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Full text of "Pulaski County, Virginia. A historic and descriptive sketch designed to show forth the natural advantages"










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Pulaski County 
Virginia. 



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"2.1.7 

AND DESCRIPTIVE 
SKETCH 






Designed to show forth the nat= 
ural advantages, resources and 
general adaptability of the 

Banner County 
of Southwest Virginia 



to agriculture, cattle raising, and 
also commercial and industrial 
enterprises. : -*. 



Published under the direction of the Committee in charge 

of the Pulaski County Exhibit at the Jamestown 

Exposition held at Norfolk, Va. ( 1907. 



SOUTHWEST PUBLISHING COMPANY. I 

Pulaski, Virginia. 



PULASKI COUNTY. 



Description and Early History. 

U L A S K I CO UN T Y is situated in the 
Southwestern portion of the State of Virginia. 
It is of a rhcmboidal shape, about 20 by 21 
miles, and has an area of a little over 400 
square miles. Its principal boundaries, are 
New River, Little River, and outlying ranges of the 
Alleghany Mountains. Its lands are almost entirely 
of a limestone formation, the county being situated 
upon the same vein of limestone which, starting from 
Niagara Falls, runs through the most fertile portion: 
of Pennsylvania and through the famous Shenandoah 
Valley in Virginia, everywhere making rich lands 
with an inexhaustible sod of the finest of bluegrass, 
upon which are fattened beef cattle unsurpassed any- 
where in the world. 

The county is distant 3C0 miles from Norfolk, 250*' 
from Richmond, 100 from Lynchburg, and 50 from 
Roanoke. It was named for the Polish Count Pulaski,, 
of Revolutionary fame, and was created from portions 
of the counties of Montgomery and Wythe by an Act 
of the General Assembly of Virginia passed March 30, 
1839. 

The boundaries of the county which remain sub- 
stantially the same today — are thus set forth in the 
Act: 

"Beginning at a line dividing the county of Giles 
from Montgomery on New River, thence with said 
line to the head of a hollow above Hiram Davis', on 
Little Walkers Creek; thence to a point on the main 
road between the lands of John T. Sayers and Harvey 



4 Pulaski County 

Shepherd, including the plantation of David G. Shep- 
herd; thence to the mouth of Pine Run on New 
River; thence to the Grayson county line, including 
Sally King's plantation on Reed Island; thence with 
the Grayson line to the Floyd line, and with the same 
to the mouth of Indian Creek on Little River, and 
with the same, including the farm of Creed Taylor, to 
New River, and with the same to the beginning. ' ' 

John Gardner of the county of Montgomery, Cyrus 
Adams of the county of Wythe and Levi Vermillion 
of the new county of Pulaski, were appointed by the 
Act Commissioners to run and mark the lines between 
the counties of Montgomery and Pulaski on the one 
side, and the counties of Wythe and Pulaski on the 
other, the report of the proceedings of said Commis- 
sioners to be recorded in the Clerk's offices of the 
counties of Montgomery, Wythe and Pulaski, respect- 
ively, ' ' and in all controversies which may hereafter 
arise, touching said lines, shall be conclusive evi- 
dence. ' ' 

William Campbell of the county of Bedford, Samuel 
Hale of the county of Franklin, Samuel McCamant of 
the county of Grayson, Albert G. Pendleton of the 
county of Giles and Joseph W. Davis of the county of 
Smyth, were appointed a Commission who, or a major- 
ity of whom, should ascertain ' ' the most proper place 
for holding courts and erecting public buildings for 
the said county of Pulaski. ' ' 

These Commissioners filed a unanimous report in 
favor of the town of Newbern as the county seat of 
Pulaski county, and selected for the site of the court 
house and jail a certain lot belonging to James Lane, 
together with a portion of a lot owned by John N. 
Bosang. The Bosang lot was given to the county, 
and Michael Jordan paid Lane $600 for his lot and 
gave it to the county. 

Subsequently, in the year 1840, upon petition of a 
number of citizens, the General Assembly of Virginia 
passed a special act allowing the citizens of Pulaski 
county to vote upon the question whether the pub- 



Pulaski County 5 

lie buildings should be placed upon the site selected 
by the Commissioners or should be erected upon a 
plot of ground consisting of a lot belonging to Thomas 
Cloyd and a part of the lands of Henry Hance. The 
election resulted in favor of the latter site; the court 
house and jail were erected thereon, and the County 
Court laid a levy and repaid Michael Jordan the $600 
paid by him for the Lane lot and said Jordan con- 
veyed said lot to the Justices for the benefit of the 
county. 

In 1893 the site of the court house and jail was, 
by popular vote, removed from Newbern to the town 
of Pulaski. Here an elegant and commodious court 
house, constructed of Peak Creek sandstone and fit- 
ted up in handsome style, affords every comfort and 
facility for the transaction of public business. A jail 
and jailer's residence are situated on the same street 
but at a distance of several blocks from the com t 
house. 

The First County Court. 

The first County Court for Pulaski was held at the 
residence of James Tiffaney, in Newbern, on the 10th 
day of May, 1839. It was composed of the following 
justices of the peace ( the latter word in numerous 
instances upon the records of that early day being 
spelled "piece"): John M. C. Taylor, John Hoge, 
James Hoge, Samuel Shields, Randolph Fugate, John 
G. Cecil, Henry Wysor, James Crockett, John Calfee, 
George R. C. Floyd, Joseph Cloyd, Samuel Calfee, 
David G Shepherd, Joseph H. Howe, David T. Mar- 
tin, and David F. Kent. 

William B. Charlton was the first clerk of the 
county, with Lynch A. Currin as deputy. Samuel 
Shields was appointed sheriff by Governor David 
Campbell, his commission being dated May 17, 1839, 
to take effect June 6, 1839, he to continue in office 
until the first quarterly court in 1840. He executed 
three bonds, each in the penalty of $30,000, the sheriff 
at that time performing the duties of treasurer. In 



6 



Pulaski County 



one of his bonds there is a quaint echo of the former 
times when tobacco was used as a substitute for 
money, for he is required ' ' well and duly to pay and 
satisfy all sums of money, and tobacco by him re- 
ceived by virtue of such process, ' ' etc. 

At the first term of the County Court Andrew Boyd 
and James M. Henderson were appointed constables 
for the whole county. At the ensuing June term the 
court divided the county into four districts, and con- 
stables were appointed for these districts as follows; 



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Pulaski County Court House. 

Jas. M. Henderson for the first district, Russell H. 
Cecil for the second, Gordon Dobbins for the third, 
and William R. Fugate for the fourth. 

Pulaski county has always been noted for the law 
abiding character of its cit'zer.s, and the early crim- 
inal business was confined almost entirely to breaches 
of the peace, it being then the custcm for men to 
meet on the court green and settle their differences 
with only the weapons furnished them by nature. 



P ulaski County 7 

The first criminal business of the county was all of 
this kind, there being seven cases. Three were tried 
by jury and found ''not guilty;" three (it is pre- 
sumed they were the other parties to the fisticuffs) 
confessed and were fined by the court $1.00 and 
costs; one man of the peculiar name of Seacat was 
bound over to the peace at the suit of James Lane. 

The act creating the county of Pulaski attached it 
to the same judicial circuit with with the county of 
Montgomery. Judge James E. Brown held the first 
term of the Circuit Superior Court of law and Chan- 
cery for Pulaski. His first order was a decree in 
vacation granting an injunction. 

At present there are no County Courts. There are 
four terms annually of the Circuit Court for Pulaski 
county, which is in the 21st judicial district, with 
Honorable Robert C. Jackson as Judge. 

What has been said as to the law abiding disposi- 
tion of the citizens of Pulaski county is emphasized 
by the fact that during the year 1906 there were for 
the whole county only twenty indictments found. 
This is a remarkable showing for a county with a 
population of probably 17,000 and numbers of mines, 
furnaces, mills, and other public works. This happy 
condition is no doubt in large measures due to the 
fact that nowhere— not only in the State, but in the 
United States — is justice more strictly meted out to 
criminals than in Pulaski county. Pulaski juries, 
while fair to the innocent, are " strict to mark ini- 
quity," and evil-doers give the county a wide berth. 

The aphorism, "Happy is that people whose annals 
are brief," applies with peculiar force to this county. 
The people have lived quiet, frugal, industrious, and 
God-fearing lives, and there are few notable incidents 
in the history of the county. It has been the home 
of three governors of Virginia — Dr. John Floyd, his 
son, John B. Floyd, and J. Hoge Tyler. It furnished 
to the Confederate Armies four full companies, be- 
sides a number of soldiers who were in other com- 
mands, the total being about seven hundred. 



Pulaski County 



PULASKI IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



The Battle of CloycTs Farm. 

The battle of Cloyd' s Farm, which, in proportion 
to the numbers engaged, was one of the most san- 
guinary conflicts of the Civil War, was fought in 
Pulaski county on May 9, 1864. 

Some fourteen regiments of federal infantry and 
cavalry, under the command of (jr^-.ieral George Crook, 
came through on a raid from West Virginia, their 
object being to strike the railroad at Dublin in 
Pulaski county, destroy the Confederate stores col- 
lected there, and tear up the railroad and render it 
useless. 

To confront the Federal Army General Albert G. 
Jenkins had only the 36th, 45th and 53rd regiments 
of the Virginia Infantry; he had also three very effect- 
ive batteries. 

General Jenkins took up a position on high ground 
on the Cloyd farm, his batteries commanding the 
point where the turnpike crossed Cloyd' s Mountain. 
The Federals attempted to establish a battery in the 
road on the mountain, but their guns were speedily 
silenced. Their main force was then guided by a 
negro slave, by a path across the mountain at a point 
further east, thus bringing them to a position from 
which they could attack the right flank of the Con- 
federates. Their movements were almost entirely 
screened by heavy woods. By their superiority of 
numbers they were enabled to throw out troops who 
threatened to turn the right flank of the Confeder- 
ates and at the same time to make a direct attack 
in front on the Confederate line of battle. 

To meet this flanking movement, Confederate 
troops were transferred, two companies at a time, 
from the left to the right of the Confederate posi- 
tion. It was while conducting this movement that 
Lieutenant-Colonel Edward H. Harman, of thet 45h 



Pulaski County 9 

regiment was mortally wounded. General Jenkins 
was mortally wounded early in the action, and the 
command devolved upon Colonel John A. McCausland. 

The Federal assault in front was led by Colonel 
Rutherford B. Hayes, afterwards General and Presi- 
dent of the United States. He was at the time Col- 
onel of the 23rd Ohio Infantry, and was in command 
of the brigade that made the charge. Lieutenant 
William McKinley, afterwards Major and President 
of the United States, was in this charge. The first 
assault was repulsed and a second charge was made. 
In the meantime, a number of Federal troops, who 
had not yet been engaged in the battle began to flank 
the Confederate left, which had been greatly weak- 
ened by the withdrawal of troops to strengthen the 
right, and the Confederate forces were in danger of 
being entirely surrounded. Under these circum- 
stances, the second charge of the Federal troops, 
commanded by Colonel Hayes, proved entirely suc- 
cessful, the Confederates being routed. Company E, 
of the 23rd Ohio, under the leadership of Lieutenant 
McKinley, was the first to scramble over the Confed- 
erate fortifications and silence their guns. In an 
address upon President Hayes at Delaware, Ohio, in 
1893, Major McKinley spoke thus of the attack led by 
Colonel Hayes: "The advance across the meadow 
in full sight of the enemy and in range of their guns, 
through the creek and up over the ridge, was magnif- 
icently executed, and the hand to hand combat in the 
fort was as desperate as any during the war. Still 
another charge was made, and the enemy was driven 
back." 

The routed Confederates were saved from almost 
total capture or annihilation by a body of troopers 
from the command of General John Morgan, the 
General himself having been captured in the preced- 
ing summer. These troops arrived too late for the 
battle, but they took up a position across the turn- 
pike in a body of woods about a mile and a half north 
of Dublin, near New Dublin church. At this point 



1(F Pulaski County 

Morgan's men, although only about 500 in number, 
held the Federal forces in check for more than two 
hours and thereby saved the routed Confederate 
troops and also the town of Dublin, the main body of 
the Federals, after this check, turning off to the east 
in the direction of what is now Ingles' Ferry, but 
where there was then a wagon bridge. This bridge 
they burned, and the next day they destroyed the 
railroad bridge at New River Depot. 

Near the latter point the opposing forces engaged 
in an artillery duel in which the Confederates had 
rafeer the better of the argument, and General Crook 
then left the county by way of Pepper's Ferry, and 
went thence, with frequent encounters, to Staunton, 
Virginia. 



Pulaski County 11 



MUSTER ROLLS. 



Soldiers That Served in the Confederate 
Army From Pulaski County. 



Co. C, 4th Va. Vol. Infty.— Pulaski Guards. 

Names of the members of the Pulaski Guards, Com- 
pany C, 4th Virginia Infantry, Stonewall Brigade: 

James A. Walker, Captain, promoted to Major Gen- 
eral, dead; R. D. Gardner, First Lieutenant, promoted 
to Lieutenant-Colonel, dead; Thomas I. Boyd, Second 
Lieutenant, captured at Kernstown; Charles H. Keif- 
fer, color bearer, dead; George W. Morehead, Lieu- 
tenant, dead; Capt. J. N. Bosang, captured at Spott- 
sylvania; R. J. Glendy, First Lieutenant, killed at 
Gettysburg; William H. Bosang, Second Lieutenant, 
wounded second Manassas and Wytheville, dead; 
James F. Cecil, Third Lieutenant, wounded at first 
Manassas and in Wilderness, dead; J. B. Caddall, pro- 
moted to First Lieutenant, dead; J. P. Kelly, pro- 
moted to Second Lieutenant, H. H. Alexander, Orderly 
Sergeant; John Arnold, wounded first Manassas; Davis 
Akers, dead; C. H. Baxter; Thomas Baxter, dead; J. 
R. K. Bentley, dead; G. W. Bennett, dead; Andrew 
Boyd; William Boyd, killed at Chancellorsville; E. R. 
Boyd; C. H. Burton, dead; C. T. Burton, dead; G. 
W. Burton, killed at Cedar Creek; James Burton; 
killed at Franklin; James Boothe; James Black, killed 
at Chancellorsville; N. E. Brady; John A. Bosang, 
killed at the Wilderness. 

S. S. Caddall, promoted to Aide to General Walker, 
dead; John H. Caddall, dead; T. W. Caddall, dead; 
W. I. Carper, wounded first Manassas, dead; L. Cal- 
loway, dead; Witten Cecil, died in hospital; Thomas 
M. Cecil, wounded at Chancellorsville, Mitchell Cecil, 
dead; W. R. Cole, dead; David Conner, died in prison; 
T. I. Cox, Mexican soldier, dead; Fugate Clark, dead; 
George H. Chumbley; William A. Chumbley, wounded 



12 Pulaski County 

at Mine Run; Thomas C. Craig; James Crowell, killed 
first Manassas; D. C. Crowell; A. N. Crowell, wounded 
first Manasses; R. M. Crockett, dead; James Cofer, 
dead. 

J. B. Darst, dead; W. B. Darst; J. W. Darst, killed 
second Manassas; William S. Dawson, wounded first 
Manassas: Albert Davis, killed second Manassas; John 
S. Draper, dead; T. E. Durham, lost arm first Manas- 
sas; R. S. Dudley, lost arm at Gettysburg; Thomas 
Dudley, missing at Hagerstown; W. R. Dudley, dead; 
William Elkins, dead; W. G. Farris, dead; F. M. Far- 
mer, wounded first Manassas; J. D, Foote, wounded; 
William Frazier. 

William Gardner, dead; J. D. Graham, dead; Cal- 
vin Graham, killed; James R. Guthrie; Gibson; 

Thomas K. Hall; Fonrose Haney, killed at Kerns- 
town; W. E. Haney, died in prison, Elmira, N. Y. ; 
H. L. Haney, dead; T. P. Hammon, deserted; T. D. ; 
Hawkins; James Harris, dead; A. G. Haylton, killed 
second Manassas; G. W. Haylton, killed second Ma- 
nassas; Jesse Hinkle, killed Mine Run; T. L. Hines, 
dead; J. H. Hines; John Honaker, killed first Manas- 
sas; L. D. Howell, died at hospital; H. Hunter, killed 
at Cedar Creek; J. H. Hughes; Henry Irison, deserted. 

John Jamison, dead; H. A. Jamison, dead; E. S. 
Johnson dead. 

Ed. Kelly, dead; J. G. Kent, dead. 

William Lane, dead; J. D. Linkous; Wheeler Link- 
ous, dead; Robert Lorton, wounded first Manassas, 
dead; Thomas Lorton; John Lowman, died in hos- 
pital; R. F. Leedy; J. L. Lyon, G. A. W. Lyon, V. Lye, 
dead. 

William Mabe, W. S. Mathews, wounded first Ma- 
nassas; J. Midkiff, William J. Monroe, dead; John H. 
Newby, lost arm battle of Malvern Hill. 

Levi Odell, E. W. Odell; John Owens, dead. 

J. B. Painter, Whitfield Painter; J. D. Pollock, 
killed first Manassas; D. S. Pollock, -captured at 
Kernstown; W. L. Pugh, William Pool, dead; W. J. 
Price, J. W. Price; George T. Pratt, wounded. 



Pulaski County 13 

W. W. Raney, N. B. Raines; James Ranking, dead; 
Edward Ray; S. D. Ray, deac 1 ; James Rittrr, dead; 
Hiram Saunders, killed first Manass.cs; M. S. Soun- 
ders, at Soldier's Home, Richmond; James A. Saun- 
ders; Abner Sayers, killed at Getty sbun?; Jackson 
Silver, B. P. Stevens; D. S. Scantlin, Mexican soldier, 
dead; P. M. Sturtivant dead; James Sloan, killed at 
second Manassas; M. C. Stone, wounded at Chancel- 
lors ville and Gettysburg; George Snuffer, killed at 
Malvern Hill; H. Shufflebarger, dead. 

John Tabor, killed at Chancellorsville; Crawford 
Talley; W. B. Teaney, killed first Manassas; J. W. 
Teaney, killed at first Manassas; C. L. Teaney, 
wounded first Manassas; W. D. Thomas, killed first 
Manassas; T. J. Thompson, dead; P. Thornton, dead; 
James T. Trolinger, captured at Kernstown; E. S. 
Trinkle, dead. 

W. T. Vickers; J. W. Vickers, dead; Uriah Ver- 
million, dead. 

M. C. Wallace, dead; H. C. Wilson, dead; Amel 
Willis, died in hospital; S. Wimbush, dead; A. W. 
Williams, dead; R. E. Wright, dead; William Wright; 
John Wygal, dead; J. S. Wygal, J. B. Wygal; John 
Woolwine, killed first Manassas. 

J. W. Zirkel; S. C. Zirkel, wounded first Manassas. 

Co. E 24th Va. Vol. Infty. 

(Sketch by Major W. W. Bentley. i 

The second company that Pulaski county furnished 
for the Confederate armies in 1861 was made up by 
three young men only a few months from college — 
W. W. Bentley, W. M. Radford, and James R. Kent, 
Jr., who were elected to fill the offices of captain, 
first and second lieutenants in the order named and 
B. Gunn was elected third lieutenant. It is to be very 
much regretted that there is no roll to be found of 
the non-commissioned officers and men of this gal- 
lant band, who shed their blood on every battle field 
of the Army of Northern Virginia from Bull Run to 
Appomattox. 

After the organization was completed and services 



14 Pulaski County 

tendered the Governor, the company was ordered to 
Lynchburg where it was mustered into service and 
formed Company E, of the 24th Virginia Infantry; 
thence to Manassas Junction, rendezvous of the Con- 
federate Army in Northern Virginia, where the regi- 
ment formed the nucleus of Early's Brigade; partic- 
ipated in the battle of Bull Run on July 18th and in 
the battle of the 21st 

This company did special service in a skirmish near 
Mason's Mill and in sight of Washington, and was 
highly commended for its conduct; and again in front 
of our fortified line at Yorktown with three other 
companies in a night attack upon the enemy's picket 
line when General Early ordered its captain to take 
the battery in the rear of their line. At the battle of 
Williamsburg the losses were very heavy, and among 
the killed was Lieutenant W. M. Radford. General 
Hancock, of the Federal Army, said the 24th Virginia 
deserved the word " Immortal" on its banners for its 
heroic conduct in this battle. 

A few days before the battle of Seven Pines an 
order was sent to the regiment for a captain and two 
other officers and fifty men. The captain of this com- 
pany was selected and one or two of the other officers 
and a number of the men also from this company, 
and the next morning before day light they were in 
the enemy's camp, and the object of the reconnois- 
sance was accomplished. The battle of Seven Pines 
followed in a day or two, and the casualties were 
heavy, as they also were in the Seven Days battle that 
resulted in the rout of McCellan's army. 

After the Peninsular Campaign in the spring of 
1862 the regiment was transferred to the First Bri- 
gade in Pickett's Division and contributed its full 
share to the glory of that immortal command in the 
subsequent great battles of the war. In addition to 
the battles of the Army of Northern Virginia this 
First Brigade (Kemper's) was sent to North Carolina 
in the winter of 1863 and 1864 to check the incursions 
of the Yankees from the coast and was engaged in the 



Pulaski County 15 

siege and capture of Plymouth, where two or three 
thousand prisoners and a great many guns and stores 
of all kinds were taken. This strongly fortified p]ace 
was stormed in a night attack, and this company- 
together with several others, comprising one wing- of 
the regiment and commanded by its captain were the 
first to enter the stronghold of the enemy in the t'ace 
of infantry and artillery fire from a position well mgh 
impregnable. 

From this field the brigade was ordered to join the 
division in Virginia where active operations had com- 
menced, and was engaged in the very early morning- 
attack upon Butler's Command when he was ''bot- 
tled" in the junction of the James and Appomattox 
rivers. In this fight the company suffered terribly, 
losing about seventy-five per cent, of the number 
engaged, including Lieutenant Frederick Saunders, 
and four or five killed besides the mortally wounded. 
They were next ordered to Cold Harbor battlefield, 
and were engaged in the battle and skirmish that fol- 
lowed to the end of the war. 

Of all the officers the company had during the war 
only two survived, and both of them had been 
wounded several times. Lieutenant Gunn had been 
promoted to Captain and W. W. Bentley to Major and 
commander of the regiment the last year of the war. 
The company was admirably disciplined and made a 
splendid record. 

Co. I, 50th Va. Vol. Infty. 

This company was enlisted in Pulaski county and 
was regularly mustered into service at Newbern in. 
July, 1861. Captain S. H. Stone, who commanded it 
during its last years of service, furnishes the follow- 
ing partial roll and memoranda respecting it: 

Captain, Thomas Poage, afterward Colonel of the 
regiment and killed at the battle of Kelly's farm, Jan- 
uary 31, 1863; First Lieutenant, Stephen PL Stone, 
lost voice at Gettysburg, July 1863; Charles Lane, 
Second Lieutenant until time of re-organization;. 



16 Pulaski County 

Stephen Hurst, Third Lieutenant, served first year; 
Ephriam Dickens, captured at Fort Donelson Febru- 
ary 16, 1862; Albert Bridges, Second Sergeant; 
wounded in leg at at Fort Donelson February 15, 
1862; Charles Martin, killed at Fort Donelson Febru- 
ary 15, 1862; Johnson Warden, killed at Fort Donel- 
son February 15, 1892; Isaac Smith, wounded at Lew- 
isburg, West Virginia, May 1862; Alexander Smith; 
John 0. Smith, wounded and taken prisoner at Lew- 
isburg; Calvin Smith; Wesley Smith; John Smith, 
captured at the Wilderness May 5, 1864; Thomas 
Smith, David Smith, C. B. Smith; James Smith, died 
in prison in 1864; Asa Quesenberry; Ballard Quesen- 
berry; Calvin Quesenberry, killed at Chancellorsville 
May 3, 1863; Samuel Quesenberry, killed at Chancel- 
lorsville May 3, 1863; James Warden, Jr., killed at 
Chancellorsville May 3, 1863; Montgomery Quesen- 
berry; John Quesenberry, died in prison in 1864; Bal- 
lard W T illiams, died of small-pox in prison in 1864; Dan- 
iel Arnold, killed in action in the battle of the Wilder- 
ness May 5, 1864; William Sutton, wounded at Lewis- 
burg May 1862— wounded in several other engage- 
ments and finally killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 2. 1863;— John C. Sutton, William H. Songer, 
Isaac Griffith, captured and died in prison in 1864; 
John F. Hollingsworth, Peter A. C. Honaker; Charles 
Howery; Alvis Marshall, wounded and captured at 
Lewisburg May 1862; Stephen Moore, Stephen C. 
Nickols, John R. Ratcliffe, John G. Redpath, Zachar- 
iah Wright, Jesse Worrell, Joshua Worrell; Aaron 
Worrell, died in prison in 1864; Gordon Moore, died 
in prison in 1864; Crockett Moore, John Moore, Gor- 
don Bowden, Milton Nunn; James Calfee, died in 
prison in 1864; Benjamin Smith, died of disease at 
Blue Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, August 1861; 
Henderson Bell, died of disease at Sweet Sulphur 
Springs, West Virginia, September 1861; John Bell, 
taken prisoner at Spottsylvania Court House 1864, 
and died in prison; Thaddeus Hawthorne, died of dis- 
ease at Sweet Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, August 



Pulaski County 



17 



1861; Benjamin Duncan, John Duncan, Amos Galla- 
more, Preston Phillips, Wesley Lindsey, James Hay- 
maker; Evan Tipton, killed in action at Fort Donel- 
son February 15,1862; William Tipton, John Brown, 
Thomas Warden, Oscar Warden, James Warden; Wil- 
liam King, lost an arm in action in Shenandoah Val- 
ley in 1864; James King, Chester B. King; Russell 
King, captured at Spottsylvania Court House May 12, 
1864, and never returned; Chapman King, missing in 
action at Lewisburg and never afterward heard of; 




—Pulaski. 



William Galbreth, Ray burn Cofer, Aaron I. Morgan, 
discharged for disability at Narrows of New River, 
1862; Isham Puckett; Montgomery Mullen, taken pris- 
oner in the invasion of Pennsylvania and never after- 
ward heard of; Jackson Shufflebarger, wounded and 
left on the field of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3, 
1863; John Black, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863; 
William Burton, Jerome B. Davis, Thomas Simpkins, 
Sr., Thomas Simpkins, Jr., Joseph D. Simpkins, 



18 



Pulaski County 



Joseph Simpkins; Gabriel Simpkins, drummer; A. J. 
Clark, J. E. W. Lane, Alfred Lyon, Nathan Marshall, 
wounded and captured at Lewisburg, West Virginia, 
May 1862; Aaron Caudle, John Galbreth, discharged 
for disability; Mark Ashworth, discharged for disa- 
bility at Camp Jackson, Virginia, July 1861; Newton 
J. Morton, discharged for disability at Bowling 
Green, Kentucky, 1862; Jesss Nickols, wounded and 
captured at Lewisburg May 1862; William Mathews; 
Crockett Patton, killed at the battle of the Wilderness 




Residence of Hon. J. c. Wys 



Pulaski. 



May 5, 1864; William Hufford, wounded in the leg at 
Fort Donelson February 15, 1862; John Hufford, taken 
prisoner at Spottsylvania Court House and died in 
prison; Joseph Hufford, wounded in leg in 1865; Dan- 
iel Harlen, transferred to Company F, 54th Regi- 
ment, 1862; William Richardson, John Owen, Isaac 
Tipton, T. T. Fleager, Jacob Fleager, James Owen, 
captured at Kelly's Farm, Virginia, January 31, 1863, 
Jackson Lasley, Samuel Brookman, killed or captured 



Pulaski County 19 

and died in prison; Robert Brookman, killed or died 
in prison; Gustavus Brookman; Jeremiah Odell, 
wounded in thigh at FortDonelson February 15, 1862; 
Robert Odell, Sheffey Cooley, William Andrews, John 
Houchins, Jackson Peak, Stephen Bryson; James Bry- 
son, discharged for disability; John W. French; John 
French, discharged for disability; Russell Conley, dis- 
charged for disability; Joseph Conley, thigh broken 
at Lewisburg May 1862; Hugh Conley, Preston Snow, 
James Scott, Whitefield Monroe, died at Greenbrier 
White Sulphur Springs, October 1861; Rush Calfee, 
died of disease at Sweet Sulphur, West Virginia,. 
August 1861; Babe Goad, killed in action at Chancel- 
lors ville May 3, 1863; James Lorton, killed at Chan- 
cellorsville May 3, 1863; Ralph Elkins, wounded at 
Lewisburg May 1862; John Baxter, promoted to Ser- 
geant-Major, in 1862; Leander Quesenberry, Harvey 
Darmon, William Mabe, Beverly Griffith; Alexander 
Bryson, died at Chattanooga of injuries received on 

train; Willis, died on his way returning from 

prison in 1864; John Black (Dice) ; John Cook; Henry 
Cook ; , William Sayers. 

Co. F, 54th Va. Vol. Infty. 

List of names belonging to Company F, 54th Vir- 
ginia Regiment, Confederate States of America, from 
1861 to 1865. Some names are missing. This list was 
copied and revised by Captain Jacob Anderson, Wil- 
liam B. Cecil and Henry C. Wysor now living at Dub- 
lin, Va. 

Jacob Anderson, Captain 1864-65; Moses Akers, 
Dandridge Akers, Amos Akers, Third Lieutenant 
1861; J. C. Andrews, Frank A. Allison, Robert 
Andrews, M. S. Barger, Jasper Barger, W. A. Bar- 
row. James T. Beard, Third Sergeant; Gordon C. 
Black, J. F. Brown, William Brown, Abram Brown, 
E. C. Burton, G. S. Baskerville, D. F. Bailey, T. H. 
Crawford, First Sergeant 1862-65; J. H. Chinault, 
Corporal; G. W. Chumbley, Corporal; A. M. Chum- 
bley, W. B. Carper, L. S. Calfee, W. B. Cecil, First 



20 



Pulaski County 



Sergeant; S. W. Cecil, John N. Carnahan, N. J. Car- 
nahan, W. F. Carnahan, John Cofer, Joseph H. 
Cofer, Jacob Carper, James Chinault, A. E. Covey, 
Robert Craig, Corporal; J. H. C. Craig, Samuel Chin- 
ault, P. J. Clark, G. W. Clark, Pembroke Charlton, 
D. C. Charlton, J. H. Douthat, Third Lieutenant; B. 
W. Dodson, T. W. Dial, James Dial, W. A. Duncan, 
John Durman, David Durman, W. F. Eaton, Cap- 
tain 1862-64; J. G. Early, J. W. Farmer, Sergeant; 
Thomas Farmer, J. H. Fanner, Jerry Farmer, — Stew- 




Kesidence of k. E. Harman 



Pulaski. 



ard, William Farris, C. H. Farris. Valentine Fink, 
Stephen Fink, John Fieeman, Luke Fleeman, George P. 
French, John Frost, Lewis B. Gibbs, J. W. Gerbrich, 
George Goings, George R. Graveley. Decatur Grogg, 
Robert Harris, William Hannon, P. T. Haley, J. J. 
Haley, Daniel Harless, William F. Harris, Jno. H. Har- 
ris, Jesse T. Harris, F. M. Harless, William N. Hoge, 
0. F. Honaker, Abram Honaker, C. C. Hoy, Gabriel 
Hyton, — Howry, Henry Journell, James Journell, 



Pulaski County 



21 



William C. Journell, Anderson James, A. L. Jordan, 
Robert Johnson, W. J. Jordan, Captain, '61; C. I. Jor- 
dan, John T. Kelley, John H. Kibler, Jackson Kin- 
drick, Fleming King, J. P. Leslie, A. J. Leslie, J. H. 
Lefler, Isaac Lefler, Charles Lefler, J. R. Lloyd, G. 
W. Long, William Linkous, Matt Linkous, William 
McKinnon, M. J. Meredith, W. A. Meredith, John K. 
Miller, S. W. Miller, D. K. Miller, John Miller, Wil- 
liam Millirons, David Millirons, A. S. Morehead, B. 
F. Morehead, S. C. Morehead, R. G. Mullen, Austin 




Residence of H. L. Trolinger. — Pulaski. 
Mullen, J. N. McCoy, Perry Nunn, — Nester, F. A. 
Owen, D. M. F. Owen, Corporal; Joseph Owen, James 
A. Pratt, 3rd Lieut. ; R. H. E. Painter, Martin Payne, 
Jackson Payne, Chas. H. Pannill, B. F. Pannill, A. 
A. Phleger, Captain 1865; D. S. Phlegar, — Penn, 
F. S. Quesenberry, J. A. Quesenberry, F. F. Repass, 
Turner Ransom, Sergeant; Jackson Richman, D. S. 
Ritter, Birdine Ritter, James Rogers, Robert Rogers, 
Thomas Rogers, Harvey D. Ross, John Rcss, Booker 



22 



Pulaski County 



Richardson, James Sayers, William Sayers, Anderson 
Sayers, Henry S. Sifford, Samuel Sifford, Joseph 
Sifford, Hamilton Sifford, William Simpkins, — 
Simpkins, W. J. Shelburne, Second Lieutenant; 
Joseph Shelburne, Daniel Shelburne, John Shelburne, 
John Slusher, Solomon Sowers, F. M. Stone, Robert 
Scott, Solomon Scott, Samuel St. Clair, Gordon 
Sadler, W. R. Taylor, Joseph Tickle, J. W. Turner, 
T. B. Tatum, Peter Thornton, H. S. White, M. C. 
Walton, Samuel Walton, J. M. Wysor, Hen*y Wysor, 




KES1DENOBOF R. R. MOOKE. — Pulliski. 



H. L. Wysor, J. G. Wygal, Wilson White, William 
Ballard Calfee, Corporal; Jessee Brown, Henry Say- 
ers, Watson Turner, Samuel Wallace, Coleman Wal- 
lace, S. F. Moore. 



Pulaski County 23 



CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. 

(Compiled iiv GEN. JAMES MACGILL.) 

This report on the climate of Pulaski county is 
Ibased on a record that I have kept for the last thirty- 
seven years— from January 1870 to April 1907. The 
figures here given are the averages based on a daily 
record, which shows the temperature at 6 A. M., 12 
noon and 10 P. M., and it will be seen that Pulaski 
has an all-year-round climate that is hard to excel. 

During this entire period of thirty-seven years, I 
find only one morning that the mercury registered 
above the sixties and this was at 6 A. M., June 14th, 
1897, when it was 72. 

The thermometer from which my record is taken is 
located on the north side of the house, twelve feet 
away from same, and is never reached by the sun. 
Altitude 2400 feet above tidewater. 

The tables given below are for the period of thirty- 
seven years mentioned above. 

Average Range of Temperature. 

Winter months 
Spring " 
Summer " 
Autumn " 

Mean Temperatures for Each Month. 

January, 31; February, 30; March, 44J; April, 48; 
Mi/, 6 0; June, 62|; July, 69; August, 69; September, 
61; October, 51; November 43; December, 27|. 

The general mean temperature for the entire 
psriod was 51i. The lowest that the mercury has 
ever registered during the entire period was 13 below 
zero, this was January 13th, 1895. 

During the entire thirty-seven years we have had 
only sixty -three cays that the mercury registered at 
z ero or below. In 1885, 1893 and 1899 there were. 



in i mu ni 


Maximum 


Mem 


(i A. M. 


12 Keen 




27 


38 


33 


44J 


60 


50 


59 


77J 


64 


43 


60! 


51 



24 Pulaski County 

five such days in each year. In 1893 there were six 
days when the mercury went to zero and below. 

During twenty-eight of the thirty-seven years the 
mercury went to zero and below some of these for 
only one day and from that up to six days in 1896. 
There were nine years in this time when the mercury 
did not reach zero at all, 1902 and 1906 being among 
these. 

The highest point the mercury has ever reached 
during this period was 99 on July 12th, 1881. This 
was a very dry summer, when no rain fell from May 
until September. The next highest point was 93 on 
July 1st, 1887, but during the remaining thirty-five 
years there were only eight days in all, that the 
mercury reached 90 

Rain Fall. 

Though my notes show each day that we have had 
rain, sleet and snow in the thirty-seven years, I 
have not kept the number of inches of the rain fall, 
I therefore give the report of the U. S. Weather 
Bureau as taken at Wytheville Station, which was 
kindly given me by Mr. J. I. Wedmeyer, Observer in 
charge of the Wytheville Station, U. S. Weather 
Bureau. 

Rain fall for this section of Virginia. Average 
monthly rainfall in inches; January 3.03, February 
3.38, March 3.80, April 3.05, May 3.80, June 4.20, July 
3.73, August 4.51, September 3.39, October 2.74, 
November 2.21, December 2.77. Average annual 
rain fall 40.61 inches for thirty-six years. 



Pulaski County 



25 



COMPARATIVE STATISTICS. 



Some comparative statistics will be of interest as 
showing the early and present conditions, of the 
county. The statistics for the early history are in 
the main for the year 1850, as there is full informa- 
tion for that year in the proceedings of the Constitu- 
tional Convention which met in 1850. 

Total population in 1840, 3,739; in 1850, 5,114; in 
1890, 12,790; in 1900, 14,609. The population for the 
present year (1907) is estimated at the same ratio of 
increase, at 17,000, and probably exceeds that figure. 

REAL ESTATE. 



NATURE OF LAND 1850 


1906 


Number of acres 

Value exclusive of buildings 

Value of buildings 

Total assessed value land and bldgs 
Average assessed vulus per acre. . . 


180,916 00 

s-;:..;.im 00 

118,908 00 

898,0S9 00 

4 9G 


179,(104 00 

$1,266,110 00 

804,677 00 

1,570,7S7 00 

8 79 


■ 

LOTS 






Value exclusive of buildings 

Value of buildings 

Total value lots and buildings . . . 


s 6,575 00 
22,825 00 

29, 40 J 00 


% 1S1,S4100 
788,950 00 
920,791 00 


Aggregat? valua lands and lots . . 
Total State taxes assessed on same 


1 *f)27,489 00 $2,491,578 00 
983 87 I 8,721 91 ■ 



It should he remembered that in 1850 the rate of 
taxation on land was only 10 cents on $100; it should 
also be remembered that for the year 1906 the 
assessed valuation is not half the actual worth, and, 
besides that, all land-mountain, upland and valley- 
good, bad and indifferent— is included. As an exam- 
ple of the great value of the higher grades of land in 
Pulaski county, it may be noted that a fine farm of 
2,000 acres sold, in March, 1907, at a price that 
averaged $60 per acre for the entire tract. 

An inspection of the foregoing table will disclose a 



26 



Pulaski County 



striking^increase in the value of real estate in the 
county. 

The value of lands, exclusive of buildings, has 
increased more than 60 per cent. 

The value of buildings on lands has increased 
nearly 300 per cent. This indicates the very great 
increase of comfort in which the rural population now 
lives. 

The aggregate value of lands and buildings has 
increased 75 per cent. 

But the most remarkable increase is in the value of 
lots and of buildings on lots. 




Hotel Pulaski. 

The value of lots, exclusive of buildings, shows an 
actual increase of $175,266, or 2,665 per cent. 

The value of buildings on lots has increased $716,- 
125, or 3,138 per cent. 

The aggregate value of lots and buildings thereon 
has increased $331,391, or 3,032 p?r cent. 

Personal Property. 

t In 1850 the schedule of personal property subjec 
o taxation was brief and the rate in th2 main quitet 
smiU. Th) t)til ti; as^ssei in th3 CDJiby for the 
State purposes on real estate, personal property, and 
licenses for the year 1850 was $1,604.58. Of this sum 



Pulaski County 



27 



only $349.21 was assessed against personal property 
(not counting the tax on slaves, of whom those above 
12 years of age were assessed at 32 cents apiece). 

The rate of taxation on horses, mules etc. , was 10 
cents each; on watches — gold at $1.00, patent lever 
50 cents, others 25 cents; on clocks— brass or other 
metallic at 25 cents; all others 12J cents. The rate 
on all other taxed personal property was 1J per cent, 
on the value. 

The population was sparse, roads and public works 
and improvements were few, there was little done in 
the way of public education, and the objects which 
called for public revenue were not numerous. 

A comparison between the items of personal prop- 
erty taxed in 1850 and similar items for the year 1906 
will be of interest. The reports for the year 1850 do 
not give the values, but only the amount of tax 
assessed, so the values can not be stated for that 
year. 

PERSONAL PROPERTY, 



SUBJECT 



Horses, mules, etc. . 

Cattle 

Sheep • 

Hogs 

Coaches 

Carryalls 

Vehicles of all kinds 
Mechanic's tools . . 
Fanning implements 

Watches 

Clocks 

Sewing machines . . 
Pianos, etc 



JJI I J, 


I 


1830 


1905 


1,643 


2,274 


no tax 


7,813 


u 


13,099 


1 1 


4,787 


30 




20 






1,260 ! 


no tax 




100 


793 


270 


909 ; 




1,399 


4 


:;7i> 



VALUE 

1906 1850 



TAX 



190(3 



8118,740 

153,866 

32,899 

10,764 



si 64 30 



19,378 

17,550 
17,579 
5.173 
1,296 
10,568 
15,901 



53,63 

it; 72 



51 00 
50 50 

12 87 



S415 
538 

115 

87 



It will be observed from the foregoing table how 
very large in proportion to the population was the 
number of horses in 1850. There were in the county 
that year just a few over 800 white males above 16 
years of age, as the negroes did not then own horses, 
there were two horses for every white man and boy 
above the age of sixteen. 

It will also be observed how very much higher was 



28 



Pulaski County 



the tax on watches and clocks in 1850; and that 30 
coaches and 20 carryalls paid more tax in 1850 than 
1260 vehicles of all kinds in 1906. 

The total amount of personal property, tangible 
and intangible, assessed for the year 1906 was $958,- 
495. 

Total Taxes and Rate. 

The total assessed value of real estate for the same 
year was $2,491,578. 

Total assessed valuation of all taxables in the 
county, real and personal for 1906, $3,450,073. 

On this sum there is a gross State tax of $12,- 




Maple Shade I xx.— Pulaski. 

129,16, of which four-sevenths is for the support of 
the State government, two-sevenths for public 
schools, and one-seventh for pensions for disabled 
Confederate soldiers. 

There is also a State capitation tax assessed on all 
males over twenty-one, which amounted in 1906 to 
$4,251. Its payment is a pre-requisite to voting. 



Pulaski County 29 

The total county and district levies for the year 
1906, amounted to $42,130.33. This includes a road 
capitation tax of $1100, the residue being laid on real 
and personal property. 

The county levies were appropriated as follows: 
For county purposes, $12,553.15; for public schools, 
$15,058.90; for roads and bridges, $14,518.28. The 
total taxes and levies, state, county and district, 
aggregated a grand total of $58,500.49. (This is 
exclusive of license taxes. ) 

Under an assessment made by the State Corpora- 








Trolinger-Price Hardware Co. — Pulaski. 

tion Commission, transportation and transmission 
companies pay county and district levies amounting 
to $7,156.26. This is not included in the amount of 
$58,500.49 above. 

The State taxes are assessed at a uniform rate of 
35 cents on the $100, and the county levy at the rate 
of 30 cents on the $100. The rates of district levies 
vary slightly, but the average district and county 
levies amount to about $1.10 on the $100. This makes 
the average total rate of taxation $1.45 on the $100. 



30 Pulaski County 



LEGAL AFFAIRS, 



With regard to legal affairs Pulaski county has 
never been a litigious community. In its earner his- 
tory there was an almost incredibly small amount of 
business transacted in the Circuit Court. 

The records for the years 1841 to 1849, inclusive, 
(with the exception of the year 1845, for which the 
clerk made no report) show that during nine years 
the court was in session only 58 days; there were only 
13 criminal cases tried, only 39 final chancery decrees 
entered, and only 76 judgments rendered in law cases. 
There being two terms of the court each year, this 
made the average session of court only three days 
with not quite one criminal case and a little more than 
two chancery and four law cases tried at each term. 
No wonder that the clerk time and again, in the 
remarks appended to his reports, used the expressive 
language "Poor pay." 

Of course the County Court, composed of the jus- 
tices of the peace, tried the minor criminal offenses 
and small civil cases; but the business was so slight 
that, for the year ending September 30, 1850, the 
charges for supporting criminals confined in jail 
amounted to $11.85. 

This non-litigious character is still dominant. The 
Circuit Court is now the sole judicial tribunal. It has 
four terms annually, but its four sessions do not total 
on an average more than forty days each year. At 
the end of the year 1906 there were pending on the 
docket 10 indictments, 44 law cases, and 153 chancery 
causes, and a very small proportion of the cases were 
to be litigated. 

With every advantage of soil and climate, with vast 
amounts of undeveloped wealth, with resources well- 
nigh inexhaustible, with diversified, industries, with 
abundant facilities for transportation, with an indus- 
trious, peaceable, and law-abiding population, the 
history of Pulaski county discloses the fact that it. 
offers a most attractive field for home-seekers and 
prospective investors. 




S3 r 






Pulaski County 33 

AGRICULTURAL FEATURES OF 
PULASKI COUNTY 

The settlement of the scope of territory in which 
Pulaski is situated, was considerably delayed by 
what is known as " Boquet's Treaty," which was 
negotiated between England and France at the time 
of the French and Indian Wars. By one article of 
this treaty there were to be no English settlements 
made upon the Ohio River and its tributaries. As 
New River empties into the Ohio, this delayed settle- 
ments in the territory traversed by New River. 

About the year 1757, however, the land comprised 
in the county of Pulaski began to be settled. 

The majority of the settlers were Scotch-Irish 
people who came up the Valley of Virginia. They 
found here a beautiful country of high table land 
traversed here and there by lovely streams of spark- 
ling limestone water. The creek bottoms were cov- 
ered with a growth of small bushes, averaging about 
eight feet in height. Wherever the timber was not 
too thick there was a luxuriant growth of naturaY 
grass of the finest quality. 

The long distance from market, the absence of any 
means of transportation other than by wagons, 
through an almost trackless wilderness, made it impos- 
sible to market grain from this country in early days. 
This difficulty, together with the natural adaptability 
of the country to the production of grass of a supe- 
rior quality and the innate love of stock in the Scotch- 
Irish inhabitants conspired to make this a live stock 
producing country. 

The demand for meat and butter in the only mar- 
ket then in reach, gradually made cattle and hogs 
the leading stock produced. Early in its history, 
this county made a reputation second to no county in 
the State for its fine cattle. This reputation it has 
held until the present time. 



34 Pulaski County 

Cattle. 

The county of Pulaski produces about 2500 export 
cattle annually, and 3000 for the markets of the 
United States. The cattle of this county have a rep- 
utation in the markets of America and England 
which might well be envied by any county. Our 
greatest advantage as a beef producing section exists 
in the fact that the beef is made almost entirely 




A Buncb of Thoroughbred Polled Angus Cattle Owned by 
J. R. K. Bell.— Pulaski County. 

upon grass, which is tiue of few other beef countries. 
We are, therefore, exempt ficm the very heavy 
and expensive grain feeding in both winter and sum- 
mer, necessarily practiced in other export cattle pro- 
ducing sections. The quality of beef produced here 
has'; held its place at the tcp of the markets of Amer- 
ica. In 1S78 it was the privilege of the writer to 



36 



Pulaski County 



take to England one of the first cargoes of cattle 
exported from the United States. This cargo was 
made up entirely of Pulaski cattle. At that time 
American cattle were sold in the open markets of 
London and Liverpool, and were not subjected to the 
restriction now put upon American cattle. The 
butchers who bought this cargo of cattle told me that 
after being butchered, a large per cent of the beef 




A Bunch of Yearling Shorthorns. — Pulaski County. 

would be sold as Irish heifer beef, which was then, 
and is still considered the best quality of beef on 
the English market 

Pulaski County, for many years, has been a leader 
in the production of thoroughbred cattle. In Ante- 
Bellum days, when the short horns outstripped all 
other beef breeds, this county held its own, producing 
some of the finest specimens of that breed in Amer- 



38 Pulaski County 

ica. The work was then carried on by J. — . Sayers, 
Major Joseph Cloyd. General James Hoge, D. C. 
Kent, James Cloyd and others. Since the war this 
work has been ably carried forward with equal credit 
by Major W. W. Bentley, Ex-Governor J. H. Tyler, 
N. P. Oglesby, and others. Some of the finest show 
animals of America, claimed this county as their 
home. Polled Angus cattle are now being success- 



r 




wm 


& ' 






**-;■_ : ■•' 




|B^j^' 




L'lWHBr 4 V- *;,'■ 


Hr^^^^^ 
































1 








p->X*MttttJ 






^Pjtdl(||Kfl^!V^RBjRHfl^HH 








« ^ftpB5fWsW^**^Sl HfeL *" ■ ' 






3B&& 


- 


"v. . 




. 


"■■/* ' 


, 


fM$&. 


■ ,.-. v- 





Thoroughbred Polled Angus Bull Weighing 1800 lbs. Owned by 
J. R. K. Bell.— Pulaski County. 

fully bred by J. R. K. Bell. This breed is finding 
ready sale in other states, as well as in our own, 
which fact speaks for itself as to the value of Mr. 
Bell's work. 

The Herefords have their admirers here also. 
H. B. Howe has, in recent years, brought to this 
c ounty representatives of the best herds this side of 
^he Atlantic, and rich reward seems in store for his 
jabor 



40 



Pulaski County 



Dairying. 

Practically nothing has been done here in dairying; 
certainly not in a commercial way. The sun does 
not shine upon a country naturally better adapted to 
this occupation. The rolling land with its beautiful 
carpet of the finest of grasses, free from onion, 
garlic and other noxious weeds; shady groves, abun- 
dant supplies of the finest spring water, a climate 
exempt from the extremes of cold in winter; cool 




Cattle on the Farm of J. H. K. Bell.— Pulaski Connty. 

nights in summer, never the extreme heat in the day; 
close proximity and efficient railroad communications 
with the best markets for dairy products, either 
south, north or east; all of these things conspire to 
make this an ideal dairy section that the world cannot 
surpass. Some time in the near future, when the 
farms are subdivided and the areas are smaller, this 



42 



Pulaski County 



branch of agriculture will take its natural place, and 
will easily rank first in importance in the county. 

Wheat. 

While wheat is, in a sense, a by-product here, by 
reason of the fact that it is raised rather as.a'nurse 
crop for grass than as a money crop. Still, the 
county shows up well as compared with other sec- 
tions where much more careful attention is bestowed 




Thoroughbred Hereford Bui 
H. B. Howe- 



and Lincoln Sheep Owned by 
■Pulaski ('ountv. 



upon its production. The average yield is from 12 to 
15 bushels per acre, while many crops run as high as 
25 bushels per acre. The quality of the wheat here 
is extra good, as the millers are always willing to 
pay an advance over the market as an inducement to 
get it, claiming for Pulaski wheat that it is harder 



44 



Pulaski County 



and will make a better yield of first grade flour 
can be gotten from wheat raised elsewhere. 

Corn. 



than 



While this is not a corn country in the usual accep- 
tation of the term, as it is not raised here for market 
except in a small way, still quite a large acreage is 
devoted to its culture. The crop is mainly fed to 
cattle, horses and hogs. The quality is unusually 




A Bunch of Export Cattle 

good for both bread and feed. The average yield of 
the county for a term of years is about 35 to 40 
bushels of shelled corn per acre. Many crops reach 
the 70 to 80 bushel mark. 



Oats. 

This county is well adapted to 
oats. In years gone by, quite a 



the production of 
large acreage was 



46 Pulaski County 

devoted to its culture, but of late, not a great deal 
has been raised here. The range of quantity pro- 
duced is from 20 to 40 bushels per acre. 

Other Small Grains. 

Rye, buckwheat, sugar-cane and millet are pro- 
duced in a small way as feed crops for stock. Their 
culture so far has been rather a side-line and of 
secondary consideration, and these crops have not re- 
ceived the care attention that their importance and 
value justifies. The good crops of these grains seen 
over the county indicate clearly the possibilities along 
this line with proper care and attention. 

Trucking. 

Successful ventures have, in the last few years, 
been made in trucking here by farmers adjacent to 
shipping points, the principal products being cab- 
bage, potatoes and melons. Though this industry is 
in i ts infancy yet, every indication points to its rapid 
enlargement in the near future. The short and 
quick transportation to the coal fields, which is a 
splendid market for such products, will likely make 
this a leading line of agriculture in this county. 

Hay. 

The production of hay has become quite an impor- 
tant factor in the agriculture of the county. The 
average yield is from lh to 2 tons per acre of fine 
marketable hay, which finds ready sale, and is in 
demand in the nearby coal fields of Virginia and West 
Virginia. This line of agriculture is destined to be 
largely increased in the near future. The yield will 
be much increased as more and better attention is 
bestowed upon its production. No agricultural pro- 
duction offers to the farmers of this county, better 
profit where proper care and attention is given to the 
land devoted to it. 

Poultry. 

Attention has been given to poultry raising in the 



48 Pulaski County 

last few years. Many persons in the county have 
done quite a handsome business on improved domestic 
fowls. Turkeys are easily in the lead, and very fine 
ones are raised here. The shipments from the town 
of Dublin alone (in the fall and winter of 1906-7) 
amounted to the neat sum of $10,000. From the 
town of Pulaski about $15,000. And large ship- 
ments were made from other points in the county. 

Mutton and Lambs. 

The county of Pulaski has for years, enjoyed an 
enviable reputation both at home and abroad for her 
Spring lambs and mutton. There is none better made 
in the United States, and New York butchers claim 
that the world cannot beat Pulaski. The high, well- 
drained table lands, luxuriant bluegrass sod, and 
abundant streams of fine, fresh, spring water, make 
an ideal home for the production of the best mutton 
and lambs. All the mutton breeds are represented 
here. The county has, oftener than otherwise, 
topped the New York market for many years with 
her June lambs. It is not unusual to see car load 
after car load of lambs leave here before the 20th of 
June, averaging in weight from 90 to 100 pounds, 
perfectly ready and finished for the market. 

There is always strong competition among the 
buyers for the Pulaski lambs. sSo great is this com- 
petition that the lambs are all sold sometimes as 
much as two years before the time of delivery. This 
county puts upon the market annually 15,000 lambs, 
which bring from $3.00 to $6.00 per head, and about 
40,000 pounds of wool; also a large number of grown 
sheep find their way to the meat market. 
h In addition to this, there are a number of pure 
bred flocks, representing the different mutton breeds, 
whose offspring are sold as fancy sheep, at much 
higher prices than can be realized upon the market. 

Hogs. 

Hogs thrive well here, and are cheaply made as 



50 



Pulaski Ccunty 



compared with ota?r places. Most farmers are able 
to market two lots per year; one in the Spring, made 
principally from the waste of cattb in the winter 
feed lets; the second coming from the fattening 
pens in the fall. The county produces about 7,000 
hogs per year. 

For years, the county has been remarkably free 
from any epidemic disease among hogs, which is 
always a menace to this business. 







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"Victoria" [mported Percheron Stallion Owned by a 
Company of Pulaski Fanners. 

Horses. 

There is no country known to the writer, better 
adapted to horse raising than Pulaski county. 

The' rich grass grown on limestone land, varying as 
it does'! frcm the low soft creek bottom land to the 
high hi Us with the limestone jutting out here and 



52 



Pulaski County 



there, give to the young horses fine development of 
every syscem of muscles. The rough and rocky places 
in the pastures make good, solid feet of fine shape, 
and go:d wearing quality. The bone is generally 
strong and flat. These youngsters accustomed to 
racing up and down the hills from their infancy, go 
into service well fortified against the strain of any 
reasonable demand that can b2 made upon them. 




Thoroughbred Percheron Stallion bred in Pulaski County 
Owned by J. R. K. Bell, Job Draper, and 

U.S. KlRBY. 

The climate, the nature of the grass, the lay of the 
land, the abundance of fresh limestone water, all 
tend to produce horses of fine style, good size, splen- 
did bone, elegant action, and above all, unsurpassed 
endurance. There is put upon the market annually, 
quite a large number of horses, representing almost 
every class, except, possibly, the thoroughbred run- 



54 



Pulaski County 



ning horses. In Ante-Bellum days some attention 
was paid to ra'sing racing horses, and at that period 
Pulaski county was frequently winner upon the race 
track. Since then, however, practically ;,no /attention 
has been given to the racers. Many fine saddle and 
harness horses are produced here, '.which ^find ready 
sale at remunerative prices in the Eastern markets. 
For the last half century, Pulaski's greatest and 





Pure Bred Percheron Mares Owned by D. M. Cloyd 
just iii from a hard day's work. 

most extended reputation in the horse business has 
been made and maintained by her heavy draft ani- 
mals. In the production of this class of horses, 
Pulaski can hardly be surpassed in America. 

This county seldom, if ever, gets the credit, but 
the facts bear out the assertion that Pulaski county 
was among the first in the United States, to begin 
thelbreeding of French Percheron horses. 



56 



Pulaski County 



Mr. Walters, of Baltimore, Md., and S. W. Ficklin, 
of Charlottesville, Va., made the first importation 
from the Perche in the summer of 1866. John S. 
Draper, of Drapers Valley, Pulaski county, intro- 
duced these horses into this county in the Spring of 
1867 by purchase from Mr, Ficklin. Following close 
upon this, Colonel Wm. T. Jordan, of Newbern, 
brought in other fine specimens of the breed. Later 




Old Galbreth Tavern.— Pulaski County.— Once a favorite 
stopping placa of President Andrew Jackson. 

on, Cloyd and Harman added new and fine specimens 
of the same breed. At the present time, several 
companies own as fine, pure bred Percheron horses 
as can be found on the American Continent. Nota- 
bly " Perfection," the property of Bell, Draper and 
Kirby. This horse was bred and raised in this 
county, and traces directly to Ficklin 's celebrated 
importation of 1836. 



58 Pulaski County 

Recently another company of farmers have brought 
into the county, "Victoria," the prize winner of 
two continents. The future of the Percheron horse 
business seems brighter than ever before. There 
are now some half dozen stables of pure bred Perch- 
erons, small in number, but unsurpassed in quality 
and breeding. For the last thirty years, Pulaski's 
heavy draft horses have been preferred to any others 
by Pennsylvania feeders and buyers. 

The county is often stripped of many fine horses 
that ought not to be allowed to leave, on account of 
the superior indue 3m en ts offered by Eastern and 
Northern buyers. These facts demonstrate how 
these horses are regarded by men who have handled 
them and know their value. 

There is no reason why, with proper care and 
attention to the business, Pulaski county should not 
become one of the largest producers of pure bred 
heavy draft horses on this continent. 

It is an admitted fact that this section of the coun- 
try possess advantages over any part of the West. 

Farming land when on the market ranges in price 
from $50.00 to $100.00 per acre, according to quality 
and location. 

The present inhabitants of this county are for the 
most part, the descendants of the Scotch- Irish 
pioneers, who first discovered this little gem in the 
mountains, and who here built their humble c abin 
houses, and here erected their alters. 

The land has descended from father to son until 
this, the sun-rise of the twentieth century 



60 Pulaski County 

MINERAL FEATURES AND 
RESOURCES. 

While a county that is primarily agricultural, 
Pulaski has its mountain section in which immense 
stores of mineral wealth are deposited and which are 
the basis of the chief industrial activity. 

In the county of Pulaski are Draper's Mountain in 
which are the valuable Clayton iron mines owned and 
operated by the Pulaski Iron Company, Max Mountain 
which contains many rich iron deposits, some of 
which are now being operated and others that lie 
awaiting the capital and enterprise necessary to 
development. And also within the county is Walker's 
or Cloyd's Mountain that is rich m both coal and iron 
ores. The coal deposits in this section being more 
accessible are new profitably operated by the Pulaski 
Anthracite Coal Company, the Belle Hampton Coal 
Mining Company, and the Bertha Mineral Company. 
The 'iron ores of this latter section are as yet 
untouched, but form one of the many reserves that 
shall contribute to the future development and 
prosperity of Pulaski. 

The adjoining counties of Wythe and Carroll are 
famous for their iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and 
lead deposits, and are directly tributary to Pulaski, 
being penetrated by th? N)rth Carolina extensions 
of the Norfolk and Western Railway, which makes 
its junction with the main line at Pulaski. And in 
addition may be mentioned the innumerable lime- 
stone quarries of this section and the proximity of 
the celebrated Pocahontas coal and coke region of 
Virginia and West Virginia, which lie within 100 
miles. 

The principal iron ore is of the brown hematite 
class and is associated in at least four well recognized 
belts extending in a general northeast and southwest 
direction. The ores of this zone are of an exception- 



62 Pulaski County 

ally good quality, rich in metallic iron, showing an 
analysis of from 43 to 60 per cent. , are low in phos- 
phorus, comparatively free from silicious matter, and 
with a generally open cellular structure. 

Thus, the occurrence here of a first-class and 
cheaply mined ore, the nearness of a magnificent 
coking field, with limestone everywhere, with a con- 
stant supply of water, surrounded by a fertile agri- 
cultural and grazing country capable of supporting 
a large population and with numerous sites for manu- 
facturing and industrial purposes, the region of 
which Pulaski is the center, offers unusual advantages 
for the investment of capital. 



TIMBER RESOURCES. 

While great ravages have been made upon the 
primitive forests of Southwest Virginia in the last 
few years, there still remains a large amount of 
timber in the mountains and valleys, for which 
Pulaski affords a natural outlet. 

Although poplar was once abundant, the great de- 
mand in past years has led to its rapid disappearance 
but there is still a bountiful supply of oak, white pine 
and spruce that is easily accesssble for manufactur- 
ing purposes. 

The great Wilderness forest of Bland County con- 
tains millions of feet of the finest of oak and pine 
and is yet untouched. This timber product will 
naturally come to Pulaski when certain proposed 
roads are built. 

Max Mountain, near Pulaski, contains an immense 
quantity of white pine that is highly valuable for 
commercial purposes, and the recent extension by 
the Norfolk and Western Railway of its North Caro- 
lina branch has opened up large timber areas that 
can contribute to a manufacturing supply at this 
point. Likewise various tracts of more or less size 
all over this entire section will produce for years to 



64 



Pulaski County 



come a sufficient quantity of lumber to maintain 
many good working industries. 

The lumber industry of Southwest Virginia is one 
of large proportions, and Pulaski is so situated as to 
receive the product of an aggregate of 250 miles 
of railroad within a distance of fifty miles each way 
radiating from this point. 




L >gs R ;ady for Shipment, Scene at Draper Depot 
Pulaski ( 'oiuitv. 



\i 




66 Pulaski County 

INDUSTRIAL FEATURES AND 
POSSIBILITIES. 

As will be seen from the foregoing pages, while 
Pulaski is primarily an agricultural county, and has a 
soil of such character that it will easily raise suffici- 
ent products for a large population, there are also 
such other resources of various kinds that when 
developed will contribute to great industrial possibili- 
ties in this section. 

With the finest of iron ore, easily accessible, an 
abundant supply of timber in oak, white pine, spruce 
and other woods, with zinc, lead, copper and other 
metals besides the iron already mentioned, with the 
innumerable quarries of limestone, sandstone and 
other stones for both building and manufacturing 
purposes, with an intelligent and prosperous class of 
labor, and with all these a splendid farming section 
from which to draw at reasonable prices every neces- 
sity of life, it can be seen that Pulaski County is 
indeed a favored section for the establishment of 
many different kinds of industries, and is a field of 
commercial enterprise not to be excelled in the South. 

It is recognized that growing industries can only 
be carried on successfully and economically where 
the laborer can be supplied with his daily necessities 
at a moderate price, so that in developing any com- 
munity the agricultural, commercial and industrial 
interest must needs go hand in hand. And with a 
county so blessed by Nature as is Pulaski, it requires 
only the determined and intelligent development of 
its natural resources to make this county stand out in 
a class to itself before the world as the bright and 
particular star among the counties of Southwest Vir- 
ginia, whose future greatness in the industrial world 
will only be limited by the amount of intelligent 
energy which is expended on it. 

Already has considerable progress been made in 
the development of this section and in the last twen- 



68 Pulaski County 

ty-five years the population of the county has been 
practically doubled, and this section which a few years 
ago was only a farming country with here and there 
a few charcoal iron furnaces scattered about at long 
distances, is now well settled with a number of young 
but thriving industries that are but the beginning of 
what will be done when the required capital shall 
have been interested and directed with executive 
energy. 

Furnace Interests 

The principal industries of the county are located 
at Pulaski, the county seat of Pulaski county, a town 
of about 5,000 inhabitants. In 1879 the Altoona Coal 
& Iron Company built the Altoona Railroad to its 
coal mines in this county about nine miles from 
Pulaski. In 1880 the Bertha Zinc Company was or- 
ganized and built its first zinc furnaces. The pres- 
ent Bertha Mineral Compay is the successor of the 
Bertha Zinc Company, and this plant has been in 
continuous operation since its first organization and 
is today one of the most prosperous of its kind in the 
United States, giving employment to a large number 
of men at good wages. 

The Pulaski Iron Company is the pioneer in the pig 
iron production with the modern blast furnace in 
Southwest Virginia, having built its large furnace in 
1887 which has been in blast continuously ever since 
except for such brief periods as was necessary to shut 
down for repairs. 

The Pulaski Iron Company owns and operates 
mines at various places along the Cripple Creek 
branch of the Norfolk & Western as well as the Clay- 
ton mines within two miles of town. From these it 
receives a sufficient supply of ore to produce 150 tons 
of the finest pig iron per day. This company also 
operates its own coal and coking plant at Eckman, 
W. Va., from whence its necessary fuel is received. 

The Dora Furnace is a part of the Virginia Iron, 
Coal and Coke Company system and is one of its best 



70 Pulaski County 

and most productive furnaces, When many other 
iron furnaces throughout the country were idle the 
Dora Furnace at Pulaski was running at full blast. 
This plant was originally built in 1890 under the 
leadership of Geo. L. Carter and John W. Robinson 
but was bought and became an integral part of the 
Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company in 1899. 

The Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company also 
has a large and complete Foundry in connection with 
its Dora Furnace, where it does all the repair work 
for all of the coal mines, coking operations and all of 
of the furnaces of the entire system. The import- 
ance and magnitude of this foundry work can be ful- 
ly comprehended when it is known that it cares for 
all the work of this corporation which has a $10,000,- 
000 capitalization. 

The Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company also 
owns and operates at this place one of the best 
equipped flouring mills in the State which has rec- 
ently been enlarged and refitted with new and the 
most improved machinery. Its daily capacity is 150 
barrels of flour which is renowned for its excellence 
and purity. 

The latest acquisition to Pulaski's furnace interests 
bids fair to become one of the largest and most im- 
portant plants in this section. This is the Pulaski 
Mining Company, whose plant utilizes the sulphurous 
iron ore that is found in large quantities in Carroll 
County from which it manufactures sulphuric acic as 
its principal product and iron cinder as a valuable by- 
product. 

Already a large plant has been erected at a cost of 
several hundred thousand dollars and employment 
given to a large number of men. And this company 
has now begun to increase its plant and proposes to 
double its capacity at once and make still further en- 
largements later on. 

This is a new industry for this section and its rapid 
and permanent development is assured owing to the 
abundance of the class of ore used. 



72 Pulaski County 

Other Industries. 

In addition to the metal producing plants mentioned 
above, there are a number of other industries in the 
county including flouring mills, lumber and planing 
mills, coal mines and others that are just beginning 
to show the possibilities in these different branches 
of commercial activity. Chiefly among these are the 
Pulaski Roller Mills, the Dublin Roller Mills, the Peak 
Creek Roller Mills, located about four miles from 
Pulaski, and the roller mills of H. A. Sizer. All of 
these are equipped with modern machinery and pro- 
duce a high class of mill products. As has already 
been mentioned, the wheat raised in Pulaski County 
is eagerly sought by all millers, as it produces a 
quality of flour that is unsurpassed. 

In the business of producing lumber there are a 
number of sawmills located in this section, and from 
Pulaski, Dublin, Draper and Allkonia, all of which 
points are in this county, large shipments are made 
and the annual output runs up into the millions of 
feet. The one firm alone of J. A. Wilkinson, ship- 
ping from Dublin, has an output that reaches from 
five to six million feet a year. Located in Pulaski 
are the wood working plants of the Rumbarger 
Lumber Company and the Trolinger Lumber Com- 
pany, preparing for local and domestic markets the 
finished products of our forests; but the output of 
these industries is by no means adequate to the 
demands. 

Coal. 

Mention has already been made of the coal deposits 
that lie in the Northern section of the county in 
Cloyd's Mountain, and such development as has 
already been made show this to be an excellent 
quality of semi-anthracite, and the operations of the 
Pulaski Anthracite Coal Com r any and the Belle Hamp- 
ton Coal Company, which have lately been installed 
with up-to-date equipment-, demonstrate that this 
industry is yet in its infancy, and will eventually 



74 



Pulaski County 



become a large source of fuel supply. In addition to 
these operations there are sufficient other deposits 
and veins to indicate an abundant quantity of this 
coal to furnish, when properly developed fuel for both 
domestic and. manufacturing purposes. 

Stones and Clays, 

The deposits of limestone, sandstone, shale, clay 
and sand in this county are of excellent quality and 
in unlimited abundance. As building stones, the 




Partial View oi I'Uiaski iukv.ii from Western portion of town. 

limestone, sandstone, and others are of excellent na- 
ture, easily quarried, and susceptible of beautiful fin- 
ish. There are numerous buildings, including the coun- 
ty court-house in this county that attest the value 
and beauty of the Pulaski sandstone as a building 
stone. Up to this time but little effort has been 
made to develop this feature of our resources, but 
sufficient investigation has demonstrated that this is 
a field which only awaits the enterprising investor 



Pulaski County 75 

and will yield large return on the capital to put in it. 
In the manufacture of Portland cement, lime, red 
clay brick, and sandstone brick, there is in this 
county every advantage and opportunity to be desired 
as all of the necessary material is found in abundant 
quantity, and up to this time practically nothing has 
been done in this line al chough there is a large local 
demand, and in addition large demand from adjoin- 
ing sections for these products, and no section is more 
favorably situated for their economical manufacture. 

Needed Industries. 

In addition to the different classes of industry 
already mentioned, there is still nsaiad in this section 
factories and manufacturing plants that will work 
up into finished products the raw matertal and 
natural resources of the county, and among these 
are wood-working establishments that use oak, 
hickory, white pine, and a number of other kinds of 
wood that are found on the mountains of Southwest 
Virginia and all of which is within easy reach of 
Pulaski. And in view of the large amount of tan 
bark that is within reach of this point, it is an ideal 
location for a tannery, which is desired and which 
will be found profitable. 

An immense amount of wool is annually produced 
on the surrounding farms and with direct railroad 
connection with the cotton fields of the South, and 
with abundant natural power and a plentiful supply 
of labor for such class of manufacturing, Pulaski 
should be an excellent point for the location of cotton 
mills, woolen mills, knitting mills and other kindred 
industries. 

The location of metal working plants and such 
establishments as produce finished articles in iron, 
zinc and lead is sought for this county and the advan- 
tages mentioned above equally apply in this case also. 

Summary. 
In short there is every reason in the world why 
Pulaski should be looked upon most favorably when 



76 



Pulaski County 



the choice of a manufacturing location is to be con- 
sidered, for with the immense amount of raw 
material that lies at our very doors and an unlimited 
supply of natural power that only needs to be har- 
nessed by the ingenuity of man, and if steam power 
is desired, the proximity of the great Pocahontas 
coal fiields from which fuel can be put to this point 
at a minimum cost and together with these advan- 
tages are to be considered the healthfulness of the 
climate and the abundance of labor which can be 




Residence of B. C. Hurst, Pulaski. 

obtained at a moderate price because of the fact 
that the cost of living together with the educational 
and social advantages of a high order are within the 
reach of all persons of an average income. 

Railroad Advantages. 

Nearly every part of Pulaski County lies adjacent 



Pulaski County 77 

to the Norfolk & Western Railroad which traverses 
the county with three lines, and there are some 
eight or ten depots located at various points affording 
abundant facilities for the marketing of products and 
locations for the establishment of enterprise. The 
town of Pulaski is located at the junction of the main 
line of the Norfolk & Western and the North Caro- 
lina branch of the same road that runs for nearly 100 
miles through the counties of Wythe, Carroll and 
Grayson and bring the products of these counties 
into Pulaski. Pulaski is also one of the principal 
stations on the main line from Norfolk to Bristol and 
therefore has the advantage of a Southern outlet on 
two sides together with the additional advantages of 
easy access to the markets of Washington, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia and New York, and it will be seen from 
its location that Pulaski affords unusual advantages 
for wholesale and jobbing houses because as a dis- 
tributing center thousands of people can easily be 
reached at small expense of freight and other items. 
There are now located in Pulaski two wholesale 
grocery houses and one wholesale hardware house, 
together with two commission and brokerage estab- 
lishments, but the field is yet open for numerous 
other lines such as dry goods, boots, shoes, etc. 



Pulaski County 79 

WATER POWER SITES IN PULASKI 
COUNTY. 

Big Reed Island Creek, a large, ever-flowing 
stream, with a water site having a clear fa] 
feet. This site has been purchased by the town of 
Pulaski at a sum approximating $5000 for the pur- 
pose of constructing a hydrc-electric power plant. 
The minimum horse power of 1000 will be utilized in 
the beginning. Of the above amount, 250 horse 
power will be used for lighting the streets of Pulaski 
and furnishing house lighting to private consumers 
of the town and the balance furnished to manufac- 
turers. By raising the dam of this site, 2000 or 2500 
horse pow T er can be developed (within 14 miles of the 
town. ) 

The Wheeler Site is within six miles of Pulaski 
on New River. By taking of an island with a portion 
of the river only dammed, 800 horse power can be 
gotten. By damming across the stream, 5000 horse 
power can be easily developed. 

Peak Creek Near Alliance Mill, six miles from 
Pulaski, 250 horse power can be developed at a very 
reasonable cost. 

Big Walker's Creek, twelve miles from Pulaski, 
800 to 1000 horse power is available. This is on a 
stream with a fine flow of water, and is a most valua- 
ble site. 

Reed Island Creek, twelve miles from Pulaski, 
800 horse power can be developed easily at reasonable 
cost. 

On New River, within distances ranging from 10 
to 14 miles from Pulaski, there are at least three 
other fine water power sites, each capable of furnish- 
ing several thousand available horse power. 



1 



















1 









HHi 



82 



Pulaski County 



EDUCATIONAL FEATURES, 



Schools. 

Although Pulaski County is small and has only 
about 345 square miles of area with about 17,000 
population, it is well supplied with educational 
facilities, and has more than fifty school houses with 
about 85 teachers that form the public school system 
of the county, and moreover its location affords easy 




Country Home of Maj. W. W. Bexteey, Pulaski County. 

:access£to£ theTgreaterJ schools [ofJthelState that are 
devoted to higher and special education. The Vir- 
ginia'Polytechnic Institute is at Blacksburg, not over 
twenty miles from the county's eastern border. The 
University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Washington 



84 



Pulaski County 



and Lee University at Lexington are both within a 
few hours' ride of Pulaski 

A moment's study of the following figures will 
show the condition of^the public schools in this 
county: ■ , ■ rr ' - * <i^ 




( lountry Ile-idei 



Draper, Pulaski County. 



Summary of Report of Public School System in Pulaski 
County, Session 1906-1907. 

Public School Buildings .... 50 

Public School Teachers . . .85 

Schools Doino: High School Work . . 14 

Number of White Pupils Enrolled . . 2,800 

* Number of Colored Pupils Enrolled . . 620 

Total Number 3,420 

Value of Public School Property . . $59,800 

Amount Paid for Teachers . . . $16,000 
Total Amount Paid for Support of . 

Public School System . . . $19,400 

Average Salary of Teachers . . $35.00 
*The white and colored schools are separate, the 
colored having teachers of its own race. 



86 



Pulaski County 



Pulaski County is also well furnished with splendid 
private schools, and notable among them are the 
Dublin Institute at Dublin, and the St. Albans School 
for boys near Radford, besides others'at the county 
seat. 

Dublin Institute. 

Dublin Institute is located on a beautiful eminence 
overlooking the thriving town of Dublin, t Virginia, 
and is one of the most prosperous preparatoryiSchools 




Country Home of Francis Bell, Pulaski County. 

in the State. Last session the enrollment reached 
227 students and the graduating class numbered 21 
students. Nearly all th33e graduates will enter our 
best colleges and universities, all of which give due 
credit to the work done at the Dublin Institute. 

The Institute is co-educational, and has separate 
dormitories for the girls and boys. An unique fea- 



88 Pulaski County 

ture of the school is to be instituted with the opening 
of next session; the younger boys are to be given a 
dormitory to themselves, and for them a handsome, 
commodious building is now being erected. The 
faculty of teachers, who are men and women of large 
experience, and represent our best colleges and uni- 




Country Home of A. C. Sjm.tts, Pulaski County. 

versities, live with the pupils at the dormitories, and 
exercise a most faithful and sympathetic guardian- 
ship over them at all times. The superior advantages 
and moderate rates maintained at the Institute will 
continue to increase the enrollment. $144 pays all 
expenses for full session of nine months. 

Churches. 

There are all told afccut fifly churches in Fulaski 

County, with 35 white congregations and 15 colored. 

Among the white race the various denominations 



90 



Pulaski County 



are represented as follows: Southern Methodist, 15 
congregations; Presbyterians, 8; Missionary Baptist, 
4; Diciples, 6; Lutherans, 1; Freewill Baptist, 2; 
Apostolic, 1; Episcopalian, 1. 
The church property in the county is easily worth 




Country Home of J. Howe Kent, Pulaski County. 

$150,000, and with not less than twenty resident 
ministers in the county, there is good reason why 
Pulaski has so good a moral record and is an ideal 
place for a home. 




\J 



.-— . 




92 



Pulaski County 
Banks, 



There are three banks in Fulaski County as fol- 
lows: The Pulaski National Bank, Pulaski; The 
Peoples Bank of Pulaski, Pulaski, and The Bank of 
Pulaski County at Dublin. They are all strong insti- 
tutions and well officered by men of experience, and 
do a large business throughout the county. The total 
assets of the three reach close to $5C0,CC0. 




Country Heme of D. M. Cloyd, Pulaski County. 



Pulaski County 



93 



County Government. 

The government of Virginia counties is simple and 
has been reduced to the minimum of expense com- 
patible with good government. 

Pulaski County is divided into four magisterial dis- 
tricts with a supervisor for each, and these al- 
together form a Board of Supervisors, which have 




Country Home of J. R. K. Bell, Pulaski County. 

the general management of the county's finances and 
local government. 

The Supervisors are R. M. Chumbley, New River, 
Dublin District, Chairman; P. R. Hicks, Pulaski, 
Pulaski District; E. T. Pratt, Draper, Newbern Dis- 
trict, and W. H. Showalter, Snowville, Hiawassie 
District. 



94 



Pulaski County' 
Other Officers. 



The other officers of the county are Clerk of Cir- 
cuit Court, Jesse N. Bosang, Pulaski; Common- 
wealth's Attorney, John S. Draper; Treasurer, J. F. 
Wysor, Pulaski; Sheriff, Joseph Graham, Draper; 
Commissioner of Revenue, W. R. Crockett, Draper; 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, D. S. Pollock, 
Pulaski. 




Country Home of H. B. Howe, Pulaski County. 

Wealth and Taxation. 

The assessed property valuation of Pulaski County, 
which contains 345 square miles, is about $3,250,000, 
and it is conceded that the assessed value is about 
one-third of its cash value, thus making the wealth of 
the county approximately $10,000,000, and the total 
tax rate on the assessed valuation does not exceed li 



Pulaski County 



95 



per cent. Thus with a low assessment and a low 
rate of taxation, the investor avoids the large ex- 
pense incurred in this item at many other places. 



I ■ 





fc gy g Country Home of E. D. Withrow, Pulaski County. 

Conclusion. 

Pulaski cordially invites all persons desiring good 
locations for business enterprises, either large or 
small, to consider her advantages and opportunities, 
and her gates are open to welcome all comers to join 
the industrial and commercial activity that is rapidly 
making Pulaski the progressive leader of Southwest 
Virginia. 

Parties desiring specific information are requested 
to wr ite J. W. Miller, Secretary of Pulaski Board of 
Trade, Pulaski, Va. 



96 



Pulaski County 
Pulaski of Board Trade. 



Any persons desiring further information concern- 
ing this county and its resources, can obtain same^cy 
writing to any of the following officers of the Pulaski 
Board of Trade, Pulaski, Virginia: J. A. Van Mater, 
president; L. S. Calfee, vice-president; J. W. Miller, 
secretary. 




Country Home of R.iC.Boothe, Pulaski County. 



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