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ffiTU copious mi?, 










Qi Sable of Eeftrenct. 



498 AND 600 BROADWAY, 




JliL 8 1883 

h ■ 

£ntercd according to Act of Gongre88f in the year 1866, bj 

in the Clerk'8 OfBce of the District Court of the Southera Difitrict of New York. 


PiiDteis, Mecbvtypers aod Booklidas 




Nbw-York, July 6, 1815. 
Aq edidon of the Worka of Virgil, upon the plan adopted by the Rev. J. G. 
CiK>per, I think preferable to those usually put into the handB of boys. Hia 
Dotes and ezplanations, so far as I have examined them, are both copious and 
iudiciouA. Believing that claaaical literature will be promoted thereby, I do 
cheerfuily recommenid the work. 


PraiideDt of Coluiubia CoUege. 

In the above opinion expresaed by Dr. Harris, we do fully and cordially 


Prof eaMM- of Shetoric, ^ lcc. Cohunbta CoUMt. 


Principal of Un Ep. Acadeoiy, New-Yoilr. 


Teiicljer of a 8«>lect ClaMicai Sdiool, New-York. 


Princi|»al of tbe Ep. Acadeniy, Clieehire, Conneotiait» 

Baltixobe, Oct. 20, 1 825. 
Id tlie above opinion expressed by Dr. Harris, we do fuUy and cordially 

W. E. WYATT, D. D. 

Aaoclue Mln. of SL PKul*e ParlalL 


P ro feM o r of ICtili. In tJie Univeraity of MRrylaiid, and autborof an edltioo of l^ 

Eleineuta of Euclid, dtc hr^ 

Nkw-York, April, 1827. 
In the above opmion ezpressed by Dr. Harrifl, I do fally and cordially 


ProfbBMir of Nat. PliUoeopliy and CbemlMiy In C6L CoUeie. 

Phiuidelpiiia, June,*1827. 
In tha above opinion expressed by Dr. Harris, I do fuUy and cordially 


Autborof a Latin Grany&ar, Itc. Iec 

Lexinoton, Ky. April 1, 1825. 
I Having recently examined the Rev. J. G. Cooper^s proposed edition of the 
Workfl of Virgil, I have no hesitation in giving my opinion, that the plan which 
ht has pursued is excellent, and the execution highly creditable to his talents 
lad ncholarship. Such a work will greatly facilitate the study of the poet. on 
^ part of the youthful leamer. It will give him a correct idcn of the meaniiig 
df the author in the more difficult passages ; and by 't(s co)>ious notes upon 
■ooent history, and mythology, will enable him to relish beauUes that are now 
nrtlT perceived in the early course of classical instruction. 1 have no doubt 
hot that its appearance will be welcomed by tlie iiitelligcnt and discerning, a» a 
piblic^tion admirably adaptcd to enlist tlie fcelings, and sUmulate the appUca- 
^ of yo*jth, iii the elementary schools of our country. 


Frofemorof UiMtory, Ack^in TraiMylvania Un5Tcnlty«¥3 



The edition of the Works of Virgil proposed to be publish 
G. Cooper, appedrs to uie, as far as a very partial examinatioi 
me to judge, to be a work of merit, both as to the plan and e 
am ])erBuaded, that its adoption into our Colleges and Semir 
ivill greatly facilitate the acquisition of a correct knowledj 
fiLnd distinguished poet. 


Blabop of the ProU Epin. Cliurcta 

So fdr as I have had opportunity to examine the manuscr 
G. Cooper for a new edition of the Works of Virgil, I high 
plan, and think it well calculatcd to facilitate the study of the 
to be a leading object with Mr. Cooper, to lighten the biird 
by elucidating tlie difiicuh passages of the author, and by \qi 
mind into a relish of his bcautics and excellencies. 

Tlie substitution of an Ordo of the most intricate passages 
general interpretation of the text, I consider a material adv 
removes the difliculties in the collocation of the words, it lead 
directly to the text, and tends to fix iiis attention more closely 
01 the poet. On the whole, I consider tlie work deserving of 
and I wish him every encouragement in his endeavours to pr< 
of classical literature. 


President uf Uie SouUiern Colle; 

Nooember 6, 1823. 

LouTsviLLE, Ky. Dece 

Having been favoured with the perusal of notcs upon the 
compiled by tJie Rev. J. G. Cooper, together with an Ordo 
cate parta of the text, I am fully persuaded they are well calc 
younger classical students to read and understand the poet 
more difiicult passages ; to enlarge the mind in tiie Geograp 
and to explain the mythology of tlie age in which he wrote. 

The criticisms on the text are generally correct, and d 
acquaintance with the syntax of the Latin language : and I 
say, that in my opinion, the work would be very useful in t 
Seminaries of the United States. 


Cambridge, Mass. 

An edition of the Works of Virgil, upon the plan adopted 
Cooper, will. I am persuaded, be found useful in instruction 
Dortion of that assistance in the interpretation of the poet, 
frequently and injudiciously had to translations ; while it is 
ezempt from any of the disadvantages attending such a mo( 



HnvGHAM, Mas 

From a partial examination of the maniiacript copy of th( 
with English notes, &c. by the Rev. J. G. Cooper, it app 
prepared with much labour and care. I have no doubt that t 
would be of esAential advantage to classical students, espec 


lui?e not made connderable progress in the Latin language, previoua to ineif 
eomiiienciiig the atudy of the poet. 


Prlndpa] of IMiy Arademj. 

1 liiny assent to the opinion expressed above by Mr. Kimball, as to the value 
tnd uaeftdness of an edition of Virgil, upon the plan proposed by the Rev. Mr. 
Cooper. UENRY WARE, D. D, 

ProfeMor of Divlniiy Ln Harv. Unlverally. 

Tns edition of the Works of Virgil, prcpared by the Rev. J. G. Cooper, 
appears to be well calculated to facilitate a knowledge of tlie poet. To those 
wlio may wish to study the poet, without the aid of an instructor ; and to in- 
stnictors themselves, who bave not enjoyed a correctly classical education, it 
will be eminently useful. 

»x, May, 1815. 

At the lequpst of the Rev. J. G. Cooper, I have cursorily examined a pnnt- 
ed speciinen of his proposed edition of the Works of Virgil ; and am of opiiiion, 
that, if the whole should be executed in the manner of this sam])le, it will be 
deserving of patronage. 


Proftaor of the Latin f«an^afe. 

Yaub Colleob, April 14, 1827. 

Ellwood Seminart, (near Philadelphia,) Dec. 9, 1826. 
f have perused the specimen of your proposed edition of tJie Works of V^irgil, 
wnich, I thiiik, will deserve a reception into every classical Academy. 

Rev. J. G. CooPBR. 


From a apecimen of the proposed edition of the Works of Virgil, by the Rev. 
I. G. Cooper, I am induced to believe the publication will be an aid to the 
^ause of our hterature, by going into use among thc younger stndents. 


Proftwor of ancient Languagoi, Wanliiugtnn Colitge. 

ILiKTFORn, April 14, 1827 

I highly approve of the plan adopted by the editor, haVing for many yeara 
kelieved such an edition of Virgil a great desideratum in our schools. 


TMclier of Latln and Greelc, In Piieniltf* AcailfMiiy, Ptiiladt^iplila. 

WASHnfOTON CiTv, Dcc. \f;'*ri, 
Sip — I am highly pleased with your edition of Virgil. I tiiink t!ie Kii^ii'»^ 
notes will be of infinite advantage to the scholar, and very iriterestinir to ij:8 
teacher. I am anxious to have a suflicient number of copies to supply iny 
■chooU as I am determinid to use no other for the future. 

Yours respectfully, 

Rev. J. G. 

BosTON, May 9th, 1 8 1 r>. 
Sni — So &r as I can judge of the plan on which you propose to publish an 
adition of Virgil, from the fe\v pages of manuscript siibmitted to mv YWftyecAxQw, 
l think h calculated to &cilitate Oie progreas of tiie learper ; aud ^cvi\\v\t\^ 


adapted tO the younger class of pupils, who are with difficult 
stand the fiotes in the original, when hurici^i as they frequei: 


Prliid|»al of Um |N 

I cheerfully concur in approving the plan of Mr. Cooper'f 


AHodatePrinciptl of UieMoant PleaHuit Cla«ical Instlttfion, 

Apbil, 1827. 

We, the subflcribers, do approve of the plan adopted by 
Cooper for a new edUion of the Works of Virgil : and, wher 
hereby recommend his work to those classical students, wli 
lespective Seminariea 


Prindpal of St. Jofe 


ProfeflMirof Languagef in j 

Rev. SAM'L. K. JEN^ 

. s Principal of the Aib 


Profeaor of Larwuaflies, AA 


Priniqhial of WaahliM 


Prindpal of WUminf 


Provoat of (he Unii 


P roteaawof Languagei of 


i l laulMl ef the Llieruy, Bdentific and Militaiy Lyoea 


ProAaor of Claaical Literatore in tlie CoUegl 

Rev. E. D. BARRY, ! 

Prindpal ct a ClaaBica; 


S JpermieadaHt of Ihe AnMrieui LHentfy, Sdentiiir. and MUitary Acadei 


PrnlBWnr cf ihe Qnek and Latfai langnagee In the A. L. 8. and Military Acadc 


Profoeeor of Languagee bi DiclUneoi 


P l l adu al of the Oraaunar Bchool of Uie Unh 

Rev. SAMUEL B. Wl 

Prindpal of a Claedcal * 


F llMli ii l ef • ClaeBical and Mathenaatlcal . 


Prlndpalof a ClaeBical ^ 


Priadpal of a Claerical . 


Prindpal of a Claarical . 


Prlndpal of a Cleerical 




W% Hm ■obseribeTS, do approve of the plan adopted by the Rer. J. G. 
lOfm ht a mem ediiicm of the Worka of Virgil ; and, when publiahed, we 
I hmkj recommend hia worfc to thoae claBsical atudenta, who may attand 
ir i M u e eti fe flmin a ri ei. 


PrtedpBl oT • CliHileal AcataV, PUtaJiMI». 

WM. MANN, A. M. 

Prtpdprt of > ClMiini! A ridiy, Plilhiilplii 

J. P. ESPY, 

Pitodpal ef > Ctewlnl Agidiy, Plilhiilplii 


Pitadpid of •CtaMleal Acatew, Niii^TortL 


Prtndpal of • ClMleal AcadcBqr, Naii^TQrlc. 

W. H. BOGART, A. B. 

PrtndMl of a CtaMM Acatav, N( 


Prtactoalor a ClMdeal Aoadany.Ntvp-TortL 


Prtndpalof a ClMdeil Acadaqr, Naif^Torit. 


Prtndpal of aClankal Acadaqr, Noir-Toril 


ChMleal Teaebor IB tlM La PiBjfcite lcniinBfT, N. Toril 


Prtadpol oT a CMeal AcadeBqr, Non^Torit. 


Aawlaic Prtadpal of aClMrieal Acadaqr, 


Prtadpal oT a Betod ClMrieal Acadaqr, 


Prtndpal oC tlw WoatWQrtli Acadeaqr, 


Prtndaal of a ClMrieal Aeadea 


PrtMlpal of a ided Oa 


PrtMlpal flf a Cli 


PNeopior of tlw RafilM OraaHMur 


PitMlpd or Um RinM«| 


PilMlMlar ■ GlMlnil Amimt.thm-] 





Th Prafessors and Teachers of Classical Literature in 
the CoU^eSy AcademieSj ana other Sendnaries in the 
United States: 

Tbe very favorable opinion that many of you have expressed, of the plan 
and execution of this EdUum cf the works of VirgiLt clainiB my respectflit 

Every attempt to facilitate the acquisition of classical literature will, I am 
persuaded, meet your approbation ; I shall, therefore, offer no apology for 
adding this new edition to the many others, already before the public. 

Soon after T commenced the instruction of youth, I became sensible of the 
L*qpropriety of the use of the editions of Virgil, then in our schools. Those of 
Rusus and Davidson were generally, if not exclusively, read ; both eciually 
objectionable, the former by affording too little aid to the student in the illus- 
tration of the text, the latter by afibrding him too much. It was at this early 
pen<>d that I formed the plan of the pi^esent edition. Except the two \ksx books 
of t>ie iEneid, it was finished in the year 1815, as you will perceive by the date 
of several of the recommendations. Since which time, they have been com- 
pleted, and the whole carefiilly revised and greatly improved. 1'his delay in 
the publication gave me a further opportunity to become acquainted with the 
wants of students, especially in the early course of study, and to collect the 
opinions of teachers upon this subject. That opinion has uniformly been in 
(avor of my plan ; which takes a middle course between the opposite extrcmes 
of affording too Uttle, and too much assistance to the student. 

The partial ordo is designed to assist him in the more intricate parts of the 
text ; and where recourse otherwise must be had to the teacher. The notes 
and explanations are copious. They embrace whatever was deemed necessary 
to elucidate the poet, and to lead the youthful mind to relish his beauties. Some 
of the more difficult passages I have translated ; and, in general, where a word 
is u:f€d out of its common acceptation, I have given its sense and meaning in 
that particular place : and where commentators are not agreed upon thc niean* 
ing of a word or phrase, I have given their respective opinions. In the text, 1 
bave adopted the reading of Heyne, except in a few instances, where the coii^ 
roon reading appeared preferable. 

To the Bucohcs, Georgics, and ^neid, I have given, in the first instance, a 
general introduction ; and to each Eclogue, and book of the Georgics and 
^neid^ a summary or particular introduction : so that the student, kno\%ing 
beforehand the subject, and anticipating the beauties and excellences of the 
poet, will proceed with ease and pleasure, and in a manner ca\ch V\\^ «^Vrifiu 
To etcb I have added a number of questiona^ to be asked bj the le.acViet^ vemI 

tnswered by the pupil. They maj be increased or mo^ 
This meUiod of instruction, by question and answer, will be 
■enres to ezcite inquiry and attention on the par^ of the studen 
taacher a ready method of discovering the degree of knowled 
obtained of the subject. In this particular, I acknowledge ; 
eeveral eminent teachers, who suggested the improvement 

The commentators, to whom I am principally indebted, are 
Dr. Trapp, Davidson, and Valpy. But it will be seen, in the co 
that I have not beeo oonfined to these alone. Wherever I 
Qsefiil, tending either to elucidate the poet, or to interest th( 
takeii it 

Throuffhoui the whole^ it bas been a {Hincipal object with i 
poet inteUigible, and to elucidate thoee passages which are obec 
To the whole is added, a table of reference to the notes, whei 
article is conaidered or passage ezplained. 

To yoo, gentlemen, I preeent it, with the humUe trast that I 
•nswer the purposes for which it was designed, namely, to lifl 
the teacher, and to &ci]itate the acquiaitton of a knowleidge oi 

J. i 

K£W TORK. Oet 18S7. 


PcBUUB TnoiiJTO M ARO was born at a village caUed Andea, about three 
finom tbe city of Mantua, on the 15th day of October, in the year of 
Bome 684, and 70 years before the Chriatian era. Pompey the Great and 
Marciis Licinius Crassus were conauls. 

His parents were in humble circumstances. His father cultivated a smaH 
6nn for the maintenance of his fiimily. His mother, whose name was Maia, 
«ms reUted to Quintilius Varus, who rose to be proconsui of Syria, and afler- 
wards was appointed to the command of the Roman army in Germany. 

The first seven years of hb life were passed under his patemal roof : aller 
wfaich he was removed to Cremona, a town situated upon the banks of the Po, 
mnd not &r fit>m Mantua. While here, he distinguished himself in those studiea 
•uited to his age, and gave presage of his future eminence. In this pleasant 
retreat he passed ten years, till he assumed the Toga viriJis^ which, among the 
Romans, was at the age of 17. At an early period he showed himself to be a 
&vonte of the Muses, and manifested a genius that one day was to rival the 
«uthor of the Uiad. At this time Pompey and Crassus were in their second 

From Cremona he removed to Mediolanimi, a town not fiu* distant, and soon 
«fter to Napies. Here he devoted his time to the study of the Greek language, 
of which he soon became master. By this means he was enabled to read the 
Greek poets in the original, to enter fiilly into their spirit, and to discover their 
beauties and exceUencies. This proved of essential service to him in his future 
labors. With a mind thus stored with literature, and a taste formed by the best 
modeis, he entered upon the study of medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. 
These last, more especiaDy, were his pleasure and delight, as he hauB intimated 
in several parts of lus wotks, 

He studied the Epicurean philosophy, then in much repute, under one Syro, 
an eminent teacher. He afterwards composed his Sixth Eclogue, with a view 
to ccMnpIiment his preceptor, and to express a gratefiil remembrance of hia 
instnictions. Yams was a pupil with him at the saoie time. Here they con- 
tracted a firiendfbp for each other, which continued during the remaindcr of 
their livea. Baving finished his studies at Naples, which occupied several 
years, it is said, he viaited Rome ; but it is more probable that he retumed to 
Mantua, and retired to his patemal inheritance. Here he acquired that prao» 
lical infonnation which so eminently qualified him for writing the Georgics. 

A penon of Virgil^s extensive attainments, and above all, of his poeticgenius, 
eonld not kmg remain in obncurity. His fiime reached the ears of PoUio, who 
VM m hm dntmgaMM fbr hia love of literature, and of the miQiib, ttkaik Isr 


his military achievements. He was a particular friend of Antony, and ander him 
commaiAlcd the troops in Cis-AIpine Gaul ; in which Mantua was situated. 
Ilere he became acquainted with Virgil, who was introduced to him either by 
Varus or Gallus ; both of whom our poet has mentioned in his Eclogues, in tbe 
most affectionate terms. 

Afler the battle of Philippi, which proved fatal to jthe republican party, Au- 
Hrustus divided the lands in the neighborhood of Mantua among his veteran 
troops, to whom he was indebted for tliat victory. Virgil was involved in the 
common calamity. This circumstance, in all hiunan appearance to be lamented, 
and which to otherB proved a heavy calamity, to our poet was the commence- 
ment of an illustrious career, and the harbinger of an immortal day. 

PoUio, who entertained a sincere friendship for Virgil, and was well qualified 
to form a correct estimate of his talents and acquirements, becoming acquaint- 
ed with his caae, recommended him to Maecenas, who was then at Rome, and 
held the highest place of honor and confidence with his prince. The fricnd of 
PoUio found also a friend in Maecenas. He laid his case before Augustus, and 
by his influence with his prince, obtained the restoration of his estate. Virgil, 
at this time, probably was about 29 years of age. He immediately returned 
with the edict of the emperor for the restoration of his farm, which had fallen 
into the hands of one Areus, a centurion ; but he was resisted and ill-treated by 
the new possessor, and forced to swiin over the Mincms to save his life. This 
cruel treatment is the subject of the nmth Eclogue. 

He went a second time to Rome upon the subject. But it is probable he 
never afler resided upon his estate. A wider field now opened before him ; and 
he made the seat of the empire the place of his residence. Here his acquaint- 
ance and friendship were sought by the niost distinguished men ; and the favorite 
of the Muses became also the favorite of Augustus. 

With a view to compliment his prince, and to express the happy state of the 
empire under his administration, it is said, he composed the following distich. 
which, in a private manner, he afHxed to the gate of the palace : 

Nocte pluit tota, redeunt speotacula mane : 
Divisum imperium cum Jove Ciesar habet. 

Augustus was highly pleased with the compliment paid to him, and the deli- 
cate manner in which it was expressed ; and he desired to find out the author. 
VirgiPs modesty and diflidence prevented him from making an avowal. At 
leiigth, one Bathyllus, a poet of inferior merit, had the hardihood to claim to be 
the author. The emperor richly rewarded him. This greatly mortified our 
poet, who wrote the same Unes upon the gate of the palace, with the following 
one under them : 

HoB ego yersicttloB feci, tuUt alter honores : 

together with the beginning of another Une in these words, 

Sio YOfl non vobie, 

repeated three times. Augustus wished to find the author ; and as the surest 
way of doing it^ demanded that tiie lines should be finished. Several attempta 
were made without effect. Batliyllus was not able to doit; which led to a 
suspicion of his imposture. At last VirgU finished them,and thus avowed him- 
self the author of the previous distich. The Unes are as foUow : 

Sic voB non vobis nidificatiB aves; 
Sic vofl hon vobia vcUera fertifl oves; 
« Sic vos non vobis mellificatis apes : 

Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra bovee. 

This Oeteeted the impostor, and coveied him with ridicule and oontempt 


About this tirae, at the suggestion of Pollio, Virgi) eommenced writing hia 
Eclogues; which occupied him tJu-ee years. Thefrst was written to express 
his gratitude to his prince for the restoration of his lanJs. This he did in so 
delicate and modest a manner, that it raised him greatly in the estimation of 
his fricnds and countrymen : and the poet conferred a greater fevor upon 
Augustus, by immortalizing this act of his beneficence, than he did by restoring 
to him his lands. The others were written upon various occasions, and for 
▼arious purposes. 

The Eclogues were extremely popular. So well were they received, that 
they were several times repeated upon the stage. Cicero, upon hearing them, 
was so much pleased, that he did not hesitate to say of tlie author : MagncB spes 
altera RomcB^ which words the poet aflerwards introduced into the twelflh book 
of the iEneid, applied tolulus. Virgil may be considered the first who intro- 
duced pastorals among the Romans. It is a fact worthy of notice, that he was 
the introducer, and at the same time tlie pcrfector, of this kind of writing. All 
succeeding poets have taken him as tlieir model, and found the surest way to 
success to be, to copy his beauties. It is true, he was much indebted to 
Theocritus, who was the first pastoral writer of eminence among the Greeks . 
but he followed him with judgment, and improved upon him so much in 
correctness of taste, in purity of thought, and delicacy of expression, that we 
lose sight of the original. So much was he esteemed, that ali classes of per- 
sons crowded to see him, whenever he appeared in public ; and on entering the 
thentre, the people rose up to do him reverence, no less than to Augustus 

During the civil wars, agriculture had been much neglected : and so gene- 
ral had the distress become on that account, that serious apprchensions were 
entertained for tlie peace of Italy. AII classes of people began to murmur, and 
to cast the blame upon Augustus, and his administration. In this state of 
things, it occurred to Mflccenas, that the most effectual method of avening tlie 
impending evils, and of restoring peace to the people, and confidence in the 
adiiiinistration, was to revive the agricultural interests of tbe country.* For this 
purpose, he desired Virgil to write a treatise upon agriculture. He well knew 
r.o person was better qualified for a work of this kind. He possessed an 
extensive knowledge of the subject, a correct taste, and could enliven it with 
the charms of poetic numbers ; and he already possessed the confidence and 
aiTections of his countrymen. 

Afler a short respite, he entered upon the work. That he might be less 
iDterrupted in its prosecution, he retired from Rome to Naples, a city more 
tranquil, and, at the same time, more healthy. In this pleasant retreat, removed 
from the bustle of the capital, the intrigue of courts, and the jarring interests of 
politics, he composed the Georgics — a poem, the most perfect and finished of 
any composition in tlie Latin language. He spent seven years in the work. 
The public expectation was raised high ; but it was far surpassed : and Virgil 
conferred a greater blessing upon his country, than if, in the field, he had ob 
tamed the most splendid victory over its enemies. 

The Georgics were every where well received, and Italy soon assumed a 
flourishing appearance. The people found themselves in the enjoyment of 
peace, plenty, and domestic happiness. The poet dedicated the work to his 
fiiend Mfficenas, a statesman distinguished equally for his love of literature and 
flcience, the correctness of his politics, and the wisdom of his councils. 

Virgil was now forty years of age. At ihis time, he found himself in the pos- 
session of a large estate, chiefly from the iiberality of his prince. His fame was 
coextensive with the empire, and the lovers of the muse courted his societj* 
Among the particular friends of Virgil, may be reckoned Horace, a distinguiahed 


poel of that age, and a fhend equaUy of PoUio and Maecenafl 
two &vonte8 of the Mus^s thece subsisted, during their livea 
fiiendship. How sincerely they esteemed each other, we may 
which Horace afterwards composed upon the occasion of Vir| 
Greece, on account of his health. 

Having completed the Georgics, our poet soon conunenc 
epic or heroic poem. This is the noblest species of poetii 
quiring a correct judgment, a lively imagination, and an uni 
Virgil poasessed them all in a high degree. It is supposed th 
ject in contempkition fcr several years previous, and that he i 
aizth Eclogue in these words : 

Ciim canerem nffea et prelia, Cynthiua aurem 
Vellit et admonuit : Pastorem, Tityre, pinguea 
Paacere oportet OYes, deductum dicere carmen. 

He probably had something of the kind in view ; but wheth 
Hlneid aflerwards proved to be, is uncertain. 

The subject of the poem is the removal of a colony of 1 
Minor, under the conduct of iEneas, and their settlement in 
and Odyssey undoubtedly suggested to Virgil the idea of the . 
out the former we should not have had the latter. 

It has been supposed by some, that the iEneid was desi{ 
encomium upon Augustus, who was qow raised to the bighes 
But if this had been his only object, the poet might have sav 
Jabor, by composing short pieces, or bnef panegyrics up 
Horace did on several occasions. It is true, VirgU was vei 
menting the Ca?sars, and in several parts of his works, he i 
most extravagant manner. 

The iEneid was undoubtedly designed for the benefit and 
Roman people generally, who were now happily enjoying the 
afler having su^ered, for a series of years, all the calamities c 
poet wished these biessings to be perpetuated. He, therej 
dissuade his countrymen fiom further attempts to restore thc 
vises them to submit to the authority of a man who derived 1 
£;ods, and. under his auspices, to cultivate harmony, and the ar 
This is the moral of the poem, and an object worthy of t 
benevolence of the poet. 

Virgil wrote with a wonderful degree of exactness. Evoi 
mentions is founded upon historical truth ; and the voyage am 
hero are given with geographical precision. He haa also | 
perfect account of the religious rites and ceremonies of the a( 
artfully blended with the subject, and so skilfully interwoven 
come an essential part of the poem. And while he is delighl 
the harmony of his numbers, he informs the understanding, 
bounds of our knowledge. 

As soon as it was known that Virgil had commenced the 
expectation was raised very high ; and so great was the gen< 
the occasion, that Sextius Propertius did not hesitate to say : 

Cedite, Romani Bcriptores, cedite Graii; 
Neacio quid majus nascitur Iliade. 

His delicate health caused considerable inlerruption in h 
found himself under the necessity of travelling, to sustain his f 
He visitea Sicily, and several parts of Italy ; but Napies was 
of residence. 


ipent Bmtk yean in compotiiig the firat nx boolDi of the Mnad. Au- 
I wiahed to hear what he had written, and desired kim to lecite them to 
The poet complied with the request of hia prince; and for this purpose^ 
ed the aecond, fourth, and aixth books. Into thb last, he had incorpo* 
, witb an ingenioua hand, the funeral ritea of Maroelhn, who died a thort 
Mlbre, and whom Augustus designed for his succeaaor in the empire. He 
lerj promifling youth, the darling of his mothet, Octavia, and the &vor. 
the people. Wben the poet came to this part, Octavia, who was preaent, 
10 much affected, that ahe fainted away : and Augustua was eo highly 
sd with the compliment paid to his nephew, that he ordered ten se*tertia 
given for CTery line of the eulogium. This amounted to a very Urge sum. 
'erae 166, had been lefl in an unfinished atate, and in the heat of fancy, 
ioned by the recital, it is said, the poet added the words, Matiemque ii«- 
re aaUu^ which complete the measure. 

bur yeara afterwarda, he finished the remaining six books, so that the poet 
eleven vears in writing the iEneid. At thw time, he was in the fifty- 
ear of Im age, and his health considerably impaired. He had revised the 
ues and the Georgics, and continued to improve them tiU the year before 
mtk| as appears firom some passages, particularly the closing verses of the 
■eorgic. Augustus was on the banks of the Euphrates, m the year c( 
) 734. At tfais time Virgii was fifty years of age, aud the Creorgics had 
publiahed ten years. 

ras the intention of Virgil to revise the iEneid also, befbre it was publish- 
And for thb end he visHed the classic soil of Greece, where he purposed 
rote three years to the poem : and, this being done, to tum his attention 
losophy. Tlus, firom his earliest years, had been his darling study, as he 
is os in the latter part of the second Georgic ; and he wished to spend the 
ning years of his life in contemplating the works of nature, and in ele- 
; his mind to its divine Author. 

L soon afler his arrival, his health became so delicate, and his strength so 
exhausted) that he was obliged to relinquish it ; and Augustus being on 
tom fit>m Asia, Virgil thought proper to accompany him. At Megara, 
n not fiir fit>m Athens, he became seriously indisposed, and apprehensiona 
entertained of his recovery. He hastened his retum to Italy, but coti- 
1 to dechne, and a few days afler his arrival at Brundusium, a town in the 
n part of Italy, he expired, on the 22d day of September, being nearly 
lars of age. He died with that composure and resignation, which be- 
80 good and virtuous a man. He wished to be interred at Naples, the 
te place of his residence ; and Augustus ordered his body to be rerooved 
r, according to his desire ; where it was buried with eVery testimony of 
ct and esteem. Just before iiis death, he wrote the foUowing Unes, as his 

Mantiia me genuit: Calabri npuere : tenet nane 
Perthenope : Cecini pucna, nura, duoes. 

inscribed upon his tomb ; and it is characteristic of the modesty ot 
Teat poet and distinguished philosopher. It is said his tomb is to be seoa 
i present day on the road firom Naples to Puteoli, about two miles firom 
rmer place. 

gil lefl a will. By it, he directed the iEneid to be buraed, as being im- 
;t and unfinished. But this was countcrmanded by Augustus, at whose 
, it is said, it was undertaken ; and we are indebted to liun for the preser- 
1 of ooe of the greatest efibrts of human genius. The manuscript was put 
le hands of Varus, Tucca, and Plotius, all friends of Virgil, and poets of 
dislinetion, with direction to expunge whatever they deemed Vm\kTO^T \ 

xvi UFE OF VIR61L. 

but to make no ad^tions themselves. To this circumstaiioi 
iog that we find so many imperfect lines in the iEneid. 

Virgil died in the possession of a large estate, the half of w 
to Valerius Proculus, his half-brother, on his mother'8 sid< 
gave half to Augustus, and the remainder to Mcecenas, 

Virgil was tall and of a brown complexion, extremely ten 
in his habits. His constitution was feeble, and his health < 
was much afHicted with a pain in his head and stomach ; 
spitting of blood. He was extremely modest, and even ba 
tended with a hesitation in his speech. Like other great in 
mies and detractors : but their aspersions only served to inc 
add new lustre to it. 

Virgil has been emphatically styled the prince of Latin pc 
been decided whether the palm should be awarded to the i 
poet. It is true, Virgil was much indebted to Homer, who 
the master ; but the pupil had the happy talent of makin 
passed through his hands, his oum. 

The condition of these two great favorites of the Muses n 
their lives. Homer, as his name implies, was blind ; and 
birth and parentage, that the place of his nativity has nol 
He wrote the Iliad and Odyssey in detached pieces, and reci 
rious cities of Greece, to obtain a subsistence. Virgil wrota 
of one of the greatest of princes, and nothing was wanting tl 
to hb ease and comfort. His friends were the best and the ; 
age. He was honored in his life, and lamented in his deat 
(riend to point the traveller to his monument ; and nearly fi 
away, before his countrymen sufficiently appreciated his n 
scattered productions, and rescue them from oblivion. Th 
to Pisistratus, an Athenian, for the preservation of these 
which are, and will ever be, the delight, and, at the same tii 
admiration of civihzed roan. 


Qp the seToral kinds of poetry, none is more generally /idmired than the 
paitoraL Its subjects, the variegated scenes of the country, the innoeent 
enployment of shepherds and shepherdesses, possess charnis which nefer 
frfl to please and interest our minds. But this species of poetry is difficult in 
aecutioo ; which may be tbe reason that there have been so few, who excelled 


If tbe poet were to make bis shepherd talk Uke a courtier, a philosopher, oi 
t itatennan, we should immediately perceive the impropriety ; or were he to 
■iln him utter low and vulgar sentiments, we sbould tum firom him with dis- 
fusi. The medium is the true course. To maintain tbis, bowever, at all 
tiaie&, 18 oo easy matter. 

Tbeocritus was the only pastoral writer of enknence among the Greeks, 
and Virgii among the Romans. The former denominated his pastqrals IdyUia^ 
the ktter Edoga, Virgil, bowever, cannot so properly be called an original 
putoral writer, aa an imitator of Tbeocritus. Many of bis finest touches are 
liken from tbe Grecian. He imitated bim, bowever, witb judgment, and in 
aoflie respects improved upon bim, particularly in preserving the true charac- 
tar of pastoral simpUcity ; in which tbe other on many occasions failed. 

The word BucoUca b of Greek derivation, and signifies pastoral songs, or 
ihe songs of sbepberds. Virgil denominated his Bucolica, Ecloga ; which is 
abo from a Greek word signifying to choose or select out qf. The Ecloguea 
ire, tben, a selection of cboice pieces, such as he thought wortby of pub- 

He began this part of bis works in the twenty-nintb year of bis age, and m 
the year of Rome 713; and finished it in tJie space of three years. Tbe 
Eclogues were so weU received by his countrymen, that tbey were pronounced 
pablicly on tbe stage. Afler hearing one of tbem, Cicero, it is said, did not 
bestate to say of bim : Magnm spes altera Roma, 

1t appears to bave been the design of Virgil in writing his pastorals, to cele- 
brmte tbe praises of Augiistus, and of some other of his fiiends at Romo« par« 
dcularly Ma^nas and Pollio. 


What an the ■abiects of pastoral poetry ? At what age did he begin this part of his 
Does this kind of poetrj poneae any pe- works f 

csliar cbam» ? In ^hat year of Rome ? «hfficult in ezeeation ? ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ . ^^ 

\¥ho among the Greeka waa the firat pas- theEcloKuei? 

teral poet of eounencer * 

What did he caU hia pastorala ? Were they well received by his coimtiy 

What did Virgil denominate hia? ™«» ^ 

la what light are we to eondder Virgil, «s What waa probably the roaaon of his 
a pMoraJ poet? writing the Ecloguef f 






4 P tlM teimiiiatioii of the ciYil war, which placed Aogiuitiu ■ecurely on the ImpehaJ 

tkrooe, to reward hie eoldien for their senricet, he them the lande iyincr abont 

Mtntaa and Cremona, diaposeeasing the former owners. Among the unfortunate suf- 

6reri wat Virgil himaelf; who, however, by the interest of Mecenaa with the Emperor, 

fBoeiTed hia lands again. 

Iitbe character of Tityrua, the poet seta forth his own eood fortune ; and in that of Meli- 

keui, the calamity of hia Mantuan neighbors. Tnis is the subject of tlie pastoral. 

The acene b laid in a beautiful landscape. A ahepherd, with his AocJl fecding around 

kiin, is lying at ease onder a wide-spreading beech-tree : the sun is appruachingf the 

WixoQ : shadows are falling from the mountains : the air is tranquii and serene : the 

«Doke ii aaoending from the neighboiing yillages. Tiiis scenery a painter coold copy. 

Mbl. TITYRE, tu patuiae recubans sub tegmine fagi, 
Sjlfeslrem tenui Musam mediiaris avenll : 
Ko8 patriae fines, et dulcia linquimus arva ; 
No8 patriam fugimus : tu, Tityre, lentus in umbri 
Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida sylvas. 5 

TiT. O Melibcee, Deus nobis haec otia fecit. ^* ®*P« ^**®"" agnu» 

Ntmque erit ille mihi semper Deus : illius aram «"^fiY" 

a \ _^ • i_ •VL • 1 ^ 9. IUe permisit meas 

BKpe tcner noatns ab oviUbus imbuet agnus. boves errare, et me ip- 

fHe meas errare boves, ut cemis, et ipsum sum ludere etvnUna, 

Lodere, que vellem, calamo permisit agi-esti. 10 que 

Mbl. Non equidem invideo: miror magis: undique ^^* Namque modd 
Uiquc aded turbatur agris. En ipse capelias [totis ^^^ah^^^relruiTtS 

Protenus «ger ago : hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco : fcc mter den^'colyC 

Uic inter densas coryloe modd namque gemellos, in nada silice. 


1. Fkgi: gen. of #>gMt, the beeeh-tree. 9. Emre. To feed at large. 

it is glandi fct oM u «^ ^^ 

% Sphetinm wmmm. A paetoral song. j^}^: ^«^ ^"'''•' "P«° l niral «ed 

-Itnwf^^yoaU. By Mdt! the straw ; Musical .nstruments were at firjt made of 

ajid benoe an oaietu or oat-ttraw otne. Me ^^ °' wheat straw ; then of reeds and boi- 

itlart» : yon pntctice or exerci«i. " ^^^^ • "^^rt"**" "^^ r^® ^% ^^"^ « ^^ 

XAr^ neu. plu. pfoperly cultivated crane ; of the horns of animals &c. Hence 

fieldi : ftom the verb aro. they are called avena, tttpula; eahmui. 

4. Tu Uniui : thou at ease in the shade, J^*^' cteuia,JUtula ; buxu», tibta, eamua. 

4ost teach the woods, kc Amarylliday a ^' 

GneiL acc of Amaryllis. See 31. infra. 12. Turbatur usque ade6 totis^ kc, Lit. 

6. Deus. A ^d, namely Augustus, who // u disturbed so mueh in Vie whole coun' 

lad reianated him in his possessions ; and try all around, TheVe is so n.uch commo- 

rhoBi the Rornans had deified. Htu otia : tion in tho whoie country, I woudcr xViiX 

ihis rert or eaee. Otium is opposed to labor you shotild enjoy such peace aikd qxucX. 

■ flignifie» Mo. 14. Corylos : hazlee— GcmeUus : lv:*\ii». 


Spein gregis, ah ! silice in nudl connb 
Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non h 

17. Memini querciu Pe coelo tactas memini praedicere quej 
Uctas de cGBlo ■«pepm- g gj^jg^^ ^^^ priedixit ab ilice co 
micere • • 

Sed tamen, ille Deus q*u sit, da, Tityn 

20. Ego BtultuB puta^ TiT. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, 
Ti urbera, quam dicunt stultus ego huic nostrsB similem, qud i 

RomameMesimilemhuic n ^ * a ^nr^. 

noBtre Maniua Pastores ovium teneros depellere fcetu 

. Sic canibus catulus similes, sic matribi 

Noram : sic parvis componere magna 

t&.H«ei2amaextulit. Verum hsBC tantum alias inter caput e: 

Quantum lenta solent inter vibuma cu 
Mel. Et quae tanta fuit Romam tibi 
TiT. Libertas : quae sera, tamen rei 
Candidior postquam tondenti barba cii 
Respexit tamen, et longo pdst tempor 
Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatc 
Namque (fatebor enim) dum me Gala 


16. Hoe malum nobis, There eeem to be inanimate. We have 

required here, to make the senee complete, language without an; 

thh words : and I might have underttood it ; foUu» ovtum, simply, o 

nm«7U,&c. Ifmymindhadnotbeenfooluh, S3, Sie canibus^ &c 

18. Sinistra eomix : the ill-boding erow. vius thus explains: ] 
The Romans were very superstitious. They Rome rese^iblcd Mai 
considered every thing as ominous. The as I knew whelps an 
flight of some kinds of birds, the croakin^ dams or mothcrs, diffi 
of others, the darting of a meteor, a pefu this I was mistaken : 
of thunder, were signs of good or bad luck. different specics fron: 
Those that appcared on thcir lefl hand, for cypress difiers from tl 
the ^ost part, thcy considcred uniucky. 24. Componere : in t 
Hence nnister tJid lavus came to signify 25. Extidit caput : t 
unlucky^ ill-boding^ &c. And those that ap- figurative expression,t 
peared on their right hand, they considercd 26 yibuma^ plu. o 
to be lucky. Hence, dexter came to signify of shrub. Some takf 
fortunate^ lueky^ &c. The best reason that for the wild-vine, 
can be given, why they used sinisier and 28. Libertas, Virg 
Ittvus^ sometimes in a good, at other timcs self as bcing an old 
m a bad sense, is, that they occasionally beard, and as havinj 
interoreted the omens afler the manner of ther of which was thc 
the Greeks, who considered those that ap- necessary for him to c 
peared in the eastem part of the heavens to his circumstances. ' 
be lucky ; and tuming their faces to the too plain, and would 
north, as their custom was, they would be beauty of the pastoral 
■een on the right hand. The Romans, on inactive. Sera : late 
the contrary, tumed their faces to the south 29. Candidior harb 
in observing the omens ; and consequently, beard. The comp. : 
their lefl hand would be toward the eaet, taken in the aense of tl 
corresponding to the right hand of the shaving it. 
Greeks. //icf : the holm-oak. ^X, Jimaryllis — Oal 

19. Qtit sit Deus : who may be that Ood of are to be taken allegc 
yours-of whom you speak ? Da nobis : tell Rome, the latter for K 
me. J^obis : in the sense of mihi. nocessary ; nor will it 

20. Romam. Rome, a city of Italy, situ- allegory throughout. 
ated on the river Tiber, founded by Romu- them literally, for th 
lofl 753 vears before Christ. Mantua war mistresses. Servius 
a city of the Cis-AIpine (raul, now Lom- Bucolics is to be tak 
bardy, situated on the eastem bank of the Trapp thinks Virgil i 
river Mincius, which falls into the Po. mistress Galatea wa 

fS. Fatus, This word sigrnifies the young and his new one Ama 
of anj thing or kind« wbether animate or gustus ; and by chan| 


Nec spes iibertatis erat, nec cura peculi : 

Quimvb multa mels exiret victima septis, 

Pioguis et ingrataB premeretur caseus urbi, 35 

Noo onquam graTb »re domum mihi dextra redibat. 
MsL. MiFabar, quid mcesta Deos, Amarylli, vocares, 37. Mirabar, quid fii 

Cui pendere svA patereris in arbore poma. moMta, Amaryili, voca- 

Trtyros hinc aberat. Ipss te, Tityre, pinus, "■ ^"^ « «^«^ patereri. 

Ipa te fontes, ipsa hacc arbusta vocabant. 40 

Trr. Quid &cerem ? neque servitio me exire licebat, 
Nec tam pmsentes alibi cognoscere divos. 
Hic illum vidi juvenem, Meiibose, quotannis 
Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. 
Hic miiit responsum prinuis dedit ille petenti : 46 

Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueH : submittite tauros. 

MfiL. Fortunate senex ! ergo tua riira manebunt : 
Et tibi magna satis : quamvis lapia omnia nudus, 

Limosoque palus obducat pascua junco 54, Hino sepoa, qua 

Non insueta graves tentabunt pabula fcetas, 60 dundii hnm agrum ab 

Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent. vicino limite, scmper 

Fortunate senex ! hic inter flumina nota, '^^^■f?*^ V^^ ^?!'®"' 

Et font« «cros, frigu» c.ptabU opacum. '^^\^J^rti& 

Hmc tibi, qu» semper vicmo ab hmite sepes •omiium levi eusurro 

Hyblsis apibus florem depasta sahcti, 66 apum. 


ieatelj hinta at his changing political rides, nominatiTes preceding, and to govem the 

tnd in eoneequenoe thereofleaTing Mantua, pronoun ie, 

and going to Roroe. 42. Proueniet : propitious or favorable. — 

From the circumstance of Augustus de- Alibi : in any othcr place— an^ vhere else 

priTing the Mantuans of their Tands, we — Cognoteere : to experience, or find. 

aay infer that they were generally in favor 43. Hic, Here^ at Roine.^-Juvinem : Oc- 

ef the Republic, and Virgil mifirhthaYebeen tarius, who waa then about twenty-two 

ef that party, tiU all hope of liberty was years of age ; afler^'ard by a decree of the 

lost, and prudence dictated a change of senate caUed ^uguttut, — Cui nottra: for 

politica. Oalaiea reliquU^ is for reliaui Ga- whom our altars snioke, in honor of, &o. 

lafMni, by Euphemismus. Ailer he had 46. Puert, Swains. The word puer pro- 

kti Galatea, and transferred his affections perly signifies a boy, in opposition to a girl^ 

lo AnarjlUa, ho obtained Uberty and pro- also a male slave or waitor. 

perty : that ia, afler he had changed poUti- 49. Obdueai omnia patcua^ &c Ruasua 

ea! sidet. understands this not of Virgirs own lands, 

33L PeeulL By apocope for Peeulii, This but of the lands of his neighbors. Dr. 

aord properly denotee the property of a Trapp very justly reiects this interpretation. 

dtre---that which his master sufiTerB him to The poet is feUcitating himsclf on his (^ood 

posMB, and caU his own. In this sense, it fortuno under tlie character of an old mau. 

b pccoliarly proper, as Virgil here speaks of And, though his farm was covered over 

himself as having been in that humiliating partly witli rocks and stones, and fxirtly 

eondition. with a marsh; yet no unusual or impn>per 

35. Urhi. The city Mantna. pasture ehould injure his {gravesfata») pn:^- 

36. JVen Mii^iiam, &c. Never did my nant ewes ; nor any noxious coutagion oi n 
riffat hand retum home hoavy with money. neighboring flock should infect or hurt theiiu 
— vViib .' ia the sense of mea, — Fata : the female of any kind big wilh 

40 Arfnuta : the grovcs themselves, &c. young — a breeder. 

Tliere is a grcat beanty m Iho personiiication 52. Inier Jlumina nota, The Mincius and 

•f iatiiimate things ; or attributing to thcm Po. 

tke aetions of real life. The Arbutta wero 55. Sapet depattajlorem^ &c This con- 

krge p ie c ei of gronnd tet with elms or other struction frequently occurs among Uie poetsb 

Ireea, oominonly at the distance of about 40 and is in iniitation of the Greeks ; whe 

feet, to leave room ibr com to grow betwecn sometimes placed the noun or pronoun in 

them. They were sometimes pruned, and the acc. case, omitting the goveming prep. 

Mrved fbr etagee to the vi le. The verb ro- Fed upon at /o, or uith rupui to, tts ^owei 

^ — ' k to be rcp^ated with eacb of tbe qf wilUnD^ Sic, — Hjfblmit: an ad^. Ciom V\h. 


Saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susum 

Ilinc alti sub rupe canet frondator ad ai 

Nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, pah 

Nec gomere aerii cessabit turtur ab uhn 

TiT. Ante leves ergo pascentur in 8Btl 

Et freta destituent nudos in litore pisces 

Ante, perenratis amborum finibus, exul 

as. At noi exptUn Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut German 

hinc, alii mttrum ibi- Quam nostro illius labatur pectore vultu 

mus ad sitiente. Afrom, Mel. At nos hinc aUi sitientes ibunus 

S^c^i^^ veniemu. p^^ Scythiam, et rapidum Cretae veniei 

68. En unquam rai- Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. 
rabor videns patrios En unquam patrios iongo pdst tempore : 


bfa, a town and mountain in Sicilj, famous divided the opinions of 

for honoj. — Vicino iimUe : from the neigh- pcars to be this : that 

boring field. Hine : on ihe one hand, It the Germans and the I 

18 opposed t9 the Hine in line 57. infra; change countries with € 

which is to be rendered : on Ihe other hand. amborum pererratis) soon 

57. M aurat : to the air — aloud, so as to the image of that youtt 

pierco the air. from his breast. But the 

60. ^nti, Tho ante in this line is mere- be ; therefore, the latter v 
ly explotive; the sense is compiete without erraiis^ in the sense of p 
it. 65. Sitientet: thirstin( 

61. Destitueni : in the sense of relinquent. epithet is pecuharly prop 

62. ./^n/^, pererraiis^ &c. Parthus, by tants of Africa, the greatc 
8ynec. for the Parthians coUectively. They between the tropics. 
wereapeopledescendedfVom the Scythians, 66. Seythiam. The I 
and possessed that part of Asia, which is brave and warlike peop 
bounded on the west by Media, on tlie north dering life. They extenc 
by the Caspian sea, on the eost by Bactri- over a very considerable 
ana, aiid ou the south by the dcserts of Car- Asia. Hence the term 
mania. In process of time, they bocame be used indefinitely, to d 
very powerful, and were the most formida- the whole of the northei 
ble enemies of the Persians : and from their and Asia. Oaxis : a rivc 
firequcnt conquests over that people, are island in the Mediterranc 
«ometimes confounded with them. Germa- ted for having been the b 
nia. An extensive country in Europe, put, ter, and for its having oi 
by meton. for the inhabitants of that coun- cities. Veniemvi^ in the 
try. Ararim, A river of F^rance arising 68. En unqtuan, Alas 
from mount Vogetus (hodie Vauge) and run- der, beholding, iic, Gen 
ning in a southem direction, falls into the Davidson connect aliqm 
RhodanuB at Lyon8,and along with it, into regfia, But Dr. Trapp 
the Mediterranean. It is famous for tlie aristas to mean qfter «oifit 
bridge built over it by Julius Caesar. Its strues mea regna with cui 
present name is the Soane, THgrim, This is tnie, arista may be taka 
a very rapid river of Asia, rising in Arme- aiiquoi aristas does not n 
nia, and taking a southerly direction, pass- the longo tempore phst^ n 
ing by Mesopotamia and Assyria, unites fore. And if it did, it wo 
witU the Euphrates, and with it falls into less repetition. But coni 
the Sinus Persicus, The Araris is not in with mea regna^ as in tha 
Germany properly so called. But it is weli priety of this kind is remo 
known that the Germans extended their a beautiful representatu 
conquests beyond that river, and eflTected possessions ; which consii 
«ettlements among the Sequani, and other of land, lyinsr adjacent t 
nations of Gaul. Nor is the Tigris in Par- roof of which just rose al 
thia proper. But the Parthians extended was planted around it, i; 
tneii conquests as far west as the Euphra- properly be said to b^ coi 
tes. Not far from this river they vanquished or behind it. TStgurU bj 
Crasavs, the Rouian general. The mean- gurii, Congestum eespiH ; • 
ing o* thui paasage, which hatk ao much torf 


Piapens et tugur) congestum cespite culmen, 
Po0t aliquot, lueii regna, videns mirabor aristaB ? 
Impj>i8 h&c taro culta novalia miles habebit ? 
Birbanis has segetes ? En quo discordia cives 
Perduxit miseros ! en queis consevimus agros ! 
Imere nunc, MeliboBe, pyros, pone ordine vites : 
lie mee, felix quondam pecus, ite capellaB. 
Son ego Tos posthac, vindi projectus in antro, 
DimKwi pendere procul de rupe videbo. 
Cannina nulla canam : non, me pascente, capeQs 
Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras. 

TiT. Hic tamen hanc mecum poteris requiescere 
Fronde super viridi. Sunt nobis mitia poma, 
Ctstaneie moUes, et pressi copia lactis. 
Et jam summa procul villarum cuhnina fumant, 
liajoreBqiie cadunt altis de montibus umbr». 

fines lon^ tempore post, 
«^Qet eulinen pauperie Xu* 
guri, congeitum ceop itei 
statu poflt aliquot arie» 
taj« Ma mea regna. 



76. Ego poathac pro- 
J^otoa ia Tiridi antroi 
noo Tidebo voa pffoeal 


71. Jf90alia : ikilow-groiind. had labored, and had improved hia landa,lo 

7«. Qni .. whithaiwto what aUte of mi- be now po«ies.ed by a cniel aoldier, 

Perduxii: hath rednced, or brougbt. «2. Copta prctn /ii^/« : a plenty of curda 

^ and cheeae. JnoUes^ may here mcan rtp^ or 

74. I n t e r e mmct Iec. MelibcBua aaya thia aoft and smooth, in oppoaition to the hirnh 

beoicaUT to himaelf; being vexed that he /oe, or rough. 


Wbat M the aobjoet of thia paatoral? 

To reward hia tioopa, what did Auguatua 

Who ia repreeented nnder the character 

Who aader that of Melibona? 

Where ia the acene of the paatoral Uld? 
What ia the time of the day ? 
What ia the atate of the atmoaphere ? 
To what ia oHum oppoaed ? 
Were the Romana a aaperatitioaa poo- 



Tn auljeet of thia channing paatoral b the paaaion of the ahepherd Corydoo fbr tho 
boantiiU youth Alezia. iTie ahepherd complaina of the craelty of the boy in alighting 
hia ovortnrta ; and withal adviaea him not to trust too much to hia complezion and 
beaoty. He endeavora to preyail on him to yisit the country, where be promisea to 
aBtertain him with muaic, nuta, applea, and fiowers. But when he finds nothing will 
avail, he reaolvea to aeek another lover. By Corydon aome underatand Virgil himaelii 
aad by Alexia a beaatifnl alaye, belonging to hia friend and patron, Mecenaa. la 
aaTeral parta of thia paatoral, the poet ia indebted to Theocritaa^ The aoeno ia laid m 

FoiMoeini pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim, 
DeBeiu domiiii : nee, quid speraret, habebat. 



ArJUkmi: hegraatly lored— he bomed t. Deiieku: tho dtrlfaig^tlM MgBX ^ 
Tftoa wofd rery foreibly marka tho liia maater. It hi plaoed m appMWkm lAlk 
ai hia paaeiao, AUxtm^ It la oaod oaly in tho pluciL 


S. Intar deiiflai fkgoe Tantum inter densas, umbrosa cacmnina 
kabauet omhrota cacu- Assidue veniebat : ibi h«c incondita 90I1 
'^^^^ Montibus et sylvis studio jactabat inani. 

O crudelis Alexi, nihil mea carmina cun 

Nil nostri miserere : mon me denique e 

Nunc etiam pecudes umbms et fiigora c 

Nunc virides otiam occultant spineta lac 

10. Thectylia ooDtnn- Thestylis et rapido fessis messoribus asst 

dit aUia lerpyUumque^ ^nia sei*pyllumque herbas contundit olei 

oleaU» herbaa, meMon. ^j j„^„^ ^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ vestigia lustf 

bus feMiB rapido sstu, a i lj^ ^i^-j- 

At, dum luatro tua vca- ^®*® ^"" ardenti resonant arbusta cicadi 

tif^a, arbuata Nonne fuit satius tristes Amaryllidis ii 

Atque superba patt fhsddia ? nonne Mei 
Quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus 
O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori 
Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia mgra legi 
Despectus tibi sum, nec qui sim qusris, 
Quam dives pecoris nivei, quam lactis a1 

«3. Canto earmtno, ^^*'^® ""®® ^^^"^^ ®^™"^ ^" '"^"^^"^ ^ 
quie DircsuB Amphion ^ac mihi non aestate novum, non fngorc 

lolituB cMi eaniare^ Canto, qus solitus^ si quando armenta 1 


4. Ibi tolut jaetabai^ &c. There alone he flowers themselvea, by 
pouredforth these indigested complaints. Jac- the blaekberries or bi^ei 
iabat : he threw them away — they were of them for the Hyaeinih o\ 
no avail to him, because they wero unhecd- Virgil here imitates. T 
ed by Alexia. poet is this : ae the privet 

5. Inani studio : with unavailing pieasure, fair, (cadunt^) lie neglect 
or fondness. He speaks the language of a useless ; and the blackbc 
lovor. The beauty and accomplishmenta of saved for its usef\ilnesa 
the boy had taken poasession of his affec- you, though fair and bei 
lions. He dwells upon them with rapture be neglected for your pric 
and dclight. But all this is vain and una- though black and swar 
vailing. The boy rogards him not. He for his good disposition, i 
then breaks forth : O erudelis Alexi^ nihil temper. 

mea earmina euras^ &c. 21. Siculis, The mou 

7. At/. This word is oflen used in the mcationed, eithcr becai' 

■ense ofnonj as a simple negative. So also for excellent pastures, o 

ifl nihil, of the pastoral is laid in 

9. Laeertos : lizards. Sninetum : a phice 22. ^state : in sumi 
where thoms and prickly snrubs grow : here winter. 

put f<.> the thoms themselves, by meton. 23. Siquando : the san 

10. Thestylis, The name of a servant ; he called his herds. It ik 
taken ftom Theocritus. herds to walk before tl 

11. AUia: plu. of aUium^ an herb called them. 

farlic. SerpyUum: wild-thyme, or running- 24. Amphion, A cc 

betony ; an odoriferous herb. said to have been the sob 

13. Cicmdis. "'he cicada is an insect of tiope, and bom on moun 

tlie species of be grasshopper, making a king of Thebes, and is si 

very hoarse and disagreeable noise, particu- walls of that city by thc 

larly in the heatof the day. Saiius: in the We are to understand l 

senso of me/fttf. persuading, by his eloq 

15. Menalcan, A Greek acc. of Menal- people to unite, and bt 

eas. SecEcl. 3. Fastidia: j^lu, of fastidium : common safety. His n 

disdain — haughtiness. Pati : to bear-— en- Lycus, king of Thebes, 

dure. him for the sake of Diret 

18. Ligustra : plu. ofLieustrum : a priret Dirranu : an adj. either 1 

Hf wiih'bind^ a sp<H:iea of shrub or plant mother, or from a founti 

bearing very white flowers ; taken for th« Beotia. Aracmtho * a t 


AiDphion Dircciis in Aoteo Aracyntho. 

Nae sum aded infbnni» : nnper me in htore yidi, 

Cum phcidum Tentis staret mare : non ego Daphnijii, 

/odice te, metuam, si nunquam fallat imago. 

tutum libeat mecum tibi sordida rura, 

Atque humiles habitare casas, et figere cerros, 

Hcniorumque gregem viridi compellere hibisco ! 

Mecum una in sylvis imitabere Pana canendo. 

Ptn primus calamos oerft conjungere plures 

(aitituit : Pan curat oves, oviumque magistnM» 

Nec te pcsniteat calamo triviase labellum. 

llmc eadem ut sciret, quid non faciebat Amyntas ! 

Kst mihi disparibus septem compacta cicutis 

Fistula, Damoetas dono mihi quam dedit otim : 

Gt dixit moriens : Te nunc habet ista secundum. 

Dixit Damoetas ; invidit stultus Amyntas. 

PrKterea duoi nec tuti mihi valle reperti, 

Capreoll, sparsis etiam nunc peUibus albo, 

Bina die siccant ovis ubera : quos tibi servo. 

Junpridem a me illos abducere Thestylis orat : 

Et fiiciet : quoniam sordent tibi munera nostra. 

Huc ades, 6 formose puer. Tibi lilia plenis 



98. Nime ista Jkhna 
habet te secanium ^ 

40 40. Duo capreoli n^ 
porti mihi, nec tut4 v alie, 
liccant bina ubeni ovi« 
m die, pellibua etiam 
nunc ipanie albo. 



ia Beotia. But why it ihould be called Ae^ 
iam^ ihen is a difference of opinion. Ser- 
\m9 thinks it is so ealled from a Greek word 
viueb ■ignifies the share. Probus derives it 
frem Acimon^ who, hunting near thia moun- 
taia, WM tom in piecefl by his doge, for hav- 
inf dieooTered Diana bathing herself. Mr. 
DaTidsoa placee the mountain in the con- 
fiaas of Atiica and Beotia ; and thinks it is 
Bo cailed from Aeta or Aeit^ the countiy 
•bont Attica. Ruceus interprets Aetao by 

tS. Dtqthnim. A beautiful shepherd. 
8ee in £cL 5. Plaeidum : in the sense of 

f7. /sutfe. His image reflected from the 
waier. Jfun^uam : in the sense of non. 

28. O tantum libeat tilri : O that it would 
plMse you to inhabit with me, fcc. These 
ars sweet Itnes. Sordida rura, Most com- 
meatatori join /t6t to tordida^ disdained or 
despised by thee. But there is no need of 
this refinement. Sordida is a very proper 
spitbet for cottagos and country villages, 
vkich in general are indiflferent in tliem- 
ssItss, and poorly fumished, when compar- 
sd witk the splendor and luxury of cities. 
Or, we may soppose the poet to speak in the 
ekaracter of a lover, who thinks nothing 
feod enongh for the object of his afiections. 
6m m opposed to urht. 

90. Kiridi hibiteo, Ruasus takes these 
to be in iho dative case, and under- 
by theni : to green or rerdnnl pasturtf; 
hibisnan^ texyn ho * taking tho 
foj a kind of p!a4t. Bot thiv in- 

terpretation is attended with difficulty. Dr. 
Trapp takes it for a large plant or little treei 
out of which wands were made. He ob- 
serves, Virgil no where mentions it as food 
for cattle. CompeUere^ &c. : to drive tbem 
with a green switch. 

31. Pana, Pan, the god of shepherds and 
hunters, is said to have been the son of Mer- 
cury and the nymph Dryope. He was edu- 
cated in Arcac^a ; and wrapped in the skin 
of a goat^ he was carried up to heavcn by 
Jupiter, where all the gcKls ridiculed his ap» 
pearance. He chiefly resided in Arcadia. 
He is said to have invented the pipe wHh 
seven reeds. He was worshipped in Arca- 
dia, and is said to have given out oraclcs on 
mount Lyceus. His festivals, called by the 
Greeks Lytit^ were introduced into Italy by 
Evander, and established at Rome undor 
the name of Luperealia^ and celebrated the 
15th of February. He was the chief of the 

34. TVivisse labellum : to have wom the 
lip. From the verb tero, 

36. Cieutit. Cicuta, an herb mach like 
the Hemlock. Hence used for any hollow 
reed : hence also, by Meton. for a pipe. f1is> 
tula : a pipo connected together with sevea 
unequal reeds, &c. These were put toge- 
ther with waz, as mentioned 32 sapra. 

41. Duo CapreoH : two young gnatn. Cn- 
preoU : a diminitive noun, from capra or 
eapttr, Thoge were undoubtedly wild kids, 
taken from their dams, which he ehteemed 
very much ; and not those lost hy Kim^ «xva 
recovered dgain. Sarviui «^7« *. W\^\kVf^ 


Ecce fenint Nymphie calathis : tibi cftndii 
Pallentes violas et sununa papavera carpe 
Narciasiim et florem jungit bene olentis ai 
Tum casil, atque aliis intexens suavibus h 
Mollia luteol^ pingit vaccinia caltha. 
' Ipse ego cana legam tenerl lanugine mali 

Castaneasque nuces, mea quas Amaiyllis 

Addam cerea pruna : et honos erit huic < 

£t vos, 6 lauii, carpam, et te, proxima m 

55. ^^aoniam nw po- Sic positse quoniam suaves miscetis odorc 

titae sic iiiKetis Rusticus es, Corydon ; nec munera curat 

«1?' ^^ >^^^^7aZ^ Nec si muneribus certes, concedat lolas. 

imiuisi ausirum floribua, Eheu, quid volui misero mihi ? flonbus A 

et aprod. Perditus, et liquidis immisi fontibus aproa 


atfintwhite spots, whichaflerwardschange, he killed himeelf. His b! 

and iose tbcir beauty. If it be eo, thie into a flower, which bean 

ctrcomstance will ezplain the words, tpartit 47. Stanma papacera • 

eiiamntme peUxbtu aibo : wliich also denotes ing the heads of poppi( 

that thoj were joung. Aneihtu were two beautL 

46. Eece/erunt : behold ihe nympht bring «jccording to Serviua, w 

fbr ymi lUiet in JuU batketn, &c. The fol- ">""«' ">^ ,"»« flowcr, n 

lowing linee are extremely L-»autiful. Mr. P^nfi .**»« «^ter into th 

Warton obsenre^ they contain the sweetest ^ «^»** ^^ ^*^ ^^ 

garland ever ofiered by a lover. The agi- «melling. 

Ution and doubts of a iover's mind are ^- Pingii moUia^ &c 1 

finely set forth : nee munera eurai Jilexit, ^^ ^^ soft hyacmtha wil 

kc At length he seems to come to himself, mary^ld. raecimum^ h 

and lo reflect upon the sUte of his affairs : Hyacmthus of Theocntus, 

miit temipuiaia eti, &c J^ympha, They copies ; so say Tumebui 

were a iLind of female Divinities supposed Ruibus. 

to exist for a very great length of time ; but ^}- ^^ Malum sign 

not to be altogether iromortal. They were «f ™t, such as apples, 

divided iuto two general classw— Nymphs «c. The last is here n 

of the land, and Nymphs of the water. fro™ the eana ienera ian* 

Eachoftheseclasseswasdividedivtoseve- »«" down, or fiir. Mr. 

ral others. The former into Dryadet^Ha- ^"^^ pea^es. 

madryade»'-'Oreade»~-irapeem^Limmtiadet^ ^3. Cerea: of wazen-o 

&c. The latter into Oceanide^-^eradet-- ^ Myrte, The Roma 

jr«Mtdet or J^aidet^Polamidet—Limniadet^ garlands of laurel in th. 

fcc AU of which are of Greek derivation. tnumphs : and those of m; 

which was on horseback, • 

The nymphs wero fnrther distmguished lesser trinmph, or triumph 

by an epithet taken from the place of their dignity than that in whi 

residence. Thus the Nymphs of Sicily are rode m a charioL The 

called Sieeiidet—thon of Coryeut^ Coryei- stLcred to Venus, and the 

adet or Coryeidet, kc. Prwcima : nexi in honor t 

Echo is said to have been formerly a 56. Rutiieut : in the se 

nymph ; but falUng in love with a beautifiil 57. lolat, Tho owner or 

yoota calltod ^areittuty who refused her ad- 58. Eheu^ quid ro/iii, & 

droBseo, at which she was so much grieved / done io mytelfy a mitert 

Ihat she pined away, till every part of her rttined, I have lei in ihe 

was consumed but her voice, that continued Thew expressions are pr 

to haunt the woods and fountains, which plicable to those who wi 

ehe once firequented. JVarruna, stopping to prove ruinons to them. D 

repoee himself by the side of a fountain, the passage thus : By my 

irhere ho chanced to see his image reflected this extravagant passion, 

lii tho water, becamo enamoured with it ; peace and quiet, and perm 

Uking it for a nymph, he endeavored to gotodecay,whichwerebel 

approach it ; but all his atUmpU being un- flourishing, and proq>eroQi 

availing, he was ao much disappointed thal interpreu it hjfefL 



Quem rugis, ah, demens 1 habitarunt di quoque sylvu, 

DanJaniusque Paris. Pallas, quas condidit arces, 61 

(psa colat : nobb placeant ante omnia sylvs. 

ToiTd Isena lupum sequitur : lupus ipse capellam : 

Florentem cydsum scquitur lasciva capella : 

Te Cor}'don, 6 Alejd : trabit sua quemque voli^tas. 66 

Aspice, aratra jugo referunt suspensa juvenci, 

£t 5ol crescentes decedens duplicat umbras. 

Me tamen urit amor : quis enim modus adsit amori ? 

Ah, Cor}'don, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit ! 

6einiputata tibi frondosa vitis in ulmo est. 70 

Quin tu ahquid saltem potius, quorum indiget usob^ 

Viminibus mollique paras detexere junco ? 

Iovenies< tlium, si te hic fastidit Alexim. 


71. Qnlo potiiis t« 
paima deteiere Mltem 
aliqiiid eoriMi, qaofiun 
iiMifl indiget viininibiifl. 

tfO. Demau: O foolish boT, whom do you 
Ate? Dewtens^ compounded of de and 

61. Paris» See nom. prop. under Pcarit. 
Dv4ani\u^ an idi. of Dardanut^ ono of the 
fbundera of Troy. Paliat^ the same ae Mi- 
Dcrva. See Geor. I. 18. 

62. CqUU : in the soose of ineolai. 

6S. Sua volupiat trahU quemque : his own 
pleaflure draws every one— every one is 
^rawu bj his own pieasure. 

66. RrferwU. After the labor of tbe 
day, they drew bome the plough inverted, 
8o tbat the ehare would glide eaeiW over the 
ground, and hang, ae it were, lightiy upon 
tbe yoke. 

7 1. Qutn /u, &c. Whv do you not ratner 
prepare to make (weave) at loast ■onie of 
thoee thingt wliich need requires, of oeieri 
and pliant ruahei ? The verb indigeo go- 
vemi the genitive. Utut : need, or necee- 


What ii the rabjeet of thii paetoral ? 
Who ie represented under the cbaracter 
«f Corydon ? 
Who under that of Alexis.' 
Where is the scene laid ? 
^lio was Amphion? What is said of 

Wtm > 

WhowasPan? What is said of hiro ? 
What were his iestivals called by the 
Qteeks? What bv the Romans ? 
B whMwtretAayintroduced into Italyf 

When were they celebrated? 

Whe were the Nymphs ? Into how many 
classes maj they be divided ? 

Was each of tbese classes subdivided into 
othor classes ^ 

Can you mention tome of thoee subdi- 
visions ? 

Who was Echo said to have been ? 

From what language are the BaiMf of 
the Nymphs derivod? 




Tn mibjeot of this pastoral ifl a trial of skill in music between the shep 
and DamoBtae ; who aflter rallying each other a while, resolve to try a 
■eoce of their neighbor Palsmon, whom they constitute judge of thei 
Hayingheard each of them attentively, he declared he wasunabloto dc 
a controvenij ; but pronounced each one to be deserving of the pledgi 

This beautiful pastoral is in imitation of the fiflh and eighth of the Id 
tus. It is conjectured that under the character of Damoetas, we an 
Virgil ; and under that of Menalcas, some rival poet at Rome. 

1. Cujum pecus et/ Men. DIC mihi, Damoeta, cujum pecus ' 
uhid? an estpectu Me- jy^^ Non, verum iEgonis : nuper mihi t 

Dum fovet, ac, ne me sibi praeferat illa, ve: 
Hic alienuB oves custos bis mulget in hori 
Et succus pecori, et lac subducitur agnis. 
Da. Parcius ista viris tamen objicienda 
8. Novimus et qui Novimus et qui te, transversa tuentibus hii 
§orruperint te et in quo Ei quo, sed faciles NymphoB ris^re, sacello 
sacello, hircis tuenUbus ^^ Tum, credo, cum me arbustum vid^i 
transversa, sed . ^ ,^ . . . , /. i n 

10. Tum credt> iUtt^^^^^ m^iVA vites mcidere mlce nDveilas. 

riierunty cum vid^re rae Da. Aut hic ad veteres fagos, cum Dapl 
incidere arbustum Fregisti et caiamos : quae tu, perverse Me 

£t cum vidisu puero donata, dolebas ; 
16. Audent faetrt ta- ^^^ ^^ ^'^^ aliqua nocuisses, mortuus esses. 
lia. Me. Quid domini fiicient, audent cum t 


1. Cvjum : an adj. agreeing with peeut : minished or taken awa]| 

in the scnse of ev^iu, from their young. This wa 

S. JEgon, The name of a shepherd, the brought agr&inst DamoBtas 

rival of Menalcas in tho love of JWoira. sented it. 
It IB dcrived from a Greek word signifjring g Tranjn<er,i : croaswi. 

'f?',4 • /-i- fnu L »dv. ftoin the adj. of the 

3. O ove; tn/i/ur pteus. The sheep are ^^^j^^ ^j. ^j,^ q^J^ 

ealled unhappy, becauso their master ^gon, 

while in love with ^ettra^ had given up all 9. Sacello : any place co 

eare of them ; and because they had fallcn worship of God — a cave 

into tho hands of a hireling, who treatod the presont case. 

them so inhumanly. 10. Jirbiulum: properly 

5. Aiienus, An alien, or hireling shep- with trcns for vines to gi 
bard — ctutos, meton. the trees theniselve 

6. Succus : may raean the sarae with lae JSToveMat : new, or young. 
menUoned just afler. By miiking the dams, 13. Qua tu^ &c. Which ( 
the natural food {lac) of the young would whenyousawgiventothebo^ 
be takcn from them, and they suHcrcd to and would havt died^ if you 
■tarvo. Or succru may mean nourishmcnt trav, injured him, 

in gcneral. It being taken away or diini- ' 16. Fures : slaves. Thoj 
ntshcd to Ihe damH« the milk would be di- so called, because notoriou 


Noo ego te vidi Damonia, pesame, capram 

Excipere insidiia, multum latraDte lycisc^ ? 

Ct cum clamarem ; *"*" Qud nunc bt proripit ille ? 

ritjre, coge pecua :" tu poet carecta latebas. 90 

Da. An nuhi cantando victus non redderet ille, 
Quein mea carminibus meruisset fistula, caprum ? 
Si nescis^ meus ille caper fuit ; et mihi Damon 
Ipse &tebatur, sed reddere posse negabat. 

Mk. Cantando tu illum ? aut unquam tibi fistula c&A 25 S6. To vicuH Dloai 
JuDCta fuit ? non tu in triviis, indocte, solebas cantando? 

6thdenti miserum stipul& disperdere carmen ? 

Da. Vis ergd inter nos, quid possit uterque, vicissim 
Experiamur ? ego hanc vitulam (ne forte recusesi 
Bis venit ad mulctram, binos alit ubere fcetus) 30 

Depono : tu dic, mecum quo pignore certes. 

Me. De grege non ausim quicquam deponere tecum ; 
Est mihi namque domi pater, est iiyusta noverca : 
Bisque die numerant ambo pecus ; alter et hoedos. 

VcrvuE, id quod multd tute ipse fiitebere majus, 36 35. Vemm, quoniani 

hnnire hbet quoniam tibi, pocula ponam libettibiin«uiire,ponam 

P • 1 ^ j- • • A 1 • j *^ *o Quoa tute ipse fat# 

Fapna, ccplatum divini opus Alcimedontis : be^ ^ ^^/x ^j^ 

Lenta quibus tomo facili su))eraddita vitis pignm^ nempe^ duo fagi- 

Diffusos hederi vestit pallente corymbos. n& pocula, coBlatom opos 

In medio duo signa, Conon : et quis fuit alter, 40 


18. Lycuea. A mongrel dog— «b animal 38. Lenta viiis quibui : around whtdi a 

half dog and half wolf. Hmber vine^ auperadded ly ihe eaty earving in» 

20. Poti eareeta : behind the fedges. See ttrument^ covert over (mantles) Uu d\ffuted 
Ccl. I. 68. (looeely hanging) ehutert tnih paU ivy. — 

21. ,4n non vietut eaniando: vanquithed These lines are eomewhat intricate, and 
n stnging^ thmUd he not retum tomethe goai have divided the opinionn of commentatora. 
ithicht iic RusuB takes quilmt iii tJie abl. and inter*^ 

iS. THrtii. TVtrttnn, a place in which preta faeili tomo bv ope fncUit lomi, Dr 

thrcc nrays meL So Btrttim and ^uadrivitan^ Trapp and some otheni take /aeili iomo in 

places in which two and four ways met. the dat. and understand bj it the wood after 

Duperdere miterum carmen : to murder a it is smoothed and polished in the turner^s 

iorry,orwretched/ime,onai9tiedktng«/rair- lathe, by meton. Davidson, on the other 

pipe. hand, takee quibut for the daL and faeiii 

30. Ubere : the udder. Bj meton. for the tomo foi^e abl. but then he takes these last 
milk contained in iL FoUut : calves. for the tn^fniota carver^ or eaiy tkilful work» 

31. ^uopignore: with what pledge or bet. man, which he mifrht do by meton. Tha 
Tell me what pledg^ you will put against sense I have given is the most natural and 
mj heifer. easy. The meaninf of the poet is this : 

34. ^mbo numerani : ihey both eouni ihe That each of these bowls was en^ved or 

/hck twiee in a day ; and one eounit ihe kidt, carved with vine and ivy boughs, so cunously 

Peeut is proporSy a Jlock or herd of neat- interwoven, that the ivy-bemes were shaded 

cattle, as here. jilier^ properly is one of two or mantled with the lisnber or pliant vine. 
<— unt^T, one of many. 40. Conon. The name of a famous ma- 

36. IntarUre : to be Ifetide yourtelf' — to play thematician and astronomer of Samot^ a co- 
the fool ; by contending with me, who am temporary and friend of Archimedes. Sigrui: 
so much more skilful than you. Poeulafa- figures. Ei quitfuit aUer? This is a very 
fina : beechen bowls— made of the beech- pleasant tum. There is something agreeable 
«ood in this picture of pastoral simplicity. He 

37. Altimedoniit. The name of a very had mentioned the name of one, but had 
•kilfal and ingenious carver. Mr. Martin forgotten the name of the other. He tum^ 
thinkff he was some intimate friend of Vir- to himself and asks: quitfuii alierf b*^* 
gil, who wished to transmit his name to the name not recurring to him, he goes o-, 
poaterity. History is silent respecting him. to describe him by Uia WQitka* \\ ^%a ^a^ 


Descripsit radio tolum qui gentibus orben 
Tempora quae messor, quas curvus arator 
Necdum illis labra admovi, sed condita sei 

Da. Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo poo 
£t moUi circum est ansas amplexus acantl 
Orpheaque in medio posuit, sylvasque seq 
Necdum iliis labra admovi, sed condita sei 
Si ad vitulam spectes, nihil est qu6d pocu 

Mb. Nunquam hodie efTugies : veniam 
Audiat hsec tantum vel qui venit : ecce, Pa 
Efficiam posthac ne quemquam voce lacec 

Da. Quin age, si quid habes ; in me moi 
Nec quemquam fugio : tantum, vicine Pal 


who, kc It is ropposed that Aratut or behold his long-Iost Euryd 

Jirehimedet is^eant. The fbrmer wrote m but she immediately Tani 

Greek a troatiM conceming the sitoation attempted to follow her, 

and motions of the heavenly bodiea : which The only consoiation he < 

was translated into Latin. The latter the sound of his Ijre in g\ 

was a famooB mathematician and astpono- tains apart from society. 

mer of Syracuse, in Sicily. By the help of women, whom by his negl 

hia buming-^Iassefl and enprines, he nobly he had ofTended, set upon 

defended Uiat city when besieged by the were celebrating the orgief 

Romans nnder Marcellus. After a siege of having tora his body in p 

three years, however, it was taken by stra- his head into the river Hc 

tagem. Archimedes was slain by a soldier, tinued to articulate Euryi 

whilo in the act of demonstrating a propo- as it was carried down thc 

•'tion. JEgean sea. Afler his dei 

45- Amplexut esl anttu : he encircled received divine honors. H 

handles arouad with sofl acanthus. The ferred to the heavens, an< 

parts of the verb are here separated for the lation. Sequenie* : obedie 

sake of the verse, by Tmesis. Acantho : a 47. Condiia : laid up m 

plant called Bear^M^/ool, eondo^ agreeing with poetUt 

46. Orphea : acc. of Greek- ending. — 49. ^unquam ^ugies ho 

Orpheus was a most ancient and excellcnt no means avoid the trial tl 

poet, the son of (Eagrus, king of Thrace. tas had proposed to stak* 

But according to fable, he was the son of Menalcas said he could noi 

Apollo and Caliope, one of Ihe Muses. He of his father and step-moth 

re<:eived a lyre from ApoIIo, some say from to pledge his bowls. Damce 

Mercury, upon which he performed in such a the heifer, and so seemed ' 

masterly manner, that the rivers ceased to test, because the cJbnditio 

flow — the savage beasts forgot their ferocity accepted by Menalcas. At 

— «nd tho lofly oaks bowed their heads and coniident of victory, and 

listened to his song. He was beloved by all fear, he says : Veniam qu 

the nymphs. Eurydice alone could make I will come to any con<iitio 

an impression on his mind. He married pose. Accordingly the bo^ 

her ; but their happiness was short. For and a heifer is the prize. 
AristsBUs fell in love with hcr ; and flceing 50. Tantum vel qui venit^ i 

from him, a serpent lying in the way nothing more to say) evi 

wounded her in the foot, of which she died. comes yonder, hear these tl 

Orpheus was so much afHicted at the loss, was so sure of victory, tha 

that he resolved to recover her, or perish in to submit to the decision < 

the attempt. For this purpose, he descend- son ; and accordingly seej 

ed to Hell, and gained admittance to Pluto, at a distance, says : even 

who was so chamied with his music, that coming there, be tlie judg 

ho consented to restore to him las wife^ upon versy, whoever he may be. 

the condition that he would forbcar to look approach., discovering who 

bchind hira till he passed the bounds of hehold, it is Palcemon our z 

his empire. The condition was acccpted ; in the sense of caniu, 
but 8* thoy wore very near the region of 51. Efficiam: I will caoi 
Ueht, tho unhappy lover tumod his eves to 53. JFY^pio : in the sense 


SenRibiis hac imis, res est non parva, reponas. 

Pal. Dicite : quando quidem in moUiconsedimua keriMi : 
Et nunc omnis ager, nunc omnis partunt arbos ; 66 

Nonc frondent sylv», nunc formosissimus annus. 
lncipe, Damcsta : tu deinde aequ^re, Menalca. 
▲iteniis «ficetis : amant altema Camene. 

Da. Ab Jove pnncipium, Musse ; Jovis omnia plena : 60. O moMD, prnifli> 
Itte colit terraa; illi mea carmina cure. 61 P^^™ amnium ett ab 

Mb. Et me Phoebus amat : Phoebo sua semper apud ^^Jf '' ^ », ^ 
Munera sunt, Uun, et suave rubens hyacmthus. [me ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ^„. 

Da. Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella : nera, ncii^e, lauh 

Et fugit ad sahces, et se cupit ante videri. 66 

Me. At mihi sese offert ultro^ meus ignis, Amyntas 
Notior ut jam sit canibus non Delia nostris. 

Da. Parta mee Veneri sunt munera : namque notavi 
Ipte locunLi acrisB quo congessere palumbes. 

Ms. Quod potui, puero sylvestri ex arbore lecta 70 
Aarea mala decem misi : cras altera mittam. 7i. Quo^ sohm potni 

Da. O quoties^ et qu» nobis Galatea locuta est! ^^S^v v^ • 

Partem aliquam, venti, div{)m referatis ad aures. ba ^"" ^^ 

Ms. Quid prodest, qudd me ipse animo non spemis, 
S^ dum tu sectaris apros, ego retia servo ? [ Amynta, 

Da. Phyllida mitte mihi, meus est natalis, lola. 76 
Olni fiiciam vituli pro frugibus, ipse venito. 

Mb. Phyllida amo ante alias : nam me discedere flevit : 


54. hmt $enribut ; yoar deepest attention, times called Delia firom Delos^ the place of 

«tbouglite. /?e#.* the oontroveray. her birth. She wasthegoddeseof bunting, 

58. AUemu : in altemate verees. Thii and protectreee of Dogs. Ruieut and Dr. 

ii ealled eartnen amakmum, It oonnsts not Trapp understand by Deha^ not Diana^ but 

toMy in U\e dialogoe ; but requires that a servant of Menalcas by that name. 

Si^w n^ SJrj^t!^ ^« "f""^ V ^J 68. Me^ venen: for my love-the dear 

tibs other upon the «me or similar subject. object of my affections. 

Canmna T venef, is understood. CamieniE : ^ /—«*.««*«. 

the Muses. It was formerly written Car- 69. Congettere : in the sense of nid\fira-' 

mam and Catmtente, Theme, earmen, verunt, 

60. Mutm, They were nine in number, 71. Aurea: yellow — ripe. 

ths dkuf htera of iupiter and Mnemosyne. 72. Venti^ referoHt : bear some part of 

Hmj were suppoeed to preside over th# them, O winds, &c. Either because her 

avts and sdences. They wero bcm in words were so sweet that they would do- 

Fieria in Macedonia, and were said to re* light even the eara of the gods : or that th« 

•deon mount Heliconand mount Pamassus, gods might be witnesses to her proniises. 

tbe fenner in Beotia, the latter in Phocis. — 74. ^uidprodetU fcc. Damcetas had beea 

Their namee are : Calliope^ CHo^ ErcUo^ jupt before expressing his joy at the conver- 

TWio, Melpomene^ Terptiefiore^ Euterpe^ sation which he had with his mistress. Me* 

Pol§hymniat and Urania, nalcas now endeavors to go beyond him in 

61. fUe eoUt : he regards the earth he sentimcnts of tenderaess and affection ; and 
ligard& my verses. intimates that he cannot have any enjoy* 

6t. Pkabut. The sam^ as ApoUo and nient while Amyntas is absent; nay, unle« 

Sti; tbo son of Jupiter and Latona. The he share with him t*3 dangera. 
bnrd and hyacinth were sacred to him. 75. Retia : plu. itf rete : toils, or snaret 

htfMS they are called tua munera^ his own set to take any prey. 
rSta, Soe Ed. IV. 10. 76. PhiUida : a Greek acc. of Pliillifl. 

66. ifcait: properly a fire or flame. By Sho was the nlnve of lolas, and mistress both 

asCoQ. iove— also the object of love ; as in to Damfctas and Monalcas. 
ths present caiio. 77. Faciam vitulfi : that is, faeiam iaera 

§7. Utjam DeJia mm: so that Delia now ex ritvla : T will mako thc sacr' fice of a 

* Bot better Juiowa, fcv. Diatm is some- heifer for the fruitji. 

16 • P. l^IRGILU liiARONIS 

Et, ^lon^um, formoee, vale, vale," iiM| 

Ba. Triste lupus stabulis ; maturis frt 

Arboribus venti ; nobis Amaryllidis ir» 

Mb. Dulce sads humor ; depulsis arl 

Lenta saliz fieto pecori : mihi solus An 

Da. Pollio amat nostram, quamvis es 

86.Pa0citotaonimttf»,Pieride8^ vitukm lectori paseite vestro. 

^*" j*™ Mb. PoHio et ipse fiicit nova carmina 

Jam comu petat, et pedibus qui sparga 

W, VeniEi qooqae qui D ^. Qui to, Pollio, amat ; veniat qu6 « 

gaudetettiiiteiiemtiit». ^^ylk fluant illi, ferat et njbus asper aii 

Mb. Qui Bavium non odit, amet tui 

Atque idem jungat vulpes, et mulgeat I 

»«. O poen,qai legitia Da. Qui legitis flores, et humi nasoc 

aores e^fraga naeoentia prigidus, 6 pueri ! fugite hin<J, latet anj 

^ Mb. Parcite, oves, nimium proceder 

Creditur : ipse aries etiam nunc vellen 

Da. Tit^rre, pascentes a flumine reic 

Jpse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte b 

Me. Cogite oves pueri : si lac pr» 

Ut nuper, frustra pressabimus ubera pa 

Da. Eheu, quam pingui macer est ra' 

102. Neqae eet amor Wem amor exitium pecori est, pecori« 

3ertd causa hia meU ew- Mb. His certe neque amor causa ea 

ktf« eur tirU tam maerm^ Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fiiscizil 


79. Longttm^formote^ &c. These aie not learned men of his tir 
the worde of PhilliB, addresced to lolas, but 89. ^momum, An a 

of Menalcas ; and firet addressed to Me- value. The Aaayrian 

nalcas by Phillis. They made a deep im- best. Rubiu : the bla 
pression on his mind — thej stole his affec- 90. Qut Bavium tu 

tions. O beautiful youth, said she, farewell Moevius were two coi 

— farcwell, a long time. Staimlis : sheep- very inimical to Virgil 

folds. By meton. the sheep. Tritte is to two liues are wonde; 

be supplied with each member of the i<en- the samo persons yok 

ience following, aa also the verb eti, goats. But this wouh 

82. Arbutut : the strawberry tree, so call- as a ridiculous employ 
ed from the resemblance of its fruit to a 93. Frigidut: deadl; 

Btrawberry. Depultit : the words a lacie descriptive of the natt 
are understood. 95. Crediiur, It is 

82. Saiit, The dat. plu. a substantive impersonal verbs alw 

trom the part. pass. of the verb tero^ I sow. frequently occur in sei 

It sipiifies any thing sown or planted-stand- version would be vei 

ing com. Depultit fuBdit: to the weaned This is the case here. 

kids. Dulcit is to be supplied in each me^- ing his sheep not to 

ber of the sentence ; as aiso the verb eti, adds as a reason for 

85. Pieridet, The Muses are so called not well to trutt to iht t 
frc m Pieria^ the place of their birth. See to this caution, he mei 
60. supra. ram that had just rec 

86. Pollio, A noble Roman, the friend it into the river, and 
and patron of VirgiL See nezt £cl. ^{'ova : fleece. 

good — excellent. 96. Reiee, Imp. ol 

88. Veniat quh gaudei^ Ilc, May he also syncope for rgicio: drj 

arrjve at those honorsto which itdelighteth 98. Praceperii: if t] 

him that thou hast arrived. Pollio was in- the milk — should takc 

vestod with tho consulate in the year of vain, &c. 

Rome 714, aud in the following year he re- 103. Quit oeulut: w 

ceived a triumph. He was also a poet and cs roy teuda lambe. > 

historian ; and considered among the most meot. 


Da. Dic quibu9 in terris, et eris mihi magnusi Apollo, 
Tn» (Kiteat ca'a b|>atium iion amplius ulnas. 105 

Mk. D'k quibus in terris inscripti nomina regum 
Nawantur flores et Phyilida eoiiis habeto. 109. Et tu ei digrnut 

Pi Non nostrum inter vas tantas componere litea. ^**!*ii' ^ ^^^' . 
EtTitul4tudignu8.ethic: et quisquls amores ,.^ Jt^dulti^ol^lli Z 

Aut metuet dulces, aut expenetur amaros. 1 10 experietur amart^ am^ 

Claudite jam rivofl, pueri : sat prata biberunt. re*. 


105. SpaHtan caH paieai, DamoBtas here to lettle, &c. £il i» to be lupplied. Palnr 
propoMi a very intricate riddle. Varions mon declares his inabinty to detcrminu tiie 
hare been the conjecturee to eolve it. It ie controversjr between them ; but pronouncet 
bMi ^norallj thought that the place in- them both worthj ofthe prize. 

tciMicd is tho bottom of a well, from whonce 1 10. Metnet diiice* : ehall fear snccesBful 

t*^ tpace of tho beavenB appears no broad- love — shall fear that it wouH not bo latfting. 

«r than its mouth, which in the general majr Experietur amaros : shall experiRnce disap- 

be taken for three ells. pointed lov»— lovo not returnod ur rocipro- 

107. FUret nateaniur interipii. Without catod. 

«olvtng the riddle of Damoetaa, Menalcas 111. Ciaudite, This it a beautiful iine: 

^poees this one, and it is an equal match shut np your streams, O swains, the mcadt 

ibr his. The solution of it is all conjec- havo drunk enough. It is a meta phor taken 

tore. It is generaliy supposed that the hy- from rivers refreshing the moadows through 

idnUi is the flower alluded to. ^omina which they pass ; to music and poetry, de- 

macripii : inscribed as to the names of lighting tlie ear, the fancy, and thu judg- 

kinfs— or with tho namee of kings. See ment. It implies that it was time to cease 

Gel. I. i5. thcir song ; they had given sufficient prooft 

106. Aon noitrum : it is not in my power of their skill in music 


Wbat is the snbjeet of this pastoral ? What did he do to reeover his lost Eury- 

Does Vlrgil here imitate Theocritus .' dioe ? 

Who is to be understood onder the cha- What became of him at last ? 

leter of IHmcRtas ? Virho under that of In what consists the earmen amabcnan f 

lbDa.cas * Who under that of PalsBmon .' Who were the Muses ? How many were 

H1io was Conon ? Who was Archimedee? they in number ? What were their naraea ? 

What did he do agamet the Romane ? Who was Diana ? Where waa ■ba bora f 

Wkat beeanie of him afterwards ? Over what did ■he preride 

WkowMOrpiieos^ Whom did he marry ? 




^iEOiL^fl derign in this pastoral is to celebrate the birth of a son oA 
from Tone 17 ; on which account he dedicated it to that noble Ronuu 
that he ascribea to the son of liis friend, what cannot be attributed, * 
to a being merely human. On examination, it will be found tha 
ezprcBsioni and paBsaf es, which remarkably correspond with the p 
dictions of the MessiaL, contained in the scriptures of the Old Tec 
cularlj with thoee of tho propbet Isaiah. That the poet was inspin 

We are assured, on the most credible testimony, that about this time t 
expectation of the Messiah^s appearance. Tiiis was partly from tl 
Jews over the Roman empire, who carried witli them their scriptun 
the Sibyiline oracles then much in rcpute. What, therefore, was 
wos the common opinion conceming the Messiah, the poet i^pplies I 
It was not fulfilled in him. For he died on the ninth day aHer his I 
evcr, actually fulfilled in about forty years aflerwards, when the Si 

S^me suppose that the poet hath in view Marcellus, the son of 
Augustus, whose birth correspondj witli the consulship of Pollio.* 
him, and desiffned him for his tuccessor in the empire. This is 
whom Virgil nighly compliments in the sixth book of the ffineid. 
ha arrived at manhood. 

SICELIDES Mu8s, pau16 majora ci 
Non omnes arbusta juvant, humilesque 
Si canimuB sylvas, sylvte sint consule di| 
Ultima CumflBi vcnit jam carminis aetas 


1. Steehdei : an adj. ftom Siheiti, the residenoe of a tibyL 
iii)and of Sicily, the country of Theocritus, others of the samo nanM 
the father of pastoral poetry. Hence Sice-' tinguished were, a citi 
lides Muta^ pastoral muses. Minor, and a city of I 

2. Arhiuta-~myrica, Trees and Khrubs the ^gean sea : hodity 
^eem to be put here for pastoral subjects, or sidence of this sibyl ^ 
the stylo and manner in which thoy are dug into a rock. Justii 
Bung, by meton. Myrietr. : a shrub called that he visited the sp( 
thc tamaritk. The poet here proposes to kind of chapel in the i 
write in a style difTerent from tho us^al inhabitants told him f 
stylo of pastoral ; for that does not please from their forefathers) i 
every ear. A more elevated strain he will she gavo out her orac 
now attempt. tioned several other pai 

3. Sylvas : the woods. By meton. pas- tells us, that the cave 
toral or rural subjects. If wo sing of pas- sibyl remained in the 
tural subjects, those subjects should be Martyr described it, un 
worthy of a consul^s ear. entirely destroyed by s 

4. Ultima (tias : the last age of the sibyl- shook all Campania. I 
iine prophrcy hath now arrived — the last Part 2. Lib. 9. The 
agc, which was the subject, &c. I would said to have boen cndv 
here obscrvo tliat the last dayt — tht latler prophecy, and to have ; 
iays^ or times, arc common expressions in of slates and kingdoE 
the scriptures to denote the age of thc Gos- differcnt periods of tij 
pel, which is tne last dispcnsation of grace. countries. They look 
Cuma^i • an adj. from Cumet^ acity of Cam- or Sibyls, frora the fin 
pania« m [taly, foinous for having been tlie dued« her uaine being l 


Magnaa ab mtegro sseclorum nascitur ordo. 5 

Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna : 8. Tn modo, casU 

im no?a progenies coelo demittitur alto. Lucina, fave na»cenU 

Tu modd naacena puero, quo ferrea primum S^^riJJL^^di^oTw 

Desinct, ac toto surget gens aurea mundo, ^^roa gen» ■urgei toto 

Cuta, &?e, Lucina ; tuus jam regnat Apollo. 10 mundo. 


MfilM toi: The DMUea^ Erythnta^ Cip- set at libertj bj Juplter. Bat Saturn did 

■cf,SMna, Cymana^HeUemnHca^ Libyea^ not' long remain mindAiI of thiB favor. 

Remea^ Phrj^ia^ and the T}tr(nwtina, Ot He conspired against him to dethrone him, 

tfa^tbe oite moet noted was the Cumaan. and possess the empire himsel£ Upon this, 

8Ve teems to have been the same that the Jupiter banished nim from heaven. He 

GrMkf called ETjfthreta. fVom the circum- came to Italj, whic^ was aflerwards called 

fttooeof her beinc bom at Erythrm in lonia, Latium^ from the circumstance of its being 

tftbe Leeser Asia; trom whence she re* the placeof his concealment; fromtheverb 

■ored to Ctmue, inltaly. Carminii: in tho lateo, Janus, who was then king, received 

KBse of vaHeinii. him with hospitality, and made him partner 

5. Magnus ordo. Some suppose that the in his kingdom. Satum employed his time 
poet here hath roference to the great Plato- in civiliiing his subjecta, teaching thom agri- 
■ie jear ; of which Claudius sajs, Ch. 1 culture, and the several arts and sciGnces. 
ef tbe sphere : Omnia, quaeunque in mundo His reign was so mild, so beneficent aiid 
fioil, eodem ordine este rediturOt quh nune virtuous, that it came to be denominatcd the 
tmnmgur. This would embrace the period GoldenAge^ to intimate the happincKs and 
of 2S,990 of om jears; when the equinozes tranquillitj which then were enjojed. The 
viUhaveniadethecircuitoftheecliptic,and Siher Age succeedod, when men began lo 
the nme stars, which deecribe the equator, degenerate, and their peace to be disturbed 
tropict, and polar circles, bj the diumal bj feuds and animosities. The Branen Age 
motiooof the earth,willdescribe them over foUowed, when avarice and licentiousness 
ftfiui. Ruaus, however, is of a diflerent took possession of the heart. To this suc- 
opiaion, and verj justlj nnderstands bj ceededthe/ron.4ge,when theworidbecame 
■opiut, great and illustrious ; impl jing that sunk into a general and total deprayitj. 
Uie period of which the poet spsjLe as then These four ages are much spoken of b j the 
eommencinf, should be distinguishcd bj poets, but particularlj the first. Bj this 
fKat and ilTustrious characters. Saelorum^ time men had become so wicked and dege- 
^ fneope for taeulorum. 5«ruliim properlj nerate, that thej were all destrojed bj a 
■ifmfies the period of a hundred jears. delugo, which took place in the reign of 
Itif &iio used tu denote an indefinite period, Deucalion, king of Thessalj. He and his 
it io the preeent instance. wife Pjrrha were the onlj sarviTors. 

6. yirgo. The poet here means Jittrcta^ 8. Fave natcenti puero : favor, or be pro- 
tiie goddese of justice, the daughter of Ju- pitious to the infant boj. Jfateent does not 
piter &nd Themis. See nom. prop. under refer here so much to his birth, as to his in- 
^reo. Satumia regna : the reign of Sa- fant vears. As Lueina had safel j brought 
tern. According to fable, Satum was the the child into the world, it is the desire of 
MB of CeUut and TVrra, or yetta, CobIus the poet that she should continue her atten- 
tmdaed in Tartanis sll his sons, ezcept tion and regard to him during the dangers 
BitQm; who with the assistance of his of infancj. 

■Mther^banished his Ather, and set his bro- 9. Oent : in the sense of atat. 
tkertat libertj. He succeeded to the king- 10. Catta Lueina. Lucina was tlie rod- 

Asm bj the oonsent of his brother Titan, on dess supposed to preside over child-bearinir, 

Ae coadition that he should raise no male and called Liictnafrom^f,because throuj. !i 

•Apring. Ho accordinglj dovoured his her means children were brought to see tJ a 

MBi as soon as thej were born. But when light. This office was attributed both to 

imtcr was bom, his wife Rhea, or Ops, un- Juno and Diana ; the latter of wh.m is tho 

^iiliag to see all hcr sons periBh, concealed one here meant, as appears from Tknu jam 

kim ; fiving to her husband a stone in room regnat ApoUo: now thj Apoilo reipos.— 

9t the chiid, which he devoured, without Thin hath led some into a singularitj Bj 

fctof eri ngthe cheat. In the same waj she ApoUo thej would understand Augastus, 

pesenred Neptune and Pluto. and bj Lucina his sister Octavia. Virgil 

Titan being informed that his brother had was fond of complimmting his princc, but 

beken the terms of their contraot, made there can be no neoessitj of such an inter- 

virapon him, ind made both him and his pretation here. Rueus under«tai\d« \\ vA 

*i& prisonrrs ; thej werOi however, soon JipoUo himself, who may be ea\d \.o vc\scu« 


1 1. Adei hoc decus Teque ade6 decus hoc sevi, te consule, ini 

np*?r'**'^'^°**'""^*' ^^^ * ^^ incipient magni procedere men 
U roiiio. rp^ duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia n 

Irrita perpetul solvent formidine terras. 
lUe DeOm vitam accipiet, Divisque videbit 
Permixtos heroas, et ipse videbitur illis : 
Pacatumque reget patriis virtutibus orbea 


oocauso it 18 now manifest that his predic- as magntu ordo melorum 

tions are true. Apollo was the god, under PoUio, A very dlBtinguia 

whose influence the Sil^U were, when they arrived to the highest hono 

prophesied, or gave out their oracles. could bestow. He was^ap 

Apollo was the son of Jupiter and Latona, of Hitpania UUerior by Ji 

and brother o? Diana. Juno, in order to Bome occasion or other, bc 

vent her rage against Latona, sent the ser- Gaul, he became acquai 

pent Python^ to vex and torment her. She for whom ho conceived a 

was unable to find a place where she could and recommended him t 

be delivered of hcr children in peace, till wa« then at Rome. A wi 

Neptune, taking pitj on her, raised the island ed to our poet for the recc 

Delos, where slie was safely delivered of In the year of Rome, 71 

Apollo and Diana at a birth. As soon as pointed coneul, and in tt 

he wasborn,ApoIIosIewthe scrpentP^/Aan, he triumphed over the t 

from which circumstance he is sometimes of Illyricum, who adherei 

called Pythius, He was accounted the god Brutus and Cassius. Ile 

of medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, of the civil wars, and wu 

all of which, it is said, he invented. His orator. He died in the ei{ 

8on ^sculapius being killed by Jupiter for age, and in the year of R* 

raising the dead, he in tum slew the Cy- 13. Siqua veitigia^ iLC 

clops, wbo had made the thundorbolt that alludes, most probably, t 

•lew him. Jupiter being much enraged at Laomedon, king of Tro 

this. piece of conduct, banished him from Trojans attributed their 

heaven, and deprived him of his dignity. calamities. See Goor. I. 

Ho came to AdmetuSf king of Thessaly, civil wars which were ca 

and hircd himself as a shepherd, in which Ciesar and Pompey. Or 1 

employment he served nine ycars. Hence of Julius Cesar, who wi 

he is somotimes called the god of shepherds. in the senate house ; whi( 

ApoIIo was amorous, and had many chil- of a second civil war, bet 

drcn. His worship was very general. At Cassius on the one part, i 

Delphi^ Delot^ Clarot^ Tenedos^ Patara^ &c. Anthony on the other. 

he-had celebratod oracles. He had several the ruin of the Republic. 

names : Pythius^ already mentioned ; Deliut, bliahment of the Empire. 

from the island Delot^ where he was bom ; 14. Irrita : beiug efiacc 

Cynthiut^ from Cynlhut^ the name of a will fne the earth, ^c. J 

mountain on the same island ; Paan^ from tivum, and rahu ; agreeii 

a Greek word which signifies to strike, or 15. lUe aecipiet vitam: 

wound^inallusiontohisluIlin^thePython ; the li(e of the god8,&c. 

Delphieut^ fi^om Delphi^ in Phocis, where don to the Golden Age, 

he had his most famous temple and oracle ; say, the gods had familiai 

Clarut^ &c. He was called PAcc6t», or Sol^ men, and dwelt on the ea 

in heaven. There were several among the period was again about t< 

ancients, who went under the name of 17. Reget^ &c He shi 

ApoUo, Cicero mentions three, besides the Aii world by hi« father^s i 

son of Jupiter and Latona. that the child should an 

11. Hoe deeua avi : this glory of the age, honorB of the state, that ii 
i. e. this glorious age, ihall commence in your sul. Or, he shall rule the 
consulship. peace by his father^s vir 

12. Magni mentet. Servius and Pompo- Miecenae effected a recoi 
nius think we are to understand the montha Octavins and Anthony, 
of July and August, becauae they bore the of a lasting peace. Orbt 
namos of JuHut and Auguttut, But we Roman Empire ; which, i 
Bie ondoubtedly to understand the magni greatnesa, comprehended 
mnuet bere, in the same manner and sense of the world thal waa tlM 



At tioi priina^ puer, nullo munuscula cultu, 
Emntes hederas passim cum baccare tellus, 
Mixtaque ridenti colocasia. fundet acantho. 
I,»ss lacte domum refcrent distenta capellce 
Ubera : nec magnos metuent armenta leones. 
Ipsa tibi blandos fundent cunabula flores : 
Occidct et serpens, et fallax herba veneni 
Occidct : Assyrium vulg6 nascetur amomum. 
At siinul heroum laudes, et facta parentis 
Jam let^ere, et quae sit poteris cognoscere virtus : 
Molii paulatim flavescet campus arista, 
Inciiltisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva, 
Et dune quercus sudabunt roscida mella : 
Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 
Quc tentare Thetim ratibus, quse cingere muris 
Oppida, quie jubeant telluri intindere sulcos. 
Alter erit tum Tiphys, et altera quae vehat Argo 
Deiectos beroas : erunt etiam altera bella, 
Atque iterum ad Trojam magnus mittetur Achilles. 
Hinc, ubi jam firmata virum te fecerit setas, 
Cedet et ipse mari vector : nec nautica pinus 

18. At tellns fimdet 
prima monuscala tibi, 
o/jO paer, nullo culta, 
^ nempej errantes hedera» 
passim cum baccure, 
colucasia que mixta ri- 
denti acanibo. 


26. At simul jam po- 
teris legere laudes ne- 
roam, et facta pareuttt 


32. Q,u8e jubeant ho- 
mines tentare Tb^ltm 
ratibus ; quae juhcanl iU 

^^los cingere oppida muris; 

'^^et quae jubeant iUos i»- 
findere sulcos leDuri 


19. Baeeare, Bacear, a 8i%'eet herb called 
by lome ladies-glove ; by otliers, clown-tpike- 
wrd, Coloeasia : Egyptian bcans. Acan- 
th»: the beri> called btar^t'/oot. It has a 
Mng tnd broad lcaf. 

tL Cunalmla ipsa: Ihe cradlo itaeK— 
t)t« rery CKidle. Blandot : in the Henso of 
fitrKfutot. y 

U. Serpent oecidei : tho serpcnt shall die. 
Thit ii a very romav4iable passugo. Tho 
Measiah was promisod to bruise the head of 
the terpeni^ Qcn. Ch. iii. 15th verso. Fallax 
kfrba uneni : the doceivin? herb of poison 
■ii&Il die— «very herb whoto poisonous 
qulity if not known. For if it were known, 
no person woald meddle with it, and con- 
Kquenlly none would bo deceivcd. Amo' 
■nm. Seo Ecl. iii. B9. 

t^MolH: rip«. For tho fields do not 
frow yellow till the approach of harvost. 
^riita ; com — an ear of com. 

29. Seniibut : thom-bushofl. 

51. Tamen pauca^ &c. We may here 
obfenre the several gradations of tho Gold- 
M A^ With the birth of the child it 
comnieoced: Cxmabula fundent floret, Du- 
ring the yearB of his yoath, the oarth is to 
^% forth abundantJy. Thcre is to b6 
00 irint of any Ihing : Camput Jlavetcet^ 
fct. AIl vestigeH of former crimes, howe- 
rer, worc not done away. Somo traccs of 
tlw Iron A|^ wcre to be visible in the con- 
itfX and actions of iden : Quctjubeant^ k.c. 
B«i when he has arrived to years of full 
oiatQrity, then the carth is to produco all 
Ain^ fpontaneously : Omnis tellus ftret 

omnia; and the Golden Ag^ is to appenr 
in all its feliciiy and glory. Praudis: in 
the sense oisceltris. 

32. T%etim. Thelis, a goddess of ine sea, 
the daughter of Nerais and Dori$. Jupiter 
fcU in love wilh her, and determincd to 
marry her; bui being informed by Proine- 
theus of a dlcree of tlie fatcs, ihat she 5ht)uld 
bearasonwho shonld he grealer than his 
father, he desisted from his purpose. Where- 
upon Peleus, king of Thessaly took her to 
wile, and of her begat Achillcs. T^ctis^ be 
meton. is put for the sea in this place. 

3^1. Tiphys. The namc of the piloi of tbe 
ship Argo. It was so called, either from 
ArguSf ihe archiiect ; or frum Argivi, Greeks, 
whom it carried. It was built at Pegasa^ a 
promontoiy and^own of Thessaly. Hence 
sometimes called navis Pegasna. 

3J>. Dclectos heroas: chcven heroes. — 
These wcre noble Greeks, chiefly of Tbe:^ 
saly. Thcy were about fifty m number, 
and went to Colchis in the ship Arso^ lo 
bring away the golden fleece, which was 
CTiarded by a dragon, and buHs breathing 
nre. Jason commanded the expedition. 
Casfor, PolluXj Hcrculcs^ TJkscvs, Orpheus^ 
Zites^ and Calais accompanied him. The 
crew collectively was called Argonauta, 
See nom. prop. imder Jason. 

3G. AchiUcs — Trojam — Argo^Tiphvs. • 
These are here put for any hero, any cly 
any ship, any pih^t. 

dG. Nec nautica pinus, 4»c Nor shall the 
naval pine exchange commodities — carry on 
traflic. JHnus is here pui for a ship made 
of ihat Iree, by meton. Vectar : ihe mar* 
ner. Ccdet : shall leave. or aban^k^xi. 


Mutabit merces : omnis feret omnia tellii 
Non rastros patietur humus, non vinea fi 
Robustus quoque jam tauris juga solvet fl 
Nec varios discet mentiri lana colores : 

43. 8«d ariee ipie in jpse sed in pratis aries jam suave rubenti 
pratis m^t*bit vellora Murice, jam croceo mutabit vellera luto ; 
lice jara^ ™ ° ™"" Sponte sua sandyx pascentes vesdet agnc 

46. P&rcs concordea Talia ssecla suis dixerunt, currite, fiisis 
ftabili numine fatomm Concordes stabili fatorum numine ParcaB 
dizerunt euis futis, O Aggredere, 6, magnos, aderit jam tempu 
talia sfficla, currite. O qj^^^ ^^^^ soboles, magnum Jovis incr 
clara soboles Deum, . . * * j j 

magnum incrementum Aspice convexo nutantem pondere mund 

Jovis, aggredere mag- Terrasque, tractusque maris, coelumque 
nos honores Aspice venturo Isetentur ut omnia saeclo. 

53. O ultima pars () mihi tam longse maneat pars ultima vi^ 
tam \ongm vit» maneat SpiritOs et, quantum sat erit tua dicere fi 
""^tOm"'*''^ ■piriias» jNJon nie carminibus vincet, nec Thraciui 
^^^ Nec Linus : huic mater quamvis, atque 

Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo 
Pan etiam Arcadia mecum si judice cert 
Pan etiam Arcadii dicat se judice victun 
Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere mati 


42 /Ama diBcei^ &c Nor idiall the wool ponderis^ and connects it 

leam to counterfeit various colors. not with nuiarUem^ as ; 

44. Murue, Murex, a sea-fish of the For he observes, that it i 
ihell kind. It b said to have heen of great earth to reel to and firo < 
use among the ancients for dying purple. weight or ioad. He chi 
Hence, by meton. put for the %urple color understand it of the loi 
itself. Croeeo : an adj. from croctiTtVt or misery : mole malorum, 
erocusy safiVon. L%Uo : the Lutum was an rojoicmg at the happy 
herb used in dying yellow. Hence the color introduced, which is ex[ 
itself, by moton. Modem botanists describe line : omnia kUentur sacl 
it under the name of luieola, wild-woad, plain the words, aspice 
and dyer^s weed. It is U8e.d in coloring with compassion upon 
both wool and silk. Muiabit : shall tinge, mole malorum vitiorum^ 
or dye. oppressed with a load oi 

45. Sandyx : the scariet color — ^vermilion. Ut : in the sense of ovot 

46. FutiM : to their spindles. 55. JVVm vineei, Jfon 

47. ParciB. They were the daughters of in the sense of nuUut, 
Erebus and NoiL, and said to be three in me in singing, neither 1 
number : Clofho^ Laehetit^ and Atropot. 56. Ltnta. He was 
They were snpposed to preside over the and Terpsichore, one < 
hirth, life, and death of mankind. The first was an excellent musici 
was represented as presiding over the mo- tor of Orpheus and Hen 
ment of birth, and holding a distaff in her have been killed by thi 
hand ; the second, as spinning out the events of his lyre, because he 1 
and actions of human life ; the last as cut- ing. ^uamvit mater ( 
ting the thread of it with a pair of scissors. Although the mother Co 
They were considered powerful goddesses, this Orpheus ; and fair 
and were worsliipped with great solemnity. should assist this Linua. 
SiabiH numine : in the ftzea purpose or de- dat. of Orpheut. 

eree. Clara, Some copies have eara.-^ 59. Arcadi&judiee : I 

Magnvm ineremmtum : great son of Jove. • Arcadia was an inland < 

48. Aggredere, Ruaeus says aeeede, ponnesus, famous for it 
50. Atpiee miundum : see the world with The whole of it was m 

its giobous mass or load, nodding (reeling Ecl. iL 31. 

to and 6*0) both the land, &c. Dr. Trapp 60. Ritu eof^notcertt 

takesctfnrexopotMferein thosenseofconvfj^ bov« to know thy mo 



HCalri longa decem tulenmt &8tidia menses. 
incipe, parve puer, cui non risere parentes, 
Kce Deus hunc menB^, Dea nec dignata cubili est. 


6S. Nee Deoi ifijgiui* 
hu ut huiBo iiieos& 

\m th« lenM which Rimbiis aod 10010 
gi¥o to ritu. But Dr. Trapp takes 
tt otherwioe, applying it to the boy. Beirin 
Eo know and acknowledge thj mother by 
vxxmihng on her ; as a kind of recomponee for 
Lh« pains she endured for thy sake. 

01. FoMlidia: qualms, aa of a woman 
vaAh child. Longa: tedious — without in- 
liCnniMioa. Deeem mmtt» : ten months 
brxMight to your mother, &c. 

C3. Citt parenie* non ritere^ tlc. It ig 
plmin the poet here inlendf a thieat of some 

kind to the child. Bui upon the nature or 
eztent of the threat, commentators are not 
agreed. It is gonerally thought that refe* 
rence is here^made to verse 15, where the 
babe was promisod divine honors : iUe ac' 
eipiet vitam Deorum ; and lest he should fail 
of it, the poet urges hlm to smile upon his 
parents, that in tum they might smile upon 
him. For, on whom his paronts have not 
smiled, him hath a god noither honoured 
with his table, nor a goddess with her bed. 
Thus Dr. Trapp. 


What is the sabject of this pastoral ? 
1d what light has it been considered by 


Aie there any passagee xn it which have 
* reaemblance to the prophecies of our Sa^ 
▼ioar, as contained in the scriptures ? 
Was the poet diTinely inspired ? 
Abont this time was there a general ex- 
p^ctation of the Meesish^s appearance ? 
How was this oocaaioned i 
At whst age did the son of Pollio 4io ? 
Uow many years before the birth of 

De pome soppoee the poet celebrates the 
Miof IfarceUus? 
Who was this Marcellus? To what ago 
WKo were the Slbvls? How many does 
Vino mentioo ? Of theea, irhieh was the 
Wbira dU ibe mld« f 

What does Justin Martyr say oi her resl- 
dence ? 

^Vho was Saturn ? What is said of him : 

Whence did Latium derive its name ? 

How did Satum employ his time aftet 
his banishment to.Italy ? 

How many ages do the poets mention be> 
fore the deluge in the reign of Deucalion ? 

Describe those ages ? 

Who was Apollo ? What is said of him ? 

-For what washe banished from heaven? 

Where wore his most colebrated oraclee ? 
Wh&t were his names ? 

Who was PoUio ? To what hooors did 
he arrive ? 

Was it through his means that Virgil re- 
covered his land ? In what way ? 

To what ago did he live ? 

Who v^ere the Parce? How many m 
nomber? What wae their sappoeed oOoe f 




Tu sabjeet of this excellent pastoral is the death pf some eminent 
character of Daphnis. But conceming the person intended, there 1 
conjectares. It is most probable the poet had in view Julius Caesar, 
die senate-hoose by Brutus, and ailerwards enrolled among the Ro 
Menalcas, wc are to undcrstand Virgil; and by Mopsus, some poet c 
probably had been Viigirs pupil. 

Rdseiis thmks it was writtcn wnen some games or sacrifices were peri 
CsBsar. The scene is beautiful, and adapted to the subject. The sh 
Tcidant grass in the awful gloom of a grotto, overhung with wild vin 
is properiy divided into two parts — the Lamentation at his death, and 

I. O Mopse, quoniam Me. CUR non, Mopse, boni quoniam cc 

mu conrenimus und, ^ calamos inflare leves, ego dicere ver 
ombo bom; tu boMts ..^ ,. •.•.*!• i 

inflare leves calamos, Hic corylis mixtas inter consedimns ulm 

tgo bonus dicere versus] Mo. Tu major: tibi me estsquum pai 

cur non consedimus hic give sub incertas Zephyris motantibus ui 

bterulmosmijtias cory- g^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ succedimus: aspice, ut 

6. Sub imus umbras Sylvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis, 

incertas motaniibus, Me. Montibus in nostris solus tibi cer 

6. Aspice ut sylves- ^q^ Quij gj idem certot Phcebum sup 

"^. ldl^7Jv'^'Lnei Me. Incipe, Mopse, prior, si quos aut 

Aut Alconis habes laudes, aut jurgia Co( 


1. Bonix- skiltul— expert. An adj. agree- tree, it put forth ieaves. 

isg with ?M»5, understood. love j also the object love 

. __ . _, _ 1 ij s^ 11. Alconis, Gen. of i 

i. MajoT, Thou art the older: or it may ^rcher of Crete. He ai 

mean, my supenor, m smgmg. ^^uly at a serpent, ent^ 

6. Utnhras: shades. By meton. put for body of his son that he 1 
Che trees causing them. Incertas: waving— mjunng the child. Jurgx 
moving to and fro. oj contentions of Codrus, 

° of Menander, and the las 

7. Sylvestris labrusca. Simply, the wild In a war with the Lace 
vine. Raris raceviis : with thin bunches of given out by an oracle tl 

Sapes — its bunches scattered here and be «n that side, whose k 

ere. the mean time the enem 

10. j^ habes a^d qnos ignes: if you have charge not to hurt th< 

either any loves of Phyllis, or &c. She Being informed of this, a 

was the daughter of Lycurgus, king of oracle had given out, ( 

Thrace, and fell in love with Demophoon, habit of a peasant, went 

the son of Theseus, king of Athens, on his raised a quarrel, and suf5 

retum from the Trojan war. He went slain. As soon as this w 

home to settle some business, and tarrying cedemonians werc panii 

longer than the time appointed for their Athenians obtaincd a 

nuptials, Phyllis. imagining herself neglect- This noble sacrifice of hi 

ed, hung herseli, and was changed into a of his countr>'', so endei 

leafless almond-tree. Demophoon after- them, that they consider^ 

\ ards retumed and on IJs embracing the to succeed hlnL 


liKJ)ie: pascentes servabit Tityms hGDdos. iS.Iminftezp6n&rh8M 

A!o. Immd h»c, in viridi nuper quae cortice fagi cannina, qu» nuper de*. 

Oumina descnpsL, et modulans alterna notavi, **"{*" Jabeto tu Amyn 

iSipenar : tu deinde jubeto certet Amyntas. l^ tas certei meeum 

Ms. Lenta salix quantum pallenti cedit olivaB, 
Puniceis humilis quantum saliunca rosetis : 
Jodicio nostro tantum tibi cedit Amyntas. 

Mo. Sed tu desine plura, puer : successimus antro. 19. Deiine ioqui plora 

Extinctum Nymphs crudeli funere Daphnim 20 ^^^ 

Flebant : vos coryli testes et flumina Nymphis : 21. Vos, O eoryii et 

Cum, coraplexa sui ccrpus miserabile nati, flumina /uisiu teelet 

Atque Deos atque astra vocat Qjridelia mater. ^ '^ * 
Non nlli pastos illis eg^re diebus 

Fiigida, Daphni, boves ad flumina : nulla neque amnem 25. O Daphni, noa 

Ubtvil quadrupes, nec graminis atligit herbam. 26 "^J poitortt egere pu- 

Diphni, tuum Pojnos etiam ingemuisse leones ^^ boves 

iDtmtum, montesque feri sylvfeque loquuntur. 2«. Ferique montofli 

Daphnit et Arroenias curru subjungere tigres ■ylviBque loquuntur, 

InBtituit : Daphnis thiasos inducere Baccho, ^^ * 30™ DaphniiT^^urftAMl 

Et foiiis lentas intexere mollibus hastas. inducere 
Vitii ut arboribuB decori est, ut vitibus uvae. 


15. Modulant aiiema notavi: tuning, or jteiendo Rubieone Jlumine eonteermrat^ m 

■finf Ihem alteniate, I wrote them down. vafros et tine eutlode dimistraiy eomperit per» 

ttptriar : I wlll try — attempt. Carmina : tinacistimi pabulo abstinere^ ubertim^pa 

VWHL JUre, In this case, by quadrupet^ we are to 

]?. SaUunea : the herb lavender. Puni' undorstand equut, a horse. Libavit : drank 

eeuntetit: to red rose-bed^: or by meton. — tasted. 

tlMredroee. Ptm»c«u<, ifometimes written 27. Poeno^ ^on««.* African liona. Pvnot: 

Pkniteus^ an adj. from Phttnicia^ a coun- in thesense of Punieos^ vtl Afrieanos. Car- 

3f Iring along the eastem shore of the thage was the principal city of Africa.— 

editerranean, including Tyre and Sidon, Hence by synec. it may be put for Africa in 

^■1001 for ite purple or red color. The general. Being founded by a colony froro 

■me word ia used for an inhabitant of Phanieia^ itb inhabitants were callcd Pasnt, 

Ctrthage, because that city was foundcd by as well as Carthaginienset. These lions are 

t coioDy from Tyre, or Phcenicia. mentioned, either because they were the 

10. Dap^nnii erlifie/um : Daphnis slain, or most savage, or because Africa abounded 

cst off by a cruel death. This circum- in lioua, and uther savago beants. 

itaaoeai^liee very well to the caseof Julius 28. Inttritum: in the scnse of mortetn, 

Cmu. who was ilain unezpectedly, receiv- Feri : wild — uncultivated. 

(■K Do leae th&n twenty-three wounds with 29. Armeniat : an adj. from Armtnia^ an 

tkiidamr. extensive country of Asia, abouuding in 

& Cuaiina/errempiera: whenthomother tigcrs. Curru^ for eurrui^ the dat. case. 

nbneing, &c. Cerdanua understands by NoUns of the fourth declension soinetimes 

Mter the wife of Cesar, who a little be- formed the gcn. in uit^ and when the gen. 

ftn hia death dreamed her husband was was contractcd into tb, the daU was Hoine* 

itibbed in his breast. Rueus understands tiines contracted into u. Many inMtancea 

Itoaie, and Dr. Martyn Venus. Vocat^ Slc. of this contraction we find in Virgil and 

8he caUs the gods and stars cruel — she other writers. 

^Ufflet the goda and cruel stars. Vocaty 30. T}>tasos» Thiasus, a kind of d&nGS. 

Dr* Trapp takes for voeabai^ where the The word is of Greek origin. 

Ktte cridently determines it. 31. Intextrt ItrUas hatlat^ &c. To wreath* 

2& Amnem: in the •enee of aquam. or entwine limber spears, &c. Ruibus inter- 

28. yuila quadrupet. Rucus thinks the prets inttxtrty by indutrt, 

MoC liath in hia view a passage in Sucto- 32. Ut vitit tst duori arborilnu : aa th^ 

■tos. Speaking of the prodigies which vine is for an ornamcnt to the trees, a-n tho 

fnndf4 the death^of Ciesar, he says : grapes, &c. The words tunt dti:ori are Ui 

P yaiuau dirhut tquo ^tmgreget^ quot in trO' bn s^jippliod. 


Ut gregibus tauri, segetcs ut pinguibus . 

34. ^ tu eru$ omne Tu decus omne tuis : postquam te fata ^ 

^^oua tuis ipga pales agros, atcjue ipse reliquit Ap 

30 /n sulciB, quibns Grandia ssepe quibus mandavimus hord( 

inuKlavimuB grandia Infelix iolium, et steriles nascuntur avei 

hordea,Bspe -pio molli vioL^, pro purpur^o narcisso, 

Carduus et spmis surgit paliurus acutis. 

Spargite humum foliis ; inducite fontibii 

Pastores : mandat fieri sibi talia Daphni 

Et tumulum facite, et tumuio superaddii 

43. £^ Daphnia ja-^ Daphnis ego in sylvis, hinc usque ad sid 

no Ak in sylvis, notuti pQruiosj pecoris cu8tos,-^rmosior ipse. 

™® • Mb. Tale tuum carmen nobis, diviiie 

Quale sopor fessis in gramine ; quale p 
Dulcis aquse sahente sitim restinguere i 
Nec calamis solum asquiparas, sed voce 
Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab ill 
50. Tamen noe dice- Nos tamen hasc quocunciue modo tibi n 
muB haBcnostra earmifM Dicemus ; Daphninque tuum tollemus c 

Daphuin ad astra feremus : amavit nos < 

Mo. An quicquam nobis tah sit mua 

Et puer ipse fuit cantari dignus, et ista 

Jampridem Stimicon laudavit carmina i 

Me. Candidus insuetum miratur hmi 

Sub pedibusque videt nubes et sidera D 

58. Ergo alacris vo- Ergd aiacris sylvas et cstera nira voluj 

raptas tenet aylvas Panaque, pastoresque tenet, Dryadasqu 


34. 7\i omne deeus tui» : so thou wast all 49. Mer ab iUo : the 
whe ornamont to thy friends. Tuis : to thy next in fame afler him. 
fellow Bwains. Vir^l represents Daphnis, 50. ^uocunque modo . 
whoever he bo, as a swain and shcpherd. other — as well as I can. 

35. FcUes. See Geor. iii. 1. ^pollo. He 52. Daphnu^ &c. A 
is considered here undor the character of stand Virgil under the > 
the god of shepherds. Sqe Ecl. iv. 10. cas, it is urged that Da] 

J6. Hordea : barley, here put for any kind lius CiBsar, because Vir; 

o^ grain ; the spedet for the genus. in his time. But Ruei 

37. Infelix lolium: the hurtful cockle. Maniuans in general, y 

38. jfarcitso : the flower Jfareisnu^ of inhabitants of Cis-alpii 
which there are two kinds, tlie white and rished and protected by 
the purple. See Ecl. ii. 46. 53. An quiequam m 

39. Carduus : the thistle. Paliurus : a thing more acceptable 
species of thorn. It abounds in Italy. such an employment .^' 

42. Carmen : an epitapn, or inscription. 54. Puer ipse, Senr 

45. Tale luum earmen, The elegnnce that Daphnis cannot be 

and sweetness of this and the two following he was 56 years old ? 

hnes are nut to be equalled, unless by tho Rusus undorstands it 

Bnfiw«r, which Mopsus retums in verse 82, enrolled among tho gfo 

et sequens. Esf is to be supplied. unnecessary rofinemenl 

47. Restinguere^ &c. To allay thirst in of Servius will be of n* 
a purhng nvulet of sweet water in tlie sum- considered that Virgil 
mer heat. This ii a most beautiful com- under the character of i 
parison. Nothing could give a livelier idea See 43 and 44« supra ; i 
of the charmi of hii muiuc, and the melody generally used to denot 
of his song. 56. Candidus: white 

48. Magistntm : tho master. It appears This is aii emblem of di 
from thit, that Mopsus had been a pupil of the color assigned to t 
Menatcas, and much esteemed by him. black is to the mfemal 


Nec lupus insidias peeori, nec retia cervis ^ 60 ^ Ui^Bmeiiiuuvr 

(JDadolum meditantur : aniat bonus otia DapbniB. 63. Jam rupei iom 

Ifd Jctitii Yoces ad lidera jactant Mnant c&nmni; 'iam 

ktoud montei : ipm iam carmina nipoa ; 5f^* ipaa fonfliit A#ff j 

Ipn sonant arbinta : Deus, Deus ille, Menalca. S« /•? W ^ 

8ii bonus, 6 feiixque tuis ! en quatuor aras : 65 ^^ £„ fuLg^ qoatuor 

Ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duoque aitaria Phoebo. aras : ecce atpiee duas 

Poeak bina no?o spumantia lacte quolannis, orM tibi 

Cnterasque duoe statuam tibi pinguis oiivi. f- Sutuam bina po- 

Eimolto imprimis hiUuans convivia Baccho, S^ JSZIi;**' "''''^ 

Ante focum, n frigus ent ; si messis, m umbrB) 70 


•ut of tnmeteo^ unaocustomed, referring to acknowledge hia divinity, and forbade his 

Us beinf but latel? deified. Lymen Olynqn : ■ubjects to pay adoration to him ; and even 

tbs thrMhold of heaven. Tnere were ee- ordered Bacchus himself to be seizcd and 

mil Dountainfl bji tho name of Olympui. cast into prison. But the doors opened 

Tht moat dietingiiiahedi however, waa one of thcir own accord, aa if refuaing to con- 

ii ThMaalj, near the oonfinea of Macedo- tain him a prisoner. Whereupon the kinf 

■a;tk»topof whicharoeeabovetheclouda. beeame enraged, and ordered the whole 

HcQoe tbe poota feigned it to be heaven, the band of Bacchanals to be deatroyed. But 

Mt of the gods. this waa not carried into effect. Pentheus 

60. hitidia» : plots. Thia word hath no became desiroue to aee the celebration oi 
■agular. Reiim : nou. plu. toila — anarea. tlie Orgiee, or feaata of Bacchus. For thia 
Meiilmifhir : deviae, or prepare. purpoee, he concealed himeelf on mount 

61. Amal oIm, ka» This expreeaion aeema Citheron, whence he could aee all their ce» 
ta illade to the ciemencj of Ceaar toward remoniea. But bein|^ discovered, the Bac- 
iii wttemi ea, for which he ia mnch oelebrated chanals fell upon him. Hia mother was 
bj Cicero and otherB. the firat who attacked him, and waa follow- 

62. Jaeiant : in the aense of emt/fiisil. ed b'y her two sbters, Ino and A%Uone^ who 

63. Iniomi : uncultivated — wild. immediately tore him in pieces. See Ovid 
64 Deut iUe» Divine honors were de- Met. Lib. 2L 

^J^^V'';^? .""n"."'-'" Silenurthe preceptor of Bacchu.; wi,o 
^ T^nJ?^^ tlu. Ume, Ocuviu. desired him to aJk anj thing be might*ll^the«,nof agod , „j .^ ,,,^j ^ 8^^^ ^^^_ 

kl^.tI?tL-lfUL -i^^I. iT^ Whereupon»ho wlied that whaterer h. 

t^^^K^XL^t^c^^ -1?''^ '-<=•' '"r ^ -verted into ,o.d. 

2^ujo^7«,n.i.dy. iw^.-propi- j^-rf ep^dL^u^^i^rforhr.?::^ 

so ^ . «^^ ^i.. ^^-^j-« 1 becameirold in his mouth, and he was on 

^ ^^^-in^^^^^J^^n^""^ thepointofperishingwithhunger,whenhe 

m. HiiaranBamoma^L. Cheering or jeadily did «>, and directed him to waah in 

•Oing meny the foasU with much^*e. the nver ^«^to/to, whose sands were con- 

^ech^thegod of wine, was the son of ^«ted mto gold. 

iapiter and Semele. He was educated, ac- The festxvals of Baechus, called Orgia^ 

Midin^ to some, in the island of Jfaxtu^ Bacehanalia^ or Dyonisia^ were introducod 

m orthe Cydades, under the care of the into Greece by Danaus and his daughters, 

ijmphs Phiua, Coronia, and Clyda ; and from Egypt. The panther was sacred to 

*hile asleep was carried off by some mari- him, because in his ezpedition to Indta, he 

■m, all of whom he changed into dolphins, was covered with the skin of that animaL 

tieept the pflot, who showed him some ten- The fir-tree, the yew-tree, the fig-tree, the 

dsasBB aad regard. Bacchus is celebrated ivy, and the vine, were all saered to him 

•i a warrior. Ho marched into India at Baechus had several names : lAber^ Bro 

Ib head of a laifo anny eomposed of men imia, Lymu^ Evan^ Thryonmu^ JaeehMt^ Aeo. 

isd women, all inspired with a divine fury, He is represented as drawn in a chariot l^ a 

lad aiiBod with the ihymu^ eymbai^ &c. tiger and a lion, accompanied by Pan, SUe. 

conq n s ets were easy — ^the people sub- nus, and the other satyrs. Baeehut, by mo- 

' — vhanrver be eame, without resist- ton. is frequently put for wnitx la iii\!ba 

Feathei», king of Tliebes, reftised to present case. 


71« Arvina vlna ^ua Vina novum dmdam calathis Arviaia n 
•"^^* Cantabunt mihi Damoetas, et Lyctius . 

79. Ut AgricolB fk- Saltantes Satyros imitabitur AlphesibQ 
dmt vota quotannii HflBC tibi semper erunt ; et cum soleni 
Baccho Cererique, uo Reddemus Nymphis, et cum lustrabim 

Qt'^i^ ^*' , Dum juga montis aper, fluvios dum pi 
reddam Dumque thymo pascentur apes, dum r 

82. Nam neque libi- Semper honos, nomenque tuum, laude 
lus venientis Austri ju- Ut Baccho Cererique, tibi sic vota qu< 
ro/metantiim;neclitora Agricol» facient : damnabis tu quoqw 
percussa fluctu Um ju- ^^ q^^ ^y^^ ^^i reddam pro 

vant me; nec flununa «t * ** • .• T'! 

qu» decurrunt inter ^*"™ ^^^^^ °^® tantum vementis sibilu 
sazosas valles, iam jv^ Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam litora, 
varu me. Saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valles 


71. Arvuia vxna : Chian wine. Arvitia : ration of hee darling c 
an adj. from Arvinu^ a promontorj of the to reconcile her to Pl 
bland Chios, in the Archipelago, famout for but to no purpose. A 
its good wine. Jfovtm nectar : nectar waa that she thould be re 
properly any kind of pleasant wine, or had eaten nothing in t 
other liquor. Hence the poets feigned it to ravisher. Ceres repa 
be the drink of the gode. ^otTum : good — the infemal regions, 
excellent. The wine here offered wan to eaten the leedB of a p 
be aa good ae nectar — good or excellent the Elysian ficlds. I 
nectar. See Ecl. iii. 66. was imposaible : but J 

72. Lyettui : an adj. from Lyehu^ a city «he might pass siz mo 
of Crete. her mother on earth 

73. Saltantes Satyrot: leaping or wonton ^*^ Pluto. 

■atyni. The Satyri were demi-gods of tlie During all this time. 

country, the origin of whom is not well earth had been neglo 

known. They were of a hideous form, loss which mankind 

and generally distinguished themselves by sence, Ceres went to J 

their riotous and wanton demeanor in the Triptolemtit^ the son < 

orgies of Bacchus, which they generally at- pertained to agricultu] 

tended. The Romans called them indis- Ceres is suppoped t 

criminately Fauni, Panety hnd ajfimni, Egyptian /m, and hei 

Alphetiboius, See EcL 8. brought into Greece 

75. Luttrabimut, Luttro may here be 1426 years before Chr 

taken in the sense of eircumeo^ to go around to bo Uie same as Tellu 

or encompass ; or of /mrgo, to cleanse or &c. The Roraans paic 

purify by sacrifice ; or it may comprehend and her festivais werc 

both. For it is agreed by all, that the poet for eight days in the in 

liath a rcference to what is callcd tho satri- by meton. is oflen put 

Jieium ambervale^ apoken of Geor. i. 345, ©a r» k- §» i 

which see. Circumimut eampo$ cum hostia, ^. ^ ^u ""1 ,J* ."^ * 

aays Ruieus. Reddemut: in the sense of ^}''^ ^^®"^,*^ T^fu '''' 

totvemut, ^? ,^^^";f^«. ^^ ^?"^' 

_^ ^ . -, ^, . , ^ pnoty of thiB mode o 

79. Cereru Ceret was^e goddesa of ^ear, when it is consi^ 

husbandry, the daughter of Saturn and Ops, ^y^^ ^^^d any thing 

and mother pf Proserpme by Jupiter,. whom j^ ^^^ directly, promi 

Pluto carried off whUe she was gathenng ^^. ^^ ^gturn ; and 

flowers iu the plains of^^Enna, in Sicily. ^anlcd, then he beci 

The Io88 was gnevous to Ceres, who sought Judicially bound lo th. 

ber ^lh day and night; when at lcngth '^^^^ ^r vow. Ar 

aho found her veil near the fountam of ^^^^j ^^ion 

Cvane. She could oblain no informalion f^ condcmn, or bind U 

of her daughter, till the nymph Arelhusa y^y^y^ 
told her tlial ahe was carried off by Pluto. 

Upon this, she immediately aseendcd to 82. Sibilut: the wl 

heaven, and demanded of Jupiterthe resto- aouth wiod. 


Mi. nic te no0 fragili donabimus ante cicut&. 86 ^($; Htec eadem eictaa 

Ek no6, Formosum Corydon ardebat Alexim : docuii no«, 

Rec eadem docuit, Cujum pecus ? an Melibuii ? ^- S»^« .1^«°> ^ 

Mo. At tu sume pedum, quod, me cum sape rogaret, Squr»rJ!^i"c^ Anti. 

Non tulit Antigenes (et erat tum dignus araan) gi„eg „00 mjjt^ ^.^n, 

Fonnusum paribus nodis atque ere, Menalca. 90 sepe rogaret me, et 


tfi Jfm dtnabimus: I will present thee 
fliui this, &c Cituta : properlj a pipe 
udt of the ■t&lk of the hemlock. 8ee 

81 Ume eadem doemt : this same pipe 
tn|ht me : /ormontm Corydon^ kc. i. e. with 
Ikiiiame pipe I sang the tecond Eclogue. 
Bot^oeuit : thu same taught me : Cujum 

pecui? L e. with this same pipe I eang tht 
third Edogue. 

88. Sume pedum: take thie crook, ae a 
tostimony of mj regard. 

90. Formonan : beautified with equal knolM 
and brass — with knobt at equal distancee : 
or uniform, in regard to size. 


Wtat is the sabject of this pastoral ? 
Wbo probably is meant bv Daphnis ? 
Wko is to be nnderstood under the cha- 
■dcr of Menalcas? Who under that of 

When doee Rueus suppose it to haTO 
km written .' 
Where is tlie ocene laid ? 
hlo iMnr many parts is the pastoral di- 

Who waa AIooA? and what is said of 

Who WM Codnmf and what is said of 

Wko wae Baoehiie ?. Whal is nid of him? 
Wkii wwB hie ftetiTmb caUed? 

By whom were thej introduced mtc 
Greece ? and from what coimtrir ? 

What were liis votarios called ? 

What were some of Uio names of Bacchusr 

How is he represented as drawn ? 

What is the word Bacchus frequentlj 
usod for? 

Who were the Satyri? How did thej 
distinguish themselves ? 
Who was Ceree ? What is said of her ? 

Is she supposed to be the same with thi 
Egjptian Int f 

By whom was her worahip intfndnued 
into Greece ? and at what time? 

When were her festiYals oelebrmlid > 



Thk sabjeet uf this fioe pastoral is Silenns. He had promiMd tlie i 
MnanluB h. song; but had put it off frora time to time. Wearied 
eurphsed him asleep in his grotto, just recovering from his intoxica 
lay at some dittance from him : with these they bind him fast; i 
they demand of him the fiilfil^ient of his promise. At this momei 
nymphs, joins them. Upon which he begins, and explains to thi 
world upon the principles of the Epicurean philosophy; and eoii 
interesting fables by way of episode. 

U is generally supposed this pastoral was deaigned as a compliment 
rean, who taught Virgil the principles of that philosophy. By Silei 
Btond Syro, and by the awains Chromis and Mruuiiut^ hk two pupi 

PRIMA Syracosio dignata est loder 

i. NoBtra Thalia pri- Nostra, nec erubuit sylvas habitare, Tl 

na dignau est q^ canereni re^es et prslia, Cynthiu 

VeUit, el admonuit : Pastorem, Tityre, 

Pascere oportet oves, dcductum dicere 

A. Namqne, O Vare, Nunc ego (namque super tibi enint, qt 

«ra^rerunttibiaiitpeeto Vare, tuas cupiant, et tristia condere b 

q cupian , Agrestem tenui ineditabor arundine Mi 

Non injussa cano : si quis tamen hiec q 


t. S^meosio vertu : in pastoral verse. 7. Fare, It is gener 

Syraeotio: an adj. JfVom Syracutct^ the birth poet here mcans Qui 

place of TheocritUB, the first p'&.storal poet arose to the highest hon 

of eminence; the chief city of Sicily, and He was consul in the 

famous for its defence against the Romans afler which he was pr 

under Marcellus. years. Having retume 

2. Thalia, One of the Muses. See Ecl. into Germany wilh thn 
iii. 60. J^ec erubuit^ &c. Nor did she blush lost. bcing drawn mto 
to inhabit the woods. This verb here is mortified him so mucfa 
both expressivo and beautiful; the perf. of self. This happened in 
erubeteo. Thalia was supposed to preside dere: to write — record. 
over comedy and pastoral poetry. Virgil 

was the first pastoral writer among the Ro- 9. .ATon injutsa eano: 

mans; which explains the words, nostra forbiddcn by Apollo. 

TTuUia prima : my muse first deigned, &c. sing of pastoral subjec 

3. Cum canerem^ &c. Virgil is said to and battlcs. Si quit ta* 
have begun a work upon the afiairs of J^lba does not refer to the woi 
Longa^ but aftcrwards relinquished it, and byt to the tliird and 
commcncod the Bucolics. Cynthiut: a Apollo forbids him to 
name of Apollo. See Ecl. iv. 10. FIp//i/ ? stylc of Iiefoic poetry. 
pinchcd my ear ; a proverbial expression, to be tJiis : though he f 
implying admomtion. your actions in heroic ^ 

5. Deductum: a part. of deduco^ humble, to do it in the humbli 
or slender. A metaphor taken from wool And if ar.y should be 1 
fpun out till it is msde fine or slender. w4th the love of this I 

6. Supererunt: in the sense of erunt alii should read these paat 
poetm* The parts of Ihe verb are separated find them. Hae : thet 
by Tmasifl. Bucolics. Qwqw: in 



Gftptos amore leget ; te nostrs, Vare, myrica, 
Te nemus omne canet : nec Phosbo gratior ulla eat, 
Quam 9ibi qiue Vari pneacripsit pagina nomen. 
Pergitei Pieridet. Chromis et Mnasilus in antro 
Slenum pueri somno Tiddre jacentem, 
Inilatuia hestemo TeDaB, ut 8em])er, laccho. 
Serta procul tantam capiti delapea jacebant : 
Etgraris attriti pendebat cantharus anai. 
A^gresai (nam aepe aenez spe carminis ambo 
Lwerat) injiciunt ipeia ex vincula aertia. 
Addit ee eodam, timidiaque supervenit ^gle 
E^ Naiadum pulcherrima : jamque ridenti 
Sanguineis irontem moris et tempora pingit. 
Dle dolum ridens : Qud vincula nectitis ? inquit 
Bohite me, pueri : satis eet potuisse videri. 
Cinnina, qu» vultis, cognoscite : carmina vobis , 
Huic tliud mercedis erit : simul incipit ipse. 
Tum verd in numerum Faunosque ferasque videres 
Lodere^-tum rigidas motare cacumina quercus. 
Nec tantum Pbcebo gaudet Pamassia rupes, 
Nec tantiim Rhodope mirantur et Ismarus Orphea 
NuBque caoebat uti magnum per inane coacta 


10 10. Nostrs mjnom 
eaneni te, O Vare, omn% 
nemuf canet te : nec est 
ulla pegina gntior Ph<B- 
bO| qaam iila qum 
14. Paeri ChromiBet 
16 MBadiliu vidtee 

16. Ut Mmper e«l «iM 



t4. Satie eet me po 
^ taiMO videri tie vobit. 
^^ 25. Suni canninavo- 
bia : hoic JEgU ent aliud 


IOl Xuirm m^itm : in the «1180 of nottra 
BmtlkM, The amne nemut in the foUowing 
im probablj meana every elevated com- 

^11100, eadi ae epic or heroic We are 
lo thie mterpretation fitnn the declara- 
fioa of the poet in tbe aixth line, that there 
voold be pther poeta, who woold celebrate 
llt pffaieep of Vams in heroic verse, though 
k himttlf wovld prefer to do it in the 
hmblcr at jle 9it paetoraL 

li. Saemmm Silemuwaaoneof theroral 
4iteioi, the god of mjateriee and knowledge, 
md the foeter-fiither of Bacchns. He b 
nidy bj eoma» to have been the son of P&n ; 
«tkm kaj, the eon of Mercnrj. Malea, in 
Ihe ialand of Lesboe, ie the eiipposed place 
•f hif nttivitj. He is repreeented as a fat 
lad menj old man, ridinf on an ass, 
trowned with flowen, alwajs intoxicated. 

15. Inflaiumt^kc Swollen as to his yeins, 
vith his jesterdaj'8 wine. See Ecl. L 65. 
heeho: a name of Bacehas; here put, bv 
wton. for wine, It is dertved fVom a Greek 
vwd signifjing a shout or confosed noise. 
ft was giren to him on aecoont of the riot 
lad Tociferation of his inebriatedfollowers. 
8ee EgI. v. 69. 

16. Sertar plo. of serfiMi, a garland, or 
Vfeatb of flowers. To be crewned with a 
fsrlaad, wna an indication of druiikenness. 
fckaas hod all the signs of betng in such a 

He was Ijinf dowiH-he was sleep- 
bot Ins garlaa& were notoa his head ; 
(ieiapta : thej had onlj fallen ofT — 
itej orere oeither broken nor bniined. 
\Z.Aggrttti^kam llie swaias, seisiff g, pnt 

on him oords of these verj garlands-'tliej 
bind him with cords made of them. 

20. ^Slgle. The name of a njrmph, de- 
rived from a Greek word signifjing splendor, 
or brightnees. JVatadum. See Ecl. ii. 46. 
ViderUi: to him just openixig his ejes. 
THmidit : to the trembling swains. 

22. JHfit. Morus was the fruit of the 
mulberrj-tiee. It is hero called tanguineut. 
red, or bloodj. It is said to have been ori* 
ginallj white; but assimied the red or 
purple color, in memorj of the two loTers, 
Pyratnut and Tkitbet who slew themselves 
under a mulberrj-tree. See Ovid. MeL 
Lib. 4. 

23. Qti) : whj — for what purpose. 

^ 25. Cognoteiie : in the sense of audiie. 

26. Mud tnereedit. The same as aOa 
mereet : another reward. 

27. Ludere in numerum : to dance, or 
leap abont in regular time, or measure. 
Their motions exactlv corresponded to the 
notes or measure oi the verse. Faunot 
The Faani were demi-gods of the countij, 
to whom the first fruits of all things were 
generallj offered. See Ecl. v. 73. 

29. Pamattia rupet. The monntain Par- 
nassos in Phocis ; a countrj in Oreeia Pro- 
priOt much celebrated bj the poetH, aud 
sacred to the Muaes. Here Apollo had a 
famons temple. 

30. Rhodope^ltmanu. T'7o mountaine, 
or rallier raiiges of mountaiiis, in Thraoo 
thc countrj or Orphcut, 

31. J^amqne r.ant^i^ &c. For he sung bow 
the seeds. both of tiio oaiih and ot \Xk<b akr 


Semina terrarumque, a^iinaeque, marisqii 

8S. Dt ex his prinus Et liquidi simul ignis : ut his exordia piii 

omnia iutceperunt Omnia, et ipse tener mundi concreverit € 

35. Tum eanehat quo- Tum durare solum, et discludere Nerea | 

modo solum cceperit Coeperit, et rerum paulatim sumere fomi 

37. Jamque eanebat Jamque novum ut terrae stupeant lucesoe 

" 38!^"utc"u^^bre« ca- ^^^ utque cadant submotis nubibus im 

dantc nubibu8 submo- Incipiant sylvae cum primum surgere, cdi 

tifl &Itiius d terra, Rara per ignotos errent animalia montes 

Hinc lapides PyrrfasB jactos, Satumia re) 
Caucaseasque refert volucres, futrumquc 


and of the sea, &c. Silenut here relates chaanel. Rumif .■ajra, '1 

the origin of the world, according to the te in mare, 

■ystcm of Epicurus, who Uught that incor- 33. Utque, Some oop 

poreal space, and corporeal atom8,were the ti|m^ is fhe eaner. 

lirst principles, or elements, of all things. ^ Rara • few in noi 

The former he denomenated Inane^ the lat- iMnied 

ter Plenum, The lna$u or Vaeuum^ he '^ ' . 

considered space, eveiy way indefinitely ^^» Hvm refert lapidet^ 

extcnded. By the PUmm, he undenitood wlatee the thrown ston 

the atoma or minute particle» of matter Pynrha wm the daught 

moving in every direction through the Inane, »;»<» ^ife of Deucahon, 

which Virgil here calU the temina, because ">«"■» *»d kmg of TIm 

it waa thought by their fortuitoue concur- «*7» ^*^ «omo timedun 

rence arose what we call the four elements, habitants of the earth w 

*»arth, air, water, and fire. Epicurue held umversal deluge, excep 

many other erroneous notions, particularly ''^"® Pjnrrha. They wi 

cnncerning the nature of God. He was an ■™*W ship, and carried 

Atheiiian, and bom about 340 years before mount Pamassus, which 

the Christian era. He had many followers. not overwhelmed. Hore 

32. Anima : in the sense of aerit, With- oracle of Tkemit concen 
out air, there could be no animal existence. ^^ ^® human race ; w 

33. Liquidi ignit: of pure fire. Hit pri- formed, to cast behind t 
mit: of these first principlee or elements their great mother; bj 
{earth, air, water, and^r«) all things sprang «^od stones. They imn 
or had a beginning. The Epicureans command of the oracle. 
mnintained that, though their atoms and by Deucalion became 1 
incorporeal space were the first principles PyirhJi, women. See • 
or elements of earth, air, water, and fire, Soi%tmia regna : the reij 
yet these last were the principlesorelements Golden age. See Ed. 1 
of all other things, or out of which all other 42. Furtum Promethe 
things sprang. Omnia exordia : all things metheus. The poets si 
received or took a beginninr. The verb iVom heaven, with wh 
ttaceperunty or some other of tfae like im- man of clay, made bj 
port, is plainly understood, and to be sup- Jupiter was so much 1 
plied. Ut : how. dered Merenry to chain 

35. Jferea : acc. slng of Jfereut^ a god of mount Caucasos. He 

the sea, the son of Oceanus and Terra. He a vulture to prey upo] 

married Doris, by whom he had fifty daugh- howerer, grew as fast ■ 

ters who were called Jferektet, He posseee- Hence Caucateat voluet 

ed the gifi of prophecy, and b said to have Cancarae. This is a vei 

informed Paris of the fatal consequenoes of tain, or rather range < 

hiscarryingofirHelen,thewifi»ofMenelane. Mween the Enxine 

It was by Xhf direction and assistance of ProMel^et .* the word 

Jfereuty that Hercules obtained the golden Oreek origin, and pra 

apples of the Hesperidee. The word Aemtf nght, or an aaxioiii 

. oflen pnt, by meton. for the sea, as in Uiia This ie a key to the 1 

place. Solum^ &c. Then he eang how the strong idea of the trot 

laad besan to grow hard and to separate the themselves, by taking 

waters from itself, and eonfine them to their thonght fiur tlie morTOH 


HwB adjungit, Hylan naul» quo fonte relictuni ^ 

Ohun^aaeni : ut litus, Hyla, Hyla, omne sonarel. 

St /brtuiiatain, si nunquam armenta fuissenl, 46 

puphaen nivei aolatur amore juvenci. ^ Et folatur Pasi 

%b, Tirffo infelix, que te dementia cepit ? P^P *^®'« n»^«* j« 

Prteddes impl^nmt fabds mugitibus agro8 : '^^SSl^At^S^en oo^u^ 

Kt non tam turpes pecudum tamen uUa secuta est earum fecuu est uta 

CoDCulHtua ; quamvis coUo timuisset aratrum, 60 tufpef 

Bt sepe in levi qusstsset cornua fironte. 

Ah, virgo inieliz^ tu nunc in montibus erras ! 

nie, iatus niveum molli fultus hyacintho, 53. nie taunu fultuii 

llice suh nigri pallentes ruminat herbas, ^uoMf niveum litua nioU 

Aut ahquam in magno sequitur grege. Claudite, Nympha, ^ \l^^\ niminat 

I>Ktt«9 Nymph», nemorum jam claudite saltus : 66 J^' ^""^ **"*»'**"' "^ 

Si qua forte feiMt ocuhs sew obvia no^ ^g j,^^^^ ^ 

Errabunda bovw vestigia. Forsitan illum, ^^^f^ perducant illum, 

Xut berbi captum viridi, aut armenta secutum, aut captum viridi herbft. 

Perducant aliquaB stabula ad Gortynia vaccae. 60 aut ■ecutum armenU w6 

Twn canit Hesperidum miratam mala puelhim : 

Tam Phaethontiadas musco circumdat amarte 


C Hghm. Hvlme was the companion of of mj buU maj preeent themeelvee to my 

OimlM m the Arsonautio ezpedition, and eyee. Obvia : an adj. from obvim^ a^reeing 

aieli beloved bj him. Having gone on with veitigia. The flenae ie complete with- 

Aoie to obtain water, bj eome meane or out it. Salttu^ ia properl j a lawn, or open- 

Hbw, he wae loeL The poeU taj he wae ing in a grove or park, where ^ttle have 

curied olT bj tbe njmphe. Hercules and room to sport and play ; from the verb «o/te. 

hii eompanioiia were much grieyed at the 59. Captum : delighted with, desirous of, 

km ef the boj, and went along the shoree, the green pastures. Ruaus says, eupidum, 

vhsa tbej found he was missing, calling 60. Oortynia: an adj. fl-om OortynAt ■ 

hiabj name, Hjfia^ H$la, Clamasient: in citj of Creto, famed for iu ezcellent pan- 

ihi aenae of •eeostssenl. 8ee Ed. iv. 35. tures. 

M. Panphmin: a Greek aco. the dangh- 61. Tum eanit vuelUtm^ &c. Then he 

kt of the enn, and wife of Minos, king of sings the damsei admiring the apples of the 

Grela. 8ee jEn. vL 94. Hesperides. This was AUlanU, the daugh- 

17. Ftfge. The poet here calls Panphai ter of Schaneua^ king of the island of Scj- 

I TiisiB, thougfa ahe was the mother of rus, in the ^gean sea. She consented to 

hadrs. trisrfnr. and ^ndrfljgcus. The an- marrj the man who «hould outrun her, hut 

tjfnte sometinias ealled anj womaninearlj if he were beaUn, he should lose his life. 

iifc a virgin. Several had loet their liree. At Icngth she 

tt. Prmtida: the danghteis of PrmHu^ was beaUn bj Hippomenee, the grandson 

Uif of the Argivea, who vied with Juno in of Neptune os Mars. At the suggestton of 

^Wiatj. Tho goddeee, bj waj of punish- Venus,Hippomeneecastthree apples,ukeii 

'■Ml, eaqeed vhm to imagine thej were from the gardenof tbe Heependes, on the 

cbniged iato heifera. Their lowinge, «mi- ground, one at a time, when she was gain- 

fitau, are hore called false, because thej ing upon him; whioh so captivatcd the 

vm noi in realitj heifora. Seeuia eet: in virgin, that she stopped to pick them up ; 

As seBse of ywiisil. aad bj thiameans he obtainod the beauteous 

ilt HmaamiM Hwmimei : althongb each one prize. Hetperidum, The Hespertdes wert 

bd tered tiie ploagh apon her neok — the three in number, w£gte,w9re/MiM,and Kttpe» 

pkm fiooi whftoh me plough was hniig or reihuMa^ the dai^riitere of Hesperue, the bro* 

SHpcsded. ther of Atlas. They resided in Mauritania, 

OL F^dhu: enppoffted resling or reoli* in Afiioa, where it is said thej had gardens, 

wm^» in.which were trees that bore golden applce. 

it. Dmtmm : aa adj. from Dieie^ a moim* These gardens were watohed bj a dragon 

tMefCrelew Silonwi tnms again to the that nererslept. Hercules slew him, and 

ilaiyf Pasiphai, whoia he here intruducea stole the applee. 8ee JCn. rv. 484. 

ieen— liing. aad oaUiiig Qpon the njmphe 62. TVmi etrcumda/, Hec Thenhe eneloeee 

l#ah«t«p lh« opsBhMpi of thegvovee. Per- the sistors ofPhaithan in the mora of bitler 

— wheroorotherthteraaderiiigelepe barfc— he liiige theoi tranarnTVMid ViAA \ni^ 


64. Tum canit ut una Cortidis, atque solo proceras erigit alnoA 
■ororum duxerit GaUum Tum canit errantem PermesBi ad flumini 
p!fMrmewii * »"nma ^^„5^3 jj^ montes ut duxerit una sororum 

67. Ut Linus pastor Utque viro Phoebi chorus assurrexerit on 
omatus qtuMd crinei flo- Ut Linus hsec illi divino carmine pastor, 
libos, at^oe amaro apio Floribus atque apio crines oniatus amarG 
^«n^ »^^ ^^^»"»® Dixerit : Hos tibi dant calamos, en accip 
dillirTos calam^ t^H ^^'^'' quos ante seni : quibus iUe soleb 
cn accipe eot^ quoe iUa Cantando rigidas deducere montibus om< 
dederant His tibi Grvnaei nemoris dicatur origo : 

74. Aut ut narraverii Ne quis sit lucus, quo se plus jactet Apd 
BeyUam^iam Nisi, aut Qujj loqu^r aut Scyllam Nisi, aut quam 
TwScti^^''^ Candida succinctam latrantibus inguina b 


lar or alder treee. PhaithmUuuUu. Theae Hesiod. It ia the highest 

were the sisters of Phaethon, or Phaeton^ possibly could be paid hii 

and daughtera of the sun. They were 72. Oryntei: an adj. 

•ometimes called Heliades, Their namea city of JEoIia, where Ap 

wore PhaethiuA, Lanqteiie^tLnd Lampethusa. built of white marble, ai 

Phdeton imprudently desired of his father was a famoua oracle. 

the managrement of his chariot for one day. 74. Scyllam. There 11 

Phobus reAiied for a long time. But, at name of Scylla : one the • 

Ii0t, overoome by his importunity, he con- king of the Megarensee, 1 

Mnted. He was, however, soon convinced with Minoe, king of Cre 

of hia rashneae; for the horses, perceiving to Megara,betrayed her ft 

an unusual driver, became impatient of the For which deed, it is said 

reins ; and when they had passod the meri- into a lark*^ while he wi 

dian in their course, and began to descend, hawk. See nom. prop. ii 

he was no longer able to restrain them, and The other was the dai 

the youth was thrown headlong from the car Some there are, who thic 

intothe£ridanus,orPo. His sisters grieved founds the two, attribut 

immoderately at this misfortune of their what properly belongs t 

brother ; and were changed, some say, into there will be nn need of tl 

poplar trces, others say, into alder trees. ply the word eanu, or iUoM 

See Ovid. Met. Lib. 2. The story of ScvUa, 

63. Circumdai. Rueus says, eingii. Pro» Phorcus, is briefly this : 
eerat: stately. god, fell iii love with hei 

64. Permettu Permessus, a river of Beo- his addresses. In order 1 
tia, rising at the foot of mount Helicon. favorable to him, he ap] 
OaUum. See Ecl. 10. ress Circe ; who, as sooi 

65. In Aonat moniet: to the Beotian became enamoured with 
mouutains, //«/te<m and Ct(/i€ron, famous for instead of afibrding hii 
being the seat of the Muses. Beotia was endeavored to divert hi 
originally called Aonia^ from Aon^ the son Scylla, and fix them on h 
of Neptune, who reigned in that country. any efFect. For the sake 

66. Omnit efiorut. HereVirgilpaysGallus poured the juice of some 
a very high compliment as a poot ; and he a fountain, where Scylla 
doee it in the most delicato manner. They self. And as soon as she 
roee up in his presence, to do him honor : great surprise, she fbunf 
atturrexerit viro. her waist changed into I 

67. Linut. See Ed. iv. 56. Carmine: in like dogs, that were coift 
the sense of vertibut. making a growling noise. 

70. Atcrao teni : to the Ascrean sago^ body assumed an equal 
Hesiod ; who was a native of Ascra, a town This sudden and unexpect 
of Beotia not far from Helicon. He was a filled her with sueh honno 
nolebrated poet. herself into that part of 1 

71. ^uihut iUe^ &o. It is said of Orpheus, vidos Sicily from Italy, w 
t^t the loily oaks bowed their heads, and rock, or rather a ledge ol 
listoned to the charms of his music The iii. 420. Seeuia ett: repo 
•sanM effects aro aaoribed liere to tiia mofiic of ihe weoM» of dieam. 

BUC01.1CA. ECL. VI. 85 

DofichiaB vexine rates, et gurgite in alto euididE ingaina latnn* 

Ah ! tmiidoe nautaa canibus lacer^bsae marinia t ^.«''Vr"**?**"^ yoxhm 

Aat ut mutato. Terei narraverit artus ? VKiKSr 

Quas illi Philomela dapes, qu» dona par&rit f ^ feiix T^eut Bupervoli- 

Quo cursu deaerta petiverit, et quibus ant^ 80 Uverit tecU taa anU. 

Infeiiz aua tecta gupervoiitaverit alis ? 82. lUe Silmut caDit 

Ommm qu«, PhaDbo quondam meditante, beatua •"J^ ^T ^•**Sl^JJ: 

A ■••. n . • •: j* 1 rotaa audiit, PhcBbo 

Audut Eurotas, juasitque ediscere kuros, quondam meditante 

(Ue caLnit : pdB» relSnrunt ad «dera vallefl ; 84. Vallet pulameantu 

Cogere donec oves atabulia, numerumque referre 85 referunt eum ad eidera : 

Juttit, et inrito proceaait Vesper Olympo. <i«neo Veeper juantpae 

tore$, cogere ota» 


76. DuliehiaM: an a^j. from Ihi/ie^tiaii, 80. Curtu: in the eenBe of eelerUate, 

io island tn the lonian sea, ferming a part Deserta : the deaerts : toea^ is to be under- 

ofthekingdomof UljTMee. Dul%ehiatrQie$ : atood: deeert plaoee. 
the ihipe of Uljneee. ^. , 81. Teeta tua anti : hie palace hii own 

78. Terei: gen. of TVreta» a ^g of before hie tranaformation— but his own no 

Thraoe, who marned Procoe, or Progne, longcr. Teeium, ii anj covered place that 

Uughxer of Pandion, kmg of Athene. She i, inhabited ; firom the verb lego, 
bad a niiter bj the name of Philomela« o» m, l j j , * k n 

rs^^i-^^^di^i^^^ fo'^erS!%nr^Tep"::(t^^^^^^ 

loThraoe. Acoordingljhe wenttoAtSens; beautifblyouthHyacinthu^the son of La- 

b.t..«H» aThSulawli, he waeenamoured ^nk. .f ^h^F^^^Ti^X^ M. 

^th her, and reM>lved to gratify hi. pas- ^^" ^^ *^* IB^^oUa, nngmg upon hii 

Thi. he did. and afterward. cut out ^oE' 

r!!!!^^l!!!r«!rJ»!^^\Il*^jr^J!lwLT^^ W. JEwro/M. A verj celebrated river of 

her tMmi., to P"^«at her from discloeing ^ Peloponneros : its banks abounded in the 

tbe buoaroii. deed. He lefl her m con- j"^*''*"^"'*""'""' •«"»"*" •»^»*"***'" •""»'» 

c ^4 . .«j u..;«^ #-v.- -«..— ..^«... laurel. In its course, it forms nearlj a se- 

finement ; and havmg taken eveir precau- ^j^i^i ^^ ^ ^^ ^^i^t citj Lace- 

Uon to prevent lU eommg to light, he re- . *^"^'^^ '^rn / *"' ^^ \^ ^^^ 

Umed to his wife, and^formeS her that ^»'"^»' "^ ^»"» *"^° ^^ ^"^"^ Laeonieut. 

PhilomeU had died oa the waj. Not long 84. Vailet jiulMa, &c The vallies struck 

afUr, however, ebe foond otherwise. Phi- '^»^ .*bo song, waft it back to the stars— 

lomela, during her captiritv, described on a bear it to Ihe stars. 

piece of Upestrj ber misfortunes and suf- 85. Referre : to count over their number 

fenngs, and privatelj eonvejed it to her *o »«0 that none be missing. 

«sler, who hastened to her release. Here 86. Vetper» The same as the planet Ve- 

Ihej eonoertMl meaMurs. bow to be revenged nns. When it precedes or goes before the 

«n Terens. It was agreed that Progne sun,itbcalled Lucifer,andsometime8Phos- 

fhonld kin her son Itjs, and serve him up phorus, from the Greek ; but when it goe. 

for his fatfier. In the midst of his meaf, behind him, Vesper, or Hesperus, the even- 

to oaHed fbr bis son, when hi. wife told ing star. It is also taken for the evenin^, 

Mm tbat he was then feasting on his flesh. particularlj that part denominatcd the twi- 

At this moment, Philoniela appeared, and light. Proeestit invito Olympo : marches 

threw the bead of Itjr. oa the Uble befere along the unwilKng beaven. The word m- 

hiB. At thi. moment he drew hi. sword, vt/uf, beautifullj represenU the stru^gle 

•ad was going to pnnish them both, when between the light and darkness in the liine 

he was ehanfed into a vfupa^ a bird oalled of twilighU .The daj is lotb, or nnwilling 

WsonMtbenM;pe^bjother.,tb. iapwwi^; to jield; or, it maj refer to iU regret nt 

Ailoaiela, Into tbe mghUngale ; Progne, being doprived of so eharming a song a. 

wuo the ntaUow; and Itj.» into \h%pheatani. that of Silenus. 
8ee Orid. MeU Lib. 6. 


Mhat ptobablj waa th. dMgn of thi. Where is the soene laid f 
pistoral ? What is said of Silenos .' 

Who ia inteaded niid«r tha charaoUr of Doe. Virgil give the priBoiple. al' tlM 

83m4? Wbo wa. Sjrro? Epicuxean philosopbj f 

WhMBar. we tonnderilaadbj th.mraiB. Wbat wer. tbose prinQk|\«i^ 
Cknai. aad Maaalii. ? Wbo wa. £picnni8 > 


Who WM NereiM? Of wliom was he the Who were the Haiperi<le« f W^ mtn 

fhther ? their n&niee ? 

Wh&t ie the word Noreus loawtimee taken Who wat Phaeton'? What luk iflt M 

for t he Attempt ? 

Bj whet iipare is it ao taken ? What became of him ? 

Who was Dencalion ? What b aaid to What were the namea of hia aiatani? 

hare taken place in hia reign f What became of them ? 

Who waa hia wife ? Who was Heaiod ? Where waa he bom i 

What were they direoted todo in order to How many were there of the name of 

re-people the earUi f Scjll& ? 

What do joa nndeiatand bj the worda Deecribe, or giye an aoeoonl of aaeb? 

SaturfUa regna f Who waa Tereua ? 

Who waa Prometheus ? What ia said of What ia said of him ? 

him ? Into what was he tranaformed ? 

What ia the proper meanini^ oftaUuaf What waa the name of hia wifo ? Inia 

Who waa Atdknta ? What ia aaid of what waa ahe transformed ? k»* 



Tma paatoral containa a triai of akill in song between the shepherds Corjdon and Th vms. 
It ia much of thq natnre of the foorth, and is an imitation of the eifli^ of the IdjUa of 
Theocritus. It is conjectured that bj Corjdon and Th^rsis we are to understand G&Uua 
and Pollio ; of whom our poet apeaks on seyeral occasiona in the most honorable terma. 
The scene Is laid on the pleaaant banks of the river Mincius. MelibcBns is thought to 
be Virgil himself, and Daphnis some mutual friend of theirs. Thej both listen atten. 
tively to their song; which being ended, thej give the palm to Corjdon. 

Mel. FORTE sub arguti consedenit ilice Daphnis, 
Compulerantque greges Corjdon et Thjrsis in onum : 
3. Thjrsis eaw^uUrai Thjrsis oves, Cor]^on distentas lacte capellas. 
oves, Corydon eow^e- Ambo florentes tetatibus, Arcades ambo : 
rai capeUas £( cantare pares, et respondere parati. t 

6. H)c caper ipae vir ^^^ ^^i dum teneras defendo a fiigore mjrtos, 
gregis deerraverat mihi« ^ir gregis ipse caper deerraverat : atque ego Daphnim 
dum Aapicio : ille ubi me contra videt ; Ocjds, inquit, 


1. Arguia : whispeHng. The word verj for its paaturea and flocka ; and in a man* 
aptly expresses the mstltng noise made bj ner aamd to shepherda. Thej were both 
Ihe wind among the leavee : to which refe» in the prime of life : Jlortniet tOaiihm, 
rence is here had. 5. Paret eaniare: equal atsinging. Pat 

2. Corydon : this b derived ttom a Oreek is properlj equal in match to contend for 
word signifying a lark. ThyrtU: from a yictorj. 

Greek word signifying a spear bonnd with 7. Daphnim: ftom a Greek word aigni- 

vine, in honor of Baochua. /n tmton .* into fying a laureL Ftr : in the sense of tfiiar. 
one place, loeum being nnderstood. 8. ConiriL This is here used adverbiallj, 

3. Capellat ditteniat laeie: hia goata dia- m ium; or over againat him. The wcwd 
tended with milk— having their udders dia- maj be taken in either sense. The fbtmar 
tended. seems preferable in this plaoe. 

4. Awtbo Areaioi, Not indeed that thej 9. Adet : in the sense of «em. MeKbmi 
were both natives of Areadia ; but thej aro from a Oreek word signifjing a shephaiwd: 
^ ealied» b^wanaa that eountrj waa famoua or one who has the care of flocka. 


Hne ades, 6 Meliboee ; caper tibi salvus et h<Brli ; 9. Caper eit solvui 

Bt ■ qiud cessare potea, requiesce sub umbra. 10 ^«^ >»«'*» 9««>^ '^ 

Uuc ipei potum venient per prata juvenci : 

Hic viridia tener) pnetexit arundine npas . !*• ^^^ yiridii Min* 

Bfincios, dque sacrft resonant examina quercu. ^*" pnetejut 

Quid &cerem f neque ego Alcippen, noc Phyllida habe- 

Depulsoe a lacte domi, qusB clauderet agnoR * [bam, 

Et certamen erat, Corjdon cum Thyrside, magnum. 16. Corydon etrimbtU 

PoBtbabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo. cnm Thyraido 

Altemis igitur contendere versibus ambo 

Oep^re : altemos Mussb meminisse volebant. 19. Volobant me me 

Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordino Thyrsis. 20 miniMo alterno» vemu 

Coa. NymphiB, noeter amor, Libethrides, aut mihi car- ^^' Corydon rrferebat 
Quale meo Codro, concedite : proxima Phoebi [men, ^i. Aut concedite /olt 
Verabus iUe facit : aut si non possumua omnes, iannon mihi, quale can-' 

Hic trguta 8acr& pendebit fistula pinu. eestiitu 

Th. Pastores, heder& crescentem ornate poetam, 26 23. JVbi omnoe noa 
Arcades, invidi4 rumpantur ut Uia Codro. po«umui/ai^ tn. 

Aat n ultri plaeitum laud&rit, baccare frontem 27.CingitoiiieamfToii^ 

Cingite, ne vati noceat mala Ungua futuro. ^^ 

CoR. Setosi caput hoc apri tibi, Delia, parvua 29. O Delia, pannie 

Et nmoea Mycon vivacis comua cervi. 30 Mycon ^ert tibi hoo 

S proprium hoc luerit, levi de marmore tota ctput. 


10. Qicirf:/ea^porif inunderstoodfgovem- any one lay down his art or profession, to 
^ by «M^ : any time— a little timo. hang up and coneecrate tlie infltniments 

11. Poium: todrii^k: a sup. in um, of the which he had osod, to the god who pre- 
^rb jMlo, put ader the vorb venient, ndod ovor that art. 

12. PnEtexti : in tho lenfle of iegit, 25. Hederd. PooUi were crowned eome- 

13. Mifuiut : a amall river rising out of times with ivy, at other times, with laurel. 
tke lake Benmeut^ and ialling into tho Po. Thcso both were overgreens, and designod 
tfirfie, MenMO. to denote a lasting famo. Omate : in the 

14. Aleippen — FhylUda: tho names of sonseof roromi/c. By poe/om we are to un- 
tvoserrants; b^thderiTod from the Greok. derstand Thyrsis himself. 

15. Depulrot a latte: taken away from 96. Ilia Codro: tho sides to Codrus; tho 
the milk : weaned. Domt : at home. same as Ilia Codrt. This construction is 

17. Patihakmi, ftc I poetponed my so- frcquent with Virgil: tho daU in the sense 

rioos bosiDeos to their iong : to listcn to thoir of the g«m. 

•OQg. Luda: in the oense of canrut. 27. UUra nlaeitum : beyond my pleasure, 

19..Mitf0eoletenl:themeaningis,thoMu- or desiro. Immodorate praise was Ihought 

Ki would havo them sing altemate versos. by tlie aneientt to havo in it somothing of 

90. Rrferebai : in the sense of eantabat, tho nature of fascination ; and to avert it» 

tl. Lieihridet: an adj. from Libethra^ a malignant influence,they wore a garland of 

Ibuitain in BeuHa ; othors say in Magnetia^ baeear^ or lady Vglove, as a counter charm. 

orer whieh thoy presided. Henco they are The pron. me la understood. 

eiQed Libeihrian nympht. /fotler amor : 29. Delia : A namo of Diana, from De- 

mj deligbt, or love. lot^ tho place of hor birth. Setoti : bristly. 

tS. Coneediie : grant snch a song to me 30. Mycon, The swain Mycon is sup- 

ai ye granted to my Codras: inspire such posed to be Corydon's friend, and t> pro 

I long, Scc Codrne was a poet cotempo- mise these things to Diana in his namo. 

iuv with Virgil, as we leam from Servius, 31. 5t hoe fuerti proprium. If this (suc- 

lad of euperior merit. Proxima : next in cess which y ou granteo me in horting) shall 

tBeelleiico to the verses of Apollo. Carmi' bo lasting, you shall stand entire in poli<ihcd 

e« ie ■nderstood. marble: I will make you a full-lengch statue 

2S. FaeU: ia the sense of eomponit, of polished, Sui, It was usual to make only 

24. Sdtrm pmu : the pine-tree was sacred tho hoad and neck of a marble statue. Here 

lo QjMe, tne mother of tho gods. on ac- Corydon proraises Diana an entire statuo, 

eomt of the tranemotation of hor dariing provided she continued to pioa^T Vua V^ • 

ioto tbat tree. It waa a custom, when suits. 


9S. Tu ttabiB toU de Puniceo stablB Buras evincta cothumo. 
l«Ti mannore eYincU Th. Sinum lactis, et h©c te Uba, Priape, 
^ST O Priape, eat eet Expectare sat est : custos es pauperis horti 
\m ezpeotare quotaimis Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimua : 
€ «M Si foetura gregem suppleverit, aureus esto. 

GoR. Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcio 
Candidior cycnis, hederi formosior albi : 
Cum primum pasti repetent prsesepia taurif 
Si qua tui Corydonis habet te cura, venito. 
Th. Immd ego Sardois videar tibi amaii 
4S. Algk projecta ad Horridior rusco, projectlL vilior alg& ; 
'^ Si mihi non hu^ lux toto jam longior anno 

44. Si ml vobii quis Ite domum pasti, si quis pudor, ite juvenci» 
•^*^^' CoR. Muscosi fontes, et sonmo moUior 1 

Et qus vos rari viridis tegit arbutus umbrl 
Soistitium pecon defendite : jam venit esta 


83. Pynieeo: in the aeiite of jmrpureo, aforcedlaoghter; 10010 takii 

8ee Ecl. 6. 17. Cothumo. The coihumut /oot. 

was a kind of high-heeled shoe or boot 42. Horridior ruteo: w 

wom when hunting and on the etage, by InUeherU broom, Thia is a ] 

both eexefl. Seo G^r. 2. 9. plant. — FHior : more vile, 

33. PriLpe : Priamis was the tatelar god ^lga, This was a kind of 

of gardena, lakes, ttc He was the son of which grew in great abund 

VenuB, by M ercury or Bacchus. . Tho piace island of Crete. When ton 

of hia birth wat Lampeacua, near the Hellee- where it grew, by the violeu 

pont, where he was chiefly worahipped. He tost about the sea, and thei 

waa UBually repreeented with a human face ehore, it became quite uee 

and the eart of a goat. He held a ttick in color, and presented to the < 

his hand tp drive away birds, a club to drive appearanco. 

away thieves, and a icythe to prune the 43. Lux : in the eense of 

trees. Sinum: in the sense of vas ; a kind 44. Pculi : in the sense o 

of vessel swelling out in the middJe like a 45. Muteoei /onies : ye oo< 

pitcher. tains. The epithet muteori 

35. Pro tempore : according to the time ; coolness, because mots wi 
in proportion to my present ability. Thyr- where there is any consid 
sis promises him now a marble statue, and heat. It grows the bost on th 
if biB flocks increase so that he can affbrd it, that face the north. Also € 
ho will make him a golden one. of trees. — HerhamoUior^&^ 

36. Suppleverit: shall enlarge — ^multiply. ezpressionis takenfromThi 

37. Jferine : an adj. from ICereiu, a god says, dtUeit ad somnum^ w 
of the sea. The poet does not here mean meaning of the poet The i 
that this Galatea was actually the daughter than tleaf^ is extremely deli 
of Nereus ; but he merelv intends it as a 46. riridit arbutut^ &c. 
compliment, intimating that she possessed lar construction. The noa 
equal charms with her namesake. Hyhlte. be used in the place of ths 
Hybla was a mountain in Sicily, abounding the nom. it placed the rel 
in 7%ymc, and celebrated for ite bees, and third person, and consequ 
ezcellent honey — tweeier than ihe thyme 0/ whereas they should be in 
Hjfbla^ /airer ihan the twant^ tnore beauti/ul son sing. O viridit arbuit 
than Uie whiie ivy, These comparisons are rara unStrd, The vot refers 
eztremely chaste and delicate. and grass mentioned above. 

39. Cum primum : in the sense of ui pri- 47. SolttiHum. This wo 

mum. — Cura: regard. nifies that point in the ecUi 

41. Sardoit henit. The herb here spoken cides with the tropics, or is : 

of ]ssuppoeedtobethe/ro^v-6ia^ of sharp equator, measured on an < 

and priokly leaves, and of a very bitter dian: and the sun beingh 

ta«te. Itiscal]ed5anltiiuin,fromthQisland particular day in June ani 

Baidinia, where it grew in great abundance. word is taken by Syneo. fo 

It la said to have caused a nonvulsive kugh- or wtnter. Again by mei 

tor with grinning. Hence Sardlnicut ritut^ eold^ accordiog as the ^nn 


'orrida jam laeto luigent in palmite gemmflB. 

To. Hic focus, et taedae pingues : hic plurimus igois ^* Hlo mi fiwMi m 
r, et aasidui poates fuligine nigri. 60 ^ '^ 

Kiic tanCikm Boreao curamua fngora, quantum 
.>kut Qumerum lupua, aut torrentia flumina ripaJi **• Q»*nt4m aat \m 

CoB. Stant et juniperi, et castaneae hirsutaB : S^lm^lllif tor^uTS^ 

^trmta jacent paasun sua quaque sub arbore poma : mini^ eurani ripat 

Oania nunc rident : at si formosus Alexis 55 53. Hie tt&nt et juai- 

Adootibvs his abeat, videas et flumina sicca. |Mn 

Th. Aret ager ; vitio moriens sitit aeris herba : 
LJber pampineas inridit collibus umbras. 

JPhyllidis adventu nostrae nemus omne virebit : 59. std onu% mbm 

«J upiter et laeto descendet plurimus imbri. 60 Tirobit. 

Cos. Populus Alcidae gratissima, vitis laccho : 
l^ormone myrtus Veneri, sua kurea Phcebo. 
Phyllis amat corylos : illas dum Phyllis amabit, 
Kec mvrtus vinoet corylos, nec laurea Phoebi. 

Th. PnLzinus in sylvis pulcherrima, pinus in hortit, 


*^^ of Gmecr or Ciqmeoni. It is tlie •ol- 54. Poma jaeenl^ kc Miich hath beon 

^^tjee of Cmmeer^ or tho sammer ■olstice, said upon the reoding of thie line. Somo 

'^'hieh b boro mooat. DefendiU: in the read it thui ; Poma^'a«en/«/ra/apamm,9iM»- 

^^■ao ^ oofrftle. que sub tua arbore: applee lio ■cattefed aU 

4IL PaimUe: tho ehoot or branoh of tho around, every ono uudor ite own troo. 

^ioe Qeow ; tho hadi, or first appear- Others read it thue : eua poma Jaeeni ttraia 

^^eoo of tho joonf ahooto of treoo or shrube. patHm^ tub (fudque arbore : their own apploe 

CdoCt.* froitAil— lertilo. lie scattered all around under every or each 

49. Puiguet ietdm : fat pinee ; or, wo may tree. This last, Dr. Trapp b fully persuaded 
^^ke imim in a widor sense, implying any is the correct reading. Heyne reacfs, ifudque. 
f\iel, or combiistiblo matter. 56. Vtdeat e/, &c. Tou would even seo 

50. PuUgitkie : in tho senoo otfittno, Tho the rivers dry. Tho word ei here io om- 
c^ittafoe of the poor seldom had a chimney. phatical. 

"X*ho &fo wao mado diroctly undor an aper- 57. ynio aerit : by the infection of tho 

ttiro in tho roof lo discfaiarj|[0 the smoke. air ; or, the excessive heatof the air. Siiii: 

We may well supposo tho mtorior of the is parched. 

Wouse to bo Uaeltmed by that vapor. 58. Liber. A namo of Bacchus. 800 

51. Hk fanfuai euramut, The meaning Ecl. v. 69. Inmdii : hath refused the sha- 

M : we care nothing for tho cold of Boreas. dows of the vine to our hills. The meaning 

Borsas is tho Grook word fbr the north wind. is : the vine does not flourish upon our hiUs. 

The poota say ho was tho son of Atirmut 60. Jupiier: the air— condensed vapor. 

ttl dfvrsra ; or, aoeordinf to others, of the Lteio imbri : in fertilizing showers. 

liveff Stiymon^ in Maoodonia. He was king 61. Aleidm : Hercules, caUed also Aieidet^ 

«f Thraco, aad eaniod away br forceOry/^to, from Alemut^ his |frand-father. The populua 

tW danghtor of Eriethous, kmg of Athens, was sacred to hmi. It is said he wore a 

^ whomhohad two soas, Zefss and Caitut, erown of white poplar leavos when ho do- 

Hs was worahippod as a god. scendod to tho infemal regions. 

53. Jutuperu Tho Jwiiporus wasatree, 62. Jfyriut, The myrUe tree was saered 

^riBgokarp oad nanow loavos, andbearing to Venus, on account of the delicacy of ita 

> anll, roiuid, and odorifbrous fhiit. Ser- odor, or because it flouristies best on tho 

nof onderstaBds/ioMBim and eatianem to be margin of the sea, out of the foam of which 

tiw iMs whifih afo loaded with their rv she is said to have sprung. 

■psetivo fhiii. Mr. Davidson takes them for 61. laeeho: a name of Bacchus. The 

tke fhut itooU^ aad oonsidorB tiani in oppo- vine was sacred to him, because, it is said, 

■tioB to ttrmta jaeeni: tho former stand or he was the inventor of wine ; or at least 

kiag ripoBJ f 00 tho boof^ tho lattcr in taught nion the cultivation of the vine. 

odi ^f^skm oo^vor tho gronnd nnder their & Laurea. The laurel tree was sacrod 

MBfoelm taooa. Himtim : rongh — prickl v, to Apollo, on account of his beloved Dap9nm% 

m ofpoeitiutt to thooo that wore smooth, ^ho was changed into a laiuol ; therotea 

■OBtionoii E«L L 81 : or h may only mean it is called tua^ his own. 

Oa» thoy woro jot fai tho shoU. SeoEd. x.76, 65. Fraxinm : tho aah-U«a. 


Populus in fluviis, abies in montibus ftltii 
Scpiiis at si me, Lycida formose, revisai 
Fraxinus in sylvis cedat tibi, pinus in hoj 
M E. Usec memini , et victum frustra coi 
Ez illo Corydon, Gorydon est tempore i 


70. JCr iUo temport : from that tiine, Co- is in imitation of Thooa 
lydon, Oorydon is the one for me. Heyne bat fkr inferior to the ori 
rei, thifl line is onworthy of Virgil. It 




What is the lubject of this paatoral ? Who waa Boreu ? 1 

Whom are we to underatand by Corydon Greeks take the word ? 

and Thynis ? Whom by MeliboBus and For what is the word 

Daphnis? talien ? 

Where is the scene laid f What do you nndent 

Who comes oflf conqueror ? solstitium ? 

li this pastoral imitated from Theocritus ? For what is it nsed Bffi 
Who was Priapus? and what is said of hini ? 




Tnfs pastoral consists of two parts: the firet is taken chiefly firom 
Theocritus : the latter fi*om the second Idyl. The shepherd Damon 
his miHtress, Nisa, and is much grieved at the success of Mopsus, w 
in obiaining her for a wife. Alphesibceus relates the charms, < 
Bome euchantress, who endeavored, by magic arts, to make Daphni 
Pharmticeutriay the title of this Eclogue, is tho same with the Latin 
nifins a soreerest. This Eclogue was written in the year of Rome 7 
eus CensoHnus, and C. Calvisius Sabinus, wero consuls. It is not < 
was inscribed, whether to Augustus or Pollio ; most conmientatorB a 

l. Diceicus musam PASTORUM Musam, Damonis et Al| 
5!nJ!SLi ui^^c^^ herbarum quos est mirata juvi 

ta^tes" Ju5^n*ir*imSieI Certantes, quorum stupefactaecarmine lyn 
■kor herbarom mirata Et mutata suos requi^nmt flumina cursua 


U MuMom : m the 16080 of earmm. in an active flonse in any { 

4. Mutaia Jlumituk, kc This lino may and as he is fond of imiti 

be read in two ways. The fint and easiest it is better to suppose tha\ 

U given in the ordo ; the other is, rniUalaJlu' in the present instance, tha 

Mtfia requihunt tuoi eturtiu. In this caso, here from his uniform prai 

nquieseo must be taken 'actively, and mu' the verb. Boside, if we ti 

taia^ in the scnso of turbaia^ as Runiis in- tively, we must take mu/oi 

terprets it. But Vir^I never uses that verb aoceptatinn. 


_ MaMm dicemuB et AlphesibGei. 5 Mt ; quorom carmiiie 

•Tn mihii aeu magni Buperas jam saxa Timavi ; lynr^B siupefacte iunt ; 

^- «II • • I • • •* 6t uumina mutata (iMNM 

&ve oram Ulynci legia «quom : en ent unquam ,„^ ^^„, requiw^ 

lHe diea, mihi cum hceat tua dicere &cta ! duemtu,inquatn^ munin 

Sb erit, ut bceat lotum mihi ferre pei orbem 6. Tu, O FoUio^ /mt 

SoH Scaphodeo tua carmina digna cothumo ! 10 mibit leu 

Jk te principium : tibi deunet : accipe jusaiB J^- ,.*'" }^.J^ ^^ 

^^ r ^-- A L •^ • >_« cum liceat mihi 

Oanmna ccepta tuis, atque hanc sme tempora cucum l^^ Principium meo- 

Ider nctnces hederam tibi serpere iauroe. ,tim laborum erat & u» : 

Frigida vix cceio noctis deceaBerat umbra, metu labor desinet tibi 

Oum ro6 in teneri^ pecori gratissimus herbi est: 15 l^ ^'^^^ hanc heda- 

Incumbens tereti Damon sic ccepit olive. '^•"'J?^',® •/. 

Tv i^ j* • Y 'A. 1 17* O Lucifer, iim- 

Da. Nascere, prsque diem veniens age, Lucifer, al- cere, priBvenienwiIie ag« 

Conjugis mdigno Nissb deceptus amore [mum : aimum diem : dum eg^ 

Diun queror, et divos (quanquam nil testibus illis deceptua indigno amore 

Profeci) extremi moriens tamen ailoquor hor&. 20 


I h. IHtemmt : hi the ■enae of narrabimMM. coyered hia landa, and ao had an occasion 

6. 7\c fluJU, ftc. It ii gener&llj thought given him for writing ; and further, that 
tbt Uie poet addreues himself to PoUio, poeta promiae manj thinga, which they do 
vkft, about thia time, retumed to Rome in not perform. 

Mmph, baTing overcome the Pmrthem, a ^^ sime hane, &c. Pennit thie ivy to 

piofleof///|frtetMi. The verb/ove, or otftu, creep around thy temples amidst thy vio- 

WMt be aupplied, to make the aenee com- torioua laurele— permit me to crown thee 

pbte. EiUpMe of this kind are iVequent, ^ith ivy, while othere crown thee with lau- 

juticalarly among the poete. Timan. ^eL Thia ia a very delicate veree. The 

omt En. L S44. poet |,ere entreata hia patr on to permit hia 

7. Sive legi9, ke. Whether you coaat {yy to entwine about hia templea among hit 
aloBf Uie abore of the Ulynan aea. lUyn- yictorioua laurela; in othor worda, to accept 
MiB waa a ve^ ezteiiaive country lying on these hia versea, in the midat of hi. vic- 
tte right of the Adriatio eea, or gulf of tories. The poe!'c crown waa originally 
Vaaice, mduding the ancient Liburma and m^de of ivy excluaively, afterwarda, aome- 
OolMfM. .SUtuaru. ^yuer properly sig- Umea it waa made of Uurel: but the tri- 
iifiei any plain or level aurface, whether nmphal crown waa always made of laureL 
luderwator. Erii: m the eenae of odm/. yietrireM laurot: alluding to the triumph 

10. Cthurna. The oothuniua was pro- wjth ^^ieh he was honored for hia vidory 
periy a high-heeled ahoe, wom by the tra- oyer the Partheni, 
Mliane to make them appear taller; by ta fn .- i- i : : ^ 4 

liaB, the prinee of Umgic poetry. He waa ^^- Prmtemem. The parta of the vorb 

«leaiporarT with Pendee. Tua earmina ^ Mparated for the aake of the verse, by 

«Is, Ik. Your verses alone worthy of the TmeaU. Thia figure U frequent among Uie 

batkin — worthy of being introduced upon POf^ Lueifer: the moraing star, or Venns. 

tlM suge. The eothumui U hero called " «• ««iW Lucifer when going befoie the 

BophocJean, because Sophocles introduced •«» 5 Hesperus, when following afler him. 

it apon the stage. Pollio was not only a Thero U a fitness and propriety in Damon*s 

lUtesman, but a poet, and a distingaUhMl caUing npoo the star, or planet Venus to 

writer of tragedy. See Eel. iv. 1«. »ri»e, aa if to lUten to hU complaint, ainee 

U. Principium,kc. ThUlineU elliptieal. it waa a love affair. J9gt: in the aense o# 

Tks ellipsis is snpplied in tbe ordo : the be- ^^» 

naung of my labors waa from Uiee; my 1«. Confugit. CoivW hero U a betrothed 

Ubors shaU end with thee. From this ^ expected wife. Indigno am»re: maj 

ciiewwlanca, some have been led to think ^»^^ immodorate love ; or a love Ul-reqm* 

(kt tbe poet aUndes U> Aogustus, and not tod— a love of which NUa was unwortkj. 
fa FoOio. He wrote hU first Edogue, it io 20. Pro/eei : I have gained, or prollled 

kee, to compliment the gsnerosity of hU nothing. JlHt tetHbut. It would seem that 

iBeen, and the JEneid to natter his vanity. Nisa had pledged her faith to Damon, aad 

l i l ip a) aro to romember, itwaa throogh the called the gods to witneaa it; yet aha iriflk 

inlerasl and friendship of PoUio, Ihat he ro- Jated htr promiiea. 


Incipe Maenalios mecum, mea tibia, mi 
MaBnalus argutumqne nemus pinosque k 

fS. Ille mam Jittnahu Semper habet : semper pastorum iUe au 

t4. PMsaiei/oalamoB Panaque, qui piimus calamoe non passo 
'^ Incipe Maenalios mecum, mcta tibia, vm 

Mopso Nisa datur : quid non speremns i 
Jungentur jam gryphes equis ; evoque i 
Cum canibus timidi Tenient ad pocula di 
Mopse, novas incide faces ; tibi ducitur 
Sparge, marite, nuces ; tibi desertt Hes] 
Incipe MsBnalios mecum, mea tibia, ven 

8J. O AVta conjuBcta O digno conjuncta viro ! dum despicis c 
digno viro ; dum doipi- jXunque tibi est odio mea fistula ; dumc 
eu omnw aitot tt* \ •!. i* i. 

S4. Prolixaque mea Hirsutumque supercihum, prohxaque ba 

barba tuni Hbi odio, ^^ curare Deilm credis mortalia quero 

Incipe MsnaHos mecum, mea tibia, ven 

Sepibus in nostris parvam te roscida ma 

38. Vidi to adhue par- (Dux ego vester eram) vidi cum matre 

▼am legentem rocida Alter ab undecimo tum nie jam ceperat 

^ Jam fragiles poteram a terrft contingere 


21. MmnaHoi vernu : Mienalean, or pas- eastward, would obflerf 

tor^ versee — euch aa used to be aung on or eettling behind it. Hi 

mount MienaluB in Arcadia. It was sacred them, the ezpression is 

to Pan. Bj reason.of its pleasant groves, the evening star is settinj 

and whispering pines, it was much frequent- the evening somewhat 

ed by shepherds, where they sang their would not be an unpls 

loves. The poet penonifies the mountain, to the new-married cou| 

and makes it iisten to the songs of shep- 34, Hirsuivm supercU 

herds. shaggy eyebrows. Therc 

22 Loquenta: whispering — ^tuneful. of complaint afainst / 

24. Q^uiprimut: whofirst, ^. See Ecl. these, and his lonf( bo 

ti. 31. Inertet : in the sense of inuiilet, possess no charms. Ba 

27. Oryphet: griffons. They were fa- serves, the ground of hi 
bulous animals, having the body of a lion, this : that her cruelty ai 
and the wings and beak of an eagie. heartened him, asto reiM 

28. Dama (imidi : the timid deer. jid his outward appearance. 
voeula : m tne sense of ad aquam^ vel potum ; 35. Mortalia : things 
by meton. Tliis line is both beautii 

29. IneidefaeeM. It was a custom among 37. /n nottria tepitnu . 
the Romans to lead the bride to the house — gardens, fields. Thii 
of her husband with lighted torches before iowing linee are extrei 
her. These torches were pieces of pine, or show the hand of a mi 
•ome unctuous wood, which were cut to a stances here ennmeratf 
point, that they might be lighted the easier. young shepherd, his beii 
It was usual to have five of these torcheo. the iK^ughs, his ofiicioyi 
Hence dueere uxorem^ came to signify, to girl and her mother gi 
marrjawife; itissaid ofthehusband: nv- his falling in love witl 
bere riro, to marrj a husband ; this is said time, are so well ehose 
of the wife. pressed, tbat we may oi 

30. Sparge nucet: scatter nuts. It was as one of thoee happv i 
a custom among the Romans at nuptials, which characterise tm 
for the husband to throw nuts, Sec. upon the Rotcida, By thia we 
floor, that the boys and the rest of the com- Heyne obeerves, that tl 
pany mi|^t divert themselves in gathering with the dew of the n 
them. Hetperut deterii Oetam lib : the determine the time of I 
•voning star is leaving Oeta for yoo. Oeta took their walk into thi 
was a mountain, or rather range of moun- 39. ,Alter annut^ ke, 
taina, of great height, in Theasaly . The in- afler the eleventh had ji 
habitanfa of Attica and Beotia being to the I had just entered my P 



Ut TxdL, ot perii, ui me maliis abetulit error ! 
iBcipe Mwnalio» inecuiii, mee tikHa, «ennie 
NuDC eck> quid nt unor. Duiis in cotiboe illum 
ImBeftoe, aut Rhodope, aut eztremi Garamantes, 
Nw geiieiiB noetri puerum, nec sanguinis edunt. 
locipe Bfmaiioa mecum, mea tibia, versus. 
SsTUs amor 3ocuit natorum sanguine matrem 
CoDmmeulare manus: crudelis tu quoque, mater: 
Cmdelis mater magis;, an puer improbus ille ? 
Improlnis ille puer, crudelis tu quoque mater. 
LMape Mraalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 
Nuoc el oves ultrd fugiat lupus, aurea dur» 
MaJa feiaiit quercust narcisso floreat ainus, 
Pinguia cortictbus sudent electra myricae. 
Ce^ient et cycnis ululs : sit Tityius Orpbeus: 
Orpkeus in sylvis ; inter delphinas Arion. 
faftcipe Msnalios mecum, mea tibia, versus. 
Ooima Tel medium fiant mare : vivite sylvie. 
PiKcepe aerii specuU de montis in undas 
Defeiar : eztremum lioc munus morientis habeto. 

45 46. Ednot ilhm m 
dnrif cotibus, pnflniiB 
iMo noBtri i^nerii, nea 
natiri sanguinis 

48. Tu, O mater erm 
quoque crudelifl : erasiu 

50 mater magis crudelia, ao 
Ule puer magit impro* 
bus! ille puer erai im* 
probui; «^ tu, O matart 
quoqne erat crudeUs. 


60. Habeto #u hoe o>» 
tremum munua hd mo* 
60 rientis amaioris 


41. CA mdit «1, ko, How I gaied, how I 
how a fatal delnaion carried me 
Kothing can ezceed thia line in 
of axpr— ion. Tke me mahu 
errw^ lepreoents him as snatched 
hiineaif, deprived of his reason and 
, aad loat m wonder and admira- 
, while ho rarvefed lier beauteous form, 
an4 a ttimcti v ehama. It ako oooTejs to 
■i a jwt idoa of tho aatnre of love, which 
liolnii dolofliTO, deoeptiTOi and nnsn cces s 
fci, 00 orao the partioalar caoe of Damon. 
£rror.* ia tlio soooo of tn so n io, yel ooier, 
o^foH^jBO. Mmbuz fiUal — nnhappj. 

m,Ieo. famarao and Rhodope 
two Torj wild and rochj monntains in 
Tkiaeo. Qarmmamim* Tlieoo woro a saTage 
looflo iBhohiliaa tho iatorior partsof Africa. 
boMo Choj oro horo eollod csfnaM. 

4& Edtmi: ploinlj €at edermU^ bj Lnal- 
lito; aadtlMt iatho onoo of jnwhurerun/ 

47. JfSolrcoi. Modoa, tho daufhtor of 
knf of Colehia, a fiunooo soroeress. 
iril ia loTo with Joooa, eiie of tho Ar- 
and bj hor difoetiono ond aasist- 
ho oUohMd tho goMoa fleooe. She 
hiiii* aad reliunod with him to 
TWoBoly • Ho oftorwoido ropadiated her, 
BMniod Grdias, tho doMfater of tlio 
ofCorialh. la lOToafo rar whieh, she 
tho ehildioBffWboBi riio boio him, bo- 
hio ofoa. 8oo Ovid. Mot. 7. DoeuU: 



of to^piilil. 


hfwitrifai, Ieo. Now maj the 
•WB oooord floo ftom tho aheep ; 
fa. Aoifhohadaoid: aow. 

the natural couiftC of things maj be chang- 
e«i. The taiost nnliJcelj and unnatural thingi 
niaj take place, since a woman is found 
capable of such uafeeling and cruel conduct. 

63. Alnue: the alder-tree. ^Tareueo: tho 
flower dqjfodiL See Ecl. u. 46. 

54. Myriem: shrubs— tamarisks. Tho 
word is sometimes taken for pastoral poetrj. 
Sudent: in the sense of ttilleni. Eiecira 
pinguia: rich amber. 

55. TiiyruttiiOrpheut^iic MaTTitjma 
become an Orphens ; — Orpheus in the woods, 
and an Orion among the dolphins. Orion 
was a famous Ijric poet of Lesbos, who, on 
his retum home from Italj with great 
wealth, was cast into the sea bj the sailors 
for the sake of his monej. A dolphin that 
had been charmed with his music, it is said, 
took him on his back, and carried him safe 
to Tloiiona, a town on the southem pro« 
montorjofthePeloponneeus. TorOrpheui^ 
oee Eel. iii. 46. 

58. Omniaveimedium^iLc Letallthings 
become oven the middle of the sea — the 
deep oea. Since I mnst perish, let all tho 
world be drowned. Vioiie: elegantlj put 

59. Speeula: the top, or snmmit. Itpro* 
porlj signifies anj eminence which con- 
mands a proepoct of the countrj around it, 
Aerii moniii, Tkis maj allude to the ih- 
mouo rock in Arcadia, called the I«nror^ 
leap ; ftom which, thosi •, who threw tboflH 
selyee into tho soa, were cured of their loro. 

60. Deferar, This appears to be nood ia 
the senso of the Greek middle roioo, whioh 
generallj hath a rofliz significatioa*. 1 ^A 


Desine MienalioB, jam denne, tibia, 

62. p&mon dixit hcBc: Hffic Damon : V08, qu» respondeiit 
wm^ Pierides, diciie ea, DJcite, Pierides : non omiua possuo 

'^W. /foM omnee non ^^' ^^^' *<1"^™^ «* ™^^ ^"^ 
poieamne/arere ornnia Verbenasque adole pingues, et masc 

Conjugis ut magicis sanos avertere i 
Experiar sensus. Nihil hic nisi car 
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmii 
Carmina vel ccelo possunt deducere 
Carminibua Circe socios mutavit Ul 
Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitu 
Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmii 
7S. PrimAm circumdo Tema tibi haec pnmiim triplici divej 
- tema Ucia tib^ di- j^-^ circumdo, terque b«c altaria i 

Effigiem duco. Numero Deus imp 

Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmb 

Necte tribus nodis temos, Amarylli^ 

78. Nceto eof modh : Necte, Amarylli, modd : et Veneiia 

^ Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carml] 

81. Sic Daphni. em./- Jl»""« "^ *"« durescit, et hec ut cei 

Uaiw nostro tJno eodcmque igm : sic nostro Da: 

83. Ego uro hanc Sparge molam, et firagiles incende t 


63. Pieridtt: the Muaee. They were eo perfectof all nnmbi 
ealled frora Pieria^ where, it is aaid, thej beginning, the midi 
were bom. See Ecl. iii. 60. . ta : diveraified — rm 

64. Effer eupiam. Here Alphesiboens per- 74. Cireumdo : h 
•onates eome enchantresa, who by charme 78. yeneris : ha 
and magic rites endeavon to mako Daphnis Moeih : in the eenec 
in ioYe with her. The worde are supposed 80. Ut hie Lim 
to be addressed to her senrant maid Ama- made two imagee 
ryllis, mentioned verse 78, infitu {limui) to roprom 

65. yerbenas, A species of plant or herb waz {eera) to re 
ealled verrain, much used in ma^c opera- former would nat 
tions. It is Bometimes taken for all kinds other melt in the m 
of herbs used in such rites. Mateula, By ceivod opinion thi 
this we aro to underatand the strongest and and consumed, so < 
best kind of frankincense. sentod melt and dli 

66. Ut experiar: that I maj trj to tnm his crueltj and hi 
awaj the sound mind of mj sponse : i. e. his mistress ; whilc 
tbrow hini into a violent passion for me, ed bj the other fl|f 
causin^ liim tu iose hie reason and judg- and more indiffere 
ment. Conjtix^ here means an intended or love. 

pecicd husband. Bj it we are to under- 82. Spargt molm 

atand Daphnis, who it leems had leit her salt-cake. The M 

for somo other mistreas. Saeris: rites, or much used in saoi 

eeremonies. the flour of gfrain t 

67. Carmirui: charm»— a solemn form of highlj seasoned w 
words ; to which the ancients attributed npon the forehead 
freat efficacj. the fire. Ineende: 

70. Circe, The narae of a fiLmous aor- rels with bitumen. 
eeress. See Mn. vii. 10. to consume the flea 

71. Cantando: ger. in <fo, of the verb aoconnt these ritei 
eanio, Rueussajs: dwn ineantaiur : while cake was crarabied 
the incantations or roagic ritcs are per- the victims in saeri 
forming. turo of these ridiei 

73. Triplici eilore: with triple color. The 83. Malut Dapkn 
ancients had a JP^^ veneration for the me ; I burn this laa 
onmber three. This was thcogl t tho most his image. Bj bol 

BUCOUCA. £CL. Vni. 4B 

8 me mihis urit, ego banc in Daphnide iauram. 

ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

mor Daphnim, quahs, cum fessa juvencum 86 86. UHfum tal» imnr 

DDora, atque altos quaerendo bucula lucos, occuptt Daphnim, qua- 

r aquae rivum viridi procumbit in ulvl ^ *^"™ bucula r«Ma 

^ • '^ j 1 ^* querenuo juvencuia per 

miee aene memimt decedere nocti : 2^^^,^ ^J,j„^ ^^^ \^ 

mor leneat : nec sit mihi cura meden. 89 cos, procumbit 

ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 89. Teneat Daphnim 

\m ezuvias mihi perfidus ille reliquit, 55. M«rii ipM dedil 

a ciumt sui : qiue nunc ego hmine in ipso, norba» 

tibi mando : debent haec pignora Daphnim. ^ 

ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. 

triMS, atque haec Ponto mihi lecta venena 95 

idit MoBria , nascuntur plurima Ponto. •8. Enim plunma ••• 

aepe lupum fieri, et se condere sylvis neiui natcuntur tn Pon- 

"^ r . . ^ . , , ^ to. Ego vidi MoBnn w- 

, 8cpe ammas mus excire sepulchns, ^„ ,|p^ fig,i ^^^^^ 

■atas alid vidi traducere messes. hi« venmt«,et condere m 

ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim. eylvia ; yidi Htmn eapt 

leres, Amarylli, foras : rivoque fiuenti, 101 «^cire 

|ue caput jace : ne respexeris. His ego Daphnim 

liar nihil ille Deos, nil carmina curat. 

ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim 

: corripuit tremuhs altaria flammis. 106 


ieanjfitwaathoughtthatthoyburnt thougkt to be verj efficacioui in enetiant^ 

•OB himself ; or Uiat •ome how or menta. Accordinglj she lays much stresi 

M was affected in a simiiar manner. upon them ; she is sure they will bring hiro 

■B CW CTcm : the bull. Talii, Here home to her. One part of these magic ritee 

ipnsof the words, oecupat juoeneam^ was to bury the clothes of the lover under 

1 other of the like import, to make the threshold, to constrain him to return. 
le oompleie. 95. Ponto. Pontus, an extensive coun* 
fkm : a kind of sedge, or meadow- try in Asia Minor, bordering upon the £uz- 
Some oopies have herba. ine sea. It abounded in poisonous herbs. 
^crtftla .' wretched—Hlesperate; with- Mithridates, king of Pontus, rendered his 
• of finding the object of her search. country notorious by the long and bloodj 
m 9M€tit tuL 8he is so intent upon wars which he maintained against the Ro- 
•ct of her love, that she thinks of mans. He was, however, at last overcome 
: dse— ahe thinks not of retuming by Pompey the Great. Vtnena : magie 
iwa thoiigh if^be Ute at night. />e- plants. Those of a poisonous quality were 
orm necft .* to jield or give place to considored the most eflicacious, and were 
r Bifht. particularlj songht for, and required in all 
IMeri .- lo ciire him. enchantments. 

TU fafihtM^ kc That perfidious 101. Fer einerei, The most p6werfbl, 

vd) formerij l«ft these dothes with and usuallj the last efforts of the enchanter« 

tha dosLr pledges of himself. It ap- were to throw the ashes of the magical sa- 

Bnee that Daphnia had pledged his crifice over the head backward into rumdng 

her, hat afterward violated hu word. water. Servius sajs, this was done that the 

itifies the ose of the word ccm/ux, as gods might catch the ashes without being 

to him, vene 66. seen, as thej were unwilling to show them- 

a fjpse Harine : in the verj threshold, solves, unless on extraordinarj o cc asi on e, 

■co. Servina thinks we are to un- 102. Ae reapexeriM: in the sense of ne 

1 ikm «ntraneo of the temple of reMpiee. 

oClMn, of Daphnis' own house. But 103. ^ggrediar hiMt kc With these aslief 

tcrtoiaiderstanditof herownhouse, I IviU asuul Daphnis. AtAi/ and nil are 

that hero ahe performed her of\on used as simple negatives, in the eeiiee 

of non : he doee not regard the goda, kMm 

: in tho eeiise of eoOTmt//o. In other words, he doee not regard hia •»• 

; theee pledges owe Daphnis to lemn promisee made in the presenoe of tho 

he dolhee that a pereon once wore, gods ; he regards not mj charms. 

iSkaa^ thaft beloiigea to him, wore 105. A^^ This and tha foUoinat^^ * 


108. Bomini omen Sponta 8ui, dum ferre moror, cmiB i 

Nescio quid certe est : et Hylax in 1 
Credimus ? an, qui amant, ipa abi 8 

100. O MM oafmina Parcite, ab urbe venit, jam parcite, 


to etniff tpte, woro spoken by Amai^llii, as 107. JVenetd yuid^ 

appemn nrom dum farre moror : while I de> aome bodj ie comini 

lay to carry them. U we attribute the whoitis. Hylax* 1 

wordi to the enchantress, we must euppose a Greek word signil 

her to do what she commandf to be done. 108. Credimtu f a 

But beholding the aahee kindle the altar it ? or, do thoee wh( 

into a trerablin|r flame of its own accord, in themeelTee f Yea, 

a tranjiporl, she exclaims : may it be a good ceaee, my ^>>«^i— , S 

omen . The anciente considered the sudden city. 
blazing of fire to be a good omen. 


How is this pastoral to be dlTided 1 When is the plane 

What is the subject of il 1 When Hespems 1 

What is the meaning of the word Phar- Can you mention i 

wtacevlriaj the title of the Eclogue 1 noticed by commenl 

Whcn was ihis Eclogue written 1 derl 

Who were consuls 1 Who was Medea 1 

To whom was it probably dedicated 1 What is said of hc 

Why do yon suppose it to be dedicated to Why are the M 

PoUio rather than to Ao^tus 1 Pierides ? 



Wviii Augustus divided the lands about Mantua among his soldii 
feil to Ajius, a centurion. When he went to re*onter upon his i 
restored to him, he met with much severe treatment (rom thi 
one occasion, was near being killed. He saved his life by sf 
Mincius. In consequonce of which, he retumed to Rome to ac 
the matter. He leA his steward, who is here called Mceris, b( 
to treat his new landlord with civility and respect. MoBris is gi 
tent of Bome kids, and meets Lycidas, who is supposed to be aa 
Upon their meeting the pastoral opens. The scene is the ro 
OTening is coming on : the air is tranquil and serene. The pi 
plaint of Virgil*s nard treatment under the character of Menai 
liis friend Varus, and another to Julius Cesar, and consequeal 
ther with several scraps of poetry artfully interwoven with th 
pastoral is elegant and beautiful. 

1. O MoDri, quo tui Lyc. Qud te, Mceri, pedes ? an, 
pMles dueuni te ? an A^. ^^^ q Lycida, vi vi pervenimus ; i 
jTdiJdt? ^"^Quod nunquam veriti sumus) ut poi 


iL Fim ptm nfm tit .* we ItTing have eome fy intrudiftg^^uturpi 

lo thal oondition— or have HvmI to see the in the present case, ] 

day, that, &e. Adoena : a noun of common all of them. 
geiidar, here uaed as an adj. Ji roay signi- 


Ihemt : H»c mea suDt ; veteres migrate coloni. <• Am vM ptnreiu- 

Hjoc ▼icti, tristes, quoDiam fors omnia versat, 5 mu« «d mufrut, ut U- 

Hoi illi (quod ncc bene vertat) mittimua hoedos. ""THSr^iuntmea; 

Lt. Certe equidem audieram, qui se subducere colles tro«, O yeteroB coloni, 

fieipiunt, moUique jugum demittere clivo, 7. Certd equidem an- 

Uique ad aquam et veteris jam fracta cacumina fitgi, dieram veBtmm Dtmi' 

Ouia carminibua vestrum servisse Menalcan. 10 "^ Menalcan nrvMee 

«. *j- ^i» /••» 1 ' s. s.\^ «w omnia arra niti car 

Mo. Audieras, et &ma fmt : sed carmma tantOm nunibue ab eo loeo, qui 

Noelxm valent, Lycida, teia inter Martia, quantum coUee incipiunt rabdu- 

,. CKioiiiaB dicunt, aquili veniente, columbas, cere se 

Qndd nisi me qu&cumque novas incidere lites 11. Audlerae i/lud, et 

Am^ nnifltra cavA monuisset ab ilice comix ; 1 6 '«^" *^^ f*™* , 

M i • *« • . • s« 1 l*^* i^oiuraDaa voiefe 

liae tons hic MQens, nec viveret ipse Menalcas. 14 q^^^ nieinnietra 

' Lt. Heu i cadit in quemquam tantum scelus ? heu tua comiz monulBset me 

' Peoe nmul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca ! [nobis antd ab ilice cava inci- 

Qois caneret Nymphas ? quis humum florentibus herbis ^^^ 

8p*qsen«? .«t ^iridi fonte. induce«t umbri? «O^^J^ ^^ '^J^^^ 

V ei qu« sublegi tacitus tibi carmma nuper, Bimui tecum 

Cum te ad deliciaa ferres Amaryllida nostras ? 21. Vel quU eanerei 

* *RtyTe, dum redeo, brevis est via, pasce capellas : carmina, que ucitu» 

* Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum 23. quorum vert%ium 

* Occureare capro, comu ferit ille, caveto." 25 ^ "' (^fT'*^"^ * 
MoK. Immd haec, que Varo, necdum perfecta, canebat. ^^ Immo poHut qtUt 

^ Vare, tuum nomen (superet modd Mantua nobis, eanere/hBccarmifia,qu« 



3. AgeUi : a noun diminutive frora a^er : 14. Ineidere novat lUet^ &c. To break off 

e hulejarm, my new disputes in any way whatever. 

5. /ert .* in the eenee offortuna. Lit^ ie properly an action or case at law. 

6. Huod nee beni vertai: which (present 15. Sinittra: ill-boding. See £cl. 1. Itt. 
•f the kidaO I wish niay not tum ont well 16. Hie tuut Maris, It appean from thie 
to kim. The uaual mode of congratulation that the Ufe of Virgil, who is here callod 
«pon receiving a favor wae : Beni vertat^ Menalcas, and that of Moeris, had been io 
1 viih you joy — may it tum out well toyou. danger from the new landlord. 

WK keni vertai^ therefore, wai a kind of im- 17. Heu^ tantum tcelut^ &c. Alae ! that no 

fncittoo: wutjf iifromem mitehiefto you. great wickednese shouM fall upon any one. 

7. Sukdueert te: to deciine— to fall. Or the wordf may be rendered thus; Aia8t 
a Demiiierejugum: to lower their ridge, that so great wiclLedness should come into 

m tep, hy aa easy deacent. Here we have any one^s mind : — that any one should con- 

adeeeriptioBof w farm of Virgil. It was ceive the idea of perpetrating the horrid 

iMBded oo one nde by a eloping hill ; in deed of murder. This is the usual sense 

^km parta of its limits, were tlie broken given to the words. 

Iip ef an old beedi-tree, a marsh, and the 18. Heu^ tua tolatia^ &c. Alos, Menalcas, 

db« MimeiuM, your delight (the delight of your Bon?^ wa« 

i. A4 mqumm : perhape the river Mincius. almost snatched from us with yourself : and 

l3.wf9in7areiuefi/e:theeaglecomingupon if you had been quite slain, in that case, 

Aas— porsuing them. Here we have a vhoteouldhavetung thenympht^Sic. Heyne 

kHBtmil ctreumlocution, expressing the in- observes that by tolatia we are to undcr* 

■tility of has versea, and the charms of po- stand the song, carmina^ or verses of Menal* 

fl;y, amidst martial arms. Chaoniat : an cas. 

m^tnm Chaonia^ a part of Epirus, where 21. SuhUgi: I purloined from you. Ra- 

•■• Ibo citj Dodoneu and a grove of the eus says, turripui, 

fluw aame, famooe fbr its orarular oaks. 22. Jfottrat detieiat : Tor nottram amntetaiL 

two dovee endued with a pro- Delieia is used only in the plural ; deHght — 

spirit are said to have resided amon£ darling : here a mittrett. 

oaks. Aflerward one of them is said 24. Age pattat : drive them fuil fed to 

le kave flown to the temple of Apollo at drink. Potum: sup. in i<m,to drink — lake 

Ai^i, tad the other to the temple of Jupi- water. Inter agendum : in driving thein — 

%m AauDon in Afnca. They are hero put while driving them, boware, &c. 

loi dmmeM in |e«Mral. 26. Fmro: to Varus. See ExX. ^ 1 


17. ^uorum hoe ett ^^ MantUB, Tie misem nimiuin vicinB Cm 
/Wwmen/tim ; O Vare, u Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cyel 
SSm^n^n^"^ Ly. Sic tuB Cymeas fiigiant examina I 

Sic cytiso pastae distentent ubera vaccas • 
Incipe, si quid habes : et me fecera poett 
Pierides : sunt et mihi carmina : me quof 

34. Ego ncm wm cro- Vatem pastores, sed non ego credulus ilB 
dului illit. Nam neque adhuc Varo videor, nec dioei 

35. Nam adhuc videor j^. ^ ^^^ -^^^ strepere anser i» 
oiiAt dicere eorffitna dig- ^. tj j ^ a ^ r • j 
na noque ^®* *" ^uwem ago, et tacitus, Lycida, 

SH.Jiunerecordor/rag" Si valeam meminisse : neque est ignobik 

«len/um eju» : adee huc, ^^ Huc ades, 6 Galatea : quis est nam lud 

O Galatea: iv jjic ver purpureum ; varios hic flumini 

^^ Fundit humus flores : hic candida popi 

^^ Imminet, et lentae texunt umbracula vil 

43. Sine ut insani ^^ Huc ades ; insani feriant sine litora flil 

44. Qu» carmina an- Ly Quid, quaB te puri solum sub noc 

^^h" urt^^tr**' Audieram ? numeros memini, si veAa tfl 
fu pura noc e ^^ ^^ Daphni, quid antiquos signomi) 

Eoce, Dioniei processit Ccsaria astrun 


18. Crtmonm, Cremona was a citj on ipte vohUo : I am thinkiai 
th« westem bauk of the river Po, not far aelf, if I can reooUect it. 
ftom Mantua. Its inhabitanta were in- yolTuig it in my mind. 
Tolyed Ln the tame misfortune with those of 39. ^uisnam ludut : w 
Montua, in having thoir property and lands in the waves ? The partr 
taken firom them by Augufltus. Hence the separated by Tmesifl. N« 
•piUiet miterm. beautiful than the whole 

t9. Cycni : properly iwana. By meton. It ia in imitation of the 

poeta. Tho meaning of this fra?ment is, Theoeritua. 

Ihat if Mantua should be preeerved from the 40. Purpurewm : blooa 

oalamity which had befallen Cremona, to be supplied. 

Ihfough the influence of Vanu, the Man- 41. Fundii : in the mo 

tuan poete would celebrate his praiaea and 42. Texunt: in the i 

raiae hu( name to the stars. By Canianiet UmbrtMcula : a dim. nonn 

miu, taya Heyne, we are to understand the tle, or pleannt ahade. 

mtmtuan poeit, 43. Intani: raffing— el 

30. Cyrneat ; an adj. fh>m Qrmtif , an 44. ^uid : in the ■en* 
Uand in the Mediterranean lea. Hodie 45. Mimininumerot:l 
Cortictu This island abounded in the yew* if I knew the words, I 
tret : hence the epithet Cynean. The ho- These last, or some othei 
aej made of this tree waa of a bitter quali- are evidently implied. Q 
tT, and universally considered bad. For ti in the sense of Utimm 
tUi reason Lycidas wished the swarms of 46. Smt/ncit: in the st 
hit fiiend to shun thooe trees. Extmitui : 47. ^tirum, This woi 
•warms of bees. a consteilation of stara. 

3t. Fotiam : a poet. Kaiem : a poet, or here for a single star, t 

ptophet. These words are ftequently used greater dignity to the st 

is synonymous, but they are not strictly so. gil makes nilus the sonof 

3S. Cimi^ Comelius Cinna, the grand- of the Julian family. K 

Mii of Pompey the Great. He becmme a eon of Venus, who acoo 

&Torite of Augustua. the daughter of Diontt i 

31. Dignm : things woithy of : or h may by Jupiter. Hence tht 
agree with rarMtiuh understood; Terseo Aboutthetimeof Jufius 
worthy of tke attention of Vanis and Cin* said a remarkable conn 
aa; or worthy to celebrate tlMir actioas. tbe Rumans eoondered 
mrqpcrc «iMcr: to gabble as a gooae among C«sar reoeived Uf to I 
tueAil swan»— to make inharmonioos caHs it the star of Cwai 
•owids^l^ Tulgar notion. "nds ec 

33. 4ge: in theswMaoryMo. TWtte Dr Halley, appeared 



"Aitniiii, quo aegetes gaaderent finigibus, et quo 

''Dnceret apriciB in coUibua uva colorem. 

^^lneere, Daphni, [uros, carpent tua poma nepotes/' 50 

Qmaia ^firi «tas, animum quoque. Sspe ego longoe 

Ckntando puerum memini me condere soles. 

NuDC oblita mihi tot carmina : vox quoque Moerim 

Jam fugit ipia : hipi Moerim vid^re priores. 

Sed tamen leta satia referet tibi saepe Menalcas. 66 

Lt. Cauaando nostroe in longum ducis amores : 
El nonct^mne tibi stratum silet aequor, et onmea 
f Aapice) ▼entoei ceciderunt murmuria aune. 
lluic ade6 media est nobis via : namque sepulchrum 
lneipit apparere Bianons : hic, ubi densas 60 

Agncole stiingunt irondes ; hic, Moeri, canamus : 
Bjc hoedoB depone, tamen veniemus in urbem : 
Aut si, noz pluviam ne colligat ante, veremur : 

Cantantes ticet usque (minus via Iffidet) eamus. 

Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo. 65 

Mis. Deaine plura, puer : et quod nunc instat, agamus. 

Carmina tum noelius, cum venerit ipse, canemus. 

51. Ego memim me 
puerum saepe condere 

65. lita corMtfia tibi 

66. LoaFnm loRpui 

6f. Tamen veniemiui 

63. Antd quitm perve^ 
rufimu» ad eam^ licet 
noln» ui eamua oiqae 

66. Desine loqui plara 

67. Cikm MeruUeu» ipee 


IIML In ite neareet q>proaeh to the ran, 
ki Ufl waa abont 60 degTeee long. PrO' 
mrit; movee alonff— hath begun ite coune. 
48b i^uoe^tesjiic, Under which (by the 
■tnente of which) the fielde thall rejoice 
vitlieom. Or, the arope ehall abound in 
pun; taking «<^et for the etalkf or spring- 
ii| eern. Oau&rmt^ by enallage for gaude- 
w. Saia abundabuni JruMenlOiao.y» Ru- 

49. Ooa dueerei eolorem: ehall take co- 
Im>— giow ripe. Dueerti: fbr dueei^ hj 

50. huerepiro»: plant or srafl your pear- 
IreeB. The etar of Ccear waU extend ite 
hiflBenca to them. They will grow and 
ioatmk ; and if yon ehonld not liyo to reap 
Ihe frnit of jour labor youreelf, be aesured 
yew oflbpring wilL Piro» may be put for 
mit tioea in geoeral: the »peeie» for the 

Sl. JEimt: iatheeenee of tempu», Artir 
mm; fai the eeine of wumoriam» 
5C Coadere UmfO» Solm : to pase or spend 
days in einging. Sol ie onen taken for 
Che day, ae Lunm ie for the night. See Mn. 

SC Lu^ priorm: the wolvee firet have 
Hi Msne. He hath loet hie voice — ^he can- 

AHading to a anperetitioaB notion 
if a weAf eaw a man the firet, he would 
ii^Jii^frrei : in the eenee of reeiiabii, 
: by fimming ezcueee. From 
JDuei»: you put off— defer. 
pleaenre entertainment. 
tn Oam*»iraimn»»quor^kc. Thewhole 


level surfaoe of the water, ie etill for yoQ« 
Straium: emooth — level. To consider <lra 
tum ae expreesing the tranquillity of the 
water ie mere tantology : that is auificiontly 
expreesed by »ilet, JEqttor any plain or 
level surfaee, whether land or water ; here, 
probably, the river Mineiu», Omne» aura<t 
&c. Every broexe of whispering wind hath 
ceased. Venioei nmmnuri» : in the eense of 
mwrmuranii» venti, 

59. Adeb: only — surely. 

60. SepulehruM Bianori»: the tomb of 
Bianor. He was said to be the son of the 
river Tiber and the nymph Manto. He 
founded, or rather enlarffed Mantua, and 
called it afler tbe name of his mother. See 
£n. 10. 198. His tomb was placed by the 
side of the way. 

61. Stringuni: pnme, or lop off the thick 

62. Urbem, The city Mantua. Depone 
hado» : lay down your kide. He was pro- 
bably carrying them upon his shoulders. 
Let us stav here awhUe and amuse our- 
selves in singing: we shall, novertheless, 
arrive in town in good time. 

64. U»que: all the way — all the time. 
Ladei : in the sense of fatigabit. 

65. Levabo te, &c. I will ease you of this 
burden — ^load : to wit, the kida, which ha 
was carrying to town for his new landlord. 
See verse 6, supra. 

66. Puer : swain. It is applied lo ahep- 
hcrds in general. 

67. Cummte^kc Itisprobable thatVlr^ 
gil composea this Eelogae when he wae at 
Rome. ^ 



To whom did tho efUte of VirgU fkll in What ii tho dLrtinistii 

the distrihution of the Mmntuan lands ? and yaies f 

Did he receive mnj hard treatment from What remarkahle aM 

Ariia f How did he eaye his life ?. What ■erved in the heaTena nm 

wae the name of hie iteward ? Who ie L^ liui CaMar^s death ? 

eidat auppoeed to be ? When doee the pas- What does the poet eal 

toral open ? Wbere is the scene laid ? What When did it appear thi 

is the time of the daj ? What is the subiect Who was Bianor ? WI 
oftbispastoral? Whatisthecharacterofit? 



Tri suly'ect of this fine pastoral is the love of GaHus for Lycoris, W 
dresses, and gM.Ye her affectiona to an officer. This Gallus was a | 
Virgil, and was an exceilent poet. He raiaed hiroself from a huml 
imyor with Augustus, who appointed him goremor of Egypt after thc 
and Cleopatra. 

Tum scene of tbe pastoral b laid in Arcadia, whither the poet sapposa 
retired in the height of his passion. Here all the rural deities assi 
inquire the oause of his grief, and endeavor to moderate it. This 
passed by any of the prec»ding, ezoept the fourth, in beauty and gn 
Virgil imitatee Theocritus, particularlj in his first IdyL fiy Lycorii 
a most beautifVil woman, and oelebratod actress. 

EXTREMUM hunc, Arethusa, mihi < 
. % Pauca earmfaia sunt Pauca meo Gallo, sed quae legat ipsa L 
dicenda Carmina simt dicenda : neget quis cam 

Sic tibi, cum fluctus subter lab^re Sican 
Doris amara suam non intermisceat und 
Incipe, sollicitos Cralli dicamus amorea, 


1. ArttkmtL A nymph of great beauty, he begat the nymphs ca 

the daughter of Nereus and Doris. Also, a put by meton. for the i 

fountain on the island Ortygia^ in the bay salt and of an unpleasa 

of Syraevut^ upon which stood a part of the poet prays may not be mi 

city. Syracuse was^famous for its being andpleasantwatersofth 

the birth place of Theocritus and Archime- in its passage under thc 

des ; and for its raliant defence against the iEn. iii. 694 and 6. Alf 

Roman fieet and army under Marcellus. It Peloponnesus, is said tc 

was taken ailer a siege of three years. with the nymph Arethu 

Coneede^ iic Grant me this last work — him, was tumed by Dii 

favor me in the ezecution of this my last 8ho made her eacape oi 

pastoral easay. The reason that the poet ialand Ortygia, where s! 

mvoked this nymph ia, that she waa the pheua purauing her by i 

goddesa of a fountain of that name, in the up in the aame fountain 

plaoe where Theocritua waa bom, and where with hers. Undam : in 
pastoral poetry was much cultivated. 6. OaUu There wei 

4. 7V6t .' with theo— with thy water. the name of OalUu, T 

6. Amara Dorii, Do^is, a nymph of the is Publiut Corruliut < 

•6»! the daughter of Occanus and Tethys, himaelf by hia extraord 

avd maried to her brothor J^Tereus^ of whom favor willi Auguatus, 



DoBi tenerm attondent anue virgulta capeUie. 

Soa canimuB eurdie, respondent omnia sylvae. 

QoK nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puelle 

Naiadea» indigno cum Galius amore periret ? 10 

Nim neque Pamassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi H. Nam neque uHa 

Ulia moram fecere, neque Aonia Aganippe. i^ ^,*^**"^» ?T "•" 

m™. .tiun lauxi, iUum etiam flcvere myric«. ^^ t^rA^^t^-C- 

Pmifer lOum etiam sola sub rupe jacentem nippe, fecere uUam mo. 

Mcnalus, et gelidi fleverunt saxa Lycei. 15 nm vobis. Etiam l&uxi 

Stant et oves circum, nostrt nec poenitet illas . JUnmaU illom 

Nec te poeniteat pecoris, divine poeta. 

Et formosus oves ad flumina pavit Adonis. ' 

Venit et upilio, tardi venlre bubulci : 

UTidus hybemi venit de glande Menalcas. 20 

Onuies, unde amor iste, rogant, tibi ? Venit ApoUo. 21. Unde oliste amer 

Cklle, quid insams ? inquit : tua cura Lycons, ****** ^ ^*^ 

Perque nives aliunu perque horrida castra secuta est 

Venit et agresti capitis Sylvanus honore, 


fDTWBor of Egjrpt afler the death of An- 15. Monalui, A moontain in Arcadia, 

Umj and CleopatFa. Hic prince, however, celebrated for its pines. LyeieL Lyccus, 

Ibr lome cauee or other, concoiying a violent a mountain of the aame country, noted Ibr 

■fainat him, aent him into banish- its rocks and enows ; hence the epithet ^e- 

; whieh aentenee wat ratified by the lidi, The whole of this passage is very 

k. Thia cruel and undeeerved treat- fine. ItcontainBareprooftothenymphsfor 

had rach an effect upon his mind, notanistinginalleyiatingthegTiefofGallus. 

that he killed himeelf. Afler hie death, 16. Stant et ovcm^ kc His flocks too stand 

AQfnstiie lamented his own severity and around liim — nor are thev ashamed of hijn 

that of the senate toward so worthy a man. ^nor do they disrogard his grief. Gallus 

GaUiM wae a great friend of Virgil, and isrepresentedunderthecharacterofaswain, 

higUj eeteemed by Pollio and Cicero. He feeding his sheep on the mountains of Ar- 

wis a poet ae well as statesman and soldier. cadia. J^Toitri: our friend — Gallus. 

It tt said he wrote four book of elegies to 18. Adonit, He was the son of Cinyras, 

CfAeriM^ whom Virgil odls Lycorit. He king of the island of Cyprus, by his dau^ h- 

•iso translated some part of the worka of ter Myrrha, He was so beautiful, that 

£i0iWieit, a poet of bhalei», Venus rankcd him among her favorites, and 

7. Simm: fl(at-noeed. honored him with her bed. When huntine, 

8. ReMpomdent : will answer — will eeho he received a wound irom a boar, of whi<m 
back oor eong. he died, and was greatly lamented by her. 

9. Hahmrt «M : in the sense of detinueruni 1 9. yenit et upiiio : the shepherd too came, 
%M. Jfamra : properiy signifiee a grove or and the slow moving herdsmen came. Upilio^ 
wood thiiilj eet with trees, where flocks may for opUio^ by metaphasmus. Opilio^ proba* 
fead aad graze; derived fi^m the Greek. blv from oves^ by changing the v into p, 

ib: properiy a thick wood, whore bushes The word ei is oflen used to express empha- 

fallen tiees do not permit animals to sis, and has the force of etiam or quoqft^ at 

withoat leaping; from iolio, Hatmert in the present case. When it has its ror- 

«ee; it^tasned you from coming to console respondent et in the following member •>/ 

GaUoe in hb grief. PueUa: m the sense the sentence, it is usually translated by t)ie 

«f ngmphm,, word both^ and the following et hy and, Tiie 

II. Jnga: in the sense of eacumina, conj. qtu^ when it has its correspondent 

^armattL Pamaasus was a mountain, or que^ is rendercd in tho same way. 

Mtber range of mountains in Phocis, saorcd 20. Uvidu» de : wet from gathering the 

1» the Moace. Pindi. Pindus was a range winter mast. 

itatas in the confines of Epirus and 21. ,^poUo, He came, the first of the 

aleo sacred to the Muses. ^^ga^ gods ; because he was the god of poetry, 

the name of a fountain issuing 22. Tua eura : for tua amica, 

Helicon in BeoUa, and fiowing 24. Sylvanu», He was tho god of the 

iMetlieihrerPermesiua. It is calied ./loniayi, woods, andsaid to be the son of Mars. He 

tr«i ^oM, the floo of Neptune, who reigned always bore on his head a branch oC cy^rw^ 

W BaoikL Like Pan, he was rapieeeuted %a ViaVC mask 


Florentes ferulas et grandia lilia quassaiu. 

26. Qnem nof ipslTi- Pan Deus Arcadiaj venit, quein vidimus i} 

*^^ Sanguineis ebuli baccis minioque rubentei 

Ec(iuis erit modus ? inquit : amor non tal 
59. Crudelif ainor nec ^Jec lacrymis crudelis amor, nec gramina 

'"ST At m^Uiitii in ^^^ ^^^^^^ saturantur apes, nec fronde ca 
qmil umeiHoAic^ Tristis at ille: Tamen cantabitis, Arcadei 
foi Montibus ha^c vestris : soh cantare periti 

Arcades. O mihi tum quam molHter oaa 

Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores ! 

35. Utinam fuifleem Atque utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fui 

u^us e\ vobia Aut custos gregis, aut maturse vinitor uvi 

37. Ceiie sive Phillis, Certe sive mihi Phyllis, sive esset Amyni 

«vo Amyntae, eeu qui- geu. quicumque furor (quid tum, si fuscu 
cumque eseel nuhi fu- -^^ r* .\ . :^ . . ' . v 

ror, jacoret ^^ mgrjB violBB sunt, et vaccmia mgra.) 

Mecum inter salices lentll sub vite jacere 

^- J^j?» ^ Lycori, gerta milii PhyUis legeret, cantaret Amy: 

'"44.^In«Liu. amor de- ^!^ &®*^^^ ^^^^?h *^^^ ^^^^^ P^^' ^^^^^ 
tinet me in armis duri ^^^ nemus : hic ipso tecum consumerer 

Martis inter Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in ar 


and half goat. He fell in love with Cypa' 31. Areadti, Thieai 

ristus^ the favorita of Apollo, who was the Arcadiane if tender i 

changed into a tree of that name. Agret- cially that part of it wl 

ti honore capUit : with the rustic honor of had been only a hum 

hbt head — with a garland of leaves upon them. 
his head. Honore: in the sense of corona. 32. Hae: these my m:' 

25. Flortntet fenUae: blooming fennel. 33. O quam moUiter: 

There are two kinds of /em/a, or fennel, mybones, &c.; alluding 

the small, or common, and the iarge, or notion of the ancients 

giant fcnnel. This last grows to the height the dead might be oppre 

of flix or seven feet. The stalks are thick, of tho earth cast upon t^ 

and filled with a fungous pith, which is uscd thcy crumblcd it fine, an< 

tn Sicily for thc same purpose as tindcr is thcgrave,using the word 

with U8, to kindle fire. From this circum- may the earth be Hght u 
«tance, the poets feigned that Prometheus 34. Olim: hereaner. 

•tole tho hnavenly iire and brought it to earth to future as woU as to pi 

in a stalk of ferula. Somo denve the name the sense of mea^ agrecii 
fr6m ferendo^ because its stalk was used as a 36. Vinitor: a vine-d 

walkmg-stick ; othersdoriveitfVom/merufo, be used here in the sens 

bocause it was usod by school-masters to gatherer of grapes — a v 
•irikotheir pupilswithon thc hand. Hcnce 38. Furor. This woi 

ihc modem instniment, or ferula^ wiiich is any inordinate passion, 

nsed for the same purpose, though very dif- rage, fury, and the like 

fortnt from the ancient one, and ci^able of ject of such passion — 1 

fiving much greater pain. Fuscut: black. The v 

37. Rubeniem: ttained with the red ber- plied. 
ffkM of alder, and with vermihon. Ebuli. 39. Vaceinia: whortl 

KMum if the plant called dwarf elder. It ries. Mr. Martyn takc 

glOtrf aboat three feet high, and bcars red flower of tho hyacinth. 
Sirrlee. In England it nas obtained the 41. Serta: garlands < 
MMM of dane-wort ; because it was fabled 43. Consumerer^ &c. 

t9 have flprung from the blood of the Danes, very life here with yoa 

at the time or their maiiacre. It is chiefly treat, gazing upon tho 

Ibaad la eburch-yarde. Jtftnto. Minium is son. Rusus says : ^ra<fi 

tiia BatlTf Htmibur, It was the vermilion tecum. But contumeret 

af^aW|Anlf| Hleoorpretent red-Icad. sense of the Greek m 

offinit, was fond of tho Greek 

, or rills of water. 44. Nune intanut an 

ItMM* ing of this passage ap 


Dler media ataue advereos detinet hostes. 45 46. Tu, ah dura femi- 
xml i mtrii (nec sit mihi credere) tantiim ^- Pf<^"!.^ P*^* ("**• 

s. aD tlunL, mves, et inirora Kneni . *v «,;-«— ♦ 4»^ ai^- 

t^aola¥ides. Ah te ne fngora l»dant ! nw niires, et frigora 

i ne taneias ghicies secet aspera plantas I Rheni, sola Bln^ me. 

CSialcidico qu» sant mihi condita versu 50 50. Et modulabor 
la pastoris Siculi modulabor aveni. 5^«"»^ 8»<^»1* . PMtoris 

1 est iD sylvis, inter spelaea ferarum, 2%€omh, carmina, qu» 

[Miti, tenensque meoe incidere amores 64. lllci* arborts croi- 

bus : crescent iUs, crescetis amores. eent : twt, O mt amorea 

1 mixtis lustrabo Maenak Nymphis, 55 
res venabor apros : non me uUa vetabunt 
\ Parthenios canibus circumdare saltus. 


t place, if von had conionted, we 57. Alpiruu : an adj. iroro ^lpu^ a ^'-erjr 

tiave both uved happy and eecure. high ranj^e of mountains separating Italy 

V, on acooont of your crueltj, we irom France, Switzerland, and G^rmany, 

1 onhappj and mieerable. Through and covered with ahnost perpetual snow. 

, I ezpoee myaelf to the dangers and Rheni : the river Rhine. H riscs in the 

of war ; and in the mean time your mountains of Switzerland, and runs a nortli- 

a aoldier hurriee you to distant erly course, forming the boundary bctwecn 

5S, over the inowa of the Alps, &c. France and Germany, and failU into the 

bere imppoflee CytAertf to accompany German sea near the Ha^e. Its length is 

er, and to uxidergo the fati^ea and near siz hundred miles. Dura : in thc sense 

ps incident to a military Iife. Me, of crudelit, Sola : Lycoris waa alone, as 

mm%;b woold be i^ch easier, if we respected Gallua. 

iad /e in the room of me, The sense 49. Planioi : in the scnse of pedes, A$' 

\j leads to such reading ; but we pera : sharp. The whole of this aUdrcss to 

\ aothority for making the substitu- nis mistress is extremely tender and paiho- 

Varfif. Mars was esteemed the god tic. 

.. He wae the son of Jupiter and 50. Qu<e eondita suni^ &c. Which were 

m some say ; others say, of Juno composed by me in elegiac verse. Chald- 

Hb education was intrusted to Pri- dieo : an adj. from Chaleis^ a city of Eubcea, 

ho taught him all the manly excr- (Jiodie^ ^egroponty) the birth-place of Eu- 

hi the Trojan war, he took a very phorion, an eleffiac poet ; some of whose 

MLTt, and waa always at hand to as- verses, it is saio, Gallus tumed into Latin 

' fiivorites of Venus. His amours vcrse. To this, Rueus thinks, the poet ro- 

tt goddeas have been much celebra- fers. However this may be, it cannot be 

the poete. Vulcan, her husband, made from the words witliout straining 

fonnedof theirintrigue, made a net them. They simply imply that Gallus 

exqniMte workmanship, that it could wrote some verses or poems in the somo 

lereeived. In this net he caught the kind of verse, or measure, in which Eupho- 

ers, and expoaed them to the ridicule rion wrote. 

roda. He kept them in this situation 5L Mtdulabor : in the aenae of canam. 

mnderable time, till Neptune pre- 52. Certum etl^ &c It ia certain---l am 

upon him to aet them at liberty. resolved, that I had rather sufier in «the 

vriiip of Mars waa not very general woods any dangera and hardships than fol- 

the Greeks, but among the Romans low ailer Lycoris. Theee, or words of the 

tived the most unbounded honors. like tmport, seom to be necessary to make 

st famoua temple was built by Au- the sense complete. Speleta : dens, ur 

afVer the battle of Phillippi, and de- haunts of wild beasts ; from the Greek. 

to Mart Ultor, His priests were 53. Jneidere : to cut, or inscribe. 

So/ti, and were first mstituted by 55. Metnala: neu. piu. a mountain w 

Their chief office was to keep the Arcadia. In the aing. Manalut. Luttraho: 

metfle^ or ahield, which was supposed in the sense of eireumiho, Mixtit nymphit, 

\ nllen from heaven. Mars was The meaning is, that he was in company 

lea called Oradivut^ Mavort^ and with the nymphs ; or that thev, in eonfused 

iif; by meton. put forwar in gcncral and irregular order, pursued their cour»e. 

tle— a fight, &c. 56. Jleret : ficrcc — dongerous. Felabunt . 

94oersoi: in the sense of infestos, in the sense of prohibeb^mt. 

raii/'jai . onlv->nothin^ bcside. 57, Parlhenioi. Parth«iuuavr%&«bmom- 


Jam mihi per rupes videor lucosque soiiai 

Ire : libet Partho torquere Cydonia comq 

6a l^anqoam Iubo om- Spicula : tanquam hsec sint nostri medicii 

**J^°![ imM--. •11 ^^^ Dcus ille malis hominum mitescere i 

DeuicJwllo"'*^'**" ^*™ neque Hamadryades rursum, nec cai 

64. luum JDeuNiCbfM- ^P^ placent : ipsse rursiim concedite sylv 
imemf neo efuuton, m Non illum nostri possunt mutare laborea ; 

Nec si fiigoribus mediis Hebrumque bibai 

Sithoniasque nives hyemis subeamus aquo 

67. Nec equidem^ ti Nec si, cum moriens alti liber aret in uhi 

renemufl oves j:thio|>- iEthiopum versemus oves sub sidere Cani 

nm, «ub Bidere canori, Qmnia vincit amor ; et nos cedamiis amo 

^"to O D' Pierid ^®^ ^* ®"^ Divae, vestrum cecinisse poi 

Mt erit veotram poet^ Dum sedet, et gracili fisceUam texit hibi« 

oecinine hsc earmina Pierides : vos haec facietis maxima Gallo 

7%. Facietis hsc Jieri Gallo, cujus amor tantum mihi crescit in i 

Quantum vere novo viridis se subjicit ahM 
Surgamus : solet esse gravis cantantibutf 


%ain in Arcadia, where virgins uied to hunt ; 68. Kertemtu : feed, or 1 

from a Greek word Bignifying a virgin. It sense of paseeremtu. JS^ 

tt here UBod ae an adj. Cireumdare : in the of JEthiopt^ an inhabitanl 

•enae of eingere, eztensive countrmin Afiiot 

58. Sonantee: echmng— reBoundmg. \ within the tomd zone. 

.^ ^ j . j. - ^ j '. the mhabitants of any ci 

o9. Cyd^: " adj. fijom Cyrfon, a cily j^^t climate. Cancrt, Ci 

of Crete, the arrowe of which were held m ^^giy^ ^^^ ^f ^^ ^c 

rreat estimation. Pmrlho eornu .* a Parthian . *. c^ ^ ^i. ^ ^^ 
f TJJr^ D -Tu- •'•'•^ •'*'"•'• 1 r j enters it about the twenty 

bow. The Parthiana were a people famed „.„.•„ ^,,, i^«««-* j.„ 

for their ridU m handling the bow, which ^"""^«? °"' ^*'"^* ^^^' 

they made of hom. Hence eomu: a bow. 69. w^moromct/, &c. T 

Libet: in the senae otjuDoi. finely represented the vi 

60. Medieina JuroriM : a remedy for our "?«*, paMions of a lover, 

love. Tanquam : aa it ^f^ed ^"«>^8 d^^ ^^** 

61» Malit: in the oenM of inuerttt. • < i.- ^ i* i 

VI. .'«u.M. «u M«« ««ui»* w* nw^vw. ^j. ^Q Y^^^ ^^ accompli»! 

62. Hamadryadet: nympha of the woods abandons the vain pureuil 
and trees. Their fate wae supposed to be tion: Love eonqutrt ail t) 
eonnected with that of particular trees, fQ ^^, 

*rith which thev lived and died. It is de- pri m -m ^ ^ 

fived from the (^reek. See Ed. u. 46. the sense of iwmc. 

63. Rurtum eoneedite: again, jp woods, -« jir««.„. ^^ 
fkreweU. Concedite, is here eleganUy put oJ^ouT^^* 

fur valeie, I wish you may grow and flourish, ^ ^ , * 

Ihough / languish and <he. 73. /n horat houriy-n 

65. Hebrum. Tbe Hebnu is the largest 74. Suhfieit ee: ■boots i 
river of Tbraoe, rising out of mount Rho- iip. 

dope, near its junction with mount Httmut, 75, Umbra toUt^ &c. ' 

and taking a southerly oourse, falls into the ©vening b wont to be in 

iEgean sea: hodie, Marita. The ancient c;^n&rahere must mean th' 

Thrace forms a provinoe of the Turkish tbe evening, «rhich, on acci 

empire, by the name Romania. Frigon- dew, is reckoned an unh< 

6ia; m the sense of l^eme. day. That the word is t 

66. Sithoniat: an adj. from Sithonia, a senset appeaxs from the c 
part of Thrace, bordering upon the Euxine tioned tn the following lin 
sea. Subeamut: endure^ — ^undergo. tbe cvening star is approi 

^ 67. Monent Hbet tho withering bark,or but; some read eunetanti 
rind. «Ay«r ^, or toitering. 


3mpm grmM ombra: nocent et firugibuf umbns. 77. Vot^ O «mcb »101« 

Vl8 domam satiinB, Yenit UesperuB, ite capellflB. «apell», ii«, iu domnni 


7B. UmhrtL jitmAptn: ihm ■hade of the we may be ■ore VufpL did 111 the preeemt 

ir tiee is injnrioiu : not eo in fect ; instance. It migjit have been the current 

both pleaiant and healthy. It is opinion that the juniper tree changed ite 

«doffiforoiie in itaelf^ and is oflen bnmed, qualitiee ae the eyoning came on; or, we 

fe tbeorb the noxiooe part of the atmos- may onderatand it thus : eo noziout ie the 

phwe, ^kd to preYont infection. Poete often evening air, that even the juniper tree wUl 

ttkelibertiee that are not allowable in prose not secure fVom its effecti. 

viitm. They maf foUow the common re- 77. SaturtB : full-fed— eofficiently fed ; 

ctiTed c^nnioos of thinga, howerer incor- impljing that time enongh had been epmit 

HBt, witlioqt JMtly ineuning cenanre. This in pastoral writing. 


Whatiathesab)eetof thispastoral? Where wasPindus? 

Wko wae Gallns ? Where were the mountains Menalni and 

Where is the scene of the pastoral laid? Lyceus ? 
What took place afier his arrival in Ar- What is said of them? 
flifia? WhowasMan? 

Whatis thecharacter of thtspastoral? What is said of him ? 

Whom doee Vir^ imitate ? By whom was the most oelebrated tompk 

Who wae Lycons ? of Mara built ? 
Whe wae Arethnsa ? What were his priests ealled? 

Was thoTO any fbontain of that name ? What was their ehief office ? 

Whsfe wae it sitiiated ? What were the names of Mars? 

For i^at wae Syracnse ikmons? For what is the word Man pot Ibr bj 

Wijr did the poet invoke the nymph Are- meton. ? 
mmt Where is the river Hebras ? 

WlMt is aaid of the river Alphens? Where doee it rise and enDtT itf wutr I 

the mmatua ParBassoa? Whero ie JCthiopk litnated f 




1 wan, that had distracted the Roman empire, had nearly desolated 
9 land lay neglected, and the inhabitants were reduced to great dis- 
uit of the necessaries of life. In this state of things, they cast tha 
1 Augustus, and murmured against his administration. To remedy 
l evils, and to avert heavier calamities, it became necessary to revive 
; which for many years had been ahnost wholly neglected, the peo- 
iken from their lands to supply the armies. It occurred to Ma^cenaf 
tise upon that subject would be highly useful to the inhabitants of 
therefore engaged Virgil, who had just finished his Eclogues, to 
the work. It had the desired efiect. For, afler the publicaiion of 
ca, Italy began to assume a new and flourishing appearance, and the 
id themselves in pleniy, and in the enjojrment of peace and content. 
•ent about seven years in this part of hijJiiorkB. His correct taste, 
ityle, and above all, his extensive knowledge, duly qualified him for 
tlus kind. The Georgics, hke the Eclogues, were every where waU 

es for the improvement of husbandry, and the advice given to the 
>n the several subjects connected with it, were not only suited to tne 
[taly, but have been esteemed valuable in every countiy where ^^ due 
been paid to the piougn, ' down to the present time. 
ti Georgica is from the Greek. Its origmal word properly signifiet 
;ion or tillage of the earth. In the Georgics, Vireil imitated Hesiod, 
a treatise upon this subject, entitled, Opera et Dies^ but he far ex- 
in every respect. He began thia part of his works in the year of 
, being then about thirty-two years of age, and dedicated it to Ma»- 
oiend and patron, at whose request he wrote it. 
)rgics are divided into four books. The first treats of the various 
le proper method of managing each. The second treats of the various 
^pagating fi^it trees, and particularly the vine. The third treats of 
; kinds of grass, and the proper method of raising horses, cattle, 
goats. The fourth treats of the proper management of bees. 
main subject, the poet hath interwoven several very interesting fables 
B8, which contribute to our pleasure, and relieve tbe mind under the 


the fftate of Italy, when Virgil 

request did he write them ? 
did he dedicate them ? 
lie meaninir of tho word Qwr^ 

t lan^a^ is ihe word derived? 
et hvd Uie Georgicfi upon the 

waa Vir^l in writing them ? 
)ar of Rome did ho begia ihem? 

Were they well recei ved by hia coontryiiieii 

Was VirgU well qualified to wiite ap<Mi 
the Buhject of agricolture? 

Whom did he imitate ? 

What ia the comparative merit of each 

Do the Georgics contain valuable rulee 
and directions to the agriculturiflt in all 

Into how roany bookB are iVie^ dmd«4t 

Wfad.t la the subiocl of each WAl^ Im, 




Tki* Book openB with th« plan of the whole work : and in the fonr first linee inforraf 110 
of the eiihject of eech hoiok. 7*he poet then proceedB to inToko tlie gfode, that were 
tlMNight to hare any concem in the aflUn of tilla^ or huobandry ; and particularly , he 
eomplimentB Angustus with divinity. Afler which, he goes on to ahow the differont 
kiBdii of tillage proper for the different soils. He traces out the origin of agriculture. 
He deacribee the Tarious implenionts proper for that use. He notices the prognostica 
of the weather. And concludes, bj relating the prodigies which happened about the 
time of Jnlius CMar^a death ; and by invoking the gods for the aafety of Augustuai 
hie piinoe. 

Tho whoie is embelliahed with a Tariety of other matter, so judiciously blended with the 
mibject, that, besides preventing languor and fatigne under the dryness of precept, it 
eontributeB to ourpleaeure and delight. 

QUID &ciat Istas segetes ; quo sidere terram 
Vertere, Mscenas, uknisque adjungere vites, , *• O Mscenaa, faici» 

GonTeniat : qu» cura boum ; qui cultus habendo J*^, 5*f ®" "^ ^^ 

fi^. • 7 •« \ • .• faciat UBtaa seffetes, qoe 

8n peeon ; atque apibus quanta expenenUa parcis ; ^^^ conviSS wUio 

ifinc canere incipiain. Vos, o clanssima mundi 6 temm 

Lumina, labentem ccelo qusB ducitis annum : 3» Qomniciimboom; 

liber et ahna Cerea, vestro si munere telluB ^^ n r - 

Chaoniam pingui glajidem mutavit aristi, Can^tA^* ^ *^ 

Pocolaque inventis Acheloia miscuit uvis : 


1. LmUu: inthaaenaeofMfiofasvel/er^ vem the ■easona; rather than Ccm and 

liles. Bacchns, as eome imagine. 

3. Qnt euliut^ite. What management ia 7. Liber ti abna Ceret, Runus conaideii 
Mceesarj for raising cattle. It is plain that these as the Clariitiwui Lwnina mmdi in 
neeestartiit, anluM% or some word of the like the preceding line. Bnt the reason which 
import, is to oe supplied, agreeing with «li- he gives for so doing appears insufficient. 
Ikis. Habendo may be a future part. pass. Abna: an adj. eheriming~-wmrishmg, In 
or a gemnd in io, of the dat. case. this sense it is a very appropriaie epiUiet df 

4. Qifonla experieniia^ &c. How great Ceres^ as being the goddees of huabandty. 
earei or atlenUon, is necessary to rear the It also signifies, fwe—holy^ Acc 

ftufal beea. Or, it may mean ; how great 8. Chaoniam glandem : Chaonian aeomt^ 

ezpefienee, foremeht, and regular manage- or matt: here put for matt in general ; the 

meot, in their aflairs, there may be to the tpeeiet for the genut* Chaoniam : an adk 

ftufal beee. When sentenoes are verj el- uom Chaonia^ a part of Epiros, in whidi 

fijptieal, it ia eometimes difficolt to fall upon was the famous grove Z>odofia,that abonnd- 

l£e nmif^g of the author. ed in mast-treea. 

i. .Ltontna. We are here to understand, 9. Aeheldiapoeula: dranghtsof pnrewa- 

I ifprabend, ihe snn and moon, as they go- ter. Poeuia^ properly the cups^hete v^t h^ 


10. Et Toi, O Faani, Et V09, agrestdm praesentia numina, Fi 
|MnMentiaiiaminaa|ree. ^^^6 simul Faunique pedem Dryadesq 
Sa^e '^p^r ft^ Munera vestra cano. Tuque 6, cui p, 
pedem simul : Fudit equum magno tellus percussa tn 

14. Et, tu O Ai ititBe^ Neptune : et cultor nemorum, cui ping 
eoltor nemorimL, cui ter Ter centum nivei tondent dumeta juvei 
^^ifi^Tvr*^^* i) T "^ ^P^ nemus linquens patrium, saltusquc 
Pan,' cusuSToviui^^ Pan ovium custos, tua si tibi Maenala c 
quens patrium nemui, Adsis, 6 Tegeaee, favens : oleaeque Mi 


meton. for the water iteeif. Aehelota: an of wisdom and the libe 

adj. from Achelous, a river of iEtolia, sup- to have been produced 

posed by the ancienU to have heen the firat pitcr full grown, and in 

that arose out of the earth : hence put, fre- into the assembly of t] 

quently, for water in general. Ceres, it is distinguished herself b 

■aid, taught men husbandry, and Bacchus, Her power was very gr 

the cultivation of the vine : to which the the thunderbolts of Jupi 

words vestro munere allude, At the first, of men, and bestow tl 

men lired upou the spontaneoos productions Arachne^ the daughter i 

of the aarth. challenged the goddess 

10. PrcuenHa: in the sense of proptfia. embroidery. She repn 

11. Dryadei. Nymphsor goddessesof the the amours of Jupiter 
woods, from a Greek word signifying an ner. She was, howevc 
oak. See Ecl. ii. 46 ving hung herself th 

14. Aephine. Neptune, gotl of the sea, changed into a spiderbi 

ind father of fountains and rivers. He was dcss. Minerva took a 

the son of Satum and Ops, and.brotherof support of the Grecks \ 

Jupiter and Pluto. In tho division of the and protected her favor 

world with his brothers^he obtained theem- dangers. Her worship 

pire of the sea. He is said to have marricd tablished. She had i 

Amphitrite, the daughter of Nereus or Oce' dedicated to hcr in m« 

anus, He is said to have been tlie first who Rhodes^ and Athens^ w< 

tamed the horse. Hence the poets fcign, ces. Sho was variout 

that when a diiSpute arose between him and cording to the characte 

Minerva, respecting the name to be given peared ; but most gene 

to the city Athens, it was referred to the on her head, and a lar; 

gods for their decision ; who declared it the air ; with one han 

should be called by the name of the party with the olher a shield, 

that should confer on mankind the greateBt Mcdusa upon it. Thi 

benefit; whereuponNeptunestrucktheearth the •^gis. When she i 

with his trident and produced the horse, a goddess of the liberal 

warlike animal ; and Minerva with her with a veil called the i 

spear produced the olive, the emblem of very celebratod statue c 

peace : upon which the case was given in said to have becn abo 

her favor. JWp/unta, by meton. is oflen height, and represented 1 

put for the sea. Cultor nemorum. The per- ing in her right hand a 

■on herc meant is Aristteus^ the reputed son a distaff and a spindle. 

of Apolloani thenymphCyrene,thedaugh- fallen from heaven nea 

ter of Peneus^ the god of the river Peneus as he was building the 

in Thessaly. Afler his son Actcton was tom the preservation of whi( 

to pieces by dogs for looking upon Diana^ city depended. It was < 

ai she was baming, Aristcnts lefl Thebes, ses and Diomede, who pi 

and took up his residence in the island C^ea, into the temple. It is 

one of the Cyclades. He ia said to have the true palladium wa 

been the first, who taught mankind the cul- but only a statue of i 

tivation of bees. See Geor. iv. 317. that iEneas carried the 1 

17. Si tua Mcmala^ tic. The mcaning is: Italy. The elive-tree, 
if you have a rogard for Msnalus, LycoBus, and the dragon, were • 
and the rest of your mountains in Arcadia, had various names, an< 
or>me and be propitious to my undcrtaking. and functions attributed 
These mountains wcre sacred to Pan. called Athena^ from the 

18. Tegecee : an adj. from Tegea^ a city of which she was tho tuteli 
Arcadia, sacred to Pan. Mirktrvct, Goddess from a giant of that nai 



iBveiitnx, uncique puer monstrator aratn : 
It teneram ab radice ferens, Sylvane, cupressum : 
Dique, Deseque omnes, studium quibus arva tueri» 
Quique novas alitis non ullo semine fruges, 
Qwque satis birgum ccelo demittitis imbrem. 
Tuque aded, quem mox quae sint habitura Deorum 
Coocilia, incertum est, urbesne invisere, Ca;sar, 
Terrarumque Velia curam : et te maximus orbis 
Anctorera frugum, tempestatumque potentem 
Accipiat|*cingen8 matemi tempora myrto : 
An deus immensi venias mans, ac tua nautse 
Nanuna sola colant : tibi serviat ultima Thule, 
Teque sibi generum Tethys emat omnibus undis. 
Anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus addas, 
Qui locua Erigonen inter Chelasque sequentes 
hnditur : ipee tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens 


8&!tuM)iie Ljccn, si tua 
2Q Ma;nala tini tibi eor», 
adsit favens : T\i qne O 
Minorva, inventrix 

21. O oinnoH Diqut 
Deeque, quIbMs esi Bt«4- 

34. Tuque aded O 
Cetar, quem, incertua 
eet, que concilia Deo» 
rum habitura sint mox. 
ne velis invibere urbesi 
et nuetperc curam ier 
2Q rarum: 


«ntfcer, from a Greek word eignifying to 
tinUt bocaaee me goddeee of war, she 
tnadiibed a ^Mar in her right hand : Par' 
AoMi, beeanee ahe preeer^ed her chastity : 
IVileM, because the waa wonhipped near a 
hkt of tiiat name in Africa : OUmeopia^ be- 
cuie she had blue eyes : Agorea^ because 
iht presided orer markets : Ihppia^ because 
ihi taught mankind to manage the horso : 
StaiiA, and Area^ because of her martial 

19. Piier. Triptolemus the son of Celeua, 
Uw of EhuinA, a city of Attica. Ho is 
niJ tc haTO laught the Greeks agriculture, 
kiTing himself been . preyiously instructed 
y§ Cercs. See Ed. ▼. 79. 

iO. Sgl»ane» One of thoee demi-gods that 
ge onder the general name of satyrs. He is 
tud to haro been passionately fond of the boy 
CmariMtHM^ who having, through mistake, 
kwed a deer, of which he was very fond, 
fined away and dicd. Ue was changed into 
tks Cyprees tree. See Ecl. 5. 73. 

t1. Studium: in the sense of eura. 

S2. Son uHo $emine. Some read nonnullo 
sesttae. But the former appears to be the 
hetter; and it is supportcld by several an- 
Qent manoscripts, as Pierus inforins us. 
JfomuUo temne: from no seed, that is, such 
is spring up spontaneously. Heyne, after 
HemsiGs, reads non uUo «emtne. 

%L Adt^: in the sense of praeipui. 

SS. Vrbet. The common reading is urbit; 
knt as all interpreters agree that it is for 
«vAtc, the aoc plu. I have Tentured so to 
wiite it. The nom. and acc. plu. of the 
tkird dedensione sometimes ended in eit, 
wkidi wae contracted into i«; as, omneit^ 
MBtncted eemu— Kr6eu, contracted urbit. 
Bat there is no reason that it should be re- 
hi preference to the regular termina- 
Valpy reads urbet. 

the sup. in the sense of 
the great woffUL 

27. Poteniem: the ruler— one who has 
power over: reeiorem^ says Ruieus. It hae 
here the force and efficacy of a substantive. 
Tempettaium: in the sense of temporum. 

28. Maiema myrto. The myrtle troe was 
sacred to Venus, the mother of ^neas, from 
whom,according t.o Virgil^Cesar deitcended. 

30. TTiule. Onc of the Shetland islands 
on the north of Scotland, the farthcst land 
westward known to the ancients. The poct, 
therefore, calls it uliima. Colani: in the 
sense of adoreni^ rel precentur. 

31. Tethyt. The daughter of Calut and 
TVrra, and wife of Oceanut. She was mo- 
tJicr of thc nymphs Oeeanidet; elcgantly 
put, hy meton. for the sea itself. 

32. Anne addaty &c. Or whether you 
would add yourself anew constellation to the 
slo w summur months. The months are called 
slow, becauso the days in tlie summer aro 
the longest, and so thcir motion appoars the 
slowcr ; or rather, to speak philosophically, 
because tlie earth movos slower in her orbit, 
during the summer monlhs. 

33. Erigonen. Erigone, the daughter of 
Icarus, who, on account of the murdcr of her 
father, hung herself for griof; but was 
translated to heaven, and made the consteW 
lation Virgo. Sequeniet Chelat : the foUow- 
ing claws — the claws following the sign 
Virgo. The Chela wero the claws or arms 
of Seorpio^ extending over, and occupying 
the sign of Lihra, The ancients at firrt 
divided the Ecliptic into eleven parts, learing 
out the sign LibrcL, and giving to Seorpio a 
space of the Zodiac equal to 6(P. By re- 
ducing it to an equality with the rest of the 
signs, a space of 30^ remained for Catar, if 
he chose to occupy it. 

34. Ardent: impatient — grreatly desiroiu 
of thy coming; rather than ardenti bani- 
ing, &c as it ii ■ometimea teiidei^d. 



Scorpius, et cceli justi plus parte reliqu 

86. Woqold JWimeii Quicquid eris (nam te nec sperent Tar! 

^» ^* Nec tibi regnandi veniat tam dira cupid 

Quamvis Elysios miretur Grscia camp< 
Nec repetita sequi curet Proserpina ma 
Da facilem cursum, atque audacibus an 

41. Taqae miieratua Ignarosque viaef mecum miseratus agres 
^jPyJ^^^^f^^^^^^^ Ingredere, et votis iam nunc assuesce v 

Vere novo, gelidus canis cum montib 
Liquitur, et Zephyro putris se gleba res 
Depresso incipiat jam tum mihi taurus i 
Ingemere, et sulco attritus splendeecerc 
Hla seges demum votis respondet avari 
Agricolae, bis quae solem, bis frigora se 
IUius immensae ruperunt horrea meeses. 
At prius ignotum ferro quam scindimua 
Ventos et varium coeli prsdiscere more 
5t.CaraatiMMtpre- Cura sit, ac patnos cultusque habitusqu 

**•«»• Et quid quaeque ferat regio, et quid qui 

Hic segetes^ illic veniunt ^icius uvae : 
Arborei foetus alibi, atque injussa viresc 
Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut To 
6B. At nadi Chalybea India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabi 

nittiml ad no9 ferrum At Chaljbes nudi ferrum« viroBaque Pa 


39. ProaerpuuL See Ed. t. 79. the fields are moet exp 

42. Ingrtdere: enter upon yoor office of a the climate be moist oj 

Std^ and even now eccustom yourself to be Morem cali : naiurttm t 

Toked by rows. says Heyne. 

43. OeHdus kumor: here, ice or snow. 5& Patrios euUut: t 
HwBmr ia properlj anr kind of moisture or fathers. This is the sen 
fiquor. AVnx» rere. The poet advises the Hejne. Colefidi raliot 
husbandman to begin his ploughing in the majorum^ sajs the latt 
earij part of the spring, as soon as Uie snow Propriam ctilhirom. Ht 
melts trom the mountains, and the earth be habits of the places — th) 
■officiently soflened, that he maj be in due nature of the Tarions soi 
■eason with the work of the jear. tilled in a certain wav, a 

45. Deprfsso arairo : in the plough put, to prodnce some kinds o 

er laidi deep in the earth. Or the words others. This is what is 

maj be put abeohitelj: the plough being 54. Felicius: more In: 

pat deep in the earth. 55. Arborei Jirtus : ni 

4& ^um bis sentii^kcn Which feeb twice trecs. Fttlus siipifies 

lk« somnMr^ and twice the winter; that is, kind, animate or inania 

fiee (allow (br two jears tofether, or with* sown — spontaneouslj. 

a«t iiUaipf. Searv*' in the eense of ierra^ 56. Tmoius. A moun 

Tol agtr^ saTs Hejne. the confines of Ljdia, fai 

49. Rti^erwmi. Tke sense eeems to re- hence the epithet rreceef 

^pure the present : accordingtr Ru»us hath 57. Mo^fs Sftbari : thi 

intcffpreted it bj rumpw i U : his immense ans. These were a pectf 

harreets burst h» bams — bis bams are not bia rdlx, which abouna 

eapabte of contatniBg his crop«> 5C< Chai^bcs nudi: tb 

30. .£71»^.* properij anj plain or lcTel send us iron, and Pontns 

wfactw whether Land or water. Hete n^ed K^ were a people of S 

aa tke seBse of C4:tr or mip«s. Ignaimm : Justin : but of Pontus« ai 

n|^ nmhsiiA i^rniim est nabis, said to hare wrnu^t na 

51. Pneihsctr* r?n/«s.&e. To !eam before the hea: of their fumaccs 

kaad the wivcs aad the Tarioos quolttie» Ou/yA* ca»ne to signiQ 

ef the weether — to obeerre^ to what winds in>n and steel. Ponius^ 


Cistorea, Elkiduin palmaa Epinis equanim ? 

Gonlmud has leges aBternaque foedera certis 60 

Impoeuit natura locia, quo tempore primum 

Dmicalion Tacuum lapides jactant in orbem : 

Dnde homines nati, durum genna. £rg6 age, teraB 

Pingue solum primis eztempld a menaibus anni 64. Eztempld i prims 

Fortea infertant taun^ glebasque jacentes 66 »«Mibu« aimi' IbrtM 

Puherulenta coquat maturis solibus lestas. ^^ 

At 81 non iuerit teUus focunda, sub ipsum 

Aieturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco : 

Dlic officiant laBtis ne firugibus herbe ; 

ffiC) sterikm eziguuB ne deserat humor arenam. 70 . ^ . . 

Altemis idem tonsas oessare novales, 71. 7\« idem patm 

T» ... ^ tmiMs novalet cesnre 

£t segnem patiere situ durescere campum. alternii annit^ et 

Aut ibi flava seres mutato sidere &rra ; 74. Unde priib euatu- 

Vnde prius betum siliqul quassante legumen, leris letum legumen 

Aut tenues fbtus vTciaB, tristisque lupini 76 qttMwnte ailiqu&, aut 

Sustuleris IngUes cakmos, sylvamque sonantem. Klie ''*'"*' 

Urit enim Uni campum seges, urit aveneB : 77? Seget avens urit 

Urunt Letheo perfusa papavera somno. cumi, 


69. Firota eattorea: etrong-eoented caetor. fiirrow, and some time in the fall, about the 

Aoeording to Pliny, the caetor was contain- risinff of Arcturus. Iq the former case, 

ed in the testicles of the beaver. But the (illw) that the grase and weeds may not 

modeme haTc foujid that the castor is con- injure the springing crop; in the latter caRe 

tained in eertain odoriferous glands about (hie) that the scantj moisture maj not 

tia* groin, and in both sexes. Epirut pal' leave the barren land. 
«Ci, ftic Epifus (produces) the victors of 71. Thnsat novalet, &c. Tou should sufier 

tlie Oljmpic maree — produees those mares jour reaped fallow grounds to rest everj 

that obtun the palm of victorj in the other vear. JfovaHt terra, is properlv new 

Oljmpic races. Pahnat equanm ; Ruteus ground, or ground newlj broken up. Hence 

•aja equat vietrieet inOhmpieo eurtu, £pi- it came to si^ifj fallow ground, because 

niB, onee a powerfhl lungdom, is bounded bj resting it is recruited, and, as it were, 

bj the lonian sea on the south and west, renewed. 

aad bj Theesalia, Maeedonia, and Achaia 72. Siiu : with a sword. Situt here 

en the north and east, famous for its excel- means the grass, weeds, &c which over- 

lent horsee. Elufum: an adj. gen. plu. spread the ground, and bind it down inlo 

from EHt^ or Elea^ a maritime countrj of what is commonlj called a sword. Campttm 

iSbe Peloponnesus, the chief citiee of which tegnem: jour field Ijing idle. 
were EUt^ on the river Peneut^ and 0/ympui, 73. Sidire mutato : the jear being changed. 

on the river Ahpheut^ famous for the games Some copies read temine miuiato. Sidut^ in 

there eelebrated in honor of Jupiter. Thej the sense of annia, is froquentl j used bj 

were institnted 1458 jears before Christ, Virgil. 
and celebrated everj fiuh jear. 74. LtBhan : in the sense of fertile vol 

eo. Fadera: in tne sense of eonditionet, eopiotum, Siliqua : in the rattling pod, oi 

es. Deuealion, See Ed. vi. 41. shell. 

eS. JVo/t; in the sense of orti ttmi, 75. THttit: bitter. Tenuet /(Biut^ Ruseae 

ee. Soli^: Sol, properlj the sun, bj me- interprets bj parva grana. 
ton. heat. Malurit: in the sense of vehe" 76. Sylvam, This word is frequentlj used 

wtenHbut^ vel ardeniibtu, Coquai : emoliat for a thick luzurious crop or growth of anj 

c( rarefaeiai, sajs Hejne. thing. 

9S.SubiptumArctu*um: about the rising 78. Papavera perfuta: poppies improg- 

of Arcturus. This is a star of the first nated witn oblivious sleep, or possessing the 

magnitude in the constellation Bootes, near qualitj of causing sleep. Lelhao : an adj. 

tiietailofthegreatBear. The poet recom- ttom Leihe^ a word of Greek origin, im- 

OMnds, if the soil be rich, to tnm it up pljing forgetf\iIness or oblivion. Thc 

lilth a deep furrow oarlj, that it maj lie poets feigned it to be one of the rivers af 

ind bake througfh the heat of the summer; hell, the water of whieh the dead were said 

Nit if the land be of a thin soil, and light, to drink after thej had been in thc regions 

ft will be snfiiRient to tum it up with a Uiin below some time. It was repre8ente4 as 


79. Labor eril facilis Sed tamen altemis facilis labor : arida ta 
^'^^[''m ^**?** ' , Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola ; ne^ 
i-2;„T.'f«!i^*°''^ ■* Effcetos cinereii immundum jactare per i 

eic quoque mutatis reqmescunt foetibus a 

Nec nulla intere^ est inaratae gratia terrs 

Sspe etiam steriles incendere profuit agr 

Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urerc 

Sive inde occultas vires et pabula terras 

Pinguia concipiunt ; sive iilis omne per i| 

Excoquitur vitium, atque exudat inutilis 1 

Seu plures calor ille vias, et csoa relaxat 

91. Sen Ule calor ma- Spiramenta, novas veniat qua succus in ii 

gb darat terranu, et g^^ durat magis, et venas astringit hianti 

pJ^^S:JlZ' Ne tenues pluvi», rapidive potentia so^ 

potentia Acnor, aut Boreae penetrabile frigus adu 

95. Adeo ilU juvat M ultum ade6, rastris glebas qui frangit if 

arvamultum,quifrangii Vimineasque trahit crates, juvat arva ; n* 

97. Et iUtmuUumjvr piava Ceres alto nequicquam spectat Oli 

SgT^ur.Sr';!! Et qui, procisso q«« suscitat lequore, tei 

pftmo procisso equore, Rursus in obliquum verso perrumpit arat 

aratro verso rursus in Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imp 

ohliqaum : Humida solstitia atque hyemes orate si 


havlng the power of cansing them to for- abundantly repay the far 

Kt wnatover they had done, seen, or heard gence. 

fore. A river in Afiica of that name, 86. Sive inde^ &c Th 

vhich flowed under ground for some dis- four reasons for the farme 

tance, and then rose to its eurface, ia sup- 1. That they might hen 

posed to have given rise to thia extravagant crease of nutriment. 2. 

fable. moisture raight be dried 

19. Laborfacilis. The meaning appears Thatthecloseanddense» 

to be this : that the above mentioned crops ed. And 4. That the Ic 

may be sown every other year, notwith- rendered closer. This h 

•tanding tlieir injurious quaUties, providod principle of those philosc 

the land be well manured. that fire was the universi 

80. Arida sola: diy or thirsty aoils. 88. Vitium: the bad q 

81. Effoitos : worn out— exhausted. 90. Spiramenta eaea: 

82. F<ttihus : in the sense of segetibus. passages, by which moist 

83. JVec nulla gratia esl inaraia terra : the new plants. 

nor, in the mean time is there no gratitude 93. PenetrabHe : in the 

in the land untilled — ^leil fallow every other penetrating — searching. 

year. sense of ardentis. 

The whole of this section contains a num- 97. Et qui^ &c. The 

berofexcellentpreceptsandinstructions for to the farmer to harrow 

the husbandman. In the first place, he ad- before he commit the seei 

vises tlie farmer to let his land rest eyery hard and obstinate, and 

other year ; or, if he cannot do that with (terga) so that it will not 

convenience, then to change the crops, and row, tnen it will be profi 

to sow wheatader the several kinds which he again crosswise. Proseiss 

mentions, but not to sow flax, oats, or pop- ing up his field. Suu 

pies: for these bum and impoverish the makes. 

iand. He says, notwithstanding tliis, they 99. ExeretU &c. He 

may be sown in tum, provided care be taken frequently, and comman^ 

to recruit and enrich the land by manure. is a metaphor taken from 

The poet concludes by observing, that if the or exercising his troops 

rround be lefl fallow, as he at first advised, mands, and dispensing 

nwtead of being sown with any of those them. 

frains, it would not be ungrateful — ^it would 100* Solstitia : ■amm« 


A|i^ncolaB : hybenio loftissiina pulvere faira, 101. Farra j«»i/ lop Is- 

Letus ai»er : nullo lautuin se Mvsiii cultu '^"^ hyberno pulvere : 

Jactat, rl ipda suas inirantur Cjargara messes. ^ 

Quid dicain, jacto qui seuiine coniinus arva ^^\ ^^^ dicara i» 

(nse<iuitur, cuniulosque ruit male pinguis arenae ? 106 ^®» *!"* 

Deinde satis fluvium inducit, rivosque sequentes ? 

Et cujn exustus ager niorientibus a^stuat herbis, 

Rcce, supercilio clivosi tramitis undam 

Ellicit : illa cadens raucum pcr levia murmur 

Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva. \ 10 

Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis, 1 1 !• ^***^ dUam ile 

Luxuriem segetum tener4 depascit in herba, ^^' J"*' "® culraue pio- 

"T • N ^ , * ^ o • 11- cumbat mvidis ariHtis, 

Cum pnmum silcos aequant sata ? quique paludis depaacit 

Collectum humorem bibul^ dcducit arena ? 113. Quique deducit 

Pnesertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115 huraorem collectum in- 

Exit, et obducto late tenet omnia limo, ^^ paludii bibuU areuA 

Unde cavse tepido sudant humore lacunae. 

Nec tamen (hsc cum sint liominumque, boumque labores 

Versando terram experti) niliil improbus anser, 

Strymoniacque gfues, et amaris intuba fibris 120 

Ofliciunt, aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi 121. Colendi ttrtam 


101. Fsrra; in the senM ottegeies. native. This appears to be the opinion of 

102. Mjftia. There were two countries Hcyne. Humoran: in tho sonse of a^uai/i. 
of tfaisname: theonein Europe, andbound- 115. Intertis mensibiu: in tho variable 
ed on tbe north by the Danube ; the otlier months — those raonths when the woathor 
in Aaia Minor, near the Propontis and Hcl- is raost changeablo. 

tebpont. The lattor is here nicant. Mysia \ \Q. Jiec tanun^ iic. Though the fannor 

delighta herself so much in no cultivation, be nevcr so carcful in the culture of his land. 

ss in moist suramers and dry winters — ^no the poet rcminds him not to stop therc. 

cnlture renders her lo fruitful, as to have AAcr tlie crop is put into the ground, it still 

moist, Isc. requires his attuntion. For the foul or 

103. Gargara: nea. plu. A partof raount grcody goose, tlie Thracian cranes, tlie suc- 
Td&,the countrynear which was rauch famed cory, or endive, as also the shade, injuro it. 
tor ita fertility. Thc two nogatives, nee — nihU^ araouut to ar 

104. Quiddieam^ &c. What shall I say of affirmative. 

him, who, the secd being 8Own,cloR0ly plics 120. Strymonia: an adj. frora Strymon. a 

his fields, and breaks down the clods or rivcr in the confines of Maccdouia and 

ridges {eiunulos) of his barren soilf For maie Thrace, where cranos abounded. 

pinguU; Rueus says, male compacta; and 121. Pater ipse voluit : fatlier Jupitcr hini- 

Valpy, ioo rieh and adhesive. Auii: in the self willod that the way of cultivatinf; the 

■ense of frangit. earth should not be easy. He wus fubled to 

106. Sequenies rvoos: in the sense ofjlu- have bcen the son of Satum and Ops; and 

enies rintlos, called the fathcr of godH, and king of nien. 

108. Eeee^elieii aquam^lic. Lo! heleads Satorn, who rcceived the kingdoni of the 

down a stream of water from tho bcow of world from his brother Titan, on the rondi- 

a hillj tract. JEstuat: is parchcd, or bum- tion of bis raising no raale offspring, dcvuur- 

ed. ed his sons as soon as they were burn ; but 

110. Seaiebris: with its strearas, or rills. his niother, regrctting that so fair a child 

T^tmperai : Rnsus says, humeetat. should be destroyed, concsaled hiin frura 

114. Quique dedueit, The probable mean- his fathor, as she also did Ncptune and Pluto, 

ingof thispassage is: thatthe husbandman, and intrusted him to the care of the Cory- 

for tlie purpose of watering his fields in the bantes, or Curetes^ who educated hira on 

dwy season^ should form reservoirs or ponds, mount Ida^ in Crete. As soon as he cauit 

bj jollecting into them the water tliat fell to maturo years, he made war against the 

fai the rainv season. He had already ad- Titans, who had made his father a prisoner. 

vieed the plan of bringin|r water from the He was victorious and set him at liberty» 

higher grounds upon his nelds. But where But growing jealous of his son^s power, ne 

tbat could not be done, headvisesto substi- conspired against hira; whereupon Jupiter 

tnte the reeervoir or pond, as the only alter- expelled him frora his hingdom, andbe flod 



Haud facilcm esse viam voluit, primusqu« 
Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda 
Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veten 
Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni: 
Nec signare quidem, aut partiri limite cai 
Fas erat : in medium quserebant : ipsaqu 
Omnia liberiiis, nullo poscente, ferebat. 
nie malum virus serpentibus addidit atna, 
Praedarique lupos jussit, pontumque mo?i 
Mellaquc decussit foliis, ignemque remo? 
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit : 
Ut varias usus meditando extunderet arta 
Paulatim, et sulcis frumenti quaereret hei 
£t silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignei 
Tunc alnos primum fluvii sens^re cavatai 
Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fec 
138. ^ppeUant etu Pleiadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis A 
leiadafl Tum laqueis captare feras, et fallere visc 

Inventum ; et magnos canibus circumdai 
Atque alius latum fundll jam verberat an 


for tafety to Italy, where Janus was king. found necessary to mi 

Ailer this, Jupiter divided the empire of tlie shook off* the honey from 

world with his two brothers, reserving to him- caused the honey to ceas 

eelf the empire of heaven and eartn. The 133. Ut unu extunderei 

Giants, the offspring of the earth, to avenge by observation, might fin 

the death of the Titans, whom Jupiter slew, arts by degrees. 

rcbelled against him. Piling mountains, one 134. Sulcis: by agriculti 

upon another, they hoped to scale heaven 136. Cavatas alnos: 8 

itself, and attack Jupiter in person. He, cause, at iirsL, they were 

however, completely vanquished them, and troe. 

inflicted on them the severest punishment 138. Plciadat: acc. pli 

for tlieir crimes. He married his sistor Juno. nation. Thev ore seven 

who was very jealous of him, and sometimes of Taurus, and are call 

very troublesome. His power was ihe most Greek vvord signifying, t 

extensive of any of the gods. His worship their rising, they indicaU 

was general, and surpassod tliat of any of to put to sea. They wei 

tho gods in dignity and solemnity. He had Jitlantides^ from Atlas^ a 

several celebrated oraclcs, but that at Do- nia^ whose daughtcrs tl 

tfo7Ui,in Epirus,and atw4mmon,inLybia,per- be, by the nymph Plni 

haps took the lead. He had several names, sometimeB called then 

chiefly derived from the places where he was names were, Ehctra^ Ai 

worshipped, and from his offices and func- rope^ Taygela^ Maia^ and 

tions. Ho was called Hospitalis^ bccanse These are seven stars in ' 

he v#as the protectof of strangers ; Optimus^ so callcd from a Greek ^ 

because he wasthe best; Maximus^ because rain.' They were fabled 

he was the ^eatest; Olympius^ because he daughters of Atlas and 

was worshipped at Olympia, &c. Jupiter, conHolation for the dea 

18 sometimes put for the air, or weather. Hvas^ who was slain by 

123. Movit : in the sense of eoluit, king pity on them, cha 

124. Gravivetemo, Fetemus^orvetemum^ many stars. Their na 
is a di^case causing a stupor both of mind Eudoxa^ Pasithoi^ Ciron 
nnd body, something like the lethargy. and Syche, Arctoru A 
7brpcr<»^rartrc/emo,i8highly metaphorical. the north pole, called tht 
Vetemo: in the sense of otiOy vel desidia^ caon was a king of Arc 
lays RuaE^us. ter Calisto, out of jealoi 

131. Rentovit ignem: heremoved iirefrom ed by Juno into abear; 

the sight of mcn, and concealcd it in tJ)e rcgard to her, trannlated 

vtins of the flint. Prometheus is said to heaven, and made hej 

'tsav? stolen it from heaven, becau<>e it was Arrtnn. 



Alta peteaii pelagoque alius trahit humida Uiui. 
Tum ferri rigor, atque argut» lamiifii aerras ; 
(Nam primi cuneis scindebant fissile lignum) 
Tum variflB ven^re artes. Labor omnia vincit 
Improboa, et duris urgens in rebiis egestas. 

Prima Ceres ferro mortales vertere terram 
Instituit : cum jam glandes atque arbuta sacr» 
Deiicerent sylv8B, et victum Dodona negaret 
Mox et frumentis labor additus ; ut mala culmoa 
Csset rubigOi segnisque borreret in arvis 
Carduus : intereunt segetcs, subit aspera sylva, 
Lappsque, tribulique : interque nitentia culta 
Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur aven». 
Qudd nisi et assiduis terram insectabere rastris, 
Et sonitu terrebis aves, et ruris opaci 
Falce premes umbras, votisque vocaveris imbrem : 
Heu, magnum alterius firustra spectabis acervum, 
Concussique famem in sylvis solabere quercu. 

Dicendum, et quae sint duris agrestibus arma : 
Queis sine, nec potuere seri, nec surgere messes. 
Vomis, et inflexi primum grave robur aratri, 
H Tardaque Eleusinae matris volventia plaustra, 
Tribulaque, trahesque, et iniquo pondere rastri : 
Viigea pneterea Celei vilisque supellex, 
ArtnitesB crates, et mystica vannus lacchi. 


144. "Primi hommg$ 




160 160. Dicendom etl 

162. PrimilUii vomit, eC 


14S. Petena aUa: ■eeking the deep parts 
of the eea, or river. AUum, when it is ueed 
for iho eeaf properly signifiee the channel, 
or the deepeet parl of it ; while pelagiu pro- 
perly signifies that part of the sea near the 

143. Tum rigorferri : then the hardening 
of iron, and the blade of the grating saw, 
were inventcd. 

145. Improlnu labar: constant, peneve- 
Hng labor overcomee »11 difficulties. Du- 
riirebuM: inpoverty. Egestat: inthesense 
of neeeatUoi, Verire : in the sense of m- 

148. Arhuta : the fruit of the arbute tree. 
Dodona : a famous grove in Epirus, abound- 
ing in mast treee. See Ecl. iz. 13. 

150. Labor: in the eense of morbut-, dis- 
eaee. Jtfioid rubigo etsei : that the noxioue 
mildew ihould consume the etalks. Euet^ 
Uh ederei» 

152. Segnu earduut: the u§ele8e thistlo 
wave, or looli rough. Syha, See 76, supra. 

153. Lappm: burrs, a specjos of herb. 
TSrikuti : the bramblee — ^iand-caltrope. /n- 
kH»: nosioiis—injurioue. 

154. Dommantw: bear rule— have the 

157. Prema umbrat: you ehould trim off 
tlie limbe (of the trees) of a ihaded fiel 1, 
teu Umbnu: in the eefiee of ramot^ by 

159. Solabere famem^ Sic The poet ae- 
sures the farmer that, unless he follow the 
directions just given, he will behold the 
abimdant crops of his neighbor, while his 
will fail him, and he be under the necessity 
of allajing the craving of nature upon no- 
thing better than acoms. 

160. Arma : implements, tools, &c. nocee- 
sary to the farmer. Ei: in the sense of 

163. Tarda vohentia: the slow-moving 
wagonsof motherCeres. Elutina: anadj. 
from Eleutity a city of Attica, where . she 
was worshipped. In/lexi : in the sense of 

164. TVibula, This was a kind of slcdge 
or carriage, used among the ancients to thrcsh 
their com with. It was pointed witli iron. 
and drawn over the grain by oxen. Trahca, 
This was an instrument somethlng like tha 
iribulum^ and made use of for the sanie 
purposo ; a sledge. 

164. Iniquo : Runus says, magno. 

165. Vtlit virgeaque tupeUex: the cheap 
or common wicker-Daskets. Celei : Celeus 
was the father of Triptolemus, whom Ccres 
it is said, instructcd in the art of tillage and 
husbandry. See Ecl. v. 79. 

166. Arbutea cralet: hurdles of the ar- 
bute tree. Vannut : a sieve, or winnowing 
machine. It is called mytiiea^ m^stic. be* 
cause used in the mysteries of Bacchus. 
laeehi : laeehut^ a name of Bacchus. 


Omnia quae inult6 ante memor proYisa r<lfi 

Si te digna manet divini gloria ruris. 

169. Contmao in lyl- Continu6 in sylvis magn^ vi flexa domatur 

tU flezaolmus domatur Jn burim, et curvi formam accipit ulmus m 

mapa vi in burim, et jjuj^, ^ 3^^,.^^ p^^^g jg^^ protentus in octo 

^^Tti Huic bwi temo ^^^^ aures, duplici aptantur deDtalia dorai 
protentusaBtirpeinocto Caeditur et tilia ante jugo levis, altaque fi^ 
pedes aptatur ; bine Stivaque, quse currus a tergo torqueat irac 
aares, et dentalia eum Et suspensa focis explorat robora fumus. 
dapUci dorao aptantur. Possum multa tibi veterum prcBcepta refer 

Ni refugis, tenuesque piget cognoscere cm 

178. Cumprimisre6u« Area cum primis ingenti sequanda cylindri 

area est sequanda in- Et vertenda manu, et creta solidanda tenai 

S^^ Ne subeant herbse, neu pulvere victa fatisc 

Tum varise illudunt pestes. Ssepe exiguu 

Sub terris posuitque domos, atque horrea 

Aut oculis capti fodlre cubilia talpsB. 

184. Bufo inventus est Inventusque cavis bufo, et qute plurima tei 

eaviii et plurima mon- jvfQi^ti^ fenmt : populatque ingentem fan 

"^ ^^^ Curculio, atque inopi metuens formica sei 

Contemplator item, cum se nux plurima 8 


167. Omnia qiuB memor : all which things, upon wheels, which ia tb 
being provided long before hand,you8hould poeVs calling it eurrut^ a < 
be mindful to lay upw sayt : quibutdam in regun 

168. Divini rurit. The country is here ttruitur rotit ; but comme 
called divine, either on account of its inno- means agreed as to the fo 
oence and happiness, or becauso it was ori- tion of this plough of the 
ginally the habilation of the gods. Gloria: 175. f\unut explorat. ' 
reward. Ruieus says, laut; for rfmm, he the way here mentioned 1 
Mjrs, 6eolt. to crack or split, than ii 

171. Stirpe: from the back part, or bot- ^^^^1 way, in the sun and 

'T72. Bin^aure,: two mouW or .arth J^;i,^^i%^rpJZ 
boards, one on eaeh «ide of the tano, or »«"' «"""'o <="<=«• ^*"*» 

beun. The poethere menUon. the wveral «'"'f^xT' ^"",^^''1 

-a r *u 1 u mu i • t 181. Tum .* m the sensi 

parts of the plough. The buru^ or bura^ - 0^ rri t ^ *- ^ ? •- 

L *u -A V u *u 1 u u u • 183. Talpa eapti oculu. 

was the part which the plouirhman held in n • 1 ^ j 

hi. left hind-the plongh tail. The dtnlate, IJ^i^Zfa^^^d^ 

the chip, or part of the plough to which the j 

vmner, or share, is fastencd. Dupliei dorso : ^^- ^^f^ • the toad. 

with a double back. Some understand rfu- P^^J 8»gniiies any thin| 

9kx in the sense of latus; but there is no ordinary course of natun 

need of this. The plough, which Uie poet chievous animal, whethe 

ifl describing, is altogether of a singular which is the meaning hen 

kind to us. It had two mould-boards ; two 186. Curchlio : the wea' 

ehips or share-beams we might snpposed it animal among grain. 

to have had, one on each side of the temo^ 187. Contemplator item 

or main beam, which, being joined together, like manner when the nul 

might not improperly be said to form a clothes itself abundantly 

double back. Stiva : the handle, which the the nut-tree, there are sei 

|doughman holds in his right hand. one here nieant is suppo 

173. Et levit tUia. TVia, the linden, or mygdala^ or almond-tree^ 
Ume-tree. It is a light wood, and therefore ers or blossoms were sapj 
more suitable for the plough. dication of the fertility 

174. Qtm torqtieai : which may tum the rima: an adj. sup. a|^ 
lowegt wheels from behind — may tum the This construction frvque 
eztremo or hinder part of the plough. The more elegantly tnoslated 
plou^ here deMiibed we may floppoee nm uig adverb. 


laduet in florem, et ramos curvabit olentes : IM. Eqiiidem vidi 

Bi Buperant faHua, pariter frumenta sequentur, ™"1^" «creniM medi. 

Magnaque cum magno veniet tritura calore. 1 90 ^ ,^^^^^ perfundcre 

At 81 \uzun4 foiiurum exuberat umbra, ea nitro et nigra amur- 

Nequicquam pingues palei teret area culmos. ca, ut 

Seinina ?idi equidem multos medicare sereutes, 1^« Quamvi» »emiTM 

Et nitro pruis et nigri perfundere amurci, PJ»P^«^. 3« f^ 

Grandior ut fcBtus siliquis fallacibus esset. 196 ^ ^^^ ^jj^^ ^^ spoctaU 

Et qiiamvia igni eziguo properata maderent, multo labore, degene- 

Vidi lecta diu^ et multo spectata labore, rare; ni 

Degcnerare tameo ; ni vis humana quotannis 199. Sic yidi omnia 

Miiima quBque manu legeret : sic omnia fatis *^^" '"^'^ i" ^'''^fl ^ 

, . • ^ ^ , . ^, 1 f, ^.v-^ ■ublapsa reicrri retro. 

In pejus ruere, ac retro subiapsa refern. 2UU ^q^ g^ ^^^^ rcmisit 

NoQ aliter quam qui adverso vix fliunine lembum brachia, rui/ et fnblaptiu 

Remigiis subigit : si brachia forte remisit, reftrlur retrh^ atquc al- 

Atque illum in praeceps prono rapit alveus amni. ^®"' '*P*^ iiXMm m pne- 

Pr«terea tam sunt Arcturi sidera nobis, ^''Se^QusS^Tti vcctis 
Hffidorumque dies servandi, et lucidus anguis ; 206 ^^ v^entosa ajquora in 

Quam quibus in patriam ventosa per aequora vectis mam patriam, quibua 

PoQtus et ostriferi &uces tentantur Abydi. Pontus et ostriferi fau- 

Libii £e sonmique pares ubi fecerit horas, ^^^ Abydi 


169. FtUui: in the sense offlore», 198. Humana vis: human care. in the 

IML Magno eaiore, Calor here Beeme to eense of homines» Unicse men sliould ae- 

■MB tlie sweat and heat of the laborer or lect witli the iiand, &c. Ruttus says, homi' 

IkMher, rather tlian the heat of tlie summer. num industria, 

191. At n tanbra: but if the boughs 201. Adverto flumine : against the cur* 

ikoaad in a lojnuiancy of ieavos, in vain, rent 

fcc The meamng seeme to be this: that 203. Atque. Rubus, on the auihority of 

if tke UoeMme upon the tree shall exceed GelUus, Ukcs atque iij the sense of tlutim, 

tht leaTee, then you may expcct a plentiful Davidson and Heyne take it in its usual 

ffop. But if, on llie contrary, the leaves be gignification as a conjunction, suppoBing an 

thi Boet Bameroiis,you may expect a scan- cllipsis of tho words: iiie ruU ac tuhiapsm 

5 crop— a crop rich oniy in husks and refertur retro. And carries him huadlong 

dsC Umbra: in the sense of ramu down tlie stream. jilveut : projierly the 

in. Serentes: part of ihe verb, tero, channel or bcd of a river; here, tho rivcr in 

tiken ae a sabeUntive : Sowers. The poet gencral : the current, or impetut of the wa- 

hsie givee the husbandman to understand tQf. \^y meton 

tf uPl!3* "^K "^u- ^ *^" '" "■ 205. Hadi. ' Two rtan. in the shouldcr of 

fol lo unpregiat. a.em with other quahUe. j^^^Angx,U : a conatellation called Dra- 

toj««Tent 0.ein from degeneratmg; and ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ -^i.rn^i^ that it i» the 

T:^- J3"^. "id rteep them over a ^ ^^ ^,/^ ^,^ ^ 

dMf fiie, m <»der to hurten their eprouUng u,e various «gn, of th. weathcr; and thut 

od eommg forward. And •Ithough care ^ ^j, g « ^ ,^ . ^^ 

bt taken m the eelecUon, thev wiil be found ^ri- u • •« • * *u -^ -;.,«- 

emrthele. to degencraU :^ and all that of liis busmess, as it ui to the marmcr. 

Mame for him to do, is, to select evory 207. Fauces Aitydi, The Hellespont or 

fou with hte own hand the fairest and bost «traits, which separate Europe from Asia: 

«eds; «nd tn thia way oniy he may keep ^a^^ed ostriferi^ becaose abounding in Oy*- 

kM crope from dogenerating to any groat ^ers. Mydut: a city on the Asiaiic shore, 

ntent. Thie advice is worthy the atten- ovcr agamst Sestut. Tentantur: in the 

tioe of every &rmer. «en»® o^ rutoigantur. 

194. Petfhtndere: this may either mean 208. Die: for Diei, The «en. of the 
le sprinklo them (jcmtna) over with^ or put fiflh declension was sometimee thus written. 
tkw mto. Rn«oa says, tpargere. Somni^ is elc^antly put for noctit. Uin iA,- 

195. FaDaeibu». The pods or cars are brafecerit. Lt^ra is one of the signs of the 
aiBed fallacious, becanse they are some- zodiac, which the sun enters the 23d of 
tJoHa large, wlien there js very little in September; at whicli time he is on the equa- 
\%mL fWi».* the grain or prodoce. tor, and makes the dayt and mvSVa ^uhV. 


Et medium luci atque umbris jam dividit € 
Exercete, viri, tauros, serite hordea campi 
Usque sub extremum brumse iutractabilis i 
Necnon et lini segetem et Cereale papayei 
tlS.Tempuie«<tegere.Tempus humo tegere, et jamdudum incus 
ct eegetem lim ei Ce- d^^ gjccSL tellure licet, dum nubila pendei 

"awf^I^um Ik^t* Hbi ^®^ ^^^^ ^^^ ' *"™ ^® quoque, Medica, 
fiicere id^ tellure siccA, Accipiunt sulci ; et milio venit annua cun 
et dum Candidus auratis aperit cum comibus ann^ 

215. Satio fabis eti in Taurus, et averso cedcns canis occidit ast 
▼ere: tum ^^ gj triticeam in messem robustaque fiinn 

Exercebis humum, solisque instabis aristui 
Ante tibi £o8e Atlantides abscondantur, 
Gnossiaque ardentis decedat stella coronae 
Debita quam sulcis committas semina, qui 
Invitse properes anni spem credere terrae. 
SS5. Muiti ccBpere «e- Multi ante occasum Maiae coep^re : sed il 
**»* •Jite Expectata seges vanis elusit aristis. 

Si ver6 viciamque seres, vilemque faselun 


211. Brunw: properly the shortest daj month of March : but Vii 
jf winter, or the winter Bolstlce : this is its the received opinion, and i 
meaning here. Bj synec. it is bometimes ms, or tho month of Apri] 
put for the whole winter. The meaning is, etymology of the word ii 
that the farmer may extend his sowing as seems to be released fi-om 1 
late as the winter solstice, which is about ter, and vegetation opens 
the 21 st of December. Intractalnlit : in the CaniM cedtns^ &c. The d< 
tense of dura^ vel atperm, the retrograde sign, sets. 

212. Cereale: an adj. from Ceres, The called the dog star) isa stf 
poppj was 80 called, most probablj, because the great dog^ a constell] 
it was consecrated to her. Her statues vens. Averso Aslro, As 
were generally adomed with it. Ifecnon: constellation or sign Arg 
in the sense of quoque, ately follows the dog, an 

213. Jncumbere rastrit: to ply the har- It rises with its stem forei 
rows. The poet is speaking of sowing, or manner goes through the 
committing to the earth the several crops : to the ordinary motion of 
which could not be done tiU afler the thet averso^ inverted, or 
ploughing. Besides it rfequires dry weather very proper. 

to uso the harrow: to which reference is 221. Eoa. Atlantides, ' 

made in the following line. But the plough 'iades ; that is, when they 

may be used in wet weather. Heyni reads ing, or go bclow the horL 

aratris. But he informs us that Heinsius, sing of the sun. This is ( 

Pierius, and others read rastris^ which the cal setting. See 138. sup 

sense seems to reqnire. 222. Corona^ The Cor 

214. Pendeni : in the sense of suspensa tion in the heavens called 
mnt. Onossia: an adj. from G 

215. Mediea, Aspeciesofgrass, orplant, the island of Crete^ whei 
brought into Greece by the Medes in the whose daughter Ariadne } 
time of the Persian wars. Honce called Theseus, and Ief\ in the isl 
medica^ now lueeme, It made the best pro- she married Baechus, At 
vender for cattle, and when sown, it is said nuptiols, among the othei 
to last in the ground thirty years. ceived from the gods, i 

216. MUio, The milium was a species of crown from Vtnus; whic 
grass, or plant, which required to be sown lated to the heavens. 
every year. Hence annua eura, Now call- sense of splendentis, 

•d millet, 225. Maiat, The name • 

218. Cum eandidus Taurus, Taurus is a ades^ by synec. put for thi 

fign of the ecliptic. The sun enters it about 227. Viciam, The vic 

the 21 st of April. The year was commonly pulse called the vetch. f 

thought to be opened by ArieSf or the lus was a kind of pul 

GEOllGICA. LIB. 1. 71 

Nee Pelosiace curam aspeniabere lentis ; 
Haud obsctira cadens mittet tibi signa Bootes : 

Incipe, et ad medias sementem extende pruinas. 230 ^| Idcirco aumis 

Idcirco certis dimensum partibus orbem Sol regit orbcm diniefi- 

F«r duodena regit mundi Sol aureus astra. sum certis partibus pcir 

Qliiique tenent coelum zons : quarum una corusco duodena asim muudi. 

Semper Sole rubenl, et tornda semper ab igni : J^' Quarum un^ zoua 

Qnam circikin extrems dextri laevaque trahuntur, 236 235.CircriniquamrfMa 

Cflerulel glacie concretse atquc imbribus atris. oztreme zona: irahuntur 

Has inter mediamque, duae mortalibus aegris dextraliev&(iue,coucretae 

Munere concesssB Divi^m, et via secta per ambas, ^*'- ^"^®'" ^**® ^^^^ 

OWiquus qua se sicnorum verteret ordo. mediamque zoruim du« 

Mundus ut ad Scythiam Kiphaeasque arduus arces 240 ^^,^^^^,1,^ muuire bi- 

Consurgit ; premitur Libyte devexus in Austros. vdm; et via secta e«/ per 

Hic vertex nobis semper sublimis ; at illum ambas, qu& 

Sub ped\bus Styx atra videt, Manesque profundi. 244. Ifjc {ad tubhinem 

Uiximus iuc flexu sinuoso elabitur anguis Pfr"^ Maxmms anguis 

rc ^ ,. a ' ' A . r».,- clabitur circum poium 

i/Utum, perque duas m morem flumims Arctos : 245 ginuoso flexu eximdens 

Arctos, Oceani metuentes aequore tingi. que 


ckMp, which b the meaning of vilit^ in 235. TVahttntur: are eztended — strctched 

Ikit pUce. out. 

t&.Lmiis. The^em wasakind ofpulse, 239. Obliquut ordo: the ccliptic. It is 

vUeh aboonded in Egypt, and particularly callcd obliquut^ because it makcs an angle 

UPehuium^ a town situated near the east- with the equator. The quantity of the angie 

•n Bouth of the NLle. Hence the adj. Pe- is 23^ 28 '. 

fcwsia. 240. Sci/thiam : a vast country lying to- 

89. Booies eadent: the Bootes setting ward the arctic circle. Sce Ecl. i. 66. Ri- 

vil fire, &C. Bootet^ a star in the constel- phaas arces : the Riphasan niountains. An 

btkm of the same name, near the north cztenRive range stretching along Uic north 

peli. It sete acronically, or with the sun, of Europe, andcovered with pcrpetualsnow. 

ilMt thebeginningof November; and cos- Ut: as. Inauttros: simply,to tho south. 

■ietlly, or at the time of his rising, about 242. Hic rertex, The poieH arc two ima- 

tlw beginning of March. The former is ginary points in thc heavens directly in a 

htn meant. Mittet : in the sense of dabit. line with tho axis of the earth. On the 

232. Duodena attra. Astronomers divide equator these points are in the hori7.on. Tn 

tbeecliptic, or the circle in which the sun all places on the norlh of the equator, the 

tppean to move, into 12 equal parts, called nortli pole is visible ; while tlie south pole 

i^pis^ and each of these signs into 30 equal will be depressed below the horizon. lUum : 

Cealled derrees. A space 8 degrees in the south pole. 

Ih on each tide of this circle is called 244. Maximut angitit. The dragon, 

Ihe lodiac, because it contains tlie 12 con- {Draco^) the keeper of the ^arden of the 

~itionA» which take the names of certain Hesperides, af\er he was killed by Hercu- 

iils: mm Jiriet^ 7\iurut^ Slc Italsocon- Ics, was translated to heavrm, and made a 

the orbits of the planeta. constellation near the north pole. With his 

i33. Huinqtte Mona, Geographers divide tail he touches Urta major^ and with tlie 

Ikiiariaoe of the earth into five grand por- flexure of his body embraces Ur^a minor: 

cailed zones : one of which they de- the greater and lesser bears : here called 

the torrid or buming ; two the ^rctot. This will be seen by looking upon 

irmie; and two the frozen zones. The a celestial globe. 

ISRid je that portion of the oarth^s surface 246. Arciot metuentet : fearing to be 

mdmimd hetween the tropice of Cancer and touched in the waters of the ocean. The 

Cipcieom. In every part of which the sun elevation of the pole at any given place is 

iinrtacal twice in every year. The ancionts always equal to the latitude of tJiat place. 

wHipueuii it to be oninhabitable on account ConRequently all those stara that are ncar- 

if ils graat hmnU Thoee parta of the earth^s er the pole than the distance any plar.e is 

■Btftee thal lie between the two tropics and from the equator in degrecs, will not set be- 

99kr ctrelM, are denomiuated the tempe- low the horizon at that place, but continue 

tttesonee. The two firozen zones embrace to revolve about the pole. This is the case 

fhen fmrim Wtween the polar circles and the with the two constellations htie mewUoii»^ 

in the httitude of Italy. 


t47. nOo, {adaxutra- IHic, ut perhibent, aut intempesta silet no 
joii^ofum) ut perhibent gemper, et obtenti densantur nocte tenel 
AoMtiiet, aut ^^^ rodAi a nobis Aurora, diemque reduc 

Nosque ubi primus equis oriens afflavit ai 
Illic sera rubens accendit luniina Vesper* 
Ilinc tempestates dubio prsedicere ccelo 
Possumus ; hinc messisque diem, tempu» 
Et quando infidum remis impellere marm 
Conveniat ; quando armatas deducere cla 
Aut tempestivam sylvis evertere pinum. 

Nec frustra signorum obitus speculamu 
Temporibusque parem diversis quatuor a: 
859. Si quando fiigi- Frigidus agricolam si quando continet im 
dns imber continet agri- Multa, forent quoB mox ca»lo properanda 

eoUm domU hme tenwm Maturare datur : durum procudit arator 
datur raaturare multa, ,r • i. • j ^ * i_ r 

quB mox forent prope- Vomens obtusi dentem ; cavat arbore hn 

nnda, ccbIo sereno : Aut pecori signum, aut numeros impressi 

Exacuunt ahi vallos, furcasque bicomes, 

Atque Amerina parant lentae retinacula v 

Nunc facihs rubca texatur fiscina virg^ : 

Nunc torrete igni fruges, nunc frangite sf 

Quippe etiam festis quaBdam exercere die 

Fas et Jura sinunt : rivos deducere nulla 

Religio vetuit, segeti prstendere sepem, 

Insidias avibus mohri, incendere vepres, 

Balantiimque gregem fluvio mersare salul 


848. Deruantur : is thickened — rendercd dug out of the solid bodj 

ftUl more dark, night being eztended, or — bowls^&c 

lengthened out. At the polcs there are six 263. Signum : in the sei! 

monthfl day, and six months night, alter- vis, Acervus is a heap or 

natcly. — a heap of grain. Her 

249. Aurora : Aurora retums to them, taken for the sacks or ba 
fit>m us. She wos goddess of the moming, the grain. 

the daughter of Titan and Ttrra. She fell 265. Amerina rttinaeu* 

in lovc with TUfumus^ the son of Laome- to fasten the kmber vin 

don, king of Troj, bj whom she had Mem- adj. from wfmmo, a tov 

noTLt who came to assist Priam against the spacious countrj in Ita 

Greeks, and was slain bj AchiUes. She abounded. 

obtained forher lover immortahty ; butfor- 266. Rubeavirgd: with 

got, at the same time, to aak for perpetual er twig. Rubea .* an a<i 

youth and beautj. At last he grew old Rubi^ a town of Campani 

and infirm ; and requested her to remove vifga^ or wicker abounded 

him from the world ; but as that could not derstands it in this senM 

be done, she is said to have changed him for so doing, he observM 

into a grasshopper: which, aa oflen as it rubus^ the bramble, is : 

grows old, renews its age. Bj meton. ele- Heyne is qf the same opiz 

gantlj put for the moming. 267. Torrete : diy. Fr% 

250. Ortens: in the sense of SoL 269. Fas et Jura tim 

255. Dedueere : to launch the armed fleets. There is a difference of sigi 
Marmor : in the sense of mare. fat and jus, The formei 

256. Ten^estivam: seasonable— denoting law, or what may be do» 
the time proper for cutting the pine. £ver- to be done, by the laws d 
tere: in the sense of eadere, ter a natural right— or i 

261. Maturare: to do in season^-or, at reason— common law. 1 
leisure. drain the water frora his fl 

262. Dentem : the edge of his dull or 272. BalantiUn : gen. pla 
blunt ahare. Lintres, These were veasels of balo, here used as a au 

9 GEORGIOA. UB. 1. )S 

Sspe oleo tardi cosolb aghator aselli, 
TiSibus aut onerat pomis : lapidemque revertens ^4. H^yerimiMdamum 

bcusum, aut atr» massam picis, urbe reportat. 276 ** ^^ reporut 

Ipsa dies alios alio dedit ordine Luna p ... -^ 

Pdices operum. Quintam fuge : paUidus Orcus, ^^^ '^^^ Eum^ideMnt 

Euroenidesque satie : tum partu Terra nefando eats tunU iUo diu 

Cteumque^ tfapetumque creat, ssevumque Typhcea, 

Et eonjuratos coelum rescindere fratres. 280 

Ter sunt conati imponere Peiio Ossam 

fleificet, atque Ossae frondosum involvcre Olympum : 

Ter Pater extructos disjecit fiiUnine montes. 

Septima post dccimam felix, et ponere vitem, 2ft4. Scptimac/teipoei 

Et prensos domitare boves, et licia tei» 285 decimam tit fcUz, et po • 

Addere : nona fugje meiior, contraria furtis. ^®''®^ v 

Multa aded geUda melius se nocte ded^re : lior fug® "Irf ' "' ™" 

Aut ciim Sole novo terras irrorat Eoiis. ' 

Nocte leves stipula; meUus, nocte arida prata 

Toodentur : noctes lentus non deUcit humor. 290 

El quidam seros hyberni ad luTniiiis ignes 

PerrigilaU ferro^fQe faces inspicat acuto. 

litterea longum cantu solata iaborem 

Aiguto conjux percurrit pectine telas : 294. Conjux eolata 

Anl dukis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem, 296 loig^m laborem cania 

fc foUis undam tepidi dcspumat aheni. percumt 


174. Lapidem ineutum: a furrowed or 281. Pelio. The mountains here men- 

M ^ gntt d •tone, for thc purpose of grinding tioned were yery high mountains in Thee- 

Mi; tomething Uke oor mill-stone. saly, near the Siniu Thtrmaieus, The lat- 

S76. Jlii^s dies : otherdayi. ^lio ordine: ter is sometimes takcn for heaven. 

h t diflercnt order irom those above men- 286. Fitga: in the sense of t7mm ; and 

tiMed. The ancienUi ■uperetitiously thought eontraria^ in the sense of adcersa^ vel si 

•■M days of the month to be lucky, and nisira. 

rtkcn onlueky. 288. Eoiis : tbe moming star ; by mcton. 

27t. Eumenides: thofuriee. They were the moming. J^otfo tole: in the sense of 

■id to have eprung fVom the blood of a die ineiptente^ vel oriente. 

Mnd, which Coelue received from his 289. Stipula : in the scnse of aritttr^ sayt 

Ivetlier Satum. Some say they were the Rusus. Mowing in gcneral is best eflTected 

iu|iiien of Acheron and Noz, or of Pluto when the dew is upon the grass. 

nd Prow e rpine. Tkey were threc in num- 292. Inspicat : he forms nintcho» with a 

Wr: Disiphone^ Megtrra^ and Alecto, They sharp knife. Any instrument made of irov 

*«• nppoeed to be tho ministers of ven- may be called ferrum. 

pmte to tbe gods and to be constantly ^5. Decoquit : sheboilsaway the liqnor 

Miploywl in punishing tKe wicked in hell. of sweet must, and skims, Jcc. jMushim is 

Hijjr were •ometimes called Furia and sweet or new made wine. Thc juice of 

£r«Mi^e«. Tliey were worshipped ; butthe the grape, when boiled down one third part, 

pe^le dared not to mention their names, or formed what was callcd sapa^ aiid when onf 

MCi to fiz their eyes upon their temple. half, it formed the defrutum. Vvlran^is 

Hht were repreeented holding a buming was the son of Jupiter and Juno. ()n ao> 

tarck m one hand, and a whip of ecorpiens count of his deformity, hc wa8 cnst down 

■ tht other hand. from heaven upon the island of 1 .emnoe. 

TtK. Crtai : in tho senae of edidii^ vel whon* hc taught the inhabitant^ the smitb 

fndagii. trado, and married Venus. The Cyclopa 

fT9. CKim^ue, fic Thete are the names were his workmen and assiMtanta. ife wat 

flf three giants, who attempted to scale hea- the god of fire ; hence Fulcanus^ by nieton. 

v« tad detlut>ne the gods. They were the of\cn is put for fire itseif, aH in the presenl 

Mwof Titan andTerra. Thooe here named instanco. fJe «^as somctimes ealled Jiutei' 

■■ethe principal ones. Conjuratos fratres. ber^ l^ipotcns^ and Pandamntor. 

Thaw ibduded the whole n^atemity, that 29C. Undam. Hy this \ve aro to untlet- 

Mi «Df «f ed iD the «nterprise. stand the liquor in the hoi\mt[ W«\.W«. Terit 


At nibicunda Ccrcs medio succiditur ( 
Et medio tostas sstu terit area firuges. 
Nudus ara, sere nudus : hyems ignava cc 
Frigoribus parto agricoiae plerumque firui 
Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant : 
Invitat genialis hyems, curasque resolvit 
Ceu pressse cum jam portum tetig^re ca 
Puppibus et Iseti nautse imposu^re corona 
Sed tamen et quemas glandes tum string 
Et lauri baccas, oleamque, cnientaque iri 
9U7. Tunc lemptu t»t Tunc gruibus pedicas, et retia ponere ce 
fU0tgu€ ponere Auritosque sequi lepores ; tum figere da 

3(W. Tum tMt tempm st^pea torquentem Balearis verbera fim^ 
vtnatorem figere damas ^^^ - ^: - ^ y > y a - 

torquentem stupea ver- ^^^ ^ ^^^ J^^®^' glaciem cum flummi 
bera Balearis fundso, Quid tempestates autumni et sidera di 
tdm Atque, ubi jam breviorque dies, et molli' 

Qu8B vigilanda viris ? vel cum ruit imbri£ 

Spicea jam campis cum messis inhorruit, 

Frumenta in viridi stipula lactentia turge 

Ssepe ego, cum flavis messorem induceric 

Agricola, et fragih jam stringeret hordei 

S18. Ego Bspe vidi Omnia ventorum concurrere prselia vidi, 

oamia prasfia ventorum Quse gravidam late segetem ab radicibu 

oonciirrere,quBeruerent Sublime expulsam eruerent; ita turbine 

Ferret hyems culmumque levem, stipula 
Scepe etiam immensum coelo venit agme 


threshes, or beats out. Fruges tostas: the 315, Laetmiia : milky 

dry, or ripe grain. 318. Omniapralia veni 

297. Medio astu : in the middle of the ers of the winds in fier 

day. Ccres : for teges^ the grain, or harvest. Ruibus says : pitgnas 

Rubicunda : in the sense oTJlava, miseeri. This compariM 

209. J^udus ava^ &c. Thc poet^s meaning the wind, and of growii 

here is,tliat the farmershould be industrious, has becn oensured by so 

and tum the summer to the best account ; passage is probably to b( 

for the winter is a season of rest and festi- presenting the growing 

vity, when he may enjoy the firuitof liis la- the tempest, and whiriec 

bors. easily as light straw it 

300. Farto * what he had gotten during whirlwind. Martyn, H 
the summer. Rebus per otstatem comparatis^ concur, says Valpy, Ln t] 
•ays Ruieus. 320. Expulsam : in th 

301. Curani: in the sense o£ parant. tam. J^igro turbine: in 

304. Ceu presstBcarina: may either mean a whirlwind brii^ng v 
laden ships, or weather-beaten ships. Ca- darkncss, and imbruing 
rina is proporly the keel ; by synec the in the sense of tempeslat 
whole ship. 322. Immensum agmet 

305. Stringere : in the sense of eoUigere. surpass, in grandeur and 
309. Balearis fundct : the Balerian sling. scription which we here 

The islandfl Majorca, Minorca, and Uvica, storm, of its rise, and ei 

on tli3 coast of Spain, were called by the band or army of vapor 

ancients Bal^rides ; the inhabitants of heavens ; the clouds, u 

which were famous for the use of the sling. with vapor, collect toge 

Stupea verbera : the hempen strings. and, forming themsel 

312. jEstas : in the sense of calor^ vel wreaths, brew a deep am 

mstus. The verb «/ is to be supplied. Fi- They then burst, and di 

riianda : euranda^ vei providenda^ says luge of water, that the i 

Hejrne. F^tris : for agricolu. dissolved, and pouring u 

913. Ruii : hastons to a close. Rueus floods sweep away the 

saya dMnif, aad ServivB, prmc^^itaiur» the labors cf man and 

6EOR61GA. LBB. L 9S 

m gloinenuit tempestatem imbrlbus atris 
e ez alto nubes : ruit arduus aether, 
li ingenti sata laeta, boumque labores 3S5 

implentur fossae, et cava flumina crescunt 
nitiLi fenretque fretis spirantibus aequor. 
ter, medii nimborum in nocte, coru8C& 
i molitur dextri . quo maxima motu 
remit : fug^re ferse, et mortalia corda SSO 

ites humilis stravit pavor : ille flagranti 
bo, a|it Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo 
: ingeminant Austri, et densissimus imber : 
emora ingenti vento, nunc litora plangimt. 
metuens, coeli menses et sidera serva : 536 

Saturoi sese qud stella receptet : 
rnis coeli Cyllenius erret in orbes. 
is venerare Deos, atque annua magnfls 
efer Cereri, laetis operatus in herbis, 
;s sub casum hjemis, jam vere sereno. «540 

gni pinguea, et tunc moilissima vina ,: 341 Tunc agni $umi 

omni dulced, densseque in montibus umbrfls. 
tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret : 
lacte fevos, et miti dilue Baccho, 


i ; the winding riveTS swell, and the from the circomstance of its gretLi distmnc« 

I in itfl foaraing (Htha. from the sun, and the nnall degree of heat 

^re/u. FreHtm is properly a strait, it recoives from him. On the other hand« 

»f the eea. Hpirant^ ae here used, the planet Mercury ia called ligniM^ on ao- 

ful and ezpreaaive. The figure ia count of ita neamesato the 8un, and the d^- 

om water boiling, which seems to gree of heat it probablj receivcs from him. 

{spirare) hy emitting a steam or Cyllenim. A name of the god Mercury. 

Da is all in commotion. He was the Bon of Jupiter and Maia, the 

\ioiilur: in the aenae of vibrat^ vel god of eloquence, and messenger of thn 

\ttiO motu. Bj this we are to under- gods. He had a winged cap called Petastu, 

obablj the act of vibrating or hurU and winged feet called T\Uaria. The in- 

thunder-bolt — the thtmdcr itself. vention of the Ijre, and its seven strings, la 

• ancients suppoaed to be the bolt, attributed to him ; which he gavc to Apollo, 

liing more than the lightning — the and received in retum the celebrated Ca* 

natter, passing from one cloud, or dueeut^ which was a rod or wand encircled 

be atoosphere, to another, that was with serpents, and said to possess cxtraor* 

Ij electrified, and thus became vi- dinarj virtues and qualities. It was his 

• business to conduct the marut of the dead 

"^trtt fugtrt: the wild beasts have to the infemal regions. He presided over 

bere is a peculiar force in the use of orators, merchants, and thieves. The wor- 

Bct tense here. The beasts of the ship of Mercurj was established in Greece, 

LT, and thej are gone, and are out Egjpt, and Italj. He was called Cylleniut^ 

in a moment, seeking their wonted from a mountain in Arcadia of that name, 

where he is said to have been bom ; CadueeO' 

9iho: a Greek acc. A mountain tor^TVifilex^DelitUyk,e, AccordingtoCicero, 

lonia, which overlooked the iEgean there were four others to whom thc name 

iodopen. A mountain, or rather of Mercurj was given. Of these, waa a 

mountains in Thrace. Ceraunia : famous philosopher of Egjpt, whom thej 

neu. mountains in Epirus. Thej cailed Hermet JVitmigitttu. CjfUeniutigmt: 

ealled irom a Greek word signifj- the planet Mercuiy. 

^'•^rto^r """' '"''"^ '''" , ^\ ^-'•- - ^« -- o^ --'• ^ 

imber^ntitrimut. Ru»us sajs: *"' P'''^^^- 

4 e^ioeittima, 344. Cui tu dilue fatot: fbr whom d 

hti/rigida tiella: to what part of thou mingle honej with milk and swett 

Jie cold star of Satura betakes it- wine. Favot : the comb ; bj metoBu ^Um 

itnm im called cold most probablj honej contained in it. 


Terque novas circdm felix eat hostta fii 

346. Ctaam hoftiam Omnis quam chorus et socii comitentur £| Cererem clamore vocent in tecta: i 

Falcem maturis quisquam supponat arif 

Quam Cereri, torti redimitus tempora • 

Det motus incompositos^ et carmina dk 

Atque hcec ut certis possimus disceii 

iEtusque, pluviasque, et agentes frigon 

Ipse pater statuit, quid menstrua Luna 

Quo signo caderent Austri, quid saspe i 

AgricoliB propius stabuhs armenta tene 

Continud, ventis surgentibus, aut freta | 

Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus m 

Montibus audiri fragor ; aut resonantia 

Litora misceri, et nemorum increbreaa 

Jam sibi tum curvis male temperat und 

Cum medio celeres revolant ex SBquore 

Clamoremque ferunt ad litora, cumque 

36S. Stoc» lii»rt In sicco ludunt fulice ; notasque palud 

364. AitSoAquo deflerit Deserit, atque altam supra volat ardea 

•otM paludee, atque vo- Ssepe etiam stellas, vento imp^idente, 

lal Mpra altam nubem. prajeipites ccelo labi ; noctisque per ui 

Flammarum longos a tergo albescere t 
Siepe leveni paleam et frondes volitare 
Aut summ^ nantes in aqul coUudere p 
At Bore« de parte trucis cum fulminal 
Eurique Zephyrique tonat domus ; om 
Rura natant fossis ; atque omnis naviti 


345. FtUx hottia. The poet here alludee 360. Jam tum umdm 
lo the imerijieium mmhtrvaie^ eo cailed, be- the waves ecarcelr rest 
oauae the rictim was led three times around (swallowing up) the bi 
the field; mh am^re «mi. in the eense of dijffieili 

346. Omuut chmru» et ameii: the same as 361. Mer^: a spo( 
mmmi» ehorut wiemai. nendlj taken to be tlio 

349. Hedtmutu» temkpmrm : booiid as to his verS si^o. 
lemplee with a wreath of oak. The poet 363. Fuhem : a spee 

ffijoin» upi^n the fknmex to make two o0er> Hke the commoii dack; 
Hifs to Cr<Yi: the first of honej and wine, 364. mirdia: a biid 

at the be|i[inmn|r of spraif : dUue farmt^ ^. and soarinr high. F 

The othex of a Tictim at the beginniii^of stanrecal!ed«f)tf«a«f«ii 
harrwt : ter ffftr hmthms kic, 3dS. Smpe ridfhit ji 

33tV inf^tmi^^ftft mmtut: the irrefrular or or\cn 9ee stars. &c. 

UMMethodicAl dance: sucii as ts penormed confonnitr to the tqI 

br mtio». Cfrert: iiempo« oi A eii s r r ai Ce^ moxe^ fr»m its statian. 

nnis. to « hioh the poet aH* 

^l. Hme' ncmpe^ • jfm yiw ^ mhtrijit^me. nxixirr — mete^>rsw Thi 

SSS. .Vc^tr^: in the se»ae ot it^ifmrrS, to cart acm» the be«i 

SM« ^i^TM' * ia the M«se of mitcto. dxrincsiv of ihe m|:ht, 

^«•d wtkdtettam rstH w>mti iMr mstt-^. «ars thcrn x tr&in ^^/-crfH 

H<eT«o. «lii.Am .- hecY p«t fir any boistnv lm>*^r^t : tlueAtci 

OM wiad: thc mne» for the fmw<. haad. 

5S*k fVft?* y^"i: funp^T. Jw pcmtriK rtl :>Tl. Drmut Evrifm 

• •»** ^ F-v-*ui». swper;T a ^traiu or uirrow t^ hr^rca» fhoatn wluf 

l^ ssa. :. -• >v: rxl'.* ticcr 

iSS. ^i-jdt^ *i£r»*": a ^irr cr».-k:r.jf T::f -pa .^-*rk<isi x$ hi 

«8K'' a» » msoe aai>i^r «irr uryt» t>.-f r^.-^*. rsc^Udcss t vcfe 


a Tela legit. Nunquam impnidentibua imber 

Aut illum surgentem vallibus imis 
fug^re grues ; aut bucula coelum 376 

ien&, patulis captavit naribus auras . 376. Saipiciomiiidefli. 

guta kcus circumvolitavit hirundo : ^""^ 

srem in limo rans cecin^re querelam. 
s et tectis penetralibus extulit ova 
tum formica terens iter ; et bibit ingens 380 

; et e pastu decedens agmine magno 
ruro increpuit densis exercitus alis. 

arias pelagi volucrel, et quie Asia circdm 383. Jam videu va- 

lus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri, nas volucres pelagi, et 

im lareos humeris infundere rores ; 385 ««iq««riinanturcircum 

c.put objectare ftet», nunc currej« in und-, tZ^%s^,^^^ 

dio incassum videas gestire lavandi. inftndere largoe rorai 

;omix pleni pluviam vocat improba voce, humeris 

1 in sicc4 secum spatiatur arenl. 
octuma quidem carpentes pensa puellae 390 

ere hyemem : test^ cum ardente viderent 
lare oleum, et putres concrescere fungos. 

minus ex imbri soles, et aperta serena imh^^ tl*^ minue ex 

cere, et certis poteris cognoscere signis. ^ ^^ ^ifl!'!^^ 

leque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur, 395 oeremciof ■olefl,etapeil« 

atris radtis obnoxia surgere Luna : el serena ctUa. 


Imprttdentilnuy &c. Never hath a 385. Infundere largos : to throw eagerlj 

hnrt any person unforwamed : that much water upon their backs. JRoret .* in 

Dwer always givee auch certain signs the sense of aqtutm, 

ipproach, that any who will attend 387. Studio Utvandi : through a derire of 

n, may aToid receivin^ injury from washing thenuelves in vain. IneaMtvm may 

ijDe ioforms ua, that the Medicean, be understood in three Bensefl. 1. Becauae 

iieothorcopiee,read|rrtM^/t^iM; he, nothing can add to the whitenees of the 

T, prefen the umial reading, impru' swan, Uie fowl here epoken of. 2. Becauee 

■». PrudentHm» is the easier. they need take no pains to waah themnelvee, 

lUum gvrgeniem^ &c. Thia sentence for the impending rain will do it withont 

ble of two constructions : 1. The thcir iabor. 3. Because, according to Ser- 

may flee the shower, rising out of tiie vius, water will not wet their feathers. 

; which is the seiise Ruobus gives. 2. 390. Carpentes : carding their nightly 

M& takes it to mean that the cranes tasks of wool. 

lo the valleyai to avoid the rising 392. Fungot: the dots or spungy suh 

This is aiso the opinion of Valpy. stanoe that gathers round the wick of the 

El rmna: eeeinere^ iic This alludes lamp or candle. SeintiUart : to sputter Of 

&ble of the transformation of the snap in the buming shell. 

• into frogs fbr reproaching Latona^ 393. J^ec minus, Having mentioned the 
'h hmrd treatment, when thny croak, signs of a storm, the poet now enumersies 

• Midtocomplain. See Ovid. Mot. those of fair weathor. He makes them in 

number nine. Ex imbri: aftor a shower. 

fmf^ens areu$ : the spacious bow hath SoUs: days. 

alluding to a vulgar notion that the 395. ^eies steUis : Ruaeus says, lux steUw 

r dnuik the water that supplied tiie rum, Videtur: in the sense of apparei. 

396. Ltma s%trgere obnoxia : nor will the 

jSsim : an adj. from ^sius^a. lake and moon seem to nse beholden (or indebted) to 

etween the river Caystrus and the the beams of her brother. The moon will 

Uk Tmolus^ 'm the coiidfines of Lydia rise so clear and bright that she will seem 

ryfia Major. Caifstrus falls into the to shine by her own inherent light, and not 

eea, aot far from the once famous by reflecting the rays of the sun. Sol and 

Ephemis. On its banks the swan Luna in heaven, the samo as Apollo and 

id. HMMMlnr; iii the sense of /re- Diana on earth, were said to have been ikm 

im children of Latona. 8«a llc\. W. \(^ 


Tenuia nec lana; per coelum vellera feni 
Non tepidum ad solem pennas in litore p 
Dilectae Thetidi Halcyones : non ore sol 
Immundi meminere sues jactare manipk 

401. Ima loea At nebulas magis ima petunt, campoque 

Solis et occasum servans de culmine sun 
Nequicquam seros exercet noctua cantui 
Apparet liquido sublimis in aere Nisus, 
£t pro purpureo pcenas dat Scylla capill^ 
Quicunque illa levem fiigiens secat sthe 
Ecce inimicus, atrox, magno stridore pe 
Insequitur Nisus : qua se fert Nisus ad ai 
Illa levem fugiens raptim secat aethera pc 

410. Tam corvi ter Tum liquidas corvi presso ter gutture vo 
aut quatar ingemmant ^ .^j quater ingeminant : et B«pe cubilibu 

"412."^«^, ncmcio qnA ^^^^ qui prffiter solitum dulcedine l«ti 

dnlcedine, praeter Boli- Inter se folus strepitant : juvat imbnbus 

tam morem strepitant Progeniem parvam, dulcesque revisere n 

415. Haud equidem Haud equidem credo, quia sit divinitus il 

eredo hoe fieri t/a, quia Ingenium, aut rerum fato prudentia majc 

Venim, ubi tempestas et cceli raobiiis hui 
419. Deneat ea, qun M utavere vias : et Jupiter humidus Austi 

i^fig^ Vertuntur species animorum, et pectora 

421. Concipiunt nunc Nunc alios, alios, dum nubila ventus age 


397. Tenma vellera : thin white clouds, for the purple lock. Dare- 

like fleeces of wool. — iolvere pfBnas^yelsupplu 

399. Halcyones, Cejrz, king of TVaehi- ed. These are phrases. 
ntA, going to consult the orade of ApoUo at i^ffieere potnA vel aupplid 
Chtrusy was shipwrecked in the ^gean sea. — petere pcmas^ vcl suppli 
His wife, Ualcyone^ seeing his dcad body 4 10. Presso guittre : y 
floating near the shore, flung herself upon compressed. This wouJd 
it in a transport of her passion. Thelis^ more clear and shrill. 
out of compassion to the lovers, transform- 416. Ingenium : discen 
ed them into the birds called king-fishers : capaoity. Major pruder 
hence dilectee Thetidi, It is said the sea is greater knowledge or fores 
calm a certain number of days about the and order of things^ than 
winter solstice, that they may more conve* passago, as it is commc 
niently bring forch their young. Hence unintelligible. To take /^ 
those days were sometimes called Haleyon governed by major^ Dr. T 
days. complete nonsense ; and "^ 

400. Maniplos: btmdles of straw — straw nion of Heyne, and Valpy 
in general. and it is very little better 

403. J^octua servans : the owl observing agent or means by wl 
the setting of the sun, &c. The meaning knowledge was obtained 
of the exp^ession seems to be this: that ea^y as rendered above. 
aa the hooting of the owl in general is a ntm prudentia^ qua potenJti 
•ign of foul weather, yet when these signs is with ditficulty undersUM 
of fair weathor occur, she hoots in vain , 417. Mobilishumor: tlv 
■he will be disrogardod ; or, if any regard heavcn. Vias is here \m 
her prognostics, they will find themselves modus^ or qualitates, Tem 
disappointed. The owl is the only bird ther — temperature of the. 
that sings exclusively in the night ; hence, 418. Jupiter humidus: i 
teros eantus exercel. by the south winds. Jxm 

404. Kisiu: the falcon, or hawk. ScyUa: poetically for the air; wh 
the lark. SeeEcI. vi. 74; also nom. prop. the sea that lay to the m 
nnder J^uv^, came moist, or impregnata 

405. Scylla dat peenas^ Scylla ia punished 420. Motus : motions-Hi 



CoDcipiiint : hinc ille avium concentus in agm, 
Et Jetie pecudes, et ovantes gutture corvi. 

Si weii Solem ad rapidum Lunasque sequentes 
Ordine respicies i nunquam te crastina fallef 
Hoft, neque insidiis noctis capiere serens. 
Looa, revertentes cum primum colligit ignes, 
S nigniin obscuro eomprenderit aera comu ; 
lliziinus agricolis pelagoque parabitur imber. 
At, si virgineum sufiuderit ore ruborem, 
Veotiis erit : vento semper rubet aurea Phcebe. 
Sn ortu in quarto (namque is certissimus auctor) 
Pm, neque obtiuis per ccelum comibus ibit ; 
Totos et Ule dies, et qui nascentur ab illo 
Bnctum ad mensem, pluvii ventisque carebunt : 
Tottque servati solvent in litore naut» 
Gkoco, et Panopeae, et Inoo Melicerts. 
Sol quoque, et exoriens, et cdm se condit in undas, 
Sgna dabit : Solem certissima signa sequuntur, 
Et quae mane refert, et quie surgentibus astris. 
IBe ubi nascentem maculis variaverit ortum, 
Conditus in nubem medioque refugerit orbe ; 
Svpecti tibi sint imbres : namque urget ab alto 


aliofl inottifl,«lnufiealiM 

422. Hinc oriiur ille 
ooncentiui avium inagris, 
^*^ ot hine pecudes tunt 


432. Sin iUafuerii pu- 
ra in quarto ortu, neqiM 
ibit per cflBlum 


4S6. Bervati ^ tempo' 

440 440. Et quiB. lefert 
mand, et quie refert 

415. Ortutina h^ra : rimplj, to-morrow. 

487. CoQigii recertentet igjiet: when first 

ftc ffloon ccllecti the reflected, or retuming 

nji» (^fnet ;) if sheembrace,&c. Thepoet 

m mentions three prognoatics of the 

«either from the moon. 1. If the ncw 

Moa be obecured by duskj air, {nigrum 

icra,) look for rain. 2. If she be red, look 

ftr wind. 3. If, on the fourth day, sbe be 

higkt, expect the Yemainder of the month 

le be fair woather ; whence the common 

■vinf : paUida Lunapluit; rubieundaflat ; 

MM terenatm 

432. Auetor: dini — prognoitic. 

437. Gttttito. Ulaucus waa a fishorman 

if iSnihedon^ in Beotia, bj eonie said to 

kive been the eon of Neptune and the n jmph 

" Ae he was fiahing, he obscrved tho 

that he canght, aa he laid them on the 

to receive freeh vigor, and immedi- 

Mdj to cscape fixmi him bj leaping into 

Ae Ma. From thia drcumfltance, ho ima- 

there must be some extraordinary 

in the graas ; whereupon he tasted it, 

nd feiind hiriiself suddenly moved with a 

Mre to iive in the watery elemcnt ; and 

Isaping ioto the sea, he was made a sea-god 

ki GciMiittf and TWAff. Panopeet.: anjmph 

■ the sea, tho daugfater of Jfereus and Do- 

sie, MeiieerUt, Melicartai or Melicertes, 

*as tbe son bf /ao, the daughter of Cad- 

■M, aud wife of AiKamoM^ king of Thebes ; 

«h» fleeing from her husband, who had 

riMB ber son Learehut^ leaped into the 8oa 

vilh Melieerta in her arms, both of whoin 

«sn chanfed into eea-goda» and worship- 

•etf Inee : an adj. from /no, agreeing- wi tb 

Melieerta. Melicertes was sometimes called 
Palamon. See iEn. v. 823. 

440. Attrit surgeniibut. When the stars 
appear in the evening at the approach of 
darkness, in the language of poctrj, thej 
are said to rise : so wlicii thej disuppear at 
the approach of daj, thcj are said to set. 

442. Medio refugerit orbe. Most commen- 
tators take orbit here for the facc or disc of 
tho sun ; and understand bj the words me- 
dio refugerit orbe^ when he shall diRappcar 
witlf half his orb or disc. the other balf re* 
maining visible. Rusus sajs : latuerit m«- 
dia tui parle. Valpj sajs, ** Whon the ri- 
sing sun appears bordered bj clouds, the 
centre alono remaining visibio.** Davidson 
translates the whole passago thus : ** Whcn 
he (the sun) shall chequer his new-bom face 
with spots, hidden in a cloud, and cojlj 
shun the sight with half his orb." Serviut 
seems to understand the words to implj that 
the centre of the sun retired, as it were. 
from view, bj appearing hollow like the ca- 
vitj of the hand, while the edge was con* 
cealed in a cloud. I know not that philo- 
sophers have noticed anj such appearances 
of the sun ; I am sure thej must be verj 
rare. Bosides, this half conccalment of tlie 
sun does not como up to the obvious nican- 
ing of condilut in nubenL, which certainlj 
means that he was whoUj conccalcd from 
sight. Bj taking medio orbe^ for, in Ihe mid' 
dle ofhis course^ or diumal rcvolution, wliioh 
may verj well be donc, thc passagc w iil \m 
rcndcrcd intclligible and caKj. Thus : whon 
the sun, in his ascent above Ihe \\oivlqx^ 
shaii have passed beUind Ae«c^ G\o\i^»aii4 


Aboribusque satisque Notus, pecorique m 

Aut ubi sub lucem densa inter nubila sese 

Diversi erumpent radii, aut ubi pallida sui 

Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile ; 

Heu, male tum mites defendet pampinuB v 

Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horridi 

4oO. Magis profiierit Hoc, etiam emenso cum jam decedet Oly 

memiiiisse hoc, etiam Profuerit meminisse magis : nam siepe vii 

cum jam sol decedet, ipgjug yj ^„1^^ varios errare colores. 

iSrCcBTureus 9ol CoBruleus pluviam denunciat, igneus Eurc 

Sin maculse incipient nitilo immiscerier ig 
Omnia tunc pariter vento nimbisque vide) 
Fervere. Non ill^ quisquam me nocte p« 
Ire, neque a terra moneat convellere func 

458. At si orbifl solis At si, cum referetque diem, condetque rei 
erit lucidua, cum Lucidus orbis erit, frustra terrebere nimbj 

Et claro sylvas cemes Aquilone moveri. 

461. Denique Sol da- Denique, quid Vesper serus vehat, und 
bit «igna tibi, quid flenis Ventus affat nubes, quid cogitet humidus 
'•■P*'' Sol tibi signa dabit : Solem quis dicere & 

Audeat ? ille etiam csecos instare tumultv 
SsBpe monet, fraudemque, et operta tume 
Ille etiam extincto miseratus Csesare Roi 
Cum caput obscuri nitidum ferrugine tei 
Impiaque seternam timuerunt ssBcula nod 
Tempore quanquam illo tellus quoque, et 
Obscoenique canes, importunaeque volucr 
Signa dabant. Quoties Cyclopum efierv 
Vidimus undantem ruptis fomacibus i£tn 
Flammammque globos, liquefactaque vol 
Armomm sonitum toto Germania coelo 
Audiit ; insohtis tremuerunt motibus Alp 


be sometimes concealed by them from sight; 470. Obscomi eants: f< 

and when he shall have approached the me- bad omen — howling friffl 

ridian, and finished half his course, he shall cients considered any thu 

be wholly concealed from sight by the in- auspicious. Importunat : h 

creased and condensed vapor in the atmos- cantus erat mali ominis. 

phero, then rain is to be ezpected. Imbres : 471. Quoties vidimus : 

tn tho scnse of pluvia, seen Ji^tna risingin wavei 

444. Sinister : injurionfl — hurtful. bur8t,&c. Undantem^exp: 

A52. Jn irultu : in the sense ofper vultum, the violence and agitati 

454. Immiscerier : by Paragogo, for tm- pent up in the mountai] 

misceri^ to be mingled with sparkling light. against its sides, which, 

[gni : htmine^ says Rusus. resist the shock, open a 

456. Fervere, This verb forcibly ex- an instant, it covers the 

presses the violence of the storm. AII things with lava. The Cyclops 

are confusion and wild disorder. TStrbari^ of Vulcan, and said to be 

says RufBus. - and Terra, They were a 

462. Cogitet : in the sense of praparet. having but one eye, whi( 
Serenas : in the sense of sieeas, dle of their forehcad. 1 

467. Obseura ferrugine : with a dark red to assist Vulcan in formin 
color — a color resembling blood. of Jupiter, and the arm 

468. Scecula, Sieculum is properly an celebrated heroes. Theii 
■ge; by meton. the inhabitants or men of JEtna. The most not 
that age. Impta sacula - the same as tm- Brontes^ Steropes^ and j 
tii kommes, Ulysses viaited Sicily, F 

GHOaOiCA. IJB. 1. fii 

\ue per !ucoa vulgd exaudita silentes 

et simulacra uiocJiis pallentia iniriA 

obscuruffl noctis pecudesque locutiB, 

I ! sistunt amnes, terreque dehiscunt : 

tin Lllacrymat templis ebur, seraque sudant. 

sano contorquens vortice sylvas 481 481. Eridanus pr6liiit 

a rex Eridanus, camposque per omnea sjrlvi», contorqueni ta» 

ulis armenta lulit : nec tempore eodem inBano. 

aut extis fibrtB apparere minaces, 484. Fibre nec eeua- 

s manare cruor cessavit ; et alte 486 ^^^^ *"' mpparere rai. 

m resonare, lupis ululantibus, urbes. °ir!«^,^.'Ji«" f**"'' 

, •1^1 *ut cruor cesMvit ma- 

CCBIO ceciderunt plura sereno nare i puteis; et urbee 

nec diri tbties arsere cometae. non eeMtaveruni retonare 

r seee paribus concurrere telis i^t^ P«r nocteiu^ lupi< 

acies iterum vid^re Philippi ; 490 ululantibu^ 
ndignum Superis, bis sanguine nostro 491. Nec vuimm f\iit 

1 et latoB Hsmi pinguescere campos. 


their ktng. Diodorue informs us battlee, one fought between Cesar and Pom^ 

f elope were the first inhabitanta pej ; the other, between Brutue and Can- 

of a gigantic stature, and of a siue on one side, and Augustus and Antho. 

savage nature. They dwelt nj on the other. But history inforras us 

(Qt mount JStna. that the former wae fouflrht on the plains of 

miaera: ■pactres, or ghoeta, pale PhartcUia^ in Thetsalj, the latter at Philip^ 

$rful manner, were eeen, 4ec. • d», in the confines of Thrace, more than two 

Kuntm: an adj. of theneu. taken nundred milee distant. To ezplain this ap- 

I the eenee of obKuritatem, Ru- parent inconsistency, there have been raanj 

nets it bj erep%ue%dum, attempts. The most probable solution is, 

etftcni ebur: the moumful ivory that the poet does not mean that both these 

aes) wepU JEra: br as s statues battlee were fought on the same spot. This 

aas. would contradict history. He would not 

ctnovorUee: with its rapid eurrent commit such a blunder. We are told that 

the city TTuba TheuaHeit^ or Phlhotitir^ 

idanue: the river Po. It is here n^hich was in sight of Pharsaiia, was called 

kingof rivers^because the largest also Philippu And though historians, for 

[t rise%in Piedmont, and running sake of distinction, called the one Philippi^ 

' couree, after receiving a number anif the other Phartalia^ the poet might, 

rj streams, falls into the Gulf without anj improprietv, call them both bj 

>j several mouths. the common name of PhUippi. Rueus 

'Mibut txti». One mode of con- has one conjecture which maj be deserving 

omens, was an ezaraination of of notice : that the adverb iteritm maj re- 

i^f the victim. If anj defect or fer, not to Philippi, but to the Roman ar* 

appeared, it was thought to be mies : PkUippi saw the Roman armics 

TrtMtibut : ominous— baleful. again engage for the empire of ihe world. 

l, Hejne reads oZ/o, agreeing though not for the first time. Thej had 

eng^ged for a similar purpose before on the 

neta. Plutarch informs us that a plains of Pharsalia. Thb appears to solve 

t eomet appeared at Rome for the difficultj. 

j9 about the time of Cesar^s 492. Emathiam — Laiot eampot Htimt, 

» tlus the poet refers in Ecl. iz.47. Here is an apparent difficultj. Ilsmus is 

sajs: XAii/if, quot primo eonte" a mountain in Thrace; and neither of the 

reMAuguttut edebat^ tteUa eriniia battles was fought in Emaihia or Maeedo* 

Het eoniinuotfuitiij exorient eirea nto, properlj so called. But the language 

horam : erediiumque ett animum of poetiy does not alwajs conform to his. 

t tn emlum reeeptu torical or geographical ezactness. We are 

^ : therefore-— <m account of the told that the ancient Emaihia was consi- 

Bsar, which was the cause of the dered bj the poets to eztend as far east as 

the river Neesus, including a considerable 

'J^fpi iierum: Philippi hath seen part of Thrace bejond Phiiippi; aad to 

armies again, iic, It is agreed the south comprehending all Thessalj, and 

here alludee to tha two famous consequentlj PhartaUa^ or the PhaxnJyAA 



Scilicet et tempus veniet, cum finibaa iltii 
Agricola, incunro terram molitus aratro, 
Exesa iiiveniet scabri rubigine pila : 
Aut ^ravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanai 
Grandiaque efibssis mirabitur ossa sepulcb 
Dii patrii Ind^etes, et Romule, Vestaqi 
Qus Tuscum Tiberim et Romana palatia 
Hunc saltem everso juvenem succurrere ■ 
Ne prohibete : satis jampridem sanguine i 
LaomedontesB luimus peijuria Trojie. 
Jampridem nobis coeli te regia, Caesar, 
Invidet, atque hominum queritur curare ti 

A05 9unt tot bella Quippe ubi fas versum atque nelas, tot be) 

Tam multae sceierum facies : non ullus ar 

607. Colonis abdoctii Dignus honos ; squalent abductis arva col 
«f maliHam £t curvae rigidum falces conflantur in eo» 


Philippi. T&ken in this extent, the poet c&um thej had been men, 
*would be coniistent. Emathia could be earih: or because they wc 
wet twice with Roraan blood. Again Hob- among the gode. Othen a 
mus is not so much a ringle mountain as a with morepropriety,derivfl 
range of mountains, branching out in va- because being translated 
rious directions, and in various parta assu- stood in need of nothin 
ming difTerent namee. Caeting our eje on There were two by Uie nm 
a map of that country, we find the ran^ the mother of Satum, the 
oommencing at the Euzine eea, and taking ter; but commonly conf 

a Bouth-westerly direction till it enters Ma-* The latter presided over f 

eedonia, then tuming northerly till it reachee It is said that iEne^ brotli 

the 43P of N. lat. wnen it takes a southem his household gods into It 

direction, pawing into Thessaly ; and con- ced her worship. Her myi 

lequently ita eztensive plaine might be mitted to the Albans, and 

fattened by the blood, ■hed in both those duced among the Romaz 

battlos. instituted a college of y 

494. Molitut: in the aense of vertent. aliye the perpetual fire 

Scabra: in the Bense of corrota, paUndiwn of the state. 

498. Dii patrii^ Indigeles. The Romans 500. Hunc Juvenem: m 

divided their^deities into three classes. The aflerward called Augustv 

first embraced the supreme or select gods, sceeh : the ruined or fallin 
who were honored with the highest ado- 50:2. Satis luimui jam^ 

ration, and considered eminent above the long ago atoned sufficient 

rest. Of these, tweive were callcd Consentes^ of Trojan Laomedon, wit 

because on particular occasions thcy were omedon was tho father ol 

admitted to the council of Jupiter. Six of of Troy. During his rei 

theee were male and six female : JupUer^ us, the walle of Troy wen 

JtpoUo^ Mercury^ Mars^ ^eptune^ and ViU' and Apollo, for a certain 

ta»i : Juno^ Dtana^ Minerva^ yenus^ Vesta, the work was done, he rel 

and Ceres. These were sometimcs callcd On which account, they ) 

Dii Majores, Tho second class comprc- the Trojans, and exerted 

hended those of inferior power, and was against them in the war 

very numerous. It embraced all the deified The Romans, pretending 

heroei, such ae Romulus^ Hercules^ Perseus^ tliem, tho poet supposes \ 

icc. and all that in any manncr had ob- this injustice of thcir anc 

tained divine honors. These were *8ome- perhaps, may be explair 

times called the Dtt Jtftnor». Thethirdclass Laomedon to have empl 

waa without number. It embraccd all tlie which had been designed 

evlvan doities: all the nymphs; the penatcs; poses, to this use. 
taefonii; Uie virtutes, &c. Indigetes : pro- 505. Ubi: where~(thi 

deified heroes. Some derive the word men. Fas atque nefas vt 

imdigetart^ to call by name; bccauso wrong are confounded. 
eo^omary lo address them by thcir 507. Squalent: lie neg 

Olhnn derive it from def^ere^ be- grown with wecds. 

G£0R6ICA. UB. I. 89 

Vboc movet Euphntes, illinc Germaiiia belluin : 
VidmB ruptis inter ae legibus urbes 610 

Anna ferunt : Bcvit toto Mars impius orbe 
Ut, cum carceribus sese efTuci^re quadrigfls, 
Addunt se in spatia : et frustra retinacula tendons, 
Fertur eqaia auriga, neque audit currus habenaa 


509. fi^pAralei. A noble river of Aria, ed together ; alio, a ch&riot drawn by four 

riring in tke mountams of Armenia, fertili- horaes, by meton. Of ^uaiuor and a^o,bo-> 

nng Mu^^otamia^ as the Nile doee Egypt, cauee four were driven together : or con- 

and nniting with the Tigrie in ita coune, tracted of Qtiiu{rt;ugta,fouryokedtogether. 

falle into the Persian gul£ It is here put, Careerihut, Carcerwa8themark,or8taxting 

hj a fignre of epeech, for the nations of the place, in racee. Spatia : the race grounc^ 

•asti particolarly the Parthians, who were or course. Effudlrt, Rucus says, erupt- 

yvtj troubleeome to the Romani. ruirU. 

6iaLv^-»nthe8eoeeof/«<iertAi«. ^y, Heyne. Some copiee leave out the if. 

^]}' TtJf ' «"•^— ™"^®" » * 8UiUble othere read tn tpatxo. Rueua, in his inter- 

•^thet of Mar». pretation, omits the words adduni «c, and 

61S. m^ e%tm quadrigtB, This ie a noble connecta tn tpatia with the preceding yerb. 

flmile. Tho nncontroUed licentiousness of Thej are not necessary to make the senne 

Um age le likened to the rapidity and vio* complete. 

Iniee of ongoremable horeee in the chariot 514. Currw: a chariot : by meton. the 

raee, wben they mock both the driver and horeee in the chariot. J^tque audil habt, 

the zmam, ^^tladfigtt: fourhorBes hamess- nat: nor do they regard, or obey the reimi. 


How doee thie hook open? What precepte doee the poet give aboot 

What doee the poet prooeed to do ? ploughing land ? 

What doee he do in the next place ? What doee he give about planting, and 

To whom doee he ascribe the origin of chans^ing crope ? 

Who waa Jupiter ? 

What signs or prognottice of the weather To whom wae his education intrueted f 

he mention ? Where was he educated ' . 

How doee he conclude the book ? What are eomo of his names? 

Are there any fables introdnced by way of Who were the Gianta ? and what ia laid 

e^sode ? What are they ? of them ? 

Why are Bacchue and Ceree invoked nezt What are the Pleiadee ? 

after the heavenly bodies ? What other names have they ? 

Who wae Neptune ? and what ie said of What are the Hyades ? 

him ? What are their names ? 

Who is 8aid to have been the first who Who waa Aurora ? 

ta agh t mankind the propagation of beee? What ie said of her? 

Wlio wae AristsuB ? What were the Furiee? 

Who waa Blinerva ? and what ie eaid of What were their namee ? 

iMr? ^ What waa their office ? 

What power did she poBsess ? Who waa Vulcan ? What ie eaid of him f 

How ie ahe repreeented under her different What were some of hie names ? 

i ? W))at is the word FiUeanut oflen nsed fo r? 

What celebrated etat^e had she f By what figure is it eo uaed ? 

What are eome of her names ? Who were the Cyclope ? 

Who ie said to have first taught the Where doee the poet repreeent them as 

O^eeke agriculture ? reeid ing ? 

What la probably meant by Uttima Thule f Why are they called Cyetapt ' 

Wee the Ediptic at firet divided into 12 Who was Mcrcury ? 

fifiMi ? How was it divided ? What is said of him ? 

wheie were the Olympic ramee celebra- What was hiji office ? 

lii? fai what year before Chriet werethey How is he rcpreeented? 

■■■ritntfd? Of what was he tlie inveBtorl 

Bbw f ften were they celebrated ' and in What were 6ome of his nameet 

of what god' Who waaGIaucus ? What is eaidof hlml 


Into how manj classes were the Romin Were they lU} uvmmmf 
dntioe divided ? Of theee, how many wero Who were the /Mi^elst/ 
«iHed Coruentes? From what is the word pnMbltj diriiiil 

Wh 7 were thej so calle^ ? Who was Veeta ? 

What were their names ? How manj were thm of thaf mM f 

What were theee eometimes oalied ? What was her offiee f 

What did the second class oontain ? Who introdiioed hv wonUp iHlo haigf 

What wore these eometimes called ? By whom were her mjsteiiee iBtrodMid 

What did the third clan contain ? among the Romane? 


Thb robject of this book is the cultivation of the eeTeral kinde of trees. Tho potl le- 
ocribes with mnch judgment the soils proper for each: and after giTinff a Tuietj «f ti> 
cellent precepts for the management of the vine, the olive, iic he digfSiBSS inlo tkt 
praises of Italj ; and conclades with a panegjric upon a coontrj life. 

1. Hactenns eeeini HACTENUS arvorum cultus, et sidera caefi : 
^^^ Nunc te, Bacche, canam, necnon ajlvestria tecuBi 

Virgulta, et prolem tarde crescentis olmB. 
Huc, pater 6 LenaBe : tuis hic omnia plena 
Muneribus ; tibi pampineo grayidus autumno 5 

Floret ager, spumat plenia vindemia labiia. 
Huc, pater 6 Lensee, veni : nudataque muato 
8. Tingeqae mecum Tinge novo mecum direptis crura cothuniiB. 
iradatjii crura ^^^^^ Principio arboribus varia est natura creandiB. 
to^ co umis rep . Nnnjque aliae, nullis hominum cogentibus, ipm *0 

Sponte sul veniunt, campoeque et flumina latd 
Curva tenent : ut molle siler, lentaeque genistei 
Populus, et glauci canentia fronde salicta. 

unanemo^ru,^'?^ W ^*" *»^^™ P<>«^^^ «^^"^ ^? «^™^ ' ."* 4? ^ 

det Jovi, atqae queroos, CastanefB, nemorumque Jovi quae maxnna frondet 16 

qwB habit» ntnt iEsculus, atque habitae Graiis oracubt quercua. 


t, ^eenon: also. Two negatives have saidtoripen. Pampineo auimmu : thopff»> 

the force of an affirmative in Latin and dace of the vine-Hmipes. 

Engliih. 9. Cothumi», ThecothumaswmsaUBl 

3. VirguUa: shrubs, or nnderbrash; of high-heeled shoe, wom bj Baochi». !•- 

here put for trees in general. Tardi ere^ ference is here made to the castom of tr ssd 

9eenti» oliveR. The olive is of a verj slow '^8 0"t the grapes with their feet. Tho co- 

growth. Some saj it is a hundred jears in thumas was osed bj tragedians ta mskt 

growing. them appear taller; hence put fortrafsdf 

4.Zm«€:Len«us,anameofBacchas, |t»e{f--al«> for the tragie stjlo. Jfmium: 

from a Greek word signifying a vine-press^ "* f^* 1^?"« ^^ '^' ^*^ "«^lf • .,, -. 

4dni,istobesuppUe4orsoiewordofthe }^ ^«ler; an osier,or smatt withy. G#> 

sameimport. nute: the broom. Pomauf .• tbe pophr 

tree, of which there are three kinde. 

6. Ager gravidui : the field heavj with 13. Satieta: wiliow-grounds ; bj nsilia, 

the prodnce of the vine. Jlutumno : the the willows. 

season for flrathering ffrapes and other pro- 16. JEuuhu: a species of oak, wmeni ta 

ductions of the eaLirthf put, bj meton. for Jupiter. The«£jriilii«wasamast^troe,aai 

the grapes themselves. Floret: in the sense abounded in Dodona^ in Epirus, wheivthffe 

of matureieU, The fields do not bloom in were oaks said to have giveii oat «imIvi 

autamn. bat with proprietj thej maj be to which here is an allusioB* 

duetmdi arbores : tn hii 


PuUulat ab ndice aliis densiBsiina sylva : 

Ut cerasis, ulmisque : etiam Pamassia launis 

Vaira sub ingenti matris se subjicit umbri. 

Ho0 natura modos primum dedit : his genus omne 20 20. Natun prlinon 

STlvarum. fruticumque viret, nemorumque sacrorum. dedithoi/rwmodoaw^ 

Sunt aiii, quos ipse yiaLsibi reppent usus. 
ffic plantas tenero abscindens de corpore matrum 
Deposuit sulcis : hic stirpes obruit arvo, 
Quadrifidasque sudes, et acuto robore vallos : 25 

Syivarumque alis pressos propaginis arcus 
Ezpectant, et viva su& plantaria terrl. 

Nil radicis egent aliae : summumque putator 
Haud dubitat terne referens mandare cucumen. 
Quin et caudicibus sectis, mirabile dictu, 30 

Truditur e sicco radix oleagina ligno. 
£l sspe alterius ramos impune videmus 
Vertere in alterius, mutatamque insita mala 
Ferre pyrum, et prunis lapidosa rubescere coma. 
Quare agite, 6, proprios generatim discite cultus, 35 
Agricol», fructusque feros moilite colendo. 
Neu segnes jaceant terne : juvat Ismara Baccho 
Conserere, atque olei magnum vestire Tabumum. 


17. Syha: here meani the Backers, that took root, firm enough to support itself ; uid 

■hoot up under, and near the trunk of the wfts then Bevered from it. This was about ^ 

parent tree. the third year. Arcm : the arches, or cur- 

18^ Cerati» : to the clierry-treee. XfOunif. ved figures of the layers, or branchcs so bent 

This tree ia cailed Pamastian^ becaufte it down. 

abounded on mount Pamauus. It was ea- 27. Ktva plantaria : living shoots to b« 

cred to Apollo. put in their own earth — ^not cut oflT as in 

19. Subiieii $e : shoota ittelf up. pther casee, but auffered to grrow to the pa- 

21. SjfivaruM /ruHeumqtu: trees and rent tree foratime. Defoditor a word of 
■hrabe. the like import, is understood. 

22. Ftd .* by practice, or ezperience. 29. Rtfereru mandttre : to commit the top- 
Suni alU: there are other methods of pro- most shoot to tbe earth whence it sprang. 
ducing treea, which, Sui, The poet proceede Sitmmum eaewnen : the highest shoot, or 
to enomerate the methods of raising the se- branch. Re/eren* mandare, simply for man^ 
veral kinds of trees, which he reduces to dare^ says Heyne. 

seven. 1. By planting the shoot or scion. 30. Caudieilnu : Caudex, is properly the 

t. By bniying the stump or stock in Ute body of the tree distinguishod from the root, 

eartli. 3. By bnrying the stake or trunk as iruneut is the body distinguished from 

split at the bottom. 4. By the layer. 5. the top or head. 

By planting in the earth a bough or twig 32. Imjnmi : without injury. Mertus ; 

taken ftom the top of the tree. 6. By in the senM of tmttM. Arborit is under- 

pinnting the trunk or stalk of the tree, de- stood. 

privod of its root and branches. This suo- 33. Vtriert : Ibr vait, tne active for the 

ce eds very well with the olive-tree. 7. By passive, by enallage: or, veritrt se in ramos 

grafting or transferring a branch or scion of alieriu» arbariM, 

one tree into another. 34. Coma lapidosa : tlie comeil trees, 

23. PlarUas: the shoots or scions from which naturally produce astony hard fruit, 
the body of the mother troe. by being grafled, will produce the plum — 

S4L Obruii siirpes : another buries the will reddon with plums. 

stocks in the ground, and stakes split in four 37. J^eu segnes terrm jaeeani. Dr. Trapp 

parts at the lower end, and poles, the wood renders these words : let not your lands lie 

being sharpened into a point idle. JVe iemt sini inuiiies^ says Rueus. 

SB. AHsB syharum: other trees of the But the connexion is bctter preserved by 

mod— eimply, other trees. Rucus says, rendering it : let not your barren lands lie 

aKb arhores. Prtpaginis. The propago was neglectod or unimproved. Jsmara neu 

IIm layer, or branch of the parent tree, bent plu. a mountain in Thrace. TVi^umiu : a 

down and &stened in the ground, until it mountain in Campania« fertilo \x. -^i**"' 

86 P. ViRGiUI 11A&ON18 

Tuque adea, inceptumque uni decurre Ui 

39. Taqne, MaoenM, O decus, 6 fion» mentd pars maiiina noai 

■itei dttcunoqiM incep- MflBcenas, pehgoque Yolans da Tela paten 

tam laboraBi «mi Me- ^on ego cuncta meb amplecti TeiBibus o[ 

■BOT^iMzbii/^^ ^^^ °**^ " lingu» centum smt, oraque < 

M fkmm^"^"^^ Ferrea vox: ades, et primi lege fitoris on 

41 JSVii •Mtcai tm- In manibus ferre : non hic te c&nnine fic 

fittH m^ u tmt mihi Atque per ambages et k>nga exorsa tend) 

47. Ar^0rts qjam tol- Sponte sui que se tollunt in luminis av 

kmt m sui iponte Infcecunda quidem, sed leta et fbrtia suig 

Quippe solo natura subest Tamen h»c 
Inserat, aut scrobibus mandet mutata sub 
Exuerint srlTestrem animtnn : cultuque fi 
In quascunque roces artes ; baud tarda s 
SX £i tUa mrUr qna Necnon et sterifis quc stirpibus ezit ab in 
tsit Mrifi» Hqq ^ciet, ^*acuo8 a sit digesta per agroi 

Nunc alt« firoiides et rami matris opacanl 

Crescentique adimimt fetiB, uruntque fei 

Jam, que seminibus jactis se su^ufit, i 

Tarda Tenit, seris fictura nepotibus mn^ 

Pomaque degenerant, soccos obfita prior 

£t turpes aribus pnedam ieil tm racemo 

Scilicet oamibus est labor impeodendus, i 

, i^Bo». ^*"?*»^ ^ sulctmi, ac muhi mercede di 

^mdUtti^teSSn ^ ^'^'' ^^ mKilius. propagine Tites 

Tit« dM rrop^fwr, H R«s!i>oiMknt, sofido Paphue de robore my 

nnttti PlantB et dtir» corrfi nascimtur, el ingei 


Tbe ubj«ct of tftw pott b to permade tbo 5& Jdjmwni Jkho : ai 

&nDef iiot to aeftect Kio rof^^ed an*! b«R«a firoit Srom it gTovinf ap. a 

bmdik aiid foffir tiiem to Ue ttwl c i* : tor« br beahag. T£f poct'* m«a] 

rultttio^ ke mar rtnder tlwm profitabie to thi* : that the «icker. vhii 

kZm. He adduces tke caae ot' Umanu and the root of thc parent Vn 

Tah«ratts« vhicii, tbo«m;h natnrallr ru^:^:vd and prodcctire, if transf 
u. had WcoBe« br cuhiration aiid 

aad barreo. had Wcome^ br cuhiration aiid fioaad. and arranged in | 

proper acteatuMu rucr pcoiactireu ^«mU vhi!e tt reoMisa^ £e lear 

» hcfc viii A?c the riae. the parent tree wtll oTerd 

3!}L Oecwre. Hexo wo hare a beaatiful reat it crom Veariag ^uit a 

aSe^^rr* crawa from the aaihaf ox' a ahipL if it shcdd Sear ^uii. xt w 

The rerh Jenaro sifmiee t» sail beface thc ntalL br betB^ deprired < 

wriad — to sail wtth a p i w ep e f oai gale. L**- taa aad pccper BcurahaM 

le r i i i - the work or CHh. ris. the C ^eer j cic « > 3T. Jjm : beie is uMf 

vhkh he beipn ai the fe ^ue i t of Xvoma. p ei a> cr pr m t e : m . 

41. rWiSMiiJLfa. Aadftria^.spcvadthe 6LX C«ii: :he gT^: h 

to the opeamf ma aftrompaiiT ow rtae. P*«rf»: as a pci 

fit f.Y birdsw 

«t Jh£ta mertmf' wil 

S3L Ouw 'mrmJeru, M 
raased cr prc34jri-«^ bectc 
the ruxe :Vvai *Jxe '.a.Tvr ; 
the scLd w<.>Mi: ise 3as» 
kr, sad the oojl. rrtNn :h 

rf^ F-jpAua - Vnos. ss 
pAaM. & ^.tr ^jf C*7nm 
par^'u'a.rY wvrsh:9p««t. 
socte^ V* ter . 


fttxinus, Herculeasque arbos umbrosa coron», 

Qiioniique patris glandes ; etiam ardua palma 

fhieitur, et casus abiea visura marinos. 

hieritur rerd ex foetu nucis arbutus horrida, 

Et fCeriles platani malos gessere valentes : 70 

Ciftane» fiigus, omusque incanuit albo 71. Fa^ ineaiiiiit 

Rore pyri ; glandemque sues freg^re sub ulmis. /^ caatane», orauaque 

Nec modus inserere atque oculos imponere simplex w^««««' »1^ no» pyn 
Nam qua ae medio trudunt de cortice geinmfle, 
Et tenues rumpunt tunicas, angustus in ipso 75 

Fit nodo sinus : huc alienli ex arbore germen 
beludunt, udoque docent inolescere libro. 

Aot rursum enodes trunci resecantur, et alte ;.---,■ 

Rnditur in solidum cuneis via : deinde feraces ■olidttm iMgmm 

Plante immittuntur. Nec longum tempus, et ingens 
Ciiit ad ccelum ramis felicibus arbos^ 81 

Miraturqiie novas frondes, et non sua poma. 

Pncterea genus haud unum^ nec fortibus ubnis, 
Nec salici, lotoque, nec Idaeb cyparissis : 
N«e pingues unam in faciem nascuntur olivse, 85 

Oithades, et radii, et amari pausia bacci : 
Poaiaque, et Alcinoi sylvs : nec surculus idem 
Cnvtumiis, Syriisque pyris, gravibusque volemis. 


68. Vmbroia arboi: the poplar-treo. It 78. ^ut rurmm, Having described tiie 

VM nered to Hercoles. He wore a crown process of inoculation, the poet gives us that 

Mde of tho leaves of thiatroe, to the infer- of ingrafVing. TVunau: the body of the 

hI rBfions. tree, properly afler the top and branchee 

17. Oltmdu: properlj acorae; bj moton. are cut oiT. Thia is split, and the grafl put 

Iki oaks that bore them. Chaonii pairis : into the fissure. He soems to prefer thij 

Jiyiltr; so called becauee he had a temple, mode of cultivating trees. inasmuch as they 

ud wia •plendidlj worshipped at Dodona, soon come to maturity. ^ee longum /on- 

A tewB of CThaonia in Epinu. The oak put (says he,) et ingent arbo*: it is not a 

~ to him. long timc, and the mighty tree, ejrit/, hath 

tt. Ftticra. This ie said of the fir-tree, shot up to the skies. There is a peculiar ele* 

■hipe were built of its timber. Ma^ gancy in the uso of the perfect tense here. 
.- in the sense of perictt/(E maris, 80. Planta: gprafU, or scions of fruit* 

ML ArbnUuM interiiur : the arbute or bearing trees. 
lUiwbem-tree is grafled with the shoot or 82. Poma non tua : that is, poma non tm 

m of the nut*tree. generii. 

70. PiaianL The plane tree affords a 84. Ident Cyparittit: to the IdfeanCj- 
hife and pleasant shade, but bears no fruit. pressos. There were two mountains by the 

called tieriHt. However, says name of Ida, the one in Phrygia, tlie other 

fti poet, oven this haa been made to bear in Crete ; tho latter is here meant. 

i|flH bj being grafled. 86. Orehadet, The poet here mentions 

IX Itmpamre oeuiot : to inocolate. Oeu- three species of olives : Uie orchadet^ a round 

hm m the bad which is endoeed or put in olive, a word derived from the Greek; tho 

fttbark of tho treo to be inoculated. /n- radivt an oblong olive; the pautia^ an oUto 

mtrt: toingrafl. /fee medut^Sui, Neither of a bitter taste, so called from pavio^ sajre 

iilko ■ethod of ingrailing and inoculating Columella, because its chiefu^e was for oil; 

ma lad tho eimo thej are different pro- to obtain which, it was brayed or beaten. 

9mm, 87. Sylva JHeinei : the orchards of Aloi- 

Tl. SimtM at^utiu»: a ■mall slit or gash, noiis, kuiff of the Pheaceans. They were 

ViAe ia tho barfc of the treo, (where the bud celebrated by the poets. 

OM patting forth,) for the purpose of re- 88. Cruttumiit: to the Crustumean peara 

■mqf Iho graft. so called froin Cruttumiurn^ a town in Tue- 

77. DaeaU: thej teaeh it to grow up, or caiiy, whoso pears were much esteemed; 

■iHyorBto iteolf with the moist bark. Li' they were of a reddish cast. Stfriit pyriB, 

W ■ tho mward part of the bark of the Theso were so called, because they nvom 

fens ChM, tho wnoU bark«-or rind. brought from Syria. '^^hejVoi^ «\mo ciJAmb 


Non eadein arboribus pendet vindemia m 
Quam Methymnaeo capit de palmite Lesl 
Sunt Thasiae vites, sunt et Mareotides alt 
Pinguibus has terris habiles, levioribus illi 
Et passo Psythia utilior, tenuisque lageoa 
Tentatura pedes olim, rincturaque lingua 
95. Suni pnrpiiraa, Purpurese, preciaeque : et quo te canniM 

prwMsqoe uvm Rh»tica ? nec cellis ided contende Falen 

99. Eit Argitis minor Sunt et Ammineie vites, firmissima rina . 

^"''ll^^ ^ . Tmolus et assurgit quibus, et rex ipse Ph 

m^^'^T^ Ai^itisque minor, cui non certaverit ulla, 

#tfiii tuiM tumiais race- a.^/i •• i 

mU. Sed neque est nu- ^ut tantum fluere, aut totidem durare pei 

merus, qu^ mults spe- Non ego te, Dts et mensis accepta sccunc 

eies nmt^ nec qus Transierim, Rhodia ; et tumidis, bumaste 

105. Quem numerum ge^j neque, quam multae species, nec nom 
■oi velit scire. idem ve- r« ^ 

Ut discere qukm mulue ^^ ""menis : neque enun numero compi 
arene Libyci ©quoris Qu^m qui scire veht, Libyci veht fiequons 
turbentur Discere, quam mult» Zephyro turbentur i 


Thrmtina^ and were of a blackish cast. 97. Ammineit vitet. T 

Some think them to be the Bergamot pear. conjectures couceming thii 

f^oUmit : to the Volomian pears. These were certainly known. It pn 

so called froiu the circumstanco of their fiJl- vfine—firmisnma vinOt str 

jng the palin of the hand ; from vola, The body. 

iurculut^ or shoot, of all these was different. 98. ^uibut et Dnohu: 

89. JirborHmt: in the sense of vitibut, Tmolus, and Phansus hia 

90. Melhi/mnaxf : an adj. from Methymna^ vine-bearing mountains, r 
% city of Lenbos, an island in the iEgean respect — they yield the pn 
sea, famouB for its vines. Amminean vine. Atturgi 

9i. Thasia: an adj. from Thattu^ an highly metaphorical. It 

island in the ^gean sea« Mareoiidet : an minds the idea of one moa 

adj. probablv from Mareoiit^ a lake neor another in token of respec 

Alexandria, m Egypt. Some take it from it precedency. TSnolut : 

a place of the same name in Lybia, in tlie Lydio, famous for its w 

coniines of Egypt. These latter {fue) re- another mountain in the 

quired a rich soil; the former (illat) alight soil. the iEgean sea, celebrated 

93. Ptyihia: an adj. agreeing with vt/u, 99. ArgUit: a species oi 

understood. Its derivation is uncertain. It bably derived from a Grc 

is probably from the name of some town in ing white^ or from Argot^ a 

Greece, whore that species of vine flburish- loponnesus. 
ed. Utilior pasio: better for pattum^ or 100. Tantim fluere: to 

•weet wino. This was made of raisins or joice. 
dried grapes; from ihe word patior: quid 101. MentitetDit ieewa 

tolem aui ignem patiiur. Lageot. This was ble ot course was composac 

a species of grape, deriving its name from second of fruits, and what i 

a Greek word signifyinjr a hare, because it dettertt. At this second 

resembled the color ox that animal. 7V- there were libations made 

nuii: subtle or penetrating. Qudd faeili Seeundit is generally coin 

^Metatem indueit^ says Servius. It is, however, better to com 

95. Purpurea^ preeittque. Theseareboth tit: it will then be: the 1 
a^jectives, and agree with vitet^ or more acceptable to the second 
probably with ui^cb, understood. Preeia : and to the gods that wers 
oarly ripened— ripened before other srrapes. acceptable, or fit for libatiM 

96. Rhatica : a grape, so called from 102. Rhodia : an adj. tn 
Wutia^ a country bordering upon Italy on mous isiand in the Mei 
tho west. Cellit Falemit : with the Faler- Bumatte : the bumastns n 
Dion wine. Cellit : tlie cellars ; by meton. grape, whoso clusters werei 
fur the wine in thom. Falemit: an adj. the udder of a cow. Ititi 
from Falemvu^ a mountain in Campania, Greek. 

ceiehrated for ita good wines. 103. Quetm : ia the senst 


Aalt ubi naTigiia violentior incidit Eunim 
Ntee, quot loDii Yeniant ad litora fluctua, 

Nec ver6 terne ferre oznnes omnia possunt. 
Fluminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni 110 

Naacuntur, sterilee saxosis montibus orni, 
Litora myrtetis Istissima : denique apertoe 
Baechus ^mat coUea, Aquilonem et frigora taxi. 
Aspice et extremis domitum cultoribus orbeaif 
Eoasque domos Arabum, pictosque Gelonos. 115 

DiTisae arboribus patrie. Sola India nigrum 
Pert ebenum^ solis est thurea virga Sabeis. 
Quid tibi odorato referam sudantia ligno 
Balsamaque, et baccas semper frondentis acanthi ? 

Qiud nemora iEthiopum molli canentia lanl ? 120 ito. Q,mArrferamHM 

Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres ? Demora 

Aul quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos, 
Elztremi sinus orhis ? ubi aera vincere summum 
Aiboris haud ullfle jactu potuere sagitts : 


110. SaUeei na$ewUur : the willows bj 181. Seret : a people of India^ who ftur- 

tbe side of riven — the aldera by stagnant nished the reet of the world witb silk. It 

pooli — the bairen wild ashee on the stony was a common receiTed opinion that they 

Boantains, epring up, and flourish. collocted it from the leaves of trces. To 

llt. Myrtetia: in grovesof mjrtle. Z»«- thie the poet refera in the words, dateetant, 

imima : in the senae of feraeiMsima, *^' ^«7 comb off the fine fleecee from the 

113. Baeehui: hereputfor vi /e«, by me- **,^* « j l- x^- u . 

Um. Tbxt.-theyewtreen. Theverbiiian/ .i^u^^^^^Ti,'*'*""'' * ^* »• "^^^^^.^J^* 
M to be euDolied diflicult to fix the meamng of nnut^ in thii 

114. J),%e o^bem. Th. meaning i., that* P'»««- ^ 5'.«°'»''' ^ ««f «n«t; in the dat. 
11» wmotkt parU of the world w^ redu- '» 'f?» '"* ""^J; '» ''""l^ *?. '•^- 
eed to a rtate of cultivation by their re- ^»' '' " »»»««7 «'^ •» *« non». It mu.t 
•p«:tiTe inhabitant^ both the eart (£ »J'e"f»~ "«ean *••"». a. ynrfja, m tlie 
Z^AriUmm) and the north, the coantnr of Vr*^% Une. B»t how it can be apphed 
tbeOebnt. The inhabitante, by meton. put with any propnety, to expresB a tracl of 

fer the country. They painteJl themselve. f''''^^ ^»»^ "»' '?P?"-.k^'^ 7' .t"^T 

that they migk be more terriblo to their for Uie gen. connected with er/r«»», the dif • 

«iMmie.. Tfi. ezplain. the word nictoM. «"^'^y J''' >>• "moved, in a good degree, 

L r> 1 . *"*** oroit for the nom. Now orois sonie- 

115. Qelonoe : the Geloni were a people times means no more than a «ingle country, 
fBhabiting the northem part» of Europe. ^^ ^y diviaion or part of the earth. If we 

116. Patria dirisa : counthes are distin- take it thus, the pamage may be rcndered : 
fnished by their trees. Patria^ one*s native Or, why need I mention the groves whicb 
Mvntry — Regio, any country. India, nearer the oceah, the counh-y of 

117. ntireavirga: the frankincense tree. (bordering upon) the farthest bay, produ- 
lie. Rtferam: in the sense of c^tcat/i, vel ces? Valpy says: tHe extreme convexity 

itttnbam. of the globe. Heyne : interior remottortpte 

119. Baltama: plu. of balsamitm^n plant terra extremet orbis partis, Ruomik : reees' 

•f a Ttrr delicions fragrance. Its juice is sus ultimi mundi. The sinns I tnkn Cot the 

olitiined by cutting tfae branches in the sum. bay of Bcngul, callcd by llio uncicnis the 

aer months, (Vom which incisions the juice Sinus Ganfrcticus, Thc parts of InHia be- 

flows. Aeanthi, There were two kinds of yond the Gange» wcre vcry littlc known to 

Aeanthus ; one the herb commonly called them ; extremi^ thcntfore, may bc very well 

hfank-yrsiny or bearWoot; the other an applied to them. Summum aera: the higfa- 

Egyptian tree, always groon, and abotmding eet air — ^the air surrounding Ihe topmoit 

in berries. branches. This is evidently an eztravagant 

HO. MoUilanA: with soft cotton. JEthi^ h^rperbole, notwithstanding the declaration 

tf W flii.- gen. plo. ofJEthiops : an inhabitant of Pliny, as to tho height of tho trees. f^if- 

or«£Mtopfa,an eztensive country in Africa, eere: in the scnne of snperare, 
aboanding in the cotton tree. Ut : in the 1S6. Media. A country of Asia, bounded 

wmfm of quomod». on the nortb by the Caspirn.sea, on tbe 


Et gens illa quidem sumptis non tarda pti 

Media ferl tristes succos, tardumque iapo 

Felicis mali : quo non pneflencius ullum . 

(Pocula si quando sflevae infec^re novercc 

Miscueruntque herbas^ et non innoxia vei 

Auxilium venit^ ac membris agit atra veii 

131. ipm arbor es/in- Ipsa ingens arbos, faciemque simiUima lai 

feiM,mmilliinaqae Uoro Et, si non alium late jactaret odorem, 

gmad ficiem Lnunis erat : folia haud ullis labentia vent 

Flos appriml tenax : animas et olentia M 
Ora fovent illo, et senibus medicantur an 
Sed neque Medorum sylvae, ditissima ti 
Nec pulcher Ganges, atque auro turbiduf 
Laudibus Italiae certent : non Bactra, ne 
Totaque thuriferis Panchaia pinguis areni 
Hsec loca non tauri spirantes naribus igm 
InvertSre, satis immanis dentibus hydri : 
Nec galeis densisque virOm seges homiit 
Sed gravidae fruges, et Bacchi Massicus l 
Implevere : tenent olefeque, armentaque 
Hinc bellator equus campo sese arduus ii 
Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxima t 


ireit by Armenia, on the eftst by Hyrconia sahds. It received in iti 

and Parthia, and on the south by Persia brated Paetoiut; and witi 

proper. Under Cyrus the great, it became Sinut Phoeaieut. 

a conatituent part of the Persian monarchy. 133. Baetra : neu. plu. 

127. Mali : the citron. Its rind is bitter, of the Baetriu By syn 
■nd ita seeds are covered with a bitter skin : whole country, which was 
hence triMes succos^ bitte^ juices ; and tar- and waa bounded by Pari 
dum saporem^ a taste remainin^ long on the Jndia on the east, and by 1 
palate. It is called Felix^ happy, on account the north. 

of iUi man,- yirtue. and qualitiM, ; wme of ,39 p„„,j^, . ^^^ 

which «e menuoned jVon larda: m the ^ Pi„gui,: rich, in £ 

■ense of strenua vel fortu, - m ^ ' 

128. Infecere : have poisoned. Poeula: . • 

by meton. the wme. Prasentiiu : raore . 140. Haeloea: thesepl 

certam—more efficacioua. Some copies "»g fir® bave not tumed, i 

have prastarUius, ^° ^e fable of Jason, who 

129. JVbn innoxia verba : in the eense of f men, went to Colchis 1 
noxias ineantationes, fleece. Here werebullsbr 

134. Jipprinut: an adj. neu. plu. taken foa plough. Upon their 1 

ifl an adverb, in imitation of the Greek». ^^ ^" «o^n ^»^ dragon'i 

The eame aa appHnU. Animas et olentia mediately «prang up, segei 

•ro, &c. With this (fruit, malo) the Mcdoe «;'"med and prepared for < 

eorrect their breath, and (cleanse) their ^^ place of those thal had 

■tinJiing mouths. See /En. viii. 410. Ru- dragon that guarded the fl 

moB eay»; Corriguni halitum suum ei grave- ^"^" obtamed the prize. 

^tenOa ora, moua Argonautic ezpedil 

137. Oanges. One of the finert rivere in We*. vu. It ie iupposcd tJ 

the world. It riies in the kingdom of Thi- f commercial expedition, y» 

bot,and taking a south-easterly directionf lucrative. 
after a course of about 2000 miles, falls into 143. Jdassieus : a mount 

Ihe gulf or bay of Bengal ; having in its fertile in the vine ; here 

oourse received a number of tributary Massieus hunutr Bacchi: 

treams, eleven of which, it is said, are as Humor Bacchi : tho iiquor 

•arge as the Rhine. It ii considered by the wine. 
ialwbitants upon its banks, aa a god. Her- 146. Clitumne: Clitumn 

nmt ; a river of Lvdia, famoua for it* golden bria in Italy, famous for tli 


la, Biepe tuo peiilisi flumine sacro, 

1108 ad templa Dedm duxere triumpfaos. 

br aasiduum, atque alienb mensibus aestaa. 

avidie pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos.^ 160 l^ Nec ■qeanem 

ndae tigres absunt, et saeva leonum ^"' "P** iiiwifiiMe 

a : nec miseros fiiDmit aconita legente, : :jlS:,^^r«S^ 

ipit immensos orbes per humum, neque tanto tanto tractu hU^ p^ 

leus in spiram tractu se colligit anguis. quUnudmn aUit rtgwn- 

tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem; 155 ^^* 

>nM8ta manu pneruptis oppida saxis ; ^^' j „ ™*1?^™ 

oaque antiquos subter labentia muros. Bupri^nodque aUmieam 

ure, quod suprii, memorem , quodque alluit infra ? in^ ? Anne memorem 

lacas tantos ? te, Lari maxime ; teque tantos lacue, te, O max- 

bm et fremitu assurgens, Benace, marino? 160 i™« I-*"» teque, O, B»- 

unorem portus. Lucrinoque addita claustra. '^^f^ >« • j- 

. j. '^ ^ . . .y ., ' 162. £quor mdiffpa* 

mdignatum magnis stndonbus sequor ; ^ ^^^ ^ ei^ra 

{oi ponto long^ sonat unda refuso, mtgnie 


hat fed on its banks. The yictims the Tuscan eea on the south. The fonnei 

•ahed in it, to make them the whiter. was Bometimes called Mare n^erum^ and 

rictinti alone were ofibred to Jove on the lattor Mare inftrum; hence the nqtrii 

bal daye. To thii the poet alludes. applied to the one, and tn/r^ to the other. 
^Slsioi oHemt mennlms: summer in 159. Maxime Lari: Larius, a larse lako 

lonth»— mmonthenotiteown. jit- at the foot of the Alpe. It communicatee 

: in the seMO of perpehmm. ^ith the Po, by the river jiddua. Hodn. 

Bit veeudet^ &c The meanmg is, Lago di Coma. 

" ^ ^l^ ^""^ ^'''''^ ^ r £!*!' 160. BeMee: Benacus, a large lake, oom. 
e tree» produce two crops of fhiit. _., . -j^w*-*^©. «^«^i • »~|5^ »^^ wiu- 

r; heie muM mean .heep^and other ^^'^^l^fS with the Po, by the nverMm- 
a^iimal.. It could not be said of ^^^ '^ P'~^ . """Mf .^*^^ ^' ^^ 
rho«ee. The poe^ in many instan- ;^'«f^«" ; •welhng with the wave^ and 

praiaing his country, exceeds the ^^^^^ ^J * ■•*• 

of credibility. Wtiit .• in the eense 161- Luerina^vemit. Lucnnus and 

2u, eays Heyne. Avemus were two lakee in Campania. Here 

Aeonita: wolTe bane. It is taken AugusUw made a haven, which he called 

r any nozious or poisonous plant, or *he Julian port Thi» was done by uniting 

According to Solinut^ it takee its ^«™ ^7 » <»n«d, and eonnecting them with 

hun Aeon, a port in Poniut, a coun- ^? •^ PoHum JuHvm apud Baiat, im- 

Dffiou. for poisonous plants. Othera ^***^ »* Luerinum ei Avemum Laeum mari^ 

6om a Greek word signifying a fl^» •^J" Sueioniut. AddUa elautira. It 

«caoM it grew principally on stony ^^0«^ eeem fW>m thie, that Luennut waa 

■. Semina: mihe uenBe of prolet. oripnally a bay, and probably conneoted 

Lidforem operum : the labor, or work ^^^^ the eea, by a nanrow strait, but after- 

ieera. (h>erum appean to be used ^™» «"^her by some operation of the wa- 

Mnse of Opifieum, or Operanorum. J^^ ?' artificially, waa separated fh>m it, 

takes laborem operum, simply for fonning ■-lahe. This was the opinion of 

r^ mdificia, Strabo, who mforms us that Lucrinus wae 

TW oppida. Many of the cities of originaUy a bay ; but had been separatMl 

ve built upon high and elevated "»'" ™ sea, ever since the days of Herea- 

1. To this the words prteruptu taxit ^^ *>J * »0««^ or bank of sand ; that tUi 

Cangetia in the sense of exirueia. '^" oocarionaUy broken over by the waves 

Subier : Heyne takes this in the «^ ^he sea, bnt was repaiied and made ■•. 

f prmier: making the seuse to be, ^^ against all encroachments of that el» 

• rirerB flowed or passed by the walls ment, by Agrippa, for the purpose of na- 

■. He observes that many of the hmg it a safe and oonvement sUtion for Um 

r Italy were built npon the margin of Roman fleet 

whidi seems to warrant that sense 162. IndigruUum : the same as indif' 

word. nanj: roaring — raging. 

An. Martyitc. Italy is washed by leo. JuHa aoua. Heynefeema\o>snA«r« 

riatie sea, on the north-east, and by stand this in tho leiiM of Ju^Mt portwi^lte 


Tyrrhenusque fretis iminittitur aBstos Avm 

l65.H8Boead6m//alta Haec cadem ai^enti rivos, aBnsque metallfl 

Mtendit in remn nvo« Qstendit venis, atque auro plurima fluzit. 

t67.HflBc//a^eztiilit Haec genus acre vir(hn, Marsos, pubemqu 

teregenasTnrQm^neq^ye. Assuetumque malo Ligurem, Volacosque 

169.HAo/ialMiezttilit Extulit: haec Decios, Marios, magnoaque 

Scipiadas duros bello ; et te, maxime Cm 
Qui nunc extremis AsisB jam victor in ori 
Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum, 
Salve, magna parens firuffum, Satumia tel 
Magna virdm : tiU res antique laudis et • 
Ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontes : 
Ascraeumque cano Romana per oppida c€ 
ITT. Lociu ett dictndi Nunc locus arvorum mgenus : quae rob 
U ingeiuis q^ color, et qu« sit rebus natura ferend 

Difficiles primum terne, cctliesque maligni 
180. Ubi tufU teaaii Tenuis ubi argilla, et dumosis cakulus an 
argiUa, et calculue PaUadi4 gaudent sylvi vivacis oUvae. 

Indicio est tractu surgens oleaster eodem 


harbor tJiat had been made by ezcluding the ble birth^ he Eoee to the hig 

•ea — ^the water in the harbor. Lucrinus trioniphed over Jugurtha, '. 

wae not entirely separated from the sea. and over the CimbTi. H 

It was connected with it by a strait, or nar- venth consulship. CamiUo 

row channel, for the ingress and egress of brated of the CamiUi wa 

the fleet, and for the admission of the water Camilliu. He triumphed 

' of the sea. He rescued Rome from ths 

164. FretiM Avemit : the canal which con- called a second Romulua, 
nected Avemut with Lucrinxuy is here call- age of eighty years. & 
tdfretum^ a strait. JEttut: in the sense of Scipiadat, See ^n. vi. 842 
wutre, cible— capable of endurin| 

165. Jtfe/a/tooru; simpIy,bra8B. Fluxit: war. 

in the sense of abundavU. 173. Satumia tellut, I 

167. Manot, The Marai were a people of because here Saturn foun 
Italy lying to the south of the Appenine^, afler his expulsion from he 
and to the east and north of the ^qui and ©d here conjointly wilh Ja: 
Foltcu They originated,accordingtosomo, ject. 7Y«; for thee— for 
ftom a son of the sorceress Circe : others ^m^ Vrit • in the 
•»y,from^or«a,akinKofLydia. Their Laudi antiqu^ et arlU. 1 

mum, not far from the Laeut Fuetnut. Pu- m n 

kem Sabellam: the SabeUi were a very an- ^*^- -^'crmimcarmen: t 

cientpeopleofltaly,origin»!!7'-^c^-"''r-»i»* <>' verse; that la, m imiti 

StOMuiet^ the Sabinet^ and the .Autaneant. ':-*' •»•« ^ *.— .\J »** ^tcra, 

168. Ligurem: the Liguraas accustommi tia, not far from mount He 
lo fatigue or toil. The Liguret were a ^^ wrole a irciiicc upon a, 
people inhabiting that part of lialy, which 177. [ngeniis: the nati 
liea at tho head of the Mare Liguttieum^ or tho lands. Robora^ plu. o 
sea of Genoa. The Voltei were a very war- or ability to produce. Tl 
likepeople. They inhabited thatpartof Ita- to pomt out the several n 
ly, through which the river Liris passes, and euisnmg the various soils. 
were buunded on the west by tlie Rutuli such methods. 

and Latini, on the east by j^urunei and 179. Maligni: thin — po* 

Catttpanit and on the north by the ^qui to the quality of the soil. i 

and Uemiei. Verutot^ anned with darts : 181. Paliadia tylvA : ] 

from veru a kind of dart. PaUadia: an adj. from P 

169. Decios : ihese were three Romans, Minerva, to whom tlie olit 
who sacrificed their lives for their coimtry. 182. Olcasier nasctnt ph 
Mariot: the Marii^ of v(hom Caius Marius olive, springing up thick i 
WM the most oelebrated, Thou|(h of hum- the eame tract, is for a sigi 



Animos, et strati baccis syhestribus agri. 
it qiuB piiigins humus, dulcique uligine laeta, 
(Wque fi^uens herbis, et fertilis ubere campus, 
QstJeai aepe carl montis convalle solemus 
Aoipicere : buc summis liquuntur rupibus amnes, 
Ftlicfloiqiie trahunt limum : quique editus Austro, 
B fificem curvis invisam pascit aratris : 
Hb tiln pnsralidas olim multoque fluentes 
hfficiet Baccho vites : hic fbrtilis uvae, 
Hie bticis ; qualem pateris libamus et auro, 
IdiaTit ciim pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras, 
Lmcibus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta. 

Sm annenta magis studium, vituloKque tuer!, 
itU kBtoB OTium, aut urentes culta capellas : 
Mtos et satori petito longinqua Tarenti, 
Et qoalem infeluc amisit Mantua campum, 
hicentem niveos herboso flumine cycnos. 
NoD liqui^ gregibus fontes, non gramina dosont : 
Gt quantum longis carpent amienta diebus, 
Exigui tantdm gelidus ros nocte reponet. 

Nign lerd, et presso pinguis sub vomere, terra, 
& cui putre sohim (namque hoc imitamur arando) 
Opdina firumentis ; non uUo ex aequore cemes 
ntra domom tardis decedere plaustra juvencis : 
Aot unde iratus sylvam devexit arator, 
b nemora evertit multos ignava per annos, 
ABtiqoaflque domos avium cum stirpibus imis 
Brait : illae altum nidis petiere relictiB : 
At nufis enituit impulso vomere campus. 



184. At hnmufl, aum 

185 ^ pinguis, letaque dul* 

oi uligine, campusque^ 

qai esi frequens hnrbiai 

et fertilis ubore 

188. CampiaqvLe^ qui 
ett editus Austro, et dm- 

190. Hic eiunpiu lufii- 
ciet tihi 

191. Hic eampiu eni 
fertilis uve, hic idem 
erii fertUit ialit laticis; 

195 ^^^^^ 

195. Sin studium tii 

Hbi magis tueri armenta 

198. £t /a/aitcampum« 


200 f 

901. Quantdm hertn^ 

mm armenta 
203. Terra ferd nigra, 

at pinguis sub presso 


Yomere ; et cui eil 

207. Aut iOa ierra eai 
opHma/rumenii». unde 

210 210. Altum airem 

183. SirtUi: covered with. 

184. Lmia: in the senso of ahundant, 
Qlfme: the natural moisture of the earth. 

187. laowiniur: in the sense of d^tiun/. 

188. Fekeem: fertilizing, or enrichiaff. 
188. Piheem: the fem or brake, whose 

nMsi, by their contezture, are Tcry trouble- 
iNM to the plough. Invitam : hated. 

191. SwjfUiei : in the sense of produeei. 

192. Paierit ei auro: by Uendiadis, for 
Wtttit paierit : m golden bowls. 

193b Tjfrrkenut ; an inhabitant of Etru- 
di or Toocan^ an eztensiye country in 
l^j, whooe ancient inhabitants were fa- 
atoe toT indnlging their appetite ; hence the 
C|ilh0t pinguit: nit or corpulent, Reddi- 
■v: we ofier to the gods the warm en- 
biib, kc Ebur: properij ivory — any 
ttiaf made of iTory. Here, an ivory pipe. 

l^ TWrt; in the senso of olere, yel 

196. l?Veii/ef : nippinf— destroying. Cul" 
k: n adj. from etitut. This denotes any 
Hiif tlMt ii d res s e d, taken eare of, or ma- 
iaaiiywaybyenhure. Hereitmeans 


T^armti: Tarentum, a town in Ca- 
lllla, t& llie eastem part of Italy ; which 
katiftas Um opitlMC toMbi^f nmota 
iddi. ^nw M osdimlsiad 

198. Mantua infeHx amittl : such as tm 
happy Mantua haUi lost. The poet alludee 
to the circumstance of Augustus' depriving 
the Mantuans of their lands, and bestowing 
them upon his soldiers, as a reward for thev 
services. 'Infelixy here, is peculiarly appro- 
priate. Mantua was situated upon the ri* 
ver Mincius, which abounded in grass and 
reeds. Fhmine: perhape, in the sense of 
rtpa, vel litore. 

200. Liquidi: in the sense ofpuri, /)e- 
tunt: Heyne reads deeruni^ in the future. 

204. ImUamur koe^ Acc. The design of 
ploughing land being to loosen its tezturo, 
and to render it soft and mellow ; by doing 
this, we imitate, savs the poet, a soil « hirn 
is naturally so. JEie observes, that a datli 
mould, and one that looks fat and greasy, 
as it is broken up with the share, and is, af 
the same time, rotten or mellow, is the best 
for grain: non ex uUo aquore eemet^ Ieo. 
The same too mav be said, he observes, of 
Und newly cleared: unde iratut^ Ilc, /ra- 
iuty angry, on account of the barrenneas of 
the wood. Ignava: barren — useless. 
205. JEquore : in the sense of a^,vel eammo, 

211. Kudit eanunu: but the new (beiors 
nnoultivated) field hath shone under thia 
deep kid ihaio. Fot eMiluit^ Dt. *ti%V% 
would read enatel, th« pM. 


Niiiii jejuna quidem clivoffl glarea nuis 

Vix huiniles apjbus casias roretnque iniu 

tl4. Chaljdru vix Et tophus scaber, et nigria excBa chelydi 

nUttutrant eu qiuqut ^reta : negant alios leque serpentibus as 

Dulcem ferre cibum, et curvas prtebere I 

SIT. ItUiara q^amoa.- Quse tenuem exhalat nebulam, fumosque 

^*^ Et bibit humorem, et, dum nilt, ei se ip 

Quieque euo viridi semper se gramine n 

Nec BCabie et salaft leedit rubigine feirun 

SS1. IQa urra btexst Illa tibi letis intexet vitibus ulmos : 

Ilia ferax oleffi eat ; illam experiSre colfl 

Et &cilem pecori, et patientem vomeris 

Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vesei 

Ora jugo, et vacuia ClaniuB non equus 1 

XM. Nnnc dicam qoo- Nunc, quo quamque modo possis C(^ 

nxMlo ponig cogaoteen Rgr^ sit, an supra morem sit densa, reqi 

ir"'"ui'i^o''n lit"™^ C*'*^"' fnimentis quoniam favet, sltera 

. " S^^D^nMf^^ei Densa, magia Cereri ; rarissima quKque 

CBrsnmagii Ante locuni captes oculis; altequejubet 

In Bolido puteum demitti, omnemque reg 

RursuB humum, et pedibus summas lequ 

£33. Siarew deerunt gj deerunt, rarum, pecorique et vitibus i 

S,'£i":p'Sr^'-' AP<;-. -1»- .ri. : .» in .„. po». n,g. 

Ire loca, et scrobibus superabit terra re 

Spissus ager ; glebas cunctantes crassac 

Expecta, et validis terram proscinde juv 

Salsa autem tellus, et que perbibetur 

Frugibus infelix ; ea nec mansuescit ara 

Nec Baccho genus, aut pomis sua nomii 


SIS. Jfttn jgima glima, BavlDg men- 225. Ora .■ 

liamed thB land boit lor grain, Ihe poet here yaero: the : 

obeervei, Ihal the luid in which the diy penia, nemr N>p1e*, well[,j^vnaglarea; or the rongfa rotten- no. Aeerru: Acerns n 

•tone, (coier toph-iu; or the ohuk (1006, of Campania, which th> 

erete, aboundi, will •eejcelj prodnea the iti frequent inujidationi 

b«rb eaiiot uid «oueqnentlf ii unfit for ted. Hance the propriet 

grain: beeidae, it ia the h«ant of nozioai juit, or kiad — deetrueliv 

nptileeuidvannin. J{*r«M.- inthaMi - — - 
JlMWiMTiHejiie: futhw rat letel wic 

«15. TophMi jfutrr, &c Hoyne Inkes "^ dmatii. 

kaihui •eabcr and ertla extra tui nominttlive» -28. BacAo—Lyia. 

to lueanl. *<>"■ ""^ '"'" P"* 'or ™ 

„ o ,. ... ... - .,. 230. Anll: in Ihc BBQ 

990. Seabtet rubigtne: wilh aourf— with T" n ■„■ ■ ii. 

liut. Ferram: ihe plongh-shlre. (t«m in iTBScnio of/OT 

SSl. Intexnt: will ontwine— BinbrsBB. u,e goliJ ground. 

'n/iftcaMf, nyi fluiEus. j34_ (;j„; jn iJ,b ai 

Ct3> Faciltm ytmri ! to bo tDod for pii«- hmnut. 

tWB. uil ii(iti«iii of Um bitniiiTig plciU(;li — 236. Erpeela eimcla\ 

~ '" bear fr«iiu«Dt lillnso. doiJi, uid lurge laugb ri 

E4. Capua: a dt; at Campanitt, «ut- 3M. EanccmaTuitrmn 

-■■■•- K Itvllla oountrj. Ita iiilialiiu mellowB bj ploughing, 

' ' ' il for thiir wealtb ind klnd tollio vinB,nur tlici 

liu ftBm Capyt. a iVull. Tho vine o.nd fr 

ItStralHi ileriviM il loHe Iheir oriE^inal Haior 

U the «hiof eit/ ia plantril in such s i>oil. t 
aS uuiyla, vel tr^fiaundB 


ipeeimen. Tu spisso viniuie qutk», 
iktrum fumoau deripe tecdn. 
le malus, dulcesque a funtibufl uodB 
calceDtur: aqua etucUbilur omiiia 
{nndea ibunt per vimina gutta. S45 

dicium &ciet manifestus ; et ora 
uitAm eensu torquebit amaror. 
tem quK flit lellua, boc denique pacto 
baud unquam manibus jaciata fttiicit ; 
morem ftd digilofl lentescit babendo. 260 
jorea heibafl abt, ipsaque justo *si. H™^» »«•■» 

mmiim ue sit mihi fertilis illa, "X" Ji;^.' "* *" 

raliasm pnmis ostendat anstis I ^^ Terra, qnw m( 

nt est, ipeo tacitam se pondere prodit; • grBvii, <|db<|m atUma. 
ia. Promptum eat ocuIiB preMliscere nigram, prodit m t«dtu> 
color. At aceleratum exquirere frigus 266 S66. Et qoiaqiut eolot 
: pice» tantiJm, taxique nocentes *•* «">•««?"• '•*«• 

ut hedA% pandunt veatigia nigrx. 
adversis, terram multd ante memento 
et magnos scrobibua concldere moDtes, 
ataa Aquiloni ostendere glebaa, 261 

in infodiu ntis genua; optima putri t6Z. OptimauTaiMu 

id venti curant, gelidsque pruiiue, ' t^^ ■<"■> 

I movens robustus jugera fossor. 
tB baud ulla viroa vigilantia fugil : 
I flimitem exquirunt, ubi prima pat«tur 
legea, et quo mox dlgesta feratur; 

k: in tba wenao of tiaie, tbI eapiere : U> irj — baka. Tha poet hva ad- 
lai : bukets made of thick Tuea to let tlia lud lia ezpoBrd both to tha 

heat of the lUn during the nuiuner, and ta 
■ bithn — iDto the bukel. JSa- the Dorth wind during winter-, that ii, roi 
s earth of bmd qualit}. Vnda: ■ whale yeBT. Ths imli in the followiiij 
of aipia. line «ppeui entirelj ezpletiTe. Boine hive 

laMur ' in tfae mdm) of ^fflutt, propoMd to read iit room of ii, alipte, which 

would be [ueferftble, if theie were *uthoritj 
r .■ tbe laate or reliih, denating for tha ehuge. HeTne leeini to «ppfovi 
tt %ay thinc. It diffiiri from of olfiu. 

1 hm niMM the Mnwtion or 381. OlenJen: in the lenM of expo. 
Md on tha moath bj the act of ner*. SupiiuUat : toraed toward, or lyui| 
Mtitm I a diMoreij of the eipoeed to, 
" * — ' 364. Labe/aetajugera: hi* laoeenedMref 

— mellowiiig onder the inatrun: etita of hn» 

— mellowiiig m 
lumdrj. Cvra 
will render the ground •ofl ud m 

e of ■obo, vel bandrj. Curant: in the eenM of j^EckkI; 
' " d roellDW. 

«(«.■ in the »11*0 of veriato. .— - 

nde.- bjr buidling, 367. Stget: ■ norMry, oi plaee wba* 

> -■ tban jiut — aliDve due maa- traei are fint planted ar reared, tjll ibej be 

■bl. after Iho campiirativc. of iDfficient uie tobetnuiiplanled. Inthii> 

lu ; drufa liero ineann the blade paeeage, the meaniiig appean to be, tiial 

he gTun. thaae whawonld hava good orchard*. ■hoiilii 

lam: in the wnve of lacill. paj s puticolai atleDUon to theaail, wheie 

■plH"!.' in the aonie ol faeiie, they inlend to planl iha treoa, and Bcleci a 

rahaf b Iha niwe of riiiftiaa, aail af the libe kind far the nuiaery; from 

iiK whicFi {ex fUD) afterward the treca ate to 

fMfr* lerram: to drain. w drj be taken and traoaplantad ; laat wlien w 

CfffdiTt. Uavidaon. on tha tnniplantad, thej ■bould not unila 

'•*■■'■*" — ■'" -'— , Cx> with tha •arth. Hot onlj », tii«i ^mU 


Mutatam ignorent subito ne semina matPil 

Quin etiam coeli regionem in cortite tigak 

t70. Ut rMtituant Ut, quo queque modo steterit, qud pan^ < 

tmmnquamque eb modo, Auatrinos tulerit, qu» terga obverterit alfc 

juoqumque steterit, qui Restituant. Aded in teneris cortBueacere 

^^"^ Collibus, an plano melius sit ponere vit« 

Quaere prius. Si pinguis agros metabere 
Densa sere. In denso non segnior ubere 
S76. Sjd eligas ■olum Sin tumulis accliye solum, collesque supin 
aodiye tumulis Indulge ordinibus : nec secius omnis in lU) 

Arboribus positis secto via limite quadret* 
Ut saepe ingenti bello, cum longa cohortei 
Explicuit legio, et campo stetit agmen ape 
Directeeque acies, ac late fluetuat omtiis 
^re renidenti tellus, necdum horrida iniiac 
Praelia, sed dubius mediis Mars errat in ai 
884. Omnia fnienfalld Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa jdart 
▼ianuD ■int dimenM f^^j^ animum mod6 uti pascat prospelhiff i 

Sed quia non aliter vii-es dabit omflibas 10 
Terra, neque in vacuum poterunt se extel 
Forsitan et scrobibus quae sint fiistigia <; 
Ausim vel tenui vitem committere sulco. 
Altius ac penitus terrsB defigitur arbos : 


carefVinj observe what particular side iitood t78. Ommtvta,fte. Ev 

toward the several parts of heaven, that nue, should square exactlj 

thej might be placed, every one in the same placed in a path or line c 

manner— on what side they sustained the space should exactly for 

■ummer heat, and on what aide the winter rows of trees being planl 

oold. Seget : in the Benae of sentinarium^ tances, and at right angl 

■ajB Hejme. Digetta : arraQged in rows. /n unguem : ezactl j — to i 

Feratwr: in the sense of Iramferatur. 281. Jleiet direeta: the 

9BB.Semina: young plante, or trccs. Ma- _2,e battalions are ma; 

trem: the ground into which they are trans- ^^ ormy in order of battl» 

P'"*®**- . . ^ ^ derof march; exertftfttt: 

271. Jix% : m the sense of iqftentrioni. ciee. Fluetuat: in the se: 

$72. Consueseere in leneris : to be accus- -»o« d • j j • «.u 

tomed in their tender age availa bo much- J^^' • ^*^"^* flV ^ 

ha. 8o much mfluence over them. Some -^re ; m the Benae of irf« 

«opies have d teneru. Jinniswvmdeniood. 283. /hiWu* ; doubtful- 

274. Metabere: if you shaU lay out for hnowmg on which eide j 
planting. Ruibus mterpreU it by eligas. armiee the victory wiU fal 

275. Densa: for (feiu^, ata adv. Bacehus s^4. Omnia sint^ kc. 
non segnior : the vine wUl not be lera fruit- should bemeasurcdoutini 
Ail in a thick and rich soil. Some take in Davidson supposes interm 
denso simply for densi^ and render it thus : the like import, to agree i 
the vine wiJl not be Icm fruitful in a rich govjem viarum. RuflBus 
•oU, if p/anted thickly. In this case, ubere with numeris^ and suppoM 
Im taken for richness or fertihty of soU. ed by that word. But to t 
Thii appears to be the opinion of Heyne. in the sense of omnes vii 
Rosus connects dento with ubere* In this and of this construction 1 
caae, denso must be taken in the sense of amples in Virgil. Opaa 
frififtM, vel «pofo; and tf6erein theaense of places. iEn. ii. 725. Op 
9oio. ways, or passages. iEn. ' 

276. Stqnnos: sloping— deaoending gra- ftSS. Fastigia: in the i 
4aaUy . tas. Serohiinu : to the tr< 

277. Induige ordinibus: indulge in your 290. Altixa. The comi 
rowB — plant your vines farther apart. A*ee Mtb; but HeyncsUeinsius 
monkt : aLKH-Ukewise ; pon^ faya Heyne. havo oMof • 


nprimis, qusu quantum vertice ad auras 

iautum radice in Tartara tendit. 

byemes illam, non flabra, neque imbres 

. : imiiu)Ia manet^ multosque per annos, 

m volvens durando saecula vincit. 295 

s late ramos et brachia tendens 

media ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram. *^- ^P»* modia mit^ 

n ad Solem vergant vineta cadentem : *'"'* ramat ■usimet 

vites corylum sere : neve flagella 
te, aut summas defringe ex arbore plantas, 
nor teme :) neu ferro laMle retuso SOl 

leve olee sylvestres insere truncos. 

incautis pastoiibu^ excidit ignis, 

pingui primum sub cortice tectus 
^mprendit, frondesque elapsus in altas S05 

ccelo sonitum dedit : inde secutus 

victor, perque alta cacumina regnat, 
ovolvit &immis nemus, et ruit atram 

picei crassus, caligine nubem : 

si tempestas a vertice sylvis 310 

rlomeratque ferens incendia ventus. 

non a stirpe valent, caesseque reverti 312. Ubi hoe iiieidit. 

tque im& similes revirescere terri; tumviiet non valent rt- 

er»t folib oleaster amaris. **'''* mupe 

1 tam prudens quisquam persuadeat auctor 
Bore^ rigidam spirante movere. 316 

tum claudit hyems, nec semine jacto 


sra t^ndii: Tariarut^ mas. in the or otherwise, you ehoald not take the top- 

thepla.oneofthe regions of heU. most shoots of the tree, bat thoee tbat trc 

» poete eay, the wicked and im- nearer the root ; for they will grow and 

mkhed. Izion, Tityus, Tanta- flourish better, having more etrength in 

as, and the Danaides, were een- them, and having aJready contractcd a fond- 

his place. The poet advieee to ness for the earUi— /an/ta amor terra, 6'e> 

rine to a light Airrow, juat be- mina : in the aenee oftureulot^ vel plantat, 

«ce of the earth ; bnt to put the 300. Defringe. Heyne reade detirtnge. 

^l^l^^^Vl^nt^^^ t^J^evetntere^kc. Nor plant the tranke 

r %Sl%^Vr^^^S^o!r« ofthewildoliveamongyoSrvinee, Inter 

The vine properiy belong» ^e*, i. anderetood. 

M ipecieaof thetree,nortothat * 

ib; bat ia between both: /«r- . 306. 5ecu/i«: mcrraamg more and more, 

nm quod nee ariforem, neefrutv- ** '«P>» victor^ne. 

dixerimj aaya Columella. See 308. RuU: m the eenae of emiitii^ vel 

erigit, J^emmt: in the eenae of vinUum, 

liot per annot. Heyne reads, 310. j9 veHiee: ftom on high; or, accord- 

ret. He obeenree that Heinuus, ing to Servius, from the north. Detuper^ 

hei^ read the aame. Per annot^ veT de ecUormj» Heyne; iiteptenirione^Wkyt 

ral readingf and appears to be Rucua. 

If nepoiet be read, it must be 312. Vbihoe: when this happene — ^when 

e eenee of ataiet^ vel teva; but yourvinevards are bumt, your vines cannot 

ressed in the following line, by shoot fortnaffain fix>mthe root; nor,if they 

nulla tmeula rtribn. be cut, can they do it, and spring up saur 

ri/ .* in the sense "S tuperat, as they were before. They will be entirely 

tpeie tummr . AMther seek the destroyed, and nothing but the barren wild 

kots, nor break c»ff the topmost oIiTe will snrvive and remain. ReverH : Uk 

the tree. the sense of renateu 

» wnich the poet gives, is : that 317. Rura : in the sense otarva, Semtne 

ing trees, wnether by grafling, Jaeio: in the senee of fttreula dcjgui»* 




Concretam patitur radicem affigere terrB. 
Optima vinetis satio est^ cum vere rubeoti 
C%iulida venit avis longis invisa colubris : 
Prima vcl autumni sub frigora, cum rapidu 
Nondum hyemem contingit equis, jam prae 

S2S. Adoo ver et/ uiiU Ver aded frondi nemorum, ver udle sylvis ; 
flrondi nemonim, vw eii Vere tument terr», et genitalia semina. poi 

Tum pater omnipotens fcecundis imbribus i 
Conjugis in gremium Isetas descendit, et oi 
Magnus alit, magno commixtus corpore, f 
Avia tum resonant avibus virgulta canoris, 
Et Venerem certis repetunt armenta diebu 
Parturit almus ager : Zeph jrique tepentib 

S31. Onmibus arvit Laxant arva sinus : superat tener omnibus 

Inque novos soles audent se germina tut6 

Credere : nec metuit surgentes pampinus 

Aut actum coelo magnis Aquilonibus imbr 

Sed trudit gemmas, et frondes explicat ora 

,.^* .^**" 5^"*?*^®™° Non alios prim^ crescentis origine mun< 

.»«?!. J-1!l;J^ ™!!.*«*Y! niuxisse dies, aliumve habuisse tenorem 
pnma ongine crescentis ^ ,. , . ' .n « 

mundi,habuis8eveaUum Credidenm : ver illud erat, ver magnus a| 
tenorem : illud temptu Orbis, et hybernis parcebant flatibus Euri 
•rat ver Cum primum hicem pecudes hausere, vird 

Ferrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis, 
Immissseque ferae sylvis, et sidera coelo. 
Nec res hunc tenerae possent perferre labc 


319. Rubmti: blooming — ^bluehing; in zephyrs. This ie eztreme 

the eense of pvrpureo. higlily poetical. 

390. Cantitda avis : the Ciconia, or stork. 332. Oermina, The 1 

80 csteemed wae this bird on accoimt of its gramina, Heyne reads gi 

deatroying aerpenls and noxious reptilea, ,^^8, Martyn, Vomius, and 

that in ThessalV, Pliny inform« us, it was a ^^ game. It is evidenUy 
capiUl crimo for any person to kiU one; 3^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

hence, tmua langucolubru, ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

f ^' ^?'^;''^^'^?^''^^^^^^^^^ happened in the%eign of 

father ^ther deecends into the bosom of his ^f l^^^hesealy, of which he ai 
joyoua spouee m fructifymg showere, and ^^ ^\ Burvivors 

great himself mingling with her great body, ^ ^^^^j destruction of 

nounshes all her oneprmg. drected bv an oracle to 

Tliese Unes ajre extremeW beautifUl, >s ^ ^ 'f j^^;^ „, 

weU .B thw whole de«!nption of «prmg. „„de„t„„d to be stone., : 

The « Aer or ur, by the poeU, .. frequcnt y j ^, ; .^^^ ^;, 

calu*d Jupiter, on account, perhaps, of its j i b f 

great utility, and ita necewdty to life and 341. Durii arvis: ston) 

vegetation ; and becauae of the intimate because they sprang» up 

eonnezion between the surrounding air and equipped for war. 
the earth, the poet represents the latter as 343. Ret tenertB, It is 

Juno, calling it the spouse of Jove. ther tho poct here speaki 

328. ,^via virgulta : the sequostered crcation of the world, or r 

^oods, or thicketfl. Aviut is evidently com- scription of spring in gon< 

pounded of the Greek alpha^ negativum, mer case, res tcnera will h. 

and vt«r, a way. We meet wiih several in- infant creation ; in the h 

stanccs of the like composition in the Latin productions of nature. D 

langua^e : as dement^ of de and mens^ in this latter case, and \a 

ament^ Sic. nerte^ frail, an epithet, say 

331. ^rva /oximf, &c. The fields open and cver will be, propcr I 

thoir boeoro to th» warm breezes of the thinss. Ruieus secms to 1 

GEOROieA JJB. ir. tt. 

Dta quies ireti fiigusque caloremque 
exciperet coeli indulgentia terras. 345 

(uperest ; quaecumque premes virgulta per agroe, 
DM> ptngui, et multk memor occule terrft : 

em bibulum, aut squalentes infode conchas* 348. Ixibde itreum c^ 

Q labentur aqusB, tenuisque subibit Wbuhira la^idem «ut 

L^ue animoB toUent sata ; jamque reperti, 360 ^ZZeas^ '' 

super atque ingentis pondere testas 350. ReperU tunt ho- 

: hoc efiusoe munimen ad imbres ; mfus^ qoi urgerent iUm 

hiulca siti findit canis aestifer arva. >uper sazo, atque 

bu8 podtis, superest deducere terram .^^ Hoc e*/ munimeii 

1 capita, et duroe jactare bidentes ; 366 ^ f^^^L^^^^L^Sl 

^ , ** , . ' eif fiiimtmen« uDi Bttuef 

K> ezercere solum sub vomere, et ipsa cania findit 

luctantes inter vineta juvencos : 

is calamos, et ras» hastilia virgSB, 358. Si^erefltum ap- 

sque aptare sudes, furcasque bicomes: **" viHbw 

oiti quarum, et contemnere ventoe 360 

nt, summasque sequi tabulata per uhnos. 

m prima novis adolescit frondibus stas, 

m teneris : et dum se Istus ad auras 363. Parcendum ut 

^t» lazis per purum immissus habenis, **^ teneria vitUnu^ dum 

nondum &lcis tentanda ; sed uncis 366 P"i2? i_ ... «««j„^ 

.,/.,. ^ ' , , 365. Ipsavuwnondum 

B roanibus firondes, mterque legendaB. t«itandaacie falcii 

jam vahdis amplexe stirpibus ulmoe 


. Mtmifu cdHktff /MMr, aays he. gating the vino by the lajer, the top was 

lowa the opinion of Dr. Trapp, placed into the ground, which contequentljr 

lerte re$ uaderstanda the young became the root. Rueoa saTB, radiees. Bi- 

' vegetation in general. David- dentes : Bidena waa a kind of rake or hooi 

bo aame opinion. Hune laborem : having two teeth or foriis— a grubbing hoe ; 

ng, vix. the eztremes of heat and compounded of bit and dent. Seminihui 

poeitia: in the eenae of turtuli» defottit^ tcI 

ei^erei: in ihe wmae of excepittei. plantatit. 

i the prooeding line, for imttei. 358. HattUia : polee pointed like ■pears. 

r had mvored-^viaited. /2aMe9tf;g-<e: ofpeeledwood — thebarktakea 

anee.* in the eenie of plantabi»^ off to render them more emooth. Vvrgu, 

ia the eenae of turculDt. duortieatitt aays Rusub. 
tdt bibuhm lapidem : bury around 359. Bieomet fitreat : two-pronged fofka. 

fongj ■tone, and rough shelb. Bieemte, of bit and eomu, 
mti» haHiut^' &o. This ie aaid 360. Q^uanm viribut : by whoee support 

rom aa opinion, that a circulation they may accuetom themselves to rise, or 

■t tho root was neceasary to the mount up. 

tbe plant or seton. 8ata: in the 361. Tlab%ilata. These were branches of 

trtMlL Animot : in the ■ense of elme extended at proper distances, to sus- 

tain the vine and enable it to apread. ^^o 

hmo imbret: ezceesive, or immo- have no word m English answering to it. 
la. 364. Immittut laxit habenit ■ rushiitg 

Uifer eanit: the sultry dog. This forth with loosened reins. Tbis is a meta- 

■ the mottth of the great dog, a phortakenfromthehorsesiatherace. Agtl: 

on ta the heavens. It is saia to in the sense of erigil. 
isidcrable influence, while in con- 365. Aeie faleit. This is the reading of 

itb the sun, upon the heat of the Hejme, Valpj, and some others. Adet^ in 

This space of time is usuaHy the nom. is the common readinff. The vine 

•d tha dog-days. The name of is not to be attempted with the pnming* 

SirittM, knife, but the leaves are to be plucked and 

|Mla .' here plainly means the carefully cullcd by the bending nand, t>i/er- 

leli aia so called, either because legendoi. 

ktj draw BoarishiDent fiom the 367. Falidit ttirpihu» : V\tYv a\x\iiv% 

' a iMWih ; OT becaaee» by propa- wreaths— ■tems. Stringt : thm— \i\tci \>S. 



Exierint ; tum stringe comas, tum brae 

Ante reformidant ferrum : tum denique dl 

Exerce imperia, et ramos compesce fluehl 

S71. Sepet texondaB Texends sepes etiam, et pecus onrne U 

mi etrpte viiet^ et onme PrsBCipue dum frons tenera, imprudensqiM 

peciui tenendom est ab ^^j^ ^^^^^ indignas hyemes, Solemque pd 

Sylvestres uri assidue capresque sequacei 
Dludunt : pascuntur oves, avidaeque juvei 
376. Nec frigora con- Fngora nec tantum cana concreta pruini 
«*vi.*^\.^SbeM Aut gravis incumbens scopulis arentibus I 
«lentibus ■copuUs, no- Quantum ilJi nocuere greges, dunquo veo 
oiere vUUnu tantilan, Dentis, et admorso signata in stirpe cicati 
^uantiim illi greges Non aliam ob culpam Baccho caper omd 

Gaeditur, et veteres ineunt proscenia ludi ! 
Prsmiaque ingeniis pagos et compita circ 
Theseidae posuere : atque inter pocula la 
Mollibus in pratis unctos saliere per utrei 
Necnon Ausonii, Troj^ gens missa, colon 
Vernbus incomptis ludunt, risuque soluto 
^ Oraque corticibus sunmnt horrenda cavat 
Et te, Bacche, vocant per carmina lieta, 1 
Oscilla ex alt^ suspendunt mollia pinu. 


370. Exeree dura tmperia : ezercise rigid 383. 77ieteid(B : the Atl 

■way — ^nile them imperiously. FluerUes: fVom 7%e«etM, one of theii 

■nperfluous — ^wide-spreading. JEgeus and iEthra. He ti 

372. Imprudem laJbwnim: onused — ^onac- in cities, and contributed : 
costomed to hardships. vilization. Tragedy is si 

373. Indigfuu : in the sense of durat^ vel nated among the Atheniai 
§avat, Super : in the sense of praier, of their poets, hath the h* 

376. IUudunt : in the sense of nocent. iU It is said he perfon 

377. Oravit ofMat : excessive heat. cart. 

381. Proteenia, The Roman theatre was 384. Unetot utret, Thi 

of a semi-circular form, and divided into ofgoatskinsfilled withwl 

four parts. The porticutj or gallery. Here wiUi oil. At the feasts o: 

were the seats for the common people, in the custom to leap upon tl 

the form of a wedge, and were called Cunei, and being slippery, oflen 

The Orchettra was the inner part, or centre or dancer to fall, whid 

of the theatre. Here tlie senators and mirth and laughter in the 

equites sat, and the dancers and musicians 385. Coloni, Colonut 

performed. The Protcenium was the space tiller of the earth, and ai 

between the Orehettra and Scena^ more ele- country. In this last sei 

vated than the former, but lower than the used here, denoting the ^ 

latter. Here the actors performed. The They were originally a (n 

Seena was that part over against the specta- led into Italy by iEneas. 

tors. The Pottteenium was the place be- priety of their being callec 

hind the Seena^ or curtain, where the actors Atuonii : an adj. &om A 

retired. The amphitheatre was built in a nal name of Italy : in the 

oiicular form, witJi nothing to obstruct the vel Itali, 

view from any part. Seats were all around 386. SohUo : in the sen 

it, and in the middle was a large open space 387. Ora : in the sense 

or area, where the gladiators and wild beasts 389. Otcilla, Thesem 

Bsed to fight. small earthen images of Bi 

Sas. Ingeniit: to genius, or wit. The the branches of trees, w 

eommon reading is ingentet^ an epithet en- and were tumed about bt 

Hrely useless. Davidson, on the authority were supposed to confern 

of Pierius, reads tngeniit, He says he in whatever direction th« 

foand it so in the most ancient manuscripts. their faces. MoUia : move 

It is mlso tbo reading of Heyne mnd Bur- tumed easily, and obeyed 

namms. poriiaps, eieminate, boot 



BiDe omnis largo pubeacit Tinea fietu : 890 

Coriiplentur yallesque cavaB saltusque profundi, 

Bt qudcumque Deus circikm caput egit honestum. a8t.Etto«ii,qaocmD- 

Ergd rite Buum Baccho dicemus honorem ^"* ^^ circumaRlt 

Cuminibus patriia, lancesque et liba feremus ; 

Et ductua comu stabit sacer hircus ad aram : 396 

Pinguiaque in verubus torrebimus exta columis 

J^t etiam ille labor curandis vitibus alter, 
Ciu nunquam ezhausti satis est ; namque omne quotannis 
Terque quaterque solum scindendum, glcbaque versis 
^temum firangenda bidentibus, omne levandum 400 
Fronde nemus. Redit agricolis labor actus in orbem« 
Alque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus. 
Et jam olim seras posuit cum vinea frondes, 
Frigidus et sylvis Aquilo decussit honorem ; 
Jam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annum 405 
Rusticus, et curvo Satumi dente relictam 
Persequitur vitem attondens, fingitque putando, 
Primus humum fodito, primus devecta cremato 
Sarmenta, et valloe primus sub tecta referto : 
Postremus metito. Bis vitibus ingmit umbra : 410 

Bis segetem densis obducunt sentibus herbsB : 

Dunis uterque labor. Laudato ingentia mra, 413. Aipora Timina 

Exiguum cohto. Necnon eUam aspera rusci ^^^^ et fluvialis anmdo 

Vimina per sylvam, et ripis fluviaUs arundo ceditor ripis 


aiwrmjm rtpreMnted u joathful and de- of Satuni. The scythe, or pruning-houA, 

Wnehed. Jaobiiia^ Baya Heyne. was the badflre of Saturn. Relietam : de- 

390. /Wu: in the eenae of prooen/u, says prived of itn nxiit and foliage, hke a forlom 

Heyne. mother beroavcd of her children. Nothing 

393. Honorem : in the sense of laudes. can surpass this in force and beautj. DenU: 

396. ColumiM vervbui: hazle-spits. The in the sense offalce, 

faasle seems here to be mentioned, as the 408. Primus, The poet here advises tlie 

instrament on which the sacriflce was to be vintager to be the first to perform eveir 

roastod, beeaose It was injurious to the vine. piece of business bclonging to his vinejard ; 

Tbe goat wia sacred to Bacchus, and usu- such as digging and mellowing the ground, 

allj oifered to hlm. See 3S0, supra. carrying home and ^uming the useleas 

397. E$t eiiam iUe aller : there is also branches (tarmenta) of the vine, and carry- 
■aother labor. Curandit : in the sense of ing home and securing from the weather 
c el gmtf g. The dat. is here plainly used in the stakes and poles {vaUot) that supported 
the sense of the gen. But this construction the vine ; but to be the last to gather his 
m eommoD with the poets. gr&pos, as tliey would grow better by re- 

398. Satis exhautti : enongh of pains maining on the vine, and having a longer 
taken. Exhauttum^ thongh properlj a part. time to ripen. 

of Uie verb exkaurio^ is here used as a sub- 410. Bit umbraj &c. The vine requires 

•Inntive, govemed by the adv. tatit, to be cleared of its superfluous leaves twice 

400. JEtemitm: in the sense of attidui. in the season, and twice to be cleared of 
Bideniibut: the same with /tfont^a. Ae- weeds and grass. This circumstance wiU 
mmt: in the sense of vinea^ vel vinetum. explain the words of the poet. 

401. Aetut in orbem: that is, perpetuut^ 411. Sentibut: with weeds — briars. 
w^comiinuut: because there is no end or 412. Laudato, The poet here means: 
lermination in a circle. you maj admire a large farm, but be sure 

40S. Annui: in the sense of annuut la" to till a small one: or, yoa may praise a 

ier. vel anniMi opera, The same labor or large one in the possession of another, but 

VOM ie to be done every year, and it re- you should prefor a small one yourself, be- 

tane in the same order and course. cause you will find it in the end more pn>- 

404. Deeutnthonorem: hath shaken from fitable. 
Ika troee their beaaty and foliage. 413. Rutei : tlie slyrub caUed the Hutdier^ 

40i» Cmnodentr: with the crooked knife broora. 

' 102 F. VfRGlLlI MARONIS 

Cieditur ; incultique exercet cura salicfi. 

416 VitM Tinct» uZ- Jam vinctse vites, jara &lcem aiinista rep 

«lU j«m rep&miniJkUem j^jj^ ^^^ extremoa cffoBtus vinitor antes 

Sollicitanda tamen tellus, pulvisque movc 
£t jam maturis metuendus Jupiter uTia. 

Contra, non ulla est oleb cuhuni : neij 
Procurvam expectant falcem, rastroeque 

422. RadieeihvBaenint Cum semel fasesenrat arvis, aunsque tule 
arvw, wr/ic«que wrum i^ gaiig tellus, cum dente recluditur m» 
SlTum^Xdit^;'^^^ Suflicit humorem, et gravidas cto vomei 
co dente, sufficit humo- Hoc pmguem et placitam paci imtntor o 
rem satis oleit: et tuffU Poma quoque, ut primum truncoa senser 
ciet gravidos firuges cum £t vires habuere suas, ad sidera raptun 
reeludUur vomere: vi propria nituntur, opisque haud mdiga 

Nec minus intere& foetu nemus omne g 

Banguineisque inculta rubent aviaria bao 

Tondentur cytisi: iiedas sylva aHa mmisi 

432. jB quibut noctur- Pascunturque ignes nocturni, et lumina j 

■* **•■ Et dubitant homines serere, atque impen 

Quid majora sequar ? sahces, hnmilesqui 

Aut ills pecori firondem, aut pastoribus i 

Sufficiunt ; sepemque satis, et pabula mf 

439. Juvat videi^itrva S* juvat undantem buxo spectare Cytona 

mm obnoxU rastrii, non Naryciaeque picia lucos : juvat arva videi 

alli cuns hominum. Non rastns, hominum non ulli obnoxia c 


415. Salieti: willow-ground. Thepron. coniidering it u an fa; 
le, is to be supplied after exereei. that the fruit would be a 

416. Rqtonunt, In the language of po- the ploughing. Statim 
•trj, the vines are said to laj aside the eajs Ruapus. 

pruning knife, wben they no longer stand 425. H6e : with this — 

in need of its being applied to them. This hoe^ according to Servii 

takes place when tfaej have sufficiently em- this facility in propagaUn 

braced or entwined around tfae elms, aud delighting in peace. 
other trees planted in the vineyard for the 426. Poma : the fruite 

purpose of supporting them. FinetcB: in the trees tfaat bore them. 
the sense of /^a/ce^ says Rueus. Arbutta: 429. Omnenemu»: Hf 

in the sense ofvineta, See Ecl. i. 40. nut arbonan, 

417. Effatut vinitor : the wearied vinta- 431. Cyiiti ionderUur, 
ger sings nis last rows — that he hath gotten either browsed upon by 
io his last rows. Pervenii ad extremot W' prepared for their use. 
dinet (antet) viiium^ says Heyne. Bhrub much esteemed i 

419. Jupiter: tbe air, or weather. causing cattle to give ex 

423. Uneodenie, /^eiu is any instrument dat: torches— materialsl 
of one tine or fbrk for opening the earth 433. Sertre : to plant i 
about the roots of treee or plants, or for 434. Salieet: thewillo 
loosening the ground in any way. The brooms. Sequar mafon 
meaninf of the poet is : that the earth of eommemorem majoret arhi 
itself, if opened and kept loose witfa this in- 436. Pabuia melli : nu 
strument, will afford sufficient moisture to flowers for the bees. 

the olives (juUii) lately planted; but if 437. Cytormm: Cytor 

opened and kept looee with tfae plough, it Paphlagonia, in the nej 

will render the oUve more thrifty, and cause Euzine sea, abounding u 

it to bear a fruit fiill, large, and good. 438. Naryeitt: an adj 

Ploughing the land, says Mr. Martyn^is al* JiaryeiA, a city in that | 

ways considered to increase tfae produce of Magna Oracia. It abov 

tfae olive. This circumstance fully ezplains pitch and resinous kind. 

Cfae poct^s meaning; which Rusus, and 439. Jfon ' obnoxia : 1 

Br. Trapp after fami, evidently jybitook, ospoeed ^o. Rumu mep 



raucaaeo sterileii m vertice 8ylv8e« 

Lniiiiosi £uri tsaidue £ranguntque feruntqoai 

boe alie fcetus ; dant utile lignum 

is ^iBoa, domibus cedrosque oupreseosque* 

adioB trivMe Tolie, liinc tymf>ana plaustris 

»1«^, et paadas ratibue posuere carinas. 

Um ealioes fieoundie, firondibus ulmi : 

rtus validis hastilibus, et bona bello 

3 ; Itjreos tazi torquentur in arcus. 

is ]eve&, aut tomo rasile buxum, 

•nnam accipiunt, ferroque cavantur acuto. 

n et torreiitem undam levis innatat alnus 

Pado ; necnon et apes examina condunt 

busque eavis, vitiosa^que ilicis alveo. 

lemorandum eque Baccheia dona tulerunt ? 

is et ad culpam causas dedit : ille furentes 

tros leto domuit, Rhcetumque, Pholumque, 

pao Hylieum Lapithis cratere minantem. 

rtunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 

las! quibus ipsa, procul discordibus armis, 

humo facilem victum justissima tellus. 

ingentem foribus domus alta superbis 

adutantOm totis vomit sedibus undam ; 

rios inhiant pulchri testudine postes, 

lue auro yestes, Ephyreiaque sra ; 

eque Ass^rrio fbcatur lana veneno, 

sia liqnidi corrumpitur usus oKvi : 



442. Dant &liot foBtot: 

mlie dant pinoi, lignoiii 

utile navigiiii, tduB dani 

cedroM|Ue eujwtsof quo, 

^^^ Hgnum uiiU domibua : 

447. Myrtus e«/ bona 
validis hastilibus. 

449. NecnoB levss 


454. Quid Baccheia 
455 <^ona tulerunt mqu^ me- 
morandum ? 


461. Si apud iUot alta 
domus ciim auperbia fo- 
ribua non vomit ingen* 
tem undam Aomtnuiiiaa- 
lutantAm man^ i totie 

465 Bdibua; nec iiU in hiant 

CmmoMo: an a^j. from Caueanu^ a 
in, or rather range of mountaina, 
if from the Eujdne to the Caspian 

ryHoana: the naTes or felloes of the 
B wJiich the (radii) spokes are fast- 
3«me take the fympanum to be a 
leel, or one without spokes. TVivire : 
snse of/eeeruni^ vel iomaveruni, 
Beiio : for war — ^the implements or 
I of war. M aHa armm^ says Rueus. 
ihfretoe: an adi. irom //ynst, a peo- 
i^arthia, according to Servius; but 
%j of Syria, fiunous for ahootinf tlie 
snutf.* the coraeil-tree, or wild chor- 

Taxi: the yew-trees. Buxum: the 
t, or bos-wood. Pierius found, iL 
eient manuscripts, eurvanlur for tor'- 

lUuDus 9M.yoyJleciuntur. 
SinuM: the alder-tree, of which 
mrm at first made. Thej were dug 
be aolid wood. Pado : the Po, the 
iwmr in Italjr, pnt for any river. 
§ioeo: cavitjr. 

Ueatorandum: in the sense of dig- 
tfe, or simpl/, laudandum, 
Teniawro» — Lanilhie, These were 
if T h es s a l jr, the former inhabiting 
Pelion, the latter mount Pindus. 
A here mentioiis the principal or 

Ihe Centaiurs only. 

459. Diteordilnu armit: not wars, for tliat 
would not be strictlT true. Thej rage in 
the country, as well as city ; but ratber 
factions, quarrels, and evU commotions, 
which are niore frequent in cities and popa- 
lous towns, than in the country. 

460. Faeilem: easy procured. Jueiitn^ 
ma : the earth may be considerod most just, 
because it retums what is committed to it, 
with a liberal reward. /Vtfuii/: in the sense 
of produeii, 

461. Si non^ &c It was a custom among 
the Romans, for clients and dependanta to 
come early in the moming to salate their 
patrons. Undam: in the sense of muiii'' 

463. Varios : in the senee of oarialof. 

464. lUmaa auro: embroidered with goM. 
Ephyrna: an adj. from Ephyra, the <Mwi- 
nal name of Corinth. Rucus says, Cs- 

465. AHjfrio veneno: with the Syrian, or 
purple color. The invention of the por* 
ple, and the method of d^g that eolor 
are attributed to the Synans, or Phosni 
cians. Photnicia was a part of that region 
of Asia, called Syria ; sometimee Aseyna, 
CoBlosyria, and Leucosyria. Syria and As- 
syria were frequently confoundod. 

466. Caeid : the bark of a tree, or alinibi 
in India, need «■ a sj^os— AiiaUx4 cm&^ 


467. At «piof ittot se* At secura quies, et nescia fiJlere ▼Ha, 
cura qaiee Divcs opum ▼aiiarum ; at latis otia iuiidisi 

Speluncs, vivique lacus ; at fiigida Temp< 
Mugitusque boum, mollesque sub aibore 8 

471. Ule iuni nltot Non absunt. lUic saltus, ac lustra ferann 

£t patiens operum parvoque assueta juvm 
Sacra DeOm, santique patres. Extrema p 
Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit. 
Me ver6 primum dulces ante omnia Mu 

476. Perealsatingenti Quarum sacra fero, ingenti perculsus amoi 
■more earum Accipiant ; coBlique vias et sidera monstre 

Defectus SoUs varioe, Lunieque labores : 
Unde tremor terris : qui vi maria aita tun 
Objicibus ruptis, rursusque in seipsa resida 
Quid tantum Oceano properent se tingere 
Hybemi : vel quae taniis mora noctibus ol 
Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partee 
Frigidus obstiterit circum precordia sangi 
Rura raihi et rigui placeant in vallibus am 


moB. The anciente nsed it to flavor their It rises with the mounti 

•iL Liquidi : in the sense of vuru rushes against the opposing 

467. Vtta nueia fdlere : a ufe knowing it is stopped in ite course 
BOt to deeeive — a life of substantial happi- gathering strength from 
iiess, m opposition to that of cities and waters, it bursts the barrien 
courts, which is showy, false, and deceit- thing in its course. Fi^: 
Ail. violence or force, but the 

468. Latis : some copies have latit, cient cause of the rising of 
Heyne taJies it in the sense of aperlit vel true cause of the ebbing 
patentihut, the tide was not known, ( 

469. Tenipe : neu. plu. A most pleasant Sir Isaac Newton placed 
vale in Thessaly, surrounded by the moun- He demonstrated it to be 
tains Ossa, Pelion, and Olympus. The river the heavenly bodies, pai 
Peneus flows through it. The poet here moon. 

means any pleasant vale, putting the jpertM 481. Quuf /an/t<m, &c. 

for the genus. Vivi laeut : in Sie sense of speaks of winter and sumi 

perennit aqua, Frigida Tempe^ for umbrota be the reason, why the wi 

vallet. quick in ending ; and whi 

474. Juttfliti : the groddess Attma. See off, or retard the approad 
Ed. iv. 6. nights. What may be thi 

475. Verh primvm ante : but, in the first days in summer are so loi 
place, above all things, may the sweet the sense of oeeidere, 
muees accept of me, whose sacred ensigns, 484. Sin frigidut tangt 
Ise. Though the poet praises the country blood around my heart sho 
Kfe so much, he prefers the charms of poe- could not, &c. Secundum 
try, and the noble entertainments of science, eunt ttultot hominet ette fl 
puticularlyphilosophy andastronomy. The nit^ prudentet ealidi. Und 
miues presided not only over poetry, but btu jam friget ; ei pueri^ « 
also over the sciences and liberal arts. The ealet^ minut tapiunt ; sayi 
poets called themselves the priests of the eordia: properfy a membi 
muses. Hence the propriety of quarum the heart, and separating i' 
merafero, It is taken oflen for the hea 

4Tf. Viat ei tidera eoH : fai the sense of present instance. 

twnut tiderum in ettlo, 485. Rigui : in the sense 

479. Unde tremor lerrit : whence earth- meaning of the poet appea 

qiiakefl arise : by what power the deep seas he had not capacity for th( 

«well. Objidbut ruptit : its barriers being of philosophy and astronoi 

brokeu down. The poet is speaking of the tire into the country^and th 

ebbing and flowing nf the tide. He hath unheeded and unknown, i 

ia his view the Bwelling of a mighty stream. lights. 


oa amem syWaaque inglorius. O ubi campi, 486. O n uaem^ ubi 

kiuaque, et nrginibus bacchata LacaBnis S '^^rohP^et^TlT'^* 

rta • 6 qui me gelidia in valUbus H«mi P^^ '^^ ^^ l 

, et mgenti raroorum protegat umbra ! aistat uie 

ix, qui potuit ronma cognoscere causas, 490 490. lUe at Mix^ qoi 

( metus omnea et inexorabile fatum potuit 

:it pedibus, strepitumque Acherontis avari ! 

oatus et ille, Deos qui novit agrestes, 

[ue, Sylvanumque senem, Njrmphasque sorom i 

non populi fiisces, non purpura regum 486 

, et infidos agitans discordia fratres ; 

onjurato deacendens Dacus ab Istro : 

es RomaniB, perituraque regna : neque ille, 

oluit miserans inopem, aut invidit habenti. 

rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura 600 

e tulere su^, carpsit ; nec ferrea jura, 

imque forum, aut populi tabularia vidit. 

IJcitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque 

rum, penetrant aulas et limina regum. 


0« ubi — O quit fte. These, as Mr. 497. Daetu, The Dtteii were a pouple la* 

lon justly observes, are.not qaestions, habiting tiie nortli of the Dannbe, or Ister, 

eiu and Dr. Trapp both take them; verj troublesome to the Romans. /tlro 

elamations, which in all languages eonjurato : the conapiring, or leagued Dan- 

lallv eiliptica). Campi: 2>m/>e,those ube. The name of the river put for the 

it nelds of Theflealy are undoubtedly people living near it, by meton. The Dan- 

sd. Snerehiut : a river of Thessaly, ube is one of the largest rivers in Europe. 

it the foot of mount Pindus^ and falls It rises in Germany, and taking an easterl}' 

e Sintu MeUiaeut. course, it falls into the Euxine sea by nx 

Tttjigeta : neu. pleu. a mountain of mouths, at a distance of about 1600 milee 

A, faroous for huuting, and the cele- from ita source. 

i of the orgie* of Bacchus: hence, 493. Re» Romana: the Roman repubUc. 

kus iHtechaia Laeanis ; frequent«d by it ig opposed to regna pentura. The for- 

icoman or Spartan virgins. Hionu mer they vainly imagined would alwavs en- 

Bor. L 49. dure; while kingdoms would fall, and theii 

jffJurontit: Adieron, a fabulous names be forgotten. Flexerunt iltum. i» 

t bell. It seems here to be put for imderstood 

In th»t MDM the epithet avaHi, gg ^^/ . ^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

roper SlrepUum,kc. w.U thenmeen ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j, countrym,m po»eMed • 

■e or tumultuous drcad generally oc- «-i. «u u*u jju-- 

j *i- u .u r r -I .u r\- :♦ sloical apathj, which rendered hmi msonsi- 

»d throunh th. fear of deaU. Or. .t ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ,^ , ^ 

«an, the no»e, tumu t, u>d burtle of ^^^ ^^^\ ^^ country, there rera 

«i.»l repon. gener«lly In this U.t ^ ^ wretched- 

tdur^u wUl me«. holl, or the uifer- ^^ ^^ „^^ ^i, ^f^ and compa«i.ou : or 

''^.^SrSL u. 31. JV«B,A« ~- " '•!!!'' ^*" °r *''"°'i'° ~"H'"'~" }° ^» 
o ri " ^«T^c^ '^u r 1 nnmber >n citiea. In thu very cirrum- 
Se. EcL u. 48. S]^um. bee EcL ^^^^ ^, «» a high commen^tion of • 

/fon faeeet populi : not the honors w^ 

people, nor the purple, &c The Ro- ^l- Ferrea jura : the same as duras ie- 

Xtrates were chosen by the peo- S^' 

Comitia. The /iwc«, properly, 502. Intanum : noisy— tumultuous, or« 

boniUe of birchen rods. The dicU- perhaps, htigious. Tatfularia. The tahult^ 

1 14 of these rods->the consuls 12— ^^^ ^^ * pl""» ** Rome, in which tU 

wineaal pretors 6— the city prntors piblic records wero kept, and the accomkto 

ich were carried before them by per- ^^ ^® P^hHc money receivMi, and paid oiit. 

who were called Uctors. Fateet is ^^ answers to our treaaury office. Ceteuf m 

atly put for the power and authority ^® «®"«® of ignoi<^' 

mtfgistrate^ by meton. Flexit : in 50<t. Penetrant^ &c. Intinuani tn ynm* 

me <M movet. cipibut. ui intimiJiaiU^ Ba^a S irr\n». 


Hic petit eicidiis nrbem miBeroflque Petitttt 
Ut gemnii bibat^ et Samno ind<»t^&t OGitri 
Gondit opes alitus, defoaBoque incubftt witoi 
Hic stupet attonitus rostris : hunc phiusus I 
Per cuneos (geminatur enim) plebtsque pnl 
610. Alii ^udentper* Corripuit ; gaudent perftisi sanguine fhttmi 

fu8i Exilioque domos et dulcia limina miltant, 

Atque alio patriam qusenmt eub Sole jacedl 
Agricoia incurro terram dimovit aratro : 
614. Hinc eil l&bor jji,j^, ^nni labor : hinc p&triam, panroequei 

iniu : hmc agrteoia bub- gug^j^g^ . f^^ armenta boum, meritoeqoe j 

616. Nec reqoiefl eti Nec requies ; quin, aut pomis exuberet ani 
«•mm; ^uin Aut f(£tu pecorum, aut Cereahs mergite ce 

Proventuque oneret sulcos, atque horrea vi 
Venit hyems ; teritur Sicyonia bacca trapel 
Glande sues Isti redeunt : dant arbuta ^rh 
Et varios ponit foetus autumnus ; et alte 
Mitis in apricis coquitur vindemia saxis. 
#23. DuloeBnati pen- Jnterea dulces pendent circum oscula nati! 
diint^ o«.ula pa^ ^^^^ pudicitiam seryat domus : ubera vao 

Lactea deinittunt : pinguesque in gramine ! 
Inter se adversis luctantur comibus hcedi 


6U6. PenaUM, These weve thebousehoM geminaiw per euneot: for 

fods; and were thoiurht to premde over or repeateu along the cum 

housef juid domestic anaira. Their statues seats in the back part of tlu 

or images were usuallj made of wax, ivory, priated to the common peo| 

•ilver, or earth, and generally placed in the See 381. supra. Hwnc: in th 

umermost part of the house: hence that Geminatur, HeynereadsG 

place was called Penetrale: and they were ing with plaunu; without 
called Bometimes, from that circumstance, 512. Sub alio sole : unde: 

Penetrales. They were worshipped with in anothor clime. This ii 

wine, incense, fruits, and sometimes with highly poetical. 
the sacrifice of a lamb. Penaiet^ by meton. 516. Jfec requiet: there 

it used for one^s country, habitation, house, the year abounds either, &€ 

or dwelling : and sometimes for the family, is extromely beautiful anc 

or inhabitants, as in the present instance. poei reprcsents the year as 1 

8ee Mn, ii. 717. intermlssion, in bringing fc 

606. Sarrano ottro : upon Tyrian purple. tions. Huibus refers the w 

Sarrano^ an adj. from Sarra^ the ancient passage to the husbandn 

name of Tyre. Oemma : a cup made, or agricola donec annut dbum 

set with gems. But he gives no reason foi 

608. Rostrxt, The Rottrum was the place in the sense of donec, 
of common pleas, at Rome, so called, as 517. Mergite Cerealit a 

Livy informs us, from this circumstance : dles or sheaves of grain. 
The Jlntiaiet^9, maritime people ofLatiumy 519. Sicyonia: anadj. ft 

being overcome by the Romans; to perpetu- of Achaia, not far frora thi 

ate the memory of the victory, they placed rinth, abounding in olivi 

the bealts of their ships (rottra) around the the olivc. 
fuggesiuMy or place of pleading, by way of 520. Arbuia : properly 

omamcnt. Hie tiupet : tliis one stands arbute tree. Here, peihaf 

amazed, being astonished at the courts of fhiit in general. Laii : ia 

jttstice. Plautut pairumque plebitque^ &c. turati, 
U appears that the ordera of patricians and 521. Poniifteiut: in thfl 

plebeians expressed their approbation by reddit fructut. 
tnms. If we suppose the patricians, who 524. Catta domut: the 

oecupied the Orckettra^ or the part of tlio preserves, &c. 6y being tr 

theatr6 near the stage, to be the firat; this and good order, they are \ 

will givo a reason for the words, entm losing their virtue, or char 

Unaque dieiu»- 

OEcmaicA. Liit. u. wi 

igitat festos : fususque per herbam^ 

in medio, et socii cratera coronant, *^* ^^ ^ fe*^' 

i, LenaBO, vocat : pecorisque magistriff 

aculi certamina ponit in uimo, 530 

|ue agresti nudat prsedura palsestr^. 

>lim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, 

mus et frater : sic fortis Etruria crevit, 533. Remas et ffait«r 

t rerum facta est ^ulcherrima Roma, ^ Honmhu eoluenmi 

le ima sibi muro circumdedit aroes. 635 ^^ 

m sceptrum Dictaei regis, et ante ^^^ septem' 

am csesis gens est epulata juvencis ; 

anc vitam in terris Satumus agebat. 

etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum 539. Neodum etka 

I duris crepitare incudibus enses. 540 Aemtne* 

is inmiensum spatiis confecimus oequor, 54S. Tempu ai sol- 

)mpus equikn fumantia solvere colla. vm d jugo 


iiat: in the ■enee ofeelebrat, Fu- Dicte^ a place in the island of Crete, wlMm 

9 senM of stratuM, it is naid, he wae nourished and broufhl op 

ronani : they fill up to the brim. by the Corybantes or Curetes. 
j4Estra : this may mean either the gefore the reign of Jove, and befoM th« 

»elf, or the place of exercise. mipious race of men fed upon bullooks 

bini. An ancient people of Itoly, giain, golden Satum M thie life upon tho 

jig women were seized by the Ro- «arth. This is a beautiful aUuaion to the 

certain shows or exhibitions, to golden age. SeeEcl.iv.6. Jigebai : iniiM 

y had been invited. Upon this, genae of dueebat, 

ts made war upon them to avenge _«• ^ . ..^ ^ - . . 

ous deed. A treaty of amity, ^y^ g^yg Hevne 
was concluded between the two ^^ ^ ^ ' , 
nd in the event they became one ^l- ^^ ^- This is an allegory takcn 

'^oluere : they religiously observed, ^^^^ *he chariot race. By eonfecimus aquor 

^ immentum tpafiit^ the poet may mean that 

ruria : the same as Tuteia^ Tus- ^^ had run over a plain not measured by 

ountry in Italy, separated from Bta^e»; w one which did not lie within ike 

r the Tyber. limits or bounds of liis proposed race cr 

iheei e/, &c. What is here said of course. In this sense, divested of the 

I literally true m the time of Vir- fi&»re, it will be : I have now finished my 

Es then in all its glory, and was digression into the praisee of a country life, 

ronder of the world : Rerum : r« i^ " ^»«>e to lay aeide my pen. Rueus in- 

iriety of significations. Here it terpreU tpatiii by longitudine, and under- 

means the world, or the whole "^nds by aquor immentum tpatOa, a plain 

immeasurable in length. 

a eireumdedit, Thewallsof Rome Each course of chariots in the racewia 

seven hills, when that city was in called tpatitm, This was repeated m w m 

of its glory. Their names were : times. Hence tpatia^ the plural, came to 

» CceiiuA^ Ct^niolinut^ Aventinut^ signify the race ground. Cum teptimo tpaHo 

R, Qiitn'fM/tf, and Viminalit. palma, appropinquani, 

tti tteptrum : before the reign of The startmg place was caUed earetr^ «Bd 

m king. Jupiter is so called from the tuming place meta, 


( tbo subject of this book? How many kinds of ■oil doee ha makmf 

oee the poet do in the first place ? "Where doee the Gaiifee riee ? 

any methode does he mention for What is its length ? 

^tion of trees ? What is it considered to be, bj tho nhaU- 

1 the differenoe between grafling tants upon its banks? 

ation ? Where doee it empty i 

t is the propago or layer the best ? What did the anoients eaU the bay f 

le several kindfl of trees, and the What city now stands near the moQth of 

»f producing them, what does the this river? ,' 

lor in the nezt place ? Of what ooQ&trr w«a Hemiu n i&na^ 


"What river did it receiTe in its couree f Bj whom were tliej euriij 

What was the Paeiolut celebrated for ? For what is the word fiuoi 

Where did these rivers empty ? ton. f 
What was the Arg^oaautic expedition? Who were the Dneitt 

Why was it so called ? Where did they inhabit ? 

Who commanded that ezpedition ? Where doea the river /tfer ] 

AHiere waa Colchis? What coune does it nin? . 

What was the object of that expedition ? Where doee it emptjr ? 
How is thig fable to be understood ? What is its length ? 

How manj accompanied Jason ? Who were the PefUBlet.' 

What direction does the poet give for How were they repreeentoi 

planting trees ? Where were their statuee | 

How flhould the rows be arranged ? What were they ■ometinM 

Among whatpeopledid scenic repreaenta- that circumetance ? 

tions originate ? For what ia the word takfll 

Wh j were the Athenians called Thtteida f Whj was the place of coot 

Who may be conaidered the inventor of Rome, called Rottrvm ? 

traffedy ? What was the word Rotin 

What did he make uee of as a stage ? Who were the Sabinet ? 

Whatwastheformof the Romantheatre? Did the Roraans offer «i 

Into how many parts was it divided ? their young women ? 
What wa« the form of the amphitheatre ? What was the event of thi 
What wae the original name of Italy ? How many hills did the i 

Why were the Romans sometimefl called encompass ? 

Autonetf What were they called ? 

What do you understand by the word How many courees were tl 

flmetf riotrace? 

How many of theee rods were carried b»- How does the boolL «nd ? 

im the Roman magiBtrates ? 



Tfll miDJect of this book is the raising of cattle. The poet begins with a 
•ome of the rural deities, and a compUment to Augustus. Af\er whic 
himself tn his friend Mscenas. He then proceeds to givo rules for tl 
management of horses, oxen, sheep, and goats. And, by way of epiw 
liahment, he gives us a description of a chariot race, of a battle of bullsi 
love, and of a Scythian winter. He enumerates the diseases incident to 
■cribes their remedies : and concludes by giving an account of a fatal : 
once raged among the AIps. 

1. Et te, O pastor, TE quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorai 
■Mmorande abAmphry- Pastor ab Amphryso: vos, sylvaB, amnesqu 

SyU "" '''"' C«^««^' ^"« ™ tenuisUnt carmina me 

4. Omma c»tera car- Omnia jam vulgata. Quis aut Eurysthea i 


I. PaUt, The goddess of shepherds, and dla, evidently taken for the 

of feeding cattle. She was worshipped by synec. 
with milk. Her feasts were called Palilia^ 3. Carmina : by meton. t 

and were celebrated on the I2th of the ca- subjects of song. Heyne 

lerda of May. connecting it with vaeuat. 

5. Amphryto, A river of Thessaly, where is to be taken in its usual 
Apollo fed the Hocks of Admetus, when he tent : in the sense of ddeeie 
waa driven from heaven for having lcilled says, omnia argtmenia. 
the Cyclops. See Ecl. iv. 10. Sytva, el 4. Eurytthea. Eurysthei 
amnet Lyccti: the grovee and streams of Myeena. Instigated by Ju 
Aroadia. Lyeam: a mountain in Arca- upon Hercules, who had be 


lati neecit BusiridiB aras ? 5 »"*«"»• qoae tenoiuenl 

lictus Hylas puer, et Latonia Delos, ^»^*"»^ meuu», jam Tal. 

leque, bumeroque Peiops. insignis ebuino, '* * *"' 

ts ? Tentanda via est, qu4 ine quoque p^wsim 

iimo, victorque virOan volitare per ora. 

ro in patriam mecum (modd vita supersit) 10 

tiens deducam vertice Musas : 

lumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas : 

n campo templum de marmore ponam 

quam, tardia ingens ubi flexibus errat 

et tener^ prastexit arundine ripas. 16 

mihi Caesar erit, templtimque tenebit. 

ego, et Tyrio conspectus in ostro, 

[uadrijugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 

ihi, Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi, 


oommand of an oracle, the se- ger and thirst ; and oompeDod to abetaia 

A thej were twelve in ntimber, n'om both meat and drink, which were pla- 

der the name of the twelve la- ced before him, bjr way of aggravation. 
rcules. 8. ^cer equi$. This ma^ allude to hi« 

idiM. Bnfliris, a king of Egypt, victory over (Enomaus; or it maj mean no 

ced to his gods the stranffera who more than that he was skilled in the ma* 

D. He was slain by Hercules. nagement of horeee; which is the aense of 

impioufl — infamouB. Thia kind RuaBua. 

M expresa, generallj, more than 11. Aonio vtrtiee : ftom the Aonian 

xrant of a good quality. Thejr mount, UeHean, This was a mountain in 

possession of a contrary one. Beotia^ originally called Aimia^ sacred to 

ays Heyne. the muses. 

. See Ecl. vi. 43. LcUonia : an 12. Primut referam : I, the first, will bring 

Latona^ the daughter of Caut^ to thee, O Mantua, IdnmaBan palms — noble 

Titans, and mother of Apollo palms. The palm-tree abonnded in Idu- 

, whom she brought forth at a mea, a country of Syria ; so called from 

e island Delos: hence called La- Edom, a son of Esau, who settled there. 

08. Virgil was not the first who introduced the 

}damt, She was the daughter of Greek poetry into Italjr ; and, therefore, to 

king of Elit^ and Piia, who do away, or prevent any obiection, he men** 

med from an oracle that he was tions Mantua, the place of his birth. He 

i by his son-in-law ; in order to was, however, the first who brought it to 

e proposed to the suitors of his any degree of perfection. 
%. chariot race, upon this condi- 13. Ponam Temphan, The poet appearf 

le one who got the victory should to moan, that he will not only imitate the 

ughter; butif vanquished should Greoks, but he will surpass them; and in 

\iier thirteen had lost thcir lives, honor of his victory, he will build a temple, 

i the beauteous prize, by bribing and institute games. Through the whole, 

the charioteer of CEnomaus, to under color of honoring himsclf, he veij 

hariot upon a frail or brittle axle. artfuUy compliments Augustus, his prince 

luring the race, and CEnomaus and patron. Ponam: in the sense of ex- 

ich bruised by the fall, that he truam, 

wounds. Thus the oracle was 14. Errat: meanders— -winds. 
^elops was the son of Tantaluty 18. Centum. I will drive a hundrcd four- 

uygia ; who, as the fable goes, horse chariots along the river. The poet 

gods to a banquet, and having takes the definite number 100 for an indeft- 

ly their divinity, dressed his own nite number; or he alludes to the Circen- 

et before them. AU abstained sian games, when in one day there were ^ 

rrid a repast ezcept Cerei^ who twenty-five rsces of four chariots each, 

s of the child^s shouldcr. Jupi- making the ezact number here mentioned. 

fds restored him to life, and gave These were in imitation of the Olympic 

ry one in its room. Hence tn- games, and were on the margin of a river. 

» humero : famed for hb ivory Illi : for him — in honor of Cssar. 
For this horrid deed, Tantalus, 19. Cuneta Orteeia, Themeaningis^tlMl 

doomed to perpetual hun- all Greece would le«,T« tb«x own 


Curaibus et crudo decemet Grecia c«rtii. 
Ipse, caput tonsae folUs omatus oliviB, 
Dona feram. Jam nunc solemnea ducere pc 
Ad delubra juvat, cssosque videre juvencos : 

ti. Vel videre ut Mena Vel scena ut versis discedat frontibus, utque 
^^**dat, Purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 

In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephai 
GangaridOm Siciam, victorisque arma Quirin 

28. Atque hio teukam Atque hic undantem bello^magnumque fluei 
Nilum undantem bello Niium^ ac navali surgentes asre columnas. 

Addam urbes Asise domitas, pulsumque Nipl 
Fidentemque fiig^ Parthum versisque sagitti 
£t duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste trophsei 


and come to these, %a far ezoelling in gran- stage, and let down when the 

deur and magni£cence. ^^heum: ^nyer it. It appears to raean the h 

of Elis, in the Peloponnesus, near the city aukui in the foUowing line. 

Olvmpia. Hence the games there celebra- 381. 

ted were called Olympic The river here, 25. Intextu The Britone (l 

by meton. Is put for the sramet themselves. Julius Cesar over thera) ■ 

They were instituted by Herculee, in honor painted on, or interwoven in 

of Jupiter, at near ae Uieir date can be as- which, bj a figure of speech, 

certained, in the summer of the year of the f aid to hold, or lift up. 

world, 3228, and before Chritt, 776. They 27. Oangaridiim, The Gi 

were celebrated every fiflh year ; or afler a people of India, near the i 

an entire revolution of four years; which rtnt. Thit ie oneofthe ma 

was denominated an Olympiad, This form* bave ibr believing that Virgi 

ed a very important era in the history of revise the Georgics until hit 

Greece. debated in the senate, wh« 

Lucoi Molorchi: the groves of Molor- should be complimented wit 

chus : by meton. the Jfemaa eertamirui, or Augustus, or Romulus, who ' 

Nemean pames. These were instituted in Quirinus. But this debate 

honor of Hercules, on account of his killing place till three years after t 

the lion in the Sj/lva Nemaui^ near Cleona^ a of tbe Georgics ; and was m 

city of the Peloponnesus. Molorchm was fore his victory over the Ga 

the name of the shepherd who cntertained poet must, therefore, have i 

the hero, and at whose roquest he slew the at least ten years af\er the fi 

Nerasan lion. Bcsides these, there were or in the year of Rorae, 734. 

other games callod Pythia^ instituted in ho- 27*. Faciami in the sense < 

nor of Apollo, on account of his killing the 28. Magnim : Ruieus ta 

■erpent Python, Honce he derived the sense of longi, Copiose^ sayi 

narae Paan^ froin a Greek word signifying dantem : ewelling and wavinj 

to pierce or wound. There were also gamcs it did with its waters. This 

called Isthmia, These were instituted by beautiful and grand. The 

Theseus, king of Athens, in honor of Nep- ludes to the victory obtaine* 

tone. They denved their name from the over Anthony and Cleopatn 

circttmstance of their being celebrated on ture of Alexandria, the pri 

the Itthmut of Corinth. Mihi: for rae — in Egypt, noar the mouth of thi 

honor of me. built by Alezander the Grei 

20. Crudo : because the eatttu^ or gaunt- soon followed the fate of . 

let, was made of raw hide : or simply, cruel capital. 

— bloody. See £n. v. 379. 29. Naoali are: with naT 

fBL Pompae, These were images of the gustusissaidtohavemadefo 

gods carried in proccssion before ihe peo- of the brazen beaks of the sh 

ple at the Circensian gamcs— the prqces- Cleopatra and Anthony ; to 

•sion itself. Feram dona: in the sense of here soems to allude. 

proponam pramia. 30. J^iphalen: Niphates, i 

24. Ut: in tlie scnse of quomodo, Scena: Armcnia, taken for the inha 

tbat part of the stage where the actors wcre country : by meton. Armeni 

— ^the curtain, or hanging, bchind which Ruieus. 

they rctired from the audience. It was 32. Duo trophata. Proba 

nlsMl up whon tho actors were upon tlie victories obtained by Argost 

GKOROICA. UB. ni. 111 

Ibqiia tnuiiipliatst utroqae ab Htore gentes 

Btabunt et Pani lapides, spirantia signa, 

Aaaaraci prole», demissaeque ab Jove gentis 36 

Nomina ; Troeqiie parens, et Trojae Cynthius auctor. 36. Tro«que parani 

lovidia ii^lix furias amnemque severum Atiaraet 

Oocyti metuet, tortosque Ixionis angues, 

Immanemque rotam, et non exsuperabile sazum. 

Interea Dryadum sylvas saltusque sequamur 40 40. Sylyasque, taiiui- 

lotactos, tua, Maecenaa, haud moUia jussa. q»« intactog ab abU 

Te fline nil altum mena inchoat : en age, segnes 9eriptoribut, 

Rnmpe moras : vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron, ^ 

Taygetique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus equorum : 


■j, the one at Actium, in EpiruB, on the attempt upon Juno, he wav cast oown lo 

Mrthem ahore of the Mediterranean, the hell, and bound with twenty snakes to a 

fitber at Alezandria, in Egypt, on the south- wheel, which kept constantly turning, as a 

cn. Hence the propriety of utroque litore, puniflhment for his crime. The poete aay, 

Rapia wianu: obtained bjr valor, or by hia that Jupiter aubstituted a cloud in the form 

ownhand — ^wherehe commanded in person. of Juno, and of it he hegtA. the Centaura. 

DtWTfo kaUe^ and triumphatat genies^ mean Upon hb retum to the oarth, he boasted of 

tlw «ame ; and probably we are to undcr- hie amour with the queon of the gods, and 

■land the Anatic and African troops that was punished for it by Jupiter in this ex* 

eompoeed the army of Anthony in these emplaiy manner. The truth is, the Cen- 

tmo battles. Thia is the opinion of Ruibub. taurs wore a people of Thessaly. They 

SoBie undentand the paaiage as referring dwelt in a city by the name of J^ephHe* 

to tho Gandaridet^ a people of Aaia, and to That being the Greek word for a cloud, 

tho BriUmm^ aituated in Europe, in diiTer- gave rise to the story of thcir being the oiT- 

^ quarters of the world. But Augustus spring of a cloud. They were the first who 

did not oonquer the Britons. broke and tamed the horse. Ixion was theii 

Si. Parii iapide* : Paiian marble. Parii : king. The poet here intimates in a very 

•a adj. firom Parot^ one of the Cyeladet^ fa- dolicate manner the unhappy end of those 

oioiu for its shining marble. Spiranlia sig' who enviod Augustus the glory due to his 

ma: figorea, or statues to the life. Thcy illustrious deeds; who dared refuse to sub- 

■hallbe of such exquisite sculpture, that one mit to his authority; and who meditated a 

eoald acarcely distinguish them firom real renewal of the civil wars. 

liib— they should almost breathe. 39. Saxum, Sis^rphus, a notonous rob- 

3S. Prolee Atuuraei: the offspring of As- ber, was slain by Theseus, king of Athena, 

■araens, and the namee of the family, Acc and for his punishment, he was sentenced to 

The poet here, as in other places, compli- hell ; there to roU a etone to the top of a 

menta the Cesars with divine descent. Ac- hill, which always rolled back before be 

wr^iitg to him, it may be thus tracod : could reach it. This made his labor per* 

Dardaniis was the aon of Jupiter and Elec- petual. Abi» extuptrahile: not to be gotten 

tra; Erichthonius, the son of Dardanus ; to the top of the hill. 

Troa, the son of Erichthonius; IIus and 41. TuahaudmoUi^ jutta: thy difficult 

AflRrmeua, sons of Tros; Uus begat Lao- commands. 

medon, the father of Piiam, and Assaracus Virgil, at the request of Mecenas, wrote 

begat Capys, the father of Anchises; of the Georncs; to which circumstance he 

AMbises and Venns sprang iEneas, the fa- here alludes — a subiect new, and which 

ther of Ascanius, or Iiilus, the father of the had not been handled or treated of by any 

Jnlian family. preceding writer. SequatKwr: we will en* 

95. CffnUtiut: ApoUo. He was bom on ter npon. 

Ihe ialand Delos, where was a mountain by 43. Citheeron : a mountain in Beotia, 

Ihe iMme of Cynthus ; hence he was caUed abounding in pastore, and hcrds of cattle. 

QftUkiut. He and Neptune, it is said, built Ta^eti : Taygetus, a mountain in Laconiar 

Inewallsof Troy inthereignof Laomedon. famous for bunting. Epidaurut, There 

8ee Ed. iv. 10, and Geor. i. 602. were several places by that name. The one 

97. infehx, This epithet is added to here intended, is probably in ArgoUs, on the 

Mnrj, beeause it is the principal source of eastem shore of the Peloponnosus, near the 

■nhippinnss to roen. Simu Saroniciu^ that part being colebrated 

SB. Coeyti: Cocytus. a fabnlous river of for its horses. The meaning is,that ho shah 

Mlv iowing out of Styx. Ixiomt: Ixion, now treat of those animals that aboimded io 

Um hMkn 0!* the Centaurs. For making an the above mentioned places 


Et Tox iissensu nemorum ingeminata rmnn 
Moz tamen ardentes acciiigar dicere pugm 
Cesaris, et nomen fami tot ferre per annoi 
Tithoni primft quot abest ab origine CaBsan 
Seu quis, Olympiacae miratus prsmia pd 
Pascit equos, seu quis fortes ad aratra juvei 
Str Formi torv» bo- Corpora praecipue matrum legat, Optima 

torpe capSt, cui e.t plu- ^^™* ^^^i «^ .^n>e capu , cui plunma i 
rima cerviz, ot eui pa- ^^ crurum tenus a mento paleana penaent 
Uaria poiident k mento Tum longo nullus lateri raodus : omnia ma 
teniia crurum. Pes etiam, et camuris hirts sub cornibus m 

54. Omnia membra ^^ ^jjj^ displiceat maculis insignis et albo 

66."'N^*iar(Mi insig- ^"^ J"g* detrectans, interdumque aspera c 
nia maculia et albo dis- ^^ faciem tauro proprior : quoeque ardua t 
•lioeat mihi: £t gradiens ima verrit vestigia caudi^. 

58. Et eti propior Uu- ^tas Lucinam justosque pati Hymenaso 
** ^"lirf /*^***"* ■ *^**"" Desinit ante decem, post quatuor incipit ai 
^*tt Cstera miat eo- ^®*®** ^®^ fcBturaB habilis ; nec fortis arat 
miii ed nec habilit foatu- Interei, superat gregibus dum Ista juventi 
m, nec ett fortia aratria. Solve mares : mitte in Venerem pecuaria i 

^. Erunt eemper «ii- Atque aliam ex alii generando sufiice prol 
JJJ*JJ*?"'*'' *'"'rj? Optima quaM|ue dies miseris mortalibus ei 
?S^ m"r reS» «r- ^""^* %^^ = subeunt morbi, tristisque seo 
mmtn: acnepbstrequi- £t labor, et dune rapit inclementia mortift 
IM m amina, anteveni- Semper erunt^ quarum mutari corpora ma 


45. fox Atientu^ Sto, The meaainf ie, 60. Ltuinam: the foddi 
that the grovee unite in inviting him, and in|^, so called c inre, q%tam t 
eeho back the call. bj metoo. child>beaiing itai 

46. mir^eniet: in the aenee of iUuttret. forth of joung in genei 
^ertf^r: in the senee of the Greek middle Hymcn or Hjmencus, wmt 
TMce: I wiU prepare mjeelf. The poet chus and Venus; the god 
bere eeems to intimate his purpoee of writing meton. marriage itMlf--ali 
IIm ^mewd ; which was chiefl j desifned to of the sexes, as in the ] 
iatler Aufnistus and the Roman pc^ple. The meaning of the poet a 

48. TVlAem. Tithonus was either the son time for cattle to brced^ 

er bfother of Laomedoa, and freatlj belov- tenth. and begins afler th 

ed hv Aurora. From hie time down to Au- Iheir age. 

H M tu s> were one thousand jears, according 63. Inierta : in the mea 

le Ihe besl aceounta. Bal lo extend his Ihe jears of four and teiL, I 

fhae onlj ibr that length of lime« would mtaoog joor herds. 5«^ 

Ml come up to Ihe desifn of Ibe poeU whose viporousL 

wieh was to perpelnate his ImBBe lo ihe la- 64. Peemmm: properlj 

%ial poelerilj. Aeoordnif lo Serrius and hv meton. the cattto M u\ 

E«ilalh:us« AMsmtt aBay hcre be laken Ibr Ihe femake; ihe bmes^ vel 

tl» eniu in ihe tmam wmm Ihal TSleit is: 6S. Sufite: reise np oni 

Hwj bolh beinc d e ii ted inm Ihe sasae iher. •£n .• in Ihe seaee 

Qteek verh. This wodM fUI^ cooie ep to 6SL tnelementim : rigor- 

Ihe vicw» of ihe poel in iinmuinrniny his 69. Sem^ter entmL Tl 

^nnce. The siui havin^ ezHted fiom the fuUowiaf IiBes. Dr. Trapf 

hefinnis^r eif liaBe. aBaj be ronsidtrrd a inletpoUtioa. He sajs;« 

ilJiiMiiii : or llie poct aaav assnme whole ihree tincs is cxIp 

ule nwaber. tOilO venis. ^ an i»- «at. Whal •ccnaioB oT 

peh-id. Sie Aa. It. 5SS. (kremr to coatinw tke 

$1. L^: m Ik» ssMe of el^tuL callle? TW ihi^ had ji 

Se. TWjpe.^ tain fti|sif"*iiMJe. Ae- helertL Let il be fwtbci 

h^ ia ihe seMc ef wmtm. a didl^mit &ce it p«ts « 

i«. aiMi^«tnAc^ H» sMneM eKt thcie bnee ai« left e«t. 1 

bv Hiniiaiia. jjmwm: ■■iIiik. the aitMe of the . 



:r enim refice: ac, iie pdst amissa reqiiiras, 70 

siii . ef tfolM>lein annento sortire (luotannis. 

uou er iKM^ori est idem delectus equino. 

Kio, quos in spem statues submittere gentis, 

>uuin jam inde a teneris impendc laborem 74. Impcndo pnroi- 

iu5 uecoris generosi pullus in arvis 75 P«o«» laborem Hiu jam 

ingieditur,etmolJiacrurareponit: "|^ * ^*'" «"^••' 

s et ire viam, et fluvios tentare minacos 

, et ignoto seee committere ponti : 

inos horret strepitus. Illi ardua cervix, 79. Eti illi ardua 

umque caput, brevb alvus, obesaque terga ; 80 

iatque toris animosum pectus : honesti 

^es, glaucique ; color deterrimus albis, 8^ Spadices, glaud 

TO : tum, si qua sonum procul arma ded^re, «!«• ««wi honosti eoioru 

loco nescit, micat auribus, et tremit artus ; 84. Tromit per artut 

tumque fremens volvit sub naribus ignem. 85 

juba, et dextro jactata recumbit in armo. 
)lex agitur per lumbos spina : cavatque 
em, et solido graviter sonat ungula comu. 
Vmyclsn domitus Pollucis habenis 

us, et, quorum Graii meminere poetae, 90 90. Et taiet erani bi- 

I equi bijuges, et magni currus Achilles. j^K^ «q»»» MartiB, et 

3t ipse jubam cervice efflidit equini ^'u!^'"'^ AchiUe. 

gis adventu pemix Satumus, et altum ^ 

hinnitu fugiens implevit acuto. 94 

ic quoque, ubi aut morbo gravis, aut jam segnior 
U abde domo, nec turpi ignosce senects. [annis 


tality, he immediately paMet on to mmi, as Hejne inforraf uf. That leamed 

tpagation of hortes. And what fur editor reads, /reiii«m. Ignem: in the senae 

ofinns him in this opinion, ia, the use of eaiorem^ vel ardentes anheiihu, Of the 

rerbe anievenio and tortior. The for- horsef of Diomede, Lueretiut says *. ignem 

ija he, is no where else used bj Vir- nariinu tpiraveruni, 

A the latter never, in the senfe it is 87. Dupltx : round — ^large. In a lean 

sre: for tubttituo, horse, as the spine or hack-bone rites up 

^oboiem : a succession — issue. sharp ; so in a fat horse, there is a kind of 

Submiitere: in the sense of teponere. hoUow or ffutter runningthrougn the middle 

Fuilut gencroti : a colt of gcnerous of the back, and seeraing to £vide it into 

-of noble blood. Continui : from two parts. In this sense, dupiex tpitM majr 

t — as soon as foaled. be a double spii^ AgUur : passes along, 

Htponil moliia erura: he moves his or extends. 

or nimble legs. Reponit implies both 87. Ltunhot : in the sense of drttum^ t<*I 

Bmate movements of his feet, and the tergum, 

eas and fTequency of thera. 89. Taiit Cyliarut : such was Cyllarus, 

Luxurial torit : his courageous breast broke bj the reins, &c. Amyeiiti : an adj. 

Ir(swells out) in mnsclee. from Amyela^ a citj of Laconia, not far 

Spadieet^ giauei : tho bright baj, and from Lacediemon, where Castor and Pollux 

ii^nj^ are good colora ; the worst were bom. Hence thej are sometimet 

I the white and dun. It is verj dif- called Laeedamonii^ as well as AmyeiBti, 

■s Dr. Trapp observes, to ascertain Cjllaras was the name of the horse. 

■ee of colors in a foreign and dead 91. Currut : in the sense of equi^ bj ma- 

ft, fiendoa, one nation maj prefer ton. 

or, and another maj prefer that. He 92. Et taiit petmx Satumut ipte : aad 

ibiu tar a doll, dirtj white, and to be such swiil Satura himself spread nis maae. 

lisiMd from eandidut ; because, an- Satura, as the poetp saj, was un love with 

bts eamdore, Virgil makes the mark Philjra, the daughter of Oceanut. Durin^ 

m hww. Soe JEn, xii. 84. their amourt, on a certain occation, Rh«a« 

Vmnit. Thecommonreadingitprf- his wift, came upon them. To prevent a 

hmt arrerm] ancient copiet have /re- ditcoverj, Satara trantformed hiuunlkt VA>tt 



97. Sonior tquut at Frigidus in Venerem senior, frustraque lal 
fr>lf><**" Ingratum trahit : et, si quando ad prselia ^ 

Ut quondam in stipulis magnus sine viribc 

Incassuni furit. £rg6 animos aevumque r 

PrsBcipue : hinc alias artes, prolemque pa 

102. Quii dolor tii Et quis cuique dolor victo, quae gloria pal 

raique victo, qas glo- Nonne vides ? cum pnecipiti certamine ci 

ria tU etiique palm» Corripuere, ruuntque effusi carcere curru 

105. Spos juvenum Cum spes arrectae juvenum, exultantiaqw 

arrectn tuni, Corda pavor pulsans : illi instant verbere 

Et proni dant lora : volat vi fervidus axis 
Jamque humiles, jamque elati sublime vi< 
Aera per vacuum ferri, atque assurgere i 
Nec mora, nec requies. At fulvse nimbi; 
111. f^thumescunt Tollitur : humescunt spumis flatuque soq 
•pumifl flatuque eorum Tantus amor laudum, tantae est victoria t 

'^ViV^^^ Primus Erichthonius currus et quatuoi 

116. Uono eqiufntm r -j* ^* * • < 

117. Et equum glo- Jungere equos, rapidisque rotis msislere 

merare Frasna Pelethrouii Lapithse, gyrosquc dei 

118. Magigtri utriut- Impositi dorso ; atque equitem docuere f 
yM«ar/M8Bqa^exquirunt Insultare solo, et gressus glomerare supc 
e^tttim juvenemque,caU. j^ uterque labor : ©que juvenemqu 
dumque aniims -r. ^ • . i- i • • ^ -1. 

120. JVVm exquirunt Exquirunt, cahdumque animis, et cursibi 

tenem equum quamvis Quamvis SflBpe fug^ versos ille egerit ho8 

122. Ipsa origine equi Et patriam Epinmi referat, fortesque M; 

Neptuni. Neptunique ipsa deducat origine gentem 

^123. Tempue admittu^ jjj^ animadversis, instant sub tempus ; 

124. Distendere equym Impendunt curas denso distendere pingu 
d«i8o pingui, quem Quem leg^re ducem et pecori dixere ma 


a horse, and fled to Polion, a mountain of 1 15. LapHha : a peopl 

Theesaly, filling it with his nhrill ncighin^. mount Polion. Ptltthn 

Philyra borc to him Chiron, one of the Cen- Pththronium^ one of 

taura. meaning of the poet a 

96. Ignotee tenuta nee turpi: sparo his that F.richthonius inven 

old age, not inglorious. This in the sense cliariot and horacs, anc 

usually given to the words, and implies that afierward improved up 

tho old Tiorse should be treated with kind- horse by managing him 

ness and humanity, now in his old age, in turning him about with 

consequence of his former glorious deeds. will. Dedire: in the se 

Abde hune domo: in the sense of include 116. Equitetn. Ruei 

kunc ttabulit, scruie of equum, Heyne < 

101. Hinc cUiat artet : aftcr that (you granimarians understoo 
•hould observe) his othcr qualities. Arttt senso. But Daf^ndson 
here evidently means the qualitics, propor- to the rider. It appi 
ties, or endowments of the horse. Prolem : clause of thc following 
the stock, breod, or ancestry. plied to tlio horse rathei 

102. Patma : to the victor, or conqueror. Kques : properly, the ri« 
The palm of victory, by meton. put for the horse. 

victor, or conqueror. 118. Uterque labor «eq 

104. ^ffuti : starting — springing. In art, is equal ; tho manaj 

races, carcer was the mark, or starting tho chariot, and the ni( 

place. Exultantia : beatin? — ^palpitating. with thf* bridle. 
107. yi : with the rapid motiou of the wheel. 121. Epirum^Myeent 

114. Rapidit rotit. This is the common ceneB were both famous 

roading. But Heinsius and Heync read ra- horses. Rr/erat : have. 

pt<fitf in the nom. agrceing with rir/or. /ifo- 124. Pfn^t: in the 

tit : properly the whoels ; by meton. the 125. Maritum * in th 

obariot borre upon tbem. rtum. 



GEORaiCA. LIR ni. 

'pQlieiileiqiie Mcant lieTbaB, fluviosque ministrant, 
Furimqiie : ne blando nequeat superesse labori, 
InYali^que patnim referant jejunia nati. 
Ip« autem macie tenuant armenta volentes. 
Atque ubi concubitua primos jam nota voluptaa 
SoUicitat ; frondeaque negant, et fontibus arcent : 
Scpe etiam cursu quatiunt, et Sole fatigant ; 
Cum graviter tunsis gemit area frugibus, et cum 
Sur^ntem ad Zephyrum paleae jactantur inanes. 
Hoc fiiciunt, nimio ne luxu obtusior usus 
8it genitali arvo, et sulcos oblimet inertes : 
8ed rapiat sitieiis Venerem, interiusque recondat. 

Ruraus, cura patrum cadere, et succedere matrum 
Ineipit, exactis gravidae cum mensibus errant. 
Non illas gravibus quisquam juga duc^re plaustris, 140 
NoD saltu superare viam sit passus, et acri 
Gtrpere prata fugi, fluviosque innare rapaces. 
Bthibus in vacuis pascant, et plena secundum 
Flumina : muscus ubi, et viridissima gramine ripa, 
BpeluncsBque tegant, et saxea procubet umbra. 

Eftt lucos Silari circa, ilicibusque virentem 

• norimua Albumum volitans, cui nomen asilo 
Romanum est, cestron Graii vert^re vocantes : 

* Aiper, acerba sonans : quo tota exterrita sylvis 
Difiugiunt armenta, ftirit mugitibus sther 
CoDcusBUS, sylvaeque, et sicci ripa Tanagri. 
Boc quondam monstro horribiles exercuit iras 
InMhiaB Juno pestem meditata juvencie. 


137. Sed ut iUa pan 

138. £t eura matnia 
ineipit >accedert 

140. Non quiiquam 
puMus eit illas 

144. Ubi 
146 0* nP* 

iit miuwtis, 





.* to Accomplish — be suffi- 
in the sense of aquam 

198. JfaH: the colts. Referani: in the 

■ ■■■■ oifBratU. 

^*- m. roUnitt: willing— on purpose, or 

*''«llh dosifn. Arwunta here is evidently 

itifcwi fbr equae^ the mares. 

' 131. Frandet: in the sense of pabutunut 

«ri wkJUMm Huatiunt : in the sense of agi" 

195. Itk UMut geniiali arvo tit ohtutior ne* 
nc These words Ruieus interprets 
JV< tr^eetut (na) genitaht partit tit 
tkieHar ok nttmam pinguiiudinem, 

136. ObiiaMi : in the sense of elaudai, 

137. yenertm : the object of their desire 
^m oeaten mateuiinum. 

145. Aeri JugA: in the sense of etieri 
Rapaeet: in the sense of rapidot, 

143. Saliilmt, Saliut is properlj an open* 
^•'Im^ or vacant space, in a grove, or park. 
' hli, hoirever, sometimes ased in the sense 

iif and hteut; from the verb talio, 

fmjn tpaiiit apertit, 

146. Saxea vmbra: a rocky shade may 
Im '^kom a roeky clift may project over 

idw whlch they ouiy be sheltered 
ftoB the fln aiid nuns. 

146. Cirea lueot Silari^ Aibumumque. 81- 
larus, a river of Italy, in Lucania : hodieSelo^ 
Albumum : Albumus, a mountain in Italy, 
abounding in the holm-oak: hodie Albomog 
out of which iMues the river Tanagnis, 
small, and nearly dry in suramer. Phiri" 
muM volilant : around the gfrovefi, &c. there 
are many flies, to which atylm is the Roraan 
name, but the Greeks called it eettron, 
This construction is very peculiar ; the idiom 
we cannot introduce into our language. 
Plurimut volitant we must take in the 
ofplurimi volitantet. Cui nomen atylo. This 
is evidently the same as cui atylvs c$t Roma- 
nonomini: perhaps by antiptosin. AmvIus 
is what we commonly call tho grad-fly, or 
breezo. It is the samo as the tabanutn **t 
tabanum, The sting of this inscct caufcos 
great pain to the animal that is woundcd by it. 

148. Voeantet vert^re : simply, focovfrufi^ 
vel rtddiderunt, 

149. Aeerbh : an adj. neu. plu. taken as 
an adverb in imitation of the Greokti ; tho 
samc as acerbi, Atper, This niuy have 
refercnce to the sharpness of its bite or sting. 
Sonant : making a nharp or shrill noice. 

150. Furit: in the senso of retonat, 
153. Inaehia. juveneet, lo, the daughttT 

of Inachus, kinsr of the Ar^ivoH, (or of a 


154. Huno a»aum Hunc quoque (nam mediis fervoribuB acif 

Arcebis gravido pecori ; annentaque pail 

Sole recens orto, aut noctem ducentibu8'i 

Post partum, cura in vitulos traducitur 

Continudque notas et nomina gentis inuM 

159. Et noiani eo*, Et quos, aut pecori malint submittere lial 

quoM raalint aut •ubmiu ^„4 ^ris servare sacros, aut scindere tei*f 

P®<^o" Et campum horrentem fractis invertere g 

Csetera pascuntur virides armenta per he 

Tu, quos ad studium atque usum formabi 

164. Jam tu hortare Jam vitulos hortare, viamque insiste dom 

▼ituloB, quofl formabis Dum fociles animi juvenum, dum mobilia 

^ ^*"" Ac primiim laxos tenui de vimine circlon 

Cervici subnecte : dehinc, ubi libera coU 

Servitio assu^rint ; ipsis e torquibus aptc 

Junge pares, et coge gradum conferre, ji 

Atque illis jam ssepe rotae ducantur inan 

Per terram, et summo vestigia pulvere n 

Pdst valido nitens sub pondere feginus a: 

Instrepat, et junctos temo trahat sereus • 

174. Interei earpea Interea pubi indomitae non gramina tanti 

majiu non tantiim gra- ^ salicum frondes, ulvamque p 

nuna mdomitiB pubi o j /• . .. ^il 

Sed frumenta manu carpes sata : nec tiE 

179 Sin tuum studi- ^^^ patrum, nivea implebunt mulctrali 
um ni magis ad bellum, Sed tota in dulces consument ubera naU 
leroccsque Sin ad bella magis studium, turmasqu 


river god of that namOf) whom Jupiter 169. Junge pareM^ &c. 

transformedintoaheifer, whenhewas likely the farmer to begin wi 

to be.surprised by Juno in his amour with earlj age; and first to 1 

her. But discovering the triclc, the goddess about their necks. AiU 

■ent AsUus to torment her. Upon which equal size by a cord co 

she lled to Egypt ; where Jupiter, taking lars ; and in this state n 

pity on her, restored her to her proper keep pace together; aj 

shape. Afler which, she was married to become accustomed to 

king Osiris ; and, ai\er her death, was wor- make them draw empt 

ahipped as a goddess under the name of Isis. ground — wheels withou 

1S4. Medtit /erv&rUnu : for media die, them. 

158. Inurmit: in the sense oiimprimurU. 172. Valido: in the ■ 

159. Sitbmitlere: lo set apart for breoders bes: for rotas^ wheels. 
^for propagating your stock or herd. 174. Pubi indomita: 

161. Horrentem: in the sense ofasperum. broken — not entirely sa 

162. Catera armmta. The poet^s mean- 175. Ulvam, The u 
hfig is plainly this : that those calves that grass, which grew in m: 
are dcsigned for breeding, for sacrifice, or have no particular nai 
for the plough, are to be particularly desig- guage. J^ec: in the se 
nated, and taken care of ; while it is suffi- 176. Frumenia saia i 
ciont for the rest of the berd to feed at large, com. 

without any such care or attention ; and The poet would have 

with regard to those designed for the atand, that the care of 

plough, they should be trained up from the portant, that he shoul^ 

first, and be accustomed to the yoke, while them grass, and the t 

they are docile and tractable. willow, and the marshj 

164.' Horlare: unp. of hortor : teach, or growing com. He sho 

tram up. M siudium: for labor. Mobilis: too cosUy for them. 
in the scnse of dociH». 177. PtUa vaeem : 

166. Cirelos: by syn. for eireulos: bind Fata: having yoong. 

loose colUrs about their necka. fiea. being wiUi youog. 

GEORGICi^. IJB. Ul. 117 

thua rotis pnelabi flumina PissBf 180 

i in luco currus agitare volantes ; 

equi labor est, &ninios atque arma videre 

in, lituosque pati, tractuque gementem 

>ta0i, et stabulo fraenos audire sonantes. 

Lgia atque magis blandis gaudere niagistri 186 

is, et plausae sonitum cervicis amare. 

laec jam primd depulsus ab ubere matris 187. Aadiat hme jaa 

inque vicem det moUibus ora capistris P"«^ depoliiii ab «oera 

8, etiamque tremens, etiam inscius svi. 

4S exactis, ubi quarta accesserit sestas, 190 

I mox gyrum incipiat, gradibusque sonare 

itis : sinuetque altema volumina crurum, 

iboranti similis : tum cursibus auras 

t : ac per aperta volans, ceu liber habenis, 

L, vix simimi vestigia ponat arena. 196 

lyperboreis Aquilo cum densus ab oris 

;, Scythiasque hyemes atque arida differt 

tum segetes alts campique natantes 

horrescunt flabris, summaeque sonorem 
Ivie^ longique urgent ad litora fluctus : 200 

t, simul arva fugi, simul aequora vcrrens *0l. Ille veniu» volat 

ad Elei metas et maxima campi 

spatia, et spumas aget ore cruentas ; 

vel molli melius feret esseda collo. 

mum crassi magnum farragioe corpus 206 


mlabi rvtis. Tbe poet here allade« the poet appeari to be this : Afler thc horte 

uiot rmoee at the Olvmpic games, hatfa commenced hie foarth year, let him be- 

1 apoo the banka of the river Al- gin to amble, and prance, and exercise, 

however laborious and fatiguing it may be 

itu0t: the darion, or curved hom; to him. Or rather: let not his ezorciee in 

Mtoa. for the «ound of that instru- reality be laborioue and fatiguing, on ac- 

count of his age ; but let him rescmble, or 

iem traetu : in the eense of striden' be like to one laboring only, lest he be dispi- 

trmkUur^ says Heyne. rited from ezperience of hia weakness. But 

miium piatum eervieit : tbo sound when he is properly trained by exercise, his 

Had neck. courage increased, and his confidence in 

»fera to the castom of stroking, or him«elf confirmod, then let him labor — let 

ktlmr the horse on the neck, to him challenge the winds in his course. 

m with eourage. 194. PrwoeeL Thb is the common read- 

\que wieem: by Tmesia, for invieem ing. Heyne reads tum voeet. 

I now and then— occasionally. ^qttora : in the sense of eannjos. 

l This ie the common reading. 197. Ineubuit: roahesforth. Ruibus says, 

B», aller Heinsius, reads audeat^ of imminet. 

mmim. 198. J^atantu : in tbe sen»9 of undantes* 

•jctais «0»; ignorant, or inezperi- 182. Animot : courage. Contentionet^ 

I afieoant of hia age — not conscious says Rueus. 

th — knowing his weakness. Ser- 202. Hie^vel ad metat: tbis horse, either 

: n^ndtun habent ab annitfiduciam. at tJie goals of Elis, lic. 

I eays : propter imbeeilitalem (evi. 204. Etteda. The eseedura was a kind of 

reek construction. vehicle, or carriage, adapted both for travel- 

mmre eowtpotitit gradibut : io prtLDce ling or war. It was used by the ancient 

roteps. Gauls and Britons. Moili: tractable, in 

wmt: and let him bend the altemato oppoHition to reluctant 

liis leg»— or altemately the joints 205. Crasta /arragine : with rich or fat 

p. tcning marsh. The farrago was a nuzturt 

t: ia the eense of deteribere. of whcat bran and barley meal, acco*ding 

isMlii M o rm t U i, Th« meaning of to Serviue 


S06. nUtdofaaliiajugo: Crescere jam domitis sinito: namque antf 

Ingentes tollent animos ; prensique negabv 
Verbera lenta pati, et duris parere iupatik 
Sed non ulla magis vires industria firmal 
Quam Venerem et caeci stimulos avertere f 
Sive boum, sive est cui gratior usus equon 
Atque ide6 tauros procul atque in sola relc 
Pascua, post montem oppositum, et trans f 
Aut intus clausos satura ad prsesepia servai 
Carpit enim vires paulatim, uritque vidend 
Foemina : nec nemorum patitur meminisse 
S17. Hla quidem facii Dulcibus illa quidem illecebris, et saepe suf 
^dulcibus illecebris, et Comibus inter se subigit decemere amante 
8ubi|rit Pascitur in magni sylva formosa juvenca: 

Illi altemantes multa vi praelia miscent 

Vulneribus crebris : lavit ater corpora 8an| 

Obnizoi adversa- Versaque in obnixos urgentur comua vastc 

^ CUm gemitu : reboant sylvseque et magnui 

224. Nec est mosduof Nec mos bellantes uni stabulare : sed altei 

bellantes Victus abit, longeque ignotis exulat oris ; 

296. Flagas^oe/ai eor^ Multa gemens ignominiam, plagasque supe 
mbut auperbi victoris, Victoris, tum quos amisit inultus amores : 
tem eoi amores, quo. jg^ ^^y^^^^ aspectans regnis excessit avitia. 

829. Et inter dura Ergd omni curi vires exercet, et inter 
saza jaoet Dura jacet pemox instrato saxa cubili ; 

Frondibus hirsutis et carice pastus acuti : 
Et tentat sese, atque irasci in comua discil 
, Arboris obnixus tmnco : ventosque lacessi 

lctibus, et spars^ ad pugnam proludit aren 
Pdst, ubi collectum robur, viresque refecta 
Signa movet, praecepsque oblitum fertur in 


206. ^amque. The poet advisei the casional groans of each, ] 

ftrmor not to pamper or fatten his horsos repeated strokes given and 

before tbej are broken, and rendered tracta- 224. BellanteM : a part. o 

ble. If he do, they will be mettlesome and used in the sense of advem 

hif h minded, (tollunt ingentes antmot^) they Stabulart : in the sense o! 

wUl show a stout and surly temper, and 226. Multa : in the sense 

when caught, will refuse to bear the limber 228. Avitis regnis: froni 

whip, and to obey the hard bits. ^nte do' realms — from those fields i 

uuMdum : before breaking. The gerund in bom, and in which he bore 

dum is of the nature of a substantive noun. Aspieens : in the sense of 

Ruieus says, arUequam domerUur. 230. Jnstrato eubUi. Dr. 

209. Industria: in the sense of eura. vi^son understand this to b< 

Ai 1 TT :. «u^ > r i< strowed bed. Ruabus takei 

211. Usus: m the sense of euliut, ^ ^ c m » * -. j _ 

sense of strato^ strowed or m 

214. Satura: m the sense of plena. »•„ sometimes in composiUoi: 

216. Fotmina: the female — the heifer. nification of the primitive 

220. Altemantes : in the sense of vieissim, times, changes it to an oppc 
222. Comua versa in obnixos : and their Cariee aeuid : sharp sedgi 
homs tumed against the contending foes, 235. Refecta, This is 

are struck, Slc. Heyne, after Heinsius. Bv 

Cum vasto gemitu, This seems not to re- oommon reading. 
hr to the rage and violence of the antago- 236. Movet tigna: he mi 

nitfts, so much as to the groans and bellow* arda. A metaphor taken i 

mgp of tho conquered party ; or to the oo- ment of an armf • 


it ui» in medio ccepit cum albescere ponto, 

08 67 altoqtie sinum trahit : utque volutus 

rras, immane sonat per saxa, nec ipso 

s minor procumbit : at ima exasstuat unda 840 

»bu8, nigramque alte subjectat arenam. 

ine aded genus in terris hominumque ferarumque, 

ni» equoreuin, pecudes, pict<eque volucres, 

ias ignemque ruunt : amor omnibus idcm. 

ore non ftlio catulorum oblita lesena 246 

r errayit campis : nec funera vulg6 

multa informes ursi stragemque ded^re 

flvas : tum s«vus aper, tum pessima tigris : 

male tum Libyse solis erratur in agris. 
3 vides, ut tota tremor pertentet equorum 250 

>ra, si tantum notas odor attulit auras l 
(que eos jam fraena virdm, neque verbera ssva, 
copuli, rupesque cavs, atque objocta retardant 
na, corrcptos unda torquentia montes. 
uit, dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus, 256 

de prosubigit terram, fricat arbore costas, 

hinc atque illinc humeros ad vulnera durat. 
juvenis, magnum cui versat in ossibus ignem 258. QniajaveiiisyiH 

ainor ? nempe abruptis turbata procellis ^ ooi dama 

natat Cfeci serus freta : quem super ingens 260 
tonat coeli, et scopulis illisa reclamant 
ra : nec miseri possunt revocare parentea, 
loritura super crudeii funere virgo. 


Trahii finum : and draws a billowy 251. Odor aihtUt fwioi aunu. This U, I17 

tr from the deep. Cowmuiaiio^ for, aura aiiulii n^ium odonm* 

£. David«on reads aique^ and thinks Eqiut yelfatmintB ui understood 

Ihe corroct reading, aa being easier. 254. Jlqua: in the senee of vt aquarum. 

>ther copict have atque, Objeeta : Rubui say», inierjeela. 

ri^K^"!! . -'^irth*'? A ^*V 255. Sabellicu» iu. ipse: The Sabellina 

iie bulU, a- well a. what precede. it, ^^ ^ ^Sabellicus: an adj. 

power of love 18 among Virgil « ma.- ^ '^^ ^ l^ ^^ ^^ > 

se», and is admired by all cntics. . ! u 7 j '^ r -^-» -«J 

-admired is what followa. The va- i*'*'^" ^"1^. abounded m forest., and 

f objecu, the force of the iilustra- ^^"^^ °f ^^^ ^""^^'^. . „ . 

lie propriety of the arrangeraent, and 258. quidjuvenit. The poet her» aUudes 

aty and grandeur of the dewripUon», ^ «« *^^J ^^ Leander and Hero. 

riou» to evcry reader. Leander wa« an mhabitant of Abydua, on 

SulHeetai : in the aense of engit. ^® ^sian shore of the Hellespont, and pM- 

Hmintinfuria*ignemque:T^hmio "onately m love wiUi Hero, a beautifUI 

on, and flame of this kind. ™*><1» "*<* pnestess of Venus, who resided 

«, Uie same nMfuror, denotes any in- ^* ^estus, on the European shore, and op. 

te passion or affection of Uie mind, PO«te to Abydus. He used to swmi Uie 

I lore, anger, &c from Uie verb/tiro. ■^""t to viait his fair mistress. On a cerUm 

is much more expressive than amo^ occasion, passmg over m a storm, he was 

Bcndes the simple idea of love, it drowned. His dead body was dnven to Um 

Uie consumine and destnicUve ef- European shore, and espied by Hero; wh», 

r Uiat pasMon upon Uie subjects of it "» ^ tninsport of passion, Uirew herself upon 

Peuiwuk: most fell— or savage. "^® corpse of her lover, and penshed also. 

Lihym. Libya,apartof Africa,Uken 259. Abruptis: violent— sudden. 

whole of it, by synec. This is mcn- 261. Reclamant : m Uie sense of resoiiaiil. 

beeaose it abounded in the most 263. /fee virgo wtoriiura. Thisalludaeto 

bMMa. Mali erratur: it is danger- the case of Hero, above mentioned. ^^i^pcr : 

in, or hy. 


Quid Ljnices Bacchi varice, et genus acre lu 

HIS. Quiil oervi faei-' Atque canum ? quid, quae imbelles dant pra 

mti ti Qu« pmiia UH Scilicet ante omnes furor est insignis equan 

jabillM dant? g^ mentem V^nus ipsa dedit, quo tempore ( 

Potniades maUs membra absumps^re quadrij 

Illas ducit amor trans Gargara, transqub soi 

Ascanium : superant montes, et flumina trai 

Continu6que avidis ubi subdita flamma medi 

Vere magis (quia vere calor redit ossibus^ L 

Ore omnes versee in Zephyrum, stant rupibi 

Exceptantque leves auras : et saepe sine ullii 

Conjugiis, vento gravidaei mirabile dictu ! 

Saxa per et scopulos et depressas convalles 

f77. Non ad taos or- DiflTugiunt: non, Eure, tuos, neque SoIis,ad 

toa, O Eure ; neque ad in Boream, Caurumque, aut inde nigerrimu 

•rlttf 8o)\a; neque in Bo- N^scitur, et pluvio contristat frigore coelum 

ream, Caurutnque, aut tt- j ir- j : 

ad eampartem, nnde Hmc demum, Hippomanes, vero quod norai 

Pastores, lentum distillat ab inguine virus : 
Hippomanes, quod saepe malae leg^re noven 
283. Miscuerunt lier- Miscueruntque herbas, et non innoxia verba 

~iy"*J?' .. Sed fuffit interea, fuffit irreparabile tempu 

S85. Dum nos capU a- , r *• • : -^ 

amore describetuli Smgula dum capti circumvectamur amore. 

t86. Hoc esi eatii Hoc satis armentis : superat pars altera c 

Lanigeros agitare greges, hirtasque capellaf 

Hic labor : hinc laudem fortes sperate coloi 

Nec sum animi dubius, verbis ea vincere m» 


264. Lyncet. The Lynx is an animal, nor to the north, nor to the p 

tome Bay, of the speciee of the wolf and black Bouth wind arisee. Ai 

deer; othera say, only spotted lilLe a deer, his reason: QuM maxima p 

or panthor, very quick sighted, and swifl of videturtribtierehanevim(impf 

foot. The Lynces, as well as tigers, were uni Zephyro. Heyne unden 

bound to the car ot* Bacchus. Hence Lyn' first sense : ied in Boream^ Sl 

9es Bacchi, Dant: in the sense of ge- 278. Caurvm: the north-v 

runt. 279. Contristat: blackens. 

267. Jtfen/m: digpoBition — pamion. /n- /»/urto /Hgore in the sense of 
dolem^ says Heyne. tate, So does Heyne. Frigt 

268. Potniadet: an adj. from Potnia^ a not here to be taken initsusi 
town in Beotia, the native place of Glau- the south wind is not cold ; o 
eos: whOfit is said, withheld the horse from it is hot, and grenerally bringi 
hbmares; which so enraged them, that, by rains. It seems here to & 
way of revenge, at the instigation of Venus, sense of nimbu»; a cloud im 
they tore him in pieces. vapor and rain. 

Potniadet quadrigiB, The Potnian mares. 280. Hippomanej, TheHi 

See Geor. i. 437. of ^wo kinds. The one a I 

269. Oargara : neu. plu. a part of mount gubstance, lentum virut, whic 
Ida, in Troas: here put for any mountam. mare, when she wanted tlie h 
jfjcamum. Ascanms, a river In Bithynia, t^e kind here meanl. The 
in Asia: here put for any river. bunch, said to be on the fo 

275. Oravida venio. This account of the „3^1« f^^i^^ colt, See .+:n. 
maros becominir preirnant by the wind, is ,.. . ^ , 

SalinU ColumeOa, u>d hrro, a. Rusus ,^"" ^" concept.on, ahoye 
observes lcngih^ lentummnudutiUat. 

277. Mn Eure, Sic Some nnderstand ^^"^ drmum. 
tfae passage thus : not to thy rising, O east, 283. J^^on innoxia : in the 

nor the rising of the sun ; but to the north, J^^i «^J» Rubbus. 
la». Ruffius, thus: they kednot to the eant, 287. Aeilart * to treat of t 



QdIiii Bt, et angiisttB hunc addere rebus honorem. 

8ed ne Pamusi deserta per ardua dulcis 

Eaptat amor : juvat ire jugia, qua nuUa priorum 

Caalaliam molli divertitur orbita clivo. 

Nqdc, veneranda Pales, magno nnnc ore sonandum. 

Ineipiens, stabulis edico in mollibus hcrbam 
Oarpere oreff, dum mox frondosa reducitur sestas : 
Et muhi duram st]pul& fiUcumque maniplis 
Biemere subter humum, glacies ne frigida Ifedat 
Holle pecus, scabiemque ferat, turpesque podagras. 
Pdit, hinc dignessus, jubeo fronderitia capris 
Ariwta sufficere, et fluviod pra^bere reccntes ; 
Et MabuU a ventis hybemo opponere Soli 
Ad medium ^nversa diem : cuin frigidus ohm 
Jim cadit, extremoque irrorat Aquarius anno. 
Hc quoque non cura nobis leviore tuendae, 
Nee minor usus erit : quamvis Milesia rnagno 
TeOera mutentur, Tyrios incocta ruhorcs. 
Oensior hinc soboles, hinc largi copia lactis. 

Qiiim magis ezhausto spumaverit ubere mulctra ; 

L«Ca magis pressis manabunt flumina mammis. 

Nec minus interei barbas incanaque menta 

Omjphii tondent hirci, setasque comantes, 



SOt. Qui nulla orbita 
prionim poetarum 

S94. Nunc Bonandam 
295 ^^ 'Aofru 

29B. Subtor ipsis otm^ 

300 300. Jubeo agneoiam 

305. UtB cnprtr Xntn^m 
tunt nuijiM iKin leviore 

Q/>. cur& qiiam ort>$ 

•'"^ 30C. MilcMa vollera 
incocta qiiotul 'Vyruw ru- 
boros inutentur inajpio 

310. Tanto mngUlmUi 

A|l^ fluniina lactis 

^*" 312. InlcrcR pastoret 
tondent barbait, iiicaDa* 

290. QiiMi wtagnum: how great, or diffi« 

Aecordincf to Hoyne^vineere ea verbis^ may 
■«■n. to redoce, or bring those thinj^ inio 
^•ctic nnnibera: Exprimere hae commodi 
p o i ti em oruiiane^ saya be. Rubu« Mys, fu- 
«srarc i%im mrgumenia serwumis dignitate, 

^nguaOB: in the ■ente ot parvis vel /lu- 

291. PamoMn, Pamaasua was a moun- 
in Phocia, at the foot of which waa the 

iwinliin Cmttalia^ lacred to the munes. See 

292. OiM nuila orbiia prtorum, This ia 
% ■oMl happj circomlocuUon, to denote a 

ctttirely new, and which had never 
tnatcd of by any one befora him. 
Jiagno ore: in a high and lofty 
in order to add dignity to the auh- 
jKt : which« in importance, was inferior to 
rtat he had just before been treating of. 
~ ' ee note 1, snprm. 
297. Mmn^lm JUieum: with bundles of 

Ferai teabiem : should bring on the 
and foul gout. 

Tbc podagra was a disease of the feet, as 
ib Bame implies. 

ColomcIIa mentions two diseases, that 
■ftet tbe feet of sheep. Oue, when Uiere is 
a galling, and filth in the parting of the 
mf- liie •«ther, when there is a tuberrle, 
•r#veJJing, hi the same plarc, with a hair 
■ Lbc middJc* and a worm under iu 

300. Prondentia arbuta: m the sense of 
/rondes arbuti, 

301. Fiuvios: in the eense of aquam, 
Httfflcere : in thc sciiBe of dare, 

304. Cum frigidus Aquarius: whcn cold 
AquariuB at length setn, and sheds hiis dew 
in the cnd of the year. 

Aquarius is a sign of the Ecli|)tic, into 
which the aun enters about the ^-^d of Ja- 
nuary. Also the sanie as Ganjfmrdts^ thtf 
Hon of Tros, king of Troy, whuni Jupitor. 
in tlie fomi of an eagle, carried ii|} t(i hoa- 
vcn, and made his cup-bearer. Mciirv he is 
usually reprenuntcd with a |)it<:lier pouring 
out water. The poet hure sceiiiR to coiiMider 
the year as beginning with the inunib of 
March, or Aries, 

306. MiUsia: Milnsian wool. Milesia 
an adj. from MUesus^ a city in the coiiniios 
of lonia and Caria, famous for its wool. 

308. Hinc densior: from hence (from tho 
goatv) is a moro numcrous breed than from 
the shecp — from Uicm too a greater quau* 
tity of milk. 

Copia largi lartis : for larga copia lactn, 
This i8 not, projicrly «pcakiiig. by any figuro 
of vpocch, but by what is coiniiioiily called 
poetirn iictntia, 

309. Ubere exhausto: thcir udders bemg 

Qijidm magis : in the scntie of ifuoHti 

312. Cini/phii: an adj. froin Ciny/i«, a 
rivcr of Afrira, noar tlu* Garaiiiantoi, where 
Uic jfoat woN tJiv niotit «ha^i^v 


Usum in castronim et miseris velamina ntl 
314. Vcrd caprm pas- Pascuntur verd sylvas, et summa Lycei, 
cnntar Ilorrentesque rubos, et amantes ardua dun 

Atque ipsse memores redcunt in tecta, suoi 
317. Dacuntqae saot Ducunt^ et gravido superant vix ubere linM 
•^iiu i«cwm Erg6 omni studio glaciem ventosque nivala 

/ Qu6 minus est illis curae mortalis egestas, 

Avertes : victumque feres et virgea lietus 
Pabula : nec tot& claudes fcenilia bnmni. 
322. Cum leta oMtaa At ver6, Zephyris cum laeta vocantibus aesl 
mtlai^ Zephyria vocan- jn saltus utrumque gregem atque in pascui 
Sl'!!:^"""^ uuiimque Luciferi primo cum sidere, frigida rura 
"mJ^ '^ Carpamus : dum mane novum, dum granu 

£t ros in teneri pecori graiissimus herb& i 
Inde, ubi quarta sitim cceli collegerit hort. 
£t cantu querulae rumpent arbusta cicadaB 
Ad puteos, aut alta greges ad stagna jubel 
Currentem ilignis potare canalibus undam 
iEstibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere va 
Sicubi magna Jovis antiquo robore querci 
333. Sicubi nemus ni- Ingentes tendat ramos ; aut sicubi nigrum 
grum crebris iUcibut ac- Hicibus crebris sacra nemus accubet umbl 

''''A Tumjubepasio- J^ ^«""^ ^^^ rureus aquas, et pascei* 
ret dare iUit tenuea Solis ad occasum : cum irigidus aera Vea] 

Temperat, et saltus reficit jam roscida Lu 
Litoraque halcyonen resonant et acanthu 


314. Sylvat: in the senee of arborety vel oquator, but on every otb 
per iylvas^ Sic, it would vary from it. 

Summa : in the sense of cacumma, The Jewe, and some otl 

Lyca-i: Lvcsus waa a mountain in Ar- their day at the rising o 

eadia, sacred to Pan. dividcd the time of his b< 

315. Ardua: high grounds. Xoca is un- rizon into 12 equal parti 
derstood. his being below it into 12 

316. Suos: their young — the kids. making 24 portions of ea 
320 Virgea pabula: osier teod — tender tion. But this would ro 

twigs, or browse. vcry ditferent lengtlin in 

324. Cum primoy &c. The meaning is, of the year. Some nati 

when the planet Venus first rises, going bo- haiid, began the day at 

fore the sun, for then it is called Lueifer^ sun, and divided it in t 

the larmer should drive his flocks to pas- Modern nations gcnerall 

ture; and early in the moming, w^hen the midnight. Thenautical* 

grass is moist and tender, let them feed. or when the sun is upon 
Sidere : in the sonse of oriu. 328. Rumpent : w^eary. 

Carpamus frigida rura, Servius inter- Cantu: in thc scnse of t 
prets tliese words thus : Cogamut eaprat ear' .330. Ilignit eanalibtu: 

pere frigida rura: hoc est^ edueamus greget Ilignis: an adj. from ilei 
ad carpenda^ &c. 331. ^stibus: in tho i 

327. C(p/t. Davidson connects ettli with 334. Aeeubet sacrd ttit 

titim, RuiBus and some others take it in or bcnds, with its sacrec 

thosense oT dies^ ttnd connect it with quarla in the sense of ramis^ 1 

hora. Either preserves the sense and spirit says : Explicai sacram io 
of tho poet. 338. Liiora resonant : 

Ile beg^ns the day at the rising of the the king-fisher, and the 

mn, otherwise by tho fourth hour, the sun finch — with the musi'^ 

eould not bave caused thirst to man or beast. and that of the goldfincl 
This would correspond with our ten oVIock, Aeanthida : a Greek 

on those days when the eun is npon the See Goor. i. 399. 


Qmd tibi pastores Libys, quid pascua versu 
Prosequar, et raris habitata mapalia tectis ? 340 340. Quid proscqoai 

8«pe diem Doctemque, ct totum ex ordine mensem j-*^* ^*'?? pMtorai Ll- 

Pocitur, i^ue pecus longa in deserta sine uUis ^S^"s«pe pecus Das- 

Hospitiis : tantum campi jacet. Omnia secum cjtur 

ArmeDtarius Afer agit, tectumque, laremque, 

Anoaque, Amyclsumque canem, Cressamque pharetram. 

Noo secus ac patriis acer Romanus in armis 346 

Injusto sub fiisce viam cum carpit, et hostem 

Aote expectatum positis stat in agmine castris. 
At non, qu? Scythiss gentes, Maeoticaque unda, 349. At non cff ne, 

Turbidus et torquens flaventes Ister arenas : 350 qu& ntnt Scythia ||;entei 

Quique redit medium Rhodope porrecta sub axem. 


S40. Pmequar : in the ■ense of dieam, S&l- 346. JVbn teeut : no other wise than tlie orave 

!■( dMcribes theee MapaliOy (or Magalia^ Roman in the amiB of hia country, when he 

Ikn: Ed\ficia Jfumidarum, qtut mapilia illi marches out under hia unequal load, and 

iNOU, oblonga ineurvit kUtribtu ttcta tunt; stands in battle array ugainst tho expocted 

Enorttim earina. Heyne aaya of them : encmy. 

I pattim per agrot^ non in vieot eoUeeta, This paasage hath somewhat di vided com- 

s takee halntaia in the aeuse of con- mentators. VegetiuSf quoting it in hia art 

tinta. Paueiteatit eonttantet^ aays he. of war, hatii hottem instead of hotti: anJtt 

341. £z ordine : In succeuion— one afler hottem expectatum. This certainly is the 

•BoUier without intemiiaaion. best and easiest reading. But hotti is the 

341 Hotpiiiit : retreat — shelter. usual reading. Ante expectatum is usually 

344. Laretn. The Laret were domestio t&ken in the sense ofantequam expectetur^ on 

|odi like the Penates. There b some un- the authority of verse 206, where ame do' 

enttinty with regard to their origin. At mandum is plainly for ante dometur. But 

fti£nt, their office was confined to houses the two cases are not oxactly similar; the 

ad domestic affairs. Aflerward, however, latter being a gerund, and the fornier a par- 

^nt power and influence were very much ticiple adjective. On the wholc, I prefer 

QttBded. We find the Lares Urbani^ that hottem^ as being the easiest. 

INiided over ciUes; Laret Ruttiei, that pre- But there is anothcr reason, which hath 

Med over ihe country ; Laret Compttatet, gome weight. Let it be asked, why the 

ftU presided over cross-ways; Laret Ma- Roman should march forth, pitch his camp, 

r^that presided over the sea ;Z,ar« Fi- and stand in batUe array, while an enemy is 

«B, that preaided over roads, &c. Some not looked for, or expected ? But taking 

athefe were oniy two that were propcrly expeetatum, wiUi VcgeUus, to agree with 

^ Jd Laret, and Uiese Uie sons of Mercury kottem, Uie difficulty wUI be removed. 

the nyniph Lara, or Larunda. It is jqnte expeeiatumhottem:heroreyOTfLgKinsi 

» probable, however, Uiat Uiey were ,. ^^^J^a r«^« tKo «,-• ♦« L.J h;,« 

■ iL. i/ - ' _ . \ . . u • j the expected foe— in the way to meet him. 

!15T " .? '^^ . ?i? ^!^ «• •4"« «^ifie» befo"'. with reVpect to plac, 

. mia the walls, or at the entrance of . time and to di tv 

4i knise they inhabited, were thought to ' ^* ^* 

km a care of Uie Uiings pertaining to it, and Heyne mforms us that the Medicean, and 

■ fciagh Uie superstiUon of Uio age, received ■«>'"« o^e' copJe» haveAoj/em,but he retains 
in» bonors. They were worshipped un- ^^ "s"*^ reading. 

d» the form of a dog : or, as some say, 347. Sub injutto fatee. The Roman sol- 

•If eovered wiUi Uie skin of that animal, <*ier carned his shield, sword, helmet, &c 

hciase he is a tmsty guard to the house. "i^ »"<> provisions sufficient for half a 

Isrei, by meton. is oflen put for one's month: in weight about 60 pounds. FoMeti 

■i», balHUUon, or family. Agit : in Uie "» ^*»© «6"«« ^^ ^^^- 

eXfert. 349. Mctotiea' unda. This is the Pahu 

S45w wf iiiyr/atfiii .* an adj. from Amyelte^ Mceotit^ or the sea of Azof, I^ring to the north 

ftcit|r of Laconia, famous for its dogs and of the Euxine, but connected with it by the 

f i tttlaf , aiid for its beinf the reputed place straits of Caffa. The ancients called al! 

tf tbe Bativitjr of Castor and Polluz. those naUons lying toward the north of 

an adj. from Creia^ a well Europe and Asia, Seythiant, 

!«ad in tlie Mediterranean, whose 350. Itter : the Danube. 

were fiunons in the art of 35L Rhodope. A range of mowntaSEiyi 

Jifmm : atenaib. rising in Thraoe, ind extendm^ lo >}Ekft «aA 


Illic ciausa tenent stabulis armenta : neque vi 
Aut herbai campo apparent, aut arbore frondl 
S54. Terra jacet m- Sed jacet aggeribus niveis informis, et aho 
fopmw niTeu oggoribui^ Terra gelu late, septemque assurgit in ulnas. 

®^ Ji? ^?i" **^ a Semper hyems, semper spirantes frigora Caur 

:lj6. lUie ■emper esi n^ oiii* uj j- ^:* l. 

hyeine Tum Sol pallentes haud unquam discutit uin» 

Nec cum invectus equis altum petit aethera ; i 

Prsecipitem Oceani rubro lavit squore cumiii 

Concrescunt subitae currenti in flumine crusti 

Undaque jam tergo ferratos sustinet orbes, 

Puppibus illa prius patulis, nunc hospita plaui 

iEraque dissiliunt vulgd, vestesque rigeacunt 

S64.C»da]itvinajmi«f IndutsB, cffiduntque securibus humida vina, 

hunuda g^ ^q^ solidam in glaciem vert^re lacunas, 

Stiriaque impexis induruit horrida barbis. 
Interea toto non secius aere ningit : 
Intereunt pecudes : stant circumfusa pruinis ■ 
Corpora magna boum : confertoque agmine c 
Torpent mole novi, et summis vix comibus e 
371. Ineola non agi- Hos non immissis canibus, non cassibus ullis, 

taot ho8 pavidos Puniceffive agitant pavidos formidine pennae : 

373. Sed cominAs ob- g^^ frustra oppositum trudentes pectore mon^ 

tmncant eot ferro fru§- r« • »« u* -. r •* j ^ 

tritrudentespecioreop- Cominus obtruncant ferro, graviterque rudenl 

poeitum montem nivis Caedunt, et magno Iteti clamore reportant. 

376. Ineola ipsi agunt Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alt& 
■•w*** o^ Otia agunt terr& : congestaque robora, totas^ 

Advolvere focis ulmos, ignique ded^re. 

Hic noctem ludo ducunt, et pocula Iseti 

Fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea sorbis. 

Talis Hyperboreo septem subjecta trioni 


and louth till it meets mount Hemus; afler 371. Abn agiiani hos : thej 

which it turns, and ■tretchee toward the sue them, &c. 

^oiih, j r j The /ormido was a line or c 

354. Informu: deformed— disfigured by piume» of varioua colors werf 

the mounds of snow. the purpose of terrifymg wil 

356. Septem ulnas : thia is about ten and was so oxtended or etretched i 
a half foet of our measure. haunU, or path», as to lead o) 

357. Dieeulit : in the «enee of disnpai. insenaibly into the net. Pu 
359. Lavit: waahes his descending car in crimson. 

the red surface of the ocean. 0-^ r 4 • •_ •* j :^ . .,. 

of the reflecUon of the .un'. rly. from it. »•>« draught. of wine tl 

rarface, when near the horizon. **^* " ®'" 

361. Ferralos orbts: wheels bound with Fermenio: any fermented h 

iron. Aeidis sorbis : the acid 8« 

363. Illa priiis tiospUa : that (the water service-berries ; by meton. f< 
in the rivers) before friendly to the broad made of them, usually render 
ships — ^now to wagons. 380. Ftiea poeula : wine. 

Hospita : hospitable — kind ; receiving poetical. 

them aa a guost, and treating them with 381. Septem — irioni. The 

kindness. word are separated by Tmesii 

364. Humida : in the sonse of liquida. The Septemirio is a constcll 
Prius liquida^ says Ruieus. north pole, called the grea 

So intenfle is the cold in high northem which are soven stars, somctii 
.atitudes, that the spirit of wine ha? been plough, becausc thoy are supp 
fh»zeii in the therm >meter. that shape ; also the parts 


flm efllnnui Tirihn RiphaRo tunditur Euro 
b pecudum riilvis velantur corpora setis. 

Si (ibi laniciuni cune : pnmum aspera sylva, 
Uppa^que tribuUque absint : fuge pabula la;ta : 385 

Contioiidque greges villis lege moljibus albos. 

nuin lutem, quainvis aries sit candidus ipse, 387. Autein, qatmvif 

Nign subest udo tantum cui lingua palato, ariefl ipse sit candidoi, 

Rqice, ne maculis infuscet vellera pullis ^j»*» illum, cui tantiiin 

Nycentfim ; plenoque alium circumspice campo. 390 "**^ 
Nonere sic niveo lanie, si credere dignum est, 
hn Deus Arcadiie captam te, Luna, fefellit, 
h nemora alta vocans : nec tu aspemata vocantem. 393. Nec tn a«peniafa 

At cui lactis amor, cytisum, lotoaque frequentes " """ 

tpn manu, salsasque ferat pr»sepibus herbas. 395 

nioc et amnnt fluvios magis, et magis ubera tendunt, 
Et salis occultum referunt in lacte saporem. 
Multi jam excretoe prohibent a matribus hcedos, 
Primaque ferratis praRfigunt ora capistris. 

Qiiod luigcnte die muls^re, horisque diumis, 400 400. Quod lattu mul- 

Nocte premunt : quod jam tenebris, et sole cadente, **^i Quod iaelu mid» 
8ub lucem exportans calathis adit oppida pastor, ^^ tenebris 

Aat parco sale contingunt, hyemique reponunt. 

Nec tibi cura canum fuerit postrema : sed una 
Vdoces Spartse catulos, acremque Molossum 405 

Ptare sero pingui : nunquam, custodibus illis, 
Noctumum stabulis furem, incursusque lupomm, 
Aut impacatos a tergo horrebis Iberos. 
^Kpe etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros : 
Gtcanibiis leporem, canibus venabere damas. 410 

Svpe volutabris pulsos sylvestribus apros 
Utratu turbabis agens : montesque per altos 
bv^tem clamore premes ad retia cervum. 


^iag under that eoniitenation ; a]«o simply, 399. Prima ora prt^figttni ftrram eapu' 

■• Dorth. Sutjeela : lying — placed. trit : by Hypallage for, prt^figuni fer^^^a ea- 

584. LaniHwm: the woollen trade, or pw/ra ^mw ori^iu ; they prefix to Uie end 

*mnfacturc. ^^ their mouths iron muzilo8. Theae were 

Latwequtl tribuHqw : both burr», and >« «"ch a form as lo prick Ihe dam, if the 

HkiitJei, offered to let thom suck ; but not to prevent 

m Grtgee : in tbe eenM of oves. ^hem from caUng graM. 

S9(^ Jfa$eeni{tM: a part of tuueor^ uaed 402. Exporlant ealathis: carrying it in 

«i a rab. : of the lambe. baakets, he goee, Jlte.— carrying it made into 

»1. Jfiveo nntnere. The poet hath refer- butter, curd», and cheese. 

^ here to Uie fable of Pan^i bein^ in love 405. Sparta : the most famoui cHy of tha 

*ith Luaa. By changtng himnelf into a Peloponneeeui, and celebrated for iti ezcel- 

^ow-white ram, he deceived her ; and do- lent dogi. 

•Jiaf her into the wooda, deflowered her. Moloinm: a dog, so called from Mokena, 

fJobui, bowaver, relatei the itory different- ^^ country of Epirui, lo called from Jdolotnu^ 

ir He nyi, Pan being in love wilh Luna, ^1,^ «on of Pyrrhui, king of Epinii, and 

««led her the choice of ajiy of hii flock ; Andromache, the widow of Hector. 8ee 

^ ekoonng tho whiteit, ihe wai deceived, jp^^^ j|^ 292. 

^•«-etheyweiethewont. '408.'7ter«; theSpaniardi,wcaUed,from 

S91 Temhm. : in the senie of dutenduni. the /ftfrw, («bdte, Elfro,) a river of Spain. 

3Mk Exereio» : grown la-iJT^ — or luffi- They were lo notnrioui for their robborie% 

^tety gtowB to taae care of themielvei; that they became a proverb. ThepoetlMfV 

•f «r and ereaeo. oiei their naroe for robbttia Vn vvKi»n3L 


Disce et odoratam stabulis acceDdere cedi 

Galbaneoque agitare graves nidore chelydrot 

Sttpe sub immotis praesepibus, aut mala tacti 

Vipera delituit, ccelumque exterrita fugit ; 

Aut tecto assuetus coluber succedere et uml 

Pestis acerba boum, pecorique aspergere vir 

Fovit humum. Cape saxa manu, cape robo 

Tollentemque minas, et sibila coHa tumenteD 

Dejice : jamque fugi timidum caput abdidit t 

Cum medii nexus, extremaeque agmina caudi 

Solvuntur, tardosque trahit sinus ultimus oHm 

£st etiam ille malus Calabris in saltibus angi 

Squamea convolvens sublato pectore terga, 

4S7. MaoalcMnu quoad Atque notis longam maculosus grandibus alv 

iifigam Qui, dum amnes ulli rumpuntur fontibus, et i 

■U *^a '^''^ ^®'® madent udo terree, ac pluvialibus Austr 

^ Stagna colit ; ripisque habitans, hic piscibua 

Improbus ingluviem, ranisque loquacibus ez] 
Postquam exhausta palus, terneque ardore d 
^3. In nocam eam- Exilit in siccum ; et flammantia lumina torqi 

Ssevit agris, asperque siti, atque exterritus m 
Ne mihi tum moUes sub dio carpere somnos, 
Neu dorso nemoris libeat jacuiase per herbai 
Cum positis novus exuviis, nitidusque juventi 
Volvitur, aut catulos tectis aut ova relinquen: 
Arduus ad Solem, et linguis micat ore trisulc 
Morborum quoque te causas et signa docc 


415. Oaibaneo : an adj. firom galbanum, 425. Calabris : an adj. froin 

a gom, or liquor, at the smell of which ler- south-castern part of Italj. 

pents flee. It is agrecd that thc snake 1 

Chelydros : Chelydrus is properlj a water is thc chersi/drus. Thosc serp* 

tortoiso — a land or water snake : qui modb in that part of Italy. Thcy 

tn paludibus^ modh in arboribus latet, bious. Tlicir naino is of Gre 

417. yipera : a species of serpent, very The poet hcre gives a vcry ) 
poisonous ; so called from the circumstance tion of that destructive rcptili 
of its bringing forth its youn^ alive. 428. Rumpuntur : in the » 

Cttlum : for lueem, Mala: noxious — puntyve\rumpunt se. 

poitonous. 430. Improbus implet: gree< 

418. Coluber : a species of snake, which filthy maw with fish, &c. 
Mr. Martyn takes for the same that Pliny 432. Kxhausta : exhauste 
calls bocu^ from the circumstance of its feed- Valpy reads exusta^ but mcntii 
ing on cow'8 miik, which it draws from the rity. Exhausta is the commoi 
teat. If this be the case, we see thc pro- 435. T\im ne libeat milii : tl 
priety of the poet*8 calling the serpent, please me to tako, &c. 
aeerbapestisboum: thedireful pestof cattle. 436. Dorso, Some render 

4^. Fovit terram: hugs the ground. back, rcferring it to the posl 

423. Medii nextis : the middle joints. But thero is no necessity of tl 

Agminaque extremet eauda : the move- pose the grove to be on an emi 

ments', or windingt of the end of his tail. — on the side or edge of a gro 

Agmen \b properly an army of men on the 437. Positis entviis : his il 

roarch; it is also said of a serpent: Quia off. The snake, it is well kn 

eorporis pars pbst partem sueeedii^ atque ogi' his skin evcry year. Exuit it t 

tur instar exercitus agminatim procedentis^ says Pliny. 

•ayi Rufeus. 438. Tectis : hb habitation- 

4S4 Ultimus siJitu : the extreme joints or 439. Mieat ore : he vibratea ' 

fblda of his tail draw the slow wreaths or forked tongue in his mouth| 

Spires along. RusBas says, extrema eurvatura. three forked topguc vibrates j 


Iiirpif ofw tentat scabies, ubi frigidus imber 

ilb^ td rirum persedit, et horrida cano 

Brama gelu : vel cum tonsia illotus adhsesit ^- Bruma horrida 

tJodor, et hirsuti secuerunt corpora vepres. ^*^^ ^ 

Ddcibus idcirco fluviis pecus omne magistri 446 

PeifuDdunt, udisque aries in gurgUe villis 

Memtur, missusque secundo defluit amni : 

Ant tonsum tristi contingunt corpus amurc4, 

Et spumas miscent argenti, vivaque sulphura, 

IdBuque pices, et pingues unguine ceras, 460 

Sdlliinque, helleborosque gravcs, nigrumque bitumen. 

NoQ Umen ulla magis pnesens fortuna laborum est, 

Qiiam si quis ferro potuit rescindere summum 

Ukeris os : alitur vitium, vivitque tegendo : 

Dom medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera pastor 456 

Abnegat, et meliora Deos sedet omina poscens 

Qnn etiam ima dolor balant(hn iapsus ad ossa 

Cum fiuit, atque artus depascitur arida febris ; 

ProTuit incensos estus avertere, et inter 

Iffli ferire pedis salientem sanguine venam, 460 

Bisaltc quo more solent, acerque Gelonus, 461. Eodem mon.qno 

Com fugit in Rhodopen, atque in deserta Getarum, BiMlt* lolent /erire «•- 

Et kc concretnm cum sanguine potat equino. ^^''ara o 

Qittm procul, aut molU succedere seepius umbne ^^^s pi^TauT ro J(Il 

Videris, aut summas carpentem ignavius herbas, 465 dere sspiiis molli mn- 
Gitremamque sequi, aut medio procumbere campo brs 

?k8centem, et sersB solam decedere nocti ; 466. Eztremamque m 

fkmtinud culpam ferro compesce, priusquam ^^ emterat 


i43. TWiff .- to the shom sheep. Ovibut 456. Meliora omina : better Bucceflw— or 

■ «adMitood. luck. 

445. Magisiri : in the Bense ofvattorei. Verbs of asking, teaching, &c. govom 

446. Ourgite: in the aenae ofjfuvio, two accuaativea, one of the person, tho otbm 
U8. TritH: bitter. of the thmg. 

CmUmguni: in the aenae ofungimt, 457. Laptut: penetratingr. 

449. SpwtMt argenii: litharge. Some 460. Jnter ima pedit: in the senae of m- 
■Dderituid quickailver; but it is not certain ter imat tmgulat pedit: between the divi- 
vbetber the ancienta called that, tptuna ar- aiona or parto of the hoof. Ferire: to opoi 
V^ a vein. 

450. Idaat pieet: the pitch ie here called 461. Bitalta: a people of Macedonia. 
Meuit ftom mount Ida, in Troas, whose Oeloni: a people of Scythia, who |*aint» 
pilck wu the best. cd their bodies, to be more temble to their 

4al. Seillam : the aquiU, or aea onion ; it is a enemiea. 

MboQiroot,likeanonion,but muchlargcr. 462. Oetarum: the Getie were a peopla 

BtUtborof, There are two kinds of hcl- of Thrace, inhabiting Masia interior^ not 

lebon, the white and the black. The for- far from the mouth of the Itier. 

MKiitTiMr. Martyn,iB aerviceable in dis- 463. Concretum: thickened. 

eMBof theakin, if it be ezteraaUy applied ; 467. Deeedere terte noeti: to jield or jnTr 

^ it will not do to be taken interaaliy, as placo to the late nighU She waa the laat 

tfca black kind will. Ifence he thinka, V^ir- to leave the paature grounds, and thon com- 

fil bere meana the white, bv hia using the pelled only by the darknesB of the nighu 

ipitbetgropu, Btrong-scented. She yielded to the darknesa, and went 

451 Fbrtuna laborum: remedy of their home. 

£BeaBe, or sofferinga. PreKTM.* Bpeedy — 468.Cti^m. By thiff wearetoundoTBland 

alScacious. the diseascd shecp^ and not Bimply the af- 

454. Summum ot uleerit : the hiffhefft part, fcctcd part, as Ruieus and somo othcrs nn- 

m komi of tbe eore. Vitium : the malady, dcrBtand it. The poet advises, a» soon aa 

Tegendo: by being concealed. you discover, by the signsaboYe mentionaf* 


Dira per incautum serpant contagia vulgns, 
Non tam creber, agens hyemem, ruit asquon 

471. Qn&m pentMpe- Quam multffi pecudum pestes : noc singula ) 
fmduin sunt mult» Corpora corripiunt ; sed tota lestiva repent^ 

Spemque, gregemque simul, cunctamque nh 

474. Tum tlle sciat 'Y^j^ sciat, aerias Alpes et Norica si quis 

i^"nunr!lnTi^iL Castelk iu tumulis, et lapidis arva Timavi, 
am nunc quoque tanto _ , ^ \ ^ ' % i 

poet vidoai aeriaa Alpes, Nunc quoque pOst tanlo vidcat, dcsertaque i 

et Norica castella in tu- Pastorum, et longe saltus lateque vacantes. 

mulis, et arva lapidls Hic quondam morbo coeli miseranda cooi 

Timavi, dcHertaque reg- Tempestas, totoque autumni incanduit lestu, 
Qa Dastorum, et saltus n. : j i r« £ 

Et genus omne ncci pecudum dedit, omne s 
Corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo. 
Nec via mortis erat simplex : sed ubi ignea 
Omnibus acta sitis miseros adduxerat artus \ 
Rursus abundabat fluidus liquor ; omniaquc 
Ossa minutatim morbo collapsa trahebat. 
So^pe in honore DeOm medio stans hostia ai 
Lanea dum nivei circumdatur infula vitt&, 
Inter cunctantes cecidit moribunda ministro 
489. Aut 81 eacerdoB Aut si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdoi 
macuverat quam fuu- i^de neque impositis ardent altaria fibris, 
«SerSriide"* "^^ Nec rcsponsa potest consultus reddere vato 
492. Suppotiti rieeri- ^^ ^^ suppositi tinguntur sanguine cultrif 
hut Tiz tinguntur Siunmaque jejuni sanie infuscatur arena. 

Hinc Istis vituli vulg6 moriuntur in herbia, 
v tA . Et dulces animas plena ad praosepia redduo 

fi>ii* It :mmJJ!?I* -?!ili:' Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit ; et quatit 
feiix, « immemor studi- -., . , , /. «i •. i • 

orum, atque herb», la- Tussis anhela sues, ac faucibus angit obesu 
bitur Labitur infelix studiorum, atque immcmor i 


that any one of jour sheep u diseased, to 485. TVahebal otnnia : ai 

take away the faulty animal : kill it forth- bonee, wasted, or conaumed 

«rith, that the contagion may not spread by the disease, into iteelfl 

among the unwary flock. Thie is the sense «e, says Ruieus. 
of Davidson and Valpy. 487. Infula, Thia was i 

474. J^onea: an adj. from Abrumm, a ©r band, niade of wool, and 

country of Germany, m the neighborhood tcmples of the victim; bx 

of the Alps, but boyond them with regard the whole head : from it hi 

to Italy. fiUet, 

THmavi: Timavus, a small river in the ^qtv jp,., . ,. ^ a^, 
Venetian territory, called lapidit (lapidian) ^^' ^^^ ' ™ ^^^ 
from lapidet, an ancient people, who in- 4,9% SupposUi: apphed 

habited that part of it, through which the °' "«■"• 
THwuivus flowed. 493. Jauna sanie : with 1 

476. Regna : posseseions. In these diseaBes, the blood 

479. Misetxtnda tempestas : a direful pes- converted into a thin mea 

tilence arose. the poet calls Jluidus liq\ 

JEstu : he^L IneanduU: raged during vaded the body so Uiorougl 

tho whole hoat of autun^n. converted the marrow, and 

481. Tabo: with a poistmous quality. into itself. 

Laeus: in the sense ofaquam, 496. Rabies: madnesa. 

482. Jfee pia mortis : nor was the manner 497. Anhda tussis: a ' 
of their death simple and common. It was shakes the diseased swine. 
oomplicated, and attended with affecting Obeiis: a disease soiiM 
dicumstances. quinsy. 

483. Sitit: properly thirst. By meton. 498. Studiorum: of hb i 
the fcver causing it. Ignea sitis: the raging racea in which he boro off \ 
fcvar. tory. 



is , AMiteaque avertitur, et pede terram 

: deuii&Me aures : iiicertus ibidein 500 

lle quideni morituris frigidus : aret 
l tactum tractanti dura rei^istit. 
xitium primis dant signa diebus : 
esisu ccepit crudencere morbus, 
.rdentes oculi, atque attractus ab alto 605 
^rdum geinitu gravis : imaque longo 
i tendunt : it naribus ater 
obsessas feuces premit aspera lingua. 
rto latices infundere comu 
1 vi^ salus morientibus una. 510 

ix^ ipsum exiiio : furiisque refecti 

ipsi<|ue suos, jam morte sub a;gr^, 
. piis, erroremque iiostibus ilium) 
idis laniabant dentibus artus. 
em duro fumans sub vomere taurus 515 

mixtum spumis vomit ore cruorem, 
le ciet gemitus : it tristis arator, 
abjungens fratema morte juvencum, 
3 in medio defijui relinquit aratra. 
t altorum nemomm, non mollia poasunt 520 
re animum, non, qui per saxa volutus 
:ro campum petit, amnis : at ima 
itera, atque oculoa stupor urget inertes, 
iue fluit devexo pondere cervix. 

aut benefiu^ juvant ? quid vomere terras 

601. Et ill« tiMfof qnl- 
dem erai frigidiui iU 

504. In proeeMaita^ 

509. Primi profuit. 

511. lUi rcfecti Ulo 

5\2, Ipsique jam mh 
cgra morte, laniabant 
8U08 artun digciiHMM 

raves ? atqui non Massica Bacchi 
n illis epulflB nocuere reposte : 
it victu pascuntur simplicis herbe : 

fontes liquidi, atque exercita cursu 
lec somnos abrumpit cura salubres. 

non alio^ dicunt, regionibus iilis, 
I sacra boves Jmionis, et uris 

525. Qaid eoniiiilabor, 
^26 "^^^ benefacta AmhM 
juvant eot/ Quid J mmi 
eoM invertine gravee tM^ 
raa vomere? 



fnhappy — miserable, afler all St%ip9r: a etupor, or deat|i-like appaa^ 

1«. Ttu8 is the eeiiBe of Rusus. ance, reete upon their heavy eyee. 

uf ; unccrtain— the cause of 5125. Jtiwm/: Rueui saye, oroninf. 

iknown: or, variou..-fluctua. ^gg ^^^^. ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^ ^^ j^, 

chu8 — wine. 

on, and going off, by tums. 
re ueed adverbially ; a Grocism. 
hu attracius: thoir breatli, 

Matsiea: an adj. from Matsieut, a moui* 

the bottom of the broast, is tain in Campania, famous for ite rich wiaee. 

»»j (mtern.pted) with «groin. 53^, j^^^ ^^ j,„, j^ ^,„ 5^^, 

t «>b, or .obbing. j^ j b,jUhftU •lamb.n. 

«j; swollen — obstructed. *^ 

^ laiieet : ainiply, wine. '^^^ whole account of this fatal murraui 

rto: a hom put down their i» one of Virgil"s finest pieces. ButfVomtlM 

h whidi the wine was poured. 515lh line, Eeee auiem^ &c. il is extremely 

neliora^ &c. May the gods tender, and inimiUble in beanty ; and par. 

things to the pious, and that ticularly the last siz lines. They wera M 

estrue%^ to our enemies. ^^^^ adraired by Scaliger, that he dedaicii 

tddmni, or another of the like ^^ J»*^. ^^»>«' haye been the auUiQr of 

l^fgtoQ^, them, than to have had the tavor of Crowai^ 

Bm.* theirflanksarelank, or or Cyrus. 

resnml, says Heyne. 538. Qucfilos : Miight aftar^wiaVlA. 



633. Ourrus ejut duc- Imparibus ductos alta ad donariii cumis. 
^A**'* *^ , . Erg6 8Bgre rastris terram rimantur, et ipsM 
«J^rimSuii °^ Unguibus infodiunt fruges, montesque per i 

Contenta cervice trahunt stridentia plausti^ 
Non lupus insidias explorat ovilia cincum, 
Nec gregibus noctumus obambulat : acrioi 
Cura domat. Timidi damae, cervique fugf 
Nunc interque canes, et circum tecta vaga 
Jam maris immensi prolp-m, et genus omm 
Litore in extremo, ceu naufraga corpora, I 
Proluit : insolita; fugiunt in flumina phociB 
Interit et curvis frustra defensa latebris 
Vi|>era, et attoniti, squamis astantibus, hyd 
Ipsis est aer avibus non aequus, et iUae 
Prascipitcs altH vitam sub nube relinquunt. 
PraBterea, nec jam mutari pabula refert, 

649.Magi8trimf(/irtnis Qua^sitaeque nocent artes : cess^re magisti 
cetsere mederi, Phillyrides Chiron, Amythaoniusque Melai 

Sasvit et in lucein Stygiis emissa tenebris 

65S. Ant* se Pallida Tisiphone : morbos agit ante metu 

Inque dies avidum surgens caput altius effi 
Balatu pecorum, et crebris mugitibus, ami 
Arentesque sonant ripae, collesque supini. 
Jamque catervatim dat stragem, atque agg 
In stabulis turpi dilapsa cadavera tabo : 

658. Donec Agrieol^ Donec humo tegere, ac foveis abscondere 
dbcant tegere iUa humo Nam neque erat coriis usus : nec viscera < 

tfti M«« ^^m^^* «„: ' Aut undis abolere potest, aut vincere flam 
601. Woc poflsunt qui- xt . i • ? ' • -ii • 

dera tondere vellera, pe- ^^^ tondere quidem morbo illuvieque pen 

rosa Vellera, nec telas possunt attingere putres 


633. Urii imparibus: hy bufTalocs, une- 551. Styf^iM: an adj. frai 

qually matched. Ductos : drawn. Riman- Arcadia, whoffo watcr was 

tur: brcak up, or till. sonous, that it proved fatal 

536. Conlenta cenici : with thcir strainod »t- This, together witfi thc 

neck, they draw, &c. its disappcaring undcr thc ei 

637. Expiprat: mediUtee, or deeigns. to feign it to bc a ri vcr of he 

Meditatur, Zys ^^^^ «^/^ ^^ ^'^^^ T^ . i" 

. "L , m 8uch vencration by Ihe 

Ml. Jamjiwtus: now the wavea wash Qsuallv swore by it ; and 

ap the race of the boundlew, &c. tj,eir oath at anv timc, the 

Such was the extcnt, and dogrce of the prjved of their divinily for 

infecUon of the air, thal it rcached cven to 553. /^ rf,>, ; daily— eve 

the «caly tribea. But Ariiitotle observe», 555. SupinicoUes: elopi; 

that mfecUoua diseaaes never rcach to, or 556. Jamque dat: and 

invade, fi»hefc phone) deals destruction bi 

^ataniikm: a pre8.part. of the verb ncr/o, 657. Dilapsa: wasted, 

taken aa a sub. of fishes, 659. JWr quisquam : no 

543. Insoiittt; unusual— contrary to their cleansc it with watcr, or p 

custom. conquer, or ovcrcume the i 

550. Chirofu He was the son of Satum Viseera : thc ficsh in gei 

and Phillyra. It is said he taught £scu- under the skin. 

lapius in physic, Hercules in astronomy, and 560. Undis: in the 8en« 

Achiiles in music. 56^ Putrrs tefas: tbe pu 

mYeiampus: thcson of Amythaon and Do- cloth — thc clotii made of tl 

ripe. They were both famous pliv«icians : rupied wool. 

here used for *he masters of medicino in 7V/ai : the wch, put by sj^ 

fvnaral. dotJi. 



eiibB eCiain ujvaBos si quis tentirat amictus ; 
kidentM papulflB, atque iminundus olehtia sudor 
tembra eequebatur ; nec longo deinde moranti 
rempore, contactos artus sacer ignis edebat 


665. Deinde saoer Ig. 
nis edobat contactoa ar- 
tos illi moranti dvnittert 
eoi amietu$ d «e, neo 
kmgo tempore. 


114. Jirdeniespapida: red, llety pimplee, 

565. Sepubatur: epread over the noi- 

566. Sieerigrus: the efyeiMlaa, or St. 
Anihoaj^e fire. It eonmimed tAooe parts of 
Ifci bodj with whith the garments {amiehu) 


The meaninff of theee laet siz linee ap- 
pean to be thie: That the people were 
forced at length to abstain from shearing 
the infected fleecee; or touching the wool ; 
or ever wearing anj garmenti, whon made 
of it: because thoee, who had done so, had 
been great ■ufferers therebj. 


Wbt ii the eabjeet of thii book.' 

Row doee the poet comnenre ? 

Wkf does he firet invoke Palee? 

Hov irss ehe worehipped ? 

Wktt were her feetivals called ? 

After finiahxng the main tubject, does he 
tM uj thinf bj waj of epieode ? 

Wbtt number of epieodes<hae he added ? 

What tre the enbjecte of theee epieodes ? 

Wktt ii the general character of them ? 

Mif thej be reckoned among the fineet 
futtofthe Oeorgics? 

How doee the book oonclode ? 

Wbo was Hippodame ' 

Wktt b nid of OE^maoe t 

Wko wte hie danghter? 

Wko wts Pelope ? 

Aad what is said of his lather f 

Ii vhat jear of the world were the Oljm- 
fKgtmeB mstitnted ? 

ftv often were thej celebrated ? 

Did the^ form an important era in the 
ftidto hutorj ? 

Wkit other gamee were there in Oreece ? 

li beaorof wnom were the Nemeangames 
Aad to eommemorate what event? 
fa hoQor of whom were the Pjthian 
|MM iaetitnted > 

Ami te eommemorate what erent ^ 
Wha iMiitiifeil tbe iBthmean gamee? 

Whcre were they celebrated ? 

And in honor of whom ? 

Who was Tithonus ? 

How long did he live bcfore Augnstus ? 

In what sense do Servius and Eustathius 
consider the word THifumtu^ as used bj tho 
poet in reference to Augustus ?* 

Who were the LapithcD ? 

What are thej said to have done ? 

What was the name of their principal cit j ? 

Can jou mention anj nation tliat began 
the daj at the rising of the sun ? 

How did thej divide the daj? 

How did thej divide the night ? 

What effect would this have upon the 
length of their hours? 

When do modem nations begrin the daj ? 

When does the nautical dav commence ? 

Who, probablj, wero fhe Lare* 7 

Over what did thej preside ? 

For what is the word Larei taken bj 
meton. ? 

What was the usual weight which the 
Roman soldier carried on his march ? 

Of what did it consist? 

What were all those nations called bj the 
Romans that inhabited the northem part of 
Europe and Asia ? 

Was there anj particnlar part of 
book much admired bj 8caliger? 


nm re 


Tbm Book treats of tke cultare of bees. Afler proponii^ the snbjeot, tl 
proper stations for placing their hives ; and having noticed eome parti 
the management of the swarms, &c. he digreeses into a noble descri) 
between two discordant kings. He then proceed» to considcr tlieir di 
qualities, the nature and form of their govemment, and the discasefl, ' 
among them — together with the proper remedies for each; and conclm 
of Anateus* recovery of his bees, ailer his ■warms were lost, and of ( 
into hell afler his wife Eurydice. This episode runs through 277 lin 
the finest piecee of heathen poetrj. 

PROTINUS aerii mellis ccelestia dont 

tt. Hanc partem Oeo- Exequar : hanc etiam, Msceii^ aspice | 

gieorum, Dicam epeo- Admiranda tibi levium spectacula reniin, 

miranda tibT """" * " Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ordine { 

Mores, et studia, et populos, et prelia dii 

6. nie est labor in te- [„ tenui labor ; at tenuis non gloria : si t 

^ '"a- 1 » • • Numina la&va sinunt. auditque Tocatus Ai 

7. Si l«va Numina n- »> • • • j -u • ^ 
nunt quem $eripU>rem Pnncipio, sedes apibus stauoque peteo 

exequi id Qud neque sit ventis aditus (nam pabula 

Ferre domum prohibent) neque ovea hcM 

10. Prohibent mpu Floribus insultent ; aut errans bucula eai 

ferre domum Decutiat rorem, et surgentes atterat hei4 

lcJ^ ^^^•q'»- Absiirt et picti squalentia terga lacerti 

Pinguibus a stabulis ; meropesque, alisc 


1. Aerii : an adj. from aer. Honey ie stands bj teoa, propiti 

here called aerial, becauae it was thought to Hevne seems to be of 

eome from the dew, which fell from the air GeUiuB and Wakefield ti 

apon the flowers, whence the bees collected to mean adverae. Whei 

it. For the same reaeon the poet uses the nite, or are used in oppo 

epithet aEletita. hardly ezpect unanimitj 

5. Exequar : in the sense of describam. tors. If the adverae dei: 

6. Tenui : on a low subject. Re is terfere to provent him, ( 
anderstood. The consideration of bees maj come to his aid, the poe 
be considered low, or icfcrior to the subjecta cute a work, worthy of 
treated of in the preceding books. If, how- tron, even upon the hun 
ever, the farmer attend properly to them, he bee. 

wiil Ibid them very profitable ; and their go^ 3^ Prineimo : in the ■ 

vemment and pohty will afford to thc phi- j^, ' The poet proceeda 

losophcr and pohtician much useful instnic- per places for the hivee 

tion. This is what we are to understand by faahion of constructinf 1 
Uie words, ai gloria non ttnuu. ImuUent: bruiMK 

7. Ltna numvna. Z:.<eriM is used both m ^. * ^ Jw«M«cn«. urwmr- 
a |ood and a bad sense. Rueus interprets it nowers. 
hjadtKeruL. By the deiUes, here called ad- ^3- ^t^'»- ™ **»• ■«• 
veree, or inauspicious, we are probably to 14. Meropet, Theee 
itndentand the infemal deities, Pluto, the bird that fed npon beei 
PHiries, ftc. who were thought to be op- bee-eater. Thevwerea 
poeed to the welfare of men. Valpy onder- blackbird, bnt of variott 



bus Procne pecttis ngnata cruentu. 

lani late vastant^ ipsasque volantes 

jiit, dulcem nidis immitibus escam. 

(li fontes, et stagna virentia musco 

et tenuis, fugiens per gramina, rivus : 

ue vestibulum, aut ingens oleaster inumbret 

I prima novi ducent examina reges 

0, ludelque iavis emissa juventus ; 
invitet decedere ripa calori, 

iie hospitiis teneat frondentibus arboe. 
edium, seu stabit iners, seu profluet liamor, 
srsas satices et grandia conjicc saxa : 
ts ut crebris poesint consistere, et alas 
e ad sstivum Solem ; si fortd morantes 
it, aut prciceps Neptuno immerserit Eurus, 
redm casios virides et olentia latd 

1, et graviter spirantis copia thymbne 

: irriguumque bibant violaria fontem. 
autem, seu corticibus tibi suta cavatis, 
to fuerint alvearia vimine texta, 
06 babeant aditus ; nam (Hgore mella 
ijems, eadcmque calor liquefacta remittit : 
B vis apibus pariter metuenda : neque illse 
quam in tectis certatim tenuia cer& 
enta liniint, fiicoque ct floribiis oras 


16 16. Procne signaU 
^uoad pectus cruontit 
manibuB, absini ab tti. 
16. Ipsaaque ape4 


25 25. Conjice ealieee 
truuvenas ct gi^ida 
eaza in medium /iumo- 
rem^ seu 

27. Consietere in it9 
ianquam pontibus 

50 30. Circum hsc lacm 

33. Autem alvearia 
ipsa, eeu tuta sini tibi e 
35 cavatit corticibus, seu 

37. Neaue illfe nequlc> 
qaam Wuunt tenufa api- 
rainenta m teclis oerft 

By Proene^ or Pragne^ is 
aat tlM BwaUow wliich has some 
wn on its br«aet. For the story of 
•ee Ed. vi. 78. 

uletm etemm : ae a tweet morscl for 
srcileas joung. J^utis: ttie ncsts; 
B. fbr tlie young ones in thcm. 
ifiudi : in the sense ofpuri. Firen- 
9: either the banks of these ponds, 
skirted with green moss, or tiie sur- 
bem covered with it. 
ngiaa : in the sense o£ fluen», 
(MMi exMiiffia: the new swarms. 
■tssa: in thesenseof <gfe<«a. The 
boonde in flowers more than any 
if the jrear; honey is collected in 
■bnndaii c e, and the bees are then 
fent. In this sense, the spring may 
ally be ealled theirs : «mo vet e, their 

hrMi: in the senae of adverwa: op- 
r tii front of them. Teneai . in the 

in the eeiue of aqua, 
nfiee^ &c Theee willows and rocks 
be caet into the water, whether 
or stagnant, that the bees might 
1 them : if^ by any means, they fell 
tmX thcy might creep npon them, 
heir wings U> the warm sun, and 

ftuno: ir the sen<« of aTud. See 

30. CaeUt. Some take the eoiia to be the 
same with the rosemary; but Columella, 
speaking of the plants that should grow 
about an apiary, mentions casia ana rose- 
mary as two dmerent plants. 

31. Serpjflla, There were two kinds of 
this plant ; one of the gardcns, and thc other 
wild. It is a stron^-scented herb, ond re- 
sembles thyme. It is proper to be planted 
ncar beea, and is usually cailcd wild-thyme. 
Thymbrm: the herb savory. Spiraniis: m 
the senso of oleniit. It was a strong-scenl* 
ed herb. 

32. Violaria: beds of violets — placce 
sown or planted with the violet. 

33. Suia: inthesenseof com/rae/a. Cot' 
iicibue, The bark of the cork-tree is callcd 
eortex^ by way of eminence. 

34. Lenio vimine: of limber osier, or 

36. Cogii: thickens. Remtitti: in the 
sense of reddii. 

37. Vu: force— violence; the ezcess of 
heat or cold. 

38. Teetit: in their hives. Certaiim: in 
the sense of diligenier. 

39. Pueo. Puetu was properly a kind of 
marine weed^ reMmbling lettuce. It was 
anciently used in dying; used also by wo« 
mcn as a kind of paint for the face. Ilence 
all kinds of daubing obtained the uame of 
fiiriis: not with the flowers {Jloribux) tiicm- 
Kclvcs, but rather with the aubaVaTvv:^ «v 


Explent : coUectumque hsec ipsa ad munei 

Et vLsco et PhrygisB servant pice lentius Id 

Soepe etiam effossis (si vera est fiuna) latel 

Sub terra fov^re larem ; penitusque repeit 

Pumicibusque cavis, exesaeque aHDoris anti 

45. Tamen tu et cir* Tu tamen et levi rimosa cubilia limo 

e&m un^ fimoBa cubi- Unge fovens circum, et raras superinjice fi 

lia levi hmo. ^^^ propius tectis taxum sine, neve rubeiv 

48. Nea crede aheofia Ure foco cancros : altie neu crede paludi ; 

49. Gravis odor coBni Aut ubi odor coeni gravis, aut ubi concam 
•*^ ^^ Sa a sonant, vocisque offensa resultat ima 

Quod superest, ubi pulsam hyemem Sol 

Sub terras, ccelumque sstiv4 luce reclusit 

Ills continud saltus sylvasque peragrant, 

Purpureosque metunt flores, et flumina lil 

&5. Hinc iUa l»te, Summa leves. Hinc nescio qu& dulcedini 

aeacio qua dulcedine Progeniem nidosque fovent : hinc arte rw 

Excudunt ceras, et mella tenacia fingunt. 
Hinc ubi jam emissum caveis ad sidera co 
Nare per sestatem liquidam suspexeris agi 


tracted firom them, bj meton. (htu: the itroke or coneas8ion« meet 

margin, or edge,of their hives. Valpy takee and are reflected, or tume 

fueo eijfloribut^ by HendiadiB, fotfueojloreo, make an iropression on tl 

40. M hae ip$a munera : in tne senee of poet calls the image of thi 
ad hot ipsos usui. 51. ^uod tuperett, Th 

41. Lentius: an adj. of the com. deg. (of ceeds to speak of the foo 
lentui) agreeing with gluten: tougher than, and the battles of the beei 
&c. roctioni how to appeaee 

43. ScBpe etiam fovbre : they have oven contests, and bring thcm \ 

cherished thcir families in caverns dug un- 52. Svh terrat : under t 

der the earth. Several manuscripts have southem pole. This is a 1 

/odire^ but fovire is the best. Rusua has locution to express the n 

fodlre, He interprets the passage thus: The seasons are opposite 

aperuerunt sibi domum sub terra, But it is sides of the equator, bej 

not necesaary to suppose that the bees dug When it is summer on the 

these caves or cells for themselves, any more on the south, and vice ver» 

than that they prepared their cells in the sioned by the motion of 

pumice stone, or cavities in the trees, for orbit, making an angle wij 

their reception. Davidson, Heyne, and 23^ 28^ 

Heinsius, read fovire, Larem. See 6eor. 54. Purpureos, The po* 

iii. 344. Penitus: in the sense of profundi, purple for any gay color. 

45. CubUia: in the sense of alvearia. sense of carpunt, 

Unge: smear, or plaster all around. Fo- 55. Levetlibant: andli 

vens : cherishing — ^keeping them warm. Duleedine : in the sense o 

48. Cancros, Crabs and lobsters, it is 56. Fovent : chcrish — g 
well known, in boiling, pass from a dark or dos: eithcr the apartmei 
brown, to a red color. Hence the epithet hive for the purpose of 
rubentes, AUte paiudi, The poet advises young, or siniply, Uie hiv< 
not to place the hives near marshy or fenny 57. Excudunt : thcy fon 
placcs, which affbrd no stones or bridges, on made waz. This is a mel 
which the boes may rest, if occasion should the smith, who is said {ex 
require. or hammer out the instran 

49. Oravis: sUnking. Putsu: by the he forms. The bees are 1 
■troke of the voice. their labon to the Cydop 

50. Imago vocis: the image of the volce anvil. 

being struck, rebounds; i. e. where an echo 59. Suspexeris agmen em 
is heard. This is always the case when the you shall see the swarm 
palses or wavesof air,pat in motion bjr some hives, &c. Abre.* in the 



ClbicuramqiMi trahi vento mirabere nubem , 60 

Contemplator : aquas dulccs et frondea semper 
Tecta petunt : huc tu jussos aspcrge sapores, 
Tfitt melisphylla, et cerintiiai ignobile gramen 
Tinditusfpie cie, et Matris quate cymbala circum. 
Ipeae consident medicatis sedibus : ipsae 65 

Intima more suo sese in cunabula condent. 

Sin autem ad pugnam exierint (nam sa;pe duobus 
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu) 
CSontinud<{ue animos vulgi, et trepidantia bello 
Corda licet longe praefRsiscere : nam({ue morantes 
Martius ille sris rauci canor increpat, et vox 
Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum. 
Tum trepidse inter se coeunt, pcnnisque coruscant, 
Spiculaque exacuunt rostris, aptantque lacertos, 
Ex circa regem atque ipsa ad prastoria densai 
Uiscentur, magnisque vocant, clamoribus hostem. 
Erg6, ubi ver nactn; sudum, camposque patentes, 
Snimpunt portis : concurritur : sthere in alto 
l^it sonitus : magnum mixtae glomerantur in orbem, 
^necipitesque cadunt : non densior aere grando, 80 

^ec de concussa tantum pluit ilice glandis. 
^psi per medias acies, insignibus alis, 
logentes animos angusto in pectore versant :' 
Uaque ade6 obnixi non cedere, dum gravis, aut hos, 


6t. Frondea teeta, uH 
eomuiani : 

64. Mairii CybeinM 

C*9, ContiDu^ lioet hihi 
70 longd prtuf prsrciflcere 

74. Lacertoi ad p^" 

rti nant 


77. Nante tmit ver 
Budum, aeriosf{\ie cam. 
poB patenten 

82. Rtges ipei voamtm 
per medias 

60. Trahi: in the sense of/erru Obieu- 
a dark cloud of beee. 

63. Melitphylla: balm-gentle. It is an 
Wb, of wliich beee are very fond. It is 
thoajriit to be the same that waa aometimes 
ealled apiastrwn by the Romane. Cerinthtt : 
the honej-euckle. The poet calls it ignobile 
rrtmttL, because it was common. It abounds 
m a eweet juice, liko honoy. 

64. Cie tinnit^u : mako, or excite a ring- 
iaf . The effect of the soond of brass upon 
the ewarm is very great. It is the most 
eiflbctual means to stop them in their flight, 
and collect them into the hive. Some have 
aUriboted this to fear, othera to pleasure. 
Bot more probably it confounds the sound 
of tlieir qneen, or leader ; and being with- 
eut command or direction, they fall or set- 
tle npon the first place they meet. Matris : 
CyhilB was the mother of the gods — the 
Mine as Rhea, or Ops. At her sacrifices, 
<rfinbals were always used. 

65. MedieattM sedibtu : prepared seats, or 
plmees for them to light upon. 

66i. Cunabuia : in the sense of reeetnu^ 
nA Qhearia. 

68. Ineemi : hath seized — ^invaded. No- 
diiiig can be more lively or animstod than 
ttii description of a battle of bees. We 
h&n find the ardor of the warrior, the 
aottad of the trumpet, the glittering of ar- 
monr, the ahoats of the soldiers, the bravery 
ef tho leaden, aad all the rage and madness 

69. Trepidantia: eagor — anxious. 

10, Prcucisere : inthosenseof/>r<Meti/tfe. 

71. Canor : in the Bcnso of strepitiu^ vel 
sonitus, Morantes : those that are behind. 
Inerepat : rouaos — urges on. 

73. IVepida : eager — hurrying. Pennit • 
in the scnse of alis. 

75. Ipsa pratoria, In the Roman camp. 
tho tont of tlie commanding oflicer was call- 
ed Pratorium ; hence, by meton. put for thj ^ 
cells of tlio royal bocs. Densa miseentur: 
they are crowdod thick. 

77. Sudumver: a clear spring day. Ru- 
cus says, serenum tempus, Campos pateniet . 
the fiolds of air open — unobstructed by 
wind or clouds. 

78. Coneurritur : in the sense of eoneuT' 

79. Olomerantur, This verb hath a le- 
flex signification Iiere, like the midfile voioe 
of the Greoks : thoy form themsolves into 
a great circle. Mixta: in the sense of 

81. Pluit : in the sonse of cadit, It is to 
be joined with grando^ in tho preceding 

82. Insignibus alis : with distinguhdied 
wings— distinguished f^om the rest by their 

83. Versant : in the sense of exereen/, vel 

84. Obnixi usque ade^: determined aU 
the time not to yield, until the mighty con-'' 
queror hath forcisd one side or the othoft&o. 


Aut hos, versa fiigi victor dare terga siib^ 
lli motufl animorum, atque haic certamina ( 
Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescent. 
Yerum ubi ductores acie revocaveris amb 
80. Dede eum neci, Deteriof qui visus, eum, ne prodigua obsit, 
qw vimifl fuerii doterior Dede neci : melior vacuSl sine regnet in auU 
^lf ""^^ meUorreg^ ^ter erit maculis auro squalentibus ardens 
Bet^^ia a & vacaa ab q^^^ ^^^ ^^^ generaj hjc melior, insignis 

9t.* Oenont apum : hic ^^ rutilis clarus squamis : ille horridus altei 
m Desidi^, latamque trahens inglorius alvum. 

Ut binae regum facies, ita corpora plebis. 
Namque atiae turpes horrent, ceu pulvere al 
Cum venit, et terram sicco spuit ore, viator 
Aridus : elucent alise, et fulgore coruscant^ 
M. Corpora lita auni Ardentes auro, et paribus lita corpora guttii 

Hnec potior soboles : hinc ccBli tenipore cer 

Dulcia mella premes ; nec, tantum dulcia, < 

Et liquida, et durum Bacchi domitura sapoi 

At cum incerta volant coBloque examina 1 

Contemnuntque favos, et frigida tecta rehm 

Instabiles animos ludo prohibebis inani. 

106. Nec esi magnus Nec magnus prohibere labor : tu regibus ali 

labor prohibere eot Eripe : non illis quisqnam cunctantibus altu 

Ire iter, aut castris audebit veilere signa. 


85. »Aui hos. The meaning is: till one or dirty, as when, &c. T 

gide or the othor of the combatants should sense of ptUverem, 

jield. Thc repetition of the aui hoty from 97. Coruscani : sparkle wi 

the end of the preceding line, gives addi- gleaming with gold; and t 

tional encrgy. The figure is called Anadi' covered over with equal spo' 

ploMis, in size and proportion. 

87. Compressa : in the sense of repressa. 100. Soboles : in the sense 

It agrees with cr.rtamina, ctdi : in the sense of anni, 

89. Jfe prodigiu obsit : lest the prodigal these bees. 

«hould be an injury to the rest, either by 102. Liquida: in the sen 

eonsuming their food himself, or by setting 103. At ciim volani, Hei 

an example of sloth and gluttony. scribes the means of prev< 

90. Auia : in the sense of alveari, from deserting their hives. 

91. Alier erii ardens^ &c. The poet here 104. Favos, Virgil uscs 
mentions the difTerent kinds of bees. There eleven different words to ej 
are more particularly two : the red, which eunabula^ cubilia^ stabula^ j 
are the smaller ones, and the dark, or va- /eir/a, alvearcy favus^ domus, 
rioQs, which are the larger. The red onos For this diversity of style, b 
are th 3 best. Squaleniibus : a part. of the By this means he avoided a 
verb squaleo^ (from squama ;) it signifies any pctition. Frigida, This S 
thing resembling the scales of fish, or ser- by empty, or inactive, in opf 
pents, in roughness or shape. It also signi- is aflerward said of their 
fies any thing filthy or unseemly, in any fervet, 

reepect whatever. Ardens: shining with 105. ProAt5e6tf: in these 

^>ots rough with gold — resembling the form 107. Alium iter : an aerif 

of scales, and glittering like gold« Russus 108. Aui veilert signa: < 

mterprets it by asperis, standards* — to dccamp. It 

92. Ore : in the sense oCforma, among the Ronians. Whc 

95. Faeies : in the sense of /ormce. The tlieir camp, they stuck th 
verb suni is to be supplied. Piebii, This standards, into tho ground 
is the reading of Heyne, and of Valpy afler iorium^ or gencrars tcut ; a 
him. The conmion reading is geniis. up again wncn thcy decamp« 

96. ^amque aiia : for the one look foul, Tbe metaphor is beantiful. 


hvilat croceiB balantea floribus horti : 

& euitof fiinim atque aviuin, cum falce saligna, 1 10 

HeOe^ntiaci servet tutela Priapi. 

Ipfe thymum pinosque ferens de montibus altiB, 1 12. fpse, cq{ talia 

Tecti serat late circum, cui talia curae : ^^ cura, fereus 

Slabore manura duro terat ; ipse feraces 
^ it humo pkmtas, et amicos irriget inibres. 116 

Atqie equidem, extremo ni jam sub finc laborum 

Veb traham, et terris festinem advertere proram, 

Fonitan et pingues hortos qus cura colendi 

Omret, canerem, biferique rosaria Piesti : 

Qooque modo potu» gauderent intyba rivis, 120 

Et virides apio rip» ; tortusque per herbara 1^1. ^umnodoqw 00- 

Cresceret in ventrem cucumis: nec sera comantem cumw tortusperhvrbani 

Naicissum, aut flexi tacuissem vimen acanthi, criMceru 

hDentesque hederas, et amantes litora myrtos. 
Ntmque sub CEbahae memini me turrib«is altiB, 125 125. Namque meimni 
i niger humectat flaventia culta Galeisus, ""* vidwHo 

Corrcium vidisae seiiem : cui pauca relicti 


109. CroeetM Jhriha. Saffron flowerB from sailinf^. On the approach to 1and« 

tffm to be put here for odorous flowers in they take in, or furl their Bails. 

pMrtl. Halanies: in the eense of spi' 118. Pingue» hortot, Some gardoni 

iMtfo. among the ancients were much celebrated, 

111. Priapu Priapue wae fabled to have especially thoee of the HeeperideH, of Ado- 

ka the fon of Aacchua and Venus. He nin, of Alcinoiia, ftc. 

vn wonhipped principally at Lanipsacus, 119. PnMtx, PaDstum wae a town of Lu- 

iQtjr of Mysia Miuor, near the Hellespont. cania, where the rose bloomed twine in a 

ficaoe the epithet HeUttpontiaca». year ; in September and May. Hence the 

Hm statue of Priapue wae usually placcd epithet bifer. 

^gudens to protcct them from thieves, and 120. Intyba: plu. endive, or succory. Pn. 

ti firty awaj birds. Hence he is called, /u rivi» : in refrcshing strcamfi. 

9Hk» Jurum atoue ariitm. The moaning \2\.^pio: with parsley. Thii) herb war 

•Mttntobe: that the bees should be in- callod apium^ from ape*^ becaune Uit* tiees 

vnd bj such gardens as deserve to be uuder wcre fond of it. Somo take it for Minallage 

tti protection of Priapus. Cutto» : in the or celery. 

■■is of abaetrix. See Ecl. vii. 33. 122. Cueumi» iortu» : the cucuinber. 

I 112. T*hjfmum, This is not our common crceping along the grass, swellj. This is • 

\ ttjiM, but the thymu» eapitatu»^ which concise. but beautiful dcscription. Sera: 

Be«i in peat plenty on the mountains in an adj. neu. plu. used as an adv. in imita- 

«Miifit. The Attic honej was considercd tion of the Greeks: in the HcnKe of tero. 

fti bast, on aocount of Uie ezcellence of 123. J^areistum: the narciiMiUs of the an- 

b thjrae, which is fbund in abundance cients is the herb we now call datfodil. 

Mv Atbens. Comantem : in the sense offlorentrm. Aeun- 

114. Duro labore : with the hard labor thi : Acanthus, tho herb bears-foot. 
if triMferTing them from the mountains, 125. (Ebalut, This wa» thc city of Ta- 
■I plattting 5iem around the hives. rentum in tho eastem part of Italy, so callcu 

115. imgei: he should sprinkle, or pour from Phalantw^ a native of CEbalia, or La- 
^ friendly water upon them — he should conia, who rebuilt it It was once inhabited 
Wevefti] to water these plants whcn thus by the Laccdcinonians. 
^Mplanted, that thej mi{rht flourish the 126. GaUnu: a river in Calabria, falling 
^«e, and aiford more abiihdant food for into the g^lf of Tarcntuin. It w called 
^ beesL niger^ cithcr, on account of itic depth of its 

IM. mllque equidem: and indced, unlcss waters^or ofit«bunkM bciRgKliadod hy trees. 

' «Sfe furUng my sails, now in the con- Ftnventia : yellow with ripening grrain. ^rta 

of mj labors, Szc. These are fine is undcrKtood. 

and lead us to wish that the poet had 127. Corycium, Either tlio name of the 

upon the subjoct of gardoning. old iiian, or an adj. taken froin the place of 

JVrJbui r«6k This is a metaphor taken his nativity. Cortn lu wk» vUh t\;aLUv« ot «h 


Jugera r urw erant ; iiec ferdlis illa ju^enck^ 

Nec pt>coh opportuna seges. nec commoda 

ISO. Tamen hie pro- Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus, albaque cii 

meiif ramm Lilia, verbcnasque premcns, vescumque paf 

Regum a;quabat opes aiiimis : ser^ue revc 

Nocte domum, dapibus mensas onerabat m 

134. IIU erai primuB Pnmus vere rosam, atque autumno carpera 

®*'P®^ Et cum tristis hyems etiam nunc frigore sai 

Rumperet, et glacie cursus fraenaret aquan 
IUe comam mollis jam tondebat hyacinthi 
iEstatem increpitans seram, Zephyrosque v 
139. Ergo idem tenex Erg6 apibus fcBtis idem atque examine mull 

trai primuB abundare Prinius abundare, et spumantia cogere prei 
141. Erata iUi tiU«, ^^11^ fevis : illi tilisB, atque uberrima pinui 

* ^^ Quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis artK 

Induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat 
Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos, 
Eduramque pyrum, et s[)inos jam pruna fe 
Jamque ministrantem platanum potantibus 

iaHa ccXeraoi3a ^®'"'" ^^ »P^ equidem, spatiis exclusus 

aliLi uripiorilnu post Praeterdb, atque aliis p6st commemoranda 

flie Nunc age, naturas, apibus quas Jupiter : 


mouiitain, and citj of Cilicia in Aria Minor. rycian, particnlarlj in .the 

Pompej made war upon the Ciliciana ; aome he retumed to hia main & 

of whom he brought and planted in Cala- the firBt to abound, &c. Fi 

bria near Tarentum. The old man here of /obcuiu/u. 
mentioned, might have been one of them. 141. Favit : the comb — 1 

Relicti: barrcn — neglected,notworthtilling. contain the honej. Tilia 

Dr. Trupp renders it hereditarj; lefl him lime-trce. 
by his ancestors. 142. ^uotque pomit^ Sic 

12H. JWc illa seges fertilis : nor was that is, that as manj bloBsoms f 

land fit for ploughing, nor suitable for pas- put forth in the spring, so 

ture, nor propor for the vine. Feriilis: in hadinautumn. Thcre werc 

the ficnse of apia^ or commoda, neither did thej fail to brii 

129. Se^es, This word most commonlj tj. Poma is to be suppli 
■ignifies the crop oAer it is sown and com- The word properlj meons 
ine forward to maturitj. Here it means the used for all kind of fruit: 
■oil or land itsolf. case. 

130. Albaque lilia ciretan : the white lilies 144. Distulit ulmos : hc 
were most celebrated, and the best known planted) his elms in rows. 
among the ancients. sajs, tardi crescentes, slov 

131. Verbenas: the herb verratn. It wos thc poet ma j niean, far grroi 
highly esteemed bj the Romons. Premens: grown to bo fit for trani 
in the senso of planians, Vescum paparer : obscrves with respect to th* 
tlio white poppj, called rescum^ esculcnt, or mentioned. This is the o 
oatable ; because its secds wcre roasted bj son and Valpj. 

tlie ancients, and eaten with honej. 145. Spinos, Spinus, i 

137. Comam: in the sense of frondes, — Thcse were sufficientlj gi 

Hi/acinthi, This is the rcading of Hejne fruit ; and the planc tree, U 

and Vossius, and of several ancient manu- rablc shade, befvre he tron 

■cripts. It appears to be approved of bj 147. Iniquis spaiiis: na 

Valpj, although he adopts the common sutiicient room. 

roading, acanihi, HejTie leavcs out tum^ 149. jVunc age, The p 

which is also retained bj somc editors. to trcat of the politj of U; 

139. Ergo idem primus, Having men- thod of depositing their 1 

liened the advantage, which a diligent cul- lar management of thcir ■ 

tivation sS hia fielcb brought to the old Co- dience to their sovereign, i 



AiMt, ezpediam : pro qui mercede, canoroe 
QveUim sonituB crepitantiaque aera secutai, 
Uetco coeli regem pav^re sub aniro. 
Sobe communes natos, consortia tecta ^ 

Uibis babent, magnisque agitant sub legibus ffivmd| 
Et pttriam solae, et certos nov^re penates. 
Ventuneque hyemis memores, sstate laborem 
Eiperiuntur, et in medium qusesita reponunt. 
fitiRque alift victu invigilant, et fcedere pacto 
Exercentur agris : pars intra septa domorum 
Narcini lacbrymam, et lentum de cortice gluten, 
Piima &via ponunt fimdamina : deinde tenaces 
Bopendunt ceras : aliae, spem gentis, adultos 
Educunt fcetus : alie purissima mella 
Stipant, et liquido distendunt nectare ccUas. 
SuDt, quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti ; 
IiM|ue vicem speculantur aquas et nubila coeli, 
Ait onera accipiunt venientQm, aut, agmine fecto, 

tevum fucoB pecus a pnesepibus arcent. 
et opus^ redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. 
Ae veluti lentis Cyclopes fuhnina massis ' 
Cdm properant : alii taurinis foliibus auras 

160 150. PioqaateN^iiam 
mercode, illtt Mcat0 oa- 
noroi Bonitufl 

153. JE/cBBoI» 
animaliiim habenl 



16 1. Tttnauam prmia 
fundamina iavia 

165 165. Sunt alim^ q^- 
bua custodia 

166. Quoque inviotm 



150. Expediam: in the senfo of deteri- 
faa Pro qud mereedt. According to fable, 
Ittam intcnding to devour hifl infant son 
lipiter, ho waa concealed by his mother 
iMf tbe Curete»s or Corybanles^ her priests, 
ttBaflmndof who»e brazen armour and cym- 
kh, as they revelled, prevented his cries 
im betraying him to hii father. It is said 
^oxMdiMMUM was then king of Crete, whose 
^Ufliten, MelisMa nouriahed Jupitcr with 
Ihi Bilk of a goat and honey. Hcnce arose 
Ikiflory of his boing nourished by a goat 
•Btd Amahkea and beee, Melissa being tho 
flf w k naue for beea. For which roason, 
tki foat was tranilated to the heavens, and 
hbhoms given to the njnuphs, with this 
fnGty addod to them, that whatever they 
ikitld ask for, ahould flow from them plen- 
twuly : aod for the service, which thc bees 
Niiered on thia occanon, they wore cndow- 
ti by Jupiter with an extraordinary degree 
ifvgadty and wisdom, as a reward. 

ISt. Dietma: an adj. from Diete^ a city 
■alBionntmin in Crete. On this mountain, 
itaiaid, Jupiter was brought up. 

163. Coiuorfta .* in the aense of communia. 

IS4. AgiimKi: in the Mnae of dueunt. 
Tli poet liOTo epeaks of the bees as living 
il irefnlar, and well organized society. 

156. Ctrto$penatet: in the sense ofjixat 

157. E jtptri m n iur : thoy practiae or use. 

156. Fieim: for mr/aa. See Ed. 5, 29. 
hmgiSmni : watch over— have the care of 
pnmding. Pmeio /kdert: ib the sense of 

159. Exereentur: in the sense oClabormU. 
Septa: the enclosurbs of thoir hives. 

160. JSTarcisn. The flower of Narcissus 
or dafibdil, forms a kind of cup in the mid- 
dle, which is supposod to contain thc toar of 
the youth ^areisrusy who pincd away with 
the fove of himself. Seo Ecl. ii. 48. 

163. Educuntaduitosfatus: thcynourish 
or tend upon their young, till thev are full 
grown : or, they lead forth their full grown 
young. Servius prefers tho former sense: 
as also Rusus. 

164. Liquido : in tho sense ofpuro. Aec- 
tare : noctar here, evidently, is to be taken 
for honey — the purost, and most refined 
part of it. 

166. Aquas: in the sense of pluviam, 

168. Fueos: the droncs, a lazy herd. 
Thcse are bees that make no honey. They 
have no stings, and they do not assist the 
othcrs in their labors. Prtrsepibiu. See 
note, vcrse 104. supra. 

169. Opusfervet: the work glows— it goes 
on briskly. 

170. Citm properant Cyclopes. The Cy- 
clops are said to have forged tlie tliunder- 
bolts of Jove. To this the poet alludes. 
This comparison of the bees in thoir labors, 
with those workmen of Jupiter in their 
shops, has been oensured by some. Prope- 
rant : in the sense of fabrieantur. 

17S. Alii aeeipiunt: siroply: some blow 
the bull-hide boUows, Laeu : in tho trouch 
of water. 


Accipiunt, redcluntque : alii stridentia tingii] 

iEra lacu : gemit imposttis incudibua ^tna 

Uli inter sese magn^ vi brachia tollunt 

In nuneruin, versantque tenaci forcipe fem 

Non%liter, si parva licet componere magnia 

177 Habendi meUa Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi^ 

178. Oppidantn/canB Munere quamque suo. Grandffivia oppida < 

gnndaevis Et munire favos, et Da^dala fingere tecta. 

At fessffi multa referunt se nocte minorea, 
181. ?\enm quoad cm- Crura thymo plenae : pascuntur et arbuta pi 
ra thymo £t glaucas sahces, casiamque, crocumque r 

Et pinguem tiliam, et ferruginefw hjacintho 
184. i7flomnibi8una Omnibus una quies operum^ labor omnibus 
V^^ Mane ruunt portis, nusquam mora : rursus 

pJ^l^dmruTt' ""eLlZ Ve«Per ubi e pastu tandem decedere campii 
mtt eue temptu tandem Admonuit, tum tecta petunt, tum corpora c 
deoedere Fit sonitus, mussantque oras et limina circc 

Pdst, ubi jam thalamis se composuere, silel 

In noctem, fessosque sopor suus occupat ai 

Nec verd k stabulis, pluvii impendente, t 

Longiusf aut credunt CGblo, adventantibus 1 

193. Tut» ab plwoia Sed circum tutee sub moenibus urbb aquanl 

^'lai^^^Ft tnll t Excursusque breves teiitant : el saepe lapill 

lapiUoB, ut*"^iLtabilo8 ^^ cynibae instabiles, <luctu jactante, sabun 

oymbn toUurU sabur- Tollunt : his sese per inania nubila librant. 

ram, fluctujactantee<u: Illum adcd placuisse apibus mirabere mo 

hia UtpiUii Qudd nec concubitu indulgent, nec corpon 


175. Innumerum: they raise their arma 189. Thalamit: in the ae 

in regular order, making a sort of harmony 190. Suut: in the sense o: 

with tho strokes of their hammers. sbus says, eonvenient, 

JamblicuB informs us that the sound of 191. Htabuli*, Seenote, i 

the smith^s hammer led Pythagoras to in- 192. Euris. Eurus, tho 

vent the monochord, an instrunient for mea- put for wind in general : th* 

■nring the quantities, and proportions of genus, 

sounds geometrically. \93. »Aquantur. This ve 

177. Ceeropioi : Attic^ or Athenian bees, used in the sense of the mic 
•o called from Cecrops, the first king of Greeks : they water themsel 
Athens. The Attio honey was much cele- ncr of expression is commo 
brated. Rueus says, hauriunt aquoi 

178. ^uamque nto munere: each one in 195. Saburram: ballast. 
his own office-— deportment. ponderous substance, as sa 

179. DeedcUa: an adj. from Daedalus, a &c. that light vessels usuall 
very ingenious artificer of Atheus. The to render them steady. 
word, as here used, siipiifies any thing^ arti- 198. JVec indulgent^ &c. 
fieial, or curiously and ingeniously wrougrht. the production of bees he: 

180. Minores: in the sense ofjuniores, poet, is justly exploded. It 

181. Plena erura, The hairiness of the animal isproduced without 
leffs of tho bee is favorable to the retention of the sexcs. Howeyer as i 
of the juices, which they collect from the the general received one amt 
fiowerB. the poet might vory well ac 

182. Rubentem: yellow, or of a golden his own opinion might havi 
hue. RuoDus says, rufum, subject. Pliny says of tl 

183. Ferrugtneos: purple — dark red. quonam modo progeneraref 

184. Operum: in the sonse of a6 opere. eruditos^et subtilis qucrstio/ 
Una: ono and the same rest. eoitus risus est nusquam, 

188. Oras: tluH Rusaus interprets by ves- modcm philosophcrs have t 
UtnUum, Mtissant : they buzz — they moke factory inanner. They hai 
• btuzing noise. laborincr bees are of ueithi 


em sohrunt, aut fcetus nixibus edunt. 
tsm e ibliis natos et suavibus herbis 800 

nt : ipsse regem, parvosque Quirites 
t : aulasque et cerea re^na refingunt. 
im duris errando in coiibus alas 
, ultrdque animam sub fasce ded^re : 

nior florum, et gencrandi gloria mellis. 206 S05. Eu iUiM tantaa 

la quamvis angusti terminus »vi »"w florum. et tanta 

(neque enim plus septima ducitur lestas) S07. Enim neque plus 

immortalo manet, multosque per annos 9^*"" ■•pi»"» ••**» <io- 

ina domOs, et avi numerantur avorum. ^*"'" ^ •^" 

ea regem non sic iEgyptus, et ingens 210 

!C populi Parthorum, aut Medus Hydaspes, 
t. Rege incolumi, mens omnibus una est ; 

rupere fidem : constructaque niella S13. Regt aminNi 

\ ipme, et crates solv^re favorum. 

im custos ; illum admirantur ; et omnes 216 *^^ ^ "' *^"'*^KLn 
ant fremitu denso, stipantque frequentes ; vro Ih^ corporabel o 

attoHunt humeris, et corpora bello ^ jl^, Quidam homine» 

U pulchramque petunt per vulnera mortem. indueti hiii sigrnis, «tque 
idam aignis, atque hsec exempla secuti, lecuti han; exompla pnt- 

•U8 partem divina; mentis, et haustus 220 deniia anum dixet^ 

* dixere : Deum oamque ire per omnes D^m ^^"* •«•^ 

e, tractusque maris, cceluraque profundum. 223. Hinc dixert pe- 

udes, armenta, viros, genus omne ferarum, eudes 


le have the male organ of ^ne- of itekings. Pop%di Parthorum: nmpljvtke 

1 that tbe monarch u of the fe- Parthians. They are aaid to bave bc«n ao 

She is whoUy employed in the eubmiBsive to their king, aa to kisa hia feet« 

r her family, laying Beveral thou- and to touch the ground with their Upe, 

every summor, in each of which when they approached him. Hydatpei : tiio 

a small white worm, which in due name of a river put, by meton. for the iii« 

;{es itself into a drone or bee. — habitanta of the country, throagh which tt 

.* for Coneubtiuu See Ecl. v. 29. flowed. 

e sobmni : nor do they debilitate There have been various opinions and 

« in lust. Segnti: in the sense of conjecture/with a view to recoiiciJe the poet 

inutiles. ^unt : in the sense witn matters of fact. Hydaspes is a rivei 

unL /fixibus: by labor, or tra- of India^ and &iling into the Indus, forms 

one of its branches. How it could be call* 

liis : from the leaves of flowers. ed Median, with any propriety, does not 

rTO« Qumiet: theyraise upaking, appcar. Tbere might have been a small 

ubjects. Tbe bees are here called river by that ntme, rising in Media, to 

>y meton. taken from the Romans, which the poet alludes. Mr. Davidson 

sometimes called (^uiritet from thinks the river Choaspes, which riscs in 

who was also cailed ^uirinut. — Media, and passes through the province of 

l. S74. Susiana, near Susa, one of the capitals of 

itflre: in tbe |enae of amiteruni, the Persian empire, is intended. Uowever 

fHmta JSlatat, Aristotle informs this be, poets do not always oonline them- 

as Uve six, and sometimes sovon selves to historical or geographical proea- 

t if the swann subsists nine or ten sion. 

I eonsidered foKunate. 212. ObtertMtni: m the sense of rfneranf 

, in the sense of tamen, tur, 

gjfptut. The name of the coun- 213. Fidem: in the sense of toeiHaiem» 

r aoton. ibr the inhabitants. The 214. Cratet : the stmctnre or fabric. 

iworoverygreatadmirersof their 215. Cuttot: in the sense of jNiMCff. 

Msny of whom thej deifled. 216. Dento frtmiiu : with Aond bvfltnig 

4im : a oonntrj of Asia Minor or humming. 

iir itm voaUh, and the grandeor 2Sa Hotiifiit: Uk tbe Mm of ■pjyll^i 


Quemque sibi tenues nascentem arcessere vk 

CS5. Deinde dixere Scilicet huc reddi deinde, ac resoluta referri 

omnia resoluta scilicei Qmnia : nec morti esse locum ; sed viva vol 

peddi, ac refem huc sideris in numerum, atque alto succedere cc 

226. Sed omma vira o* j j ^ 

rolare, qtiaque in nu- ^^ quando sedem auffustam, servataque i» 

merum Thesauris relines , prins haustu sparsus aqui 

231. Sunt duo tempo- ^™ ^^^®' fumosque manu prietendc seqnacei 

ca messis: unwn simul Bis gravidos cogunt fcetus, duo tcmpora mea 

Pleias Taygete Taygete simul os terris ostendit honestum 

234. Aut ubi eadem Pleias, et Oceani spretos pede reppuUt anuM 

Pleutf Aut eadem sidus fugiens ubi piscis aquosi, 


224. ^uemoue naseeniem: that every one, the materials of which it is eo 
at hia birth, aerives tender life to himself, manner of the workmansUj 
from him. Hinc : from hence — from 6od. phatically calls their hivesi 

225. Scilieet : in the eense of eerU, Hue: Verse 1 79. supra. Heync rai 
hither — to God. Retoluta: in the sense of 229. ThesaurU: in the M 
dUtoluta, Prius fiatulu^ &c. Commei 

226. JVee hcum, &c. Virgil here gives agree upon this passage; a 
the opinions of those philosophers, who re- confesscd a difficult one. Di 
jocted the doctrine of a vacuum^ and atoms. Servius, who takes tpartu» foi 
Thoy maintained that the universe was ani- king tke meaning to be : Fin 
mated: that God was omnipresent: thatall mouth draughts of water, ■! 
animals received ezistence from him : that them. Dr. Trapp rejects t§ 
■iler death they are all retumed, and car- gens^ and thinks tpartu» shoii 
ried back to him : that there is no room for thus : Fove ore hausttu aqum 
eztinction (morti) or loss of existence : that in your mouth ; then by 'an 
all, votare viva^ fly alive into the order of his words ; projiee in modum p 
ftar, and take thcir station in high hoaven. upon them in the manner 
In otlier words, all transmigrate into other you cannot do without bein| 
beings in a perpetual round. This notion sparsus. Hoinsius, Rueus, Hr 
was held by many distinguished philoso- othersread : PrtMs/iafu/Maf 
phers of thc heathcn world. Butitwasfar This, however, is not with 
from the truth. AII irrational animals perish If we could read haiutwn or/ 
at Uieir dcath. Man alone is imniortal. tu^ the paiisage would be e 
Whon unassinted rcason is employed upon would be proferable to ora, 
the subject of a future state of existonce, it difficulties may attend tlie o 
discovers its own weakncss. The rcsearch- meaning is obvious. Heym 
es of philosophy serve only to bewilder the haustu aquarum^ in the scnM 
mind. AIl correct inforniation upon that iine aquam haiutam ore, 
■ubject must come tlu-ough the medium of Davidson reads haustus^ i 
divine revelation. Py thagoras and his fol- 230. Fumos : it is custom; 
lowers strenuously maintained this doctrine. sent day, to drive or force tl 
The Epicurians maintained the doctrine of hive with smoke. 

a varuum^ and the atomic theory. 231. GraHdos ffttus : in t 

228. Si quando^ &c. The poet now pro- nos favos, The comb is pn 

eeeds to mention the proper seasons for open- or production of the bees. 

ing the hives. Fle gives directions how to ing or taking the honey : 

proceed in the business, and notices the pas- harvest. 

iionate temper of the bees upon such occa- 232. Taygete : ono of thi 

rions. put for tho whole, by synec 

Augtutam, This is the reading of the best threo following lines, is a b< 

editions, and is supported by ancient manu- locution to express the risin 

■cripts. RueuSfDavidson, VaIpy,andsomo thcse stars; the former is u 

others, havc angustam, But if the poct in- of April, the lattcr about th€ 

tended to inform us that the hive was small, or tlio bcginning of Noveml 

he might have saved himself the pams. 1. 13fi. 

Besides, augiutam is, by no means, an im- 233. Amnej : in Uio senei 

proper epithet. It is exactly in the spirit of 234. Sidiu aquosi pisrit: I 

poetry. It is well known that the bee-hive of tlic rainy fifih. The Pisct 

ie a moet ezquisite piece of architecure, meant : for the sun doea nol 

arhether wo regard the form of tbe comb« till some tmie in February 



IVWor hybemas ccbIo descendit in undas. 9Sl 

Vm ira modum supra est, laesasque venenum 
MoTsibus inspirant, et spicula cacca relinquunt 
Affixie venis, animasque in vulnere ponunt. 

Sin duram ipetues hyemem, parcesque futuro, 
Cootusosque animos et res miserabere fractas ; 
At suffire thymo, cerasque recidere inanes 
Qcds dubitet ? nam saepe favos ignotus adedit 
filellio, lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis : 
Immunisque sedens alicna ad pabula fucus, 
Aut asper crabro imparibus se immiscuit armis 
Aut dirum tineae genus, aut invisa Minervae 
hforibus laxos suspendit aranea casses. 
Qud magis exhaustae fuerint ; hoc acrius omnes 
lacumbent generis lapsi sarcire ruinas, 
Complebuntque foros, et floribus horrea texent. 260 

8i verd (quoniam casus apibus quoque nostroi 
Tttg tulit) tristi languebunt corpora morbo ; 
Qood jam non dubiis poteris cognoscere signis : 
CoDtiDu6 est SBgris alius color : horrida yultum 


iSO. Futuro palnd^ 
240 '^^''V^ ***^* 

843! Cubilia tuni cob- 

245 S45. Se eum ignhtu 

MphiD may be intendod, as that constella- 
6m riiee soon after the setting of the P/df- 
S38. LoMiB : in the Mnse of offenscR, 
t37. Caea : in the sense of occulta : mor^ 
tikm: ttinga. Inspirant: thoy infuse. 
t38. ,ffix«t: having affixed themselves. 
t40. Parett futuro : you ahould spare 
tk«r future nouriahment, and pitj thoir 
^ooping spirita, and afflicted state. 

Commentators have cmbarrassed the sense 
tf thts paasage. The meaning is plainly 
tUl: If you are afraid of a hard winter, 
tnd that the bees wtll not be ablo to sustain 
the cold, uniess they be well fed, you should 
Ipare their honey, their future nourishment, 
•od take none of it from them. 

S41. jf/ quU dubiiet^ &c. However you 
ttiay be disposed to follow my direction in 
Inving the honey untouched, there is one 
thinf that should not be neglectod in any 
eaee ; and that is, to fumig^ate-the bivea, and 
to cnt away the superfluous waz. 

243. SteUio. This is a small spotted li- 
ard, eallcd also an efl or swift. It creepe 
into holes and comors ; hence the poet calis 
k igmUu$, Congala: in the sense of plena, 
Biaitit. The blaiia is an insect something 
BIm a boetle. Some take it to be the cock- 
joadi. They are called tueifupM^ because 
Hbmj do not appear in the day time. 

244. Fueut immw^t. The Drones are 
ihm male beee. They have neither stings, 

tboae elastie teeth which the laboring 
hftvo for the purpose of collecting ho- 
Mj» Their only business seems to be, to 
&Tt intmvourse with the queen : they may 
b« mid to be her husbands : they are sove- 
HMmulred in number in each hive. Afler 

they have performed their office, they 1000 
die. Their way of living is very dinerent 
from the rest : they are oxempt from labor. 
and enjoy a most luxurious fare, bcing fed 
with the best of tlio honey : Immunu tedent 
ad aliena painUa^ may yery proporly be said 
of thoro. 

245. Crabro: the homet, a well knoiai» 
insect. It is larger and stronger than the 
boe. Hence it is said to engago thcm with 
imparibut armit. 

246. THnete : the moth ; an insect very 
injurious to clothes. The conmion roading 
is durum :. Hoyne, Valpy, and some otlicra, 
read dtrum. 

247. Jlranea invita. Arachno, daughtor 
of Idmon, a Lydian, is said to have vied 
with Minerva in the arts of spinning and 
weaving. She performed her wcrk to ad- 
miration ; but being outdnno, she hung her- 
self through grief ; whereupon tiic goddees, 
out of pity, changred her into tbc spider. 
Some say she represontcd on her work se- 
veral of the crimes of the gods, which to 
displeased the goddess, that she, in a rago, 
destroyed it. Hnnce invita Minerva, See 
Ovid Met. Lib. 5. 

248. Que magU. The poet here obsenree, 
the more you drain tbe honey from the 
bees, the more industrious thov will be to 
lepair the loss. By being too nill fed, they 
become idlo, and consequently less profit- 
able. He then proceeds to consider the 
diaeases incident to them, and the romediee 
proper for each. 

250. Horrea : in the sense o£favot, Tex- 
eni : they will fomi, or make. 
252. Vtia : the state, or condition of li<b 

144 F. VlilGlLU MARONI8 

S66: Corpora eanm Defbrmat maciefl ; tum corpora luce carenti 
carcntAin lace Exportant tectis, et tristia funera ducunt : 

Aut illae pedibus connexa; ad limina pendent^ 

Aut intus clausis cunctantur in sdibus omnei 

Ignaveque fiLme, et contracto frigore pigfjPB» 

Tum sonus auditur gravior, tractimque susur 

Frigidus ut quondani sylvis imniumiurat Aui 

• Ut mare sollicitum stridet refluentibus undist 

iEstuat ut clausis rapidus fomacibus ignis. 

264. Soadoboieincon- Hic jam galbaneos suadebo incendere odorc 

^ere Mellaque amndineis inferre caiialibus, ultrd 

Hortantem, et fessas ad pabula nota vocanle 
Proderit ct tunsum galla: admiscere saporeia 
Arentesque rosas, aut igni pinguia multo 
Defruta, vel psythi^ passos de vite racemos, 
Cecropiumque tliymum, et graveolentia cem 
£st etiam flos in pratis, cui nomen amello 
Fecere agricors, facilis querentibus herba. 
Namque uno ingentem tollit de cespite sylvi 


fS5. Lutt : in the MnM of vita. the bees are sabject in the spr 

f56. Ducuni. Pliny obeervea, that the nyt ColnDiolla, by their fi 

beeo aocompuiy tlie bodiee of their dead upon tpurge miXer their winti 

aftar the manner (»f a funeral proceaaion. 2S9, Defruia. De/rutum 

157. !Ua e*mnex€t: donf together by their made of new wine, boiled i 

fbe^ thcy hang, &c. or one third, into which m 

559. CoiUraeto, RuBut taket thit in the gweet herbe or tpicet were ] 
■onte of conirahente. He tayt: Prigore rich; implying that i1 th 
eantfaherUe tnembra. But it may be taken away, and made thick, ti 
in its usual accoptation, without any impro- spicet. Pamn raeemo» : pi 
priety : for the bees may be taid to contract, ^f grapes hung up to dry ii 
or take cold; and thia the poet mentiona at ^ina. Hence by meton. pi 
one of their diseoaca. made of auch grape»-nii 

560. Draetim : in a drawling manner — Geor. iL 93. 

ooe after anolhor. 270. Cempium : Attie, 

26«. SoUicitum : in the tenae of turbatum. from Ceeropt, one of the firtt 

«63. RapiduM: intenae— ezcettive. JEt- Ceniaurea: piu. the herb oi 

iuat: roare. ^^ two kinda of centaury, 

«64. Gaibaneof : an adj. from gtUbanum^ tho leat. They have no 

a atrong-acented jruiii, the traell of which ia than the bittomctt of their 

•aid to drive away aerpentt. It it made of to have derived iu name f 

the luice of the plant called/eni/o. of the Centaan, whom it o 

The poet hore direcU the bee-matter, received by an arrow from 

whan his bees nhuw theee trmptomt, to bum ^, ^^ .. ««^n. ^. 

i. ... 1 . ^ "^. . . «11 z7i. Mmetto, JMeUa, or 

g^banum «round the hiTe., which will ex- ci,.,lpme Gaul, on the bai 

H the vermin. if any are ; tomtro. j^^^^^he™ .poken of abo 

da » honey mto the hiTe. Ihroughjreeda, to ^^i„ ,„ ^^ ;, ^^ 

inakeupthedefio.cncyofAeirrood,andto Mr. Martyn think. it th« 

•je .Tery mean. to allur. them to partake ,^ ,j;.^ Har^H, o, 

naaffieient. He moat add to thia honey -„,„«1- oceun in Virril. ai 
c«Uinm.dicinal .ub.tancM, aa rrawdiM of J^ CntkM. It U t?b« ta 

.^^'*Ll^ Zl^a^Jr'^ in th. eenae of nU tShu , 

Mda^ra<eu>gwith^«.,ii»l«.to«L &^ „gmenanh. S«i G«>r. iii 
T€m, juice. 

«67. OaUm: the nut^L Thia poatetaea ^^ {^''*f • «^ ^ ^ 

?ary powerful aatringent qnalities. It waa ™® ••«* for iL 
wy proper, therefore, to recoounend the «73. Ceapiie. CmptM^ 

ot it« to check the looeeneaa to which the rootof the plant. S^ 



Anreus \pM . sed iii foliis, quae pluriina cirruin 
Funduiitur, \iolm suhlucel purpura nigric 
Sspe Deuin iiexis oriiaice torquibus arie. 
Aiper in ore sapor: tonsis in vallibus illum 
Pastores, ct ciirva legunt prope fluinina Mell». 
Hqjus odorato radices incoque Baccho, 
Pabiilaque in foribus plenis appone canistris. 
Sed si quein proles subito defecerit oiniiis, 
Nec, genus unde novs stlrpis revocetur, habebit : 
Tempus, et Arcadii mcmoranda inventa magistri 
Ftndere, quoque modo cssis jam ss?pe juvencis 
iDnncerus apes tulerit cruor. Altius omnein 
Expcdiam [irinii repetens ab origine, fainam 
Nam qua Pellici gens fortunata Canopi 
Accolit eifuso stagnantem flumine Nilum, 
Et circum pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis ; 
Quaque pharetratae vicinia Persidis urget 
Ht riridem iEgyptum nigri fcBcui^dat areni ; 
Ex diversa ruens septem discurrit in ora, 
Usque coloratis ainnis devexus ab Indis ; 
Oamis in hic ceriam regio jacit arte salutem. 


277. Sapor gus e$t 
9i»per in ore 

280 280. Apponeque pa- 
bultt apiinu plenis cani^- 
tris in foribus alvearu, 

283. TempuB esi vMn- 


290 ^^" Qu^ue amnis 
devezua uaque ab colo- 
ratia India urget 


^ttfiam eauhunu Feetre * in the aenae of 

f75. ^igrtr: deep colored. Fufiduntur: 
ifffwit, or ahoot up. 

276. /texie: made, or formed of thia 

279. Intoque : boil, or simmer. 

181. Sed n qutm^ &c Tlie poet now pro- 

•dii to give an account of the method 
mctised b/ Aristieus for ihe recovery of 
his beee, afler all his swarms were lost. 
OMiMf frQl*is : the whole atock, or race. 

f85. Inttneerua: in the sease ofputridus. 
JtUn»: m the eense of longi. It ia to be 
«NUieeted with repetent, 

180. Hxpediam : in the senae of iuirrabo. 

07. Otnt /ortunata: the Egyptians. 
Ther are here called happy, or fortunate, 
oa accoont of the fertilitT of thoir country, 
wfaieh u occasioned by the annual inunda- 
lioii of tho rtTer Nile. Canopi. Canopus 
waa a citj of Egfypt, near Alexandria, 
flMHided by Alezander the Great, who was 
Wb at PeUa, in Macedonia. Hence the city 
Ganoinui is called PelUnu. The city, by 
Mton. for the inhabitants; who may be 
pat, by sjmeo. for aJI the Egyptians. 

SB8. Simgnaniem : in the sense of inun" 
^miiem. ^groe is understood. 

fSb. yehityr cireitm. During the con- 
oee of the inundation, the inhabitants 
firom ooe part of the country to an- 

^ m boota, or small bar|res; here caJled 

fhmrH yiehitur agrees with gent. 

HOl Viwet vienUa. The Nile did not 
bMdi, ar Eorder npon the neighborhood of 
Ftnia, properly so ealled. But we are in- 


formed by Xenophon, that the Persian em- 
pire under Cyrus extended as far west aj 
Egypt. The Nile may therefore be said to 
pre88 upon the borders of Persia, since the 
Persians extended their dominions as far aa 
Egypt ; wliich justifies the ezpression of the 
poet. Vicinia : plu. of vieinium. The Per- 
sians were famous for their skill in archery ; 
hence pluiretrata Perridi». 

293. j^mni»: the river Nile. It rises in 
Abyssinia, in the mountains of the Moon, 
in about the lat. 1 1° N. and runM in a north- 
erly direction; and, aftcr receiving a num- 
bcr of tributary strcamB, it falls into the 
Mediterrancan sea in seven different chan- 
nels, or moutlis, in lat. 32 N. forniing the 
Delta of Lower Egypt. The inuiidation of 
the Nile occasions the , fcrtility of Egypt. 
Its waters briiig with them tJie riclmess, or 
wash of the upper country, and hero deposil 
iL This the poet calls, nigra artna. The 
rise of the Nile is occasioned by the rain 
that falls at & eertain season of the year in 
the mountains of Abyssinia. The proper 
hoight to which the water «hould rise »n 
E|^pt is 16 cubits, or 24 fcct If it fall 
short of that, a famine is expected ; if it 
ezceed it, an injury is sustaincd. By means 
of canaJs, the water is carried to every part 
of the country. For an excellcnt descrip- 
tion of the Nile, see RoIIin^s An. His. Vol. 1. 
Indie. Any country that lay in a hot cli- 
mate, the ancients denominated Irutia^ and 
its inhabitants Indi. Coloratit: tawny^ 
sun-burnt. Devexut: flowing down ftoni 

294. Arte : in the seose of tnefnie 



Exiguus prinium, atque ipsos contractuB ti 
Cligitur locus : hunc angustique inibrice tec4 
Parietibusque premunt arctis ; et quatuor ad 
Quatuor a ventis obliqua luce fenestras. 
Tum vitulus, bima curvans jam comua frontf 
JOO. Gemine naret Qua;ritur : huic geminae nares, et spiritus oe 
b^trwirUur Multa reluctanti obstruitur ; plagisque perei 

301. Viflcereque tunsa Xunsa per integram soJvuntur viscera pdloin 
re^owinuir^u^^^el ^ic positum in clauso linquunt : et ramea co 
rempto. Subjiciunt fragmenta, thymum, casiasque rec 

303. Sic linquunt vt- Hoc geritur, Zephyris primum impellentibua 
hdum positura in rlauso ^nte novis rubeant (juam prata coloribus, ai 

o/w> ^ 1 -u n Garrula quani tiguis nidum suspendat hjrund 

306. Colonbus /lorum , ^ . ^^ • 7^ /• . i. u 

*^ Interea teneris tepefactus m ossibus humor 

iEstuat : et visenda modis animalia miris, 
Trunca pedum primo, mox et stridentia pen 
Miscentur, tcnuemque magis, magis aera ca 
312. Donec erup^re Donec, ut aestivis effusus nubibus imbcr, 
'^*^ l""f' ^^ . . Erup^re s aut, ut nervo pulsante sagitts, 

«t M^tto* '**"* ' ^'''""'^ *®^^^ ineunt si quando pr^Iia ParthL 

Quis Deus hanc, Musa^, quis nobis extudil 

Unde nova ingressus hoininum experientia ( 
Pastor Aristaeus, fugiens Peneia Tempe, 

Amissis, ut fama, apibus morboque famequc 


396. Hune premuni: thej contract this string. J^erco: the string 
(ftill more) by & narrow roof and confined bow. The Parthians wcre 
wallt -walis closo togethcr. Imbrtx is pro- and usually commenccd the 
perly the gutter-tile of the roof, to carry ofT of arrows. 

the water. Hence it may be taken for ihe 314. si quando: in the m 

roof itaclC Imbrict an^xuti tecli : wilh tho «ic r» j j-. ; «1 

c ° £> 315. Kxttidii: in the Bcns 

covering ot a narrow root. 

397. Parietibus: parietcs, properly the 316. Ingrtssm: acc. plu. 
walls of a house : muri^ the wallH of a city. originein. 

Premunt : in the ecnac oC co7ilrahunt. 317. Aristatus. He is sa 

299. Bitna : in the senb-e of hicnni. the son of Apollo aad tlic 

391. Multa : in the scnso of multum^ in tlie daughtcr of thc rivcr t 

imitation of the Grceks. bom in the dcserts of Lybi 

302. yisctra tu7isa^ Sic. Thc meaning is : the daughtcr of Cadinus, 
that the entrails of the aniinal, as he lay Jintunoi^ by whoni he had 
dead, being bcatcn with blows, are broken enaniourbd witli Eurydice, 
in pieccK, the hide reinaining entirc. yis- phcus, he pursued hor iiito 
cero, is propcrly thc wholc animal within the a snake, laying in thc grass 
hide, as wcU the flesh as the ontrails. Pt- hcr; of which wound she 
rempto: in the senso of interfecto, upon, the gods werc angry, 

^5. Oeritur : in the sense of afcitur, punishment, dcstroyed his 

Zephyris. The zephyrs begin to blow, in calamity, he applied to his 

ihat climate, early in the month of Fcbru- rccted him 10 apply to thc ri 

ary, according to Pliny. Impeilentibus : in He dirccted hiin to appea 

the sense of agitantibus. Eurydico by the sacrifice o 

307. Anttquam hirundo. Thctimeofthe four hcifcrs. It is said tl 
flwallow^s coming is said by Columclla, to over various countries, tci 
be in the latter part of Fcbruary, in tliat cultivation of the olive, and 
climate; wilh us it is much later. Ho visited Arcadia; heiice 

309. JRstuat : ferments. TVunra : dcsti- eadius magisttr apum. He 

tate of — wanting. Miscentur : mingle — honors^ and was worshippc 

•warm. Carpunt: in thc sense of /fn/i/w/. Tempt : neu. plu. a pleasun 

^12 F.rupert : in the sonse of erolarrrunt. saly, through which tho riv 

AVrto pulsante fflew) from the whizzinif Hcncc Uio opithct Pertean* 


TMi ad extroroi sacruin caput astitit amnis, 

Multi querens : atque hdc affatus vocc parentem : 320 

Kater Cyrene, mater, quce gurgitis hujus 

Ima tenes : quid mo praeclarsi stirpe Deorum 322. Tones irna bca 

(S^modd, quem perhibcs, pater est Thymbncus Apollo) hujus gurgitis: quid g(w 

hmsum fatis genuisti ? aut qud tibi nostri ""«^» ""« inviRum fatis 

Palsus amor ? quidme ccelum sperare jubebas ? 325 1 P"^^»f'* «iirpe Deo- 
n • m . .^ . !• 1 rum ; ii modo 1 hym- 

En euam hunc ipsum viUe mortahs honorem, br»ui ApoU«», quem por- 

Qaem mihi vix frugum et pecudum custodia solers hibes meum putrtm, cfit 

Omnia tentanti extuderat, te matrc, relinquol m^ pator : aut quo ett 

Quin age, et ipsa manu felices erue sylvas, 329 ^^ *«"<>' "<»^" P"*«"" 

Ferstabulis inimicum ignem, atque interfice messes: * «0« r« • . 

|. ,. , • ® .. 1? • • •>*o» *'U, le matre, 

Ire sata, et yahdam m vites mohre bipennem : etiam relinquo Imnc ip- 

Tinta meae si te ceperunt ta^a laudis. aum honorem 

At mater sonitum thalamo sub flnminis alti 329. Tu ipta erue m§€m 

8eiMt: eam circum Milcsia vellera Nymphae fehcef 

Cirpebant, hyah saturo fucata colore : 335 

Dnmoque, Xanthoquo, Ligeaque, Phyllodoceque, 

Ccsariem eifuss nitidam per candida colla ; 33t. EfTuBffi quoadnU 

Ness^, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque, ^'**"JJ ., ., . 

Cydippeque, ci flava Lycorias ; altera virgo, gof^tar Z '"" 

Ahera tum pnmos Lucinse experta labores ; 340 

Clioque, et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae, 

AmbjE auro, pictis incinctae pellibus ambae ; 343. Ambe incinctw 

Atque Ephyre, atque Opis, et Asia Deiopeia ; &uro, ambe intinctfB 

& UDdem positis velox Arethusa sagittis. P'®^ 

loter quas curam Clymene narrabat inanem^ 345 



S19. M mtnmm eaput : at the aacred or sca-grreen color ; fVom a Greek word 

Mwte of the remote river. AriiitaBUs re- ■ignifying glasa. 

■W iB the vaie of Tempe. AAer tho losa 336. Drymo, The namca of the nymphe 

■f bii beet, he retired to the tource of the hcre mentioned are taken from Honier and 

Bttr Peneiu, in mount PinduB, where his Hesiod, and are all of Greek derivation. 
MhBr had her residence. AfVor her amour 337. Kffxua: in the scnse of diffutm: 

viik ApoUo, it \m aaid that god conveyed their hair hung loose, and flowing over 

kr to Africa, where she resided during the thcir Rnow-white necka. 
fned of ber gestation and delivery. Her 340. Erperta: in the Benaoof potxa. Lun 

■avasbroogfat up bj the Seotofu, and fed cinir: child-bearing. Tho name of the 

mmbrtia, goddrss of child-bearing ; by meton. taken 

SSL GttrgiHM : in the eense offoniit. for ctiild-boaring itsclf. It is an epitlict 

3Bb «MfsA ; in the senae of eerti, Thym" both of Juno and Diana. 

.* a name of ApoUo, from Thymbrn^ a 341. Oceanitidet : daughters of the ocean. 

tM of Troas;, where he had a magnificent Soe Ecl. ii. 46. 

iaa^ Perhihta : in the sense of diei»^ 343. Deiopeia, This nymph is cnlled 

irissrat. Atian,, because she was of tho Asiau ler< : 

3n. Cnttodia: in the sense of ewra, Atia apprilatur quia ex Atia patude. 
SHL Refinquo: in the sense of amitto, 344. Arethuta, She had becn at finil a 

Utidderat: hiad provided, or procurcd. huntress, and one of Diana^s train ; but af- 

9K9. Felieet: i n the sense of/(rrun//a«. tcrward changod by her into a fountain 

Sn« Afolire ; in the sense of tfnmt7/«. nymph. Hence the propriety of tagittu 

S9S. Tadia : in tho sense of negligeniia, potitit, 

9^, Miierim: an adj. from .Aff7<r^tf, a city 345. Fnter qnat: among^ whom Cljrmeue 

h Ike ecnAnta of lonia and Caria. Its was rclating, &c. Vonus, the wifc of Vul 

hM in i^reat estimation amon^ can, was takcu in adultory with Mars. Hcr 

huflband cast a nct over thcm, ai* thvy werc 

Cawpekmmi: in the sense of nehant, in carh other*s emlrace, and m this situa 

; 4yad vith a rich sea-fpreen color. tion thcy wore ex( OBcd to \V\c \;iM^\\\.eT « 

.- glaas; idsoa^iast/, ai/ tije frods. The poel ea\\« Vm\c%xC« c&m 


S47. Vulcani dc emtO' Vulcani, Martisque dolos, et dult. a rurta, 

*^1r ^Sr^h Aque Chao densos Divuiii nuinerabat amorei 

^^^8. J^fympha capt» (;;a,.j„i,^g q^,Q caplae, duni fusis mollia pensa 

Devolvunt, iterum maternas impulit aureii 
Luctus Aristaei, vitreisque sedilibus omnes 
Obsiupere : sed ante alias Arcthusa sororen 
Prospiciens, summa flavum caput extulit undj 

358. Et procul dixit: Et procuJ : O, ^eniitu non frustra exterrita d 
O Miror Cyrene Cyrene soror ; ipse tibi, tua maxima cura, 

Tristis, Ansta;us, Penei genitoris ad undam 
Stat lachrymans, et te crudelem nomine dicit 

357. Mater perculsa Huic perculsa nova mentem formidine mater 

!£c, duc^Uhif^^d DM I Tangere, ait. Simui alta jubet discedere laf 
tkM ett illi Flumina, qua juvenis gressus inferret : at itti 

Curvata in montis faciem circumstetit unda, 
Accepitque sinu vasto, misitque sub amnenu 
Jamque domum niirans genitricis et humida 
Speluncisque lacus clausos, lucosque sonant 
Ibat : et, ingenti motu stupefactus aquarunif 
Omnia sub magna labentia flumina terrl 
Spectabat diversa locis, Phasimque, Lycumc 
£t caput, unde altus primum se erumpit Eni 
S7l Et unde Erida- ^"^® pater Tyberinus, et unde Aniena fluei 
nvm auratus qjioad ge- Saxosumque sonans Hypanis, Mysusque Ca 
mina comua Et gemina auratus taurino comua, vultu 


wanefn^ vain, because it had no efTect to re- lows, was of the opinion, 1 

claim his wife, or because it served only to under the earth, a general n 

propagato his own disgrace : or rathcr, be- servoir of water, from which 

Muse he was unable, with all his care and all fed. This they called l 

watchfulness, to prevent her from dcfiling lacus elausos^ &c. the poct i& 

his bed. Venus was a wanton dame. ral reservoir of water. 

346. DulHa furta. This alludes to the 367. Diversa, remote — ^wi 
amour of Mars with Venus : stolcn embra- Phaiim : Phasis, a noble n 
ces — sweet thef\s. rising in the mountains of 

347. Chao : from the origin of the world ; into the Euzine sea. It ia 
or f^'om Chaos, who, according to fable, was expedition of the Argonau' 
the first of the gods. Densos: in the sense it afler a longand perilousi 
of frequentes^ vel multos. Lyeus^ the name of several i 

348. Mollia pensa : the sofl yam. Car- certain, which one the poet 
mine : song, story, or subject. 368. Caput : the sourci 

351. Anti: bcfore her other sistcrs. Enipeus is a river of Thessa 

353. J^on frustra : not in vain alarmed : plains of Pharsalia, and 

jou arc alarmed, and not without reason. river Peneus. 

355. Undam : in the senso of /on/^. — 369. Tyberinus: the rive 

Peneus^ the river god, was the father of It is called by way of emL 

Cyrenc. falls into the Tuscan sea. 

360. Inferret gressua : might introduce his from Anio^ the name of 
foot-steps — might march along : a phrase. Italy. 

Flumina: in the sense of aquas. 370. Hypanis: ariver of 

361. Curvata: roiled or heaped up in the matia, uniting with the Boi 
fbrm of a mountain. per, and with it, flowt into 

S62..Vm/.* in thesonse of flufmin/. Eum Hodie^ Bog. Saxositm: un 

is anderstood. gen. uscd adverbially — ai 

364. SpeluneiM, There were two opinions Cateus: a river ofMysia m> 

among the ancients respecting the origin of Asia. It falls into the A 

rivers. Aristotle considered the sea to be opposite to Mitylene on tli 

the Bource : bat Plato, whom Viigil here fol- boe, Hence the epithet M 


Endanuf, quo non aliuA per pinguia culta ,372. Quo anint oon 

fe mare puqiureum vioientior influit amnis. *^"? *°*"^ *^*"^ ^®* 

Poslquam est in tli«ilami pendcntia pumice tecta ^^74' ^PMtnuam ncr- 

Penrentum, et nati fletus cognovit inancs 375 yentum ett in tecta tiiv 

Cjrene: manibus Ii(}uidos dant ordine fontes Umi 

Geniian», tonsisque ferunt mantilia viliis 

Pars epulis onerant mensas, et plena reponunt 

Pocula ; Panchxis adolcscunt ignibus ars. 

Ct iiiater : Cape Maeonii carchesia Bacclii : 380 380. £t mator ait ; 

Ocpano libenius, ait. Simul ipsa precatur Cmpe 

Oceariuinque patrem rerum, Nymphasque sorores, 

Centum (|uaj sylvas, centum quo: flumina servanU 

Ter iiijuido ardentem perfudit nectare Vestam : 

Ter tlainma ad summum tecti subjecta reluxit. 385 

Omine quo firmans animum, sic incipit ipsa : 

Ea in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates, 


3T1 Eridamu: theriverPo. Thisuithe 376. Dani: m the sense of /eruyi/. JLi- 

UmttriTerof Italy. quido$ /oniet : m the sense or purat aqtuu, 

Tbere ij a neeming difficulty in reconciling This w&ter was brought for the uho of Aris- 

v^t it iMire naid of this river with matter toeus; manibus may therefore refcr to his 

tituL We ore told tlie Po is not a rapid hands — for washing his honds: or it may 

nver. It llowt the greater part of its course refer to tho hands of the nympLs who 

tiiroufli a level and highly cultivated coun- brought it — in their handH. 

tij This taken into considcration, no othcr 377. Maniilia : towels. It woiild »eem 

fire/ perhape, under tlie saine circumstan- thoy were made of some shagefy or nappy 

CM, dows with greater rapidity. We are cloth, which was sometimos «honi for the 

■utto understand the poet as speaking ab- grcatcr smoothness and dclicaoy. Our nap- 

nlatelj, but comparatively. It falls into kins were probably of Ihe sanie sort for- 

l^ Adriatic «ea, or guif of Venice. mcrly, tho word seeming to be derived from 

TaMrino vultu, The form of a bull is of- nap. Tonti* villis: tlie shag or nap being 

ta. bj tho poets, given to rivers, from thcir cut off. 

iMnBg and rapid coune: tlie noisc which 379. Panchait: an adj. from Paneh<Ba, a 

Ibej make, bcaring somo rescmblance to rcgion of Arabia, abounding in frankin- 

DKbellowmgof Uiat animal. They arc also ccnHO. j^ra: the altars bum witli Arabian 

oUed romu/i, or horned, from the double frankincenKC. 

Waki or channcls, into which thcy divide 2^0. Carehetia, The earcht^sium was a 

IkaiielTes: or perhaps from the circum- large oblong bowl or goblet, flattcd about 

4um of their being sometimes formed by tJje middle, having handles reaching quite 

tfee union of two streams or smaller rivers. to thc bbttom. jHaonii : an adj. froin Jtfo- 

Af for ezample, the river Ohio is formcd onia^ tlie ancicnt namo of Lydia in Asia 

^ the anion of the rivers Alleghany and Minor. It abounded in vines. Baeehi: for 

MMMMigahela. vini. 

Bercales is said to have brokcn ofT one 383. Servant: in the sense of prcttidcni. 

^ Um homs of ^'ieheloiJit, It is thus ex- 3H4. Per/u7u/t7 : she sprinkled — wet. wtfr- 

Humd. Tbat hero reduced the river to one deniem Vettam: the flaniing fire : See iEn. 1. 

c^tanel or slroam. The dried part or bro- 292. Neeiare : for vino, Nectar was pro- 

koi bora of the river was converted into pcrly the bcst and purest wine, such as they 

nitful fiolds and garden^ This gave rise assigned to the use of the gods. 

to the iablo of the cornucopie, or hora of 3li5. Subjceta, This Rueeus takes in the 

H(*ty. Tliis was given to the nyinphs, and scnso of tuppotita; with what propriety, 

bttkem presenied totlie Goddessof Plonty. however, does not appear. The meaning 

The verb erumpit is to be supplicd with plainly is : that when the wine was pourcd 

nek of tbo prec^Miing nominatives. upon the fire, a flame arose, or blazed, aod 

374. Pemdentia: vaulted, or archod wilh shone bright, as high as the roof of the 

puuee stone. KumuB vay 9 \ ttructa tmpen' house. 6'u^/ictu, from which nt6/«r/a is do- 

imU pwniet, PenKnittm ett : imp. verb, rivcd, signifies to rise, or mount up. Soe 

' ia thft sense of pervenit, Ei:I. x. 74, and JRn, xii. 288. It is here ueed 

375. inantt: vain^ says Scrviua, becauite iu ihe senso of surf^etit, 

we?e exeited by a calamity easy to bo 3}j7. Carpathio : an adj. from Carpatkut^ 

an iHland in tlic Mcditerraneau ■^vn 


Ca*ruieus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus asqv 

Et juncto bipedum curru metitur equorum. 

Hic nunc Emathioe portus, patriamque revisif 

Pallenen ; hunc et nymphae veneramur, et ip 

Grandsuvus Nereus : novit namque omnia va 

:iia. KiMmBUitpnBten- Quae sint, quae fuerint, quse mox ventura tral 

fic, qufls fuerint praie- Qujppe ita Neptuno visum est : immania cuj 

^^' ^ Annenta, et turpes pascit sub gurgite phocai 

Hic tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus, ut omi 
Expediat morbi causam, eventusque secund€ 
Nam sine vi non ulla dabit pnecepta, neque : 
Orando flectes : vim duram et vincula capto 

400. Circum hiBc mn- Tendc : doli circum haec demum frangentur 

"*^i' r> • ^ A» ..« Ipsa ego te, medios cum Sol accenderit aesti 

401. Effo ipsa ducam a> -^- . i i. . *• -. 
te in «ecreta ioni., quo C"™ sitiunt herbae, et pecon jam graUor unr 

402. Gratior pecori In secrcta senis ducam, qu6 fessus ab undis 
fukm herba Se recipit ; facile ut sonino aggrediare jacei 

405 lUum correptum Verum ubi correptum manibus, vinclisque U 

Tum varise eludent species, atque ora ferani 
Fiet enim subitd sus horridus, atraque tigria 
Squamosusque draco, et fulva cervice lesna 
Aut acrem flammse sonitum dabit, atque ita 
Excidet, aut in aquas tenues dilapsus abibit. 
Sed quant6 ille magis fonnas se vertet in oo 
Tant6, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla i 
4l3i Qualem videris Donec talis erit, mutato corpore, qualem 
•''•'»» Videris, incepto tegeret cum lumina somno 


flhodes and Crete, whence the neighboring 389. Metitur: he measuro 

»oa was called Carpathian, It is now call- Juncto : yoked, or hamessei 

ed Srarpanto. J^eptuni: Noptunus, thc god his marine horses, that wer 

of the sea, by meton. put hcre for tlio sca his car. 

itself, according to Rusus. That commen- 391. Pallenen: Pallene, i 

tator takes ^trgite in the sonso of sinu; Macedonia, whose original n 

but it is better to take it in the scnse of tfiia, 

mari^ and J^eptuni in its usual acccptation. 393. Trahaniur, There i 

yaten JW/i/uni: the prophet of Neptune. priety in the use of Ihis wor 

For Proteus, it is said, received from that the heathen notion of fate. 

Kod the prit^ of prophecy. are said to be drawn, {traA 

388. Proteus: a sca-god. According to tliat serics, or chain of caui 

fable, he was the son of Oceanus and Tc- thcy so follow that one may 

thys, and received the gif\ of prophccy from the other. 

Neptuno. He was very ditficult of access, 395. Turpes : in the sense 

and whcn consulted, he frcquently cluded 399. Flectes: in the sense 

tho answers by transforming himself into 400. Tende: apply rig^id f< 

various shapos, and so making his escape. to him, when seiaed. Doli: 

Hoiiier makes him an Egyptian, and Hero- gems. 

dotus, a king of Egypt. Sir Isaac Newton, 406. Ora: in the scnse o 

£nding hira cotemporary with Amenophis, dent. IUudeni is the commoi 

or Memnon> conjectures he was only a vice- rius found in the Roman mai 

roy to that prince, and govemcd some part in the Lombard, Medicean, i 

of Lower Egypt in his absence. ancient manuscripts, eluden 

Proteus is representcd as drawn in a car readlng of Heyne. 

by marine horses ; that is, their fore part 408. Draco : a serpent, or 

reeemblins: the horse, their hinder a fish. 410. Excidet: will ovcaj 

They would consequently have only two dissolved into water, &c. 

and thoM before. Hence bipedum 412. Contende : inthesen 

414. Tegeret: in the 


Rkc ail: et liquidum ainbrosisu ditFudit odorein^ 416 

Qoo totujii uati coqius perduxit ; at illi 

Mcis cumpositi:^ spiravit crinibus aura, 

Atque liabilis mcmbris venit vigor. Est s|)ecus ingens 

Eied latere in niontis ; qud piurima vento 419. Qud pluiima an 

C(^tur, inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos ; 420 da cogitur. 

Deprerkds olim statio tutissima nautis. 

btttt se vasti Pn>teus tegit objice saxi. 

Hic juvencm in latebris aversum a lumine Nympha 423. Nympha Cyrme 

Collocat : ipsa procul nebulis obscura resistit. collocal juvenem Arw 

Jun rapidus torrens sitientes Sirius Indos 425 

Ardebat cu^lo, et medium Sol igneus orbem 

Htuseret : arebant herbae, et cava fluniina siccis 427. Et radii Soh$ 

Fiocibus ad limum radii tepefecta coqucbant : coquebani cava flumina 

p' D • ^ 4. - a ^'Z s. tcpefacta faucibua nocii 

Ittm Froteus consueta petens e fluctibus antra .«i,,^ .j 

•nt : eura vastj circum geiis humida ponti 430 

Gxultans^ rorein late dispergit amarum. 

ternunt se sonmo diverss in litore phocce. 

IpK (velut stabuli custos in montibus oliin, 

Vesper ubi e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit, 

Aoditisque liipos acuunt balatibus agni) 435 

Conswiit scopuio medius, numemmquo recenset. 

Cqus Aristieo quoniam est obiata facultas : 437. Quoniam fkeul- 

Tix defessa senem passus componere menibra, *•■ eaj4mdi cujue oblaU 

Oum cl.«,ore ruit mag..o, nianicisque jacentem "^sTCiil^L, cmn 

v^upat. ille suas contra non immemor artis, 440 

Omflia transformat sese in miracuia rerum, 

Ij^nemque, horribilemque feram, fluviumque liquentem. 


■BM tmeeyto : at the beginning of hia droughta : hence the propriety of ihe epi 

iiii^ thet tUientet. 

415. Ambrosite. Ambrosia was the food 426. I^neut Sol : tlie ficry sun had com- 
^HtB godn^ aiid neetar their drinlc. But pleted (drawn out) half his courae. Thia 
^tvo arc ofieii confounded, as herc, liqui' is a circumlocution to dcnote tlic middle of 
^i^ ie said of anibrosia, Ltquidum odO' the day. Hauterat : in tho sense of eu^ 
W: & pure fragruncy, or perfume. eurrerat, 

416. Perduxit: in the sense or peninxii, 428, Coquebani: in the scnse ofnrcodAn/. 
teni found ptrfudit in the Roman MS. Faucibut : in thc scnse of alveit, 

^n.jiura: in Uie sense o£ odor, Illi : 431. Amarum: the bitter spray. Ths 

^ dtt. in the scnse of illitu, This use of sea-water is bitter as well as salt. 

tW ^t case is frequent with Virgil. Com^ 432. Diverta: dispersed, or scatterod 

^u; in the seiise of unetit, along^ the shore. 

419. Exeti: in the sense of exeavati. 433. Stabuii : in the sense of armenO, by 

421. Olim: in the sense of aliquando, meton. 

^^tprtntit : canght, or overtaken in a storm. 436. Audiiit, Some read audiii, to af^ree 

48. Arerttan: in the sense of remotttm, with afrni: but the sense ioads to audiiit: 

434. Resittii : in the sense of remantt, the blcatingr of the lambs beinf^ heard. Mr. 

OfcaaiB : in the scnse of oeeulta, Davidson observes, that auditit is found io 

48S. Sirius : a stiir of tiie first magnitude the Koman, Medicean, and Cambit«i|[e ma- 

fe tke muuth of the do^. It risos about the nuscripts. Heyne reads aiM/t/u. 

^ tbe sun enters the sign Leo, which 437. Faeuitat: an opportunity waa pra- 

ti^ pUce in the latter part of July, sentcd. 

(■Hing what we call the dog-days. Tor- 439. Manieit: in the senso of 9111011^ 

^: pres. part. in tlie sense of comburent, Somo manuscripts read vineuiiB, 

Mt. This word is here used for the in- 441. Miraeula: in the sense of prod^jfM, 

■hJUnu of anj warm climate. Sueh wonderful sliapes, says Valpy. 

an nibject to long and ezcessive 442. Liqueniem : in the Mnm of/uoila». 


Verilm ubi nulla fugam rcperit fallaciaf victiu 
In sese redit, atque hominis tandcm ore locuti 
Nam quis te, juvenum confidentissime, nostrafl 

446. At ille AristauM Jussit adire domos ? quidve hinc petis ? inquit. 
fnupondU :0 Proteu, Bcis, gcis, Proteu, scis ipse : neque est te fallere cu 

44? Velle /a/lere me ^^ ^" desine velle. DeAm prajcepta secuti 

Venimus huc, lapsis qucesitum oracula rebus. 

450. EffatuB ett hoe Tantum effatus. Ad hoec vates vi denique m 
•^****™ Ardentes oculos intorsit lumine glauco : 

Et, graviter frendens,' sic fatis ora resolvit : 
Non te nullius exercent numinis iree ; 
Magna luis commissa : tibi hus miserabilia Oi 
Haudquaquam ob meritum poenas (ni fata rea 
Suscitat, et rapt^ graviter pro conjuge sKvit. 
457. Illa puella qui- i||a quideni, dum te fugeret per fiMmina pr8ec< 
dem moritura, dum pr». i,„jnunem ante pedes hydruni, moritura puell; 
eepa per flamma fugeret ^ ^ • u^ jI • u ua 

te, non vidit, ante peden Servantem ripas altii non vidit m herb^ 

in alta herba, immaiiem At chorus ffiqualis Dryudum clamore suprenK 

Implerunt moiites: flfirunt RliodopeioB arces, 
464. Ip»e OrphcuB 8o. Altaque Punga?a, et Rhcsi Muvortia tellus, 
Uns Bgruin amornm ca- Atque Getaj, atque Hebrus, atque Actias Oril 
▼a tesuidine, cunehat te» jpj^^,^ cav^ solans ^'''rum testudinc amorem, 
O dulcni conjux; caneo/if rp j i • « i * i-^ 

4^ '.. -1 1 . -« . I<^> duJcis conjux, to solo m Iitore secum, 
te aecuin miiuio liiore : ^-, ' . .. i j i 

eanebat te, die veniente ; ^ « venieute dio, te decedente canebat. 
€aaebat te, die decedeuto, Tu3narius ctiam fauces, alta ostia DitLs, 


443. Fugam : epcape. Fallaeia : wiles — passage. It would be a uai 

trickn — Htrat:i}rcm8. enumerate the various opinion 

447. Ne({ne eat cuique : nor is it in the tatore upon it. Dr. Trapp 
power of uiiy oiio to deceivo yi>u. parenthesis, ni fata resistant, 

449. Qutexiturn : to scek divine counscl difficult passage in Virgil*s 

in niy rutiiod state — my adverse circum- niake any sense of it, we mi 

■tancus. A Hupirip in i/m, put aHer e^nir/iuA. words : and would prociire gi 

451. Ardentes : in the sense of coru«can. mcnt. 06; equal — proportion 
iee. It is tu bc connected with lumine Orpheus was thc son of ( 
glaueo. of Thracc, and CaIlio|>e, one c 

45i2. Sieresolvit. The poet now proceeda He was distinguishcd for his i 

to the answcr of Proteus, in which he tells and poetry. He waa one of tl 

Aristieus that the cause of his disaster waa It is said there are some hym 

the injury oifcred to Eurydice, the wife of tant ; but there is reason to 

Orpheus. The whole story b told in so are spurious. See Ecl. iii. 46. 
beautiful a maiiner, that it does not seem 456. Stevit : and grievoa 

unworthy of the mouth of a god. for. 

453. ffon nuU^^is numini». Davidson ren. 461. Areee : the Rhodopea: 
dera this: of no mean deity. But the or- Sce Geor. iii. 351. 

dinary eente and meaning of the words are 462. Fangaa : neu. plu. sing 

to be preferred : of some deity. The two a mountain in Thrace, in th 

negatives expreaa affirmatively. Beaides Macedonia. Rhesi. See JEn 

the punishment of Aristttus was procured 463. Getae. See Geor. iii. 4( 

by Orpheus and the nymphs, who were in- 'See Ecl. vii. 51. 

ferior deities Rusbus and Heyne say aZi- 464. Teetudine. Thc lyr 

cajue Dei, Exereent : in the sense of per. testudo^ because anciently it 

Mquantur, tortoise shell. It is said that ! 

454. Commina: in tho sense of ecelera. ing a dead tortoise on the I 
MiterabHie^ &M. Unhappy Orpheus procures rivcr Nile, made a lyre of it; 
thia panishment for thee, by no means pro. called, parens curetf lyra. 
portionate to thy deserta, (and would pro- 467. Ingrettsus T<twtrias. 
enra greater,) if the fates did not oppose. promontory of the Peloponi 
Thia appoars to be the plain meaniug of the ting the Sinus Messenieus fn 



intem nigrl funnidine lucum 
i^ Mane3c|ue adiit, regemque trcmendum, 
le liumanis precibus niansuesccre corda. 470 
: commotae £rcb; de sedibus iniis 
bant tenucs, simulacraque luce carcntdm : 
ulta in sylvit» avium se millia condnnt, 
ibi, aut hybernus agit de montibus imber 
atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita 476 

mOm heroum, pueri, innuptaeque puellie, 
,uc rogis juvenes ante ora parcntum 
cuin limus niger, et deforniis arundo 
aitlaque palus inamabilis unda 
Bt novies Styx interfusa coercet. 480 

OL* stupnere domus, &U\ue intima leti 
caeruIeiMque hnplexae crinibus angues 
\e^ ; tenuitque inliians tria Cerberus ora ; 
:ionii cantu rota constitit orbis. 
le (>edem refcrens, casus cvascrat onmes ; 486 
[ue Eur}'dice su|>eras vcnicbat ad auras. 



Canln OrphM 

482. Eumonide« im- 
plexiB quoad cmmXtOB 
an^oa crinibus 


', fabled to be the entrunce of the 
esrioiis. Here Orpheus made hia 
» hell after his Eurydice. Ostia : 
or gales of Pluto. 

orda ntsria : and hcarts know- 
ncapable of ) to relent at human 

mularra : the ahades or forms of 
!itang Ufe. Lwe : in the senae of 

trpora : and bodies of |raI1ant he- 
ved of lifc. Corpora is here U8ed 
the airy vchicle, or form, which 
nt^ anfi^ed to departed spirita. 
e meaning here. 

»ry/i. Gocytoa, a riv^r of Italy, 
it magnitudo, feigned by thc poeta 
ver oC hell. Its banks aboundcd 
tnamabdu : in thc scrfsc of odiosa ; 
for aqi/d, 

rrum ailigat : surrounds— confines. 
: of the vorb are frcquently sepa- 
TnicHJm for tJie sake of the vcrse. 

fabulouH river of hell, around 
e poets ftaj, it flowed nine timos. 
herefore be said to restrain the 
id prevent thcm from rcturning to 
r re^ions. See Geor. iii. 551. /n- 
owing between them and the upper 
r light. 
trtara : properly the lowest part of 

pjare in which tho impious are 
, according to the poets. Intima : 
inw» of profundissima. Letnm^ or 
*eemn herc to be used for the place, 
s of the dead in general. 
ItaunideM, The turies were three 
*r, arid r**prnt:cnted with tlieir liair 
I with aerpentk, to render tliem 

more dreadful. See Geor. i. 978. Ctrht* 
rus : a huge dog with three headn, tbr 
door-keeper of Pluto. 

484. Cantu, Most copies have vento, 
But it is eztremely difficult to make any 
sense of that. Davidson reads cantu, i»nd 
infornis us that Pierius found cantu in se. 
veral ancient MSS. This mukes the sense 
easy, and the passage iiitelligible. 

Commentators have shown a good deal 
of ingenuity in attempting to render this 
passage intelligiblo with veuto. Runiu» 
says: Orbisrota Ixionioi quievit Jiante reutc 
contrario. Valpy: that tlie wind rclaxed« 
by which tho wheel was carricd ruund : or 
it stood to the wind. 

Heyno hath a long note upon it. He 
thinks vento should be taken in thc abl. 
The wind, by which the wheel mos carried 
rouiid, subsiding, the whcel ccasicd to re- 
volve : Veuto^quo alids circum ap[ibatur rolo, 
wbsidente, subndere4 motus rot<e, Or, by 
eentue, niay be understood thc air or wind, 
occasioned by tlie rcvolution of the wlieel : 
or lastly, says he, rota orbis niay l)C taken 
■imply for the wheel : rota suhstitit vento .* 
tlie iinpulse of thc wiiid ccasing, venti tm. 
pulsu ceseante, tho whcel stoppcd. 

The fable represonts all tlio infemal re. 
gions charmed witli the niuyic of Orphcus. 
Thti furics, the dcpths of TartaruH, Ccrbe. 
rus with his triple mouth, thc wiiocl of 
Ixion, dll stopped to liston to it. Irionii : 
an adj. from Ixion, tLgTccinii willi orhm. Ix. 
ion was sentenced to be bound to a whorl, 
that kcpt pcrpctually in nitition. Hota <if . 
his : thti rotation, or rcvolution uf thc whueJ. 
or simply for rota. Scc Gcor. iii. 3b. 

486. Veniebat : was just coiniiijg 1o thA 
uppcr Tcgions of light. 

164 P. VlRGlLll MAitONli! 

Pone sequens ; namque hanc dederat Prov 
Cum subita incautuni dementia cepit amant 
480. DifnefUia qiiidem I^noscenda quidcm^ scirent si ignoscere Mi 
iftiUMoonda, ti Manoi Kestilit, Eurydicenquc suam jam luce sub 

Immemor, heu ! victusqiie animi, reppcxit : 
492. RuDrji etint Effusus labor ; atque immitis rupta tyranni 

Fcbdera : terque fragor stagnis auditus Avc 
494. IIU Eurydiet in- Illa, quis et me, inquit, misemm, et te per 
qait: quiB perdidit «t Qujg tantus furor? en iterum crudelia retH 
mc nnsorani, ot to, O p.^^^ vocant, conditque natantia lumina sou 
OrplHM I qui8 tantufl fu- , \ p - *• • j * 

ror M/ hie) Jamque vale : feror ingenti circumdata no 

49&. Non ampliu» tua Invalidasque tibi tcndcns, hcu ! non tua« pi 
ron/ux, Dixit : ct fugit Dixit : et ex oculis subito, ceu fumus in ai 
a&vorsa ©X oculia Orphei Commixtus tenucs, fugit diversa : neque il 

Prensantem ncquicquam umbras, et multa 
Diccre, pncterea vidit : nec portitor Orci 
6^. ramufl est Ot' ^mpW^ objectam passus transire paludem 

(iuid faceret ? qu6 se, rapta bis conjuge, ( 

Quo flctu Manes, qua numina voce movep 

M n u-u u ^^^* quidem StVgia nabat jam frigida cvml 
507. Porhibcnt lUuin g ^ -^ ^^^^^ perhibent ex ordine 

•z ordina flovUio «ub ^^"P^ sub aena, deserU ad Strymonis undf 
Airia rupo, ad Flevisse, et gelidis hcec evolvisse sub antrii 


487. Leeem : condition. 496. Condit : in tho seni 

4H8. Suhilademrntia : a sudden frenzy, 497. Feror eireumdata 

which put tho lovcr ofl* hi» guard ; or causcd auay, cncompassed by thi 

him to forfret thc condition upon which his stretching^, &c. 

Eurydico was Buflcrod to rotum. 500. Divena : in tho m 

4H9. Ifinosrrndn quidem: pardonable in- $am partem. It agrecs wit 

deod, if, &r. Orphcus lookcd back to be- 50*2. Praterea: in thc 

hold hi» loved Eurvdico. This wa» thc fa- Portitor Orri: Charon. I 

tal orror^ and iiot to bc blamed in a lovcr. bc tho von of Erebus and 

Evcn Kurydice hersolf did not blamc him, busincss to fcrry thc soul 

for it procwded froin lovc to her. Ovid over the rivers Styx and 

■ajs : Janufue itcrum moriens non est de con^ place of the dead. Hcncc 

juge qnicqiutm questa suo: quid enim srse titor orri. Thc fablc of 

queretur amatam ? Mancs^ here, is put for boat seeins to havc ori| 

tho infernal ^ods. E^yptiauii, ^-ho had a ci 

490. Sub ipsa tuce: in tho very rogion of their dcad across a lakc ' 
light. sentencc wos to be pai 

491. Victus animi: not mastcr of his af- and according to thcir gO' 
fcctioiis. f-ljTusus: inihcscnaoofperditusfst. in life, tl»ey wcrc honorei 

49lJ. Firdira: thc tcnns, or conditions. burial, or lcft unnoticed 

mlvemts : sinc. •'trrmus; plu. jirerna : a Orci: Orcus hcre 8i|rnifi< 

lako of Canipania, in It:ily, by tho poets the dead in ^cneral — hcll. 

plnced iii ihe iiifernnl reijions; also, by mc- 50:5. Objtctam patudem 

ton. put for tlie rt»s:ions tlicmsclves. Fra- river — Styx. Orpheu» ha« 

4f«r. Sorvius lakos frai^nr lo mean the joy ed thc Slyx, aiid was v.p 

and exultalion of the sliades at the retum pum» of lij^ht, when Eu 

of Eiirydiee ainonir thein : a shout — a ccr- frnni liiiii, and hurricd ba 

lain disiiinl and lioliow sound. Thc infernal river, thcre 

49.S. Furor : forre, or viol*»nce. It is hiin and ihc regions of tl 

plam thnt furor is nut to bc taken herc in F^nrydioc was carhcd a » 

it» usual senso. It is probable that il refers Stypian boat. 

lo the toroe or powcr whioh prcvenled hcr .7(X). lifa : sho — Euryc 

from tollowin}; hor husband, which sho crossinp. &o, 

must have felt previous lo her sei-ond d<>ath« S08. Strj/monis : gen. o 

or roturn to tht sl.adc*. lliis is the opi- of Macedooia, on the bir 

Moo of VoMiua 509. Hae: thm miafoi 



rntrfn tigres, et agentem carmine quercus. 610 

3 populea moercns Philomela sub umbrl 

tos queritur fuitUA, quos durus arator 

lans nido implumes, detraxit : at illa 

locfem, ramoqtie sedens miserabile carmen 

rat, et mccstis late loca questibus iinplel. 615 

Venus, nullique animum flexere hymena;i. 

Hyi»erborcas glacies, Tanaimque nivalem, 
pie Riphsris nunquam viduata pruinis 
abat, raptain Eurydicen, atque irrita Ditis 

querens: sprcto Ciconum quo muiiere matres, 

sacra Dcdm, nocturnique orgia Bacchi, 621 

rptum latos juvenem sparsere per agros. 

(]uoque marmorea caput a cervice revulsum, 

ite cum medio portans GBagrius Ilcbrus 

tret, Eurydicen, vox ipsa et frigida lingua, 525 

liseram Eurydicen ! animi fugiente, vocabat : 

iicen toto roferebant flumine ripsB. 

ic Proteus : et se jactu dedit asquor in altum ; 

ue dedit, spumantem undain sub vertice torsit. 


514. Jblet per nocloia 
516. Animum Orphei 

519. Raptam a n 

520. Quo nuptiali mii- 
iierc sproto, matres Ci- 

523. Tum quoque cum 
CKagriu8 lichrus volre- 
ret eju* caput revulsum 
a marmore&ceryice,por- 
tanH id tnodio gurgite, 
ejfu vox ipsa, ot frigida 
lingua, vocabat 

. m^gentem : . in the sense of dttcentem, 
. Philomela : the nightingalo. See 
i. 78. This is a most ezquisite similo, 
>re gencraily admired than beautiAilly 
ved. To heightcn the picturo, the 
arc not only implumes^ without fca- 
but they are taken from the aest ; not 
so, they are drawn from it by the 

of a cruel, hard-hearted ploughman. 
iling it, an cmphasis should bo ploced 
danis and detraxit, It may be ob- 
I lliat the poplar shade is vcry judi- 
f sclcctud by the poet to hcighton the 

; because the Icaves of tlie poplar 
irembling with tiie ieast brcath of air, 

a kind of melancholy rustling. See 

: f^ueritur: laments her lost young. 
.. Mis^rabiU carmtn: moumful song. 
na/: in the sense of renovat, 
. yenus : lovo — person loved. 
. Tanaim: Tanais, a largo rivcr of 
^. It flows through thc ancient Scy- 
uid falls into the Palut Mctutit^ or sca 
:^ff,fbrming a partof the boundary lino 
«o Europe and Asia. Hodie^ the Don. 
L Viduata: free from — dcstitute of. 
eu. See Geor. i. 240. 
L Dona irrita, This alludes to the 
lion, on which Pluto consented to the 
1 of Eurydice to life. The event 
d the faror to be a uscless, and una- 
g ooe to kiin. ^utrens: lamenting — 
ming. CieanwtL The Cicones were 
plo of Thrace near mount Ipmarus, 

the feastsof Bacchus werc cclebratod. 
mnert tpreXa, The Thracian women, 
t fkble goes, were much in love with 
ML* NoBOt howeror, was able to 

mako any impression upon his mind except 
Eurydico. Afler hor death, they ronewed 
their suit, which was rejected. To this cir* 
cumstonce the words, quo munere tpreto^ 
may refer: which (whoso) oifer being de- 
spised. They may, howevcr, rcfer to his 
total indifTorence to all female charms, nnd 
his disregard of marriago. In this sense, 
Mr. Davidson takes them. It is said, verse 
516, supra.: J^ulla Vetitu^ et nulli Hymenai 
flexere animum, See Ecl. iii. 46. Heyne 
rcads tpretce^ but the scnse determincs in 
favor of tpreto, This disregard and indif- 
feronco of Orpheus to the charms of the 
Thracian women, so enraged them, that 
during their revellings at a feast of Bacchus, 
they set upon him, tore him in picces, and 
strowed his limbs over the Thracian ficlds. 

521. JSToctumi. The orgies of Bacchus 
wcre usually celebrated in the night; hence 
thc opithet noctumtu^ applied to Bacchus. 

523. Marmorea : in the scnHc of eandida. 

524. (Eagriut: an adj. from (Eagrut^ a 
king of Thraco, and father of Orplieus. 
Gurgite: in tiie scnse ofjluvio^ vel alveo 
Hebrut, It is the principal rivcr of Thrace 
With its tributary streams, it watcrs a con- 
sidcrable extent of country. It falls into 
the head of the Archipelago. Into this 
river tlie furious Bacchanals cast the head 
of Orpheus, which, as it floated down the 
current, continued to repeat the name of 

527. Referebant: reprated — ochood. 

528. Dedit : in the sense of immisit. 

529. Tortii tpumantem: he threw the 
foaming water over his head. Dr. Trapp 
observes, that although tliis episode be m- 
mirable in itself, it ia obvioua to obwn^ x2biX 

156 P. VlRGfLll MARONIS 

o30. At Cyrene non At non Cyrene : namque ultrd afiata tm 
dtdii $e in aUum mare. ^ate, licet tristes aniino deponere curas. 
namque aflala «/ tiraen- ^ • ^^^^^-^ ^^^^^ . ,,jn^, miserabile ! 

632. Ha?c ett omnii Cum quibus illa choros lucis agitabat m all 
«auMk morbi api^ #utt Cxitium misere apibus. Tu munera suppl 

Tende, petens pacem, et faciles venerare I 

Namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remi 

Sed, modus orandi (|ui sit, prius ordine dic 

638. Primwn dolige Quatuor eximios pra^stanti corpore tauros, 

quaiuor Qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Ly< 

640. Earum cervice Delige, et intacta totidem cervice juvencaa 
inUct&;ti^o Quatuor his aras alta ad delubra Dearum 

641. Hib viclimi» con- Constitue, et sacrum juguhs demitte cruoi 

Corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere lu 
Post, ubi nona suos aurora ostenderit ortu 
546. Tan^uam bferiaa Inferias Orphei, lethaea papavera mittes, 
^^^ Placatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caa 

£t nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revis 
648. Est haud mora * Haud mora : continud matris prsecepta 
•*'* Ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras, 

Quatuor eximios pnEStanti corpore tauros 

Ducit, et intacta totidem cervice juvencas. 

664. H)c vero aRpi- Post, ubi nona suos aurora induxerat ortu 

c«iint monsiruin subi- Inferias Orphei mitlit, lucumque revisit. 

tnm, ac mirabile diciu, Hj^. ^^^ subitum, ac dictu mirabile monsl 

Kterr' '^ "' Aspiciunt ; liquefacta boum per viscera U 

667.1mmen«asquonu- Stridere apes utero, et ruptis effervere c« 

bes earum Immensas(}ue trahi nubes ; jamque arborc 


it is introduced a little inartificially. For Lycau», This wan a mou 

it 18 not to bo Hupposed Ihat Protcus, having whero it is said, Aristfeus s 

been made a priRoner, and speakin^ by con- Eximiot : in the sensc of ' 

straint, would tell this long story to enter- 541. Dearum: theNynif 

tain AristfL*U8, who had thus offered violcncc 542. Demitte : let out 

to him. It would have been enough tbr froni their throats. 

him, to inform Aristfeus that his miHfortuncs 543. Desere: in the sen 

were occuiiiuned by the death of Eurydice, 545. Mittes: youshallo 

without relating' all the circumstances con- pies^ as a sacrihce to Or] 

noquent upon it. But it may be said, this peasc the Manes of Or 

relatiun is niure to tiie point than is usuuUy properly wcre ofierin^, c 

imagincd. Thene circumstanccs ^eatly ag- guds below for the dea< 

gravate the guilt of AristiBus, and so it was The poppy was unually o 

propcr enough, if not necessary, to rclate on such occasions, becausi 

tlicm. llowevcr the case may be, I would causc slccp, or forgetfuln 

not, says he, lose this episode to be the au> lively emblcm of death. 

thor ot all the best criticisms that were evcr froni Lethum : of Greek c 

written upon it. Subvertice: in the sense 549. Excitai' in the t 

of tuper verticem. Mouttratat: in the sense 

532. ///yi<r : hcnce, for the cause or reasons, 550. PraslarUi: in the 

which Prutcus had just mentioned. The prep. ^ is understood 

533. lila: Eurydice. Agitabut: in thc 553. Mittit : in the seni 

•enHe of diuehat. 554. Monstrum : in the ■ 

535. Tnuie: in the scnse of q/ffr. KapeB' 555. Liquefacta : in th 

mt: Nyniphs of tho groves, fro»n a Gre^k facta. 

word, Ki^iirtying a grove. Faeilet : easy to 556. Stiidere : tohumc 

Oe ap|Mjasod. in the sense of erumperem 

if39. iiumstui viridit : ihe tope of verdant 657. Trahi : to be booi 



?re. et lcnlis tivnm dcmittere ramis. 

; »i]|>er ar\'onim cultu poconimque canebnm, 

er arbonbus : CrDsar dum mngnus ad altum 560 

lat Euphratem bello, victorque volentes 

»|Hi|oe iat jura, viamque atTectat Olympo, 

irgilium nie tcmiwe dulcis alebnt ^^- Illo tompoTe dal- 

Mioi»e, studiis florentem ignobilis ott : ^ Parthenope alebata 

nn qui lusi pastonim : audaxque juvent^ 

:, te patulsc cecini sub tegmine fagi. 


Cm^turt: to coUect to|^thcr — to evor dcniolishcd it aflcrward, bccttuna it 

Dtmitlere : to han|r from the flcx- provcd an mjury to Cumct^ which ihuy built 

^hs. like a bunch of grapes. Depen- in the neighborhood. They re-built it atthe 

moHum ura^ says Kuteus. coiniiiand ofan oraclo, aiid call«*d it JWauo- 

AfftchU viam: he prepares hi» way lU^ or tho New City. Sludiis: flouriifhmg 

ven. By the «plcndor of his action», in the Btudics of inglorioua eaHC. Otium^ 

s the foundation for divinc honors. very properly dcnotcfi the peacoful, and ro- 

he aflerward receivcd by a decrce of tircd life of a philosopher: which the pot I 

natft. From this pasHafre, it ia infer- modcHtly calls irtglorious, (tgnobilis) in com* 

at Virgil continuud the carc of tlie parison of a public life. Every othor occu- 

ics as iong as ho livcd ; for tho tiine pation besides war and public afTaira, re- 

entioned waa only the ycar beforc his ceived froni thc Romans, the name of 0/t- 

At that tiine, in the year of Roine um, Or, ignobilit may here mean private, 

ufriistus was at the head of the Ro- retircd, without noise and show. Thia ia 

rniy on the banks of the Euphrates, the scnse in which Dr. Trapp undemtands 

rved PAro/r/e<, king of the Parthians, it. Ruoius 8ay8,|7rit*a/to/it. 0/iiimiBpro« 

ore the Eagles, which tliey had taken perly opposed to iabory in signilicAtioii. OH : 

'roMUs, the Ruiiiaa consul, in a for- by apocope for o/tt. 

ar. The neighboring nations, and 565. Lusi : in the sense of cectm. Jiu- 

hc Indians, awed by the splcndor of dax: in the sense of coT^mi. Virgil was 

ions, madc a voluntary submission to about twenty-nineyears of age when he be- 

gan his £cIoguei<, and finished them when 

Parlhenope: the city Naples. It he was about thirty-thrcc. Mr. Wharton 

lundcd by the Chahid&nsfs^ and by imagines theso four last lincs are spuhoui. 

Ailod Parlhtnope^ from the circum- Hu thinks the book naturally concludea 

of their Hnding the tonib of onc of with the words: Ktam^u^ ajffeetat Olympo. 

renes^ of that namc ; who, bccause For, sayn he, nothingcanbeamore complete 

s unable to allure Ulysscs on shure and Fubliinc conclusion, than this compli- 

er music, killed herself. They huw ment to Augustus. 


(t i> the subject of thi< book ^ Whcnce did they receive, according to 

r does the poet call honey atrial ? the pocts, this eztraordinary sagacity ^ 

it places are proper for placing the what was this in consideraUon of .> 

Lt direclion is giyen for recalling the "^^ " ^^^" ^^**^* interpreted > 

B, when flvin^ away ? Why was the goat transfcrred to heaTe0« 

S« practiscd^by bee^masten at the and made a constellation .> 

t day ? To whom were his homs given .' 

Lt is the eharacter of the poet^s do- What property was added to thoee i 

on of a battle between two discordant Wad the opinion of the ancients connern- 

s.' ing the production of the bee. incorrect? 

poet repreeents the leaders undcr the Is that opinion now ezplodud ? 

ition of king^: la that atrictly cor- How many kinds of boes are there in tlie 

hive i 

vhick of the eezes do they belong .' Of what sez are the Drones f 

' many diflTerent worda does the poet There is only one female bee in the hm^ 

r the hiTe .' and what is she called ? 

lat are tbey ? What is her employmont.' 

e Vtifil remarkable for thii diTersity Of what aez are tlio laboring beee? 

F^ • la the bee-hive a piece of ex^voiiitA ^KlA(i> 

fte bee a Teiy eegmeioiu anime] ? manahip ? 



What doo8 the poet emphaljcally call the 

Where waa Ihe city Canopus Bituated 7 
Hy whoin was it built 7 
Why i« it callcd Pallaian ? 
Why docB the poet rj»ll the E^yptians, 
€tm8 fortunata? 

Whero doca tlie Ni?e take its rise ? 
What ifi thc cun^e of ite nrerflowing 7 
What coursc doe6 it run 7 

^j how many moutha does it empty ? 

\Vhat docK it form towards ita mouth ? 

Eiow is thc wator of the Nile conducted 
to the diiFercnt parts of Egypt ? 

How high must it rise for that purpose ? 

If it fall short of that, what is expectcd ? 

What did the Romanii call any people 
living in a hot climate ? 

In what soMse may the Nile be said Xo 
haTo prcsscd upon the borders of Persia? 

Who was AristiBus ? 

What is the charocter of thia epieode re- 
specting him ? 

la tho production of the bee, aa here re- 
lated, fabulouB? 

Who was Proteus? 

What property did he posten in an emi- 
oent dogiee ? 

Wliere ia he said to have had hia place of 
reeidcnce ? 

Whom does Herodotot make him ? 

Whom doae Sir laaae Newton eooaider 

With whom. waa he contei 
How is Protcus represente 

How many opinions wer 
tlie ancients of the origin of 

What were they 7 

Oy what distinguished ph 
tlieHc diiferent opinions inuir 

Which opinion does Virgl 
What was thit grand resc 
tacle callcd ? 

Why wero the epithote 
Comutut sometimes given t 

What it said of the river 

Whence aroto the fable 

Who waa Orpheut ? 

What is taid of the mutic 

What efTect had it upon 
low ? 

What efiect had it upon I 

Why did he detcend to 
Pluto ? 

What wat the istuo of it 

What wat the probable or 
of Charon and his boat ? 

What doet Dr.Trapp obw 
thit epitode of Arittasut ? 

It there reaton to believe 
tinued to revite hit Georgio 

What ia that reaK>D ? 


B iEneid is a heroic, or epic poem. It takes its name from iEneaa, the 
r Anchises and Venus. By his fatherjie was allied to the royal family oi' 
Ile was also the son-in-law of Priara ; whose daughter, Creusa, he had 
ed. ^Eneas is the hero of the poem. Its subject is his rcmoval into 
with a colony of Trojans, and their setllement in that country. 
^il was forty years of age when he commenced the iEneid. Ile had just 
sd the Georgics: and Augustus, now thirty-three years old, had undis* 
J possession of the Roman empire. And nothing appeared to interrupt 
niversal repose, so desirable afler tlie long civil wars that had desolated 
irest nortions of it. It was at this moment, when the mmds of the Roman 
e were turned from the desolating scenes of war to the niilder arts of 
\ that the poet conceived the plan of writing tlie iEneid, a poem second 
to thc Iliad, for the entertaimnent and instruction of his countrymen. 
i are s(»me, who think the principal object of the poet was to flatter tlie 
arid vanity of the Roman people., and especially Au^ustus« who was ncw 
I to the hi^hest temporal power. 

is [>art of his works is by far the noblest, though not thc most perfect and 
ed. It was his intention to have revised it before he publishcd it to the 
; but he died leaving it incomplete, as appears by sevcral impcrfect lines 
in different parts of it. Hc bequeathed the whole to Augustus, who put 
lanuscript into the hands of Tucca and Varus for publicatiun, with an 
:tic»n not to alter, in any way, the manuscript, nor to fill up tiie imperfect 

the first six book&, Virgil imitates the Odyssey of Homer ; in tlie last six, 
iows the Iliad ; and it is probable that we should not have had the iEneid, 
had not, at the same time, the Odyssey and the Iliad also. Homer may 
»xisidered the master., Virgil tiie pupil ; but it must, at thc same time, be 
•wledired, that the Roman excelled the Grecian in many instances, par^ 
rly in propriety and judgment. 

ris, the son of Priam, an accomplished prince, visited the court of Mene- 
by wiioin he was received with the greatest cordiality. Herc he l)ecame 
tured with the beautiful Helen, tlie wife of his host, and conceived the 
»ur[»c>se of taking her with him to Troy. Taking advantage of the absence 
r husliand, he put his pian into execution. This atrocious decd excited 
leral indignation through the states of Greece; and, afier sending an 
?sy to Troy upon the snbject, to no purposc, it was determined, as the 
efMirt, to declare war against Priam, and witii tlie united forces of the 
mn priuces, to avenge the perfidious act. 

jer a Mege of ten years, the city vvas taken by stratagem, and rased to the 
mJ. iEn^aSf in the fatal night, afler performing prodigies of ^«lVv)!^ t^VKi^ 



aome distance from the city, beuring his agcd futher upon his sho 
leading his llttic son by the hand. He was followed by grejt nurr 
eountrvinen, who hud escu[>ed the flames and the sword. At A 
Hinull town in the neighboi:hood of Troy, he built him a fleet of tw 
and huving furnished liimself with all things ncccssary for his eiitcTp 
in aearch of u new S3ttiement. He visitcd Thrace. Here lie fim 
which he callcd JEnos, He abandoned his undertaking at the dire 
ghost of his friend. Thence he sailed to Crete, the laiid of Teucer^ 
fuundeis of the Trojan race. Here he attempted a settlement, bul t 
unheulthiness of tiie ciimate, was compelled to relinquish it, afler lofl 
numbur of \\\s (;om[)anions. In the midst of his distress, he is iai 
vision, tliat [t:ily, tiie birth place of Dardunus, was the land dcstino 
tiie go !s. rpoii this information he lefl Crete; and, after various 
sea m\d iand, lio arrived in Ituly in atx)ut seven years after his dep 
hisnative iaiid. He was lcindly received by Latinus, king of Laiim 
posed to bcstow upon him his daughter Lavinia, the heiress of h 
rurnus, king of tlic Rutvlij a brave and vaiiant prince, had iongsc 
marriage. ilc op|K)sed her connexion with iEneas. This occasion 
war, in wliich mosl of tiie Italian princes were engaged, on one 
other. It ended in tlie deuth of Turnus, whicii closes the iEneid. 

iGneus uflerwards mnrried Lavinia, and succeeded Latinus in Yi 
He built a city, whicii he caiied Laviniumj in honor of his wife. T 
the seat of his government. He was succeeded by Ascanius, or 
reigned tliirty years, wiien he built Alba longay to which he remo 
court. Here the govemment was administered by a line of Trojai 
three hundred years, tiil Romuius arose, who founded the city of R< 
Romuliis, the royal line was broken, and the govemment transferr 
Pom|)iiius, a Subiiie. 

Tlie three lirst books ire not arranged in the order of time. 
book, wliich reiates the downfall of Troy, and is the basis of the ) 
first in time. The third, which relates ihe voyage of iEneas, 
departure from Sicily for Itaiy, follows. The first, which relatef 
9ion of his fiect, and his arrival in Africa, with his kind recepti 
Bucceeds the tliird. The rest are all in the order of time. But 
90 far froni bcing a defect in the poem, is an advantage, an< 
judgment of tiie poet. Ile was enabied tiiereby to make his he 
downfail of his country, and the various fortunes of his long 

Tae poet hath contrived to introduce into his poem the outline 
man history, and a number ol interesting episodes, which add f 
beauty and entertainment. 

Fur furtlier particulars, see the introduction to the several booli 


What Kind of poem is the iEneid? 

Who 18 tlie Iiero of it? 

What is its subject? 

Whal was ihe age of Virgil, i^hen he be- 
gan the iEiicid f 

^iow long was he engaged in it f 

Who was thnn at tlie head of the Roman 
empire f 

Wliat was the state of that empire ? 

What probably was the principal object 
of the puct in writing the JEnexdi 

Do sonie BUppose a dilterei 
In what light may the A 
aidered, in rogard to the Iliac 
Did Virgil live to perfect t 
To whom did he bequeath 
Unc^er whose inspection wa 
What gave rise to the Tro 
How long was the city boa 
What was the issue of the 
What did JRnotM do in thc 
From what place did he se 


^ 17 ■hiiM had he ? What wai the eoneequence ? 

Wh ai plaoe did he fint Tudt? What wai the ieeue of the war/ 

Whal eitj did he foimd there ? What did he do aflerwarda ? 

To what plaoe did he nezt eail ? Did he build a city ? 

Wbjr did he ^ to CroCe? What did he call it? 

*^ ' befel him there ? Who succeeded him in the guTernment 

Crete, to what place did he direct What city did Aecaniue afterwarde boild ? 

How long did it continue to be the leal 
elapeed before he arriyed of the govemment ? 
Italy ? Do the booke of the £nied follow eMh 

Whj wae he directed to go to Italy ? other in the ordcr of time ? 

ov wae he reeeiyed bj Latinuey What booke aro not placed in thia ordet? 

"^ ' prinoe oppoeed hie connezion with Did thie afford the poel any adyaaUgo' 
tho daughter of Latinoa f 





Book ia eoiMidered one of the fineit and the mott perfect of the Aaeid. Iti fabjeeti 
Um eeoae of Jiino*i resentment being premited, it openi leyen yean after tlio 
—■hiifkirion of iEneea. He had now arriyed in the Tuecan loa, and wai in lught of 
luJj ; when Jnno, to ayenge herielf upon the Trojans, repaired to JEolus, and bj fair 
pffninieei, prerailed upon him to let looae his winds. They ruth forth in every direction, 
mmd caaee a Tiolent lempest; which diBperted the Trojan fleeU It sunk one thip, and 
drow ■ereral othera on the thore. Neptune arauaget the tumult of the waves, aiid 
c a B B M a calm. HaTing leyerelj rebuked the winds for invading hii doininionji withouf 
bie permieeion, he aantts in getting off the thips. 
4flar this, Aneas directs his course southward, and arrives on the coast of AfKca. Vonus 
eooiplains to Jupiter of the hardship of her son, and prajs that on end maj be put to 
hie sufferings. Whereupon, he sends Mercurj to procure him a kind reception among 
thm Carthaginians. In the mean time, iEneas walks abroad to make some discoverios 
of tlie eountrj, aocompanied bj Achatee. Venus, in the form and attire of a virgin 
liaBtrass, presents herself to him. Upon his inquirj, she informs him to what countrj 
1m had arrived, what were the inhabitants, their manners, and customs. She also gives 
him a brief aocount of Dido, and of the settlement of the countrj; and, veilod in a 
clood« sbe eonducts him to the citj. Passing through the crowd unseen, he goes to the 
tfluple. Here he finds his oompanions, whom he ezpected to be losU Here he sees 
Dido, and is struck with her majestj and grace. Bj a device of Venus, she concoives 
■ paeeion for him; which, in the end, proves her ruin. 

poet hath introduced several interesting episodos; particularlj the description of 
Carthnge, the repreeentation of the Trojan battlos, the soug of lopas, &c. The book 
eoaelades, teaving Dido inquiring conceming Priam, snd the Trojan heroes; concern- 
iBf Achilles and Diomede ; conceming^ tho Trojan disasters, the stratagems of the 
GnaibB, aad the Toyage of iEneas. These form the subject of the two following 

ARMA, nnuiique cano, Trojie qiii primuB ab oris !• Qui profugns fhto, 

fkto profugus, Lavinaque venit P""?"". ^•"\^ *** ^* 

multibn ille et terrii jactatua et alto, ^~J* "• ***^"" 


1. Ftnm.* ff iteni the hero of the poem. to Phrjgia, snd founded this citj m eon- 

ir^ properlj aignifiee a man, as distin- junction with TVucer, whose daughter he 

Irom a womaa; also, the male of married. It was also called Teucria^ fhun 

speriee or kind, ae djstingnished from Teucer. 

finBaie. TVmc: Troj, onoe a famous 2. Profugtu faio : driven — impellod bj 

of Phrjgia Minor, in the Lesser Asia ; fate. ^neas lefl his countrj at the direo- 

eailed from TVes, one of its kings. It tion of the gods ; and under their conduct, 

somefiines ealled Htum, iJtet, or //ton, ho canie to Italj, and settled in Latinm 

//!»• theson of Tros; Z>anlainttf, iVom This circumstance the poet turas to the 

r,thegrand-father »fTros. Having honor of ^neos and the Ronians, whom he 

hie bffntjEer Janus, he fled from Italj makes to descend from him. Laonina: va 


5. Et paMui eti mul- Vi Superdm, saevns memorcm Jnnonid ob i 
ta quoque Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet 

Infcrretque Deos Latio : genus unde Latinu 

Albaniciue patres, utque altte moenia Rom». 

H. O Musa, jiieniora Musa, mihi causBS memora : quo numine 

raihi cautias earwn re- Quidvc dolens rcgina DeOm tot volvere caan 

'■""* _ .. , Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores, 

n. *L?rr T„'i.w«l' Impulerit. Tantaene animis coelestibus ine ) 

DJ toiiuere, Cyartnaffo i. , /• • m •• i • 

nomifu, contra Italiam, Urbs anliqua fuil, Tyrn tenuere coloni, 

'i'ibcrinaque ostia loug^ Carthago, Italiam contra, Tiberinaque lonj|[« 


adj. trom Larinium^ a city built by Aueas; ceeded his father, lefl Lavinii 

ao called trom Lavinia^ the daughter of La- built Alba Longa, mado it f 

»inu8, whom he married. It was situated govcrnmcnt. This city gav 

about ci^iit milcs from the shore, in lat. mulus, who founded the citi 

41" 40' ii(»rth, and long. 13° 10' east from Albana may therofore be caj] 

London. of tho Romans. Albani mi 

4. Ob memorem iram : on account of the adj. or a aub. 
laating rcscntment of cruel Juno. Juno 8. Q^uo munine lato: wha 

was Ino daughter of Satum and Opa, and jured — what god ^Lad he ii 

thc sister and wife of Jupitcr. She waa in the sense of eur, Dolem 

bom, somc say at Argos, but othcm say at ofoffenta. Rueus interpreti 
Samos. She was jealous of hcr husband, 9. yobotre eatu» : to stru 

and implacable in ail her resentiiients. She fortunos as with a load. Ri 

was enraged against Paris, Uic son of Priam, in the sonse of tw/t-t eatibut; 

because he adjudgcd the prize of boauty, more poctical to take the ve 

which was a goldcn apple, to Venus, ratlior voice. Volvere imports labo 

than to licrself. From tliat momcnt, she liko a person rolling a gre 

became a bittcr encmy to the whole Trojan river bearing down before i 

race, and cvcn to Veuus herself. Not con- yohere eatut then represen 

tent witli tlie subversion of the kingdom iutely going forward, and ri 

of Priam, she usud her endcavor to dcstroy all difficulties and dangers; 1 

tJie feu', who oscaped tlie sword aiid tlie would show him overcome 

flamcs. by misfortunos. But this i 

Junu had sumptuous temples dedicatcd of the poot. 
to hcr in various placcs. Among the chief 10. Adire. This verb pr 

may bo rcckoncu her temples at Argos, Sa- to brave dangers — to look a 

nios, aiid Carthage. The hawk, the gooso, face — to undcrtake any tl 

and thc pcacock wcre sacrcd to hcr. Va- Laboret^ probably refcrs t 

rious names were given hcr, chiefly on ac- hardships which ^neas und 

couut of hcr oifices, and the placcs whcre arrival in Italy ; while eati 

she was worshipped; some of which are tlio toils, dangers, and mif 

thc following : Saturnia, Olympia, Samia, he passed through on his Wi 

Argiva, Laccdaemonia, Lucma, Pronuba, puJerit : forced, or uoomed. 
Sospita, and Ophegena. 12. 7)frii: an adj. from ' 

6. UiUle Latinum genut: hence (arose) Phcsnicia, on the shore of 
Ihe Latin race. nean. Hodie^ Sur, 

Ilcro is some difficulty. Tho Latins From this city, a colony i 

could not spring from iEneas; for he found ca undcr Xorus and Carchf 

them in Italy on his arrival. Some refer at Utica : aflcrwards Did( 

the word wule to Latium^ taking the mean- her wealth, and a great 

ing to bo : from which country sprung the countrymen, and founded, i 

Latin race. Servius would explain it Uius : fortified Carthage. See A 

iEneas, having overcomo all opposition, and eoloni : a Tyrian colony. 

being seated on the throne of Latinus, in- bited — held. 
■teaj of changing tlie Latin name, as he 13. Tiberina: an adi. 

might havo donc, in right of his conqucst, name of a river of Itafv. 

incorporated his Trojans along witli his sub- Appenines, and running m 

J0ots under the general nainc of Latins, so dircction, falls into the Mc 

ihat he might not improporly bo callcd tlie A few milcs above its mo 

'^ of the Latin race. aflerwards built. It is the 

iique patret, Ascanius^ who suc- sizc in Italy. 

iENEIS. L(B. I. 


res onum, studiisque aspemma belli : 
mo fertur terris magis umnibus unara Ui 

iSt cotuisse Samo. Hic illius arma, 
its fuit : hoc regnum Dea gentibus esse, 
ta flinant, jam tum tenditque fovetque. 
m sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci 
, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces. 
>ulum late regem, belloque superbum, 
n excidio Libyre : sic volvere Parcas. 
ns, veterisque memor Saturnia belli, 
lod ad Trojam pro charis gesserat Ai^is. 
etiam causse irarum, snevique dolores 25 

nt animo. Manet alta mente rcpnstum 
I Pandis, spretceque injuria formie, 
invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores. 
nsa super, jactatos equore toto 


21 . ^ndierat popnlum 
20 roffeni lat^ et sup«rbaiD 
beTlo, vciituruin tue hifio 
excidio LibyoB : audierai 
Parcas volvere Kic. 8a- 
turnia mctuens id, me- 

i29. Arcebat lon^d & 
Latio Troas, relliquiaa 
Danaum, atque immitui 
Achillei, jaetatos toto 
osquore : actique fatin 

t» opum: abounding in wealth. 
erly eijrnifies powcr acquired by 
ttperima^ &c. Dedita shidiis belli, 
ne. Carthage was situated in 
ar where Tunis now stands. The 
ians wcre a verr commercial poo- 
y planted colonies in various parts 
% and widcly eztended their con- 
^or a long time, they disputod with 
ns the empire of the world. Thcy 
e, and much devoted to the study 
s of war. See /En. iv. 1. 
tm una^H Juno: which one city, 
ported t^ have loved more than all 
imo pottK.ibita : S^mos being less 
or set by. Samos is an island in 
n i«ea, ovcr against Ephcsus. Here 
brought up and married to Jupiter. 
had a most splendid temple. 
t Jnm tum ref^.ium: the goddess 

both intcnded and cherishcd (the 
) jt would become the ruler ovcr 
II»— -would be the capital of the 
tuKus interprets Hoe regnum gen- 
Ita imperat poputit, Heyne takes 
I in tne sense of eapul imperii ter^ 
Currus. Juno had two kinds of 
one in which she was wafted 
:he air by peacockp, the othcr for 
rn by horscs of colestial breed. 
t are licre mcant. 
m .* hereaf\cr. 

vtUtim^ &c. (She had hcard) that 
)f eztensive sway, and renownod 
lould comc hcnce to the deMtruc- 
Lybia. Regem is plainly in the 
Tgentem^ vcl dominanttm. Ruirus 
ereidio Lufria^ by, per eladem Ly^ 
ringr by thc deftlruction of Car- 
» eliicf rity of Africa, Rome would 
lowcrful and renowned in war. 

I have given is evidcntly in tha 
tbe poet, and the best. lUnc : 
(Hn Trojan blood. 

22. Parea» : tho fatcs. See Ecl. iv. 47. 

23. Metuent id. In tho long and bloodj 
war which the Greeks capricd oii atraiiiBt 
Troy, Juno took a very active part, aiid ez- 
erted all her power in favor of tho Greeks, 
and shc feared she should be again involved 
in a similar contest with the Trojan racc,in 
favor of her beloved Carthage. The id re- 
fers to the whole preceding sentcnce. vlr- 
git. Argos was one of the chief cities of 
Greece. Hero J:mo had a particular resi* 
dence : put, by synec. for Greece in goneral. 

24. Prima : an adj. agreeing with ISatur' 
nia, It appears to bo used here in the sense 
of prineept^ the chief or principal in the 

25. Doloret: grief — rcsentment. Rusua 
BtiyB^ indigntuto. Sari: cruel — unrclenting. 

27. Judxctum Paridit: tlie judgmcnt, or 
decision of Paris. Sce versc 4, supra, and 
nom. prop. undcr Paris. Rephttum : bysyn. 
for repotitum, Forma : beauty. Ir^uria * 

28. Oenut invitum. In addition to the 
decision of Paris, Juno hated the Trojane 
on account of Dardanus, one of thc found- 
ers of tlieir race. He was the son of Ju- 
piter and Electra, the daughter of Atlas. 
AU hcr husband^s iliegitimate children wero 
thc objects of her bittcr resentiuent. Ho- 
noret rapti Ganymedit : the honors of (ton- 
fcrrcd upon) stolcn Ganymede. The offi* o 
of cup-bearer to the gods was takcn froin 
Hcbc, the daughtcr of Juno, and conferrud 
upon Ganymcde, a beautiful youth, the sou 
of Tro5, king of Troy. Hc was takcn up 
to hcaven by Jupitor iii tho form of an cagle, 
whcn he was upon niount Ida. This was 
another causc of her resentment. 

29. Acctnta tnper hit : iiiflaincd ot these 
thin^s ; namcly, the amour of hcr huKband 
with Eloctra, thc honors confcrred upoQ 
Ganymede, and tho docision of Par\« va 
favor of VcQUff TUe foM ^C vVie. ^M\.\it» 


Troas, relliquias Danadni atque iminitis AcU 
Arcebat longc Latio : multosc|ue per annofl 
Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum. 
S3. Condere Roma- Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem 
Bam gontein, erat optu vix e conspectu Sicul» telluris in aitum 

35. yix^Tntttni lcti ^^** dabant laeti, et spumas salis BEjre ruebftnt 

4abaiit vela ^*^m Juiio, Kternum servans sub pectore vul 

37. Volvebat haec ae- Hoic secum : Mene incepto desistere victaiiii 

«vm : Me-ne yictam Nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ' 

Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere clasaei 
Argivilm, atque ipsos potuit submergere ponl 
Unius ob noxam, et furias Ajacis Oilei ? 


aestruction of hor favorite Carthage, and the doei not ask a question, it eil 

recollection of her past war, in which she tivoparticle, orezprosseaeomi 

had encountered so many difRcultics, do not or condition of an action. 

appear the only cause of her procodure. 38. Teucrorvm. The Troja 

They contributod, no doubt, with the other timos called TeuerU fi^m TVm 

particulars just mentioned, to increase the founders. See note 1. supr 

flame in her breast. Teuerorum we are to understi 

30. Jlehiltei: gen. of Achilles. He was seems now to be the purpoi 

the son of Peleus, king of Thossaly, and prevent the settlement of t 

Thetis, a geddess of the sea. Whilehewas Italy; and by that means, < 

an infant« his mother dipped him all over in purposes of the gods concen^ 

the river Styx, to render him invulnerable, grandeur and power; to desli 

except tlie heel by which she held hiin. He ly, if it be possible, and dispc 

was concealod among the daughters of Ly- the deep. To this end, f 

comcdes, king of the island of Seyros^ in iEolus to raise a tempest on 

female apparel, that he might not go to the most likely way to effect her 

•ioge of Troy. While thore, he doflowered 40. jirgivihn : for Argim. 

Deidamia^ one of the princesses, who bore properly the citizens of A\ 

him Pyrrhns. He was, however, discovered tynec, put for the Groeks in 

by UlysMcs, and aflerward went to Troy. part of them. Here it mean 

He slcw Hector in single combat, and drew who, with Ajax, their king, r 

his dead body, bchind hiB chariot, scven from Troy, were shipwreck> 

tiuios around the walla of Troy, in revenge struck by Pallas with a t 

for his friond PatrocluB, whoni Hector had having ravished Cassandra, i 

■lain in battle. And he was hiniself slain Priam, in the temple of Palli 

by Paris, with an arrow, which pierced his gives us a dificrent account. 

heel, while he was in the temple of Thym- Ajaz was drowned by Nepti 

brian Apolio. He is sometimes called Pe- impiously boasted that he w 

/i(/et, from Peieus his father : also ^aeide*^ dangers of the sea, even agi 

from his grand-father ^acus. He is rcpre- the gods. 

■ented to have beon of a cruel and vindictive The Greektf are sometimc 

temper, but at the sanio time, very brave. from Danaut^ one of their k 

33. Molis: magnitudo — labor — difHcuIty. colony from Egypt into G 

34. Sicula: an adj. from Sicilia. Sicily his services and talents, w; 
ii tlie largest island in thc Moditorranean, estimation through all the < 
Ving to the south of Italy, and separated 41. Ajacis Oilei, There w 
(rom it by the straits of Messina. at the siege of Troy, by thc 

35. fSlre : with the brazen prow. The The one hero meant was th* 
beaks of tlieir ships were of brass, or over- king of the Locrians. He ' 
laid with brass. — Dabant: sproad. ships against Troy. The 

36. Fulnus atumum: a lasting resent- son of Talomon king of Sa 
mout. The same as memorem tram, verse iv. in the Sintu Saronieut^ betv 
mipra, Seroant : feeding, cherishing. the Morea, or Teloponnesni 

37. Me-ne vielam: shall I overcome, de- fell upon his own sword,bee 
«■t from my purpose, nor be able, &c. — Me of Achilles was adjudged t 
wietam : the acc. afYer the verb volvebat, or than to himself. Jioxam ei 
■ome othor of the like import, understood. both refer to the crime coi 
JVe, when joined to a verb, is generally inter- upon Caasandra. He ofibra 
■Vfalivey w in the prewmt oaM. When it during the Mick of Tio/. 

iENEia UB. I. 18T 

b rmfiiiluiii jaeuktt e nubibus igneni, 

je rmleBi e? ertiique equore ventif : 

Mimnteni tninsfixo pectore flmmmaa 

M>iTipuit, scopuloque infixit acuto. 46 4ft. TnrbiM oonipmli 

qua DiTdm inoedo regina, JoTisque ***■■* ««pirtmtim flai» 

et conjuz, un& cum gente tot annos "*** 

o : et quisquam numen Junonis adoret 

, aut Bupplex aris imponat honorem? 

Immmmto secum Dem corde Yolutans, £0 

D in pmtrimm, loca fcetm fiirentibufl Austria, 

^enit. Hic Tmato rex iEolua mntro ^ Hk wkMM m m 

I TentoB, tempeetmteaque aonorma ^^ tntfo pt^ut i»- 

)remit, mc ▼mciia et cmroere firenmt. *^ *^^ 

imntes mmgno cum murmure montis 66 

Imustrm fi^unt Cels& sedel iEolus arce, 

enens ; moliitque animos, et temperat irms. 

mmrim mc terrms coelumque profimdum 68. Qaippo, ni fkeimt 

srmnt rmpidi secum, verrmntque per murms. •*• *^ rapidi foroal m- 

' omnipotens speluncis abdidit mtris, 60 ^^^ ni^n^ 

jens: roolemque et montes insuper mltos 

; regemque diiBdit, qui foedere certo ^ Q>^ Jiimiio ooiiol 

fre, et Imzms sciret dmre jussus habenas. ^ ^nmm eot eerlo fio- 

lum Juno supplex his vocibus usa esl : j^^|^ ^^ ^^ 

amque libi Divbm pater atque hominum rex 66 
re dedit fluctus, et toUere ▼entoi) 


jmemimia, Boddo Joto, ooyonl of for wind in i^oaonl : tho ipeeut fbr tks 

ond OoddoMoo oould hurl tho gemu. 

■ beoTen. Hero Polloo is laid to 52. InJEoliamvemi: oho oomo into«Co- 

lum Ihe ahipe of Ajoz, to drown ito, the coontrjr of itonno. 

t, and to pierco hio breool with o The iEoIion ielonds oro oovon in nnmbor^ 

lil^tning. sitUBted between Itoljr ond Sicily on tho 

tineede: I who wolk Iho Queen ^^^ They wero ■ometimoicoUed r«/wim» , 

<U, ond bolb tho oioter ond wife ^^ HephaHiadet. pim chief of wbich oro 

Enr on wor, ke. Lipara^ Hiera^ and SirongSfle. Hore £oluo 

. _ ., \ .. _. . . . tho oon of Hippotoo reigned. He is soid to 

?^ "^^iJ^^J A^^T haveinyented .S.,ond to hove been ogmol 

r. k with digmty, ond in rtate: ^^„^„er, and obsorTor of tho win8Z- 

toiealtqua amlnUare : ond is pro- j, ^^ ' ^^^ him the god of Ihs 

.ed lo persons of ronk, and dis- ^j^^, HoiTr teU. u. that he gave to Ulyo. 

^^'^^^^'^ 00. aU tho windo, that oould impedo hk 

ierea: beude— in addition to tho course to Ithaca, confinod in o bog; bal 

read jgiTon. If I .hall .how my- thal hi. companion., oul of curiosity , untiod 

5 to eflbct my pnrpose, and saUate jt, and let oul all the adTorso winds. 

;»--if I shall let them alone: who 54. Pnenai: ho curb. or govems. Tkio 

'-, «c. — ffofioran, m the senoo of i, ^ metaphor taken from the rider, who mo* 

nages hi. .teed. Imperio: power, authorily. 

olo of thi. speech of Juno is oni* 61. Molem ei aiiot moniet: for moiemaiiO' 

U of pride and haughtiness. If rum wumiium^ by hendiodis : the woighl of 

loddeso of inibrior honor, dignity, lofty mountains. This mode of ozp-oorioo 

', eould destroy the fleet of Ajaz, is irequont with VirgiL— /fuo|pfli ia Ihs 

foUowers, ond kill their leader ; Mnse of jnwierek, 

'bo om both the sister and wife 63. Premere : in tho senso of 

m oblo to deotroy theoo few ftigi- Jtutut: oommonded by Joto. Horo ■piB 

■0, ond thoir king. i. o metaphor takon firom tho ridor : Om9 

Crit furenHbm: ploooo pregnanl laxat habenat: to giTO loooo rotiio Is hH^^ 

Bo wmds. Autier properly signi- the horso go ol iW spood. JWwox kmtm^tM 

lih «ind; bnt il ftoqoontly io pul rulo. *i^^| 


Gens inimicR mihi Tyrrhenum naTigat cquor 
Ilium in Italiam portans, victosque Penaies» 
Incute vim ventia, aubmersaaque obrue pupp« 
70. Aut age eot tn \^i ^ge diversas, et disjice corpora ponto. 
4iwmMjMrie#, et . g^j^^ ^^^^^ j^jg septem pnestanti corpore Nym 

72. Quarum lunfiram ^ /• a i ■ A .. • 
HH ■Ubili connSbio Q"»'^'»^ q?« fo™^ H?*^'™^ I>«'^^P«^ 
Dciopeiiun, quc at pul- Connubio jungam stabili, propnamque dicati 

eherrinia eantm omnium Omncs ut tecum meritis pro talibus annos 
forma, dicaboque eam Exigat, et pulchr& fiiciat te prole parontem. 
propriam; ut exigat om- ^^j^^ j,^ ^^^^^ . .f „ 5 regVMi, quid 
nes annoB v^ 1 11 •■ • • • ^ 

76. ContriL iEolui r«- Explorare labor : mihi jussa capesaere fiis ei 

pondU hec : O regina, Tu mihi, quodcunque, hoc regni, tu sceptra, 
tuue labor est Concilias : tu das epulis accumbere Divflm, 

78. Tu conciliaa mihi Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potente: 

irf^ "^^17^'*''""*^''* ^^^ "^^ ^*^^^ ^^""^ ^"^«"^ cuiipide m 
Sl.^UbT' hiBc dicta Inipulit in latus ; ac venti, velut agmine fact< 
MiNl,* impulit cayum Qua data porta, ruunt, et ierras turbine perf 
montem in latui Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis 

84. Incubuere mari u^a Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque p: 
Eaniaque noiuwjuo Af- Afncus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctiia. 
ncosquo creber procclus, T •? , -^ ^ - t jm 

im&que ruunl totum Insequitur clamurque virflm, stndorque nide 

mtm Eripiunt subit6 nubes ccclumque, diemque, 

Teucrorum ex oculis : ponto noz incubat at 
Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus etiM 
Praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem 
ExtempI6 iEneae solvuntur frigore membr 
Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad sidera palmt 
Talia voce refert : O terque quaterque beati 


67. 7)prhenum mare, That part of tho bc. Serviusthinkenomore ie 
Mediterranean betwecn the inlands of Cor- lus* rccciving hifl kingdom an 
rica, Sardinia, and Siciiy, was called the Juno, than tltat ^ thc wind* a 
Tuecan Soa. motion ; which is aomctimes 

68. Ilium : Troj ; by meton. for the }iO. Potcniem : thc present 
Trojans — those that survivcd the catastro- eubstantivc: rulcr of storms i 
phe of thc city. Soc note 1. supra. — Pena' 82. Agmine facto : in a fo 
te» : eee Gcor. 2. 505. — or a battalion being fom 

69. Incute rim : add forcc to your winds, ho struck. 

and OYorwhelm their ships sunk in thesca. 84. Incubuere: the perf. i 

71. Pra^tanti: in the scnse o£ pulehro, thc pros. thei/ rest upon, • 

73. Dicabo propriam : I will consecrate 87. Rudenium : in the seni 
her (to be) your own — ^your peculiar pro- 90. Poli. Polus is propcr 
perty. This passage is in imitation of Ho- thc heavcns, called the polo. 
mer. Iliad 14. *30\. for tho wholc heavens. Poh 

77. Labor : conccm — business. — F(u «/, thundcrcd. — Ifpiibus : lighti 
fai the Bcnse of aquum est. in the scnse of aer. 

78. Tu conciticu^ 6iG. Th^ meaning of the 92. 3olruntur : shudder — 
passagc appears to be : I owe to thy favor Duplices : in thc sense of an 
and kind otficcs the empire of the winds, and 93. Ingemuit: he groaned. 
tlie powcr and authority of a kin^, which thc fcar ofdcath absolutely < 
thou didHt obtain of Jovo fpr me. Throu^h at tho prospect of dying an ir 
tliy favor also, I sit at the tablc of the gods. among the waves. 

Both duty and gratitudo, thereforc, impcl 94. Refrrt : he says, or pr 

■le to coiiiply witli your rcquest, to do thy like words. O terque^ mu 

eonimands. — Refrni: pm. sing.govemedhy Siinply: O thrico happy the 

koe, It In bftst tranKJatod as if it wcre of the happcned to die before the fa 

MLnie case with hoe, Coneitias hoc repnu &c. mode of expression detiotcfl tl 

f ua procure for me thii power, whatever it of felicity. Or, if we eupp^ 


Queia ante ora patrum^ Trojs sub moenibus altis, 95 9^^ q f jdide tbrtii»- 

Contigit oppetere ! 6 Dana^m fortissime gentis Bime gontis Dan&<iin. 

Tydide., mene Iliacis occumbere campis men^ non potuiim) oc- 
Non potuisse ? tuaque animam hanc effundere dextriL ? cumbcre lliac» 

SiBvus ubi iEacidaj telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens ^.^'^{^ u^dif ^^^0^1' 

8arpedon : ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis 100 galeMque" e*t ^0111^^»* 

Scuta virdm, galeasque, et fortia corpora volvit. pora viram 

Talia jactanti stridens Aquiione procella 102. Procella stridene 

Felum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera tollit. f* aquilone, advorsa lUi 

Fianguntur remi : tum prora avertit, et undis ^J^"^ ^**' ^^"* ^«- 

l>at latus : insequitur cumulo prseruptus aquae mons. iq^^ Notus torquet 

Hi summo in fluctu pendent : his unda dehiscens 106 troe naves abreptae in 

Terram inter fluctus aperit : furit a&stus arenis. latentia saxa, Ula aaza, 

Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet ; ?»» '^^ ™e<*"« flucUbua, 

Saza, vocant ItaU, mediis que in fluctibus Aras, ^^* -^^^^^l 5'^"' ^«^, 

w^ ' . ' . ^ m rt t 1. - ^^ rum imniane doraura «/ 

Dorsum unmane man summo. Tres Eurus ab alto 1 10 ^^ Bummo mari. Eurui 
1n brevia et syrtes urgeL, miserabile visu ; orget tres naves ab altn 


■trophe to those, who ftll on the plains of used with this discrimination. Jactamt . 

Troy, fighiing for their country, we may in tbo sense of dicentu 

render it: O Sirice happy ye, to whom, &c. 103. Advena: an adj. aproeing with pnh' 

This last is tho more animated and poetical. cella, Aa iEncaa was steering toward Italy, 

TJie formcr is tlie sensc of Rueus. a north wind would be in his f ace, or against 

97. Tydide, Diomede, thc son of Tydeus, him. 

king of £tolia. He was woundod by Alne- 105. IntequUur. Nothing can czceed tliis 

as in a combat. Me^ne potuisse : ihe acc. picture of a roUing billow. It follows («e- 

afler the verb refert^ or some other of the quitur) rolling along, constantly on the in- 

•ame import, undcrstood: whj could I not crease, (eumuio) till itbccomcs a brokcn and 

have fallen on tiie Trojan plains? &c. rugged mountain of wator: pratruptut nunu 

98. f^jfundert: in the sense of aint//a'e. — aqute, 

Jmtet : lies slain. 107. Aperit terram, So high did the 

99. Stanu Heetor : valiant Hector. He waves roll, that between them the sand or 
vms the son of Priam and Hecuba, and the bottom of the sea appcared visiblc. Thia 
bravest of all the Trojans. He was at last may not appear incredibie, whon it is con • 
alain by AcIuUos, and his dead body drawn sidcrcd that they wero ncar shore, apd on 
behind his chariot around the walls of Troy, shallows. Dehiteen* : opcning. Uuceus in- 
and ihe tomb of Patrochu^ wliom Hector tcrprets unda^ by mare, ACstus : the tide, 
had slain some time before. It was aflcr- or current. 

wania ransomed by Priam at a grcat price, 108. Saxa, These rocks are generaliy 

and honorably buried. JEacidat: AchiUcs. siipposed to be the AHgatts^ three Islands 

See note 30. supra. not far from the westem prouiontory of Si- 

100. Sarpedon, He was the king of Ly- ciiy, whcre the Romans and Carthaginians 
cia, and came to the assistance o£ Priam. — made a treaty, which endcd thc first Punic 
He ww slain by Patroclus. It is said that war. Thcy reccived tho nanie of altars<t 
he was the son of Jupttcr by Laodamia. from tho oaths that wero then made by the 

Simois : a river in Troas, rislng out of contracting partics. Tiicre is a diiFicuIty in 

Mount Ida, and flowing into the Scamman- tliis interpretation. For it is Faid thcir huge 

4«r, and with it into the Hellespont, near back was in the surfacc of tho watcr, and 

thepromontory of Sigeum. Correpta: car- in the prcceding line thcy. aie rallcd iatentia 

ried — ^hurriod down its curront. Virxim^ by taxa, Abreptat : drivcn — forccd. 
ajn, for riroruni : of hcroes. The poet here 111. Bretna et Syrtts : shoals and quick- 

uludes to tlie bloody battle fought on the sands. Syrtis is properly a lurge l)ank oi 

buiks of this rivcr,between the Groeks and sand made by the action of the \\uter. — 

Trojan», related by Homcr; in which the Thcre were two of thcHe lianks, or 6jyr/fi on 

lattcr auflTered s signal defoat. tho coast of Africa, called the Si/riis Major. 

102. Proceiia: properiy, a storm at sea. and tho Syrtis Minor: thc forineriuy to thp 

flljlCHM, a cold storm m the wintcr. J^im' east of Curtiiagc, ut aronsiderattln diistance; 

' a storm of rain witli biuck angry clouds thc latter nearly opposite. Urget : in the 

wind; asquall. /ifi^/rr, a gontlc show- sense of impeiiit. Miserubiie: nliocking— - 

''imia. Thev are. however, not alwavs distressing. f^uu, is cithcr thc supine in 11« 


llliditqiie vadis^ atque aggere cingit 

114. Ingons pontuii« Unaiii, que Lycios fidumque vehebat Orontt 

aB^n oculofl JEtiea ip- Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus 

Hua, ferit & Tostice un&m In puppim ferit : excutitur pronusque magin 

ii«o«^ m puppim, quB Volvitur in caput : ast illam ter fluctus ibidei 

lieT Art circumageni Torquet agens circuin, et rapidus vorat leqiic 

fluctus torquot illam no- Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto : 

Mi ter ibidom Arma virdm, tabulieque et TroTa gaza per in 

118. Homines appa- Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam fortis Acbati 

«^jT "^i"^*"' '"7*"^** Et qua vectus Abas, et qu& grandevu» Aletfa 

furgite. jipparent quO' ^r- -^ i. i • i . ^ ^ •» 

f ue arma \mi hyems : laxis laterum compagibus onin 

120. Hyemfl vicit jam Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fiitiacn 

validam navem Ilionei ; Interea magno misceri murmure pontum, 

|am navem forUs Acha- Emlssamque hyemem sensit Neptuiius, et ud 

Ahl/lJn.??:. *•. 11 Stagna refusa vadis : graviter commotus, et i 
ADaa vectuB m/, et na- •* ° . . * r • « \- 

^gfn^ ^n qnl^ Prospiciens, summa placidum caput eztulit n 

125. Neptunus senait Disjectam ^nese toto videt lequore classem, 
pontum Fluctibus oppressos Troas, coelique ruini. 

126. Stagna refuea Nec latuere doli fratrem Junonis, et irae. 

***fio* pt T««— «««— _ Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat : dehinc li 
129. JLt Iroaeoppree- «, . • ^ «a isj • * • • 

I esse fluctibus Tantane vos genens tenuit fiducia vestn ? 

133. Jam audetia, O Jam ccelum terramque, meo sine numinef fi 


to l>e ioen; or, for vuut, the dat of vitut^ FaiueuiU rimii: gape open 

lo the sight. See Ecl. 5. 29. leaka. 

112. /'(ufM : against the bottom. Vadum 12S. Siagna: p\n,ot»iagm 
b properly a shaTlow part of the sea; or a or deep part of the sea. ^i 
part of a river that may be forded. Aggere: decp, or open sear— out of ai 
a baiik of sand. Freium^ a strait, or narrow 

113. LycioM, The Lycians were a people the sea near the land. Bu 
of Asia Minor, who came to assist Priam. always used with this discrii 
After the death of Sarpedon their king,they 127. Plaeidum, This mut 
chose to accompany iEneas. Oroniet took Neptune^s natural charactei 
the command of them. ness in regard to the Trojan 

114. Ponttu: here put for a wave of the foct, which his countenance 
lea, by «ynec. It was so great that it seem- raging sea. For he was | 
ed as if tho whole ocean was breaking upon graviier eommotut^ at the win 
the ship. A vertice. Some understand by his realms without his perm 
this, the head or prow of the ship. The 129. /2utfui rop/t : with the 
eommon acceptation of the word is the These words strongly deno 
best : /rom above, It was so high that It ofthetempest — thefloodsof 
appeared to foll down upon the ship. derings and lightnings: all i 

115. Pronus. I take this to denote the threaten the destruction of 1 
posture of the helmsman, bending or stoop" 130. DoliJunonis: the wi 
ing forward, in order to stand more firmfy. her anger, did not lie conc 
The helmsman {magister) is thrown from brother — had not escaped t] 
hia feet, and tumbled headlong into the sea. her brotlier. Neptune and 

117. Circumagens Jlueius: the whirling dren of Satum and Ops. 
water. 132. Tanta-nefiiucia: hi 

118. Rari: scattered here and there. — fideiice of your race possei 
Ourgite : in the sense of mari. winds werc the ofispring 

119. Oasa : this word, signifies all kinds Astneus, one of the Titana 
of valuable fumiture, as well as treasures intimates, that if they imita 
of gold and silver. of the Giants, their ancei 

122. Compagiifus: the seams or streaks ezpect to share in their pui 

of the Bides being loosened, they all let in least, they could not expoc 

the hostile water. lml>er^ though properly impunity. 

a ehower.of rain, is here used for water in 133. JWijiitn^.* in the Mn 

general. Hyems^ in the eense ol iempesias, vel voiuniaie. MoU» * hi tln 

iENElS. LIB. I. 


i^ et tantaB audctis tollere moles ? 
Quos ego— Sed motos prwdtat coinponere fluctus. 
Pdat nuLi non siniili pccna commissa luctis. 
llatiirate fugam, regiquc liiec dicite vestro : 
NoD illi iiAperium pelagi, ssvumque tridentem, 
Sod nuhi sorte datum : tenet iile inimania saxa, 
VMiras, Eurc, domos : illi se jactet in aula 
JEoIus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet. 

Sic ait : et dicto citius tumida sequora placat, 
Collectasque fugat nubes, Solemque reducit. 
C^ nothoe siraul, et Triton adnixus, acuto 
DMrudunt naves scopulo : levat ipse tridenti, 
Et vastas aperit syrtea, et temperat equor ; 
Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas. 
Ae, veluti magno in populo cum 8a;pe coorta est 
Beditio, sevitque animis ignobile vulgus ; 
Jtmque faces et sajui volant ; furor anna ministrat : 
TnDi, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem 
Conspezere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant. 
Dc regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet. 
Br cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor ; squora postc|uam 
Fros{iiciens genitor, cosloque invectus aperto, 
Fkctit e<|uo8, cumique volans dat lora secundo. 

Defeisi JEneade, que prozima litora cursu 
^«ntendunt petere, et Libye vertuntur ad oras. 


Veiiti« misoere 
136 t«"wii^»>« 


138. Imperiam pa»asi« 

fwiiaique triaentMi 

I^Q Doii datum este illi, sed 




151. Timi, fi fort^ c«mi« 
spezere quem virum gra- 
vem pietate et mentie, 

153. Ille ffir regit ani* 

158. Contendont 
tere litora, qu0 
prozima tn cunu 

05. Qttot ego. Here puniamn or some 
tvd ef the iike import, b underBtood: 
thom I vill punish, or chattiae. But it is 
kllcr to still the raging wavet, before 1 

196. P^ nen lueiu mihi: hereaf\er ye 
Adl not atone to me for your offences 
Vilh a like puniahment. Neptune here in- 
faMc» it to be a matter of demency in him 
hpemiitting them to eecapo; but they must 
Mrare ; the next time they thus presume, 
b ■hall chattiae them in an ezeroplary 

138. tmperiumpelagi, In the divijiion of 
ii world between the eona of Satum, the 
■i fell to Neptune, the heavoni and tiie 
■itk to Jupitcr, and the regrions below to 
Ihlai. S^cum : in the sense of poteniem, 
UB. Tenei immttnia: let him posseM 
vild and uncultivatcd rocks, thy ha- 
MM, O eaat wind. Immania saxa are 
fti fMUms of iEolos, montioned verse 52, 

UG. Jactei je: boaet, or glory. ^^ula: 
kth» leiiee of regia» 

ML Ciiiut diei9: loonerthan said. The 

■|L eHiuM guvems dieio^ in the abl. P/o- 

tf; calms. 

144. Cpmoihai: a njmph of the eea^ the 
Aifliler of NerBui and Dorie. Triton: 
Aisos of Amphitrite. Hls upper part wae 
Ib a ■UB, aiiid hie lower pail like a fish. 
fe vaa v«i7 fo n iib l amonf the sea-foda. 

and could calm and embroil the eea at hie 
pleaiiure. Many of the marine gods wera 
calicd Tritons, but the name is properly ap- 
plicable to those only that were half man 
aiid half fish. Levai : assists — lightens. 

148. AeveluHeikm: as when in a ffjtaX 
crowd, a tumult oflen rises, and the i(|;noble 
throng ragcs in their minds, &c. 

This comparison is extrcmely beautiful, 
as well as just. Nothing can be more pro- 
per to fepresent the disorder and havoc of 
a violent hurricane, than the rage and the 
desolation occasloncd by an inccnscd mob. 
The suddeuness, with which the noisy wavee 
subsido, and sink into a calm, as soon ae 
Ncptune surveys them, is fincly marked by 
the awe and silcnce, with which the sedi- 
tious multitude is imniediatcly struck, at 
Uie sight of a man of superior mcrit and 

150. Arma: in the sense of teta. GrO' 
vem : in the sense of insignem, ArreeHi : 
with listening, or attentive ears. 

155. Cob/o. Coelum horo means simplT« 
tho air. He was wafled in the opea air* 
Just abovo the surface of tlie ocean. /Vo* 
gor : the raging, or tumult 

156. Curru: the dat. for eurrui. Sea 
EcL V. 29. Seeundo : iight — casy-movinr • 

157. JEneada: tJie Trojans; so called 
from ^neas, their leader. Coniendunt: 
they strive to reach, or get to thia MtanA 
ihore. • 


Est in sccespu longo locus : insula portimi 

160. Qaibai Uueribiu Efiicit objectu lalerum : quibus omnis ab alti 

omnM unda veniena ab Frangitur, inque sirius scindit sese unda redw 

uto rranintur* Bcmdit tt- ^ i.* 

oiie aese "'"^ atque hinc vastae rupes, gemimque mui 

In c(rhim scopuh : quorum sub vertice lat^ 
^'Equora tuta silent : tum sylvis scena coruao 
Desuper, horrentique atrum nemus imminet 

166. Eit antrum in Fronte sub adversa scopulis pcndentibus antl 
pendeatibug scopulis ^^^^^ ^ 6\x\ces, vivoque sedilia saxo ; 

167. Intus n<n/ dulces XT l j u- r • t 
aque, ■edUiaque i vivo Nymphanim domus : hic fessas non vmcula i 

■azo: videtur domua Ulla tenent; unco non alHgat anchora morsi 

Huc septem iEneas collectis navibus omni 

£x numero subit : ac magno telluris amore 

Egressi, optat^ potiuntur Troes arenft, 

£t sale tabentes artus in litore ponunt. 

Ac primQm silici scintillam excudit Achatea 

176. Circumdedit ari- Suscepitque ignem foliis, atque arida circuin 
** Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite flamm 

177. Tum fesii renim Tum Cererem corruptam undis, Cerealiaqu 
•xpediun Cererem Expediunt fessi rerum : frugesque receptas 

£t torrere parant flammis, et frangere saxo. 
iEneas scopulum interea conscendit, et 01 
Prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si qui 
Jactatum vento videat, Phrygiasque biremei 
Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Ca 


159. Longo teeenu : in a long or dark re- dronched with ealt water- 
MM. This description of the port and salt water. 

harbor 18 beantiful in itself, and seasonably 176. Arida nutrimenta : d: 

introduced to reliovo tho rcader, and coin- the spark struck from the 

poee his mind, aHcr having dwelt upon the hc quickly kindled a flanic a 
(brmer iinagcs of horror and distrcss. • 177. Cerfrt^m rurn/plam : 

160. Objeclu: in the sensc of oppositu, maered by the water— wcl. 

^oa d' 1 Kcl. v. 79. Jlrma: prope: 

162. Rupes : properly, a precipice, or , ♦ i r ^ J » - 

. . ^ - r c j V- u 1 1 mcntB or tools of an y art or 

brokcn rock. ocom//ia, a hi^h, sharp rock. , .• r . .. :ii uJ 

o I * »# , retf/ta arma, thcreforc,wul be 

aorum, any rock, or stoue. Minantur: ., , ., . :^ uJL-t.:-.- 

u 4 j 4 u or utensils used m oreaKmff 

reach. or extcnd to heaven. • •< r .• ^ 

^^^ parmg it for eatmg. 

164. Scena tylvis : an arbor formed of 173^ Fesii rerum: wcary 

wavingtree8,andagrovedarkwithit8awful tuncs-^their toils—^their dt 

ihade, hangs over it from above. Ruseus rerqltas : the grain saved. 

interprets scena by umbraculum. Cererem, just mentioned. 

166. Sub adversa fronte, This cave was 1 79. Parant torrere. Rui 

"ight in firont, or opposile to them, as they in the sense of coqvere ; an 

entered the harbor, and approached the foilows /ranjr^re, which mui 

ihore. Pendentibus : its roof was archcd with fru^es receptas : thcy | 

with rocks. Rusus atiy 9 suspensis^ for peri- thc corn, and to bake it ii 

dentibus. torrere inay bc taken for tl; 

]Q9. /^nntiHavincula tenent, The mcan- Ihe corn that had been w< 

ing is : tho harbor was so safe and securc, dama|rcd by tho water ; ik 

thatshipsneeded neithercables noranchors. code its hcing hroken, or pi 

Morsu: thc ilukc. king brcad. Exjtediunt: ' 

170. Huc .^neas : here ^neas entered fctch il oiit of their ships. 
with seven ships, collected, &c. Ho Icft IJil. .-Inthta: a Greek ac 
Troas with twcnty ships. One he had just lfl'2. Rirnnes: biromis is 

lost, and tho rest were scatterod in the loy of two banks of oars. 
■torm, but wcre not lost. 1K3. .-■^rmrt Calci: the a 

178. Artu» tabentea saU : their limbs that is, Caicus himself. 


ectu nullam ; tres litore ccrvos 

es : hos tota armenta sequuhtur 106 185. BoBtres dudort 

\\xm per valles pascilur agmen. ■ ^''*^ 

cuinque manu celeres({ue sagittas 

(jua; tela gercbat Acliutcs. 

os primuni, capita alta ferentes 

;i3, sternit : tum vu1l'us, ct omncm 190 

lis nemora inter frondea turbam. 

it, (luum septcm iugcntia victor 

humi, et numennn cum navibus asquet. 

tit, et socios partitur in omnes. 

3 deinde cadis oncrarat Acestes 196 . ^^5. Deinde diTidtt 

) dtideratnuG abeuntihiiB heroa vina, qu» bonui Acaetef 

), acaeraique aDCuniiDus neros, oncrArat in c«db Trina- 

moerenUa pectora mulcet : crio liiore, herowioe d«. 

enim ignari sumus anti^ malorum) der&t UIim aboiuitabue 

L : dabit Deus his quoque finem. Idd. O %m pAoa i^ 

1 rabiem, penitusque sonantes 200 ^****^ 

>s ; vos et Cyclopea saxa 

ite animos, mccstumque timorem 202. Voe ezperl mtU 

et hsec olim meminisse juvabit. 

), per tot discrimina rerum, 

tium ; sedes ubi fata quietas 206 

\ fas regna resurgere TrojsB. 

et rcbus servate secundis. 

fert : curisque ingentibus ffiger, 

ilat, premit altum corde dolorem. 

cingunt dapibusque futuris. 210 


Thifl might seem mere 198. Antlmaloruin: of pwt eyilfl, w d»- 

is consistcnt with the tresses. Ru0ue takes an/^ here in tWe ■enee 

!ro says : Adoltscem cursu of prateriiorum, Or perhaps, maiorwm 911« 

Longum agnun : tho /uerunt anU. 

hcrd. 200. Vot aeehtia: ye have approached 

\Ua : bearin^ thcir lofly both ihe rage of ScylliL, and tho rooke roar- 

ing homs. The poet fine- ing within. See £cl. vi. 74, and JEn, iiL 

adcrs. They movo with 420. Opposite the rock of Scylla ie Cha- 

2sty, having their heads rybdis, a dangeroue whirlpool ; which, taken 

loms branching out like together, rcnder the paeeage of the atraiti 

n the sense oC ferebat. bctween Sicily and Italy very hazardous. 

t vulgut: pursuing with Hcnce arose the proverb : /nridi/ tn iS^j^^^am, 

hcrd and the rcst of the qui vult viiare Chary/Hlem. This Charybdin, 

ileafy grovetffhedispcrses as fable says, was a voracious old woman, 

them into confusion hy who stoie tlie oxen of Hercules. For which, 

ks. The word miteeo^ as bcing struck by the thunder of Jove, she wm 

iful and expressive. Om- turne*! into this whirlpool. Aecitti» : by 

tie sense of rtliquam mul- syn. for accettittia. 

203. Olim: hereailer. Diterimina: ic 

he divides them among the sense of pericula. 

is. He had killed soven 207. Seeundit rebut : preserve yourselv«i 

tt there was one for the for prospority. Durale: porsevere. 

208. ^ger ingeniibtu: oppr6ssed with 

iee /Bn. v. 35. Onerarat : heavy cares, (AiU of anxious solicitude for 

uid given them. his friends,) he dissembles hope on his coim> 

an adj. from Trinaeria, tenance, but represses, &c. Refert : in tb* 

lerived nx>m its triangular sense of ditit. 

>romontories are : Pachy' 210. Aeeinguni n: they prepare tlMm- 

; Liljfbmu^on the west; solves for. Tergmai tbtt Bkn» 01 >Dk>AiM«\ 

te north. the slain der- , 


Tergora diripiunt costis, et viscen nudant : 
Pars in fhista sccant, verubusque trementia Qj 
Litore ahena locant alii, flammasque miniatni 
Tum victu revocant vires : fusique per herlMUi 
tl2. Figiint Jrdna Implentur veteris Bacchi, pinguisque feriniB. 
*^iS*"]e"*"^^^**"* Postquam ezempta fames epulis^ mensaequc 
• xemp Amissos longo socios sermone requirunti 

218. Seu credant eot Spemque metumque inter dubii : seu vivere c 

Sive extrema pati, nec jam ezaudire vocatos 
t20. £nea8 {remit ■•• Pnecipu^ pius iEneas, nunc acris Orontei, 
•om nuno cMuin acris Nunc Amyci casum gemit^ et crud^lia secum 
Oronui; nuno «»««• Pata Lyci, fortemque Gyan, fortcmque Cloai 

£t jam finis erat : cum Jupiter aethere sum 
Despiciens mare velivolum, terrasque jacente 
tt7. Atque Venui Litoraque, et latos populos ; sic vertice cobU 

Imtior, et ■uffuM mioorf Constitit, et Libyae defixit lumina regnis. 

Mtentee oculoe alloaui a ^ '11 >i 1 • . . ^ 

tor Ulum jactantem ^^"® »^**^ ^^^ jactantem pectore curas, 

tt9. O (u, qui legis Trisdor, et laclirymis oculos sufiusa nitentes, 
M hominumque Alloquitur Venus : O, qui res hominumque 1 


tll. Fiteera : neu. plu. of viseus^ or vtt- panione an ezample of magni 

cum, It properly ligniiies all the parts of tude onlv« which riep^ euperi 

the animal within the skin. Here it meani and miBfortunei. 

HuJUsh, 934, Velivolwn: navigablA 

tlt. Par» teeani : a part cut into pieces. ras : the earth may be said U 

Kouni of multitude may have verbi in the eens) itill, dead and at reit^ii 

■ingular or plural. the lea, which if alwayi In 

tl3. Ahena : neu. plu. brazen dishes or poet considers here the sails < 

vessels. An adj. talien as a substantivo. — tlie notion of wings, by whi 

MisUstrantJlammas : tend the fires. the sea, as a bird moves thro 

tl5. Implenlur, Tliis is in imitation of Rueus takes jaeentes in the 

the-Greeks, with whom verbs of JSI/ing go- les: \ow — lying low. Populi 

▼em the genitive. Bacchi: in the sense of of gentts. 

vmt. 225. Vertiee: the pinnsc 

tl7. Requirunt: they inquire afler their the zcnith, or point over our 

lost companions — converse about them. 226. Dtjixil oculos, Dr. 1 

tl9. Pati extrema : to suffer death — that nothing to him breathei 

death being tho last of all earthly things. — etry, particuiarly Virgiiy i 

Paii : the present in the sense of the perf. delightful passage, in which 

Voeaios necjam : being invoked, should not Jupiter, and the boautiful gri 

Aow hear. This alludes to a custom among so finely contrasted. She s 

Ihe Romans, of calling the dead three timos in all the abruptness of e: 

by name : which was the last ceremony in that she is addressing the 1 

ibneral obsequies. Afler which, the friends derer, and yet maintains all 

pnmounced the word f^o/e, three times, as of female complaint, an<t te: 

they departed from the tomb. The saroe tion. Jaetaniem: in the e 

wme observed of those, who perished by tem. 

■hipwreck, or othen»'ise, when their bodies 228. Si^ffusa oeiUos : wet 

e«ald not bo found. ning eyes, with tears. See 

ttO. JEnecu gemit * JEneas laments now male beauty never appears i 

IIm &te of brave Orontes, now, &c. The makvM so deep an impressio 

most ezaltcd and heroic minds are the most holder, as when svjjused * 

•usoeptible of humanity and compassion. — manifcsting a degree of ani 

Virgil therefore says : Pracipui pius ^neas The poet therefore introduci 

gemii. But at tlie same time, ne conducts situation, making suit to h 

hisgrief wifuprudence,andcarefully avoids speech is of the chastest k 

whatever would tend to discourage the rest; fail to charm the reader. 

aad therefore it is said, that he grieves pri- 229. yenus. The goddosi 

▼alely, seeum<t keeping his sorrow and grief lovo, She is said to have > 

ji hif own bosom ; and sho nng to his com- foam of the sea, near the is 


iENEIS. LIB. L 171 

sgii ioiperiis, et fulmine terres, SSO S30. TerrM 

I iEnefts in te committere tantum, ^iSJ^XeM^SSS 

ia potoere ? quibus tot funera passis, ^mmWe l^ui 

b Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis ? ^34^ Certi poUidtiia 

: Romanoa olim, Tolventibus annis, e« Romanoi oriturot $sm 

ductorea, revocato a sanguine Teucri, 235 hinc olim, annii volveiH 

, qui terraa omni ditione tenerent, ^^"^*^ ^«'e ducioree hiiM 

q«« te, genitor, aententia vertit t 'r.u^^il^^^^enTr^r^ 

lem occatum Troje tnstesque ruuiaa 238. Equidom hoe 

itis ccMitraria &ta rependens. promiuo lolabar oeca- 


\g lo Heriod, neer tbe ialand of t35. Revoeaio^ Slc Conimentatora %tm 

Bhe was taken op to Heaven, divided in opinion, on thcM wordi. Corm- 

be Gode were itnick with her dui takee Mii^tn« TVtim, for the TrojaiMt 

1 became jealoui of her raperior the ofiipring of Tetuer ; and recocaio^ in th# 

Jupiler attempted, in vain, to eenM of reMtituio, Rueu» rejects thia ia 

ection; and as a puniihment to parU By Mn^tiu Teueri^ he undentanda 

I refnsal, beetoweid her upon his the Trojans ; and bv reroeato^ their retum 

on Vulcan. She, however, had into Italjr, whence Dardanus, the founder 

ruM with Mara, Mercury, and of theirrace, originated. The blood of Teo* 

Her partiality for Adonis, indu- cer, and that of Dardanus, were united ia 

leave Olynipus. 8he also had the Troiani, their descendants. Revoeoio: 

L, it is said, for Anchises, and for recalled-— called back to take possessioii ol 

ten visited the GrovM of Mount the land of their ancestor. 

im she had ^neas. 236. Diiione : swaj — authority. TViie- 

oisessed a mysterious girdle or reni: in the MnM of regereni, Senieniiu: 

h gave to any, however ugly and in the mum of eonnittm. 

leauty , elegance, and grace. Her 238. Hoe quidem: with this promiM, I 

m universaliy Mtablished. The was mitigating the fall, and mcI catastro- 

yrtle, and the apple, were sacred phe of Troy : — I was consoling myMlf, at. 

le doYo, the swan, and the spar- frc 

iior favorite birds. 239. FaOe rependent eontraria : to thoM 

various names, derived chiefly fatM balancing, (or placing) fates contrary, 

acM where she was worahipped ; or of an opposite nature. Fatum^ as here 

tne property or quality she was nsed, may mean, either the purpoMS of the 

poaseas. Some of which, are the rods conceming the Troians, or simply , their 

Cppriot from the island Cyprus : fortune or dMtiny. Their city had been 

om Paphos: Cyikerea^ from the raMd, and a numerous train of illH liad be- 

hera ; in each of which placM fallen them. ThoM, we are to underatand 

ilendid temples. 8he was alM by /aiiM. By faia eontraria^ it is plain, we 

»maia,becauM she prMided over are to onderstand prosperiU, or a state of 

K trtieor diOt becauM she tumed thinga different ftom their former one. Or« 

of women to chastity : Eiaira^ if fata be taken for the purposM of tbe 

I wasthepatmneMofcourtezans: gods toward them, the interpretatioo wiU 

rom Acidalus, a foontain in Beo- be the same. 

sa, becaoM she was the queen of The downfall of Troy was a very afflict- 

fM, beeauM the myrtle was m- ing circumstance to Venos. 6he stmve 

r : Libertinot on aocount of her hud to prevvnt it. And afler the event, ahe 

s io lioentious amoura: Pontea^ consoledherMlfwith the coimideimtiou, that 

eamefia, and Pelagea, becauM she Troy was dMtined to Hm again — that their 

m the sea. The word Venut is mce wu to be rMtored to tlie land of Dar^ 

n for beaoty and love ; also for danus, and there become the rulera of the 

of love— the person loved. It is world. This lightened her sorrow, and aa- 

timM for any Mnraal pasiiion, or raaged her grief. Here, perhapa, it may be 

QterooorM of the sezes. Imperiit: Mked, if she knew that the future glory of 

• of poteniia. the Trojan race had been docreed and Biod 

ibus pateie : against whom, suf- by fate; why does she appear to ezprehs *o 

many deatha, the whole world, much anxiety and Mlicitude upon tliat sub- 

ject? It may be Mid, that the oppoHitioii 

me: henco— from the Trojans. which Juno made to it, might niake her 

probably, as Heyne obMrven, we doubt, and her mind waver. For. Jupiter 

retand JuliusCBsar, and Octavina. alnnft had a perfoct inAf^Kl uvVo CxiX\k\vVl %%iA 


ranj, tristeoqiie ruinas Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus mcttm 
"^j^ Inscquitur : quein das finem, rex magm, M 

«42. Antenor elapsofl Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, 

SuI^^peMuire ^*" •"*' Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intima ttitus 
^ Regna Libumorum et fontem superare Tioia 

Unde per ora novem vasto cimi murmure mc 

It mare proruptum, et pelago premit arva m 

Hic tamen ille urbem Patavt sedesque locairi 

Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit, armaque i 

Troia : nunc placidl comp6stus pace quiesd 

S50. No8, quibui tu ^^^ ^"^ progenies, ca^li quibus annuis arrei 

anBuis arceni cceli, na- Navibus, infanduml amissis, uniua ob iram 

▼ibas, O infandum ! Prodimur, atque Italis longe disjungimur 01« 

•^ssas prodimy pm- Hic pietatis honos ? Sic nos in sceptra repMl 

«ito^ o iram unonis q^ subridens hominum salor atque Deoni 

is^ Est-ne hio honos ^ultu, quo coelum tempestatesque serenat, 
mmirm pietatis f sic Oscula Ubavit natae : deiiinc talm fiitur : 


the rest of the g^ods, knew no more than he neighboring people gtive to it 

was pleased to reveal to them. 8ee JEn. sea. It was forraed, sajs hei 

liL 251. ence of nine streams, issuiiig 

It is said, by some, that Virgil makes even tain. It is, however, at the p 

Jupiter subject to fate or destiny. But fi-om and inconsiderable stream, u 

•everal passages, it will appear, that his Adriatic, noar Ittria, 
notion of fate was truly philosophical. He 245. IJnde : whenc»— froa 

makes fate to be nothing moire than the de- The novem ora^ 1 take to i 

crees, purposes, or counsels of Heaven, pro- streams which formed the n% 

nounced by the mouth of Jove ; as the ety- many channels,through whiol 

mology of the word implies. He oflen calls sea. Ot signifies tho fountai 

destiny Fata deorum^ which con mean no- river, as well as its mouth. 
thing clse than the Divino decrees, or coun- 246. // .* it pours along. 

sels. And, if he givo to fate the epithcts, rough — swollen. Premit * • 

inexpngnabiletLndiriexorabiU^he muBimefin luges. Thompson has finel 

that the laws and ordcr of nature are fixed his ^ Winter,*' this doscripti 

and unchangeable, as being the rcsult of mavus. 

Infinite wisdom and foresight, and having 249. Compdttiu : by syn. i 

their foundation in the Divine mind^ which settled. Fixit: in the sen» 

ia subject to none of those changes tliat af- JVo«. Hore Venus spcaks in 

fect feeblo and orring mortals. iEneas to show how nearly ( 

242. Antenor, He was a noble Trojan. terest at heart. Annuit : i 
After the sack of Troy, he led a colony of promittit, Thou hast prom 
Trojans, and Henetet^ a people who came deatli he should be receiv 
to asKist Priam, and lost their king, in quest gods — should be deified. A 
of a settlemcnt. Af\er various toilsand dis- court or palace of hcaven. 
asters, ho arrivcd at the headof the Adriatic, 251. Infandum. This wo 
and having expclled the Euganes^ a pcople like an interposing sigh, whc 
inliabiting between the Alps and the sea, he the most moving part of ] 
took poKHcssion of their country. He built and the artful pauses in thi 
a city called .4n/enor^/i, af\er his own name. following lines, together w 
Some say hc built Patavium^ now Padua. manner in which the speech \ 
The whole natiun was called Veneti. herquiteoverpoweredby thei 

243. Illiiricoa: an adj. from IUyricum, an Unius: of one, to wit, Jun 
extensive country on the borders of the we are given up to destm 
Adriatic, ovcr against Italy, including tlie doomed to toils, misfortunei 
ancientLt^ummandDa/ma/ia. Penetrare: through the resentment ant 
in the sense of intrare, Juno. 

S44. Superare /ontem T\mavi: to pass be- 253. Honoa: reward — ^reo 

Tond thefountainof Timavus. Wearetold 254. OUi: for i//t, by ant 

bv Servius, on the authority of Varro, that in the sense of pater. 

toe Timavus was a large river, and the 256. Libavit: he kissed 

.iiNElS. LIB. 1. m 

uctii^ C}therea: nianeiit iinmota tuoniin 

*i i ccriic^ urbeiu el proniiMsa Laviiii 

, siibliinemque feres ad sidera cceU 

mnium .€liieam , neque me sententia vertit. 260 

\n n-ibor enim, quando ho^ te cura remordet ; 261. Hio gwni tanMm 

:s et volvens fatoruin arcana movcbo) beUam tfi Jtaii* 

ingens geret Italii, populosque feroces 

idet^ moresque viris et mcenia ponet : 

dum Latio rcgnantcm viderit sestas, 266 

fue transterint Rutulis hyberna subactis. 

r Ascanius, cui nunc cognomcn liilo 267. At puer Afca- 

r (llu» crat, dum res stetit Ilia regno) ' "'"••,.?"' ^IJP^ *^«"°- 

^ 1 r 'u 1. men liilo additur, eiple- 

a magnos, vol veiidis mensibus, orbes bit imperio tri ginta JL. 

explebit, regnimique ab sede Lavini 270 nos orbes, menBibuc 

eret, et longani mult^ vi muniet Albam. 

n tercentum totos recnabitur annos ^^ «^ n- _^ 

, ,w , . j => . , 273. Donec llia, re- 

Bub Hectorei ; donec regina sacerdos ^ina sacerdoa, grayi» 

gravis, geminam partu da))it Ilia prolem. Marte dabit 


ir. The naiiM Kema waagivento 268./iiarN; theTrojanfitato. f/ui;anadj 

Theooe here meant, ia the daugh- from Ilium^ a name ofTroy. See 1. lupra. 

upiter and Dione, but ia oden con- 269. Orbes: in tlie seniie of annos, 

1 with her, who aprung fxom the 270. Imperio: governineni — reign. La 
'theeea. 8oe 229. aupra. vini: bjr apocope for Lavinii. See 2. fu- 
Meiu: for wuiuL See £cL ▼. 29. pra. Vi: labor — ■trength. 

■ : Venus. 273. Htclorea gente : under a Trojan line. 

Fatar: in the aenBe of dieam. Af\er the building of Rome, Alba cuntinued 

Mocebo areana : I will unfold the ae- for a considcrabie time an iiidependent gO" 

the fates, tracing (wUvens) them vernment, and was a rival of the new city. 

» a great distance of time. Remor^ It was finally destroyed by the Romant, aud 

nblea you. ita inhabitants transforred to Roiiie. 

Contundel: m the senae of domabit. 274. Ilta: a daughter of Numitor, king 

in the aenae of Uga, of Alba Longa. She is called reginoy on 

Dum teriia aia»: until the third year account of her royal dcscent. She was oue 

e hiiii, &c. The meaning is, that of tlie vestol virgius, and for that roason 

sars were to be spent in the wars called sacerdos, or pricstess. Bcing prcg- 

imus aiid the Rutuli; atthoexpira- nant {gravis) by Mars, as it is said, sJie 

which, havin» subdued his enemies, brought forth twins, Romulus and Rcnius. 

should commence his govemmcut Aniulius, having expellod his brother Nu 

im. Dnm : in Uie sense of donee, mitor, commaiidod one Faustus, a shephcrd, 

Tema hjfberruL : three winters shall to expose the childrcn to wild bcasts, that 

■sed, the Ruiuli being conquered. they inight perish. Insicad of which, he 

Cut nutu cognotuen: to whom now took them home, where they worc nourislud 

naxne of lijlus is added. This cir- by Iiis wife, whose name was Lupa. Thia 

ice is thrown in to show the origin gave rise to the story of their being brouffht 

lulian family, and tlie occasion of up by a wolf, lupa being tlie naiiio of that 

g the naroe uf Ilus^ to liUus or Julius. animal. 

(t designs this as a coinplimont to Tho children grew up, and whcn «^ 

«rs. liilussuccaeded his fatlier in becaiueacquaintcd with the conductof theif 

^mment, and reigned thirty years at uncle, they collcctod a band uf men, ailack- 

jR. He built jilba Longa^ and made ed him in his palace, slew hini, and restorod 

at of his goremment. The throne Numitor to the throne. Aflorwards, it is 

id fbr three hundred years by a suc- said, each of the brothers began to build a 

of Trojan princes, down to the tiuie city. Remus leaped ovor the walls of the 

iloa. Hefounded Rome, and chang- cily founded by Romulus; whereupon, be- 

Mt of government from ^lba Longa ing angry, he slew him. He called the city 

BW citj. At his death, the line of Rome^ af\er nis own name. Romuius waa 

m was changed, aad Atima Pompi' sofnetimee called Qutnnta, from QMwi, t 

iM and virtnouB prince of the Sa- Sabine word, which signifies a «pear. G§» 

iad the tiurooe. minamproiem: aimply, twina. 



176. Inde Romulai Inde Inp© fiiWo nutricis tegmine Intut ' 
l»tai flilYo tepmne nu- Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia coi4 
^^ei» ap« excipie gen- jyjjjjjjjjj^^ Romanosque suo de nomine diceL 

ftn Dioei ineoku Ro- ^^ ^S^ ^^ metas rerum, nec tempora poiM 
miBor Imperium sine iine dedi. Qoin aspera Junc 

Quae mare nunc terrasque metu cceluroque i 
Consilia in melius referet, mecumque Ibvebil 
Romanos rerum dominos, gentemque togati 
Sic placitum. Veniet, lustris labentibus, ael 
Cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mj 
Servitio premet, ac victis dominabitur Argis 
Nascetur pulchri Trojanus oiigine Ciesar, 
Imperium Oceano^ famam qui terminet aatrj 
188. lUe erii Jalios, Julius, a magno demissum nomen liilo. 
*•■*•* Hunc tu olim coelo, spoliis Orientis onustuo 

Accipies secura : vocabitur hic quoque votv 
Aspera tum positis mitescent aaecula bellis. 
Cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Qu 


S76. Mavorha: an adj. from Mavort^ a who conquered Aehaia; an 

Bame of Man : warlike — ^martial. Mcaiia : lius, who subdaed Macedoni 

in the senBe of urbenu *^rgit : in the sing. Argot^ ni 

278. JVVc 0ono mttat: I place (preBcribe) Argiy mas. It waflaitaated 

to them neither boundi nor duration of do- from the aea, on the Sinxu 

niinion. The Romane had a belief that was founded by Inachua, 18 

their empire would always contifTue, whiie Christ. Vxi inhabitants we 

other govemmente wouJd be unst&ble and lici and Argivi : by synec. pa 

fluctuating. in general. Premei: shall i 

280. Mdu : through fear that the Trojans tude — shall subdue. 
would nse to powor, and become dangerous 286. Pukhra : in the sec 
to her dcar Carthage and Argos. Fatigat : Ces&r, a Trojan of illustnoi 
tn the scnso of commovet. 2}t8. J^omen demittum : i 

281. In meliut. This is taken adverbial- from, Sic. 

ly: for the better. Referret: shall change. 289. 7\tteeura: you, sui 

282. Gtntem togatam : the nation of the him heroafler. Cesar wai 
g^own. The toga^ or gown, was the distin- four triumphs on four succe 
guishing badgre of the Romans, as the pal- this, refcr tho words : Onv 
/tum was that of tho Grecks. Rentm. Ret entit. Cssar recoived divi 
signifies powcr — rule — dominion. In the dccree of the scnatc. 
present case it signifies, tho world. 291. Atnera taeula. He: 

2>>3. Sic placitum : thus it plcases me — to the golden a?o ; or, at le: 

this is my pleasure — it is my decrce. The vcrsal peace which took p! 

verb at i» to be supplied. ^tat venit : the of Augustus, whon the tcmj 

time shall come, ycars having passcd away, shut. Mitetcent : shall gro 

when, Slc. Luttrum: properly the pcriod Atpera: in the sense ofdm 

of four years. It is often put for time in 292. Cami Jidct. The n 

preneral. ^Sltat : in the senso of 4empiu, the fidolity of former times 

•kiia tuttrit : for annit. that men should devote nio 

284. Domut Attaraei. By this we are to to the servico of the gods—l 

anderstand the Romons. Assaracus wos be no more civil wars, id 

tlie son of Tros, ond brother of Ilus. He should bo armed against bn 

was the fatlier of Capys, and Capys the thet eana alludes to the 

father of Anchises, the father of J^neas, which was represonted witJ 

from whom the Romans dcscended. Phthi- denote that it was the pe 

am. This was a city of Thossaly, the royal former times — the golden a( 

«eat of Achillcs. Myeenat — Argit. Thcse Vetta^ Scrvius says, we ar 

wore cities of tho Peloponnesus, ovcr which rclipon. Vcsta was the dai 

Agamemnon rcigned, put, by syncc. for and Ops. the goddess of fir 

C^reece in gcneral. This prophecy was ful- of the vf^tal virgins. JEji 

fiUod under the Roman gonerals Mummius, who introduced her mysti 

il^NElS. LIB. T. 


dabunt * dine ferro et compagibus arctis 
Ckudentur belli port» : Furor iinpius intus 294 

8«vft sedens super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis 
PoBt tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento. 

Hi.c ait : et Maii genitum demittit ab alto ; 
llt terre, utque novce pateant Carth^ginis arces 
Hospitio Teucris : ne fati nescia Dido 
riniKN» arceret. Volat ille per aera magnum 900 

Kemigio alarum, ac Libyce citus adstitit oris : 
Bt jam jussa &cit : ponuntque ferocia Poeni 
iCorda, volente Deo : imprimis Regina quietum 
Aecipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam. 

At pius i£neas, per noctem plurima volvens, 305 

Ut primrim lux alma data est,*exire, locosque 
Biplorare novos ; quas vento accesserit oras, 
1)111 teneant (nam inculta videt) hominesne, feraene, 
Querere constituit, sociisque exacta referre. 
Chisem in convexo nemorum, sub rupe cavati, 310 
Arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris, 
Oeculit : ipee uno graditur comitatus Achate, 
Iba manu lato crispans hastilia ferro. 
Ob maler media sese tulit obvia sylvl, 
^Tirginia oe habitumque gerens, et virginis arma 315 

%utanae : vel qualis equos Threissa fatigat 


295. Et vinctua pott 
torgum cym caainm 
ahenia nodis. fVemot 

905. Volvena ammo 

306. ConsUtuit tiam^ 
explorareque novoi !•- 
coi», et querere ad qaaa 
oras aoeesscrit vento ; 
qui teneant eat^ homi- 
nes-ne, feriB-no (nam 
videt loea inculta) refer- 
reque oxacta fiociis. Oc- 
culit classom 

314. Cui mater obvia 
tulit se medi& sylva, 
gerens os, habitumque 

316. Velerai/oitfqua- 
lis Threissa 

'YW PmUmdhm of Trov was supposed to be 
ni hftr temple ; where a fire was 

■Mtiii 11111/ kopt barning by certain virgins, 
\iAm dodicatMl thenunrves to her service. 

wmm another goddess of the same 
Irat fenerally confounded with Ceres^ 
C$kdie^ TeUut, kc The word Tet/a is fre- 
l^jinllj used for fire, by roeton. 

naL ^retiMCimpagibut: with close joints 
^""-boond iast with bars of iron. 

Pmria, The gates, or doors of the 
'tMpfe of Janus were open in time of war, 
' sfaut in time of peace. This happoned 
/ three tiroee during a period of seven 
[Wadied yean, so constantly engaged were 
Rooiaiie in the work of death ! Impitu 
This, Tumebus thinks, al]udes 
[^ Ike ima^ of warlikiS rago drawn by 
, and dedieated by Augastus in tho 
rtrmn. Bat Gerroanus thinks it alludcs 
*% tki statue of Mars, which the Spartans 
ia their city, boand in this manner, in 
of brasB. JVbdu: in the sense <^ 

ff7. OemfiMi Maid: the son of Maia. 
wae the son of Jupitor, and Maia, 
daof hter of Atlas. See Geor. i. 336. 
NL Ane»* This appcars to be uscd in 
«nw ofufbi : that the country and city 
fftw Carthagu might open in hospitality 
lo Tmjine might reccive them kindly, 
them with hoepitality. 

by the motion of 

his wings. Utent alit auatt remti, says 
Rusus. The motion of his wings is beau- 
tifuHy expressed ; it was liko tlie motion of 
oars m propelling a boat forward. 

302. P(Bni, The Carthaginians were 
sometimcs called Potni^ or Pkami^ from 
Phoinieia^ the country from which they 
came. Corda : iu tho sense of animot. 

304. Quietum animum : a friendiy mind, 
and a benevolent disposition, or temper. 

306. Data ett : iii the sense of orta ett. 

309. Exacta: neu. plu. tlie particulars of 
his discovery. 

BIO. /n convexo. The place whcre £neoe 
moored his fleet, lay in a circular form, 
nearly surrounded by a grove. Hcre they 
could be in safety,without fcar ofdiscovery. 
The words eonvexut and ronrarti« arc some* 
times used for each otlicr, which KHcm!) to be 
the case here; the formcr propcrly Mgiiily- 
ing the oxtcrior of a round Huriaoc; tlie 
lattcr the intcrior. Horrentibu» : deep- 
thick shades. Uno : in tlie scnso of toiom 
See iEn. iv. 451. 

313. Critpans : in the scnse of yuattoiu. 
Lato ferro : of a broad barl), or pomt. 

316. Spnrtawr. The Spartan virgins 
were traincd to all kinds of nianl/ oxerci- 
scs, Ruch as running, wrcstling, throwing 
thc quoit and javelin, riding and huntin^ 
wliich is thereason that the poet attires 
VenuB in their habit, or dress. Ot : in the 
senso of tuUwn. 


Harpalyce, ?olucreinque fugi pnevertitur Eur 
Namque humeris de more liabilem suspendeni 
Venatrix, dederatcjue comam diffundere ventii 
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentes. 
Ml. Ac iUa prior in- Ac prior, Ileus, inquit, juvenes, monstrate, m 
quit : Heufl, juyenes, Vidistis si quam hic errantem forte sonirum, 

S^STn,?!!:; «!!« JI»"!!' Succinctam pharetra et maculos» tegmine lyi 
torle quam meaniin lo- . '. . i ' 

ronim urrantem Mc,iuc* ^"^ spuniantis apn cursum clamore premente 

einctam pharetrft Sic Venus : at Veneris contra sic filius omj 

Nulla tuarum audita mihi, neque visa soronin 
»7. Mortalis vultus O, quam te niemorem, Virgo ? namque haud 

haud et/ tibi, nec tua Mortahs, nec vox hominem sonat. O Dea C4 

An Pha^bi soror, an Nym|^arum sanguinis ui 

^*^ Qu©cunque et, gig feWx^ nostrumque leves quaecunque labore 
' £t quo sub ca^lo tandem, quibus orbis in orii 

Jactemur, doceas : ignari hominumque locor 
Erramus, vento huc et vastis fluctibus acti. 
Multa tibi ante aras nostri cadet hostia dextt 
Tum Venus : haud equidem tali me dignoi 
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetrani« 
Pur])ureoque alte suras vincire cothumo. 
Punica rcgna vides, Tyrios, et Agenoris urbl 
Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello 


31*7. Harpaljfce : a celebrated Amazon, sound (like) a human beini 

■ald to haTe rescued her father, who had indicate you to be mortal. Hi 

been taken in battle by the Gela. The ly either a man or woman — a 
comparison here is simply between the habits 329. ^n soror Photbi : art 1 

of Venus, and those of Harpalyce. Eurum, of Phcebus, or one of the 

Many copics read Hehrum; but there ap- nymphs.^ See Ecl. iv. 10. 

pears a manifest incon^ruity in it. It can to be supplied. 
hardly be supposed, that the poet, describing 330. Felix: kind — propitic 

the 8wif\ne8s of hcr spced, should say that the sense of regione. Orbit i 

ihe could outride the course of a river, ho'w- or earth. 
ever rapid it might be. In that thero could 334. Multa hostia : many t 

be no difficulty. Besides, the epithet volu' fall for you before the altars. 
erem^ is not very applicable to a river. 335. Haud me dignor: 1 6 

Eurum is certainly the bcst reading; itis the myself worthy, frc. 
language of poetry, while Hebrum is not. 338. Urbem Agenori» : Carl 

Puga : in the sense of eursu, by Dido, a desccndant of Ag 

320. J^uda genu^ &c. This is a Grecism : rcgna : the kingdom, or realn 
naked as to her knee^ and coUected as to hcr It is distinguished from the 
fiowing robe in a knoi, See Ecl. i. 55. The callcd Urbs Jigenori», Pw 
meaning is, that she had her knee naked, from Pani^ or Phani, 

and her fiowing robe coUected in a knot. 339. Fines Libjfci: the coi 

Sinus : the folds of a garment ; also the Libyei : an adj. from Libya^ 

garment itself, by syncc. Ifodo : nodus is Jines, Libya was properly 

Eroperly any thmg that binds or ties. — Africa bordering upon Egyf 

lence, a girdle, or belt — a knot, &c. but is frcquentiy used for any 

321. ^uam: in the sense of a/i^uam. or Africa in gcneral. Gent 
323. Tegmine, It was a custom among a race fierce in war. The 

the ancients for hunters to wear the skin of extended thcir conquests wi 

•ome one of the animals, they had killed. rapidity, and wcre the only ; 

Prementem : pursuing. peared to dispute the empin 

3S5. Orsus : part of the verb ordior : he with the Romani . Their m 

bafan. The verb est ia understood. final ruin, were owing moi 

^27. Quam te memorem.^ whom fhall I party spirit and civil cabal 

tallyuu? arma of the Romaiia. 8« 

SA Jfet tms $onai: nor doof yoor voice Art Carthage. 

iENEIS. UB. 1. 


io Tyrii regit urbe profecta, 340 

giens: longa est injuria, longse 

d summa sequar fastigia rcrum. 

Sichseus erat, ditissimus agri 

; magno miserae dilectus amore : 

ictam dederat, primisque jugarat 

!d regna Tyri germanus habebat 

:clere ante alios immanior omnes. 

edius venit furor : ille SichKum, 

ras, atque auri cax;us amore, 

cautum superat, securus amorum 350 

.ctumque diu celavit ; et a*gram, 

simulans, van4 spe lusit amantem. 

imnis inhumati venit imago 

. modis attollens pallida mirb : 

;, trajectaque pectora ferro 355 

umque domOs scelus omne retexit. 

! fugam, patri^que excedere suadet : 

viae vctcres tellure recludit 

;notum argenti pondus et auri. 

, fugam Dido sociosque parabat. 360 

^uibus aut odium crudele tyranni, 

;er erat : naves, quae forte parata^, 

nerantque auro : portantur avari 

Dpes pelago : dux fcemina £icti. 


344. Diieottu niagiM 
3^^ amoro miMnB Didimu 
346. Dederat nmi ia- 

349. Ule impiufi atqua 
cecus amore auri, clam 
suporat Sichtpum forro 
ante araa incautum 

352. lUt malus sirou* 
lans multa lusit egram 

358. Recluditque ve- 
teres thesauros, dtpontot 
in tellure lanquam aux- 
ilium vie, i(riiotum pon- 

361. Omnet conveni- 
unt, quibus erat, aut 

the name of a Tynon prin- 

beautiful, or well-belovcd. 
RegU impaium: manages 

u longa: the circumstances 
idious. Seqitar tiimma /asti' 
will nientiun only tlie cliicf 
isiiicss — I will trace only the 

afTair. Ruoeus takes tequar 

ominibus : wiih the first 
alludes to a custom amonfr 

conHulting the omcns in all 
;oncems of life, before thcy 
them, to soe if they would 
il or not. Jngdrat : by myn. 

Cui: to whom, to wit, Si- 
am: adhue virginem^ says 

jr teelere ante : groat in wick- 
II others. The comp. w hcre 
so of the pos. 

a. He was the priest of Her- 
in dignity next to royalty. 
Fyj^malion came upun Si- 
tediy, while ho was otficia- 
r, and slew him. This cir- 
itly adds to the atrocity of 
•or : in the senso of odium, 
itween Sicheus aiid Pyg- 

. reganlless of the love of 
•vl in tlie sense of interfteit. 

352. ^gram amantem: tho afflicted, or 
disconsolato lover. Lusit: deceived^-do- 

353. Inhumati. Aocordinjgr to tlieir sys- 
tem of religion, the shades of those, who 
wcre unburied, must wander a hundred 
years, before they could be at rest. Tho 
circumstance of PygmaIion*s Icaving tho 
hody of Sicheeus unburied, in this view, 
grcatly heishtous the onormity of the crime 
first committed. Imago: in the sonse of 

354. Conjugit, Conjux is either a hus- 
band or a wifu ; hcre the formcr. Palltda : 
pale in a wonderful manner. Ot: in the 
senso of vultunu 

356. J^Tudavit : laid bare the crue! altars, 
at which he was slain. Rttexit : disclosed 
— brought to light. 

358. Recludit: shows, or opens to her, 
&c. Justin tolls us that Sichieus, for fear 
of the king, buried his money in the carth, 
fbaring to kcep it in his house ; but no one 
knew the place of its dcposit during hif 

362. Paratm. Tyre, being a groat com- 
mcrcial city, in the ordinary course of bnai- 
nc8R, many sliips might be preparcd and 
rcady for sou. The verb nait is to be sup- 

3f^4. Opes oron, kc Either the woaltb 
of SichiRus, which Pygmalion now imagin- 
cd his own ; or along wiUi Vi,«e UuBV>aLfid?% 



365. ///( deYendre ad Deven^re locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernes 
locos, ubi Moenia, surgentemque novae Carthaginis 

367. Mercati tuni bo- Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, 
Xum^dietum Byraam de Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. 
"^"r * uimtum ^^Ti ^®^ ^^^ ^"' tandera ? quibui aut venistis ab oi 
^369. 'seTtandSmrqui Qu^ve tenetis iter? Quoerenti tolibus ille 
tiiit voi f Suspirans, imoque trahens a pectore vocem : 

370. Illo suspirans, O Dea, si primi repetens ab origine pei^gam, 
trahensque vocem i pec- gt yacet aHnales nostrorum audire laborum ; 

!r«r,r JS^J! Ante diem clau30 componet vesper Olympo. 
^^ Nos, Troja antiqua, si vestras forte per aures 

376. Tempestas luik Trojae nomen iit, diversa per sequora vectoe, 
forte appulit Libycis orii Forte su^ Libycis tempestas appulit oris. 
noi vectoB per diverwi gum piyg ^noas, raptos qui ex hoste Penatei 
^uora ab antiqua Tro- ^^^^^ ^^^^ mecum, faml super ffithera notui 
380. Meum genui et/ Italiam qusro patnam ; et genus ab Jove sui 
ab Bis denis Phi^^gium conscendi navibus aequor 

Matre Dei monstrante viam, data iata secutu 

Vix septem convulss undis Euroque supersui 

Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyse deserta peragro, 

386. Nec Venus pasia Europ^ atque Asii pulsus. Nec plura querc 

ett etim querentem plura p^ y^^^^ . ^^^^ ^^ interfata dolore esf 


money,Didotookthetrea8ureofherbrother, opened it. CUtuto Olympo : 

and fled with it to Africa. closed. Olympui ii a mounti 

367. Mercati tolum^ &c. This passage ly. The ancienti lupposed il 

hatli been difierently interpreted. Donatus the heavens : from which circ 

ezplains it, of the money being made of poeti placed upon it the cou 

buirs leather, with which she purchased tho It is about a mile and a half 

ground {tolwrn) for the city. Othcrs say, pus is oftcn put for lieaven. 
that she cut ihe hide into very small strings, 376. lit : hath reached, or i 
and by connecting them together, surround- 377. Sud/orte, Ruobus saj 

"^ od twenty-two tladia, or furlongs. Neither Sua vt, says Minelius. 

of these appcars to be the truo solution. 378. Penattt: properly, hc 

The language of the Phcenicians was a dia- See Geor. ii. 505. In tlie i 

lect of the Hebrew, in which language the Alneas savcd his Penaiet fron 

word Botra mcans a fortification, or forti- the Greeks, and took them i 

fted place. The Greeks, mistaking this of his advcntures. See iEn. ii 

meaning of the word, or overlooking it, ra : a Greek acc. in the sensi 
■upposod, from the similarity of the words, 380. ^uaro Italiam : I 8< 

that' it was the same with their Byrta^which country : my descent (jrenut] 

meaos a bulPs hide. Virgil followed the supreme. Dardanus was ai 

common received opinion. Mereati : they one of the founders of the Tr< 

bought tho ground, which they called Byrta^ was the son of Jove. 
from the namo of the deod, &c. This story 381. Bit denit navilnu: 

of the buirs hide, Mr. Rollin observes, is ships. ^quor: in the sense 

Bow generally exploded. It appears, how- porly, any level surface, wl 

•ver, that Dido was to pay the Africans an water. 

annual tribute, aa a quit rent, for the land 332. Seeuiutfata data : fol 

which ohe purchased. This the Carthagi- crees of the gods made in mj 

nians aflorward refused to do, which was \^g ^^ decreos, &c 

373. ijo.,.: and there .hou.d b. !«,„. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^T^, ^^, 
to you to hear, sc . /• «u 

374. AnnaUt: in the sense of Mf/orto;«. *?'"" ^°^ ^^^ ^^^ 
Ctmiponet : the evening star shall shut up the 3^4. Ignotut : a stranger. 
day, before I shall have done my story. This 386. Interfata ett : sbo th' 
if an allusion to the opinion that night shut him in the midst of his gri 
or tealed up tho gata of hoayeu, and tbe day bear the piteoua stoiy no loni 

;EN£IS. UB. I. 








fAawiuis M iittud credo, invisi^ ccelestibus auras 
vililes carpiA, Tyriam qui adveneris urbem. 
Vnire modd, atque iiinc te Rcginae ad limina perfer. 
Ntmque tibi reduces socios classemque rolatam 
Nuntio, et in tutum, versis Aquilonibus, actam : 
N frustra augurium vani docuere parentes. 
Aipice bis senos JTetantes agmine cycnos, 
iiEthere^ quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales uperto 
IWkabat ccelo : nunc terras ordine loiigo 
Aut capere. aut captas jam despectare videntur 
Vi reduces ilLi ludunt stridentibus alis, 
Ct ccctu cinxerc polum, cantusque ded^re : 
Haud aliter puppesque tuae, pubesque tuorum 
Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit ostia velo. 
Perge modd, et, qua te ducit via, dirige gressum 

Dixit : et avcrtens rosea cervice refulsit, 
Ambrosisque coms divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere ; |>edes vcstis defluxit ad imos, 
Et vera incessu patuit Dea. IUe, ubi matrem 
Agnovit, tali fugientem est voce secutus : 
Quid natum toties crudelis tu quo(|ue falsis 
Ludis imaginibus ? cur dextrs jungere dextram 
NoD datur, ac veras audire et reddere voces ? 
Tdibus incusat, gressumque ad mcenia tendit. 
Ax Venus obscuro gradientes aere sepsit, 
Gt multo nebul® circum Dea fudit amictu 


387. QuiBqaiies,haud 
crcdo, ut tu carpiB yita- 
les aura«, invLBue cfl»- 
lestibuB, (}ui 

390. Nuiitio tibi socioa 
esse roducRft, claraeinqaa 
rclatain esse, el actaiii 
iu tutum loeum 

394. Quo8 alei Jovii 
395 l&psa ex aithoroa pimK& 



407. Quid tu qaoqu«, 
O crudelis maier^ totiM 
iudis natum falsis 

410 410. Ille incusat eam 
talibus verbis 


387« CtdeMtibut : in the sense of mperit. 
388. CarpiM : jou brcathe the vital air, &c. 
390l lUdtieet : retumed safe— brought 

JVt parenies vani : unless my parents 
VwUy taught me divination in vain — to no 
Unless through a love of vanity 
CMt«ntation, they taught, Sic, Hejne 
that a pereon may be called vanut^ 
who prooiises what he cannot perform, or 
pro fc ii es a false or useless doctrine. ^etam: 
m. Uie sense of proveeiam, 

SM. Aiet Jooit: the bird of Jove— the 
•aglo. JSEiherea plagd: from the etherial 
ngMB. Agmine: iii a fiock. Turbaii: 
pvnued— «hascd. 

998. Ifvne videniur: now they soem to 
dB oo— the ground where to alight, in a 
Imw train : or to look down upon it chosen 
HM selected. By alighting, they would be 
Mi of danger from Uioir pursuer. 

307. Redueet : in the sense of iuii, Siri' 
^kmHbuM : flapping^making a whizzing 

388. Dedvre : in the senae of emiteruni. 
tiM ; the same in sense with iui 
Cimxere polum: and have made a 
m the beavens in company. Polut^ 
ii properly the pole ; but by synec. is often 
pot finr tho whole heavon, or any part there* 
Fowla in a fiock uaually fly aronnd, ma- 
or more circles in the air before 

they alight. By doing this, they descend 
with more ease and safety. 

403. Ambrosm: an adj. from ambrotia^ the 
food of the gods, according to the poets ; 
perfumed with ambrosia. Veriiee: in the 
sense of capite, Spiravere : in tlie sense o£ 

405. Pahiit vera Dea, The poet here 
mentions four cliaracteristicB of divinity : 
hor rosy-colored neck — ^her ambrosial locks 
— her long ilowing robe, (which she had 
gathorcd up in a knot to prevcnt discovery,) 
and her gait, or motion. It was the opi- 
nion of the ancients that their divinitios did 
not move upon the ground, but giided along 
the surface with a regular motion. By 
these signs, ^neas knew hcr to be Venus, 
whom he had hitherto taken for a Lybian 
virgin. Foce : in tlie sense of verbit, 

408. Ludit : in the sense of deeipie 
Imaginibut : forms — figures. Vercu: trae 
— real — not diBsembled. 

411. Gradienies: eo« is understood. The 
poet here hath in his view that passage of 
the Odyfwey, whore Pallas sprcads a veil of 
air around Uiysses, and renders him invi- 

412. Cireumfudit. The parU of tlie 
verb are separated by Tmeais, for tho sake 
of the verse : she surroanded them with 
the thick garment of a cloud, t lat no one 


Cernere ne quis eos, neu «luis contingeTO poM 
Molinve moram, aut veniendi poscere causas. 
Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit, sedesque revisit 

416. Ubl eti tmplum L^ita suas ; ubi templum illi, centumque Sabi 
'"* Thure calent arie, sertisque recentibus halant 

Corripuere viam interea, qua semita monsti 
Jamque ascendebant collem, qui plurimus urli 
Imminet, adversasque aspectat desuper arces. 
Miratur molem i£neas, magalia quondam : 
Miratur portas, strepitumque et strata viarum 

4t3. Pam tiMlal . du- Instant ardentes Tyrii : pars ducere muros, 

Molinque arcem, et manibus subvolvere saxa 
Pars optare lucum tecto, et concludere sulco. 
Jura magistratusque legunt, sanctumque sena 
Hic portus alii eflbdiunt : hic alta theatris 
Fundamenta locant alii, immanesque columna 

4S9. Ezcidiintque im- Rupibus exciduiit, scenis decora alta futuris. 
Boanet columnas i rupi- Qualis apes ajstate nova per florea rura 

"JJ"^'*!*' Jr uk^. ..* Excrcet sub sole labor, cum gentis adultoa 
43U. JLorum laDor e«i ,. , „ . v 1« ^* n 

UUitn quaiis exercei apoM Lducunt f(£tus, aut cum nqiientia mella 

Stipant, et dulci distendunt nectare cellas ; 
Aut onera accipiunt venientQm, aut, agmine 1 
Ignavum, fucos, pecus a prflpsepibus arcent. 
Fervet opus, redolcntque thymo fragrantia in 


414. Molin: to causo— make. 424. MoUri: to erect— boi] 

415. Paphum: a city of Cyprus, an 425. Pars aptare: a part (', 
ialand in tho north-eastem part of the Mo- on) to eelect the ground for bu 
diterranean sca, dcdicatcd to Venus. Vcrbs and to mark it out by a furro^ 
of motion to a place have the acc. af\or andlayoif thestreetsandsqua 
tliom. 426. Legunt: in the seni 

416. Sabceo thure : with Arabian frank- Jura: hy meton. tlie courts o 
Incense. Sabao: an adj. from Saba^ a place where justice is a*dmini 
country of Arubla Fclix, abounding in chooBe the place for thc courtg 
frankincense. Hli : for her — in honor of 427. TheatrU : for the theati 
her. for public exhibitions. 

417. Halant: emit odour from freeh g^ar- 429. Excidunt: they cut, o 
lands — wreatliH of floweni. Calent : bum 430. J^ova cutaU : in the 
^-are hot. suminer. 

419. Co//em. Thishill was probably noar 431, Sub tole: for perdiem 

the city, from the top of which the whole Educunt : lead out. Liquc 

eity appeared in full view. It seems that it sense of pura, This Bne \ 

rose above the walls, so that you looked the industry of the Carthagi: 

down upon it from above. Imminet : iin- ing tho buildings of thcir c' 

pende—overlooks. P/urtmia: in tbesense works of improvemcnt, to th 

of vtMi^ or maximi, mirees : in the sense siduity of the bees in collecti 

•f iurres, arranging tho business of the 

421. Miratur moiem : he wonders at the from flomcr, who compares t 
magnitude of the city, where there were of the Grecian troops froni t 
onee only cottages. tcnts, to the issuing of bces fr 

422. Strata xwrum : the paved work of 433. Stipant : tliey lay up t 
ihe streets — causeways. Cella*: the comb. 

423. ArdenteM. An adj. or part. closely 435. Areenl : they drive £ 
connectcd with a verb is more elegantly the drones, an idle herd. ' 
translated by its corresponding advcrb. niale bces. See Geor. iv. 
7\/rii ardenle* instant : the Tyrians cagerly faeto : a battalion bcing form 
push on the work. The ardentes strongly 436. Opus fenct : thc worj 
marks tlioir zeal and activity. Dueere : in on. It is a mclaphor takon fr 
iae nense of extendere* nf watnr. 


(i, quonim jani moBnia surgunt ! ^ 

l : et (kfitigia suspicit urbis. 
leptus nebulft, mirabile dictu, 
)&, miacetque ?iris : neque cemitur uJli. 441) 
in urbe fuit mcdii, Istissimus umbra ; 
um jactati undis et turbine Pobni 
ixx> sigiium, quod regia Juno 
it, caput acrifl equi : sic nam fore bello 
, et (acilem victu per saecula gentem 445 

lum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido 
, donb opulentum et numine Divs : 
gradibus surgebant limina, nexseque 
39 : fbribus cardo stridebat ahenis. 
um in luco nova res oblata timorem 450 

ic pnmum iEneas sperare salutem 
afflictis melius confidere rebus. 
sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 
opperiens ; dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 
que manus inter se o|>erumque laborem 455 
videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas, 
jam fam& totum vulgata per orbem ; 
i^riamumque et «evum ambobus Achillem. 
et lachrymans : Quis jam locus, inquit, Achate^ 


44S. Qao loco P«n 
jactati undia, ei turbine 
primuiii effod^re fig- 
num, nempe caput aens 

444. Nam sic montint' 
vU goniem fore ofregi*' 
am beilo, et facilem vip* 
tu per ■ecula 

pfi tiefore : for thus (by thia ngn) 
i that the nation ^hould be illua- 
&r, and yictorioue through ages 
conquer through ages. Rueus 
''aciUm vietu^ bjr aplam vivere eUer^ 
leriving vic/u from trtvo, 1 iive. 
Lh more propriety, derive it from 
nquer; making the meauing to 

conquer through ages — victo- 
e supine in u hath boUi an active 
'0 signihcation ; but most fre- 
\ latter. The former is the mean- 

lonia : an adj. from Sidofh a fa- 

of Phcsnicia, not far to tho north 

ubject to the same govemmont. 


mine Dica : with the presence of 

ut. By tliis we are probably to 

1 some rich statue of the goddess, 
Bt up in the temple. 

t mrea Hmina: to which the bra- 
lold roee in steps, &c. — whose 
ishold, icc Cltt .* in the sense of 
( is common with Virgil. 

ibes: those most probab]jr were 
tosts, which were framod or fas- 
ther with brasF. 

'\fidere : in the senso of tperare^ 
s. Ctepit nune habere magi* fidu- 
^ortuntF^ beni de ea sperare^ says 

^la, Singuli properly mcans 
>ne by one, OwmiM signifies all^ 

coUectivoly or indiyidually. Cimefuf» mU 
by parts, and umvernu^ the tcAe/e. 

454. Opperient: waiting for the queen. 
Dum miralur: whila he wondera at tho 
fortune of the city ; and at the skii! of the 
artists, and the difficulty of the work, {inier 
te^) by tums. Rueus refers Uie inter te to 
the hands of the worknicn, agrccing with ^ 
one anotlior, manut art\ficum, In tliis caso 
the sonse wiJl be : he contemplates the skill 
displayed in the workmanNhip and tho mag- 
nitude of the work by turas — he comparoi 
them togethor. Bui La Cerda observos, 
that by manut artifieumy the skiU of tho art- 
ists, we are probably to undorstand tho 
painUngs of the Trojan battle8,and tho othet 
events of that war, which £nca» naw on his 
entering the temple, and whirh ornaiiiented 
its Halb: while operum taboran^ mny refer 
to the temple itself — the inagnitudn, and 
diiBculty of rearing such a magnificent edi- 
fice. Foriuna: Uiis Ruibus interprcts by 
/eliettat, Jdanm: properly the haiid: bj 
meton. art, skill. 

456. Fidei, Iliaeat pupnat, Dr. Tmpp. 
obscrves, thore never was a finer pifiun; ol 
a picture than this. Virgil iii a few verycs. 
selects the most striking, aiid bi>aiilifui 
scenes in the Iliad, proper for thc puinler. 

458. Atridat: acc. plu. ofAtridtr, tlir ><otii 
of Atreus, Agamemnon, and MtriKiauK.— 
Against the loimer, Achillex hiid a (|uar- 
rel on account of the boautiiul /insaetM^ a 
captivc. Hp withdrew witii Ium trooi»*. aiid 
refui*ed to U&ke any parl wvvU U\« Qt%^a^ 


QuiB regio in terris nostri non plena laborit . 
£n PriamuB : sunt hic etiam sua pnemia laudi 
Sunl lachrymie reruni, et mentem mortalia tan; 
Solve nietua : feret han: ahquam tibi fiima sahu 
Sic ait : atque animum picturd paacit inani^ 
Multa gemens, largoque hiimectat flumine vuh 
Namque videbat, uti beliantes Pei^ma circ 
4«7. UU bollantet ji^c fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventin 
Orau fbgeront hic cir- ^^^^ Phrygcs, instaret cumi criatatus AchiUes. 
lana juventua premerct Nec procul huic Rhem niveis tentoria vclw 
eof ; hac Phryges /uge- Agnoscit lachrymans : primo c|U8e prodita soni 
rent^ dum criBtatus Tydides multi vastabat caede cruentus : 
Adiilki insuret tu i Ardentesque avertit equos in castra, priusqu&i 
'°5?i C»traO««or«« P*»»"'* gu8ta»ent Troj«, XanAumque bibi>« 
pridMulim Parte aha fugiens amissis Troilus armis^ 

Infelix puer, atque iinpar congressus Achilli, 
Fertur equis, curruque haeret resupinus inanit 
Lora tenens tamen : huic cervizque coroequo 
Per terram, et versi pulvis inscribitur hasti. 
Interea ad templum non aequs Palladis ibant 
ASUTunm quoad pec" Crinibus lliades passis, peplumque ferebant 
tora palmia Suppliciter tristes, et tunsae pectora palmis. 


tiii afler the death of Patroclue, whora Hec- the firet night of bia arrival, ai 

tor ■lew in battle. Some copies have ^tri' hie horsei to the Greciao cam] 

defLt which appears to be tho moro correct; 470. QtME prodiia: which b< 

for we have no account that Achillee had in the first nigrht, ftc. Somno : 

any dieagrcement wilh Menelaut. The am^ of noete. See £n. 11. 242. 

bobut refers to Agameninon and Priam. 472. Ardentet: in the Beuse 

Aohillei aflerwards slew Hoctor, and igno- 473. Xanthum: a river of 

miniously treated hii dead body. He re- oul of mount Ida, and fiowin^ 

\ fused to rostorn it to Priam, till he received lespont. It b the same with 

a iarge sum of money as a ransom. der. 

460. Jfostri laboret : our suflerings, cala- 474. Tr&iluM. A son of P 
mities. calls liim puer^ probably on a 

461. Laudi: in the sense here of virtutu age. He was slain by Achillc 

462. Lachryma rerum: tears for our af- 475. Impar congresnts Ach 
flictions — compassion for our calamities or qual matchfor Achilles: — orn 
•aiTeringrs. Mortaiia : an adj. neu. plu. ta- les, an unequal match is draw 
ken as a sub. human ealamiiies, pinus: on his back, he hangs J 

465. Largo Jlumine: a large flood of ty chariot. 

teara. 478. Hasta veirsd, Tlie dur 

466. Pergama : neu. plo. In the sing. ed with the spear of Troilus ; 
PergamuMy properly the citadel of Troy, spcar of Achillos, which ha 
built on the highest ground. wheiice the body ; and as he lay on his L 
whole city could be e^en. Here, and in said to be inverted ; its point 
many othcr places, put for the city itielf; ward. Uuie: in the scnie of 
by lynec. BtUnntes : valiant — warlike. 479. J^^on <rauat Paiiadis : < 

46B. Crutatus: plumed— wRaringapIume. kind— oflendea on accouut< 

inttaret : in the seiise of premerei. of Paris, in the conteat of be 

469. Rhen, Rheius, kmg of Thrace, and her, Juuo, and Venus. 

reputed 80D of Mars. When he camo to a^ 480. liiaits: the Trqjan 

sii»t the Trojans, it was reportcd, as a deerce aishevelled hair, wcnt, &o. I 

of tlie god.**, that if hifi horses should drink us (Iliad. 6. 302.) that aft 

of tho wfttor of the river Xauthus, or taste slaughter of the Trojans, H« 

th« gniMH of Troy, the city should not bc Trojau inatrou:* weut in solen 

taken. Oii his arrival, he encamped on tho witli every cxternal sign of i 

ihorn, whon ho was betrayed by one Dolon temple of Pulhis, carrying tb 

to l>luiiii!do, and Ulysses, who alew him oa sents, in hope to render hei 

iRNElS. IJB. 1. 191 

> fizo6 oedos averea tenebat. 

im Iliacoa raptaverat Hectora muros, 

mque auro corpus vendebat Achilles. 

erd ingentem gemitum dat pcctore ab imo, 

, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici, 486 

tmque manus Priamum conspexit inermea. 

e principibus permixtum agndvit Achivia, 

acies, et nigri Memnonis arma. 

(lazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 490 

ea furens, mediisque in millibus ardet, 

bnectens ezertae cingula mammae, 

audetque viris concurrere virgo. 493. VirgoqiM Mib- 

um Dardanio iEneae miranda videntur, necteo» aurea oia^la 

let, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno : 496 J^JJ^. "JJ^J^ ^*^ 

d templum, formi pulcherrima Dido, ^ «♦ a e 

nnagni juvenum stipante caterva. 

EurotsB ripis, aut per juga Cynthi 
Diana choros, quam mille secutie 499 

je hinc glomerantur Oreades : illa pharetram 
ero, gradiensque Deas supcreminet omnes : 
icitum pertenUint gaudia pectus. 


I. Peplum : thii wia the richest peUU : her troope (armed) with cnmuent 

its, embroidored by the Sidonian shields. She was ilain by Achilles; some 

the most costly manner, and say by his son Neoptolemus. Furem : eaf ef 

f Paris from Sidon. This they — courageous. 

thc goddess, hopingr she would 493. BtUatrix virgo : the warlike virffin, 

by it to regard thcur sufferings. binding a golden girdle undor her naked 

parU of the verb pandor, sprcad, broast, dares, &c. It was a custom of the 

^ loosc. Amazons to cut or scar one of their breasts 

ena : in the sense of offerua. that it might be no hindrance to thcir shoot- 

hUies rapiaverai. See iEn. 2. 542. ing or darUng of the javelin ; theotherthey 

spolia eofupexit : as he boheld bound with a girdle. Tho word Amaton \m 

as he bcheld the chanot, &c. Tho compounded of the Greck alpha ncgativum, 

^exU 18 to be repeated with each and a word which signifies a breoMt: imply- 

plam, from the repctition of the ing that they had only one breast See nom. 

vcnws 18 of the same tender nature prop. under AmaMon. 

'^'ki\\'of^LB'^^^^ 4^4- •^^^«•- wonderful-worthy of 

*.. ^j^u^ : -«-^ ^l ° admiration. It is to be taken with the verb 

«u _i ip .• u sense of stat. 

^.vfU nnw l^HTi-^^t ?^ f ; 497. IneesHt: approached. Sce 46. supra. 
evcry now and thim fctchmg a ^^3 ^^^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ . „ j^.^^ 

Corpus amu:t : the hody of leads thc dance on thebanks of Eurotas,or 

I are to understana. over the tops of Cynthns, whom a thousand 

*rmes: unarmed — supphant. Of _ * : u j », r ^» 

. '^'^ mountain nymphs surround, &c Euroias^ 

mniH^. Momnon the son of Au- J "^f °/ ^««^^ "?51,??"J?; *th^!?"J'^ 
rithonus, the son of Laomcdon, «^"ous for hunting. C>/A.: Cynthus was 

oy. He came to the assistanco of ^'"^""^;^ "" ^^rJ? ""^ ""^^ ?« Itl^ 

1. wilh many troops from India P^^^t ''^ ^>^ ^'^Y^^^' "» ^*»«-« 

pia. Hc wai slai^by Achillcs. oi ghmerant. See Ed . iv. 10. 

irarthy— alluding to his color. ^- Oreades: mountain nymphs ; froma 

: eastern troops. Greck word which sigiiifiesa mountain. Soe 

fUkesUea. She was queen of the ^cl. ii. 46. 

wbo came to the aid of the Tro- 502. Latona. Latona, the mother of DK- 

Lhe dcath of Hector. Her troops ana and Apollo. Joy pervaded her silent 

d with bucklers in the form of a breast at the sigbt of the graco nd dignity 

ir half-moon. Agmina ittnatxs of her daughter. 

188 ^* VlRGIl.ll MAKONIS 

Talis orat Dido, talem se lcta ferel>at 
Per medios^ instans operi regnisque futura. 
Tuia foribus Div», medil testudine templi, 
Septa armb solioque alte subniza, resedit. 
Jura dabat legesque ^nris, operumque laboreni 
Partibus equabat justis, aut sorte trahebat ? 
Cum subitd iEne|LS, concursu accedere magni 
Anthea Sergestumque videt, fortemque Cloao 
Teucrorumque alios : atcr quos squore turbf 
Dispulerat penitusque alias avcxerat oras. 
Obstupuit simul ipso, simul |>erculsu8 Achatei 

614 Ambo aTidi arde- Lcetiti^lque metuque ; avidi conjungere dextra 

Ardebant : sed res animos incognita turbat. 
Dissimulant, et nube cavli speculantur amicti, 

617. Qu» fortuna sit Q^g^ fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquaitf 

518 06quid vemant* Q^^ veniant : cunctis nam lecti navibus ibai 
nam homines ' Orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebar 

520. Intro^ssi tuni^ Postquam introgressi, et corikm data copia 
ttt copia fandi corara re- Maximus llioneus placido .<ic pectore C(ppit : 
gma data ut uiu q pegina, novam cui condere Jupiter urbemt 

Justitiique dedit gentes frsenare superbas * 

524. JV(MmiBeriTroo8, Troes le miseri, ventis maria omnia vecft, 
^'•^ f^ Oramus : prohibe infandos a navibus ignes ; 

Parce pio generi^ et propius res aspice nostn 
Non nos aut ferro Libycos popuiaro Penatos 
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere prsedaa, 
Non ea vis animo, nec tanta suporbia victis. 


603. Talis erat Dido : such was Dido. 512. ./^vexero/: badcarried^ 

Tbe comparison hcre botween Diana and far remote. 

Dido ifl Uken from the Ody8«e>. Prohus 5^5^ Speculaniur: they ca 

conBideredthopassagetobecopicdunliappi- jg the fortune of thoir frien 

ly by Virgil. Tho coniparison, acrording to coast they had left their fleet ; 

Scaligor lies in tlicso particulars: quemad- poge they camc thither. For ra 

modumDiana inmonttbut^ ita Dido inurbe: z^n ly ■ r 

iUa inier nymphas, hac inier matrona* : Ula P,C' ^^}^^ • ,.'^■^^"1 ^ 

imtan, venatirib^. h^ urbi. "i^^l^ * ^'y' lamentmg the hai 

605. Foribus Diva, In tfae intcrior part ^<>"""®- 

of the temples, there waa a place separatcd 521. Maximus : the chiel 

from the rest by a wall, or vail, called tlie Rpeakor. Plaeidopeetore: fron 

Adytum or Ptnetrale. Here the poet sup. brcast. A composed breast, 

poses Juno to havc had an image or statue, l^^tes the voice and speoch. 

or ■ome symbol of her prcsence. The door — liberty. 

or gate that lcd to it he thercfore calls tho 523. Frcenare : to restrain 

ioor ofthe goddess. Medid testudine : under with justice — with iaws. By 1 

the middle of the arch, or canopy. Subnixa we may understand the Ni 

alii: raised high on athrone, she sat down. other warlike nations of Afri 

ForiXnu : forcs, propcriy folding doors — bors. For superbas^ Rucus 1 

opening on both sides. It has no singular. 525, Prohibe : avert ^tui 

606. Septa armis : surrounded by her fandos: direful — cruel. 
pards. Armis. by nieton. for the mcn bear- ^^ ^ .^^^, p^^^^ . ^^^ 

c««*"ri . , . .. j • ^» r tory, or scttlcments : or, simp 

607. Dabat jura : dispensed justice. Jus. <^ * «^ 

properly a natural law, or right: Ler, a ^ ' . 

writtcn or statuto law : /a«, a divine law. 528. Fertere m the seni 

609. Concursu : a crowd. MultUudine, Raptas pradas : the plundi 

«ayi R1HPU8. booty. 

61 1. Avtdi : eagor. See 423. supra. Ar- 529. Vis : in thesense of t 

dAant : in the seuse of cupiebani, verb est is undorstood. 


s, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt ; OSO 

itiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebse : 

coluere Tiri ; nunc fama, minorcs 532 None fftpi^ ui 

lixissse, ducis de nomine, gentem. minoroa 

-8U9 fuit. 

litd assurgens fluctu nimbosus Orion 536 

C4eca tulit, penitusque procacibus Austris 536. ProcaabiMqua 

jndas, superante salo, perquc invia saxa AuBtrif dispulit not i^- 

: hiic pauci vestris adnavimus oris. "**"■ perque uDiiM. 

enus hoc hominum ? qua?ve hunc tam barbara ^^'^^^ S,7A „«„„. h« 
. » , . . . » . 5J9. Quod genus ho 

t patna : nospitio prohibemur arcnse : [morem minum est hoc ? quevc 

:nt, prim^que vetant consistere terra. 541 patri&t&m barbara per- 

i hiunanum et mortalia temnitis arma ; mittit 

ite Deos memores fandi atque nefandi. ^' Sperate Deon we 

t .Eneas nobis, quo jiLstior alter "^^' Quo nec ftut al- 

ate fuit, nec bello major et annis ' 545 ter jiutior tn pietatn, 

fata Tinmi serTant, si vescitur auri nec major bollo 


esperiam. Italy hath boen called 543. At nerait : but expect that the g:odf 

1* names : Hfsperia^ (which wan are mindfuJ of right and wrong. Fandi at^ 

abo lometimeii givon to Spain,) que nefandi: gerundf in </t, of the verb 

aerut tho brothcr of Atla«, king of for ; in the senre of /a# and nefa» : for what 

ia, in Africa ; or from Hespentt^ is right and juit may be spoken ; but what 

! of the Btar Venm^ when it goes is unjust, we may not speak. 

le 8un, and signifieii, a settint;^ or The meaning of the paflsage is : if TO 

From which circumstancc, the despise the human race, and tear not tbe 

the eaetward of tkose countries just punishment from men, which thia sa- 
ftly Magna Hesperia^ and Spain, vage and barbarous conduct deBurveii, know 
Siinor: (Knotria^ from (Enotnis^ thut the gods are mindful of right and 
' the Sabinee, or from a son of wrong, and will not fail to reward or pu- 
king of Arcadia, of that nanie : niith accordingly. Mortalia arma : Rueos 
from the Ausones^ an ancicnt pco- says, vindietam hominum^ tiie vengeance of 
.t country ; and lastly, Italia^ from men 

king of Sicily ; or, as some say, 544. Qud jtutior alter^ ilc. Here we haT« 

•eck word Bignifyinfr cattle^ bccauso a summary of ^neas' charactcr, pieijf and 

lundcd thero. Dieunt: in tlie ra/or. Tho first comprchends dovotion to 

rocant, the godii, and all tlie moral virtUM. It 

here : richneai — fertility. Cogno- shows him a tendor son, an aflTectionate fa- 

thc .Henye of nomine, ther, and husband. He bore his father upon 

'notni riri : 8tmply,tho QSnotrians his shoulders, and led his little son through 

it. Jtinores : thoir descendants. the flames of Troy to a place of safoty. 

rion: a constellation in thc hca- And having lost his wife in the gene- 

riscs with tbe sun in thc month of ral confusion of that fatal night, hn Ten- 

was supposed to have an influcnce tured into the midst of encmies in search 

weather ; hence the epithet nim- of her ; nor did he cease, till iier ghost ap- 

will appcar hence, that the time peared to him, and badc him to dcsist : sod 

(* arrival at Carthage, was some on all occasions, Ascauius appears tbe dar» 

hat mo-.ith. He remaincd there ling of his soul. .£neas was uImo a patriot, 

itter part of the following winter, and firmly attached to the intercsts of hia 

let «ail for Italy, where he arrived, country. In valor and prowess in war, ho 

1 supposes, some timo in tiie spring. appears on all occasions tlie real hero. Ho- 
n the sense of mari. mer rcpresents him tecond onlv to Hector* 
tstris proeaeibtu : by violent iinnds. He was tho first to resist Achilles on hia 
here put for wind in goneral, and retum afler the death of Patroclus. Ho 
lie south wind, which would have did notengagehim,buthemanifestedaailiD 
n from Afirica. Tulit: carried, or and determined courage. Wosee then hom 
7mea : in tho sense of trtenlia, justly he is characterized by, nee belto mafor 
ilo: in the eense of mari. For et armis. But his piety and moral virtnea 
I, Heyne says vehementibus. have cnnobled his charactcr more than all 
naftti^mir : we ire prohibited from his deeds of valor. 

it of tho ihora 646. VemlMT ; m tbn wnM ot «|«roU 


iEtherel, neque adhuc crudelibus occulNit 
648. Non iit metus Non metus, oilicio nec te certlsse priorem 
iio6u, ncc poeniteat te Pojniteat. Sunt et Siculis regionibus urbes, 
SSc""" '^''^''"'* Armaque, Trojanoque a sanguine clarus Ao 

551. Liceat 7106« sub- Quassatam ventis liceat subducere classem, 
ducere ad Urram clae- £t sylvis a[)tare trabes, et stringere renios. 
lem quamtam Si datur Italiam, sociis et rege recepto, 

654. Ut iBti petamua Tendcre, ut Italiam laeti Latiumque petamiH 
datuJl^^Tn^^u" Sin absumpta salus, et te, pater optime Teuc 
nan ad Italiam, socus, et Pontus habet Libyae, nec spes jam restat lul 

655.SinBalusabsump- Ut freta Sicaniie saltem sedesque paratas, 
ta etl, et pontus Libye Unde huc advecti, regemque petamus Acesl 

^*?!i ^^\? **?^'™*' . Talibus Ilioneus : cuncti simul ore &emebaii 
557. Ut saltcm peta- t\ ^ «j 

mns fteta Sicani» pa- Dardanidae. ... 

ratasque sedes, unde Tum breviter Dido, vultum demissa, profi 

«dvecti tumuM huc Solvite corde metum, Teucri, secludite cura 

560. Ilioneus orabat Res dura, et regni novitas me talia cogunt 

taiibas v^bU, ^^ ^Qiiri, et late fines custode tueri. 

fuUum ""*** ^^*^***^^ Quis genus iEneadfim, quis Trojae nesciat v 

Virtutesquc, virosque, et tanti incendia belli 
Non obtusa aded gestamus pectora Poeni : 
Nec tam aversus equos Tyni Sol jungit ab 
669. Seu vos optatis Seu vos Hesperiam magnam, Satumiaque a 

■"•■*•"* Sive Erycis fines, regemque optatis Acesteii 

Auxilio tutos dimittam, opibusque juvabo. 
Vultis et his mecum pariter considere regni 
Urbem quam statuo, vestra est; subducite 
Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetu 


Ueoibat: lies dead — yields up his life to 567. Pani geslamtu: wc 

Uie cruel shadcs. do nut carry with ua hcart 

549. Et : in tho senso of etiam^ or quoque, as to disrcgard the suficrinj 

550. Aee$te». See £n. v. 30. men. 

552. Et aptare : and to fit (procure) spars 568. JVVr tam averrut : nc 
in the wood, to supply the place of those so far from the Tyrian city 
that had been broken, or lost in the violence to his chariot. 

of the storm and waves. Stringert remos : This is an allusion to an 

to cut our oars — to cut timbcr, of which to ancients, that the inhabitai 

mmke oars. mates are less susceptible oi 

557. Freta, Fretum is properlv a nar- humane feelings, than thof 

row sea, or strait : here used for the sea in mates. 

Sneral. Ut, Most copies have a/, but 669. Satumia arva : the 

e former is prrferable. Adveeti: in the — Itaiy. See £cl. iv. 6. . 

•ense ofpulsu erful, or great ; to distii 

560. Fremebant ore : they applauded with Spain, which was sometimt 

their moutli — they expressed their approlta- ria Minor, 

tion of his specch. Dardanida: tho Tro- 570. Fines Eryeis: the < 

jans ; so called from Dardanut. They wore Sicily^ where Eryx reigned. 

also called Tciirn, from Teueer^ both foim- 571. Opibus. This refei 

ders of Troy. See 1, supra. ancc which Dido would affc 

563. Dura ret: the difHcuIt statc of my vealih. Parvter : on equal 

affairs. Moliri : in tlie sense offacere. ditions. Et : in the sonse c 

565. Genus ^neadiim : the ancestry of the 573. Urbem quam : urbe 
Trojans — ^the stock from which they sprung. antiptosis. Some take i 
Mneadoi: the Trojans; from •/£nea«, thoir quamurbem statuo: which 
leader. is yours. 

566. Virtutet: illustrious actions. Virot: 574. Agetur : shall bo t 
heroes. sitn^ differenco — distinc^ii 

iENElS. LIB. I. 


Alque utinam rex ipse Noto compulsus eodem 
Afiiret «^neas ! Equidem per litora certos 
IHimttam^ et Libyae lustrare extrema jubebo ; 
Si quibus ejectus sylvis aut urbibus errat 

His animum arrecti dictis, et fortis Achates, 
Et pater iEneas, jamdudum erumpere nubem 
Ardebant : prior iEneam compellat Achates : 
Nite Dea, quc nunc animo sententia surgit ? 
Oninia tuta vides, classem, sociosque receptos. 
Uqus abest, medio in fluctu quem vidimus ipsi 
Submersum : dicUs respondent ca;tera matris. 
Vix ea fatus erat, cum circumfusa repente 
Scindit se uubes, et in ffithera purgat apertum. 
Resdtit ^neas, clardque in luce refulsit, 
Os, humerosque Deo similis : namque ipsa decoram 
CBnriem nato genitrix, lumenque juventas 
Porpureum, et letos oculis afHarat honores. 
Quale manus addunt ebori decus, aut ubi flavo 
Argentum Pariusve lapis circumdatur auro. 

Tum sic reginam alioquitur, cunctisque repente 
hprovisus ait : Coram, quem quseritis, adsum 
Troius iEneas, Libycis ereptus ab undis. 
iola infandos Trojae miserata labores ! 
QoB nos, relliquias DanaOm, terraeque marisque 
Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omnium egcnos, 
Urbe, domo sociaa. Grates persolvere dignas 
Non opis est nostne, Dido : nec quicquid ubique est 
Gentis Dardaniie, magnum qiis sparsa per orbem : 
Di tibi (si qua pios respectant numina, si quid 
Uiquam justitiae est, et mens sibi conscia recti,) 

575 575. Utinam Aneai 
ipse, vetier rez, &fibret| 
compulBUs eodcm noto. 

578. Siforti ilU ejoc 
tas errat in quibus sjl 
580 ^^ ^^^ uxbiboa* 


589. SimUit Deo, 
59Q qiuKui of, huiuoro«qu« 

595. £g^o Troius^neaa 
595 adsum coram vob%»% 
queiii qutentis 

597. O tu sola miMn- 

598. QuflB sociaii noe 
tn vtstra urhe, et dom% 

600 relliquias Daimuin, ox- 
hauHtOB Jam oumibui 

601. Ncc e»l upit Dar- 
danioB genti», ubiqua 
quicquid tjm est, qua 
sparsa tsi per maipium 


876. CerioM : in the ■enie ofjidat, The 
Vv4 komineM ia andentood. 

S77. Exirema: the farthest, or eztreme 
putiof Africa. 

579. ^rrteii animum: animated^encou- 
Mfid in mind. A GreciBm. 

584. Unut aketi : one ia wantlnf . This 
Vai Oroniet, mentioned veiwe 1 1 J, aupra. 
Bb riiip and crew were lost. 

Ma. Cmitra rttpimdenl: the reat anawer 
%lEe. See 390, supra, et leq. 

687. Purt^ai in aptrium: it clears up 

['fiaohrcs) into pure air. Circumfiua nu- 

m: ihe lurrounding cloud — ^the cioud that 

MlWil o had cneomparaed them. Hore Vir- 

|1 iaiitates Horoer, Od/s. Tii. 143. 

589. Aam^ue geniirix : for his mother 
bi breathed npon her eon graceful locks, 
■id Ihe bri^ht bloom of jouth, and a spark- 
b| iutre to hia eyee. Honorts : grace — 

582. Qua/e dtnu : euch beauty art give^, 
feb JWaRiw.' bjr meton. tlie akill of the 

M3. PanMt iapii: tho Parian marble. 
hnii aa iaUad m the iEfean ■ea, famou« 

for its white marble. Cireumdatur: 
compaMed— enchaaed. 

597. Labortt: di8a«tcr8— calaniities. 

599. Exhauttot: wurn out — having un- 
dergone. Soeiat : in thc HeiiKC of rctipiM, 

601. Abn tMi nosira. opis : it is not in our 
power to render you, O Dido, nuitablo 
thanks, nor is it (in the power) of the Tro- 
jan nation, wherever aiiy of it is, which, i:c. 

603. Di tibiferant: iiiay the f^ods grant 
you suitable rewards. Siqmi uumina : i/ 
there be any powers above thut re^ard, 5:c. 
These words are not dosi^ed to cxprLM 
any doubt in tho mind of thc speakcr upon 
the subject. They put an acknowlcdged 
truth in the form of a supposition, tho more 
to strengthen tho conclusion. You 8hall lie 
rewardcd, as sure as thcre arc any goda 
above — as sure as there in any justicc aniong 
men, and any mind conscious to iiMclf ol 
virtue and worth. Kua-us conchidcs the 
parcnthesis at the vcrb cst, The inraning 
willthcnbc: may thc god^ und yoi;r own 
mind, consciou» of its own rcctitudc, re- 
ward you. Others extend it to ciuht^cA 
reclL Hevne hna no ^M«ivW\«i&a Pima 


PnBmia digna ferant. Quie te tam beta tulenii 
SiCcuIa ? qui tanti talem gemiere parentes ? 
In freta dum fluvii current, dum montibus umhi 
Lustrabunt convexa, polus dum sidera pascet ; 
Semper honos, nomenque tuum, iaudeaque muD 

610. QuiDeunque ter- Qu<e me cunque vocant terrae. Sic fatus, amic 
tm vocuit ine Uionea pctit dextr^l, liev^que Serestum ; 

612. Post, peiU alioi, p^^g^ aiios, fortemque Gyan, fortemque CloanU 
rortemque Obstupuit primd as|)ectu Sidonia Dido, 

Casu deinde viri tanto ; et sic ore locuta est : 
Quis te, nate Dei, per tanta pericula casus 
Insequitur ? quas vis inunanibus applicat oris ? 
617. Tu-nfe ef illo Tu-ne iile iEneas, quem Dardanio Anchisse 
^•;r„rD..^dr„!o'^"" Alma Venus PhrygU gcnuit SimointiB ad unda, 

Atque equidem Teucrum memmi Sidona veniri 
Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem 
Auxilio Beli. Genitor tum Belus opimam 
623. Casus Trojan» Vastabat Cyprum, et victor ditione tenebat. 

vu hoetis fepcbat Teu- Trojanae, nomenque tuum, regesque Pelasgi. 
mm Ipse hostis Teucros insigni laude ferebat, 


Hds word signifies virtuous men in geno- inde : in the next place. It bas 

ral; especially the kind, beneficent, and prtm^, in the preceding line. 

fitnerous.' 615. Quif canu: what for 

605. Lata: in the sonse of /e/tcio. Sa» vis: what power driyes jou, &< 

euto; in the sense of tempora. 618. Oenuit: in tho scnse of 

607. Dwn umbra: while the clouds shall 619. Memtni quidem. This 
move around, or cncompass tho mountoins. the son of Telanion, king of t 
RuiBUs says, umbra arborum: the shadcs of Salamis, and Hcsione, daughto 
trees. But with what propriety the shadcs don, king of Troy. On his rel 
of trees can bo said to niove round, or en- Trojan war, he was banished b 
coropass thc mountains, doth not appcar. for not prcvcnting the doath oj 
It certainly is not tlLe meaning of the poet. Ajax, who slew hiinsclf, becai: 

It is wcll known that the tops of high of Achillcs werc adjudgcd to U 

mountains rise above the clouds ; and tho than to him. This unnatural 

region, or elovation of tho douds will be a his fathcr, led him to discluim 

greater or Icss distance below tho summit, ship to him, and to reckon bis 

aecording to Ihe height of the mountain, his mother. Tho poet, by co: 

and the dcnsity of the atmosphere. Coh' circumstance, hath made it , 

MXff : properly the exterior of any round, honor upon the Trojans. 
or circular body. It may then very proper- 621. Beim, See £n. iv. 1. 
ly denote tlic top, or curvcd surface of a 6^. Cyjtrum : an island in 

ntountain; also its sidos. Jdontibut: inthe rancan sca, sacred to Vcnus. 

■ensc of monlium. Conrexa montibut: tho said, she was bom, and had a i 

tops of the mountains. The dat. among the ple. Henco sho was sonietin 

poiats, is of\cn used in the sense of thc gen. Ci/prian Goddttt, Opimam : 

608. Dum poiut: while the hcaven fccds Belus had been at war with U: 
(sQstains) the stars— while there are any of the islaiid, and at that tiir 
itars in thc heavcns. Potut^ properly the ject to him. 

pole; by synec. the wholo hcavens. 624. Pelasgi. These were 

611. Uionea: a Greek acc. of Ilioneut, Thessaly so called froin Pe/a 
Ho was a Trojan, the son of Phorbas. Tiie Lycaon, king of Arcadia, fron 
penult syllahle is naturally short, but it is wore desccnded. They we: 
mde long for the sake of the verse. No- taken for the Greeks in genera 
Ihiiig is known of Serettet, O^fat^ and Cloan" in some other places, used as ) 

further than Virgil infonns us. 625. Ferebat Teuerot : he 

614. Cntu : calamity — ^misfortune. De- Trojans with distiBguiahed pr 


rliiin antif|Ul^ Teucroruni a stirpe volebat. 
gite, 6 tectis, juvenes, succedite nostris ! 

que per inultus similis fortuna lubores 6i8. ShnilM fortima 

n, hic deiniun vuluit consistere terra. voluit me quoque jecu. 

>ara inali, miMris succurrere disco. 630 ^^'^ '""^'^ ^^^ 

lorat, Bimul iEnean in regia ducit ^^^ ^ 

(imul Divihn templis indicit honorem. 

nus interea sociis ad litora mittit 633. Mittit muiiM 

tauroa, magnorum liorrentia centum «ociie ad litora, nttnft 

uum, pingues centum cum matribus agnos 635 ^'K*"^ ^"~^ ^"'**^ 
, laHitiamque Dei. 
»mus interior regali splendida luxu 
ir, mediisque parant convivia tectis. 

lorats vestes, ostroque superbo : 639. HW wvni vettM 

irgentum mensis, cceiataque in auro 640 lalw^at* arte 

icta patrum, series longissima rerum 
ducta viros antiquae ab origine gentis. 
is (neque enim patrius consistere mentem 

Linor) rapidum ad naves praemittit Acliaten, 645. Ut ferat hso Ae» 

ferat hjec, ipsumque ad mcenia ducat. 645 <^»0' du.cmique 

n Ascanio chari stat cum parentis. . J"^' i™l «?«]!^ 

« ... *. . lenre teeum rounera 

preterea, Iliacis erepta ruinis, erepu ex lliacie ruiiiie. 

ibet, pallam signis auroque rigentem, tumpe pallam 


alebatque te: and he wished (it to 636. Laiiliam Dei: the joj of the god 

ercd) that he eprang from the an- (BaceAu*— wine.) Thia is a oeautiAil cir- 

ck of the Trojans. Ue sprang cumlocution. The opinions of cominenta- 

t stock b/ Hesione, the daujrhter tors upon this pasiage are varioua. Tho 

edon, who waa the fifth from Teu- sense, however, is eaav. The queen Mnt 

Dardaniu, the founden of Troy. them present* (munera) of twonty bulla, ■ 

r. iii. 35. For volebai^ Rubui Bays hundred swine, and wine to cheer their 


lobore»: in the MnjM of e<uta. 637. Jnitrior domuM: the inncr part of 

iaii. This is a fine vene. The the palace, itself splendid, was fumiahed 

t ia worthy of the most distinguish- with royal magnificenco. 

ctcr. Memorai: in the aenM of 639. JStqterbo: rich— coatly. Laboral»: 

finely wrought. 

mdieii honorem: she orders an of- 640. JngenM argenium: much silver (wan) 

> be raadc) in the temples. It was upon the tablos, and the mighty decds oC 

it cnstom to offer libations to Jove, her ancestors carved in gold, a very long 

the god of hospitality, upon the Mries of history, traced down througli so 

f Btrangers. Servius thinks the niany heroes from the origin of tiieir an- 

tdieii honorem^ mean, that she or- cient family. Jngens argenium : by this we 

tributions to be made in honor of are to understand a great quaiitity of plato, 

; bnt this is questionable. He ob- and silver vessels of various descriptions, 

■t the ancients, from Uieir poverty, on which were carved the nohlo actions n( 

iged to make collections from the her ancestors. 

br their sacrifices: they also ap- 644. Prtrmiitit: in the mum of mittit^ 

that OM the property of convicts the compound for the simple word. Or re- 

ftctors. Hence tupplieUk, punish- ference may be had to the entertsinment 

une to signify prayers, supplica- which Dido had ordered upon the occaoion. 

td tfaanksgivings. So also saeer He sends Achates beforo supper, to bear the 

ligmly boUi holy, and accurMd. nows to Ascanius, and to bring him to Iha 

Gw mmuM : in the miim of quoque, city. He suffers no Ume to be lost, be^i>>^ 

n. he commuiiicatea to his son the tidings of 

^efiliaii korrmiia terga: a hundrod their kind reception. Servios takes P^tt» 

cka of huge swine ; simply, a hun- miitti rapidum^ for miitit pr ^ r a pi dum. Hm» 

« swino. 7Wm : the backs, by pidum : m the senM of eelerenL, 

l for the wholobodios, or carcaasee. 648. Rigeniim ngwu auroque ; #MK ^V^ 

m U 


£t circuintextum croceo velamen acantho : 
aso, Quo« illa eztu- Omatus Argrivae Helenap quos illa Mycenis, 
enu i Mjrcenis, cum Pergama ciim peteret, inconcessosque Hy 
^*^^ Praterea jubei Extulerat : matris Leclae mirabile donum. 
cMiii/erreaceptrum,quod Pneterea sceptrum, Ilione quod gesserat oUni 
Ilione mazima Maxima natarum Priami, colloque monile 

Baccatum, et duplicem gemmis auroque corai 
tf56. Acliatea celerans HaK^ celerans, iter ad naves tendebat Achate» 

f^^o^u o j ^^ Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore veni 

658. Ut Cupido mu- /^ •!• m • '^ >^ > . 

tatua quoad faciem, et Consiha . ut fkciem mutatus et ora Cupido 

•ra veniat pro ^■'^ d\i\ci Ascanio veniat, donisque furenteDi 

Incendat reginam, atque ossibus implicet igM 

Quipi>e domum timet ambiguam, Tyriosque b 

Urit atrox Juno, et sub noctem cura recursat 

Erg6 his aligerum dictis afiatur Amorem : 

•64. O nate, mes yi- Nate, meae vires, mea magna potentia ; solua, 

ree, mea magna poten- Nate, patris summi qui tela Typhoea temnia : 

temnia "***' **"' *^ ^^ ^® confugio, et supplex tua numina posco, 

667. Htee noU tuni ^rater ut iEneas pelago tuus omnia circum 
tibifUttuusfrater^neas Litora jactetur, odiis Junonis iniquae, 
jactetur pelago Nota tibi : et nostro doluisti saepe dolore. 


ifures, and with gold — ^with golden figures, Cythera^ an island in the Pelo 

bj Hendiadis. VtlavMU cireumteztum : a cred to that goddeBS. 

vail woven round. 659. Furentem reginam : the 

650. Omatut Argiva: the omaments of The queen already in love 
Grecian Hclen. According to the poets, Cupid was a colebrated deiti 
Helen was the daughter of Jupiter, and love, from the verb cupio, . 
Leda^ the wife of Tyndarus, king of Laco- epoken of was tlie son of Jupit 
nia. She produced two eggs: from ono of andconsequcntly washalf brol 
them sprung Pollux ond HcIIen ; from the There wcre two othcrs of th 
ether, Costor and Clytemnestra. Horace aniong tho ancients. Furen^tt 
says that Costor and PoIIux wcrc from tiie of nmantem. Furent signifioi 
saine egg. Helen marricd Menelaus, tiic portcd with an inordinate pai 
brother of Agamemnon, king of Mycenoe of love, or anger. 

and Argos. Having become son-in-Iaw to 660. Implicet : should appl 

Tyndarus, he succeedcd to tlic throne of love) to Iicr bones — should cut 

Laconia^ aflor the death of Castor and Pol- thcm. 

luz. Helcn is callcd ./^r^ra, either on ac- 661. Ambiguamdomum: Xh 

count of hcr rclationship to the royal family race, and double-tongued Ty 

•f Argot^ or bccausc the Grecks in general guet^ eitlier alludes to their i 

were somctimes calted Argiri. Mycenit. tho Phaenician and Libyan lai 

Mueena and Argot^ tho two principal citics thcir notorious perfidy. Put 

•f Groece, arc sometimcs put for Greece in proverbial for deccit and perfi 

Seiieral, by syncc. Sce also nom. prop. un- in the sense of gentem. 

er Heien. 662. Urit : troubles her. 

651. Pergama: Troy. See 466, supra. 663. Amorem: Cupid. Hf 
Ineuncettot Hymenteot : unlawful match— " * wmged mfant, nakcd, an 
marriage. ' ^^^ ^^^ quiver fiill of arroi 

653. inont: Ihe eldert (maxma nalarvm) ^„f *^ ^^'^^u ««t ^1 v 
•f tlie daughters of Priam. She was mar- . , ?. , . . 
ried to Polymnostor, king of Thrace, and U;^^ ^\,^ him undcr mou 
was mvcstcd with royal dignity. ...^ ^^^^^ . ^,^^ thundenJ 

654. Baecatumque moniie : a pearled col- Vhcsc wordn very forcibly ej 
•ar for tlie neck— a necklaco set wilh pearl. gisiihlc power of love. 
Coronam dupNcem: a crown doublc witli ege. A^umtna: in the sens 
gems and gold — sot with a doublo row of aurilium. 

folden gcins ; by Hend. 65«. Iniquoi : in Uie sensf 

S57. C^iher^ : Venos \ wo callcd from infenMe. Sce 4 and ^, suon 

i£NElS. LIB. 1. lag 

i^hoenissa tenet Dido, blandisque moratur 670 

M : et vereor, qud se Junonia vertant 

m : haud tanto cessabit cardine rerum. 

ca capere ante dolis et cingere flamm^ 

Lm meditor : ne quo se numine mutet ; 

igno iEnec mecum teneatur amore. 676 

eere id possis, nostram nunc accipe mentem. 

I, accitu chari genitoris, ad urbem 677. Refioc puar, bm 

m puer ire parat, mea maxima cura, nmnma cura, parM ire 

erens pelago et flammis restantia Trojao. 

Bgo aopitum somno, super alta Cythera, 680 

per Idalium, 8acrat& sede recondam . 

i acire dolos, mediusve occurrere possit« 

iem illius, noctem non ampHus unam, 

lolo : et notos pueri puer indue vultus, 684. 7\i pner undaa 

m te gremio accipiet laetissima Dido, 685 noto. niltu» poeri, nU 

fs inter mensas laticemque Lyasum, ® ** 

abit amplexus, atque oscula dulcia figet ; 

um inspires ignem, fallasque veneno. 688. Fallaiqno 

\mor dictis charaB genitricis, et alaa veneno mm»ru 

et gressu gaudens incedit luli. 690 

ms Ascanio placidam per membra quietem 

: et fotum gremio Dea tollit in altos - f ^ P ?~ ^^^* 

iucoe, ubi mollis amaracus illum 


^hamuaz Dido. She ii here called ind the Carthaginiani were a colony from 

icum, or womanofPAflBnteto. This Tyre. Hence Sidonia vel T)pria uAt, for 

ountry eztending along the eaiitem Carthage. 

* tlie Mediterranean, including Tyre 679. RettarUia : in the aenio of tervaia, 

loo. The PhoBniciami were among 680. Reeondam kune : I will conceal him 

ieet navigatore, and are said to have in a sacred place, laid in sloep, &c. Cythera: 

vt inTentors of letters. Blandit : neu. plu. an island lying f outhward of tha 

mooth words. Tenei : in the semre Peloponnesus, sacred to Venus. IdoHum^ 

jet. OT Idalia : a town and grove in the iiiland 

Qtid Jtmonta. The hospitality and of Cypnu, sacrcd to Venus. Honce ahe if 

jp which Aneae received at Car- eometimee called Idalaa. 

je here called Junonian; either be- 682. Jfequa potsit : lent by some meani* 

iino may be considered the goddess, he could know the deceit, or intervene, to 

ae Jupiter the god, of hospitality; prevent tlie success of the plan. 

■ae she was the special guardian and 684. Falle dolo : counterfcit, through artl- 

«ee of Carthage. Vonus fears lcst fice, his appearance for one night, and no 

fMtality of Juno may tom to the de- more. 

n of iEneas and hu friends. 686. Ljftntm latieem : simply, wine. - - 

HuUo eardine rerum: in so great a Lyeus, a name of Bacchus, dcrived from 

r juncture of aflkirs.' the Greek. Mensat: in thc sensc of tpula§^ 

Meditor anieeapere : I contemplate vel dapet^ by meton. 

I poseession or the queen before- 687. Figet : and she Bhall give you swt ct 

f stratagem, and to besiege her with kisses— shall pross your sweet lips. Intjti" 

ne of love. This is a metaphor ta- re«; in the sense of tn«muef. Fallat venen», 

nthe manner of blocking up atown, Hoyne takos thcso words in the sense of; 

tiiv fires around the walls to pre- per fraudem intlillet vetienum. 

j from making their escapc. AV 692. Irrigat plaeidam: diflbscs a placid 

lest Dido sliould chango hcrsclf rest tlirough, k.c, Fotum gremio: pressei 

the influence of any god — should to lier bosom. 

her mind through the influcnce of 693. Amaraeut: the herb maqoram. It 

was said to be banoful to scrpcnts, and 

(Beeipe .• hear my opmion. tlierefore a very proper bed for Ascanins. It 

: an adj. from Sidon^ a abounded in Cyprus. MoUit : in the sensa 

lieiai belong*ng to Tyre. Dido of dukt* 

196 P. VTRGlLll MARONiS 

Floribud et dulci aspirans complectitur urabtA. 
Jamque ibat dicto j)arens, et dona Cupido 
Regia portabat Tynis, duce Iffitus Acbmte. 
Cum venit, aulseis jam se Regina superbis 
Aurea composuit si>onda, mediamque locafit. 

Jam Pater iEneas, et jam Trojana juventui 
Conveniunt, stratoque super discumbitur osxra 
Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque cai 
Expediunt, tonsisque ferunt mantilia villis 
703. Intufl erant qaiii* Quinquaginta intus famulae, quibus ordine loii| 
qaaginu famul», qui- ^1,^^ jjenum struere, et flammis adolere Penat 
X^on^gS^oniiSr;:: Cent«m aU», totidemque pares «tate minirtri, 
705. Erant ccntum Q^ dapibus mensas onerent, et i>ocula ponant 
uXim/amula^ totidemque Necnon et Tyrii per limina lcta frequentefl 
ministri Conven^re, toris jussi discumbere pictis. 

Mirantur dona i£ne«, mirantur luium, 
FlagrantesqueDei vuitus, simulataque verba; 
fviA T> A : r i:- Paliamque et pictum croceo velamen acantho« 

PhflBniBea devoU futur» Praecipue mfelix, pesti devota futunE, 
peeti nequit Expleri mentem nequit, ardescitque taendo 


694. Aspiram: eending forth a sweet vante. Tbey are diBtinffaiehi 
■moU — odoriferoue. male servante, wbo are called m 

695. Cupido parent dieto : Cupid obeying 704. Penum : properiy all k 
the command, &c. Aa Cupid pereonatee visione and stores. Here the n 
Aecaniuf, he may be said to obey the com- in a more limited eense. *^di 
mands of iEneae, delivered by Achates. Jlammit: to worship the Penal 
This is the sense given to the words by to burn incenee to the Penatee. 
Ruvas. Davidson refers them to Venu«. ii. 505. 

697. Rfginaiam eompotuit. The couchos The business of the female se 

were calculated for three pcrsons each. Tho to have been to cook and drei 

middle couch wos considered the most ho- sions, and to arrange the sevei 

norable, and of thc seats, the middlc one of fore thoy were bronght upa 

the middlo couch. Hcre Dido 8at down. The othor servants spread the tj 

Loeavilque mediam: and placcd herself in forward the several dishes wh 

the middlo, betweon £noas and Cupid, sup- and waited upon the guests 

posed to be Ascanius. Struere penum : insirwre et adt 

It was usual to have three of these couch- ae cibos^ says Heyue. 
ei at table. Hence trielinium came to sig- 705. Pares atate : equal in a 

nify a dining room. Aulais may mcan the age. Porula : by meton. for v 
rich tapestry and curtains that were sus- 707. JVec non: also— in li 

pended over the couch on which Dido sat; Frequentef in crowd»— in grei 
or the rich coverings of the couch itself. 708. PietiM torit : upon 

This appears to be the opinion of Rueus : couches. 
In aurea tponda, et magn\ficit tapetibut^ says 709. litlum : Cupid, who < 

he. form of liilus, or Ascanius. 

700. Diteumbitur: a verb imp. they sit 710. Flagrantet: iresh — glo^ 

down upon a couch richly omamented with lata : in the sense ofjieta, 
purple. Ruceus says, in purpureit lectit, 711. Pietum: Rusus says, t 

Ottrum : the purple color itself, taken as is to be token afler velatnen, V 

an adj. cumstance depends upon the a 

702. Mantilia tontit: towels of sofl nap taken ailer the noun. 
— smooth and sofltowels; the prep. ^ or ex 712. Devota futunB: devoti 

being understood. Or, tontit viUit may be love. It was the plan of Ven 

put absolutely : the shag, or nap being that Dido should fall in love ' 

eut oflT, would render them smooth. It was she may thcrcfore be taid to I 

a custom to waah before meals ; hence, dant voted to it Pettit very stron| 

fympfuu manibut, Lymphat : in the sense nature and dostructive eflbcts a 

m aquam, indulged beyond due bounda. 

708. FatmdtB, Theia wero femala mt- 713. Expttri * tbo pcM. ia 

iENElS. LIB. 1. IQT 

: et pariter puero donisquc movetur. 717. Hdc hcBret tn 

>i romplexu iEneae colloque pependit, 716 eum eum oculla, hnc /uib» 

jnum fiilsi implevit genitoris amorem, ^^ *** *«*^ "*"* ^^^ V^ 

im petit : h*c oculis, hiec pectore toto ^^^g ,^^^^^^ ^^.^^ 

; et mterdum gremio fovet, inscia Dido, fovet eum groniio, intcia 

it quantuB miseras Deus : at memor illo 719.Memor mandata- 

Acidalife, paulatim abolere Sichffium 720 rum m&triB 

, et vivo teiUat pnevertere amore "^21. Pravertcre yivo 

idem reaidea animos desuetaque corda. ^^^ -^f^ "'"'*•■ 

,. ^ aminos rtgina 

:quam pnma quies epulis, mensajque remotae ; 724. jifinw/rtirtatuunt 

as magnos atatuunt, et vina coronant. 72^. Regina popoMcit 

spitus tectis, vocemque per ampla volutant 725 pateram gravcm 

deiiendent lychni laquearibus aureis '^^* .Sjf^ Behw, et 

I : et noctem flammis funalia vincunt. ""^Z. '^"^ 


egina gravem gemnus auroque poposcit, 731. Tum sUentia 

itque mero, pateram ; quam Belus, et omnes facta tvaU totin tectie, 
» aoliti. Tum facta silentia tectis : 730 Dido inquit ; O Jupiter, 

•, (hoepitibus nam te dare iura loquuntur) (naraAoinin«# loquuntujr 

«tum Tyriisque diem T^que profectis' ^r.itThC tr^J^S 

!lis, nostrosquo hujus meminisse mmores. letum Tyriisque ti<quo 

etitiiB Bacchus dator, et bona Juno : profecti» a Troja 


espiere. Or txpleri quoad menlem^ 723. Jientct : the tablcs, by m^ton, the food 

■m : to be flatufied aa to her mind upon them. Pottqumm /trima : when the 

\iafj her mmd. Ardetcitque: and first rest was to tbe feajit — when tlie fint 

iflamed with love, while she gazee couroe or eervice was ended. It was custoni- 

m. ary among the Romans to divido the feast 

fWft genitorit : his pretended, or into two courses, and somctimes into three. 

• fat^er. Hcnce we find : prima menta^ and tecunda 
Hme hterei : she sticks upon him menta, 

r ^e»--she sticks upon him with 724. Coronani vina. By tliis we are to 

ik beait. This very strongly marks ynderstand that thcy filled the bowls or gob- 

bd&st attention, with which Dido lets to the brim. Some undorstand by it 

l^d (azed upon him. Iheir drossine or adoming of tlie bowls with 

JWr/.- she hugs hnn to her bosom. garlands; which was a custom among tho 

huideai: lies m wait for hcr, un- Roiuaiis on cerUin occasions. yohUant : m 

lU-fated) woman. This word very Uie sonse of mittunt. 

expnmea tho insidious designs of 726. Ineenti lyehni: lightcd lamps hung 

from the goldcn ceilings. 

Aetdahm. Venus, so called from a 727. J^octem: the darkncss. Funalia: 

I of that name m Beotia, dedicatod torches lighted. Flammu : m Uic scnse of 

moes, the daughters of Venus and 1^^^^^ 

u, Aboiere Siehaeum : to oblitcrate or -^ rt «.«. • *u - ^s 

om ber mind the memory of Sichm- ^^8. Oemmu auroque m the sense of 

ihadbeenthehusbandofpido;to «t^^m gemmti, by Hend. 

he had swom inviolable constancy. 729. Belut. This cannot bc the father of 

Frmtferiere: he endcavors to prcoc- Dido, but some one of her ancestors; per- 

r langiijd affections, with an ardont baps the founder of hcr family. For other* 

JEneaa, and hor heart long since '^i»® Iberc can be no propriety inthe words: 

tomed to love : lest Juno should in- o^net i Belo : all after Belua Mero : pro- 

iff with hatrod toward him, aiid his perly ruw tcine. Here wme m general. 

f-^iro aaiore. Some commenUtors 733. Minortt: descendents. Bona : pro- 

Md by ihese words: a love for a liv- pitious— kind. 

ri, im opposition to one that is dead, 736. Libavii. This libation or ofTering 

lidimie. Ruous takes viro in tlie consisted in pouring some drops of wino 

' wekemenii; and pnevertere^ in tlie upon the table at feasts, or upon the aitsrat 

* pirmaeeupare. Heyne has this ro- sacrificcs, as an acknowledgment uf the 
\mod orcnpamiu^ in co wimul prcrrer' bouiity of the gods. Latieum : gen. vilu. cvt 
«• (w9 prwent others) ne oeeupeni. latex^ m the seiiM of rtni 


Et vos, 6 coEtum, Tyrii, celebrate &Tent< 
Dixit : et in niensam laticum lilnvit hoz] 
737 Eoque libato, iUa Primaque libato, summo tenus attigit ore. 
prima attigit re/i^m t^^j„ Bitjjg jejjt jncrepitans: ille impiger hai 
***** Spumantem pateram, et pleno se proluit auro 

740. Post ftlii proceres Pdst alii proceres. Cithari crinitus lopas 
hauterufU Personat aurata, docuit quae maximus Atlaa 

«Ifm !i^IST Hic canit errantem Lunam, Solisque laborea 
744. Canii Arctunim Unde hommum genus, et pecudes : unde unb 

Arcturum, pluviasque Hyadas, geminosque 1 

Quid tantum Oceano properent se tingere sol 

Hybemi, vel quae tardis mora noctibus obste 

748. Vario sormone Ingeminant plausum Tyrii, Troesque sequun 

eum Mnea Necnon et vario noctem sermone trahebal 

/j.7^i"„Sl*''^/'!r. fi Infcl« Dido, longumque bibebat amorem ; 
iius AuroriB veiusset oa •- , t» • • tt ^ _^ 

Trojam : nunc quales Multa supcr Pnamo rogitans, supcr Hectorc 

ttteni equi Diomedis Nunc, quibus Auroras venisset filius annis : 

753. Age,^ O hospes, Nunc, quales Diomedis equi : nunc, quantui 
•t dic noWs a prima ori- Imm6 age, et a prim&, dic, hospes, origine s 
'"755°Nara^ jam ■epti- ^"si^i^is, inquit, DanaQm, casusquc tuonun, 
ma estas porUi te er- Erroresque tuos : nam te jam septima porta 
imntem omnibus terris. Omnibus errantem terris et fiuctibus aestaa. 


737. Attigit : she just touched it with her in their coming on, because o 

lips. Teniit : in the sense of taniummod^. the day. They seom to be ti 

The Roman ladies wcre not pormittcd to tant, as if unwilling to arrivc 
drink wine oxcept at religious coremonies. Tliis song of lopas is imi 

Dido, therefore, takes it, but she docs not Odyssey of Homer. Virgil, 

drink deep. She touches it with her lips : surpasKed his master. The i 

she justtastes it, and nomore. Summoore: mer^s song is the actions of 

the extremity of her mouth — her lips. Hau- this of Virgil is of the subliii 

tit : in the scnse of potavit. Betias drank prehending the most profoo 

ofT tlie bowl with so much haste and eagcr- philosophy. 
ncss, tliat he wct himself {proluit se^) by 749. Infelix Dido: unhaf 

spilling Bome of the wine, which ran down out tho night in various coi 

his chm and clothes. Auro : propcrly gold, drank largc draughts of Iov( 

Hence by meton. any thin? made of gold. Davidson, is always very hi 

Here thc goldon bowl out of which he drank. objccts in contrast to one i 

1A\. Atlat. See iEn. 4. 247. tlicanxioussituationof Dido' 

742. Laboret solit : eclipses of the sun. is scen in a iine liffht in op 

Pertonat : he sings — plays upon his lyre. general mirth. While Tyria 

Ignet : lightning. give loose to joy, and are mi 

744. Areturum : a star in the constoUation rosound with their repeatei 
Bootes, ncar the tail of the Great Bear. ^neas alone engages Dido^ 
Hyadat : these were seven stars in the front attcntion. Sho relishes neith 
of the Bull. See Geor. 1. 138. Geminot of the fcast, nor of the song 
Triorut. These were two Northem signs ; to no music, but the cham] 
formerly called, sometimes, the grealer and Bihebat quati longo hauttu^ i 
leu Ptoughy becauso the stars were thought 750. Filiut Auront. Mon 
to be in tlie form of a team of oxen, bcfore a snpra. Super: about or coi 
plough. Pluviat: in the senne o£ imbriferat, 753. Die : by Apocope 1 

745. Quid hyhemi tolet : why the wintcr sense of narra, 

•ons hasten so much to touch themselves in 755. Septima attat: the m 

tha ocean, or what delay retards the slow The meaning secms to be : tl 

idgfats. Simply : why the winter days are mer now brings you hither, 

M ihort, and those of summer so long. wandered on every land, an< 

Thesummer nights may be said to be slov» Fluctibvt : in the sense of m 




s Ihe elwfmcter oP this book ? 
doM it open ? 
wu JUieoa tt that time ? 
uevented him from prooeeding to 

ioted the stonn f 

Me insti(fation was it raiBod ? 

lamago did the fleet of i£neaa f ua- 

Maaired the storm? 

: rendor the Trojana any other 

did iEnoaa then direct his coarse ? 
lis arrival, how was he received ? 
conductod him lo Carthage, and 
I an account of the country f 
j^ entered the city, to wnat place 
rQ first ? 

I does he seo there? 
BflTect had the appearance of Dido 

ere any episodes in this book? 
oany can you mention ? 
irere the founders of Troy ? 
ue its several names ? 
om whom derived? 
vas Dardamuf 
&t country was he a native? 
\X country was Ttuetr a native? 
iEneas arrived in Italy, whom did 


city did he build? 

did he caU it? 

I was it situated ? 

vsk Juno ? 

is said of her? 

are some of her names ? 

were the causes of her resentment 

be Trojans? 

I was Carthage situated? 

vas the Guanlian Goddess of that 

was the prize of beauty ? 

loni was it adjudged? 

om was it adjudffod? 

I did £oIus resic^? 

lo you undorstand the fable of his 

I ffod of the winds? 

division of the world between the 

^Uim, to whom did the empire of 


is Neptune represented as bearing 


is the diflerence between proeella^ 

iwibuM^ and imber ? 

«y sometimea used indiscriminately 


wmb Sicily called TVinatria f 

What are the names of its promontonesf 

Is thc passage betweon Sicily and Italy 

What is the cause of it? 

Can you explain Uie fables of S^Ua and 

Wiio was Vcnus? 

What is said of her ? 

AVhat are HOinc of hcr names? 

For what is thv word taken, by meton.? 

What part did «he take in tbeffTainof 
tho Trojans? 

Docs tlie poet represcnt her as making 
any speech in tlieir (avor, afler their arriva! 
in Africa? 

What is tho charactor of that speech^ 

What docs Dr. Trapp say of it? 

Whu was Antenor? 

What did he do ? 

What city did he build? 

Wlio succocdcd iEneaa in tha govein« 

What city did Ascanius build ? 

How long was this city tho seat of go* 

Who was the mother of Romulus? 

Whose daughter was she ? 

How were Romulus and his brother Ro* 
mus brought up ? 

What Is the fabulous acconnt? 

What is the more probable accouiit? 

What iras their mode of life ? 

What did Romulus do as soon as he cama 
to yean/of maturity ? 

Where did Romulus found his city? 

What was the end of Remus? 

What gave rise to the quarrel between tha 

What other name had Romulus' 

From what is it derived? 

Who were the Amazons? 

From what is the name derived? 

Are they supposed to have boen altogethor 
a fkbulous peoplo? 

Who was their queen in the time of th« 
Trojan war? 

What were the several names of Italy ? 

From what werc they derived? 

Who wore the Pelatgi properly ? 

For whom is the word sometimes osed? 

What was Pergama properlv? 

, For what was the word used by sjmec? 

What is the last episode in this book? 

What are tho subjects of that song? 

From whom is it imitated? 

What are the subjects of HomerVi •ong? 

How doQf this book ooncliide t 


Dfw> haTing detired JEiketM to relate to her the BufferingB of hb coimtnrmen, 
to the moumful lubject. He informB her thmt the city was taken aftor a 
jean, through the treachery of Sinon, and the stratagem of a wooden h» 
waa hia determination not to survive the ruins of his country, till otherwiM 
Hector^i ghosi, and the appearance of his mother Venua : that he then co 
plan of leaving his country, and seoking a settloment in another land. He t 
her of his carrying his aged father upon his Bhouldors, while his little eon 
hie lide, and his wife Creusa at sorae distance behind : that wlien he came 
of geneial rendezvous, he found a great concourse of people roady to engag 
terprise: that here he missea his wife, and, frantic with despair, he resoiv 
her, at the peril of his life. For this purposo he retumed to the city ; but, i; 
tnre, her ghost appeared to him, quieted his niind, and informed him of th 
tined to him by fate. Ile also relates tho particulars of his own adventures 
night, when tlie powerful kingdom of Priani fell to the ground. This bool 
be considered the most interenting one of the whole ^^eid; and wae <m 
which the poet himself read in tho presence of Augustus and Octavia. 

CONTICUERE oxnnes, intenliqiie ora tenc 
inde toro pater iEneas sic orsua ab alto : 
Infandum, Regina, jubes renovare dolorem : 

4. «Yarranio ut Danai Trojanas ut opes, et lamentabile regnum 

Eruerint Danai ; qusque ipse miserrima vidi, 

7. Aut quu miles Myr- Et quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fiindo, 

■•W®'»»™ Myrmidonum, Dolopumve, aut duri miles Ulyi 


5. Toro : tho couch on which he sat at he sowed with salt. But he v 
■Qpper. Orsus : began. From the verb by Pelamides, a wise and eminen 
wrdior. Est ifl to bc supplicd. in this manner. Ho took his a 

3. Ut : in thc seiise of quomodo, Opet : chus, then a child, and laid hin 

In the sense of poterUiatn, Lamentabile: in plough of his father, who tume 

Ihe sense of plorandum, save his son. He was obliged U 

5. Danai : the Greeks, so called firom whore he distinguished hiuisclf 

Danausy one of their kings. ^utiqut miser- valor, his prudence, and his sa 

rtma ipse : both what things (scenes) the his means, Achilles was discov 

most pitiable I myself saw, and those of the daughters of Lycomedes, 

which I was a pruicipal part. island of Scyros, under whosc g 

7. Myrmidonum, The Myrmidons wcre his mother had placed hini ; an< 

the troops of Achilles. Dotopum, The Do- was obligod to leave Lemnos, ai 

lopians were the troops of rhenix; or, as him the arrows of Hercules; wi 

some say, of Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. it was said Trov could not bo U 
Uiytsei. Uiysses was the son of Laertes, and He performed many daring a«: 

Antiolea, king of the islands of Ithaea and and executed many hasardous 

Dulaehium, He married Penelope, the Afler the death of AchilleK, he ^ 

daughter of Icarus, a virtuous and amiable ed with the arms of that hcro. 

woman, with whom he lived for a timo in turn homc, he was exposcd to 

great happiness and domestic enjoymcnt. gcrs, hardghips, and misfurtunes 

After the rape of Helen by Paris, he was space of tcn yoars. Aflcr an 

vummoned by the other princes of Greecc, twcnty years, he arrivcd in liis I 

to tho war that had been resolved upon the great joy of his conFtant « 

against Troy. Unwilling to leavo his king- said to havc bceii slain by Telej 

dom and beloirGd wifc, he pretcnded to bo of his by the 8orcere88 C^irce. 
insane: and ynking an ox and an horse to- During his absence, hJH wifc 

g«tber« he went pioughing tlio shore, which suitors, whoiu niie put off by t 

iENElS. LIB. II. a^j 

mperet i lachiymis? et jam nox huniida ccelo 
TCipitat, suadentque cadentia 8idera somnos 

d, fli tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros, 10 10. Si taniuti amor 

. breviter Trojae supremum audire laborem ; '^ ^ 

uanquam ammus memmisse horret, luctuque refugit, 
icipiam. Fracti bello, fatisque repulsi 
Kictorei Danadm, tot jam labentibus annis, 
■sttr montis equum, divin& Pallidis arte, 16 

Edificant : sectkque intexunt abiete costas. 

fmm pro reditu simulant : ea fiima vagatur. 17. Sirauluit eqmm 

loc delccta virQm sortiti corpora furtim SLmJiT*"" '"''' ^^ 

■dadunt caeco lateri : penitusque cavernas lg j^ tortiU dolaota 

itentes, uterumque annato milite complent. 20 

ut in conspectu Tencdos, notissima fami 
Mila, dives opimi, Priami dum regna mancbant : 


hH riM coitld not comply witb their wiflheii, witliin their walls ho enormous and ini»|if- 

MilriM had finiahed a piece ofwork which cious an engine with so implicit cruduUty. 

nt thea in her loom; bat which nhe wa« But the poet, as Mont. Scgrais oUKervee, 

inlal Bot to do : for she undid in the night has finely contrived the matter, so aii to 

rlnt riie did in the daj. By this device rendcr it not onlv plauiiible, but in a man* 

ht eootinaed fiuthftU to her husband. ner necenary and unavoidable. 

Tke retura of Ulynoa to his native land, The Trojans, having heard tlie story of 

■d Ihe adventares ofTelemachus in search Sinon, and sceing so strong a confiriiiation 

fkii &ther, form the basis of the Odyssey. of tho tnith of it in thn terrihle diHasters 

9. Cadenita hdera, In the language of that bcfel Laocoon and liis sonK, had vvi^ry 

•ctiy, the stars nmy be said to set, when rcason to believo thc machino was aii ofl^er- 

kiv disappear at the approach of duy ; ing sacrcd to Miner\'a, and that all who 

M they are said to rise, when they become offcred violencie to it should fecl tlie ven- 

vible, at the approach of night. Froni geance of heaven, as Laoroon and hiv sons 

Uii we are to understand that it was near had donc ; and thercfore tliey could not act 

Htuiw, when iEneas entered upon the otherwise than the poct suppoHps tlioni to 

ioamnil sabject. Suadeni : invite to slvep. have done, consistently with thcir rrligion. 

11. Laborem : struggle. Heyne says, and syntem of belief. An to the ImrdincKs 

fcfaii utinii exetdium urbU. of the undcrtaking on tlip part of thc (Sri^cks, 

U aorrei : shudders at, or dreads, the M. Scgrais observes, that mo<lprn hivtory 

Hilfeetion. RefugU hietu. The verb here furnishes ezamplcs of cqually imrdy enter- 

*m tbe perfect tense. As soon as his prises, undertaken and CjA^cutcd with suc- 

ikd vas turned to the mournful subjcct^ it cess. He instances tho HoUandent, forty of 

kraak back, and revolted from it. This whom venturcd to conccal theniMclves in 

in|e of tense is an olegance: it marks a vessel, sonmingly ladcn with turf, and 

hi ^«ieknew of the impression upon his underwent those examinationH whirh are 

■■d. The verb refugio forms the tliird usually made for contraband goods, aiid 

WMB of the present and perfect of the in- having landed, retook the town of Brcda 

lMiv«| refugit, The penult of the for- from Uie Spaniards. 

W b ahort, of tlie latter long, as in tlie 16. Intexunt: they linc or covcr the riba. 

Mal caae. Some read Luttumque refu- Cottoi. Thcse were tho tinibcrs that gave 

pt: declines the moumful tmsk ; which is form and figure to thc horsc — tlie fruine. 

kiWM sentiment. SectA abieie : with sawn fir — with plaiikK or 

H BtfuUL The Greeks are here said boards of fir. 

B bt lepulMd by the fates, because it was 17 Fama : in the scnse of mmor. 

kcned that Troy could not be takcn till \H, Sortiti delreta corjtora: havin^r rhoMCQ 

hi npiration of ten years, from the com- a solcct body of mcn, tliey privatolv Kiiut 

MBennent of the aicge. jFVacA': disheart- thitm up, &c. Sortiti : proiu-rly, havins 

■sd. choHcn by lot. 

I& /iisfariiion/tf. It hath been objectcd 19. Peniltu : in its inmost rcrosvf^. 

tf thie story of tho horse has not proba« 21. Tenrdot : an if<land lyinir npjuMilc 

hy enough to sopport it ; that, bcsidcs Troy, not far froni the proniontory of .Si- 

■ kardiness of the enterprise, it is not to f^trum^ atid al^out foriy KUMtia fruiii tlie uiaM 

tliat the Trojans would receive laud. 


Nunc tantuin sinus, et statio malefida cannki i 
3s4. JhietortM DanaHm Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt. 
'■?T*]J ^ Nqs abiisse rati, et vento petiisae Mycenaa. 

abUwe: "* '^'" ^ ^^^^ »"""» >^<> ^^v»^ ?« Teucria luctu : 

Panduntur ports : juvat ire, et Dorica caatFif 

Desertosque videre locos, litusque relictum. 

Hic Dolopum manus, hic scvua tendebat Ad 

90. Hlc erai locus Classibus hic locus : hic acies certare solcbaf 

31. Pan nottrvm ito- Parg stujiet innupts donum exitiale Minenm, 
^ £t molem mirantur equi : primusque Thymoet 

Duci intra muros hortatur, et arce locari ; 

34. Sive facUbai id Sive dolo, seu jam Troj» sic lata ferebant. 
^'^35 r" t //• ^^ Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti, 

rum 'menU 'ira/* m2lior ^"^ P«'*g^ Danaflm insidias 8us|)ectaque don 
■ententia^julMuitautpr». Pra&cipitare jubent, subjectisve urere flammii 
cipitare Aut terebrare cavas uteri et tentare latebraa. 

Scinditur incertum studia in contraria TuJgus. 

40. Ibi Laocoon pri- Primus ibi ante omnes, magni comitante catc 
Aui ante omnes decur- Laocoon ardens sumnia decurrit ab arce : 
"' Et 1 / ^* procul : O miseri, quae tanta insania, civei 

mat: qus u^u ii^?a ^re^^itis avectus hoslcs ? aut uUa putatis 
ui 9obiM Dona carere dolis DanaOm ? sic notus Ulyaac 

44. ./fn est Ulystes sio Aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achifi : 
notofl vo6w Aut haec in nostros fabricata est machina ma 


28. Mal^a: unsafe for ships. Carinit: 35. AtCtayt: but Capys, i 
Uie keels : by synoc. the whole ships. whoee mind there wm a bet' 

26. Omnii Teueria : all Troy : the n&me advised, Scc 

of the place put, by nieton. for the inhabi- Capya occompanied iEneai 

tantii. See Aln. i. 1. ^^^ ^j ^^ q„^ q£ |,ig gj,j 

27. Dorica : on adj. from Doris, a coun- alUrwards founded Capua^ ii 
try of Greccc, situated between ^tolia, ^.^8 a long time a rival of Ilo 
Ptioci», ond Tlieiisaly ; by synoc. for Greece and splendor. 

'"^."T?nrfe6a/; pitchedhiHcamp. Ruteus . 37 5u6;Vreu-rf. The cor 

M^y., habebat ter^oria. ManmDohpum: »» ^«/^^/"Jti. . The former 1. 1 

«iply, the Dolopians: ^ ^«^P^ "'«^^» «^7«^'"-^- 

30. Aciet: is properly on army dcawn up 38. Terebrare: to lay opea 

in order of battle : agmen, an army m or- t*>c hollow recesses of the wo 
der of march, from ago : exereitui^ an army 39. Jncertum : fickle — inco 

in order of exorcise, from exerceo, But they traria ttudia : into different i 

are oHcn used indiscriminatcly. opinions. Some were in fav< 

32. Thymatet. It is said he morried the sure proposcKl, othcni were ag 
fister of Hccuba, Ihe wife of Priam, by 40. ^nte. Ru»us interpreU 
whom ho hod a son, born on the same day i„ xh^ prescnce of all. Dav 
with Poris. Priam being informed by an implies that Laocoon was thf 
oracle that on that day a child was bom, cipal (pnmut) person among 
wlio should bo the causc of tlie destruction poggd the admission of the 1 
of Troy, interprclcd it against Uie son of ciiy. Heyne thinks we ore 
Thymffltes, and cauied hiin to be put to that Laocoon ran beibre— ot 
death. On this account, it is supposed, that ^„/^^ signifios, before, with n 
he entertained ajp-udge against Priam, and pjaco, aiid degroe. Laocoon, 
acted the part of a traitor to his country. the brother of Anchises; othi 
He was oiie of Priam^s counscUors. tlie son of Priam, and priest < 

33. Duei : the inf. pass. of dueor, Equum ^ _ 

if anderstood before it. 41. ArHeni : eagcr. Rusa 

34. Fa$a: destiny — ^fate. Ferebant: in 43. Avectot: in the senai 
tha sense of vtitbmU. The verb ette ia nndenAood. 

i£N£IS. IJB. IL 


ra domos, venturaque desuper urbi ; 
UB latet error : cquo ne credite, TeucrL 
I id eet, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes 
I validis ingenteui viribus hastam 
inque feri curvam compagibus alvum 
t : stetit illa tremens, uteroque recusso 
e cavs gemitumque ded^re caverna;. 
a De(im, si mens non Isva fuisset, 
.t ferro Argolicas fa^dare latebras : 
s, nunc stares, Pnamique arx alta, maneres ! 
nanus juvenem intereii post terga revinctum 
magno ad regem clamore trahebant 
lae : qui se ignotum venientibus ultr6, 
im ut strueret, Trojamque aperiret Achivis, 
t fidens animi, atque in utrumque paratus, 
Kre dolos, seu certae occumbere morti. 
visendi studio Trojana juventus 
isa ruit, certantque illudere capto. 
lunc Danaikn insidias ; et crimine ab uno 

, ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis 
, atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit : 
B nunc tellus, inquit, quae me sequora possunt 
) ! aut quid jam misero mihi denique restat ! 70 
le apud Danaos usquam locus ; insuper ipsi 


50 60. Sio fttiu, imlidM 
▼iribus coutonit iugcn- 

54. Si f&U DaAm nan 
^^fituteni adversa 

55. lile impulermt MOf 

57. Ecco, uiterei Dmr' 
danidiB pantores magno 
claiiiore trahebaui ad 
60 '^((^i^ juvenein reyine- 
Uiin quoad nianus poit 
terga; qui ultro obtula 
rat ne ignotum illit 

63. Viscndi iUiut 


67. Ut ^mofi ooiutitil 

9€thara : about to oyerlook our 
id to eomo down upon tho city. 
ighor than tho walls and houscs, 
t, with proprioty, be taid to over- 
I, and to como down upon the city 
) an attack upon iU 
*or.* guile, decoit, or trick. It 
ognifieB wbatovor is oppoted to 

r in tho aonjM of ettam : I fear tho 
'on offering prosonta. Thero is a 
mphaua to bo placod npon tho et 

t .* tho horao. Ferut does not al- 
ifjr a wild beast, or boaat of prey : 
I a tamo or domoaticatod aniiiial 
> ftmck that part of tho horse, 
timbers or rilMi aroso from their 
. to a perpendicnlar position Cur- 
agibut: bending out in srain« or 
unetvrit^ says Rueus. Recutfo : 
M) of repereutto, 

nitum, Thia groan probabl*' waa 
ho Groeks within, who now t>egan 
med at their aitaation. 
!a: docreoa, or purposes of tho 

lotieat : an adj. from .^rgot^ a citj 
B, Htnatcd in the Poloponnesus; 
somotimos put for Groeco in ge- 
aiebrat: hiding places — rocesses. 
kc Thb is a bappy apostropho : 
ikon his advioo — had our minds 
■t^Hd and infatuated; aow O 

Troy, thon wouldst bo standing, and tboo, 
lofly citadol of Priam, wouldst bo remain- 
ing ! Fadare : in tho senso of exeindere. 

59. Dardanida: tho Troians; so callod 
from Durdanut^ ono of their foundors. It 
is here used as an adj. 

60. Strueret : in tho sense of effieerei. 

61. Fident animi: bold — daring of sonl. 
and prepared for either event ; to carrj into 
execution his purpose, (^ertare dolot;) or, 
in caso of discovory, to yield to cortain 
doath. Ho threw himBoIf a stranger, and 
unknown, in the way of theso shepherds, 
on purposo that they might take him, and 
bring him before Priam and the Trojan 
chiels, the better to offect his purpopo, to 
porsuade them to admit the horso within 
their city. 

64. Cireumfuta : surrounding him— oii- 
compassing him on evory sido : a part. from 
eircumfundor, Capto : m tho sonso of cap- 

65. Aecipe: in tho senso of audi. Ab 
uno erxmine: from one criminal porson, 
(namcly, Sinon,) learo tho character of aU 
tbe Greoks. This appoars to bo tlio aenso 
in which Hejrne takos tho words. Valpy 
says : ^ From this instanco of docoit and 
treachery,*' Uc Davidsou : ^ From oiio 
crime, tako a spocimon of tho whole nation.** 
Crimen: properly a crime; by motoo. a 
criminal, or villanoua porson. 

66. /n mctfto conapcctu: in Vbft xuiAitL ^ 
tha gaiing crowd. 

mn P- yiRGiLu maronis 

_ ^ .^ DardanidiB infensi pcenas cum saniruine poeeui 

73. Quo flremitu nof ^ .. * . . . * 

tft aninii nSu convomi, Q"® ^®"^*^" converei animi, compressus et omi 
01 Impetus : hortamur fari, quo sanguine cretua ; 

74. Eum fari, ex quo Quidve ferat, memoret, quae sit (iducia cmpto. 
■an^inecretus Ht ; me- lHe hsBC, deposit^ tandem formidine, fatur : 
"nu^SJ"'* ^*'[''^^"»-^*' Cuncta equidem Ubi, Rex, fuerint quecunque, 
Arffolica Vera, mquit : neque rae Argouca de gente ne| 

79. Hoc esi primum : Hoc primum : nec si raiserum fbrtuna Sinonen 
nec, n improba fortuna Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba fii 
finxit Sinonem Fando aliquid si forte tuas pervenit ad aures 

83. Quem msontem g^ijj^ ^^^^^ Palamedis, et inclyta fama 
PeJaflffi demisere neci ^, . r i a , ,-^. t» i 

•ub faba prodiUone, in- Glona : quem falsa siib prodiUone Pelasgi 

iando Insontem, in&ndo indicio, quia bella vetabat, 

85. M nunc lu^t Demisere neci ; nunc cassum lumine lugent : 

*•*** „ Illi me comitem, et consanguinitate propinquui 

Ju il^^^irMn P-P- » «™a Pafe' Fi™> «-«0 mi«t ab and 
88. Dum Falamides Dum stabat regno incolumis, regnumque viget 
■tabat Consiliis, et nos aliquod nomenque decusque 


74i Impetus : fury — violence. Compres' of falsehood. What he says o 

«11« : restrained. Tiie verb est ia understood. downrig^ht faltehood ; what ho 

75. Memoret : in the sense of dicat, Qtxuf lamedes is in substance truo. 
ferat : what mcssaKo or news he brou^ht, or might have been known to tho 
what confidonce tnere niig^ht be placcd in common report, (fando aliqti 
him, a captive. This is tiie senso usually the circumstances of it might ni 
given to the words ; but Valpy crives tiicm By rclating them, therefurc, h 
another tum : ^^ What lie mighi have to re- fail of bccoming interesting, o 
late in his own defence, and wiiat ground favorable reception, and of pi 
he had for hoping for mercy, now he was a way for thc accomplishmcnt of 
prisoner.^' 83. Sub fnlsa prodittone: u 

77. Cuncta vera : the whole truth — all accusation of treachery — ^treaso 

Jiin|rs true. Hcyne and Valpy read, quod- ludcs to the lettors, which UIj 

eunque fuerit^ for qutr^Mnque^ &c. mentioned above. Pelasgi. Sa 

80. Vanum : in the scnse of faUaccm, 84. Infando indicio, Tiiis a 
Pimdt : hath mado, or rendered. Improba : gold, which Ulysscs convcyed 
in the senso of advcrsa. and pretcnded to have been i 

•81. iSt ybW^, /a^i^o a/iYUi</: if by chancc, Priam. This was adduced 

by common report, the name of, &c. Fando against him : we may tlierefon 

aHquid : the saine as dum aliquid dicitur, fando indicio : upon an iniquitc 

J^arratione aliprum^ says Hoyne. Qi/m rclabat bella, This was ; 

82. Belida Palamedis. Palamcdes was from Palainodes being opposet 

the son of Nauplius king of Eubcea, an against Troy, that he was amoi 

island in the ^gean sea, and dcscended promotc it. 

from BeliUy a king of Africa, by ,^mymone^ 85. Cassum htmine : deprivei 

the daughter of Danaus. Ulysses, to avoid of life. Demiscre : they coi 

roing to the Trojan war, pretended to bo dcath. 

usane ; but tho deception was discovcrcd by 86. /7/t me comitem, Here, 

Palamedes. See note 7, supra. Tliis, speaks falscly. So far froin hii 

Ulysses never forgave, and finally he lation of Palamedes^ he was tii 

wrought his ruin, by accusing hun of hold- Ulysscs, whose mother was t 

ing a correspondence with Priam. To sup- ^sinus, tho father of Sinon. 

port this cliargc, he forged lettors from 87. Jib primis artnis : not fro 

Priam to Palamcdes, which ho prctendcd to cy, but from the first ycars of 

have intercepted. He also coiiveycd gold arms, which among the Roman 

to his tent, pretending it was sent from Priam agc of scvcnteen. Arma : by 

as a brihe. Upon wliich Palamcdcs was 88. Rcgno, Regnum may i 

EccuflH of treason, and stoncd to dcath. tlie kingdom of Eulxea, wher 

The wholo of Sinon*s speech is artful, reig-ned ; or the confcderate 

and oalciilatod to imposu upon his audionce, council of the Grecian state 

being made up, partly of truth, and partly lcagucd together for the destrud 


iENEIS LIB. 11. 20^ 

invidia postquam pellacis Ulyssei 90 

^ta lonuor) superis coiiceR.sit ab oris ; 

tani in tenebris luctuqiie trahebam, 9S. E^ «fHietiM Xn^ 

nsontis mecum indignabar amici. hebom vitain 

lemens : et me, fors si qua tulisset, ^ Et promim mm 

mquam remeAssem victor ad Argos, 96/*'';? ultorem, ai qua fon 

orem, et verbis odia aspera niovi. ^ 

pnma mali labes: hinc semper Ulyssea 97. HincVlywaeBcuatH 

terrere novis : hinc spargere voces tempor 

ambiguas, et qusBfere conscius arma. 

vit enim, donec Calchante ministro— 100 

To hiBC autem nequicquam ingrata revolvo ? 

ror ? si omnes uno ondine habetis Archivos, 

re sat est ; jamdudum sumite |Ht;nas. 

18 velit, et magno mercentur Atridae. 104. Bfagno prth». 

-6 ardemus scitari, et quairere causas, 105 Twn verA juMignari tan- 

1? Tfc I lomm 

erum tantorum artisque Pelasgse. 

r pavitans, et ficto pectore fatur : 

n Danai Troji cupiere reiicti 


mu atiquod: I also bore some out his being consulted. This sndden pause 

nd honor. £i: ia the lense of and transition are ▼err artfullj contrived, 

.* for egf, &nd show the great Judgment of the poet in 

iperuoris: from the upper re- thc management of his lubject. Requieoii: 

upperworid. ConccMt/ : in the in tlie »enseofc«Maini|. £mm : inthesenM 

essii. of equidem. 

nalhtr: I grieved, or repined at iqi. ^utem: here isanezpletive; orused 

my mnocent fnend. in the sense of veri, vel eqvidem, Revoloo: 

funeetaetn: I, a fool, did not jn the sense of narro. J^equieqwim: in 

ace. Dementy compoundcd of vain— to nopurpose: because the relation 

Siqua/ort: if any opportu- of those unpleasant topics would not save 

ce should preaent. Tulisiei : m his life. Habetu: if je regard or consider. 

obtulttni, u^Q ordine: on one footing — in the same 

iMem : m the sense of rediissnn, gtate, or condition of enemies. 

mihi prvna: h^ce the first ^ Jamdudum, This is to be taken u 
sfortune to rae. Labes, proper- ., ./ufHawai»^ xui. » »u u«i »ili»i mi 

-•-;-. ^ ui^^i.u A n • - the sense of jom. Or we must suppose, ae 
i stam, or blemisn. An allusion p. «,_ r ... . iT'^ . 

e to the flrst appearance of a ^J' J^^Pf ''^^ wmethmg to he under- 

^ntagious diw^ai breaking out "^^^f * ^"'»*'« petnasjamdudum debetas, or 

rface of the body in sp»,ls. Si- "*® "*'• 

ition that he would avengc the 104. Jthaeus, Uljsses is so called fpom 

amodea roused the bitter rciwnt. ftftara^ a barren and rocky island in the 

lecs; and from thattime, (hine,) ^on»"» ^^ where he was bom, and where 

plot his destruction. Labes : '^" ^a^«' Laertes reigned. Smon gives tliie 

» of er^, vel eausa, FuU is appellation to him by way of contcmpt. 

jilridte: Agamemnon and Menelaus, the 

mmtmftia: with new charges sons of Atreus. Their religion required that 

le. Foees: is the sense ofvKrba^ * devoted victim tliat had escaped from tho 

altar, should be put to death wherevcr found : 

ius: coneoioae, (of his crime-^ ^"^ Sinon having been dci«tiiicd as a victim 

giiiitj of the death of Paiame- ^o ^e gods, to procure favorable winds for 

m to seek the means of destroy- ^«i^ retum, notliing could afford the Greoka 

Jirma : the raeans or iniple- »« general, and the leaders in particular 

lieb anv thing is done. Valpy treater ioy, than to hear that tho Trojana 

moe of defence against Sinon. ^»<* PU^ him to death. Hor relU : Uiis, Ulys- 

Umie wnnisiro : Calchas being ■«« wishes, and the sons of Atreus wiU piuv 

— beingemployed. Calchas was chase it at a great pnce. 

itheayer in the Grecian camp, * 106. .^rtis : in the senae oTfiaudiM P^ 

9ttmy i&onMDt waa done with- ia^ : Grecian Bee ifiA. \. Qlti 


Moliri, et longo fessi discedere bello. 

ilO. Aspera hyemi Fecissentque utinam . Ssepe illos aspera pL^nli 

ponu mterc u-it, ot W interclusit hyeras, et terruit Austcr euntes. 
*^r temiit illoa euntet. ^ .«;.,. ... 

rraecipue, cum jam hic trabibus contextus acc 

Staret equus, toto sonuerunt aethere nimbi. 

Suspensi Eurypylum scitatum oracula Ph(cbi 

Mittimus : isque adytis heec tristia dicta repor 

116. ODanaifVOf pla- Sanguine plac&stis ventos, et virgine cesa, 

^^i* Cum primum Iliacas, Danai, venistis ad oraa : 

118.Rodittisnm/que Sanguine quserendi reditus, anim^ue litandui 

'•*5^i* TT* .* Argohci. Vulgi quae vox ut venit ad aures. 

.119. UtqufB voxTemt A^,'='. • • i-j !• 

^ Obstupuere animi, gehdusque per ima cucum 

121. Omnet sunt toH- Ossa tremor ; cui fata parent, quem poscat A 
eiii notcere^cui fkta pa- jjic Ithacus vatem magno Calchanta tumultu 
reai martem Protrahit in medios : quae sint ea numina Div 

Flagitat : et mihi jam multi crudele canebant 
Aiiificis scelus, et taciti ventura videbant. 
dis quinos silet ille dies, tectusque recosat 
Prodere voce sua quemquam, aut opponere n 
Vix tandem raagnis Ithaci clamoribus actus, 
Compositd rumpit vocem, et me destinat arsD 


109. Molirifugam: in the sense of ^/^cre the virgin wai broag^ht to thi 
fvgam, formed them that Diana was 

110. Atpera hyena: a violent storm at that act of subminion;' but d< 
sea. the virgin should be tranvporU 

112. Contextus: framed, or built of ma- and there serve her incapaciti 

gle timber. Some part of the horKO might The virgin voat slain in intenti 

ave been built of inaple, othors of fir and only by the interpositibn of 

pine: so that thc poet inay be consistent in This warrants the expression 

what he sayn uf thiM same machinc, vcrse Virgine casa, 
15: fntexunt roxlas sfcld abiete ; and also in 118. Litandum: ager. intfi 

verse 25U, infra, whcre he calls it, pinea lito : an atonement must be i 

etaustra. lifc of a Greek. Rua.'us intcr 

113. Sonuerunt: raged — roared. Kimbi: er{ficandum, But it impiie-R n 
iurbines<,8aLytf lleync. See Mn, i. 102. ply to offer sacritice; it includ 

114. Susptnsi: m suspense we send Eu- expiation, or atoncment. T) 
rypulus. Homer informs us that he wos a . dum \ms a peculiar signiticati 
famous augur, and brought with him forty hos the form of a noun, it rota 
ships to tho Trojan war. Seitaium: to con- of the verb ; and implies the f 
Bult ; a Rup. in um, from the vorb seitor, put or obiigation^ to do^ or petform 
afler mittimus^ a vcrb of motion. 123. Kumina Diviim : the 

115. Adi/tis. Adytum was the most se- or response of the gods. wVii 
eret, aa woll as tho most socred place of the vcrb nuo : I cxpress my will li 
temple, and whcre the images of tho gods 124. Etjam: and now ma 
were placed — the shrine from which the me the atrocious dcsign, or pl 
responses wero delivored. It is govemed lanous man. 

by the preposition a or ab^ undorstood. 125. Taciti : not silent; fi 

116. Placastis ventos : ye appeased the contradict what is soid just 
winds with blood, and a virgin slain, when, quiet, contcnt, well satisficd. 
&c. tho scnse of res ventunu, Tl 

Tho Grccks, on thcir way to the siege of why cajiere came to signify t 

Troy, caino to Aulis^ a port of Beotia, where lo forcte.ll^ is, that tho re«poii 

Diana, incciiHed against Agamemnon for were at first delivcred, and wi 
killing onc of hcr favorite deor, withhcld tlic 126. Ttrfiu: in the seuse o 
wind. Upon which Calchas was sent to 127. Prodere: in tho senae 

consult tlio oraclo upon the subject. He Opponere: in the sense of d^n 
MTOUght back tlio answer that Iphigenia^ \ho 128. Tandrm vix actus: al 

daughter of Agamemnon, must be sacrificed ditHouIty forcod or compelled, 
to appeaae the anger of the goddou. When 129. Rumpit voeem: he ope 


iENEIS. UB. n 907 

JSmmere omnes: et, que sibi quiaque timebat, 130 

^lttQBin mifleri ejutium conversa tulere. 131. CooTena mm ia 

Jimque dies infiinda aderat : mihi sacra parari, exitium 

El salsas fruges, et circum tempora vittae. ^^ ®**^ ci^nnmi 

Eripoi, &teor, leto me, et vincula rupi : pw 

.Limosoque lacu per noctem obscurus in ulv^ ISS 

-fiditiii, dum vela darent, si forte dedissent 
Nec mihi jaro patriam antiquam spes ulla videndi, 
Nec dulces natos exoptatumque parentem : 
QiiOB illi fors ad pcenas ob noetra reposcent 
Bfibgia, et culpam hanc miserorum morte piabunt 140 
HliM te, per Superos et conscia numina veri ; 141. Qudd oro te, per 

Per, si qua est, que reitat adhuc mortalibus usquam, Supero», et numma oon- 
bitemerata fidea, oro ; miserere laborum ■°'* T!" \ ^^ •TTj " 

rantorum; miserere anuni non digna ferentis. 144 que 

His lachrymis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultr6. 

^¥^^0 primus manicas atque arcta levan 146. Priamus ipse pn- 

_jla jubet Prtamus ; dictisque ita fatur amicis : ^^ j^bet 

Quisquis es, amiseoe hinc jam obliviscere Graios. 
Nofter eris : mihique haec edissere vera roganti : 149 
Qud roofem hanc immanis equi statu^re ? quis auctor ? 

Quidve petunt ? que relligio ? aut quae machina beili ? 151. Qu« religio eH 
iKxerat IDe, dolis instructus et arte Pelasgi, *" ^ 

BiBtiilii exutas vinclis ad sidera paknas : 


tSKk EistmUrtqum: thej permitted (were 138. Natot: in the sense of /i6erM. Kt^ 

. ^QBteat io bave) whai every one feared to opiaium : dear — greatly beloved. 

^UHelA to be tomed io the deatruction of 139. Qucw illi fors: whom thcy, perhape, 

, ^Mt uhappy being. TuUrt eoncarsa : aim- will demand for punishmcnt on account oi 

iJjy Ibr eeneerfenml, eayB Heyne. mv escape; and will ezpiate this fault of 

133. SaUmfrugti : the Mdted cakes. This mmo by the dcath of those innocenta. 
^ifci wmm made of bran, or meai, mized with Here the poet alludes to an ancicnt law 

•dl, muA called moto. They sprinkled it among the Romans, which Bubjcctcd chil- 

^MB tha head of the yictim, the fire of the dren to sufier for ■ome particular crimes, 

%fkar, and upon the sacrificing knife. The committed against thc stato by their parents. 
wiainony was called immolaiio: hence the 143. Jniemeraia: inviolable— pure — holy. 

Mb immoUure came to signiiy, io taerUiet Lahorvm : sufierings. 
hfmeTal. rUtm: theoewerefiUetoof white 144. Animi: animus, the soul, is hcre 

vool, with which the temples of the vicUm, jj^^ by meton. for /Ae man, viz. Sinon,- 

" %!t!^ '"**" ^ ■tatuee of the gods, pjty me bearing such undeserved, br unme- 

I ooond. f il^ treatment. JWm digna : in the sense 

194. /li^ vineuia, The victims were of indigna, 

Mt aad unbound when they were brought 145. Manieai : hand-cuffs. Jlreta vitiela : 

BDrward to the altar. Bot even so, it is not tjghi cords 

Sli!^ fr«m*!h!!^^rriid ^L^^ 149. Erftuere: declar^peak, Fera: 

:Sff STm^rh^.^^B;^':^ plu.ofrerum,truth. 

w may understand that he broke ihe pri- ^ l^O. Qui */aftiere : for what purpoee did 

Mn in which he was confined against the' ^«7 «'«^t this mass of a huje horse ? Who 

4a7orsacrifice,andmadehisescape. Any was the author of it ? The foUowmg mter- 

th&f that binda, holds, or restrains another, rogatories, as Mr. Davidson observes, are 

be callcd omoi/um. £n>ui ; rescued elliptical. They are thus supplied : Quirf 

..liTefod. petunif What do they mtend? Is it to 

135. DeiUuunu obieuruM: and I lay con- ^^^^^ wme duty of rcligion? If it be so, 

iMorhid. Laeu. Lacus hero means o ^ re/i/fto .? What duty or motive of rob- 

■- or manhy ground. Utva: weeds, or «1^^ led to it? Or is it an cnguie of war f 

fm If so, qua machina belli ? What engine ot 

1S7. Anhquam : dear country ; or anii' ^*' " " * 

may be ueed in the sense of veierem^ 153. Extitai vinclis : free firom eord»— 




154. Ait: Torto/ tor, Vos, a;1em] ignes, et non violabile Testrum 

O Btemi ignoa, Tealor nuraen, ait ; vos, arae, ensesque nemivii 

IA6. 7M/or voi, O q ^ • ^^^^^^^^ Dedm, quas hosUa getci : 

r as mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere juni ; 

158. Fm est mihi Pas odisse viros, atque omnia ferre sub aunu, 
^^'"^ Si qua tegunt : teneor patriie nec legibus ullij. 

160. Modo tu, O Tro- Tu mod6 promissis maneas, servataque serveii 
ja, mancafl jideli» pro- Troja fidem : si vera feram, si magna rependai 

""^IS? '«!fi ««;« — «„^ Omnis si^es Danadm, et ccepti fiducia belli, 

164. Sed enim ez quo ^k „ ,. * .,•• .. .-. t 

temwore iinuius Palladis auxilns semper stetit. Impius ex quo 

168. Ausique Muni Tydidcs sed enim scelerumque inventor Ulys» 
oontingere Fatale aggressi sacrato avellere templo 

169. Ex illo tempore Palladium, ciesis sunimae custodibus arcis, 

■pei Danaftni sublapsa Corripuere sacram efligiem ; manibuaque cnw 
ttepH uU6re ^t. • i^. .. ... 

^.^ „ ^ Yirgmeas ausi Divae contmirere vittas : 

170. l{.orum viresfrac- « -11 /• * a ui r : 

%m tuni et ^^ *^^ fluere, ac retro sublapsa refem 

172. Vix .imulacrum Sj^es Danaflm ; fractaB yires, aversa Deae meni 
JuU positum in castri», ^^ dubus ea signa dedit Tntonia monstns. 
ewn coruBca Vix positum castris simulacrum ; a «re conia 


164. Tedor vos: ye etemal fires, I call vt7/<B, with which he wai to hava 

you, and your inviolable divinity, to wit- were bo many witneeies that 

QOM. imder no obligations to regard 

Some think this is an allusion to the fire of the Greeks, who had withdi 

of tlie altar. But Servius, with more pro- tection froin him. 

priety, thinks the sun, moon, and othor hca- 161. Si feram vera : if I reli 

venly luininaries are meant: which the an- if I repay thee largely — great t 

cientit thought to be grlobes of fire, to shine 164. Enim : in the aeiMe of 

with thctr own proper lustre; aiid to be in- 166. Fatale Palladium. Tl 

habited b^" divinitics. The fire of the altar was a statue of Pallas with a sin 

could hardly be called eiemal^ unless thcre spcar. It was said to have fall 

be an allusion to tlie fire of VeMta, vcn near the tent of Iha^ when ', 

155. ^efandi en$es : ye horrid instruments ing the citadel of Troy. Som 
of death, which I escaped. I take enstM niade of the bones of P^topj. . 
here for the iinplements used in offoringthe agrce that it was a plcdge of 
■acrifice, such as the axe, knife, &c. Troy. 

156. Fitta-que Deum : and yefillets of the Ulysses and Diomede entorc 
gods, which as a victim I wore. where it stood, and carricd it 

In order to excite their compassion the Grccian camp, having slain th 

more, and to show the horrid apprehensions is callod fatade^ because, on th« 

he had of the act, he speaks as if he had of it, Uie proservation of Troj 

actually becn brought to the altur, and as if 169. £x Hlo : from that tam< 

that had been actually put in ezocution, the Greeks, tottering, bcgan U 

which had only been intended against him. be carricd backward. 

157. Sarrata jura : sacrod obligations. This is a metaphor taken 1 
/us proporly sipiifies a natural right, law, standing on a slippery place, a 
duty, or obligation. It differs from /a/, culty maintaining his positioi 
which propcrly signifies a divine right, law, movement of his body destroyi 
frc. Any Uiing that the laws of God per- um. At first he totters, and 
mit may be called fas, fro in order to rccover himseli 

158. Sub auras : into Hght. do it, he is bome away, and 

159. Siqua tegunt: if any lie hid. JWe with accolerated motion. 
vtfu tegitnts,, &c He is no longer bound by 171. TVitonia, This was a 
any ties of his country. He is at liberty to las or Minerva, taken frora a li 
break or dissolve his allogiance, and place called Tritonot where she it 
hiinself under the protection of the Trojans. been bom : or, at leaot, where 
Their birbarous treatment had cancellcd all her appearance on earth. A 
hlB obIigaUon« to them : the artt on which digies — ^indicaUons of her ang 
ba was to have been slain — the enses ntfhn^ 172. Corusen fiammm : apa 
ii, bj which he was to have been alain — the flashed from her steadjr eyei 



iENElS. LID. Jl. 900 

iMiifiibus flainmie arrectis, sa1sus(iiie per artuii 

Hldor iit, ten|ue ip»a solo, niirabile dictu ! 

Einicuit, pannaiTKiuc fercns liastanique trcinentem. 

Ei(empl6 tentanda fiigi canit <equora Calchas ; 176 l*^** fi^aom tentanda 

Nec posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis, **•* 

Cteiina ni repetant Argis, numenque reducant, 

Quod pelago et curvis secuni advexere carinis. 

Et nunc qudd patrias vento pctiere Mycenas ; 180 

Anna Deosque parant comites, pelagoque remenso, 

Improvisi aderunt : ita digerit oniina Calchas. 

Hanc pro Palladic moniti, pro numine kjso, 183, lUi moniti rta- 

Effigiem statu^re, nefas quae triste piaret ; ^*^" ^*^° effig.cai «71«, 

Hanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem 186 ** J^^ Tamen Calchas 

Roboribus textis, cceloque cducere jussit : juMit eos attoliore 

Ne recipi portis, aut duci in mccnia possit ; 

Neu populum antiqua sub relligione tueri. ^^^* ^**" diethai^ 01 

Nam si vestni manus vioiasset dona Minervas ; 189 ^^f^^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^j^ 

I um magnum exitium (quod 1)1 prius omen m ipsimi ultro venturam eut 

Convertant) Priami impcrio Phrygibusque futurum : 196. Ao«-que, quoe 

Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem, neque Tydiden, nec La- 

Uhrd Asiam magno Pelopeia ad mcenia bello ™'«"» Achilieg domnit; 

V^4. X A A.* . wWi quo« deccm anni 

'S^?"'^.''^"?^^"^ ?^ .^^" ""^"^^ "''P''^^^- ,.. nondLuere; ^wotmille 

Talibus maidns, perjunque arte Smonis, 193 cwime non dmmurt^ 

Credita res : captique dolis, lachrymisque coactis, capti twru dolis 


Wre meatinned are tnilj ominous ; and «uf- Omtna. Some copiee have Mima. />i- 

^eat to have excited in the minds of the gerit : interprots — ezpiains. 

OimIu fear and alarm. 184. Qufl! ^iaret : which might ezpiate 

174. fyta : the ^oddeee— the image of the the horrid crime of carrying off fiie Palla- 
C^Bddeae. EmieuU : in the eense of salivit, dium from her temple. 

175. Parmmm — fuutam: the ehield and 186. /2o6ort6ixi /cx/w : with compacted or 
Wnndiahed spear. These were the arms by joincd timber. Robur propcrly signifies the 
Whieh the Palladium was distinguished. heart of the oak. Hence it may ai^ify 

176. Canii: in the eense ofdeelarat, Ca^ timber in genoral, and all wooden materials, 
m0 i» properly applied to oracles and pre- as planlcs, boards, &c. JmmerMim : ver/ 
^etions. It implies that Calchas spoke by high. Molem : for equum, 

iMpiraUon, and declared it to be the will of igs. JSTeu tueri : nor defend the peopie 

Ihairoda, that tke sea, kc, Exscindi : be undcr their ancient religion— under Ihe rr- 

nna deetroyed. li^ious pfflrouage and protection of theiran- 

178. Ai repetara : unless they should re- cient guar<?.an ^oddese, Pallas, or Miuerva. 

BMi the omens at Argos, and bring back mn 1 • u- u .» «1 ^ 

tC SerVio. observes, allude. to a cus- ^^' "i^.^^ "* "'^" kT' ? T ^ ^ 

too of tbe Romans, when they were unsuc- l' ^^"^^ ^? '"**"' Tif ^ .1; %T'\Z 

eMAil m war, trretnm home, and again ^«^'5^'»*«»»"« «^Pon the Greek-. Some c«- 

ceMuKtheomen.:or,iftheyweretoofar P»" have tn tpio*. 

ftr that purpoM, they used to appropriate a 193- ^«aw». Asia Mmor, or Naiolia, m 

Mfft of the enemy's territory, and call it ^hich Troy was situated. Il is put, by me- 

RoiM, where they renewed the omen.. Au- ^on. for the inhabiUnts. 67/re. Serviu. 

r .• the Pa//«/ttim— the image or symbol explains this by tlatim, But tlio usual ac- 

PaUaa' divinity ; which Sinon would ceptation of the word is easier, and more 

to the Trojans believe had been carried emphatic. Peiopeia meenia : the city Argoe, 

te AiBM : and in the moan time, until they «*^here Pelops reigned : by synoc. put for 

ihiulrt retnm, a. an atonement or o/Tering Grecce in general. See (Jeor. iii. 7. 
to tho offended goddes. (numtne /cjo,) the 194. Ea/ala: the .ame fate or deetinj, 
OffMka had baut, and conMcimtod to her, 195. Inridiis: in the sense offrauditim, 
b Imnm. 196. Coaetis laehrymis: by his foign#<l or 

%d%m Armm s troope — foroes, by roeton. forced tearai Some <*opieo read eoanU^ in 



Qiios neqiie Tydides, nec Larisseus AchiUei, 
Non anni doinuere decem, non mille carinae. 
190. Hla aliiid majug Hic aliud majus miseris multdque tremenduni 
INWvtuinmalt^uoma. Objiciiur magis, alque improvida pectora turkml 
g tremen um Laocoon, ductus Ncptuno sorte sacerdos, 

Solenncs tauruni ingentem mactabat ad araa. 
Ecce autcm gemini a Tenedo tranc|uilla per alti 
804. Gemini anguea (Horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues 
wmteniet a Tenedo per incumbunt pelago, pariterque ad litora tendunt 
^" Pectora quorum inlcr fluctus arrecta, jubieque 

Sanguiricffi exsuperant undas : pars cstera pon 
Pone legit, sinuatque immensa volumine terga. 
Fit sonitus spumante salo : jamque arva teneba 
810. Suffecti quoad Ardcntesque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni, 
■'^^ Sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora. 

Diflugimus visu exsangues : illi agmine certo 
Laocoonta petunt : et primum parva duorum 
Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque 


the nom. agreeing with ito«, meaning the gives the gpreater probability to 

Trcj^B. But this is not so easv and natu- of the wooden hone, and accov 

rai ; oor doos it so well agree with the sub- credulity of the Trojans. 

ject. The poct uniformly rcprcsenta Sinon 202. Sotennes arat: the appoi 

as an inipo8tor, a chcat, and all his words 503. Tenedo, Tenedos is hen 

and tears foigned and disscnibled. Scrvius to signify, as Servius sayB, thi 

Btrongly insifits upon coaetit. Valpy rcads wcrc to conie from hcncc to the 

eoaeti, Heyne, coactis, of Troy. Per tranquiUa alta 

197. LarisstKus: an adj. from Larista^ a smooth or calm sea. This circ 
town of Thc8i»aly, near Pkthia^ tho place mentioned, because it would affc 
whero Acliillcs was born. jaiis an opportunity the better i 

198. ^ltiUt carina. Homer makes 1186 whole progross of tho scrpents, I 
■hips in ali, that went in tiie IVojan expcdi- dreadful hissings, and cvory las 
tion. Carina^ the keel. put, by Hynec. for thc wavcs : it adds much tcrro: 
the whole ship. Tlie poets often use a dc- deous spectacle. 

finite number for an indeiinite, particularly 204. Rcfcreiu : in the scnpc 

if the nunihor be very larire. Orbibus : in the sensc of spiris. 

199. //U- aliiid : herc another greater pro- 205. Inrumbunt : with their in 
digy, and onc much more to be drcaded, is they rest (swim) upon the sea ; 
presented to our sight, nobis misens. (ahreast, head and head) str 

200. Improrida : improvidcnt — not ex- shorn. 

pecting any thing of tho kind. Ptctora : in 208. Sinuat : winds their hu 

tlie sense of animos. folds. Their necks down to t 

201. Laocoon. Tho priest of Neptuno were raiscd above the water ; tl 
having bp(*n put to death, because, by his of theni swept the sca behind. J 
prayers aiid sacrificeN, he did not prevcnt — crests. Salo : in the scnse oi 
the arnval of thc GreckM, Laocoon was va : in the scnse of litus. 
chosen by lot to sacriiice to that god upon 210. Suffecti ardentesque : s\ 
the departure of their cnemies. He was their glaring eyes with blofKi a 
Ihe priest oi ApoUo Tkymbroius. Some say lickcd thcir hissing mouths. J 
he was tho brothcr of Anchises ; others tliat in the sensc of motantibus. Na 
he was the son of Priam. scrvc that no animal moves its 

HyginiiR, who relates the story, says the so much vclocity as the scrpent 

erime for which Laocoon waa thus sevcrcly 212. Crrtoagmine: in thc si 

punished, was his having married. and had eursu. jigmen here denotep thi 

ehildren, contrary to the orders of Apollo : tion o£ a «erpent, shooting fonii 

and that thc Trojans construed this calamity, ter fold, in regular ordcr^ like a 

whicli beffi him, as an act of vcngcanpo of niarching in military array, 

the gods for his having violatcd thc olFcring 214. Utrrqut serjtms r each 

iti Minerva. Virgil, thcrcforo, judicionHiy brncin^, twincK aroimd the bodic 

bitroduceH this event, not only as it is a fino sour, and manglcs their wrctchet 

MnbelliBbmont of hi» poem ; but also as it tlieir teclh. 

^NEIS. LIB. II. 811 

Inplicat, et miaeroB morsu depascitur artus. f 15 

Fdst, ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem 216. Pdtft, oornpiimc 

Conipiunt, spirisqie ligant ingentibus : et jam ^°* «ibeuntein aoz- 

Bis inedium amplexi, bis coUo squamea circum ^ 

Tei^g;^ dati, superant capite et cer\ncibu8 altis. 

lile siinul manibus tendit divcllere nodos, S20 

Periiisua sanie vittas atroque veneno : 

Claoiores nmul horrendos ad sidera tollit : 

Quales mugitua, fugit cum saucius aram tSS. T\iia niagitus^ 

Taurus, et incertam excussit cervice securim. _ qualei t*ania toUit^ eum 

At geinini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones 226 ■***"'" 

Cflugriynt, saevasque petunt Tritonidis arcem : 

Sub pedibusque Des, clypeique sub orbe teguntur. 

TuiQ ver6 tremefacta novus per pectora cunctis 

Innnuat pavor : et scelus expendisse merentem *W« Tn i in i m t m nom 

lA<Hioonta ferunt ; sacrum qui cuspide robur 230 «•*■***■ 

LKserit, et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam. 

I^ucendum ad sedes simulacrum, orandaque Div» 

Numina conclamant. 
Dividimus muros, et mcenia pandimus urbis. 

•^ingunt omnes operi : pedibusque rotarum 235 

^jiciunt iapsua, et stupea vincula collo 


Dr. Trapp renden depaeiiur^ devoun; rived from dehto. Varro, however, thinka 

ijtt thare ie no noceMity of this ; for it oflen it was the ahrine or plice where the imaM 

ilgiiifiee no more than to mangle, prey upon, of the god was plaeed. It is oflon ueed ror 

•■ite, or consume away. Beside, we can the tomple iteelf, by synec. Laptu : by a 

kudlj fUppoM that the serpents deoourtd or gentlo easy motion. Draemus : in the aenM 

tti up the bodiea of hia som, and then laid of terpeniet. 
hfold npon the father, to latiate their hunger. 226. Arcem: the ahrine of stem Minerva. 

Thwe waa a etatue in the palace of Ves- TVt/onu, a name of that goddcas. 
ft-s^", repreaenting thia atory, (as mention- 230. FerurU : tliey declare that Laocoon 

•d by PUny,) which thowed Laocoon en- justly suffered for his crime — that it was a 

twined by the serpents, and his sons dead just punishment inilicted upon him for doing 

on the groond. It is probable that Virgil violence to the sacred oiTering of Miiienra. 

toc»k thia deacription from that statue. By this their doubt was removed, and they 

S15. Mortu: teeth — fangs. resolvcd to admit the fatal machine within 

%\fi. Bit amplexu The serpenta embnce the city. 
him twice about the middle; then rising 231. Tergo: in the sense of /a/m*. 
«pward, they bind their scaly backs twice 232. Simulaerum. Virgil had an admi- 

BbcNit his neck ; and holdinff him in that rable tolent at varying his style. He hath 

wtuationi elevate their heads and bloody found out no less than twelve names for 

eresta above the head of their unhappy vic* this horse, aU equally significant: jLurnum, 

tioi. CireumtdaH. Thepartsofacompound Machinot Montlrum, Dolum^ Pinea Claui' 

Terb are sometimes separated b^ Tmesis, /ro, Donum^ Moles^ Efifciet Equi^ Eqvui^ 

Ibr the aake of the vene. This word is Sacrum Robury Simulaerum^ and Cavyipj Ro^ 

•ither to be taken actively, in the sense of bur. Ad tedet : to the proper plact^ — the 

eimetmdmtiiet^UidgqYeminie tquamea terga; hill, or eminence, on which the temple ot 

orwemusttaketheezpreiaionasa Grecism. Minerva stood. ^umina: in the sense of 

8m EcL i. 65. dinniiatem. 

CtO. Temdii: ui the sonse of eonatur, 234. Mania: properly, the fortification« 

Hodot : fhe folds of the serpent. or bulwarks of a city, from mMiio. Murut: 

Stl. Petfutut: amearod, or stained, as to the wall that surrounds it. They are, how* 

fam dlleta. ever, uscd indiscriminately for a city, fre« 

tt4. Ineertttmteeurim: the erring blow — quently. Aecinguni: apply tliemselvea io 

jbe exe ■truck with an erring blow. the work. 

tt5. DeiuAra. Deiubrum was properly 236. Laptut rotarvm: th^ placo whoelf 

tl» i^leee bdTore the temple, or near the altar, (or rollen) under its feet, and fastcn heropmt 

tbey waahed before they entcred, or cords to its neck. Laptut rolarum: simply 

they performed sacrifice. It b de- for mian. 


Intendunt : scandit fatalis machina muros, 
Foeta armis : pueri circuni innuptffique puellsB 
W9. Circom caniint Sacra canunt, funemque manu contingere gaudai 

**2J»**fn'*"" . . IUa subit, mediaeque minaiis illabitur urbi. 

^f4a Illa mathma «i- ^ ^^^^^.^^ . j^.^^^ ^^^^^^ j^.^^^ ^^ .^^jy^^ ^^,,^ 

Mcenia Dardanidilm ! quater ipso in limtne porta 
Substitit, atque utero sonitum quater arma decttr 
itAA ImmemorM jmH Instamus tanien immemores, caM^ique furore, 
AfM Et monstrum infclix sacrati sistimus arce. 

«46. Tunc etiam Can- Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris 
Midra, juwu Doi Apol^ Qra, Dei iussu non unquam crediu Teucris. 

d.V* Teucri^'*"'^ ^""^ ^^8 4«*"^«^ ^^^^ '"*««"' Huibus ultimua eflset 
S48. Nm miseri 7Vo- ^^^^ ^i^^i ^^^^ velamus fronde per urbem. 

•4Mt. quibus Vertitur mterea CGelum, et ruit Oceano noz, 

Involvens umbra magni terramque polumque, 
Myrmidonumque dolos. Fusi per mcenia Teuci 
Conticuere : sopor fessos complectitur artus. 


S37. SeandUmurot: it ascendfl, or mounts 245. Infdix: in tha flense of jm 

OTcr the mins of our walls. They had vel fdtalt, 

becn demoliflhed to admit it, and aiford it 246. Ca»tandra, She waa thf 

•ntrance. of Priaro and Hocuba, and enduai 

239. AiTwm : the ropea that had been ■pi"» of prophecy by Apollo, upo 

tastened to the neck and other parts of the muimjr to grrant him her love; wl 

horra, by which they moved it forward. •▼«i ■*>« afterwards refnrad to 

---,,. j r» ^_ fi- *u i. beinff able to withdraw from her 

. . *t'- ''VT' '^'" ^-^L n»"». the h.. ^^ tB.towed, he rendered it of n 

bit»t.onof thegod.; «ther because ita wall. ^^ ■ her credibUity, and i 

had boon builtbTApoUoandxNeptune; or, ^^, p^djtion. to be cin.ider« 

on account of tho numerous temples and , r» ■ u„ *u ^^^,.a ^ 

... -.u u* L * i j j Juuu Dn: by tne command o 

con«ccr.ted i.laco. .t abounded. ^ Om: for o.; the plu. f< 

TU iflVoT ' """" " " >'«'"/''^- t« "»' »PPro«hu 

•^ * lion, 

243. S\il)stitil quater, &c. Some are of 249. Vtlamut delubra. It wae 
opmion thal this stumbhng, or sloppmg of tora, not only on festival day«, 
tiio horso m tlie very threshold, alludes to times of public rejoicing, to ador 
a notion that prevaiied of its being a bad the temples of the gods with th 
omen for one to Btunible on Uie threshold, of laurel, olive, ivy, &c. 
eapecially whcn going out to war ; aa It is 250. kertitur c!tlum : tho h 
•aid to have happencd to ProtoBilaus, the tumed around. By the diumal 
first of the Grcoks, who was killed on the the oarth, the heavcne appcar 
plainsofTroy. The malignity of this omen about it once in twenty-four h< 
waii thought to proceed from the Furici, who hcavene a« well as the earth are t 
had thoir aoats on Uie Ihroshold. two hemisphoree, Uie upper and 

244. Jmmemores, Sorvius thinks that Vir- by the horizoa. The diumal 

S'l here alludes to the custom of the Romans rises with the sun, and sets with 

devoting their enemies and the places to wcst, below tho horizon. At thi 

which they laidsioge. In the form of words the noctumal hemisphere riset \ 

which thoy uscd upon the occasion, thcy This tends to explain nox m 

poured forth these imprecations against night rushes from the ocean, oi 

them : Eiqut populo civiiatique metum^ for- the ocean. 

miduiem^ oblimonem injiciatit^ Dii. Ac- 251. Terramque, Thereitag 

eording to him, imiiiefiioref will imply that in thus singling out the 8trata| 

the Trojans were abandoned by the gods, Greeks, as the object of chie 

and given up to stupidity and infatuation. among all the things in heawi 

#Wore: withaeal — infaiuation. Furoraig' which that night concealed. 

Bifiaa any inordinate passion whatever, as 252. Fun : stretched upon tlM 

lova, hatrod, anger, leal, &c Immemores : pectinf no danger, aad takinv 

h— dl t ai nnm indftU. poM. Mmnm : ia tb« mam of i 

ilCNElS. LIB. II. Vlf 

im Argira phalarz instructis navibus ibat 
edo, tacit» per amica sileiitia Lun»^ 266 

lota petens : flanimas cum regia puppis 
rat ; fiitisque DeOni defensus iniquis, 

« utero Danaos et pinea furtim S68. Furtim laxat 

slaustra Sinon : illos patefactus ad auras P*"** claiirtra, et Da- 

equus, Iietique cavo se robore promunt 260 "^ »^^ «W) tqui 

ru8 Sthenelusque duces, et dirus Ulysses, 
lum lapsi per Ainem ; Athamasque, Thoasque, 
;que Neoptolemus, primusque Machaon, 
iielaus, et ipse doli fabricator Epeiis. 
nt urbem somno vinoque sepultam : 266 

itur vigiles : portisque patentibus omnes 
unt aocios, atque agmina conscia jungunt. 

ipus erat, quo prima'quies mortalibus aegris 268. Erat tMnpaafwr- 

, et dono Divdm gratissima serpit. ^^lXri^i xj^ 

nis ecce ante oculos moBstksimus Hector 270 ^Sj.S^^.^^^T^j;:: 
idesse mihi, largosque eftundere fletus : mihi anti» oculoa in 10111- 

us bigis, ut quondam, aterque cruento nia 


Phalans properlj a body of men« Greeks shut up in the womb. Hvre w« 

nf of eight thousand, pfaced in a may obserre that Virgil uses the verb iaxmi 

here uaed for troope in general. with both the nouns ctauttra and Danao»^ 

it navibut : in their fumishcd ships when in strict propriety, it can be applied 

TaeiiiB LuniE, Commentaton havo to onn only. This is a frecdom wliich our 

[y interpreted these words. Somo lanj^uage will not always adniit ; bul it fre- 

sderstood by them that the moon qucntly occurs in tlio Latiii and Grcok 

n new and slyone with fceble light, writeni. Seo JEn, yii. 431. 

i darkneu in consequence was fa- 260. Reddit : in the sense of fffundu. 

to the Greeks, by preventing disco- 262. Lapti per funem. AHcr Uiey wcre 

^alpy understands by tliem Ihe ab- lct out, thev slid down by a rope, secured 

f the moon during the first part of at the top of the horse, and reaching to the 

rht. Tlie Grecian army, says ho, ground. 

re chosen the decrease of thc moon, 263. Pelide* : Pyrrhus, the son of Achil 

he doee not rise till near midnight. Ics, ond grandson of Ptleut^ king of Thes- 

irknets was favorable or friendly to saly. He was also called J^eoptolemut, 

But we are told by Scaliger and Sec 469. seq. Primut, By tliis we are to 

that Troy was taken about the full understand that he was the firBt who de- 

vhen ahe shines the brishtost. This scended the ropo ; and not the first, or chief 

BQS to understand by the silonco of among thcse lcaders. 

NL, tfae middle of tho night, when 263. Doli : for equi. 

fs are silent and still. But Luna 265. Sepultam tomno^ vinofiue, This b 

f meton. be taken for nox^ as Sot is a very expressiye metaphor, represcnting 

ot for die», This will rcnder it more the inhabitants of the city so deeply in 

ible : the friend!y silence of the still sleep, and so silent and still, that it would 

m) night. This is the opinion of almost seem as if tlieir beds had boen their 

gravcs. This greatly moves our pity to- 

Cum regia puppit : when the royal ward the Trojans, and our indignatioii 

scted a light, then Sinon protected against Sinon and the treaclierous Greeks. 

We are to understand that Helen Aecipiunt : in the sense of admiltunt, Por^ 

n first gave the signal to Agamrm- tit patentibut may be put absolutely., 

at they were ready, by showing a 267. Cotucia : friendly ; or conscious, bc* 

torch from the citadcl, and he re- causo thcy were acquainted with the plan 

it to them, by setting up a light upon of attack. 

11 of hb ship. 268. JEgrit: in the sonse of fetti», 

FaH»: wilK or purposes of the gods. 269. Dono: by the favor, or induigcnc^. 

.* ia the sense of adcertit^ vel infet' Serpit : creops, or spreads over tiivni. Thia 

obi» \m undcrstood. is cxtromely siguificant. IiiUy vel tm, \» to 

Fnriim laxat DanoK^t : he opens be supplicd. 

I7 the piny doors, and Oetfl out) the 272. Bigi» . Btgce, ^TO^Vl t^ i^^^^f^ 


873. Trajoctufl quoad Piilverc, perqiie pedes trajectus lom tumentM 
Ipra por tumontcB (Xei mihi, qualis erat ! quantum mutatus ab iUo 

«75. IndutuB qiioad Hectorc, qui redit exuvias indutus Achillis, 
«xuvias Vd DanaOm Phrygios jaculatus puppibus ignes f 

«76. Vol yift jaculatu» gqualcntem barbam, et concretos sanguine crinei 
*^«77. JVi:n« fforona Vulneraque illa gerens, quaj circum plurima mun 
•qualeiitem barbam, ot Accepit patrios : ultrd flcns ipse videbar 
erinos Compcllare virum, et ma^stas expromere vocea . 

281. O Hector expec- Q jux Dardania; ! spes 6 (idissima TeucrOro ! 
tato, *M"»bu8 one, ve- q^^ ^^^ tenu^re mone ? quibus Hector ab oii 

pidmui ^^0.1 * "" Expectatc, venis ? ut te post multa tuorum 

Funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labore 
Defessi aspicimus ? quK causa indigna serenoa 
Fccdavit vultus ? aut cur hoec vulnera cemo ? 
S87. lUo retpondii ni- ]lle nihil : nec me quffirentem vana moratur; 

h'i\ adha^: g^j graviter gemitus imo de pectore ducens : 

^^Lud7J!^'^^Z Heu ! fiige, nate DeS, teque his, ait, eripe flamm 
MmitUB ae imo pectoro, • .\\ •* i^ * i • »fi • 

mit: Hou! fugo Hostis habet muros; ruit alto a culmme J roja : 

«91. UUa dextr&, fuia- Sat patriffi Priamoque datum : si Pergama dextii 
■ent defonfla etiam h&c Defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent. 
mea dexird, Sacra, suosque tibi commendat Troja Penatea : 

«94. Quero mcBnia Hos cape &torum comites : his mffinia quere, 
hk, que Btatuoa magna, Magna pererrato statues quae denique ponto. 
pontodomquo peronmto, g.^ ^^ ^^ manibus vittas, Vestamque potentem, 

iEtemumque adytis eflert penetralibus ignem. 


drawn bj two horaos. Here it means the 286. FadaoU: hath disfigurod t 

chariot of Achilles, bcliind which Hector^a countenance. 

doad body was drawn around the walls of 287. MonUur : nor did he, by i 

Troy several timee. See JEn. i. 99. tlicso queBtions, detain me, &c. 

273. Drajecius-que per iwnetiies : pierced 291. Sat daium: enough haa b 
throujrh his Bwclling feet with thongs. It for our country, and for Priam. 
agrees with Hector, mentioned above. performs tho office of a noun. 

274. Qualit erat! how he lookcd ! how properly the fort and fortificationi 
much changed from that Hcctor, &c. but frequently UBcd and takcii for 

275. Indutut exumai : clad in the npoils city, as in the present case, by svi: 
of Achillos. When Achilles leilthe Greeks 293. Penatet, Macrobius^in hii 
in disgust, his friend Patroclus requestcd of /tVi, ezplains the Penates to be thoi 
him uie favor of wearing his armour, with whom we breathe, and to whom v 
a view of striking ihe groater terror to tlie facultics of our minds and bodies, 
Trojens. He was slain by Hoctor, and piler^Juno^uidMinerva. Totho 
■tripped of his armour. See £cl. i. 55. yala : on which account tho coi 

^O. Expromere : to utter these sorrowful other magistrates, when tliey ent 

words. Tnis word is very appropriato hcm ; their oflices, used to pay divine 

it shows him laboring to bring out his words the Penates^ and Vetta, This sc 

and givo them utterance, like a person confirmed by the passagf befcro 

drawing a heavy load. Vesta is delivered to the care of 

f81. Lux: in the sonso of fo/iM. well as the Penatet. These go 

382. Tania : in tho sonso of longa* Tho serves, wero styled tho greai ge 

proD. ie is nnderstood. were also styled powerful: on whi 

983. Expeeiaie : oamestly desirod, or Virgil here stylcs Vetla^ tho pon 

longod for. Utdtfetti: how gladly do we, dess: Veslampoteniem, 

wom out, (with toil and fatigue,) see thee, Dionysius Halycarnassus infon 

aftor tho many deaths of thy friends, &c. the symbols of thcso Penaies at li 

9y iaboret hominumt perhaps we are to un- two wooden statues of young mo 

dantand tho disastors of their allies, and ting posture, with javelins in thoj 

hf Imhoreo iir6t«, tho disasters of his count^- 294. Mania : in the senao of ur 

maB. Urbit : tho city ; by moton. put for torum : of thy fortunos. 

the iBhahitanto. 297. JEiemumignem, Thoiaa 

iENEIS LIB. li. Slft 

rao interea miscentur DKsnia luctu : t98. Et sonitiu dare»- 

ia atqoe magis (t|uanquam secreta parentifl •"*' «lagl» atqua am^ 

e doinus, arboribuaque obtecta recessit) 300 

unt aonitus, armorumque ingruit horror. 

>r somno, et summi fastigia tecti 

i Bupero, atque arrectis auribus adsto. 

tera veluti cum flamma furentibus Austris 

; aut rapidus montano flumine torrens 306 

agros, stemit sata la?ta boumque labores, 

itesijue trahit sylvas : stupet inscius alto 

ns sonitum saxi de vertice pastor. 

!r6 manifesta fldes, Danadmque patescunt 309« Fidet verbonm 

; jam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam, 310 Heetarufmt muiifMU 

> su|>erante, domus : jam proximus ardet 

Hi : Sigea igni frete lata reiucent 3,4^ Nec er«i «t ra 

r clamorque virilm, clangorque tubarum. tionigmiAiinarmii. Sad 

mens capio, nec sat rationis in armis : animi ardent Kiomenra 


aing all the jear. It was brought from those animals that prick up their ean 

B into Italy, where Numa Pompilius at everj eound which giTea thcm alarm. 

ished the order of the VesUl Vir- 304. Velut eum Jlamma^ &c. Thie fina 

loee office wae to preaerve tliis fire simile ia talcen from Homer, Ilii^i ii. 465 

nple of Vesta. It waa sufiered to Autirit : for venti», 

r on the last dajr of the ycar, and 305. Tbrreru rapidut : a torrent rapid 

idled again on the firat day of March with a mountaiu flood prostrates the fields, 

beams of the sun. The origin of prostrates, &c. Auetu9 eoUuote ai[uaruM i 

ious custom seems to have been de- montibuM^ saya Heyne. 

in the Persians, who were famous 306. Sata : properly crops of com, fironi 

lipping the sun, and the fire, as an sero. Lata : in the sense of eopiota^ oxfer» 

>f that luminary. This everlasting tUia, 

lot only preserved in the temple of 308. Aecipieni : in the sonse of audietu, 

t also in private houses, and in the Jnseiut: ignorant of the causo of the sound. 

»f the great ; where waa an altar 309. F^et : the truth of Hector^s words 

r HeraruM^ on which fire was kopt was now manifest. 

lly burning. Some suppose that 310. Detphobi. Deipbobus was tha son 

the fire wtuch Priam had conaecra- of Priam and Hecuba. Afler Paris waa 

he altar, at which he was slain. slain by Pyrrhus, he married Helen, by 

Adytum properly was the most whose treacherv he fell a sacrifice to the 

jl of the temple — the place where resentment of the Greeks, among the first 

» and statues of thc gods were — tlie of his countrymen. See JEn, vi. 494, et seq. 

This was commonly the interior or 311. Kuirano ; in the sense of i^n«. Th* 

fthe temple. Hence the propriety god of fire, by meton. put for fire itself. 

penetraiibut, It is oAen taken for 312. Ucaiegon, He was ono of Priam*« 

le itself by synec counsellors : here put, by meton. for tbe 

}ioer$o : ui the sense of vario. ''ouse of Ucalegon. His housc bums th« 

ieereia • private seoarated from "®'^ "^*''" Sigea freta : the bmad Sigean 

..rU— if ;f..r^«n_\.r;«i. I Mx * strsits shine with the light of the flames. 

to^ ^^ *•««'•• "> •'•i- <■"•" *««•""' • P~n.ontoiy 

Htecia: rarroanded (corered) by °f T'om. /Vrtum i. proporly . narrow jj» 

. retired from noiie ud bu.tle. % '"™" = " ^." '"P'"'' *" P"*," *•*• 

, . ^gean sea lying between Tenedoi and 

oiu/uy elareteunt: the sounds are TYoat, 

>re and more clearly : and the din 313. Exoritur elamon/ue, fcc. This is 

nf of arms mcreases. one of ^1,^ fi„est lines that ever imaged Um 

Iteentu: by climbing up, 1 ascend sensc in tiie sound. The words and sylla- 

anunit of the palace. By this we oles are rough, hoarse, and sonorous ; and 

nderstand the watch tower, which so artfullv put togethcr as to striko the ear 

aUy bnilt on the ridge, or highest like the thrilling notes of the tmmpet wh&ch 

he hoose, that it might aflbrd tliem they describe. Clangor : in the sense of 

ctenslTeprospect e^rrM/uatirt^ia.* tanut, 

■linf ears. It b a meUphor taken 314. dfmeni: com^ooBAni ^ ^ Oiw J a 

«15 P. VlRGlJ.ll MARONIS 

S id glomerare manum bello, et concurrere in ai 
Gum ■ociifi ardent animi : furor iraque mentem 

^ 317. SiieeaiTit mihi m Prccipitant ; pulchrumque mori succurrit in an 

mmtem pulchrum eue Ecce autem, telis Pantheus elapns Achivdmv 

Pantheus Otriades, arcis Phoebique «acerdoa, 
320. Ipse trahit sacra, Sacra manu, victosque Deos, parvumque nepole 

^n^^^^ Ipse trahit : cursuque amens ad limina tendit : 

3S2. In qno loco ett Quo res summa loco, Pantheu ? quam prendimvi 

■■""'"* *•• Vix ea fatus eram gemitu.cum taiia reddit : 

Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempu9 
Dardanise : fiiimus Troes, fuit Ilium, et ingeni 
Gloria Teucrorum : ferus omnia Jupiter Argof 
Transtulit : incens^ Danai dominantur in urbe 
Arduus armatos mediis in mcenibus adstans 

331. 7W millim, qoot f""?^^ «^""«' ^I^^^T?"? Sinon incendia miscet 
BonqtuuD vonAra i magw Insultans : portis ahi bipatentibus adsunt, 
nii Millia quot magnis nunquam venire Mycenis. 


a^ha^privUimtm^vidment. It properlv sig- 322. Summui ret: the commo 

niiieB, deprivcd of reason— dostitule of pre- the common interests of hia coimt 

■ence of mind, from any cause whatever. was the summa re* of ^ncas, hi 

315. Glomerare: in Uie sonso ofcoUigere, highest concem; and will alwaja 

316. ^nimi ardeni : my mind buma to the heart of every good patriot. 
eollect, ke. Tho plural hcre has plainly ahow the haste and impalience 
the eenM of the singular animiu. makos him throw out theso shorl 

319. Pan//ieta; he was thc son of Otreua. abruptlj, without any previoiia 
Servius infonns U8, that on the ovcrthrow of tion. Zioro ; state, or condition. 
Troy by Hercules, and thc death of Lao- in the sense of respondei. 

incdon PriaM. Mnt the »0» of Antcnor to ^ Jntluctabik lempus. R« 

coni,u t the or.dc of Delphi, whcthor he t,,„^ „„^, ;„ ^^ ^„,/„f .^^^,, 

.houUI build up Troy asa.n upon the s«me y . g,^^ . -^ ^^ ^^ „f , 

loundatious. Pantneus wan then pnest of mji/L„ 

Ihe Dclphic Apollo, a youth of exquisite r • n- 

beauty; and Antcnor was so well pleased . 325. Futmus Troei, fuU Iltum 

with hira, tlial he camed him ofT by force jans arono moro ; Iliurn,and the 

to Troy. To mako somo amonds for this <>» ^n» Trojans, hath tallen. 

mjury, Priaui made him priest of Apollo. It was a custom among the Ror 

However this may bo, he was a person of they would intimate a person to 

frroat note and auUiority among the Tro- say fuil^ or vixit^ to shun {>oundi 

jans. Sacerdoi arcii Phetbique : priest of shoclcing, and accounted of bad < 

the tower and of Apollo : (that is) of the sido, thero is a grcater degrce < 

citadel or tower, where ApoUo was worship- in exprossin? tho doath of a per 

ped, together with Pallas or Minerva, to overthrow of a city, thus, indirecl 

whom it was sacred. itetiU vixit^ &c. than in plain w* 

320. Sacra : sacred utensils. Hore again one is the langnage of poctry, t} 

Virgil applies one verb to two or more nouns, prose. This sccms to be an in 

when in etrictnoss it can be applied to one Euripidea in his Troada^ where A 

only. Trahit is applicable enough to a child and Hecuba thus altematoly 

who can hardly walk, and must be half once we werc happy-! Hocuba 

dragged along; but it cannot so well be happiness is gone— Troy is no m 

applied to things that are carried in the hand. «^0 «.. , :« #1,«. « ^r - 

oai T ' ' a • u T ', 329. Mi»eet : m tne sense of m 

321. Ltmtna. Some copies have Lttora. . . i 

But Sorvius, Donatus, Heyne, and others, 330. Bipatenttbtu : m the senac 

read timina, which is manifestly to be pre- r)'^"" ^r gatcs that opcn both 1 

forrod. Lilora appears inconsistent with ^^^^ "<*«^ may be callcd thpatt 

Ihe case. Beside, it reflecta much honor «'"' •* >" ^® sense of uitrant. 

upon ^.neas, that both Ilector and Panthnus 331. Mj/cfnis. Myccnip and j 

•hould bring the sacred things of Troy to the rhief oltics of Gn'oc..o; and 

him for safe-kceping. It is a chief objcct put for Grcero in jroiiornl. Thej 

vith tlie poet to aggrandize his hero. atcd in the Peloponuesus. Hodi 

iBN£[s. L1B. n. tn 

re alii telis angusta viarum 

d : stal ierri acies miicrone coruBco 

parata neci : vix primi prffilia tentant 
im vigiles, et csco Marte resistunt. 386 

)us Otriadae dictis, et numine DivOm 
mas et in arma feror : qud tristis Erinnyt, 
smitus vocat, et sublatus ad ffithera clamor. 

; se socios Ripheus, et maximus annis 339. Ripheii8,otlplii< 

, oblati per lunam, Hypanisque, Dymasque ; 340 ^ .maxiniua «nnis, Hy- 
ri agglomerant nostro : juvenisque Chorcebus {LrrerLun^.Sduot 
nides : illis ad 1 rojam forte diebus ae socios miAt 

t, insanc Cassandne incensus amore ; 
2r atudlium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat : 

qui non sponsas prfiecepta furentis 345 345. Infelix jwenui 

at. qui non 

bi confertos audere in prslia vidi, 
super his : Juvenes, fortissima frustra 
L, si vobis audentem extreina cupido est 349. Si certa cupido 

icqui ; que sit rebus fortuna, videtis. 350 ^ ^*»*»" ••1"* "»* ^ 

m j ^' I- .• dentem extrema: votvi* 

Ire omnes adytu, ansque rehctw doU., qu» fortiaa tit 

bus impenum hoc steterat : succumtis urbi niuins 
B : moriamur, et in media arma ruamus. 


tinguMiatiaruM: the narrow placee, 347. Audert in pmlia: to bave coimi^ 

igem of the streets. Loea «eems to for fight — to be re&dy to engage. ^aos . 

«stood. It ifl used in the sense of in the senie of illos. 

t vias. 348. Suptrhis: upon these thinge. I^av- 

Marte : in the blind (doubtful) en- ing observed them coUected togeUier, and 

It is so callcd on account of tho prcpared for figbt, he then begine. Or, ni- 

p of the nigbt ; or because it was per his may be in the scnse of ad hae^ to 

uid unezpectcd, and resiKtance could these things — to their readiness and courage 

refore, be made with any prospect for fight, he begins. Servius take» them 

■s. Marte : in the sense of pugna differently. / begin in these worda, the mort 

rjnine. to animate them. In this casc, super must 

Xumine : impulse, or will of the be for insuper ; in the former, a pr«*p. Oa- 

vidson follows Servius. Uoyne has posi 

Erinnjfs : this is a common name of htee-^nde. 

e furies. See Geor. i. 278. In ar^ 248. Juvenes^ peeiora : there is a great 

tfae sense of in pugnas. confusion, and neglect of order and mcthod, 

Maximus onnis, Some read armt«.* in this speech, to mark the hurry aiid dis* 

former appears to be the true read- ordcr of ^neas^ mind. O youtlis, rouIs 

I veme 435^ seq. Hcyne has armis. most valiant ! Frustra : in vain ; because 

Oblati : meeting me by the light of Uiey could not save their country. 
■. 349. Certa eupido : a fizcd, determined 

igglamerant : in the sense of od^- resoIuUon. Audentem : in the s^ue of ten- 

tantem, Cvpido : in the sense of ttjuwts. 
Insana: in the sense of magno^ or 351. Omnes Di^ quibus: all the godM. ny 

ii. Virgil has here applied to Chortt' whom this empire stood, havo depnrtrd 

it Homer sajrs of Othryoneus. from, iic. It was a prevailing opinioii that 

u passionately in love with Cassan- a city, or place, could not be taken. while 

daaghter of Priam, and hopcd to its tutdary divinities romained in it. It u as 

his son-in-lawr with that view he the practice. therefore, of Uie be8i(*i;n«v to 

< his assistance. He was the son of invitc, or call them away. For Uiir< rrusni: 

u Uie Romans took care to cunceal tJK* Latiij 

Furentis: fnrens here means inspi- name of the god under whoso |»riiti«tj<»n 

>phetic. Sponsa: properly a woman Rome was; and Uie pricsts werc iii>i ullow- 

d^ or betroUied in marriage; from ed to call the Roman gods by tht'ir 'laiues, 

li ^pofi^: also a youug niarried lest. if they wore kiiowii. an vMi-tny ini^-ht 

solicit aiid enlico U\eiu a^u.^ . ^v» vW cr«*> 


Una salii9 victis, nuUam Bperare sahitem. 
Sic animis juvenum furor additua, Inde lupi c 
Raptores, atr^ in nebul^, quos improlMi Teiitrii 
S57. Qnos improba Exegit c«ecos rabies, catulique relicti 
rmbiM veniria exegit ex Faucibus expectant siccis : per tela, per hoste 
;;r;ue'3if;uSlt; yadimus h.ud dubiam in mprtem, medi«que to 
Inirtt Urbis iter : nox atra cava circumvolat umbra. 

369. Sie noi Tadimui Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fimdo 
par udi Explicet ? aut possit lachrymis sequare labores 

Urbs antiqua ruit, multos dominata per annoa . 

Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia pasBim 
965. Domoe Aonuninii, Corpora, perque domos, et relligiosa Deorum 
•( per Limina. Nec soli pcenas dant sanguine Teuci 

Quondam etiam victis redit in pnecordia virtta 
368. Ubiqueeilcrude^ Victoresque cadunt Danai : crudelis ubique 

Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima roortis imag< 

370. Androgeos pri« Primus se DanaOm, magni comitante cater 
miu Danadm offert se Androgeos ofiert nobis, socia agmina credens, 
nftbi^ magna ^^*^^ Inscius ; atque ultrd verbis compellat amicis : 

!^!Sl!r!I™Sf*l.!r!u!!!u Festinate, viri : nam quae tam sera moratur : 
Meimi «igmina eue socia ^, . . \ ... . / . ^. 

Segnities ? ahi rapmnt mcensa feruntque 


tom the poet ma^ here allude ; or rather to has in charge his ased father, 

the poetical ficUon, that when Troy was infantson; and endeavors to • 

Uke to be taken, the gods were seen carrying tracing out tho by-paths and i 

awaj their statues from the templea. lanes. 

354, Una talus : the only siUrety to the 361. Fando : in the sense of 

vanquished, is, to hope for no safety. This 362. Labores : disasterB — toi 

ifl the B&mo argument which the brave Le- 365. Inerlia corporti, By th 

onidas uned to animate his men to sell their is most probable, we are to ui 

lives as doar as possible. Una : in the sense feoble and helpless part of the i 

of so/a. old men, womon, and children; 

305. Indeceulupi: afler that, as ravenous did not take up arms in defc 

wolves in a dark night, which excessive country : tliey were slain {sUm 

hunger hath drivcn out blind to danger, &;c. whcre, in their own houses, ii 

Improba rabiet ventrit : ezccssive greediness and in the temples whithcr the 

of the belly — pressing hungcr. Raptoret : protcction. They are called i 

in the sonse of rapacet^ ravonous, rapacious. poHition to those who dared to 

Dr. Trapp objects to the justness of this aiice, and nobly die. This is 

simile ; but thc comparison does not lie in than to take corpora in tlie sensi 

the action, but in the manner of performin^ as is usually donc; for tlien the 

it. As hungry rapacious wolves are forced iia would be quite usoless aiid 

from thcir retrcats precipitately into danger, 366. Relligioea limina : the 

without fear or dread, so we nish desperate- plcs of Uie ods. Limen^ the 

ly on our focs, looking dcath and danger in synec. put for the temple. Dat 

the face. The poet mentions anothcr cir- griine; siniply, suffer punishmi 

cuinstance. Catuli relicti : their whelps, blood — by shedding thoir bloo< 

lefl behind, wait with parched jaws. By 367. Prceeordia: in tha M 

which ho intendcd to represent those animals vel peeiora, 

in thoir fiercest and most ravenous state; 361. Pturimaimago: veryn 

and, therefore, the more proper to denote deatlt. This mode of ezpressic 

the fierceness and rage of men driven to with Virgil, and is ^nformabli 

dcspair. Inatranebula: in the dark night ; idioni. So muUa rtrluf— mic£ 

berausc in the night, or dark weather, Uiey £n. iv. 3. Such ezpressions, I 

ire the fiercest and least mindful of danger. vey an idea of plurality raUiet 

359. P'adimut: we march to certain death, ty ; and, in our languafo, reqn 

and tako the way through the middle of the cfered in the plural number. 

city. This circumstance is menUoned to 271. Socia: friendly. An 

show their coura?e and intrepidity. Afler- them to be of the party of tha 

ward he is afraid of the enemy, whon« he 374. AVim qum tegntiie» : a 

iENKlS. UB. II. 3» 

: roe oelais nunc priinuro a navibus itis ? 376 
extempld (neque enim reeponsa dabantur 
) sennt medioe delapsus in hostes. 
, retrdque pedem cum voce repressit. 

im aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem 37i. Veluti fumw qiu 

imi nitens, trepiduaque repente refugit 380 «"toiw humi pr«sMit an* 

TO iinfl, et ccerula coUa tumentem. o^SiSHr^ ** 

08 Androgeos visu tremefiictus abibat. **381.*R«ftigit eim at- 

densis et circumfundimur armis : toUentem 

le loci paanm et formidine captos 
I : aspirst primo fortuna labori. 385 

*, ezultans succeaau animisque Chorcebua, 

ua prima, inquit, fortuna salutis 387. O Mcii, qua for- 

itcr, quaque ostendit se dextra, sequamur. ^""* P"m» n»on»trat n*. 

cty,«o., Dan.«mq«e insignia nobis"*"" 

: dolus, an virtus, quis m hoste requirat ? 390 390. Quis roquiimt in 
)uut ipei. Sic fiitus, deinde comantem hoHte, an tU dolus, an 

galeam, clypeique insigne decorum TiituB. Ipsi aerin 

laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. 

leus, hoc ipse Dyma», omnisque juventus 394. Ripheui fatu 

t : spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 396 ^ Dymo ipee faeU 

immixti Danais, haud numine nostro : 
per cccam congressi praelia noctem 


■ yon. RafivfU: inthesenseof 386. AnmU: courage— boldneae. 

^tnaU: in the ■enie of everluni, 388. Desira : in the eenae of propitia. 

*^\Tf^J ^* inrtanUjr per. 339. Intignia DanaCtm: the armour of 

1 he had &llen mto the midst of the Groeks. Thie seemi to allude lo the 

Ile^Miu .- m the lenra of delttjh' figrurei, or imap^ engraven upon Uieir buck- 

A Oreeum. \q^ — thoee of the Greeks having the figure 

a: m Uie eenae of omica. mque: of Neptune, and Uioie of Uie frojani Uie 

« of nofi. figure of Minerva. Puttingon the Grecian 

^reuU pedem: he retreated back figurei, waa the lame Ihiiur as putting on 

ordi. Ai soon as he perceived iheir armour. 

w-if *bT imcoDe for anerit This ^«noWui telli ua, that Conebui wai noted 

aken frorHomer, U^ iii. Tene !?' •Il^P^^^X^" " i^^ce, he menUon. 

Virffil is yerv haoDT in the aDoli "*® amuie himnelf on the sea 

I w?- :^»J!!^ «™ #k« ^^S.^^\ «hore by counUng the waTei as they dashed 

i a snaae nnseen, Cc. a i.* j u* 

.._«?. . . to him and his associates. 

md secia.* no otherwise — just so. ... 

reuafunduimr : Uiis Tcrb here has 390. Requirai : ask— demand. 

dgnification : we encompass them 393. InduUur eomaniem : he puts on the 

reapoas ciose joined. Or, it may waTing helmet of Androgeos. Jnduiiur is 

nnae of mJHewmwt as Ruvus in- plainly to be taken acUTcly, in the sense 0« 

induii. Comaniem: waTing with a hairy 

pimj krmidim e, Mr. DaTidson ob- crest. The crests of their hdmets were 

' tiiie we are to widentand that made of the hair of beasts. Deeorum tft- 

ao «inder Ihe power of fear, as *igne eljfpei : the beauUful, or comely figure 

iUatoexertthemselTee— enchain- or his shield; i. e. his beautiful shidd---hia 

di, or nonpluaaed by fear; and ao ahield richly omamented. 

s iC, thal they oould obey nothing 396. Hmid notiro numine: not with our 

ipnlae Rtuaaa interpreta it by god. This b an allusion to their haTing 

!■• put oiFtheir own armour, on which was en- 

in the aenae offkoei, La" mTen the figure of Minenra^ theu ^%x- 

of eeiMliii dian goddeaa and pr«toctn«K ixkd ^^\ oa^2bi% 


Conseniniifl, multos Dana^lm deinittimus Oic 
Ditiugiunt aUi ad naves, et litora cursu 
400. Pan prtt turpi jj^iJa petunt : pars ingentem formidine turpi 
lormidine Scandunt rursus equum, et nota conduntur ii 

Ucu, nihil invitis fas quenquam fidere Dira l 
403. Ecce Caisajidra Ecce trahebatur passis Priameia viigo 
Fnameia Virgo pasMa Crinibus a templo Cassandra adytisque Mine 
•*""****■ Ad CGilum tendens ardentia lumina fhutra, 

406.Lamina,m9iMMi.* Lumina, nam teneras arcebant vincula palnif 
^^^"^ Non tuiit hanc speciem furiat^ mente Cliora 

£t sese medium injecit moriturus in agmen. 
Consequimur cuncti, et densis incurrimus ar 
Hic primum ex aito delubri culmine telis 
Nostrorum obruiinur, oriturque miserrima o 

415. Ex face nostro- Armorum facie, et Graiarum errore jubarun 
mm armoruin rp j^^^ gemitu, atque erept» virgiuis ir; 

413. Danai eammoti „ i- ii .• • j * • a* 

gemita, a^ue ir& virgi- Undique coilecU mvadunt : acemmus Ajax, 

nia erepte ex suit «am- £t gemini Atridae, Dolopumque exercitus oi 

but Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 

416. Ceuadvergj ven- Confligunt, Zephyrusque, Notusque, et laetui 
S?.te i:\JI e"o^ Eurus equis : stridunt ,ylv«, s«vitque tride. 
equia, quoiidam confli- I^puineus atque imo Nereus ciet aequora tun 
gunt, turbine rupto Illi etiam, si quos ubscura nocte per umbrmi: 


Grecian armour,with tlie figure of Neptune, understands it of their rual 

the inveterate onemy of tlie Trojan». /m- closo or couipacted body o 

mixti Datiais, It is ono characteristic of Irruunus in dtnsum agmen ht 

the valiant, tliat thcjr mingle with tlio raiiks 41:2. Facit armorum : from 

of Uio oiieiny. Homer says of Diomcdc, of thcir annour, the Trojani 

that he so minglod with the Trojans, that & bo Grcoks. Jubarum: cresl 

■pectator would liave, sometiinos, been at a 413. Gemitu: inthe sonso 

loss to know whcther he bolonged to tho Grecks (moved^ witli grief i 

TrojanK, or to tlie Grooks. on account of tne virgin rem 

393. Coriserimus muUa praiia : we wago hands, being collectod tog 

many a fight. Orco : in tlie sense ofad in- qu&rtors, attack us. Gemitus 

feros. uscd in a wider sense thai 

402. NihUfas: it is not right tliat any Rusua and Ueyne t&ke it 

one should have confidence, (trust in any dolur, 

thing) tho guds being against liim. J^Uiil 414. Ajax. He waa the 

and nU are oAcn uacd nimply in the sense of Ho ravished Cassandra in 

HOM. The vcrb tst is undorstood. Mincrva^ for which he was af 

404. Crinibus passis: with ioose or dis- ly punisliod by tliat ffoddei 
heveiled hair. Passis^ from the verb pan- 41. Ajaz, the sonof Telai 
dor^ to bo looso or spread opon. tiino bcfore killed iiimself, fo 

405. Tendetu : raisiiig her glaring cyes to tlie cuntest for the armour ol 
heaven in vain. /'Via/a : in vain, eitlicr be- 415. Gtmini Atridtt: th 
cause the gods wcro inezorable, or because Atreus, Agamemnon and Mi 
■he could not move tlie compassion of the 416. Ccu adcersi verUi: a« 
Greeks. This is a most moving represcn- winds. &c. This aimile it 
tation of tlie beautiful propiietess anu prin- Hoincr, lliad 9. In corop 
cess in distross. No wondcr that it roused Scaiiger found the prefereno 
the indignatiun of thls vahaiit band, aiid to Virgil, that he reckons h 
brought thoin to her rescue. Tlic}' avongnd and Hoiuer the acholar. C« 
tlie horrid deed upon their cncmios. scnso of certant, 

401 , Spccicm : sight-^pectade. Thisaight 419. jVeretu: a marine goi 

Chorcebus could nut bear. was assigned to him by the | 

409. Iti4 nrrimus : we ruah upon thoin to to Neptune. Seo Ccl. vi. 39 

the rcscur of Cassandra. Detuis armis : 4;2U. 61 quos fudimus : if 

wilhdoee wcapona — in dose amjr. Heyne any by itratagem through Ui 


iENEIS. LIB. n. 22i 

inmdiis, tot^que agitavinuis urbe, 

primi cly|>eos inentita(]ue tela 4SBL llii etiam appa- 

it, atque ora sono discordia sitrnant. •^^'5 ^nmupie 

uimur nuniero, primus(iue Chorcebus 
extra divae annipotentis ad aram 426 

it : cadit et Ripheus, justissinius imus, 
n Teucris, et servantissimus a;(]ui ; 437. Qui fuit onus 

visum. Pereunt Hy|)anis(]ue, Dymasque, jurtiji«irau«, et 

sociis : nec te tua piurima. Pantheu, 
1 pietas, nec Apollinis infula tcxit. 430 

sres, et flamma extrema meorum, 

1 occasu vestro, nec tela, nec ullas 432. Testor vox, «w 

vices Danadm : et, si fata fuissent viuviwe nec tela, nei 

»m, mcniisse manu. Divellimur inde, ^^ ^"** Dannftm 

Pelias mecum : quorum ]|>hitu8 levo 435 

ior, Pelias et vulnere tardus Ulyssei. 

is ad sedes Priami clamore vocati. 

ingentero pugnam, ceu cietera nusquam ^38. Hlc vero eerm* 

mt, nulli totl morerentur in urbe : *~ ingentem ptt|{nam« 

« ceu 

3m indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta ruentes 440 


it, lco. ihey aleo appear. Menli- 429. ^ee tum phtrima pietae : nor did thj 

ae or fictitioua armour. It pur^ freat pioty, nor the filleta of Apollo, proted 

: thoae who wore it were Greeki ; thee frbm falling. 

k were Trojana. 431. Jiiaei eineree: ye Trojan aahea, and 

riMttl em: they olwerve our worda ^hr laat flamea of my country, I call you to 

n wKiud frora theira. We speak witnew, that, &c Fieet, By this Serviue 

JH:uage,and,therefore,theyknow understands pugrM, fightu; becauae they 

. be aome ducepUon in the busi- ^^^fS^^ hy coursee. Scaliger takoi it to 

oe nnderatand by tono^ the Gre- "*«*" wounds and deadl^ blows, milnera el 

i-word. Ora: in the aenae of ^o-det; because wounds m fightinf are mu- 

HQ^QQ^ tuaily given and receivcd. Donatus cunni- 

Ml obruimw! liirtMtly we are ^LT ^": ^JT"!!.?':.'';!. «''*''!'°"-..'^'! 
«I by number.. The «rord ilMl r"i' «"?»' Jomcd »>«h «t. a terro u«,d , 

.Uy La in the ^,, of aelum e.t : j» '^"'='"8 ^. ^f^t """■"• '" oppo..l.on 
. 'h wu ui expre«ion uocd by '" V'">; "» "■" <>"•• ^"^ "«'• I*"»>- "^f 
who, when he thought m to put F'""|'«- Hoyne .ay. «m« p«^ 

bu.ine«. ordered tho'crier to pVo- \^- {^""f^ " '" "^" ""~ "'^ 'Ta^^' 

,. ; ^ . 1 , „ '^,. 434. Jfentuee manu : thut 1 mcritcd it by 

^^ue. tre lutt : aU may go-the j^j, ^^^^ ^^^ j , ^^ ^^^^j^^ ^^^^ 7 

•omething noble in thia sontimcnt. It con- 

mipoieniis Divm: the warliko god- g.ders death aa a priie or reward, which th« 

laa. See Geor. i. la. Pentlti : yaliant win by their merit or valor. Thif- 

vaa one of the ^vfi generaU of the agrecs with his former reflection : pulehtum 

who came to the Trojan war. ^,|^ t^oH tueeurnt in armit. Divelltmur iN- 

nan aliter Dt». Having niontion- de fphitut^ ei : we are tom away from tlience, 

ia friend waa tbe most just, and He spcaki of it aa a great aflliction ; and, 

rvant of juatice among the Tro- ai it were, accuaei his fato that aenied him 

aa certajnly could not mean that the honor of ao glorioua a death. 

itherwiae to the gods. Somcthing 435. Oravior ttvo: Iphitus waa now op- 

it must be undentood. Now, the presscd or enfeebled with agc; and Pelias 

f thii ezoellent man, would natu- disabled by a wound which he had received 

ast the reflection that he deserved from Ulysses. ^vo: for annit, 

nd: he ougfat not to have fallen 437. Protinut: tmmediately — in hMta 

wt; but he checks himself: Dft Foeati: «umut is understood. 

m: ii aeeiiied otherwise to the 438. Ceu: in the senao of <piatu It ie 

(■UBenUtora have been much di- understood before nuUi. Belta : in the Mmae 

pinioa opon theee worda. But in of pugnet. 

tlMj are plaia uid intelligible. 440 Martem indo miium : Mara^ ^vww^ 

tH m Ba duA ood, ungoveined. JHart, the fod oC nvnx^ ^ lop 


Cerniraus, obsessumque acti testudine limea. 
Hacrent parictibus scalae, postesque sub ipaos 

445. Danai nituntur Nituntur gradibus ; clypeosque ad tela sinisCl 

Protecti objiciunt, prensant fastigia dextris. 
Dardanidse contra turres ac tecta doroonim 

446. His telis paraot Culmina conveliunt : his se, quando ultima c 
deiandere w Extrema jara in morte parant defendere teiis 

Auratasque trabes, veterum decora alta paro 
Devolvunt : alii strictis mucronibus imas 
Obsed^re fores : has servant agmine denao. 
451. JV(w/rtaiiimi«imf Instaurati animi, regis succurrere tectis, 
^*^"* Auxilioque levare viros, vimque addere victii 

Limen erat, caecsque fores, et pervius usu 
465. Dum regna Pri- Tectorum inter se Priami^ postesque relicti 
mn A tergo : mfelix qui se, dum regna manobai 


frar, or fightinf in general. M teeta: to 447. /n exinama morU: in 

the palace. trophe. Siqtrema rumtt nj» 

441. Tetiudine aeid: the teftudo heing 448. Devolmmi auraiat tnU 
formed. The tetiudo waa a figure into which blo down upon their enemi 
the loldiera formod themselvei in atUicking raftera, the etvtely decoratioi 
towni and other fortified placei. The first cestore. InthifipaMage,the| 
rank ntood upright, the next behind them a livoly pictnre of men in i 
■tooped lower and lower by degreei, till the copies have dtcora iila pan 
laat rank kooeled down : ail holding their haa a peculiar emphaiii. 
targeti or ihields over their headi in their 449. AHi obtedtre* Theaa 
1«{1 handi. By thoie meani thev were se- Trojan guardi, who had takei 
cure from the niisHive woaponi of the enemy the lower doora, to prevont t 
frora the walls and towera. To carry on an tho Greeki. Othera underati 
attack in this way was called, agere lettudi' themielves, who had besieg 
nem : to form the testudo, or targ^ defence. Mueronibus. Muero ii propei 
Limen: the passaire which led up to the the sword; by synec. put 
palace— the place before the door. sword. 

442. Parietibus, Paries is proporly the 450. Dtnso agmine: in a • 
wall of a house — murw^ the wail of a city. pact body. w4mmt : courage 

443. J^Uuntur gradibiu sub^ &c. By gra- 452. Levare: in the sensc c 
dibus^ here, we may eiUier undcretand the tis : to those dospairing — fig 
Bteps that led up to the paiace, or the steps any hope of victory. Kim . 
of the scaling ladders by which they mount- In the sing. it ii a triptot; in 
ed up, or presscd to get up, to the roof, the lar. 

footof tliose laddero being placed atthe very 453. Pervius usus tectorva 

door-posts. Mr. Davidson undcratands the roughfare (free communica' 

panage in this iast senso. The former, how- tlie palaces of Priam with ei 

ever« ii the easicr : which is the lense of a gate lcf\ free (unobserved 

RuBUi. M ipsas portas^ says he. The from bchind^ where unhapp| 

Greeki ascend (niluntur) by the steps up to &c. 

the very doora. Postes^ properly the franie It appeare that Priam ha 

of the door, put, frequently, for the door it- near cach othor, with a com: 

lelf^ by moton. tweon them ; in one of wh» 

444. Protecti sinistris : protected by their Andromache resided, while li 
•e(l hands, (by tlic shiclds which they sup- resided in the other. Limen 
ported on tlieir lcfl arm,) they oppose thcir Cctete: privato— -lecret. Thi 
ihields, &c. Fastigia : the roof, or the eavcs vato, or back door, ^neas « 
or edge of the roof. iacc, and ascended by the ui 

445. Tecta culmina domorum: the cover- to tho walch-lower. 

ed tops of tlieir Iiousos. Here teeta is a par- 454. Postes : in the senie « 

ticipial adjective, from the verb tfgo. Its 455. Qua infelix Jlndromm 

nauter, tectum^ proporly bignifiei the roof or tion of hcr usmg this lecret 

oovering of any building. Hence by synoc. palace, givci a dignity tc thc 

ihe buildinfl: itielf — a houie, a palace. which in itsclf if* l^^w 



Andromache ferre incomitata solebat 

eroe, et avo puerum Astyanacta trahebat. 

ad summi fastigia culminia, unde 468. Bie wia eirado 

lanu miseri jactabant irrita Teucri. 

I in pnecipiti stantera, suramisque sub astra 460 460. Ao» ciitnkm af • 

jn tectis, unde omnia Troja vidori, «^ ferro lurrim 

^ V* A A i •• *— 461. UndeommiTro- 

laOro solit» naTea, et Achaica castra ; j^ ^^ .^^ ^,^ ^i^^ ^ 

Mi ferro circum, qua summa labantes navet Danatkm Mliia 

ras tabu]ata dabant, convellimus altis naU videri 

8, inipulimuaque. £a lapsa repente ruinam 465 

onitu trahit, et Danadm super agmina late 453^ Cenat Jaeimi « 

; ast alii subeunt : nec saxa, nec ullum Danais 

m interei cessat genus. 471. Talu^ qualia c< 

jlum ante ipsuro primoque in limine Pyrrhus }"***' "'» ***** '^T^ "• 

»*i**i UA Atf\ lucem, pastus roala ^ra- 

U telis et luce coruscus ahena. 47U • '^ . -5 

^... , ^^^ ,7^ , . mma, quem tumidun* 

ubi m lucem coluber, mala gramma pastus, fngida bruma tegebai 

i sub terrl tumidum quem bruma tegebat; aub terra; nunc, 


Swcrof: her parenta-in-law — ^Priam palace, oo which the tower stood, and lo 

eaba. Attyanaeid, : a Greek acc. of which it waa fastened : or perhaps the high- 

ir. Some say he waa carried off by eei story, or part of the tower only, wa» 

, othera aay by Monelaua, in the ab- overthrown. Labantet : in tho sense of 

* PyrrhuB, and thrown OYer a preci- ir^fitmas. 

•rade the prophecy, which imported 464. Dabant : in the senie of habebani. 
he iived, he would avenge hie pa- 469. Ante iptum: before the vcry en- 

id couniry. The name is of Greek irance, or vestibule. The veAtibulum pro- 

ind aigni&ea, a king of a city. perly waa the court yard or iipace before 

Etado ad foitigia: I ascend to the the door of the house. By primo lipnine^ 

the highcst roof. The word evado we may undentand the outer (^atc ; perhaps 

hc dauger of ilio enterprise, and the the one that gave admittance iiito the ms- 

be rmii of bcing intercepted by ihe tibulwm. 

470. Coruteut ahend luee: gleaming in 

probable thai by fatlyfia bere, we arms, and brazon light ; ihe brass of his 

nderstand iho baiUoments, or watch- armour reflected the light. 
vhich had becn buili upon the high- Pyrrhut. He was the son of Achilles 

'. of ihe palace. We may suppose and Deidamia, so callod from the color of 

lee io nave been of difiercnt heij^hts, hisskin, which was rcd. He was someiimos 

lave conaisied of several buildings, callod J^eoptolemut% from two Greek words, 

l in heigbi, and connecied iogether which iog^ther sigiiify a new war. He in- 

) Ibrm one mass, each of ihem with herited much of the spirit and tempcr of 

•ctive roof ; honce ihe propriety of his father. He slew Priam while holding 

pfwnons : «imiiiu ieeii — siORiiit cui- the aitar, to which he had fled for refuge ; 

iBe. and sacrificed his daughter Polyzena at ihii 

#11 prmeipiti : in a dangerous place iomb of his father. Aftor tho destruction 

irojeciing situation. of Troy, he carried off Andromacho, whom 

Swmmit tertit : wiih its highesi roof, he married ; at least he had a son by her, 

ly, with its iop. li is plain ihai l«c- named Molottut. He af\erwards married 

re meam the roof, or ridge of ihe her io Helenus. the ^n oi Friam, upon hia 

falling in love wiih Hermione, the daughter 

Fkrro. Ferrvm properly signifies of Monelaus and Helen. 
flenco any insimmeni made of iron Pyrrhus was slain in the temple of 

dgedtool; such as swords, axes, ftc ApoUo, ai Delphi, by Orestes, to whom 

Mse Instrumenis ihey cut ihe iower Hermione had been promised. Ho waii also 

rhere Ihe topmosi siory gavo weak called Pelidet^ from Peieut^ his mndfalher. 

Mr. Davidson observes, it b some- 471. Pattut maia: having fed upun pol* 

Bculi to determine tho meaning of sonous herbs. It is said that nerpents, whcn 

in this place ; becauso tlie po(>'. they lio in wait f^r eitlipr man or beasi, eat 

la if ilie whole tower had been tom puinonous hcrbs and routs, to make tbeir 

place, and not one siory of it only. hite more fatal. 
BfefV ihinks we mav undersiand by 472. Bruma : properly t)ie shortesi daf 

■e igkuimia^ ihe higheei story of th» of wiater — iha wmler aoiifUca \ Vienaa V| 


Nunc positis novus exuviis, niiidutque jinrenlAi 
Luhrica convolvit, sublato pectore, tergB. 
475. Vnk e%tm Pyr9 \' Arduus ad Solem, et linguis micat ore trwulcii 

^ngons Poriphai», « Uni ingens Periphas, et equoruin agitator Acl 

^''Pt^LJ^Z^ ^™igf' Automedon , «na omniB Scyria pub. 

tor equoruin Aclullis, Succedunt tecto, ot flammaaad culmiiia jactu 

ttni ttiain oiiuiii Jpse inter primoa, corrept^ dura bipenni, 

479. Pifrrkiu ipM in- Limina perrumpit, postcsque » cardine Tellit 

lar primoa iEratos ; jamque excis^ trabe firma cavavit 

Robora, et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram* 
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt 
Apparcnt Priami et veterum penetralia regum 
486. Danai vident ar- Armatosque vidcnt stantes in limine primo. 

oiAtM cutiodcM BtantM At domus interior gemitu miseroque tumuH 

Miacetur: penitusque cave plangonbua ledee 
Fcemineis ululant : ferit aurea sidera clanior. 
Tum pavide tectis matres ingentibua erranl : 
490. Figunt oacula Amplexnque tenent postes, atque oscula figu 

•ttu Instat vi patril Pyrrhus ; nec claustra, neque 

Cufltodea sufiferre valent : labat aiiete crebro 


■jDM. the whole winter. 7\midwm : ewol- or eroefpieee, or oCher impedia 

len, or bloaied with poison. inaide of the door, to eeeure it 

473. JVeriM erurtu : now, renewed, hie we may ondentaod the imped 

■kin being cairt oflf, and eleok with youth, he fencea oa the ontaide of the t 

rotla, &C. It ia woU known that the anake pattes, the door itaeH^ bj meU 

chansrea, or creepa out of hia akin, in the rumpii dnra UmuuLt and the 

aprinf^ of the year. AriatoUe informa ua eardine^ ahow Pyrrhua breakit 

that thev bo(;in at the head, and having di- obstmctionai and tearing dow 

vested tlirinHelves of their old gamient, and eararil being in the perC 

tliev appear renowed in youth and beauty. tlie ease and rapidity with wfa 

This is effocted in about the apace of twenty- was produced. Dedii: in the 
four hourv. 484. Penelralia, Penetrak 

475. •irdnus ad soiem : raiaed or elevatcd nifies the interior or private i 

to the sun ; in order to receivo his heat, es- a house, aa here— that part 

pecially in the sprint;« when his warm beama whcre the images stood — the 

are the niost cherishin|f. Trisuieit, The the responees of tbe oradee 

poeta rvprosent serpents aa haring three- the shrine. Rueus aaya, rerc 
rorked tongues, pr^>l>ai>ly on account of the 487. C«r« «1^«: the rooma 

TolubiUty of their tuiigues, in which they arches, or ceilinga. Ulukmii 

are aaid to oxceod all oiher animals. .Vico/ : of retonani. PiangfibuM : t 

tB the sonsc of vtbrat, mcntationa. Theae rooma, • 

477. ^ffna : an adj. from Seyros^ one of of the femalee, wtrt in the n 

tho Cyi-Udi>s. .\chilioa was placod here rior part of the palace. Thi 

m the hal>tt of a \\ ouian, undor the care of by penitus. 
Lycomodos, kiug of tho isiand, where he 490. •Iwtpiexm teneni^ fte. 

doliled his iiaut:hu*r lY^idamia, who brought lusion to a superstitioua opia 

kim Pyrrlius. Sonio say L«ycitinodos gave Romans, that the door-pof 

Idra his daUj^Iitor in marriage. Pubes: in poesessed a kind of divinity. 

Ibe aense ot* *urfHtus, fore, the poet representa aa In 

47 H. iitietrduHt tecto: eome np to the pa* embraced bytheTrojaa matn 

laco, so tiiat t)u v i^ould rrach ihe roof with bv these means to recommfl 

Ihe damoak Thoy advance up to a proper to the prolectioB of the dm 

diataBce, to ihrow tlauiee upon the roof. suppoeed to preside over thei 

4^1. Cararti jinna rob^rm : and now hath euia : fiz their lipe to them-* 
be pierced, or cut tiir>Ni|rh the firm wood, 4S9. in^eniikuM iteHa : ii 

Ibe. Thia chan^e of tense ia very erpree- apartmenia — haUa. 
«ve and boauiiiul. U marks the' violence 4!^ Suferrt: ia the aaM 

■f Pjrnhus, and the rapidity of hia profreaa. Cre^ cnefe : with the fren 

^f amic here« we maj nndiialaai the har, the luna. Tkii vaa aa «« 

i!^.NFJS. L(B. II. m 

et einou procninbunt cardine poste&. 

vi : ruiupunt aditus, priiiiosque trucidant 

i Dauai, et late loca iniiite coiiiplcnt. 456 49S. Dtnai rumpunt 

:, aifgeribus niptis cum spumeus aiiinis aditn», iniiniwiquo 

,,,.o.iu«,ue evicit gui^ite moie^, «pr^i^^if^ribu. ',;;';: 

in ar?a furens cumulo, cainposque per omnes tis, evicitque opponitaA 
abulis armenta trahit. ^ Vidi ipse furentein molea gurgite, non teriuf 

^eoptolemum, geminosque in liiuine Atridaa : 500 in arva lic tureni 
3cubam, centumcjue nurus, Priamuin(]ue per aras ^^^- Cumulo aqnanm 
le foL*dantem, quos ipse sacraverat, ignes. 
aginta illi thalami, spes tanta nepotuin, 
ico postes auro spoliisque superbi, 

uer« : tenent Danai, qua deficit ignis. 505 ^ ^•"^ ^»""* ^ 

itan et, Priami fuerint qu» fata, requiras. ~^*|" g^i^^ .^ 

ibi caplaj casum, convulsaque vidit qu^ circumdat arait 

tectonim, et medium in penetrulibus hostem ; diu dosueu humerii tre- 
Liu seiiior desueta trementibus a;vo montibuu 0vo, oi 


r towni and fortified placea, to make one wife each ; who, in tlie wholo, might 

. in the waila. It wai a long beam make the exact nuniber of a hundred. Thu 

of timber, one end of which wai lost ii Ihe bent, or most probablc explanit- 

i witli iron, somewhat roiembling in tion. 

! head of a ram, whence it took iti 502. Fadantem : defiling with hii blood 

Thia waa laipended in the middle the fires which, &C. In the open court of 

elp of ropes, to another beam, ex- his paiace, Priain had an altar connecrated 

crossiwo posts, and tlirown forward to Juoiter Hercaus^ or the Frotcctor : on 

Qsiegrers wiOi groat violence against this altar, we are told that hallowed fire was 

kept pcrpetuaily buming. 

FoMtet: the door, or gate, by meton. 503. ///» ikalami: those fifty bed-cham- 

Rmnpuni adiitu: they force a pas- bcrs, the so great hope of poHterity. These 

entrance. wcre the separate roonis where his sons 

XfiMfertur: a river, when it hath lodged with iheir wives. Homer tclls us 

brtb foaining, iU barners bemg burst, ^^^ p,iajn had twclve daughters, who, wilh 

h overcoine the opposing mounds their husbands, lodged over againit his sons. 

whirling current, is not bome into Hc had Uierefore sixly-two children by his 

siofuriouswithitsflood,&c. The .everal wives, ninetcen of whom Hecuba 

re gives us a very Uvely idea of Uie boro him. The rest he had by hia other 

the Greeks. It ezceeded that of a ^ives. All Uiese bed-chambers were in 

nt up: at lengUi, bursUng iU barri- Priam^s palace. 

rdowinr the «*i^"\^^^";^;J^^ 604. SuperH barbarieo auro: decorated 
ig de«,Tat.on and destmcUon evwy ^.^^ ^^^^.^ j^ ^^ jj^ ^ 

niUcouise. Cumulo : auclu aqua. frequenUy%aJIed P/»r^iJ.a, Barbary. Soine 

SeJw She was Uie wife of Pfi- ^,*^"'^?'* "?h *'"^-** A T^°''? J*"!} 

j^T^ lyr Phrygisn gold. It is better to undenttand 

d«.BhterofCu««,kingofThr.ce. u Jthe gold, which h.d been Ukc» from 

, c*rr.ed into d.Tery by tl e Greok.. ^^ v„,ui.hed eneraie.; more e.peci.lly 
nuru». Honier mforms us Uiat r riam ?•■ • j- . 1 <• n •. •.• 

Ta iv j • li ij ^ smce tpoiuM immediately follows it. 6t/- 

r fittT sons, lliad VI. He could not i. . ;« .u -«.,-« ^c »■ . j *-• 

L u 1 j j u. _ • 1 ... perbi: m the sense of ormili, or aeeoratt. 

e have a hundred daughters-m-law, ^^ . ^ , ;^ ^l^ «.«-« c , a ^ 

u * u u j * Fotte» : m tne sense of portv. : doors. 
re suppose each one to have had two '^ 

This might have been the case; but 505. Danai tenent^ &c. The Greeks are 

Qo mentjon made of it. To ezplaiu here beautifully represented more cmel than 

«olty, some take the definite nuro- *he flames. The fire abated, and fell from 

um, for an indefinite one. Othcrs, »ts rage : but the more merciless Oreeks 

rhom is Rnsus, take nuru* for an ?'«»• on UU all is destroycd. 

it, OT wailer, underatanding by een- 507- ^«"*» • »n ^« «»«?«»« of ruinam, 

MS, the hnndrod servants, or waiten 508. JAmina tertorum eonvulta : the door 

te. Bni there is no iropropriety in of his palace tom down — broken throiigh. 

if that the sons of Priam, imitaUng Penetratibu» : in the inner or ^riviA» ik^^axV 

ifle of tlMir fiuhtr« had more than ments of his palaoa. 



Circumdat n^quicquam humeris, et inutile 
Cingitur, ac densos fertur morituruB io hoste» 
iEdibus in mediis, nudoque sub etheris ajM 
Ingens ara fuit, juxtaque veterrima laurus, 
[ncumbens arae, atque umbd^ complexa Penal 

cli^im .iSriT^'!^ JJ^^ H^"^ «\"'^^ nequicquam altaria circA 
tM, ceu oolumbiD volani Praecipites, atri ceu tempestate columbae, 
ttb atrm tempestate, et Condensae, et Div(im amplexce simulacra tencil 
unpieze Ipsum autem sumptis Priamum juvenilibus an 

^!^: Autem Heeuba^ jj^ yidit: Quae mens tam dira, miserrime con 

tU, inquit: ^^^ ^h auxilio, nec defensonbus istis 

620. Impulit te cingi Tenipus eget : non, si ipse meus nunc afibrel 

Huc tandem concede : h«ic ara tuebitur onu» 

nmvdJ^HLwn. ™**"*" ^"^ moriere simul. Sic ore effata, recepit 
^ Ad sese, et sacri longaevum in sede locavit. 

Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de caede PoHta 
Unus natorum Priami, per tela, per hostea 
Porticibus longis fugit, et vacua atria lustrat 
Saucius : illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhc 
Insequitur, jam jamque manu tcnet, et preaii 
^ 631, Tojidem, ot eva- ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentui 
■a^Mte^oculoe et ora Concidit, ac multo vitam cum sang^uine fudit 

Hic Priamus, quanquam in media jam mortc 
Non tamen abstinuit, nec voci, iraeque pepei 
At, tibi pro scelero, exclamat, pro talibus av 
Dt (si qua est ccelo pietas, qu» talia curet) 


610. Circumdat: in the sense of induii, or wife; from the verb eot| 

Cingitur: in the sense of eingit, thought — purpose. 

512. Sub nudo cLxt: under the naked 522. fpse meus Hector: ifii 

(open) c&nopj of heaven. ^xis^ properly self wcro now here, he could 

tiie pole, by synec. the wholo hoaven or sky. 523. Coneede : bet&ke youn 

This al^r was situated in the middle, or in this last extremity. This 

centre of the palace — mediis (rdibus. On tect us all. Altars and otli 

this altar, Priam had consecratcd the per- places were looked upon as i 

petual fi/e. Here he was slain. If wc sup* places of rcfuge: to which i 

pose the palace of such form and dimen- flce for safety. 

■ions as to admit a large space or arca m 525. Longavum : in the sc 

the centre, exposed to the open air above, 5'2C. J)e ciede Ptfrrhi : not 

there will bo no difficulty in understanding of Pyrrhus ; but from death 

this passage. ryrrhuA. 

514. Compiexa Penaies : embracing the 528. Longin parficibus: i 
Penates with its shade. La Cerda would sagos. Mr. David^ion rcnd 
undenitand by Penates^ the palace, or house, thc long gallcries. Lustrat, 
%M thc word somctimes signifies; because pererrat. 

this was not the place of the Penates^ or 529. Investo rulnere: wi 

household gods. But others think the sta^ weapon. Vulnus is here t 

tues of the Penates werc placed here, on the for thc wouiiding instrumei 

■ame altar with that of Jupiter Hereaus, that iuflicts thc wound. 

515. J^ata: in the sense of JUia^ vel 630. Jamjamqne: sAmt^ 
nurus. his hand, and prcsses upo 

516. Pnreipites: quick— in haste. sp^ar. 

517. Ccndfnsm eircitm: crowded aiound Wl- J^asit: in the sense 
the altars. Simulaera: in tho sen^e of ^^^- Ahsiinuit: in the pe 
ttMtuas. ^'^^- ^^^ scelere^ pro: f< 

519. Miserrime: in the sense of tnA/tcif- n**'^^ ^^^ »"^**» andaciou.s . 
the voc. Cory'ux is e*»Hcr a hushand go^^ in**«e yo« suitable rct 


Dt ^tes dignat, et pncmia reddant 

qui nati coram me cemere letum 

5t patrioa fcBdJiati funere vultus. 539. Panm efutJUa 

lle, Batum quo te mentiris, Achilles 640 640. ^ qiio meniini 

boste adt Priamo ; sed jura fidemque ^ ••^ «"« 

I erubuit ; corpusque exsangue sepulchro 

Hectormim, meque in mea regna remisit. 

aenior, telumque imbelle sine ictu 

: rauco quod protinus eere repulsum, 646 545. Quod npultnni 

lo cljTpei nequicquam unibone pependit. "' protinQ» 

■hus : Referes ergo hjBC, et nuntius ibis 547. Cui PyrrhiM r#- 

enitori : ilii mea tristia facta, tpondit 

emque Neoptolemum narrare memento. 649 ^- >I«monlo narriP 

>r«r«. H«c dicens, altaria ad ipsa trementem {jjplol^;';,^;"^: 

;t in multo lapsantem sanguine nati : 

:que comam levi ; dextrique coruscum . .<> a uaa'4 

* , ^ . , . ' . ,.*..^ 653. Ac ADdiait eum 

le lalen capulo tenus abdidit, ensem. 1^,1 Priami tenOi ca- 

B Priami fetorum : hic exitus iilum pulo 


I ngnifiM. in proportion to— cor- waa ilain. Virgii, howover, forbcara to 

I to. In the preaent caee it is olio mention theie drcumstancei, and attribatee 

Jiutis, Aunm is properly a the restoration of Hector"* corpie to the 

le verb audeo ; uied aa a lub. generosity, jostice, and sense of honor, of 

lui feeish me eoram, fto. Priam Achilles, in order to set the character of. 

eomplain of hb killing his son ; Pyrrhus in a more forcible light. 

> barbaritjr in making him to be Achilles had it in his power to have de- 

BB of so shocking a sight^for tained the aged monarch, or to have put him 

rn before his eyes. to deaih ; bot he blushod {entbuiC) at the 

tdiUH palriot: hast defiled a fa- thnu^ht of violating the laws of nations, 

with the dead body of his son. which forbid all violence to the person of a 

jB Servins, is a carcass or dead king; which require the forms of burial to 

m and newly slain. When car- be allowed to the dead, and the laws of 

» receive funeral rites, it is called humanity to be observcd even to an enemy, 

; the ashes of it, when bumed, when disarmed : thoM laws he observed, 

iieltquitt: and the interment of and that faith (Jidem) which is due to a 

tmuiehrum» suppliant, whose person has always beon 

AekiUa t/le, tfuo : but Achilles held sacrod by the laws of hospitality 

r whom, you ftJeely say, you was 544. letu : in the sense of impeiu, 

WMM cot soch toward Priam, his 545. RepuUum: it was so repellcd, that 

it fell short of wounding him. It, ho^cvcr, 

a eevere sarcasm ; as if he had pierced the boss of his buckler, and hung 

cUim deecent from Achillos, but there harmless, having produccd no cffect 
■M £ive yoa the lie; no man of 546. Umbone. Umbo was tho middle part 

could begct r.ich a son. Saium : of the shield. This rose or projcctcd for- 

le of gmtlu*". ward from the plane of the shicld, in a ciuvod 

*,ruh%ni jura: he bloshed at the or circular form. By summo tunhonr^ we 

itions, and the faith due to a sup- are to underatand the fartliest point ul |»ro- 

: had regard to the laws, Iec The jection; which was also t)io centrc of ti:e 

mi is eztreroely beautiful and ez- shield. Here the spear of Priam stuck. It 

is sometimes taken for the whole shicld, by 

B death of Hector, Achilles bound synec. 

lod/ to his chariot, and drew it 547. /6u nuntius: you shall go a unif- 

tomb of Patroclus, whom Hectpr sengcr to my father Achilles, whom you 

lod around tho walls of Troy, for so much praise, and tcll him that his mo 

m in succession. At this piteous has degonerated from the virtues of his fa- 

n was induced to go to Achillcs, tlier. 

• body, thatit mijrht receive the 548. Trisiia: foul — horrid. Rucussays 

ipoltare; who, aiter much cn- indiena, 

tnMnj rich presents ffiven him, 5.->4. Faforum : in the senso o> viia. Th 

» body oo the twelAh day aflei i was the end of the Ufe of Pnim. Hvt nx\ 


Sorte tulit, Trojam incensam et prolapsa T«ieill 

Pcr^jrania, tot <|iiondain populis terrisque supeili 

Regnatorem Asias : jacet ingens litore tnincus, 

ATulsumque humeris caput, et sine nomine cof] 

At me tum primum ssevus circumstetit horra 

54MI. Sabiit niihi in Obstupui : subiit chan genitoris imago, 

infUem Ut regem fpquaevum crudeli vulnere vidi 

Vitam exhalantem : subiit deserta Creusa, 
£t direpta domus, et parvi casus luli. 
Respicio, et, (]ua! sit me circum copia, luatro. 
Deseruere onmes defessi, et corpora aaltu 
566. Dedte ea mgn, Ad terram mis^re, aut ignibus aegra ded^re. 
^^^^ Jamque aded super unus eram, cum limina 1 


tut hdii: thi« death carricd him off (torie) a name. The head being the k 

bv divine appointment. This is a singular person, that beinff cut oiF, there ] 

idiom. The leveral circumstances here lefl to come at tne name, or to 

mentioned in the death of Priam, aggravate the person. Or, tini nomine 

the cnielty of the action, and set ^rth the without honoi^-dcspicable. 

ferocious tempcr of Pyrrhus. Ue drow him 561. Ut : in the senae of aon. 

(iratit^) trembling with age and docaj of 562. Creuta, The daughtero 

nature, to the verr altar whero ho Iiad fled Hccuba, and wife of iEneaa. S 

for safetv; and alipping (laptantem) in the in tho eack of Troy. Direpta: 

blood or his son; the siglit of which was 563. Catut: in the seose of t 

woree than death : thon he 'twisted his hair 565. Saltu : by a leap or ■pnl 

« ith his left hand, and, with his right hand, 566. JEgra : faint — wora a 

c rew his glittering sword from ita scabbard, tigue, lo that thej could fight n 

tnd plunged it into hii body up to the hilt. 567. Jamque ade^ : and lo I ^ 

fiere wo have a lively picture of a man lost maining alone, when I behold 

td all sense of humanity, and capable of The parti of the verb tt^ertttm 

^erpetrating tho most atrocious dccds. It parated, forthosake of the vem 

shows, also, tho pen of a mastcr. A painter Some critics have doubted t 

could copy it ness of this passage conceming 

556. Pergama : ncu. plu. properly tlio fort to the 58Bth line inclusive. Tn 
of Troy. It is frequently takcn for the city signed are three. First : Whal 
itself, by synec. Hcre it is used in its appro- of her fearing the resentment ( 
priato sense and meaning, as distinguished contradicts what he says of I 
from the city. 525.) having sought to make 

555. Videniem : it agrees with illum, him by betraying De'iphobu8. 

557. iSii7ier6umrf^a/orm:theproudruIer That Virgil here outrages the 
over 80 many nations and countries of Asia. his hero, by making him enterti 
Friam is said to have once reigned ovcr of killing a woman, and per 
Pkrygia Major and Minor : which includcd dccd in the temple of Vesta. T 
the greater* part of Asia Minor, or Natolia. Virgil cannot be supposed so i 
RuflBUs interprets the words thus : hegem with the history of Helen, as 
•iriat^elarumpropter totgentet^ et tot regiontt, that she lcft Troy long before 
Jaeet ingent truneut : he lies a largo trunk In answer to the fint objecti 
upon tho shore. Some think thc poet had said that, though sho endeavo 
here in his view, tho circumstances of the tiate herself with Menelaus, 
doath of Pompey, whose hoad his assassins Deiphobus to him, it doei nc 
cut off, and threw his body on the shoro. he was entirely reconciled to li 
Othors say that Priam was not slain at the are told by Euripidei that h 
altar ; but drawn by Pyrrhus to tho tomb of Helen as a captive along wit 
his father, which was on the promontory of womcn, with a view to haT< 
Si^um, and thcre slain to appease his death by the Greeks whose ■< 
Manet. Ho may have been sloin at the al- in the war. To the lecond ob^ 
tar, and his dead body af\erward cast upon be rcpliod, that Aneas did n« 
the shore. This supposition will make the dcath ; and evcn if he had, tj 
poet consistent and intelligible. Regnatorem have been palliatod, m a gooi 
pat in apposition with itlum, consideration of the clrcunMl 

S5S, Coffua tifU nomine: a body without case. In the horry and conf 

iUNEIS. LIB. II. 289 

n, et tacitam secretli in sede latentem 
i aspicio : dant clara incendia lucem 

Mssimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. 670 ^^0. Mihi emnti, fa- 
nfestos eversa ob Pergama TeucroB, Mntique ocuio. 

Danaam, et deserti conjugis iras Erinny. Troj» et ejui 

ns, Trojse et patris communis Erinnys, p&trie, pcrmetuens Teu- 

: sese, atque aris invisa sedebat. cruninfestoi sibiobefer. 

ignes animo : subit ira cadentem 675 •• I*®'^^^»^ ^^ 
Ltriam, et sceleratas sumere pcenas. 

BC Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas . ^'^7*. ^'^"^ wjihoet, 

F^ .«.. .*. u ft ^ «iioi4te6am, mcolumifl aii- 

partoque ibit regma tnumpho ? piciet Spirtam 

nque, domumque, patres, natosque vidcbit, 

irbi et Phrygiis comitata ministris ? 680 

ferro Priamus ? Troja arserit igni ? 

rai toties sudirit sanguine litus ? 

namque etsi nullum memorabile nomen 583. Non ita erii 

in pcenal est, nec habet victoria laudem ; namque 

> ne&a tamen, et sumpsisse merentis 686 


n« with which his mind muit then 573. Permetvent : dreading — ^greatly fear* 

■acked, who could haye blamed ing. The per in compoBition increaBcii tne 

ad Avenged hb own and his coun- signification of the simple word. Hclen 

inn upon her, who waa justly proved fatal both to Greece and Troy ; to 

with the guilt of to many thou- the former, in tlie loss of so many heroes : 

is, and the utter desolation of a to the latter, in being the cause of its ruin. 

>oent people — a once flourishing She is thercfore stylcd tlie eommon fury. 

ul kingdom? But when, instead Erinnyt^ a name commou to the three furies. 

rav to the first eniotions of a just See Geor. i. 278. 

, ne checks himself, deliberates 574. Invisa : hated — an odious Mght ; ra- 

«rits of the action^and is at length ther than unseen, as Rusbus has iu 

from doing it by the interposition 575. Jgnet exarsere : flames flashcd in my 

doM mother ; or, in other words, mind. Jra tubii : my resentment rose to 

e of superior judgment, thcre is avcnge my falling country. 

•▼en for the severest crilics to 576. Sumere teeleratat pasnat : to take se- 

s conduct. Lastly : Hcrodotus vere punishnient. Or, perhaps, to take pu- 

that he leamed from some Egyp- nisbnient of such a cursed woman. The 

;, who had received the same from same as, tumere pamat de teeleraia fvnnina 

limael^ that the Trojans had sent Rusbuh says, vanat teelerit, Ueyne, pana. 

Bgypt before the Greeks rede- tumplat a teiiertUa, 

r. Of this fact, the historian ap- 577. Myeenat: Mycen« wasnot the placa 

lave been fully convinced. But of her own nativity, but of Menclaus, lier 

iffil was acquainted with this husband. She was bom at Sparta. Scili' 

M history or not, it b sufiicient cel hac : shall she, indeed, in safety bchold.' 

1 poetical tradition on his side ; &c. These are all animatcd interrogatories 

9 is supported by the authority of and show the mind of ^neas hurrying from 
I Euripides. A moment> attcn- objcct to object, and agitated with a tidc o«' 
) style and manner of ezpression passions. At last he concludcs it must not 
nea. will convince any one tiiat bc. She must suflTcr the punishment due tc 

10 interpolation. Unut: m the her crimcs. 

hu. 578. Parto triumpho: having obtained a 

vmniem limina Vettet; the vcrb triumph — a triumph being obtained. 

lifies to look ailer any thing A'ith 580. Comitata turbd: acconipanied by a 

d aolicitude ; with a jealous eye, train of Troian matrons, and Plirygian ser* 

ul of erery danger. Lvmfia : in vants, shall she see.her former marriage bcd. 

f Umphm. kc. lUadum: gen. plu. of //ta#, a Trojan 

i^srt^ ; ace. of TVfMiaru, a name woman. Cor^jugium: vrittinum eonjugemt 

lie daughtiv of Jupiter and Leda; says Heyne. Pairet: tor parentet. 

ecause 7)fndarut, king of Sparta, 582. Dardanium : an adj. the sauie at 

da, her Uiother. 7Vo'anMm. 

*rti amjueit: her deserted, or 58J. J^omm: glory — renown. 

hnalmncU Menelaus. 5(i5. Tamen iaudabor : ii»^«Tl\\c\«i«aA^i3^ 


Laudabor pobnas ; animumque expMsse jimd»*! 
687. Meomm eufiwn, Ultricis flamma?, et cineres sstiisse meorur. 

Talia jactabam, et furiat^ mente ferebr/. 

689. Cum alma pa- ^^^ ^^^^ „^^„ ^^t^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

reiiA, non vua tam clara .^, . r* * • * • i r i -a 

iTieif ocuUs antd, obtulit Obfjlit, et pura per noctem .» luce refulsit 

ae videndam mihi, et re- Alma parens, confessa Deam ; qualisque viderf 

fulBit per noctcm C(£licolis et quanta solet ; dextiique prebensini 

592. Continuit me pre- Continuit, roseoque haec insupcr addidit ore : 

hensum dexir& j^^^ j^ indomitas tantus dolor excitat iraa t 

690. IVon aifpiciei pn- >^ .j /.* • n ^ % ^ • ..!• _i 
as, ubi Uqueria parentem Q"*^ *"."« • ^"^ qudnam nostn Ubi cura receni 
Anchisen, fessum Non prius aspicies, ubi fessum aetate parentem 

598. Circum quos, Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjuxne Creiisa, 
omnes Graiie acios er- Ascaniusque puer ? quos omnes mdique Graki 

**!Rnn" 'r?,iL!l;«4 * Circum errant acies: et, ni mea cura resbtat. 

oOU. iulennt eo8, et , - ^ t • . • • • . • •. . 

inimicua ensis hauserit ^^^ nammae tulennt, minucus et nausent enaii 

eomm ianguinem. Non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacaense, 

602. Sed inclcmentia Culpatusve Paris : DivQm inclementia, Divihn, 

IWvflm, Divum, inquam, Has everUt opes, stemitque a culmine Trojam. 

^''«M. Namque eripiam ^P^^/ "*">^"« omnem, qu» nunc obducta t 
omnomnubem,quenunc Mortales hebetat visus Ubi, et humida circum 
obducta hebetat Caligat, nubem eripiam : tu ne qua parentia 


be praised for having put an end to Uie iVom his present object, and to i 

monster of wickedness, and takcn vengeance gard to hia own — to hia aged 

of one 80 justly deserving it JVWoj, very for- infant son, and hia beloved wift 

cibly oxpresscs the enormity of her cnmei: wise might have faUen victims 

ahe was wickcdness itself. of the Greeks. 

We are told that Hclen wai first ravishcd 593. Addidil hae : she added 

by Thescus. Aflerward she marricd Mcne- 595. Tibi : in the sense of h 

laus, whom she lefl for Paris. She also — rcgard. ^uonam: the com) 

committed incest with hor son-in-law Ory- lense of the simple tpih. 

thus, the son of Paris and CEnonc. It is 597. Supertt : in the sense ol 

also said that she had an amour with Achil- 600. TWenn/ : would have 

les. She may truly be caUed (jitfa^) a off — consumed tliem. 

monster of wiekednest, Mereniit : part. of 601. Laecena Tyndaridia : of 

Mereor^ agreeing with ejus understood : of len. See 56*9. supra. Invisa 

her deserving or meriting it. or odious to you. 

586. JuxcSiit : it will deUght me to have 602. Dix)<km inelementia, T\ 

aatisfied my desire of buming or ardcnt re- much more emphatic than ver 

venge. Fkimma may herc be used in the tia Divum^ as in the common < 

icnso of Jtammea vel ardeniis, Animum : it is supported by the authori 

in the sense of desiderium, Animvu may manuscripts : it is the readir 

■ignify any affection of themind; espccially and Valpy. Homer makes Pri 

in the plural. For ultrieis ftamma^ Rueus Helen, and lay the blame of th 

says, ardentis ultionis. Heyne s^ys^ftammA of his country to the godi then 

sive ird uUrice (hoc est^ ultione. iii. 164. 

589. Clara : manifcst— clear : attonded 603. Uas opes : in the eenai 

with evident marks of Divinity. tentiam. Opes, is, properly, pc 

591. Confessa Deam : manifesting the god- by wcalth. 

dess. ^ue^isque^ et quanta : luch, and ai 604. Qu4E nune obdueta : whi( 

illustrious as she used to be seen, &c. Ve- before you, looking eameitly 

nus was the most proper deity to interpose mortal sight, ftc. Thii passmj 

in behalf of Holen, whom she had long pro- pcars to have had in view, v/i 

tected, and had conferred on Paris, as a rc- preparcs Adam for beholding 

ward for his adjudging the prize of beauty sion of his pbstcrity, and t 

to hcr, rather than to Juno or Minerva. which he is going to set befc 

Ses i£n. i. 27. This interposition of Venus Paradisc Lost, lib. xi. vene 41 

wai venr loaionable in another respcct ; to moist — impregnatcd with Tap< 

eheck ihe ardor of hia aoul, to divert him crcase the darkni 

Uque emoU magno tri- 

i£N£lS LIB. II. S81 

neu pnuceptiB parere rccusa morUlee ywua tibl tuen. 

iectas moles, avulsaque saxis ^ ^^^ ,,^ ... 

• . 1^1 c 608. H)c, ubi Yideii 

inixtoque undantem pulvere fumum ; ^^j^ di.ii^u., ta^iaque 

uros, magnoque emota Indenti 610 nyuUt mxup, fumiimque 

i quatit, totamque a sedibus urbem nndantem mixto pul- 

; Juno Sca;a8 saevissima portas vere, Neptunus quatit 

, sociumque furens a navibus agmen I!!!!!!!*Z][?(?^£^.'!* 

cta vocat. 

s arces Tritonia, rcspice, Pallas 615 

bo cflfulgens et Gorgone saevi. 
Janais animos viresque secundas 
le L>eos in Dardana suscitat arma. 
, fugam, finemque impone labori. 
)ero, et tutum patrio te limine sbtam 620 
spissis noctis se condidit umbris. 
ira; facies, inimicaque Trojs 

gna Deflm. .^ . . «14. Omne IHom n. 

i omne mihi visum considere m ignes sum eil mihi 


rewbmuM quaiii : here Neptune boar : thej were armed with ■harp and 

du, &c. Neotune took an ac- crooked clawi. 

nst the Trojans, having becoiiie Mcdusa having been raviabed in the toro- 

on account of the periidv of ple*of Minerva by Neptune, the ffoddeee 

See Geor. i. 502. This uble gave her serpents the quality of transfonning 

bj supponing that Laomcdon men into stones at the sight of tliem. Per- 

B rooney which had been des- seus cut ofT hor head bj the aid of Miner- 

service of that god, in building va's buclder, which, being so finely polished, 

Troy. Emoia : in the sense of that it reflccted tlie iniage of the GorgonV 

head, secured him from tlie fatal influ- 

luno : here Juno, most fierce, «nco of her eye. This head Minerva af- 

Scean gaU in front, &c. It is terward wore upon her shield or buckler, to 

B that prifna, here, has reference '"ender her more awful and tremendous. See 

of her standing, before, or in I-exicon, sub .Slgide, 

gate. It may, however, mean 6^"- ^«'«'" V'^ • ^« f*t*»«' himself gives 

8 Ihe/r*/, or c W, in urging on courage and successful strength to tho 

i the work of destruction. We Grecks. Juno and Minerva opposed the 

rales of Trojr were six in nuni- Trojans from selfisli motives, because they 

l of Antenor ; the gate of Dar- had been slighted by Paris ; but Jove was 

lian ; the Catumbrian ; the Tro- *" enemy to them, because their cause was 

e Scean. Through this gate "njust, in detaining Hclen against the laws 

horse is said to have entored. «^ nations, ^hen properly demanded. 

«ount, it is probable, the poet ^^0- >/lbero: m the sense of relint/uam, 

at this gate, cUd in armour, and ^?^. Dtra/aeies : horrid images appear 

her Greeks. ^^« images of desolation, dcath, and dospair. 

. 623. Magna numina Deum. The Ro- 

if. She is sometimes called mans divided the gods into two classes : the 

ice the adj. TrUonia. See 171. Dii majorum, and the Dii Minorumgeniium. 

In the first were ranked JupUer^ ^epiune* 

'gem niwUfo: resplendent with Minerva^ and Juno, The tnree last, in an 

r nimbo^ in this place, Servius especial manner, are represented as hostile 

a lucid circle, resembting a dia- to Troy ; and Jove, on this occasion, is op- 

le hcad, to distiuguish tlie gods posed to thcm also. The magna nMmtna 

u Gorgone: the three daugh- Deum may simply mean the great gods; «r 

iOB and Ceto, Meduio^ Eurj^e^ rather, the great powers of the gods, hostile 

ivere called Gorgonet^ Gorgons, to Troy. The overthrow of Troy is all 

sters. The name is of Greek along represcnted to have been efiected, noi 

nd signifies fiercencss. It is said so much by the power of the Greeks, as by 

t one eye, which scrved tliem the power of the gods. I am now peniuadud 

They had grcat wings: tlicir of the inutility of muking any furthcr resial- 

attired with vipcrs instcad of ance, since it evidcntly appAars tliat iha 

oeth were toaki like tliose of a great powers of the goda ix« i^^auibV ^* 


615. Ac ▼eluti cum Hiuni, et ex imo verli Neptunia Troja. 
agncole certatim in- ^^ veluti summis antiquam in montibus ornum 
^LTlnm^monZ ^um ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instaa 
buB, acciMm ferro Eruere agncols certatim ; illa usque mmatur, 

^. IUa usque mina- Et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat : 
tur rutfiam, ct treme&o- Vulneribus donec paulatim evicta, supremum 
u quoad oomun Congemuit, traxitque jugis avulsa ruinam. 

Descendo, ac, duceiite Deo, flammam inter et h 

636. QttefnqueprimAm Expedior : dant tela locum, flammaeque recedun 
petebam, abnegat se Ast ubi jam patriee perventum ad limina sedit 
potse producere vitam, Antiquasque domos : genitor, quem toUere in a 
Tro}k excisA Optabam primum montes, primumque petebam, 

638. Ait: O vos, qui- ^bnegat excis^ vitam producere Trojft, 
bua eti sanffuii mteger ri •!• x» ir « -i • . 

eyi ; quibuMqfxe viree Exihuinque pati. Vos 6, quibus mteger «vi 

■lant lolide euo robore Sanguis, ait, solidfleque suo stant robore vires ; 

642. Ett satls supdr- Vos agitate fugam. 
une vidimufl una exci- jvje si coBlicolaB voluissent ducere vitam, 
^^f} r\ -ir •• Has mihi servAssent sedes : satis una superqiie 

corpuB, «ic, sic poeitum, Vidmius excidia, et capt«B supcravimus urbi. 
djecedite. Sic, 6, si'c positum afiati discedite corpus. 


626. Je rf/u/i\ &c. This simile is taken upon hie ehoulden. The Gre 
fh>m Homer, Iliad xvi. 481, who applies it with this eminent exarople of fi 
to the death of Sarpedon ; but the copy ex- nei» and affection, gave him a 
ceeds the ori^inal. tion, when he carried ofi* his gi 

627. Bipennibtu. The axe is here used this, thoy were induced to grai 
for the Btrokc, or blow of the axe, by me- liberty to take along with him h: 
ton. Jlrcisam * in thescnse o^ ctrcumcitam. mily and all his effects. 

628. Usqntt • in Ihe scnse of rftw. 638. Integer avi : unimpaire^ 
6-29. J^utat comam. It i» iisual with Vir on account of age. Causa^ or 

gil to consider a trce in analoiry ^o a huinan of the like import, is probably t 

body, and to call tho cxten(icd liinbs, or stood, to govem the gen. O 

branchcR, hrarhia^ arniH ; and the leaves, blood is not chilled and wasted 

eomamy hair, or locks. ThiH diversifics his who are yet in the full yi^ot o 

Btyle« and rcndcrs it plcasant. ye attempt your flight. The n 

G:M). Vuinfribut . in tlie sense of tetibut, the vot is emphaticai. For rw 

This 18 beautiiuUy figurative. Theallusion BnjB Jirmitate. 

to the human body is still kopt up. 642. Satit tupirque: it is c 

631. Aruitajugu: tom from the sides of more, that I have seen one de 
the mountains. my country, and survived the cf 

632. Deo ducente, Deut is either a god Thb is an allusion to the siege 
or goddess. Here it means Venus. Under of Troy by Hercules, in the rc 
her conduct, ^neas made his way through medon, a fact mentioned by l 
the dangers thai besot him, to the house of well as by poets. And Virgil ; 
his father. chiscs, that ho had been twice 

633. Expedio- Uabeo liberum Uer^ sayt the ruins of Troy. ^n. iii. 47< 
Heyne. 644. Sic^ O, tie affaii : O ye, 

634. mitt ubi perverUum. The imp. verb dressed my body, thus, thus 1 
perventitm ett is used for the personal verb part. There is a peculiar cmp 
pervent. This mode of expression is very repetition of tlie word tie. A: 
common among the poets. Our language siders himself as already dead, i 
will not admit of it, and we are under the laid out in burial : eorptu pot 
necessity of rendering such impersonals by on the funeral pile: at which 
tho personals of the correspondent verb, as usual for the friends of the decc 
in the present case * perventum ett : I came, a solemn farewell, by repeatii 
or had como. vafe three tiincs. The repctiti< 

637. Abrugat: refuses to prolong his life. shows his determined purpos 

We Icam frori Varro that the Greeks hav- and his eamcst dcsirc of bcinff 

iOff given permission to iEneas to carry off sue his resolulioii. It is used 

what was dearest to him, he took his father way in the foiirth book. wliep 

. k 



manu moitein inTeniam : miserebitur hostis, 646 
iviasquis petet : facilis jactura sepulchri est 
Jampridem invisus Divis et inutilis annos 
Demoror, cx quo me Divilm pater atque hominuro rex 
fuloiinis ahavit ventis, et contigit igni. 

Talia perstabat memorans, fixusque manebat. 650 
Ko6 contra efiusi ia ^hrymis, conjuxque Creusa, 
Ascaniusque, omnisque domus, ne vertere secum 
Cuncta pater, fatoque urgenti incumbere vellet. 
Abnegat, inceptoque et sedibus haeret in isdem. 654 

Ruraus in arma feror, morternque miserrimus opto. 
Nam quod consilium, aut qus jam fortuna dabatur ? 
Mene efTcrre [>edem, genitor, te posse relicto / 
Bperasti ? tantumque nefas patrio excidit ore ? , ' 
8i nihil ex tanta Superis placet urbe relinqui \ 
El sedet huc animo, periturseque addere Troj» 660 

*T*eque tuosque juvat : patet isti janua leto. 

647. InatiilB /loimnt- 

648. £x tempifre* quo 

652. Freeamufy ca pa • 
ter vollei vertere cuncta 

656. Nam quod alvid 
consiliuiiif aut quc ahm 
fortuna jam 

657. p geniior, ape- 
r&iiti-ne me posae elTorre 
podem, te relictu 


JHi deatn, la jua{ going to plunge the dagger 
»ito her boaom. Sho breaka forth into thia 
abnipt ezclamation : Sie^ tie Juvai ire lub 

645. Manu. Serviua undcMtanda by nui- 
. the hand of tho eneiny ; but it ia easier 

to onderatand it of his own hand. Ruoeua 
^kftnyropriamanu. Hotlis: theenemy will 
"IwB pity on ine. Thia atrongly marlLa the 
ttHfuisb of hia aoul. He waa ao weary of 
Kfr, thai he would conaider it a favor in tlie 
\j to put an end to it. 

646. Jattura : the loaa of burial ia eaay — 
dopriTatiun of burial ritoa ia a niattor of 

» c«Hicem to me. 

648. Demoror annoa: I linger out my 

Traho vt/am, aaya Rueua. 
MB. JlflavU me: blaated me with the 
of hia thunder, and atruck me with hia 
li|fhtiiiiig. The ancienta supposed the winda 
^rara the efficient cause of tliunder. 

It m aaid that thia calamity waa inflicted 
nofi Anchiaea for divulging hia ainour with 
Twiin Some say he waa struck blind: 
vith inore proprioty, say that he waa 
in hia limba. Memorant: in the 
of dieent. 

051. JVbff ^uti : on the other hand, we, 
bathff^ in teara, (beaeech^ my father that he 
W9m]d not deatroy all with himaeif^ and presa 
■pM the caiamity (faio) already weighing 
■0 d^wn — that he would not, by the a!fflict- 
ia|^ circumstance of hia own death, increaae 
Iha calamity already preaaing ua down with 
ito «vn weight. JW vellei aeeelerare pemi* 
mam inaianUm^ aaya Hoyne. 

Dr. Trapp would read oeeumbere^ or ra- 
tb«r MUteumbere^ if there were authority for 
jl. Aa it ia, he tliinks it a metaphor taken 
IhNii the falling on a sword. Mr Davidson 
IgkM it to be a mctaptior drawn irom one'a 
or lying with all hia weight upon a 

load, which preaaea another down, ao aa t« 
add to the preaaure, and to render it more 
insupportable. JEneaa and his family were 
already grievously oppressed and weighed 
down by the public calamity, (J^aio urgenii^ 
tho fate that lay ao heavy upon them,) and 
thcrcfore pray Anchises not to increase the 
burden, by the additional weight of his per- 
sonal sufferinga and death. Rueua inter- 
pruts tncumbere urgeniifaio^ by : addere vim 
faio premenii not, 

654. Sedibut : in the aenae of loeo, 

655. Miterrimut: most miserable— dia* 
tracted — in despair. 

656. J^am quod^ &c. The mcaning of thia 
line appeara to be : for what other course 
could I take, what elae could I do, than arm 
myself, and seek to renew the conilict? 
Anchises had positively refused to survive 
the fall of his country : ^2neas could not 
leave him behind : nothing remaincd for him 
to do, but to sell his life as dcar as possible. 
For dabatur^ Rueus says offertbatur. 

657. Efferre pedem : to depart. Sperdtti' 
ne : didst thou ezpect tliat 1 could depart. 
O father, without thee ? 

658. JVtfat: impiety. 

659. Superit. Superi are properly the 
gods above, aa diatinguished from those 

660. Ei hoe tedei : and thia be fized in th^ 
mind, and it pleaacs thec to add thyaelf. &c 
Ruieua undorstands this of the gods juat 
mcntioned ; but Davidaon and othera refei 
it to Ancliisea. This appeara the inore cor- 
rect and natural ; for Anchises is lef\ per- 
fectly free to act, eitlier to stay behind, or to 
depart, and to form his plaus deliberately 
Si hoe Jixum eti in eorum manie^ ei drleclal 
eot, Sic. says Rueus. 

661. Janua itii leto : the door to thal 
death is open. The itti rrfeif to what An 


Jamque adent multo Priami de sanguiiie Pyiiiin 

Natum ante ora patns, patrem qui obtruncat ad . 

WJ4. Krat-fK ob hoc Hoc erat, alma parens, qu6d me, per tela, per jg 

606. Ut rernam ho»- Eripis ^ ut mcdiis hostem in pcnetralibus, utqua 

leiii in medlis penetni- As<!aniumque, patremquc meum. juxtique CreiJa 

li^mmque' ""*^'" Alterum in alterius mactatos sanguine ceniam ? 

Arma, viri, ferte arma : vocat lux ultiina victoii. 

669. Sinite ui revi»m Reddite mo Danab, sinite instaurata revisam 

Praslia : nunquam omnes hodie moriemur inultL 
Hic ferro accingor rursus : clypeoque sinistn 
Insertabam aptans, meque extra tecta ferebam. 

673. Conjux Creiua Ecce autem complexa pedes in limine conjux 
eomplexa meat pedes in Hcrebat, parvumque palri tendebat lulum. 

675. lnomnia/»crurute ^i penturus abis, et nos rape m omma tecum : 

Sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem ponis in ano 

677. Cui parvus lulus Hanc primum tutare domum. Cui parvus liilui 
pflinquihir; cui tuus pa- Cui pater, et conjux quondam tua dicta, relinqu 
t«r; et cut f^o relinquor, rp^jj^ vociferans, gemitu teclum omne replebal: 
Mondam dicta tua con- ^ > ,. j-\ -. u*i •-..-. 

j^> Cum subitum dictuque oritur mirabile monstruo 

Namque manus inter mccstorumque ora parentD 


ehlMa had said, verse 645, supra, of hLs find- mache, in the aizth book of the D 

Ing death by his own hand, or that the eno- tho circumstancea are nearly 

iny would take pity on him, and kill him. Andromache ezpostulatee with 

^neas here tells him the door to that death Creiisa docs with iEneas, and in 

b opcn, and casy to comc at ; for he imnie- ncr pleads her future forlom con 

diatcly adds : Jamque Pyrrhm : Pyrrhus tliat of hor child, in case he ahou 

will 80on be hcre from the slaughter of Pri- them: and to add force to hor 

am. Scrvius takcs itti for istic^ but without sho puts Attyanax into hls arms, 

puflliciont rcason. Iste^ properly, is that of hero does luttu into tho arms of 

your», /t/r, tUit of mine. ^j^- r,, . • .i ^ „«„„^ «r «..««. 

*?.".> r\ I . , L u 4 u *i 67d. A/ ; m tne sense oi ouooi 

6bJ. ^uiohtruncat: who butchers the son, . .^ .„„„„ .^e ^„„, ,.„i #,«7.^ 

r. rwyx'- II . .1.1 'it. r» 1*. . m tno scnse oi cape» vel tra/ie, 

&c. This alludes to his kiUing Pohtes m '^ * 

the prescnce of his father, and afler that 676. Expertut: having experii 

alrdcious deed, killing the aged monarch, art of war — bcing skilled in wi 

dragged to the altars. you place any, &c. 

664. Hoe erat: was it for this, dear pa- 677. TSttare: in the scnse of < 
rent, that, &c. Rufflussays: Hne^ine erat g^g. quondam: once called 

^^f:*^'. • . .L 1. . . This is a very tcnder expostulat 

665. Enpit : m the sense of tervaruti. 

Penetralibut : in the sense ofdomo, vel tecto. 6f«). Subitum monttrum. Thi 

See 484, siipra. ed prodigy, or miracle, is exti 

667. Mactatot: butchered the one in the timed. Had Anchises finally 
blood of the othcr. Tliis part. refers to the *»'»■ resolution, it inust have pul 
three preccding nouns. the poem, by involving ^neas 

668. Lux: in thescnseof c/t>#. familv in one common ruin. H 

670. Pradia inttaurata : the fight renew- «rged by ali human argumcnU ii 
ed. J^unquam : in thc scnse of non. est manner, without any avail; 

672. Intertaham : I put my left hand to my rcmained for the poet, but to ha 

•hioId.fitUng it— I fixed my shicld upon iny to the interposition of the gods 

left arm. thc cii/peut was a shield of an bero in this extremity. This wi 

oval form, not uo large as the tnttum. It ^y successful. Anchis«s is con^ 

was UBually inade of the pkins of bcasts, and au*y to yield to the prosent nc 

iiiterwoven in such a manner, as to be im- to save his life by fii)ghU On 

ponetrable to tho inissive woapons of the ■«••«^' o^ appartt. 
enemy. Thcy carricd it upon the lcf\ arm. GBL Inier manu» craque: 1 

674. Tendebatque parcum^ &c. Tlie poct hands aitd face of his moumfi 
here appears to have had in his viow that whilo thcy wero ho«ding him ii 
MSboHing Bcene between Hector and Andro- bohold, &g. 



brifi Bummo de vertice visus liili 
m liunen apex, tactuque innoxia molli 
Ite flamma comas, ct circum tempora pasci 
avidi trepidare metu, crinemque flagrantem 
ere, et sanctos restinguere fontibus ignes. 
ter Anchises oculos ad sidera iaitus 
it, et coErlo palmas cum voce tetendit : 
it omnipotens, precibus si flecteris ullis, 
e no8 : hoc tantum : et, si pietate meremur, 
inde auidlium, pater, atque hxc oniina firma. 
; e& &tus erat senior, subitoque fragore 
iit levum, et de coelo lapsa per umbras 

(acem ducens mult^ cum luce cucurrit. 

summa super labentem culmina tecti, 
mu8 Idaea claram se condere sylvi, 
ntemque vias : tum longo limite sulcus 
icem, et late circiim loca sulfure fumant. 


682. LeYiB ap«z vinif 
en fundere lumeii de 
Bummo vertice liilii 
flammaque innoxia vi$a 
esi lambere ejut comai 
molii tactu 

685. Nospavidl mata 
capimut trepidare 

690 ^^- Petimut tantiim 
hoc : et, si meremur 
aliquid pietate, O Pater« 

695 6^^* Cemimufl iUain, 
labentem super aumma 
culmina tecti, condere 


Levit apex : the wavinjr tufl, or 
jSpex proporly signifies tlie top, or 
loe of any thing. Hcnce it may 
the top or one^s hat, cap, or bonnet, 
Sn. yiii. 664. Vertice: in the sense 

Pundere: in the sense of emiltere. 
a: inoffeniive— not hurting him. 
This ia the reading of Heyne and 
Nm. But Rueufl and Valpy read 
Molli : gentle— easy. Heyne has 
agreeing with fiamma. Moal copies 

Lambere : to glide along hia hair — 
toucli it. 

Jfot pavidi : we, trembling for fear, 
) to bufltle about, to flhake his fia- 
lair, and to extinguiflh the sacred fire 
ratar. Foniihtu: in the flense of 

SiJUeterit : if thou art moved. 

Firma htee omtna; confinn thifl 

The Roroanfl deemed one omen not 
ot, unleflfl it were followed or con- 

by a flecond. Hence teeundut and 
» eame to signiiy prosperoufl, and to 

intonuU: the left thundered 

I the Greekfl and Romans conflidered 
omeofl, that were preflented in the 
1 part of heaven, to be prosperoufl or 
But the former, in obflerving the 
, tamed their fiu^ to the northf which 
tt tbe eaflt on their right hand. The 
kfl, on the contrary, turoed their facofl 
MDth, which brought the east on their 
ind. Thifl waa therefore a lucky 

It fleconded, or confirmod tlio for- 
lal is, the lambent flame on the head 
■. 8eo Ed. L 18. Lmaum. an adj. 

of the neu. gender, uaed aa a flub. the 
with Iteva part eeelu 

694. Stella lapta^ lcc Serviufl appliet 
the fleveral parta of thia prodigy aa figura- 
tive of the eventa that were to happen to 
^neofl ond liis foUowerfl. The etar ia flaid, 
eondere te Idaa tyboa^ to fall or hide iteelf 
upon mount Ida, to indicate that the Tro- 
janfl were to reflort to that mountain : ctoii 
multa luee^ with much light, to figure their 
future glory and dignity : tignatitem rtot, 
the sparklefl of firo lefi behind, intimate the 
dispersion of hifl followcrs, and that they 
flhould fix their reaidence in vaxioufl parts: 
longo limiie tuleut, marks iCnoafl* man/ 
wanderingfl, and the length of hia voyaee : 
lastly, by the flmoke and sulphur, he under- 
staiids the death of Anchises. The stari 
do not move from their stations ; they are 
fixed, and remain in the same part of the 
heavens. Meteors are '•f common occur> 
rence, and are fluppoaed to consist of eleo- 
tric matter, which in pasfling from one part 
of the atmosphore to another, becomea vifli* 
ble. In the language of the vulgar and 
ignorant, auch an appearance is called the 
shooting of a star. Virgil conforms to thiii 
mode of expression. He calls the meteor a 
star. Faeem: a train. 

695. Labentem. Rusbus takea thifl in the 
flcnse of eadentem : falling behind the roof 
of the house. But it may be takon in ita 
usual acceptation, gliding, or passing over 
the roof : for it appears that the meteor waa 
near, since it filled the air about them with 
its Bulphurous smell. 

697. Suleut : a trail — indented track. — 
The metcor drew afler it a trail of iight, aa 
it passed through the heavons. It appearod 
to mark ita way or path, wiiich it leil lumi» 
noufl beliind it« 


Ilic verd victus genitor se toUit ad &uras, 
Afl&turquo Deos, et sanctum sidus adorat : 
i-.^ Jam jam nulla mora est : sequor, et, qu& ducit» 

Di patrii, servate domum, servatc nepotem. 
Vestrum hoc augurium, vestroque in numine Tn 
Cedo equidem, noc, nate, tibi coroes ire recusc 
Dixerat ille : et jam per moenia clarior ignift 
Auditur, propiusque sestus incendia volvimt. 
Ergd age, chare pater, cervici imponere nostras : 
Ipse subibo humeris : nec me labor iste gravaLit 
700 Qa^conque tm Qud res cunque cadent, unum et conmiune peii 
emdeot, periclum erit (Jna salus ambobus erit : mihi parvus lulus 
unuiD, et commune tuy^ gj^ comes, et longc servet vestigia conjux. 
ktt ambobus, mIus ent ^r - ,. •*,. • • j ^-a^ . ?_ 

una ei eademnobii ^0%^ famuli, quBB dicam, animis advertite veatnt 

712. Tumulus eet iu £st urbe egressis tumulus, templumque vetustuii 
flgreMis urbe DesertfiB Cereris ; juxtkque antiqua cupressus, 

716. Ao« omnu venie- Relligione patrum multos scrvata per annos. 
mufl ez diveno Hanc ex diverso sedem veniemus in unam. 


699'. Ad aurat : upright — or towards of Creiiea ie a fine device of thi 

bMiyon. gave him an opportunity of fif 

705. Patrii Dii, By these we are to un- cataKtrophe of Troy from tbe 
derstand tho guardian gods of Anchises^ ^neas. As Boon as he found h 
family ; those tliat his ancostors worshipped ; missing, he ruRoIvcs to retum n 
who preaided over parcntal and filial afiTec- her. He carefully retraces hii 
tion. Domum: in ihe nenso of familiam, . visits his own house, which « 

703. Ho€ augurium est : this omcn is flames, and searches for her in tli 

▼ours : Troy is under your protcction. This qucnted parts of the city. In tb 

10 plainly the meaning of numine in this his scarch, he sees the spoils o 

place. Ruaeus says, potestate, gcther in the temple of Juno, aj 

706. Incendia : in the sense of Jlamma, cian guardsstandingaround. Ui 
JEttu^: heat. her in aoy of these places, he < 

707. Jmponere: 2d person of the imp. be name, and roakes the streebi rc 
thou placed, i. e. place yourself upon my Creiisa. Hcr ghost met him, 
neck: I will bear you upon my shouldcrs. mind, unfolded to him the purp 
Subibo humeris: portabote humens^8a.y8 Ru- gods, and cncouraged liim to loi 
euB. Labor : in the scnse of pondus, prospcrous times. She tells hin 

710. J\fihi parvus liilus. Donatus reads, land dcstincd him by fate, a 
mihi solus lulus : let liilus only be a com- awaited him. 
paniontomo. Thls avoids the too frequent 712. jJdvertite: tum with yo 
repetition of varvus IvUus, and at the same thoso things which I ahall aa} 
time shows Ihe prudent caution of ^neas, equivalent to, advertiie vestroe m 
to secnre their flight ; since tlie fcwcr wcnt qufp dicam, 

together, thoy wnuld be the less liable to be ^^a rk » n rm.* 

j: -.^..— 1^ D- 4U- A' «14. Deserta Cerens, Tnis 

711. Conjux «rrrf.- let my w.fe obsetve ^^. j^^^^j ^^ ^ daughtei 
my .teps at a d.»tanc6-!et her «tay beh.nd, ^ p«„j^^ ^^ ^„ ^^^^^^ J^^ 

yetaoaato uave rae in view, that she may _:.„i.- ■ • u _„ .u _ 

1.1 ■ ™. ' /. ,.. ■ ■^ worsh.p, which wa» thcn nei 

not lose her way. The raaaon for his giv- , havinff becn alatn Ri 

mg thU direction was porhaps to prevcnl ^^^^^ j^ ^ ^^^ . ^^ ^;^ ^^^ 

duHJOvery, .i.d to the danger of es- ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^e^ deserted. 

«^pe by bemg dmded mto part.e^ Th.s J ^ 

reaaon justincs iGneaa. It was proner for \ , cs r 1 tn 

*w^ .^ * . 4- *u' 4 • templum, See Ecl. v. 79. 

tne poet to mention this circumstance, to /^ 

ffive probability to the account of hcr being ''^'\ RelHgione : by the rclig 

loat. Sorvius takcs longi in thc sense of ^o" of our ancestow. Servata 

taldi, The mcaning then will be : let niy antiqun cupressus, Juxta : nea 

ivife carefully obscrve my steps. The usual 716 Ex diverno : the same m 

aeeeptation of lottgi is the better. Tho loss mis, Sedem : in the sense of [a 

iENEIS. I.1B. 11. 8$7 

tor, ca^)e sacra iTHinu, patriosque Penates. 

i € tanlo digressuni et cesAe recenti, 'tS. NofM eatt nm 

re nefas ; donec mo flumine vivo digie«»uin 

atus, latofl humeros subjectaque colla 

r>cr, fulvique insternor pelle lconis, 722. Fatnrt hec, io- 

que oneri: dextne separvus liiius •temor «uper latof hu- 

:, 3equiturque patrem non passibus aequis. meroe, tiibjocUqa) collt 

>it conjux. Ferimur per opaca locorum : 726 7^^^ j^^ nunc Anrafli 
|uem dudum non uUa mjecta movebant aur» terrent, oinifiB ■<>- 

que adverso glomerati cx agmine Graii, niit excitat me, et reddU 

ines terrent aune, sonus excitat omnis ^ iuspenBum, et pari* 

un, et pariter comitique onerique timcntem. J*'' ^5'"«"^'" comitique^ 

le propmquabam portis, omnemque videbar 730 qyg^ dudum non ulla 
viam ; subitd cum creber ad aures injocta tela, neque Graii 


tcru : the holy, or eacred utensils ; dies in water, before they performed acta of 

ere uMd in olTcring sachticcs, and roligion, cspecially if they had beon poUu- 

cercmonies of religiouB' worship : ted with bloodshed. On such occasione 

of tacer^ u^ed as a sub. Heyne they wcre obligcd to use puro water, hke 

'ra here, and in vcrse 293, supra, that of fountains or running water. Henca 

e images of the gods; thus ina- Alneassays: />oneea6/ueromen>o^i4imne: 

e same with Penates, The rcader until 1 shall have washcd mysoH* in pure or 

^ for himself. His words are : living water. Flumine: in the sense of 

^enatespossuntproeadem rehaberi: aqua, Bello : m itie Benne of pugfUL 

>eortmi simulaeru^ etiam de Pena" 722. Instemor super : I am covered upon 

r. my broad shoulders and bendcd neck witb a 

r. This word is derived probably gamient, &Cw — I cover myself, &c Thif use 

u, which signifies all kinds of food of the verb answers to Uie middle voice of 

ons for the use of man. Tho Pe- the Greeks. So imponere: be thou placed 

e usually worshipped in the inte- — placothyself; verse 707, supra. Suifjecta: 

of the house. Their number is in the sense of tulmista, 

n, nor is it certain what gods wero 723. Suecedo oneri, Tho meaning is: 1 

iiinated. Some reckon Jupiter, take my father upon my shoulders— I place 

d Minerva^ aniong the Penates; mysolf under tho load. 

evtune and AvoUo; others again, 725. Opaca locorum: the same as opacii 

d TVrra: ana Amobius rcckons lora, Or the word spaiia may be under- 

onsentes^ or Compliees^ amoiig thcir stood, connected with opaca^ and govemiag 

Thore were three orders of tlie loeorum, 

ites, Those that prcsidod over 727. Otomeraii es adverso: collected to« 

; and provinces, were called solcly gcther in hostile array. Here wo have • 

Ihose that presidod ovcr cities very beautiful image of our herq *s pioue 

e called Dii Pairii^ doinestic gods, and filial affection. With unshaken forti- 

r the country : those that presided tude he faced the greatest dangers, when 

icular houses and familios, were his own pcrson only was exposed: now 

rrt Penatet, every appearance of daiigcr strikes hini 

lot certain under what shape or with terror, on account of his dear charge. 

ty were worshipped. Somo sup- Adverso: in the sense of hostili. 

'as under the figure of a voung 729. Stupentum: in the sonse ofsolicitum, 

ig and holding a spear. It is saia 730. f^idet>ar^ ilc. Rueus intorprets tho 

Janus introduced them from Sa- following words by, exeessisse ex omnihu» 

: into Troy, and that £ncas took viis ; which appears entirely inadmissiblo. 

I him into Italy. See Geor. ii. 505. The meaning is : that ho secmed to hav« 

efat me: it is unlawful for me, ha- escaped all the dangor of the way ; when,to 

le, frc In like manncr, Homer his surprise, a frequent sound of feet fiid» 

Mtor any he was afVaid of perform- denly stmck his ears. 

oni worahip to Jupiter, while his 731. Fiam, Thisisthecommonreadin^. 

BTO poUuted with blood, Iliad vi. Heyne, at tliesuggestionof Markland,reattii 

ras the custom of the Greeks and Wcfm, in the sense of perieulum ; whioh li 

nMl ■HMt othor nations, to wash preferable, if we hod tulficleQl auUiAtxVi ^w 

ia. and aoinetimeo their whole ho- the substitution. 


188 P- VlRGlLll MARONIS 

Visus adesse pedum sonitus : genitorque per uml 

733. Ho9tes propin- Prospiciens, Nate, exclamat, fuge, nate : propiiM 
V^^ Ardentes clypeos atque era micantia cemo. 

735. H)c maU ami- Hic mihi nescio quod trepido male numeo ami 
iium numen, necio quod Confusam eripuit mentem. Namque avia cursu 
mtnun^ oripuit milu ire- j^^j^ sequor, et nolA excedo regione vianim : 
^Sss. Conjux CreuM 1^«" ' '"isero conjux falone erepta Creusa 
■obstitit; incertum e</, Substitit, erravitne vi&, seu lassa resedit, 
erepta-ne misero fato, Incertum : nec pdst oculis est reddita nostris. 
•rravit-ne vi&, seu ^ec prius amissam respexi, animumve reflexi, 

741. Nec respexi, re- Qu^^ tumulum antiqus Cereris, seuemque aacr 
flezive anunum, eam efte r? i« i n ^* •!. 

amissam priu8qu&m ve- ^ enimus : hic demum, collectis omnibus, una 

nimufl ad Defuit ; et comites, natumque, virumque fefellit. 

743. Uxar una defUt Quem non incusavi amens hominumque Deorun: 

Aut quid in evers& vidi crudelius urbe ? 

Ascanium, Anchisenque patrem, Teucrosque Pc 
748. Recondo eoi, in Commendo sociis, et curvft valle recondo. 

750. 3Mienteniia re- ^^^ ""■^'" «^P^^^^ ^^ ^^"S^"' fulgentibus armig. 
Dovare omnes ^**' casus renovare omnes, omnemque reverti 

755. Ubique etl hor- Per Trojam, et rursus caput objectare periclia. 

ror; simal ipea silentia Principio, muros, obscuraque limina ports, 

noetis terrent animos. Quj^ gressum extuleram, repeto : et vestigia reti 

Inde refero me domum, Qbservata sequor per noctem, et lumine lustro. 

ui tnderevu n forte, ai -.- , . ^ X . i • -i -^» ^ . 

fort* Creiua tuliaset pe- Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrec 

dem hue. Inde domum, si fortd pedem, si fort^ tulisset, 


732. Umbram: in the Bense of /me6ra«. mind — reflected. Heyno reade 

734. Cemo : I soo their glitterinjr shielda common readinfr b qtte, 

•nd gleaming brasR. ,^ra : brazen armour. 742. TVemu/um. The hill, or en 

7^. Male: in the w.nw of non, Mali which the temple of Ceres wm 

amitum: in the sensc of inimieum vel tn- See 714. supra. 
futum, 745. Quem hominumque : whc 

736. Confusam mentcm. His mind was men and frodn did I not blamei 
confuscd, and in a statc of pcrturhation, for distractcd in niind— deprivcd of e 
fear Uiat sonicthing might bcfall him in his of a, privativuni, and mens, 
rotrcat. Ho had retained his presence of 747. Teueroi : in the scnfie of 
mind so far a» to mako good his escapo in 750. Stat. Senttmtia, or somi 
the best possible manner. Now, on a sud- thc liko import, i» undorKtood : n 
den, he Ioros all rocoUection ; he forgets is fixed : lamresolved, Whilotlic 
himself ; he knows not what he does: he ia doubt and uncertainty, it rcels 
deprived of that prcHcncc of mind which ho from one thuig to another,^iir/ui 
had hitherto rctained, by some unfriendij/ but when it is detcrmined and ree 
deity. In consequence of this hc lefl the it standsstill; it ia at resU Ca* 
plain road, taking tlic by-paths: nor did he scnxe of ptriculcu Reverti: in tJ 
recollect to look back to soe if his wife was redire, 

following hini. 752. Limina : thrcehold — entr 

^via : an adj. agrecing with loea undcr- 753. Extuleram gresiwm : wl 

■tood; out of t)io way: from the ordinary conie out. A phrase. 

or comnion way. Of a, privativum, and na. 754. Lumine. Lumen propenA 

737. .V«/a re^ione viarum : simply, frcm lipht : it also signifies an eye. ] 
thc known or bcaten way. sense, Ruicus takes it, and intei] 

738. Misrrofato. Some renderm»#fro, with oenlis. It is pcrhapt better to un 
mthi undcrstood. But miter signiBes that ot' the iight occaaioned by Uie co 
which makes misorablo, as well as simply, of Tr«y. In this case, aequor^ i» 
miserable. In ihiH sense it may bc connect- rcndered : I follow back my fbt 
cd wiih falo: distrcst)ing fate. When tliiis Rer\-od in tho darkness, and searc 
construed, it hath a peculiar force. Both by the li^rht of tho flames. Darii 
RusfHiM and Hoyne say, mitero mihi. with Ruirus. 

f R^exi anvnum: tumed back my 756. Siforti^ Mi forti ' ithjtk 

iENEIS. LIB. n. 

^ IJe rcicro. Imierant Danoi, et tectum omne tenelwnt. 
^0ic6t ignis edax suronia ad fastigia vento 

▼olTitur ; exsuperant flammae ; furit apstus ad auras. 

Procedo ad Priami sedes, arcemque reviso. 760 

Et jam porticibus vacuis, Junonis asylo, 

Custodes lecti Phoenix et dirus Ulysses 

Pnsdam asservabant : huc undique Troia gaza 
! Incensis erepta adytis, menssque Deorum, 

\ Citteresquo auro solidi, captivaque vestis 766 765. SoUii eg tara 

L Congeritur. Pueri et pavidce longo ordine matres 
( Btant circum. 

iAusus cjuinetiam voces jactare per umbram 
Iinplevi clamore vias : moestusque Creusam 
Nequicquam ingeminans, iterumque iterumque vocavi. . 

Querenii, et tectis urbis sind fine furenti, 771 Jy\ ^®***. """^*- 

V A i. . , ^ i. A m crum^tqueumbraCrei] 

InfeUx simulacrum, atque ipsius umbra CreGsaB ^ ip^^;^ et imago ma. 

Visa mihi ante oculos, et not& major imago. jor nota visa ett miiii 

Obstupui, steteruntque comse, et vox faucibus haesit ante oculoi, qunreuri 

Tm sic affari, et curas his demere dictb : 775 *^®' furenti 

Quid tantiim insano juvat indulgere dolori, . 'J£: .^^*" '^^ ^^ 

Gulcis conjux ? non hsec sme numme Divtim 77q, ^qq fi^i «^/^ i^ui 

Eveniunt : nec te comitem asportare Creusam ille reg;nator superi 


^teeo, fhe hma retumed thitber. TkUistet friendf in their ezpedition. It showi the 

P^^m: had retumed, or gone thither. The judgment of the poet. 

tpetition ofthe ti/orli, is emphatical. 773. Imago megor notd: her image largef 

7|0. Proeedo, Crousa was the daughter than life — than when alive. Spcctree and 

*f Priam, b/ Hecuba; which, perhaps, ii apparitions are usually represented of • 

^ reaaon of hia going to his palace in large size; fear having a tendency to en- 

'■areh of her. Iftrge objecte that are presented to the ima- 

^ 761. ./ffjfto : in the ■ense of templo. PoT' gination. The darkness of the night has a 

^tihu : in the passagee or aisles. tendency to enlarge tho appearance of ob« 

763. OaMO, Thifl word signifiee all kinds jects seen obscurely and iniperfectly. 
^ rich fumiture — wealth — property. It is This episode of Creusa^B death is intio- 
^ Periian origin. Erepte^ ift connected duced, not merely for the importance of the 
^ith it. event, but because it answered sevcral im- 

764. Memm Deorwn. Theee were the portant purposes of tho poet. It gave him 
^Hpods of the gods, which served for deli- an opportunity of more fuUy illustrating the 
^i^rinc the oracles, or for bearing the lacred piety of iEneas, by ehoMring him once more 
^9mm. AdyttM: in the sente of templis, ezposed to all the dangcra ot the war in 

76J. Undiqw. This word may imply, that search of his wifo; and, in consequenco of 

^W tfaiLgs here mentioned were collcctcd that, leads us back with his hero to visit 

^Knb all parts of the town, and thrown in Troy smoking in its ruins, and makes us 

tKli place (hue^) or that they were piled up acquainted with several affecting circum- 

heroali aruund— in every partof the building. etances, without which the narration would 

770. In^emifuint : repeating her name in not have been complete. And then tt makes 

>uii— lA vain, because she did not answer way for the appearance of her ghost, that 

km. Mcutus^ agrees with ego, understood. affords comfort to iEneas in his distress, by 

Mirenlt .* for eurrentu predicting his future felicity ; and rclieves 

772. Infelix simulaerum : the onhappy the mind of the reader from the horrors o1 

taparition — unhappy, not on her own ac- war and desolation, by 4uniing him to the 
wantt f6r she was blessed and at rest; but^ prospectof that peace and tranquillity which 

Wbwim she was the source of sorrow and ^neas was to enjov in Italy ; and of that 

Whappinoss to her husband. Umbra, The undistarbed rest, and happy liberty., of which 

iBlroanction of Crcusa^s ghost is extremely herself was now possessed in tiie othei 

«WI timed. No otlier ezpcdient could be world. 

ftind to stop tho furthor scarch of iCneas 776. Imano dohri : immoderate grieC 

§bfr llli «rifiBi, asd pcrmit him to retum 1o his ^Tumine: in the sense of vohrUai§. 


Olyinpi luiit to aspor- Fas, aui ille nnh superi regnator Olynipi. 

ure kifu Creiwwn, co- Longa tibi cxilia, et vastuin niaris aequor arandii 

""*i^n 'i*i«^ «•;!:. d-. Ad terram Hesperiam venies, ulft Lydius arva 

780. LoDga exUia /ti- -^ .•' i • a •*. rnu- 

iura suni Inter opima virum l«ni nuit agmine Tybris. 

IJlic res la;tae, regnunique, et regia conjux 
784. Parta tuni tibi Parta tibi : lachrymus dilectae pelle Creflsce. 

Non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbi 
Aspiciam, aut Graiis servitum matribua ibo, 
IST.EgoquasumDni- Dardaiiis, et Divai Veneris nurus. 
danis, et g^j ^^^ magna DeQin genitrix his detinet ori« 

790. Doseruit me la- Jainque vale, et nati serva cominunis amorem. 

riS^dicerT"' ^^ ^*"'^"' *^*^ "^* ^^^^^ ^®^*^' lachrymantem et multa voli 

Dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in auraa. 
793. Ibi conatus tum Xer conatus ibi collo dare brachia circiiin : 
tar eircumdto 1^^^. f|.ugjpj^ comprensa manus efiugit imago, 

Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno. 
Sic demum socios, consumptA nocte, reviao. 
Atque hic ingentem comitum affluxisse novonin 
Invenio admirans numerum ; matresque, virosqi 
GolJectam exilio pubem, miserabile vulgus. 


779. Superi Olymfi : of high heaven. 784. DileeiiB CreHtm : for, or i 

780. Exilia : in tho sense of iiinera, It of your beloved Cretisa. 
impUes that Mnehn should be for a long 786. Serviium : to aerTe iii tha 
time dcstitute of any country, or fixed habi- a servant. Tne lup. in «m, of tJ 
tatiou. AHquor: properly any level surface, vio^ put afler t^. 

whether land or water. It ia oflen used in 787. Dardanit. Creiiaa was 

tlie fientic of tnare. ^randum : in the sense ter of Priam, and consequentlj 

of narigandum. in a direct line from Dardanus^ 1 

781. .^d: Hcyne reads ei, Some copiea of the Trojan race: at leaat 
have ni : tJiat you may arrive or come, &c. founders of it. See JEjk. i. 1. « 
In this case there must not be a fuU point daughter-in-law. jEneas was 
af\er arandum. The usual reading is ad. Vunus and Anchises, which m 

782. Lffdius Ti/bris : the Tuscan Tyber the daughter-in-law to Fenu», 
flowB, with its gentle stream, between lands 788. Oenitrix: Cybele. Sb 
rich in lieroofl. have been the niother of all the 

The Tybcr is hero callod Lydiaii^ or Tus- 789. Serva: retain, or keep. 

ean. It scparated Tuscany from Laiium, caniua, who was the son of • 

The former having been settled by a colony yEneas. 

of Lydians under Tyrrhemu^ the son of 792. Cireumdare. The parts 

Atys^ king of Lydia, in Asia Minor. He are separatod, for the sake of tl 

callcd the inhabitants Tyrriimu, aflcr his own Tmesis. 

name. Agmine: in the sense of ruriu vel 793. Comprensa: a part. ag 

fiumine. Pirum. f^ir, proporly signifies a imago, Jtf antw : acc. plu. Her 

man, as opposcd to a woman — a hcro. Also, od in vain three times, escaped ' 

ihe male of any kind or specics of animals. 794. Par; in the aense of sin 

Arva : proporly cultivated laiids, from tlie no : a drcam. 

verb aro. 796. HW admirans tnrento, Su 

783. Res lata : prosperity. Tho same as by this circumstanco, signifies 
res seeundoi. iEneas, afier his arrival in ^neas was beloved by the Troj 
Italy, and thc dcatj^of Tumus, married La- wcight and importnnce of his cJ 
ttnin, tho daughtcr of Latinus^ king of appcars that this multitude, by 
Laiium^ and succceded him in his kingdom. ^neas, and putting themselvf 

iCneas, in rclating this prophecy to Dido, protection, chose him their kin| 

piainly informs hcr that he was destinod by pellation is given him throughoi 

V^it for Lavinia ; and, by so doing, pleads Affluxisse: in the sense of advi 

lr«9 viecessity of his leavin^ Carthage. Dido, 797. Miseralnle vulgui : a pi 

■■h^mfore, betrays herself by an indiscreet tude. They assembled, from 

•a^iin, and is not betrayed by any perfidy propared in mind and fbrtune 1 

fJii. fOAS. See lib. iv. pasaim. to whataoever coiintries 1 miglil 

JRSEIS. LIB. II. fi41 

Tonvenere^ animis opibusqne parati, 799. lUi cooTMiAr' 

inque velim {lelairo deducere tcrraa. 8(X» ""«^Wtt»» parati aniiiiui 

s injnsi «niPmi' surgebat Lucifer Id», opibuwjue tequi me 

iie diem : Danaique obsessa tenebant 
irtarum : nec spes opis ulla dabatur • 
!$ublato montem genitore petivi. 


Lhe tem. Pubem : In the lenBe of city boing completelj in the poeeeMion of 

the Greeks. 
ru tumnuB Ida. Mount Ida lay 804. Cesti: I jrielded *o my fate. Dr. 

it of Troj, and, consequently, Trapp renders it, I retired; but it ii mtich 

mut^ or the Morning Star, as it ii better to understand it a» an ezproeaion of 

n goinz before the sun, appeared the piety and reaignation of /FlDeaH, espe* 

Trcy Ui riife from the top (juf^) ciftlly if we conaider what immediateiy pre- 

intain. Hummtt : in the sense of cedos : nte spes opu uUa dabatur, Qenitort 

sublalo. Thifl instance of filial piety is highly 

j. Rueus interprete thit by auX' plcaaing. A modem comniandcr would 

t may raean wealth — property : nevcr have submitted to tlie task of bearing 

i expreeifion wo may understand, tuch a load ; but would have aMigned it to 

was now no hope of obtaining a servant, or imposed it upon a soldier. 

of their woalth or property, tlie Rueus says^/ereiu pairem. 


the ■ubject of thu book ? What office did Sinon perform upon thit 

its character, when compared occasion? 

§t ? Did the Grecian troope retum from To- 

g did the eiege of Troy continue ? nedot, and join their fhends ? 

§ it taken at the last? How were they received into the city ? 

n wae thia hone detigned tm m In what atate were the Trojana at thia 


I for what ? Were they aware of any auch treacherj ? 

ls the Palladium ? Finding the city in the handa of the enemy« 

I was it taken from the temple of what course did ^neas punue ? 

What were lome of his actions? 

lilding the horae, what did the Where were hii lant efforts made to ayengt 

* hit country ? 

waa Tenedoe from Troaa ? What became of Priam ? 

preiend that they were aboot to What were the last actions of the agtd 

e, and relinquish the siege ? monarch ? 

obtain belief among the Trojans ? What particularly roused his indignatioo 

m the real object of the Greeks against Pyrrhus ? 

this horae? By whom was Priam slain? 

ed a very distinguished part in What was the manner of rt ? 

is? What were the circumstances of it? 

the charactar of Sinon ? Where was iEneas during these transao- 

KMed the admission of this horse tions ? 

walls ? What did he do, tSier he beheld the death 

xligy happened just at this time, of Priam ? 

came all doubts in the minds of Under whose conduct did he pass in safety 

I ? through his enemies ? 

I Laocoon ? Did iEneas receive direction to leave tho 

office had he been appointed by city, and to seek his safety in flight ? 

How did he receive it? From whom? 

m the design of ofiviing sacrifice What was the determinltion of his father 

atthistime?* Anchises? 

I this horse eontam f What efTect had his refusal upon the mind 

it enter into the dty ? of iEneas ? 

ae K placed ? What did his wife Creiisa do upon thia 

ly names has the poet inTonted occasion f 

ofdestruetion? How was tlie determination of Anrhiseai 

tho iseanlt made opon the not to survive the captoro of tho ^i^ 




Wbat wore the prodigies that efTected that What effeet had ber loes apoi 

oliniige ^ fint ? 

To what place did he retire ? How wm hie mind quieled ? 

Kow did he convej hii father ? What directiona did hor «pp 

How his Bon Ascaniua ? him? 

Wbat direction did ho give hb wife Afler hu retum to the pl«4N 

OeuMi' youii, did he find great numbM 

Did he arrive in safety to the place ap- lectcdf 

pointed f Did thej conaider him their 

What became of bis wife f king ? 

What did lie do in conaequence of Ikor Were they prepared and wiUiR 

.' take any enterpriee, he might tbi 


JCmiAt, having finijihed the aack of Troy, proceeda to relate to Dido tbe pttiH 
▼oyage. Having built a fleet of twenty shipt near Antandroa, he aet mil a 
probably, of the year foUowing the capture of Troy. He landed on t! 
Tbrace, and there commenccd the building of a city, whicn He called, i 
name, JEnos^ and tho inhabitants, ^neatUB. He waa, however, soon inten 
proeecution of his work, by the shade of Polydorus, the aon of Priam. I 
barbarously pnt to death bv Polymneetor, king of Thrace, his broCber-in-hn 
in this place. It directed him to leave the poUuted land, and to aeek mnoli 
liif intcnded city. 

Having performed the funeral rites to Polydorus, he set eail, direotinr hU 
south ; and soon arrived on the coast of Delos, one of the Cvcladee. ] 
hoepitably received by Anius, king of the island, and prieet of ApoUo. H 
ed by the oracle to seek the land of his ancestors; there he sbould found 
should bear rule over all nations. This information was joyfully received. 
they concluded that Crete, the birth-place of Teucer, was the land to whi 
directed them. 

Leaving Delos, in a sbort time thcy arrive on tlie shores of Crete. The] 
joy as the termination of tbeir wanderings. Here ^neas lays the founda 
which hc called Prrgama^ and was preparing to enter upon the businces c 
when a siidden plague arose, which put an end to his prospects, and car 

* of his companions. In this juncture, it was agroed that he should go bac 
obtain further instructions. In the mean tinie, in a vision, he was mforn 
was not the land destincd to him, and that thc oracle of Apollo intended I 
Italy, the land of Dardanus. This quietcd his mind ; and Anchises ackn 
both Teuccr and Dardanus were the founders of thcir race, and that he 
taken in rcckoning tlieir descent in the line of Teucer. 

£neas, without delay, leaves Crcte ; and in a fcw days arrived on the coai 
pnades, m the lonian sea, on the west of tho Peloponnesus. Hero he li 
floet, and found thesc islands in the possession of the Harpies. Celaano. 
informed him, that, before he should found a city, they should be reduced t 
of o^nsuming their tables. This was ihe first intimation wbicb he had rsi 
and suffering, in the land dostinud to him. It suiik doep into his mind. 

Leaving these islands, he directed his oourse westivard, and soon arrived c 
Epirus. Ho landed at Activan^ ana celebraied the Trojan games. 

Prom Actium, he proceeded to that part of Epirus calleid Chaonia. On li 
harbor, he heard that Helonus, the son of Pnam, sat upon the throne oJ 
that Andromacbe had become bis wiie. Dosirous of hearing the truth 
ho procceds direct to Buthrotxu^ the seat of govemment. Here, to his 
hnds his fhends, and remained witli thcm for somo time. Helenoa, at L 
loads thein with presents. Andromache gives to Ascanius alone, who 
picture of hcr son Artyanax. 

From Epirus, /F^ncas passes over the lonian sea, and arrives at the promon 
Thencc ho sails down the ooast ofMafrnn Grfrria^ and the eastcrn shore * 
promontory Parhynum; thence along the soutbem shore to the |K>rt 
where liu lost his fathor Anchisee : which concludes the book. 

^NEIS. LIB. m. 243 

ni^ book contains the annab) of scven Toari), and \s rpplcte with gcographical and his- 
toriral information. Nor is it wantiiifi^ in finc Fpccimens of poctry, and in intercfiting 
iiicidentfl. Tho joy of ^neas at finding Hclcnus and Andromache on the throne of 
Bplrufl — their happy mecting — their tcnder and affcctionato parting — the dcscription pf 
Scylla and Charybdis, and the episodc of thc CyclopR, are all worthy of the poet. 

B thiB book, Virgil in a particular manner followa the Odyssey of Homer. 

POSTQUAM res Asie Priamique evertere gentem 1* Pcstquam viBura 

mmentam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum ^ Superis evertere rei 

iium, et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troja : * 

Diversa exilia, et desertas quKrere tcrras, 
Aiiguriis agimur DivQm : classenique sub ipsa 6 

Antandro, et Phrygis molimur montibus Idse: 

Incerti qud &ta ferant, ubi sistere detur ; 7 Fersnt no% ubl de- 

iJontrahimt^ue viros. Vix prima inceperat lestas, ^ *••*■ "^tore fedem 

Rt pater Anchiaes dare fatis vela jubebat. 


I. HetAtia: the power of Aaia. tor — by the lambent flvne on the head of 

% ImmtritQM : andeserving lUch a cala- ABcaniu»— «nd by the iatenriow wbich he 

■i^. The niin of their country wae owing had with the ghost of CreuHu Omimbim 

lo tlie crimee of Parit and Laomedon. See Deorum^ sayi Rueui. 

Omt. i. 502, and iEn. i. Fuum Superit : it g. jinlandro. Antandroi waa a city of 

pfoMed, or leemed good to the grod». This the lener Phrygia, at the foot of mount Ida, 

WM a common mode of ezpreision, when ^j^^ ^ convenient place to build and equip a 

•rente were not pronperous. The verb «/ fleet. ^o/imur; in the senieof/a^furamta 

«tobemipphedwithmum. ^ j^^^^. ^ ^^ ^e lomewhat 

a. Jf^tiwua. Troy u here called AV^ ^rpriied to h^ iEneaa ex^re» any doubt 

'■T^ ■^•' n^*^ "fu' ""'^ ^^r''! *"' ' " a. to hi. coune and intended lettlement 

■^ bmlt lU walli in the reipi of LMme- ^^ ^ ^ ^^^ dirtinctly informed by the 

don. Homer and Virpl a«:ribe the build- .^ ^^ ^^ ^.^ ^^^ \^y ^.„ ^he place 

faf Qf Uie widl- to Neptune alone. Ru«ui Seatined for himiL thecounieliof the ^: 

laKe. /hiim to mean the citade of Troy, ^^ ^^,^ ^^^ iheTerore have given Aill cre- 

ud di.tuipi.hee itfiom the whoie town, ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^. ^^ ^^ ^ „ ^ 

which 1. here expr«ii«d by, omnu TVaya. ^1^^^,^^, ^f ^he undertaking mi|ht have 

J^ier um» //101, and Ovid, //ton. Fumai, fiUed hi. mind with anxiou. iSid dUrtrurtful 

r^ P«;««nt b«" " m"<^h more exprewive ^ rehen.ion. : or perhap. it i« a paiiMge, 

Ihu the pMt tenM would have been: which the author would have corrictedTif 

Moke. to the ground. y^^^^ ,j ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

4. Dtverwa: m the mum of rfmo/a, or ^ « ,. . . i. -«. ^ 

imginaua. Allhough the Trojani, under _8. Prima aalat. Scaligor think. Ih^ 

«ilerent leader., a. ^nea., Helenu., and Troy wa. taken about the full moon, and 

Aatenor, wttled in diffcrent rcgion., yet near tho ond of ipnnj, and that ^nea. wt 

dberM exiha plainly refer. to £nea. and hi. o«t »*>« bepnnmg of «immer. But it i. 

Mowers only, who were all appointed to fvident that it would require a greater 

go io quest of the i ame letUement. /)««•- 1«?«^ «^ *"»« ^ ^oild a flcet, and make 

to ierroM : unoccupied— uncultivated land. ; f **>•' preparation. for hi. long voyage. If 

whera they mirfit Mttle in peace. Or, we ^« ^ «>"««* m the timo of tlie captiire of 

MT fluppoM £nea. to speak the Unguage Troy, the prima vstas, with more propnoty, 

if hi. hoart at tliat time. Having the di.- will mean the bejrinnmg of thc summer of 

«aridea of the dertruction of hie country !*>« foHowing year. Thii bctter agrees wi'h 

«Mh m hi. mind, and the uncortain proipect hiatory. pionymu. of Halicamaiwiii, ni- 

•f « eettlement in vmc unknown land, (m- f?/'"» »^» ^hat he collccted an army and for- 

Mrf» 9«^ fala feranl, uhi sistcre dflur,) it f>fi<^ himwjlf on mount Ida; butnot Uunk- 

VM nataral for him to have unuoniforUble «ng »t prudcnt to cnpge thc eneniy, he ca- 

tpprehenaion. of the country to which he P»tulated on honorablo toniiB ; onc of which 

VW goinff ; to call it an exile, or place of ^a., that he «hould be allowcd to depart 

laabhment, a land of rolitude and dewr- fr«m Ti^a. with hii follower. without mo- 

Uhi. Some road divereas, for duerlas. leeUtion, aftcr a ccrtain timo, which he ein- 

ft. JhsguniM Disikm : by the inUinaUoms P^ojc^ >" buildmg aiid equippmg a fl^cl. 

■r pradifiee of the god.. Thi. refer. to 9. Falis: qui.fata veUent^ ray. Ruaoa 

Ih* Mrenl prophetic intimation. given to Prop/erjujja e/ montla Z)eenim, mv. Herne 

hiB of hie ftatiiro fiito by the ghoet of Hec- Some copie. have venHM 


Litora tum patnac lachrymans, po^usque reJinqii 
£t campos, ubi Troja fuit : feror exul in altum, 
Cum sociis, natoque, Penatibus, et magnis Dis. 
'J'erra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis, 

14. (itum Thraoes Thraccs arant, acri quondam regnata Lycurgo: 
arani Hos))itium antiquum 'l'rojffi, sociique Penates, 

15. Fuit antiqaum Dum fortuna fuit. l^eror huc, et litore curvo 
h(MiiMtium Troje, ciyitt f^i^^j^^ pri„,a loco, fatis ingressus iniquis : 
que Penatefl erant locu r> t ' j -2 
fwstrii, dum fortuna fuit -^neadasque meo nomen de nomme fingo. 
Mo^ Sacra DionaE^te matri, Divisque ferebam 

22. Quo «ummo erant Auspicibus ccL^ptorum operum : superoque niteiK 
comoa virgulta, et myr- CoBUCoIum regi mnctabam m litore taurum. 
tuf horrida densii Fortc fuit juxta tuinulus, quo comea summo 


10. LachrymanM. The shcddinff of tcars Thcre had been a long and ftii 

II an indication of compaBsion aiid huniani- anco between tlie two countries, b 

ty. It is not inconsistont with true fortitudo which the Thracians gave a hoe| 

and gfreatncss of mind, and no way unbe- ception to all strangers from Tnn 

coming a hcro. But there is no nccessity Trojans, in tum, repaid the ki 

of undenttanding it horo, and in various civilities to the Thracians. Thii 

other passages where it occurs, as if ^iieas ty was sometimes between whoi 

actually shcd toars. Ruffius takcs it in the betwoon one city and another, i 

•ense of lugens^ grieving at the idea of tiines bctween particular familiei 

leaving his native country, and at the pros- ncstor, king of Thrace, married 

pect of tlio dangers which were bcfore him. daughtor of Priam. By theaa 

12. Magnit Dis. The great gods were two nations became related in th 
Jopiter, Juno, Mars, Pallas, Mercury, and tive headi: and their godi might 
ApoUo ; sometiinei callcd the Dii majorum be allied, confederate, and frieiidi 
gentium. Tho Penattt were domestic godi, quence of it. 

without any particular name. The imagos 17. Prima mania: I place my 
of all these gods JRnetLB took with him into The citv which ^neai fint £ 

Italy, and introduccd their worship, as we aro told, he called JEnoa. It i 

are told, into Latium^ aflcr he was settlcd from the mouth of the Hebnia, o 

m that kingdom. Some take thc Magnis of the iEgcan sea. The tomb 

Dit to be the samo with thc Penatibu*. rus was near this place. Jngrett 

See Gcor. ii. 505. and JEn. ii. 717. cntercd upon the buiinoBi with f 

13. Mavortia ierra : a inartial land. — — ogainst the will and purpoiei f 
Thrace is so called, bccausc said to be tlie who dirccted him to the kuid of 
oirtnplace of Mara. This was a very cxten- IS. Fingo ^neadat: I call 
«ve country, boundcd on the cast by tho tants ^neada, a name deriy» 
Euxine sea, south by the PropontiR, Helles- namo. Ftn^o : in the lenie of < 
pont, acd iEgoan sea, and on the Wost by 19. Dionaa : an adj. from Di 
Macedonia. Co/t/Mr : in the scnse of /la^i- thorofVeuus. Jtfio/ri: tohiamo 
tatur, Ptoeul. This word soinetimos sig- 8aera: in the sense of tacr\ftcia 
aifiei neir, in view, as if /»ro oeutis^ as in bam: in the sense of f^fferebamu 
Ecl. vi. 16. In this sense it may bo taken ^. ^uspicibut : the favoren 
hore ; for Thrace was only a short distance of our work begun. It ii put ii 
from the port where ^neas sct sail. But it with Divit. 

may havo referonce to Carthage, tho ptace 21. Mactabam: I wasiacrifid 

where he then was ; and thcn it may be bull to the high king of the god 

taken in its uiual acceptation. Servius tolli ui that a buU 

14. t^rri Lyeurgo: warlike Lycurgus. He those animals forbidden to be oJ 
wai the son of Dryas. Boing offended at crifice to Jove ; and thinki Vu 
Baccliui, it II laid, he banished him and hii edly, mikei iEneai offer here \ 
^tariei from hii kingdom ; and ordered all sacrificc, in order lo introduce 
Ibe vmoi to be destroyed in his doininions. cious omen that followed, Bu 
For whicli impiety the god deprivod him of assurei us, upon the beit authc 
hiiiigtit. /2f^na/a,refen to/er/a: govem- wai usual to sacrifice bulla lo 
•d, or nilod. ^ well ai to the other godi. AtlenJ 

tS. HotfiHium an ancient retreat of lays, pinguem : ano Heyne, cm 
' Ui |odi ^ere oui' friondi, while 22. T^umulua : a riiing groun 
Wlth ui ^m tutmiM : on wboit top. 

iENEIS. LIB. m. 


Vj^^ulti^t densJ3. hastUibus horrida m^rtus. 
Accessi, virideinque ab humo^convellere sylvam 
Coiiatus, raniis tcgercm ut froiideiilibus aras : 
Horreiidum et dictu video mirubilc monstrum. 
^Hin. qus prima solo, ruptis radicibus, arbos 
^ «iUitiir, huic atro li(iuuntur sanguine guttse, 
l't terraiii tabo maculant. Mihi frigidus horror 
Membra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. 
^^ursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen 
'nitcr|iior, et causas penitQs tentare latentes : 
Aier et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis. . 
Multa iiioveiis aniino, Nymphas vencrabar agrestes, 
Gra(livum([uc patrem, Geticis qui prffisidet arvis, 
Rite sccundarcnt visus, omenque levarent. 
Teiiia scd postquam majore hastilia nixu 
Aggredior, genibus({ue adversee obluctor arenne : 
£I(i(]uar, an sileam ? gemitus lachrymabilis imo 
Auditur tumulo, et vox reddita fertur ad aurcs : 
Quid miserum, ^Enea, laceras ? jam parce sepulto, 
Parce pias scelerare manus : non me tibi Troja 
Extemum tulit : haud cnior hic de stipite manat. 


24. AccbbmI td lceum^ 
25 conatusquo mm cunve]. 

27. Que arboe prlma 
vellitur folo, huic guttti 
ex atro 

30 30. Coit circum eor. 

31. Alterius arbori»^ 
et penitus lentare laten- 
tet cauiia« ewrum rerum ; 
•t aier 


36. Ui ritd sccunda- 
rent visue, levarentqua 
mahtm omcn 

40 41. Quid, O ^nea, 
laceras me miserum ? 
jam parco mihi 

43. De stipite arborit 
ted de meo eorpore 

■dj. ot the comeil tree. Dentit hattilibut, 
The long and taperingr branchcs of a tree 
nay not impropcrly be callcd hattilia^ spcart. 
Thcre ie a peculiu' propriety in the use of 
the word here, as boing Uie spears with 
whieh the body of Polydorus had been trans- 
fized ; and had tprung up into a tliick 
body of treea or shrube. Horrida : awful. 
Riueiu aaye, atpera, 

24. Sjflvam : in the Bense, here, of ramot 
vel ntmumm 

S6. Montirum: in the Benite orprodigium. 

87. Arbot: a ihrub, bush, or small tree. 
Solo : from tho earth. 

S8. Huie : in the eenee of er hde. Liqu- 
imiur : in the flenae of defluuni. Airo tan" 
piine: in the eenee of airi tanguinit. The 
prep. e or ex ie underetood. 

29. Horrmr : in the senee otiremor. Mihi: 
in thfl ■enae of Meo. 

30. Sanguit gelidut : my blood, chillcd 
Ihrou^h iear, collects togrether— «eases to 
Aow in itfl refular coune. 

33. Intequor: I proceed to tear up. Vi- 
mefi fen/uii|: a limber, or pUant ehoot or 

34. Venerabar Mymphat. These ruatic 
nymphe, to whom iEneae here prays, were 
probably the Hamadryadet^ whose destiny 
was connected with that of lome particular 
trees« with which they livod and diod. 
^neas might contider this horrid omcn, ai 
an indicatjon of their diHpIcasure, for hi» 

ffering to violate thoKe plcdges of their 
•xiatence. Jtfotrmj: in the senive of ro/irn«. 

35. Oradieum patrem : Mara. \Vo are 
fold that OradivuM wa» an cpithct, or namc, 
of Man in tine of war, vlh Quirmia w&fi 

in time of peaco. Its dcrivation ia unccrtain. 
Getivit: an adj. from Geta^ a people bor- 
dcring upon the Itter^ or Danubc; hcro put 
for Thracian^ on account of the vicinity of 
the two countrics : or, becauso Thracc was 
thoughtto extend, indeiinitely, to tlie North 

36. Secundarent, Two omens wcre re- 
quircd for confirmation : if the firBt happcned 
to bc unlucky, and the second prospcrous, 
tho lattcr destroyed the fonner, and was 
termed omen tceundum ; and hence tecvndo^ 
to prosper. ^neas, thercforc, wish^xi to 
have the omon rcpeatcd, that tho bad or un- 
lucky import of it mi?ht be removed, or 
taken away. Vitut : vision, acc. plu. Le 
vareni : in the sense of averiereni, 

37. Teriia hattilia : a third shrub or trea 
JV^ru : in tho sense of vL 

38. Aggredior: I attempt, or try to puil 
up, &:c. He ezerted himself tn cradicate 
it^ with his knocs upon the gjound, that he 
might have the ffreater purchase, or power. 
Advertte : opposito, nght against his knces. 

40. Reddiia : in tlie senso of emitta ex to, 

42. Paree teelerare : forbear to poUute 

?our piouB hands. It was the law of the 
'welvc Tables, and, indeed, it is tho voice of 
humanity, that no injury be done to the 
doad : drfuncti injurid ne qfficiantur. Tlie 
ghost oi 1'olydorus, therefore, calls out to 
Alnena : puree jam teptUto : let mc aloiic : 
leave me, at least, to my rest in thc ^ravc. 

43. Extemum non, Polyd&ms was the 
son of rriain, and the brothcr of Crerita^ the 
wiic of «flncas. He was therefore not ■ 
stran^cr or forci^iior, in the trucst scnso if 
the word, to ^iieas. Cicero makea hus\Uakft 


Immotanique coli dedit, et contemnere ventofl. 
78. H»c pUcidiuima Huc feror : haec fessos tuto placidissima portu 
«Mu/a accipit no$ Accipit. Egressi veneramur ApoUinis urbem. 

vtnenuni?**" '""^ ^®* Anius, rex idem hominum Phoebique Bacerdo 

Vittis et sacri redimitus tempora lauro 
ttt Oocunit noltiM Occurrit, veterem Anchisen agnoscit amicum. 

Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus. 
85. Et ne dixi : O Templa Dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto ; 
Thymbnee Apollo^ da Da propriam, Thymbrse, domum, da mcenia fesn 
nobiM fessispropriam do- £(, genus, et mansuram urbem : serva altera Troj 

^^ o « • u Pergama, relliquias Danadim atque immitis AchiUi 

88. Quove jubes mw^^ •« > -i/ol- 

ire? ubi;u6MnM ponere Q"«™ sequmiur ? qudve ire jubcs ? ubi ponere se 

notirat «edcB f Da, pater, augurium, atque animis illabere nostriB 

90. Repentd omnia Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repent^ 
viBa tunt tremere Liminaque, laurusque Dei : totusque moveri 

91. TotuBque mons ^^j^^ circClm, et muirire adytis cortina reclusis. 
nnwef/moven o l • • ^^ * / p^ j 

94. Eadem tellus, qus Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad aures: 

tolit V08 a prima stirpe Dardanide duri, quae vos k stirpe parentum 


hidden before undor the waves. Thls part blood of victims; but only honoi 

of the fable some explaiu, by sayin^ that prayers, and other simple rites of 

Apoilo hcro gave out hiti oracles plam and wrorship. 

inlilligible, but in every olhor place, in torms jj^. Xhymttrae, Thymbreus wa 

dark and obscure. Sec Ecl. iv. 10. thct of ApoUo, derived, as we an 

77. Dtdiltfue : and rendered it iixcd to be strabo, from Thymbra^ a place n« 

inhabitcd, and to condemn the wmds. This where be had a ttmous temple. P 

alludes to the story of its havin^: been a fixcd lastinff. 

wandcrine iKland, and driven about by the oo r-, i» • ^ «^ 

wind», till fixed by Apollo for the rcHidence ^^* /^«^" ' ofl&pnng-pastarity. 

of his niother. Hence it bccanic sacrcd to »»y«v/««»^«"- J»fan*uram ; permi 

her. """«"^ 

80. Idcm rtx hominum. It was a cufltom 87. Pergama : neu. plu. properlj 
among inany nations to unite in the samo or citadel of Troy ; oflen uscd for t 
pereon theoflicedofkingand prieat. Anius city. AUera Ptrgama, Simply, I 
was botJ» kirifr, and prient of Apollo. Troy— -the city which iEneas prayi 

81. RrdimUw: bound as to his temples ^ fS^^ ^ bim, and his foUower 
with fillels, and the sacred laurel. The m^i»» o^ the Greeks, and of cruel 
laurel was Racrcd to Apollo. Hence the 89. Augurtum: a sign, or omen. 
propriety of his priest being bound with it : 91. Laurut, Either the laurel, wi 
and the propnety of the epithet taera, the image of the god wss cro wned ; 

83. SuOimus leeta : we come under his the laurel tree, which was plsced • 
roof— we enter his palace. But teeta here irance of the temple. It was «]] 
may mean the temple mentioned belowr the among the ancienU that tlie gods g 
word ttetum properiy signifying any covercd of their approach, by causiuf thc 
buUding. Or tteia may be taken for the move and Bhake. To this the poe 
buildmgs of the city m goneral. The mean- ludcs. The laurel was sacred to >! 
ing then will be ; we enter ihe eiiy, 

84. Strueta velutto taxo : built of ancient 92. Cortma, The coveringof tl 
stone, or rock. Macrobius informs us that, whencethe priestdelivered rcsponsi 
when tho temple at Defphi, and the tcmples ^Y meton. the oracle ituelf. Adj^ 
built to Apollo in other places, were destroy- «anctuary, or mner psrt of the temp 
ed in any way whatevcr, his tcmplo ^iDtht ^*^o Oracle was. Reelutu: in the 
continued to stand unimpaired ; and conse- opertit. Mont. This wa» mount 
quently rctainod ils aneiunt or oriijiual sloiie. O" which the temple was built: 
Whatevvr ravagcfl thc island had sufFered, Apollo wa» BomeUnies called Cyni 
tlie sanotity of the teniple preservcd it from Diana, Cynlhia. Mugire: in the 
violation. ytmrabar: 1 worshipped — I of- tunare, 

fered praycrs. It is said that thc altar of 94. Dardanidet: the same aa 
Apollo at Dttot was never stained with the Servius observcs that tho Trojai 

^EiS. LIB. 111. MO 

jiht, HIus eadem vos ubere laeto 05 

ft reduces : antiquam exquirite iiiatrem« 
tnus iEnece cunctis dominabitur oris, 
iiatorum, et qui nascentur ab iliis. 

Phuebus : mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu 99, IngeiiMiue lietida 

; et cuncti, quae sint ea ma;nia, quserunt, 100 «'^*»^ uteum mixto 
fitLbus vocct errantes, jubeatque reverti. ^^^" '^^ «rtanies 

enitor, veterum volvens monumenta virorum, 

. 6 proceres, ait, et spes discite vestras. 105. Ubi e$i Idatu 

\(}\\s magni medio jacet insula ponto, '"°"' 

da-ns ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrffi. 106 *?^' ^*^"*^ habiUnt 

fi urbes habilant magnas, ubernma regna j^^ ^^^^ Teucnie 

us unde [later, si ritc audita recordor, ^oj/er nnLxiinun peict 

Rhceteas primilkm est advectus in oras, prinium 


ideiKtood from this declaration of tin^rs, but paintin^fi, cohinins. tombs, and 

cle. that Italy was doMigncd them, ftatues. Rusiii wuys^Aii/oWnf. Folvcfts : \n 

Dardanufl came ; and not Crete^ the seiise of reeogitana^ vel renolveTU tn 

as tlie birthplace of Tetu.." Stirpe : menie, 

m»e of orifrine, 104. Creta, A largeisland in the Mcditer- 

<gio ubere : in its joyous bos^^ : or ranean, lyin^ bctween tho Anrhipelago on 

, in its fertilc soil. Uber : signifies the north, and the Lybian aea oti Uio suuth : 

neas or fcrtility of the soil. Rueus Hodie^ Candia. It was called Creta^ from 

rtili sinu, Cres^ who is said to have reigned there 

\eduets: brought back, or retuming af\cr Jupiter. It is also sometimes called 

% Matren, It is supposed that the Crete, Teucer^ from whom ttie Trojant 

1 in view the circumstaiice of Brutus, wcro sometimes called Teueri^ and Troy, 
Tarquins, who weiit to Driphi to Teueria^ was a nativo of this islaud. Ue 
the Oracle of Apollo, concerning was tlie son of Seamander ; and, in the 

reaeiun to the kingdom. They re- time of a famine, lod a colony to Troas, 

for answer, that the einpire should and scttled at Rhateum^ a promonlory om 

who tirst kissed his greAt inothcr. tho shore of Uie Hollespont. He was inost 

on leaying the ship, feignod a fall, probably the foundoi of the Trojans : 

led the ground, which he considercd whence Anchises caljs liini Maximus pater, 

reat parcnt of all. He received the They were, how^(|r, very fond of deriving 

nent, aAer the (szpulsion of thc Tar- Uieir dcsccnt fVom Dardanus^ who fled 

leing chosen Consul. He was slain from IlAly to Troos, and bccamc thc Kon-iii- 

u, one of the Tarquins, soon afler law to Teucer. By marrying hi» daughter, 

r%d upon his office. bc obtained a share in the kingdoin« and at 

>9iNMf JEnem: here the family oi his death succeedcd him in the govcrniaont. 

shall bear rale over all lands, &c. Crete is here called the isloitd of great 

iwo linee are takeu from the Iliad. Jove ; because it was the plucc of his birth 

L 306. It M thent said, howcver, and ecucaUon. See Georg. 1. 1'2I. 
leaa should reign over the Trojans. 105. Cunahula : neu. plur. thc cradle or 

iome have inferred that he remained nnrsing place of your racc. Ruirus says, 

s, and that the whole accoant of the origo, Idaut: an adj. from Ida,-i mountain 

if the Romans is a mere fiction, a in Crete. 

lent only to Augustiu. But Diony- 106. Habttant: in the sense of oeeupant, 

HalJcamaasus understands it of his Uberrima regma : most fertile roalms. Thia 

l oTer the Trojans in Italy. And in answers to Ittto ubere^ incntioned, 95, supra, 

ia foUowed by Eustathius in his and tcnded to mislcad .^nchiiies. 
itary upon this passage of the Iliad. 107. Audita: repurts — iraditions. 
H» ohserved ihat Virgil does notsay, lOB. Hhcrteas oras : the confct of Rhrtteiink. 

r dominabihtr^ whirh answcrs to the Rhtrtmm was a promontury of Troas, 

>f Honier ; but cunetis dominabitur whcre Teuccr laiidcd with hid colony froro 

his circuiiistance hath led soine to Crcte. He introdiiood the worship of Cy- 

I Greek tezt so as to confonn to the hele, tlio mother of thc srodfl, iind K2ve to 

the mountains of Phrygia tho iiaino ot' /./o. 

Rererii': jn the sense of pi x:edere, from niount Ida in Crcte. Ho '.Iso cli:iiise<i 

ihe seneo of ad gua oea. the nnmc of Xarithus into thut nf Soam- 

Vmntanenia : rrcords, or meinorials. indor, allor tho iianio « f hi» \*uI\\p.t. WvtwfiM 

mm of varioiu kindai oot only wri' /ioinei says thol Ihe i ver Nvat «udWd X«ii» 


Optavitque lix^uiii regno : nonduro niuin et aiCM 
Pergamese steterant; habitabant yallibus UTiif.\ 
111. Uinc venu inUer llinc mater cullrix Cybole, Corybantiaque jdti, 
Cybule fdaiumque nemus : hinc fida sileiitia sacris, 

11«. Hjiic venifunt ^i juncti ciu-rum dominoj aubiere leones. 

Lrgo agite, et, DivOm ducunt qua jussa, sequanii 
Placemus ventos, et Gnossia regna petamus. 
116. llla distant longo ^Jec longo dislant cursu : mod6 Jupiter adsit, 
^***" Tertia lux classem Cretans sistet in oris. 


thtu by the ^ods, but Scamander hy men — prieetfl of Cybeie^ deiiyed from tl 

the fornior bcing iU originiU, and more ho- During her wocship, they made ■ 

uorable namc. noise with timbreis, pipes, and 

109. Optarit: in the sense of elcgit. Stra- They danccd, tossed their heads,i 
bo agrecH with Vir^il in inaking Teucer the their forcheads against uach othei 
find who rcigiicd in Troy. Dardanus ar- ing like mad men. 

rivt d not long at\er. marricd his daughter Thoy were sometimes called 

Baiea^ and succcuded him in the govem- from a Greek word which signifie 

ment. becauRC tliey wore a long robe li 

110. Per^ametr: in thc pcnso of TVq/unA. virgins. They were also calie< 

111. Cybele. The Hame with Rhca or Ops, from a Grcek word signifymg a 
and wifo of Satum. Shc is so called pro- cause they wero ten in number, tl 
bably from Cybclus,amountain in Phrygia, so many fingers on both hands. 
where she was wonhipped. She is taken thet Idtn is here added, becaaset] 
■ometimes for Uie earth ; and in that sense resided on mount Ida, 

i» thc coiiimon parent of ail its inhabitants. Cybele is represented aitting 

Her priests wcrc called Corybante*^ Curetes^ with a robe of divers colors, and 

and fiicei DactyU. Amon? other things in key in her hand, to denote that sl 

her worship, they used to ocat brazen cym- and distributes In sunmier thoae 

baU to[]rcthcr. Thc origin of this proctice that the winter had hid and concei 

was to prcvcnt thc crirs of tho child Jupiter wears a turreted crouTi on her hf 

from bcinjr hcard hy liis fathcr. Cybcle is drawn by a pair of hamcsscd li 

hcrc oailcd CuHrix^ inost probably bocause box and the pine tree were saci 

she was worshippod in a niuuntain of thc formcr, because pipes were m 

riiry{ria: whonoe it inight be said that shc wood, and used in her worship; 

inhuliitcd it, and, a.s it wcre, became the for the sake of the boy jitys^ 

prutntrtfs of that country. This is the lovcd, and made president of h KunMis trivoA. He says, ^ro/^r/rix /ori. coremonies : but af\crwards chi 

mKra : brazon cynibals. Any thing madeof into the pine tree. lier sacrifice! 

DruMS may bo called trs^ or ctra. formod iii private, and mcn wei 

Hoync roads Ci/hcla^ the gen. of Ci/bela^ from participation. Silence was 

somotiinos writton Cybelut^ the naine of a cnjoined in her mysterics. Th 

mountain in Phrygia. Mater Deum^ says plain Jida silenHa aaerit^ in thi 

he, tfutr ro/i7. inJ^abitat Cybelcn^ montem line. 

Phry^ur: taking cultrix in thc 8en«e oT qu(e 112. Hinejida: hence the (aitl 

eolit vol iuhiibitnt. Aflcr the arrival of in her sacred rites. The mysle 

TVtirrr rroni Croto, hc probahly changod the bcln, as we!l as those of Ceres, 

nanio of tho inountain Cybtla or Cybelus^ fully concealed from the comnr 

calling it A/c;, at\or the Crrtan Ida. Hor chariot was draiK-n by hami 

TiiK irtuldoss had sovoral naines: Cybele^ juncti Uunes. to dcnote that mati 

froiii tlio niouiitain alroady namod, whorc it tion, figured by Cybele, or thc 

i> saiii siio was first wort^hippcd by oaorifi- coniinon parent of all, triumpl 

oos : ( ipt, froni a word implying Iiolp. be- most torocious and savage natun 

eatiso siio brin^ holp or ashistancc to cvcry re: in the sense of traxertmi, 

priHliiction of nature: Rhca^ from a Grrok This is an epithet of Cybol6,aj 

wurd si^iiifyiiig /o floir^ bocause her hcneHts mother of the gods. 

fl»w witliout eoasiiitr: Dindymene^ troin tho 115. Gnotna: an adj. from G 

mouiilain Dindymus in Phrygia : Bcrrcyn' prinoipal city of Crele, pat bj sy 

■ <.ia, from Btrccynthui^ a costlo in tho same whole islond. 

counlry. See .tn. vi. T^M. Sho was alsq 116. .Vm/u/oyi/: nor are thc 

oalled Bona Dca^ and Matcr Deorum. Sce Crotr a long vay ditiani» Modk 

EcL iv. 6. and Geor. i. 121. thal — in case thau 

Cpritenlia : an adj. fiom Corybaniet^ the 1 17. Lux: in th» mnm of & 

iENEIS. UB. m 251 

iMy meritoB aris mactavit honorefi : 

n Neptuno ; taurum tibi, pulcher Apollo ; 119 119. ^aefatil naxram 

1 Hyemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam. Neptuno; Uuruin ubi, 

la volat, pulsum rcgms cessisse patemis Jgl^ Faraa vi>lat du- 

lea ducem, desertaque litora Crets:, cem Idomenea, pukiuiD 

vacare domos, sedesque adstare relictas. ceiwisBe patemin regnin, 

mus Ortygi» portus, pclago(|ue volamus : litoraque CrotB ette de- 

itamquejugis Naxon, viridemque Donysam, 125 "^^ ^ domoe Tacm 

»n, niveamqtje Paron, sparsasque per «quor ^^ Ugimoique Naa- 

las, et crebris legimus freta consita terns. on bacchatam jugia, vi- 

:u8 ezoritur vario certamine clamor. ridemque Donjriam 
itur socii, Cretam proavosque petamus. 

|iiitiir surgens k puppi ventus euntes : 130 130. JVoj euntes 
iem antiquis Curetum allabimur oris. 

ividus muros optatae molior urbis, „ *^* Vocoque vrbm 

»ean.que voco : et tetam cognomine pentem ^^^^^p,. „«»0.. 

r amare focoa, arcemque attollerc tectis. ^^,^ ^ 1,10^ in gjcco li- 

le fere sicco siibductaB litore puppes : 135 tore 


MaetavU : be ofi^red — sacrificed. in that form around Delos. Freta roruita : 

t: in the teiuie of vietimat. And the siraits sct with many ialands — the strmha 

.* in the senm of dignot, and narrow passes formed by the nuDM- 

HjfCMt. B/ hjfemi we are here to rous islands, which dlversified the sea. 
and thm ttotmy vindt. They were 127. Legimtu: wo coast along the shore 

nd aa a kind of diyinities, and were — we sail near. 

ngly worshipped in order to avert 128. Certamine: in the sense of eanuUi^ 

tj» Peeudem: in the sense of ovem, tione, J^autieut elamor : ashoutof thosailon. 
a .« in the sense of propitiit. 130. Surgent d pupni. This wind blcw 

Idmmaua : an acc. of Greek endin|r. from the north : their course lay to the 

leas was the eon of Deucalion, and southward, and consequently it would be at 

lon of Minoa, kin|r of Crcte. He their stem. 
m of the leaders in the war against 131. Allabimur: we arrive at the ancient 

On his retum, being overtaken in shores of the Curetet. Thesc were the mi- 

i, he made a tow to the }^ods to nisters of Cybclo, and thought by some to 

I to them whatsoever he should iirst be the same with the Corybantet and Idmi 

'thej would sare him. This hap- Daetyli, Of ad tmd labor. Scc llUsuprm. 

be his own aon. The father, how- The Curetet are said to have becn tiie ori- 
erformed his vow. A plague soon g^inal inhabitanta of Crete ; from whom tht 
in his coontry, and his subjects con- island probably took its naine. 

1 him to have been the cause of it by 132. Molior: in the sense of extruo. 
luman deed, rose against him, and 133. Pergameam. Pliny mcntions Per» 
il him from his kingdom. Litora de» gamut^ among the cities of Crcte. Jfomor 
Lbo shores to be deaerted — lefl with- calls it, the hundred-city island. It is said 
oard, or detence. to havf had a hundred citics. Gentrm Itt- 
Sedet relieiat adtiare : thatthecoun- tam: mj peop^e dcliffhtcd with tlie name. 
if abandoned, lies open to us. Sedet: Ocntem^ in tlie sense ofpopulum^ vcl soeiot. 
mm of n;gtonec« 134. Amare foeot: to lovo their homes» 
Or^ggim, The ancient name of De- to kecp clone at homc, and not wander 
' Oriygia^ from a Greek word signi- abroad, until they should discover tlie dis- 
qnail : thoee fowla having aboundcd pottition of the inhabitants towards them. 
i^Und. This agret^ with the following injunction : 
Batehaiam: frequented in its moun- attoilere areem teetit^ to raise a tower on 
»j the priests of Bacchus — whose thcir houses in case of an attack, tlie better 
ins reeounded with the tumultuous to defend themselves. 

s of the Bacchanals. Viridem Do' Servius thinks iEneas here intonds to 

Thia island was famous for its recommend to his people to cultivate tho 

juiile, as Parot was for its pure whiie study of religion. Ii is an unnecessarj ra* 

8ee 75 supra. finement Foeot : properly the fire-plaoM|^fl 

CjKiaiiaa apartag. These were a or hearth, by synec. put for the whole ■^oM^^H 

01 Mandi» eo caOed from a Greek in this place : also Bometimoa Cot Ua %i% 4l^H 

gBi^nf m tiniep baciiiiie tbaj laj ih^ heaxth, h j meton* 



136. Juventus operata Conniibiis arvisque novis operata jurentus ' 
ett connubiis jm^ domosqiie dabam : subitd ciHm tabida men 

daiul- mt trrril Gorrupto ccbU tractu, misem„*.que venit 
eurrupto, veiiit eorum Arbonbusque satisque lues, et letirer annus. 
inembris, arboribuRquo Linquebant dulces animas, aut 2egra trahebant 
■atitque, ot annus tst Corpora : tum steriles exurere Sirius agros. 
^•^j^®'' . Arebant herbfe, et victum seges aE^gra negabat. 

^ Ul. SiriuB c€tpu exu- ^^^^^^ ^^ orftchim Ortygiffi Pha«bumque remei 

143. Paler hortatur Hortatur pater ire mari, veiiiamque precari : 
me ire rursus ad oracu- Quem fessis finem rebus ferat ; unde laborum 
•w«n Tentare auxihum jubcat ; qud vertere cursus. 

145. Et quarere quem j^q^ erat, et terris animalia somnus habebat. 

*"* Effieries sacrse Divftm, Phrygiique Penates, 

160. Visi tunt adstare Q^os mecum k Troj4 mediisque ex ignibus urfc 
ante oculos mei jacentia Extuleram, visi ante oculos adstare jacentis 
insomnis Insomnis, multo manifesti lumhie : qui se 

153. Tum sic vui tunt piena per insertas fundebat Luna fenestnis. 

r^^^Auoll a *t hl '^^^ *'^ afTari, et curas hi.«» demere dictis : 
ideni "quod^ dkt^ur^us est Q"^ ^^» delato Ortygiam dicturuB Apollo est, 
iibi delato ad Hic canit : et tua nos en ultrd ad limina mittit. 

156. Noa secuti sumut Nos te, Dardani4 incensd, tuaque arma secuti ; 
te, tuaque ^^g tumidum sub te permensi classibus aBquor 

m JVm udem tolle- jj^j^^^ venturos tolleinus in astra nepotes, 

159. Imperium orbit ImperiuuKjue urbi dabimus. Tu mcenia magn 
fica urbk Magna para, longum(|ue fugae ne linque labora 


136. Jurentut operata : tlie youth had whcn the hoat of the lun is m 

■acrificcd fur their nuptialR, and ncw laiids. It iK Roiiiotiinos called canirula» 
They werc prepured for contracting niar- 142. JE^raseget: ihe diaeaM 

riage!^ and for commencing tlie busincss of crop — corn. 
agriculturc. 144. Precari veniam: to su 

It was a custoin among the Roinans to favor, or assistance. 
offer sacrifices bcfore thcy cntcrcd upon 145. Fcssis rebtts : to our afi 

marria{To, or any important business of lifo. or condition. Ferat: in the sen 

To tliiSf the poct alludcs. Sacr{ticabant pro Laborum : distret»— sufferings. 

felici succfjssu conjuc^orum, et aerorum. in Ihe sense of quoirere. 

131. Dttbam: in ihe »en9C ordistribucbam. 146. Auxilium laborum: n 

Jura : jUKtice amonij my pcoplo. Domos : suifcrin^s. 

eithcr tho housos that had becn abandoncd 14o. F.ffigies : formi, or figfur 

by the inhul>itants; or the places whcre Bnys statuo'. Penaiet, See iEo 
they should build houses for tlicmselvcs. 151. Insomnis: awako; an ai 

129. Tdhida mistrandaque: awastingand with mei Jacr.ntis. Most edito 

pitiablc diseasc camc upon tliuir limbs, &c. thc word into in and somnis^ ii 

This diseasc, or pla^e, was occasioncd by This is ovidently incorrect : fa 

the infcction of thc air. CaH : in thc scnso becn aslcep. tho light of the n 

of aeris. Tractu : a space, tract, or rc^ion, have becn unnecessary. Beside 

Satis. Sata^ properly, crops — any thing infrn. hc dcclares it was no doU 

planted and ^owing ; from Uie verb sero. fancy in slccp. Manifesti : in t 

Here, in ihe sense of segetes. conspicui. 

140. Jtnimas : lives. Anima properly \r}2.fnsertasfmestrat: windo 
■igrnifies tiio aniinal lifc ; aniinuss the soii!. or inade in the sidc of the house, 
Dr. Trapp thiiiks tho expression an odd cmo, quo'. sunt in pariete^ says Hcyno. 
and proposes to chango tinffurhant to rcd- se: ih tlio sense of mitlebat i 
debant. Riin>iis says, amittebant. The dif- shone. 

ilculty is rcinovejl bv rendcring rfM/rcj ani- 1.'>4. Delato : carricd back, 4 

MOf, Hweet, or doar lives. to Delos. Canit : declarcs, or n 

141. Sirius: thc dojj-star; a pcstilential 160. Para niagna : prepare a 
ooaitellation, risitig about the end of July, Popults^ or some word of the lik 

iENElS. LIB. Ifl. 

jes: Dun hacc tibi litora nuaBii 

Jretie jussit considcre, Apollo. 

!esperiam Graii cognomine dicnnt ; 

:a, potens armis atque ubere glebaB. 

jere viri : nunc fama, minores 163 165. Nane ftma m 

se, ducis de nomine, gentem. minores diiisM i^mUm 

-opriie sedea : hinc Dardanus ortus, 167. Hinc Ibijum or 

ilcr ; genus k quo princii)e nostruia ^ 'V' paterque DtrdB- 

^ * t A 1 j* i A- nui, a quo principe no*» 

ethajclaetuslongievodictaparenti ^^ ^„j; dtdudufsi 

nda refer. /'Corytum, terrasque require 170 et/. 

>icta?a ncgat tibi Jupiter arva. 

;tonitus visis ac voce Deorum, .^^. o j -j u -i- 

illud eral; sed corim agnoscere vultus, agno«cere vultu. coimm 

;omas, pnesentiaque ora videbar : m«, veUtasque 


K>d, with which tnagnit ia to ritania in Africa; who marriod Coritos, 

uf powerful people. Magnis king of Tuscany. It is said, howevcr, that 

s Heyne. Rueus hath nobu Jove had an amour with her, and bcgat 

us the groat gods. Longum Dardanus. Upon the death of their father 

; the same as labarem longa Coritus, a quarrel arose between tho two 

»r,or fatigueof the longvoyage. brothcrs, which ended iu *he death of liisius. 

in tho sense of refrio, l'he Upon wliich Dardanus flcd first to Samo- 

besupplied. J^Ton sua»it fute : thracia, and aflerwards to Phrygia, where 

3 does not advise, or recom- he married the daughter of Tvuccr, and, in 

lores to thce. connezion with him, founded the Trojaa 

: at Crcte. The place where race. 

en. The same with, tn CVf /a. 170. Corytum: a city and mountain in 

une, and epithet of ApoUo; Tuscany, so called from Coryttu^ tlie sup- 

le place of his birth. posed father of Dardanus, and king of thal 

ctu, This pasMge had been country. The name is derivcd from a Greek 

by Ilioncus, ^n. i. 530. As word which signifles a helmet. Both the 
words of the oracle, it would city and mountain are now calicd Cortontu 

isrespectful and improper to Hequire, Heinsius, and afler him Heyno, 

tho least: besides, Dido would rcads requirat, But require is the common 

irmed in the truth of ^neas* readiiig, and is the easier. 

1 sho found two witnesscs dc- 171. Jiwoni(u: an adj. from Amonia^% 
testimony in the same words. name of Italy ; from Auson^ or .^ujoniia, 

I sense otregio, as Servius informs us. Dutva arva : tho 

*ti : an' adj. from (Enotria^ a Cretan territory, or lands. Crcto is called 

> that part o€ Italy, aflorwards Dieta-an^ from Diete^ a mouiitain on tbat 

io. It took its name fnim island, where Jupiter was edacatcd; put, by 

son of Lvcaon, who scttlcd syncc. for the whole island. 

colony of Arcadiaiis. Tho 172. TaiilnuvuiM: at such a vision, or 

iroad so widely, that all Italy sight. 

ps called (Enotria, (Enotrii 173. AVe topor erat^ &c. Dr. Trapp, and 

the (£notrians. some other commentators, imagine a difli- 

im. nobit : destined, or allottcd culty occurs hero. To solve it, thny make t 

'ods. The verb tuni is to be difTerence between topw and tomniu, But 

r. Davidson takes proprite iii thisdifficulty arisesentirelyfrointhcirtakiikf 

perpetute, Rusus says, ad' insomnit to mean, in sleep, and not takinf it 

as an adj. See verse 151, supra. 
.* hence Iksius sprang, and 174. Velatat eomat: the hcads of the 

iiis; from which prince our images, or statues, were generally adomed 

I. Prineipe here is a sub. a with fillcts and flowers. Ora prtueniia 

)f— A fonnder. The construc- their forms present before me. We see how 

uid more natural by connect- much pains the poet takes to make us be- 

I Dttrdamu. In this instance lieve that it was no dream — ^no mere ikiicy. 

ed to depart firom the common He mcntions a variety of circumstancen, iJl 

and Dardaniis were sons of of which go to show that JLnoam w» awmket 

angliter of Atlas, king of Mau» and not m sleen. 


Tum gelidiis toto manabat corpore sudor) 
Corripio e stratis corpus, tendoque supinafl 
Ad ca^lum cum voce manus, et munera libo 
Intemcrata focis. Perfecto Istus lionore 

179. CortiuD dt hu Anchisen facio certum, remque ordine pando. 
^^ Agnovit prolem ambiguam, geminoeque parenl 

181. Seqae deceptam Seque novo vetenim deceptum errore locorum 
•■■* ^^''^ Tum memorat : Nate, Iltaci» exercite fiitis, 

Sola mihi tales casus Cassandra canebat. 
IS^^H^^h ^^^ ^ Nunc repeto h»c generi portendere debita noii 
!S!rLrno.S^ geneiT; ^^ «®P® Hesperiam, 8«pe Itala regna vocare. , 
•t tam MBpe vocare ^^ Q^i^ ^^ HesperisB venturos litora Teucroi 

Crederet ? aut quem tum vates Cassandra moi 
188.Moaitino«sequA- Cedamus Pkcebo, et moniti meiiora Bequamur. 
Bw meUora eonaUia. gj^ ^^^ . ^^ cuncti dictis paremus ovantes. 

Hanc quoque deserimus sedem, paucisque relM 

Vela damus, vastumque cavft trabe currimus m 

Postquam altum tenuere rates, nec jam amp 

ItfS. Sed undiqae ccb- Apparent terrae, coelum undique, et undique pi 

Inm tippartt^ et Tum mihi cuiruleus supra caput adstitit iniber, 

Noctem hyememque ferens ; et inhomiit unda 


176. Corripio: I match my bodj from their descent from DardaBak 
mybed. SiipiyuM.' palmupward; a^reeing 84, et seq. 

with wuinut. 182. Exeniie : exercbed« or 1 

177. Libo itUemerata : I pour pure offer- disasten of Trov 

«.ually po^urod up„„ U.e fire inhonorof th. g^^^- Jt^t^X'^'^ 

178. Honorc per/ecle: the offering being ^P^^ bcUeved her predicUoni 
»«dc, or comploUjd. "iB^.' /J«,r/c: I remen.beP_I 

79. Rem : m U.e 8en.e of prodigium. p„undJl: in tbo .en.e ofpni 

180. Qeminos parentes: tlie double foun- ,. ^j ,^ #. iL . 
den. The Troja... reckoned both Teucer '"?oV"S , ilTi^ . kLJ 

»d Dardanus the founden of their race; .. V^?: ^V"''^''Z\ ^'^L 
.* c r r' . .u 1 «« r i* i u« follow better couneels. Thil 

Uje former frora Cretc, Uie kttor from lUly. ^ ,^ j j^ j, ^ 

ThuavU>^mprolem, »mb.guou^ or dou- ^ ^ ._ ^^ ^ J^ „,, 

ble doscent, led Anchises to mistake the r n ^^ /* i irods'^ • Ukm? / '• 

oracle of Apollo. Agnovit: he owned — . ^ V. j ?„...'.*:« «u--*..*^-.*-. 
, , 1 'j ^ cisni. Cedamtu : m tho senee o 

ieknowledgcd. . 

181. JVoio errore, It is not easy, perhaps, 189. Ovantes: m the sense ol 
to fiz the nieaning of thii line. Pierius in- 190. Sedem : in thescnee of ii 
formi U8 that soine copies have parentum serimiis : in tho eenBe of retinq% 
instead of locor\i.m^ which mends ii much : 191. Cava trabe: in thesenM 
throagh the recent mistake of our ancient vibxis, Currimut: we eail upi 
foundere. If locorum be read, it will be : sca. Trabe^ bj aynec put m 
throu((h Ihe rcccnt miatake of the places of ship. 

their birth. 192. Altum: properly, the di 

Apollo had directcd thcm to seek the land sea. Rates : in the aenae of m 
of their anccstoni, promiBing that it should 194. Imber: properly, a aho\ 

receive thcm in it« fcrtile bosom. This An- bv nieton. tiie cloud containinf 

chises had interpretod of the land of Crete, aionj; the rain, as in the preae 

tho birth-place of Teucor. It appears, then, Cvruleus^ is what we may ■ 

that this mistake lay in reckoning thcir leadcn-colored. CIoud8,tluitttll 

deecent from him, and not from Dardanus, der ond rain, are oflen tin{[ed . 

whoM country had been Italy. This niis- blue, intorminglcd with black. 

tttke in computin^ he calls novus^ a recent^ kind of cloud here meanU 
or new one because they usually deduced 196. Uyemm: in the Moae j 

iENEIS. LIB. ni. ^\ 

iu6 Tenti Tolvunt mare, magnaque surgunt 196 

ra : dispersi jactamur gurgite vasto. 

^re diem nimbi, et nox humida ccelum 1(6 Abttulii cttUun 

lit : ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes. ^ no^ 

imur cursu, et caecis erramus in undis. 200 

iem noctemque negat discemere coelo, •^** Negatte^otftdi»- 

leminisae viae medlA Palinunis in undA. oomer* 

ided incertos caecA caligine soles 

ms pelago, totidem sine sidere noctes 

terra die primum se attollere tandem 206 ®J^' Ten» Tiia cti 
aperire procul mootes, ac volvere fumum. taudom AttoUere ee, ei 
^unt ; remia insurgimus : haud moni, nautse ^* Haud mora tfi 

i torquent spumas, et ccerula verrunt. 208. Verrunt ccBrala 

vatum ez undis Strophadum me litora primikm mana 
iunt^ Strophades Graio stant nomine dicte 210 210. Inifule, 6kim 
5 Ic^o in magno : quas dira Cel»no, Strophade. Grmio no. 

leque colunt ame : Phmeia postquam 


1 nrweeBaau Unda ; in the eenee of exerting themielvee— .aboring with all theii 
fnknrrmt : looked terrific with the etrength, they toas the foam, and iwecp the 

•e. azure deep. 

^quora : in the aenee oifluetut, 209. Liiora Strophadum : the ahorei of the 

inioivire: wrapped up the day— ob- Strophades. Those were two small ialanda« 

JVim^t : in the ■enee ofnubet, So lying on the weat of Uie Peloponncsus, near 

i&er, in Terae 194, iupra. So imper- the Sinut Cyparitsaut. Here iEncaa with 

rae thia cloud to the raye of the suri*, his fleet landed. 

became dark aa night — ^it cunvertcd 211. Magno lonio. That part of the 

r into night. Darkness, or night, be- Mediterranean, lying between Grccce on 

' abeence or want of the light of the the east, and Siciljr and Italy on the woet, 

Humida: in the sense of imbnfera, waa called the lonian lea. Mari is to b<i 

.- for iueetn. supplied. 

Ignee: lightningB, in quick succes- 212. Harpyite aliet, The Harpies were 

ash from the broken clouds. Some commonly reckoned three in numbcr : /rtt, 

hare abrupiit agreeing with ignet; AtUo^ and Oeyptta, Virgil here calls ont 

would be preferable, if it could be of them Celano, They are said to have 

ted by sufBcient authority. been the daughters of Neptune and Terra, 

ExeuOMur: in the sense of dejiei' (according to Hesiod, of Thaunms and 

Cccif .* dark — unknown sea. Eloctra,) and are therefore supposed to in- 

Paiinurue ipte : Palinurus himsclf Labit the jslands principally. Thcy had the 

thmt he ean distinguish the day and facos of women, but the bodies of vultures. 

(the day from the night, on account Their feet and fingers were armed with 

darkness,) In the heavens. Memi' claws. They emittcd an infectious smell, 

in the eonse of eognoteere, He was and poisoned whatevcr they touched. They 

Bt of £neas* ship, and represented as were called Harpyia^ from the circumstance 

st skilful mariner in the flect. of thuir rapacity and voracious nature. Ser- 

J§dei erramut : thus we wander ovcr vius thinks they were called Harpyue OB 

a for three doubtful days in thick earth, Furiet in hell, and Dirte in hnavcn« 

■B. Or, ineertot may mean, uncer- Phineia : an adj. from Phineuty a king of 

u&diitingoished ; because thoy could Arcadia or Thraco, who put out the eycs o' 

roelr dutinguished from night, on his two sons. at the instigation of his wife, 

t of the thick darkness. This is the their step-moiher. For this unnatunil con- 

lat opon the words by Ruieus and duct, Jove deprived him of sight, and sent 

J§mbiguat propier tenebrat obteurat^ tjie Harpyias to torment them ; which they 

ti commentator. Soies: in the sense did, tiU Calais and Zetes, the sons of Bo- 

reas and Orithyia, ezpellcd tliem fruni >iis 

Woere : in the eenM of emtilere^ or kmgdom, in rctum for the favors which 

they liad received of him on their wsy t«i 

inntrgimu» ymit : we rise upon our Colchu*, af\er the golden fleece. Thoy pur- 

re pljr tbem briakly. sued these monsters as far as these islands ; 

JUmixi : part. of the verb adniior : when, being admonished by Jo^ \o ^ttiwMa 

P. VJiGlli: \LlRON13 

T.i. ?- ■* i i.ii-t *\a --4 :•:— j- r.-fisL^. _^ =i».t^ litjweir prii 
•**-** •-*■ -^' Tr t'. _? 1.1 .: . -= 11 .-.>•.•• _r:i. riec ssrior uiia 

r-.T-- "t: _n L»^..- ^"; J^ =C"a< extuiit untlu. 

'-' '' - ■"• V ■ " "^*" ■' ..-i.i.*. • :.- :r-r- ■: ..:-=, ^^rci^nm Tentris 
.^•r--. r.-.. . •{- .* . p -.--.;, _'.<:*--. -■T i-^-s. e: p&ljda semijer 

H-: -ii oeli'j :;<:r:':s ir.tnrimus ; ecce 
Ls"-* >:-l: :.i*«ji: cai.i:-:? amiecta videmus, 
r*:"-!----* ".-* ^iL.-.g-rr. -Tii--* j-«:-«. r.ul-»j custode. pcr herbai 
-• •^r.-i^ ;*r -rr.'-.--» Irr.l.\.-5 Zktto. e: Di-.«;«? :j«>umque Tocanius 
.ram th. '* <- .•.-...*. i.-- j. .^,^,-.-jj ^tritis:.';':';^ Jovem ; tunc litore cur?< 

Ex:rj:L--j.,;i;e tvrco, cipib:j94]ue epuiamur opiin 
A: :-b/3t Laiisu de montibus adsunt 
H^rpjix. e: magni? «^jatiunt clangoribus alaa : 
Diriptuntque dapes. coniactuque omnia fcFdant 
S23. Tum c.Tx toz Irrimundo : tum tox tetrum dira inter odorem. 
ora/ lUiM ii.x^t Kurj jm in swesau lonsro. sub nipe caTat4« 

930. .Vojcircujnciiiu»! .Vrbuhbu^ ciauai circiim atque horrentibus lunb 
M^onau» Instruimus mensas. ariM^ue reponimus ignem. 

Kur*um ex di^erso cutli. caecisque latebriai, ^ 

Turba sonans pntdam pedibus circumvolal HDc; 

PoJiuit ore dafie«. S(x:iis tunc. anna capesaaii 

S36. Faciunt haud ^*^^^^' ^t dira bellum cum gente gerendum. 

■wiiiac jutfainini Haud secus ac jua<i faciunt, tectosque per herb 


them no farlhcr, they retumed. Hence dapibvu : upon the rich, ot delii 

they wcre cailcd Strophadti^ from a Greek See 231, infra. 

word iiiiplylug a reiurn. Their former 2;25. Laptu : motion. t^dra: 

naiiie \Aiui i^luto!. Ilere the Harptfia took Rcntfe of a</r«niuK/, vel adrofafii. 

up tlifir rc*Mdeiii:o. Tliiii Bcrvcii to explain 2*26. A!af[nu eiangoribua: wit] 

dio wordii, poslffuam Phineia domus : atlcr noise. Some copiea havo plan 

tJicy were ejLpellf.-d froni the palace of Piorius inforins us. 

['hinuuH. 227. Diripiunt : in the Bense 

21-1. Ilaud tristius: thnre is not a monster 230. Horrtnlibua : in the sen» 

moru ri.'ll ih:iri ilicy ; nor aiiy more cruel pest Sfcetau longo ; in a long retrea' 

and scour^e (tra) uf thu gods, &c. Est^ is mote place. 
andorstood 231. Jnttruimut menitu: we 

215. S*ifj^u undis: from the watem of tahles. 
Biyx. T\m was a tahuluus rivcr of lle!l, 232. Ex diverto cceli: Crom 

around which, the poctH say, it fiowed nine quarter of the sky, aud from ' 

times. Tho ^ods hold its waters in great rctrcats. The word iraetu is to 

▼eneration. If thoy swore by it, the oath with divnrso: \n the sense of d 

was iiiviolahlc. It is said to have derived ectli, The Mythologists make * 

iti uanio frdin tho uyniph 5/vx, wlio assisted only threc in nunibcr. Virg 

Jupitor iii tlie war against Uie giants. See spcaks o{' them as being numer 

Goor. iii. 551. them turba and gem^ so that thc 

217. Proluviet ventrit: a most offcnsive lefl one part of the Island ihan 

oflluz of tho bolly. Ora temper paUida: zn6 troubled with thein in another. 

their faces always pale tlirough hunger. poots do not always conform t 

S20. Lmta : in tJie sense of pinguia^ or fabulous tradiUon, farther 

•greeing with armenta, their design. 

S23. /n partem pradamifpu : for in partem 233. Pradam, This I t&ke for 

IpnHte^ by hendiadis. It wae a custom or flcsh in general ; whlle dapet 

aniuiig the Ronians when thej went out to portion of it dressod, and pr 

war^ or to the chaae, to tow io consocrate eaiing. Polluit : spoils — or d 

■ pari of ihe apoila, or booty, to the gods. the mouth. Sonant^ flapping th 

yVaaWMt/ wa.j BfiihH ta gods« and Jove whizzing. 

g^ ^Jrfico ; in theaense ofju 
OjptMU 236. Faeiuni Kayd: thej di 

XNEIS. L1U 111. 251 

iiit pnses, el scuta Idteiitia condunt. 

bi flciapsas sonituin per curva declrre t38. Ubi Haipyic d« 

d«it si^num s|)ccul& Misenus ab altA lapM» 

vo : invadunt socii, et nova praelia tentant, 240 
las pelagi ferro fcedare volucres. 
]ue virn plumis ullam, nec vulncra tergo 
mt : celerique fug4 sub sidera Iapsa.>, 
m pnedam et vestigia fcrda rclinquunt. 
praicelsA consedit rupe Celjeno, 245 .^Vr*''^.*^ **"" ^* 

• t tlS» UllOllZ V&tetl, CODM* 

ratcs, rumpitque hanc pectore vocein : ^jj^ l„ 

ctiam pro ca;de bouin stratisque juvencis, 24B. intbrr* 

Jontiada^, bellumne infcrre paratis ? bellum nobu^ eiiain b^l- 

io insontes Harpyias pellere regno ? *"'"» inquam, pro c»df 

e ergd animis atque hojc mea fiij ite dicta : 2a0 1I?J ^ 1- 

L u * • . •. • i^u 1 A II 251. E&ro maxima ta* 

hcBbo pater omnipotens, mihi Phujbus Apollo TiMTum pando vobie eo, 

it, vobis furiarum ego mfixima pando. que Omnipotens patei 

cursu petitig, ventisquu vocatis y^ pradixit PhoBbo, r/ PHod- 

aliam, portusque intrare lic^^it. ™ ^^^^^^ priBdixii mi- 

1 anj daum cingeUs mcEnibus urbem, 255 ^^.^ ^^ j^ ^^^ 

ro8 dira fames, nostra;que injuria c»dis, daUmrotwmoBnibuiai:- 

LS subigat malis ahsumere mensas. t^uam dira fames 


in they are eommandvil — they do fn calling them the tont of Laomedom, 

tej are commanded. Celeno reproaches tliem av bcing impioua, 

Comduni: thej hide thoir shiclds, uniuBt and faithless, like that prince, who 

d among the graae. Lntentia: in did not keep his promiaei oven with thc 

iofoeeuUa. Dtlapta: in the Bense gods. See Geor. i. 502. 
mUt* 248. Laomtdontiada : a patronymic iioun 

ipeeula, Thia waa an elovaUd spot, from Laomedon^ the father of Friam, and 

, commanding a wido prospect. It king of Troy. The samo with Trojani, 
d from the old verb speeio, Hence 249. Pairio regno : from our ptUmal 

tpeeuior. Signum: tho signal for kingdom. TAis is said, bocause S^ptunc, 

■k. Uicir father, had tho ompirn of the sea, and 

reniani nova : and try a new kind the islands. 

JEre: tmmpet: see 111. iupra. 250. Accipite: hear — attend to. 

nm: in the sense of ieium. The 252. Maxima funarum. Ser^ius infera 

i^snemu is added to those burds, fjom this passage that the Harpicj and liie 

waoae they were of bad omen ; or puriet were the same. Pando : in tlie senae 

hy, and to be abnorred on accoant ^f explieo. 
nasUnesB. Fotdart: the primanr a.r w\\ • «i. c 

of tbi. word ia, /0 mangl^o eii f^^5^"/~ * "" ^**^ ■*~* ""^ coneeuam. 

-^makehatoeef. Hencethepro- "f^^ P^^i^^- 

' iU being cmuiected with /erro. ^* Dirafnmet: diroful hunger, and tlie 

[dattt: fljing — ahooting awaj. injury (done lo) of our race, forces you to 

kmeoam: h^feaUn. Of #«iii, and consumo your «rnawed trcnchcn». MaHs: 

the verb etfe. i** ^^® sense of deniibuM. Injuria ttottrei 

t^elix. ABfeUx sometimes si^rniiiei ^«f<'"- This injury consisted in killing their 

la, &Torable, aospicious; so infelix cattlo; and in makuig an attack upoii them. 
ei aifnilies iil-hoding^ inautpieious^ 257. ^lbtumere mentat, &c. The sense of 

ill-boding prophetcea. Hane vo- this prediction is seen from iu accomplish- 

same p* hete va^a, ineat in tlie svvcnth book, verse 116. The 

're eetde : for (in retam for) the stoiy is not merely a poetical invention ; it 

r of our catlle, and bullocki slain. was a hisUrical tradition. Dionvsiui and 

cm to the crime of killing our herdi Straho say that Ailneas had received a re* 

Df oau property ; do you prepare sponse from an Oracle, foreteUing that be- 

irv afainst ua, and U drive ut from fore he came to a settlement in Italy, k 

■mJ lealnn, who have done you no should be reduced to the nocessity of eatin| 

hani, and ara in erery respect in- his trenchers, mentat. Varro m.\a V\« i%- 

ceived it from the Oncle of Dodoiui ukli^ik- 



Dixii : el in sylvani pennis ablata refugiL 
At sociis subitA gelidus formidine sanguia 
860. Earum animi oe- Dirigiiit : cecidere animi : nec jam ampliiks anoi 
ddfiT^: necjaniampliai g^ ^^^jg precibusque juDent exposcere pacem, 

annif.8ed Totia ^*^® Deae, seu sint dirae obscoenieque volucrea/ 

At pater Anchises, passis de litore palmis, 
Nuinina magna vocat, meritoaque indicit lionorei 
865. InquU : O DU Di, prohibete minas ; D!, talem avertite casum, 
prohibete has minM • Et placidi servate pios. Tum litore funem 
*•*** Diripere, excussosque jubet laxare rudentes. 

Tendunt vela Noti : ferimur spumantibus undi 
Q\ih cursum ventusque gubematorque vocabant. 
Jam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthos, 
Dulichiumquc, Sameque, et Neritos ardua saxk. 
874. rrimboi^ cacumi. Effugimus scopulos Ithac», Laertia regna, 
aa mmitii Leucata aj>e- ^^ terram altricem s«vi exsecramur Ulyssei. 
rhmiur eotupeetui Mox et Leucatffi nimbosa cacumina montis, 


rai. Virgil puti it in the mouth of the in ■ailini; from the Strtfhadet to 

Harpjfia^ as being both suitable to their Fluetu : in the Bense oi maru 

nature, and niore apt to raise Burpriso, when 271. Duiiehium, Thia ialand 

coming from them. This prophccy receiv- mouth of the SinuM CorinikiaeuM^ 

•d ita fulfihi«ent in the foUowing manner. of the Eehinadet. Hodie^ Doliehm 

llaving arrived in Italy, and being dcstitute Samot: hodie^ Cephalonia. Tbi 

•fdishet, they were forced to eat their mcat fonned a part of the kingdom of 

or flesh upon large oval cakcs, inade of flour, 27:2. lUateet, iihaea waa a veij 

which thcy uscd for brcad. And after they rocky island, between Cephalom 

had eaten their flesh, they eotuumed l/ieir Iickium^ tho birth-place ot UlyaM 

eakes also; which they had uscd in ihe room hc is called ithaeui, On this ia 

of plate^ barren and rocky moimtaiiv, cali 

258. Pennis: in the sense of alis, Jlbla- Thc word issometimes applied ti 
ta : in thc seiise of sublata, t island. Seopuios ithaeeu This 

259. San^uis gelidus: tho blood chilled way of irony and contempt, in 
through suddon tear, grew thick, jcc. Their its rocks and barrcnness. He ad 
blood ccased to flow in its ordinary course; regna^ the realms of Laertes, h 
the hcart being unable to prupcl it to the ex- of that island, aiid the fatJicr of ^ 
treniities witli its usual forcc. 273. Exteramur terram: we c 

263- Palmis passit de litore : in tlie scnse land,the nursc (birth-place) of cn 

of palmis extmsis de tUore. 'i^hese words express very forcibl 

2^4. Maffna numina : ihe great gods. talion of so great an encmy to 1 
fim Gsor. i. 498. indicit: aiid appoints 274. Leucatet snontis : the cloi 

f roper bacriflces or oiTerings. of the mounlain Lucates. Leua 

2id5. Prohibtte: in the seiise o£ avertite, vcl Leueate^on islaud lying vei 

Casufy: calaniity — niisfortune. coast of .'iramanui, in Epirus. 

266 Placidi: in the sense of ;>/a«a/^ vel .^aura, It is said to have onc 

6cfii|gTti. Funem : the cable. nectod with the niain land. It tc 

267. Diripere : in tlie scnse of artUere. froin a famoiis white inountaii 

Soine copies have deripere : which is tho called Leueate^ (from a Greek * 

reading of lleyne. fving vhite^) lying at the southci 

Hudentes : in tlie scnse of funes, By of the island. It was supposed 

theso we arc probably to undcnsiaiid tliose virtue of curing despairing lovcr 

ropea, by the help ot which the i»ails wcre wor^t to cast themsclves frotii it i 

hoisted and (cpread — the maiu sheets. They .\niong those who mado the ej 

had alrtady weighed auchor : tlioy now let its virtues, was the celehrated p 

off the »hoctj« — they exteiided Uic sails, and phK who fell in love with Pitao 

IIm wind lilly thoni. flxcussos, Heync takes tul youth of Lesbos, 
Ikis in the MeiiKo of ctulutas. .\rcording to Strabo, ApoIIo 

870. Zacjfnthos, .\n island in the lonian ple on this rock, or niGuntain^ 

Ma.#«n the wcst of tiie Peio)»onne8Us: //c- a hunian vicum waa cast year 

dHttJitrMie. The aouth wincl waa necescw * «ea, a;:^ a sacrifice to thal god. 



jENKIS. LIB. ift. 

fcmcdatiH riatitis aperitur Apollo. f75 

Bbdc petiniUB fessi, et p.irva; succcdimus urbi« 
Anchora de pror& jacitur ; stant litore puppes. 

Erg6 insperatA tandem tellure potiti, 

LfOitramurque Jovi, votisquo incendimus aras . | 

Aetiaque lliacifl celebramus litora ludis. 280 

Etereent patrias oleo labente palsstras 

Niidati socii : juvat evasisso tot urbes 

Argolicas, mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostes. tse. Fi^u advetffki 

Intereli magnum Sol cirRumvoIvitur annum, poflUbus ttmpl' cljrpemn 

Et glacialifl hyems Aquilonibus asperat undas. 285 ^ ^T® ere, geitamen 

i iEre cavo clypeum, magni gestamen Abantis, "^*^™^^"!:.*^ :T 

«k . 1 • /• ^ no rem noe carmmt: 

■^OBtiwis adverau ngo, et rem carmme signo iEneae nupendj hM 

; •^Snecw hac de Danau victoribus arma, arma eapia 


^ this; or on aocount of tho roughness of 280. ^eiia litora, The poet here plainlj 

^I^ cout, he is called ApoUo formidatut alludee to the famoui pameB which Aufjrus- 

^•tflu .* Apollo dreaded bj sailon. The tue instituted on the promontory of Epirus, 

• ^ajiM of the god, put bj meton. for the in commemoration of his victory ovor An- 

f ^lUpia. /fimboea : some copies have um- thony and Cleopatra, in the year of Romo 

U "^"iiiii. 723. These were celebrated every fif^h 

*:"-• S76. Hume, This may refer to mount year. Hence, some have conjectured, that 

f^. ■■•iwlg, mentionod before. Or we may four years had now elapsed since iEneas 

^ppoM, with more probability, that ^noas left Troy. Virgil would make his prince 

**Btmnnd his course hence to the Sintu believe that JEneas landed on this shoro« 

^mkrmeiWt where there was the small city and instituted these very games. 

^' ^wftmctft, (afterwards enlarged by Augus- SSl. Exereeni patrias : they practise their 

; t^ and oaUed ^ieonolit^ in allusion to his country^s ezercises with the slippery oil. 

> . ^ietory,) and another temple of Apollo. The paleuira wss an ezercise, in which tho 

^ Iff wa niake this supposition, the hune may persons were nakod ; and, thav thev might 

^ ^fcr to this latter temple, or to the god to freo thcmselve the easier from the hands ot 

k Wlioin ii was dedicated. Near this place their antaffov i, they used to bcsmear their 

p^ Aagiutus afterwards obtained a complete bodies and arh^s with oil. It is also applied 

^ieUuy over the eombined forces of An- to all kinds of games or ezercises, such ao 

tJiOBy aad Cleopatra, qaeen of EgfypU wrestlinir, leapmg, &c. Also the placo 

^Vi tJiu vietory the poet alludea, with a where these ezercises are performed. 

>iow to comphment his prince. Here he 283. Ft^am : in the sense of eursumy vel 

loMdod, and performed those ffames, which iter. 

Angiistus ailerwards instituted, in comme- 284. Magnim annum : the sun coroplotee 

^orotion of his victoiy ; and celebrated (rolls round) a gnni year : a solar year of 

^m/ fiAh yeor. 12 months, as distinguished from a lunar 

ST7. PuppeM : in the sense of naves. Or year, which consists of 12 lunations, or 354 

Ift maj implv that the stems of his ships lay days. Cireumvolvitur^ is plainly in theseuso 

«gfound, while the prows were afloat. This of eireumvolvU, 

io Iho opinion of Dr. Trapp. 285. Hyenu atperai : the icy winter rough* 

978» intperaia : greatly desired, or lon^d ens. Undat : in the sense of mare. 

ftr* The prep. in^ m composition, oflen in- 286. Oetiamen, This word sigiiifiCM any 

eraoaeo the signification of the siniple word, covering — any thing woni or carried by a 

M weU as changes it to a contrary sense. person ; from the verb getio. Al antit. (t 

Tlie fivrmer I take to be the case here ; the is probable that Abat ■ was one of those 

■HBO ao valdi tperata. For aAer the manj Greeks, whom ^neas and his party slew 

daiiforBand perilsof his voyage, what could in tlie ni^t of the sack of Troy, stript of 

bo rtiore desirable, than to find a place tlieir armour, and szchongcd for their own. 

frimo ha could land in safety, aiid cnjoy Oetiamen, is put in appbsition with elypeum, 

iho hoqiitality of tho shore ? 287. Advertit pottibtu : the frouting door 

S7Q. LuMtramtir Jovi : in the sens^ of posts of the tomple. Figo : in the scnse of 

/oo». 'ineendimut arat voiu. tutpendo. Signo rem earmine: I declaro 

says, rtmuiauau arat vietimit, Fb- t:>e transactioii bj this vere e A nscriptton, 

hf ■uK ibo thing vowed— the victim. Hem: in the sense ot/aehm 


889. Tuxn juboo foctoj L.inqucre tum portus jubco, ct considere truifltrii 
J^<l**«w Certatini socii feriunt niare, el aiquora veminL 

Protinus acrias Pha^acuni absconilimus arcOf 
Litoraque Epiri legimus, portuque subimus 
Clmonio, ct cclsam Buthroti ascendimuB urbein. 
898. Peutus mcensum Hic incrcdibilis rcrum fama occupat auresi, 
ett miro Prianiiden llelenum Graias regnare per urbes, 

361. Tum fort^ An- Conjugio ^^'^acidje Pyrrhi sceptrisque potitum, 
dromache libabat cineri ^^ j^ Androniachcn iterum cessisse marito. 
Hectont solemnes da- ^, ' . . 
oes, et tristia dona, ante Obstupui : nnroque mcensum pectug amore 

urbem in lucoad undam Compellarc viruni, et casus cognoscere tantos« 
lalsi Simoentis, voca- Progredior portu, classes et litora linquens. 
oatquo Manes ad Hec- Solemnes tum forte dapes et tristia dona, 

IIirn^^n^sJl^r^L^^i^iri? Antc urbcm, in luco, falsi Simoentis ad undam, 
uianem sacraveral i vi- • ., , • • * i i ■»» t 1 

ridi cespite, et geminas Libabat cnien Andromache, Manesque vocabat 

•ras, eausam laclirymis. Ilcctoreum ad tumulum, viridl quem cespite inai 


889. TVanttrit : upon the benches or kingdom, and gava him Androi 
thwarts. Tney extended across the vessels marriage. 

from side to side : the rowers sat upon 295. Pria$niden: the mm of 

tkem. patronymic noun. 

890. Certatim: eagerly — striving to out- 296. ^aeida Pyrrki: of Pjrnl 
do one another. JEquora : the surface of sccndent of^aetu, He was kin| 
the sea, which they sweep with their oars. saly, and father of Peletu. JSSaa 
JEfUor: properly any plain or levol surface, name both of »4ehiUet and Pyrrk 
whether land or water. It is here used in jugio: in the sense of lurore. St 
ita appropriate sense. tbe sense of regno, 

291. Phaarum: of the Phsacian»-HM> 297. Andnmaehen eettiste: tbi 
eallcd from Phteaeia^ an island lying to the mache again had fallen to a husbi 
west of the promontory of Actium. Hodie^ own country. She was a Theba] 
Corfu, It was famoua for its orchards. by birth; but by marrying Hec 
Here Homer placed the gardens of Alcinous, became her country. Palrio wutr 
who was king of the island. AbMcondimut : scnso of Trojano marito, 

we hide the aerial towers, &c. we lose sight 298. Miro : in the sense of « 

of them. vehemmti. Amore : desire. 

292. Legimut Epiri : wo coast along the 299. Tantot eatut : so grcat evi 
shores of Epirus. Thls wos once a flourish- a wonderful change of fortune. 
ing kingdom, boundcd on the cast by 301. Tum forli libabat: then 
Achaia and Thcssaly ; on the north by Andromache was offering the ye 
Macedonia ; and on thc south and weRt by and moumful gifts to the ashes 
the lonian sea. It was dividcd into four &c. Among other funeral ceren 
principal parts; ^tolia^ Acarnania^ Thet- tho custom of pouring into, oi 
protia^ and Chaonia, In the last of which grave, blood and milk: becan 
was tho city Buthrotus or Ruihrotum. It thought that the (animte) souli 
was built upon a hill. Henco tho opithet am) fcd upon these, and partica 
eeltam, For atcendimut^ Hcinsius, and the blood. These constitutcd th( 
Heyne afler him, read aeccdimut. moumful gifls, which Andromael 

294. Ineredibilit fama rerum : an incrcdi- yearly to thc ashes oi ihadeofHi 

ble report of things. It was an incrcdible vcrse 66, supra. 

revolution of fortuno indeed, that a son of 302. Falti Simoit.tit: fictitioi 

Priam should reign in Epirus, and should This was a small rit er of Epirui 

be marriod to Andromache, the widow of Helcnus and Andromache gave tl 

hit brother, afler she had been the wife of Simoit^ aflcr a river of that nanif 

Pjrrhus, tliat very son of Achillcs, who It was not the real Simo'iB. UM 

•lew the venerable Priam in tlie most cruel sense of aquam. 

Buumer. Yet these things are not the mere 304. Inanem : ertipty — nol tha 

JnTention of the poet. Justin informs us, of Hector; but rtie m' memor 

that after the taking of Troy, Pyrrhus was Such a one wan called f nw i u w * 

monciM to Helenus, sharQd with him his tnanif. Theee ciibs, or oao«il 

iENEIS. UB. m. 261 

ninas, causam lachrymis, sacraverat araa. ^ 906 
'. ciHupexit venientem, et T.'oia cifctlim 
ameus vulit ; niagnis exterrita monstris, 
lit visu in medio : calor ossa reliquit : 

ir; et longo vix tandem tempore fatur : 900. Et tasdom rix 

e te fiicies, verus mibi nuntius affers, 310 fatur longo tempore f did 

DeA? vivisne ? aui, si lu alma recessit, 311. lUeaMit ^u 

T ubi est ? Dixit : lachr} ji^jique effudit, et omnem 
v'\i clamore locum. Vix paiwa furenti 
io, et rahs turbatus vocibus hisco : 
K|uidem, vitamque extrema pcr omnia duco. 315 
bita, nam vera vides. 

quis te casus dejectam coniuge tanto ^^5' ^^^^^^ 

it ? aut qu« digua satis fortuna reyisit ? JervM-no connubia Pjr- 

ris Andromachc, Pyrrhin' connubia scrvas ? rhk ? 



rj merelj, and erected to penonB 314. Subjicio : in the sense of re»pond€0» 

IB anotlMr place; or to Uiote who Hisco: I open my mouth in broxen, dis- 

i no burial, and whose relice could connected words. They were fow in num- 

foucd. The lame religrious regard ber, and intcrrupted by sighs and tcars. 

d to thesa ^cmu/t inayiet tt honorarii^ 315. Per omnia exlrema: through all pe- 

al tombs. f^iridi ceqfile : she made rils and distxera. Extremay here, is a sub. 

rmted) this tomb of green turf. Rueus says, per omnes mittrias, 

OtwunoM aras. Some will havo it, 316. Fera: true things* — realitic». 

B altar was for Hcctor, and tlie other 317. Qua casut : wiiat ovent liath Ihi- 

tjanaz, her son, whom ihe Greoks faJlcn thee, deprived of 80 great ahusbaiid^ 

leadlon^ from the tower of Troy. Conjuge^ hcrc, plainly meanH Heclor, her 

however, thiuk she erccted (conse- fornicr husband. Rueus interprets excipU 

boCh to Uector, it being custumary te^ by, mccesiU tibi ; and dejulam^ \ty pri' 

two altars to the Manes, especially vatam. 

oac, who were considered inferior 319. Servas eonnubia^ iic, These words 

8ae verse 63, supra. Causam : tho of iEucas would carry with ttiom a sevore 

9T incentive to her tears. They reproach, if Andromache had been the mis- 

. more finrcibly to her mind the rc- tr>*t»i of hcr uwn fortune. Catrou ohNcrves, 

Ni of her hasband, and renowed her that this Blavcry rendered her connexion 

grief. w'ith Pyrrhus excusablo ; yut she is confused 

Awimi : amased. It agrees with upon the occasion. casts her eyes upon the 

iMSlood. Exierriia monstris : asto- ground, and replics with a low voice. 

U tho migfaty prodigy, she fainted in not answering his question diroctly, but 

st of tha sighl. breaking out into a passionate exciaiiia- 

KhiBf thal iMppeaa, or is contrary to tion : Ofdix^ &c. The sense whioh Rusus 

laaij eonrM of things, may be callcd gives to the passage is plainly incorrrct He 

WL, Tho sight of her countrymcn interprets the words thus : O ^ndromaehe^ 

oiiespocted, so improbable, and so tenes-ne eonjugem Heetoris^ an Pj/rrhif 

I tho ordinafy course of events, that which will he : Andromache, are you wcd- 

it wall anouf h be called magnum ded to Hector, or to Pyrrhus ? which is ma- 

pn, nifestly absurd, especially afler what ^ncas 

Dirigtni : in the sense of dtfeeii. had said just before ; dejeetam tanto conjugt^ 

Labihir : she ialls. meaning that she was brought low by being 

yierm-ne faeies : doyou, areal form, deprived of so crrcat a buslMuid. Tiie con- 

moseeiiger, present yourself to me.' struction is as in the cido: w HectorV An* 

rou reaJly JEnoas, or are you his dromache wedded to Pyrrhus? which is not 

Milj.^ — are the things which I be- so much a qucstion, as an cxclaination of 

o and real, or are tney mere phan- surprise. That Hectoris Andromaehr. is to 

hux: in the sense of m/o. be conHtrued in this way, appears froin Jus- 

VmrtnH: to her grieving, or sorrow- tin, who givcs them the sauie honoralilc de- 

nmis properly signifies, being tranfi- signation. Lib. xvii. cap. 3. He tliere says, 

vith anj inordinate passion or af- tliat Pyrrhus gave the Kingdom of Epiru? to 

M love, sorrow, anger, &c. — g^iev- HelonuB, the son o^ Priam ; and aUo ^a.^a 

odetatriy Rnams saya, mct^eniL him (^indromaehtn HtcifMi\ HecUH''» >i<v. 


321. O Prianicia vir- Dejccit vultum, et <lemiss& voce locuta 
go, una fclix, ante aliM Q fciii yna ante alias Priamela virgo, 
^^ juaaa inon ad ii^^g^jicm ad tumulum Trojffi sub mcenibus altii, 

325. No8 vccts por «^ussa inori : quas sortitus non pertulit ullos, 
divena equora, patri& Noc victoris heri tctigit captiva cubile! 
iiicenB&, cnixffl scrvitio, Nos patrisL incens& divcrsa per squora vectae, 
tulimus faaius AchilloflB gtirpis Achillcffi fastus, juvenemque superbum 

So Ast Orestes, in- ^rvitio enixae tulimus : qui deinde secutus 
flammatus magno amore Ledaiiam Ilermionem, Laccdffimoniosque Hymeni 
conjugis crepUB H le, et Mc famulam famuloque Ileleno transmisit habcnd 
agitatus furiis scclenim, Ast illum, ereptaj magno inflanunatus amore 
Mcipit illum, nempe, Conjugis, et scelerum furiis agitatus, Orestes 


- droraaohe, who had becn his wife. Servat, cliildren. In this last sense, perl 

This is the usual reading : but Heyne ob- aro to take it hcre. For it is 8aid« 

■ervos that some copies have servai. This a son to Pyrrhus, called MoIomsus^ i 

renders tlie passage somewhat easier : does his namo to a part of Epirus. Sa 

Hector^s Andromache presorvo tho marriage over, undorstand it of labor tnd li 

of Pyrrhus ? — lu she joined in marriage with ncral : laboring in servitude. Rn 

Fyrrhus ? parientes in eaptivilate : bringing t 

320. Demista voce : in a low voice. dren in captivity. 

321. Priamna virgo: Polyzena, the 328. Hermionem, Hormione 
dau?hter of Priam and Hecuba. Achilles daughter of Menolaus, king of 1 
Ibll m love with her ; and being invited to Lacedemon, and Helen, the dai 
Troy by Priam for the purposo of celebra- Jupitor and Leda ; hence the adj. 
ting their nuptials, whilo in the temple of Ledoean. She was betrothed by ' 
ApoUo, where the maniago was to have to her cousin Orestes, in the absa 
been performod, he was killed by Paris with fathor, who, it seems, had promii 
an arrow. Achillcs, with his last brcath, Pyrrhus, whilo he was at Troy. 
conjurod his son Pyrrhus to roveuge his retum, he went to Sparta, and c 
dcath upon Priam^s iamily, and to iniinolato his spouse. This so enragnd Or 
Polyxcna at his tomb, whencvcr Troy he followed Pyrrhus to Dclphi, 
•hould bo taken. This accordingly ho did. wcnt to conRult the oraclo of A; 
Quinctilian quotcs this passage a.s an in- ccrning his future race, and tJiero 
■tance of VirgiPs talent at the pathbtic. In Hymtiutos: maniage — match: aJ» 
order, says ho, to show tho cxtreniity of 329. TransmisU : in the sense 
Andromacho*s misery, ho makes hor even vel Iradidit. Habendftm: to be 
envy thc fate of Polyxena, who, in tho cycs scsscd — enjoycd. 

of all the world bcsidos, was most wretchod 331. Conjugis: namely, Hermi 

and miserable. How wrctched llien must tatus furiis : hurried on by the 

Andromachc^s condition have been, if, his cnmes. Orestes, it is said, sh 

when compared to her, even Polyxona was thcr Clytemncstra, for aasisting 2 

happy ! Instit. Lib. vL cap. 3. Una : in procuring tlie death of his fatlier 

tho senso of sola. non. Afler which he is said to 

323. Qiiff non vertulil: who hath not haunted and tormented by the f 
bome any lots. The Grecian princos, aftcr rcmorse and stings of a guilty & 
the capture of Troy, cast lots among them- for inibruing his hands in his mot]] 
■elvcs for tho captivos. It is said he was acquittod bj tli 

324. A*ec captiva : nor as a captive, hath the Areooagas at Athens ; and. 
touched the bed of a victorious lord. This dcath ot Pyrrhus, ho married 
ia the calamity from which Andromache and added the kingdom of Spi 
declares Polyxena happy, in being delivered own hercditary doniinions. 

by death. The furies were three in nam! 

325. J^ot vceta: ir the sense of ego veeta, Tiriphone, and Megitra, After 1 

326. Fattus : acc. plu. pride — haughti- to tormont Orcstes, they received 
Mh. Stirpis AchUlect : Pyrrhus, the ofi*- of EumenideSy which implies b 
■pnng of Achilles. Some read/a«/Mm. and compassion. He built alem[ 

327. Enixa : a part. of tne verb enitor^ and offercd thcm sacrificoB. ^ 
■gneing with noi vecta^ above. It signifies rcpresentcd as holding a bumiii 
lo labor and toil with our hands in geno- one hand, and a whip in the o! 
ttJ t ^I*® the pain and labor of bearing stings and remorses of conecieiia 


NecnQn et Teucri sociA simul urbe firaimtar. 

lUos porticibus rex accipiebat in ampUt. 

Aulai in medio libabant pocula Bacchi, 

Impositis auro dapibus, paterasqve tenebtnti 
366. Jamque umu Jamque dies, alterque dies processit ; et aOTK 
diet, alterqne Vela vocant, tumidoque inflatur carbasua AiMlro. 

His vatem aggredior dictis, ac talia queao : 
360. Qaisentiinnmi- Trojugena, interpres Divdm, qui numina Phcebi, 
Qi. PhoDbi, qui §emiiM tri- Qui tripodas, Clarii lauros, qui sidera sentJB, 
podu, el lauroe Clarii ^t volucrum linguas, et pnepetb omina peniiflB, 
ApoUmu, qui moUu Fare, age (namque omnem cursum mihi pTOspm 

Relligio ; et cuncti suaserunt numine Divi 

Itallam petere, et terras tentare rep^^etas :. 
365. Harpyia Celno Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celmo 
•oU cuiit novam prodi^ Prodigium canit, et tristes denuntiat irai, 
'^^ Obflcoenamque famem) quie prima pericula nto ^ 


tnming, to eml>r«oe the piUare and threahnld of their fliffhL The former wae oa 

ef their houiee. gurium ; Uie obienration of which < 

354. ^ulai: for atUa. The gon. of the tedtheartoftheaif/^irejrthelatterw 
firat decleniiion was sometimes formed in .uspieium; the obeervation of wl 

* mi, See Grammar. Baceki: Bacchus, tlio stituted the art of the amyice f . 
MMd of wiue, by meton. put for wine itielf. Omina vreBpetu penntt : the om« 

Libabanl pocuia, It was customary at cnter- g^jf^ ^jng widelj extended wim 

tainmento, after the fint table or roune, to augurs were certain pereons, who p 

mtroduce wine, with a libation to the goda ; to foretell future events, principallj