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EDWARD L. BERNAYS
^Annotated bibliography of and
Inference (juide to writings by
and about DWARD
Public relations is today a key
activity in the United States. It
has an extensive literature. It is
taught in the universities. But
bibliography of the field is ex
tremely limited. Yet bibliogra
phy is an essential tool for an
organized approach, through re
search and study, to basic knowl
edge and viewpoints in any field.
A reference guide to published
material by and about the prac
titioner is vital today in order
to provide data for those who are
studying public relations. Hence
this book, the first of its kind.
It was decided to do a bibliog
raphy of published material by
and about Edward L. Bernays,
public relations counsel, because
of his outstanding position in the
field a position which has
prompted Time magazine and
other authorities to call him
"U.S. Publicist No. 1."
This book is an indispensable
source of information and guid
ance to published material for
all those concerned with the
practice, theory and dynamics
of public opinion and public
Fully annotated, it presents a
panorama of the growth of pub
lic relations in the United States
in the past three and a half dec
ades. Its nearly 400 references
show the development of the
profession of public relations
counsel, changing attitudes to
ward it, the public's growing
understanding. Graphically, it il
lustrates how the creative pi
oneering viewpoint of one man
has penetrated various fields of
American thought and activity.
Abstracts of books, articles and
talks by Mr. Bernays deal with
the public relations problems of
industry, education, the social
sciences, labor, government, the
Public Relations, Edward L. Bernays
and the American Scene
Annotated Bibliography of and
Reference Guide to Writings By
and About Edward L. Bernays
from 1917 to 1951
THE F. W. FAXON COMPANY
Printed in the United States of America, by
the Rumford Press, Concord, New Hampshire
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WRITINGS BY EDWARD L. BERNAYS
1. In Books 3
2. In Periodicals 9
3. Published Talks 31
WRITINGS ABOUT EDWARD L. BERNAYS
1. Mention in Books 53
2. Profiles 75
ADDENDA. . 79
THE F. W. FAXON COMPANY
Printed in the United States of America, by
the Rumford Press, Concord, New Hampshire
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WRITINGS BY EDWARD L. BERNAYS
1. In Books 3
2. In Periodicals 9
3. Published Talks 31
WRITINGS ABOUT EDWARD L. BERNAYS
1. Mention in Books 53
2. Profiles 75
ADDENDA. . 79
By any test, public relations is today a recognized profession ; it has its re
sponsible practitioners; it has a growing number of university courses; it has a
growing sense of social responsibility. It has its own training courses and it can
point to a steady growth of conscious public relations activity by profit and non
profit institutions and by government agencies with professional public relations
counsel in charge.
Most important for our purposes, public relations has its own field of litera
ture and this book will deal with a vital segment of that field.
Literature on public relations is extensive, but a check of public libraries
reveals that much of this literature is scattered in books on related subjects and
in magazines. Bibliography of the field is extremely limited.
Yet bibliography is recognized as a vital tool in providing an organized ap
proach to basic knowledge and points of view in any subject. To individuals
working in any field of research or study, bibliography is indispensable. Unfor
tunately, there has been little bibliography in public relations, principally be
cause it is a new subject. There are, to be sure, journals which cover the liter
ature in related fields, such as The Public Opinion Quarterly, but these concern
themselves chiefly with books, and do not as a rule cover even important material
appearing in magazines and other publications.
There are two important bibliographies in the general field Propaganda
and Promotional Activities \ edited by Lasswell, Casey and Smith and published
by the University of Minnesota Press in 1935; and a comparable volume pub
lished by the Princeton University Press in 1946. But even these standard works
do not include all the available material on public relations, particularly pam
phlets, booklets, quotations from books and so on.
Since there is today widespread interest in public relations, and a growing
literature about it, it was believed that a bibliography of published material by
and about the leading practitioner would provide important data for those who
are studying the field both in the universities and outside them.
Among other things, such a bibliography would show the scope and ad
vance of the profession of public relations counsel, changing attitudes toward
the profession, the public's growing understanding of it, and how a point of view
has extended and penetrated into many fields of learning. To achieve this pur
pose, the items in the bibliography would of necessity have to be abstracts of
the original material, in some cases fairly long, in order to give a clear picture of
the movement of ideas.
This work, then, is concerned with published material by and about Edward
L. Bernays, public relations counsel. This choice appeared to be ideal for a bibli
ography because of Mr. Bernays' outstanding position as a founding-father,
practitioner and theoretician.
Time magazine has called him U. S. Publicist No. 1 ; and William H. Bald
win of Baldwin and Mermey, in Two-Way Street by Eric Goldman, has said of
him: "Bernays had more to do with developing acceptance of PR and public
relations counsel than any half dozen other persons."
Mr. Bernays coined the term "public relations counsel." In Crystallizing
Public Opinion (1923), the first full length book on public relations, he defined
the principles and techniques of the field. He also broke ground when he gave a
course in public relations at New York University in 1923, the first course in
that subject ever given at any university.
While successfully practicing his profession for over thirty years as counsel
for leading American organizations and individuals in partnership with his wife,
Doris E. Fleischman, he has written and lectured on public relations, and allied
subjects, greatly advancing understanding of these fields.
In 1948-50, he was Adjunct Professor of Public Relations at New York
University; and in 1950, he conducted classes and seminars as Visiting Professor
of Public Relations at the University of Hawaii.
Because of the great amount of material by and about him in books, maga
zines and published speeches, it was felt that a bibliography based on this ma
terial could shed considerable light on the development of public relations in the
United States and serve as an invaluable guide for thosewhowish to study the field.
Since a complete bibliography on this subject would have been too large
and cumbersome, we have omitted newspaper comment or mention, all un
published talks by Mr. Bernays and magazine material about him.
The bibliography covers the period from 1917 to 1951, and is divided into
three parts, consisting of five sections plus an addenda. The first section covers
writings by Mr. Bernays appearing in books; the second, writings by Mr. Ber
nays in periodicals; the third, published talks by Mr. Bernays; the fourth, books
mentioning Mr. Bernays; and the fifth, profiles of Mr. Bernays.
Among other things, this bibliography shows how an idea spreads and gains
acceptance through the slow absorptive power of society. Listings of Mr. Ber
nays' writings and footnote references to them in various books have been
included here to indicate how his pioneer thinking in the field has influenced the
thinking of others, thereby becoming an integral part of contemporary thought.
Together the items in this book show how public relations grew from the
days when it affected a relatively small area of American life to the present,
when it involves every major aspect of our society. The writings by and about
Mr. Bernays summarized in these pages present the impact of public relations
on industry, education, the social sciences, labor, the press, book publishing,
radio, motion pictures, art, medicine, nursing, banking, trade, management-em
ployee relations, women, politics, public opinion, attitude polls, democracy, the
armed forces, government and so on.
Thus, in covering writings by and about America's leading public relations
counsel, this bibliography gives us a history of a key field as it has developed in
the United States during the past three decades.
Mr. Bernays is now at work on a book about public relations in the United
States, which will be published by the University of Oklahoma Press.
WRITINGS BY EDWARD L. BERNAYS
EDWARD L. BERNAYS
Appearing in Books
Books by Edward L. Bernays
Crystallizing Public Opinion. N. Y: Boni and
Liveright, Inc., 1923. 218pp.
The pioneer study in the field of public relations.
Now a standard textbook widely used in universities
and widely quoted.
Dedicated "To My Wife, Doris E. Fleischman,"
the work is described as follows in the Foreword by
ELB: "In writing this book I have tried to set down
the broad principles that govern the new profession
of public relations counsel. These principles I have
on the one hand substantiated by the findings of
psychologists, sociologists, and newspapermen
Ray Stannard Baker, W. G. Bleyer, Richard Wash-
burn Child, Elmer Davis, John L. Given, Will Irwin,
Francis E. Leupp, Walter Lippmann, William Mac-
Dougall, Everett Dean Martin, H. L. Mencken,
Rollo Ogden, Charles J. Rosebault, William Trotter,
Oswald Garrison Villard, and others to whom I owe
a debt of gratitude for their clear analyses of the
public's mind and habits; and on the other hand, I
have illustrated these principles by a number of
specific examples which serve to bear them out. I
have quoted from the men listed here, because the
ground covered by them is part of the field of activity
of the public relations counsel. The actual cases
which I have cited were selected because they explain
the application of the theories to practice. Most of
the illustrative material is drawn from my personal
experience; a few examples from my observation of
events. I have preferred to cite facts known to the
general public, in order that I might explain graphi
cally a profession that has little precedent, and whose
few formulated rules have necessarily a limitless
number and variety of applications. This profession
in a few years has developed from the status of circus
agent stunts to what is obviously an important posi
tion in the conduct of the world's affairs. If I shall,
by this survey of the field, stimulate a scientific atti
tude towards the study of public relations, I shall
feel that this book has fulfilled my purpose in writing
it." Part I, Scope and Functions, discusses "The
Scope of the Public Relations Counsel," "The Public
Relations Counsel; The Increased and Increasing
Importance of the Profession," and "The Function
of a Special Pleader." Part II, The Group and
Herd "What Constitutes Public Opinion?", "Is
Public Opinion Stubborn or Malleable?", "The
Interaction of Public Opinion with the Forces That
Help to Make It," "The Power of Interacting Forces
That Go to Make up Public Opinion," "An Under
standing of the Fundamentals of Public Motivation
Is Necessary to the Work of the Public Relations
Counsel," "The Group and Herd Are the Basic
Mechanisms of Public Change," and "The Applica
tion of These Principles." Part III, Technique and
Method, "The Public Can Be Reached Only
Through Established Mediums of Communication,"
"The Interlapping Group Formations of Society,
The Continuous Shifting of Groups, Changing Con
ditions and the Flexibility of Human Nature Are
All Aids to the Counsel on Public Relations," and
"An Outline of Methods Practicable in Modifying
the Point of View of a Group." Part IV, Ethical
Relations, analyzes the press and other media of
communication in reference to the public relations
counsel, and the obligations of the public relations
counsel to the public as a special pleader.
Beginning with the statement, "A new phrase has
come into the language counsel on public rela
tions, what does it mean?", Crystallizing Public
Opinion ends with the paragraph, "It is in the crea
tion of a public conscience that the counsel on public
relations is destined, I believe, to fulfill his highest
usefulness to the society in which he lives." In the
preface to the new edition, ELB also says: "In the
ten years that have elapsed since this book was
written, events of profound importance have taken
place. During this period, many of the principles set
forth in the book have been put to the test and have
been proven true. The book, for instance, empha
sized ten years ago that industrial organizations
dealing with the public must take public opinion
into consideration in the conduct of their affairs.
We have seen cases in the past decade where the pub
lic has actually stepped in and publicly supervised
industries which refused to recognize this truth. The
field of public relations counsel has developed tre
mendously in this period. But the broad basic prin
ciples, as originally set forth are as valid today as
they were then, when the profession was . . . com
paratively new. ... It seems appropriate that this
new edition . . . should appear at a time when the
new partnership of government, labor and industry
has brought public relations and its problems to the
fore. The old group relationships that make up our
society have undergone and are undergoing marked
changes. The peaceful harmonizing of all the new
conflicting points of view will be dependent, to a
great extent, upon an understanding and application
by leaders of public relations and its technique. In
the future, each industry will have to act with in
creasing understanding of its relationship to govern
ment, to other industries, to labor, to stockholders
and to the public. Each industry must be cognizant
of new conditions and modify its conduct to conform
to them if it is to maintain the good-will of those
upon whom it depends for its very life. This principle
applies not only to industry; it applies to every kind
of organization and institution that uses special
pleading, whether it be for profit or for any other
cause. The new social and economic structure in
which we live today demands this new approach to
the public. Public relations has come to play an
important part in our life. It is hoped that this book
may lead to a greater recognition and application of
sound public relations principles."
Propaganda. N. Y: Horace Liveright, Inc., 1928.
An original study of the "new propaganda" in busi
ness, politics, education, social service, art, and
science; a standard textbook on university lists of
recommended or required reading.
Sub-titled "The Public Mind in the Making," and
dedicated "To My Wife, Doris E. Fleischman,"
publisher's comment appears on jacket: "When Mr.
Bernays' Crystallizing Public Opinion was published
five years ago, H. L. Mencken said: 'I only hope that
he returns to it anon, and writes a bigger and more
exhaustive book.' This . . . is, in a sense, the answer
to Mr. Mencken's suggestion. Propaganda has be
come so necessary a part of every idea and organiza
tion striving for public acceptance that its possibili
ties and . . . limits need to be defined. In this book
Mr. Bernays analyzes the relation of this new force
to the unprecedented conditions which have called
it into being. He discusses the reasons for propa
ganda, the new type of propaganda, the new propa
gandist, and especially the new media the radio,
telephoto, and other epoch-making mechanisms for
the transmission of ideas. He approaches the ques
tion of public relations from the standpoint of the
new psychology, and of the old. Finally he discusses
the new trends in big business, social service, educa
tion, art, politics, and other forces of present-day
life. The book is the first contribution to the subject
of propaganda from the standpoint of theory and
practice, by one who has followed both phases. Mr.
Bernays has been instrumental in developing the new
profession of public relations counsel. Out of an
experience drawn from fifteen years of activity with
all kinds of individuals and movements seeking
public good will, he sets forth the ideas which his
creative mind has developed in the course of practical
experience." ELB begins Chapter I, "Organizing
Chaos," with: "From our leaders and the media they
use to reach the public, we accept the evidence and
the demarcation of issues bearing upon public ques
tions; from some ethical teacher, be it a minister, a
favorite essayist, or merely prevailing opinion, we
accept a standardized code of social conduct to which
we conform most of the time. . . ." Quoting H. G.
Wells, other authors, college professors, businessmen,
the New York Times; stating numerous statistics; re
ferring to Walter Lippmann, Trotter, LeBon, Gra
ham Wallas, as well as J. P. Morgan and George Ol-
vany while giving numerous detailed illustrations
from ELB's own experience the ten subsequent
chapters analyze and discuss "The New Progaganda,"
"The New Propagandists," "The Psychology of
Public Relations," "Business and the Public,"
"Propaganda and Political Leadership," "Women's
Activities and Propaganda," "Propaganda for Educa
tion," "Propaganda in Social Service," "Art and
Science," and "The Mechanics of Propaganda." The
last chapter contains the statement, "If the public
relations counsel can breathe the breath of life into
an idea and make it take its place among other ideas
and events, it will receive the public attention it
merits. There can be no question of his 'contami
nating news at its source' " and ends, ". . . Un
doubtedly the public is becoming aware of the meth
ods which are being used to mold its opinions and
habits. If the public is better informed about the
processes of its own life, it will be so much the more
receptive to reasonable appeals to its own interests.
No matter how sophisticated, how cynical the public
may become about publicity methods, it must re
spond to the basic appeals, because it will always
need food, crave amusement, long for beauty, re
spond to leadership. If the public becomes more
intelligent in its commercial demands, commercial
firms will meet the new standards. If it becomes
weary of the old methods used to persuade it to accept
a given idea or commodity, its leaders will present
their appeals more intelligently. Propaganda will
never die. . . . Intelligent men must realize that
propaganda is the modern instrument by which they
can fight for productive ends and help to bring order
out of chaos."
Public Relations. Vocational and Professional
Monographs. Boston: Bellman Publishing Com
pany, Inc., 1945. 23pp.
A history and analysis of the growing profession of
public relations; the personal qualifications and ap
titudes required for it; the necessary scholastic
background; employment opportunities; possibilities
for women; professional competition; advancement;
ethics of the profession and remuneration. The book
opens with a biographical sketch of ELB and closes
with a bibliography.
Speak Up for Democracy: "What You Can Do
A Practical Plan of Action for Every American
Citizen." N. Y: The Viking Press, 1940. 127pp.
In his foreword, ELB says: "American men and
women want to contribute something vital to the
fight for Democracy. And you can. This book out
lines methods for furthering the acceptance and
support of Democracy by you. Whoever and wher
ever you may be, you can play your part effectively
as a fighter for Democracy, using ideas as weapons."
The theme, aim and scope of the book are outlined in
great detail in the "Contents." The book explains De
mocracy and maps out a practical program of public
relations and community activity on "how to speak
up for Democracy." The Appendix contains The
Declaration of Independence, Jefferson's first in
augural address and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
The section headed "Statements" contains The
American Flag, The American Creed, Because I Am
An American, A Call to America issued by the Citi
zenship Educational Service; a Statement of Purpose
by the Common Council for American Unity; a
Statement of Purpose by the Council for Democracy;
and a Statement of morale issued by "an all-day
conference on national morale . . . held in New
York on September 17, 1940" by "outstanding edu
cators and publicists" under the chairmanship of
ELB. The "Education for Democracy" section lists
"correspondence courses in colleges and universities
on aspects of Democracy." "References, Bibliogra
phies" lists "books dealing with Democracy." There
is a list of books on "Holidays and Celebrations" and
"Leadership." A separate bibliography lists motion
pictures for children; there are other bibliographies
on promotional methods, public opinion and public
relations, public speaking, putting on a show, radio,
books for children, a reading list for teachers and edu
cators. Other sections deal with forums, channels of
communication, how to write to public officials, a
list of associations and societies; special occasions,
places and symbols; special days and weeks; national
shrines and monuments; national symbols; docu
ments, institutions and ideas; and events and actions.
There is also a glossary of Democratic Terms.
Take Your Place At the Peace Table: "What
You Can Do to Win a Lasting United Nations
Peace." N. Y: International Press, 1945. 60pp.
"This book is aimed at the millions of sincere Ameri
cans and the hundreds of American organizations
who are realistic about winning a United Nations
peace. ... If only thousands learn to carry on for
peace by using the tested skills and practices of the
professional public relations expert, the result will be
worth while." This book outlines public relations
techniques by which American citizens and organi
zations can help in "winning the peace."
"A practical and realistic guide book to action
. . . [on] how to mold public opinion in support of
a World Security Organization." Contents: "Chapter
I How You Can Work For the Peace (The indi
vidual is all-powerful; The common man speaks;
Economics and peace; What you can do; Strategy
and planning are needed); Chapter II Dumbarton
Oaks: The First Step (What are the Dumbarton
Oaks proposals? Yalta and San Francisco; Unified
activity is needed); Chapter III How to Make
Your Plans (Objectives; Assets and Liabilities;
Strategy; Appeals; Organization; Timing); Chapter
IV How to Use Your Tools, Publications, Radio,
Motion Pictures (Publications; News coverage ; How
to prepare material; Angling material; Interviews;
Writing techniques; Mechanical presentation; Pho
tographs and other graphic presentations; Distribu
tion of material; Radio; Motion pictures); Chapter
V How to Use Your Tools, Good Talk, Mail
Events (Talk, a psychological tool; Lecture and study
courses; Parliamentary procedure; Public meetings;
Building up an audience; Audience participation;
Speeches; Telephone; Telegrams; Advertising; Bill
boards, car cards and posters; Buttons, stickers,
movieslides; Direct-by-mail; Mailing lists; Leaflets
and pamphlets; News letters, bulletins; Planned
events; Aim at perfection; Cooperation with press;
Small display items); Chapter VI Organizing
Your Community for the Peace (Composition of
steering committee; Plan; Formation of permanent
committee; Card lists; Announcement luncheon;
Additional suggestions; Planned events; Summing
up) Chapter VII Speak Your Peace. Contents of
Appendix: Historical Background (History of Amer
ican Peace Making; The Revolutionary War, 1776-
1783; The War of 1812; The Mexican War, 1846-
1848; The Civil War, 1861-1865; The Spanish-
American War, 1898; World War I, 1917-1918);
Books and Pamphlets (Books available from trade
publishers; Books and pamphlets available from
organizations); Directories (Directories of direc
tories; General directories; Motion pictures; Press;
Radio; Government; U. S. Government Manual;
Publicity); Exhibits (Bibliography); Motion Pic
tures (Bibliography; Films available from organiza
tions; Newsreel companies); Periodicals, Books and
Manuals of Possible Interest (Advertising; Publish
ing; Motion Pictures; Public opinion and public
relations; Public meetings; Public speaking); Radio
(Broadcasts; Bibliography; Broadcasting systems;
Recordings); Press (Newspaper feature syndicates;
News services; Photographic syndicates; Foreign
language newspapers); Lecture Bureaus; Speakers;
Library Services; House Foreign Affairs Committee;
Senate Foreign Relations Committee; World Or
ganization Lists; Writing to Public Officials."
Portrait of ELB, as well as characteristic opinions
about his work, are on the back cover, "As Others
See Him . . ."
Books to Which Edward L. Ber-
nays Has Contributed
American Academy of Political and Social
Science: Annals. Philadelphia, The Academy.
Vol. 179, May 1935. 287pp.
This volume, devoted to a discussion with the overall
title "Pressure Groups and Propaganda," contains
an article by ELB on "Molding Public Opinion"
which considers "some of the high spots in the back
ground of public opinion, the field in which the coun
sel on public relations works." After analyzing the
meaning of such terms as "the public," and "group
leadership," and such factors as symbols and human
motivations, he discusses four "specific steps that
have to be taken in formulating a public relations
program." These are: (1) formulation of objectives;
(2) analysis of the public's attitude towards the in
dustry and the services it renders; (3) a study of this
analysis with a view to keynoting the approach to
the public in terms of action by the industry; this
is to be followed by the formulation of policy and a
program for educating the public; (4) the carrying
out of this program by dramatizing it through the
various media of communication, pp. 82-87.
Annals: "Public Education for Democ
racy," Vol. 198, Jul 1938. 253pp.
An analysis of public relations techniques and media
which can be used for the propagation and strength
ening of democracy.
"Today, democracy is challenged on all sides. It
is the obligation of all those who are interested in
democracy to do all in their power to strengthen it
in order to preserve it. This demands the building
up of an inner bulwark of dynamic belief and con
fidence in our democracy by all the people."
ELB continues: "Freedom of self-expression is the
essence of democracy. This freedom has been guaran
teed by our American Constitution, in the Bill of
Rights. It includes freedom of speech, of assembly,
of the press, of petition, of religion. These freedoms
in themselves create conflicts of opinion. Freedom
of opinion is, therefore, an important element in
democracy." Pointing out that "not until recently
has our democracy been assailed from within and
from without by opinions contrary to it," ELB also
says that since "it is part of our democratic Amer
ican heritage to abhor censorship, . . . the wall
against which the anti-democratic missiles are hurled
[must be made] . . . strong and impregnable, capa
ble of standing firm against any onslaught. If we are
to maintain the democracy upon which our system
rests, we must depend upon the acceptance and de
fense of democracy by all the people. ... Of course,
the very processes of democracy work toward these
ends through universal education, through our po
litical institutions, and through the exercise of civil
liberties. . . . But, in these critical times, we must,
in addition, make use of all the available socially
sound methods to help in the upholding of our de
mocracy. . . . To engage in this task of public
education, we must understand how to reach the
people with democracy's message, how to tell them
what democracy means, so that they will understand
it and appreciate it. Lip service to democracy is not
enough. It must be implemented by the will and
action of the people to preserve democracy at all
Subsequently, the analysis includes a discussion
of the "Means of Communication," "Importance of
Private Enterprise," "Linking Private Enterprise
with Democracy," and [the necessity of] "Presenting
Democracy's Values": "It is thus our duty," ELB
concludes, "to strengthen the program of public
education and public information to the end that
everyone in America may understand the social
significance of democracy, and its value for every
man, woman, and child. What we must strive for is
the achievement of that inner faith and devotion to
democracy within our people which will make them
active against encroachments on the essential liber
ties which are the basis of democracy." pp. 124-
. Annals: "The Engineering of Consent,"
Vol. 250, Mar 1947. 183pp.
ELB urges recognition of "the significance of mod
ern communications not only as a highly organized
mechanical web but as a potent force for social good
or possible evil"; declares that "leaders ... of
major organized groups such as industry, labor, or
units of government, . . . with the aid of techni
cians . . . who have specialized in utilizing the
channels of communication, have been able to ac
complish purposefully and scientifically what we
have termed 'the engineering of consent'"; explains
that "this phrase quite simply means the use of an
engineering approach ... action based only on
thorough knowledge of the situation and on the ap
plication of scientific principles and tried practices
to the task of getting people to support ideas and
programs. Any person or organization depends ulti
mately on public approval, and is therefore faced
with the problem of engineering the public's consent
to a program or goal. ..." Among other sugges
tions, he "outlines basic principles and techniques
of engineering consent . . . based on four prerequi
sites: 1. Calculation of resources, both human and
physical; i.e., the manpower, the money, and the
time available for the purpose; 2. As thorough
knowledge of the subject as possible; 3. Determina
tion of objectives, subject to possible change after
research; specifically, what is to be accomplished,
with whom and through whom; 4. Research of the
public to learn why and how it acts, both individu
ally and as a group. Only after this preliminary
groundwork has been firmly laid is it possible to
know whether the objectives are realistically at
tainable. . . . Strategy, organization and activities
will be geared to the realities of the situation."
pp. 113, 120.
American Nurses' Association. "ANA Public
Relations Workshop: A Manual of Practical
Public Relations Techniques Prepared for the
Guidance of the National Membership of the
American Nurses' Association." 1948. 32pp.
Discussing "What Public Relations Is," ELB says:
"Good public relations for the nursing profession
depends upon two distinct conditions: the first is
that you understand the public and that the public
understands you; the second is that you meet the
needs of the public for nursing service." ELB then
outlines strategy and tactics by which nurses can
carry out a successful public relations campaign.
Bernays, Edward L., ed. "An Outline of Careers:
A Practical Guide to Achievement by Thirty-Eight
Eminent Americans." N. Y: George H. Doran
Company, 1927. 431pp.
In his introduction, ELB says: "This volume is the
work of men and women who appreciate the im
portance of placing in the hands of the youth of this
country information concerning all phases of pro
fessional and industrial life, so that they may choose
their careers with a broad as well as a detailed under
standing of what any branch of activity may hold in
store for them." Among the 38 contributors are
Reeve Schley, Vice President, Chase National Bank,
on banking; Ray Long, Editor-in-Chief, Interna
tional Magazine Corporation, on editing; John Hays
Hammond, on engineering; J. Butler Wright, Assist
ant Secretary of State, on the foreign service ; Roy W.
Howard, Chairman of the Board, Scripps-Howard
Newspapers, on journalism ; Dr. William Allen Pusey,
Ex-President of the American Medical Association,
on medicine; Dwight F. Davis, Secretary of War, on
the Army; Jesse L. Lasky, Vice President, Famous
Players-Lasky Corporation, on motion pictures;
Henry Sloane Coffin, President, Union Theological
Seminary, on the ministry; Joseph P. Day, on real
estate; David Belasco, the stage. The chapter on
"Public Relations" by Edward L. Bernays, pp.
285-96, is preceded by the following biographical
"Bernays, Edward L., b. Vienna, Austria,
Nov. 22, 1891; s. Ely and Anna (Freud) B;
prep. edn. De Witt Clinton High Sen., N. Y.;
B. S. Cornell U., 1912; m. Doris E. Fleisch-
man, of New York City, Sept. 16, 1922. News
paper work, New York, 1913-15; planned
first performance of 'Damaged Goods,' 1913;
publicity rep. of theatrical managers and
stars; mgr. Russian Ballet Tour in U. S. for
Met. Opera Co., 1915-16; pub. mgr. Met.
Musical Bureau, 191617; mgr. Caruso and
other musical stars, 1917-18; served as mem.
U. S. Com. on Public Information at Peace
Conf., Paris, 1918-19; reemployment ex-
servicemen, U. S. War Dept., 1919; counsel on
public relations to governments, industries,
corpns. and trade orgsn. since 1919; asst.
Commr. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Paris
Expn., 1925. Lecturer, New York U. on pub
lic relations. Clubs: Newspaper, Cornell (New
York); Author: Crystallizing Public Opinion,
1924; (with others) Broadway Anthology,
Bijur, George, ed. "Choosing a Career" N. Y:
Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1934. 274pp.
Collection of speeches delivered at the First Choos-
ing-A-Career Conference for College Men and
Women. Contains an address by ELB on the career
of "Public Relations." Mr. Bernays is described as
"Public Relations Counsellor to Governments, In
dustries, Organizations and Individuals." pp. 143-
Boston Conference on Distribution. Proceedings
of Twenty -Second Annual Boston Conference on
Distribution held in Boston October 16 and 17,
1950, auspices Retail Trade Association of the
Boston Chamber of Commerce in cooperation
with Harvard University Graduate School of
Business Administration, Boston University
College of Business Administration, Massachu
setts Institute of Technology and others. 1950.
The section of the proceedings devoted to "De
veloping Executive Leadership: A Survey of Opin
ion among 70 Leading American Executives Con
ducted by the Boston Conference on Distribution,"
contains a contribution by ELB. He says that "we
here in America are in a worldwide movement toward
recognition that the promises made in documents
like the Declaration of Independence and our Fed
eral Constitution the promises of American life
must be increasingly fulfilled. This program of ful
fillment includes for all the people, proper education
and training, stable employment, adequate reward,
shelter, clothing and leisure pursuits, advancement
on merit, the opportunity to exercise deserved leader
ship, freedom, equality and orderly justice and com
plete integration of the individual with the com
munity and with society as a whole."
The obligation to fulfill this program, according
to ELB, "rests in great part on the men who control
the economic aspects of our society as managers,
trustees or proprietors of American businesses
large and small. These men must have an intellectual
grasp of the world in which they live and operate.
. . . Accordingly, business has to recruit its leaders
from a group that has been trained to deal with prob
lems of business and of leadership and has been
steeped in the knowledge of the society in which we
live and in the American tradition." p. 1 19.
The Broadway Anthology. Bernays, Edward L.;
Hoffenstein, Samuel; Kingsley, Walter J., and
Pemberton, Murdock. N. Y.: DufHeld & Com
pany, 1917, 60pp.
This collection of verse by leading press agents of the
theatre and music contains ten poems in free verse
by ELB: Accidents Will Happen satirizes a. tenor's
passion for publicity; The Baritone describes how a
famous Metropolitan singer wanted to ride on the
cheapest train; Patriotism pokes fun at a wartime
orchestra; The Pillow Cases tells of a singer who
transported his own baggage on a concert tour;
Better Industrial Relations describes the adventures
of a publicity man; The Prima Donna tells how an
opera star refuses to talk to her press agent because
a great international disturbance kept her photos out
of the papers; Press Stories, Tears and Photographs
also deal with the relations of press agent and star.
"Though bandsmen's notes from the street
And the voices of jubilant masses proclaim a
I painstakingly pick out words on the type
By fits and starts, thinking up a story about
the great Metropolitan tenor."
Bryson, Lyman; Finkelstein, Louis; and Mac-
Iver, R. M., ed. "Approaches to Group Under
standing": Sixth Symposium of the Conference
on Science, Philosophy and Religion. N. Y:
Harper & Brothers, 1947. 858pp.
Chapter X, "The Public Relations Counsel and
Group Understanding," is by ELB. pp. 100-106.
See Addenda, Item 5.
"Learning and World Peace" Eighth Sym
posium of the Conference on Science, Philosophy
and Religion. N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 1948.
Chapter XXXVIII, "Mass Education, Idea Com
munications, and the Problems of National Sanity
and International Cooperation," is by ELB. pp.
411-417. See Addenda, Item 6.
Chase, Stuart; Ruttenberg, Stanley H. ; Nourse,
Edwin G. ; Given, William B. Jr. "The Social
Responsibility of Management. See Addenda,
Ghilds, Professor Harwood L., comp. "A Refer
ence Guide to the Study of Public Opinion." With
a Preface by Edward L. Bernays. Princeton,
N. J: Princeton University Press, 1934. 105pp.
ELB says that "today public opinion plays so im
portant a role that few people can say justly that
they are not concerned with the subject." p. iii.
Cousins, Norman, ed. "A Treasury of Democracy."
N. Y: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1942. 306pp.
The chapter entitled "Living Affirmations" contains
a section by ELB in which he says: "Democracy
values individual dignity and worth; guarantees the
five freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly and
petition; safeguards private property; practices or
derly and open justice; functions by majority rule;
makes security, social and economic, its ideal; as
sures the education of all; and places on the indi
vidual the obligation to serve the state. . . . Though
democracy has not been completely achieved in this
country or anywhere else, it is a way of life, an ideal,
toward which we have been moving and will move.
. . . America has today the strongest force in the
world the free human will and a free people.
. . . We are careful in making laws to prevent one
group from hurting the interests of other groups,
which is the essence of democracy." pp. 168-169.
Dryer, Sherman H. "Radio in Wartime." N. Y:
Greenberg, 1942. 384pp.
Chapter II, "The Secret Weapon," contains a "Com
mentary by Edward L. Bernays, Counsel on Public
Relations and author, associated with the United
States Committee on Public Information in World
War I," pp. 71-77. Here ELB suggests that to meet
the needs of World War II, radio should act as a unit
"and of its own volition," name "a board of strategy
which will include experts in psychology, public
opinion, radio programming and communications to
set up blueprints for a balance of entertainment and
escapism, of war information and, of course, criti
cism, and a line to follow as to timing, proportion,
content, theme, emotion and reason." p. 77.
Ettinger, Karl E., ed. "Public Relations Directory
and Yearbook." Vol. I, 1945. N. Y: Public Rela
tions Directory and Yearbook, Inc. 855pp.
In the "Editorial Section," ELB contributes a
chapter entitled: "Public Relations Counsel
Evolution of a Profession." This is an historical
survey and analysis of the profession.
"Since 1900," ELB says, "there have been four
periods of evolution in public relations as a profession
in the United States. The first 1900-1914 was
a battle between muckraking on the one hand and
white-washing publicity efforts on the other. The
second 1914-1918 was marked by an effort by
our government to sell the American people our war
aims and war ideals in World War I. The third
1919-1929 saw public relations activities in the
industrial field developing, in part, from principles
and practices successfully tested in the Great War.
Since 1929, American public relations activities have
been devoted mainly to efforts in commerce and
industry, to bring about adjustment between private
interest and public responsibility. These last two
periods 1919 to date have brought forth public
relations literature and periodicals, a strengthening
of ethical standards, a broadening of scientific prac
tice, a spread of academic study and research, and a
general recognition of the importance of the new
profession by the great social forces of our country."
ELB then traces the history of definitions of the
term "profession." He quotes Crystallizing Public
Opinion, which he published in 1923, and in which he
defined the term "public relations counsel," which he
"The literature has expanded," he continues. "In
1928, our analysis, 'Propaganda The Public Mind
in the Making' was published. Our organization for
ten years issued 'Contact,' a four-page leaflet on
public relations. In 1934, we were successful in in
stigating at Princeton University the publication of
a bibliography, 'A Reference Guide to Public Opin
ion.' We assisted Princeton in the inauguration of
the Public Opinion Quarterly. . . . In 1937, we
surveyed public relations training at American uni
versities and found that throughout the country
there were many courses preparing men and women
for this new profession. The findings were published
in a pamphlet 'Universities Pathfinders of Public
Opinion.' " [See page 9 of this bibliography].
After surveying the courses in public relations and
related subjects given at American universities,
ELB quotes the definitions of "public relations" and
"public relations counsellor" given in the Dictionary
of Sociology, published in 1943. "Thus," ELB con
tinues, "we see the principles set in 'Crystallizing
Public Opinion' twenty years previously, and in
'Propaganda' five years thereafter continually
being validated: groups and leaders are the basic
mechanisms of public change ; groups and leaders can
be reached through established media of communica
tion, with the application of insight and method; and
there is a definite ethical standard to guide the work.
Public relations, engineering of consent, opinion
management, the techniques of leadership, or what
ever it may be called, has exerted a powerful influ
ence on the world in every phase of activity. . . .
The counsel on public relations continues to play
an increasingly growing role in bringing about better
adjustment of all the constituent groups of our
In his historical survey of public relations, ELB
discusses the role of the muckrakers, Theodore
Roosevelt, General Motors, General Electric, Amer
ican Telephone & Telegraph, Light's Golden Jubilee
which ELB handled and other high points in the
development of the profession.
The chapter concludes with a list of books by ELB.
Friedrich, C. J., and Mason, Edward S., eds.
"Public Policy. A Yearbook of the Graduate
School of Public Administration, Harvard Uni
versity." Cambridge, Mass: Graduate School of
Public Administration, 1942. 275pp.
Part I, "War Morale and Civil Liberties," contains a
chapter by ELB on "The Integration of Morale,"
pp. 18-32; "To achieve a continuously strong mo
rale, we need physical and emotional well-being, a
common goal, common leaders we can trust, and a
belief in one another." Footnote reference in David
Riesman's chapter on "Civil Liberties in Transition"
to ELB's books Crystallizing Public Opinion and
Propaganda, p. 82.
In this discussion of wartime morale, ELB calls for
a threefold approach to make "America's morale
. . . impregnable. . . . First, activities aimed at
speaking up for democracy, defining, explaining, ex
pounding what democracy is and is not; second,
activities aimed at strengthening democracy, making
it work better, so that all may know what we are
fighting for; third, a morale commission appointed
by the government to give counsel and advice to
men in the government so that they may function
more democratically and more efficiently. . . . Our
first real line of defense is in our minds. They can
ensure that our arms shall defend what they were
created to defend. ... A strong national morale is
behavior which affects our national interest. . . .
Group morale is the fusion of individual morales.
. . . Certain basic premises underlie the building of
a strong morale: (1) The American people have
already committed themselves, their money and
their manpower to the war effort. They have pro
vided for the physical defenses. (2) Democratic
leadership in government is called for to provide the
psychological defenses that will fill the need for
psychological and physical security." To build mo
rale, ELB recommends democratic activities per
suasion, suggestion, education, above all, truth.
Specifically ELB recommends: (1) The education
of the public in the meanings and importance of
democracy; (2) one centralized government author
ity to give out facts, to correlate and coordinate the
activities of the many scattered information agencies
this body to be headed by a technician in mass
communications; (3) make democracy work better;
(4) a master plan for public relations in morale
building to be worked out "by technicians drawn
from the fields of the social sciences, sociology, psy
chology, ethnology, adult education, economics, the
army, the navy, public opinion, communications,
public relations." ELB concludes: "To achieve a
continuously strong morale, we need physical and
emotional well-being, a common goal, common lead
ers we can trust, and a belief in one another."
Gaige, Crosby. "Dining with My Friends: Adven
tures with Epicures." N. Y: Crown Publishers,
In a section "Edward L. Bernays" the author says:
"On a buttered papyrus scroll from the Bernays
kitchen come suggestions for a luncheon and a dinner
with the recipes for cooking that great delicacy
Crab Almondine, and for a rich and satisfying Dutch
Apple Cake," p. 11. This is followed by two Bernays
menus, one for luncheon, the other for dinner, with a
recipe for each dish, pp. 12-13.
Maclver, R. M. ed. "Unity and Difference in
American Life: A Publication of the Institute for
Religious and Social Studies." N. Y: Harper and
Brothers, 1947. 168pp.
"Series of addresses and discussions" at the Institute
deals with Group Relations and what can be done to
achieve better relations in America. Chapter X is
ELB's address What Business Can Do, pp. 131-141.
This is followed by a discussion in which ELB par
ticipates, pp. 141-142.
MacLatchy, Josephine H. "Education on the Air."
Thirteenth Yearbook of the Institute for Edu
cation by Radio. Columbus, Ohio State Uni
versity, 1942. 310pp.
Panel Discussion on "Radio in Wartime-Radio and
Wartime Morale" conducted by ELB as presiding
.. "Education on the Air." See Addenda,
Universities Pathfinders in Public Opinion.
In Collaboration with Doris E. Fleischman.
N. Y: Edward L. Bernays, 1937. 38pp.
A survey conducted by ELB and Doris E. Fleisch
man among university leaders "to ascertain broadly
the scope of academic attention given to the subjects
of public relations and opinion management." Com
ments are included from Harold D. Lasswell, Associ
ate Professor of Political Science, Chicago University;
Marjorie Nicholson, Dean of Smith College; Louis C.
Boochever, Director, Department of Public Informa
tion, Cornell University and 31 other university
10 Eventful Years. Chicago: Encyclopedia Bri-
tannica, Inc., 1947. 4 vols.
A record of events of the years preceding, including
and following World War II 1937 through 1946
prepared under the editorial direction of Walter
Yust, editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Article
by ELB on "Public Relations" with bibliography,
Vol. Ill, pp. 672-673. Article gives general descrip
tion of public relations of the period, diversity of
users, rise of publicists and publications. Acknowl
edgment under "Contributors with principal articles
written by them":
"E.L.B's., Public Relations. Edward L. Ber
nays, Counsel on Public Relations, New York,
N. Y. Author of Crystallizing Public Opinion
and Propaganda," Vol. I, p. viii
EDWARD L. BERNAYS
Advertising and Selling. "A Public Relations
Counsel States His Views." Vol. 8, No. 7, Jan 26,
1927, pp. 31, 76.
ELB discusses the modern public relations counsel
and /or propagandist, showing that he is not merely
the old-time press agent who fed stories to the news
papers, but a man whose work is related to that of
every institution which communicates ideas to the
public. The modern propagandist is more concerned
with what his client is and does than with what he
says; he sets ideas in motion and makes events which
will move public thought. ELB differentiates be
tween advertising and news, maintaining that news
is news whether or not it advertises some product.
He urges that all material submitted for publication
should bear a mark of origin.
"The public relations counsel is continually cre
ating events, changing and modifying acts, now
adding some actualities to life, now subtracting
others, to accomplish his ends and make the pub
lic receptive to his cause. In this work he must be
keenly alive to public consciousness." In discussing
the relationship of news to advertising, Mr. Bernays
says: "Most men who have discussed this whole
question have treated only of the press. . . . But
in a sense the same relationship is true of all methods
of reaching the public. . . . The acid test applied
to it [news material] is its value to the reader of the
particular journal as understood by the editor, who
knows the policy, the aim, the ideals of his particular
journal. On this test only must it ride or fall."
"What Future for Radio Advertising?"
Feb 8, 1928.
ELB says: "Advertising revenues have made the
press powerful and economical, and have made it
able to present the news without bias or prejudice.
Aside from any other consideration, the press should
allow nothing to interfere with the advertising rev
enue that it gets as a safeguard in protecting its
independence. Is not the surest way to insure this
freedom the linking up with the ever-growing and
spreading radio by harnessing it to the press and
making it a source of revenue to itself as well as a
source of news and advertising to the public?"
_. "Molding Public Opinion." See Ad
denda, Item 1.
American City. "Better Government Through P.R."
Vol. LXII, No. 3, Mar 1947, pp. 79-80.
ELB says: "The American city today is a complex
social-economic pattern for achieving the aims of a
democratic society. It strives to increase the general
welfare of its citizens through public health, safety,
legal security, education and the other factors of
wholesome, efficient living. Not so long ago munici
pal government was largely a system of politics,
spoils, and patronage. Today the city is the com
bined progress of all its citizens" ELB discusses
the need for New Concepts of Democratic Leader
ship, Determining Objectives, Importance of Tim
ing, and Planned Events and Research, in reference
to the city's "important public-relations responsi
bility." He says: "A public relations program for a
city has a triple function. It must throw a clear light
on the government's activities in order to be of value
to the government itself. It must interpret the gov
ernment's aims to the people to secure their interest
and action. And, lastly, it must interpret the public
needs and desires to the government . . . [but]
whatever the goals, the public relations program
must base its efforts on favorable actions of govern
ment itself. What the government does, not what it
says, is the important factor in success. . . . Iso
lated events and sporadic publicity are of little value.
A good public relations program for city government
demands continuous effort to keep in contact with
the public. Underlying this public relations program
must be continuous and careful research of the actual
functioning of the city. If the leaders do not keep
their house in order, no public relations program will
protect them from the possibility of unfavorable
notice and attack. Any municipal public relations
program must be based on activities that are in the
public interest. . . ." As "helpful . . . guides to
effective public relations planning, strategy, and
techniques," ELB also recommends "two bibliog
raphies ... one published by the University of
Minnesota Press, the other by ... Princeton
University Press. ..."
American Journal of Nursing. "The Nursing
Profession A Public Relations Viewpoint."
Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1945. pp. 351-353.
Editorial note: "Mr. Bernays is a very well known
public relations specialist, described by Time maga
zine as U. S. Publicist No. 1, who has solved public
relations problems for corporations, philanthropists,
institutions, industrial organizations, and individu
als. He is on the National Public Relations Com
mittee of the American Red Cross and worked with
the Committee on the Cost of Medical Care."
ELB says: "I can think of no better advice to give
than to suggest that you look at yourselves and
apply your own scientific attitude to a consideration
of your problem of adjustment with the public, then
to find out why the public reacts to you as it does,
and then to take the action required on your own
reorientation, and a reorientation of your public."
"The Medical Profession and Nursing."
Vol. 45, No. 11, Nov 1945, pp. 907-914.
After describing the effects of World War II on the
health field and the professions of nursing and med
icine, ELB reports on a survey he made among ci
vilian doctors and leading medical authorities based
on a questionnaire which included the following:
(1) What effect do doctors think the war has had on
medical-nursing relationships and on nursing skills?
(2) What maladjustments exist between these two
professions? (3) What do doctors favor as regards
use of practical nurses; and more extensive use of
professional nurses through the Social Security Act
or other federal legislation, and through voluntary
payment plans? ELB gives in considerable detail the
replies, comments and recommendations of physi
cians regarding the nursing profession and the rela
tions between doctors and nurses. He concludes:
"(1) Evidently physicians think well of nurses when
they think of them at all. But the unfortunate fact
is that the medical profession takes the nursing pro
fession too much for granted. The nurses must act
to correct this. They must tell the medical profession
what they are doing, how they are doing it, and why.
The nursing profession must carry on educational
activities aimed at the physician, as an individual
and in groups. (2) Maladjustments between the pro
fessions seem to be due to misunderstanding as well
as to the basic situation. There is much nurses can
accomplish by being co-operative and understanding.
Most important, of course, is the economic factor.
Nurses' salaries are too small for their needs. . . .
Yet they are too great for the public to stand. Nurses,
doctors and public must agree on the best way to
handle medical care in the United States. Nurses, as
individuals and through their organizations, should
study all proposals, legislative or otherwise, which
affect the medical care of the American people, and
act vigorously to support those in the public interest.
. . . Good health for the American people is the aim
of both medical and nursing professions and the pro
fessions must cooperate effectively toward this end."
"Opinion Holders Appraise Nursing"
Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1945. pp. 1005-1011.
In this article, ELB reports the results of a survey he
conducted among "newspaper and magazine editors,
radio commentators, news photographers, cartoon
ists, columnists, authors, radio script writers, book
publishers, lecturers, artists and illustrators, out
standing opinion molders in other fields," to deter
mine what they think of the nursing profession. Sum
marizing their opinions, ELB says: (1) A great
majority of Americans have a very high regard for
the women performing nursing services; they pay
great tribute to the war effort of the nursing pro
fession; most of the opinion molders believe there is
great room for improvement in the performance of
nurses in present-day hospitals and private practice,
particularly in public health and industrial nursing.
(2) In the economic sphere the public opinion mold
ers believe the cost of nursing is too high; most of
them have not thought out the problem of how it is
to be lowered ; a minority is aware the answer lies in
a change of the present methods of distributing and
paying for nursing services. (3) The largest group of
criticisms of the nursing profession is that aimed at
the high cost of nursing services; a smaller number
are directed at the personality faults of some nurses,
such as lack of human sympathy, laziness, etc.;
nursing education is also criticized. (4) Recommenda
tions of the opinion leaders strongly emphasize the
need of a public relations program for professional
nurses and of greater psychological understanding of
patients by nurses; many public opinion molders
stress the need for economic adjustments in sal
aries, nursing costs and system of payment and
ELB describes the method of survey, gives line of
questions asked, quotes typical replies in various
categories and breaks down the replies by per
"What Government Officials Think about
Nursing. 1 ' Vol. 46, No. 1, Jan 1946. pp. 22-26.
ELB reports on the survey he conducted "to learn
the attitudes of public officials toward the nursing
profession, past, present and future." His question
naire was sent to "a cross-section of the men and
women in federal, state and city administrations
throughout the country." Results of the nationwide
study "were checked against personal interviews
with government officials." Summarizing his findings,
ELB says that federal, state and city officials think:
(1) Nurses made an excellent contribution to the war
effort; (2) the quality of work performed by profes
sional nurses is good in public health work, private
hospitals and other institutions, and in private prac
tice, but somewhat less desirable in public hospitals;
(3) through public relations activities the nursing
profession should educate the public and government
officials about nurse training, the services nurses are
performing, etc. ; (4) nursing salaries should be raised,
nursing education improved, nursing costs lowered;
(5) government should provide more funds toward
nursing education and for training practical nurses;
(6) the Social Security Act should apply to wider
groups of professional and practical nurses, partic
ularly to nurses engaged in public health and hospital
practice; (7) nursing service provision should be in
cluded in voluntary prepayment plans for hospital
and medical care.
"Hospitals and the Nursing Professions."
Vol. 46, No. 2, Feb 1946, pp. 110-113.
ELB reports on the nationwide survey he conducted
among hospital administrators of all kinds in an
effort to "measure present and future relations be
tween the nursing profession and hospital adminis
trators." The survey revealed the following major
opinions of hospital administrators: (1) World War
II tended to make worse the quality of civilian hospi
tal nursing service, nursing education, and nursing
skills and methods; (2) good personnel is scarce in
staff nursing, administrators of nursing services,
nursing teachers; (3) student nurses are often ex
ploited by hospitals; (4) private duty nurses are a
''luxury" commodity which costs too much and
needs too much supervision; (5) the nurse's economic
position should be improved by salary increases, but
nursing trade unions should be discouraged; (6)
Negro nurses should be used mainly in Negro insti
tutions; (7) hospital personnel policies need drastic
revision, since they cause difficulty between hospital
heads and staff nurses; (8) nursing leaders should do
more on behalf of their membership; (9) nurse place
ment services work fairly well on the whole; (10)
the patient's welfare should be the first consideration
in all decisions made on hospital administration.
ELB gives the questions he asked hospital ad
ministrators and breaks down their replies on a per
centage basis. He suggests that "public relations
activities devoted frankly to this end would go a
long way to remove barriers which now prevent the
nursing profession and hospital administrations from
working together in the best interests of themselves
and the public they serve."
"The Armed Services and the Nursing Pro
fession" Vol. 46, No. 3, Mar 1946. pp. 166-169.
ELB reports on a survey he made to ascertain what
World War II veterans from all services thought of
the nursing profession. The questionnaire was sent
to a cross section of Army and Navy officers and
enlisted men, both in service and already returned
to civilian life; to officials of the Veterans Adminis
tration; to veterans of the Army and Navy Nurse
Corps. Giving the replies which the survey elicited,
ELB breaks them down by percentages, and sums
them up as follows: (1) Overwhelmingly America's
fighting men and women believe the nursing profes
sion made a great contribution to victory in World
War II, and the average war nurse performed her
duties well; (2) among problems between professional
nurses and other members of the armed forces the
replies cited rank, personality faults, complaints
against army regulations restricting nurses, etc.;
(3) suggestions for improvements in nursing educa
tion included better training in psychology and psy
chosomatic medicine; greater emphasis on cultural
subjects in nurse training; higher standards in the
professional nursing skills, etc; (4) a wider use of men
nurses was favored; ELB also quotes a number of
suggestions made by respondents for improving rela
tions between nurses and various groups with which
they come in contact, as well as comments on
whether the Army and Navy Nurse Corps should
be reconstituted so as to include enlisted personnel
and non-commissioned officers.
In conclusion, ELB recommends that nurses "in
tensify and utilize" the "huge reservoir of good will
toward the norsing profession which has been built
up among millions of war veterans. . . . Nurses
should, individually and through their organizations,
participate in activities to promote the welfare of
needy, unfortunate, disabled and sick veterans. The
nursing profession can take a leading position in
strengthening and improving the operation of the
Veterans Administration, in seeing that it meets the
needs of the many millions of Americans who will
be dependent on it in one way or another, for finan
cial, vocational or other assistance. In doing this,
the nursing profession will be advancing its own
interest and performing a valuable public service."
" Nurses and Their Professional Organiza
tions" Vol. 46, No. 4, Apr 1946. pp. 229-233.
To ascertain how nurses feel about professional or
ganizations as to scope, efficiency and policies, past,
present and future, ELB conducted a survey of the
nursing profession. In this article he gives his ques
tionnaire and breaks down the replies by percentages.
Survey revealed that nurses are "joiners," that most
of them are active in their professional organizations
and read nursing publications. Most of them said
relations between nurses and their professional or
ganizations could be improved, suggesting ways of
doing this. ELB also quotes replies on trade unions,
economic improvement, Negro nurses, men nurses,
practical nurses, etc.
From the survey, ELB concludes that "serious
gaps exist in the relationships of nurses with their
professional organizations." To bridge this gap, he
suggests "reorienting member nurses from the con
cept of 'belonging' to the concept of leadership." To
ward this end he recommends "that (1) national
groups should re-examine their structures and
achieve greater coordination between and within
major groups; (2) as individuals, nurses can train
themselves for leadership as they trained themselves
for their profession."
" Nursing and Community Groups." Vol.
46, No. 5. May 1946. pp. 297-300.
To learn community group opinions about nursing,
ELB sent out questionnaires to a cross section of
group leaders throughout the country. Responses
came from officers of youth groups; school, college
and educational groups; patriotic, political, social
and civic groups; women's groups; religious groups;
and foreign language groups. Analyzing these replies,
ELB reports their "composite answer"; e.g., nurs
ing's contribution to victory in World War II was
impressive and exemplary; public health nursing
agencies are the most "liberal" branch of the pro
fession; most graduate nurses work cooperatively
with other community groups; nursing costs are too
high; nurses could use a better general education; etc.
After giving replies in detail and breaking them
down by percentages, ELB concludes: "The volun
tary membership organizations of the United States,
large and small, can become powerful lay supporters
of the nursing profession's desire for more effective
integration into the broad pattern of social action
in the United States. . . . The good will that exists
in this group has little depth, and little foundation
in knowledge upon which to rest. . . . The only
safeguard is to keep this public and other publics
informed of what nursing is doing, what it intends
to do, and what are its reasons. This, too, indicates
the importance of supplying facts and points of view
for whatever changes the nursing profession believes
are essential to the public welfare and its own pro
gress. Certainly these important groups of the public
can help to further sound, common goals in the
public interest but only if public relations activ
ities are aimed to intensify and broaden the existing
"Educators Appraise Nursing." Vol. 46,
No. 6, Jun 1946, pp. 372-375.
ELB discusses the problem of recruiting of nurses
and the influence of educators in grade schools, high
schools and colleges on decisions regarding careers,
based on a survey of a nationwide cross-section of
the teaching profession.
" Nurses and Business." Vol. 46, No. 7,
Jul 1946. pp. 475-477.
ELB reports the findings of his nationwide survey
among American business leaders to ascertain their
opinions about nursing. Breaking down replies by
percentages, he says the survey shows that "leaders
of commerce and industry respect nursing as a pro
fession in theory; in practice, they don't." The
majority of businessmen thought hospitals and other
institutions caring for the public's health should deal
with nurses the way a business firm deals with its
employees; that nurses receive sufficient pay now;
that the costs of nursing are not too high. However,
they urged action for bettering nurses' conditions
through professional nursing organizations, and in
creased voluntary support of hospitals.
Most businessmen also thought relations between
the business community and the nursing profession
could be improved. Suggestions: (1) Educate the
businessman through hard-hitting, more extensive
public relations programs on every professional
level; (2) educate the nurse to participate in com
munity affairs; (3) raise educational and professional
standards of nurses. "What we must do," ELB con
cludes, "is to make the businessman realize that he
will not get the type of service that he desires unless
he helps to improve the status of the entire pro
"Social Scientists Look at the Nursing Pro
fession." Vol. 46, No. 8, Aug 1946. pp. 518-520.
ELB here reports on a survey he made among social
scientists at Yale, Wisconsin, Columbia, Chicago
and other colleges and universities on the question:
"What can the nursing profession do to reconcile
the contradictions which now prevent fulfillment of
its goal of service to American society?"
"Summed up," ELB says, "(1) They stress the
vital need for professional recognition; (2) almost
unanimously, they urge that the nurse's economic
status be improved; (3) they want standards of edu
cation and research in nursing raised; (4) they advo
cate that particular care be used in selecting the type
of individuals for the nursing profession, stressing
the factor of personality with emphasis on the need
of warm, sympathetic characteristics and a more
spiritual outlook; (5) they recommend to the nursing
profession that it organize for broad public health
activities, to win the support of the public; (6) they
would like to see the relationship between doctors
and nurses denned and improved, with the aim of
offering the very best health service for the American
people. To accomplish these goals, they urge the
nursing profession to educate the American people
on what nursing can do, and what the public must do
to get the service it wants. A public relations program
is their answer."
"America Looks at Nursing A Summa
tion." Vol. 46, No. 9, Sept 1946. pp. 590-592.
Editorial note: "About a year ago Mr. Bernays,
public relations consultant, undertook to make a
series of investigations into what different groups of
people think about nursing. Results of his studies
have been presented each month in the Journal since
November 1945. The present article summarizes the
series." ELB concludes this article by urging nurses
to appraise their profession, and to inform the public
about their services, problems, etc.
"What Patients Say about Nurses." Vol.
47, No. 2, Feb 1947. pp. 93-96.
ELB reports on a survey he made among ex-patients
to determine what they think about nurses and nurs
ing. His questionnaire was sent to a group selected
from Who's Who in America and to members of the
Blue Cross hospitalization plan in Boston, St. Louis,
Philadelphia, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Rock-
ford, 111. Most patients were pleased with their nurses
and the nursing service they received, but there were
also complaints and "intelligent criticism." Most pa
tients also thought nurses should receive better pay.
After breaking down all the replies by percentage,
ELB concludes: "The majority of laymen, ex-
patients, the general public . . . just don't have
very much understanding of the crux of the nursing
problem. The problem ... is the satisfactory ad
justment of the conflict between her (the nurse's) tra
ditional role as a self-sacrificing servant of mankind,
and her need for professional status and adequate
pay." He urges that nurses undertake "a public rela
tions campaign to educate the public ... to a clearer
understanding of the nursing profession's dilemma."
.. "A Better Deal for Nurses." Nov 1947.
ELB says the nursing profession can achieve its
aims "through enlisting the understanding and
support of social groups."
ELB advises the nursing profession that in order to
establish recognition for their services and in order
to maintain better economic security, they must be
made aware of the influence of public opinion and
"of broader social forces than the nursing profession
itself." They must be aware of the interrelation
between many social groups working together and
the need to arouse these groups to an understanding
of the problems of the nursing profession. "In our
highly complicated society, no one special interest or
group, whether teachers, preachers, doctors, lawyers,
or nurses, dictates or governs its own destiny. Every
section of our population depends upon other groups,
and no individual group is sufficiently powerful or
influential to bring about its desires independently
and without the support of others."
The nursing profession surely has problems. They
must not be seen as a whole in themselves but in
relation to the larger problems of society, problems
that can be understood and resolved by "cooperation,
adjustment, of a meeting of minds, of reaching a
common understanding and recognition of the prob
lems of others . . ."
Since change and growth is based upon a sense of
the need for development, and since change never
moves at the same pace for every phase or for every
organization, the nursing profession must learn "to
enlist the aid of other social forces in society
forces that are more potent, that have more status
than nursing to work with them toward the com
mon over-all goal of better nursing care for the
American public with concomitantly better condi
tions for herself."
The nurse must be more scientific in her approach
to other professional groups for support; she must
exercise less emotion, and must utilize public opinion
more skillfully in behalf of an improvement in pro
fessional status and economic stability.
American Journal of Sociology. "Manipulating
Public Opinion: The Why and the How." Vol.
XXXIII, No. 6, May 1928. pp. 958-971.
An editorial abstract preceding this article by ELB
outlines its main ideas as follows: "Public opinion,
narrowly defined, is the thought of a society at a
given time toward a given object; broadly conceived,
it is the power of the group to sway the larger public
in its attitude. Public opinion can be manipulated,
but in teaching the public how to ask for what it
wants the manipulator is safeguarding the public
against its own possible aggressiveness. The
method of the experimental psychologist is not as
effective in the study of public opinion in the broad
sense as is that of introspective psychology. To
create and to change public opinion it is necessary
to understand human motives, to know what special
interests are represented by a given population, and
to realize the function and limitations of the physical
organs of approach to the public, such as the radio,
the platform, the movie, the letter, the newspaper,
etc. If the general principles of swaying public opin
ion are understood, a technique can be developed
which, with the correct appraisal of the specific prob
lem and the specific audience, can and has been used
effectively in such widely different situations as
changing the attitude of whites toward Negroes in
America, changing the buying habits of American
women from felt hats to velvet, silk, and straw hats,
changing the impression which the American
electorate has of its President, introducing new
musical instruments, and a variety of others. Group
adherence is essential in changing the attitudes of the
public. Authoritative and influential groups may be
come important channels of reaching the larger
public. Ideas and situations must be made impres
sive and dramatic in order to overcome the inertia
of established traditions and prejudices." p. 958.
American Mercury. "Group Leaders of Democracy.''
Vol. XLIV, No. 176, Aug 1938, pp. 437, 444.
Discussion of the importance of winning over the
leaders who play an important part in determining
the attitudes and actions of the masses in democracy,
to the task of awakening in the people an under
standing of the values of political and industrial
After pointing out the threats to democracy from
all over the world, and showing how American inter
est in democracy has increased in the last ten years,
ELB continues: "How, then, can we attempt to
preserve Democracy? How can we safeguard both
our basic political and social system and the private
enterprise tied up with it? We shall attempt to lay
out the approach. ... In a Democracy, you must
have the voluntary support of the people in order to
succeed. . . . How can we develop and maintain
among the people a true recognition of the values of
Democracy, combined with a dynamic will to defend
and preserve it? The people will be ready to value
and defend Democracy, or any other sound ideas,
if those whom they follow and look up to have first
been brought to recognize its validity. ... If you
can demonstrate to the men and women in the van
guard of our society that your product or your idea
is sound and serves the public interest, your battle
is more than half won. There are two ways to gain
public support. On the one hand, facts or ideas or a
viewpoint can be presented to the masses directly,
as is done daily on billboards, over the radio, through
advertisements in the daily press, or even by means
of sky writing. Another way is to take your message
to the group leaders, win their support, and let them
carry the message to the mass of the people to prepare
them for the mass-appeal which may follow this
group-leader acceptance. . . . The importance of
group leaders as a channel for ideas in the Democracy
has not been generally recognized. But group-pat
terns do exist, and should be utilized for drawing
society closer together for common ends. . . . Dem
ocratic society is made up of an almost infinite
number of interest groups, whose leaders command
the respect of the group, whose opinions and actions
carry weight and influence. . . . Men turn for
guidance to the leaders of groups of which they are
members. This sound principle of group leadership
holds in advertising as it does in every other special-
pleading activity. . . . The preservation of our
political and industrial Democracy depends on our
ability to awaken in our people an understanding of
the values of political as well as industrial Democ
racy. This task must be met by finding and winning
over the leaders who play such an important part in
determining the attitudes and actions of the masses
in the Democracy."
"Preview of American Public Opinion."
Vol. LVIII, No. 243, Mar 1944. pp. 340-345.
Based on a nationwide survey conducted by ELB
which attempted to "estimate what American public
opinion and American action will be in the next six
months or so." The survey "indicates clearly that
we shall be in agreement as to what are the main
issues facing the country, and almost unanimous in
the determination to solve them along democratic
This survey is a departure in opinion polls in that
it is a serious attempt to determine public opinion
on the immediate future instead of tracing trends in
mass opinion and mass preference by comparing
existing popular attitudes with past attitudes. The
survey was conducted keeping two points in mind:
"(1) What would be likely to emerge as the chief
issues of popular interest in the near future, and
(2) what would be the prevailing view and action
on each of these subjects." Instead of addressing
the attitudes of a cross section of the entire popula
tion, this survey was directed at a cross section of
group leaders. "By ascertaining what those who mold
public opinion believe now, we have a reliable pre
view of what public opinion and action will be later."
The poll reached the men and women who in turn
contact millions of minds with direct or indirect
influence daily. The survey disclosed five major
issues prevalent in the public mind in the order of
"1. Winning the war;
2. The cost of living;
3. International cooperation;
4. Race relations; and
5. Labor relations."
The people were also concerned with three other
"1. The 1944 elections;
2. The trend of the Federal government; and
Through this survey it was determined what coming
public opinion would be.
"A Mercury Survey of Opinion Leaders"
Vol. LX, No. 254, Feb 1945, pp. 198, 203.
A survey by ELB of public opinion on major current
issues and post-war problems. "In a preview of
American public opinion, published in the March
1944 American Mercury, I attempted by querying
representative group leaders and opinion-molders
throughout the country to evaluate the trends of
public opinion and action in the following six months;
and to interpret and project them into the future.
. . . The results of our survey proved to be remark
ably accurate. Public opinion and events took place
according to expectation. I have completed a new
survey to try to forecast public opinion on major
issues, arising out of present events and in some cases
to forecast events themselves. This article give in
broad outline the results of our latest survey.
"Here are the conclusions to be drawn from this
study: The American people will join a postwar
union of nations; with victory, America and her
Allies will occupy a conquered Germany and Japan
until they become economically sound and politically
democratic; America believes it will not enter an
other war until at least twenty- five years from now;
Americans think that Presidential tenure should be
limited by law; postwar taxes should be levied on
all income groups, and distributed proportionately;
wartime controls should be continued in the postwar
period, primarily on necessary goods, through mini
mum wage laws, and wage ceilings; reconversion
should be handled by both government and private
industry, and not by government alone. In the light
of current political, economic, and social trends, the
United States will move in the next ten years to
wards a mixed economy, increasing cooperative in
terest and control by both government and private
industry. The people will demand a law requiring
confirmation of treaties by a majority vote of both
houses of Congress. We will have compulsory mili
tary training for young men after the war but
on the question of a national service of men and
women a forecast is difficult because we are di
Apparel Arts. "Prophets and Profits ..." Vol.
VII, No. 4, Apr-May 1937. pp. 138-139.
Editorial note: "Edward L. Bernays, whose appraisal
of the apparel industry's problems is presented here,
has very aptly been termed one of the nation's lead
ing publicists. He has acted as counsel on public re
lations to many of the nation's outstanding industries
and industrial organizations and has helped to shape
policies which have brought them into the forefront
of favorable public attention. His services have been
retained not only by important groups in America
and Europe, but also by our own government and
other public bodies. Mr. Bernays' books on the sub
ject of public relations, 'Crystallizing Public Opin
ion' and 'Propaganda,' are textbooks in various uni
versities and he is in demand by colleges and eco
nomic organizations to discuss his profession, which
he was instrumental in founding."
In this article, ELB says that the development of
the men's apparel business in America will depend
upon an adherence to the principle that "the public
interest and the private interest must coincide." He
adds: "The more the public knows about its interest
in the business, the better for the business. The rec
ognition in action of this principle by all should be a
dynamic factor in creating more good will and
Association News: "Publicity in International
Trade. How Public Opinion Was Influenced by
the United States during the War." Published by
the American Manufacturers Export Associa
tion. Vol. 1, No. 24, Apr 1920. pp. 1-5.
Editor's Note: "Edward L. Bernays has a record of
achievement in domestic and international publicity
which makes his statements on this subject authori
tative. As head of the Export Section of the Com
mittee on Public Information, a department which
he created and organized personally, he established
wide contacts with foreign merchants and the for
eign press in every important country in South
America, Europe and the East. The methods which
he discusses in this article are those which he applied
with notable success during the war to selling po
litical and commercial good-will for America through
out the world. He has had uniquely varied experi
ence in the field of publicity, his activities ranging
from American advisor to foreign governments to
special advisor in various capacities to departments
of our own government."
In this article, ELB describes the techniques he
used as chief of the Export Section of the Committee
on Public Information. These consisted of (1) organ
izing the American exporters into "such a medium
of distribution for political information that no field
of approach to the foreign markets and to foreign
opinion was left untouched by the ideas we wished
to sell them"; (2) the use on all printed matter that
left an American firm for a foreign country of some
slogan illustrating America's purpose; (3) supplying
travelling salesmen with photos and other material
graphically illustrating America's advance develop
ments; (4) commercial advertisements in foreign
dailies containing educational matter as well; (5) the
distribution with every bit of mail which left the
United States for foreign countries of short fillers in
a number of languages; these fillers explained Amer
ica's purposes in entering the war, the ends it hoped
to attain, the methods for attaining them: leading
manufacturers and exporters enclosed this material
in their foreign correspondence ; (6) cooperation with
Film Division of the Committee in the preparation
and distribution of motion pictures in allied and
neutral countries; (7) insertion of editorial matter
in catalogues; etc., etc.
ELB points out that no part of this "great experi
ment" of selling America to the world has survived.
"No effort is being made either by the government,
by associations of manufacturers and exporters, or
by individual business men to take advantage of a
golden opportunity for obtaining a position of proud
pre-eminence in almost every export market." ELB
suggests "the building up of a background of public
interest in the particular venture here in the United
States"; the expansion of this campaign abroad "by
experts who are competent to see to it that it is
properly prepared in the different languages and that
it reaches the proper media of distribution abroad"
via foreign correspondents, news services, syndi
cates, photo agencies and important foreign news
Best Magazine Articles of the Year. "Why We
Behave Like Inhuman Beings." Selected by the
Leading Editors of the Nation. 1949. pp. 70-73.
Condensation of Household article. See Household,
Bookman. "The Minority Rules." Apr 1927.
ELB said: "In the active proselytizing minorities in
whom personal and public interests necessarily coin
cide lie in the progress and development of America.
Only through the active energy of the intelligent few
can the public at large become aware of and act upon
new ideas, usually good, occasionally bad."
Congressional Record. "Why We Behave Like
Inhuman Beings." Vol. 95, No. 60, Apr 8, 1949,
This article originally published by Household, is
reprinted in Congressional Record as extension of
remarks of Hon. Albert M. Cole, of Kansas in the
House of Representatives. See Household, below.
. " Your Public Relations in the National
Emergency." Vol. 97, No. 24, Feb. 7, 1951.
Appendix, p. A678. See Addenda, Item 9.
Connecting Link. From the Office of Edward L.
Bernays. No. 4. Jul 29, 1922. 4pp.
Brochure: "Issued occasionally by the office of the
Public Relations Counsel of the Hotel Association of
New York City in the interests of furthering the
common cause of better public relations. . . . Each
recipient of this number of 'The Connecting Link'
is receiving with it a page of the 'New York Tribune'
of July 2nd. This article reflects in a humorous way
some of the activities the Welcome Stranger Com
mittee has set for itself. ... The activities of the
Welcome Stranger Committee are well under way.
Steps are being taken to reflect New York as it really
is to the country and to build up good will and busi
ness for this city. . . . Editorials and editorial com
ments on the Welcome Stranger Movement were
printed in newspapers throughout the country."
Contact. "Putting Politics on the Market." No. 31.
This article by ELB, which appeared in The Inde
pendent see below is reprinted in Contact, a
four-page magazine "published periodically" in
New York by "Edward L. Bernays, Counsel on
Public Relations," who was also its editor. Contact
was published from 1922 to 1934 in numbers 1
through 43, but was undated, and carried no volume
number. Devoted to the field of public relations, the
magazine was mailed free to group leaders and
opinion moulders throughout the United States.
Coronet. "Why We Behave Like Inhuman Beings."
Vol. 27, No. 4, Whole No. 160. Feb 1950, pp.
For contents of this article see Household.
Current Controversy. "The Public Mouthpiece: A
New Cabinet Officer, Secretary of Public Rela
tions, Is Suggested as a Safeguard of Democracy"
Nov 1935, pp. 28, 40.
ELB says: "The safeguarding of democracy in
America today and for the future demands that there
be in the Cabinet of the United States a Secretary
of Public Relations whose duty it would be to serve
the American people as a liaison officer between them
and their government. The proposal is made to meet
the need of the American people for some unbiased
channel through which the President of the United
States would learn of the changing wishes of the
people, and of the actual effect of his government
policies in the factories, mills, offices and homes of
the land. In this way, there would be in the cabinet,
serving the public interest, a responsible executive
officer to interpret the people to the Administration,
and the Administration to the great mass of the
ELB emphasizes that the proposed Secretary of
Public Relations would function solely with the
executive branch of the government the Presi
dent, Cabinet members, departments, and would in
no way be connected with Congress or the judiciary.
He would be neither a propagandist nor a censor;
his function would be solely that of "explanation and
interpretation." He would direct the various public
relations activities of the executive branch of the
government and would "examine all statements of
policy before they were made public to guard against
possible contradictions or inconsistencies."
Current History and Forum. See Addenda,
Delineator. "A Challenge to Women's Clubs." Nov
1928, pp. 14, 83-84, 86.
Editorial note: "Here is a clear and forceful plan of
battle for all who desire to better their own com
In this article ELB tells how women, organized in
groups, are using the new tool of propaganda to mold
public opinion on questions of education, better gov
ernment, and many industries. Showing how public
opinion is crystallized into desired action, ELB says
that women's clubs must be effectively organized,
that they must have clear objectives, that they
should consult experts in public opinion who will
make opinion surveys for them, that the cooperation
of national and local societies can and should be
obtained. After the objective has been clearly de
termined, the women's clubs must know, classify and
analyze "the public through whose cooperation the
battle is to be won." The problem is "to discover
exactly what the dominant groups in the community
feel towards the proposed change, and on what basis
a realignment of these groups can be brought about
in favor of the proposed measure. . . . Our next
problem is to find a series of common denominators
of interest between ourselves and these groups we
are trying to align with us." Once the strategy of
attack is decided upon and the basic motivations
to be played upon are clear, the battle begins. Here
action is guided by specific conditions; if the enemy
is the local legislature, one method is required, if
an official, another method. The leaders of the
women's clubs rouse the community to action
through mass media of communication the news-
paper, the picture, the movies, etc. Events are or
ganized to create news. Appeals are made to reason
and the emotions. ELB then discusses techniques of
mobilizing public opinion, including the role of a
sponsoring committee of community leaders, press
releases, letter campaigns, meetings, parades, etc.
Eastern Underwriter. "The Great American Attack
Racket." Fortieth Year, No. 40, Oct 6, 1939,
ELB indicates the public relations counter-offensive
by which the insurance business can meet attacks.
"This counter-offensive should define for insurance
and for the people what the private interest and
public responsibility of insurance companies are and
should be. These definitions should become the guide
posts of policy and action for the insurance compa
nies. And with these as a basis, insurance should be
able to build up for itself an impregnable position in
the American economic pattern."
Economic Forum. "How to Restore Public Confi
dence in Business and Finance." Winter 1936,
A four-point program of action "to teach the public
that it needs modern business and financial institu
tions, and cannot get along without them, in what
ever set-up there is."
The four steps are: (1) The public will accept the
need for modern business and financial institutions
if men they believe in as symbols "become spokes
men for business and finance"; these spokesmen
should be people "who have no personal axe to
grind, who have no private profit to gain, who are
interested in attempting to solve the problems that
confront our American system. . . . Publicists,
economists, leaders in research, the heads of great
educational institutions can and should be made
human symbols to bring new faith and new strength
to business and finance"; (2) "The second approach
is one of public education. . . . Words expressing
the entire function and nature of business and
financial institutions must be re-defined and re-
clarified so that every member of the public will
have a clear idea of the value of the word symbols
that go to make up business and finance. . . . Every
medium that reaches the public must carry these
ideas to the public. Such public education cannot
be accused of self-interest, for the public interest
and an intelligent knowledge and understanding of
business and finance, and their place in our society,
are one . . . "; (3) "The third approach to the
problem is to re-establish business men and financiers
in the public mind by the very activities in which
they engage. This can be done by letting them,
through their deeds, again assume the position in
the community which they used to occupy. The busi
nessman and the banker must again become the
public-spirited citizen, symbol of pro bono publico";
(4) ". . . financial institutions and business gen
erally must offer a fair and honest service to the
public. They must recognize that their most vital
relationship is with the public, and that the service
or product which they offer to the public must con-
tinuously be able to meet the scrutiny of public
"Growth of a Sound Idea; Public Relations
and American Industry." N. Y. 1936. 42pp.
Editorial note: "The reaction of national leaders in
many walks of life to an article which appeared in a
recent issue of 'Economic Forum' . . . proved to
be so interesting that the Editor decided to prepare
this brochure as a significant indication of the growth
and development of a sound idea."
In the section entitled "The Idea," an editorial note
says: "Realizing the necessity of rebuilding confi
dence as the fundamental first step in a program that
will explain that it is by the business of abundant
production of goods and services, and not by recrim
ination, that America achieved its economic great
ness, the Editors of 'Economic Forum," ever alert to
interpret the ideas upon which America's economic
progress depends, decided to devote the major at
tention of a recent issue of 'Economic Forum' to an
examination of the public relations of business and
finance. To present this subject accurately, com
pletely, and authoritatively, the Editors elicited the
opinions of business leaders, attended conventions
of industry and finance, sought out the best authori
ties on the subject, published their findings and
editorial opinions in a special public relations issue.
For a feature article on this subject they requested
America's leading expert on public relations, Mr.
Edward L. Bernays, to tell 'How to Restore Public
Confidence in Business and Finance.' "
In the section entitled "The Author," an editorial
note says: "In asking Mr. Edward L. Bernays to
write for 'Economic Forum' on this important sub
ject, the Editors selected America's foremost counsel
on public relations. . . . We find Mr. Bernays'
comments important because the application of his
ideas to business situations is intensely practical.
He has proved the importance of public relations
counsel in industries as diverse as textile, soap, auto
mobile, piano, radio, luggage, oil, and refrigerator
manufacturing, in educational movements, in politi
cal, governmental and scientific problems. Readers
will remember his handling of Light's Golden Jubi
lee, in which Thomas A. Edison, Henry Ford and
other leaders participated. Because of this wealth of
experience the Editors of 'Economic Forum' feel that
Mr. Bernays' ideas, applied to the present situation,
are extremely practical, valuable and important."
English Quarterly. "language of Live Men," Vol. I,
No. 3. Oscar H. Fedell, Ed., Theodore Roosevelt
High School, 500 East Fordham Road, N. Y.
58, N. Y: pp. 11-13.
Editorial note preceding article says: "Edward L.
Bernays is one of America's outstanding counsellors
on public relations, TIME magazine once having
called him 'U. S. Publicist No. 1'. . . , He has been
adviser to Presidents and has represented our gov
ernment in numerous activities. In between times he
has become the author of 'Propaganda,' 'Crystalliz
ing Public Opinion,' 'Speak Up for Democracy,' and
'Take Your Place at the Peace Table.' "
ELB's article discusses the need of an understand
ing of language in a democracy and stresses impor
tance of the teaching of English in our schools. He
says: "At this point in the twentieth century crisis,
language assumes a primary role. If the great mass
of the global public is to understand what is really
going on, then the experts who undertake to explain
it all, and the millions who eagerly listen for guid
ance, must both be trained in the precise use of
words. Everywhere, however, the power of stimulat
ing a desired attitude or course of action is closely
connected with the power to use words precisely.
Since in this country the words are English, great
responsibility, opportunity and privilege rest upon
our English teachers."
Financial Diary. "Public Relations in Business,"
Vol. II, No. 3. Apr 1930, pp. 4-6.
ELB says: "Since every corporation engaged in
business must depend upon the public for its support
and its success, it is important that every public
contact be consistent with company policy and that
company policy be based on sound understanding
of the public. Need for skill and experience in direct
ing and supervising these public contacts has de
veloped a new profession public relations counsel.
. . . The new profession provides new help for or
ganizations trying to solve the ever more perplexing
and complicated problems of reaching company
objectives more good will, more business, more
profits. Its techniques, intelligently handled, is ap
plicable to every company which deals with and
depends upon others for its corporate existence."
ELB then reviews various factors which condi
tion the behavior of the buying public and how
public relations can influence that behavior. "Let us
inquire how a public relations policy is formulated
and developed in the case of a railroad, for instance.
What are the points of contact of a railroad with
the public and how can they best be directed to
produce the best result? What is the product a rail
road sells and how can it be presented to the public
so that the greatest receptivity will be produced
for that product? What channels are available, in
addition, to those normally used, such as advertising,
to convey the railroad and what it stands for, to the
public? . . . How can business hear what the
public has to say? How can it modify its actions to
conform to the public's desires? How can it speak to
the public in a language the public understands
and appreciates? The modern way is through the
services of an expert in public opinion. . . . It is
the function of the public relations man to help two
partners business and the public to understand
each other and to supplement each other so that the
business may develop to the advantage of both."
Financial World. "A Challenge to Business Busi
ness Must Sell Itself to the Public." Vol. LXVI,
No. 19, Nov 4, 1936. pp. 453-454.
Editorial note: "An expert in 'selling ideas to the
public,' the author sees that the big job for business
today is to make the American people realize the part
business plays in the American system."
For business to sell itself to the public, to preserve
the American system and to preserve itself, ELB
says, three steps are indicated: 1. The leaders in
America's economic fields must recognize that the
problem exists; 2. they must get together; 3. a pro
gram of public education must be decided upon
which should reach the public through every chan
nel of communication and in terms of the public's
interest and understanding.
Forbes. " Your Business Has Many Publics." Vol.
57, No. 2, Jan 15, 1946, pp. 32-33.
In this article ELB discusses the opportunity of
business executives to build a sound structure of
public relations. Presenting briefly the steps to be
followed in such a campaign, the article emphasizes
the identification of the publics of a business and
what they think. "The first step of the business
executive, in determining his relationship toward all
these facets, is to study each public on which he
impinges and find out what each group thinks of the
attitudes and practices of his company. Next, he
should study himself, his attitudes, his practices,
his products and stack up his findings against
the opinions of his various publics. He will then be
able to isolate points of irritation and to develop
further the existing areas of agreement. . . . When
all points of dissatisfaction have been determined,
the wise executive will then use all possible ingenuity
to correct solutions that can be changed practicably.
. . . Only after such changes are made is it possible
to re-educate the public and create a new under
standing of the goals and services of the company.
. . . And indirectly, in many ways, the company
can assume leadership in community or national
affairs and dramatize its interest in the general
Foreign Service. "Here's How to Speak Up for
Democracy," Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1940, pp. 6-7,
Condensation of ELB's book Speak Up for Democ
racy. See above.
Forum. "Are We Victims of Propaganda? A Debate
by Everett Dean Martin and Edward L. Bernays."
Vol. LXXXI, No. 3, Mar 1929. pp. 142-149.
To the question implied in the title, "Are we victims
of propaganda?", the editorial note answers: " Yes,
says Mr. Martin. Propaganda is making puppets of
us. We are moved by hidden springs which the
propagandist manipulates. No, says Mr. Edward
L. Bernays. The propagandist has developed a tech
nique which minorities can employ equally well to
break up majorities. Thus employed, propaganda
becomes a powerful weapon against intolerance and
the tyranny of the herd." This is in briefest summary
of Mr. Martin's extended affirmative argument,
"Our Invisible Masters," Mr. Bernays' negative,
"Our Debt to Propaganda," and Mr. Martin's re
buttal. To Mr. Martin's position "Propaganda is
not the same as public instruction. It is never disin
terested information. . . . Even good ends may not
justify the means commonly employed. . . . Fur
thermore, the identity of (propagandists) ... is
seldom disclosed and they are responsible to no one"
Mr. Bernays replies, "Mr. Martin . . . voices
the opinion of a section of the intelligent public
which knows a little about propaganda, but . . .
more about what propagandists against propaganda
believe it to be. . . . Mr. Martin looks at the whole
subject of propaganda much as a man who asked to
write on the question, 'Are we victims of medicine?'
would discuss only the fakers and quacks. ... It
is my belief that propaganda serves a useful purpose.
... It tends to keep open an arena in public life in
which the battle of truth may be fairly fought. . . ."
Forum and Century. "Does Propaganda Menace
Democracy?" Vol. XCIX, No. 6, Jun 1938,
In this magazine debate with Ferdinand Lundberg,
Edward L. Bernays upholds the worth of a "melting
pot of ideas." He states: "The presentation of facts
and points of view offers everyone a choice as to the
course of action he may pursue. Here in America,
freedom of opinion of propaganda exists. Un
der authoritarian regimes this is not true. Here
many points of view are freely expressed. In authori
tarian countries there is only one point of view per
mitted. And force and coercion implement this.
Through the interplay, in a democracy, of discussion,
argument, and persuasion, we are safeguarded. All
groups and opinions thus have an opportunity to be
heard. The public acceptance of new ideas, in medi
cine, in social service, in business, in political
processes, has been brought about by public educa
tion, by propaganda. Propaganda is also an im
portant tool in social change. Minority ideas become
effective more quickly as a result of it."
Freedom & Union. "Put Your Idea into Action,"
Vol. 2, No. 9, Oct 1947, pp. 20-21.
Editorial note says: "Termed 'U. S. Publicist No. 1*
by "Time," the author led in creating the profession
of public relations which he still leads. No one is so
qualified to tackle the problem of mass persuasion
which Mr. Bernays discusses here."
ELB discusses the practical approaches to the
problems of peace and tells how individuals can be
effective in their efforts. He says: "America's vast sys
tem of communication is a powerful instrument for
persuasion to action on behalf of democratic ideals.
. . . The public can be convinced of the soundness of
an idea, and it can be stimulated to act on its convic
tions. If we are to achieve any sort of world amity, it
will have to be based on an effective democracy in
America a democracy in which the entire country
The article begins, "The freedom to persuade and
suggest is the essence of the democratic process.
Communication is the instrument with which to
engineer consent for social action." Here interpreting
"engineering of consent" to mean "getting people to
support ideas and programs through the application
of scientific principles and methods . . . (which)
can be learned by anyone who will make the effort
to study them ..." ELB also points out that
while "scientific persuasion . . . has contributed to
the efficient functioning of society . . . demagogues
have misused the techniques for anti-democratic
purposes (so that) . . . public education must help
us discriminate between subversive and constructive
persuasion. . . . Basic principles," he says, "in
clude knowledge and careful planning, courage and
conviction . . . (with) four preliminary steps nec
essary to any program of effective action: 1. Ap
praise all resources . . . ; 2. Understand the sub
ject thoroughly . . . ; 3. Determine your . objec
tive . . . ; 4. Study the public . . . group and group
alignments. . . . The matter of organization," he
continues, "depends on two things: 1. Your own
energy and effectiveness; 2. Your initial budget;"
and, finally, "Events must be planned ... in such
a way that they will accomplish two purposes: 1.
They must symbolize the idea for which you stand;
2. They must be handled so dramatically that they
will successfully compete for attention. . . . The
success of a program depends on the effectiveness
with which it is communicated, and more than this,
on the logic with which the entire program has been
thought out and developed. . ."
House Furnishing Review. "How to Overcome
Depression Fears," Jun 1947, pp. 2-4.
ELB discusses the role of fear in inducing business
fluctuations and presents a formula for preventing
"economic jitters": "Whatever our theory may
be regarding business cycles and their cause, fear
plays some part in them, for men and women who
have fears are an integral part of them. . . . We are
afraid today not only of a possible depression or
recession. We are probably more afraid of the de
pressing effects of fear itself . . . obviously fears of
some groups are more powerful, influential, more
explosive than fears of other groups. . . . We can
eliminate many of the fear-makers from our social
and economic system. We can do this, and we should,
voluntarily, as businessmen. If we rely mainly on
government to accomplish this freedom from fear, we
may well lose much of our freedom. America wants
both freedom and security. But we can achieve a bal
ance between freedom and security if every group
voluntarily approaches the task so as to forestall gov
ernment control over both security and liberty."
Household. "Why We Behave Like Inhuman Be
ings" Feb 1949, pp. 7, 69-76.
This article analyzes the 20th Century crisis in terms
of human behavior and shows how the social sciences
can help us overcome this crisis. The article con
cludes: "Thus science, with its modern equipment
of experiment and method, is seeking to solve the
problem of inhuman behavior through greater and
greater knowledge of man and the world in which he
lives. The key to our liberation from our jungle
heritage of force and fraud lies in accelerated self-
understanding. The truth shall indeed make us free
when we learn with the same control we exercise over
the physical nature, that it must now be the truth
Independent. "Putting Politics on the Market,"
Vol. 120, No. 4068, May 19, 1928, pp.47(M72.
ELB urges politics to employ the public relations
techniques of big business in order "to do away with
inefficiency in campaigning."
After suggesting that politics has failed to keep up
with business methods in mass distribution of ideas
and products, ELB recommends a program for
remedying this defect. "Politicians who know po
litical strategy and who can develop campaign issues,
who can devise strong planks for platforms and en
visage broad policies cannot be given the responsi
bility of selling ideas to a public of more than 100,-
000,000. The politician understands the public. He
knows what the public wants and what the public
will accept. But the politician is not necessarily a
general sales manager, a public relations counsel, or
a man who knows how to secure a mass distribution
of ideas. . . . The political campaign today is all
side shows, all honors, all bombast, glitter, and
speeches. . . . Big business is conducted on the
principle that it must prepare its policies carefully
and that, in selling an idea to the large buying public
of America, it must proceed according to broad plans.
The political strategist must do likewise. The entire
campaign should be worked out according to broad
basic plans. Platforms, planks, pledges, budgets, ac
tivities, and personalities must be as carefully
studied, apportioned, and used as they are when a
business desires to get what it wants from the public.
The first step in a political campaign is to determine
on the objectives, and to express them exceedingly
well in the current form that is, as a platform.
. . . To aid in the preparation of the platform there
should be made as scientifically as possible an
analysis of the public, in order to determine just
what the platform should contain. . . . The ex
penses of a political campaign should be budgeted.
. . . The first question which should be decided is
the amount of money to be raised for the campaign.
This decision can be reached by a careful analysis of
campaign costs. . . . Then the second question of
importance is the manner in which money should
be raised. It is obvious that politics would gain
much in prestige if the money-raising campaign
were conducted candidly and publicly, just as the
war campaign funds were raised. . . . The third
step is to decide how the money is to be spent. This
should be done according to the most careful and
exact budgeting, wherein every step in the campaign
is given its proportionate importance, and the funds
allotted accordingly. ... In the same way the
emotions by which the public is appealed to may
be made part of the broad plan of the campaign.
Unrelated emotions become maudlin and senti
mental too easily, are often costly, and too often
waste effort because the idea is not part of the con
scious and coherent whole. . . . The emotional
content must, first, coincide in every way with the
broad basic plans of the campaign and all its minor
details; second, it must be adapted to the many
groups of the public at which it is to be aimed; and
third, it must conform to the media of the distribu
tion of ideas. . . . It is essential for the campaign
manager to educate emotions in terms of groups.
. . . The political campaign having denned its broad
objects and its basic plans, having denned the group
appeal which it must use and the groups which it
must reach, must now define the various channels
through which it can appeal to the public as a whole.
. . . But whatever is done must be synchronized
accurately with all other forms of appeal to the
public. Many events can be planned, events which
must dramatize the ideas for which the candidate or
the party or the platform stands. Activities must be
coordinated, the platform itself must be so pre
sented that every plank of it may be as understanda
ble, as graphic, as concise as the slogan of a soap
manufacturer or a motor company. . . . When this
is achieved it is possible that political supply and
demand can be brought closer together. Scientific
methods and sales charts will supercede the guesses
and the betting that form so large a part of the
. "This Business of Propaganda." Vol. 121,
No. 4083, Sept 1928, pp. 198-199.
Editorial note: "Propaganda is an ancient art, but it
required the war to develop a new profession skilled
in its uses. Governments, prominent persons, bank
ing, industry have all called upon the public relations
counsel to smooth out their contacts with the world.
Somewhat recently the investigation of power pub
licity has focused attention upon the legitimate use
of propaganda. THE INDEPENDENT has invited
Mr. Bernays, one of the most prominent public rela
tions counsels and author of 'Crystallizing Public
Opinion,' to explain in this article the rules of his
profession and the limitations of propaganda."
In the article, ELB says the ethics of a propagan
dist or public relations counsel should be: (1) never
to represent or plead in the court of public opinion
a cause he believes is socially unsound; (2) never to
take the cases of conflicting clients; (3) "when he
deals with any of the media of disseminating ideas to
the public press, radio, lecture platform or motion
pictures he will do so as the representative of his
client, 'maintaining the same standards of truth with
them as govern the morals and habits of the world he
lives in.' The social value of the public relations
counsel," ELB concludes, "lies in the fact that he
brings to the public facts and ideas of social value
which would not so readily gain acceptance other
wise. While he, of course, may represent men and
individuals who have already gained great accept
ance in the public mind, he may represent new ideas
of value not yet accepted."
Industrial and Labor Relations Review. "An
Educational Program for Unions," Vol. 1, No. 1.
Oct 1947, pp. 103-109.
ELB discusses industrial relations from the public
relations standpoint. "It appears to me that unions
still have an important job of work to do; namely,
to carry on an intensified factual educational cam
paign, to instruct not only the general public and
management, but their own union members as well,
on the bedrock facts of the struggle for industrial
democracy. . . . Organized labor can help educate
both management and workers to a realization of this
obligation. Such education has one basic purpose: to
create understanding, so that management and labor
may work together effectively and prevent clashes.
And this cooperation must come, for our system
cannot stand continuous warfare." After examining
the educational program of one progressive union,
which consisted of: educating members to enter into
the union's work; to strengthen democracy; and to
sell itself to its own rank and file, ELB suggests addi
tional programs: "(1) Make the public understand
the value to the country of sound unions and ma
ture union leadership. (2) Make the employer un
derstand the value of unions to him, and make him
realize that he needs to apply the science of hu-
manics, the study of human relations. (3) Make the
worker understand our industrial system and his
role in it. This type of education will lay the founda
tions for a broader understanding of controversial
economic issues, and build toward increased coopera
tion between labor and other major sectors of our
Infantry Journal. "War against Words." Vol.
XLVII, No. 5. Sept-Oct 1940, pp. 482^85.
In discussing the importance of modern propaganda
techniques in psychological warfare today, ELB
says: "The Army of the United States must make full
use of this art and this science if it is to have the
highest potential morale within its own forces, and
the highest efficiency in attack and counter-attack
on the enemy in the psychological warfare of today."
After pointing up the increased role played by
propaganda activities in the first World War and
its even greater prospects for the second World War,
ELB outlines a program for effective counter-propa
ganda. "The most effective method, of course, is to
develop in one's own adherents an overwhelming will
to victory, a belief in strength, a certainty of suc
cess, a forceful morale. Morale is dependent on
many factors. Counter-propaganda can meet the
strategy of terror aimed to break it down by
(1) Emphasis by reiteration of the weaknesses of the
enemy, using facts, figures and dramatization of
strong spots. (2) Deflation of the attack of words be
fore it is launched by calling attention to it, exposing
the method, and thus taking the wind out of its sails."
. "Morale: First Line of Defense." Vol.
XLVIII, No. 5, May 1941. pp. 32-35, 69.
Editorial note in "Meet Our Authors": "Edward L.
Bernays is the well-known public relations counsel.
During the World War he served as a member of
the staff of the United States Committee on Public
Information the 'Creel Committee' and he
was later also on duty in Paris at the Peace Confer
ence. He wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion and
Propaganda. This issue carries his second contribu
tion to The Infantry Journal; the first, 'War Against
Words,' appeared in the September-October, 1940
number." p. 69.
Emphasizing that in modern warfare "psychologi
cal ramparts are as important as physical ramparts,"
ELB urges that "our morale is our true first line of
defense." While national unity and morale must
come from all, "it cannot be imposed from any cen
tral authority or control." The Army can help build
morale by 1 . exerting itself to make democracy work
better by cherishing democratic standards both in
its own inner workings and its relations with those
not in the Army; to defend democracy, our Army
must be a democratic army; 2. leaders of the Army
can aid in making democracy work better by their
public expression in favor of those causes that, make
for a more closely knit democracy; Army leaders can
strengthen America's psychological front by becom
ing articulate, dynamic proponents of democracy,
Commenting on the importance of the Army's
newly established Public Relations Bureau and Mo
rale Branch, ELB recommends the following.
For the Bureau: 1. a broader survey than has yet
been made of Army customs and practices; 2. a study
of what the public expects of its democratic army;
3. a study to ascertain what words, pictures and ac
tions, and what type of presentation will best con
vey the facts about the Army to the public; 4.
through the Bureau of Public Relations, Army lead
ers should express themselves to a greater extent
than at present upon matters affecting democracy;
the educational system of the country can be urged
to study and teach the varied fields of learning that
enter into the new political and psychological war
fare; 5. the Bureau should speak up for democracy
within the Army itself; 6. it should avail itself more
and more of the intellectual resources of the scientific
and .trained personnel available in this country.
For the Morale Branch: 1. the fullest use of spe
cialized scientific personnel to serve on a Morale
Commission that will advise the Army's public rela
tions and morale agencies on policies and methods;
2. to harness civilian intellectual capacities to the
problems the country and the Army face, both
within the Army and in the relation of the Army to
civilians; experts in the social sciences sociologists,
psychologists, psychiatrists, social psychologists,
adult educators, experts in public relations and com
munications are likewise willing to place them
selves at the disposal of the government and should
be called upon as freely, p. 34.
Journalism Quarterly. "The Press Must Act to
Meet Postwar Responsibility," Vol. 21, No. 2.
Jun 1944, pp. 122-129.
Editorial note: "Mr. Bernays, the well-known public
relations counselor, here analyzes newspaper 'plat
forms' and public acceptance of the press, and sug
gests steps it must take to maintain its position in
the world of tomorrow."
ELB's analysis is based on the premise that
"communications today and in the postwar world
constitute a problem of vital concern. The press,
radio, motion pictures and magazines are our four
greatest media of communication. They bear tre
mendous social responsibility . . . which will de
termine what the future shall be. ... The daily
press has made enormous strides in the last few
years. . . . But the press . . . has failed to gain the
broad public acceptance it should, either as a dis
seminator of news or as an instrument of social
leadership, the two functions of a free and inde
pendent press in a democracy. There is danger to
our democratic well-being in this condition, for unless
the public regards the press as a free and independent
medium and an instrument of leadership . . .
there may be a tendency . . . toward restriction
and control, despite the First Amendment."
ELB says his conclusions are based upon "a study
of authoritative surveys . . . and from personal
correspondence with publishers all over the nation.
. . . One hundred sixty-nine publishers of American
daily newspapers in 161 cities, in 43 states where
96 per cent of the dailies are located, cooperated.
. . . The newspapers I studied were approximately
nine per cent of the entire daily press of America
... a cross-section of the entire press."
In the study, problems "vitally affecting both the
public and the press" were involved: "First, what are
the public relations policies and practices that gov
ern American daily newspapers today? Second, what
are the attitudes of the American people toward
the . . . press. . . ? Third, what are the issues
and goals the American people are interested in now
and for the post-war period? . . . We shall appraise
newspapers and their platforms from two stand
points," ELB also pointed out, "first, as a profes
sional service purveying news, an informant of public
opinion, independent and free; second, as a social in
strument of leadership expressing itself in interest in
the local community in improvements, projects,
cooperation; and in interest in the national govern
ment in patriotism, in war and postwar interests."
ELB concludes: "If the newspaper effectively
serves the public as a news disseminator and a social
instrument, we do not need to be concerned about
the newspaper as a successful private enterprise.
. . . Newspapers may have much advertising and
circulation brought about by many different causes
today, but if they do not act on these basic consider
ations they will not be able to maintain their position
in our society." ELB gives "recommendations for
platforms of leadership character" leading to the
high point that the press "must 'sell' to the public
constantly that it is truthful and accurate. ... It
must stress to the public in every way its inde
pendence from domination by newspaper owners,
politicians, capitalists, government or advertisers.
. . . This can be done through what is known as the
'engineering of consent,' using public relations pro
cedures . . . [covering] a knowledge of maladjust
ments with the public, and their elimination; of ob
jectives, themes, strategy, timing, planning, or
ganization and the use of tactics, through every
channel of approach. . ."
. "Views on Postwar Responsibility of the
American Press." Vol. 22, No. 3, Sept 1945,
Editor's note: "Mr. Bernays, the well-known public
relations counselor, presents a representative collec
tion of frank and enlightening comments on his
article in the June 1944 Journalism Quarterly, which
has provoked wide discussion."
ELB says: "In the June 1944 Journalism Quar
terly was published my article entitled 'The Press
Must Act to Meet Postwar Responsibility!' . . .
The article dealt with stated policies of American
newspapers and how they practice them; the atti
tudes of the public toward the press; the issues that
the public considers to be important; and recom
mendations on public relations for the daily press.
It pointed out that danger signals existed for the
American press. From an interpretation of authorita
tive surveys, it suggested that the press has failed to
gain the broad public acceptance which its function
in a democracy demands the function of a dissemi
nator of accurate, complete and unbiased news and an
instrument of social leadership. It concluded that,
unless steps were taken to remedy this condition,
not only does the press stand to suffer but the
progress of the nation itself might be impeded. . . .
The London's World's Press News, on September 7,
1944, devoted a page to it and commented: 'His
analysis must give thinking leaders of the press . . .
concern. His article deserves serious consideration.'
... In this country reprints of the article were sent
for comment to a number of leading publishers and
editors of daily newspapers and to educators, busi
ness men and professional men. Some 500 responses
were received from these key figures in American
life. With one exception, the respondents supported
the position taken in the article. The observations
ranged from alarm at the existing problem to con
fidence in a satisfactory solution." ELB then ab
stracts some of the responses he received, concluding:
"Certainly, these responses indicate an awareness of
the problem by leaders of newspapers and other
sectors of our society. A recognition of the necessity
for change is a healthy sign in a democracy."
Labor and Nation. "The Public Can Be Brought to
Labor by Bringing Labor to the Public." Vol. I,
No. 2, Oct 1945. pp. 33-47.
ELB contributes to the magazine's symposium on
"Public Attitudes Toward Labor Unions: An Analysis
of Popular Reactions toward Labor Unionism as
Reflected in the Public Polls by Leading Public Re
lations Experts and National Union Officials." Other
contributors are Philip Murray, Walter P. Reuther,
Elmo Roper, J.B.S. Hardman, Julius Hochman.
ELB says: "At the present time, the only data
that is available relative to public attitudes on labor
practices and labor leaders is that of the opinion
polls. If I were asked to draw my conclusions from
the opinion polls, certainly I would say that the
public is sharply critical of labor union practices and
of many labor leaders. That does not mean, how
ever, that this conclusion is necessarily a correct one.
For the polls, while they show that the general
public is sharply critical, do not show the depth or
the intensity of these critical opinions. . . . There
are means of ascertaining the state of the public
mind which may, from the broad standpoint, prove
the contrary of the polls. . . . We call our question
technique the 'depth interview' method. . . . The
method attempts to find the basic motivations that
have prompted whatever the surface attitude may
be, and to indicate the extent to which an indi
vidual is tied to whatever opinion he may have and
the reasons why. Such a method applied to ...
labor union practices and labor leaders would, it
seems to me, permit an individual to give a con
sidered judgment . . ."
Public regulation of certain phases of union ac
tivity, ELB continues, might allay certain anti-
union sentiment for the time being but would not
necessarily be a permanent cure. To make effective
headway, cooperation between labor and the public
must be treated from an integrated, unified approach
to the problem. "Such a unified approach might well
be borrowed from what industries have done in meet
ing comparable problems of public relationships.
They have banded together for purposes of working
out adjustments, . . . have modified their own
attitudes and actions to conform to society's de
mands and in turn, attempted to modify public
attitudes and actions to bring about integration."
. "Labor Education as a Problem in Public
Relations." Vol. II, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1947,
ELB presents a program for acquainting the public
with the aims, functions and operations of labor
unions. The editorial note says: "Edward L. Bernays
is a nationally recognized public relations expert.
The statement on these pages is taken from an ad
dress by Mr. Bernays before a UAW-CIO Educa
tional Conference held at Cleveland, Ohio, January
The statement is one of three presented in the
"How-to-Do-it Department" of this issue, with the
editor's comment: "In response to frequent requests
from union workers in the field, LABOR and NA
TION will print under the above heading competent
statements describing, in necessary and sufficient
detail, the way 'things are being done' in various
branches of union activity. . . . LABOR and NA
TION invites the widest possible reporting on the
'know-how' of all that relates to union activity, in
dustrial and public relations, political activity, edu
In his discussion ELB stresses four great needs in
labor education as a public relations problem
(1) for labor educational programs based on essen
tials; he outlines immediate and long-range steps to
take; (2) for specific kinds of information about
unions to be supplied to the public with proper plan
ning; (3) for employer-education programs; (4) for
economics education of union members. He gives
explicit guides as to the "several broad lines of
effort" along which "labor education needs to be
directed" first, in the education of members on
union objectives; second, in strengthening democ
racy; third ["and this is not often announced but
well understood"] in "selling" the union to its own
rank and file suggesting, also, "three additional
programs of education to make all segments of your
public [general, employer and worker] understand
what you want and why, and be more willing to
accept your goals," with planning "on a broad but
detailed scale, over an extended period." He gives an
extensive schedule to be used in planning "to cover
the following kinds of information about unions:
1. What is a union? How does it function? 2. What
are the educational and welfare activities of unions?
3. What are the facts about collective bargaining?
4. What are the facts about labor disputes in general?
5. What do the words mean? [. . . to do this job
. . . simply to apply the techniques . . . [of] mass
education.]" For educational directors "of a great
union" he provides an 8-point educational program
to "help reach general union goals . . . aimed at the
employer: 1. Educate your employer to the place of
the union in our system, ... to study and use the
knowledge of human relations that has been gathered
by universities, labor unions, foundations. 2. Point
out [the] many groups of progressive men and or
ganizations . . . interested in studying and fur
thering human relations . . . [which] deserve sup
port from businessmen and labor unions . . . [such
as] the Society for the Psychological Study of Social
Issues, the Society for the Advancement of Manage
ment, the American Academy of Political and Social
Science. ... 3. Persuade them to stimulate further
research by industrial relations schools like those at
Cornell, Princeton. 4. Encourage [them] to carry on
technological research to improve working condi
tions. 5. Help management to develop new ap
proaches to the industrial relations problem . . .
[for instance, stabilized employment . . .]. 6. Point
up the importance of intelligent, honest, unbiased
industrial relations personnel. 7. Urge management
to encourage responsible leadership among the
unions. 8. Urge them to support housing programs,
civil liberties, sound international relations and
other programs to strengthen democracy." Warning
that "efforts cannot succeed overnight," ELB
stresses the point further that "The educational
process builds new points of view by planned con
tinuous and repeated efforts. Different times, condi
tions and methods yield different results." Indi
cating finally the need, proved by "reliable polls,"
for education of union members in economics, he
says, "Most of us know little about technical finance
in business. This leaves the worker without the
knowledge on which bargaining must be based. If
he understands management's problems, he can deal
with management on a realistic basis. . ."
Leader Magazine. How Can the British and the
Americans Understand Each Other?" London:
Sept 10, 1949, pp. 5-7, ill.
Editorial note: "What is wrong with Anglo-Ameri
can relations? Is the present outburst of misunder
standing and resentment a passing mood or a deep-
seated problem? Here America's leading expert on
public relations, now visiting Britain to study tech
niques in this country, puts forward a plan to meet
the most serious issue of the year."
ELB asserts, "There is no doubt that the people of
Britain and ... of America are farther apart than
at any time since before the first World War. . . .
The dangerous fact is that the people of the two
great democracies are today emphasising their dis
agreements rather than their areas of agreement,"
ELB stresses the fact that "we must look for a solu
tion that is lasting, based on the understanding
among both our peoples that we have a belief in a
common past, a common present and a common fu
ture that our goals are the same."
He continues the three-page discussion and
analysis under the sub-heads, "Understanding
Comes First," "The Mistakes We Make," "Public
Policy and Public Relations," and "A Joint Com
mittee on Understanding." He proposes resolution
of the problems he sees "in terms of the enlightened
self-interest of the two parties concerned ... on the
level of real, long-term issues, not short-term irrita
tions. . . . First, . . . that a joint solution be
found, not merely of the dollar-pound question, but
of the entire problem of Anglo-American cooperation
[which must depend on an enlightened public opin
ion, a public on both sides of the Atlantic which
knows all the facts . . . and makes its decisions in
the knowledge of these facts. ..].... From an
economic standpoint, . . . Britain must, if it wants
to export, lower its cost of production through in
creased efficiency in production; second, it must re
duce costs based on cartel and trade association price-
fixing. . . . At the same time, it is necessary for us
in the United States to appreciate the special handi
caps under which Britain labours in a post-war
period. . . . [Many] irritations could be eliminated
by a campaign of education of the American who
comes to Great Britain, telling him what he may ex
pect, and of the Britisher, telling him how to deal
with the tourist when he comes. . . . There is the
question of what to tell the Americans about Great
Britain in their home country. . . . What is the
remedy? I believe it is that at top-level policy-mak
ing, the British Cabinet, there be present always an
expert public relations man who can interpret to
the . . . Cabinet the impact of policy before it is
translated into action or law. A good statesman is
not necessarily a good public relations man. Too
many public relations officers in government are
given the policy to disseminate after it has been de
cided upon. . . . This is perhaps not the place to
discuss personalities. But I would suggest emphat
ically that [in regard to] the man who acts as Ambas
sador of Great Britain to the United States . . . this
is the time for forthright and frequent utterance by
all Anglo-American spokesmen. The whole problem
of British information to America should be treated
from the standpoint of the engineering of consent
of the American people to their common heritage,
their common present, their common future. . . .
Any activity carried out should be part of a broad
integrated programme covering effective research,
strategy, themes, organisation, planning, timing and
tactics. Call this propaganda if you will, it is aimed
at accomplishing the end we all want. . . . America
must do her part, too, from an economic angle. She
must lower tariffs if they keep out British goods that
Britain produces better and cheaper. America must
encourage rather than discourage British insurance
companies . . . , should encourage the tourist
traffic more than we do, . . . must realize that ship
ping is a British forte . . . rather than subsidize our
merchant marine to the extent we do. . . . The sug
gestion has been made that as a first line of defence
of democracy Britain and the United States form a
Joint Committee on Furthering Common Under
standing of joint problems confronting them. We
have a joint military staff, discussing and preparing
problems of defending democracy's physical bound
aries. But we know that military preparations are
useless unless they are backed by the people of the
democracies. ... If we had both, through such a
joint board, done what our military people are doing,
built up our common goals on common understand
ing, we would not now be in a position in which there
is fear that we may be divided not only in two worlds,
but in three."
McCall's Magazine. ''The Two Lives of Women,"
Jun, Jul 1946.
Editorial note calls ELB "the foremost public
The first of these two articles examines woman's
ideal life as contrasted with her actual existence; the
second provides a blueprint for action by women.
The articles contain factual information, opinions
obtained from 260 leading physicians, playwrights,
educators, clergymen, social scientists, labor leaders,
philosophers, historians, Congressmen, journalists,
pediatricians, artists, poets, writers, movie produc
ers, statesmen, columnists, lawyers, economists,
businessmen, counsel, etc. In the first article, ELB
describes his "approach to the subject": . . . "We
did not set up shop as experts on women ourselves.
Instead, we sought out the experts and got their
opinions and then . . . evaluated the mass of
opinions . . . received. Our operating premise was
that we must first know . . . the physical and
psychological differences between men and women.
Then we determine what thoughtful men and
women consider the ideal relationship between the
two sexes. . . . We must determine how far the
actual falls short of that ideal in woman's role as
sweetheart and wife and mother, her part in indus
try and the professions, her legal and political stand
ing in the society. Finally, we must produce, as the
sifted and considered body of opinion from the ex
perts who guided us, recommendations leading to
ward a more satisfying and more rewarding place
for women in American life. There was nothing in
the technique we employed which we have not em
ployed frequently in other fields of inquiry: 1. Au
thoritative books were read and abstracted. 2. Con
temporary magazines and newspapers were studied.
3. The attitudes of women in recent public opinion
polls were compared with the attitudes of men. 4.
The leading organizations concerned with the ac
tivities of women were asked to furnish material.
5. Thousands of letters were mailed to leading men
and women of the country anthropologists and
teachers, doctors and clergymen and social workers,
writers and scientists asking for the full discussion
of a series of questions. Their replies, which came in
unprecedented number and frankness, form the
basic core of this report." In the second article,
when he undertakes "to interpret these opinions and
to prepare a blueprint of action by which the actual
may be brought somewhat closer to the ideal"
ELB says that "a fair cross section of the leaders of
thought in this country, told us ... that because
of her intelligence and natural abilities, woman
is the equal of man in nearly every field of human
endeavor." The blueprint as to the organization of
a campaign around a need felt by women includes
specific steps "1) The preparation of informative
material for members of the group or committee,
for the press, and for local radio station. 2) The
drafting of letters and pamphlets ... to all lead
ers of thought in the community. 3) ... An out
line giving a specific job to each member of the
committee." In addition, there are suggestions as to
the building of themes and appeals, "a set of tactical
plans" for "the lifting of woman to equal status with
man, [in], i.e., the matter of recognition in the prac
tice of medicine, and in general public relations pro
cedure." ELB then summarizes, "... society needs
woman as a mind and an active force, rather than as
something locked to the kitchen and the vacuum
cleaner. Woman has not emerged into her full
usefulness. The way she can emerge is by her own
efforts. Nobody will help her. What do you say?
What is more important? What will you do?" As a
part of "these expert instructions prepared ... at
McCall's request, by America's foremost public
relations counselor," the magazine also presents
"a case history (illustrated) of women in action . . .
hypothetical only as to names and dates. In thou
sands of actual cases prople have used these tech
niques to change the course of events and other
Mademoiselle. "We Hitch Our Wagons," Aug
1947, p. 252.
One of twenty guest editors at Mademoiselle's first
Jobs and Futures Conference, ELB, advised Elaine
Diamond, U.C.L.A. '47, about a promotion career.
"You'll need the broadest possible general knowl
edge, the ability to deal with everything from fashion
to highways plus imagination and analytical
"Blowing the Other Fellow's Horn." May
1949, pp. 172-73, 256-259.
Editor's note: "Mr. Bernays' advice to young
women on careers in public relations is backed by
twenty-five years' experience as counsel for corpora
tions and philanthropies, radio chains and univer
sities, factories and art galleries. In fact, he has been
called America's No. 1 Publicist."
Discussing careers for young women in public rela
tions, ELB divides the field into non-profit groups
public service, government, education, foundations,
social service organizations, political parties, religion,
recreation and profit groups where public rela
tions counsel handle "everything from trade associa
tions and insurance companies to the motion picture
industry." In public relations "the quality of your
brains is more important than your profile."
Among qualities desirable in public relations,
ELB says, are the ability to induce other people to
do what you want them to; travel on your own
steam; be alert, tactful; have an analytical mind, a
flair for research, a talent for writing, be articulate
and above all accurate; be a good mixer; remember
names and faces; be persuasive; be able to stand a
fast pace; have good judgment, objectivity, discre
tion, honesty, sincerity, vision, imagination and
"good old common horse sense." For success in the
field, you have to know the strategy and techniques
of public relations; you also have to know the cause
you would espouse fashion, food, finance, etc.
"The social sciences make good basic equipment
for all aspirants. . . . Many universities throughout
the country offer courses. ... A college education
is not a prerequisite but it helps. You can get ahead
by starting at the bottom . . . and learning while
you work as a stenographer. ... A seasoned PR
woman knows how to do research, conduct surveys,
write articles, news releases, speeches, pamphlets,
annual reports, . . . conduct a house organ, direct
a mailing campaign, stage exhibits and shows, ar
range press conferences and speak in public."
Defining the field, ELB says: "In its correct sense,
public relations is advising on policy-making matters.
Publicity is not. It is one of the most important tools
of public relations, but it is not public relations. . . .
The general determines the strategy, the colonel
carries out the strategy planned by the general. Public
relations is usually associated with consultant, insti
tutional, and big business functions. Publicity con
cerns itself with newsmaking and the psychology of
selling products and ideas."
Musical America. "Letter to the Editor," Jun 12,
Letter to the Editor of Musical America written
for the Music League of America in protest against
the article, "When New York Sits in Judgement"
by P. J. Grant, which appeared in the magazine on
June 10, 1916. ELB says: "It (the Music League of
America) is called to task for having such men and
women as Pasquale Amato, Giovanni Martinelli,
Mme. Kurt and Johannes Sembach, 'foreigners', on
its Park Music Committee. ... As regards the
make-up of the committee, we feel that this is as it
should be. It is thoroughly cosmopolitan in make-up;
a representative committee that can well choose
music for New York's conglomerate population. . . .
As to the public press allowing its formation without
even a protest, that, to our minds, shows that the
public press here is not as narrow as it might be in
Paris or Berlin, the cities to which your writer refers.
The lack of this narrowness is shown, too, by the
membership of the committee and by the artists
who have offered their services."
The New Leader. "Is Broadway Disappearing?"
Vol. XXXIII, No. 20. May 20, 1950. 32pp.
Editorial Note: "Edward L. Bernays is one of Amer
ica's leading public relations counsels." This article
is based on the theatre survey made by ELB for
The League of New York Theatres in 1949, and cov
ers more or less the same ground as the article on the
same subject in Theatre Arts Magazine. See below.
. "Hawaii the Almost Perfect State?"
Vol. XXXIII, No. 46, Nov 20, 1950. 32 pp.
Editorial note: "Edward L. Bernays, U. S. Publicist
Number 1, studied island conditions first-hand as
visiting professor in Public Relations at the Uni
versity of Hawaii last summer."
At this time, says ELB, when the United States
is so deeply concerned with problems in the Far East,
Hawaii has a fourfold significance for us: 1. she is our
island bastion in the Pacific; 2. she disproves Soviet
accusations that imperialism and racism are our na
tional policy; 3. she dramatizes to the Mainland that
Americans of most diverse backgrounds can live to
gether in harmony; 4. she demonstrates that 500,000
Americans, 2,500 miles distant in the Pacific, can
successfully work out their destiny democratically.
Hawaii has reached many of her goals political
self-sufficiency, high standards of democratic living,
economic self-containment; she clearly deserves
statehood. But some gaps still need to be bridged.
Outlining Hawaii's history in economic and ethnic
terms, ELB says: "Such disharmony as exists can be
blamed for the most part on the little group of
myopic men who constitute an expanded Big Five,
who are outmoded and outdated in their attitudes
and policies, and who are still trying to run the
He then lists two types of rumors in Hawaii which
express aggression: 1. ethnic rumors that deal with
relationships between Caucasian and other ethnic
groups, and 2. economic rumors that play up the
middleman, and the man in the street, as victims of
the Interests, the Big Five, Big Business. He also
lists fourteen sources of friction pointed out by
Hawaiians of Oriental background. "Improvement
in intergroup relations is all the more important,"
says ELB, "because today the situation is so excel
lent on the whole. Nothing I have said here is in
tended to give the impression that cataclysmic re
form is needed in the Islands. On the contrary,
Hawaii is possibly as nearly democratic as any
community in the world. Hawaii comes close to
meeting the four goals projected above. For Hawaii
to meet these goals fully, it would need only a very
slight change of attitude on the part of a very small
number of people toward the residual problems dis
cussed here." pp. 10-13.
New York State Pharmacist, See Addenda, Item
Occupations. "Public Relations as a Career," Vol.
XVI, No. 2, Nov 1937, pp. 131-133.
This article by ELB and Doris E. Fleischman
analyzes the continued substantial growth of public
relations activities in recent years and outlines the
occupational opportunities existing in their field.
The function of the public relations counsel, this
article says, is to appraise and deal with the group,
and individual mind and action. The public relations
counsel approaches a particular problem as follows:
1. He analyzes the relationship of the public to his
client. 2. He analyzes his client and his client's
objectives. 3. He formulates policies to govern his
client's practices toward the public. 4. He interprets
the client, his product or his services to the public.
The young man or woman entering this profession
has before him possibilities for influence that are
limited only by his own ability. The ideal of the
profession is a pragmatic one. It is to make the
producer understand what the public wants, and to
make the public understand the objectives of the
producer; it is to make the producer, in the widest
sense of the term, and the consumer meet on the
highest possible point between them for the greatest
Discussing the ethics of the profession, ELB and
DEF say that the public relations counsel maintains
faith with his public, his client and his media of dis
tribution to the public. He cannot accept clients
whose cases are mutually antagonistic or a case
which is anti-social.
The most effective way to start in this profession
is to join someone practicing it. This covers a wide
range, from banks to farm bureau federations. Salary
of beginner varies with demand for his services, his
ability, his power to sell himself, the budget of the
group or individual for whom he works. Women have
achieved comparable standing with men in this field.
Printers' Ink. "The Press Agent Has His Day."
Feb 26, 1920, pp. 107-108.
In this article, ELB replies to an editorial in Printers'
Ink of Feb 19, 1920 which implied that "all free
publicity is necessarily surreptitious and that it can
function only through back alley approaches to the
editors of second-rate publications." He calls atten
tion to two facts of outstanding importance. "Lead
ing papers throughout the country, including the
best New York publications, depend to a consider
able extent upon publicity organizations for news
which would not otherwise come to their attention,
and are keenly appreciative of the assistance which
the publicity man gives them, either in the contribu
tion of immediate news or in the providing of leads,
the investigation of which results in news and feature
material. . . . The most successful American cor
porations and individuals have for a long time been
employing publicity experts to present their point of
view to the public, and are now represented either
by a personal publicity man on the staff or by a
ELB attributed both these facts to "the highly
technical and specialized character of American
journalism." He also points out that "an efficient
publicity man must believe firmly in the value of
advertising," and that "no honest publicity man
undertakes under any circumstances to promise the
printing or appearance of his material."
ELB concludes: "What the lawyer does for his
client in the court of law, we do for our clients in the
court of public opinion through the daily and periodi
cal press. There are shady practitioners among us for
whom we unfortunately have no machinery for dis
barment such as advertising men and lawyers pos
sess. Nevertheless, it is distinctly a pity for large
industrial interests to refrain from accomplishing
many useful purposes which a publicity organization
fulfills because they are misinformed as to the general
reliability and utility of publicity services."
Public Opinion Quarterly. "Recent Trends in
Public Relations Activities," Vol. I, No. 1, Jan
1937, pp. 147-151.
ELB says: "The public relations profession enlarged
its activities throughout the depression, because
business realized that in addition to selling its
products under unfavorable conditions it needed also
to sell itself to the public, to explain its contribution
to the entire economic system."
In this article, ELB outlines the development of
public relations from pre-Depression days to the
Depression era. Prior to the Depression, he says, the
public relations activities of industry were, to a
large extent, confined to trade associations and the
larger corporations. Trade associations which had
specific problems of public relations competition,
taxes, sales difficulties called in the expert on
public opinion. When the depression and deflation
first came, there was little change, little attempt to
grapple with the new conditions. But a change did
come when corporations and leaders lost prestige
simultaneously. The public was now keenly sensitive,
because of its feeling of insecurity, to everything
about a corporation that it did not understand.
Companies were exposed to attacks on all sides from
unexpected quarters. False rumors hurt business.
Then "the public relations counsel was called in at
all hours of the day or night to rush to the fire and
put out what might well have spread into a disastrous
Advising and aiding in the rebuilding of established
reputations which had been blasted, and attempting
to build new reputations, were prime public rela
tions tasks of the Depression period. The day of the
straw man and the stuffed shirt were over. America
no longer wanted clay idols. It wanted real heroes,
who kept pace with the changed times and antici
pated changed conditions by changing policies and
actions in advance of public pressure and law men
who recognized that private business is a public trust.
Companies began to realize they had neglected the
following important phases of their own existence:
1. The importance of always adhering to the princi
ple that, to survive, private business must always
be in the public interest. 2. That the public interest
is a changing concept and business must change
with it. 3. That the place of business in the American
system must be sold to the public. 4. That public
relations techniques can help to do this. Once this
was recognized, trade associations and corporations
developed new campaigns to rationalize and in
tegrate business into the thinking of the American
. "Attitude Polls Servants or Masters?"
Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall, 1945, pp. 264-268.
Editorial note: " 'We are no longer led by men. We
are led by the polls,' says this vigorous criticism of
opinion polls by a man whose career has been spec
tacular with success in studying and making public
opinion. Edward L. Bernays goes on to recommend
two steps to check what he considers a possible
menace to the democratic process. Of course, some
of the POQ editors dissent with equal vigor, and the
next issue of the Quarterly will discuss the question
In this article, ELB says: "Polls are an enormously
useful implement when honestly, efficiently and in
telligently gathered and understood. On the other
hand, they are potentially dangerous weapons in the
hands of the unwise, the inept, the dishonest or the
anti-social. . . . Inaccurate polls and interpreta
tions are a danger to society: (1) Because inac
curate polls have as strong an influence on the public
as true polls; (2) Because misuse of polls for biased
or venal purposes by pollsters or by those who hire
pollsters, can be extremely harmful; (3) Because
leaders who misinterpret and distort polls in dealing
with the public are a menace to society. . . . There
is too literal an acceptance of the validity of atti
tude polls. . . . Attitude polls often lull legislators
and business men into the belief that they are safe
from public disapproval when quantitative per
centage corroborates their own point of view. . . .
There is, too, the danger in the new kind of leader
ship which polls have produced in the United
States leadership of obedience to polls. Correct
polls must be carefully used: (1) Because attitude
polls exercise so strong an influence upon the public
as often to discourage use of sound democratic meth
ods of reaching important decisions; (2) Because
society suffers when polls inhibit leaders from inde
pendent thinking, from anticipating change or from
preparing the public for change; (3) Because polls
exert pressure that may place society under what
Jefferson called the tyranny of the majority and
throttle progressive minority ideas. . . . But while
the attitude polls carry these dangers with them,
scientifically planned polls, carried out within the
limits of present-day knowledge, may be accurate as
to future actions. . ."
To prevent some of the misuse and misinterpreta
tions of polls, ELB recommends: 1. pollsters should
be licensed, just as doctors, lawyers, accountants and
architects are licensed ; the people, as represented by
their state or national government, should set up
"standards of character and educational qualifica
tions before an individual is permitted to practice";
2. the public and its leaders should be educated in
the "significance of polls in our society." They should
be given "facts and points of view about polls, so
that they can appraise polls correctly and in that way
prevent dangers to society." ELB concludes: "Polls
then will fill a sound democratic purpose of helping
make decisions represent the accommodation of
many viewpoints, rather than a majority opinion
overwhelming all other points of view."
Public Utilities Fortnightly. "The Public Utility
That Is ' Misunderstood'," Vol. VI, No. 11, Nov
27, 1930, pp. 664-666.
Analyzes the role of the public relations counsel in
guiding corporations' policies for the attainment of
ELB says: "Public relations is not a mystery. It
embraces every contact a utility (or any other or
ganization or individual for that matter) has with
the public or any part of it. ... Since a utility is
concerned with the public's attitude, it needs to
know and act on important principles: 1. There are
psychological principles behind all behavior. He who
would influence or attempt to control behavior needs
to understand these principles. 2. Behavior is re
ciprocal. The public attitude towards an organiza
tion reflects the organization's attitude toward it,
and that attitude must be expressed in acts, riot
merely words. The public must be definitely guided
and influenced toward the desired actions. 3. The
public is not a mass; it is a series of interlocking
groups with varying motivations of moulding dif
ferent groups toward an end. . . . The need for
skilled shaping of such a policy, and the necessity
for guidance of specific actions to make the policy
effective, have created the profession of public rela
"The public relations counsel must know the
groups of which the public is composed. ... If the
public utility has been misunderstood in whole or in
part by its public or parts of it, he starts the work of
education or re-education. If the client has been at
fault in old avoidable practices he points the way
first, to modification, and second, to reflection of that
modification to the public. Again, if the client wishes
to embark on new practices, he sets about gaining
awareness of and acceptance for these."
. " What Can Utilities Do about Public Re
lations Today?" See Addenda, Item 16.
Publicity Director. "Propaganda: A Vital Social
Force," May 1933, pp. 6-8.
ELB says: "It seems to me that the future historian
will ascribe to propaganda a very large share of
responsibility for America's progress, and that he
will point to us, not as victims of propaganda, but as
Reader's Scope. "Are We Slaves to Attitude Polls?"
Vol. 1, No. 8, Jan 1947, pp. 91-94.
Reprint of ELB's article from Public Opinion Quar
terly, Fall 1945, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 264, 268, see above.
Reporter of Direct Mail Advertising. "Direct
Mail A Challenge to Research in Humanics,"
Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1947, pp. 6-8.
ELB urges a more fundamental approach to the
problems of direct mail advertising. "The science
and art of communication as a whole is one of the
major problems facing the world. The most recent
number of the Annals of The Academy of Political
and Social Science is devoted to the subject 'Com
munication and Social Action." It warns in the fore
word that our civilization is in a race between com
munication and that includes Direct Mail and
chaos. We know that what we call society is only a
network of partial understanding held together by
communication, in which the mails play an impor
tant part. Every act of a buyer involves some form of
communication from buyer to seller and seller to
Rotarian Magazine. "License the Poll Takers?"
In this debate with Claude Robinson, ELB uphold
ing the affirmative, says: "Attitude polls, scientif
ically taken and intelligently interpreted, serve a
useful purpose as tools for leadership in a democracy,
but they are misused today by some of the pollsters
who make them, and misinterpreted by the public
and leaders of the public who are influenced by them.
Pollsters should be licensed by the Government just
as are doctors and lawyers."
His premise is that licensing would "safeguard the
public," in opposition to the negative position, "It
would end freedom of press," taken by Claude
Robinson, president, Opinion Research Corporation,
Princeton, N. J.
Saturday Review of Literature. "The Revolution
in Publicity," Vol. XXIV, No. 28, Nov 1, 1941,
pp. 3, 4, 18.
In this short history of public relations, ELB says:
"Invention, transportation, fashion, diet, diplomacy,
even public relations all have been rocked by
revolution. Since 1900 there have been four revolu
tions in the field of publicity. The first, 1900-1914,
was the period of muck-raking versus whitewashing
publicity; the second was marked by the mass scale
effort to sell war aims and ideals, 1914-1918; the
third, 1919-1920 saw large-scale industrial publicity;
and, since 1929, publicity in the fields linking private
interest and public responsibility has been in the
After describing these revolutions, the article con
tinues: "Public relations is no longer a white-wash
ing; it no longer pulls the wool over anybody's eyes.
Studies of public attitudes indicate public demand.
Psychological motives, psychoanalytical techniques,
psychology, ethnology, statistics, serve as a new
foundation for the activity. Added methods, tools
all these have helped to integrate the work of the
public relations counsel, and have aided in solving
his problems, which, to say the least, had been
heightened by world chaos and tragedy. . . . With
this background, the responsible counsel on public
relations goes about his work as does the indus
trialist. Whether industry can move fast enough
to keep pace with the new demands made upon it by
a world torn with economic and psychological in
security is a question. Certainly the realities of the
situation indicate that there is an awakening which
if encouraged will keep for us the democratic pat
tern, enterprise, civil liberties, the 'four freedoms,'
safe from the rigidity of state capitalism of the left
or the right."
" Needed: A Grand Strategy," Vol. XXV,
No. 10, Mar 7, 1942, p. 10.
In this guest editorial, ELB discusses the relation
ship of censorship and propaganda to the war effort.
"Total warfare has three fronts: military, economic
and psychological. In order to achieve total warfare
they must be integrated. It is my thesis that the
psychological front with which censorship and
propaganda are so directly concerned is an agent
of integration, which will strengthen the other two
fronts and weld all three into the necessary, effective
whole." ELB suggests that "censorship should be
a function of the broad psychological front con
cerned with public morale in the widest sense. Today
it is only military and leaves the public in the
As to propaganda, "a variety of propaganda
agencies are at work, only loosely tied together, each
calling vague signals to the other when there
should be grand strategy and the grand approach.
. . . The use of ideas as weapons must go hand in
hand with our military planning and economic
strategy." See Addenda, Item 18.
"Our Own Worst Enemy," Vol. XXXI,
No. 22, May 29, 1948, p. 13.
A review by ELB of "The Man in the Street," by
Thomas A. Bailey. N. Y: The Macmillan Co., 1948.
ELB is described in the editorial note as "author of
'Crystallized Public Opinion' (sic), 'Speak Up for
Democracy,' and other books on similar subjects,"
This is a review of "The Man in the Street" by
Thomas A. Bailey. ELB's full-page discussion
analyzes the book's positive and negative points,
including: "A work such as Bailey's is long overdue
. . . [for] little investigation has been made of the
impact of public opinion on history. Mr. Bailey care
fully examines indices of public opinion available to
him . . . presents his facts and interpretations in
318 pages, most of them interesting, well-docu
mented, and studded with a wealth of quotations.
. . . To support his theory that public opinion en
dangers national security, Mr. Bailey selects opinion
and fact . . . proposes an antidote . . . makes
every effort to maintain objective aloofness, and
generally succeeds. . . . He [also] builds an ad
mirable platform of pleasant fantasies, which
and we admit deep disappointment in the lack of
constructive imagination of this excellent historian
it is apparent are not likely to be substantiated
in the perceptible future. . . . Occasionally, . . .
[moreover] his interpretations betray a chauvinism
that is surprising ... [as in] his discussion of the
hyphenated Americans who took so large a part in
this country's history . . . [and] we regret that
more space was not devoted to his discussions of
propaganda and pressure groups, and the printing
press and airways." ELB also strongly advises that
"the chapter on polls should be read carefully by all
who help direct public affairs" commenting,
"Our own studies verify the instability of individual
opinions on such matters as foreign affairs and inter
national relations. Polls are reliable only as a current
index. . ."
School and Society, "Looking toward Reforms in
the New York City School System: Shorter Pa
pers," Vol.63, No. 1627, Mar 2, 1946, pp. 154-155.
This article deals with the resignation of twenty men
and women from the Advisory Committee on Hu
man Relations of the Board of Education as a direct
means of expressing protest against New York City's
public schools. Through the recognition -of the
strength of public opinion these protesters were able
to institute encouraging changes in public-school
education. An Emergency Committee for Better
Schools for New York's Children was established
"as moral support in the fight to arouse the broadest
public opinion" and a real attempt was made to
stimulate the interest and aid of parents and educa
tors. The purpose of this organization was to stimu
late public opinion; once the public was roused, defi
nite action could be expected. Through investiga
tion comes change; through change orientation
and a more effective, working school administration.
Singing. "Can Publicity 'Make' a Musical Career?"
Apr 1926, pp. 16, 40.
A debate in article form between Robert A. Simon
and ELB on the role of publicity in the making of
careers for musical artists. ELB says: "Thus an
artist and the music itself, to maintain its hold
on the public interest, must be able to let the
public know exactly what it stands for and let the
public know exactly what is to be gained by attend
ing a concert," p. 40. Editorial Note: "Edward L.
Bernays is one of the foremost men in the select
circle of public relations counsellors, the new profes
sion which demands of its practitioners a practicable
knowledge of psychology, publicity, modern journal
ism, world affairs, and some subjects not described
in the text-books. . . . Mr. Bernays is frequently
called on for advice by various governments, in
cluding Lithuania, Rumania, Czechoslovakia and
Southern Lumberman. "Lumber's Post-war Prob
lems Demand New Public Relations Policies,"
Feb 15, 1946, pp. 44, 46, 48, 50.
ELB applies public relations principles to problems
of lumber industry.
Theatre Arts. "Theatre Survey," Vol. XXXIII, No.
11, Dec 1949, pp. 17, 20, 93.
A report by ELB on the "objective, disinterested
audit of its public relations" requested by the League
of New York Theatres "to meet . . . three objec
tives. . . . To broaden and strengthen the role of
the theatre in the social and cultural life of America
so that the theatre may enjoy the high status in the
public mind to which it is entitled ; to improve rela
tions between the public and the legitimate theatre;
and to increase theatre attendance by intensifying
favorable attitudes of regular and occasional theatre
goers, and by recruiting new theatre-goers." Declar
ing at the outset that "It is no news to anybody that
the theatre is passing through a crisis which did not
begin today, yesterday, or even last year. . . . An
upheaval which affects the whole of mankind is
bound to create crisis in every field of thought and
art. . . . The man who says there is nothing wrong
with the theatre that a hit won't cure is naive. . . .
What would cure the theatre at its foundation would
be a theatre movement deeply rooted in the modern
world and capable of creating the new theatre forms
ELB discusses his application of "the techniques
of the social sciences ... to do for . . . most
of New York's theatre producers and owners
what we have done in the past quarter of a century
for corporations, trade unions, governments, educa
tional institutions, scientific groups and individual
theatres." He described five studies undertaken
"to give the League the kind of [comprehensive]
survey it required" by attempting "to discover the
social dynamics of the theatre situation":
 "We collated and analyzed existing literature
about the American theatre, including the books on
the theatre and innumerable magazine articles.
 We conducted personal interviews with thirty
selected theatrical leaders, including producers,
critics, editors, box office treasurers, brokers, theatre
owners, actors, actresses, officers of theatrical un
ions, and playwrights.  We had depth interviews
with 400 men and women in middle and upper in
come groups, representative of the theatregoing
public in nine cities throughout the United States.
 By mail questionnaires we obtained opinions from
2,500 leaders in various professions and occupations,
selected from Who's Who; and 2,500 people in middle
and upper income groups in twenty-seven cities.
These people were asked thirty-five questions about
their likes and dislikes in the theatre, and their ad
justments and maladjustments with it.  In addi
tion, while I was in London this summer studying
the British Government's public relations policies
and techniques, I directed a survey of West End
methods of ticket sale and distribution in order to
see if there was anything for Broadway to learn."
Adding that "the data gathered in these studies fill
four volumes totaling 850 pages. We analyzed and
interpreted this material and, on this basis, outlined
recommendations for an action-program designed to
achieve the League's three goals."
ELB gives a point-by-point summary of the major
findings and recommendations, before concluding:
"No one in his right mind would think of these re
commendations as a cure-all for the theatre crisis, or
imagine that anyone would propose them as a cure-
all. But it is an action-program by which members
of the League of New York Theatres can effectively
change their attitudes and action, while educating
the public and enlisting its support for the theatre.
By presenting the public with the facts, by explaining
the reasons for every situation, by reviving the great
tradition of the theatre and by meeting the public's
needs, the theatre can, I think, take a long step for
ward toward becoming the great creative force in
American life which it can and ought to be."
This Week Magazine. "Do People Like You?"
Apr 8, 1950. 24 pp.
In the department "Everybody's Etiquette," ELB
answers the question: "As a public relations expert,
what is your advice on how to get along with peo
ple?" Individuals, he says, should study the methods
business is now using to woo the public. If they ap
plied them so their own relationships with others,
they would be agreeably surprised. Some pointers:
1. be open-minded, sympathetic to the viewpoint of
other fellow; 2. don't sound off with your own views
or announce that you won't listen to any argument
or show impatience with views of others; 3. be tact
ful, objective; 4. do not let a cold, a late party the
night before or any other personal matter affect your
attitudes; 5. be diplomatic; if you disagree with
someone let him know you respect his intelligence
and intentions. ELB lists several ways of making a
point without being disagreeable or injuring the
other person's ego; you can: 1. build him up while
you talk; 2. appeal to his sense of fair play; 3. quote
authority for what you say; 4. present factual evi
dence; 5. show your reasoning; 6. appeal to his emo
tions or his acceptance of tradition. These methods,
ELB says, widen areas of agreement, narrow areas of
disagreement, make it possible to turn a heated ar
gument into a quiet discussion, build your own repu
tation as a person who gets along with others, p. 20.
Today. "Presenting American Business." Mar 28,
1936, pp. 10-11.
This article by ELB traces the development of
American business in a "world changed with the
great war," in a rapidly growing economy and its
many problems. He defends it against the critics who
condemn it for its "inability ... to deal with poli
tics as politicians do, for its diffidence in assuming
public leadership, for its failure to treat with the
public on its own subject." He asserts: "Critics and
commentators on American business condemn busi
ness for its poor sense of public relations as if a
sense of public relations were an instinct. A sense of
public relations is not an instinct. It is not a taste
nor an intuitive understanding. A sense of public
relations is the product of strenuous and thorough
going training in theory and practice. It is based on
the same technical and professional work as most
other fields of professional knowledge."
Watch Word, "What Can I Do to Help Win the
Peace?" Jun 1945.
ELB discusses the role of the individual in achieving
"Here are some of the things you can do, in
dividually or in groups," he says. "Organize your
community to express itself to Congressmen, Sena
tors, the President and Cabinet, and also to the local
press and radio. Get the social forces in your com
munity to take up the battle for a sound peace
church, commerce and industry, educators, the pro
fessions, social service, religion. Talk to leaders in
these groups, get them to act. Dramatize your meet
ings and other events so that they will be interesting
enough to the radio and the press associations to
carry and, in turn, influence people in other parts
of the country."
Wellesley College News. "Bernays Urges College
Students to Help Create Peaceful World," Nov
ELB discusses the role of college students in world
affairs. "The most impressive and important task
that lies before college students today is to assume
active responsibility immediately in the affairs of
the world. To help create and maintain world peace
is the main job of every college student. Either you
will succeed in making peace and live in a good world
or you will sit back with your textbooks and watch
the world crumble. If you refuse to work at this most
important of all assignments you may inherit chaos."
Wilson Library Bulletin. "The Library as a Leader
in Modern Democracy." Vol. 23, No. 6, Feb 1949.
In this article, ELB highlights historical develop
ments emphasizing the importance of books to
civilization; stresses the "great responsibility and
privilege ... of American librarians [who], as
custodians of the intellectual arsenals of democracy,
. . . must and can assume a role of leadership in
safeguarding and advancing our democratic herit
age." He declares: "Libraries are no longer mau
soleums or static collections of books. They are today
a major social force with a mandate from society to
condition the attitudes and actions of its members,
and to maintain, strengthen, and advance our
democracy. The antiquated idea that the library is
nothing more than a repository of books must take
its place with the antiquated notion that medicine is
only for curing disease rather than preventing it. . ."
ELB suggests three ways by which "the library
can take this leadership" by (a) exercising "edi
torial judgment in selecting its books," taking "into
consideration not only the past but the living issues
of the present"; by (b) "issuing lists of books
[which are] creative and critical guides in the major
fields of modern thought"; and by (c) librarians'
"study [of] the available manuals on the many dif
ferent kinds of adult education in America, and
[application] ... to the library as a social force
. . . [which can become] a dynamic activator for
maintaining and developing democracy in the
United States . . . since librarians are in a strategic
position to develop effective forms of preventive and
creative education. . ."
. "The Library Inquiry Is Not Over." Vol.
25, No. 3, Nov 1950.
Editor's Note says: "At the A.L.A. Regional Confer
ence in Atlantic City in October 1949, Edward L.
Bernays made some suggestions on 'How to Make
the Library a Dynamic Force for Social Action,'
which later appeared in the March 1950 Wilson
Library Bulletin. So we asked Mr. Bernays, whom
Time has called 'U. S. Publicist Number One,' to be
more specific. 'Now that we have the findings of the
Public Library Inquiry," we asked him, 'what is to
be done next?' Here is recipe for a blueprint of ac
tion." A footnote describes ELB as "Counsel on
Public Relations; Adjunct Professor of Public Re
lations, New York University; Author, Crystallizing
ELB's article analyzes the $200,000 seven-volume
survey of the library field the Public Library In
quiry made with funds granted by the Carnegie
Corporation of New York to the Social Science Re
search Council. This library inquiry, ELB says,
"has created awareness both among librarians and
laymen that the library occupies an extremely im
portant place in the American pattern; and that its
future is fraught with the uncertainties which most
institutions in American life face today unless some
body does something about them." The survey also
makes us realize "that the library is in a position
where its future is dependent upon public trends,
attitudes and actions."
ELB urges that more needs to be done about this
survey. He suggests a four-point program of action
to be carried out under the leadership of the Ameri
can Library Association: 1. a clearcut outline of the
objectives to be accomplished; 2. the strategy where
by they would be accomplished; 3. themes to be used
with the various publics to accomplish the objec
tives; 4. the organizations necessary to accomplish
them, whether it be a subdivision of the A.L.A. or an
outside group. "Only a broad planned social engineer
ing approach to the problem will safeguard and
develop libraries for America."
Woman's Press. "A Publicist Says the Y Is
Needed More than Ever." Nov 1946.
ELB sets forth the need to raise $2,000,000 and ex
plains how to raise it by enlightening group leaders
and the public, pp. 7-8.
Yale Review. "A Symbolic Career." Vol. XXX, No.
2, Winter 1941, pp. 400-402.
In his review of "John D. Rockefeller" by Allan
Nevins, ELB discusses changes in popular attitudes
toward Rockefeller. "The change in the popular
attitude towards Mr. Rockefeller came after his
retirement in 1899. His son John D., Jr., who had
broad ideas and understanding of what public re
sponsibility meant, brought a new influence into the
corporation. It was through his influence, according
to Mr. Nevins, that many of the old practices were
changed and that publicity and public relations men
were effectively employed. Basic alterations in com
pany practices and policies as well as in the public
Published Talks by
EDWARD L. BERNAYS
Advanced Management. "How to Build Industrial
Peace and Prevent Strife." A Talk Delivered as
a Public Service at the Third Annual Educa
tional Conference of the United Automobile-
Aircraft-Agricultural Implement Workers of
America in Cleveland. Vol. XII, No. 4, Dec
1947, pp. 154-158.
An editorial footnote says this talk "expresses Mr.
Bernays' belief that industrial relations would profit
if labor unions carried out effective public relations
policies and practices."
ELB says: "Management, workers and the general
public must understand the workings of our economic
system. They must apply the new science of hu-
manics. This science attempts to learn the cause of
industrial conflict and to discover ways to cure the
disease. Labor should assume part of this educa
tional responsibility." ELB suggests that the UAW
follow three additional programs with this in view.
"(1) Make the public understand the value to the
country of sound unions and mature union leader
ship. (2) Make the employer understand the value
of unions to him, and make him realize that he needs
to apply the science of humanics. This will benefit
employer, public and worker alike. (3) Make the
worker understand our industrial system and his
relationship to it." The American public, according
to ELB, ought to have a great deal more factual
information on union activity than it now has.
He suggests that the UAW can plan the following
five-point program to inform the public about unions:
"(1) What is a union? How does it function? This
should give the basic story of union organization, its
history and development, structure and internal
government of unions, etc.; (2) the educational and
welfare activities of unions, including the labor press,
union educational activities, vocational training,
labor banking and insurance, etc.; (3) the facts about
collective bargaining; (4) the facts about labor dis
putes, how they arise and what are the mechanisms
by which disputes are adjusted under union-employer
agreements; (5) a campaign to define terms com
monly used in labor-management discussions, such
as wage awards, work load, work sharing, etc."
ELB also suggests an eight-point program for
educating employers: "(1) to the place of the union
in our system; (2) to the existence of groups like the
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues,
the Society for the Advancement of Management
and the American Academy of Political and Social
Science which are interested in studying and further
ing human relations; (3) to stimulate further research
by industrial relations schools like those at Cornell,
Princeton and Harvard; (4) to carry on technological
research to improve working conditions; (5) to de
velop new approaches to the industrial relations
problem; (6) to the importance of intelligent, honest,
unbiased industrial relations personnel; (7) to en
courage responsible leadership among the unions;
(8) to support housing programs, civil liberties, sound
international relations and other programs to
American College Public Relations Association,
"Public Relations for Higher Education: A Chal
lenge to Our Colleges and Universities." A talk
before the District II Winter Conference, Hotel
Biltmore, N. Y.: Jan 9, 1948. Published by
American College Public Relations Association.
Analysis of public relations for colleges and universi
ties with recommendations: "Once institutions of
higher learning have, as a group and as individual
units, determined their goals it seems to me that
every other action involving public relationships will
flow naturally and logically therefrom. The public
relations strategy of higher education, its themes,
its organization, its planning, timing and tactics
will be more realistic, and it will be able to achieve
those goals much more effectively."
To determine goals, college presidents were ques
tioned and their answers analyzed. After analyzing
their replies, ELB recommended a program of
action. First, "Administrators of colleges and uni
versities should gather together in a conference to
agree on a definition of public relations in its broad
est terms." Second, "Individual universities should
define clear-cut goals for themselves and put them
in writing." Third, "University associations and
the individual institution should undertake research
to appraise public understanding of their goals.
Further than this, universities and colleges may
have to revise some of their attitudes and actions
so as to reach the goals of higher education. . . .
An approach of this kind to the problem of inte
grating the university's relations with its various
publics considers both the general and the specific
situation in which higher education finds itself. It
should enable educational institutions not only to
carry on successfully, but to forge ahead boldly and
assert the intelligent leadership that is so necessary
to our democracy today and in the future."
American College Publicity Association,
" Higher Education A Public Relations Prob
lem." An address June 1936, in Boston, and
published by the Association in the interests of
higher education, llpp.
In this address, ELB discusses the public relations
problems of colleges and universities. "Before we can
tackle this problem of public relations and higher
education, we must know what the objectives of
higher education are, for it is a fundamental in deal
ing with public relations, that we must have clearly
defined, just what it is we are projecting to the pub
lic and yet, how often do we really get a formula
tion of policy and of objectives as expressed by uni
versity presidents:" ELB says: "Before higher educa
tion can undertake its program of public relations it
must satisfy itself regarding its own objectives. . . .
The public relations counsel of a college or university
needs an entirely new orientation about himself and
his place in the scheme of things. . . . After you
know your objectives, analyze public attitudes
about your educational institution. The public rela
tions officer of a university must understand this
problem thoroughly and formulate a plan for action
based on a knowledge of public opinion towards
higher education and specifically, his kind of higher
education. . . . The next step is to educate the
public regarding the function of his university in
higher education." To do this effectively, the use of
symbols is suggested. "The symbols are short cuts
to thinking to understanding. Leadership rests on
the ability to understand, to interpret and to utilize
symbols. . . . Political strategists understand these
realities. The most powerful national leaders of to
day Hitler in Germany, Mussolini in Italy, Stalin
in Russia know the value of symbols. . . . These
men realize that their struggle for the public's in
terest, the public's attention, and the public's
support, is in essence a struggle for response to sym
bols. ... In the last analysis, an intelligent under
standing of symbols, their meanings, and their
proper utilization is vital to the continued success of
education and educational institutions, as regards
their relations with the public. . . . This use of
symbols is an important matter to all of you. . . .
Your higher education must be placed before the
public using symbols the public understands."
American Hatter. "800 Hatmen Dine." Jan 1935.
In addition to his suggestions as to public relations
methods and techniques at the Ninth Annual Hat
Trade Dinner ... at the Commodore Hotel, New
York, ELB is quoted at length as having stressed
"the need for the industry's adapting itself to new
conditions. . . . Mr. Bernays also said that "This
means that as a primary consideration, you, as an
industry, must study your relation to the world you
live in. You must know what the public's attitude is
toward you and your product, why the attitude is
what it is, what the motives are of the public to
act as it does, what those motives can lead to in
terms of your business and your future. The first
step ... is to see and study the motives of your
public in relationship to your industry. The second
step is to take the results of that study and research
and develop recommendations for action. ... I
think you all recognize that within this world and
within this country today, unless your every cause
is definitely part of the public interest, there is little
opportunity of its surviving."
American Petroleum Institute, "Public Rela
tions and the Oil Industry." Paper presented at
Fourteenth Annual Meeting, at Chicago, 111.
Oct 26, 1933.
ELB said: "The oil industry has considerable to live
down. . . . New methods must be adopted to meet
changing conditions of our new epoch ... to coun
teract ill will from the past; the oil industry must
devise extraordinary means of informing the public
about its actual constructive policies and actions in
the present and future."
American Town Meeting of the Air. "Propa
ganda Asset or Liability in Democracy."
American Town Meeting of the Air, Series 2,
No. 22, N. Y: American Book Company. Apr
15, 1937, 31pp.
Participants in this broadcast from the Town Hall,
New York, over the NBC Blue Network, under the
auspices of The League for Political Education, Inc.
and the National Broadcasting Company, were
ELB, Anne O'Hare McCormick and Harwood L.
ELB said: "Propaganda, like medicine or law, can
be socially used or abused. Under present day condi
tions, the usefulness of propaganda makes it a vital
asset to the democracy. Propaganda is the voice of
the people in the democracy of today because it
gives everyone an opportunity to present his point
of view. Fascist or Communist societies have no
alternate propagandas; they must accept the official
propaganda of those in power. Freedom of propa
ganda is as important to our democracy as our other
civil liberties freedom of religion, press, speech
and assembly. Propaganda provides an open forum
for the people in which opposing ideas are presented
for the judgment of the public. Propaganda enables
social development to take place more reasonably
than it otherwise would in a democracy. . . . Wom
en's suffrage, the effective battles against tubercu
losis and diabetes, were hastened by propaganda.
. . . There is no secret about sound propaganda.
The propagandist pleads his case before the court
of public opinion, as does the lawyer before the court
of law. Public and social service institutions as well
as private industrialists must use propaganda to
achieve their purpose."
ELB then points out that propaganda is used by
social movements, great foundations, industry,
minority groups, food growers and distributors.
Babson Institute of Business Administration.
" How American Business Can Sell the American
Way of Life to the American People" Address
delivered at the Fourth Annual Conference of
Businessmen and Educators, Babson Institute
of Business Administration. Babson Park,
Mass: Babson Institute Press, 1950. 15pp.
An editorial note explains that ELB's talk was the
main address at the evening session of the Fourth
Annual Conference of Businessmen and Educators,
attended by 1,000 members. The talk was followed
by a panel discussion participated in by ELB; U. S.
Senator Owen Brewster from Maine; Carl A. Gray,
manufacturer; William Green, president, A. F. of L. ;
Prof. Joseph O. Hirschfelder, chemist and physicist,
University of Wisconsin; Clyde K. M. Kluckhorn,
Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University;
Kenneth E. Oberholtzer, Superintendent of Schools,
Denver, Colorado; and William G. Saltonstall, Prin
cipal, Phillips Exeter Academy.
ELB's talk, the editorial note adds, was broadcast
by the NBC network and by WNYC, New York.
The panel discussion was broadcast by the Yankee
network, WNYC and the Mutual network.
In his talk, ELB says that American business has
spent fabulous sums of money since 1935 to sell "the
American way of life" to the American people. Has
business succeeded? And if not, how can it succeed in
doing so? Quoting business leaders who have recently
complained of industry's failure to sell itself to the
public despite vast expenditures for that purpose,
ELB says the trouble is that business is following an
antiquated pattern in identifying the American way
of life solely with machinery and products, instead
of primarily with the human and social needs of the
American people. "Business," he says, "has identi
fied the American way of life principally with tech-
nology, machinery and living standards" to the ex
clusion of other factors and has therefore been selling
it "like soap, toothpaste or breakfast food."
While business has equated the American way
with tools, technology and production, ELB con
tinues, large sections of the American people have
equated it with "the social aspects of living, eco
nomic security, psychological security, status,
self assertion." The present situation "requires a
complete reorientation of business thought and ac
tion to an emphasis not alone on factories, machin
ery, markets and products, but also on the worker,"
he adds. "When our business structure, our produc
ing machinery satisfies the social needs of workers
and citizens, our problem of selling will be solved."
ELB quotes Standard Oil of New Jersey, General
Electric and Bank of Manhattan executives, and
the report of The Ford Foundation trustees to show
that this attitude is spreading and that "many busi
ness leaders are developing a new dynamic concept
of their role in American society." This, he adds, may
lead to a change in the public relations of business
"based on the acceptance by business of all its social
responsibilities. ' '
In conclusion ELB urges business to attempt sell
ing the American way of life to the American people
by concentrating on: 1. the extension of employee
economic security; 2. the extension of employee
psychological security; 3. the extension of activities
giving self-respect and status to the employee;
4. activities aimed at giving employees and their
children opportunities for advancement; and 5.
active participation by the corporation in the life
and growth of the community.
The Bankers Magazine. "A Program for Public
Relations." N. Y: Oct 1936, pp. 349-350.
Editorial Note: "In an address before the Massa
chusetts Bankers Association, Mr. Bernays who
specializes in public relations, offered this five point
program as a means of restoring favorable public
opinion of the banks:
"First, the old conception of public relations must
give to the new conception. . . . The banks must
recognize that their interest is also the public's inter
est, that everything they do is a public function as
well as being part of private business. . . . The
second step is analysis self -analysis and analysis
of public thoughts and desires about banks. . . .
The banks must know not only economic and finan
cial conditions, but also public attitudes. A survey
of public opinion toward banks should be made
before any plan is developed. . . . The third step
is organization of the banks for the economic educa
tion of the public. ... In this process of public
education the banker can well take a lesson from
the statesman and politician. . . . He must use the
sound methods of public education that other groups
educational, social, political have used effec
tively. His program must be in the public interest.
The fourth step is a definition and redefinition, in
your public education, of the simple, common sym
bols of banking that have lost their old meanings in
the last six years. . . . The public has listened to
all kind of wild and extravagant ideas about banking.
. . . Sound ideas about banking should now be
placed before the public in symbols which the public
understands. . . . Lastly, the banker himself must
assume in the community the place of leadership that
he deserves and that the American system demands
of him. . . . He must assert his leadership in pro
jects not associated with banking, as well as in bank
ing. His public will respond to him and to banking
if he becomes a leader."
Boston Conference on Retail Distribution.
1930, 1936, 1942. See Addenda, Items 2, 3,
Cooper Union Forum. "Private Interest and Public
Responsibility." Delivered in the 1938-1939
Forum Series of Cooper Union for the Advance
ment of Science and Art, Department of Social
Philosophy, N. Y: Broadcast over WQXR.
In this talk, ELB discusses private interest and pub
lic responsibility of the groups that make up Amer
ica's economic and social life. He points out that
private interest and public responsibility are chang
ing concepts in a rapidly changing world; indicates
the various elements, historical and contemporary,
which have brought this country to the present
crisis; urges first, reconsideration of old attitudes,
then altered actions toward these concepts of private
interest and public responsibility.
"Interdependence and converging of the private
interest and public responsibility are recognized to
day as an integral part of our democratic system,"
says ELB. "The public today asks the groups of our
society to examine their consciences, their attitudes
and their actions to find out whether they really
conform to the new demands made upon them by a
society in which democratization of our institutions
is taking place. Those desires reflect a world-wide
movement towards what Alvin Johnson has called
'equalitarianism* in all countries where might,
coercion, censorship and removal of civil liberties
have not suppressed the desires of the people. The
movement which has found expression in the secret
ballot, in general suffrage and in representative
parliaments, demands a lessening of the insistence
on private rights, interests and prerogatives and a
greater insistence on the rights of the common
man," always within the framework of the free, com
petitive system, civil liberties and our democratic
form of government. ELB also warns against "selling
our liberties in exchange for our desire for security."
ELB then outlines activities in which groups and
individuals can participate in order to create con
verging lines of private interest and public responsi
bility. These are: 1. Codes of ethics and practice
voluntarily entered into and accepted by indus
tries and trades through their associations. 2. Similar
codes carried out by the professions. 3. The public
relations profession. 4. Pressure groups of various
kinds which function within democracy to bring
about greater public responsibility of private in-
terests. 5. Enforcement of public responsibility
within an industry by heads of that industry. 6.
Laws denning private and public responsibility.
Fashion Group. "Fashion Propaganda." Reprint,
N. Y: Mar 1936. 10pp.
ELB said: "I have tried, in this talk, to indicate to
you five things. First, you must look on fashion as
something which we can affect and modify. Second,
you must consider fashion just as you would consider
any other industrial phenomenon in which competi
tion plays a major and a vital part. Third, you must
see that the success of any fashion, within limits, is
to be reduced to a battle of symbols for that fashion's
supremacy. Fourth, you must be prepared to fight
fashion's battles on a hundred fronts. And last of
all, you must arm yourselves for the waging of those
battles, with every weapon and with strategy that
modern propaganda stands ready to thrust into
your hands," p. 10. This talk was given October 30,
Financial Advertisers Association. "Proceedings
. . . Twentieth Annual Convention." Atlantic
City, N. J. Sept 9-10-11, 1935. 339pp.
Address by ELB to the convention on the theme of
"Molding Public Opinion," pp. 56-65.
An analysis of the public relations problems of
financial institutions with a three-point public re
lations action program: (1) The public must learn
that it needs the banks and cannot do without them
in whatever setup there is; (2) The public must be
educated in the meaning and importance of banks;
words expressing the entire function and nature of
financial institutions, must be re-defined and re-
clarified so that every member of the public will have
a clear idea of the value of the word symbols that
go to make up the bank; (3) Activities must be un
dertaken to re-establish banks and bankers in the
public mind through their own deeds as community
"How to Remove the Public's Antagonism
toward Financial Institutions." A talk delivered
at the Convention, Atlantic City, N. J: Sept
11, 1935. 14pp.
Reprint of above.
House Magazine Institute. "Fifty Million Read
ers Can't Be Wrong: The Truth about House
Magazines." A talk given before the Institute,
an editorial association of industrial publication
editors of the eastern United States. 1949. 8pp.
A quantitative and qualitative analysis of company
magazines with suggestions for their improvement.
"If the company magazine is to accomplish its pur
pose; if it is really going to be a means of communica
tion between the company and its employees; if it is
to be a morale builder which creates better under
standing between management and men; above all,
if it is to be an effective instrument in advancing
the American way it can only do so by speaking
to its readers about the essential, paramount things
which concern them."
ELB reaches this conclusion after the study for
which he "wrote the presidents of 100 leading Amer
ican corporations picked at random and listed in the
Business Executives and Corporation Encyclopedia.
Among them were: General Foods Corporation,
Burlington Mills, National Cash Register, . . .
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Armour and Company,
Pillsbury Mills, Inc., Allegheny Ludlum Steel Cor
poration, Rexall Drug Company, Chrysler Corpora
tion, The Celotex Corporation, Transcontinental &
Western Air, Inc., Pacific Telephone & Telegraph
Company, and Ford Motor Company. A wide range
of products was covered by [the] correspondents
foods, textiles, drugs, machinery, steel, aircraft,
optical supplies, tobacco, finance, utilities, con
struction materials, rubber, glass, and other fields
of industrial action in 21 states." ELB says, "I told
them I was studying house organs and their relation
ship to management, ... a new field which re
quired thorough analysis in order to be of greater
use to management. Would they tell me about their
experience with their own house organs? Would they
evaluate the impact of these magazines on the pub
lics for which they are intended? I added that I
would try to chart a course for the future which
might be of practical use to management, provided
management told me (1) the purpose which the
house organ was designed to fulfill in their organiza
tion; (2) whether the house organ met that purpose;
(3) what its present achievements and shortcomings
were. My letter of inquiry received an almost 50 per
cent response. Of the 100 companies, I heard from
49. Seventy per cent of the 49 had house organs.
Thirty-two firms answered our questionnaire in
detail. It is significant that 14 of these letters, or 44
per cent were signed by top management presi
dent, vice president, chairman of the Board, or other
officer. This indicates a genuine interest in house
organs by top management. Eighteen of the replies,
or 56 per cent, came from public relations directors
and editors." In order "to evaluate the replies
against a broader background," ELB presents se
lected "facts and figures on the development of house
organs in the U.S." He discusses the replies given
by the corporations to each question in an itemized
summary of high points in attitudes and facts re
vealed, synthesizes these findings as to the broad
picture, before offering his particular suggestions for
improvement, bolstered from specific examples.
Industrial College of the Armed Forces. "Pub
lic Relations." The Washington, D. C. Short
Course, No. 2. Jun 24, 1941. 16pp.
In this address, delivered six months before Pearl
Harbor, ELB discusses "public relations during the
Great War in Germany, England and the United
States, the changes in psychological approach and
technical developments since 1917, and such activi
ties today in the three countries."
The talk analyzes in detail propaganda techniques
during and after World War I and suggests a public
relations program for the United States designed to
maintain high morale.
"Our people have already provided billions of dol-
lars for physical armies and armaments. Through
their elected representatives they have voted for the
first peacetime selective service army in the life of
the nation. If we are to be fully prepared for what
ever may come, the people must become equally
convinced that psychological ramparts in this coun
try must be as strong as our physical ramparts. Such
beliefs must be founded on greater economic and
psychological security for the individual on a
strengthening of democracy and of faith in it. Such
belief based on an understanding of our aims will
express itself in a will to victory and in sacrifice.
Such belief will insure an even flow of supplies to the
army from the industrial plants of the nation."
Urging "a balanced public relations effort" to
achieve this goal, ELB suggests: "The Government
needs a psychological general staff to advise on all
major questions of morale in industry, civilian
life, army and navy. This staff would provide the
soundest available knowledge for building morale
and for psychological warfare and by having on
top the ablest technicians, would speed up the entire
morale building processes. Such a Morale Commis
sion in its field of psychological defenses can take its
place on a parity with the General Staff in physical
ELB sums up his proposed public relations pro
gram for the Government as follows: "First, a
Morale Commission of experts, advisers, to draw up
a master plan for morale and psychological warfare;
second, a program to strengthen faith in democracy;
third, a program to strengthen democracy; and
fourth, a program to sell the army to the people and
the people to the army."
. "The Mobilization of Public Opinion."
Talk before the Industrial College of the Armed
Forces, Washington, D. C.: Publication Num
ber L48-164, The Industrial College of the
Armed Forces, Jun 14, 1948. 13pp.
A survey and analysis of the techniques and media
for mobilizing public opinion in a national emergency
with a three point suggested action program: "(1)
... A central organization [for mobilizing public
opinion], manned by personnel skilled in the tech
niques of mass communication, and headed by a
director appointed by the President. This director
must, of course, be an expert in the field of mass
persuasion . . . [and] would function in coordina
tion with a committee of Cabinet officers. (2) Suffi
cient authority must be vested in the director to
enable him to avoid duplication and even com
petition in the spheres of policy, strategy and
methods. Just as a commanding general runs his
armies subject to the authority of the General Staff,
so must this director guide his centralized activity,
aimed at engineering the consent of the public . . .
[not through] control or coercion, not thought con
trol . . . [but through] . . . persuasion and in
formation. (3) The director will naturally coordinate
his strategy and methods with those of the Armed
Forces and of all other civilian governmental agen
cies. . . . Ideas in news and pictures would be put
before the public continually through press associa
tions, radio, motion pictures, news syndicates, maga
zines, books, television. The truth would be used;
lies, distortion, twisted ideas are unsound and dan
gerous. Limiting factors on the effectiveness of ...
activity would be of course events beyond . . .
control, . . . the extent to which the communica
tions network can penetrate into the minds of the
people, the expertness with which the work is carried
"General structure of the organization . . . would
follow [that] ... of the Committee of Public In
formation in World War I and the Office of War
Information in World War II. But with this differ
ence, that the organization would not be regarded
by government leaders as a nuisance or a sop to
public curiosity but as a vital part of our defense and
that it would receive the support and expert guidance
that it requires. A wide variety of activities would be
covered. ... It might be divided into three sec
tions: administrative, domestic and foreign. In the
domestic section many subordinate agencies would
be at work. There would be a foreign language news
paper division, a picture division, a film division, a
pictorial publicity division, a speaking division, a
syndicate feature division, a women's war work divi
sion and supervisory censorship division. Tomorrow,
such an operation might be of necessity more com
plex, cover a wider variety of efforts."
Basic to the suggestion of this action program is
ELB's premise that "an effectively mobilized public
opinion is our most important strength in war . . .
[during which, for mobilization] . . . resources are
four-fold: men, money, materiel and public opinion.
The first three can be stockpiled in advance. . . .
Public opinion can be stockpiled on a long time ap
proach, but not by warehousing or training, since it
is an intangible. The long-time approach is to change
the objective surroundings of our people . . . con
tinuously to strengthen democracy, through govern
ment and private groups, furthering constructive
social programs that will ensure psychological and
economic security of the people. The short-time
approach to be used only after a fighting war has
started, is by presenting significant symbols, words
and pictures to our people, through a government
controlled bureau, using the campaign drive method
of persuasion and information. . ."
In this 5000-word lecture, considerations and
methods necessary to the development of both short-
time and long-time approaches are discussed and
defined including, for instance, an examination of
the nature of public opinion, morale and patriotism
the psychological factors involved in "static" as
well as "dynamic" public opinion, ascertainable
through research-information and knowledge.
In these connections, among other things, ELB
says: ". . . it is impossible to give more than the
briefest suggestion of the psychological factors that
go into the making of public opinion. A great deal of
information is available, and more knowledge must
be gained. However, these factors should never be
overlooked in forming policies or programs, or in
carrying them out. . . . It is necessary to appraise
[as an example] the mechanism and force of ra
tionalization, that familiar process by which people
suppress, even to themselves, the real reasons that
lead them to make decisions, and invent instead
plausible reasons that satisfy them. We have to know
the difference between rationalizations and the un
derlying motivations, if we are successfully to appeal
to the public for support. Identification with group
aims is another factor that needs constructive con
sideration. Conformity to mass pressure is powerful
in making public opinion. So is compensation for the
many economic, social and cultural frustrations of
present day life. . . . We know that a man's morale
is good when he acts on his belief that he has some
thing worth fighting for, when he merges his interests
with those of the group. ... It may result from
recognition that society is functioning in his behalf.
He will feel this is true if he has psychological and
economic security. . . . The ego satisfaction that
men derive from active identification with a group
is so powerful as a morale factor that it should be
carefully studied and fostered. . . . We must ensure
that what we fight for will survive a war. Our war
aims must not endanger our national traditions of
freedom, equality and orderly justice. These aims
must take the interests of the people into account;
. . . must recognize the kind of world Americans
want. For example, . . . expanding freedom, eco
nomic, educational and social opportunities and full
civil rights, loosely, what we call a better life for all.
. . . Public opinion should be based solidly on facts
and emotions, on truth honorably presented, on
justice of the cause, on an understanding of a real
and immediate danger and faith of the people in one
another. These facts must ... be backed by the
realities of the good life in this country. . . . Re
search should precede any approach to a problem of
this kind, . . . should tell us whose attitudes need
to be intensified, whose need to be converted to our
point of view, whose point of view should be negated.
Such a research discloses the relative public aware
ness of the situation at the time, agreement or dis
agreement with our war objectives, the extent of the
public's determination to achieve these objectives,
its belief in our achievements thus far, its awareness
of the size of the task. It tells us its confidence in
various leaders, in the armed forces, in the allies, in
the veracity and completeness of the news, its satis
faction with the progress and unity of the country
as far as farmers, Negroes, foreign born, Protestants,
Catholics, Jews, labor, business and other sections
of the public are concerned. . . . [Also,] research
in the widely differing educational levels of our
population. . . . The problem of presenting the
basic underlying facts on which understanding is to
be based is a most difficult one therefore. . . . We
must know the extent of the network of communica
tions available to us at the specific time [If we are
effectively to deal with the people through symbols
that penetrate all the media]. . . . We cannot de
pend on intuition or inspiration for ideas. The ideas
we use as themes must be based on a thorough-going
research on what people respond to at the time. . . .
The American people are loyal to certain basic be
liefs . . . [which] act as rallying points for our
loyalty [around which] public opinion may ... be
rallied. . . . Semantics, the science of words, and
readability, the levels of reading acceptance, are
other research matters of primary consideration.
. . . [But] as words are used to express ideas, so
deeds are developed to dramatize ideas . . . [al
though] one more job of research is finding in ad
vance what cooperation may be secured from the
communications channels, and this includes adver
tising of course. . . . [From] a number of serious
studies . . . made of the machinery set up ... [in]
World Wars I and II, ... the main lesson to be
derived ... is this: that psychological warfare at
home is an integral and vital part of any total war
effort [and] . . . must not be underestimated."
. "Public Information by the Government."
Washington, D. C: Publication No. L49-47.
The Industrial College of the Armed Forces,
Washington, D. C. Nov 19, 1948.
Outlines the "public relations or information and
morale program ... as a way of insuring that,
when and if a war emergency arises in the United
States, the people will be as well prepared in morale
as the armed forces are in manpower and materiel."
ELB lists three "indispensable basic factors"
which must be taken into account in "any basic
plan for building the morale of the people" and "pre
paring the people of this country for an emergency."
The basic assumptions are: "it is necessary to de
velop and maintain maximum security with maxi
mum liberty; the government and the people are
one; the loyalties of all sections of the government
and the nation must be focused on a common goal."
ELB then outlines the following seven-point pub
lic relations program: "(1) make full use of research
as a basis of policy and practices of government in
dealing with the public; (2) develop a well-organized
peacetime public information bureau; (3) let the
government deliberately and overtly encourage free
public discussion in peace time; (4) in its whole
public relations and informational policy, the gov
ernment should emphasize not words alone, but
deeds; (5) institute a continuing series of conferences
and discussions between government and leaders of
the important groups in our society, including farm
ers, labor, commerce, industry and the armed forces;
(6) add higher formal education to the training pro
gram of the armed forces in peace time; (7) develop
a more democratic army in order to give men and
officers greater community of interest in working
toward a common goal."
ELB concludes: "The program I am suggesting is
predicated on our history, on our experience as a
nation and on the science of human relations as
developed by the various social sciences; and it pre
serves our fundamental principles of security and
individual liberty. Besides, it is based on the military
law that he fights best who most deeply believes in
his faith. History has shown that armies built and
supported by the faith of the people are the most
"The Importance of Public Opinion in
Economic Mobilization. 1 ' Talk before the In
dustrial College of the Armed Forces, Washing
ton, D. C. Oct 11, 1949.
ELB says: "Because national action in a democracy
depends on public opinion, we need a new approach
to economic and military mobilization, and to con
duct warfare. This requires expert knowledge of mass
and individual psychology, as well as expert knowl
edge of the techniques of communication. You are
giving serious attention to this vital matter. This
shows the Armed Forces no longer believe, as they
often did in the past, that technology is everything
and that public opinion can be handled casually
through handouts and headlines which glamorize
this or that general, this or that army in the public
mind. . . .
"Mobilization, then, must be divided into two
major areas of action. One is the mobilization of men,
money and materiels for the creation of physical
armies and resources in case of war. . . . The second
form of mobilization is ideological. ... I believe
it is possible to stockpile public opinion for economic
mobilization for victory as it is to stockpile things
if we go at it in the right way and on a planned basis.
. . . But we must realize at the outset that public
opinion cannot be expected to depend on words
alone; it depends upon deeds as well. The building
public opinion for economic mobilization must be
based, to be sure, on facts, on truth, on the justice
of our cause, on an understanding by the people of
the danger our country faces, and on the faith of
the people in one another. But it must also be backed
by realities, by the achievement of a good life within
the country. Efforts directed to giving the people the
psychological and economic security they desire in
the United States, if successful, should eventuate in
a vast reserve of favorable public opinion. . . . This
long-range approach, by improving the mental and
physical health, the economic security and education
of the American people, and by eliminating discrimi
nation, promotes high morale. . . . Now as to the
second approach, the wartime approach ... In
such an approach, a central government-controlled
bureau presents significant word and picture symbols
to our people. Such a bureau would use the methods
practiced successfully in two world wars to mobilize
public opinion. . . . Only experts in the field of
public opinion, men who are deeply versed in its
skills and deeply rooted in our democratic tradition
can give us the kind of organization and techniques
which will educate and mobilize the public for a
national emergency while maintaining our demo
cratic pattern intact."
Institute on World Control of Atomic Energy.
" National Committee on Atomic Information."
Report on the Institute on Atomic Information.
Vol. 1, No. 8, Aug 19, 1946, pp. 1-11.
The Institute on World Control of Atomic Energy,
convoked by the National Committee on Atomic
Information and its seventy sponsoring organiza
tions, was held in Washington on July 15-16.
Speakers were: Hon. Henry A. Wallace, John Han
cock, Clark Eichelberger, ELB and others. ELB said
in part: "The way to dispel fear is to supply the
people with the knowledge and facts the experts
have. This must be done in terms the people will
both understand, and be willing to act upon. The
people will become articulate when they know the
facts. They will then squarely support one of the
plans proposed for internationalizing the atomic
bomb. That is the people's role. The tremendous
expansion of communications in the United States
has given America the world's most highly organized
network for spreading ideas." ELB recommended
planned action for disseminating information about
the atomic bomb so that they could "be sure your
material fits the public you are interested in reaching."
International Association of Milk Dealers.
"Better Public Understanding for the Fluid
Milk Industry." Proceedings, 27th Annual
Convention, Oct 15-17, 1934. pp. 215-230.
An analysis of the public relations problems of the
fluid milk industry. "Public relations must be con
sidered, first, from the standpoint of the industry;
and, second, from the standpoint of the unit within
Analyzing public attitudes toward the milk indus
try, ELB says the public thinks "the spread between
the price the farmer gets and the price the distributor
gets is too great" and that "the farmer and the buyer
of milk are unjustly treated."
The milk industry can do what other industries
have done "carry on public relations activities
and create better understanding for the fluid milk
For this purpose, "new methods must be adopted
to meet changed and changing conditions of our new
epoch" and "to counteract ill-will from the past,
industry must devise extraordinary means of in
forming the public about its actual constructive
policies and actions in the present and future."
ELB then recommends a four-point public rela
tions program for the fluid milk industry: "(1) A
formulation of the objectives. (2) A scientific analysis
of the public, including not only an estimate of what
the public thinks and expects of you, but attention
to where public opinion is veering. (3) A study of
this analysis with a view to making necessary
changes in your policies, products or service to con
form to public desires and making whatever
changes are advisable. (4) A continuous projection
and interpretation of your industry through all pos
sible media in terms of what the public is thinking
The Journal of Marketing. See Addenda, Item
Mail Advertising Service Association. "Direct
Mail: A Challenge to Research in Humanics."
An address delivered before the Association,
Twenty-Eighth Annual Luncheon, New York,
N.Y: Raymond Service, Inc., May 6, 1947.
ELB reports on survey about direct mail he con
ducted among leaders like Nicholas Samstag and
Frank Pratt of Time, Boyce Morgan of Kiplinger's,
Simon & Schuster, McGraw-Hill, Penn Mutual Life
Insurance, etc. Quoting these on method and for
mula, ELB cites their suggestions for making direct
mail more effective: lower costs in production and
postage; greater accuracy, more careful selection of
lists; improved letter content; improved government
service lower postage, greater speed in handling
; ELB himself suggests users of direct mail "must
undertake research in two highly important fields of
human knowledge: first, the art and science of com
munication by mail; second, research into the nature
of human beings." Under first head, he urges re
search, aided by colleges, universities and founda
tions, in language, semantics and symbols; under
second head, research in social sciences.
ELB pointed out that "directed mail covers many
aspects of communications and of human behavior.
It involves the whole process of engineering the
consent of those whom it is trying to influence in a
highly competitive civilization. It should receive
the benefits of the most scientific methods in order
to carry out its social function most effectively."
Condensed in Advertiser's Digest, Vol. 12, No. 12,
Dec 1949, pp. 20-23.
Market Research. "Public Opinion and Public
Relations," Vol. 8, No. 2, Feb 1938, pp. 11-14.
Talk before the American Statistical Associa
tion, Atlantic City, NJ: Dec 28, 1937.
ELB defines public relations as "interpreting the
public to the individual and the individual to the
public ... a process of altering existing alignments,
... of effecting a change for the better integration
of the two elements concerned." The public relations
worker must "find out the present status of the in
dividual attempting to effect change" and "the
present configuration of his public." He needs
scientific charting by statistics, economic measure
ments, individual and mass psychology and other
Discussing use of statistical methods in public
relations, ELB says statistics can in certain cases lay
down the pattern for public relations activities in ad
vance, gauge trend lines, indicate the amount of ef
fort to be applied, determine the effectiveness of a
public relations effort, strengthen the ideas advanced
in propaganda, employ the "tyranny of numbers"
for socially useful purposes.
Merchants' Association of New York. "The
New York World's Fair A Symbol for De
mocracy." Address of Edward L. Bernays, mem
ber of World's Fair Committee of The Merchants'
Association of New York at Luncheon under
Auspices of The Association's Members' Coun
cil at Hotel Pennsylvania. Issued by The
Merchants' Association of New York. Apr 7,
In this talk, ELB discusses the basic theme of the
World's Fair of 1939 and how to develop and expand
it. After Grover Whalen's statement that the Fair
would look forward to the task of " 'Building the
world of tomorrow,' " ELB says: "In the last seven
years, many of our old values, through economic
forces, have been deflated. The world is in a chaotic
state. It needs leadership. To revitalize the relation
ship of our system to the common man is a contribu
tion the Fair must make. The Fair must be made to
show how our democracy works, how it can be main
tained. . . . Let us sell America to Americans. . . .
How can this be carried out effectively? . . . The
Fair must relate the things which are shown, to
what they have done for us as individuals, and as a
system in the last 150 years; to what they will con
tinue to do for us. Let us by all means picture the
activities of America with concrete examples coal
mines, copper mines, assembly lines, shoe factories
all these. I am all for the concrete, the vivid, the
actual reality. But this is not enough. . . . Such a
Fair must show graphically the interrelationship of
the various groups that make up our life the
relationship of private industry and private enter
prise to government and to the people; the relation
ship of farm and industry; the relationship of men
and management. . . . Give them these facts at
the Fair, graphically displayed in words, actions, dis
plays, through every form of thought conveyor, and
we can depend upon the people to make the soundest
choice possible. . . . Not to strike, throughout all
these great efforts, one dominant and responsive key
note of vital interest to everyone early in the Fair,
that will identify the coming Fair with the hopes and
aspirations of every man, is to lose one of the most
potent effects that the Fair can produce, and to lose,
at the same time, the highest potential of interest and
success the Fair can achieve. Not only will such a
point of view modify the attitudes and actions of
those who come to the Fair, but in its development,
it will tend to crystallize the attitudes and actions of
all those associated with the Fair exhibitors, key
participants. All New York will be ready to con
tribute to such an end. New York represents the very
democracy that is America."
Museum News. "The Museum's Job in Wartime,"
Vol. XX, No. 20, Apr 15, 1943, pp. 11-12.
Reprint of an address delivered at Annual
Meeting of the American Association of Mus
eums at Williamsburg, May 18-19, 1942.
ELB says: "The exigencies of total warfare demand
that every institution in the democracy re-examine,
re-evaluate itself to find its place in the democracy
under these wartime conditions, and to fit itself more
effectively into the peace that will follow the war.
Total warfare today has three fronts the eco
nomic, the military, and the psychological. . . . The
museums of the country, whether they are art, or
historical or natural history museums, can be used as
a stirring background for emotion, factual evidence,
and tradition in shaping men's and women's atti
tudes. That is one way in which the museum can be
come a dynamic and forceful contributor to the war
effort and to the peace that is to come. . ."
ELB reports that survey he made among museum
directors reveals museums face four major problems:
(1) organization the problem of personnel to head
museums; (2) support for museums inadequate
contributions and the problem to get people to at
tend and use museums; (3) the problem of satisfying
needs of various groups which use museums
children, adults, soldiers; (4) the public relations
problem of "utilizing all avenues of approach to the
public to meet your problems of financial support
and attendance." ELB then outlines three out
standing functions of the museum in wartime: (1)
the strengthening of morale through increasing the
people's belief in the future and themselves by show
ing them the past and the present; (2) providing
escape for a population made tense by wartime
stress; (3) providing and maintaining the creative
spirit so important to our democratic pattern and its
future. ELB adds: "These three important objectives
are newsworthy. . . . Public relations with deeds is
more effective than public relations with words. . . .
First, define your objectives specifically in terms of
your own museum. Second, make a study of your
community to find out what the prevailing attitudes
and interests are, find out the channels of communi
cation and their interests. At this point, work out
plans of activities translate your program into
National Alumni Council. "Mass Psychology -in
College Fund Raising." An address delivered at
the Regional Conference of the National Alumni
Council, Atlantic City, N.J., Feb 13, 1932. 8pp.
ELB says: "Given these two ideas, first, that the
world looks today for leadership to the university
scientist, teacher; second, that the world is recog
nizing the validity of the mental equipment the col
lege gives a man to cope with this disrupted eco
nomic world, how can they be turned into channels
to create greater opportunities for you to use in
raising funds to keep the college going?"
To achieve this goal, ELB recommends a public
relations program based on following steps: (1)
Through mass media of communication, group lead
ers and publicists, appeal to public's identification
with colleges as institutions which educate our chil
dren and give us our leaders of today and tomorrow;
(2) issue a round robin signed by 100 captains of
industry "calling upon America to give a thought
to its colleges and to the things of the spirit, in this
time when the fleshpots have proved of so little
avail"; (3) A pronouncement by 600 college presi
dents "calling upon America to bethink itself of the
university as the means of training the youth to be
able to meet whatever future it has with strength
and fortitude"; (4) saturate individuals in all walks
of life with this viewpoint, so that they reflect it in
their spoken and written utterances; (5) appeal to
the desire for immortality by listing all donors to
university funds on tablets; (6) fire the imagination
of millions by a simple, direct symbol; (7) ask for a
given sum for a given purpose on a given date; (8) let
each university define its ideals so that these are
known to groups who believe in the same ideal;
(9) let fund-raising committees be thoroughly repre
sentative of the community; (10) a successful fund-
raising campaign requires overt acts which make the
news luncheons, mass meetings, parades, broad
casts, resolutions, dedication exercises.
National Association of Manufacturers. "Panel
of Public Relations Counsel on the Big Problem
Facing Industry and What to Do about It."
Proceedings Third Annual Public Relations
Conference sponsored by the NAM, N.Y.: Dec
4, 1945. 89pp.
An Editorial note: "The members of the panel were:
Edward L. Bernays, Carl Byoir, Pendleton Dudley,
Fred Eldean, James W. Irwin, G. Edward Pendray,
T. J. Ross."
National Municipal League, [etc.] "Crystallizing
Public Opinion for Good Government." Address
before the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the
National Municipal League and the Twenty-
First Annual Meeting of the American Civic
Association in Joint Session. Pittsburgh, Nov
A discussion of the techniques of public relations as
applied to government.
After emphasizing the need to "sell" good govern
ment to a community, ELB outlines the techniques.
"You may perhaps wonder at the use of the term
'selling good government.' Yet good government can
be sold to a community just as any other commodity
can be sold to a community. . . . Any intelligent
handling of a problem in selling good government to
a community must take into consideration the exist
ing status of public opinion in the community where
the 'sale' is going to be made. . . . The basic reason
underlying such an analysis is the fact that men's
opinions are most often changed by their acceptance
of the opinions of those whom they regard as leaders.
Remember, then, that this analysis should try as
closely as possible to gauge the importance of the
relative values of different leaders in the political
thought of the community. . . . Now that the
technician has mastered the first step in his 'sales
campaign,' he proceeds to the second . . . and
analyzes the appeals of his good government project
to the community. He realizes that the individual
and the group are swayed by only a very small num
ber of fundamental desires and emotions and in
stincts. . . . The protagonist of good government,
then, selects such appeals as will best serve to reach
the groups he desires to influence. . . . The basic
appeal or keynote of the campaign having been
developed, the good government special pleader next
has to consider the physical approaches to his public.
. . . The platform, the motion picture (from a news-
reel standpoint), the radio, the magazines, the direct
mailing piece, the word-of-mouth ' spoken thought,
the parade, the mass meeting every method of
approach to the public through the senses must be
made. . . . The special pleader has a simple matter
when it comes to the utilization of these media,
which I shall group together, with the exception of
the daily press. He must simply study their con-
stituent organism as it exists at the time he is waging
his campaign and find the greatest common denomi
nator of interest between the medium and the appeal
he has decided upon for his public, keeping in mind
the group formation of society referred to previously.
. . . Your group leaders, induced on some essential
and basic interest to further your cause, and selected
to fit into the media, will influence their constituents
and larger interlapping groups. Given a cause that
needs the whole community's support, it is a possi
bility to secure the interest of any number of differ
ent group leaders on varied appeals to sponsor the
cause, and reflect them through the channels men
tioned, to publics that will eventually include the
whole community in terms of their own interests.
... I have left the newspaper to the last because it
is a problem in itself and to it as an influence in
molding public opinion could be devoted a special
course of lectures. . . . Your special pleader, there
fore, who cannot, because of physical and monetary
limitations, publish his own newspapers to present
his point of view, must continually think of his prob
lem in terms of creating circumstances that will
cause the desired expression in the minds of the
public he is trying to reach, and which will at the
same time compare in the market place for news of
that given day with other news which the given
newspaper is printing. The circumstances which he
creates must embody the basic appeal he has de
veloped as the one to which his public will respond,
and it must embody this appeal in the form of a
happening which will be as important, or more im
portant, than other happenings in that particular
place on that particular day. . . . The technique of
influencing public opinion is then a problem to be
gone at step by step. It demands a survey of the
market the public, an analysis of the thought-
buying habits of the 'buying' group, a study of the
physical media of approach and a harmonizing of
appeal to the media and to the public."
National Newspaper Promotion Association.
"Public Relations for the American Daily
Newspaper." A talk delivered by Edward L.
Bernays, counselor in public relations, April 25,
1944. Reproduced and distributed by the Asso
ciation as a service to the cause of American
Discussing the public relations of America's daily
newspapers, ELB says: "If my talk to you today
on the public relations of America's daily newspapers
is to be of any practical value to you, your newspaper
and to the public, it must be based on an objective
weighing of all the facts available. That is the only
way to deal with any situation realistically look
at the facts, interpret them, and let recommenda
tions stem from analysis and synthesis. . . . To deal
with the problem realistically then, we must examine
three sets of facts and state the assumption on which
we shall interpret facts that a democracy needs a
free and independent press, as a purveyor of news
and as a social instrument of leadership. First, what
are the policies and practices that govern the public
relations of American daily newspapers today? Sec
ond, what are the attitudes of the American people
toward the daily press today? Third, what are the
issues and goals the American people are interested
in now and for the postwar period?"
After discussing his survey answers to these ques
tions, ELB continues: "We have examined the three
sets of facts we started out to. Now what are the
conclusions and recommendations? If the newspaper
effectively serves the public as a news purveyor and
a social instrument, we do not need to be concerned
with the newspaper as a private enterprise. . . .
Our recommendations obviously apply to the daily
newspaper field as a whole. . . . Newspapers must
act on the basic consideration that a democracy
needs a free and independent press which purveys
accurate complete news, and is also a social instru
ment of leadership for constructive improvement.
. . . Large circulations and advertising are not
necessarily an index to the social value of a news
paper. If social values are not maintained, in the
long run newspapers may lose their status as public
service institutions and encounter a tendency by the
public towards restriction, control and regulation
even despite the first amendment. It is not incon
ceivable that pressures may be brought to bear
against the press, that is not considered by the public
to be living up to its privileged status. ... As to
platforms of a leadership character, here are our
recommendations: Greater emphasis should be
placed on national and international social goals in
the platforms of American newspapers. Planks of
local character, emphasizing physical improvements
in a community, now so generally used, might well
be reconsidered. Greater emphasis might be placed
on promoting local social goals, consistent, of course,
with national and international social goals. The
American people are vitally interested in postwar
jobs, social reforms, social security, educational and
other aid for returning soldiers, a chance to advance
themselves, a recognition of their personal contribu
tion to America and to the next generation. Planks
of this kind, it seems to me, might be given emphasis
on a local as well as national basis. As to planks of
a news purveying character, these are well stated by
the newspapers of the country. It is apparent that
what they stand for is not as acceptable to the public
as they ought to be. Newspapers to maintain their
status must not only adhere to these planks, they
must make a vigorous avowal of them to the public.
Platforms must be continually 'sold' to the public
in every possible way. The press must consciously
make the public recognize its values in both the field
of social leadership and news purveying. . . . The
press must not only have sound leadership platforms
and sound news policies and practices, it must 'sell'
both to the public. In the leadership field, it can devel
op vigorous campaigns for action. In the news purvey
ing field, it must stand not only for freedom from
prejudice but 'sell' this freedom from prejudice to
the public. It must 'sell' to the public constantly
that it is truthful and accurate, particularly in those
areas in which the public appears to doubt its fair-
ness, its treatment of politicians and politics, labor
and labor leaders, business and businessmen, foreign
affairs, religious and racial problems."
National Society for Crippled Children and
Adults. " Achieving Goals for the Handicapped."
Proceedings 1949 Annual Convention. Hotel
Commodore, N. Y: Nov 6-10, 1949. 231pp.
Introducing ELB at the November 8 session of the
Society's convention, the chairman said: "He is not
a stranger to the work we are engaged in nor to the
activities of the people present, because he has been
a member of the National Public Relations Com
mittee of the American Red Cross, and is a director
of the National Committee on Mental Hygiene, and
of the Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation. He is
Edward L. Bernays, a graduate of Cornell Univer
sity. Time magazine has called him 'the United States
Publicist No. 1.' He is a lecturer on public relations
at New York University. Next summer, he will be
Visiting Professor on Public Relations at the Uni
versity of Hawaii. He has served the United States
government in various capacities such as the Paris
Peace Conference, the United States Committee on
Public Information, the War Department and the
Department of Commerce. He is an author and a
frequent contributor to leading magazines, and news
papers and social science journals."
Speaking on "Achieving Goals Through Educa
tion," ELB said: ". . . the visibility today of your
cause is not as great as it might be not because
the problem of crippled children and adults is not as
important and vital as you might think it is, but
because thousands of other ideas and interests are
competing with yours for public attention. You may
have the best cause in the world, but the public must
be convinced that it is important before it will sup
port it. The public importance of a cause is in direct
ratio to its visibility, to its being on the front page,
so to speak, of communications that reach and make
public opinion. . . . You must then create visibility
for your movement high visibility on a national,
statewide and local basis. This is your first problem
in any attempt to educate the public for the achieve
ment of your stated goal.
"... the problem of educating the public is a
much broader problem. We might call it a problem
of social engineering, or a problem of engineering the
consent of the public for your goals.
"The first step ... is to insure that your goals
are realistic, that they are attainable and that they
are effectively refined and defined. . . . Research
of the public will tell you whether the manpower,
the money and the organizational facilities available
to you now can meet your hoped-for goal. . . . You
will also find out by research of the public what the
social forces in the community are that may work
with you, . . . what your publics are, what they
are made up of, what they are motivated by, what
the special fields of activity that appeal to these
publics are. . . . Research of this kind will help you
to define goals that will appeal to the public.
"While selling your words to editors, publishers,
radio commentators, writers and other opinion mold-
ers, you must also integrate yourself with the com
munity where you function, with the key social
groups that make up the community and its social
pattern on a local level, a statewide level, a national
". . . possibly one way to cope with the problems
of educating the American public to understand the
needs of crippled children and adults and to support
your cause, is for you to set up a central board of
strategy consisting of representatives of your Na
tional Society and of other groups. . . . This central
board of strategy . . . could work out both an im
mediate and a long range plan of educating the public
in the light of whatever the research of your publics
indicates is the necessary blueprint of action." pp.
New England News Letter. "Building Goodwill
for New England Industry." Supplement, Aug
1938, pp. 4-12.
Addressing the Conference of leading New England
Manufacturers, ELB said: "The importance of pub
lic relations today, it seems to me, is that the busi
ness man must regard it as more than articulation;
he must regard it as a basic and underlying part of
his responsibility to the world he lives in. He must
recognize that only if the public interest and the
private profit coincide can he maintain and develop
his own business and the broader system of which
it is a part."
ELB reports on the "Goodwill Survey" which he
made for the Industrial Committee of the New Eng
land Council. This survey was sent to 2500 New Eng
land manufacturers, of whom 263 or 10.5% replied.
Of this survey, ELB said: "It aimed to find out
whether your community realized the contribution
made to its economic life by your company, inquired
as to whether your community was friendly to your
company, and whether your company was friendly
to the community; asked as to the appearance of
your company's officers before local groups in the
community; inquired, specifically, as to the par
ticipation of your company in community affairs.
Then it queried whether certain different kinds of
information were made available to local newspapers
and other agencies in the community; whether you
encouraged visits to your plants; what employee in
formation relationships you carried on; what plant
identification you had; what plant exhibits you pro
vided, what local activities you participated in to
wards a furtherance of your business, and what
you considered the chief barriers or obstacles
to good relations between industry and your com
"... business must retain the system of private
enterprise, of private profit and of free competition
which made America. These are part and parcel of
our democracy. The drift towards state capitalism
that is going on in many parts of the world is fraught
with danger for the democracy. That is why it is so
important that the people should not be permitted
to lose faith in business. ... If our democracy is to
remain, business must regain the good will of the
public. It must reestablish itself with the public.
But it must depend for its public understanding on
deeds as well as words. . . . Public relations is no
longer a matter of a mimeograph machine, manu
facturing releases for newspapers. It is no longer a
matter of appearing before local groups, partici
pating in community affairs, contributing towards
community charities, sending out information.
Constructive public relations must permeate your
every attitude and action. What you think and do
must be in accord with public opinion, public desire,
public demand and public interest as well as with
your private profit. ..."
Newspaper Advertising Executives Association,
Inc. "Symbols The Currency of Propaganda."
Address at the 28th Annual Convention, N. Y.
1935. p. 9.
An action-related analysis of the use of symbols in
propaganda, publicity, and public relations.
ELB said: "There are so few leaders today because
there is so little understanding of the science of
ballyhoo by those who should be leaders. ... In
influencing and motivating the group to action, sym
bols and cliches play a most significant role. . . .
Leaders must devise symbols that will interpret the
disappointed and the latent beliefs of the public
and that will stand again for the public's desires. A
new symbol-maker will be a new leader, if his sym
bols are valid. . . . Propaganda the science of
ballyhoo can give direction to the shifting tastes
and wants of the consumer through the use of sym
bols, whether it be applied in newspaper advertising
or some other form of propaganda. . . . The mod
ern propagandist studies systematically and objec
tively the material with which he is working, in the
spirit of the laboratory. If the matter in hand is a
nationwide sales campaign, he studies the field by
means of a clipping service, or of a corps of scouts,
or by personal study at crucial spots. . . . This
technique is daily being applied to every field of
human activity. . . . The world of industry par
ticularly must recognize that it is not only dealing
with three dimensional objects and methods through
which to move them to the public. It must recognize
that in addition to objects, it is dealing with symbols
that are competing with all other kinds of abstrac
tions, and that the only way to do this effectively is to
have fundamentally in mind the science of ballyhoo."
New York Academy of Medicine. "A Venture
in Public Health Integration:' The 1941 Health
Education Conference of the New York Acad
emy of Medicine. N. Y: Morningside Heights,
Columbia University Press. 1942. 56pp.
Chapter II, "Barriers to Health Education," by
ELB, analyzes public health services, the cost of
medical care, and the barriers to health education.
It contains a public relations program for educating
the American people on health matters, pp. 24-45.
Reprinted as "Psychological Barriers in Health
Education." Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol.
VIII, No. 6, Jan 1, 1942. pp. 188-192.
New York Herald Tribune. Fifth Annual Forum
on Current Problems. "America Faces a
Changing World" The New York Tribune, Inc.
The Fifth Session of this Herald-Tribune Forum,
held October 17, 1935, was devoted to "Propaganda:
A Force for Good or Evil." ELB spoke on "Mould
ing Public Opinion," pp. 234-238. Introducing him,
Mrs. William Brown Maloney, Chairman of the
Forum and editor of This Week, said: "The next
speaker on this program is by way of being a sort
of institution. A nephew of that famous psycholo
gist, Dr. Sigmund Freud, his training and environ
ment made him a student of human nature, and
in his early life he became interested in the psychol
ogy of the crowd. He read a play called 'Damaged
Goods,' believed it should be given to the public
for the public's own good, and undertook to put
it over. Doing this was not just a press agent's
job selling that play to the public meant con
verting the legal profession, the medical profession,
the educators and the press to acceptance of a more
open discussion of social problems than they had
ever known before. That was Mr. Bernays' first
experience as a public counsellor. Today he is one of
the foremost men in that profession; has, in fact,
been largely instrumental in creating the profession
as such. I want to quote something he said about it
several years ago. 'Propaganda is simply special
pleading projected in terms of the public interest.
This can be used to antisocial purpose.' Ida Tarbell
asked him what was the difference in the propaganda
methods of a statesman and a demagogue. He an
swered that the difference was that one man had a
social purpose and the other didn't. It is the differ-
ference between the honest lawyer and a shyster
lawyer; between a reputable doctor and a quack;
between humanism and egotism. Mr. Bernays has
been the adviser of presidents, of high government
officials, of big business. He is the author of two well-
known books Propaganda and Crystallizing Pub
lic Opinion" In his speech ELB said: "Americans
must recognize that in the science of propaganda
they have at their command a real weapon with
which to consolidate and make effective the work
and contributions of past and present generations
that have built up our present-day system an
economic and governmental system which we do
not desire to exchange for any other."
New York State Title Association. " Mr. Bernays'
Address 'Private Interest and Public Respon
sibility.' " May 5-6, 1939, pp. 59-66.
Minutes of New York State Title Association meet
ing, beginning with the president's introductory re
marks. "The Association this year is going a little
further afield in its program. The next speaker is a
publicist not directly associated with the title busi
ness. Mr. Bernays has been identified with many of
the large corporations in business, advising them on
their public relations. TIME has called him U. S.
Publicist No. 1 ..." The text beginning, "Title
insurance and its related field of real estate invest-
ment today face the same problems of public rela
tions many other great fields of financial activity are
facing. The need these businesses serve is greater
than public knowledge and appreciation of this
need." Speech given by ELB covers sub-topics,
"How to Develop a Better Understanding," "Public
Interest Values," "Private Interests and Public Re
sponsibility," "Business Dependent on Goodwill,"
"Public Relations a Definite Objective." Question
and answer period including one member's com
ment, "We have had a million dollars' worth of ad
vice from Mr. Bernays for the price of a good lunch
eon" also reported.
Pennsylvania State College. "Human Relations
The Way to Labor -Management Adjustments"
Bulletin. Vol. XLI, No. 7. Feb 14, 1947. pp. 15-
22. A paper presented at the 23rd Annual In
dustrial Conference of the College, State Col
ELB said: "The attempt of either management or
labor to win public opinion to its side alone is in itself
no solution. The job of management, as it is of labor,
is to put its own house in order so that it can begin
to develop a public opinion that will itself look be
yond the conflicting claims of group interest. There
is no short-cut to this goal."
ELB discusses the basic problems of labor-manage
ment maladjustments and appeals to management
to "bring its thinking up to date. . . .
"How can management build a real case that both
the public and labor will accept? In dealing with
labor-management problems, management suffers
from a cultural time lag. This phrase succinctly de
scribes the gap which exists between what people
actually do and what they could do in the light of the
knowledge available. . . . The question resolves
itself into management's attitudes and actions to
wards the worker and the representatives of manage
ment, from pay to ventilation. . . . Today indus
trial management must apply to its industrial rela
tions the theories of human behavior developed in
the social science laboratories. To use this knowledge
is not visionary. It is the highest type of practical,
self-interest, enlightened reality. . . . An orderly
solution to management's responsibilities is necessary
before management can present a visible case for
itself." In the hopes of stimulating such a solution,
ELB offered a seven-point program: (1) study and
codifying of study materials on human relations
from all over the country; (2) management should
contribute financial and personnel aid to organiza
tions studying and publishing in the field; (3)
management should actively support universities
through scholarships and endowments; (4) tech
nological research should be applied to increasing
industrial productivity through more efficient ma
chinery; (5) all plans for improving labor relations
should be studied thoroughly; (6) more widespread
and intelligent use should be made of specialized in
dustrial relations personnel; (7) the public must be
educated to an understanding of what the American
system means to them.
"Management must do its part as labor to see
that it conforms to the new conditions, that change
is kept within a working evolutionary framework.
About the only guarantee of industrial peace is for
management to apply the science of human rela
tionships to this problem. If management accepts its
responsibility to achieve co-partnership with work
ers, public opinion will support management's share
in this accomplishment."
Philco Distributors' & Dealers' Convention.
"Leadership." An address by Edward L. Ber
nays, Counsel on Public Relations to the Philco
Radio & Television Corporation. Delivered to
Philco Distributors and Dealers on the 1936
Convention Cruise Aboard the Q.T.E.M. Mon
arch of Bermuda. Copyright 1936, Philco Radio
and Television Corporation. 16pp.
ELB analyzes the nature and the characteristics of
leadership in American society and applies it practi
cally to Philco.
Printing and Advertising Clinics. "Public Rela
tions A Challenge to the Graphic Arts." Talk
at the Second of the Clinics, sponsored by the
General Printing Ink Corporation, N. Y: Apr
16, 1940. 23pp.
ELB discusses the problems of the graphic arts in
dustry "those engaged in the three processes of
reproduction, letterpress, lithography and gravure,
and the allied trades, the suppliers."
He found out what the problems were by a na
tionwide survey, among leaders of the industry
printers, lithographers, engravers, professors in
printing universities, editors and publishers of trade
newspapers, type founders, labor leaders; manufac
turers of presses, paper and other materials.
The industry faces: (1) internal problems; (2)
problems of relations with the broad public; (3) rela
tions with its customers [pp. 6-7]. Industry leaders,
ELB says, have six major complaints: (1) "there are
too many printers in the field and not enough crafts
men . . . the lack of public appreciation of the
graphic arts industry is due to the fact that there is
too little appreciation within the industry itself as
to what constitutes quality work; (2) the lack of
realization of artistic potentialities by the indus
try; (3) poor salesmanship; (4) poor promotion;
(5) lack of cooperation in the industry; (6) the
need for a coordinated and well-planned promotional
campaign using every form of promotional media."
ELB recommends the following public relations
program for the graphic arts industry: ". . . call
together . . . leaders from the various divisions of
the industry to study the problems and suggest solu
tions. ... I recommend that your Committee de
velop a program of broad principles and practices
for the graphic arts industry to follow. ... I sug
gest that competent technicians be engaged to make
a study of the public mind to find out just what the
attitudes of your publics are . . . toward the prin
ciples and goals you have decided upon ... a
campaign of public education . . . using what we
might call the engineering of consent, organized
persuasion, from advertising to mailing pieces, from
personal suasion to industry resolutions, to win sup
port both of your industry and public to the princi
ples and practices you have decided upon."
ELB says: "Certainly, the graphic arts and the
prosperity of this country are interdependent.
The graphic arts are the fourth largest industry of
the country. Every sound attempt should be made
to solve the problem of their mutual interrelations
and public relations."
Progressive Education Association. Gulp, W. M.
"Progressive Education Conference." The West
ern Journal of Education. March 1938, pp. 5-7.
Speaking as a member of the panel on educational
freedom and propaganda at the Twentieth National
Conference of the Progressive Education Associa
tion, held from February 23rd to the 26th, ELB said:
"Freedom of using propaganda takes its place with
the other freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution."
To Professor Leonard Doob's challenge that propa
gandists try to influence public opinion in a con
cealed manner, Mr. Bernays answered that there are
ethics and standards for men in public relations as
well as other professions.
Robert Morris Associates. "Public Good Witt
as a Credit Factor." Address before New York
Chapter. The Robert Morris Associates Monthly
Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 3, Aug 1935. pp. 49-52.
ELB said: "As far as the credit system is con
cerned, . . . there may be periods in which people
neither borrow nor lend. In such periods as these, it
is vitally important for credit organizations to keep
alive public belief in the institution of borrowing
and lending, because should the habit of not utilizing
the credit system become too firmly fixed, it would
be extremely difficult to build up a new faith,
without which the credit system must needs fail,"
School Administration and Supervisors Con
ference. "Public Relations for Public Edu
cation: How to Create Greater Public Under
standing of the Public Schools: by Edward L.
Bernays." An address delivered at The Second
Annual Conference held at New York Univer
sity on April 30, 1949. 8pp.
ELB analyzes the current crisis in American educa
tion, emphasizing educational needs and expendi
tures, the prevalence of obsolete school buildings and
crowded class rooms, the shortage of teachers, etc.
He gives findings of attitude polls, showing what
the public thinks about public education and sug
gests techniques for educating the public to a greater
understanding of the problem.
ELB says: "The facts about the crisis in education
must be integrated with realizable social goals and
they must be acted upon if the crisis is to be re
solved. In order to achieve the necessary action, the
consent of the public must be engineered in the de
sired direction. In a world where thousands of facts
compete daily for our attention, we must somehow
focus public attention on the educational crisis in a
way that will bring about social change in favor of a
better educational system. . . . Public education
has a particularly low visibility. This calls for even
greater effort in making the public aware of what is
involved and what must be done in the current edu
cational crisis. . . . What we need today are volun
tary groups which will educate the public about edu
cation and so create the necessary public demand for
laws that will save and improve our school system.
. . . What is needed is that all the groups working
for better education should speak with one voice,
while each group retains its own freedom and re
sponsibility to work for better education on its own
level. Such a unification of effort would avoid the
duplication and distortion which are bound to con
fuse, instead of enlightening, the public."
ELB then suggests the creation of a central board
of strategy, consisting of leading lay groups and
educators who would set policies and goals for
American schools as a necessary step toward solving
the crisis in education. This board would direct re
search in the educational crisis and public attitudes,
reorient objectives; work out a clear-cut plan of or
ganization, strategy and tactics "to engineer public
consent in relation to this issue"; use school buildings
for public meetings, adult education, consumer train
ing, recreational purposes; influence the public
through the press, the radio, television, posters,
pamphlets and motion pictures; achieve more ef
fective cooperation between schools and parents,
and between schools and the community. ELB con
cludes: "Coordinated effort alone will help us over
come the present chaos in our educational system.
And we must act quickly, for that chaos is very
dangerous to our children and to our future, a deadly
menace to the generations to come, the level of whose
intelligence and character will determine what kind
of America we shall have."
Talks. "Should Public Opinion Polls Be Licensed?"
Quarterly Digest of Addresses Presented in the
Public Interest by the Columbia Network.
Vol. 12, No. 2. Apr 1947. N.Y: Columbia Broad
casting System, Inc. pp. 54-56.
Editorial note: "Archibald M. Crossley, market
analyst and pioneer in the development of opinion
polls, and Edward L. Bernays, eminent publicist and
author of 'Crystallizing Public Opinion,' stated their
divergent views over CBS, January 6. ELB said:
'We are no longer led by men. We are led around by
polls. . . . Actually, public opinion is much more
changeable than is indicated by the polls. . . . The
government must protect the public against mal
practices in polling. We license doctors, lawyers, ac
countants and architects to protect the public. We
set up standards of character and education which
they must meet, and everyone favors this. By the
same token we should license poll-takers."
Toronto Advertisers. "A Psychological Blueprint
for the Peace Canada, U.S.A." Address before
the Joint Annual Meeting of the Association of
Canadian Advertisers and the Advertising and
Sales Club of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Oct
28, 1943. 14pp.
ELB said: "We must learn to translate our divisive
powerful war publicity into equally powerful peace
publicity for mutual understanding. This must be
based on a knowledge and understanding by the
people of both countries of their common post-war
problems and goals of defense, offense and economic
relationship. Only on such common understanding
can we both be assured that we shall best be serving
our national destinies, which by tradition, economics
and a common background are so closely bound
together," p. 14.
This plea was made in reference to ELB's proposal
of "an organization following the pattern of already
existing boards ... a joint Canadian-United States
Board for Mutual Understanding. ... A Joint
Board for Mutual Understanding," he explained,
"provides a body which carries on a common pub
licity activity to serve the interests of both coun
tries, in that it gives the people of both countries
the facts on which they may base their attitudes
and . . . actions. Such a permanent Joint Board
for Mutual Understanding should consist of an
equal number of men representing both countries.
These men should be appointed for life as are the
judges of our highest tribunals . . . should have
a deep love and understanding of the common
interests of both countries and a knowledge of their
common needs. . . . Such a Board should include
from each country, one or two elder statesmen, a
social psychologist, a newspaper publisher or radio
executive, an adult educator, an expert in the field of
public relations, and an advertising man. ... As
democracies, each country must work on the premise
that if the people of both countries are given sound
information, the countries themselves through their
representative and executive officers will determine
sound policies. A budget will be provided . . . pub
licly to be accounted for as is that of the Canadian
W.I.B. or our own O.W.I. It will learn just what the
public of one country knows about the other, what
pre-conceived notions or ignorances prevent com
plete understanding . . . will not mix into the
politics of the moment . . . will plan and work for a
long time rapprochement. . . . The board should
consistently stimulate relations between the two
countries through facilitating exchange of informa
tion and viewpoint of key people in great social forces
that make up both countries education, com
merce and industry, agriculture, labor, the profes
sions. The flow of ideas will not be a fortuitous one
way flow . . . but rather . . . two-way . . . [in]
fact and point of view." In presenting this "psy
chological blueprint for the peace between my
country and yours," ELB bases his "analysis and
interpretation" on "present-day facts and condi
tions . . . [on] present war relationships [which]
point the way to such a study" "mutual regard"
between the peoples of both countries, as shown by
public opinion polls; the sense of being "natural
allies" in regard to international relations; coopera
tive activities, by agreement, of Canadian and
U. S. War Information Services ('Under the urgency
of common need in war, the groundwork for our blue
print has been laid.'). In the Foreword, Lee Tren-
holm, president, The Advertising and Sales Club of
Toronto, comments, "Rare indeed is the important
proposal embodied in [this] distinguished dis
course. . . "
U. S. Army Adjutant General's School. "Public
Relations." Speech delivered before Recruiting
Class No. 21, Jan 20, 1947.
In this talk, at Carlisle Barracks, Penna., ELB urges
that the President, the Congressional Armed Servi
ces Committees and military authorities should issue
a joint statement of national policy explaining to the
people of the country the purpose and need for the
contemplated peace-time army of 1,070,000 troops
which demands 40,000 volunteers a month.
University of Chicago Round Table. "Morale
First Line of Defense?" A Radio Discussion.
Jan 18, 1941. 28pp.
Participating in this radio discussion were ELB,
described as "Public Relations Counsel, New York
City"; Prof. Harold Lasswell, "political scientist,
Washington, D. C."; and Norman Thomas, "Na
tional Chairman of the Socialist Party, Candidate
for President, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940."
The introductory note explains that "The Round
Table, oldest educational program continuously
on the air, is broadcast entirely without a script.
Subjects are chosen because of their social, political,
or economic significance. The program has no 'ax to
grind.' In the selection of speakers, the effort is to
provide a balanced discussion by participants who
have special competence and knowledge. The opinion
of each speaker is his own. ..."
ELB is asked by Lasswell to define "morale":
"Morale is behavior," he says, "behavior judged by
someone on the outside in relationship to our goal.
Under strong morale we have energy, enthusiasm,
belief in our goals, and ideals. Under weak morale
we have apathy, frustration, and breakdown. A
strong morale means that we of the United States
must have a common goal, a belief in our leaders,
and a belief in ourselves."
Subsequently, under "Objective Questions for
Examination," Round Table listeners are asked to
"Give Mr. Bernays' definition of 'morale.' " Under
"Questions [. . . of wider scope . . .] For Analysis
and Discussion," listeners are asked to "Define your
concept of what is meant by the term 'morale.' . . .
Does your viewpoint coincide with that of either Mr.
Bernays or Mr. Thomas [who questioned the sig
nificance of, and relation of, 'common morale' to,
and as against 'a right goal in democracy itself'].
... If not, how does it differ?"
ELB agrees with Thomas "that the test of de
mocracy in the next few years is going to be our suc
cess in meeting unemployment and poverty. But,"
he adds, "the success of our present democracy is
going to depend upon this: Are we going to be able
to meet the warfares against democracy that are
taking place today . . . are we going to have
morale?"; he disagrees with Lasswell on the point
"that people in this country want democracy, but
. . . have no agreement on ways and means toward
democracy." ELB says: ". . . by the best statis
tical count, there are ten million people in this coun
try who are more sympathetic to other types of sys
tems than they are to democracy. What I fear is
that we are so interested in discussing the future
that we don't pay the attention we should to realiz
ing the same type of active, dynamic force for
democracy as that developed by those who are op
posed. . . "
ELB and Lasswell agree that "it is perfectly pos
sible for a democracy to fight a war," in contradic
tion to Thomas who "won't say that it is wholly im
possible [but] it is extremely difficult . . . doubly
... at long range"; after lively interchange, at
tempting to clarify the implications, all speakers
concede that, for morale, it is important to "speak
up and ACT for democracy. . . "
Declaring further that "what this country needs is
a common goal," but in reference to Thomas
with "men like you talking," ELB insists: "I believe
that ideas are weapons in a democracy; that public
opinion is the sum of individual opinions; that you
are helping to make individual opinions; that the
public makes national morale, national unity, and
national wealth; and that everyone can help share
public opinion and public action. I remember that
twenty years ago there wasn't anything like public
relations. Today we know that leadership is largely
the result of effective planning of techniques and
methods, and we can all be leaders in a democratic
way. Totalitarian systems and enemies within our
country are waging a propaganda war to break down
In reference to ELB's question, "What do you
think of the idea of getting experts in the field of
morale psychologists, neurologists, communica
tion experts, men like Thomas who know and love
their country to work on a commission to give
counsel and advice where it is needed on problems
of morale having to do with everything from frus
tration and prejudice and social behavior to the
problems that the army or ... navy ... or the
draft meets with men" Lasswell finally says, "I
think we need lots of service agencies for national
defense to help people to understand just how they
can serve democracy in this crisis. To that extent I
agree with the general conception of a morale com
mission. Then I think that represents our consensus
today on our question: Is morale our first line of de
fense? We have said: 'Yes, without it we cannot suc
ceed.' We have also said: 'No, morale is not our first
line of defense because it is a result and not the
cause of a successful defense effort.' One thing has
emerged clearly. We agree that we must have clarity
about the ends and means of the achievement of a
Under "Suggested Readings" for Round Table
listeners, six works are listed, including "Bernays,
Edward L., Speak Up for Democracy. . . . The
methods and strategies of modern public relations
salesmanship applied to the job of 'selling' demo
University of Cincinnati. "Tomorrow's Public
Relations: A Blueprint for American Business."
Text of a talk delivered before the Business
and Professional Men's Group, Cincinnati, Ohio,
Mar 10, 1944. 31pp.
This address surveys the problems of post war plan
ning and readjustment and how public relations fits
into the attempts to realize the goals set by various
leaders and groups for a better world. After pointing
out the extent to which planning was being used in
other fields, ELB urges comparable efforts in the
public relations field. Quoting from three different
sources, the Atlantic City conference of business,
labor and farm groups, the Baruch-Hancock report
on reconversion, and an address by Henry Wallace,
a synthesis of goals for public relations planning is
reached. After pointing out the necessity of studying
social facts and realities, and therefore the need for
studying them, recent polls are discussed which back
up the delineation of public relations goals.
ELB says: "Polls show our people want demo
cratic justice in its broadest sense. . . . Polls prove
that a great deal of ordinary living goes on outside
of working and that society must provide for the
happy pursuit of this kind of living. . . . Polls
show too that if we practice sound public relations
in one of the vitally important segments of our life-
business, we shall avoid revolution. . . . The ac
ceptance of all these realities the pronouncement
of American leaders, the social facts, the polls
must govern the American businessman. ... In
practicing effective public relations . . . you will
find that what you are really doing is practicing good
leadership. Leaders in a democracy are men or
women who win friends and influence people by
word and deed. ... As forceful, socially minded,
forward-looking leaders, businessmen can practice
and publicize socially sound policies and practices
not only in business but in other fields as well. . . .
American business men interested in preserving
democracy and predominantly free enterprise must
exert this kind of leadership effectively. . . . Nor
can business men permit reactionaries to be their
spokesmen and official leaders."
University of Virginia. "Freedom of Propaganda:
The Constructive Forming of Public Opinion."
Talk delivered at the Institute of Public Affairs,
July 16, 1936. Reprinted in "Vital Speeches of
the Day." Vol. II, No. 24, Sept 1, 1936, pp. 744-
ELB said: "Americans must recognize that in the
science of propaganda they have at their command
a real weapon with which to consolidate and make
effective the work and contributions of past and
present generations that have built up our present-
day system an economic and governmental sys
tem which we do not desire to change for any
Discussing the role of propaganda, ELB said:
"Propaganda is the voice of the people in the de
mocracy of today. Freedom of propaganda is as im
portant as the other civil liberties freedom of
worship, freedom of the press, freedom of speech,
freedom of radio, and freedom of assembly. . . .
Propaganda is an important tool of sound social
evolution and change. Propaganda makes it possible
for minority ideas to become effective more quickly.
. . . What is this propaganda that takes ideas and
facts, and gains quicker acceptance for them that
modifies the motives, the thoughts, and the actions of
millions? Propaganda is applied psychology. Propa
ganda is an attempt to give currency to an idea by
finding the common denominator between the idea
and the public interest, and stating it. It is bringing
an old or a new idea to acceptance by the public.
. . . The methods of propaganda are readily avail
able to all forces in society that wish to effect change
or to maintain the status quo. . . . From the broad
social standpoint, propaganda can be used in in
dustry for a variety of purposes. It can be utilized
to hasten or slow up the normal time lag in the public
acceptance of a product. . . . Propagandas for the
consumer's favor carry broad consequences in their
wake, and serve a useful purpose in the economic
system. They serve to stabilize life for the producing
as well as the consuming elements. They tend to
eliminate the shocks and sudden changes which it is
clear our system cannot stand. . . . Propaganda
makes public interest the deciding factor, for the
more propagandas there are vying for public interest
and public attention, the freer is the public to choose
on the basis of its real wants.
"What, you may ask, can be the rationalization of
these propagandas? namely this that as interest
and attention are focused on these battles, disin
terested authority will align itself on the basis of
merit with one side or another, and the presumption
is that that side will win in public favor which is in
the public interest and at the same time satisfies the
private-profit motive that is at the basis of our
present system. . . . Individuals, industries, and
organizations have not heretofore regarded them
selves as part of a larger whole that must present a
unified front to the public. The capitalistic system
has entirely neglected the larger implications of sell
ing itself against competitive systems to the public.
... If we are to safeguard the principles of de
mocracy on which our country was founded, if we
are to safeguard democracy itself, we must first un
derstand and then utilize effectively the science of
propaganda in its behalf. . . . The task of the
propagandist is, in essence, the effective manage
ment of the symbols at his command to bring about
desired responses from the public in order to achieve
the desired end. . . "
Western Reserve University. "Democratic Leader
ship in Total War" Address at Cleveland Col
lege, Western Reserve University. 1943. 8pp.
In this address "presented at Cleveland College of
Western Reserve University, under the auspices of
the Journalism Department," ELB said: "The re
liance of democracy on its leaders is one of the great
safeguards in psychological warfare within and
outside the country. We must recognize that the
relationship between the leader and his followers is
basic to victory, and that our many leaders must
assume the responsibility of guiding their followers
not only in peacetime pursuits, as they already do,
but for victory as well."
The Foreword states in part: "Edward L. Bernays,
who has long enjoyed the reputation of being the
nation's number one publicist, speaks, in this timely
address, with the authority of one who has made
'people' his life work. The demonstration contained
in this paper should give comfort to those who be
lieve that there is no mass mind, but there are mo
bile groups of educatable people who think in
dividually and often act as a unit. His thesis makes
ELB said, "The first step in forging psychological
unity in the United States is to discover how many
potential war leaders there are in America who can
strengthen uncompromising determination for demo
cratic victory. According to the latest available fig
ures, there are 788,257 such leaders. . . . Leaders,
for their part, have access to the minds and wills of
their followers. They must assume their responsibil
ities and mobilize the psychological front for victory
in this war of ideas. . . . We must not expect words
alone, no matter how true or pointed, to build up our
national will to victory. . . . Government is ex
pressed by acts and words. But the Government in
our democracy depends upon the people, on what
they want, on what they are willing to accept. The
people depend to a great extent on thousands of lead
ers for guidance as to their attitudes and actions. We
always get back to the leaders no matter where we
start." The address continues with an identification
of the 25 most influential leaders of the day, and of
the leaders included in the figure quoted above of
788,257 leaders, and concludes with an appeal for
more effective harnessing of this leadership to the
purposes of total war.
WOR Forum Book. Granik, Theodore S., ed.
With a Foreword by Robert F. Wagner, U. S.
Senator from New York. N. Y: Falcon Press,
Inc., 1933. 273pp.
This series of debates under the auspices of the WOR
Forum Hour contains one between ELB and Silas
Bent. A Who's Who of Contributors to this book
describes ELB as follows: "A leader in the field of
counsel on public relations. Has acted in that field
for foreign governments, industrial and public wel
fare organizations, national associations, and individ
uals. Author of 'Propaganda' and 'Crystallizing
Public Opinion.' Maintains an office in New York."
Arguing the affirmative of the question, "Is Propa
ganda a Constructive Force in American Life To
day?", ELB says: "The instruments by which public
opinion are organized and focused may be misused
just as other instruments in law and medicine are
being misused; but such organization and focusing
are necessary to orderly life. As civilization and the
technique of spreading ideas have become more com
plex, the technician has arisen whose function it is
to help in presenting a point of view and a product.
"Today, every idea and every product is compet
ing with every other idea and every product for
favorable public opinion.
"... The practice of propaganda since the war
has assumed very different forms from those preva
lent twenty years ago. This new technique may
fairly be called the new propaganda. The new propa
gandist utilizes mass psychology and the technical
means of approach to the masses in order to give his
idea or object a greater value in the eyes of the
"The problems of business offer great opportunity
for the propagandist, for everyone is competing
against everyone else for the consumer's dollar. . . .
Those businessmen . . . who have propagandized
successfully for basically sound products, have not
only added to the economic stability of their com
munities, but by doing so, also have contributed,
indirectly, but nonetheless surely, to the happiness
of people generally. . . . During the last twenty
years there has hardly been a single new idea, new
invention, or new product accepted by the public
which was not made available for the public's benefit
through the use of propaganda in one form or an
other. Schools, colleges, churches, the theatre, litera
ture, art, music, charities and other forms of social
service all have used propaganda effectively. . . .
'The cure for propaganda is more propaganda.' It
enables minorities to break up dominant groups. It is
the advance agent of new ideas and new products.
Since it is available to all, it is an insurance against
autocracy in government and against standardiza
tion and stagnation.
"It seems to me that the future historian will
ascribe to propaganda a very large share or respon
sibility for America's progress . . ." pp. 93-100.
WRITINGS ABOUT EDWARD L. BERNAYS
EDWARD L. BERNAYS
Abdullah, Achmed, and Baldwin, Faith. Broad
way Interlude. N. Y: Payson & Clarke, Ltd.,
This novel of New York life contains the following
passage about a fictional character said to be mod
eled on the late Otto Kahn: "Julius Beck had a
strong passion for things of enduring beauty; fancied
himself as Art's self -elected patron; had subsidized
many a publicity expert and public relations counsel,
from Ed Bernays to Oliver Tayler, so that his fame
as a Maecenas might spread from New York to
London, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific." p. 118.
Agnew, Hugh F., and Houghton, Dale. Market
ing Policies. N. Y: McGraw-Hill Book Com
pany, Inc., 1941. 615pp.
Bibliographical reference to "Bernays, E. L: 'Crys
tallizing Public Opinion,' N. Y: Boni and Liveright,
1923." p. 460.
Albig, William. Public Opinion. N. Y. and London:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939.
Bibliographical reference to ELB's book, Crys
tallizing Public Opinion, Chapts. I, II, "The Nature
and Development of Public Opinion," p. 433; to
his book, Propaganda Chapts. XVII, XVIII, "The
Nature and Art of Propaganda," p. 456; to his
article, "Manipulating Public Opinion," American
Journal of Sociology, 33:958-971, Chapter XIII,
"Opinion Change," p. 451.
American Academy of Political and Social
Science: Annals. Philadelphia, The Academy.
Vol. 179, May 1935, 287pp.
In his article on "Party Campaign Propaganda,"
Ralph D. Casey says: "Edward L. Bernays has com
plained of the great waste in the distribution of cam
paign propaganda and the failure to work out the
entire campaign according to broad plans, with as
scientific an analysis of the public to be reached as
possible." Footnote reference to ELB's book "Propa
ganda." p. 82.
In his article on "Official Publicity Under the New
Deal," E. Pendleton Herring quotes the suggestion
in ELB's book "Propaganda" that the "United
States Government should create a Secretary of
Public Relations as (a) member of the President's
Cabinet. The function of this official should be to
interpret America's aims and ideals throughout the
world, and to keep the citizens of this country in
touch with governmental activities and the reasons
which prompt them. He would, in short, interpret
the people to the Government and the Government
to the people." Footnote reference to ELB's book
"Propaganda." p. 172.
The editors of this volume of the Annals, devoted
to "Pressure Groups and Propaganda," follow ELB's
article on "Molding Public Opinion" with a bio
graphical sketch of ELB. p. 87.
Philadelphia, The Academy. Vol. 250,
Mar 1947. 183pp.
This volume, devoted to the overall topic "Com
munication and Social Action", contains an article
by Arleigh B. Williamson on "Safeguarding Chan
nels of Communication" which refers to ELB's ar
ticle on the "Engineering of Consent," appearing in
the same volume, p. 5. Also: "Some large industries
and their advertisers, it has been said by Dudley and
Bernays, have become conscious that their ultimate
welfare depends on public confidence." p. 8.
American Association of School Administra
tors. "Public Relations For America's Schools:
Twenty-Eighth Yearbook." Published by the
American Association of School Administrators,
a department of the National Education Asso
ciation of the United States. 1950. 497pp.
Discussing The Superintendent's Leadership in Pub
lic Relations this article says: "The public relations
point of view on leadership has been well expressed
by Bernays: Leadership is the 'engineering of con
sent.' It is getting people to follow you because they
want to, not because you want them to." Footnote
reference to ELB in "Tomorrow's Public Relations,"
p. 128. Listing of ELB's "Crystallizing Public Opin
ion" in Selected References, Chapter I, p. 308.
American Library Association, American Red
Cross, United Service Organizations. Final
Reports, Victory Book Campaign, 1942-43.
". . . as Co-chairmen of the Campaign Commit
tee [for public relations, publicity and collections],
three well known men were selected, appointed and
consented to serve: Franklin P. Adams, author,
columnist and 'Information Please' expert; Edward
L. Bernays, noted Public Relations Counsel; Nor
man Cousins, author, and editor of the 'Saturday
Review of Literature'." p. 14.
American Merchant Marine Conference. Pro
ceedings, Volume 12. N. Y: The Propeller Club
of the United States, 1946. 335pp.
As co-chairman, ELB, Counsel on Public Relations,
presided over the panel on Waterway Improvement
held at the Waldorf Astoria during the Propeller
Club's Twentieth Annual Convention, October
18, 1946. Before introducing the first speaker,
Brigadier General Albert L. Cox, "in command of
the Military District of Washington during the
war," ELB emphasized the importance of waterway
improvements in "maintaining and increasing our
standards of living in this country by reducing costs"
to the advantage of individual consumers, p. 174.
Art Directors Club of New York. 26th Annual of
Advertising Art. N. Y: Watson-Guptill Publica
tions, Inc., 1947. 316pp.
Excerpt from ELB's talk before the Art Directors
Club, "More Power to Art Directors A Challenge
to the Profession," is featured as introduction in a
double-page spread, pp. viii-ix.
Author's and Writer's Who's Who & Reference
Guide. London: Shaw Publishing Co., Ltd.,
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L. B. S:
Vienna 1891. e: DeWitt Clinton High Sch., Cornell
Univ. m: Doris E. Fleischman. d: 2. Mem. Nat.
Publ. Rel. Cttee. Publ: Crystallizing Public Opinion;
Broadway Anthology; Propaganda; Speak Up for
Democracy; Take Your Place at the Peace Table;
Public Relations: A Growing Profession; (Ed)
Outline of Careers, 1927. Ctr: Various, c: Century
Country, Harmonic (N. Y.). a: 163 East 63rd St.,
Office Bernays Buildmg, 26 E. 64th St., New York
21, N. Y., U. S. A." p. 54.
Barnes, Harry Elmer. Social Institutions. N. Y:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1946. 927pp.
"Skillful advertising, suggested by E. L. Bernays
and others, has popularized the use of the telegraph."
p. 478. A footnote on the same page says erro
neously: "Bernays invented the slogan, 'Don't
write, telegraph.' " Also: "The institution of the
Public Relations Counsel represents the most
sophisticated and subtle development of business
propaganda. The two most distinguished masters of
this type of propaganda have been Ivy Lee and
Edward L. Bernays." p. 568.
"Society in Transition: Problems of a
Changing Age." N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939.
In the chapter on "Mass Information and Mass
Propaganda," the author says: "The use of the
public relations counsel represents the most sophisti
cated and subtle development of business propa
ganda. The two most distinguished masters of this
type of propaganda have been Ivy Lee and Edward
L. Bernays. In promoting particular products or
movements, these men have found that direct and
blatant propaganda is very often harmful rather
than helpful. It only serves to increase the preju
dices already in the minds of those to be converted.
Therefore, an indirect line of attack is formulated.
So-called institutes or foundations are created to
serve as the ostensible voice of, or spokesmen for,
the interests served. This gives a sense of research,
authority, and dignity to the propaganda which is
issued. Even reputable scholars are employed to
make studies which seem to support the contentions
advanced in the propaganda." pp. 636-637.
Also the section "Selected References" includes
reference to "Bernays, E. L., Propaganda, Liveright,
1928," p. 988.
Barton, Roger, ed. "Advertising Handbook." N. Y:
Footnote reference to ELB under "General Subjects.
Bernays, Edward L., Edward L. Bernays Collection on
Public Relations, New York. New York Public
Library, 1947." p. 802.
Bastian, George C. Editing the Ray's News. Re
vised by Leland D. Case. N. Y: The Macmillan
Company, 1933. 309pp.
Under "Newspaper Problems, Policies, and Ethics;
The Radio," bibliographical references to two
standard Bernays books, Crystallizing Public Opin
ion, and Propaganda, p. 293.
Becker, Carl L; Lerner, Max; Fly, James Law
rence; Cushman, Robert; Biddle, Francis;
and Day, Edmund Ezra. Safeguarding Civil
Liberties Today. The Edward L. Bernays Lec
tures of 1944. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
Preface by George H. Sabine, Vice-president of
Cornell University, records the contribution of the
gift to Cornell University by ELB, an alumnus of
the Class of 1912, which made these Lectures possi
ble; refers to his belief on the importance of under
standing civil liberties in America's social and politi
cal life; the volume has been planned "in the hope
that . . . our heritage [of civil liberties] might be
strengthened." pp. vi-vii.
Benedict, Agnes E. Progress to Freedom. N. Y:
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1942. 309pp.
In the Foreword of this "Story of American Educa
tion," "very special thanks" are given by the author
to ... "Mr. Edward L. Bernays, for his masterly
criticism and practical guidance." p. vii.
Bent, Silas. Machine Made Man. N. Y: Farrar and
Rinehart, 1930. 341pp.
ELB is quoted indirectly as saying that the modern
publicity man is a special pleader before the court of
public opinion, p. 139.
Bercovici, Rion. For Immediate Release. N. Y:
Sheridan House, 1937. 317pp.
A publicity man, chief character of this novel, makes
numerous references to ELB: "What has Bernays
got that I haven't got? A smoother patter, psy
chological aura, better contacts. . . . But there's
no reason why I can't make the grade!" p. 82;
". . . he looked at the Bernays book with respect.
And envy . . ." p. 92; ". . . I'm creeping up on
Bernays and the Lee Boys, and they're getting
worried." p. 203; a copy of the "Bernays book" is
mentioned, p. 93 along with his name among
those to whom authorship of "all the stuff written
about publicity" is attributed "Bernays . . .
Doob . . . Walker . . . Creel . . ." p. 167.
Bickel, Karl A. New Empires. Phila: J. B. Lippin-
cott, 1930. 112pp.
ELB is quoted at length from his "recent book,
Propaganda," as to the importance of radio
among the propagandist's tools; its uncertain future
development as a competitor of the newspaper as an
advertising medium; and as a controlled channel for
the publicity of large political, racial, sectarian,
economic, or professional groups, pp. 74-76.
Biddle, William W. Propaganda and Education.
N. Y: Teachers College, Columbia University,
Bureau of Publications, 1932. 84pp.
With a footnote reference to his book, Propaganda,
ELB ["Himself a successful propagandist"] is
quoted: " '. . . The minority has discovered a
powerful help in influencing majorities. It has been
found possible to so mold the mind of the masses
that they will throw their newly gained strength
in the desired direction. . . . Propaganda is the
executive arm of the invisible government.' Or
again, 'But instead of a mind, universal literacy has
given him [the common man] rubber stamps, . . .
inked with advertising slogans, . . . editorials, . . .
published scientific data, . . . trivialities of the
tabloids, and the platitudes of history, but quite
innocent of original thought . . .' The result is 'to
control and regiment the masses according to our
will without their knowing it'." p. 2.
Bingham, Alfred M., and Rodman, Selden, eds.
Challenge to the New Deal. N. Y: Falcon Press,
"... They seem to have learned nothing from the
technique of propaganda, as it was carried to per
fection by the Lord Northcliffes in wartime Eng
land, the Edward Bernays in industrial Amer
ica, . . ." p. 212.
Binkley, Wilfred ., and Moos, Malcolm C. A
Grammar of Politics: The National Government.
N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949. 760pp.
Footnote reference to ELB's "Attitude Polls Serv
ants or Masters." p. 171. Footnote: "Certainly
not all of the electorate is familiar with the findings
of the polls. In 1946 it was estimated that only 38
per cent of the people knew the results of the Gallup
and Fortune polls. See Harry Field, Paul Lazarsfeld,
Claude Robinson and Edward Bernays: 'The Dis
cussion Goes On.' Public Opinion Quarterly (1945-6),
9:404," p. 172.
Bird, Charles. Social Psychology. N. Y. and Lon
don: D. Appleton Company, Inc., 1940. 564pp.
Bibliographical references, Chapter IX, Propaganda,
to ELB's Crystallizing Public Opinion, and, p. 341,
his article in the American Journal of Sociology, 1928,
Vol. 33, 958-971, Manipulating Public Opinion: The
Why and the How.
Bird, George L., and Merwin: Frederic E., eds.
The Newspaper and Society. N. Y: Prentice-
Hall, Inc., 1942. 627pp.
This book is a compilation of statements on news
paper influence. A section entitled "Edward L.
Bernays" is taken from "Edward L. Bernays, the
Science of Ballyhoo," by John T. Flynn, The Atlantic
Monthly, Vol. 149, May 1932, pp. 563-565, 569-570.
Flynn says in part: "By no system of honest elim
ination can Edward L. Bernays be excluded from a
list of representative men in America. He has made
an extraordinary success. He has been something of a
pioneer. ... He numbers among his clients power
ful millionaires, great corporations, even royal per
sonages and governments. He has made a great deal
of money a mark of importance that no American
will deny and, what is more, he has done it in the
field of intellectual activity. For, after all, Bernays is
a philosopher, not a mere businessman. He is a
nephew of that other great philosopher, Dr. Sigmund
Freud. Unlike his distinguished uncle, he is not
known as a practicing psychoanalyst, but he is a
psychoanalyst just the same, for he deals with the
science of unconscious mental processes. . . . Ber
nays has both a clear and a very shrewd understand
ing of his profession. . . . Bernays himself is quite
the newest type of public relations specialist, so in
telligent and so free from the conventional inhibi
tions that he assumes almost the character of a
phenomenon." The extract describes Bernays' key
role in dramatizing Light's Golden Jubilee and the
introduction on the market of a new Dodge car,
pp. 517-20. Another section of this book, "The
Struggle Between Press and Radio," says: "It took
the spectacular broadcast of the Dodge Motor Car
company on January 4, 1928, an announcement of its
new Victory Six, to awaken publishers to the fact
that a rival for the advertising dollar had sprung
into being. Edward L. Bernays . . . had charge of
this event," pp. 540-541. This section is an extract
from "20,000,000 Hear Dodge Broadcast," by John
R. Lee, Sales Management, Vol. XIV, Apr 14, 1928,
Block, Marine, ed. Current Biography. N. Y: H. W.
Wilson, 1942. 940pp.
Section on ELB with portrait photograph. This
biographical sketch says: "If the United States
Government had in its cabinet a Secretary of Public
Relations a trained psychologist whose business
it would be to control the mass mind the logical
man for that position would be Edward L. Bernays,
United States Publicist No. 1, head of a profession
which he built up, publicized, and named: counsel on
public relations . . ." pp. 76-79.
Bogardus, Emory S. Fundamentals of Social Psy
chology. N. Y. and London: D. Appleton-
Century Co., Inc., 1942. 538pp.
Bibliographical reference, Chapt. XXX, "Public
Opinion," to ELB's article in the American Journal
of Sociology, Vol. XXXIII: 957-71, "Manipulating
Public Opinion," p. 463.
Bone, Hugh A. "American Politics and the Party
System." N. Y: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., 1949, pp. 777.
Among the selected references for the chapter on
"The Foundations of Opinion" is Crystallizing Public
Opinion, by ELB. p. 39. Among the selected refer
ences for the chapter on "Propaganda and Campaign
Literature" is Propaganda, by ELB. p. 620.
Boomer, Lucius. Hotel Managment. N. Y: Harper
and Brothers, 1938. 341pp.
"... Everyone responsible for hotel administra
tion should study such books as Propaganda, and
Crystallizing Public Opinion, by Edward L. Bernays,
who helped to develop this new profession," p. 189.
Bower, Robert. The Annals, American Academy of
Political and Social Science. "Public Opinion
Polls and the Politician," Phila: The Academy,
Sept 1948. 207pp.
In the section, "Political Implications," there is the
statement: "We are no longer led by men, we are led
around by the polls," with footnote credit to "E. L.
Bernays, 'Attitude Polls Servants or Masters,'
Public Opinion Quarterly, Fall, 1945, pp. 264-68."
Brown, Francis James: Hodges, Charles and
Roucek, Joseph Slabey, (ed.) "Contemporary
World Politics: An Introduction to the Problems
of International Relations." N. Y: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., London: Chapman & Hall, Limited,
The chapter on "Moral Disarmament" lists in its
Selected References "Bernays, E. L., Propaganda.
New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1928."
Brock, H. I. Meddlers: Uplifting Moral Uplifters.
N. Y: Ives Washburn, 1930. 307pp.
In the chapter entitled, "Saving the Profiteers'
Bacon," describing the meeting of Ford and Edison
at Edisonford, on the edge of the Ford airport, the
author says: "The super press agent was on the job
giving the gesture maximum visibility. It was not
Ivy Lee this time, but Edward Bernays. Bernays is a
later recruit to this branch of professional wizardry."
Brucker, Herbert. Freedom of Information. N. Y:
The Macmillan Company, 1949. 307pp.
". . . The World War I example of what propaganda
could do ... was not lost upon those interested in
the business of manipulating public opinion. As one
of them, Edward L. Bernays, said later: 'It was only
natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons
should ask themselves whether it was not possible to
apply a similar technique to the problems of peace.'
It was. And the great discovery that the more cap
able ones like Bernays made was this: that effective
policy makes effective propaganda . . ." p. 145.
Chapt. XI, "American Ministers of Popular En
lightenment," makes footnote reference to ELB's
book, Propaganda, p. 298.
Bryson, Lyman ; Finkelstein, Louis ; and Mac-
Iver, R. M. Approaches to Group Understanding.
Sixth Symposium of the Conference on Science,
Philosophy and Religion. N. Y: Harper &
Brothers, 1947. 858pp.
Chapt. XI, "Bridges for Cultural Understanding or,
Labor and Public Relations" by Kermit Eby, CIO
Department of Education and Research, contains
the following comment by Pitman B. Potter in a
footnote: "It seems to me that there is some danger
today of development of public relations techniques
which go beyond the proper bounds of liberal demo
cratic discussion and approach the methods of to
talitarian dictators. I have discussed this question in
a long book review of Mr. Bernays 1 latest pamphlet,
'Take Your Place at the Peace Table,' published in
the American Political Science Review." p. 110.
In "Contributors to 'Approaches to Group Under
standing,' " ELB is listed as "public relations coun
sel; author, Crystallizing Public Opinion, Speak Up
for Democracy, Take Your Place at the Peace Table,
and others." p. 821.
Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. See
Addenda, Item 7.
Burnett, Verne. You and Your Public. N. Y. and
London: Harper and Brothers, 1943. 194pp.
"... Edward L. Bernays, public relations expert,
tells how to build up ethical propaganda for de
mocracy in a book, Speak Up for Democracy. . . .
You are shown how ... to work with ... to
plan ... to use all the available machinery . . ."
Chase, Stuart. Democracy Under Pressure. N. Y:
The Twentieth Century Fund, 1945. 142pp.
" . . . E. L. Bernays, working for the lobby, pro
duced a 'Joint Committee for Sound and Demo
cratic Consumer Legislation,' and to make assurance
doubly sure, a 'National Advisory Council of Con
sumers and Producers'." p. 42.
. Government in Business. N. Y: The Mac
millan Company, 1935. 296pp.
Extract from an interview with ELB, reported in the
New York World-Telegram, April 9, 1935. Bernays
points out the growing influence of a quickened
rate of change on "opinion management or pressure
politics or the technique of public relations or group
leadership" which can [now] "assert itself much
more effectively." p. 263.
Chayer, Mary Ella. Nursing in Modern Society.
N. Y: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1947. 288pp.
A brief discussion of the findings by ELB on nursing
economics, based on a survey among nurses, pub
lished in April 1946. Footnote reference to the article,
"Nurses and Their Professional Organizations," by
ELB in American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 46:229,
p. 35 with numerous other references to articles
by him in the same periodical for the months of
May, November, December, 1945; January, Febru
ary, March, April, June, July and September, 1946.
pp. 39, 265.
Childs, Harwood L. An Introduction to Public
Opinion. N. Y: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; and
London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1940. 151pp.
Under "Public Relations," bibliographical reference
to ELB's book, Propaganda, p. 145.
A Reference Guide to the Study of Public
Opinion. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
In the "Acknowledgement," ELB is described by the
author as "among those whose genius enables them
to bridge the chasm between the laboratories of
academic endeavor and the world of practice." He is
credited with the suggestion which led to the publi
cation of the book, along with practical aid which is
gratefully acknowledged. This bibliography and
study outline contains frequent references to ELB's
books Propaganda, pp. 9, 13, 36, 53 and Crystallizing
Public Opinion, pp. 13, 18, 51, 53, 59, 73. The preface
is by ELB.
Clough, Reginald. "Public Relations," in Ency
clopedia Americana, Vol. 22, N. Y. and Chicago:
Americana Corporation, 1948. 800pp.
Several mentions of ELB, as a "leading pioneer" in
the field of public relations, and as "an outside coun
selor from the time he opened his own business,"
with bibliographical reference to Crystallizing Public
Opinion, pp. 770, 771, 773.
Gochran, Thomas G., and Miller, William. The
Age of Enterprise. N. Y: The Macmillan Com
pany, 1942. 394pp.
In this "social history of industrial America,"
"Edward Bernays, perhaps the ablest public rela
tions man . . . , himself a nephew of Freud," is
freely quoted, with footnote references to his work,
"Propaganda." His belief is approved that "There is
no detail too trivial to influence the public in a favor
able or unfavorable sense." pp. 310, 337. ELB
quoted as saying: "Human desires are the steam
which makes the social machine work," p. 328.
Also: "In making up its mind," said ELB, "a group's
'first impulse is usually to follow the example of a
trusted leader. ... As civilization has become
more complex, the technical means have been in
vented and developed by which opinion may be
regimented'." p. 331.
Columbia Encyclopedia: Compiled and Edited at
Columbia University. N. Y: Columbia Uni
versity Press, 1935. 1949pp.
In the article on "Propaganda," reference to ELB's
book Propaganda, p. 1445.
Cooley, Charles Horton: Angell, Robert Cooley:
Carr, Lowell Julliard. "Introductory Sociol
ogy." N. Y: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933. 516pp.
Under "Public Opinion as Group Intelligence,"
bibliographical reference to ELB's book Crystallizing
Public Opinion, p. 499.
Crane, George W. "Psychology Applied." Chicago:
Northwestern University Press, 1941. 640pp.
Bibliographical reference to ELB's book Crystallizing
Public Opinion, p. 375.
Crawford, Kenneth. The Pressure Boys. N. Y:
Julian Messner, 1939. 308pp.
In this book, described by its author as "the inside
story of lobbying in America," ELB is presented as
among "principal outside competitors" of Washington
public relations men. "A nephew of Sigmund Freud
named Edward L. Bernays . . . launches an insti
tute at the drop of a hat . . ." p. 33; In reference to
the Tugwell Bill: "No less an expert than Edward L.
Bernays, the big institute and foundation man from
New York, worked on the project . . . under the
sponsorship of the Joint Committee for Sound and
Democratic Consumer Legislation. . . . The Joint
Committee eventually gave way to the National
Advisory Council of Consumers and Producers."
pp. 86, 87.
Creel, George. How We Advertised America: The
First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Com
mittee on Public Information that Carried the
Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the
Globe. N. Y. and London: Harper & Brothers,
The author says: "Through various organizations of
United States exporters to foreign countries, an
Export Service was established under Mr. Edward
L. Bernays, beginning with Latin America and
finally taking in a large part of Europe. Our articles
and photographs were printed regularly in the sev
eral large export journals, and from our articles we
made, in various languages, brief inserts telling of
war aims and activities to be inclosed with business
catalogues and also to be sent in tens of thousands of
letters mailed weekly from the United States. In
obtaining means of distribution, the confidential
lists of many great commercial interests were used.
The exporters put themselves solidly behind every
resident commissioner, and the success of the pic
torial service was entirely due to the fact that six
hundred and fifty branches of American business
houses scattered over the world put all their window
space at the Committee's disposal." p. 266.
Crowther, Samuel. "Public Opinion, Private
Business and Public Relations." See Addenda,
Dawson, Carl A., and Gettys, Warner E. An
Introduction to Sociology. N. Y: The Ronald
Press Company, 1929. 866pp.
Under "Explicit Controls," bibliographical refer
ence: "Bernays, Edward L., Manipulating Public
Opinion: The Why and the How. American Journal
of Sociology, Vol. XXXIII, pp. 958-971. A treatment
of the mechanism to be employed in generating and
controlling public opinion." p. 705.
Desmond, Robert W. "The Press and World
Affairs." N. Y. and London: D. Appleton-
Century Company, Inc., 1937. 421pp.
Footnote reference to ELB's book Crystallizing Pub
lic Opinion, p. 166.
Dewitt Clinton High School, New York. The
Clintonian [Seventh Annual]. N. Y: The School,
"E. Bernays, '08" is listed under members of
"Crafts", p. 55, and "E. Bernays, '09" under Execu
tive Committee, Biological Field Club, p. 56; also,
under members of the Press Committee, p. 58.
, The Clintonian [Eighth Annual]. N. Y:
The School, 1908. 163pp.
Photograph of "Edward Bernays," with summary of
his extra-curricular activities, as member or officer
of "Magpie Board, Press Committee, Biological
Field Club, Cross Country Squad, Crafts Club, City
History Club, Memorabilia Society, Athletic Asso
ciation." p. 107.
The Clintonian [50th Anniversary Issue].
N. Y: The School, 1947. 84pp.
Under "Alumni of Renown," photograph of "Ed
ward L. Bernays, '08, Author and Counsel of Public
Relations." p. 4.
Dobyns, Fletcher. The Amazing Story of Repeal.
Chicago: Willett, Clark and Company, 1940.
This book about the repeal of the 18th Amendment,
written from a Prohibitionist viewpoint, tells of the
alleged role played by ELB, "America's most re
sourceful public relations counsel," as "director of
publicity" for the United Brewers' Industrial
Foundation. "The effectiveness of this propaganda
is shown by a booklet that was given wide distribu
tion, Comments on the United Brewers' Industrial
Foundation, Its Purposes, Functions and Activities, by
Leaders of American Thought and Opinion. It con
tains statements by a long list of professors, business-
men, labor leaders, editors, mayors, congressmen
and others, showing that they had been converted to
the idea that beer i^ America's way to prosperity,
health and true temperance." pp. 409-410.
Doob, Leonard W. Propaganda. N. Y: Henry Holt
and Company, 1935. 424pp.
Reference to the debate on propaganda between
ELB and Everett Dean Martin, p. 84. Footnote:
"Edward L. Bernays has justified his 'profession' by
pointing out the inevitability of propaganda in all
parts of society (see the discussion of his philosophy
on p. 195ff)," p. 88. Footnote reference, p. 156, to
ELB's article "The Public Utility That Is Misunder
stood," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Nov 27, 1930.
An 11-page critical discussion of the public rela
tions techniques and achievements of ELB. The
main theme is: "The society which Bernays helps to
direct has made him possible," pp. 195-205. ELB is
incorrectly described as a "nephew-in-law of Freud,"
p. 195; Light's Golden Jubilee is called "one of the
most astonishing pieces of propaganda ever en
gineered in this country during peace time," p. 195;
The article by John T. Flynn, "Edward L. Bernays,"
Atlantic Monthly, 1932, Vol. 149, p. 564, is quoted to
the effect that Bernays was working "not for Edison
or for Henry Ford, but for very important interests
which saw in this historic anniversary an opportu
nity to exploit and publicize the uses of electric light,"
p. 196; ELB's book Propaganda is quoted on the
relation of propaganda and society: "The conscious
and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits
and opinions of the masses is an important element
in democratic society." p. 196; Doob criticizes this:
"Bernays' notion, then, seems to be the application
of a laissez-faire system of economics, with its at
tending competition and individualism, to the sphere
of public opinion." This is followed by quotations
from ELB's book Propaganda and his article, "Our
Debt to Propaganda," Forum, Vol. 81, p. 146, and an
"address by Bernays before a Women's Club in New
York City," pp. 197-198. Further analysis and quo
tations, pp. 199-204, are followed by the statement:
"The amazing thing about Bernays' technique is that
his desired integration is generally segmental, and
yet he uses central attitudes to bring about that. . . .
When enough people's central attitudes were aroused,
the conditions which brought about this arousal were
'news' to the country's press; as a result, Bernays'
exploits received wide publicity and in this way he
secured a perceptual advantage," pp. 204-205.
Elfenbein, Julien. Business Journalism. N. Y. and
London: Harper and Brothers, 1945. 341pp.
"Two of the best-known publicists of modern times
are the late Ivy Lee, . . . and the nephew of Dr.
Sigmund Freud, Edward L. Bernays, 'U. S. Publicist
No. 1,' according to Time." There is a footnote refer
ence also, p. 254, to "The Science of Ballyhoo," by
John T. Flynn, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 149, May,
1932, a profile of ELB.
Emery, Edwin. History of the American Newspaper
Publishers Association. Minneapolis: The Uni
versity of Minnesota Press, 1950. 263pp.
Chapter VIII, entitled "Advertising and Publicity,"
contains the following: "The third phase of activity,
which brought into being the concept of the public
relations counsel, developed in the early 1920's.
Edward L. Bernays, Ivy Lee, and other leaders in
sisted that while the public should be informed of
business activities, it was necessary also that business
should understand public attitudes and attempt to
operate within the defined limits of the public in
terest. The publicity man not only had a responsi
bility to his clients, but to the general public. Out of
this philosophy emerged the modern practice of
public relations." pp. 126-127.
Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 12.
N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 1934.
In the article on "Propaganda," the list of books to
consult includes ELB's books Crystallizing Public
Opinion and Propaganda, p. 528.
Fairchild, Henry Pratt. "General Sociology." N. Y:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1934. 634pp.
Bibliographical reference in Chapter XI , "Social Con
trol," to ELB's Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 584.
Fine, Benjamin. Educational Publicity. N. Y. and
London: Harper and Brothers, 1943. 320pp.
"Experts in the field of publicity are likewise
agreed that censorship has no place in a sound pro
gram. ... A ... position is held by Edward L.
Bernays: 'Everyone is a propagandist for some plat
form, and it is the freedom with which all may em
ploy the methods of propaganda that makes for
safety and stability in a democratic country.' "
p. 223. Also a bibliographical reference to ELB's
book, Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 311.
Fleischman, Doris E. Careers for Women. N. Y:
Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928. 514pp.
This "Practical Guide to Opportunity for Women in
American Business" written "by 43 Successful Amer
ican Business Women," is dedicated "To My Hus
band, Edward L. Bernays." The chapter on Public
Relations is by Doris E. Fleischman, described as
"Counsel on Public Relations, in association with
Edward L. Bernays, Counsel of Public Relations to
Governments, Industries, Corporations and Trade
Organizations." pp. 385-399.
Funk, Charles Earle. What's the Name Please?
N. Y: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1936.
In this "guide to the correct pronunciation of current
prominent names," there is the listing, "Bernays,
Edward L. specialist in publicity Eddie Ber
nays (rimes with her ways) Starts a new craze.
Finds that it pays." p. 20.
Gaige, Crosby. Dining with My Friends: Adven
tures with Epicures. N. Y: Crown Publishers,
Under the heading "Edward L. Bernays," Crosby
Gaige says: "Wherever in Manhattan good eating is
practiced publicly or privately, you are bound to
encounter at one time or another Doris and Edward
Bernays. Mr. Bernays is one of the leading American
authorities on public relations." p. 11.
Gauvreau, Emile. My Last Million Readers. N. Y:
E. P. Button and Company, Inc., 1941. 488pp.
"... Macfadden appointed a board of editorial
advisers who induced him to retain Edward L.
Bernays, a celebrated counsel of public relations who
met with us regularly, for an attractive fee, to give
our organization a new sense of direction. Bernays
ruled out Macfadden's barefoot walks to his office
and his physical culture showmanship, which the
publisher abandoned with reluctance. . . . Under
the direction of Bernays, the publisher was sent on a
precipitous trip to London to address the House of
Commons as the Father of Physical Culture . . ."
Gillette, John M., and Reinhardt, James M.
"Problems of a Changing Social Order." N. Y:
American Book Company, 1942. 824pp.
Bibliographical reference, Chapter 26, "Public Opin
ion and Its Agencies" to ELB's Crystallizing Public
Opinion, p. 659.
Goldman, Eric F. Two-Way Street. Boston: Bellman
Publishing Company, 1948. 23pp.
In this book, the author, an Associate Professor of
History at Princeton University, studies the rise and
development of public relations in the United States
from 1827 to the present. Public relations is seen as
having developed through three stages: "the public
be fooled". of the press agent; "the public be in
formed" of the earlier publicity man; and "the public
be understood" of the public relations counsel. The
narrative is highlighted by two focal figures in mod
ern public relations, Ivy Lee and ELB.
ELB is credited with developing the third or "pub
lic be understood" phase of public relations, and with
coining the phrase "public relations counsel." The
author tells how ELB gave public relations advice to
Thomas Masaryk which resulted in making October
28 the founding date of the Czechoslovak republic.
ELB's Crystallizing Public Opinion is described as
"the first book-length writing devoted exclusively to
public relations." Outlining ELB's career, the author
highlights early clients like Caruso, Elsie Ferguson,
Ruth Chatterton, the Diaghileff Russian Ballet and
Nijinsky, sponsored by the Metropolitan Opera
Company. The editor of Harper's Bazaar, recom
mending ELB for a post with George Creel's U. S.
Committee on Public Information in World War I,
is quoted: "I consider E. L. Bernays one of the
shrewdest and most effective publicity men in this
The author also gives a detailed description of
ELB's campaign which made Damaged Goods accept
able to the public and a box-office success by creating
the Sociological Fund, consisting of leading American
men and women. In 1923, "Bernays pushed toward
the professionalization of public relations by arrang
ing with New York University to offer the first
course in the subject ever to appear in the curriculum
of an American university. The same year Bernays
published his Crystallizing Public Opinion." Sum
marizing the main principles of this book, the author
says: "Bernays declared the primary function of the
public relations man to be the changing of both com
pany policy and public attitudes so as to bring about
a rapport between the two. . . . The public rela
tions counsel as described in Crystallizing Public
Opinion marks the third stage in the volution of
public relations thought in the United States. . . .
The public was to be understood understood as
an intricate system of group relationships and by an
expert with the technical equipment, the ethics, and
the social view associated with the lawyer, doctor, or
After 1923, the author says, ELB maintained his
position of leadership. "Some of his services for
clients, most notably his work for General Electric
and Westinghouse in connection with the Golden
Jubilee of the electric light, have become classics in
the field. . . . But no activity of Bernays' has been
more persistent or more skillful than his public rela
tions for the public relations counsel. . . . 'Bernays
had more to do with developing acceptance for PR
and public relations counsel than any half dozen
other persons,' William H. Baldwin, of Baldwin and
Mermey, summarized in 1948." pp. 12-21.
Goode, Kenneth M. How to Turn People into
Gold. N. Y. and London: Harper and Brothers,
ELB's book Propaganda is quoted several times; on
the new salesmanship which utilizes societal forma
tions, p. 47; on the group mind, p. 93; on advertising
appropriations, p. 198.
, and Powel, Harford, jr. What about
Advertising. N. Y. and London: Harper and
Brothers, 1927. 399pp.
"As Mr. Edward L. Bernays puts it: 'He creates
events so interesting and important they inevitably
get talked about ...,'" etc., p. 39.
Gras, N. S. B. Business and Capitalism. N. Y: F. S.
Crofts and Company, 1939. 408pp.
This "Introduction to Business History," says:
". . . Another such counselor is Edward L. Bernays.
. . . His distinctive services have been given to
the federal government, business firms, and trade as
sociations." p. 296.
Graves, W. Brooke, ed. Readings in Public Opin
ion. N. Y. and London: D. Appleton and Com
pany, 1928. 1281pp.
This book of readings contains a description of Con
tact, "an extremely interesting little paper" pub
lished by ELB, p. 103; a long quotation from Crys
tallizing Public Opinion, by him, on the importance
of public relations, p. 437; a two-page quotation
from the same book by Bernays on the role of the
public relations counsel, p. 594-596; another from
the same book on the types of advice a public rela
tions counsel may give his clients, p. 600; a footnote
reference to Contact, p. 601; a bibliographical refer
ence to Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 601 ; a quota
tion from "a short address" by ELB included in
"The 3-Phase System for the Mass Production of
Style Goods," published by the New England
Council, p. 601; footnote reference to "a very excel-
lent chapter of Edward L. Bernays' Crystallizing
Public Opinion" which "gives an outline of methods
practicable in modifying the point of view of a
group," p. 761; another to "Putting Politics on the
Market," an article by ELB in the Independent, May
19, 1928, "a plea for a new and more effective method
of political campaigning," p. 921; a long quotation
from Crystallizing Public Opinion on "the pressure of
the public for admittance to the mysteries of foreign
affairs." p. 1264.
Grey, Lennox, ed. What Communication Means
Today: The Challenge to Teachers of English.
Chicago: National Council of Teachers of
English, 1944. 75pp.
Footnote references to ELB's book Crystallizing
Public Opinion, pp. 8, 32. Also: "In 1923, as the
country was returning to business as usual, Edward
Bernays reviewed in Crystallizing Public Opinion the
lessons of the war from the point of view of the pub
lic relations counsel and the advertiser who have,
of course, made very large contributions to our
understanding of the arts of communication,"
p. 32. This is followed by a long quotation three
paragraphs from ELB's book. Then: "Bernays
described the 'new profession of public relations
counsel* in the light of various principles 'substanti
ated by the findings of psychologists, sociologists,
"Astute as Mr. Bernays was, he could hardly fore
see the significance of radio, nor did Walter Lipp-
mann." p. 32.
Griffith, Coleman R. "An Introduction to Applied
Psychology" N. Y: The Macmillan Company,
Footnote reference to ELB's book Crystallizing Pub
lic Opinion, p. 163.
Griswold, Glenn, and Griswold, Denny. Your
Public Relations. N. Y: Funk & Wagnalls
Company-Modern Industry Magazine, 1948.
ELB's contribution to public relations is acknowl
edged in an extended discussion: "From the first
World War and the period of adjustment which fol
lowed came many public relations techniques that
are still effective today. From that period also came
some of the most effective elements of leadership.
In addition to Ivy Lee and Arthur Page, George
Creel and Edward L. Bernays made their substantial
and lasting contributions to public relations. . . .
The position of Edward L. Bernays in the history of
public relations is more debatable and more often
debated than that of any other man. He must be
recognized as one of the founders and leaders. Per
haps as much as Ivy Lee it was Bernays who taught
business management that public relations belongs
at the policy-making level. He gave the field recogni
tion, professional status, and documentation in a
day when few leaders commanded respect and atten
tion." p. 8.
Haas, C. R. Theorie et Technique de la Publicite.
Paris: Dunod, 1948. 213pp.
Bibliographical reference to Edward L. Bernays'
book Propaganda, ed. Liveright Publishing Corp,
New York, 1928, p. 208.
Hacker, L. M; Selekman, B. M; Seward, R. T;
Dickson, W. J; Smith, T. V. The New
Industrial Relations. Ithaca: Cornell Univer
sity Press, 1948. 150pp.
The foreword by M. P. Gather wood, Dean, New
York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations,
Cornell University, acknowledges the "grant from
Edward L. Bernays" to sponsor this "series of lec
tures by recognized authorities on various phases of
industrial relations problems," p. vi. The paper
"Industrial Relations and Modern Society," by
T. V. Smith, formerly Professor of Philosophy,
University of Chicago, and now, 1948, Maxwell
Professor of Citizenship and Philosophy, Syracuse
University, contains the following comment:
". . . It is to the easing, though not to the erasing,
of the conflicts which industry enshrines, from the
focus to the fringe, that the lectures of which this
article was part were dedicated. That series of lec
tures bore a name that of Bernays distin
guished in the delicate field of public relations. . ."
Harlow, Rex F., and Black, Marvin M. Practical
Public Relations. N. Y: Harper and Brothers,
Characterization of ELB by the Atlantic Monthly
as "something of a pioneer" in public relations is
noted; reference is made to his being the author of
several books; his division of United States public
relations development into four main periods is sum
marized; his comment on the "Remuneration of the
Public Relations Worker" is quoted; there are
numerous footnote references to Public Relations,
ELB's Vocational and Professional Monographs,
No. 58. pp. 23, 371, 372.
Harral, Stewart. Public Relations for Higher Edu
cation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press,
ELB is described as "best-known of public relations
counsels today," and as "perhaps the most articulate
of all members of the profession," p. 241; his re
minder that "certain symbols have lost their value,
. . . have lost the meanings they stood for" is re
called, p. 261; and, among "Suggested Readings
Steps in Setting up a Program," are listed his book
Crystallizing Public Opinion [also, under "Ethics"];
Speak Up for Democracy; articles in Annual Pro
ceedings of the American College Publicity Associa
tion, 1936; Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science, 1935; and Saturday
Review of Literature, 1941. pp. 271, 284, 285.
Harriman, Margaret Case. "The Vicious Circlel
The Story of the Algonquin Round Table." Illus
trated by Al Hirschfeld. N. Y: Rinehart &
Company, Inc., 1951, 310 pp. See Addenda,
Hayes, E. P. Activities of the President's Emergency
Committee for Employment. Concord, N. H:
The Rumford Press, 1936. 151pp.
"Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations Counsel,
New York, N. Y.," listed among "Members of the
President's Emergency Committee for Employ
ment", p. vii; credit is given to his initiating the
work of the Public Relations Section of the Com
mittee, as director, before the professional staff was
expanded and paid for from foundation funds, p. 151.
Hepner, Harry Walker. Psychology Applied to
Life and Work. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1946.
Bibliographical reference: "Bernays, E. L., Crystal
lizing Public Opinion" p. 573.
. Psychology in Modern Business. N. Y:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1931. 728pp.
Footnote reference: "Bernays, Edward L., Propa
ganda." p. 496.
Herring, E. Pendleton. "Public Administration
and the Public Interest." N. Y. and London:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936, 416pp.
The chapter on "Publishing Administrative Activ
ities" says: "Edward L. Bernays has gone as far as
to suggest that 'the United States Government
should create a Secretary of Public Relations as
a member of the President's Cabinet. The function
of this official should be to interpret America's aims
and ideals throughout the world, and to keep the
citizens of this country in touch with governmental
activities and the reasons which prompt them. He
would, in short, interpret the people to the govern
ment and the government to the people.' " Footnote
reference to ELB's book Propaganda, p. 370.
The Politics of Democracy. N. Y: W. W.
Norton and Company, 1940. 468pp.
ELB's book Propaganda is quoted on the failure of
politicians to use modern public relations methods,
Hodges, Charles. The Background of International
Relations. N. Y: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
Discussion follows mention of ELB's reference to
propaganda as a power in the Great War "that
opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all depart
ments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the
public mind," p. 518. In the "Reading References"
under "Public Opinion in World Affairs"
ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion is men
tioned; under "Government, Press, and Propa
ganda," his Propaganda is also listed, pp. 722, 723.
Chapter Note 18 gives the author's comment on
ELB's quoted remarks, p. 725.
Hope, Constance. Publicity is Broccoli. Indianapo
lis and N. Y: The Bobbs-Merrill Company,
"As every serious student of the business knows, the
great Edward L. Bernays got his start in life through
musical publicity. . . . Bernays, who worked for
concert manager F. C. Coppicus and launched,
among others, a young Italian tenor named Caruso,
next branched out into publicizing music instru
ments. . . . Bernays is now a famous Public Rela
tions Counsel." p. 142.
Hotchkiss, George Burton. An Outline of Adver
tising. Revised Edition. N. Y: The Macmillan
Company, 1940. 631pp.
Bibliographical reference: "E. L. Bernays, Crystal
lizing Public Opinion." p. 596.
"An Outline of Advertising: Its Philos
ophy, Science, Art and Strategy." Third Edition.
N.Y: The Macmillan Company, 1950. 605pp.
Footnote reference to "Edward L. Bernays-
'Fifty Million Readers Can't Be Wrong'."
p. 494. Bibliographical reference to ELB's
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 565.
Hughes, Adella Prentiss. Music Is My Life.
Cleveland and N. Y: The World Publishing
Company, 1947. 319pp.
The author praises ELB's work for the Russian
Ballet, "placed ... in [his] hands [by] the Metro
politan Opera people." "No project was ever better
prepared for in ... publicity and promotion. . . .
The value and quality of the . . . material that
came from his office has never been equalled by any
other organization within my experience . . ."
Husing, Ted. Ten Years before the Mike. N. Y:
Farrar and Rinehart, 1935. 298pp.
"Golden Jubilee of Light" is described as "the great
radio event of 1929 . . . luscious name, fragrant
with the poetry of a public relations counsel's
imagination . . . , a General Electric publicity
stunt hatched in the brain of Edward L. Bernays
. . . , [as among] press-agent feats . . . , tops." p.
International Who's Who. London: Europa
Publication, Ltd., 13th Edition, 1949. 1015pp.
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L., B. S.
American Public Relations Counsel." p. 69.
Irion, Frederick C. Public Opinion and Propa
ganda. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, N. Y:
Chapter XXII, "Future Methods," contains a sec
tion on "Propaganda Analysis" which says: "Ed
ward L. Bernays set the pace in the 1920's by main
taining that propaganda will never die out. Intelli
gent men must realize that propaganda is the mod
ern instrument by which they can fight for produc
tive ends and help bring order out of chaos. Bernays
said that what was wrong with education and social
work, to mention but two fields, was that they were
not receiving sufficient publicity."
Irwin, Will. Propaganda and the News. N. Y. and
London : Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., 1936. 325pp.
Reference to "the professional whom Edward L.
Bernays afterward called the Public Relations
Counselor," p. 112; with subsequent discussion as to
how "Edward L. Bernays, in his clever book Propa
ganda, has described and defended this process as
regards purely commercial uses, and . . . gives
examples of press-agentry which rise above routine
and achieve real art . . ." pp. 117-118.
Johnson, James Weldon. Along This Way. N. Y:
The Viking Press, 1933. 417pp.
Describing the conference which the National Asso
ciation for the Advancement of Colored People held
at great risk in Atlanta in ... 1920, the author
says: "Edward L. Bernays . . . handled the pub
licity for us." p. 356.
Key, V. O., jr. Politics, Parties and Pressure
Groups. N. Y: Thomas Y. Crowell Company,
Discussing the need to "humanize" Calvin Coolidge
prior to the Presidential campaign of 1924, the
author cites "Manipulating Public Opinion: the
Why and the How," by ELB, American Journal of
Sociology, Vol. 33, 1928. pp. 958-71.
"... [it] was suggested that an event in which the
most human groups would be brought into juxta
position with the president would have the desired
results. Actors and actresses were invited to break
fast with Mr. Coolidge at the White House. The
country felt that a man in the White House who
could laugh with Al Jolson and the Dolly sisters was
not frigid and unsympathetic." pp. 584-585.
Knight, Bruce Winton. How to Run a War. N. Y:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1936. 243pp.
"For more dignified ballyhoo, you want the arts of an
Ivy Lee or an Edward L. Bernays." Mention in sub
sequent detail of "Light's Golden Jubilee," as an
example, pp. 61, 62.
Konvitz, Milton R. The Constitution and Civil
Rights. N. Y: Columbia University Press,
Footnote reference to Francis Biddle, "Civil Rights
and the Federal Law," in Safeguarding Civil Liberties
Today, Edward L. Bernays Lectures, Cornell Uni
versity, 1945. p. 47.
Krows, Arthur Edwin. Play Production in Amer
ica. N. Y: Henry Holt and Company, 1916.
Reference to "the stupendous national campaign for
the Serge de Diaghileff Ballet Russe, so magnifi
cently waged by Edward L. Bernays," p. 303, who
"struck a newer field of co-operative press work" in
metropolitan department store daily advertising,
p. 333, and whose classification of press matter for
the ballet's road tour according to newspaper depart
ments "probably set a precedent." p. 336.
Lambert, Richard S. Propaganda. London:
Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1938. 161pp.
This English book quotes ELB, "an American
writer" as saying: "The conscious and intelligent
manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of
the masses is an important element in democratic
society. Those who manipulate this unseen mecha
nism of society constitute an invisible government
which is the true ruling power of our country. . . .
In theory, everybody buys the best and cheapest
commodities offered him on the market. In practice,
if everyone went around pricing, and chemically
testing before purchasing, the dozens of soaps or
fabrics or brands of bread which are for sale, eco
nomic life would be hopelessly jammed. To avoid
such confusion, society consents to have its choice
narrowed to ideas and objects brought to its atten
tion through propaganda of all kinds. There is conse
quently a vast and continuous effort going on to
capture our minds in the interests of some policy or
commodity or idea." pp. 32-33. There is also a pas
sage about ELB: "After Ivy Lee, the best-known
public relations counsel in America is Edward L.
Bernays, who the point is of interest married a
niece of the famous psychologist Freud." p. 98; this
is an error as Bernays is himself a nephew of Freud's.
"Bernays achieved in October 1929 what Doob de
scribes as 'one of the most astonishing pieces of
propaganda ever engineered in this country (U.S.A.)
during peace-time.' This was to work up a national
commemoration of Edison's invention of the in
candescent lamp with Edison and the President of
the U.S.A. cooperating, the Government issuing a
special stamp, and Henry Ford reconstructing
Edison's birthplace and laboratory all for the
benefit of the electric light interests, who saw in this
historic anniversary a chance to exploit and publi
cize the use of electric light." pp. 98-99. There is also
a summary, with many direct quotations, of sections
of ELB's book Propaganda, pp. 99-100.
Landis, Paul H. Social Control. Phila., N. Y: J. B.
Lippincott, 1939. 507pp.
Bibliographical reference: "Bernays, E. L., 'Freedom
of Propaganda; Constructive Forming of Public
Opinion," Vital Speeches, vol. 2, pp. 744-746. Sept 1,
1936." p. 205.
Landry, Robert J. This Fascinating Radio Business.
Indianapolis and N. Y: The Bobbs-Merrill
Company, 1946. 343pp.
This book tells of a woman, whose concern "about
the bad name of propaganda" led to her offering
Edward L. Bernays "a substitute designation, '/-
cumation' ('incu' . . . from 'incubate'; 'mation'
from 'information')." p. 245.
LaPiere, Richard T. Collective Behavior. N. Y. and
London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
Under Chapt. XII, "Public Behavior," footnote
references: "E. L. Bernays, 'Manipulating Public
Opinion,' Amer. J. Social., 1928, Vol. 33, pp. 958-
971." p. 299. Also, "Bernays, E. L., Propaganda,
1928." p. 295.
, and Farnsworth, Paul R. Social Psy
chology. N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., 1942. 511pp.
A footnote reference to ELB's Crystallizing Public
Opinion as one of the books which give "some idea
of the complexities of the art of propaganda," p. 347.
A footnote reference to his Propaganda as one of two
books "written by recognized masters in the art of
personalizing corporations and of giving good names
to men who need and can pay for them," p. 347. In
the Appendix notes, and in the Bibliography and Au
thor Index, references to these two works, as well as
to: "Bernays, E. L., 1928, 'Manipulating Public
Opinion: The Why and How', Amer. J. Social., Vol.
33, pp. 958-971." pp. 451, 452, 458.
Larson, Henrietta M. Guide to Business History.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948.
Reference to, and brief description of, " Bernays,
Edward L., ed. An Outline of Careers. N. Y: Doran,
1927", pp. 737, 738. Mention of "The Evolution of
a Profession" by ELB, as among articles in Public
Relations Directory and Yearbook, N. Y., 1945. p. 792.
Lasswell, Harold D. Democracy Through Public
Opinion. N. Y: Banta Publishing Company,
"Edward Bernays directed Latin American news
during the War period, and later became an influen
tial figure in the field of public relations." p. 77.
. Propaganda Technique in the World War.
N. Y: Peter Smith, 1938. 233pp.
Under "General Studies of Public Opinion and
Propaganda," bibliographical reference to ELB's
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 225.
. Public Opinion in War and Peace. Wash
ington: National Association of Secondary-
School Principals, and National Council for the
Social Studies, 1943. 68pp.
Bibliographical reference: to ELB's book Crystalliz
ing Public Opinion, "by a public relations counsel;
summarizes several campaigns." p. 47.
, and Blumenstock, Dorothy. World
Revolutionary Propaganda. N. Y. and London:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1939. 393pp.
Footnote reference: "See Universities Pathfinders
in Public Opinion," A Survey by Edward L. Bernays,
in collaboration with Doris E. Fleischman, N. Y.,
1937. p. 7.
; Casey, Ralph D; and Smith, Bruce
Lannes. Propaganda and Promotional Ac
tivities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1935. 450pp.
This annotated bibliography lists ELB's Crystal
lizing Public Opinion "by a leading public relations
counsel," and Propaganda, p. 32; Also lists:
Bernays, Edward L. "The Press Agent Has His
Day," Printers' Ink, Vol. 110: pp. 107-108, Febru
ary 26, 1920. p. 264; and, Pringle, Henry F. "Mass
Psychologists," American Mercury, Vol. 19, No.
155-162, Feb., 1930 [on Edward L. Bernays]. p. 266.
Lee, Alfred McClung. The Daily Newspaper in
America. N. Y: The Macmillan Company,
A passage about Ivy Lee's motto: "Accuracy, Au
thenticity, Interest," points out that he made it his
business "to present only topics of real interest,
phrased so as to attract attention of both editors and
readers never sensational, never libelous, always
accurate, always trustworthy, always readable."
The author adds: "The viewpoint Lee thus out
lined, although later refined by him and by such as
E L. Bernays, became and remains essentially that
used by leading corporate press agents or as they
prefer to be called 'counsels on public relations.' "
pp. 440-441. ELB's book Propaganda is quoted on
the importance of propaganda in "whatever of social
importance is done today." p. 464. "E. L. Bernays
dramatized the services of the power industry in
promoting Light's Golden Jubilee on October 21,
1929." p. 466. The Appendix contains bibliographi
cal references to ELB's books Crystallizing Public
Opinion and Propaganda, p. 764.
, ed. New Outline of The Principle of
Sociology. N. Y: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1946.
Bibliographical references, under "Selected Read
ings," of Edward L. Bernays' book Propaganda.
Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. Garden
City: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc.,
"In the greatest of all native American arts (next to
the talkies, and those spirituals in which Negroes
express their desire to go to heaven, to St. Louis, or
almost any place distant from the romantic old
plantations), namely, in the art of Publicity, Lee
Sarason was in no way inferior even to such ac
knowledged masters as Edward Bernays, the late
Theodore Roosevelt, Jack Dempsey and Upton
Sinclair." p. 88.
Logan, Edward B., ed. The American Political
Scene. Revised Edition. N. Y. and London: Har
per and Brothers, 1938. 311pp.
Two footnote references to, and/or from, ELB's
book, Propaganda, the second of which delineates
briefly his "strategy of publicity" in reference to the
political campaign, pp. 227, 231.
Logan, Spencer. A Negro's Faith in America.
N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 1946. 88pp.
Adele Franklin, instructor in charge of all-day
school activities in New York City's Public School
194, is mentioned as "recent winner of the Edward
Bernays $1000 award for outstanding contribution
to the cause of democracy in education." p. 51.
Lowell, Joan. The Cradle of the Deep. N. Y: Simon
and Schuster, 1929. 261pp.
Dedication: "To Edward L. Bernays and Hiram
Kelly Motherwell who encouraged me to write
Lowen, Walter A., and Watson, Lillian Eichler.
How to Get a Job and Win Success in Advertising.
N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1941. 382pp.
Footnote reference to Careers for Men, Edward L.
Bernays, editor, 1939. p. 300.
Lumley, Frederick E. Principles of Sociology.
N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill Book Com
pany, Inc., 1935. 461pp.
Footnote reference to "E. Bernays, 'Propaganda.'"
. The Propaganda Menace. N. Y: The
Century Company, 1933. 454pp.
Footnote reference to ELB's article, "The Minority
Rules," The Bookman, April 1927; to his book
Crystallizing Public Opinion; and to John T. Flynn's
article, "Edward L. Bernays: The Science of Bally
hoo," Atlantic Monthly, May 12, 1932, p. 26. Foot
note references to ELB's book Propaganda, pp. 91,
93, 102, 103. Quotation used by Bernays in Contact
No. 9, on the importance of frankness in public rela
tions, p. 106. Footnote reference to Propaganda.
p. 109, 130. Quotation used by ELB in Contact No.
20, on the difficulty of defining propaganda, p. 417-
Lundberg, Ferdinand. America's Sixty Families.
N. Y: The Citadel Press, 1946. 578pp.
Footnote reference, quoting Prof. T. V. Smith, then
of the University of Chicago, defining the "Pluto-
gogue," as "the voice of the wealthy when they can
no longer speak for themselves, 'the successor of the
plutocrat of other days. . . . Not Allah, but Allah's
public relations counsel," and including "our late
Ivy Lee and our ever present Edward Bernays."
Lyons, George J., and Martin, Harmon C. The
Strategy of Job-Finding. N. Y: Prentice-Hall,
Inc., 1944. 408pp.
Bibliographical reference: "Bernays, Edward L.,
ed. Careers for Men: A Practical Guide to Opportu
nity in Business. N. Y. 1939." p. 395.
Me Bride, Mary Margaret, ed. How to Become a
Successful Advertising Woman. N. Y. and
Toronto: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., 1948. 259pp.
The chapter on "Futures in Public Relations," by
Caroline Hood, Director of Public Relations,
Rockefeller Center, Inc., says: "A sound public re
lations program has actually little to do with press
agentry. Edward L. Bernays, who is described by
Time magazine as 'United States Publicist No. 1,'
says that public relations is just what it says it is:
'relations with the public.'" pp. 114-115. The same
chapter contains a long statement by ELB on op
portunities for women in the profession of public re
lations, p. 124-125.
McCamy, James L. "Government Publicity." Chi
cago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. 275pp.
Footnote: "Edward L. Bernays, 'Molding Public
Opinion,' Annals, CLXXIX (May 1935), 85-87."
McKean, Dayton David, "Party and Pressure
Politics." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company,
In discussing the word 'propaganda,' the author
states: "After World War I the word came to be
applied to 'what you don't like of the other fellow's
publicity,' as Edward L. Bernays said; but publicity
is too narrow a term to include the variety of activ
ities that are used to influence public opinion."
In discussing "The Use of Speaking by Pressure
Groups," the author says: "Pressure groups, like
parties, find speaking the least expensive device of
propaganda. Edward L. Bernays has called attention
to the lecture platform as a means of propaganda
that public relations counsel may suggest to their
clients, and he has pointed to some of his own propa
ganda successes by using this device."
In this connection, pages 201-203 of Crystallizing
Public Opinion are referred to.
MacDougall, Curtis D. A College Course in Re
porting for Beginners. N. Y: The Macmillan
Company, 1932. 536pp.
Linking "Ivy Lee and Edward S. Bernays, Jr., [sic]
of New York," as "the most outstanding public rela
tions officials in the country" recording their
"boast that they never ask favors of editors and
add that it is unnecessary for them to do so. They
merely advise their clients how to act so that the
press is forced to recognize them" a discussion of
how to create news-worthy publicity, p. 77. Biblio
graphic references to ELB's books Crystallizing
Public Opinion and Propaganda, p. 506.
. Hoaxes. N. Y: The Macmillan Company,
Reference to "Light's Golden Jubilee" as the type
of "publicity stunt" which "worked, and . . . can
hardly be called a hoax," because of the true news
in created events which "newspapers couldn't ig
nore", p. 249. Also: "So daydreamers go on hoping
and expecting . . . while men like Edward Bernays
. . work silently behind the scenes." p. 261.
. Interpretative Reporting, N. Y: The
Macmillan Company, 1938. 682pp.
Reference to "Edward L. Bernays of New York,
nephew of the great Sigmund Freud" and "foremost
living" public relations counsel. "Light's Golden
Jubilee" is given as an outstanding example of pub
licity well-inspired. The book calls Bernays' "psy
chology . . . eminently sound," as "evidenced in
his two books, Propaganda, and Crystallizing Pub
lic Opinion," and quotes from the latter "part of his
explanation and justification of himself and his
calling." pp. 30, 31.
. Newsroom Problems and Policies. N. Y:
The Macmillan Company, 1941. 592pp.
Numerous references to and quotations from ELB's
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, pp. 132, 134;
reference to a public debate featuring him and Julian
S. Mason before the New York Newspaper Women's
Club in 1930, p. 241. Giving Bernays' definitions of
the role of the public relations counsel, and of the
difference between propaganda and education ; refer
ence to "Light's Golden Jubilee" and the "creation
of 'front' organizations" such as "the Sociological
Fund by Bernays . . ." pp. 254, 258, 260.
MacLatchy, Josephine H. Education on the Air.
Columbus: Ohio State University, 1942. 310pp.
This 13th yearbook of the Institute for Education by
Radio, reports annual radio conference sponsored by
Ohio State University. "Edward L. Bernays, coun
sel on public relations and author of Speak Up for
Democracy, who was chairman and who had organ
ized the panel," is recorded as presiding over the
Panel Discussion on "Radio and Wartime Morale."
His various opinions on the subject are noted,
pp. 31-34. Among "... outstanding American ex-
perts in the field of radio and public opinion," ELB
is also noted as participating in subsequent discus
sions, "Radio Discussion in Wartime A Program
of the American Forum of the Air," and "Radio
News Reports and Comments in Wartime"; his re
marks or those of others about him, or his views
are cited frequently, viz: pp. 36, 38-39, 42, 43, 44-45,
46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 85-86.
MacNeil, Neil. Without Fear or Favor. N. Y: Har-
court, Brace and Company, 1940. 414pp.
"There are of course capable press agents who pro
duce news by their intelligence and sense of news
values. They make the event that makes the news,
and the newspapers cover it with their own reporters,
and gladly. Edward L. Bernays is such a one. His
handling of the Light Golden Jubilee was masterly.
Newspapers could not ignore it, for he brought
Thomas A. Edison, Henry Ford and many other
notables to Dearborn, and had the President of the
United States deliver the principal address. As part
of his promotion he had the post office issue a special
stamp. Even more ingenious perhaps were his na
tional contests and exhibitions of sculptures done in
Ivory Soap. These made good news stories. They had
novelty and supplied good pictures, even if they did
bring publicity to Procter and Gamble and help to
stimulate soap sales. It was good showmanship."
Mannheim, Karl. "Man and Society in an Age of
Reconstruction" London: Routledge and Kegan
Paul Limited, 1948. 469pp.
Bibliographical reference to "Berneys, E. Propa
ganda. New York, 1928-1936." Bernays' name mis
spelled, p. 421.
Martin, Everett Dean. The Meaning of a Liberal
Education. N. Y: W. W. Norton and Company,
Inc., 1926. 319pp.
Without naming ELB, this book gives his well-known
definition of the difference between education and
propaganda. "A recent well-written book on the
psychology of advertising by a gentleman who styles
himself a 'Public Relations Counsel' explains the
technique of making propaganda. The author refers
to such propagandist efforts as education, and says
that the difference between education and propa
ganda is this: when your side of the case is given pub
licity, that is education; when your opponent pub
lishes his side, that is propaganda." p. 47.
Mencken, H. L. The American Language, Supple
ment I. N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945. 739pp.
"Public Relations Counsel was launched by Edward
L. Bernays of New York, one of the most dis
tinguished members of the fraternity. It had been
preceded by Councillor in (or on) public relations,
occasionally used by Ivy L. Lee (1878-1934), an
other eminent publicist." This is followed by a long
memorandum "issued from the Bernays office" and
giving "the history and true meaning of Public rela
tions counsel." The term was invented by "Mr.
Bernays and Doris E. Fleischman, a young woman
working with him in his office at the time, whom he
later married and who is now his partner." pp. 578-
. The American Language, Supplement II.
N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948. 890pp.
In two footnotes, Mencken lists ELB among those
to whom he is indebted for information about
words, pp. 718, 773.
Mills, Alden B. Hospital Public Relations. Chi
cago: Physicians' Record Company, 1939.
Preface by ELB says this book "bridges the gap
between existing knowledge of public relations and
the need for that knowledge not only by hospitals
but by other types of social service institutions as
well," pp. vii-viii. The book contains a discussion of
Bernays' use of group leaders in public relations cam
paigns, pp. 26-27. A discussion of the author ex
presses gratitude for this preface, p. 10. Bernays'
theories of the leadership principle in public relations
is discussed, p. 36. A long quotation on public rela
tions methods from ELB's book Propaganda, pp.
36-37. Bibliographical reference to Propaganda,
Mock, James R., and Larson, Gedric. Words
That Won the War. The Story of the Committee
on Public Information, 1917-1919. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1939. 372pp.
"The Wireless-Cable Service was directed by Walter
S. Rogers, and the news was prepared by Paul
Kennaday. As described in Chapter XV, Edward L.
Bernays was placed in charge of news for Latin
America," p. 239. "Latin America organization
trips made by Lieutenant F. E. Ackerman in South
America and S. P. Verner in Central America; Latin
American news directed by Edward L. Bernays,"
(p. 245). "The two most important figures in the
CPI invasion of Latin America were Lieutenant
F. E. Ackerman and Edward L. Bernays," p. 321.
"The other key man in the Latin American work
was Bernays, who today is widely believed to have
succeeded the late Ivy Lee as No. 1 public relations
adviser to American businessmen. He came to the
CPI in 1917 as a young . . . New Yorker who had
served as press agent for the Russian Ballet, Enrico
Caruso and other top-rank artists. His most impor
tant work with the Committee was the conception
and execution of plans for enlisting the help of Amer
ican business firms. Toward the end of the war he
was also in charge of the whole Latin American news
service, and following the Armistice he went to
Paris with the CPI delegation," p. 322. "Creel ap
plied for passports for the group he was sending to
the Peace Conference, including Sisson, Byoir,
Bernays, Charles Hart, Carl Walberg, Major H. E.
Atterbury and E. H. Shuster," p. 332.
Mott, Frank Luther, and Casey, Ralph D., eds.
Interpretations of Journalism. N. Y: F. S. Crofts
and Company, 1937. 533pp.
"Electric Light's Golden Jubilee" included among
illustrations that "a cause can be 'litigated' for a
client while the publicity expert remains entirely in
the background." p. 406. Ivy Lee mentioned as
"representative of the most skilled type of propa
gandist effort," and ELB among "others [who]
have served corporations and business groups of
almost equal prominence." p. 412.
Mott, George Fox, ed., and others. Survey of
Journalism. N. Y: Barnes and Noble, 1940.
Two bibliographical references. "Bernays, E. L.,
Crystallizing Public Opinion, 1924. An expert in
publicity applies mass psychology to his job." And
"Bernays, E. L., Propaganda, 1928. Further analysis
of propaganda and publicity from the standpoint of
the social psychologist." p. 364.
JY1 untz, Earl E. " Urban Sociology." N. Y: The Mac-
millan Company, 1938. 742pp.
Footnote reference: "Cf. Edward L. Bernays,
'Moulding Public Opinion,' Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science (May, 1935),
Vol. 179, p. 84." p. 584.
National Committee on Atomic Information.
How to Reach 37,000,000 Homes with the Basic
Facts about Atomic Energy: A Progress Report.
Washington, D. C: National Committee on
Atomic Information, May 14, 1946. 24pp.
Mention of "Edward L. Bernays' 'Take Your Place
at the Peace Table,' Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New
York" as "a helpful manual."
Nerney, Mary Childs. Thomas A. Edison. N. Y:
Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1934. 334pp.
"And although the latter (General Electric) did not
use his (Thomas A. Edison's) name in their corporate
title, they continued to use it in business and other
ways, at times aggravating to its owner, as upon the
occasion of Light's Golden Jubilee celebration . . .
after B. F. [sic] Bernays was retained to handle the
news of the mammoth party, the motive power be
tween the tail and the dog would get short-circuited
now and then, raising doubts as to which was which.
The General Electric, as a result of this campaign,
was said to have enormously increased its sales of
lamps all over the world . . ." pp. 176-177.
Odegard, Peter. The American Public Mind. N. Y:
Columbia University Press, 1930. 308pp.
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystal
lizing Public Opinion, p. 280; and to Propaganda,
Osborn, Alex. Your Creative Power. N. Y: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1948. 375pp.
ELB quoted, with the author in agreement, as as
serting that progressive management has already
demonstrated an attack on industrial relations
problems, but that "additional ways and methods
must be found." pp. 299, 300.
Osborne, Letitia Preston. Through Purple Glass.
Phila. and N. Y: J. B. Lippincott, 1946. 288pp.
A "gay comedy of manners," dedicated: "For
Edward L. Bernays."
Ovington, Mary White. The Walls Came Tumbling
Down. N. Y: Harcourt, Brace and Company,
Reference to ELB's success in handling publicity
for the National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People's conference in Atlanta, Georgia.
"Bernays' technique was to make friends of the
reporters and do all their work." p. 178.
Paustian, Paul W., and Oppenheimer, J. John.
"Problems of Modern Society." N. Y. and Lon
don: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 193 8.
Footnote reference to "Bernays, E. L., 'Molding
Public Opinion,' Annals of American Academy of
Political and Social Science, vol. 179, pp. 84-85."
pp. 299, 338.
Pfiftner, John M. Public Administration. N. Y:
The Ronald Press, 1946. 621pp.
Among "Selected Readings" for Chapter 35, "Ad
ministrative Public Relations": "Bernays, Edward
L. 'Public Relations,' in Edward L. Bernays (ed.),
Careers for Men. (Garden City Publishing Co., Inc.,
New York, 1939)." p. 573.
Phelps, George Harrison. Tomorrow's Advertisers.
N. Y. and London: Harper and Brothers, 1929.
"In his recent book, Propaganda, Edward L. Ber
nays makes this significant statement: 'Mass pro
duction is only profitable if its rhythm can be main
tained that is, if it can continue to sell its product
in steady or increasing quantity.' " The author com
ments, "In a sense that is what advertising is all
about." p. 183.
Pigors, Paul. "Leadership or Domination." N. Y.
and Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1935.
Footnote reference to ELB's book, Propaganda, p.
Poole, Ernest. The Bridge. N. Y: The Macmillan
Company, 1940. 422pp.
"Under the guidance of Edward Bernays, one of the
ablest and most devoted younger workers on our
staff [Committee on Public Information], from our
articles they [exporters] printed inserts in their ex
port journals and catalogues and in thousands of
business letters sent to foreign lands each week."
Porter, Philip W., and Luxon, Norval Neil. The
Reporter and the News. N. Y. and London: D.
Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 1935. 560pp.
"Those who are seriously interested in publicity as a
profession can find adequate material for study in
the works of Edward L. Bernays, Ivy Lee and other
leaders . . ." p. 499; ELB's books Crystallizing
Public Opinion, and Propaganda, are listed in the
Bibliography under "Assigned Readings." p. 505.
Pringle, Henry F. Big Frogs. N. Y: The Vanguard
Press, 1928. 276pp.
"Like so many other big New Yorkers, he (Bernarr
MacFadden) has recently engaged a press agent.
Having first considered engaging Ivy Lee, he later
turned to Edward L. Bernays, only slightly less re
nowned in the public relations field. Mr. Bernays
has already pulled one big stunt, that of persuading
the amiable Mayor Walker to receive his client at
City Hall. This historic event was duly described in
a full page in the Graphic while even the other New
York dailies carried a paragraph or two about it. A
similar feature printed at approximately the same
time told of a dinner given the physical culturist by
members of Parliament on the occasion of a visit to
London." p. 132.
Quiett, Glenn C., and Casey, Ralph D. "Prin
ciples of Publicity." N. Y. and London: D. Ap-
pleton Company, Inc., 1926. 420pp.
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz
ing Public Opinion, p. 399, and Propaganda, p. 409.
Radvanyi, Laszlo, ed. "International Directory of
Opinion and Attitude Research." Mexico: The
Social Sciences Publishers, 1948. 292pp.
The entry on ELB says: "Professional Activities'.
Lecturer, pub. opin., Univs. of Princeton, Columbia,
Harvard, Yale, Stanford; member, Pres. Hoover's
Emergency Com. for Employment, 1930-31; New
York State Com. on Discrimination in Employment,
1942; co-chmn., Victory Book Campaign, 1943;
chmn. U. S. Treasury Natl. Publicity Advisory Com.,
Third War Loan; Natl. Publ. Relations Com.,
American Red Cross.
"Fields of Interest and Research: Pub. relations.
Major Surveys or Research Projects Directed: Labor-
management relations; race relations; internatl. as
pects of pub. opinion.
"Author: Crystallizing Public Opinion, Liveright
Pub. Corp., 1923; An Outline of Careers, Geo. H.
Doran Co., 1927; Propaganda, Liveright Pub. Corp.,
1928; Speak Up for Democracy, Viking Press, 1945;
Monograph on Public Relations, Bellman Pub. Co.,
1945 ; Article for Current Controversy on Need for a
Secretary of Public Relations in Cabinet, 1935;
Higher Education, a Public Relations Problem,
Amer. College Publicity Assn., June 1935; Recent
Trends in Public Relations Activities, Pub. Opin.
Quart., Dec. 1936; Public Relations First in the
Order of Business, Bus. Week, 1937; Public Educa
tion for Democracy, Amer. Mercury, 1938; War
Against Words, Infantry Journal, 1940; Preview of
American Public Opinion, Amer. Mercury Survey,
1944; Postwar Responsibility of the American Press,
Journ. Quart., 1944." p. 23.
Raushenbush, Winifred. How to Dress in War
time. N. Y: Coward: McCann, Inc., 1942. 198pp.
"Mr. Edward L. Bernays, the well-known public
relations counselor, believes that during the second
year of the war functional clothes will be stressed.
He predicts that during 1944 the designers and the
stores will be interested in dressing the new wartime
elite represented by officers' wives, and that this
trend will affect fashions generally. This prediction
is very astute." pp. 155-156.
Ray, Marie Beynon. Two Lifetime in One. Indianap
olis and N. Y: The Bobbs-Merrill Company,
This book about abundant energy closes with a final
chapter, "Strong Men and Lovely Women," based
on interviews. ELB is described in this chapter as "a
man who's continued to be increasingly successful
all through the Depression." He is quoted as saying:
"I will work very hard and at the end of the day
I'd like to start another day at once. ... I don't
think I've ever in my life been bored." p. 301.
Reed, Anna Y. Guidance and Personnel Services in
Education. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
"The first edition of An Outline of Careers, edited by
Edward L. Bernays, is a good example of a collection
of carefully prepared monographs for the use of
mature students." p. 91.
Reck, W. Emerson. Public Relations: A Program
for Colleges and Universities. N. Y. and London:
Harper and Brothers, 1946. 286pp.
"Edward L. Bernays, one of the nation's leaders in
the field," quoted on the "fundamental characteris
tics essential for the public relations counsel," p. 23,
and on the importance of analysis before interpreta
tion in the college field, pp. 41, 42.
Reuter, E. B., and Hart, C. W. Introduction to
Sociology. N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., 1933. 548pp.
Bibliographical Reference: "Bernays, E. L. 'Manipu
lating Public Opinion: The Why and the How,'
American Journal of Sociology, 33. (1927-1928),
958-971." p. 435.
Richmond, Arthur, ed. Modern Quotations for
Ready Reference. N. Y: Dover Publications,
Inc., 1947. 507pp.
This book contains six quotations from the writings
of ELB. Under Advertising: "Once a searching study
of public attitudes has been made, and the program
coordinated with these attitudes, many channels
that reach the public will be found," p. 2; under
Government: "For the capitalist system to be main
tained, it is important that the public and the private
interest be closely interrelated," p. 89; under In
dustry and Business: "Business must tell what its
services to the public are, how its product is manu
factured and distributed, the labor and the expense
involved in manufacturing and servicing; it must
make clear how prices are determined, and why a
certain price is just," p. 107; under Propaganda:
"Propagandists have existed ever since Eve per
suaded Adam to eat the first apple, and they will
exist as long as one person attempts to convince
another of anything." Also: "The conscientious
propagandist and there are many such will
have nothing to do with a product or a cause that is
socially vicious." Also: "It is my belief that propa
ganda serves a useful purpose. It increases general
knowledge. It tends to keep open an arena in public
life in which the battle of truth may be fairly fought,"
p. 201. Also: "The difficulty propagandists have in
pleading any cause is that they must deal in facts,
not only as they are abstractly, but as they appear
to be to individuals or groups who react emotionally,"
p. 201; under War: "In the next war, words will be
as important as bullets." p. 280.
Riegel, O. W. Mobilizing for Chaos. New Haven :
Yale University Press, 1934. 231pp.
"The field of national propaganda has attracted
professional American publicity men. Edward L.
Bernays looked after the public relations of Lat
via . . ." p. 206. This is an error; it should be
Riesman, David. A Yearbook of the Graduate School
of Public Administration, Harvard University.
Cambridge: Graduate School of Public Ad
ministration, 1942. 275pp.
In the chapter "Civil Liberties in a Period of Transi
tion," footnote reference to "Edward L. Bernays,
Crystallizing Public Opinion (new ed., 1934), . . .
and Propaganda (1928)." p. 82.
Ringel, Fred J., ed. "America as Americans See It."
N. Y: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1932.
This symposium, with chapters by Stuart Chase,
Robert E. Sherwood, Clifton Fadiman, Bruce Bliven,
Clare Booth and others, contains a section on
"Women: Types and Movements," by Doris E.
Fleischman, wife of ELB. Miss Fleischman is intro
duced by ELB, in a prefatory note, as follows:
"The census of the United States shows that 49%
of the population are of the feminine sex. And yet
women still seem to be the perennial novelty that
they have always been. Their place and evaluation
in the scheme of American things have been much
"And I know, for when I have tried to base a
propaganda campaign directed to them on facts
about them, it has been the very dickens of a search
to find these facts.
"For facts, like truths, are usually hidden away
and need digging. And after they have been dug up,
they need interpretation and interpretation and
"This, Miss Fleischman, over the last decade, has
done, as have few other Americans men or women
both as a contributor to national magazines on
the subject, as editor of a book, 'An Outline of
Careers for Women,' and as a hard working counsel
for public relations.
"I commend her not only as a wife and mother
but also as a writer and as an interpreter of
American womanhood." p. 105.
Robinson, Thomas H., ed. and others. "Men,
Groups and the Community: A Survey in the
Social Sciences." N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 1940.
Footnote reference to ELB's book Propaganda.
Rogers, Charles Elkins. Journalistic Vocations.
N. Y. and London: D. Appleton Co., Inc., 1931.
"Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays, prominent in this
field, have published books which undertake to ex
plain and defend their occupation. . . . Mr. Ber
nays has been characterized as counsel of public
relations to governments, industries, corporations,
and trade organizations." Footnote reference to
"Edward L. Bernays' Propaganda." p. 227.
Roosevelt, Eleanor. // You Ask Me. N. Y:
D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 1946. 156pp.
Mrs. Roosevelt answers two questions proposed by
ELB No, to whether or not she feels there should
be a Secretary of Public Relations in the Cabinet,
pp. 21, 22; Yes, on the need of a peacetime agency in
the U. S. comparable to the OWL
Rorty, James. Our Master's Voice Advertising.
N. Y: The John Day Company, 1934. 394pp.
"The majority of successful propaganda practice,
whether by commercial 'public relations counsel
lors' like Edward Bernays or Ivy Lee or by radical
propagandists, is overt; the name of the propagandist
or the company or organization he represents is
typed or printed at the top of his release." p. 171.
Ross, Ishbel. Ladies of the Press. N. Y. and London :
Harper and Brothers, 1946. 622pp.
". . . All these stories helped the status of the
women reporters in New York. In 1915 the Tribune
girls were brought downstairs to the city room.
Women's news had now officially become part of the
general schedule. Bessie Breuer was the last person
to shepherd the flock as a separate body. One of her
understudies was Doris E. Fleischman, who now
functions as a public relations counsel with her hus
band, Edward L. Bernays. She was graduated from
Barnard in 1913, worked for the Tribune for two
years, and later became associated with Mr. Bernays.
Soon after this women ceased to be a novelty in the
city room of the Tribune . . ." p. 125.
Roucek, Joseph, ed. "20th Century Political
Thought." N. Y: Philosophical Library, 1946.
Footnote reference: "E. L. Bernays, 'The Revolution
in Publicity,' Saturday Review of Literature, XXIV
(November 1, 1941), pp. 3ff." p. 379.
, and Associates. Social Control. N. Y:
D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1947. 584pp.
Footnote reference: "An earlier recognition of the
contention of this section is E. L. Bernays' 'Manipu
lating Public Opinion,' American Journal of So
ciology, XXXIII, (May, 1928), 958-971." p. 409.
Rugg, Harold. An Introduction to Problems of
American Culture. Boston: Ginn and Company,
A quotation from Contact showing how five New York
newspapers published five different versions of what
happened when Alexander Kerensky was attacked
in a New York theatre. Footnote reference: "From
Contact No. 17, published by Edward L. Bernays,
Public Relations Counsel, New York City." p. 5.
Routzahn, Evart G. and Routzahn, Mary
Swain, See Addenda, Item 17.
Sargent, Porter. Dangerous Trends: How Under
currents Economic and Political Affect Education.
Boston: Porter Sargent, 1948. 190pp.
A second title page reads: "A Handbook of Private
Schools for American Boys and Girls: An Annual
Survey: Thirty-First Edition." A section is devoted
to Public Relations. "The professional tone was
given to the calling of publicity agent by E. L.
Bernays and his wife, Doris Fleischman, who in
vented the term 'public relations counsel' in their
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, 1923. The public
was no longer to be fooled or merely informed, it
was to be understood. Bernays, an intellectual and
a nephew of Sigmund Freud, recognized the need for
psychological and sociological knowledge. (Goldman,
pp. 13-19). "p. 170. There is a summary of the March
1947 issue of The Annals of the American Academy
of Political and Social Science. Under the heading
"The Successful Leader," Sargent says: "The cli
max of the symposium in The Annals was left to
E. L. Bernays, introduced in an editorial note as
the leading exponent of the public relations profes
sion. 'In that capacity he has served governments,
trade associations, and profit and non-profit organ
izations.' He has the brains and techniques to bring
the American people or any section of them to be
lieve anything that the budget will permit. The po
lite way to put this is to speak of 'The Engineering of
Consent,' which is his title," p. 173. This is followed
by a summary of ELB's paper "The Engineering of
Consent." pp. 173-174.
Getting Us into the War. Boston: Porter
Sargent, 1941. 640pp.
In chapter notes, the author says: "The most effec
tive propaganda is that 'of the deed, not that of the
word,' and 'when events do not serve their purpose
they (propagandists) create them. Many of the news
events about which we read are deliberately staged
by the governments in the interests of propaganda,'
E. L. Bernays, the highest paid propagandist ('pub
lic relations counsel') in this country, pointed out to
the Guardian Midwinter Conference on 'Propaganda.'
('What Makes Lives,' p. 189)." p. 135.
War and Education. Boston: Porter
Sargent, 1943. 506pp.
"The 'Psychological Barriers in Health Education'
which have long prevented the desired result that
'Everyone Should Receive Adequate Health Edu
cation' were exhaustively reported on by Edward L.
Bernays, Public Relations Counsel, for the New York
Academy of Medicine, at its Annual Health Educa
tion Conference in New York City, Nov. 18, 1941.
(Vital Speeches, Jan 1, 1942.)" p. 309. A long quota
tion from this report by ELB in which he recom
mends that "a national council on public health
should be formed by all health education groups for
the exchange of ideas and methods, for orientation of
aims, goals, themes and values," p. 310. Chapter
footnote: "E. L. Bernays, the highest paid propa
gandist (public relations counsel) in this country,
pointed out to the Harvard Guardian Midwinter
Conference on Propaganda early in 1940 that the
most effective propaganda is that 'of the deed, not
that of the word,' and 'when events do not serve
their purpose they (propagandists) create them.
Many of the news events which we read are de
liberately staged by the governments in the interest
of propaganda.' " p. 359. A chapter footnote quotes
at length from "The Revolution in Publicity," by
ELB, Saturday Review, Nov. 1941. p. 425.
Sargent, S. Stansfeld. "Social Psychology: An
Integrative Interpretation." N. Y: The Ronald
Press Company, 1950. 519pp.
In this chapter on "Propaganda," the author says:
"Many are the stories about our two most noted
public relations counsels, Ivy Lee and Edward L.
Bernays. . . . Bernays showed even more ability
(than Lee) in the art of mass persuasion. One of his
early achievements was to make possible the produc
tion of Brieux's DamagedGoods, a play about syphilis,
by organizing a number of prominent persons into a
'Sociological Fund' which backed the production and
gave it an aura of respectability. Later, he showed
his inventiveness by publicizing the products of
Procter & Gamble (Ivory Soap) in a national soap
sculpture contest, and by organizing the Golden
Jubilee of electric light on behalf of General Electric
and Westinghouse. Bernays helped to explain and in
terpret the newer trends in publicity work, and in his
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, published in 1923,
he coined the term 'public relations counsel.' " p. 360.
Savidge, Anne Lane, and Horn, Gunnar. "Hand
book for High School Journalism." Boston: D. C.
Heath and Company, 1944. 133pp.
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz
ing Public Opinion and Propaganda, p. 63.
Seldes, George. Freedom of the Press. Garden City:
Garden City Publishing Company, 1937. 380pp.
"The late Mr. [Ivy] Lee's leading competitors are
Edward L. Bernays, who is credited with getting an
Edison electric light bulb on a postage stamp,
and . . ." p. 136.
Lords of the Press. N. Y: Julian Messner,
Inc., 1938. 408pp.
A quotation from Dr. T. V. Smith, "professor of
philosophy of the University of Chicago, practical
politician . . . and author of many books," defining
"plutogogue." According to Smith, "plutogogue is
the voice of the wealthy when they can no longer
speak for themselves. . . . He is not Allah, but
Allah's public relations counsel. You will hear his
soft-spoken message in the columns of our sophisti
cated Walter Lippmanns and our unctuous Glenn
Franks. You will see or gently feel his gloved hand
in the eulogistic releases of our late Ivy Lees and our
ever-present Edward Bernays," p. 304. "The pluto
gogue of plutogogues is Edward L. Bernays who
usually hires himself for the better causes, the demo
cratic nations. But he is also the best defender of our
business civilization." p. 312-313.
Seldes, Gilbert. Proclaim Liberty. N. Y: The Grey-
stone Press, 1942. 202pp.
"Propaganda must be independent. . . . Mr. Gorham
Munson, preceded by Mr. Edward L. Bernays in
1928, has proposed a Secretary for Propaganda in
the Cabinet, which would make the direct line of
authority from the Executive to the administrators
of policy, without interference." p. 65.
Smith, Bruce Lannes; Las well, Harold D; and
Casey, Ralph D., eds. Propaganda, Communi
cation and Public Opinion. Princeton : Princeton
University Press, 1946. 435pp.
The long annotated bibliography lists the following
works by Edward L. Bernays: Crystallizing Public
Opinion: "A U. S. public relations counsel's early
formulation of the techniques of his calling, with
some attention to its social consequences," p. 129;
"Recent Trends in Public Relations Activities (of
large corporations and trade associations)" Public
Opinion Quarterly, Vol. I, No. I: 147-51, January
1937: "by a U. S. public relations counsel," p. 193;
Speak Up for Democracy: What You Can Do A
Practical Plan for Action for Every American Citizen:
N. Y., Viking Press, 1940: "Noted public relations
counsel urges all U. S. citizens to 'speak up for de
mocracy' through every available channel of commu
nication. He outlines 'twenty common charges
against democracy' and answers them. He maps out
a complete public relations program, utilizing the
'group leadership approach' and a multitude of chan
nels such as holiday celebrations, press conferences,
direct mail, forums, radio, movies, youth groups.
Symbols involved include celebrated American docu
ments (emphasis on the Bill of Rights), patriotic cer
emonies, birthdays of famous Americans, and lists of
appeals to special interest groups. Includes extensive
bibliography on democratic practice, dictatorships,
U. S. customs, leadership techniques and public
opinion," p. 227. Bibliographical reference to a book
let by ELB and Doris E. Fleischman: Universities:
Pathfinders in Public Opinion: The Authors, 1937.
"Lists 'Courses in Public Relations, Public Opin
ion, and Related Subjects Offered by American
Universities.' " p. 297. Bibliographical reference to
ELB in connection with Public Policy, Yearbook
of the Graduate School of Public Administration of
Harvard University, 1942, Vol. 3: "Edward L.
Bernays . . . presents a hortative discourse on 'The
Integration of Morale'." p. 150.
Smith, Charles W. t jr. Public Opinion in a De
mocracy. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939. 598pp.
"E. L. Bernays describes public opinion as 'an ill-
defined . . . and changeable group of individual
judgments,' the 'aggregate result of individual
opinions' of the people who make up a society,"
p. 16. Footnote reference to ELB's book Crystallizing
Public Opinion, p. 16. "In 1938, when public and
congressional criticism of radio reached a point
where it seemed likely to lead to governmental in
vestigation and perhaps to new tax or regulatory
measures, the National Broadcasting Company hired
Edward L. Bernays, one of the ablest publicity men
in the country, as public relations consultant." p. 116.
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz
ing Public Opinion, p. 567 and Propaganda, p. 569.
Sobel, Bernard, ed. The Theatre Handbook. N. Y:
Crown Publishers, 1940. 900pp.
"At the time of the Great War, with the development
of modern business methods, press agentry attained
dignity and became one of the first national forces.
But the term was straightway changed; leaders like
Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee calling themselves
publicity directors, propagandists and counsellors
in public relations." p. 632.
Starch, Daniel; Stanton, Hazel M; Roerth,
Wilhelmina. Controlling Human Behavior.
N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 1937. 638pp.
Under the title, "What is Propaganda?", among
comments by Walter Lippmann, Calvin Coolidge and
Frederick E. Lumley on "good and bad propaganda,"
a formal definition by "E. L. Bernays, the publicist"
is presented: "Modern propaganda is a consistent,
enduring policy of creating or shaping events to in
fluence the relations of the public to a given enter
prise." p. 559.
Stewart, Donald Ogden, ed. Fighting Words. N. Y:
Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1940. 168pp.
On the half-title, from a speech by ELB: "In the
next war, words will be as important as bullets."
Stout, Rex. The Silent Speaker. N. Y: The Viking
Press, 1946. 308pp.
In a Nero Wolfe novel, an incident provokes the
comment, ". . . Who you want is not Nero Wolfe,
but Russell Birdwell or Eddie Bernays . . ." p. 82.
Strong, Edward K., Jr. "Psychological Aspects of
Business." N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., 1938. 629pp.
Footnote reference: "Flynn, J. T., 'Edward L. Ber
nays,' Atlantic Monthly, 193,2, Vol. 149, 567-568."
Summers, Robert E., ed. Federal Information Con
trols in Peacetime. The Reference Shelf, Vol. 20,
No. 6. N. Y: The H. W. Wilson Company,
Inaccurate bibliographical reference: "Bernays, Ed
ward L. Safeguarding Civil Liberties Today." Ithaca,
New York: Cornell University Press, 1945, referring
to the Edward L. Bernays Lectures published under
this title, p. 291.
Sutherland, Robert L., and Woodward, Julian L.
Introductory Sociology. Philadelphia, N. Y:
J. B. Lippincott, 1940. 863pp.
Footnote: "The studies of Harwood L. Childs, L. W.
Doob, E. L. Bernays, B. L. Pierce, R. Ponsonby,
and J. D. Squires, all add further information to
show that accurate evidence on controversial issues is
seldom available to a public." p. 340.
Tebbel, John. An American Dynasty. Garden City:
Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1947. 363pp.
Quotation from a speech delivered by "Edward L.
Bernays, the public relations counsel" before the
National Newspaper Promotion Association in 1944,
and reprinted in the Journalism Quarterly, point
ing out the "great gap between the platform of the
newspapers and public acceptance of them" and
advocating remedial public relations techniques; the
"overwhelming response" to the printed version is
noted, including that of those few "who scoffed at
the whole business." p. 337.
Thompson, Dorothy. / Saw Hitler. N. Y: Farrar
and Rinehart, 1932. 36pp.
". . . But if you want to gauge the strength of the
Hitler movement, imagine that in America, an orator
with the tongue of the late Mr. Bryan and the his-
trionic powers of Aimee MacPherson, combined with
the publicity gifts of Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee
should manage . . ." pp. 34-35.
Thurber, James. The Thurber Carnival. N. Y: Har
per & Brothers, 1945. 305pp.
This anthology of Thurber's writings contains
the story Something to Say, which first appeared in
The Middle- Aged Man on the Flying Trapeze. The
story includes the following passage: "Somehow or
other we kept him out of trouble until the night of
the sailing, when we gave a going-away party for
him at Marvin Deane's house. Everybody was there:
Gene Tunney, Sir Hubert Wilkins, Count von Luck-
ner, Edward Bernays, and the literary and artistic
crowd generally." p. 95.
Vaughan, Wayland F. Social Psychology. N. Y: The
Odyssey Press, 1948. 956pp.
A discussion, with examples from his handling of spe
cific projects, of the work of ELB, who "conceives of
his profession as 'the conscious and intelligent ma
nipulation of the organized habits and opinions of
the masses'." "Through his expert control over the
'mass mind,' the public relations counselor is said to
function as 'the invisible government,' and ELB is
said to act 'as an adviser to his client.' . . . Unlike
Reichenbach, who did not want to see the article
he was to publicize for fear he would be disillusioned,
Bernays insists on knowing what it is he is pushing
and he will not commit himself to its promotion
until he is convinced of its value. He will not feature
a product he believes to be fraudulent or a cause he
believes to be antisocial. Bernays says that the chief
assets of the public relations counsel are honesty
and candor. Maybe so, but Bernays' crowning
achievement, the handling of Light's Golden Jubi
lee, the fiftieth anniversary of Edison's discovery of
the electric light, was put over in a very subtle fash
ion . . ." This is followed by quotations from arti
cles by "W. W. Parrish, in the Literary Digest,
June 2, 1934"; by "J. T. Flynn: 'Edward L. Ber
nays. 1 The Atlantic Monthly, May, 1932"; and by
"J. R. Dill: 'Unhappy Days for the Brewer." Chris
tian Century, June 30, 1937." pp. 374-78.
Viereck, George Sylvester. Spreading Germs of
Hate. N. Y: Horace Liveright, 1930. 327pp.
In this work, with a foreword by Colonel Edward M.
House, ELB is referred to as "a distinguished expert
on propaganda"; his definition as to the difference
between propaganda and education is given, p. 10.
Walker, S. H., and Sklar, Paul. Business Finds Its
Voice: Management's Effort to Sell the Business
Idea to the Public. N. Y. and London: Harper
and Brothers, 1938. 93pp.
"They (the National Electric Light Association)
could study the work of public relations counsels
like Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays, recalling that
it was Lee, more than anybody else, who had
transformed John D. Rockefeller in the public mind
from a symbol of greed to a symbol of aged benevo
lence, and that Bernays and his colleagues had in
vented many ingenious ways of publicizing men,
products and corporations (as for instance when
Bernays staged a 'Green Ball' to popularize the
color green, in the expectation of creating a demand
for Lucky Strikes)," p. 14; "Of the independent
counsel, the best-known are perhaps Edward L.
Bernays, Carl Byoir, Bernard Lichtenberg and T. J.
Ross of the famous firm of Ivy Lee and T. J. Ross.
These firms advise more than one client . . . and
they draw considerable fees. For instance, according
to reports filed with the S.E.C. . . . Allied Chemical
& Dye paid Bernays $25,185; and the American
Tobacco Company paid Lee and Ross $23,096 and
Bernays $24,000 ... p. 26. "Bernays, like the
others, knows that it is better to implant an idea in a
group leader's mind and let him spread it than to
write up an idea and send it to the papers as a re
lease, in the old-fashioned way; because what an
independent big-wig says is news. He has developed
the technique further than anybody else. Here, for
example, is a recent example of his shrewd use of
group leaders. In 1934, Philco, a client of Bernays'
at the time, was developing for its radios what it
called 'high fidelity reception.' No public announce
ment was made. Instead, Bernays had letters sent
to a list of well-known music critics asking what
they thought of radio reception. Then he per
suaded Pitts Sanborn to edit and issue under his own
name a 'symposium' of opinions on radio reception
wherein the answers to Bernays' letters appeared,
making the point that reception was generally bad.
Names make news; the 'symposium' got a great deal
of reception in the press. When it had been well
publicized Philco was ready to announce 'high fidel
ity reception,' and to hold an exhibit celebrating
it as the answer to the currently poor reception.
At the same time, still under Bernays' supervision,
Philco set up an organization called the Radio Insti
tute of the Audible Arts, which Pitts Sanborn was
persuaded to head. The Institute began to issue
booklets and surveys on good reception, children's
programs, etc; these were sent to schools, clubs and
the like, where they were well received because each
one was written by an authority. Philco's name ap
peared only briefly as the founder of the Institute.
Thus Philco and 'quality radio' associated them
selves firmly in the public mind." p. 26-27.
Walker, Stanley. City Editor. N. Y: Frederick A.
Stokes Co., 1934. 336pp.
"Press agents, in their multifarious wigs and masks,
sometimes seem almost as necessary to the modern
newspaper as a posse of reporters. . . . Members of
this strange profession range from the frightened,
somewhat ratty Broadway hanger-on, who hopes to
pick up a few dollars for whistling up any fly-by-
night enterprise, to such elegant and philosophical
practitioners as Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays,
who represent large interests and movements di
rected at what is known as the Mass Mind, and who
have brains," p. 134. "Many newspapermen, view
ing the careers of such men as Bernays, Lee, Hanne-
gan and many others, are inclined to be envious,"
p. 138. "If the young publicist attaches himself to
the right interests, and studies the methods not only
of Bernays and Lee but of lesser masters as well,
he may go far," p. 143. "It has been the custom
to hold up Ivy Lee as the greatest example of what
a newspaperman may do when he enters upon pub
licity work . . . but it is probable that Bernays
is the more important as an American phenomenon.
He is more of a psychologist, or psychoanalyst, than
Lee. That Daniel Boone of the canebrakes of the
libido, Dr. Sigmund Freud, is his uncle. Bernays
has taken the sideshow barker and given him a
philosophy and a new and awesome language: 'con
ditioned reflexes,' 'the creation of events and circum
stances," 'dramatic high-spotting,' and 'continuous
interpretations.' He is no primitive drum beater.
He has written books and lectured at New York
University on the methods and underlying psycho
logical principles of his high art. He is devoid of
swank and does not visit newspaper offices, ..."
p. 143. "The record of Mr. Bernays is full of exam
ples of showmanship which could not be ignored by
the newspapers. There was, for example, Light's
Golden Jubilee. The story of Edison's invention was
retold. To Dearborn went Edison, Henry Ford and
even the President of the United States, as well as a
great crowd of other important figures. It was not
Mr. Ford's show, or Edison's, or even the President's.
It was simply a publicity stunt pulled off by Ber
nays, representing powerful and rich interests, to
exploit the uses of electric light. Newspaper editors
who understood this may have felt sad, but what
could they do about it with the President making
a speech and all those important persons there?", p.
144. "Again, Mr. Bernays was employed by Procter
and Gamble, makers of Ivory Soap. He popularized
the nation-wide contests for the best examples of
soap sculpture. It is really startling what anyone
with a bent for sculpture can do with a little soap.
For the first few years he gained enormous publicity,
and then the publishers asked abruptly, 'What the
hell?' and now the publicity is much less," pp.
144-145. "Bernays must receive credit, or blame, for
an important shift in the methods used by the larger
advertising agencies. ... A few years ago adver
tising agencies devoted their attention to straight
advertising. . . . Now they have added research
workers (which may be a good thing) and great
numbers of thinkers, behaviorists, trend-observers,
experts with chart and graph, child trainers, students
of sleep and what not," pp. 145-146. "The Great
Man racket, which consists of the inflation and label
ling of enormous stuffed shirts, is always with us.
. . . Bernays defends it on its higher levels on the
ground that the public is entitled to know the sort
of man, his background and personality, who is the
brains of an industry which furnishes the public
with its goods," p. 150. "It would do no harm for
newspapers to point out that a light jubilee is a
Bernays project," p. 151.
Wallis, Wilson D., and Wallis, Grace Allen. "0r
Social World." N. Y. and London: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, 1940. 402pp.
ELB's book Propaganda listed among "Readings."
, and Willey, Malcolm M. "Readings in
Sociology." N. Y: F. S. Crofts and Company,
ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion listed
among "Readings." p. 365.
Washburn, Charles. Press Agentry. N. Y: Na
tional Library Press, 1937. 153pp.
Chapter VIII, "Molding the Mass Mind ; Edward
L. Bernays," is devoted entirely to ELB. One section
deals with the inevitable rise of the public relations
counsel, pp. 92-95. A brief biographical sketch of ELB,
"Bernays is definitely a counsel on public relations,
molding the mass mind. He is as good as they come,"
p. 95. Reference to Light's Golden Jubilee, p. 95.
"Today, at the height of his powers, he serves as
adviser to great corporations and to individuals of
both national and world eminence in the dual task
of interpreting the public to them, and them to the
public," p. 95. History, analysis and summary
of article by ELB, "How to Restore Confidence
in Business and Finance," Economic Forum, Winter
Issue, 1935. Main ideas: Business must sell the
whole idea of business to the public; business must
continuously and cumulatively explain its func
tion to the public; the value of symbols must be
stressed; the public must be pleased, not damned;
leadership today rests on an ability to understand,
interpret and utilize symbols; symbols are the
short cut to understanding and action; it is not a
problem today of getting pieces into the papers; it
is a question of selling an idea that business and
finance are essential parts of our system, pp. 96-98.
"There you have some pretty sane stuff," the author
comments, p. 98. Extensive quotations from "Pre
senting American Business," by ELB, Today, March
28, 1936: "Bernays sums it all up beautifully and
in plain language. He is quite right when he declares
that 'present-day business sails little-known waters
studded with the bars and shoals of adverse public
opinion.' It is small wonder, then, that the captains
of industry need advice from a pilot the public
relations counsel," p. 104. "Bernays has further
contributed to the study of public opinion in an
article, 'Molding Public Opinion,' which should be
read by every man desirous of following a career
that will shape the destinies of men and their move
ments. He says: 'Once a searching study of public
attitudes has been made, many channels that reach
the public will be found.' "
Who Knows and What Among Authorities
Experts and the Specially Informed.
Chicago: The A. N. Marquis Company. 1949,
Entry 716-24 says: "Bernays, Edward L. Public
relations and opinion; Propaganda, b '91. BS '12
(Cornell U.). Author: Crystallizing Public Opinion
'24, and others. Served with US Com on Public
Information at Peace Conf '18-19; asst commr US
Dept Commerce Paris Expn '25; counsel on pub
relations in partnership with Doris E. Fleischman
since '10; U lecturer on pub relations. Nat Pub Rela
tions Com. Bernays Building, 26 E. 64th St., NYC."
Who's Who in America. Chicago: The A. N.
Marquis Company, Vol. 25, Fiftieth Anniver
sary Edition, 1950-1951. 3347pp.
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L. (ber-naz),
public relations counsel; b. Vienna, Austria, Nov. 22,
1891; s. Ely and Anna (Freud) B; Prep. edn. De
Witt Clinton High Sch., New York; B.S., Cornell
U., 1912; m. Doris E. Fleischman, Sept. 16, 1922;
children Doris Fleischman, Anne Fleischman.
Wrote for newspapers, N. Y. City, 1913-15; publicity
mgr. Russian Ballet tour in U. S. for Met. Opera
Co., 1915-16, of Caruso and other musical stars,
1917-18; served with U. S. Comm. on Public Infor
mation; at Peace Conference, Paris, 1918-19; re-
employ ex-service men, U. S. War Dept., 1919;
asst. commr. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Paris Expn.,
1925; counsel on public relations to Light's Golden
Jubilee, 1929; counsel on public relations in partner
ship with Doris E. Fleischman to government, indus
tries, corps., and trade orgns. since 1919; lecturer on
pub. relations, New York U., 1923; adjunt prof
pub. relations, N. Y. Univ. 1949. Dir. Merritt,
Chapman & Scott Mem. President Hoover's Emer
gency Com. for Employment, 1930-31. Mem. N. Y.
State Com. on Discrimination in Employment, 1942;
mem. Nat. Pub. Relations Com., Am. Red Cross,
since 1942; co-chairman Victory Book Campaign,
1943; chmn. U. S. Treasury nat. publicity adv. com.
3d War Loan. Awarded Office Pub. Instrn. (French),
1926, King Christian Medal (Danish), 1946. Clubs:
Century Country, Harmonic (New York). Author:
Crystallizing Public Opinion, 1924; (with others)
Broadway Anthology, 1917; Propaganda, 1928;
Speak Up for Democracy, 1940; Take Your Place
at the Peace Table, 1945; Public Relations, a Grow
ing Profession, 1945 ; Editor of An Outline of Careers,
1927; also contbr. to same. . . . Office: Bernays
Building, 26 E. 64th Street, New York 21, N. Y."
ELB has been in every edition of Who's Who in
America since 1926-1927.
Who's Who in Commerce and Industry. Chi
cago: The A. N. Marquis Company, Vol. 6,
6th International Edition, 1948. 1552pp.
Biographical sketch of "Bernays, Edward L., public
relations counsel . . ." p. 156.
Who's Who in the East. Chicago: The A. N.
Marquis Company. Vol. II, 1948. 1824pp.
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L., public
relations counsel . . ." p. 156.
Who's Who in New York [City and State]. N. Y:
Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1947.
llth Edition. 1235pp.
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L.: Public
Relations Counsel; . . ." p. 81.
Wilkerson, Marcus M. "Public Opinion and the
Spanish- American War." Baton Rouge: Louisi
ana State University Press, 1932. 141pp.
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz
ing Public Opinion and Propaganda, p. 133.
Willey, Malcolm M., and Rice, Stuart A. Com
munication Agencies and Social Life. N. Y. and
London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
In this monograph, one of a series published under
the direction of the President's Research Committee
on Social Trends, acknowledgments are given in the
preface to "Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations
Counsel," among those in a long list, p. xii. '
Wilson, Francis Graham. "The Elements of Modern
Politics: An Introduction to Political Science."
N. Y: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936.
Bibliographical reference under "Selected Readings"
to ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion.
"The American Political Mind" N. Y:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. 506pp.
In the chapter "The Republic and World Crisis,"
the author says: "With the emergence of superior
forms of public administration, the continued devel
opment of education, the production of goods for an
abundant life, the growth of democracy in industry,
and a greater reconciliation between liberty and
equality, the future must belong to the democratic
way of life." A footnote to this refers to ELB's book
Speak Up for Democracy as a sample of "literature
dealing with this problem."
Wolseley, R. E. The Journalist's Bookshelf: An
Annotated and Selected Bibliography of United
States Journalism. Chicago: Quill and Scroll
Foundation, 1946, 133pp.
In the section "Propaganda," a bibliographical ref
erence to ELB's book Propaganda.
In the section "Public Opinion," a bibliographical
reference to ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion.
and Campbell, Laurence R. Exploring
Journalism. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, 1946. 482pp.
"Modern public-relations counsel, however . . .
shun the crude and obvious methods of early press
agents. They prefer to engineer an event like . . .
Light's Golden Jubilee, commemorating the fiftieth
anniversary of Thomas A. Edison's invention of the
incandescent lamp. Publicity specialists realize that
in the long run it doesn't pay to fool the public.
They have discovered that they can serve society,
as Edward L. Bernays declares, by 'crystallizing the
obscure tendencies of the public mind before they
have reached definite expression which makes them
so valuable' ." p. 424.
Woodward, W. E. "The Gift of Life." N. Y: E. P.
Dutton and Company, Inc., 1947. 436pp.
In this autobiography, the author records that he
lunched "at the Coffee Club with Hendrik Van
Loon" and met, among other well-known people,
"Edward Bernays, the publicity man ... a nephew
of Sigmund Freud, the most distinguished of psycho
analysts." pp. 289, 290.
Woolf, S. J. Here Am I. N. Y: Random House,
"Most publicity men are incurable some of them
are more or less dreamers like Carl Byoir; others,
like Edward Bernays, engage the largest suite in the
biggest hotel to give parties for a few of their intimate
friends," p. 228. "When I arrived in Vienna, I tried
to get in touch with Dr. Sigmund Freud. Through
friends of his, I made efforts to meet him, but was
unsuccessful. I even cabled Edith to go see Eddie
Bernays, who is the doctor's nephew, and Bernays
in turn cabled him. But even this was to no avail."
Wright, J. Ilandly, and Christian, Byron H.
Public Relations in Management. N. Y: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. 229pp.
The magazine Fortune quoted: ". . . when Beech-
Nut Packing Company, through Edward L. Ber
nays, got doctors to come out for big breakfasts,
knowing that the result would be more bacon sold
. . . when society leaders, also through Bernays,
came out with statements that a woman should take
at least three dresses on the most informal weekend,
and the luggage industry, as per plan, began to sell
more bags . . . when President Hoover, Thomas
Edison and Henry Ford, again under Bernays' guid
ance, gathered at Dearborn to celebrate Light's
Golden Jubilee, and the first lamp appeared on a
commemorative postage stamp ..." p. 5. "In his
book 'Propaganda,' published in 1928, Edward L.
Bernays, public relations counsel, began with this
statement: 'The conscious and intelligent manipula
tion of the organized habits and opinions of the masses
is an important element in democratic society. Those
who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society
constitute an invisible government that is the true
ruling power of our country.' In view of Mr. Bernays'
reputation as the founder of the science of modern
public relations, the reader may be forced to assume
that such 'conscious and intelligent manipulation*
of the mass mind is the chief mission of the prac
titioner. However, Mr. Bernays later offers in his
book a much more agreeable concept when he states:
'The counsel on public relations, after he has exam
ined all these and other factors, endeavors to shape the
actions of his client so that they will gain the interest,
the approval and the acceptance of the public 1 ," p.
30. "Edward L. Bernays divides the history of pub
licity into four major periods. The first, 1900 to 1914,
was the period of muckraking versus whitewash
ing. . . . The second major period was during the
First World War, 1914 to 1918, when publicity
was used for the first time on a mass scale to
sell war aims and ideals. The third major period,
1919 to 1929, was marked by an era of rising price
levels, new competition for the consumer's dollar,
and a new appreciation of the consumer's interests.
. . . Corporations appointed vice-presidents whose
prime duties were to make friends for the company
and to interest themselves in public affairs. The
fourth period began in 1929. The stock-market crash,
the advent of the New Deal, the awakening realiza
tion that the interests of the whole nation were
greater than those of any group, all served to em
phasize, according to Mr. Bernays, the need for
social consciousness and public responsibility. To
continue Mr. Bernays' analysis, written in 1941,
it might be said that the fifth period was marked by
a return to the First World War methods of selling
the public on war issues, but on a much larger pat
tern . . ." pp. 38, 39. "A vigorous criticism of
public opinion polls was registered recently by Ed
ward L. Bernays, public relations counsel. In an
article in Public Opinion Quarterly, Mr. Bernays
said: 'Like vitamins and so many other good things,
attitude polls have been adopted by America with
its customary unthinking enthusiasm for new things.
Polls are an enormously useful implement when
honestly, efficiently and intelligently gathered and
understood. On the other hand, they are potentially
dangerous weapons in the hands of the unwise, the
inept, the dishonest or the antisocial.' Mr. Bernays
proposed as a solution that licenses should be re
quired for the practice of polling, and, secondly, that
educational activities, aimed at the public and their
leaders, should be carried on to acquaint them with
the significance of polls," p. 70. "It is probable that
for some time public relations counsel and workers in
the field must set their own standards of conduct.
However, in fairness to his calling counsel should
not accept a client whose standards do not measure
up to his own, in the opinion of Edward L. Bernays,
who writes: 'In law the judges and jury hold the de
ciding balance of power. In public opinion the public
relations counsel is judge and jury because through
his pleading of a case the public is likely to accede
to his opinion and judgment. Therefore, the public
relations counsel must maintain an intense scrutiny
of his actions, avoiding the propagation of unsocial
or otherwise harmful movements or ideas. It is in
the creating of public conscience that the counsel on
public relations is destined to fulfill his highest
usefulness to the society in which he lives.' " p. 221.
Wright, Milton. How to Get Publicity. N. Y. and
London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
"The closest approach to a professional status is that
reached by those publicity men who, individually or
in partnership, maintain organizations where they
serve numbers of clients in much the same way as a
lawyer serves his clientele on the basis of an annual
retaining fee. It is through this method that some
of the outstanding figures in publicity men like
Ivy Lee, Edward L. Bernays and John Price Jones
have accomplished their results." pp. 210-211.
, Public Relations for Business. N. Y: Whit-
tlesey House, 1939. 346pp.
"Along these lines, Edward L. Bernays, a leading
specialist in public relations, says: 'A public relations
program or policy must be integrated into the entire
functioning of the industry. It cannot be lip worship
to an idea. It cannot consist merely of releases from
a mimeograph machine. It must be part and parcel
of the thinking and action of the leaders in the
industry. And it may mean that such thinking and
action must be decidedly changed in order to con
form to public demand and public objectives. Ideas
that are not generally accepted by the public can
be made acceptable only if they can be shown to be of
value to the public, and if their appeal can be related
to acceptable fact, opinions or customs'." pp. 48, 49.
Young, John Orr. "Adventures in Advertising."
N. Y: Harper & Brothers, [1948, by Printers'
Ink Publishing Company, Inc.], 1949, pp. 207.
In a list of books on public relations, the author
states: "Edward L. Bernays and his wife Doris
Fleischman produced those interesting books Careers
for Men and Careers for Women." p. 103.
Young, Kimball. "Source Book for Social Psychol
ogy" N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927. 844pp.
"And Bernays illustrates from the case of Lithuania
what can be done to arouse and to influence public
opinion on a situation through the clever use of
publicity and propaganda," p. 783. Under "Propa
ganda," large sections of Lithuania's publicity cam
paign are reprinted.
"Social Psychology" N. Y: F. S. Crofts
and Company, 1947. 578pp.
ELB's book Propaganda is included among "sug
gestions for further reading." p. 522.
Zink, Harold. "Government and Politics in the
United States." N. Y: The Macmillan Company,
Footnote reference to "Edward L. Bernays, Propa
ganda, Liveright Publishing Corporation, New York,
1928." p. 225. Selected Bibliography for Chapter 13,
"The Role of Public Opinion," includes "Bernays,
Edward L., Propaganda, Liveright Publishing Com
pany, New York, 1928." p. 238.
EDWARD L. BERNAYS
American Mercury. "Mass Psychologist." Vol.
XIX, No. 74, Feb 1930. pp. 155-163.
Profile of about 5,000 words relating highlights in
the life and career of ELB. Henry F. Pringle, the
author, begins, "It is significant that Edward L.
Bernays, who has reduced the once jovial occupation
of press agent to a science, who is f rater infacultate at
New York University, and now labors 'in the spirit of
the laboratory,' is a nephew of the renowned Dr. Sig-
mund Freud. . . . Eddie knows a very great deal
about psychology and cashes in on that knowledge.
. . . Only poets delude themselves with the notion
that love, that is to say sex, causes the world to re
volve. Mr. Bernays, whose rank as public relations
counsel is at least the equal of Ivy Ledbetter Lee's,
knows that it is really money that furnishes the mo
tive power. The mass psychologist, moreover, goes
much further than the psychoanalyst who . . . can
do no more than explain what has already taken
place. Eddie can foretell the future . . . [with] no
claims to crystal gazing. . . . His science, once
understood, is really very simple. What he does is to
create a demand by molding the public mind. He
creates a desire for specified goods or ideas. The
first task of the public relations counsel, however, is
to see whether his client offers something which the
public 'can be brought to accept.' It is sometimes
wiser to refuse a fee. . . . [but] It is not often that
mass psychology fails to find a solution. . . ."
Quoting ELB's work, Propaganda, and using many
illustrations of his activities as described in that
book and other writings "... Only recently, Dr.
Bernays won the undying gratitude of the luggage
manufacturers. . . . Similarly with bacon. . . . Mr.
Bernays . . . once guided the sales psychology of
the Beechnut Packing Company. . . . October 28
became the Czecho-Slovakian Fourth of July . . .
all because Eddie Bernays so decreed. . . . Richard
Bennett . . . was attempting to produce Brieux's
celebrated play, 'Damaged Goods' . . . [also] the
fight of the Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette and the
Medical Review of Reviews [edited by ELB]. . . .
Soon the Sociological Fund had endorsements galore
and also some cash. . . . On a historic night in
1913, 'Damaged Goods' opened. . . . His [ELB's]
campaign for the production . . . was based on the
soundest principles of mass psychology. Eddie used
them knowingly . . . when the War Department
employed him after the war. . . . The assistance of
such organizations as the Fifth Avenue Association
was enlisted. . . . By means of [the formula] Eddie
Bernays has increased the use of Ivory Soap . . .
has persuaded women to swathe themselves in
velvets (Sidney Blumenthal Velvets) . . . [has
counseled successfully] American Tobacco Company
. . . Ward Baking Company . . . Cheney Silks
. . . the Queensborough Corporation . . . Venida
Hair Net Company . . . Procter & Gamble com
pany [also for Crisco, as well as in organizing the
National Small Sculptural Committee . . . giving
$1,675 in prizes annually for the best sculpture exe
cuted in Ivory Soap . . . with such famous artists
as Gutzon Borglum, Lorado Taft, Harvey Wiley
Corbett and Charles Dana Gibson ... on the jury
of award. ...]... Until 1929, [when] Eddie Ber
nays could hardly compete in professional standing
with Ivy Lee. He had handled large accounts. His
work had been, on the whole, satisfactory to his
clients. . . . But Ivy . . . had the Rockefellers.
. . . Then the Pioneer Associates . . . decided to
stage a celebration to commemorate the fiftieth anni
versary of the invention of the electric light. Henry
Ford . . . also . . . Christened Light's Golden Ju
bilee . . . President Hoover, with his whole entour
age, paid tribute. . . . Ambassador Dawes, Charlie
Schwab, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Will Hays, Pat
Crowley ... in brief, many men who were typical
Ivy Lee clients . . . did what Eddie Bernays told
them to do ... [but] ... He modestly denies that
he caused the [Mazda] lamp to be engraved on the na
tion's postage stamps. . . . Eddie Bernays shakes
his head. . . . Mass psychology might have had
something to do with it. Beyond that: 'Postmaster-
General Brown, I should say, was responsible for the
stamps.' " the article also gives autobiographical
data on ELB as a member of the Bernays-Freud
family, until the onset of his professional career.
Atlantic Monthly. "Edward L.Bernays, The Science
of Ballyhoo," Vol. 149, No. 5, May 1932, pp. 562-
John T. Flynn says: "By no system of honest elimi
nation can Edward L. Bernays be excluded from a
list of representative men in America. He has made
an extraordinary success. He has been something of
a pioneer. . . . He numbers among his clients
powerful millionaires, great corporations, even royal
personages and governments. He has made a great
deal of money a mark of importance that no
American will deny and what is more, he has done
it in the field of intellectual activity. . . . He is a
social psychologist engaged in carrying out in actual
practice and according to newer theories that branch
of psychology which August Compte and later
Herbert Spencer, recognized as having a definite
relation to sociology."
"As a matter of fact, Bernays has both a clear and
a very shrewd understanding of his profession. As a
Public Relations Counsel he is liaison officer be
tween Big Business and the Monster. In odd mo
ments he has been a professor in very truth, for until
recently he lectured on his system in New York
"Bernays himself is perhaps best known for two ex
amples of dramatic high-spotting which were really
no more than grandiose, glorified publicity stunts.
One of these was Light's Golden Jubilee. Surely you
will not have to be reminded of that amazing jam
boree which took place when the story of Edison's
invention of the incandescent lamp was reenacted in
Dearborn, with Edison himself, Henry Ford, and the
President of the United States playing the leading
roles, while droves of great industrialists and finan
ciers played the parts of villagers and supers in the
cast, and radios and newspapers fought for the privi
lege of broadcasting it. Henry Ford was supposed to
be the manager of the show, but the man who set the
stage and pulled the strings attached to all the digni
fied marionettes was Edward L. Bernays. . . .
His other outstanding performance was when he
spent nearly $70,000 for a single hour's show on the
radio to introduce a new Dodge car to the market."
"Bernays himself is quite the newest type of public
relations specialist, so intelligent and so free from the
conventional inhibitions that he assumes almost the
character of a phenomenon."
Design and Paper. "Edward L. Bernays and the
American Mind." No. 23, Dec 3, 1946. 14pp.
P. K. Thomajan outlines ELB's position in public
relations in the light of his intellectual background,
intellect, insight, conscience and philosophy. Out
lines methods of procedure in planning action for a
client and touches upon some of outstanding jobs,
i.e., Beech-Nut Packing Company and as a member
of Woodrow Wilson's Creel Committee on Public
Information during World War I. Mr. Thomajan
states, "Bernays selects his clients and causes with a
discriminating eye, and habitually turns down more
jobs than he accepts. He insists that his projects be
valid, legitimate and 'in the public interest.' Above
all, they must be projects which the public 'can be
brought to accept.' He has little patience with groups
or individuals offering panaceas. A pragmatist who
has long recognized the necessity for improvements
in the functioning of the American system, he be
lieves that the best hope for such improvement lies
in the men with the greatest stake in it the busi
nessmen of America." The article sums up with the
following: "Against the imponderables of the future
his voice will have influence not so much because of
Bernays the man as Bernays the technician. Bernays
the man believes in democracy. Bernays the tech
nician can persuade people to make it work. In this
decade there can be no more pressing assignment."
Literary Digest. "He Helped Make Press- A gentry
a 'Science,' " Jun 2, 1934, p.26.
Full-page story by Wayne W. Parrish on ELB,
subtitled, "Success of War-Time Propaganda
Opened the Eyes of Edward L. Bernays, Nephew of
Doctor Freud, to 'Invisible Government' and 'Mass
Mind' Control," says: "Mr. Bernays, in the event
that the reader never has heard of him, has become
one of the nation's two leading 'public relations
counselors,' a post-war term attached to the rela
tively new 'science' of press-agentry. As a super-
salesman without portfolio, working entirely behind
the scenes, his operation of what he calls 'opinion-
management' has guided many to buy more lug
gage, eat bacon for breakfast, smoke more cigarettes,
wear velvet instead of some other material, express
preference for certain types of automobiles, and to
ask for a certain soap at the corner store. He has in
fluenced opinions of certain governments and of cer
tain institutions and groups. He has worked to
modify hundreds of ordinary habits, but always by
the unconscious transference of ideas and objects
through created events and circumstances."
Querschnitt, Der. "Humbug, Bluff and Ballyhoo:
Von Varnum bis Bernays," Der Querschnitt,
13 Jahrgang, Heft 4, Apr 1933, pp. 255-269.
A profile of Edward L. Bernays by Arthur Rundt,
in a leading German magazine subsequently sup
pressed by the Nazis.
Reader's Digest. "The Science of Ballyhoo." Vol.
XXI, No. 122, Jun 1932. pp. 5-8.
This profile of ELB by John T. Flynn is a condensa
tion of one which appeared in Atlantic Monthly,
May, 1932, see above.
Review of Reviews. "Mass Psychologist." Vol.
LXXXI, No. 3, Mar 1930.
This profile by Henry Pringle about ELB is con
densed from the article of the same title in the
American Mercury, Feb 1930, see above.
Scope. "Man of the Month: Edward L. Bernays."
London: Dec 1949, ill por. pp 56-69, 91.
A 15-page profile of ELB by Olive Moore. "... A
handful of words at random from the pile of notes
taken in a day-long interview with Bernays when he
was in London recently, and [we] see not only what
he gives as service when he 'appraises' a firm's prob
lems, but exactly why American business is willing
to pay him such sums as $100,000 a year as retainer
for appraisal and advice," the writer says in
reporting the development of public relations as
given by ELB, who "as he talks, . . . constantly
stresses the sense of social and moral responsibility
underlying the work of the Public Relations Coun
sel." ELB is further characterized as " 'No. 1 U. S.
Publicist,' . . . highest-paid public relations man
in the world, getting as much as $125,000 for a single
job . . . , a kind man . . . [with] views ... so
urgent and . . . tongue so fluent, that it is hard to
tear oneself away from his words to his personality
. . . like all top-flight Americans . . . [met in the
course of this job] very friendly, very unassuming,
amazingly well-informed, staggeringly energetic,
. . . immensely eager to know and see . . . [with]
that trait so noticeable in Americans and so endear
ing, complete candour and with malice toward none.
. . . The first hour is not wasted in getting ac
quainted, it is all there in the first hand-shake and
the first smile. Fearless, is the word."
Beginning with a quotation from Machiavelli, the
account emphasizes also that "We have come a long
way in the 400 years since . . . The Prince. . . .
We find the Public Relations men more powerful
than any princes, for their followers are the peoples
of the earth, their territory the hearts and minds of
everyone." The work and opinions of "pioneer
Bernays [who] dissociated Public Relations from
press agenting as surgery dissociated itself from the
barber's pole ... in ... twenty-five years of un
clouded success" are analyzed and discussed com
prehensively, and with much detail, in relation to
the field as well as to the personality. The intro
ductory note says: "By precept and example Ed
ward L. Bernays, . . . has turned public relations
from the by-ways of press agent trickery to a strict
and respected profession on a level with law, medi
cine and teaching. To Bernays, industrial public re
lations is a top-management function, not a matter
of press hand-outs and defending the status quo.
The final paragraph states: "Bernays is neither
witch-doctor nor medicine man, nor wise guy. Just a
man who discovered how to hold up all problems,
industrial or selling, to the X-ray of common sense
and solve them by the light of reason. In thirty years
of doing so, it has not failed him. Being a generous
man he has dissected for us the technique and science
of his craft, hoping that it may help, or light a spark,
or inspire an action."
This section contains necessary additions
to items in the bibliography, and new
items which the editors found after the body
of the book had been set in page proof.
1. Advertising & Selling. "Molding Public Opin
ion." Reprint of speech delivered on Sept 11 at
Financial Advertisers Association Convention,
Atlantic City, N. J. Vol. XXV, No. 20, Sept 12,
1935, pp. 44-46.
Condensation of talk summarized on page 35 under
Financial Advertisers Association.
2. Boston Conference on Retail Distribution.
"Mass Psychology and the Consumer." An ad
dress on September 22, 1930, before the Boston
Conference on Retail Distribution, University
Club, Boston, auspices Retail Trade Board of
the Boston Chamber of Commerce in coopera
tion with Harvard University Graduate School
of Business Administration, Boston University
College of Business Administration, Massa
chusetts Institute of Technology, 8pp.
A discussion of "successful mass psychology
work in American business and social life."
-. "Business Turns to Counsel on Public
Relations." pp. 39-41, 1936.
Conference sponsored by Retail Trade Board, Bos
ton Chamber of Commerce in cooperation with
Harvard University Graduate School of Business
Administration, Boston University College of Busi
ness Administration, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and others.
Speaking on "Business Turns to Counsel on Public
Relations" ELB said: "Business exists to function
for the public. The public realizes this and judges
businesses and their products by this criterion. The
public policy of a business can increase or decrease
sales as well as make or mar the reputation of a
business. That is a fact that American industry is
only now commencing to realize. . . . No longer can
any business stand alone. The problems of any one
business cannot today be isolated from the broad
problems of industry. Because of this, business is
finding it essential to re-define its function and to
revalue itself in relationship to the other factors of
the civilization in which it is operating. . . . The
businessman needs an expert in public relations to
appraise his public, understand it and recommend
ways of conforming to public desire and need, as well
as ways to interpret his business" acts and policies
to the public. . . . The public relations counsel has
made an intensive study of the public. ... He has
come to the conclusion that in every case private
interest and public interest must coincide if business
is to maintain its important position in our economic
and social life. ... It became evident to business
and industry that the public was taking an interest
in the conduct of business. From that time forward
the good will of the public was a definite goal which
must be attained. . . . Many industries have recog
nized this new factor, but not all of them. It is ob
vious that, in this period of flux and competition,
the ones who fail to recognize it will not be able to
survive. . . . Public relations activities . . . must
of necessity play their part in this situation. And the
American business man must consider that not only
as an individual must he play his part, but that he
must also take an interest in seeing that American
business as a whole establishes sound relations with
the public, in order to re-establish itself in the public
mind as a basic part of the American system."
.. "The Future of Private Enterprise in the
Post-War World." Address before Fourteenth
An analysis of the economic, social and psychological
problems which are likely to face post-war free en
ELB says: "The kind of peace that will be made,
the psychology of all nations, the political, economic,
and sociological forces that will arise these all
will be the background for the type of private enter
prise that we shall have, if we have it. ... We shall
have to go from war to peace in terms of a planned
approach to a continuing problem if chaos is not to
result. . . . Here in the U. S. we have had a system
predominantly of free enterprise. . . . But economic
liberty, psychological and economic security for
everyone, have not kept pace with political freedom.
. . . The problems of postwar free enterprise will be,
first, economic . . . secondly, the psychological,
human, social problems, which comprise attitudes of
people in and out of government towards this new
world of theirs. . . . The industrial and commercial
world must undertake important research, and un
dertake to build plans that will make a free enterprise
world thoroughly and fairly workable. But private
industry must assume leadership if it really wants
private enterprise and democracy to survive into the
postwar world. . . ." Indicating the main lines of
study, ELB suggested study of: termination of war
time controls; financial problems; labor problems;
industrial problems; agriculture problems; trade and
commerce; and social problems. "Business cannot
depend upon the public for its survival. It can depend
only upon itself and its own actions. Commerce and
industry must recognize that what serves the public
interest serves its own interest as well. If it will act
on the recognition that private function activities
must be predicated on public interest and responsi
bility, there will be less to fear."
5. Bryson, Lyman; Finkel stein, Louis; and
Maclver, R. M., ed. "Approaches to Group
Understanding". Sixth Symposium of the Con
ference on Science, Philosophy and Religion.
N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 1947. 858pp.
Chapter X, "The Public Relations Counsel and
Group Understanding," is by ELB. pp. 100-106.
After describing advances made by the sciences in
understanding semantics and communications, ELB
points out that "an important trend in communica
tions is the development of technicians and profes-
sionals expert in the use of symbols to convey ideas"
public opinion researchers, pollsters, advertising
men, graphic-arts directors, public relations counsel.
Taking the public relations counsel as his theme,
ELB says that "public relations is concerned bas
ically with developing understanding. The public
relations counsel must understand the public, its
ideas, its philosophies, its points of view, its activities
and what it means by the words it uses. All this he
must communicate to his client. The client, likewise,
must be studied. Its actions, attitudes and principles
must be analyzed and be made understandable to
The public relations counsel, ELB continues,
works on the premise that any group in society must
integrate with other groups at the highest possible
level for the common good. This means the public
relations counsel has a strong sense of social re
sponsibility and must have the knowledge, ability
and judgment to determine what, in our society, is
likely to be the common good. Anything the public
relations man undertakes must not run counter to
the democratic goals of freedom, equality and orderly
justice. These goals are clearly denned in labor rela
tions, race relations, housing, health, education,
Describing the techniques of the public relations
counsel, ELB says he analyzes the public in its rela
tionship to his client, surveys all contacts between
the two. He also analyzes his client, studies the
latter's objectives to find out whether they represent
an attainable reality. He studies all phases of his
client's activities so that he may compare them with
the public's attitudes and the public needs. The
public relations counsel must then interpret his
findings to the client so the client may understand
his own and the public's attitudes. On the basis of
this interpretation, counsel makes recommendations
to the client and sets forth new ideas and procedures
to meet the public's point of view in such a way that
the highest public good is achieved. Acts are more
important than words in any effort at persuasion.
An institution or corporation must act correctly in
order to produce a good effect.
In conclusion, ELB says that though there are
still large areas of ignorance about public relations,
knowledge of the importance of this field is growing.
Those who depend upon the public are learning to
profit from the professional use of public relations.
.. "Learning and World Peace." Eighth
Symposium of Conference on Science, Philoso
phy and Religion. N. Y: Harper & Brothers,
Chapter XXXVIII, "Mass Education, Idea Com
munications and the Problems of National Sanity
and International Cooperation," is by ELB. pp.
In this chapter, ELB discusses the following:
"What trends in mass education and idea com
munications are making for national sanity and
international cooperation? What elements are work
ing in the opposite direction? How can the former
be stimulated and the latter be retarded?" He
divides the problem of world communication into
three parts: 1. The matter of providing abundant,
cheap, rapid communications for messages; physical
instruments have already provided, or may soon
provide, these means. 2. The matter of eliminating
barriers to communications political, economic
and language barriers; this is being given serious
consideration by numerous bodies. 3. The problem
of improving the quality of ideas, of words and
pictures, of the symbols that pass over these media
to bring about the objectives all good and honest
men desire; this last problem certainly is the longest,
hardest and most complex.
The answer to the last problem, ELB goes on to
say, depends on three forces: the professions and
businesses involved, the law, and public opinion.
He then urges that education and training in com
munications be further stimulated in the universities
and schools of journalism, and by the award of
prizes and fellowships. He also urges that research
in communications be stimulated. Those who are in
the communications field professionally, he says,
should have to meet higher standards. "Every man
or woman who holds a position conveying symbols
to the public should be prepared to meet that re
sponsibility by having a thorough grounding in
economics, human relations, and the social sciences,
as well as a knowledge of the techniques of communi
cation." ELB also urges continued education after
people enter the communications field and criticism
to stimulate progress.
7. Bulletin of the Business Historical Society.
Boston, The Business Historical Society, Inc.,
Vol. XIX. No. 4 Oct 1945, 195pp.
In his chapter on "Shifts in Public Relations," Prof.
N. S. B. Gras of Harvard University lists ELB under
"Some Isolated Developments in the History of
Public Relations Counsellors": "1919 Edward L.
Bernays began his career as counsel on public rela
tions to governments, industries, corporations and
trade organizations. Term used was 'publicity
direction'. " p. 128.
8. Chase, Stuart; Ruttenberg, Stanley H.;
Nourse, Edwin G.; Given, William B., Jr.
"The Social Responsibility of Management."
The Edward L. Bernays Foundation Lectures
of 1950. A Golden Anniversary Publication of
the School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance,
New York University. N. Y: New York Uni
versity, 1951. 83pp.
In a foreword to this book, which consists of lectures
delivered at New York University in April and May
1950 by four experts on management relations, ELB
says the Edward L. Bernays Foundation which
sponsored the lectures, was established in 1946. Its
purpose is "to stimulate, promote, encourage and
advance scientific, educational, literary and/or
charitable causes including, without limitation, the
study of the science of public relations counseling to
further human relations, intercultural and intergroup
relations and to advance a sound public interest
therein." Another purpose of the Foundation is "to
study and conduct research into all phases of and
conditions affecting human, cultural and group rela
tions, and the changes and improvements in the
conditions of life and work among people."
"The larger foundations in this country," ELB
says, "sponsor extensive research in education,
health and other fields, and in that way bring about
improved public relationships and better human
relations. But a foundation whose funds are limited
finds it difficult to decide in what field it can help
In seeking to sponsor for the year 1950 some
activity in a field where the misunderstandings are
of major economic and human significance, the
Edward L. Bernays Foundation decided upon the
field of management relationships. It was felt that
one way of bringing the best thought in this field to a
point of high visibility would be to underwrite a
series of lectures on the social responsibility of
management to be delivered at one of America's
leading universities situated in a key industrial
"What the Foundation had in mind," ELB con
tinues, "was a series of lectures whose purpose
would be not to present one viewpoint or intensify
present attitudes but rather to create a forum for
calling to public attention, and particularly to the
attention of the business community, various view
points which must be taken into consideration for a
realistic understanding and appraisal of the social
responsibility of management."
For this purpose the Foundation lectures presented
the diverse viewpoints of a social engineer, Stuart
Chase; a trade union leader, Stanley H. Ruttenberg,
Director of the CIO's Department of Education and
Research; a management executive, William B.
Given, Jr., Chairman of the Board, American Brake
Shoe Company; and an economist, Edwin G. Nourse,
formerly chairman of the Council of Economic
Advisers to the President.
9. Congressional Record. " Your Public Relations
in the National Emergency." Vol. 97, No. 24,
Feb. 7, 1951, Appendix, p. A678.
The Honorable Jacob K. Javits of New York ob
tained permission on Feb. 7, 1951 from the House of
Representatives to insert in the Congressional
Record "the following statement of Edward L.
Bernays, well known authority on public relations of
New York City, which appeared as a public adver
tisement." The advertisement, headed "Your Public
Relations in the National Emergency," appeared in
The New York Times, The New York Herald-
Tribune and the New York World-Telegram & The
Sun during the week of December 26, 1950. The
statement appeared in the Congressional Record in
full as follows:
"For some time now forward-looking Americans
have recognized that private interest must coincide
with public interest. This is particularly true in the
present national emergency.
"But some of us have not yet awakened to this
truth. And unless everyone of us does, there may be
no private interest left to worry about.
"Our national strength is founded on a unified,
"This morale is built by our common belief in our
national goals and united action to achieve them.
"The national emergency demands that all of us
on all fronts work together for the general good.
"Complete cooperation on the home front is as
vital to national survival as it is on the military front.
"For the sake of his own private interest the indi
vidual must willingly sacrifice convenience, comfort
and profit for the common good, endure hardships
"For unless we maintain our continuity as a free,
independent nation, we shall have nothing as indi
"Every American is responsible for our morale.
Our national morale is the sum of our individual
morales. This means that all of us, men and women,
old and young, corporation executives and em
ployees, must be willing to serve wherever and
whenever we are needed. Any man who acts at the
country's expense helps the enemy. If he injures his
country's strength, he destroys everything he values
"Acting at America's expense includes profiteer
ing, chiseling, black and grey marketeering, or doing
anything which places personal profit above the
"It also includes slander, hate, rumor-mongering
and scapegoating at the expense of public officials
or private citizens.
"Our national welfare in this emergency requires
that individuals, groups and corporations give the
most painstaking attention to their public relation
"They must insure, in their own interest and in
the public interest, that every action and utterance
raises morale and does not lower or destroy it.
"They must make certain that their policies,
words, and acts are dictated not by narrow immedi
ate expediency but by the broader interests of self
"If ever there was a time when such public rela
tionships were indispensable, that time is now."
10. Crowther, Samuel. "Public Opinion, Private
Business and Public Relations." N. Y: Liveright
Publishing Corporation, 1934. 26pp.
The author cites ELB as spokesman for the methods
of legitimate propaganda. "If there is a case for
the existing basic order," Crowther says, "the case
ought to be tried out in the open ... by propa
ganda. Every great question today has to be settled
by propaganda. There is no other way of reaching
one hundred and twenty million people. There
should be no other way in a nation that desires . . .
to govern itself. What are the methods of legiti
mate propaganda? These have been very well pre
sented by Edward L. Bernays, public relations
counsel who has for years worked with the mass
Crowther then devotes the last four pages of the
book to quoting the Atlantic Monthly profile of ELB
(see p. 76) and from various articles and talks by
ELB on public relations and the molding of public
11. Current History and Forum. "Speak Up for
Democracy." Vol. LII, No. 2, Oct 22, 1940. pp.
Captioned "No. 1 Publicist," a boxed editorial note
says: "Edward L. Bernays, United States Publicist
Number One, is the logical man to write the authori
tative article on how individual Americans can
become propagandists for democracy. In partner
ship with his wife, Doris E. Fleischman, he conducts
the leading Counsel on Public Relations organization
in this country. Mr. Bernays has served the gov
ernment many times, and was a member of the
United States Committee on Public Information
during the World War. He is the author of Crys
tallizing Public Opinion and Propaganda, two of the
outstanding books on this subject, and his under
standing of the mass mind is widely recognized. He has
lectured at Harvard, Yale and other leading universi
ties on the subject of influencing public opinion."
Pointing out that "millions of Americans are out
of sympathy with American democracy" because of
the Depression, ELB's article calls upon everyone in
the United States to "mold public opinion for democ
racy to the limit of his own power." ELB lists eight
common accusations against democracy in the
United States and gives extensive replies to them.
See ELB's book Speak Up for Democracy, p. 4.
12. Harriman, Margaret Case. "The Vicious Cir
cle: The Story of the Algonquin Round Table."
Illustrated by Al Hirschfeld. N. Y: Rinehart &
Company, Inc., 1951. pp. 310.
This account of the Algonquin Round Table and
its famous members Dorothy Parker, Hey wood
Broun, Alexander Woollcott, Robert Benchley,
George S. Kaufman, Robert E. Sherwood, Harold
Ross, Franklin P. Adams and others devotes
three pages to "Doris E. Fleischman . . . wife of
Edward L. Bernays" as member and co-founder with
Jane Grant and Ruth Hale of the Lucy Stone League
and as the first married woman to obtain a U. S.
passport in her own name. The book describes the
enthusiastic cooperation "of Broun, Ross, Bernays
and all the other partners in these independent
"One Lucy Stoner, Doris Fleischman, came out in
print in a magazine not long ago with the wistful
revelation that she would now like to be known as
Mrs. Edward L. Bernays." She is now the book
adds an active reorganizer of the Lucy Stone
13. The Journal of Marketing. "The Marketing of
National Policies: A Study of War Propaganda."
Vol. 6, No. 3, Jan 1942, pp. 236-244.
Editor's note: "The problem of using all this coun
try's resources to disseminate effectively the ideas
for which the democracies are contending in the
present war is one of the day's most formidable
marketing problems. Mr. Bernays discusses the
problem with new insight in the following paper,
which he read before the New York Chapter (of the
American Marketing Society) at one of its fall
Speaking before America's entrance into World
War II, ELB analyzes propaganda in World War I.
He cites various scientific authorities and reduces
"all psychological warfare" in the first World War
to three main elements: 1. heighten the morale
unity of your own country; 2. weaken the morale of
your enemy; 3. win over the morale of neutrals. He
then analyzes in some detail psychological warfare
techniques used by Germany, Great Britain and the
Since 1917, ELB continues, the situation has
changed because technical means for spreading ideas
have been improved; because the "common man"
plays a greater role in shaping political destinies;
because the rise of Communists, Nazis and Fascists
has accelerated the effectiveness of manipulated
symbols; and because knowledge of the human mind
has been greatly increased by the social sciences. All
these factors, and the experience of World War I,
lead to an "engineering approach" to psychological
warfare which must henceforth be based on "the
engineering of consent in a democracy."
In order that the United States which has
already mobilized the first peacetime selective serv
ice army in its history to be prepared "for what
ever may come," ELB suggests the following psy
chological warfare program: 1. The Government
needs to set up a psychological general staff to advise
on all major questions of morale in industry,
civilian life, army and navy. 2. A program needs to
be set in motion to strengthen faith in democracy.
3. This should be accompanied by a program de
signed to make democracy work better, "making its
ideals come true."
"Experts, including marketing men, have laid a
sound basis for a scientific approach to the problem
of psychological warfare in the crisis we face today,"
ELB concludes. "America should not, cannot wait.
She must apply today what she already knows
toward meeting the problems she faces."
14. MacLatchy, Josephine H. "Education on the
Air." Thirteenth Yearbook of the Institute for
Education by Radio. Columbus: Ohio State
University, 1942, 310pp.
Speaking in the panel discussion, ELB said that in
his opinion the war effort of the radio industry and
the Government was inadequate. This conclusion is
confirmed by authorities all over the country, many
of whom regard radio's war effort as ineffectual,
inefficient, duplicating and segmental. These people
do not know where to turn, for there is no planned
approach to the problem of radio's all-out conversion
in total war and no over-all strategy of psychological
warfare. Every program commercial, sustaining,
governmental should fit into a balanced pattern.
Attempts are made by networks and individual
stations to do this, ELB said, but the main basis of
judgment is still the cash register.
ELB then urged that the radio broadcasting indus
try voluntarily organize for efficient handling of its
total war effort. It should name a board of experts
in psychology, public opinion, radio programming
and communications, to set up blueprints for ac
complishing the purpose a balance of entertain
ment, escapism, information and criticism, and a
line to follow as to content, theme, emotion and
reason. The board, ELB said, should be in touch
with government officials, informed about the war
and the demands of the national interest. Not
regimentation, he added, but intelligent planning.
This will not mean the elimination of the commercial
system of American broadcasting and entertainment.
Entertainment is basic to morale. It will mean that
radio's effectiveness will be measured, like education,
by its whole effect on the mind and character of an
Only by such an approach, ELB concluded, can
radio's real potentialities in the war effort be realized
victory through another and equally potent air
power, pp. 33-34.
15. New York State Pharmacist. "The Bernays
Drug and Pharmaceutical Survey," Oct 1943,
pp. 9-12, 28-30.
An editorial note preceding ELB's talk before the
Pharmaceutical Association says: "In the opinion of
the writer the paper which we are printing here is one
of the most important ones that has been published
within a decade. ... Be sure to read this paper
from beginning to end; it may not be all pleasant
reading, but we might as well know what the survey
of an expert firm found. We are printing the paper as
it was presented before the American Pharmaceutical
Association at its recent meeting in Columbus,
Ohio," p. 9. In his talk ELB says: "Pharmacy
has a choice. It can submit to pressures of public
opinion, when they exert themselves, or it can
fulfill its vital role as the custodian of public wel
fare, at the same time gaining good will, strengthen
ing itself, and moving into its rightful place in our
society. A unified public relations effort is the means
by which all of you can aid in bringing about this
objective. It is difficult to devise for immediate
acceptance a uniformly acceptable course of action
regarding all the trends and situations you face, but
that factor in itself is one of the reasons why I be
lieve the immediate problems I presented are a
common ground upon which all interested groups
can carry on action. The proposed plan for public
relations aimed at strengthening relations within the
industry, between the industry, the pharmaceutical
profession and the government, and between the
industry and public is that type of common ground.
I hope in your own interest that you will study it
further and act on it."
16. Public Utilities Fortnightly. "What Can
Utilities Do about Public Relations Today?"
Jun 6, 1940, 128pp.
Editorial note on ELB: "The scientific or 'engineer
ing' approach to the problem of public relations,
according to this noted specialist in that field, is to
dig into it and determine the respective areas of
agreement and disagreement. Only then can a sound
and sure program for improving public relations be
ELB says in this article that the principal trouble
seems to have been not that the public utilities
neglected its public relations, but that "it tried
too hard to cultivate them on false grounds by mak
ing use of spurious methods and generally going
about it the wrong way." These actions led to agita
tion for the Federal Trade Commission probe in
1928. ELB then gives results of poll he took among
leaders of industry, finance and the public on what
the problems and solutions of public relations are.
The replies showed group leaders think in terms of
their relationship to government; the public; bankers
and stockholders; the community where their cus
tomers are; the industry; and their workers.
Applying this to public utilities, ELB says since
government represents the people, the only modifica
tion of government attitudes and activities must be
through modifying the people's attitudes through
the engineering of consent. Industry leaders agree
that government should go out of competitive
business and should have no plants of its own; and
that more consideration must be given to public
attitudes, policies and practices adopted by the
industry. Key executives see good employee relations
as a solution rather than as a problem.
For the public utilities industry ELB suggests a
four- point program: 1. that some industrial commit
tee should be entrusted with the study of the prob
lems and suggesting solutions for finding areas of
agreement; 2. that this committee develop a program
of broad principles and practices for public utility
companies, then get the companies to accept them;
3. that competent technicians be engaged to make a
study of the public mind to find out what present
public attitudes are toward principles, practices and
goals upon which the industry will decide; this sur
vey will attempt to find out the extent to which it is
possible to modify public attitudes and actions; 4.
that the industry undertake a campaign of education
to win the support of the public.
17. Routzahn, Evart G., and Routzahn, Mary
Swain. "Publicity Methods Reading List. Se
lected References on Publicity in Social Work and
Kindred Fields." N. Y: Department of Surveys
and Exhibits, Russell Sage Foundation. 1924.
Under the heading "The Technique of Publicity,"
this bibliography lists Edward L. Bernays' book,
Crystallizing Public Opinion with the following
comment: "The author discusses the scope and
function of a new profession, that of public relations
18. Saturday Review of Literature. Vol. XXV, field of public opinion as public relations counsel
No. 10, Mar 7, 1942. for more than twenty years. His partner is Doris
ELB was guest editor of this issue of Saturday Re- Fleischman. In the last war he served on the
view of Literature, which is entitled "Censorship Committee of Public Information. He is the au-
and Propaganda Number." An editorial note in thor of Propaganda and Speak Up for Democracy,
"Contributors and Contents," says: "Edward L. Mr. Bernays reviews James R. Mock's Censorship
Bernays, guest editor of this issue, whom Time calls 1917 on page 4, and writes the editorial on page
'U. S. Publicist No. 1,' has been working in the 10."
armed forces, radio, motion
pictures, television, the theatre,
the press, medicine, nursing,
banking, trade, management-
employee relations, women, poli
tics, public opinion, attitude polls
and many other fields. References
to Mr. Bernays culled from many
books indicate the wide impact
of his ideas on the field.
Edward L. Bernays is regarded
as America's outstanding counsel
on public relations, a profession
he was instrumental in creating
and naming. In partnership with
his wife, Doris E. Fleischman, he
has had a long, diversified prac
tice, acting as public relations
counsel to corporations, trade as
sociations, newspapers, maga
zines, scientific organizations and
leading individuals since 1919.
He was the first lecturer on
public relations at any American
university when he gave a course
on that subject at New York Uni
versity in 1923. In the past two
years he has given public rela
tions courses as Adjunct Profes
sor at New York University and
Visiting Professor at the Univer
sity of Hawaii.
Mr. Bernays has been advisor
to Presidents and has represented
the United States Government
in various activities. He is the
author of " Crystallizing Public
Opinion," "Propaganda," "Speak
up for Democracy," "Take Your
Place at the Peace Table," and
other books ; he is a frequent con
tributor to magazines, social sci
ence journals and newspapers;
and is preparing a book on public
relations for the University of
Bulletin of Bibliography
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