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Full text of "Public Use of the National Park System: Fiscal Year 1975"

J84 

I 29.63 

975/FY 



PUBLIC 
USE 

of the 

NATIONAL 

PARK 

SYSTEM 



Fiscal Year 
Report - 1975 



UNIVERSITY OF GECR&IA 

MAY 20 m* 

"ST* a i~ 

LIBRARIES 

DEPOSITORY 



NPS PUBLICATION NUMBER 157 



PUBLIC USE 
OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 

FISCAL YEAR REPORT - 1975 




National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

October 1975 



ill 




IV 



FOREWORD 



The National Park System contains the basic values 
of our civilization. It contains the physical progres- 
sion of our universe. And it contains the opportu- 
nity for the understanding and the self-awareness 
that can help us survive in this troubled era. 

The Park Service faces many problems, but we 
hope to solve most of them. I represent a corps of 
people dedicated to preserving the National Park 
System and providing in parks the joy of discovery 
and the strength of understanding for all people. 



GARY EVERHARDT 

DIRECTOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



May 20, 1975 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword v 

Introduction 1 

Areas in the National Park System 4 

Summary Data 6 

Visits, by Management Categories 9 

Overnight Stays and Visitor-Hours 10 

Systemwide Visitation by Month, 

1971-1975 12 

Special Analysis 14 

Fiscal Year 1975 Public Use Patterns 15 

Bicentennial Visitation Expectations .... 17 

Map (Centerfold) 22 

Individual Park Statistics 25 

Footnotes to Table of 

Individual Park Statistics 45 

Notes Regarding Data Collection 

and Presentation 46 

Definitions 47 

For Additional Information 48 

Listing of Regional Offices and 

Their Addresses 49 



VI 



INTRODUCTION 



There are hundreds of units in the National Park 
System, ranging from tiny historic properties to 
vast natural areas of over 2,000,000 acres in size. 
These parks are found from northern climates, 
with short seasons of active visitation, to the 
tropics, where use can occur year-round. They are 
found in our largest cities and in remote, sparsely 
populated regions. 

Visitation to memorials and national shrines such 
as Independence National Historical Park and the 
Lincoln Memorial is intense over most of the year, 
and the use occurs on a small land base. Heavy use 
also occurs in certain parts of the larger parks at 
certain seasons, long weekends, or peak periods 
within a day. 

Servicewide visitation to the parks is almost always 
upward, though individual areas may have varying 
patterns. This is an historical trend that appears to 
be inevitable as long as increases in population, 
larger discretionary incomes and improved mobil- 
ity are operative or until effective capacities are 
established and enforced for individual parks. On 
the other hand, an energy crisis or other national 
emergency can change this trend completely. 

Another upward bias is built into the historical 
statistics on public use of the parks. New parks are 
added by each Congress and, in the fullness of 
time, enter into public use statistics. 

In FY 1975 total visits showed substantial increase 
over FY 1974, but this increase is partially due to 
visits recorded in areas not reporting in 1974. The 
largest new item is Gateway NRA which had 6.9 
million visits in FY 1975. 

Other principal components of the 1975 increase 
were Buffalo NR, Golden Gate NRA, and Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal NHP. Visits to these areas 
are for a complete 1975 Fiscal Year. 



Changes in counting procedures occur at individual 
areas from time to time. Some of these procedural 
discontinuities lead to increases, some to decreases, 
so it is difficult to generalize about their effects on 
the Systemwide total. Occasionally, however, there 
is a large systematic shift-usually upward-affect- 
ing a major segment of the System's data; examples 
are the 1960 redefinition of a park visit (coupled 
with centralization of control over counting proce- 
dures), and its full implementation in 1971 with 
respect to nonrecreation use. 

Reliable statistics and careful analysis of their 
significance are important tools for park managers 
in planning for the use of the parks. Theirs is the 
dual task of protecting park resources and pro- 
viding for their use by our and future generations. 
Reference to the quantitative measures of use is 
essential if we are to provide a quality park 
experience. Awareness of discontinuities in the 
time series of such measures is a prerequisite to 
proper interpretation of the data. 

Widespread interest in statistics on national park 
use is found also among public agencies at all 
levels, planning organizations, universities, travel 
associations, and private groups of individuals. 
Such statistics are used as an indication of the 
extent and probable growth pattern of the Nation's 
leisure industry. 




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13 



SPECIAL ANALYSIS 



The purpose of this section is to illustrate specific 
aspects of public use of the National Park System, 
in order to create a clearer picture of the diversity 
of use and the various factors that affect intensity 
of visitation. 

Included in this issue are two brief essays; one on 
Public Use Patterns in FY 75 and the other on 
Bicentennial visitation. Also included is a map 
showing CY 74 visitation data distributed accord- 
ing to States and other political entities (the 
District of Columbia, U.S. Virgin Islands and 
Puerto Rico). 




GOLDEN GATE NRA 
Children playing in the surf 



14 



FISCAL YEAR 1975 PUBLIC USE PATTERNS 



Despite rising costs of travel and a rather sluggish 
national economy in Fiscal Year 1975, public use 
of National Park System areas appeared to exhibit 
a rapid recovery from the energy-crisis-stricken 
period which overshadowed FY 74. 

Total reported visitation to NPS areas in FY 75 
was 228.9 million, an increase of nearly 20 million 
above FY 74 reported levels of use. New areas' use, 
however, accounted for a relatively large propor- 
tion of that increase. In particular, Gateway 
National Recreational Area in New York which 
began reporting officially in July of 1974 recorded 
nearly seven (7) million visits in FY 75. 

As a means of developing a more realistic compari- 
son of annual aggregate changes in use levels, two 
hundred and thirty two (232) park areas which 
were reporting in FY 73, FY 74, and FY 75 were 
selected for evaluation. Aggregate use data for 
these areas are shown in the following table. 





Total Visits (in thousands) 


Percent 




for 232 selected areas 


Change 


FY 73 


199,656.5 


— 


FY 74 


193,273.8 


-3.2% 


FY 75 


203,861.2 


+5.5% 



Thus, for a stable population of park areas, the 
FY 75 increase was slightly over 10 million or 5.5% 
when compared with FY 73. Only 4.2 million 
more visits (+2.1%) were recorded in FY 75 than in 
FY 73. Increases in use occurred at 68% of the 232 
park areas when comparing FY 75 to FY 74. 
However, only 111, or 48%, of the areas reported 
larger numbers of visits in FY 75 than in FY 73. It 
is apparent that for many parks, 1972 and 1973 
still constitute the peak use years in recent history. 

Based on preliminary data, however, the summer 
season of 1975 is likely to set many new attend- 
ance records. A thorough report on summer season 

15 



trends will appear in the Calendar Year 1975 
Public Use Report. 

Over the long run visitation is likely to continue 
increasing as long as population and family in- 
comes rise. Historical growth in annual (Calendar 
Years 1964 through 1974) visitation is presented in 
graph 1 . The graph shows as a solid line the visits 
total (in millions) as reported, and as a dotted line 
an adjusted visits total which excludes (a) new 
areas' data and (b) data for nine park areas which 
were largely responsible for the sharp jump in 
reported use totals in 1971 resulting from a basic 
change in counting procedures. 



TOTAL REPORTED VISITS 



\DJUSTED TOTAL VISITS 
(base year- 1964) 



CALENDAR YEAR 



Graph 1. Visits to National Park System areas, showing gross totals 
reported for 1964 through 1974, and adjusted totals on a 1964 base 
(excluding data for new areas which began reporting after 1964 and 
for 9 other areas significantly affected by changes in counting 
procedures). 

In 1976 total visitation to NPS areas is expected to 
top a quarter of a million visits. The lure of 
Bicentennial programs and events, the subject of 
the following article, will play a significant role in 
attracting users next year. 



16 



BICENTENNIAL VISITATION EXPECTATIONS 



The National Park Service has spent several years 
and over $100 million in planning and preparing 
for the nation's Bicentennial. Activities and pro- 
grams directly related to the history and future of 
our Nation are scheduled at more than 250 NPS 
areas under the Bicentennial themes Heritage, 
Festival, and Horizon. An important part of the 
NPS Bicentennial program has been the extensive 
construction program initiated in Fiscal Year 1973 
at 23 selected areas for the restoration and 
rehabilitation of historical structures and environ- 
ments and the building or installation of new 
visitor facilities to provide for visitor experiences 
of outstanding quality. A travelling performing arts 
show on colonial life, films highlighting various 
aspects of the nation's history, a travelling Bicen- 
tennial art exhibit, and numerous publications are 
being sponsored by the National Park Service as 
part of the Bicentennial celebration. Specific infor- 
mation on Bicentennial activities and programs can 
be obtained by writing to the Office of Public 
Affairs, National Park Service, U.S. Department of 
the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 




• ; v fcJ&£ 

Visitors to Saratoga National Historical Park in New York during 
the American Revolution Bicentennial may enjoy demonstrations of 
"living history," as well as learning more about a key battle of that 
war. 



17 



As a result of the Bicentennial celebration, tourism : 
in 1976 is expected to increase dramatically as , 
both Americans and foreigners seek to discover the 
resources and people that made America. Based 
upon a survey commissioned by the American 
Revolution Bicentennial Administration in the 
Spring of 1975, forty-four million U.S. adults 
expect to visit a Bicentennial site or event during a 
vacation trip in 1976. Weekend trips, day outings, 
and Foreign tourism to Bicentennial sites or events 
will add substantially to the number of persons 
actively participating in the 200th birthday of the 
United States. According to the ARBA survey, the 
four primary destination areas for Bicentennial 
tourists on vacation trips will be Washington, D.C.; 
Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 
and Williamsburg, Virginia. The National Park 
Service has jurisdiction over many of the prime 
Bicentennial sites and attractions in or near these 
areas. 

For example, Independence National Historical 
Park in Philadelphia, the area most closely associ- 
ated by the American public with the people and 
events which led to the successful independence of 
this country from British control, is expected to 
draw the largest numbers of Bicentennial tourists 
in 1976; 7.5 million touring the historic buildings 
and an additional 7.6 million visiting the grounds 
and mall area and participating in special events. 
Rehabilitation and reconstruction of historic build- 
ings and the construction of a new visitor center 
and the Liberty Bell pavillion at Independence are 
some of the improvements being made to prepare 
for the Bicentennial. The capacity for Inde- 
pendence NHP to attract and accommodate large 
crowds for special events was amply demonstrated 
in September of 1974 when the City of Philadel- 
phia in cooperation with the National Park Service 
held an old-fashioned block party, "Olde City 
Sunday," which drew an estimated one million 
participants in one day. The reenactment of the 
First Continental Congress and displays of life in 
the eighteenth century were some of the events 
highlighted. 

In Washington, D.C., preparations for the Bicen- 
tennial include the remodeling of Union Station 
into a National Visitor Center and the construction 
of Constitution Gardens in the heart of the major 
tourist areas of the city. Estimates of the number 
of out-of-town visitors expected in the Nation's 
Capital have varied widely. The White House 

18 



Bicentennial Task Force is preparing for as many as 
seventeen million visitors to the Washington Area 
in 1976 and National Park Service sites will be 
important itinerary items for many of these visi- 
tors. Approximately 2.5 million visits are antici- 
pated at both the Jefferson Memorial and the 
Washington Monument. The White House will be 
toured by nearly 2 million persons and the 
Arlington House in Virginia is expected to record 
nearly 800,000 visits. Capacity constraints 
are likely to play a major role in limiting the 
number of persons who can view first hand many 
of the historical buildings and monuments during 
the peak travel season. The Lincoln Memorial, a 
relatively open and accessible structure, is expected 
to report between four and five million visits in the 
Bicentennial year. A popular annual event held on 
the mall in Washington, D.C. is the American 
Folklife Festival which is sponsored jointly by the 
Smithsonian Institution and National Capital 
Parks. About 515,000 visits were recorded at the 

1975 Festival during the last week in June and the 
first week in July. On July 4th, alone, 
110,000 persons visited the Festival and 
176,000 attended the Independence Day Cere- 
monies on the Monument Grounds. An extended 
Folklife Festival is planned for the summer of 

1976 as a part of the Bicentennial program and as 
many as five million visits are projected. 

In the Williamsburg, Virginia area, the National 
Park Service has jurisdiction over most of James- 
town Island, the site of the first permanent English 
settlement in America, Yorktown, scene of the 
culminating battle of the American Revolution, the 
Colonial Parkway which links these sites to Colo- 
nial Williamsburg, and the Cape Henry Memorial, 
marking the site of the first landing of the 
Jamestown colonists. The vicinity is rich with 
historic values and has traditionally been a popular 
tourist destination. The State of Virginia has 
designated the region as the focal point of the 
State's celebration of the Bicentennial. A State 
Bicentennial Exposition is planned in the vicinity. 
Over 1 2 million visits to Colonial National Histori- 
cal Park are forecast for 1976, a 25 to 30 percent 
increase over estimated 1975 use levels. 

In the Boston Metropolitan area, the National Park 
Service is involved in the administration of a 
variety of sites which are closely related to the 
development of our country. Already in 1975 
significant increases have occurred in visitor use of 

19 



these historieal areas. Longer daily and weekend 
hours of operation in 1975 at Faneuil Hall in the 
Boston National Historical Park resulted in larger 
numbers of tourists this year. Many more are 
expected in 1976. Because the seven historical sites 
in the Boston NHP (the Old North Church; Old 
State House; Bunker Hill; Old South Meeting 
House; Boston Naval Shipyard, berth for the U.S.S. 
Constitution; and the Paul Revere House in addi- 
tion to Faneuil Hall) were not actually admin- 
istered by the National Park Service in FY 75, their 
use data were not officially reported and are not 
included in our published use statistics herein. In 
nearby Concord, Massachusetts, Minute Man Na- 
tional Historical Park, the scene of the April 19, 
1775, confrontation that opened the American 
Revolution, conducted a Bicentennial Commemo- 
rative Ceremony at North Bridge on the 200th 
anniversary of the historic battle. Highlights of the 
ceremony included a parade and a visit by Presi- 
dent Gerald Ford. Over 100,000 persons attended 
the ceremonies. More than one and a half million 
visits are forecast for Minute Man NHP in 1976. 
Other NPS sites in the Boston area which are 
closely associated with the Revolutionary Era 
include Longfellow National Historic Site, which 
besides being the home of poet Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow from 1837 to 1882 was the headquar- 
ters site for General George Washington during the 
siege of Boston in 1775 and 1776; Salem Maritime 
National Historic Site, which was the only major 




A r J 






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w 




Established in 1959, Minute Man NHP contains three units; the 
Lexington-Concord Battle Road, the Old North Bridge and Minute 
Man Statue in Concord, and the Wayside, home of the Alcotts, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Margaret Sidney also in Concord. An 
interpretive station is in the Buttrick Mansion overlooking the North 
Bridge. 

20 



port never occupied by the British during the 
Revolution; and Adams National Historic Site, the 
Home of Presidents John Adams and John Quincy 
Adams, of Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister of 
Great Britain during the American Civil War, and 
of the writers and historians Henry Adams and 
Brooks Adams. 

NPS areas throughout the nation are anticipating 
larger numbers of tourists in 1976, at least partially 
due to the emphasis on the Bicentennial. Displayed 
in the following table are use data for thirteen 
areas closely associated with the Revolutionary 
Era. These data are for the first six months only of 
1973, a relatively normal travel period; 1974, a 
period characterized by the dramatic onset of the 
energy crisis; and 1975, a period when economic 
uncertainty continued to prevail but optimism was 
on the upswing. 



PUBLIC USE AT THIRTEEN SELECTED BICENTENNIAL SITES 
JANUARY-JUNE VISITATION (in thousands) 

1973 1974 1975 



Adams NHS 


7.8 


5.9 


9.8 


Colonial NHP 


4,512.9 


4,071.5 


4,475.6 


Fort McHenry NM & HS 


242.2 


206.9 


255.4 


Fort Necessity NB 


73.8 


53.5 


72.5 


George Rogers Clark NHP 


31.1 


33.6 


39.3 


George Washington B'place NM 


88.6 


43.1 


86.4 


Hopewell Village NHS 


66.3 


49.8 


61.2 


Independence NHP 


988.1 


966.3 


1 ,476.9 


Kings Mountain NMP 


169.9 


176.0 


288.0 


! Minute Man NHP 


258.1 


282.7 


559.2 


! Moores Creek NMP 


17.8 


19.4 


24.0 


! Salem Maritime NHS 


151.3 


102.7 


136.1 


Saratoga NHP 


125.7 


113.8 


124.5 



21 



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1545 




<RS 



S§ 



INDIVIDUAL PARK STATISTICS 



Displayed in the following table are FY 74 and 
FY 75 Recreation, Nonrecreation and Total Visita- 
tion Data (in thousands) for individual areas of the 
National Park System. 

Two-hundred and sixty-seven (267) listings are 
presented, however, only two hundred and fifty 
seven (257) areas were officially reporting as of 
June 30, 1975. FY 74 data and partial FY 75 data 
(through December 1974) are shown for nine 
National Cemetaries which are now administered in 
conjunction with their associated historical units 
and Grand Canyon and Marble Canyon National 
Monuments which were eliminated as separate 
units in the Grand Canyon National Park Enlarge- 
ment Act effective January 1975. Voyageurs Na- 
tional Park reported use in the first two months of 
FY 74 and it is listed here even though its report 
status has been discontinued. Thus only 255 
individual listings are valid as of June 30, 1975. 
Two areas, Ross Lake and Lake Chelan National 
Recreation Areas, are reporting use, however, their 
data are combined, no breakdown available, with 
that shown for North Cascades National Park. 

Each listing includes the state or states in which 
the park is located and the regional office through 
which it is administered. Regional office abbrevia- 
tions are used : 

MA Mid-Atlantic Region 

MW Midwest Region 

NC National Capital Parks 

NA North Atlantic Region 

PN Pacific Northwest Region 

RM Rocky Mountain Region 

SE Southeast Region 

SW Southwest Region 

W Western Region 

Regional office addresses are shown on the inside 
back cover. 

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45 



iNOTES REGARDING DATA COLLECTION 
AND PRESENTATION 



Public use data are collected in the field year-round 
on a continuous basis, except at a few parks which 
are closed for the winter. Excepted from the 
reporting requirement are those areas not in 
Federal ownership, a few parks where it is imprac- 
tical to produce consistent or meaningful data, and 
a few parks which are not yet open for public use. ! 
All data are as of the end of the year (fiscal or 
calendar) unless otherwise noted. 

Note that certain areas which are administratively 
considered as parts of National Capital Parks are 
listed in their own right as units of the National 
Park System, and no data for them are included in | 
that shown for National Capital Parks for FY 75. 
Those areas are : 

Antietam NBS 

Arlington House— The Robert E. Lee Memorial 

Catoctin Mountain Park 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 

Clara Barton NHS 

Ford's Theater NHS 

Fort Washington Park 

Frederick Douglass Home NMem 

George Washington Memorial Parkway 

Greenbelt Park 

Harpers Ferry NHP 

Jefferson Memorial 

The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing 

Arts 
Lincoln Memorial 
Lyndon B. Johnson Memorial Grove on the 

Potomac 
Manassas NBP 
National Visitor Center 
Piscataway Park 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Sewall-Belmont House NHS 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Washington Monument 
White House 
Wolf Trap Farm Park 

46 



Due to a sharp wrench in the designation and 
classification of areas in the National Park System, 
based on legislative actions and administrative 
decisions in late 1974 and early 1975, the number 
of areas administered and reporting use between 
FY 74 and FY 75 appears to have declined. The 
decline, however, is illusory. 

As of June 30, 1974, 298 areas were defined as 
part of the National Park System. Twelve new 
areas were authorized by the 93rd Congress which 
brought the total to 310 areas. Another legislative 
action caused the elimination of two National 
Monuments as separate units through their addi- 
tion to Grand Canyon National Park. Thus the 
National Park System would have consisted of 308 
lareas under the 1974 designation system. 

However, several administrative decisions resulted 
in additional changes. The ten National Cemetaries 
were dropped as separate units and are now 
considered part of their associated historical areas. 
Fifteen areas previously considered part of the 
National Park System have been moved into a new 
category called Affiliated Areas. These areas draw 
on the NPS budget but are neither staffed nor 
owned by the Federal government (another area, 
the International Peace Garden, not previously 
counted in the System's list was designated an 
Affiliated Area which brings that total to sixteen). 
Two parkways and Wolf National Scenic Riverway 
were delisted completely, as they are not expected 
to remain under NPS jurisdiction. Therefore the 
deletion of 10 National Cemetaries, 15 Affiliated 
Areas, and the 3 areas placed in deferred status 
brings the total to 280. 

Finally, recognition was given to six units of the 
National Capital Parks as separate parks in their 
own right bringing the total number of areas in the 
System to 286 as shown in the summary tables. 

The effect of the changes on the number of areas 
reporting is described briefly on page 24 and also 
in the footnotes to the table on Individual Park 
Statistics. 



DEFINITIONS 



As used in this report, certain terms have special- 
ized definitions: 

47 



Visit - The entry of any person, except National 
Park Service personnel (meaning staff of cooper- 
ating associations, concessioners and contractors, 
as well as those directly employed by the Service, 
and the households of personnel resident in the 
parks), onto lands or waters administered by the 
National Park Service. 

Visitor - A person who generates a visit as defined 
above. Though this same person may enter the 
same park a number of times, or several different 
parks over the course of the year, he is counted as 
a separate visit for each entry. 

Visitor-Hour - The presence of one or more visitors 
in a park for continuous, intermittent, or simulta- 
neous periods of time aggregating one hour (e.g., 
one person for one hour, two persons for one-half 
hour each, etc.) 

Overnight Stay - The passing of one night by a 
visitor within a park (on park lands or waters, not 
on private inholdings within the park boundaries). 
An overnight stay occurs each night a visitor 
remains in the park. 

Recreation - Any reportable use of National Park 
Service areas for the purpose of engaging in any 
activities except those which are a part of, or 
incidental to, the pursuit of a gainful occupation. 

Nonrecreation - Any use other than recreation use 
as defined above. 

Management Category - Basically, one of three cat- 
egories of parks for which management policies 
have been promulgated by the National Park 
Service. These are "natural," "historical," and 
"recreational." National Capital Parks is essentially 
an urban park system not statistically truly com- 
parable with the individual parks of the National 
Park System. 

Fiscal Year - Year running from July 1 to June 30, 
and designated by the calendar year in which it 
ends. 



FOR ADDITIONAL INFORM A TION 



If more detailed information about visitation 
is needed, please contact the Statistical Unit, 
National Park Service, Washington, D.C. 
20240. 



48 



LISTING OF REGIONAL OFFICES 
AND THEIR ADDRESSES 



Regional Director 
Mid-Atlantic Regional Office 
National Park Service 
143 South Third Street 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106 

Regional Director 
Midwest Regional Office 
National Park Service 
1709 Jackson Street 
Omaha, Nebraska 68102 

Regional Director 

North Atlantic Regional Office 

National Park Service 

150 Causeway Street 

Boston, Massachusetts 021 14 

Regional Director 

Pacific Northwest Regional Office 

National Park Service 

523 Fourth & Pike Building 

Seattle, Washington 98101 

Regional Director 

Rocky Mountain Regional Office 

National Park Service 

P. O. Box 25287 

Denver, Colorado 80225 

Regional Director 
Southeast Regional Office 
National Park Service 
1895 Phoenix Blvd. 
Atlanta, Georgia 30349 

Regional Director 

Southwest Regional Office 

National Park Service 

Box 728 

Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 

Regional Director 

Western Regional Office 

National Park Service 

450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36063 

San Francisco, California 94102 

Director 

National Capital Parks 
National Park Service 
1100 Ohio Drive, S.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20242 



UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIES 



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3 ElDfi DM713 7MMb 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT 
OF THE INTERIOR 



NATIONAL PARK 
SERVICE