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Full text of "Public relations, Edward L. Bernays and the American scene; annotated bilbiogrpahy of, and reference guide to writings by and about Edward L. Bernays from 1917 to 1951"

PUBLIC RELATIONS, 
EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

and the 
AMERICAN SCENE 



^Annotated bibliography of and 
Inference (juide to writings by 
and about DWARD 



Public relations is today a key 
activity in the United States. It 
has an extensive literature. It is 
taught in the universities. But 
bibliography of the field is ex 
tremely limited. Yet bibliogra 
phy is an essential tool for an 
organized approach, through re 
search and study, to basic knowl 
edge and viewpoints in any field. 

A reference guide to published 
material by and about the prac 
titioner is vital today in order 
to provide data for those who are 
studying public relations. Hence 
this book, the first of its kind. 

It was decided to do a bibliog 
raphy of published material by 
and about Edward L. Bernays, 
public relations counsel, because 
of his outstanding position in the 
field a position which has 
prompted Time magazine and 
other authorities to call him 
"U.S. Publicist No. 1." 

This book is an indispensable 
source of information and guid 
ance to published material for 
all those concerned with the 
practice, theory and dynamics 
of public opinion and public 
relations. 

Fully annotated, it presents a 
panorama of the growth of pub 
lic relations in the United States 
in the past three and a half dec 
ades. Its nearly 400 references 
show the development of the 
profession of public relations 
counsel, changing attitudes to 
ward it, the public's growing 
understanding. Graphically, it il 
lustrates how the creative pi 
oneering viewpoint of one man 
has penetrated various fields of 
American thought and activity. 

Abstracts of books, articles and 
talks by Mr. Bernays deal with 
the public relations problems of 
industry, education, the social 
sciences, labor, government, the 




Public Relations, Edward L. Bernays 
and the American Scene 

Annotated Bibliography of and 

Reference Guide to Writings By 

and About Edward L. Bernays 

from 1917 to 1951 



Copyright 1951 
THE F. W. FAXON COMPANY 



Printed in the United States of America, by 
the Rumford Press, Concord, New Hampshire 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Tart One 
WRITINGS BY EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

1. In Books 3 

2. In Periodicals 9 

3. Published Talks 31 

Tart Two 
WRITINGS ABOUT EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

1. Mention in Books 53 

2. Profiles 75 

Tart Three 
ADDENDA. . 79 



k, A 






Copyright 1951 
THE F. W. FAXON COMPANY 



Printed in the United States of America, by 
the Rumford Press, Concord, New Hampshire 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Tart One 
WRITINGS BY EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

1. In Books 3 

2. In Periodicals 9 

3. Published Talks 31 

Tart Two 
WRITINGS ABOUT EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

1. Mention in Books 53 

2. Profiles 75 

Tart Three 
ADDENDA. . 79 



k, A 



^Preface 



By any test, public relations is today a recognized profession ; it has its re 
sponsible practitioners; it has a growing number of university courses; it has a 
growing sense of social responsibility. It has its own training courses and it can 
point to a steady growth of conscious public relations activity by profit and non 
profit institutions and by government agencies with professional public relations 
counsel in charge. 

Most important for our purposes, public relations has its own field of litera 
ture and this book will deal with a vital segment of that field. 

Literature on public relations is extensive, but a check of public libraries 
reveals that much of this literature is scattered in books on related subjects and 
in magazines. Bibliography of the field is extremely limited. 

Yet bibliography is recognized as a vital tool in providing an organized ap 
proach to basic knowledge and points of view in any subject. To individuals 
working in any field of research or study, bibliography is indispensable. Unfor 
tunately, there has been little bibliography in public relations, principally be 
cause it is a new subject. There are, to be sure, journals which cover the liter 
ature in related fields, such as The Public Opinion Quarterly, but these concern 
themselves chiefly with books, and do not as a rule cover even important material 
appearing in magazines and other publications. 

There are two important bibliographies in the general field Propaganda 
and Promotional Activities \ edited by Lasswell, Casey and Smith and published 
by the University of Minnesota Press in 1935; and a comparable volume pub 
lished by the Princeton University Press in 1946. But even these standard works 
do not include all the available material on public relations, particularly pam 
phlets, booklets, quotations from books and so on. 

Since there is today widespread interest in public relations, and a growing 
literature about it, it was believed that a bibliography of published material by 
and about the leading practitioner would provide important data for those who 
are studying the field both in the universities and outside them. 

Among other things, such a bibliography would show the scope and ad 
vance of the profession of public relations counsel, changing attitudes toward 
the profession, the public's growing understanding of it, and how a point of view 
has extended and penetrated into many fields of learning. To achieve this pur 
pose, the items in the bibliography would of necessity have to be abstracts of 
the original material, in some cases fairly long, in order to give a clear picture of 
the movement of ideas. 

This work, then, is concerned with published material by and about Edward 
L. Bernays, public relations counsel. This choice appeared to be ideal for a bibli 
ography because of Mr. Bernays' outstanding position as a founding-father, 
practitioner and theoretician. 

Time magazine has called him U. S. Publicist No. 1 ; and William H. Bald 
win of Baldwin and Mermey, in Two-Way Street by Eric Goldman, has said of 
him: "Bernays had more to do with developing acceptance of PR and public 
relations counsel than any half dozen other persons." 



Mr. Bernays coined the term "public relations counsel." In Crystallizing 
Public Opinion (1923), the first full length book on public relations, he defined 
the principles and techniques of the field. He also broke ground when he gave a 
course in public relations at New York University in 1923, the first course in 
that subject ever given at any university. 

While successfully practicing his profession for over thirty years as counsel 
for leading American organizations and individuals in partnership with his wife, 
Doris E. Fleischman, he has written and lectured on public relations, and allied 
subjects, greatly advancing understanding of these fields. 

In 1948-50, he was Adjunct Professor of Public Relations at New York 
University; and in 1950, he conducted classes and seminars as Visiting Professor 
of Public Relations at the University of Hawaii. 

Because of the great amount of material by and about him in books, maga 
zines and published speeches, it was felt that a bibliography based on this ma 
terial could shed considerable light on the development of public relations in the 
United States and serve as an invaluable guide for thosewhowish to study the field. 

Since a complete bibliography on this subject would have been too large 
and cumbersome, we have omitted newspaper comment or mention, all un 
published talks by Mr. Bernays and magazine material about him. 

The bibliography covers the period from 1917 to 1951, and is divided into 
three parts, consisting of five sections plus an addenda. The first section covers 
writings by Mr. Bernays appearing in books; the second, writings by Mr. Ber 
nays in periodicals; the third, published talks by Mr. Bernays; the fourth, books 
mentioning Mr. Bernays; and the fifth, profiles of Mr. Bernays. 

Among other things, this bibliography shows how an idea spreads and gains 
acceptance through the slow absorptive power of society. Listings of Mr. Ber 
nays' writings and footnote references to them in various books have been 
included here to indicate how his pioneer thinking in the field has influenced the 
thinking of others, thereby becoming an integral part of contemporary thought. 

Together the items in this book show how public relations grew from the 
days when it affected a relatively small area of American life to the present, 
when it involves every major aspect of our society. The writings by and about 
Mr. Bernays summarized in these pages present the impact of public relations 
on industry, education, the social sciences, labor, the press, book publishing, 
radio, motion pictures, art, medicine, nursing, banking, trade, management-em 
ployee relations, women, politics, public opinion, attitude polls, democracy, the 
armed forces, government and so on. 

Thus, in covering writings by and about America's leading public relations 
counsel, this bibliography gives us a history of a key field as it has developed in 
the United States during the past three decades. 

Mr. Bernays is now at work on a book about public relations in the United 
States, which will be published by the University of Oklahoma Press. 

THE EDITOR 



Tart One 
WRITINGS BY EDWARD L. BERNAYS 




Writings by 

EDWARD L. BERNAYS 
Appearing in Books 

Books by Edward L. Bernays 

Crystallizing Public Opinion. N. Y: Boni and 

Liveright, Inc., 1923. 218pp. 

The pioneer study in the field of public relations. 
Now a standard textbook widely used in universities 
and widely quoted. 

Dedicated "To My Wife, Doris E. Fleischman," 
the work is described as follows in the Foreword by 
ELB: "In writing this book I have tried to set down 
the broad principles that govern the new profession 
of public relations counsel. These principles I have 
on the one hand substantiated by the findings of 
psychologists, sociologists, and newspapermen 
Ray Stannard Baker, W. G. Bleyer, Richard Wash- 
burn Child, Elmer Davis, John L. Given, Will Irwin, 
Francis E. Leupp, Walter Lippmann, William Mac- 
Dougall, Everett Dean Martin, H. L. Mencken, 
Rollo Ogden, Charles J. Rosebault, William Trotter, 
Oswald Garrison Villard, and others to whom I owe 
a debt of gratitude for their clear analyses of the 
public's mind and habits; and on the other hand, I 
have illustrated these principles by a number of 
specific examples which serve to bear them out. I 
have quoted from the men listed here, because the 
ground covered by them is part of the field of activity 
of the public relations counsel. The actual cases 
which I have cited were selected because they explain 
the application of the theories to practice. Most of 
the illustrative material is drawn from my personal 
experience; a few examples from my observation of 
events. I have preferred to cite facts known to the 
general public, in order that I might explain graphi 
cally a profession that has little precedent, and whose 
few formulated rules have necessarily a limitless 
number and variety of applications. This profession 
in a few years has developed from the status of circus 
agent stunts to what is obviously an important posi 
tion in the conduct of the world's affairs. If I shall, 
by this survey of the field, stimulate a scientific atti 
tude towards the study of public relations, I shall 
feel that this book has fulfilled my purpose in writing 
it." Part I, Scope and Functions, discusses "The 
Scope of the Public Relations Counsel," "The Public 
Relations Counsel; The Increased and Increasing 
Importance of the Profession," and "The Function 
of a Special Pleader." Part II, The Group and 
Herd "What Constitutes Public Opinion?", "Is 
Public Opinion Stubborn or Malleable?", "The 
Interaction of Public Opinion with the Forces That 
Help to Make It," "The Power of Interacting Forces 
That Go to Make up Public Opinion," "An Under 
standing of the Fundamentals of Public Motivation 
Is Necessary to the Work of the Public Relations 
Counsel," "The Group and Herd Are the Basic 



Mechanisms of Public Change," and "The Applica 
tion of These Principles." Part III, Technique and 
Method, "The Public Can Be Reached Only 
Through Established Mediums of Communication," 
"The Interlapping Group Formations of Society, 
The Continuous Shifting of Groups, Changing Con 
ditions and the Flexibility of Human Nature Are 
All Aids to the Counsel on Public Relations," and 
"An Outline of Methods Practicable in Modifying 
the Point of View of a Group." Part IV, Ethical 
Relations, analyzes the press and other media of 
communication in reference to the public relations 
counsel, and the obligations of the public relations 
counsel to the public as a special pleader. 

Beginning with the statement, "A new phrase has 
come into the language counsel on public rela 
tions, what does it mean?", Crystallizing Public 
Opinion ends with the paragraph, "It is in the crea 
tion of a public conscience that the counsel on public 
relations is destined, I believe, to fulfill his highest 
usefulness to the society in which he lives." In the 
preface to the new edition, ELB also says: "In the 
ten years that have elapsed since this book was 
written, events of profound importance have taken 
place. During this period, many of the principles set 
forth in the book have been put to the test and have 
been proven true. The book, for instance, empha 
sized ten years ago that industrial organizations 
dealing with the public must take public opinion 
into consideration in the conduct of their affairs. 
We have seen cases in the past decade where the pub 
lic has actually stepped in and publicly supervised 
industries which refused to recognize this truth. The 
field of public relations counsel has developed tre 
mendously in this period. But the broad basic prin 
ciples, as originally set forth are as valid today as 
they were then, when the profession was . . . com 
paratively new. ... It seems appropriate that this 
new edition . . . should appear at a time when the 
new partnership of government, labor and industry 
has brought public relations and its problems to the 
fore. The old group relationships that make up our 
society have undergone and are undergoing marked 
changes. The peaceful harmonizing of all the new 
conflicting points of view will be dependent, to a 
great extent, upon an understanding and application 
by leaders of public relations and its technique. In 
the future, each industry will have to act with in 
creasing understanding of its relationship to govern 
ment, to other industries, to labor, to stockholders 
and to the public. Each industry must be cognizant 
of new conditions and modify its conduct to conform 
to them if it is to maintain the good-will of those 
upon whom it depends for its very life. This principle 
applies not only to industry; it applies to every kind 
of organization and institution that uses special 
pleading, whether it be for profit or for any other 
cause. The new social and economic structure in 
which we live today demands this new approach to 
the public. Public relations has come to play an 
important part in our life. It is hoped that this book 
may lead to a greater recognition and application of 
sound public relations principles." 



Propaganda. N. Y: Horace Liveright, Inc., 1928. 

159pp. 

An original study of the "new propaganda" in busi 
ness, politics, education, social service, art, and 
science; a standard textbook on university lists of 
recommended or required reading. 

Sub-titled "The Public Mind in the Making," and 
dedicated "To My Wife, Doris E. Fleischman," 
publisher's comment appears on jacket: "When Mr. 
Bernays' Crystallizing Public Opinion was published 
five years ago, H. L. Mencken said: 'I only hope that 
he returns to it anon, and writes a bigger and more 
exhaustive book.' This . . . is, in a sense, the answer 
to Mr. Mencken's suggestion. Propaganda has be 
come so necessary a part of every idea and organiza 
tion striving for public acceptance that its possibili 
ties and . . . limits need to be defined. In this book 
Mr. Bernays analyzes the relation of this new force 
to the unprecedented conditions which have called 
it into being. He discusses the reasons for propa 
ganda, the new type of propaganda, the new propa 
gandist, and especially the new media the radio, 
telephoto, and other epoch-making mechanisms for 
the transmission of ideas. He approaches the ques 
tion of public relations from the standpoint of the 
new psychology, and of the old. Finally he discusses 
the new trends in big business, social service, educa 
tion, art, politics, and other forces of present-day 
life. The book is the first contribution to the subject 
of propaganda from the standpoint of theory and 
practice, by one who has followed both phases. Mr. 
Bernays has been instrumental in developing the new 
profession of public relations counsel. Out of an 
experience drawn from fifteen years of activity with 
all kinds of individuals and movements seeking 
public good will, he sets forth the ideas which his 
creative mind has developed in the course of practical 
experience." ELB begins Chapter I, "Organizing 
Chaos," with: "From our leaders and the media they 
use to reach the public, we accept the evidence and 
the demarcation of issues bearing upon public ques 
tions; from some ethical teacher, be it a minister, a 
favorite essayist, or merely prevailing opinion, we 
accept a standardized code of social conduct to which 
we conform most of the time. . . ." Quoting H. G. 
Wells, other authors, college professors, businessmen, 
the New York Times; stating numerous statistics; re 
ferring to Walter Lippmann, Trotter, LeBon, Gra 
ham Wallas, as well as J. P. Morgan and George Ol- 
vany while giving numerous detailed illustrations 
from ELB's own experience the ten subsequent 
chapters analyze and discuss "The New Progaganda," 
"The New Propagandists," "The Psychology of 
Public Relations," "Business and the Public," 
"Propaganda and Political Leadership," "Women's 
Activities and Propaganda," "Propaganda for Educa 
tion," "Propaganda in Social Service," "Art and 
Science," and "The Mechanics of Propaganda." The 
last chapter contains the statement, "If the public 
relations counsel can breathe the breath of life into 
an idea and make it take its place among other ideas 
and events, it will receive the public attention it 
merits. There can be no question of his 'contami 



nating news at its source' " and ends, ". . . Un 
doubtedly the public is becoming aware of the meth 
ods which are being used to mold its opinions and 
habits. If the public is better informed about the 
processes of its own life, it will be so much the more 
receptive to reasonable appeals to its own interests. 
No matter how sophisticated, how cynical the public 
may become about publicity methods, it must re 
spond to the basic appeals, because it will always 
need food, crave amusement, long for beauty, re 
spond to leadership. If the public becomes more 
intelligent in its commercial demands, commercial 
firms will meet the new standards. If it becomes 
weary of the old methods used to persuade it to accept 
a given idea or commodity, its leaders will present 
their appeals more intelligently. Propaganda will 
never die. . . . Intelligent men must realize that 
propaganda is the modern instrument by which they 
can fight for productive ends and help to bring order 
out of chaos." 

Public Relations. Vocational and Professional 
Monographs. Boston: Bellman Publishing Com 
pany, Inc., 1945. 23pp. 

A history and analysis of the growing profession of 
public relations; the personal qualifications and ap 
titudes required for it; the necessary scholastic 
background; employment opportunities; possibilities 
for women; professional competition; advancement; 
ethics of the profession and remuneration. The book 
opens with a biographical sketch of ELB and closes 
with a bibliography. 

Speak Up for Democracy: "What You Can Do 
A Practical Plan of Action for Every American 
Citizen." N. Y: The Viking Press, 1940. 127pp. 
In his foreword, ELB says: "American men and 
women want to contribute something vital to the 
fight for Democracy. And you can. This book out 
lines methods for furthering the acceptance and 
support of Democracy by you. Whoever and wher 
ever you may be, you can play your part effectively 
as a fighter for Democracy, using ideas as weapons." 
The theme, aim and scope of the book are outlined in 
great detail in the "Contents." The book explains De 
mocracy and maps out a practical program of public 
relations and community activity on "how to speak 
up for Democracy." The Appendix contains The 
Declaration of Independence, Jefferson's first in 
augural address and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. 
The section headed "Statements" contains The 
American Flag, The American Creed, Because I Am 
An American, A Call to America issued by the Citi 
zenship Educational Service; a Statement of Purpose 
by the Common Council for American Unity; a 
Statement of Purpose by the Council for Democracy; 
and a Statement of morale issued by "an all-day 
conference on national morale . . . held in New 
York on September 17, 1940" by "outstanding edu 
cators and publicists" under the chairmanship of 
ELB. The "Education for Democracy" section lists 
"correspondence courses in colleges and universities 
on aspects of Democracy." "References, Bibliogra 
phies" lists "books dealing with Democracy." There 



is a list of books on "Holidays and Celebrations" and 
"Leadership." A separate bibliography lists motion 
pictures for children; there are other bibliographies 
on promotional methods, public opinion and public 
relations, public speaking, putting on a show, radio, 
books for children, a reading list for teachers and edu 
cators. Other sections deal with forums, channels of 
communication, how to write to public officials, a 
list of associations and societies; special occasions, 
places and symbols; special days and weeks; national 
shrines and monuments; national symbols; docu 
ments, institutions and ideas; and events and actions. 
There is also a glossary of Democratic Terms. 

Take Your Place At the Peace Table: "What 
You Can Do to Win a Lasting United Nations 
Peace." N. Y: International Press, 1945. 60pp. 
"This book is aimed at the millions of sincere Ameri 
cans and the hundreds of American organizations 
who are realistic about winning a United Nations 
peace. ... If only thousands learn to carry on for 
peace by using the tested skills and practices of the 
professional public relations expert, the result will be 
worth while." This book outlines public relations 
techniques by which American citizens and organi 
zations can help in "winning the peace." 

Introduction. 

"A practical and realistic guide book to action 
. . . [on] how to mold public opinion in support of 
a World Security Organization." Contents: "Chapter 
I How You Can Work For the Peace (The indi 
vidual is all-powerful; The common man speaks; 
Economics and peace; What you can do; Strategy 
and planning are needed); Chapter II Dumbarton 
Oaks: The First Step (What are the Dumbarton 
Oaks proposals? Yalta and San Francisco; Unified 
activity is needed); Chapter III How to Make 
Your Plans (Objectives; Assets and Liabilities; 
Strategy; Appeals; Organization; Timing); Chapter 

IV How to Use Your Tools, Publications, Radio, 
Motion Pictures (Publications; News coverage ; How 
to prepare material; Angling material; Interviews; 
Writing techniques; Mechanical presentation; Pho 
tographs and other graphic presentations; Distribu 
tion of material; Radio; Motion pictures); Chapter 

V How to Use Your Tools, Good Talk, Mail 
Events (Talk, a psychological tool; Lecture and study 
courses; Parliamentary procedure; Public meetings; 
Building up an audience; Audience participation; 
Speeches; Telephone; Telegrams; Advertising; Bill 
boards, car cards and posters; Buttons, stickers, 
movieslides; Direct-by-mail; Mailing lists; Leaflets 
and pamphlets; News letters, bulletins; Planned 
events; Aim at perfection; Cooperation with press; 
Small display items); Chapter VI Organizing 
Your Community for the Peace (Composition of 
steering committee; Plan; Formation of permanent 
committee; Card lists; Announcement luncheon; 
Additional suggestions; Planned events; Summing 
up) Chapter VII Speak Your Peace. Contents of 
Appendix: Historical Background (History of Amer 
ican Peace Making; The Revolutionary War, 1776- 
1783; The War of 1812; The Mexican War, 1846- 



1848; The Civil War, 1861-1865; The Spanish- 
American War, 1898; World War I, 1917-1918); 
Books and Pamphlets (Books available from trade 
publishers; Books and pamphlets available from 
organizations); Directories (Directories of direc 
tories; General directories; Motion pictures; Press; 
Radio; Government; U. S. Government Manual; 
Publicity); Exhibits (Bibliography); Motion Pic 
tures (Bibliography; Films available from organiza 
tions; Newsreel companies); Periodicals, Books and 
Manuals of Possible Interest (Advertising; Publish 
ing; Motion Pictures; Public opinion and public 
relations; Public meetings; Public speaking); Radio 
(Broadcasts; Bibliography; Broadcasting systems; 
Recordings); Press (Newspaper feature syndicates; 
News services; Photographic syndicates; Foreign 
language newspapers); Lecture Bureaus; Speakers; 
Library Services; House Foreign Affairs Committee; 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee; World Or 
ganization Lists; Writing to Public Officials." 
Portrait of ELB, as well as characteristic opinions 
about his work, are on the back cover, "As Others 
See Him . . ." 

Books to Which Edward L. Ber- 
nays Has Contributed 

American Academy of Political and Social 
Science: Annals. Philadelphia, The Academy. 
Vol. 179, May 1935. 287pp. 

This volume, devoted to a discussion with the overall 
title "Pressure Groups and Propaganda," contains 
an article by ELB on "Molding Public Opinion" 
which considers "some of the high spots in the back 
ground of public opinion, the field in which the coun 
sel on public relations works." After analyzing the 
meaning of such terms as "the public," and "group 
leadership," and such factors as symbols and human 
motivations, he discusses four "specific steps that 
have to be taken in formulating a public relations 
program." These are: (1) formulation of objectives; 
(2) analysis of the public's attitude towards the in 
dustry and the services it renders; (3) a study of this 
analysis with a view to keynoting the approach to 
the public in terms of action by the industry; this 
is to be followed by the formulation of policy and a 
program for educating the public; (4) the carrying 
out of this program by dramatizing it through the 
various media of communication, pp. 82-87. 

Annals: "Public Education for Democ 
racy," Vol. 198, Jul 1938. 253pp. 
An analysis of public relations techniques and media 
which can be used for the propagation and strength 
ening of democracy. 

"Today, democracy is challenged on all sides. It 
is the obligation of all those who are interested in 
democracy to do all in their power to strengthen it 
in order to preserve it. This demands the building 
up of an inner bulwark of dynamic belief and con 
fidence in our democracy by all the people." 

ELB continues: "Freedom of self-expression is the 
essence of democracy. This freedom has been guaran 
teed by our American Constitution, in the Bill of 



Rights. It includes freedom of speech, of assembly, 
of the press, of petition, of religion. These freedoms 
in themselves create conflicts of opinion. Freedom 
of opinion is, therefore, an important element in 
democracy." Pointing out that "not until recently 
has our democracy been assailed from within and 
from without by opinions contrary to it," ELB also 
says that since "it is part of our democratic Amer 
ican heritage to abhor censorship, . . . the wall 
against which the anti-democratic missiles are hurled 
[must be made] . . . strong and impregnable, capa 
ble of standing firm against any onslaught. If we are 
to maintain the democracy upon which our system 
rests, we must depend upon the acceptance and de 
fense of democracy by all the people. ... Of course, 
the very processes of democracy work toward these 
ends through universal education, through our po 
litical institutions, and through the exercise of civil 
liberties. . . . But, in these critical times, we must, 
in addition, make use of all the available socially 
sound methods to help in the upholding of our de 
mocracy. . . . To engage in this task of public 
education, we must understand how to reach the 
people with democracy's message, how to tell them 
what democracy means, so that they will understand 
it and appreciate it. Lip service to democracy is not 
enough. It must be implemented by the will and 
action of the people to preserve democracy at all 
costs." 

Subsequently, the analysis includes a discussion 
of the "Means of Communication," "Importance of 
Private Enterprise," "Linking Private Enterprise 
with Democracy," and [the necessity of] "Presenting 
Democracy's Values": "It is thus our duty," ELB 
concludes, "to strengthen the program of public 
education and public information to the end that 
everyone in America may understand the social 
significance of democracy, and its value for every 
man, woman, and child. What we must strive for is 
the achievement of that inner faith and devotion to 
democracy within our people which will make them 
active against encroachments on the essential liber 
ties which are the basis of democracy." pp. 124- 
127. 

. Annals: "The Engineering of Consent," 

Vol. 250, Mar 1947. 183pp. 

ELB urges recognition of "the significance of mod 
ern communications not only as a highly organized 
mechanical web but as a potent force for social good 
or possible evil"; declares that "leaders ... of 
major organized groups such as industry, labor, or 
units of government, . . . with the aid of techni 
cians . . . who have specialized in utilizing the 
channels of communication, have been able to ac 
complish purposefully and scientifically what we 
have termed 'the engineering of consent'"; explains 
that "this phrase quite simply means the use of an 
engineering approach ... action based only on 
thorough knowledge of the situation and on the ap 
plication of scientific principles and tried practices 
to the task of getting people to support ideas and 
programs. Any person or organization depends ulti 



mately on public approval, and is therefore faced 
with the problem of engineering the public's consent 
to a program or goal. ..." Among other sugges 
tions, he "outlines basic principles and techniques 
of engineering consent . . . based on four prerequi 
sites: 1. Calculation of resources, both human and 
physical; i.e., the manpower, the money, and the 
time available for the purpose; 2. As thorough 
knowledge of the subject as possible; 3. Determina 
tion of objectives, subject to possible change after 
research; specifically, what is to be accomplished, 
with whom and through whom; 4. Research of the 
public to learn why and how it acts, both individu 
ally and as a group. Only after this preliminary 
groundwork has been firmly laid is it possible to 
know whether the objectives are realistically at 
tainable. . . . Strategy, organization and activities 
will be geared to the realities of the situation." 
pp. 113, 120. 

American Nurses' Association. "ANA Public 

Relations Workshop: A Manual of Practical 

Public Relations Techniques Prepared for the 

Guidance of the National Membership of the 

American Nurses' Association." 1948. 32pp. 

Discussing "What Public Relations Is," ELB says: 

"Good public relations for the nursing profession 

depends upon two distinct conditions: the first is 

that you understand the public and that the public 

understands you; the second is that you meet the 

needs of the public for nursing service." ELB then 

outlines strategy and tactics by which nurses can 

carry out a successful public relations campaign. 

pp. 3-7. 

Bernays, Edward L., ed. "An Outline of Careers: 
A Practical Guide to Achievement by Thirty-Eight 
Eminent Americans." N. Y: George H. Doran 
Company, 1927. 431pp. 

In his introduction, ELB says: "This volume is the 
work of men and women who appreciate the im 
portance of placing in the hands of the youth of this 
country information concerning all phases of pro 
fessional and industrial life, so that they may choose 
their careers with a broad as well as a detailed under 
standing of what any branch of activity may hold in 
store for them." Among the 38 contributors are 
Reeve Schley, Vice President, Chase National Bank, 
on banking; Ray Long, Editor-in-Chief, Interna 
tional Magazine Corporation, on editing; John Hays 
Hammond, on engineering; J. Butler Wright, Assist 
ant Secretary of State, on the foreign service ; Roy W. 
Howard, Chairman of the Board, Scripps-Howard 
Newspapers, on journalism ; Dr. William Allen Pusey, 
Ex-President of the American Medical Association, 
on medicine; Dwight F. Davis, Secretary of War, on 
the Army; Jesse L. Lasky, Vice President, Famous 
Players-Lasky Corporation, on motion pictures; 
Henry Sloane Coffin, President, Union Theological 
Seminary, on the ministry; Joseph P. Day, on real 
estate; David Belasco, the stage. The chapter on 
"Public Relations" by Edward L. Bernays, pp. 
285-96, is preceded by the following biographical 
sketch : 



"Bernays, Edward L., b. Vienna, Austria, 
Nov. 22, 1891; s. Ely and Anna (Freud) B; 
prep. edn. De Witt Clinton High Sen., N. Y.; 
B. S. Cornell U., 1912; m. Doris E. Fleisch- 
man, of New York City, Sept. 16, 1922. News 
paper work, New York, 1913-15; planned 
first performance of 'Damaged Goods,' 1913; 
publicity rep. of theatrical managers and 
stars; mgr. Russian Ballet Tour in U. S. for 
Met. Opera Co., 1915-16; pub. mgr. Met. 
Musical Bureau, 191617; mgr. Caruso and 
other musical stars, 1917-18; served as mem. 
U. S. Com. on Public Information at Peace 
Conf., Paris, 1918-19; reemployment ex- 
servicemen, U. S. War Dept., 1919; counsel on 
public relations to governments, industries, 
corpns. and trade orgsn. since 1919; asst. 
Commr. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Paris 
Expn., 1925. Lecturer, New York U. on pub 
lic relations. Clubs: Newspaper, Cornell (New 
York); Author: Crystallizing Public Opinion, 
1924; (with others) Broadway Anthology, 
1917." 

Bijur, George, ed. "Choosing a Career" N. Y: 

Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1934. 274pp. 
Collection of speeches delivered at the First Choos- 
ing-A-Career Conference for College Men and 
Women. Contains an address by ELB on the career 
of "Public Relations." Mr. Bernays is described as 
"Public Relations Counsellor to Governments, In 
dustries, Organizations and Individuals." pp. 143- 
161. 

Boston Conference on Distribution. Proceedings 
of Twenty -Second Annual Boston Conference on 
Distribution held in Boston October 16 and 17, 
1950, auspices Retail Trade Association of the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce in cooperation 
with Harvard University Graduate School of 
Business Administration, Boston University 
College of Business Administration, Massachu 
setts Institute of Technology and others. 1950. 
124pp. 

The section of the proceedings devoted to "De 
veloping Executive Leadership: A Survey of Opin 
ion among 70 Leading American Executives Con 
ducted by the Boston Conference on Distribution," 
contains a contribution by ELB. He says that "we 
here in America are in a worldwide movement toward 
recognition that the promises made in documents 
like the Declaration of Independence and our Fed 
eral Constitution the promises of American life 
must be increasingly fulfilled. This program of ful 
fillment includes for all the people, proper education 
and training, stable employment, adequate reward, 
shelter, clothing and leisure pursuits, advancement 
on merit, the opportunity to exercise deserved leader 
ship, freedom, equality and orderly justice and com 
plete integration of the individual with the com 
munity and with society as a whole." 

The obligation to fulfill this program, according 
to ELB, "rests in great part on the men who control 
the economic aspects of our society as managers, 
trustees or proprietors of American businesses 
large and small. These men must have an intellectual 
grasp of the world in which they live and operate. 
. . . Accordingly, business has to recruit its leaders 
from a group that has been trained to deal with prob 



lems of business and of leadership and has been 
steeped in the knowledge of the society in which we 
live and in the American tradition." p. 1 19. 

The Broadway Anthology. Bernays, Edward L.; 
Hoffenstein, Samuel; Kingsley, Walter J., and 
Pemberton, Murdock. N. Y.: DufHeld & Com 
pany, 1917, 60pp. 

This collection of verse by leading press agents of the 
theatre and music contains ten poems in free verse 
by ELB: Accidents Will Happen satirizes a. tenor's 
passion for publicity; The Baritone describes how a 
famous Metropolitan singer wanted to ride on the 
cheapest train; Patriotism pokes fun at a wartime 
orchestra; The Pillow Cases tells of a singer who 
transported his own baggage on a concert tour; 
Better Industrial Relations describes the adventures 
of a publicity man; The Prima Donna tells how an 
opera star refuses to talk to her press agent because 
a great international disturbance kept her photos out 
of the papers; Press Stories, Tears and Photographs 
also deal with the relations of press agent and star. 
Example : 

"Though bandsmen's notes from the street 
below resound, 

And the voices of jubilant masses proclaim a 
glorious holiday, 

I painstakingly pick out words on the type 
writer, 

By fits and starts, thinking up a story about 
the great Metropolitan tenor." 

Bryson, Lyman; Finkelstein, Louis; and Mac- 
Iver, R. M., ed. "Approaches to Group Under 
standing": Sixth Symposium of the Conference 
on Science, Philosophy and Religion. N. Y: 
Harper & Brothers, 1947. 858pp. 

Chapter X, "The Public Relations Counsel and 

Group Understanding," is by ELB. pp. 100-106. 

See Addenda, Item 5. 

"Learning and World Peace" Eighth Sym 
posium of the Conference on Science, Philosophy 
and Religion. N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 1948. 
694pp. 

Chapter XXXVIII, "Mass Education, Idea Com 
munications, and the Problems of National Sanity 
and International Cooperation," is by ELB. pp. 
411-417. See Addenda, Item 6. 

Chase, Stuart; Ruttenberg, Stanley H. ; Nourse, 
Edwin G. ; Given, William B. Jr. "The Social 
Responsibility of Management. See Addenda, 
Item 8. 

Ghilds, Professor Harwood L., comp. "A Refer 
ence Guide to the Study of Public Opinion." With 
a Preface by Edward L. Bernays. Princeton, 
N. J: Princeton University Press, 1934. 105pp. 
ELB says that "today public opinion plays so im 
portant a role that few people can say justly that 
they are not concerned with the subject." p. iii. 

Cousins, Norman, ed. "A Treasury of Democracy." 

N. Y: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1942. 306pp. 
The chapter entitled "Living Affirmations" contains 
a section by ELB in which he says: "Democracy 
values individual dignity and worth; guarantees the 



five freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly and 
petition; safeguards private property; practices or 
derly and open justice; functions by majority rule; 
makes security, social and economic, its ideal; as 
sures the education of all; and places on the indi 
vidual the obligation to serve the state. . . . Though 
democracy has not been completely achieved in this 
country or anywhere else, it is a way of life, an ideal, 
toward which we have been moving and will move. 
. . . America has today the strongest force in the 
world the free human will and a free people. 
. . . We are careful in making laws to prevent one 
group from hurting the interests of other groups, 
which is the essence of democracy." pp. 168-169. 

Dryer, Sherman H. "Radio in Wartime." N. Y: 

Greenberg, 1942. 384pp. 

Chapter II, "The Secret Weapon," contains a "Com 
mentary by Edward L. Bernays, Counsel on Public 
Relations and author, associated with the United 
States Committee on Public Information in World 
War I," pp. 71-77. Here ELB suggests that to meet 
the needs of World War II, radio should act as a unit 
"and of its own volition," name "a board of strategy 
which will include experts in psychology, public 
opinion, radio programming and communications to 
set up blueprints for a balance of entertainment and 
escapism, of war information and, of course, criti 
cism, and a line to follow as to timing, proportion, 
content, theme, emotion and reason." p. 77. 
Ettinger, Karl E., ed. "Public Relations Directory 
and Yearbook." Vol. I, 1945. N. Y: Public Rela 
tions Directory and Yearbook, Inc. 855pp. 
In the "Editorial Section," ELB contributes a 
chapter entitled: "Public Relations Counsel 
Evolution of a Profession." This is an historical 
survey and analysis of the profession. 

"Since 1900," ELB says, "there have been four 
periods of evolution in public relations as a profession 
in the United States. The first 1900-1914 was 
a battle between muckraking on the one hand and 
white-washing publicity efforts on the other. The 
second 1914-1918 was marked by an effort by 
our government to sell the American people our war 
aims and war ideals in World War I. The third 
1919-1929 saw public relations activities in the 
industrial field developing, in part, from principles 
and practices successfully tested in the Great War. 
Since 1929, American public relations activities have 
been devoted mainly to efforts in commerce and 
industry, to bring about adjustment between private 
interest and public responsibility. These last two 
periods 1919 to date have brought forth public 
relations literature and periodicals, a strengthening 
of ethical standards, a broadening of scientific prac 
tice, a spread of academic study and research, and a 
general recognition of the importance of the new 
profession by the great social forces of our country." 

ELB then traces the history of definitions of the 
term "profession." He quotes Crystallizing Public 
Opinion, which he published in 1923, and in which he 
defined the term "public relations counsel," which he 
had coined. 



"The literature has expanded," he continues. "In 
1928, our analysis, 'Propaganda The Public Mind 
in the Making' was published. Our organization for 
ten years issued 'Contact,' a four-page leaflet on 
public relations. In 1934, we were successful in in 
stigating at Princeton University the publication of 
a bibliography, 'A Reference Guide to Public Opin 
ion.' We assisted Princeton in the inauguration of 
the Public Opinion Quarterly. . . . In 1937, we 
surveyed public relations training at American uni 
versities and found that throughout the country 
there were many courses preparing men and women 
for this new profession. The findings were published 
in a pamphlet 'Universities Pathfinders of Public 
Opinion.' " [See page 9 of this bibliography]. 

After surveying the courses in public relations and 
related subjects given at American universities, 
ELB quotes the definitions of "public relations" and 
"public relations counsellor" given in the Dictionary 
of Sociology, published in 1943. "Thus," ELB con 
tinues, "we see the principles set in 'Crystallizing 
Public Opinion' twenty years previously, and in 
'Propaganda' five years thereafter continually 
being validated: groups and leaders are the basic 
mechanisms of public change ; groups and leaders can 
be reached through established media of communica 
tion, with the application of insight and method; and 
there is a definite ethical standard to guide the work. 
Public relations, engineering of consent, opinion 
management, the techniques of leadership, or what 
ever it may be called, has exerted a powerful influ 
ence on the world in every phase of activity. . . . 
The counsel on public relations continues to play 
an increasingly growing role in bringing about better 
adjustment of all the constituent groups of our 
society." 

In his historical survey of public relations, ELB 
discusses the role of the muckrakers, Theodore 
Roosevelt, General Motors, General Electric, Amer 
ican Telephone & Telegraph, Light's Golden Jubilee 
which ELB handled and other high points in the 
development of the profession. 

The chapter concludes with a list of books by ELB. 

Friedrich, C. J., and Mason, Edward S., eds. 

"Public Policy. A Yearbook of the Graduate 
School of Public Administration, Harvard Uni 
versity." Cambridge, Mass: Graduate School of 
Public Administration, 1942. 275pp. 
Part I, "War Morale and Civil Liberties," contains a 
chapter by ELB on "The Integration of Morale," 
pp. 18-32; "To achieve a continuously strong mo 
rale, we need physical and emotional well-being, a 
common goal, common leaders we can trust, and a 
belief in one another." Footnote reference in David 
Riesman's chapter on "Civil Liberties in Transition" 
to ELB's books Crystallizing Public Opinion and 
Propaganda, p. 82. 

In this discussion of wartime morale, ELB calls for 
a threefold approach to make "America's morale 
. . . impregnable. . . . First, activities aimed at 
speaking up for democracy, defining, explaining, ex 
pounding what democracy is and is not; second, 



activities aimed at strengthening democracy, making 
it work better, so that all may know what we are 
fighting for; third, a morale commission appointed 
by the government to give counsel and advice to 
men in the government so that they may function 
more democratically and more efficiently. . . . Our 
first real line of defense is in our minds. They can 
ensure that our arms shall defend what they were 
created to defend. ... A strong national morale is 
behavior which affects our national interest. . . . 
Group morale is the fusion of individual morales. 
. . . Certain basic premises underlie the building of 
a strong morale: (1) The American people have 
already committed themselves, their money and 
their manpower to the war effort. They have pro 
vided for the physical defenses. (2) Democratic 
leadership in government is called for to provide the 
psychological defenses that will fill the need for 
psychological and physical security." To build mo 
rale, ELB recommends democratic activities per 
suasion, suggestion, education, above all, truth. 

Specifically ELB recommends: (1) The education 
of the public in the meanings and importance of 
democracy; (2) one centralized government author 
ity to give out facts, to correlate and coordinate the 
activities of the many scattered information agencies 
this body to be headed by a technician in mass 
communications; (3) make democracy work better; 
(4) a master plan for public relations in morale 
building to be worked out "by technicians drawn 
from the fields of the social sciences, sociology, psy 
chology, ethnology, adult education, economics, the 
army, the navy, public opinion, communications, 
public relations." ELB concludes: "To achieve a 
continuously strong morale, we need physical and 
emotional well-being, a common goal, common lead 
ers we can trust, and a belief in one another." 
Gaige, Crosby. "Dining with My Friends: Adven 
tures with Epicures." N. Y: Crown Publishers, 
1949. 292pp. 

In a section "Edward L. Bernays" the author says: 
"On a buttered papyrus scroll from the Bernays 
kitchen come suggestions for a luncheon and a dinner 
with the recipes for cooking that great delicacy 
Crab Almondine, and for a rich and satisfying Dutch 
Apple Cake," p. 11. This is followed by two Bernays 
menus, one for luncheon, the other for dinner, with a 
recipe for each dish, pp. 12-13. 

Maclver, R. M. ed. "Unity and Difference in 
American Life: A Publication of the Institute for 
Religious and Social Studies." N. Y: Harper and 
Brothers, 1947. 168pp. 

"Series of addresses and discussions" at the Institute 
deals with Group Relations and what can be done to 
achieve better relations in America. Chapter X is 
ELB's address What Business Can Do, pp. 131-141. 
This is followed by a discussion in which ELB par 
ticipates, pp. 141-142. 

MacLatchy, Josephine H. "Education on the Air." 
Thirteenth Yearbook of the Institute for Edu 
cation by Radio. Columbus, Ohio State Uni 
versity, 1942. 310pp. 



Panel Discussion on "Radio in Wartime-Radio and 
Wartime Morale" conducted by ELB as presiding 
officer. 

.. "Education on the Air." See Addenda, 



Item 14. 

Universities Pathfinders in Public Opinion. 

In Collaboration with Doris E. Fleischman. 

N. Y: Edward L. Bernays, 1937. 38pp. 
A survey conducted by ELB and Doris E. Fleisch 
man among university leaders "to ascertain broadly 
the scope of academic attention given to the subjects 
of public relations and opinion management." Com 
ments are included from Harold D. Lasswell, Associ 
ate Professor of Political Science, Chicago University; 
Marjorie Nicholson, Dean of Smith College; Louis C. 
Boochever, Director, Department of Public Informa 
tion, Cornell University and 31 other university 
leaders. 

10 Eventful Years. Chicago: Encyclopedia Bri- 

tannica, Inc., 1947. 4 vols. 

A record of events of the years preceding, including 
and following World War II 1937 through 1946 
prepared under the editorial direction of Walter 
Yust, editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Article 
by ELB on "Public Relations" with bibliography, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 672-673. Article gives general descrip 
tion of public relations of the period, diversity of 
users, rise of publicists and publications. Acknowl 
edgment under "Contributors with principal articles 
written by them": 

"E.L.B's., Public Relations. Edward L. Ber 
nays, Counsel on Public Relations, New York, 
N. Y. Author of Crystallizing Public Opinion 
and Propaganda," Vol. I, p. viii 

Writings by 

EDWARD L. BERNAYS 
In Periodicals 

Advertising and Selling. "A Public Relations 
Counsel States His Views." Vol. 8, No. 7, Jan 26, 
1927, pp. 31, 76. 

ELB discusses the modern public relations counsel 
and /or propagandist, showing that he is not merely 
the old-time press agent who fed stories to the news 
papers, but a man whose work is related to that of 
every institution which communicates ideas to the 
public. The modern propagandist is more concerned 
with what his client is and does than with what he 
says; he sets ideas in motion and makes events which 
will move public thought. ELB differentiates be 
tween advertising and news, maintaining that news 
is news whether or not it advertises some product. 
He urges that all material submitted for publication 
should bear a mark of origin. 

"The public relations counsel is continually cre 
ating events, changing and modifying acts, now 
adding some actualities to life, now subtracting 
others, to accomplish his ends and make the pub 
lic receptive to his cause. In this work he must be 



10 



keenly alive to public consciousness." In discussing 
the relationship of news to advertising, Mr. Bernays 
says: "Most men who have discussed this whole 
question have treated only of the press. . . . But 
in a sense the same relationship is true of all methods 
of reaching the public. . . . The acid test applied 
to it [news material] is its value to the reader of the 
particular journal as understood by the editor, who 
knows the policy, the aim, the ideals of his particular 
journal. On this test only must it ride or fall." 

"What Future for Radio Advertising?" 

Feb 8, 1928. 

ELB says: "Advertising revenues have made the 
press powerful and economical, and have made it 
able to present the news without bias or prejudice. 
Aside from any other consideration, the press should 
allow nothing to interfere with the advertising rev 
enue that it gets as a safeguard in protecting its 
independence. Is not the surest way to insure this 
freedom the linking up with the ever-growing and 
spreading radio by harnessing it to the press and 
making it a source of revenue to itself as well as a 
source of news and advertising to the public?" 

_. "Molding Public Opinion." See Ad 



denda, Item 1. 

American City. "Better Government Through P.R." 

Vol. LXII, No. 3, Mar 1947, pp. 79-80. 
ELB says: "The American city today is a complex 
social-economic pattern for achieving the aims of a 
democratic society. It strives to increase the general 
welfare of its citizens through public health, safety, 
legal security, education and the other factors of 
wholesome, efficient living. Not so long ago munici 
pal government was largely a system of politics, 
spoils, and patronage. Today the city is the com 
bined progress of all its citizens" ELB discusses 
the need for New Concepts of Democratic Leader 
ship, Determining Objectives, Importance of Tim 
ing, and Planned Events and Research, in reference 
to the city's "important public-relations responsi 
bility." He says: "A public relations program for a 
city has a triple function. It must throw a clear light 
on the government's activities in order to be of value 
to the government itself. It must interpret the gov 
ernment's aims to the people to secure their interest 
and action. And, lastly, it must interpret the public 
needs and desires to the government . . . [but] 
whatever the goals, the public relations program 
must base its efforts on favorable actions of govern 
ment itself. What the government does, not what it 
says, is the important factor in success. . . . Iso 
lated events and sporadic publicity are of little value. 
A good public relations program for city government 
demands continuous effort to keep in contact with 
the public. Underlying this public relations program 
must be continuous and careful research of the actual 
functioning of the city. If the leaders do not keep 
their house in order, no public relations program will 
protect them from the possibility of unfavorable 
notice and attack. Any municipal public relations 
program must be based on activities that are in the 
public interest. . . ." As "helpful . . . guides to 



effective public relations planning, strategy, and 
techniques," ELB also recommends "two bibliog 
raphies ... one published by the University of 
Minnesota Press, the other by ... Princeton 
University Press. ..." 

American Journal of Nursing. "The Nursing 
Profession A Public Relations Viewpoint." 
Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1945. pp. 351-353. 
Editorial note: "Mr. Bernays is a very well known 
public relations specialist, described by Time maga 
zine as U. S. Publicist No. 1, who has solved public 
relations problems for corporations, philanthropists, 
institutions, industrial organizations, and individu 
als. He is on the National Public Relations Com 
mittee of the American Red Cross and worked with 
the Committee on the Cost of Medical Care." 

ELB says: "I can think of no better advice to give 
than to suggest that you look at yourselves and 
apply your own scientific attitude to a consideration 
of your problem of adjustment with the public, then 
to find out why the public reacts to you as it does, 
and then to take the action required on your own 
reorientation, and a reorientation of your public." 

"The Medical Profession and Nursing." 

Vol. 45, No. 11, Nov 1945, pp. 907-914. 
After describing the effects of World War II on the 
health field and the professions of nursing and med 
icine, ELB reports on a survey he made among ci 
vilian doctors and leading medical authorities based 
on a questionnaire which included the following: 

(1) What effect do doctors think the war has had on 
medical-nursing relationships and on nursing skills? 

(2) What maladjustments exist between these two 
professions? (3) What do doctors favor as regards 
use of practical nurses; and more extensive use of 
professional nurses through the Social Security Act 
or other federal legislation, and through voluntary 
payment plans? ELB gives in considerable detail the 
replies, comments and recommendations of physi 
cians regarding the nursing profession and the rela 
tions between doctors and nurses. He concludes: 
"(1) Evidently physicians think well of nurses when 
they think of them at all. But the unfortunate fact 
is that the medical profession takes the nursing pro 
fession too much for granted. The nurses must act 
to correct this. They must tell the medical profession 
what they are doing, how they are doing it, and why. 
The nursing profession must carry on educational 
activities aimed at the physician, as an individual 
and in groups. (2) Maladjustments between the pro 
fessions seem to be due to misunderstanding as well 
as to the basic situation. There is much nurses can 
accomplish by being co-operative and understanding. 
Most important, of course, is the economic factor. 
Nurses' salaries are too small for their needs. . . . 
Yet they are too great for the public to stand. Nurses, 
doctors and public must agree on the best way to 
handle medical care in the United States. Nurses, as 
individuals and through their organizations, should 
study all proposals, legislative or otherwise, which 
affect the medical care of the American people, and 
act vigorously to support those in the public interest. 



11 



. . . Good health for the American people is the aim 
of both medical and nursing professions and the pro 
fessions must cooperate effectively toward this end." 

"Opinion Holders Appraise Nursing" 

Vol. 45, No. 12, Dec 1945. pp. 1005-1011. 
In this article, ELB reports the results of a survey he 
conducted among "newspaper and magazine editors, 
radio commentators, news photographers, cartoon 
ists, columnists, authors, radio script writers, book 
publishers, lecturers, artists and illustrators, out 
standing opinion molders in other fields," to deter 
mine what they think of the nursing profession. Sum 
marizing their opinions, ELB says: (1) A great 
majority of Americans have a very high regard for 
the women performing nursing services; they pay 
great tribute to the war effort of the nursing pro 
fession; most of the opinion molders believe there is 
great room for improvement in the performance of 
nurses in present-day hospitals and private practice, 
particularly in public health and industrial nursing. 

(2) In the economic sphere the public opinion mold 
ers believe the cost of nursing is too high; most of 
them have not thought out the problem of how it is 
to be lowered ; a minority is aware the answer lies in 
a change of the present methods of distributing and 
paying for nursing services. (3) The largest group of 
criticisms of the nursing profession is that aimed at 
the high cost of nursing services; a smaller number 
are directed at the personality faults of some nurses, 
such as lack of human sympathy, laziness, etc.; 
nursing education is also criticized. (4) Recommenda 
tions of the opinion leaders strongly emphasize the 
need of a public relations program for professional 
nurses and of greater psychological understanding of 
patients by nurses; many public opinion molders 
stress the need for economic adjustments in sal 
aries, nursing costs and system of payment and 
distribution. 

ELB describes the method of survey, gives line of 
questions asked, quotes typical replies in various 
categories and breaks down the replies by per 
centages. 

"What Government Officials Think about 

Nursing. 1 ' Vol. 46, No. 1, Jan 1946. pp. 22-26. 
ELB reports on the survey he conducted "to learn 
the attitudes of public officials toward the nursing 
profession, past, present and future." His question 
naire was sent to "a cross-section of the men and 
women in federal, state and city administrations 
throughout the country." Results of the nationwide 
study "were checked against personal interviews 
with government officials." Summarizing his findings, 
ELB says that federal, state and city officials think: 
(1) Nurses made an excellent contribution to the war 
effort; (2) the quality of work performed by profes 
sional nurses is good in public health work, private 
hospitals and other institutions, and in private prac 
tice, but somewhat less desirable in public hospitals; 

(3) through public relations activities the nursing 
profession should educate the public and government 
officials about nurse training, the services nurses are 
performing, etc. ; (4) nursing salaries should be raised, 



nursing education improved, nursing costs lowered; 

(5) government should provide more funds toward 
nursing education and for training practical nurses; 

(6) the Social Security Act should apply to wider 
groups of professional and practical nurses, partic 
ularly to nurses engaged in public health and hospital 
practice; (7) nursing service provision should be in 
cluded in voluntary prepayment plans for hospital 
and medical care. 

"Hospitals and the Nursing Professions." 

Vol. 46, No. 2, Feb 1946, pp. 110-113. 
ELB reports on the nationwide survey he conducted 
among hospital administrators of all kinds in an 
effort to "measure present and future relations be 
tween the nursing profession and hospital adminis 
trators." The survey revealed the following major 
opinions of hospital administrators: (1) World War 
II tended to make worse the quality of civilian hospi 
tal nursing service, nursing education, and nursing 
skills and methods; (2) good personnel is scarce in 
staff nursing, administrators of nursing services, 
nursing teachers; (3) student nurses are often ex 
ploited by hospitals; (4) private duty nurses are a 
''luxury" commodity which costs too much and 
needs too much supervision; (5) the nurse's economic 
position should be improved by salary increases, but 
nursing trade unions should be discouraged; (6) 
Negro nurses should be used mainly in Negro insti 
tutions; (7) hospital personnel policies need drastic 
revision, since they cause difficulty between hospital 
heads and staff nurses; (8) nursing leaders should do 
more on behalf of their membership; (9) nurse place 
ment services work fairly well on the whole; (10) 
the patient's welfare should be the first consideration 
in all decisions made on hospital administration. 

ELB gives the questions he asked hospital ad 
ministrators and breaks down their replies on a per 
centage basis. He suggests that "public relations 
activities devoted frankly to this end would go a 
long way to remove barriers which now prevent the 
nursing profession and hospital administrations from 
working together in the best interests of themselves 
and the public they serve." 

"The Armed Services and the Nursing Pro 
fession" Vol. 46, No. 3, Mar 1946. pp. 166-169. 
ELB reports on a survey he made to ascertain what 
World War II veterans from all services thought of 
the nursing profession. The questionnaire was sent 
to a cross section of Army and Navy officers and 
enlisted men, both in service and already returned 
to civilian life; to officials of the Veterans Adminis 
tration; to veterans of the Army and Navy Nurse 
Corps. Giving the replies which the survey elicited, 
ELB breaks them down by percentages, and sums 
them up as follows: (1) Overwhelmingly America's 
fighting men and women believe the nursing profes 
sion made a great contribution to victory in World 
War II, and the average war nurse performed her 
duties well; (2) among problems between professional 
nurses and other members of the armed forces the 
replies cited rank, personality faults, complaints 
against army regulations restricting nurses, etc.; 



12 



(3) suggestions for improvements in nursing educa 
tion included better training in psychology and psy 
chosomatic medicine; greater emphasis on cultural 
subjects in nurse training; higher standards in the 
professional nursing skills, etc; (4) a wider use of men 
nurses was favored; ELB also quotes a number of 
suggestions made by respondents for improving rela 
tions between nurses and various groups with which 
they come in contact, as well as comments on 
whether the Army and Navy Nurse Corps should 
be reconstituted so as to include enlisted personnel 
and non-commissioned officers. 

In conclusion, ELB recommends that nurses "in 
tensify and utilize" the "huge reservoir of good will 
toward the norsing profession which has been built 
up among millions of war veterans. . . . Nurses 
should, individually and through their organizations, 
participate in activities to promote the welfare of 
needy, unfortunate, disabled and sick veterans. The 
nursing profession can take a leading position in 
strengthening and improving the operation of the 
Veterans Administration, in seeing that it meets the 
needs of the many millions of Americans who will 
be dependent on it in one way or another, for finan 
cial, vocational or other assistance. In doing this, 
the nursing profession will be advancing its own 
interest and performing a valuable public service." 

" Nurses and Their Professional Organiza 
tions" Vol. 46, No. 4, Apr 1946. pp. 229-233. 
To ascertain how nurses feel about professional or 
ganizations as to scope, efficiency and policies, past, 
present and future, ELB conducted a survey of the 
nursing profession. In this article he gives his ques 
tionnaire and breaks down the replies by percentages. 
Survey revealed that nurses are "joiners," that most 
of them are active in their professional organizations 
and read nursing publications. Most of them said 
relations between nurses and their professional or 
ganizations could be improved, suggesting ways of 
doing this. ELB also quotes replies on trade unions, 
economic improvement, Negro nurses, men nurses, 
practical nurses, etc. 

From the survey, ELB concludes that "serious 
gaps exist in the relationships of nurses with their 
professional organizations." To bridge this gap, he 
suggests "reorienting member nurses from the con 
cept of 'belonging' to the concept of leadership." To 
ward this end he recommends "that (1) national 
groups should re-examine their structures and 
achieve greater coordination between and within 
major groups; (2) as individuals, nurses can train 
themselves for leadership as they trained themselves 
for their profession." 

" Nursing and Community Groups." Vol. 

46, No. 5. May 1946. pp. 297-300. 
To learn community group opinions about nursing, 
ELB sent out questionnaires to a cross section of 
group leaders throughout the country. Responses 
came from officers of youth groups; school, college 
and educational groups; patriotic, political, social 
and civic groups; women's groups; religious groups; 
and foreign language groups. Analyzing these replies, 



ELB reports their "composite answer"; e.g., nurs 
ing's contribution to victory in World War II was 
impressive and exemplary; public health nursing 
agencies are the most "liberal" branch of the pro 
fession; most graduate nurses work cooperatively 
with other community groups; nursing costs are too 
high; nurses could use a better general education; etc. 
After giving replies in detail and breaking them 
down by percentages, ELB concludes: "The volun 
tary membership organizations of the United States, 
large and small, can become powerful lay supporters 
of the nursing profession's desire for more effective 
integration into the broad pattern of social action 
in the United States. . . . The good will that exists 
in this group has little depth, and little foundation 
in knowledge upon which to rest. . . . The only 
safeguard is to keep this public and other publics 
informed of what nursing is doing, what it intends 
to do, and what are its reasons. This, too, indicates 
the importance of supplying facts and points of view 
for whatever changes the nursing profession believes 
are essential to the public welfare and its own pro 
gress. Certainly these important groups of the public 
can help to further sound, common goals in the 
public interest but only if public relations activ 
ities are aimed to intensify and broaden the existing 
good will." 

"Educators Appraise Nursing." Vol. 46, 

No. 6, Jun 1946, pp. 372-375. 

ELB discusses the problem of recruiting of nurses 
and the influence of educators in grade schools, high 
schools and colleges on decisions regarding careers, 
based on a survey of a nationwide cross-section of 
the teaching profession. 

" Nurses and Business." Vol. 46, No. 7, 

Jul 1946. pp. 475-477. 

ELB reports the findings of his nationwide survey 
among American business leaders to ascertain their 
opinions about nursing. Breaking down replies by 
percentages, he says the survey shows that "leaders 
of commerce and industry respect nursing as a pro 
fession in theory; in practice, they don't." The 
majority of businessmen thought hospitals and other 
institutions caring for the public's health should deal 
with nurses the way a business firm deals with its 
employees; that nurses receive sufficient pay now; 
that the costs of nursing are not too high. However, 
they urged action for bettering nurses' conditions 
through professional nursing organizations, and in 
creased voluntary support of hospitals. 

Most businessmen also thought relations between 
the business community and the nursing profession 
could be improved. Suggestions: (1) Educate the 
businessman through hard-hitting, more extensive 
public relations programs on every professional 
level; (2) educate the nurse to participate in com 
munity affairs; (3) raise educational and professional 
standards of nurses. "What we must do," ELB con 
cludes, "is to make the businessman realize that he 
will not get the type of service that he desires unless 
he helps to improve the status of the entire pro 
fession." 



13 



"Social Scientists Look at the Nursing Pro 
fession." Vol. 46, No. 8, Aug 1946. pp. 518-520. 
ELB here reports on a survey he made among social 
scientists at Yale, Wisconsin, Columbia, Chicago 
and other colleges and universities on the question: 
"What can the nursing profession do to reconcile 
the contradictions which now prevent fulfillment of 
its goal of service to American society?" 

"Summed up," ELB says, "(1) They stress the 
vital need for professional recognition; (2) almost 
unanimously, they urge that the nurse's economic 
status be improved; (3) they want standards of edu 
cation and research in nursing raised; (4) they advo 
cate that particular care be used in selecting the type 
of individuals for the nursing profession, stressing 
the factor of personality with emphasis on the need 
of warm, sympathetic characteristics and a more 
spiritual outlook; (5) they recommend to the nursing 
profession that it organize for broad public health 
activities, to win the support of the public; (6) they 
would like to see the relationship between doctors 
and nurses denned and improved, with the aim of 
offering the very best health service for the American 
people. To accomplish these goals, they urge the 
nursing profession to educate the American people 
on what nursing can do, and what the public must do 
to get the service it wants. A public relations program 
is their answer." 

"America Looks at Nursing A Summa 
tion." Vol. 46, No. 9, Sept 1946. pp. 590-592. 
Editorial note: "About a year ago Mr. Bernays, 
public relations consultant, undertook to make a 
series of investigations into what different groups of 
people think about nursing. Results of his studies 
have been presented each month in the Journal since 
November 1945. The present article summarizes the 
series." ELB concludes this article by urging nurses 
to appraise their profession, and to inform the public 
about their services, problems, etc. 

"What Patients Say about Nurses." Vol. 

47, No. 2, Feb 1947. pp. 93-96. 
ELB reports on a survey he made among ex-patients 
to determine what they think about nurses and nurs 
ing. His questionnaire was sent to a group selected 
from Who's Who in America and to members of the 
Blue Cross hospitalization plan in Boston, St. Louis, 
Philadelphia, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Rock- 
ford, 111. Most patients were pleased with their nurses 
and the nursing service they received, but there were 
also complaints and "intelligent criticism." Most pa 
tients also thought nurses should receive better pay. 
After breaking down all the replies by percentage, 
ELB concludes: "The majority of laymen, ex- 
patients, the general public . . . just don't have 
very much understanding of the crux of the nursing 
problem. The problem ... is the satisfactory ad 
justment of the conflict between her (the nurse's) tra 
ditional role as a self-sacrificing servant of mankind, 
and her need for professional status and adequate 
pay." He urges that nurses undertake "a public rela 
tions campaign to educate the public ... to a clearer 
understanding of the nursing profession's dilemma." 



.. "A Better Deal for Nurses." Nov 1947. 



ELB says the nursing profession can achieve its 
aims "through enlisting the understanding and 
support of social groups." 

ELB advises the nursing profession that in order to 
establish recognition for their services and in order 
to maintain better economic security, they must be 
made aware of the influence of public opinion and 
"of broader social forces than the nursing profession 
itself." They must be aware of the interrelation 
between many social groups working together and 
the need to arouse these groups to an understanding 
of the problems of the nursing profession. "In our 
highly complicated society, no one special interest or 
group, whether teachers, preachers, doctors, lawyers, 
or nurses, dictates or governs its own destiny. Every 
section of our population depends upon other groups, 
and no individual group is sufficiently powerful or 
influential to bring about its desires independently 
and without the support of others." 

The nursing profession surely has problems. They 
must not be seen as a whole in themselves but in 
relation to the larger problems of society, problems 
that can be understood and resolved by "cooperation, 
adjustment, of a meeting of minds, of reaching a 
common understanding and recognition of the prob 
lems of others . . ." 

Since change and growth is based upon a sense of 
the need for development, and since change never 
moves at the same pace for every phase or for every 
organization, the nursing profession must learn "to 
enlist the aid of other social forces in society 
forces that are more potent, that have more status 
than nursing to work with them toward the com 
mon over-all goal of better nursing care for the 
American public with concomitantly better condi 
tions for herself." 

The nurse must be more scientific in her approach 
to other professional groups for support; she must 
exercise less emotion, and must utilize public opinion 
more skillfully in behalf of an improvement in pro 
fessional status and economic stability. 

American Journal of Sociology. "Manipulating 
Public Opinion: The Why and the How." Vol. 
XXXIII, No. 6, May 1928. pp. 958-971. 
An editorial abstract preceding this article by ELB 
outlines its main ideas as follows: "Public opinion, 
narrowly defined, is the thought of a society at a 
given time toward a given object; broadly conceived, 
it is the power of the group to sway the larger public 
in its attitude. Public opinion can be manipulated, 
but in teaching the public how to ask for what it 
wants the manipulator is safeguarding the public 
against its own possible aggressiveness. The 
method of the experimental psychologist is not as 
effective in the study of public opinion in the broad 
sense as is that of introspective psychology. To 
create and to change public opinion it is necessary 
to understand human motives, to know what special 
interests are represented by a given population, and 
to realize the function and limitations of the physical 
organs of approach to the public, such as the radio, 



14 

the platform, the movie, the letter, the newspaper, 
etc. If the general principles of swaying public opin 
ion are understood, a technique can be developed 
which, with the correct appraisal of the specific prob 
lem and the specific audience, can and has been used 
effectively in such widely different situations as 
changing the attitude of whites toward Negroes in 
America, changing the buying habits of American 
women from felt hats to velvet, silk, and straw hats, 
changing the impression which the American 
electorate has of its President, introducing new 
musical instruments, and a variety of others. Group 
adherence is essential in changing the attitudes of the 
public. Authoritative and influential groups may be 
come important channels of reaching the larger 
public. Ideas and situations must be made impres 
sive and dramatic in order to overcome the inertia 
of established traditions and prejudices." p. 958. 

American Mercury. "Group Leaders of Democracy.'' 

Vol. XLIV, No. 176, Aug 1938, pp. 437, 444. 
Discussion of the importance of winning over the 
leaders who play an important part in determining 
the attitudes and actions of the masses in democracy, 
to the task of awakening in the people an under 
standing of the values of political and industrial 
democracy. 

After pointing out the threats to democracy from 
all over the world, and showing how American inter 
est in democracy has increased in the last ten years, 
ELB continues: "How, then, can we attempt to 
preserve Democracy? How can we safeguard both 
our basic political and social system and the private 
enterprise tied up with it? We shall attempt to lay 
out the approach. ... In a Democracy, you must 
have the voluntary support of the people in order to 
succeed. . . . How can we develop and maintain 
among the people a true recognition of the values of 
Democracy, combined with a dynamic will to defend 
and preserve it? The people will be ready to value 
and defend Democracy, or any other sound ideas, 
if those whom they follow and look up to have first 
been brought to recognize its validity. ... If you 
can demonstrate to the men and women in the van 
guard of our society that your product or your idea 
is sound and serves the public interest, your battle 
is more than half won. There are two ways to gain 
public support. On the one hand, facts or ideas or a 
viewpoint can be presented to the masses directly, 
as is done daily on billboards, over the radio, through 
advertisements in the daily press, or even by means 
of sky writing. Another way is to take your message 
to the group leaders, win their support, and let them 
carry the message to the mass of the people to prepare 
them for the mass-appeal which may follow this 
group-leader acceptance. . . . The importance of 
group leaders as a channel for ideas in the Democracy 
has not been generally recognized. But group-pat 
terns do exist, and should be utilized for drawing 
society closer together for common ends. . . . Dem 
ocratic society is made up of an almost infinite 
number of interest groups, whose leaders command 
the respect of the group, whose opinions and actions 



carry weight and influence. . . . Men turn for 
guidance to the leaders of groups of which they are 
members. This sound principle of group leadership 
holds in advertising as it does in every other special- 
pleading activity. . . . The preservation of our 
political and industrial Democracy depends on our 
ability to awaken in our people an understanding of 
the values of political as well as industrial Democ 
racy. This task must be met by finding and winning 
over the leaders who play such an important part in 
determining the attitudes and actions of the masses 
in the Democracy." 

"Preview of American Public Opinion." 

Vol. LVIII, No. 243, Mar 1944. pp. 340-345. 
Based on a nationwide survey conducted by ELB 
which attempted to "estimate what American public 
opinion and American action will be in the next six 
months or so." The survey "indicates clearly that 
we shall be in agreement as to what are the main 
issues facing the country, and almost unanimous in 
the determination to solve them along democratic 
lines." 

This survey is a departure in opinion polls in that 
it is a serious attempt to determine public opinion 
on the immediate future instead of tracing trends in 
mass opinion and mass preference by comparing 
existing popular attitudes with past attitudes. The 
survey was conducted keeping two points in mind: 
"(1) What would be likely to emerge as the chief 
issues of popular interest in the near future, and 
(2) what would be the prevailing view and action 
on each of these subjects." Instead of addressing 
the attitudes of a cross section of the entire popula 
tion, this survey was directed at a cross section of 
group leaders. "By ascertaining what those who mold 
public opinion believe now, we have a reliable pre 
view of what public opinion and action will be later." 
The poll reached the men and women who in turn 
contact millions of minds with direct or indirect 
influence daily. The survey disclosed five major 
issues prevalent in the public mind in the order of 
their importance: 

"1. Winning the war; 

2. The cost of living; 

3. International cooperation; 

4. Race relations; and 

5. Labor relations." 

The people were also concerned with three other 
issues: 

"1. The 1944 elections; 

2. The trend of the Federal government; and 

3. Demobilization." 

Through this survey it was determined what coming 
public opinion would be. 

"A Mercury Survey of Opinion Leaders" 

Vol. LX, No. 254, Feb 1945, pp. 198, 203. 
A survey by ELB of public opinion on major current 
issues and post-war problems. "In a preview of 
American public opinion, published in the March 
1944 American Mercury, I attempted by querying 
representative group leaders and opinion-molders 
throughout the country to evaluate the trends of 



public opinion and action in the following six months; 
and to interpret and project them into the future. 
. . . The results of our survey proved to be remark 
ably accurate. Public opinion and events took place 
according to expectation. I have completed a new 
survey to try to forecast public opinion on major 
issues, arising out of present events and in some cases 
to forecast events themselves. This article give in 
broad outline the results of our latest survey. 

"Here are the conclusions to be drawn from this 
study: The American people will join a postwar 
union of nations; with victory, America and her 
Allies will occupy a conquered Germany and Japan 
until they become economically sound and politically 
democratic; America believes it will not enter an 
other war until at least twenty- five years from now; 
Americans think that Presidential tenure should be 
limited by law; postwar taxes should be levied on 
all income groups, and distributed proportionately; 
wartime controls should be continued in the postwar 
period, primarily on necessary goods, through mini 
mum wage laws, and wage ceilings; reconversion 
should be handled by both government and private 
industry, and not by government alone. In the light 
of current political, economic, and social trends, the 
United States will move in the next ten years to 
wards a mixed economy, increasing cooperative in 
terest and control by both government and private 
industry. The people will demand a law requiring 
confirmation of treaties by a majority vote of both 
houses of Congress. We will have compulsory mili 
tary training for young men after the war but 
on the question of a national service of men and 
women a forecast is difficult because we are di 
vided." 

Apparel Arts. "Prophets and Profits ..." Vol. 

VII, No. 4, Apr-May 1937. pp. 138-139. 
Editorial note: "Edward L. Bernays, whose appraisal 
of the apparel industry's problems is presented here, 
has very aptly been termed one of the nation's lead 
ing publicists. He has acted as counsel on public re 
lations to many of the nation's outstanding industries 
and industrial organizations and has helped to shape 
policies which have brought them into the forefront 
of favorable public attention. His services have been 
retained not only by important groups in America 
and Europe, but also by our own government and 
other public bodies. Mr. Bernays' books on the sub 
ject of public relations, 'Crystallizing Public Opin 
ion' and 'Propaganda,' are textbooks in various uni 
versities and he is in demand by colleges and eco 
nomic organizations to discuss his profession, which 
he was instrumental in founding." 

In this article, ELB says that the development of 
the men's apparel business in America will depend 
upon an adherence to the principle that "the public 
interest and the private interest must coincide." He 
adds: "The more the public knows about its interest 
in the business, the better for the business. The rec 
ognition in action of this principle by all should be a 
dynamic factor in creating more good will and 
more profit." 



15 

Association News: "Publicity in International 
Trade. How Public Opinion Was Influenced by 
the United States during the War." Published by 
the American Manufacturers Export Associa 
tion. Vol. 1, No. 24, Apr 1920. pp. 1-5. 
Editor's Note: "Edward L. Bernays has a record of 
achievement in domestic and international publicity 
which makes his statements on this subject authori 
tative. As head of the Export Section of the Com 
mittee on Public Information, a department which 
he created and organized personally, he established 
wide contacts with foreign merchants and the for 
eign press in every important country in South 
America, Europe and the East. The methods which 
he discusses in this article are those which he applied 
with notable success during the war to selling po 
litical and commercial good-will for America through 
out the world. He has had uniquely varied experi 
ence in the field of publicity, his activities ranging 
from American advisor to foreign governments to 
special advisor in various capacities to departments 
of our own government." 

In this article, ELB describes the techniques he 
used as chief of the Export Section of the Committee 
on Public Information. These consisted of (1) organ 
izing the American exporters into "such a medium 
of distribution for political information that no field 
of approach to the foreign markets and to foreign 
opinion was left untouched by the ideas we wished 
to sell them"; (2) the use on all printed matter that 
left an American firm for a foreign country of some 
slogan illustrating America's purpose; (3) supplying 
travelling salesmen with photos and other material 
graphically illustrating America's advance develop 
ments; (4) commercial advertisements in foreign 
dailies containing educational matter as well; (5) the 
distribution with every bit of mail which left the 
United States for foreign countries of short fillers in 
a number of languages; these fillers explained Amer 
ica's purposes in entering the war, the ends it hoped 
to attain, the methods for attaining them: leading 
manufacturers and exporters enclosed this material 
in their foreign correspondence ; (6) cooperation with 
Film Division of the Committee in the preparation 
and distribution of motion pictures in allied and 
neutral countries; (7) insertion of editorial matter 
in catalogues; etc., etc. 

ELB points out that no part of this "great experi 
ment" of selling America to the world has survived. 
"No effort is being made either by the government, 
by associations of manufacturers and exporters, or 
by individual business men to take advantage of a 
golden opportunity for obtaining a position of proud 
pre-eminence in almost every export market." ELB 
suggests "the building up of a background of public 
interest in the particular venture here in the United 
States"; the expansion of this campaign abroad "by 
experts who are competent to see to it that it is 
properly prepared in the different languages and that 
it reaches the proper media of distribution abroad" 
via foreign correspondents, news services, syndi 
cates, photo agencies and important foreign news 
papers. 



16 

Best Magazine Articles of the Year. "Why We 
Behave Like Inhuman Beings." Selected by the 
Leading Editors of the Nation. 1949. pp. 70-73. 

Condensation of Household article. See Household, 

below. 

Bookman. "The Minority Rules." Apr 1927. 
ELB said: "In the active proselytizing minorities in 
whom personal and public interests necessarily coin 
cide lie in the progress and development of America. 
Only through the active energy of the intelligent few 
can the public at large become aware of and act upon 
new ideas, usually good, occasionally bad." 

Congressional Record. "Why We Behave Like 
Inhuman Beings." Vol. 95, No. 60, Apr 8, 1949, 
pp. A2222-A2224. 

This article originally published by Household, is 
reprinted in Congressional Record as extension of 
remarks of Hon. Albert M. Cole, of Kansas in the 
House of Representatives. See Household, below. 

. " Your Public Relations in the National 

Emergency." Vol. 97, No. 24, Feb. 7, 1951. 
Appendix, p. A678. See Addenda, Item 9. 

Connecting Link. From the Office of Edward L. 

Bernays. No. 4. Jul 29, 1922. 4pp. 
Brochure: "Issued occasionally by the office of the 
Public Relations Counsel of the Hotel Association of 
New York City in the interests of furthering the 
common cause of better public relations. . . . Each 
recipient of this number of 'The Connecting Link' 
is receiving with it a page of the 'New York Tribune' 
of July 2nd. This article reflects in a humorous way 
some of the activities the Welcome Stranger Com 
mittee has set for itself. ... The activities of the 
Welcome Stranger Committee are well under way. 
Steps are being taken to reflect New York as it really 
is to the country and to build up good will and busi 
ness for this city. . . . Editorials and editorial com 
ments on the Welcome Stranger Movement were 
printed in newspapers throughout the country." 

Contact. "Putting Politics on the Market." No. 31. 
This article by ELB, which appeared in The Inde 
pendent see below is reprinted in Contact, a 
four-page magazine "published periodically" in 
New York by "Edward L. Bernays, Counsel on 
Public Relations," who was also its editor. Contact 
was published from 1922 to 1934 in numbers 1 
through 43, but was undated, and carried no volume 
number. Devoted to the field of public relations, the 
magazine was mailed free to group leaders and 
opinion moulders throughout the United States. 

Coronet. "Why We Behave Like Inhuman Beings." 
Vol. 27, No. 4, Whole No. 160. Feb 1950, pp. 
126-130. 

For contents of this article see Household. 

Current Controversy. "The Public Mouthpiece: A 
New Cabinet Officer, Secretary of Public Rela 
tions, Is Suggested as a Safeguard of Democracy" 
Nov 1935, pp. 28, 40. 

ELB says: "The safeguarding of democracy in 



America today and for the future demands that there 
be in the Cabinet of the United States a Secretary 
of Public Relations whose duty it would be to serve 
the American people as a liaison officer between them 
and their government. The proposal is made to meet 
the need of the American people for some unbiased 
channel through which the President of the United 
States would learn of the changing wishes of the 
people, and of the actual effect of his government 
policies in the factories, mills, offices and homes of 
the land. In this way, there would be in the cabinet, 
serving the public interest, a responsible executive 
officer to interpret the people to the Administration, 
and the Administration to the great mass of the 
people." 

ELB emphasizes that the proposed Secretary of 
Public Relations would function solely with the 
executive branch of the government the Presi 
dent, Cabinet members, departments, and would in 
no way be connected with Congress or the judiciary. 
He would be neither a propagandist nor a censor; 
his function would be solely that of "explanation and 
interpretation." He would direct the various public 
relations activities of the executive branch of the 
government and would "examine all statements of 
policy before they were made public to guard against 
possible contradictions or inconsistencies." 

Current History and Forum. See Addenda, 
Item 11. 

Delineator. "A Challenge to Women's Clubs." Nov 

1928, pp. 14, 83-84, 86. 

Editorial note: "Here is a clear and forceful plan of 
battle for all who desire to better their own com 
munities." 

In this article ELB tells how women, organized in 
groups, are using the new tool of propaganda to mold 
public opinion on questions of education, better gov 
ernment, and many industries. Showing how public 
opinion is crystallized into desired action, ELB says 
that women's clubs must be effectively organized, 
that they must have clear objectives, that they 
should consult experts in public opinion who will 
make opinion surveys for them, that the cooperation 
of national and local societies can and should be 
obtained. After the objective has been clearly de 
termined, the women's clubs must know, classify and 
analyze "the public through whose cooperation the 
battle is to be won." The problem is "to discover 
exactly what the dominant groups in the community 
feel towards the proposed change, and on what basis 
a realignment of these groups can be brought about 
in favor of the proposed measure. . . . Our next 
problem is to find a series of common denominators 
of interest between ourselves and these groups we 
are trying to align with us." Once the strategy of 
attack is decided upon and the basic motivations 
to be played upon are clear, the battle begins. Here 
action is guided by specific conditions; if the enemy 
is the local legislature, one method is required, if 
an official, another method. The leaders of the 
women's clubs rouse the community to action 
through mass media of communication the news- 



paper, the picture, the movies, etc. Events are or 
ganized to create news. Appeals are made to reason 
and the emotions. ELB then discusses techniques of 
mobilizing public opinion, including the role of a 
sponsoring committee of community leaders, press 
releases, letter campaigns, meetings, parades, etc. 

Eastern Underwriter. "The Great American Attack 
Racket." Fortieth Year, No. 40, Oct 6, 1939, 
p. 50. 

ELB indicates the public relations counter-offensive 
by which the insurance business can meet attacks. 
"This counter-offensive should define for insurance 
and for the people what the private interest and 
public responsibility of insurance companies are and 
should be. These definitions should become the guide 
posts of policy and action for the insurance compa 
nies. And with these as a basis, insurance should be 
able to build up for itself an impregnable position in 
the American economic pattern." 

Economic Forum. "How to Restore Public Confi 
dence in Business and Finance." Winter 1936, 
pp. 273-283. 

A four-point program of action "to teach the public 
that it needs modern business and financial institu 
tions, and cannot get along without them, in what 
ever set-up there is." 

The four steps are: (1) The public will accept the 
need for modern business and financial institutions 
if men they believe in as symbols "become spokes 
men for business and finance"; these spokesmen 
should be people "who have no personal axe to 
grind, who have no private profit to gain, who are 
interested in attempting to solve the problems that 
confront our American system. . . . Publicists, 
economists, leaders in research, the heads of great 
educational institutions can and should be made 
human symbols to bring new faith and new strength 
to business and finance"; (2) "The second approach 
is one of public education. . . . Words expressing 
the entire function and nature of business and 
financial institutions must be re-defined and re- 
clarified so that every member of the public will 
have a clear idea of the value of the word symbols 
that go to make up business and finance. . . . Every 
medium that reaches the public must carry these 
ideas to the public. Such public education cannot 
be accused of self-interest, for the public interest 
and an intelligent knowledge and understanding of 
business and finance, and their place in our society, 
are one . . . "; (3) "The third approach to the 
problem is to re-establish business men and financiers 
in the public mind by the very activities in which 
they engage. This can be done by letting them, 
through their deeds, again assume the position in 
the community which they used to occupy. The busi 
nessman and the banker must again become the 
public-spirited citizen, symbol of pro bono publico"; 
(4) ". . . financial institutions and business gen 
erally must offer a fair and honest service to the 
public. They must recognize that their most vital 
relationship is with the public, and that the service 
or product which they offer to the public must con- 



17 

tinuously be able to meet the scrutiny of public 
opinion." 

"Growth of a Sound Idea; Public Relations 

and American Industry." N. Y. 1936. 42pp. 
Editorial note: "The reaction of national leaders in 
many walks of life to an article which appeared in a 
recent issue of 'Economic Forum' . . . proved to 
be so interesting that the Editor decided to prepare 
this brochure as a significant indication of the growth 
and development of a sound idea." 
In the section entitled "The Idea," an editorial note 
says: "Realizing the necessity of rebuilding confi 
dence as the fundamental first step in a program that 
will explain that it is by the business of abundant 
production of goods and services, and not by recrim 
ination, that America achieved its economic great 
ness, the Editors of 'Economic Forum," ever alert to 
interpret the ideas upon which America's economic 
progress depends, decided to devote the major at 
tention of a recent issue of 'Economic Forum' to an 
examination of the public relations of business and 
finance. To present this subject accurately, com 
pletely, and authoritatively, the Editors elicited the 
opinions of business leaders, attended conventions 
of industry and finance, sought out the best authori 
ties on the subject, published their findings and 
editorial opinions in a special public relations issue. 
For a feature article on this subject they requested 
America's leading expert on public relations, Mr. 
Edward L. Bernays, to tell 'How to Restore Public 
Confidence in Business and Finance.' " 
In the section entitled "The Author," an editorial 
note says: "In asking Mr. Edward L. Bernays to 
write for 'Economic Forum' on this important sub 
ject, the Editors selected America's foremost counsel 
on public relations. . . . We find Mr. Bernays' 
comments important because the application of his 
ideas to business situations is intensely practical. 
He has proved the importance of public relations 
counsel in industries as diverse as textile, soap, auto 
mobile, piano, radio, luggage, oil, and refrigerator 
manufacturing, in educational movements, in politi 
cal, governmental and scientific problems. Readers 
will remember his handling of Light's Golden Jubi 
lee, in which Thomas A. Edison, Henry Ford and 
other leaders participated. Because of this wealth of 
experience the Editors of 'Economic Forum' feel that 
Mr. Bernays' ideas, applied to the present situation, 
are extremely practical, valuable and important." 

English Quarterly. "language of Live Men," Vol. I, 
No. 3. Oscar H. Fedell, Ed., Theodore Roosevelt 
High School, 500 East Fordham Road, N. Y. 
58, N. Y: pp. 11-13. 

Editorial note preceding article says: "Edward L. 
Bernays is one of America's outstanding counsellors 
on public relations, TIME magazine once having 
called him 'U. S. Publicist No. 1'. . . , He has been 
adviser to Presidents and has represented our gov 
ernment in numerous activities. In between times he 
has become the author of 'Propaganda,' 'Crystalliz 
ing Public Opinion,' 'Speak Up for Democracy,' and 
'Take Your Place at the Peace Table.' " 



18 

ELB's article discusses the need of an understand 
ing of language in a democracy and stresses impor 
tance of the teaching of English in our schools. He 
says: "At this point in the twentieth century crisis, 
language assumes a primary role. If the great mass 
of the global public is to understand what is really 
going on, then the experts who undertake to explain 
it all, and the millions who eagerly listen for guid 
ance, must both be trained in the precise use of 
words. Everywhere, however, the power of stimulat 
ing a desired attitude or course of action is closely 
connected with the power to use words precisely. 
Since in this country the words are English, great 
responsibility, opportunity and privilege rest upon 
our English teachers." 

Financial Diary. "Public Relations in Business," 

Vol. II, No. 3. Apr 1930, pp. 4-6. 
ELB says: "Since every corporation engaged in 
business must depend upon the public for its support 
and its success, it is important that every public 
contact be consistent with company policy and that 
company policy be based on sound understanding 
of the public. Need for skill and experience in direct 
ing and supervising these public contacts has de 
veloped a new profession public relations counsel. 
. . . The new profession provides new help for or 
ganizations trying to solve the ever more perplexing 
and complicated problems of reaching company 
objectives more good will, more business, more 
profits. Its techniques, intelligently handled, is ap 
plicable to every company which deals with and 
depends upon others for its corporate existence." 

ELB then reviews various factors which condi 
tion the behavior of the buying public and how 
public relations can influence that behavior. "Let us 
inquire how a public relations policy is formulated 
and developed in the case of a railroad, for instance. 
What are the points of contact of a railroad with 
the public and how can they best be directed to 
produce the best result? What is the product a rail 
road sells and how can it be presented to the public 
so that the greatest receptivity will be produced 
for that product? What channels are available, in 
addition, to those normally used, such as advertising, 
to convey the railroad and what it stands for, to the 
public? . . . How can business hear what the 
public has to say? How can it modify its actions to 
conform to the public's desires? How can it speak to 
the public in a language the public understands 
and appreciates? The modern way is through the 
services of an expert in public opinion. . . . It is 
the function of the public relations man to help two 
partners business and the public to understand 
each other and to supplement each other so that the 
business may develop to the advantage of both." 

Financial World. "A Challenge to Business Busi 
ness Must Sell Itself to the Public." Vol. LXVI, 
No. 19, Nov 4, 1936. pp. 453-454. 
Editorial note: "An expert in 'selling ideas to the 
public,' the author sees that the big job for business 
today is to make the American people realize the part 
business plays in the American system." 



For business to sell itself to the public, to preserve 
the American system and to preserve itself, ELB 
says, three steps are indicated: 1. The leaders in 
America's economic fields must recognize that the 
problem exists; 2. they must get together; 3. a pro 
gram of public education must be decided upon 
which should reach the public through every chan 
nel of communication and in terms of the public's 
interest and understanding. 

Forbes. " Your Business Has Many Publics." Vol. 

57, No. 2, Jan 15, 1946, pp. 32-33. 
In this article ELB discusses the opportunity of 
business executives to build a sound structure of 
public relations. Presenting briefly the steps to be 
followed in such a campaign, the article emphasizes 
the identification of the publics of a business and 
what they think. "The first step of the business 
executive, in determining his relationship toward all 
these facets, is to study each public on which he 
impinges and find out what each group thinks of the 
attitudes and practices of his company. Next, he 
should study himself, his attitudes, his practices, 
his products and stack up his findings against 
the opinions of his various publics. He will then be 
able to isolate points of irritation and to develop 
further the existing areas of agreement. . . . When 
all points of dissatisfaction have been determined, 
the wise executive will then use all possible ingenuity 
to correct solutions that can be changed practicably. 
. . . Only after such changes are made is it possible 
to re-educate the public and create a new under 
standing of the goals and services of the company. 
. . . And indirectly, in many ways, the company 
can assume leadership in community or national 
affairs and dramatize its interest in the general 
public welfare." 

Foreign Service. "Here's How to Speak Up for 
Democracy," Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1940, pp. 6-7, 
46-48. 

Condensation of ELB's book Speak Up for Democ 
racy. See above. 

Forum. "Are We Victims of Propaganda? A Debate 
by Everett Dean Martin and Edward L. Bernays." 
Vol. LXXXI, No. 3, Mar 1929. pp. 142-149. 
To the question implied in the title, "Are we victims 
of propaganda?", the editorial note answers: " Yes, 
says Mr. Martin. Propaganda is making puppets of 
us. We are moved by hidden springs which the 
propagandist manipulates. No, says Mr. Edward 
L. Bernays. The propagandist has developed a tech 
nique which minorities can employ equally well to 
break up majorities. Thus employed, propaganda 
becomes a powerful weapon against intolerance and 
the tyranny of the herd." This is in briefest summary 
of Mr. Martin's extended affirmative argument, 
"Our Invisible Masters," Mr. Bernays' negative, 
"Our Debt to Propaganda," and Mr. Martin's re 
buttal. To Mr. Martin's position "Propaganda is 
not the same as public instruction. It is never disin 
terested information. . . . Even good ends may not 
justify the means commonly employed. . . . Fur 
thermore, the identity of (propagandists) ... is 



seldom disclosed and they are responsible to no one" 
Mr. Bernays replies, "Mr. Martin . . . voices 
the opinion of a section of the intelligent public 
which knows a little about propaganda, but . . . 
more about what propagandists against propaganda 
believe it to be. . . . Mr. Martin looks at the whole 
subject of propaganda much as a man who asked to 
write on the question, 'Are we victims of medicine?' 
would discuss only the fakers and quacks. ... It 
is my belief that propaganda serves a useful purpose. 
... It tends to keep open an arena in public life in 
which the battle of truth may be fairly fought. . . ." 

Forum and Century. "Does Propaganda Menace 
Democracy?" Vol. XCIX, No. 6, Jun 1938, 
pp. 341-342. 

In this magazine debate with Ferdinand Lundberg, 
Edward L. Bernays upholds the worth of a "melting 
pot of ideas." He states: "The presentation of facts 
and points of view offers everyone a choice as to the 
course of action he may pursue. Here in America, 
freedom of opinion of propaganda exists. Un 
der authoritarian regimes this is not true. Here 
many points of view are freely expressed. In authori 
tarian countries there is only one point of view per 
mitted. And force and coercion implement this. 
Through the interplay, in a democracy, of discussion, 
argument, and persuasion, we are safeguarded. All 
groups and opinions thus have an opportunity to be 
heard. The public acceptance of new ideas, in medi 
cine, in social service, in business, in political 
processes, has been brought about by public educa 
tion, by propaganda. Propaganda is also an im 
portant tool in social change. Minority ideas become 
effective more quickly as a result of it." 

Freedom & Union. "Put Your Idea into Action," 

Vol. 2, No. 9, Oct 1947, pp. 20-21. 
Editorial note says: "Termed 'U. S. Publicist No. 1* 
by "Time," the author led in creating the profession 
of public relations which he still leads. No one is so 
qualified to tackle the problem of mass persuasion 
which Mr. Bernays discusses here." 

ELB discusses the practical approaches to the 
problems of peace and tells how individuals can be 
effective in their efforts. He says: "America's vast sys 
tem of communication is a powerful instrument for 
persuasion to action on behalf of democratic ideals. 
. . . The public can be convinced of the soundness of 
an idea, and it can be stimulated to act on its convic 
tions. If we are to achieve any sort of world amity, it 
will have to be based on an effective democracy in 
America a democracy in which the entire country 
participates." 

The article begins, "The freedom to persuade and 
suggest is the essence of the democratic process. 
Communication is the instrument with which to 
engineer consent for social action." Here interpreting 
"engineering of consent" to mean "getting people to 
support ideas and programs through the application 
of scientific principles and methods . . . (which) 
can be learned by anyone who will make the effort 
to study them ..." ELB also points out that 
while "scientific persuasion . . . has contributed to 



19 

the efficient functioning of society . . . demagogues 
have misused the techniques for anti-democratic 
purposes (so that) . . . public education must help 
us discriminate between subversive and constructive 
persuasion. . . . Basic principles," he says, "in 
clude knowledge and careful planning, courage and 
conviction . . . (with) four preliminary steps nec 
essary to any program of effective action: 1. Ap 
praise all resources . . . ; 2. Understand the sub 
ject thoroughly . . . ; 3. Determine your . objec 
tive . . . ; 4. Study the public . . . group and group 
alignments. . . . The matter of organization," he 
continues, "depends on two things: 1. Your own 
energy and effectiveness; 2. Your initial budget;" 
and, finally, "Events must be planned ... in such 
a way that they will accomplish two purposes: 1. 
They must symbolize the idea for which you stand; 
2. They must be handled so dramatically that they 
will successfully compete for attention. . . . The 
success of a program depends on the effectiveness 
with which it is communicated, and more than this, 
on the logic with which the entire program has been 
thought out and developed. . ." 

House Furnishing Review. "How to Overcome 

Depression Fears," Jun 1947, pp. 2-4. 
ELB discusses the role of fear in inducing business 
fluctuations and presents a formula for preventing 
"economic jitters": "Whatever our theory may 
be regarding business cycles and their cause, fear 
plays some part in them, for men and women who 
have fears are an integral part of them. . . . We are 
afraid today not only of a possible depression or 
recession. We are probably more afraid of the de 
pressing effects of fear itself . . . obviously fears of 
some groups are more powerful, influential, more 
explosive than fears of other groups. . . . We can 
eliminate many of the fear-makers from our social 
and economic system. We can do this, and we should, 
voluntarily, as businessmen. If we rely mainly on 
government to accomplish this freedom from fear, we 
may well lose much of our freedom. America wants 
both freedom and security. But we can achieve a bal 
ance between freedom and security if every group 
voluntarily approaches the task so as to forestall gov 
ernment control over both security and liberty." 

Household. "Why We Behave Like Inhuman Be 
ings" Feb 1949, pp. 7, 69-76. 

This article analyzes the 20th Century crisis in terms 
of human behavior and shows how the social sciences 
can help us overcome this crisis. The article con 
cludes: "Thus science, with its modern equipment 
of experiment and method, is seeking to solve the 
problem of inhuman behavior through greater and 
greater knowledge of man and the world in which he 
lives. The key to our liberation from our jungle 
heritage of force and fraud lies in accelerated self- 
understanding. The truth shall indeed make us free 
when we learn with the same control we exercise over 
the physical nature, that it must now be the truth 
about ourselves." 

Independent. "Putting Politics on the Market," 
Vol. 120, No. 4068, May 19, 1928, pp.47(M72. 



20 



ELB urges politics to employ the public relations 
techniques of big business in order "to do away with 
inefficiency in campaigning." 

After suggesting that politics has failed to keep up 
with business methods in mass distribution of ideas 
and products, ELB recommends a program for 
remedying this defect. "Politicians who know po 
litical strategy and who can develop campaign issues, 
who can devise strong planks for platforms and en 
visage broad policies cannot be given the responsi 
bility of selling ideas to a public of more than 100,- 
000,000. The politician understands the public. He 
knows what the public wants and what the public 
will accept. But the politician is not necessarily a 
general sales manager, a public relations counsel, or 
a man who knows how to secure a mass distribution 
of ideas. . . . The political campaign today is all 
side shows, all honors, all bombast, glitter, and 
speeches. . . . Big business is conducted on the 
principle that it must prepare its policies carefully 
and that, in selling an idea to the large buying public 
of America, it must proceed according to broad plans. 
The political strategist must do likewise. The entire 
campaign should be worked out according to broad 
basic plans. Platforms, planks, pledges, budgets, ac 
tivities, and personalities must be as carefully 
studied, apportioned, and used as they are when a 
business desires to get what it wants from the public. 
The first step in a political campaign is to determine 
on the objectives, and to express them exceedingly 
well in the current form that is, as a platform. 
. . . To aid in the preparation of the platform there 
should be made as scientifically as possible an 
analysis of the public, in order to determine just 
what the platform should contain. . . . The ex 
penses of a political campaign should be budgeted. 
. . . The first question which should be decided is 
the amount of money to be raised for the campaign. 
This decision can be reached by a careful analysis of 
campaign costs. . . . Then the second question of 
importance is the manner in which money should 
be raised. It is obvious that politics would gain 
much in prestige if the money-raising campaign 
were conducted candidly and publicly, just as the 
war campaign funds were raised. . . . The third 
step is to decide how the money is to be spent. This 
should be done according to the most careful and 
exact budgeting, wherein every step in the campaign 
is given its proportionate importance, and the funds 
allotted accordingly. ... In the same way the 
emotions by which the public is appealed to may 
be made part of the broad plan of the campaign. 
Unrelated emotions become maudlin and senti 
mental too easily, are often costly, and too often 
waste effort because the idea is not part of the con 
scious and coherent whole. . . . The emotional 
content must, first, coincide in every way with the 
broad basic plans of the campaign and all its minor 
details; second, it must be adapted to the many 
groups of the public at which it is to be aimed; and 
third, it must conform to the media of the distribu 
tion of ideas. . . . It is essential for the campaign 
manager to educate emotions in terms of groups. 



. . . The political campaign having denned its broad 
objects and its basic plans, having denned the group 
appeal which it must use and the groups which it 
must reach, must now define the various channels 
through which it can appeal to the public as a whole. 
. . . But whatever is done must be synchronized 
accurately with all other forms of appeal to the 
public. Many events can be planned, events which 
must dramatize the ideas for which the candidate or 
the party or the platform stands. Activities must be 
coordinated, the platform itself must be so pre 
sented that every plank of it may be as understanda 
ble, as graphic, as concise as the slogan of a soap 
manufacturer or a motor company. . . . When this 
is achieved it is possible that political supply and 
demand can be brought closer together. Scientific 
methods and sales charts will supercede the guesses 
and the betting that form so large a part of the 
campaigning today." 

. "This Business of Propaganda." Vol. 121, 

No. 4083, Sept 1928, pp. 198-199. 
Editorial note: "Propaganda is an ancient art, but it 
required the war to develop a new profession skilled 
in its uses. Governments, prominent persons, bank 
ing, industry have all called upon the public relations 
counsel to smooth out their contacts with the world. 
Somewhat recently the investigation of power pub 
licity has focused attention upon the legitimate use 
of propaganda. THE INDEPENDENT has invited 
Mr. Bernays, one of the most prominent public rela 
tions counsels and author of 'Crystallizing Public 
Opinion,' to explain in this article the rules of his 
profession and the limitations of propaganda." 

In the article, ELB says the ethics of a propagan 
dist or public relations counsel should be: (1) never 
to represent or plead in the court of public opinion 
a cause he believes is socially unsound; (2) never to 
take the cases of conflicting clients; (3) "when he 
deals with any of the media of disseminating ideas to 
the public press, radio, lecture platform or motion 
pictures he will do so as the representative of his 
client, 'maintaining the same standards of truth with 
them as govern the morals and habits of the world he 
lives in.' The social value of the public relations 
counsel," ELB concludes, "lies in the fact that he 
brings to the public facts and ideas of social value 
which would not so readily gain acceptance other 
wise. While he, of course, may represent men and 
individuals who have already gained great accept 
ance in the public mind, he may represent new ideas 
of value not yet accepted." 

Industrial and Labor Relations Review. "An 

Educational Program for Unions," Vol. 1, No. 1. 

Oct 1947, pp. 103-109. 

ELB discusses industrial relations from the public 
relations standpoint. "It appears to me that unions 
still have an important job of work to do; namely, 
to carry on an intensified factual educational cam 
paign, to instruct not only the general public and 
management, but their own union members as well, 
on the bedrock facts of the struggle for industrial 
democracy. . . . Organized labor can help educate 



21 



both management and workers to a realization of this 
obligation. Such education has one basic purpose: to 
create understanding, so that management and labor 
may work together effectively and prevent clashes. 
And this cooperation must come, for our system 
cannot stand continuous warfare." After examining 
the educational program of one progressive union, 
which consisted of: educating members to enter into 
the union's work; to strengthen democracy; and to 
sell itself to its own rank and file, ELB suggests addi 
tional programs: "(1) Make the public understand 
the value to the country of sound unions and ma 
ture union leadership. (2) Make the employer un 
derstand the value of unions to him, and make him 
realize that he needs to apply the science of hu- 
manics, the study of human relations. (3) Make the 
worker understand our industrial system and his 
role in it. This type of education will lay the founda 
tions for a broader understanding of controversial 
economic issues, and build toward increased coopera 
tion between labor and other major sectors of our 
society." 

Infantry Journal. "War against Words." Vol. 

XLVII, No. 5. Sept-Oct 1940, pp. 482^85. 
In discussing the importance of modern propaganda 
techniques in psychological warfare today, ELB 
says: "The Army of the United States must make full 
use of this art and this science if it is to have the 
highest potential morale within its own forces, and 
the highest efficiency in attack and counter-attack 
on the enemy in the psychological warfare of today." 
After pointing up the increased role played by 
propaganda activities in the first World War and 
its even greater prospects for the second World War, 
ELB outlines a program for effective counter-propa 
ganda. "The most effective method, of course, is to 
develop in one's own adherents an overwhelming will 
to victory, a belief in strength, a certainty of suc 
cess, a forceful morale. Morale is dependent on 
many factors. Counter-propaganda can meet the 
strategy of terror aimed to break it down by 
(1) Emphasis by reiteration of the weaknesses of the 
enemy, using facts, figures and dramatization of 
strong spots. (2) Deflation of the attack of words be 
fore it is launched by calling attention to it, exposing 
the method, and thus taking the wind out of its sails." 

. "Morale: First Line of Defense." Vol. 

XLVIII, No. 5, May 1941. pp. 32-35, 69. 
Editorial note in "Meet Our Authors": "Edward L. 
Bernays is the well-known public relations counsel. 
During the World War he served as a member of 
the staff of the United States Committee on Public 
Information the 'Creel Committee' and he 
was later also on duty in Paris at the Peace Confer 
ence. He wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion and 
Propaganda. This issue carries his second contribu 
tion to The Infantry Journal; the first, 'War Against 
Words,' appeared in the September-October, 1940 
number." p. 69. 

Emphasizing that in modern warfare "psychologi 
cal ramparts are as important as physical ramparts," 
ELB urges that "our morale is our true first line of 



defense." While national unity and morale must 
come from all, "it cannot be imposed from any cen 
tral authority or control." The Army can help build 
morale by 1 . exerting itself to make democracy work 
better by cherishing democratic standards both in 
its own inner workings and its relations with those 
not in the Army; to defend democracy, our Army 
must be a democratic army; 2. leaders of the Army 
can aid in making democracy work better by their 
public expression in favor of those causes that, make 
for a more closely knit democracy; Army leaders can 
strengthen America's psychological front by becom 
ing articulate, dynamic proponents of democracy, 
pp. 32-33. 

Commenting on the importance of the Army's 
newly established Public Relations Bureau and Mo 
rale Branch, ELB recommends the following. 

For the Bureau: 1. a broader survey than has yet 
been made of Army customs and practices; 2. a study 
of what the public expects of its democratic army; 
3. a study to ascertain what words, pictures and ac 
tions, and what type of presentation will best con 
vey the facts about the Army to the public; 4. 
through the Bureau of Public Relations, Army lead 
ers should express themselves to a greater extent 
than at present upon matters affecting democracy; 
the educational system of the country can be urged 
to study and teach the varied fields of learning that 
enter into the new political and psychological war 
fare; 5. the Bureau should speak up for democracy 
within the Army itself; 6. it should avail itself more 
and more of the intellectual resources of the scientific 
and .trained personnel available in this country. 

For the Morale Branch: 1. the fullest use of spe 
cialized scientific personnel to serve on a Morale 
Commission that will advise the Army's public rela 
tions and morale agencies on policies and methods; 
2. to harness civilian intellectual capacities to the 
problems the country and the Army face, both 
within the Army and in the relation of the Army to 
civilians; experts in the social sciences sociologists, 
psychologists, psychiatrists, social psychologists, 
adult educators, experts in public relations and com 
munications are likewise willing to place them 
selves at the disposal of the government and should 
be called upon as freely, p. 34. 

Journalism Quarterly. "The Press Must Act to 
Meet Postwar Responsibility," Vol. 21, No. 2. 
Jun 1944, pp. 122-129. 

Editorial note: "Mr. Bernays, the well-known public 
relations counselor, here analyzes newspaper 'plat 
forms' and public acceptance of the press, and sug 
gests steps it must take to maintain its position in 
the world of tomorrow." 

ELB's analysis is based on the premise that 
"communications today and in the postwar world 
constitute a problem of vital concern. The press, 
radio, motion pictures and magazines are our four 
greatest media of communication. They bear tre 
mendous social responsibility . . . which will de 
termine what the future shall be. ... The daily 
press has made enormous strides in the last few 



22 



years. . . . But the press . . . has failed to gain the 
broad public acceptance it should, either as a dis 
seminator of news or as an instrument of social 
leadership, the two functions of a free and inde 
pendent press in a democracy. There is danger to 
our democratic well-being in this condition, for unless 
the public regards the press as a free and independent 
medium and an instrument of leadership . . . 
there may be a tendency . . . toward restriction 
and control, despite the First Amendment." 

ELB says his conclusions are based upon "a study 
of authoritative surveys . . . and from personal 
correspondence with publishers all over the nation. 
. . . One hundred sixty-nine publishers of American 
daily newspapers in 161 cities, in 43 states where 
96 per cent of the dailies are located, cooperated. 
. . . The newspapers I studied were approximately 
nine per cent of the entire daily press of America 
... a cross-section of the entire press." 

In the study, problems "vitally affecting both the 
public and the press" were involved: "First, what are 
the public relations policies and practices that gov 
ern American daily newspapers today? Second, what 
are the attitudes of the American people toward 
the . . . press. . . ? Third, what are the issues 
and goals the American people are interested in now 
and for the post-war period? . . . We shall appraise 
newspapers and their platforms from two stand 
points," ELB also pointed out, "first, as a profes 
sional service purveying news, an informant of public 
opinion, independent and free; second, as a social in 
strument of leadership expressing itself in interest in 
the local community in improvements, projects, 
cooperation; and in interest in the national govern 
ment in patriotism, in war and postwar interests." 

ELB concludes: "If the newspaper effectively 
serves the public as a news disseminator and a social 
instrument, we do not need to be concerned about 
the newspaper as a successful private enterprise. 
. . . Newspapers may have much advertising and 
circulation brought about by many different causes 
today, but if they do not act on these basic consider 
ations they will not be able to maintain their position 
in our society." ELB gives "recommendations for 
platforms of leadership character" leading to the 
high point that the press "must 'sell' to the public 
constantly that it is truthful and accurate. ... It 
must stress to the public in every way its inde 
pendence from domination by newspaper owners, 
politicians, capitalists, government or advertisers. 
. . . This can be done through what is known as the 
'engineering of consent,' using public relations pro 
cedures . . . [covering] a knowledge of maladjust 
ments with the public, and their elimination; of ob 
jectives, themes, strategy, timing, planning, or 
ganization and the use of tactics, through every 
channel of approach. . ." 

. "Views on Postwar Responsibility of the 

American Press." Vol. 22, No. 3, Sept 1945, 
pp. 255-262. 

Editor's note: "Mr. Bernays, the well-known public 
relations counselor, presents a representative collec 



tion of frank and enlightening comments on his 
article in the June 1944 Journalism Quarterly, which 
has provoked wide discussion." 

ELB says: "In the June 1944 Journalism Quar 
terly was published my article entitled 'The Press 
Must Act to Meet Postwar Responsibility!' . . . 
The article dealt with stated policies of American 
newspapers and how they practice them; the atti 
tudes of the public toward the press; the issues that 
the public considers to be important; and recom 
mendations on public relations for the daily press. 
It pointed out that danger signals existed for the 
American press. From an interpretation of authorita 
tive surveys, it suggested that the press has failed to 
gain the broad public acceptance which its function 
in a democracy demands the function of a dissemi 
nator of accurate, complete and unbiased news and an 
instrument of social leadership. It concluded that, 
unless steps were taken to remedy this condition, 
not only does the press stand to suffer but the 
progress of the nation itself might be impeded. . . . 
The London's World's Press News, on September 7, 
1944, devoted a page to it and commented: 'His 
analysis must give thinking leaders of the press . . . 
concern. His article deserves serious consideration.' 
... In this country reprints of the article were sent 
for comment to a number of leading publishers and 
editors of daily newspapers and to educators, busi 
ness men and professional men. Some 500 responses 
were received from these key figures in American 
life. With one exception, the respondents supported 
the position taken in the article. The observations 
ranged from alarm at the existing problem to con 
fidence in a satisfactory solution." ELB then ab 
stracts some of the responses he received, concluding: 
"Certainly, these responses indicate an awareness of 
the problem by leaders of newspapers and other 
sectors of our society. A recognition of the necessity 
for change is a healthy sign in a democracy." 

Labor and Nation. "The Public Can Be Brought to 
Labor by Bringing Labor to the Public." Vol. I, 
No. 2, Oct 1945. pp. 33-47. 

ELB contributes to the magazine's symposium on 
"Public Attitudes Toward Labor Unions: An Analysis 
of Popular Reactions toward Labor Unionism as 
Reflected in the Public Polls by Leading Public Re 
lations Experts and National Union Officials." Other 
contributors are Philip Murray, Walter P. Reuther, 
Elmo Roper, J.B.S. Hardman, Julius Hochman. 

ELB says: "At the present time, the only data 
that is available relative to public attitudes on labor 
practices and labor leaders is that of the opinion 
polls. If I were asked to draw my conclusions from 
the opinion polls, certainly I would say that the 
public is sharply critical of labor union practices and 
of many labor leaders. That does not mean, how 
ever, that this conclusion is necessarily a correct one. 
For the polls, while they show that the general 
public is sharply critical, do not show the depth or 
the intensity of these critical opinions. . . . There 
are means of ascertaining the state of the public 
mind which may, from the broad standpoint, prove 



23 



the contrary of the polls. . . . We call our question 
technique the 'depth interview' method. . . . The 
method attempts to find the basic motivations that 
have prompted whatever the surface attitude may 
be, and to indicate the extent to which an indi 
vidual is tied to whatever opinion he may have and 
the reasons why. Such a method applied to ... 
labor union practices and labor leaders would, it 
seems to me, permit an individual to give a con 
sidered judgment . . ." 

Public regulation of certain phases of union ac 
tivity, ELB continues, might allay certain anti- 
union sentiment for the time being but would not 
necessarily be a permanent cure. To make effective 
headway, cooperation between labor and the public 
must be treated from an integrated, unified approach 
to the problem. "Such a unified approach might well 
be borrowed from what industries have done in meet 
ing comparable problems of public relationships. 
They have banded together for purposes of working 
out adjustments, . . . have modified their own 
attitudes and actions to conform to society's de 
mands and in turn, attempted to modify public 
attitudes and actions to bring about integration." 

. "Labor Education as a Problem in Public 

Relations." Vol. II, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1947, 
pp. 19-21. 

ELB presents a program for acquainting the public 
with the aims, functions and operations of labor 
unions. The editorial note says: "Edward L. Bernays 
is a nationally recognized public relations expert. 
The statement on these pages is taken from an ad 
dress by Mr. Bernays before a UAW-CIO Educa 
tional Conference held at Cleveland, Ohio, January 
24-27, 1947." 

The statement is one of three presented in the 
"How-to-Do-it Department" of this issue, with the 
editor's comment: "In response to frequent requests 
from union workers in the field, LABOR and NA 
TION will print under the above heading competent 
statements describing, in necessary and sufficient 
detail, the way 'things are being done' in various 
branches of union activity. . . . LABOR and NA 
TION invites the widest possible reporting on the 
'know-how' of all that relates to union activity, in 
dustrial and public relations, political activity, edu 
cation, democracy." 

In his discussion ELB stresses four great needs in 
labor education as a public relations problem 
(1) for labor educational programs based on essen 
tials; he outlines immediate and long-range steps to 
take; (2) for specific kinds of information about 
unions to be supplied to the public with proper plan 
ning; (3) for employer-education programs; (4) for 
economics education of union members. He gives 
explicit guides as to the "several broad lines of 
effort" along which "labor education needs to be 
directed" first, in the education of members on 
union objectives; second, in strengthening democ 
racy; third ["and this is not often announced but 
well understood"] in "selling" the union to its own 
rank and file suggesting, also, "three additional 



programs of education to make all segments of your 
public [general, employer and worker] understand 
what you want and why, and be more willing to 
accept your goals," with planning "on a broad but 
detailed scale, over an extended period." He gives an 
extensive schedule to be used in planning "to cover 
the following kinds of information about unions: 
1. What is a union? How does it function? 2. What 
are the educational and welfare activities of unions? 

3. What are the facts about collective bargaining? 

4. What are the facts about labor disputes in general? 

5. What do the words mean? [. . . to do this job 
. . . simply to apply the techniques . . . [of] mass 
education.]" For educational directors "of a great 
union" he provides an 8-point educational program 
to "help reach general union goals . . . aimed at the 
employer: 1. Educate your employer to the place of 
the union in our system, ... to study and use the 
knowledge of human relations that has been gathered 
by universities, labor unions, foundations. 2. Point 
out [the] many groups of progressive men and or 
ganizations . . . interested in studying and fur 
thering human relations . . . [which] deserve sup 
port from businessmen and labor unions . . . [such 
as] the Society for the Psychological Study of Social 
Issues, the Society for the Advancement of Manage 
ment, the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science. ... 3. Persuade them to stimulate further 
research by industrial relations schools like those at 
Cornell, Princeton. 4. Encourage [them] to carry on 
technological research to improve working condi 
tions. 5. Help management to develop new ap 
proaches to the industrial relations problem . . . 
[for instance, stabilized employment . . .]. 6. Point 
up the importance of intelligent, honest, unbiased 
industrial relations personnel. 7. Urge management 
to encourage responsible leadership among the 
unions. 8. Urge them to support housing programs, 
civil liberties, sound international relations and 
other programs to strengthen democracy." Warning 
that "efforts cannot succeed overnight," ELB 
stresses the point further that "The educational 
process builds new points of view by planned con 
tinuous and repeated efforts. Different times, condi 
tions and methods yield different results." Indi 
cating finally the need, proved by "reliable polls," 
for education of union members in economics, he 
says, "Most of us know little about technical finance 
in business. This leaves the worker without the 
knowledge on which bargaining must be based. If 
he understands management's problems, he can deal 
with management on a realistic basis. . ." 

Leader Magazine. How Can the British and the 
Americans Understand Each Other?" London: 
Sept 10, 1949, pp. 5-7, ill. 

Editorial note: "What is wrong with Anglo-Ameri 
can relations? Is the present outburst of misunder 
standing and resentment a passing mood or a deep- 
seated problem? Here America's leading expert on 
public relations, now visiting Britain to study tech 
niques in this country, puts forward a plan to meet 
the most serious issue of the year." 



24 



ELB asserts, "There is no doubt that the people of 
Britain and ... of America are farther apart than 
at any time since before the first World War. . . . 
The dangerous fact is that the people of the two 
great democracies are today emphasising their dis 
agreements rather than their areas of agreement," 
ELB stresses the fact that "we must look for a solu 
tion that is lasting, based on the understanding 
among both our peoples that we have a belief in a 
common past, a common present and a common fu 
ture that our goals are the same." 

He continues the three-page discussion and 
analysis under the sub-heads, "Understanding 
Comes First," "The Mistakes We Make," "Public 
Policy and Public Relations," and "A Joint Com 
mittee on Understanding." He proposes resolution 
of the problems he sees "in terms of the enlightened 
self-interest of the two parties concerned ... on the 
level of real, long-term issues, not short-term irrita 
tions. . . . First, . . . that a joint solution be 
found, not merely of the dollar-pound question, but 
of the entire problem of Anglo-American cooperation 
[which must depend on an enlightened public opin 
ion, a public on both sides of the Atlantic which 
knows all the facts . . . and makes its decisions in 
the knowledge of these facts. ..].... From an 
economic standpoint, . . . Britain must, if it wants 
to export, lower its cost of production through in 
creased efficiency in production; second, it must re 
duce costs based on cartel and trade association price- 
fixing. . . . At the same time, it is necessary for us 
in the United States to appreciate the special handi 
caps under which Britain labours in a post-war 
period. . . . [Many] irritations could be eliminated 
by a campaign of education of the American who 
comes to Great Britain, telling him what he may ex 
pect, and of the Britisher, telling him how to deal 
with the tourist when he comes. . . . There is the 
question of what to tell the Americans about Great 
Britain in their home country. . . . What is the 
remedy? I believe it is that at top-level policy-mak 
ing, the British Cabinet, there be present always an 
expert public relations man who can interpret to 
the . . . Cabinet the impact of policy before it is 
translated into action or law. A good statesman is 
not necessarily a good public relations man. Too 
many public relations officers in government are 
given the policy to disseminate after it has been de 
cided upon. . . . This is perhaps not the place to 
discuss personalities. But I would suggest emphat 
ically that [in regard to] the man who acts as Ambas 
sador of Great Britain to the United States . . . this 
is the time for forthright and frequent utterance by 
all Anglo-American spokesmen. The whole problem 
of British information to America should be treated 
from the standpoint of the engineering of consent 
of the American people to their common heritage, 
their common present, their common future. . . . 
Any activity carried out should be part of a broad 
integrated programme covering effective research, 
strategy, themes, organisation, planning, timing and 
tactics. Call this propaganda if you will, it is aimed 
at accomplishing the end we all want. . . . America 



must do her part, too, from an economic angle. She 
must lower tariffs if they keep out British goods that 
Britain produces better and cheaper. America must 
encourage rather than discourage British insurance 
companies . . . , should encourage the tourist 
traffic more than we do, . . . must realize that ship 
ping is a British forte . . . rather than subsidize our 
merchant marine to the extent we do. . . . The sug 
gestion has been made that as a first line of defence 
of democracy Britain and the United States form a 
Joint Committee on Furthering Common Under 
standing of joint problems confronting them. We 
have a joint military staff, discussing and preparing 
problems of defending democracy's physical bound 
aries. But we know that military preparations are 
useless unless they are backed by the people of the 
democracies. ... If we had both, through such a 
joint board, done what our military people are doing, 
built up our common goals on common understand 
ing, we would not now be in a position in which there 
is fear that we may be divided not only in two worlds, 
but in three." 

McCall's Magazine. ''The Two Lives of Women," 

Jun, Jul 1946. 

Editorial note calls ELB "the foremost public 
relations counsel." 

The first of these two articles examines woman's 
ideal life as contrasted with her actual existence; the 
second provides a blueprint for action by women. 
The articles contain factual information, opinions 
obtained from 260 leading physicians, playwrights, 
educators, clergymen, social scientists, labor leaders, 
philosophers, historians, Congressmen, journalists, 
pediatricians, artists, poets, writers, movie produc 
ers, statesmen, columnists, lawyers, economists, 
businessmen, counsel, etc. In the first article, ELB 
describes his "approach to the subject": . . . "We 
did not set up shop as experts on women ourselves. 
Instead, we sought out the experts and got their 
opinions and then . . . evaluated the mass of 
opinions . . . received. Our operating premise was 
that we must first know . . . the physical and 
psychological differences between men and women. 
Then we determine what thoughtful men and 
women consider the ideal relationship between the 
two sexes. . . . We must determine how far the 
actual falls short of that ideal in woman's role as 
sweetheart and wife and mother, her part in indus 
try and the professions, her legal and political stand 
ing in the society. Finally, we must produce, as the 
sifted and considered body of opinion from the ex 
perts who guided us, recommendations leading to 
ward a more satisfying and more rewarding place 
for women in American life. There was nothing in 
the technique we employed which we have not em 
ployed frequently in other fields of inquiry: 1. Au 
thoritative books were read and abstracted. 2. Con 
temporary magazines and newspapers were studied. 
3. The attitudes of women in recent public opinion 
polls were compared with the attitudes of men. 4. 
The leading organizations concerned with the ac 
tivities of women were asked to furnish material. 



25 



5. Thousands of letters were mailed to leading men 
and women of the country anthropologists and 
teachers, doctors and clergymen and social workers, 
writers and scientists asking for the full discussion 
of a series of questions. Their replies, which came in 
unprecedented number and frankness, form the 
basic core of this report." In the second article, 
when he undertakes "to interpret these opinions and 
to prepare a blueprint of action by which the actual 
may be brought somewhat closer to the ideal" 
ELB says that "a fair cross section of the leaders of 
thought in this country, told us ... that because 
of her intelligence and natural abilities, woman 
is the equal of man in nearly every field of human 
endeavor." The blueprint as to the organization of 
a campaign around a need felt by women includes 
specific steps "1) The preparation of informative 
material for members of the group or committee, 
for the press, and for local radio station. 2) The 
drafting of letters and pamphlets ... to all lead 
ers of thought in the community. 3) ... An out 
line giving a specific job to each member of the 
committee." In addition, there are suggestions as to 
the building of themes and appeals, "a set of tactical 
plans" for "the lifting of woman to equal status with 
man, [in], i.e., the matter of recognition in the prac 
tice of medicine, and in general public relations pro 
cedure." ELB then summarizes, "... society needs 
woman as a mind and an active force, rather than as 
something locked to the kitchen and the vacuum 
cleaner. Woman has not emerged into her full 
usefulness. The way she can emerge is by her own 
efforts. Nobody will help her. What do you say? 
What is more important? What will you do?" As a 
part of "these expert instructions prepared ... at 
McCall's request, by America's foremost public 
relations counselor," the magazine also presents 
"a case history (illustrated) of women in action . . . 
hypothetical only as to names and dates. In thou 
sands of actual cases prople have used these tech 
niques to change the course of events and other 
peoples' minds." 

Mademoiselle. "We Hitch Our Wagons," Aug 

1947, p. 252. 

One of twenty guest editors at Mademoiselle's first 
Jobs and Futures Conference, ELB, advised Elaine 
Diamond, U.C.L.A. '47, about a promotion career. 
"You'll need the broadest possible general knowl 
edge, the ability to deal with everything from fashion 
to highways plus imagination and analytical 
logic." 

"Blowing the Other Fellow's Horn." May 

1949, pp. 172-73, 256-259. 

Editor's note: "Mr. Bernays' advice to young 
women on careers in public relations is backed by 
twenty-five years' experience as counsel for corpora 
tions and philanthropies, radio chains and univer 
sities, factories and art galleries. In fact, he has been 
called America's No. 1 Publicist." 

Discussing careers for young women in public rela 
tions, ELB divides the field into non-profit groups 
public service, government, education, foundations, 



social service organizations, political parties, religion, 
recreation and profit groups where public rela 
tions counsel handle "everything from trade associa 
tions and insurance companies to the motion picture 
industry." In public relations "the quality of your 
brains is more important than your profile." 

Among qualities desirable in public relations, 
ELB says, are the ability to induce other people to 
do what you want them to; travel on your own 
steam; be alert, tactful; have an analytical mind, a 
flair for research, a talent for writing, be articulate 
and above all accurate; be a good mixer; remember 
names and faces; be persuasive; be able to stand a 
fast pace; have good judgment, objectivity, discre 
tion, honesty, sincerity, vision, imagination and 
"good old common horse sense." For success in the 
field, you have to know the strategy and techniques 
of public relations; you also have to know the cause 
you would espouse fashion, food, finance, etc. 

"The social sciences make good basic equipment 
for all aspirants. . . . Many universities throughout 
the country offer courses. ... A college education 
is not a prerequisite but it helps. You can get ahead 
by starting at the bottom . . . and learning while 
you work as a stenographer. ... A seasoned PR 
woman knows how to do research, conduct surveys, 
write articles, news releases, speeches, pamphlets, 
annual reports, . . . conduct a house organ, direct 
a mailing campaign, stage exhibits and shows, ar 
range press conferences and speak in public." 

Defining the field, ELB says: "In its correct sense, 
public relations is advising on policy-making matters. 
Publicity is not. It is one of the most important tools 
of public relations, but it is not public relations. . . . 
The general determines the strategy, the colonel 
carries out the strategy planned by the general. Public 
relations is usually associated with consultant, insti 
tutional, and big business functions. Publicity con 
cerns itself with newsmaking and the psychology of 
selling products and ideas." 

Musical America. "Letter to the Editor," Jun 12, 

1916. 

Letter to the Editor of Musical America written 
for the Music League of America in protest against 
the article, "When New York Sits in Judgement" 
by P. J. Grant, which appeared in the magazine on 
June 10, 1916. ELB says: "It (the Music League of 
America) is called to task for having such men and 
women as Pasquale Amato, Giovanni Martinelli, 
Mme. Kurt and Johannes Sembach, 'foreigners', on 
its Park Music Committee. ... As regards the 
make-up of the committee, we feel that this is as it 
should be. It is thoroughly cosmopolitan in make-up; 
a representative committee that can well choose 
music for New York's conglomerate population. . . . 
As to the public press allowing its formation without 
even a protest, that, to our minds, shows that the 
public press here is not as narrow as it might be in 
Paris or Berlin, the cities to which your writer refers. 
The lack of this narrowness is shown, too, by the 
membership of the committee and by the artists 
who have offered their services." 



26 



The New Leader. "Is Broadway Disappearing?" 

Vol. XXXIII, No. 20. May 20, 1950. 32pp. 
Editorial Note: "Edward L. Bernays is one of Amer 
ica's leading public relations counsels." This article 
is based on the theatre survey made by ELB for 
The League of New York Theatres in 1949, and cov 
ers more or less the same ground as the article on the 
same subject in Theatre Arts Magazine. See below. 

. "Hawaii the Almost Perfect State?" 

Vol. XXXIII, No. 46, Nov 20, 1950. 32 pp. 
Editorial note: "Edward L. Bernays, U. S. Publicist 
Number 1, studied island conditions first-hand as 
visiting professor in Public Relations at the Uni 
versity of Hawaii last summer." 

At this time, says ELB, when the United States 
is so deeply concerned with problems in the Far East, 
Hawaii has a fourfold significance for us: 1. she is our 
island bastion in the Pacific; 2. she disproves Soviet 
accusations that imperialism and racism are our na 
tional policy; 3. she dramatizes to the Mainland that 
Americans of most diverse backgrounds can live to 
gether in harmony; 4. she demonstrates that 500,000 
Americans, 2,500 miles distant in the Pacific, can 
successfully work out their destiny democratically. 
Hawaii has reached many of her goals political 
self-sufficiency, high standards of democratic living, 
economic self-containment; she clearly deserves 
statehood. But some gaps still need to be bridged. 

Outlining Hawaii's history in economic and ethnic 
terms, ELB says: "Such disharmony as exists can be 
blamed for the most part on the little group of 
myopic men who constitute an expanded Big Five, 
who are outmoded and outdated in their attitudes 
and policies, and who are still trying to run the 
Islands." 

He then lists two types of rumors in Hawaii which 
express aggression: 1. ethnic rumors that deal with 
relationships between Caucasian and other ethnic 
groups, and 2. economic rumors that play up the 
middleman, and the man in the street, as victims of 
the Interests, the Big Five, Big Business. He also 
lists fourteen sources of friction pointed out by 
Hawaiians of Oriental background. "Improvement 
in intergroup relations is all the more important," 
says ELB, "because today the situation is so excel 
lent on the whole. Nothing I have said here is in 
tended to give the impression that cataclysmic re 
form is needed in the Islands. On the contrary, 
Hawaii is possibly as nearly democratic as any 
community in the world. Hawaii comes close to 
meeting the four goals projected above. For Hawaii 
to meet these goals fully, it would need only a very 
slight change of attitude on the part of a very small 
number of people toward the residual problems dis 
cussed here." pp. 10-13. 

New York State Pharmacist, See Addenda, Item 
15. 

Occupations. "Public Relations as a Career," Vol. 

XVI, No. 2, Nov 1937, pp. 131-133. 
This article by ELB and Doris E. Fleischman 
analyzes the continued substantial growth of public 
relations activities in recent years and outlines the 



occupational opportunities existing in their field. 

The function of the public relations counsel, this 
article says, is to appraise and deal with the group, 
and individual mind and action. The public relations 
counsel approaches a particular problem as follows: 
1. He analyzes the relationship of the public to his 
client. 2. He analyzes his client and his client's 
objectives. 3. He formulates policies to govern his 
client's practices toward the public. 4. He interprets 
the client, his product or his services to the public. 

The young man or woman entering this profession 
has before him possibilities for influence that are 
limited only by his own ability. The ideal of the 
profession is a pragmatic one. It is to make the 
producer understand what the public wants, and to 
make the public understand the objectives of the 
producer; it is to make the producer, in the widest 
sense of the term, and the consumer meet on the 
highest possible point between them for the greatest 
good. 

Discussing the ethics of the profession, ELB and 
DEF say that the public relations counsel maintains 
faith with his public, his client and his media of dis 
tribution to the public. He cannot accept clients 
whose cases are mutually antagonistic or a case 
which is anti-social. 

The most effective way to start in this profession 
is to join someone practicing it. This covers a wide 
range, from banks to farm bureau federations. Salary 
of beginner varies with demand for his services, his 
ability, his power to sell himself, the budget of the 
group or individual for whom he works. Women have 
achieved comparable standing with men in this field. 

Printers' Ink. "The Press Agent Has His Day." 

Feb 26, 1920, pp. 107-108. 

In this article, ELB replies to an editorial in Printers' 
Ink of Feb 19, 1920 which implied that "all free 
publicity is necessarily surreptitious and that it can 
function only through back alley approaches to the 
editors of second-rate publications." He calls atten 
tion to two facts of outstanding importance. "Lead 
ing papers throughout the country, including the 
best New York publications, depend to a consider 
able extent upon publicity organizations for news 
which would not otherwise come to their attention, 
and are keenly appreciative of the assistance which 
the publicity man gives them, either in the contribu 
tion of immediate news or in the providing of leads, 
the investigation of which results in news and feature 
material. . . . The most successful American cor 
porations and individuals have for a long time been 
employing publicity experts to present their point of 
view to the public, and are now represented either 
by a personal publicity man on the staff or by a 
publicity organization." 

ELB attributed both these facts to "the highly 
technical and specialized character of American 
journalism." He also points out that "an efficient 
publicity man must believe firmly in the value of 
advertising," and that "no honest publicity man 
undertakes under any circumstances to promise the 
printing or appearance of his material." 



27 



ELB concludes: "What the lawyer does for his 
client in the court of law, we do for our clients in the 
court of public opinion through the daily and periodi 
cal press. There are shady practitioners among us for 
whom we unfortunately have no machinery for dis 
barment such as advertising men and lawyers pos 
sess. Nevertheless, it is distinctly a pity for large 
industrial interests to refrain from accomplishing 
many useful purposes which a publicity organization 
fulfills because they are misinformed as to the general 
reliability and utility of publicity services." 

Public Opinion Quarterly. "Recent Trends in 
Public Relations Activities," Vol. I, No. 1, Jan 
1937, pp. 147-151. 

ELB says: "The public relations profession enlarged 
its activities throughout the depression, because 
business realized that in addition to selling its 
products under unfavorable conditions it needed also 
to sell itself to the public, to explain its contribution 
to the entire economic system." 

In this article, ELB outlines the development of 
public relations from pre-Depression days to the 
Depression era. Prior to the Depression, he says, the 
public relations activities of industry were, to a 
large extent, confined to trade associations and the 
larger corporations. Trade associations which had 
specific problems of public relations competition, 
taxes, sales difficulties called in the expert on 
public opinion. When the depression and deflation 
first came, there was little change, little attempt to 
grapple with the new conditions. But a change did 
come when corporations and leaders lost prestige 
simultaneously. The public was now keenly sensitive, 
because of its feeling of insecurity, to everything 
about a corporation that it did not understand. 
Companies were exposed to attacks on all sides from 
unexpected quarters. False rumors hurt business. 
Then "the public relations counsel was called in at 
all hours of the day or night to rush to the fire and 
put out what might well have spread into a disastrous 
conflagration." 

Advising and aiding in the rebuilding of established 
reputations which had been blasted, and attempting 
to build new reputations, were prime public rela 
tions tasks of the Depression period. The day of the 
straw man and the stuffed shirt were over. America 
no longer wanted clay idols. It wanted real heroes, 
who kept pace with the changed times and antici 
pated changed conditions by changing policies and 
actions in advance of public pressure and law men 
who recognized that private business is a public trust. 
Companies began to realize they had neglected the 
following important phases of their own existence: 
1. The importance of always adhering to the princi 
ple that, to survive, private business must always 
be in the public interest. 2. That the public interest 
is a changing concept and business must change 
with it. 3. That the place of business in the American 
system must be sold to the public. 4. That public 
relations techniques can help to do this. Once this 
was recognized, trade associations and corporations 
developed new campaigns to rationalize and in 



tegrate business into the thinking of the American 
people. 

. "Attitude Polls Servants or Masters?" 

Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall, 1945, pp. 264-268. 
Editorial note: " 'We are no longer led by men. We 
are led by the polls,' says this vigorous criticism of 
opinion polls by a man whose career has been spec 
tacular with success in studying and making public 
opinion. Edward L. Bernays goes on to recommend 
two steps to check what he considers a possible 
menace to the democratic process. Of course, some 
of the POQ editors dissent with equal vigor, and the 
next issue of the Quarterly will discuss the question 
further." 

In this article, ELB says: "Polls are an enormously 
useful implement when honestly, efficiently and in 
telligently gathered and understood. On the other 
hand, they are potentially dangerous weapons in the 
hands of the unwise, the inept, the dishonest or the 
anti-social. . . . Inaccurate polls and interpreta 
tions are a danger to society: (1) Because inac 
curate polls have as strong an influence on the public 
as true polls; (2) Because misuse of polls for biased 
or venal purposes by pollsters or by those who hire 
pollsters, can be extremely harmful; (3) Because 
leaders who misinterpret and distort polls in dealing 
with the public are a menace to society. . . . There 
is too literal an acceptance of the validity of atti 
tude polls. . . . Attitude polls often lull legislators 
and business men into the belief that they are safe 
from public disapproval when quantitative per 
centage corroborates their own point of view. . . . 
There is, too, the danger in the new kind of leader 
ship which polls have produced in the United 
States leadership of obedience to polls. Correct 
polls must be carefully used: (1) Because attitude 
polls exercise so strong an influence upon the public 
as often to discourage use of sound democratic meth 
ods of reaching important decisions; (2) Because 
society suffers when polls inhibit leaders from inde 
pendent thinking, from anticipating change or from 
preparing the public for change; (3) Because polls 
exert pressure that may place society under what 
Jefferson called the tyranny of the majority and 
throttle progressive minority ideas. . . . But while 
the attitude polls carry these dangers with them, 
scientifically planned polls, carried out within the 
limits of present-day knowledge, may be accurate as 
to future actions. . ." 

To prevent some of the misuse and misinterpreta 
tions of polls, ELB recommends: 1. pollsters should 
be licensed, just as doctors, lawyers, accountants and 
architects are licensed ; the people, as represented by 
their state or national government, should set up 
"standards of character and educational qualifica 
tions before an individual is permitted to practice"; 
2. the public and its leaders should be educated in 
the "significance of polls in our society." They should 
be given "facts and points of view about polls, so 
that they can appraise polls correctly and in that way 
prevent dangers to society." ELB concludes: "Polls 
then will fill a sound democratic purpose of helping 



28 



make decisions represent the accommodation of 
many viewpoints, rather than a majority opinion 
overwhelming all other points of view." 

Public Utilities Fortnightly. "The Public Utility 
That Is ' Misunderstood'," Vol. VI, No. 11, Nov 
27, 1930, pp. 664-666. 

Analyzes the role of the public relations counsel in 
guiding corporations' policies for the attainment of 
its objectives. 

ELB says: "Public relations is not a mystery. It 
embraces every contact a utility (or any other or 
ganization or individual for that matter) has with 
the public or any part of it. ... Since a utility is 
concerned with the public's attitude, it needs to 
know and act on important principles: 1. There are 
psychological principles behind all behavior. He who 
would influence or attempt to control behavior needs 
to understand these principles. 2. Behavior is re 
ciprocal. The public attitude towards an organiza 
tion reflects the organization's attitude toward it, 
and that attitude must be expressed in acts, riot 
merely words. The public must be definitely guided 
and influenced toward the desired actions. 3. The 
public is not a mass; it is a series of interlocking 
groups with varying motivations of moulding dif 
ferent groups toward an end. . . . The need for 
skilled shaping of such a policy, and the necessity 
for guidance of specific actions to make the policy 
effective, have created the profession of public rela 
tions counsel. 

"The public relations counsel must know the 
groups of which the public is composed. ... If the 
public utility has been misunderstood in whole or in 
part by its public or parts of it, he starts the work of 
education or re-education. If the client has been at 
fault in old avoidable practices he points the way 
first, to modification, and second, to reflection of that 
modification to the public. Again, if the client wishes 
to embark on new practices, he sets about gaining 
awareness of and acceptance for these." 

. " What Can Utilities Do about Public Re 



lations Today?" See Addenda, Item 16. 

Publicity Director. "Propaganda: A Vital Social 

Force," May 1933, pp. 6-8. 

ELB says: "It seems to me that the future historian 
will ascribe to propaganda a very large share of 
responsibility for America's progress, and that he 
will point to us, not as victims of propaganda, but as 
its beneficiaries." 

Reader's Scope. "Are We Slaves to Attitude Polls?" 

Vol. 1, No. 8, Jan 1947, pp. 91-94. 
Reprint of ELB's article from Public Opinion Quar 
terly, Fall 1945, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 264, 268, see above. 

Reporter of Direct Mail Advertising. "Direct 

Mail A Challenge to Research in Humanics," 

Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1947, pp. 6-8. 

ELB urges a more fundamental approach to the 

problems of direct mail advertising. "The science 

and art of communication as a whole is one of the 

major problems facing the world. The most recent 



number of the Annals of The Academy of Political 
and Social Science is devoted to the subject 'Com 
munication and Social Action." It warns in the fore 
word that our civilization is in a race between com 
munication and that includes Direct Mail and 
chaos. We know that what we call society is only a 
network of partial understanding held together by 
communication, in which the mails play an impor 
tant part. Every act of a buyer involves some form of 
communication from buyer to seller and seller to 
buyer." 

Rotarian Magazine. "License the Poll Takers?" 

Oct 1946. 

In this debate with Claude Robinson, ELB uphold 
ing the affirmative, says: "Attitude polls, scientif 
ically taken and intelligently interpreted, serve a 
useful purpose as tools for leadership in a democracy, 
but they are misused today by some of the pollsters 
who make them, and misinterpreted by the public 
and leaders of the public who are influenced by them. 
Pollsters should be licensed by the Government just 
as are doctors and lawyers." 

His premise is that licensing would "safeguard the 
public," in opposition to the negative position, "It 
would end freedom of press," taken by Claude 
Robinson, president, Opinion Research Corporation, 
Princeton, N. J. 

Saturday Review of Literature. "The Revolution 
in Publicity," Vol. XXIV, No. 28, Nov 1, 1941, 
pp. 3, 4, 18. 

In this short history of public relations, ELB says: 
"Invention, transportation, fashion, diet, diplomacy, 
even public relations all have been rocked by 
revolution. Since 1900 there have been four revolu 
tions in the field of publicity. The first, 1900-1914, 
was the period of muck-raking versus whitewashing 
publicity; the second was marked by the mass scale 
effort to sell war aims and ideals, 1914-1918; the 
third, 1919-1920 saw large-scale industrial publicity; 
and, since 1929, publicity in the fields linking private 
interest and public responsibility has been in the 
forefront. 

After describing these revolutions, the article con 
tinues: "Public relations is no longer a white-wash 
ing; it no longer pulls the wool over anybody's eyes. 
Studies of public attitudes indicate public demand. 
Psychological motives, psychoanalytical techniques, 
psychology, ethnology, statistics, serve as a new 
foundation for the activity. Added methods, tools 
all these have helped to integrate the work of the 
public relations counsel, and have aided in solving 
his problems, which, to say the least, had been 
heightened by world chaos and tragedy. . . . With 
this background, the responsible counsel on public 
relations goes about his work as does the indus 
trialist. Whether industry can move fast enough 
to keep pace with the new demands made upon it by 
a world torn with economic and psychological in 
security is a question. Certainly the realities of the 
situation indicate that there is an awakening which 
if encouraged will keep for us the democratic pat 
tern, enterprise, civil liberties, the 'four freedoms,' 



29 



safe from the rigidity of state capitalism of the left 
or the right." 

" Needed: A Grand Strategy," Vol. XXV, 

No. 10, Mar 7, 1942, p. 10. 

In this guest editorial, ELB discusses the relation 
ship of censorship and propaganda to the war effort. 
"Total warfare has three fronts: military, economic 
and psychological. In order to achieve total warfare 
they must be integrated. It is my thesis that the 
psychological front with which censorship and 
propaganda are so directly concerned is an agent 
of integration, which will strengthen the other two 
fronts and weld all three into the necessary, effective 
whole." ELB suggests that "censorship should be 
a function of the broad psychological front con 
cerned with public morale in the widest sense. Today 
it is only military and leaves the public in the 
middle." 

As to propaganda, "a variety of propaganda 
agencies are at work, only loosely tied together, each 
calling vague signals to the other when there 
should be grand strategy and the grand approach. 
. . . The use of ideas as weapons must go hand in 
hand with our military planning and economic 
strategy." See Addenda, Item 18. 

"Our Own Worst Enemy," Vol. XXXI, 

No. 22, May 29, 1948, p. 13. 

A review by ELB of "The Man in the Street," by 
Thomas A. Bailey. N. Y: The Macmillan Co., 1948. 
ELB is described in the editorial note as "author of 
'Crystallized Public Opinion' (sic), 'Speak Up for 
Democracy,' and other books on similar subjects," 
This is a review of "The Man in the Street" by 
Thomas A. Bailey. ELB's full-page discussion 
analyzes the book's positive and negative points, 
including: "A work such as Bailey's is long overdue 
. . . [for] little investigation has been made of the 
impact of public opinion on history. Mr. Bailey care 
fully examines indices of public opinion available to 
him . . . presents his facts and interpretations in 
318 pages, most of them interesting, well-docu 
mented, and studded with a wealth of quotations. 
. . . To support his theory that public opinion en 
dangers national security, Mr. Bailey selects opinion 
and fact . . . proposes an antidote . . . makes 
every effort to maintain objective aloofness, and 
generally succeeds. . . . He [also] builds an ad 
mirable platform of pleasant fantasies, which 
and we admit deep disappointment in the lack of 
constructive imagination of this excellent historian 
it is apparent are not likely to be substantiated 
in the perceptible future. . . . Occasionally, . . . 
[moreover] his interpretations betray a chauvinism 
that is surprising ... [as in] his discussion of the 
hyphenated Americans who took so large a part in 
this country's history . . . [and] we regret that 
more space was not devoted to his discussions of 
propaganda and pressure groups, and the printing 
press and airways." ELB also strongly advises that 
"the chapter on polls should be read carefully by all 
who help direct public affairs" commenting, 
"Our own studies verify the instability of individual 



opinions on such matters as foreign affairs and inter 
national relations. Polls are reliable only as a current 
index. . ." 

School and Society, "Looking toward Reforms in 
the New York City School System: Shorter Pa 
pers," Vol.63, No. 1627, Mar 2, 1946, pp. 154-155. 
This article deals with the resignation of twenty men 
and women from the Advisory Committee on Hu 
man Relations of the Board of Education as a direct 
means of expressing protest against New York City's 
public schools. Through the recognition -of the 
strength of public opinion these protesters were able 
to institute encouraging changes in public-school 
education. An Emergency Committee for Better 
Schools for New York's Children was established 
"as moral support in the fight to arouse the broadest 
public opinion" and a real attempt was made to 
stimulate the interest and aid of parents and educa 
tors. The purpose of this organization was to stimu 
late public opinion; once the public was roused, defi 
nite action could be expected. Through investiga 
tion comes change; through change orientation 
and a more effective, working school administration. 

Singing. "Can Publicity 'Make' a Musical Career?" 

Apr 1926, pp. 16, 40. 

A debate in article form between Robert A. Simon 
and ELB on the role of publicity in the making of 
careers for musical artists. ELB says: "Thus an 
artist and the music itself, to maintain its hold 
on the public interest, must be able to let the 
public know exactly what it stands for and let the 
public know exactly what is to be gained by attend 
ing a concert," p. 40. Editorial Note: "Edward L. 
Bernays is one of the foremost men in the select 
circle of public relations counsellors, the new profes 
sion which demands of its practitioners a practicable 
knowledge of psychology, publicity, modern journal 
ism, world affairs, and some subjects not described 
in the text-books. . . . Mr. Bernays is frequently 
called on for advice by various governments, in 
cluding Lithuania, Rumania, Czechoslovakia and 
Arabia." 

Southern Lumberman. "Lumber's Post-war Prob 
lems Demand New Public Relations Policies," 
Feb 15, 1946, pp. 44, 46, 48, 50. 

ELB applies public relations principles to problems 

of lumber industry. 

Theatre Arts. "Theatre Survey," Vol. XXXIII, No. 

11, Dec 1949, pp. 17, 20, 93. 

A report by ELB on the "objective, disinterested 
audit of its public relations" requested by the League 
of New York Theatres "to meet . . . three objec 
tives. . . . To broaden and strengthen the role of 
the theatre in the social and cultural life of America 
so that the theatre may enjoy the high status in the 
public mind to which it is entitled ; to improve rela 
tions between the public and the legitimate theatre; 
and to increase theatre attendance by intensifying 
favorable attitudes of regular and occasional theatre 
goers, and by recruiting new theatre-goers." Declar 
ing at the outset that "It is no news to anybody that 



30 



the theatre is passing through a crisis which did not 
begin today, yesterday, or even last year. . . . An 
upheaval which affects the whole of mankind is 
bound to create crisis in every field of thought and 
art. . . . The man who says there is nothing wrong 
with the theatre that a hit won't cure is naive. . . . 
What would cure the theatre at its foundation would 
be a theatre movement deeply rooted in the modern 
world and capable of creating the new theatre forms 
it requires." 

ELB discusses his application of "the techniques 
of the social sciences ... to do for . . . most 
of New York's theatre producers and owners 
what we have done in the past quarter of a century 
for corporations, trade unions, governments, educa 
tional institutions, scientific groups and individual 
theatres." He described five studies undertaken 
"to give the League the kind of [comprehensive] 
survey it required" by attempting "to discover the 
social dynamics of the theatre situation": 

[1] "We collated and analyzed existing literature 
about the American theatre, including the books on 
the theatre and innumerable magazine articles. 
[2] We conducted personal interviews with thirty 
selected theatrical leaders, including producers, 
critics, editors, box office treasurers, brokers, theatre 
owners, actors, actresses, officers of theatrical un 
ions, and playwrights. [3] We had depth interviews 
with 400 men and women in middle and upper in 
come groups, representative of the theatregoing 
public in nine cities throughout the United States. 
[4] By mail questionnaires we obtained opinions from 
2,500 leaders in various professions and occupations, 
selected from Who's Who; and 2,500 people in middle 
and upper income groups in twenty-seven cities. 
These people were asked thirty-five questions about 
their likes and dislikes in the theatre, and their ad 
justments and maladjustments with it. [5] In addi 
tion, while I was in London this summer studying 
the British Government's public relations policies 
and techniques, I directed a survey of West End 
methods of ticket sale and distribution in order to 
see if there was anything for Broadway to learn." 
Adding that "the data gathered in these studies fill 
four volumes totaling 850 pages. We analyzed and 
interpreted this material and, on this basis, outlined 
recommendations for an action-program designed to 
achieve the League's three goals." 

ELB gives a point-by-point summary of the major 
findings and recommendations, before concluding: 
"No one in his right mind would think of these re 
commendations as a cure-all for the theatre crisis, or 
imagine that anyone would propose them as a cure- 
all. But it is an action-program by which members 
of the League of New York Theatres can effectively 
change their attitudes and action, while educating 
the public and enlisting its support for the theatre. 
By presenting the public with the facts, by explaining 
the reasons for every situation, by reviving the great 
tradition of the theatre and by meeting the public's 
needs, the theatre can, I think, take a long step for 
ward toward becoming the great creative force in 
American life which it can and ought to be." 



This Week Magazine. "Do People Like You?" 

Apr 8, 1950. 24 pp. 

In the department "Everybody's Etiquette," ELB 
answers the question: "As a public relations expert, 
what is your advice on how to get along with peo 
ple?" Individuals, he says, should study the methods 
business is now using to woo the public. If they ap 
plied them so their own relationships with others, 
they would be agreeably surprised. Some pointers: 
1. be open-minded, sympathetic to the viewpoint of 
other fellow; 2. don't sound off with your own views 
or announce that you won't listen to any argument 
or show impatience with views of others; 3. be tact 
ful, objective; 4. do not let a cold, a late party the 
night before or any other personal matter affect your 
attitudes; 5. be diplomatic; if you disagree with 
someone let him know you respect his intelligence 
and intentions. ELB lists several ways of making a 
point without being disagreeable or injuring the 
other person's ego; you can: 1. build him up while 
you talk; 2. appeal to his sense of fair play; 3. quote 
authority for what you say; 4. present factual evi 
dence; 5. show your reasoning; 6. appeal to his emo 
tions or his acceptance of tradition. These methods, 
ELB says, widen areas of agreement, narrow areas of 
disagreement, make it possible to turn a heated ar 
gument into a quiet discussion, build your own repu 
tation as a person who gets along with others, p. 20. 

Today. "Presenting American Business." Mar 28, 

1936, pp. 10-11. 

This article by ELB traces the development of 
American business in a "world changed with the 
great war," in a rapidly growing economy and its 
many problems. He defends it against the critics who 
condemn it for its "inability ... to deal with poli 
tics as politicians do, for its diffidence in assuming 
public leadership, for its failure to treat with the 
public on its own subject." He asserts: "Critics and 
commentators on American business condemn busi 
ness for its poor sense of public relations as if a 
sense of public relations were an instinct. A sense of 
public relations is not an instinct. It is not a taste 
nor an intuitive understanding. A sense of public 
relations is the product of strenuous and thorough 
going training in theory and practice. It is based on 
the same technical and professional work as most 
other fields of professional knowledge." 

Watch Word, "What Can I Do to Help Win the 

Peace?" Jun 1945. 

ELB discusses the role of the individual in achieving 
world peace. 

"Here are some of the things you can do, in 
dividually or in groups," he says. "Organize your 
community to express itself to Congressmen, Sena 
tors, the President and Cabinet, and also to the local 
press and radio. Get the social forces in your com 
munity to take up the battle for a sound peace 
church, commerce and industry, educators, the pro 
fessions, social service, religion. Talk to leaders in 
these groups, get them to act. Dramatize your meet 
ings and other events so that they will be interesting 
enough to the radio and the press associations to 



31 



carry and, in turn, influence people in other parts 
of the country." 

Wellesley College News. "Bernays Urges College 
Students to Help Create Peaceful World," Nov 
11, 1946. 

ELB discusses the role of college students in world 
affairs. "The most impressive and important task 
that lies before college students today is to assume 
active responsibility immediately in the affairs of 
the world. To help create and maintain world peace 
is the main job of every college student. Either you 
will succeed in making peace and live in a good world 
or you will sit back with your textbooks and watch 
the world crumble. If you refuse to work at this most 
important of all assignments you may inherit chaos." 

Wilson Library Bulletin. "The Library as a Leader 
in Modern Democracy." Vol. 23, No. 6, Feb 1949. 
In this article, ELB highlights historical develop 
ments emphasizing the importance of books to 
civilization; stresses the "great responsibility and 
privilege ... of American librarians [who], as 
custodians of the intellectual arsenals of democracy, 
. . . must and can assume a role of leadership in 
safeguarding and advancing our democratic herit 
age." He declares: "Libraries are no longer mau 
soleums or static collections of books. They are today 
a major social force with a mandate from society to 
condition the attitudes and actions of its members, 
and to maintain, strengthen, and advance our 
democracy. The antiquated idea that the library is 
nothing more than a repository of books must take 
its place with the antiquated notion that medicine is 
only for curing disease rather than preventing it. . ." 
ELB suggests three ways by which "the library 
can take this leadership" by (a) exercising "edi 
torial judgment in selecting its books," taking "into 
consideration not only the past but the living issues 
of the present"; by (b) "issuing lists of books 
[which are] creative and critical guides in the major 
fields of modern thought"; and by (c) librarians' 
"study [of] the available manuals on the many dif 
ferent kinds of adult education in America, and 
[application] ... to the library as a social force 
. . . [which can become] a dynamic activator for 
maintaining and developing democracy in the 
United States . . . since librarians are in a strategic 
position to develop effective forms of preventive and 
creative education. . ." 

. "The Library Inquiry Is Not Over." Vol. 

25, No. 3, Nov 1950. 

Editor's Note says: "At the A.L.A. Regional Confer 
ence in Atlantic City in October 1949, Edward L. 
Bernays made some suggestions on 'How to Make 
the Library a Dynamic Force for Social Action,' 
which later appeared in the March 1950 Wilson 
Library Bulletin. So we asked Mr. Bernays, whom 
Time has called 'U. S. Publicist Number One,' to be 
more specific. 'Now that we have the findings of the 
Public Library Inquiry," we asked him, 'what is to 
be done next?' Here is recipe for a blueprint of ac 
tion." A footnote describes ELB as "Counsel on 
Public Relations; Adjunct Professor of Public Re 



lations, New York University; Author, Crystallizing 
Public Opinion." 

ELB's article analyzes the $200,000 seven-volume 
survey of the library field the Public Library In 
quiry made with funds granted by the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York to the Social Science Re 
search Council. This library inquiry, ELB says, 
"has created awareness both among librarians and 
laymen that the library occupies an extremely im 
portant place in the American pattern; and that its 
future is fraught with the uncertainties which most 
institutions in American life face today unless some 
body does something about them." The survey also 
makes us realize "that the library is in a position 
where its future is dependent upon public trends, 
attitudes and actions." 

ELB urges that more needs to be done about this 
survey. He suggests a four-point program of action 
to be carried out under the leadership of the Ameri 
can Library Association: 1. a clearcut outline of the 
objectives to be accomplished; 2. the strategy where 
by they would be accomplished; 3. themes to be used 
with the various publics to accomplish the objec 
tives; 4. the organizations necessary to accomplish 
them, whether it be a subdivision of the A.L.A. or an 
outside group. "Only a broad planned social engineer 
ing approach to the problem will safeguard and 
develop libraries for America." 

Woman's Press. "A Publicist Says the Y Is 

Needed More than Ever." Nov 1946. 
ELB sets forth the need to raise $2,000,000 and ex 
plains how to raise it by enlightening group leaders 
and the public, pp. 7-8. 

Yale Review. "A Symbolic Career." Vol. XXX, No. 

2, Winter 1941, pp. 400-402. 

In his review of "John D. Rockefeller" by Allan 
Nevins, ELB discusses changes in popular attitudes 
toward Rockefeller. "The change in the popular 
attitude towards Mr. Rockefeller came after his 
retirement in 1899. His son John D., Jr., who had 
broad ideas and understanding of what public re 
sponsibility meant, brought a new influence into the 
corporation. It was through his influence, according 
to Mr. Nevins, that many of the old practices were 
changed and that publicity and public relations men 
were effectively employed. Basic alterations in com 
pany practices and policies as well as in the public 
attitude resulted." 

Published Talks by 
EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

Advanced Management. "How to Build Industrial 
Peace and Prevent Strife." A Talk Delivered as 
a Public Service at the Third Annual Educa 
tional Conference of the United Automobile- 
Aircraft-Agricultural Implement Workers of 
America in Cleveland. Vol. XII, No. 4, Dec 
1947, pp. 154-158. 

An editorial footnote says this talk "expresses Mr. 

Bernays' belief that industrial relations would profit 



32 



if labor unions carried out effective public relations 
policies and practices." 

ELB says: "Management, workers and the general 
public must understand the workings of our economic 
system. They must apply the new science of hu- 
manics. This science attempts to learn the cause of 
industrial conflict and to discover ways to cure the 
disease. Labor should assume part of this educa 
tional responsibility." ELB suggests that the UAW 
follow three additional programs with this in view. 
"(1) Make the public understand the value to the 
country of sound unions and mature union leader 
ship. (2) Make the employer understand the value 
of unions to him, and make him realize that he needs 
to apply the science of humanics. This will benefit 
employer, public and worker alike. (3) Make the 
worker understand our industrial system and his 
relationship to it." The American public, according 
to ELB, ought to have a great deal more factual 
information on union activity than it now has. 

He suggests that the UAW can plan the following 
five-point program to inform the public about unions: 
"(1) What is a union? How does it function? This 
should give the basic story of union organization, its 
history and development, structure and internal 
government of unions, etc.; (2) the educational and 
welfare activities of unions, including the labor press, 
union educational activities, vocational training, 
labor banking and insurance, etc.; (3) the facts about 
collective bargaining; (4) the facts about labor dis 
putes, how they arise and what are the mechanisms 
by which disputes are adjusted under union-employer 
agreements; (5) a campaign to define terms com 
monly used in labor-management discussions, such 
as wage awards, work load, work sharing, etc." 

ELB also suggests an eight-point program for 
educating employers: "(1) to the place of the union 
in our system; (2) to the existence of groups like the 
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 
the Society for the Advancement of Management 
and the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science which are interested in studying and further 
ing human relations; (3) to stimulate further research 
by industrial relations schools like those at Cornell, 
Princeton and Harvard; (4) to carry on technological 
research to improve working conditions; (5) to de 
velop new approaches to the industrial relations 
problem; (6) to the importance of intelligent, honest, 
unbiased industrial relations personnel; (7) to en 
courage responsible leadership among the unions; 
(8) to support housing programs, civil liberties, sound 
international relations and other programs to 
strengthen democracy." 

American College Public Relations Association, 

"Public Relations for Higher Education: A Chal 
lenge to Our Colleges and Universities." A talk 
before the District II Winter Conference, Hotel 
Biltmore, N. Y.: Jan 9, 1948. Published by 
American College Public Relations Association. 
10pp. 

Analysis of public relations for colleges and universi 
ties with recommendations: "Once institutions of 



higher learning have, as a group and as individual 
units, determined their goals it seems to me that 
every other action involving public relationships will 
flow naturally and logically therefrom. The public 
relations strategy of higher education, its themes, 
its organization, its planning, timing and tactics 
will be more realistic, and it will be able to achieve 
those goals much more effectively." 

To determine goals, college presidents were ques 
tioned and their answers analyzed. After analyzing 
their replies, ELB recommended a program of 
action. First, "Administrators of colleges and uni 
versities should gather together in a conference to 
agree on a definition of public relations in its broad 
est terms." Second, "Individual universities should 
define clear-cut goals for themselves and put them 
in writing." Third, "University associations and 
the individual institution should undertake research 
to appraise public understanding of their goals. 
Further than this, universities and colleges may 
have to revise some of their attitudes and actions 
so as to reach the goals of higher education. . . . 
An approach of this kind to the problem of inte 
grating the university's relations with its various 
publics considers both the general and the specific 
situation in which higher education finds itself. It 
should enable educational institutions not only to 
carry on successfully, but to forge ahead boldly and 
assert the intelligent leadership that is so necessary 
to our democracy today and in the future." 

American College Publicity Association, 

" Higher Education A Public Relations Prob 
lem." An address June 1936, in Boston, and 
published by the Association in the interests of 
higher education, llpp. 

In this address, ELB discusses the public relations 
problems of colleges and universities. "Before we can 
tackle this problem of public relations and higher 
education, we must know what the objectives of 
higher education are, for it is a fundamental in deal 
ing with public relations, that we must have clearly 
defined, just what it is we are projecting to the pub 
lic and yet, how often do we really get a formula 
tion of policy and of objectives as expressed by uni 
versity presidents:" ELB says: "Before higher educa 
tion can undertake its program of public relations it 
must satisfy itself regarding its own objectives. . . . 
The public relations counsel of a college or university 
needs an entirely new orientation about himself and 
his place in the scheme of things. . . . After you 
know your objectives, analyze public attitudes 
about your educational institution. The public rela 
tions officer of a university must understand this 
problem thoroughly and formulate a plan for action 
based on a knowledge of public opinion towards 
higher education and specifically, his kind of higher 
education. . . . The next step is to educate the 
public regarding the function of his university in 
higher education." To do this effectively, the use of 
symbols is suggested. "The symbols are short cuts 
to thinking to understanding. Leadership rests on 
the ability to understand, to interpret and to utilize 



33 



symbols. . . . Political strategists understand these 
realities. The most powerful national leaders of to 
day Hitler in Germany, Mussolini in Italy, Stalin 
in Russia know the value of symbols. . . . These 
men realize that their struggle for the public's in 
terest, the public's attention, and the public's 
support, is in essence a struggle for response to sym 
bols. ... In the last analysis, an intelligent under 
standing of symbols, their meanings, and their 
proper utilization is vital to the continued success of 
education and educational institutions, as regards 
their relations with the public. . . . This use of 
symbols is an important matter to all of you. . . . 
Your higher education must be placed before the 
public using symbols the public understands." 

American Hatter. "800 Hatmen Dine." Jan 1935. 

p. 25. 

In addition to his suggestions as to public relations 
methods and techniques at the Ninth Annual Hat 
Trade Dinner ... at the Commodore Hotel, New 
York, ELB is quoted at length as having stressed 
"the need for the industry's adapting itself to new 
conditions. . . . Mr. Bernays also said that "This 
means that as a primary consideration, you, as an 
industry, must study your relation to the world you 
live in. You must know what the public's attitude is 
toward you and your product, why the attitude is 
what it is, what the motives are of the public to 
act as it does, what those motives can lead to in 
terms of your business and your future. The first 
step ... is to see and study the motives of your 
public in relationship to your industry. The second 
step is to take the results of that study and research 
and develop recommendations for action. ... I 
think you all recognize that within this world and 
within this country today, unless your every cause 
is definitely part of the public interest, there is little 
opportunity of its surviving." 

American Petroleum Institute, "Public Rela 
tions and the Oil Industry." Paper presented at 
Fourteenth Annual Meeting, at Chicago, 111. 
Oct 26, 1933. 

ELB said: "The oil industry has considerable to live 
down. . . . New methods must be adopted to meet 
changing conditions of our new epoch ... to coun 
teract ill will from the past; the oil industry must 
devise extraordinary means of informing the public 
about its actual constructive policies and actions in 
the present and future." 

American Town Meeting of the Air. "Propa 
ganda Asset or Liability in Democracy." 
American Town Meeting of the Air, Series 2, 
No. 22, N. Y: American Book Company. Apr 
15, 1937, 31pp. 

Participants in this broadcast from the Town Hall, 
New York, over the NBC Blue Network, under the 
auspices of The League for Political Education, Inc. 
and the National Broadcasting Company, were 
ELB, Anne O'Hare McCormick and Harwood L. 
Childs. 

ELB said: "Propaganda, like medicine or law, can 
be socially used or abused. Under present day condi 



tions, the usefulness of propaganda makes it a vital 
asset to the democracy. Propaganda is the voice of 
the people in the democracy of today because it 
gives everyone an opportunity to present his point 
of view. Fascist or Communist societies have no 
alternate propagandas; they must accept the official 
propaganda of those in power. Freedom of propa 
ganda is as important to our democracy as our other 
civil liberties freedom of religion, press, speech 
and assembly. Propaganda provides an open forum 
for the people in which opposing ideas are presented 
for the judgment of the public. Propaganda enables 
social development to take place more reasonably 
than it otherwise would in a democracy. . . . Wom 
en's suffrage, the effective battles against tubercu 
losis and diabetes, were hastened by propaganda. 
. . . There is no secret about sound propaganda. 
The propagandist pleads his case before the court 
of public opinion, as does the lawyer before the court 
of law. Public and social service institutions as well 
as private industrialists must use propaganda to 
achieve their purpose." 

ELB then points out that propaganda is used by 
social movements, great foundations, industry, 
minority groups, food growers and distributors. 

Babson Institute of Business Administration. 

" How American Business Can Sell the American 
Way of Life to the American People" Address 
delivered at the Fourth Annual Conference of 
Businessmen and Educators, Babson Institute 
of Business Administration. Babson Park, 
Mass: Babson Institute Press, 1950. 15pp. 
An editorial note explains that ELB's talk was the 
main address at the evening session of the Fourth 
Annual Conference of Businessmen and Educators, 
attended by 1,000 members. The talk was followed 
by a panel discussion participated in by ELB; U. S. 
Senator Owen Brewster from Maine; Carl A. Gray, 
manufacturer; William Green, president, A. F. of L. ; 
Prof. Joseph O. Hirschfelder, chemist and physicist, 
University of Wisconsin; Clyde K. M. Kluckhorn, 
Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University; 
Kenneth E. Oberholtzer, Superintendent of Schools, 
Denver, Colorado; and William G. Saltonstall, Prin 
cipal, Phillips Exeter Academy. 

ELB's talk, the editorial note adds, was broadcast 
by the NBC network and by WNYC, New York. 
The panel discussion was broadcast by the Yankee 
network, WNYC and the Mutual network. 

In his talk, ELB says that American business has 
spent fabulous sums of money since 1935 to sell "the 
American way of life" to the American people. Has 
business succeeded? And if not, how can it succeed in 
doing so? Quoting business leaders who have recently 
complained of industry's failure to sell itself to the 
public despite vast expenditures for that purpose, 
ELB says the trouble is that business is following an 
antiquated pattern in identifying the American way 
of life solely with machinery and products, instead 
of primarily with the human and social needs of the 
American people. "Business," he says, "has identi 
fied the American way of life principally with tech- 



34 



nology, machinery and living standards" to the ex 
clusion of other factors and has therefore been selling 
it "like soap, toothpaste or breakfast food." 

While business has equated the American way 
with tools, technology and production, ELB con 
tinues, large sections of the American people have 
equated it with "the social aspects of living, eco 
nomic security, psychological security, status, 
self assertion." The present situation "requires a 
complete reorientation of business thought and ac 
tion to an emphasis not alone on factories, machin 
ery, markets and products, but also on the worker," 
he adds. "When our business structure, our produc 
ing machinery satisfies the social needs of workers 
and citizens, our problem of selling will be solved." 

ELB quotes Standard Oil of New Jersey, General 
Electric and Bank of Manhattan executives, and 
the report of The Ford Foundation trustees to show 
that this attitude is spreading and that "many busi 
ness leaders are developing a new dynamic concept 
of their role in American society." This, he adds, may 
lead to a change in the public relations of business 
"based on the acceptance by business of all its social 
responsibilities. ' ' 

In conclusion ELB urges business to attempt sell 
ing the American way of life to the American people 
by concentrating on: 1. the extension of employee 
economic security; 2. the extension of employee 
psychological security; 3. the extension of activities 
giving self-respect and status to the employee; 
4. activities aimed at giving employees and their 
children opportunities for advancement; and 5. 
active participation by the corporation in the life 
and growth of the community. 

The Bankers Magazine. "A Program for Public 

Relations." N. Y: Oct 1936, pp. 349-350. 
Editorial Note: "In an address before the Massa 
chusetts Bankers Association, Mr. Bernays who 
specializes in public relations, offered this five point 
program as a means of restoring favorable public 
opinion of the banks: 

"First, the old conception of public relations must 
give to the new conception. . . . The banks must 
recognize that their interest is also the public's inter 
est, that everything they do is a public function as 
well as being part of private business. . . . The 
second step is analysis self -analysis and analysis 
of public thoughts and desires about banks. . . . 
The banks must know not only economic and finan 
cial conditions, but also public attitudes. A survey 
of public opinion toward banks should be made 
before any plan is developed. . . . The third step 
is organization of the banks for the economic educa 
tion of the public. ... In this process of public 
education the banker can well take a lesson from 
the statesman and politician. . . . He must use the 
sound methods of public education that other groups 
educational, social, political have used effec 
tively. His program must be in the public interest. 
The fourth step is a definition and redefinition, in 
your public education, of the simple, common sym 
bols of banking that have lost their old meanings in 



the last six years. . . . The public has listened to 
all kind of wild and extravagant ideas about banking. 
. . . Sound ideas about banking should now be 
placed before the public in symbols which the public 
understands. . . . Lastly, the banker himself must 
assume in the community the place of leadership that 
he deserves and that the American system demands 
of him. . . . He must assert his leadership in pro 
jects not associated with banking, as well as in bank 
ing. His public will respond to him and to banking 
if he becomes a leader." 

Boston Conference on Retail Distribution. 

1930, 1936, 1942. See Addenda, Items 2, 3, 
4. 

Cooper Union Forum. "Private Interest and Public 
Responsibility." Delivered in the 1938-1939 
Forum Series of Cooper Union for the Advance 
ment of Science and Art, Department of Social 
Philosophy, N. Y: Broadcast over WQXR. 
12pp. 

In this talk, ELB discusses private interest and pub 
lic responsibility of the groups that make up Amer 
ica's economic and social life. He points out that 
private interest and public responsibility are chang 
ing concepts in a rapidly changing world; indicates 
the various elements, historical and contemporary, 
which have brought this country to the present 
crisis; urges first, reconsideration of old attitudes, 
then altered actions toward these concepts of private 
interest and public responsibility. 

"Interdependence and converging of the private 
interest and public responsibility are recognized to 
day as an integral part of our democratic system," 
says ELB. "The public today asks the groups of our 
society to examine their consciences, their attitudes 
and their actions to find out whether they really 
conform to the new demands made upon them by a 
society in which democratization of our institutions 
is taking place. Those desires reflect a world-wide 
movement towards what Alvin Johnson has called 
'equalitarianism* in all countries where might, 
coercion, censorship and removal of civil liberties 
have not suppressed the desires of the people. The 
movement which has found expression in the secret 
ballot, in general suffrage and in representative 
parliaments, demands a lessening of the insistence 
on private rights, interests and prerogatives and a 
greater insistence on the rights of the common 
man," always within the framework of the free, com 
petitive system, civil liberties and our democratic 
form of government. ELB also warns against "selling 
our liberties in exchange for our desire for security." 
ELB then outlines activities in which groups and 
individuals can participate in order to create con 
verging lines of private interest and public responsi 
bility. These are: 1. Codes of ethics and practice 
voluntarily entered into and accepted by indus 
tries and trades through their associations. 2. Similar 
codes carried out by the professions. 3. The public 
relations profession. 4. Pressure groups of various 
kinds which function within democracy to bring 
about greater public responsibility of private in- 



35 



terests. 5. Enforcement of public responsibility 
within an industry by heads of that industry. 6. 
Laws denning private and public responsibility. 

Fashion Group. "Fashion Propaganda." Reprint, 

N. Y: Mar 1936. 10pp. 

ELB said: "I have tried, in this talk, to indicate to 
you five things. First, you must look on fashion as 
something which we can affect and modify. Second, 
you must consider fashion just as you would consider 
any other industrial phenomenon in which competi 
tion plays a major and a vital part. Third, you must 
see that the success of any fashion, within limits, is 
to be reduced to a battle of symbols for that fashion's 
supremacy. Fourth, you must be prepared to fight 
fashion's battles on a hundred fronts. And last of 
all, you must arm yourselves for the waging of those 
battles, with every weapon and with strategy that 
modern propaganda stands ready to thrust into 
your hands," p. 10. This talk was given October 30, 
1935. 

Financial Advertisers Association. "Proceedings 
. . . Twentieth Annual Convention." Atlantic 
City, N. J. Sept 9-10-11, 1935. 339pp. 
Address by ELB to the convention on the theme of 
"Molding Public Opinion," pp. 56-65. 
An analysis of the public relations problems of 
financial institutions with a three-point public re 
lations action program: (1) The public must learn 
that it needs the banks and cannot do without them 
in whatever setup there is; (2) The public must be 
educated in the meaning and importance of banks; 
words expressing the entire function and nature of 
financial institutions, must be re-defined and re- 
clarified so that every member of the public will have 
a clear idea of the value of the word symbols that 
go to make up the bank; (3) Activities must be un 
dertaken to re-establish banks and bankers in the 
public mind through their own deeds as community 
leaders. 

"How to Remove the Public's Antagonism 

toward Financial Institutions." A talk delivered 
at the Convention, Atlantic City, N. J: Sept 
11, 1935. 14pp. 

Reprint of above. 

House Magazine Institute. "Fifty Million Read 
ers Can't Be Wrong: The Truth about House 
Magazines." A talk given before the Institute, 
an editorial association of industrial publication 
editors of the eastern United States. 1949. 8pp. 
A quantitative and qualitative analysis of company 
magazines with suggestions for their improvement. 
"If the company magazine is to accomplish its pur 
pose; if it is really going to be a means of communica 
tion between the company and its employees; if it is 
to be a morale builder which creates better under 
standing between management and men; above all, 
if it is to be an effective instrument in advancing 
the American way it can only do so by speaking 
to its readers about the essential, paramount things 
which concern them." 

ELB reaches this conclusion after the study for 



which he "wrote the presidents of 100 leading Amer 
ican corporations picked at random and listed in the 
Business Executives and Corporation Encyclopedia. 
Among them were: General Foods Corporation, 
Burlington Mills, National Cash Register, . . . 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Armour and Company, 
Pillsbury Mills, Inc., Allegheny Ludlum Steel Cor 
poration, Rexall Drug Company, Chrysler Corpora 
tion, The Celotex Corporation, Transcontinental & 
Western Air, Inc., Pacific Telephone & Telegraph 
Company, and Ford Motor Company. A wide range 
of products was covered by [the] correspondents 
foods, textiles, drugs, machinery, steel, aircraft, 
optical supplies, tobacco, finance, utilities, con 
struction materials, rubber, glass, and other fields 
of industrial action in 21 states." ELB says, "I told 
them I was studying house organs and their relation 
ship to management, ... a new field which re 
quired thorough analysis in order to be of greater 
use to management. Would they tell me about their 
experience with their own house organs? Would they 
evaluate the impact of these magazines on the pub 
lics for which they are intended? I added that I 
would try to chart a course for the future which 
might be of practical use to management, provided 
management told me (1) the purpose which the 
house organ was designed to fulfill in their organiza 
tion; (2) whether the house organ met that purpose; 
(3) what its present achievements and shortcomings 
were. My letter of inquiry received an almost 50 per 
cent response. Of the 100 companies, I heard from 
49. Seventy per cent of the 49 had house organs. 
Thirty-two firms answered our questionnaire in 
detail. It is significant that 14 of these letters, or 44 
per cent were signed by top management presi 
dent, vice president, chairman of the Board, or other 
officer. This indicates a genuine interest in house 
organs by top management. Eighteen of the replies, 
or 56 per cent, came from public relations directors 
and editors." In order "to evaluate the replies 
against a broader background," ELB presents se 
lected "facts and figures on the development of house 
organs in the U.S." He discusses the replies given 
by the corporations to each question in an itemized 
summary of high points in attitudes and facts re 
vealed, synthesizes these findings as to the broad 
picture, before offering his particular suggestions for 
improvement, bolstered from specific examples. 

Industrial College of the Armed Forces. "Pub 
lic Relations." The Washington, D. C. Short 
Course, No. 2. Jun 24, 1941. 16pp. 
In this address, delivered six months before Pearl 
Harbor, ELB discusses "public relations during the 
Great War in Germany, England and the United 
States, the changes in psychological approach and 
technical developments since 1917, and such activi 
ties today in the three countries." 

The talk analyzes in detail propaganda techniques 
during and after World War I and suggests a public 
relations program for the United States designed to 
maintain high morale. 

"Our people have already provided billions of dol- 



36 



lars for physical armies and armaments. Through 
their elected representatives they have voted for the 
first peacetime selective service army in the life of 
the nation. If we are to be fully prepared for what 
ever may come, the people must become equally 
convinced that psychological ramparts in this coun 
try must be as strong as our physical ramparts. Such 
beliefs must be founded on greater economic and 
psychological security for the individual on a 
strengthening of democracy and of faith in it. Such 
belief based on an understanding of our aims will 
express itself in a will to victory and in sacrifice. 
Such belief will insure an even flow of supplies to the 
army from the industrial plants of the nation." 

Urging "a balanced public relations effort" to 
achieve this goal, ELB suggests: "The Government 
needs a psychological general staff to advise on all 
major questions of morale in industry, civilian 
life, army and navy. This staff would provide the 
soundest available knowledge for building morale 
and for psychological warfare and by having on 
top the ablest technicians, would speed up the entire 
morale building processes. Such a Morale Commis 
sion in its field of psychological defenses can take its 
place on a parity with the General Staff in physical 
defenses." 

ELB sums up his proposed public relations pro 
gram for the Government as follows: "First, a 
Morale Commission of experts, advisers, to draw up 
a master plan for morale and psychological warfare; 
second, a program to strengthen faith in democracy; 
third, a program to strengthen democracy; and 
fourth, a program to sell the army to the people and 
the people to the army." 

. "The Mobilization of Public Opinion." 

Talk before the Industrial College of the Armed 
Forces, Washington, D. C.: Publication Num 
ber L48-164, The Industrial College of the 
Armed Forces, Jun 14, 1948. 13pp. 
A survey and analysis of the techniques and media 
for mobilizing public opinion in a national emergency 
with a three point suggested action program: "(1) 
... A central organization [for mobilizing public 
opinion], manned by personnel skilled in the tech 
niques of mass communication, and headed by a 
director appointed by the President. This director 
must, of course, be an expert in the field of mass 
persuasion . . . [and] would function in coordina 
tion with a committee of Cabinet officers. (2) Suffi 
cient authority must be vested in the director to 
enable him to avoid duplication and even com 
petition in the spheres of policy, strategy and 
methods. Just as a commanding general runs his 
armies subject to the authority of the General Staff, 
so must this director guide his centralized activity, 
aimed at engineering the consent of the public . . . 
[not through] control or coercion, not thought con 
trol . . . [but through] . . . persuasion and in 
formation. (3) The director will naturally coordinate 
his strategy and methods with those of the Armed 
Forces and of all other civilian governmental agen 
cies. . . . Ideas in news and pictures would be put 



before the public continually through press associa 
tions, radio, motion pictures, news syndicates, maga 
zines, books, television. The truth would be used; 
lies, distortion, twisted ideas are unsound and dan 
gerous. Limiting factors on the effectiveness of ... 
activity would be of course events beyond . . . 
control, . . . the extent to which the communica 
tions network can penetrate into the minds of the 
people, the expertness with which the work is carried 



"General structure of the organization . . . would 
follow [that] ... of the Committee of Public In 
formation in World War I and the Office of War 
Information in World War II. But with this differ 
ence, that the organization would not be regarded 
by government leaders as a nuisance or a sop to 
public curiosity but as a vital part of our defense and 
that it would receive the support and expert guidance 
that it requires. A wide variety of activities would be 
covered. ... It might be divided into three sec 
tions: administrative, domestic and foreign. In the 
domestic section many subordinate agencies would 
be at work. There would be a foreign language news 
paper division, a picture division, a film division, a 
pictorial publicity division, a speaking division, a 
syndicate feature division, a women's war work divi 
sion and supervisory censorship division. Tomorrow, 
such an operation might be of necessity more com 
plex, cover a wider variety of efforts." 

Basic to the suggestion of this action program is 
ELB's premise that "an effectively mobilized public 
opinion is our most important strength in war . . . 
[during which, for mobilization] . . . resources are 
four-fold: men, money, materiel and public opinion. 
The first three can be stockpiled in advance. . . . 
Public opinion can be stockpiled on a long time ap 
proach, but not by warehousing or training, since it 
is an intangible. The long-time approach is to change 
the objective surroundings of our people . . . con 
tinuously to strengthen democracy, through govern 
ment and private groups, furthering constructive 
social programs that will ensure psychological and 
economic security of the people. The short-time 
approach to be used only after a fighting war has 
started, is by presenting significant symbols, words 
and pictures to our people, through a government 
controlled bureau, using the campaign drive method 
of persuasion and information. . ." 

In this 5000-word lecture, considerations and 
methods necessary to the development of both short- 
time and long-time approaches are discussed and 
defined including, for instance, an examination of 
the nature of public opinion, morale and patriotism 
the psychological factors involved in "static" as 
well as "dynamic" public opinion, ascertainable 
through research-information and knowledge. 

In these connections, among other things, ELB 
says: ". . . it is impossible to give more than the 
briefest suggestion of the psychological factors that 
go into the making of public opinion. A great deal of 
information is available, and more knowledge must 
be gained. However, these factors should never be 
overlooked in forming policies or programs, or in 



carrying them out. . . . It is necessary to appraise 
[as an example] the mechanism and force of ra 
tionalization, that familiar process by which people 
suppress, even to themselves, the real reasons that 
lead them to make decisions, and invent instead 
plausible reasons that satisfy them. We have to know 
the difference between rationalizations and the un 
derlying motivations, if we are successfully to appeal 
to the public for support. Identification with group 
aims is another factor that needs constructive con 
sideration. Conformity to mass pressure is powerful 
in making public opinion. So is compensation for the 
many economic, social and cultural frustrations of 
present day life. . . . We know that a man's morale 
is good when he acts on his belief that he has some 
thing worth fighting for, when he merges his interests 
with those of the group. ... It may result from 
recognition that society is functioning in his behalf. 
He will feel this is true if he has psychological and 
economic security. . . . The ego satisfaction that 
men derive from active identification with a group 
is so powerful as a morale factor that it should be 
carefully studied and fostered. . . . We must ensure 
that what we fight for will survive a war. Our war 
aims must not endanger our national traditions of 
freedom, equality and orderly justice. These aims 
must take the interests of the people into account; 
. . . must recognize the kind of world Americans 
want. For example, . . . expanding freedom, eco 
nomic, educational and social opportunities and full 
civil rights, loosely, what we call a better life for all. 
. . . Public opinion should be based solidly on facts 
and emotions, on truth honorably presented, on 
justice of the cause, on an understanding of a real 
and immediate danger and faith of the people in one 
another. These facts must ... be backed by the 
realities of the good life in this country. . . . Re 
search should precede any approach to a problem of 
this kind, . . . should tell us whose attitudes need 
to be intensified, whose need to be converted to our 
point of view, whose point of view should be negated. 
Such a research discloses the relative public aware 
ness of the situation at the time, agreement or dis 
agreement with our war objectives, the extent of the 
public's determination to achieve these objectives, 
its belief in our achievements thus far, its awareness 
of the size of the task. It tells us its confidence in 
various leaders, in the armed forces, in the allies, in 
the veracity and completeness of the news, its satis 
faction with the progress and unity of the country 
as far as farmers, Negroes, foreign born, Protestants, 
Catholics, Jews, labor, business and other sections 
of the public are concerned. . . . [Also,] research 
in the widely differing educational levels of our 
population. . . . The problem of presenting the 
basic underlying facts on which understanding is to 
be based is a most difficult one therefore. . . . We 
must know the extent of the network of communica 
tions available to us at the specific time [If we are 
effectively to deal with the people through symbols 
that penetrate all the media]. . . . We cannot de 
pend on intuition or inspiration for ideas. The ideas 
we use as themes must be based on a thorough-going 



37 

research on what people respond to at the time. . . . 
The American people are loyal to certain basic be 
liefs . . . [which] act as rallying points for our 
loyalty [around which] public opinion may ... be 
rallied. . . . Semantics, the science of words, and 
readability, the levels of reading acceptance, are 
other research matters of primary consideration. 
. . . [But] as words are used to express ideas, so 
deeds are developed to dramatize ideas . . . [al 
though] one more job of research is finding in ad 
vance what cooperation may be secured from the 
communications channels, and this includes adver 
tising of course. . . . [From] a number of serious 
studies . . . made of the machinery set up ... [in] 
World Wars I and II, ... the main lesson to be 
derived ... is this: that psychological warfare at 
home is an integral and vital part of any total war 
effort [and] . . . must not be underestimated." 

. "Public Information by the Government." 

Washington, D. C: Publication No. L49-47. 

The Industrial College of the Armed Forces, 

Washington, D. C. Nov 19, 1948. 

Outlines the "public relations or information and 

morale program ... as a way of insuring that, 

when and if a war emergency arises in the United 

States, the people will be as well prepared in morale 

as the armed forces are in manpower and materiel." 

ELB lists three "indispensable basic factors" 
which must be taken into account in "any basic 
plan for building the morale of the people" and "pre 
paring the people of this country for an emergency." 
The basic assumptions are: "it is necessary to de 
velop and maintain maximum security with maxi 
mum liberty; the government and the people are 
one; the loyalties of all sections of the government 
and the nation must be focused on a common goal." 

ELB then outlines the following seven-point pub 
lic relations program: "(1) make full use of research 
as a basis of policy and practices of government in 
dealing with the public; (2) develop a well-organized 
peacetime public information bureau; (3) let the 
government deliberately and overtly encourage free 
public discussion in peace time; (4) in its whole 
public relations and informational policy, the gov 
ernment should emphasize not words alone, but 
deeds; (5) institute a continuing series of conferences 
and discussions between government and leaders of 
the important groups in our society, including farm 
ers, labor, commerce, industry and the armed forces; 
(6) add higher formal education to the training pro 
gram of the armed forces in peace time; (7) develop 
a more democratic army in order to give men and 
officers greater community of interest in working 
toward a common goal." 

ELB concludes: "The program I am suggesting is 
predicated on our history, on our experience as a 
nation and on the science of human relations as 
developed by the various social sciences; and it pre 
serves our fundamental principles of security and 
individual liberty. Besides, it is based on the military 
law that he fights best who most deeply believes in 
his faith. History has shown that armies built and 



38 



supported by the faith of the people are the most 
effective." 

"The Importance of Public Opinion in 

Economic Mobilization. 1 ' Talk before the In 
dustrial College of the Armed Forces, Washing 
ton, D. C. Oct 11, 1949. 

ELB says: "Because national action in a democracy 
depends on public opinion, we need a new approach 
to economic and military mobilization, and to con 
duct warfare. This requires expert knowledge of mass 
and individual psychology, as well as expert knowl 
edge of the techniques of communication. You are 
giving serious attention to this vital matter. This 
shows the Armed Forces no longer believe, as they 
often did in the past, that technology is everything 
and that public opinion can be handled casually 
through handouts and headlines which glamorize 
this or that general, this or that army in the public 
mind. . . . 

"Mobilization, then, must be divided into two 
major areas of action. One is the mobilization of men, 
money and materiels for the creation of physical 
armies and resources in case of war. . . . The second 
form of mobilization is ideological. ... I believe 
it is possible to stockpile public opinion for economic 
mobilization for victory as it is to stockpile things 
if we go at it in the right way and on a planned basis. 
. . . But we must realize at the outset that public 
opinion cannot be expected to depend on words 
alone; it depends upon deeds as well. The building 
public opinion for economic mobilization must be 
based, to be sure, on facts, on truth, on the justice 
of our cause, on an understanding by the people of 
the danger our country faces, and on the faith of 
the people in one another. But it must also be backed 
by realities, by the achievement of a good life within 
the country. Efforts directed to giving the people the 
psychological and economic security they desire in 
the United States, if successful, should eventuate in 
a vast reserve of favorable public opinion. . . . This 
long-range approach, by improving the mental and 
physical health, the economic security and education 
of the American people, and by eliminating discrimi 
nation, promotes high morale. . . . Now as to the 
second approach, the wartime approach ... In 
such an approach, a central government-controlled 
bureau presents significant word and picture symbols 
to our people. Such a bureau would use the methods 
practiced successfully in two world wars to mobilize 
public opinion. . . . Only experts in the field of 
public opinion, men who are deeply versed in its 
skills and deeply rooted in our democratic tradition 
can give us the kind of organization and techniques 
which will educate and mobilize the public for a 
national emergency while maintaining our demo 
cratic pattern intact." 

Institute on World Control of Atomic Energy. 

" National Committee on Atomic Information." 

Report on the Institute on Atomic Information. 

Vol. 1, No. 8, Aug 19, 1946, pp. 1-11. 

The Institute on World Control of Atomic Energy, 

convoked by the National Committee on Atomic 



Information and its seventy sponsoring organiza 
tions, was held in Washington on July 15-16. 
Speakers were: Hon. Henry A. Wallace, John Han 
cock, Clark Eichelberger, ELB and others. ELB said 
in part: "The way to dispel fear is to supply the 
people with the knowledge and facts the experts 
have. This must be done in terms the people will 
both understand, and be willing to act upon. The 
people will become articulate when they know the 
facts. They will then squarely support one of the 
plans proposed for internationalizing the atomic 
bomb. That is the people's role. The tremendous 
expansion of communications in the United States 
has given America the world's most highly organized 
network for spreading ideas." ELB recommended 
planned action for disseminating information about 
the atomic bomb so that they could "be sure your 
material fits the public you are interested in reaching." 
International Association of Milk Dealers. 
"Better Public Understanding for the Fluid 
Milk Industry." Proceedings, 27th Annual 
Convention, Oct 15-17, 1934. pp. 215-230. 
An analysis of the public relations problems of the 
fluid milk industry. "Public relations must be con 
sidered, first, from the standpoint of the industry; 
and, second, from the standpoint of the unit within 
the industry." 

Analyzing public attitudes toward the milk indus 
try, ELB says the public thinks "the spread between 
the price the farmer gets and the price the distributor 
gets is too great" and that "the farmer and the buyer 
of milk are unjustly treated." 

The milk industry can do what other industries 
have done "carry on public relations activities 
and create better understanding for the fluid milk 
industry." 

For this purpose, "new methods must be adopted 
to meet changed and changing conditions of our new 
epoch" and "to counteract ill-will from the past, 
industry must devise extraordinary means of in 
forming the public about its actual constructive 
policies and actions in the present and future." 

ELB then recommends a four-point public rela 
tions program for the fluid milk industry: "(1) A 
formulation of the objectives. (2) A scientific analysis 
of the public, including not only an estimate of what 
the public thinks and expects of you, but attention 
to where public opinion is veering. (3) A study of 
this analysis with a view to making necessary 
changes in your policies, products or service to con 
form to public desires and making whatever 
changes are advisable. (4) A continuous projection 
and interpretation of your industry through all pos 
sible media in terms of what the public is thinking 
and demanding." 

The Journal of Marketing. See Addenda, Item 
13. 

Mail Advertising Service Association. "Direct 
Mail: A Challenge to Research in Humanics." 
An address delivered before the Association, 
Twenty-Eighth Annual Luncheon, New York, 
N.Y: Raymond Service, Inc., May 6, 1947. 



39 



ELB reports on survey about direct mail he con 
ducted among leaders like Nicholas Samstag and 
Frank Pratt of Time, Boyce Morgan of Kiplinger's, 
Simon & Schuster, McGraw-Hill, Penn Mutual Life 
Insurance, etc. Quoting these on method and for 
mula, ELB cites their suggestions for making direct 
mail more effective: lower costs in production and 
postage; greater accuracy, more careful selection of 
lists; improved letter content; improved government 
service lower postage, greater speed in handling 
; ELB himself suggests users of direct mail "must 
undertake research in two highly important fields of 
human knowledge: first, the art and science of com 
munication by mail; second, research into the nature 
of human beings." Under first head, he urges re 
search, aided by colleges, universities and founda 
tions, in language, semantics and symbols; under 
second head, research in social sciences. 

ELB pointed out that "directed mail covers many 
aspects of communications and of human behavior. 
It involves the whole process of engineering the 
consent of those whom it is trying to influence in a 
highly competitive civilization. It should receive 
the benefits of the most scientific methods in order 
to carry out its social function most effectively." 

Condensed in Advertiser's Digest, Vol. 12, No. 12, 
Dec 1949, pp. 20-23. 

Market Research. "Public Opinion and Public 
Relations," Vol. 8, No. 2, Feb 1938, pp. 11-14. 
Talk before the American Statistical Associa 
tion, Atlantic City, NJ: Dec 28, 1937. 
ELB defines public relations as "interpreting the 
public to the individual and the individual to the 
public ... a process of altering existing alignments, 
... of effecting a change for the better integration 
of the two elements concerned." The public relations 
worker must "find out the present status of the in 
dividual attempting to effect change" and "the 
present configuration of his public." He needs 
scientific charting by statistics, economic measure 
ments, individual and mass psychology and other 
social sciences. 

Discussing use of statistical methods in public 
relations, ELB says statistics can in certain cases lay 
down the pattern for public relations activities in ad 
vance, gauge trend lines, indicate the amount of ef 
fort to be applied, determine the effectiveness of a 
public relations effort, strengthen the ideas advanced 
in propaganda, employ the "tyranny of numbers" 
for socially useful purposes. 

Merchants' Association of New York. "The 
New York World's Fair A Symbol for De 
mocracy." Address of Edward L. Bernays, mem 
ber of World's Fair Committee of The Merchants' 
Association of New York at Luncheon under 
Auspices of The Association's Members' Coun 
cil at Hotel Pennsylvania. Issued by The 
Merchants' Association of New York. Apr 7, 
1937. 9pp. 

In this talk, ELB discusses the basic theme of the 
World's Fair of 1939 and how to develop and expand 
it. After Grover Whalen's statement that the Fair 



would look forward to the task of " 'Building the 
world of tomorrow,' " ELB says: "In the last seven 
years, many of our old values, through economic 
forces, have been deflated. The world is in a chaotic 
state. It needs leadership. To revitalize the relation 
ship of our system to the common man is a contribu 
tion the Fair must make. The Fair must be made to 
show how our democracy works, how it can be main 
tained. . . . Let us sell America to Americans. . . . 
How can this be carried out effectively? . . . The 
Fair must relate the things which are shown, to 
what they have done for us as individuals, and as a 
system in the last 150 years; to what they will con 
tinue to do for us. Let us by all means picture the 
activities of America with concrete examples coal 
mines, copper mines, assembly lines, shoe factories 
all these. I am all for the concrete, the vivid, the 
actual reality. But this is not enough. . . . Such a 
Fair must show graphically the interrelationship of 
the various groups that make up our life the 
relationship of private industry and private enter 
prise to government and to the people; the relation 
ship of farm and industry; the relationship of men 
and management. . . . Give them these facts at 
the Fair, graphically displayed in words, actions, dis 
plays, through every form of thought conveyor, and 
we can depend upon the people to make the soundest 
choice possible. . . . Not to strike, throughout all 
these great efforts, one dominant and responsive key 
note of vital interest to everyone early in the Fair, 
that will identify the coming Fair with the hopes and 
aspirations of every man, is to lose one of the most 
potent effects that the Fair can produce, and to lose, 
at the same time, the highest potential of interest and 
success the Fair can achieve. Not only will such a 
point of view modify the attitudes and actions of 
those who come to the Fair, but in its development, 
it will tend to crystallize the attitudes and actions of 
all those associated with the Fair exhibitors, key 
participants. All New York will be ready to con 
tribute to such an end. New York represents the very 
democracy that is America." 

Museum News. "The Museum's Job in Wartime," 
Vol. XX, No. 20, Apr 15, 1943, pp. 11-12. 
Reprint of an address delivered at Annual 
Meeting of the American Association of Mus 
eums at Williamsburg, May 18-19, 1942. 
ELB says: "The exigencies of total warfare demand 
that every institution in the democracy re-examine, 
re-evaluate itself to find its place in the democracy 
under these wartime conditions, and to fit itself more 
effectively into the peace that will follow the war. 
Total warfare today has three fronts the eco 
nomic, the military, and the psychological. . . . The 
museums of the country, whether they are art, or 
historical or natural history museums, can be used as 
a stirring background for emotion, factual evidence, 
and tradition in shaping men's and women's atti 
tudes. That is one way in which the museum can be 
come a dynamic and forceful contributor to the war 
effort and to the peace that is to come. . ." 

ELB reports that survey he made among museum 



40 



directors reveals museums face four major problems: 

(1) organization the problem of personnel to head 
museums; (2) support for museums inadequate 
contributions and the problem to get people to at 
tend and use museums; (3) the problem of satisfying 
needs of various groups which use museums 
children, adults, soldiers; (4) the public relations 
problem of "utilizing all avenues of approach to the 
public to meet your problems of financial support 
and attendance." ELB then outlines three out 
standing functions of the museum in wartime: (1) 
the strengthening of morale through increasing the 
people's belief in the future and themselves by show 
ing them the past and the present; (2) providing 
escape for a population made tense by wartime 
stress; (3) providing and maintaining the creative 
spirit so important to our democratic pattern and its 
future. ELB adds: "These three important objectives 
are newsworthy. . . . Public relations with deeds is 
more effective than public relations with words. . . . 
First, define your objectives specifically in terms of 
your own museum. Second, make a study of your 
community to find out what the prevailing attitudes 
and interests are, find out the channels of communi 
cation and their interests. At this point, work out 
plans of activities translate your program into 
action." 

National Alumni Council. "Mass Psychology -in 
College Fund Raising." An address delivered at 
the Regional Conference of the National Alumni 
Council, Atlantic City, N.J., Feb 13, 1932. 8pp. 
ELB says: "Given these two ideas, first, that the 
world looks today for leadership to the university 
scientist, teacher; second, that the world is recog 
nizing the validity of the mental equipment the col 
lege gives a man to cope with this disrupted eco 
nomic world, how can they be turned into channels 
to create greater opportunities for you to use in 
raising funds to keep the college going?" 

To achieve this goal, ELB recommends a public 
relations program based on following steps: (1) 
Through mass media of communication, group lead 
ers and publicists, appeal to public's identification 
with colleges as institutions which educate our chil 
dren and give us our leaders of today and tomorrow; 

(2) issue a round robin signed by 100 captains of 
industry "calling upon America to give a thought 
to its colleges and to the things of the spirit, in this 
time when the fleshpots have proved of so little 
avail"; (3) A pronouncement by 600 college presi 
dents "calling upon America to bethink itself of the 
university as the means of training the youth to be 
able to meet whatever future it has with strength 
and fortitude"; (4) saturate individuals in all walks 
of life with this viewpoint, so that they reflect it in 
their spoken and written utterances; (5) appeal to 
the desire for immortality by listing all donors to 
university funds on tablets; (6) fire the imagination 
of millions by a simple, direct symbol; (7) ask for a 
given sum for a given purpose on a given date; (8) let 
each university define its ideals so that these are 
known to groups who believe in the same ideal; 



(9) let fund-raising committees be thoroughly repre 
sentative of the community; (10) a successful fund- 
raising campaign requires overt acts which make the 
news luncheons, mass meetings, parades, broad 
casts, resolutions, dedication exercises. 

National Association of Manufacturers. "Panel 
of Public Relations Counsel on the Big Problem 
Facing Industry and What to Do about It." 
Proceedings Third Annual Public Relations 
Conference sponsored by the NAM, N.Y.: Dec 
4, 1945. 89pp. 

An Editorial note: "The members of the panel were: 
Edward L. Bernays, Carl Byoir, Pendleton Dudley, 
Fred Eldean, James W. Irwin, G. Edward Pendray, 
T. J. Ross." 

National Municipal League, [etc.] "Crystallizing 
Public Opinion for Good Government." Address 
before the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the 
National Municipal League and the Twenty- 
First Annual Meeting of the American Civic 
Association in Joint Session. Pittsburgh, Nov 
1925. 8pp. 

A discussion of the techniques of public relations as 
applied to government. 

After emphasizing the need to "sell" good govern 
ment to a community, ELB outlines the techniques. 
"You may perhaps wonder at the use of the term 
'selling good government.' Yet good government can 
be sold to a community just as any other commodity 
can be sold to a community. . . . Any intelligent 
handling of a problem in selling good government to 
a community must take into consideration the exist 
ing status of public opinion in the community where 
the 'sale' is going to be made. . . . The basic reason 
underlying such an analysis is the fact that men's 
opinions are most often changed by their acceptance 
of the opinions of those whom they regard as leaders. 
Remember, then, that this analysis should try as 
closely as possible to gauge the importance of the 
relative values of different leaders in the political 
thought of the community. . . . Now that the 
technician has mastered the first step in his 'sales 
campaign,' he proceeds to the second . . . and 
analyzes the appeals of his good government project 
to the community. He realizes that the individual 
and the group are swayed by only a very small num 
ber of fundamental desires and emotions and in 
stincts. . . . The protagonist of good government, 
then, selects such appeals as will best serve to reach 
the groups he desires to influence. . . . The basic 
appeal or keynote of the campaign having been 
developed, the good government special pleader next 
has to consider the physical approaches to his public. 
. . . The platform, the motion picture (from a news- 
reel standpoint), the radio, the magazines, the direct 
mailing piece, the word-of-mouth ' spoken thought, 
the parade, the mass meeting every method of 
approach to the public through the senses must be 
made. . . . The special pleader has a simple matter 
when it comes to the utilization of these media, 
which I shall group together, with the exception of 
the daily press. He must simply study their con- 



41 



stituent organism as it exists at the time he is waging 
his campaign and find the greatest common denomi 
nator of interest between the medium and the appeal 
he has decided upon for his public, keeping in mind 
the group formation of society referred to previously. 
. . . Your group leaders, induced on some essential 
and basic interest to further your cause, and selected 
to fit into the media, will influence their constituents 
and larger interlapping groups. Given a cause that 
needs the whole community's support, it is a possi 
bility to secure the interest of any number of differ 
ent group leaders on varied appeals to sponsor the 
cause, and reflect them through the channels men 
tioned, to publics that will eventually include the 
whole community in terms of their own interests. 
... I have left the newspaper to the last because it 
is a problem in itself and to it as an influence in 
molding public opinion could be devoted a special 
course of lectures. . . . Your special pleader, there 
fore, who cannot, because of physical and monetary 
limitations, publish his own newspapers to present 
his point of view, must continually think of his prob 
lem in terms of creating circumstances that will 
cause the desired expression in the minds of the 
public he is trying to reach, and which will at the 
same time compare in the market place for news of 
that given day with other news which the given 
newspaper is printing. The circumstances which he 
creates must embody the basic appeal he has de 
veloped as the one to which his public will respond, 
and it must embody this appeal in the form of a 
happening which will be as important, or more im 
portant, than other happenings in that particular 
place on that particular day. . . . The technique of 
influencing public opinion is then a problem to be 
gone at step by step. It demands a survey of the 
market the public, an analysis of the thought- 
buying habits of the 'buying' group, a study of the 
physical media of approach and a harmonizing of 
appeal to the media and to the public." 

National Newspaper Promotion Association. 

"Public Relations for the American Daily 
Newspaper." A talk delivered by Edward L. 
Bernays, counselor in public relations, April 25, 
1944. Reproduced and distributed by the Asso 
ciation as a service to the cause of American 
newspapers. 14pp. 

Discussing the public relations of America's daily 
newspapers, ELB says: "If my talk to you today 
on the public relations of America's daily newspapers 
is to be of any practical value to you, your newspaper 
and to the public, it must be based on an objective 
weighing of all the facts available. That is the only 
way to deal with any situation realistically look 
at the facts, interpret them, and let recommenda 
tions stem from analysis and synthesis. . . . To deal 
with the problem realistically then, we must examine 
three sets of facts and state the assumption on which 
we shall interpret facts that a democracy needs a 
free and independent press, as a purveyor of news 
and as a social instrument of leadership. First, what 
are the policies and practices that govern the public 



relations of American daily newspapers today? Sec 
ond, what are the attitudes of the American people 
toward the daily press today? Third, what are the 
issues and goals the American people are interested 
in now and for the postwar period?" 

After discussing his survey answers to these ques 
tions, ELB continues: "We have examined the three 
sets of facts we started out to. Now what are the 
conclusions and recommendations? If the newspaper 
effectively serves the public as a news purveyor and 
a social instrument, we do not need to be concerned 
with the newspaper as a private enterprise. . . . 
Our recommendations obviously apply to the daily 
newspaper field as a whole. . . . Newspapers must 
act on the basic consideration that a democracy 
needs a free and independent press which purveys 
accurate complete news, and is also a social instru 
ment of leadership for constructive improvement. 
. . . Large circulations and advertising are not 
necessarily an index to the social value of a news 
paper. If social values are not maintained, in the 
long run newspapers may lose their status as public 
service institutions and encounter a tendency by the 
public towards restriction, control and regulation 
even despite the first amendment. It is not incon 
ceivable that pressures may be brought to bear 
against the press, that is not considered by the public 
to be living up to its privileged status. ... As to 
platforms of a leadership character, here are our 
recommendations: Greater emphasis should be 
placed on national and international social goals in 
the platforms of American newspapers. Planks of 
local character, emphasizing physical improvements 
in a community, now so generally used, might well 
be reconsidered. Greater emphasis might be placed 
on promoting local social goals, consistent, of course, 
with national and international social goals. The 
American people are vitally interested in postwar 
jobs, social reforms, social security, educational and 
other aid for returning soldiers, a chance to advance 
themselves, a recognition of their personal contribu 
tion to America and to the next generation. Planks 
of this kind, it seems to me, might be given emphasis 
on a local as well as national basis. As to planks of 
a news purveying character, these are well stated by 
the newspapers of the country. It is apparent that 
what they stand for is not as acceptable to the public 
as they ought to be. Newspapers to maintain their 
status must not only adhere to these planks, they 
must make a vigorous avowal of them to the public. 
Platforms must be continually 'sold' to the public 
in every possible way. The press must consciously 
make the public recognize its values in both the field 
of social leadership and news purveying. . . . The 
press must not only have sound leadership platforms 
and sound news policies and practices, it must 'sell' 
both to the public. In the leadership field, it can devel 
op vigorous campaigns for action. In the news purvey 
ing field, it must stand not only for freedom from 
prejudice but 'sell' this freedom from prejudice to 
the public. It must 'sell' to the public constantly 
that it is truthful and accurate, particularly in those 
areas in which the public appears to doubt its fair- 



42 



ness, its treatment of politicians and politics, labor 
and labor leaders, business and businessmen, foreign 
affairs, religious and racial problems." 

National Society for Crippled Children and 
Adults. " Achieving Goals for the Handicapped." 
Proceedings 1949 Annual Convention. Hotel 
Commodore, N. Y: Nov 6-10, 1949. 231pp. 
Introducing ELB at the November 8 session of the 
Society's convention, the chairman said: "He is not 
a stranger to the work we are engaged in nor to the 
activities of the people present, because he has been 
a member of the National Public Relations Com 
mittee of the American Red Cross, and is a director 
of the National Committee on Mental Hygiene, and 
of the Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation. He is 
Edward L. Bernays, a graduate of Cornell Univer 
sity. Time magazine has called him 'the United States 
Publicist No. 1.' He is a lecturer on public relations 
at New York University. Next summer, he will be 
Visiting Professor on Public Relations at the Uni 
versity of Hawaii. He has served the United States 
government in various capacities such as the Paris 
Peace Conference, the United States Committee on 
Public Information, the War Department and the 
Department of Commerce. He is an author and a 
frequent contributor to leading magazines, and news 
papers and social science journals." 

Speaking on "Achieving Goals Through Educa 
tion," ELB said: ". . . the visibility today of your 
cause is not as great as it might be not because 
the problem of crippled children and adults is not as 
important and vital as you might think it is, but 
because thousands of other ideas and interests are 
competing with yours for public attention. You may 
have the best cause in the world, but the public must 
be convinced that it is important before it will sup 
port it. The public importance of a cause is in direct 
ratio to its visibility, to its being on the front page, 
so to speak, of communications that reach and make 
public opinion. . . . You must then create visibility 
for your movement high visibility on a national, 
statewide and local basis. This is your first problem 
in any attempt to educate the public for the achieve 
ment of your stated goal. 

"... the problem of educating the public is a 
much broader problem. We might call it a problem 
of social engineering, or a problem of engineering the 
consent of the public for your goals. 

"The first step ... is to insure that your goals 
are realistic, that they are attainable and that they 
are effectively refined and defined. . . . Research 
of the public will tell you whether the manpower, 
the money and the organizational facilities available 
to you now can meet your hoped-for goal. . . . You 
will also find out by research of the public what the 
social forces in the community are that may work 
with you, . . . what your publics are, what they 
are made up of, what they are motivated by, what 
the special fields of activity that appeal to these 
publics are. . . . Research of this kind will help you 
to define goals that will appeal to the public. 

"While selling your words to editors, publishers, 



radio commentators, writers and other opinion mold- 
ers, you must also integrate yourself with the com 
munity where you function, with the key social 
groups that make up the community and its social 
pattern on a local level, a statewide level, a national 
level. 

". . . possibly one way to cope with the problems 
of educating the American public to understand the 
needs of crippled children and adults and to support 
your cause, is for you to set up a central board of 
strategy consisting of representatives of your Na 
tional Society and of other groups. . . . This central 
board of strategy . . . could work out both an im 
mediate and a long range plan of educating the public 
in the light of whatever the research of your publics 
indicates is the necessary blueprint of action." pp. 
81-87. 

New England News Letter. "Building Goodwill 
for New England Industry." Supplement, Aug 
1938, pp. 4-12. 

Addressing the Conference of leading New England 
Manufacturers, ELB said: "The importance of pub 
lic relations today, it seems to me, is that the busi 
ness man must regard it as more than articulation; 
he must regard it as a basic and underlying part of 
his responsibility to the world he lives in. He must 
recognize that only if the public interest and the 
private profit coincide can he maintain and develop 
his own business and the broader system of which 
it is a part." 

ELB reports on the "Goodwill Survey" which he 
made for the Industrial Committee of the New Eng 
land Council. This survey was sent to 2500 New Eng 
land manufacturers, of whom 263 or 10.5% replied. 

Of this survey, ELB said: "It aimed to find out 
whether your community realized the contribution 
made to its economic life by your company, inquired 
as to whether your community was friendly to your 
company, and whether your company was friendly 
to the community; asked as to the appearance of 
your company's officers before local groups in the 
community; inquired, specifically, as to the par 
ticipation of your company in community affairs. 
Then it queried whether certain different kinds of 
information were made available to local newspapers 
and other agencies in the community; whether you 
encouraged visits to your plants; what employee in 
formation relationships you carried on; what plant 
identification you had; what plant exhibits you pro 
vided, what local activities you participated in to 
wards a furtherance of your business, and what 
you considered the chief barriers or obstacles 
to good relations between industry and your com 
munity. 

"... business must retain the system of private 
enterprise, of private profit and of free competition 
which made America. These are part and parcel of 
our democracy. The drift towards state capitalism 
that is going on in many parts of the world is fraught 
with danger for the democracy. That is why it is so 
important that the people should not be permitted 
to lose faith in business. ... If our democracy is to 



43 



remain, business must regain the good will of the 
public. It must reestablish itself with the public. 
But it must depend for its public understanding on 
deeds as well as words. . . . Public relations is no 
longer a matter of a mimeograph machine, manu 
facturing releases for newspapers. It is no longer a 
matter of appearing before local groups, partici 
pating in community affairs, contributing towards 
community charities, sending out information. 
Constructive public relations must permeate your 
every attitude and action. What you think and do 
must be in accord with public opinion, public desire, 
public demand and public interest as well as with 
your private profit. ..." 

Newspaper Advertising Executives Association, 
Inc. "Symbols The Currency of Propaganda." 
Address at the 28th Annual Convention, N. Y. 
1935. p. 9. 

An action-related analysis of the use of symbols in 
propaganda, publicity, and public relations. 

ELB said: "There are so few leaders today because 
there is so little understanding of the science of 
ballyhoo by those who should be leaders. ... In 
influencing and motivating the group to action, sym 
bols and cliches play a most significant role. . . . 
Leaders must devise symbols that will interpret the 
disappointed and the latent beliefs of the public 
and that will stand again for the public's desires. A 
new symbol-maker will be a new leader, if his sym 
bols are valid. . . . Propaganda the science of 
ballyhoo can give direction to the shifting tastes 
and wants of the consumer through the use of sym 
bols, whether it be applied in newspaper advertising 
or some other form of propaganda. . . . The mod 
ern propagandist studies systematically and objec 
tively the material with which he is working, in the 
spirit of the laboratory. If the matter in hand is a 
nationwide sales campaign, he studies the field by 
means of a clipping service, or of a corps of scouts, 
or by personal study at crucial spots. . . . This 
technique is daily being applied to every field of 
human activity. . . . The world of industry par 
ticularly must recognize that it is not only dealing 
with three dimensional objects and methods through 
which to move them to the public. It must recognize 
that in addition to objects, it is dealing with symbols 
that are competing with all other kinds of abstrac 
tions, and that the only way to do this effectively is to 
have fundamentally in mind the science of ballyhoo." 
New York Academy of Medicine. "A Venture 
in Public Health Integration:' The 1941 Health 
Education Conference of the New York Acad 
emy of Medicine. N. Y: Morningside Heights, 
Columbia University Press. 1942. 56pp. 
Chapter II, "Barriers to Health Education," by 
ELB, analyzes public health services, the cost of 
medical care, and the barriers to health education. 
It contains a public relations program for educating 
the American people on health matters, pp. 24-45. 

Reprinted as "Psychological Barriers in Health 
Education." Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 
VIII, No. 6, Jan 1, 1942. pp. 188-192. 



New York Herald Tribune. Fifth Annual Forum 
on Current Problems. "America Faces a 
Changing World" The New York Tribune, Inc. 
1935. 318pp. 

The Fifth Session of this Herald-Tribune Forum, 
held October 17, 1935, was devoted to "Propaganda: 
A Force for Good or Evil." ELB spoke on "Mould 
ing Public Opinion," pp. 234-238. Introducing him, 
Mrs. William Brown Maloney, Chairman of the 
Forum and editor of This Week, said: "The next 
speaker on this program is by way of being a sort 
of institution. A nephew of that famous psycholo 
gist, Dr. Sigmund Freud, his training and environ 
ment made him a student of human nature, and 
in his early life he became interested in the psychol 
ogy of the crowd. He read a play called 'Damaged 
Goods,' believed it should be given to the public 
for the public's own good, and undertook to put 
it over. Doing this was not just a press agent's 
job selling that play to the public meant con 
verting the legal profession, the medical profession, 
the educators and the press to acceptance of a more 
open discussion of social problems than they had 
ever known before. That was Mr. Bernays' first 
experience as a public counsellor. Today he is one of 
the foremost men in that profession; has, in fact, 
been largely instrumental in creating the profession 
as such. I want to quote something he said about it 
several years ago. 'Propaganda is simply special 
pleading projected in terms of the public interest. 
This can be used to antisocial purpose.' Ida Tarbell 
asked him what was the difference in the propaganda 
methods of a statesman and a demagogue. He an 
swered that the difference was that one man had a 
social purpose and the other didn't. It is the differ- 
ference between the honest lawyer and a shyster 
lawyer; between a reputable doctor and a quack; 
between humanism and egotism. Mr. Bernays has 
been the adviser of presidents, of high government 
officials, of big business. He is the author of two well- 
known books Propaganda and Crystallizing Pub 
lic Opinion" In his speech ELB said: "Americans 
must recognize that in the science of propaganda 
they have at their command a real weapon with 
which to consolidate and make effective the work 
and contributions of past and present generations 
that have built up our present-day system an 
economic and governmental system which we do 
not desire to exchange for any other." 

New York State Title Association. " Mr. Bernays' 
Address 'Private Interest and Public Respon 
sibility.' " May 5-6, 1939, pp. 59-66. 
Minutes of New York State Title Association meet 
ing, beginning with the president's introductory re 
marks. "The Association this year is going a little 
further afield in its program. The next speaker is a 
publicist not directly associated with the title busi 
ness. Mr. Bernays has been identified with many of 
the large corporations in business, advising them on 
their public relations. TIME has called him U. S. 
Publicist No. 1 ..." The text beginning, "Title 
insurance and its related field of real estate invest- 



44 



ment today face the same problems of public rela 
tions many other great fields of financial activity are 
facing. The need these businesses serve is greater 
than public knowledge and appreciation of this 
need." Speech given by ELB covers sub-topics, 
"How to Develop a Better Understanding," "Public 
Interest Values," "Private Interests and Public Re 
sponsibility," "Business Dependent on Goodwill," 
"Public Relations a Definite Objective." Question 
and answer period including one member's com 
ment, "We have had a million dollars' worth of ad 
vice from Mr. Bernays for the price of a good lunch 
eon" also reported. 

Pennsylvania State College. "Human Relations 
The Way to Labor -Management Adjustments" 
Bulletin. Vol. XLI, No. 7. Feb 14, 1947. pp. 15- 
22. A paper presented at the 23rd Annual In 
dustrial Conference of the College, State Col 
lege, Pa. 

ELB said: "The attempt of either management or 
labor to win public opinion to its side alone is in itself 
no solution. The job of management, as it is of labor, 
is to put its own house in order so that it can begin 
to develop a public opinion that will itself look be 
yond the conflicting claims of group interest. There 
is no short-cut to this goal." 

ELB discusses the basic problems of labor-manage 
ment maladjustments and appeals to management 
to "bring its thinking up to date. . . . 

"How can management build a real case that both 
the public and labor will accept? In dealing with 
labor-management problems, management suffers 
from a cultural time lag. This phrase succinctly de 
scribes the gap which exists between what people 
actually do and what they could do in the light of the 
knowledge available. . . . The question resolves 
itself into management's attitudes and actions to 
wards the worker and the representatives of manage 
ment, from pay to ventilation. . . . Today indus 
trial management must apply to its industrial rela 
tions the theories of human behavior developed in 
the social science laboratories. To use this knowledge 
is not visionary. It is the highest type of practical, 
self-interest, enlightened reality. . . . An orderly 
solution to management's responsibilities is necessary 
before management can present a visible case for 
itself." In the hopes of stimulating such a solution, 
ELB offered a seven-point program: (1) study and 
codifying of study materials on human relations 
from all over the country; (2) management should 
contribute financial and personnel aid to organiza 
tions studying and publishing in the field; (3) 
management should actively support universities 
through scholarships and endowments; (4) tech 
nological research should be applied to increasing 
industrial productivity through more efficient ma 
chinery; (5) all plans for improving labor relations 
should be studied thoroughly; (6) more widespread 
and intelligent use should be made of specialized in 
dustrial relations personnel; (7) the public must be 
educated to an understanding of what the American 
system means to them. 



"Management must do its part as labor to see 
that it conforms to the new conditions, that change 
is kept within a working evolutionary framework. 
About the only guarantee of industrial peace is for 
management to apply the science of human rela 
tionships to this problem. If management accepts its 
responsibility to achieve co-partnership with work 
ers, public opinion will support management's share 
in this accomplishment." 

Philco Distributors' & Dealers' Convention. 

"Leadership." An address by Edward L. Ber 
nays, Counsel on Public Relations to the Philco 
Radio & Television Corporation. Delivered to 
Philco Distributors and Dealers on the 1936 
Convention Cruise Aboard the Q.T.E.M. Mon 
arch of Bermuda. Copyright 1936, Philco Radio 
and Television Corporation. 16pp. 
ELB analyzes the nature and the characteristics of 
leadership in American society and applies it practi 
cally to Philco. 

Printing and Advertising Clinics. "Public Rela 
tions A Challenge to the Graphic Arts." Talk 
at the Second of the Clinics, sponsored by the 
General Printing Ink Corporation, N. Y: Apr 
16, 1940. 23pp. 

ELB discusses the problems of the graphic arts in 
dustry "those engaged in the three processes of 
reproduction, letterpress, lithography and gravure, 
and the allied trades, the suppliers." 

He found out what the problems were by a na 
tionwide survey, among leaders of the industry 
printers, lithographers, engravers, professors in 
printing universities, editors and publishers of trade 
newspapers, type founders, labor leaders; manufac 
turers of presses, paper and other materials. 

The industry faces: (1) internal problems; (2) 
problems of relations with the broad public; (3) rela 
tions with its customers [pp. 6-7]. Industry leaders, 
ELB says, have six major complaints: (1) "there are 
too many printers in the field and not enough crafts 
men . . . the lack of public appreciation of the 
graphic arts industry is due to the fact that there is 
too little appreciation within the industry itself as 
to what constitutes quality work; (2) the lack of 
realization of artistic potentialities by the indus 
try; (3) poor salesmanship; (4) poor promotion; 
(5) lack of cooperation in the industry; (6) the 
need for a coordinated and well-planned promotional 
campaign using every form of promotional media." 
ELB recommends the following public relations 
program for the graphic arts industry: ". . . call 
together . . . leaders from the various divisions of 
the industry to study the problems and suggest solu 
tions. ... I recommend that your Committee de 
velop a program of broad principles and practices 
for the graphic arts industry to follow. ... I sug 
gest that competent technicians be engaged to make 
a study of the public mind to find out just what the 
attitudes of your publics are . . . toward the prin 
ciples and goals you have decided upon ... a 
campaign of public education . . . using what we 
might call the engineering of consent, organized 



45 



persuasion, from advertising to mailing pieces, from 
personal suasion to industry resolutions, to win sup 
port both of your industry and public to the princi 
ples and practices you have decided upon." 

ELB says: "Certainly, the graphic arts and the 
prosperity of this country are interdependent. 
The graphic arts are the fourth largest industry of 
the country. Every sound attempt should be made 
to solve the problem of their mutual interrelations 
and public relations." 

Progressive Education Association. Gulp, W. M. 
"Progressive Education Conference." The West 
ern Journal of Education. March 1938, pp. 5-7. 
Speaking as a member of the panel on educational 
freedom and propaganda at the Twentieth National 
Conference of the Progressive Education Associa 
tion, held from February 23rd to the 26th, ELB said: 
"Freedom of using propaganda takes its place with 
the other freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution." 
To Professor Leonard Doob's challenge that propa 
gandists try to influence public opinion in a con 
cealed manner, Mr. Bernays answered that there are 
ethics and standards for men in public relations as 
well as other professions. 

Robert Morris Associates. "Public Good Witt 
as a Credit Factor." Address before New York 
Chapter. The Robert Morris Associates Monthly 
Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 3, Aug 1935. pp. 49-52. 
ELB said: "As far as the credit system is con 
cerned, . . . there may be periods in which people 
neither borrow nor lend. In such periods as these, it 
is vitally important for credit organizations to keep 
alive public belief in the institution of borrowing 
and lending, because should the habit of not utilizing 
the credit system become too firmly fixed, it would 
be extremely difficult to build up a new faith, 
without which the credit system must needs fail," 
p. 52. 

School Administration and Supervisors Con 
ference. "Public Relations for Public Edu 
cation: How to Create Greater Public Under 
standing of the Public Schools: by Edward L. 
Bernays." An address delivered at The Second 
Annual Conference held at New York Univer 
sity on April 30, 1949. 8pp. 

ELB analyzes the current crisis in American educa 
tion, emphasizing educational needs and expendi 
tures, the prevalence of obsolete school buildings and 
crowded class rooms, the shortage of teachers, etc. 
He gives findings of attitude polls, showing what 
the public thinks about public education and sug 
gests techniques for educating the public to a greater 
understanding of the problem. 

ELB says: "The facts about the crisis in education 
must be integrated with realizable social goals and 
they must be acted upon if the crisis is to be re 
solved. In order to achieve the necessary action, the 
consent of the public must be engineered in the de 
sired direction. In a world where thousands of facts 
compete daily for our attention, we must somehow 
focus public attention on the educational crisis in a 
way that will bring about social change in favor of a 



better educational system. . . . Public education 
has a particularly low visibility. This calls for even 
greater effort in making the public aware of what is 
involved and what must be done in the current edu 
cational crisis. . . . What we need today are volun 
tary groups which will educate the public about edu 
cation and so create the necessary public demand for 
laws that will save and improve our school system. 
. . . What is needed is that all the groups working 
for better education should speak with one voice, 
while each group retains its own freedom and re 
sponsibility to work for better education on its own 
level. Such a unification of effort would avoid the 
duplication and distortion which are bound to con 
fuse, instead of enlightening, the public." 

ELB then suggests the creation of a central board 
of strategy, consisting of leading lay groups and 
educators who would set policies and goals for 
American schools as a necessary step toward solving 
the crisis in education. This board would direct re 
search in the educational crisis and public attitudes, 
reorient objectives; work out a clear-cut plan of or 
ganization, strategy and tactics "to engineer public 
consent in relation to this issue"; use school buildings 
for public meetings, adult education, consumer train 
ing, recreational purposes; influence the public 
through the press, the radio, television, posters, 
pamphlets and motion pictures; achieve more ef 
fective cooperation between schools and parents, 
and between schools and the community. ELB con 
cludes: "Coordinated effort alone will help us over 
come the present chaos in our educational system. 
And we must act quickly, for that chaos is very 
dangerous to our children and to our future, a deadly 
menace to the generations to come, the level of whose 
intelligence and character will determine what kind 
of America we shall have." 

Talks. "Should Public Opinion Polls Be Licensed?" 
Quarterly Digest of Addresses Presented in the 
Public Interest by the Columbia Network. 
Vol. 12, No. 2. Apr 1947. N.Y: Columbia Broad 
casting System, Inc. pp. 54-56. 
Editorial note: "Archibald M. Crossley, market 
analyst and pioneer in the development of opinion 
polls, and Edward L. Bernays, eminent publicist and 
author of 'Crystallizing Public Opinion,' stated their 
divergent views over CBS, January 6. ELB said: 
'We are no longer led by men. We are led around by 
polls. . . . Actually, public opinion is much more 
changeable than is indicated by the polls. . . . The 
government must protect the public against mal 
practices in polling. We license doctors, lawyers, ac 
countants and architects to protect the public. We 
set up standards of character and education which 
they must meet, and everyone favors this. By the 
same token we should license poll-takers." 

Toronto Advertisers. "A Psychological Blueprint 
for the Peace Canada, U.S.A." Address before 
the Joint Annual Meeting of the Association of 
Canadian Advertisers and the Advertising and 
Sales Club of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Oct 
28, 1943. 14pp. 



46 



ELB said: "We must learn to translate our divisive 
powerful war publicity into equally powerful peace 
publicity for mutual understanding. This must be 
based on a knowledge and understanding by the 
people of both countries of their common post-war 
problems and goals of defense, offense and economic 
relationship. Only on such common understanding 
can we both be assured that we shall best be serving 
our national destinies, which by tradition, economics 
and a common background are so closely bound 
together," p. 14. 

This plea was made in reference to ELB's proposal 
of "an organization following the pattern of already 
existing boards ... a joint Canadian-United States 
Board for Mutual Understanding. ... A Joint 
Board for Mutual Understanding," he explained, 
"provides a body which carries on a common pub 
licity activity to serve the interests of both coun 
tries, in that it gives the people of both countries 
the facts on which they may base their attitudes 
and . . . actions. Such a permanent Joint Board 
for Mutual Understanding should consist of an 
equal number of men representing both countries. 
These men should be appointed for life as are the 
judges of our highest tribunals . . . should have 
a deep love and understanding of the common 
interests of both countries and a knowledge of their 
common needs. . . . Such a Board should include 
from each country, one or two elder statesmen, a 
social psychologist, a newspaper publisher or radio 
executive, an adult educator, an expert in the field of 
public relations, and an advertising man. ... As 
democracies, each country must work on the premise 
that if the people of both countries are given sound 
information, the countries themselves through their 
representative and executive officers will determine 
sound policies. A budget will be provided . . . pub 
licly to be accounted for as is that of the Canadian 
W.I.B. or our own O.W.I. It will learn just what the 
public of one country knows about the other, what 
pre-conceived notions or ignorances prevent com 
plete understanding . . . will not mix into the 
politics of the moment . . . will plan and work for a 
long time rapprochement. . . . The board should 
consistently stimulate relations between the two 
countries through facilitating exchange of informa 
tion and viewpoint of key people in great social forces 
that make up both countries education, com 
merce and industry, agriculture, labor, the profes 
sions. The flow of ideas will not be a fortuitous one 
way flow . . . but rather . . . two-way . . . [in] 
fact and point of view." In presenting this "psy 
chological blueprint for the peace between my 
country and yours," ELB bases his "analysis and 
interpretation" on "present-day facts and condi 
tions . . . [on] present war relationships [which] 
point the way to such a study" "mutual regard" 
between the peoples of both countries, as shown by 
public opinion polls; the sense of being "natural 
allies" in regard to international relations; coopera 
tive activities, by agreement, of Canadian and 
U. S. War Information Services ('Under the urgency 
of common need in war, the groundwork for our blue 



print has been laid.'). In the Foreword, Lee Tren- 
holm, president, The Advertising and Sales Club of 
Toronto, comments, "Rare indeed is the important 
proposal embodied in [this] distinguished dis 
course. . . " 

U. S. Army Adjutant General's School. "Public 
Relations." Speech delivered before Recruiting 
Class No. 21, Jan 20, 1947. 

In this talk, at Carlisle Barracks, Penna., ELB urges 
that the President, the Congressional Armed Servi 
ces Committees and military authorities should issue 
a joint statement of national policy explaining to the 
people of the country the purpose and need for the 
contemplated peace-time army of 1,070,000 troops 
which demands 40,000 volunteers a month. 

University of Chicago Round Table. "Morale 
First Line of Defense?" A Radio Discussion. 
Jan 18, 1941. 28pp. 

Participating in this radio discussion were ELB, 
described as "Public Relations Counsel, New York 
City"; Prof. Harold Lasswell, "political scientist, 
Washington, D. C."; and Norman Thomas, "Na 
tional Chairman of the Socialist Party, Candidate 
for President, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940." 

The introductory note explains that "The Round 
Table, oldest educational program continuously 
on the air, is broadcast entirely without a script. 
Subjects are chosen because of their social, political, 
or economic significance. The program has no 'ax to 
grind.' In the selection of speakers, the effort is to 
provide a balanced discussion by participants who 
have special competence and knowledge. The opinion 
of each speaker is his own. ..." 

ELB is asked by Lasswell to define "morale": 
"Morale is behavior," he says, "behavior judged by 
someone on the outside in relationship to our goal. 
Under strong morale we have energy, enthusiasm, 
belief in our goals, and ideals. Under weak morale 
we have apathy, frustration, and breakdown. A 
strong morale means that we of the United States 
must have a common goal, a belief in our leaders, 
and a belief in ourselves." 

Subsequently, under "Objective Questions for 
Examination," Round Table listeners are asked to 
"Give Mr. Bernays' definition of 'morale.' " Under 
"Questions [. . . of wider scope . . .] For Analysis 
and Discussion," listeners are asked to "Define your 
concept of what is meant by the term 'morale.' . . . 
Does your viewpoint coincide with that of either Mr. 
Bernays or Mr. Thomas [who questioned the sig 
nificance of, and relation of, 'common morale' to, 
and as against 'a right goal in democracy itself']. 
... If not, how does it differ?" 

ELB agrees with Thomas "that the test of de 
mocracy in the next few years is going to be our suc 
cess in meeting unemployment and poverty. But," 
he adds, "the success of our present democracy is 
going to depend upon this: Are we going to be able 
to meet the warfares against democracy that are 
taking place today . . . are we going to have 
morale?"; he disagrees with Lasswell on the point 
"that people in this country want democracy, but 



47 



. . . have no agreement on ways and means toward 
democracy." ELB says: ". . . by the best statis 
tical count, there are ten million people in this coun 
try who are more sympathetic to other types of sys 
tems than they are to democracy. What I fear is 
that we are so interested in discussing the future 
that we don't pay the attention we should to realiz 
ing the same type of active, dynamic force for 
democracy as that developed by those who are op 
posed. . . " 

ELB and Lasswell agree that "it is perfectly pos 
sible for a democracy to fight a war," in contradic 
tion to Thomas who "won't say that it is wholly im 
possible [but] it is extremely difficult . . . doubly 
... at long range"; after lively interchange, at 
tempting to clarify the implications, all speakers 
concede that, for morale, it is important to "speak 
up and ACT for democracy. . . " 

Declaring further that "what this country needs is 
a common goal," but in reference to Thomas 
with "men like you talking," ELB insists: "I believe 
that ideas are weapons in a democracy; that public 
opinion is the sum of individual opinions; that you 
are helping to make individual opinions; that the 
public makes national morale, national unity, and 
national wealth; and that everyone can help share 
public opinion and public action. I remember that 
twenty years ago there wasn't anything like public 
relations. Today we know that leadership is largely 
the result of effective planning of techniques and 
methods, and we can all be leaders in a democratic 
way. Totalitarian systems and enemies within our 
country are waging a propaganda war to break down 
democracy." 

In reference to ELB's question, "What do you 
think of the idea of getting experts in the field of 
morale psychologists, neurologists, communica 
tion experts, men like Thomas who know and love 
their country to work on a commission to give 
counsel and advice where it is needed on problems 
of morale having to do with everything from frus 
tration and prejudice and social behavior to the 
problems that the army or ... navy ... or the 
draft meets with men" Lasswell finally says, "I 
think we need lots of service agencies for national 
defense to help people to understand just how they 
can serve democracy in this crisis. To that extent I 
agree with the general conception of a morale com 
mission. Then I think that represents our consensus 
today on our question: Is morale our first line of de 
fense? We have said: 'Yes, without it we cannot suc 
ceed.' We have also said: 'No, morale is not our first 
line of defense because it is a result and not the 
cause of a successful defense effort.' One thing has 
emerged clearly. We agree that we must have clarity 
about the ends and means of the achievement of a 
democratic society." 

Under "Suggested Readings" for Round Table 
listeners, six works are listed, including "Bernays, 
Edward L., Speak Up for Democracy. . . . The 
methods and strategies of modern public relations 
salesmanship applied to the job of 'selling' demo 
cracy." 



University of Cincinnati. "Tomorrow's Public 
Relations: A Blueprint for American Business." 
Text of a talk delivered before the Business 
and Professional Men's Group, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Mar 10, 1944. 31pp. 

This address surveys the problems of post war plan 
ning and readjustment and how public relations fits 
into the attempts to realize the goals set by various 
leaders and groups for a better world. After pointing 
out the extent to which planning was being used in 
other fields, ELB urges comparable efforts in the 
public relations field. Quoting from three different 
sources, the Atlantic City conference of business, 
labor and farm groups, the Baruch-Hancock report 
on reconversion, and an address by Henry Wallace, 
a synthesis of goals for public relations planning is 
reached. After pointing out the necessity of studying 
social facts and realities, and therefore the need for 
studying them, recent polls are discussed which back 
up the delineation of public relations goals. 

ELB says: "Polls show our people want demo 
cratic justice in its broadest sense. . . . Polls prove 
that a great deal of ordinary living goes on outside 
of working and that society must provide for the 
happy pursuit of this kind of living. . . . Polls 
show too that if we practice sound public relations 
in one of the vitally important segments of our life- 
business, we shall avoid revolution. . . . The ac 
ceptance of all these realities the pronouncement 
of American leaders, the social facts, the polls 
must govern the American businessman. ... In 
practicing effective public relations . . . you will 
find that what you are really doing is practicing good 
leadership. Leaders in a democracy are men or 
women who win friends and influence people by 
word and deed. ... As forceful, socially minded, 
forward-looking leaders, businessmen can practice 
and publicize socially sound policies and practices 
not only in business but in other fields as well. . . . 
American business men interested in preserving 
democracy and predominantly free enterprise must 
exert this kind of leadership effectively. . . . Nor 
can business men permit reactionaries to be their 
spokesmen and official leaders." 

University of Virginia. "Freedom of Propaganda: 
The Constructive Forming of Public Opinion." 
Talk delivered at the Institute of Public Affairs, 
July 16, 1936. Reprinted in "Vital Speeches of 
the Day." Vol. II, No. 24, Sept 1, 1936, pp. 744- 
746. 

ELB said: "Americans must recognize that in the 
science of propaganda they have at their command 
a real weapon with which to consolidate and make 
effective the work and contributions of past and 
present generations that have built up our present- 
day system an economic and governmental sys 
tem which we do not desire to change for any 
other." 

Discussing the role of propaganda, ELB said: 
"Propaganda is the voice of the people in the de 
mocracy of today. Freedom of propaganda is as im 
portant as the other civil liberties freedom of 



48 



worship, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, 
freedom of radio, and freedom of assembly. . . . 
Propaganda is an important tool of sound social 
evolution and change. Propaganda makes it possible 
for minority ideas to become effective more quickly. 
. . . What is this propaganda that takes ideas and 
facts, and gains quicker acceptance for them that 
modifies the motives, the thoughts, and the actions of 
millions? Propaganda is applied psychology. Propa 
ganda is an attempt to give currency to an idea by 
finding the common denominator between the idea 
and the public interest, and stating it. It is bringing 
an old or a new idea to acceptance by the public. 
. . . The methods of propaganda are readily avail 
able to all forces in society that wish to effect change 
or to maintain the status quo. . . . From the broad 
social standpoint, propaganda can be used in in 
dustry for a variety of purposes. It can be utilized 
to hasten or slow up the normal time lag in the public 
acceptance of a product. . . . Propagandas for the 
consumer's favor carry broad consequences in their 
wake, and serve a useful purpose in the economic 
system. They serve to stabilize life for the producing 
as well as the consuming elements. They tend to 
eliminate the shocks and sudden changes which it is 
clear our system cannot stand. . . . Propaganda 
makes public interest the deciding factor, for the 
more propagandas there are vying for public interest 
and public attention, the freer is the public to choose 
on the basis of its real wants. 

"What, you may ask, can be the rationalization of 
these propagandas? namely this that as interest 
and attention are focused on these battles, disin 
terested authority will align itself on the basis of 
merit with one side or another, and the presumption 
is that that side will win in public favor which is in 
the public interest and at the same time satisfies the 
private-profit motive that is at the basis of our 
present system. . . . Individuals, industries, and 
organizations have not heretofore regarded them 
selves as part of a larger whole that must present a 
unified front to the public. The capitalistic system 
has entirely neglected the larger implications of sell 
ing itself against competitive systems to the public. 
... If we are to safeguard the principles of de 
mocracy on which our country was founded, if we 
are to safeguard democracy itself, we must first un 
derstand and then utilize effectively the science of 
propaganda in its behalf. . . . The task of the 
propagandist is, in essence, the effective manage 
ment of the symbols at his command to bring about 
desired responses from the public in order to achieve 
the desired end. . . " 

Western Reserve University. "Democratic Leader 
ship in Total War" Address at Cleveland Col 
lege, Western Reserve University. 1943. 8pp. 
In this address "presented at Cleveland College of 
Western Reserve University, under the auspices of 
the Journalism Department," ELB said: "The re 
liance of democracy on its leaders is one of the great 
safeguards in psychological warfare within and 
outside the country. We must recognize that the 



relationship between the leader and his followers is 
basic to victory, and that our many leaders must 
assume the responsibility of guiding their followers 
not only in peacetime pursuits, as they already do, 
but for victory as well." 

The Foreword states in part: "Edward L. Bernays, 
who has long enjoyed the reputation of being the 
nation's number one publicist, speaks, in this timely 
address, with the authority of one who has made 
'people' his life work. The demonstration contained 
in this paper should give comfort to those who be 
lieve that there is no mass mind, but there are mo 
bile groups of educatable people who think in 
dividually and often act as a unit. His thesis makes 
stimulating reading." 

ELB said, "The first step in forging psychological 
unity in the United States is to discover how many 
potential war leaders there are in America who can 
strengthen uncompromising determination for demo 
cratic victory. According to the latest available fig 
ures, there are 788,257 such leaders. . . . Leaders, 
for their part, have access to the minds and wills of 
their followers. They must assume their responsibil 
ities and mobilize the psychological front for victory 
in this war of ideas. . . . We must not expect words 
alone, no matter how true or pointed, to build up our 
national will to victory. . . . Government is ex 
pressed by acts and words. But the Government in 
our democracy depends upon the people, on what 
they want, on what they are willing to accept. The 
people depend to a great extent on thousands of lead 
ers for guidance as to their attitudes and actions. We 
always get back to the leaders no matter where we 
start." The address continues with an identification 
of the 25 most influential leaders of the day, and of 
the leaders included in the figure quoted above of 
788,257 leaders, and concludes with an appeal for 
more effective harnessing of this leadership to the 
purposes of total war. 

WOR Forum Book. Granik, Theodore S., ed. 

With a Foreword by Robert F. Wagner, U. S. 

Senator from New York. N. Y: Falcon Press, 

Inc., 1933. 273pp. 

This series of debates under the auspices of the WOR 
Forum Hour contains one between ELB and Silas 
Bent. A Who's Who of Contributors to this book 
describes ELB as follows: "A leader in the field of 
counsel on public relations. Has acted in that field 
for foreign governments, industrial and public wel 
fare organizations, national associations, and individ 
uals. Author of 'Propaganda' and 'Crystallizing 
Public Opinion.' Maintains an office in New York." 
Arguing the affirmative of the question, "Is Propa 
ganda a Constructive Force in American Life To 
day?", ELB says: "The instruments by which public 
opinion are organized and focused may be misused 
just as other instruments in law and medicine are 
being misused; but such organization and focusing 
are necessary to orderly life. As civilization and the 
technique of spreading ideas have become more com 
plex, the technician has arisen whose function it is 
to help in presenting a point of view and a product. 



49 



"Today, every idea and every product is compet 
ing with every other idea and every product for 
favorable public opinion. 

"... The practice of propaganda since the war 
has assumed very different forms from those preva 
lent twenty years ago. This new technique may 
fairly be called the new propaganda. The new propa 
gandist utilizes mass psychology and the technical 
means of approach to the masses in order to give his 
idea or object a greater value in the eyes of the 
public. 

"The problems of business offer great opportunity 
for the propagandist, for everyone is competing 
against everyone else for the consumer's dollar. . . . 
Those businessmen . . . who have propagandized 
successfully for basically sound products, have not 
only added to the economic stability of their com 
munities, but by doing so, also have contributed, 



indirectly, but nonetheless surely, to the happiness 
of people generally. . . . During the last twenty 
years there has hardly been a single new idea, new 
invention, or new product accepted by the public 
which was not made available for the public's benefit 
through the use of propaganda in one form or an 
other. Schools, colleges, churches, the theatre, litera 
ture, art, music, charities and other forms of social 
service all have used propaganda effectively. . . . 
'The cure for propaganda is more propaganda.' It 
enables minorities to break up dominant groups. It is 
the advance agent of new ideas and new products. 
Since it is available to all, it is an insurance against 
autocracy in government and against standardiza 
tion and stagnation. 

"It seems to me that the future historian will 
ascribe to propaganda a very large share or respon 
sibility for America's progress . . ." pp. 93-100. 



Tart Two 
WRITINGS ABOUT EDWARD L. BERNAYS 



y 

4s 

C-i>V 



53 



Mention of 

EDWARD L. BERNAYS 
in Books 

Abdullah, Achmed, and Baldwin, Faith. Broad 
way Interlude. N. Y: Payson & Clarke, Ltd., 
1929. 306pp. 

This novel of New York life contains the following 
passage about a fictional character said to be mod 
eled on the late Otto Kahn: "Julius Beck had a 
strong passion for things of enduring beauty; fancied 
himself as Art's self -elected patron; had subsidized 
many a publicity expert and public relations counsel, 
from Ed Bernays to Oliver Tayler, so that his fame 
as a Maecenas might spread from New York to 
London, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific." p. 118. 

Agnew, Hugh F., and Houghton, Dale. Market 
ing Policies. N. Y: McGraw-Hill Book Com 
pany, Inc., 1941. 615pp. 

Bibliographical reference to "Bernays, E. L: 'Crys 
tallizing Public Opinion,' N. Y: Boni and Liveright, 
1923." p. 460. 

Albig, William. Public Opinion. N. Y. and London: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939. 
486pp. 

Bibliographical reference to ELB's book, Crys 
tallizing Public Opinion, Chapts. I, II, "The Nature 
and Development of Public Opinion," p. 433; to 
his book, Propaganda Chapts. XVII, XVIII, "The 
Nature and Art of Propaganda," p. 456; to his 
article, "Manipulating Public Opinion," American 
Journal of Sociology, 33:958-971, Chapter XIII, 
"Opinion Change," p. 451. 

American Academy of Political and Social 
Science: Annals. Philadelphia, The Academy. 
Vol. 179, May 1935, 287pp. 

In his article on "Party Campaign Propaganda," 
Ralph D. Casey says: "Edward L. Bernays has com 
plained of the great waste in the distribution of cam 
paign propaganda and the failure to work out the 
entire campaign according to broad plans, with as 
scientific an analysis of the public to be reached as 
possible." Footnote reference to ELB's book "Propa 
ganda." p. 82. 

In his article on "Official Publicity Under the New 
Deal," E. Pendleton Herring quotes the suggestion 
in ELB's book "Propaganda" that the "United 
States Government should create a Secretary of 
Public Relations as (a) member of the President's 
Cabinet. The function of this official should be to 
interpret America's aims and ideals throughout the 
world, and to keep the citizens of this country in 
touch with governmental activities and the reasons 
which prompt them. He would, in short, interpret 
the people to the Government and the Government 
to the people." Footnote reference to ELB's book 
"Propaganda." p. 172. 

The editors of this volume of the Annals, devoted 
to "Pressure Groups and Propaganda," follow ELB's 



article on "Molding Public Opinion" with a bio 
graphical sketch of ELB. p. 87. 

Philadelphia, The Academy. Vol. 250, 

Mar 1947. 183pp. 

This volume, devoted to the overall topic "Com 
munication and Social Action", contains an article 
by Arleigh B. Williamson on "Safeguarding Chan 
nels of Communication" which refers to ELB's ar 
ticle on the "Engineering of Consent," appearing in 
the same volume, p. 5. Also: "Some large industries 
and their advertisers, it has been said by Dudley and 
Bernays, have become conscious that their ultimate 
welfare depends on public confidence." p. 8. 

American Association of School Administra 
tors. "Public Relations For America's Schools: 
Twenty-Eighth Yearbook." Published by the 
American Association of School Administrators, 
a department of the National Education Asso 
ciation of the United States. 1950. 497pp. 
Discussing The Superintendent's Leadership in Pub 
lic Relations this article says: "The public relations 
point of view on leadership has been well expressed 
by Bernays: Leadership is the 'engineering of con 
sent.' It is getting people to follow you because they 
want to, not because you want them to." Footnote 
reference to ELB in "Tomorrow's Public Relations," 
p. 128. Listing of ELB's "Crystallizing Public Opin 
ion" in Selected References, Chapter I, p. 308. 

American Library Association, American Red 
Cross, United Service Organizations. Final 
Reports, Victory Book Campaign, 1942-43. 
26pp. 

". . . as Co-chairmen of the Campaign Commit 
tee [for public relations, publicity and collections], 
three well known men were selected, appointed and 
consented to serve: Franklin P. Adams, author, 
columnist and 'Information Please' expert; Edward 
L. Bernays, noted Public Relations Counsel; Nor 
man Cousins, author, and editor of the 'Saturday 
Review of Literature'." p. 14. 

American Merchant Marine Conference. Pro 
ceedings, Volume 12. N. Y: The Propeller Club 
of the United States, 1946. 335pp. 
As co-chairman, ELB, Counsel on Public Relations, 
presided over the panel on Waterway Improvement 
held at the Waldorf Astoria during the Propeller 
Club's Twentieth Annual Convention, October 
18, 1946. Before introducing the first speaker, 
Brigadier General Albert L. Cox, "in command of 
the Military District of Washington during the 
war," ELB emphasized the importance of waterway 
improvements in "maintaining and increasing our 
standards of living in this country by reducing costs" 
to the advantage of individual consumers, p. 174. 

Art Directors Club of New York. 26th Annual of 
Advertising Art. N. Y: Watson-Guptill Publica 
tions, Inc., 1947. 316pp. 

Excerpt from ELB's talk before the Art Directors 
Club, "More Power to Art Directors A Challenge 
to the Profession," is featured as introduction in a 
double-page spread, pp. viii-ix. 



54 



Author's and Writer's Who's Who & Reference 
Guide. London: Shaw Publishing Co., Ltd., 
1948-49. 799pp. 

Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L. B. S: 
Vienna 1891. e: DeWitt Clinton High Sch., Cornell 
Univ. m: Doris E. Fleischman. d: 2. Mem. Nat. 
Publ. Rel. Cttee. Publ: Crystallizing Public Opinion; 
Broadway Anthology; Propaganda; Speak Up for 
Democracy; Take Your Place at the Peace Table; 
Public Relations: A Growing Profession; (Ed) 
Outline of Careers, 1927. Ctr: Various, c: Century 
Country, Harmonic (N. Y.). a: 163 East 63rd St., 
Office Bernays Buildmg, 26 E. 64th St., New York 
21, N. Y., U. S. A." p. 54. 
Barnes, Harry Elmer. Social Institutions. N. Y: 

Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1946. 927pp. 
"Skillful advertising, suggested by E. L. Bernays 
and others, has popularized the use of the telegraph." 
p. 478. A footnote on the same page says erro 
neously: "Bernays invented the slogan, 'Don't 
write, telegraph.' " Also: "The institution of the 
Public Relations Counsel represents the most 
sophisticated and subtle development of business 
propaganda. The two most distinguished masters of 
this type of propaganda have been Ivy Lee and 
Edward L. Bernays." p. 568. 

"Society in Transition: Problems of a 

Changing Age." N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939. 
999pp. 

In the chapter on "Mass Information and Mass 
Propaganda," the author says: "The use of the 
public relations counsel represents the most sophisti 
cated and subtle development of business propa 
ganda. The two most distinguished masters of this 
type of propaganda have been Ivy Lee and Edward 
L. Bernays. In promoting particular products or 
movements, these men have found that direct and 
blatant propaganda is very often harmful rather 
than helpful. It only serves to increase the preju 
dices already in the minds of those to be converted. 
Therefore, an indirect line of attack is formulated. 
So-called institutes or foundations are created to 
serve as the ostensible voice of, or spokesmen for, 
the interests served. This gives a sense of research, 
authority, and dignity to the propaganda which is 
issued. Even reputable scholars are employed to 
make studies which seem to support the contentions 
advanced in the propaganda." pp. 636-637. 

Also the section "Selected References" includes 
reference to "Bernays, E. L., Propaganda, Liveright, 
1928," p. 988. 
Barton, Roger, ed. "Advertising Handbook." N. Y: 

Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Footnote reference to ELB under "General Subjects. 
Bernays, Edward L., Edward L. Bernays Collection on 
Public Relations, New York. New York Public 
Library, 1947." p. 802. 

Bastian, George C. Editing the Ray's News. Re 
vised by Leland D. Case. N. Y: The Macmillan 
Company, 1933. 309pp. 

Under "Newspaper Problems, Policies, and Ethics; 
The Radio," bibliographical references to two 



standard Bernays books, Crystallizing Public Opin 
ion, and Propaganda, p. 293. 

Becker, Carl L; Lerner, Max; Fly, James Law 
rence; Cushman, Robert; Biddle, Francis; 
and Day, Edmund Ezra. Safeguarding Civil 
Liberties Today. The Edward L. Bernays Lec 
tures of 1944. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 
1945. 158pp. 

Preface by George H. Sabine, Vice-president of 
Cornell University, records the contribution of the 
gift to Cornell University by ELB, an alumnus of 
the Class of 1912, which made these Lectures possi 
ble; refers to his belief on the importance of under 
standing civil liberties in America's social and politi 
cal life; the volume has been planned "in the hope 
that . . . our heritage [of civil liberties] might be 
strengthened." pp. vi-vii. 

Benedict, Agnes E. Progress to Freedom. N. Y: 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1942. 309pp. 
In the Foreword of this "Story of American Educa 
tion," "very special thanks" are given by the author 
to ... "Mr. Edward L. Bernays, for his masterly 
criticism and practical guidance." p. vii. 

Bent, Silas. Machine Made Man. N. Y: Farrar and 

Rinehart, 1930. 341pp. 

ELB is quoted indirectly as saying that the modern 
publicity man is a special pleader before the court of 
public opinion, p. 139. 

Bercovici, Rion. For Immediate Release. N. Y: 

Sheridan House, 1937. 317pp. 

A publicity man, chief character of this novel, makes 
numerous references to ELB: "What has Bernays 
got that I haven't got? A smoother patter, psy 
chological aura, better contacts. . . . But there's 
no reason why I can't make the grade!" p. 82; 
". . . he looked at the Bernays book with respect. 
And envy . . ." p. 92; ". . . I'm creeping up on 
Bernays and the Lee Boys, and they're getting 
worried." p. 203; a copy of the "Bernays book" is 
mentioned, p. 93 along with his name among 
those to whom authorship of "all the stuff written 
about publicity" is attributed "Bernays . . . 
Doob . . . Walker . . . Creel . . ." p. 167. 

Bickel, Karl A. New Empires. Phila: J. B. Lippin- 

cott, 1930. 112pp. 

ELB is quoted at length from his "recent book, 
Propaganda," as to the importance of radio 
among the propagandist's tools; its uncertain future 
development as a competitor of the newspaper as an 
advertising medium; and as a controlled channel for 
the publicity of large political, racial, sectarian, 
economic, or professional groups, pp. 74-76. 
Biddle, William W. Propaganda and Education. 
N. Y: Teachers College, Columbia University, 
Bureau of Publications, 1932. 84pp. 
With a footnote reference to his book, Propaganda, 
ELB ["Himself a successful propagandist"] is 
quoted: " '. . . The minority has discovered a 
powerful help in influencing majorities. It has been 
found possible to so mold the mind of the masses 
that they will throw their newly gained strength 



55 



in the desired direction. . . . Propaganda is the 
executive arm of the invisible government.' Or 
again, 'But instead of a mind, universal literacy has 
given him [the common man] rubber stamps, . . . 
inked with advertising slogans, . . . editorials, . . . 
published scientific data, . . . trivialities of the 
tabloids, and the platitudes of history, but quite 
innocent of original thought . . .' The result is 'to 
control and regiment the masses according to our 
will without their knowing it'." p. 2. 

Bingham, Alfred M., and Rodman, Selden, eds. 

Challenge to the New Deal. N. Y: Falcon Press, 

1934. 284pp. 

"... They seem to have learned nothing from the 
technique of propaganda, as it was carried to per 
fection by the Lord Northcliffes in wartime Eng 
land, the Edward Bernays in industrial Amer 
ica, . . ." p. 212. 

Binkley, Wilfred ., and Moos, Malcolm C. A 

Grammar of Politics: The National Government. 

N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949. 760pp. 
Footnote reference to ELB's "Attitude Polls Serv 
ants or Masters." p. 171. Footnote: "Certainly 
not all of the electorate is familiar with the findings 
of the polls. In 1946 it was estimated that only 38 
per cent of the people knew the results of the Gallup 
and Fortune polls. See Harry Field, Paul Lazarsfeld, 
Claude Robinson and Edward Bernays: 'The Dis 
cussion Goes On.' Public Opinion Quarterly (1945-6), 
9:404," p. 172. 

Bird, Charles. Social Psychology. N. Y. and Lon 
don: D. Appleton Company, Inc., 1940. 564pp. 
Bibliographical references, Chapter IX, Propaganda, 
to ELB's Crystallizing Public Opinion, and, p. 341, 
his article in the American Journal of Sociology, 1928, 
Vol. 33, 958-971, Manipulating Public Opinion: The 
Why and the How. 

Bird, George L., and Merwin: Frederic E., eds. 

The Newspaper and Society. N. Y: Prentice- 
Hall, Inc., 1942. 627pp. 

This book is a compilation of statements on news 
paper influence. A section entitled "Edward L. 
Bernays" is taken from "Edward L. Bernays, the 
Science of Ballyhoo," by John T. Flynn, The Atlantic 
Monthly, Vol. 149, May 1932, pp. 563-565, 569-570. 
Flynn says in part: "By no system of honest elim 
ination can Edward L. Bernays be excluded from a 
list of representative men in America. He has made 
an extraordinary success. He has been something of a 
pioneer. ... He numbers among his clients power 
ful millionaires, great corporations, even royal per 
sonages and governments. He has made a great deal 
of money a mark of importance that no American 
will deny and, what is more, he has done it in the 
field of intellectual activity. For, after all, Bernays is 
a philosopher, not a mere businessman. He is a 
nephew of that other great philosopher, Dr. Sigmund 
Freud. Unlike his distinguished uncle, he is not 
known as a practicing psychoanalyst, but he is a 
psychoanalyst just the same, for he deals with the 
science of unconscious mental processes. . . . Ber 



nays has both a clear and a very shrewd understand 
ing of his profession. . . . Bernays himself is quite 
the newest type of public relations specialist, so in 
telligent and so free from the conventional inhibi 
tions that he assumes almost the character of a 
phenomenon." The extract describes Bernays' key 
role in dramatizing Light's Golden Jubilee and the 
introduction on the market of a new Dodge car, 
pp. 517-20. Another section of this book, "The 
Struggle Between Press and Radio," says: "It took 
the spectacular broadcast of the Dodge Motor Car 
company on January 4, 1928, an announcement of its 
new Victory Six, to awaken publishers to the fact 
that a rival for the advertising dollar had sprung 
into being. Edward L. Bernays . . . had charge of 
this event," pp. 540-541. This section is an extract 
from "20,000,000 Hear Dodge Broadcast," by John 
R. Lee, Sales Management, Vol. XIV, Apr 14, 1928, 
p. 591. 

Block, Marine, ed. Current Biography. N. Y: H. W. 

Wilson, 1942. 940pp. 

Section on ELB with portrait photograph. This 
biographical sketch says: "If the United States 
Government had in its cabinet a Secretary of Public 
Relations a trained psychologist whose business 
it would be to control the mass mind the logical 
man for that position would be Edward L. Bernays, 
United States Publicist No. 1, head of a profession 
which he built up, publicized, and named: counsel on 
public relations . . ." pp. 76-79. 

Bogardus, Emory S. Fundamentals of Social Psy 
chology. N. Y. and London: D. Appleton- 
Century Co., Inc., 1942. 538pp. 
Bibliographical reference, Chapt. XXX, "Public 
Opinion," to ELB's article in the American Journal 
of Sociology, Vol. XXXIII: 957-71, "Manipulating 
Public Opinion," p. 463. 

Bone, Hugh A. "American Politics and the Party 
System." N. Y: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
Inc., 1949, pp. 777. 

Among the selected references for the chapter on 
"The Foundations of Opinion" is Crystallizing Public 
Opinion, by ELB. p. 39. Among the selected refer 
ences for the chapter on "Propaganda and Campaign 
Literature" is Propaganda, by ELB. p. 620. 

Boomer, Lucius. Hotel Managment. N. Y: Harper 

and Brothers, 1938. 341pp. 

"... Everyone responsible for hotel administra 
tion should study such books as Propaganda, and 
Crystallizing Public Opinion, by Edward L. Bernays, 
who helped to develop this new profession," p. 189. 

Bower, Robert. The Annals, American Academy of 
Political and Social Science. "Public Opinion 
Polls and the Politician," Phila: The Academy, 
Sept 1948. 207pp. 

In the section, "Political Implications," there is the 
statement: "We are no longer led by men, we are led 
around by the polls," with footnote credit to "E. L. 
Bernays, 'Attitude Polls Servants or Masters,' 
Public Opinion Quarterly, Fall, 1945, pp. 264-68." 
p. 106. 



56 

Brown, Francis James: Hodges, Charles and 
Roucek, Joseph Slabey, (ed.) "Contemporary 
World Politics: An Introduction to the Problems 
of International Relations." N. Y: John Wiley & 
Sons, Inc., London: Chapman & Hall, Limited, 
1940, 780pp. 

The chapter on "Moral Disarmament" lists in its 

Selected References "Bernays, E. L., Propaganda. 

New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 1928." 

Brock, H. I. Meddlers: Uplifting Moral Uplifters. 

N. Y: Ives Washburn, 1930. 307pp. 
In the chapter entitled, "Saving the Profiteers' 
Bacon," describing the meeting of Ford and Edison 
at Edisonford, on the edge of the Ford airport, the 
author says: "The super press agent was on the job 
giving the gesture maximum visibility. It was not 
Ivy Lee this time, but Edward Bernays. Bernays is a 
later recruit to this branch of professional wizardry." 

Brucker, Herbert. Freedom of Information. N. Y: 

The Macmillan Company, 1949. 307pp. 
". . . The World War I example of what propaganda 
could do ... was not lost upon those interested in 
the business of manipulating public opinion. As one 
of them, Edward L. Bernays, said later: 'It was only 
natural, after the war ended, that intelligent persons 
should ask themselves whether it was not possible to 
apply a similar technique to the problems of peace.' 
It was. And the great discovery that the more cap 
able ones like Bernays made was this: that effective 
policy makes effective propaganda . . ." p. 145. 
Chapt. XI, "American Ministers of Popular En 
lightenment," makes footnote reference to ELB's 
book, Propaganda, p. 298. 

Bryson, Lyman ; Finkelstein, Louis ; and Mac- 
Iver, R. M. Approaches to Group Understanding. 
Sixth Symposium of the Conference on Science, 
Philosophy and Religion. N. Y: Harper & 
Brothers, 1947. 858pp. 

Chapt. XI, "Bridges for Cultural Understanding or, 
Labor and Public Relations" by Kermit Eby, CIO 
Department of Education and Research, contains 
the following comment by Pitman B. Potter in a 
footnote: "It seems to me that there is some danger 
today of development of public relations techniques 
which go beyond the proper bounds of liberal demo 
cratic discussion and approach the methods of to 
talitarian dictators. I have discussed this question in 
a long book review of Mr. Bernays 1 latest pamphlet, 
'Take Your Place at the Peace Table,' published in 
the American Political Science Review." p. 110. 

In "Contributors to 'Approaches to Group Under 
standing,' " ELB is listed as "public relations coun 
sel; author, Crystallizing Public Opinion, Speak Up 
for Democracy, Take Your Place at the Peace Table, 
and others." p. 821. 

Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. See 

Addenda, Item 7. 
Burnett, Verne. You and Your Public. N. Y. and 

London: Harper and Brothers, 1943. 194pp. 
"... Edward L. Bernays, public relations expert, 
tells how to build up ethical propaganda for de 



mocracy in a book, Speak Up for Democracy. . . . 
You are shown how ... to work with ... to 
plan ... to use all the available machinery . . ." 
Chase, Stuart. Democracy Under Pressure. N. Y: 

The Twentieth Century Fund, 1945. 142pp. 
" . . . E. L. Bernays, working for the lobby, pro 
duced a 'Joint Committee for Sound and Demo 
cratic Consumer Legislation,' and to make assurance 
doubly sure, a 'National Advisory Council of Con 
sumers and Producers'." p. 42. 

. Government in Business. N. Y: The Mac 
millan Company, 1935. 296pp. 

Extract from an interview with ELB, reported in the 
New York World-Telegram, April 9, 1935. Bernays 
points out the growing influence of a quickened 
rate of change on "opinion management or pressure 
politics or the technique of public relations or group 
leadership" which can [now] "assert itself much 
more effectively." p. 263. 
Chayer, Mary Ella. Nursing in Modern Society. 

N. Y: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1947. 288pp. 
A brief discussion of the findings by ELB on nursing 
economics, based on a survey among nurses, pub 
lished in April 1946. Footnote reference to the article, 
"Nurses and Their Professional Organizations," by 
ELB in American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 46:229, 
p. 35 with numerous other references to articles 
by him in the same periodical for the months of 
May, November, December, 1945; January, Febru 
ary, March, April, June, July and September, 1946. 
pp. 39, 265. 

Childs, Harwood L. An Introduction to Public 

Opinion. N. Y: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; and 

London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1940. 151pp. 

Under "Public Relations," bibliographical reference 

to ELB's book, Propaganda, p. 145. 

A Reference Guide to the Study of Public 

Opinion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 
1934. 105pp. 

In the "Acknowledgement," ELB is described by the 
author as "among those whose genius enables them 
to bridge the chasm between the laboratories of 
academic endeavor and the world of practice." He is 
credited with the suggestion which led to the publi 
cation of the book, along with practical aid which is 
gratefully acknowledged. This bibliography and 
study outline contains frequent references to ELB's 
books Propaganda, pp. 9, 13, 36, 53 and Crystallizing 
Public Opinion, pp. 13, 18, 51, 53, 59, 73. The preface 
is by ELB. 

Clough, Reginald. "Public Relations," in Ency 
clopedia Americana, Vol. 22, N. Y. and Chicago: 
Americana Corporation, 1948. 800pp. 
Several mentions of ELB, as a "leading pioneer" in 
the field of public relations, and as "an outside coun 
selor from the time he opened his own business," 
with bibliographical reference to Crystallizing Public 
Opinion, pp. 770, 771, 773. 

Gochran, Thomas G., and Miller, William. The 
Age of Enterprise. N. Y: The Macmillan Com 
pany, 1942. 394pp. 



In this "social history of industrial America," 
"Edward Bernays, perhaps the ablest public rela 
tions man . . . , himself a nephew of Freud," is 
freely quoted, with footnote references to his work, 
"Propaganda." His belief is approved that "There is 
no detail too trivial to influence the public in a favor 
able or unfavorable sense." pp. 310, 337. ELB 
quoted as saying: "Human desires are the steam 
which makes the social machine work," p. 328. 
Also: "In making up its mind," said ELB, "a group's 
'first impulse is usually to follow the example of a 
trusted leader. ... As civilization has become 
more complex, the technical means have been in 
vented and developed by which opinion may be 
regimented'." p. 331. 

Columbia Encyclopedia: Compiled and Edited at 
Columbia University. N. Y: Columbia Uni 
versity Press, 1935. 1949pp. 

In the article on "Propaganda," reference to ELB's 

book Propaganda, p. 1445. 

Cooley, Charles Horton: Angell, Robert Cooley: 
Carr, Lowell Julliard. "Introductory Sociol 
ogy." N. Y: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933. 516pp. 

Under "Public Opinion as Group Intelligence," 

bibliographical reference to ELB's book Crystallizing 

Public Opinion, p. 499. 

Crane, George W. "Psychology Applied." Chicago: 

Northwestern University Press, 1941. 640pp. 
Bibliographical reference to ELB's book Crystallizing 
Public Opinion, p. 375. 

Crawford, Kenneth. The Pressure Boys. N. Y: 

Julian Messner, 1939. 308pp. 

In this book, described by its author as "the inside 
story of lobbying in America," ELB is presented as 
among "principal outside competitors" of Washington 
public relations men. "A nephew of Sigmund Freud 
named Edward L. Bernays . . . launches an insti 
tute at the drop of a hat . . ." p. 33; In reference to 
the Tugwell Bill: "No less an expert than Edward L. 
Bernays, the big institute and foundation man from 
New York, worked on the project . . . under the 
sponsorship of the Joint Committee for Sound and 
Democratic Consumer Legislation. . . . The Joint 
Committee eventually gave way to the National 
Advisory Council of Consumers and Producers." 
pp. 86, 87. 

Creel, George. How We Advertised America: The 
First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Com 
mittee on Public Information that Carried the 
Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the 
Globe. N. Y. and London: Harper & Brothers, 
1920. 465pp. 

The author says: "Through various organizations of 
United States exporters to foreign countries, an 
Export Service was established under Mr. Edward 
L. Bernays, beginning with Latin America and 
finally taking in a large part of Europe. Our articles 
and photographs were printed regularly in the sev 
eral large export journals, and from our articles we 
made, in various languages, brief inserts telling of 
war aims and activities to be inclosed with business 



57 

catalogues and also to be sent in tens of thousands of 
letters mailed weekly from the United States. In 
obtaining means of distribution, the confidential 
lists of many great commercial interests were used. 
The exporters put themselves solidly behind every 
resident commissioner, and the success of the pic 
torial service was entirely due to the fact that six 
hundred and fifty branches of American business 
houses scattered over the world put all their window 
space at the Committee's disposal." p. 266. 

Crowther, Samuel. "Public Opinion, Private 
Business and Public Relations." See Addenda, 
Item 10. 

Dawson, Carl A., and Gettys, Warner E. An 

Introduction to Sociology. N. Y: The Ronald 

Press Company, 1929. 866pp. 

Under "Explicit Controls," bibliographical refer 
ence: "Bernays, Edward L., Manipulating Public 
Opinion: The Why and the How. American Journal 
of Sociology, Vol. XXXIII, pp. 958-971. A treatment 
of the mechanism to be employed in generating and 
controlling public opinion." p. 705. 

Desmond, Robert W. "The Press and World 
Affairs." N. Y. and London: D. Appleton- 
Century Company, Inc., 1937. 421pp. 
Footnote reference to ELB's book Crystallizing Pub 
lic Opinion, p. 166. 

Dewitt Clinton High School, New York. The 
Clintonian [Seventh Annual]. N. Y: The School, 
1907. 162pp. 

"E. Bernays, '08" is listed under members of 
"Crafts", p. 55, and "E. Bernays, '09" under Execu 
tive Committee, Biological Field Club, p. 56; also, 
under members of the Press Committee, p. 58. 

, The Clintonian [Eighth Annual]. N. Y: 

The School, 1908. 163pp. 

Photograph of "Edward Bernays," with summary of 
his extra-curricular activities, as member or officer 
of "Magpie Board, Press Committee, Biological 
Field Club, Cross Country Squad, Crafts Club, City 
History Club, Memorabilia Society, Athletic Asso 
ciation." p. 107. 
The Clintonian [50th Anniversary Issue]. 

N. Y: The School, 1947. 84pp. 

Under "Alumni of Renown," photograph of "Ed 
ward L. Bernays, '08, Author and Counsel of Public 
Relations." p. 4. 
Dobyns, Fletcher. The Amazing Story of Repeal. 

Chicago: Willett, Clark and Company, 1940. 

457pp. 

This book about the repeal of the 18th Amendment, 
written from a Prohibitionist viewpoint, tells of the 
alleged role played by ELB, "America's most re 
sourceful public relations counsel," as "director of 
publicity" for the United Brewers' Industrial 
Foundation. "The effectiveness of this propaganda 
is shown by a booklet that was given wide distribu 
tion, Comments on the United Brewers' Industrial 
Foundation, Its Purposes, Functions and Activities, by 
Leaders of American Thought and Opinion. It con 
tains statements by a long list of professors, business- 



58 



men, labor leaders, editors, mayors, congressmen 
and others, showing that they had been converted to 
the idea that beer i^ America's way to prosperity, 
health and true temperance." pp. 409-410. 

Doob, Leonard W. Propaganda. N. Y: Henry Holt 

and Company, 1935. 424pp. 

Reference to the debate on propaganda between 
ELB and Everett Dean Martin, p. 84. Footnote: 
"Edward L. Bernays has justified his 'profession' by 
pointing out the inevitability of propaganda in all 
parts of society (see the discussion of his philosophy 
on p. 195ff)," p. 88. Footnote reference, p. 156, to 
ELB's article "The Public Utility That Is Misunder 
stood," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Nov 27, 1930. 

An 11-page critical discussion of the public rela 
tions techniques and achievements of ELB. The 
main theme is: "The society which Bernays helps to 
direct has made him possible," pp. 195-205. ELB is 
incorrectly described as a "nephew-in-law of Freud," 
p. 195; Light's Golden Jubilee is called "one of the 
most astonishing pieces of propaganda ever en 
gineered in this country during peace time," p. 195; 
The article by John T. Flynn, "Edward L. Bernays," 
Atlantic Monthly, 1932, Vol. 149, p. 564, is quoted to 
the effect that Bernays was working "not for Edison 
or for Henry Ford, but for very important interests 
which saw in this historic anniversary an opportu 
nity to exploit and publicize the uses of electric light," 
p. 196; ELB's book Propaganda is quoted on the 
relation of propaganda and society: "The conscious 
and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits 
and opinions of the masses is an important element 
in democratic society." p. 196; Doob criticizes this: 
"Bernays' notion, then, seems to be the application 
of a laissez-faire system of economics, with its at 
tending competition and individualism, to the sphere 
of public opinion." This is followed by quotations 
from ELB's book Propaganda and his article, "Our 
Debt to Propaganda," Forum, Vol. 81, p. 146, and an 
"address by Bernays before a Women's Club in New 
York City," pp. 197-198. Further analysis and quo 
tations, pp. 199-204, are followed by the statement: 
"The amazing thing about Bernays' technique is that 
his desired integration is generally segmental, and 
yet he uses central attitudes to bring about that. . . . 
When enough people's central attitudes were aroused, 
the conditions which brought about this arousal were 
'news' to the country's press; as a result, Bernays' 
exploits received wide publicity and in this way he 
secured a perceptual advantage," pp. 204-205. 

Elfenbein, Julien. Business Journalism. N. Y. and 

London: Harper and Brothers, 1945. 341pp. 
"Two of the best-known publicists of modern times 
are the late Ivy Lee, . . . and the nephew of Dr. 
Sigmund Freud, Edward L. Bernays, 'U. S. Publicist 
No. 1,' according to Time." There is a footnote refer 
ence also, p. 254, to "The Science of Ballyhoo," by 
John T. Flynn, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 149, May, 
1932, a profile of ELB. 

Emery, Edwin. History of the American Newspaper 
Publishers Association. Minneapolis: The Uni 
versity of Minnesota Press, 1950. 263pp. 



Chapter VIII, entitled "Advertising and Publicity," 
contains the following: "The third phase of activity, 
which brought into being the concept of the public 
relations counsel, developed in the early 1920's. 
Edward L. Bernays, Ivy Lee, and other leaders in 
sisted that while the public should be informed of 
business activities, it was necessary also that business 
should understand public attitudes and attempt to 
operate within the defined limits of the public in 
terest. The publicity man not only had a responsi 
bility to his clients, but to the general public. Out of 
this philosophy emerged the modern practice of 
public relations." pp. 126-127. 

Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 12. 

N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 1934. 
In the article on "Propaganda," the list of books to 
consult includes ELB's books Crystallizing Public 
Opinion and Propaganda, p. 528. 

Fairchild, Henry Pratt. "General Sociology." N. Y: 

John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1934. 634pp. 
Bibliographical reference in Chapter XI , "Social Con 
trol," to ELB's Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 584. 

Fine, Benjamin. Educational Publicity. N. Y. and 

London: Harper and Brothers, 1943. 320pp. 
"Experts in the field of publicity are likewise 
agreed that censorship has no place in a sound pro 
gram. ... A ... position is held by Edward L. 
Bernays: 'Everyone is a propagandist for some plat 
form, and it is the freedom with which all may em 
ploy the methods of propaganda that makes for 
safety and stability in a democratic country.' " 
p. 223. Also a bibliographical reference to ELB's 
book, Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 311. 

Fleischman, Doris E. Careers for Women. N. Y: 

Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928. 514pp. 
This "Practical Guide to Opportunity for Women in 
American Business" written "by 43 Successful Amer 
ican Business Women," is dedicated "To My Hus 
band, Edward L. Bernays." The chapter on Public 
Relations is by Doris E. Fleischman, described as 
"Counsel on Public Relations, in association with 
Edward L. Bernays, Counsel of Public Relations to 
Governments, Industries, Corporations and Trade 
Organizations." pp. 385-399. 

Funk, Charles Earle. What's the Name Please? 
N. Y: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1936. 
176pp. 

In this "guide to the correct pronunciation of current 
prominent names," there is the listing, "Bernays, 
Edward L. specialist in publicity Eddie Ber 
nays (rimes with her ways) Starts a new craze. 
Finds that it pays." p. 20. 

Gaige, Crosby. Dining with My Friends: Adven 
tures with Epicures. N. Y: Crown Publishers, 
1949. 292pp. 

Under the heading "Edward L. Bernays," Crosby 
Gaige says: "Wherever in Manhattan good eating is 
practiced publicly or privately, you are bound to 
encounter at one time or another Doris and Edward 
Bernays. Mr. Bernays is one of the leading American 
authorities on public relations." p. 11. 



Gauvreau, Emile. My Last Million Readers. N. Y: 
E. P. Button and Company, Inc., 1941. 488pp. 
"... Macfadden appointed a board of editorial 
advisers who induced him to retain Edward L. 
Bernays, a celebrated counsel of public relations who 
met with us regularly, for an attractive fee, to give 
our organization a new sense of direction. Bernays 
ruled out Macfadden's barefoot walks to his office 
and his physical culture showmanship, which the 
publisher abandoned with reluctance. . . . Under 
the direction of Bernays, the publisher was sent on a 
precipitous trip to London to address the House of 
Commons as the Father of Physical Culture . . ." 
p. 130. 

Gillette, John M., and Reinhardt, James M. 

"Problems of a Changing Social Order." N. Y: 
American Book Company, 1942. 824pp. 
Bibliographical reference, Chapter 26, "Public Opin 
ion and Its Agencies" to ELB's Crystallizing Public 
Opinion, p. 659. 

Goldman, Eric F. Two-Way Street. Boston: Bellman 

Publishing Company, 1948. 23pp. 
In this book, the author, an Associate Professor of 
History at Princeton University, studies the rise and 
development of public relations in the United States 
from 1827 to the present. Public relations is seen as 
having developed through three stages: "the public 
be fooled". of the press agent; "the public be in 
formed" of the earlier publicity man; and "the public 
be understood" of the public relations counsel. The 
narrative is highlighted by two focal figures in mod 
ern public relations, Ivy Lee and ELB. 

ELB is credited with developing the third or "pub 
lic be understood" phase of public relations, and with 
coining the phrase "public relations counsel." The 
author tells how ELB gave public relations advice to 
Thomas Masaryk which resulted in making October 
28 the founding date of the Czechoslovak republic. 
ELB's Crystallizing Public Opinion is described as 
"the first book-length writing devoted exclusively to 
public relations." Outlining ELB's career, the author 
highlights early clients like Caruso, Elsie Ferguson, 
Ruth Chatterton, the Diaghileff Russian Ballet and 
Nijinsky, sponsored by the Metropolitan Opera 
Company. The editor of Harper's Bazaar, recom 
mending ELB for a post with George Creel's U. S. 
Committee on Public Information in World War I, 
is quoted: "I consider E. L. Bernays one of the 
shrewdest and most effective publicity men in this 
country." 

The author also gives a detailed description of 
ELB's campaign which made Damaged Goods accept 
able to the public and a box-office success by creating 
the Sociological Fund, consisting of leading American 
men and women. In 1923, "Bernays pushed toward 
the professionalization of public relations by arrang 
ing with New York University to offer the first 
course in the subject ever to appear in the curriculum 
of an American university. The same year Bernays 
published his Crystallizing Public Opinion." Sum 
marizing the main principles of this book, the author 
says: "Bernays declared the primary function of the 



59 

public relations man to be the changing of both com 
pany policy and public attitudes so as to bring about 
a rapport between the two. . . . The public rela 
tions counsel as described in Crystallizing Public 
Opinion marks the third stage in the volution of 
public relations thought in the United States. . . . 
The public was to be understood understood as 
an intricate system of group relationships and by an 
expert with the technical equipment, the ethics, and 
the social view associated with the lawyer, doctor, or 
teacher." 

After 1923, the author says, ELB maintained his 
position of leadership. "Some of his services for 
clients, most notably his work for General Electric 
and Westinghouse in connection with the Golden 
Jubilee of the electric light, have become classics in 
the field. . . . But no activity of Bernays' has been 
more persistent or more skillful than his public rela 
tions for the public relations counsel. . . . 'Bernays 
had more to do with developing acceptance for PR 
and public relations counsel than any half dozen 
other persons,' William H. Baldwin, of Baldwin and 
Mermey, summarized in 1948." pp. 12-21. 

Goode, Kenneth M. How to Turn People into 
Gold. N. Y. and London: Harper and Brothers, 
1929. 221pp. 

ELB's book Propaganda is quoted several times; on 
the new salesmanship which utilizes societal forma 
tions, p. 47; on the group mind, p. 93; on advertising 
appropriations, p. 198. 

, and Powel, Harford, jr. What about 

Advertising. N. Y. and London: Harper and 
Brothers, 1927. 399pp. 

"As Mr. Edward L. Bernays puts it: 'He creates 

events so interesting and important they inevitably 

get talked about ...,'" etc., p. 39. 

Gras, N. S. B. Business and Capitalism. N. Y: F. S. 

Crofts and Company, 1939. 408pp. 
This "Introduction to Business History," says: 
". . . Another such counselor is Edward L. Bernays. 
. . . His distinctive services have been given to 
the federal government, business firms, and trade as 
sociations." p. 296. 

Graves, W. Brooke, ed. Readings in Public Opin 
ion. N. Y. and London: D. Appleton and Com 
pany, 1928. 1281pp. 

This book of readings contains a description of Con 
tact, "an extremely interesting little paper" pub 
lished by ELB, p. 103; a long quotation from Crys 
tallizing Public Opinion, by him, on the importance 
of public relations, p. 437; a two-page quotation 
from the same book by Bernays on the role of the 
public relations counsel, p. 594-596; another from 
the same book on the types of advice a public rela 
tions counsel may give his clients, p. 600; a footnote 
reference to Contact, p. 601; a bibliographical refer 
ence to Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 601 ; a quota 
tion from "a short address" by ELB included in 
"The 3-Phase System for the Mass Production of 
Style Goods," published by the New England 
Council, p. 601; footnote reference to "a very excel- 



60 

lent chapter of Edward L. Bernays' Crystallizing 
Public Opinion" which "gives an outline of methods 
practicable in modifying the point of view of a 
group," p. 761; another to "Putting Politics on the 
Market," an article by ELB in the Independent, May 
19, 1928, "a plea for a new and more effective method 
of political campaigning," p. 921; a long quotation 
from Crystallizing Public Opinion on "the pressure of 
the public for admittance to the mysteries of foreign 
affairs." p. 1264. 

Grey, Lennox, ed. What Communication Means 
Today: The Challenge to Teachers of English. 
Chicago: National Council of Teachers of 
English, 1944. 75pp. 

Footnote references to ELB's book Crystallizing 
Public Opinion, pp. 8, 32. Also: "In 1923, as the 
country was returning to business as usual, Edward 
Bernays reviewed in Crystallizing Public Opinion the 
lessons of the war from the point of view of the pub 
lic relations counsel and the advertiser who have, 
of course, made very large contributions to our 
understanding of the arts of communication," 
p. 32. This is followed by a long quotation three 
paragraphs from ELB's book. Then: "Bernays 
described the 'new profession of public relations 
counsel* in the light of various principles 'substanti 
ated by the findings of psychologists, sociologists, 
and newspapermen. 

"Astute as Mr. Bernays was, he could hardly fore 
see the significance of radio, nor did Walter Lipp- 
mann." p. 32. 

Griffith, Coleman R. "An Introduction to Applied 
Psychology" N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 
1937. 679pp. 

Footnote reference to ELB's book Crystallizing Pub 
lic Opinion, p. 163. 

Griswold, Glenn, and Griswold, Denny. Your 
Public Relations. N. Y: Funk & Wagnalls 
Company-Modern Industry Magazine, 1948. 
634pp. 

ELB's contribution to public relations is acknowl 
edged in an extended discussion: "From the first 
World War and the period of adjustment which fol 
lowed came many public relations techniques that 
are still effective today. From that period also came 
some of the most effective elements of leadership. 
In addition to Ivy Lee and Arthur Page, George 
Creel and Edward L. Bernays made their substantial 
and lasting contributions to public relations. . . . 
The position of Edward L. Bernays in the history of 
public relations is more debatable and more often 
debated than that of any other man. He must be 
recognized as one of the founders and leaders. Per 
haps as much as Ivy Lee it was Bernays who taught 
business management that public relations belongs 
at the policy-making level. He gave the field recogni 
tion, professional status, and documentation in a 
day when few leaders commanded respect and atten 
tion." p. 8. 
Haas, C. R. Theorie et Technique de la Publicite. 

Paris: Dunod, 1948. 213pp. 
Bibliographical reference to Edward L. Bernays' 



book Propaganda, ed. Liveright Publishing Corp, 
New York, 1928, p. 208. 

Hacker, L. M; Selekman, B. M; Seward, R. T; 
Dickson, W. J; Smith, T. V. The New 

Industrial Relations. Ithaca: Cornell Univer 
sity Press, 1948. 150pp. 

The foreword by M. P. Gather wood, Dean, New 
York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 
Cornell University, acknowledges the "grant from 
Edward L. Bernays" to sponsor this "series of lec 
tures by recognized authorities on various phases of 
industrial relations problems," p. vi. The paper 
"Industrial Relations and Modern Society," by 
T. V. Smith, formerly Professor of Philosophy, 
University of Chicago, and now, 1948, Maxwell 
Professor of Citizenship and Philosophy, Syracuse 
University, contains the following comment: 
". . . It is to the easing, though not to the erasing, 
of the conflicts which industry enshrines, from the 
focus to the fringe, that the lectures of which this 
article was part were dedicated. That series of lec 
tures bore a name that of Bernays distin 
guished in the delicate field of public relations. . ." 
p. 123. 

Harlow, Rex F., and Black, Marvin M. Practical 
Public Relations. N. Y: Harper and Brothers, 
1947. 442pp. 

Characterization of ELB by the Atlantic Monthly 
as "something of a pioneer" in public relations is 
noted; reference is made to his being the author of 
several books; his division of United States public 
relations development into four main periods is sum 
marized; his comment on the "Remuneration of the 
Public Relations Worker" is quoted; there are 
numerous footnote references to Public Relations, 
ELB's Vocational and Professional Monographs, 
No. 58. pp. 23, 371, 372. 

Harral, Stewart. Public Relations for Higher Edu 
cation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1942. 292pp. 

ELB is described as "best-known of public relations 
counsels today," and as "perhaps the most articulate 
of all members of the profession," p. 241; his re 
minder that "certain symbols have lost their value, 
. . . have lost the meanings they stood for" is re 
called, p. 261; and, among "Suggested Readings 
Steps in Setting up a Program," are listed his book 
Crystallizing Public Opinion [also, under "Ethics"]; 
Speak Up for Democracy; articles in Annual Pro 
ceedings of the American College Publicity Associa 
tion, 1936; Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, 1935; and Saturday 
Review of Literature, 1941. pp. 271, 284, 285. 

Harriman, Margaret Case. "The Vicious Circlel 
The Story of the Algonquin Round Table." Illus 
trated by Al Hirschfeld. N. Y: Rinehart & 
Company, Inc., 1951, 310 pp. See Addenda, 
Item 12. 

Hayes, E. P. Activities of the President's Emergency 
Committee for Employment. Concord, N. H: 
The Rumford Press, 1936. 151pp. 



61 



"Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations Counsel, 
New York, N. Y.," listed among "Members of the 
President's Emergency Committee for Employ 
ment", p. vii; credit is given to his initiating the 
work of the Public Relations Section of the Com 
mittee, as director, before the professional staff was 
expanded and paid for from foundation funds, p. 151. 

Hepner, Harry Walker. Psychology Applied to 
Life and Work. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1946. 
771pp. 

Bibliographical reference: "Bernays, E. L., Crystal 
lizing Public Opinion" p. 573. 

. Psychology in Modern Business. N. Y: 

Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1931. 728pp. 
Footnote reference: "Bernays, Edward L., Propa 
ganda." p. 496. 

Herring, E. Pendleton. "Public Administration 
and the Public Interest." N. Y. and London: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936, 416pp. 
The chapter on "Publishing Administrative Activ 
ities" says: "Edward L. Bernays has gone as far as 
to suggest that 'the United States Government 
should create a Secretary of Public Relations as 
a member of the President's Cabinet. The function 
of this official should be to interpret America's aims 
and ideals throughout the world, and to keep the 
citizens of this country in touch with governmental 
activities and the reasons which prompt them. He 
would, in short, interpret the people to the govern 
ment and the government to the people.' " Footnote 
reference to ELB's book Propaganda, p. 370. 

The Politics of Democracy. N. Y: W. W. 

Norton and Company, 1940. 468pp. 
ELB's book Propaganda is quoted on the failure of 
politicians to use modern public relations methods, 
p. 257. 

Hodges, Charles. The Background of International 
Relations. N. Y: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 
1931. 743pp. 

Discussion follows mention of ELB's reference to 
propaganda as a power in the Great War "that 
opened the eyes of the intelligent few in all depart 
ments of life to the possibilities of regimenting the 
public mind," p. 518. In the "Reading References" 
under "Public Opinion in World Affairs" 
ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion is men 
tioned; under "Government, Press, and Propa 
ganda," his Propaganda is also listed, pp. 722, 723. 
Chapter Note 18 gives the author's comment on 
ELB's quoted remarks, p. 725. 

Hope, Constance. Publicity is Broccoli. Indianapo 
lis and N. Y: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
1941. 264pp. 

"As every serious student of the business knows, the 
great Edward L. Bernays got his start in life through 
musical publicity. . . . Bernays, who worked for 
concert manager F. C. Coppicus and launched, 
among others, a young Italian tenor named Caruso, 
next branched out into publicizing music instru 
ments. . . . Bernays is now a famous Public Rela 
tions Counsel." p. 142. 



Hotchkiss, George Burton. An Outline of Adver 
tising. Revised Edition. N. Y: The Macmillan 
Company, 1940. 631pp. 

Bibliographical reference: "E. L. Bernays, Crystal 
lizing Public Opinion." p. 596. 

"An Outline of Advertising: Its Philos 
ophy, Science, Art and Strategy." Third Edition. 
N.Y: The Macmillan Company, 1950. 605pp. 
Footnote reference to "Edward L. Bernays- 
'Fifty Million Readers Can't Be Wrong'." 
p. 494. Bibliographical reference to ELB's 
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 565. 

Hughes, Adella Prentiss. Music Is My Life. 

Cleveland and N. Y: The World Publishing 

Company, 1947. 319pp. 

The author praises ELB's work for the Russian 
Ballet, "placed ... in [his] hands [by] the Metro 
politan Opera people." "No project was ever better 
prepared for in ... publicity and promotion. . . . 
The value and quality of the . . . material that 
came from his office has never been equalled by any 
other organization within my experience . . ." 
p. 203. 

Husing, Ted. Ten Years before the Mike. N. Y: 

Farrar and Rinehart, 1935. 298pp. 
"Golden Jubilee of Light" is described as "the great 
radio event of 1929 . . . luscious name, fragrant 
with the poetry of a public relations counsel's 
imagination . . . , a General Electric publicity 
stunt hatched in the brain of Edward L. Bernays 
. . . , [as among] press-agent feats . . . , tops." p. 
127. 

International Who's Who. London: Europa 

Publication, Ltd., 13th Edition, 1949. 1015pp. 
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L., B. S. 
American Public Relations Counsel." p. 69. 

Irion, Frederick C. Public Opinion and Propa 
ganda. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, N. Y: 
1950. 782pp. 

Chapter XXII, "Future Methods," contains a sec 
tion on "Propaganda Analysis" which says: "Ed 
ward L. Bernays set the pace in the 1920's by main 
taining that propaganda will never die out. Intelli 
gent men must realize that propaganda is the mod 
ern instrument by which they can fight for produc 
tive ends and help bring order out of chaos. Bernays 
said that what was wrong with education and social 
work, to mention but two fields, was that they were 
not receiving sufficient publicity." 

Irwin, Will. Propaganda and the News. N. Y. and 
London : Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1936. 325pp. 

Reference to "the professional whom Edward L. 
Bernays afterward called the Public Relations 
Counselor," p. 112; with subsequent discussion as to 
how "Edward L. Bernays, in his clever book Propa 
ganda, has described and defended this process as 
regards purely commercial uses, and . . . gives 
examples of press-agentry which rise above routine 
and achieve real art . . ." pp. 117-118. 



62 



Johnson, James Weldon. Along This Way. N. Y: 

The Viking Press, 1933. 417pp. 
Describing the conference which the National Asso 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored People held 
at great risk in Atlanta in ... 1920, the author 
says: "Edward L. Bernays . . . handled the pub 
licity for us." p. 356. 

Key, V. O., jr. Politics, Parties and Pressure 
Groups. N. Y: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 
1947. 814pp. 

Discussing the need to "humanize" Calvin Coolidge 
prior to the Presidential campaign of 1924, the 
author cites "Manipulating Public Opinion: the 
Why and the How," by ELB, American Journal of 
Sociology, Vol. 33, 1928. pp. 958-71. 

"... [it] was suggested that an event in which the 
most human groups would be brought into juxta 
position with the president would have the desired 
results. Actors and actresses were invited to break 
fast with Mr. Coolidge at the White House. The 
country felt that a man in the White House who 
could laugh with Al Jolson and the Dolly sisters was 
not frigid and unsympathetic." pp. 584-585. 

Knight, Bruce Winton. How to Run a War. N. Y: 

Alfred A. Knopf, 1936. 243pp. 

"For more dignified ballyhoo, you want the arts of an 
Ivy Lee or an Edward L. Bernays." Mention in sub 
sequent detail of "Light's Golden Jubilee," as an 
example, pp. 61, 62. 

Konvitz, Milton R. The Constitution and Civil 
Rights. N. Y: Columbia University Press, 
1947. 254pp. 

Footnote reference to Francis Biddle, "Civil Rights 
and the Federal Law," in Safeguarding Civil Liberties 
Today, Edward L. Bernays Lectures, Cornell Uni 
versity, 1945. p. 47. 

Krows, Arthur Edwin. Play Production in Amer 
ica. N. Y: Henry Holt and Company, 1916. 
414pp. 

Reference to "the stupendous national campaign for 
the Serge de Diaghileff Ballet Russe, so magnifi 
cently waged by Edward L. Bernays," p. 303, who 
"struck a newer field of co-operative press work" in 
metropolitan department store daily advertising, 
p. 333, and whose classification of press matter for 
the ballet's road tour according to newspaper depart 
ments "probably set a precedent." p. 336. 
Lambert, Richard S. Propaganda. London: 

Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1938. 161pp. 
This English book quotes ELB, "an American 
writer" as saying: "The conscious and intelligent 
manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of 
the masses is an important element in democratic 
society. Those who manipulate this unseen mecha 
nism of society constitute an invisible government 
which is the true ruling power of our country. . . . 
In theory, everybody buys the best and cheapest 
commodities offered him on the market. In practice, 
if everyone went around pricing, and chemically 
testing before purchasing, the dozens of soaps or 
fabrics or brands of bread which are for sale, eco 



nomic life would be hopelessly jammed. To avoid 
such confusion, society consents to have its choice 
narrowed to ideas and objects brought to its atten 
tion through propaganda of all kinds. There is conse 
quently a vast and continuous effort going on to 
capture our minds in the interests of some policy or 
commodity or idea." pp. 32-33. There is also a pas 
sage about ELB: "After Ivy Lee, the best-known 
public relations counsel in America is Edward L. 
Bernays, who the point is of interest married a 
niece of the famous psychologist Freud." p. 98; this 
is an error as Bernays is himself a nephew of Freud's. 
"Bernays achieved in October 1929 what Doob de 
scribes as 'one of the most astonishing pieces of 
propaganda ever engineered in this country (U.S.A.) 
during peace-time.' This was to work up a national 
commemoration of Edison's invention of the in 
candescent lamp with Edison and the President of 
the U.S.A. cooperating, the Government issuing a 
special stamp, and Henry Ford reconstructing 
Edison's birthplace and laboratory all for the 
benefit of the electric light interests, who saw in this 
historic anniversary a chance to exploit and publi 
cize the use of electric light." pp. 98-99. There is also 
a summary, with many direct quotations, of sections 
of ELB's book Propaganda, pp. 99-100. 

Landis, Paul H. Social Control. Phila., N. Y: J. B. 

Lippincott, 1939. 507pp. 

Bibliographical reference: "Bernays, E. L., 'Freedom 
of Propaganda; Constructive Forming of Public 
Opinion," Vital Speeches, vol. 2, pp. 744-746. Sept 1, 
1936." p. 205. 

Landry, Robert J. This Fascinating Radio Business. 

Indianapolis and N. Y: The Bobbs-Merrill 

Company, 1946. 343pp. 

This book tells of a woman, whose concern "about 
the bad name of propaganda" led to her offering 
Edward L. Bernays "a substitute designation, '/- 
cumation' ('incu' . . . from 'incubate'; 'mation' 
from 'information')." p. 245. 

LaPiere, Richard T. Collective Behavior. N. Y. and 
London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1938. 577pp. 

Under Chapt. XII, "Public Behavior," footnote 
references: "E. L. Bernays, 'Manipulating Public 
Opinion,' Amer. J. Social., 1928, Vol. 33, pp. 958- 
971." p. 299. Also, "Bernays, E. L., Propaganda, 
1928." p. 295. 

, and Farnsworth, Paul R. Social Psy 
chology. N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1942. 511pp. 

A footnote reference to ELB's Crystallizing Public 
Opinion as one of the books which give "some idea 
of the complexities of the art of propaganda," p. 347. 
A footnote reference to his Propaganda as one of two 
books "written by recognized masters in the art of 
personalizing corporations and of giving good names 
to men who need and can pay for them," p. 347. In 
the Appendix notes, and in the Bibliography and Au 
thor Index, references to these two works, as well as 
to: "Bernays, E. L., 1928, 'Manipulating Public 



63 



Opinion: The Why and How', Amer. J. Social., Vol. 
33, pp. 958-971." pp. 451, 452, 458. 

Larson, Henrietta M. Guide to Business History. 

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948. 

1181pp. 

Reference to, and brief description of, " Bernays, 
Edward L., ed. An Outline of Careers. N. Y: Doran, 
1927", pp. 737, 738. Mention of "The Evolution of 
a Profession" by ELB, as among articles in Public 
Relations Directory and Yearbook, N. Y., 1945. p. 792. 

Lasswell, Harold D. Democracy Through Public 
Opinion. N. Y: Banta Publishing Company, 
1941. 175pp. 

"Edward Bernays directed Latin American news 
during the War period, and later became an influen 
tial figure in the field of public relations." p. 77. 

. Propaganda Technique in the World War. 

N. Y: Peter Smith, 1938. 233pp. 
Under "General Studies of Public Opinion and 
Propaganda," bibliographical reference to ELB's 
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 225. 

. Public Opinion in War and Peace. Wash 
ington: National Association of Secondary- 
School Principals, and National Council for the 
Social Studies, 1943. 68pp. 

Bibliographical reference: to ELB's book Crystalliz 
ing Public Opinion, "by a public relations counsel; 
summarizes several campaigns." p. 47. 

, and Blumenstock, Dorothy. World 

Revolutionary Propaganda. N. Y. and London: 
Alfred A. Knopf, 1939. 393pp. 

Footnote reference: "See Universities Pathfinders 
in Public Opinion," A Survey by Edward L. Bernays, 
in collaboration with Doris E. Fleischman, N. Y., 
1937. p. 7. 

; Casey, Ralph D; and Smith, Bruce 

Lannes. Propaganda and Promotional Ac 
tivities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1935. 450pp. 

This annotated bibliography lists ELB's Crystal 
lizing Public Opinion "by a leading public relations 
counsel," and Propaganda, p. 32; Also lists: 
Bernays, Edward L. "The Press Agent Has His 
Day," Printers' Ink, Vol. 110: pp. 107-108, Febru 
ary 26, 1920. p. 264; and, Pringle, Henry F. "Mass 
Psychologists," American Mercury, Vol. 19, No. 
155-162, Feb., 1930 [on Edward L. Bernays]. p. 266. 

Lee, Alfred McClung. The Daily Newspaper in 
America. N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 
1937. 797pp. 

A passage about Ivy Lee's motto: "Accuracy, Au 
thenticity, Interest," points out that he made it his 
business "to present only topics of real interest, 
phrased so as to attract attention of both editors and 
readers never sensational, never libelous, always 
accurate, always trustworthy, always readable." 
The author adds: "The viewpoint Lee thus out 
lined, although later refined by him and by such as 
E L. Bernays, became and remains essentially that 
used by leading corporate press agents or as they 



prefer to be called 'counsels on public relations.' " 
pp. 440-441. ELB's book Propaganda is quoted on 
the importance of propaganda in "whatever of social 
importance is done today." p. 464. "E. L. Bernays 
dramatized the services of the power industry in 
promoting Light's Golden Jubilee on October 21, 
1929." p. 466. The Appendix contains bibliographi 
cal references to ELB's books Crystallizing Public 
Opinion and Propaganda, p. 764. 

, ed. New Outline of The Principle of 

Sociology. N. Y: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1946. 
355pp. 

Bibliographical references, under "Selected Read 
ings," of Edward L. Bernays' book Propaganda. 
p. 197. 

Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. Garden 
City: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 
1935. 458pp. 

"In the greatest of all native American arts (next to 
the talkies, and those spirituals in which Negroes 
express their desire to go to heaven, to St. Louis, or 
almost any place distant from the romantic old 
plantations), namely, in the art of Publicity, Lee 
Sarason was in no way inferior even to such ac 
knowledged masters as Edward Bernays, the late 
Theodore Roosevelt, Jack Dempsey and Upton 
Sinclair." p. 88. 

Logan, Edward B., ed. The American Political 
Scene. Revised Edition. N. Y. and London: Har 
per and Brothers, 1938. 311pp. 
Two footnote references to, and/or from, ELB's 
book, Propaganda, the second of which delineates 
briefly his "strategy of publicity" in reference to the 
political campaign, pp. 227, 231. 

Logan, Spencer. A Negro's Faith in America. 

N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 1946. 88pp. 
Adele Franklin, instructor in charge of all-day 
school activities in New York City's Public School 
194, is mentioned as "recent winner of the Edward 
Bernays $1000 award for outstanding contribution 
to the cause of democracy in education." p. 51. 

Lowell, Joan. The Cradle of the Deep. N. Y: Simon 

and Schuster, 1929. 261pp. 

Dedication: "To Edward L. Bernays and Hiram 
Kelly Motherwell who encouraged me to write 
this book." 

Lowen, Walter A., and Watson, Lillian Eichler. 

How to Get a Job and Win Success in Advertising. 

N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1941. 382pp. 
Footnote reference to Careers for Men, Edward L. 
Bernays, editor, 1939. p. 300. 

Lumley, Frederick E. Principles of Sociology. 
N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill Book Com 
pany, Inc., 1935. 461pp. 

Footnote reference to "E. Bernays, 'Propaganda.'" 

p. 434. 

. The Propaganda Menace. N. Y: The 

Century Company, 1933. 454pp. 

Footnote reference to ELB's article, "The Minority 

Rules," The Bookman, April 1927; to his book 



64 



Crystallizing Public Opinion; and to John T. Flynn's 
article, "Edward L. Bernays: The Science of Bally 
hoo," Atlantic Monthly, May 12, 1932, p. 26. Foot 
note references to ELB's book Propaganda, pp. 91, 
93, 102, 103. Quotation used by Bernays in Contact 
No. 9, on the importance of frankness in public rela 
tions, p. 106. Footnote reference to Propaganda. 
p. 109, 130. Quotation used by ELB in Contact No. 
20, on the difficulty of defining propaganda, p. 417- 
418. 

Lundberg, Ferdinand. America's Sixty Families. 

N. Y: The Citadel Press, 1946. 578pp. 
Footnote reference, quoting Prof. T. V. Smith, then 
of the University of Chicago, defining the "Pluto- 
gogue," as "the voice of the wealthy when they can 
no longer speak for themselves, 'the successor of the 
plutocrat of other days. . . . Not Allah, but Allah's 
public relations counsel," and including "our late 
Ivy Lee and our ever present Edward Bernays." 
p. 313. 

Lyons, George J., and Martin, Harmon C. The 

Strategy of Job-Finding. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, 

Inc., 1944. 408pp. 

Bibliographical reference: "Bernays, Edward L., 
ed. Careers for Men: A Practical Guide to Opportu 
nity in Business. N. Y. 1939." p. 395. 

Me Bride, Mary Margaret, ed. How to Become a 
Successful Advertising Woman. N. Y. and 
Toronto: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., 1948. 259pp. 
The chapter on "Futures in Public Relations," by 
Caroline Hood, Director of Public Relations, 
Rockefeller Center, Inc., says: "A sound public re 
lations program has actually little to do with press 
agentry. Edward L. Bernays, who is described by 
Time magazine as 'United States Publicist No. 1,' 
says that public relations is just what it says it is: 
'relations with the public.'" pp. 114-115. The same 
chapter contains a long statement by ELB on op 
portunities for women in the profession of public re 
lations, p. 124-125. 

McCamy, James L. "Government Publicity." Chi 
cago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. 275pp. 
Footnote: "Edward L. Bernays, 'Molding Public 
Opinion,' Annals, CLXXIX (May 1935), 85-87." 
p. 21. 

McKean, Dayton David, "Party and Pressure 
Politics." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 
1949, 712pp. 

In discussing the word 'propaganda,' the author 
states: "After World War I the word came to be 
applied to 'what you don't like of the other fellow's 
publicity,' as Edward L. Bernays said; but publicity 
is too narrow a term to include the variety of activ 
ities that are used to influence public opinion." 

In discussing "The Use of Speaking by Pressure 
Groups," the author says: "Pressure groups, like 
parties, find speaking the least expensive device of 
propaganda. Edward L. Bernays has called attention 
to the lecture platform as a means of propaganda 
that public relations counsel may suggest to their 



clients, and he has pointed to some of his own propa 
ganda successes by using this device." 

In this connection, pages 201-203 of Crystallizing 
Public Opinion are referred to. 

MacDougall, Curtis D. A College Course in Re 
porting for Beginners. N. Y: The Macmillan 
Company, 1932. 536pp. 

Linking "Ivy Lee and Edward S. Bernays, Jr., [sic] 
of New York," as "the most outstanding public rela 
tions officials in the country" recording their 
"boast that they never ask favors of editors and 
add that it is unnecessary for them to do so. They 
merely advise their clients how to act so that the 
press is forced to recognize them" a discussion of 
how to create news-worthy publicity, p. 77. Biblio 
graphic references to ELB's books Crystallizing 
Public Opinion and Propaganda, p. 506. 

. Hoaxes. N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 

1940. 336pp. 

Reference to "Light's Golden Jubilee" as the type 
of "publicity stunt" which "worked, and . . . can 
hardly be called a hoax," because of the true news 
in created events which "newspapers couldn't ig 
nore", p. 249. Also: "So daydreamers go on hoping 
and expecting . . . while men like Edward Bernays 
. . work silently behind the scenes." p. 261. 

. Interpretative Reporting, N. Y: The 

Macmillan Company, 1938. 682pp. 
Reference to "Edward L. Bernays of New York, 
nephew of the great Sigmund Freud" and "foremost 
living" public relations counsel. "Light's Golden 
Jubilee" is given as an outstanding example of pub 
licity well-inspired. The book calls Bernays' "psy 
chology . . . eminently sound," as "evidenced in 
his two books, Propaganda, and Crystallizing Pub 
lic Opinion," and quotes from the latter "part of his 
explanation and justification of himself and his 
calling." pp. 30, 31. 

. Newsroom Problems and Policies. N. Y: 

The Macmillan Company, 1941. 592pp. 
Numerous references to and quotations from ELB's 
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, pp. 132, 134; 
reference to a public debate featuring him and Julian 
S. Mason before the New York Newspaper Women's 
Club in 1930, p. 241. Giving Bernays' definitions of 
the role of the public relations counsel, and of the 
difference between propaganda and education ; refer 
ence to "Light's Golden Jubilee" and the "creation 
of 'front' organizations" such as "the Sociological 
Fund by Bernays . . ." pp. 254, 258, 260. 

MacLatchy, Josephine H. Education on the Air. 
Columbus: Ohio State University, 1942. 310pp. 
This 13th yearbook of the Institute for Education by 
Radio, reports annual radio conference sponsored by 
Ohio State University. "Edward L. Bernays, coun 
sel on public relations and author of Speak Up for 
Democracy, who was chairman and who had organ 
ized the panel," is recorded as presiding over the 
Panel Discussion on "Radio and Wartime Morale." 
His various opinions on the subject are noted, 
pp. 31-34. Among "... outstanding American ex- 



perts in the field of radio and public opinion," ELB 
is also noted as participating in subsequent discus 
sions, "Radio Discussion in Wartime A Program 
of the American Forum of the Air," and "Radio 
News Reports and Comments in Wartime"; his re 
marks or those of others about him, or his views 
are cited frequently, viz: pp. 36, 38-39, 42, 43, 44-45, 
46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 85-86. 

MacNeil, Neil. Without Fear or Favor. N. Y: Har- 

court, Brace and Company, 1940. 414pp. 
"There are of course capable press agents who pro 
duce news by their intelligence and sense of news 
values. They make the event that makes the news, 
and the newspapers cover it with their own reporters, 
and gladly. Edward L. Bernays is such a one. His 
handling of the Light Golden Jubilee was masterly. 
Newspapers could not ignore it, for he brought 
Thomas A. Edison, Henry Ford and many other 
notables to Dearborn, and had the President of the 
United States deliver the principal address. As part 
of his promotion he had the post office issue a special 
stamp. Even more ingenious perhaps were his na 
tional contests and exhibitions of sculptures done in 
Ivory Soap. These made good news stories. They had 
novelty and supplied good pictures, even if they did 
bring publicity to Procter and Gamble and help to 
stimulate soap sales. It was good showmanship." 
p. 311. 

Mannheim, Karl. "Man and Society in an Age of 
Reconstruction" London: Routledge and Kegan 
Paul Limited, 1948. 469pp. 

Bibliographical reference to "Berneys, E. Propa 
ganda. New York, 1928-1936." Bernays' name mis 
spelled, p. 421. 

Martin, Everett Dean. The Meaning of a Liberal 
Education. N. Y: W. W. Norton and Company, 
Inc., 1926. 319pp. 

Without naming ELB, this book gives his well-known 
definition of the difference between education and 
propaganda. "A recent well-written book on the 
psychology of advertising by a gentleman who styles 
himself a 'Public Relations Counsel' explains the 
technique of making propaganda. The author refers 
to such propagandist efforts as education, and says 
that the difference between education and propa 
ganda is this: when your side of the case is given pub 
licity, that is education; when your opponent pub 
lishes his side, that is propaganda." p. 47. 

Mencken, H. L. The American Language, Supple 
ment I. N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945. 739pp. 
"Public Relations Counsel was launched by Edward 
L. Bernays of New York, one of the most dis 
tinguished members of the fraternity. It had been 
preceded by Councillor in (or on) public relations, 
occasionally used by Ivy L. Lee (1878-1934), an 
other eminent publicist." This is followed by a long 
memorandum "issued from the Bernays office" and 
giving "the history and true meaning of Public rela 
tions counsel." The term was invented by "Mr. 
Bernays and Doris E. Fleischman, a young woman 
working with him in his office at the time, whom he 



65 

later married and who is now his partner." pp. 578- 
579. 

. The American Language, Supplement II. 

N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948. 890pp. 
In two footnotes, Mencken lists ELB among those 
to whom he is indebted for information about 
words, pp. 718, 773. 

Mills, Alden B. Hospital Public Relations. Chi 
cago: Physicians' Record Company, 1939. 
361pp. 

Preface by ELB says this book "bridges the gap 
between existing knowledge of public relations and 
the need for that knowledge not only by hospitals 
but by other types of social service institutions as 
well," pp. vii-viii. The book contains a discussion of 
Bernays' use of group leaders in public relations cam 
paigns, pp. 26-27. A discussion of the author ex 
presses gratitude for this preface, p. 10. Bernays' 
theories of the leadership principle in public relations 
is discussed, p. 36. A long quotation on public rela 
tions methods from ELB's book Propaganda, pp. 
36-37. Bibliographical reference to Propaganda, 
p. 55. 

Mock, James R., and Larson, Gedric. Words 
That Won the War. The Story of the Committee 
on Public Information, 1917-1919. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1939. 372pp. 
"The Wireless-Cable Service was directed by Walter 
S. Rogers, and the news was prepared by Paul 
Kennaday. As described in Chapter XV, Edward L. 
Bernays was placed in charge of news for Latin 
America," p. 239. "Latin America organization 
trips made by Lieutenant F. E. Ackerman in South 
America and S. P. Verner in Central America; Latin 
American news directed by Edward L. Bernays," 
(p. 245). "The two most important figures in the 
CPI invasion of Latin America were Lieutenant 
F. E. Ackerman and Edward L. Bernays," p. 321. 
"The other key man in the Latin American work 
was Bernays, who today is widely believed to have 
succeeded the late Ivy Lee as No. 1 public relations 
adviser to American businessmen. He came to the 
CPI in 1917 as a young . . . New Yorker who had 
served as press agent for the Russian Ballet, Enrico 
Caruso and other top-rank artists. His most impor 
tant work with the Committee was the conception 
and execution of plans for enlisting the help of Amer 
ican business firms. Toward the end of the war he 
was also in charge of the whole Latin American news 
service, and following the Armistice he went to 
Paris with the CPI delegation," p. 322. "Creel ap 
plied for passports for the group he was sending to 
the Peace Conference, including Sisson, Byoir, 
Bernays, Charles Hart, Carl Walberg, Major H. E. 
Atterbury and E. H. Shuster," p. 332. 

Mott, Frank Luther, and Casey, Ralph D., eds. 

Interpretations of Journalism. N. Y: F. S. Crofts 

and Company, 1937. 533pp. 

"Electric Light's Golden Jubilee" included among 
illustrations that "a cause can be 'litigated' for a 
client while the publicity expert remains entirely in 
the background." p. 406. Ivy Lee mentioned as 



66 



"representative of the most skilled type of propa 
gandist effort," and ELB among "others [who] 
have served corporations and business groups of 
almost equal prominence." p. 412. 

Mott, George Fox, ed., and others. Survey of 
Journalism. N. Y: Barnes and Noble, 1940. 
381pp. 

Two bibliographical references. "Bernays, E. L., 
Crystallizing Public Opinion, 1924. An expert in 
publicity applies mass psychology to his job." And 
"Bernays, E. L., Propaganda, 1928. Further analysis 
of propaganda and publicity from the standpoint of 
the social psychologist." p. 364. 

JY1 untz, Earl E. " Urban Sociology." N. Y: The Mac- 

millan Company, 1938. 742pp. 
Footnote reference: "Cf. Edward L. Bernays, 
'Moulding Public Opinion,' Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science (May, 1935), 
Vol. 179, p. 84." p. 584. 

National Committee on Atomic Information. 

How to Reach 37,000,000 Homes with the Basic 
Facts about Atomic Energy: A Progress Report. 
Washington, D. C: National Committee on 
Atomic Information, May 14, 1946. 24pp. 
Mention of "Edward L. Bernays' 'Take Your Place 
at the Peace Table,' Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New 
York" as "a helpful manual." 

Nerney, Mary Childs. Thomas A. Edison. N. Y: 
Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1934. 334pp. 
"And although the latter (General Electric) did not 
use his (Thomas A. Edison's) name in their corporate 
title, they continued to use it in business and other 
ways, at times aggravating to its owner, as upon the 
occasion of Light's Golden Jubilee celebration . . . 
after B. F. [sic] Bernays was retained to handle the 
news of the mammoth party, the motive power be 
tween the tail and the dog would get short-circuited 
now and then, raising doubts as to which was which. 
The General Electric, as a result of this campaign, 
was said to have enormously increased its sales of 
lamps all over the world . . ." pp. 176-177. 

Odegard, Peter. The American Public Mind. N. Y: 

Columbia University Press, 1930. 308pp. 
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystal 
lizing Public Opinion, p. 280; and to Propaganda, 
p. 287. 

Osborn, Alex. Your Creative Power. N. Y: Charles 

Scribner's Sons, 1948. 375pp. 

ELB quoted, with the author in agreement, as as 
serting that progressive management has already 
demonstrated an attack on industrial relations 
problems, but that "additional ways and methods 
must be found." pp. 299, 300. 

Osborne, Letitia Preston. Through Purple Glass. 
Phila. and N. Y: J. B. Lippincott, 1946. 288pp. 
A "gay comedy of manners," dedicated: "For 
Edward L. Bernays." 

Ovington, Mary White. The Walls Came Tumbling 
Down. N. Y: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 
1947. 307pp. 



Reference to ELB's success in handling publicity 
for the National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People's conference in Atlanta, Georgia. 
"Bernays' technique was to make friends of the 
reporters and do all their work." p. 178. 

Paustian, Paul W., and Oppenheimer, J. John. 

"Problems of Modern Society." N. Y. and Lon 
don: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 193 8. 
571pp. 

Footnote reference to "Bernays, E. L., 'Molding 
Public Opinion,' Annals of American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, vol. 179, pp. 84-85." 
pp. 299, 338. 

Pfiftner, John M. Public Administration. N. Y: 

The Ronald Press, 1946. 621pp. 
Among "Selected Readings" for Chapter 35, "Ad 
ministrative Public Relations": "Bernays, Edward 
L. 'Public Relations,' in Edward L. Bernays (ed.), 
Careers for Men. (Garden City Publishing Co., Inc., 
New York, 1939)." p. 573. 

Phelps, George Harrison. Tomorrow's Advertisers. 

N. Y. and London: Harper and Brothers, 1929. 

256pp. 

"In his recent book, Propaganda, Edward L. Ber 
nays makes this significant statement: 'Mass pro 
duction is only profitable if its rhythm can be main 
tained that is, if it can continue to sell its product 
in steady or increasing quantity.' " The author com 
ments, "In a sense that is what advertising is all 
about." p. 183. 
Pigors, Paul. "Leadership or Domination." N. Y. 

and Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1935. 

354pp. 

Footnote reference to ELB's book, Propaganda, p. 
253. 
Poole, Ernest. The Bridge. N. Y: The Macmillan 

Company, 1940. 422pp. 

"Under the guidance of Edward Bernays, one of the 
ablest and most devoted younger workers on our 
staff [Committee on Public Information], from our 
articles they [exporters] printed inserts in their ex 
port journals and catalogues and in thousands of 
business letters sent to foreign lands each week." 
p. 335. 
Porter, Philip W., and Luxon, Norval Neil. The 

Reporter and the News. N. Y. and London: D. 

Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 1935. 560pp. 
"Those who are seriously interested in publicity as a 
profession can find adequate material for study in 
the works of Edward L. Bernays, Ivy Lee and other 
leaders . . ." p. 499; ELB's books Crystallizing 
Public Opinion, and Propaganda, are listed in the 
Bibliography under "Assigned Readings." p. 505. 

Pringle, Henry F. Big Frogs. N. Y: The Vanguard 

Press, 1928. 276pp. 

"Like so many other big New Yorkers, he (Bernarr 
MacFadden) has recently engaged a press agent. 
Having first considered engaging Ivy Lee, he later 
turned to Edward L. Bernays, only slightly less re 
nowned in the public relations field. Mr. Bernays 
has already pulled one big stunt, that of persuading 



the amiable Mayor Walker to receive his client at 
City Hall. This historic event was duly described in 
a full page in the Graphic while even the other New 
York dailies carried a paragraph or two about it. A 
similar feature printed at approximately the same 
time told of a dinner given the physical culturist by 
members of Parliament on the occasion of a visit to 
London." p. 132. 

Quiett, Glenn C., and Casey, Ralph D. "Prin 
ciples of Publicity." N. Y. and London: D. Ap- 
pleton Company, Inc., 1926. 420pp. 
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz 
ing Public Opinion, p. 399, and Propaganda, p. 409. 

Radvanyi, Laszlo, ed. "International Directory of 
Opinion and Attitude Research." Mexico: The 
Social Sciences Publishers, 1948. 292pp. 
The entry on ELB says: "Professional Activities'. 
Lecturer, pub. opin., Univs. of Princeton, Columbia, 
Harvard, Yale, Stanford; member, Pres. Hoover's 
Emergency Com. for Employment, 1930-31; New 
York State Com. on Discrimination in Employment, 
1942; co-chmn., Victory Book Campaign, 1943; 
chmn. U. S. Treasury Natl. Publicity Advisory Com., 
Third War Loan; Natl. Publ. Relations Com., 
American Red Cross. 

"Fields of Interest and Research: Pub. relations. 
Major Surveys or Research Projects Directed: Labor- 
management relations; race relations; internatl. as 
pects of pub. opinion. 

"Author: Crystallizing Public Opinion, Liveright 
Pub. Corp., 1923; An Outline of Careers, Geo. H. 
Doran Co., 1927; Propaganda, Liveright Pub. Corp., 
1928; Speak Up for Democracy, Viking Press, 1945; 
Monograph on Public Relations, Bellman Pub. Co., 
1945 ; Article for Current Controversy on Need for a 
Secretary of Public Relations in Cabinet, 1935; 
Higher Education, a Public Relations Problem, 
Amer. College Publicity Assn., June 1935; Recent 
Trends in Public Relations Activities, Pub. Opin. 
Quart., Dec. 1936; Public Relations First in the 
Order of Business, Bus. Week, 1937; Public Educa 
tion for Democracy, Amer. Mercury, 1938; War 
Against Words, Infantry Journal, 1940; Preview of 
American Public Opinion, Amer. Mercury Survey, 
1944; Postwar Responsibility of the American Press, 
Journ. Quart., 1944." p. 23. 

Raushenbush, Winifred. How to Dress in War 
time. N. Y: Coward: McCann, Inc., 1942. 198pp. 
"Mr. Edward L. Bernays, the well-known public 
relations counselor, believes that during the second 
year of the war functional clothes will be stressed. 
He predicts that during 1944 the designers and the 
stores will be interested in dressing the new wartime 
elite represented by officers' wives, and that this 
trend will affect fashions generally. This prediction 
is very astute." pp. 155-156. 

Ray, Marie Beynon. Two Lifetime in One. Indianap 
olis and N. Y: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
1938. 311pp. 

This book about abundant energy closes with a final 
chapter, "Strong Men and Lovely Women," based 



67 

on interviews. ELB is described in this chapter as "a 
man who's continued to be increasingly successful 
all through the Depression." He is quoted as saying: 
"I will work very hard and at the end of the day 
I'd like to start another day at once. ... I don't 
think I've ever in my life been bored." p. 301. 

Reed, Anna Y. Guidance and Personnel Services in 
Education. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 
1944. 496pp. 

"The first edition of An Outline of Careers, edited by 
Edward L. Bernays, is a good example of a collection 
of carefully prepared monographs for the use of 
mature students." p. 91. 

Reck, W. Emerson. Public Relations: A Program 
for Colleges and Universities. N. Y. and London: 
Harper and Brothers, 1946. 286pp. 
"Edward L. Bernays, one of the nation's leaders in 
the field," quoted on the "fundamental characteris 
tics essential for the public relations counsel," p. 23, 
and on the importance of analysis before interpreta 
tion in the college field, pp. 41, 42. 

Reuter, E. B., and Hart, C. W. Introduction to 
Sociology. N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., 1933. 548pp. 
Bibliographical Reference: "Bernays, E. L. 'Manipu 
lating Public Opinion: The Why and the How,' 
American Journal of Sociology, 33. (1927-1928), 
958-971." p. 435. 

Richmond, Arthur, ed. Modern Quotations for 
Ready Reference. N. Y: Dover Publications, 
Inc., 1947. 507pp. 

This book contains six quotations from the writings 
of ELB. Under Advertising: "Once a searching study 
of public attitudes has been made, and the program 
coordinated with these attitudes, many channels 
that reach the public will be found," p. 2; under 
Government: "For the capitalist system to be main 
tained, it is important that the public and the private 
interest be closely interrelated," p. 89; under In 
dustry and Business: "Business must tell what its 
services to the public are, how its product is manu 
factured and distributed, the labor and the expense 
involved in manufacturing and servicing; it must 
make clear how prices are determined, and why a 
certain price is just," p. 107; under Propaganda: 
"Propagandists have existed ever since Eve per 
suaded Adam to eat the first apple, and they will 
exist as long as one person attempts to convince 
another of anything." Also: "The conscientious 
propagandist and there are many such will 
have nothing to do with a product or a cause that is 
socially vicious." Also: "It is my belief that propa 
ganda serves a useful purpose. It increases general 
knowledge. It tends to keep open an arena in public 
life in which the battle of truth may be fairly fought," 
p. 201. Also: "The difficulty propagandists have in 
pleading any cause is that they must deal in facts, 
not only as they are abstractly, but as they appear 
to be to individuals or groups who react emotionally," 
p. 201; under War: "In the next war, words will be 
as important as bullets." p. 280. 



68 



Riegel, O. W. Mobilizing for Chaos. New Haven : 

Yale University Press, 1934. 231pp. 
"The field of national propaganda has attracted 
professional American publicity men. Edward L. 
Bernays looked after the public relations of Lat 
via . . ." p. 206. This is an error; it should be 
"Lithuania." 

Riesman, David. A Yearbook of the Graduate School 
of Public Administration, Harvard University. 
Cambridge: Graduate School of Public Ad 
ministration, 1942. 275pp. 

In the chapter "Civil Liberties in a Period of Transi 
tion," footnote reference to "Edward L. Bernays, 
Crystallizing Public Opinion (new ed., 1934), . . . 
and Propaganda (1928)." p. 82. 
Ringel, Fred J., ed. "America as Americans See It." 
N. Y: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1932. 
365pp. 

This symposium, with chapters by Stuart Chase, 
Robert E. Sherwood, Clifton Fadiman, Bruce Bliven, 
Clare Booth and others, contains a section on 
"Women: Types and Movements," by Doris E. 
Fleischman, wife of ELB. Miss Fleischman is intro 
duced by ELB, in a prefatory note, as follows: 

"The census of the United States shows that 49% 
of the population are of the feminine sex. And yet 
women still seem to be the perennial novelty that 
they have always been. Their place and evaluation 
in the scheme of American things have been much 
neglected. 

"And I know, for when I have tried to base a 
propaganda campaign directed to them on facts 
about them, it has been the very dickens of a search 
to find these facts. 

"For facts, like truths, are usually hidden away 
and need digging. And after they have been dug up, 
they need interpretation and interpretation and 
interpretation. 

"This, Miss Fleischman, over the last decade, has 
done, as have few other Americans men or women 

both as a contributor to national magazines on 
the subject, as editor of a book, 'An Outline of 
Careers for Women,' and as a hard working counsel 
for public relations. 

"I commend her not only as a wife and mother 

but also as a writer and as an interpreter of 
American womanhood." p. 105. 

Robinson, Thomas H., ed. and others. "Men, 
Groups and the Community: A Survey in the 
Social Sciences." N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 1940. 
965pp. 

Footnote reference to ELB's book Propaganda. 

Rogers, Charles Elkins. Journalistic Vocations. 

N. Y. and London: D. Appleton Co., Inc., 1931. 

354pp. 

"Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays, prominent in this 
field, have published books which undertake to ex 
plain and defend their occupation. . . . Mr. Ber 
nays has been characterized as counsel of public 
relations to governments, industries, corporations, 
and trade organizations." Footnote reference to 
"Edward L. Bernays' Propaganda." p. 227. 



Roosevelt, Eleanor. // You Ask Me. N. Y: 

D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 1946. 156pp. 
Mrs. Roosevelt answers two questions proposed by 
ELB No, to whether or not she feels there should 
be a Secretary of Public Relations in the Cabinet, 
pp. 21, 22; Yes, on the need of a peacetime agency in 
the U. S. comparable to the OWL 
Rorty, James. Our Master's Voice Advertising. 

N. Y: The John Day Company, 1934. 394pp. 
"The majority of successful propaganda practice, 
whether by commercial 'public relations counsel 
lors' like Edward Bernays or Ivy Lee or by radical 
propagandists, is overt; the name of the propagandist 
or the company or organization he represents is 
typed or printed at the top of his release." p. 171. 

Ross, Ishbel. Ladies of the Press. N. Y. and London : 

Harper and Brothers, 1946. 622pp. 
". . . All these stories helped the status of the 
women reporters in New York. In 1915 the Tribune 
girls were brought downstairs to the city room. 
Women's news had now officially become part of the 
general schedule. Bessie Breuer was the last person 
to shepherd the flock as a separate body. One of her 
understudies was Doris E. Fleischman, who now 
functions as a public relations counsel with her hus 
band, Edward L. Bernays. She was graduated from 
Barnard in 1913, worked for the Tribune for two 
years, and later became associated with Mr. Bernays. 
Soon after this women ceased to be a novelty in the 
city room of the Tribune . . ." p. 125. 
Roucek, Joseph, ed. "20th Century Political 

Thought." N. Y: Philosophical Library, 1946. 

657pp. 

Footnote reference: "E. L. Bernays, 'The Revolution 
in Publicity,' Saturday Review of Literature, XXIV 
(November 1, 1941), pp. 3ff." p. 379. 
, and Associates. Social Control. N. Y: 

D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1947. 584pp. 
Footnote reference: "An earlier recognition of the 
contention of this section is E. L. Bernays' 'Manipu 
lating Public Opinion,' American Journal of So 
ciology, XXXIII, (May, 1928), 958-971." p. 409. 

Rugg, Harold. An Introduction to Problems of 
American Culture. Boston: Ginn and Company, 
1931. 616pp. 

A quotation from Contact showing how five New York 
newspapers published five different versions of what 
happened when Alexander Kerensky was attacked 
in a New York theatre. Footnote reference: "From 
Contact No. 17, published by Edward L. Bernays, 
Public Relations Counsel, New York City." p. 5. 

Routzahn, Evart G. and Routzahn, Mary 
Swain, See Addenda, Item 17. 

Sargent, Porter. Dangerous Trends: How Under 
currents Economic and Political Affect Education. 
Boston: Porter Sargent, 1948. 190pp. 
A second title page reads: "A Handbook of Private 
Schools for American Boys and Girls: An Annual 
Survey: Thirty-First Edition." A section is devoted 
to Public Relations. "The professional tone was 
given to the calling of publicity agent by E. L. 



Bernays and his wife, Doris Fleischman, who in 
vented the term 'public relations counsel' in their 
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, 1923. The public 
was no longer to be fooled or merely informed, it 
was to be understood. Bernays, an intellectual and 
a nephew of Sigmund Freud, recognized the need for 
psychological and sociological knowledge. (Goldman, 
pp. 13-19). "p. 170. There is a summary of the March 
1947 issue of The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science. Under the heading 
"The Successful Leader," Sargent says: "The cli 
max of the symposium in The Annals was left to 
E. L. Bernays, introduced in an editorial note as 
the leading exponent of the public relations profes 
sion. 'In that capacity he has served governments, 
trade associations, and profit and non-profit organ 
izations.' He has the brains and techniques to bring 
the American people or any section of them to be 
lieve anything that the budget will permit. The po 
lite way to put this is to speak of 'The Engineering of 
Consent,' which is his title," p. 173. This is followed 
by a summary of ELB's paper "The Engineering of 
Consent." pp. 173-174. 

Getting Us into the War. Boston: Porter 

Sargent, 1941. 640pp. 

In chapter notes, the author says: "The most effec 
tive propaganda is that 'of the deed, not that of the 
word,' and 'when events do not serve their purpose 
they (propagandists) create them. Many of the news 
events about which we read are deliberately staged 
by the governments in the interests of propaganda,' 
E. L. Bernays, the highest paid propagandist ('pub 
lic relations counsel') in this country, pointed out to 
the Guardian Midwinter Conference on 'Propaganda.' 
('What Makes Lives,' p. 189)." p. 135. 

War and Education. Boston: Porter 

Sargent, 1943. 506pp. 

"The 'Psychological Barriers in Health Education' 
which have long prevented the desired result that 
'Everyone Should Receive Adequate Health Edu 
cation' were exhaustively reported on by Edward L. 
Bernays, Public Relations Counsel, for the New York 
Academy of Medicine, at its Annual Health Educa 
tion Conference in New York City, Nov. 18, 1941. 
(Vital Speeches, Jan 1, 1942.)" p. 309. A long quota 
tion from this report by ELB in which he recom 
mends that "a national council on public health 
should be formed by all health education groups for 
the exchange of ideas and methods, for orientation of 
aims, goals, themes and values," p. 310. Chapter 
footnote: "E. L. Bernays, the highest paid propa 
gandist (public relations counsel) in this country, 
pointed out to the Harvard Guardian Midwinter 
Conference on Propaganda early in 1940 that the 
most effective propaganda is that 'of the deed, not 
that of the word,' and 'when events do not serve 
their purpose they (propagandists) create them. 
Many of the news events which we read are de 
liberately staged by the governments in the interest 
of propaganda.' " p. 359. A chapter footnote quotes 
at length from "The Revolution in Publicity," by 
ELB, Saturday Review, Nov. 1941. p. 425. 



69 

Sargent, S. Stansfeld. "Social Psychology: An 
Integrative Interpretation." N. Y: The Ronald 
Press Company, 1950. 519pp. 

In this chapter on "Propaganda," the author says: 
"Many are the stories about our two most noted 
public relations counsels, Ivy Lee and Edward L. 
Bernays. . . . Bernays showed even more ability 
(than Lee) in the art of mass persuasion. One of his 
early achievements was to make possible the produc 
tion of Brieux's DamagedGoods, a play about syphilis, 
by organizing a number of prominent persons into a 
'Sociological Fund' which backed the production and 
gave it an aura of respectability. Later, he showed 
his inventiveness by publicizing the products of 
Procter & Gamble (Ivory Soap) in a national soap 
sculpture contest, and by organizing the Golden 
Jubilee of electric light on behalf of General Electric 
and Westinghouse. Bernays helped to explain and in 
terpret the newer trends in publicity work, and in his 
book Crystallizing Public Opinion, published in 1923, 
he coined the term 'public relations counsel.' " p. 360. 
Savidge, Anne Lane, and Horn, Gunnar. "Hand 
book for High School Journalism." Boston: D. C. 
Heath and Company, 1944. 133pp. 
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz 
ing Public Opinion and Propaganda, p. 63. 
Seldes, George. Freedom of the Press. Garden City: 
Garden City Publishing Company, 1937. 380pp. 
"The late Mr. [Ivy] Lee's leading competitors are 
Edward L. Bernays, who is credited with getting an 
Edison electric light bulb on a postage stamp, 
and . . ." p. 136. 

Lords of the Press. N. Y: Julian Messner, 

Inc., 1938. 408pp. 

A quotation from Dr. T. V. Smith, "professor of 
philosophy of the University of Chicago, practical 
politician . . . and author of many books," defining 
"plutogogue." According to Smith, "plutogogue is 
the voice of the wealthy when they can no longer 
speak for themselves. . . . He is not Allah, but 
Allah's public relations counsel. You will hear his 
soft-spoken message in the columns of our sophisti 
cated Walter Lippmanns and our unctuous Glenn 
Franks. You will see or gently feel his gloved hand 
in the eulogistic releases of our late Ivy Lees and our 
ever-present Edward Bernays," p. 304. "The pluto 
gogue of plutogogues is Edward L. Bernays who 
usually hires himself for the better causes, the demo 
cratic nations. But he is also the best defender of our 
business civilization." p. 312-313. 
Seldes, Gilbert. Proclaim Liberty. N. Y: The Grey- 
stone Press, 1942. 202pp. 

"Propaganda must be independent. . . . Mr. Gorham 
Munson, preceded by Mr. Edward L. Bernays in 
1928, has proposed a Secretary for Propaganda in 
the Cabinet, which would make the direct line of 
authority from the Executive to the administrators 
of policy, without interference." p. 65. 
Smith, Bruce Lannes; Las well, Harold D; and 
Casey, Ralph D., eds. Propaganda, Communi 
cation and Public Opinion. Princeton : Princeton 
University Press, 1946. 435pp. 



70 



The long annotated bibliography lists the following 
works by Edward L. Bernays: Crystallizing Public 
Opinion: "A U. S. public relations counsel's early 
formulation of the techniques of his calling, with 
some attention to its social consequences," p. 129; 
"Recent Trends in Public Relations Activities (of 
large corporations and trade associations)" Public 
Opinion Quarterly, Vol. I, No. I: 147-51, January 
1937: "by a U. S. public relations counsel," p. 193; 
Speak Up for Democracy: What You Can Do A 
Practical Plan for Action for Every American Citizen: 
N. Y., Viking Press, 1940: "Noted public relations 
counsel urges all U. S. citizens to 'speak up for de 
mocracy' through every available channel of commu 
nication. He outlines 'twenty common charges 
against democracy' and answers them. He maps out 
a complete public relations program, utilizing the 
'group leadership approach' and a multitude of chan 
nels such as holiday celebrations, press conferences, 
direct mail, forums, radio, movies, youth groups. 
Symbols involved include celebrated American docu 
ments (emphasis on the Bill of Rights), patriotic cer 
emonies, birthdays of famous Americans, and lists of 
appeals to special interest groups. Includes extensive 
bibliography on democratic practice, dictatorships, 
U. S. customs, leadership techniques and public 
opinion," p. 227. Bibliographical reference to a book 
let by ELB and Doris E. Fleischman: Universities: 
Pathfinders in Public Opinion: The Authors, 1937. 
"Lists 'Courses in Public Relations, Public Opin 
ion, and Related Subjects Offered by American 
Universities.' " p. 297. Bibliographical reference to 
ELB in connection with Public Policy, Yearbook 
of the Graduate School of Public Administration of 
Harvard University, 1942, Vol. 3: "Edward L. 
Bernays . . . presents a hortative discourse on 'The 
Integration of Morale'." p. 150. 

Smith, Charles W. t jr. Public Opinion in a De 
mocracy. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939. 598pp. 
"E. L. Bernays describes public opinion as 'an ill- 
defined . . . and changeable group of individual 
judgments,' the 'aggregate result of individual 
opinions' of the people who make up a society," 
p. 16. Footnote reference to ELB's book Crystallizing 
Public Opinion, p. 16. "In 1938, when public and 
congressional criticism of radio reached a point 
where it seemed likely to lead to governmental in 
vestigation and perhaps to new tax or regulatory 
measures, the National Broadcasting Company hired 
Edward L. Bernays, one of the ablest publicity men 
in the country, as public relations consultant." p. 116. 
Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz 
ing Public Opinion, p. 567 and Propaganda, p. 569. 

Sobel, Bernard, ed. The Theatre Handbook. N. Y: 

Crown Publishers, 1940. 900pp. 
"At the time of the Great War, with the development 
of modern business methods, press agentry attained 
dignity and became one of the first national forces. 
But the term was straightway changed; leaders like 
Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee calling themselves 
publicity directors, propagandists and counsellors 
in public relations." p. 632. 



Starch, Daniel; Stanton, Hazel M; Roerth, 
Wilhelmina. Controlling Human Behavior. 
N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 1937. 638pp. 
Under the title, "What is Propaganda?", among 
comments by Walter Lippmann, Calvin Coolidge and 
Frederick E. Lumley on "good and bad propaganda," 
a formal definition by "E. L. Bernays, the publicist" 
is presented: "Modern propaganda is a consistent, 
enduring policy of creating or shaping events to in 
fluence the relations of the public to a given enter 
prise." p. 559. 

Stewart, Donald Ogden, ed. Fighting Words. N. Y: 

Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1940. 168pp. 
On the half-title, from a speech by ELB: "In the 
next war, words will be as important as bullets." 

Stout, Rex. The Silent Speaker. N. Y: The Viking 

Press, 1946. 308pp. 

In a Nero Wolfe novel, an incident provokes the 
comment, ". . . Who you want is not Nero Wolfe, 
but Russell Birdwell or Eddie Bernays . . ." p. 82. 

Strong, Edward K., Jr. "Psychological Aspects of 
Business." N. Y. and London: McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., 1938. 629pp. 
Footnote reference: "Flynn, J. T., 'Edward L. Ber 
nays,' Atlantic Monthly, 193,2, Vol. 149, 567-568." 
p. 271. 

Summers, Robert E., ed. Federal Information Con 
trols in Peacetime. The Reference Shelf, Vol. 20, 
No. 6. N. Y: The H. W. Wilson Company, 
1949. 301pp. 

Inaccurate bibliographical reference: "Bernays, Ed 
ward L. Safeguarding Civil Liberties Today." Ithaca, 
New York: Cornell University Press, 1945, referring 
to the Edward L. Bernays Lectures published under 
this title, p. 291. 

Sutherland, Robert L., and Woodward, Julian L. 

Introductory Sociology. Philadelphia, N. Y: 

J. B. Lippincott, 1940. 863pp. 

Footnote: "The studies of Harwood L. Childs, L. W. 
Doob, E. L. Bernays, B. L. Pierce, R. Ponsonby, 
and J. D. Squires, all add further information to 
show that accurate evidence on controversial issues is 
seldom available to a public." p. 340. 

Tebbel, John. An American Dynasty. Garden City: 

Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1947. 363pp. 
Quotation from a speech delivered by "Edward L. 
Bernays, the public relations counsel" before the 
National Newspaper Promotion Association in 1944, 
and reprinted in the Journalism Quarterly, point 
ing out the "great gap between the platform of the 
newspapers and public acceptance of them" and 
advocating remedial public relations techniques; the 
"overwhelming response" to the printed version is 
noted, including that of those few "who scoffed at 
the whole business." p. 337. 

Thompson, Dorothy. / Saw Hitler. N. Y: Farrar 

and Rinehart, 1932. 36pp. 

". . . But if you want to gauge the strength of the 
Hitler movement, imagine that in America, an orator 
with the tongue of the late Mr. Bryan and the his- 



71 



trionic powers of Aimee MacPherson, combined with 
the publicity gifts of Edward Bernays and Ivy Lee 
should manage . . ." pp. 34-35. 

Thurber, James. The Thurber Carnival. N. Y: Har 
per & Brothers, 1945. 305pp. 

This anthology of Thurber's writings contains 
the story Something to Say, which first appeared in 
The Middle- Aged Man on the Flying Trapeze. The 
story includes the following passage: "Somehow or 
other we kept him out of trouble until the night of 
the sailing, when we gave a going-away party for 
him at Marvin Deane's house. Everybody was there: 
Gene Tunney, Sir Hubert Wilkins, Count von Luck- 
ner, Edward Bernays, and the literary and artistic 
crowd generally." p. 95. 

Vaughan, Wayland F. Social Psychology. N. Y: The 

Odyssey Press, 1948. 956pp. 

A discussion, with examples from his handling of spe 
cific projects, of the work of ELB, who "conceives of 
his profession as 'the conscious and intelligent ma 
nipulation of the organized habits and opinions of 
the masses'." "Through his expert control over the 
'mass mind,' the public relations counselor is said to 
function as 'the invisible government,' and ELB is 
said to act 'as an adviser to his client.' . . . Unlike 
Reichenbach, who did not want to see the article 
he was to publicize for fear he would be disillusioned, 
Bernays insists on knowing what it is he is pushing 
and he will not commit himself to its promotion 
until he is convinced of its value. He will not feature 
a product he believes to be fraudulent or a cause he 
believes to be antisocial. Bernays says that the chief 
assets of the public relations counsel are honesty 
and candor. Maybe so, but Bernays' crowning 
achievement, the handling of Light's Golden Jubi 
lee, the fiftieth anniversary of Edison's discovery of 
the electric light, was put over in a very subtle fash 
ion . . ." This is followed by quotations from arti 
cles by "W. W. Parrish, in the Literary Digest, 
June 2, 1934"; by "J. T. Flynn: 'Edward L. Ber 
nays. 1 The Atlantic Monthly, May, 1932"; and by 
"J. R. Dill: 'Unhappy Days for the Brewer." Chris 
tian Century, June 30, 1937." pp. 374-78. 

Viereck, George Sylvester. Spreading Germs of 

Hate. N. Y: Horace Liveright, 1930. 327pp. 
In this work, with a foreword by Colonel Edward M. 
House, ELB is referred to as "a distinguished expert 
on propaganda"; his definition as to the difference 
between propaganda and education is given, p. 10. 

Walker, S. H., and Sklar, Paul. Business Finds Its 
Voice: Management's Effort to Sell the Business 
Idea to the Public. N. Y. and London: Harper 
and Brothers, 1938. 93pp. 

"They (the National Electric Light Association) 
could study the work of public relations counsels 
like Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays, recalling that 
it was Lee, more than anybody else, who had 
transformed John D. Rockefeller in the public mind 
from a symbol of greed to a symbol of aged benevo 
lence, and that Bernays and his colleagues had in 
vented many ingenious ways of publicizing men, 



products and corporations (as for instance when 
Bernays staged a 'Green Ball' to popularize the 
color green, in the expectation of creating a demand 
for Lucky Strikes)," p. 14; "Of the independent 
counsel, the best-known are perhaps Edward L. 
Bernays, Carl Byoir, Bernard Lichtenberg and T. J. 
Ross of the famous firm of Ivy Lee and T. J. Ross. 
These firms advise more than one client . . . and 
they draw considerable fees. For instance, according 
to reports filed with the S.E.C. . . . Allied Chemical 
& Dye paid Bernays $25,185; and the American 
Tobacco Company paid Lee and Ross $23,096 and 
Bernays $24,000 ... p. 26. "Bernays, like the 
others, knows that it is better to implant an idea in a 
group leader's mind and let him spread it than to 
write up an idea and send it to the papers as a re 
lease, in the old-fashioned way; because what an 
independent big-wig says is news. He has developed 
the technique further than anybody else. Here, for 
example, is a recent example of his shrewd use of 
group leaders. In 1934, Philco, a client of Bernays' 
at the time, was developing for its radios what it 
called 'high fidelity reception.' No public announce 
ment was made. Instead, Bernays had letters sent 
to a list of well-known music critics asking what 
they thought of radio reception. Then he per 
suaded Pitts Sanborn to edit and issue under his own 
name a 'symposium' of opinions on radio reception 
wherein the answers to Bernays' letters appeared, 
making the point that reception was generally bad. 
Names make news; the 'symposium' got a great deal 
of reception in the press. When it had been well 
publicized Philco was ready to announce 'high fidel 
ity reception,' and to hold an exhibit celebrating 
it as the answer to the currently poor reception. 
At the same time, still under Bernays' supervision, 
Philco set up an organization called the Radio Insti 
tute of the Audible Arts, which Pitts Sanborn was 
persuaded to head. The Institute began to issue 
booklets and surveys on good reception, children's 
programs, etc; these were sent to schools, clubs and 
the like, where they were well received because each 
one was written by an authority. Philco's name ap 
peared only briefly as the founder of the Institute. 
Thus Philco and 'quality radio' associated them 
selves firmly in the public mind." p. 26-27. 

Walker, Stanley. City Editor. N. Y: Frederick A. 

Stokes Co., 1934. 336pp. 

"Press agents, in their multifarious wigs and masks, 
sometimes seem almost as necessary to the modern 
newspaper as a posse of reporters. . . . Members of 
this strange profession range from the frightened, 
somewhat ratty Broadway hanger-on, who hopes to 
pick up a few dollars for whistling up any fly-by- 
night enterprise, to such elegant and philosophical 
practitioners as Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays, 
who represent large interests and movements di 
rected at what is known as the Mass Mind, and who 
have brains," p. 134. "Many newspapermen, view 
ing the careers of such men as Bernays, Lee, Hanne- 
gan and many others, are inclined to be envious," 
p. 138. "If the young publicist attaches himself to 



72 



the right interests, and studies the methods not only 
of Bernays and Lee but of lesser masters as well, 
he may go far," p. 143. "It has been the custom 
to hold up Ivy Lee as the greatest example of what 
a newspaperman may do when he enters upon pub 
licity work . . . but it is probable that Bernays 
is the more important as an American phenomenon. 
He is more of a psychologist, or psychoanalyst, than 
Lee. That Daniel Boone of the canebrakes of the 
libido, Dr. Sigmund Freud, is his uncle. Bernays 
has taken the sideshow barker and given him a 
philosophy and a new and awesome language: 'con 
ditioned reflexes,' 'the creation of events and circum 
stances," 'dramatic high-spotting,' and 'continuous 
interpretations.' He is no primitive drum beater. 
He has written books and lectured at New York 
University on the methods and underlying psycho 
logical principles of his high art. He is devoid of 
swank and does not visit newspaper offices, ..." 
p. 143. "The record of Mr. Bernays is full of exam 
ples of showmanship which could not be ignored by 
the newspapers. There was, for example, Light's 
Golden Jubilee. The story of Edison's invention was 
retold. To Dearborn went Edison, Henry Ford and 
even the President of the United States, as well as a 
great crowd of other important figures. It was not 
Mr. Ford's show, or Edison's, or even the President's. 
It was simply a publicity stunt pulled off by Ber 
nays, representing powerful and rich interests, to 
exploit the uses of electric light. Newspaper editors 
who understood this may have felt sad, but what 
could they do about it with the President making 
a speech and all those important persons there?", p. 
144. "Again, Mr. Bernays was employed by Procter 
and Gamble, makers of Ivory Soap. He popularized 
the nation-wide contests for the best examples of 
soap sculpture. It is really startling what anyone 
with a bent for sculpture can do with a little soap. 
For the first few years he gained enormous publicity, 
and then the publishers asked abruptly, 'What the 
hell?' and now the publicity is much less," pp. 
144-145. "Bernays must receive credit, or blame, for 
an important shift in the methods used by the larger 
advertising agencies. ... A few years ago adver 
tising agencies devoted their attention to straight 
advertising. . . . Now they have added research 
workers (which may be a good thing) and great 
numbers of thinkers, behaviorists, trend-observers, 
experts with chart and graph, child trainers, students 
of sleep and what not," pp. 145-146. "The Great 
Man racket, which consists of the inflation and label 
ling of enormous stuffed shirts, is always with us. 
. . . Bernays defends it on its higher levels on the 
ground that the public is entitled to know the sort 
of man, his background and personality, who is the 
brains of an industry which furnishes the public 
with its goods," p. 150. "It would do no harm for 
newspapers to point out that a light jubilee is a 
Bernays project," p. 151. 

Wallis, Wilson D., and Wallis, Grace Allen. "0r 
Social World." N. Y. and London: McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, 1940. 402pp. 



ELB's book Propaganda listed among "Readings." 
p. 148. 

, and Willey, Malcolm M. "Readings in 

Sociology." N. Y: F. S. Crofts and Company, 
1930. 639pp. 

ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion listed 

among "Readings." p. 365. 

Washburn, Charles. Press Agentry. N. Y: Na 
tional Library Press, 1937. 153pp. 
Chapter VIII, "Molding the Mass Mind ; Edward 
L. Bernays," is devoted entirely to ELB. One section 
deals with the inevitable rise of the public relations 
counsel, pp. 92-95. A brief biographical sketch of ELB, 
"Bernays is definitely a counsel on public relations, 
molding the mass mind. He is as good as they come," 
p. 95. Reference to Light's Golden Jubilee, p. 95. 
"Today, at the height of his powers, he serves as 
adviser to great corporations and to individuals of 
both national and world eminence in the dual task 
of interpreting the public to them, and them to the 
public," p. 95. History, analysis and summary 
of article by ELB, "How to Restore Confidence 
in Business and Finance," Economic Forum, Winter 
Issue, 1935. Main ideas: Business must sell the 
whole idea of business to the public; business must 
continuously and cumulatively explain its func 
tion to the public; the value of symbols must be 
stressed; the public must be pleased, not damned; 
leadership today rests on an ability to understand, 
interpret and utilize symbols; symbols are the 
short cut to understanding and action; it is not a 
problem today of getting pieces into the papers; it 
is a question of selling an idea that business and 
finance are essential parts of our system, pp. 96-98. 
"There you have some pretty sane stuff," the author 
comments, p. 98. Extensive quotations from "Pre 
senting American Business," by ELB, Today, March 
28, 1936: "Bernays sums it all up beautifully and 
in plain language. He is quite right when he declares 
that 'present-day business sails little-known waters 
studded with the bars and shoals of adverse public 
opinion.' It is small wonder, then, that the captains 
of industry need advice from a pilot the public 
relations counsel," p. 104. "Bernays has further 
contributed to the study of public opinion in an 
article, 'Molding Public Opinion,' which should be 
read by every man desirous of following a career 
that will shape the destinies of men and their move 
ments. He says: 'Once a searching study of public 
attitudes has been made, many channels that reach 
the public will be found.' " 

Who Knows and What Among Authorities 
Experts and the Specially Informed. 

Chicago: The A. N. Marquis Company. 1949, 

796pp. 

Entry 716-24 says: "Bernays, Edward L. Public 
relations and opinion; Propaganda, b '91. BS '12 
(Cornell U.). Author: Crystallizing Public Opinion 
'24, and others. Served with US Com on Public 
Information at Peace Conf '18-19; asst commr US 
Dept Commerce Paris Expn '25; counsel on pub 
relations in partnership with Doris E. Fleischman 



73 



since '10; U lecturer on pub relations. Nat Pub Rela 
tions Com. Bernays Building, 26 E. 64th St., NYC." 
p. 716. 

Who's Who in America. Chicago: The A. N. 
Marquis Company, Vol. 25, Fiftieth Anniver 
sary Edition, 1950-1951. 3347pp. 
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L. (ber-naz), 
public relations counsel; b. Vienna, Austria, Nov. 22, 
1891; s. Ely and Anna (Freud) B; Prep. edn. De 
Witt Clinton High Sch., New York; B.S., Cornell 
U., 1912; m. Doris E. Fleischman, Sept. 16, 1922; 
children Doris Fleischman, Anne Fleischman. 
Wrote for newspapers, N. Y. City, 1913-15; publicity 
mgr. Russian Ballet tour in U. S. for Met. Opera 
Co., 1915-16, of Caruso and other musical stars, 
1917-18; served with U. S. Comm. on Public Infor 
mation; at Peace Conference, Paris, 1918-19; re- 
employ ex-service men, U. S. War Dept., 1919; 
asst. commr. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Paris Expn., 
1925; counsel on public relations to Light's Golden 
Jubilee, 1929; counsel on public relations in partner 
ship with Doris E. Fleischman to government, indus 
tries, corps., and trade orgns. since 1919; lecturer on 
pub. relations, New York U., 1923; adjunt prof 
pub. relations, N. Y. Univ. 1949. Dir. Merritt, 
Chapman & Scott Mem. President Hoover's Emer 
gency Com. for Employment, 1930-31. Mem. N. Y. 
State Com. on Discrimination in Employment, 1942; 
mem. Nat. Pub. Relations Com., Am. Red Cross, 
since 1942; co-chairman Victory Book Campaign, 
1943; chmn. U. S. Treasury nat. publicity adv. com. 
3d War Loan. Awarded Office Pub. Instrn. (French), 
1926, King Christian Medal (Danish), 1946. Clubs: 
Century Country, Harmonic (New York). Author: 
Crystallizing Public Opinion, 1924; (with others) 
Broadway Anthology, 1917; Propaganda, 1928; 
Speak Up for Democracy, 1940; Take Your Place 
at the Peace Table, 1945; Public Relations, a Grow 
ing Profession, 1945 ; Editor of An Outline of Careers, 
1927; also contbr. to same. . . . Office: Bernays 
Building, 26 E. 64th Street, New York 21, N. Y." 
p. 211. 

ELB has been in every edition of Who's Who in 
America since 1926-1927. 

Who's Who in Commerce and Industry. Chi 
cago: The A. N. Marquis Company, Vol. 6, 
6th International Edition, 1948. 1552pp. 

Biographical sketch of "Bernays, Edward L., public 

relations counsel . . ." p. 156. 

Who's Who in the East. Chicago: The A. N. 

Marquis Company. Vol. II, 1948. 1824pp. 
Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L., public 
relations counsel . . ." p. 156. 

Who's Who in New York [City and State]. N. Y: 
Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1947. 
llth Edition. 1235pp. 

Biographical sketch: "Bernays, Edward L.: Public 

Relations Counsel; . . ." p. 81. 

Wilkerson, Marcus M. "Public Opinion and the 
Spanish- American War." Baton Rouge: Louisi 
ana State University Press, 1932. 141pp. 



Bibliographical references to ELB's books Crystalliz 
ing Public Opinion and Propaganda, p. 133. 

Willey, Malcolm M., and Rice, Stuart A. Com 
munication Agencies and Social Life. N. Y. and 
London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1933. 229pp. 

In this monograph, one of a series published under 
the direction of the President's Research Committee 
on Social Trends, acknowledgments are given in the 
preface to "Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations 
Counsel," among those in a long list, p. xii. ' 

Wilson, Francis Graham. "The Elements of Modern 
Politics: An Introduction to Political Science." 
N. Y: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936. 
716pp. 

Bibliographical reference under "Selected Readings" 
to ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion. 

"The American Political Mind" N. Y: 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. 506pp. 
In the chapter "The Republic and World Crisis," 
the author says: "With the emergence of superior 
forms of public administration, the continued devel 
opment of education, the production of goods for an 
abundant life, the growth of democracy in industry, 
and a greater reconciliation between liberty and 
equality, the future must belong to the democratic 
way of life." A footnote to this refers to ELB's book 
Speak Up for Democracy as a sample of "literature 
dealing with this problem." 

Wolseley, R. E. The Journalist's Bookshelf: An 
Annotated and Selected Bibliography of United 
States Journalism. Chicago: Quill and Scroll 
Foundation, 1946, 133pp. 

In the section "Propaganda," a bibliographical ref 
erence to ELB's book Propaganda. 

In the section "Public Opinion," a bibliographical 
reference to ELB's book Crystallizing Public Opinion. 

and Campbell, Laurence R. Exploring 

Journalism. N. Y: Prentice-Hall, 1946. 482pp. 
"Modern public-relations counsel, however . . . 
shun the crude and obvious methods of early press 
agents. They prefer to engineer an event like . . . 
Light's Golden Jubilee, commemorating the fiftieth 
anniversary of Thomas A. Edison's invention of the 
incandescent lamp. Publicity specialists realize that 
in the long run it doesn't pay to fool the public. 
They have discovered that they can serve society, 
as Edward L. Bernays declares, by 'crystallizing the 
obscure tendencies of the public mind before they 
have reached definite expression which makes them 
so valuable' ." p. 424. 

Woodward, W. E. "The Gift of Life." N. Y: E. P. 

Dutton and Company, Inc., 1947. 436pp. 
In this autobiography, the author records that he 
lunched "at the Coffee Club with Hendrik Van 
Loon" and met, among other well-known people, 
"Edward Bernays, the publicity man ... a nephew 
of Sigmund Freud, the most distinguished of psycho 
analysts." pp. 289, 290. 



Woolf, S. J. Here Am I. N. Y: Random House, 

1941. 374pp. 

"Most publicity men are incurable some of them 
are more or less dreamers like Carl Byoir; others, 
like Edward Bernays, engage the largest suite in the 
biggest hotel to give parties for a few of their intimate 
friends," p. 228. "When I arrived in Vienna, I tried 
to get in touch with Dr. Sigmund Freud. Through 
friends of his, I made efforts to meet him, but was 
unsuccessful. I even cabled Edith to go see Eddie 
Bernays, who is the doctor's nephew, and Bernays 
in turn cabled him. But even this was to no avail." 
p. 253. 

Wright, J. Ilandly, and Christian, Byron H. 

Public Relations in Management. N. Y: McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. 229pp. 
The magazine Fortune quoted: ". . . when Beech- 
Nut Packing Company, through Edward L. Ber 
nays, got doctors to come out for big breakfasts, 
knowing that the result would be more bacon sold 
. . . when society leaders, also through Bernays, 
came out with statements that a woman should take 
at least three dresses on the most informal weekend, 
and the luggage industry, as per plan, began to sell 
more bags . . . when President Hoover, Thomas 
Edison and Henry Ford, again under Bernays' guid 
ance, gathered at Dearborn to celebrate Light's 
Golden Jubilee, and the first lamp appeared on a 
commemorative postage stamp ..." p. 5. "In his 
book 'Propaganda,' published in 1928, Edward L. 
Bernays, public relations counsel, began with this 
statement: 'The conscious and intelligent manipula 
tion of the organized habits and opinions of the masses 
is an important element in democratic society. Those 
who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society 
constitute an invisible government that is the true 
ruling power of our country.' In view of Mr. Bernays' 
reputation as the founder of the science of modern 
public relations, the reader may be forced to assume 
that such 'conscious and intelligent manipulation* 
of the mass mind is the chief mission of the prac 
titioner. However, Mr. Bernays later offers in his 
book a much more agreeable concept when he states: 
'The counsel on public relations, after he has exam 
ined all these and other factors, endeavors to shape the 
actions of his client so that they will gain the interest, 
the approval and the acceptance of the public 1 ," p. 
30. "Edward L. Bernays divides the history of pub 
licity into four major periods. The first, 1900 to 1914, 
was the period of muckraking versus whitewash 
ing. . . . The second major period was during the 
First World War, 1914 to 1918, when publicity 
was used for the first time on a mass scale to 
sell war aims and ideals. The third major period, 
1919 to 1929, was marked by an era of rising price 
levels, new competition for the consumer's dollar, 
and a new appreciation of the consumer's interests. 
. . . Corporations appointed vice-presidents whose 
prime duties were to make friends for the company 
and to interest themselves in public affairs. The 
fourth period began in 1929. The stock-market crash, 
the advent of the New Deal, the awakening realiza 



tion that the interests of the whole nation were 
greater than those of any group, all served to em 
phasize, according to Mr. Bernays, the need for 
social consciousness and public responsibility. To 
continue Mr. Bernays' analysis, written in 1941, 
it might be said that the fifth period was marked by 
a return to the First World War methods of selling 
the public on war issues, but on a much larger pat 
tern . . ." pp. 38, 39. "A vigorous criticism of 
public opinion polls was registered recently by Ed 
ward L. Bernays, public relations counsel. In an 
article in Public Opinion Quarterly, Mr. Bernays 
said: 'Like vitamins and so many other good things, 
attitude polls have been adopted by America with 
its customary unthinking enthusiasm for new things. 
Polls are an enormously useful implement when 
honestly, efficiently and intelligently gathered and 
understood. On the other hand, they are potentially 
dangerous weapons in the hands of the unwise, the 
inept, the dishonest or the antisocial.' Mr. Bernays 
proposed as a solution that licenses should be re 
quired for the practice of polling, and, secondly, that 
educational activities, aimed at the public and their 
leaders, should be carried on to acquaint them with 
the significance of polls," p. 70. "It is probable that 
for some time public relations counsel and workers in 
the field must set their own standards of conduct. 
However, in fairness to his calling counsel should 
not accept a client whose standards do not measure 
up to his own, in the opinion of Edward L. Bernays, 
who writes: 'In law the judges and jury hold the de 
ciding balance of power. In public opinion the public 
relations counsel is judge and jury because through 
his pleading of a case the public is likely to accede 
to his opinion and judgment. Therefore, the public 
relations counsel must maintain an intense scrutiny 
of his actions, avoiding the propagation of unsocial 
or otherwise harmful movements or ideas. It is in 
the creating of public conscience that the counsel on 
public relations is destined to fulfill his highest 
usefulness to the society in which he lives.' " p. 221. 

Wright, Milton. How to Get Publicity. N. Y. and 
London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 
1935. 226pp. 

"The closest approach to a professional status is that 
reached by those publicity men who, individually or 
in partnership, maintain organizations where they 
serve numbers of clients in much the same way as a 
lawyer serves his clientele on the basis of an annual 
retaining fee. It is through this method that some 
of the outstanding figures in publicity men like 
Ivy Lee, Edward L. Bernays and John Price Jones 
have accomplished their results." pp. 210-211. 

, Public Relations for Business. N. Y: Whit- 
tlesey House, 1939. 346pp. 

"Along these lines, Edward L. Bernays, a leading 
specialist in public relations, says: 'A public relations 
program or policy must be integrated into the entire 
functioning of the industry. It cannot be lip worship 
to an idea. It cannot consist merely of releases from 
a mimeograph machine. It must be part and parcel 
of the thinking and action of the leaders in the 



75 



industry. And it may mean that such thinking and 
action must be decidedly changed in order to con 
form to public demand and public objectives. Ideas 
that are not generally accepted by the public can 
be made acceptable only if they can be shown to be of 
value to the public, and if their appeal can be related 
to acceptable fact, opinions or customs'." pp. 48, 49. 
Young, John Orr. "Adventures in Advertising." 
N. Y: Harper & Brothers, [1948, by Printers' 
Ink Publishing Company, Inc.], 1949, pp. 207. 
In a list of books on public relations, the author 
states: "Edward L. Bernays and his wife Doris 
Fleischman produced those interesting books Careers 
for Men and Careers for Women." p. 103. 
Young, Kimball. "Source Book for Social Psychol 
ogy" N. Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927. 844pp. 
"And Bernays illustrates from the case of Lithuania 
what can be done to arouse and to influence public 
opinion on a situation through the clever use of 
publicity and propaganda," p. 783. Under "Propa 
ganda," large sections of Lithuania's publicity cam 
paign are reprinted. 

"Social Psychology" N. Y: F. S. Crofts 

and Company, 1947. 578pp. 

ELB's book Propaganda is included among "sug 
gestions for further reading." p. 522. 

Zink, Harold. "Government and Politics in the 
United States." N. Y: The Macmillan Company, 
1946. 1006pp. 

Footnote reference to "Edward L. Bernays, Propa 
ganda, Liveright Publishing Corporation, New York, 
1928." p. 225. Selected Bibliography for Chapter 13, 
"The Role of Public Opinion," includes "Bernays, 
Edward L., Propaganda, Liveright Publishing Com 
pany, New York, 1928." p. 238. 

Profiles of 
EDWARD L. BERNAYS 

American Mercury. "Mass Psychologist." Vol. 

XIX, No. 74, Feb 1930. pp. 155-163. 
Profile of about 5,000 words relating highlights in 
the life and career of ELB. Henry F. Pringle, the 
author, begins, "It is significant that Edward L. 
Bernays, who has reduced the once jovial occupation 
of press agent to a science, who is f rater infacultate at 
New York University, and now labors 'in the spirit of 
the laboratory,' is a nephew of the renowned Dr. Sig- 
mund Freud. . . . Eddie knows a very great deal 
about psychology and cashes in on that knowledge. 
. . . Only poets delude themselves with the notion 
that love, that is to say sex, causes the world to re 
volve. Mr. Bernays, whose rank as public relations 
counsel is at least the equal of Ivy Ledbetter Lee's, 
knows that it is really money that furnishes the mo 
tive power. The mass psychologist, moreover, goes 
much further than the psychoanalyst who . . . can 
do no more than explain what has already taken 
place. Eddie can foretell the future . . . [with] no 
claims to crystal gazing. . . . His science, once 



understood, is really very simple. What he does is to 
create a demand by molding the public mind. He 
creates a desire for specified goods or ideas. The 
first task of the public relations counsel, however, is 
to see whether his client offers something which the 
public 'can be brought to accept.' It is sometimes 
wiser to refuse a fee. . . . [but] It is not often that 
mass psychology fails to find a solution. . . ." 
Quoting ELB's work, Propaganda, and using many 
illustrations of his activities as described in that 
book and other writings "... Only recently, Dr. 
Bernays won the undying gratitude of the luggage 
manufacturers. . . . Similarly with bacon. . . . Mr. 
Bernays . . . once guided the sales psychology of 
the Beechnut Packing Company. . . . October 28 
became the Czecho-Slovakian Fourth of July . . . 
all because Eddie Bernays so decreed. . . . Richard 
Bennett . . . was attempting to produce Brieux's 
celebrated play, 'Damaged Goods' . . . [also] the 
fight of the Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette and the 
Medical Review of Reviews [edited by ELB]. . . . 
Soon the Sociological Fund had endorsements galore 
and also some cash. . . . On a historic night in 
1913, 'Damaged Goods' opened. . . . His [ELB's] 
campaign for the production . . . was based on the 
soundest principles of mass psychology. Eddie used 
them knowingly . . . when the War Department 
employed him after the war. . . . The assistance of 
such organizations as the Fifth Avenue Association 
was enlisted. . . . By means of [the formula] Eddie 
Bernays has increased the use of Ivory Soap . . . 
has persuaded women to swathe themselves in 
velvets (Sidney Blumenthal Velvets) . . . [has 
counseled successfully] American Tobacco Company 
. . . Ward Baking Company . . . Cheney Silks 
. . . the Queensborough Corporation . . . Venida 
Hair Net Company . . . Procter & Gamble com 
pany [also for Crisco, as well as in organizing the 
National Small Sculptural Committee . . . giving 
$1,675 in prizes annually for the best sculpture exe 
cuted in Ivory Soap . . . with such famous artists 
as Gutzon Borglum, Lorado Taft, Harvey Wiley 
Corbett and Charles Dana Gibson ... on the jury 
of award. ...]... Until 1929, [when] Eddie Ber 
nays could hardly compete in professional standing 
with Ivy Lee. He had handled large accounts. His 
work had been, on the whole, satisfactory to his 
clients. . . . But Ivy . . . had the Rockefellers. 
. . . Then the Pioneer Associates . . . decided to 
stage a celebration to commemorate the fiftieth anni 
versary of the invention of the electric light. Henry 
Ford . . . also . . . Christened Light's Golden Ju 
bilee . . . President Hoover, with his whole entour 
age, paid tribute. . . . Ambassador Dawes, Charlie 
Schwab, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Will Hays, Pat 
Crowley ... in brief, many men who were typical 
Ivy Lee clients . . . did what Eddie Bernays told 
them to do ... [but] ... He modestly denies that 
he caused the [Mazda] lamp to be engraved on the na 
tion's postage stamps. . . . Eddie Bernays shakes 
his head. . . . Mass psychology might have had 
something to do with it. Beyond that: 'Postmaster- 
General Brown, I should say, was responsible for the 



76 

stamps.' " the article also gives autobiographical 
data on ELB as a member of the Bernays-Freud 
family, until the onset of his professional career. 

Atlantic Monthly. "Edward L.Bernays, The Science 
of Ballyhoo," Vol. 149, No. 5, May 1932, pp. 562- 
571. 

John T. Flynn says: "By no system of honest elimi 
nation can Edward L. Bernays be excluded from a 
list of representative men in America. He has made 
an extraordinary success. He has been something of 
a pioneer. . . . He numbers among his clients 
powerful millionaires, great corporations, even royal 
personages and governments. He has made a great 
deal of money a mark of importance that no 
American will deny and what is more, he has done 
it in the field of intellectual activity. . . . He is a 
social psychologist engaged in carrying out in actual 
practice and according to newer theories that branch 
of psychology which August Compte and later 
Herbert Spencer, recognized as having a definite 
relation to sociology." 

"As a matter of fact, Bernays has both a clear and 
a very shrewd understanding of his profession. As a 
Public Relations Counsel he is liaison officer be 
tween Big Business and the Monster. In odd mo 
ments he has been a professor in very truth, for until 
recently he lectured on his system in New York 
University." 

"Bernays himself is perhaps best known for two ex 
amples of dramatic high-spotting which were really 
no more than grandiose, glorified publicity stunts. 
One of these was Light's Golden Jubilee. Surely you 
will not have to be reminded of that amazing jam 
boree which took place when the story of Edison's 
invention of the incandescent lamp was reenacted in 
Dearborn, with Edison himself, Henry Ford, and the 
President of the United States playing the leading 
roles, while droves of great industrialists and finan 
ciers played the parts of villagers and supers in the 
cast, and radios and newspapers fought for the privi 
lege of broadcasting it. Henry Ford was supposed to 
be the manager of the show, but the man who set the 
stage and pulled the strings attached to all the digni 
fied marionettes was Edward L. Bernays. . . . 
His other outstanding performance was when he 
spent nearly $70,000 for a single hour's show on the 
radio to introduce a new Dodge car to the market." 

"Bernays himself is quite the newest type of public 
relations specialist, so intelligent and so free from the 
conventional inhibitions that he assumes almost the 
character of a phenomenon." 

Design and Paper. "Edward L. Bernays and the 
American Mind." No. 23, Dec 3, 1946. 14pp. 
P. K. Thomajan outlines ELB's position in public 
relations in the light of his intellectual background, 
intellect, insight, conscience and philosophy. Out 
lines methods of procedure in planning action for a 
client and touches upon some of outstanding jobs, 
i.e., Beech-Nut Packing Company and as a member 
of Woodrow Wilson's Creel Committee on Public 
Information during World War I. Mr. Thomajan 
states, "Bernays selects his clients and causes with a 



discriminating eye, and habitually turns down more 
jobs than he accepts. He insists that his projects be 
valid, legitimate and 'in the public interest.' Above 
all, they must be projects which the public 'can be 
brought to accept.' He has little patience with groups 
or individuals offering panaceas. A pragmatist who 
has long recognized the necessity for improvements 
in the functioning of the American system, he be 
lieves that the best hope for such improvement lies 
in the men with the greatest stake in it the busi 
nessmen of America." The article sums up with the 
following: "Against the imponderables of the future 
his voice will have influence not so much because of 
Bernays the man as Bernays the technician. Bernays 
the man believes in democracy. Bernays the tech 
nician can persuade people to make it work. In this 
decade there can be no more pressing assignment." 

Literary Digest. "He Helped Make Press- A gentry 

a 'Science,' " Jun 2, 1934, p.26. 
Full-page story by Wayne W. Parrish on ELB, 
subtitled, "Success of War-Time Propaganda 
Opened the Eyes of Edward L. Bernays, Nephew of 
Doctor Freud, to 'Invisible Government' and 'Mass 
Mind' Control," says: "Mr. Bernays, in the event 
that the reader never has heard of him, has become 
one of the nation's two leading 'public relations 
counselors,' a post-war term attached to the rela 
tively new 'science' of press-agentry. As a super- 
salesman without portfolio, working entirely behind 
the scenes, his operation of what he calls 'opinion- 
management' has guided many to buy more lug 
gage, eat bacon for breakfast, smoke more cigarettes, 
wear velvet instead of some other material, express 
preference for certain types of automobiles, and to 
ask for a certain soap at the corner store. He has in 
fluenced opinions of certain governments and of cer 
tain institutions and groups. He has worked to 
modify hundreds of ordinary habits, but always by 
the unconscious transference of ideas and objects 
through created events and circumstances." 

Querschnitt, Der. "Humbug, Bluff and Ballyhoo: 
Von Varnum bis Bernays," Der Querschnitt, 
13 Jahrgang, Heft 4, Apr 1933, pp. 255-269. 
A profile of Edward L. Bernays by Arthur Rundt, 
in a leading German magazine subsequently sup 
pressed by the Nazis. 

Reader's Digest. "The Science of Ballyhoo." Vol. 

XXI, No. 122, Jun 1932. pp. 5-8. 
This profile of ELB by John T. Flynn is a condensa 
tion of one which appeared in Atlantic Monthly, 
May, 1932, see above. 

Review of Reviews. "Mass Psychologist." Vol. 

LXXXI, No. 3, Mar 1930. 

This profile by Henry Pringle about ELB is con 
densed from the article of the same title in the 
American Mercury, Feb 1930, see above. 

Scope. "Man of the Month: Edward L. Bernays." 

London: Dec 1949, ill por. pp 56-69, 91. 
A 15-page profile of ELB by Olive Moore. "... A 
handful of words at random from the pile of notes 



77 



taken in a day-long interview with Bernays when he 
was in London recently, and [we] see not only what 
he gives as service when he 'appraises' a firm's prob 
lems, but exactly why American business is willing 
to pay him such sums as $100,000 a year as retainer 
for appraisal and advice," the writer says in 
reporting the development of public relations as 
given by ELB, who "as he talks, . . . constantly 
stresses the sense of social and moral responsibility 
underlying the work of the Public Relations Coun 
sel." ELB is further characterized as " 'No. 1 U. S. 
Publicist,' . . . highest-paid public relations man 
in the world, getting as much as $125,000 for a single 
job . . . , a kind man . . . [with] views ... so 
urgent and . . . tongue so fluent, that it is hard to 
tear oneself away from his words to his personality 
. . . like all top-flight Americans . . . [met in the 
course of this job] very friendly, very unassuming, 
amazingly well-informed, staggeringly energetic, 
. . . immensely eager to know and see . . . [with] 
that trait so noticeable in Americans and so endear 
ing, complete candour and with malice toward none. 
. . . The first hour is not wasted in getting ac 
quainted, it is all there in the first hand-shake and 
the first smile. Fearless, is the word." 

Beginning with a quotation from Machiavelli, the 
account emphasizes also that "We have come a long 



way in the 400 years since . . . The Prince. . . . 
We find the Public Relations men more powerful 
than any princes, for their followers are the peoples 
of the earth, their territory the hearts and minds of 
everyone." The work and opinions of "pioneer 
Bernays [who] dissociated Public Relations from 
press agenting as surgery dissociated itself from the 
barber's pole ... in ... twenty-five years of un 
clouded success" are analyzed and discussed com 
prehensively, and with much detail, in relation to 
the field as well as to the personality. The intro 
ductory note says: "By precept and example Ed 
ward L. Bernays, . . . has turned public relations 
from the by-ways of press agent trickery to a strict 
and respected profession on a level with law, medi 
cine and teaching. To Bernays, industrial public re 
lations is a top-management function, not a matter 
of press hand-outs and defending the status quo. 
The final paragraph states: "Bernays is neither 
witch-doctor nor medicine man, nor wise guy. Just a 
man who discovered how to hold up all problems, 
industrial or selling, to the X-ray of common sense 
and solve them by the light of reason. In thirty years 
of doing so, it has not failed him. Being a generous 
man he has dissected for us the technique and science 
of his craft, hoping that it may help, or light a spark, 
or inspire an action." 






Tart Three 
ADDENDA 



ADDENDA 

This section contains necessary additions 
to items in the bibliography, and new 
items which the editors found after the body 
of the book had been set in page proof. 

1. Advertising & Selling. "Molding Public Opin 

ion." Reprint of speech delivered on Sept 11 at 
Financial Advertisers Association Convention, 
Atlantic City, N. J. Vol. XXV, No. 20, Sept 12, 
1935, pp. 44-46. 

Condensation of talk summarized on page 35 under 

Financial Advertisers Association. 

2. Boston Conference on Retail Distribution. 

"Mass Psychology and the Consumer." An ad 
dress on September 22, 1930, before the Boston 
Conference on Retail Distribution, University 
Club, Boston, auspices Retail Trade Board of 
the Boston Chamber of Commerce in coopera 
tion with Harvard University Graduate School 
of Business Administration, Boston University 
College of Business Administration, Massa 
chusetts Institute of Technology, 8pp. 
A discussion of "successful mass psychology 
work in American business and social life." 



-. "Business Turns to Counsel on Public 



3. 

Relations." pp. 39-41, 1936. 

Conference sponsored by Retail Trade Board, Bos 
ton Chamber of Commerce in cooperation with 
Harvard University Graduate School of Business 
Administration, Boston University College of Busi 
ness Administration, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology and others. 

Speaking on "Business Turns to Counsel on Public 
Relations" ELB said: "Business exists to function 
for the public. The public realizes this and judges 
businesses and their products by this criterion. The 
public policy of a business can increase or decrease 
sales as well as make or mar the reputation of a 
business. That is a fact that American industry is 
only now commencing to realize. . . . No longer can 
any business stand alone. The problems of any one 
business cannot today be isolated from the broad 
problems of industry. Because of this, business is 
finding it essential to re-define its function and to 
revalue itself in relationship to the other factors of 
the civilization in which it is operating. . . . The 
businessman needs an expert in public relations to 
appraise his public, understand it and recommend 
ways of conforming to public desire and need, as well 
as ways to interpret his business" acts and policies 
to the public. . . . The public relations counsel has 
made an intensive study of the public. ... He has 
come to the conclusion that in every case private 
interest and public interest must coincide if business 
is to maintain its important position in our economic 
and social life. ... It became evident to business 
and industry that the public was taking an interest 
in the conduct of business. From that time forward 
the good will of the public was a definite goal which 



81 

must be attained. . . . Many industries have recog 
nized this new factor, but not all of them. It is ob 
vious that, in this period of flux and competition, 
the ones who fail to recognize it will not be able to 
survive. . . . Public relations activities . . . must 
of necessity play their part in this situation. And the 
American business man must consider that not only 
as an individual must he play his part, but that he 
must also take an interest in seeing that American 
business as a whole establishes sound relations with 
the public, in order to re-establish itself in the public 
mind as a basic part of the American system." 



4. 



.. "The Future of Private Enterprise in the 



Post-War World." Address before Fourteenth 

Conference, 1942. 

An analysis of the economic, social and psychological 
problems which are likely to face post-war free en 
terprise. 

ELB says: "The kind of peace that will be made, 
the psychology of all nations, the political, economic, 
and sociological forces that will arise these all 
will be the background for the type of private enter 
prise that we shall have, if we have it. ... We shall 
have to go from war to peace in terms of a planned 
approach to a continuing problem if chaos is not to 
result. . . . Here in the U. S. we have had a system 
predominantly of free enterprise. . . . But economic 
liberty, psychological and economic security for 
everyone, have not kept pace with political freedom. 
. . . The problems of postwar free enterprise will be, 
first, economic . . . secondly, the psychological, 
human, social problems, which comprise attitudes of 
people in and out of government towards this new 
world of theirs. . . . The industrial and commercial 
world must undertake important research, and un 
dertake to build plans that will make a free enterprise 
world thoroughly and fairly workable. But private 
industry must assume leadership if it really wants 
private enterprise and democracy to survive into the 
postwar world. . . ." Indicating the main lines of 
study, ELB suggested study of: termination of war 
time controls; financial problems; labor problems; 
industrial problems; agriculture problems; trade and 
commerce; and social problems. "Business cannot 
depend upon the public for its survival. It can depend 
only upon itself and its own actions. Commerce and 
industry must recognize that what serves the public 
interest serves its own interest as well. If it will act 
on the recognition that private function activities 
must be predicated on public interest and responsi 
bility, there will be less to fear." 

5. Bryson, Lyman; Finkel stein, Louis; and 
Maclver, R. M., ed. "Approaches to Group 
Understanding". Sixth Symposium of the Con 
ference on Science, Philosophy and Religion. 
N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 1947. 858pp. 
Chapter X, "The Public Relations Counsel and 
Group Understanding," is by ELB. pp. 100-106. 

After describing advances made by the sciences in 
understanding semantics and communications, ELB 
points out that "an important trend in communica 
tions is the development of technicians and profes- 



82 



sionals expert in the use of symbols to convey ideas" 
public opinion researchers, pollsters, advertising 
men, graphic-arts directors, public relations counsel. 
Taking the public relations counsel as his theme, 
ELB says that "public relations is concerned bas 
ically with developing understanding. The public 
relations counsel must understand the public, its 
ideas, its philosophies, its points of view, its activities 
and what it means by the words it uses. All this he 
must communicate to his client. The client, likewise, 
must be studied. Its actions, attitudes and principles 
must be analyzed and be made understandable to 
the public." 

The public relations counsel, ELB continues, 
works on the premise that any group in society must 
integrate with other groups at the highest possible 
level for the common good. This means the public 
relations counsel has a strong sense of social re 
sponsibility and must have the knowledge, ability 
and judgment to determine what, in our society, is 
likely to be the common good. Anything the public 
relations man undertakes must not run counter to 
the democratic goals of freedom, equality and orderly 
justice. These goals are clearly denned in labor rela 
tions, race relations, housing, health, education, 
individual opportunity. 

Describing the techniques of the public relations 
counsel, ELB says he analyzes the public in its rela 
tionship to his client, surveys all contacts between 
the two. He also analyzes his client, studies the 
latter's objectives to find out whether they represent 
an attainable reality. He studies all phases of his 
client's activities so that he may compare them with 
the public's attitudes and the public needs. The 
public relations counsel must then interpret his 
findings to the client so the client may understand 
his own and the public's attitudes. On the basis of 
this interpretation, counsel makes recommendations 
to the client and sets forth new ideas and procedures 
to meet the public's point of view in such a way that 
the highest public good is achieved. Acts are more 
important than words in any effort at persuasion. 
An institution or corporation must act correctly in 
order to produce a good effect. 

In conclusion, ELB says that though there are 
still large areas of ignorance about public relations, 
knowledge of the importance of this field is growing. 
Those who depend upon the public are learning to 
profit from the professional use of public relations. 



6. 



.. "Learning and World Peace." Eighth 



Symposium of Conference on Science, Philoso 
phy and Religion. N. Y: Harper & Brothers, 
1948. 694pp. 

Chapter XXXVIII, "Mass Education, Idea Com 
munications and the Problems of National Sanity 
and International Cooperation," is by ELB. pp. 
411-417. 

In this chapter, ELB discusses the following: 
"What trends in mass education and idea com 
munications are making for national sanity and 
international cooperation? What elements are work 
ing in the opposite direction? How can the former 



be stimulated and the latter be retarded?" He 
divides the problem of world communication into 
three parts: 1. The matter of providing abundant, 
cheap, rapid communications for messages; physical 
instruments have already provided, or may soon 
provide, these means. 2. The matter of eliminating 
barriers to communications political, economic 
and language barriers; this is being given serious 
consideration by numerous bodies. 3. The problem 
of improving the quality of ideas, of words and 
pictures, of the symbols that pass over these media 
to bring about the objectives all good and honest 
men desire; this last problem certainly is the longest, 
hardest and most complex. 

The answer to the last problem, ELB goes on to 
say, depends on three forces: the professions and 
businesses involved, the law, and public opinion. 
He then urges that education and training in com 
munications be further stimulated in the universities 
and schools of journalism, and by the award of 
prizes and fellowships. He also urges that research 
in communications be stimulated. Those who are in 
the communications field professionally, he says, 
should have to meet higher standards. "Every man 
or woman who holds a position conveying symbols 
to the public should be prepared to meet that re 
sponsibility by having a thorough grounding in 
economics, human relations, and the social sciences, 
as well as a knowledge of the techniques of communi 
cation." ELB also urges continued education after 
people enter the communications field and criticism 
to stimulate progress. 

7. Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. 

Boston, The Business Historical Society, Inc., 

Vol. XIX. No. 4 Oct 1945, 195pp. 
In his chapter on "Shifts in Public Relations," Prof. 
N. S. B. Gras of Harvard University lists ELB under 
"Some Isolated Developments in the History of 
Public Relations Counsellors": "1919 Edward L. 
Bernays began his career as counsel on public rela 
tions to governments, industries, corporations and 
trade organizations. Term used was 'publicity 
direction'. " p. 128. 

8. Chase, Stuart; Ruttenberg, Stanley H.; 

Nourse, Edwin G.; Given, William B., Jr. 

"The Social Responsibility of Management." 
The Edward L. Bernays Foundation Lectures 
of 1950. A Golden Anniversary Publication of 
the School of Commerce, Accounts and Finance, 
New York University. N. Y: New York Uni 
versity, 1951. 83pp. 

In a foreword to this book, which consists of lectures 
delivered at New York University in April and May 
1950 by four experts on management relations, ELB 
says the Edward L. Bernays Foundation which 
sponsored the lectures, was established in 1946. Its 
purpose is "to stimulate, promote, encourage and 
advance scientific, educational, literary and/or 
charitable causes including, without limitation, the 
study of the science of public relations counseling to 
further human relations, intercultural and intergroup 
relations and to advance a sound public interest 



83 



therein." Another purpose of the Foundation is "to 
study and conduct research into all phases of and 
conditions affecting human, cultural and group rela 
tions, and the changes and improvements in the 
conditions of life and work among people." 

"The larger foundations in this country," ELB 
says, "sponsor extensive research in education, 
health and other fields, and in that way bring about 
improved public relationships and better human 
relations. But a foundation whose funds are limited 
finds it difficult to decide in what field it can help 
effectively." 

In seeking to sponsor for the year 1950 some 
activity in a field where the misunderstandings are 
of major economic and human significance, the 
Edward L. Bernays Foundation decided upon the 
field of management relationships. It was felt that 
one way of bringing the best thought in this field to a 
point of high visibility would be to underwrite a 
series of lectures on the social responsibility of 
management to be delivered at one of America's 
leading universities situated in a key industrial 
center. 

"What the Foundation had in mind," ELB con 
tinues, "was a series of lectures whose purpose 
would be not to present one viewpoint or intensify 
present attitudes but rather to create a forum for 
calling to public attention, and particularly to the 
attention of the business community, various view 
points which must be taken into consideration for a 
realistic understanding and appraisal of the social 
responsibility of management." 

For this purpose the Foundation lectures presented 
the diverse viewpoints of a social engineer, Stuart 
Chase; a trade union leader, Stanley H. Ruttenberg, 
Director of the CIO's Department of Education and 
Research; a management executive, William B. 
Given, Jr., Chairman of the Board, American Brake 
Shoe Company; and an economist, Edwin G. Nourse, 
formerly chairman of the Council of Economic 
Advisers to the President. 

9. Congressional Record. " Your Public Relations 
in the National Emergency." Vol. 97, No. 24, 
Feb. 7, 1951, Appendix, p. A678. 
The Honorable Jacob K. Javits of New York ob 
tained permission on Feb. 7, 1951 from the House of 
Representatives to insert in the Congressional 
Record "the following statement of Edward L. 
Bernays, well known authority on public relations of 
New York City, which appeared as a public adver 
tisement." The advertisement, headed "Your Public 
Relations in the National Emergency," appeared in 
The New York Times, The New York Herald- 
Tribune and the New York World-Telegram & The 
Sun during the week of December 26, 1950. The 
statement appeared in the Congressional Record in 
full as follows: 

"For some time now forward-looking Americans 
have recognized that private interest must coincide 
with public interest. This is particularly true in the 
present national emergency. 

"But some of us have not yet awakened to this 



truth. And unless everyone of us does, there may be 
no private interest left to worry about. 

"Our national strength is founded on a unified, 
powerful morale. 

"This morale is built by our common belief in our 
national goals and united action to achieve them. 

"The national emergency demands that all of us 
on all fronts work together for the general good. 

"Complete cooperation on the home front is as 
vital to national survival as it is on the military front. 

"For the sake of his own private interest the indi 
vidual must willingly sacrifice convenience, comfort 
and profit for the common good, endure hardships 
and suffering. 

"For unless we maintain our continuity as a free, 
independent nation, we shall have nothing as indi 
viduals. 

"Every American is responsible for our morale. 
Our national morale is the sum of our individual 
morales. This means that all of us, men and women, 
old and young, corporation executives and em 
ployees, must be willing to serve wherever and 
whenever we are needed. Any man who acts at the 
country's expense helps the enemy. If he injures his 
country's strength, he destroys everything he values 
for himself. 

"Acting at America's expense includes profiteer 
ing, chiseling, black and grey marketeering, or doing 
anything which places personal profit above the 
public interest. 

"It also includes slander, hate, rumor-mongering 
and scapegoating at the expense of public officials 
or private citizens. 

"Our national welfare in this emergency requires 
that individuals, groups and corporations give the 
most painstaking attention to their public relation 
ships. 

"They must insure, in their own interest and in 
the public interest, that every action and utterance 
raises morale and does not lower or destroy it. 

"They must make certain that their policies, 
words, and acts are dictated not by narrow immedi 
ate expediency but by the broader interests of self 
and country. 

"If ever there was a time when such public rela 
tionships were indispensable, that time is now." 

10. Crowther, Samuel. "Public Opinion, Private 
Business and Public Relations." N. Y: Liveright 
Publishing Corporation, 1934. 26pp. 
The author cites ELB as spokesman for the methods 
of legitimate propaganda. "If there is a case for 
the existing basic order," Crowther says, "the case 
ought to be tried out in the open ... by propa 
ganda. Every great question today has to be settled 
by propaganda. There is no other way of reaching 
one hundred and twenty million people. There 
should be no other way in a nation that desires . . . 
to govern itself. What are the methods of legiti 
mate propaganda? These have been very well pre 
sented by Edward L. Bernays, public relations 
counsel who has for years worked with the mass 
mind." 



84 

Crowther then devotes the last four pages of the 
book to quoting the Atlantic Monthly profile of ELB 
(see p. 76) and from various articles and talks by 
ELB on public relations and the molding of public 
opinion. 

11. Current History and Forum. "Speak Up for 
Democracy." Vol. LII, No. 2, Oct 22, 1940. pp. 
21-24. 

Captioned "No. 1 Publicist," a boxed editorial note 
says: "Edward L. Bernays, United States Publicist 
Number One, is the logical man to write the authori 
tative article on how individual Americans can 
become propagandists for democracy. In partner 
ship with his wife, Doris E. Fleischman, he conducts 
the leading Counsel on Public Relations organization 
in this country. Mr. Bernays has served the gov 
ernment many times, and was a member of the 
United States Committee on Public Information 
during the World War. He is the author of Crys 
tallizing Public Opinion and Propaganda, two of the 
outstanding books on this subject, and his under 
standing of the mass mind is widely recognized. He has 
lectured at Harvard, Yale and other leading universi 
ties on the subject of influencing public opinion." 

Pointing out that "millions of Americans are out 
of sympathy with American democracy" because of 
the Depression, ELB's article calls upon everyone in 
the United States to "mold public opinion for democ 
racy to the limit of his own power." ELB lists eight 
common accusations against democracy in the 
United States and gives extensive replies to them. 
See ELB's book Speak Up for Democracy, p. 4. 

12. Harriman, Margaret Case. "The Vicious Cir 
cle: The Story of the Algonquin Round Table." 
Illustrated by Al Hirschfeld. N. Y: Rinehart & 
Company, Inc., 1951. pp. 310. 

This account of the Algonquin Round Table and 
its famous members Dorothy Parker, Hey wood 
Broun, Alexander Woollcott, Robert Benchley, 
George S. Kaufman, Robert E. Sherwood, Harold 
Ross, Franklin P. Adams and others devotes 
three pages to "Doris E. Fleischman . . . wife of 
Edward L. Bernays" as member and co-founder with 
Jane Grant and Ruth Hale of the Lucy Stone League 
and as the first married woman to obtain a U. S. 
passport in her own name. The book describes the 
enthusiastic cooperation "of Broun, Ross, Bernays 
and all the other partners in these independent 
marriages." 

"One Lucy Stoner, Doris Fleischman, came out in 
print in a magazine not long ago with the wistful 
revelation that she would now like to be known as 
Mrs. Edward L. Bernays." She is now the book 
adds an active reorganizer of the Lucy Stone 
League. 

13. The Journal of Marketing. "The Marketing of 

National Policies: A Study of War Propaganda." 
Vol. 6, No. 3, Jan 1942, pp. 236-244. 
Editor's note: "The problem of using all this coun 
try's resources to disseminate effectively the ideas 
for which the democracies are contending in the 



present war is one of the day's most formidable 
marketing problems. Mr. Bernays discusses the 
problem with new insight in the following paper, 
which he read before the New York Chapter (of the 
American Marketing Society) at one of its fall 
meetings." 

Speaking before America's entrance into World 
War II, ELB analyzes propaganda in World War I. 
He cites various scientific authorities and reduces 
"all psychological warfare" in the first World War 
to three main elements: 1. heighten the morale 
unity of your own country; 2. weaken the morale of 
your enemy; 3. win over the morale of neutrals. He 
then analyzes in some detail psychological warfare 
techniques used by Germany, Great Britain and the 
United States. 

Since 1917, ELB continues, the situation has 
changed because technical means for spreading ideas 
have been improved; because the "common man" 
plays a greater role in shaping political destinies; 
because the rise of Communists, Nazis and Fascists 
has accelerated the effectiveness of manipulated 
symbols; and because knowledge of the human mind 
has been greatly increased by the social sciences. All 
these factors, and the experience of World War I, 
lead to an "engineering approach" to psychological 
warfare which must henceforth be based on "the 
engineering of consent in a democracy." 

In order that the United States which has 
already mobilized the first peacetime selective serv 
ice army in its history to be prepared "for what 
ever may come," ELB suggests the following psy 
chological warfare program: 1. The Government 
needs to set up a psychological general staff to advise 
on all major questions of morale in industry, 
civilian life, army and navy. 2. A program needs to 
be set in motion to strengthen faith in democracy. 
3. This should be accompanied by a program de 
signed to make democracy work better, "making its 
ideals come true." 

"Experts, including marketing men, have laid a 
sound basis for a scientific approach to the problem 
of psychological warfare in the crisis we face today," 
ELB concludes. "America should not, cannot wait. 
She must apply today what she already knows 
toward meeting the problems she faces." 

14. MacLatchy, Josephine H. "Education on the 
Air." Thirteenth Yearbook of the Institute for 
Education by Radio. Columbus: Ohio State 
University, 1942, 310pp. 

Speaking in the panel discussion, ELB said that in 
his opinion the war effort of the radio industry and 
the Government was inadequate. This conclusion is 
confirmed by authorities all over the country, many 
of whom regard radio's war effort as ineffectual, 
inefficient, duplicating and segmental. These people 
do not know where to turn, for there is no planned 
approach to the problem of radio's all-out conversion 
in total war and no over-all strategy of psychological 
warfare. Every program commercial, sustaining, 



85 



governmental should fit into a balanced pattern. 
Attempts are made by networks and individual 
stations to do this, ELB said, but the main basis of 
judgment is still the cash register. 

ELB then urged that the radio broadcasting indus 
try voluntarily organize for efficient handling of its 
total war effort. It should name a board of experts 
in psychology, public opinion, radio programming 
and communications, to set up blueprints for ac 
complishing the purpose a balance of entertain 
ment, escapism, information and criticism, and a 
line to follow as to content, theme, emotion and 
reason. The board, ELB said, should be in touch 
with government officials, informed about the war 
and the demands of the national interest. Not 
regimentation, he added, but intelligent planning. 
This will not mean the elimination of the commercial 
system of American broadcasting and entertainment. 
Entertainment is basic to morale. It will mean that 
radio's effectiveness will be measured, like education, 
by its whole effect on the mind and character of an 
individual. 

Only by such an approach, ELB concluded, can 
radio's real potentialities in the war effort be realized 
victory through another and equally potent air 
power, pp. 33-34. 

15. New York State Pharmacist. "The Bernays 
Drug and Pharmaceutical Survey," Oct 1943, 
pp. 9-12, 28-30. 

An editorial note preceding ELB's talk before the 
Pharmaceutical Association says: "In the opinion of 
the writer the paper which we are printing here is one 
of the most important ones that has been published 
within a decade. ... Be sure to read this paper 
from beginning to end; it may not be all pleasant 
reading, but we might as well know what the survey 
of an expert firm found. We are printing the paper as 
it was presented before the American Pharmaceutical 
Association at its recent meeting in Columbus, 
Ohio," p. 9. In his talk ELB says: "Pharmacy 
has a choice. It can submit to pressures of public 
opinion, when they exert themselves, or it can 
fulfill its vital role as the custodian of public wel 
fare, at the same time gaining good will, strengthen 
ing itself, and moving into its rightful place in our 
society. A unified public relations effort is the means 
by which all of you can aid in bringing about this 
objective. It is difficult to devise for immediate 
acceptance a uniformly acceptable course of action 
regarding all the trends and situations you face, but 
that factor in itself is one of the reasons why I be 
lieve the immediate problems I presented are a 
common ground upon which all interested groups 
can carry on action. The proposed plan for public 
relations aimed at strengthening relations within the 
industry, between the industry, the pharmaceutical 
profession and the government, and between the 
industry and public is that type of common ground. 
I hope in your own interest that you will study it 
further and act on it." 



16. Public Utilities Fortnightly. "What Can 

Utilities Do about Public Relations Today?" 
Jun 6, 1940, 128pp. 

Editorial note on ELB: "The scientific or 'engineer 
ing' approach to the problem of public relations, 
according to this noted specialist in that field, is to 
dig into it and determine the respective areas of 
agreement and disagreement. Only then can a sound 
and sure program for improving public relations be 
formulated." 

ELB says in this article that the principal trouble 
seems to have been not that the public utilities 
neglected its public relations, but that "it tried 
too hard to cultivate them on false grounds by mak 
ing use of spurious methods and generally going 
about it the wrong way." These actions led to agita 
tion for the Federal Trade Commission probe in 
1928. ELB then gives results of poll he took among 
leaders of industry, finance and the public on what 
the problems and solutions of public relations are. 
The replies showed group leaders think in terms of 
their relationship to government; the public; bankers 
and stockholders; the community where their cus 
tomers are; the industry; and their workers. 

Applying this to public utilities, ELB says since 
government represents the people, the only modifica 
tion of government attitudes and activities must be 
through modifying the people's attitudes through 
the engineering of consent. Industry leaders agree 
that government should go out of competitive 
business and should have no plants of its own; and 
that more consideration must be given to public 
attitudes, policies and practices adopted by the 
industry. Key executives see good employee relations 
as a solution rather than as a problem. 

For the public utilities industry ELB suggests a 
four- point program: 1. that some industrial commit 
tee should be entrusted with the study of the prob 
lems and suggesting solutions for finding areas of 
agreement; 2. that this committee develop a program 
of broad principles and practices for public utility 
companies, then get the companies to accept them; 
3. that competent technicians be engaged to make a 
study of the public mind to find out what present 
public attitudes are toward principles, practices and 
goals upon which the industry will decide; this sur 
vey will attempt to find out the extent to which it is 
possible to modify public attitudes and actions; 4. 
that the industry undertake a campaign of education 
to win the support of the public. 

17. Routzahn, Evart G., and Routzahn, Mary 
Swain. "Publicity Methods Reading List. Se 
lected References on Publicity in Social Work and 
Kindred Fields." N. Y: Department of Surveys 
and Exhibits, Russell Sage Foundation. 1924. 

Under the heading "The Technique of Publicity," 
this bibliography lists Edward L. Bernays' book, 
Crystallizing Public Opinion with the following 
comment: "The author discusses the scope and 
function of a new profession, that of public relations 
counsel." 



86 

18. Saturday Review of Literature. Vol. XXV, field of public opinion as public relations counsel 

No. 10, Mar 7, 1942. for more than twenty years. His partner is Doris 

ELB was guest editor of this issue of Saturday Re- Fleischman. In the last war he served on the 

view of Literature, which is entitled "Censorship Committee of Public Information. He is the au- 

and Propaganda Number." An editorial note in thor of Propaganda and Speak Up for Democracy, 

"Contributors and Contents," says: "Edward L. Mr. Bernays reviews James R. Mock's Censorship 

Bernays, guest editor of this issue, whom Time calls 1917 on page 4, and writes the editorial on page 

'U. S. Publicist No. 1,' has been working in the 10." 



armed forces, radio, motion 
pictures, television, the theatre, 
the press, medicine, nursing, 
banking, trade, management- 
employee relations, women, poli 
tics, public opinion, attitude polls 
and many other fields. References 
to Mr. Bernays culled from many 
books indicate the wide impact 
of his ideas on the field. 

Edward L. Bernays is regarded 
as America's outstanding counsel 
on public relations, a profession 
he was instrumental in creating 
and naming. In partnership with 
his wife, Doris E. Fleischman, he 
has had a long, diversified prac 
tice, acting as public relations 
counsel to corporations, trade as 
sociations, newspapers, maga 
zines, scientific organizations and 
leading individuals since 1919. 

He was the first lecturer on 
public relations at any American 
university when he gave a course 
on that subject at New York Uni 
versity in 1923. In the past two 
years he has given public rela 
tions courses as Adjunct Profes 
sor at New York University and 
Visiting Professor at the Univer 
sity of Hawaii. 

Mr. Bernays has been advisor 
to Presidents and has represented 
the United States Government 
in various activities. He is the 
author of " Crystallizing Public 
Opinion," "Propaganda," "Speak 
up for Democracy," "Take Your 
Place at the Peace Table," and 
other books ; he is a frequent con 
tributor to magazines, social sci 
ence journals and newspapers; 
and is preparing a book on public 
relations for the University of 
Oklahoma Press. 

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