ci'rcnlation of all foreign bank notes, not secured in a manner equal 
to our own; or, at least, require as far as practicable, sncli bankers 
as may issue foreign notes, to treat them in all respects as their 
own currency, issued in conformity to our banking law, and ren- 
der it, subject to the same requirements, in every important par- 
ticular. 

A report, in detail, of the condition and wants of the State Pris- 
on, is submitted by the Commissioner thereof, to which I invite 
your early and careful attention. Daring the year 1853, Henry 
Brown, then Commissioner, contracted with Andrew Proudfit, to 
orect tne stone work of the south wing of the permanent Prison 
building. Subsequently, the present Commissioner made other 
contracts, for the remaining portions of the work, and material nec- 
essary for the completion of the same. The whole structure is now 
very nearly finished, and it is intended to place the convicts with- 
in it, during the present month. This building is of the most per- 
manent and substantial character, being fire proof, 200 by 60 feet, 
four stories high, and containing two hundred and eighty-eight 
cells, and it is to be hoped, will be suflScient for the purposes in- 
tended, for many years to come. As a matter of just convenience 
to the officers in charge, and for the purpose of ensuring against 
escapes, the main building oi^ht to be erected, as soon as the 
means for that purpose, without embarrassing the Treasury, can be 
appropriated. While convict labor has contributed much toward 
the erection of the building, still there is yet, over and above all 
former appropriations, made for that object, a, large sum due to 
contractors — ^beside considerable balances, for the maintenance and 
management of the prison, which it will be your duty to examine 
into, and provide for. Provision was made, at the last session of 
the Legislature, for rewarding convicts for overwork. While this 
principle may be just and worthy in its tendencies, I regard the 
piftetiee of paying to the convicts themselves, any portion of such 
earnings, until after their discharge, as liable to work great evils, 
by being improperly used, as they not unfrequently are, and in a 
manner affecting tiie prison diflcipline, and the security of prison* 



14 

era. If snch earnings can be confined to the^sapport of the fami- 
lies of the convicts, where they may hare them, during their im- 
prisonment, and in cases where they have no families, the money 
be retained until the discharge of the convict, the main objections 
to the practice of rewarding them for their labor is, in my mind, 
overcome. The question whether convict labor can be profitably 
employed, without working a serious injury to such of our citizens 
as are engaged in the mechanical or manufacturing pursuits, has. 
often been seriously discussed, and it is still doubtful what may 
be the duty of the State in the premises. Now that comparative- 
ly little labor will, for some years to come, be required of the con- 
victs, in the erection of prison buildings, and entertaining grave 
doubts, both as to the policy and propriety of the states engaging 
in manufacturing articles for sale, by convict labor, Isubmit to 
your consideration, the propriety of authorizing the letting, to the 
highest bidder, for a term of years, such of said labor, to be used 
within the prison enclosure, as cannot be profitably employed by 
the State, in the erection of buildings, — requiring the contractor, 
to furnish his own tools and shops for such labor; Thus throwing 
the whole matter open to competition, and relieving the State of 
great responsibility and perplexity connected with the same. 

In my first message to the Legislature, I urged upon their at- 
tention, the propriety of adopting the preliminary measures to se- 
cure the erection of an Institution for the benefit of the insane. — 
An act was passed at that session, authorising the Govomor to ap- 
point three commissioners and a Superintendant, who were cloth- 
ed by law with power to purchase suitable grounds and to erect 
the necessary buildings. In April last the appointments contem-^ 
plated by that act were made, since which time, appropriate 
grounds for that purpose near the village of Madison have been* 
purchased and conveyed to the State, and contracts entered into 
for the erection of buildings, upon the most modem and approved 
plans. The main building and two wings are, by the terms of the 
contract, to be in readiness for the reception of patients, by tho;. 
first day of January, 1856. The appropriation for this object be- 



iog small compared with the magnitude of the work, was eyident- 
ly intended simply to secure^.the commencement of the underta- 
king. As to the propriety of prosecuting with energy, such an 
undertaking so praiseworthy and just in its character, I need not 
here urge upon you,' further than to say, that more aid is indis- 
pensable, and will, I trust, be found at your hands. For infor- 
mation in detail,^conceming the transactions of the Commission 
ers and Superintendant, and the condition and wants of the Insti- 
tution, I refer you*to the reports cf the officers in charge. 

The prosperous condition*[of the Institutions established for the 
education of the Blind and Deaf and Dumb, as is more fully 
shown by the reports of the respective boards>of Trustees, is well 
worthy of notice. Indications of correct and judicious manage- 
ment by those in charge of them are apparent. The provision 
heretofore made by the Legislature for the establishment of these 
charatable institutions, must be regarded as having been bestowed 
upon objects worthy and humane in their character, and as meet- 
ing only the demands of simple justice to i}^Q unfortunate of those 
classes. And while J hold it to be our duty, to make ample pro- 
vision for those objects, and in no event to fail to provide annually 
for tiieir free support, I cannot in view of the liberal provision 
before made for them, and the insufficient provision made foj* 
other institutions [similar in* their character, consistently urge at 
this time your'making appropriations for the purpose of material- 
ly enlarging their buildings during the present year, to any more 
than the compUtion^ of suchj:>ortions, as are already commenced. 
In support of this, I refer to the reports which exhibit the number 
of pupils in each, as being much less than equal to the accommo- 
dations provided, and from'the best information I am enabled ta 
obtain, will be found an^ple for, the present year* The propriety 
of providing^by law^ however, at th« present session for the ulti* 
mate extensioa and eompletion^of the buildings, according to the 
plans adopted, in my judgment, is unquestionable ; and to (hat 
end, such proyision at the presentTsession as will accomplish that 
object,^ within the, necessary j^space^of^tinae, I am cheerfully ^dis^ 



16 

posed to favor. Means for the erection of shops, necessary for the 
nse of the Deaf and Dumb, and the snpport of each of these In- 
stitutions during the present year, are clearly objects claiming 
immediate provision, to the extent of which I refer to the respec- 
tive reports. 

The Geological survey of the State has'been prosecuted during 
the past year with great energy, and most encouraging results. 
The able report of Professor Percival, our State Geologist, will 
doubtless elicit attention, both at home and abroad ; and I trust 
will receive at your {hands an early examination ; as its impor- 
tance will justify the publication of a larger editioii than is usual 
of this report, so immediately ccHineoted with the great mining in- 
terest of the State. The surveys thus £air made have been chiefly 
confined to the lead diatricts, and that having now been nearly 
completed, it is intended, during the coming season, to direct the 
examination ot the country north of the Wisconsin Biver, to our 
copper mines, bordering on Lake Superior. There may, in my 
judgment, be prosecnt^ in connection with the Geolc^ical sur- 
vey, a 2jOological examination, for a comparatively trifling ex- 
pense, resulting in such discoveries and collections, connected 
with the natural history of the State, as in future will be viewed 
as valuable and interesting, and to [secure the full benefit of 
which, early action is necessary. 

The military spirit exhibited by a portion of our fellow-citizens 
is both commendable and worthy of further encouragement than 
is now provided by law. In order to render the Militia of prac- 
tical utility, the proper steps should be taken by the Legislature 
to encourage the formation of uniformed companies, which seems 
to be the best, if not the [only practicable means, at present, of 
bringing into use the quota of arms which our State is entitled to 
draw annually from the United States government. Imperfect as 
is the system for obtaining an enumeration of the militia of the 
State, yet thepartial reports of the assessors of the several towns, 
ehow an increase which entitles the State, for the present year, 
to receive equal to about 4;00 stand of arms, valued at nearly 



17 

$5,000 00. It is recommended by numerous military officers that 
a laWj'Similap in its character to the one now existing in the Btate 
of New York, be enacted. An examination of that law has in- 
duced me to recommend it to yonr consideration, as worthy of 
imitation, and calculated to inspire a proper military spirit. The 
report of the Adjutant General, to which I invite your attention, 
contains explicit information, and many valuable suggestions, con- 
cerning the present condition of the militia. 

The Attorney General, although not required by law to sfafcmft 
an annual report, has seen proper, in view of some matters ot 
importance" to the State connected with his department, and of 
which it is proper for the Legislature to be informed, to trahiriiit^ 
through me, a brief report, which I recommend you to consider 

Emigration to our State is annually on the increase, furnishing 
further evidence of the adaptation of our soil and cliniate to the 
habits and wants of the emigrant, and of the high estimate abroad 
placed upon our resources. 'The Commissioner of Emigration, ik 
his annual report, calculates the number of emigrants from for- 
eign countries who have found their homes in Wisconsin, to' be 
much greater during the past than any former yiear. Alar^e 
portion of thie, lam itidticed to betiere, redtiited from the cbnr 
tSmianee ot an ageney in ifew York, and throragh^the rab^ageney^ 
established at Quebec, under it. My loraier expressed Yie#8, in 
regard tb the pt^priety of suoh agencies^^ I have had, as yet, no 
reason tb change. 

T'tie SectHdtary of State and Governor Weore, by an act of Ae laafc 
Legislattire, constituted commissioners) to procure to bepubliehad 
in twO'VoInmes, so tinttch of tbe'Doenmentaiy History, as at^alp 
time had' beeii prepared fb» publication. XTndeip this avithoriiiy, a 
contract? was made for five thousand copies of' each volumoy whieb 
are now nearly ready for delivery. Thi§ work has 'been proeect^ 
ted under flie snpervisbn of the' author Williatn R. 6miA, Esq.^ 
whose rej^ort of his doings in the premises, is herewith 'sorbtiiitted. 
Tliis valuable and interesting publication, being the 'property of 
the Btate> it is proper that provision be made for $d barly diatri- 



18 

l^ntjon of a portion thereof. I would therefore sugg^t the propria 
^ty of donating one copy to each of our common school libraries, 
tO( the libraries of each institution of learning throughout the State, 
apd also to each of the several State Libraries of Unioji, and the 
various departments of the General Grovemment — reserving a large 
number of copies for future demand^ and the purpose of exchange 
j^r other valuable works, to be deposited in just proportions, in the 
Libraries of the State, and the State Hiatorical Society. The an- 
nual reportrequired of the Executive Committee of the State His- 
tprical Society, is herewith transmitted and gives evidence of strict 
^plity on their part, to the truQt couMnitted to them. Through 
the perseverance of its managers, this society has grown into an 
importance which reflects much credit upon them and meritinc^ 
in my judgment, greiiter encouragement "at ^your hands than baa 
Jb^er^tofore been bestoyred bjjthe Legislature, The increasing 1^ 
l)prs devolving upon the corresponding Secretary to perform, have 
giieacbed that magnitude that I r.egard it proper in view of the in- 
terest the State should 9i£M:iifest, in the projection of th^ objects of 
tU^ iffociety, that a reasonable salary should be provided, and paid 
by. the/ State tp that officer. 

It affords me great plea^utie to antioupoe the. f>ct, tka% the : Voif 
imd! Wisconsin Improirement Oompany/have pressed 0)e woark uar 
^ectafcen by them, with a degree of energy, which i^ust pirove 
most satiafabtorr to all interested in its eompletipn. The Qompany 
have been fortunate in the selection of their officers, and in o^^taixyr 
ing abondant means to £;>rwatd the ev^erpri^e, 09 a scajbe of far 
grobter magnitude, than waaatfireteooiteiqplAted; being ^qtended 
te pais boats; of ia draft of at leeit ion»,feet m^* a half of . ^etw. 
. The etpendituiM of theOompanyi e^ rep^f tfsd by itdJPr/^d^t| 
Otto Taak Esq., bioee the transfer by ililie ^^i an$l up. 1q tiix^ ififii^ 
el IteQemb«r.la%t,'are as |?Uow9> w; 

., G^inudKapJ^alin - - . r • * |4?>|630 9^ 

LitJiWObute. , - -.. - '. : • W*/iQ3.#7. 

. Oe^Sapids ...... - ^ . .Sip^saqt- 

M *(ftr|hd.^ja«ite ' - , -. 1..- - .] : ;.4l*8*»'«f^ 



18 

Venasha • - *- « « 6,939 16 

DockSiWarehonaes, boats and barges » ^ 16,948 05 

$183,460 63 
The sum estimated as necessary to complete the work, is thei. 
eomparativelj small one of $32,388 81. The Company have paid 
of the Improvement liabilities, the amonntof $128,480 81 — there 
hj giving an earnest of tbeir^design to remove all the pending 
indebtedness, within the time required by the act of Incorporation. 
13ie difficulties which have been overcome, in the progress of thin 
work, wisre exceedingly formidable, but the benefits to be derived 
fiom i% when finished, by a large portion of the State, are on a 
scale of far greater magnitude. As one of the few great connect 
ing lines of commnnication, between the Lakes and the Mississippt 
it assumes almost a National importance; and running as it doel « 
ikrongh tbe entire breadth of our State, it becomes of a value to 
those along its line, that no other means of transportation now 
used oould replace. Bapid settlements, and a great increase #f 
wealth, must necessarily follow its completion, and a large portion 
of oor State now but thinly inhabited, or a wilderness, will receive 
an impulse which, at no remote period, will render it a rival iii al 
of the elements of material prosperity, to those sections already of 
importance, from their resources and population. A glance at the 
znap will show the favorable Geographical position of the work, 
which, together with the internal improvements now in proorr^g 
in Oanada, confer an importance upon it which the originators \^ 
the project, in all probability, never foresaw. Frr>in tli s terrumni 
of the Improvement at Green lii\y^ to Toronto on !L'tke O.itari^, 
via. the Bail Soad, te initiaring at (t jorgian Ux *, an I whicli is h\i 
70 nules in length, it is n » grciitUi* distance, tha i fnym th it |ioiiit 
in onr State, t> Detroit; a*ul l4M'en4 tlu nnm!>o^*of miicd, nsinlly 
travelled to ivach tlivj Eastern p»it<i, by sevcra' linml u1.^. T.Hs 
jbikmirteriil' lui s:uall co.t^eqaoncN to tho Ni^rtlierti aitJ KorMi 
"Wfi^tdm poii*tious of 4>nr State, snid (IcuioiistiUfes the fact, tliftt th^, 
wlie«i e-tttblished, must be the line over w bieh u' large f><>»lrfl'tf(l,^ 
,«fihe v^t carrying trade of those sict'crs, rni^l uiUcl!' of'tho 



20 

tJountry lying' west of the Mississippi, will 1)3 most coTireniently 
Irnd cheapl/ d(\ne. The pirtion of country, contigaoiis to tbd 
Lake sliore, must ala6 share in the advantages thus conferred, by 
the opening of a nearer and cheaper avenue of commumcation 
witli the commercial centers at the East. 

The State at large is not without a deep interest in the comple- 
tion of this important improvement within it. The number of 
. great water powers which it will create along its extent, the man- 
ufacturing villlagea which it will cause to spring up in consequence^ 
and the increase of taxable property and commercial activity, are 
considerations important to the welfare of our whole people. Wo 
can now plainly discover, unaided by speculative statesmen, the 
benefits and disadvantages ot* the policy of granting public lands^ 
lA the states where they may lie, to be appropriated to the con- 
struction of works of this character; and our experience will go 
far towards convincing others, that the benefits have largely tho 
preponderance. Undertakings, of a magnitude which would re- 
pel private enterprize unless thus aided, are encouraged and as- 
sisted to completion, and where, without such aid, if attempted^ 
they would languish and die, the whole country, including the 
General Government, by the more rapid sales of itd lands^are ben- 
efitted to an extent not easily calculated. 

Large additions to the State Library, through means provided 
by the last Legislature, have been made during the past year. A 
detailed report, concerning the same, will be laid before you at aa 
early day. The expenditures of a moderate sum only will be re- 
quired annually, in the purchase of late publications, to render it 
both an ornament to our State^and sufficient for the objects which 
induced its establishment. 

> The U. S. standard weights and measures, to whidi this State 
was entitled, on her admittance into the Union, have recently been 
leceived and put in order for use, in a suitable tire proof building, 
erected for that purpose, upon the public grounds, in pursuance of 
plans furnished by the U. S. Government 

In order that these costly standards may be rendered as osefolf 



21 

ms it was designed hy Congress thej shonid be, I deem it impor- 
tant that the law relating to procuring coanty standards, should be 
Boameacled as to require tlie State Treasarer, who, by law has the 
charge of the Government standards, to procure the mannfactare 
from suitable material, for the use of each county, of complete and 
uniform standards, to be by him sealed and delivered to the 
proper county officer — the cost of which, to be added to the 
amount of State tax that each county shall respectively be lia- 
l>le to pay, for the year the same shall be delivered. This I regard 
as the best means of insuring the proper uniformity in county 
standards, which it is so necessary to secure. 

In my former message to the Legislature, I urged the propriety 
of making provision for the sale of the swamp and overflowed 
lands, granted to this State by act of Congress,* approved Septem- 
iber 28, 1850. The Legislature at that session failing in the at- 
tempt to provide for such sale, I now renew the subject, and re- 
commend definite action. 

There are numerous considerations which should weigh, in 
urging an early disposition and reclamation of these lands. To 
dispose of them, would tend greatly to improve the health of local- 
ities contiguous to them — would hasten the settlement of the 
country, and make productive taxable property of much of that, 
which in many instances, is at present useless, and no law for their 
protection, or against taking the timber from them, it is believed, 
could be rendered sufficiently efficacious to prevent their being 
thus despoiled, of what, in many instances, constitutes their chief 
Talue. Besides, even ada>itting the possibility of enforcing such a 
law, it could not be done without great perplexity and expense to 
the State. 

Since the adjournment of the last Legislature, I have endeaYOT>- 
ed to adopt measures for the purpose, not only of ascertaining the 
facts, relative to the quantity and value of these lands, bnt also to 
secure the fee simple title thereto to the State. 

Peifedted and approved lists of such of said lands as remaia 
unsold, within the surveyed portion of t^e State, and formerly 



subject to sale at the several IT. S. Land offices, have been pro- 
cared from the Oommissioner of the General Land Office, and are 
as follows, viz. : 
In the Milwaukee Land District 53,636 93-100 acres. 

" Mineral Point " 13,616 40-100 " 

« La Crosse « 217,295 18-100 " 

« Willow River " 118,015 45-100 " 

« Menasha " 717,628 62-100 « 

« Steven's Point " 521,670 52-100 " 

Making a total of one million six hundred fiiftj-one thousand sixty* 
two 10-100 acres. 

Official statements from the General Land Office, of the Bftlea 
made by the government of such granted lands, since the passage 
of the act appropriating the same, and for which the State ia 
clearly entitled to receive either anoney or other lands, it is pro- 
mised, and confidently believed, will be forth coming ; which, it is 
thought, will increase the total quantity within the surveyed por- 
tion of the State, to nearly two millions of acres ; so that, upon a 
moderate estimate, for that portion of the overflowed lands, in the 
surveyed districts, (not included in either of the lists referred to,) 
and the swamp and overflowed lands yet to be surveyed in the 
northern portion of the State, it is reasonable to suppose that the 
total quantity which will ultimately enure to the State, from this 
grant, will equal three millions of acres. For the lands embraced 
ia the perfected lists referred to, such assurances have been re- 
ceived, from the Oommissioner, as to render it morally certain 
^that patents for the same will be executed to the State at an early 
day. 

Many of these lands are valuable, and should there be a judi- 
cious provision made for their sale, a large sum of money may be 
speedily realized by the State, after complying with the terms of 
the grant. 

Admitting the propriety of thus disposing ot these lands, I can 
see no constitutional objection to appropriating the surplus pro* 



it 

ceeds, after tbeir applicfttlon to Aq exiient inquired by tbe ad' 
panting them, to such purpoees as the Legislature maj deeni 
3»roper ) and, as a large sum has yet to be expended, in the creo- 
tion of pablic bnildings — snch as the completion of th^ Peniten- 
tiary, the construction of the buildings for the various charitable 
institutions, and, at no distant day, of a new Oapitol edifice, or 
the enlargement of the present — ^which, even now, owing to 
the insufficiency of room for offices, seems to be demanded. 

From the examination I have given this subject, I am clear in 
the opinion that, from the sales of these lands, we may reimburae 
the treasury for all past outlays, on account of public buildings, 
of every character ; and further, erect all such buildings as the 
State will require for many years to come. The constitutional, 
limit for State indebtedness being small, and that limit having 
been reached during the years 1652 and 1858, 1 am strongly im- 
pressed with the belief, that in the sale of these lands is presented 
the only means at present within our command, by which to pro*- 
vide for the objects named without resorting to direct taxation, 
the burthens of which, for the ordinary expenses of our State, 
while yet in its infancy, will be found fully equal to the ability to 
meet. 

I therefore recommend that in the event of provision being 
made for the sale of the lands, that the proceeds accruing to the 
State be set apart for the aforesaid objects. 

Section three, article four, of the constitution requires the 
Legislature to provide by law for an enumeration of the inhabi- 
tants of the State in the year 1855. You will undoubtedly com- 
ply with^this provision, of that instrument at the present session. 
In addition to the enumeration required, I recommend that pro- 
Tision be made for collecting, at the same time, as full and c(Ha- 
plete information concerning the manufactures, products, and 
property of the State as may appear practicable. The iniforma- 
tion thus derived will unquestionably be found interesting, valua- 
ble, and creditable to our State. 

It affords matter for congratulation, that the different Bailroad 



24 

e&terpHaee of our State, have^ to a certam extent, recovered froia 
the temporary depression, brought about by well known causes* 
It is now a conceded fact, that these important agents in the rapid 
settlement of our country, and in the developeraent of its resour- 
ces, afford in this State, secure means for the profitable investment > 
of capita); and such is now our condition, that it is no longer in- 
dispensable for us to rely entirely upon furnished from older aud 
more wealthy communities, for their construction. It has, until a. 
comparatively recent date, been absolutely necessary to induce 
the aid of foreiga capital, in order to take the first steps in these 
enterprizes; and no better evidence could be given, of the rapid , 
and healthy growtliy of the State, than that of our greatly increas- . 
ed ability to forward such means of communication, and the cer-- 
tainty of their yielding a profitable return, for the investments 
which may be -made in them. Aside from (he generous reward 
obtainied by. every branch of indudtry and euAerprize, aud from, 
the increase produced by superabundant harvests, greatly beyoud 
the demand for home consumption, though added to by the wants 
of an unparalleled emigration — much of that emigration has, of it- 
self, been of a character calculated to augment materially, the 
available capital of the State. Those laws of trade, which gradu- 
ally and steadily regularte the supply in accordance with ..the de- 
mand, have insensibly, but with certainty, furnished our citizens 
with a great proportion of such means, as their necessities required^, 
and their situation enabled them to secure and render profitable. 
Those legitimate works of internal improvement, the construction 
of which the onward march of our State made necessary, have felt 
the effect of the general impulse. Such as are already in progress, 
are being urged forward, with all of the means of the companies 
having them in charge; and it is now confidently believed, that 
their completion, within a reasonable time, is placed beyond the 
poBsibilitj' of a doubt. It should be the care of th© Legislature to 
foster, by liberal enactments, these important interests, and protect 
them by all such laws, as are calculated to secure their rapid con- 
struction, and the permanency of all those investments, which mnj^ 



S5 

be <levoted to their advancement or continaance. As one of the 
means necessary to effect this end, I would strongly recommend 
the passage of such laws^ as would tend to prevent the commission 
of any fraud) by the. over issue of stock or otherwise by the officers 
of incorporated companies, and which could affect the interests of 
those entrusting them with the management of their affairs, or 
that of the community at large. The occurrences which during 
the past few months have been brought to light, in several of the 
States, demonstrate the existing necessity of such enactments; and 
nntil there has been some action of this kind taken, the construc- 
tion of oar Roads must necessarily be retarded, by considerations 
which the Legislature can do much toward removing, by the im- 
position of severe penalties for offences of the character referred 
to, and such other Qhecks, as they, in their wisdom, may see fit to f 
establish* Such aconrse will have the tendency to increase great- 
ly,rthe value of our securities abroad, by giving capitalists confi- 
dence in their permanent value. This subject I consider to be one 
of the highest importance, and I trust your earnest atttention may 
be directed to the establishment of some law, which will have the . • 
effect desired. The opinions expressed by me, in my former mes- 
sage, relative to the importance of a speedy completion of our Rail- 
roads, and the means which seemed to me proper to be used for 
tiheir construction, I still adhere to, and would reiterate, did not a 
simple reference to that document obviate the necessity of so do- 
ing. In this connection, I deem it proper to recommend, that the 
liegislatnre pass such a law, as will enable Rail and Pltgak Road 
Companies to secure the right of way over all lands owned by the 
State, or held in trust for any fund. 

In my former message, I took occasion to urge upon the Legis- 
lature the propriety of memorializing Congress upon tlie subject 
of the Improvement of our Rivers and Harbors through the as- 
sistance of the Geueral Government. Since that time Congress 
lias acted upon the matter and passed an act making more liberal 
appropriations than had previously been set apart for these objects, 
froai this bill, the President saw fit to withhold his sanction, and 



it IB to be regretted that he deemed it his duty to take stich a 
course, in view of the deep concernment we have in the making of 
adequate appropriations by Congress, for these objects. Suchhavie 
been demanded by the West for many years as a right to whibh 
they were entitled, as fully as that portion of our common country 
situated upon or near the sea board ; and no satisfactory reason 
has yet been adduced why we should not hare the full benefit of a 
system which has proved so highly advantageous to others. Thus 
far, we can with propriety say that all the benefits reaped through 
the assistance of the General Government, have scarcely been 
worth the labor it has cost to obtain them. Considering, as t do, that 
the right so long claimed by us is one to which we are entitled 
by the clearest principles of justice and national expediency, I feel 
it to be proper to reiterate all of the opinions I have formerly ex- 
pressed upon the subject, and to urge upon the Legislature the 
memorializing of Congress, to either make these improvements by 
appropriations from the Federal Treasury, or remove the obstacles 
in the way of our making them ourselves. 

The subject of the Bevision of our Laws, is one of coD8eq[uenee 
aufficient, in my judgment, to authorize the Legislature, at the 
present sesssion, to take those preliminary steps, necessary to the 
attainment of this object. So great is the mass of our laws noi^v^^ 
and 80 crude, confiictiog, and uncertain in their character^ that it 
is very difficult for those even^ whose profession gives them the 
best opportunities of knowing what the existing laws are^ to dis-( 
tinguish tlie binding enactment from the repealed or altered law^) 
and this evil, in connection with the manner of publishing our. 
Statutes, leaves the people of our State nearly as much in t)ie 
dark, as to the action of their Legislatures, as if they resided in 
some other. The certainty of a law is one of the chief benefits 
to bo derived from it, and it is not clear but that it would be better 
for community to suffer the existence of bad laws, than to lire, 
under a system, which is subjected to continual alterations. Our 
excessive Legislation has a tendency to produce an entirely differ- 
ent redult from the one intended, and is, perhaps, as much calcu- 



27 

lated to create evils, a3 to preveut or redress them. I trust that 
your attention will be devoted to thia matter, and will result in the 
•establishment of a system of laws which can be understood, and. 
a reform in the manner of their publication. 

The proposition submitted by the Legislature to the people, at 
the last general election, to so amend the Oonstitution as to pro' 
Tide for biennial sessions of the Legislature, was negatived by a 
▼fury decided vote. That this instrument is, in some particulars, 
iipperfect, and might, by alteration, be better adapted to our con* . 
<l|tion, I am thoroughly convmced; but the policy of adopting any 
ayoiendment of it, until a thorough revision is hadby a conventioUi 
i^ay well be questioned. Propositions to amend either the consti- 
tution or laws, should be thoroughly considered, and the conse'' 
quences attendant, canvassed with great cure and mature delibera** 
tion. 

The law fixirg the time for the annual meeting of the Legisla- 
ture on the second Wednesday of January, should, in my judg- 
ment, be so amended as to allow the various officers who atd"^ 
required to report annually through the Governor to the Legisla- 
ture, more time after the close of the fiscal year to prepare their 
reports. The fiscal year, as is wisely provided, closes on the 31st 
day of December. For those departments connected with th6 
financial affairs of the State, an insufficient space of time is no# 
^owed after the clodug of their accounts, on the last day of tho 
year, to prepare in due form the reports required of tiiam by law^ 
In order, therefore, to provide a remedy for the evil stai^^y &iid to 
afford the Governor a reasonable time for obtaining such informa- 
tion from the reports as is proper for him to communicate to the 
Legislature at the opening of the session, as well as for numerous 
other reasons which might, with propriety, be urged, I recom- 
mend that provision be made for the annual sessions hereafter to 
commence as late as the third or fourth Wednesday in January, 
instead of the second, as is now provided. 

We, in common with our sister states, have in general, great 
^anfle for rejoicmg, at the results of the year which has just closed- 



ANNUAL RErORT 



OF TBB 



SECEETARY OF STATE, 



OF THE 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, 



FOR THE TEAR 1854. 



MADI80N : 

BSRIAH BROWH. PRISTER. 
18&5. 



'[• 1 f- ' I 



..» I 






REPOET. 



Madison, December 30, 185^, 
To the ZeffiiUUure : 

In copformity wilji the^ proyieiaitt (d hkw cont^ned in*. cBapter 
niBe of the Borised Stakites, the undemgDidd^.^cretaryof filate, 
has the honor to submit the Annual Report from this offioe ebow* 
ing ^'aricomplete etotement of the fandft of the* State; of its reve^ 
nues and of the public expend! tares daring, the- year eighteen 
hundred and fifty four, with a detailed, estimate of expenditarea 
to be defrayed from the Treasury for the ensuing year," and also 
touching other matters pertaining to his office, which are deethed 
worthy of legislative (Jotisideration. - ■ ' • ^ 

The seveiral funds of fiie State, separate and distinct acooootp of 

which are kept by the Secretary of State, as' Auditor, awJ ei^ht, 

to wit: ...» 
1—The General Ftmd. 

n — Th« Juiioiary F\ind. - , i • ! 

m— The Fund for ike Blind. ! ., 

JY— The Schoti Fund. " " , 

Y—The School Fund Income. ' . M 

yi — The TTmversUy 'Fv/nd. ^ . j 

Vn — The University Fund Income. - — 

Yin.— The Improvemmt Fund. m 



Thej are formed and explained as follows : 



TEB GENERAL FUND 

This fund embraces all of the revenues of the State, the avails 
of which are applicable to the payment of the ordinary expenses 
of the State government, and is derived from the following 
sources, to-wit : T' <i j ) ([ '.• ;[ 

Arrearages due to tne late territory. 

Tlie annual taxes levied in each county for State purposes. 

The Eemi-annnal tax charged against banks, being three fourths 
of opiy per^ (C^t oiv tb^ c^tal stock thereof. 
, The duties received from Hawkers and Pedlars for license, and 
from, 

The Judiciary Fund. ' ' ^ " ''■ 

The exp^ndhnres fromti^^^nndjaveiailthiMrii^ed byp^m^ 
or tetrnporary^approprmtiolM of the L^gislatmre,> aiid by tke Brreral 
acts reqaiirimg the Seoretary cf S^te to Mdit-cei^tuJ^B afeoodnts.^ 

The following are the transaoiions in this lii&d'foi^diKe^ealytear 
ending this, day : i 

i:iiisTQXJAKrEii.* . , ; 

»;to da| 

788 01 

1,177 68 

M28 60 

,10,237 « 

5,554 40 

.10,662 23 

^4,341 86 

. 5,Q00 

5,724 04 

e,20^ 46 

. 1,620 52 

3,400 



Aoams uoumj 
Bad Ax, 


ou.e xax, • 
do 


Brown, > ' 


d« ■■ - 


Cairns, 


do. .. - 


Crawford, 


do 


Columbia, 


do 


Dane, 


do 


Dodge, 
Fond du Lao, 


do 


do 


Grant, 


do 


Greene, 


do 


Iowa, 


do 


Jefferson, 


do 


Kenosha, 


do 


LaCroeae, 


do 


La Fayette, 


do 



* KoTS.— For conTenieiiefl in adjnstiDg tbe aecoiratB of HembeTS of tbQ IfioMxa^ 
Uie iraDsactioiui of the fint four moDtbft«f ike year svf tnelttdad in Une^M gmrUr» 



93BpKDnCB« 



Marathon, 

Hanitowoe, 

Marquette, 

Milwaukee, 

Outagamie, 

Ozaukee 

Bacine, 

Bock, 

Bichland, 

Sauk, 

Sheboygan, 

Walworth, 

WashiDfftoB, 

Waukefiha, 

Waupacca, 

Waushara, 

J0> 



do 

do 

4o 

do 

do 

do - ^ 

do 

do 

do - - 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 
OorerDor^B oontingeot accoaDt» 
J. Lehmert, license, hawker aiidpedljuv 
M. Schlastenski, do 

Miles Joyce, do 

John Rveasel, do 

J. Levigoe^ i do 

H. D. Hyman, do 

Samuel Block, do' 

ITasb&'Co^ do 

City Bank, Kenosha, StaterTas^ 
Jefferson Co. Bank, do 
Farmer8<t;MiI]er's Bank, do 
Eoek Ri?er Bank, do 

State Bank of WisconBin,do 
Wisconsin Bank, do 

Wis. M. & F. Ins. Go. Bk.do 
Erie ds Mich . Teleg. Co. do 
S. Park Coon, Canal Land Mortgages, • 



E. B. Fisher, 


do 


A. L. Caitleoum, 


do 


H. Sunsbuiy, 


do 


Jonas Foltz, 


do 


lUehard Harddl, 


do 


SethBice, 


do 


Harrison Reed, ' 


do 


W. Denney, 


do 


John D. McDonald, 


do 


H.J.HiIdreth, 


do 


OriMReed, 


do 


Win.0. Oatea^ 


do 



400 

2,000 

5,097 91 

U,937 52; 

533 40l 

2,121 06 

7,702 84 

10,487 63 

1,143 71 

3,008 80 

5,078 41 

8,835 34 

8,046 38 

0,486 68 

727 62 

850 12 

5,092 34 

776 54 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

16 08 

30 

30 

375 

187 50 

375 

375 

1,125 

876 

760 

22 50 
677 62 

80 

209 16 

199 62 

109 

120 

108 

165 

40 

288 

80 

144 

25 



BBOBtPIS. 



Joha A. Metaeogeri do 

D. LittK do 
& Mutera, do 
A. Alden, do 
Swo0t U EdgertoD, do 

E. PeAitnan, do 
II. H. FiiirHen'ioe, do 
W. H. GiemoD, error Imbi year, 
€. D. Gage, do 

jr. Robinaon, do 

P. Kelly, do 
IVm. H. Lander, tax on Buit% 

Total, 



188 42 


iro 82 


19 07 


246 34 


820 


288 


64 50 


5 


25 


80 


50 


25 


165,467 54 



DISBUBflEUENTGL 

Jm. T. Lewis, Pres't of the Senate, • 
Btfn. Allen, do do pro tern 

F. W. Horn, Sperker of the Anemhly, 
Wm. Hull, do do protem. 

L. F. Harvey, Member of the Si^nate, 
Jeaae Hook«fr, do Awembly, 

Per diem of 102 members of be Leaglslature, 

each $207 50, 
If ilenge of Meniber^ of Legislature, • 
Ben. Allen per diem 1 So:), - 
Atwood & Brown, Ajipropr'n 1853 & 54, 
David Atwood, do do 

Alden & Holt, audited, 
John Q. Adams per diem 1853, 
Michael Ames, do, 1853 <b 1854, 
Ole Aslackaen, appropriation, 
Beriah Brown, a[>prop*n8 <jf Nudited 1858 <k *54 
Bradford ds Bm. approptiHtion, 
Coles Bashford per diem 1853, 
lilisB & Chaney, audited, 
1 >an 0. Brown, do 
Baker 6s Doty, do 
F. J. Blair, afipropriation, 
Brigga & Foster, audited, 
Jaa. 8. B iki^r, do 
John Ballard, appropriation 1853, 
John Bell per diem, 1 853, 
.John Burke, appropriation, 
John Burt, do 

J. Alien Barber, per diem, 1853, 



f415 
382 50 
415 
415 

197 50 
125 

23,115 
1,074 40 

120 
8,847-24 
124 24 
11 30 
45 

197 50 
60 25 
5,895 22 
280 01 
165 
9 80 
6 90 
5 05 
59 06 
11 30 
12 
70 
45 
132 50 
207 50 
44 50 



9 



Jdo. a. Brown, audited, 

Jno. G. BuDoer, do 

J. F. Bircbard, appropriation, 

J. R. BriggB, per diem 1853, 

Harry Barnet^ do do 

H. D. Barroa, audited, 

Bloomfield is Kopp» do 

M« H. Bovee, per diem 1854, 

Bugh 6f Nimmocks, audited, 

O.F.Bartlett, per diem 1853, , - 

Pbilo Belden, do do 

B. A. Bird, audited, 
Beiner Bergafz, appropriation, 
S. G. Bugh, Chief Clerk Senate, - 
8. M. Booth, audited and appropriation, 
Beeflon ic Thomag, audited, - 
Tim. Burns, per diem 1858, • 
TThos. S. Bowen, do • - 
W. A. Barstow, salary, ^^ • 
W. A. Bugh, audited, <• 
W. D. Baeon, per diem 1853, 
W. P. Barnes, appropriation <t per diem 1853, 
W. H. Beslj, witness fees, 

W. W. Brown, witness fees and appropriation, 

Alex. Cook, do • 

A. F. Cady, appropriations 1853 and 1854, 

A. L. Collins, witness fees, - 

Campbell, Brusb & Co., appropriation, 

C. B. Coleman, per diem 1853, 
C Clement, audited, 
Cbas. £. Cbsmberlain, per diem 1853, 
Darwin Clark, appropriation, 

D. Casey, witness fee^ - 

D. H. Chandler, do 
Enoch Chase, per diem 1853, 

E. A. Calkins, appropriation, 
Casey <fe Fallen, audited, 
Geo. CogsweU, witness fee, • 
Oeo.W. Jate. per diem 1853, 
Cover <& Goldsmith, audited, 
Cary &; Harrison, appropriation, 
H. M. Crombie, audited, 
John Crawford, witness fee^ 
Jerry Crowley, audited, 
J. W. Cary, per diem 1853, 
M. M Cothren, salary, 
P. CosgroTe, appropriation, 

2 



OS 



5 05 
62 50 
1,228 24 
45 
45 

36 31 
93 45 
45 

5 05 
46 
45 

5 Off 
105 13 
2;260 
502 85 
10 45 
90 
45 
«25 
7 
45 
57 

32 05 
265 

55 60 
175 05 

56 
888 99 

45 
168 45 

70 
845 72 
73 60 
48 
45 
129 
5 05 
77 60 
50 
5 
200 
5 50 
18 68 
5 05 
45 
470 
18d 50 



05 



10 






I>JSBXJB8MJaaiTB. 

0. D. Coleman, perdiea, 1853. 
Richard Carlisle, do do 
R P. Clement, appropriatioD 1853, 
N. V. Chandler, audited, 
Sam ' I C ra wford, salary, * 
S. Park Coon, appropriation, • 
S. S. Conovor, do 
W. CJark, witness fee, • 
Wm. E. Cramer, audited, 
W. P. Clark, appropriation, * 
Ohas. Dunn, per diem 1853, * 
D. S. DuHrie, appropriation, * 
Edward Daniels, salaij, 
Geo. P. Delaplaine, do 
H. N.Davis, witness fee, 
J. R. Doolittle, salary and appropriiCioD, 
Jason Downer, witness fee, - 
J. £. Dod^e, per diem 1853, • 
John W. Davis, do 
K. M Donaldson, appropriation & per diem '53 
Donaldson <fe Tredway, appropriation, 
P. DuflSe, do 
W. M. Denn]^ per diem 1853 & salary, 
** Emigranten," audited, 
Emigrant Agency, expenses, 
A. E. EUmone, witness fee, - 
Chas. A. Eldridge, appropriation, 

C. B. Ellis, do 
H. F. Eastman, audited, 
W. S. Events, witness fee, - 

A. Finch, jr., do 
Charles Foote, appropriation A audited, 
Charles W. Fitch, do 

D. Fitch, audited 1853, 

B. N. Foster, per diem 1853, • 
G. J. Fowler, witness fee, 
Fratney & Herzberg, appropriation <k audited, 
H. L. Foster, per diem 1853, 
J. C, Fairchild, appropriation, 
John Fitzgerald, do 
P. Hines, do 
P. J. Fleischer, do 
S W. Field, per diem 1853, - 
Thos. Fenton, do - - 

1. H. Fellows, do 
Alex T. Gray, salary, - * 
Governor Contingent Account, Appropriation, 



ill 



H* W. GninnisoD, appropriati^o, 
James P. Greeves, witness fee, 
Gould & McLaughlin, audited 
O. B. Graves, appropriation, - -• 

"W. Graham, witness fee, - ^t 

W* H. Gleason, appropriation and audited, 
B* F. Hopkins, appropriation 1863, - 
Carr Huntington, audited, 
HuJet <fe Gary, do 

D&vid Holt, appropriation, 
• Du Ray Hunl^ do 
£. Hi!lyer, per diem 1853, 
£. Hurlbut, n^itness fee, 
£. a Hull, audited 1853 and 1854, • 
Edward M. Hunter, per diem 1853, - 
E. F. Hemstein, appropriation, 
H. Heertell, salarj, - 
H* Holmes, per diem 1853, 
Jaa. Hal pin, appropriationa 
John Hart, witness fee, 
J. A. Hadley, audited, 
Jo^n £. Holmes, per diem 1858, 
. John W. Hunt, appropriation and salary, 
Hurd Sc Johnson, audited, 
Levi Hubbell, salary, 
. Mary A. Howe, witness fee, • 
Hall & Pierce appropriation and auditad 1853, 
S.W. Hill, per diem 1853, - 
Titus Hayes, do • • 

Thomas Hood, appropriation 1853, - 
Tim 0. Howe, salary, 
Wm. Hull, appropriation, 
ffxn. A. Hawkins, per diem 1863, -> 
Wm. H. Howard, appropriation, 
J. K. Tnman, witness fee^ • 
Cbas. E. Jenkens, dp - * 

D. jNT. Johnson, appropriation, 
Edward H. Janssen, appr'n & salary '53 & '54. 
John B. Jacobs, appropriation, 

B, Jenkinson, do - 
August Kruer, salary, 

Cbas. M. Kingsbury, appTopriatioD« • 

C, R. Knight, do 

E B. Kelsey, do « 

J. G. Knapp, witness fee, • •% 

L. F. Kellogg^ appropriation and witness fee^ 
Vr Keenan, do 



BO 

•0 40 
14 73 
124 50 
83 
1,204 
234 59 
6 05 
4 40 
84 55 
217 50 
45 

72 60 
27 70 
120 

132 50 
500 
45 
4,504 24 
34 40 
4 40 
15 
700 

9 45 

470 

25 

335 

45 

45 

305 80 
570 
200 

70 
100 

8 75 
92 40 
15 
1,250 
49 
21 
400 
8 
182 
39 
18 
373 87 

306 20 



75 



IS 



DttBtnsEMBirrB* 

Bi]fu8King<fc Co. audited, - 
B. Q. Kiiight, witnera fee, 
Hiram Knuwlton. salary, 

A. D. Liadue. p«r diem, 

B. B. Ludluro, appropriation, - 
CbarleR Luin, witness fee, 
Charles N. Larat^ee, »alary, - 
Livsey & Carroll, appropriatioDfl^ 
F 8. Lo\ell, witness fee, 
J. Laudeidaie, \)er diem 1853, 
J. Lemon, appropriation, 
J. J. Lot^niis, appropriatioB, - 
Edward LefS, do and per diem 1853, ' 
James T. Lewi«, do 
Kob't M. Long, Falary, • * 
Bob't W. Landing, appropriation and audited, 
A. Idai^chiier, do 
A. McArthur, witness fee, 

A. MeiigeF, salary, - 

C. H. ^ cI^Hu^lilin, appropriation, 
Chas N. Miiniford, do 

B. M Miller, do 
E. Manner, witness fee, 
Ed. Mt'Garry, per diem 1853, 
Ezra Miller, do 
F.J. Mills, audited, • 
George R McLane, per diem, 
B. Madden, do 
Ja& Morrison, appropriation, • 
J. Myeis, per • iem 1853, 
J, L. Marhli, audited, 
L. Miller, I er diem, - 
Mattliias Martini, appropriation, 
Mapes & R«)ot, audited, 
P. L- Mossin, appiopriation, - 
R. N. Mesfsenger, per diem 2863, 
T. D. Morris, appiopriation, « 
Miner & Skinner, do 
Tbos. M( Glynn, do 
Thos. McHugh, Cbief Clerk Assembly, 
"Wm. 8. MurrHy, per diem 1853, 
Memliard & Williams, 
B. 8. Ni('kei«on, appropriation, 
Vf. \V. Noyfs. audited, 
J. H. Ohiirander, 
Bostwick O'Conner, appropriation, 
J7« Olmstead, per diem 1853, - 



210 67 
' 23 45 

22 

86 

42 50 
287 
314 94 

45 20 

45 
i07 50 

22 73 

70 
165 
300 
200 

15 05 

62 40 
600 
174 

67 

88 

68 40 

45 
120 

9 46 
120 

45 
862 46 

45 
5 

45 

451' 

6 

24 

45 
122 16 
5 05 
207 &0 
2,250 

4^ 

47 
148 

51 

70 
174 

45 



05 

73 

05 



45 



IS 



DlSBPBftlSMlflWTB^ 

Tbo6. J. Otis, appropriation, - 
PoetAge, appropriation <& audited, 

A. F. Philips, do - - . 

B. Pifwkney, per diem 1863,- 
Charlea Piquette, appropriation, 
D, J. Powers, per diem 1853, 
Elisba Peaile, do - - 
George C. Pratt, witness fee, - 
George H. Paul, appr'n and audited 1853, 
Haven Powers, do 
H. L. PHge, do 1853, 
Judsrn Prentice, per diem do 
J. D. PJunkett, audited do 
J. H. Payne, witness fee, 
J. \V. Porter, per diem 1853, 
N. Prater, ai)propriation, 
Sana'J Pierre, do 
S. D. Powers, do 1853, 
Wm, H, Peitit, witness fee, 
Wm. R. Perry, appropriation 1852, - 
Jacob Quintus, do and audited, 
Henry Quarle?, appropriation, 
Amos Keed, Mudited, 
A. W. Randall, witnef« fee^ - 
Robinson & Bro., audited, 

C. M. Roesser, do - 

D. G. Reed, per diera 1853, 

E. Robinson, do 
Edward G Ryan, appropriation, 
Franeis Randall, witness fee^ 
H.J. Ross. do 
James D. Reymert, audited, 
James Robinson, error 1853, 
Reed' (Se Nevitt, audited, 
Orson Reed, per diem 1853, 
Patrick Rogan, do 
Peter Rogan, witness fee, 
R. B. Rice, appropriation, 
BoVtL.Ream, do 1851, 
8. Richie, do 
8. Ryan« audited, 
V. W. Roth, appropriation, - 
W. H. Roe, per diem, 
•See Bote," audited, 
Albert Sroiih, witness fee^ 
AlTi 8tewart, per diem 1853, 
A, IX Seaman, »*ppiopriatioo, 



812 88^ 


4,682 88 


132 60 


46 


15 60 


45 


70 


27 40. 


174 45 


120 


870 


45 


22 60 


19 20 


46 


132 60 


182 60 


100 


90 72 


6 


117 40 


207 50 


9 40 


16 80 


5 06 


6 40 


116 


45 


8,182 36 


48 40 


18 


607 46 


20 


9 40 


46 


46 


61 60 


17 20 


87 50 


132 60 


16 05 


81 


46 


16 40 


42 40 


166 


64 



u 



jyiSBTTBStthDESTS* 

A. D. Smith, salary, 

A. H . Smith, witness fee, 

Schofi & Butts, audited, 

G. L. Sbol&o. audited & per diem 1853, 

Strong, Urapo & Russel, appropriation, 

C. Stevens, per diem 1852, - 
David Scott, appropriation, - 
Daniel Shaw, audited, 

D. O. Snover, appropaiation, - - ' 
Sboles & Densmore, audited - 
D. M. Seaver, salary, 
Geo. B. Smith, witness fee, - 
H. Stebbins, per diem 1853, - 
State Historical Society, appropriation, . 
John Sbaw, do 
J. A. Smith, audited, 
J. D. Smith, appropriation, 
John J. SKghtara, do 
James K. Smith, witness fee, 
Jesse M. Sherwood, appropriation, 
John L. Sweeny, do 1653, 
J. W. Seaton, per diem, do 
Levi Sterling, do do 
State Library, appropriation. 
State Loan, interest on bonds. 
State Prison, appropriations 1853 and 1854, 
South Wing of State Prison, appropriation, 
P. B. Simpson, per diem 1853, 
Seaton <fe Paul, audited, 
Stevens & Rogers, do - - • 
T. L. Smith, appropriation 1853, 
W. Sayles* per diem, do 
W. Spooner, salary, do 
"W. Sandereon, witness fee, - 
Wm. Slightam, appropriation, 
Winfield Smith, witness fee, - 
Wm. N» Seymour, do - 
Wm. R. Smith, appropriations 1853 <Sp '54, 
Scboeffler 6s Wendt, do and audited. 
D. Taylor, per diem 1853, 
D. L. Tliayer, appropriations 1853 <k '54, 
Tibbits <k Gordon, do . - 
George P. Thompson, witness fee, 
H. A. Tenney, do 
I. S'Talhnadge, p^r diem 1863, 
Jonathat)' Taylor, witness fee, . - 
L. Towtlfde, appropriation. - 



500 


29 10 


9 45 


49 40 


192 67 


70 


116 16 


197 50 


182 50 


175 05 


500 


40 24 


45 


500 


1,200 


9 46 


132 50 


205 


54 70 


032 


282 


45 


46 


3.000 


7,500 


17,106 31 


7,758 43 


46 


6 06 


4 40 


70 


46 . 


497 


60 40 


46 


71 60 


8 12 


1,260 


749 22 


70 


202 60i 


1,646 60 


47 64 


4 


46 


70 60 


M 30 



15 



DISBXJBBEMBim. 

M. J. Thoma0, appropriation, 

PatToland, do 

Thos. J. Townaend, salary and appYopriatioa, 

Wilson Torrey, do 

Wm. H. Thomas, witness fea, 

Wm. L. Uiley, s«lary 1858, - 

E. R. <k F. A. Utter, audited, 

D. 8- Vittum, per diem 1853, 

A. Whittemore ii Co., appropriation '53 ^ '54, 
A, S. Wood, do 
Wisconsin Blind InstituU, do '50 '53 <& 54, 
Charles Wheeler, do do 
Cal. C. White, witness fee, - 
Chas. K. Watkins, do 
Wis. Deaf <fe Dumb Inst, appropriation 1853, 

E. Wakelj, per diem 1853, - 
Ezra Wheeler, do - - 
Weed & Eberhard, appropriations '53 & '54, 
E. V. Whiton, salary and witness fee, 
H. A. Wright, do per diem 1853, 
H. C. West do 
H. K. White, witness fee, - 
Isaac Woodle, - - - 
John Walworth, audited, 
John K. v\ ilHams, appropriations '53 k '54, 
John Wright, do - - 
Joseph Wilson, do - - 
J. H. Wells, witness fee, - - - 
J. H. Weljfs (Marquette,) andited, 
John T. Wilson, do 
L. Wyman, witness fee, - 
O. J. Wright, audited, 
Eobert Wejr, witness fees^ 
Russel Wheeler, do - - . 

B. fi. Wentworth, appropriation and audited 
R F.Wilson, do do , 
Rob't W, Wright Witness fee, 
Thos. Wait, per diem 1853 and appr'n, 
T. T* Whittlesey, do 
Wm, K. Wilson, witness fee, 
H. D. Tork, per diem 1853, 

Total - - - .' 

Amt Qverpaid last quarter, - 
Receipts brought from page 8, 
Balance overpaid, • - • . 





25 




290 




2.860 




174 




31 64 




75 




6 05 




165 




2,076 27 




195 




a,260 84 


' 


232 50 




110 22 




29 120 • 




1,750 




45 




46 




1,556 44 




522 80 ' 




845 




45 




46 


- 


45 80 ' 


- 


5 05 


. 


^50 


- 


67 23 




132 50 > 


- 


41 20 




31 20 


- 


102 




19 20 




5 05 




SO 




45 20 




60 95 




162 




42 80 . 




70 




45 




89 40 




45 




165,277 53 




8,110 70 . 


16^487 64 




7.»00 69 




$173,388 28 


$173,388 23 



16 



SECOND QUAETER 









Brown Countyr State Tax, 


186 50 


Jefferson do 


do 


820 


La Fayette do 


do 


3,378 96' 


Portage do 


do 


1,024 19 


Bt. Croix do 


do 


424 96 


Outagamie do 


do 


702 


Badger State Bank, 


do 


187 50 


Bank of Commerce, 


do 


320 50 


Columbia County Bank, 


do 


50 42 


Exehange Bank, 


do 


375 


Farmers &, Millers' Bank, 


do 


875 


Bank of Fond du Lac, 


do 


187 50 


Fox River Bank, 


do 


17 49 


Jefferson County Bank, 


do 


375 


City Bank of Racine, 


do 


375 


Bank of Racine, 


do 


375 


Stale Bank, 


do 


875 


State Bank of Wisconsin, 


do 


1»125 


Wisconsin Bank, 


do 


875 


W. Fry, License, Pedlar, 


30 


M. Boynelackiy do 


- 


80 


Wm. R. Berry, do 


- 


40 


B. Mook, do 


- 


40 


Tilten <Sb Mallery, do 


- 


60 


H. E. Hood, do 


- 


40 


G. R. Knight, refunded error 


9 


49 50 


H. S- Nickerson, do 


M M 


15 50 


Total, 


10,805 02 




DISBTJBSEiaBKl 


B. 


Jonathan E. Arnold, appropriation^ - 




Bf. C. Bush, do 






John Butler, do 






Bugh <& Nimraock, audited. 






Cover & Goldsmith, do 






M. M. Cothren, salary, 






Saral Crawford, do 






Charles Foote, appropriation 






R. W. Griswold, witness fee, 






A. C. Ingham, do 






Edward M. Hunter, tala 






C. H. Larrabee, do 






R. M. Long. do 






T.Lund, appropriation, - 


^ 




11. Martin do 


» • 





1,000 
182 
106 OB 

84 50 

20 
875 

Qee 67 
112 90 

17 20 

50 12- 
250 
875 
100 

2oa 



ir 



DXSBUBSEMXinB. 



Simeon Mills, appropriation, - 

A. D. Smith, aalary, - - . 

State A^ricultaral Society, appcopriation, 

South Wing State Prison, do 

E. V. Whiton, salary. 

Wis. Blind Institute, appropriation, - 

J. H. Wells, audited, - - - 

Total - - 

Amount overpaid last quarter, 
Balance overpaid, - 



5,713 72 



16,518 74 



THTEtD QUARTER. 



BSOEIPrB. 



166 25 


666 67 


190 


2,146 95 
166 66 


1,500 
40 55 


8,618 06 
7,900 09 



16y518 T4 



Bank of the West, State Tax, 


- . 


485 55 


• 


Kenoaha City Bank, do 


- . 


375 




Baeine County do do 


- . 


750 




Boek River do do 


- . 


675 


1 


OhkoshCity do do 


- . 


875 




Wi8.M.<feF.LCo.Bk. do 


- . 


750 




Jefferson County do do 


- 


1095 82 




.'Milwaukee County do 


- 


887 31 




Qlines ^ Co., License, Hawkers <fe Pedlars,! 


40 




.M. Loeb <& Co., do 


do 


40 




Charles Richmond, do 


do 


10 




John W. DavisJ refunded, 


- . 


5 




RRicker, do 


m . 


89 




To*al, 


5,177 68 




i>mBXJBsmsNi 


«• ' 




David Atwood, audited. 


« 




934 10 


Atwood dk Brown, appropriation, 


- 




6,013 66 


Beriab Brown, do 


&C.- 




4,061 40 


H. D. Barron, audited, - . 


- » 


" 


149 55 


S. G.Bugh, - - . 


- • 




1t62 50 


Wm. A. Barstow, salary, - j 


-■■ 




462 50 


Wm. W. Brown, appropriation, I 


- 




425 


Crawford County, overpayment^ 


• - 




03 


^Oeorge W. Cate, salary, 
iM.II.Gothren, dp - [ 


- * 


' 


• 499 17 


- ' 




435 


8. Park Coon, appropriafion, - 


- " 


- 


86 


F. F. Davis, - - ; 


- • 


"* T 


- • 7k 


J. R. DooHttle, sataiy. 


- 




375 



18 



BIBBTTSSEMERTO. 

Wm. M. Dennis, salary, 

Charles B Ellis, appropriation, 

A V Frjer, do 

F Fratney, audited, 

H B Gardner, appropriatioD, 

W Grahatn, do - 

E M Hunter, salary, - - - 

F W Horn, Emigrant Agent, 

J W Hunt, salary, 

Levi Hubbell, do - - 

J vv Hill, per diem, - • * 

Edward H Janssen, salary, - - * 

John N Jones, postage, 

E B Kel«ey, per diem 1863, - 

Jas Eneeland, appropriation, - 

Wiram Knowlton, salary, - 

Rob'i M Long, do - 

Chas H Larrabee, do - 

R W Lansing audited, 

Q Loehr, appropriation, - 

Geo R M Lane, lunatic do - 

John McManman, salary, 

A Menges, do - - 

Alex Mitchell, appropriation - 

J G Percival, salary, 

Curtis Reed,' per diem 1853 - 

J D Reymert, audited, 

V W Both, appropriation, 

Schuflf <fe Rutts, audited, 

D M Seaver, salary, 

J R Sharpstein, per diem 1 868, 

Swamp Lands, appropriation, - - 

State Prison, do 

South Wing, do * - 

Schoeffler & Wendt, audited, 

D S Yittum, lunatic appropriation, 

John Welch, do 

John White, do 1861, 

John K Williams, do 1863, 

H Wright, salary, <fea, 

R Wilcox, per diem 1863, - 

Wisconsin Blind Institute, appr<»riatio% 

Wm. A Wheeler A Co., do 

Total, 
Amount overpaid last qoarter. 
Receipts as above^ - - - 

Balance^ 



6,177 88 
88,107 70 

38,286 88 



600 

12 
160 
800 

83 

20 

250 

1,075 

26a 

148 

26 
209 
2,342 m 

70 

40 
376 
200 
375 
lU 

4f5 
300 
160 
260 

68 
410 

70 
187 60 
60 

68 85 
260 

76 
225 
600 
6,643 90 
1,672 60 
162 60 
282 16 
67 
116 
400 

45 
125 

89 25 

32,671 86 
i»7i3 79 



88,285 86 



19 



FOUBTB QUARTER 



KTCKIFTB. 



F Dana, tax od tnita^ 

Manitowoc Countj, revenoa^ 

Portage do do 

Waushara do do 

BanlK of Commerce, Tax, 

Columbia County Bank do 

Dane do do do 

Citj Bank Kenoeba do 

City Bank RacJBe do 

Farmers <k MiNers* Bank do 

Nortbera do do 

BadneConnty do do 

Bock River do do 

State do do , 

State Bank of WWonain do 

Wis M <k F Ins Co do 

Simeon Steinbart, Pedlar's License^ - 

Silverman d^ Co do 

James Cameron do 

M Scbwars do 

Chandler <& Killey do 

S Hirscbberg do « - 

Rabba8<feWolf do 

A GuiliI efinger do 

Alex Quddlefinger, do 

John Blackenbunt do 

S Klauber do 

A L Castlemao, Canal Land Mortgage^ 



Total, 



.«j 


1,844 98 


544 1 


196 60 


b 


187 60 


185 42 


875 


375 


375 


5U 50 


760 


875 


375 


1,875 


750 


30 


80 


10 


•10 


HO 


30 


30 


10 


40 


40 


10 


5 16 


$9,829 22 



BISBUBSEiaENIB. 



Jas S Alban. appropriation, - 
J R Brim, do 

S Bugn, on recount, 
W A Burstow, salary &c^ 
W W Brown, appropriation - 
J Cruwlev au tJ. 
M M Cothron, salary, 
V V Chandler, audited, 
3 Comfort, appropriation, - 
8am*l Crawford, salary, 
J R Dooiittle, do 

Wm M Dennia, do 
A T Gray, do 



120 

120 
100 
462 50 
360 
136 40 
375 
5 
83 
600 
375 
500 
600 



05 



30 



DISBin^EMENTB . 



Oustavus Grahl, audited, - 

Fratney & Herzberg, do - 

KJFIeisher, do - 

E W Hunter, salary, 

F F Hobbs, apprt^priation, - 

F W Horn, Emigrant Agent, 

John W Hunt, jjalary, 

J N Jones, Hudited, 

E H Janssen, salary, 

Levi HubU-ll, do 

James & Marriner, appropriation, 

August ruer, salary, 

"Wiraro Knowlton, do 

C H Larrabee^ do 

M D Miller, appropriation, - 

A Marschnes, audited, 

Ohas Roefeser do - " 

OeoPaul, do^ "! 

J G Percival, Geological Surrey, 

H P Powers, appropriation, 

Robinson & Bro, audited, - - 

Reed&Nevett, do -' 

Abm D Smith, salary, 

A S Sanborn, on account services, -. 

D M Seaver, Falary, 

OeoR Smith, d<> . . . 

Levi Sterling, appropriation, - 

Swamp Lands, do 

Slate Prison, do - 

8 G Slacey, salary, 

Schoefflercfe Wendt, audited, 

Wm R Smith, appropriation. 

D S Vittum, on account services, 

H A Wright, salary, 

O.J Wright, Budiit^d, - -' 

Sam'l F Wright, lunatic appropriation," 

Total, ' ' ' \ 

Receipts as above, - 
Amount overpaid last quarter, 
. Amount overpaid, 



9,829 22 
88,965 36 
48,794 58 



27 15 
870 05 
144 69 
250 

20 80 
2,560 
250 

723 47 
QOO 
875 

14 
600, 
376 
376 

83 

50 
6 45 

95 25 

50 

83 

52 81 

64 50 
500 

388 50 
250. 
800. 
120 
700 
500 
200 

ei5 

100 
488 
400. 

28.25 

10 

16,686 .88 
33,10? 70 



48,794 58 



21 

2. THB JUDIOIASY FUKD. 

This fund is created by virtue of thefoUowing portions of the- 
Bevised Statutes. 

Page 201, " Sectiork 61. Every Clerk of the circuit court shally 
at the expiration of every three months after the commencement 
of his term of oflSee, transmit to the secretary of state an account 
in wilting, verified by his affidavit, to be filed with such account, 
of all moneys received by him for taxes on suits commenced in the 
circuit court during the preceding three months, specifying in 
such account, the title of each suit and the proceeding on which 
such taxes have been received; and shall, as often as required by 
the judge of the circuit court, pay over to him all moneys in his- 
hands, received for taxes on suits, who shall execute to the said 
clerk duplicate receipts therefor, one of which shall be filled and 
preserved in his office, and the other shall be transmitted by mail 
to the secretary of state, who shall charge in his books the amount 
specified in such receipt to the account of such judge, and deduct 
the same from his next quarter's salary. And it is hereby made- 
the duty of all clerks of the circuit courts, whose duty it was to 
receive a tax of one dollar on suits as provided by section seven- 
teen of an act entitled 'An act to provide for the elect'on of judges, 
and for the classification and organization of the judiciary of the^ 
state of Wisconsin," approved Jane twenty-ninth, one thousand 
eight hundred and forty-eight, to pay over to their successors ic^ 
office, within twenty days from the passage of this chapter, all 
moneys which may be or should have been by said clerks re^ieiv: 
ed as provided by said act" 

Page 762, ^ See. 17. On each 'suit in the circuit com-t ther^ 
sbeil be levied a tax of .one dollar, which shall be paid to the clerk 
at^he time of the commencement thereof, which tax so levied 
fliiail be paid into the treasury of the state, and form a separate- 
fand, to be applied to the payment' of the salary of judges ; said 
gum of one dollar shall be taxed in the bill of costs and recovered 
M Other costs of suit." 

In many instances clerks ^entirely neglect to report to this offioor 



the number of suits commenced, while others fail to pay over the 
money received by them. The whole amount reported by dferks 
up to this time is $9,327,* as follows : 

In 1n49, $1,928 

" 1850, .-.-•.. 1,162 

"1851, 1,886 

" 1852, 2,124 

" 1853, 1,414 

" 1854, 1,863 

Of this amount the sura of $7,818,60 has been paid over, leav. 
ing $2,008,50 unaccounted f«)r. The attention of clerks has been 
frequently called to the foregoing provisions of law but with little 
success. 

An abstract of balances due from Clerks, as above shown, on 
this diiy is jiresenfed herewith, marked "A." 

It will be seen by this abstract that the sum of $295 has been 
paid, ibr which the reports have not been made. 

Il the la>t fur annual reports from this office complaint has 
been made of the inefficiency of this law. It still remains un- 
changed, and increasing negligence on the part of clerks is the 
result of this seeming approval of the Legislature. The following 
Buggeslions of Secretary BAEs'row in his report bearing date De- 
ceuiber 31, 1851, are rtcummended to the Legislature as worthy 
of c•on^iderati'^n. 

**In order to remedy the evil complained of, and for the purpose 
of simplifying the manner of keeping the necessary accounts, it is 
suggested, a.^ a better means of realising and disbursing this por- 
tion of the State revenue, that^ the clerks be required, as now, to 
report to this department, quarterly, the amount of tax for which 
they are liable, and to pay over, at the same time, to their respec- 
tive County Treasurers the amount so reported, taking duplicate 
receipts therefor, one of whiih shall be forwarded to the Secretaiy 
of 6tate> to bo by him credited to said clerk, and charged to the 
pr per Cou'ity to be paid by said County annually to the Btate 
Treasurer, at the time provided for the payment of State taxes ; 



S8 

and in the event of a failure on the part of any clerk to 00 report 
and paj, to suffer such penalty as may be prescribed." 

8. FUND FOS THE BLIND« 

The act incorporating the Wisconsin Institute for the education 
<rf the Blind, approved February 9, 1860 provided that a tax of 
one fifteenth of one mill, should be levied upon every dollars 
worth of property in this State for the year 1850 to be kept as a 
separate fund, to be known as the "Fund for the Blind.'* The 
balance remaining in this fund, on the fii*st day of January last 
was $405,84, which amount has been balanced by the General 
fund, as that Institution is now supported by appropriations there- 
from. 

4. ras SCHOOL FUND. 

The proceeds arising from the sale of School Lands together 
with the five per centum of the nett proceeds of the sale of gov- 
ernment lands to which the State is entitled — ^the five per cent 
penalty as forfeiture for tbe non payment of interest, when due 
upon School Land certificates and loans from the School fund — 
and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the several conn- 
ties for the breach of any of the penal laws of the State, one set 
apart to constitute the school fund ; this fund being subjected only 
to certain expenses for advertising and selling lands and necessary 
books and blanks for conducting the transactions therein. 

The transactions of the State Treasurer in this fund during the 
fear ending this day are 4s follows, to-wit : 



FIRST QUARTER. 

BBCEIFTS. 



Certificates, 

Fines, 

Loans, 

Penalty, 5 per cent 

8alei^ 

OVHal, 



28,306 44 
1.785 06 
2,125 
869 24 

15,990 63 

\ 49,166 381 



24 



DISBUBSEXENTS. 



Beriah Brown, printing and publishing^ 



Dan C Brown 
H D Barron, 

Joseph Barnard, appraising, 
John A Brown, publishing, 
Milton Barlow, appraising, 
Beeson <fe Thomas, pubJishing, 
Wm O Buck, appraising, 
CahinietCo., do 
H CaJkin^ do 

J Crowlev, publishing. 

KV Chandler, do- 

Wta £ Cramer, do^ 

C W Fitch, do^ 

Fratnej <fe Herzbeig, da 
George Gale, appraising, 
Indian George, do 
Edward C Hull, publishing, 
J A Hadlej, do 

H P Holmes, appraising 
Joachim & Co., publishing 
KoUman <fe Co., do 
Asa Lawrence, appraising 
A Morehouse^ do 

F J Mills, publishing 
Manitowoc Co., appraising, | 
Marquette Co., do 
Geo H Paul, publishing 
L M Parsons, appraising 
P D MaiBchner, do 
W W Noyes, publishing 
Obas S Roeser do 
Richland Co., appraising 
Rock Co., do 

Reed & Nevett^ publishing, 
R P Rawson, appraising, 
Robinson <& Bro., publishing, 
Sam Ryan, jr., do 

D B Shailer, appraising, 
School Fund, refunded for enor, 
School Fund Loans, 
Seaton & Paul, publishing^ 
Stevens is Rogers^ do 
Schoeffler <& Wendt, d* 
W B Shaver, do 

Geo W Taggert, appraisinj^ 
Algernon Weaton, do 



do 
do 



892 40 
8 

33 55 

7b 
8 

15 

15 SO 
111 
581 12 

92 50 

a 

1 20 
97 85 

6 50 
25 90 
15 

9 

8 10 

9 20 
25 60 

5 

78 
63 
13 
200 
105 60 
7 
10 
50 
6 
7 
500 4(^ 
147 20 
14 80 
111 

8 60 

9 68 
111 

30 39 
65,921 
17 80 
16 80 
8 50 
4 
216 
7 50 



70 



2S 



DISBUBSEHSNTB. 
A Whitemore & Co., plat bcx)k, » 

A S Weston, appraising, 
"Winnebago Co, do 
D M West, do 

Weed & Eberhard, binding, 
J H Wells, pubhdiing, 
Wm White, appraising, 

Total, 
ATnount on hand last quarter, 
Amount of receipts, 
Balance, 



84,094 92 
49,166 38 



$63,261 80 



SECOND QUARTER 

BECEIFTS* 



Certificates, 

Loads, 

Penalty, 5 per cent. 

Sales, 

Total, 
Balaoce last qaarter. 



3.412 29 
1,066 

179 52 
1,012 74 


5,670 55 
13,067 80 



DISBUBSSBIENTS. 



Brown county, appraising, 

Beriah Brown, printing and publishing, 

Royal Kuck, do 

School Fund Loans, * 

W^ed 4o Eberhatd, binding. 



TptaJ, 
Bdaaoe, 



$18,737 85J 
THIKD QUARTER. 



BEOXIFTS* 



Sales, 
Fioef, 
Penalty, 
Canificatea^ 

Total, 
Balaaoe last qaarter, 

4 



10,306 93 

623 25 

879 15 

2,186 44 


18,945 77 
15,430 12 



25 


12 50 


168 26 


20 


198 50 


21 25 


43 50 



70,194 00 



13,067 80 
$83,261 80 



136 50 
646 
12 60 
2^36 73 

77 

8,307 73 
16,480 12 

$18,737 66> 



I>]BBTTB8E1I£27T6. 
Loan*, 

We«^l Si Eberhard, book binding, dbc^ 
W H WilUrd, appraising, 
Klwanl liPe^, do 

JaH Murdftck, do 
O A Stafford, printings 
Bf^riah Brown, do 
R F Wil>on, appraising, 
D A Olidden, refunded, eft 11 Pierce Co» 

Total, 
Balance, 



129,376 89 



2,800 


560 


182 


26 


141 


300 


820 


100 


6 8» 


4,373 82 


26^002 27 



129,376 89 



FOURTH QUARTER. 



SBCEIFTB. 



CertificateB, 

Fines, 

Loanfs 

Penalty, 

Sales, 

Totol, 



8,079 73 


463 01 


1,425 


222 16 


6,609 77 


16,800 67 



]>IBBUBSBMEin:8« 



Benj All^n, appraising, 
Gyrus N Allen, do 
B Brown, publishing, 
D C Brown, do 
J Barnard, appraising, 
John A Brown, publishing, 
Sftm*! O Bugh, do 
Jerry Crowley, do 

Cover Si Goldsmith, do 
H Calkins, appraiHing, 
R L Gove, publishing, 
Gray & Nimmock, do 
Joseph Dartt, surveying, 
E C Hull, publishing, 
A C H(»lt, do 
B P HickNapi-raiBing, 
Hunl & Johnson, publishing, 
Edward Lees, appraising, 
Peter Little, do 

Jas Murdock, do 



26d 60 

157 50 

107 50 

81 26 

55 

19 00 

18 25 

42 75 

425 

166 

7 26 

17 26 
31 

7 25 
12 46 
16 

18 80 
480 

80 
50 



9T 



BUBUfiSKMEHTS. 



P D Marechall, appraising, 
Wm C McMichael, do 
Joeeph Patch, do 

Bobinson & Bro^ publishing, 
Wm C Rogers, do 
Bjan k Co, do 

J Quintus, do 

Stout <b Tennef, do 
S W Smith, do 

School Fund, 
School Fund Loans, 
Thomas <k Reed, publishing, 
B F Wilson, appraising, 
O J Wnght, publishing, 
Weed A Eberhard, bindings 

ToUl, 
B<eceipts as above, 
Balance as aboye^ 
Balance^ 

Total, 





18 76 




142 60 




19 




66 20 




8 50 




8 36 




3 26 




65 85 




931 U 




2,506 




d8 75 




216 




14 76 




1,564 £0 




7,120 71 


16.800 57 




25,002 27 






84,682 13 



41,808 27 



41,802 84 



The records of this office exhibit the following as the present 
condition of this fond : 



Amount due on certificates of lale^ as per the 

books of this office, 
Add error in books for 1852, 

do do do 1858, 

Total fttnount of School Fund Dues, 
Amount of School Fund LoanS| 
Balance in Treasury as abore^ 



6,689 62 
8^387 79 



1,374,285 09 

40,977 41 

1,415,262 60 

220,814 24 

84,682 08 



1,670,268 77 

This earn, except the amount stated as being in the hands of the 
State Treasurer, is drawing interest at seven per cent., payable 
daring the month of Jonuarj in each jear. This interest consti- 
tatea 

5, THS 80H00L FUHD IKOOMB* 

This iB aonnallj appropriated by the State Superintendent to the 
■aeveral counties for the support of Common Schools. 



38 



The transactions of the State Treataier, in the income, of the 
School Fund, for the fiscal year, are as fullows : 



FIRST QUAETEK. 



XBOBIPTB, 



94,159 40;| 



Befunded for error in 


DISBUBSEMSNTS. 

former payments, ^ | 


82 50 


Bad Ax County, 


Apportionment, 


' 


452 88 


Calumet, do 


do 




642 96 


Colutnbm do 


do 




8,191 04 


Crawford do 


do 




485 2S 


Dane do 


do 




6,567 12 


Dodfi;e do 
Fond du Lac do 


do 




6,212 16 


do 




4,395 04 


Grant do 


do ; 


4,888 08 


Oreen do 


do 1 


3,211 92 


Iowa do 


do ) 


2,542 27 


Jefferson do 


do 1 


5,022 12 


Eeno&ha do 


do 


8,019 68 


Marquette do 


do 


2,593 44 


Milwaukee do 


do 




5,497 95 


Ozaukee do 


do 




2,675 21 


Sauk do 


do 




2,048 40 


Sheboygan do 


do 




3,605 5d 


Racine do 


do 




4,855 18 


Richland do 


do 




514 OS 


Bock do 


do 




6,320 88 


Walworth do 


do 




4,975 92 


Washington do 


do 




4,03U 20 


Waukesha do 


do 




5,848 56 


Waupaooa do- 


do 


1 


497 5r 


Waushara . do 


da 




8W 00 


Winiieb^^o, do 


do 




8,765 68 


D M Seaver,. platting, in 1 853^ 




730 16 


Gbas G Mayers, do 


do. 




254 50 


Total, 


86,496 50 


Bal&ooe last quarter,. 


, 


:i7,465 10 


• 


Receipts as abov^ 




94,159 40 




Balance, 






23,128 




111,624 50 


111,624 50 




SECOND QUARTER. 




BEOSIPTB^. 




1. 1;858 97i 


1 



2d 



DISBUBSEHENTS. 



Adams OotiTity, Apportionment, 
La Fayett<» do do 

Outagamie do do 

Portage do do 

St Croix do do 

Total, 
Balance last quarter, 
fialanoe. 



2d,I2d 



$24,981 97 

THIRD QUARTER. • 



ESCEtPTS, 

BalaDce last quarter, 



I 



6,932 OV 



DtSBtTBSEMENtJ . 



HHwauiee County, ApfK)rtk>nment, 
V A Qliddoo> Mfunded eft? 7 Pierce Go, 



Total, 
Balance, 



BSCBIPl'8, 

Balance last quarter| 



$26,148 09 

FOURTP QTJAI^R. 



4,289 59{ 
25,257 80| 



DbsUBSEMSNlS. 



Refunded on ceitifl^tesTecalied, 
Polk County, ApJ)ortion)iient, 

Milwaukee do ' do ' 

Waofthara do do .. 

Manitowoc do do 



Total, 
Baknce, 



29,647 39 



V 285 84 
3,378 W 
702 

224 19 
174 96 

4,665 05 

20,216 02 

$24,981 07 



887 31 
2 98 



890 29 
25,257 60 

$26,148 09 



5 

51 12 
1,660 

196 66 
1,233 3^ 

3,036 14 
26,511 26 

29,547 39 



' Tbeeapitalof tbe S^toolFund, drawing interest as before shown, 
is is follows t 



80 



School Fuid Du6% 1,415,292 50 

do do Loans, 220,314 24 

Total, 1,685,576 74 

The intereat upon this sam, for one year, at 7 

per cent, is 214,040 87 

To which add balance on Iiand aa abora 27,493 92 

Making a Total ot 142,484 29 

The amonut now on hand inclndesthe advanced intereat already- 
paid for the year 1855. This will lessen the amonnt due, to the 
extent of such advanced payment Loans and sales, however, 
during the winter will doubtlesa increase the income to such an 
extent, that the amount to be apportioned in March next, will 
reach the sum of $146,000 00. 

6. THB mnvxBsrrr fund. 

This fund is composed of the nett proceed of the sale of Univer- 
sity lands, and from the 5 per cent, penalty as forfeiture for the 
non-payment of interest when due upon University land certificates 
and loans from the University Funds, 

The transactions in this fund, during the year closing this day^ 
are as follows, to wit : 



FIRST QUARTER 



Gertificatee, 
Penalty, 6 per cent 
Sal«^ 

Total, 
Balance last quarter. 



Loam, 

Lorenao Presten 
T Orerton, 
Refanded for en^r, 

Balance^ 



2,165 47 

21 
2,010 41 



4,186 88 
10,867 22 



IXaBUBSEMENTS. 



0,125 
15 
20 
8 60 

5,890 50 



15,054 10 



15,054 10 



81 



SECOND QUARTER. 

BBOEIFTB. 



PeDaltv, 



250 I 

96 15 

2.104 32 

5,890 50 



SISBTJBSEMENTS. 





' 




1,946 
6,894 97 




8,340 97 


8.340 97 


- 


THIRD QUARTER. 






BBCEIFTB. 






Salefp 
Ceitiftcatii^ 




2,337 94 
830 




Bolanoe last qaartar^ 


KSBUBSEMSNIf 


6,394 97 


1 


IXMUiMf 

Balancoi 






7/J53 
1,109 91 




9,062 91 


9,062 91 




FOURTH QUA] 


iTER. 






BBOEIPTS. 






Certificate^ 

pMMltj, 

Salca» 




112 

21 25 

607 06 




Balance last qnaiiar, 




1;019 91 






jsusBvwmami 


1. 




Loaned to XTniymitj, 
Amount overpaid, 




1,086 12 


2,836 S3 




2,836 33 


2.836 33 



32 



The records of this office exhibit the following as the present 

condition of this fund : 

Amount due on certificates of aale as per the 

books of this office, 125.557 18 

Add error of books ia 1853, 10,859 10 



Total amount of University Fund Dues, 
Amount due on do do 



135,916 28 
25,230 33 



16M46 61 
1.086 12 



Amount overpaid as above, 

Total principal, 1 160,060 49 

This sum, except the amount above stated as being in the Trea- 
sury, is drawing interest at 7 per cent, payable during the month 
of January in each } ear. This interest constitutes 

7. THB UNIVKBSnT FUND INCOME. 

This is annually applied toward the current expenses of the 
State University. 

The tranpactions of the State Treasurer in the income of the 
University Fund for the year, are as follows : 

riEST QUARTER. 



RXGEIPTS, 

Balance last quarter, 



7,077 21 
2,990 56j 



DISBUB8EMENTS. 



Interest on School Fund Loan, 
State University, 
Refunded for error. 

Total, 
Balance, 



10,067 77 



3,500 
4,600 
11 09 

6,011 99 
2,055 78 

10,067 7t 



RVCBIFTS, 

Balance last quarter, 



State University, 
Balance, 



SECOND QUARTER. 

I 

mSBXTBSEMENTS. 



754 81 
2,056 78 



1,000 
1,810 60 



2,810 59|{ 



2,810 60 



33 



THIRD QUARTER. 



RSOXIPTS, 

Balance la^t quarter, 
Balaooej 



BXOEIPTSy 

Balanoe last quarter, 

BISBUBSKMSNTS, 

.Balance^ 



363 58 
1,810 60 



2,173 17 



I 



FOURTH QUARTER. 



580 47 
2,173 17 



2,753 64(1 



2,1 73 17 
2,173 17 



1,628 45 
1,125 19 

a,763 



llie capital of die Universitj Fund drawing interest as abore 

shown, is as follows: 

UniTeraity Fund Daes, 135,016 28 

do do Loans, 25,230 83 

Total, 161,146 61 

The interest npon tlui ram at 7 per cent for 

one jear, is 11,280 26 

Add balanoe on hand, 1,125 19 

Total, 12,405 45 

This sum will dout)tless be increased by farther sales, so that 
the amount sabject to be drawn for the support of the Unirersitj 
next jsar, will reach the sum of $13,000 00. 

8. THE IMPBOYEMENT FUND. 

The payment required to be made to the State Treasurer bjTir* 
tue of the act to provide for the completion of the Fox and Wia* 
cousin Rivers, passed April 14, 1852, constitutes the Improvement^ 
Fund, 

The transactions ia this fund, during the current fiscal year, have 
been as follows : 

Balanee on band, 120 38 

Paid F P Tallmadge, 129 

Balanoe in the Treasury, » , 38^ 



129 3a 



129 aa 



34 
RECAPITOLATTON. 



OEMERAL FUND, 

let quarter, 
2d Jo 
8d do 
4tli do 

acHooL ruvD. 
^st quarter, 
8d do 
.Sd do 
4th do 

8. F. INCOME. 

Ist quarter, 
id do 
Sd do 
4tli do 

UK1VER8ITT FUND. 

][st quarter, 
2d do 
3d do 
4tb do 

V. F. urcoicB. 

Ist quarter, 
2d do 
3d do 
4tli do 

MpaOYBMBNT WV'ST), 

let quarter. 
Total, 

BALA2TCXS. 

January 1,1854. 
General Fund, 
School Fund, 
School Fund Income, 
University Fund, 
TJ F Income, 
Improvement Fund, 



Receipts. 

~16M87~54 

10,805 02 

5,177 68 

9,829 22 


Disburaemcnts 

165,277 53 

8,618 05 

32,571 66 

15,686 88 


Total Beoeipts 


Total Dm- 

bursemeutSL 


191,299 46 

85,583 27 

106,235 03 

9,946 69 

8,776 07 


222,154 12 

84^06 

97,188 88 

21,898 93 

10,640 44 
129 


49,166 38 

5,670 65 

13,946 77 

16,800 67 


70,194 
3,307 73 
4,373 62 
7,120 71 


94,159 40 
1,853 97 
5,9S2 07 
4,289 59 


88,406 50 

4,765 95 

890 29 

3,036 14 


4,186 88 

:7.450 47 

l.,';67 94 

640 30 


9,168 60 
1,946 
7,953 
2,836 33 


7,077 21 
764 81 
362 68 
580 47 


8,011 90 
1,000 

1,628 45 




129 


401,838 42 

34,094 92 

17,465 10 

10,867 22 

2,990 66 

129 38 


437,007 43 
8,110 70 


401,838 42 
57,436 48 


437,007 43 

5 
J 



86 



REOAPrrULAXION.— Continued. 



BAtAVOBS, 

December 30, 1854, 
General Fund, 
School do 
S F Jnoome, 
University Fund, 
U F Intome, 
ImproYement Fund, 



38,965 36 
1,086 12 


• 

34,682 13 
26,511 25 

1,125 19 

38 




2^267 47 


507,437 08 


507,487 08 


459,274 90 


459,274 90 



Acoomrrs audited. 

The following list embraces the aceoimts audited in this office, 
l)y virtue of various provisions of law, and exhibife the funds 
&0Q1 which the same are respectirelj payable. The sum claimed, 
in all cases has been the same as allowed, unlesa otherwise noticed. 



J«iilianr4. 


do 


7, 


do 


11, 


•do 


12. 


te 


1.8, 


do 


1*, 


do 


21, 


do 


30, 


ipoKry 


' 8, 


. do 


11, 


.<k» 


13, 


do 


16, 


do 


18, 


do 


21, 


do 


26. 


ibich 2, 


do 


», 



OiEECBRAlt FUND, 



Claim. 



Allowed. 



4a 11, 



James H Wellfl, Publishiai^ , < 


15 60 


James S Baker, painting, inc^ 


18 


Geo Burnside dc Co, publkiiing^ 


4 40 


C Latham Sholea, do 


.-. ♦-.40 


H D Barron, da 


4 40 


Alf Marachner, do . , 


10 


JasM Reese, da. 


7 ».40 


ChasH Wells, do 1851 


: 15 .60 


F J Mills, do , 


: : * 40 


Ryan A? Co, . : 4o 


10 


Hurd <& Johnson, do 


4 40 


Reed (b Nevitt, do 


4.40 


Briggs & Foster, do 


.. 4.40 


Schoeffier & Wendt, translating. 


10 


John C Banner & Co, Kewpapen, 1853, 


. 6»,50 


J A Hadley, publishing. 


4 40 


"See Bote," do . «0. 16 40 


HF Eastman, do . 


< 4 40 


Fratney &Herzberg do 


40 


HD Barron, do 


26 86 


B Brown, Report of Impeachment Trial, i 


2,655 


Stevens & Bogersi publishing, 


4 40 


Chas Foote, Carnage Impeachment Reports 65 53 26 


Wm E Cramer, publishinfl^ 


24 85 


ECHoil, do 


r &.05 


F J Milla da 


5 05 



66 

OXNIBIL FUND. 

• 

March 11^ H M Croinbie, carriage, impeachment trial; 

Beriah KrowD, publishing, 

Baker <& Doty, ^ do 

Briggs & FuMer, do 

Blum field & Kopp, do 

H D Barron, do 

do 13, Miner <k Skinner, do 

Carr Huntington, do 

Gould <fe McLaughlin, do 

J L Marah, do 

Beeeon <& Thomas, do 

do 14, J Walworth, do 

E R db F A Utter, do 

A Marscbner, do 

do 16, Alden<feHolt, do 

Robinson dc Bits do 

C W Fitch, do 

Seaton is Paul, do 

do IV, Schoeffler & Wendt, do 

R A Bird, do 

John A Brown, 4o 

J Quintus, do 

Fratney ds Herzber]g» do 

do 20, Ryan i Co^ do 

J Crowley, do 

D Brewn, do 

dd 21, R B Wentworth, do 

' do 22, ^'Epigranten,'' do 

do 2d, Hurd d^ Johnson, do 

W W dc L Noyes, newspttpera in 1868, 
and publishing, 
do 25, Bngh & Nimmoc^ publishing, 

'do 28, J Wright, do 

Jacob Quintus, do 

do 20, Geo H Paul, do 

S M Booth, do 

Carey dc Harrison, do 

Mapes ic Root, do 

Bchoffdc Butts, do 

Rufus King dc Co^ do 

A O Ellis, do^ 

Casey k Fallon, do 

C Clement, do 
do Newspapers, 
d<i dl| Bheles & Densmore^ publishing^, 
do do Newspapera^] 



Olalm. Allowedt 


6 60 


5 06 


5 05 


5 06 


5 05 


5 06 


5 06 


5 Ob 


5 06 


5 06 


5 06 


5 06 


5 06 


6 06 


11 80 


6 06 


5 06 


6 06 


1 06 


6 05 


6 06 


18 10 


6 06 


5 06 


6 06 


6 90 


6 06 


7 06 


5 06 


41 66 


6 06 


6 06 


6 30 


6 06 


6 06 


5 06 


6 06 


6 06 


48 


1» 54 


6 01^ 


9 46 


169 


6 05 


llO' 



87 

OEZf SRAL TDin)* 

Qklm. Allowed 

Ukteh 31, BatU & West, publishing, 4 40 

Briggs & Foster, oewspapere, 185 
W H Gleason, appraisal of capital landi, 407 00< 387 

BF Wilson, do do 372 162 

John F Wilson, do do 102 

Fratnej <fe Herzberg, newspapers^ 231 

8 M Booth, , do 454 

Rufus King A; Co, do 210 22 

Gould (k McLaughlin, do 69 68 

W E Cramer, do 375 

Ap^ 1, Shoeffler 6s Weadt, do 347 57 

do 3, Beriah Boown, do 1^310 17 

J D Bejmert, do 926 76 

Carey is Harrison, do 60 

Daniel Shaw, . do 197 50 

B C Hull, do 100 50 

Blumfield A; Eopp, 'do 88 40 

do 4, Bugh k, Nimmock, do 84 50 

Hoyal Buck, publishing, 5 05 

do 10, Cover is Gold<mitb, newspapers^ 

John N Jones, postage, legislature, 2,314 77 

do do do State Offioen, 433 46 

-do 11, R J Fleischer, newspapers^ 144 69 

H D Barron, do . 149 53" 

Bliss is Chaney, do 17 

J H Wells, do 35 50 

do do publishing, 5 05 

W B Shaver, do 5 05 

Gust Grahl, do 4 65 

Robinson is Bro^ do 1 45 

^ 17, Ryan is Co. newspapers, 68 70 

David Atwood^ do .934 10 

Geo H Paul, do 59 35 

Robinson is Bro^ do 51 $6 ' 

Baker & Doty, do 13 21^ 

Alden is Holt, do 41 50^ 

Jerry Crowley, da 130 40 

D C Brown, do 68 50 

Beeson ds Thomas, do tO 

F J Mills, do 57 50 

A J Ellis, publishing, 5 05 

do 19, Stevens is R<^;ei8, do 5 05 

^ 28, John A Brown, do 9 36 

do 23, Bumside <fe Co, do 6 05 

do 24, AMarst^hner, newspapei% 50 

Butts is Schuff, do 66 25 



88 

Ckim. Allowed, 

▲ptil 25, Reed <fe Nevitt, pabliahiDg, 5 05 

do S8, G Orabi, newspapers, 22 50 

do 81, Bfifis C Ghaney, paUiBhing, 9 30 

Cover dp Goldunithi do 5 05 

J A Smith, do 9 45 

May 1, J B Redfield, newspapers, 5 55 

John Walworth, do in. 1858, 3 

do do do Y 

do* 4, Bojal Bnck, do 80 08 

Miner <fe Skinner, do 14 08 47 46 

Charles Boesser, do §46 

do 5, C W Fitch, do 13 

J Wright^ do 24 

do 15, KB Wentworth, do 69 15 

Jane 27, Hurd <fe Johnson, do 1 75 

DanC Brown, do 11 45 

Su\y 14, Joachim <& Co, publishiDg, ' 5 05 

< y Kohlman, newspapers, 48 04 

< do 15, R A Bird, do 6 50 

R W Lansing, paging a&d indeiing I 

enrolled kws, <Sco 264 

John N Jones, postage, 242 63 

> Hnrd <fe Johnson, publishing, 8 6 5 _ 
Aflgilsfc 4, Shoeffler & Wendt^ do for legislature, 772 54 644 78^"^ 

do do do 1,267 62 1,012 10 

' ' do do do 15 

FFratnej, do for legiihture, 1,267 62 1,012 10 

do do 767 30 639 60 

do do 15 

Yoita Napestek, newspapers, "TirBV 

do 12, B Brown, printing for Bank Comptroller, .61 i40 

OttV 10, Weed & Eberhard, books for <lo do 972 

.do 7, John N Jones, postage, 408 60 

tdo: 25, Reed <fe Nevitt, newspapers, 64 50 

Ifosr'f 29, J Wright, publishing, 4 25 

Sspt'r 21, Robinson & Bro, do 8 65 

Oea 26, J M Davidson, safe for Bank Comptroller^ 1,135 

ido 20, A F Pratt^ publishing, 36 25 

( BOHOOL FUJID. 

Jauoiky 4 James H Wells, publishing, 18 20 

do do do 8 60 

'do 5 R R Rawson, appraising, , 111 

DRShailer, do 111 

WO Buck, do 111 



89 

BOHOOIi FDITD. 



Jtn'iy 


10 


H Paul, publishing; 
Jerry Crowley, do 


do 


11 


Joachim A Co, do 


4o 


12 


H D Barron, do 


do 


13 


E C Hull, do 


do 


16 


D C Brown, do 


d* 


21 


FJMilla, do 


do 


25 


Seaton <k Paul, do 


do 


28 


C W Pitch, do 


do 


30 


Ryan <Se Co^ do 
Seed dc Neviti, do 


Feb'nr « 


Stevens <fe Rogers, do 


do 


7 


Qeo Ghde, appraising, 
D M West, do 
Milton Barlow, do 


do 


8 


Schoeffler <k Wendt, publiahisg, 


do 


10 


Charles Roeoser, do 
J A Hadley, do 




V 


Winnebago County, balance due the county 
on old appraisal, 


do 


12 


John A Brown, publishing, 


do 


14 


P D Marshal], appraising, 
H Calkins, do 
J Barnard, do 
A S Weston, do 
A Weston, do 
Indian George, do 


F«b'i7 


14 


H P Holmes^ appraising, 
W White, do 
Asa Lawrence, do 


Ao 


16 


Qeo W Taggart, do 


ao 


11 


Calemet Co. balance do 


do 


18 


Fratney A Herzberg, publishing. 


do 


22 


Stereos <k Rogers, do 


Ifaich 


I 


Weed & Eberhard, binding. 


do 


2 


B Brfewn, printing. 


do 


3 


H D Barron, publishing, 
W B Shaver, do 


do 


8 


Wm E Cramer, do 
E Beeson, do 
A Stellis, do 


do 


10 


Robinson <fe Bra, do 


do 


24 


A Whittemore i Co^ binding, 

D M Seaver, platting and re^rdiog appraisal 


da 


90 


Weed <fe Eberhard, binding, 


¥•7* 




Royal Buck, pabliahing^ 



Oklin, AJkmH 



U M 



40 



7 


6 


» 


16 26 


8 10 


8 


18 70 


17 80 


6 SO 


9 68 


14 80 


10 80 


15 


20 


15 


8 00 


7 00 


9 20 


168 26 


8 


60 


92 60 


76 


12 50 


7 60 


9 


25 60 


43 50 


78 


216 


581 12 


25 90 


6 


44 


S92 40 


8 65 


4 


97 85 


9 60 


7 20 


3 60 


25 


163 89 


77 


12 M 



40 



SCHOOL FUND. 



June 29 

do 80 

fleptV 21 

^o 25 
do 80 



Beriah Brown, pHntiog blanks, 
BrowD county, balance appraising, 
W W WillDrd, selecting land, 
Jas Murdock, do do 
Beriah Brown, printing, 



Wm E McMichael, ' do" 

Jerry Crowley, do 

BFWilsod, do 

E C Hull, do 

Cover A Harrison, do 

Ryan & Co, do 

8 W Smith & Co, do 

Wm C Rogers & Co, do 

Jacob QuintUB, do 

Weed <k Eberhard, do 

S Fields, do 

Henry Neall, do 

Peter Little, do 

Benj Allen, do 

Cyrus A Allen, do 

James Porter, do 

B F Hicks, do 

Hiram Calkins, do 

Joseph Barnard, do 

P D Marshall, do 

Hiram Calkins, do 

Wm C McMichael, do 
•ept'r 80 "^ACHolt^ printing, 

D C Brown, do 

J Dartt, do 

John A Brown, do 

Hnrd & Johnson, do 

Edward Lees, do 

Dee. 9 Robinson <fe Bro, publishing, 

do 7 Sam'l Ryan, do 

4o 15 Thomas <lc Reed, do 

A C Holt, do 

KoT. 80 OJWriffht^ do 

Gray & Nimmooks, do 

Wm C Rogers, do 

Stoat & Tenney, do 

R L Gore^ do 

Beriah Brown, do 

SCHOOL FUND HfTOOIiIE. 

March 11 D M Shaver, platting & recordlDg appraisali 
do 24 OhasGMajersy do do do 



Claim. Allowed. 

645 
136 50 
182 
141 
320 
18 IS 
42 IS 
315 
1 25 
4 25 
4 25 
55 26 
48 75 
8 25 
1,564 50 
162 50 
10 
80 
262 50 
157 50 
142 50 
15 
85 
55 
85 
81 

18 75 
i 25 
81 25 
31 

10 00 
18 80 
480 
10 
4 



10 25 



25 

8 75 

5 20 

14 75 

17 25 



45 
25 
25 



107 50 

S66de 
241 50 



41 



TmiVSUSITT ruiTD. 



April 22 LorenjBO FreBton, appraising, 

T Overton, do 

KoY. 6 Weed & Eberhard, binding, &c., 



15 
20 
28 



xzFsarssB. 



The expenses of the State on account of the General Fand bj 
Yirtne of permanent provisions of law for appropriation's of the Leg- 
islature, and accounts audited durixKg the fiscal year ending this 
daj, are as follows. 

The first column shows the amount of such liabilities for 1854. 
The second for other years, and the third the total amount 
thereof. 



mind InatUuie, 

Appropriation^. 

CvpUolLandi, 

Aocouo ts Audited^ 

Ocnlingent Expenaen. 

Permaoeot ApproprUtioaa... 

Appropriatioo8k 

AccoanU Audited^ 

lUaf and Dumb. 

Approprimtion, 

DocuiMnUry SMorg, 

Apprcfpriatioa. 

SmigrarU Agemsff, 

Permanent Appropriation,.. 
€Mogieal Smvey, 

Pennanent AppropriatioBa,.. 
impMeAmmt Trim. 

Appropriationa» 

Aeoonnta Aaditad,. 

LtguiaHve JBxperuet. 

Permanent Appropriation^.. 

Appropriation% 

Acceanta Audited^^ 

Ijumatie Asgium. 

Appropriation^ 

Printinff, 

Appropriationa, 

Aeeonnta Anditod^ 

PMUking. 

Appropriadont,. 

Aeeonnts Aoditad. 

Salaries. 

Permanent Ai^m>piiatieii%. . 
Byline LaiuU. 

Appropriationfl, 

6 



9,500 


6,000 




341 


IdOO 
15,134 70 

i;»6 


9314 68 
13 


6,500 


3,500 


800 


400 


3,800 




2,500 






9^71 11 
85 30 


38.356 30 
36,375 30 
13.673 19 


59 60 

537 83 

73 50 


15.000 




16 40 


5,947 64 


871 65 


31 


96^17 






445 



15,500 
341 

37.397 38 
9,000 
1;900 
%800 

3,500 

9,456 41 

77,974 73 
15,000 

6^009 04 

903 65 
36^004 17 
44S 



42 



8taU AffrieuUural Soeidjf. 

Appropiiation^. 

StaU ffittorical Society, 

Permanent Apmx>pmtion,.. 
aUOeLoan, 

Interest,- 

State Pruon. 

Appropriations^. . ^ 
State Pruoner.y, 

State Jdoade. 

Appropriations^ •••... 

Stationenf, 

Appropri«tionR 

Traveling JEmigrafd Agency. 

Appropriation, 

Wieeonsin Tcrriiuiry, 

Appropriations,. 

Supreme Court Reporter, 

Permanent Appropriation, . 



a^ooo 

500 

35,000 



583 33 



1,875 

7,500 
7,603 08 
3^58 06 

317 
illl 91 
1,350 
9^163 39 



f63,696 03 



4,875 

ftOO 
7,500 
42,603 08 
3,058 06 

317 
4411 91 
1^0 
9,963 38 

583 33 



1264,699 07 



f200.996 04 

The expenses of the State Govermnent for each year from ita 
organization to the present time are shown in the Statement here- 
with marked " B." 

EXPENDITUBE8. 

The expenditures from the State Treasury during the fiscal year, 
on account of all of the funds hare already been shown in the 
statements of the dilSerent funds. 

Herewith, marked ^^D," will be found detailed estimates of ex- 
penses to be defrayed from the treasury daring the ensuing year, 
amounting in the aggregate to the sum of $258,059 52, which 
may be embraced under the following heads, to wit : 

Salaries, ..... Sa,660 

Permanent Appropriations, - • 8,200 

Legislative Expenses, - - * - 27,026 

Miscellaneous, . . • . 162,138 

SKVKN UKB'. 

The revenues of the State applicable to the payment of liabili- 
ties and expenses during the ensuing year are as follows : 
Arrearages due from Banks, - - 8,706 25 

<< ^' " Counties as per statement 
herewith marked ^'E** • - 15,078 16 

Ditto dae from Clerks of Courts aa per 

itatementherewith marked "A'' - 1,817 50 



4» 



Iowa Oonaty Ord9is> 


800 00 


Tax on Snita, ettimatod 


- 1,400 00 


State Tax of 1854, as per statement 




herewith marked "F" 


225,000 00 


Bank Tax, estimated 


- 80,000 00 


Hawkers and Pedlars, " 


2,000 00 


Kail Eoad Tax, " 


- 8,000 00 


Plank Eoad « " 


1,000 00 


Canal Land Mortgages " 


• 1,000 00 



$288,826 91 

By reference to the estiinated expense of the State for the year 
1855 as before shown, it will be seen that the above estimate of 
Kevenue exceeds that of Expenses, by the sum of $35,767 89. 

EQUALIZATION OF STATE TAX. 

in pBTsuance of the Abt of the Legtslatnre approred April 1 
1854, the State Board of Eqaalizieition assembled at the Oapitol on 
tibie third Monday of September: 

Present, the Goremor, Lient. Q-ovemor, Secretary of State, 
State Treasurer, Attorney General, and State Snperintendent 

On the 2l8t an eqtiallization was established, a statement of 
which will be found in tabular form in the document annexed' 
marked 'T". 

The board were somewhat eml^^rrassed in their efforts to arriye 
a|; an eq[aitable apportionment of the tax to the several countieSj^ 
from a failure on the, part of about one half of them to make the. 
retains required by the Act Xaking the imperfect returns of 
previous years, and such as were made for the present year, (the 
latter not all made in conformity with law,) as the basis of their 
action, they were obliged to draw more largely than they desired 
upon the discretion allowed them ; and from these and ^^the best 
Bourcea of information within their reach," an apportionment was 
determined which if not strictly just to all the counties, they hope 
is aa nearly so as circumstancea would permit 



No proTision is made by the Act for enforcing returns firom 
Town, Village, and City Assessors, and it is respectfully suggested 
that it be amended in tliat particular. 

Heretofore, propositions have been under consideration in the 
Legislature, having in view the adoption of a system of assess- 
ment, by which valuations more nearly approaching the full cash 
value of property assessed might be obtained; but no definite 
action in this respect has as yet been had. Could the Board of 
Equalization have the advantage of complete returns from the 
Counties, exhibiting fair valuations of property, the apportion- 
ment of the State tax would require little or no exercise of dis* 
cretionary power, and the purposes of the Act referred to would 
be as fully attained as possible. 

PUBLIC PRUmNG. 

Advertisements "for sealedproposals for doing at the seat of Qor- 
ehiment all printing authorized and required by the Legislature 
for their use, or for the State in all the several departments there- 
of," having been duly made according to law, on the 2d day of July 
last, the bids received, were opened in the presence of the Got* 
emor and the Attorney General. After consideration, on the 6th 
day of July, James Densmore, of Eenosha, was decided by the 
Secretary to be the lowest and best bidder, and the contract was 
accordingly awarded to said Densmore, who was immediately no- 
tified to that effect. From this decision, another of the bidders, 
Beriah Brown, took an appeal under section 24, of the Act of 1852, 
l^lating to printing, to the GK)vernor, State Treasurer and Attorney 
General, who after review and examination of the bids, decided 
the appeal in his favor. The grounds upon which their decision 
is based, will be found stated at length in a communication to this- 
office, a copy of which will be found in the Appendix to this 
report, marked " G.'' 

The contract having been awarded to Mr. Brown, he executed 
the bond required by law, " for the faithful performance of the du- 
ties assigned him," which bond, having been approved by the 
Governor, is now on file in this office. 



45 

An abstract of the eeyeral bids is hereto annexed, marked ^'H. " 

Section 8, of the Act of iy52, before referred to, provides for 
the form of the advertisement for proposals, stating in detail the 
specifications to be required. This section was amended by chap- 
ter 48 of the laws of last session, but the language of the amend- 
ment is ambignous, and has occasioned difficulty to bidders. 

The specifications required to be made, should be more distinct- 
ly stated, in order that forms of bids may be framed without the 
aid of any arbitrary construction. 

An Act of the laat legislature for the publication of the general 
laws, approved on the let day of April, required their publication, 
if at all, within two months from the adjournment of the legisla- 
ture. The price for such publication being fixed in the Act at the 
sum of thirty dollars — a compensation absurdlv inadequate for the 
printing of between five and six hundred folios of matter — ^a cii- 
calar was addressed, immediately after the adjournment of the 
legislature to the several newspaper publishers of the State, stating 
the amount of matter to be published, and the compensation, to 
ascertain if any would undertake the work on the terms prescribed 
Answers were received at this office from about one third of the 
number of publishers in the State, of which proportion a majority 
rejected the proposition. Had the Act referred to been passed at 
an early period of the session, the copy of laws could been fur- 
nished in time to complete tiie publication within two months from 
the adjoamment« After waiting a sufficient time for replies from 
publishers, there remained leds than six weeks for the performance 
of the work by such as accepted. Under the circumstances the 
copy could not be prepared and forwarded, and the publication 
completed within the time prescribed in the Act, at least not with- 
out incurring much extra expense at this offii^e, to supply even 
tiie limited number that accepted the proposition of the legisla- 
ture ; andas only a very partial publication would be effected, it 
was thought proper not to fumidi the copy to any. 



46 

BXJXmOKS. 

During the year elections for Jadge have been held in the Third, 
Seventh, Eighth and 2iinth Judicial Circuits, and in the several 
Congressional Districts, for Bepresentatives in Congress, The 
qnestion of amending the constitution, according to the Act of 
1853, was duly submitted to thie people at the November electioo. 

In the third Judicial Circuit, Charles H. Larrabee was elected 
Judge. ' 

In the seventh, George W. Oate. 

In the eighth, S. S. K Fuller. 

In the ninth, Alexander L. Collins. 

In the first Oongressioxial District, Danid Wells, Jr., was elect- 
ed Representative. 

In the second, Oadwallader C. Washburn. 

In the third, Charles Biilinghurst. 
' The vote upon the subject of ^tmending the constitution, will be 
found in a tabular statement hereto annexed, and marked "I." 

The propriety of providing for the publication of the eleoiioii 
laws in pamphlet form, and for the preparation of Blank foribs for 
the guidance of inspectors and clerks of election, is respectfully 
submitted. 

Many irregularities and informalities occur at every eledaoo, 
which might be avoided were such provision made, and the eH- 
pense would be inconsiderable in view of the order, regularity, 
titii certainty in conducting and making returns of election which 
would thus in a great degree be insured. 

The preparation for such a publication oould be easily made in 
this office, and the pamphlets containing the matter suggested^ dis- 
tributed to the several towtis and wards of the State. 

NEWSPAPEES. 

The attention of the Legislature is requested, to the matter of 
expenditure for newspapers. The entire amount expended, as e!s- 
hibited in accounts audited, for newspapers furnished the ladt 
Legislature is $6^071 32. The consequent expense d postage is 



4r 

estimated at $4)124 78, making in all an amount of $10,196 00 
expended, cliai*geable to the newspaper account. The ezpendi-* 
tures of the last Legislature in this particular, are not cited as 
more remarkable than those of its predecessors, but because of 
their being more readily ascertained. A practice which com- 
menced under our Territorial Government has been continued from 
year to year, and with the increase in the number of members of 
the Assembly and Senate has become the source of a very consid- 
erable item in our State expense. 

UrSITKiNOE OOICPANIES. 

"An Act to provide for the incorporation of Insurance Compa- 
nies," approved February 9, 1850, requires in section 7, that any 
company incorporated by other States, before taking risks or trans- 
acting any business of insurance in this State, shall file a statement 
with the Secretary of State, under oath of the President and Sec- 
retary of the company, showing the amount of its capital, the 
manner, in detail, of its investment, and whether such capital is 
unpaid or not, and if unpaid, how much, and if there is satisfacto- 
ry evidence of the solvency of the company, then a certificate of 
authority is to be issued from this oflice, to the agent filing the 
statement, to take risks. A like statement is to be filed annually, 
and a like certificate of license to be procure(f, in the month of 
January in each year. 

These provisions have been almost entirely disregarded, and In- 
surance Comrapanies organized under the laws of other states are 
daily issuing policies in this State, without authority of law. 

The subject is one which seems to demand the attention of the 
Legislature, and the passage of an act amendatory of the act of 
1850, providing more stringent regulations and also Euitable pen- 
alties for the government of the business of insurance, so far as it 
relates to foreign companies. There may be also further provision 
required for the regulation of Insurance Companies organized in 
our own State, and the whole subject is suggested as proper for 
your consideration. 



4B 

BBOIBTBATlbN OF 3IABBUOSCk 

The act upon the rfbove sabject^ approved in 1852, is a dead let- 
ter; and it might be well for the Legislature to consider whether 
it should not be repealed. The Eegistration provided for by might 
be just as well kept in the countj offices, and there does notseem 
to be any neccessity for encumbering the files of this office with 
Hie great number of documents which would annually accumulatei 
were there a strict conformity to the act. 

' All of which is respectfully submitted. 

ALEXANDER T. GRAY, 

Secretary of Stflib*- 



APPEND.IX, 



«A " 



An Abstracfc' showing the Acoonnts of the several ClerkB of the 
Circuit Court pt the State of Wisconsin, December, 80,' 1864. 

. LATE CLKBK3. Dr. Or. 



J. Arnrtld 


Columbia • 


$9 00 


H. Baldwin 


Or«wft>rd 


47. 00 


S. G. Bngh> • 


LaFay«tt« 


44 00 


Joseph 'Bowron 
W. H. Besiy 


St. Cjfoix ! 


«1 00 


Jeffencm 


U 00. 


•>" E.B. Clark 


PortMpe '■ 




<■• -R. P. Clement 


e««fc .' 


2 00 


W. M. Dennis 


Dodge 


19 00 


F. D. Hawes 


Marquette 


la.ooi 


1 .. "Obas. R. Hollenbeck 


Rock 


so 00 


- - W. Johnson 


Marquette 


8 00 


■ iD< Jolinaon • > " 


Jackson 


19 00 


0. R. Knight 
..^.. David F.Kia^JtU... 


St.Djtoix 


20 00 


.Roc^, 


, 8 00 


John Last 


Browui , 


.25 00 


. . Henry Merrill 
i ,<3t. W. MitoheU 


Columbia 


3 00 


Porti^e . . 


3 00 


H. F. Pelton 


Jefferson 


128 00 


i 1. a Parker, 


Racipe' ;, 


• ' 98 00 


i ' Cl\d3. A. JJeht*r 


Manitowoc 


TOO, 


J. 0. Jqttires 


. Grant .. 


4 00 


• ' 'P.'P.Snlith 


Manitowoc • 


10 00 


' 16..B. Tliomas " 


CrAwford 


9 00 


H.:K. White . 


iiilwaoikete 


102 00 


;■ I,^thu«l Yi[hite 


Waukesha 


1 00 


I'RBBKMT'OLBBES. 






. E- U. Baldwin 


Winnebago , , , 


181 «0 


A. W. D^Ianey ' 


Columbia! 


; «1VQ0 


J. J T>rijrg» 1 


F(i«id.dn Lac 




. "D "•Der mey 


Jfarqnette 


91 00 


i- H-livjUge;- ■■ •- r, ; 


Bt.Cwx „ ,-, 


, 8 00 


H. S. Egglesion 
7 


Outagamie 





ip 00 



n/. 



'M 
.,•1 

- II 



64: 00, 



11 0« 



50 



FBK8ENT CLERKS. 

A. H Edwards 
Isaac Freeland 
Cbas. Qruning 
J. Hutchinson 
N. W. Kendall 
D. W. Kyle 
M. Keenan 
S G. Knight 
C. Lum 
P. Loqney 
W. 0. McMichael 
George Merlins 
John Mchols 
N. Phelps 
Wm. H. Pettit 
John Stumpf 
A. B. Slaughter 
L. F. Towsiey 
P. Toland 
F. Ulbricli 

Total 
Balance due 



Sheboygan 

Polk 

Calumet 

Iowa 

Grant 
La Fayette 
'Milwaukee 
Eacine 
Dane 
La Cross 
BadAj( 
Sauk 
Eock 
Green 
Walworth 
P(»rtage 
Sicbland 
Ozaukee 
TVasbington 
Manitowoc 



Dr. 

18 50 
4 00 
22 00 
80 00 
61 00 
102 00 
13 00 
45 00 
.7 00 
33 QO 
12 00 
11 00 

102 00 
114 00 

40 00 
& 00 

24 00 



Cr. 



201 00 



6 00 
S 00 



$16SS 50 

$183T 50 



«B." 



$1632 50 $16S2 60 



An abstract of the expenses of the State Government from its or- 
ganization up to the year 1864. 



Blinds 

Contingeot EzpfDtee. 



Deaf and DumI 
DoeumeutZTj HUiory. 

EmigraDi Agencjr^ 

Geological Surv ^^ 

ImpeBchroent Tnal . . 

L«gialatiTa Kxpeoses 1 

PriDtingand Fubllshing.. 

Salaries 

Stata Agricultural Society 

StaUPnaoD - 

Stata PriiK>Der&^....f.... 
State and Saline Lands.. 

WiScMietn Territorj 

Stationery .•».*«... 

^ ■■ . < > 



1848-9. 



5,874 29 



53.339 54 

7,716 85 

18,116 53 



1,790 61 
1,914 75 
3339 55 
1,999 19 



94.071 31 



1850. 



1,823 47 
26,130 26 



14.372 
8.793 44 
13.592 33 



2319 27 
1.113 38 
2^12 39 
1.2X8 84 



1851. 



5,000 
23,063 49 



J l85a 



35,988 27 
10J45 33 
15,068 56 



5,000 
4,042 71 

834 
11.023 15 



4,500 
14.502 09 
3.508 
1,000 
3,800 



45^06 88 
10.907 10 
15,772 21 

50Q 

16,389 $0 

4,340 01 

14 

1,987 56 

854^ 



2.500 
18,965 15 

1500 

1,200 

5.300 

2.5QP 

2.704 10 
67.353 49 
li^,3]0 03 
23.491 

1,000 
13.250 

1,783 05 



('3,043 76 



71.675 38 1 112,420 80| 123,474 06 163,910 58| 



51. 

Estimate of the expemea of the State for the year 1854 for which 
no jprovieion has been mrtde. ■ ' ' 

J. P. Birchard for furniture - - - 1,«00 " 
Documentary History -. * • - 13^000 i 



J. M. B. Davidson safe for Governor 
State Printer, Laws and Journals 
Sundry Accounts for Statloiiery 
Sundry accounts 
Clerk nire 



1,135 
3,000 
1,500 
IJOOO 
2,000 



Welstead, Hays, Hanks & Whiting, engraving 110 80 

^ 23,045r80 

Estimate of Eepenses to he defrayed from the Troasury for the 
year 1855. ^ 

1. Salabibs. i 



Governor 


1,260 


Private Secretary 


1,000 


Secretary "of State 


1,200 


Assistant do 


1,000 


State Treasurer 


800 


Assistant do 


1,000 


Attorney General 


800 


State Superintendent 


1,000. - 


Assistant do" 


800 , 


Oomptroller 


2,000 , 


Deputy do 


1,000 ' 


Librariiln 


1,000 


9 Jii4ges Circuit Court at $1,500 


13,500: 


3 Justices Supreme Court at $2,0Q0 


6,000 


Adjutent General 


300 


S3,950 00 I 


2. PEKUANEifrr Afpbopbiatxohb. 


' 


Contingent Expenses of Governor's Office 


600 - 


Traveling expenses of State Superintendent, 


«00 


Oeoloaieal Survey 
State Historical Society 


8,500 ' 


600 


SupjFemo Court Beporter 
State Agricultural Society 


1,000 . 


3,000 



8,200 



S2 

3. LbGISLYTIVE EXPEKSES. 

Chief Clerks of each House $1,600 . . 8,200 

Mileage by Estimate . ;. 1,900' < 

Per diem of 107 members 60 days "'. » . • 13,335, ; ^ ' 

Presid/ent of the Senate/ . . . , , ■ j . -^ ^^;.-i 
Speaker,, Speaker pro tem of tbftvA^QmUy . 
and President pro tem of the Senate * ' 876' 



* ' ' " ' 19,025 

The payment of the foregoing is provided for by permanent ap- 
propropriations. ' 

Postage Estimated at ' l^OOOi • v 

Incidental Printing do 5,000 

Stationery for next Legislature do S,000 ' 



•. i ... §,009 A. 

•• . .r < 

< ■.[ 4. MlBCKLLAWEOUS. 'i .'• • 

Stationery for Offices ' . .ii- ^ 2,000 *- 

Contingent expenses and repairs '' 10,000 " 

Institute for the Blind 1854 ' fififlO.. i ] 

Do ' lestimated for support for 1856 :4,0d0> ' "i 

Do hr the Deaf & pumh'appfh 1834^ ^ 2,500 ' 
Do/ 'estimate for 1^65 " '' ' "'^^ '' "" ' "'^4,000'' ; 
Interest on State Loan 7,600 

Lnndtic AsJ^lum 20,000 

Postage . ' , ". :. .;. , .. . '. 1,000 

State-Prison '-i-''^--- 'v/. i'»*-... ,. ',.'^ - ^i: ; 

Indeh^edness for Prisonei'S •. . , , . ^ , ;17,13i8, X2 

A South Wing ' • • ;' >• rrS^OOO!. " 

i)upport' for 1865 ' : .' ' '10;000\., 

. L.' 162,138 72 



^3 



BBaAfIXDIiA.TIQB. 



Sakries ^ 32,86000 

PefhianentAppropriations, 8^200 00 

Legislative Expenses, > 19,025 00 

Mucellaneous, '"' , 163,138 72 



Total, , 'I 230,013 72 

^Estimate Tnark*d «0" ' ': 23,045 80 



253,059 52 



•«E." 



Abstract 6/ a/rrearagea due from 


Counfies, D«eember 30, 1854. 


Breiyn Oounty- 


1,116 14 


lowa 


. ; • 521 33 


Kewaunee 


822 12 


- La Gix)38e ..:,:; 


; 289.73 


La i'ayette ■ ' ■ '- 


i,7ia 36 


LaPoiate 


25 48 


- Marathon 


, ' . • 1,066 88 


- Hpwauke© " - '-^ 


; .- . 4,418 63 


■ Oconto . . 


. ' ■ V i :- 779-74 


• Onta^amie ' r . f; 


I ': i " 1,445 87 


• . Ozaukee" -■' " . 


; ; i ". 253 03 


Pierqe 


.*~ ■ 165 70 


i. - .Portagel ' . _ - . .- . 


' ■ - 1,485 68 


. . jstrcroix . .,,.-. ._ : . -. ■ 


I ;._ .: ^ 672 99 


:.,- ;Stfiik- • : '.'■'-"■ -'■ '■" ■ '"■ 


'■. ■ -' - , ' -352 18 


': -Wat^aeca .;/-.-; 


1 ■ :. ■ • ' 202 84 


■'■■,;. ■.■Wavtsharii ;. • _ ■;.-•''■ 


• i. . _ : 196 66 


Winnebago . 


---'■■■ '' .40. • 



Total : i • $16,073 16 



54 



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58 

tte bid is resorted to, to know what are the conditions of the bond 
' — for the bid is the basis of the bond. 

If then Mr. Densmore should refuse to bind, fold, or stitch auy 
document, law or pamphlet, would tlie State have any remedy on 
his bond ? ' "We think not. He might reply, "I bid and bound 
myself to fold, stitch, bind, and cover, &c., according to the re- 
quirements of law for each volume, document, or piece 2 cents, 
but at the time of making the bid, there was no law requiring 
laws or pamphlets to be, folded, stitched or covered." Thi« we 
believe would be a good defence to the bond. Thus it. is clear 
that whether to bind or cover, or even to stitch or fold any vol- 
ume, document or piece would be left entirely to his discretion, 
under his bid, and we cannot think that such was the intention of 
' the law, or that we would be doing right to leave so imperfect a 
inatter to the discretion of a public printer. 

The law has provided in what terms the bid should be made, 
and that the successful bidder should give a bond to do the work 
according to bis bid. If the bid is not in compliance with the law, 
it is in contemplation of law no bid, and a bond execuled upon 
5uch bid would not secare to the State a faithful perfi>rxiiance:of 
the public printing. 

Mr. Brown's bid is specific and certain. The bond he is to give 
will bind him to execute the work according to his bid, and -if he 
should fail to do so, the State will have a complete remedy on Ma 
"bond. 

We come now to consider the two bids of Mr. Brown and Mr. 
.Densmore, as if there was no objection to the foroLof either, and 
.tp dispover which of the two is the lower. To this end we insert 
. 1^ OQpy rof each. 



Composition, 15 cents per thousand ^ms. Pl^ess work, 16 tefOka 
per token. Paper, 18 by 24 inches in size, of the quality of the 
gamples in the Secretary's 6flice, 16 cents per quire. All other 
paper used in incidental printing, 15 cents per quire. ^ Fol^iig 



59 

'and stitching, 50 cents per 10{X Binding in pasteboard covers, 
with sheep corners and backs, 15 cents per volume. Blanks, 50 
;Qaot8 per quire. 

DENSMOKK's BID. 

Composition a thousand, fifteen cents. Press work a token, 
eighteen cents. Folding, stitching, binding, covering, &c., accord- 
ibg to the reqilirements Of law, for each volume, documemt or 
piece, two cents: Paper, (qnality corresponding to the specltica- 
tions on file) eighteen by twenty 'four inches in size, a quire, fifteen 
.owtfi. Blimks A qoirey twenty cants. 

For the purpose of the ezami^ation, we will adopt the estimate 
of printing made by the. Secretaiy of State, wh^n the ca^e w^ 
befoire him, adding only such items as he has omitted^ apid su)qh 
<ithfir& |l^ the law has added. 

Estimate and figmres made by the Secretary on Mr. Brown's bid: 

Composition 13,103 Ems, IScts; 1,465 30 

Press Work 6,130 Tokens 16 do 019 M 

Paper 29,542 Quires 16 do 4,431 30 

Covering 100,000 Copies 50 do per 100 500 00 

Binding 14,500 Yolnn^^slS do 2,175 00 

Blanks 750 Quires 375 00 

' |il0,356 10 

Estimate and figures on Mr. Densmore's bid. 

Composition 18,102 Ems ' 15 cts $1,965 80 

Press Work 6,130 Tokens 18 do 1,103 40 

Paper 29,542 Quires 16 do 4,43180 

- Covering 100,000 3 do 3,000 00 

. Binding 14,500 2 do 2^0 00 

Blanks 760 Qufres 3 do 160 00 



. $9,940 PO 
ItwiVbeseen that, ^ Secretary by this estimate makes 3i(r. 
Densmore's bill $416 10 less than Mr. Brown's. The bids are t)ie 
flame as to composition and paper. Mr., Brown's is $183 90 less 
onPres* Work,, and fifteen hnnclred doU^ less on the item of 
'^covering." On the item of ^Tjinding," Mr.^ Densmore's bid is $290, 
and Mr. BrowH^s $2',175, and If the laws and journals should be 



covered with paper as heretofore^ Mr. Browa'fl bid would b^. near- 
ly two thousand dollars lower. 

The estimate of work and the calculation made by the Secretary 
of State are based on the amount of work done during the last 
year, and he has omitted entirely the item of bills /urniehed for the 
two houses of the J^Qgislature, most of which ar^ to be folded, and 
many folded and stitched, for which Mr. Pensmore's bid would give 
him two cents a piece, while Mr. Brown's would give 50 cta^ per 
100 or one half cent a piece. 

Last winter there were oho htmdred and seventy-four printed 
bills introduced into both branches of the Legislature, and 250 
copies of each bill ordered. This would make 43,600 piecefe for 
the folding and stitching of which Mr. Densmore would receive 
two cents a piece, and this item alone would add to his bill $8T©, 
and only 8217 50 to Mr; Brown's, leaving a<iiff<6r^n«e in his fiivor 
on this item not included in the Estimate of the Secretary of 
$558,00, and making Mr. Brown's bid $137 less than Mr. Dens- 
* zpore's. 

"' The number of printed bills last winter was unusually small, not 
mor^ than half as many a^ the year before. It will doubtless be 
. greater during the coming two years, and as the number of pieces 
to be either fulde^.or stitched, pcireases, so much greater is the 
.di^eijence in favor of Mr. Brown's bid. , 

There will be more -r:epqrts this year than last, ani on all such 
: work. Mr. Brown's bid.is very much the lowest. 

.,. We are unanimously of the opiiiion, therefore, that eyenif Mr. 
Densmore's bid were in compliance with the law, the bid of Mr. 
"Brown is the lowest and best bid. And we have for the reasons 
libove stated awarded to hini the printing of the State for the 
years 1855 and 1856" " ' ' . i . - - .'•* 

' WM. A.BAlJSTdW,,iaovernor. V 
EDWAED H. JANSSEK, State Treasurer. 
^GEORGE B.SMITH, Att'y General. 



61 

Ahtract of proposals received ly the Secretary of State for doing 
the State printing for the years 1855 and 1856. . 

1. J. T. MAftmt>N & Co. 

"Composition 14 cents per 1000 ems. Press work 20 cents peif. 
token. Paper medinin size and for all less sizes and in any class 
of work and of quality required lO- cents' per quire. Folding, 
stitching and binding in manner and quality required. 6 1-4 (M^ts 
per volume cir'copy.. Blanks per q^uire. including paper 28. cents 
per Onire.*' • . . 

"Composition per 1000 ems 15 cents. Press work per token 18 
cents. Folding per qi^lM S cerrls: * Stitcbing per quire 2 cents, 
cov^ing, according to tbe irequirem^nts of Iaw^^ per copy of ejich 
volume or doeu^ie^t iS penta. Paper, quality , cQrxespoflding wit^ 
tbe specimen on . file ^8x24 inciea in size, p§|:^quire 15 c^litskrr 
Blanks per quife 20 cents." I . ^ .,. ; , 

' • '■ ' '3. JAMti D^NSMOBE. 

..•;.. ^ .- ... . .■..> \ • I. . .•■, . .,,.'■ :. ■ -•• ..•! 

<'Pap)po4^Qnia. tbp9fiau4'!^^ cei%t% PrM3 .wiork.a tnbsa 18 «eent8l 
Folding, stitcbing, bin(ii^g>.G|i^veringv; dte,^ docioirdingito tberiaV 
quirements of law for each volame, document or piece 2 cents.^ ^ 
Paper, quality corresponding ^o the specification on file 18x24 
inches iii size, a quire 9^ ceflte, JBRj|nJcs»a quixer.2Q.ceQtft. ,• 

'• /-: ■> -• ; ^^. .'.'••.':,; • ^ ' '• . !.•! '"1 

4, g. O, SHOLES. 

.^ .ftCkAiipoiitli©^ p^ lOOO^ em€^, O-cebtei * Press wcyfk'pfer tokbn' tS 
cents. Folding, stitcbing and binding according' to tbd require'^- 
ments of law, for each vo^^e ,01;, <lpcu|nent folded, stitched or 
bound, 4 cents. Paper^ (quality cojrresponding with Jjeqiiirenowto 
of law anci specimens on file) s^e 1^ ^7,18^^ per q^iiif|o,^ 12 cpnlSj 
BtdUb per tiuire; !&* c^nts.^ ' ' ' ' " 



5. C. LATHAM SnOLES. 

^^Compositioa per thousand ems 18 cts. Press work per token 
20 cts. Pa[;er, (according to specimens on file) size 18 by 24 
inches, per quire 18 cts. Folding, stitching and binding the same 
in accordance with the requirement of the law, for each volume, 
pamphlet or document folded, stitched, or bound 4 cts. Blanka 
per quire 30 cts.'' 

6. OHAHLBS CLEMEITT. 

"Composition, per 1000 ems, 17 cts. Press work, per token, 21 
cts. Paper, per quire, (of the quality offered for inspection) size 
12 by 18*, 16 cts. Folding, stitching and binding, as wanted for 
the legislature, per copy and number^ 4 cts. Blanks, per quire,. 
88 cts. 

T. AfWOOZ> A BtJBUOS. 

"Composition, on first two classes, 18 cts. per 1000 ems. Press 
work, on first two classes, 20 cts. per token. Paper, medium size,, 
and all smaller sizes required, and of qualities required, sixteen 
cts. per quire. Folding, stitching and covering all documents in 
the usual pamphlet style, three cts. per* volume or document 
Folding and binding journals and documents in boards, with lea- 
ther backs and corneni, twenty-five cents per volume or document. 
Blanks, paper included, 40 cents per quire.^ 

8. B. p. m'buoh. 

"Composition, 8 cents per lOOO ems. Press work, 8 cents per 
token. Paper, 18 by 24, and all other kinds specified, according 
to the quality of the samples furnished, 16 cents per quire. Fold- 
ing, 5 cents a hundred. Bindiug, 12 1-2 cents apisoe. Blanks, 
60 cents a quire. 

9. IB. A. OALtnKS. 

*<*Oomposition, lOcents per 1000 ems. Press work, 10 cents p^r 
token. Folding, 6 cents per 100 sheets. Paper, 18 by 24 inches^ 



63 

fiisi quality book, 15 oenta per quire. All otber paper wed 15' 
cents per qnire. Binding, in board with sheop skin backs and 
C07er8, 15 cents a piece. Blanks, 50 cents per qaire." 

10 BERIAH BROAVN. 

^'Composition, 16 cents per 1000 ems. Press work, 15 cents per 
token. Paper, 18 bj 24 inches in size, of the quality of tbe sam- 
ples in the Secretary's office, 15 cents per quire. Folding and 
Btitcbing, 50 cents per 100. Binding in paste board covers, with 
sheep skin comers and backs, 15 cents per Tolome. Blanks, 60 
centa per quire. 

11. F. B. WASD« 

'^ do hereby propose to execute the public printing for the 
State of Wisconsin for the next coming two years, in bang-up style, 
and be the same more or less as the case may be, in any styl0, 
shape, manner and quantity, for the sum of $100,000 per annum. 

13. BUFITS KINO A 00. 

^^Composition, 14 cents per 1000 ems. Press work, 20 cents 
pertoken. . Paper, 18 by 24, 15 cents per quire. Folding, 8 cents 
per volume. Binding, 12 1-2 centa. Blanks, SO cents per quure. 

13« BUFUS KING A CO. 

"Oomposition, 14 cents per 1000 ems. Press work, 18 cents per 
token. Paper, medium size, 15 cents per quire, and same for flat 
cap or other lesser size. Quality as required. Folding, stitching 
and bindidg each copy of every volume or document, five centg 
per volume or copy. Blanks, paper included, 30 cents per quire. 



CiJ >J 



TkABULAR STATEMENlf *koHnnrf ike nufnber of tsyfes polled ai a OeMral 
Election Md in ihe State of Wisconsin^ on Vve Tuatday next succeeding the first 
Mmiday, h^iarjthe 1th day of Kocember^ A. D, 1864, upon the question to amend 
Article 4 of the Coruiiittiion. ■ 



COOXTIEB. 


For" Amendment to 


Against Amendment to 




Sec. 4. 


Sec 5. 


SeclL 


Sec. 4. 


Sec. 5. 


Sec. 11. 


AdomH. 


32 

30 

5 


30 

33 

5 

1 


32 

36 

5 

224 

'i 

4 

51 
356 
171 

260 
1587 
356 
345 
1 
257 

19 

. 1W6 

M 
2 

'.' 35 

31 
2 

"6 

167 
423 

544 

• 262 

7 

3 

8 

55 

6752 


44 

84 
12 

160 

379 

•14 

1442 

734 

817 
67 
19 
94 
58 

302 

162 

258- 

134 

35 

291 

2148 

. 23 

25 

161 

» "■ 

1 .. 

15 

805 

553 

141 

496 
588 
1045 
41 
152 
113 

11580 


4t 

' 85 
12 

160 

• "i 

379 

14 

1450 

723 

.., 817 

240 

170 

99 

SB 

302 

162 

26i. 

iSi 

35 

293 

2148 

24 

25 

161 

. is 

605 

691 
' 142 

• ■ 

496 
585 
1044 
41 
152 
113 


44 


Bad Ax 

Brown ^ 


89 
12 


Buffnlot '. 




Qalmnet-.,,^,-..^,.. 


224 : 224 


1$0 


ChipjH'wat 


'9 

94 

51 

356 

175 

26p 
1611 
462 
367 
I 
264 

. 1017 

14 
2 

34: 

31 

3 

'5 

• ♦ 

•107 

405" 

'i 

544 

264 

67 

9 


9 

94 

51 

348 

89 

» 26Q 

1673 

507 

344 

1 

256 

19 

1009. 

ii 

- i 

31 
2 

'5 

107 

365 

• - 

544 

261 

67 

7 




Columbia 


379 


Crawford 


. 14 


Bane 


1 41 


Dodge 


723 


Doort 




Dou^laast. .......... 




Donnt.; . 4 


. *** 


Fond du Lac ,.. 

• Orant. *.'.;■ ....• 


817 •■ 
159 


Iowa...: 


. Vtf ... 
94 . 


Jefferson 


. .'68' •■ 
301 


Kewauneet - .... 




Kenosha .... 


162 


LaCroBset 




La Fayette ^.^. 

LHPointet.'. 


SM 


l|aoitqvoc.--.!...L.. 


134 ' 


Marathon.. 


35 


'MarouGttek.... J 


2S9' 


Milwaukee 


2148 


Mcnroe 


23 


Ocontot 


25 


Outaf^amiot 


161 


Ozaukeet-.-r.-.-^.M 


' . » *• 


'i'oikn,...» u.. 

rqnii^e. 

JUadoavV .wi . 




pichlandt 


,R<Kflf.. ...•.•...:. . ' ' 


554 • 
140 * 


"StCrrix, ^,,. 

•Sauk'. .?..:.'... 


Shawanaf 




Sheboygan t 

Trempcleaut 

Walworth 


496 


Wafihinf(ton 


585 


Waukesha 


1044 


Waupacc*.-... , 


46 


Wapbara 

WiDDebago 


8 
55 55 

6549 <534P 

. 1 


153 
113 


Total 


11589 


t No retiiTDS. 







ANNUAL REPORT 



OV THB 



STATE TKEASURER, 



OF THX 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, 



FOR THE YEAR 1854^ 



MADISON: 

BBMAH BROWV. PRIITTEK. 
185S. 



BEPOBT OF THE STATE TREASITBEB. 



State TbiasitbibV Quiob, 
HADiBoir, Wi8.| Dec. 80, 1864. 
To the Zegidalure: 

Id confonnitj with the proviflions of law contained in chapter 9, 
of the ^^yised statutes," I hare the honor to submit the annual re*- 
port from this office, showing a complete statement, of the re- 
ceipts and disbursements of the seyeral funds of the state during 
the year eighteen hundred and fifty-four. 

EDWABD H. JAKSSEir, 
State Treasurer. 



• .) 



RiEPORT. . 



GEITERAL PTTND. 



n^T qtjakte:^.' ^ 



xxoxmBb 



Adams County St^teTut, 



BadAx, 

Crawford, 

DSB6^ 

Dodw, 
FoDd dn Lae» 
Onmt, 

KttBMlUy 

LftGroMe, 



do 

i$ 
do. 
«>r 
doi 

4or 

do; 

dt 

do 

dor 

do 



K- 



i/. .71." 

i. 810 

<.1,177 
(16,628 
010,237 
f. 5,554 
t:9,800 
(10,662 
c '4,341 
(15,000 
(;6,72^i 
. :6,207 
•H,620 
i;I8,400 



01 

fill 
2d 

68 

46 
40 

6;^r 

23 
36 



Ml ^' 

46 

52 



1^ 

r 






6 



Marathon, 

Hanitowoei 

llarquettei 

Milwankeo^ 

Oataffamie^ 

Ozaukee 

Badne, 

Bock, 

BichlaDd, 

Sauk, 

8hebojgaB| 

Walworth, 

WaahiDfftoB, 

Wattkesha, 

Waupaoca, 

Waushara, 

Winnebago^ 



4o 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



OoTemort contingent aeoonnt^ 

J. Lehmert, license^ hawker and pedlar, 

If. Schlastenaki, do 

Hiles Jojce, do 

John BTCiael, do 

J. Leviffne, doi 

H. D. Mjman, do 

Samuel Block, do 

Naah A; Co., do 

City Bank, Eenoiha, State Tai^ 

Jefferson Co. Bank, do 

Fanners<kMilWs Bank, do 

Bock Biver Bank, do 

State Bank of Wiaoonnn,do 

Wisconsin Baak^. do 

Wis. M. & F. Us. Co^ Bk.do 

Erie <k Mich, tekgi O^do 

8. Park Ceon, Oatud Udd Mor%ages^ 

E. B. Fisher, i . do 

▲. L. Castlenau^ do 

H. Stansbury,, do 

Jonas Folti, ' do 

Bichard HardeiV do 

Seth Bice, . do 

Harrison Beed[ do 

W. Denney, . do 

John D. McD^Mfldf do 

RXHildraU]^. do 

Onon Beed, do 

Wm. 0. Gi^ do 



400 

3,000 

5,00T 

14,937 

538 

2,131 

7,702 

10,487 

1,143 

3,008 

5,978 

8,835 

3,046 

9,486 

727 

859 

5,092 

776 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

16 

80 

80 

875 

187 

375 

375 

1,125 

375 

75t> 

fill 

6*7 

20b 
190 
10» 
IfiO 
lOi 

10b 

40 
288 

•0 
144 

u 



01 
52 
40 
06 
84 
53 
71 
80 
41 
34 
88 
68 
52 
12 
34 
54 



08 



50 



50 
52 

16 
62 



liBQBDnl!S« 



John A. Ummg^f do 

D. lAttld, do 
R. Uarten, do 
A. Alden, do 
SWM & Edfirioxii do 

E. PeanntB, do 
lLH.Fainenrio6, do 
W. H. Gleaioiiyomr ImI jmt, 
0. D. Gag6» do 

J. Bobinaon, do 

P.Kellj, ; do 

1P^ H. Lander, tax onsoiti^ 



Total, 



1«8M 


no 8t 


^8OT 


24« S4 


820 


288 


«4 50 


6 


38 


80 


80 


38 


l«l^487 8< 



lfjjtf^J H^ ll*^n^r wL 



Ji^T.L«wi8»pNB'tof tkoSioatfl^ - j 

Ben. Allen, do db protem* 

F. W. Horn, Speaker of the AnemMj, 
Wm. HilU do dio protein. 

L. F.Harrej, Member of tbe Senate, 
Jeaift Hooker, do AflBemblt, 

Per diem of 103 memben of &e XiiBig^Utfire; 

each 1207 50, 
UOeageof Ueknbenof LogiflUtave^ • 
Ben. AQen per diem 1858, - 
Atwood A Biown, Appiopz'n 1861 db 1^4,; 
Dkfid Atwood, do do" 

Alden & Holt, audited, • 
John Q. Adatefl per diem 1853, 
Ifichael Amei^ do^ 1803 d( 18M, 
' Oie Aslacben, appropriation, 
B^o^ Biown^ approp'na drau^ted 18S8 d( '54 
Bradford d? Bro. appropriation 
•Oblel Bashfofd per diem 1854, 
BHp <k Chanej, audited, - 
Van C. Brow!n, do - • 

BdcerdfDot}^ do 
7. J. BUdr, a|i>ropriation, - 
BKmds Foster, audited, *. 
Jib. S. Baker, do 
JoliJn Ballard, appropriation l|58| •' 
JAu Bell, per diem, 1858, -; 
Joitn Burke, ^roniiation, «t 
J^litfBnrt, do 

J« Ailen Barkir, per diem, 18««| * 





♦418. 




883,60 




4K'. 




88,118' 




1,«4,40 
IZOr- 




$.847,^34 




m«4 




1180 




45 




197 60 




,60:35 




tjiPS 33 




880.01 




les: 




9, "80 




e'90 




8,^5 




M0« 




1180 


.. 


% 




*« 




i3«!w 




iQl.BO 




4480 



BlBBUXaSMENTS. 

Jdo. a. Brown, nudited, 

Jdo. C. BunDer, do, 

J. F. Birchard, appropriation, 

J. R. Briggg, per diem 1853, 

Harry Barnes, do do - ' 

H. D. Barron, audited, 

Bloornfield & Kop[\ do 

M« H. Bovee, per diem 1854, - -" 

Bugh d; Nimmocks, audited, - 

O. F. Bartlett, per diem 1853, 

Philo BeJden, flo do 

R. A. Bird, audited, 

Reiser Bergatz, appropriation, 

S. G. Bugh, Cbief Clerk Senate, 

8. M. Booth, audited and appropriation, 

Beeeon 6c Thomas, audited, - 

Tim. Burns, per diem 1863, - 

Thoa, S. Bowen, do - - , 

W. A. Barstow, salary, drc, -. . - 

W. A. Bugh, audited, ■" 

W. D. Bacon, per diem 1853,, 

W. P. Barnes, appropriation <fe per diem 18fii3, 

W. H. Besly, witneBS fees, - - . 

W. W. Brown, witness fees and apptopriation, 

Alex. Cook, do - - 

A. F. Cady, appropriations 1853 and 1854, 

Am Ih ColIiDfl^ witneas fees, -' 

Campbell, Brush <kCo., appropriatioo^., ; 

C. B. Coleman, per diem 185^, ' - * 

C. Clement, audited, 
Cbas. E. Chamberlain, per diem 1853,. 

. Darwin Clark, appropriation, ,- ^ - 

I)* Casey, witness fee, - . ' 

D. H. Chandler, do - • ,-" . 
. Enoch Chase, per diem 1853,. ' - 

E. A. Calkins, appropriation, 
. Casey & Fallen, audited, - -[ 
, Oeo. Cogswell, witness fee, - -] 

Geo.W. Oata, per diem 1853, -] 

. Cover & Goldsmith, audited, -~ 

Caiy A Harrison, appropriatioa, 

H. M. Crombie, audited, 

Jolm Crawford, witness fee, - 

Jerry Crowley, audited, - -^ ' 

. J, W. Cary, per diem 1853, -' 

JL M Cothren, salary, 

P. Cofigrove, appropriation, - 



01^ 



05 
13 



5 05- 
e2 50 
1,228 24 
45 
45 

3d 31 
83 45 
45 
. 5 
46 
45 
5 
' 106 
2^50 
502 85 
16 45 
90 
' ■4&. 
925 
7 05 
45 
67 

32 05 
26;5 

55 ca 

175 .05 

56 
888 ;0& 

45 
l68 45 

70 
345 72 

73 6# 

48 

45 
129 
5 05 

77 6a 

50 
5 05 

:*20o 

5 50 
18 68 

6 05 
45 

470 
182 6» 



BBBVBfiEKSBm* 

0. D. Co]emao, per diem, 1863, * I 

Richard Carlisle, do da -' j 

R P. Clement, appropriation 1868^ -* j 

N. V. Chandler, auditedi 

8amM Crawford, salary, 

S. Park Coon, appropriation,- , - ' 

. S. S. Conovor, do - ' - 

W. (^ark, witness fee, - -*" 

"VVm. E. Cramer, audited, 

. W, P. Clark, appropriation, - 

Chas.Dunn, per diem 1863, - 

D, S. Duarie, appropriation, - 

iEd ward Daniels, salary, 

Geo. P. Delaplaine, do 

H. N. Davis, witness fee^ 

J. R. Doolittle^ salary and appropriation, 

Jason Downer^ witness fee, - 

J. E. Dodge, per diem 1863, - 

John, W.Davis, do 

JN.M. Oonaldson, appropriation A per diem '63 

Bpnaldson & Tredway, appropriation, ' 

P. Duffie, do 

W* M. Dennis, per diem 1863*^ Mdvy 

•' Emigranten," audited, 

Emigrant Agency, expenses^ 

A. E. Ellmore, witness fee, - 

Cbas. A. Eldridge, appropriation,. 

C. B. Eni^ do 
H. F. Eastman, audited, 
W. S. Evertts, witness fee, - 
A. Finch, jr., do - -' ' 
Coarlps Foote, appropriation ^audited,* 
Cbartes W. Fitch, do * , 

D. Fitch, audited 1853, - ' '' ' [ 

E. N. Foster, per diem 1863, - ' 
G. J^ Fowler, witness fee, • - [ 
Fratney <& Herzheig, appropriation Ss audited, 
H, L, Eoeter, per diem 1853, 
J. C l^airchild, appropriation, ;' 
John Fitzgerald, do 
P. Hines, do 
P. J. Fleischer, do 
S. W, Field, per diem 1863 , - 
Thoa. Fenton, do 
1. H. Fellows, do 
Alex. T. Gray, salary, - .-.•., j 

. Governor ContingenlAcoount, Approp^ation; 

3 



.m-" I 



I / 



•«1 
45 


' 108 


19 64 


600 


769' 86 


822 97 


10 


462 65 


106 


45 


24 86 


3,124 Is 


250 


42 80 


815 . 


41 20 


45 


45 


55 


555 88 


33 


1,045 


7 05 


500 


70 64 


25 ' 


146 60 


4 40 


18 20 


84 


131 03 


10,45 


38 87 


45 


33 20 


642 45 


70 


16 87 


.600 


16 


110 


70 


' 45 ■ 


45 


600 ' 


10,090 . 



10 



H. W. OraDnaoo, appropriatioii, 

JamM P. Greevei, witness fee, ' 

Gould & McLaughlin, auditodi' 

0. B. Ghaves, appropiiationy - 

W. Oraham, witness fee^ 

W. H. GleasoDf appropriation luidaaditad, 

B. F. Hopkins^ appropriation 1619, 

Carr Huntington, auaited, 

Hulet Sf Gary, do 

David Holt, appropriation, 

Du Baj Hunl^ do 

E. HillFor, per diem 1853| 

E. Hurlbut, witness fee^ 

E.G. Hull, audited 1853 and 1854, 

Edward 11 Hunter, per diem 1B68, 

E. F.HemsteiD, appropriation, 

H.HffirteHySalanr, - -' 

H* Holmes, per diem 1 853, - 

Jas. Halpin, appropriations - 

John Hart, witness fee, - 

J. A. Hadle J, audited, 

John £. Holmes, per diem 1858, 

John W. Hunt, appropriation and saluy, 

Hurd & Johnson, audited, 

Levi Hubbell, salary, 

Mary A. Howa^ witness fee, 

Han <fe Pierce, appropriation and audited 185B, 

8. W. Hill, per diem 1858, - 

Titus Hayes, do 

Thomas Hood, appropriation 1858, 

Tim 0. Howe^ saliupy, 

Wm. Hull, appropriation, - 

Wm. A. Hawkins, per diem 1^8, 

Wm. H. Howard, appropiiation, 

J. K» Inman, witness fee^ 

Ghaa. £. Jenkens, do 

B. N. Johnson, appropriation, 

Edward H. Janssen, appi^n <fe lalaij '5S &'64. 

John B. Jacobs^ appropriation, 

IL Jenkinson, do 

A\iffuat Eruer, salary, 

Chas. M. Kingsbury, appropriation, 

G.R Knight, ao 

R S. Kelsey, do 

J. 0. Knapp, witness fee, • . 

L. F* Kellogg, appropriation aiid witness fes^ 

ILKeenan, w 



60 

60 40 

74 >8 
134 50 

83 
1,294 
284 50 
5 05 
4 40 

84 55 
217 ^0 

45 . 

72 «0 

37 Jo 
120 

132 50 
i^OO 

45 
4,504 14 

34 |0 
4 40 

15 r 
700 

9 4< 
470 

25 
336 

45 

41^. 
305 8# 
«70. , 
200 

70 : 

100 

8 75 

92 40 

15 

1,250 

49 

21 

4t)0 

8 

&B2 

39 

18 

«73 

408 



is 



t 



11 



BoteEiog is Co. audited, - 

& G. Knight, witomt f^ * 

Hifiin EnowltoiK aakry, 

A.I).Iada«,p8rdien), ^ - 

B. B. Ladlimii ftppropriatioiiy • 

CliarleB Lum, witneM fee, - 

Oiurles H. Lavabe^ salary, - 

LiTwj <k CanoU, appropriation^ 

F. 8. LoveD, witnaat fae, 

J. Lauderdale^ per diem 1858| 

J. Lemon, apph>priatioii, 

J. J. Loomti, appropriatioB, • 

Edward Leea, do nid per diem 1858, 

James T. Lewiib do 

BobHILLongfttOarj, 

Bi^*t W. LauBBg, appropriation and andited, 

A. IfiuBchner, do 

A. MbArthur, witnoH fee^ - 
A* MenirBa, aaiaryi * * 
O.H. McLaog^lm, appronriation, 
Oliaa. N.Mumfordy go 
D.M.MiUer, do 
£. Manner, witoen fee, 
Sd. McGany, per diem 1853« 
B^ra MiJJer, do 
F. J. Milh^ audited, • 
George R. McLane, per diem, 
H. ]£iddeii, do^ 
Jae^ Morrison, appropriation, • 
J.ifyera, ner diem 1868« 
J, L. Marai^ audited, 
L. Mffler, per diem, - 
Matkhiaa Marthi, appropriatioil, 
Mapea ^ Bool^ audited, 
P. L- Moeain, appro(»iation, 
B^ If. Meeaenger, per diem ' 
V.D. Morris ^>pro] 
Miner dp Skinner, < 
tlkoa-McGlynii, do 
TheiL McHngh, Chief Clerk Aasembljr, 
Wtn. B. Marty, par diem 1868, 
Uemhard A mlliama, 
R 8. Nickeraon, ^ppropriatioi^ 
W. W. Noyea, audited, 
I. B. Oahraader, - 
BoatfHck (yCoHner, appropriatieni 

B. Ofanatead, per diem 1863, « 



819 67 
f 3 48 

8?0 

22 

36 

48 80 
887 
814 94 

46 80 

46 
807 80 

22 73 

70 
166 
300 
200 

16 06 

68 40 
600 
174 

6T 

88 

68 40 

45 
120 

9 46 
180 

46 
362 40 

46 
8 

46 

461 

6 

24 

46 

123 

5 

207 60 
8,860 

46 

47 
148 

81 

70 
174 

48 



05 

78 
05 



16 
06 



45 



1» 



Thoa. J. Otis, appropriatioi], - 
Pcjslage, appropriation & audited, 

A. F.Phi.lips, do 

B. Pinckney, per dkm 1858,- 
Charles Piquette, appropriatioii, 
D. J. Powers, per diem 1868, 
Elisha Pearle, do - • 
George C. Pratt, witeas fee^ - 

George H. Paul, appr'n and audited 1853, 

Haven Powers, do 

H.L.Page, do 1863, 

Judscn Prentice, per diem do 

J. D. Pluokett, audited do 

J. H. Payne, witness fee, 

J. W. Porter, per diem 1863, 

N. Prater, appropriation, - ' 

8am*l Pierre, do , - 

S. D. Powers, do 1853, 

Wm. H, Pettit, witness fee, 

Wm. 11. Perry, appropriation 18*2, - 

Jaoob Quintus, ao and audited, 

Henry Quarles, appropriation, 

Amos Reed, audited, 

A. W. Randall, witness fee, - 
Hobinson <& Bro., audited, 

C. M. Roesser, do - 

D. C. Reed, per diem 1853, 

E. Robinson, do 

Edward G. Ryan, appropriation, 
Francis Randall, witness fee^ 
H.J.Ross, do 

James D. Reymert, audited, . 
James Robinson, error 1863, 
•Reed & Nevitf^ audited, 
Orson Reed, per diem 1853, 
Patrick Rogan, do 
Peter Rogan, witness fee, 

B. B. Rice, appropriation, 
Bob't L. Ream, do 1851, 
S. Richie, do 
S. Ryan, audited, 
V. W. Roth, appropriation, 
W, H. Roe, per diem, 
« See Rote," audited, 
Albert Smiib, witness fee^ 
AWa Stewart, per diem 1858, 
A. D. Seaman, 8ppropriati«Oy 



9lt 88 
4,582 M 
183 50 
45 

15 80 
46 I 
VO 

27 40 
1T4 45 
120 
870 . 
46 

22 60 
. 19 20 
46 

182 60 
132 50 
100 
90.72 
6 
117 40 
207 50 
40 
1$ 90 
6.05 
6 40 
115 
45 
8,132 39 
48 40 
18 .. 
607 
20 

45 
45 

61 60 

17 to 

87 60 

182 00 

16 05 
81 

45 , 
10 40 
4« 40 
l^ . 
64 ' 



4S 

40 



18 



^BBintoBHaiim. 



s - 



^ A.B. Smithysalarjr, 
A. H. Smith, witneM fee^ 
ScboffiS^ Butta,auditod« 
C.L Sbolet^ audited <&; per diem 1853, 
Strong, Crapo k Riusel, appropriation, 

0. Stevens, per diem 1852, • 
David Bcott^ appropriatioiii - 
Dan|el Shaw, audited, 
D. G. Snover, appropaiation, - 
Sholeft Sl Densmore, audited - 
D. M. Seaver, salaiy, 
Geo. B. Smith, witneeafee^ * 
B. Stebbina, per diem 1853, - 
State Hi8t(]|rical Societj, appropriatloD, 
John Shaw, do 

J. A. Smith, audited, 
J. p. Stnitl^, appropriation, r 

Johu J. Slightam, do " - 

James K. Smith, witneaa fee, ' - ^ 
Jesse M. Sherwood, appropriation, • '' 
John L. Sweeny, do 1853, 

J. W. Seaton, per diem, . do ' 

Levi Sterling, do . do ^ 

State Library, appropriation. 
State Loan, interest on bonds, 
State Prison, appropriations 1853 and 1854. 
Soutih Wing of Stute Prison, appropriation! 
P.K Simpson, per diem 1853, 
Seaton dc Pau), audited, - - , 

Stevens <& Rogers, do " ' • . 

T. 1#, i^tfiitb, appropriation 1853, ^ - 
W. iSayles, per diem, do ! - 

W. Spooner, salary, do 

W.' Sanderson, witness fee^ - ; • . 
Wm, Sliglitam, appropriation, > - 
Winfield Smith, ivitness fee, - . - ' ^ 
Wm. N.-iSeymour,. do - i - 
Wm. R^Smitb, appropriations 1858 is *54,^ 
Schqeffler & Wendt, do and jaudited/ 
D. Taylor, per diem 1853, ) - [ 

D. L Thayer, appropriations 1853 ife '54, 
Tibbits A" Gordon,' do 1 

George P. Ilibmpf)n, witness fee, I 
EA,Tenney, . '^ i j 

1. a Tallmadge, per 3i«n..lS53, j 
Jonathan Tajlor, witness fb e, _ , 
l*TowiI5e,appropriatvoi^. • .J . 



45 



500 
29 10 
9 45 

49 40 
192 67 

10 . 
116 15 
197 50 
132 50 
175 05 
500 

40 24 

45 

500 

1,200 

9 

139 50 
205 

54 to 
9d2 

44 
45 

3,000 

7,500 

17,100 31 

7,758 43 

45 

5 

4. 

7o 

45 
497 . 

50 40 
45 

. 7l 60 
8 lii 
1,260 
.749 
79 • 
• 202 50 
M45 69 
' • 47 84 
4 
45 

79 60 
29 30 



05 
40 



22 



u 



11 J. Thonuu^ appropriatioD, 
FatToland, do - • 

TboB. J. Townaendy salary and appiopriatioiit 
Wilson Torrey, ao 

Win. H. Thomas, witness fee, 
Wm. L. Utley, salary 1853, - 
E. R. & F. A. Utter, audited, 

D. 8. Yittum, per diem 1868, 
A. Whittemore & Co., appropriation '58 ic ^54, 
A. S. Wood, do 
Wisconsin Blind Institnta, do '40'<^8^H 
Charles Wheeler, do do 
Cal. C. White, witness fee^ - 
Ghas. K Waikins, do 
Wis. Deaf & Dumb Inst, appropripition 1859, 

E. Wakely, per diem 1858, - 
Ezra Wheeler, do - - 
Weed & Eberhard, appropriationa '68 db '54, 
E. v. Wfaiton, salary and witness let, 
H. A. Wright, do per diem 1858, 
H. C. West do 
IL K. White, witness fee, - 
Isaac Woodle, ... 
John Walworth, audited, 
John K. Williams, appronriations %d k '54, 
John Wright, do 
Joseph Wuson, do 
J. H. Welk, witnett fee, 
J. H. Wells, (Marquette,) audited, - 
John T. Wilson, do 
L. Wyman, witnesi fee, • 
0. J. Wright, audited, 
Bobert Weir, witneai fee^ - ' • 
RusBel Wheeler, do 

R B. WentworUi, appropriation an4 andtted^ 
R F. Wilson, do do 

Hob't W. Wright witness fee, 
Thos. West, per diem 1858 and apn'n^ 
T. T. Whittlesey, do - 

Wm. K. Wilson, witness fee, 
H. D. York, per diem 1858, 

Total ... 

Amt orerpaid last quarter, - • 

Reoeipta brought jfcom page 8, 
Bahmoe orerpaid, • • * 



^ 

05 



105,487 54 
7,900 80 

1178,188 M 



25 

280 

2,850 

174 

81 

75 

6 

166 

2,070 27 

196 
8,280 84 
232 50 
110 22 
89 20 
1,760 
45 
45 
1,558 44 
622 80 
845 
45. 
40 

45 80 
5 05 

550 

67 23 
132 50 

41 20 
81 20 

102 
Id 20 
5 05 
80 

46 20 
60 bS 

162 

42 80 
70 

45 

89 40 
45 

165,277 68 
8,110 70 



1173,888 88 



19 



SEOOHD QU^JStTEB. 



Brown Coiintr» Stole Tk^ 




JeBhnon do 


do 




La.Fayett^ do 


do 




P(Ma08 do 
SLOm^ 60 


do 




do 




Oolaganuedo 


do 




Badger State Bank 
BtfSi of CommertJB^ 
Columbia County BapI^ 


do 
do 




do 




Exchange Bank, 


do 




Farmers jc 1|Iiner/ Bank. 
Bank of Fond da Lao^ 


do 




do 




Fox BiTer Bank, 


d0 




Jeffeieon County Bank, 


do ^ 




City Bank of Badne^ 


do 




Bank of Bacme, 


do 




State Bank, 


do 




State Bank of W]|^on49i» 


do 




Wiaoonnn Bank, 


do 




W. Fry, liceme, B^41«r« 


i 


M. Boyndackiy do 






Wm. RBoTT, do 






8. Mock, do 






Taten & UaDeiy, do 






H. E.Hood, do 






C. R. Enight, reftmded error. 




IL&Nickeaon, d^ 


• ■ 1 


Total, 


• 1 


■ 1 



T>7BMUteXMSSTBm 



JoDatfaan E. AraoU, 
D.«0. Baflh, ao 

John Blitieiv do 

Bv^ A Jfjmmoek avditedi 
Gofrer dp GfoIdamitL do 
M.M.iOttliieQ,iihfy, 
Satel Owwford, do 
Ckailea Boote^ apnlopriatioa 
K. W. Qriflwold, wftoeai 6^ 
A. 0. IttghaBi, do 

SdwaidlC. Himi4||,aalary 
CILLarrabeei . do 
KM.homg. do 



ISO 50 


no 


8,9t8 96 


IfiU 19 


424 68 


702 


187 00 


820 00 


t(0 42 


' 87» 


870 


187 00 


17 49 


870 


870 


»70 


' 876 


1,125 


870 


«9 


80 


iU> 


40 


eo 


40 


49 00 


ip 00 


1(^800 02 



1,000 
1«2 
108 08 

8tt 00 

80 
870 

«68 Vf 
112 90 

27 M 

00 18 
860 
878 
108 
9B0 
■S7 6ft 



1« 



DUBOSSKKfeVTI. 



Simeon Mills, appropriati<»y • 


.-.« 




160 25 


A. D. Smith, salary, 


- 




, ^66 67 


State Agricultural Society, appropnatioD, 




190 


South Wing State PrifiQD, • 


do 




2,U6 95 


E. V. Whiton, ealarj, 


- 




166 6ft 


Wis. Blind Ingtitute, appropriation,- - 


0.' 


' 1,600 


J.H. Weils, audited, 


M 


■ • 


40 55 


Total . - - 


1 8,618 05 


Amount overpaid last quarter, 


* 




1 . 7,900 69 


Balance overpaid^ 


■ 


; 5,718 72 


r 




16,518 74 


1 16,518 74 . 


TFTTRT) QUAETEE. 


' ' • 




BBOEIFTB. 




Bank of the West, Sute Tax, 




435 55 


» 


Kenoeha City Bank, do 




375 




Bacine County do do ' 




750 




Rock River do do 




875 




Oshkosh City do do 




875- 




Wis. M. A F.I. Co. Bk. do 




' 760 




Jefferson County do do 




• 1095 82 




Milwaukee County do 
Glines & Co., License, Hawb 




887 31 




m & PedU 


u-8, ' 40 




M. Loeb «fe Co., do 


do 


40 


• 


Charles Richmond, do 


do 


• 10 




John W. Davis, refunded. 


- 


6 




E. Ricker, do 


• 


89 


' 


Total, 


. 5,177 68 




DISBUBSBia 


ENTEU 




David Atwood, audited, 


- 


1 


. 934 10 


Atwood 4i Brown, appropriation, 


■ 


• 


6,013 66 


Beriah Brown, do 


Ac- 




4^061 40 


H. D. Barron, audited, 


- 


• 


149 52 


S. G. Bugrh, 


- 




iS62 50 


WW; A. Baretow, salary, 


- 


. 


469 &a ' 


Wm. W. Brown, appropriation. 


- 




• 425 • ' 


Crawford County, overpayment, 


- 




.03 : 


GeOtg^'W. Cate, salary, 


- 




499 17 


M.M. Gothren, do 


- 


" '. ' '' 


435 


S. Park Coon, appropriation, - 


- 




. M 


F. F. Davis, 


- 


. 


74 • 


J. R. Dodittle, salary. 


• 


" t * 


: 375- 


WfaJ M/Dennis, salaiy, 


- 


■J - k 


509 



17 



DBBUBSEBOBNTB. 



Charles B Ellis, approptx4i6xi^ "" - 

A V Fryer, do 

F Fratney, audited, - ■ - 

H B GardDtf, appropriation, - ' 

W Grahaoi, , do ^ 

E M Hunter, salary, 

F W Horn, Emigrant Agent, 

J W Hunt, salary, 

Levi Hnbbell, do - - 

I W Hill, per dioin, 

Edward H Janssen, salary, - 

John N Jones, postage, 

E B Kelsey, per diem 1853, - 

Jaa Kneeland, appropriation, - 

"Wiram Knowlton, salary, 

Bob'tMLoog. do 

Ohas H Larrabe^ do - 

B W Lansing audited, 

Q Loehr, appropriation, - 

Geo R M Lane, lunatic do - 

John McManmant salary, 

A Menges, do - 

Alex Mitchell, appropriation - 

J G Percival, salary, 

Curtis Reed, per diem 1853 - 

J D Reymert, audited, 

V W Rotb, apprQjM-iation, 

Schuif & Rutts, audited, 

D M Seaver, salary, 

J R Siiarpstein, per diem 1863, 

Swamp Lands, appropriation, 

State Prison, do 

South Wing, . do 

Sdioeffler £ Wendt, audited, 

D 8 Yittum, lunatic appropriatkm, 

John Welch, do 

John Wbite, do 1851, 

7ohn K Williams, do 1858, 

H Wright, salary, &c., 

K WUcox, per diem 1853, - 

Wiaoonnn Blind Institute, appropriadon, 

Wm. A Wheeler <k Co., . do 

Total, 
Amount overpaid last quarter, 
Receipts as above^ - 
Balance, . - - - 



5,177 (J8 
83,107 70 

98,285 88 



12 



150 


800 


83 


20 


250 


1,075 


250 


148 


25 


200 


2,842 63 


70 


40 


375 


200 


375 


114 


45 


300 


150 


260 


58 


410 


70 


187 50 


50 


66 25 


260 


75 


225 


500 


6,643 00 


1,672 60 


162 50 


262 16 


57 


116 


400 


45 


125 


39 25 


32,671 66 


5,718 72 



98,285 88 



18 



FOUETH QUABTEB. 



BBUKlPfBt 



P Dana, tax on suita^ 


. 


8S 




Manitowoc County, reyenne^ 


H 


1,844 08 




Portage do do 
Waashara do do 


• 


M4 




- 


196 66 




Bank of Commerce, Tax, 


• 


760 




Columbia County Bank do 


- 


187 60 




Dane do do do 


» 


185 42 




City Bank Kenosha do 


- 


875 




City Bank Racine do 


- - 


875 




Farmers & Millen' Bank do 


- 


875 




Korthem do do 


- 


61 « 50 




Bacine County do do 


- 


760 




Bock Kiver do do 


- 


375 




State do do 


- 


375 




State Bank of Wisconsin do 


- 


1,875 




Wis M <fe F Ins Co do 


» 


760 




Simeon Steinhart, Pedlar's License^ 


- 


30 




Silverman & Co do 


- 


80 




James Cameron do 


- 


10 




M Schwars do 


- 


10 




Chandler <k Killey do 


- 


30 




8 Hirschberg do 


- 


30 




Babbas&Wolf do 


- 


80 




A Guddlefinger do 


- 


10 




Alex Guddlefinger, do 


- 


40 




John Blackenhurst do 


. 


40 




S Klauber do 


. 


10 




J^^ L Castleman, Canal Land Mortgi 




5 16 




Total, 


$9,829 22 






si: 


, 


Jas S Alban. appropriation, - 
J,R Briggs, do 


. 




120 


. 




120 


S d Bugb, on recount, 


- 




100 


W A Barstow, salary ic, - 


- 




468 60 


W W Brown, appropriation - 


- 




3S0 


JiCrowley audited, 


- 




13« 40 


M M Cothron, salary. 


. 




375 


Jf V (Aandler, audited, 


. 




6 05 


<d S Comfort, appropriation, - 
Sam'l Crawford, salary, 


- 




88 


- 




500 


J R Doolittle> do 


- 




975 


Wm M Denni^ do 


- 




500 


AT Gray, do 


- 




600 



o'^19 



ii/«W^^W«¥ffTP^ 



,» / 



OubUtus GraH aadited^ • 
Fratney & Herzber^^ do- • ■ 
E J Fleisher, do - 

E W Hunter, aalary, - ^ 

F F Hobbs, apprppriation, * 
F W Horn, ? migrant^ Agen^ 
John W Hunt, aal^rf, f 

J N Jones, audited, •• 

E H Janssen, salary, 
Levi Hubbell, do 
James & Marriner, appropriaiion, 
August »\ruar, salary, '- 
Wiram Knowlton, do - - 

C H Larrabee, do - - 

M D Miller, appropriation, - ^ i ' ■»•. 
A Marschnes, audited, 
Ohas Roesser do - ^ 

Geo Paul, do ♦ - 

J 6 Percival, Geological Surrey, 
H P Powers, appropriation, 
Robinson & Bro, audited, - 
Beed & Nevett, do f 
:' Afem D Smith, salary, 

A o Sanborn, on account semceSy - 
' 1^ M Seaver, salary, 
Geo R Smith, do «- - 

I^yi Sterling, appropriation, • 
Swamp Lands, do - - 

State Prison, do * - 

• gf G Stacey, salary, 
^(^oeffler <b Wendt, audited,. 
Vfm R Smith, appropriationJ 
j^ S Vittura, on account servwes, 



J- J- 



ft A Wright, salary, 
OJ 



. Wright, audited, ^ 

dftm'l F Wright, lunatic appix>priation, 



Total, * - •- 

lipts as above, - 

nt overpaid last qoartei^ 
»unt ove ' " 










27 15 

870 05 

144 69 

250 

. .> 20 80 

250 
*12^ 47 
.300 
375 
.* 14 
600 
375 
375 
83 

■M ) . .fl 46 

. i. .:^25 
. .59 

.-' /. '.ea 

.1 M.W81 
... 64 50 
. <.50ft 

. 'W.800 

; 500 

.0 ,..^00 

.• :. .«lft 

•, . .:i400 
.!..!. <>2|9 25 

. . r.^<>»88^ 88 



■ ■I ' ll ' . i i'f iK 



*8,?.Wf58[l.,,,4ftX^58 



JO 

SCHOOL FUND. 

FIRST QUAETER. 

BBQEZFTB. . 



C6rt]ficai€8, 

Penalty ,5pcr cent 
Sales, 

Total, 



28,396 44| 

1.785 06 

%125 

869 24 



49,166 88 



DISBUBBEBCSNTO. 



Beriab Brown, printing and publishiB^ 
Dan C Brown do 

H D Barron, do 

Joseph Barnard, appraiaing, 
Jobn A Brown, publishing, 
llilton Barlow, appraising, 
Beeaon k Thomas, publishing, 
Wm O Buck, appraising, 
Calumet Co, do 
H Ca kins, do 

J Crowlej, publishing. 

IT V Chandler, do 

Wtn E Cramer, do 

C W Fitch, do 

Fratney h Herzberg, do 
George Oale, appraising, 
Indian Oeorffe, do 
Edward C Hull, publishing, 
J A Hadley, do 

H P Holmea^ appraising 
Joachim h Co., publishing 
Eohlman k Co, do 
Asa Lawrence, apprabing . 
A Morehouae^ do 

F J Mills, publishing^ * 

Manitowoc 06, appraisinjg^ 
itfarquetleCo, io 
Gee H Paul, publishing 
L M Parsons, appraising 
P D If anwhner, do 
If W Noye8» publishing 
CtoSBoeaer do 



892 40 

8 

33 55 

5 

8 

15 

15 80 
HI 

681 12 

9^ 50 

. 6 

7 20 

97 85 

6 50 

^5 90 

16 

a 

6 10 

a so 

25 60 
5 
8 

7a 

68 

18 70 
200 
105 60 

10 

50 

6 



31 . 



RicUral (So^ apprfiBing 
Rock Go.,. do 

Beed A Kevett^ publishing, 
R P BttWtoiii apprainDg, 
RobiMon & Bro^ pvbli^iDgi 

D B Sbaikr^; appraUng, 
ScbD4] S\nid,,refunded for error. 
School Fund Loau^ - > - 
Sealcm «r Paul^ piAli»hh« ^ 
Stevens it Aogersi do 
Schoeffler <fe Wendt, do 
W B Shaver, do 

Geo W Tamert, appraising, 
Algernon Weaton, do -^^ 

A Whitemore Sc Go^ plat bool^ 
A S Weaton, appraising, 
Winnebago Co^ do 
D M West, do 

Weed dc Eberhard, binding, , 
JHWell8,publiBhiBg; /'^ - 
Wm White, appraising 

Total, 
Amount on hand last quarfff,. 
Amount of reoeipts, ' ! 

Balanoe, ■'' '' ' ' 



; Ajru) 



' •■ 1 


y< '6oe-M.. 


•■.■; -i... 


.:, HIM . 




14 8a 




..1 Lfl ' 


.■ •.' -1 


. n • a«0' ■ 




9 68 




111 




30 a» 




e5,9ti 




17 8« 




16 80 




» 50 




4 




216 


j.i.ir 


7 sa 




2fi 




12 60 




168 %S 




20 




198 50 




21 28 




49 W ' 




70,<94 00 ' 


94,004 92 




49,166 S8 


• 




•""18,<»VW ••' 



$8S,261 30 989,361 M 



SEOONI) QUAB9SR. 



•J ■ 



BkBQKIFlB* 



Oertificafeea, 

Looiii, 

Jr eikttij, 6 per centu ■ 

Totd,- 
fiabaice:iatt qt^rtet, 



d,4l2.jM 

170 62 
l,01t 74 



6,6*70 66 
'^13,067 30 



22 



DiBBtrfissimErrs. 



BroHtfn 6btti]t7, appniaiDg, 

Berftti Brown, printing and pubbhtni^ 

Bo^id Blick, do 

School Ribd Loan% 

WeeA db Eberhaid, binding. 

ToUl, 
Bakice^' 



•I8,73f 8» 



(■: • 


thted; quab: 


HER. 




SIUJurlB. 




sai%,- '; 

Penalty, .. 
Oeiti^cats^ , 




10,306 93 

8 ?5 

9 15 
2,186 44 


Total, 
Balwcelmt^iBarteri, 


18,945 'V7 
15,430 12 


fi; I.- ! 




h 



Loans, 

Weed <b Eberhard, book bmdiw^y* ' : 
W H WUlard, apprainngi 
Edward Lees, do 
Jas Murdock, do 
A Stafford, printing, 
Beriah Brown, do 
It F Wilson, appraWitt;, V ^ 
D A Glidden, refunded, dL^H Pierod Ooy 
■ '. '' * 
Total, ' { \'( . 

Balance^ 



129,375 89 



136 » 


646 


12 M 


2,486 "ir^ 


•. ' ii 


3;507 t3 


15,460 » 



9l8,^3t 36 



2,800 


650 


132 


25 


141 


300 


820 


100 : 


6 M 


4,373 69 . 


26,002 27 


^|29i675 60 : 



,28 
FOURTH QUARTER 



BfeOBXPlB* 



Loana, 

Penally 

Salflfl) 



8,079 73 


403 91 


1,425 


822 16 


8,009 ?7[ 


1«»800 57 



S!IS9U]28BMIK!I& 



Benj Allen, appraisiiig^ 
CyniaN Allen, do 
B BrowD, pnhlishiog, 
D C BrowD, do 
J Baroard, appraising, 
John A Brown, pnbliahing, 
Sam'l G Bagh, do 
Jeiry Orewley, do 
C(frer ^ Goldsmith, do 
H Oaiknn, appraiflinff, 
E L Oeve^. publishing^ 
Gray <fe Nimmocky do 
Jofl^h-Dartt, surveyings 
E C Hu^ll, publishing, 
AOHoIti <*o 
B 9 Hickfl} appraising, 
Hofd &i Johnson, publishing, 
Edward Lees, acppraidng^ 
Peter Little^ do 

Jas Mordoek, do 

P D Marsekall, appraising, 
Wm Meftf ichael, do 
Joseph Patch, do 

Bdlmisori <k Bro^ publishing, 
Wm (J Sogers, do 
Rysb iti Co, do 

J Qui^ttcrs, do 

Stout tfe Tenney, do 
8 W Smith, do 

School Fdiid, 
Sdbeot FtAd Loans, 
^Hiomss^ Reed, publishing^ 
^f Wibon, appraisin^^ 



263 60 

167 50 

107 60 

81 S6 

65 

19 00 

18 25 

42 75 

4 2fr 

166 

7 25 

17 M 
81 

7 25 
12 45 
15 

18 80 
480 

80 
50 
85 

18 75 
142 50 
19 
66 20 

8 60 
8 ^6' 
8 25 

65 25 
081 11 
2,606 
08 75 
215 



24 



pgBxnwKifTOrra. 



O J Wright, publuliiDg, 
Weed h IberWd, binding, 

Total, 
BeoeiptB as abore, 
Balance as abore^ 
Balance, 

Total, 



16,800 57 
25,002 27 


14 75 
1,664 50 

7,120 71 
34,682 1^ 



41,802 27 



41,902 64 



SCHOOL FUND IHOOME. 



FIRST QUAETEH. 



BE0EIPT8) 



94,169 4011 







OIBBirBSBKENTS 


• 


Befiinded foi 


■eiTor in 


former p^ment^ 




Bad As County, 


Apportionment, 




Calumet, 


do < 


do 




Cohiinbia 


do > 


do 




Cravford 


do 


do 




Dane 


do 


do 




Dodee 


do 


do 




Food dn Lac do 


do 




Chnnt 


do 


do 




Oreen 


do 


do 




Iowa 


do 


do 




Jeffeiwa 


do 


do 




Kenoeha 


do 


do 




Marquette 


do 


do 




Miiwaukee 


do 


do 




Osankee 


do 


do 




Sauk 


do 


do 




Shebojgan 


do 


do 




Bacme 


do 


do 




Bkhland 


do 


do 




Bock 


do 


do 




Walworth 


do 


do 




Washington 
Waukesha 


do 
do 


do 

do 




Waupaeca 


do 


do 




Wanshara 


do 


do 




Winnebagoy 


do 


do 





82 56 

452 88 

642 96 

3,191 04 

486 28 

6,567 12 

6,212 16 

4,395 04 

4^888 06 

3,211 92 

2,542 27 

5,022 72 

3,019 68 

2,593 44 

5,407 95 

2,675 21 

2,048 40 

3,605 56 

4,855 18 

514 08 

6,820 88 

4,975 92 

4,039 26 

5,848 56 

497 52 

359 90 

2,765 62 



H 



DMSeirer, plattini 
OhMO^Ajen, do 

ToUl, 

Balance latt quarten, 

ReoebUaaaboyek - 
Balvioe, . 


1^ ia 1858, 
do 


liiOff 10 


730 IB 
' ' 884 80 


88,498 60 ;. 
88,128 


111,884 80 


111,884 50 




SECOND QXTAKEER 

1 1,858 971 










MBBCFllaBIUUflA ■'-- 




Adama Coontr, Apportionineiiti . , , . 
LaFayette do do ' '^ 
Oatagamie do , . . 4o 
Port^ do ,!do 
StCioix do . 4o 

Total, \' ./ 
Balance last quarter^. , 
Baianoe, 


88,128 , 


286 84 

3,378 9» 

702 . 

224 19 

" ' 'm 96 


4,0^6;. Off 

"'^ao.siw 02* 


'124,981 07 


124,981 97 


'1 


THTTIT^ QUAETER. 




Balance lait quarter, 


8,988 07! 
20,516 Oti 


Olio I-.'} :. li ...' ■■}; 


. . '■. 




•' 


D A Gliddon, lefimded dt 77 Pieice Co^ 

•. :/ 1 


Av.O., : 


887 81 
8 98 


890 29 
26,267 80 


$28,148 09 


•20,148 p!^ . 


1 


: rOUR'^H QUARTER 


K ' "- 


4 




4.880 59 
Sl,2ffr 80 





26 



D1HBUB8EKBNTB* 



Befi]]i4^ on oertificstes raeaDed, 
Polk , , CouBljf , Appoitioain6n|t, 

Milwaukee do 

Wausiari^ ^^ do ; 
Manitowoc " do . 



ToU}, 
Balance,' ^ 



do 
do 

■ « \ 



20,647 89 



TJNIVEKSITY FUND. 



5 

• 51 1* 
1,660 

196 66 
l,t88 86 


5,W8 14 
26,611 « 



29,647 89 



Balance, 



FERSXiftll^XKR- 

IftBuuEirxS. 



Certjificates, 
PeoaltFrs percent 

saieflJ: ... _ : 

"Total, 
B^fpc^laa^qnartetr. 



Loans, 

Lorenzo Preaton 

OT Overton, r f 

Befonded for error^ , 



. PIBBUBSEMENTB. 



2,166 471 
i,bio 41 



4,186 88 
10,867 22 



16|Q64,|0 



9,125 
16 
20 
8'60; 

6,890 60 

15,064 10 



Loans, 

Penalty, 

Sale% 

Balance^ 



seoonId QUAKTER. 

BE03EIF1B. 



.:'.» .•' ^ :( 



260 

96 16 

-3,104 32 

5,890 60 



Loaiu^f).>\ 



«.»h of 



Sales, 
Certificatefl, 

Balance last quarter, 



Loaiifl^M<x 



27^ 






8,340 •7|[ 8»840 07 



THIRD QUARTER 



XBGEEPTS. 

'J r ".; ^* p. , 



830 



(V894 0>| 



n£ii| 



TvraBBBfilBiQDIk :. 



9,062 91 



9,062 91 



FoiTRM^Ain^ieJ 



Certificate f 
B^ance last quarter, 



\\\ u 



DIBBJDB8EMKNTS. 



! . \ 



112 

21 25 

507 05 

1^9 91 



Lq|tye<|^ pniver^ity, 
Ai|fi4itp]WBrpaid, 



II.. 



._ I 



^b t.'^i 



1,086 12 



2,836 88 



9,886 33 
2,880 8» 



■ «iii FffiSt QTJAETER. ... |.' .,.', .t' ; '\ '■ ■ '» 

vcBstmi ' ' I npni 2111 

BlUlI^«^batqtUIto^,^ ^-^ ' 1 2,990 00(1 



,\ I !■• i • '• ••; v .. .;i 



28 



Interett; «*. School Fund LoiD, 
Stale I7ttiter8it7, 
Iteftntddd for error, . ■ — 

Total, 
Balance^ 



10,067 77 



3,500 
500 
11 09 

6,011 09 
2,055 78 

10,067 77 



,: eKOOND QUARTER. 



BI0BIPT8, 

Balance last qaarteer« : ^ ... 


754 811 
2,056 78U 


DIBBTTEEBlSliSmfl* * 




Stait^ TJmmrity, . , 
Balance,'^'* \\ 




1,000 
1.810 M 


"• * )\*,': w ' .I'l •• 


2,810 59 


2,810 69 


TlB^DjQ^^R^SR. 




BlOBZFn, 

Balance iafi quarter, 
Balance, » i 


368 58 
1,810 69 


2,173 17 




2,173 17 


2,173 17 


;.. BOURTH QUARTER 


• 


MOBIFTfl, ^ 

Balance last qoarter, 1 

DISBUBSSlCBMTa, . 


580 47 
2,178 17 


1,818 46 
1,126 19 


.''.:■ ^» '/:;••'/- 


2,763 04 


8,768 M 


IMPJWYBMSUrP tHi^^. 




BaUnoeonhand, 
Paid F P TaUmadg^ 
Balance in the Treasaiy, 


129 88 

r t; 

129 38 


129 
88 




, . 129 H 



29 



KEOAPrrULATION. 

IUe«ipti. 



l8t quarter, 
2d do 
8d do 
4ih do 

BCBOOL FCrVD. 

let quarter, 
2d do 
Sd do 
4th do 
a. r. nrcoMx. 
iBt quarter, 
2d do 
Sd do 
4tb do 

raiTBRSITT 7VMD* 

Ist quarter, 
2d do 
8d do 
4th do 

v. 7. IRCOMX. 

Itt quarter, 
2d do 
8d do 
4th do 

JMFROyXMSirT WVWD, 

l8t quarter, 
Total, 

B4LAVCXa, 

Januarj 1, 1864. 

General Fund, 

Sehool Fund, 

School Fund Income^ 

UniTersity Fund, 

U F Income^ 

Improrement Fund, 
December 30, 1854, 

General Fund, 

School do 

8 F IneoBe, 

UniTernty Fund, 

U F Ineome^ 

ImproTenent Fund^ 



185,467 54 

10,805 02 

5,177 68 

9,829 22 

49,166 38 

5,670 55 

18,945 77 

16,800 57 

94,159 40 

1,853 97 

5,022 07 

4,289 59 

4,186 88 

2,450 47 

2,667 94 

640 SO 

7,077 21 
754 81 
862 58 

580 47 



401,888 42 



S4,094 92 

17,465 10 

10,867 22 

2,990 56 

129 88 

S8,965 86 



1,086 12 



507^487 OS 



DubaiMmaitt 

165,277 5S 

8,618 05 

82,571 66 

15,686 88 

70,194 

8,807 78 

4,378 62 

7,120 71 

88,496 60 

4,765 95 

890 29 

8,036 14 

9,168 60 
1,946 
7,953 
2,836 83 

8,011 00 
1,000 

1,628 45 

129 

487,007 43 



8,110 70 



84,682 13 
26,511 25 

1,125 19 
88 

507,487 08 



1 ' '\r: 



I . ' f 



: • * i 



...•I 



1 'I ) 

f '-^ ■ V. .-• , 1 
. .) 



. .. .J 



•) .;;i,..i: 



BEPOET 



OV TBB 



ATTORIfEY GElfERAL, 



•r THX 



STATE OP WISCONSIN, 



FOB THE TEAR 1864. 



MADISON: 

BSRIAH BBOWN, PBHrTSB. 
18M. 






f '' 



REPOET. 



Mapbon, Januat7 1, 1856. 

Governor of the State of Wiscoimn: 

Th^ law 4<>6B.n(>t.req])ire tjb^ AttorDpy Kleneral to ;makQ an a^- 

3m^\ report, eitjier to tbe Execatiye or to th^ Legislature^ but the 

last clause of eoctioi^ 39) >p«ge 8/ ^^ ^'^^ Bevi^ed Sta^Ues provides 

. ^a|tJif).8^9;U ^'report, to the Legislature, or either branch thereof^ 

r wheaever requested upop anj busiu^ss pertaiuiug to the duties of 

Jwcffice."-. ^ . . 

ISo suah request has ever been toedeby the Legislatnrei Aad po 
Import hf» been made b7:eith^r;<^ my ipred feasors in office. I have, 
. h9W^^^y tionght it my duty, at this time, to submit to you a brief 
y^fOpunt of the law traQsactipns of ^fae ^tate, during the jpast je^r 
mmttjou 9)^'gh( lay the same before the Legislature, or io some w^y 
tall the matters herein stated, to the:atteutioD Cff that bodyj ahouJd 
jm 4gcsi it.adyisable tp do so* 

On tbe :i8tl) day of December, 1652, Bavid T. Diton^ the eon- 
tractor for the State printing in year 18hl8, filed bis petition in the 
aapr^ine court, follpwlog the provisipne of ^^an act to direct in what 
m^nrnt and iii wl\.%t <^ourts suits -m^y b^ brought against the State, 
approved February 9, 1Q90, in which be claimed damages against 
the State in the sum of five thousand dollais, in consequotiCQ of 



the refusal of the Legislature to allow him to print the Revised 
Statutes ot 1849, tlie same which was printed by 0. L. Sholes, and 
of their refusal to give him the German and other printing in 
fooeign languages, ordered bj theoi ; ^nd for the refusal of the 
Secretary of State to fumish him with all the printing of the State 
Departments, including school land blanks. 

This claim had previously been presented to the Legislature, and 
disallowed. 

On the 2nd day of January last, when I entered upon the dis- 
charge of the duties of this ofiSce, the case above mentioned was 
on the docket o( the Supreme Court, undisposed of, and even the 
pleadings necessary to bring it to an issue were not perfected, and 
my first connection with the case was to resist a motion for judg- 
ment against the State, , for the want of proper pleadings. This 
motion was denied by the court, accompanied, however, with an 
order that all of the pleadings should be stricken from the files ; 
and that the Attorney General should file an answer to the petition 
on a day named in the order. The answer was filed accordingly. 
It was a demurrer to that part relating to the Kevised Stavutes, 
and printing in foreign languages, and a general denial of the 
other matters set up in the petition. The answer is now on file in 
Supreme Gourt, to \^hich I refer for a better and more complete 
understanding of the merits of the cas^. 

My predecessor had filed and argued a general demurrer to the 
petition, which was overruled : but in overruling this demurrer, 
the court decided that Mr. Dixon, was not entitled to print tlie 
revised statutes under his contract. This decision being made, 
the counsel for the petitioner discontinued his suit against the 
etate, and the costs of the proceeding have been taxed to him aad 
will be paid or reimbursed to the state, having already been paid 
by the state to the clerk of that court. 

Thus this matter which so long occupied public attention, and 
the attention of the legislature and the court was disposed of, and 
the conduct of the legislature and public officers most fully vindi- 
,cated. 



Under the law above referred to, Jobn A. Brown, filed hiB peti- 
tioa in the sapreme court, on the eighth day of July 1854, alleging 
that the state was indebted to him in the sam of four hundred and 
fifty dollars, for services rendered by order of the Legislature du- 
ring the impeachment trial of Levi Hubbell. 

To this petition, I have filed the plea of the general issue, anct 
the case is ready for a hearing at the present term of the supreme 
conrt, 

93ie fact that Hr. Srown, rendered services in that case for the< 
state, cannot be controverted, and I would suggest, in view of thia- 
faety that the legislature shall reconsider his account, and allow 
what is justly due, and thus avoid the trial of a suit, which will 
be lik^y to result in his favor, and finally, in some legislative ac- 
tion to pay the judgment which he may obtain. 

Two other suits have been commenced against the state, at the 
present term of the supreme court, one by Hugh McFarlane, and' 
one by Kichard F. Yeeder, both for ah alleged claim against the* 
atste for work done on the Fox and Wisconsin river improvemei^^ 
in building bridges across the canal at Portage, while that work 
wss under the supervision of tl^e state. The whole amount claim- 
ed by botji is $1,4.60,30. 

Each aleges in his petition that he has demanded pay from the 
in^rovement company, ai^d that they have refased to pay. 

I have notice of several other suits, of the like character, which 
my be commenced against the state, 

8eetion.5 of the act incorpomting the Fox and Wisconsin river . 
improvement company provides, that '4ti all proceedinga 
againat the state for damages or other claims on account of said 
improvement, the award or decree of which, by the terms of thja 
set, would have to be paid by the Fox and Wisconsin river im- 
Kovement company Jiereby incorporated ; the said company shall 
k made a party to said suit and shall have all the rights and privi- 
leges of a defendant therein* 

Ihia aeotioQ is impeirfect in this, that it provides no way for 



mftkiti^fliat comptoy a pafty. Th6 law anthoriziiig 6Q{ia tobeeixtL 
menced against tlie State haft provided feipe^ificaDytbat'tbe ^^eonib- 
pliinant within ton days after havirtg fil^d said petltlott or bill, 
anfl eaid bond, shall dfer^e ^ true cbpy of said petftion^ or bill, 
upon the Attorney Qen^rai af the State,'' &6. Bat, ih&t^ is W 
Wiajr pruvkiod for natitying' this company of the commencoment 
of aiieb KLitsl ot f^r bifinging. them i:B^to (3ouri 

The law ehoald be amended in this particular, and the company 
sboxild bare the ^utii^' ixiana^^emMt of the deitinsft i^f all aucfli 
STHtfi inasmuch ai they are to pay *^11 ontstandiag evideaees ti ■. 
indebte(tne68 on the part of the States Ac.," isliued em Accooiit t>f 
the said irnpniv^rm^nt," «&c.,^^nd to sateth^ State harmlesa fioia 
any and alt Habilitles in any wise arimngoa'^ growing ont6fia£A 
improvement, &c. ' 

Tbia amesMlmteit should .at least he naade, and I would eugfeat 
to the Legialature the 'propriety of enacting a law, by whiek per- 
sons, faa^iitg olaiitis against the State on aocoont of that iHiprove- 
meot abouki be authoriaed and required to bring suits direct} j 
against the company^ 

Tb^ company can better attend t6 the defetM of sneiiaitits; 
and, under the circumstances, it would seem thi^.tbe Stabeoaghfc 
not to be trouble^ with such litigatiun. 

The whole number of criminal cases How on the calendar of tlie 
Supreme Court is thirty three, and the most of these cases will, 
doubtless, be disposed of at this term. Twenty ne^ cases havft 
occurred during the present year* Of the thirty-thrOe cases isubi- 
ed, the State is directly interested in only twenty five, the balance 
b^ing eases in which the name of tiie State is used, belt which, are 
noFatters of private interest 

In nearly all of the criminal causes, whether decided foi- or 
against the State, the costs are paid by the State. During the last 
year there was appropriated by the Legislature on this acconnt 
about two hundred and fifty dollars, ($*250 00) and about the sanre 
amount in the year 1863, mA judging from the amount of boeisos 



sow OQ the calendar, and the probable increaie of bnameMi I 
ironld eetimate the amount to be paid on thia aoconnfc daring the 
year 1865, at about five hundred dollars. 

There are one or two other casea pending in which the State is 
interested, which, when thej are disposed o^ will be ^reported lo 
70a or to the Legislatare. 

Yexy respeotfollj, 

Your Obt Serrt, 
GEO* B. SMUH, 

Attorney GeaeraL 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THB 



COMMISSIONEKS 



ov 



School and University Lands, 



09 THB 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, 



FOR THE TEAR 1864. 



MADT80TT: 
BKRUH BROWN, PBIKTBB. 

1866. 



Offiob of Oohmibbionebs Sohool Am) IJiny£B8irr Lakds, 

Madison, Januaby 1, 1865. 
His Exoellenoy, Wiujam A. Babstow, 

Governor : 

Sir : Herewith we have the honor to transmit, for communicfr- 
tion to the Legislature, the Annual Beport of the Board of Oom- 
missioners of School and XTniversitj Lands. 
Very Respectfully, 

Tour ob't servants, 

ALEXANDER T. GRAY, 

Secretary of State, 

EDWARD H. JANSSEN, 
State Treasurer. 

GEO. B. SMITH, 

Att'y General. 



REPORT. 



Offxoe of O0KMISSI0KEB8 School and llKivBBsnT Lakdb. 

Madibost, Jan. 1, 1855* 
To the Legialatwre: 

The Board of Commissioners "for the sale of School and Univer- 
fitj Lands, and for the investment of the funds arising therefrom,^ 
f^espectfnlly submit the following 

EEFORT. 

The following tabular statement exhibits the number of acres of 
School and Universitj Lands, sold in the several counties in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and fiftjfour, the amount sold 
for, the amount of principal paid, amount of interest paid, and the 
amount of principal unpaid; and also exhibits the number of acres 
unsold, of such lands as have been offered at public sale aud are 
now subject to private entry : 



Sales of School Lands in 1864. — 16th Section. 



OOVXTZl 



No. of 
Acros 
sold. 



Kenoflha 

Kacine 

Walworth. 

Milwaukee. 

Rock 

Waahington 

Dodge. 

JeffereoD 

Shebojgan 

Pood duLac... 

Oolambia 

Dane 

Green . 

La Fayette. 

Iowa 

Grant 

Brown... 

Oalamet. 

Manitowoc 

Sauk 

Varantftte , 

Watbara .... 
Winneba^.. 
Outagamie . . 
Waupacca... 

Portage 

KicUand.... 

. Oiawford 

LaCroflse.... 

StGroiz* 

fierce. 

Polk- 

Bad Ax 

Adams 

Door 

KewBuuee... 



Total. 



383 
40 

388 

50 

1320 

1240 

979 

161 

720 
1000 

260 
3080 

879 
1230 
8193 
8750 
3760 
1740 
4755 
7400 
5915 
5360 
19o0 
1880 
5280 
3880 
8720 
1240 
5121 
8440 
8060 
6600 
12400 
10320 
2720 
2160 



No of 

Acres 

unsold. 



77041 



60 

"30 

760 
40 

'600 
160 
118.64 



1520 

840 

25G0 

840 

240 

2520 

1520 

2240 

174 

4404 

5800 

19560 

280 

4920 

3640 

640 

480 

5800 

1640 

14000 

4360 

36S9 



Amount 
■old for. 



2.494 00 

282 50 

2.371 95 

4.541 10 

7.172 06 
4,892 80 

569 68 
232 02 
1.952 03 
1.905 00 
8.677 93 
8,150 08 

1.464 38 
3.4t^8 44 

22.792 64 
11.731 40 
6,186 56 
4,574 90 
6,450 36 
10.689 68 
9,756 32 
7,332 44 

2.173 54 
2,293 04 
5.636 18 
5,704 78 

18.561 35 

1.847 72 

6,633 53 

10,.000 20 

10,014 28 

8.492 55 

14,364 50 

14.115 85 

3,764 44 

4.465 85 



Principal 
Paid. 



252 00 

28 50 

235 95 

454 10 

1,115 06 

565 80 

58 68 

23 02 

197 03 

188 00 

895 93 

880 08 

161 3d 

364 44 

2,587 64 

1,291 40 

2,142 92 

470 90 

649 36 

1,328 68 

1,027 32 

776 44 

231 54 

227 04 

5S3 18 

972 78 

2.220 35 

209 72 

668 53 

1,179 20 

1.090 28 

922 55 

1,653 50 

1.866 85 

420 44 

479 85 



Interest 
Paid. 



Balance 
Due. 



69304.64 106,794 27 .12,497 27 4041 12 94,298 64 



57 68 

13 68 

115 30 

265 56 

260 21 

200 93 

26 44 

12 25 

91 47 

83 04 

275 12 

333 61 

60 26 

166 62 

894 67 

463 57 

99 74 

174 08 

3 6 12 

358 93 

410 15 

2^0 06 

90 86 

59 38 

2G0 46 

121 52 

792 63 

65 16 

222 39 

632 54 

567 58 

361 85 

542 27 

71 10 

162 16 

171 07 



9;M2 00 
254 00 
2.133 00 
4,057 00 
6,047 00 
4,327 00 

511 oe 

219 00 
1.755 00 
1,716 00 
7,782 00 
7,270 00 
1.303 00 
3.124 00 
20,205 00 
10,440 00 
4.043 64 
4,098 00 
5.801 00 
9.361 00 
8,729 00 
6,556 00 
1.942 00 
2.066 00 
5.0.0 00 
4.732 00 
16.341 00 
1.638 00 
5 965 00 
9.7S1 00 
8.924 00 
7.570 00 
12,711 00 
12.249 00 
3.344 00 
3,986 00 



Sales of School Zcmdsy 600,000 Aors Tracts 1864. 



ooiniTix& 



Ontagamie.... 

Oconto 

'Shawanaw 

Sauk 

mcLland 

Iowa. 

La Grouse..... 

StOrotx. 

Bad Ax 

Omwford 

Oolambia 

Fond du Lac. 

Calamet 

Munitowoc... 

Brown 

Bane. 

Jeffaraoo 

Waukeeba.... 
Qrant 



No. of 

Acres 

flold. 



No of 
Acres 

UDBOlJ. 



Total. 



29.775 360 

5130 

60,947 

3.6i2l 

3.600 

3,152 

2 992 

30,168 

18,410.52 

2,986 

80 

120 

19,600 

8,320 

8,040 

3G0 , ... 
1.497.59! 1.856.36 

480 112 
4,444.86 ... 



120 



3,080 
1.000 



Amount 
sold for. 



37.531 95 

<s338 40 

76,820 90 

4,663 77 

5.S49 66 

7.971 82 

3.C2o 78 

37.926 00 

23218 74 

3 954 48 

101 60 

438 75 

27.935 13 

11.313 40 

10,748 04 

920 53 

2,014 06 

520 40 

5.031 46 



Principal 
Paid. 



IntsfMt 
Paid 



252 80 



210 05 

68 40 



171 12 

33 48 

304 60 

257 59 

252 24 

448 81 

177 52 

2565 46 

1054 85 

177 03 

6 27 

20 47 

1344 60 

671 85 

618 17 

54 09 

94 24 

24 25 

414 97 



'85,705.97!|6,530.36| 268,088 27 : 531 26 8791 72 267,557 01 



BaUme* 
Dua. 



37.431 95 

6.438 00 

76.810 90 

4,663 77 

5.849 66 

7371 8d 

3.625 78 

37.926 00 

23i248 74 

a954 48 

101 €0 

438 75 

37,935 13 

11.090 60 

10.745 04 

920 53 

1,804 00 

551 40 

6,034 46 



Sales of University Lands^ 1854. 



"Walworth 

Rock 

Columbia 

Dana 

Green 

La Fayette ... 

lovn 

Jefferson 

Bodfre.... 

Fond du Lac... 

Winnebago 

Calame 

Manit >woc 

Bidiland 

Grant 



Total 15489.88 



No. of 
Acres 
sold. 



400 
40 

758 

620 
1223 
4502 
2134 

119.88 

816 

720 

277 

520 

800 
1280 
1230 



No. of 
Acres 

unsold. 



119 



54 

"860 

1481 

1240 

640 

47 



3941 



Amount 
sold (OT, 



1,380 36 
310 28 
3.667 14 
2,5!<2 00 
3,905 22 
13.763 19 
6,203 74 I 

554 69 
3.003 14 
3.275 46 
1.816 72 
3.270 62 
2.291 90 
5.966 73 
4,508 00 



Principal 
Pail 



139 36 
33 28 
445 14 
262 00 
411 22 

1,450 19 
644 74 
55 69 
305 14 
329 46 
282 72 
524 62 
597 90 
607 78 

1,301 00 



56,499 19 7;^ 19 11,987 31 



Interest 
Paid. 



61 73 

10 56 

143 57 

110 52 

120 30 

431 27 

279 21 

28 55 

120 17 

109 91 

61 95 

h7 30 

63 40 

251 03 

57 84 



Balance 
Due. 



1,241 OO 
278 00 
3.222 00 
2.320 00 
3,493 OO 

12.313 oa 

5>559 00 
499 09 
2 698 00 
2.946 00 
1.634 00 
2,746 00 
1 694 00 
5.359 00 
3.207 OO 



49,209 00 



SALE OF LAin^e. 

From the foregoing Btatement it will bo seen that since the firti 
•^7 of Janaarj last 237,1 19 87-00 acres of land have been sold, and 
that of the lands which have been offered at public sale, and are 
now subject to private entry, there remain unsold of 16th sections^ 
83,52664-100 acres; of the five hundred thousand acre grant, 6,- 
530 36-100 acres; and of university lands, 3,941 acres. 

Under the five hundred thousand acre grant, there remain about 
twenty-three thousand acres to be selected, and there are about 
10,580 acres of selections in W upacca county, which have not yet 
been offered at public ealc. These arc farming lands of first rate 
quality well watered and timbered, and will, it is believed, pro- 
duce considerably more than the appraised value. 

The selections made under this grant by agents appointed some- 
times by the legislature, and sometimes by the governor under the 
direction of the legislature, should all have been from the choiceat 
lands in the state and in the best localities; but in some instances 
this duty has been shamefully neglected, and the lands selected 
have been of the most indifierent diameter, as appears by the re- 
ports of appraisers. Such is the character of most, if not all, of the 
lands so selected, and remaining unsold, excusive of those mention- 
ed as lying in the county of Waupacca. 

In the latter part of the month of September, two university 
sections, in Grant county, which had been omitted from former 
public sales, were offered at Plattevillo, and all taken, some of 
the subdivisions bringing au advance upon the appraisal. 

On the first day of December, selections forming part of the 
grant of five hundred thousand acres, were"offered in Shawanaw 
county ; on the 4th day of December, in Oconto county ; and on 
the 7th day of December, in Outagamie county. On the ninth of 
*of the same month, six 16th sections in Brown county, which had 
not befo.e been offered at public sale, were so offered at Grec*^ 
Bay, and two of them were taken at the sale. 

The amount received ou sales of school land effected since the 



commencement of such sales, in each jear, appears from fi)rmar 

reports to be as follows : 

Li 1849 $74,476 72 

'' 1850 444,264 15 

« 1851 229,790 80 

" 1852 61,026 20 

<' 1853 363,259 86 

« 1854 504,753 85 

Total, $1,677,571 08 

In the two last years the books in this oflSce show a large amount 
of sales, and in each year large tracts sold to individual purchaserSi 
the fund being thus greatly increased. The lands once offered at 
public auction are by law subject to private entry, and the amount 
to bo sold at private sale to any one person is not limited. The 
Governor and the commissioners have the power to withdraw 
such portion of them from sale as in their discretion "it may not 
be advantageous to sell or dispose of, and for as long a time as in 
their opinion will be most beneficial to the university and school 
fund." The extent of this discretion, thus defined by tlie law, 
gives no option on the part of the Governor and commissioners 
to refuse the sale of lands on account of the quantity applied for 
by any one person being more than lie can occupy for his ovoi 
use, since the more raj)idly sales can be effected, so much sooner 
will these funds realize the benefit of the endowcment of lands 
bestowed upon the State by the general government. And if in 
the end only the appraised value is to be obtained, the sooner the 
lands are sold the better. 

It 13 for the legislature, however, to consider whether there are 
reasons relating to the promotion of other interests than those of 
the school fund, and the system of common schooh relying upon 
it for support, Sufficient to induce the adoption of a policy limiting 
and restricting the sales of these lands. 

LOANS. 

The following statement shows the amounts loaned to individu- 
2 



10 

alfl, and the whole amonnt loaned in each eonntj, of school and 
nniversitj fnnd^, and also the amount of interest paid in advance 
npon such loans. 







BROWV COUNTY. 










School. 


Loan. 


Interest. 


Dec 31, 


1853 


MJMead 


500 00 


36 10 


JaD 26, ] 


L864 


John W Colton 


440 00 


28 67 




940 00 


63 67 






CALUMXT oouimr. 










Universiiy, 






Jan 0, 1854 


James RoLinsoa 


126 00 


8 62 


March 16, 1854 


William Fowler 


400 00 


22 07 


do 2 


6, do 


Oreamus D Fowler, 


300 90 


16 66 

47 16 




825 00 






COLUMBIA COUHTK^. 










ScJiool, 






Jan r. 


1854 


John A Grand 


150 




do 17, 


do 


E K Vaughan 


300 


20 06 ' 


do 20, 


do 


Alfred A West and Thomas West 


400 


26 50 


do 20, 


do 


Horatio T Thomas 


200 


13 26 


do 20, 


do 


John Brick well 


200 


13 25 


do 20, 


do 


Gorge M W Carey 


200 


IS 25 


do 27. 


do 


James Devine 


200 


12 05 


do 28, 


do 


Catherine Hermong 


200 


12 3G 


Feb 7, 


do 


William M Drake 


500 


31 38 


do 8, 


do 


Edmund F Lewis 


200 


12 61 


do 8, 


do 


John Irving Jr 


150 


9 33 


do 10, 


do 


Solomon Clark 


100 


6 21 


do 10, 


do 


John Sines 


200 


11 27 


do 10, 


do 


Joel CUrk 


100 


6 SI 


do 10, 


do 


A C Ketchum 


50O 


30 90 


doll. 


do 


C G McCullock 


500 


30 99 


do 13, 


do 


William McDonald 


250 


16 30 


do 14, 


do 


L W Barden 


300 


18 32 


do 14, 


do 


M R Keegan 


500 


30 70 


do 14, 


do 


H McFarlane 


500 


80 70 


do 14, 


do 


William Armstrong 


500 


80 70 


do 16, 


do 


Casper F Martia 


100 


6 12 


do 16, 


do 


H B Anderson 


500 


30 61 



11 



Intenik. 



doir. 


do 


Frederick C CurtiflB 


do 17. 


do 


NHWood 


do 17, 


do 


Robert Thompaoa 


do 20, 


do 


MTDmper 
Merwin MoeeB 


do SI, 


do 


do 21, 


do 


Edwin N Siorms 


do 21, 


do 


James HoUoway 


do 24, 


do 


Martin 1^ Peck 


do 28, 


do 


Joseph Hartman 


Aprl, 


do 


A Thompson 


Dec 8, 


do 


Hugb M Thompson 

Vhiversify, 


Feb 3, 


1854 


Thomas Christopher 


do d, 


do 


C H Moore 


Maris, 


do 


HMBeecroft 

DAra COUNTT, 

Sekod. 


Dec 30,1854 


John M Dudley 


Jan 26, 


do 


John Kershaw 


do 7, 


do 


CUra Weed 


do 9, 


do 


PAW Butler 


do 10, 


do 


Francis Gault 


doll, 


do 


John Collins 


do 20, 


do 


Abraham Bradley 


dodo 


do 


Sylvester B Williams 


dodo 


do 


Augustus W Dickenson 


do 24, 


do 


Frank H Firman 


do 25, 


do 


Alexander L Collins 


Feb 14, 


do 


W D Bird 


do 10, 


do 


Daniel Davidson 


do 8, 


do 


Demming Fitch 


do 10, 


do 


Benjamin F Denson 


do 23, 


do 


Warren K Hawes 


do 28, 


do 


George M Oakley 


do 13, 


do 


John Parkinson 


do 9, 


do 


Andrew Smith 


do 6, 


do 


William A Pierce 


do 4, 


do 


. Daniel McDonald 


do 2, 


do 


Algernon 8 Wood 
MLBoyce 


do 1, 


do 



400 
500 
150 
200 
300 
200 
200 
200 
150 
250 
150 

9450 



4CI0 
400 
200 

1000 



500 
200 
250 
500 
450 
200 
200 
120 
275 
250 
500 
200 
240 
350 
420 
450 
500 
150 
600 
500 
200 
200 
225 



24 33 


30 22 


9 18 


10 21 


Id 08 


12 06 


12 00 


11 82 


8 76 


13 It 


G3 


504 37 


25 09 


25 09 


11 08 



63 20 



35 19 


12 98 


17 16 


34 09 


20 61 


13 60 


12 25 


7 95 


18 18 


16 34 


32 69 


12 21 


14 64 


21 76 


26 25 


26 86 


30 16 


9 12 


31 18 


31 28 


12 79 


12 79 



14 44 



It 



Mch 4, 1854 

do 4, do 

do 7, do 

do 13, do 

do 13, do 

do 16, do 

May 15, do 

Jan 22, do 

lfovl6, do 

Sept20, do 



WiHiam Freemas 
Charles S Peaslej 
Joseph Oraj 
Jonn Elobinaom 
AC Preus 
Alvis Fix 
H W NickenoB 
Adalbert laaouui 
R F Wilson 
E Richardson 



LOSB, 

200 
300 
500 
100 
300 

loo 

200 
400 

200 
300 



3,700 



VmversUif. 



InterML 

11 48 

7 25 
28 40 

5 64 

10 81 

5 52 

8 75 
14 61 

1 71 
5 83 





Total 


♦9,705 00 


$573 30 




CTfUMTfAy. 






Feb 1, do 


Thomas Heeran 


350 


22 46 


do 2, do 


Leonard W French 


200 


12 74 


do 3, do 


John W Hunt 


300 


10 05 


do 8, do 


J R Brigham 


500 


31 28 


Mchl5, do 


Harom J(»rdan 


200 


11 08 


dole, do 


Elisha W Keyes 


500 


27 50 


Feb 23, 1854 


Michael Ames 


300 


10 4t 


do 23, do 


Lawrence Connor 


300 


17 00 


do 23, do 


A Bryant 


500 


20 36 


do C7, do 


H £ Connit 


500 


29 36 


do 7, do 


A B Jones 


200 


12 55 


March 2, 1854 


Patrick O'Hara 


100 


5 75 


do 7, do 


William Cabkirk 


500 


28 46 


do 8, do 


William C Rice 


500 


28 36 


do 8, do 


LH Chase 


500 


88 86 


do 21, do 


Catharine Hart 


200 


10 85 


do 21, do 


Michael Keelly 


200 


10 85 



215 77 



Maroh 23, 1854 


R Cowles 

[fohd du LAO oounr. 
School. 


500 


82 37 


Jan> 24, 1854 
Feb 4, do 


Rudolph Ebert 
John Lyons 


500 

100 


32 66 
6 38 



It 



Marf]i4, 1854 
do 7» do 
do 8, do 
L 11, do 



Fletcher Fairbank 
J H Haight 
Cornelius MaugaQ 
£ Manger 



150 
500 
280 
425 



Intereat. 

8 63 
28 46 
15 88 
23 06 









1,955 


115 93 






UnmnUy. 






M«Rhl8, 


do 


W H Walker 

£khool. 


300 


16 56^ 


Jm'j 12, 
Feb 16, 
Feb 24, 


1864 
do 
do 


Ewa Wwtcott 
Thoinas Fenton 
liBri^B 

1 


600 
800 
200 

1000 


33 99 

20 06 
11 90 




65 89 






OmuertUy. 






March «, 


1864 


James MSealea 

ORAMT ooxmrr 
School. 


400 


2d 84 


do «, 

do IS, 

April 1, 

do 1, 


do 
do 
do 
do 


Henry Oorrell 
Henry Clark 
George H Cox 
William F Dewey 


500 
500 
500 

500 


28 55 
28 07 
26 25 
26 25 



2000 



109 12 



Feb 17, do 

do 21, do 

do 25» do 

Mareb 7, do 

do 7, do 

Jan'y 24, do 

Jao'jr 2<H do 



Iowa Couittt. 

JSkhooi. 

Sphfaim Norton 
John B Skinner 
John B Skiuneri Jr 
R D TslforrI, 
M M Cothren 
Charles Wilson 
N B Boyden 



400 
500 
500 
600 
250 
133 
500 

2|783 




146 39 



UtdvenUy. Louu Interest. 

March 15. 1864 Joseph Miller MO H W 

do l«Uo Charles 8 MiUaid 300 H 0<^ 

800 44 25 

JSFrBBflOH OOUHTT. 

Jan'y 21, 1864 Stephen Faville 

Feb 16, do Walter H Besley 

do 16, do D Howell 

do 28, do John E Holmes 

March 1, do Jnstice Carpenter 

do 4, do James Eraser 

do 11, do AH Waldo 

April 16, do John J Perkins 

Kov 26, do EH Benson 



600 


32 04 


SOO 


18 48 


600 


30 13 


300 


17 60 


440 


26 67 


250 


14 38 


600 


28 72 


364 73 


17 68 


600 


3 60 



3,644 73 188 ZB 

LA FATETTTC CtoUKTY, 

School, 

Jan 20, 1854 EWHart 160 9 91 

do 27, do Thomas Baty 200 12 96 

Feb 1 do Preserved Ireland 400 26 67 

Mar 7 do J H Earnest 600 28 46 

do 8 do James B Gray 600 28 86 

do 20, da Michael Feimey 300 16 32 

do 27, do J R Rose 800 15 92 

Apr 1, do Peter Parkinson Jr 200 10 60 

Mar 3, do SamnelGBugh 600 28 07 

3050 176 16 

LA 0R09SK OOUNTT. 

School. 

Jan 1, 1854 William M Young 

do 1, do Dafid McConnell 

do 26, do Wiiriam McConnell 

Feb 9, do Robert Looney 

do 22, do Cyrtrn K Lord 

Mar 7, do DM West 

do 8, do A J Ellis 

do 13, do Da?!* Wright 

3,200 193 68 



350 


24 60 


150 


10 50 


200 


12 95 


600 


31 09 


600 


29 94 


600 


28 46 


600 


28 36 


600 


27 88 



16 

UXLWAVMMM OOmiTT. 

aekool. Loan. bterat 

Fab 17, 1854 Hav«D Powen 500 80 22 

Mar 21 1 do Johs Carmodj 500 85 00 

do 21, do £d«rardO*Nea 400 21 70 









1,400 


86 02 






ICAHITOWOO OOUHTT. 










School. 






Mar 2, 1854 


DB Knapp 
Fredrick Solomon 


800 


17 44 


do 9, 


do 


160 . 


14 00 


Oct 12) 


do 


Heniy Bom 


181 
631 


2 73 




34 17 






KARQUKTW OOUITIT. 










School. 






Jan 13, 


do 


William L McEenzie 


500 


33 81 


* do 13, 


do 


W H Gleaw* 


500 


33 81 


do 80, 


do 


A J> Wright 


450 


28 97 


Feb 16, 


do 


£ B Craig 


500 


33 42 


do 21^ 


do 


A WStour 


600 


30 03 


do 23, 


do 


MWSeelj 


400 


23 87 


do 28, 


do 


W P Bowman . 


800 


17 56 


do 28, 


do 


Qtorge H Chamberlain 


260 


14 63 


Mch 4, 


do 


Sylvester Wade 


200 


11 5<V 


do 4, 


do 


RojalTWella 


200 


11 60 


Apl 13. 


do 


A C Beuham 

Total 


158 


7 79 




8,058 00 


246 89 






OUTAGAMIE COUNTT. 










School. 






Dec 81, 


do 


David P Mead 

PIKBCE CQQUTTs 

School. 


500 


Z5 10 


Jne 17, 


do 


James M Bailey 

BICHLAKD COUNTY. 

VhiversUy. 


500 


18 75 


Mcbia, 


do 


Albert; ODaHj 


260 


13 71 


do 18, 


do 


Darid B Toung 


500 


21 42 



Total 750 41 13 



1« 



Feb 16, 1654 
do 24, do 



RAonis oouHxr. 

Sekod. 
W Spaford 
Tbomas Moyle 



Interest* 

30 60 
14 78 









760 


45 28 






EOCK COUNTY. 










Sehool 






JsD'y 20, 


1354 


A Q Felt 


200 


13 26 


Feb 6, 


do 


John L Thomas 


600 


31 28 


do 14, 


do 


John FerriDe 


500 


30 70 


do 24, 


do 


laaac F Smith 


500 


29 75 


do 25, 


do 


Chancey I King 


500 


29 46 


Varch 2, 


do 


Cyrus Curtice 


200 


11 63 


do 10, 


do 


Thomas R Wooliscroft 


500 


28 17 


Not 16, 


do 


F Whittaker 


200 


1 71 


Dec 20, 


do 


H Wilson 


500 


96 


July 6, 


do 


S C Willelt 


600 


16 88 . 


do 6, 


do 


W Wiffginton & Co 


500 


16 88 


do 22, 


do 


Isaac Woodell 


500 
6,100 


15 35 




226 02 






Vhivertity. 






Feb 2, 


do 


Levi Alden 


500 


31 85 


March 6, 


do 


Geori^e B Ely 


600 


28 55 


do 24, 


do 


G W BuDce 


600 
1,500 


27 21 




87 61 






SAUK COUNTY 










School. 






Feb 18, 


do 


E H McLaughlin 


100 


6 06 


Kaithfi, 




E G Wheeler 


160 


8 66 


Oct 9, 




Charles £ Jenkins 


500 
750 


7 84 




22 56 






0T. CROIX COUKTY. 










School. 






Feb 27, 


do 


Dexter B BaQey 


200 


11 79 


do 27, 


do 


ODGray 


218 


12 85 



418 



a 04 



17 







OSflBBOYOAN OUNTT. 








School. 


Loan. 


Jan J 16, 


1854 


H Hobert 


300 


Feb 9, 


do 


Frederick Stacks 


500 


March V, 


do 


Jam OS Haldwin > 


200 


do 13, 


do 


L W AVright 


100 


do 13, 


do 


EJijali Dawley 


250 



Deo 27, do 

Jan'y 3, do 

Feb 4, do 

Feb 14, do 

Feb 13, do 

March 4, do 

Nov 9, do 



Jan 17,1854 


do 20, 


do 


do 24, 


do 


do 24, 


do 


Feb iO, 


do 


do 10, 


do 


do 10, 


do 


do 13, 


do 


do 15, 


do 


do 21, 


do 


do 21, 


do' 


do 22, 


do 


do 23, 


do 


do 26, 


do 


do 27, 


do 


Mch «, 


do 


do «, 


do 


do 16, 


do 


do Ifi, 


do 


do 16, 


do 


April, 


do 


Ma7 26 


do 



WALWORTH COUNTY. 

School. 

Eleazer Wakely 
E E stab rook 
John M Evans 
Allnwi II Perry 
W P Alk-n 
Thomas Garre 
Augustine W Dickinson 



WAUKESHA COUNTY. 

School. 
Aiv^on H Taylor 
Robert Weir' 
Henry O Wright 
Jacob Hern 
Benedict A Bovee 
Ransom Kesler 
Thomas W PUmaii 
Stephen Platy 
J U Hilliard 
Robert Rogers 
JohTi*A Rice 
Isaac Kato 
Robert \\. McCarter 
John Williams 
ON Cole 
Homer riiird 
Israel McCanwell 
A L Cftstlemaii 
L B Seymour 
W H Thomas 
James O'Riely 
F MoNaoghton 



1,350 



300 
500 
200 
500 
500 
600 
275 

2,775 



lotereflt . 


20 


n 


31 


18 


11 


40 


5 58 


13 


95 



82 22 




161 75 



800 


20 06 


500 


33 04 


500 


32 W 


400 


26 21 


500 


31 09 


350 


21 76 


500 


31 09 


150 


U 


500 


30 61 


600 


90 03 


600 


30 03 


500 


29 94 


500 


29 84 


400 


28 71 


350 


20 65 


500 


28 75 


600 


28 75 


SCO 


27 «9 


500 


27 69 


600 


26 25 


200 


10 08 


600 


5. 48 



9,660 



654 47 



18 



WAUKSSflA COUMTT. 



Mek 9, 1864 
4o 21, do 



Feb 27, 

do 27, 

Uch 13, 



do 
do 
do 



Feb 9, do 

do 11, do 

do 28, do 

do 23, do 

April 3, do 

May 15, do 

do 15, do 

8ept21, do 



Vmveniiy. 
Andrew E Elmore 
l^elfionP Hawks 



WAUPACCA COUNTT. 

School. 
P Chase 
B F Phillips 
John M Vaughan 



WINNBBAQO COUKTT. 

School. 

A A Austin 
Charles Brady 
J Murdock 
Bichard P Eigbme 
W L Williams 
A F Larrabee 
H W Nickison 
A Lippen 



Loan. 

800 
600 

800 



600 
600 
600 

1,600 



100 
600 
600 
840 
600 
160 
200 
600 

2,880 



Interest. 

16 96 

20 68 



43 64 



29 36 
29 36 
28 07 

86 79 



11 


86 


80 


80 


30 


62 


20 


29 


26 92 


6 


66 


7 


58 


11 


24 



144 76 



Uhioertiiy. 

March 81, do S L Brooks 200 10 60 

Total Loans from School Fund 78,663 78 

« « University 9,125 00 

By virtne of an act approved April 1, 1854, entitled "An act 
to authorize a loan to the University of Wisconsin," the CommiB- 
sioners have also loaned to that institution the sum of twelve 
thousand, seven hundred, and thirtj-five dollars and thirty-three 
cents, ($12,735 38) out of the principal of the University Fund. 

With the exception of the loan last mentioned, to the State U*ni- 
' versity, it will be seen that these moneys have been loaned to In- 
dividuals in sums varying from five hundred dollars, the largest 
amount allowed to be loaned to any one person, to the least sum. 



19 

which is cme hnndrod dollars. For these loans we have taken 
mortgage security in conformity with law, and the mortgages have 
all been recorded. These, together with the evidences of title in 
each case and of its freedom from incnmbrance, are on file in the 
office of the Secretary of State, subject to the inspection and ex- 
amination of the Legislature. 

The law upon tliis subject requires, that all persons applying for 
a loan shall produce to the Commissioners, for their inspection, the 
•title papers, showing a clear and valid title in fee simple, without 
incumbrance, to the property offered in pledge, and not derived 
through any executor or administrator's sale, or sale on execution. 
Sec. 6.5, Chap. 24, Revised Sratutes. It is also provided in this 
section that the Commissioners shall duly inform themselves of the 
Talue of real estate offered in pledge as aforesaid, and shall judge 
of the validity of the title thereof. 

Sections 74 and 71 provide that no greater sura than five hundred 
dollars, nor less than one hundred, shall be loaned to any one per- 
son, and that no loan shall be made for a longer period than five 
years. 

Section 76 provides that the sum loaned shall not exceed one 
half of the appraised value clear of all perishable improvements, 
and the commissioners may reduce the amount to be loaned, &c. 

Section 79 requires the persoa applying for a loan to produce a 
and file with the commissioners a complete chain of title to the 
land oflTered to be mortgaged, and the certificate of the clerk of 
the circuit court, and register of deeds of the county in which tKe 
land lies, showing that there is no conveyance of, nor incumbrance 
on, said land, in either of their offices. 

Bj section 80, the applicant, before he receives the money to be 
loaned, must make oath to 'the truth of an abstract of title to his 
land, and that there is no incumbrance, or better plaim in law or 
equity that he knows or believes, upon, or to said land. 

These are the guards that the law has thrown around the loan- 
ing of the School and University Fund, and it is the duty of the 
eonuaaisaionerB to see that every provision of law above cited is 



20 

complied with, before they part with the money. Nplwitbstand- 
ing all these precautions the law is deficient, and if public officers 
had not boon more mindful of the interests of this fund, than tk© 
le-^islaturc Iia? Lv,xn, iLmiglit have suf; ered in consecpicucc ofsuch 
defect-. Scvjiid LL-iVcts of the law v»'e:o i)o:iil^d out b}' 1 ho com- 
mit -icnors inthjlr r/^mial report^, in t!ie years Vcji and 185:i, but 
noamoiulnioii: luis y':.t Iicoii m:ido. T!ii c^iuiuissiuu^ji-a, however, 
did ilioir duty, a:id sii;);>liLd ^vhat wa^ vrarilin/ ])y :uUg requiring 
apph'-jarit.-) t.) produce a certifiu.^te of l!ie cloik i^f tl.j board of su- 
pervisors of tlu,^ county. , that tli.^ land v'lijred ii? Sc'viJly is clear 
from luxes or out < 'rai'lin?: tax titles, a^d, in K^inj L\.:ies, tlie certif- 
icate ot' ta.j clerk of t-.o district C'/cin- of the I'uilel Slates, that 
there are nojud-^nientsof tnatcourt aii'jclliig iLj title. Ihese, to- 
;;etlu:i' wiLli Ocli.^r rule::- calcahi^ed to e.i:iaro :;:'cater certainty of 
the .nitiiciency of serniriliea ofFerod, we have u.iopteJ; and, except 
the ccrtiiiC:.lo of the*c'o: k of the UnituO Slalom dictriec c*..»ur', v/hich 
we only rccpiire when v.-o deem it proper to do sj, evidences of se- 
curity in accordance tiierewith will b:' found with the papers rela- 
tina; to every loan ma'lo by us. AVitli such i r^'caulions strictly 
observed, and with due investigation of title, wo have great confi- 
dencG tJint the fund vnll not bo likely t ) incur even iuconsidui'able 
losses. The loans bci'\:; j^nxall in amjiint are generally applied for 
by pernOHR who need a little m mey, at a reasonable rate of inter- 
est, to improve tlieir fariuj^, or to retain po^^i ssion of them, and 
with" the rise in tl.c value of rerd. estate, tli-j reearity be'ng every 
veare^jhanccJ, thefailnrco to mako payment of intorc^L ur of ])riu- 
cipal,nowbutfew, will be proporlion:dly le^^sened. 
^^TiicTaw, providing in Sec. 7-1. Chi^p. 21, Eevised Statute-:, tliat 
no loan shall bo made for alon-^er period than iive years, provides 
^Rsf^y ^ITPift any por^.n obtainin;^^ a loan may have the privile.';o of 
^^t6rf(Bn/^ tlfie time of payment of the i»rincipal from joar to year, on 
"^aymefit flWiually in advance of t!je interest on the snni due, at the 
rate of inti^Hift specified in the original mortgage, and thelcgisla- 
terof Mdjf^hBoeafter change the law so as to require payment of 
aadde&doslBrfdailJhnKjy at any time after one year frem the time wheEPi 
atUidtia^iQirftriidBi shall have expired," By this provision while 



21 

the bprrowcr has the privIKjge of oxtondhig the time of paying 
the principal of the loan mado to him, upon pcrfonnanc) of the 
condition named, he is left to the uncertainty of the action of the 
legislature, which may, in its discretion, at any time after one year 
from the date of the loan call in the whole aniomit. Instead of 
this we are of the opinion, and we respectfully bUffgest, the amend- 
ment of the law to that effect, that the interest being paid annual- 
ly, the period for which loans [>re luado should be extended to ten 
years, or even a longer time. To require the payment of the prin- 
cipal in any shorter period, is only to incur the trouble of making 
a new investment, which would be useless when the security for 
one already made stands good. While the interests of the fund 
would in no wise suffer from such a provision, the accommodation 
to the class of persons, who are in general the borrowers, would 
be very greatly increased. 

TOTAL OF LOAKS. 

Wbple amount due from individuals in the several counties on 

account of loans from the school and University funds, on the 

thirty first day of December, 1853, $164,886 51 

Amount of loans made to individuals in 1854 82,788 73 

do do do university, 1854 12,735 33 



Deduct $250,410 57 

do. paid on loans in 1854 4,866,00 

Total due on loans $246,544 57 

SCHOOL FUND. 

Amount received on account of School Fund during the year 
1854. 

On sales previously made $12,024 90 

On sales of land during the year 1854 42,920 07 

On loans paid 4,866 00 

On fines and forfeitures 2,872 20 

5 per cent, penalty on forfeited lands 2,150 07 



Total Bec^pts $94,833 27 



22 

Amount paid out on same account. 

On loans $73,663 78 

For other purposes 11,332 33 

Total Disbursements ' $84:,996 06 

SCHOOL FUKD INCOME. 

Eeceipts $106,235 08 

Disbursements, moneys apportioned to counties 97,168 88 

UNivERsrrr fund. 

Amount received on account of university fund. 

On sales previously made $2,597 47 

On sales of lands during the year 1854: 6,959 72 

On loans paid 250 00 

5 per cent, penalty on forfeited lands 138 40 

$9,945 59 
Amount paid out on same account. 

On loans $21,860 33 

For other purposes 38 60 

$31,898 93 

UNIVERSFTY FUND INCOME. 

Eeceipts $8,775 08 

Disbursements to university 10,640 00 

For a complete and detailed statement of the receipts and dis- 
bursements of these funds, we refer to the report of the Secretary 
of State, for the year ending December 31st, 1854, and fur infi)rm- 
ation in relation to the amount of schc ol and university funds now 
in the treasury, subject to loan, we refer to the report of the State 
Treasurer. 

The capital of the school fund amounts, at this time, to/ the sum 
of $1,670,'258 77, being an increase since December 3l6t, 1853, of 
$528,454 49. 

This capital consists of the following items: 

Due on sales of land, heretofore made $1,416,262 50 

Due on school fund loans 220,iU4 24 

In the treasury 84,6»2 03 



$1,670,258 77 



S8 

The capital of the uniyeraity fund to this date^ amounts to the 
8am of $161,146 61 

And consists of the following items : 
Dae on sales of land 135,916 28 

Dae on loans 25,230 33 



$161,146 61 

The following statement exhibits the namber of acres of school 
and university lands forfeited in the different counties daring the 
year 18o4, the number of acres sold and the number of acres unsold, 
together with the amount sold fpr, and the amount of five per cent. 
penalty realized to the school fund on that account: 

Forfeited Lands^ Sixteenth Section. 



00UKTIX3. 


No. of 

Acres 

Forfeited 


No. of 
Acres 
sold. 


No. of 
Acres 
unsold. 


Amount 
Dae. 


Amount 
sold for 


Bad Ax 


40 
200 
353.S0 

79 
120 
320 
278.4 
490 
220 
600 

40 
9.92 

50 
280 

80 

512.20 
340.74 
120 

40 
53425 

40.18 
160 
240 
259.74 
380 
2-^.95 
160 
200 


40 
200 
330.42 

76 

320 

278.4 

490 

220 

560 

40 
9.92 

50 
280 

80 

472.20 
182.24 

80 

40 
518.75 

160 

160 

259.74 

380 

249.95 

160 

200 


23.38 
120 

40 

40 

158.50 
40 

i$i25 
40.18 

80 
40 


51 00 
393 00 

1.009 00 
121 00 
162 00 

1.485 09 
531 00 

1.467 00 
338 00 

liieo 00 

164 00 
100 00 
225 00 
549 00 
838 00 

L410 00 

701 00 

161 00 

54 00 

4451 00 
302 00 
198 00 
716 00 

1.086 00 
661 56 

1.600 00 
364 00 
344 00 


57 62 


Brown..... ...... 


459 67 


Columbia 

Calumet 


920 44 
136 52 


Crawford. ..--- 




Dane 


1.800 13 


Dodge.... .--- 


649 95 


Food du Lac 

Oimnt 


1.737 11 
411 80 


Iowa .... .... .... 


1.075 48 




184 18 


Keoosha. 


119 50 


LaFayelto 

La Crosse 

Milwaukee 

Manitowoc. 

Marquette 

Outagamie 

PortM?e 


950 25 
618 38 
939 56 
1.540 61 
252 96 
181 82 
60 98 


Roct:.. 

Raeine 


4933 89 


Rirhlaod ......... 


^ 224 76 


Sbeboygafi 

Walworth 

Waokesha 

Waahincton 

Winnemgo 

Wauaham 


601 69 

1.346 35 

786 97 

lau 11 

442 44 
275 78 


Total 


6.437.89 


5.840.55 


597.56 


20.641 56 


21J369 79 



24 



Ffyrfeited T.anfh hi ih- oDO.OOO A'^i'i Tract. 



COUNTIM. 


Xo. of 

Acrc'8 
ForfeiU'd 


No. of 

Ac:vs 
Sold. 


No. of 

Ai'.ps 

Unsold. 


Amount 
due be- 
l-\o Sale. 


Amount 
of 


Cost of 

Intc'T>t 

•\.lv-rrai 


Amount 
Sold for. 


Bad Ax 

Bro\rn 

Calurnet 

Colurnbli 

Crawford 

Dane 

•Grantw 

Iowa 


760 

120 
2 5!6.73 

160 
40 

200 

280 
40 

248.50 
3.959.5U 
1.040 
3,0ji0 

183.75 

200 

320 
4,769.10 

180 


760 

120 
2.516.73 

160 
40 

200 

280 
40 

208.50 
^,959.50 
1,010 
3.080 

183.75 

200 

320 
4,769.10 

180 


40 


019 17 

^>12 01 

43:^6 60 

•i03 20 

50 73 

515 85 

417 5 . 

HO 42 

321) 00 

5136 01 

i:302 0^ 

40s I K^^ 

410 3-^ 

251 15 

480 20 

6027 09 

1h6 00 


47 -in 

111 «;.:. 

216 N-^ 

JO 16 

2 5( 
:J5 79 
20 h< 

4 02 


95 77 

31 11' 
316 73 

19 75 

4 01 

3S 57 

32 lUi 
6 12 


1092 40 

253 83 

d900 16 

233 11 

57 31 

5M) 21 

.471 10 

90 56 


Jeffuraou 

LaCroasc. 

LaFajotte.... 
Manitowoc... 
Outafjarnia... 

Ricbland 

Bank 


16 00 
256 HO 

65 10 
201 00 

20 52 
12 71 

21 01 
301 35 

9 30 


29 60 

7II-2 64 

102 90 

'^W^ H6 

31 17 

20 21 

38 59 

■t>7 OS 

15 02 


3)1 34 

5895 45 
1470 05 
4645 54 
462 07 
2r^7 10 
542 80 


St. Crrix 

Waukesha, 


6816 42 
210 32 


Total 


18.097.58 


18,057.58 


/o 


2-1963 OS 


1218 15 


2363 63 


28319 80 



University Lands Forfeited, 



couTmss. 



Oreen 

Ofcen *. 

Fonddu Lac. 
Fond da Lac. 
Fonddu Lac. 
Winnebago.-. 
Winnebago... . 
Wimiebago».: 

Rock™- 

Rock 

Hock 

Rock^ 

Manitowoc. 
Ricbland 



Total. 



No. of 

Acres 

Forfeited 



42.22 
39.38 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
Fract'al. 



40 
40 
40 



401.60 



No. of 
Acres 

Sold. 



42 22 
39.38 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
Pnict'aL 



40 
40 
40 



401.60 



No. of 

Acr«'.s 

Unsold. 



40 



40 



Amount 
Due. 



47 00 

106 00 
163 00 
212 00 
208 00 
253 00 
253 00 
253 00 

27 00 

18 00 

13 00 

235 00 

108 00 

107 00 



Amoont 
Sold for. 



53 14 
119 33 
183 06 
337 94 
333 46 
319 3d 
383 86 
383 86 

30 74 

30 66 

31 9& 
363 70 



120 34 



3,003 00 3,l7i 18 



The preceding statement shows that nearly all of the lands bo 
fotfeited, amounting to about twenty-five thousand acres, have been 
re-Bold during the present year, at the appraised value with coats 



aad cbargeA of aale^ and five per cent poualtj added. By sectidn 
3 of an ^^aet in relation to &el»>ol laad," approfved Mardi 19. 1858, 
iti&mado iihe ^ klnty of the oommiBsionerB,- whenever aoy of the 
school or university lands ehall have heen forfeited for the space of 
six months, by reason of the nonpayment of prinoipal or interest^ 
to adrertiaain some newsp&per publisthed in the connty'in Trhioh 
8uoh lands lie, &a, that such forfeited lands are snbject to .private ' 
entry by any pertion applying therefor, and the minimum price for 
sujoh tpracti or parcels of land so. forfeited, shall be the amount dne 
thereon at tfaetizncof snohre^sale, together with the costs of sale." 

Under this section the lands are subject to private entry as soon 
as they advertised on the terms stated in the section. 

We are. of the opinion, that this law disregards both the interest 
of t)}e original purchaser and of the school fund. 

The law upon this subject, before it was repealed by the forego* 
ing section, was much the best; it provided that all forfeited lands 
should be offered at public sale, before they could be subjected to^ 
private entry. Sec- 27, chap. 24, revised statutes. By tiiia^xnrH 
sipn the purehaserhaa abundant time and opportunity to redeem Lie 
lai^d, apd In case it should not be redeemed, the fund oould rea* ' 
lise the iuereased va^ue thereof. Besides, the failure to pay inter- 
est is often tide result of mistake, andin many cases while 4Jie pur- 
chaser supposed his interest was paid, and while he was in the 
qiiiet ppssefloion and enjoyment of his property, it has been sold. 

Thi^ law should, at leasts be so amended as not to allow sueh 
laudato b^ sold until, the. delinquent list has been advertised tat 
the period of three months at least. By tliis means an opportuni- 
ty would be afforded to ccnrrect errors and mistaken, and to pay the 
interest, inmost cases, where parties interested desire to do so. 

IJnder the power givctn to ps by section 101, of chapter 34, re- 
vised statute, we have, in several instances, when we were satis* 
fied ihat. the failure to pay interest was in. consequence of some 
aniatake or misunderstanding, r^^dalled the certiiicate issued on Idio 
resale of forfeited lands, and alloveed the original purchaser to retain 
hie land by frying the costs of advertising and the five per cent* 
penalty. ' 

4 



By an Act approFod April 1, 1864, the governor aod oommia- 
sioners of the school and aniversitj lands were authorized and etn* 
p<lwered to reorganize the manner of conducting the sale of these 
lands, and of keeping the accounts of the funds arising therefrom* 
Accordinfly about the first of July, a chief clerk, Walter H. Bes- 
ley, and a sufficient number of subordinate clerks were appointed 
forjfche transaction of the business. The re organization contem- 
plated by the act, which was commenced as soon as practicable af- 
ter providing the books required for the purpose and additional of- 
fice room, had become absolutely necessary for the proper man- 
agement of the multiplied and continually increasing transactions 
growing out of the sales of land and the investment of funds, and 
there was a large arrearage of work to be brought up from the 
transactions of former years — ^an arrearage occasioned by the want 
of sufficient clerical ibrce to do the duty required by law. An ex- 
amination of the affiairs of this office will show the necessity for 
the provision made by the act referred to, and will further show, 
we hope, that the intention of the legislature has thus far been 
faithfully and successfully answered. We earnestly recommend 
that permanent provision be made for the expense of a competent 
number of clerks, and that appropriation be made at as early a pe- 
riod of the session as possible, to meet the expenses already incurr- 
ed. 

The number of subordinate clerks may be reduced, after a short 
time, withont inconvenience, a larger number being requisite at 
present than will be needed when the work for which they have 
been employed, shall be further advanced, and the press of the bu- 
siness in the first months of the year shall be over. ' We also sug- 
gest that these expenses are properly chargeable to the school and 
university fund income, and that their payment be directed accord- 
ingly- 

Sbo. 52, of chap. 24 R S., vests in the commissioners ^^the gener- 
al care and supervision of all lands belonging to this state, and of 
all the lands in which the state has an interest, or which are or may 
be held intrnst by the state unless the superintendence thereof is 
vested in some other officer or board.*' 



27 

# 

&D0. i9y of chap* IM9 makes it ^^tbe special duty of the superid- 
tendont of eohools in each town, who may have knowledge of, or 
who may receive information of trespasaere upon school or uni- 
versity lands, ^Ho forthwith inform the district attomeyof the com- 
fy in which he shall reside of the trespass committed, of the name of 
the trespasser or trespassers, and of the name of the witness or wit- 
nesses," and th^i directa the district attorney to prosecute. 

Under the power given by the first cited section, the commis- 
sioners have the care and superintendence of the swamp lands be- 
longing to the state, and they have received letters at various times 
within th^ last three months, informing them that trespasses were 
daily being cdmmitted on such lands, and, particularly as to those 
lying near the MSssTSsippi, that preparations were on foot for ex- 
tensive trespasses daring the present season, in the cutting and 
carrying away of timber. "We have been urged from diflFerent 
aources to appoint agents to attend to the interests of the state, and 
prevent, if possible, the commission of such depredations. 

The provision made by section 49, chap. 134 R. S., above cited, 
is evidently altogether inadequate to affect any good result in 
sparsely settled counties, and in those it is, chiefly, that such tres- 
passes are committed. A more effective mode of prosecution should 
also be provided than that indicated in section 47 of the same chap, 
for thopsosecution of trespassers upon school and university lands, 
and should embrace in its operation cases of trespass upon every 
description of lands belonging to the state. 

In conclusion we feel it to be our duty to press upon the atten- 
tion of the legislature the fact, that daring the five years that this 
vast fund, amounting now to nearly two millions of dollars, has 
been under the management of commissioners, the representatives 
of the people have never made it matter of investigation whether 
the business relating to it has been done prudently, honestly, and 
according to law. The people are entitled to know whether it has 
been so managed or not, and a thorough investigation is especially 
due to the officers who have had charge of it, that their honor and 



28 

% 

integritj may be vindicated. Moreover, in a busiiMMa so extensive 
and complicated, involving acconnte, and dealiogs with so many 
individvals, it w^nld be singular, indeed, it errors sbonld not have 
oGcarred, and the more speedily snch investigation is had, the 
more readily errors may be corrected. We ask such investigation, 
to be made as promptly and fally as possible, both for ourselves, 
and those who have preceded ns in the position we liold, and will 
afford every facility in onr power for its due and faithful prosecu- 
tion. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

AXEXANDERT- GRAY. 
E. H. JANSSEN. 
(JEO. B.SMITH. 



REPOET. 



OmCPR OF SuPSBOmafDBKT OF PlTBLIC iNBTBlTOtlOiri 

Madison, Wis., Dec. 31st, 1854. 

To the LegiAaiwre : 

In compliance -with the provisions of section 51 of chapter 9 
of the Bevised Statutes, t herewith submit to th^ legislature the 
sixth annual report from the department of Public Instruction; 
containing an abstract of all the common school reports receiy^d 
from die several clerks of the county boards of supervisors; a. 
statement of the condition of the common schools of the State; 
estimaieB and accounts of expenditures of the school moneys; 
and otl&er matters relating to our free school system, which it is 
deemea expedient to communicate. Some subjects are considered 
and commented upon, which, under the provisions of law, are not 
required, nor^ perhaps, proper to be embodied in a report to th^ 
legislatdre; but I have availed myself of the cnstoni established 
by my predecessors, and sanctioned in other. States^ having a sys-^ 
tern of pnbKc schpols ahd an officer, having a supervisory control 
over thdtn, to make this report a medium of communication with .. 
the Bchi^r'omcers and people of the State. .^,, . 

An al)Btract of all the common school reports reeaivvd at this * ' 
office frpjoa* tl^e several ^lerka of the couity boards of jsuperviBois' • 
for the jQ^ 1864 will he foupd in Ajjpendix A. What few r^ * ^ 
tarns were made upon the subject of select schools and incorpo* 



rate academiee, are obvionslj so erroneous and incomplete that no 
definite conclusions can bo drawn from them, and accordmgly 
thej are not included in the abstract. 

The law organizing the free school system of this State took ef- 
fect on the' first day of May, 1849, and has, censequently, been in 
operation less than six y^rs ; yet sufficiently long to prove the 
wisdom of the proyision in our constitution relative to common 
. sehoolli, and the truth and justice of the principle therein asserted, 
that, with the aid of the school fund, the property of the State 
aliall be taxed for the support of schools for the education of all 
the youth of the State. It is a noble principle to be engrafted in 
the Inndamental law of a State on its admiseioit to sovereignty in 
the federal union, — Shaving been acknowledged and adopted by a 
great majority of the electors of the State at the ballot box. Hug 
system of free schools is yet in its infancy, but its practical work- 
ings, thos far, give every reason to hope that all the benefits to 
the State, claimed for the system by its originators and supporterSy 
will be more than realized, and that generations which are to suc- 
ceed us and assume all the duties of moral, social, and political 
life, will have profited by the action of the present, in their exer- 
tions to prepare them for the great struggle of life. 

This principle has been affirmed by the Qeneral Government 
by the munificent grants of land it has made to the States, to aid 
in the support of schools; it has been re-affirmed by our State and 
people, and there seems, at present, no respectable or consider- 
able opposition to it on the part of our citizens. 

But there are objections to some of the more important details, 
under the present organization of the common schools, and their 
practical operation ; and various amendments have been suggested 
as necessary to remove these objectionable features ; but, as has 
been truthfully and justly remarked by another, ^^The ardor of 
reformation runs into exaggerated representations of the abuses it 
aims to overthrow, and the erron and omissions in the administra> 
tionof asystem are more easily discovered and promulgated than 
remedied. It is not difficult to theorise on the subject of educa* 



lion ; every man feels competent to the taak of forming ejttemt 
that work admirably on paper, but tha practical diffienlty of a 
aabject that requirea the co-operation of the. whole commnnityi 
and depends almost entirely on public sentiment, can be appreci- 
ated only by those who have experienced them, or who have at- 
tentively considered them." 

It is not supposed that the present system of common schools is 
perfect, or that any system that conld be devised, would possess 
that degree of perfection which would command the approbation 
und cheerful support of all ; for any institution that is created 
solely for the people, will be viewed in just as many different 
ways, as there are different individual relations to it While oi^e 
person will object to the grant of power to district meeting9, to 
determine the school affairs of the district, as a factious and sd- 
fish tribunal, another will as decidedly oppose the remedial plan 
of investing all these powers unconditionally in any set of school 
officers, as not democratic and likely to be oppressive ; while on« 
would abolish the office of town Superintendent because he may 
exercise partiality in the discharge of his duties, and would recom- 
mend a town board consisting of three commissioners in his place, 
as uniting more wisdom, prudence and justice in the direction of 
affairs ; another would object to the change as increasing town 
expenditures and not calculated, as shown by experience, to ac- 
complish the object desired. While one would tax property where 
.it is^ another would tax it whore the owner is ; while one would 
liave a poll tax levied in mining and lumbering counties to secure 
;« tax from those whose mineral and lumber have sought a market 
before the assessor appears, another will plead the constitution^ 
snd uniformity .of laws. While one thinks school districts should 
Jiave jwwer to vote taxes whenever they please, at special meet- 
ings, another sees no reason why school districts should levy taxes 
more than once a year, any more than to was, counties, and the 
atate. In fact many parts of the school law are defective, in the 
eyes of some, and they are ready to supply the defect. It as im* 
possible to legislate to meet nM the cases that will arise in conse* 



quence of the caprice or frailties of men, wliether in relation to 
the school law or anj other law ; human nature is too fruitful in 
discovery and invention, to leave anj hope that every case that 
may arisOi will find a law upon the Statute hook applicahle to it. — 
Were this the case we should have little need of lawyers to advo- 
cate the rights of individuals, or judges to decide between parties. 
We have not attained to that degree of legislative skill and hu- 
man excellence, where legislators can foresee and provide by enact- 
ment, for all the petty difficulties that may arise in the future up- 
on points of difference between individuals ; and to tmdertake a 
task of that character would be alike fruitless and unprofitable. 

Complaints are also made that the system is already too complex, 
-and not adapted to the comprehension and wants of many persons 
whose duty it is to administer it This complaint generally pro- 
ceeds from those who have little or no time or inclination to read 
and understand the law, and consequently have but little light upon 
whidi to base a correct opinion. The law seems to be as simple, 
and to contain as few provisions, and to demand as limited a com- 
pliance with' forms, as are absolutely necessary to keep up the 
system and to secure the right of individuals and communities, 
irithout vesting in some one ofiScer an amount of power and au- 
thority that would be odious to the people. 

No mystery whatever surrounds the school law that cannot 
easily be dispelled by a perusal of it, and there is no object inte^id- 
ed to be secured by it that cannot be realized, if the law is ad- 
ministered as it is, with an honest purpose. But if men, prompted 
by inordinate selfishness, or parsimony, or any evil passion, de- 
signedly labor to make the school law the vehicle of their own* 
interest, to the detriment of others, and the cause of education, 
and exert their ingenuity and energy to thwart the will of the 
community, they will sometimes succeed in so doing. 

Such is the defect of all human laws, and ever will be while 
man is possessed of passions not subject to the control of judg- 
ment and conscience. 



DiflScQltdeB do arise in school districts in the administration of 
the school law, as they do in the administration of all other laws; 
but it cannot be expected that a law which gathers aronnd it so 
many important considerations, and which effects, pecnuiarilj^ 
every tax-payer in the State, and in its objects and results appeiJa 
to the affection and patriotism as well as the interests of men^ at 
the sole medium '^of securing to thousands of the youth of the 
State a common school education, will, on all occasions and in all 
thedi^^^rent phases it may assume in its api^cations to ihe^wants 
of cos^munity, meet with no opposition, no ^ssentient vi^ws. 
On the contntry, it may be considered surprising tiiatsafsw ^dS&r 
daJties^ and so little trouble do occur in the business transaetiona 
of 9600 corporations, which is about tlb number of sciiooll-dis- 
tri^in the State. The officers composing the district boards are 
frequ<en;fly £lled by unlettered men, whose aim is to' administer 
the law as it, and not pervert it ; but it is sometimes the ease Ihat 
. nien will be found with no higher ambition than' to ^ke^ a 
n^hborhood in a broil by picking ^ws'^ in the {proceedings of a 
diatrict 

This is the misfortune of the district, and not a failure of the law. 
I wouldnot countenance wrong or an injury to the rights of another, 
' though committed through ignorance ; the law was design^' for 
iio«iich purpose; but school district difficulties more frequently 
Arise from the different views entertained by different individuals, 
jkot Bpon the meaning and application of the law, but upon "tiie 
Torioiis subjects pertaining to school matters. This cannot be 
reached by legislation. One person, actuated by no other than 
the most disinterested feelings, entertains views diametrically op- 
posed to another who is equally conscientious upon some matter 
relatiireto schools, and thereupon arises a contest; perhaps the 
formation or alteration of a school district is involved. It is not 
jBnpposed that any system, or any laws that do not suppress the 
right of free speech and vest absolute power in some one, can reach 
such cases, nor do I think it desirable to do so. ' A healthy public 
sentiment alone can quiet dissentions of this character. 



Yarions amendments have been made to the school law aince it 
first took effect, and these amendments have not been farnished 
to school districts, which has been a frnitful source of illegality in 
the proceedings of school districts, simplj because they had no 
means of ascertaining what the law was. This difficulty is now 
obviated by the law of last winter, which reduced the school law8 
to a compact form, and provided for furnishing a copy to every 
school district in the State, and also a copy of all amendments that 
may hereafter be made to it 

It is not deemed good policy to make frequent and important 
changes in the school law of the State, unless the most nrgent ne- 
cessity demands that such changes should be made. It is quite 
important that all should possess some familiarity with the school 
law, as well as the officers whose immediate duty it is to adminis- 
ter it; which is almost impossible if frequent emendations are 
made. Officers and districts become discouraged in their efforts 
to familiarize tliemselves with it, and to comply with its provisions, 
where it is undergoing repeated alterations. It is not contended 
that palpable defects should be suffered to exist on account of a 
desire to maintain the law unaltered, for any reason whatever ; 
but fioand policy would indicate that it is at least a question of 
grave consideration, whether it is not better that slight defects 
should exist in it, rather than have it made the subject of experi* 
mental legislation, which may again be experimented upon anoth- 
er year. If the repeated amendments to our general laws, have 
given rise to the complaint that lawyers cannot unravel them^ bow 
much more reason is there for the complaint that under such cir- 
cumstances the school law cannot be understood, and how much 
greater the necessity of a remedy for the evil. 

AFPOBTIONHENT OF IKC0H£ OF SCHOOL FUKD, FOB 185i. 

In pursuance of the provisions of an act entitled " an act to ex- ' 
tend the time for making the apportionment of the income of the 
school fund," approved March 3, 1852, the sum of ninety-nine 



9 

thousand seven handred and forty-nine dollars and fifty two centi^ 
-was apportioned among the several towns and cities of the State, 
which were entitled to receive any portion of said incomCi on the 
ISth day of March last. Of the four hundred and twenty-one or* 
ganiaed towns and cities in the counties from which reports were 
received, four hundred and five received their due share^of said in- 
come. Eleven towns, to wit : Eildare, Necedale and Lisbon, in the 
county of Adams; Wood ville in the county of Calumet ; Westfieldi 
in the connty of Marquette ; Grand JRapids, Eagle Point, Amherst 
and Buena Vista, in the county of Portage ; Embarrass, in the 
county of Waupacca ; and Mount Morris, in the county of Wau- 
ahara, were not entitled to a portion of the income, for the reason 
that no reports were received from them. The town of Grand 
Marsh, in Adams county ; the town of Albion, in Jackson county; 
the town of Newton, in Marquette county ; the town of Rush 
JRiver, in St. Croix county ; and the town of Oentreville, in Wau- 
pacca county, received no apportionment, for the reason that the 
reports received from them were deficient in several essential re* 
quirements of the law. A detailed statement of the apportion- 
ment for the year 1864, will be found in appendix " 0." 

Appendix " D," is a tabular statement showing the amount of 
the income of the school fund apportioned and paid annually to 
the several counties of the State, under the present system of 
schools. The first appportionment was made in 1850, based np >ii 
returns submitted to this department in November, 1849. The en- 
tire amount distributed in 1850, amounted to but $588 00, while 
that for 1854, as above stated, amounted to $99,719 52 ; an in- 
crease of over $99,000 in the annual income of the fund in four 
years. 

Appendix "E" exhibits the amount of money raised by tax in 
the several counties of the State for school purposes, from 1849 to 
1854 inclusive. This aggregate of tax raised in the counties, is 
made up of specific sums raised in each town by direction of the 
county board of supervisors at their annual session in November 
in eaeh year ; and sneh sums added to the amount apportioned to 
2 •• 



10 

' eacli by the State Saperintendent, constitute a sum to be appor- 
tioned bj the town Superintendent to the several achool districts 
of the town, which are entitled to receive a p<Htion by a compli- 
ance with the conditions imposed by law. The amount of school 
money to be raised in the several towns of the State, must con- 
tinue £o increase as long as additions are made to the capital of the 
school fund, and there is a consequent increase of the annual in* 
come ; iTor as each town is required by law annually to raise asum 
of money for school purposes equal, at least, to one-half the 
amount received by such town at the previous annual apportion- 
ment to it. the value the town places upon the public fund will, 
under all ordinary circumstances, insure^ the annual levy of the 
requisite amount. 

Many of the towns, at the annual town meeting, vote to raise 
money for the support of common schools, to be added to the 
amount directed to be raised by the county board at the ensuing 
autumn ; but as no letums are required to be made to this ofBce 
of the amount so raised, it is impossible to ascertain the exact 
amount raised by all the towns of the State for school purposes. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL LAWS. 

In accordance with the authority and direction contained in sec- 
tion ninety-nine of "an act to amend chapter nineteen of the Be- 
vised Statutes, and to compile the school laws of Wisconsin,^^ ap- 
proved April 1st, 1854, 1 caused seven thousand copies oi the act 
named to be printed in pamphlet form, including therewith such 
rules, forms, regulations and explanations, as were deemed neces- 
sary to carry into effect and accompany its provisions. A portion 
of the pamphlets were furnished by the State printer, for the use 
of this departmedt, on the 28th of June last; and between that 
date and the twelfth of July, a suflScient number of copies were 
forwarded, by mail, to the town superintendents of the State, to 
'enable such oflBcer to deliver a copy to the clerk of each school 
district within his jurisdiction and retain a copy for his own use, 

A copy was, also, in the same manner, forwarded to the clerk of 



11 

the Board of Superyisors of each oi^aQi^ connty, and one to the 
clerk of each citj in the State. The number of copies of tha law 
forwarded to each town superiutendent, corresponded with the 
namber of school districts in the town as shown bj the re^rts 
made to this office for the year ending August Slst, 1868; add in 
cases where such number proved insufficient in consequence Of the 
organization of new districts subsequent ,to that date^ additional 
copies have been sent to supply such deficiency » as soon as made 
known. Previous to the publication of this now edition of the 
school laws, as the former one was entirely exhwdsted, a large tmm- 
ber of the districts of the State were without any guide to direct 
them in their proceedings but the Bevised Statutes, aild thesewere 
accessible to only a comparatively small number y and coneideting 
that numerous and important amendments have been made td the 
law therein contained, it is not surprising that irregularities shduld 
mar their proceedings, and give xise, in some instances, to difficul- 
ties and contentions which would have been avoided had the law, 
as it existed, been known to them. 

It is believed that the wise proviaion in the present school law, 
providing that a copy of all amendments hereafter made to it, 
shaU be furnished to eaoh school district In the State, will Mstve 
the most salutary effect, and aid and eDco«irage the efforts of seUool 
di^ti^icts to act legally in all their proceedings, heretofore rende^d 
: ixnpossible for the reasons stated. 

ANNUAL BEFOBTS OF SCHOOL OFFiCEBSn — ^XMFERFJSGT BVrUBHS. . 

.. Hie reports made to tiiis office by the clerks of the Board of 
^RP^T^iBors of the different counties, containing abstracts of the 
:X«ipQrto of the town saperintendents, are in many cases incomplete, 
, and in. some cades obviously erroneous, rendering it imposeibW to 
preaept to theAegislatnre such complete and reliable statistical in- 
formation as is desirable, and which would exhibit the real and 
comparative condition of sehools in each of the counties in the 
State; showing from year to year, in a convenient and accessible 
fimn,, the progress and workings of the school system. The fault 



IS 

Jies, not with the county oEScers, bnt with the clerks of the Bchool 
districts, and the town superintendents whose duty it is ^' to see 
that the annual reports of the clerks of the several school districts in 
his town are made correctly and in due time." This duty is evident- 
ly, in many imtances, neglected by town superintendents, for which 
there seems no excuse, as they are allowed compensation by law 
for the performance of any and all ofiScial duties. It is not sur- 
prising that in twenty-six hundred, or more, school districts, in a 
new state, and in many parts sparsely populated, that the office of 
derk, who is the reporting officer of the district, should in many 
instances, be filled by men unskilled or negligent in the perform- 
ance of the duties of their office, and for this very reason is the 
town superintendent required to extend his supervision over them. 
ICore attention to this subject is required of the town superinten- 
dents, and if bestowed, will result in better returns being made 
from every organized school district. But there is evidently an- 
other reason, still more remote, why complete and correct returns 
do not reach this office upon all the subjects concerning which in- 
formation is asked ; and that is the failure on the part of teachers 
to keep a ecliool regitfer, as is required by law. This register is to 
be furnished by the district clerk, in blank, to teachers, at the ex- 
pense of the district, and any teacher " who willfully neglects 
or refuses to comply with the requirements of the law'* in keeping 
such register, " forfeits his or her wages for teaching in such dis- 
trict" Unless such register has been faithfully kept, it is utterly 
impossible for the district clerk to report upon five of the most in- 
teresting subjects which should be embraced in a school report — 
among which may be mentioned the total and average attendance 
of children upon the schools. The necessity of securing a com* 
pliance with tlie law in this respect, must recommend to distiict 
officers the propriety of strictly enforcing its provisions in all cases 
of delinquency on the part of teachers. As a means of securing 
correct, complete and prompt reports from all the districts of the 
Btate, I would respectfully suggest to the legislature the propriety 
of authorizing this department to lurnish annually to the dorks of 



18 

the several aohool districts of the State, blank forms for reportSi ao* 
companied with such explanations and instructions as may be 
deemed necessary. Tliis suggestion is made in compliance with 
the request of many friends of education and receives the approv- 
al of my own judgment; and it is believed, should it be carried 
into effect^ it will result in the removal of all obstacles to the ool* 
lection of extensive and reliable statistics upon the educational af« 
fairs of the State. This plan is already adopted in several other 
Statee. 

OOKDmON OF THB SCHOOLS 09 THS STATS. 

There are in the State fifty counties, five of which have organ* 
ised by the election of county officers for the first time, during the 
present year, to wit : Chij^wa, Olsrk, Douglas, Monroe and Trem* 
peleaii. From none of these counties, except Monroe, have any 
reports of schools been received. La Pointe has had a partial and 
inefficient organization for several years, but has yet taken no 
measures for the establishment of schools. Li fact, the settle- 
ment in that county is so isolated from the rest of the State, and 
the population so sparse, that there is but a small and barren field 
for the exercise of any effort for the establishment of schools. 
The counties yet unorganized are Buffalo, Dunn, Door, Kewaunee 
and Shawanaw ; from which, of course, no reports have been re- 
ceived. Of the counties organized previous to the present year, 
and which have heretofore reported upon the school matters, 
Adams* and Pierce have failed to do so this year up to the writ* 
ing of this report Beports, therefore, have been received from 
tfairtj*eight counties, containing four hundred and thirty-five 



In i»peaking of towns, the t^i cities of the State are included. 
Urom the following ten towns within the counties so reporting^ 
no reports have been received, to wit: Woodville, in Calumet 
eoontj ; Eagle Point, in Portage county ; Eagle, in Richland 
eaonty ; Depere and MorrisoUi in Brown county ; Borina, in On- 

I aadPUrMicceiTfdybnttM lite to Im included lathe repoit 



14 ' 

tagaix^ie oonntj ; Bojalton, Scandinavia, Oentreville and Oaledo- 
nia, ia Wanpacca connty. The five towns last named have been 
formed since the annnal reports of 1853. 

The number of school districts in the State is two thousand one 
hundred and sixty-four, and the number of parts of districts is 
one thousand and sixty-two. It is impossible to ascertain the ex- 
act number of school districts in the State, as the several parts of 
a joint district are reported to the town superintendent of the town 
in which such part is situated. In some instances, parts of joint 
districts lie in four different towns and in two counties. But as 
near as can be ascertained, from data in our possession, the whole 
number of school districts In the State is about twenty six hun- 
dred. • 

Joint scjiooldigtricts are, in maxiy r^pects, unwiddly and impol- 
itic organization&i for reasons it is unnecessary here to state, and 
town sfapierinteDdents slMmld resert to their formation only when' 
the mosli wgent Becessity exists ; such is obviously the sole intent 
of the Jaw. It is gratifying to observe, that while there is a large 
increase in. the. nutmber of school districts, principally in tiie 
newer pounties, and from territory heretofore -unorganized, l^re 
is, as appears from a coniparisoa of the reports of 1858 and the 
present year, a do0reaae in the number of districts in the older 
and mor^ populous towns. This is a eheeringindieation, as show* 
ing that in towns where the experiment has been tri^d, the people 
are gettifig tired of small districts, and the inevitable concomitant^ '^ 
of a small amount of taxable property, few children drawing pub- 
lic mon^y, miserable school houses, poor teachers, short sessions,' ' 
and alnjQfi^ a total want of progress in tlie sdiooL May othier towns ' 
profitby their experience. 

The whole number of cliildren residing in the State, on the ' 

Slst of .A^ugust lest, as shown by the reports^ over four and under ' 

twenty year^ o< age, iSn-r 

Males,. . . . . . . 77,766 

Fe&ales, ..... 72,590 

Number reported in towns, making no distinc- 
tion in regard to sex, ... 4,768 

Total, . . . 165,125 



15 

Showing an increase of 16^467 over the number reported la^t 
year, which is It larger annual increase than in either of the last two 
years. The number over four and under twenty, that have at- 
tended school, is not reported in thirty^seven towns, that have 
otherwise 'reported, but the entire number reported is 101,580 ; 
showing an increase of 6,322 since last year in the attendance upon 
the public schools. la addition to these, 994 over twenty^ and 
1359 under four years of age, have atteiided upon these acboola* 
It is doubtful whether any very rapid strides up the rough steaps 
of science have been made by the latter class. 

The following tablo shows the whole number of children residing 
in the Sfate, over iour and under twenty years of age each year, 
from 1849 to 1854, inclusive ; together with the number who have 
attended school, and the per cent, of attendance in each y^ar : 

Year. Whole No. of Children. No. attending School. . Per oent 
184$ 71,455 31,486 .44 

1850 91,805 61,649 67.5 

1851 111,862 78,967 ' 70.6 

1852 124,840 88,086 70.8 

1853 138,658 95,258 68.7 

1854 • 155,125 101,580(108,651)65.4(70) 

In considering the low per centage, shown by the above figmres, 
atteading school during the year ending August 31st, 18514^ it ia 
well to state^^that in thirty-seven towns, containing 1Q,.102 chil- 
dren over four and under twenty years of age, no report is sub- 
mitted of the number attending school. If we suppose that the 
g^eral average attendance was the same in those towns as in. the 
others, which is probably the . case, or if we deduct th© 10,102 
from the whole number of children reported, and thns ascertain the 
average in towns fuHy reporting, we shall find the true per out- 
age of children attending school during the past year to be a 
tii&e over 70 per cent., and the whole number attending school to 
be 108,651. The average length of time for the State, that schools 
have been taught is 5 1-4 months. The highest average in any 
cmmty 18 7 8^ months^ in Eenosha county ; the lowedt, 3 months. 



16 

in Jackson coantj. The average nnmber of montlis taught by 
males is 3 2-5; bj females 4 l-S, showing that more female than 
male teachers are employed in the schools. 

The average length of time scholars of a legal age have attend- 
ed school appears, by the abstract, to be 4 4-9 months; but as in 
several counties such average is greater than the average nnmber 
of months of school, it is plainly erroneon^. By rejecting the re- 
ports from such counties, this average amounts to about 4 months. 

The average amount of wages per month, paid to male and fe- 
male teachers, and the total amount of money expended for teach- 
ers, wages in each year, under the present system, will appear by 
reference to the following table : 

Ain't paid to Male& Am't paid to Femilis. Total 

1849, $15 22 $ 6 92 $ 12,788 27 

1850, 17 14 9 02 59,741 69 

1851, 17 15 9 07 96,636 06 

1852, 17 84 8 50 05,082 18 

1853, 18 24 9 50 118,788 18 

1854, 21 10 10 87 163,485 64 

It will appear from the above, that the price per month paid to 
male teachers is $2 86 over that of 1853, showing a larger increase 
than in any previous year. The advance in price per month paid 
to females is $1 37, being a larger increase than in any year since 
1850. These are healthful indications regarding the schools, for 
at prices advance so will the qualifications of the teachers, for 
school districts in the management of their financial matters will 
not lavish high wages upon incompetent and unprofitable instruc- 
tors. The highest average per month paid to male teachers is $45 
in St. Oroix county; the lowest average is $15, in Orawford county. 
The highest average per month paid to females is $22 56, in Mar- 
athon county, the lowest average is $7 25, in Monroe county. 

The amount of money expended, during the year for common 
•chools, is as follows : 



IT 

BaildcBg and rei^MH^g ^(^ool hpuBas, . . iH'fiO^^i^, 

Forlibrarief(» . ' a^QiO^OO 

For other purpose^ . . 31,281,63 



T(rtal inonay exp^pded ia the Staete for fioho^ 

purposes, $242,116,54 

Showing an increase during the year of 76,982,37 

The number and material of which the school ^houses of the state 
are con^nicted, and their total valuation in €wh jear from 1849 
to 1854, both inclu^iFe, will appeitr hj refer^wice.to the lo%wing 
table: . 





No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


Naof 


. Total 


Total vulnatioa 




Brick. 


Stone. 


Framed. 


Logs. 






1849 


26 


25 


294 


359 


704 


75,810,75 


1850 


38 


51 


568 


540 


1197 


.173,?46,67 


»61 


6S 


65 


697 ' 


764 


1509 


228,506,61 


1852 


e^ 


U 


812 


W8 


1T80 ' 


'^1,966,9^ 


1853 


, H 


74 


1069 


9»fi . 


2213 


289^8M^9 


1854 


IS 


79 


1052 


939 


«id9 


347,54^55 



Increaae io the total valuatioa during the patt year, 63,185,66 

The reports as to the number of school houses in the State for 
the past year, are evidently incomplete. While thfi reports sl^ow 
an expenditure of $55,309,38„ on school houses^ prino|pa]ly in 
erecting now buildings, which sum added to the valuation of last 
year, makes about the valuation of these buildings this year:, sub- 
stantiating the correctness of this item of expenditure ; it appeaia 
that bnt one brick school house and five of stone, have been added 
to the list of last year. It is well known that yery excellent 
framed school edifices have been erected in several villages, and 
in many of the smallejr, df stricts, ahd it is believed that the past 
yQa,r yyill cou^)are favorably, with any previous. qn^ in tbie nuipber 
aad> obaraoter of the school houseff that have been built. Hie 
large amount of money expended for such purposes seems toppve 
antSi a resillt ' 
J 



18 

AJbbcit one-third of the school districts possess «-sito ooBtaintng •' 
at least one acre of ground, and abont three fbnrthe of all the^ 
school hotiSe sites are uninclosed. Seven hundred and thirtj-eigkt 
school bouses are represented as without blaokboards, and b«t ' 
comparatirel J few districts have outline maps, or apparatus of any 
kind. The number of -district libraries is 8S0, containing 14,087 ' 
volumes. • 

THE SCHOOL TXTSD. 

Th^ present available seurces t>f Increase to the school fund are, • 
property that may accrue to the Slate by forfeiture or escheat; the 
proceeds of fines collected for breach of the penal laws; moneys 
arislbgfrom the sale of the sixteenth section of land in each 
township ; from the sale of the five hundred thousand acres grant- 
ed to the State for school purposes, and five per cent of the nett 
proceeds of the sales of the public lands within the State. ; 

The ooDidition of the school fund is as follows : ' 

Junovnt of School Bind dues, $1,415,362 60 • 

ijuountof School ffind loanq, 220^914 24 i 

Balance in treasury subject to loan 34,682 03 

Total principal or capital of aohoal fund, ' $1,670,868 77 ' 
The principal of this fand as above given, except the amount 
stated as being in the hands of the Stale treasurer, is drawmg sev- ' 
en per cent interest, payable in adsrance during the month of Jan- ' 
uary, during each year, which interest constitutes the income of ^ 
the school fund annnally apportioned and distributed to the towns 
and cities of the State for the support of common schools. 

The capital of the school fund qb above 

stated, is $1,670,258 77 

im npoii thfe^umoneyeaf, at 7 per cent, $116,dl8 ll • 

To whick add baianoe of int on haad^ fi7,49S 9% 

And you have a total of $144,4155 03 



19 

He atnfbiitit of intere&t on liand incIudeB adranced intereet al- 
readjrpaid fbr 1855, which will lessen the amonnt dtie in January 
to the extent of the interest bo paid ; bnt it is snpposed that inter* 
est on sales dnring the winter will equal, at least, that amonnt 
Should all the interest due for 1855, be punctually paid, andthe 
saks that are anticipated be effected, together with an early loan 
of the amonnt in the treasury, the amount that will be subject to 
apportionment in March next, will be $144,413 08, or about nioe- 
ty-three cents to each <ihild OTer fbur and under twenty ye^rs of 
age, reported to this ofBce as residiag in the State. 

The above statements show an addition of $528,454 49 to the 
school fond^ during the past year; an increase of $(39,081 81 in 
tbe income subject to distiibntion, and an increase of 21 cents to 
each child over four and under twenty years of age. Only $22,. 
637 56 has been added to the fund from the nett proceeds c£ the 
sales of the public lands within the Stale, and it is beKeved that 
BO loss than sixty thousand dollars are now due the State from the 
Greneral Goyemment, as the sales of laoad since 1850, when the 
first and only payment on this account was received, have been - 
very extensive, particularly during the past two years. This fiv0 
per cent, is withheld by the General Government from the State, 
for the purpose. of liquidating a debt against it, arising out of tbe 
grant of land by Congress to the Territory of Wisconsin, for the 
purpose of constructing a canal from Lake Jktichigan to Bock riv- 
er I am gratified to state that> a re^investigation and consideration 
of this subject has been opened at Washington during the past 
year, with the proper authorities^ through the instrumentality of 
the Executive of tbe State, with every proepectof. obtaining at an .- 
early day, the amount of the five per cent, nett proceeds of the 
sales of the public lands^ which has been accumulating for over 
four years, to be added to the school fund of the State. 

PlAHa OPOIt THX^tfV&OVIClEEa^ 

The law requires; t^erState Superintendent to communioaite to . 
the legislature plans j^or.the. better organization of the con^aoxi.- 



20 

schools. Ifi the discharge of thii^ datj it is not thought neceesaiy 
to suggest to the Tegislatare any plans for the better organization 
of the schools which would require any change in the system as 
it now exists, or affect a modification of any of its important de- 
tails. 

The income of the scbool fund for the ensuing year is n^ueh 
greater than it was last year, and the law is deemed sufficient to • 
seeopethe best posBib!e disposition of this income for the promo- 
tion of the objects intended, if faithfully and intelligently adminis- 
tered. 

The power of improving the common schools, inweasing their 
usefuibesB, enlarging the benefits derivable from them, and of 
guying them greater popularity and character, rests solely with 
tiie people.' 

Is there an unsuitable school house, — an incompetent teacher-^ 
superficial instruction — late and irregular attendance upon school 
— short sessions, aiid all the attendant evils which produce "a bad 
state of things'* in a school, — Wliere lies the fault ? Not with the 
law, for it gives the districts and their ofiiccrs ample power to 
btdld up schools of the greatest excellence. The fault lies with 
the people; and it Is to them that plans are suggested, for their 
consideration and adoption. 80 long as the people remain indif- 
ferent to the character of their school, so long will their children 
haye to attend indifferent schools. The ways and means are pro- 
vided by law, to establish usefnl and creditable schools in every 
district, and fbrther than that the law cannot go ; the rest must be 
done by the people. School houses will not grow up spontane- 
ously, like the trees of the forest ; time, l^bor, and means are re- 
quisite for their erection. 

Competent teachere will not voluntarily and gratuitously lend 
tiieir services in the cause of popular education; they must be 
Bought and remunerated* A umform aeries of text books will not 
be adopted by accident in schools ; the district board must deter- 
mine the matter, and the parents must comply with such determi- 
iiati(»i« A punetaal and regular attendance upon school of all 



2i 

the children of the district, canttot bo effected without the co-o]^ 
eration 6f parents with the teacher.' Large districts with' large 
•toeatis will not exist "wiihoht the intelligent action of the peaple, 
and a correct pnblic siehtiiment to inflncnce the town snperihtefnd- 
ent in his'^offlcial acts. ' In fine, nothing "tfrilt be done rightly and 
*c'orii['letely while the people are indifferent or inattentive to the 
snbject of school ' ' '' ' 

Some plans and suggestions for the improvement of the schools 
are submitted upon subjects intimately connected with their suc- 
cess; and although some of them maybe considered frivolous, 
they aid in making up that aggregate of want^, and delinquencies 
and evils which are paralizing the energies of the teacher, and 
rendering schools i^ some instances useless. 

SCHOOL HOUSES. 

A0 the site, external appearance and, abOYe all, the internal 
.arrangements of school houses, have a powerful influenoe for 
good or evil upon the character and success of the school, in any 
and every point it may be viewed, the first efforta at reform 
should be directed to these strnctures, by improYing and perfect- 
ing them as a means whereby the schools may be made mom 
useful and efficient. Much has been said, and written and done, 
relative to insufficient and ill-eonstrncted school houses, with a 
design to condemn those uncouth and repulsive structures, seem* 
ingly planned for the apparent pnrpose of repelling from the 
school room a portion of the yontb, or of being the means of 
forming bad tastes and habits, distorting the youthful form, and 
engendering incurable diseases. But upon a subject of so great 
importance, involving so many considerations, and demanding the 
earnest attention of so large a portion of community, too much 
eannot be said in reminding parents of their duties and responsi- 
bilities in.this respect. It cannot reasonably be expected ih a ne«ir 
and in many parts sparsely populated State, with school districts, 
in many instances, possessed of but limited means, and a school 
system yet in its infancy, that there should generally be found 



jM)]l2^11^nA63 of an ornfo^ental atjle of aiscUitectiure, or poweofifd 
pf fill tj^9p6 ituproTomentfli sarrouudingj^ and ^ppeijid^gea, tbiitjpre 
Iff .i^i)gU Ito bo fuond in tho mono popa^uf ^ad wostlthj loc^^Uii^ 
^\it^0re ^Ureradicail defooU in <?ona(r!;i^tipQ and ioiernqJ d^rmgfi- 
^^^n% wd a no^eot to proyido nec^^sarj convemenoic^s apd cqn^- 
fyft^ in not a tewftnuotoirw of tl^ia ]s;ind^ tbftt ciijl lon^lj for to* 
form — which appeals to our sympathies as well pur j^d^o^^t. 
]( have accordingly in Appendix *^ B/' prepared several plana for 
Bchool houses suited to the accommodation of scUoola of differ- 
efnt numbers, accompanied with some suggestions relative to 
warming, ventilation, appendages and outdoor conveniences, 
which it is thought, will meet the wants of many of the dist^cts. 
These plans are not submitted as perfect models, or with the ex- 
pectation that they will meet the requirements of very many loca- 
lities, but as a decided improvement upon man j now in use ; 
having consulted economy in plan and arrangement, so far as is 
consistent with the health and comfort of tiie scholars at^d teach- 
ers, and the good order and proficiency of the schools; Hie pe- 
^rts from the several towns for the past year, show a large 
increase in the amount expended in the erection of theae edifices 
over that of last year ; and there is no doubt but that a better 
class of buildings have been erected. * 

But while this fact is apparent, it is equally so, that far less con- 
sideration is given, generally, to the size and arrangement of the 
school house, to secure the health, comfort and full employment 
of the valuable hours of youth, than in the construction of edifices 
devoted to many institutions in the laud. 

tn the erection of church edifices, of buildings devoted to 
pleasure and amusement, to public entertainment, to public chari- 
ties, to a higher order of institutions of learning than our common 
schools, and in our du'ellings, we ever keep in view, the health, 
comfor^ and convenience of those who will occupy them, and a 
complete adaptation of the building to the purposes for which it is 
erected. More than that, architectural skill is displayed, beauty 
of form and finish is consulted, prominence in location considered. 



»8 

-%«<iAU the anfu^gmxenbi fnfe 4aph HA t^ nfiprpuioate ta p^i^atlaii 
^ all the iie<»et#Ai7 ap{M9o4age9 qad aoeompwrneAts to ^Mh pt 
n^oh eclificee. 

' Wewenel of tbcpie who belieire tibut youtk caBiiot lenni in 

fdhoolfr wilhotit being encompasied hy a qplM^ and eoetly. e4i- 

AM) and all the afpli^neee whieh lai^ espeoditoree dt aimej 

«leiBe oan ptodaoe; bat iredo ttdnk that the tohool house cdiedd 

pfetent a reepeefahle imd iavitfai|f appearance^ and eheald b^'Ho 

< (iiiaated and ftovreuded, wiA oilt*door omretiietioeB, that die in- 

iiate eease of pvopkiftgr end mi^d^y ef the papila shall net %e 

blmted, and the genn of impr^^ely implanted in their ycMrfh- 

fol miaftdt; It shoi^ld be so armnged Internallj as to promote luMts 

of order and oleaoliness ; should be properly warmed^ TentiUted 

Ijoid cleanaod, ^«h eeats and deste of ptoper slae, heigUC aftd 

leagth) and all itS'amingements snch as to adapt Iho baildhig to 

' the purpose ibr whieh it is intended. 

As these subjects are all considered in Appendix " Bj'Mt.is un- 
necessarj to go into details here. 

Many teachers think that th'efmbi^ difficult part of their ddtiesis 
. to establish and maintain good, order ^^ di^iplinf^^and td a^opt a 
■; §j6tem and method in the naan^gauient and iQ^trnotionof the sd^pipJ. 
f Without order iipd.good (Jificif^aein 6,chool there can be no i»rp- 
;;gress, for aU is contneiiop and distr^ti4H)| fvnd wi^tlM>ut sjst^m 4n 
; the mfina^meiit of the scbool^ prqgvesa mx%t be» comipa^ativelj 
.aLow. ;. An ill^planned school rooin.i^ ^^ absc^ate prevention of 
.^good ordor af^d.al^ Qpfs^raf^Q ^^it^ thfeii$fttablii»bi9iBat of a gted 
.i^stea^i^ sp thfitin tbia respfBjc^ aWne tbeKe;is a strong reason 4pr 

.l«reILarcasged sojiool: rooma. Anpther ^c^^o^ideration i^ the health 
, •of tb^ p.apl^ apd t^a^he^., Xhi^ is* not pnoperlj^.car^d for ia a. <dRin 
,/WJbeire thfs daftt is.avi&ii^g &ei|i fboi fittjh upon. the floor, attdtjis 

4»iwn.in upon the laDgB:^jtbe^ scholars; n()r where thej axett- 
-poeed to.c9«rwts of air frpxn;icBaeks.'i9> th^ waHs of tk^ building) 

t9£C about the dpprs. and window^ i orwjbi^e thej.are fi)roed(4o 

ibf«atbie i^npnre air for want- ^ proper Bieaas of ventilation^ ler 



t'84 

obliged py sit np6n HH^cotBtfiiisMt eektA^ pi^ddndtrg fseTapdtfkty 
t'pda and scmietimed reetiltiufgin permAn«blldi6iMiov^ of tbe^body. 

Time is another consideration. It is not seldom tbe case tbat 
one^H^lf of 4be ]|^Qming;itos8iQaiiu.thQ ▼iiiter!eefi80ftiaIaetto the 
papiJ^y in aQn$4^iM<k^i9fvthe imaffioient prdi(isinn8r!fi)t waiianng 
ibe room, ,\>j mem^oi a poOr^WoMdrpipti,^ aa many differciat 
fliize$ a^ tibu^rei ar^ ioiQtc^* belchitg cloo^^of'smok^ lAio iheroova, 
a^d gr^an ovfoUcaT^d/iKoodtalp^li; from ibe aaow or mud at the 
door; d$7§ of .v^InaM^ timeara t]p|iib lost ia «aiig}e tajrm. Suoh 
A at«[te,Qf, thit^.te^i^ ixy faiiuUwriaeitba pnpila vith diaordes^and 
Qopfasion^ m^ to d<9fltroy all ioelinatit)!! to respeot or obae^e ti. It 
alao.ono^eaa want ofipuaotualiiy andi .regularity in attendaoitfei^* 
o^ HQhool) wbeA in ibe momiDgflnd m MTetie. weather the pnpils 
b^vB no asaara^^, thatthey iviU be comfortable at tha eofaoel 
hooae. Fopr school honsea aerye alao to in^reaae' tb0 pnmbeir of 
non-attendants npon the pnblio school, andoccasiojoi, awithdrftital 
of the inflnence of their parents from public schools j^nd a bestow- 
al of it npon prirate ones. 

. TS4CHSBB* 

Of all the tMogs neeessarj to be done to improve the pubBc 
aehools there is none more important than the improvement of 
teachers themselves. "We may provide school bouses suitable in 
every respect, awaken a deepjnterest in the cause of education oa 
the part x>t patents, so that minor evils referred to will vanish and 
cease to harass the teacher and injure the schools, and if the teach- 
er is not what he should be,^aU previous trouble will prove nearly 
useless,— the school will be as a b^y without a soul. There is too 
great indifference in many districts of the state as to th« necessity 
of having well qualifled teachers to instract their children, and too 
little discrimination on the part of scbool officers, as well as others, 
Iteween the valne of good and poor teachers. Ohildren cannot at- 
tisnd school six hours each day for eight or ten years of their 
early life, when the mind is inost susceptible of impressions, aiftd 
the most retentive wheoi once impressed, without becoming con- 



ii6 

tainitiirteaff ^sbtriited wlfh Yice, aWd wif&ont continuing rirtnons 
if associated with virtue. It is in the school rOom, dnring th^se 
jeare, that the character of the pupils, in a great measure, i* 
formed for life ; and the direction there given to their n^oral and 
•ftrtdWctual n*tu!^6, fttfd thxi self-con frol and seTf reliance there at- 
tained wiH follow them thrpiTgTi their future career in life. Hence 
the imlf>(yrtattcd 6f '^rtgag?ng teicMffe'of learning and ability, of 
good habits and precepts, po^Srfessin'pf tJie tact arrt! 'ability to maintain 
flfnch'dTscipHne as^wiH becur*e oburteay, kindness and politt^ness on 
tHe part of the scholars, aiid a dtie appreeiation of the mofttl ahd 
'social obligatiohs undbr which'they exist. 

. A^ ttie teacher is, so is jihe sc^iQql. He teaches by example as wdl 
. as by precept If the tea,Qher ip boisterous the scholars will be so ; 
if he is uncourteow toward his scholars they will be so to him 
and to each other; if he disregards, bis word in his own communi- 
cations with his scholars^ tb^y will do it and lose all considerations 
<^ the value of tmth; if he is careless in hearing recitations and 
teaching principles, they wiU be careless in preparing themselves 
for recitation, and indifferent as to understanding principles ; if 
the teacher is superficial in his teachings, the knowledge of the 
scholars will be of the same character; if the teacher manifests 
no zeal or energy in the discharge of his duties, he will soon ob- 
serve a listlessness on the part of his scholars; if he tolerates 
wrongs he must expeet his school to become riotous ; if he is un- 
necessarily severe in his government, he will lose the moral pow- 
er he should possess over hii^ pupils^ 

Teachers can much benefit themselves by frequent association 
with each other, and discussing subjects connected with their dn- 
tiea af snchu Town associations of teachers might beiormed with 
greiit advanta^s^ as iberaseems really po obstacle to prevent them. 
Sobool offioera and parents wonld attend them, and thus an inter- 
aatwoald be awakened in the midds ' of the people and a better 
indefstandaogeKiat between them and l3ie teachers, reaaltingirom 
aaQh Msooiationa* Of com^ associations and inslitntes and nor- 

4 



S6 

malBqhoqb £or better pcep^rmg {^i^^i^fiv their d^^epi, ^e,bw^ 

TEXT BOOKS* 

Ano^Iier fierioQP ob$t»cle to th« creator cifflciai^qy of mt eoi^- 
mom 6choQl$y ia the great. diver^itj of text booka in use. ]Sy the 
repprta made to this office it appears tl^(t tbe bopka wbiab are^xxMit 
^ia§4 in the dijileimt toaps cK»mprjae a list of 4fi^w differ^9t op^l- 
lUig hook^ eighteen readers, ten geographies, fifteea aiititfoetMaB 
92^ twenty grainma2!8 ; and it is beHeved that if all tha schpyl 
books in nse were known, they would comprise a Ust m^9t:lj fs 
extensive as that reported in Connecticnt a few years since, which, 
in the five studies named, included the works of one hnndred* and 
ninety-one different authors. The same divefsity 6i text 1)ook8 
extends to History^ Algebra, PhiJosbpby, Chemistry, &c. In a 
majority of the schools this evil of a dirersity of text books exists, 
and that it should be overcome nd one, who is at all acquainted 
with the routine of duties in a school room, will attempt to gain- 
say. Where there are different text books in the same school 
there will be just aS many different classed, which in many in- 
stances so divide the time of the teacher among a multiplicity of 
classes, that he is able to devote but a few mihutes to each, and 
has necessarily to hurty through recitations, imparting little or no 
instruction and making them mere exhibitions of memory on the 
part of pupils. It is evident to every one that under 6uch circum- 
stances, little or no progress can be made by a school, and the iin- 
lucky teacher is too frequently made to suffer as the sole cause of 
this want, of prpficiency. • ,. , 

: The primary objeeli to be aecomplished in dii8<Tesp«atia not so 
much to seente themse of th« ^ame t^ beaks id aU-t&e aehobla 
oftbe state, or of aoennfty,' as in tewn»<a»l {nrticaiarly.sahbc^jdji^- 
trietB. Foreachsahoel disliiotis* aepiratoiind ^diitinct oqifanE- 
aation, entirely in^peiidtet of all others^ and. 8«ieb'l]a/ean8< aad 
appliancea ehovld be<jiiseA tbrnipoDoi^e and perfect % ab • urU) uiflke 
it the mesna of ebnfe>riiig«iipon the; dastrict^ > upon I3ie yendi «!• 



•T 

i^dspg it^ tbe greateat passible* benefit It i$ not ^ecMtiv^ for 
1jk^. tchool of diBtriot No. i), to aae taxi boQk3 by the ajgooe aiotbcirs 
^ tfaoge used by district No. 1» ia order that No. 3 may be equally 
Mproficient ; i^ ihere are l^^lOSt innumerable works, by diffbreuLt 
Mtbors, upon the same subjeet» thrown before the pnblic, m^ 
wmy of them are of nearly eqiuJ merit, and if introdneed in|o 
Ihe fioboola will be regarded wilih eqnal favor, and produee like 
JtiiSTiltB. An opcesional change in the books uaed, espeqially |n 
eobools of 4 higber grade, is nsef oL 

As the town superintendent exercises a supervision ^reac the 

fiohools within, his towiv, it is, for numy reasons, an advantf^ to 
^e schools to hare a unifonnity of text book^ in all the schools 
of tfie tewn* It will aid the town superii^tendent in his in^;^c- 
iim of teachers and schoolsi apd render the intercoujrse betwe^ 
if^ciiera more profitable to themselves and theii; {^upils. 

The law providfts that ^^ it shall be the duty of the state super- 
ihtendent to recommend the introdiu^ticm of the most approved 
iexti bookstand as &r sb practicabl'e,, to secure a uniformi^ In tjfe 
Qseaftestfaeokain the eommon schools thron^eut the Stbtct." 
And it farther provides, tihat ^^the board lA each eehool district 
fihali bave power under the advice of the amperintendeafc of 
pnbttc instnictLcA to determine what.aohool and text books shaJl 
be need in the seveml branches taught in the school of awh 
district." This ia. the extent of the law on* this subjiect, ai»d 
IB sufficient, in my view, to accomplish all that is necessary 
in the preji^ises. .As the: town superintendejDit is privileged 
ta give ids advioe. and direction to district boards, and to 
teachers, as to the goverrfment of the schools and the course 
of study to be puii;sued therein, let such officer so advise 
with tho: district board and see that in, each of the schools 
within bis jurisdiction, a uniformity in the use of text books 
is securedt" No other act of Teform which he can induce, will 
.prodi^ce a mpre beaeficial result than this. Were ajl peraons 
employed to .teach 9ur schools professional teachers, possessed of 
all the qualifications necessary to render them worthy of that ex- 



88 

alted title, ftis evil wottld be greatly tednced in magnitude ; btit 
as it fe easier to secure uniibrmTty of text books in every school 
than the services of professional' tedfehers, the more speedy reme- 
dy shonld be applied. The nniformity of text b6oks thronghont 
the entire state is not thonght important, even If it were practica- 
ble. No effort has yet, as I am aware, been mfede nnder the 
sanction of law, to enforce the use of a nnifonh series of books 
thronghont a state, except in Illinois, dnring the present year, and 
the plan seems to meet with mnch opposition, and will probably 
result in a iailare. 

In the eastern states, where public schools have attained the 
highest degree of perfection, no idea is entertained of a necessity 
to have a nnifortnity of school books throughout a state ; the people 
would regard it as surrendering too much of their liberty, as invest- 
ing in one man, or set of men comprising a Central Board, too much 
power in allowing them to dictate what books their children 
shall study. Towns and districts regard themselves as little inde* 
pendent republics, jealous of their privileges, and unwilUng to 
yield a power that may more suCGessfully and i^eeably be exer- 
cised by local authorities in the districts and towns. Were there 
but one set of books among the vast number thrown before the 
public, which are adapted to use in oommon schools, a different 
state of things would exist, and a uniformity throughout the state 
wx)uld follow as a necessary incident to furnishing each school 
with sueh meritorious books. 

Upon a comparison of the returns in this office with, the recom- 
mendations of text books suitable to be used in the schools^ made 
by my predecessors, there appears Utile ground foi* belief that very 
great success has attended such recommendations in affecting the 
object intended. The wisdom of those recommendations is not 
brought in question ; but circumstances and counter influences are 
such that an individual recommendation, carrying with it no other 
weight or power than the confidence reposed in the means and abfl- 
ity of the officer to discriminate upon so important a subject, is 
not likely to be very extensively adopted. 



S9 

In many difltriets, tb^ books recoi9(mended eaiiAot be procured 
without great inconvenieBQe, and they are content to use saCh as 
are within their reach. Publishing firms are alive to their own 
interests and can afibrd to expend large sums in employing agents 
to canvass the state for the purpose of introducing their pnbliea- 
tioDs, as the field is an extensive one, promising large profits in 
retam for the outlay. This is an influence difficult to overcome, 
nor is it desirable, if good books are thus introduced into the school. 
Bat it is not calculated to result in securing a uniform series 
throughout the state, as there are rival firms. The law, as before 
stated, requires the state superintendent to recommend tlie intro- 
duction of the most approved text books. 

It would be a laborious task to ascertain what text books really 
are the most approved as the best litei:ary institutions in the coun- 
try differ in their choice of elementary and other school books. 

I therefore recommend the following series of books as highly 
meritorious works, and eminently worthy to be introduced into the 
schools of the state, and commend their adoption by district offi- 
cers. 

SpMing Book. — ^McQuffy's. 

Reading J?<?^*^.— McOuffjr's Ist, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 5th. 

2£c€hiffey^8 Pictorial Primer is a very excellent little book to 
bo placed in the hands of beginners, being well adapted to the ca- 
pacity of childhood. It is beliered that no better series can be 
adopted than this, as it leads the scholar gradually fVom the first 
pi^ciplesofotir language, through the entire series, affording a 
complete and systematic method of learning the art of reading. 

Geographies. — Mitchell's Primary. 

Ifitchell^s School Geography and Atlas. 
Mitchell's Qeographical Question Book. ' 

Ou&ine J/"^^.— Pelton's (with Key.) 

Arithmeticf. — Colburn's Intellectual. 
Bay's. PajrtSd. 

(rrammartf.— Greene's Elements of English Grammar. 

Tower's Elenlei&ts of Gtamimiir (for begimiers)* 



30 

AnaZysis of TToTtfo.— KcEUigott's Analyticftl M antial. 
Bi8tarie9. — ^Pariey'e Firet and Second Boolu. 

Goodrich's History of the United States (new Ed.). 
2fatur{d Philosophy, — Johnston's. 
Algebra, — ^Ray'e, Parts 1st ife 2d. 
Geometry, — ^Davie's Legendre. 
Astronomy. — Smith's Qtiarto. 
Chemistry. — Johnston's Turner's Elements. 
BooTcKeeping. — Mayhew*8 Practical. 

I most cordially concur in the recommendation of my prede- 
cessor for the introduction of book-keeping into tho common schools, 
as "a large proportion of the children of the state receive their ed- 
ucation in public schools, and among the preparations for businesa 
and active life which they receive, some knowledge of book-keep- 
ing is an object of importance." I know of no work so well adap* 
ted in every respect for use in the public schools as the one named. 

Anatomy^ Physiology and JSygiene — Cutters. 

Human and Comparative Physiology^ by Mrs. E. P. Cutter, for 
beginners. 

I deem it of the highest importance that this study should be 
introduced into the common schools, and in tho order of study 
should take precedence of all others except those branches re- 
quired by law to be taught. The little work is adapted to the. ca- 
pacity and wants. (^ children twelve years of age, and as far aa I 
have observed in schools where this study is pursued, the pupils. . 
regard it as very interesting and make rapid progress. They are 
thus early in youth becoming acquainted with important truths 
concerning their own physical constitution, wijh the functions of 
the different Cleans, and the laws of health; and are imbibing 
principles which will be of great service in their youth and after 
life, in aiding them to adopt such a course of conduct as will in- 
sure the greatest physical vigor and the consequent enjoyment or 
good health. 

The la^^ work on] the same subject, by. Dr. Calvin Cutter,. 



31 

is «K)i««i^eftdiid m it» lQT<«tigil1i€M| mi tolted to the tiee of 
old^rfioholare. Both works Qontain eH^;rftVif>gt to illustrftte the 
aQttomj of the htim«n qrsten. There ave also ten large anstoim* 
cal outline plates, eirm&ged to acoompatiy the books^ whieh will 
gieatlyaid the pupil in prosecutiug this stody. lliese plates can 
he prDc«i)raid for te» dollars a^ s^ ; one of which is stiffleient for the 
use <!^ a school, and shonld be s^i^spended npon the wall. 

Dictianaries, — ^Webster's Unabridged, should be used by every 
teacher ia the school room, and a copy of either the ^^ Sohool,^' 
"fi{gh 8<ihool,^ or *^ Qaarto Academie" edition should be in the 
hands of every pupil who can read. 

IfregutaT Attendance^ and want of Punctuality. — Teachers are 
unanimous in their testimony that, of all the evils necessary to be 
overcome ifa schools, there are none which so completely baffle 
all their efforts and plans for effecting a reform as irregular atten- 
dance upon school, and tardiness, or want of punctuality in being 
at the school room at the hour of opening school. These may be 
considered trivial things, but they are serious obstacles to the sue- 
cessfh! management and rapid progress of a school. The effect 
prodtioed'by tardiness is that the delinquents are unable to con- 
tinue with their class^ on account of the loss of recitations and the 
accompanying instructions of thfe teacher ; and they must either 
go ori'Wfthout a knowledge of What has been mastered by their 
feltoWH In the class, or the class must be kept back until they can 
acquire <-what has' been lost through this want of punctuality, or 
they^nitiet fttlbacfe into another class,— thbre probably a new one 
ha«fdWorganiaed.' ' ' ' ^* 

If new classes are thus formed, the whole school suffer by a 
fiiflberdl'^l6i<>^^^^ ti^e 6rthe teacher. If tbe "class is kept 
bads iifitll' tb^ delifaqtients Overtake it^ the class suffers ; atid if 
they go on Without' iftastering what they have mftsed by tafdl- 
nsfls^ t&ciy Mi^iiesefisarll;^ be the losers. The ^am^ evils rel^Tzlt 
from iiT^gAIIii^'Mteiidtoce, bdt in a greater degree. Thus a dls^t^- 
rabgetricffbt ol^d classificitSon hjA system of the school is afSscfted, 
and-itti >«iriiK^jr*tthd good order i^^^ 



33 

Tbia evil can oal^ be oy^rcanae.bjr tbeh^ari^ CH'J>pemAimof pt- 
roots wUb teaalievs; % all. effort^ of the latter .teKard# refor^^ in, 
this respect, are pawerlesa^t/io long as.tb^ are op(K)$ed bj pareote, 
either d^rough waqt of eomideraJti^^? indifferi^m^ ordefigA*. Tbia . 
oppoeitioQ or rather inattention to the esbjeot. 0n itbe part of pa* 
roota is mainlj induced tUr#ngb ignopaaeeofctbeirQal eS^ota o{ 
irregular and late attendaate, wbieb sei^vee to j^nUiplj the diffi-, 
cultiee of tLc teaclier. 

Parents, probablji bave a legal right to.8^ffar. tbeir dbijldrea so 
to attend school as to.inflict aposftiyef injury^ upon th,e sohebl and ' 
every other child attending it, but they have »0i maral right thus 
to trespass upon the privileges of others. There are sometimes 
nnavoidable causes to produce in a slight dogree, the evil under . 
consideration; but in a great majority of cases it is the result of , 
censurable carelessness and neglect on tke partj of parents, which ^ 
would not exist if they posccssed sufficient interest in the education 
of their children. Children.wbo are habitually ir^^iolar and late 
attendants upon school might as well remain at home,, for they can . 
make little or no progress, but injure that of otjhers. A parent 
may plead that he can do as he pleaaes ,with his o;^n chiMfQji and . 
that he has a right to wrong them, but it is respeqti^uUy ,snggesjl^ . 
that he has no right to wrong the children of his neighborp. 

The attention of school officers apd all friends of education is 
respectfully directed to this subject.; for in tjheir own district and 
neighborhood they can correct this evil, by remonstratinjg T^itb 
their friends and neighborS| correcting their false viewS) arq^^ing ; . 
their interest in education, and teaching them the priceless ralne 
of the education of their oflFspripg, 

Labos School DisTiticrs.^-Anot^sr relorra necessary to be io^. 
coipplished for the improvement of schools, is t^ «voi4 extepdioi; i 
indefinitely in a town tbe namber of scbooji distiiots. District » 
8c)iool#, are supported solely by pioney ammidly apporti99ed. tQ the. 
district and by direct, taxation upon the proper^ wi^tlMAJ^e ^imitai 
of the district. Small districts oafn qontaii^ but a smaJl uvnab^ oC . 
children upon which an af j^piftionment is based^ apdo^pseiitieut^ .. 



L 



tU0ittaK)AMl4)#p|ibIic iMn^y l-oceii'^dtby «niidi w difaiiot vAlt Be 
proportlaiilitoiy Bmiiill ; tUeftmottntof tafttabld pro{>6rt^ii]| tfaeSdil^' . 

trict most necesearilj be Bmall and of course tazatki^ iiidre«B^;<H^ j 
nremsftmofthedUtrktbeingithtis v^y Umited tii« in^tftoibie 
cdnodttKitjiEiits of miserable sdhoolhonteB, indifferent teafehevs^ebirt' 
sessions, and a want of the appendages and aids 'to learning' thali ^ 
shdnld always be found inf soheol bouses^ will of coarte follow AIs 
state of tMngs. 

.Bi^ tiie evil'doesAotend berre. Where taxation is thu^ j^et^ 
dered higfa as'ifcsnrely mast be to ndaintam a respectablotand qbh^ . 
ftd sehool, a B|nfit of oppeeition to hkyidg a school is etngendered^ - 
in consequence of the inordinate' burden imposed upon t^e ttitt" 
payefrs. It js sometimes absolutely necessary for ieeble i^ool : 
dkrtricts'tobe fbrmed, or some children will be preyeiited^fr^di al- 
tiding «oboot on aocmintof distance froth school-house or tfat f^^ 
ograpUy ol the country ; but it i« questioiKible whiether tbeochMls' 
of such districts pt6v{i at' all benefficrial to the cHildren wiiose mis- 
fortune it ifl to attend them. 

The Wm4dyfbr'tUl& evil lies entirely witft the town- supei^ 
te^i^t except as an occasional appeal reaches this office ; and be ' 
' caMot be^oo'niindftil of the great good or evil w!hich it is in' hSi' 
pdwrfrtd bestow lipon fhe c&use of education in the diischarge -of' 
hie duty» nor be too cautious in the exercise of that powier. Selio^l 
dieftH'ct^ should be stiffidenfly large to maihtain a gooid school at 
leirit^fliii^ months in eaeh yea^ without being obliged^ to reflW* fc> * 
boyd^ittofn^^taxatfon. 

Apfabaius. — ^A farther means of improving the acbools is by 
fiurnlshiD^ suitable apparatvt to aid the teacbetr i^ 'bis expjiana- 
tions and illustrations^ and the scholar inmere readily and folly 
comfirehending the subject of his investigations* ^^Ho 3chool.. 
room can be considered as complete which ia not provided with 
such fixtures and means of visible illustration, as will aid the 
teacher in cultivating in his pupils, habits of correct observationi 
cdmfWMi tmA elMiificfltlofii' attd in notLOAtg^^^ktkmMg^ i^iL 

5 



84 

A blackboard h an indUpensible article m tverj scIkmI rocm^ 
and should alirajs be ioand there^ do good teaobiogcan beaoooii»- 
plUlied wirhoutit. . 

A c ock IB a very convenient and necessary article in a adiool 
room, DiiM'king the lioor of opening and dosing the schooli and of 
each recitation during the day. 

The cardinal points of the compass may be painted on the ceil* 
log or the teacher's platform, and will be of mnch service in the 
study of geography. The measare of an inch, foot, yard, &c.^ 
marked <^ on the edge of the blackboard, will give a correct and 
visible standard of distance. Different weights, and measures of 
quantity may be used to great advantage in a school. Wherever 
gei>graphy and astronomy are taoght there is a necessity for a ter- 
restial and celestial globe, an orrery and tellurion. Outline mape 
are a great aid in giving instruction in geography. A numerical 
frsme, g^metrical forms and solids, scale and triangle, blocks to 
illastjate square and cube root, &c., will be found useful aids to 
instroction. 

It cannot be denied that if schools were supplied with appara- 
tus comprising a list of articles no more extensive than those enn* 
merated, it would ho an invaluable aid to the teacher ia enlisting 
the attention and interest of the class, and making more correct 
and valuable impressions upon the youthful mind. 

There is but very little apparatus found in any of the soho&la, 
and there ia need that the attention of school districts should bis 
directed to the subject The sum which a school district IsalloW'- 
ed to raise annually for apparatus, will purchase all the articles 
enumerated, and others can be added as circnmstances suggest, or 
the wants of the district require. The apparatus of a school ' 
should of course be selected with reference to the studies pursued ; 
as the wants of a primary department would be entirely differ- 
cut in this respect, from a school of a higher grade. 

UNION SCHOOLS. 

Union schools have been the subject of discussion kteaeh of 
tb^ reports made to the legialatttre from Ihia ^epartnteui^ tad I 



Z6 

bare little to add Iiere upon that subject, except to expreas m/ 
fall concarrence in the views therein expressed. 

It is in union schools alone that the most perfect economy aad 
the most profitable expenditure of the public mone/ can be at* 
tiuned ; that tlie best school houses can be provided, including all 
necesaarj conveniences and appendages ; that suitable maps and 
apparatus can be provided ; that the pupils can be properlj claa* 
sifif d ; the best order and discipline can be maintained ; the time 
of the teacher and taught most profitably employed ; tlie services 
of professional teachers obtained ; the most approved system of 
teaching introduced ; the highest proficiency of the pupils se- 
cured ; and the deepest and most contiaaei interest of the public 
manifested in the prospeiity of the schools. 

These, without enumerating further, seem sufficient reasons for 
the establishment of union schools wherever practicable. All 
these advantages are gained by a concentration and union of 
means and influence. It is not proposed to abandon the dia* 
trict system to establish union schools, as the latter are nothing 
more nor less than a large graded school, having two or three de- 
partments, as circumstances may require, in a large school district, 
with large means, and a large number of scholars. In many dis« 
irjcts such schools cannot now be established ;^ but in populous 
sections, villages and cities, there is no obstacle to prevent their 
establishment but public sentiment Wherever they have been 
established, they have given the most unqualified satisfaction, and 
there is no desire to return to the old plan of small schools, and of 
teacbing all ages and grades of proficiency, by one teacher in a 
single room. 

There is no necessity for obtaining a special act of the legisla- 
ture to organize these schools, although in large villages or citieSi 
it may be better to increase the number of the school board, and 
confer upon them some additional powers not now possessed by 
dbtrict officers. A better supervision of the schools will be thus 
provided for. 

Buit in My populous section of the State, let two or more school 



36 

districts be united and farmed into one district^ and the. means < 
and interest thus united, will be sufficient to maintain a good 
union school. The main objection to such a plan usually is, that 
the expense of such a school will be much greater than to main- 
tdin an ordinary district sgbool. This is trae ; but the expense is 
really less than what it costs to maintain the separate sthools 
before the consolidation of districts was effected, and there is a 
gain of a far better school. There is another great advantage 
derived from the establishment and maintenance of union srfiools 
not before alluded to, which apparently overshadows all other 
considerations. It is in none but union or graded schools that the 
services of professional* -* achers can be obtained, because the com- 
pensation offered in small districts is no inducement for them to 
offer their services there, when they can realize far more in almost 
any other employment. The influence then of these graded 
Bohools, is not limited to its own districts, but radiates &r and 
wide in everv direction, and is a model for other schools and other 
teachers. 

•^The great majority of the teachers in the state must be educated 
and prepared to discharge their duties, in the schools of the state; 
and I regard these union schools wherever successfully in operation, 
as BO many normal schools, from which annually go forth well dis- 
ciplined young men and women who become teachers, and who 
adopt in their schools the same approved method of discipline 
and instruction th^t they have learned while in attendance upon 
these union schools. 

Viewing the subject in this light, I would respectfully suggest 
to the legislature a consideration of the propriety of aiding in their 
establishment, by loaning a portion of the principal of the school 
fund, to aid in the erection of suitable buildings for such schools. 

A proposition has been advocated before several preceding }eg* 
islatores, to loan to all school distriets that may apply therefor^ . 
such, ^uii^Si from the scMol fund as will ba neqessary to ecect &»> 
suitable school house for each such district so applying, but for 
v^nj and obvious. reaaoQfi .this prc^>08itiou has naet with^compftrm- 



37 

tlrefy little favor. Bat such conditions might be embodied m a law, 

as would secure tho repayment of the snm loaned, withont tronW^, 

to aid in erecting union school edifices, by* proriding tbat withfti 

th% limits of the difelrict, so loaning money fi'om the school funA, 

ttom mast be a given ftmofDt of taxable property ibr e^tk hnu- 

€h^d6)lar9 received, that the boandariesof the district ahall net 

be ofannged ^yhilo any portion of the principal remains onpaMy 

mnd'tbe annnal payment of the iBlorefit on the sum loabed m^de 

.cevtaiti, by witiiboMing ficom snch dlsttiot, an amonot ot «i<m^^ 

frdm the snm annually apportioned. to it, ei^nal to thb amotSDt of 

iiitorett Ane, if it remain unpaid. 

This pro;M»sitlon may be regarded as local in lis applioatibo, but 
if timete is any truth in the assevtion tbatte»cher« are being ednoa- 
ted in Hiese union sdhools, possessing far better qualifications titm 
'the minority of teachers, It becomes a cpiestioii of inteieat to all 
paste of the stale 'whether a portion of the school ftand princifisl 
'»ay (not properly be used in extending these schools. 

TXACUBBS' ASSOCIATIONS Ain> INSTITUTSS. ^ 

The Teachers' Association of Pond du Lac county met at Wau- 
pnn on the second day of November last, and continued in sessioh 
during six days. There were over fifty teachers in attendance, 
from the counties of Fond du Lac, Dodge and "Winnebago. 

The association was organized as an institute, and the exercisek 
during the day consisted in drills and recitations in the different 
l)ranches of common school education, and in discussions upon 
the best metbod of teaching. The evenings were devoted to lec- 
tures and disciissions upon topics of educational interest 

A large number of the citizens of Waupun were in attendanb6 
each evening, and quite a number during tbe morning atid after- 
noon sessions, manifesting much interest in the exercises., Somb 
of them gave lectures and joined in the discussions of the even- 
ings. 

The cause of popular education is much indebted to several ixi* 
dividuala who nobly came ibrward and gave their liid to the pro- 



as 

motioxk of the objects of the institnte which is under the direoCbm 
of able and efficient managers. The occasion was one of the 
highest interest and will be frQitful of good resnlts, at least to the 
teachers attending and the schools under their management 

I cannot forbear to express my appreciation of the interest aad 
enterprise of the members in sustaining semi-annual meetings oi 
the association ; it is alike creditable to themselves and to the lo* 
ealities they represent; and has a Tisible effect in elevating the 
eharacter of the common schools in that connty, and in awakening 
the people to life on the subject of education. Were there live 
associations of this kind in every county, the influence thus exer- 
cised in behalf of popular education, would be paramount to all 
ether means yet devised in the State. It would improve the meth- 
ods of teaching, have the effect to discard the mechanical school 
' exercises, worthy only of by -gone days ; and make the school-room 
what it should be, a fountain of learning, where pupils are taught 
to think and reason, to understend principles as well as rules; 
where the mind is developed, tho mental capacity enlarged, in- 
stead of being blunted and contracted by exercises which serve 
only to myetity the studies they are vainly endeavoring to master; 
where the exercises are intellectual and calculated to inspire love 
instead of disgust for study. Teaching is a profession with some, 
and it is a noble and honorable ouc. To be a good teacher re- 
quires all the learning, ekill and ability that is neceesaiy to insure 
success in any other profession, indeed more. But it is useless to 
talk of so extending the numbers ot this profession, that all of 
our common schools or even a majority of them will be favored 
with the services of professional teachers, during the present gen- 
eration, at least 

It is a pleasant theme to discourse upon, and '^ a consummation 
most devoutly to be wished," but we have no better assurauce that 
we shall succeed in accomplishing in this State what has not yet 
been done in other and older States, after years of triaL — 
There are insurmountable obstacles to prevent it Teachers, like 
other persons, are not above pecuniary considerations!, and as long 



80 

as eft«r prcrfeflrfoM ud otkeir oeeuimlfoDS olfer Ikr greater p#e«a- 
laiy retams for talent and ability, for serrices rendered, it caanot- 
be eipeetad tkat tbe profesekm of teaehing will be oreratooked. 
£at A tmall anmber of penooa follow teaching beyond two br 
throe jean» and for Ihia time only as a means of aiding tbem !» 
some otiior undertaking already in view. They go to teaobing 
not as a bosiness or profession, which they intend to follow tbrongk 
life, but as a temporary ocoapation indaeed by temporal? pirenm* 
ataneea. 

Ab then, no arrangements that can be made will, for years ta 
eomoy accomplish the result of placing well edacated and oompa- 
tent piofession<J teachers in all the schools ; it follows, that tam- 
poiary teachers, those who teach jnst long enough to have an idea 
of the duties and responsibilities of their employment, are to be 
the iostractors of the great mass of the youth of the State. 

This is a solemn fact, and cannot be controTorted. The qaes* 
tioo then arises, what, if anything, shall be done m preparing 
these temporary teachers for a respectable discharge of their dn- 
ties 1 Has not the State a deep interest in the matter ? and can it 
not by provision of law, and a small appropriation of its fnnds aid 
in elevating the standard of teaching f 

In every State and in every connty whei^ these institutes have 
beeniield, the people bear ample testimony of the great good flow- 
ing from them. Itlierefure xespectfully repeat to the legi^lattiie 
the recommendation heretofore made, that an appropriation be 
made and placed at the disposal of the State Snperintendenf, to 
defray necessary ej^penaes to bo incurred in organising and hold- 
ing sach institutes, in as many of the counties as may be Ihoa^t 
practicable. 

HOBIIAL SCHOOLS. 

The law providing for the organization of the "University pf 
WisconsiD," declares that it shall consist of four departments : 

1. Tlie department of science, literature and the arts ; 

2. The department of law ; 

3. The department of medicine ; 



. 40 

: Ui» wlf cUiriDg.the.pMt Feiu*.tJbAt a.cMpipteta>(>r^amMlxoa of 

ft|lijtA<MPiiof ibe Umv«jriatjr.Ii^.iiQt.i«si»utted 'SiDOtewiiul advonae 
.; toiTftpAB its £ull egj^ablidhfiawity (aqctardibg ;to itl>0 ittkeiBt ud le^oimEe- 

of the EegentB of the University, as the departments of la^ and 
f^m^di^i^ '1^113 secondary^ imputtlang^ito iif. and tboir porganusUion 
W[Hl HQQOflMrilyibe dfifeired .until tlieilQ sballbe euebi as ioc^eaae o 
Ibo liuid,>7 the sales of lliJid)^ and a consaqDetit iD<H?easa of in- 
.40me» 4hat the luklter wjl^uppprt tk« inabitatkai ccHiiplete in all 
jtayavte. 

By aa.act of Gongresi of the praaent aeesioi), savonty-'tmro sec- 
■tie^B of land, .Krhieh were originally granted to the State, on its 
,.llto4wM»Q"ii^to tlve UnioDi as saU^e Iwds^ bare been added to^the 
iKpemd; preTiously griuited by the geaeral goTernment, for 4he 
mpp<>i^of the Umreislty, Ihis additiotial eadowmetiit will so 
^iflcreaa6 the. fond, ultimately, that the plan of the Eeg^nts, aod 
ihe pride of our'citizens, will be realised i«|inaking the ^' Uiuyier- 
>fH]r of Wisoonsin/' the first literary institution in the oouutry. 

Bnt its present available means will not allow it to attempt the 
erganiaMion of any ptfaer fdepartmeBt, and itn means in prospect 
•will not b|e available for that purpose within three years, at leaat, 
^Ms^that theve if {no probability of the opezringof the Nortnal ^e* 
^Mfftment within ^tihat ^ime^ by the Kegents, without some aid fii>m 
110 Slate. 

There seems no necessity for commenting upon the great good 
which a snccessfally coudu^tod Normal school will have upon the 
eommon schools of the^State. Wherever tried ihey have pi^yen 
Iheir usefulness and received t^e approbation of all fiends ^f 
education. Kew York has one {which has been in operation for 
eight years, supported by appropriations from thegenernl fond^aud 
the liffge number of teachers who have gone forth from it t^ t^ach 

4 



'»1 
^:^tM>yaA^ . q£ tbe^ St%t0> ^ ^^ . tUyipg^wampit^ .of. i^ g^d works. 

p^ed 4fc t^ ,4X£9Qse oi i^Ck ^f^pectiye St#tee ; and no o<]^ai<)etii- 
,^]QA.i!Of Id i^n^oe tbi)Be S0t^s.^ abw^on so sncQe^fial a plan :(i^r 
providing their schools with good teachers. 

^» JEtAB fnslt;^!^]!]^ rdoomiuisn'dedto'tbe kgislatoio thatsach ap- 
<p«(qpil»tions be ananallj maiete-.irom the inoome of the sehodlfimd 
i4i9 nvill.be jsufiibient to ^eoure'the searviees of a competent I^oraal 
.jgiKO^i8or,iaqd. defray alI{)ropei!!eKpeiis^iii€!deDt to the foil estab- 
«iiioliiBeiit «id sucoeasfnl operation of this department, nirtil 
^^Mofajliiiie tts k isbaU- appear thjit tba income of the ncive^y 
hopA^ osolnsrreiDf the- sttpport of the 'law and mediolil depaA- 
Hients, shall be sufficient for the purpose. 

^e BoaM of Regents of the University adopted an ordinance 
iff 1849, .providing for the organization of the department of the 
'**13ieory and Practice of Elementary Instruction," constituting 
the GSiancellor and a Normal Professor to be chosen by the Re- 
gerits, the Faculty, whose duty it shall be to iiold annual ses- 
'»iOB8 of at least five months, for the instruction of the Teachers' 
Glass, composed of sucli young men as may avail themselves off 
Its advantages with a view to the business of instruction in o<mL- 
mon sclwols. 'The members of the Teaclaers' Olass or Normal de- 
partment to be members of the University, entitled to its privi- 
leges, and amenable to its discipline, having free access to the 
lectures of the other professors, the use of the library and appara- 
tus on the same conditions as mjsmbers of the regular classes. The 
pupils of the Normal Department wIM be entitled to the Instrtic- 
tJen of the^ University wi^A^ tfA<irj'^/ and to this end It is made 
Khe'tttrty of the Chancellor to admit to this department " any young 
iMQ 6f' suitable age and unexceptionable character, who sfasdl 
poreaent-the certificate of die Treasurer that he has executed faia 
written obligations to pay the usual fee of tuition, conditioned "to 
be void !n case he shall bav^e b^an ex(gi(gQd in instruction two 
years withi;Q the four ncizt succeeding tbe period of his /Qonnection 
'with the University." 

Q 



'^ At the close of the cotinie^ the membera of flie Teachers^ OfMi 
•hall, if approved on examination, have a part in the ezereiset of 
the commencement, shall be admitted to the appropriate degree 
in the art of teaching, and receiye a diploma from the haiidi of 

the Chancellor.'' 

It 18 the intention of the law of the atate providing for a Kor^ 
mal department in the University, and of the Board of Begenli 
acting under that law, that it shonld be organised and opened Ibr 
the reception of teachers ; but when! That is tne important petal 
We ehall never hereafter need its good lervices so mnch as aow^ 
in providing the schools with good teachers, and now is the tine 
for that Normal department to exist otherwise than npoQ pqMr» 
It has thus slumbered long enough. 

The second dormitory building will be completed in Jane next, 
when there will be ample room in the University buildings for the 
use of this department. It will be perceived that the design of 
the Normal department is not to give elementary instraction to its 
members, or to educate them in the branches usually taaght in 
our common schools, but to teach them the theory and practice of 
elementary iustruction, or in other words, the best modes of teadi- 
ing, government and discipline of our common schools, and to give 
instruction upon all subjects pertaining to the duties of a teacher. 

The ordinance of the Regents, providing for the organizatioa of 
the Normal department, is well conceived and suited to the pur- 
pose. It would seem proper, however, that young ladies should 
be admitted as well as young men, as a minority of the teachers 
in our common schools are young ladies. 

'^The instructions and honors of the institution being thus gra- 
tuitously tendered, we may reasonably expect thi^t the Normal de- 
partment will be crowded with pupils as soon as it shall be. orgfujL- 
ked ; and, with the aid of teachers' institutes, a new impulse gijreA 
to the cause of popular edncation in the state." 

KOir-ATr&KDAKOK AT SCHOOL. 

From the official reports made to this department, it appears, as 
heretofore stated, that the total number of children residing Sa 



r 



48 

the ikate, or in the towns reportiagy is one haiidred and Itf^fiTe 
thousand one hundred and twentj-iive, over fonr and nnder twe&« 
tj jtaiB of age. Of this number one hundred and one tbousand 
Sve hundred and eighty have attended school during the year* 
tbeiebj showing that fiffcj-three thoosand ft^e hundred and for^- 
fi^e ehildren, considered of requisite age, hare not been the di- 
rect recipients of any benefits derivable from our free school sj*^ 
tern. To embrace within this estimate the number attending schodi 
in thirty-seTen towA not reporting upon this subject, and assum- 
ing that the ratio of attendance is the same as in the towns re- 
ported, the number of children of school age, who have not air- 
tended the common schools is reduced to forty-three thousand fcur 
hundred and forty three. Assuming that there are five thousand 
children in attendance upon select and incorporated schools within 
the state, and that five thousand more from sixteen to twenty 
years of age, have received a partial education and are engaged in 
some legitimate pursuits, and we still have left over thirty-three 
thousand children who ought to be, but are not, pupils in our 
common echools, — over twenty-one per cent., or one fifth of the 
total number of children in the state. 

When we consider that the public schools of the State are en* 
tirely free from tuition or any other charge, and that the children 
^ the poorest and humblest as well as the richest and most dis- 
tinguished, have a legal and oonstitutional right toreceive Instrae* 
tion at these schools, it becomes a matter of the highest impcnpt- 
snce to ascertain what are the causes at work inducing this large 
Hon attendance, and to apply the appropriate remedy. Were outs 
not a free school system, the most natural and charitable ooncla- 
sioQ would be tfaae the number is mainly composed of those wheae 
psi^snts are unable to provide the means necessary for their atten- 
dance; but as this difficnity has been obviated by the enlightened 
policy of our State, in ^'taxing the property of aU to educate the 
children of all|" we are to seek for other causes, which at e in a 
measiure operating to partially defeat the very mission of good, 
which this school system was designed to fulfill 



" *A large portion of these cbiMren ^are withheld from * school on 
account 6f the carelossnegs and infdifference of parents in attend- 
'Irig to the moral and intellectual wants of their offiipring; soaie 
» =6n account of sparse popiilation In isolated locations, and the 
^conseqnent'want of means to make the ncce*?sary provisions for 
'iuirtaiimng schools for their children. 

I ' Of this latter class the. State hasljttleto fear, as time will 

jeroedy the evil, tut of the former the nunjhtr is sufficiently large 

* to njerit the attention of all friends of education, and of the good 

.character of the State, in devising ways and means of bringiiig 

within the influqnce of moral and intellectual training, this vast 

, army of yo«th who will otherwise grow up in ignorance and vice, 
aud carry woe, poverty, crime and expense to communities which 
may have made adeq^uate provision for the education of all the 
children within their own limits. This evil, for such I term it, is 
not confined to the cities and larger towns, but is spread out over 
the whole State, and calls loudly for a vigorous public sentimenii, 
that shall judge with severity and yet witli justice, the conduct of 
any parent or guardian who shall, without sufficient cause, fail to 
•ecure the attendance of their children and wards, U] on the 
ftchodls provided for them. 

This evjU has existed aad doos now exi^t^ ia^very other SUte, 
«wd to an extent as ^great «a in this, aftd has been the oauae of ^ml 
•HMetmefit^ in one Btikte^at least, imposing penalties upon parents 
)Vbo flball SQglect'lo ed«cale their childrea ; acting upon the piin- 
hmfit jUmt it is; the 4aty of the state to pmush crime and endeavor to 
•ffftform the criminiil, so has the state an eqwd right and datj to 
'jftribrm to preveat crime, by reqnirieg snob mosal and ioteUM- 
itoal tmmiog to be given 'to the youfli as will place them 'Hbeve 
iibe temptatico, or the wmngly coia/^eivod neceasitiy of violati^tg 

Legislation is not thought a snitiable means ftt present 6t seatt^ 
ling the attendance of such children upon our public schools — 
public sentiment would not favor coercive measures ; but as ohr 



Bc)|iO0l ^jftofu, 16 inteojded tp embrace: \ritbi& iU injO^eocs and . 
teacliix^^all the childi:^!!. of the Bto(;o^ of i^iool agq^ tltievsy^tefa . 
faiieia acc^mplisbingiita misaion in so far as there is arfailare tq ^ 
eocQmpass within ita relations any portion of the 7011th of the state.,. . 

Kbii'&ttendatits upon our public schocJs, which-' t^e stett^ ha^ ' 
iuMtito fbar, are tho chitdred of tbe'poor, th^agnoranty the MfflV- 1 
gent ; even these may be reached by the efficient ftervices ofechort . 
officers, and of philanthropic and intelligent persons who mgnife^t 
an interest in the educational. character of the state, and who hav^e ^ 
sympathies for the children of poverty, crime and negligence. 
TRere are. the children of the recklesaand the vicious, whose na- 
tures have become so debased, that they are willing to abandon ' 
their ojOTspring to the chance education of the streets, or the de- . 
moralizing training of their own criminal and vicious .practices* 
There is need jot of greater exertions to accomplish the training . 
of such children " in the way they should go." 

There is efficacy and po^er ia pijiblie; sentiment, and when 
properly directed will accomplish what laws cannot, and were it 
oMe^dMfaklefnefl and ^xpfie6«ed-ik{6i«h)CommfmnUy i]|>«b tU siiB- 
jeot>uttder. eousidoration) tine^mtet liat>p7'<^ffects^oiild bexeaKflaii • 
Pacdatft sboidd bdimadeto knowand f^l'fthai they caatlayianf 
cVli|0»t^ia ju&t treatment of their dlildren, to reapeetebility ieiva^f 
^UdUafeyar^ negleol^itg to perforiti)theirfir«ft>«nd IIl<^8ttsaoMl(' 
daty, tber.edtication of tli^iir childi^w. r 

WKBMca's mo^ioliAitT; 

Pairing tbchxst seeeion ^f the leg^laturea bill' wa&^mtrodiMe^r 
a»d parsed '^he Assemblyiand reached ita thvd raading^B tHe Setm • 
atef aiiiborizing i^parchase by tfa«.Sta(& of a vSoffii^iQa/k .BWtibw') 
o^fcopea of ^'Webffter'a UnabiJdged Oiotiosai^ (<>f the''Eog]j4)f^, 
I<Aog^aig«)" to fivnishra copy toieaob«onioH9t;sDb(Kd(ittrtbd Staf^ 
Tbabpobs to bq pai4 foroiUiofrtli^JUbfaify tpaocgf* of (the^iffei^ 
tovnfrlgr retaining latl^aStat^tir^ViRr^ H ^nffi^teiit sUm</roaiifli<io 



amount of tie school facd income apportioned to each towa, to 
pay for the copies so famished. Such a measure, it is believed, 
wonid resnit in great good to the schools of the State* It furnish* 
es the teacher with an invalaable work of reference, one which 
cannot well be dispensed with, and aids him in securing oa the 
part of his pupils, a proper use of words, and a correct orthogra- 
phy and pronunciation. 

Should the work thus be introduced into the schools, its effect 
will be to make it the standard Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guf^e, so far at least, as the schools are concerned, and ultintatelj 
it will be so reco£;niezd bj all. It will aid in discarding the many 
provincialisms in use, and prevent corruptions of the language al • 
ways incident to a State comprising citizens representing different 
nations and tongues. The attention of the legislature is respect- 
fully directed to this subject 

mSTBIOr LIBBABIia. 

Seetioo seventy-fourof the school law provides that *^£aok tows 
Superintendent may, in his discretion, set apart a sum; not o»> 
ceeding ten per cent, of the gross amount of the school money 
dpporticMied to any school district, which shall be applied by such 
diatriet to the purchase of school district libraries, which shall be 
the property of such district," Ac. The amount of school money 
to be apportioned by the town Superintendents to the school dis* 
tricts, is now so ample that at least ten per cent, in all cases, 
should be set apart for the purpose of purchasing school district 
libraries. Oreat importance is attached to them as a powerful 
amtttary in the promotion of popular education ; yet it appear* 
that there are not over eight hundred and seventy five in the whole 
State, eomprising fourtei^n thousand volumes. There are hnndredi 
and thousande oi children in ihe State that have no opporttinitiee 
of reading, outside of their school books, and with little prospect 
of Hhmr condition being improved in this respect, unless throu^ 



4T 

ike mdinm of diatriol libraries* Too little importenee it attacliod 
to tint subject generallj. The effect of a well selected libraij'i 
tlMHigb it may be small, is not limited to ohilclren of school a|;e| 
bat reaches the older classes of the commaQities where they faaire 
bsen established. 

Of New York it has truthfully been remarked that, ^^In neigh- 
borhoods where books were a luxury rarely enjoyed, and where 
intelligence was at a verj low ebb, the establishment of a school 
district library has in a few years, created a taste for reading, and, 
nltimatelj, changed entirely the intellectnal character of the 
whole community .'' Books should be found in district libraries 
suitable for yonng children, for the older class of scholars, and 
for mature minds; and of such a character as will please, as well 
as iostruct^ and should be founts from which youthful minds maj 
draw information that will be of service to them in all after life. 

The attention of the legislature is respectfully directed to the 
propriety of amending the section referred to so that it shall be 
the duty of the town Superintendent to set apart ten per cent of 
the school money due each district, for the purchase of a library. 

In consequence of ill health during several weeks of the time 
which I had designed to employ in traveling through the various 
counties, I have not visited as many schools, nor held that personal 
communication with teachers and friends of education, which I 
desired. To visit every county in the State annually, and remain 
sufficiently long to examine one-tenth of the schools, would re- 
quire all the time of one man ; and to make a hurried tour through 
the State would amount to nothing more than a pleasing fiction. 
I have universally found it to be true, that where the people are 
interested in schools, they always have good ones ; it is a legiti- 
mate result that where there is indifference manifested on the 
sobject, they have but indifferent schools, and that where there 
are contentions in the districts, apathy on the subject of schooUy 
or a want of harmonious action on the part of the people, the con- 
dition of the school will be like that of the district. 



45> 

Iborc is need' that tUe 'people -flfieBUL' W toore ttnmfugk^ 
awdcenednpoQ' the subject of ediBcation,aafl'wlKen.the7;tfe made 
full J to realize and peffovrii !their duty* to themselves, their dril* 
dreo, and posterity^ the most axdelit hope of afi philtuBthropistir ' 

will be realized in witnessing the grcattest efficieacy of "otrfftee ' 

school SJStOTIK > ^^ 

H. A. WRl&HT, . 

State Sup4drmten<Ient 



APPENDIX. 



80 



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68 



MBJ» 

PLANS FOR SCfiOOL HOUSES. 

Nal. 

n# ifellowisg plan for a district school room originatty appwrsd 
in tk e B »e oDd Tekme of the "Ohio School Journal,'' edited by T>t. 
Lofe^f Sdperintetid&nt of the common schools of OelnmT>n% Ohio. 
It wift be fonnd weU adapted totibo a c co mmodation of a- adool 
nnlnbaitiiig not over fifty ptipils. 




tth e biffltog hofo presented AonM be SAbyM ftafc eia Ao 
gr^mid, at at least, 2& by &S ^t inside. Ihe pljaa is draim « a 
letfe of tiBii Is^t to the inch. 

A O— laftries^ ft feet square,, one fbr e*ch Ma^ 

ft— laimry aftd apparatus r<kim, S by 9 leet^ i^hUU tm^ te 
i«Md to 4iie«llaliea loea fof flftdi flksidi elasMi. 



^. M 



i9 

T— Teacher's platform, 13 by 6 feet, eigbt inches hi|;h, supplied 
with a table where he can place his boolcs of reference, Ac, and 
all apparatus while nsed in teaching a class. Behind this platform, 
OH the wall, should be a blackboard 13 feet long hj 4 wide, 

DDDD — Inside and outside doors. 

HE E E — Becitation seats ; those on the sides fixed against tha 
wall, those in front of the plattbrm having backs and being moYi^ 

TV ^^— Tree space at least two feet wide, next the waU on thre^ 
lldes of the room. 

€^— Desk for two pupils, four feet long by 18 inohes wide. 

tt— Seat for two pupils, four feet long by 13 inches wide. 

[Hie letters and H are not represented in the cut, bmk tb^ 
white parallelognims represent the seats and these with dark lisei 
Mest(M thenf, are the desks.] The seats should be so arranged that 
Die pupils will sit facing the teacher when in his chair on the pla^ 

1 — Centre aisle, two feet wide, with one aisle on each side of 
lame width. 

Die area, on either side and in front of the teacher's ptatfonBiJa 
kt^ttded fbr any class exercises in which the pupils stand} and 
{he«paeb next the wall may be used to arrange the ^ greater park 
of the school as one class in any general exercise requiring it 

Tour window^ are represented on each side of t^a hgiM^ $»4 
tw^ dn the end opposite the teaeher'a stand. Tbs doer of AbH/^ 
hnrj room opens tvom one of the entriea, and the reoa^ ii U^blbeA 
\j a window in thci froot end of the house. Ibe wi&dlawli'SlkMM 
k fimuriied with outside or inside blinds— 'the ]atler are pvofenK 
Uc If these are deemed too coetly,t cmrtalDa shanU be 'fjMvidsdb 

Hie teacher's platform should be furnished with e tliUe inl 
dudr, for the use of the teacher. Ohairs should also be provided 
ht the aecommodation of persons yisiting the school. 

Ihe store for warming the room may be placed in front of the 
iiadier'e platform, between the movable seats and the front deska^ 
flsd the pipe should be carried acrosa the room to a chimney or 



60 

flue rnnning up between the two windows in the hack end of the 
room. 

A ventilating flue should also be constructed adjoining the 
smoke flue and communicating with it before it reaches the root 
The heat from the smoke flue will rarify the air in the ventilating 
flue, materially accelerating the escape of the foul air from the 
school room, and the smoke and vitiated air will both escape from 
the same chimney above the roof. This ventilating flue should be 
brought down to the floor ot the school room, and be at least one 
foot square, with one opening in it near the floor andanother near 
the ceiliDg, each so arranged that they can be kept open or closed 
as circumstances may require. The upper sash of the windows 
should be so arranged that they can be lowered. 

Fresh air may be supplied by an opening in the floor under the 
stove, supplied with a tube leading beneath the floor through the 
outside wall of the building. This mode of admitting air Is pro* 
ferable to opening a door or window, as no pupil will be exposed 
to a current of cold air rushing into the room ; for the air admit- 
ted through the tube beneath the stove comes directly in contect 
with the hot air about the stove and thus becomes warm before it 
circulates through the room. This air tube should have a regis- 
ter which may be opened or closed at pleasure. 

The ceiling of a school room of the above size should be twelve 
iMt high, so as to allow about 175 cubic feet of air to each pupil 
.snpposi&g the school to number fifty. 

Ab this plan is designed for the accommodation of a school com- 
posed of scholars varying in age from four to twenty years, it niust 
BOt be forgotten that the seats and desks must be of diflerentheiglit 
and width, and so constructed that both old and young may sit 
and use their desks at ease. 



61 



Beatt, of at least four differoat ttim^qaionsi should be provided 
in ereiy school room composed of scholan of all ages, as abore 
mendoiied, as sho^vm in the /ollowing scale : 



HaigUiof 9«t. 


HtigU of Dmk. 


Width of Swt. 


Width of Doik. 


10 inches. 
12 « 
14 « 
17 " 


17 inches. 
19 •• 
23 « 
26 « 


10 inches. 

11 «• 

12 " 
18 " 


12 in^es. 
18 " 
16 " 
18 » 



T«p cif D«k. 



figure 3. 
Seeti^n of Sett «id 0m1l 




Fignijift 1| represents one half of l!he top of a desk, the tipper 
portion of irhidi, except three inches of the most distant, slopes 
one inclr in a foot. The edge of the desk is in 4ie same perpendi- 
cular life as the £ront of the seat The npper or back portion of 
the desk; has a grfore (a) runpidg along the lipe of the slope, to 
prerent pencils or other articles from rolling o^; an opeiiing (S,) 
back of the groove, to receive a slate ; and an opening (e,) to re- 
ceive ai^ inkstand* There should be a shelf beaeath the 4esk^ for 
booksy wc^as represented 'by ' 

a-IVirnAi. 'Tfaas afa» i^^reMUs the prepM" hieHnatlbii ef the 
itfa^i4iliKk^i*idlii0tDpof Iheded:. - * 



TLAK Ko. a. 



TTPr 

1 



i 



I ! I' l rr- 



BBBB 

^^ 
^B 
B B 
BB 



:3 c 



Gil:-:: 



= -^ n M j i > . ii n i 1 ,1 ^fss9tSfmS^^9Smr9f^immmmmm;m 




V-1 r- 



» 



=;w: 



M il h i i i'iii I II ] | i i 



■ n ' . ■» 



the same floor. It is drawA Mt'l^ i0$lil of rUMHteUk 9^ jM i«c^^ 
Ibe foot The building is 46 by 311 ieet outside. There are two 
doors iQ the front end opening into the entries £ E, which com- 
municate with the school room. 

R— Boom for small scholars, 18 by ISifeet, lighted bj one large 
window in Iront This room should have a black-bowd extend- 
ing entirely across the partition wall between it and the large school 



98 

YooiQi and sMti for the «eeK>mfliodiMid& of the soholare, and nit- 
able means for warminjg the room. This plan maj alao be need 
for one large school, and the room B, used as a recitation room bj 
the aoBistant teacher, in which case, it shonld commnnicate di- 
rectly with the large school room instead of the entries. 

Hie sMts and desks in the large school room are desigtied for 
two scholars, and are safficient in number to accommodate seventy, 
besides the front row of seats which may be used for recitations. 
These seats shonld be arranged so that the popile will sit fiiunng. 

T. — tCeacher's platform, extending enlirely across the room. 

L — SmoiLC and ventilatiDg flues. 

B B* — ^Black-board, on the wall extending aoross the room. 
^ 8.— Stove, with air tube f<Nr admitting fresh air, as mentioned in 
plan No. L 

The {)kn represents six windows on the sides of the building- 
four in the kige school room^ a^d one in each entry. There may 
be twa wiadows for the small school room, instead of f ne, as 
■hownfin the plan. 



1 



PLAIT Na 8. 

FLAN OF SCHOOL BOOH FOB 8IXTT 80H0LABS. 



B 



"T 



c 



» 



i Q 



R 





BBS I^B SB 




lZi_J 



\"J 



-1^1" 



\i 



© 



I9H 
All 



\y 



1 w r 



[96bj40feetoatrida Scalt of 8 liMt to the inch.] 

D D D D — Oater and inner doors. The entry Bhonld be light- 
ed oyer the outer door. In this plan there iB bat one entrance 
door. The bojs and girls are famished with separate closets, 
opening into the school room. 



65 

W W— Windows, of wbicli there are Iwo in front, and throe 
on oodi side. 

A A — Aisles. Tlic central one is three feet wide, and each of 
the other four is two feet wide. 

U H — Desk?, fonr feet in length, and varying ia lieight from 
one foot fire inches, next the teacher's table, to two feel two 
inches, near the entrance doors. The desks thcnld vary in width 
from one foot to one foot six inches, and elopo about an inch to 
the foot. 

1 1 — Stsats, varying in hciglit from ten to ecventeen inches. 
The (front edge of the Beat should be in the 8ftmei>ferpend¥;ular 
Unc'as the lower o<lge of the desk. 

T-i— Teacher's tabic, two feet wide and six feet h^ng, farrfished 
with a drawer, \otk and key. It would bo bettor, perhaps, to 
have this table stand upon a jjlatforni, elevated about eight iichea 
from the floor, and extending entirely across the room. 

B B — B].. '.kboard, reaching entirely across the back end of the 
rooiii, whicL should be made by giving the plastering a oolored, 
Lard finish. 

K R — Recitation seats. 

S — Stovci the pipe of which, passing over the central, aisle, 
shoild erti^r the chimney at the back end of. the room. 

O — Air tube, under the floor, through which puro air may be 
introduced beneath the stove. ItnpuTe air should be allowed to 
pas4 oft' through ^ ventilator adjoining the chimney, or by lower- 
ing the upper sash of the windows, or both. 

L L — ^Movable seats near tlic stove, which may be occupied by 
the scholars while warming, or by small children, if neceesary. 
They might be placed in the closetB, which, being warmed, could 
be occupied by lissi^tants as recitation rooms. 



66 
PLAN No. 4. 




The above represents a plan for two distinct schook in on^ 
building, 34 by 54 feet, one story high. Each school room haying 
but one front entrance. The large room will accommodate sixty, 
and the smaller fortyi scholars. 



6T 

D D— Doors. A A— Entries. 

BB— Library and apparatus rooms, wluch xnaj be used aa 
recitation rooms. 

XT— Teacher's platforms, with blackboards behind each, on 
the wall. In the large room is a movable blackboard ((). 

£££E — ^Benches. Those on each side of the teacher's plat* 
form are fixed to the wall ; the others are movable, and may be 
used as recitation seats, together with the seats in front of the 
desks. 

H H— Seats- 

G G— Desks, 

1 1 — ^Aisles, between the rows of seats. 

f F — ^Vacant space next to the wall of the room. 



SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO SCHOOL AROHITEa 

TUBE. 

1. LOCATION 07 SOHOOL HOUSB. 

The site of the school house should be dry, healthy and pleas^ 
ant, easily accessible from all parts of the district, and apart from 
the dust, noise and danger of the highway. The vicinity of places 
of idle and dissipated resort should be avoided in selecting a site 
for a school honse, as well as places of public business; and if it 
can be 60 chosen as to overlook a delightful country, and be sur* 
rounded by picturesque scenery, it will increase the attractions that - 
durald always surround it ^^ As many of the pleasant influence 
es of nature as possible should be gathered in and around the spot, « 
where the earliest, most lasting and most controlling associations^ 
of a child's mind are formed," To secure these requisites, and 
avoid their opposites, it is frequently necessary to select a looia- 
tieii more or less removed from the territorial center of the dis* 
trict It is desirable that the site should contain at least one acre 

of ground^ never less than half an acre^ and be inclosed with a^ 



68 

neat, substantial fence, with a yard in front of the school honse, 

common to the whole school for recreation and sport ; and two 

yards in the rear — one for each sex, separated by a" In'gh board 

'€ence, and provided with the necessary out buildings. Shade trees 

should be planted upon the ground surrounding the school house, 

•'which will add much to the beauty of the site and be a protection 

^ from the hot rays of the sun in summer, and the cold winds in 

'winter. An appropriate place for fuel should bo provided, and 

this should, at all times when it is necessary to be u=ed, be 6upj)Hed 

111 sufficient quantity and of good quality, that the school room 

may be readily warmed for the comfort of the scholars, and that 

one half of the morning session may not be lost in almost fruitless 

attempts at wanning the room with green or decayed wood tal^en 

from a snow heap. Every school house should be provided with 

a well, or so situated that water may bo easily procured for the 

use of pupils and teacher. 

2. SIZE OF BUILDING. 

V The building should be large enough to have a separate entry 
for each sex ; a room for recitation, appat-atus, library and other 
pui-posesj and a school room large enough to accouamodate all 
the children in the district who are entitled to attend the school of 

' the district, and allow each one so attending it at least 175 cubic 
feet of air, spa e enough to go to and from his seat without distiurb- 
iug any one else, to sit comfortably in his seat, and enable the 
teacher to approach oacli scholar, and pass convenlenliy to any.paj^t 
of the room. The entries should be furnished with scraper, mat 
hooks, shelves, basin and towels, and thus furnished, will promote 
liealth, prevent contusion and impropriety, and aid in securing 
habits of order and cleanliness. The school house should presejit 
a handsome exterior and in every respect an inviting and attrac- 
tive appearance ; calculated to inspire children aud the conimutti- 
ty generally with respect to the object for which it is devoted. ". 

3. THK eCMOOL BOOM— SEATS AND DESK^. 

In determining the details of construction and arrangement 



69 

for a Bchool house, due regard must of course be liad to the vary- 
ing circumstances of couutry and Tillage of a largo and small 
number of scholars, of schools of diflferent grades, &c. In agreat 
^nsLJority of the districts of the state as they are now situated, and 
will be for some time to come, there will be but one school roam, . 
with a smaller room for recitations, library, apparatus, &a. 

This must necessarily be arranged and fitted up for scholars of - 
all ages. In small villages and populous country distriots, at leaet , 
two school rooms shonld be provided, one fitted up escoluaively foir : 
the yonngor, and the other for tlie older pupils. In large villages , 
and cities, a better classification of the schools can be adoptedy • 
and of course, more completeness can be given to the constnio- ; 
tion and arrangements of the buildings and the rooms appropriated 
to each grade of schools. 

In the coustrnction and arrangement of the seats and desks of a 
school room, due regard should be had to the convenience, comfort 
and health of those who are to occupy them ; and to secure these , 
objects, they should be made suitable for use by those who will 
occupy them, for the young and not for grown persons, and of va- 
rying heights for children of different ages, from four years to . 
twenty. Under the desci'iption of " Plan No. 1," for a school ' 

house will be found the dimensions for seats and desks of four 

> 

different sizes. 

The Hon. Henry Barnard, in his invaluable work entitled 
"School Architecture,^' a book that should be in the possession of 
erery school district, particularly if they contemplate erecting a* 
school house, remarks as follows upon the subject of seats and ^ 
desks for school rooms : " They should be adapted to each other, , 
and the purposes for which they will be used, such as writing and . 
ciphering, so as to prevent any awkward, inconvenient or un- 
healthy positions of the limbs, chest or spine. They should be 
easy of access, so that every scholar can go to and from his seat 
a^d change his position, and the teacher can approach each scholar 
and give the required attention and instruction, without disturbing., 
any other, person than the one poncerned. They should be so ai> . 



70 

ranged as to facilitate habits of attention, take away all tempta- 
tion and enconragement to violate the rules of the school on the 
part of any scholar, and admit of the constant and complete super- 
vision of the whole school by the teacher. Each scholar should 
be furnished with a seat and desk, properly adapted to each other, 
as to heijght and distance, and of varying heights ; the seats from 
nine inches and a half to fifteen and a half, (with desks to corres- 
pond,) for children of different ages or size. The seat should be 
made so that the feet of every child can rest on the floor, and the 
upper and lower part of the leg form a right angle at the knee ; 
and the back, whether separate from or forming part of the ad- 
joining desk behind, should recline to correspond with the natural 
curves of the spine and shoulders." 

The desk, for two scholars, should be at least four feet long and 
from twelve to eighteen inches wide, with a shelf beneath for books, 
and an opening in the back side to receive a slate. "The upper 
surface of the desk, except three or four inches of the most distant 
portion, should slope one inch in a foot. On the level portion along 
the lino of the slope there should be a groove to prevent pens and 
pencils from rolling off, and an opening to receive an ink-stand. 
The top of the ink-stand should be on a level with the desk. The 
end pieces of the desk should be so made as to interfere as little 
as possible with sweeping, and a free circulation of air. The desk 
should not be removed from the seat either in distance or height, 
80 as to require the body, the neck or the chest to be bent forward 
in a constrained manner ; or the elbow or shoulder blades to be 
painfully elevated, whenever the scholar is writing or ciphering. 
These last positions, to which so many children are forced, by the 
badly constructed seats and desks of our ordinary school houses, 
liave led, not unfrequently, to distortion of the form, and particu- 
larly to spinal affections of the most distressing character. Such 
marked results are principally confined to females of delicate con- 
stitutions, end studious and sedentary habits. "While boys and 
young men engage in active exercise and sport during the recess 
and at the close of the school, and thus give relief to the over- 



Tl 

strained and unnaturally applied muscleSi and restore the apring 
of elasticity to the cnshion-like Babstance which gives flezibilitj 
to the spinal eolamn ; girls exercise less in the open air, indulge 
hut Jittio in those sports which give variety of motion to the jointa. 
snd mnscles, and are confined to duties and studies which require 
their being seated, out of school beurs, too much and too long at 
any one time/' 

A volume of testimony, from the most distinguished membei)0 
of the medical profession, might be given, showing the evil and 
dangerous effects resulting from the use of improperly constructed 
seats and desks ; but it is deemed unnecessary to produce testi- 
mony upon a snbject so plain to the observation and common 
sense of every one. 

To adopt further the language of Mr. Barnard: <*No child 
should, under any circumstances, be long or frequently exposed 
to any one or all of these causes of discomforts, deformity, or 
disease. Seats and desks can be as easily and cheaply made of 
di&rent heights, and for convenient and healthy postures, as they 
are now without reference to such considerations. 

Little children are made to suffer, and many of them perma- 
nently, from being forced to sit' long in one position, without any 
occupation for the mind or muscles, on seats without backs, and 
so high that their feet cannot touch, much less reaty upon the floor. 
Nothing but the fear of punishment, or its frequent application, 
can k^ep a live child still under such circumstances, and even 
that cannot do it long. 

Who has not an aching remembrance of the torture of this 
unnatural confinement, and the burning sense of injustice for 
punishment inflicted for some unavoidable manifestation of un- 
easiness and pain t Even though the seats are as comfortable as 
can be made, young children cannot, and should not, be kept still 
upon them long at a time, and never without something innocent 
or useful to do, and under no circumstances longer than twenty- 
five or thirty minutes in one position, nor so long at one study, 
and that with frequent and free exercise in the open air. To 



72. 

accomplish this, great and radical changes iu the views and prac- 
tice of teachers, parents, and thc^ communities, must talic place. 
Nowhere in the whole department of practical education, is a 
gradual change more needed or should be sooner commenced," — 
The school room should be properly warmed, whenever a fire is 
needed, and kept at an even temperature of about sixty -eight 
degrees ; and as stoves are mostly used for this purpose, the p'pe 
should be carried as high as possible over the heads of the schol- 
ars to a flue within or next the wall. A vessel, supplied with 
pure water should always be kept on the stove to give moisture to 
the atmosphere of the room. 

4. — VENTILAIION. 

Every school room should be provided witli moans of ventila- 
tion, for the escape of vitiated air from the room, and for the. ad* 
mission of pure air within the room. The air of the room is con- 
stantly undergoing a change by being respired, rapidly losing its 
vital portions, and being otherwise rendered unwholesome and • 
impure by the insensible perspiration of the inmates, and by . 
burning fires. The importance of some arrangements to effect a 
constant supply of pure air, not only in school r^oms, but in any 
room where any considerable number of persons assemble, has , 
been overlooked, to the inevitable sacrifice of health, comfort and 
all cheerful or successful labor. But public attention is now 
being directed to that subject, and due importance, in many in- 
stances, attached to the necessity of providing proper means of. 
ventilation, as is shown in very many of the public rooms and 
buildings in every part of the State ; and it is hoped that the re« . 
form in this respect, will not fail to reach every school room in 
the state. Most of the union school buildings are provided with 
ample means of ventilation, but a great majority of school houses 
of the State are without any such humane provisions, unless it be 
opening an outside door, or raising the lower sash of the win- 
dows, a means resulting in as many ill effects as no means at all. 
For by opening a door or raising the lower sash of a window, a 



73 

cold current of air is precipitated into the room upon the persons 
of those sitting near those apertures, causing colda, coughs, and 
not nnfrequontlj planting the germs of incurable diseases. 
The pure air wo breathe is composed in every one hundred parts, 
of 21 of oxygen, 78 of nitrogen, and 1 of caibonic acid ; but whoa 
this has been once respired or received into tlie lungs and again 
thrown off, it is found to have lost 8 per cent of its oxygen, and 
gained 8 per cent, of carbonic acid. If this is breathed again, it 
loses another quantity of oxygen, and gains as much more car- 
bonic acid. As oxygen is the vital principle or part of air, it fol- 
lows that each successive respiration reduces the quantity of this 
vital principle, without which no animal can live. Now. it has 
been ascertained by experirfient, that a healthy, adult person re- 
ceives into his lungs, at each inhalation, every three seconds, 
about thirty-six cubic inches of air, which would be twenty-five 
cubic feet every hour, or seventy-five cubic feet every three hours. 
And farther, that " an animal cannot live in air which is unable to 
support combustion; and that air once respired will not sup- 
port combustion ; which establishes the important truth, that 
"air once respired, will not further support animal life." Hence, 
it will be seen, that forty-five scholars, during a three hours ses- 
sion of school, would exhaust the vitality of three thousand three 
hundred and seventy-five cubic feet of air; and were they kept 
in a room of the size of twenty by twenty-four feet, and seven feet 
in height, in which no pure air would be admitted, and could they, 
breathe the pure air until it is all once respired, they would all 
cease to exist before the expiration of three hours. For the room 
of the dimensions named, would contain 3360 cubic feet of air, 
which ie fifteen cubic feet less than is necessary to support healthy 
respiration. There are many school rooms containing no more 
cubic feet of air than is mentioned in the above supposed case, 
and in which are crowded forty-five scholars, but the rooms are 
far from being air tight, so that such a condition of things as 
above supposed, cannot well exist ; but there are approximationa 

10 



74 

to it, and this is given to show the necessitj of large rooms, high 
ceilings, and proper means of ventilation. 

The Hon. Ira Mayhew, superintendent of public instruction 
of the state of Michigan, in his very excellent work on " Popular 
Education," from wh^ch the above statements are derived, relates 
the following incident, as having occurred while in the discharge • 
of his duty as such officer : " In the winter of 1841-2 I visited a 
school in which the magnitude of the evil under consideration 
(want of proper means of ventilation,) was clearly developed. 
Five of the citizens of the district attended me in my visit to the 
school. We arrived at the school house about the middle of the 
afternoon. It was a close, new housci eighteen by twenty-four 
feet on the ground, two feet less in one of its dimensions than the 
house concerning which the preceding calculation is made. There 
were present forty-three scholars, the teacher, five patrons, and 
myself making fifty in all. Immediately after entering the school 
house, one of the trustees remarked to me : ^ I believe our school 
house is too tight to be healthy.' I made no reply, btlt secretly 
resolved that I would sacrifice my comfort for the remainder of 
the afternoon, and hazard my health, and my life even, to test the 
accuracy of the opinions I had entertained on this important sub- 
ject. I marked the uneasiness and dullness of all present, and 
e^ecially of the patrons, who had been accustomed to breathe a 
pure atmosphere. School continued an hour and a half, at the 
dose of which I was invited to make some remarks. I arose to 
do so, but was unable to proceed until I had opened the outer 
door, and snuffed a few times the purer air without When I had 
partially recovered my wonted vigor, I observed with delight the 
renovating influence of the current of air that entered the door, 
mingling with and gradually displacing the fluid poison that filled 
the room, and was about to do the work of deatli. It seemed as 
though I was standing at the mouth of a huge sepulehre, in which 
the dead were being restored to life. After a short pause I pro- 
ceeded with a few remarks; chiefly, however, on the subject 6f 



T6 

respiration and veutilatioD^ The trustees, who had just tested 
their accoracj and beating upon their comfort and health, re- 
BolFed immediately to provide for ventilation. * » * 
Before leaving the house on that occasion, I was informed an 
evening meeting had been attended there the preceding week, 
which they were obliged to dismiss before the ordinary exercises 
were concluded, because, as they said, ^ We all got sick, and the 
candles went almost out? Little did they realize, probably, that 
the light of life became just as nearly extinct as did the candles. 
Had they remained there a little longer, both would have gone 
out together, and there would have been enacted the memorable 
tragedy of the Black Hole of Calcutta, into which were thrust a 
garrison of one hundred and forty-six persons, one hundred and 
twenty-three of whom perished miserably in a few hours, being 
suffocated by the confined air." 

80 tragical a scene as the one above supposed will not probably 
occur, but it forcibly illustrates the necessity of providing a con- 
stant supply of pure air, and of affording means for the escape 
from the room of foul air, generated by respiration and other 
causeB. For, if in a school numbering forty-five scholars, 562i 
cubic feet of air loses its vital power every half hour, and this 
Titiated air, mixing with the atmosphere of the room, proportion- 
ately deteriorates the whole mass, some means must be provided 
to supply the necessary quantity of oxygen, or the most evil re- 
sults will inevitably ensue. During warm weather resort may be 
had to opening doors and windows as a means of ventilation, with 
less of evil efifects than at times when a fire is needed to sustain 
the warmth of the room ; but in the winter season other means 
are necessary. 

Pure air should be introduced into the room by means of a 
tube leading from the outside of the wall of the building beneath 
the floor, and opening into the school room under the stove, as 
mentioned in Plan Ko. 1. By this arrangement the pure air will 
be moderately warmed before it circulates through the room* 
Ihe size of this admission tube, or flue, must depend upon the 



76 

size of the room and the number of occupants ; but if supplied 
with a register at the opening under the etove, the amount of air ' 
necessary to be admitted may be easily regulated, provided the ' 
tube is large enough, which should not be less than twelve inches ' 
square. 

A flue should be constructed, through which the noxious air ' 
may escape, adjoining the smoke flue, which should be at the op- 
posite side of the room from the place where the stove is situated, 
and cold air admitted. This flue should not be less than eighteen ' 
inches in diameter, with a smooth inside surface, and an aperture 
nearly the size of the flue, near the ceiling of the room, furnished 
with a register that it may be opened or closed at pleasure. By 
carrying up this ventilating flue close beside or within the smoke 
flue, the warmth of the latter duiing the season when fires are 
used, and will rarify the air in the former sufiiciently to sustain a 
constant draught of air from the room. The ventilating flue may 
be made to connect with the chimney in the attic. 



it 



•APPENDIX ^'0.» 



APPORTIONMENT {F(yr the year 1854,) of $9»,74» 62 
among the several Tcnima and Cities of the State^ according to 
the number of children residing therein between four and 
twenty gea/rs of age. 



ADAMS COUNTY. 



T0*VBS. 




No. of Childrefi. 


Apportionrnent 


JackaoD, 




208 


$149 76 


Quincey, 




64 


46 08 






^ . 125 


90 00 


arand Marsh, 


Total 


68 
397 


No appoj tionment. 




285 94 






BAD AX COITNTY. 




Btfd Ax, 




442 


$818 ^4 


Betg^u, 




47 


33 14 


Kickapoo, 




24 


17 28 


^effevBODi 


Total 


116 

629 


«3 52 




452 88 






BROWN COUNTY. 


\ 


Dqiere, 




169 


$121 68 


fireenBay, 




' 968 


696 06 


Lasi^nce, 




' 132 


95 *4 


Wilghtstown, 




56 


• 4U' ^2 


Howard, 


Total 


221 
. .. 1646 


169 !2 


< 


. 1,U1'82 


• • • 




CAl.liMET COUNTY. 




Manchester, 




199 


$149 28 


Slockbridge, 




276 


198 72 


CbarlestowD, 




61 


43 92 



78 



TOWBS. 

Vew Holflteiii, 

Portknd, 

Woodville 



CALUMET COUNTY.— Continued 

No. of ChildieD. 

170 

40 

147 



Apportionment 

128 40 

28 80 

lbs 84 

No i^poitionment 



Total 


8M 
CRAWFORD COUNTT. 


642 9« 


Pnurie du Chien 


874 
•74 


t485 S8 


T*tal 


486 28 




COLUMBIA COUNTY. 




WMtP<Hnt, 


U6 


$104 40 


Lodi, 


2S2 


167 04 


Leedi^ 


214 


164 08 


Hampden, 


19S 


140 40 


Otovs 


168 


118 76 


FooBtwD Prairie, 


260 


187 80 


SprlBgvale, 


199 


148 2a 


Newport, 


97 


69 84 


Port Hope, 


20S 


147 60 


Soott, 


160 


116 20 


Coiumbu, 


426 


366 72 


OaUdonia, 


179 


128 88 


Dekora, 


269 


196 «8 


LotrTiUe^ 


172 


128 84 


Porti«;e City, 


848 


260 66 


Wyoeeoa, 


274 


197 28 


Comilaikl, 


264 


190 08 


Lewietan, 


148 


106 66 


MaroeHoD, 


t2» 


164 88 


Baadoiph, 


258 


186 76 



Tofcid 



MS2 



8^191 04 





79 






DANE COUNTY, 




TOWM. 


TSo. ci Children. 


ApportioniBMit. 


lih'nv 


884 


$254 88 


Bntol, 


279 


200 88 


BlMMonDda, 


297 


213 91 


Booming Orore^ 


164 


118 08 


Beny, 


IM 


76 82 


Burk^ 


SS8 


171 86 


Black Earth, 


192 


188 24 


Christiana, 


508 


803 60 


Cotfa^ Grove, 


381 


274 82 


Daat^ 


188 


183 92 


Dnnn, 


179 


128 88 


DnnUrk, 


483 


811 76 


Oeeriield, 


248 


178 56 


Fkdbbmg, 


267 


185 04 


Vontroae, 


211 


151 92 


JtliddletoD, 


159 


114 48 


IfaduoD, 


1127 


811 44 


Medina, 


807 


221 04 


Oregon, 


388 


289 04 


Priroioae, 


296 


218 18 


Pleawnt Springt 


482 


811 04 


Butland, 


881 


274 82 




225 


162 00 


8(>riiigdale, 


197 


141 84 


Ban Pfairle^ 


268 


192 96 


Ytmu, 


241 


178 52 


Tinna, 


104 


74 88 


irndsor. 


211 


151 98 


Wwtport, 


114 


82 08 


York, 


852 


181 44 


Boibnty, 


282 


1«T 04 


OtmfUioM, 


218 


188 86 



TMa), »1«1 ♦O.MT W 



. I 





80 








DODGE COUNTY. 




Towns. 


No. of Children. 


Apportionment. 


Ashippun, 




441 


•317 62 


Beaver Dam, 




645 


464 40 


Baraett, 




330 


237 60 


Emmett, 




427 


307 44 


Calamu?, 




180 


129 M 


Ch'eBter, 




356 


256 32 


Clyman, 




363 


261 36 


Elba, 




334 . 


240 48 


Fox Lake, 




337 


242 64 


Iliietisford, 




346 


249 12 


Hitman, 




410 


295 20 


Hubbard, 




370 


266 40 


Tifthanoti, 




527 


379 44 


Wdl, 




344 


247 68 


'Le^oy, 




195 


140 40 


Lomirn, 




262 


188 64 


Oak Grove, 




504 


362 88 


PorLljmdj 




22C 


162 72 


KnbicQTi, 




397 


285 84 


Shields, 




332 


239 04 


Trenton, 




390 


280 80 


Theresa, 




341 


245 52 


Wcstford, 


' 


60 


43 20 


'WiIliarastowD, 




863 


261 36 


City of Watertown, (5 


ith 4: 6th wards,) 


148 


106 5Q 



Total, 



8628 



«(i2l2 16 



FOND DU LAC COUNTY. 



j^shjEbrd, 
-Auburn, 

Alto, 

Waupuo, 

Oakfield, 



858 
125 
240 
342 

376 



$257 76 

90 00 

172 80 

240 24 

27J 72 



ANNUAL REPORT 



QM TBM 



BANK COMPTROLLER, 



OF THB 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, 



FOB THE YEAH 1854. 



MADISON: 

SBRIAH BSOWir, P&IKTBB. 
1865. 



t( 



Ofrgb ov Bank Compibollsb, 

Madisok, Jan. 11th, 1865. 
Hon. J. T. Lewis, 

President of the Senate : 

I herewith transmit to the legislature as required bj law, the 
annual report of the Bank Comptroller. 

Very Bespectfnlly, 

Wm. M. DENNIS, 

Bank ComptroUer. 



REPOET 



Bask Ookfebollxb's Offiob, 

JlADmoTSfy January lOth^ 1860. 
HoH. J. T. Lewis, 

XmuL Gov. a/nd PresiderU of the Senate : 

In parstiance of law, the Bank Oomptroller has the honor of 
submitting the following report of the transactions of his office for 
the preceding year : 

This department was organised on the 20th of November, A. D. 
1852, by the appointment of James S. Baker, Esq., of Green Bay, 
to the office of Bank Oomptroller, who contiDned in the discharge 
of the duties of that office until the first Monday ' of January, 
1854, when the term of the present incumbent commenced. 

Ky predecessor in office, in the ability and industry which he 
displayed in the organization and management of this new depart- 
ment, is entitled to much credit, and the result of his labors has 
materially aided me in the discharge of my official duties. 

The State Bank at Madison was the first association organized 
under the banking law of this State, and deposited its first secu- 
rities in this office, on the 25th day of January, 1853. 

The whole number of banks doing the business on the first day 
of January, 1854, was ten. 



The following will show the aggregate condition of banks as re- 
ported to this office on that day : 

Capital $600,000 00 

Circulation 485,121 00 

Deposits 654,048 10 

Specie 182,482 81 

Cash Items 20,136 80 

Public Securities , . - r : ' 6Y8,721 11 

Private Securities 1,163,066 47 

The whole number of banks organized and doing business on 
the first day of January, 1856, were twenty-four. 

The aggregate banking capital of the organized banks on that 
day was $1,450,000. 

The banking capital of the State has increased during the past 
year $850,000. 

Several new institutions are now in the course of organization 
and will soon commence business, the aggregate capital of which 
is.$186,00a 

The whole amount of countersigned notes issued to tlie 'banks, 
and outstanding, on the 'first day of January, 1855,* ia\$P37,502. 

The whole amount of State stocks on deposit in this office to 
secure the redemption of said notes, on that day wa3 1|033,000, 
and consisted of the bonds of the following States, to wit : 



.Virginia State Stocks 


^>p0roent 


♦277,000 


Miesouri 


do 


do 


230,000 


Tennessee 


do 


do 


176,000 


North Oarolina do 


do 


88,000 


Kentnckj 


do 


do 


62,000 


LenUiana 


do 


do 


, 36,000 


Michigan 


do 


do 


18,000 


Wisconsitt 


do 


7 per cent 


60,000 


do 


do 


8 per cent 


40,000 


OoQicia 


do 


'OperiMDt 


42,000 


do 


do 


7 per cent 


20,000 



Total, $l,t)88,000 

A particular description of the stocks deposited by each bank, 
will be foand in the appendix attached to this report, and marked 
>A." 



• FA)m theiHqp«rt8 mtde^ to tkifl c&mx>iL tiie flNtdii;^ of JitiUAiyi 

1855, by twenty-three banke, the following itema are £;ath)9red, to 

iirlt * 

'capital / -^ $1,400,000 00' 

Oir ulation . 740,764 00 

Deposits 1,481,866 74 

Specie 834,388 T4 

Ca«h Items 103,184 27 

Pablic Seeuritiee 99^,485 19 

Private Securities 1,861,043 «e . 

yoTK.— The OMoth Ciiyi Batik not bcluded in ilic abore gtatemeut. 

tfables B, C, P, E in the apjpettdix attached to this report, will 
exhibit the semi-annaal reports of the banks from the organisation 
of this department, up to^ and including the Bemi*annual report of 
January let, 1855. ."..'.".*... 

The following j&atement.willshow. ilii amoimi ^ CajpUdL Suick. 
ihs amount, of Countersigned Notes issued to eaeh JScmk^ dna 
the amount of Staid Stocks on deposit to secure t/a^ redemption 
€f such Notea^ on the firsi day c^ JurLU(mf\ 1855.. ' 



Kame of Bank.- 



Capita]. 



Circulation 
OutBUM)diajj^ 



Amowitof 
oo 'Deepo4it 



Bute Bank 

WiacoDsin Marine and Fire losuFance.Co. 

Bank of Racine 

Jtiotk Kiver Bank,. ....»••••»•••.••%.•• 

Oily Bank of Kenosha 

State Hank of Wiacouain — ., 

Wiscohsin Bank 

Fafmereand Millers' Bank^. !....r- 

Jefferson County Bank 

Badger State Bank.. .:. /.. 

. Oshkosh City Bank 

lUcSne County Bank 

Exchange Bank. v. « — ^'. 

*City Bank of Racine. 

Bank of the W eat 

Bank of Fond du Lac 

Bsbk <tf Cdrnmerce ...^ »,.• 

Columbia County Bank 

FdxBaverBank ; p..,* 

B^nkof Walertown 

Qerroania Bakik .....;.• •.. 

;KQrth<?rn Bank .,.^...,^..^.... 

Ddne Con n tv Bank 

JPto^pIe'a Bank ^ «^., 



$t^ 50,000 

- . . 100,000 

50.000 

■ 50,000. 

50.000 

250,000 
50.000 

,50.000 
50.000 
35«000 
50,000 

100,000 
50.000 
50.060 

100.000 
25.000 

100.000 
25 000 
S5.000 
50.000 

95.oeo 

50.000 
■50.0()i0 
95.000 



^.30;eoo 

44,995 
.504H)0.. 
46.000 
119.000 
'46.9§8 
37^^00 
50.000 
SS.496 
49.900 

. 22^492 
40.000 
25,000 

22.492 



24,993 
S4'988 
29.293 
99^00 
3-2.298 
50.000 
23 744 



SaiMO 
50/OQD 
50.000 
56.000 
51.000 
134,000 
50.000 
40.000 
55.000 
25.000 
50.000 

25X)00 

4^000* 

35iW0 

25.W0 

40000 

25,000 

26.000 

33.000 

:St5 000 
46.000 

>5».0OU 
25.900 



tbtal.w...... , tMSOlDQO 



^^SM' l.tibaaa^, 



Th^fMowma Statemmi vnU exhibit the whole amtnmt cf Cmm^ 

. ierdgned JVotea issued to the several Banks of this Statej/rom 
the oraanization of this Departments up to dwnua/ry Xet^ 1855 .• 
iilso the amomvt m Countersigned Nates returned to the JSank 
ComptroUer^s Ofjioe hy the said Ba/nks^ during that time^ to be 
cancelled and destroyed. 



Name of Bank. 



Notes 
laauecL 



Notes 
Retarned. 



State BsdV. 

WieeoDsin Uarine and Fire Inaarance Oompanj. 

Bankof Raoine 

Bock RiyerBank 

City Bank of Kenosha 

State Bank of Wiaoonobi .•^. 

Wisconsin Bank 

Fanoen and liiUere' Bank 

Jefferson Coanty Bank 

Badger Stete Bank 

Oahkoah City Bank. , 

Racine County Bank 

£zcbange Bank. 

City Bank of Racine 

Bank of the West 

Bank of Fond da Lao 

Bank of Commerce. 

Columbia County Bank 

Fox River Bank 

Bank of Watertpim 

OermaniaBaok 

Northern Bank. 

Dane County Bank. 

Peoples'aBank 



51,003 
49^95 
49.995 
50.017 
50,078 
134,392 
50.149 
50.904 
50260 
25,036 
50.006 
26.576 
24.992 
44.990 
35 000 
24,992 
40.005 
24,993 
25.020 
29.293 
24,902 
32.298 
50.006 
24»997 



TotaL I $1,019,889 



(20,903 

'"V,666 

17 

4.078 

15J»2 

8|151 

13,404 

260 

2,540 

106 

478^ 

2,500 

4,990 

"'"2.560 
4,00s 

022 

""2*492 

006 

14253 



t82>297 



The Bank Comptroller much regrets to be obliged to notice the 
suspension of the Oshkosh Oitj Bant:, one of the institntionB or- 
ganized nnder our banking law, which occurred on or about the 
twenty fifth ultimo, in consequence (as the Comptroller is unoffi- 
cially informed) of the rapid and unexpected withdrawal of the 
funds of its depositors. 

Ko report having been made to this office bj the said Bank, on 
the first day of January, as required by the forty first section of 
the banking law ; the Comptroller has therefore no other infor- 
mation concerning its condition or resources then what can be 
gathered from the books of this office. None of the circulating 
notes of that institution hare yet been protested, (or the Comp- 



troUer ha» not been offidallj infbrmed of the fact,) in order to m^ 
thorite him to take initUtorj steps to compel the bank to redeem 
its isaoee, or to enable the Comptroller to dispose of its securities 
and to proTide for the payment of its circulating notes, as required 
hj sectionB 28 and 24 of the banking law. Shoald it hereaftet 
become the duty of this office to wind np the affairs of that bank, 
it will be done in tl&e most economical manner, and in the shortest 
period of time consistent with the interest of the bill holder and a 
dne regard to the rights of the institution. 

It is however to be hoped that the indiriduals who control the 
bank, will see the necessity of making some arrangement with its 
creditors, either to continue or to close its business, without the 
interposition of the law. 

The outstanding circulation of the Oshkosh City Bank is 
S49,900 for the redemption of which the following securities are 
on deposit in this office to-wit : 
Yirginia 6 per cent stocks, $15,000 

Missouri « « " . 10,000 

North Carolina « « 25,000 

Cash received for interest upon the above stocks 
and now in tile Bank Comptrollers hands 1,500 

Total $51,600 

The estimated value of said stocks according to recent sales in 

New York is $46,000 

Add Cash 1,500 

Total . $47,600 

Which will leave a deficiency of about five per cent of aecari- 
ties on deposit to provide for the redemption of its outstanding 
circulation, to cover which this department holds the bond of ' 
James Eneeland^ David P. Hull and B. S. Henning in the penal 
sum of $12,500 which will probably fully indemnify the bill holders 
from any loss. 
By the fifth section of the banking law of this State, the New 
. York Market is made the standard by which the value of the State 
2 



10 

-AtliokB offered asaecorityfor tike redfimption of the eirculating 
notej^ of the banks is ascertaiaed. It provide^ ^that the stoeks 
aball be estimated and goremedbj the average rate at which 
0Qch Btocks have been Bold in the city of New York for the next 
fix inonthfi preeeding the time when such stocks may be left on 
. deposit with the Bank Comptroller." The said section farther re- 
quires, that aach stocks shall in all cases be made equal to a stodc 
produoing six per cent per annam^ and in no case to be received 
at a rate above their par valne. 

For many years past .it has rarely occurred that the bonds of 
asy of the States deposited in this office as aeouritiee for the re- 
demption of the circulating notes of the banks have failed to com'- 
mand a premium in the New York market, and they have been, 
;snd are now ^regarded iby capitalists as among the most eafe and 
desirable of investments. 

The bank comptroller has therefore considered it as his duty 
under the law, to issue a par circulation upon most of the stocks 
deposited by the banks, for in addition to the deposit of stocks, 
the 17th section of the banking law requires that before the bank 
comptroller shall countersign and deliver any circulating notes^ the 
stock holders of the banks receiving them, shall execute a bond 
to be approved of by the bank comptroller, to the amount of one 
fourth of the circulating notes which such banking associations pro- 
pose to receive, as an additional security to indemnify the bill hold- 
er against any loss that may be sustained in case the securities 
deposited with the comptroller shall not prove sufficient to redeem 
such bills. 

The foregoing provision has in all cases been complied with ; 
and although it has been the aim of this department to have all 
the circulating notes issued to the banks amply secured by the (Je- 
jposit of state stocks, still the law requiring additional security 
from the stockholders of '^anks, is a wise provision, and well cal- 
culated to guarantee the public against any occasional loss th^t 
may be sustained by depreciation in the value of stocks. 

A statement of the names of ,the several individuals who ht^ve 



11 

executed bon^s in purenance of tbe proyisions of this law, will be 
found in the appendix attacbed to this report, and marked "G" ; 
as well as a statement of tbe names of the stockliolders of eacb 
bank, according to tbe last report made to this office, and marked 

During' the p.ast three months theXew York money market has 
been 'more depressed than at any previous period within the last 
twelve years. The best mercantile paper could scarcely be nego- 
tiated at any price. Tlie most substantial securities have sold at 
minous rates, and the stocks of our largest and most reliable states 
greatly depreciated ii;i the market. 

On the first day of December last, in consequence of the decline 
of stocks helow tbo value at which they had been received as 
banking securities by this department, and in order to completely 
secure the redemption of the outstanding circulation issued to the 
banks, the Bank Comptroller addressed the following circular to 
•tbe several banks in the state: 

^^JSank Comptrollhb's Office, 
MjLinBON, Dec* Ist, 1854. 
In oon^equeooe of lija^great and continued decline in the valae of 
•8ta4e stoeks, in tbe I^ew York market, and more particularly in 
the stocks of 'tbe staties of Missouri, Yii^ia, North Carolina, Ten- 
nessee and Louisiana I have thought proper to request of yoar 
bank to forward to. this office at any time daring the present month 
ten per oentum of tbe whole amount of circulating notes which ham 
been eounteraigned and issuied to you by the Bank Oomptrollor, 
for the purpose of havimg tbe same cancelled; or, you can, at your 
option, deposit^ in lieu, thereof a like amount of state stocks, at 
their current market value, all of which will be passed to your 
credit on the books of this department. 

The preeent -unsettled state of the money market might well jus- 
tify a far larger call^but not wishing to embarrass the business of 
the hanks, or to withdraw from active employment a lar- 
ger sum than is absolutely necessary, I have, upon consultation 
with several of the prominent bankers of the state, concluded, at 
present^ to make a call of but ten per cent 



12 

Several of our banks have already, unsolicited by this depart- 
ment, deposited in this office, ten per cent, additional stocks to fur- 
ther secure their circulation, and others have intimated their read- 
iness and willingness to do the same; and it is confldently expect- 
ed that no institution, organized under our banking law, will de- 
cline to comply with this reasonable request, which will not only 
fully indemnify the public against all possibility of loss, from their 
circulating notes, but will greatly increase the confidence already 
reposed in the solidity of our banks. 

Very EespectfuUy Tours, 

Wm. M. DENNIS, 
' Bank Comptroller.'^ 

The terms of the circular were varied so as to conform as near as 
practicable to the New York market vltlue of the securities deposi- 
ted by the different banks. Upon the stocks of our own' state 
(seven and eight per cent.) no additional security was demanded, 
and upon the stocks of a few of the other states, less than ten per 
cent was demanded, and it gives me great satisfaction here to state, 
that my circular was favorably received, and cheerfully acquiesced 
in, by the promptforwarding to this department of additional securi- 
ties or the return of countersigned notes, by every bank in the 
state with the exception of the Oskosh Oity Sank. 

The prompt manner in which our banks have complied with 
the terms of this circular, is not only an evidence of their strength 
and soundness, and of their desire to fully secure the redemption of 
their circulating notes, but of their ability to furnish the state with 
a sound and healthy currency. Their conduct is truely commend- 
able and entitles them to additional claims upon the confidence of 
the people. 

The banks of the state have during the short period of time they 
have existed, generally been doing a safe as well as a profitable 
business, and with a single exception have promptly redeemed all 
their issues, and met their other engagements with the public. To 
discriminate between them would be unjust, as it is believed that 
all have contributed as far as their ability and safety would permit^ 



IS 

to aid bj means of discounts and exchange the various commer. 
cial interests of the state. 

Oar ireo banking law has now been in operation two years 
and under its provisions twenty- four banks have been organized, 
with an aggregate capital of $1,450,000, and a circulation amount- 
ing to $987,592, all of which is secured bj the deposit in this of- 
fice of $1,033,000 of the stocks of the most substantial states in the 
Union. The operation of the law has thus far fully equalled the 
expectation of its friends and has given to the state a sound and well 
secured currency. If the affairs of this oflSce are prudently con- 
ducted and all the requirements of the law faithfully enforced, lit- 
tle danger need be apprehended of any considerable loss being 
sustained by the public from currency based upon it. 

The only securities that our banking law admits as a basis for 
banking, are state stocks and a limited amount of the first mort- 
gage railroad bonds, of railroad companies, duly organized under 
the laws of this state. 

The Milwaukee and ififisssissippi Railroad is the only road in 
the stS' hat is so far completed as to come within the provisions 
of the law. That company, in the year 1853, made application 
to my predecessor in office to have its bonds admitted as banking 
securities. That officer caused the proper examination into the 
finances and condition of the road to be made, as required by 
law, with much care and attention, and very properly admitted 
the bonds of a portion of the road as banking securities. — See 
Table F. 

The ability with which the afiairs of that company have been 
managed, the large and profitable business that the road is doingi. 
and the uniform promptness with which it has met aU. its engage-, 
ments, has caused its securities to be sought after as safe as well aa 
permanent investments ; axxd the bonds of this company have, iu, 
coDsequence, ranged in the Kew York market within a small niargiA, 
of state stocks. These reasons, and in consideration of the reduced 
amount of circulation that can be issued upon that class of securir 
ties under the law, have not caused them to be sought after as 



14 

banking securities. Only five thousand dollars of the first mort- 
gage bonds of the Milwaukee and Mississippi railroad company 
have been deposited in this office as a basis for banking ; and 
from the limited amount of circulation which the bank comptrol- 
ler issued upon them, they were soon withdrawn, and state stocks 
flubstituted in their place. 

The bank comptrolller has in every instance rejected »uch secu- 
rities as have been offered as a basis for banking under the law^ 
as do not clearly come within its provisions^ as well as. the stocks 
of far distant and doubtful states, which have been construed as 
coming within the meaning of the act^,and has only admitted aa 
banking securities the bonds of such states as are considered most 
8afe and convertible, and whose reputation for the integrity with 
which they have for a long period of time met their engagements, 
may be deemed a sufficient guarantee for the future.. 

The constitution having limited the whole amount of the publie 
debt of this state at one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), the 
greater part of the currency of our banks must continue to b© 
based upon the bonds of other states, which are generally issued 
in liberal amounts to aid in the construction oi various works 
within their own borders ; and it may hereafter, if, indeed, it has 
not already, become a question of serious financial import, as to 
how far the policy of our state shoijld be restricted to the basing 
of nearly its entire currency upon the debts of other states, over 
which our own government has no supervision or control, either 
in limiting the amount, or the provision of means for their ulti- 
mate payment, or for the accruing interest thereom In times of 
universal prosperity it may be well enough, but when commef- 
cial and financial revx^lntions occuir, as occur they must, it wonM 
seem that the greatest degree of power should be held by our 
own gcremment, consistent with its general financial policy, over 
Ae securities for the currency authorized by its laws. 

It is believed that the business of this State requires a circula- 
tirig currency of not less than $4,000,000, in order to facilitate the 
various exchanges of produce, niinerals, lumber, merchandisei, 



15 

and other eommodities, less than Ofoe-fourth pittof which is fhi^ 
nished by tho banks of our own State; and it rests trith oor 
Legisktare to determine whether it is proper for onr channels of 
efrcnlation to be filled with the doubtfal and depfeetated cnrfenef 
ef far distant IBtatee, Avhoso currency is neither seenred by tb^ 
^* pledge of public stocks^'' or anything else, and whose banks pmj 
no taxes towarde the 8U]>{>()rt of onr government Is it not wrong 
to require of onr own banks the mo^t undoabted seonrities, and 
to oblige them to omtribttte largely to onr treadary, and then to 
place them into competition with the donbtfal and nnseeared 
cnireDigr of other states. 

Xbe poorer currency will generally take the place of the better, 
as the precioos metals seldom circulate in company with paper 
money, so the more doubtful class of paper currency will gede* 
vally drite from circulation the better kind. Our own currencT* 
ia more easily converted into coin or exchange, and ie thereforo 
returfied to the banks for redemptii^n, whilst the more doubtful, 
whieh is not so readily converted, k left to circulate afrndi^ the 
people. It has been a subject of great complaint with our ftr^ 
mers and bu^ness mea, that it i$ with difficulty they can dispose 
of their produce and obtain in exchange the i&otefl ef the bankt 
of our own state, but that the notes of distant and almesl unknawtt 
banks, are offerefl them in payment, which has betn the canae* of 
no jncpo^iderable losses in Ihe converting of such carreinoy ibtoooSn 
or the bills of our own banks, and it remains with the. legislature 
to adopt such measures as will secure our citizens a good cnrtteaey 
aa w^l as to protect onr banks from the evils of this aUegidnaate 
competition; in their busineas. 

Our banking law. having bqen enacted by the legislature with 
much care, and in accordance with the provisionsof the constitu* 
tion submitted to and approved of by a large majority of the elec- 
ion of the Btate before it became operate ; the power ofllie le- 
giabtare to amend or to charige any of tteprovisiohi is geiienllly 
qttBstioned^ and if no doubt opoii tWpeittteatilited^ ttig Idbe liopM 



1« 

tbat the powet will not be exercised except f<»r good reasoDB, ftnd 
then only with caution and great deliberation. 

The bank comptroller will propose no material change in any of 
its provisions, bat will only advise the enactment of saoh laws as 
in his opinion will have a tendency to perfect the original instm- 
ment which will be proposed through the ^propriate committee of 
the Senate and Assemblj. 

8eo. 39 of the banking law requires that all the circulating notes 
of banks returned to the Comptroller's office, shall be destroyed by 
him, after he shall have made a record of the same, which record 
shall specify the number of each bill, so returned, its date, and 
by whom it was countersigned. The same section further directs 
that duplicate records shall also be kept in the office of the state 
treasurer. 

The legislature at its last session directed the bank comptroller 
to procure suitable books for the purpose of carrying the foregoing 
provisions into efbct, and made ample provision to defray the ex- 
penses of the same. The books have accordingly been procured, and 
opened with mnch care by a competent book keeper employed fbr 
that purpose, and the records are now nearly completed. The ex« 
pense attending it, although considerable, will be more than com 
pensated for by the additioanal safeguard that prpvides against 
fraudulent issues of countersigned notes. 

(%^>.62 of the general laws of the session of 1864, created' the 
office of bank register and vested the appointment with the bank 
eomptroUer. In pursuance of that law, Adolphus Menges, Esq., 
lias been assigned to that station, and this opportunity is taken to 
bear testimnny to the ability, fidelity, and industry, in which he 
has performed the arduous duties of that office as well as the of* 
fice of deputy bank comptroller, an appoinment which he has held 
since the present incumbent has had charge of this department. , 

BANK TAXES. 

. Tho sixteenth section of the banking law of this state requires 
that every banking association organised under its provisions, shall 
0n th^ fim» daifS'of January and July^ in each year, pay nto the 



IT 



state treasary a semi-annual tax of three fourths of one per cent 
on tile amount of the capital stock of such bankinjj; association, 
^which tax shall be in lien of all other taxes except npon the real 
estate of ench banking association. 

The first banking association organized under the said act was in 
January, 1853. 

The whole amount of taxes collected from the banks during the 
year 1853, was $7,097 92. 

The whole amount of taxes collected from the banks during the 
jear 1854, was $18,165 6i. 

It will be safe to estimate the revenae to the state from the bank 
tax for the year 1855, at $30,000. 

The following statement will show the amount of taxes due from 
each bank on the first day of January ,^1855. 



l^amesof Danks. 



SUteBaDk, Madison 

Wisconsin Marine & Kire Id& Co., Milwaukee.. 

Bank of Kacioe. Racine... 

Bock River Bank, Beloit 

City Bank of KenoAha. Kenosha 

State Bank of Winoonsin. Milwaakee. 

Wiaoonsin Bank. Mi> eral Point 

Parmeradk Millers Bank. Milwankee 

Jefifenoo Coanty Bank, Watertown 

Ba<(ffer {jtate Bank. Janesville. 

Oahkosh City Bank. Oshlcosh 

Bacine County Bank, Racine 

Xzcbange Bank, Milwaukee 

Oity ^nk of Racine, Racine. 

Bank of Ponddn Lac. Ponddu Lac 

Bank of the West, MaiUaon 

Bank of Cororaerce. Milwaukee 

OolomlNa Cou n ty Ban k. PorUge City 

7flK Kiver HanV Oreen Bay 

Bertliern Bank, Howard 

Bank of Watertown, Watertown 

Germania Bank, Milwaukee 

BaneCoanty Bank. Madiaon 

BfoplM*Ban]^ Milwaokee 



Capital. 


Arooant of Tax. 


$ 50000 


t 375 00 


100.000 


750 00 


50000 


375 00 


50000 


375 00 


50 000 


875 00 


250 000 


1,875 00 


50000 


375 00 


50(M)U 


375 00 


50.000 


375 00 


35.000 


187 50 


500 


375 00 


100.000 


750 00 


50000 


375 00 


50.000 


3f5 00 


95 000 


< 1X7 .SO 


100.000 


750 00 


100.000 


750 UO 


350<H) 


187 50 


25000 


1H7 50 


50.000 


513 50 


50.000 


308 33 


35.000 


147 93 


50,000 


1 * 43 


•2 iM) 


63 50 



#1.450,000 



$10,9«^1 67 



18 

ENGRAVING AND PRINTING. 

Section four of an act entitled "an act to autho ize tlie busmesB 
of banking," approved April 19th, 1852, requires tlie bank comp- 
troller to cause to be engraved and printed in the best manner to 
guard against counterfeiting such quantity of circulating notes in 
the similitude of bank notes, as may be necessary to carry into 
effect the provisions cf that act, and that the plates, dies and ma- 
terials so procured for the printing and making of such circulating 
notes shall remain in his custody and under his direction. 

In order to carry this law into effect, contracts have been enter- 
ed into by this department with four of the leading bank note en- 
graving and printing establishments in the city of N"ew York, to 
wit: 

Messrs. Eawdon, Wright, ^atch & Edson ; Toppan, Carpenter, 
Casilear & Co. ; Wellstood, Harks, Hay & Whiting; Danforth, 
Wright & Co., who contract to do all the bank note printing and 
engraving for this department, and agree that they will not at any 
time or under any circumstances place the comptrollers die upon 
any bank note plate, or any token, or furnish transfers therefrom, 
without a written order from the bank comptroller of this state ; 
that they will hold the "comptroller's die" and all bank note 
plates subject to his order, and that they will deliver all impres- 
sions printed by them to the authorized agent of the bank comp- 
troller. 

The well known reputation of the engravers selected to do the 
engraving and printing for this department, is a sufficient guaran- 
t^Q that their contracts will be faithfully performed, and it gives 
me pleasure here to saf that all busines committed to them has 
been neatly and expeditiously executed, and in a manner entirely 
Bitisfactory. 

The bank note plates, of the several banks of this state "which 
are organized under our banking law, as well as those in process 
of organization, are deposited for safe keeping in the vault of "the 
Bank of the Republic," in New York city in a safe owned by the 
State, the key of which is kept by the agent of the department. 



19 

Whenever an association formed under our banking law applies 
to the comptroller for an order to have a bank note plate engraved, 
and bank notes printed, an order is issued, directed to such one of 
the belbre named ongrarers as the applicants maj select, to en- 
grave a plate and to print therefrom the nnmber of impressions 
contained in snch order, which order is foi*wardcd by mail ix) the . 
agent in the city of New York, who enters it upon his books, • 
eouotersigns and delivers it to the prc^per engraver, and sees that 
appropriate vignettes, designs, &o,, for the plate are selected* After 
the plate is completed and approved of by the agent, and the re* 
qnisite number of impressions are priated, the plate is s^^ed with 
the seals of* the engravers, and of thi^ department, and delivered ., 
to the agent who deposits it in the bank and forwards a. certificate , 
of snch deposit, duly execnted by himself an^ the engravers to . . 
this office to be placed on file. 

The affidavit of the engraver and printer is ako taken that the 
plate has remained in their possession since it was engraved, and 
that AO more impressions than the number ordered by the comp* 
troller have been printed from the same. 

13ie impressions are coanted, packed, and sealed by the agent, 
and delivered by hlni to the express company to be forwarded to ' 
this office. 

The receipt of the express company, as well as the certificate of 
ilie agdnt, and affidavit of the printer are also forwarded here to 
be filed. 

Instructions have been given to have different vignettes selected 
for the plates of each bank in order to avoid a similitude in their 
bills, as well as to have the title, amount of capital stock and the 
name of the state plain and distinct, that the public may not be 
misled in their character, and that each bank may stand on its 
own merits and the reputation of our state. 

This department has discountenanced the practice of copying 
the names of eastern banks, and imitating the style of their 
notes, changing only the name of the State which is generally 
engraved in small letters, thereby misleading the public as to 



20 

the character of their notes. This system has been too much 
practiced in some of the Western States, and in my opinion 
has reflected but little credit upon their banking departments. 

It will thns be seen that tliis department has the full and com- 
plete possession of all the bank plates as well as the notes printed 
from the same, and that no bank has in its possession or nnder its 
control any of its plates or circulating notes until the said notes are 
registered and countersigned in this office, and securities deposited 
for the redemption of the same as provided by law. 

The experience of other states has demonstrated that too much 
caution cannot be observed or too many guards thrown around the 
custody of bank notes or bank plates, in order to prfttect the 
public from fraudulent issues of paper currency. The ex- 
pense attending the arrangements made by this department have 
been but trifling, and have been deemed necessary to carry the 
law into complete execution and to effectually protect the public 
as well as our banks who have placed their plates and notes in 
our charge^ and expect in return that they will be faithfully 
watched. 

An annual appropriation of three hundred dollars will be re- 
quired to defray the expense of the agency in New York which is^ 
respectfully asked of the legislature. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Wm, M. DENNIS, 
Bank Comptroller. 



APPENDIX. 



Thefollamng is a statement in detail of the stocks held for each 
Baf^ing Association^ and the amount of circulation issued 
and outstanding on the same^ on the first Monday of Janth 
ary^ 1855 ; 

STATS BAIf K, MADI809. 

Wisconsin, Ss « #20,000 

Missouri, 68 , 12,000 

•32,000 

CirculatioD ^ 4 ■ « « • 30,800 

wtBcoNsnr mariks a firb iksubanos compant, MiLWApaoTB. 

Wisconsin, Ss V ).....,...... 20,000 

do Ys 30,000 

60,000 

Circulation « 49,095 

RANK OF RACIVB, BAOUIA 

Yirginia Os. 5,000 

Missouri, Os ^ S5,000 

Tennessee, Os *• 10,000 

50,000 

X)irculation; ; 44,995 



22 

BOOK BIYXR BANK, BELOIT. 

YirgiDia, 6& 40,000 

Kentuckj, 6b • • 5,000 

Mifleouri, 66. 11,000 

66,00^ 

Circulation 50,000 

cm BA9K OF KXN06IU, XXN08HA. 

Yirginia, 68. • • 25,000 

Kentucky, 68 13,000 

Georgia, 6s 12,000 

Louisiana, 68 • 1,000 

61,000 

. Circulation 46,000 

BTATX BANK OF WISCONSIN, MILWAUKJBX. 

Virginia, 68 40,000 

Tennessee, 68 • 40,000 

Kentucky, 6s 6,000 

Miisouri, 68 48,000 

i84^oaj> 

Circulate ; 1 I9,0(K> 

WISCONSIN BANK, VINBRAL POINT. 

Wisconsin, 78 20,000 

Miflsouri, 68. , 20,000 

Tennessee, 68 5,000 

Virginia, 68 5,000 

50^000 

Circulation 46,99^ 

FARMERS A MILLERS^ BANK, MILWAUKEE. 

Kentucky, 68. 83,000 

Tennessee, 68 7,000 

40,000 

Circulation 37,500 

JEFFERSON COUNTY BANK, WATERTQWN. 

Virginia 68, • • • 55,000 

Circulation 50,000 

BAUGXa STATE BANK, JANESYILLS. 

Missouri, 6s .' 25,000 

Circulation 22,496^ 



38 

OBBXOSH CUTT KXKKf OiOKOSH. 

y iigiDia, 6s. 1 ^,000 

Uiiaonri, 66 10,000 

Iforth Carolina, 6b. 25,000 

60,000 

Caih on deposit with Bank Comptroller 1,600 

61,600 
Circulation ..••....• 49^900 

RAciNB cocnrrr bahk, lucnn. 

Virginia, 68 29,000 

Circulation 26,098 

Virginia, 68.., 10,000 

Georgia, da 15,000 

26,000 

Circulation 22,492 

OIXT BAHK or AACIlTBi RAQOHL 

Eentnckj, 68 1,000 

Tenneeqee,68 18,000 

Missouri, 6s. 10,000 

Virginia, 6s 21,006 

. 46,000 

Circulation 40,000 

BANK 07 TRB WSST, VADISOK. 

Louisiana, 6s • • 28,000 

Michigan, 6s ; 7,000 

35,000 

Circulatidn 86,000 

PAKE OF rq-JSTD J>V I«AC, FOl^D PU LA0. 

Tennessee, 6s ^ 26,000 

Circulation 22,402 

COLUMBIA COUNTY BANK, PORTAGX CITT. 

Miseouri, 6s 13,0Q0 

North Carolina, 68 15,000 

28,000 

Circulation 24,998 



S4 

vox BtTSR BANK, GBXFN BAT. 

Yii^gbra, ds. 1 1,000 

Tennettee, 68^ v 14,000 

25,000 

GirculaUon 24,998 

BAVK OF COHIIERCB, MILWAUKEE. 

Tonneflsee, 68. 37,000 

KeDtucky, 68 3,000 

40,000 

Circulation 86,000 

BANK OF WATBRTOWN, WATERTOWN. 

North CArolina, Os •• 14,000 

Michigan, 68 1 1,000 

TenQessee, 63 4,000 ^ 

Kentucky, 64 1,000 

Louiaiaiia, 68 3,000 

, 88,000 

Circulation 29,298 

GBRMANIA BANK, MILWAUKEE. 

Tennefisee. 6s 10,000 

Missouri, 6s.. 15.000 

25.000 

Circulation • 2i,500 

NORTHERN BANK, GREEN BAT. 

Virginia, 68 26,000 

Missouri, 68 2 1,000 

46,000 

Circulation 82,298 

[(^0 DANE COUNTT BANK, MADISON. 

Missouri, 68 10,000 

Tennessee, 68 • . • . • 10,000 

] f North CHrulina, 68 29,OOo 

Georgia, 63 1 0,000 

Cr., 59,000 

LlJ L. ;u Circulation 50,000 

people's bane, MILWAUKEE. 

Georgia, 7b 20,000 

do 68 5,000 

25,000 

Circulation 23,744 



25 



"FJ 



Homings qftAeM.dtM. Bedl Roodfrrm \Bt Anffuat, 1852 to 


IstAuguat 


185a 












Freight 


Paaaeogers. 


Total 


Angost 


- 


2,570 89 


3,047 83 


5,618 82 


September 


- 


«,250 65 


4,055 50 


9,306 15 


October 


- 


©,674 65 


5,307 59 


15,072 J2 


ll^ovember 


- 


8,340 32 


4,001 92 


12,342 24 


December 


- 


8,094 34 


3,118 30 


11,212 64 


Jannaij 


• 


"7,605 05 


3,195 30 


10,801 25 


Pebruary 


- 


5,515 16 


3,290 70 


8,805 86 


Mareb 


- 


4,636 08 


3,521 27 


8,157 36 


April 


- 


4,124 78 


4,819 60 


8,944 38 


May 


-' 


7,736 42 


«,2I3 78 


13,950 20 


Jtue 




- 10,259 14 


8,304 03 


18,663 17 


Inly 




7,770 21 
•81,578 47 


8,384 64 


16,154 85 




$67,349 96 


1138,928 43 






Running Ttinpenses. 


•■ 


August 




- 


- 


4,444 38 


September 




. 


- 


8,778 94 


October 




- . 


- 


4,376 31 


November 




- 


- 


4,332 51 


December 




- 


- 


4,832 '64 


Janoarj 




a • • 


- 


8.766 84 


February 




> • « 


- 


4,398 04 


llarcb 




. 


- 


4,055 21 


April 




. - 


- 


M^l ^9 


May 




- 


- 


4,306 45 


Jmie 




, 


• 


4,831 81 


July 




•^ 




4,500 00 
S50,445 06 


Earainga 


- 


■ ■■ 


- 


188,928 43 


Dedttot RuDoing Expenses 


- 


50,445 06 



188,488 37 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, > ^ 
HiLWAUKBB County. 3 



We, George H. Walker, Praridbnt pro tem.» and William Taintar, Secittary 
of the Milwaukee & MisaisBippi Rail Road Company^ being duly awom, do 
depoee and say eaeh one for himself and not the one for the other, that the 
. gro69 earDiDgs of said company's road* leading from Milwaukee to JanesviDe^ 
^r the year next preceediog the first day of August instant, amount to the sum 
of $138,928 43; and the ezpensee for running or op^ting said v^ad during 
that period, is the aum of 150,445 09, leayjng the nett eanungs thereof at the 
sum of 88,483 37; and in manner af^rewid, we further say, that ire belieye^ 
and so state the fact to be, that the nett eanungs of said company's joad, between 
Waukesha and the point of intersection with the Janesrille branph rofwl| being 
forty-two and one-half miles, amoitnts to the sum of forty-eight tbousavd dol- 
lars and upwards. A^d in manner aforesitid we further say, that the schedule 
hereunto attached is a cor^t and true exhibit of the monthly eamingaof said 
zoad between the points first named, aa well ^ the monthly expenses in op- 
erating or running the same, and. that it also truly shows the nett earnings 
.tbereo£ 

. And in manner aforesaid, we further state and set forth that we have oare- 
folly examined the accounts and items for the oost of the said company's road 
between the Tillage of Waukesha and the point of inseotion with tbe Janes* 
yille Bninch, and that the aggregate cost thereof amounts to the sum of eight 
hundred and seTenty-five thousand dollars, and further^the deponent^ in man* 
ner aforesaid, say not 
(Signed,) GEO. H. WALKER, 

President pro tem, of the M- ^ M. R. R. Co. 
WM. TAINTER^ 
SecreUry of the M. & M. B. IL €0. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this sixth day of August, A. D^ 1 853. 

CHARLES F. ILLSLEY, 
Notary Public, Milwaukee County, Wnfeonsin. 

Filed iu the office of State Treasurer, at Madison, this 19th day of Sep* 
tember, A. D. 1853. Signed, 

E. H.JANSSSN» 

State Tueaaure. 
By D. H. Sbavbr. 



27 

Wci the iinderiigD«d| the Ooremor, Bank Comptrolkri and Attorney Gen- 
end of the state of WitooDsin, do hereby oertify from actaal view and inqpee- 
doD, that a certain portion of the '^Milwaukee and MiaeiMippi Railr6ad,'* lying 
between Waukesha and Milton, being forty-two apd a half miles in extent, has 
been constructed in a substantial manner, with a solid road bed, with a rail of 
T pattern, and of weight not less than fifty pounds to the yard, similar to oth- 
er roads of the irst classy and has been fully equipped and in actual Operation, 
and has earned for the year next preceding the first day of August, A. D. 
18i8, a nett feren^e exoeedi&g fbrty-eightthousfmd dollars. 

Oiven iind^r our hands, this 14th day of September, A« D. 1853. 

LEONARD J, FARWELL, 
(Signed) JAMBS & BAKES. 

£. E8TA6RO0K. 

Filed in the Office of State Treasurer at Madison, this 19th day of Septem- 
iMT, 1853. Signed RH.JANSSEN, 

State Treasurer. 
By D. M. SxAVBB. 

GiTicn OF TBM Attorhxt Qxhxbal of tbx State of WiscoirBiH, 

MAniflov, September 14th 1853. 

I, Expeiienoe fiitabrook, Attorney General of the State of Wisoonni^ do 
hereby certify from aetual examination, that a eertain mortgage or deed of 
tmet, bearing date Jane 15th, 1859, exeovted by the ^'Milwaukee and MMa- 
sippi Railroad Company,'' an incorporated Company in the state of Wisooasiny 
daly oigtnized bnder its act of incorporation and the acts amendatory thereof, 
and h»«ing a road of more than twenty milee in extent, to George S. Coe, of 
the dtky of 'New York, of so much of the railroad of the said "Milwaukee 
and Mississippi Railroad Company "^ as lies between the city of Milwaukee and 
. iheeafltliank of Roek River, itl the said stute of Wisoonsin, to secure payment 
of certa^ bemk of the said Railroad Company, not exceeding six hundred 
thousand doUars in amount, ?iz, $400,000 thereof in bonds of llOOQ each, 
and to be numbered respectively from number 1 to number 400 inclusive^ and 
|2QO,000 thereof in bonds of $500 ei^h, and to be numbered respectively from 
number 401 to number 800 inclusive, and to bear date May 5tb, I85S, and 
which said mortgage or deed of trust was duly recorded in the office of the 
SecreUry of Sute of the said state of Wisconsin, on the 27th day of Decern* 



cer, 1862, as appears of record in tb^ office of tbe said Secretary <jf Stale, hat 
been executed in the manner and with the provisions required by an act of the 
legislature of the state of Wisconsin, entitled "an act to authorize the busineat 
of banking," approved April 19,1852, and that such mortgage or deed of 
trust is the first lien on a certain portion of road of the said Railroad Coropany 
of not less length than forty miles, to wit, on so much of said road as lieb be- 
tween Waukesha and Milton, beirg forty -two and one half miles in extent, its 

equipments, depots, fixiuras, machinery, income and fraDohiaea. Signed 

£. ESTABROOK, 

Att'y Gen. 

Filed in the office of State treasurer at Madison thifi 19th day of Septem- 
ber, 1863. 

(Signed) E. H. JANSSBK, 

State Treasurer. 
By D. M. SsAVBR. 

Officb of Statb Trxasurbr, 

Madison, Oct 5tb, 1853. 

I do hereby eertyfy that the preceding papers are copies of the statement of 
tihe directors of the ^'Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad Company,^' on file in 
ibi$ office and of the Gertifi<»te, filed therewilh, beaiisg date Sept. Utb, 1853 
and that the same ere full and correct c(^]€b of the whole and of erery pnt of 
such statenrant and ceitifioatea. 

£. H. JANBSEJf, 

State Tceasnnr. 
By D. M. SsATsa. 

OVFIC£ OF ATTORIfBr GcNBHAL OF THB StATB Off! WlB00ll8Iir, 

Ma^ibok, October 4, 1863. 

Upon the statement of the Directors of the Milwaukee & Mississppi Rail 
Road Co., and the certificates bearing date Sept. 14th, 1853, filed therewith 
3d the ofiice of the State Treasurer, I have no hesitation in saying that the 
bonds of the said rail road company secured by a mortgage or deed of tiust, 
and bearing date June 15, 1852, exebuted by the said company, to George S, 
Co€y of the city of New York, on so much of said road as lies between the ci^ 



r 



29 

cyf MHwankee and the east bank of Book Rt?er in said SUte^ are receiTable m 
a basb for banking within the restrictions contained in an act entitled "an ae 
to aothotiw the buainess of banking, approved April 19, 1862. 

E. E8TABR00K, 
Att>. Genentf. 

OfFIGS OF BaKK CoMFTBOLLBBp 

Madisoit, Wiflconsin, Oct. 4, 1854 
The bonds of the Milwaukee <fe Mississippi Rail Road Company to which, 
the opinion of the Attorney General^ of this data and the proceeding papeit 
relate^ will be received at this oflSce as a basis for banking, within the reatrictiona 
eontsined in an act entitled ^n act to anihorize the business of faankmg^" ap» 
proTod April 10, 1862. 

JAMES S. BAKER, 
Bank Comptroller. 



80 
«G.» 

The following stak97ient vnll show the nameipf the persons who 
have eg^ecrded Bonds^ now on deposit in the Bank Comptroller's 
Office^ {in addition to the State Stocks deposited^ to further 
secure tlie redemption of the count'Cr signed notes issued to thei/r 
respective Banlcs^ as required hj Se<jti'on 17, of the Banking 
Laws : 

State Bank, Madifion, penary of bond, - - - - tl 2,606 

' Names of Bondsmen : Sam*l Marshall and Chas. F Ihley. 

WiaoonsiB Marine 4i Fire Ins. Co., Milwaakde, penaHy of bond, - 25,000 
Names of Bondsmen ; George Smith and Alex Mitchell. 

Bank of Racine, Racine, penalty of bond, - - . - 12,500 

Names of Bondsmen : Aug. L McCrea, William J Bell, and 
Henry J Uilman. 

Bock River Bank, Beloit, penalty of bond, ... 12,500 

Names of Bondsmen : John M Keep, Lucius Q Fisher and 
Alfred L Field. 

City Bank of Kenosha, Kenosha, penalty of bond, - - . 6,250 

Names of Bondsmen: A Campbell, E W Blinn, H W Hub- 
bard, H B Towsley, S B Scott, H W James, Betsey D Goff, 
J H Kimball and £ W Evans. 

City Bank of Kenosha, Kenosha, penalty of bond, - - 6,250 

Names of Bondsmen : H B Towslee, Sam Hale, S Bronson, jr., 
John Denniston, A Campbell, Hubbard k Blinn and H M 
Elkina. 

State Bank of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, penalty of bond, - - 87,500 

Names of Bondsmen: James B Martin, Eliphalet Cramer, 
Anson Eldred, Elisha Eldred, John Oatlin, P W Badgely, 
Joshua Hathaway, John G Inbash and C B Dickerman. 

Wkoonsin Bank, Mineral Point, penalty of bond, - - - 12,500 

Nama of BondBmen: C Washburn and Cyras Woodman. 



81 

Fannen dr Millere' Bank, MilwaakeOi ponalij of bond, - - 1 2^600 

Names of Bondsmen : Newcomb, Cleveland, Stephen H Alden, 
Charles D Nash, ilL B Medberr^, John W bledbeny.and 
Jacob A Hoover* 

farmers & Millers' Bank, Milwaukee, penalty of bond, - - 12,5000 

Names of Bondsmen : £dward H Brodhead, S H Alden, An- 
son Eldred, A Fincb, jr^ John Lockwood and £ D Hokon. 

JeffeiBon County Bank, Watertown, penalty oi bond, - .,. 6^50 > 

Names of Bondsmen ; Cbas Harger and Daniel Jodsl .^ 

K 

Jefferson County Bank, Watertown, penalty of bond, *- - 6,250 

Names pf Bondsmen ; Chas 8 Harger and Daniel Jomsl 

Badger State Bank, Janesville, penalty of bond, - , - . i$fiS0 

Names of Bandsmen: William J Bell and E L Dimock. 

I ' 'I 

Oshkosh Oity Bvoiki Osfakosb, penal^ of boat), - . - : * lO^tfOO 

Names of Bandsmen : James Eneeland, David P Hull and 
Bonj^S HennipgL . ) 

Bacine County Bank, Radne, penalty of bond, ... 12,500 
Names of Bondsmen: George G'Nortbrop^LWMnnVo^BM f 

NortoB, NicliiQlafl D '^raO, Heocy 8 Ddvand, H B- Miuiroe, 
John W Gary and John Thompson. * : ' : ' 

Eidiaoge Bai^iof Yfm JJM^ in Oo^' IMttwiiiikae, pehidliTi^of boM,-- ISiMO^ ^ 
Names of BondaoKm: Wm a Bbll;«iid B S iWadMRnlfa. ' ' 

Citj Bank of Racine, Racine, penalty of bond, . * . 12,600 

>|{»«ie8 of Bondsmen: Qilberi Kaii^j W.fi^WMife^ r' 

Alex-tfi^Sliig^. .:..,-■■. ••./•..••-''..> 

^ • •»' ' ' 

Bank of the West, Madison, penalty of bond, - - - 25,000 

Names of Bondsmen: James E Kelly, James Ludington and 
G^ W Chapman. 



: a 



Bank of the West, Madiaon, penalty cf bond, - - - 8,750 

Kame of Bondsmen; Samuel A Lowe. 

Bank of Fond du Lac,'Fond du Lac, penalty*of bond, - - 6,250 

Names of Bondsmen : Wm J Bell and Abram Q Butler. 

Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, penalty of bond, - - - 25,000 

Names of Bondsmen : George W Peckham, James H Bogers, 
Joseph S Colt, Waltor H Peckham and John Watson. 

Columbia County Bank, Portage City, penalty of bond, - - 6,250 

Names of Bondsmen : Samuel Marshall, Charles F Ilsley and 
H S Haskell. 

Fox River Bank, Oreeo Bay, penalty of bond, - - - 7,000 

Names of Bondsmen : Joseph Q Lawton, ML Martin, F Des- 
noyers and John Day. 

Northern Bank, Howard, penalty of bond, - . - - 12,500 

Names of Bondsmen : Otto Tank, M L Martin and E Oonklin. 

Germania Bank, of G Papendick k Co, Milwaukee, penalty of bond, 0,250 
Names of Bondsmen : Geo Papendiek & C H U Papendiek. 

Dane County Bamk, MadisoH, penalty of bond, • - - 12,500 

Names of Bondsmen : Le?i B Vilas, Leonard J Farwell and N 
B Yao Slyke. 

PeOfAe^a Bank of Haertel, Oreenleaf h Co, Milwaukee, penalty of bond, 6,860* 
Names of Bondsmen: H Haertel, E B Greenleaf and A W 
Greenleaf. 

Bank of Watortown, Walerfown, penalty of bond, - - - 18,600 

Names of Bondsmen: A L Pritchard, Linus R Cadfi Lotber 
A Cole, Bbenezer W Cole. 



38 



The fdllow{r\g Statement will exhibit the names of the Stock- 
hoiaera and the amount of Stock owned hy eadh indimdt^^ 
m the several JBanks of the State, as reported to this Ojffice 
o» the first Mondmf (^ Janudry, 1855. 



Vime of Banks. , 


STame of SbarebqldefB. 


BesideDce. 


Amount 


Bute Bank - ^ -\ - 


Marshall <S& Ilkley . 


) 


:: ; -' 




8amuel Maiahall . 


^fadiaon 


•50.000 


^ 


Charles F. Ilblej 


Milwaukee ) 




WkM. A F. Infl. Compapy 


Alexan^e^ Miiqbell 


ililwaukee 


100,000 


B/mkofRacina - ] - 


Henry J- UUmann, 


^cine 


25,000 




Wm.ABeJl 


Milwaukee 


12,600 




illishaAWadaworth 


Chicago, 111. 


12,600 


Faniien & Millers. Ba^k ., * 


JBdward J). HcJton 


Milwaukee 


6,600 




pJohn Lockw^d / 


do 


6,600 




AnaoQ £idre4 


do 


8,100 




S. H. AJdett . . 


1 do 


6,600 




A. FinebJr. > 


! do 


6,600 


1 


E. H.Broadh^ I 


do 


6,600 


I 


G.H.Walker 


do 


6,000 




E. M. William^u . 


^iadiaon 


4,200 


WiscoMittBank - - 


0. C. Washburn 


Mineral Point 


25,000 


.... -'y 


Cyrus 'Woodin^n ' 


4* 


35ytt0a 


CUy Bank of Kenosba 


Seth Doan 


Kenosha 


1,000 


. i 


H. W. Hubbard 


do 


2,000 




J. G. GottsMseqr 


1 do 


600 


■ i) 


8. B. ScoU < 


! do 


1,000 


' ; ) 


Harvey D.urkee 


do 


600 


r 


loba V. Ayer 


do 


2,500 




8amael Hate . v 
Royal B. Towde^ 


do: 


7,600 


'; 


do; 


1,000 


1 


Mrs. XiOui3a Elkina 


do 


500 


1 > !. 


AaahelFarr 


do 


1,000 


■ ! ih 


Jamjaa A. i(^e;Bripau 


Somers 


1,000 


U 


Bicbard C^pb^k 


Chittenango^ N.^Y. 


2,000 




Ann M^ Eobin^oo.. 


Kenosha 


800 


1 i ^ 


Frederick BabiafiQ»- 


do 


soo 


I t .11 
■ it . 


fc'rederick Gage, 


do 


doo 


i '»'• 


Alonso Campbell 


do 


19,000 



34 



KameofBanka 


Name of Sharebolden. 


ResideDee. 


Amooat 


Oitj Bank of KenotkA-^rCOfh 






"V 


Hnued - -. - 


H. B. Towsl«8 


Kenosha 


5,000 




Uriafa Newman 


Somen 


8«000 




Thomas Pricture 


ivanofiha 


1,200 




Southport L., No. 1, 
I. 0. ofO. F. 








do 


500 


Book Riv^r Bank - 


John M. Keep 


Beloit 


1,500 




J. J. Bushnell 


do • 


Y.900 




Lucius Q. Ffsher 


do 


8,000 




Alfred L. Field 


do 


8,000 




Peter K. Field 


do 


800 




Mrs. A. G.Brinsmade 


do 


2,000 




Joseph Emerson 


do 


1,200 




trustees BeloR CoVe 


do 


2,000 




A. L, Chapin. O'n of 








F.C.& W.W.Curtis 


do 


1,200 




Amos Sheffield 


Old Saybrook, Con, 
Union District, S.C. 


1,000 




Suptoti W. Ourtis 


400 




A. W. Root 


Elgin, 111. 


500 




T. W. Williams 


New London, Conn. 


5,000 




Tallcott & Co. 


Rockton. Ill 


2,000 




W. and S. Talcott ' 


do 


600 




Miss Mary Lnsk 


Enfield, Conn. 


2,000 




Miss Careline Lusk 


do 


2,000 




Miss Inlia Lusk 


do 


2,000 




Joseph Emerson 


Rockford, lU. 


1,200 


Stile Bank of Wiaeoiildn - 


Henry P. Peck 


MUwaokee 


1,000 




Joshua Hathaway 


do 


4,5.00 




P. W. Hawley 


do 


2,000 




Jos. H. Cordes 


do 


1.000 




P. W. Badgley 


do : 


5,000 




Elisha Eldred 


do 


7,500 




John Catlin 


do 


8,300 




Eliphalet Cramer 


do 


7,000 




Wm. E. Cramer 


do 


3,000 




E. B. Dickermati 


do 


5,000 




John G. Inbush 


do 


6,000 




Anson Eldred 


do 


9,200 




Ed*rd A. Broadhead 


do 


4,000 




John D. Inbush 


do 


4,000 


** 


Lester Sexton 


do 


3,000 




Cyrus Hawley 


do 


1,400 




Helen Hawley 


do 


600 



85 



JTsiMof BttiU 


Kama of Sbareholdera. 


BMidenee. 


Amount 


ftatoBuk WiM.'-^iftmiimi^d 


Daniel Wells, Jr. 


Milwaukee 


• 
5,000 




Jaraes B. Martin 


do 


7,000 




FrankliD Ripley 


Greenfield, Mass. 


3,000 




H. A. Perkins 


Hartford, Conn. 


2,000 




A. L. Oatlin 


Burlington, Vl 


16,000 




Le Grand B. Cannon 


New York 


16,000 




0. H. Cramer 


Troy, N. Y. 


6,000 




D. J. Robinson 


Hartford, Conn. 


8,000 


* 


James Forsytb 


Troy. N. Y. 


1,000 




John Cramer 


Waterford, N.Y. 


10,000 




John Knickerbacker 


do 


8,000 




Geo. W. Kirtland 


do 


8,000 




E. Curtis 


New York 


10,000 




Geo. B. Warren 


Troy, N.Y. 


14,000 




Geo. Henry Warren 


do 


6,600 




Nathan B. Warren 


do 


1,600 




Stephen E. Warren 


do ^'^ 


y,60o 




P. C. Cole 


Rochester, N. Y. 


2,000 




Thomas Belknap 


Hartford, Conn. 


8,000 




Joseph iM. Warren 


Troy, N. Y. 


7,600 




Charles K. Richards. 


do 


8,300 




E. Seymour 


Brattleboro, Yt 


8,000 




H. W.CUpp 


Greenfield, Mass. 


4,000 




Mary W. Cannon 
C. F. Taber 


Troy, N. Y. 


4,000 




do 


8,300 




W. H. Warren 


Moreau, N. Y. 


2,600 




W. L. Storra 


Hartford, Conn. 


6,000 




John Wasburton 


do 


6,000 




Elias Flinn 


Troy, N. Y. 


2,000 




Frank Ripley and W- 


Greenfield, Mass. 


1,000 




T. Davis, Trustees 








E. H. Ball 


East Troy, Wia. 


],000 




Abner Peckham 


Providence^ R. I. 


2,000 




Frank Ripley and W. 








T. Davis, Trustees 


Greenfield, Mass. 


1,000 




F. & Eldred 


JonhstowD, Wis. 


1,000 




W.H.Warren 


Moreao, iN. Y. 


1,6«0 




W. T. Lee 


Hartford, Conn. 


1,000 




Henry Thompson 


Thompsonstown, Ct 


1,000 


Y^thaon Coanty Bttik 


C. G.'Harger 


Pamelia,' N. Y. 


36,000 




Daniel Jone^ 


Watertown Wis. 


14,000 


Bid^ Bute Bank • 


Wm. J. Bell 


Milwaukee 


6«800 


• 


E. L, Dimock 


JanesTiile 


12,600 



36 



[ name of Banks. 


Kamo of SharekoId«ra. 


Besideneo. 


4moont. 


BndgeratatdWk—eantinued 


Elisba S. Wadwcrtk 


Chicago^ m. 


«o,&oa 


Hadne County Bank] 


Henry S. Durand 


Racine 


3,000 




Reuben M. Norton 


do 


2,000 




George C. Northrop 


do 


2,500 




Lyman W. Munroe 


do 


6,000 




Horatio B. Miinrce 


do 


4,000 




Curliss Mann 


Buffalo 


3,000 




Aaron R. Vail 


do 


2,000 




George 0. Vail 


do 


3,030 




Nicholas D. Fratt 


Racine 


2,050 




John VV. Gary 


do 


2,000 




John Thompson 


do 


2,000 




0. Clement 


do 


^ 500 




E. Darwin Munroe 


do 


1,000 




William H. Bennett 


do 


100 




William P. Brown 


do 


100 




Alexander Mosher 


do 


200 




Hairy Griswold 


do 


100 




Charles P. Bliss 


do 


100 




James Nield 


do 


250 




James Mather 


do 


250 




Edwin Burgess 


d9 


250 




Heatk ^ Dickenson 


do 


500 




Fred. IJ. Durand 


Rochester. N. Y. 


1,000 




Mrs. Mary H. Cary 


Racine, Wis. 


200 




N. M. Harrinjfton 


Delavaa, « 


500 




Hannah E. Aikin 


Racine, " 


600 




George Burford 


do 


250 




Franklin Hardy 


1 Barret, Vt. 


200 




Mary Cottrel iGreonwich, N. Y. 


1,000 




Adam Cottrel 


do 


1,000 




R. H. Bowman 


Racine 


500 




Lewis C. Osborn 


do 


250 




W.H.Lathrop & Co. 


do 


2,000 




Thos. H. Barret 


do 


150 


I ' 


Rebecca Hurd 


We>t Arlington, Vt 


1,000 


t 


W. W.Vaughan 


Racine 


1,000 




Ellis Price 


do 


650 




E. Andrews (Ex,) 


Greenwich, N. Y. 


1,000 




Edwin Andrews 


do 


l^D 




Darwin Andnews 


do 


1.000 


' 


Chester W. White 


Racine 


2,000 


. 


Frederick Button 


Clarendon, Vt 


500 


, I ' 


Enoch Smith 


do 


50O 



37 



ITime of Banln. 


i^ame of Shtreholden. 


IUdd«nee. 


Amount. 


£ieme Co. Bank-^cnHnued 


}dorge Capron, jr. 


riomouthyTt. 


1500 




J. W. Moore 


Danby, •* 


600 




Charles Andrewa 


Wallinffferd, ^ 
Clarendon, « 


MO 




Bliaa H. Steward 


600 




Horace Bi^elow 


Greenwich, N. T. 


1,000 




Leonard Qibh 


do 


2,000 




ByWttter B. Peck 


Racine 


260 




£. Martindale 


Wallingford, Yt 


1,000 




Edw. 8. Howard 


do 


2,000 




David Dater 


Troy, N. Y. 


1,000 




David Carr 


do 


1.000 




Lathan Cornell 


do 


6,000 




Chaa. K. Cornell 


New York 


6,000 




Wm. W. Coraell 


Troy, New York 


6,000 




H. N. Graves 


Granville •* 


6,000 




A. Bigelow 


Greenwich « 


2,700 




D. A. Boies 


do 


600 




Horace Cottrall 


do 


1.000 




Eliza Basset t 


Troy, N.Y. 


1,000 




C.W. & G A. Waters 


do 


60 




H. C. Sheldon ^ 


do 


1,000 




Harvey Church* 


do 


2,000 




Chas, H Holden 


do 


1,000 




Svlvia B. Burton 


Greenwich, N. Y. 


1,000 




William Dorr 


do 


600 




I. J. Vail 


Dorset, Vt 


1,000 




W. C. Allen 


Delavan, Wis. 


1,000 




J. T. Masters 


Greenwich, N. Y. 


2,000 




Thomas Hill 


Granville, N. Y. 


600 




Daniel Roberta 


Manchester, Vt 


1,000 




Howard Harris 


Wallingford, Vt 


1,000 




F. A. Scofield 


Racine. Wia. 


600 


Exehange Baok 


William J. Bell 


Milwaukee 


25,000 


Elisha Wadworth 


Chicago, III 


25,000 


OHy Bank of Racine. 


A. McClurg 


Racine 


2a,600 


Gilbert Koapip 


do 


6,000 




W. U. Wateraian 


do 


6,000 




Wm. MoConiche 


do 


6,000 




A. W. Davison 


Chicago, HI. 


5,000' 




Almira Knapp 


Racine 


3,000 




Philo White 


do 


2,500 




Alonzo McConiche 


Troy,N. Y. 


1,000 



38 



Kama of Banks. 


Name of SbarebolJer& 


Beaideooe 


Amount 


Bank of the Wert - 


Samuel A. Lowe 


Madison 


100,000 


Baftk of Commeroe - 


G. W. Peckham 


Milwaukee 


40,000 




Joseph S. Coit 


do 


15,000 




Waller H, Peckham 


New York 


16,U00 




John Wnteon 


do 


10,000 




Ruf'is W. Peckham 


Albany, N. Y. 


10,000 


. 


P. B. Peckham 


Lockport,N.Y. 


10,000 


Columbia County Bank - 


Snmiicl Marf^hall 
Charles F. Ilsley 


Madison > 
Milwaukee 5 


16,000 




Harrison & Haskell 


PorUge City 


10,000 


Gkmuinia Bank 


Georfxe Papendiek 


Milwaukee 


20,000 




C. H. H. Papendiek 


do 


5,000 


Bank of Watertown - 


A. L. Pritchard 


Watertown 


15,000 




H. W. Claik 


do 


15,400 




L. R Cady 


do 


1,000 




L. A/ Cole 


do 


1,000 




Amos Steck 


do 


500 




John Richards 


do 


500 




K. W. Cole 


do 


2,000 




John P. Roose 


do 


300 




Daniel Jones 


do 


2,000 




Joseph Moss 


Albion, Mich. 


3,000 




Freeman Moss 


do 


3,000 




Sam. Med bury 


New Berlin, N. T. 


2,500 




D. H. White 


do 


500 




Jesse Beardslee 


do 


1,000 




Samuel White 


do 


1,000 




Delia S. White 


do 


1,000 




R. G. Litte 


Ooonowoc, Wis. 


300 


Dana Countj Bank • 


Levi B. Vilas 


Madison 


20,000 




Leonard J. Farwell 


do 


15,000 




N. B. Van Slyko 


do 


15,000 


People's Bank - 


Herman Haertel 


Milwaukee 


12,500 




E. B. Oreenleaf 


do 


6,300 




A. W. Greenleaf 


New York 


e»200 



KtM 6t Bboln. 



Kam« of 8toelbold#n. 



JforOem Bank 



Bttdc of Food du Lac •' 



Boi Biver Bank * 

0«U(«h dity Baiik 
lUported July 3, 1854 
It^.S6portforJan^l85d 



OttoTanlb 
Edgar Oonklin 
Ma^lk.C.'t)arliDg 
Keys A. Darling 
Morgan L. Maitin 
Urial H. Peak 

E. S. Wadsworth 
Wm. J. Bell 

A. G. Batler 

Job. 6. La^ton. 

James Kneeland . 
David P. Hull - 

B. S, Hiring 



Bfridence. 



Port Howard 
Graen Bky 
Fond du Lao 

do 

Green Bay 
Fort Howard 

Chicago, IlL 
Milwaukee 
Fond du Lac 

Howard^ Wia. 

Milwaukee 
do 

jOshkoali 



Amount 



7,666 66 
V,66d 66 
7«6a0 66 
7,666 66 
0,666 68 
7,606 68 

6,260 00 

6,250 00 

12,500 00 

25,000; Op 

25,000 00 

22,O0O 00 

3,000 00 



40 



Th4 following Staimnent mil mMbit the number of Bmih Ifoie 
impremwm which hum hecn rec&imd al this office^ from its or* 
ffanizution up to the first day of Jarmwry^ 1855. TAe n^umher 

^(^^ivered to the Banks or dcsirdyed^ and the numler now re- 

^^^mammg in the Bank Comptroller'' s Office : 

m :^-'^ ' 

81> fHft^ 



\ 



00 

no IK" 



Namea of Bttoks. 



DenominflticrD 



gUteEaiik.-, .-.*_., • , 

Bank of E^ciae - 

WisconiiQ Marina and Fire Iniumnce Co. 

iRpck EUn*r Bonk .«,,-,- - 

Oitj Bank of KenosbA . . . ^«^« .....,«._.. 
Stnt« Uj^nk of Wii{:onfiD . ^,^^.^* «- . - - . 

do do ,,,->.... 

Wisconsin Bailk - , , . _ „ ^ - - . 

Furmem atid MiIlerB* Bank , 

Jeffersoa County Bank. .- .^. 

Foi River Bank 

Badper Stato Bank ..*.->...., 

Bank of Food da Lac 

Eicbunge Bank of Wm. J, Bell (t Co.„. 

OsbkoshCity Bank... -- 

Radtje Countj Bank..,.. *-- 

City Bank of Bacine ... .,,,-- 

Bank of IheWeet. ,,- .- 

Bank of Commerce ^ . .....*.. 

Columbia Cnunty Bank ,.,-„-^,- 

N oitliem Bank. , . , , «., 

Germania Bank ...,,.,.-».,. ..«...« 

Dane County Bank ,,.*..... ^ ^ . -.^ 

people'!! Bank -, 

If ilwauke« Bank 

JaneaviUfl Cit v Bank , .....*......-... 

Bank of Bcloit ,...>.... .............. 

Bai k of Milwaukea ...........#.«**.. 

HflfiiBon Bank ^.* 

Oentrol Bank ...^...- ... 

Uorthweiteni Bank 

Bank of Watertown .«... -- 



1, 1, % 5. 
3. 2, 3. 5. 

2. 3. 5, Sp 
1, % 3, 5> 
1, J, % 3. 

5, ID, 
1, 9, 3, 5, 
1, 1. 2, 5. 
1. 1, 3, 5, 
1, 1, 2, 5. 
h % 3. 
1. % 3. 
1, 2, 3. 
1* 2, 3, 
1. 2. 3» 
1, % % 
1. I. 2. 
J, 1. 2, 
1. 1, % 
1. 1. 2, 
1, 2. X 
1. 2, 3, 
1, 1, 2* 
1, 2, 3. 
1, 2. 5. 
1. 2, 3. 
1, 1, 2. 
1, % 
h h % 

5, 10, 
li % 3, 5, 



No, Im- 
>ressioTifi 

3d. 



pressu 



No. Tm- 
prtse^ionfli' 
Utstr*d Od band 

and I 
DgUtM 



3, 



5,773 
4,700 
5,0i>0 
5,000 
1,200 

14,500 
2,004 
e.200 

10.300 
5,500 
6,000 
4,700 
2,400 
4.G0O 
7,000 
4.500 
4.700 

14,00B 
7.O0O 
3O0O 

5 lam 

2.500 
6,000 
3 699 
2-500 
2.300 
2,727 
3,000 
18.000 
3,r>&0 
1,S00 
5,000 



4,547 
5.000 
4.547 
7.16-4 

2.004 
6J5D 
5.656 
5.063 
2.7^0 
2276 
2,272 
2 272 
4 546 
2.416 
4.122 

5.wm 

5.445 
2.777 
4.614 
2.272 
1546 
3,571 



2,600 



153 

453 

46 

4,844 

437 

3,220 

2.424 

128 

2,328 

2,454 

2,0t?4 

578 

9,006 

J, 555 

223 

6ti6 

1,454 
128 
2.500 
2,300 
2,727 

aooo 

18.000 
1.000 
1.800 
2,335 



.i 



^ 



Thsf6Ucy>ir^giB^ Usli^,F{aU% ^B(aJc$ Melmmm tQ the Bank 
Department of the State of Wieconsin, am now deposited 
in the Bank of the Bepuilio of Neo) Tork city. 

RacMCouniyBank . ^ ... . 1, 1, », 

Bank of the W^eet - - - . . - 1, 1, 2, 

Bank of Coifamepoe li 1, 2, 

Jeffe-go^ Conntj Baqk It 1, 8, 

Nof^,herti jBfinfc 1, 1, 2, 

FoxRivef Bank li 1, 2, 

Oiy Bank Kenoflha - - - . . - 1,1,3, 

SM Baiik al Madison 1, 1, 2, 

; Stab Bank of WiaooBBin 1,1,2,' 

fluid Bank of Wisconsin ..... 5, 

Owtual Bm\ of Wiacoiism - - - - - 1, 1, 2, 

£x4iaog«Bank .- - ... . . 1, 2, 8, 

Hoik River Bank - - - - - - 1,2,8, 



'Wusotwin Marine ^Fire Insnranoe Ctmpiaj * - ^2, 3, 6, 

I 'WiflocniB Bank • ^.. . ... 1, 2,8, 

CitjBank of Racine - - - - - - 1, 2, 8,, 

Bant of Fond dn Lac - . - - - 1, 2| 8, 
. BaK of Raeinfi - - ... : -1,2,8, 

Parneh and Millws' Bank '- • . " '" '^i 1» 2,. 
OohnAia County Bank - - - - -1,1,2, 

Bad^ftate Bank - 1,1,2, 

Oshkish City Bank - - ' . - • . ' - 1, 2, 8, 

Germinia Bank - 1, 2, 8, 

Bank >f Watertown 1,2,8,. 

The l^dison Bank 1, 2, 

PeopMsBank, 1, 1, 2, 8, 

Dane (ouotj B^nk 1, 2, 8, i, 

The Mlwaukee Bank - 1, 2, 8, 5, 

Norlhvestera Bank - -*..-. 5, 10, 

The Bak of Milwaukee 1, 1, 2, 5, 

The B2%kof Beloit 1, 2, 8, 5, 

The JaiesTille City Bank 1, 2, 5, 8, 

32 Plates. 

6 



8, 
8, 

8, 
», 

8, 
5, 
8, 
10, 
8, 
5, 

8, 

8, 
8, 
8, 
8, 
8, 



13 



>kr 



List of Pr^denUf ^n4 Cashiers ^of Batiks, ^ / ^ 


Names of Qanki. . 


Location. 


Pr6BideBt& / 


dAiei^. 


State Bank .....J 


• 
Madison...'.. 
Milwaukee .. 

Racine 

Beloit 

Kenosha..... 
Milwaukee .. 
Mineral Point 
Milwaukee... 
Watertown.. 
Janesville ... 

Oshkosh 

Rachie -..:.. 
Milwaukee 

Racine 

Madison..... -^ 
Pond du Lac. 
Milwaukee .. 
Porta^ City. 
Green Bay... 

Howard 

Watertown . . 
Milt^aukea;.. 

Madison 

Milwaukee .. 
Milwaukee.. 
Fond du Lac. 

Beloit.' 

Kenosha 


Sam. Marehall 

Alex. Mitchell'..... 

Wra.J.Bell 

John M. Keep 

^lonzo Campbell.^. 
Eliphalet Cramer... 
C.C. Washburn.... 

Edward D.UoltoB. 4 
Charles G. Harger.. 
Wm.J.Batt ....... 

James Kneeland.... 

R. M.Norton 

Wm.J BeU.. 

Gilbert Knapp 

Sam. A. Lowe ...i.. 

Wm.J.Bell 

Geo. W. Peckham.. 
Samuel MaiBhall.p.^ 

Jos. G.Lawton 

K. A. Darling....!. 
Albert L. PMtchard. 
George Papendiek.. 

Levi B, Vita 

Herman Haertel . . . 

CD. Nash Ji. 

Bonj. F.Moore 

G.B. Sanderson.... 
JobnC. CQlema^... 


J.A. KlUi...^ 


Wis. Mnriniei & Firt Ins. Co. . . 
Bank of Raciuc-. ....... ...... 


DaVid F'e-guson .... 
Ujenry J.UUiban... 


Rock River Bank - . . . . 


A. L-'Fiexi 


City Bunk of Kerrt^sha 

State Bank of Wisconsin 

Wisconsin Kank 


8bi». U.&Dtt 

M.S.Scot ........ 

Cyrus Wcodman... 

H.H.Ca«p. 

Daniel Joies 

E. L DiDook. 

B. S. Heniinf.. 

Geo. C. Northlrop... 
James ^ielldgg... 

Alex. McCluig 

Wm. L.Ei«8dale... 


Farmers <& Miller's Bank 

Jefferson County Bank 

Badger State Bank 

Oshk.whCity Bank 

Racine Coanty Bank :. 


Szchap^ Bank..!- ,. 


City Bank of llacine 


Bank xrf the WesLt .. . .*".*. . 


Bank of FondWu liac 

Bank of Commerce '..... 


AbraraG Butler... 
Joh S.Udt.. 


Columbia County Bank 

Fox River Bank 

Northern Bank...w i. 


H.S,HaMI 

Francis lesnoyer . - 
R(>hertOteppeU.... 
Wm.H.(lark 


Germania Bank...... ". 1. 


C. H.H Vpendiek. 
2!(.B.VaiSlylEe.... 
0. B. Grenleaf 


Dane County Banjc 

People's Bank 


Banker Mllwj^ikee* 

Bank of the. Northwest • 

Bank of Beloit • J 


P.S. Pe*%..L 

4ug. G iugglos... 


KinoshaCaun^Bank* 


J. H/jqulMaL 



* Oiganized tiace Januaiy Is^ 18SI» , 



r^ 



/ 



-£^ 



'i 

\ 



i 



ANNUAL! REPORT 



09 THB 



€mmsmm d % ^late f nsM, 



OV THB 



STATE OP WISCONSIN, 



fOR THE T£AB 1854. 



MADISON: 

BEBIAH BROWN, PBDTTBB. 

1855. 



REPORT. 



To His Exoeluekot William A. Babstow, 

Chvemorof Wiecannn: 

In pnrBnance of my official dnty^ as prescribed bj section S^^of 
chapter 477, of the Session Laws of 1863, the imder«igned,'Oom- 
missionerfof the State Prison of the^ State of Wisconsin, begs 
leaye to present the following report of the affiurs and condition 
of said Prison for the year 1854 : 

Whole No. of convicts confioed in the prison from January 
Ist, ISfH to the STst day of Deeember/iaffi. 105 

Of irhich num. there were here on the Ist day of Januaryi 

, 1854, 69 

Num. of conrictB received into the pnaon from January Iti, 

1854, to December Slat, 1854, 46 

Nam. of male priaonerB reoeired during the year, 4fi 

« female « " 9 

Nwau of prisonerB discharged on expiration of term, 2 

** ** Oovemor'B pardon, 9f 

■ynioh nnm. discharged daring the''year, 04 

It^um. of male piisoners diBchaiged, ' 91 

'' female « 9 
Of the prisoners who were here on the 1st of Jaaaaiy, 1854v 

there were discharged on pardon ' * ^ta 

bf the prisoners who were here on the Ist of January, 1854, 
'there were discharged on expiration of term, t 



Of the priiMifrf raodTad hoe dariog the jmt there were 

discharged on pardon, 6 

Of the Ko. of prieonera. diacharged on pardon,* there were 

dieeharged one day hSffk^ fz^^tiaf^n ^f fdrm, 10 

Of the No. of prisonere diacharged on pardon there were 
diacharged from two months, to eighteen montha before 

expiration of term, 13 

Whole No. of priaonera now here on the Slat day of Dee. 

1854, 71 

Of which No. there were here on tl^e let of Jan. 1854, 81 

do do do receifad here daring t^e year. 40 

tl 

V&af^SMld^rlaenHli fMr'kco^ fO 

•^o ftaiii^ '^0 Ido ft 

a^niiesjrcm tAAip44A# JPHwm^ «¥W *«r^J ipr» mnt 

Milwank^ 41 

Varqnette^ 9 

Dodge, ^4 

Iftoek, e 

^tbcine^ ^ 

feink, I 

%enoaha, % 

^MAj[, 1 

^Inmbia^ 1 

IVankcaha, 4 

Dane^ 8 

Jcffcraof^ -8 

^Naukea^ 4 

Waahin|t(q^ 1 

tl 



Orin^fcf which Priaaneranow hereio&r^ fimiTinf iff iiff^, ^^is\np$i 



Hardtf in the lit degree 


(in daring lifiBk) 




Murder in the 2d dq^ree, 


do 




Harder in the 8d degree^ 






Menalanghter in the let d^gree^ 






Hanelaaghter in the Sd degiee^ 






Burglary, 




8 


Bape, 






Larceny, 






Kobbeiy, 






Paseing counterfeit money, 






JBmbezslement or robbing mail, 






Uttering eoanterfeit bilb, 






Peijuif 






fiouaebreaking^ with intent to commit huctny, 




Having in poaBeaaion coaoterfeit 


money, 




Feageiy, 






Sarglary and Laroeny, 


. ' 




Larceny in dwelling-hoaaeb 






Laroen y in ahop, 






Aaaault with dangerona weapona, wiQi intent to tta^ 




Adultery WiAfAlu|[ht)lt; 


^ 


1 



TVadea or OooupaUan qf Ptis(m0r$ now here. 

Oarpenten^ i 

Farmers, Ig^ 

Blackamitba^ 4 

Shoemaken^ $, 

Barbers, % 

Pedlera, S 

Engineer, 1 

Sttlors, 4 

Tinsmith^ . S 

Uanna^ S 

Oook, 1 



} \ 



**^ Clefgymtn, 

Seatnstreas, / , ; » j 

Laboren, ' ^ 

Cabinet-maker, 
Baker, 
Bnck-maker, 
Engraver, 
Butchers, 
StoDe-cutter, 
Overseer on railroad, 
Phjeician, 
I Painter, , ' 

Paper-folder, 

Fiaherman, ^ 

Hotel-waiter, , 

Jeweller, 

No trade or ooenpation reported, (females,) 

t n 

Places of Nalnmity of the Prisoners now here. 

United States^ 83 

Canada, 1 

Ireland, ^ ' ' ^ 13 

England, 2 

German States, 18 

Holland, 1 

Free City of Hamburgh, 1 

Waks, 1 

Bom on the Atlantio Ocean, 1 

t 

J 



" 16 


a 


M 


20 


Ct 


« 20 


(4 


"a 


2S 


iC 


" 26 


M 


u 


80 


IC 


" 80 


U 


a 


36 


C( 


- 35 


« 


u 


40 


M 


- 40 


M 


u 


45 


tt 


*♦ 46 


U 


u 


SO 


tt 


•* 60 


u 


u 


fiS 


M 


a «5 


tc 


u 


60 


t( 


* 60 


.< 


u 


66 


« 



7 

?itm 9 jean of ago to 16 yean of age, 3 

12 
16 
16 
1 
6 
4 
4 
1 
2 
1 

71 



MENTAL CULTIVATION OF THE PRISONERS. 



Cf the prisoners now here cibofUit one fourth of them possess mor^ 
than a common eduoation. 

Number who can read and write 70 

Nmnber who can neither read nor write 1 

. When I took charge of the prison, in January last, there were 
rDBHj of the younger class of prisoners who could read but very 
poorly, and had never written a word in their lives. I have deem- 
ed it my duty to use all proper means, consistent with my position, 
to effect, if possible, an improvement in the mental and moral con- 
dition of the convict, and with that object in view, I induced a 
large number of them to devote such hours as were not occupied 
in the employ of the state in the study of reading, writing and 
arithmetic, under the instruction of teachers appointed from 
among the convicts, and in presence of one or more of the prison 
officers. The experiment has proved successful beyond my moat 
sanguine expectations, and the result is indeed gratifying. Snob 



convicts as haye teifi tfiw iodncadto ■i^%ai(9fi>rt for improTO- 
ment have made rapid progress, in all the studies ahoye named, 
and ^ile thej haye been laying np a little Btare of praotSeat edn- 
cation, to be nsed, we hope, for good ptirposee in the fttttxre, the 
effect has, to a very great extent, been efficacious in softening 
down, the rough, dogged manner of the criminal into the more obe- 
diently submissive conduct of the convict. 

Wlile I am upon this branch of my re{»ort, I wish to state, that 
a lar^ majority of those prisoners who Jiave been disobliged by 
yirtne of executive interposition were discharged only oaii^ dkj be- 
fore tlie expiration of their sentence, fo^ the purpose, m I have 
been led to understand, of restoring them to the rights of citizen- 
ship. 

And here allow me to suggest, that for an established custom, 
the exercise of tbis prerogative, on the part of the executive of the 
state, is calculated to work a great moral and general good in the 
condition of the discharged convict, and acts as a great incentive 
towards a better course of conduct during the term of his confine- 




Perhaps two-thirds of the prisoners who haye been confined in 
the prison since its establishment and organization, and pf those 
that are now here, are ^fery yoimg men, w|^o, in an unguarded 
hour, under the influences of evil associations, and vicious, aban- 
doned company, have committed the first crime in their Kves, that 
might have subjected them to the severer penalties attached to tlr^ 
criminal laws of our state« 

. Since my connection with the prison there has not been »cp^< 
idct released but has voluntarily, and I feel cwfident, with ];ieafi^ 
fisit sincerity, expressed a firm determination to lead an himeiyti 
Upright life^ and use to his own credit, and the benefit of aoci^tj;, 
his restoration to that place among men which he had forfeite4 Igf 
hie own act, ccnnmitted against the public wellbeiog and the, laiWI 
of the stata^ I am infi/rmed that, with one or to exceptional^ thw 
diterminaticp hae been sacredly adhered to. 



If t)ie6ft impiUMB M«.6Uicerelj teltf^ I sm conttrajned to 1>eli6r« 
tliMtbcktnie dmff^ of panUkmeot,, and the princij^les of publia 
JA^tice, are l]|7 no means adv^aaced by sending the couvict out 
mfin upon tbe wor]d as a branded feloni doomed to' suffer^ wi^* 
qxit any mitigating consideraMon^ the entailed oonsequences of his * 
crime forevery. without any possible inducement to gain a resp^ti^ 
ble name among his fellow men. 



'Tke/oUmrinj^€tcaem§n£'millsAofmiA^ amount of moMy 
iymdfrcm M $owtMaiwiiiig ih$ <nmrMtyiafts andiJUdu^ 
hjvrwfMmik isf tAe same. 

IM. 4^ IBM, tUa*d ftom 8M» TtaMiT« oa>pp«>pf»tioii«f IMS tS^Stf 76 



Mm, 18, do 


d» 


d» 


do 


'Sj84'M 9k0ial* 


AfK i<a, do 


«9 


d» 


do. 


1864^ ZfiOfk 


Mj, «d* 


dp 


d» 


4» 


do <(M 


CM. H4* 


d* 


d* 


do 


do S«0 


Dm. «»,d0 


do 


d» 


do 


do 30Q 


Ami of aAwmtiwei from the rcnoiM 


priaoB akope during, the jrev, 60$ 11 










|1&,494 •» 






jAsburtemetUf. 





Ibavapiid'OD thooU dsM sC iWPiisoii! eoattasUd bj ^-coi»r 

ittkiioDer Brown, #lf,90t It^ 

L^TOg a balance of all moneys recei?ed, to be expended on es^? 

|iena« of current year, G^7M 8e 

Which haUm^ie Aoi leen^ e9open€hda$^ foUo^og : 

Vfr wood and proTision^ lltOO^ 
d6 Labor, (pay of officers,) l^SOO 
do Paid on contract for digging artesion well, 20 1 Sf 
do Shop tools for the yarious prisoa shops, leathsr aad shoe find- 
ings, sheet iron and tm, 2,084 26 

5,78S M 
^Ltnonnt paid on pid debtiss abore^, ]ff,foa' tV 

I^ all of wUeh proper voocfaen are on flis iatbeoommisrionei'ff 

•fin $18,494 VI 

a 




10 

In recurring to the report of the committee appointed by the 
legislature at its last session to investigate the affairs of the Pri- 
son for the past year (1853,) yon will find, that so far as they were 
.able to ascertain from the evidence which was placed before them, 
tbey reported the indebtedness of the prison for that year, up to 
the 1st of January, 1854, at about $12,100. There have been de- 
mands made upon me by many individuals, upon claims against 
&e state on account of the prison, for the year 1863, backed by 
the most incontrovertible vouchers ; and in all cases where such 
vouchers have been presented, I have paid the demands. 

Hiere were also some palpable mistakes on the Prison books tot 
that year, which, when corrected, enlarged the demands of per^ 
sons, and I assumed to pay the corrected demands. You will per- 
ceive, that in following tihis course, I have paid about $600 more of 
the old indebtedness than was reported by the legislative commit- 
tee ; and I feel quite confident that all claims against the state oil 
account of the Prison for the year 1853, are paid in full. 

T%e following staiemerU will show the indebtedness of the Prison 
for the current year. (1854.) 

Am't of iDdebtedness of the Prison fbr the ounent year, 1854 

Of which aniouat there is due on officers* labor 

On outstaDding orders given for labor, provisioDSybuilding fence <kc. 

do Prison Physician's account 

do Chaplain's do 

do Sewing done for Prison 

do Block stone delivered in Prison yard on oontraot 

do Wood and provisions 

do Lumber 

do QlasB, paints, <&c. 

4o Leather 

do Oil, lamps, 6cc, 

do Work with man and team 

do Pump pipe , 

Preparing pumps 

Solder 

Slone coal 

Menshandize^ including hardware, dotbing, books, sutionery, Ac, 

Patttems for new Prison and stove plates 

17,188 12 



$17,188 72 


5'984 81 


3,428 81 


279 87 


98 


17 29 


1,186 31 


1,444 59 


37 la 


15 80 


488 89 


149 50 


989 


30 02 


4 


15 58 


106 28 


8,000 50 


19 87 



11 

The foUcmng $tatemenU mil show the im^mnfemente v>hich hm>e 
^ heen made foithm the primm yard hy eomnot labor^ and the 
earnings qf the eonvioU-m the various shopSj as also thefTopert/y 
naio on hand^ which has been purchased dwring the year. AU 
qf which is presented, as offsets to the indebtedness of the current 
year. 

New bpiiding for carpenter, Bhoe, tin, tailor and barber shops $1 ,000 

Finisbiog roof to stone shop and wire to screen stone shop win- 
dow frames for same and glass fiO 
Addition to blacksmith shop and building 3 chimneys and cat 

stone foige 
Gate keeper^s honse 
Bepairii^ warden's and matron's apartments, paint shop, goaid 

houses, out houses^ cow stable, vaults^ drains, Ac, 
Work made to order in carpenter's shop 

do done for c<^ntractor Reinhard in carpenter's shop 

do do do Prondfit do do 

do do to order in paint Aof 

do do for contractor Tajlor in paint shop 

do made to cider in tin shop. 

do done for contractor Tajlor in tin shop 

do do do Sterkweather k Co. do do 

do made to order in shoe shop 
Work made in blacksmith shop to older, 

do done for contractor Proudfit in same, 

do do do Ackerman in same 

do do do Proudfit, in stone shop and on building 

do do do Taylor, on artesian well 

Soote, aboeii leaUker and shoe, findings on hand 
Poiky iovf, esnm nMal and other piOTJsiona on hand 
OlotUngi eiMh and new bedding 



200 


200 


100 


6S7 CO^ 


338 20 


64 85 


68 96- 


77 77 


84 67 


84 08 


87 87 


491 42 


187 15 


281 9& 


Ml 47 


8,238 OS 


IS 17 


160 . 


850 


SCO 






SbYtt sod {npe ftnr Ae«r jmrnm^ cupante, ihoeaiiltiir^ iSm Atfp Miv 
OirpeDter'a, tinner's, Macksmit&X •bx>eiDal:en^ taQorXpiintai^ bar- 



ber^s toob and farming utensils, purchased within the year 


800 


Book oase for prison Hbrarjr 




«0 


Five cows 




150 


Hogs^ large and small 




a5 


Block stone 




i,iw at 


Oil and Iamp% ^ 




14»0O 


Books of account, for Prison 




80 


do for prison librarf 




100 


Work benches for the Tarionaffhopt 




40 


Fihir iron doors for old prison 




H9 


Okuldron ketUe 




ro 


Scrap iron on hand. 




60 


Lard, do 




20 


RsBs^ on the prison farm, (NX) bu*. potallMs^ 


1k^ 


»50 


do do 200 do ears of corn 


HM 


8 BO 


do do 1(^ tons of fodder, 


flO, oats 180 


do do ganhn regatablar 




1^5 




lA^S4i 11 


Indebtedness brought forward, 




17,188 It 


(MseU deducted, 




112,44 l» 



|4|894 55 

It will be seen hj the abonre^ thftt tbe cost of^ 0iipportiiig fhe^ 
prleemers and prisoa eotabliahflawni Of ev and abttno Ika Mumittgar 
of tho Friion the past year is %f^^W^ t^. 



u 

fl^iMft \o>mjj Hiat at iMst from twmtf (p tirirty peroBht «f 
Ifctf atare would hav« bMn Mted tf the wnlraetoiii, when thejr 
put im tlielr ftCfouiB^ «otild iMTe tein Mrs tk«t tbej would gilt 
their pay according to -the oondiUons of their oootracts, and if we 
hftd had' mon^-top^y. for thorn articles not contracted for, 'and 
Ibat wfo ooQid 9ot QODtract for, nor do without when we bought 
them. Another fatal consequence arising fron> the nnavoidahle 
want of punctoality on the part of the Cpramissionery in granting 
payments as they became due» by the conditions of contracts 
entered into, results in the fact, that none who know the lack of 
finance in the prison will put in proposals for furnishing, except 
fQch as are pecuniarily ablo to wait the slow pay day which ia 
niost sure to come. ^Vhile many good men would venture to put 
IB bids for such furnishing if they conid be suro of their pay 
quarterly. Under the circamstanceB, the few with ready capitcA 
alone bid, and make the idea of general competition in the mat- 
ter a mere farce; and^ consequently, almost all articles purchased 
under contract, are paid as highly fur, and, perhaps, in many in* 
stances, more highly than if bought on private bargain. 

I would, therefore, most earnestly but respecifnlly ask, that the 
funds necessary for defraying the expenses of the prison be kept 
on hand^ in order that the Commissioner may be able to fulfil any 
cpnditioa of the contracts entered into on the part of the state^ 
and also to purchase such other articles as we must have, and that 
we are una.ble to contract for under existing circumstances, or 
el9e repeal that part of the law that requires the Oommisaioner to 
advertise for propesaUi. and let the contracts for supplying the 
Prison to the lowest and best bidder. 

As die law now stands, the Commissioner has has no right to 
IpiBPclUHaa'mDgle article fer the Pkison wkboitt finii adveiAiaing 
JMnjii if Mnlij,^aaBiiri>taift the artieh»ireyiifed upon ^eUntfttet,. aai 
under existing circumstances with a full knowledge on the fMlrttef 
A^tpfl^ple^ tiMt Ibam imiM omief im^e. Mamry, ot" ikl>tlle handa 
•lithe ^MMwkuonw te/payillieiia 4ar wba* Ibcgr'ivwnia icoiiti«ot<i^ 
i l wi i)i | i a»ft i tlr i ^Hi h<i H rt n MtaiBt>haa <clk«k mA te, 4lM|p mm 



u 

Dot) in many eases prppose at alL In Boch ctae the la>vr reqoires 
the Oommissioner to adrertise again. In the, mean timeijuaoy of 
the articles needed, and for which the CommisBioner ad7erti8e8 for 
proposals to famish, must be had without delaj. 

And, agaiD, thd strongest propability is, that no one will pro^ 
pose at all, for the reason that there is no money to pay them if 
they shduld enter into contract. 

Again, if they do propose and they get the contract, the day 
conditioned for payment arrives, and unless their demand is 
satisfied, they are of course disappointed, and depending, as in 
most cases they are necessitated to do, upon the means that accrue 
from the business they are engaged in, to progress with the fulfil- 
ment of their contract, they in turn must necessarily disappoint the 
party contracted with, and when complaints or threats are made 
to them, they will say the ^^ state has not fulfilled ;" and when it 
does, it will be time enough for you to find fault. In the mean 
time, dinner hour arrives, and seventy-five or eighty prisoner^ are 
not apt fully to appreciate the financial trouble that prevents them 
getting it. 

I would, therefore, most respectfully recommend in the event 
of there being no money in the treasury, that that part of the law 
which requires the Commissioner to advertise] for proposals and 
let the contr«^;t for supplying the Prison to the lowest bidder un- 
der all circumstances, bo repealed, because the Commissioner 
cannot live up to it, and must needs violate it, for without money, 
one half of the articles needed at the Prison will not be proposed 
for at all, and those that are, will be at hi^ prices. 

' i ■ ', . • • 

. . SOUTH WJNG. 

] The south wing of the new Prison is nearly completed/vad wil^ 
be ready for n^ lind ocoopancyin the oowseoC two orrt)ire<^ 

WQieka. '>'■'■' ■ •' ^ ...,':: 

■i This butidiag was eommenced;froiii th&;foimdttioa qui th» 14th 
^y of April, and yfsA prosecuted with[ nnoeasing vigor hf all 'th« 
boixtr%etors/6figag«diit its erectioaif aad^ taken ip ilid^ s6)M»ali 



15 

from the main building and other wing, as laid down in the plan 
of building the whole Prison^ it is a most beautiful structure, and 
a credit to the builder and the state ; indeed, I am constrained to 
say, that there is not a better building for its purpose in the whole 
Union. Its foundation is laid upon the solid rock, ten feet below 
the surface of the earth, and it is built after the enlarged plan 
contemplated by the legislature at its last session — two hundred 
feet in length, by fifty feet in width in the clear, and contains two 
hundred and eighty-eight cells. 

I cannot let the occasion pass, without awarding to the various 
contractors who have been employed upon the building, the justly 
deserved credit of having unsparingly exerted themselves to do 
justice to the state as well as to themselves in the prosecution of 
the work. 

The contract for furnishing the stone, brick, Ac, and all mMe- 
rial for laying the same, was entered into, on the part of the state, 
by my immediate predecessor, Ex-Commisaioner Brown, with An- 
drerw Proudfit, Esq., conditioned to pay as follows : 

For furnishing cut stone and laying the same, per perch, |13 95 
** rough t< a 2 92i 

« brick " • « per 1000 9 7«» 

For placing all iron in the building, per pounds 08* 

As early in the past spring as practicable, I entered into con- 
tracts on the part of State,' for doing all the other work necessary 
to the completion of the building, with diflferent individuals, as 
follows : 

With John N. Ackerman, Esq., for making and preparing all 

the iron work, at the rate of 3 4-10 cents per pound, $ 03 4-10 

With John Taylor, Esq., for famishing all cast iron neceasary 

at the rate of 6^ cents per pound, 06^ 

do do for making sheet iron rentilatora at 

8 cents per pound, 08 

de do for doing all painting and glazing, and 

fuin'ing materials, inelading glass, 005 00 



1ft 

ytnOk JAn Taylor, Bsq.» for titmiDg roof, and fbmubbg ma- 
terial, per aqnara^ 11 ^ 

do do for nuiking conductor from roo( and 

fumiahing material, per foot, 40 

Whh Win. Beinhaid, Ett^^ fer doing all the oarpoDter and 

joiner's work, and fumiahiqg 
a]l material, ezcq>t lumber, l^OOO 00 
do do for doing all hthing and plaatar- 

lag and furnishing all mate- 
rial, per sqoare yard, t5 

13ie iron was fumithed by J. S. Sherwood, Eaq^ under contraofc 
made with Commierioner Brown, at an average rate per fb of 06 

The lumber was mostly furnished by James K Smith, Esq^ 
nnder contract alto madn with Oommiisioxier Biown, at an 
aieri^ nte per thousand of It 00 

fbe kdw wem fumiskad by ▲. Pfandft,. Eaq^ under oonlnel 
made with myself ftf iCell locha at the mte of $^ rS7;^ 

Eor all larger locks, at the rate of 50 

Tbe following abBtrflct of the eBtimateamadeont for the Tsriona 
oontitactort), ntfall lahow the expense of building the Sooth Wing 
tf ^he Priaon, ^pta the 86th day nT laitKoroniiier. 



IT 



ABSTRACT (rf JEktmaUstaafihautforihe Canira0tonH^^ed 
miuUdwgthe South Wing of the newpnapn^ ahotoing t/^ eoff 
^ erecting and finishu^ the sam^ : 



Kkae^tfC'cblMettt^ 



ilHtiE«tlBM|to«f Andrfiw Prondfit 
SwuimI do du 

Tlurd d* - do 

Ifwph da dp 

Tifdk ' d6 do 



9lMliSitiirolB9r JF. & akenmoU, 
8«QiiiKi ' do do 

tttifd* do^ do 

i99rth do do . 



Vim Sfltioialo of John Taylor. 
vcHSmta vb ' do 

Third d* do . 

YoQith do do . 



do 
do 



S^e-^ad da 
iridftt ^ 



VIrgfc Ertlnmto of Jamv JC Qibitfi 
ioeoad da do 

Thicd da da 



Dm 



flaeHOii do 



of Wn. IteiDhmd, 
do 
do 



-nUbk 



Toliil junotiiitor SUto Liability vp 
' W'MV* tt, l^&4. oTwworfc fur 






As 



#13.875 39 

i4.0H 41 
fi9.!l93 31 
33!H>9 92 
10.770 J8 
736 3(i 





1! 



103>800 76 



516 »9 
5^51 60 

193 J5 



l^io 21 



78PJ31. 
SSn 63 
Sd^li 
1.997 11 



40M> 17 



SI12 13 

£84 9*i 
837 2-i 



13H 26 



970 7;» 
S92 3d 
142 97 



MOG 10 



330 00 
140 63 
400 00 



870 63 



119J12 12 



$4.426 77 

3.135 !)0 
OJId 74 
2.7.J6 49 
l.OtiO 91 



20.4dd 81 



]4'65 
7^4)2 

111 83 



201 56 



92 72 
223 00 

261 79 



577 60 



59 26 

33 01 

103 24 



)95 60 



21,463 47 



• u 



597 19 

1.U94 41 

1,2*^0 23 

964 57 

241 04 






4.137 87 



1220 

46 19 
74 79 



133 18 



WW 
124 33 
172^ 



366 21 



41 37 
26 12 } 
50 00 



19.851 6$ 

9,784 10 

19.834 i3t 

^0.259 m 

9.44^3 

756 3^ 



7K8^ 61 



5.r^l 60 

it733 « 

193 1^ 



8.295 ^t 

810 91 

t.807 50 



M7I 42 



537 59 



tto0 4S 

l7r75 
292 38 
4«9? 



1406 la 



229 37 

246 n 



J16^ . W .6d 



4,753 23 ' 93j0i5'« 



M,W» 



18 

So far as I bave been able to make an estimate, the cost for fd^ 
nishing the building from the 28th of Kovember last to its filial 
completion will not vary much from $5000. 

I wish here to impress upoy your m ind, and through you, upon 
the attention of the legislature, the imperatiye necessity of pro- 
ceeding immediately with the erection of the main building of the 
prison. The offices, guard rooms, chapel, hospital and cook room 
should be in immediate communication with the building occu- 
pied by (he prisoners. As it is, all these necessary oonveniences , 
being in the old prison are situate some ten or fifteen rods fiotti 
the new, and when the fact is taken in consideration, that the vic- 
tuals of the prisoners must be cooked in the old prison and car- 
ried those ten or fifteen rods in all kinds of weather, that the de- 
tached position of the offices and guard rooms, render the vigi- 
lance of the night watch less efie<^tive, that marching the prison- 
ers from the new building to the old, for the purpose of attending 
divine worship on the Sabbath, is fraught with imminent danger 
of escape. I cannot but think, that the amount which must be 
appropriated for the building will have no weight in coo^pansooi 
with the importance and necessity of its erection. 

I have asked the opinion of competent mechanics, as to what 
the probable cost of the main building would be and am^eoorineed 
that the expense is pretty accurately shown by the following esti- 
mate. 

* Length of main bailding of the new prison, eighty fe«t, 
WHh of main building of the new prison, fifty-two ^t 
Height above the batement atoiy, fifty feet 

^1 cords of cut stone, inclading Iayin|r of samsi $60, |5,8t0 00 

ise cords of rough stone, 1,816 00 

Laying rough stone and brick, 8,868 00 

SOO,000 briok» ^ 1,5Q0 00 

Lathing and plasterhig, including lath, 1,780 00 

1,100 barrels of lim€^ 885 00 

40,000 bttdieb sand, 6d, 3,690 00 



' Mo»w 


800 00 


1,600 00 


*00 00 


1,200' 00 



19' 

d«rpeiit«r work and boilditig roof, m on aouUi wtag, bidudliig > 

matoritl. 
Ohm, painty nails, loeks^ door hangings, and hanging doon, 
Iron and iron work, 
Pttnlang and glazing, 
Excavation for foundation, complete, 

125,450 OO 

I am fully confident that the bnjllding can be erected bj conyict^ 
labor for one-half of what it would if put under contract^ apd with, 
the above amount appropriated and placed at the disposal of the 
Commiasioner, I am sure, beyond a doubt, that it would cover am-, 
ply every cent of expenao which the building would be to the. 
State, exclusive of convict labor. 

In recurring to the law organizing the prison, there is another 
proviaion in it, the repeal of which, I think, is demanded by the 
best interests of the state. I allude to that which prohibits the. 
comptiissioBer from permitting prisoners to be taken outside the, 
prison yard under any circumstances whatever, and from rel^hle 
information, I am inclined to believe it is contrary to the well ea«> 
tablished precedent of older established prisons: 

. II\ere are always confined in every sta,te prison a greater or Um 
niuxxhex of convicts who are w:ell disposed, and whose term of im- 
priBono;»ent is nearly expired, that can, safely be trusted ^x charge 
of ip fi&ce^ to work in the stoi^e .quarry's for the state, or to be 
let to, contactors to work as they may direct — or, situated as we^. 
I^ye been, duripg.the past summeri without water in the yard, they 
' niigkt be advantageously occupied in carrying water for the use of ^ 
tbeprifion. • 

' CSreumfltancesi have transpired during the yeaor unfder wld^h- 1 1 
have deetnf^ it a mattJer 6f no- bartn, but xatber a matter of Ad^, * 
iti^ fwpAHfe prisoneiv to engage in bufiniiess for the state outside tte * 
pllBaD]md,^Tind0t'<Arei direct ^ttaid of an oflteer, except in Otte er 
two instances, when, during the past sickly season the offleue asd^ 



9k 

help in and abant ike prifon^were BQBMe .b^i Atttad i^m^iCtib 
wtOiimit^nL what their dntj imposed. 

Another provision of the law ought to bo 8o aniended a^ to al-^ 
low i\\p commissioner to engage the services of practical mecban^ 
i^a 1^^ Overseers in the various departoafiQta of xnec^anic^ \^)}PTn 
with t he j)Ower to paj them the wages of mechanics, say one dol- 
Ifff^ ^^ ;iv Malf or one dollar seventy tive cents per daj. The pre- 
sent per diem for overseers, ((U^^ P^i* ^aj) is i^ot suflScient to in- 
dttisfe them to leave outside labor for a position within the pfisbn 
yartf. 1 aih of the opinion lihat if the erorvices of good mechanics' 
d6o)dF b^ obtained, to be used in instructing, directing and faying^ 
out' w6rk for the! conv?<it9, the state would be profited much mote^ 
tban tho ihoie amouut it would require to cngag6 such adalstahtie.* 

Since I have been connected with the prison, 1 have, under, 
tk^ iJItfietion of tlic priB^n physician, ftirn»shed convicts with 
Wdak^teti once a day, and in case of 'sickness oftener, if nec^-i 
aitff, tthd alio td siith as have be6n in the hAbit of iidirfg t6^ 
WiAjOf^ircd chews a Qky^ believing, tinder all the cfrcnrasfcitf- 
ci^k'Sf'a'xnoderate use would be more. beneficial to the boiiritrt^ 
il^ 'otherwi^is. 

As will be seen by the report of the prison physician here- 
#ttli jient, you w!ll flttd that,Val though the sefason bas^beeti tiety 
niififeiftHy^ yet the frfsotiers have suflftredbut r^ry litfli^Stt*^' 
D«i«i'of any' fiihd— indeed 1 may siay that the state lias botb^tti 
dfe^r?^ed K)f ''t*h6 iabot bf uny^ ond' coririfeffor morfe' fWan a diy 
aK'^^iie, Ahd that only by rfeasoti of tttl* br ordftialty dfei^' 
rficbiil ' T'taAj be aHoVs'dd to sa^ that no pains hiive'bbei^^pat*^^ 
i)!^"^ pr^cantidrrs neglected to prevent" sii^kftess or disease. Aa^^ 
I am credibly informed that although the nun)ber of prfeoneMi 
hMSWM MA^ -fon^esi.fuid H^y jmP aeM0PofiWB»prek.^r))H»«^hj 

t^ 4lMYJf^*{ )^.A M.J^«iflM^nW<l4ilP^ With 4(«fl(%gilVr{ 



«1 

Holder ftcf)TivHlege extended fcytt*^ law'of ItotwiiiteriSf^ 
^iAhvfctd who have been engaged in Voii'for tontractora' bn'tra 
iewbtiMing, hav<5 bcfen enabM by overwoA, to'ky up for thei*- 
Wives, a'handBome mtn of moticy for their J) resent or fa tort nsfe, 
*rimy of tliem x^ho have familiefi, have with commeridible A^Mr 
ty ffpptv>priated th^r eaergieft to their cumfort iaia snppoi^, iiiS^ 
if the yonnger dasa hare n^ed it in procuring nsefull 'boblrs, kdA, 
in Bnbscribing for newspapers, whicli thej ana allos^ed to use tfii- 
der tbe directioa and supervision of the of^ceiB. 

I inuBt do myself the justice to say that I believe that thero ii 
no retrograde movement in the morals of the convicts, theyar^ 
all, witb a few exceptions, willing and anxions to attend diviM 
service in the chapel every Sabbath, where they seem io listm 
with devont attention to ihe excellent preaching and t^lvice of tha 
'Hev. Samuel Smith, the faithfal and devoted chaplain ot.tbe prlt- 
oii/ 

We ^ave as fiir as praetiofllUe, (spdea^KW^d to adtnlm at e r th> 

dicipline of the prison upon the ^^ilcint ByM^m^^ enfotviuig Ifii 
much as possible, perfect non-in^ercourso, among the prisonen.— « 
faring the past geaeon, the circumstances connected ,¥(ith tjt^ 
1)tiildii)g df the new pnson, macle it a niatter of imposaibilit/ to 
enforce as rigidly as we otherwise should a strict obseryf nca fft 
'^ ihe regulatioi^s incident to such a system of dicipline. Tbei^ 
Vas necessarily more or less intermingling of the pri .oners, f^Itjik 
^ucli citrzens as were engaged iu work lipon tlie buildings aniji 
kc^ttcre^ about the y ara, as they were, under the dlrectiou of (fif 
"Itontractors to whom they wore liiriefd, in groups of two,.^hree or 
iilialf a dozen, itv^j^ entirely out of the question to gn^rd them 
iti narrowly in the exercisea of t^eir duty and req^^irement^^. aff 
if those circumstances did not exist 

i T&riiit Say, however, that during tte whp^e seasbn itiave aejBii 
ntiivery little of condiict so flagitious as to demancl aeve'ro piia« 
ifihiient of my Tititids. I'hero lias been uo op^n attempt to bscaiML 
imd I ^<^el confident Chat but very litilei ilT any at alV^f aeom 



jploUisg bas been going on (6t that purpose. I iiave ^ver fflt it 
to .be the duty of any person having the administration of thp 
government and discipline of a prison in charge, to execute his 
trust, that the criminal, will be made morrally better under thp 
{>uni\i8hment, which he is made to suffer, and while he makes that 
pun^ishment, sure by its certainty, still so far as may be consistent 
with, his position, he should feel and act as though he were deal- 
ing with men, fallen to be sure, but yet not beyond redemption. 

When I entered on my official duties as commissioner of the 
Prison, its library was altogether inadequate to the wants of the 
prisoners. I have added to it by purchase, about ninety dollars 
worth of books, many of which are Bibles, both German and 
English, singing books, scnool books, and also a dozen . slates. — 
Besides the above we are under especial obligation to the Fond 
'du Lac county Bible Society, for a quantity of religious books ; 
also, to'Prof. E. Daniels, late State Geologist, and Messrs. W. H. 
Watson, George Bowman, Archibald Wilson, Henry Dilleckerand 

Btick, of Milwaukee, for a large and valuable contribution 

of books for the prison Library. 

Before concluding this report, I wish to mefition a subject upon 
which I think the legislature should act and act promptly. "We 
ii&Yt confined here sOme three or four small boys, from the city of 
Milwaukee, from nine to fifteen years of age. A prison is no place 
for them. Oonnected with some more aged and hardened crimi- 
nals whom perhaps no punishment can reform, and no persuasion 
deter, it cannot, I fear, be even hoped that there case will be much 
1;>ettered ; and I sincerely hope that humanity will dictate, that a 
houpe of refuge be prepared for such young pflfenders, where they 
can, at least for a while, be secure from the evil associations of bad 
company, and be taught to lead the life of virtue and honesty. 

I cannot neglect in this report to acknowledge thp obligations 
which I am under to all the officers of the prison for the faithful 
and valuable services I have received from them during tlie past 
year. Their duties have been arduous and responsible, and they 



are entitled to my sincere thanks for the faithful manner in which 
they have discharged ihem: 

In conclnsion allow me to say, that if what we have done meets 
the approbation of your Excellency, and through you the appro- 
bation of the Honorable the Legislature, and the people generally, 
we Bball be am}^y rewarded for all the care, ansiety and respon- 
aibility, we have incurred the past year, and if not, we shall still 
bave th^ satisfaction of knowing that we have endeavored to do^ 
light. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

A, W. STARKS. 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, ) 

XWDGB COUNTY, J 

Abgaltts W. Stahes, being duly sworn, says that the matters 
and'ihfngs set forth in the foregoing report, are true to the b%6t of 
1MB knowledge and belief. A. W. STARES. 

Subscribed and.Bworn before me the 31st. day of Dec. 1864. 

JOHN LOWTH, 
Notary Publio^ Dodge County, Wiia. 



94 



REPOET OF OHAPLAHT. 

To Hn ExoEiXKNCT Wm- A. Bajzbtow, 

Governor if Witpofmi^i 

6ra : The following brief report of the Chaplain of the Wis- 
conBia State Prison, and of his efforts to improve the moral and 
intellectual condition of its inmates, I sincerely hope will meet 
with the approbation of yourExcellency. 

For more than three years I have had the honor to officiate at 
Chaplain of this Prison, and by the blessing of Heaven, have been 
able to attend to the daties of my station every Sabbath bat four 
daring the whole of that time. 

Daring the past year, oar meetings in the(Chapd of t^ierPq^ip^ 
have been attended by all the inmates of the Priaoo, when their 
;^Ii|i Wjould permit, and Uic reaojt has b^a t^at 4>iQm^ of/oar 
ipria^iQeni who appeared scarcely to fear.God or re^gard ^i4n»4trt^ 
time of thtir ent^nce into the Prison, have been coostrajiii^ itf 
confers their sins to God, and implore his pardoning favor. I am 
in the habit of visiting them from cell to cell, and talking with 
them individnally and eollectively ; and have often been deeply 
moved at witneasing tbeil* apparent contrition, for violating the 
sacred laws of God, and the laws of the State, thereby bringing 
disgrace apon themselves, their families, and friends. I am sat- 
isfied from what they tell me, that more than two-thirds of them 
committed the crime that sent them here, ander the inflaence of 
strong drink. They promise, however, most solemnly on their dig* 
charge from prison never to resort to a like crime again« 

It may be gratifying to yoar Excellency to know, that some of 
the prisoners, when they first entered the prison and who coald 
neither read nor write, have devoted their leisure hoars to learn- 
ing, and who now are able to do both. Many of them seem to be 
delighted with the holy scriptares, and promise hereafior to be 
governed by its precepts. 



All our priBoners are reading men, and it would be extremely 
gratifyiDg to myself and tbeta ff n^arger ^oasortment of good and 
«iag»l.koAfc^ eauW4ficPWftla^r,lwwlft4n,pj;^r to ,mal^ ^m 

1^y9^d^9tltf^^mpaib^n^f<pm^^z^ ^p«^ ^^i'' t^i^ •hail 

hane axsiMihecBi 

A. ^injgtng ediool has ^been 4n'8ncoe«8ftil opferoliM ia ik^ Biittn 
file ;{>a8t year, and haa'been «ttteaded by a ktige tuuuber of it^iB.* 
mitea. I think their sinjgin^ exe^Uent, unaef all tiiO'droiuiuAai^ 
cesy and would do credit to any society. lo^ed tf 1 'the ^eeia- of 
the prison seen to be indifatigi^Me fin improtisg the .moial and 
yi olte etnaa eoaditMiO'Mf theifirtaoBafayindimOyrof (^iHmEtoalMi^ 
(fMyarge, ha^e'^aUednpeii.sM.al mjr msiiknw to itiiank mfi^r 
iiitettiptitig to do Ibeaaigood^i and ito^eif rois rtb^^mtilade 4» ^ 
the Officers ^f the prisoo^dfiBEcflMfr ilJodMia^aild^jS^ Wl^ltUm^ 
advice Jluaff Mmwrfld^iVfi^^l^ the same time to follow it 

^Beapeetfnlly 8nlMitt<^ 

BAKUEL SMUH, 

Ghaphfau 



PHTSIOIANe' BEPORT. 

The health of the piisonerB during the past year has [been re*- 
markaWy good. They hare been entirely exempt from the pre* 
vailing epidemics such as Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Fevers, &o., 
wbioh bare prevailed to considerable extent in the community at 
large. Even daring the hottest part of the summer Diarrhoea 
among the inmates was of rare occurrence and Dysentery entirely 
unknown, although common in the vicinity and among the labor- 
ers, employed in conatructing the new prison building. 

• This exemption from sickness must be mainly attributed to tiifi 
judicious management of the commissioner in enibrcing rigidly 
tiie salutary disdipline of personal cleanliness and Tegimen in aU 
the apartments connected with the prison. 

BROWN & BTJTTERFIELD, 
Waupun, Dec. 31, 1854. Attending Physicians. 



r' 



ANNUAL REPOBT 



ON THB 



aEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



OV TEX 



STATE OF WISCONSIN. 



Bt JAMES G. PEROIVAL. 



' MADISON: 

BERIAH BROWV, PRI5Tn, 
18S0. 



J 



GE0L06I€Al REPORT. 



lo His ExcELLKNCTi Wk. A. Babbtow, 

In presenting this report on tbe Geology of Wisconsin, it if 
proper that I shoald state the circnmstances under ^hich the ma- 
terials for it have been collected. On receiving mj qonimission aa 
State Geologist (Aug. 12, 1854,) I proceeded, agreeably to your 
instructioDS, to examine the mineral district, included in the south- 
western counties of the State. It -was my intention, in this ezam« 
inatipn, to make a preliminary reconnoissance of the eptire dishicf^ 
BO as to enable me to present, in my first report^ a general view of 
the arraogemeot, both as exhibited on the surface and in the inte* 
rior. In previous examinations of the same kind, I had found the 
great advantage of such general views, in preparing for a more 
jnat appreciation of particular facts, and of .their mutual relations." 
One of the most important objects of a Geological Survey, indeed 
the most important, is to determine the , system of arrangement| 
and the principles connected therewith, which may serve ap a 
^de tbroagh what would be otherwise an inextricable labyrinth. 
Kiis cannot he done satisfactorily without a minute and thorougk 
investigation of particulars, but this should be made throughout 
with a view to ihe entire arrangement, and for this purpose a pre- 
iCminary reconnoissance is req^uired. • Although I lost no time in 
pursuing this object,, yet I found it impossible to visit the entire 
district, this season, and November 23^ I returned to .Madison, and 
4iftef a 1)rief examination of the country between tliat place an^ 



Jane«TflIe, in reference to the strata, I applied mjeelf to the pie- 
pamtion of mj report 

I have viBited, daring this season, all the considerable diggings 
from the sonth line of the State to a line drawn from east to west, 
north of Gassville, Beetown, Fotofri, BUttervill^^ llineral Point, Yel- 
low Stone, and Exeter, and from the Mississippi to the east part of 
Oreen conntj. Some of the less important diggings, within these 
limits, may have escaped mj notice, but I have endeavored to 
make snch an examination of those I hare yisited, as my limited 
time wonld allow. I have also employed, in preparing this rej^rt, 
snch facts as I had collected the former year, in the employment o£ 
the American Mining Oompsny (N. Y.,) in exploring different lo- 
calities in the same district, and particularly in examining the dif- 
ferent strata, in reference to the probable descent ot the mineral 
ihrongh ihcm. On this point, of so much importance to the min- 
ing interest, I had then ascertained a series of facts, which seemed 
^ prove that all the limestones, from the surface of the upper 
magnesian to a considers ble depth, at least, in the lower magne- 
sian, were good lead-bearing rocks. Hy researches, this year, 
haye enabled me to add many convincing proofs to what I had 
before ascertained, the whole showing a regular descent of tha 
mineral through all the rocks, within the limits above indicated^ 
except the upper sandstone. I have had no opportunity, this sea- 
son, of extending my researches in the lower magnesian, its out- 
crop occurring chiefly in the northern part of tlie district, which I 
have not yet visited. I had, the former year, also applied myselif 
lo the investigation of other points of much economical interest, 
and have made them, this season, leading objects in my survey. 
Such are the surface arrangement of the ranges, by which thej 
are combined into different groups, which are themselves also ar- 
ranged in connected series, showing a regular system of arrange- 
ment, apparently pervading the whole district, so far as I have yet 
examined it; the vein character of the different deposits of mine- 
Tal, recognizable in all their varied modifications; and the different 
cliaracter of \he openings in the different limestone strata, show-; 



iiig ihttt while df of thede are lead-b^terin^, yet that each ^reaenti 
Mniie pecidiaritlecrin tfie iirrttngement and character of Ita miner* 
il didposits. Theflusts, 'which T have thns Ikr collected^ on theae 
pbiiita, appeat not a UlCle enootirlKgitig, as exhibiting regularity and 
fftdist in amiAgeamit^ and' striking analogies to the best mines in 
oorreaponding situations in Europe. The opportunities for exami* 
ningiiiieintiritf of miiuis/anfBdt novae fivqneni id XeoitldliaTa 
irishedi but I have improved eyery. opportunity which has pre* 
aented^ and have been able, during the two seasons, to examine 
ihe interior of m^re than two hundred different mineS| of varied 
extent from the smallest to the greatest 

from tlie short time that I have been employed by the State, it 
eannot be expected that I should prepare a complete report La 
this, I hare had in riew the immediate interests of the mineidl 
district, and I haTe endeayored to give it a practical bearing. My* 
object has been to give general views of more inmiediato impor* 
lance, and rather to point out the method I design to pursue tliaa 
4o give the results of a survey. Local details, and such as have 
&o direct bearing on my present object, are reserved to another 
occasion. 

I have confined myself^ in preparing this report, chiefly to mf 
own observations, and have proceeded no farther than the fact^ 
irhich I have myself collected, would seem to warrant Althougk 
I have not yet been able to explore the whole mineral district, and 
may therefore have (ailed to ascertain some &cts, which may have 
jm important bearing in determining the entire arrangement, yet 
I have felt warranted, from what I have already ascertained, im 
'Stating, with some confidence, the conclusions to which I hare al-^ 
ready slluded. 

The mineral district is of such relative extent ; its resources^ 
mineral and agricultural, are so great, that whatever interests that 
must largely interest the whole State. The act, making the appro* 
priation for this survey, requires that that district should be first 
ourveyed; but occasional opportonities may, in the meanwhile, be 
taken to examine such other points as may be of immediate im^ 



« 

jportance. The survej of tiie whole State ^i^li be . ib^ work of 
time; to bejalaable} it ebould be made delibei^lf, md a^ far a| 
j^saibWa^ia a connected order. As lonf: ab I api «ritriuite4 m^ 
ihia object, I shall endeavor to give it soch a directiox^i and, part^o* 
ff^lj. to make it contribute to deyelopetbe g^e^t reaonrpeaiof tb«| 
State. ... . . ^ 

HbMwiiih IhaYe tb^beaor of anbmitlmg thb Mlownig<n$pM(a 
Y^Tf teBj)fectfliTIJr, 

JAltES G. P^EOIVAL, ^ 

State Geologist 



BEPORT. 



Ihe Mineral District in Wisconsin, so fkr as I haye ezaminadikL 
incliid^s all that part of the State between the Mississippi, on, the 
iresty.aiid the vallej of Sugar river, on the east, south ol the lincy 
already indicated. Small quantities of lead ore are reported to 
haye been found farther east, between Sugar and Rock rivers, an^ 
eyeo jn the quarry, at Janesville, on the east bank of Sock lixeif: 
In genei^i the diggings are more frequent and more extensive to-^ 
ward^ the west, and beeome more detached i^d lighter towairda the 
ciast, but with some important exception^. !Iliese will be noticedM 
heDeaAer^ more in. detail. 

STRATIFICATION. 

The rocks, in this district, form a series of strata, overl jing eMtf 
eHhemsArly hoxizontally, abaadj noticed ia preeeding veportB* Inr 
deaoribing them, I sbsU point oat each eharaotore and distuiotioDtf 
a»Iliav»m^tfo1nervQd, and which hav« appeared of praettoftb 
jH^drtaiice^ It has beea noticed ia other mining eonuititos, that) 
diftmHitTa<Aa haire different relations to particular minerals; thai& 
a givwi metallic vein, in one stratum, will yieid more abundantly) 
Hmh ia sAothev, and will present peculiar characters in tsaTettnngr 
eaob stratum* Such appeits to be the case in this minend dis^ 
iriet, find it hence bteomes important to mark, as far as posoibla^ 
a& the diffi»rtot modifications in the strata. 

Bio surface of the mineral district may be regarded in generaf 
» a plain, traversed in different directions by valleys and ravinefif^ 
radiating from the principal watercourses. Seen from a distatice^ 



Ihese are leia obnonii the higher pointe of the suiface, Hi^msdwrn 
<m nearlj a common level, commanding the view, and giving W 
the whole the appearance of a rest plain. Above this plain tiM 
ft number of elevations, called mounds ; some isolated, such as the 
Blue Mounds, the Pl^te Mounds,- ant the Sinsinawa Hound^ ia 
Wisconsin, and others forming connected chains of highlaada^ 
such as the range east of Galena, in Illinois, and the. Highlanda 
along the west side of the Mississippi, in Iowa. These meundt 
are composed of strata, overlying the strata occupying the genenft 
plabu 

T^e strata, in this' district, appear nearly horizontal, but^ 
have slight dips in different directions. A general dip to the'weat 
of south has been recognized in former reports. A general dip to 
the south appears obvious, even if the part of the district examin* 
ed by me be alone considered. , Such a dip to the south would, in 
ft general plane surf^e, bring the lower strata to tTiat surface sue- 
eessiyely towards the north, and such, in the \f7h0le, appears to ty% 
tfie fact in this district A general dip to the west has appeilred 
to me less obvious, though favored by matiy facts, particnUrly thft 
great extent of the mound i;ock3 in tjie Highlands of Iowa, and 
the greater thickness of the upper strata generally towarda 4ba. 
west, 

Besides this general dip, loeal inequalifeiBS iathe MtmtMk» 
tion may be observed at various points, indicating extrftonliiiaiy- 
•levations of the strata at those points. . These appear to be HAmt: 
detached elevations at different centres^ than along extended hnm 
ot anticlinal axes. They occur generally in connexidn wHk tkft* 
deeper valleys, where there has been a considerable degree of tie- 
nndation, and ftt such points the lower strata are broughi to Um; 
aur&ee at extraordinary elevations, and exhibit striking inequalir 
ties within short distances. Such points of elevation may be oV 
served on Fever (Galena) river, between Benton and ShullBborg; 
on the West Pecatonica, near Mineral Point ; on the East Pecatoft- 
ica, near Argyle ; on the waters of Sugar river, near the line of 
Dane and Green counties, and on the Platte river, between Platte- 



wiUe a^ Fotosi. Jrom fiieie centvaB of elevAtion tli# stimte dly 
ia diffi^reatdireetiiOQa, bjr which the higbcor strita are foniid gii»* 
MSfiirel/ ov^ljing the loweir on the north as well as on the aoiith» 
Tkm the extraordinarf dip to the north from the centre of ele?)*- 
tioQ 00 Fever river presents the overijing strata on the aorface to 
tiie north of the ontcrop of the bwer strata, and has given plaoe 
for the oeeorrence of the monnd strata at the Platte Hounds. In 
the saooe manner, there is at Bodgeville, though six to seven duIai 
north of Mineral Point, a greater thickness of strata than, at the 
latter, near which the lower magneaian is even brought to viewt;— 
1^0 details respecting thesa elevations will be glv^ after the do* 
scription of the different strata. . 

The series of strata, which I have had an opportonitj of exanih 
inivg, may be thus arranged. 1. The Hound Strata, consistiiig qf 
three distinct beds of limestone ; the upper, middle and loweE» 
S. A bed of Bine Shale, separating the moujad strata from the neit 
lower limestone series. 3. The Upper Haguesian of Oweo, als* 
eonsisting of three distinct beds. 4. The Blue Limestone, inclndiqg 
the Blue and the Buff Limestones of Owen (1st B^p.,) also presapt- 
ing three distinct beds. 5^ The Upper Sandstone. 9. The Lowet 
Hagnesian of Owen. This last I have pot yet had an opportuniijf 
0^ examining tl^rough its whole depth, but I have observed, in its 
vpper portion, two distinct beds, well characterised. T. The Low** 
er Sandstone. This I have not yet had an opportunity of examin* 
ing in connexion. The arrangement of each of the limestone saf 
rles, at least of the three upper, in three distinct beds, is worthy 
of attention. Other minor distinction^ may be noticed, and have 
in different places attracted the attention of miners, as of practioal 
importance. These I have endeavored to ascertain, and shall m^i* 
tion, so far as I have been able to determine them ; but from their 
nature, they can be fully determined only by a more complete sui^ 
vey than I have yet made. 

KOXnfTD 8TSATA. 

The Mound Strata, within the limits of the mineral district in 
Wisconsin, occupy only a few detached points, considerably ele* 



10 

HikdS t^fe the general vtirface. ISictto are: lh«^' 6(iiG^bHK#A 
]ff6niid, a detached istimmlt near the sonth line of th& 6(ite and en 
tlieUaiit of the towtis of Haiel Gi^n and Jamestcmn: ; the PlatM 
Xbirndft, two detached' sTimmitd, one east, thef other 'weifc of Bet 
liioat, with a smaller elevation of the same character b^Ween 
ttieio ; the Blue Mounds, twoanrnmits fo'rmingparttjf a connected 
ftinge, near the Itnd of Dane and I6wa conn ties; and the norftt- 
east point 6f a range of monnd^, extending from near Oalena to^ 
irifrds SIrallsbnfg. 

The three dfstinet beds, above mentibned*, are most complete 
In the Bontheiii mounds, and are apparentlj partly denuded in 
the northern. Thej may all be iKstingnished in the SihsinawS 
Xbnnd, but the upper appears there less complete than in iheTbble 
]h[<nind, an bntlier ofthe highlands, sonth^west of Dubuque. The 
entire series is composed chi^y of a thick-bedded limestone, ffne^ 
gt^ibed and nearly white, when nnstained, and well adtipted for 
btiilding. Tlie upper bed is characteriitied by a great abundance 
«f corals, of Which the CfanS^tptira* is the most distinctive. Thd 
KiifldTebed abounds mo^e or less in hornstohe (flmt,) airanged coii« 
fSttthably to the stratific^ion. ' Hhifr, in the southern motmds, fii 
Kss^ abundant, and mote in detached nodtdes, while in the nortb* 
M^ tnonnds, it is more abundant, and even, in the Blue Uonnds, 
dmest replaces the limestone. In the northern mouxrds particular^ 
ly, it ib distinguished by a reddish-brown colour. Itmaythua 
bave given origin to the layer of red ilint in clay, which immedl* 
ittSy overlies the rock oh the general wirface throughout the min* 
Ijfal dfetriet. The lower bed contains little flint, and is less abnit* 
dant in fossils, particularly corals, than the upper, It appears^ 
however, thicker bedded, and is more important for lime and 
lynilding. The mound limestone has never been found to contain 
Hay coneiderable deposit of lead ore. . Traces of mineral are re^ 
ported to have been found iu it, and some fruitless excavations 
have been made, one of which I have examined on the top of the 
Sinsinawa Mound^ but have observed there no appearance of lead 
ore. 

* C, etekaroidet. . 



tl 

sum fSAJ&fe. ' ' • 

Itie iJtie Shale, 'wiierever I have lia<J an opportunity of obser- 
vija^ uhderlies the limestone of the moundi, and separates it from 
the jJppet Magnesian limestone. B is composed of a thin even 
argulaceous slate^ quite hard in its natural state, hut more 
or less Buhject to decomposition into ^ soft claj, sometimes retain- 
ing Its original hlue color, but more usually stained yellow, and 
fpnning tjhen what is called by the miners, a pipe clay. Its sur- 
face, from its tendency to decomposition, is always concealed by 
earth, unless exposed in ravines or by excavation. It extends t(> 
agreateroir less diistance around the mounds, and graduiates by 
decomposition into the pipe clay, which overlies its undecomposed 
part', when thickesi;, and replaces it entirely on its outskirts. Thus 
at the Jamestown Mine, near tbe Sinsinawa Mound, it was fbund, 
in the engine shaft, imme^iatdy oyedyiag the upper magnesian, 
unchanged, and itself overlaid by the pipe clay, while in shafts 
moi^e remote frotn the mouiid, it was found entirely converted into 
Gie pipe (Slay. Ifeis bed is less open and ' pervious than the lime* 
•kbn6d, £khd conseqtieiitly the water from the nibunds issues in 
kj^if^^ aT)bYe it, marKhig the Une of its upper surface. 

The shale itself contains few, if any fbssils, but at its junction with 
ihe lipper magnesian, there is a very thin bed, (two to three inches 
ihick^^ composed almost entirely of very small fossils and concretions^ 
nidally firmly cemented by iron, and therefore called hard-pan by 
ihe miners, but sometimes softer and with a more calcareous ce- 
ment , ITsually one or more thinner layers (about one inch thick J. 
of ihe same character are found interposed in the blue shale, with- 
in the first 2 — i feet above the upper magnesian. These fossilife- 
rous and concretionary layers are important as serving to deter- 
mine the formation of the pipe clay, overlying the upper magne- 
aian, from the blue shale. In the shafts, at tlie Jamestown Mine, 
where the pipe clay immediately overlies the upper magnesian, 
these layers are found precisely of the same character and in the 
same poi^tion, as where the unaltered bjiue shale meets the same 
rock. In different places on the higher pointte, where the upper 



It 

nmgnesian is most complete, Hut rode it fonnd overiud by pipe 
clajy in which the same fossUiferont and concretiomuy layeim an 
found, in the same position aa I haire already stated* 31iis 
I have observed very perfectly at the Maddy Diggings, on bi^ 
gronnd, north of Oassrille, at the distance of seyeral miles fix>m 
the mound rocks ; the nearest position of these being in the High- 
lands of Iowa, beyond the Mississippi. In other places, the pecu* 
liar fossils and concretions of these layers are observed on the 
sur&ce of the upper magnesian, where the pipe clay is less obvi- 
ous. This I have noticed in different places on the higher grounds 
in Hazel Green, six miles from the Sinsinawa Hound, and still 
&rther from any other locality of the mound strata. These facts 
seem to indicate a former general extension at least of the blue 
shale, over the surface of the upper magnesian, 

TTPPEB HAGHESIAJr. 

The Upper Magnesian* consists of a series of limestone beds, of 
great thicknessi in which the greater part of the lead ore, raised 
in the mineral district, has been found, and from that circumstance^ 
it has been sometimes called the mineral rock. But the other beda 
of limestone, underlying it, (the blae limestone and the lower 
magnesian,) have been found to be good lead-bearing rocks, and 
consequently this latter term can no longer be regarded as dis' 
tinctive. The prevailing character of the rock in this series, ii^ 
that of a light grey thick-bedded limestone ; sometimes uniformly 
fine-grained and even compact, but more often partly fine-grain* 
ed and compact, and partly coarser grained and more distinctly 
crystalline, or even with small geodic cavities. This latter struc- 
ture occurs more particularly in connexion with mineral deposits^ 
or in what is called the opening rock. In such instances, either 
the compact or the more crystalline portion may be the ground, 
through which the other is disseminated; the former as nodules or 
concretions ; the latter as geodes or approaching such. 

' This tenn, iotrodoced bj Owen in his fint report, lun Veen generally adopted ia tb« 
VMiiend district, sod for that reason I hare prefnrod toratainit 



Tbs rook of tbit series ia gtnarally moxe or lesa snbjeot to deeom- 
pofitioD, and tbe coarser grained porfcione most so, whieh often girea 
to it a pecnliar cayemons character. This circomstance renders it 
less. Taloablo for bniiding, although ocoasionallj fine-grained or 
compact bods occur of superior quality for that purpose. The quarry 
from which the Oatholio Church at Benton has been erected is one 
a[ that character. This rock too, in the openings, is often found de-> 
composed in part to a fine sand, retaining its structure unchanged, 
in which the harder compact concretions liet loose in their original 
position, and are called tumbling rock by the miners. It has been 
called, from this circumsf ance, sand-stone and sand-rock, by the mi- 
ners, but as these names are liable to confound it with the proper 
dlicious sandstone, they should be rejected. 

There isgena*aUy a tbin bed of a thinly schistose subargillaceous 
limeetone at the upper surface of thenpper magnesian, called shinglo 
rock by some miners. Layers of shale occur occasionally through the 
wh)>le extent of the series; sometimes distinct; sometimes firmly 
attached as a coatiug to the layers of the limestone. The original 
eolor of these is generally blue, bat they are often stJE^ined green or 
yellow. They are usually found decomposed to clay in the open- 
ingfi, and are then called, in some places, clay randoms, and are re- 
garded as useful guides in determining the position of the miner. la 
the lower bed of this reek, layers occur of a very thin black or dark 
>n]^wn shale, more or less bituminouei, accompanying particularly 
tbe green and brown ^ock openings at Mineral Point and between^ 
Bei^ton and Shullsburg. Thin foesiliferous layers are also met 
with throughout the series, but meet frequently in the lower pairt^ 
The thicker bedded rock usually contains but very few fossils, and 
those of large size comparatively, wbile the thin foesiliferous lay- 
ers aboand in them, and those of small sice and usually delicate 
texture. Some layers are found chiefly composed of minute fos- 
sils and concretions. The distinctive fossil of the entire aeriea 
lathe coral, called honey-comb or sun-flower, {Oofeinopara.} I 
have observed it in all the beds of this series, but in none of the 
«ther limestones. 



14 

Tbe upper bed of this series contains few or n^ flints, Mi. is 
usually mueh thicker than either of the lower beds, and indeed, 
where it has suffered no denudation, is at least equal in thickness 
to the two lower combined. The middle bed abounds in flints, 
arranged ifi regular layers of nodules, usually white or light grey, 
but sometimes dark grey or black. The lower bed usually con- 
tains but few flints, but these are sometimes more abundant, par^ 
ticularly in the openings. 

The character of the lower bed has not appeared as uniform as that 
of the two higher beds. Like the upper bed, it sometimes is light grey 
or bluish and compact, and is then valuable for building, when not 
too much jointed; but it is more often much traversed by argillaceous 
seams, separating or marking the surface of the layers. This bed is 
fJEurther characterized by two peculiar rocks, known as the brown or 
black rock and the green rock, which occupy corresponding position?, 
but are usually found in different sections of the mineral district* 
On the Mississippi and Fever river, the brown rock is generally 
&nnd connected with the openings in the lower bed, and contains 
more or less calcareous spar (t^ disseminated through it. The 
green rock is found in a similar position in the northern and north* 
eastern diggings. The original color of these rooks is bluish, but 
tiiey have derived their present tint from the decomposition of iron 
pyrites disseminated through them. The brown rock is of a more 
or less deep red brown color, usually pervading it uniformly, and 
ftom its peculiar tint, was called the ohocolate*brown rock by 
Locke (Owen's 1st Bep.) The green rock is usually less uniform-^ 
iy stiiined, sometimes only on its seams, and apparently derived its 
oolor from the green hydrate of iron. Thin layers often occur in 
tiiis bed, composed chiefly of flattened fuooidal concretions, bnt 
ntely containing any fossils. Similar layers are oc(»isionaIly fbund 
in the higher beds. 

^ Bars of a hard blue limestone often traverse the upper mag- 
nesiin, in itb different portions, more usually in a horizontal posi- 
tioDf, like beds, but sometimes in a vertical position, like veins. 
TChey are more or less intersected by iron pyrites, and are appa- 



senUy Qonnected with mmeral dep^sibi, to wl^ch tbo7 .^^^ 
an ifoportgnt relation. They often interrupt the progress of min- 
eral veins, And are then said, hj the minerp, to cut off the mineral \ 
whenoQ the opinion lias prevailed that the blue limestone cnts off 
ibe mineral, an opinion erroneously transferred to the bine lime- 
stone of Ow^^ to which it has properly no reference. TUs suh; 
ject will be farther discussed in ^ connexipn with that of mineral 
deposits and veins. 

BLtnS LIMESTONB. 

The Blue Lunestone eeries includes ,the blue limestone and the. 
"buff limestone of Owen's first report. These botli evidently belong 
to the same aeries; the first including the two upper beds, the 
second the lower bed, already indicated. The three beds^ of 
which the series is composed, are of nearly equal thickness. 

The upper hed is chiefly cemposed of thinner more foesiliferous 
layers, between which are interposed some thicker and lees foesili^ 
ferpns. Some of the layers are almost entirely composed of fossilS|^ 
afid in some instances are subject to decomposition, leavii^ the, 
f^pssils lopse and entire. Thin layers of bluish shale alternate wit}i, 
the layers of limestone, and are often found decomposed to a soft 
clay, usually stained yellow or green, particularly in the openings.^ 
The layers of limestone are marked by a peculiar parallel or lamin- 
Aed structure, distinct from that of the upper magnesian, andare 
piartly light grey and compact, furnishing the best lime, And piirt^ 
ly blue and more distinctly parallel in .their structure, and appa*- 
rently suhargillaeeous. Some of the latter kind have b^en found' 
to fttrtiish a good hydraulic cement, lliis bed is usually oterfai^* 
by a bed of brown rock, in thin layers, and breaking in smsilF 
jAinted fragments, with more or less calcareous spar disseminated^^ 
but with few or ilo' fossils. It is interposed, iii the northern dfe** 
tricts, between l!he green rbck and the blue limestone, and may bdJ 
cbnsidef ed as the lowest member of the upper magnesian. In some' 
instances, a bed of blue shale, decomposing into a soft clay in the- 
openings, is interposed between the upper magnesian and the blub' 
limestone. ' ' 



18 

The middle bed of the blue limestcme 10 composed of more 
mniform and thicker bedded very even layers, less abnndant itr 
fcssils, btit presenting some which have not occurred to me in the 
upper bed, such as trilobites, and the acorn (SlrepUlasTna,) In the 
western districts, where most distinctly developed, this bed may be 
divided into three distinct portions : an npper, of a tery fine crys- 
talline grain, and of a light grey color, snbject to a brown stain in 
connection with openings ; a middle, of a dark grey color, hard 
and compact, breaking with a smooth conchoidal fractnre, and 
called glass rock, in .most of the diggings where it occnrs; and a 
lower, forming a transition to the lower bed, and consisting of al- 
ternations of grey compact and bluish parallel seams, firmly con- 
nected, the former resembling the glass rock, the latter the pre- 
vailing rock of the lower bed. This lower portion is more fosslli- 
ferous than the two others, particularly on the surfaces of its lay- 
ers. This distinction is well marked in Quinby's quarry on Ae 
Shullsburg Branch, north of New Diggings. In the most eastern 
districts, yet examined, this distinction appears less marked, nearly 
the whole bed being composed of a uniform fine-grained light grey 
rock, resembling the upper portion. The glass rock is there hardly 
represented. Nodules of flint occasionally but rarely are found in 
Ibis middle bed, particularly in its upper fine-grained portion. 

The lower bed, corresponding to the bufiT limestone of Owen, conr 
iMi chiefly of a thick-bedded even rock, marked by a distinct par- 
allel arrangement, and composed in a great measure of flattened 
vermiform and fucoidal concretions, most strongly marked ou the. 
eurboes of the layens. Thast these are merely concretions and not 
fjrganic, appears to me very evident. The same structure is equal- 
ly remarkable in certain thin subargillaceous layers, observed ii| 
tihe npper magnesian, particularly in its Ipwer bed. . The same ap- 
pearance is observable in the transition from the sandstones to the; 
lower magnesian, particularly on the surface of the layers, where , 
smdced by argillaceous seams. It would seem to be oommon where- 
ejer there is a combination of lime and alumine. This lower bed f ar- 
niebes a brown lime, and in some portions of it, a good hydraulio 



IT 

cement, which alone indicates its snbargtl]aceou3 character. The 
nalnral color uf this bed is a light blue, but it is vorj naucli subject 
to sfa D, hnflF or yellow,* from disseminated iron pjrites. Indeed in 
some districts, particularly the eastern, the whole series is gener- 
ally found, at least near the surface, of a yellow color, only a few 
portions retaining their original blue color. The rock of this lower 
bed is easily dressed, particularly the middle portion of it, and in 
some instances is capable of a fine polish, forming, by its concre- 
tionary structure, a beautifully clouded marble. Quinby's qnarrj, 
above noticed, furnishes fine specimens. The same bed, in the 
quarry at Monterey (Janesville,) has been used for that purpose, 
•but its effect is injured by small geodic cavities. This lower bed 
contains comparatively few fossils, particularly in its middle por- 
tion. Triiobites have been found in it, as well as in the middle 
bed. At its junction with the upper sandstone, there is usually a 
transition from one rock to the other; a number of subsilicioua 
and subargiilaceons layers intervening, the former of which are 
more or loss oolitic in their structure. 

XJTFKR SAinSSTOHS. 

The Upper Sandstone forms a bed of a generally uniform char- 
acter, and i'f no great thickness, composed usually of fine grains of 
qnartzose sand, very slightly cemented, and consequently very 
littlo coherent, ofren in the interior in the state of loose sand. The 
flurface is generally more or less indurated, but often this harder 
«at is of very little thickness. The natural color of this rock ig 
whitp, but it is very subject to stain yellow, red, and sometimes 
green, from the decorapo:*ition of disseminated iron pyrites. These 
stains are most remarkable on the surface and near the seams, and 
particularly near the junction of the rock with the adjuining lime- 
stones. At the junction of this rock with the bhie limestone 
above, it 19 usually coarser grained, and often contains concretions 
of quartz, sometimes geodic, which have been evidently £L;rmed 

* It bub«sn mlled. rrom thin ctreiinwtance, the buff limottoDe, bat mighty with more 
pvopritftj, be caned the blae and baff Umcttoiiek 

8 



18 

bj cbcmical action. In this position too, concretions of ir(m 
pyrites, or of heraatito resulting from its decomposition, are fro- 
qnent; tbo latter often including a portion of the pyrites un- 
changed. Small nodules or seams of hematite, sometimes with 
iron pyrites, occur also in this part, filled with grains of quartz of 
a hvaliiic appearance. This laye**, which has been apparently so 
subject to chemical action, is asually of a dark red brown, or of a 
deep green color, (the hitter from the green hydrate of iron,) and 
occasionally the adj«jiuing sandstone, to a considerable depth 
beneath, is more or less stained green from the same canse. Thii 
rock is usually too incoherent to answer well for building, al- 
though generally suiSciently finegrained and thick-bedded for thi^t 
purpose. It furnishes, however, a superior sand for mortar, and 
sometimes so hardens by exposure, as to be useful fir bnllding. In 
some districts, particularly on some of the eastern branches of tha 
East Fecatonica, near the line of Green and Lafayette coonti^ 
this rock is composed of thin nearly schixttQae layers, and its loww 
part is then more or less filled with minote white calcareons grainy 
giving it a firmer texture. 

LOWEB HAONESIAir. 

This rock I have not yet examined through its entire deptli, 
having had an opportunity of viewing it only in its southern and 
eastern outcrops, on the Platte, Blue, Pecafonica and Sugar 
rivers, and in a lidge 2—3 miles S. W. of Madison. TJie greatest 
depth to which I have jet seen it expscd, is neatly 100 feet, oo 
tlie Big Platte, in Ellenborough. A thickness of more than 2QO 
feet has been given it, on tiie Mississippi, by Owen, in his ro- 
ports.* Wherever I have seen it, this rook has presented peca* 
liar extornal character.^, by which it can bo readily dibtinguished 
from the pivceding limestones. Among the distinctive markt 
which I have observed, the most sti iking are a | eculiar conero^ 
tionary nodular structure, and the occurrence of gcodes lined 
with tninntS' crystals of quartz, and of layers of fliut less iutex^ 

• Tw» KnoOrtd and iwentj-five f<iel. < Rtptft 1SB3^ 



19 

mpted and nodnlar than in tho proeoding limestones, either \irhUfr 
and abounding in goodee of qiiattz, or striped rod-brow.i and jcl- 
loir, resembling a striped jasper, and then more rarelj geodfc 
Fossils are very rare^ nor have I yet observed them in this formac 
tion. 

Where I have had an opportunUy of observing it eontinn- 
cndj underlying the upper sandetttoe, on the Blue and Platte 
rivers, it has presented two distiuet beda» an n; per and a lower. 
The ^ret is eompoied of a series of alternations of snbargillaeeoiis 
and fiubsilicioQs limestones, more or less dcooniposible, with ocea- 
, aional interposed layers or beds of a pmer and harder limestone, 
llie subargillaceous layers sometimes form a marly abale, deeem- 
poaing into a soft ciny,. and the subsiliclous Uiyershave often a 
remarkabie concretionary structure, and resemble, in their grain 
at least, the silicious limestone of Fuotainebleau. Sometimea 
layers of near y pure sandstone occur even in the lower part of this 
,hed> Flints, such ai) I have described, occur in this bed, particniar- 
Ijin the pnrer limestone, and in eonnexion with openings; lint they 
Jhave appeared less abundant in this bed than !n the lower. Froni 
4lie decompoeible character of the greater part of this bed, its 
fluriace is generally covered with earth, forming a sloping decli- 
vity. The lower bed is composed of a liard and purer tbick* 
bedded grey limestone, resembling in its external nppearance 
tbe eorreaixinding middle bed of the upper magne&ian, bnt dis* 
tittgiiislied by its structure, and itspeculiHr flints already noticed. 
This lower bed has been eeen by me on'y in its upper portion. It 
appears, both on the Blue and Platte rivets, only as alow bluff 
(10 — ^20 feet high) tiuking below the surface. From its character, 
and particularly the great abundance of flints, it is apparently the 
ihiddfe bed of the entire scrifcs; a Inwcr bed underlying it, cor- 
responding in some degree to tho upper bed already described*. 
This, however, I offer only as a conjecture. 

IjOWRB SANOStONB. 

Hiia formation 1 have not yet had an opportunity of ohservmg 
in immediate connejLiun with the overlying stratum (the Lower 



20 

Kagnesian.) The saDdstone in tho qnaiTies west of Madison, 
from which that town is supplied with its material for building, ia 
quite different in its character from the upper sandstone, and is 
apparently less purely silicious, and consequently less incoherent in 
its texture. It is overlaid in tlie quarries, particularly in those on 
the south (Larkin's,) by subcalcareous and subargillaceous layers, 
resembling not a little those«which occur at the junction of the up- 
per sandstone and the lower magnesian. Ooncretions of aflintj 
quarts are found in some of these, resembling similar concretions 
in the latter situation. From these circumstances, I should rather 
regard the sandstone in those quarries as belonging to the Lower 
Sandstone. This is farther rendered probable by the occurrence 
of those quarries on the north of a ridge, extending along the 
south side of Dead Lake, occupied by the lower magnesian, while 
the country to the south of that ridge is occupied by the blue 
limestone and the underlying upper sandstone. 

It is worthy of remark that each of the limestone series admits 
of a three-fold division, distinct in the three upper series, and at 
least priibable in the lower magnesian. A general character, ia- 
, dependent of its fossils, pervades tlie whole of each series, by 
which it may be distinguished from the others, while each subdi- 
vision or distinct bed has its own distinctive characters. The 
middle bed in each is distinguished by an abundance of flint or 
homstone, arranged in layers conformable to the stratificatum, 
either in . detached nodules, or more connected. Thin is less obvi- 
ous in the middle bed of the blue limestone; still nodules of .flint 
are there of occasioaal occurrence, particularly in the upper fine- 
grained portion. 

Estimates of the thickness of tho different strata have been giv- 
en in former reports ; but such can be considered only as approx- 
imative, the strata apparently varying considerably in thickness i« 
different localities. It may be considered a moderate estimate to 
reckon the thickness of the Upper Magnesian at 240 feet (120 feet 
for the upper, and 60 feet for each of the lower beds;) that of the 



21 

Blue Limeatone and Upper Sandstone each at 60 feet ; and that of 
the Lower Magneeian at 220 feet. 

EXTENT OF THE STRATA ON THE SUEPAOK 

The extent of the mound strata has already been indicated. 
The monnd limestone is immediately confined to the monnds 
themselves. The underlying bine shale extends bat to a limited dis- 
tance around the mounds, although traces of theiMpe olaji formed 
from its decomposition^ have been found in different places vefj 
Temote from them, as already stated. The upper magnesian occu- 
pies the remaining surface of the mineral distriety so far. as I haye 
examined it, from the Mississippi to the valley of Sugttr riveri ezr 
cept at the points o( extraordinary elevation already indicated* 
"Viewing the surface of the mineral district as a general level, the 
upper magnesian has been subject to denudation by the general 
rise of the strata towards the north, and by the extraordinary ele- 
Tations above referred to. The valleys and ravines have farther 
caused a removal of the upper strata, and an exposure of the low- 
er, and this to a greater degree towards the north, and at the 
points of extraordinary elevation. The rock occupying the mu?- 
face is thus snbject to frequent variation, and can only be deter- 
mined exactly by long continued observation. I can only, at 
present, make some more general statements, leaving the particn* 
lar determination to a farther opportunity. This is, however, a 
a qvstion of no little practical importance in mining. Ey deter* 
xniniDg precisely the stratum occupying the snrface at any given 
point, the miner will know what depth ot mineral-bearing rock he 
may there expect ; how many openings and of what character he 
may reasonably expect to meet. Where the whole thickness of 
the upper magnesian is known to be present, and this can be very 
satisfactorily determined by the occnrreuce of a bed of pipe clay 
-with the accompanying fossil layers at its junction with the upper 
magnesian, and hardly less so by an abundance of the fossils of 
those layers lying loose on the surface ef that rock, the extent of 
mining ground, other things equal, is of course greatest, and this 



will be dimin'slied in proportion to the number of beds wbicb are 
fo^sd t6 be dennded. 8tlt whore a great amount of the npper 
beds has been removed, particular localities, from the great rich- 
ness of the deposits in the strata remaining, have been among the 
xno9t productive in the dlstrfct. Mineral Point is a remarkable 
instance of this, where most of the mining has been in the low^ 

paVt of the npper magnesian, and iu the blue limestone. 

f' • •• ■ , ■ • ■* 

The effects resolting from the general rise to the north are m 
mndi involved with those caused by the extraordinary elevatioM 
that the subject will be best presented by iirst detailing the latter. 
The first of these elevations, which I shall notice, is that along 
Fearer (Galena) river. The point of greatest elevation is on t&at 
river, abont three miles north of Benton, and about E. 8. E. of 
Bozzatd'e Boost (fiCeeker's Grove,) where the upper sandstone rises 
about twenty feet above the surface of the river. In tlio ravine 
dejeending notth from Meeker'sGrove to that river, the bluelime* 
atone is elevated at least thirty feet above the bottom of the ra- 
vine, on Its east side, while immediately on the west side of the 
ravine, the brown rocfc (lower bed of the upper magnesian) sinks 
betow the bottom, the strata on both sides remaining nearly hori- 
zontal; thus indicating a fault at that point. . Proceeding north 
from that point, the lower strata soon disappear, and the different 
bed* of the uppei'magnesian successively occupy the surface ; lirdt, 
the lower bed (lyrown rock;) then the middle fiir^ bed (at Elk Grove ' 
village and tFie Strawberry Diggings;) then tho upper bed (at the 
Korth Elk Grove Diggihgf),) and this ciontinues to the base of < 
the Piatte Mounds, wboro it is overiaid by the blue shale 
and the mound limestone. Proceeding south from the point of 
greatest elevation, the sandstone eoin disappears, but the bln^ 
limestone is exposed generally in the bluffs of Fever liver, to a* 
point aboiit two miles south of Now Diggings. Itdoesn'^t, how- 
ever^ sink umf(»rmly towards thesuuth, but presents a series of ua» 
dulations rising and tutting, and that somotimes quite ahrui>tly} 
bu£ BO other instanc^e clearly in^iicating a tVinlt has yet occcurrod 
to inc. The blae limostuno sometimes appears moro elevated on 



ss 

<^e side of the yallej fimn on the opposite eide,-btit this may havo 
btea the result of undnlation merely. It tiUo appears along the 
branchee of the rirer to a greater or less distiince from their jano- 
tioD, partiealarly along the Shullsbnrg branch, where the same 
undulations occur as on Fever river. The blue limestone, in its 
pMgress south, apparently sinks below the level of Fever river^ 
Uit again rises, at least twenty feet above its level, at Bnncomb| 
aad farther south, alternately sinks below and rises a few feet 
above the river, to its last appearance near the Galena and Chicago 
read. There would seem, in this instance, to have been an extra- 
chlinary elevation at the point near Meeker's Orove, above men^ 
tioned, causing a fault, with a gradual subsidence to the Bouth, 
xBodified however by local elevations in its progress. This cleva* 
^acLi would seem to have acted along the valley of Fever river, aa 
aokiaxis, throwing up the strata on each side. Tlius the higher 
grounds, for about three miles south of Meeker's Grove, immedi* 
lately adjoiuing FeVer river on the west, and in the point between 
that river and the Shutlsburg branch, are chiefly occnpied by the. 
lawer bed of the upper magnesian, and the diggings are there 
mgsdy in thatbed. Farther south, tlfe higher beds of that rock 
approach the river, but the diggings there, near the river, are in 
the fl.int or lower bed, chiefly in the former, and those in tiie up* 
per bed only occur in the highest grounds, more remote from the 
riyer. 

The next point of extraoidinary elevation is that along the West 
]^eeatoiiica, near Mineral Point Tlie highest point of elevation 
is apparently in thefork of the Pecatonica and Pedlar'e creek, 
QQrtlx of the Mineral Point and PlabteviUe road. Tlie lower mag«> 
ii9sian there rises above the level of the river, presenting low 
bluffs (10 — 12 feet high) along its banks. Its exact junction witb- 
thfi upper sandstoue is there concealed; a considerable interval^- 
e(^iir^spondiBg to its upper portion, intervening. From that point 
thostrata sink to the north, as well as to the south. The sand* 
atpuev towards tbo ^outh, sinks to tJie level of die Pecatonica, not' 
&x aoailiof Bonner's brandi. The bluffs of the same rockobvi* 



24 

oxxslj decline towards tbe north, but I have not traced them far » 
that direction. There are» in this district, the same appearances of 
sadden local elevation as in the preceding. Thus on the east side 
o^ the Pecatonica, opposite Bonner's branch, the sandstone rises bat 
a few feet (5 — 6) above the river bottoms, while not more than two 
miles farther north, it occnpies two thirds the bight of a bluff, aboot 
60 feet high, overlaid by the bine limestone. At Mineral Point 
village, the bine limestone rises high on the sides of the ridges, 
living onlj a moderate thickness of the flint bed at their summits^ 
while the mineral openings are principally in the lower bed of the 
itpper magnesian, and in the blue limestone. At the Dreadnought 
Kine, three miles north of the village, the main body of the flint 
hed is present, with its peculiar openings, and at Dodge ville, near^ 
ly eight miles north, a considerable portion of the upper bed of 
the upper magnesian is also present. At the Heathcock Hine 
(Linden,) six miles N. W. of Mineral Point, the blue limestone 
rises but a few feet (8—10) above the level of Pedlar's creek ad- 
joining. These facta indicate a dip of the strata from the highest 
point of elevation towards the north. A similar dip is observable 
to the west, towards the Platte Mounds, and to the east, towards 
ibe high prairie ridge, eeparatmg the east and west branches of 
the Pecatonica. 

' Another point of elevation occurs on the East Pecatonica, at or 
near Argyle. At that point, there is an extensive basin, in which 
rise several low ridges, either composed entirely of sandstone, or 
of sandstone capped with the blue limestone. Different branches 
of the river here meet, from tbe north and the east, and along them 
lines of elevation may be traced, for several miles, in blu£b of 
sandstone, gradually sinking from the centre, but subject to local 
elevations, as in the preceding districts. This centre of elevation 
is bounded on the north by the high ridge extending west from the 
Blue Mounds, on the east by a range of high prairies extending^ 
saath*east from the Blue Mounds towards Monroe, and on tbe west 
hy the ridge separating the east and west branches of the Peea^ 



r 



Betuming towards the weat, another point of elevation occnn 
on the waters of the Platte, the centre of which is apparently on 
the Big Platte nt Bald Blnff in Ellenborongh, where the lower 
magnesian rises nearly a hundred feet above the level of the river. 
The exact line of junction with the sandstone is there concealed 
by the earthy slope covering the npper bed of the lower magne- 
aian. The next lower bed of that rock rises in a low blnff from 
the water's edge. In tracing down the Big Platte, the lower mag- 
nesian appears to rise about 30 feet above the river level at the 
Sed Dog bluff, and not more than 10 to 12 feet at the ferry on 
the Galena and Potosi road. At the latter point, the sandstone 
forms a low ridge in the valley of the Piatte, on the west This is 
1>eIow the junction of the Big and Little Platte rivers, and in this 
Ticinity, the different strata appear at a higher elevation on the 
west than on the east side of the river, the upper surface of the 
bine limestone, on the east, appearing but little higher than that of 
the sandstone on the west. This point of elevation is connected 
with that on the Mississippi, by which the sandstone is raised above 
the water level from Sinipee to some distance above Potosi, and 
the bine limestone, towards the south, to a point, on the east side, 
near Gregoire^s Ferry (opposite Dubuque,) but on the west side, 
only to Eagle Point (above Dubuque;) the strata being there 
apparently most elevated on the east side of the river. On 
the north, I have not had an opportunity of tracing the limits of 
this centre of elevation. On the east, it extends to the vicinity 
of Platteville, and is limited by the country adjoining the Platte 
Mounds, and on the south, it is confined by the high prairie 
between the Mississippi and Fever river, near the centre of 
which rises the Sinsinawa Mound. 

Another cenlye of elevation apparently occnrs on Grant river, 
ioatb-easi of Beetown, near the jnnotion of Pigeon creek. At 
that point the sandstone is elevated 30 — iO feet above the river^ 
while lower down on the same river, at Waterloo, it is not ex- 
posed. The same is true on Battlesnake creek, towards the west, 
mod on the Beetown branch, towards the northwest ; only the 
4 



b^o limestone appearing there at the snrface. Oa Bhyce^s creek) 
8oath-east, towardi Pt^toei, the blue limestone appears more ele* 
▼ated than ia the vicinirj of Potosi, as if within the limits of this 
centre of elevation. Ttiese limits are apparently the ridge of 
Bpyce's prairie on the east, the high ridge between Grant river • 
and Gassville oa the south-west, and Blake's prairie on the north* 

WflSt. 

The excavations in the mines, in the vicinity of these extraordi- 
nary outcrops of the lower strata, are a farther proof of sudden 
elevations of the strata; the shalls being often sunk in the upper 
strata to a greater depth than would be snfHciciit to reach the 
lower, if the range of the latter from their outcrop was horizontaL 

From the details of the above arrangement, some idea may. be. 
formed of the manner in which the different strata occupy the 
surface in the mineral district On the higher portion of the 
ridges and prairies bounding the centres of elevation, the upper . 
bed of the upper magncsian occupies the. surface; rai>st so to- 
wards the south, conformably wiih the general dip to the south. . 
On some of the higher points, even remains of the pipe clay, with 
its foasiliferous layeis, are observable, as already stated. These 
I liave observed most distinctly at different points on the high 
prairie between the Mississippi and Fever river, both in Wiscon- 
sin and Illinois; on the higUer grounds at the Blackleg Diggings, . 
on the line of the two States; and on the high liJge cast of the 
Mississippi^ north of Gassville. Thronghout these higher dia- 
tricts, the diggings are in the upper bed of the upper mngnesian. 
On approaching the centres of elevation, or the general northeriji 
outcrop, a zone occurs, where the flint bed occupies the surface^ 
sometimes quite narrow, and at other times, particularly in tlie 
forks of riv€rs, more extensive ; the upper bed either thinning off 
gradually, or terminating more abruptly. In the former case, the ^ 
diggings arc often both in the upi>er and flint bed, near the outerop- 
of tlio latter. Still nearer the centres of elevation or the general 
uorxhern outcrop^ thojluwer bed of the upper magnesian occupies 
n aimilar zoqoef theaurfaee, and here the same remaiks are appli^ 



8T 

cable as in the former instance* The bine limostpoe, and Ihe. 
«trata nnderljing it, are generally exposed, in these centreSi ou)j , 
along the sides of valleys and ravint^s, and rarely occupy any {ex- 
tent of suj face. It would require long continued observation to 
collect the facts necessary for a map exactly exhibiting the extent 
of the diderent strata occupjing the surface. Such a map would 
be very useful, not only in determining the mineral value of pro- 
perty to some extent, but also the probable character of soils^ from 
the underlying rock. 

In the north eastern part of the country examined by me, along 
the valley of Sugar river, and west of Bock river between Madi* 
son and Janesville (south of the outcrop of the lower magne&ian,) 
thidre had been obviously aa extensive removal of the upper strata, 
but not accompanied, as far as I have observed, with such remark- 
able evidences of local elevation as in the mineral district. la 
the valley of the west fork of Sugar river, south east of the Blue ! 
Mounds (in the town of Primrose,) the lower magnesian rises, how- 
ever, near 30 feet above the bottom of the valley, while the surround* 
inghigb prairie ridges are covered by the upper bed of the upper 
magnesian. From the valley of Sugar river, north east of Exetetf 
to Bock river, nortli of Janesville, I have observed no appearance 
of the upper magnesian. It n^ay occupy the surface of the high 
pmiric, extending west from Bock river, at and south of Janes- 
ville,' but I have not yet had an opportunity of determining it* 
It«IiQwever occupies the surfacp farther west, at least to the east 
of'Honroc. The country north of that praiiie, to within 6 — 8 
mites of Madison, is traversed by numerous ridges, more or less 
is9lated, with intervening basins ; the higher ridges, so far as I ' 
have examined them, overlaid or capped by the blue limostoniSy 
and underlaid by the upper sandstone ; the lower swells sometimes * 
formed entirely of the upper sandstone. I have observed the low 
er .magnesian in only one instance in this district, where it was 
rcaehed in an excavation fur a well, at sixteen feet, in the plain on 
the east side of Sugar riv^r; near the ^bot of. an ieolatod tabular 
ridge, formed of the upper sandstone overlaid by the blue lime- 



28 

Btone.'^ The blue limestone, in this district^ sometimes presents all 
its beds distinctly, as in Donaldson's qnarrjr, near Stoner's prairie, 
Bouth-west of Madison, and in the Monterey qnarry at Janesville, 
and sometimes only the middle and lower beds, or the lower bed 
only, according to the degree of denudation. In this district, the 
middle bed of the blue limestone has presented only a uniform fine, 
grained rock, resembling the upper portion of that bed in the 
mineral district. The compact glass rock has not occurred dis- 
tinctly. Along the northern border of this district of the blue 
limestone and upper sandstone, extends a narrow ridge, occupied 
by the lower magnesian, presenting the peculiar charactero of its 
middle bed, as observed in the mineral district This ridge ran- 
ges E. 8. £. along the south side of Dead Lake, and in an £. 8. K 
direction, by the ntiap, from the Wisconsin near Arena. The sand- 
stone quarries, west of Madison, lie 2 — 8 miles north of it, in a 
parallel range, as if in the position of the lower sandstone. 

I have made these statements in order to correct an error in 
former reports, which presents a singular anomaly in the outcrop 
ef the strata, and might lead to embarrassment, particularly in 
examining the eastern border of the mineral district It has been 
stated by Mr. Lapham, in a communication in Foster and Whit- 
ney's Report (P. II, 1851, p. 169,) that the limestone at Janesville 
IS the lower magnesian, underlaid by the lower siondstone. This 
has been adopted by Owen, in the map accompanying his last 
Beport (1853,) in which the outcrop of the lower magnesian is 
drawn from a point near the Wisconsin river, north of the Blue 
Mounds, along the east side of Sugar river, south east to Janes- 
TillCb The limestone at Janesyille is clearly the blue limestone, 
presenting its three beds with their distinctive characters and their 
peculiar fossils. The underlying sandstone has as strictly the 
characters of the upper sandstone, particularly at its junction with 
the blue limestone. The same is true at Donaldson's quarry, 
where all the beds of the blue limestone are present, well charao- 
terized, and the sandstone underlying that and the other more 
northern localities of the blue limestone is equally marked as the 
vpper sandstone. 



29 



SURFACE DEPOSITS. 

The rocks, in phe min6*-sl district, are overlaid by a deposit of 
earthy materials oF greater or less thickness, in some places to*a 
depth of more than thirty feet. Tliis consists generally of a strong 
clayey loam, called surface clay, of a light brown color, forming 
a subsoil at once free and retentive, and itself fertile. Formed ap< 
parently by subsidence from still water, from the decomposition of 
the upper rocks of the district, in which limestones, alternating 
more or less with shales, predominated, it has at once the charac- 
ters of a calcareous and argillaceons soil, mixed with sufScient 
silicious matter to render it ea^y of tillage. It is only in very wet 
seasons that its adhesive quality is found inconvenient. In dry 
Masons, when other parts of the country, where the soil is 'lighter 
or more entirely clayey, have suffered from drought, this district 
has not been affected by it, and has yielded abundantly. It thus 
offers the rare combination of agricultural capabilities of the first 
order, united with mineral resources fully equal. Wherever the 
limestones form the surface rock, this clayey subsoil prevails. 
Where the upper sandstone is brought to the surface, there is a 
greater predominance of silicious matter; but this occurs to a 
small extent in the mineral disstrict. In the valley of Sugar 
river, and in the country extending east from that to Bock river, 
north of the parallel of Janesville, where tbe upper sandstone is 
exposed to a larger extent, more sandy soils are frequent, but still 
fertile, and wherever the blue limestone extends in the swells 
and ridges, more loamy soils are observable. 

Beneath the brown surface clay, there is usually found a layer 
of red clay, more or less filled witli red or yellow flints, immedi* 
ately overlying tbe rock, and often found extt^nding to a greater 
or less depth into the open crevices. It is different from tiie clays 
occupying the openings and immediately investing the mineral, 
and has been apparently formed by subsidence, like the overlying 
surface clay. 



30 

The minoral district does not appear to have been invaded to 
any extent by tlio gravel and biwlder drift, which has covered so 
extensively other pans of tiie surface in this and the adjoining 
states. Apparently the bold escarpment, backed by the high 
ridges and prairies, along the south side of the Wisconsin river 
from a point not far east of the Blue Mounds, has obstructed the 
course of the drift current, and turned it east and south around the 
east point of tlie lidge at those mounds. An opening near the 
Bourc3 of Sugar river seems to have given passage to thatcurreot^ 
by which large accnniulations of gravel drifc have been fojooed 
along the west side of the valley of that river, near Exeter, and of 
bowlder and gravel drift farther east, while scattered bowldei^, u»> 
nally of no great size, are found in the side valleys, and on tlie 
slopes of the adjoining ridges and prairies^ towards the west, as far 
south at least as the vicinity of Monroe. In the tract of countjry 
occupied by the blue limestone and upper sandstone, between the 
high prairie, west of Janesville, and tlie ridge of the lower mttg* 
nesian, 80\ith of Madison, accumulations of such diluvial drift are 
comparatively small and unfrequent, but with occasional exoep- 
tions, while on the north of that ridge tliey are large and exton* 
sive ; that ridge having also acted appaiently as an obstruction to 
their pnigresp. My observations in that part of the country, cot- 
ered more or less by this diluvial diift, have been very limited^ 
and a farther consideration ot its extent must be deferred to a fa<- 
ture occasion. Tie bowlders and smaller rock fragment^, compos*- 
ing this drift, are chiefly djerived from primary and trap rockSi 
though partly from the flints (homstones and quartz) accompanyv 
ing the limtstone?), particularly the lower magriesian. Small 
nodules of hematite, and of iron pyrites partly converted into 
hematite, such as occur at the junction of the bine limestono and 
upper sandst me, are frequently found in this drift and scattered 
«i the adjoining surface. 

In the immediate vicinity of the Mississippi, on the snrface of 
(he higher ridges and pra'ries adjacent, accuinn'ations of drift are 
occasionally fuundi in some instances quite exteusiro, composed of 



81 

a fine sand, nsnally yellow or light broien, 119 if Ibrmed from <be 
Undatone ad juining that river towards the north. Tlicao arc gen- 
erally arranged in Iiinoeks, with intervening ronnd hollows or ba- 
tins, euch ns are common in dritl districts. This 9and, on the stir- 
faei'i is mixed more or less witii monid, forming a light soil, bnt at 
. a email depth is sufficiently pnre for mortar. A tract of 2--^3 
sqnare miles, covered with snch drifr,and remarkable for its hil- 
l<A^ks and hollows, extends from iho bluffs of the Missiscjippi to the 
•valley of the Oreat Menominee, 8. W. of Jamestown village, arid 
similar accnmulations are met with on the high lands, adjoining 
the Misdiesippi, between Potosi and Cassville. On the'snniwits of 
the river bln*li^, particularly in the vicinity of Oassville, small 
rolled fragments of the eame materials as those composing the 
gravel drift, above noticed, are often profusely scattered. These 
facts indicate the passage of a peculiar drift current along the conrae 
«f the Mississippi^ and it is worthy of remark, that the points 
wh^o those accumulations are most remarkable are a little bel(nr 
two large bends in that river, namely, that from sonth to south- 
east jnst above Cassville, and that to the south between Dubuqto 
and Potosi. Such a deflection would naturally cause an eddy^ aud 
thus lead to those accumulations. 

MINERAL DEPOSIIBw 

The first object of the present survey is the investigation of tfae 
Xcad Mines of the mineral district, and of the diSerent useful 
minerals connected with them. The previous description of tfao 
strata is important, as fixing definite limits in mining, and from 
their peculiar connexions with the mineral deposits. 

The metallic ores found in the mineral district are chiefly the 
tulphnrets of lead, zinc, iron and copper. Other ores of these 
Inetalsare also found, formed apparently by rccom|)08ition from 
Ibe decomposed snlphuretd. Such are the sulphate and carbonate 
M \\ ad, X\\i carbonate and silicate of zinc, the sulphate and lijdra- 
fdd oxyd of irot^aud the carbonate of copper. The black oxyd of 



82 

manganese aUo frequently aceompaniee tlie mineral deposits. Of 
these orep, the Enlphuret of lead (galena) is the most important, 
and that which has been hitherto the sole object of mining in the 
mineral district, except in one instance (that of the copper, at Min^ 
eral Point.) I shall therefore make it the first object of my atten- 
tion, and notice the others only as far as they have an immediate 
connexion with it. The term mineral^ in the mining district, is 
restricted to the ores of lead, and without addition to the snlphu- 
ret, and is the term generally used there for the latter. I shall for 
. convenience nse it in that sense, in what follows. 

The first subject to be considered, is the manner in which the 
mineral is deposited. It is a matter of great interest to determine, 
whether the mineral is arranged in continued veins, or in detached 
and casual deposits. The prospects of mining must be much 
greater, if the former arrangement prevails, than if the latter. 
Daring the whole coarse of my examination of the mines, I have 
made this a particular object of attention, and although inter- 
ruptions in the deposit of the mineral are general, as I believe is 
the case in all reins, yet the characters of a vein arrangement 
have appeared every-where to predominate. 

The mineral deposits, whatever may be their character, are 
usually arranged along continued lines, having a certain direc* 
tion, thus forming ranges or leads (lodes.) Tliese ranges are moat* 
ly combined, in a certain systematic order, into different gronps, 
called diggings, between which there is a greater or less extent of 
country in which little or no mineral has been discovered. These 
groups are also connected, in a corresponding order, in more ex- 
tensive series, showing the general prevalence of systematic ar- 
rangement. As little has been done in deep mining, and the 
deepest shafts yet simk have been abandoned, I have had fewer 
opportunities than I could wish, of tracing the mineral, at the same 
point, through different strata. Still in several instances I have 
followed it without interrnption, or with only such minor interrup- 
tions as are common in veins, through different strata. The mii^ 
eral deposits exhibit too, in the different strata, peculiar arranigo- 



33 

ments, which are common to each throughout the mineral district, 
subject only to local modifications ; thus showing the prevalence 
of arrangement in a vertical as well as horizontal order. 

The ranges or leads have different directions, which preserve a 
great degree of regularity in the different groups or even more 
extended series. Three different classes of ranges are recognized, 
according to their direction, namely, East and West, JTorth and 
South, and quartering ; the last intermediate between the two for- 
mer. Of these, the East and "West are the most important, and 
apparently have had a leading influence in the arrangement. The 
term East and West is not limited to such. as are due east and 
west, or nearly so, but in different groups is applied to the pre- 
dominant ranges having a general east and west bearing, al- 
though in some instances they may deviate eveu 45^ from 
a due east and west course. The term ISTorth and South is also 
applied to ranges which deviate considerably from a due north and 
south course, but rarely to those which deviate] more fthan one 
sixteenth. Quartering ranges (called by the miners ^withers and 
oontras) include all such in a group as do not belong to either of 
the preceding divisions. Hiey are such ranges as meet a leading 
range, particularly an East and West, at an oblique angle ; conse- 
quently when the leading East and West ranges deviate from a 
due east and west course, a due East and West range would be 
considered quartering. 

In general, the space in which the mineral is deposited, or 
through which it is distributed, if of much extent, is called an 
opening. This is sometimes filled with loose materials, and these 
by settling often leave a void between them and the roof, usually 
of no great extent ; but in some instances larger cavities, or caves, 
have been so formed. In other instances, the opening is merely 
a (Certain extent of the rock, more {or lessjmodified,' through which 
the mineral is distributed. Indeed, in nearly all those instances 
ill which the openings ai;e filled with loose materials, these appear 
obviously to hare been derived from the decompositi<»i ,of ttie 
Tock, and not from materials deposited subsequently. Suchoptn- 



34 

ingB differ from those in vhicli the rock is onlj modified, by the 
greater degree of decomposition the roek has nndergone. The 
rock iramediatelj adjoining the openings is nsnally harder and 
more compact than the rock in general. That included in the 
openings is generally softer and more decomposed, and more or 
le|S8 stained with oxyd of iron. Different Bubstances are also de- 
posited in it, besides the mineral, such as other metallic ores, clay, 
calcareous spar and sulphate of barytes.* Openings, according to 
their direction and the manner in which the mineral is arranged 
in them, are vertical, flat (horizontal,) or pitching (oblique). The 
two first mark an important distinction in the arrangement in the 
different strata ; the vertical openings predominating in the upp^r 
part of the upper magnesian ; the fiat openings in the middle and 
lower portions of the same, and in the blue limestone. 

Although there are certain general principles which seem to 
.have governed the arrangement of the mineral^ yet numerous 
modifications occur, the details of which may be first given, be- 
fore stating the former. In this detail, I shall commence with the 
arrangements observed in the upper part of the upper magnesian. 
.The first and simplest form is that of the crevice. This maybe 
either a joint in the rock, marked by an iron stain, or a fissure of 
little width, occupied by a seam of clay, or of ochre and iron rdst 
(hematite); the two latter derived from the decomposition of iron 
pyrites, which sometimes, though rarely, is found in their place. 
Though the walls of the fissure arc nearly parallel, yet it is usually 
marked by enlargements and contractions of Uttle extent. In 
such a fissure, the mineral occurs as a sheet, either closely wedged 
in the rock, or separated from it by a thin seam of clay or iron.. 
Such sheets usually conform on their surface to the adjoining sub- 

i , f SilfX, in ibe form of quarts or otberwiee Mgreg^tod, esccpt u fiiotk rarely Accom- 

i .pf^>^ ^* miDenl, or i9 ditteminated id the openip/; rock. In one of the North and 

Soutba. tX SkiUmore's Diggiogs, a fiDC-graineJ ulicioua grit accompaDied the Bbecil! of 

mineral, as a matrii, arranged in aheet form between it and the rock ; and in a brotm 

- Mck op^tting. on the west aide of Coon Bhncb, near Benton Tillage^ ciyatalline qi^arta 

iraa found diaaeminnted throoch the opening rock, ia placo of the ealoanona fpir 



35 

Hitasm, but oeoasionallj present a luore or lets tegolar fonn, 
where the fissure is somewbat enlarged and tbe sheet is imbedded 
in daj. They are usually less interrupted than other forms of 
arrangement; in aome iostanees, very little interrupted ; in others, 
mate so, when they are called broken sheets. When interrupt- 
ed, thBy are replaced by clay or iron ore, and sometimes by 
Mlaareous spar, sulphate of barytos or xinc ore; but very rare* 
ly by the three latter in the upper part of the upper magnesian. 
Calcareous spar not unfrequently interrupts tbo vertical sheets 
in the lower part of that rock, and the mineral, when in contact 
with it, shows the same tendency to regular forms, as when im- 
bedded in day.* These sheets vary in thickness from a mere 
seam or film to a foot or more, and when even less than an. inph 
in thickness, are generally profitable, from their little interruption, 
and when of great thickness, are, from the same circumstauce, pf 
extraordinary value. They may be either vertical, pitching or 
flat (horizontal;) but the fiat sheets are rather parts of a more 
complex arrangement, while the vertical and pitching sheets may 
occur separately. These last are found with all the different bear- 
ings above specified ; but the Korth and South, sheets are the most 
common and the most important. Not unfrequently two or more 
sheets are connected ; the rock between them being softer and 
more jointed, and forming properly an openicg. In suph instan- 
ces, more clay and iron are usually present than where a single 
sheet only occurs. Such sheets often unite, in their course, in, a 
single sheet, which again divides, or are connected by cross sheets, 
usually in a quartering direction. In such ibstances, there is gen- 
erally an enlargement at the junction of the sheets, where the 
mineral often assumes its more regular forms, and even loses its 
sheet character, and takes that more peculiar to the wider op^« 
iugs. 

Yertical sheets have been sometimes worked to a great .extent 
and with little interrnption, vertically as well as horizontally, and 



^ Tb* cakanoos spar in neb iaaUiioi ^mawimmiMjMf mjitalKtntrSrtMnlitly 
la l^lbim of dogotooUi apar. 



36 

hare been traced through different beds ia the same iDBtance, and 
in different localities have been obaerred trayersing some of all 
the limestone strata above the upper sandstone. I hare obserred 
Bueh sheets followed to the depth of 80 — 90 feet through different 
beds of the npper magnesian, and at the lowest depth still contin- 
ued, sometimes increasing in thickness. Others are reported to 
hare been followed to the depth of considerably more tbaa 100 
feet and left still going down * 

When the crevice is of much width, and its walls are nearly 
parallel, it is called a crevice opening. The space, traversed by 
two or more connected sheets, might be called such ; but the term 
is usually applied to an opening of a foot or more in widtli, in 
which the mineral occurs in some other form than that of a sheet. 
Such openings are nearly always quite vertical, but occasionally 
local pitches occur. The walls of such openings are rarely strict- 
ly parallel, but there is usually a series of enlargements and coii- 
tractions. This tendency to enlargement and contraction is com- 
mon, and is accompanied more or less by lateral cavities of differ- ■ 
ent size and form. Indeed it may be said that those openings, 
which continue with little variation in width to a great extent, 
vertically or in the direction of their course, are one extreme, and 
that a series of isolated openings or cavities (called pockets.) con- 
nected by mineral seams, such as have been mentioned, are the 
other, between which almost every degree of alternate enlarge- 
ment and contraction may be found. Openings are more rarely 
found of much extent vertically *than in the direction of their 
course. Thus in sinking on a crevice, different openings will be 
found, one beneath another, little interrupted in the direction of 
their course, but generally separated from each other by close rock, 
traversed only by a mineral seam, yet occasionally connected in 
part by long narrow crevices, or by shorter and wider passages ; 
the last sometimes rising to a greater or less height abov6 the 



* The largest North and South abeet at the Eaat Blackleg Diggings ia said to hare been 
ftDowisd dewn to the 4epth of 140 feel^ at the eagfne shaft, and left still going down, 
although with diminished thieknesfl. 



37 

upper opening, and then called chimneyB. In some instances^ in* 
Btead of this series of openings, one beneatb the other, separated, 
bj close rock, there is only a series of enlargements, corresponding 
to the openings, separated hj alternate contractions ; the crevice 
remaining open throughout the descent. Different ranges in the 
same gronp occasionally differ in this respect ; one being marked^ 
by distinct openings, and another adjacent, only by enlargements^ 
and contractions. Different ranges are also distinguished in the 
same manner, in tho direction of their course ; the openings in one 
presenting a series of isolated cavities or pockets^ in that dif ection^ 
separated by close rock, marked by a mineral seam, and in anoth- 
er, only alternate enlargements and contractions. Whenever, in 
such cases, the pockets or enlargements rise to a considerable 
height above the range of the opening, they are also called chim- 
neys. 

These are the most usual forms assumed by the vertical open- 
ings in the upper part of the upper magnesian. They commence 
at different depths in the rock, sometimes near or at its upper sur- 
face, sometimes at the depth of many feet. Where the whole 
thickness of the upper magnesian is present, together with the 
overlying blue shale or pipe clay, I have never seen the crevices or 
openings penetrate the latter, or even the thin bed of schistose lime- 
stone, called shingle rock, sometimes overlying the thicker layers 
of the upper magnesian. But often the crevice is struck imme- 
diately on entering tho thicker layers of that rock, and the open- 
ing soon after, and iu some instances, I have observed the 
openings rise to its upper surface, and immediately overlaid by 
the pipe clay or blue shale. Where these or the upper part of 
the upper magnesian hare been denuded, such openings reach to 
the surface of the rock, and are called open crevices. More geue- 
rally, although the crevice may at times be struck at little depth 
in the rock, the opening is not reached till at a greater depth, 
' which in each group is usually common to all the ranges. Thi3 
may be called the level of the openings, and it is at this depth, 



35 

known by experience In the different localities, Hmt Qpwiiig« «i^ 
eSrpBoted.* 

The openings sometimes gradually expand from a narrow ore- 
Vice, but more usually terminate above in a low arch, or are flat- 
rttofed. Hie rock immediately above the opening is called the 
cap, and when one opening lies below another, the rock separat- 
ing them is the cap of the lower. It has been already elated, 
tiat the rock immediately adjoining the openings is harder than 
tii6 roc^ generally. This is particularly true of the cap, and when 
Jn sinking on a crevic^, the rock becomes unusually hard, an 
opening is expected. 

The openings, now under consideration, are usually filled with 
soft and loose materials, which seem to have been formed by the 
decomposition of the rock originally occupying them. These are 
usually what are called sand, clay and tumbling rock ; the sand 
derived from the decomposition of the limestone ; the clay, from 
that of shale orclaystone; while the tumbling rock is but the har- 
der and more compact portion of the limestone, which has jeeist- 
©d dcpompoaitiou. In examining these materials, I have almost in- 
variably found the sand and tumbling rock conforming distinctly, 
in their arrangement, to the stratification of the limestone, and the 
clay either arranged as distinctly in the same order, or aj)pearing 
as an original matrix of the mineral. 

I have already stated that the term opening is also applied to 

' * ' The or«vi<H!S are not only iutetrtipted thojc by tbe blue tthalo fliid Jibingle cock, 
|»ato|t«D bj many ftoetof the upper rai^esUiD, and aro so^ietimcii ^ruck only. at a 
short distance above the opening. A mineral crevice usually first shows an iron slaia 
on its walls, and lower down a seam ef clay or hematite (iron rust,) and often sUU 
nearer the opening, a sheet of mineral, or detached pieces of the safne in ashe^t or vein 
'pbskion, leadtng-to the opening. Oaen a seam of black ochre (osyd of mangaiwM) 
pneed<:4 the miAera], indicating its coar approacbi and the latter, when .first met, it 
nsnally more or less coated with the carbonate. Not only is it common to find a seam 
of clay bordering sheets and veins, or otherwise investing the mineral as a matrix, but 
I have observed flat-roofed or low -arched vertical openings Kned by a smooth nabrokaii. 
Mam of joint day, mora or less completely investing them, and yet th« poaUmls 
inolossd, except the mineral and its iminedkte matrix, arranged confoimably to tb^stra- 
iifioation, and apparently altered or modified portions of the rock. 



limited portions of the rock, less disintegrated, marked by certain 
peeuHar characters, and traversed by the mioeral, or through 
which it is disseminated. In snch instances, other substancM^ 
besides the mineral, may traverse: the rock, or be disaeminated 
tim>ngb it, such' as other metallic ores, day, caioareons spar' sod 
sulphate of barytes. Iron pyrites is always origioally preseotia 
su^h portions <>f rock, and has generally suffered more or less.de* 
oomposition, leading to the^ disintegration of tha. rock, ami to tha 
fenmginons stain coimmon to all openings. The limestone, in anch 
openings, even when least altered, appears to be made np of blUrd 
compact concretions, little or not at allsnbjeetto etain or disinUi* 
grate, imbedded in a ground of nxore'^Amular atmctura, more or 
less subject'to stain and disintegrato from diseemiaated .pyritsa 
9?'hen this part of therockis stained, as is usual, the rock of .the 
lOpemng has a peculiar o^ottled appearance, and ia Called caitee 
rook, in eome localities* Tlits is peculiarly characteristic' of' tho 
fiat openings In the lower beds of the upper magnesiaiui, paetiott- 
larly in the flint bed. - In the vortical openings in tho> upper ^paxt 
of the upper niagnesian, the tumbling rock corresponds lo ihe 
liarder unstained- nodules or concretions in the calico rock, but 
usually of a much larger size, and the sand tx> tbo stained and 
«oftened ground of the lattor. 

* * In the vertical openings in this upper part of the upper ma^e- 
cian, the mineral, in general, is arranged vertically. In these 
'<)penings, it shows a greater or less tendency toaseume ife regular 
cubic form. When its form is iaore regular, it is called square 
mineral; and when a number of cubes are combined, particularly 
in a sheet, it is called cog mineral. When its form is niore'irre- 
jgular,, showing only an app^-pach to its regular cubic form, but in 
more or.less detached masses, it is called chunk mineral. 

Tlie cubes or more irregular £orim are in^amged, in the vertieal 
openings, in a certain order, more. or less distinct, whieh ipa|^ bo 
'oalled the Viiin order. This is most distinctin the East and West 
ranges, but may be traced more or less even in the North and South 
sheets, where an approach to the cubic form is observable^ .and 



40 

mAj be alfio recognized in the arrangement of the mineral in the 
flat openings. In this order, the cubes or masses deviate from a 
a diroct line,altematelj to the right and left, forming a zig-xag, 
bat in such a manner as to continue the general direction. When 
a crevice is of little width, it is nsnallj traversed bj a single vein, 
or couae of mineral in yein order, usually accompanied by day 
as its matrix. But if this be examined strictly, it will be general- 
ly found double, or divided by a middle seam into two series of 
cubes or less regular forms, and the same is equally true of the 
sheets, which, as I have observed, occasionally in the wider parta 
of their crevices approacPthe regular form of the mineral. This 
too is often observed where the sheets are met by cross crevicea. 
When a narrow crevice widens, the single vein divides, each of its 
symmetrical parts being continued along its wall, or sometimes 
only one of them, the other being interrupted* The surface <^ 
the mineral next the wall is then less regular, and conforms in 
general to the surfieu^e to which it adheres; that towards the mid- 
dle of the crevice, which is usually occupied by clay, is more reg- 
ular ; the whole yein^ in this instance, forming a more or less per- 
feet geode. Where the crevice alternately widens and contracts, 
the same alternation will be observed in the arrangement of the 
vein. Such geodes or more irregular deposits, in the enlarged 
portions of the vein, are called bunches. In some veins there is a 
greater tendency to form bunches than in others, and in such cases 
the interveningTportion of the vein is usually diminished or even 
interrupted. The arrangement of the vein thus corresponds to 
that of the openings. 

Where the opening is wide, and includes considerable masses 
of tumbling rock, it may contain several such veins or courses 
of miaeral, separated by .the masses of rock, which may either 
«nite, or be connected by smaller cross veins* Sometimes the 
.wider vertical openings are traversed longitudinally, to a greater 
or less extent, by one or more vertical masses of rock, called 
k»y-rocks; but these rarely divide the openings completely, but 
are more or less insulated, corresponding to the horses of English 



41 

minera. These are particularly connected with an important 
arrangement observed, in several instances, in the nppcr part 
of the upper magnesian. This occurs, when, in a wide open- 
ing, with a flat or slightly arched roof or cap, the lower part is 
chiefly occupied by one or more key-rocks, rising towards the roof, 
but leaving an interval of greater or less width above. Veins of 
mineral rise in the intervals between the walls and key-rocks, ov 
between the key-rocks themselves, and pass over the top of the 
key-rocks in the Xfianner of a flat sheet ; the whole being thus con* 
Bected. Some of the heaviest bodies of mineral have been found 
thus arranged. The lead struck about a year since, at Tumer't 
Diggings, eastof theSinsinawa Mound, and one of the most prodnc^ 
tive for the time it has been worked, is of that kind. In some few 
instances, large bodies of mineral have been found on the sur&ce 
of the rock, where it had suffered denudation, lying between two 
vertical veins in the rock ; apparently resulting from such an ar- 
rangement. A remarkable instance of this kind occurred at Sel- 
kirk's Grove, west ef Benton village, and a similar body of mineral 
was found in a ravine, near the lead at Tumer^s, lying on the sur- 
face of the rock, on one side of which at least a vertical vein was 
seen entering the latter. 

An analogous arrangement is observed in the wide openings, 
called caves, remarkable instances of which occur in the Dubuque 
district Yeins rise there along the aides, and are continued up- 
wards into the sides of the roof, and at the same time send flat 
sheets along the roof, the two from the opposite sides meeting at 
a middle crevice in the roof, and sending up through it a vertical 
vein, which often presents a geode as it enters the crevice, as if 
formed by the junction of the two. In one instance, where a cross 
section of the roof was exhibited, (at Stewart's cave,) the lateral 
vertical veins sent across other flat sheets through seams in the 
cap-rock to the middle vertical vein. The flat sheets, crossing un- 
der the roof and in the rock aboye, are generally thinner and more 
interrupted near the middle point between the side and middle 
vertical veins ; a fact generally observable in flat sheets interposed 

6 



42 

between vertical vein8,"a8 if the formative action proceeded from 

the latter. 

In some instances, in wide openioge^ where no key-rocks are 
{M-esent, an arrangement similar to thkt in the roof of Stewart's 'Cave 
ib obsrerved in the soft ground of the opening iUelf ; £lAt sheets ivot 
Ofil J extending aorofis imder the roof, bttt at intervals below; the 
openihg being then oceupied bj decomposed rock,'arran&:ed oon- 
fbhiiably to the stratification. Sometimes the flat sheets extend only 
0iifa<«t distance from the side vetna, and inotfaer instances, the side 
Veins rise only pardy towards the roof, and tenniuate in fiat sheets 
extending but partly across the opening. In one instance^ in such 
tk wide opening (at the Oast end of Hoghlett^ lead, north of Gale- 
na,) a layei* of hard rock was interposed in the soift ground in the 
iower part of tlie openings asif dividing it into an upper and lower, 
<>eIow which a flat sheet extended across the openings while the 
tetoral vortical veins were continued unihtermptedly on- its isides. 

The same vertical opening sometimes j)re5cnt6 different arrange- 
ments in diff*erent parts of its course; in one part, only a single 
vertical vein, occasiorjally enlarging into bunches or gcodes; and in 
another part, arrangements such as have been last described ; the 
opening enlarging and varying in form correspondingly. Thus a 
wide cave opening *will sometimes pass at no'greatrdistaQcC'ioto a 
narrow creWce opening, and die arrangement of the mineml will 
thange from' that of > lateral vertical veias, meeting, by crosa flat 
^fihcets in the roofer below in the, opening, to tbat of ^ single v^r- 
^tical sheet or vein. This latter vvill, in some partft of its coune, 
'foim a proper sheet; in. others, a rein marked by cubes, moi^ or 
loss distinct, in regular vein order; and in others, geodes or bunches, 
ftnd these last either connected by intervening sheets or veins,. or 
mobe or }c88 detached and interrupted. In the latteiB ease, how- 
eter, the connexion may be traced by a mineral seam, more or less 
distinctly mai-ked. 

I have already observed that the same crevice sometimes in- 
cludes distinct sheets or veins, occasionally uniting in one, or con- 



43 

nectQd by cro^ sheaU or veiqp. In like manner, diatinet crevices^ 
^itb^tbeir veins, aometunes uqite or are oonnectecl bj croaa ere* 
yk^ and veins. At aacU points of jancciooy there ia usually an 
wti*aordi<|{u:y increase of tUe mineral and the smaller vein is then 
]:egarded as a feeder of the larger. The East and West veins are 
usually the leading veins^ and tbo If orth and Soutli and qnartering 
veins are then subordinate and regarded as feeder?. But usually 
^here cross veins meet a leading vein at such an accumulation or 
bunch of mineral, they extend only a limited distance from it, and 
1^ rather lines pf opeeding from it as a centre than feeders contri- 
butiog to form it. When a quartering vein meets a leading vein, 
on entering the crevice of the latter it often runs parallel to it for 
some distance, the two connected by a net- work of cross veins, an4 
at last uniting in one commgn vein. In some instances, two par- 
allel leading veins are connected by such quartering veins, and in 
others, one leading vein will leave its regular course, and pursue a 
quartering direction till it unites with a leading vein adjoining. 
Cross veins are differently affected on meeting a leading vein. 
Sometimes' they pursue the same course, without interruption, on 
^he opposite side, but more usually they are interrupted (cut ofl^) 
or else shifted to a greater or less distance. Jn the latter case, 
I have sometimes observed particles of mineral disseminated in 
the rock opppsito the vein. at its junctfon with the leading vein, 
apparently indicating that the shift was not caused by any shift in 
the rock, of which there were besides no indications. Not unfre- 
quently a leading vein, on meeting a cross vein, will be interrupt- 
ed or cut off, with its crevice,' and apparently shifted by the cross 
vein to another parallel vein. In one instance, I observed an East 
and West vein, from which a quartering vein had proceeded at 
some distance^ inteirupted in this manner by a North and South, 
and apparently shifted by it to the quartering vein, when the lat- 
ter became the leading East and West* vein. In other instances 
an East and West vein will terminate less abruptly, and be shift- 
ed to another east and west line, commencing there in the same 
manner it had terminated; the two overlapping each other to some 



44 

ekte&t, and sometimes connected bj a cross rein oi* seam near their 
termination. TTsnallj the cross vein, in snch cases, is smally and 
servos only as a leader from one East and West vein to the other, 
dr the connexion is formed only by a seam of ochre or clay. These 
arrangements have an important relation to the grouping of veins, 
and will be farther noticed nnder that head. 

Another mode of lateral shifting is sometimes observed in East 
ai^d West vertical veins, where the mineral is arranged in a series 
of more or less detached deposits or bunches. Hiese last range in 
a direction obliqne to the general coarse of the vein, and nsnally 
thin out at each extremity. Each succeeding bunch overlaps the 
preceding in such a manner that the general course of the vein is 
continued. 

The mineral in the vertical openings is sometimes found only 
near their cap or roof, and sometimes only in their lower part ; 
sometimes both above and below, but not between ; and at otiier 
times, more uniformly throughout their whole depth. Not unfre- 
quently it rises and falls alternately in its course, occupying only 
a moderate extent vertically at any one point, but rising and fall- 
ing to a much greater. The opening, when it is low and capped 
over with hard rock, rises and falls, in such cases, with the mine- 
ral. This rising and falling is usually, by a succession of flats and 
pitches, or steps, rather than on an uniform line. A similar ar- 
rangement occurs in the flat openings in the lower beds. Often 
the mineral rises above the common level of the openings in the 
chimneys already described (p. 36-7); in such cases forming bunches 
at the intersection of the chimney with the horizontal opening, ex- 
tending upward into the former. 

Flat (horizontal) sheets or veins have been already noticed in 
connexion with the wider openings, both in the soft ground of the 
opening, and in seams in the cap rock* In some instances, such 
flat sheets have been observed, of considerable extent, overlying a 
number of parallel crevices traversed by vertical ve'.ns, and in 
others, of less width, overlying only a single opening or vein. 
When such a sheet is struck in the upper part of the upper mag- 



46 

nesian, it is considered as indicating the near approach of an open- 
ing or vein. 

More nsnally, in the npper part of the npper magnesian, tlip 
East and West ranges present vertical openings of some widtb, trav- 
ersed by veins composed chiefly of square (cubic) or chunk u^a- 
emi, arranged in the vein order above indicated, while the 2f orUi 
and South ranges are only narrow crevices traversed by sheets, 
marked only rarely by an approach to regular forms. But in some 
instances, similar sheets traverse East and West crevices, and these 
are often combined in groups, intervening between or appended 
to the larger Eaat and West openings. Sometimes a considerable 
width of rock is found traversed, at short intervals, by such verti- 
cal East and West sheets, connected throughout by cross sheets, 
hotli vertical and horizontal. These cross sheets, in such cases, are 
usually thinner and more broken, or even quite interrupted, at the 
middle point between the East and West vertical sheets, indica- 
ting that the latter are the leading veins, to which the former are 
subordinate. The rock thus traversed is usually softer and more 
stained, at least towards its seams, and may be considered as form- 
ing one common opening.* 

In the upper part of the upper magnesian, the crevioes and 
openings are usually of less width and more detached than below, 
and the leading veins arranged vertically, the flat sheets being only 
appendages to them. The openings, even when widest, suoh as 
the large cave openings, are also more generally occupied with 
looser materials, from a greater decomposition of the rock 
and matrix. As we descend to the lower part of the upper bedi 
the openings become wider, although in most instances the verti- 
cal arrangement continues to prevail. In this part of the upper 
bed, very wide openings are found, occupied by poi-tions of the 
limestone rock, either decomposed to sand, or in detachfed 
harder masses (tumbling rock,) and intersected throughout in differ- 
ent directions by mineral veins, usually accompanied with seapis 
of clay and iron ; the East and West vertical veins predominating. 

* An ezftmple of thuoocoii in one of the iingeB of Noma A HatkinSi at Yiat^ Bill, 



40 

The mineral in these veins i9 nsnally in more or less detached 
masses (square and chunk mineral,) but Bometimes in thinner 
sheet forms, usually broken. In some instances at least, those re- 
markable bodies of mineral, called patches, found directly beneadi 
the surface clay, appear to have been such openings exposed by- 
denudation. Those to which I hero refer are no longer worked, 
but are found in the same position in the strata, and in some in- 
stances, in the vicinity of such openings, and from the description 
I have received, corresponded to them in character.* 

Anotlier class of wide flat openings, called flat sheet mines, 
are found in this lower part of the upper bed. Here the horizon- 
tal arrangement predominates ; the mineral having a sheet form, 
similar to that of the vertical sheets, and closely wedged in the 
rock,, or more usually in a narrow flat crevice, in which it is bor- 
dered by seams of clay or iron, and occasionally interrupted by 
the same, or by calcareous spar. These flat sheets appear more 
subject to interruption than the vertical sheets, and then often form 
a series of lenticular masses, thickest at their centre and thinning 
off towards their edges. They vary, like the vertical, in thick- 
ness, from a fraction of an inch to several inches, and are con- 
nected by cross vertical sheets, in different directions^ which are 
small and subordinate ; but occasionally the flat sheet gives otit 
as it approaches a vertical sheet, and the latter assumes the plate 
and direction of the former. Two and sometimes three such flat 
' sheets are connected together in this manner, the rock betweto 
them being softer and more stained than that immediately abote 
and below, forming properly a flat opening, but not marked by 
the peculiar characters of the opening rock in the flint bed below.f 

In some instances, when from the vicinity of valleys or ravines, 
or in deep mining, shafts have been sunk through the upper bed in- 



• The Finney Patch, in the S. "W. PlatteTille Diggings, and Jonea' range, N. of Elk 
QroTe, may be referred to as examples, 

t Ezamplei : Harris* flat sheet mine^ S. W. of Galena, tod Jackson's, on Ball Biand^ 

; (BSDiOD.) 



4T 

to the flint bed, i^s at Shall$barg, vertical creviceB hare been traced 
down through the former into tlie flat openingB in the latter. In 
auch ca3e9, in the lower part of the upper bed the vertical openingp 
Bpread mt laterally, and at the eaine tin\e that tlicy carry down a 
vertical vein, in the middle line, from the crevice above, present 
flat deposits of mineral, similar to those in the flat openings of the 
flint bed> but less extensive ; thus oiarking a transition from the 
vertical^ openings above to the flat openings in the lower beds. 

The flat openings in the flint bed are reniiarkable for their hori- 
zontal extent and their arrangement. They vary in width from 
less than tea tO: 40 — 50 foet^ and are wider in some- localities than 
ia others* Qenearally they are tr,a versed by vertical crevices, 
murlci^ by seam^and sometimes, by openings, in the roof, but the^e 
: a^. sometimes wanting, and t^ vertical crevices are then fonnd 
Imvevaing the. hard poc^ between the flat openipgs. Thus it is 
common at BentO(n|to^findzuMi;pTV. verti<?al crevicjes between the 
wide flat openings,. and these l^t.are sometimes arr,anged in paira 
• with a vertical crevice betweeJir; the Interval separating the t^o 
»beiag mnch lees tha&.tiuU separating, them from the flat openings 
adjoining. The two thus combined, with thei^ intermediate Qre;r* 
ice^ are considered as formipog. 0Qe< rang!9. Ii^ one instance (at 
Shawns Hollow, S. Wp of Benton,) a wiide flat opening, without a 
TBrtieal crevice, adjoinild. on the north a number of narrower flat 
openings, each with its vertical crevice ; but in this instance, the 
whole extent, at least of the latter, might be regarded as one com* 
mon opening or soft ground. The rock in these flat opening 
nsfially presents a peculiar mottled appearauce, whence it is called 
calioo sock in some localitdea. The canse of this I have already 
referred to. Thist rock appi^ars to h^^ve ra^nlted from the decern* 
position of a hard blue or grey rock, intersected more or less com- 
pletely by seams of iron pyrites, pr rather of rock more or less 
filled with disseminated pyrites, dividing it into small rounded 
nodules, more compact than the intervening seams. This strnc* 
i tare can not have been, derived from the fracture of the rock and 
the injection of the seams, but has been the result of a process of ae** 



48 

igregation, by which the more compact limestone was formed at 
centres, around and between which the more crystalline portion 
with the pyrites was arranged. The strong tendency of iron pyri- 
tes to decompose, under certain circumstances, particularly when 
minutely disseminated, has caused the disintegration of Ihe lime- 
stone in which it .was dispersed, and its own conversion into oxyd 
of iron, giving the stain to that part of the limestone. This hard 
blue pyritiferous rock is still found unchanged, in some of the flat 
openings in the flint bed, atf in Champion's level (New Diggings',) 
where it occupies the position of the opening or calico rock, and 
• like that is more or less productive in mineral similarly arranged. 

The mineral in the fl^t openings is generally arranged in hori- 
zontal courses adjoining the roof or the floor, but sometimes in ia- 
termediate positions. Sometimes it forms a connected sheet of 
some extent, but more usually occurs In larger or smaller detacjjed 
masses. These are generally more or less convex on one side «ik1 
concave on the other, and are so arranged that the convex side is 
directed downwards. The concave side usually embraces a por- 
tion of the limestone harder and less stained, and sometimes the 
mineral is observed more or lesscompletely surrounding the lattetr, 
"but much thicker below than above. In this case, the mineval 
appears to have been formed around the nucleus of limestone in 
the same manner as the iron pyrites, as above explained. Hie 
courses of mineral are very often if not generally accompanied 
with a layer of flints, usually above the mineral, sometimes below, 
and occasionally the mineral is interposed between two layers of 
them. Sometimes the mineral, when detached and isolated, is 
associated with flint in the same manner. Though the mineral is 
chiefly arranged in flat courses, yet it is often found detached ia 
every part of the opening, but is then arranged horizontally. 

Vertical seams of mineral occasionally pass from one course to 
another,, or traverse the openipg as cross sheets, and at the crossing 
of these or even of a barren seam only, there is usually an increase 
of mineral in the flat courses, sometimes enlarging tliem so as to 
form geodes lined, with regular cubes. "WTien vertical East and 



r 



49 

West crevices traverse these openiDgs, they usually carry a vein of 
mineral arranged in vertical order, intersecting the flat courses ; 
"but in some instances I have observed such vertical veins on the 
sides of the openings, inflected under the roof into the horizontal 
course, with an enlargement of the mineral at the turn, sometimes 
forming there a geode. In some instances, the vertical crevice^ 
which have been traced from the rock above into or between the 
flat openings, have been found to carry mineral more or lei3» 
through their whole extent ; but in other instances, tlio mineral 
extends in them little or not at all above or below the opening. 

The lateral limits of these flat openings are generally marked 
by a slight turn in the courses of mineral from a horizontal to a 
vertical position at the sides of the opening, beyond which the 
rock soon loses its opening character ; thus showing the definite 
extent of these horizontal deposits. 

Booie peculiarities, worthy of notice, are observed in diflferent 
localities. In the flat openings at Benton, particularly at Swind- 
ler's ridge, a layer of hard rock, 1 — 2 feet thick, called the false 
cap, immediately overlies the openings, above which is a layer of 
tlinta, usually accompanied with a flat sheet or course of mineral, 
often of workable value. This layer requires support, and when 
«ueh support is withdrawn, after the opening is worked ont beneath, 
soon falls and exposes the mineral above it. The rock above, called 
the true cap, nsually remains firm, even in the widest openings. 
In the flat openings at New Diggings, a layer or bed of hard rock 
with flints, about three feet thick, overlies the opening rock, and 
is overlaid by a thin subargillaccous layer, called the grey shale,, 
appi^ently of a concretionary structure, and interrupted by min- 
eral, arranged in a horizontal sheet form, detached or more con- 
neeted. The rock above thie contains very few flints ; the proper 
flint stratum commencing in the bed immediately below it. A 
laysET closely resembling the grey shale in character • occurred at 
the Dry Grove Diggings, west of Benton, in sinking on a vertical 
slisst, at the tipper surface of the flint bed. 

7 



60 

The flat openings of the flint bed, occupied by tbe calico rock, 
are found throughout a largo portion of tlie mineral districf, where 
openings have been worked in that bed, and are the most general 
and characteristic of thoeo in that bed. I have observed them, 
well marked, at Beetown, Potosi, Brnshhill, Platteville, Elkgrove, 
Benton, New Diggings, Shullsburg, and the Dreadnonght mine 
near Mineral Point. In some of these openings, the rock is much 
more disintegrated than in others ; its ground, in such cases, being 
reduced to the state of loose sand, with more or loss tumbling 
rock ; while in others, although distinctly marked, the rock is so 
hard as to require blasting. Openings of the former kind are 
called sand openings, and are common at Benton, while at Shulls- 
burg openings of the latter kind are more frequent. 

Occasionally in the localities above mentioned, and more so in 
the more eastern diggings, the mineral is collected more in 
bunches, particularly along the line of vertical crevices, and is 
then more accompanied with clay and iron, and more disposed to 
assume regular cubic forms, approaching in these respects the ar> 
rangement in the vertical openings in the upper bed. But in snch 
instances, the intervening rock is more or less altered and stained, 
the whole forming a common opening. In some cases, as at 
Cbenaworth's mine, near the Dreadnought (above noticed,) thif 
arrangement in bunches, along the lines of crevices, appears to 
have arisen from masses of rock, intersected throughout, as in the 
calico rock, by distinct seams of iron pyrites, accompanied with 
more or less mineral, which by their decomposition form masses 
of ochry earth and hematite, including the mineral as in the rock. 
These masses are sometimes so rich in mineral as to be very pro- 
ductive. St>metimes they wull be found entirely decomposed ; at 
other times, only lartly so ; and even in some instances, entirely 
unchanged ; thus showing satisfactorily the origin of the former 
from the latter, and their relation to the calico rock. It might in- 
deed be expected that where the pyrites is so concentrated as in 
those instances, it would be less extensively difi*used through the 
rock, and more segregated in bunches, whereas the calico rock, ia 



51 

which the jjrltes ifl more disseminated, would be found charactcr- 
iBtic of larger and more uniform openings. This arrangement in 
bunches is more peculiar to the flat openings, east of the parallel 
of Shnllsburg and Mineral Point; but these openings form ranges 
as regular in their course as the more uniform flat openings far- 
ther west. 

Calcareous spar is generally very rare iathe flint openings; but 
occasionally it is found, either disseminated through the opening 
rock, or more frequently accompanying the layers of flint and 
mineral ; the regular order from above downwards, being then 
calcareous spar, flint and mineral. Even in some inatances where 
there are no traces of a mineral opening, calcareous spar ia found 
accompanying the layers of flint in the same order. I have ob- 
served, in one instance, in Stephens' mine (Shullsburg,) a mass 
chiefly composed of calcareous epar (^/jf,) occupying a large ex- 
tent of an opening, and arranged like the, masses <^hard blue py- 
ritiferous rock in some openings, as in Champion's level (New 
Diggings.) These masses rise sloping inwards from the bottom of 
the opening to a ridge near the roof, and apparently extend down 
wards in the manner of a lode, but have not been proved in that 
direction, and terminate abruptly or taper out at the extrenaities. 
The mass of tiff, in Stephens' mine, terminates abruptly towards 
the west, and apparently tapers out towards the east. At its west 
end, it is bordered by a thin layer of hard rock, in nearly a verti- 
cal position, as if out of place, but more probably formed in its 
present position by segregation. This layer is traversed by small 
vertical veins of mineral, arid in the calcareous spar adjoining, 
which is there more massive, the mineral is found accumulated, 
usually in very regular cubtc forms, although closely imbedded in 
ltd matrix. In some other parts of the mass, similar accumulations 
df mineral were found, bat in general the mineral is only sparsely 
disseminated. The entire mass appears to be a portion of the 
rock arranged conformably to the stratification, the greater part 
of -it composed of the calcareous spar, disposed in segregative or- 
der through a base of the granular limestone, through which iron 



62 

pyrites and moro or less of copper pyrites are disseminated ; tbe, 
Ia,tter also collected at particular points in small bunches. 

, The flat openingn in the flint bed are usuallj not more tl^uoi 
four to six feet in height, partioalarlj tlie wider and mojre uniforii» 
openings, and two openinga are generally found, one above th«^ 
other, separated by a layer of hard rock, about two feet thicks 
forming the cap of the lower. In a few instances, a third open- 
injg has been found. These may all be considered as one common 
deposit, with which the flat sheet above the false cap is connected. 
These openings, like the vertical openings in the upper "bed, some- 
fiines rise and fall in their course, by a succession of flats and 
tifdies ; or this rising and falling, as in the latter, is only confined 
ikyibe mineral, the opening remaining unchanged. The most uni« 
t&ttn flat openings are more or less subject to interruption in their 
eotorse by transverse bars of rock, and in some instances, the de- 
lated portions have a form more or less rhomboidal, analogous 
to lihe form of the bunches observed in some vertical East and 
If est ranges in the upper bed (p. 44,) and also succeed each other 
in k corresponding order. This is observable in the flat openings 
afrSwindler^s ridge (Benton,) where the longest diameter is from 
noHh-west to south-east, corresponding to the general direction 
of the ranges (E. B. E.) 

. In the lower bed of the upper magnesiau, flat openings arer 
t^ most genera]) and eveu more extensive than those in the 4int 
bejd. In some instances, such openings have been worked across, 
i^^re than a hundred feet, without reaching their limits. In on^ 
iu^^,nce (at A. Looney's level, north of New Diggings,) a siddk 
d|rift was carried from the middle crevice near fifty feet before 
refifhing the limit of the opening ground* This limit was very, 
distinctly marked by a vertical line, the adjoining rock losing at. 
opce the peculiar characters of that of the opening. I ha;ve. 
^^ady observed that the rock in the lower bed is k^s uniform 
ttia^ that in the flint bed, and the same is true of the openingiu 
Tbe black or brown rock and the green rock, in their differeaijt 
^^ictdj have important connexions with thiep^ openii^gs, gen^ 



53 

tally overlying and including them, whence they are usually 
called the black or green rock openings. In some instances, hovr- 
brer, the roct in these openings resembles that of the flat openings 
ih the flint bed, or the calico rock, and is then more or less acconi- 
tanied with layers or nodules of flint, which seem to be confined 
to the opening rock, or are at least most abundant in it. But eveii 
then this opeiiing rock ift distinguished from that of the flint bed 
by the great abundance of calcareous spar {tiff) disseminated 
through it, &s is common in the brown rock, and usually more of 
Ifess of it has, by its stain, the character of that rock. When the 
opening rock resembles the calico rock of the flint bed, the ad- 
joining rock is usually vefy hard and comf)act, and of a light 
grey color, resembling the hard hodules found in the opening 
rock, particularly of the flint bed, and the more compact layer^i 
•6t the upper bed of the blue limestone. This adjoining rock is 
Sestitute of the ferruginous stain and the disseminated tiff, cha- 
racteristic of the openings. 

In this lower bed thse imiieral is usuadly foimd in6re db^mfMy- 
i^ed with tho fiulphnretd of s^iqc and iron tlito ia the two nppfnr 
tdieda* . The sulphurel of iron, or the result of its decompoaitiovii 
ia always pireseat su^ra or iees^ m the openings ia thfi ii|>p6r bedfu 
TJsnaUy the snlpharet has been there converted inta the. 09^^ 
causing the ferruginous stain and the d€^)OBitd of oehre and hetnm 
tite (iron rust) found in those openings. The sulphuret of zinc 
-^tack-jack) and the carbonate (dry-bone,) the result of its decom- 
position, are more rare in the upper openings, but are occasionally 
fbimd there, more frequently, so far as I have observed, in the ver^ 
^ical Openings in the upper bed than in the flint openings. But 
there is a class of veins (the flat and pitching sheet veins,), which, 
have been traced through all the beds of the upper m^gnesian 
ftito the blue limestone, in wl^ich zinc ores are usually founq 
more or less accompanying the mineral. Not only in these, and^. 
in those instances where the zinc ores accompany the veins in the. 
upper vartieal openings, butaleo in tiioee where they accoitipbily 
the mineral in the flat openings of the Idwer bed and the blue 



54 

limestone, there is an order of nrrangement which I hare found 
invariable. When the ores of lead, zinc and iron are all present^ 
the iron ores are arranged in a sheet or layer next the rock, then 
the zinc, and then the lead, in succession, towards the interior of 
the opening. In the Marsden lead, below Galena, (a flat and 
pitching sheet mine,) where the. mineral is usually accompaniedt 
with zinc and iron, this order is distinctly observed, and in differ- 
ent geodes, processes, like nipples, are observed projecting into th« 
cavities or geodes between the cnbes of the mineral, which are 
found occupied in the centre by a square process from the sheet of 
iron pyrites, like an elongated cube, surrounded with a coating 
irom the black-jack, sometimes with points of mineral adhering 
to the surface. The flat and pitching sheet veins with zinc and 
iron, usually called flat and pitching dry-bone sheets, have been 
found to commence in the upper bed of the upper magneslao, 
and have been traced down through the different beds of that 
rock and of the blue limestone to the upper sandstone. At the 
west end of the Heathcock range (Linden,)^the same sheet has 
been followed down from the flint bed to at least ten feet in the 
upper bed of the blue limestone, and is there found large and 
productive, and without any sign of interruption. These veins 
appear indeed to be the most uninterrupted, and in some instances 
have been worked more than twenty years without exhanstiony 
and with a very uniform product,* 

The ores of zinc are rare in some of these flat and pitching 
veins, the mineral being then connected immediately with the 
ores of iron. Bat where the zinc ores are more abundant, they 
are sometimes nearly or quite wanting in parts of the vein, and 
then usually the lead ore is increased in proportion, while in other 
parts of the vein the zinc ores predominate. Thus in one part, the 
vein will be found narrow or divided in the rock of the opening, 
and the mineral more or less disseminated in the zinc ore, so as to 
require separation by crushing and washing ; then, where the vein 

* This is reporled of the Eaatheool: rengo (Lindoi) and the Diy-boae loiae on B«n 
Bnmoli (Beptan,) Uth of vhich tre stiU irorked toadvaataga. 



65 

^ IB wider, the mineral will form a middle sheet, detached from the 
^QC ore, and where still wider, a geode will be formed and the 
mineral be arranged in cubes on the interior sarface of the zinc 
ore. Still farther in its coarse, the zinc ore will disappear, and a 
thick and solid sheet of mineral be fonnd, separated from the rock 
onlj by a seam of iron. Such thick and solid sheets are usuallj 
found on the flats, and the geodes at the turn from a flat to a pitch, 
extending more or less along the latter. Tliese flat and pitching 
Teins sometimes pitch in opposite directions from the same flat, 
forming what is called a saddle-back. In some instances, such a 
flat is apparently at the highest part of the vein, forming a longi- 
tudinal ridge along its middle, from which it pitches on each side, 
either in one uniform slope, or by alternate flats and pitches. 
Such is the arrangement of the sheet in the Heathcock range, 
where it forms aflat, at its summit, in the flint bed, from which it 
pitches on each side into the lower strata ; on the south, at least 
into the upper bed of the blue limestone. This flat is much wider 
towards the west, where the sheet pitches on each side more uni- 
formly, but narrows out towards the east, where the sheet pitches 
nniformly on the north, but on the south, descends more in alter- 
nate flats and pitches, -and apparently divides into 4 — 5 smaller 
sheets, connected in a common opening. In some instances, such 
flats are only on the general pitch of the vein ; the vein rising, 
then turning over a' flat, and then pitching again in its regular 
oourse. I have not yet had an opportunity of tracing such a vein 
lower than the upper bed of the blue limestone ; but I have been 
informed by J. Bracken, Esq., that such a vein, in the Victoria 
range (Mineral Point,) was followed down to the base of the blue 
limestone, and that the accompanying zinc and iron ores were 
even traced into the upper sandstone. Tliese veins, like the verti- 
cal sheets, thus appear "to have an extensive range through the 
strata, and are not confined to one particular bed, like the flat 
openings in the lower strata, and the more limited vertical open- 
ings in the upper bed of the upper magnesian. 

The flat openings in the lower bed may be divided into three 



. 56 

-classes: Sand, ochro and dry-bone openings. The first class in- 
. eludes those, where the opening rock resembles the calico rock of 
the flint openings, and is usually accompanied with more or less 
flint, like the latter. The mineral is here arranged in flat courses, 
or disseminated horizontally through the rock, as in the flat flint 
•openings. These openings too are traversed by vertical crevices, 
;(either of more uniform width or forming a series of pockets,) usu- 
ally occupied by loose materials, and adjoining which the rock is 
niore decomposed than in the remoter parts of the opening. The 
mineral is most abundant in the loose ground of these crevices, 
and in the adjoining parts of the opening, where the rock is most 
altered. Generally, in the loose ground of these crevices, amuct 
greater quantity of iron is found, in the form of unaltered pyrites, 
or recomposed into ochre and hematite, than in the openings or 
crevices in the upper beds. In some such instances, the iron py- 
rites appears to have replaced the mineral, and extensive bars oc- 
cur in the course of the crevice, in which the mineral is wanting, 
but the iron ores are proportionally more abundant. Such a bar, 
at the west end of A. Looney's level, in the middle crevice of the 
opening, replaced the mineral, after it had continued productive 
for 800 — 900 feet, and in this the ores of iron were found in every 
stage from the original pyrites to the ochre and hematite, exhibit- 
ing, in their change, fine specimens of green copperas, and small 
pockets of alum, where clay was more abundant, and also, though 
more rarely, of native sulphur. This mass is now partly worked 
out, the former character of the opening being resumed beyond it. 
The loose materials in these crevices are arranged conformably to 
the stratification; the layers of flints crossing them regularly in 
the line of those in the adjoining rock, only sometimes slightly 
lowered by the settling of the materials. This loose ground dif- 
fers from the adjoining rock only by a greater proportion of clay, 
sometimes forming layere, or segregations investing the mineral as 
a matrix, and by the quantity of iron intersecting it in the manner 
already described (p. 47-8.) The more altered rock adjoining re- 
sembles th& corresponding rock in the flint openings, and is more 
jor less disintegrated in the state of loose sand. 



The oduroopeaiaags a^e ehiUMteriBed hj tb« great almildatooo^ 
ixou ore (iron pyritoa aod tke resalts of its decompoaition) aceom* 
fanjiag them throia^houl their extent. OkyalMabonDdft ill ^eai^ 
ia lajers and pockets cenforasable to the etraldfictttion) a»d fai 
%eum correapondiog to t^ batline of the openiftg. Tbio (^ay i» 
strcMig^ hftarkedbj the aoooodi jointfi eominon to the <kiiy 0t 
^i^tiif^j piirtic&larljr to the eeama of clay wfateh traverse attii 
Uae timm^ aofd is ealled joint olay and eoap day, by the nrioatai 
The latter term is more partiealariy applied to a blnidi day, breilD* 
ifi^ in small jointed fragments, which navally invests the minen^ 
when imbedded in day* The tninersl, in these. opeaiogs^ is eithl^ 
er arranged in tiniform horizontal courses, or in a series of flats asA 
pitebesi limited to the openings. In Uie former case, it resen»bkay 
in its arrangememt, the mineral in the flat flint openings,, but ir 
mord connected with day and iron. In the latter case, it is siv^ 
rasged znOre in eheet foirm^ bordered by a sheet of iran, and Mh 
placed by the same, when interropted. Usiially tke mineral is 
laigest and most nniaterrupiedoathe flats, or on the Inm fromJEiAib 
to apitch, and is smaller and more interrnpted, and often dn/tiiialT^ 
wanting, in the pitched resembling, in this respect, that in tibia 
flat and pitching rdns already noticed. A remarkable insteiice e£ 
ibis occars in a very productive mine, worked by Earnest aindi 
Spenceley, 6n the Shullsbnrg branchy north of New Diggongi.''^' 

The zinc or dry-bone openings are, on the whole, the most fre- 
<Juont in the lower Vod, though in some instances more rat-e, 
partiealariy in the eastern districts. In these the mineral is ar- 
ranged in sheets, with the ores of zinc and iron, in nearly or quite 
the same manner as in the flat and pitching dry-bone sheets al- 
ready noted. The same order is observed in the arrangement 
of the different ores in relation to the rock, and the same arrange- 
ment of the mineral in the sheet, sometimes disseminated in the 
a^c ore, and sometimes forming a separate sheet, between thjs 

*IhaTe obserred in somo of the ocbre openings, layers or more detached masses of a 
'^HdteHmaston^ mniaUj much disintegntad in the state of sand. A elmilar rock aW 
4Kcaam the Upper Pipa-olay opeuicss ia tfa» bbae litteatona. 
8 



58 

lateral sheets of zinc, but more ttsaall j, in these openings, the 
former. The sheets, in these openings, are sometimes regularly 
horizontal, bat more usually uneven, presenting a series flats and' 
pitches or undulations, sometimes along slopes of large extent and 
in different directions, but still limited by the extent of the open- 
ing, both in a vertical and horizontal direction. In some instances, 
lUthough these sheets have been worked to the width of a hundred 
feet, their lateral limits have not been reached, their sides thinning 
out so as not to repay the expense of working. In these dry-bone 
openings different sheets are found, as well as different courses in the 
flat flint openings; usually one near the roof, and another near the 
floor, and sometimes others intermediate, the whole more or less 
ootanected by cross veins or seams. The opening rock is usually 
very much decomposed and stained, and more or less acoompanied 
with seams and pockets of clay, as in the ochre openings. Both 
the ochre and dry-bone openings are traversed by vertical crevices, 
in which the mineral is arranged in vertical vein order, and is more 
regular in its form, as in the upper vertical openings. The min- 
eral in these crevices, when they traverse the dry-bone openings, is 
not accompanied with zinc ores, but resembles that in the crevices 
in the ochre openings. Usually the mineral in the flat openinga 
is larger and more abundant adjoining the crevices, and in the 
dry-bone openings, the sheet is enlarged, and the mineral more 
distinct from the zinc ore, sometimes even forming geodes. The 
dry-bone and ochre openings generally alternate, either one by one, 
or in successive groups. In some instances, the same range will 
in one part of its course be an ochre opening, and in another, a 
dry-bone opening. I have known the eame range commence on 
the west with a mass of iron ore, then become a productive ochre 
opening, and terminate towards the east in a dry-bone opening. 

The great quantity of calcareous spar (f^ff) disseminated in the 
opening rock, and even in the rock generally, in the lower bed^ 
particularly in the brown rock, has been already noticed. In some 
ef the openings in this bed, large masses of calcareous spar are 
found, usually in horizontal courses, with more or less of a geodie 



59 

arrangementi the crystals aggregated so as to present the appear- 
ance of rounded bosses of a peculiar form. These masses nsnally 
occur along the lines of vertical crevices, and are sometimes fonnd^ 
in such cases, in small caves ; the opening being only partly filled 
with the spar and the loose materials accompanying it. The latter 
are "asnally derived from the decomposition of snbargillaceons 
layers, more or less accompanied with iron pyrites, and sometimes 
with the black oxyd of manganese (black ochre.) 

Beds or bars of pyritiferons rock also occur in the openings <^ 
the lower bed, more remarkable even than those in the openings 
of the flint bed. They either underlie the opening rock near the 
base of the upper magnesian, or rise in the openings, as has been 
noticed of the bars in the flint openings, and consist of regular 
beds of the limestone, nearly filled with seams and bunches of 
iron pyrites, accompanied with more or less caloareons spar ;^ the 
whole forming by its decomposition a bed of ochry earth and 
hematite, and presenting during the process of decomposition the 
same appearances as have been noticed in the bar at the west end 
of A. Looney^ level. In one instance (at Blinkiron's mine, north 
of Kew Diggings,) I observed such a bed underlying the opening, 
and overlaid by a bed of bluish grey limestone largely filled widi 
bunches and geodes of calcareous spar, in small and often very per^ 
feet tabular crystals of great clearness and beauty. 

The openings in the lower bed, particularly in the eastern dis- 
tricts, sometimes present a succession of pockets or bunches tra- 
versing the general opening rock, corresponding to a similar ar- 
rangement in the flint openings. In some instances, I have observed 
such an arrangement in smaller upper openings immediately over- 
lying the large and uniform flat openings in this bed. The brown 
orbhick rock generally accompanies the openings in the lower bed 
in the south-western districts, and the green rock in the north- 
eastern districts ; whence at Mineral Point and in its vicinity, the 

* Th« cftleareoQS spar genertllj forms segregBlioos inrested b^ the iron pjntos, and 
ott tiwdeeompotitionof the latter is sometimes found changed to the sulphate of Cme 
(MltiiiteO 



openings in this bed are known as the green took openings, whilet 
in the south-western districts they are called the black rock open- 
ings. 

In some instances, detached vertical crevice openings are fonnd 
in the lower bed, traversed by a vertical vein, from which . flat 
bourses of small extent (2 — 3 feet) enter pockets in the sides of the 
fcrevice, showing a tendency to the formation of a wide flat opening, 
traversed by a vertical crevice and vein. These resemble the 
ibpenings of an intermediate charaoter between the vertieal and 
flat opening^, already noticed in the lower part of the upper bed* 

Small quantities of eopper pyrites have been obeei*v^, in dif'- 
ferett ififitancefl, in the openings in th« lower bed, pftrdcularly in 
the vicinity of Fever river, accompanying iron pyrites ot ealcar^ 
Otts Bpar. F!requent traces of it oocnr in the masses of iron py« 
rites in the openings of the lower bed at W. Giliet^s di^nge (Bim^ 
eomb,) and in connexion with the laiige masses of calcareous spar 
in openings in the same bed, above noticed, in di'fferent rittt- 
ges between Fever river and tlie Shullsburg bmnch, east of Bea- 
ton. In the latter case, the copper ore occfurs near the junction of 
the »par with the rock« where the two are more or less blended, 
jtYttoh in the same manner as it occui^s in the large mass of 
tiff in Sterphens' mine (Shullsburg.) The copper pyrites is al- 
ways accompanied, in these instances, with more or less of the 
green and more rarely with the blue carbonate. Tlie copper 3»n- 
gea at Mineral Point have also been worked chiefly in the loww 
bed. 

It has been a common opinion that the blue limestone euts dff 
the mineral, and this has been understood of the blu^ limestone tt 
Oweii) or the formation immediately underlying the upper mag- 
neiian. This opinion has properly no reference to tliat rook,' but 
to beds of hard blue rock found in diflferent positions in the upper 
magnesian, which in many instances have been known to interrupt 
the mineral in its descent, both in sheets and in wider openings. 
Thia rock is usually more or less intersected with iron pyrites, and. 
has been found at the bottom of openings in all the beds of 4be 



01 

upper msgnesubf and souietiuics rising into the opeoings and 
formiDg obetructiona in their coarse, or intervening as a bar ^t 
tween contiguoue opening^. It may be considered as properly an 
opening rock, and when cutting off the mineral, aa placing the 
same part as the naasses of loose ferruginous materials which inter* 
rapt the mineral in the coarse of openiags or veins^ particularly ii^ 
the lower bed of the upper maguesian. I have described the dif- 
ferent openings, in their descent, as forming series at different 
levels ; two in the upper bed (the upper and lower,) the flat open- 
ings in the flint bed, and those in the lower bed (the brown and 
green rock openings.) These beds or bars of pyritiferous rock ap- 
pear to underlie occasionally all of these openings. In sinking on 
a Tertical sheet traversing different beds, it is found liable to in- 
terruption on meeting such bars, but not always so ; instances hav- 
rng occurred in which the sheet has traversed them, but usually 
more or less diminished in its passage. When such a bar under- 
Kes an opening, or interrupts a vertical sheet, usually fbr a certain 
distance beneath more or less of the mineral is disseminated through 
it in particles or seams. I was informed by Mr. Haskins of Dodge- 
TiUe, that in one instance a vertical sheet, on which he was em- 
ployed, was cut off clean by a floor of blue limestone, only small 
particles and seams of mineral being found in it for a short dis- 
tance below the sheet. On examining the rock, I found it was on- 
ly a modified portion of the common rock of the Ibcality (the flint 
bed of the upper magneslan,) forming such a bar as I have de- 
scribed.* 

The Blue Limestone of Owen is a good mineral-bearing rock^ 
and like the upper magnesian, net only has its openings in each of 
its thr«e beds, but is traversed by vertical and pitching sheets or 

* TlMsebiiB ksve been met inabUDi^belov the diffarent openings, and in following 
down Ttfttieel flbee^iuid irom their great, haidneas hare diaoonmfipBd from farther pqnn* 
i^g the mineral do'Vaward. From obierTationit haa appeared to me eyident that they 
are parts of a mineral range, in which iron pyrites replaces thd mineral, and are of limi- 
ted extent, and need not obstmct the progress of mining. Before attemptiog to work 
lliiDiigli fihma, it woald be weU to determine their extent bj boring, which might be ef<* 
fpoled TiHb eprnfavatiTsly Uttlt nqpem^ 



63 

reins, which in some instances are said to have been traced throngb 
it t.i the npper sandstone. I have myself traced pitching sheets 
from the npper magnesian into the upper bed, and vertical sheets 
to the lower bed or baff limestone. The regular opening* in the 
bine limestone are wide and flat, like those in the two lower beds 
of the upper magnesian. 

The openings in the upper shell bed are called the pipe clay or 
brown rock openings. The former name is taken from layers of 
clay which traverse the openings, derived from the decom{x>sition 
of the layers of shale which are interposed in the upper bed; the 
latter, from a bed of brown rock, already noticed, immediately 
overlying the upper bed, and forming a more or less immediate 
cap to the openings. These openings are merely a certain extent of 
the rock, which has suffered more or less decomposition, and 
through which the min^til is disseminated in flat courses, usually 
imbedded in the layers of clay above noticed. The rock in these 
openings is, on the whole, leas stained than in the openings in the 
upper magnesian, and the mineral is less accompanied with iron. 
It is also more regular in its form, sometimes in very perfect cubes, 
but more often tabular, varying in size from very small, called dioe 
mineral, to very large ; the latter usually adjoining a vertical crev- 
ice. The mineral, whether large or small, is imbedded in the clay 
or shale, in the same manner as iron pyrites in pyritiferous shales, 
and is either quite isolated, or a sei ies of cubes or tables is arranged 
in horizontal vein order, sometimes forming sheets of considerable 
extent. These openings are usually wide, sometimes equalling in 
width those in the lower bed of the upper magnesian, but in such 
cases the mineral is more confined to the vicinity of vertical crev- 
ices, althongh the intermediate rock is much decomposed, and 
contains more or less mineral disseminated. In some instances, I 
have found this change in the rock, wiih the accompsnying min- 
eral, extending only a few feet (6—8) on each side of a vertical 
crevice; the adjoining rock having the usual characters of the un- 
altered blue limestone and abounding in fossils, while in the al* 
tered rock of the opening the fossils are so decomposed as to be 



63 

hardly distlngnisbable. In some instancefl, as in ike Irish Dig- 
giDgs near Mineral Point, the openings in this bed are vcrj femi* 
ginouSy and the mineral is then eometiines accompanied with zino 
or6S| forming flat sbeete similar to those in the lower bed of the 
upper magnesion. In some instances too, masses or bars of hard 
compact rock are found in these openings, intersected bj very thin 
seams of mlneml, and with small points of it disseminated, analo- 
gous to the hard blaebars in the upper magnesian. The openings 
in the upper bod have been worked at Mineral Point and Platte- 
ville, north of Now Diggings, on the Yellow Stone, and in other 
localities iu the eastern districts. In some instances, these 
openings have been verj productive, particularly at Mineral 
Point, in the McKnight range, and in Bracken and Murrisb's 
range on the Mineral Point branch, south of the village. Kear 
Platteville, at the Back-bone (a narrow ridge between the LittLs 
Platte and the Kountree branch,) the occurrence of dice mineral 
(in the upper bed of the blue limestone) has been long known, and 
openings in that bed are now worked there to advantage. 

The openings in the middle bed of the blue limestone are usually 
called the glass rock openings. They are situated either in the 
lower more compact parts of that bed, the upper fine-grained por- 
tion overlying them as a cap, and more or less stained of a brown 
color, as it approaches the opening, or beneath the middle part or 
proper glass rock, in the lowest division of the bed, adjoining the 
buff limestone. In tlie glass rock openings, more variety has 
been observed than in the pipe-clay openings above mentioned. 
In some instances, they are dry bone openings; the mineral be- 
ing accompanied with zinc ores, forming sheets, arranged as in 
the corresponding instances in the upper magnesian. These sheets 
are generally quite horizontal, though irregularities in their course 
are sometimes observed, particulai*ly where crossed by vertical 
crevices. The same alternations of enlargement and contractioa 
are observed in tbe sheets, as already notijccd ; the mineral, in the 
latter case, being disseminated through the zinc ore mostly in 
4he middle line of the sheet, and in the former, usually foimiog a 



64 

^^not middle sheet, and sometimes a geode. These geodes are 
sometimes occnpied in the centre by calcareous spar or snlphate 
of barytes, or by the two in distinct segregations. At the crossing 
of vertical crerioes, there is nsually an increase of the mineral, in 
larger and more r^nlar forms. In some of these dry-bone open- 
ings, the snlphoret of zinc (the original ore) has been very little 
obanged ; in others, it has been chtefiy converted into the carbon- 
ajbe or silicate (dry-bone.) The former is the case at HaswelPs 
q»ixie, west of Mineral Point village, and the latter at the Falling 
Spring mine, sontli of the village. The canse of such a difference 
is not very obvious. The finest specimens of the carbonate of 
June yet seen by me, if ere fonnd in the dry-bone sheets in the 
<»penings in the blue limestone near Mineral Point, particnlarly 
at the Irish Diggii^. In other instances, the glass rock openings 
ace without ^no ores ; the mineral being found under circnm- 
stances similar to those under which it is found in the pipe-clay 
openings. The greater part of the openings in the South Forked^ 
Deer Diggings, on Wood's branch, are glass rock openings of thi« 
character. Only one dry-bone range (Woffal's) occurs in those 
diggings, parallel in its direction to the other ranges. In these 
openings, there are usually two courses of mineral ; a lower, in a 
layer of grey shale, similar in its character to the grey shale in the 
flint openings at New Diggings, in which the mineral is of the 
same cubic or tabular foi-m and imbedded in the eame manner a^ 
in the layers of clay in the pipe-clay openings j and an upper, in 
which the mineral forms a flat sheet, more or less interrupted or 
broken by interposed clay and calcareous spar. These openings 
are of great width, but low, and the rock between the courses of 
mineral is generally hard, which renders it diflScuU to work them 
by drifting. 

' In a few instances, flat openings of no great width have been 
fimud in the middle bed, chiefly occupied by masses of calcareous 
•par, arranged horizontally between layers of clay with more or lees 
iron and eometimes with large quantities of black oxyd of mangft- 
mose: (black ochre.) These closely resemble in stmctnre similar 



«5 

masses of calcareous spar, already described as occurring in the 
lower bed of the upper magnesian. From the setth'ng of the loose 
materials accompanying the spar, there is usually a small vacuity 
below the cap, forming a cave. A remarkable instance of this 
kind occurs in the middle bed of the blue limestone, just north of 
Qainby's quarry, already referred to. Such openings with calcare- 
ous spar have not yet been found productive in mineral. An open- 
isg of a similar kind, bat of greater width, has recently been 
found at Meeker^s Qrove (Buzzard's Boost) in the glass rock, chief- 
ly occupied by similar horizontal masses or beds of sulphate of ba- 
rytes, accompanied laterally with small quantities of calcareous 
spar. There are two such beds of sulphate of barytes, one above^ 
another below, separated by a bed of clay with small points of cal* 
careous spar, barytes and iron disseminated. In these beds of sul- 
phate of barytes, mineral is found firmly imbedded, and in such 
qnaotity as to be worked to good advantage ; usually of a regular 
form and brilliant surface ; a series of larger more detached pieces 
arranged along the middle of each bed, and a more connected series 
or sheet of smaller pieces along the sides, above and below. This 
is the only instance of the kind I have yet observed ; bnt mineral 
has been found imbedded in sulphate of barytes, in openings in the 
lower bed of the upper magnesian in that vicinity. The glass 
rock openings have been worked nK)st extepsively at Mineial 
Point, where some of them have been very productive. 

Openings have been found in the lower part of the lower bed 
or buff Ifmestonc, generally wide and flat, and strongly resembling 
good mineral openings in other beds, but have not yet been fair- 
ly proved. They are sometimes traversed by layers of clay, de- 
rived from the subargillaccons layers of the rock, and in such ca- 
ses resemble much the upper pipe-clay openings, from which cir- 
cumstance they have been called the lower pipe clay openings. 
In other instances, they are found to contain large quantities of 
'Calcareous spar, in masses similar to those in some of the glass rock 
openings, with more or less mineral and' some zinc ore cormected. 
Large openings of this kind, in the lower bed, have been reached 
9 



66 

by sioking below the glass rock opening, at the south Ferked-Deec 
DigglDge, and at Haswell'a mine near Mineral Point In a few- 
iostances, near the latter place, considerable quantities of mineral. 
are reported to have been taken from openings in the lower bed: 
near- its outcrops. 

A remarkable opening in the blue limertone ocenmat theAc^ 
pen Grove mine (Shock's Prairie, Green Co.,) apparently ttBiven* - 
ing different beds* of the rook, and in its character, unlike any' 
othei'whiohl have examined. It forms a very vride* vertioaf' 
East and West crevice, withregularirallB, occupied by an openhg 
rookvinoreor less traversed: by seams of mineral and iron pjritds,* 
distiaet or combined, intersecting the rock in a munner siniilar t» 
the arrangemeoQit noticed in some of the flint openings (p. SA.)^ 
Tka mineral in. these seams is oomposed: <rf small cubes, meiie or^ 
less regular, grouped in sheetB or small bunebes, and is aceompil* 
niedby more or leas of crystallized carbonate of leiid; oiten VQ171 
diatiact and regular. This is sometimes in large quantity, bat faa8> 
appeared to me only aubordinate to the sulphnret. The opening* 
is divided towards the west by a large key-rock^ ranning outiil^ » 
point towards the east, adjoining which the mineral is 8sid> toi 
have been mostabuadaEnt 

The Upper Sandstone, so far as I have beeYi able to ascertain, hvM 
not yet been found to contain mineral either in crevices or open- 
ings; but a sheet of sane ore and iron pyrites at Mineral Point, 
already referred to (p. 55,) is said to have been traced 2 — 3 feet 
into that rock, in the line of a crevice bearing mineral to the baise 
of the blue limestone. Copper ore is also said to have been found 
in the sandstone at the depth of several feet, in the same vicinity. 
It is thus not improbable that if the mineral is interrupted in the 
sandstone, ores of zinc and copper may be found there in its 
place.* 

S the mineral is interrupted in the upper sandstone, it reap- 

*Th« malar laad mine (K. T.) ia in a b^ of aaAdatdue, interpoa^ l)etireen two bad* 
ofilisaalaoa. Thuiaekofins lamaaiieottfigamaattacspaet UiatmiMral^B^^ 
foondiA Uia upper aandatona. 



\ 



peav^fti flte Loyvev Magncelati. Numerous imtances are stated ot ^ 
1fi« ofccTiTrence of miBcral in the lower magnesian in Owen's re- 
ports (1847, 1^*52,) and several other localities have been men- 
tioned to me by different individnafej near the Mississippi, and in 
the oouotry betweea it and the Kickapoo, north of the Wise^ontin. 
I fihall however confine myself here to my own observations. 1 
htLV^notjet had time to exploro the country occupied' by the tovr- 
drmagnecian to may extant, and have visited no other divings irf 
tiiatKock^ bat those in the vicinity of Bine river, kitowtr a^ 01^ 
king's Dig^ngs. Theee however furnish Batisfactory ^vidend^ 
thai tkeimmeral oceoiiB in that rook^ in as {Proper oj^ningri, ih Ai 
laogexnasies, ai»d arranged a^^ regularly asiA the upper magntelfaiff 
These diggings are in the sided of a ravine, 60^ — 70 feet dtep^,* 
Ibading to the BIm river, abovt three miled w^st of FrankKn t9i 
lage; She lower magnesiam ooenpiea thd sides of the rsHtS 
nbanlj to the summit, where it is everlaid hy a low bbiff of ISk^ 
upper aaaKdetone. Abont three fourths of the desceni}' below' thle^ 
sandetraie k occupied by a steep elope, fomied by the softer nppigir* 
bed of the louver magnesian^ below whioh- is another lt>w^ bltifP 
fixrmed by the harder middle portion of the same rock. Thre^ 
finccessive op^ngs, one above the other, appeair to occur here ih^ 
the lower magnesian ; one SI — 10 foot below' the sandstone, andth-^ 
ei]»st above the harder middle bed, and a third below the bottom^ 
of the- ravine, in the lalter bed, and at the depth of about TO^ftet^ 
IB the lower magneeian. The openings appeared partly narrow^ 
and vertical, partly wide and flat, with appearances of decomposi- ^ 
tio0 and stain in the rock, depositsof clay and ochreyand arrangie- 
mente of the mineral, similar to those in the upper magB^aD.') 
Flint, such as is peculiar to t^e lower magnesian, is found in the^ 
openings, and is connected with the mineral in the same maimer 
aschaa boen noticed in the flint openings in the upper magnedany i 
The mineral in these openings generally appeared in more or less^*. 
detached masses (chi^nk mineral,) often very large, weighing more^ 
than 100 lbs; a few even more than 500 lbs«* It Was. what la*' 

^Mo viMk^m^'t^jptittieA to lute U^ found irei^ag^O lU 



68 

called pure mineral, free from iron and zinc ores, and atrongly re- 
Aembled that found in the upper vertical openings in the upper 
magneeian. Afber examining this locality, I could not doubt that 
the lower magnesian is a good mineral-bearing rock. 

I have thuB been able to trace the mineral in a series of crevioea 
and openings from the summit of the upper magnesian to the 
depth of 60 — 70 feet in the lower magnesiaui and have found all 
the different beds of limestone good mineral-bearing rocks, each 
with one or more openings, besides vertical or pitching sheets or 
Terns. The small depth to which mining has been extended does 
94)t allow one to traoe the mineral through the whole of the extent 
downward in any one instance, but wherever circumstances per- 
mit of examiqation, the order of succession in the openings is found 
Cq be regular, and in multiplied instances vertical crevices and 
veins have been found passing down from one opening to another. 
It is then probable that the series is generallj continued thiongh 
Che whole downward extent indicated, subject only to such inter- 
mptions as are more or lees common in all veins. The arrange- 
ment appears most analogous to that of the lead mines in the 
Korth of England, where the veins traverse different beds oi 
limestone, separated by beds of other rock (sandstone or grit, 
shale, and toadstone or amygdaloid,) but the mineral is chiefly 
confined to the limestone, the other beds being generally consi- 
dered barren, and where there is a similar combination of vertical 
crevices atid veins with more or less extensive flats, correspond- 
ing to the flat sheets and openings in the mineral district. 

In resuming the statements in relation to the openings in the 
different strata, it will be seen that at least seven well ascertained 
openings, not reckoning their subdivisions, have been found in 
the upper magnesian and blue limestone, namely, two in the up- 
per hed, and one in each of the two lower beds of the former, 
and one in each of the beds of the latter. The lower magnesian 
apparently presents thre^ in the instance above specified : two in 
its upper bed ^«n upper t.nd a lower,) corresponding to the two in 
the upper bed of the u^^^^er magnesian, and one in the lower bed 



69 

at tbat locality, vhich is apparently the middle bed of the whole. 
Admittiog a third lower bed with its opening, the whole number 
of openings in the lower magnesian would be four, and in the 
whole series of mineral-bearing limestones (upper magnesian, 
blue limestone and lower magnesian,) eleven. 

SUEFAOE ARRANGEMENT.* 

In exploring the different diggings, it will soon be evident thai 
there is a great degree of order in the surface arraogemeiit. The 
East and West as well as the North and South ranges wi.l be 
found combined in groups, the different ranges in which are 
almost invariably parallel. The East and West ranges are obvi- 
ously the leading ranges, to which the North and South and qnar* 
tering ranges are appended, but the two latter, particularly when 
arranged in groups, play an important part in the arrangement^ 
and either interrupt the East and Wedt ranges, or shift them lat- 
erally to a greater or less distance. But groups of North and 
South ranges are sometimes interrupted and even shifted by a 
single East and West range. The bearing of the leading rang^ 
known as the East and West ranges, it has already been stated, la 
rarely, if ever, due east and west, even deviating from thatfborse 
as much as 45^ in some instances ; but this bearing is uniform in 
each group, and ofben in an extensive series of groups. In a single 
group of East and West ranges, it will be generally found that the 
ranges have a common limit towards the east and west, but this 
Umit is rarely at right angles to the direction of the ranges ; each 
range successively receding so as to throw the limit into a direc- 
tion more or less oblique to that of the ranges. The whole group 
of ranges will thus take a rhombic form, and if we begin at the 
most western point of the group, will bear either north-easterly 
or south-easterly, according as the ranges recede from that point 

* My yiewB ia regard to the sorfkce amngerorat trera fint formed soon ftfi er I com* 
anced my ezominatioos for the American Miuiog Oompaoj in Maj, 1853, and irer^ 
italed in reports eommnnlcated to the Company in July and Aagnat of that year. 



70 

o»'Uie north or tike 3ontIi. This is called, by observing mipeis, ilie 
direction of the body or weight of the mineral. A remarkably 
ij^tance of this occurs in the three large ranges, adjoining the 
village of Flatteville^ on the Qalena road, (Flynn's, Bevins' and 
the Rountreo range.) The north range (Flyna's) extends farthest 
west, and terminates towards the east nearly opposite the middle 
of the next range (Bevins',) which again terminates towards the 
east nearly opposite the middle of the south (the Rountree) 
range ; the body of mineral thus bearing south* easterly. In this 
inertance, the successive ranges recede much more strongly tihan 
is nsuallj the case in such groups. In other instances, such 
strong recessions take place by groups rather than by single 
ranges ; the particular ranges in each group receding but slightly, 
while the groups recede in the manner above indicated, or even 
itfore strongly. An instance of this kind, where the groups 'suc- 
ceed each other so as to overlap the adjoining hut about half the 
length of the ranges, occurs in the body of mineral extending 
from Vinegar Hill (III.) to South Biincomb (Wise.) near th6 
otato line. In this instance, the groups of East and West ranges 
tfre limited on one side by groups of North and South sheets, 
which shift apparently by pairs from the east to the west side of 
lihose groups. The bearing is to the north-east, but that of the" 
t^hol^ody more oblique than that of any single group. 

The bearing of the body of mineral may be either north-east- 
^Drlj or south-easterly according as the ranges or groups recede 
ip the ea^t on the north or south side of the most wcsterjn point. 
In the instance at Platteville, the bearing is southreasterjy ; ia 
that at Vinegar Hill, northeasterly. In some instances, there ia 
a combination of both, the mnges or groups receding eastward 
.from a given point, both on the north Aud south aid^s of it. This 
18 apparently the case in the body of mineral at Vinegar. Hill, 
which, from a point not far south of that locality, recedes east- 
ward both on the north and the south ; the whole body making » 
bt&nd or curve at that point from north-west to north-east in pro- 
ceeding from the south. 



n 

The groups^ in some iistiiQces, are not marked bja reoestion m 
tiie direction of the ranges, bat are shifted (heaved) transveraelT', 
«t or near their extremitj, the entire width of the group, or only 
-partly 80. A remarkable inetance of this occnrs in a body of 
^mineral traTereing tlie South Hasel Green Diggings, where the 
(bearing in eaeh group is N. N. Easterly, but the enecessire groups 
4lbfft to the north'to a greater or less extent^ and are connected at 
<«adli shift by quartering ranges bearing north-easterly. In tiiia 
instance, the bearing of the entire body is very oblique to that of 
each group, and the groups appear shifted sucoessively to the north 
.by the passage of ^e quarteriiKg.ninges. But though in tbiBtin* 
•frtaMe th^aacceesive groups are shifted to the side on which itib* 
•cai)ges recede eastward, namely, to the north, yet they.magr ha 
ishifted in like manner to the opposite side or the sottth. Ihis.ocewa 
.4tt the. Hobs Diggings, at the northern extrentity of the Haziel Green 
•Diggings, where the body of uifineral appears to £sll back and carve 
Moand from the north-east towards the eaM and south* Xn acme 
iastaneesy the groupsshift altarnately to the north and the^Haaofti 
j>v^6erying in the whole the same general direction, and in ithasa 
inatanoes also, Korth and South or quartering ranges maik >ilia 
poifitfi of eliifking. This may be observed in an extensive body ef 
minaral bearing £. S. Eastevly (the direction of the indiTidnal 
rwge^i) diro^h Swindler^s ridge (Benton.) This may be trstead 
more or less distinctly along a line of 2—^ milesi showing A 
succession of groups shifted alternately to the north and southland 
in some instances marked distinctly by cross rang^ at the peinti 
of 8Liftii>g. Thus the eastern, group (D. Murphy's) is limited on 
the west by two cross sheets bearing north by west, and is succeed- 
ed, after an interval traversed only by a quartering range bearing 
northwesterly, by aoiother group (Ellis') shiifted to fhe iwrth, and 
this by another (J. Edwards') shifted to the south by a crosa 
range bearing south by west. The same succession may be traced 
atill farther west, but less distinctly. In other instancea, a 
series of successive groups or ranges will be shifted to the nortli 
ibr a certain distance, and then to the south, so as to give to tha 
whole a curved outline, like a bow. An instance of this occnia 



79 

at SliTillBbnrg, in the ranges on the hill Bonth of the village, more 
particalarlj in the sonth range, where the Bhift is to the north on 
the west, and to the south on the east, in proceediDg eastward. 
Other instaDces of cnrvilinear arrangement appear to arise from 
snccessive changes in the direction of the ranges, marked, in some 
instances at least, by the passage of ravines, Eanges or gronpa 
with snch curved outlines are called horse-shoes by the minem. 
The Heathcock range at Linden, and the body of mineral ait 
Dodgeville, on which Washburn & Woodman's engine is placed* 
have such an arrangement 

I have thus far traced the arrangement of ranges into gronpe, 
and of groups into larger bodies of mineral. But even the latter 
appear connected in more extensive series, traversing a greater or 
less extent of the mineral district. In such cases, the different 
orders of succession, above noticed, may be combined ; in one 
part of the series, the groups merely receding to the east, like the 
ranges, and in another, shifting to the north or south across the 
ranges ; the direction, in the former instance, approaching north 
and south ; in the latter, east and west Hie different series also ap- 
pear conformable to a certain eitent in their outline; thus show- 
ing a tendency to a general systematic arrangement throughout 
the whole. This more general arrangement will be best pointed 
out in connexion with the detail of the local arrangemeni, and by 
lihe aid of the map representing that arrangement 

The relation of the Korth and Sonth and quartering ranges to 
the East and West ranges is a subject of much interest and impor- 
tance. It has already been observed that the East and West ran- 
ges are apparently the leading ranges, those which predominate 
and give the prevailing direction to the mineral. When the Korth 
and South or quartering ranges are small and insulated, they are 
often cut off or shifted by the East and West ranges. They are 
then considered as feeders of the East and Wests, but are rather 
only offshoots or branches of the latter. North and Souths and 
quartering ranges, when larger or grouped, frequently either en- 
tirely interrupt or cut off the East and Wests, or cause them to shift 



73 

to the right OT left a greater or less distance. Groups of cross raa- 
geaare frequently placed at the termination of groups of East and 
West ranges, in one or both directions. When the direction of 
the bodj of mineral approaches north and south, and the success* 
iye groups only recede, or slip by each other, I have sometimes 
observed these groups of cross ranges only at one extremity of the 
East and Wests, and alternately, singly or in pairs, on the east and 
the west. In such cases, they seem to mark the limits of the East 
and Wests, as well on the side where they are placed, as on the 
opposite ; the ranges being limited in the last direction by the line 
drawn between the snccessive groups on that side. This arrange- 
ment is observed in the body of mineral extending from Yinegar 
Hill to Bnncomb. In this instance, it is worthy of note that large 
qnartering ranges extend from one group towards another, appa* 
rently governed in their direction by the arrangement of the 
Korth and South groups ; bearing E. N. Easterly, where the North 
and South groups succeed each other from west to east, and 
W. N. Westerly, where they succeed each other from east to west^ 

When the groups of East and Wests are shifted to the north or 
south, at or near their extremity, the groups of cross ranges Berf# . 
to connect the contiguous East and West groups at the point of 
shifting. A series of these may be traced, more or less distinctl/i 
along the whole course of the body of mineral traversing the 
South Hazel Green Diggings. 

In some instances, extensive series of North and South groopa 
oecor, traversing a body of mineral in the direction of its bearings 
and in these cases, the snccessive groups are shifted by the pasi^ 
a^ of one or more East and West ranges. The entire series may 
be considered as one body of North and South mineral, successive- 
ly interrupted and shifted by the East and Wests. Two lines of 
such groups of North and Souths occur in the east part of the 
North Hazel Green (Jefferson) Diggings, where the North and 
Souths are shifted to the east towards the south, and to the west 
towards the north, by the passage of the East and Wests. In one 
instance} I observed there a North and South sheet apparently 
10 



^fih^ as it approanhedthe opening in the East and West range^ ad 
&f to pass above it. In other instances, a group of INorth and 
ISonths will be interposed between two corresponding groups bf 
■East and "Wests, generally towards one 'extremity of the latter^ 
4iie l^oi^th and Sonths stopping short of the East and Wests, and 
«tren of short -JTofth and Souths leading towards them from Hre 
(Bast and Wests, and the space between the latter, not indnded 
iiitihe group of North apd Bouths, presenting but slight indica- 
1;ibns "Of mineral. The gronp of North and Souths, at South Hazi^l 
OiiBen, known as the Phelps lot, is such an instance. 

Generally, when ranges having different directions meet each 
otlier, one will predominate, and the otlier be cut off entirely, or 
if continued, be diminished and soon run out. At the same time, 
ihere will be usually an inci'ease of mineral at the point of June 
tjon. But in some instances, the two apparently interrupt each 
other, leaving a space, at their passage, in which little or no min- 
I6ral 'is deposited. In such cases, the different ranges appev 
^ghtTy to affect each otlier and soon resume their former course, 
findli ififstances occifrred at the crossing of East and Wests and 
t?dpfli atttf Souths, in the West Diggings at Shullsburg. 

' 'The most extended bodies of mineral are usually formed by the 
' groups of East and West ranges, whether arranged in. a series bear, 
ing north- easterly or south-easterly, or more directly east and west; 
but in some instances, North and Souths form very extended se- 
Irtes. 'Thus a line of Worth andSouths may be traced at intervals 
«&om the large North and Souths at the East Blackleg Diggings, 
•which cross' the eastern extremity of a large group of East and 
Wests (the West BJHckleg,) to the western extremity of the Shulls- 
llurg Diggings, at S. Townsend's, where the mineral again takes 
tt*L easterly direction. The series is apparently continued in anoth- 
«er body of North and Souths, extending from the East and Wests 
'at Shullsburg, 3—4 miles N. N. Easterly, through the Irish Dig- 
giugSj to the Stump Grove Diggings, where the East and West 
^direction is again resumed. 
The East and Wests generally Ibrm wider openings in which tlie 



r 



jmii^eral ismlarger iH^>mor9^taphed masAQs, a&d in maUdFegulifr 
forms, while tbe SJTorth an^ Souths osQidly pree<eat ooly nursov 
crevices, traversed by more even and ^oiform ^hecits ; 'bat BfMt 
Axi4 Wests not unfrequently take the character of the Ji^orth and 
Souths and carry sheets, while North and Souths, butmueh mq^e 
rarely, present wide crevices (carrying large and eqnigre mlnero^, 
li]ce that of the £ast and Wpst opening^j) and even £at o()eiiin|||» 
in the lower strata.^ Wide^J^prth and South orevice 'ep.ening|f, 
with well marked East apd !W^eat mineried, have heien observed ]^f 
me, at B. Ooe% on thp westsid^ pf ^ever river .(aorth. of Sent^) 
ia the lower bed of the i^per jo^fignesian^ and at thplri^h J^jg* 
ipingf^ north of Shidlsburg^ ip rthe upper bed of the .sameirock;,; m^ 
<i, North and South iiat 9p^Qg» oressuig one pf the regular. £a^ 
and West flat openkigs, at the rBrushhiU Digg;ings, in 'the flint |l^^ 
"Ejf^t and West streets are viecy rare in some didtrio^j but very ffj|^ 
gnent'jn others. Thus,. at I>iib.uque .apd Fairfiay, ihe iE«t ii^ 
Wests are generally crevice xxpemogi or wider vertical apeniiigl, 
while at Hazel Green, East ^and West sheots ve ve^y t^fnepl^ 
l^ro^ppd with wide Pfei^;ng8, as* if append^gfsis of thejf^ttfo:. At 
yinegarHill^ a krge.grpup of jEast i|nd West sheets,. (8-rl04i^ 
lumber) is inte^poeied between two. of tb^ wide* openmg^^ 'XklWf^ 
io^tanices all occur in theoipper bed of the upper .magnepttf^Q^^ j^ 
is a question with the mipers,, wh^ieji* these groups of East ^ai^ 
West sheets may not lead to large opeuings beneath. Tb^St has Imw 
shown to be true at ShuUsbuxig, where mining ha,s be^ cQ9tinue4 
from the openings in the upppr bed of thf upper magneftian. iotf 
the flint bed, and where .dij^^reat crevices above^ bearing atti,i»e^alt 
have been found to enter a common flat opening below. Generally^ 
in the wide flat openings in the lower strata, seis^eral crevicjes.^Yill 
be found to traverse the i:oof, often carrying. sheets of mineral. 

In 4!he different gronps of ranges, whether East and Weslfi or 
North and Sooths, there wiU usaally be fotind some one range 

*In one inbUnce (at Sliav's Hollow,) I observed a North and Soulli sbcet terminating 
atlkORrtdii de^tb (In the flint' bed,) inn fltniflt bave opening^, filled, except near Ihe roof, 
iMtl) Jo«a0<m»fcen«l8O0iii»i|Miig tnaciU o/^ bla(}k osyi of fnjiopiian<Uiiok oshta^ • 



1^ 

lorger^tban tbe rest, called the cbampfon or maater range. But im 
flome groups, particularly vheie the opetinge are generally large^ 
this diBtinctioD is less obviona. 

I have already observed that the term East and West is applied 
to the leading ranges, although they may deviate even 45^ from a 
due east and west course. On comparing the different diggings, 
it will be fonnd that a certain order prevails in the bearing of the 
leading East and West ranges*; the different ranges in each usual- 
ly having a common bearing, and la number of different diggings 
being found combined into a more extended series by the com- 
mon bearing of their ranges. Thns the general bearing of the 
leading East and West ranges is, by the compass, E. 8^ N. in 
the Hazel Green, Fairplay and Lower Menominee Diggings, and 
in those in the adjacent parts of Illinois and Iowa (at 'Vinegar 
Hill, north of Galena, and at Dubuque ;) E. 6* N. in the 
iBmshhill, Whig and Platteville Diggings; E. 20* S. in the 
Potosi, Upper Menominee, Patch and Benton Diggings ; also in 
the 8hallsbarg and Mineral Point Diggings, and in a large ex- 
tent of the eastern diggings, chiefly in the northern part of 
Green county; E. 10^ S. in theOassville and Beetown Diggings; 
also in the S. K Platteville and Elk Grove Diggings; E. 5** 8. 
at North Buncomb, Shaw^ Hollow and New Diggings ; and S. R 
in the range of diggings near Fever river, extending iVom Bnz- 
zard's Boost to the Shullsbnrg branch at Quinby's mill. The bear- 
ing of the ranges haa thus an important connexion with the sya- 
tematic arrangement. It should be viewed in this connected man- 
ner to give it interest both in a scientific and practical point of 
view. 

On looking at the map, in which I have attempted ^to give the 
local arrangement of the diggings, so far as I have examined 
them, a systematic order presents itself, pervading the whole dis- 
trict, which indicates that the mineral deposits are not caanal, 
but regularly arranged. This may be regarded as an impoiiant 
eonfirmation of the facts already stated in relation to the arrange- 
m#at of the mineral in veins. My object, in this map, ia not to 



77 

giTe all the particular rangdSi bntoal/ the mode of arrangemeat,. 
aad the relative extent of the diggiags. It|laclades only that 
part of the mineral district in Wisooasin, already examiQed, witli 
Bome of the cotmacted diggings in the adjoining part of Illinois. 
Had I been able to make a reconaoiasance^of the whole ci the min- 
eral district, the arrangement would have been more completei 
and some of the series better filled than thej now are ; but suck 
as it is, it will serve to illustrate the view I hare taken of the sub- 
ject, and the mode in which I should proceed to]inyesttgata it. 

The first point to which I would direct attention is the occur- « 
eace of several ezteneire connected series of ranges between ' 
which little or no mineral has jet been discorctrod. These series 
OKhilnt a general conformltj in their^arrangement. Beginning at 
the south-west, thej first bear northerly, then easterly, and then 
south easterly ; thui farming an extensive curve. I have already 
observedthatone of these aeries (that at Vinegar Hill, 111.) first 
bears northwesterly (N. K W.) and then northeasterly. This 
course may also be traced in the series next westKtbat at Hdael 
Green,) and the observations which I have thus far made in other* 
series would seem to indicate this as the general arrangement 

The different series, which I have been able to trace, are the 
following, beginning at the n-^rth-west : 1. That fcommencing at 
the Muddy Diggings, north of Oassville, then passing N. N. E. to 
the North Diggings, and then east to theJBeetown Diggings, where 
it expands particalarly towards the north, and towards the east 
shows a beanng to the south east. This is^probably connected 
with the Pigeon Diggings and other diggingsjfarther east, north of 
the line of my present exploration. Qn the south-west, it may be 
connected with the diggings in Iowa opposite Cassville. 2. That 
extending from near the mouth of Grant river through the differ- 
ent groups of the Potosi Diggings to the Bed-Dog Diggings in a 
north-easterly (N. N. B.) direction; then east by^the Brusbhilland 
Whig Diggings to the Piatteville Diggings, where it expands to- 
wards tho north; and then in an £. S. £. |direction through the 
South-Bast Piatteville and Elk Qrove Diggii^s.to the Strawberry 



78 

Diggings, wh«re it is interrupited "by a wide extent of prairie ftr-^ 
ther east, in Tvhich no ranges h&ye yet been traced. This is proV 
ably connected in range with the diggings west of the Mississip- 
pi, in a direction, south froih Potosi, (the Macoqneta and DubiKjtife' 
Diggings,) which would farther complete it on that side. 3. T-bat^ 
cmnmettcitig near the sonth line of the State in the Fairplay Dfg- 
gtogfl, and extending northerly (first N: N. E. then N. H. W.y 
through the Lower Menominee to the Upper Mehotninee (Jameff-^ 
town)* Diggings; then bearing E. N. E. through tfee latter, then 
Bhiftiog Dorthrcasfierly to tlie Pbtdh. Diggings^ then paasing £. B. £• 
t^tbeBnzzard^Blloost Diggings, and then bearing: Bootb^eaBt to^ 
tliet&hnlkbcirg braiiob, nortibof iKew Diggings. This is probtt* 
biy connected with the Lower GaJena Diggings,. in- the forhs. o£^ 
Eenmsr river and the Mid8i8fii|>pi, S. 6. E. of the Fairplay Diggings 
4; That indndiog the Hazel Qreen Diggings^ which maybe trai3«d^ 
friam thode diggings. into Illinois, first S« S. W. tiieo & & £« to^ 
the Upper Galena Diggings (north of Galena.). On its westenif 
bbrdctii, in His HazeK^een Diggings, it bears N.lf. E. totheSosa* 
Diggings, and then curves around to the E. S« E. through the Benr 
ton Diggings to Fever rivter at Benton. 5. That inolndingF tbe^ 
Yinegiur Hill Diggings, bearing N. N. W. to Vinegar Hill, then 
no^th^eaaterly to Bunconib and Shaw's Hollow, and them easterly 
through the New Diggings. 6. East of the south-east poiut of 
series .3) the E. S. E. direction of series 4 (at Benton) is resumed aif 
i^omefit and Spenceley's Diggings on the ShuUsbnrg branch, and 
co^ntino^d through the Shullsbnrg Diggings. Tliese We interseet^ 
ed by the extensive range of liortix and Souths leading^from the> 
East Blackleg (connected with .a series of East and Wests on th^ 
!Eiast Fork of Fever river) through the North and Soudis at Town- 
sMd's BSkd the L'ish Diggings, to the East and Wests at Siamp 
Grove, N. N. E. of Sbullaburg. 7. A series of small groups may 
be traced easterly, in a lino east from the Strawberry Diggings^. 
thffOQgh Skidmore's and Halstead's: Diggings, by Dariington, t9. 
Whiteade's Diggings, whence it. bears soath-eastorly to the Wiote/^ 
Diggings; 8. Another series,. oojBimenoing at King!s and tto' 



\ 



SorkeADaerDig^ge^ wosbof the West Pecfttoiriica» etta&dft<fi»to 
E. N. Easterlj by tiie Dnk.'e Prairie Diggings to the Yellow B^obai 
Diggingf, tbea through these in ageueral eesteriy course tptW 
Bast Pecatopioa^ and to Bigga' and the Badger Diggings, and thent 
Bmkth-easterl; by Shook's Prairio (the Aspen Grove Mine) tda 
Skinner's Diggings and others north and east of Idionroe. 9. Iher 
diggings tl Mineral Point apparently form part> of another tm*i 
riee, ooDsmeseing on the sotttbweat at the forks oi the> West) 
P^catoaieaf and the Mineral Point branid^. and themee beanriig^ 
]S« TR\ Eaakerly , biH the course of which I haye not yet had an oppeow ^ 
t«aity o£ tracing satisfactorily to the dorth'^aat and east:. ISdil 
seiies perhaps ext^ida bj Dodgeville, Sidgeway and^ thtt'BliM< ' 
Moundsf to Exeter; first bearing. N. N. S. to Dodgeville, tlMPr 
east to the Blae Mounds, and thettsonih-east to ita tevminatibti'^^ 
the valley of Sugar river. 

These series are in some instances oonaected by intenmdiMeo 
groups. TIms' the South- West Platteville Diggings/ may ba : o(m^\ 
sidered As intermediate between series S ati the Patch Dig^gair 
and series 2 at the main body of the Platteville Diggings. Qth- . 
er instajDoes will be stated in the details following. In no part ef > 
themaeral district examined, have lobserjed so great a.oeQ]iex<^^ 
ioikof different series as at Benton and New Diggings, wberO'> 
several seem to concentrate. ^ ' •( 

The gronping of the Bast and Wests by theif bearings does not ^ 
correspond strictly with this arrangement in cont^ected series, but ' 
has important relations to it. Thus the bearmg E. 10** S. pre- ■ 
vails through series 1, as far as yet examined, and in the east part ' 
of series 2, where it bears R 8. R; but these two divisions are * 
remote and detached. That of E. 20^ S. prevails in the Potesi 
Diggings in series 2, the Upper Menominee and Patch Diggings * 
in series 3, the Benton Diggings in scries 4, and the Shnllsburg ' 
IlfiggingB in serieS' (l« These extend acrosa the oonntry in a gener- 
al KSj £ difQctioH, sndinelude all the diggings in their course,' 
exoapt the sonth^east point of series 3. "Hie same bearing is ob- * 
aervedinf Ule Mineral Point Diggings and in most of the digging^ ' 



\ 



80 

eafttof the East Pecatonica in Green Go., inclnding those in the 
east part of series 8. The bearing E. 8^ N. prevails in the sonth- 
west part of series 2, 8, 4 and 6, presenting one great body of 
mineral from west to east, the most remarkable and that whioh 
•hows best the predominance of the East and West ranges. Dif- 
ferent ranges are supposed to be continued throngh the whole ex- 
teat from the Dabuqne Diggings on the west to the Hazel 
Qreen Diggings on the east, and even farther, and some are said 
to hiave been traced throngh by sarvej. At least it may be af- 
firmed that the series formed in nearly an east and west line, by the 
Dabuqne, Fairplay and Hazel Green Diggings, and continued 
through those at Benton, New Diggings and ShuUsburg, is the 
moat connected and regular and in the whole the most produc- 
tive of any in the mineral district. 

Some series of less extent or more interrupted may be traced, 
conforming in their arrangement to the more extended series, and 
perhaps indicating the course of bodies of mineral which hare 
not yet been explored. Thus one such maybe traced from a 
group of ranges S. S. E. of Sinsinawa Mound (Gautier's and oth- 
ers,) N. N. E. by Tamer's Diggings to the Findley Diggings on 
the west fork of the Sinsinawa, and to the source of the east fork 
of the same. The large bodies of mineral recently found at Tur- 
ner's Diggings would seem to indicate that farther important dis • 
coveries may yet be expected along that line. Slighter indica- 
tions of another such series may be Iraced, between the Mississip- 
pi and the Great Menominee, from Gilbert's and Henderson's 
diggi"g3, just south of the State line, by Sinipee to the Wolf 
DiggingSi near Dickeysville (Paris,) west of the Jamestown Dig- 
gings. These lines of detached diggings, although they may be 
as yet of little importance, are worthy of notice, in connexion 
with farther searches for mineral, or as guides for prospecting. 

In tracing the different series, it will be found that the different 
groups succeed each other in a certain order, variously modified 
indeed^ but yet tending to a general system. The following de- 
tail will serve better to illustrate the arrangement of the series. 



«1 

TkMy ^dfkmiAg tfie irert Imi&t of Ae fint wtiMy it will be ftttftff 
tbl>toriioraM88lfiM4y ftom the Huddy IKggkgs (1 a^y to the Kerfli 
ZKggiirgB (1 i,) 8tid tiien east to tbe ^scmtb-wMl ])Ohi^ of (he See* 
fo#ii Diggingd, which firet preaefot 8 large groop ef fiasrti and Wert 
rttDgeB Ohe MHseektige B^glnge, I o,) extowdlng &ort!befly atleng 
flie eftit fide ef Battlemake ereek* Thie is marked towatAa IJbe 
norfli by a line of qftarteridga, bearing northeasterly, al B^yywo'ii 
range, indleatftyg^a recession to the north-east. On the south, thfii 
gfmip is connected with a groop ferther ett^t (the Kip and Tnek 
Diggings, 1 €^) in whieh nmnerons Korth and Booths are com^ 
bined'with fewer East and Wests, marking a similar direction ti 
the norfli. Kest succeeds the main body of mineral in this series 
(the proper Beefown Diggings, 1 a,) in the ridge^betweeit the Be^ 
Ikrwn brandi and ChvntriTer, and in a position, on die whde, &)S 
tker north than the two latter gronps. Tlie bearing of thls^ ii 
aeath-easteriy; tbeaExa:e northern ranges extending fkrtiier west; 
sad the more soirthern fkrther east, and this bearing is ftlilh^ 
DMirkisd' by qn a rteri i yg attdl!7orth and Sonths, bearing in AW 
aame genera} direction.* A detached gronp (Basletti'i^ Diggings/ 
1/) M. If . E. df Hre nortb-wesC point of the proper Beetown IKgi 
gtngs, feims ttte norlbem limit of diis series, and is' apparently 
oratinned & 8. Eastiriy in a sbiaS gronp of diggings on the east 
side of Oraat river.f ^ 

The series 2 also presents a similar snecession of groups. Ihe 
Sontir Potosi Diggitogs (2 a,) commencing' on the east* bank at 
Grant river, near its mouth, extend K. K. £• along the east side 
of Blgby hollow to the summit between Potosi (Snake) hollow and 
the waters of the Platte, and from this line bear "E. S. Easterly,, 
extending much farther east towards the north than towards the 
south ; the group forming a curve, analogous to that of the en- 
tire series, directed towards the Patch and Upper Menominee 
Diggings. After a considerable interval, another group (Oraig's, 

*Tk6nDg9 c«lMiKacti» tnd 9#otlMkat« Imbb *ir. W.-^S. B. beiffii«. 

i Thii last gmp ^hMj foni« a o«n»«don betTeen tlie BstUnra and Pf gaaft iKg* 

11 



82 

BiggingSi 9 1) commences at Boenavii^tai wJi^e it it markeil oa tke 
west by a line of KortU and Soathe, bearing around from 
S. 8.K0Q theaontk to N. N. £» on the north| and limltix^ the 
Saat'and W^sts in thi« gro^p on the west The south-east border 
of this gronp is also marked bj Korth and Son^ bearing ST, ^^ 
Easterlj. This is followed by. a series of groups saccessivalj 
receding to the east towards th^ north (Cojle's, BpckyiUe, Piu^ 
hook and Bed Dog Diggings,) the >la$t of which (2 c) terminates oa 
the east in a bluff on the west side of the JBig Fl^tte. This last 
group is particularly marked by q^uartering creyices^ indicating a 
pbange in. tibe ^direction of the series Uf the east In Hie interval 
£rom the Ked Dog Diggings to the Platteyille Dlggiiigs, only two 
considerable groups, the BrushhiU and Whig Diggings {2d^2.e^) 
bearing nearly east and weist, mark the course, of tb^ series. The 
Platteyille Diggings (3^) then form an exteosiye body of mineral^ 
bearing north-easberly from the South -West Diggiiigs (3/) through, 
the line of diggings along the south side of Platteyille yillagOi in-, 
eluding the three ranges on the Galena road alrei^dy notiped, to, 
two large groups north of the village, successively receding easU 
A line of ranges, east of the. village, also bears north-easterly from, 
the east point of the group south of the village, extsnding east, at 
its north-east point, in p, projection crossed by Korth and Souths. 
The series is then^ continued in a direction E. S.£. frc^a the group, 
south of the village, through the South-East Platteyille Diggii^ 
(2 A) to the north west point of the Elk Grove Diggings (2 e) at J.. 
Phillips' farm. The principal groups in the Elk Grove Diggings • 
extend K N. E. from their south- west point at Hutchinson's Dig^ 
gings, along the west side of the west branch of Fever river to 
their north-west point above indicated, and then bear E. S. East- 
erly to the NorHi Diggings near the Elk Grove and Mineral Point 
road. A few more isolated ranges lie south of the latter towards 
Elk Grove village. Farther in the same E. S. E. direction, is a. 
large detached group (the Strawberry Diggings, 2^',) on the east 
side of the east branch of Fever river, also extending N. K fe ; 
marked, on the south, by a remarkable change in the direction of 



S3 

die rangeB from a sont^-eadt to an £. S. E. bearing (that of the 
ranges in the main body of the gronp towards the north.) East of 
ffais gronp, there is a wide interval in which no ranges have been 
discovered. The series 7 commences at Skidmore's Diggings 
nearly east from the sonth point of the Strawberry Diggings, and 
In the direct interval between these, traces of mineral have been 
discovered at the Light-House tavern, on the Platteville and' 
Shnllsbnrg road, perhaps indicating the passage of ranges along 
that line. 

The next series (3) commences on the south with a very exteiH 
give group (the Fairplay Diggings,) extending, along its western . 
border, from its S. W. point near the State line, in a N, K. K 
direction, with a series of recessions to the east, most strongly 
marked towards the north. Iliis may be divided into two subor* 
dinafe groups, separated by the east and west hollow at Fairplay 
village. The South group is divided into two parallel se- 
ries, bearing northerly, in which the ranges generally cor- 
respond, but separated by an interval. lA which most of the 
ranges are apparently interrupted or have not beeA followed* 
The ranges, however, are more connected towards the north; the 
two series uniting in the ridge south of Fairplay village* The 
western series (3a,) along the. east side of the Fairplay branch, waa 
discovered and worked five years before the other, along the west 
side of the Sinsinawa Mound at th^ Jamestown Mine.^ The most 
northern ranges and the most southern in the eastem series (3&). 
extend or at least have been worked much farther east thaa the 
intermediate ranges. Tlie Northern group (3c) projects sL'ghtly to 
the west at its S. W. point, and the9 recedes to the east^ at first 
more slightly in a number of extensive ranges, and then largely 
towards the north, where it forms a subordinate group of less ex- 
tent from east to west, and terminates in a detached r^nge on A. 
Taylor's farm. From this point the series projects to the N, W.; 
its courise in that direction being marked by three successive 
groups of East and Wests, crossed by N*. West quartering ranges 

* Tin diggiDSt in the W«rt Mito wera ftrndc to 1841-a ; tlu)M in th« Eaal, in 184^ 



le)|^U^ towiknj9 thf) w^t point of the ITpj)^ ^^nominm IMl^ 
ffiD^. Qf these ^oupa. the accoi^d (th^ I^ewer ItfeiPpioipee Bi^^t^ 
gin^y 3d)i h th^ moft cQx^icler^l^^ Th^ IJppj^ Jdjenomip^ 
Jamestown) Diggii^ (8a,) presept a flerjeei of ^ast f^xi W^% 
A)earing £. S. l^,,) the most ^oiithern cojmmeixcutg ^tbe^t y^Bsi^ 
and the more ^ortibieFa recedins^ Bncces^av^jr to th^ east ii^ groiapfi. 
Qyerlappii?|f eaoh oth^x morq pr lef i^i tfeei bawi^g of H^ vM^ 
bod J of n^in^i^ being £• IJT* K. On coinpiMrii^ the 9erie8 ^ihot:^ 
dinate to series 8 on the east, the first groap will be found 8. S* £}« 
from the 8. E. point of the Fairplay Diggings; the second, east 
of that point; the next (Tamer's,) nearly ei^st of the subordinate 
group at the N. E. point of the Fairplay Diggings; the ^ez^ 
(l«^ndley*s,) nearly east of the Lower Kenominee Diggings.; an4 
the last (at the source of th^ east fqrkpf the Sin8inai;ra3 £. T$. £. of 
the east point of tl^e Upper Menominee I)iggings and south of th% 
Patob Diggings. The Patch Diggings (8/*,) th^ ne^t ini succession 
to the Upper Menominee Diggings, lie. considerably to the IS. £^ 
of the latter, in a direction towards the PUttevine Diggings^ and 
occupy an intermediate position between them. They consist 
chie^y of a main body of East and "Wests, crossed on the west anc^ 
east by groups of Korth and Southei, which serve, to mark the 
limits in those directioi^s. la the interval between tbe Pq^tch 
I^iggiJig* aiid the Buzzard's Ropst Digging?, in an E. 8, E. direcf 
tion, Z have observed only ^ sipall group, a little 8. E. of tb^, 
forks of the Platteville and Elk Grove roads, The Buzzard's E^oost 
Diggings (8^*,) are the commencement of a series, of diiggipgs (8AJi 
dready mentioned, bearing sout^i-ea^erly across Fever river to. 
the Shullsburg branch. These diggings are in the lower bed of 
the upper magnesian and in the blue limestone, principaUy in the 
f<mner. Hey include thoeie along thp west side of Fever river to 
the Missouri branch near Benton, and those betwecA Fever river 
and the Shullsburg branch to the Benton and Shullsburg rpad. 
This is the only in^tanc^ I have yet observed of such a 8. E. di- 
rection of the leading ranges. That this direction is not d^riv^4 
from the strata in which the diggings are situated is shown by thau 



I 



HiSettnt d&cictloti of the tttn^ in tile dfttne itftAA both M Huie^ 
rai Fbittt &nd in the nhmediittiie rien^ity !n ,th^ drjr-bone d'T^giii^ 
li^t o^ iShiUlitofg. The tdwe]" ObUli)! Digging, iR the fbi'lb oi^ 
FdVter riVer foi Hhe MtteiBsl^pi, B. W. rf Oaleh^ Hit Ih » B. B. 2; 
Oft^dtfon fiy^m fbii Fiiirplajr Bfj^^n^ Cc(^iifohnabl}r t6 Ai^ alfiUil^ 
Itii^ 6bher\^ed in 8brf^8 4 ind ft,) htat I Mri i^oi yrt iiufeed & 
cEE^etet tlontxeidSotL betWeeti tniMi* 

BidrieB 4 may he donsidered ias dommencing in £he tTpper ^^ 
lena l)i;^ging8| oh the weikt sidlB of l^ever river^ adljoining (j(^alen4 
htx the K • £. It extends noftk-westerly from these by dbmstoc^^ 
Diggings to the Camp ^'roand, west of the JGfalena iCnd Itineral 
Point road, whence it bears northerly, west of that road, to the 
6. yft. jidiht drtb6 Jhmiit^n Di^ghi^,hi ftlkUie^ of lfr6itt[knd 
MAitfasmy^oihbked ^th Eltet and TfiMto, ^^r&(MMj ^iristik 

ttU^flV df Stet and ^^tk, IdiUhdhli^ ioWixHlft the 8iri«linaw4 Hye^« 
^e mttA Qi^ri Diggings itoamiehci tkM the iiorth )(>otht of (i^e 
^M of Kettb dktd Bbntin, jtM menf iolhe^ !n l!h6 i^^^arkable bod^^ 
Hit jtLihmi (i V) tr^VMing theih In an H. 17. !E. dti^ti6n, all-ea^^ 
Mfbired to. iniikpi^sents il ^^iei 6f iA^t grohpd, shimng sfaccAsH- 
iVely to the torth, o^ to the leit, lind ^zltending about two mifes, 
%, ai alinoBt nnthterfnpted i!^rieb, A'om ^e ^. Vt. co'rher of the 
'^iggingb to Ball !Bi*anch, on tiieir eastern border. tTwo large 
^npd 6f N6M and Spilths (the northern Imown as the Phelps 
Idt,) with East and Wests intervening, extend north from the fourth 
^ottp to a deta^hq^ fitr^iip of East and Wests, nearly Mrest of the 
Wghdi group. North of th^ B. 1V. point of this body of mineral, 
t Itfrge group of East and Wests (the Pdrdy lot. 4 c) projects lb 
ihe west, and npt fi^r N. E. 6f this a 6^riies of In orth and Bouth'a 
tsbmmences and extends first al6ng the ^^st border of the main 
body of the diggings to Culverts gtoup, bearing N. N. E.; tJieh 
tffosses towards the east side of the diggings (at 4^,) and is there 
continued to their northern bordel", first bearing H*. N. E. and 
iben mere direody north. East of this line of Iil#rtb and Bontfas) 
before its shift to the east, difhtant ^npi of Bast Ad^WiMlh 



firoBB the diggipgA more or less conformably -to the coarae of the 
body of mineral on the soudL Farther north (at JefForaon lil- 
iagO)) a namber of large East and Wests, accompanied with smaL- 
ler, particularly on the oast, cross the Korth a^d Souths, inter- 
rupting and shifting them in their conrse. Farther north-weat, is a 
lieries of ranges (Rocky Point ancj Waterloo Diggings,) bearing 
more E. N. Easterly, and the whole series is UoMted in that direa- 
tion by two detached groups, neai^y in line, one of <N. N. Easts 
(the Dutch lot,) west of Culver's group, and the other of E. K: 
Easts, on the north, (the Hoss Diggings, 4a,) in smaller groups 
successively shifted to the south, marking the turn of the series 
from north to east. 

The body of nQiineral along the south bord^ of the Hazel Gteeeii 
pig^ngs ip continued in a. series of r group9, also shifting to ttM 
north, through Langworthy's Digging to Oopn Bran(^(sonth-west of 
Benton,) east of w:hioh the series is continued in a direation east 
"by south towards the Kew Diggings. East of the iN^orth ao4 
Souths at the north-east point of the Hazel Green Diggings, a lai^ 
group of East ^nd W^t sheets (the Sheet lot) extends across the 
high ridge west of Ooon Branch towards the Benton Diggings;^ 
and is bordered east by groups of Korth and South sheets 
(Selkirk*s and the Pry-Grove Diggings.) The JK)rthem border of 
series 4 bears E. K. E. from the Hoss Diggings to a small groujp 
of East and Wests* not far east of the Platteville road, whence a 
series of groups extends E. S. E. to the east point of Swindler's 
ridge (4/*,) north of Benton village ; more interrupted towards the 
west, and more approximated towards the east. These have been 
referred to (p. 71,) as shifting alternately to the north and the 
south through their course. Three parallel lines of ranges, withVi 
similar E. S. E. bearing, occur farther south, towards the Sheet 
lot) the most considerable of which commences on the west in the 
Pole range and extends with some interruptions to the diggings 
at the south end of Benton village (4^.) 

. *TliMMlilMb«ommenMai«iitonei«wertlMirB.V.S^'MdtliMB.a&ka 



87 

•Seifca 5 commences on Fevei' river near the junction of the 
eftBt fofk (in nJinois,) and extends north-westerly to the sonth-west 
point of the Tinegar Hill Biggings, and then north-easterlj again to 
Pe?er river at Bnncomb, forming a well marked' curve. This 
part of the series is tnarked throughout by a succession of groups' 
advancing west to Vinegar Hill tiud thefn receding east fb Bon- 
eomb, almost tinliitermpted in the latter direction, forming there^ 
the main body of the series (5e»,) already referred to as showing 
ibm €&motidB«pf ^bodiea^^f .namerai obliquely crossiag the l>Qarlpg 
of;Ae Taiigca'(pk^.) /Itis^i^ eharttctaBxized thvongboot th» 
gpeeater paM if jsot the whole of it9 extent bygroups of North and 
Soolha bordann^ ihe gtoups of East Mid* Westaon the ctbst oi' 
^eil This arjningiaoieQtia remarkable (is'the Koithahd Soathtf 
boarder the Eaat and Wests altemiatriy ia pairs on the eaat ' and; 
the: west; qiiartearidgj*aBge8, in a oorrespOoding direetioBy aH the 
q^e-iinfe ttafkiog the 6hift»of tiie Koitb and Soatbs. At Bnn^ 
<Kmb^ Ih^ seriiB diridea ; ihe janeist oonneoted poltion {5b) ex- 
tMl^log tioriky ,ap Ball Brftach^ (fowiurda titus. eaat paint t>f the bodyr 
of mim^fal crosaiag Ihe. south pii?t of iha Haeed Green Xlig^ing» p 
tb9 ottier (5^ shifting U> the! east to the west side of Ooon Bmneh/ 
and then.cdtntinned north through W. Gillet'a diggixtgs to the dig-^ 
gitige at Shaw's HelloW) wbdre it approaches tha east point of 
LangWofthj's Di^gingSi above notioed^ From this point the seriea w 
continued e^steriy to tiheKew Diggings (&21) InthisserieeyatBon- 
oombi Are ti^o. imporftan^l flat and pitching dry^bQue (ainc) mines; 
on0 (Coi:e's) ou the . west aide of Ball Brondh ; the other (GUlet'^ 
on the east side of Fever river, Of^site the northeast point of 
tiie main body of the series just mentioned. The bearing of tha 
ranges in this mlun body is tnortb of east (E. 8^ !N.;) that on< 
Ooon Br&iiehy south c^ ei^st (Ej 5^ 3« ;) and this bearing . is oon^ 
tijaited in a few groups of diggings between Ooon Branch and 
Fever river leading from the diggings at Shaw's Hollow to the 
New Diggings, and throu^out the latter^ which terminate tha 
series on the north-east. The seriea is moat largely developed ia 
themfuobodyoiitbeaouth-westandinlthe New Digginga,and 



^rea snoie largely ia the latter tliaa in the formwc. Setween tlie 
JKTftV BvEB'^e* ^^d ^^^ ^^^ P<>i^^ ^ aeriea 3, th«re is a krgfr 
I^KM^ of East and We»ta (the Democi»t DiggiogSi f «,) between 
Jbier rivar and the Shallsburg brasch, in which the beoxiag of 
tiienuagea ia]L( 10^ S^ and in nearly the uune Eaat— West lia^^ 
£irtber#ait» is the great Dewd ftnd Kaginnie niQge, with aer* 
fpal aa^ompaajing East and Wert laogefl, Ol/i) Uaitedon the 
ftmt I9 a large North and Sonth (the £Uii xange.) 

1W £: & E. £iwtioQ of ih« raagea at Bealim IB agam mn^^ 
en the nocAh side of the 8haHabai|f fanuichy eaat ot tka aootk |«tft 
«f e«iaa S, aa Eafpieat and SpeaceiejH^ XMggvgt. (lo^ in Hm 
lawepkedef thenppermagaaiian. Thia K 8. £. Bams (6) ia eoo» 
Mnaail in die fihoHalmrg Dry-bone IMgginga <6&|) lathe aame bod^ 
and than shifting aoBlh aen)eatfa0 braneh to TonnsodPs Dlggfaiga 
(itfy) ia fSHiiiar oontinned^ wiftk UtHe intemptioBy ih|)oa|^ tiiii 
Budn body id the flNrallabarg Dig^aga ifid^) terminated en liha 
eaat by nameSoEas Norih and 8e«tha traTevied by • fvw Basfc mi 
iPeelB. Thediggii^inlfaeeastpartef the eeriee, aenth of tte 
biaoetv aee in tiw i^pet and middle beds of tteapperiaagnesinaw 
!|la{f oommence^ on the weat|in latgeNorAaod Sonthsyflt Itvna- 
a^d'a Diggings, which are apparently in tfieline of thelarg^ 
Vorth and Soirfha at the i^st Bkokleg Bie^age^ as lAimAf 
BStfeeed. Then occoia an eatensive gvoap of £ast and WeatSi 
crossed \ij many Nortb and Soisl;fas, sotne off thecn «aleiisit^ M^ 
Ifywed by the, d%gings on the south of Sh^lkbni^ ^i^lage^ beyond 
^hieh aro the North aad Soaths terminating the series. The cBg** 
ginga soQlJi of the yiUage haTS been worked eztensiTely by 
daaimng in die middle (fluit) bed of the npper magiieelan) and- 
have been among the most prodnotife in the whole mineral di#-< 
trict North of tiie west part of tbe diggings at Sbnllsbnrg vil- 
Ihge, the Irish Diggings <«a) extend from the Shnllebarg bransb 
ini a series of groups of Nordx and Sonths, crossed by a Ibw Eastf 
and WeslB towards the sonth, saceessiTely Shifted to ti>e east or 
toithe waet, and eontinned across the summit between the wvtesfr 
df Bevsr rttwr and the Fecatonioa to a groap of Eastand WealB at? 



wkjmkwmn$a^MmimA cUggiiig» iriiioh I luiV« Ml :filt tttitttfl; 

Hie tittt mriwB if)kt( 1«bb impotttots6 frotn the ettcfnt of tliS 
dfggbigs^ btlfi is wMttg^d eoflformably (x> the pi^miiing ordfe^. 1 
te»<^#li>eid)^ Aotioed ite «6nii0XKNQ iriOi theeftst patt of MitfA !• 
ikt4iiioM'9 IXggifif{«i (tt;^,) tiie fifM toimrd* {be irett, eons&tflr 6f 
iQ MCtetitive KcM^ Hkd Bc^tli Mvge of gnotlp of MmgtA^ MttM^ 
«d Willi ^IkwmmVmH^vsAHf^ iNiiig^. Kext fn fiiri i&A^ 
tt%tw^^mil gyotalM <^]^Mkiiftd 0btitlii Attbe ttBoid of II bM^ 
dTflM W^ ^MrtoiilM^ Ii<mA oif (SMttrt^, tttfthen tW6 mM gfoiipi 
ellMtt^yd Weett<&«BMtod% and Bee^d,) knt^ 46wtt t&e Wkdt^ 
Sm Bm 6f liie 9etM8 ^aiMI by Bliftiiq|;tofr, mA URot m Idbf^ iU^ 
tirnllkee%rfe«i»i>eM^MfinWM(^^ it gMttj^ 

tfT StelL«tid Weettxsresietf teihit^ Uto we^ by s^^titf HfMi itttf 

WMt'eve tloetiy cotfo^t^by F<^rl!b flMd SottO: Ikttd qtUtHer^ 
iMtei, 13i#beiilteg (tf the body efnrilidrali^ 

^e next ^rfes (S) commended o^ the Weet in the !l^oried-t>eer 
JMggitrgd, west of the Wedt Pecatonic4. Ia t^^ese diggingg^ 
diefe iQre at leaet four ptotUel tineg of East and' West rangefl^ in- 
^ode^ between t^Tood^^ branch on the soiith, tod !6onner^B brtoclf 
on the north. In the soeth line (8^,) ftlong VTood'a brandh, flie 
A'ggsoga are hi the bhie Bneateco *. hv'tiie dtlMr Bnw ^ in the 
wmMb aad iawctf bede ^{Umixp^eiB magndaion^llhtf geft^mlbeaiu 
ilig la liieee diggrngs ia ;B« fi.Sk Sia^t ]!>iisgi>ig« («<s^) co ^ 
tfonth sitfa of VTo^'a biwoii neer tf^ W. Peoatonioa^ aitt itfow 
iKtaohed, and User iidgnlar ini their bearfhg { pr^enling tmt 
gmbpiBiof 'R.'Sf.lL ^ttigeB, one on the novtSiy the o&er im UmI 
^ib) cobnedted bjf B^ fi. Ei regies. !Rie s^ee is cobtisTded 
B.H. £. ftittiM Dal^'ePrrtrfoDlggia^ (8(2,) o% a (bw wtaA 
awl det^dMld. di^ingb iniliRTeiiiog, Kudi; ai PUQub'^ on tfae4BafiV 
aUeiof^tte W. BecaUoita/ ojcipoiU^e BonneFe byAb(^v and Bebtoi, 
otOtltof Qr0ekv;iiteMdjr«aetof Smg^ Diggings^ b^tkiiv the Ifrnw 
12 



96 

h^ oC the iippjbr ma^ld^do. :Tk« cti^^gd at DotoV F^eaiH^tpr^ 
60Qt:tMro pri&^ejpi^l'lijieb of East and Weista^ fecediDg.east tonrarda 
tlie iiprti}^ Tiorth^aj^t <>f \vlucb, 1—3 mil^ distaat, are tw^ pjier 
line^ of East and TJ^eats (White's .and Graham'&s) apparentlj or^ 
ceding ea«t towards thor 6<;wtli. Xbe seri^ is stlU farl^eif ^K^ntmoi^ 
i^earjj east from^the latter, in the Y^liowfitQne DiggingSi which 
9j(tend in a.g^Qeral, dii»ctiic« ii^r}; leapiiKto^ w^r^r-S xiiUq% 
from theYeUow^Stonetbraooh iq.tbe',JS«.P(ec4t{«9bim. ThjiaiiM lof 
d^gu^ ijnaj \fe di^id^d inip' ^hr^/«lfectippi,$ .^cf 0nih»w%^ 
8d^ aloBg tb?. ;K)rth eid^ of .^he tYeUtefr^gtow^ tearing, m^Hrly* 
east and w^at^ a^otlier e]^di!ngaoi7tb'«a(iteri7,>al0|}g.the 6pt(tir 
west side qf McClintock's bri)«ic^.j and a .t^ird ($/s) faring 
^<^lj ^a^tand wept fit>uiHcCli/i^ck|s JbiywplikliP. th^iS. i^ciAtoiir 
icfi.^ ;Ih^ooarae of the.aeri^afarth^ eiwjt.i^ ji»iur^lld oj^y byik 
fejwdi^^hed djjg^ijgg, fit first l^^qg mopf» c^t a^' iweey^ an4 
^en^noKm. aoifUi-easterlj to ^e.digging^ ^north .andj. of^fe of iCo»t 
roe. ^^jtie Ifije &;at ahi^ to th« i^orth; to the ]^orjfch[ Grove Dig^ 
gin^ga, T^s^of ^^ ^•^ Fecatonicaj then to the aaiUh<to Biggi' 
Diggings, and again to the,npr;th to t^e Badger, DiggipgB, whe&4^ 
tak^a a aonth-easter^ direction hy the Aspen Grove )f ine(^,) 
Skinner's Bigginga and others of less, note to a point east of 
Konroe. South, of this line is a shorjt detachs4 series of three 
groups, east of Argyle,. including H,* and J* 3cott's Di^ogf^ 
bu<^ apparently in the general line of series 7. , . 

.; The laat Beraes (9) I have only partblly traced atits oomoieiioe^ 
ment te the 8Qtth..w0at in the Mineral Pofait Biggings. Iheae 
prQBent. a series of Bast and West Tanges, more or less grouped, 
extending from the West Pecatonioa across the 'ITineral Point 
tamch to Bocky Branchi and fonhing a body of mineral 
bearing K^ JS. Easterly towards ihe diggings at and west of Dodge* 
tiUe. The general bearing ^{ the ranges is £. 8. E. <£. 20^ &> 
▲ part at least of the ranges in these diggings are lead-bearing on 
tlie west and eopper-bearing on the east ; the general body^ofniiap 
end being thnis divided, in the direction of its bearing, into two pa^ 
inHel seotiiMiSb I haTe not yet traoed thia series farther nordLthaa 



I 

the DreadaongM Min^ already^ notiotd ; but fnom a bostj rieWf 
X have conaidered it as oontiated Borlh^eaaterl j to tbo DodgeriUe 
IUggingSy and theii|4ii a geoai^ eadterlj dirMtiob, tlirough tha 
diggings at HesBeisburgi Plorter'a Grove and BMgewaj^ to thoae 
at theBloe Hoands, wJ^en it appavestly takes. aifionAh^eaatarly'dt 
sSQtioB to QampbeU^ iD'^gi^gt) noitix of Monticello, and this 
Si^ar IUv#r Piggidgn at JEketen The last fona a groap of .£aal 
and W«fit8^ beatiiig £| 64 B.) aadatfirat i^oediag eaattoiwda iba 
aoxith, thus forming a body of mineral bearing aontib-oafitorly* 
The moBt sonthem ranges, howeyer, appear to recede to the w^t; 
the "wliole body thus forming a curve. 

The preceding remarks will derye to sliow that there is a degree 
of orderly arrangement in the succession Of the diggings, such ag 
to indicate that they are not merely casual deposits^^but parts of {| 
connected whole. I have, yet been able to make only agenenl* 
reconnoissance, except in the few localities I bacj emnined befoi^ 
'my engagement in the present snryey. ^Farther ppportunitK 
would enable me to develope my views in detail. . 



•; 



It may be interestiag to notice the d^epreat strata, ia *w]iicb iba 
mineral has been worked in the diggings etxamfned by iide.. -As 
the depth to which mining has been c^urri^d on iiaa been graeraUy 
limited by that of the water level, it; ha^ rarelj m^ceeded 100 feeti 
and hae been usuaUy much less ; io many, instenc^iS) oalty 80r*4l^ 
feet Ck)DseqiLentIy only a small depth of rock has be^n penotrar 
ted in any one instance, and it i^ tbug necessary te judge of the 
probable dawnward extent of the n^nen^l by a /ooi^parison of 
different localities, where different strata are bronght to or near 
the sorface. This has shown that all the beds, of limcistone hairet 
in sneh instances^ been fomjid good mineral-bearing rod^s, and fjial 
the opeainga snc^eed each other in regular order, and are conaeol' 
ad by yertieal yeins and ndneral creviee^, passing fi*om one ta thft 
ether. When the entire thickness of Ibe upper xnagn^an is sreir 



jbii 



0* 

eoty tfa« digglDgt fl^e cwtiiltied toiu uppet \fia. As the BMlUi M* 
tMn^denodedy tfa^ commeBce in the lower ptei of the upper be4 
Mi ioiteiid to die middle bed. When the MsHsl aire Mfll mere db^ 
mdkl, thej conmeoM in tiie midcHe bed mA extmd te the lo^» 
etf Arofl^ thiit to the bine Kmeetene, itr Ib^j e^en eonHtience in 
tbe lower bed end tetend Hirongh &e biHe fim^tdne. R ii Mlf 
te#*rflBtiie noithem betder ef the dfiHri^ti, wheire fte kNMx'tti^ 
MliiahieetpMidiAitdeej^rtvfiie^tfiae I ha^e dMried M^f A^ 
gMgginltetfodc; 

In tj^ecing the diggings through the ditferent aene8| it maj be 
Btated generally, thi^t in the Muddj and iTorth l)iggings mining 
llet b^en carried on ontj in the upper bed ot the npper mi^eBiap^ 
ft[ die BeetoWft Diggings, in the npper and middle bed^ and ad- 
ihing seme f allejft and rarines, in the lower bed ; in the ill^otoflt 
Igfgi^sfij in the dame; in the l^rnabhill, ^^ig and Hatteyitta 
iJUgghi^, in the upper and middle beds, chie^y in tbe latter ; in 
die :hi1icl, J^onth-ifcast Platteville and Korth fllkgrove iHg^gs, 
in the npper and middle beds, chiefty in the former ; in the Soatli 
ElkgroTe and Strawberry Diggings, in the middle bed; in the 
Menominee, Fairplay and Haze! Green Diggings, also in the Du- 
bnqne. Upper Galena and Vinegar Hill Diggings, in the npper 
bM ; ih tfie Benton iind IRirw t>i^^ng8', in ^ npper i^d Mddle 
bMs, ebtelty In tlie ketter in 1^ wide 4iitt openings ; hi ih«) tonCh^ 
€ikt piut of series 8, from Baniard's Boost io the BhnlKbA^ 
Vmndh, lA tftie tower bed and the Mne limeefeoAe, ehiefly ft Ae 
fi^Hr ; in Esrmeist andSpenceley's and the Shnllsbnrg D^-bone 
^g^^^i in the lower bed; in the telst of the Shnfhbn^g Dlg^ 
^kfg«r,ge&etttllyinthenpperbed, bntfn those where A^pA h$A 
been gained by dfltlning, as in those it the v!llege and at1?own'- 
ftedd's, alfere in the middle bed, at the former In the wide flint 
0p«llng8 ; in the Blackleg Diggings, chiefly iii the npper bed, bnt 
in ihe deep shaK* on the large North and Souths, else hi the mid- 
dle bed; iA ttie Wiota DiggiBge, in the up^r and middle beds; 
& th^ Sont^^ Fofked Deer Diggings, in iht blue lirdestone ; it tbe 
Sfenh Feriesd Deer itid King's Diggings^ Chiefly in tiie Ie'#ef 



9» 

ijie piid41a «n^ lowei: beds, of thi^ lpp^r jmgaamn, m4 iq Oi^ 

Vla^ luo^Qto^e (in t)u9 Yippf r aqd nu44(6 b«^.) Ike Um Hmfti 

^9^ if th«ffi r^cM 9plj in tbOMt <V|»w«p vii«M tte iMki mj. 

9)(pAt 4QpA^4«dt n^^) towwl? t^ foutb^weat, and. moitriig the 

i^^f w4 l^^U)^ ; in t|^ iRRn» i^ffihein diggiiip (at the Dnoadf 

i^^ijigj^ IKiAfhi) nnqiw^ <^^J laopftn^d to the audill^ bad af tha 

^ef n^gmiim, 4<( IMge^il^ eflv^qiltg th^ Tittage, Aa di^i 

g]li|gff ^^ ^ t)i6 ofSH^ and widdle bada of tba upfiar magAephnu} 

^Dul^^'a Vv^in% i^ H^ bm^; a* Aa YaUow^tona Digi^ngs ^ 

if^ twio lawoi? bfi^ ef th^.iiiKpar siagffMiaii, and in tfaa blM Mi»e. 

41(191^ fbi«#j iQ ita iWS^i' bed } #» J. Scott's XHggi^gB, aaat of Am 

gyi^, Ui tlw law»r peife of tb^ B^per magtieafta^ and at B. BdoM^ 

in iba^ Wii^luDa^opiA ; ie tho oAeir ijggjiagfiti Oraea 0o.»ohaii!r 

ii|. t|^jpj4dl^ wd lower be^B <^ tbf^ UppaK magMaiaii, and m • 

fvp ^^^f%By aa at tbe Afi^^ Q^ve Mitai in the bfaaB^lkpieatoiiei. 

It maj be. jmi eddedi that in Urn HeatiKK>ek la^ge. (Lipdai]) ^ 

mineral has been chiefly worked in the middle and lower beds of 

the upper magnesian» but has been recentiij followed into the 

wper bed of the blue Ijxnestone. 



Q^PS» iaraa (the aalphnrataad eirb on ata ) hwfebean ftvad IW 
large quantity in the mineral diatriet (sontii of* the Wlaoonsiti) on*^ 
I7 ^t Jdipw^J Poi^t Qpwtt^r q^anfatfefl haw bom fomd In 
other lo^i^tie^ jmtti^nlf^f atjl^qat QiptOi WM^iot Kinatal If^int^' 
and 4r-6 mfli^ south of Wiqtf4 but tbe^ I ba^e M jrat Waited. 
Ibaye i^rea^y notice4 the Qcol^'renpt of awaU g w^tttiaa of oo^. 
per ore in^tbe opami^gs in the xf^\0 ^d lower beds of 4he up* 
per nu^^ian, paiticulariy ip the middle b]^ at Shtdlsbuj^^ a«d> 
in the lower bed on Fever river, at Koaeomb and noHb of Bjaw 
I>i^;g{isg8. Traces of copper are said to have been found aft the 
Wolf Di^ngs. (leert of Japw»fown,) in. tbe upper bed. 

Thi; copper ocea at Mimeial Peint occur distinct from the lead 
ore» 1A Wlgea eppanbutiy in the satae East-^West line with eor* 



reeponding' leid rangiM; ' the same ran^ being lead^bearing on the 
wefit, an^ cop|>er-beai4t)g cm the eaet; the lead and copper ores 
being at the «ime time more or less intermixed at the poiiit of 
jnaotioB. TheM are thw presented two bodies of ininend, lead 
eo the irest and eopper on tiie east, bearing N. K. EasterVjr across 
ibebearing'of tbe ranges. The width of the bodj of copper ore 
ia appamrtly 1-^8 miles. Both the ritreons and jellow salphnrets 
arefoutidin the rubbish, more or less accompanied with iron py- 
xitas; but as 11O9I0 of the ranges are «ow worked, th^r relative 
pro|Mirticni cannot be determined* Hk^ earth from the openings 
Imm iii deeper sed tint than that from the lead openings, where such 
atbit wbold be cqnsidered unfavorable. The arrangement of the 
body «f eopp^ ore, in this instance, across the bearing of the 
raBgsB is very reiharkaW^, bnt eorresponds with the general trans- 
vecse bmngeraentof the bodies of lead ore, already indicated. 
I3ie oopp^ baa bcien worked here chiefly in the lower bed of the 
I|xpeir.nlagii98i«n9 boloconrs also in the blue limestone. 



I have already observed that the original ores, in the veins and 
openings in the mineral district, are apparently the sulphnrets, 
namely, of lead, copper, zinc and iron. These ores are more or 
lass aabject (ocdaoQfllpoBMkion, and toxeeompoaition iatoother ores; 
tbose.pf lead leasly 6£ ihm most so. 

•The unliyhtiret of lead is chiefly recothposed into the carbonate,' 
the ratphate: being rarely observed. He carbonate sometimes ^ 
fbrmis merely an earthy incmstation on tlie surfkee of the sulphu- 
rctpbnt in other initatarees, the sulphuret is converted to a great- 
er.or less thickness, sbmetimds thronghout its entire mass, into the 
cavbonate^ etill retaining its form nnchanged. Sometimes the 
earthy ooatbetomeis detached and loose, and is' then called min- 
eral aahtea. In a 'few instance?, the masstve carbonate, still re- 
taining the form of the snlphnret; has been found in large qaanti- 
tfj^ forming bancbes in the opentage or veins ; in one instance^ it 
id m^ 4t, ]?<Mt06i» to the mooaiil of more tli^ati TOGO lbs; Ot^tala of 



4be oftHxmate Are ocoaaioiidlly Iband/ adbevliig to the 'MffMi tf 
tbe Bttlpliofety or oomipTiagMriii^i&it, genetvHyin email qaan- 
tj, bnt in some openings more abundant. The latge«t ^^aalllleti 
I have jet noticed, were ux the Ai^nGrro^e llioe>: in .the Une 
limestone. The formatipn of the earthy carbonate oA tbe HarfatD o| 
\he sulphnret is apparently goiogon at preaenty partiealarlj 0n the 
pntakirts of tiie reins. The CQayersion of .the irboje or the greMetf 
part of the salphar^t.to.azQassivooarbo^Ato, aoidtbe;fpi:mAttoa of 
crystals of the carbonate, aweac to be rather (he reunite of fonMr 
agencies than of those at jresen t operative. The CftrbQftate ie oaUecl 
yrbite mineral by the miners, imd is more easily r^aeed tbaa tb# 
anlpbnrety though yielding a less pf rc^tfige.of }ead| bat hsa Dcd 
yet been found in sufficipnt q;a%iitUy to be <rf iQiifb JmporMMa*. •'* 
The sulphnret of copper-is recoxppo^d wto the snlpb^be aad 
the carboaate* The formef is top aoiluble ^an^ too .acA^^ jto diH 
composition to be permanent } the ^tter.neneraliiy acfK^mpatMr 
the sulphnret as a coating* and sifmetimea in prystEils, bnt nofc m 
enfficiep t quantity to be iiuport^i;^ ^otb . tbp \k\M, a^id. greeia car* 
bonate occur<^ but tbei Ifitter jis roof t; cominon* . . f 

Theaulphflretof micis vacenpose^ ^to tbesutpliate^ the dar^ 
b^oate aad the aUicatcr ; .ba£ tke former, like that of co^per^^istiot 
penttaoept. The oarbbpate andlbeeilioatft spre perm^ent, andsire^ 
<|aBed dijAnme by the jnineorsv .They reeemble aadi other, buir 
^e earboBate is moBkoomnMn and the mMtiixlpottant. > They na^ 
aal^ctplaca'tim salfibttBOt^bl^ urithcnlt maQh"- change of 
4Masi» the.gODCBal ansnsgaibaatof ^e^vein ox' iheet being Mtained, 
b«t tlttndry?boxie being hssuaUy less coiopaet^ aid) eomoUtiiU'kippa^ 
^otly «AaIaotitia' In sueh cases^ ^howeiror^ it rcftaitta repy Mariy 
the origlnali feral oi the snlphni«t^ v^ch exUbita to6 IfeA nattte 
botryoidal alrangeniot^.. Kbt onfrdqiMillf .An interior^ of the 
dty4>oiiB is foand'Cbciipied by tiie woipkavM atMbatiged/ Thea^ 
^ecompoBed <«e8 oi.tArxc are teo^ezabioidakltii aotrie roages aftd 
openings thaaift oth^ra. TlMiB«Ipha3tot oif <zibo haaapiieared mota 
subject to decomposition in the lower openings than in the upper ; 
and in the lower openings, it will be {onn^ liffio cl^apfiad in aqip} 



IgDgfl^ mi 9MM^ WtOf^K^ioto di74MBMriii another luA Aa* dbi^ 

1Eh^«iilpknrel ef iiron id reeemposed info tbe snlphate lind th^ 
lijcbato^l oxjit. The salpbttte fe frequently fennd in the openingik^ 
bat ttke.thofle of eino and eopper, is not permanent, and it resalt^ 
fa tfie fonnaftiOQ of the oiyd. The ox jd ocears chiefly in the Ibrm 
ef Mhie and tke^browii hematite. The fbrmer is generally tod 
wmA mixed with earth to be of mad), importance. It ^res thd 
pefMliar etaili to the^ earthy materials andlihe rock of the openings. 
This vaiiee from yeBow to red brown, and the distinction of the 
tints is regarded as of praetieal importance. A red brown tint i^ 
coasMsMd by the miners very nnjRiTorable fbr the occnrrence of 
siteentl^ and the groond h titen said to be bamt* An orange tint 
if eonsid^^r^mostfirrorable for lead, and a redder tint fbr copper. 
Ike^ brown hematite, oalfM irod^mst by the miners, is a rery eom-^ 
m/ou atooompaaiment of reins and openings. It occurs in very 
rittkKk% forms^ from thki sheets and porons slaggy masses to baSfl 
arranged in concentric coats witli a radiated fibrous structure and 
bfitiS74)M9& «fttfti«»ifQ8ew very esadily ihe h ema tit » ^tm of 
9#U«^W)r (p^nm^); sadoC lotfaer ore be^ in . Hie um^ raagsk Ibsfi 
i^m:fQX9wA l^riraopiniiosUdon Awkiibe enl^Mt, withouta^y e^ 
fj^Ut^obikiigt^ Qi fortniisTeior ievideaiia.aU the dEggifigs< whiere I 
h«r%;9SClpumd it; thenlphnrel presaartnyaJH its difl>MiepHbrmg|i 
%9d.Qvc^'degiieo of imQlili0abeing^obseKifttble<fh^m)1iheaneiuu«C^ 
i^ilpburtt t(^ tb0 ODHMpIflte' change to Ifackeaurtate ; in some inataiiM 
0(11^ cp]y a;filiA ofl the Jw^poalite ooatiagl^^^ sulphwet;, amdll tbsf 
Q^iwe^ ii^ o&erA ooptikined graduafiy.to the centre of t^ Ddttsi,^ 
mmtmM by iUMmsive oQMa,.aometitnes:niore by linee ftom Ht^ 
mthc»tQ^ theoentiie, soomi of tlie i-adiated: fibres being ftiundl 
(^MDged^ asd othem intonbiasad with them nnahe^d. Sulj^rn^ ii^ 
oeMsionjsUji set fne by^ tbe» decompoiitioa of the sulpharet of irofy,- 
and is fowdcaUaotedinipoeketBitttlia resisting nuws* Iti soma/ 



' * Thit mwlj arisflfl from tl^e abandaooe of the hjdrated oiyd of iron,.n6altuDg fron 
tbl-«lbooDipo(Maiisf ifon pyritfa 



.9T 

iitttwcts, odMraras spar ^ooajH^t wrttict itt tbtralfbtrntof irM, 
iKDd.ontiiedecDmpositiMi^flibelffltarha&bMB foand oonToitaA 
mto Um BQlpfairi» *(^ lisiek Hie liematite ii apmetimes Ib«it4 
•I^)iHreiidj M perfeotiy ibniMd M in iiM Salit^ ore beds, aiiA 
in snob cases ^veold probably yield a soperior quality of iroB. 
Oare shoold be taken ia telectiog sack only ae has been complete- 
Ij reoompoeedyaa the preeence of sulphur would injure the pro- 
duet In some ef the diggiogs^ particularly in the openings in 
tiie lower bed of the ut>per magnesian adjoining Fever river, im 
Benton and Kew Diggings, large quantities of this ore might .be 
obtained, sufficient perhaps to feed a furnace, and even Uie ochry 
cartb of the openings might in some cases be rich enough in iroft 
to be reduced to advantage* 

The earthy black oxyd of manganese (black ochre of the 
miners) is often abundant in the crevices and openings, and is con- 
sidered a good indication of the presence of mineral. It is usual- 
ly found accompanying or imbedding the mineral in the form of a 
matrix, but is sometimes found filling cavities or geodes in its in- 
terior. Hose facts seem to indicate it of contemporary formation 
with the mineral, and analogy would lead to the condnsion that 
its original fi>rm was the sulphurety^nd that its present form has 
resulted ifrom the decomposition of the latter. The sulphuret of 
maf^nese i^said to have been found in the lead mine's of Mi»- 
stmri, but I know oP no instance in which it has been fowid in the 
mineral district. 



The ores of zinc, although very abundant in many instances, 
jisrtiiiuIaTljr in th&iiilt bud pitcbing fibsets, and ii^ tl^e losrer open- 
]ag%.ba(VQ never yet beoB tomed to any aeooifnt/ There «an be 
A»!d0iibttbat ihegrmast befaopeaftev sourocB^of profit, when wb 
*oan«dBrtlJbB\lai^ jBod Jnati^flHlng'demaini for fliic,:botb in itSiixie- 
irilio foonn (she^t sino))and as an exyd (sue paint) The zihc oMS 
ftiiitdidiheMBlM^distriet.may ailbe wed to advantage* The 
^4mDbj(eatte>hate«hd8i)ibate> k moat easily redboed, and can 
18 



Oft 

ifagtto attmot attMttan, but 'fte Maek-^aek <«{iltdiafiet) continH 
jOmt grestest forc^itioB of eixi^ and mw^ sooa be- oo&stdtr^d ^qmlr 
Kf «Y«iUible. • The propoitk)li0of xihe «i theihiHireorM vb: in t^ 
«Krboilftte.51.6yJn tii^6iKoato 53.12^ and in dud eulf^aret iM.1^2; 
^at of lead iti Ae m\phvivtt <of kad (galeiia) is 86.6S. The acl^ 
nal prodnet o^f lead Afom the tn^htmet ia qofialdeT«!bly less ; ftom 
ai^eta^e apecimeDSof the ore, about 70« It would ntvt be unrea- 
aonabte to consider ilie ikxc ores aa oontatofiiig no greatev propor- 
tion of impnritiea tban the lead ere, and thus the relatire prodaot 
of the pure ores may be pt<(^erly taken foor ^mparisoiL Uie 
price of sine is now ntther greater than that of lead, in tlie pro- 
portion of about 6 to 7. As soon as an easy connerion is fonbed 
between ;the deposite of the zinc ores in the mineral distriet and 
ihe coal beds in Illinoia by means of railroads, it may be reasona- 
My e^q>ec(ted that these ores will beoome objects of importance. 
The Galena branch of the Illinois Oentral Bailroad^ with the 
^ullsbnrgand Mineral Point branches, would open sn immediate 
annexion between the c^al- mines near La Salle and two of tiie 
ilcM^allties most abundant in zine ores (that between Becyton a&d 
^mUsburgi and that at ittinieral Point) Either the fuel toiglit 
j^ taken to the ore, or the ore to the fuel, as should be fontnd ^w>st 
l^vaatagQ^os. Other routes of coummniofttion would soon be 
^opened, and thus, with Am«iean akUl and enterprise, a new 
mining interest would be created, which would compare lavors^Iy 
with the present. 



The laaicKag rokject of Uiia detail w3^eh I have givsem^ of ithe lan- 
^lineimeiit of the dEninaral in Ae everYiceB sad optaings in its ^U^ 
inbuAon tfarongli4]k» diiffaraiit.atnrtalix>malioira downwaids, «ni 
4ii .the sorfiioe aniaiigemeiit of flia imgea lagDovpa find warn •»- 
jMided coi&bini^tlonay kaa beea to ahdw thataiqrata^naliia oUUr 
^Nreyaib tkyroughonty aoid IhUt &^ jmmnl dej^ta are nofe idatack- 
•ad and icasmli but oambitted im v^gnlar aariasi I laigliit baxb fph- 



99 

tered into mucli more minnte detail, bnt tu I have inteftided thitt 
report iiicFre ae a stateradnt <rf certain general facts wWeh I coti- 
ceired were of immedtatB importance to the triining interest and* 
as an ontlme of tie mode of inrestigation I have designed to ptar- 
gue than as the result of a survey, I submit it, such as it is, ^ith 
thfe hope that its deficlencFes will be excused ix cortsideration of 
the very brief time in which 1 have been engaged. 

The general result, in relation to the vertical arraignment, is that 
aeries of openings containing deposits of mineral are found at 
certain levels in all the limestone strata from the upper part of the 
upper magnesia at least to the middle part of the lower magne- 
fiian^ varying in character in the different strata or beds, but strik- 
ingly analogous in the same stratum or bed throughout the whole 
extent of the ifiineral district, and that these are combined with 
vortical crevices and veins or sheets, traceable, where opportunity 
is offered, frop one opening to another, or through different strata 
when not immediately connected with the openings ; that the cre- 
vices and openings are distinguished from th^ adjoining rock by 
peculiar characters and the presence of substances not found be- 
yond their limits ; that they are bqunded by regular limits, usually 
marked by vertical lines, like the walls of veins^ as well in the 
widest flat openings as in the narrower vertical crevices ; and that 
the mineral is arranged in these crevices and openings in a pecu- 
liar vein order, more or less evident, but always in some degree 
distinguishable. The mineral is sometimes arranged in more con- 
tinuous and uniform sheets; sometimes in more detached deposits 
or bunches, connected however by mineral seams. These may be 
oonsidesed aa the extremes, between which there is a graduated 
transition, and a more or less intimate connexion. In the upper 
part of the series, there is a greater tendency to a vertical arrange- 
ment ; in the middle and^lower parts, to a horizontal arrangement, 
and tibia increases as we descend, at leaitt to the baa^ of the hhie 
limeetone. Hie srt^ngemtnt in the lower magnesian appearUt to 
conunenee as in tSie upper, but t)ie oppot(utiities for examination 
are fliere tooTfew to detide satfefkctorily, bnt auUScient to kHow Hurt 



100 

th^ mineral is there arranged comformably to the arrangement in 
the strata aboye. The probabilities are thos stronglj in faror of 
a continued descent of the mineral to a lower depth in the strata 
than is yet ascertaiDed. The appearances seem no less to indicate 
the origin of the mineral and the accompanyiog ores from beneath, 
probably Irom the primary rocks underlying the lowest secondary; 
and that they rose in such a condition that they were diffused through 
a aertain definite extent of the materials of the rocks, and then 
segregated in their present form, and this along certain lines 
which have determined their arrangement It would be prema- 
ture to offer a theory until a more complete exploration had been 
made, and all the important facts which such an exploration might 
offer were collected and arranged. But even now I have a strong 
impression that the mineral has been derived from^ beneath, and 
that the prospects of deep and continued mining are here as favor- 
able as in other more established miuiug districts. The depth to 
which I have traced the mineral in its regular descent through the 
strata, assuming their estimated thickness, and including the Up- 
per Sandstone, is 430 feet : Upper Magnesian 240, Blue Limestone 
60, Upper Sandstone 60, Lower Magnesian 70 feet ; not including' 
the Upper Sandstone, in which no mineral has yet been certainly 
traced, 370 feet. Including the whole thickness of the Lower 
Magnesian, rating it at 220 feet, the entire depth would be 580 
feet. The order of succession in the strata, at a lower depth, is 
probably not yet sufficiently settled to determine what farther may 
be expected. I have already enumerated (p. 68-9) the series of open- 
ings which may be expected in penetrating to the base of the low- 
er magnesian. These, not reckoning their subdivisions, may be 
stated at ten or eleven. The known productiveness of single open- 
ings, in many instances, will sufficiently indicate the prospects 
which such a series would offer to the miner. 

. The trao^ of order and connexion in the surface arrangement 
appear no less remarkable than in the vertical arrangsment. What 
I have here given is oiily a small part of what mi^ht have been 
stated; but I trust it will suffice to show that the raiages, in their 



f 



101 

bearing, and in tiieir grouping from the smallest to the most ex* 
tended combinations, ha^e been governed bj some general laws, 
and have not been merely local accidents. I might have stated 
many fiusts which seem to show a regnlaritj in die distance be- 
tween difEerent ranges in the same gronp ; but such a statement 
would require a degree of detail incompatible with mj present 
object Such a regnlaritj is not onlj probable in the arrange- 
ment of each group, but in the combination of groups into larger 
bodies and more extended series. To determine this satisfactorllj 
would require an exact topographical survej of the mines, whidi 
may hereafter become an object well worthy of public attention. 
The diggings, as thej now exist, seem toehow a limited extent of 
mineral bearing lands, only a small part of the surface having 
been yet broken in search for mineral. That Ihe present diggings 
represent nearly the surface extent of the ranges yet struck ap- 
pears not improbable, particularly when we consider the position 
of the ranges crossing the leading ranges, and apparently limiting 
their extent But although the different groups yet worked may 
hare this limited surfSftce extent, it does not follow that all the' 
ranges have been yet discovered. Perhaps diggings as extensive 
as those yet worked remain still undetected in the wide intervals 
between the latter, and the indications of such stated in this re- 
port (p. 80, 83) may be only a very small part of what yet remain to 
be discovered. The order which I have attempted to trace in the 
different series of diggings may serve as a guide in directing far- 
ther search, and may lead to such results as will give to prospect- 
ing some degree of certainty. Experienced miners have been 
already influenced by such considerations, and in many instances 
hare found them reliable. The study of the surface arrangement 
may thus become an important aid to discovery. 



. ft 



r^ 



18M. 



-^9- 



f 



ANNUAL BEPOBT 



OF TBB 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL 



or 



WISCONSIN MILITIA, 



FOB THE TEAB 18M. 



1CADI80N: 
USUa. BBOWK, pkhtie. 



T::'-': :• . . *J/./iA 



T: . 7' 



.1 /!!;{/• Ml'-"'//! J i.a/v 



•i H> 












It. ' \> i 



BEPOBT. 



] . AniiTTAirp OiMBJi's Orrtos, ) 
Wateetown, Wis,, Dec. 8(s 18fi4. J - 

To SisJSaeeUmiojf Wm. A. ManUw^ Ow. dk Oommander^in Chief: 

SiK:-*-Iliit being the time dxed by law at which the annual re- 
port of this department is to be laid before you, I have the honor 
to state 1q a detailed but eoncne manner bow the duties of this 
office hare been admiiUsterad durii^ t&is pt^sent year, and hope 
that it will be aatiafrftvy to yoir Bxoelleoby. 

During; the month of June ther^ has been tamed over to this 
State by Sanders Lansing, jr., Military Storekeeper of the United 
States Army, on theon}er of your Ezcelleaey, ordnadoe asd old* 
nance stores as in Abstract ^** A," apd camp eqnipi^^e, Ac.^ as* in 
abstract *^ ]^,'' which I procured from the Messrs. Hitehoock^db Oo^ 
of the city of Kew York,, payable OQjt of the qi^ota «C ama d«e 
the State in 1866, from the Qenerij Qovemmen^ 

I woiiid mostrespectftilly recumnrend that some attention .should 
be immediately given to a more general and thorough orgf^iiiza* 
tion ot the militia thronghout the State than is or can be effected 
under the preaeDt|taw — ^is manifestly evident, and which should be 
amended, aatl ottr citixen soldiers encouraged bj judicious legisla- 
tion. 

It is ]well kiioms to* the 06mmandet- in-Chief that tjie militia . 
laws of <his SMCe do hot Vequite iany but volunteer troops to bear 
arma, ov pMbrm any active duty in the time of peace ; and how« 



ever usefnl or important they may be, as the only dependenee of 
our ciyil authorities in the maintenance of law and order, they 
can^claim no rights or privileges except snch as may be granted 
them by legislative enactmentp, , ^ "^ '. ' I 

Their name justifies the fact;Hh^ We Volttntders in the strictest 
application of the term ; and the ofiicers and members of the vo- 
lunteer corps, who have at all times responded promptly to the 
wants of the community, disregarding the diflSculties, perplex- 
ities and expense of effecting available organizations, and who 
holds themselves at all times ready to aid in enforcing the majesty 
of the civil law, at every personal hazard, risk or expense, which 
should at leBj^ entitle U^wt to unlimited credit and respect. 

Would it not be a wise aiid judicious policy to foster and en- 
courage thi^ main arm of ovf.d^peadailee by making more ample 
provisions for securing the highest possibl? de^sieof militaiyaci-i 
ence and discipline throughout their ranks? 

I avail JiAys^lf of this opportunity. of expressing what Ilb^lievel 
to be the, conviction of every officer- corineoted with this branchof 
the public service, that proviakms sUovM be*mit<l94br anntiul' en- 
campments,. inspecttpna and reiviews -lof the volunteer milit'ia- of 
the State. ...... / • • ' 

It cannot (be doQbted that encampments furnish the best oppor- 
tunity for^every spedes of drill, iftiilitary investigation and discus- 
sion, th^ cbdiparison of companies, officers stud me'n^ incites emu- 
lation, tad BMtBt result in general imprbvemefat. . V ■ 

The members of our voTuhtoer corps would be greatly fipgment-. 
ed and improved, which would command for them the conpiinen^a* 
tion of the highest military award. 

The uniform volunteer companies of our State are reigsrded not 
OBly as the pride of our citizens, but as an ornament tOiOur.SteU; 
1h^ are commanded by men of distingaished military ability, 
aad many ..of them, in point, of military skill, {and pypfifBieooyi^ ^ 
would not suffer by a comparison with, any of th^ volnn^sr to*-* 
p anies in the ITnion. I migJl^Lt ^y much to the credit of inditidiial 



[ .o0Tnp»nliis;lwtldfett it aAWeablcf, iff tbis comtnatticatibii, to speak 

'•1' WouM triort resp'^dlfhtfy suggest that yoa woulxl recommend 
Hie new mflMfA law as' a^dpted hj the ^tate of Kew York^] and 
' wbieh has bidexi recotiimended bj the military commission, held 
at If iiwtftikee, on the 5th' init, subject to jour' approyal| and 
which I feel'happy in stating to your excellency, qxeetsXl^e wishes 
of all-iJhe ihembers of t^e militia of the State. 

As in i)ixe absence of any remuoeratiQa ^ro.j^^ ^^e 8tot« jfof ser- 
yice required at the hands of o.ur citizen 9pldIer9,;t]ijiait*thfiF^m of 
' expense, alone, without regard to the s9QfifieB;of tj/x^^ W^1^Sfd to 
secure for them that degree of proficiency necessary }o repdor 
them of .practical utility, is no smaU iipp€trtanm,to indiliduals, 
and should, to some extend, be allejF^a^d. ^ . . .:;) f. ^ 

To further tl^Q aofi^TOplishpRedt p£ :thi« dbgeot, I.^raiUI ^hggest 
that you. if paid xefiipfp^efxd /tbd.iatlovaoeei of %b« .tutOui 1 ebr^nse 

. of Uniform 9oi?api^nifvit wt^on Moftl dai^ oar acffride^ as aHowed 
by, the staite of Kqw Tpr^to miJiitaiy. oOiEtpa»ies,;Md' ihat ^tiiero 

, should be i^;ppu>regenfMral,apd>)Mroaisbo^^^ tba mili- 

tia throughout the state. . * ^ 

According to that part 6f4tti^ tegldAlion, improved March llth; 
l{i6l^«tteticigte>i&flilOTy^'Xbeiiig*se<!ltita 9,)wU require the 

county assessAit 16 kMM all ^er^ns subject to military duty, and 
. minus .itb» mxM biiliNi tlerk ef :tbi hMi^a itapervisors of the 
county, a list of all the able bodied white male persons as re- 
quired by the act, which I regret to say that they hare both neg- 
lected and disregarded the law, and in no instance hare they com- 
plied, whether from a want of its inception, or a determined dis- 
regard of the law, I cannot say. 

The militia of Wisconsin, (now one of the most promising and 
prosperous of our young states,) with a militia list of over fiflj 
thousand, should be placed upon a basis which shall not only con- 
form to the requirements of the general government, or tbat of 
our state. In order to avail ourselves of the benefits to be deriv- 



ed therefrom, bat at the fame time tQ gJTe itihat peeiliv^ Md ef- 
ficiency reqaieite to accomplieh the ojbjectidQatao^Uited :in iti 
conception and design, I have issned a ciroular to fU f)^ <|[fferant 
gcDerals in the different brigades.; aL»o the coin^andii^ 4$()in of 
regiments andmajors of battalionsi but Ir^egret to be cpnipel)/ed to 
state that all| the commanding general, colonels and msoraiare, 
ifiiJi the exception of Major Isaac Spencer, (of the 6th ba|t9^pa,^an- 
tj of Bad Ax) are equally in default, not only on apcoont of their 
remissness to enforce the law made obligatory on them, but also, as 
lo their total neglect of making annual diyision or brigade rettuma. 

In order to provide against the state suffering from these neg- 
lects it fiitare, I wholly leave it to your Excellency's better judg> 
ihent 

The inactive, or enrolled militia are exhibited by conntiea 
and divisions in abstract D., as set forth. 

In tlottog this, my report, I sbonid do injustice to my own feelingS| 
did I bot embrace this opportunity of retaming to yonr Excellen- 
oy my unfeigned thanks for the great 'confidence you have placed 
lin me, thurtiog that the discharge of my ofBcial duties may meet 
yonr Bxcelleney's approbation, and not be unj>rdfitable to ' the 
state. 

I have th^ koilor to be 

Yopr ISxcellenity 's meet 4dMdiinit iirvant, 
JOHN M'llANMAN, » 
JL4ji4taai aii4 Intpeetor OeMtel) Wi^ 



•!'• 



APPENDIX. 



./lif /"ilA 



f 



ABSTRACT A. 

In/voice of Ordnanee and Ordnance Stores turned ov&r hy Sanders 
ZoMmg, Jr,y MiUtary 8i0t$ £jtep$r^ db^.f qf tksMmted States 

, Arm/yyon tk$ ofchf of Fin. X J?ar«(0f«, Ct^mwr^M Comr 
manA^^in^OW of Os SftO^ of W4Mi^sim,ti4 JBoUou^^ 
Stormy via; » • .. ? . '■ . -^ • 

2 Six j/b Bkonie Ouii% 1 f 50, 40t 

f do do fleU oarriagei for 5 For. 9t5 

t Setti Implom^ts and Bqnipments HH^ f 5c 

1 Betti Artillery HamMi Wlied^ 67 2^ ,. 
f 2 Moikato uid Appendagai 
100 BiflM-^teel Bands 
40 SabM (Horaa AriiUary) 
40 Baits and Plata 1 25c 

7oCal 4,010 4^ 



. t^oi "\ 


MO* 


110 JO 


. 134 5^ 


964 


,i,«88 :, 


220 


40 20 



Tha whDlik&ig aqual in Moskeli 508 5-18 



^ ^fiwnth$Jfe$m: SUcXoehk dk Co.y of iAs (Hfy tff Iftio Torh^ 
M Aedautd ^ tie State of Wtaoofmn^ and Pcp^aHie oulqf our 
Quota qf Arma dm in 1866, from ths Omeral iShi)emmmU^ 
fohich were^ pipped to Meemt. J(rown dk Z(frbim^ MUwa/ukee^ 
marked Glen. McManmam. 



eo Army'teBtf and Pol« IS 






4 WantMU •nd Polw S5 


100 




llf^qM 


' IB 




10 Pair Hobton 8 M 


, 85 




10 Pair OaTalr7l>iaU>b Gompbto^lS SO , 


.IIS 


, 


SRnzM 


S 




Oaitafa 


SM 




Total 


VMS SO- 




Equal b miukeli to 


9S8-1S 



[ 



. . I .■ Ill 



-AmuandaccaulremmU received from the piUted Statee^ from 
theye<9rl6i0tol6U,indueive. 
IMO, 140 pitloK 
1841, 70 cKnby mhre^ 

TO Mtt»«Tali7 Me(mtv«iMil% 18t lO-ll 

1844, 60 MTAlrj pkioh and 60 wwoiiM, 

60 omlrj aoooatKOMiiti^ 81 19-18 

1845^ 60 BiiiiktC^ €Mapl«l«, 

60 wtti bfluitiy aoooatreoMBii^ 74 8-18 

1848| 71 miik«t% 

71 iDfimtry aomitraiimtiL $8 

1840, 80 muakete, 

80 Mtl8 inhnirj aoomiiNaiMti^ 87 8-18 

188(^ 840 mmiMM, oompI^U^ 

840 MttoiiifiuitryMoovtNMDH 488 8-18 IlllUO 17 

1851, 840 nfK 418 4-18 4^78 80 

840 Mtta riflft aeeoatrenwQti, 
1888, 160 eopp«r iMm, 

660 riAm, itaal bamh nd aooottftra- 

nitDt% 165 IMS speo 80 

18H S iix pooodMib broBM giiii% 1,487 10-18 

Fetl w«^ht 1760 Ibi^ 40 Mte. 
8 dz ponadMr field csniif^ii^ 8loal 

8 Mlti inipleoMBti^ 
3 Ntts jvtilleiy implinMiili^ 
79 BnHkili md apptnd^i^ 
100 rite, iUdlMml% 
40 nbn% hont trtOlay, 

40 Mttt belts and platai^ 808 6-18 4,010 40 

60 ennj tenti and pek% 



13 

4 army wall to&U and pokii 

1 ann7marqa«^ 
10 pain cavaliy piatob^ 
lO^paineaTaliyliohtan, dec, dt g-lS 1,S42 25 



Total in mosk^' ' '^ 1,829 IMS 



Amomjt,^ ^' .\ , 928,242 82 



r- .^; « .i 













l' ' 


* .* ."» 


^ • 


,v-»^: 






'•: .» 


i" 


^w 


t'. .- 


• :! ;••• 




' 1 1 








t>' 




II. 






. . 1 






j:: •■> 


»»^. 


t" ' • 


'H . 




, 


. • ., 


t' ' 


■ ! ' ■#■ 


Ti ?* 


:;r'^ 




» ;■-. . 


•' : ' 


♦ 




0': . 


'. *• 


r:l-» 


• *• 




' J' '"' :.' 






.:. : 



.^ .• ';^ '• :••.:! ■ ' 

.r > •' f 
I 

'J> Ori\^ M-c) 8"- ,*$•:. 4 Imi. :♦..,.' -iKf ••! 



tt 






•■' 



ABaniAor D. 



0.. I 



Vt . .-1 



EmXled ItmUia of the'ShtU qf W%»QOf^ii^ as returned for the^ 

year 186^. 






XH THX TXBST DXTIBXOIf . 



Waidtind 


TowndUiM, 


Reiaracd in 18531 


2;j«bUi»1854. 


lIilwftnkea,latWaid, 


' 8»8 


. 1,080 


l» 


2d 


'« 


1,080 


« 


8d 


« 


628 


, 880 


M 


4t]i 


u 


■ 660 


: ;678- 


• 


5tb 


» 


' 699 


.1670 


Oreenfldd, 






f 


' '"296 


Wwlwat(l«^ 






'308 


,870 

; 1 


liavankea, 






' -m 


!>•* 


Oak Creek, 






'■ 388 


.11*" 


XdM^ 






218 


. .266 


OmTiDe, 




. 


"'248 


, 280 

1* . 


Fiaaklio, 






398 

r 


. 190 



Inct m ^.. 



}^9n 



6,477 



yiBST DITUttON-^-OOVHTT OV WAOaSHA. 



Hnl«K>ii, 


i:MJ ■'. -I 


lao ' 


HflwBirHa, 


. ,278 


270 


BrodUeld, 


. ,so rotunu* 




MenomoBM^ 


',,'244 


260 


I^Imo, 


'187 


187 


Pewukea^ 


160 

i 


297 


-Wrnwkn^ 


»o 


607 
100 



502 



u 



MttlfiroMf^ 


WMammtKA UVUVII UM 


14S 


lfvfMWP9|^ 


190 


220 


D«li(Ukl| 


Ml 


S80 




190 


8t7 


OUftWii 


■onChm. 




U^, 


•04 


«M 



470 



M97 



3,187 



riMV DnrntoN— ^amwMi ooqhtt. 



XntkmowRj, 


Ul 


Ml 


()ol4 ll|trin|% 


"■' 89 


89 


I'almym, 


m 


101 


()»ii«ord. 


•4 


84 


•ttlllVkS, 


109 


too 


M»br««, 


107 


107 


J«(KMtW>% 


a7i 


•71 


OakkuM), 


180 


ISO 


Irfkb IIHk 


104 


104 


AataJiMt 


101 


101 




lit 


118 


tt\m)^ 


lOT 


187 




4n 


408 


MU^MNi 


109 


108 




89 


80 



TO 



^«* 






IT* 



18 



BnFfingtoOy 
Bocbeitor, 

HOfWAJy 



BAOun oomrrr— t!Oirniivx». 

1 145 



1674 



1099 



185 



1a Cbangei 

Uliitewater, 

BIchmoBd, 

Sugar Creek, 

liA&yetti^ 

Spring Prairie^ 

HadflODy 

Oenen, * 

Delevan, 

Barien, 

Sliaioo, 

Walworth, 

Linn, 

Bloomfieldy 

Elkhorn, 



Fnun DiYiaiov — ^wALwoiiTH ooiniTr. 

179 

IPO 

218 

301 

188 

100 

I 120 

' ; • 240 

190 

280 

; 809 

171 

800 

198 

185 

189 

8180 105 

8200 



80 



City Eenoaha, 
1st Ward, 
id « 
3d « 

SoQulpOffti 

Pleatant Pndrie, 
BriBUl 



VIBBT DIVI8I0V — KXVOBBA COUHTT* 

304 

.: 200 

281 

:''! 281 

50 
110 
170 



tf 



16 







Salem, 


M8 


WbMrtUnd, 


til 


Brighton, 


- 85 


Pari*, 


' 170 


Somen, 


14S 



1821 



1998 



lit 



Gov. Guard, 

Emmet Guard, 

IrtWard, 

2d «* 

8d » 

4th «* 

5th << 



FiBflt Dkyiszon — ^eaoutb city. 

41 

810 
248 
208 
107 

'' 1051 . 1220 



178 



Winaor, 

Dunkirk, 

Middleton, 

CroM Plains 

Greenfield, 

AlbioD, 

Beny, 

Springdale^ 

YeraoD, 

Chris&m% 

SanPiauH 

J>Wk% 

Boekftbuiy, 
Blooming Qfote^ 
Joik, 



BBCOm) DITI8I0N — ^DAHS OOUITXT. 

196 

188 

68 

50 

91 

81 

47 

57 

75 

109 

107 

65 
62 

m 

126 



Mr 



Primroae^ 

BbckEartl^ \ 

Montrose^ 

Oregon, ^ 

Pleasant Spiing, 
Westport^ ♦ I 

Rutland, | 

Madi8(»i, 

2479 
No reports from any of the towns for this year. | 



sncoHD niYisiox — ^rock county. 



MagnoHa, 

Spring Yallej, 

Avon, 

Kewark, 

Portio, 

Lima, 

Union, 

La Prairie, 

Turtle, 

Milton, 

Beloit, 

CIiBton, 

Johnstewn, 

Bradford, 

Himony, 

Cfntre^ 

YeUon, 

Plymoatfa, 



ou 
64 

7S ' 




128 


.' y \ 


101 


•■' • «. ' ■. i . , - ' 


63 


\ 


112 


! 


509 


» • 1 . rA 




X 


2479 
1 


.• * .'1'. 




.» . • » 


rNTY. 


M ') 


1131 


. ..> . 


112 


'. , 'i 


180 




95 




220 




"133 




192 


.:"•■•.". 


120 


f «' 


66 


, -'. 


150 


■ '■■ 


180 


;.K! . ..' 


627 


. ■••.. > 


192 


,^:» . 1 


169 


,.• . .-I 


162 


•;.;>■. • ■•.. ;* 


116 


.' • '♦ 


151 




116 




200 




102 


28Y 



3066 



38^8 



131 



1% 
■»€OIW> WttW$» WkmK «Mfr. 

AJkmft 101 

Br•oUJl^ 111 

DtcilWy 185 

Bfhmtar, 137 

Momt PieanBk lOS 

BMter, ' 100 

N«wGIvn% W 

WMliiaftoD» 80 

Clamo ISO 

Oad^ 140 

Joidaq, f6 

1670 1710 



nopro Drriiioir— >MWA oouvtt. 
LhidM 



liifflb, 170 

HigUaad, 800 

WaUfiek. 191 

OIjd% «0 

BodgMilk 187 

PtUk^ 44 

lliMialP«iaV MS 

Am% 400 167 

l<t8 1880 



n 



■4fgyl^ M 

41 
144 

OtBter, M 

Uk GfOfA \U 

Ajatto, US 

Gratiol^ 91 

KmkUI. 71 

S«« Dini^ 116 

Bhathbwg, 904 

irsja% 41 

Wiote, ISO 

WUteOiASjpite^ 71 

mnra fipriap tl tn 

1041 1410 

noonB nnnoii— ^um oommr. 

CBAm, 00 

BawAOmm, 100 

Patai, 371 

JaoMilMnv 171 

Hmtw% 107 

liM^ IM 

BigUnd, 01 

PM*iiGfor% COO 

UMart^ 188 

Ihak, 108 

W»f*01i^ 89 

(UMriB% 110 

W«t«)g% ISO 



8170 



to 



Emmett, 151 

Lamirty 124 

Elba, 170 

Shiddi, 129 

Calumofl^ 75 

LoweU, 145 

ThewBa, l«l 

ABhippum, t02 

HabUrd, 168 

Hennon, 180 

WilliamstowD, 142 

Le Roy, 86 

Hnstuaford, 108 

Oak Oiove, 210 

Fox Lak^ 212 

Barnett, 130 

TrantoD, 139 

Cheater, 140 

Beaver Dam, ,^ 220 

Lebanon, 155 

Olyman, 145 

Westford, 60 

Rubicon, 184 

Portland, 100 



100 



3442 



3551 



THIBD DIVIBIOK — COLUMBIA COUNTT. 



ll^nebago, 


637 


Port Hope, 


100 


Scott, 


131 


SpriDgrale^ 


82 


Dekora^ 


228 


Otoego, . 


103 


Fountain Prairie^ 


113 



Happan, 

WeBtp<H 

Randolpby 
Portage Prairie, 
Wyocena, 
Lowel], 
Colambua^ 



SI 
oannRnr^^eobtiAiied. 



88 
88 
181 
40 
110 
120 
100 
140 
200 
€99 

2120 2846 



.516 



fSnO DIYBIOM— •MAB^pSTTB (WOITTT. 

Mackford, 184 

Green Lake, 194 

Broeklyn, * 126 

AlbaDj, 89 

MiddJetown, 86 

PleaaantTalley, 300 

Marqaetle, 99 

BofUe, 144 

Melin, 29l 

Eisgston, 281 



1,616 



[1,697 



181 



ranuDBrnaxoir — loifBi^u lao oouirTT. 

FritBdahip, 80 

Calumet, 809 

Smpire, 78 

Eldorado^ 79 

Aabm, 68 

Boiendale, 126 



AMui, ISO 

Oeelom 4« 

Eden, lis 

Cvmo, «00 IM 

TBIU BlTI8ION->4aBBOTeiJI OOUMTT. 

OBo, «0 

Tf{«»i«, 118 

£Mtt, M 

No report for two years. 

T^I&P DIYIBIOV— WABBDIGTOir 0001^. 

Fanningioii, 1®^ 

SIS 
; Ko lotoms from Uiox^ of the towns. 

lomtxH DmsioM — wumiBAoo oouhtt. 

Winehester, 55 

CflajtOD, 58 

IfesMh, 551 

▼iiland, IM 

WameeoniMy ISO . 

BaaUbid, lYO 

Onao, SSO 

UgOBMW 155 

Nekn^ 104 

Utie% 95 



BladklUi; 65 

Odhkmb^ *• 

lAtlRTwd^ 187 

^d do 900 

dd dd 108 

1578 2408 

DV^BtH DITOIOH — CALUIOIT OOUimr. 

Ohtfltfta, 81 81 

Uto MUnifcr two yeiit. 

lomtni Dimiow-^^iAiinowoo couitr. 
Ko ratnroi from my of dio towns for two yean. 

mOBTH DmSIOH— BBOWV OOUITTT. 

Ko ntviu for twoyavi. 

TOURTH DIYUIOV — ^DOOR OOUSTT. 

Wo ntanui from mjs of the towm for two jeait. 

fOV9TH Dinstoir—- ouTAOAim ooiTinrr. 
•Onuid Clmla^ 174 

aiiogtOB, 87 

Hoi(oid% 88 

GvMBTilli^ 68 

C«Bti«^ Noretoru. 

DaH No lotom. 

Bmni, Hontaittk 

974 479 



94 

FimS f>IVl«OK-i«OBAWfOBPi.COOIirr. 

Pndrie'da 0hi6D, 856 



308 



No retarns from tmj other towni for two yean. 



FIFTH DIVMION — RiCHLAlfD COUUTT. 

BockBMge, Bi 

Kehltfid, 40 

Baena YisU, .280' 

Richmond, 60 

Eagle, 80 

Bichwood, 4, 68 



54 



428 



482 



FIFTH PIVIBIOir— BAUK COUSTT. 

Brooklyn, 850 

DeDi, 54 

Delenm, 10# 

Florence, 60 

Freedom, « 78 

Honey Creek, 11^ 

Eingiton, 150 

KewBofUo^ 88 

Prairie da 8ae, 226 

Reedibnrgh, 120 



1258 



1840 



Jaekaen, 
Wo reporti for two yean. 



FIFTH DlVUIOir— 1SAM8 COUlTrT. 

/ 81 81 



isitB nrnaioN — Tcmk^B oouvtt. 
Ne repoita from any iowna in two yeara. 



as 



fim PlTIBIOli^ 


-BlTTAUOVf. 


lit. Wauihara County, 




No report. 


dd. Waupaoca County, 


• 


No report 


Sd. XanithoD County, 




Vor^fott 


4th. CUppewa County^ 




No report 


5tlu St Croii County, 




Mo report 


eth. La Point County, 


107 


101 


7th. Bad Ax County, 


181 


408 


Sih. La CroMe County, 




Vo report. 


9th. Oeonto County, 




No t%poTL 


10th. Waupacea County, 




No report 


11th. Milwankoa City, 




194 



237 



421 



Belonging to the first Diviaon 298 709 



ir 



§ 



g 



s 



BnMi>ixnMip4M» 



Inm liz FouDcWuh 



s«U of Implem«Dt«. 



B pongw jrtemttieni 



Ladeb and W«rdi. 



Bricoil md Ot^. 



Tr5«H«dffik* 



Amiuvnition Buze& 



Seta HareoM ftr two 



Motkets. 



Bayonettt. 



Owtridg«Box«iL 



Bayonetai Seabbardi 
•ndBeltaL 



Bruahetand Pioka. 



Povder Homa 



Pouofaea 



HoraaPiatola. 



Sworda. 



Sword Scabbarda. 



Drama. 



Filea 



Boglae. 



ArtUkiy Sworda. 



BeLtaaadPlatw. 



i 



P9 
H 

QD 




Ife 



3 



CJiQCO^i^ 



SSS^ 






Bngmt^ejtaaiwpdfc 



Ingpector GoDefaht 



Aida do Caropw 



IIILtiooitoa4a43iUl 



OolMotoi 



Lieut Colonolai 
Majora ^ 






Adjtitanta 



PaymaatenL 



ghaj^laifla 



Soiyeona. 



Surgoona' Mataa. 



Oaptaiaa. 



Fint Lieoto^pBli. 



SecoDd LiontoBaata. 



Quarter Maater Sorj'taL 



Muaictaoa. 



Buglera A Traaipatara. 



Sergeantu 



Coiporala. 



8SS« 



Lssfe 



c8^8Sq 






Artifioon. 



Soiyoant Majors. 



Privatoa. 



Total GonimiarfoMd 
Officora, 

Total NoD-ooBiaia- 
aionodOfBoanaad 
Phfatea. 



Aggrogate. 
Nnmbor of DiTwioML 



Nombor of Brigadaa^ 



Number of Bo )tii 
Namborof 



V«mb« of OaapMiML 









5 






QD 



BEPORT 



Of 




WM. R. SMITH, 



hU Wnhxm. 



07THB 



STATE OF WISCONSIN 



FOB THE TEAR 1854. 



MADISON: 

BBUAB BK0«r5, STAtI PSIRnB. 

1856. 



'vv '>': { :■:. 









.-<•■. 






K I^ ■/..() )'ir-/ '10 }l[l:'R 



! ii • . (' '.iii ..: . i 



: / '; . i a A h 
• i'r.:ij( > if I ■■■ .Y. ■■ ,>n :!/ :;|-^ 



^f- ....... . ' . . 



REPORT. 



To Hy j<;yKT.T.KNOT, Vfu^ ^(k. gABsrow, . ;^ 

* ' ' Oovernar of tfie Biate '&P WUcdnHn; ' 

. .1 . • . . . :. ^ -.^ ., .■ . jf . ', 

Sib: Having been appointed in pnrananco of an act of the 
Lfipiiatttfe, appro^p^d Mardutlst) 18£4, tosdiperintrnd the pnbl- 
cation <lf wmticb of i the Dotnipientaiy Hhtorj of the Stato of 
l?iMoiitit^ti» wasiprepare^iliy jsMpreviofasIy to the date of aaiA 
aofv I h6seiri4b:i«8f{eotfall7i repdtt ia yen the reenlt of my actiom 
oirgatii Appointmept :^ i ^'^ 

Mr. .Beriah Brown, to whom the contract foir printing the HiBtorf 
waa^awar^edibayipg decided tfiftt^t^e wor]^ fi^xoold be stereotype^, 
it^be^ame ];;^ce8qaj|;y tlpat I sbpQld proceed tp F^iiadqlphia, to fin- 
perinteiidihe,8€|tti|^gtip,af;tl^ P&£?b, corr^t the sieveral pxoof 
ebeets^aad.Attenfl to tbo^oon^pl^^iqa of fhj^ aeyenvl^ stereotype 
pLat^ i^l^en diligently i^nd.^itllfnlly compared wjth the original 
mapoBcripti Thislabo^.ocqnpie^ my tinite, JCrom th^ 5th. d^y.of 
Jp^ mitil Jthje ^nd. day of. Soy/enaber ; hx^t , ^nch a period . waa no 
longer, if bo long/ as I should have been employed in the wofk pf 
correcting the press from day to day, if the type had been set xijp 
and-tBe print^d^prbdfs'k e^ch j^^g^ had been laken in WisconsiiL 

The 'Mert4ky;{M ^lates'Uf two'Vdlnmed of the ItOstory are ntfir^ 



and for some time have been, in the possession of Mr. Brown, at 
Madison, and from the progress in printiog the work, which I have 
Been, I am well assured that the two volumes will be readjior de* 
livery according to the contract^ 

Two volumes have now %edki ^pirMftk publication ; the first 
volume commences with the earliest period of our history, and 
closes with the period of the formation of Territorial government 
in Wisconsin ; this volume comprises 432 pages, and althoi%h 
more matter had been prepared' by the compiler, yet this period 
was considered a propar resting place, leaving for the second vol- 
ume, the history of Wisconsin through Territorial and State gov- 
ernments, down to the present time. 

TWe*'3Ai*VilriiA^ nb^^^e^e^'fe^ pubUcation is properly the 
first in the Documentary series, although entitled the third in the ^ 
general history ; this volume''^ coritafes m^ j^a^^s, aWd'liai %^ii ^ 
considered sufi^tftjcnUy IliJ^{|pe, although ^^uclt^^ore matter is already 
prepared, which may be comprised in future volumes. 

Ibuir^^ llrBttazrd Mv^ .t<ilttmw 4ii^/iuJ# lisif ctmrae^o^f bbii^:; 
ptbited ;rthB^feefaDnd AbAfomtfa mofibtibomtfmei^sm^g IbeiTekL^^ 
biAd^ skumkB^ 91 tod 9 ififth vqIuqub^ o(}tripriaif^<|hmdea0riptiM)DS8dr ' 
BtartiiBttiaB of eftoclil OMsmlyf fin- onr Btatefia wSWM^ffXftsdMtmiJifr^^ ^ 
compiler, the materials for which he bias heeoAg^etiagMvli'.mrf. 
rap«Wi<^n^^<5.yeaf:spa8t ....... ,, . \:\:'y,^\ ..• 

.4ltt yfh^l^ x^it ifl^»i?t)irkff6d 'Infef 'tbfW*|)!rftg(^'Hi«fy^,f IWcil- 
m^«fcH^,.'a'ndJ tieiBcrfptlVe ; *<^'fflr*t-r(iltfnie^^# th*Hi#t(tfi«i¥,' aria-' - 
th^» fl^st'of MVd Ddcdftir^tftiiry p^m 6t'^ jkW'^hhiiii^ b€f feWfeti to'^l 
tb^'pUiM?^; Vetit6m,i^'k f«rvi*feAi>«'ffia«^*i VWk't*6tttfi^d^aiid*' 
f(M&t6i^f tbt'L^g^sIiftiire' df ti^-kktte, ritkjt^b* cbnMdel^d sfrtk-*: 
fa^totj^^ift^^r ttfiSifid'tiAv^ {n^^s^ntefli^^hU'ehat it'iHfirbe fcJriiftflfc^d*^' - 
thy ctf^fliitk^ jir^tekiWi dtod en^Wa^rirtdS? 'by'^i^^'ftiiiiB* itt^^ 

ty&t^y: '-' '-'"' : ■• •' ■ ' ■' '>'' ^''' f •"-■ • ' '- ■'* ■•-•'■• ' 

. ^il^ave depoflite^d, l^'fhe.Bxecutiv^ q^cjb ^e vvrhp|€|,x)f ,>bp ^}gin.. 



jny own band writing,) and have cansed the same to be faithfally 
copied (by clerks) into Bubstantially bound folio volumeSi which 
are also there deposited. 

I have the honor to be. 

With great respect, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

WM. R. SMITH. 



^ I 



; ■ ■ .■,1 )'•' ; :: r"ff I. {,{«*. V 'I 



.;• •• 'lOi. :i i.; . J 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OF TOB 



COMMISSIONERa 



OP tni 



Mi5cott$iii ^liitc |!imiitic ^sniunt, 



OF TtnB 



STATE OF WISCONSm, 



FOn TUE YEAR 1854. 



IIADISON : 
BEIIIAU JiUOW V. PUIXTER. 



ITi'i { \ .W.'KV/ T' ii i 



'.f(l ;,' = 



: \ 



) ' 



^ 

1 ! 



« 



1 • .. . • . .,;... 



REPORT. 



ToSi»-&ceUency;ihe Governor and th$ ticfi^ te^guUxiyirt: 
pMWabt to tlie re^nirettietitd ^f kw/ tiitke tiii foUbwh^ . / 

Mteediflt^y ttpDn tb« a^'dnminedtof tli^ Isst legfsIiitaQa, thk|r : 
entered np^ntUe dkoYkstg^ of their ddtiwaa Baoh Cfemmii6iiOMls : ) 
bM tmty ib)& 6^)eii^o<i iof a site ilp<nD ikhiih to «redfc tke^bt<i)dibgiii^ 
of the loBtitntion. Aware how important an^inflaeBOGifae IMalmi . 
of ttrift hobj^l^ ttfid it^ (^Mtftidilo^ uM general wrangitoeiMtr, 
wotiM have bpon thie tntatcd afid phytridal wcM lieihg/ofi thoecrnvba' ) 
wto6 lihoftly tb becom^f ItBoocupaBtS) the OottizaiBaibiiers hit^ 'in t 
nek^Ijr ^Vay paHit^tito!^ b<»dn guidbd iiy the'expeiaenbepf tbim \ 
-who hare b^n'bDg fakiliitt^'widi the 0iibjec<, afadiiirlio #ere' ai> , 
qiDlsiiit^ i^itb the d^fecfiir M w^ll as the ad^^dtagwoC a ioejonl^' : 
of American asyltims. Dn Kirkftrlde, in an ably ^written MitUi 
upon'" Hospitals for the iDsane," says, '^ Wheof iibafe been detep* \ 
mined id erect ati ho^pHal, the first objeeito be ^ittemldS teis Che 
selection of a suitable site for the buildings. The ttmoetipAatioa' 
abbuM be obtferred in tahibj^ihis etep^ on )which malj! derp^Qd to 
B^'Biball extent the future charaitet^ and tisefttlddss of^the^tstitn^ > 
ti(^; fof t&e bedt styU of buildings andtbe ihost Kberal.oifgmi- ) 
zation, cfan neVet* f Ally com{>en8ate for the lods taeftafned bf alo-: ) 
catHm that depri teer the patieDlsxyPmaiiy vabnable piivile^^ » . 
aabject them to vaiiieA tefioyslMMa." • • 



Ifftnj sites were offered to the Commissioners bj cifiz-ns of 
Jf adison, and otber sections of the state, u full flccount «>f which is 
given in the Superintendent's RejM»rt. After u caref..] iindHcrntt' 
sizing examination of the vardua h>calitie8, ihu Omimistii n< rs 
seletoJ the lamis off. red J J >^((i<»\^^n.ir|^r\vell. n|>fi:i ihe north 
shore of Lake Meiidota, in the town of WrslfNirr, aliont six mihs 
fmm tlie Cai^rol ^qnare. Thi^si'eis one of the n o*t btnut.ful 
that can be i:uagineii^ and, in the o|)ini«»n of the CoinmHshi er% 
posesses every necessary requisite for such an insiitntiop. 
It is ill a lioalihv, ]>k'aBant and ferrde iegi>>n of conntrv; 
the hind is of a g0(»d quality and easily tillcMl^ and the nc {j:h- 
borhfK)d 18 replete with "oljocts of an intl*re-t njt chamVfer — ' 
lyitttorthb a»yJnin'wili lie nitir^d, a/<d)it*)>rlvni;> tWy scyu 4f^, 
yiews^drfi it' will exhibit life in: its aetive, fonn, and 4ha tii'T-ii^ ^ 
objects of It busy town. Thy tja.t; fnihnjces oi.e huiuhed a« d 
four acres, in which thi're is a cllie proporti xi of wood and lillcihW 
]ai|CUj AJinp^' of iruiter cmiiiWoMiiinoi fr<>iii the l/>kr« H' 4 ^^^ 
tlie ibviUtioi of dj^ainflge are iiblintbiiit.' The g-iu ral cliar«M'fer of 
tlio ]ltf,i;t4 Is snob as will admit uf a 'high digi'ei^Ad'. tasteful 4iitdj; 
agi^abj|e intpiaTetiienti . * ; : * > 

.Tb^.t^^j^niiiissiuneRi tlel th:il thi*7 would Mot bed^iin*; just.co'to: 
Ooi^^fiiet' FiU'wo i, if they 'ftlionld |i)Mgle(^ to ri.*niiii4l the h!;:;i«lH- 
tufoof Jdspnb:iespirt«uiid liltCfaMt/, nuifle st» a(», au'Ht^ Uy hii . 
d«vdiifg to tliu. state thistmetcif laiul tor ike loniiMii sum.i»l.' tif* 
teeJshniidred:lMindf\'d dollars, ifrhilii ihe ival vahie thcivof in init 
lefStkan six tkoutonddtilbiis. . The CMiu^ii^ii hjim's niciibio'n*d%T 
niftny ifb!ipit>ins ^l himiur vahlsAile JHigjsebtigu.s duiijig ihu pro*^ , 
grO(4of itie-r bntiiiKSi. . " • ". 

Tile fourth' sertioti of the ^^ act to ph'Vide fui" h. State Luaaiic 
Asybiin," is a-* foUow- : 

*'Snidibtt h)iii^s»hiiU be r*>n«lni{*tetl in afcordiince widi tJio l*Vw». . 
of the 'Woibudter Ibt«])ital f r the L Bane, i«s ri*i*onniiei<d. d i»y Jle 
CoMMiiitloe in thfir ke|Mirt ttt the Senate. P ovid. d, That.sMi^I : 
Offii Ml i^Kidner.H shall have p rwer tu m«ik«» any h td'atiiNU she v.n 
wifieb tliey mtiy' iknlc ne«v8SfU:>s 4I'mI which will u^: uuxtari^llj 
change Said plan, or increase thb 4:ui4 ol' t^id .bui-dj^u' ^ , 



•eapon to trisit the Worcester Ho^tal ; dtid h# Wia tbeiNs and«li^ 
where advised by seieritiSe pbysiciffnid that th«' Wof6e0ter tlMfrf^ 
4al bad not only ceased to be a model institution, but* l^d^ f^IlM 
Into tlie rear rank of the mtirch 6f improvementi. 'Within itbd UM 
jEt5W years there has been a rapid advance in science as appltei t» 
Ute treatment of the insane, and it is ^neralty dobceded tkni « 
more convenient style of architeetnre,' and bettef arrangeinenti 
than can be found in any t)f tlie old hospitals are. if diapeflMble. 
The trustees of the Worcester bbapital serioii^ly eontemplatd sell* 
iiig out the old ImildiiigB ahd ereoiiag new oi^es :upoa annibcv 
aite. They say : 

*'The Jocatiun is snch ad po (M3i6, fit the present lime, would se- 
lect for such an object* The land conoectedlwith it is altqgethe* 
tf>» liiDited,. L) badly Wtuatedt not fak^nishing to the patients t]uil| 
freeduiu.aiide.N^rcise iu theopdn air which is dedirable in sqch on 
i^tftittition. The lioapital builiiingd are almost iurrupoded <l>y.0itjl 
residences, and are not suitable |cN^tl>e useatowhleh theyat^puK 
Ttu*y arc low gtuddtd, tlie &toiies htintgi only ei^ht and a half, and , 
nine fc'Ct liigh in the. clear; they are, warmed by furnaeea in the; 
bisemetit, which are very dangerous, and now nearly wurn ouL 
Tii.'y have already beep on tire at/ least once from them. 'Th^ 
Yviitilut.ou is 80 impeifect as not to dq<erve.tli^ iiauiQu The yeiit;? . 
ducts arc cacii but four iiychcs.$qu£yre, opening iu^ utti% fioigt 
^vliich the foul uir has no ini*,an3 of escape. It; oncii;,a^cefid| 
tUioifgli oi\Q vuiitiiluct, but to dosjcyiid through anothci*. I]ut foc[ 
the natuial vi'Ut*lati>n through the wii>duvvs.aud dpovs, .the coiVy 
taittiiuitgd uiv wouUl be often. ii|ti4evabie. I^$eyilelfects,arvplaip*, 
ly. Aiiiiw i'v tlio appearaiico '}f tint patleuta.. Tiie.frcqii^nt occairrenct 
vt' i.'ry*i|)elas iu the h(is,*ita.lj3 l^nt.ou^ of ita indict-s, Thu t^IjJea 
of luorta'ity kIiuw that i;r\\sipL' his stjiu^js at the h end of acute dis-^ 
eoiSCi in fatiiUry heri>. There U (i|n K^nt re wiuit of HUJtabL* vardf 
c<mui^t^4 with the buil'Ungs^ ,Ti4e|'e are iiyo.6.e|iaiMto latcjieua- 
with siH, thameii^i a t^ rend),'r Uieiii SijVtiinU)y coiupJe^u" ^^ 

Tills being ihc casa, the OjiiiriifeBioirers did hdtthint flic'msolvci 



4«iiriible topro(>«ee:|i-bnildii««ntirelj origroaliu y&:4eaig9, }>^ 
Hn^iieiwmM^'to ^^^yrithia the scppe of die Uw% m^ to Adqg^ 
«Hfcimi«oTemento m were <Jik^tQd bj tjie expprwpe pf t^ftpfttf 
M4'b]r tbe knowledge of tboae who are familiair i^ith the wfti^^i 
api requirements of tbe iopane. They deternuned to car^foUj 
9lLXMij tbe.exi^jtiDg ipstitutiopa aud if possible, to. adopt all theff 
gpod feataiea a^ to ^yoid their dofects. . . . , 

With dne regard to eaonomy in their expendiinree, ihej waM 
deitht>nB to erect aki' institution that would most completely fnlB 
tlie obfeot of its design, and nltimately giTe moat satisfaction to an 
enb'ghtened community. 

For the parpoee of gaining die requisite information upon this 
iubjeet, Hon. Geo. S. McLane, Superintendent, risitcd during tfaa 
j^st year nearly every hospital of any note in the Eastern States* 
He gave the subject a careful' and earnest examination and hucl 
before the Board the result of his investigations, as set forth in hiia 
Beport, to which attention is invited. 

' In regard to principles which should regulate the construction 
and varied arrangements of Hospitals for the Insane, there is at 
tbe present day a remarkalbe unanimity of opinion among those 
fkmiliaf with the subject. A series of twenty-six propositions in 
Reference to their construction was adopted by the " Association of 
Medical Superintendents of American Institutes for tbe Insane^ 
at their meeting in Philadelphia in 1851, and these propositions 
have been recognized as, and are without doubt the highest an^ 
thority upon that subject. The plan adopted by the Commission. 
itB is intended to be in perfect accordance with the views of diat 
Association. It is the plan matured by Dr. Eirkbride of the Penn* 
aylvania Hospital, and approved by every Superintendent in the 
United States, and it may be safely asserted that if carried out in 
the true spirit of enlightened philanthropy, it cannot fail to give 
US an institution of a high order, every way superior to any previ- 
ously erected, and at as smalf a cost as can effect the object da* 
^|redU 7^r a £uU and ap^ij&c acoppi^t ef t]|e plan of the bwldu^ 



«7 

^ ••(Rliir gfiftMyitt^tati^irtiilit this i)lari ^9^f6ci^W^^iipfifif9al 
'" 6f 'cvdry t^lf '^kMcftt^d^an to 'wbomtt has'fc^en rtifettflltoa. i^*' 

'^e coihnQissioners }n rTovember last had^he plea^are.bf mefet- 
*iii"g, fa 'MadJsoh, commTssioners from the 'state, of Mdryfktid,'*'bf 
"Which commisfsion ^ds the'fiti)n. Benj: OJHowaVd, And \rtio'VC^e 
' Tifiitlng diflterent states, to 'be mad6 actiuatntfed with the most ap- 
proved locations -and plans fbr Ifisane Asylums, pre^)aratoty to'tfie 
location and' coristVnctioti of an ins'titnfion of that brdfer Ih'Ufarj^- 
lloid. They are men <5f high character, active benevblelnce; atld 
('Bertititiiringjnl^stigftfiac.- THey had already v{f»ited<odr08t>^th6 
flbodpitais in th^^^li^ta, d^enving irittdf^peneable to^^ir dal!f in 
-hi^sw of the vespoDtfiblQ trnst'C^hfided'' to th^m. ' iFhey vteiied'Ihe 
tOocation MlooteMliby'iiB,'flnd noted'Odi^ ^ansiof^bdiMfaHg, ^.y^nd 
were pleased to accord tbeir unqaalifidd approval of th«'iaHCid^iflftd 
-4lMy ftrlly idieeer]9«bie4f «6'6e»^p4; th« ptans'of VThe tl^i^eo^inlfttate 
YjLimMic Adylutn'/' without ftltemtton, bs a putteca for M&rykuift. 
The Wisconsin Stat^ Xtmatic Asjluiii, when fully ' compJttea, 
"•-wiH accomtnodftte from" two hnndred and fifty to three hnndr^ 
VpMientB, and the cbit of the entire structure %ill be thesnm'bf 
^ one hundred and fifty thousand ddllai^. But the Wants. ()f tfa^ Ih* 
*^ne in this state^rtiay not demfand the expenditure of that antoiiht 
for many years. flPhe cpmmiBsioners deehied it to be their dtity io 
I^rovide BGeommodatbaosfot' at lest one hundred and ten palSents, 
.'lia(to€tt(a6.|K>68rhIe>(th8t being the estimated nnaiber 6t inaaneSn 
bHiBjUU at tbeiprasenttbne. Theiiefore uftder the ptoviflSooB mt 
the act establishing the Asj^mn, Ae board caiss^ to be pobliik- 
'i^ in the rraqboad number iof necropapeH in the'^tate, a notice, 
ttatiDg, that sealed propbaab \raidd be redeired by th^ixi for Aflr- 
. ai^Iuiig materials >aiid dmig tbe woA for die erectiMixif the bnild- 
- jdg drf MidiAsykioi, orisiofa >|>offtion thereof as'the oonimiatioami 
vfb^lM doemsfldviiablb to b*veeseot^9 and tfaat*tbey would iairaid 
jihe jBpntrMt io i^e bsmeat: Udder tlien^br. The cehtiMt wite 
swarded to Andrew Proudfit, whenuo he hut agceiBd ia.eftmpklte 



.8 

• Htm main bQsMfnjp und tim Tdnghndlnmraiid. two : 
.wTtbinlilie jemrAi6\ two more' Inngitndiii«l>nfid two iiiMre tn 
:.Tor0e wings within the jear 1856, and t|ier^tuiii)(Jttr(*f said bnild- 

>Dg8 at each reasomiblQ tiino thereai'tor as the couomiAaiouQni may 
direct; and for the performat ce of liis agreemonti in the p«emt* 
aea^ he ha^^ entered info bonds to the state in the snin of fifty tlioo* 
sand dollars. Tiie contract also ][>iovide9, tiiat as tlie W(»rk pro- 
gresses, estimates of iiiaterials furnished and work d«>ne shall \)B 
made monthly by the commissium^rs, and eiglity |>or cent, thereiif 
allowed the cor.tractir, the rem>iiping twenty leroent to he m« 
tained nntil the completion of the sever.l sections of said work. 

The cost of th^ portion of tlio building to be complete'! in the 
year 18&5, will be$G7,743 00. The etimate hm been made with 
lefbrenee to the. bid of Mr. Proudfit, by an able and experi« 
enoed arclifitecti and the Gtrnmiesioners are contideiit that eitah 
aiim is abundantly enfficicnt. 

Mr. Fiviidfit has g<ino vigorously to work^ and is placing inati^ 
nalsvpon the ground as fast as p<<ssibh^ We a'o i(rf<»niMHl .bj 
him, that he hns nln-ady contrncted for i\\\ ihe stnne neressfiry for 
tlje main btiilding nnu two wings; fur ail tliu brick, and 1 ine for 

• IhesamC) a large amount of luinlicr, and lian all tliei'iacliiujerj 
nece^saiy for ligisting f'tnne aiid other waterage on hand, and 
there is no rca^onablo doubt that tlio work \vi 1 ho corupluti;d jy- 
coiding to the terms of the c ^ntnict, and jierhap-i soongr^ 

The last legislature n(>pro|m;iti!d the sum of fifteen thoTismii] 

dollar**, whidi leaves I^.V.%143 00 mt^re to b<j provHlcii, in artier .t«> 

; eiimpl^fte the contract wiih M*. ProtidHt for tlio main bniUing'aiid 

• tw(» longitutinal aad twu transverse win^^. j 

Tliero h»i3 alrea<Iy bjcii exp^n led iiv thu B lardtto tliis^ datd,^ 
sum very little cxccedidg live ilmn-and dollar-. - j 

We think we aro warraitted in tlie prem'seis^ to siv tint thnfiist 
vftfition of ilie aHylnni will he cimi; letud atii te«dy fur f fttionts be- 

• fwQ the meeting.of tlio nextli*gi»ature; aiUhtiifnakmiiHuutitstHWf 
c*therefaro be msci^sarr ibt the peseiit session, 14 -iirdor to iKrr£j4k 

• tbo OTgaii^utioa of the iuctltutiun« ' . a 



0* 

' imtiWion «f tlik (fUMd, whitli tias rk>(f exceeded iti c<Mt, tbe 8am tt 
' Mie Kfindtidd and iUty thoasand deNare, #tiile inany have been 
^tmetrtiefed at an expend of over two hnndred thousand dollank 
1¥VMy^ester aejrhtm co^t two hundred and eighty seven thonaand 
doUai^; Tamiton asylnm, jnsC completed/ one hundred and fifty- 
•one thousand dollars, and the state has already anthorizcd, to h% 
made to tbe Iftttefi additional imptoven^ents ata great outlay; io 
trne is she to respoiid to the calls of the nttfortunate insane. T)id 
Vtica asyhim originally codt' two hnndred thonsand dollars, and 
until recently has been regarded as a model institntion; yet tlU 
legislatnreof Niew York, with a liberality that reftises to deny a*iy 
expenditure tliat may be necessary to render it more perfect as ani 
instrament for aceoniplishing llie beMLVoleqt*ohjeet of its ereelioDp 
Lave aatltorized an additioDal exponcKture of seveivty-five thou* 
iood dollars tbe past saaspci. -> 

Tbe Derbysliiro lunatic ftsyhtm, designed for the iccommodk- 

iion of three hundred patients, and completed in the year 1851, 

cost, including seventy-nino acres^of land; ninety eight thousand 

three hundred and ninefy-.^ix pounds sterling. Tlio Birmrnghain 

Borougii asylum erected fir three hundred patientj^^ cnmnienced (n 

3h46, and eani|fleted in 1^50, eost^sovantyfciur thonsand two liun- 

i.drcd and tweuty-foiip pounds. Many niot^ institutiiin's of thia or* 

'*der might be oiinmemted/ aodtlioro ciin never one be found of 

* any considerable merir, . t}ie cost of wbieb has bccii ultimately 

-luoosiired hj afew ihonsand dMllars;. ' '> 

Vnriims rca-ons nmy bo assigned for the many impcifectiorta 
wit c!i .have been long rnduad ^iri-neyluiue, protninent aniorfg 
whichps tlie luck of c »riftdeirco fn, or the ne^rleet *'to appeul to 
(lie nutlioHry of mOiHatl riion' wlio hiivo lived la asvlmiis an'd 
among the insane, and who alone know wlmt the insnno icqitiic." 
Thtsreusok^amstrtud hi the fiiKost extent, will iiMleiH) i^nibmcA all 
. «tber% foi^ tlio I<>tfi*iiwl'. mt'diviirufen »t the '] 'recent day hto 
ivrefltnpiiii ]>riigrb.«8, audi amiiuig in thi-lr invest igatii^itey n*'t«ifily 
tmxkTMMfi tiieif houte ooutfrieat to fiiid eut som^ithmg good atiid 



40 

^^epi. iqqq^^d ini th© flup^rinrt^ifclw^!^ ?flpai?K a»e i»en off jm> Jpjir iip. 
i.t9riqty;j emiqeiit,Uvthe^pTofq8aip4 tb^y- ^^^njmwd ojoi? .Jijgj^pt 

^.^^m in tiij^ir Jab^r of. ben)eTol«nce. . -^e ^ave |3<?Re^ ^^o-^w^rcwld 
^,jaat couscieAtian^Iy do ot}a.er9^isa-->t9 b^^p^a^ advisee ppifiioooA ,ff 
^,|;^ uaiaformedagaiapt tb^ird womld baMe l^oeasucb^; palpably cr- 
i^qr as an enljghfpi^od g^qmi^^nity • opuld ^¥|9r fprgiVie: ai)d'<t^e 
^fi^t r^cQinpensQ of thfdt error ^ould be notlung les^ tba* ao W* 
^ualifidd verdiqt from yofu-^lTp^, ijbi^ we ba;?e be^u JUifai^ul 
^rvjujts. ^ 

, . lo 4ettHng nrppn a plan ibor thifi asylum, ibe Oommisnoaara bad 
io [d^fiide wb^etber tbey ^oald Jiave ccnBtnioted .« bttildiiig..at 
small expense, poBsessing very limited goi»d qualities aikd OBafioii- 
^Offss, or such a building,,. at greater cost, as would meet tbajafg^ro- 
jbation of tbp^e wibo be0t Jqipw what is needed, and wbicb woald 
Tiot be 'immediately pbnpxious, and Bubjeot to reyision, qbapgj^.i^r 
^tptfil abaxidonmecit. We cbose tbe latter, and as yet jt^avi^ fQUfyl 
;po just cai^se to r<?gret our chqice, 

. In tbe; prpfteoution of tbis ^ubiq^s, wo bave at all times be^ 

aided by tbe Superintendent^ and to bim we ^oet accord rnnob 

.ibr tbe energy aod faitbfulneBa* wbicb bave cbaracterisea 

bis labors. His position in years past bas been anch, ;that 

American and Englisb Journals of Insanity, focm no iaocmaide- 

^.rfible portion of tbe reading matter of bis library. His tboivngb 

. knowledge of the plans and ispcicificatiops, ^^d tbe practiqfd 

] workings ot a ^elQmizQd structure, has been to us of greatvaloB, 

«and liis energy aad ability bave been f^Uy .equal^led by bis ui^- 

I form kindness. 

In conelosiciii, (bbe Commissicmers wonid say, in tbe lengnage 6f 

jQr. Kirkbride^ '' The plan wilLbe fiMuid^ it is believed, to giw at 

^^<8Kn«ill a cost as sm effect tb# ebjeefc tbcarQiighiy, what wa8> om- 

Igtoai^ jprfiposedM diasirable in m iittpital for ihe insfi^ ample 



11 

pioTifnonB for the accommodation of the officen and all employed 
"-^everything requisite for the cnstodj, comfort, and enlightened 
treatment of the patients — and arrangements throughout that will 
'af(c>1^' iiie -floperrisioii^ icy 4}e th^mg\t andteflbbtJm/iiAd'tlie ma- 
nagement liberal, and at the same time strictly economical." 

Madsok, January 1, 1855. 

SAM. G. BUGH, 

' D. 6: Tmtrif, ^ ^ ^ 






' '\ ' ■''"'„ Con\mi8fir6ner8'6f'Wi'8conslil State 



liUnatic Asylum. 



h . 



FIBST AN2fUAL BEFOBT OF TAB SOPESINTENDEIifT. 



To the Commis$wn$r$ fvf the Wisconsin State Lunatic Atjfln 

Giarrt.i<:](Bir :— *In confurmity with section 5, of cha|fter 59, of 
the Laws of Wisconsin, uppioved MHrcli 30, 1864, an ^* Act to 
provide for a State Lunatic Asjlum/' I lajr before jou die fulloir- 
ing 

REPORT: 

Under your instrncfions in the month of April last, I made pub- 
lication, that proposals would be received for the donation or pnr- 
cha'io of a site suitable f'r the location of our Asylum, setting 
forth, that if a sitD for such Asylum, nuder the act wpproved bj 
the Giiveruor, should be donatid or could be purchastd f »r a sum 
not exceeding iifti^'en hiiitdted dolhuSi the Asylum should be lo- 
cated at or in the vicinit}* of MsidJMin. 

• Slu»rtly after such publication, very many liberal CimTnunica- 
lions, werQ received by me from diffL-rent portions of the state, 
vrhicli I had the lumor to lay before ,\ou. 

The late Henry K. lloll-y, E-q , as ynu are aware, made us art 
offer of one hundred acres «»f laml, at tif een dollars per acre, at 
five miles diatance from Madison, and command. ng a line view of 
the vilhigo. 

Me^srs. Catlin & Williamson prosontcd for con-idcation cer- 
tain de8C!ihed l.inds, ranging fro n ten to fifieen dollars per acre. 

The offer of Ex Govcrn«»r Rirwell of two tract:} of laiul con- 
taining each one huinlro I acres one tract as a do.mtioii, the other 
nt titteen dollars per acre ; the prop .gal of James UicliHrdMin & 
0». t»f a heauriful sl^e on the soiirh-east shore of Third Lakf, con- 
fa'ninga little more than 0:10 huu.hvd acies, offi^vdat a sacritit-o^ 
but at a price somewhat exceeding the liuiiration of the act ; tho 



1?» 

prppojA^^in of Mps^rt. ViHa & Wiirameon of a quarter eecHon, or 
s uiirrio,i;dierw tf, &>tir miles frun Mad soHi and coiniaanding aQ 
«x,rf)ii^ive tyfVi'poiBt of llm aurroii^^ling ooimfrj ; the vorj liberal 
cffer of Jhiiiuh B. Martin, E^q « of Milwaiikde, on his purchase of ' 
thii Pirt \7iniehi.^» R^^erbatioa, with his proffwTi of uioiicy to ' 
A'd i'l tlit^ «iri«ciii of the Ati^^lnm, an<l tlia uso and Dccupati.m of 
bull iin;{s for tc iiporary ac;o:nniodiition ; tlio oficr of Mussra. 
Krk, HiUiSv't & NiM-ri-*, of Ssiuk county ; and tlio proposal, of D. 
W/Joies & II, II. (inn\ with liberal offers of donations. AH 
tlieife^iiavi|i^ been.yir^'ed in f u 1 oil the journal of our proceed* \ 
inpfs, noe<l bur a br ef enumeration hero. 

,llii<}er Jhe.pr«»visi>na 4if the '^ Act to provide for a Srate Lunatic 
A^ili^y'l/' shou|<l a ^ito.84lilaUlc^ forfucli pi)rposo be donated, in 
tlik; yiju^i'ir^ uf MajisoUt or jiurcha-^cd fur a sum not exceednig '' 
fiftf^n, l\iin lr«;d d •Ihir-'y ihtoi it became iucunibcnt upon you to 
locate KiiiJ Asyhiuf-at or in the vicinit\' of Madison. 

Aft^r haviii|r'viHi^ii^l with you,tiie severa} locatio.is ofifjredt pn- 
der xqnr ju^JUi'ti'aiis I n>»ti!ii d Mr. Karwell, tliat the one hundred ^ 
acre,T'C{. of laud whicti he had oSered to tJie stat«^ f »r the sum of ' 
fifti^isi^ luiiiU ed dollars* had been aiccepted by the CommissionerS| 
and -arp/'-ved of b\' tlieti vernor. Under tlia advice of the At- 
toptt^M («cnl*ra^ a def<l of ^eouvi^ytince wa« made to the state, aa 
order f r tlni purdiase ni'Uicy ^irawi^ and tbe dtcd recorded. 

UiHlt-r a resolution pushed hy your board, and by the advico/of 
tho frt'ViTnor. von are aware that I vi^ite.I most of the s'milar ii)« 
atitiitions iu iho Unicud S ates, and i^pon my return laid befuro 
yoii a plan, wli cli wjb a<l pred bv you wiihout reservation. 

In thy^ o 1 l.ty r qiire I for the es ablisliment of our institution 
and the plan adopted, it 4nay apjtear to some wiio are iH»t famil- 
iav'Wirb. rlivi luiniburuf insane in our state, that we are mak'ng ar* 
rai^Mie its beyo id our neceso' tics. Prtn the statistics and retittn) 
that tiavvj been nnide ti» jne during the pa^t year, I am s;it!sHed 
that \rj have in this stite at least one bniidred patient.'*, who, by 
nc^tct^t in iheii* trea ment, may l»ecome incurable. As to tho 
in re item of ex}>on>e in the | Itn nco^nmcndt^d by mc^ I cannot 
inure, fyllj! s.^1 forth iiiy viuws than by u quotation from a jcport of 



a cKdBngpished phyaicianl anyone wBose eanc^fibn ahd'^^'^'ejt- * 
p^Vie6c^ in tlie treatment of iusanitj mus^ entiVte' htt 6|&^}6>n^ i^ ' 
great consideration. I refef t(flbr. Lnfh^r V .' fe^tt, of lEate^ftitt:: * 
setts, fie says : 

./^It' would, aa formerly, not be di^chlt' to denmhsti^ate ttrf iraWe' ' 
o/ libspltal treatment, and eppecially of earty 6u1^jectio)l' io ih'e 
ns^ of means : bnt the day has passed wh^ thet^ommti'iiitjr Hfieldti * 
sqggestions orinstmctions'on these points, 'aiid' for veAfi CHis M^*"' 
lam lias been so overcrowded, that the' anxiety of it^ niana^M'' ' 
has been rather to keep down, tlian fo angihent' &e lihmbd^ 6fftk ' 
spplicantd." , 

^'Hie most essential' drawback to the falfest amoQiit'6f ptibtfc 
goodattained by the Insane Hospital^ of the'cdutitky, re^iiivieCr^ 
as^a whole, obtains in the erroneous belief, ' or "^at'leart tk^ titl^aH' ' 
assumption of a possibility tliat this Aass of fAstitilHotiK ciui' De* ' 
carried on fairly and justly under an^ s'u6l'outlW]^bf ih^tfna'iil^ ' 
wpuldbe measured by the ordiiiary sdpjidrt 6f^ibd(viduftftdliliViiii^ 
health and reason, ^e cannot be tBo'grateml ftiat it^M\iWdcf ' 
those who have directed the affair^' of tUi^ afyluiti' ha^e^'nbt^ir' 
8t6pped at this nominal accomplfshben't, btt'hayd iliM^at'atlaiik- ' 
ing the "highest realities of their professed ends^ a cob^timVbiitiiJa ' 
ovAj to be sought in the decision that J'us't SO miich mdtiey shatt'bd' ^ 
fraely expended as can be wisefly applied to'tHcf'obj66t*' * ' 

*'As the commtinities called to provide for tbe insane, advandi 
in familiarity with this duty and in means to meet it, tlie ^atal'er^ 
ror of cheap institutions will ceastW exist — an error involving* 
not merely tte negative objection of feaving the preStimt^flVe '• 
€nds of hospital treatment unfulfilled, but thel' positive hazard 
of accidents, compromising not oAly the instiiution ihimediat^iy 
concerned, but the usefulness and reputation of the v^hote cta^.**' ' 
*^It would' b9 a happ^ conviction upon the minds of legistators^ ' 
and communities, could they be pursuaded that bekWefeh no 'pro- ^ 
yisbn at a1( of a public kind for the Insane, and a par6ifti6ii!6'afir, 
•tinted and inefficient imitation of a r^al' provision' — th^'forni^' * 
evil is infinitely; t^e least! A Cpunty, orTowd; or^SWti'iiiajf^'dlg. ' ' 
nify a part or Uie whole of 'some custodial r^cb'ptli6I&%^' i^ftaU- * 



1*^ 

aad curators of the unfortanate, or eyen the friends aUS iliiUttiVM^^ 
is^* i^^M^tH!l7J'<Mr<k^fl 6«If^stetiU^ <BdV6, nhciipt mth. ^tibstMi- 
1i«M( H^B fifll fl«!^tMM^bf iMit tWgAdoii ; biili'eV^Vy p^tMi vtMl 
gftridtf ah'bcuy^ri^fldetidn «^^!i6 ihlitter, and c(MpAte» tlie cdi^t^ of ^ 
p^M^fii heMlbf, «M ^f tfie }tMa^6'tmdei*^€(\^eii ibte'minitxitim outp- 
lay for mere custody, to say nothing 'of Atn^lIOiiatlLM wddlalre;' 
citdW6tl>^V8M ffieiitt^ke^MIitjf^ 6f 'd^h^ Ja8ti6et6 fte itm^ne <in 
atiiM^ plMi:' GknikiMn!fie6<.pr^ptirfb^f(>rptohrisioti^^ this dicuM^^ 
have been led into wofal miscalcolations on tbl^ sttVJett."' ' ! 

«I |]fi^eii« titiii* c(ttGrtiltiett iioil< iii'^icteuMtion of Aie cost of the 
bttlMittg,^ bttt sfanplj^'torpteto npcm i^ecdrd,- t^at in my conne^itSdft 
with an institution of this kind, I could not cbnscientlbdsly 'ti6^ ^ 
c<mtii^fed a'pDMf 4hM <v0(>ttldMtrcMK3^'6M fully tj^ gp'dattiltiMafte 
eilll^ttig^eA io'l)^ AM^te^ilibed ifl the eumtiy^'ii'Q^atnienlrof the'i 
Insane. In mMftitig tkil^'plsfa* P weA goreriield chiefly %y ihe fcl^ ^ 
Io0i»^rss0tatmi% ,i«b]^ aftflk* itia|um!dsbsideriti0B,.W6iiD uiaifi- 
n)OTfiiy,ade|^te4 byf^^TheiAfl0doiatk>iiiof ,Mie«^ fiiipetutteinbiitv)! 
off A«fteiii(ian.l9sftiltall6^a for thd) Insane," aaA dinecte^to beYil}>f> ) 
lis}idd.«]«(tbd;M$dkiid'.Ji»qrlhils oS.iih%^OmlAimfiim\dMBmtimmtA'i 
of the association OH) tho:fl«Ajeetrefifit^ito« i J 



L Ey«^ liofet^iftJ ftl^tbe' insane shoulti be'ih the country, not ' 
within less than two miles of a large town, and easily accessible " 

H. No hdspitHWbrthe inirttte',' WweverlliiiUcd Its capacityV^ 
should have less'tliUi fiVfy Hct^ of Isind', deVoted to g&rdens and''^ 
ptsaMk^'^i^uAiibrifis'pikttct^^^^ ^At feast 6n6 biindted ictis 
should be possessed by every State hospital, or other institntibii'^ 
fart^ hmmdfred'plati^nte, to wlfici tiatnb&r t]ie6e'propo3itions'Bp- 
pl|f^ uii)ebs'i>thei*#ill6'iiient!t>tted. ' ' 

IIL )iMiL82iAiottld''b« pt^tideft tofaiso' t^u tbbbsatid guStotxn'*^ 



the ))ui|dii^ ' 

ly. N«i hospital for jthe ir>8^nQ ^ic^iM be iMAUti ^*itW>^ tk^ 
p}}>ii I^VM^ b^Ci; tii'gt subiuitteil <Q»MH9;plAiifr:filH^ ^£ |ilif f^ciiiiH^ 
vrlio l)uyc. l^ud cliurge of li fiiiiii^ar 4^-t4'Wi/UUMiei*t9'i>r,a''«^ j<rii« ticMl)/ 
ac4imiiutcil with all ho det^iUpt; their airriiiigju^^ii^i ani} fiem^vod 
Li^j r tbeir Cu'il a()|>iuUf tuu. . , ■ t. 

Y. The hi^li«^<^t liUiubi^i* Uiat fCaQ with, proiMittv be trortted irv 
o^ebuihiing, U two huudn^d^i^d.lirtj, whil«i.t>i'o. bmM)rA:d in a 
piffenihlo iimxiiiiiMU. .♦.,*:= / • .' 

.y^.. All i>uyli iuiildiiied <»|ioHld >9.<K>'M^mPtfld oCnt^r^i^qr M^k, 
Lav^ fihUu or nuitalio lOt iVi.Hud. i^ far i*§. puoiiiUe, bo ihHdu^tfW.r^. 
fi^MP vccidouta.bj Ji;-o. .. i .; . . ..| , •. ^.... 

, Yll. Every lK>«i>ir«l,haiviiix {MTv^^i^^P'^Mf' ^h:«» J»WA4f<^ ^wui«fi> 
patients, ibhouU luive iii it ut,]f»;^>t d^U diit^iiiiit Mar^^ (^jV. uacU 
Bex, luakiui^^ixtue^i.cl^iAc^e&iu tbe Qufji^'uoi^t^hMHWMt* wl 

Yli.i Eavh.wnixl bbiHikl hoi'e iiiita pivlor, auorriilw.'^ng^O 
lodgiilg nu>ni8,tor }iatiieaiii, tiir .a^<>ci.tted durinit •4jr/t'<tnkwiifiroA*> 
tiiigmritb a cli uiibur Am* two utie^daiitii: a «i»»t4iiVfi«<uit, a bilJi* 
rodui^ awatcrtcloier^ adiiiiib'M'iiiti^^ Mi«4a ii,«H4iiii(ig tubo'l«aliiig 
to the kiteheii, or other coiiimt |iit t V ifio lMiSIJhi<f* 

IX No a|)arriiieiit4 sliouhl ever bo provi KmI fur the coiifine- 
moiitof inv ieiits, ur a^ thi^ir loJ^.{ig rop;^^ tjiat^ry ii»>( i^fit'irJ/ 
above g<(iiiii(L 

X. Nil cl 1-8 of rno:n« eliMil hevcr be c •nsfrncted withotit 8 una 
kuul of window iti each,fei>.iiiiiaiijCiUiiig.dir^»:t jr i^-jj^ ijui v^tura- 
al atuiodtihero. 

XL N • chuinSor for the ii-o of a 8iiigle pntient shouUl ever i}fy 
)c88 ihaii eiglil hv umi feet, nor ahoiil I ihu Cv iUn;r «if ^ny nlory oc- 
Cilpie I hy |.tttii?nr» be loss than twi Ive (ect iti hei};lir. , ,. 

XIL. The ll^or vt' |mt.cu «' apjirtiuvntn tdipiild always be ol 
vood. 

XIjI. The sfaii'.vny'j sh iiM jdways l»c of iron, Htiw.^r />!hcr 
imlestnic ihle mileria',Mni|ile m s kl- luid aiiduiiiubc vai«d4;M8y jof 
a^tut, loaffiird cunvenieiu vgrcn* ia ^a9^ %«i;atotidciAt IVmIii lira.. ' 



Tt 

XIV. A htfge hospital ahottld cansisl tt a msin central bolld- 
iBj^ with wings. 

XY. The mfdn eentral building sht^nld contain the offices, re* 
ceiYing rooms for company, and apartments entirely prirate^ fcr 
the snperintendingphysician and his &milj, in case that offieerre- 
sides in the hospital building. 

%XVL Hie wings should be so arranged that, if rooma aro 
placed on both aides of a corridor the corridors should be furnish- 
ed at both ends with movable glazed sashes, for the tree admission 
of both light and air. 

XYII* The lighting should be by gas, on acooxmt of its conye- 
nience, cleanliness, safety, and economy. 

AVJULL The apartments for washing clothing, &c., should be 
detached from the hospital building, 

TTTY, The drainage should be under ground, and all the inlets 
to the sewers should be properly secured to prevent o£fensiye em- 
anations. 

XT. AH hospitals diould be warmed by passing an abundance 

of pure, fresh air from the external atmosphere, over pipes or 
plates, containing steam under low pressure, or hot water, the 
temqerature of which at the boiler does not exceed 919^ F., and 
placed in the basement or cellar of the bulling to be heated. 

XXl A complete system of forced yentilation, in connection 
with the heating, is indispensable to give purity to the air of a hos- 
pital for the insane; and no expense that is required to effect this 
object thoroughly can be deemed either misplaced or injudicious. 

Xxn. The boilers for generating steam for warming the build* 
ing should be in a detached structure, connected with which may 
be the engine for pumping water, driving the washing apparatus^ 
and other machinery. 

XXJiT. All water-closets should, as far as possible, be made of 
indestructible materials, be simple in their arrangements, and 
have a strong downward ventilation connected with them. 

XXIV. The floors of bath-rooms, water closets, and basement 
stories, should, as far as possible, be made of materials that will 
not absorb moisture. 

a 



19 

XXY. Ihe vardfl £>r tbe voml coccitod tkm thmild be con- 
Btnicted with rooms on but one etde of a corridor, not less than 
t« feet wide, the external windows of "wbkk ehonld be kige, and 
hare pleasant views from them. 

ZXYL Wherever practicable, the pleasure groonds of a hos- 
pital for the insane shoald be sarronnded by a substantial wall, 
so placed as not to be unpleasantly yisible from the buildiii^. , 

Institiitions for the insane are now being erected or completed 
in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, two in Ohio, in Alabama and other 
states, which, in the principle of their constraction deviate bat 
slightly from the building now being erected by ns. Should the 
plan of this asylum be carried out in accordance with the specific 
cations, we will have an institntion of such a character as will re- 
flect honor upon our state, and at no greater outlay than is neces- 
sary to obtain the important object we have in view. 

In a report of this character It cannot be expected that I should 
give a detailed account of the plans, drawings and specifications 
of the building. They are, as you are aware, open for examina- 
tion, at the asylum office, and accessible to all. To give a general 
idea of the arrangement, I would state very briefly, that the build* 
ing will be of stone, consisting of a basement and two principal 
stories in every part, except the centre and projecting portions of 
tbe wings, which will rise higher. On tbe centre building will be 
a; dome in which will be placed the water tanks. Ventilating 
shafts will terminate on the projecting portions of the wings and 
in the central dome. The centre building separates the two sexes, 
and OA either side of it are three ranges of wings. The first range 
is separated from the centre building by a space eight feet 
wide, and the other ranges fall back sufficiently &r to leave the 
eorridars open at both extremities, giving, when completed, e%ht 
distinct wards for each sex, besides accommodations for more vio^ 
lent patients. The cellar is excavated throughout its whole extent, 
in which are the air chambers, reservoirs, passages by railways for 
conveying food from the kitchen to the different dumb waiters be- 
tween it and the extreme wings, purposes of ventilation, i&c AU 



r 



19 

wiamuf turmagmmmiB^yriA IbMe for hMtfaf, gts^mOdiig'; ted 
proraring water for the esteblUbtuent^ Md iadeed wliereTer ft* 
18 requiiite, occupy a difttmct bailding from tire ftsyMm. AH pipei, 
flneBy dbcy will be eendiieted by arch-ways txytbemahkbtiildiBg, 

13ie architectural front of the building is plain and in good taste. 
The portico has been dispensed with, as being too costly and des- 
troying the npper portion of the bQilding. A double yerandah 
ikiade of iron, six feet wide^ has been subfititated in its stead Hm 
plan, as you are aware^ waa pre][>ared by Sloan and Stewart, archi- 
tects of Philadelphia ; and their drawings and specifications are 
admirably executed, and as full and specific as could be desired. 
The great responsibility which under your kind confideace has 
rested upon me in maturing a plan for our State Lunatic Asylum 
would necessarily compel me to avail myself of all the improye- 
ments of the day, in the medical and moral treatment of this class 
of patients. Apart from this important and responsible yiew of 
the subject, T cannot but feel pride that this institution should keep 
pace with the growing increase and prosperity of our State. 

To Dr. lliomas S. Eirkbride, of Philadelphia, superintendent]of 
the Pennsylyania Hospital for the Insane, I am under deep obliga- 
tions for the assistance he has rendered me in furthering the ob- 
ject I had in yiew; To Dr. Luther Y. fiell of Massachusetts, Dr. 
Chandler of Worcester, Dr. Nichoh of Washington, Dr. Battolph 
of New Jersey, Gen. McDonald of Flushing, Dr. Ghoate of Taun- 
ton, and others, I am under obligations for kind attentions in aid- 
ing me to carry out the object of my mission. 

And here I would take occasion to express my deep sense of the 
compliment paid me by the governor, and yourselves in your 
prompt appproval of the plan of the Asylum, as laid before you. 

As your report will show, the contract for the building was 
awarded to Andrew Proudfit, Esq., and Z am most happy to testify 
to the commendable industry and diligence with which he has been 
forwarding the work. A large portion of materials is already up- 
on the ground ; and should early and necessary appropriations be 
made the present session, which cannot be too strongly urged, I 



•0 

Mi cepfid^t tbat tke bufldidg umj be nady &at tbe receptum of 
potiant before the period contemplated under the contract, — aad 
oerMoly ^ hirge nonber of patients of this class, already in our 
Stats,iihoald have some ckim upon the sympathy of onr l^^lators. 
Madibok, January 1, 1855. 

GEO. B. MoLANE, 
. Superintendent Wis. State Lunatic Asylum. 

Xo Messrs. Bvas, YrrruK and Sanbobit, 

Oommissioners. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



or TBS 



BOARD OF REGENTS, 



Of THX 



MIVERSITY OF WISCONSm, 



FOB THE TEAB ENDING DEO. 81, 18M. 



MADISON: 

BEBTAH BSOWK, PSnrTBR< 



* I 



I 



,> . 



i I ? 



r 



UWIVBBSITT OF W1BOON8IN, FflBBTTABT 13, 1855. 

To His EzGELLBzror, Wm. A. Babstow, 

Oovemor qf the StaU of Wisoonsin: 

Id accordance with the law I transmit to yon, herewith, the 

seventh annual report of the Regents of the Uniyersitj, and have 

the honor to be, 

Most Eespectfnlly, 

Tour Obedient Servant, 

JOHN H. LATHROP, 

PrmderU qf ih$ BoQfrd. 



REGENTS' REPORT. 



Do rsB LaoiauLTVBM m thb Stats ov 'WiBOonBnr : 

Hie BegentB of the IJniyersitj make thiiy their Berenth an* 
nual 

REPORT: 

That the portion of the edacational intererest of the state whieh 
has been committed to their care, has received^ since the date of 
the last annual report, the attention which the importance and 
the exigencies of the trust seemed to demand. 

The finances of the University have steadily improred during 
the past year. The original land endowment is, by sale and in" 
-vestment, passing into the productive form, and an additional 
grant from congress during the present session, will, when brought 
into the market, add materially to the educational capabilities of 
be Institution. The following schedule will sot forth the. 
financial condition of the University on the first of Jannary^ 
18W. 

ff BBSOUBCEB. 

Proceeds of University lands sold and invested, $161,000 Ofr 
Yalue of balance of same, (unsold,) 19,000 00* 

Probable value of recent grant, (unsold,) 120,000 00 

Buildings and fixtures, 40,000 00 

Grounds enclosed, 45,000 00 

Library and Cabinet, 4,000 00 

Total resources. $389,000 00 



-» 




6 




MABna-iiKs. 


Loan from School fund, 
do University fnnd, 
do J. D. Ledyard, 




Total liabilities, ' 





$25,000 00 

15,000 00 

5,000 00 

I 

$4:5,000 00 
Balance 1344,000 00 

It will be seen, from the above statement, that the institution 
i8 now emerging from the embarrassments attendant on the period 
of converting a l^d, ^Twoo^at vakf> ^ productive foriHy aad; 
erecting the buildinp:s. The endowment, however, i§, to the 
extent' of one lialf, dtlU unp'roductive ; and the income of what is 
already productively invested is burdened with the payment of 
the annual interest on the debt incurred in the acquisition of the 
grouhds, and the constrnotioil of the buildings. In addttii^n to 
tWs, the piiymorit ot tiid principal itself of these liabilitiea, must 
bb provid4id for from thid etame annual income. It is obvious that 
until the debt be discharged', a considerable portion of the annual 
rev6Qn^ of the institution must be diverted to that use. It is, 
tbc^reifoye, important that the statement of the gross ultimate ca- 
jiafbillttes of Uie University should not beget an impatience fbr im- 
Blie4i^te'and brilliant restilts. A few years of cautions administni- 
tkm oi its aflWrs will be necessary to disencumber * its revenue ot 
the deb* ^hich is now lying upon' it, a'nd to realize the whole land 
endowment in the productive form ; enabling it to accotnplish, in 
the cause of education, all that has been reasonably anticipated' 
from an institution thus founded and 'thus endowed. Until such 
timeV'it is not tfaQ intentjion of the- board to divert any portioB of 
its income to the support of profesaional departments of Law and 
of Medioine. As the gbarier provides no building fimd, aside 
Irow th/e* ipoome of the University endowment^ it will be the gen- 
eral policy of the board not to proceed to the erection of the 
other buildings comprised in the plan, until the liabilities already 
incurred shall be discharged; and thereafter, only as surplus 



oilier an^m^rsiitiipoplkiitiasei. " < i 

• in ^ihm «eaiiflme^ the. atlention of tbe' boaM ' vill b^ iMi&ljr 
dvoeted t» the anUrafaoemoBt aud el)iiipl6tion of the deparftmewti 
of M Soieaee^ Literjrtnre, m&d Arti^^' fubrriishing the meatib of liberal 
education to the young mind of the joommuility. This depart-: 
Toeafsxaaptims pre^Acatoiy and eoUegisti cotirsea of inetnictidn, 
tJMBfeaimMHEt Jbo tbose presbribed in'the pldei* inetituflionb of learn- - 
ia|B;-m tfaeooQttttj* Si^ot .pootioi^ of Uiese courses may "be pur- 
anfed &n eonnerioik with the •regular olaseee, by thoeo who do Hipt 
(fasign to prosecute their studies through to gradualiioii. 
' At the beginning 6f «thQ the year 1868:, lihe Faculty of tlic Uni- 
v^itj connsted of J. H. Lajthttop, Ohancellor and Pifofessor of 
"Ethics, Civil Polity and Economy;" J. W. Sterling,' Pnsrfossor 
of " Mathematics andNatutBl Philosophy;" O, M, Conorer^ 'Pro- 
saor of ^' Aiiciaut Languages and Litoiiature," aad 8. H. jCarpen^ 
ter, Tutor. The board at their last annual meeting made choice 
of S. P. tatkrop^ M, D., of Beloit, to fill the chair of Chemistry 
aChd JS^fitural History in the UniTeraity ; who entered on his dutiea 
in May, 1854, which he continued to dischare till near the close of 
the first term of the current collegiate year. Sy tlie decease of 
Pfofeaaor L«tii»>p, on-the 25th of Docember, the institution lo st 
t|ie services of aa able and devoted officer, the agricultaml inter* 
eet, a aclef^tifio friend, and the State> a useful and influential citi« 
zpa. Tbe vacant canvassed the datms* of candidates, to secure 
an infceiligent and chair will be filled, as soon as theboanl shall 
h^Te sufficiently safe choice. It will be a. part of the plan of 
tUs d)9partmeDt, to offer yearly instiructioQ to f^cultural classes 
ia chemistry and its applications. 

At their maeting in September, the bc^rd made choice of Pre- 
i^sor Daniel Bead, L. L. D., of Indiana State Uni^eraity, for the 
vacant chair of '* Mental Philosophy, Logic, Rhetoric, and Eng- ^ 
lish Literature." The appointment has' been accepted. ' The new * 
Plr^esaM: will be xnaugabated at tb^ next eoosmencemenf , and will 
enter spon his duties at die opening of the nert collegiate year in 



8eptem1>er. Tbiicbair,aUy fiHed, wiU add materiitllj to tka in- 
8tractional force of the institntiony to &o> benefit not only of the 
regular olaBses, bnt to the rery great adranlage of tiioee who are 
pomnmg select portions of the course^ for bosineas pwposee, or 
in preparation for more useful and efficient employinent in the 
public schodls of the State. 

The chair of modern langnages still remain^ yaoant ; bat pro* 
vision has been made fi>r special instmction in the Oetman and 
French. languagesi by an appropriation of $300 per aonnm for that 
object. The executiye committee hare employed Dr. JT. P. 
Fuchs to render this service to the institution, until the chair be 
fiUed. He is in the daily instruction of two classes, and the board 
have reason to believe that his instructions are highly and justly 
appreciated. ' 

Mr. S. H. Oarpenter resigned the tutorship at commencement 
in July, and his valuable services have been replaced by the ap- 
pointment of Mr. A. L. Smith to fill the vacancy. Under his in- 
structions, the preparatory department is in effective condition, 
and increased numbers are in a course of preparation for the col- 
lege classes. 

The loan of- $15,000, from the principal of the University fund 
for building purposes, offered by the legislature at their last ses- 
sion, was accepted by the board ; and is in process of application, 
in the erection of the second collegiate edifice. The work will be 
completed according to contract, on the first day of June next, 
and will be ready for occupation, at the opening of the next coliegl 
ate year in September. By reference to the report of the building^ 
committee, hereunto appended it will be seen that the cost of the 
work will exceed the amount of the loan by $8000. This deficit to- 
gether with the cost of superintendence, furnaces, and fitting up of 
public rooms for use, amounting, in all, to not less than $4500, must 
be provided for out of the income of the present year. The divert 
sion of BO large u portion of the income to extraordinary uses, will 
compel the board to defer the appointment of a professor of mod. 
em languages, and the enlargement of the library, cabinet and 
apparatus, till the close of the year. 



r 



Tbe avftiUble ftttkds in the treasarjr of thd honxd for the year 
IMS, will be $M IbUowB, (nearly) : 

Bdanee of ific6me for 'S4, in slate treasnry, $1,199 IS 
Interest for 1855, <m capital fiind iarested, 

($l«l,14e.91) - $11,280 28 

Fn>iii tuition and room rent, 1,000 00 

Vrom sales of University addition, 400 00 

Interest on probable sales of ITni versity lands for '55, 1,000 00 



Total arailable funds for *55, 


$14^809 48 


Disbareements as follow* : 




Interest on indebtedness ($15,000), 


9,300 00 


SalarieB of Faculty, 


5,875 00 


Pay of Secretaiy, Treasurer and Janitor, 


615 00 


Wood, 


300 00 


Deficit of building fund, ($15,000) 


4^500 00 


Oontingencies, 


600 00 



Total disbareements for 1855, $14,490 00 

Balance in Treasury Dec. 31, 1856, $819 43. 

It is obyiotiB from the above statement, that, in order to enable 
tl^e institution to meet its liabilities, the whole of the income of 
the university fund for the year 1856, after reserving the interest 
on the two loans froi^a the State, should be placed at the disposal 
of the board. 

Preliminary measures were adopted by the board, at their Sep" 
tember meeting, in reference to the supply of boarding for stu- 
dents within the college grounds. The want of some provision 
of this character has been already felt, and will become still more 
urgent as the institution shall continue to enlarge its patron- 
age. The executive committee have been charged with car- 
rying out the views of the board in this behalf, as soon as the 
means of the University will justify it. 

From and after tie present year, the income of the University 
fiom the original land endowment, will not vary much from 
$1 2,600 per annum. By additions from students and from other 

a 



10 

the instructional force of the institQ^ioi^ whWr.tb^ dl^afttd mre.<tii -' 
filled, wilLbe aboat $800 J. .^diAg.to. tl^) Ii3t0a«.far ii^rM9» of ^ 
library, apparatus and ^eleijJdfif cQUeptious^ a^4 f^r epnti»igeMi(9i| • 
tl^ curr.enl;^xpenditures of the institatioa will aippi^ot tO' s^fie 
$1P,Q00 per annum ; leaving a margin oj^ $5000|', 4>ii.(b6,pftfn9<9i4 . 
o|. JAtexest and the gradual sinking of' tb^ 40bL , . . ' t * , . 

..Paring the presea);^e9aion <»f ca^grea» au additi^iH^l igrftoib o£. 
seventy-two sections of land has been made, in farther endow- 
ment of the University. Of this grant, about forty sections have 
• been located, and the residue will be entered in the spring. Some 
legislation may be necessary to protect these landa from intrusion. ' 
atd tressjpass duriug the present year, and to pri-ovide against any 
dtminntion of the fund by pre-emption claims. When the selec- 
tions shall have been completed, it will be sufficiently early to 
provide A)r their appraisal and sale. * 

* After the reduction of this new grant to the productive form, 
and the Qxtlnction of the debt, the annual in^ooj^e of the whole 
endowment will not fall short of §22,000; aod recoipt^ fi^om, other 
sources will swell this amount to $25,000. These conditions will 
enable the board to carry on successfully the Collegiate, jSTormal 
and Agricultural departments j to provide for the additional 
structures without the accumulation of debt ; to make yearly ad- 
ditions to tlie apparatus, library, cabinet and other collections ; 
and finally to establish t}io professional schools of Law and Medi- 
cine. 

Tlie board are advised that the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction recommcads ^n appropriation from the income of the 
school fund for the support of a normal professor in the Univer- 
sity, until the institution shall be able to assume the whole bur- 
den of the department. Should this policy be adopted by the 
legislature, the board will provide for the necessary room and fix- 
tures, and CO- operate with the Superintendent in placing the de- 
partment in the most efiective condition. A Uk^ temporary aid 
would enable the board to give earlier effect to their design to 
make the University the proper agricultural college for the State. 



11 

The term of service of Regents, Nathaniel W. Dean, Hiram 
Barber, Ohaoncey Abbott and Julias P. Atwood, expiree duriog the 
present session of the legislature. The charter of the XJniversitjr 
deyolves on the legislatnre the daty of filling these vacancies. 

In order to a more detailed understanding of the condition and 
prospects of the Tlnirersitj, the board append to ^is report the 
annual communication of the Chancellor, the reports of commit- 
tees, and other relevant papers. 

The board, in fine, present the University in a condition of sub- 
stantial prosperity, and hope, by a careful administration of the 
important trust reposed in them, to be instrumental in'^extendin^ 
its usefulness, and commending it to the affection andjjto the just 
pride of the commonwealth. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

JOHN H. LATHROP, 
CHARLES DUNN, 
J. D. RUGQLES, 
ALEXANDER T. GRAY, 
C. ABBOTT, 
H. A. WRIGHT, 
E. WAKELEY, 
NELSON DEWEY, 
E. M. HUNTER, 
N. W. DEAN, 
J. P. ATWOOD. 



APPENDIX. • 



M i 



IB 



To the Board of RegenU of tJiM 'Uhiterstii/ of Wisconsin : 

In accordance with the statntea of tlie University, I would re- 
Bpectfalljr eubmit the subjoined view.of the condition an^ progress 
of the institution, during the year ending December 31, 1854; and 
would sugj^^est such measures for your consideration, as appear to 
me to he conducive to the great and interesting object of our com- 
mpn trust. . 

In laying the foundatiorsof an institution of learning of the 
highest grade, puhlic in character and administration, intended to 
perfect and to crown tte system. of public instruction f^r the State, 
it IB important to consider that voluntary associations have alrefidy 
broken Ihe ground, that well endowed and well officered denomi- 
national colleges, are in active and successful operation, offering 
advantages*f'»r the ifiberal education of the youna mind of Wia- 
consin.' All these efibrts, beneficent in tneir immediate results^ 
are of special interest to us, a^ preparing the way for a more am- 
ple harvest of dl'-tinction and usefulness to the Univeisity, pro- 
Vided, that by adequate public endowments, ample appointments, 
and wise adnnnistration, it be made to take its trije position i^s th^ 
seat of liberal learning and professional culture for the young Guen 
of the State. 

iJB.ut 5t is obvious so remark, that the University, as a mere com. 
pctitor with the colleges for public i'avor and patronage, derives 
no advantage whatever, from tin* niere fact of its State connexion^ 
It is only by creating in the. public mind the well founded con- 
Tietion, that a higher style of I'dneatioM, both in practical valu^ 
and in finish, may be obtained \vi liiri-^its walls than can bo fur- 
nished elsewhere, that the denominat onaT bias, which has hitherto 
divided the efforts of the friends of liberal e4acatjion, can be re^ 
laxed and finally overcome. . , 

The best condition for the whoh* community, in this behalf, will 
be realized, when the state shall make amp!e provision for the 



i I 



1« 

liberal ednc&tion of all those who may desire it, leaving all de- 
nominatioiial fmds to the single work of the better professional 
cnHare of those who are set apart to act as the moral and spiritual 
guides of their fellow men. The charter of the auiversity, for 
reasons which are satisfactory to the commnnity, makes no pro- 
yision for a theological department ; but it is q[aite obrions that 
each of the religions denominations would wisely avail itself ot a 
competent state organization for the liberal education of its mem- 
bers, enab'iug itself, by saving all expense in that direction, to 
give a completeness and perfection to its schools of theological 
learning, which connot be reached by the application of divided 
funds. That the State University may be made to bear this desir- 
able relation to denominational schools, requires nothing else than 
ample public support and wise administration. 

The plan of the university of Wisconsin, as set forth in its char- 
ter, provides : 1, for the collegiate department of science, litera- 
ture and arts; 2, of law; 3, of medicine; 4, of normol instruc- 
tion. To this I am satisfied we must add a fiilh, namely, a school 
of the application of science to agriculture and the useful arts. 

A state institution embracing all t&ese departments, and sustain- 
ing the above mentioned relations, constitutes the idea towards 
which we are to labor up, and to which we should approximate as 
the means in our hands and the material on which we are to work, 
will permit. 

During the period of converting our land endowment into a 
productive fund, our operations have been necessarily limited by 
the scantinesq of our actual income, and the necessary diversion 
of the larger portion of it, to the acquisition of grounds and the 
ereotion of the needful buildings. In the meantime, our organisa- 
tion has been effectual to the preservation af the fund from dim- 
inution, to the gathering of patronage, and the preparation of our 
material for the prosperity which the university will doubtleaa 
command in time to come. 

Up to this time, our suit of public rooms has been inadequate 
to university uses ; our library and cabinet of Natural History 



•IT 

haveb^eu^c^pf^gra; apparatus we have bad none fvr chemical or 
philosophical demoiistration, till the small purchaEe of the laat 
year; several of our chairs of insti-uction are still vacant; and no 
movewent haa jct been made towards the organization of any 
<;>tlier university school, than that of '^Science, Literature and 
Arte." • ' 

The presentation of what remains to be done, to realize oiu idea 
of a state university, naturally brings us to an examination of the 
financial condition of the institution, present and prospective } the 
means now on hand, and hereafter to accrue, for completing the 
plan and accomplishing the ondsof tho trust. 

The proceeds of the sales of the University lands of the original 
grant, when disposed of at their appraised value^ will amount tp 
about |180,000, The interest on sales and investments up to the 
first of January 1853, was barely sufficient to meet the interest o» 
the liabilities of the Board contracted in the purchase of grounds 
and the erection of tho first dormitory building. Since that peri- 
od, sales have been rapid, and tlie productive fund accruing 
therefrom amounted, on the first day of January 1855, to $161,000. 
It is fair to presume that the residue of tho university lands will 
Le sold during the year, and the whole fund of about $180,000, 
-will be realized in the productive form, by the first of January, 
1856. On this supposition, the income of the fund for the nezt 
year will not fall short of $12,000, 

The Faculty of the University, at the beginning of the year 
1854, consisted of the Chancellor, who is acting Professor of 
*'Ethic8, Civil Polity, and Political Economy ;" the Professor of 
•*Mathematics and Natural Philosophy ;" the Professor of "Ancient 
Languages and Literature ; and a Tutor. The chair of Chemistry 
and Natural History was subsequently filled by the appointment 
of Professor Sk P. Lathrop, of Beloit College, who entered on his 
duties, in the University, early in June, and continued to render 
his very valuable services in that department, till disabled by the 
disease which terminated his useful life, on the 25th of Decembec. 
At the September meeting of the Board, Professor Daniel Bead 

3 



18 

sow of the TJnirersity of Indiana, was choaen Fto tbn ot af ^fU an- 
tal Fbiloeophj, Logic, Khetoric and English LitoratarOi^ hia term 
of office to commence on the first of August 1855. 

I am happy to be able to announce to the board, that the aj)- 
pointment has been accepted. The accession of Prof. Read wiH 
add greatly to the instructional force of the institution, and will, 
'in the most satisfactory manner, as I doubt not, suj^ply what haa 
been felt all along to be a manifest and decided want in our organ* 
ization. He may be expected to deliver his inangnral address at 
our next commencement. At the rame meeting of the board, the 
executive committee was authorized to employ a teacher in the 
German and French languages, at a charge of not more than $S0O 
per annum ; as a temporary arrangement, until the chair of mod- 
em languages and literature should be permanently filled. The 
the committee have been so fortunate as to secure the services of 
Dr. I. P. Pochs in this department, who will be a candidate fur (he 
chair of modem languages and literature, whenever the board 
shall proceed to an election. His instructions have been, thus lar, 
thoroughly and successfully rendered. 

During the past year about $900 have been expended for chem- 
ical and philosophical apparatus by order of the board, and about 
$300 for the benefit of the library and cabinet. 

The apparatus was selected with great care by Professor Lath- 
rop personally, from the shops of the best makers in Boston and 
New York. We have adopted the rule in, the purchase of appa- 
ratus, whether the appropriation be great or small, to procure in- 
struments of decidedly good quality; so that the apparatus when 
complete, shall be seiviceable, and well adapted to the purposes 
of analysis and illustration. 

An entire suit of New York fossils has been added to the cabi- 
net, and a large variety of those of Ohio and Illinois. 

The library has been increased by purchase s to a small amount, 
and hy the valuable attentions of Senator Dodge, and Hoa. B. Ol 
Eastman, and others of our delegation in congress. 

On the completion of the edifice now in progress, the apparatus, 



19 

librftry, and ^abinat) will be remoTed to the large and eommoli- 
oua roome to be prepared for them and it is to be hoped that 
the revenue of the inetitution will enable the board to make anna- 
al appropriations for the extension of these aids to ioetrnction, ea- 
aential asthejr are to the credit and nsefalness of the UniTeiv>itj. 
The death of Professor Lathrop will devolve on the board the 
necessity of filling the vacancy in the chair of " Chemistry aid 
Katoral History." The late incnmbent had acquired a Wisconsin 
repntation, and wae enjoying the growing good will of the farm- 
ing interest of the state. In these respects the loss we have sus- 
tained cannot be at once repaired. Eut it is obvious that the in- 
Btitntit*n is greatly interested to find in his successor, whoever he 
may be, the ability and the will to make this department of the 
University an efficient aid to popular culture in the philosophy of 
agricnituru atid the useful arts. As much of the usefullness'and 
distinetioi) of the University will depend on the choice of the pro- 
fessor, in this department, I would recommend that a committee 
of correspondence be appointed to procure testimonials and to 
inake rei^ort to the board at their meeting in July, at whiah meet- 
ing a permanent appointment may be made in season f^^r the in- 
structions of the next collegiate year, commencing in September, 
For the prt- sent year I would recommend that such snia, as the 
board may deem expedient, be placed at the disposal of the exe- 
cutive committee, with instructions to provide a special course on 
chemistry, of some ten or twelve weeks, during such portion Qf 
the present year as they may deem expedient. 

On ohraining the loan of $15,000 from the principal of the Uni- 
yeradty fund, the building committee, as instructed by the board, 
proceeded to the erection of the second dormitory building. The 
contract was let at $18,000, and the deficit of the loan, together 
with the incidental expenses of the superintendence, and the fit- 
ting np if the public rooms must be supplied, if no other fund be 
provided, from the income of the present year-^a charge which 
will not amount to lesd than $4,000, in all. On account of this 
extra burden on our incoi;ne, I would not recommend the filling of 



fO 

tho obftir of niodert) languages before our next annual meeting, 
and I refrain from stiggesting the appropriatioma which are greatlj 
needed for tlio enlargement of the librarjcand the cabinet^ and.<^ 
the]'philo8ophical and chemical apparatus. 

I sabmit the following estimate, in order to a proximate nnder- 
standing of the financial condition of tlie Institution for the year 
1865. 

EXPKNDrrUKKS. 

1. Interest OD loan Ifrom iscbool fund $1,750 00 

2. iBloregt ou }oan from nniversitj fund 1,050 00 

3. Interest on loan from J. D. Ledy&rd 400 00 

4. SaUry of Chancellor 2,000 00 

5. Salary of Prof, of Mathematics, ifec 1,000 00 

H Salary of Pro£ of Ancient Languages 1,000 00 

7. Salaty of Prof, of Mental Philoeophy, Ac. (one quarter) 250 00 

8. Salary of Prof, of Chemistry, (Src (with incidentals) 350 00 

9. Salary of German Instructor 900 00 

10. Salary of Tutor 495 00 

11. Salaiy of Secretary of Board 125 00 

12. Salaiy of Treasurer, about (per ccntage) 250 00 

13. Salary of Janitor 240 00 

14 Wood 230 00 

15. Oontmgendcs (say^ 500 50 

Total current expenditui-cs, including interest on loans 9,890 00 

Add defioit of building fund ■, 4,000 00 

Total $13,890 00 

To meet these expcnditnres, tho Treasurer estimates the araila- 
blo fanda for the use of the university, for the year 1855, 

At $13,248 32 

Add for tuition, &c., (under-estimated) 300 00 

Add for interest on piofaRble sales in 1855 1,000 00 

Total available funds for 1855 14,548 St 

Balance in Treasury, Dec 31, 1855 $ 558 33 

I have made this detailed statement, which I trust will be found 
aubstantially correct, of the probable receipts and disbursements 
of the treasury for the current year, in accordance with an act of 
the legislature requiring it, as the basis of a specific appropriation 
«f our revenue, to meet the specified wants^of the TTniversity, Tt 



r 



21 

it obTions from titt Btatemont, that the xvaats of th& Univwiity re^ • 
quire that its whole rerenne should be' placed at the disposal of * 
tb^ board. 

As the annual income of the UnirersUy fnnd is acctminlated in • 
the dtate Treasnrj on the first of Jannary, and as the claims on 
the Treasury of the University are liable to be presented from 
time to time throughout the year, it is desirable that some uniform • 
■TStem of Temoving our money from the State Treasury into the • 
tremury of the board, shoald be devieed and established by law* ' 
On this subject, I will take^tbe liberty to make one or two sugges- 
tioii: 1. That the warrants, drawn in accordance with eur by- ' 
laws on the treasurer of the board, be made payable quarterly, 
say on the first of January, April, July and October; and that 
on these several days, an order be drawn by the board, if in ses- 
sion, or by tlie executive committee during recess, on the State 
Treasurer, in favor of the Treasnrer of the University, of sufficient 
amount to meet outstanding warrants ; or 2. If it be thought ad^* 
visable that all university warrants shall be payable directly from 
the State Treasury, this object may be effected by a law directing 
the State TVeasnrer to pay such warrants, when endorsed by the ■ 
tTBBSiirer of the board. Some settled practical rule on this subject, 
seems to mo te be very desirable. 

The subject of the supply of board for students, is a matter of' 
paramount importance, in its bearing on the patronage of the Uni- > 
rewity. It is unwise to rely entirely on the disposition of private 
bouse holders tb extend accommodations to students^ Limited as* 
our numbers have hitherto been, much difficulty has been experi** • 
enced in this behalf, and as the university will soon come into a 
eondition to command extended patronage, the inadequacy of this' 
leliaiiee for supply, will place the institution under very great dis*' 
advantage. It is quite certain that some plan must be adopted, 
fhrottgh which young men, proposing to enter the university, may 
have the assurance of being able to obtain suitable board at mod- 
Iirate prices. The old usage of bringing all the students into a 
#Dmmons ball, as a part of the regimen of the institution, has been 



gwraHy tbiiidoiied fey tii» older eoUeges, m «n&v(Hrabte to ||€iDd 
oider^ and perhaps equallj so to good mftnaeiB aod good nioraki^ 
All that I would recommend, is a common dining room for the a^ 
commodaikm of some of the families of the Facaltj aad sneh of 
the students as may prefer that arrangement to sediiog beard in 
private famies, the charges merely covering expenses. A oloJi^ 
room may be attached^ for &e accommodation of those who migr 
desire to board themselves. In aecordaoce with the favorable ao* 
tion of the Board, in this behalf^ at their Agast meeting, the est- 
ttvne sentb wing of the new building will be finished with refer-^ 
ettos to residence. To carry out the residue of the plan, would re>- 
quire bat a small comparative outlay. Considering the importano^ 
of the subject, it is worthy of conaideration^ whether the naeaaa 
of acoomplishing it may not be provided within tJbe present year^ 
Hue surplus revenue of the year 1856 will be more thansufficiMit 
for this purpose, and this will be in the treasury on the first of Jan- 
uary of that year. 

The Superintendent of public instruction recommends^ in hia 
report to the legislature, the appropriation of a suffioieat sum ao*. 
nnally, from the income of the school fund, for the support of tba 
normal Professor in the University. Should the legislature adopt, 
this policy, which appears to me to be soi^nd and unob]eotionablA» 
Ike board will be able to open that important departnaent of tiie 
in$titution as early as the beginning of the next year, and make U 
the dispenser of the normal instruction for the State; Some ar* 
rangement for the professional education of the teachers of tl)h» 
State is a present necessity. It is doubtless a maeh better eeoao^ 
my for the cause of popular education to accomplish thia end 
through this TTniveasity department, than to throw upon^heaeiiaol 
fund the outlay necessary for originating and endowing a separate 
narmal school ; which, after all, could not be reasonably expected 
to do its work so well. A yearly appropriation from the income 
of the school ftind of $1,600, in support of the normal departmeojt 
of the University, would secure the end, while a new organiaaticai 
lyouM require, in charges for maintenanoe and intereat on oath(j^ 
several times that amount annually. 



r 



Tka^doptim of the pplicj racommendei ^y the Saperioton^Antt 
will de?oIvQ upon the boiM*d, amoz^ other duties, thaicf prpv^idipg* 
forthwith for a separate prepi^ratory school ; so th^t t)ie priisfiiil, 
UnWersl^ baildiags shall be devoted eiitirel/ to the nses/^ thf 
cplleglatfi aod the normal departmente. A movement is now b^ 
Wig xnade in Madison for the establishment of ai^ academic at/ 
onion school^ with departments adspted to all grades of instnun 
tion^ np to a fall preparation of the higher classes for the Uiuvar-^ 
al^. I wenld recommeod that the executive committee be in^ 
stnicted to negotiate an arrangesnept with the directors of tbif, 
enterprise^ through which the classical department of the schoo}. 
maj do our preparatory work. I have no doubt that the connexion 
may be so arranged as to be highly beneficial, both to the school 
and to the university, and may be made to accomplish, in the best 
iMdiBer, aU that we deeire in Idm behalf. 

The committee, to which was referred the proposition of a por* 
tk>n of our fellow-citizens to endow, in part, in the(^XJniversitj, ^ 
chair of Soandinaviaa Language and Literature, reported to th^t 
August meeting of the board of ordinance, to. carry into effect 
conditionally, the objects of those who are interested in the mov^ 
ptent. I am of opinion, on nature reflection, that the acceptance 
of the offer on the conditions specified in the ordinance, woa^ b^ 
^ast to those who have made it, and advantageous to the institm 
tion* ' : 

The University is under great and lasting obligation 'to thoae. 
of our fellow-citizens, who have, from time to time, int^rpei^fd 
tbeir private or tlieir official services, not only to aave the orJig^ 
nsi endowment from the danger to which it was ^t some |;im,e^ 
ezpo^ of ruinous depreciation, but also to bring to a suceessfnl 
termination, our application for a new grant of lands of e<|U9l 
amoont with the first. The bill, securing to us this additional ef^- 
dowment, became « law early in the present session of congress.; 
aad a large proportion of the locations, made in auticipation of 
tbe grant, are understood to have been secured to the institution^ 
The residue will he located in the spring. It is a question for th^ 
board to consider, what legislation may be desirable to bring 



84 ' 

Ihestd lands earlj into the market and to eecttre to tibe trnit t^eir 
ftiU value. If appraised at an arerage of $3 per acre, a propor- 
tion of them wonld meet with a ready sale, and the entire grant 
would yield the sum of $188,240. It can hardly be doubted that, 
by thrifty management, this sum may be realized within five 
years ; and my observation of the chances to which university 
lands are exposed, leads me to doubt whether we may not be 
losers by aiming at a larger amount. A fair appraisal next sum- 
mer, on the basis of a minimum of $2 SO per acre, would perhaps 
distribute even justice to the University and to the settler. 

Taking the value of the original endowment, as before 
. stated, at ..... .$180,000 

And of the recent grant, at ... . 138,240 

We make the whole endowment . A18,M0 

After the completion of the edifice now in process of erection, 
including the boarding accommodations mentioned above, with 
the addition of what fixtures may bo requisite for the Normal de- 
partment, I should recommend that no more building be underta- 
ken, until, by the application of the surplus income of the insti- 
tution as a sinking fund, the entire debt, incurred thus far, be paid 
ofl^, leaving the institution in the unencumbered ownership of its 
bnildings and grounds, and a clear productive ftmd of at least 
$300,000. » When this condition shall be realized, and not before, 
shall I deem it advisable to proceed to the erection of the main 
edifice contemplated in our plan of building, and to the establish- 
ment of the departments of law and medicine. In the mean time, 
our resources will bo sufficient to a gradual devolopcment of flie 
collegiate, normal and ngricultural departments of the institution, 
by filling, with competent and devoted men, the necessary chairs 
of instniction, and by snrrounding them with those subsidiary ap- 
pliances which distinguish the older educational institutions of the 
country — a complete apparatus for analysis and demonstration in 
l3be experimental branches of science,, an extensive and well as- 
sorted library, and copious collections of natural specimens illire- 



f 



tratiTB of tbe stiences of obsenration. A rerj few jears of jndi- 
eious adt hju i stra tion will perfect th6 orgatikatioif of the Univeni- 
tjj carry it forward to a yigorons maturitj, disencamber its en** 
dowment, and Becore to it a perpetnal annual income of at least 
$31,000. This work, gentlemen, is yours, yours will be the hon- 
or, and, what is better, the consciousness of haring done duty to a 
Twj grefft and inteitefing public trust 

AllwfaiQb,&c., 

J. H. LATHROP. ^ 



1 



BKPORT OK THE £X£0im7E 00100X330; 



The executive committee wonld respectftillj report, that in dia. 
chaign of flie dnties aesigned to them by the by-laws, they have, 
at their monthly and special meetings, audited snch accounts 
as have been been brought before them for their examination ; 
and have made and executed such orders as the interests of the 
institution seemed to require. 

The authority conferred on the committee by the board at their 
August meeting, to provide for instruction of the University 
classes in German and French, at a charge of not more than $800 
per annum, has been executed by the employment of Dr. T. P. 
Fuchs, who is now discharging duty in that service with fidelity, 
and, as the committee learn, to the entire satisfaction of his coU 
leagues and his pupils. 

A vacancy in the tutorship having occurred by the resignation 
of Mr. B. H. Carpenter at the commencement in July, the com* 
mittee made choice of Mr. A. L. Smith, a graduate of the Wes- 
leyan University, Middleton, Connecticut, at the salary establish- 
ed by the board in 1852. His term of service commenced in 
September, and he is now in the active and acceptable discharge 
of the dnties of his office. 

In obedience to the order of the board at their February* meet- 
ing, the execntive committee have audited all the estimates of the 
building committee, of work done and materials furnished by 
Messrs. Bird and Larkin, contractors for the construction of the 
second University edifice. No drafts have been made on tiie 
State treasury for any portion of the loan for building, except on 
such estimates, audited and approved by the executive commit- 
tee. 



iB'or the ftirtber nndentanding of the doings of the eommittee, 
^ey her«mtfc present .the H^vd ^f their proeeedbgi^ for :the in- 
spection of the board. 

All which 18 respectfallj enbmitted, 

DiriTEBenrT of Wiscohbiv. J. H. LATHROP, 

Janurj 17, 1856. 0. ABBOTT, 

N. W. DEAH , 
J. D, RUQQLES, 
H. A. WRIGHT, 

Committee. 



KEPORT OF THE BUILDINQ OOMMTTPEE, 



To the Regents qfths Vhiversify qf WUeonsin : 
The bnilding committee respectfully 

REPORT, 

That in pursuance of the instructions of the board at their Feb* 
marj meeting, the committee advertised for bids for the construe- 
tion of the second dormitorj building on the foundation previously 
laid. The contract was awarded to Messrs. A. A. Bird and W. 
Larkin, who, with good and sufficient securities undertook to com- 
plete the building and deliver the key on tiie first day of June 
1856, for the sum of $18,000. The work has progressed under 
the supervision of a competent superintendent, and is in such a 
state ot forwardness, that no doubt is entertained of its completioa 
to the acceptance of the committee by the first of June 1866, ae- 
cording to contract. Much credit is due to the contractors forthe- 
character of the work thus far. 

The north half of the edifice will contain sixteen study rooms^ 
with bedrooms and closets attached. In the other portion of Hbrn 
bnilding north of the south entry are four public rooms, (one im 
each story) 36 feet by 23; on the lower floor, the laboratory; 
on the second, the cabinet of minerals and specimens in other de- 
partments of physical science ; on the third, the philosophical 
chamber, and on the fourth, the library. The extreme south wing 
is to be finished for residence, or for occupation as for studies, as 
may be deemed expedient. 

Monthly estimates have been made, as the work has progressed, 
and submitted to the executive committee for approval ; and a 
sufficient sum has been reserved to insure the completion of the 
work according to contract. 



JO 

I ProviBion has been mado for tho farther improyemcnt of the 
grounds in the spring,' bj the plantation of ornamental and fmit 
trees, and hj snch other modes as shall be within the means of the 
committee. 

All which is fospeetftiUjr submitted. 

J. H. LATHROP, 
N. W. DEAN, 
H. A. WRIGHT, 

Oommitteo. 
Jannarj 17, 18$S. 



643 5$ 

n 50 

490 9V 
281 15 


8,229 SO 
12,735 35 



TBBASUBEBB BEPOBT. 



lb tMs Board of Beffenti €f iK$ U/Uv&nUif qf WSMiouim: 

Tbd anderagoed, Treasarer of said Board, respeetfullj 

REPORTS : 
That since the 3l8t daj of DeceroW, A. D. 1853, ikere has been reoeiTtd 
into the Treasury of the University^ the folio wing items of money, to wit: 

From State Treasurer income of Univernty fund f 8»809 00 

do Tuition bills collected 

do Arrearages collected 

do Commissioner on sales of lots 
Balance in Tra^ury at above date 

Total 
There has been received from the State Treasurer in part 
of the fifteen thousand dollar loan, the snm of 

Total 20,964 53 

During the same time there has been paid out 
upon the orders of the Sec*y to Messrs. Bird 
& Lark in, on account of Dormitory buildings 
the sum of ;^t 11,666 23 

On account of salaries, incidental expensefl^ in- 
terest on loan, <fec. 8,279 IS 19,945 80 

Balance in Treasury 1,019 17 

Vouchers of the above disbursements are herewith returned to the Board 
for their inspection and further action thereon. 

The available funds for the use of the University for the year 1855, will 
not vary far from the following statement, which is the best estimate that I can 
make^ from such information as I can obtain, vis : 

Balance in Treasury 01,019 17 

do do State Treasury of income of 1854 1,129 15 

Income for 1855 10,000 00 

Tuition and room rent 700 00 

Receipts, from sales in University addition 400 00 

Total 13,246 32 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

SIMEON MILLS, 

MADnov, Deo. 81, 1854. Treasurer Wis. Uniferaty. 



EEPOtlT OF ATTDniNG OOMMrTTEK. 



Xhe undersigned, one of the standing commitloetB of the Board of 
Begents, eBtabliehed for the following porpoee, do hereby res- 
peetfttllj report : Tl:at we did, on the 9th day of Jaonarj 1855, 
meet at the office of the Secretary of said Board, and proceed to 
compare the warrants issned by said Secretary with the recordji 
«nd papers on file in this office as vouchers therefor ; and also the 
account of the Treasurer of aaid Board with the warranto drawn 
on Uira by the Secretary aforesaid, and we do hereby certify to 
iald Board that we found the saina correct and true. ' 

yfh further report that we did, at the same time, cancel warrants 
paid by the Treasurer aforesaid, since the date of his last report, 
and now surrendered for that purpose, in the sum of $19,945^ 86. 
J. H. LATHROP, Pros. B'd. Regt's. 
J. T. OLABK, Sec'y B'd. Regt^s, 

Auditing Oommittee. 

HadiBon, Jannary IT, 1855. 



9Q 



SbaiemerU of 


A. D. 


1854. 


Janusiy 2, 


do 


2, 


do 


2, 


do 


4, 


do 


7, 


do 


H. 


do 


21, 


do 


26, 


Feb'y 


27, 


March 


«, 


do 


11, 


do 


16, 


do 


25, 


April 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


8, 


do 


10, 


do 


10, 


do 


10, 


"I 


4, 

4, 


do 


6. 


do 


6, 


do 


2», 


do 


29, 


Jane 


9, 


do 


13, 


do 


15, 


do 


24, 


do 


24, 


do 


24, 


July 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


3, 


do 


8, 


do 


4, 


do 


7. 


do 


8, 


do 


8, 


do 


8. 



Warranty, to whom and for tohai i^^ued^ 'einoe the 
dnte of the last repoH : 

J. F, Clark, services as secretary for 1858, 62 50 

J. H. Lathrop, salary, 232 85 

0. M. Oonover, salary, 175 00 
S. IL Carpenter, salary, 125 <K) 
Henry Dbgle, wood, 28 00 
J. W. Sterling, salary, 250 00 
John Conklin, services as Janitor, GO 00 
John Ledyard, interest on loan, 402 00 
Chas. Foot, express charges, 2 00 
J. A. Jones, postage, 4 28 
W. £. Cramer, advertiiing^ , 14 00 

1. A. Lapham, Herbariom, 80 00 
Henry Diugle, wood, 90 00 
a H. Carpenter, salary, 125 QO 
0. M. Conover, salary, 1T5 00 
J. W. Sterling, salary, 200 00 
J. H. Lathrop, salary, 500 00 
Jobn Conklin, services as Janitor, 60 00* 
Wm. Irwin, services^ 6 00 
Wtn, Stewart, books, 2 50 

C. S. Abbott, lumber, 4 80 
Henry Dingle, wood, 24 00 
S. H. Carpenter, books, 15 00 
James ConkliD, Jabor, 1 00 

D. Gorum, lamber, 8 48 
Building committee, for purchase of materials for 

second dormitory building, 1500 00 

Baker <& i^cabolt, repairing conductors, 15 00 

Rufns King, advertising, 3 90 

G. W. Stoner, wood, 6 00 

Wro. Westorman, painting, 8 25 

Tibbitts <b Gordon, merohandize, 40 54 
Bird k Laikin, on contract of second dormitory, 1001 40 

S. Mills, express charges paid, 3 50 

S. H. Carpenter, salary, 125 00 

J. H. Lathrop, do 500 00 

J. W. Steriing, do 200 00 

S. P. Lathrop, do 179 48 

John Conklin, services as janitor, 120 00 

James Graham, wood* 24 00^ 

S. Mills, books purchased, 3 50 

0. M. Conover, salary, 175 OO 

Bird k Larkin, on contract 2d dormitofj, 1324 50 

N. W. Dean, merchandize, 17 75 



^ 



do 


12, 


do 


2», 


do 


28, 


*1 


4, 
1*, 


do 


14, 


do 


89, 


8«>t 


2. 


do 


», 


do 


», 


do 


1«, 


do 


15, 


do 


80, 


Ootober 2, 


do 


8, 


do 


8, 


do 


3, 


do 


1. 


do 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


1, 


do 


7, 


do 


10, 


do 


14, 


do 


19, 


Oct 


21, 


Kov. 


8, 


do 


», 


' do 


9, 


do 


», 


do 


», 


do 


11, 


do . 


22, 


do 


25, 


Dec; 


1. 


do 


2, 


do 


29, 


do 


.81, 


do 


81, 



.»8 

8. Mills, 6xp«nse8| disbureeroenU, &:c., 165 00 
J. H. Lathrop, for ehem. and pbU. aj^Muratui^ &c^ 1100 00 

G. H. Slaughter, wood, .ft6 25 

Bird k Larkin, on contract 2d dormitorji 3104 00 

J. H. Lathrop, dfebtnaemaiitf, 6 70 

8. P. Lathrop, do 6 78 

O. H. Slaagnter. wood, 56 29 

Bird k Larkin, ob contraot 2d dormitory, 1010 00 

Win«H. Demaust, labor and material, 87 20 

Bird k LarkiD, on contract of second dormitory, 900 00 

R, N. Patten, maps, <fec^ 10 00 

Sower k Barnes, outline maps, <&o., 25 00 

H. D. Holt, 121 70 

J. H. Latbrop, salary, 000 00 

P. L. Decker, work, <feo., 27 50 

J. L. Roundy, services as arcbitect, 100 00 

Wm. Westerman, painting, 16 76 

Jobn Gonklin, services as Janitor, ^ 60 00 

John W. Steriiug, salary, 250 00 

0. M. CoDover, salary, 250 00 
Bird k Larkin, on contract of second dormitorj 

building, lOOO 00 

John P. Fucl^, salary, 46 00 

S. P. Latbrop, salary, 350 00 

Joe. Chatterson ,8ervices as snperintendenti 93 00 

James Graham, 24 00 

Ang. L. Smith, salary, lOO OQ 

Jas. Graham, wood, 24 00 

S. P. Latbrop, expenses, <&c., 65 00 

J. H. Latbrop, do 4 59 

J. N. Jones, postage, - 3 23 

Bird k Larkin, on contract 2d dormitory^ 1083 00 

J. W. Sterling, for purchase of books, 50 26 

James Graham, wood, 12 00 

do do 16 00 

Bird ^Larkin, on contract 2d domiitoqri 653 33 

DarwinCIark, chairs, 17 50 

A. S. .Wood, mnaic, 75 00 

J. H. LatfiTop, sahry, 500 00 

J. T. Clark, services as secreta^ for 1854, 125 00 

J. T. CLARK, 

Seerstaiy. 



»*, 



To the Board of Begmtaqf the Unio&r^ity ^ Wisconsin : 

The undersigned^ commisBioner for the sale of lots in tli4 
nniTersitj addition to the village of Madison 

REPORTS: > 

That since the 21st day of December, A. D. 1853, there has 
been sold in scuid addition, lots as follows to wit: 



Itate of sale 
1854. 

inly 10, 
•' 21, 

Avg. U. 
** 14, 


No, of No. of To whom aold, 
Lota, Block. 

9, 10, 17 M. B. French, 
4,7,8,9, 11 F.A^Ogdeo, 
6, 11 1 A. a Wood, 
7,8, 10 _ d# 

cent, commission for seJlii^ 


Am'tof 
Sale. 

$500 00 

300 00 

76 00 

225 00 


Am't pud at 
time(^«]e. 

$26$ 60 

100 OO^ 

76 00 


Deduct & per 


$1,100 00 


$428 50 
$66 00 



Balance paid into Treasary, $373 60 

I have also collected upon sales previously ^ade, the following 
gams of money, to wit : 

From A. W. Dickson, f 88 8^ 

** Michael Flanigan,. 31 00 

<« Thomas McGIjno, 14 10 

<* John Conklin, 8 00 

'• M.B. Rog^ 10 00 

<* Ja8.Dowling 15 00 



0117)17 



Total amount paid into T^eaatuy, l|490 Vt 

Bespectfally. sobmitteA, 

SIMEON MILLS^ Ooitamissionen 
December 81, itii. 



S5 
LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 



State ITKivEBfliTTy Madiboh, Wb., 

February 16th, 1866. 
JjKx H. Lathbop, L. L. D., 

Pre8. of Board of BegenU^ dkc : 

Tlie undersigned respectfully reports, as follows : 

During the past year 244 volumes were added to the University 
Library. Of this number, only 64 volumes were pprchased, all 
of which are works of great value. Among them is the Edin- 
burgh Encyclopedia, in 21 volumes. 

The following list will show to whom the acknowledgements of 
the University are due for donations : 

We have received 

From Congress, Public Documents, 

do Hon. fi. 0. Eastman, do 

do Hon. A. C. Dodge, do 

do Hon. H. Dodge, do 

do Hon. I. P. Walker, do 

do Hon. Hiram Barber, Baxter's Works, 

do State of New York, Public Doc. &c., 

4o Smithsonian Ins « Publications, 

do Pratt Woodford &Oo., School Books, 

do Gould & Lincoln^ do 

do Robt. J« Davis & Go., do 

do Geo. P. Putnam & Co., do 

do A. Lapham, Esq., do 

do J. H. Giirney, Esq , Life of J. J. Gnmey, 

do Oalvin Cutter, E^q., Physiology & Plates, 

In addition to depositee in the cabinet by the State Geologist 
the thanks of the Institution are due to Ebenecer Brigbam, Esq.^ 
of Blue Mounds, for the contribution of a box of rerj ch< ice speci- 
mens; also to J. T. Clark, Esq., of this town, and to Messrs. Geo. 
B. BtnntK and A. A. Parker, of Superior, Wis., for valuable favors^ 

J. W. STERUNG, 

Librarian, Ac. 



41 Yolfl. 


11 


do 


7 


do 


14 


do 


1 


do 


2 


do 


15 


do 


8 


do 


60 


do 


10 


do 


8 


do 


8 


do 


2 


do 


2 


do 


1 


do 



. I \ i } iv k 



CATALOGUE 



OF THB 



FACULTI AND STUDENTS 

WISCONSIN univ;ersity, 



FACULTY 

OF SGIENGE. LITEBATUBE AND ARTS. 



JOHN H. LATHBOP, L. L. D., Ghanokllob, 
And Prcfeuor of JEHhuss, Civil PoUitf and PoUHoal Eoonomff. 

JOHN "W. STERLING, A. M.j 
Prcfenor of Mathemaiica and Jfabwvl PhUosqphjf. 

8. P. LATHROP, M, D.,* 
JPrqfessor cf CkemistTy and Natural ERstory. 

O. M. OONOVER, A. M., 
Professor of Ancient Zmiguages and LUeratttre. 

BAlflEL READ, L. L. D., 
PrqfmoT (el«et) qf Jdjmtal PMU^eophy, Loffio^ JShetario^ amd 

English Litertxture. 

S. IL CARPENTER, A. B., Tutor, f 

T- P. FUOHS, M. D. 
Tnsirucior in German amd French Languages. 

•D oc t Mo d. VMancjwIU be filled in Jul/. 
f Suooeeded bj Aniputtie L. Smith, A. B. 



STtJDENlB. 



SBHIOBfl. 



Nftaiflt. 


R6iid«nc«. 


♦LeviBootii, 


Madlaon. 


♦ChariesT.Wakeley, • 


Whitewater. 


JUNIOR. 




Somanzo E. Davis, 


Attiiqa. 


SOPH0MOSS9. 




Samuel S. Beaedict, 


llbHitKMe. 


William P. Dowey, 


Laiuwter. 


James M. Flower, 


SunPwrw- 


Sidney Foote, 


Belvidere, B 


James Hickox. 


Baialp, ». 1 


Harrey F. Hubbard, 


Manitowoc. 


Burgees 0. Slaughter, 


)Kddktoii. 


Hayden K. SoH^h, 


Ifmii^pn. 


Alvab F. Whitman, 


WinOsor, 


9BB8HXSV. 




Hiram Sarber, 


Jnneau. 


Sinclair W. Botkin, 


Madison. 


Thomas D. Coryell, 


Terona. 


James T. Davies, 


DodgeviUe. 


William Irwin, 


Madison. 


William H. Bice, 


Chicago. 


George W. Stoner, 


Madison. 


Daniel £. Tenney, 


Madison. 


WiUiam F. Vilas, 


Madison. 


• Ondiitted b Jolj. 





40 



SKOU8H CLAfiEES. 
[On idcel poiti«M •! tht oouite.] 

Robert W. Burns, 
# William R Boma, 
Napoleon Gampbel1| 
George Chafle, 
Harmon Chase, ^ 

Bobert K. Cornell, 
John F. Cramer, 
George Henry, 
Lewis B. Hndson, 
William H. Larlrin, 
George H. Marcher, 
James McOaskey, 
John McKay, 
Frederick M. McEenzie, 
John Reynolds, 
J<^n 8. Slightam, 
Alyin Smith, 
W. L. F. Smith, 
John H. Toland, 
Lawrence Walsh. 



Rflttdaiic«L 

Prairie La Crosee. 

Prairie La Crosse. 

Colnmbos O. 

Milwaukee. 

Wat«rloo. 

Elbredge, N. Y. 

Milwaukee. 

Mineral Point* 

Milton. 

Madison. 

Delaware. 

Florence. 

Madison. 

Palmyra. 

Madison. 

Madison. 

Waterloo. 

Madison. 

Erin. 

Westport. 



«1 



PKEPASATOBT CLAB8E8. 



Marcns Brash, 
Wm. W. Church, 
GaBherie Decker, 
Wm. Fisher, 
Edward B. Qulia, 
James Haynes, 
Sichard W. Habbell, 
Thomas D. Kanonse, 
Edwin K. Larkin, 
Edwin Marsh, 
William B. McHngh, 
George R Powers, 
"Wm. P. Powers, 
James R Swain, 
Julias y . R« Swain, 



Madison. 

Madison. 

Madison. 

Cooksville. 

Madison. 

Black Earth, . 

Milwankee. 

Cottage Groye. . 

Madison. 

Beaver Dam« 

Madison. 

"Whitewater. 

Madison. 

Madison. 

Madison. 



OOUESE OF INSTRUCTION. 



1. PbEPABATOBT SciHOOL. 

The stndies panned in the Preparatorjr Dep«rUMn| im m 6>1* 
lows: 

1. Engllfih Grammar. 
3. Geography. 

3. Arithmetic. 

4. Eleioente of Algebra. 
6. Latin Grammar. 

6. Cesar's Commentaries. 

7. VirgiPe JEneid, (6 books.) 

8. Oicero's Select Orations. 

9. Greek Grammar. 
10. Greek Reader. 

Attention will also be paid to Reading, Orthography, and Pen- 
manship. 

2. COLLBQIATB DsPABTXEErr. 

The College Conrse occnpiesfonr years, and the stndies of the 
course are distributed as follows : 

FRESHMAN CLASS. 

nSST TSBM. 



Roman History, — livy. 

^^ Antiquities, — Bojesen. 
Algebra, — Loomis. 
Greek Historians, — Herodotus. 



SBOONDTERM. 



Latin Poetry, with Prosody,— Odes of Horaoe. 
Algebra finished, Geometry begun. 
Greek Historians, — ^Xenophon. 



48 



THIBD TBBIf . 



HoraeOi — Satjres and Epistles. 
Geometry fiqished. 
Greek Historians, — ^Thucydides. 
Hzercises tliroughont thd year in written Translations Comppoi- 
tion and Declamation. 

80PH0M0EE CLASS. 



Plane Trigonometry, Logarithms, &c. &c.^-*Loomi8. 

(Xeero de Oratore. 

German, or 

Greek Poetry and Prosodyy^Qoswi** 

SBOOND TEBK. 

Analytical Geometry begnn« 
Cterman or Greek Orators. 
Oicero de Oratore. 
Bhetoric and Elocution. 

THIBD TERM. 

Boman History, — ^Tacitus. 
Analytical Geometry, finished, Calculus. 
Classical or Modem Languages — optional. 
Histoiy, with Geography and Chronology. 
Exercises throughout the year in English and Latin Oomponr 
iion and Elocution. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

FIBSS TEW* 

Stbica—Wi^laiid* 
Boman History — ^Tacitus. 
Qalo«laa — ^Mechanioal Phiiosophy. 
▲neient HisiDij— Tnylor's Hanusl. 



44 



SECOND 



Kataral Philosophy. 

Oreek or Modem Laognages — (optional.) 
Cira Pob'tj and Constitutional JLaw— lectures. 
International law — lectures. 



TBIRD TKRX. 



Natural Philosophy — finished. 
German or Latin (Germania and Agricola) — optionaL 
Political Economy — Say. 
Exercises throughout the year in Compositioo, Doclamation, 
and Forensic Debate. 



8EKIOR CLASS. 

KIKST TERIC 

Mental Philosophy. ^ 

Natural History. 
Christian Evidences. 
Classical Literature. 

SBOOND TERM. 

\ 
Optics — Astronomy begun. 

Chemistry — lectures. 

Logic. 

THIBD TKBIC. 

Select Latin — classical literature. 

Astronomy finished. 

Philosophy of Language-Criticism. 

Botany and Philosophy. 
Exercises throughout the year^in original Orations, and Foren- 
sic Debate. 

Young gentlemen desirous of pursuing select portions of the 
course will be admitted to the recitations and other exercises of 
regnlar classes, and will be entiled to certificate of the term of 
membership and of the studies pursued by them. This proTision 



r 



45 

extends the benefits of university instruction to the teachers of 
the public schools of the State, and those who intend the practice 
of Agricnlturo and the Arts. 

Terms of Admission. 

Candidates for admission to the Freshman class must pass a 
aatisfactorj examination in all the studies of the preparatory school 
or their equiralents. 

Oandidates for an advanced standing are also examined in all 
the studies to which the class they propose to enter have attended.. 

All applicants most present testimonials of good moral charac- 
ter; and students coming from other colleges a certificate of hon- 
orable dismission. 

BfiOTATIONS, &c. 

Each class of the ooUegiate department attends three recitatiotis 
or lectures daily. There are also daily exercises in declamation 
and composition. Public examinations and exhibitions . are held 
at the close of each term. 

LiBBABT ApPABATUS, &C. 

The Library, which is open to all the students ef the university 
oompriseB over 1200 volumes, and will receive yeady additions by 
the purchase of the most valuable standard works; . . t 

The university is possessed of a valuable cabinet of minerals ; 
comprising numerous specimens* Contributions of an i&tercistiflg 
character continue to be made by the State Geologist, and from 
other sources. A full suit of Kew York fossils, and valuable geo- 
logical collections from Ohio and Illinois, have been added to cab- 
inet during the year. 

One thousand dollars were last year appropriated for the pur- 
chase ef Philosophical and Chemical apparatus, and adifitions will 
be made, from year to year. 

LTTTSBABT SOCUBETIEB. 

There ^e two Literary societies connected with the university. 

Ihese are valuable auzilaries in the mental training of the stu 
dents. One of them has already a library of several hun<]lred 
Tolumes. 



46 

MBKrr soix. 
A permanent record is kept of the daily attendance, conduet 
and recitation of each student ; and information of his standing 
communicated from time to time to his parent or gurdiaa. 

BBLIOIOUS EXESCISSB. 

The students are assembled at prayers daily in the chapel <rf 
the nnitersity, at the morning hour for commencing atudy and 
rteitation. 

ACOOICODATIONB FOE STTTDBNTS. 

The uiversity edifice, in addition to the public rooms for recita- 
tion, Library, Cabinet, &c, affords study and lodging rooms folr 
the ample accomodation of students. 

With a view to economy as well as the comfort of the occupanta, 
provision is made for heating the building throughout by fnmacee 
in the basement. 

TERMS. 

The collegiate year is divided into three terms, or sessions of 
thirteen weeks each, beginning as follows : 
1. The third Wednesday of September. 
2: The first Wednesday of January. 
8. The fourth Wednesday of April. 
Ootnmencement Anniversary, the fourth Wednesday of Jtily. 

EXPENSES. 

Tuition, per term, 

Boom, HJeat, Janitors aervioe, per^^term. 
^ Contingencies, 

Total per term, $7 00 

Total per term, (three terms,) 21 00 

These comprise all the tTniversity charges, except for actual 

dftmrge done by the student Occasions tor this] item of charge 

are very rare. 




#7 I 

It iB provided in the by-laws, that no student shall be admitted 
by the Ohancellor to residence In the buildings, or to the exercises 
«f Mj tenn, tiU he present a oeriifieate from the .treasurer, tliat 
ihe charges for the term have been adjusted, in advance. 

The second dormitory building will be completed and all tbe 
c^irs of instruction will be filled during the current year. Pn>« 
▼iaioii is also to be made for boarding, 6n the College premises, at 
moderate rates. The next scholastic year will open on the third 
Wednesday of September, with ample accommodations for stu- 
dents, and greatly enlarged means of instruction. 

Through the chairs of Obemistry and Natural History, and 
Mental Philosophy, Logic, Bhetoric, and English Literature, pro- 
"piaion will be made for the annual instruction of classes in Agri- 
cxiltural Science, and in the theory and practice of teaching. 

The Board, at their February meeting, passed an ordinance 
ctttabKabing a Department of Medicine in the University. The 
diafrs will be filled and the school opened at an early day. 

It is the fixed intention of the Univeraiiy authorities that all the 
means at their command shall be so administered as to aid the 
diligmt and successful student, and to secure to the institution a 
jurt pubKc confidence and support 



4» 



ORDINANCE. 

ftoTidiDgfortlieoi^aBiMtioD of the Department of 'Hedicbe'Mtt tlie UnlTemty of 
WiecosiiB^pemed Febnuoy 10, 18S5^ 

The Regents of the TTniTerutj of WificonBin doordaio, as foUowe : 

I. Thai there be. hereby, constitnted in tsid Untrefeitj, a Facoltj of "Xedlciae," to 

eoBsiat of the Chaneellor, and anchPro fe aao Ti aa vaxy be^ fion tliae to tiaae ehoaaa to 

occupy the following chairs of inatruction, to wit : 

1. Anatomy and Physiology. 

2. Sargery— Clinical and Pathological. 

3. Theory and Practice of Medidne. 

4. Obetretica axid the Diaeaaea of Woreen and Ofalldren. 

5. Chemistry find Pharmacy. 

6. Materia Medica and Botany. 
'7. UedicalJurispradeiice. 

2. The emoluments of aaid profeasorshlpa shall be derived from the fees of raitioft 
without any zecoorse whaterer to the treaaaiy of the Uni wvty ; and no mone/ aball 
be diawn from the said troasary for the aapport of the Department qC MadiM^ tstil 
the exiating debt be paid, and the institution be in the enjoyment of a dear income from 
the endowment of, at least, (12,000, per annum. 

3. All appointments to the above chairs shaU bo made by the Regenta of the TTnirer- 
sity, and the prolesaon shall hold oifioo dating the pleaaore of the board. 

4. The Medical Faculty shall have pew«r to elect a Dean of tho FM«11;f, « l^Manrer* 
Secretary and other necessary officers* agenti» and awastanta ; to praactihe their dutiaa ; 
to fix the feea of tuition, land to provide for the welfare of the department* by by-lawa 
not inconsistent with this ordinance and the charter of the UniverBity. 

5. The Medical Faculty shall hold their terms, and deliver their instructions in the 
town of Madiaon. 

6. A Board of Examiners, consisting of fonr members of the profession of the degree 
of M. D., shall be annually appointed by the Regenta, whoee duty it shall he to attend 
the closing exercises of each term of instruction, to make diligent examinations of the 
candidates for graduation, and to report their qualifications to the board of Regenta. 

7. Candidates for graduation in thia department of the Univeraity ahall not be leai 
than twenty -one years of age ; shall be of good moral character; ahall haTo had two 
years of private pupilage and h^ve attended two courMS of lecturt^ or ahall have at- 
tanded three courses of lectures without previous private pupilage, (the laat eoune in 
e'ther case in this department) ; ahall have paaaed a eatislactory examination, and, if 
required, ahall have written and defended a theaia on some medical subjeet befoie the 
board of examiners. 

8. Candidates, with the above qualifieationa, shall, on leoommendation of the exa- 
minera, be entiiled to the degree of M. D., in eoofte; which ahall be conferred, at tte 
Annual Commencement of the Univeraity, by diploma, without chaige. 



f 



THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 



OF TUB 



TRtrSTEES AND OFFICERS 



ov nuiC 



WISCONSIN INSTITUTE 



FOB THB 



EDUraON OF THE DEAF AND DUMB, 



FOB THE TEAB 1804. 



MADISON: 

BIBUH BROWK. Sr&TS PBINTSB. 



•.:-i I . .•' 



4.1 



To Hjb EsxnELuarcT William A. BabsioWi 

Chvemar of the State of Wticonein : 
I hare the honor of presenting you herewith, the third Annual 
report of the TmsteeB of the '^ Wisconsin Institute for the educa- 
tion of ihe Deaf and Dumb/' hj order of the board of tnuteee. 

WH. 0. ALLEK, Secretarj. 
Dhjltav, Dee. 85, lS5t. 



f 



BOABD OF TXVSTBIS. 

HoH. WM. 0. ALLEN, Hon. SALMON TnOMA8» 

O. W. BLANCHARD, M. D. H. HUNT, M. D. 
N. M. HARRINGTON, J. D. MORRELL, Jr. 

Bet. p. W. LAKE, J. 0. MILLS, M. D. 

Bob. 0. BETES. 



077ICBB8 07 THB BOABO. 

President — ^H. Huirr, M. D., 
Seeretarj — Hon. Wk. 0. Axlvh, 
Treasorer — N. JL HABBDroioir. 



IBTBLLBOTVAL BEPABTXBVT. 

Principal — Louis H. Jenkihb, A. M., 
Professor — Hibau Phillifb. 



DOKBBTIO BBPABTKBHT. 

Physician — O. W. Blanchabd, M. D., 
Matron — Mrs. Adblia T. Jxtaaaa. 



. ■ «.. .' ..I 
.C: '. 



C '\ R ^^ >' 



i . . 



f 



EEPORT OF THE TRUSTEES. 



• . • . • • • ■ i» 

The board of trustees of the " Wiijcomiq Institute. for tlie edQ« 

cation of the Deaf and Dumb/' submit to the legialatare of tb{j( 

Btate) their third annual ro^port, for the jear A* Dn 18^4. ... . . 

Daring the past jear the Institute has beenunu^uallj pi^opp^t 
OP£, under the manageiuent and cof^trol of Louis H. Jenki^s^ At 
H.y our present able a^d effioieut- i^ripoipal) and we de^m.it bfit 
justice to him testate that, owing, t^ bis Hntii-ing> perse wanoei 
eoergj and skill in managing and teaching tliis unfortunate ^6« 
of persons in our State, who are deprived of the sense of heariogjj 
tlie school has advanced bejoqd our most sanguine expi^etaticpiB, 
and we feel highly faroned in securij^g his eminent services^^ ami 
tba board of trustees now fUtter tbcmdelved, that no institutioa of 
like character in the United States was eter more -pertaanM/if 
fixed in the same langtib of time, with bo small means aa waa 
placed in the hands of the trustees, for the purpose of startipg tha 
QBterprise. Ihe health of the pupils has been uninterrupt^ } 
their conduct and progress in learning have been highly g^atifyt 
ijDg, and everything in and about the buildingf presents a oheei^ 
fol and inviting appearapQO. 

The board had, previous to their second annual report, nearlj 
oompleted a building thirty by forty-four, two stories high, beMdoi 
the basement and attie. That building is now finished, in whiph 
tLe school has been taught siAte the month of Jauuary last 

Tbe.legislaturo, i^t its last session, made an appropriation of 
aina thouaand dollars to thia institute, as fallows : Two thou8au4 
dollars for the support of the Institute during the past year, and the 



8 

sum of two thonsand dollars for the erection of out baildiogs, 
fences and other needful fiztares, to be paid oat of any money in 
the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, and the farther sam of 
five thousand dollars for the erection of the east transTerse wing 
of the Instiiate baildingi according to' the plan Veretofore deliver- 
ed to the Governor, one half of which was to have been paid the 
present year, and the other one-half in the year eighteen hundred 
and fifty-five, out of any money not otherwise appropriated. 

In view of this appropriation, the trustees designed to have, 
during the past year, erected the ont-buildings, fences, and made 
the needful fixtures anticipated by the act of appropriation, and 
accordingly despatched one of their members to Madison to draw 
from the treasury of the state the amount of money due from it 
for that purpose. And on presentation of the order of the trus- 
tees, and the necessary bond required by the act making the ap- 
propriation, was informed by the treasurer, that there was no 
money in the treasury, and that the amount to which they were 
entitled could not be paid out of the treasury until the next 
year. 

The trustees on being informed that the treasury of the State 
was empty, and that they would be unable to receive any money, 
anticipated by them by the act of appropriation, until another 
year, felt deeply embarrassed, believing that they should be 
obliged to abandon all idea of erecting the out-btiildings, fences, 
and making the needful fixtures so highly necessary, and almost 
indispensable for the comfort and convenience of the pupils, and 
those who had them in charge ; and in addition to this calamity, 
(for in such manner they felt it,) there was nn money in the hands 
of the trustees to defray the expenses of the institute for the cur- 
rent year. The school, the trustees saw, would have tobreak up 
for the time being, unless they should raise the money upon their 
own credit to defray the expenses daring the past year. They 
accordingly passed a resolution, that they would raise the sum 
of tWo thonsand dollars upon their own note, payable in one year, 
at 19 per cent, interest, that being the lowest rate of interest on 



which they could obtain the money. Tbe sum of two thousand 
dollars ^aA obtained in this manner, which has enabled the trus- 
tees to keep tbe schools going, and paj debts w(iich had beep 
necessarily incurred) and which were being pressed for payment 
by the creditors. 

The pupils having greatly increased in numberS| and were con- 
tinually increasing, so much so, the trustees found that the build- 
ing alluded to in their second annual report, would soon be inade- 
quate to accommodate all the pupils which , would be under 
instruction, and to obviate this difficulty, in anticipation of the 
appropriation already made, that they would be able to receive 
the whole sum of five thousand dollars, specially appropriated, for 
the purpose of erecting the east transverse wing above alluded 
to, they entered into a contract with Thomas Balls, Esq., tbe en- 
terprising builder who erected the first building, to erect the 
east transverse wing, for the sum of five thousand dollars, he 
being the lowest bidder, to do the same according to the plan and 
specifications. And by the terms of the contract which the trus- 
tees made with him, he is to receive his pay therefor in the pre*, 
sent month, the trustees believing that money would be in the 
State treasury by that time, to enable them to draw the five 
thousand dollars, and meet their engagement with him. 

This building is of brick, the walls of which were put up during 
the last summer, under the superintendence of B. Sturtovant, Esq.t 
a faithful and ezoellent mechanic, who has done himself great 
credit in the execution of the work. It is three stories high, be- 
sides the basement and attic, and will favorably compare in beauty 
and solidity with the best public buildings in this State. Tlio 
roof is now on, the windows in, and all in a state of forwardness, 
promising a speedy completion. 

By reason of the trustees not being able to draw the money ap- 
propriated for the erection of out-buildir}g3, fences, and other 
needful fixtures, they have not been able to do anything towards 
their construction, excepting to furnish a good supply of pure 
water for the Institute, which they accomplished by the means of 



10 

a water ram^ that farnisheB a stream of pare cold spring water at 
' all times, — much to the comfort and advantage of all members 
"belonging to the Institute. 

The ilum'ber of pupils which have been in attendance and un- 
der instrnction daring the past year is 31 ; the amount which has 
been expended during the past current year, for the necessary 
expenses in supporting the Institute, is $3,751 06. 

In making ah estimate for the support of the Institute during 
the year A. D. 1855, the trustees cannot bring it lower than six 
thousand dollars, including the hire of teachers, help, and other 
indi^pensible and necessary expenses ; and to do this it is neces- 
sary to be exceedmgly economical, — denying to the teachers and 
pupils privileges and comforts afforded to them in like institutions 
in other States ; but these minor comforts and privileges they are 
willing to forego, for the present, and until the State shall become 
more able to grant this claim. 

The trustees therefore ardently hope that the legislature will at 
an early day of this session make an appropriation to said Insti- 
tute in a sum not less than six thousand dollars, and in asking for 
this sura they do not do it because it is more than they want, but 
they ask it as the lowest sum which will meet the current expen- 
ses of the Institute for the year A. D. 1855, and they know of no 
object in this State for which an appropriation could be made 
that is more worthy and deserving, and has stronger claims on the 
munificence of the state, than the claimof these unfortunate persons, 
deprived of the sense of hearing. And now it is no longer an ex- 
periment to be tried whether the deaf and dumb can be taught 
an education to qualify tliem for the enjoyment of the blessings oi 
a free government, and obtaining the means of subsistence and 
the discharge ot those daties, religious, social and political, devolv- 
ing upon American citizens, but the experiment has been tried 
and found that it can be done, and hence a class of persons, only 
a few years ago, who, as it was supposed, were useless to them- 
eelves and to society, can be made under proper instruction, use- 
ful citizens, and whilst the other states are fostering institutions of 



r 



11 



ifaift cbariKrtier, fo edticaf^ ber d^aCftmi dtnab, tb^innteeft of tbh 
bstttnte eonfid^Titly trust, the legislature of this' Btkte "mil not be 
«I6w in doiBg'tbfiit- 4xitf ih a like miiuiiek*. To refuse It' would not 
be eharaeterifltioof 'tb« age in #bich we lire, or the people of this 
State, for it is one of the main objects of our StatOj to give every 
d^nd wKbin her domaiii, the means of obtaining an education, 
and the' Stkteba^ be^n tmspairingjCaud justly soyin lavtAinghto 
'tteans to maintain a system otffe6 schools, secured to none in ady 
other state or country, to educate her children which are in the 
ftill poBsesfltfon of all their senses. Eietend then, and contmue this 
noble object tothose children of 6jXi State, who haire been eo un- 
fortunate as to^be deprived of the sense of hearing. They^ tod, 
can be educated and made respectable and vahiablo citizens, with- 
out :Which l^y are a burden to thein<selves, to their friends and to 
the State. ^ 

The'trnetees have secured the services of Hiram Philips, a mute, 
and gradoate of the 6bio Institution for the education of the dejif 
and dumb, as a teacher. He is a young man, exceedingly ^eH 
calculated for teaching, possessmg fine attainments for one of Ms 
imfertunate class ; fine address, pleasing manners, and in every 
way calculated to win the respect and esteem of the pupils under 
his charge. 

Ifcis cocftdenly believed by the board, in order to carry out the 
whote plan of instruction, as it is done in the other states in lik!s 
institations, it is now time for the legislature to make aii appropri- 
ation to the Institute for the purpose of erecting a suitable build- 
ing, to eoab^othe board to establish some useful trade to be taught 
to the male piupils, th<at when they leave the Institute they will be 
prepared to engage in a respectable calling for their support and 
iiaiatainance. It is a fact well ascertained, that a large majority 
of the mwte^ of this State are of poor parentage, possessing little 
or DO financial ability to aid their unfortunate aspirings, aside from 
dothiag-them while under insttnetion^ and hence the necessity 
elm be eam(y eeenf that it is not only necessary to educate them in 
ike Qcmunoo bvaneheiB of education, but they should be taught 



iome useful tirade in wUich they may emgage after leaving the In- 1 
atitnte, and are thrown upon the world to provdie for tbemselvei. 
Thi9 can be eaailj done and with but a trifling expense to the 
State, except the building, tools and the stock to be laid in to be 
noanufactured. 

In the state of Indiana the Deaf and Dumb institution has two 
buildings erected} in which separate trades are carried on. One 
is coopering and the other is that of making boots and shoes. 
And the result of the experiment is highly gratifying, and has 
sacceeded beyond the anticipation of its board of noanagers. Tbe 
mute, experience has proved, easily acquires the use of toola, and 
readily comprehends most of the mechanical arts, and wlien 
properly taught succeeds in makiig a good mechanic. 

The board theri^ore ask the legislature to make an appropiia- 
tion at this session in the sum of fifteen hundred dollars for that 
purpose, and the board would here particularly state, that they 
have made a close examination on this subject matter, and tbe 
sum of fifteen hundred dollars is the lowest sum that will enable 
them to build a suitable building, purchase tools, and material to 
be manufactured, and to hire some experienced mechanic to wwk 
and teach the pupils the trade. 

The present buildings, when fully completed, will not accommo- 
date more than sixty pupils, together with all necessary help, of- 
ficers and teachers ; and at tbe rate of increase in tbe Indiana and 
Illinois institutions for the education of the Deaf and Dumb, 
which is about twelve each year since they were eatabliahed, 
would give to this institute at tbe end of four years, nearly or 
quite eighty pupils, an entirely greater number than the present 
building can accommodate. And taking the increase of this in- 
stitute por year, since it was first started, which has been at tlie 
rate of fifteen per year, we find that the number of pupils will be 
eighty at the end of three years. 

This demonstrates the necessity of providing at as early a pe- 
jriod as possible, more room for the pupils, and to do this, it will be 
necessary to commence the erection of the main, building as aoovi 



1»^ 



as next Bummer, so as to be able to complete it in time to meet the 
wants of the institute. The whole codt of the main bnildiog ac- 
eoir4ii3ig ^o the Uisk and closest calculation which the trustees are 
able to make, taking into consideration the present price of mate- 
rials, labor, &c.y will be thirty thousand dollars. The trustees 
therefore ask that the snm of ten thousand dollars be appropriated 
for the year 18d5, the sum of ten thousand dollars for the year 
1966y md the sum of ten thousand dollars for the year IbST. 
Witb tbeae i^prorialions the trusteed will be enabled to make a 
e^Mutmct to eotnplete the building by the time the last appropria- 
tion can be drawn from the treasury. By making the appropria- 
tioa of thirty tbonaand to be drawn in three equal installments, 
makes it come comparatively eaay on the . treasury, enables the 
tmalCees to complete the building in time to accommodate the pn* 
pil8,.aed will furnish fall time to commence and complete the 
bniUUng in a good and snbstatitial manner. 

BaapeetfuHy submitted, 
Wu. 0. Allkn, Secretary. H. HUITT, President. 



14 



EEPORt. 

Of tJie Committee constituted hy Hfie BdaM of frudeSs of thi^ 
Institute for the eduoation of the Deaf and DumJb of yfisconr 
8in^ to visit the like Institutes of Ohio arid Indiana : 

OmAemm of the B^ofl/^of Trustees: 

The undef signed, (diairman of the cf^nlmlttee «ho8en'«t your 
Iitet txteetiDg, to Visit tibe IttBtitnleA ^t Ohio atid Indjluftft tor the 
dBtif and dumb, wo&ld respMtfnflly ask^'Bubmit tiie AUow^ 
report, aB the resalt ^ the mission to •said' InetittitM: 

' At T o'clock, A* M., on Tuesday, the 14th Bltime., your ooa- 
iiiittee left Deleran for IstdianapoUs «nd Oolumbus, amd ar- 
rired at the former -^^d in the- altomoott of the followitig ^, 
attd on Ibe succee^ling morning, Norettiber 14kfa, called mik Mr. 
Mclntjre, the Boperintendent'of the Iildilaiiai Institute for tlie^eif 
and damit). Mr. Molntjre reoeived ns vith great cordiality, and 
treated' bs with 'mu^h kindness and atteotioli. ' 

The better part of the day he devoted exclasiFcly to exhibiting 
the classes and their exercises ; the structure aud arrangement of 
the buildings, the grounds, out buildings, mechanical department, 
green-house, mode of warming, ventilating, &c. ; and closed iridi 
a brief but very interesting dissertation on various topics intimats^ 
ly connected with the object of our visit, embracing mode of 
teaching, the importance of establishing a mechanical departm^it 
in connection with these institutes, the duties and labors of teachr 
ers, officers and pupils ; and commented very candidly and prac- 
tically upon the failure of plans, previous attempts at wainung 
that institute, and other public establishments, &c. 

We would not omit to mention that we accepted the very polite 
invitation of the Superintendent to dine with them at the Instita- 
tion. 

We were conducted into a spacious hall or dining room in whicb 
were congregated some 160 pupils and 8 teachersi with onr host 
to preside. The female pupils occupied one end of tbe hall and 



r 



16 

th^ male pnpils t)ie other, while the Buperioteiiclent, tcaehers and 
oompany sat at a tranaverse table in the centre. 

After a blessing by Mr. Mclntyre in the sign Ungioage, which 
was very appropriate and solemni wor partook of as excellent a 
meU as we could have desired on any occasion. 

The pupils were under remarkably good discipline and were 
well behaved, and a more ipterestiag compapy of young, gent^- 
men, engaged as teachers in this Institution, we remember never 
to have seen in any institution of learning in our country. 

The buildings of this estaMishment ai;e claimed bj the friends 
to be tbe best that are now completed in the United States. How 
thiB is, your committee are not prepared or called on to decide. 
But we are justified in saying that the main edifice is a splendid ^ 
building, substantial in structure, elegant and tastefu| in architec- 
ture, and harmonious in proportion, and surrounded by one of the 
most tastefully, arranged grounds to be found in the west. 

The walks were in admirable condition, and the grounds deco- 
rated with a profusion of evergreens, flowering shrubs, together r 
with some fine full grown specimens of the native fprest treeji, i^l 
of which are tastefully arranged, reflecting much credit upou 
those concerned in originating and carrying out the design of tbe 
same, rendering this place a delightful retreat and home for this 
unfortunate olass. 

On Friday, 18th, left Indianapplis for Columbus^ Qhio, in wbich^ 
dtj we arrived at 4. o'clock, P. M», of tbe same day. The follow- 
ing monuGg, (19th) called at the institution for the dpaf an<^ dumb ,. 
in time to attend mpm^ng ehapel exer<\i9^s. , Wq ^ere Qordialjy; 
welcom^d by its-honored heafl, fiiQ Bev, Hr. Stpm, A* M, 

As the structure of this- ingtikntiQn is old And rather dilajpida- ^ 
te4 'We w^re partionlarly intereated^in the more important and vi- 
tal pact, the ppjpils an^ their educa^ipPi and. of . the^e we oanuot , j 
q)eak in terms of too high praise. 

This institution has been in sucoessful operation neai;ly thirty . 
years, and now jiambera over 160i pupils. These are 4i^i<lQd iato . 
8 classes, v 



16 

' Bj the kindness of Mr. Stone, we were shown the entire estab- 
Ikhment We were particularly interested in the high degree of 
the moral and mental cultare of the pupils, their cleanly appear- 
ance and polite behavior. Intelligence, goodness of heart, cheer- 
fulness and CDUtentment of mind, were exhibited in the countenan- 
ces of nearly every pupil. 

The contemplated new building of which we saw the plan and 
elevation, will be just what is needed. 

It is proposed to erect this edifice upon the present site, a ten- 
acre lot, near the centre of the city, a beautiful, as well as a very 
valuable location. 

' Hnnday morning, 20th, left for home, via. Indianapolis, Mich. 
City, and Chicago, and arrived home Oct. 21st 

After thus briefly stating some of the leading facts and incidents 
connected with our visit to the two above named institutions, we 
will devote a few moments to the consideration of those concla- 
sinns at which jour committee have arrived applicable to our own 
Institution. 

'l. Tliis institution must be the home of its pupils for the space 
of Tor JO years. 

It is difficult to conceive fully the misfortune of deafness to the 
human mind. 

The great means of communicating ideas to the mind and under- 
standing is that of speech, and of this the deaf mute can know 
nothing; forever de^irived of (he sense of hearing, the mind 
would be doomed to per]^etual ignorance, but for the sign lan- 
guage. But we are happy to say that this modern invention, or 
we might; with great propriety, call it a creation, is a mairelons 
though nut an equal substitute for that of articulate sounds. The 
pr6gress of educating the almost latent powers of the mind of the 
deaf mute is consequently slow and extremely difficulf, requiring 
constant, scientific, thorough and protracted application both* oa 
the part of teacher and pupiU Tliis takes up so much time of 
youth after 10 or 12 years of age,^ the period at which they are ad- 
mitted into the like institutions, that it is necesBuy that the asy* 



17 

lam be made the home of this class of children. And therefore, 
the buildings are, and of neceasitj mast be, conatracted with re- 
ference to these important facts. 

The institution must be the home of tha deaf mate pupils. The 
superintendent, assume the capacity and responsibility of parent, 
and the pupils become brothers and sisters. Here they must live 
and attend schocd, go to church, and also here they ought to learn 
some useful trade or occupation, suitably preparing them to eater 
upon the business of life with a fair prospect of earning a liveli- 
hood and becoming nsefnl members of society. 

2. 'Intimately connected with the above coBclosion is this, that 
the system of education should be complete in all its parts, adapt- 
ed to the constitution and wants of humanity. Man is constitu- 
tionally amoral, intellectual and animal being, and the correspond- 
ing wants are religion, intelligence and bodily comforts. Educa- 
tion, in its full and appropriate sense, oonaiets in developing the 
whole mas in symmetrical.propordoq, preparing him to act in hit 
6everal spheres efficiently find as the creator designed. 

So far as we know, the religious and intellectual branches of 
education are qnited in the various institutions for the deaf and 
dumb in the United States. 

But here some of them stop ; the mechanical or manual depart- 
ment is omitted. But all acknowledge their importance, at least 
this is the case at Columbus. 

We would recommend that the board, at an early day as possi- 
ble, adopt one or more of the mechanical trades as a part of the 
education of the male pupils. Amongst them coopering and cab- 
inet making stand first The cooper shop at the Indiana institute 
made clear of all cost over $160 the present year. It is not, how- 
ever, the profit that should be exclusively taken into the account — 
it should be instituted even if it did not pay in dollars and centSi 
for the acquirement of a trade only is a branch of education that 
49hould in no case be omitted. 

8. With regard to our own state institatton, though in its in- 
iancyi still after visiting o&en of riper years, and examining near* 



18 

Ij all the plans of ihe Tarioos institatioDS in the country, we feel 
some degree of pride in knowing that bo far as onra is constmcted 
and put into operation it is nearly all that could have been desired, 
and more than could hav^e been expected, considering the circum- 
stances and limited means the trustees have labored under. Its 
economy of arrangement and the beauty of architecture, consider- 
ing the cost, is not probably surpassed by any similar institution 
in America. During our visit we have received some important 
hints that will materially assist the future opperations in building, 
heating, cooking, &e. Still the^plan is in the main pronounced by 
excellent judges as r^rj good, and the order of architecture unsnrr 
passed. We are warranted in'saying that when the entire edifice 
is erected and completed it will be just what is needed and an 
honor to the state. 

We would also say that so far as we are capable of judging, 
the ability with which your Institution is conductedunder the 
supervision of L. H. Jenkins, its present superentendent, it will 
compare favorably with either the Indiana or the Oulumbos 
institutes. * 

H. HUNT,Oh'n. 



r 



19 
REPORT OF THE PRIKOIPAL. 



To the Trustees of the Wisconsin InstiMionfor the Mltication 
of the Deaf and Dumh. 

Gentixhbk: — ^The year jngt closed terminates the first year of 
mj labor, as Prlnoipal of this Institution. It has been a year em- 
phatically of pioneer labors, a y^ar fraught vdth many solioitudea;* 
but a year to which I can lock back in after life as one in whioh^. 
with yourselves, I bore a part in. eatabliahing the discipline and 
order ot an institution which will continue to impart intelligence' 
and happiness to many an unfortunate mjite, wfafin we as ixidiyi* 
duals shall be forgotten. 

He who is called to take the direction of a State Institution in » 
its infancy, enters upon a work of. great responsibility. The spiritr 
he imparts to its affairs for years will exert an iiiflaetuce. The- 
modes of procedure which he is instrumental in adopting will bo^- 
come precedents which will e:«;ert a binding influence upon its a&r 
fairs, and will either retard or facilitate its usefulnesSi; If »lax» 
state of discipline be permitted in the infancy of iastitation it od^* 
Ij paves the way for future troubles and difliciulties. On the con- 
^ trarj, if obedience to l^w be enforced, and respect for ailthoritT . 
inculcated, the. happy effect is seen in the order of the institution," 
and in the good character of its graduates. These principles ap* 
ply to the management of any literary institution,' bat they aj»ply 
with still greater force to the management of a Deaf and Dumb 
Institution,.whose pupils with a few exceptions have been subiectsd. 
to little or no discipline before entering the institution. The Prtm^ 
cipal was fortunate in securing the co-operation of a Bofca4 o£P 
Trustees who, inflnencedby such consiidenitiaQfli adopted a bod^ 
of rules for its ^vemment, whose efficacy had been demonstrated!: 
in the institutions of the older states. The wisdom of their adep- 



20 

tion has already been eeen in the marked change that has taken 
place in the deportment of the pupils; a change which has been 
observed not only by their instructors but by the community. If 
the deaf and dumb could make no advancement in literature, but 
could only be improved in their personal habits, and in their con* 
formity to the rules of good society, an effort at such improvement 
would be worthy of the labor it. demands. This Institution has 
enjoyed a vantage ground in this respect, having thus availed it- 
self of the rules that have been proved by long experience to be 
60 well adapted to deaf-mute education. The beneficial results al- 
ready 'exhibited, are btit a tithe of what will yet be seen, for by 
them we will be enabled to avoid rocks and qui^^ksands, which 
embarvassed the early instructors of the deaf and dumb. 

Aesoon ad possible after entering upon my duties, I visited, 
vfitk several of the pupils, prominent places in the State, for the 
purpose ot exhibiting the method of instruction and calling the 
attention of the public to the subject of deaf-mute education. I 
shall ever remeitiber the kind reception which was extended to 
ite by bis Excellency Governor W. A. Barstow, and the deep in- 
terest he manifested in the subject of deaf-mute education. In 
every place where I presented the subject, they were impressed 
with the cpnvititioQ that the State should place its benevolent m- 
stitotions upon no ephemeral basis, but should ' afford them aid 
commensurate with ' their necessities. > 

I hwT^ to* record the loss the Institution has sustained in the 
resignation of Mr. F. K. Phoeniijc, a member of the Board of Tras- 
teesand its former Secretary. The resignation of Mr. Phoenix 
wap ocoasionled by his removal to a nister Sti&te. His services to 
the Institution have been most valuable. H^ contributed the 
beamtiiftil eite on which it is located. He 'shar^ with the other 
niextib9^ of the Board in the pioneer labors of its establishmenf, 
and ilk always rendered to the Principal his mo6t efficient sympa- 
thy ttid support. 

% The services of Prof. Hiram PhilHps, a' deaf niute gentleman 
hks^ b44iiM<mred in ^ inSeilecttiiil departmetit. He is d graduate 



r 



21 

of the Ohio Inatitate for the Deaf and Bomb, and while, counocted 
with it was distinguished among his elass mates for his proficienc^jr 
in his studies. Mr. Hubbell who was superintendent of that It^- 
stitution for over a period of twenty years, thus speaks of him : 

"I consider him number one, or about that, of all my pupils, 
graduates of the Ohio Deaf and Dumb Institution " The late Rev. 
J. Addison Gary, for nineteen years a professor in the New York 
Institution and also Superintendent of the Ohio Institution 
recommended him as a suitable person for an Instructor 
and remarked of him, that he was one of the ablest mutes 
with whom he had been acquainted. Instructors in other Institu- 
tions ^irill know his qualifiiiations, when I say that he can with 
ease read and enjoy the standard works of English literature. He 
entered upon his duties a^t the commencement of tlie present term, 
in September last, and has fully equalled the opinions I had form- 
ed in respect to his fitness for thcresponsible position of an Instruc- 
tor. The most important requsite for a mute instructor, after 
moral character, is such an acquaintance with the English lan- 
guage as. to be able to understand its idromatic structure, and use 
it with grammatical correctness. Those who have never attempt- 
ed to teaph the English language to a mute or to a foreigner have 
a very slight idea of its idiomatic difficulties. A mute teachers' 
knoTv ledge of the English language should be so perfect that he 
could converse in it with ease, and with such ease,, that he woj»^d 
prefer it to the sign- language. He should thus make use of man- 
ual alphabet in conversation, more than that of the language of 
signs, and by his es^ample, the pupils would be stimulated to the 
daily use of the words, they had acquired in their several classes, 
and would thus make far greater proficiency in the acquisition and 
knowledge of the language by which alone they can have commu- 
nication with the community among whom their lot may be cast 
after leaving, the Institution. 

A small number of books have been procured for the commence- 
ment of a librarpr for the institution. These books I hope will be 
the nucleus of a library which will increase with the wants ot the 



P — 



2i 

iDBiitotion. I regard it of importance that there be connected 
with the institution, a library selected with special reference to 
the wants of the instructros and their pnpils. To the former they 
will afford means for the illastration of the lessons to the class, and 
to the latter they will be a constant stimulus in the acquisition of 
knowledge. 

Pupils are frequently sent to institutions for the Deaf and 
Dumb, whose physical or mental condition is such that they can 
receive no benefit from the course of instruction pursued in such 
institutions. It is often difficult to ascertain either by letter or 
even personal inquiry, whether every applicant is a suitable one. 
Besides many whose first appearance is not prepossessing, after- 
wards are much improved. The only rule concerning such appli- 
'cants that seems to be impartial, is to permit all the privilege of a 
trial, and if it is found that they cannot be benefitted, to have 
them returned to their homes. The pupils have been returned to 
their homes whom we have not been able to benefit. If there be 
any difficult duty for me to perform, and one from the performance 
of which I would be excused, it is to return a pupil to its parents, 
Informing them it cannot be educated. The course of that I hare 
pursued is analagous to that pursued by the principals of other 
institutions like our own. The President of the New York insti- 
tution thus remarks in the twenty-ninth annual report of that in- 
etitution, upon this subject : " Such cases not unfrequently occur. 
Children are sometimes sent to us, whom, on trial, we find to be 
dumb, not from deafness, but from defective intellect, while a few 
who arej actually deaf, have other infirmities superadded, that 
make their stay in the institution detrimental to it without benefit 
to themselves. The appropriate object of our institution, is to. de- 
velope and cultivate the minds of those who, by the congenital or 
accidental loss of hearing, and by that loss alone have been cut off 
rfrom the ordinary sources of knowledge. Derangements of the 
. mental functions, or of the nervous system, are entirely out of our 
, province.'' 

The good health that has prevailed among the pupils the past 



S8 

year, is a great reason for thankfttlness to oar kind Hoarenlj 
Father. There has been no;] critical case of sickness. Freqaent 
cases of indisposition hare occurred, as must always be the case 
among such a number of pupils, but they are generally reliered 
by timely remedies and attentions from those to whose care the 
health of t^e pupils is entrusted. Yet it is wr melancholy duty 
to record the death of one of our most promising pupils, Miss 
Helen Hews, of Eagle, Waukesha county. She will be recollect- 
ed as the little girl with flaxen ringlets, who excited so much in- 
terest at the exhibition of the pupils before the legislature during 
the last winter. Her death was occasioned not by disease, but by 
accident. It occurred not during the session of the school, but 
while Tisitiog her home in the vacation. While her two little 
Bisters were playing near the railroad track, by her father's house, 
she saw a train of cars approaching in the distance, and ran to 
apprise them of their danger, when suddenly another train from 
behind struck her, causing instant death. It was an accident for 
which no one could be blamed, not even herself, for she lost her 
life in a noble endeavor to save that of others. Her seeming un- 
timely death is deplored by her instructors and her classmates. 
Amidst the activities of life her memory will soon be forgotten, 
yet her child-life of fourteen years was not altogether useless, for 
by her proficiency in her studies, her sprightly disposition, and 
her bright appearance, she did much to awaken an interest in the 
education of the deaf mutes of our State. 

NUICBEB OF PUPILS. 

The number of pupils who have been under instruction during 
the past year is thirty one. The number in actual attendance at 
the present time is twenty-six. One of these is from the state of 
Illinois. The number of pupils has more than doubled during the 
past year. By correspondence and personal inquiry, I have 
learned of quite a number who ought to be unde^ instruction. — 
Many of these are kept at hooftC, and consequently in ignorance, 
for reasons the most^trivial, while others are retained from the 



84 

feelii^ to nataral to parents, which dreftds a separatioB from their 
children* I have beard of many others who are too yoong to en- 
ter the institntion, bat who in a few years will be old enough ta 
enjoj its advantages. The nnmber to be provided for in the com- 
ing year, will at least amonnt to thirty-five ot forty. From tiie 
fSftCt that the pnpils ef a Deaf and Dumb Institution are to be col- 
lected from all portions of the state, and that many of them live 
in retired localities, the increase of pnpik mnst necessarily be 
smalL Yet in this respect, this institution does not suffer in com" 
parison with that of other institutions for the Deaf and Dumb in 
their InfiEincy. The Kew York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
was opened with a class of only four pupils, and the number has 
increased, nntil now it has become a school of over two hundred 
and sixty pupils. Mr. H. N. Hubbell, Esq., the former Superin- 
tendent of the Ohio Institution, has kindly furnished me with the 
following acconnt of the infancy of that institution. 

*f[ commenced teaching in October, 1829, if I rightly recollect^ 
and all the pnpils I could get together to begin with, after six 
months advertising in the papers were three pupils, and this was 
two or three weeks after we should have begun, not one having 
made his appearance at the day appointed, viz : the 1st of Octo- 
ber. One of the three was idiotic. Another died insane in onr 
Oounty Infirmary, after having been at the Institution a number 
of years. Only one of the first made a man — ^this was Mr. Flen- 
niken. He lives a few miles from Columbus, and sometimes vis- 
its the Institution with his wife, who is deaf and dumb. The 
whole number who came in the first year was nine. These drop- 
ped in one after another during the year. The second year we had 
eighteen or twenty. The third year, twenty-five to thirty, inoreas- 
ing some ten a year during several of the first years." From 
each beginnings, the Ohio Institution has increased nntil now it 
numbers about one hnndred and sixty pupils. The Indiana Xnsti- 
tution was established in 1843, twelve years ago, and now 
numbers enehmidred and sixty pnpils. When we consider tbfr 
rapidity with which oar stale is increasing in popnlatioii, &e deep 



1 



25 

interest already manifested in the success of its educational Insti- 
tutioDS, and tbe number of railroads completed and in progress 
which will bring this institution within a fewhoura ride of any 
portion of the state, we cannot but believe that the same gloriouB 
career of usefulness awaits this institution as the ones to which we 
have alluded. This being the case, it is the dictate of prudence 
that our plans should have reference not merely to the present 
necessities of the Institation^ but to its future prospects. 

FRBB ADMIBSIOK OF PTTPtLS. 

By a reference to the rules adopted by yourselves for the gOT- 
emment of the Institution, it will be seen that they provide that 
*^ All the deaf and dumb of the state, between the ages of ten and 
thirty years, are entitled to an education, without charge for board 
or tuition in this Institution, on compliance with its rule&" Thi^ 
places all the unfortunate deaf and dumb of the state upon au 
equality in respect to the opportunity of obtaining an education. 
It makes no distinction between the rich and the poor, but consid- 
ers them both equally entitled to the privileges of the Institution. 
This rule, however, conflicts with the act which was passed by 
the legislature, incorporating, the institution; for that provides 
that the parents of the pupils who possess means shall pay for the 
'board and tuition of their children. It will bd necessary to hare 
the act of incorporation amended so that there shall be no confliat 
hetween it and the regulations of the Institution. This question 
of tbe free admission of pupils excited much attention in the 
"T?hird Convention of the American Instructors of the Deaf and 
Dumb," held at the Ohio Institution, in August^ 1858. A resolu- 
tion was unanimously adopted, approving of the free education of 
all the pupils of each state. The states of Ohio, Indiana, and Ill- 
inois have proffered free education to all the deaf and dumb with- 
in their limits, and it is desirou| that Wisconsin should be no less 
generous to her unfortunates. Wisconsin has amply provided for 
tiie education of her speaking and hearing children in the commoa 
schools and university of the state. From this patrimony are the 
4 



26 

deaf and damb excladed by their infirmity. Justice to them woald 
require that this loss be made up to them in some other form. It 
seems unjust that the parent of a deaf ana dumb child, who is 
wealthy and pays his proportion of the public taxes by which tho 
institution is supported, should also pay for the education of bis 
child in the institution, while the parent of another child pays lit 
tie or no taxes and then has his child educated without charge. 
This seems like imposing a double burden^upon the former parents. 
The small amount that might be received from pay pupils would 
not compensate for the disadrantages that would result from the 
existence in a state institution of these two classes of pupils. — 
Mutes possess the same human nature as speaking mortals, and in- 
vidious distinctions are very easily drawn by them, concerning 
the superiority of one class of pupils above the other. In the 
practical workings of an institution it is important that such things 
should be avoided. Besides, if such a distinction be made, some 
parents who may be able to support their child away from home, 
may not think themselves thus able and the unfortunate child will 
grow up in ignorance. With free admission it is found difficult 
to collect in the mutes from the different parts of the state. How 
much more diflScult would it be if this distiction be allowed. In 
relation to this point, Mr. Kerr, Principal of the Missouri Institu- 
tion for the Deaf and Dumb, at the convention to which allusion 
has been made, said '^ when he attempted to get up a school in 
Missouri with this distinction, he worked months to get only three 
scholars. He went to the Attorney General and said if the distinc- 
tion between pay and state pupils was really in the law it was in 
vain to try to get up a school. It was agreed to receive all with- 
out distinction. The scholars then came in rapidly. He went to 
the legislature and asked an appropriation, and thirty thousand 
dollars was made for a suitable building and other appropriations 
would follow.'* From these considerations I think that all the 
deaf and dumb of the state should be entitled to free admission in- 
to this Institution, and tliat an amendment be made to the act of 
incorporation. 



r 



27 

BHPLOYHEirr or pupilb. 

I wofild urge open your attention the propriety of introducing 
es ooon a9 practicable, a mechanical department as an essential 
partof thesjstem ot instrnction. The proper education of the 
deaf and dumb contemplates a developiuent of all their powers. 
To this end instruction in various handicrafts has been introduced 
in nearly all the American Institutions. The benefits to be de- 
nied from snch a department of instmction are self-evident 
Habits of industry would be promoted, skill in the use of tools 
woold be acquired, and many moments otherwise lost would be 
profitably employed. More than this it would fnrnish to many of 
the pupils a means of support after leaving the institution. The 
tinse to be employed in such a department should be regulated so 
as not to encroach upon the hours allotted to study or recreation, 
for the health of the pupils, and their advancement in knowledge 
should be considered as of the first importance. 

It is the settled policy of the older institutions to have a me- 
ehanical department, as an essential part of the system of instruc- 
tion. No Institution is complete without this department. It has 
also been demonstrated that after the erection of necessary build- 
ings and a supply of material, very little expense attends this de- 
partment In some of the trades, as that of coopering, there has, 
in the Indiana Inititution, a profit been realized. In the Yirginia 
Xnstitntiony I notice that they are not a charge upon the finances 
of the institution. It is unquestionable that some trades could be 
introduced thalb would not materially increase the expenses of the 
institution. Of their utility as a part of the system of instmction, 
tlwre is no question among the various instructors of the deaf and 
dumb. Among the male pupils of this institution there are many 
who at this moment should be receiving instruction in some useful 
trade. A inechanical department could be introduced at this time 
as woU as at a later period. From the fact that the pupil can spend 
only a short period of each day in receiving instruction in this de- 
partment^ it is for his benefit that it be introduced as soon as prac- 
iioable. 



28 

From these considerations I wonid respectfuUj suggest the pro- 
priety of receiving from the legislature, an appropriation^f(Mr the 
erection of suitable workshops, inwhich to proeectkte such tmdea 
-as the ozperienee of other institutions have demonstrated to be 
the most suitable. 

HOME EDUCATION OF THB DEAF AND DUKB. 

It of the greatest importance that something be done at home 
iSor the education of a child before it reaches the age proper to be 
admitted into an institution* It is surprising what a small nvm- 
ber of those admitted as pupils, have had any instruction al home. 
A few parents have, indeed, taught their children, before bringing 
them to the institwtion, to form the letters of the alphabet, and 
write the names of simple objects. The contriast betweeo suck 
children. and those permitted to grow up without any instruction 
at home, is most striking. Their mental faculties are thus awak- 
ened« and their progress at school is much more ri^id tiian those 
who hive had no previous training. Much can be done by every 
parent, if they will only make the effort, and perservere in a dail/ 
^brt to teach it something. What parent is there that does not 
love its unfortunate child enough to devote an hour of each day 
to such a work? But how shall I proceed in the inquiry! 

Pirst^ let the parent learn bimself^ and then learn the child, the 
.manual alphabet, by which the letters are represented by the 
band. 

'• Then let the parent or friend write the following siaaple worda 
on a alate, having the child observe how he forms each letter, via: 
iadz, fad, map, cow, box, jar, sky, hat, quilK glove. These ten 
little words comprise all the letters of the alphabet 

Then show him a picture of each of the objeets represented bj 
the words^ or show him the object itself, having him spell eaoli 
"word with his fingers, or write it on the slate, as the object ia pre- 
sented to his mind. 

Having thoroughly taught him to write and spell these ten word% 
then teach him the names of familiar objects about the houae, and 



r 



29 

the names of his parents and relatives ; afterwards perform varions 
actions and have the child write out the names of such actions. 

A system of signs will spontaneously arise between the parent 
and the Qhild by which they will try to express ideas. This will 
be of service if car3 be taken to always make the same sign for 
one object, and not have two signs for the same thing. Such ^ 
course as this will require the exertion of much patience, but it 
will be repaid a thousand fold^in the self respect that will be im- 
parted to the child, and its preparation to reap all the advantages 
of the course of instruction of an institution. 

HOBAL BfPEOVEMEIirr OF THE DEiiF AND DUMB. 

The crowning excellence of an institution for the the education 
of the deaf and dumb is the marked change it effects in the moral 
character of its pupils. Speaking ehildren from, their earliest in- 
fSwcy are accustomed to hear moral distinctioBs drawn by their 
parefDts at the fire side, by the different religious instructors of the 
commanity, and the judicial tribunals of the state. BesLdea this, 
they are subjected to the restraining influences of public opinion, 
and the refinements and amenities of social lifeu The deaf and 
djQ^h frcm their infirmity are excluded from the inflaent^e o£ these . 
gry>atn^oral educators. If plujQged into tha darkness of paganism 
their moral oeii4ition could be.no less deplorable. It is not strange > 
then, that when first brought to an institutieny their tempers are 
ofieo found ezeeediitgly aggnvv^ated, both from ignorance and oh- 
djoe indulgence* I nm^ happy ,to report a marked improvement ini 1 
the deportmei»t and moral ofaaraeter of the pupils. This impnove") ' 
ment has been effeeb^d from, the introduction of the usual diaei- ( 
plinary nieans/comnioa tO: other Aanerican institotiont* Olieyeiitr,'i 
however^ is too short a period in which to demonsfoate thteivFiliie > 
for bad tempers, aiifd bad habits,, which are the growth of years of 
ignorance, and are Aot to be eradicate^ ia a moment. i. • 

]fr« Jaeojbsi pripcipal of: the {Kentucky iivatltatiofi, gives the fol* -i 
lofwing ewmpte-of the baMfiti; of the amoral cultvejofa.^eafaiidiii 
doQ^b iaat^^tio^,— tha like oiuieB are oAea exJiibiM in aU inatita-^; 



30 

*< We have jast dismlsBecl a jonng woman who was a cliild ten 
or eleven jears old when she entered tbe institntion, unamiable 
and ungovernable in the highest degree. Her unhappy disposition, 
aggravated by the yanity of personal beauty, was ] roof against 
all instruction, reproof and discipline, until during tbe last year 
of her term. It at last melted down and vanished under the sweet 
influences of moral and religious iDstruction. During the past ses- 
sion, she was a model to her companions in industry, attention, 
gratitude and amiable conduct, and gained the love of her teach- 
ers to whom she had previously been oftly an object of sympathy 
and lorbearance.'' 

AGE OF ADMISSION OF PUPIU3. 

In the education of tbe deaf and dumb, I consider it of the 
greatest importance that they be placed under instrdction at an 
early age. The rules of this institution admit them when they 
hare attained the age of ten years. They should not be kept 
away from the institution till a later period than tliat fixed npon 
by the rules, which in this respect, are the same as in most of tbe 
American Institutions. The New York Institution admits them 
between the ages of twelve and twenty-iive. 6<)metiroes, Low* 
ever, a discretion is exercised, and in some cases they are admits 
ted before tbe age of twelve years. 

The course of instruction of the American Institution, extends 
from a period of from fire toseyen years. It is therefore impor* 
tant, that a pu|>il should pursue this coarse at an nge^ when his 
powers, both of body and mind, are in a condition to derive from 
it all of its advantages. It is the opinion of those who have de-- 
TOied many years to the instruction of this class, that before the 
age of ten years, a child's powers, both of body and mind, ar^ 
not sufficiently matured to enter upon the course of iiistrocttoa 
common to the Ameriean Institutions. Tbe education of the D jaf 
add Dumb is no pastime^ either for tlie imtroctor orthe piipiK ft 
isa labor, which tasks the physical and mental energies of botit',- 
and without which, there is no progress. It is more advantageous 



f 



31 

to tho child to be under the care of its parents, previous to the age 
of ten years, who could render to it those attentions that tender 
years require, especially in the diseases incident to young chil- 
dren. 

The chief reason, however, why a pupil should not be admitted 
before ten years of age, is that it would graduate at too early a 
period of life, before its physical and mental powers are sufficient- 
ly developed, to be able to grapple with the toils incident to those 
industrial pursuits necessary to its own support. The object of 
an institution for the Deaf and Dumb, is to prepare this class 
when they leave its walls, to become worthy citizens, who shall 
be self-reliant, and shall be able, not only to support themselves, 
but to share with others in the privileges and responsibilit'es of 
citizenship. The pupil is permitted the privileges of the Institu- 
tion from five to seven years. If he enters at ten years of age, 
lie will thtm complete his education at the age of seventeen. He 
can then return to his parents and pass a few yeare at home, and 
there with a cultivated intellect, can gain a practical experience 
of those matters pertaining to every day life, before attaining his. 
minority. When a pnpil finally leaves the institution, he is re- 
leased from those wholesome restraints, which preserve him from 
many of the temptations of childhood. If he enter the institution 
at too early an age, he wiH complete his studies and will be cast 
upon the world, when perhaps he is too young to resist those evil 
influences which would make shipwreck of that moral character 
which has been developed dnring his course of study. 

While there are few parents that desire the admission of pupils 
at too early an age, there^are more who defer their education till 
too late a period of life. Of these two evils the latter is the most 
to be deplored. There is no subject that deserves to be so well un- 
derttood as the evils resultifig from delaying the education of a . 
miite. l%ey should be placed under instruction as soon as they 
attain the age at which they can be admitted into an institution. ' 
If this it n6t done, and they be {buffered to remain in ignorance 
for eighteen or twenty years, the experience 6f all instructors 



32 

have demonetrated the fact, that their education is a work alcnoet 
of impossibility. For it is a rule to which there are but few excep- 
tions, that the minds of such have become weakened by inactivitj, 
and consequently never can be tanght to understand and write 
connected language ; that their tempers have become ungovern- 
able; that they have acquired many vicious habits, strange 
notions and prejudices ; that their natures have become very aus- 
picious; and that their animal propensities have become too 
greatly developed. All these evils can be avoided by attending 
to their early education. It is, therefore, alike the dictate .of wis- 
dom and humanity, that no expense or efforts should be spared by 
the parents of the deaf and dumb, by the state and by the trus- 
tees and directors of this institution, to secure the early admissicHi 
and education of every unfortunate mute within the limits of Wis- 
consin. 

BETE»TION OF PUPILS AT fiOKE. 

By a reference to the rules for the admission of pupils, it will 
be seen that the pupil is to be brought to the institutiou punctual- 
ly at the ^commencement of each session, for the period of five 
years, unless detained at home by his or her own sickness. There 
« is no rule of the institution that is more important than this, both 
as ]:elates to the pupils' advancement, and the prosperity of the 
institution 'itself. The pupils of a Deaf and Dumb Institution 
are grouped into classes according to (heir talents and acquire- 
ments. Such is the peculiarity of the mode of instruction, that 
the members of a class are taught not f^iaglyy but all at once ; the 
teacher dictating a sentence or narrative, ,f^nd all the pupils writi^ 
it. simultaneously upon their slates. Now, if a pupil be tardy in 
returning to school, the result is, that he falls behind his claas- 
mates, and must either go into a lower clasjs, or tho other memhors 
of the class must be detailed until he has caught up with them. 
Thuflihe either hinders the advancement of l^is cli^ or aaffers the 
inconvenience of being placed in a lower Que* 

It sometimes happens that parents wi^h tQ take t^eir childreQ 
out of school and retain them at home, |kfter ib^j h^Jfi been at 



r 



88 

school only a fyw y^ara, and before thej have completed tb|^ 
coarse of instractioa. They frequently do this from, too high ao 
eatiaiate of the knowledge and acqoisitiona of their child. Tb^ 
contrast exhibited in the mental and moral condition of the ehild 
aflter being'under instraetion three or four years, and that preaeut- 
ed when first brought to the institution) is truly astonishing. The 
letters that the pupil writes home often compare favorably with 
thoee of its speaking relatives. The little that it has acquired hm 
been learned thoionghly, and it is enabled to make such a displaj 
4^ its knowledge aa often leads to wrong inferences as to its re^ 
4MqRir0nadt8. The pupil, after being under instruetion three or 
^«r yeMy has met ely laid the foondation of his educntioo. 4^ 
mood ^ork has been aeeomplished, if In that time his mind }ia#^ 
«eeeit^ed nnfieieiit disoipUae te reap the full benefiti of the e^rsr 
0{ tnitnietieii. One year's instm^on in the latter part of thr 
isoarse is equal to that of diree or four yean at the beginw^ 
A gteat ioi^yy therefiMre, is done to the pupil, to derive him oT 
A» iaalniotiDa Ite wovld reeeive in the latter p^rt of bia eoiirse. 

Erequtotly mutes are met wkh roaming fh>in pkiee te plee^v 
bonethoes seekiag employmenti and sometimes d«)Mring alm^. 

T&ese are generally haAf edneatedy fiekle^minded and soom^ 
tisMs irictotas. Tkey an those who have either entered an ine# 
totion when too old to learn mnch, or those who have left beforf 
completing the course of instruction. They are no honor to the 
great and highly respectable body of educated mutes, nor to th^ 
institu lions at which they have tarried for a short period. The 
proper way to prevent the multiplication of such a class is to per- 
mit no pupil to leave an institution before completing the regular 
course of instruction. 

Another reason why this rule should receive attention is becaus)^^ '-" 
of the injury done to the feelings of the pupil itself, who is pet* 
amptorily taken out of the society of dassniates with whom^ it 
has pursued the same studies and shared in the same labors at 
improvement. A mute on entering an institution, is placed in a - 
dass in which it remains for se feral years. The class is led sue-- 
S 



1 



34 

eessivelj on (hroDgh the rndimentfi of language to the more diffi- 
cult studies pursued. At first the pnpil cannot even oommani- 
cate with its' classmates, hot gradnally it learns the eyatem of 
signs, and soon is able to enjoy pleasing converse with its com- 
panions in study. Vacation conies and the pupil retoms home 
joyful at the anticipation of revisiting familiar scenes^ After a 
few weeks the excitements of home become common place. Kot 
having yet acquired language sufficient to converse with speaking 
people, and none understanding the sign language, it begins to 
think of the pleasures of social conversation with its class-mates. It 
begins to count the days when school will commence and a rennioft 
take place with class-mates in the same pleasnres and in tbe«Mn« 
studies. From year to year the same happy experience is enjoyed en- 
1y heightened in intensity fk'om the expansion of its intellect At 
last the period arrives, when having completed its stailiea it ktt 
leave the Institution for the last time, never to return agitn as a 
pupil. But now with ctltivated intellect and reftned raaanerS) it 
appreciates the patient labors of its instro c tets, and takes lesva of 
itsdafls-mates, with a heart filled with love and gratitude lowavdi 
itsinitracters, and the State whose munificence has enabled it to 
be not a mere blank in society, but to become an intelligent and 
worthy citizen. The advancement and happiness of the pupil and 
the reputation of the Instructor and the iaatitotion will teqnin a^ 
lention to this rufe^ 

TO TmE PABENTB OF DXAF AKD DCHB CHXLniUQr. * 

Those who have been instructors of the unfortunate deaf and 
dumb for many years,. have often noticed the feeling so natural to 
parents, that dreads the separation from their chi'dren, even for 
the purpose of obtaining an education. A mute child in a family 
has, by reason of its infirmity, a larger share of the affection of 
its parents than the other children. It receives many kindly at- 
tentions, which aro prompted from a generoas sympathy for ita 
unfortunate condition. When the idea of sending such a child 
away from home to obtain an education is first presented to the 
mind of a parent, the thought that involuntarily rushes into the 



r 



85 



mind is whether it will be kindlj treated ; whether if in case of 
aickneas, proper atteation would be give§ to it. The design of an 
institation for the deaf and damb h to secure to the unfortanate 
mate those kmdijr.attentions, both ia health, and sickness, that are 
8o essential to its education and happiness. The building itself 
was erected with special reference to their wants. The plan of 
the baildiDj; ia the same as that of the Indiana institation for the 
deaf and dumb, with the exception of certain improvements which 
have been snggeated since that baitding was completed ; and it 
will, when finished, be one of the most elegant structures in the 
State. All the pupils board in the Institution, and constitate one 
happy family. They are nnder the constant supervision of the 
Priaoipal, the Matron, and the Professors. The government it 
mild and partotal, for by means of the beautiful and expressive 
IftDgnage of signs, their instroctors are enabled to influence them 
to an attentkw to those conrtesiea'aad propneties that character- 
ise ladiea and gentlemen. The institution, moreover, is subject to 
the oontrri of a Board of Tnistees, whoatatedly visit it, and make 
•oeh an examination into its affairs as will promote a faithful dis* 
cbaigeof the duties belonipng to its various officers. In sickness, 
the pepils have thoee to watek over them to whom they can com- 
municate dieir wants, and th^ obtain relie£ They are instructed 
by those who, firom years of experienoe, have beoome acquainted 
with their peculiarities, and know how to adapt their instructions 
tethem« Theyaooa learn to oommanicate with each other in 
signs, and thus are removed from that solitude and loneliness in 
which they are often found* at home. On the Sabbath they are 
assembled in the chapel of the Institution, when, in the language 
of signs, thanks ai*e rendered to their heavenly Father, and their 
dntiea to Him, to their parents and tiieir fellow men, are explain- 
ed. They have their seasons of recreation, in which they engage 
in the sports of childhood with all the avidity and happiness of 
other ehildrenl Parents who have visited the Institntion and 
seen the pnpiU in tbeir studies, in their classes, and in their sports, 
haire wq^ team of joy that they lived in a State which possessed 



such ft noble Xnstitntion, so happily adapted to their little lInfo^ 
tnnates. It is to be hoped that the parents of deaf and dumb 
children throtighont the State, will visit the Institution and become 
acquainted with its advantages. 

PBOGBSBS OF DSAF AKD DUMB EDUCATION IS AHSSICA. 

The establiehment of an institution for the education of thtf 
deaf and dumb, in America, dates back to less than forty jean 
ago. In the year 1817, the American Asylum was eatabliahed ift 
Hartford, Oonn., under the direction of Rev. Thomas Gallandst^ 
assisted by Mr. Laurent Clero, an educated mute. Mr. Gallsn* 
det was under the neoeesity of proceeding io Europe, t(^ beeoM 
acquainted with the system of inatracttoo. While in France, ht 
prevailed upon Mr. Olere to aeoompaDy him to America, to aid 
him in hia benevolent enterprise. Mr. Gallendet has eeased froi^ 
his earthly labors, but ho died not miUl he had seea floinrisUiil 
Jastitations for the education for the Beaf wmA Dombeslablishsi 
in twelve of the laiger states, and hnndreds t>f otherwise vahsp* 
py mates rescued from the grave of ignotasice said piaced in Ihs 
enjoyments of knowledge. He die4 in the year 1861. His rs* 
speot and love oherished for tiiis beftevolent man, has been exhib* 
Ited by the assembling, dnring the pelt year, «t Hartford, of a 
large company of ednceted mntes, gatheied finm the dUFsreDl 
states, to erect a monnmeat to testify their eppredationef his Isr 
boxs. It is a noteworthy circnmstanoe that this monnmenl^ m iti 
plan, in its inscription, and in the fends eofttribnted for its erectraa 
was wholly the work of the Deaf and Dumb. Mr. Glerc still 
lives a venerable man, and even now, with the frosts of msny 
winterenpon his brow, is associatsd with the aUe corps of instrne* 
tors belonging to the American Asylum. Mr. Gellandet was sue* 
eeeded by Mr. Weld, who died in 18&8. The Sev. W. W. Tumsf 
is the present principal of the American Asylum. He is a geo* 
fleuiau of long experience in the profession, of very praetkd 
views upon the subject of mute edneation, aad relies mors xspea 
insiting the pupil to depend upon his own energise than any arti* 
ficial helps in the acquisition of knowledge. He is a worthy sue- 



87 

ceiforof Hessrs. (Jallendet and Welu. Under his direction the 
American Asjlum will continue to retain its high reputation as the 
first of tlie American Institutions. 

The second institution established in America was that of New 
York. It was established in 1818. From the most humble be* 
ginnings it has advanced in its career of usefulness, until now it 
is second to no other institution of its kind in the civilized world« 
It nombers over two hundred and sixty pupils, and has in course 
of erection, buildings which, together with their site, will coat 
when completed, about $350,000. The brick of which the outer 
wslls are composed, are furnished by the enterprize of citizens of 
this state, being the iamous cream-colored brick of Milwaukee. 
The success which has attended this institution is mainly owing^ 
under a wise Providence, to the able management, and indomita- 
ble perseverance of H. P. Feet, D. L. D., its efficient and obliging 
President, who for over a quarter of a century has had the direc- 
tioD of its affairs. 

The third institution established in America was that of Penn- 
sylvania. It is located at Philadelphia, ^and was established in 
1820. It numbers over one hundred and fifty pupils, and is under 
the direction of Mr. A. B. Button. It has not been our fortune to 
make the personal acquaintance of this gentleman, but the taste- 
ful manner in which his annual reports are prepared, and the 
compositions given as specimens of the attainments of his pnpils 
ibow that he requires a high standard of scholarship. 

The fourth institution established in America, was that of Een- 

tncky. This is located at Danville, and was established in 1822. 

It numbers eighty-seven pupils. It is under the direction of J. 

A. Jacobs, A. M. Mr. Jacobs has had the direction of this insti- 

tutioD for a quarter oi a century. He is a gentleman possessing 

1 a finely cultivated intellect, great benevolence, varied experience, 

! a retiring and unobtrusive disposition and great fixedness of pur- 

! pose. It would be difficult for the unfortunate deaf and dumb of 

I Kentucky, to find another man who could have labored so £uth- 

^ &lly and patiently in their behalf under the difficulties that have 



38 

Attended the establiBhrnent of an institution in that state. Tet 
notwithstanding his'eflFortB, " not one-half of the existing mntes of j 
the State, have yet been educated." His main obstacle has been | 
the want of that appreciation of the benefits of an edocation which 
characterize citizens of a free State. Tlie institution is now in a 
better condition than ever beforehand its future prospects are most 
encouraging. 

The fifth institution established in America, was that of Obio. 
It was established in 1829, and is locatea at Culumbus. Mr. H. 
K. Hubbell was the founder of this institution. Previonslj to un- 
dertaking the enterprise, llr. H. passed a year and a half in the 
American ^sylum, at Hartford, for the purpose of acquiring a 
knowledge of the system of instruction. Assisted by Mr. D. E. 
Ball, an educated mute, and who is still an iustructor in the Ohio 
Institution, he deyoted himself to the work with an energy snd 
perseverance that overcame the obstacles incident to the eetablisk- 
ment of an institution io a new state. Mr. Hubbell had the 
charge of this institution for nearly a quarter of a century, and 
beheld its growth from a school of three pupils to that of over one 
hundred and thirty ; while the whole number of pupils who re- 
ceived instruction during his administration was four hundred and 
sixty-two. He is justly regarded as the pioneer of deaf mute 
education in the west. He resigned the superintendency of this 
institution in 1851, and retired from labors, which entitle him to 
the respect of mankind. At the last convention of American in- 
structors of the deaf and dumb, which took place at the Ohio In- 
stitution, Mr. Hubbell was presented with a service of plat© by 
his former pupils. " For nearly a quarter of a century they found 
in him an able instructor, a wise cousellor, and a faithful friend." 
Mr. Hubbell was succeeded by the Rev. J. Addison Gary, for 
nineteen years an honored instructor in the New Toik Institution, 
whose career of usefulness was terminated by death in one year 
after entering upon his duties.** Eev. Collins Stone, was called to 
take the place vacated by the death of Mr. Gary. He was for 
nineteen years an instructor in the American Asylum, at Hart 



f 



39 

tard^ As a gentleauin, a scholar, and an instractor, hs is eiohient- 
ly fitted to give diceotion to the alma mater of thesuperiatendents 
of theDeaf and Damb lastitutions of Indiana, lUinois, Tennessse, 
liOnkiana and WisconsiD. 

There are now in the United States sixteen well established in- 
•ftitntioos for the education of the deat and damb| via: those of 
the states of Oonnecticnt, New York| FennsylTaniat Eentuckyi 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, 
Gtoorgia, Louisiana, Missouri, Tennessee, Michigan and Wisoon* 
sin. These first fire institutions, a sketch of whose ^rise and pro- 
gress we hare given, are the parents of all the others. For in 
these fiiye the superintendents and instructors of the others re* 
oeived their education to fit them for their peculiar work. Some 
of these already vie with their parent institutions. In this respect 
the lostitntion of Indiana deserves especial mention. It was es- 
tablished in 1843, only twelve years ago, and now numbers one 
hundred and sixty pupils. The Rev. Thomas Maclntyre is its 
present superintendent. Mr. Maclntjre's experience in other in- 
stitutions eminently fits him for the prudent management of an 
institution whose career has been signally prosperous. 

The progress of mute education is shown not only in the history 
of the establishment of institutions, but in the efforts made to ad- 
Tance the standard of scholarBhip in the several institutions. As 
a means to this, conventions of the instructors have been and dre 
to be held from time to time. The instructors of the deaf and 
dumb are scattered over sixteen states, consequently, are widely 
separated from each other. The assembling of instructors at 
suitable periods, affords a fine opportunity for a comparison of 
views upon the best methods of teaching, and matters connected 
with the management of an institution. Three of these conven- 
tions have already taken place, and the essays read, and discufr- 
sioDS held, have been embodied in the printed volumes of the pro* 
oeeding of the convention. These conventions provoke a laudable 
rivalry among the se/eral institutions, and therefore, incite the 
instructors to greater exertions in behalf of their own institutions. 



40 

The fourth convention of the American instructors of the deaf 
jind <hii&b, is to be held at the Yirginia inatitutiony in Staunton, 
<fti the last Wednesday in Jtily, of the coming yean 

The m«8t gratifying sign of progress has beea the fsteent estab- 
lishment of classes for the instruction of mutes ^4n the higher 
blanches of learning.'' Two of these classes have been <fetablish- 
ed in this county. One in connection witik the American Aey- 
lorn at Hartford, the other in connection with the New Yerk In* 
aMtution. The high class sustains about the same relation to the 
other classes in an Institution, that a college does to the conamott 
aehool. It is composed of a select number of the graduates of the 
inferior classes whose talents, acquirements and incIiBaticn gire 
promise of their ability to master the higher branches and thus fit 
tfaemeelvee for higher walks of usefulness. The reason of the ea* 
tablisbment of a high class is the fact that it has demonstrated 
tiiatthe difficulties the deaf and dumb pupil meets with in the ac- 
.^isition of written language are so great that very few of the 
graduates of existing institutions acquire such a knowledge of 
language as to be able to read understandingly the numerous worka 
in the dieffrent branches of English literature. The late Dr. Itard 
of Paris,for nearly forty years physician to the National institntion 
of France,left at his death a perpetual income of 8,000 francs for the 
ibundation of a doss de jf^erfeciionnemefUj or high class in that in* 
etitution. The reason he assigns is that to him it is ^b, demonatra- 
tad truth, that nearly all our deaf mutes, at the end of the six 
years allowed for their instruction, find it beyond their ability to 
read with perfect understanding the greater part of the works id 
our language." 

To admit such a fkct is rather humiliating to the instiiictora <^ 
the deaf and dumb. But it must be remembered that the diaeor- 
ery of the possibility of their education dates back to less than 
three centuries ago; that very little was done till the genius of 
De TEpee demonstrated its practicability ; that it is only thirty- 
eight years since the first school was established in America ; that 
die mute's education does not commence till ten or twdve years 



[ 



41 

of age, a period when speaking children have acquired not onljr 
Ae -Bse of language, but manj of the great facts of history and' 
«eienoef; that he has two languages to learn, tsz : the language of 
i^giie, and written language, the former of which must be first 
learned as a means to acquire the latter ; and that to him the ac- 
^nitition of a written language is mote difficult than Hebrew, 
Greek, latin, or anj other dead language would be to one of us,* 
§>r the anaiogiea of written language would greotlj assist tie whiles 
tbe mote oonld derire no aid from thia great help in the acquiai* 
tiou of different languages. * 

The eoufse of study pursued in the higb class, besides a contin- 
vsBce of the oommon branches, is to embrace as far as praxstica^ 
ble, instruction in JOirftwiiig, Natural Philosophy, Natural History, 
C^metry, Algebra, Logic, Intellectual and Mental Philosophy. 
The time allotted to instruction in this class is to extend through a 
period of three years. The success which has attended such an 
experiment in the National Deaf andDumb Institution of France, 
and the result already exhibited in the high classes of the institu- 
tions of New England and New Tork, have demonstrated the 
wisdom of the projectors of the classes. The benefits anticipated 
firom such a class is that it will enable those who avail themselves 
of its advantages to understand and appreciate the standard works 
of English literature, and thus add to their mental enjoyment; that 
it will qualify them to engage in more remunerative employments 
tiian they have hitherto been able ; that it will qualify many of* 
fhem to be able instructors of their fellow mutes ; and that the 
existence of such a claas, in an institution, as has been remarked 
by Dr. Peet in his report of his visit to the European Institutions, 
^would improve the general standard of scholarship in the infirm 
dasses, stimulating each pupil to strive after tbe honor of becom- 
ing one of its members, circulating new ideas, and encouraging 
a more elevated style of conversation, by the free intercourse 
which the members of this class have with the other pupils at the 
times of recreation^" and that, moreover,it will be a great help in 
the discipline of an institution for the moral influence of such a 



cUms of jovmg ladies and gentlemen, woald be moetealotaiy upoft 
the order of an institntion, as the chastened tempera, the refined 
manners, and correct morals of the high class oonid i)e held up ta 
the inferior classes as a standard worthy of their imitation. 

The example of the establishment of the high class in the two 
eldest and most honored of the American Institutions wiU lead to 
tiie establishment of like classes in the other institntions. It will 
msher in a new era in the cause of deaf mnte edaeation, and so 
enlighten pnblic opinion that it will be no longer a wonder that* 
mnte can be educated, but a disgrace that anj should grow up in 
an enlightened community without having been permitted to reap 
all the advantages of a well conducted Institution. 

CONCLUSTOV. 

In concluding my report, I am reminded, that only six years 
have elapsed since Wisconsin entered the sisterhood of states, and 
that our present chief magistrate was tlie first, I believe who for- 
mally presented in bis message, the claims of the Institntions for 
the Insane, the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb to the considera- 
tion of the legislature. The response made to his susgestions is, 
I hope, an earnest of the fiiture interest it will manifest in their 
prosperity. Happy State I so early in the possession of such re- 
treats for her unfoitunates. "While I think myself honored in be- 
ing entrusted with the direction of this noble charity, I am aware 
of the responsibilities of my position. The|experience of^the past 
year to me is full of instruction and encouragement From it I 
hope to derive many incitements to the faithful discharge of my 
duties. May I not cherish the hope that when the *fever of youth' 
shall give place to the tranquility of age I shall behold, as the re- 
ward of my labors a numerous company of mutes restored to their 
friends, and to society with minds educated so as to appreciate the 
privileges of citizenship. I thank you, gentlemen, for the assisr 
tance and encouragement you have given me during the past year. 
May it be permitted us here to behold all the smiles of Provi- 



f 



4uee,ih6 UbemKtj of the Stete, and the indutiy of faithfal of-' 

flcen can itecomplish for the unfortunate mute. 

Beepectfallj submitted^ 

LOUISE. JENKINS, 

Principal. 
Inymuiio if won thk Dkav and Duhb, ) 
Dauetak, December 26tfa, 18M. ) 

▲OXnrOWLBDOXKBaiTS* 

If an J thanks are due H. P. Peet, L. L. D., the President of th« 
Kew York Institution, for his aid in procuring slates from Enrope, 
and other services so valuable to me in this new enterprise. Also 
to H. N. Hubbell, Esq., former superiutendent of the Ohio Insti- 
tutiouy for his selection of a number of books for the library of th^ 
institution. The superintendent of the Milwaukee and Mississippi 
railroad, deserves especial notice for granting free paesage over the 
road of m jself and pupils. To the gentlemen connected with the 
public press of Wisconsin, I woald express mj gratitude for the 
interest they have manifested towards the establishment of the in- 
stitution. Thej gratuitously inserted numerons articles in their 
papers, calling the attention of the public to its importance. Thej 
freely inserted articles prepared by myself in the most conspicneus 
colamns of their journals. Their reward must be in the pleasant 
eonscionsness that they have shared in the honor of ushering into 
life a most noble institution, and that there are now pupils making 
advancement in knowledge who otherwise would be groping in 
ignorance. The editors of the Argus and Democrat, Journal, of 
Madison ; of the Milwaukee Sentinel, of tbe Morning News, of the 
Wisconsin, of Milwaukee ; of the — — of Janesville ; Chron- 
etype, of Waukesha, and the Sural New York, of Rochester, N. 
Y., have gratuitously forwarded their papers to tbe instituticm. 
These journals are of great value, for many articles in them. are 
communicated to the younger pupils in signs by their instructors^ 
while those of the pupils who are more advanced take great in- 
terest in reading the current events. A continuance of the above 
journals, and those of other editors, is respectfully solicited. 



u 



LIST OF PUPILS DURmO THE YEAB. 



yam^ 


Town, 


Ooumiy, 


Daane Arnold, 


Oak Grove, 


Dodge. 


Henry L. Binghami 


Koshkonong, 


Jefferson. 


Amelia Bishop, 


Janesville, 


Bock. 


Mary Bennett, 


Waukesha, 


Waukesha. 


Thomas Clarkson, 


Springfield, 


Dane. 


Austin Churchill, 


Waukesha, 


Waukesha. 


Ariadoa F.Cheesebro, Darien, 


Walworth. 


Jamas A. Dvdley, 


« 


t( 


FhiJip S.EDglehardt, Mllwaakee, 


MUwattkee. 


Washington Farrer^ 


Summerville, 


Bock. 


Sarah Fitzgerald, 


Milwaukee, 


Milwaukee. 


Setoey Hews» 


Eagle,] 


Waukesha. 


Charles Hews, 


a 


(C 


Abram Hews, 




cc 


Helen Hews, 


ti 


(4 


Wm. L. Helmer, 


Hartford, 


Wasfaingtoiu 


Thomas Jones, 


Geneeee, 


Waukesha. 


Clarissa B. Kingman 


, Dell Prairie, 


Adams. 


!|[ordecai Lowe, 


La Fayette, 


Walworth. 


Annie Lever, 


Maustown, 


Adama. 


Patrick Noland, 


Aran, 


McHenry, DL 


John O'Donnell, 


Milwaukee, 


Milwaukee. 


Matthew O'Niel, 


n 


u 


Albert Pierce, 


La Fayette, 


Walwortti. 


John Bolfe, 


Brooklyn, 


Green. 


Mary Shanb, 


Oshkosh, 


Winnebago. 


John U. Richards, 


Delevan, 


Walworth. 


James Taylor, 


Mt. Pleasant, 


Baeine. 


George Lay lor. 


a 


C( 


fisrah Taylor, 


a 


u 


Harvey Taylor, 


Iron Bidge, 


Dodge. 


Whole number of puinls daring the 


year, 



SI. 



r^ 



45 



Esopenditures and receipts of the Deaf and Dumb Inetitute^ far 

the year^ 1861 : 

ProyisionSy ... 
Bed clothing and incidentals, - 
Salaries of officers, 
Famitore, ... 
Labor, .... 
Fuel, - - - . 

Medical gervices and medichie, 
£k>oks for library, and atationeiy, 
!&ent of a hired house, - 
Postags, . . . 

^rick oven, fixtures and repairs, 
Alates from Europe^ 
Exhibition expenses, - 



dash received, 



- 


$989 07 


- 


806 89 




826 68 




767 67 




200 90 




77 60 




46 5d 




68 98 




67 70 




8 80 




130 47 




181 38 




138 64 




|8,f5l 06 


* ill 


• V74M 



$576 70 



46 



BEGULATIONS 



OF TH1B WISCONSIN INSnTDTION FOB THE DEAF AND DUMB ; AD0PTE9 BF 
TQE TRUSTEES, APBIL 10, 1854. 

1. The regular meeting of the Board of Trasteee, shall be held 
on the second Wednesday of December and the second Wednes- 
flaj of June, of each year. 

2. At the regular meeting in December, the trustees will ap- 
point one of their number president, and a secretary. 

8. The president will preside at the meetings; call special 
meetings at the request of two members of the board or the s«- 
perintendent, and sign all orders on the treasurer. 

4. The secretary will keep an accurate account of all pr^ 
ceedings of the board, which, when approved, shall be signed by 
himself and the president. 

6. In the absence ot the president or secretary, their placet 
ahaH be filled hjpro tempore appointments. And in the absenoa 
•f tfaa president, two trustees may call a meeting. 

6. A quorum of the trustees at any regular or special meetiuj^ 
shall have power to elect any officer of this institution in case of 
racancy, resignation or removal from office. 



r 



47 



OFFICERS OF THE INSTTTOTION- 

1. The officers of the institution shall oonsist of a prineipali 
profes^rs, steward, ph jtician and matron. 

S. They shall be elected hj the board of trustees, snd shall 
hold office during good behavior and cotnpetencj to discharge the 
datiea of their several offices. 

S. The principal shall have power to nominate indiridaaU fmr 
pr<^easors. 

. 4. It shall require six of the trustees to displace an officer of 
the institiition dnriiig his term ; and any officer leaving die insti- 
tntion withont the consent of the board of trusteca during sucii 
MEzn, shali forfeit one quarter's salary. • 

5. Any individual nominated as professor, shall before hi# 
election by the board of trustees, signify' hia intention in wrilfog 
of making the buaiaesa of teaehing the deaf aai dumb, hia pro- 
fession for life. 

TUB PRIWOIPAL. 

1. The Principal shall be the executive head of the InstitutioB| 
and the organ of communication with the subordinate depart^ 
ments. 

3. He shall reside in the Institution, and have the general di- 
rection aud control of all its concerns, with tl)e counsel and advice 
of the executive committee. He shall have the power to make 
such regulations of internal police as he may deem most condu* 
cive to the order, efficiency, and practical usefulness of the system 
of government and instruction, and all orders emanating from him 
are to be implicitly obeyed by those who shall be engaged as in- 
structors or professors of the institution, or for the discharge of 
any of the various duties connected with its immediate manage- 
ment. It being understood ,that he is subject, of course, to the 
jet higher power of the Board, which may, at its discretion, modi- 
fy or repeal any regulation which may be made under the provi- 
sions of this bylaw. 



48 

3. He shall implicitly obey all orders and instractions of the 
Board ; and carry ont, in good faith, any system of operations 
IrMch they may direct. 

4. He shall hire, assign the duties, direet, so far as he may deem 
proper^ and dismiss, ^hen he may consider it necessary, all per- 
flbns, not officers, whom it may be requisite to employ. 

5. No subordinate officer shall contrarene, or int^ere, in the 
alij^teal degree^ with directioita gi^en at any time by the superin- 
tendent to the pupils, or to the persons by him employed ; bttl oa 
tiie contrary, they are to give their efficient countenance and flip- 
port t4> all such dkectiona, and report to him any neglect or act ef 
disDbe^Ueoee. 

6. The superintendent shall teach tibe pnpih, and r^vke lh# 
{HUrsoni etoployed, to respect and obey the ofliet officexai in lh« 
feoper disciiaoge e£ thdir appropriate ^duties. 

t 7» Hia l^ovdrniaml «yf the pupilsy thongk firm and nniif«Temi|g 
shall be mild and parental. 

8. He shall teach the pupils to act Irom principle, and not from 
fear. He ahall inculcate respect, and govern them, a$ mudi aa 
possible, by the influence at moral suasion. 

9. He shall superintend and direct the intellectual, tnoral, and 
religious instruction of the pupils. 

10. He shall pay especial attention^to the health and comfort of 
tbe pupils. And wlien the boys are engaged in labor, he shall 
entrust them to some responsible person connected with the insti- 
tution. . 

11. tn his management of the finances, he shall practice the- 
most rigid economy, consistent with the comfort of the pupils, 
aad the prosperity of the institution. 

12. He shall, from time to time, communicate to the trustees 
such information as he may think necessary, or as they may re- 
quire, in regard to the operation of the institution, and tKe man- 
ner in which the yaiious officers perform their duties. 

1^. He shall frequently inspect all parts of the establnhmeat,. 
and take the most efficient, or even stringent measures for on* 



49 

forcing neatness, order, and regalaritj in all depattftfinta. AmT 
it ghaU ji^ hia duty imm^diatefy to dischat ge anj peiaon employed 
yfiio rimH t9f!d%T ine£Sx;iwt» neglect allotted dnttes, or . manifest a 
spirit of iDsnbordjaMioD. 

li. H9 A4II ^W ^ ^gi^ter of pnfHla, and snch other books aa 
Wy^'be def^fted.bf tl^ ^r^o^rp, i« .raob jform as tbej majr 

. l$^,ft ^1^ be bifl 414?" ^ Alst^ ajtl oieetfags «f; tha.Boaid «ff 
Tmstees; aDdJt^«(>)^.^pf)i^ jaf»9o;9^^ under daacMrieik 

?yfciy ay» t s, ^ , . 

:jL. 11)0 Profj^ssm sball inatnif^ the popili idnder t)^e dh^aodon of 
the^llTinci^l; perform in rotatio^ tl^e dotj of saperriBioa orer 
the male pupils^ uming the hours of. relaxsjtion and study oat of. 
schpoj i a^nd Uie yifiitorsi ap,d perform snob other duties consieot* 
ed with t!ia de^jiitment of iastmctipn^ the Ubrpiry land, cabiaeti aa. 
the principal may, from time to time, delogil^ to them*. 

S. Those, of them who reside at the Inatitutigp, and those who 
are entitled to the privll^e of dinisg there, shall take their meals 
at the same hours, and at the same table in the diniog-room with 
the family. 

S. During the time allotted to study out of school, they shall see 
that the boys learn the lessons assigned them, and preserve the 
same order as in the school rooms. 

4. Boring the hours approj^riated to recreation, the Teacher in 
charge c^ the boys sball encourage them to take active exercise, 
unAtt'hb supervision. He shall be responsible for their safety and 
Ofdetly eittduct while under his supervision, and shall restrain 
them li^m vi^ng all places allotted to the use of the girls, or 
wM^ »ay l>e forbidden them by'th6 superintendent. 

5. ^Tbey shall take such part in the religious instruction of the 
pupils as may be assigned them by the superintendent. 

9k Xbey shall» at all times, ^ve their efficient aappott to the 
othiereAcfaraaf the inetitiitioD, by xacoloatlng ipthemincis of tiieir 
respective classes proper principles of good order and obedience ; 
7 



80 

tmd they Bhall never intimate to them matten to the discredit of 
tmy of&mr of the aeyhim. 

7. Tbey ehall carefully abstain from all interference wiih the 
dnliee of other officers ; and, at no time, nse any hnt conrteons 
and respectfnl language in their intercoarae witii tiiem. 

8. Iliey are to regard these rales as stating only a few tatntmg 
Ab nnnieiH>BS dnties which they are expected to perfbrm ; sad sr^ 
always to manifest their dcTotion to the mterest of the institirtioxi 
by cheerfolly performing any ether di^es wluch cirenmslaaoaa, 
or the dnreetions of the saperintendent, may leqiiire. 

IBS SRWAXD, 

1. The Steward, in addition to the dnties prescribed by law, shall 
act, whien required, as the derk of the superintendent ; and, nndar 
his direction, he shall perform the following dnties : 

2« He shall purchase such articles of prorisions as may be ne-. 
cessary for the household, and such other things for the institatioa 
as the principal shall direct 

8. He shall see that, daring the hours appropriated to labor 
the boys are industriously employed ; and to secure this end, he 
shall labor with them. 

4. He shall see that the cellars, and such portions of the pare- 
ments and grounds as may be committed to his charge, are kept in 
the most perfect order. 

I. He shall have especial charge of the furnaces and fires aboat 
the establishment. He shall, before retiring to rest each nighti 
pass through the cellars aud other parts, except the portion occa- 
pied by females, where there may have been firsjS or lights^ msA 
see that all is safe, and the doors and windows secured. And he 
may, on no account, entrust the performance of this duty to anoth- 
er person, unless he previously, in each case, obtain the consent 
of the Superintendent. 

6. He shall attend to the purchsse of such articles of proria* 
ions as may be brought to the Institution for sale. And, tiiat h# 



5i 

99117 f>^ ^wd at mjJimPj b« iMipM«l» U» whuMbonii mtrhed 
upon a slate in tlie ^09 of th^.lMliteturti. 

8. fle ihall keep a book QmtoiiuAg a regolat aownsk of dl 
looniee received and expended bj hjaOf with rcmolMn A>r tlie eaote. 

8. He shall, at the regular meetings of the Board «f Tnv-. 
t^, present an abstnict of all oUsses of eoEp^sditam. 

9. He shall see that the bejs keep Adr dottea pwpBily «r* 
ranged in th^eir trunks aad drawers. 

10. He shall be responsible for the^safei^ of the hoys, whfle at 
their labpr; and vhili^ goi^f to and retaming freaa the saaie. 

11. He shall see tlMi^ t)re boys me and setisa afe the apfwlnted* 
honrs ; and,, with fiileen miiuities from the itfaa* of Iheiir reticiiigto 
rest, he shall see that all their lights are extinga(ibed| eaceeptSMk ' 
aa xaay.he naqfrnary in ease M sickncas*: 

19. He shaU not insider the abeve By-Lana aa ^e meapire 9t 
}|is dntias aiid re«|K>aaiViUties, be* ia to lender Umsrii g^Miafif'* * 
nsafal in (6Tpi7irw within biapover. ' 

^ . THS^XfnOK* 

1. The Matrbnahall hure charge <if fbe girib, when not in school, 1 
and also of snch partsief the domestic aitangemenfs as may ^ ' 
asaign^ her by tlie Snperintiiidmt ; and nnder his direction, she 
^will perform the &ibwlDg. dpties : 

2. She will see that, when ont ot sohool, the girls are as much''* 
as possible secluded from the society ^f the male pupils ; and that, 
dnring study honrs^ they learn the lessons assigived them by their 
teacb^rs^ > She will side that the girls are induBtrionsIy employed 
dnring the hours appropriated to labor ; that they make, so £Bir as 
practicable, the clothes for pupils clothed by the Asylum; repur 
their own clothes and those of the male pupils ; and do the ironing 
tor the hmates. 

8. She will, at all times, see that tiie girls take a sufficient 
amoont of healthy exercise and recreation. 

4. She will pay particular attention to the cleanliness of the 
peraonSf and the neat appearance of the girls. 



& fihe^nUtMcli th«m 4iom Muticfittl prittdples of i^elfifnetnent 
peculiar to the female duMMir/ffid ladttrttct them « tb'their 
pQrop6r«b»pottK«aitQ&ali ocMsidm.^ ' / i. 

4L Sbe^iMaei tiwt attpai^i^of'tke^mbiyiinetit are kept hi 
tb^neatestevder. .^ - - -■''<• ^ ' \' ' ' ' 

7. She wili'BHtet, orclmwto be'^ieredrlh '« Tiooktepl for 
tbrt; ptnipM^ a lilt iof tfa% MMMs - of* clotttiog t^elotagiiig to each 
pupil, and see that the same be«ttr«ft>S7< ^eMiN^efi. 
..6. Bh^iviU sfeeihtlt di^wasfaiiig^ aftd'irdtiilig*a>e'<^ in^k neat 
and canW m^iunrr tint Mtttbda M lotttv acn<i Vikt fiie iftlMlnDg 
afte^iiMp^g^^^^aMMtadbf wmei^afefyp^ *' '^^^ 

. »^ fiUB villi(rtie'ifl«Klihej]Mite)ote I^IJaMteliy lA^sett^ adtf * 
eriMiemioa%.iiaiaiv- ■ 'M- *•! . 

10. The Saperintendent swyr,' al His df^er^ob, refeaae ^e-Mat- ' 
np ftwtt the a qparwiai of BTOh>o»ildti# of tfte^jnestl^ affiifrB 
a%k».SMij dtam properv acting ap^athisi pi^intiflW ^tlkt4fat- ioefyx- 
ees in the care of the young laidieaiate moit^A^fMa to the Aky- 
lum. 

11. The Matron shall have sticlr' control over the persons em- 
ployed as tke Sop^Q^Bdeirt Wif deioa naieisaayfa^ the -^irlbiv 
n^c^ of t^e labors assii^edbMii;i)^eiite . •'^ 

.12. After tii^ pupils hav^ i^tiwid'to.itel'afcB^^'tM IbMntt 
will pass through the apartments roedaf^ed.bf the feitiaiaS) aivri| see 
tlxat t)ie buJU4iQg ia ai^fe.&om £iie^ > " 

'1. t^upils may he received a^id dismiBsed only- 1^ thd priitcifial 
and the sanction of the ezecutiye committe, 

d. Every pupil who hasnot been vaccinated.before beipgreofeiy- 
ed in the institution, shall be vaccinated without delaor. 

3. Pupils honorably dismissed from the Institution 9haP ifc^iio^ . 
a certificate signed by the principal. ;■..■' 



ul 



fi9 



lOB THB ADiqBBIOH OF PUPIf^f M. 

1. All tbe Deftf and Dvmb of Ibe Biate, between t!he ages of 
ten and thirty yeavs^ ai<e entitled to an education, witliont dbarge 
iir board or taitlcm, in thie institution, npo^ compBance widi iti 
nleii Me certlfloaile of aiiy lAtd in required for admission. Per- 
mam^ howorref, desirous of placihg a pupil in the school, should 
wnte to the superintendent, informing him of the name, age, resi- 
dence of the mute, the cause, it any, of deafness, &c 'The su^er- 
intendeiit 'will Immediately answer, stating the time when the pu- 
pil 'will bereeett^ Tbk cour^ is, in all casen, recommended^ 
thous^ aone will be refused who coihe at the coxirmencement of 
ib0 session. Applicationsr in behalf of persons of mote or less 
tiuA the ra^iUred age, will be considered l)y the frusteee, wlro re- 
eerreto tfaeniBelvbs t^ ri^ to accept or reject such applicants, 
aaiheymwy deem just and proper. 

2. Pupils from oth^r States are receiired at fhe rate Of one hun- 
dj(ed dollars per annum, for board and Injition^ ) 

Z. The li^r^ of the wnne of lasixMt&on is fiTe yeare ; and, 
that the pupils zx^ become more profi^^epit iu tlpeir 4tadies> tbey 
are allbwed and advised to remain one year more. At tjho end c^, 
'aiz years, the superintendent may select such pupils as he may 
consider would be particmiftr^ benafitind by ooiltinning longer at 
achool ; and, if approved of by the Board of Trustees, they shall 
be permitted to remain an additional y^Blt. 

4. Pupils will be admitfcis^ on the following oon4iti/>iia; 1st 
l!he pupil, well pmvided with clothes, is to be brought .to^the in- 
atitution punctua%) at tha commencement of ec^h (udssie|i,.for the 
peijled of iflive jepsi uzUees detained at home by his cor h^sr own 
sickness. 2d. The pupil is to remain in the school until the last 
Wednesday in July, of each yea^. 8d. Ko parent or guardian 
ahall be^fdJoifed,|q takea;p9iBl out of the school, witfurnVtlie con- 
sent of the b9f^fll-fljf.tzp|t0fB.r 



5. It is the intention of the trasteeSj to render the institation 
8elf<npporting, bo far as praitibable^ and that every pnpil, on 
leaving its walls, shall be so proficient in some useful occapation 
or trade, as to be able to procure a livelihood, without reliance on 
•the charities x)f .others. Ii^ .aecQrdanoe T^tt^ "thni- design, ill .the 
scholars, will be required to labqra pqurtiou (oi ead» daj^, the gixk 
in performipg the lighter .kinds of hoQse ^ork^ and iftTarioBS 
kinds of needle wof];, as plain sewing, ofuaiaental woil^, draaa 
m^ing, or miUinery, Ac; a^d the'bcgrs at Yaiiope tnidesithft 
necessary work about the asylum, and, the oaUiratiim of tbo &ns 
and garden. 

6. The aimu^l sessions of tbe school oontinue ten iisonths, oom- 
xnencing on the first Wednesday in September, a^ oloeing on the 
last Wednesday in June. Every pupil is %o come prempdy^ oa 
or before the first day of the sessKOQ, and. is to remain until &e 
last day of the aaip^. The only exoeptfoos alio wed^ are eases of 
sickness, or where leave, of abs^oe in writisig has been granliBdy 
either by the principal, or in case of the absence of the pirlnoipal, 
the professor to whom he Iw delegfited the pdwer*. 

7. No pupil, unless under extraordinary: circumstances, can be 
r^oeived at any othier time than the oommencennent of Ae sraaion. 

9. Parents and guardians ate required to flrrnish annually to 
elEU^h pupil, the following supply of clothing : 

FOR THE MALE PUPItB. 

» 

* B Ooats, ' ' * ' 5 Pairs of Socks, 

Q Vestsi * • i Pair of Boots,* ' 

2 'Pair of Pantaloons, • 2 Pairs of Shoes, 

Shirts, ' 2 Hats, cJ!r 1 ttat and 1 Cspw 

9 Ooati^ 2:Plih-s of PaatelooiiSp. 

2 Vests, 1 Pia«i4ekf8itt. 



' 55 

2 Ivorj ComhBy 2 Pair Saspenders. 

2 Pair of Wooden Oombs, 2 Pocket-handkerohiefB. 

FOR THE FEMALE PUPILS. 

3 or 4 Oalico DresseSy 2 Pair of Sammer Stookings, 
1 Woolen or Worsted Dress, 9 Pair of Winter Stockings, 

1 Sunday and 1 Sua Bonnet, 2 Night Gbwns, 

2 Pocket-handkerchiefs, 8 Pair of Shoes, 

2 or 3 changes of Underclothing. 

ADDrnONAL ABTIOLIH. 

1 Shawl, 2 Hair Combs, 

1 Coarse and 2.l7or7 Combs. 

In addition to the above outfit, a sum of not less than $3 is to be 
deposited with the superintendent for incidental expenses, repair 
of shoes, &c. ; any part of which remainiag unexpended will be 
returned at tl^e close of the session. 

It is not intended that the clothing should be of an expensive 
kind. For boys' winter apparel, plain home-made cloth is suffi- 
ciently good. For summer wear, country-linen will answer for 
pants, with some kind of dark goods or prints for coats and* vests. 
Girls' calico dresses may be made of a cheap article, which will not 
fade ; and while for older girls, at least, one pair of morocco shoes 
should be furnished, one or both the other pair should be of good 
calfskin. On all articles of clothing which it is possible to mark, 
the full name of the pupil should be written with indelible ink. 
Each pupil should be supplied with a trunk or a chest 

10. Those persons bringing pupils to, or taking them away, can- 
not be furnished with board, lodging, or horse-keeping at the 
asylum. . 



56 

11. All bnsineBS letters, or letters of inquiry in regard to pupils 
in the asjlam, or those whom it m§j be designed to place there, 
should be addressed to 

LOUIS H. JENKINS, 

Principal of the Deaf and Domb Institution, 

Delevan, Wisconsin. 



COJftFQSmOHfi OF THE PUPILB. 



I 

Hr. Putnam Ured in Oonnecticnt Hr. P. called hie negnx 
iRiey took bis gun. They went into the woods. They caUed hii 
dog. Hie dog came to them. They send dog to smell on th^ 
inow after tracks. They followed the dog. The dog went to the 
^on. They looked in the den* Mr. P. sent negro to go into thf 
den. But the negro was afraid. Mr. P. tied rope iround leg. 2b. 
jp. took his candles in die hand. Mr. P. told negro to hold rope. 
Mr. P. took his candles, club and gun. Mr. P. went into the dei^ 
Mr. P. looked at the red eyes of the wolf which growled* The 
negro hauled him out of the den. Mr. P. told negro he made a 
mistake. Mr. P. went into the den. Mr. P. looked at the wolf 
and red eyes. Mr. P. shot at wolfs forehead. The wolf was killed. 
The negro hauled him out of the den. Mr. P. put the gun up the 
tree. Mr. P. went into the den. Mr. P. looked for the wolf. Mr- 
P. held it The negro hauled him out of the den. Mr. P. put it 
on the ground. They looked at the n^w wolf's sharp teeth. They 
took it. lliey carried it to the house. They put it on the floor. 
Hr. P. caBedhfawifeandawoman. ^She looked at the large. 



Some years ago a few white men liveS in Virginia. An Indian 
fiteiteir fbr the dfeer in the woods. ' ffe was very tired. He saw i^ 



58 

hoiue and be went into the house. He met a man, aad die Indi- 
an asked for some bread and water. The selfish man did not give 
some bread and water to him. He told him begone. The Indian 
was Tory sony. The'Indian walked seme mtlee, and he arriyed 
at his hnt He was yerj hungry to eat bread and drink water. 
Some years afterward the man went the woods, and when the snn 
set the man lost his way in the woods, and he looked for his house, 
but he came to the same hut He asked the Indian to lethimatay 
in hid hut The Indian knew him. The man did not know him. 
They slept in his hut till sunrise. They ate some food breakfast- 
The man told the Indian he lost his house. The Indian knew it, 
and he led him to his house. The Indian asked it, he knew the 
Indian. The man was ashamed. He was selfish. The Indian 
told him that if any Indians came and they ask him, mnat giTS 
some bread and water to ihem. The Indian was a good and kind 
Indian. 



ABOirr MAN AlfD PRAIKIS WOLF. 

A man lived in Texa^^ He. . rode a horse into Jthe woods; Ba 
travelled through the woods. He heard a wolf hawl l^adiy. H# 
was afraid to ride throngh the prairie which was on fire. He 
covered the horse with a blanket He rode him through the prai- 
rie on fire. The wolf did not chase the horse. The wolf ran in 
the prairie on fire till he was dead. The man rode the horse out 
of the prairie on fire. It hurt him very severely. The man got 
off the horse's baoic^ He dlseo^vieTed that the sfcin was burnt off. 
He w^ tl^irsty and hungry. He heard the wplves howl loudly*^ — 
The man rode the horse fast The wolves ran and chased. £he 
horse and he stopped bis horse and tied him with the r^ns round 



8» 

ft tree. Be climbed np the tree. He stood on the limbs of tKii 
tree. He atiot some woiyes. He could not kill all, and the^ de- 
stroyed the horse. The wolves could not c^imb np it. They were 
hungry. They watched him on the tree. They watched the man 
one day and night. They heard the buffalo run through ihe 
woods. They left and ran away. The man climbed down the 
tree. He cut down small trees and made them to stand round the 
ground. He made the fire to destroy the trees. The man had to 
eat the dead wolf but the wolves could not enter the fire. They 
dispersed through the woods. The man walked to his house. He 
told his wife and people about the story. The people and the wife 
laughed at the story. The ^lan was aqrry for his dead horse. The 
horse ^as worth 100 dollars. 



MMQUT iOiUai MK^^» - .' f •■ 

Miss Helen Hews had been at school one and half years. She 
tried to study her lessons, then she improve fast l«adt racatioh 
we took leare'of sdiool and -^ent* home. ' Miss Hews, Kastei* 
Hews and Miss Heten Hews took leave of sclioor aid went home! 
ftey Were very 'glad' to see iheir parentsj' brothers and slsterst 
Lm August 'MiSB HeleA Hews took 'lear^ dfhom^itid wad walk-' 
iiig en tbe itilroad. Thelbcomotfte joiiied'toefghtee^ car^ came 
Mdfad hei* whfle she was walking on' the ' raihroad. It could not 
Hopf, iind the cow Catcher threw her down. Itran iawajr. Hasteir 
Bbw9 saw her lying on the ground ne^t the raihroad* ' He was 
very %ftt6A and soon ran hom^. He told his parents, brothers and( 
ifiters about Hiss Helen Hews, vrho was now maiigled and laid 
en tte fpmnA near the rtdlroad. They were very sorty, and ran 
lo her sB^d carried her home. Ptikr^nts and Doctors watched her, 



60 

who was rery much hurt She ooold not get better, and she died. 
The parents and some people felt|ind wept for her. , They pat her 
in a coffin and carried it to the grarel Thej. put it io the groond 
and filled the grave. Kr. Jenkins explained to the deaf and dumb 
pnpils aboat her who was dead. They felt sad. 



^ AfiOTJTKOAfi. 

The people were wicked and oonld not love God, bnt Noah was 
verx good and loved him. Ood loved Koah and blessed him. — 
He told Noah that the people were wicked and would destroy 
them. God told Noah to build a new ark, for he would cause the 
clouds to rain forty days. Noah obeyed and believed God. He 
went to the wicked people and preached to them about the bible^ 
but they could not love and obey God, and would laugh at him. 
Noah was very sorry, and chose some hired men to build the new 
BxK They built it in twenty years; and the wicked p^pleianghed 
at Noah as being foolish* He was patient and built it in twea^ 
yearsk Noah sent two kinds of beasts to go into the ark, and Noah 
and his family went into the ark* God pamsd the door to shot. 
The wicked pepple could not enter i^ GK>d was aqgij and caused 
the clouds to rain forty years. Thej were veiy aifaaid of it moi^ 
ing for forty years. ^Riey aeceiMled uptbe moimtains, bat it in* 
creased and covered the moimtains with water. Thsor wera 
^wned, and it had vained forty jeara. Noah i^nd his hmij wena 
yery hi^py and loved Gk>d, because Grod took care of ih#m ia tlN 
ark that could not drown i|x. the fwater^ The water abatfd(d(XWA W 
thergronnd. Th^ went^out of the ark^ and tt|e supi sbina on tha^ 
worlds which was dry again. Noah, and ^s lami^ weat oat of 
the -ark^ aijid the two kinds of baasta went out of the lyrk, aQ4 



61 

plajed with each other. Thej made an altar with stones, and 
caught the little lamb and put it on the stone. Noah sacrificed it 
to God, and thej thanked God, then he blessed them. They were 
very happy, for it was a pleasant day. The family had manj 
children, and the world increased in people. Thej most lore and 
obey Qod. Koah and his family were pions. 



REPORT 



OV THK 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



OF THB 



WISCOIfSII mSTITUTION, 



FOB THS 



EDJOTUN OF THB BLIND, 

DECEMBER 31, 1854. 



MADISON: 

mUAH BlOWir, STATI notoM. 
1865. 



T;in-!;i)[ 






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?. . I J ^ . 



I -I /'.■r'' 'T'::;..n 






OFFICERS 



09 OBB WIBOOHBIN Ulirrn'UTXOH VOB THS JSOVOATIOV OF ISB BLIN0. 



A. HYATT SUlTRy President. 
LYMAN J. BAEROWS, Seoretary. 
J. BODWELL DOE, TVecmr&r. 



TRUSTEES: 

SB7. HIRAM TOOTB, J. BODWELL DOB| 

A. HTATT SIIIIH9 ^. 7. WnXABDi 

IRA lOLTnCORB, J. D.BEZFOBD. 



VUiiing Physician — ^Locan J. Babbowb, M. D. 
Superintendent — 0. B. Woodbott. 
Matron — Mrs, 0. B. WooDRuinr. 
Ifusio Teacher— TJLbb. Eliza. Walls. 
Assistant Teacher-^'ULaa Sarah Elusworth. 



i 



fiEPOKTaFIHETIUSTEES: 



4\* Hk BU6ttiMttdT, "W^ 

/(h,9 SoW^raf Tr^^i^es of.th« W^jK^main lodtUpte for tb? cf^Doa- 

Itiie fift'h jear-Qff flie Institution commenced on'tfie^liBt'Mbnaay 
olj Octot)er iHjBt. t^ie preseAt number of pupils In atfeaSAfrce' »• 
si^reen^'be|iig an increase ot t^i^e over itie number 'in oiirf Iktt 
Bnnnal report Their names, ages, residence, place if naK'^Hj, 
' nnmber'of je'ara bti^dhc^d^, and date of aidmlssfon, wilt be Ibd/nd 
in tLe report of ISr. 0. &' Woodrufl", Superintendent, #liidi is 
herewith Bubmitted. ■ - '- r 

'Itdcr'two yoars experfent^'welHi^^ bad Id i4ie QtMhtMiki and 
^tfdicfiift depaftmehti IMh tnale and ^^Miato, siei^rM^Mil- ta 
strengthen our conyictiona ofits {yi^ent add fnmp^p^ 'ad^wHa^ 

'^Keatoib^^ptafiUsiatidiotbsinBtitiitMHi. £i^thtB ima}|B ai^ this 
idepartmsiit, ire ih>ald naspeolftilly ^aUjonr aUeQtiaii to, tlw, re- 

^poft isf tto' Sofierittftfadssit 

Tb^ Bdm of YhfHy five htitidred A'JUHLn waa appropitetsd for 
'£be toi)p^<]^tof 'the InstUuti^OD fur the year oomtnen^srg Oetiber 
"lit, iSlH; and f6r Che purchase at a piaiio for the use of fbe f^upila. 
S/^he nii'ist k'igid sj'sfem of eeofiomy, the triiitieeB will ba enabled 
to keep triihin ihese liinttB. 



For a statement of the names of the persons in whose favor or- 
ders have been drawn on the Treasurer of the Institntiony bj or- 
der of the Board of Trustees, for the year ending December Slafc. 
1854 ; for what the same were drawn, and the several amounta 
thereof, we ])aH)fo^i^}7^ refe^ y^ ta t^e report ^of . the Treasurer^ 
marked, 'A^^wiciiiilie^ewith' submitted: ' ' 

The outstanding accounts against the institute, not yet audited 
by the Board of Trustees, andthe amount of salary due the Su- 
perintendent, teacl^ers and matron, for the quarter ending Decem- 
ber Slst, 1854, will b^ m/^b^ the ^ippqy;^ be fdr^^wn; j^^m.^iie 
State Treasurer on the first day of January, 1855, under the ap* 
propriation made by ihe legislature at its last seddion. 

^ ' ^e numbed of pu^pils, as'will be seen above, has^'licilerated from 

" thirteen to' sisteen since our last knnual report, which' is the^'fbll 

number the present institute building can accommodate ; and in 

fact more, for with our present nmnber we are compelled to use a 

s .JRftTttPf the work-fihop as a dormitory. To support and prcjperly 

.'l i^atrpiQt thi^ increased number of pupils during t&e year com- 

.J ^eipicing Oct. lat, 1855, ^n appropriation of not lees than Four 

. Ihp^G^nd. dollars, will be requisite. This sum the trustees hope 

j. ;^^ b^ sufficiejit to meet the ordinary expenses of the institution^ 

.^ i^d to, purchase some necessary fiiruituTe, fgid school-room and 

work-shop apparatus^ 

i - Atlibelastm^etiigof the legis^^tux^^ the liberal sum pfTwel^ 
..TkiMsaad dollars wi^lfifuropriatedyif^r the construction of | the 
. OiiitnU maiu.buil4i^g9fthejaultiit^ . -i 

The Board cft Trustees flnditi^ after irep^atad tria^ that it ^ras 

tlifflcultto makea satisfaoteryco(ntKfM!t fdrdie erecticm o£ the 

building, inasmuch as none of the funds appropriated for that pur- 

potooould bexealizeipntil aftea: th# &vaj^ di^y.of Jauuaiy .nezt» 

. determifiied.tOrOammencQ the work.themselyes, i^d prosecijLjfe^itaft 

.c fiur as possible the present season.. They appointed two of their 

' lilimber a building 'Commi^te, and would refer to their repprt 

hereto attached, marked, B., for the result.of their labors. , . 



ISbr rdSarence to the act of the legiflfitiure, U will be seen that the 
at>prppnation was made for the pnil>0Be of QonstmctiQi? thj9 center 
nuun baD4inff. but the bnildmg cop^nittee became saUsned apon 
after entering upon liie disch^r^e of their datiee^ th^t.a proper re- 
gard for the stability of the whole structure, and judicious econo* 
mj, required tnat the east wing sliotdd go up along with the main 
bnildia^.' -^AiefiloBrd ^f Trustees adopting the suggestions of the 
IvaadbEig epint9ilMt^)A<l'hM«til7/^ in their yiews, deter* 

mined to adopt the plan propose4^1;>y, Ijb^i cp^pmpt^^. | l^e^^ctfn- 
mittee's reasons are fallj given in their report 

The expense of the completion of the whole building will, of 
course, exceed the amount of the appropriation made for the spe- 
cific object of constructing only the main center building, and in- 
asmuch as the rapidly increasing necessities of the institution 
growing out of the increase of pupils, cannot be met until further 
accommodations are furnished, the Board of Trustees feel con- 
atandned to respectfully, but earnestly, ask that an appropriation of 
Five Thousand dollars be made by the legislature at its coming 
session, for the purpose of completing the building now in process 
of erection. That sum the Board hope will be sufficient with 
what remains of the appropriation of the last legislature to ftdly 
^eomplete the work they have undertaken. 

FeeliDg that this is an institution in which the state at large is 
interested, and that its wants cannot be fully understood, nor the 
truth be known, whether the Board are wisely expending the 
money entrusted to them, without the personal oversight of the 
people or their servants, we would cordially invite a committee 
firom the legislature, to visit the institution the coming session at 
' auch time as may seein to them most convenient, and personally ex- 
amine the building and the management of the institution. 

The institute for the blind has now been established nearly 
five years, and under the merciful care of Divine Providence, con- 
tinues to prosper. 

In dofliDg this report the trustees take pleasure in recording 



..__J 



8 

^ {heir tef timoD^ to ihe ^(ftelity and incn^asln^ energj^ oTti^eBiipet^ 
intendment in the discharge of the yarions puties awgne^ ^mn ;. 
also, to the e^cellencj of ajt the offiqers. connected with the man- 
ageikieii^ of^^e "^interior itfairs^^^f^the instiiation. 

, , , . . , ,B|!fj^p§ctful^, aubmitte^. 

. \ " ' :A.tUVJiTfmTI!E^. 

"liTKAN J. BABadwB, Si<tretor3r. i - -' • ' 
JaneBville, Dec 81| 1854. 






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Id accouDt with, J. £di]i«m& Dofk,Q'reaftol»r \ \'us 

, Jl?u Bumnoe due Treasurer as per Ual wpoft , , , ,» • ' ' ? ►** 

^jj^ 4p2 Caehpaid 8. 0. SpauWing, rej)airing[^clf)ck ; ., r, , J.*' 

pS do Jeaee Miles, wooil ' '' ' '_\* ' ' \ \. ,',' ;|' W, 00 

R HiH UacksmiiWng !' ' ^ ' [^ , .^ "'. "; , l.OS 

Oln, caitmfjr wood j ■ • i ^ 

George Miitimore^ ^J'^.fJJ ?^ .^^f'T^T'* ; */ r l^^, ^^ 

Jane Milrimore, salnrj aa roa^>ii , , ^3 88 

Domthy Ellick,^ houae work ' u . .. ^ j . ?. ^5 

Coolej & Babc()ck, mercli,apdis^ ^ . 1^2 ?9 

O W NoKoij.^i^ies \ ' , !B4' •^ 

J. A. Tarner. broom clamps JP 48 

Lyroati J. Birrowi, med servkm i?.2«^ 

' ,v^ -li 7:.:i. .,vTr >/ .. .1 ♦ -J- A* 

Jaekman A Smlth,>«^r^ . , , . ^4|**^ 

R. B. Tretft,^M. d miyl'servi^,^^' ' ' ' V 1^.50 

Jackman ^ SiQith, floijir, ^ ]14 75 

C. 0. Gillftt, groceries,' . . ; , \ ^M'' 

8, 0. SpauMing, ciockj, j, . * ' ! 1.60 

Aldeo dc Holt, a^lvertViri, ' ^ ^OO* 

Aael Baxter, repain'Dg obiopney^ . r u . 4.0(r 

Levi Moaea, furailure ' ^ ?& 



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Gaah pud J. IL Biker« ropairing hanaasy 

John Tompkioaon, blaokamitluDf , 
Wood Sc Moore^ lirery, 
Doe A Cuoley, meroliaDdiie 
A. St John, proviffiona, 
A St J^D,|p((:|ri^iii| j ^] / 
QeorgeMiltimora, salary as steward, in Ml 
Jane Miltimore, salary as matron, 
J. Horton, wages hired man, 
Angeline Mikkel, house work, 
Rachel Mikkel, honse work, 
Mrs. L. Walls, salary as teaeher. 
Miss M. A. Weed^ fakry as teacher, 
C. B. Woodm£^ salary as sa|>erintendent, 
^' C;1^. Wbodntf^ c6ixtlng«nittotpei^ 
' i'H«4.G.Jkairiii;:tneit, 

H. S. Woodnxfl^ repairing hamesa, 
H. Rice db son, groceries, 
0. B. Woodrttfr, broom com, 
J. F. Wiiliard, pfofisions 
R H. Strong, postage, 
R L. Roberts, proTistooa, 
Hant, provisions, 
West S: Doolittle; glanng, 
Langden i Clow, hay, 
Doraey & Ppttinger, tiivery,' 
J. Allen, 20 cords wood/' 
Charles Colby, 80 cords wood, 
Jane A. Woodmffi salary aJs toaironl 
Trask db Howland, liVery, ' " 
Trask A Howland, livery' 
George W. Taylor, broom handles, 
A. S. Dodge, interest on note, 
J. B. Doe, interest on note, 
Wm. Tniesdell, flour, 
James Sutherland, stationery, 
J. H. Budd, ^castings, &c^^ 



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E. J. FentoB, llirwy, • f- .-:,.-. ' > , • •• ri !., 

0. B. Woodnifl(«(ttthig«iit.iQipiUN% 
John W.,ttiW4{iii9W4 ^ .1 > . ' 

C. B, Woodniff; type, ' ^' » 

O. W. Taylor, broom handles, 
J. F. WiUard, 29 loqi^a.wood, 
Q«^,Kqrtpn,gvfloerK ,., .j -j[.9a-i— 1 
. QaiiiivA fiUwryor, gKMp^fi, , . j /u .... ' 

.a W.Wa^rufl;hi|', ,. . : .. \[ ; < . . i. 

R. Hill, blacfamithii^,. - y. ,.; 

^poretwr^t e^cpeoi^jw of - <^dfe^tc^l|I•di«9^% ^ v »'b 

J. Pond, broom-corn, 

Wm. Tmesdell, flour, 

0. B. Woodruff hay, &c^ 

Mn. 0. B. Woodraff, salary as matron, 

Secretary, aerrioei^ 

Secretary, aerricaB, 

£. H. Strong, postage^ 

P. A. Pierce^ proTiaioni, 

H. Rice & Son, groceries 

E. L. Roberts interest on note^ 

J B. Doe^ expenses to Madison, 

J. R. EatoD, gbizingy 

J.F.WilIard,oat8,<bc., 

Insurance, 

J. Ponnd, provisions, 

John F. Rague^ speciflcations^ 4e., 

Jed Rook, moviog work-shop, 

Korwegian, cutting wood, 

E. H. Strong, postage^ 

J. F. Wiilard, oats, 

Joseph HortoD, wagee— hired man. 



1S:00 
11^35 

Oft. 00 

4«:o0 

8 00 
20 86 
60 00 
^iW 

6 2T 

9 00 
88 00 

8 75 

6 00 

50 76 

87 86 

16 00 

19 27 
84 00 
10 OO 

6 00 
8 66 

15 00 
26 76 
12 66 
10 00 

1 00 
14 00 
80 00 

7 81 

20 00 
45 00 

8 6S 

2 66 
6 00 

76 00 



I 19 

' 200 Cash paid Betsey Osboiti, hoaae woriii >S! 00 

2m do O.B.Woodrafi;erfiiff &rMiQMifiiftd<iiift^ IW 00 

m do Amelia^dHjgbjttboQai'mrki SK 37 

203 do Mary A. Weed, «|lMy.4fi>Mdiir, : 00! 00 

do Mra.L.W;ilii^eiil<ify.«iMolMn OOrOO 

do C. B. Woodrafl^ con^ngifB^i^jfmm : 9tf U 

Balance on hand, M 70 

' ' 08,40^' 84 

• • '^ • "HtciMrtrtfc • * '• 

''^' 1^4--Jan. 2, By caah from 8tiMr}emm&tl<4ih&^l^1lu\f, 1859^ sM^OO 

' ^ Jan.l6,B7ca9hfromSl«Ui^9VMQt^,«hMM>fMeber,l8i^^ 8l§'00 

Jan. 28, By cash from State TteaMMf,Hkro ^at dTatf. 1854; 8S»* 00 
iy^» 3,' By eaah from 'Stall fri tt Mrer , ' Hiantee'dile from'l^ 

propriadon of 18i0, « 40^84 

^ Meh.38,Byca8hfromStitie'Tb«a«MnAi€^lit1ljiri],l8^^^ ^^00 

Jojy 8, Sy^cadi^m'Stat^'TMittreH^e'JliiJti^^ eUtOO 



00 c 



,a .1 



) • 



f 



,f ,; 



KfiiymT OF TH]^ BfJBLBDTa eoAMHTEK. 

. -•;■ r . ... • 

7» tkS Board of JWiteeS'^ihe W[9edfi^'^ AiHUttttoh Jbr the ' 
JSSii^iOiari of the Blind: ^ • , 

OwsttMotMaA Ymm BoildiDgsOHiktnittBe Inmog^ perfbmiedt tVe 
dvtiefr wsigned them by you, sqlmiit ilie' ifdlo^iag < 

REPOBT: 

, ^ ,' «» 

Tbe £>Qpd»ti9a and bUdemeaif . of IIm >niam< buiHi^^aiidi oAtij 
wiiig^^f tbe eawe i'wilriili yw-'piaosdi under lotnohlirge; fiir 43oii«»' 
•tn^tiQoifl cokiipktedy aiid i&Dov. lieady IdsitbeisvparBlimttliipei-: 1 

Xooiareawaxe '&at frdm^x^roidmbto eimmbtanccsiy chiidid ifiat- ^ 
aaAopoe ioa td*enleil apaDL0Brdptiee.tAff/]Ui^^ 
tbeaMBonJWaBfiAiradlttfDoedL :^ 

'This cirooindtance iitcctimaitioBi iviith»tlie<aot|ithiit weiuuliiiilife 
no.prari^B 6t*raDJ|em6iit fdrprtetiringpiidabenai^.aBi^tdso btt 
dostitote' of ftinde with.which'to pBOftebiuMi &b'Wiir|:, hvA inendwiidi^ 
our laborstBoiBtewihat diifflisult sDfll aModna;) tod tfajesa Qiti88aA>«T«o 
contribo ted' torfetiid tbil rCQii^fdeAaD ' bf ) tbel vibk 
we cpuld have wished. The want of fiends ha? caii8e<^ ns np litUe 
incoDveQience in procuring sufficieDtlielp to aavance the, work aa^ 
tasA as was desirable, , , 

When we comoienced the wor^, th^ erection of. the. east wmg 
was not anticipated, by your board, for tlie present at leasj;, but 
subsequently as the excavajtioi\ fui* tBe.inaip buildjrig progressed, 
ifc was seen to be all' important, in fact absolutely necessary to the 
permanency oJ'rtire WiWa i*thrcttfre/fo exte^ ttf^ eifeavettfon for 
the e^t Vmg, find kj^" thi fdiirfd6il6n 6f 'tiie¥i^^ it thebottiim ot^ 
asub^cdlar. ^: ' ;•- J ' -' ' ^' '- ' ' ^' ' ' "'■' ^'^ 



16 

afforded bj^ tim bnildipg^.for work shppi deeping. roo^fi,&c.| U 
would bb impossible to ^ccoti^lnodute our ^repent aungiu^r of por 

Among the o*her duties astfgned 'it% ^teffii'niiiking' ftbTAelfti*- 
per4tivc(lj neQe88^.y.rt'piitraii^out live pre9eQfrijp9titiite l^u Udijigfi; 

Tbepeiinpr 'Vixu^eiit^ihad Uet-w qnituifop Joogdel8;/?!i;:thej cp.n- .. 
siBtt'd in grading and Jelling in the e^i'tb Q^ ibo w,eat side fuid put* 
ting ill cqfbiiigfitQne8'iuatc^d<it' an aica yralK ^8.wa$, originally, 
de^ig^ed. to )>rotect.tlie'fonhd4tiou tjpm eMrr/t^nts of watep itQcumu- . 

Also stone step^ leading under piazrzas flaggingbotli front and rear * 
piazzas Willi htone, btllhfing three ress pui»l8, sthiie sink's,' conduit 
pipes,' &';., all oK wliich has been done in a good Substantial man- 
ner and fet as low^ a price a-^ poss'ibfe, viz: four htmdred and^feixtjr- 
se ten 15100 dollars. ' 

Id'elienFatin^i the^kteHar and Ua8eni«tn< ofanw b«ildai^<irei ^ 
mide oar contHaotsdo'tlmtfiffe goqU kbi^id ilia gra^nelaiid^anhid**- 
livured iLl3 «Q6ir ppiiuta wittiiii tlid in8lil»te(gtcn>ndfti«6f#e mijg^^ 
cbdMe; to thai: wttiia trifling a^Htiumiiex^md webafte itraveL . 
ed'tllcmiAgUij oniJvhuiicbred«itd J% «ods4>f (feivearkirid- tritlks. «i|^ 
th« iA:ititf«e'{;i(iiaud^, ai|d tiUed in^arouiid til "vireit wing^ Und ^he^ 
vcmrkiBiftbpset^ti'tiHtidiyd xarda nf oarth, aiadihaddittoN^saTvdail 
the sand we have used in our frt'Sent work, and have on liaxldi 
nei^ilf.it'.OAit qujte a^wf^v to ,Oriini>lete the. in^fc^ilite bpUdii^iB, 
w)mc1% latVf itttHi.Uofie ojitai^ned thrmrgk the ^psnaL u^e^iAS ,^<MildL . 
ha^ e ^9» iDi^ck<is th^'wh'il^ eoc|wnre /of eicayi^tjiig ^v^ df^^ \ 
itiug^l^lLtlfe ea?tliremvved, 6^4^he wl>(»le,buildiiig. .| ,; 

The accomp^M.>iJ^g statement. wihexhibh to you tl»e amounk " 
of expenceq uf th^ dJffeceut departinents of wprjc givea s ia 
cbarge. 

Mbi^iivg^Attd?nyf)r«ftew»ntd'0'» Workshop" • . * ^ Si}0^64 

Repairs aiid iniproVemefits abmit ihe west wiiig . " '48y,llf 



IT 

£xpcnsc9 incnrrod in oxca^^iting tlio collar and constmo- 
ting tlio ceiitro luuiu buililinjf aad oast wiog as far as 
completed 6,803»38 



$5,882,05 
Tools and materials on band 80^i50 



15,577.68 
All of which is most respectful]/ submitted, 

IRA MILTIHOBS 
J, F. WILLARD, 
Building CgnimitlmK 
JaQesville December ICtli^ 1854 



REPOBT OP THE SUPERINTENDENT. 

TotheBoardcf Trusteta of the Wiiconsin InstiMs farthe edu- 
nation qf the Blind. 

GsHTLraaoi: I have tbe honor to present you a fourth annnal 
report of the LiBtitation under my care. 

The institution has been nnder my charge nearly two years, and 
it giyes me pleasure to state, that the pupils have never apprecia- 
ted their advantages more, nor improved them better than during 
the past year. 

Our number of pupils is sixteen, or three more than during the 
previous year. 

Tbe annexed schedule, ''A," shows the names, ages, residence, 
place of nativity, number of years blindness, date of admission of 
the several pupils now in the institution. 

We have now as great a number as can be accommodated in the 
present building. When the other portion of the building is com- 
pleted, we anticipate a considerable accession to our present num- 
ber. 

The measles made its appearance among the pupils of the insti- 
tute about the middle of February last, and from that time until 
the middle of April, we were afflicted with the disease, taking in 
its range eight or ten of our number. 

In a disease like the measles, much depends ux)on care. They 
were attended by Dr. L. J. Barrows, who gave unremitting atten- 
tion to the pupils during the entire time of their sickness, and to 
whom in behalf of the pupils and others, I tender grateful thanks. 

After the measles had left us, Miss Frances Kaleigh was taken 
with a very serious lameness, which continued so long that it waa 



19 

thought adyisable to send her home, which was accordingly done 
about the first of May last, and she did not return until the begin- 
ning of the present term. 

Dr. C. G. Pease, in the absence of Dr. Barrows, attended the 
papil last mentioned. Aijgust Cale was detained at home by ill- 
ness until tbe first of the present month. 

Our workshop has been an invaluable aid during the past year 
in enabling the boys to learn the manner of manufacturing brooms. 

The scarcity of material for brooms has been a great detriment 
to the work. It is with the greatest difficulty that any broojn com 
can be obtained, and when found a most extravagant price is 
asked. 

I would respectfully suggest to the board the propriety of mak- 
ing a contract with some person to furnish the institute with a 
certain amount of broom com. By this means we can secure a 
Bufficiency, which 1 think cannot be obtained in any other manner 
without travelling hundreds of miles. 



Previous to last April the boys had been allowed a certain sum 
upou each broom manufactured after they had made the number 
Tequired by the institution. 

By this arrangement they were induced to Occupy much of their 
time while out of school, in the manufacture of brooms. During 
the hours employed by the boys in the shop, the girls are engaged, 
imder the superintendence of Mrs. Walls, in knitting. This con- 
Bists of the manufacture of tidies, sacks for children, chair armlets, 
cake covers, ottoman covers, &c., &c. 

The girls provide the material for the manufacture of these ar- 
ticles and have the avails. 

They will commence the manufacture of bead baskets before the 
. Ist of January next. 



4 



20 

Itisqtiito desirable tlmt thepnpila time elionlcl be well employed 
except dio tiino noces^arj for e^^tircisa. It gives Uiein a feubstAn- 
tial trade conducive to botli p>ca8u're and proHr, cultivating habits 
of indnstr}', and to those who once enjoyed thu plcasuie of lo(»ki«g 
upon our beantitnl fields, and gazing wirh never ending delightat 
the great treasure house of nature, it casfs aside thepastand brings 
the present home with all its exciting reality ; it occupies their 
time and prevents many a sad and lonely hour. 

The annexed schedule, "B," shows the cost of implomeirtt for 
broom .and brush manafacture, material for manufacturing broom 
brushes, &c. &c. 

We expect to commence the manufacture of brushes about the 
tenth of this month. The work has been delayed a long time for 
want of necessary implements and patterns to arrange the shop. 
Tiiese could not bo obtained especially from another f^tato with- 
out the money, and we have IaJ)orcd under the same disadvantage 
in every thing elec, for which the Board of Trustees is not in tho 
least responsible, as our quarterly appropriations could not well be 
drawn from an empty State Treasury. 

In accordance vrith a resolution passed in October last by the 
Board, I have emjjloyed a yonng man by the name of Andrew 
Keikle, as foreman to our shop. He had formerly been engaged 
Sn a workshop in the Ohio Institute for the blind. He nuder* 
stands his business thoroughly, and comes with high recommend- 
ations Irom the Superintendent of that institution. 

The pupils have improved much during the past year in rnqsic^ 
nnder the instruction of Mrs. L. Walls. 

The discriminating ear of the blind, renders them well adapted 
to learn the science of music, and they should bo encouraged, fiJr 
it may be a means of much pleasure and employment in the fa* 
tnre. 



21 

. Tho piano bon^ht last apring liaf dano oxcellent eervico during 
.tke BOAimer, and proves to bo ono oftlic most durable kind. 

. : The eitufttion of assistant teacher in tbe literary department, 
occupied dnriDg tbe p?t8t3*ear by Miss Mary A. Wued, is now 
.£IIoil by Mis^ Sai'ab ElUworth) who is a tjburougli teuisUscaud 
..peribrais her: duties admirably. 

The order of daily exercisos is as follows: 

-< AM rifie at the ringing of the bell in the morning at six. The Zam- 
ily breakfast' at a qnater before seven, the pnpils at a quarter,pa^ 
Bevea* Tho ]7n|)il8 are assembled at Xtn miuntos before ei^ht; a 
|)ortion of the scripture Js read ; then the daily atiidies are cottl- 
menced, which consist of reading, writing, spelling, written and 
mental arithmetic, grammar and algebra, and thus the time is 
passetf until twelve, and from one till half past two, at which time 
th49 pnpils meet for singing cla-s, which ountinnes one hoar. At 
half past three the boys go to their work in the. sliopw 

You will observe that the boys are employed more than eight 

# honrs in their various exercises, and the giils abont seven. It is 

arranged so that the piano can be occupied all day. It i^ done by 

giving the papils their music lessons while free from other tasks. 

The blind are of^en able to perform mental feats, which to those 

blessed with sight are truly astonishing. It is the result of con- 

centration and cultivation of the mental facuhies undisturbed by 

surrounding influences. The manner of teaching the blinA being 

mostly oral, is calculated to impr|)?s .the subject upon th^ mind. 

Also the habit of relying almost entirely upon the mental facnltiea 

.gtveeapowerof arranging snbjects in tlie memory, of which few 

ijptople. are aware. Therefore, if a piipil wjfslics tu auceeed w^il he 

tSMist.jetiJter tiio i^sil^u.iQo with a fixed doterounaiiiun tobofiome 

4ih0 aiasKer.oC GMry brandbu 



Perhaps it is too often the case/ that parents, feeling solicifona 
for the welfare of a child deprived of one* sense, bestow nnnsnal 
care upon it, and under its influences grow up many pernicious 
habits, causing the child to become petulant and fauU-finding. In 
so doing the parent makes a gi'eat mistake. It should receive bu- 
perior advantages to the other children — not more iudulgenoe. 

During the past summer an admirable system of draining the 
yard by cess pools, has been adopted, which has contributed very- 
much to the convenience and comfort of all living in the institute. 

There can be only one opinion as to the manner the funds ap- 
propriated for the building have been expended, and that is, judi- 
ciously. The Board acted the part of wisdom, by going on with, 
the work, and the building committee have performed their work 
nobly. 

The following newspapers have been sent to us regularly and 
gratuitously, for which, in behalf of the pupils, I return thanks 
to the gentlemanly proprietors of the same : 

Wisconsin, Daily, 
Madison Argus, do 
Democratic Standard, Weekly, 

Janesville Gazette, do 

Free Press, do 

Badger State, do 

Beloit Journal, do 

Monroe Sentinel, do 

Milwaukee Sentinel, * do 

We have cause to feel a just pride in the advancement of our 
state, increasing her population by thousands each year. Bich 
in agricultural and mineral wealth, only six years a state, yot 
hearing upon her bosom, cities with their thousands. This state 



26 

lias ever held forth her liberal hand to the institation for the 
blikid, and the deaf and dnmb, and the insane, and those nnforta- 
nate classes will always hold in grateful remembrance the efforts 
made in their behalf. 

BespectfuUj submitted. 

^ 0. B. WOODRtTFF, 

Superintendent. 
Wis. Inst, vob Blind, Dec. 5, 1854. 



y 



u 






'« 






•^ S 






if 

I 

•8 



I 



I 



»o .t ift it: *^ .'5 t^ M^ tn »c in ift •': tO >c •<> 

P- ^ «.^ ^ g -. .^. ^^f^^ T^ gf « O 
♦-• *J •i ^ «_• -T i - -^ f* >*•• "^ -* a**i ♦* 

coooc^'^.oo^rccc co 



c J : c 5 - ;^JJ "5 : •^" = A 

^ i: o as X > '^ ::; J; ^ t — c as ^ sg 

-3 • J • • • • j^ y J . ♦> 3 . • • 
^ ? ^J^ = £ i ? ^^rci i-^ *J 



e 5 ""^ 



* * "c r*- ~ 



J 2 - • ■ 
£C: = jS|-2 J,- _ 

I S^ sl i.s i i • 8k5 i'E"! ^ 

4) •• s " ^^ 4* ^ -^ «" S 7 C ••• SI S 







S8 

Work fihop^ in aeoaunt with InstUuU: 



■ -1 — 

To 1 twi BrooiB Corn.................... •.••• 


986 00 

7 00 

99 00 

19 00 

47 00 




•• 16 lU Wire 




*■ ](t00 Bmom Handles. .... ........,..•.••••. 




• 12 lU Twine 




* yixttirefl anil implements on hand for rasking 
BrushoB and Brooms. *.•....*..... ........ 






194 00 







Ob. 



9f Bnoms mvVI stmI iitorTr on Tisnd . . 
Balance in faror work shop. 



ff66 00 



f79 00 
tSbCOO 



ft 



ij 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



ASD 



COLLECTIONS 



OV THB 



STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY, 



OF 



WISCONSIN, 



FOB THE TEAR 1854. 



UADISON: 

filBIAH BBOWK. fjaSTUL 



1866. 



OFFICERS FOR 1855. 

presidsnV: 
Oea. WM. E. SMITH, Mineral Point. 

YIOB FBK8IDXKT0: 

BICREASE A. LAPHAM, Milwaokee, 

Hon. KELSON BEWET, - Luioaater * 

Qmsf. ALBERT G. ELLIS, - Steveu Point, 

Hon. morgan L. MARTIN, - Greoa Bay, 

GYRUS WOODMAN, - Minoral Point, 

Hon. GEO. R. McLANB, - Pine Lake. 



Offn^spanding Secretary-^LYlAAlii C. DRAPER. 
Beoording Secretary-^ OR Jif W. HUNT. 
JMrarian-^-S. H. CARPENTER. 
TWatMr^r— Peof. O. M. CONOVER. 



CUBA V ORS: 



Hon. L. J. f ARWELL, 
« J. P. ATWOOD, 
" D. J. POWERS, 
B8RIAH BROWN, 
DANIEL S. DURRII, 



Hon. SIMEON MILLS, 
" JOHN T. SMITH, 
" H. A. WRIGHT, 
OoL. DAVID ATWOOD, 
JULIUS T. CLARK. 



EfifiOKX, 



To Bjb ExcELLvsor^ Wiluak A. Ba«stow, 

Sir : — ^In accordance with the act grantiDg to the State Histori- 
[ cat Boeietj five hundr^ dollars annuajly, we, the nnderBigped £x- 
I «cut!ye Committee of Hie Society, herewith render the Treaiurer's 
anhtLal report of the manner of expenditure of the appropidationi . 
witii ihe Yonchers therefor. The receipts of the year are there 
ahown tohave been $552 52, and thedisburaements $497 10, leav- 
ing a b^nce in the treasury of $55 42/ 

I The organisation of such a societj^was firet suggeeted aod nqgs^,. 
I ^7, Ghauvct C* BBTTTy Esq.^in the Mineral. Point Democi^it^ 
: Oct 23, 1845, and though the newspaper press of the Territoiyap 
proTod the proposal, notliing .was done till the BOth of Jiannarj , . 
1849, irhen the State Histobijcal Socdstt.of Wiboomsis waaffuily: 
OTgamzei at Madison. But in the injbnoy of the State, and the^ 
too common neglect to preserve, by means of associated efiort, n^e^ 
morials of the histoiy of the past a^dpfissing eyents, little wasac* 
eoaipIiflbed|till the year just drawn to a dose. . An act of incoip^ 
lEtion was obtained in March, 1853; smd, in January, 1854, tbe 
Society was re-organized with a view to more efficiency, when the 



chief laboTB and dntiet were assigned to an ExecotiTe Oommittee, 
who were to meet monthly, and ottener when neceesary. The last 
Legislature was memorialized for the small annual appropriation 
of $600, to be expended in making collections illustrative of the 
history of Wisconsin, no part of which should erer go to pay for 
senrices rendered by the officers of the Society ; and the amount 
asked for, was granted in Fe^iroftry ^st Ibis, together witktfia 
few Tolumes of state publicatione placed M the disposal of the 8^ 
dety to aid in effecting literary exchanges, has placed the Bodety 
upon a firm basis, and enabled it to enter at once upon a prosper- 
ous and honored career of usefulness. 

In January last, the number of Tolumesin the library was fifty. 
During the year past, the Bociety has purchased a complete set of 
]f4M jSTational Regiiterj containing a most valuable current hia- 
tory of the times from its commencement in 1811, to its termina- 
tion in 1849, in seventynux volumes; and also fifty-four volumes 
of rare historical works, relating mainly to the West and Nortk 
West. Among them may be particularly meDtioned a copy of 
Lescarbot's History of Kew France, published in 1609 ; two vol- 
umes of the old Jesuit RdoLions^ 1643 '44; a fall set of the 
LMrea Edifiardes et OurieuseSy in twenty-six volumes, containing 
much rare historical matter recorded by the early Catholic miss- 
ionaries in the Korth West, commencing in 1672 ; Evans' lai^ge 
and rare Map and Analysis of the Middle Colonies and the West 
inlTSB ; Carver's Travels in Wisconsin, with a portrait of that 
early western traveller; Mackenzie's Travels, and other early and 
valuable works. Beside these one hundred and thirty volumes 
purchased, eight hundred and seventy volumes have been receiv- 
ed by the Society during the piist year, either as donations or ex« 
changes, from nearly two hundred different sources ; making the 
present number in the library one thousand and fifty volumes. — 
Of Aese, seventy-five volumes are quartos, siity-two volumes of 
newspapers, and the remaindier chiefiy of octavo size. They maj 
be elassified as follows : * 



lioAtioimofHitloritalSoeifliis 4M tiM. 

Ck)iigir8tsi<HialpiibIiB»tio&8 • US << 

Mitoella^MOS * - 197 <' 

State Laws wd Joonwlft - Vi ^ 

VnWmod W^Am - M *« 



Total 1060 « 

There are sixty-two Tolnmes of newspapers, besides Niles Beg- 
ister, all either bound or in process of binding; and several of 
these volnmes embrace a period of two or more years; so that 
the entire series, including Niles, make about one hundred and 
forty years of printed matter, or over one hundred years aside 
from J^iles' Begister ; and the Wisconsin papers alone comprise 
one half of these yeai*]y files, commencing with the pioneer pub- 
Hoation of Wisconsin, the Green Bay Intdligenoer^ which first 
appeared Dec. Uth, 1838. This collection of papers, large tor the . 
brief period ihe Society has made it a*^ special object to secure 
themj^ is a matter of much felicitation to the members of the Execu- 
tive Oommittee, knowing their inestimable value to the present 
and iuture historians, legislators and jurists of our State. But the 
eollection, large as It may appear, is by no means conlplete ; there 
are many files of Wisconsin papers extant that should early find 
their way to out library. The names of the donors of these sev- 
eral newspaper files are, Darwin Ofark, Wm. N. Seymour, W.'W. 
Wyman, Beriah Brown, David 'Atwood, L. 0. Drapei*, Jl W. 
Hunt, t}. C. Britt, and 8. O. Benedict, of Madison ; E. Beeson, 
and Bojal Buck, of iV>ud du Lac ; Oen. A. G. Ellis, of Stevens^ 
Pdnt ; John Delaney, of Portage City ; E. B. Quiner, of Water- 
town ; W.E, Cram#,^if Milwaukee, and Patrick Toland, of West 
Bend. From the latter, a venerable volume of the Pennsylvania 
Evening Post, from August 1776, to August 1777. ExOov, Doty 
has most kindly and liberally tendered the Society several files of 
newspapers published while Wisconsin was a part of Michigan 



Territory) aQ4iw)iildL 2naali.]>roire.a panloudjr' valiulile M4aiiitteii' 
4o oA coUaMioQi and wlios^- arrival mtif^aoaai)e>emp%ttbiJ^' 

The Sod^ty has also been fortunate in seenring, at a moderaie 
xost, eightednyolnmeB of ne\^paperfl, pttbli^lied in {ttie Atlantic 
^States, in varions years, from 1784 to 1832, containing mncfa^fron* 
tier hi'storiljal matter, particularly relative to tbis war Yif" IWf-'lf^* 
And the BMicIr Hawk war; and these may be expected to -rettcli^ 
liere ^firly J^ the ensuing spring. , 

Since March last, the Society has been in the receipt of twenty-, 
nine Wisconsin paper3,'fire from other states, and four maga^nes; 
jtU most generously donated by their publishers creditors. There 
are also preserved for the Society, by members of the Committee, 
nine Wisconsin papers, and three from other^states. * These fifty 
publications are all carefully filed for binding as often as there 
shall be enough of each to form a suitable volume ; and they are 
^deemed, ncFt only by the Committee, but by all enlightened men, 
to be among the most important labors engaging the attention of 
ihe Society. This department alone of the Society's collections 
must speedily become rast in extent, and valuable beyond all es- 
timation for purposes of reference, and as treasuries of the history, 
growth and progress of Wisconsin. 

The department embracing the published transactions of kiii* 
4red Historical Societies, and other learned institnti/ous ofourpooiv- 
try, has received the early and constiint attention of the Commit-, 
tee, aad very gratifying su^ess has attend^ their efforts* PrioT 
to ihff past year» the Smithsonian • lostitution and . Bhode ^ Island 
Historical Society had alone, furnished their publioatioas; and^ 
dariQg.the year just plQsed, the Society has recejv^ed the publioh^ . 
^T^^^saptions and CoUeotionsof the Historical Sooietieaof Kaw 
HainpsbifQ, ICas^achosettS) Kew Jersey aad Ohjio^ Newflnglaad 
Genealogical S<>ciet7, Essex Institute, Axperioan Ettoolpgioal So-. 

*T&€ThaTe«inc«coinetohAnd— aboundfileof thf J)etr^ ffazeUe |W>m ,1816 to 
I8SKI ; w Gklena MinerU Jfrnrwd, iBS^d^'Si^, and ofh«n. Got. I>ot^ kat abo f<fnnirded ' • 
« niogt^juit«raiU«ff 8iHe84>f laws which ao\arQad tliit coiaItj ui^d^r.^ ^risSt^rtgimm^ 
the iroHh WMt/Indiana, and MicUgan Terr«tori6t. 



9 '• 

ci0l!fyAjMV]M» iMiliitt^ Md the pvbliMlioiie of -Hlu^fttd CM* 
Ufs^ Tb^ AiEMQPtcn Fliiloidpliteal BiMdety has UlMittiHf voted tm ' 
qualt^ vdkuiMS of Ste'TittDiraotions i9 onr •a8io^a!llMi and placed 
ourtoeiely^pon its l&t of exehangeB^ and thieslo valuable trorks 
magp" Mrly ba efxpoal^d. AssuraneM ha^ealsoi^een reeeSrad fiom ^ 
the Hi8torieal4B6(M(}eB &t Pefimeyl^ania, llai^latid and G^rgii^, 
the.AQ;iericaQ.Ai;i%a^riaA.Socict^9 and thd^Apeiicau Qfog^^pbir 
caland Statistical Sooiaty, of theiiv fr|eadlj cQ-pperatiop,. and of. 
their r^diBass to ooter i^po^ ^ system of .azchanges wUh ue ; ^ 
that bfit three efficient Historiqal SQcietieaof oorcouotryi thoa^ of 
2feio Yorhy M^ine and Virgia^ia^, remaip uur^jprcB^nted iii .ouj: 
library or liet of ezcbfuiges. The large qaeasur.d^ oj^ auQcasa, at^- 
tending this department of par ccUe.o^ioAi» is| mainly attrib.qtjablQ 
to the liberal policy of our Stata Laglalature in placing at the dia* . 
posal of tbe Society a few volames ai^nnally oC the State publica- 
tions to nse in effectngesehanges; togj^therwith^ tba confidence of 
the kindred institutions of our country^ that this Society will soon 
enter upon the regular publieatiQn and distribi^tioa of its /manu- 
script collections. It is extremely desirable, that such publications 
he commenced without delay, as multiplying and diffusing copies 
of rate historio doMments greatly mefease titfe fneaos 'of thoi^ 
BficiMkneea, as well a^ tend to avert their irrettietmble loss by teaol* 
dent, ther dissemination of such publicatimis wduld be' well^ca'^' 
culatod to exert a most favorable influence abioad respecting ihe * 
inteiMgaiDce) foi^ig^t and ^atbltc spirit of ihd people^ of WiscoU'* 
srnif. '■ ■ > 

Quite a respectable number of the volumes added to the Ubrary 
during the past year, relate to State, Oopnty and Town histories of 
yarious portions of the ITnion^ family genealogies, historical ad- 
dresses, eulogies, >aBd funei;al discourses y which, with the Transac- 
tions of, the Historical and, Genealogical Societies of. the country^^ 
will prove invaluable in tracing the ancestry and antecedents of 
each of the present and future leading and influential men of our 
State as may deserve to be ranked a^ong our public benefactprs.. 
The published collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
3 



10 

aloaa ettmd to tbirt^'Ooe Toliiiiie% covoriog a ptriod of «ixt^*tiit 
yean. Of a ebaracter somevhat eimilar to ilia pAbliMtiotifl of 
•aqh aoeietiet, and alta valaable for the aatne^eneial pnrpoooai 
are tbe twentj-funr YQlontea of Beards and Arcbiveii pnbliahed 
by the State of Peposy vaiiia» ezteading from ite fiiet eettleoient 
in 1682 to 1T90— a^ift from, the anttKtfitiee of that.State. 

Among the mannacript collections of the year, may be mention- 
ed a copy of the nnptiblished Journal of Lieut Jatnes OomtU^ 
while BrittBh commandant at Oreen Bay, from 1761 to 1768, froia 
Francis Parktnan, Esq., of Boston, the learned author of the His- 
tory of the Conspiracy of Pontiac ; SemintBoenoes of Orcen Bay^ 
in 1816-17, by James W. Biddle, Esq., editor of the Pittsburg 
American; a paper en the Indian Nomenclatti/re of Northern 
WtsoonHn^ with some account of the Ohippewas, their manners and 
customs, by Hiram Calkins, Esq., of Wausau ; and a paper on 
Indian Poetry^ by Caleb Atwater, the well known venerable an- 
tiquarian of Ohio, and one of the commissioners at the Indian 
treaties at Prairie du Chien in 1829. These form but a part of the 
Society's manuscript collections. 

A Q)pst valiiable and intevesting collection aS autographs of die- 
tingni9hed peiBonsges baa been oomm^noed, and already incladea 
amopg the nim^ber tho^e of Patrick Henry, John Adams, Jeffer- 
son, Jay, MorriS) Kadison, Sherman, MoEean, Bodney and Tmm- 
buU; QeMrals Wopater, Epox, WaynOi Potter, Wilkinaon, Dear- 
bom, and Col. Allen HcLane, of the Bevolntion ; Gov. Thomaa 
Penn, son of William Penn, Anthony Benezet the philanthropist^ 
Conrad Wieser, who for forty years,^ in Coloprd times, served in 
the capacity of Indian agent, messenger, and interpreter among 
the Indiism tribes of Kew York and Pennsylvania ; and of our re- 
cent or present statesmen, John Qaincy Adams, Woodbury^ For- 
syth, Poinsett, Kipg, M ahlon Dickerson, Pierce, Buchanan, Louis 
IfcLane, John Branch, and others. Autograph letters of most of 
the distinguished living literary men of our country have been re- 
ceived, including Irving, Prescott, Sparks^ Bryant, Everett^p School* 



■i'. 



11 . 

enfk^Hildmti^ qbarifs Aimei^ jUftBii» flqiiier» PaifaiiM, QoiiMy, ' 
Eeaiwd/) Longfetlowi Bro^Jhead, HaJloek) and othtra. 

A fine miniature likenees of Wihkeshkxk, taken in 1829, when 
he was principal chief of the Winnebago Tillage of La Crou4^ 
and now head chief of the Wionebagoes io.Iowa, haa been prft> 
•ented to the Sjocie^ by Caleb Atwatar, witk three drawings of 
Wiaoonein natural hietoryi iftade at the aama period ; also draw- 
inga oi ancient potteiy Iptuid in La (ktrnt ccninty , fh)m J. Qiii&« 
taa, Eeq.^ of Sheboygw ; and ft-om StephenTaylor, E^., of Fkfl* 
adelpbia, hia original draviage of a number of the a&flienl aoimai 
moondB so pecnliar to WJacdnrin, made it 1849. We hav* abo 
aeenred aeveral lare early mapa of the West 

From Hiomas H. Olay, Esq., of Kentacky, have been received . 
foQT lilrer medals, struck by order of the first Kapoleon, and ob- 
tained in Paris and brought to this country by Hon. Henry Clay, 
and generously presented by his son as personal memorials of his 
yeuerable father. They were severalty designed to commemorate 
the fallowing events : 1. Ths Confederation of the Rhine^ 1806. 
ii. BatOeqf Jma^ 1806. iii. BatOeof Wagram, 1809. iv. Mar- 
fiag4 <!f JfapoiUon and JUbriiik Zcui^ 

Personal memorials of the Fatheb of oub Country, from his 
venerable step scin, George W. P. Custis, of Arlington, and of 
Dakisl WxBsiiEB, DflWirr CLiirroN, and Pbesident Habsobov^ are 
also kindly promised fbr the cabinet of the Society. Some speci- 
mens of Continental paper money have been presented by Wm« 
A. White, Esq.; an autograph letter of Washington may soon be 
expected to be added to our collections ; and a miniature statuette 
of Gen. Jackson basbeen promised by Clark Mills, the distinguish- , 
ed artist Among the more important works generously tendered 
the Society by their authors, and which may be expected during 
the year upon which we are now entering, are those of Wm. H. 
Prescett, (Carles Frailcis Adanss, Wm. 0. Bryant, Benson J. Los- 
aing, Wm. W. Campbell, John R. Bartlett, Rev. Dr. Davidson, Al- 
fred B. fitieet, Sdmund Fkgg, and B. Augustug Mitchell Mans.. 



12' 

A.,Y§^a^9Mi^ Pach, hftf altfoniMtkliiiLfypmtiiised'M include 
onr Society ia kia noblQ STStem Cff I&teraftlibtial H^tary ElE- 
changes. 

A PioTusBGALLVBYliasbeett commenced under the most ^t- 
teriag anfiptcet^ TIm 'vakinm arttet^ Thomafi Snlly, of *PhiIadel- 
pl^Ja, jias painted mud {)veiented to tb^ Society a cop^ of BttiABt^ 
WdamBSGTosi ^iomm^ofdt^ be a^lkithfiil acid ralnable 'copy by 
thofvei^ritblePl^fliideniof oarBodotyy who wbb personally ac* 
qnidiMd.wit)i .Gilbert Stnart;, and Has oftett seen tfae original' 
paiating sis woU m ibe venerated >Wa»liington ^hiitfsdif. From 
Claaien* &.'Ed#ar<h, a-celebrated artist of Ghicmaafi) has been 
received a fine copy Of J&rTJeT t)ortrattof GhtK. GkOfiBGrB Boovsa 
' Olask, the Washington of the West, and a pertrnit of Db. W>& 
Bybd Powell, of Kentucky. It was by the genins and conquest of 
General Clark, during the Bevolutionary War^ that the country 
nortl^-west of the Ohio, including our own WisGOxxsio, became 
American territory, and the Legislature of onr State has worthily, 
commemorated his worth and services by naming a county after 
him. . 

Bobert M. Sully, of Riehmond, Virginia, who in 1889» paintcfd 
from. life, spirited a^d truthful portraits of Bla.ck Hawk, ma Sovi 
and Thb Psophbt, is making copies of them for our Society; and 
from his skilfnl pencil our collection is furthermore to be enrich- 
ed by a beautiful portrait of the renowned Indian PrincesSi Pooa- 
HONTASy and a painting of the Bums of Jamestown, from draw- 
ings made by the artist up^ that classic ground. Hr. Sally alao 
hopes to be able to make for the Society a copy from his oQginal 
portrait of Chief Justice Mabshall. As Kr. Sully has intentions 
of soon making our favored State his home, how appropriate that 
the delineator upon canvass of Blaok Hawk and two of his noted 
followers upon the war-paths of our soil, should visit in our midst 
and paint the battle-fields of the old chieftan, to be sacredly pre- 
served in the Qall of our Society I 

John B. Johnston^ of Qmcinnali, had made.fiic Ae'fioab^ a . 



as 

..QOSyiixm JM>qriffuwl portnrffc oC^Nv^Aon^K) bttttedsntl^ Both 
weie ufGAtwiitftljr iDOMMk^d bj^ the' Wrniiig otibm tetldiftgsin 
wbjf^th^jrvete ; but thetfumieTMiig ^wid tkilfiil wtisttwrlltos, 
tbftt be gr0t Jbap9« to bo able, to liilfii bifl ^^{[iaftl intntiasi. . Those 
tafentt^d bn4b^9 G.2i^.o&<} John.fiwikoiMtQiii^ one of Kew ¥ork 
.aad the other of Ohio, JieTe eeoh goMroiiBlgr toodonMiitheSooMty 

'.apor^aitor hi^torioa} pi^oc^ffOtihiajpoJioil AttvOB^oiia.deitmto 
Mcnrethe portraita of those, .who hare pi«9ideidtis.|^erMkB over 
Wisconsin^ is lik^ t» iMot wfth the moifc< gratffjrdogoewesiBff. 
Gss. Ca2s, whoiW^.fo losig QorMBor of KiobigM^etdtory.ivkeii 
Wisconsin farmed ta pact, Goyxuvob^ Ptoocy TiiiLxiMW. Bmttr, 
Eaxwisu. aadJ^lAWfow^ hare soT^raUj^aigiiiiedith^ifi intattttoarto 
oomplj wiUx the tnihos of the Society* Whett all tiieia ]>n}miaed 
paintings are pooeivedt ouQalleiy wiU nnmber toqlhtam^^'itid 
will provo not only an interesting collection of works of art, bnt 
manj of them will serre to illostrate the history i^qd historic men 
of onr State. 

Dariag the paslf.yeaf, thirteen hundrAd einmlar% ipnUisfaeAhy 
. the Society, fnlly settiqg^ fo^ik ita aUes .and wantoyl have beehtsent 
to men oflearaii^ aiid^Dsna inow own andiotfaisrcoiieirifes, 
and more eapeoUiJIy to those known as lovers end promotem'of 
history, ai^d many of them have hitidlji iMpottded totheappeabof 
tfaeSoQielfifemtiibvting raare ^HkI aoble vovka to onr Uhirny jmd 
coUeeticii8,/and warmly eowMftiding the wkdoioa andifonsAiorDght 
of ikeU^ei$!tn» of our Mtafee, in hATisig kAentbe Araf.m liie 
Union to^ Imd its^aidinfonndii^siieh an inatitiitiQ»aii<NiBt,, which 
apoat soon exert b maiked ii^flne^ee in^ the^Usteiioal iitaratore .of 
]>ok onlj oor own S«at0i h^t the iwholeN^^tth W«st Bssideih^se 
. eireekESy^o^er three h«ndce4offieiallettarsba»et at theeaoietiime, 
been sent forth in the napie of the Society in fnrtheraaee itf lilie 
ob|)$cts of its formation. 

A siegnlar to^Unee of tbeappiMiatieQef tsmksooitlMaiiAijrhe 
feoadin ,the.faet'thetlCi/lCM«finii*AW,flf ]U^ <¥en- 
erabteyneokbet ii Ibe fletoaelf of Jriends^/iiiAmiMtive meMber 
oiii^MmimiSialiQi^^ Hat» toDnttSedfitjiadonaliDa 



^ u 

of tirentyfire doHsit. 'BvlA an MWipte ahomM «enrd to qnieken 
. Ijie Blale pride* of onr^wn dlbraniiwho may have it In tkoir pewer 
to oontribttte iabliildttg apaaoctetj in otfr midfity whidi, in almost 
a tingle year, aibceitt eflk>teiit reot'gaTi^tlon, lia9 outotrtpped the 
mostflw^uriehiog kindred inititation in tbe Weflt^one which has been 
ooarty aqnarterof'a oentnrjin existence. The meet able and 
enlightened men of owe age and coantry, bare warmly commend- 
ed the labon and objects of Historical Societies. *^11ie transac- 
tioBfl of pnblie bodies/' says Webster^ ^Focal histories, memoin 
of all kinds^ statistics, laws, ordinance^, pnblie debates and discns- 
vaioBS^ works of pertodioal- literature and the public journals, 
'.whether of political events, of commerce, literature, or the arts, 
all find their places in the collections of Historical Societies. But 
Ahese celleetiottS are not history ; they are only elements of his- 
tory.^' 

At the recent semi-centennial anniversary of the Kew York 
Historical Society, the Hon. R. 0. Winthrop very justly remark- 
ed, that "^^ Historical Soeiettes of the differeut States of the 

. Union^^-^^and Iilm gUd4o remember that there are now so few 
fitales witiiont one-*Hire Mgaged in a cbniknon labor of love and 
loyalty in gathering up materiats A>rtke history of onr belored 
Country* Bat eadi <me ef them has a peculiar province of inter- 
est and of effort in illustrating the history of its own State. * * * 
^None of ns,^' continues tfr. WiMhi^p, <<dhoa)di>e tfnmindfal, 
i&at there is anodier " work going on, in this our day and genera- 
fion,. beside that of writiagthe history of our fathers, and that is, 
Ma muHfig cf ovmkon Mst^. We cannbt liYe, sir, upon the 
-glbrMs of the past. Historic i&eniorie^, however prebious orhow- 

, )aver inspiriag, will not sdstaiii our institutions or preserve our 

.ttbtorties. -•.''* 

"There is a future history to be composed, to which civery State, 

jandeveiycitiaeHefevseryBtate^ lit this hour, an^ every hour is 

.xaentribating taaterialft? AndthegeneMas-Mf^lry of our socielaes, 

. eiad of ihefrrsep^otlve States, M %6 which' shdl) fcrnish the most 

n bttUtanireeo^ of the past^ oioet not be permfittecljlo retider us 



IS 

regardlesi c^ ft yet nobler rfralrp*, in mh\6k it becomes m alleten 
more ATdehtTy md more ambitiotisl^io MgBge. ' I know «ot of a 
grander fipeetaole whicb the irorM could ftiniieh, thki thaC of the 
mnldplied States of this mighty Union contendtag^witk each oth- 
er^ in a friendly and. fraternal competition, which shonld add the 
brighteet page^ to the f;itare history of our common country, which 
shonld perform the m^ signal acts of philanthropy or patriotism, 
which should epchibit fixB besfc examples of free institutions well 
and wisely adn^inistered^ which shonld present to the imitation of 
mankind the pureslj and mosif perfect picture ot well regulated lib- 
erty, which sboi^ furnish the* most complete illustration of the 
success of thst p^eat Bepublicftn Experiment, of which our land 
has been ProTtdeotially selected as the stage." 

This ^^ (ictinff <nir oum Metary^^^ conveys to us an impressiye and 
SDggestive admonition. As we are now gathering up and pre* 
serring the acts of -those who haye gone before us, and aided in 
laying the primitive foundations of ow State, so. very ijopn will 
others, after us, be similarly engaged with reference to those now 
prominent on the stage of action. Histobt is a stern, impartial 
judge, deducing truth, justice and right from the acts of the con- 
spicuous men of the age ; and by these, rather than subserviency 
to party behests, or playing the part of mere time-serving demo- 
gogues, muBt the character and worth of our public men be ulti- 
mately judged and determined. 

May our State Histobioal Soonmr, faithful to the purposes of 
its formation, never falter in its noble mission of gathering from 
the mouldering records of the past, the scattered fragments that 
yet remain, and securing complete memorials of the present, to 
render ifeple justice to all the worthy sons oc Wisconsin, who 
may be earnestly laboring in any department of science, legisla- 
lation, literature, mechanism, philanthropic or industrial effort, to 
advance the honor and prosperity of our State, or to enlighten, 
improve, or ameliorate the condition of man ! 

As an evidence of the worth and interest of the manuscript pa- 



.:16 

, p«nrwehavdiUi9*4y<QllMedoiL'WiBO(niBiii2ivtei7,ww«U«»an 
.- 9ian«Bt-of what may b« nan fally expected t«f»after,'we Append 
• few thatM!* deemed pp^tic^hrly wortliy of netioe »ad poblioitj. 
J Allef wiaefa is veepectfoUy •abnritted, 

VM. R. SMITH, 
JOHN W. HUNT, 
J. P. ATWOOD, 
I. J. FARWELL, 
SIMEON MILLS, 
BERIAH BROWN, 
DAYID ATWOOD, 
O. M. OONOVISR, 
8. H. CARPENTER, 
. H. A. WEIGHT, 
XTMAN a DRAPER^ 

BseeDtire Oommittee. 

M*diBOQ, JftttTtery 9, 1S55. 



APPENDIX. 



ACTBIfPIX 1I0»&« 



gXATE mSTOiaCAL BOCIETY OF WKCONSIN. 

Madibon, Janaarj 2, 1865. 

The Treasurer of the Witconsin State Hiatorieal Societj) : 
pectftillj presenta the following statement of tbe receipts into the 
Tkeasorj, nd diabarsements therefrom, during ^the year ending. 
Ihis daj : 



S«eeipt$. 






Feb. 28, 1864. From fonnerTreasnrer, 


9 62 




«« " " " Recording S«cretai7, 


900 




it 24 ** '* ." 


SCO 




u 23^ u It Btate Treaanrer, 


600 00 




lleb.16, " " Recording Setretorj, 


8 00 




Apr. 18, ■• " Ho8eaSheppard,Balt]Cd 


., 25 00 




Jnoe 6, " ** Recording Secretary, 


100 




July 10, " " " " 


2 0) 




Sept. 18, " « " " 


1 00 




Jan'y 2, 1856, « 


T 00 




TotiO, 


$552 52 




ZHtbunemenU. 






If ch. 1 6, 1 854^ Ber ah Brown for printing circnlara. 


UOff 


u u M Weed ^Eberbard, paper for circoUrs, 


10 50 


u M u John K. Jon© 8 for postage, 




17 58 


*♦ •« « Obwi. B. Korton, for books. 




100 00 


Apr. 1) " J. Ho'ton, txprese ebargea, 




8 00 


** S, *• J. K. Jonea, postage, 




18 It 



30 



May 4, 1854. Express charges, 




[18 8i 


June 8, « «* 




8 00 > 


Jaljll, " Sundry bills for books, 


freight, ^c. 


358 IL 


Aug. 1, " " « 




38 10 


Sept. 12, « 0. R. Ed^arfla, boring pictures, 


1 00 i 


Oct 8, « Postage and freight, 




6 58' 


Dec 6, <' Express charges, 




19 80 


Jan. [8, 1865, Posta^, &c., 




40O 


« •», « Book, 




1 OO 


Total disbursements, 


ii«r 10 


fialaneeott hand. 




SS 43 



$853 50 f5«3 as 

Vouchers for each of the foregoing disbursements are hercwi^ 
presented. 

BespectfuUy submitted, 

O. II. CONOVER, Treawrejt. 

Audited and found correct, 

LYMAN 0. D&ABEit, 
JOHN W. HUNT. 



It. ■ 



APPiim>ixifo. X 



GRIiEK BAY IN ITM. 

QHAKUQi WBiiTLWsr^ £tq.y of Eaigle Hirer, Lake Superior^ ai^ 
iotelligettt and aeoiunpUsbed 6choIar» eent ti^ foUowiog trMtlatiei^ 
of a French mannscripty relating to the early history of Oreem 
Say, to Hod. 0. D. Bobinsov , by vhom it was kiodl j commoniear 
tod to the aooietj. It waa, with many others of a siniUrnaturei 
broogbt from France bj 6en,. CAaS) when he returned from his 
mission^ who loaned them tp Mr. VfauiLUBEYfor peraaal and trans: 
lation. He promises copies oi others, which will no doubt proye 
interesting and Talciable, 

Mr. Whittlesej thinks it is not easy to determine bj whom 
this memoir was penned^ or to whom it was directed. He sug- 
gests that a part of it has the air of a circular addressed to the 
Oommandants on Lake Michigan and the Illinois by the head of 
Indian AJOEairs; but most of its sentiments and many of the pbr% 
ses agree with a letter of Jane 19, 1726, by M. DeLjign^y, f(om 
Qreen Bay, to H. DeSiertte, among the Illinois. 

IfefMir c&ncerfiiing the peace nvade hy Monsieur DeLigney {&r 
Sighey) with the OAiefe of the Foceee {Rmatds), Somke'iSaMS^y 
and W^n^agoe {Ptums a la Baie\ Jnne T, 172d. 

To make the peace which haabeen effected by M. Db Lignct 
with the Foxes of the Bay, and the Paants (Winnebagoes), of 
the 7th of Jnne last, certain and stable, it is thought proper to 
grant to Ouohataj the principal chief of the Foxes, his partictilar 
t^qnest to have a French officer in the country, which will, he says^ 
aid him in restraining his young men from bad thoughts and ac- 
Bona. . ' * ' 



If 6 Aink, moreorer, that it will be neeeMarj that the oem^ 
ttandant at La Pointei Ohegoiwegcn (Lake Snperior),sh<mId for hk 
part labor to withdraw the Sioox from an alliance with the Foxes, 
to detach them by preeents, and allow them to hope for a mi0sioii>- 
arj and other Frenchmen as they have desired. 

The same thing ehonld be written to the officer commanding at 
the po«t of Detroit, and at the rirer St. JosephSf in order that the 
nations adjacent to those part?, may be detached from the Foxes, 
and that those officers, in case of war, have a care ^that the way 
shall be stopped, and the Foxes prevented ftoxA seeking an asylnm 
iHth the Iroqnois, or in any other nations, where they may secreto 
lliemselves. 

Monsienr Da Sortb, who now commands in the Illinois oonntsy 
in place of M. Ds BoisBBuirre, has written to M. Da LiavBT,thaf 
die Foxes are afraid of treachery, and that the surest mode of se- 
curing onr object, is to destroy and exterminate them. That he 
has made the same proposition to the Council (General of New Or- 
leans, and has given to the gentlemen, who are Directors of die 
company of the Indies, the same opinion. 

We agree that this would be the best expedient, bat must main- 
tain that nothing can be more dangerous or more prejudicial to 
both colonies than such an enterprise, in case it should fail. It 
would be necessary to effect a surprise, and to keep them shut up 
In a fort, as in the last war; for if the Foxes escape to the Sioux, 
or to the Agouais, (Iroquois?) they would return to destroy us m 
all the Upper Ojuntry, and the French of both colonies would be 
mnable to pass from post to poet, except at the risk of robbery and 
murder. If, however, after our efforts . to cause the peace to be 
durable aud real, the Foxes fail again in their promises,. and take 
.up the hatchet anew, it will be necessary to reduce them by armed 
forces of both colonies acting in concert 

In the meantime, it is proper that M. Ds Sonru should cause to 
be restored to the Foxes by the Illinois, the prisoneis that they 
may have with them, as M. DkLignet has made the Fuxes promise 
to send to the Illinois their prisoners ; and that you do not foUoir 



Ae •xample of other oommradanto before yon, wbo hare thoeglit 
to inrimidato the FozeSi and eenee them to lay down their anna 
by barning Fox prisoners that fell into their hands, which baa 
mAj senred to irritate that people, and aronsed the strongest hatred 
against ns. 

If, with these^arrangements on the part of the Dlinois, the Foxes 
can be persnaded to remain in peace from this time a year, we 
shall be able to have an Interriew with H. Da SiarrB, at ^* Ohio»> 
gODXy" or at the Bock (on the Dlinois), from whence to make an 
appointment for the Chiefs of the Blinois nation and of tiie Bay, 
lOteen Bay), where Ibey can agtee upon the nnmbers of Finmdk 
apd of Indians, on tlie part of the Illinois and on the part of 
Qanada, who ahall meet at a fort to be bnilt at an agreed place da- 
signed for the meetings 

After this, the treaty of peace with the Foxes and their allieSi 
can be renewed, and the foliowing sammer we can c^nse '^Oncha- 
ta,** and the war-chiefs of the Foxes, with a train of their alliei^ 
the Paants, Saaks, Eickapoos, Maakoatens and Sipax, to descend 
the Lake to Montreal, where we can enqnire of them tbeir dispo- 
rition and intentions, and also learn the desires of the King lEroa 
France. 

. It wonld be apropos that Ouchata should pnblidy demand a 
chief from the French in presence of his chiefs, and of those of 
the Santems, (Ohippeways,) Potowatamies, Oatawas, (Ottaways^ 
and other nations, whom it may also be proper to bring down| 
aad a chief or two on the part of the Illinois, to be witnesses of 
the matters condoled with the Foxes, There will be no difflcnitjr 
in granting them a French o£3cer, altheugh it may not coincide 
with the wishes of the Commandant at the Bay, wbo will doubt* 
laaa be opposed to this establishment, only on account of {Mrirate 
interests, which ought always to yield to the good of the aerrice 
^ the King and the Ckilonies. 



JFPBmnZ No. 8. 



LI9UT. JAXSB OORBELl'b JOUBNAI4. 

The late venerable Robert Gilmor, of Baltimore, obtained fron 
Horatio Ridout, Esq., of Whitehall, near Annapolis, Maryland; 
qaite a collection of rare and pnriops mannscripts relative to tlie 
old French and Indian war, and among them this journal of Lieut 
(Jorrell. Mr. Ridout's father was John Eidout, who was Secretary 
to Gov. Horatio Sharpe of Maryland during the French and Indi- 
an war, and thus became possessed of these valuable papers. Mr. 
Gilmor presented them to the Maryland Historical Society. 

Francis Parkman, Esq., of Boston, when collecting materials 
for his able work on border history, the Conspibaoy of Poktiao^ 
procured a • copy of Gorrell*s journal, and has kindly commtini- 
eated a transcript of it for the use of our Society. So interesting 
k memorial of the early history of Wisconsin, never before pub- 
Ushed, cannot but be received with favor. 

Of Gorrell himself, it is to be regretted that we know so little. 
In addition to this journal, he left another of Maj. Wilkins' expe- 
dition from Niagara to Detroit, in the fall of 176S. Tliis is the 
last trace we get of him. As his name does not appear in the 
British Army Register for 1780, of which we have a copy, it would 
seem that he had died pri^r to tliat date. 

A few explanatory notes are added by the editor to the journakL 

L. a D. 



UBOT. JAMBS' QOBBBLLB. JOURKAL. . 

OooimeneiDg at Detroit, September 8tb, 1761. und ending §t Montreal, 'Aognal 13tl^ 
1763, oentainiDg an accouut ofseTeral coanciW held with the Indians ;^aIso, ahowhig 
*• lillaiBj tawl bf tUe OnadlMia h &in6pt Vtuf fndiAM, attd eselt^ th^M agntnat tkk 

I 
Detroit, Sept. 8, 1761.— Captain Belfour of the 80th Regt., waa 

cnr^ered to march with a detachment of the 60th and 80th Hegts.^ 

to take possession of, and leave garrisons at the posts on Lakes 

Huron and Mitchicon, vi^., at Mishamaklnat, La Bay,* after- 

ivarda called Fort Edward Augustus, and St. Josephs. 

Sept. 28th. — We arrived at MisUamakinak, wb^ Capt. Belfom* 
called. a council of what chiefs of th^ IiKlians were then there^ 
and jgave them a belt and some strings of wampum. Here we left 
Lieut. Leslie^ of the Eojral Aiuerican or 60th Eegt.) with one 
aergt, one corporal, one drummer, and twentj-fivo privatiea of th9 
^ame regiment. 

Oct l.—The r^st of the detachment sailed with a fair wi^d for 
Ia Baj i went that eveuiog stxteeA com^put^d leaguea, and nafy 
irithstanding we were detained by contrary wiuds, &c.| four daj$ 
Mt the Grand Eir^, we arrived at La Bay on the 12th, which isf 
conaputed eighty leagues from Mishamakioaky at a time wbeji 
there was but one family of Indians in the village— they being gom 
a hnntin^, according to their custom, at this time of the year, and 
return commonly in the months of April, May, and June, accord- 
ing to the distance they go, and the openness of the season. There 
were several Frenchmen who had gone up the river that forms the 



* Thb taking poasearion of theae western posts prrTioualy occupied by the French) 
I in eonaeqoeiice of the conqtieet of Canada ths pi'etiona year Hy tiia Xngliifa and 
IMnyal Inroe^ Mnd «• aannftdtfr oMIm Mairqdiarda Vhvdrtul^ Ooioraar OewMft^l 
Caaada ; and Za &jf waa oar own Graan Bay of Wiaconaia, or,as the early French wri* 

««n taiaaed it, la Ba^dn PuohU. 

'• . » • ' ' 'if * I . , 

4 



Bay which eames from Lake Puan,* aboat fonrteea leagues up. 
Theee traden hare aiace gone up as far as the Sousf oooDtrj, 
near two bimdted leagues firom La Bay, and as thef went past 
this post, notwithstanding those yerj Frenchmen were employed 
hj the English traders from Montreal that came to Mishamakinak 
bjTirtue of Gen. Gage's license, did all that laid in their power 
to peisoade the Bay Indians to fall npon the English on Hmt way, 
as they heard of our coming, and telling the Indians that the Eng- 
lish were very weak, and that it could be done v^ry readily. Spme 
of the joung warriors were willing, but an old and great man of 
the Sack Nation whom they call Akih a (and whom the French 
call DiRDO,) told them they were the £nglidh dogs or slSTes no^ 
that they were conquered by the English ; that they only wanted 
his men to fight the English for them, but he said they should not, 
and called the French old sqaawe, and obliged the warriors to de- 
sist, which tbey did, and went to their hunting. I was informed 
by an English lad, and a New England Indian that was with tfiem, 
of this in the spring following, but when I got an English interpre- 
ter, the Indian told me of it, as will appear hereafter. 

We arrived at, and took post at La Bay, the 12th October i 
found the furt quite rotten, die stockade ready to fall, the honees 
without cover, our fire wood far off, and none to be got when tlie 
river closed. Hie 14th, Oapt Belfour departed, leaving me wiA 
one Serg't., and corporal, and fifteen privates at La Bay, a FreoclL 
interpreter, and two English traders — viz : Messrs. McKay from 
Albany, and Goddard from Montreal. 

When I left Detroit for St Josephs, and had received my orders 
from Capt. Donald Campbell, of ye 60th or Royal Ameridan 
Begt., I found in his orders very little respecting Indians, for 
which reason I applied to him to know if he had any other in- 
structions, upon which he referred me to Sir Wm. Johnson:^, who 
was then there, to whom I applied. He tuld me verbally that an* 
less I didmy best to please the Indians I had better not go thara} 

WinntlMgo Laki^ t SImx. 1 8«|Mriat«dMlof ikf JTodbtn Intluui Pgpailmit 



k» told me hi wmM \%m^ belH of WMbpvm witli€s|it CUmplMl 
M wm at the eouMil WM orer, te be moi^ to the different • ]k^ 
though I never receUred any, at I imagine the oap^im nevoid bad 
k m hie power to send them, rrademtandiiig diomyc after tnj 
tahiair eomoaumd of the poet^ thai there was a iraet nnmbef 
oi Indiana dependant on it, more than waa erer thooght of, I 
found that I should have to Bend to Detroit for bolts to give them 
on their arrival in the spring. For this purpose, I at three differ- 
ent times attempted sending expresses, both hj way of St. Josephs 
and Mishamakinak, but I could never do it , 

Therefore, as I could not get any from Petroitg and eonld not df 
without it, I was obliged after getting what Vr. Goddfud had^ tf 
borrow of the Indian sqnaws, and pi^ them some twelye hundred 
for a thoQsaod. I also made use of eome I had. from Lieut Br%- 
hm, which was for his own use. That borrowed from the Indiana, 
I was obliged to repay on the arrival of the first trader that 
brought wampum. So that I had six belts made, one for each na- 
tion that visited that place, but I found that some nations required 
two, some three, and some four, as they had towns. The French, 
in their time, always gave them belts, rum, aqd money, presents 
by which they renewed their peace annually. 

Nothing material happened from this till the May ensuing. — 
We mostly busied ourselves during the winter in repairing the 
fort, houses, ete , as we had by the Canadians many various ao- 
counts, differing from one another, of the Indians iutending to at- 
tack us, which accounts we had all the reason afterwards to bor 
lieve were propagated to hinder the trader from coming up to tliat 
poet 

Some few young men of the different tribes or nations of Indi- 
ans came at different times to know how they would be treated, 
and were agreeably surprised to find that we were fond of seeing 
them, and received them civilly, contrary to the account given 
Aem by the French^ They asked for amunition^ which I gare 
Aem at different tines, aa also sent flour te some- of their old 
men, who, they said, were sick in t^e woods. There being no 



IIBitofNi^e'«l ooMurriYa}^ ive^lmd m ^oumU MA them until. Oii 
jUd pf'lSmj^ 176Sk on which I ^Hw^red tbe fi^wisg sj^eecbt i)m 
tkitk of Um SV>lkfi AroioeSi^ aid^f tb« tbrae Pvaa okief8, being 
pMaeoi; mid agreeaMjr ta nly orden fiK>m Oapt Campbell^ IgKv% 
m^m belts of vampnni, aatd fttilug^ of the same, for the retoni of 

BitOTHKiis!— As you may have lost some of y'r brothers in the 
war in which yon imprudently engaged with the French againat 
your brothers, the English, and tho* by it you ought to have 
brought a just indignation upon you, yet we will condescend so 
flit to fot*get ifhatever hath happened, thatl am glad to take fhis 
opportunity to fcondole with you on the loss you Lav* met with. 
At the same time, by thetre belts, I wipe away all the blood that 
wai spilt, and bury all your 1>rdth«r6' bones that remain unburied 
on the face of the earth, that they may grieve you no more, as my 
Intention is henceforward, not to grieve but to rejoice among you. 

1^ BkothersJ — 1 hope also by these belts to open a passage to your 
hearts, so that you may always speak honestly and truly, and 
drive away from your heart all that may be bad, that you may, 
like jour brothers the English, think of good things only. I light 
also a fire of pure friendship and concord, which affords a heat 
sweet and and agreeable to those who draw nigh unto it; and I 
Ifght it for all Indian nations that are willing to draw nigh unto it 
I also cleaf agreat road from the rising of the sun to the setting of 
the same, and clear it from all obstructions, that all nations may 
travel in it freely and safely. 

Brothebs! — As you must know the arms of the great King 
Qeorge have entirely subdued all the French dominion in Canadai 
as you .must also know the just causes that obliged him to make 
those conquests, in consequence of \vhich, and agreeably to terma 
of capitulation made last year, by which, as before mentioned^ 



^Tiie Frtach dftxM giten to the McfDottODtct, netnlDg Wild (hh, fcUvdiiig t» <k^ 
WWiin^lriiidigmvataiMiaaitiyia ift» f»\ntltf,mA AmiitIiM ibigrteifeA 



CkM^a, wMb all iteiiepMAiqpiet, ivm«o#M to the lkgigtikirti#4 

mj maitar $aA jom fathsc, I aQi«#iit fatn tb ]bm(> tiM b^i*«rd«r 

mud adminitier tha 8triol6al jdatioe mmongvt yna^ a» i^ icpvolMl 

all Hw Indiam^libt irUi bj their good behafior dieetre hk refrt 

boantj. He halh also recommended it to all his subjects who am* 

cQine amoQgrt yoa ta Uade, to l^io^ wiiaie?9r iiaeissiMies yoa aanj 

want, and sare joa the trouble of going so far yourselves i iii.imi« 

sequ<»ice of whicb, I hare .brought one along with qte,. wlv>y 709 'U 

flnd, will use your people well and seU eyerything as, cheap a4(o»-^ 

iible to them, wbichiSome of themha^e already e^erienced, There^ 

forei I hope you will, on youx part,,beUaye well» and give oouvincuiA 

proofs of your £po4 intentions to keep a good understanding wjj^ 

b\m by paying him always whatever he may credit yon, aa yfor 

brothers the English do, U you have any just eon^laints agaii\8A 

bim$ or any others of the Er^Ush pr French ^ad^srs, oc pegp^i 

otherwise employed aipongsf; you, let me know, and joi^^u^ da^ 

pend npon having justice done yout Xt is for thest^ purposes that 

. I am sent here, which you may plainly see by my brii%ing fem 

men with me; and always depwd that I shall he glad'toa^rre 

yo9ia doing justice. In one. word, by these belts^ I renew aq4 

Qpn&rm all the trejatie^ and covenauts of peaoe which for^erlj: 

Bnb^stedbetiweenyaprances^rsaod onrs^ which waa lait^ly ^ 

nf wed by your neighboring chiefsat Nit^gara.and Detroit. I m 

iptect you'll hold fast and often recosd it in yonir miuda» as b|f that 

means you'll study yqur interest, and over g^va aa g^ proa^ef 

y^nr fnendi^ip and gpud a^aaning towards ^s^ I alfo reoosMn^ 

it to yon to take care and use weU all whjo. have or mi^ oomei ^wi 

look npon them as y^nr friends aad brothexs, as thej^ f re ai^'^tl 

of His M^esty, and we form-one body and blood;, and siacis wft 

iwa j^ed by friendship, henceforth we shall be one.people. ? 

Bs0iaBBs:*-^Io eooseqnaape of this and Ibeeeveeal treatiei kelA 

wdtb joa and your neigiibearing ohiafii atKiagara, Detmitand Miah« 

iiiMlB»d(,thaae stfii^are toopanyonreyesaad liaarts^:to l^tlon^ 

tbelr eaampk^'t^ briag in alLtheS&^iih prisontra who yek remaii 

witb yan or your pafpk, thatlbeT' may faaiet^Msd to* m. Tm 



ws TOQ'lii have joor Uood widi «»f natioD. Yaw giaal fiidMr, die 
Kkig, will be vary angry if joa doa't aaaiiplj» and aead aivumy 
a^Ha aa tbera ala tmea in Iha ftHMl; to aompel yaa to a cooi^^ 

Hb this tha FiJltt AToinea, (m irbcea land the fort atan^, an- 
awared: 

That f hey were thankful for the good speech I had made tliem, 
aa alao for the preaenta ; and aaid tliey were yery poor, having loet 
three hundred warriora lately with the amall pox, and most of 
Aeir chiefb by the late war in which they had been engaged by 
flre then French commander he:e against the Engliah. 

That they were rery glad to find the English were pleased to 
pardon them, as they did not expect it, and were conscions that 
fhey did not merit it ; bnt that I might depend they would adhere 
to whatever instmctiona the commanding English aflScers might 
give them, fbr the fatore, aa they had always done with regard to 
flie Frenth. 

' They begged I wonld aend for a gnn-amith to mend their gans, 
aa they were poor and out of order ; the French, they aaid, hid 
always done this for them, and their neighbors at MiahamaliDift 
had had thia favor granted them. They aaid the French com- 
mandant always gave them mm as a true token of friendship. la 
ftgard to prisoners, they said they had none amongst them, nor 
aver had ; for what English prisoners they had taken dnrlog the 
war, they had always left at Montreal. They expressed great 
aatiaiWction that the English traders were coming among them, 
and aeemed deairona that they shoold continne to come, aa diej 
found by Experience thattbe gooda were half cheaper than when 
the French were amongst them, and aaid they wonld nse tbe tra* 
4eni well, obIi|^ theif yonng nian to-pay their cradita, and asiared 
me they would willingly partake the inflnenee of the pore fira of 
Criendablp I bad li^tad for them. They tfaankad ma for jny ad^ 
fiaa in de^ririg tbam hoqeatly and aincarely to apaak thair aaoti* 
HMtftai which tfaay dwa^a\woald da/ and acgnaint nv wMi any 



UAiah DuAmli^t bewMigttihMH or (1m MigfUboHag ladfam 
Kutioiia^ ai there were Ave loofe tbel 4eytaded on. tliM }ki«1 
Tbej retnned ihnukg to the gneat 6od for eending them each a 
diqr fvr Ibeir oooncili ^hich the/ loekad upon aa aa omeo of kt(< 
is^ peace with them. 

To whieh I gaT« the following anewer : 

Thai I woaM write to CHpt Oampbe'l, coinmanding at tli# 
Detitrftyfor a gUB-tmith ae soon aepoesihloi and made no doubt he 
wenU iend one. To their reqaest for mm, I told tbem tiiat their 
great iather, King GeorgOi knowing that they were poor, by being 
eo hsig At war, had ordered no mm to be brought amongst them 
to aell, lest they should neglect their clothing, their wires and 
ebildren, nntil snch time as they might be clothed, whidi I hoped 
wonld be in a few years. 

The Pnan Ohief retnmed the same answer with the rest, with 
a demand for a gan-smitb ; and added, that he wonld send the 
good road 1 had given him, meaning the belt, to the two other 
ehiefs of his nation, and he did not donbt they wonld come down 
Tory soon. 

No Indiana came here till the 29th, when a party of Toways,^ 
who liTed at Little Detroit, arrived. I apoke to tbem aa I ha4 
done to tbe rest, and gave them etringD of wiunpnm for the retard 
of prisoners, and made thiDm some small presents. \s they lay 
between this and Misham^ini^t:, tiiey promised they wonld nse 
tbe English and French well who would be coming thither. They 
went a way well pleased. 

Jane Stfa, 1762.— Ambassadors i^rom the Sacks and Eeynards, 
with a chief belonging to the second Puan town, arrived here, to 
whom I made a speech to th^ same purpose, and a^so gave them 
each a belt and strings of wampnrh. Tlieir answer Svas nigh to 
the same purpose as tbe former, wiih a demand for the Englieh 
traders to go to tlieir town^. I told them I would wiite to mj 
commander at Detroit, and await his answer. 

* OMtwia - 



u 

I raeeiMd a Utier hun Gi^i*. OiupMl, dACtd at H^pdi ia 
Sipteinber, [^7^^] ^^^bM^ A«v^r bad an opportunity of ootfitogbe* 
Ibre flrdta Mishamaki&ak, wheroifi he Mtid that it was against tha 
Ctonerara iMtractiona to giv«'thk Indians more presentathan were 
absolatelj necessary to keep them in temper, Tbe0eordcrifliad# 
me noeasy, as I was aesnred IJeoald not k96p ao large It body of Jn- 
4Mtfi8 in tamper wAthoat.giriqg;thfimiom6Uiing, a« tbey litd al- 
wAyabaon naad to larg^ preaenta from the Freiieh; and at the 
WM tiiM, if I did not gi.¥e each nation the same I had gi^a^ 
tbeae that had been to dee m% aU wOnId ba lost to vm wd the 
aerviee* I, tharefi>re» aeoli my interpreteri who could itoqaaiafc 
Clapt. Campbell beat aboa^ it| with letters to him^aad engaged his 
foaein dt his recommendation, who had joat come from the Bona, 
country, as interpreter. He behaved yery well for a Canadian for 
sometimei but I was convinced soon to the contrary, as will appear 
ia the sequel 

There ere by both F^em^ and Indian acoountsi 89,100 Indiaa 
warriors, besides women and cbjidren, depending pu this postior 
supplies, and they are as follows : 

Taways, etc, 100 Little Detroit and IKlwacky. 

PoUea Avoines, 160 werriora. Tbey liva at La Bay, iki twoMwna. 

Paans 150 \ "^^ ^ ^^ ^^ Poana Lake» ap4 

' I over against Louistonstant. 

j Above Louistonstant, in ye. gov* 
{ emment of Louisiana. 



fMm, 3£0 



Beynarda, 860 On the River Reynard. 

Avoys,(Iowayst) 8,000 On each side Mississippi. 

fL^nm 5U1 ADD J ^^ ^^^ ®^^® Mississippi, near 800 

oam, o¥i^i¥¥ I leagues off. 

Total, 89,100 

I had an answer from Capt. Campbell as soon as qould be ezpect- 
^, in which he.wes pleased ^ signify his being satisfied that I 
l^d done all ia my power for the benefit of his Majf^sty's service^ 
fie said he had written to the Q^peral, end bad Jet him know that 
the number of Indians at my post was great, and hoped to know 
Ms £xciillency*8 orders to enable him to supply them ^((^ irJhAt 



33 

would make them easy ; at the Bame time desiring I sronld oontiaue 
to keep them io as good humor as popsible, cousistently with fru- 
galitjp He also sent ^200 lbs of tobacco for them. Lieut Leslie 
sent me 100 lbs, which I made the most of by giving it very spar- . 
inglj, as the traders who come to thia placu bring yerj little of 
that article. 

Jnne 34th. — ^Ambassadors from the Chippewas, a nation de- 
pendent on Mishamakinak, came to negotiate the adjustment of 
a qnarrel with the Folles Avoines rcepectiog a man killed at Mish- 
amakinaky belonging to the latter tribe. They brought a let- 
ter ff^m Lient. Leslie, commanding at Mishamakinak, in which 
be warmly recommended it to me to assist the Chippewas in that 
negotiation, as it would be very prejudicial to the trade and com- 
manieation between the posts if any such quarrels should take 
place ; for which purpose, I called the chiefs belonging to the 
poet together, and was under the necessity of giving them a few 
ftinall presents. 

June 25th.~Mr. Thomas Hutchins,* now Ensign, came, with 
Mr. George Croglian's instructions to enquire after Indian affairs. 
It being Captain Campbeirs orders to me to assist him, I called 
-what Indian chiefs were then thore, consisting of the Folles Avoi- 
nes, Sacks and Reynards. When he had let them know his bnsi- 
aess, they immediately demanded of him colors and commissions, 
sach as the French saperintendents used to give them ; to which 
be replied, that he would report of it to the superintendents who 
•ent him. 



* This eKrlj ABglo-Aincricao mitor to Wiaoowiii was t native of Kew Jersqr* In 
1763— '64, he aerved under CoL Bouquet at Fort Pitt, and fiab8e<]nenlljr in Weat Flori* 
da. He was in England at the commencement of the KeTolution, where hia zeal for hia 
natiTelaad caneed fatn) to reftiee temptiog oflfera, and finally led to bis im prison oiient, 
aod the Io« of twelve thousand pounda in a single day. When liberated, he went to 
France, and thence to Charleston, «here he joined the army under Gen. Oreeoa. Ho 
was aoon appointed Oeographor Genqral of th^ United States^ and, died in thai aertio* 
at Pittsburgh, in April, I7b9, He was remarkable for bis piety, chari^ and beoero- 
lanes; and waa the author of two descriptiTe works, one on PennwylTania, MaijlmiA 
YlifiBiaMid North Carolina, and the other on Louisiana and West Florida. 
6 



JqIj 12tfa. — A Rejnard came who said he was a chief, and de- 
manded leave to buy seven barrels of powder, presenting me with 
a large belt of wampum. Having reason to suspect his intentions, 
I refhsed to' allow him to buy any more than would serve him t6 
hunt, until I should have a council with his chiefs, and I gave him 
a belt, desiring his king might come to me very soon. 

Aug, 6th. — ^Three Puan chiefs, with four ambasf^adore from. the 
Avoy nation, came. I made the same speech to tnem ag to the 
rest The chief of the tbird town of the Pnans brought me a large 
belt, confirming what both the others had said before, telling me 
that be had seen the belts I had sent, and that he had never been 
at war with the English, nor could the French commander 
pursuadehim to it. He brought the other chiefs to confirm what 
he said, as be never knew any harm the Er^glish had done him. 
He made the same den)pnd for traders, with the aame promiaes of 
protection for them, and also asked for a gun-smitli, and rum. The 
Avoys then spoke, and said they had come very far, and breoght 
no belts, as they had come to see if I would shuke bands and for- 
give them, as I had done the rest. I gave t^em belts and strings 
of wampum fur the return of prisoners. They said their king 
would come in the spring and see me. 

Aug. 13th. — The £ing of the Sack Nation came, to whom 
I made a speech of the same purport as to the rest, and his 
anawer was nigh the same ; that he had seen the good road I bad 
given his brothers, but as be understood I would not let any Engi» 
lish come amongst them till he came to see me, he had left home 
in company with 250 of his warriors to wait on me and know my 
commands, and also to get English traders ; but as the news came 
iiflter him that the town was threatened with an invasion by the 
Ible Anoix* Indifins, he had to send his warriors back to guard the 



* FHote^ly flie IllHtvU Inclim& Ilfnms, iiccordiD|r to f^«Hberlf«rque(!«, mei&tniM 
Mbfi.'* aft If ofber Indiats coirparcd yfUh ih<m wipre more berate It i« roisible. thai 
the f Mlumft aUuded tto by Lieut. Goirel), belocg^d on aoli^e Jtte diusc h'oix or \^ alanl 



as 

iwomen aod childrto. As I had nofr giviena goad road, h^ inBd4 
take care to keep it open and c'ear, and if any t'ees siyiiild apiMK 
op to obstrnct the waj, lie would not only beat .tbem dowa, but 
tear them np b j the roots. He. brought with him a pair of FreiM^ 
colors, flying on board bis eanoe, and ej^oused hiniseH by faying 
he knew no differencOi an4 hoped I would give himSqglieh cc^% 
which I did, and h^ burnt the French ones, X also g^f e Mnpi \fL 
belt of wampum and other presents. He was the only Indii^L 
that disapproved of rum being given to the Indians. He. ha4 
never seen an English officer before. He showed me a compiiB- 
aion signed by the French super^tendeni, giving him cominand of 
the whole nation. I sent a copy of it to Oapt. ' Campbell^ aud 
promised the Indian, at the same time, tiiat he should have one 
irom Ae English. 1 

Au^. 2l8t.-^A party of Indians came from MUwacky,* and fle- 
mauded credit, whfch was refusecl, as » they properly belong- 
ed lo Mishamakipak. They also, made great complaint of the 
trader amongst tlient) hu^ as he pa^ie from MidhamakiAak^ anfl 
did not touch at thi^place, I desired them to go there and maik^ 
their com.plaint| and they Wv^uld be redressed. Th^y promised, to 
come to .this place to trade in the spring.; I made th^m a smaU 



* This m the eiili^ notice* it is bslisred, of MUwcfukm, suit iodicstts Uisi it vip 
thes. 1763, quite as lod^n towD, with an English trader residing, there. Col. Aret4 
Schojier De Pejater, who commancM the Diitifih poet of MichlllimackiDac from 1774 
tfllffceMtsimi of 17t§, liiu left s Tb]4ime of-M^lIanfieS, ib Which he haii Yeconfedlbi 
siirtsi iqe of flspseofa kedslifersd^toithB ladisis st tbsOtt«iral(mnD>of L'ifrbrtCmlH 
4^11 the shocesof Lake Ificbigaii, some-distance west of ths fctft at MlchilUmatkii^a^ ob tjff 
4th 4>f JqI/, 1779 ; in which. he speaks of '* thoae ruoegatos of Milwskie~s horrid sot of 
refimetsrj Indians.** In the same spc^h» in another connection, he alludes to" IFm- 
4i^^^p$»§oe$, s sensible <4ii eirfef Htkhe hesd of s ^frsotory tribe^'—prohsblj ihV Iffli 
wankesband, who seem not to hare been sahserriept to British t^W dtirtog the AttWll* 
ctn Revolution. According to a statement dictated bj sevenil Sac and Fox. chisft^ 
Jippcnded to Dr.ltor8e*s Report of his Incfian Tour in ISSO, J/t/-iodA-)Ke was settled bj 
Arflbfli' Rid r«ite^ snd th«fisntosfaklsrfvidtrote'jraiMMMbSA- i< # ft^^akll "Tk 
$Mb simriy Ma»mr^ 6orrsUof |h^*IiKl|k»|iftti«^4e|»ciidsii(oaJ^Bs7»iM«^^ 
llUvittl^ •• Wx»ff tb^n Mf^ie^l^ )^T,/' QU»v^ «to.*< ^ 



Ipiateni^.aiid told tbon i£ thej did^ they sLo^kl be well ttoatod 
^Mid' not imposed cm. 

Aug. ^5th.— The king of the Reynards came, to whom I made 
*tfae feame speech as to the rest. He answered to the same pur- 
^(»e with the king of the Sacks, hut he let me know that he had 
'touted those had men who demanded the seven harrels of pow- 
der ; and promised protection to all traders that came amongst 
Ws "people. I made hini a present of a stand of colors and other 
^things. 

., Sept. Ist, — The chiefs of the Folles Avoines.cameand demanded 
credit fur their young men, which the traders here granted, on the 
chiefs giving their word for payiiaent in the spring. 

From this to March Ist, 1768, nothing remarkable bappeoad, 
except the arrival of several English and French traders, some of 
whom went up the country, and most sent up the largest part of 
ifaeir g <ods. Several Indians of the nation belonging to this place, 
came in at different times during the winter for necessaries. Thid 
day twelve warriors of the Sous came here ; this nation's number 
1 have before given. It is certainly tiie greatest nation of Indians 
ever yet found. Not above two thousand of them were ever 
krmed with fire-arms, the rest depending entirely on bows and 
arrows and darts, which they use with more skill than any otiier 
Indian nation in North America, They can shoot the wil Jestand 
Jargest beasts in the,w^od8,-at seventy or one hundred yards dis- 
tance. They are remarkable fer their dancing ( the other natioiia 
tdte the i^sfakm from them. It ki«aid Hiey k^ep r^;Blar goarda 
In their chief town or metropolis, relieving once in twenty-four 
tours, and are always alert. They proffered me the command of 
tjbLeirw^rri.or$,beiDg SO5OQQ, iuBuiiiber, tokfliQp dear tl^e road I 
had opened for them. 

'',T6.ifl Ration Is al way3 at war with the Chippewas, those who de- 
«tiojed. \Mi9haBiakiAAk*. Xbi'y told7»e with wiaritttb, that if ever 
4M<6lii|ftpkw<B0; tff «ny letbcir Indta^s^ wished to obetruct the pto- 
eage of the traders comii)g up, to send" them a belt, and they 



m 

imMiliooma and iml.ih^ixl off from fshe iaoe •£ Ike fvrtii, a#Artll 
lBd£iQ» ir«fe tboir siaves^or <iogf. I 'told tiiem I waa^gWito^ 0M^ 
tbeoi, and hoped to have a laatingpedoe vitk them, etx^^tdUeaiiv/ 
log rhesanie apeech I had madd. to tkeotber ladiaDS. ; Uaj thMH 
ga^v me a Utter wrote in Frenoh, aad iwo belto of irampbia^Ava^' 
thair king, in which he expraseed great J07 eA haa):>iog *«C thaw^ 
boing £DgliBh at this post, rndgreat deaira at praking paaee^wttht 
t]»^m> and havinig E^gliab trader^.. The latter^ trai vrittttiHyM 
Fswfih tcader whoml ba4 (i^lowed to. go amongl .tbam UataMl^i 
with afprwiise of his b^harilig w^U, wbkh he; did>i)etimr(thto«iif> 
Gaaadiaii I ayer knaw^ Theiy saifl thay found the road iteif kmA^ 
and Fwld barei tarned back bvit fpi! meeting ^ ohief ^ of IhotVo^ail 
Avoinea who prevailed on them to 6ome ; bat aft. tbey Ijad iusm 
got a good.read, thej eeuld travel on it withont imr, andhepeSti^ 
aomaagi^ifii in the ap?ing.wl^'theii? king^ ^ > * [ !< rr 

» With TegB;tiftQ ttaderi^* I tdd iHAm I dwM ntft kllOw aiiy^ a? 
go amongst tham^' ad I than imderslood theySay onlof the goV^mi' 
ment of Canada, but made no doubt they would have traders from 
liiaaiaaippT in the Spring. They wewl away^ on the fed, Vxtrein^ly • 
wen pleaaed. What "whb reiuatkable, when they went ' ^0 ^giW 
danceato the people, agreeably to ttie* Ittdiao Cfnstom, tHey begaii^ 
with ibm soldiers sajing, they -^^ere t)^' peoplei wMo shouId'Halie the' 

moabhonor paid them, as they JSwight for It ; bnt being Wd 1 was* 
a^aoUIbr as well as 0(»nmander,the chief said he regarded ine^ 
donbly. . ^ 

March 25th. — ^Read letters from. Mr. Jiottridge, who Unjed /fill 
this winter, in the trading way, T>p the river ijirith the Jndjf^i|^j| 
that he understood one Goddard, a trader fromMpptreal, sent or^ 
ders to his clerk, a GanadiaO} who lay at the same plf oe with Mr«^ 
Lottridge, to send word to the Milwaeky Indians^'and d^ai^fe themi 
not to come here, but stay M home^ ai^d he would send g^ed^ (0| 
them in the spring, the. contrary to what he told,them last faU- ■ 

Several Indians came from this to the ISih May, when aioK^f) 
ttie whole nation came together from their hunting. On the 18th, 



lilRMdQffaRweilttiataome.j'ooiigiiieii had tbi^ailentd touattttefctl^' 
f<irt|aiid Mt! tbera weore sotne.Tiways beve^rdidnoidoiibt buttkey^ 
iVMUibvlptbem, upon which I called it^gether the diWft 'oi both 
jmthB^^d told, them what I ,bad b«ard of their deaign. Th^ 
T^wf|]^8 deolorad they knew nothiDg of it^whieh I belt0remi»>' 
toae,' Tbe SloUes Avaiiio&' cUefe said, if a«y thing made their 
jMog-meiK aneiUtj^ it wason aoooattl of the colors and medala' 
Mr. fioftdiiira bad^ promieed. There w<eren<j«e of the old chiellk> 
IuMmI al^lie timid, bnt a few^diiy s' later Ihey eome ia. I held ceim- 
ei^ wtlbi tbeifeiyand in it^ hf a belt' attd tome string off wampiiniy 
J^tmto^mi bll tonAet treaties; Ttesy ail'^eeHl^ well pleased; 0BHy 
tbe;f itmted the promised coloi^ and me^lJa. Tbe chiefs wet^- 
flsndi displeased at the Carroy's gdttiiftg a present from Mr. God<^ 
terft^f a. fiAe aait of embroldordd dotheer. This Oarroy wM^ 
much thought of by the Frettch. I changed my interprettr'thc^' 
^hrinst^ and eiiip%ed tbe EcigliA Iad;of Mr, Moran^ abdiye 
meotioae^ j At which the Ifadiana weve;geMralIy pleased. 

„ JuQ^ 14th^ 1768.<--^Tbo tra^ert eaiil« dowri'fnam the Bade cosall*^ 
tl7, ai^d confirmed the DAWS of Landaing and his abn being liriltad 
by theFreiK^h. Th^re came with ibfateaderB some Poaas, and) 
foor ypnog^m^D with one ehi^ of the Avoy nation, to demand 
tradenB K>.go amongst them. Th^ promised that tora haadrad^ 
i^id fifty other mieo wonld be down ia Aagiist to trade-. I gttwm 
ihem presents. 

AfereeiiMy to Capt. CkmpbeH's letter last fall, wherein he told 
mm that he had either lost or mislaid my last yearns account, and' 
abb {from Maj. Gladwin at the stime time, I had made np my ac- 
cetint'butKfar last year and thi6 separately ; one for Capt. 0. dor- 
ibghis command, the other ibr the Major's time ; and had given 
them to Mr. Moran, a tradier going to Detroit, whb was this morn- 
ing, Jtme 15th, to set but, when abont nine o'clock came ten 
Taways and Frenchmen, and bronght the following instmctiona 
fit»ti Gspt Etherington : 



39 

'^ 3i(i8haii^akinak^ Jane lUh| 1763. 
«^I>EAB Sm: C 

^Thi8 place was taken hj sarprise on tbe fonrth instant, by t)ie' 

Ghippewas, at which time Lient Jamet and twenty more were 

killed, and all the rest taken prisoners ; bat onr gobd flriends the 

OttEwaebattetAkeaLienl Lesley, me, and elevep men out of 

their hands, and have promised ta reinstate ns agafai. T^titl' 

iherefWet, on.tbajrecei|kl 0f this, wlilch I send by a canoe of Ottar 

was^ set oa> wiAh b\\ your gar]?ison aiid wkat English ts«4^a yen 

have wit^ yon^ JU3d come wit|i the Indian who-givesiyaa tbi^whpi 

HjljLiCpndact yon safe to me^ Ton mustbe.^iire tQ Mhw t^ i^r^ 

atirqetionp^ yon rcceiye from, tbe bearer of this, asypu ar^l^ 11% 

mesans to comp to thia post before yon se^ me a( tbe village • ti^^nyf 

tj. milea from tbia. Leftve tb^ Frspc^i clerks wit^ tlnir mssti^irif) 

good9,a3 thi^CbippewMbaye off«dredno violepce to^ny F^^h^ 

man. 

"Bring with yon what provisions you can. Tour battean will 

bring yon and yonr garrison, and the merchants can come in a 

<^IM9. Tell tbe aari^to that yom are obligpsd to coriie here to 

Open Uie road which the Ohippewas haveahninp, that the nievt' 

chants ma; have leave to come to them, and the beoctrof thie.witt.* 

ai^^he fmo0 speech to the Indians. If th^re are -any Eoglkh 

tiM^ders tik^t ace not at yo\it post, ycMi mnst not: wait for them, , bat 

f^^naaiend them to theciireof the Indiana till yoa come baek| 

igj^ich will be very soon; aod if yonifind it absolately neeeasary, 

jpo. mty make them some preaenta. I otinat once more.beg jbn?tt 

leee 9^ tjime in jcoming to join me ; at the same tim% be v^ryioamf 

pgi^ apd always be, m jo9^ gnard. I long muoh to see yo% taA 

am, dear sir, 

" Tow most bramble sarv't, . 

GEO.EIHEaiNaiON. 

" Reyal Americas*'' 

^Tbll the tradei« to bring what ptoyisione they can with them, 
aartl be aura te baring all yonr amnnition ; and reeoinmead iheear^ 



40 

of the fort to the Indian chief, that jt maj not be burnt before 
your ref'urn. Let no person know b at that you are to come^traighi^ 
to the fort, as the knowledge of oar deaign might be attended wiih 
bfl^d conaequences. 

The Bame day and <kta, receivad the fbUoiiriDg from the same,' 
by aacie bearer: i- 

'^MidhiUimaekiaac, Jnne 11th, 1768. : 

' **'Ifear Sir : — I forgot to tell you before I sealed the letter I jnat 
no\r wrote you, that if the Indians I send you should want any-' 
belts to speak upon, you will give them what they want, and like-' 
wise gtre each of them a shirt to encourage them. In the other 
tetter I wrote you, I said my letter would be given you by an In- 
dian, but as the Frenchman that I sent with him has a little box, 
I gave the letter to him. Please lose no time in coming to me, 

and beliere me, 

" Tour most obedient seryant, 

"GEO. ETHEEINGTON." 

Agreeably to these 6rdei8, I gare Idie ten young OttifWM 
elothee, and also, fii^e belts of wampum to speak for the Ebgiiab, 
or rather for themselves. 

I called the FoUes Avoines chiefs together, and all their young 
flien, and informed them, with a belt, of their bh>ther Oapt 
£tHBRnfr0TO(N'e distress, (giving them large pi^sents,) and asicacl 
their counsel and assistance; whereupon they called their 
#liole town together, and all unanimonsly agreed to come along 
witii me, and sent several of their youQgmen to the lower town 
to ^isfpatch] them on their march. The seven young men I also 
clothed. 

June 17th. — I made every thit)g ready to set off with the gar- 
rison and all the English traders, but contrary winds prevailed. 

June 18th. — About 1 o'clock in the afternoon arrived ■■ 

chiefs of the Sacks, Beynards, and Puans, who said their young 
men were coming, and desired me not to trust myself and ^rrieon 
with the Taways, as they had se^n.the be^ts, and they w£re not 



sincere ; thej desire^ mp tO; stay ,|br them, which I <iid .tiU^the, 
19tli, when thej amved, and with them came one Psnnen8HA«,t— 
This Pennensha is the same man who wrote the letter the Sops 
bronght with them in March,' and at the same time held council 
yHih that great nation in favor of the English, by which he much 
promoted the interest of the latter, m' appeared' hy the behavior 
of the SoHg thereafter. He br6ught with him a pipe from the"^ 
Sons, importing that after their ambassadors or chiefs returned, 
they had called a council of most of the warriors, in which it was 
agreed to send the following speech to the Indians depending 
on the- Baye, — that I had '^received a belt from them, with d 
road plain and easy to be found ; they therefore dosifcd, that as, 
the road is now clear, they would by no means allow the ^ippe- 
waa to obstruct it, or to give the English any disturbance, or pre-' 
▼ent the traders from coming np to theiln. If they did so, tUey 

would send all their warriors and cut them off. ' ' 

- ■ , ' ■ '' i 

This speech had its desired effect, aa it changed the minds, of 
the Ottawas very much, and settled those of the rest in favor of 
tiie English interest, who came with Pennensha, very happily for 
us. When all the young men of those nations had arrived, they 
told me all their nation was in tears for the loss of two English 
traders who were killed by the French in their lands, and begged' 
leftTo of me to cut liian all in pieces. They seemed well pleased 
that I had got an English interpreter, as they could tell me thei]^ 
mind more plainly than by a Preiichman. I called a councif of 
the Four Nations, to whom I gave large presents ; and to th\s tbrdb* 
list nations, teaeh a belt. I aUo made a spaech' to &em in the 
iHMt znaniier I oonld, iaforaiing them of Oapt BTBsaoiGnov's Sfs^ 
4M88, and that I was going to relieve him if posntle, aad r^nhp 
t0 them again after we had citored the road; and that I bopedt/ 
as they had always riiown themselves brotiiers, they would g<9 
aloag>w3tii me, a^d assists in that good work. I was going to tiy* 
to reinstate their brothers and ttine, iso that ikey -might be sup<f 
plied with goods for their wives atd bhildnsn. Upon thisy the oM' 
Sack chief, whg.was wjth ^^^e.last summer, and brought the French 
« 



colon as before mentioned, addreesed the reet of the ehiefa as fol- 
lows: 

That he wrs verj sorry for the distress of his brother, the Eng- 
lish chief at MiBhamakinak, and. hoped they'd open their ejea and 
be strong and of good courage to let their new [British] Fatbei^ 
know how thej had his interest at heart, and not to beliere all ths^ . 
bad things the French had told them last winter. He then adTiaedi 
the other Indians to follow his example and show the English- how. 
mnch tbej had their interest at heart He oonld, he said, give no 
greater proof of this, than by giving himself and taking hisyonng; 
men with him, and he hoped they wonld do the same. He said, 
he knew that their new Father wonld have pity on them, and send , 
np traders. 

Ibey all agreed with this, and said they wer^ glad they.eoold 
now show the English how mnoh they loved tiiem, and that I 
should find they would keep their promise of the year before. 

By request of the Four Nations^ I sent off the ten Ottawas, to; 
inform Capt. Ethbrinoton I was coming. They promised to meeK 
me at the Fishing Place at the Pilote-Traveree. 

June, 20th. — ^The Indians busied in. gumming their canoes, ai^d, 
getting ready. 

June 3Ut-*I set out, [aecompanied by] part of the Four N%- 
iions, viz : the FoUes Avoines, Sacks, Puans, and Beynards, SiiJh 
td about fifteen leagues to the Lower FvIIes 4-voines' town-^^^n 
eafuped* 

June fi2d-^et on4|, and arrived about tea o'clock at the noatih^ 
ef the riveir, on which the Tillage stands. Went on shore; walkv 
ed np-ito the town, and was sidnted by the firing ofi gn&s by abeafe 
fil^ warrioTB of that tows, who di8chan2:ed their guns thiM timesy 
Galled a conndl and spoke to them in the same manner as I did tsi 
the ethers, and gave them large presents, They sent two diidk 
with twenty warriors with me. Contrary winds obliged na ta 
fllay all next day, being the 24th. 

' June 36Ui.*-Set out escorted by ninety warriors exclusive of 



t^likdeDelro(t,irh6r»ap4i^t7 of the CNltowas li<red, to whom I> 
gave pfMeBii, anA someiBtriDga of wamiyiiim, whieh pleaaetfthain.^ 
They sent six youDg men more with me. 

JaoeSiRh.— OosBcd theBay agdb, and encamped on a little 
ialand; 

Jane 27th. — Went about ten leagues ; encamped at the month 
of the rfver, called the Fishing Place. 

June 28th.--7^Went.to the Obippewas' fishing, place, Here th^ 
Indiana wlio were with na appre^eiiding tbey mig|it meet wi% 
die Chippewasy who might be there to waylay na, aent ashore for- 
ty warriors to reconnoitre the woods before we landed, which they 
noelly did dttring our joiirhey, iantf alwa^ made as encamp iii the 
center. Tkaf King of* the Sacks ahrays went in the battean •wfft' 
me, and wonid always lay in the tent— so great was their cikre.^— 
We waited ftr the retnrt of the Ottawas'canoea, as they ha* 
prodnsed te meet ba here ns was b^^M-etnentioned,'' but they dlil 
ttoticome. • . .. V . 

June 29th.— Bet out and came to Isle Castor.. Here we were 
alarmed with great smoke rising in the Lie, in different places, 
and at deferent times, while we were erosshig the ThlVerse ; and 
aathe Ottawas bad not inet ns accord?ng-to promiae,' onr Indiana 
ntfsfrasted their^incerity: When we came near to the Island, otir 
hidOms halted; and made all preparation imaginable for an action. 
Thisy obifged the English canoe to go in the center; the Fdllea 
AVohies went foremost, stripped ready for a($tidn. We went abonfc 
hatf 'a league, when turning a point, we saw three or four Indiana 
cn^khe ahbre^ naked,* with Kghtedpipet, who cidTed in the Ottawa 
tMgne for ita to come ashore; whi6h oar Indians did, perceiving 
tliemto be tiie Ottawas who wcte to have met as yesterday^ 
XKey bronghtme a letter from Oapt. EirsdicBiKGTOF, which, after 
passing die pipe, they' delivered. It was asfullows: 

'^ Ottawa YiLLAos, June S8tb, 1763. 
«< DsaeSib:— Yoai'a I received this morning, and am glad to 



l^t^rjronVe^^oaiiDg. Agreeably (to>y<mr detiaeii l)l»$ye swfc tfc# 

d^noe.of OltawiM to eonibiet jou to' \lm plafMS ^^^ l^^^P ^^^ 1^- 
IkiglieK y«a have togetibyer. Ibope t^see yoE fM>9^ aod mhi: 
dear Sir, 

^ " Your most obedient aod humble seirvant, 

"GEO. ETHERINGTOir.'' 

N. B.—iOn the other side was.wrot^, viz: "The Soutona* or 
Ohippewas continne their miechiefl They have plundered all the 
canoes thej have met with since I wrote jon last, and are now 
encamped on the great island near the fort, to which place thej 
all repaired on tbe appearance of a canoe. 

'*• Lt, tt. QoBBELL, Roy. Americans.'* 6. E.^ 

. We lodged oa this ialaud thie evening ; during whieh daioea 
cai&e from Misb^makinak ^ith Indians. Tfaey had.bfen ploa-. 
denng there as our Indians apprehended. . Upon their arriyalyt 
oue'of our Indian cbiefe, who had a relation, killed l|tflt saip^mw 
by the Chippewas, and thinking those Indiana or 30iue of theiiii. 
were Chippewas, went with tomahawk and knife to their canoe, t^ 
kill them ; b^t found np Ohippewas nor plunder, as they had hid 
the latter on an island apt far off. 

J;une 30th.— I set out^nd ar^riyed a^ th^ Indian yiUagpe wh^re, 
Oapt JSTBii;smGax)ir wa^^ about thirty miles aboyeMi^hamakioakf; 
Thq Ottaw^as received me w;ith great. joy, by the finng of seTei^ 
guns, three tim.es each. They also p^e^finted us with nine pipei^ 
of. peace. It was on our arrival here, t)iat we.expeoted.tobave^quf' 
alliec^' sinc^ity tried, as we heard it reported last night that, om 
our arrival; our arms would be. taken from U3, and we would be* 
come prisoneirs, like Oapt ^hbwj^^QToh and hia.pftrty, I told mj. 
Indians of it, ,at the same time letting them know that none of mj 
party should give^np their armadas this was their fiixed resolution. 
The ludians all said they would stajid by us. How/^ver, on ojxt- 
arrival, no attempt of the kind waa.n^iiie,, nor did they e^er look; 
on me or my party as prisoners — but to the contrary. 



♦ Santearq, probablj. 



J«1y Ist-^Kolliiiigofeonfleqilienoef, batfcaaftlng, flawing, And 
Bfnoking.' 

Jolj 3d.