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Designed to show forth the nat=
ural advantages, resources and
general adaptability of the
of Southwest Virginia
to agriculture, cattle raising, and
also commercial and industrial
enterprises. : -*.
Published under the direction of the Committee in charge
of the Pulaski County Exhibit at the Jamestown
Exposition held at Norfolk, Va. ( 1907.
SOUTHWEST PUBLISHING COMPANY. I
Description and Early History.
U L A S K I CO UN T Y is situated in the
Southwestern portion of the State of Virginia.
It is of a rhcmboidal shape, about 20 by 21
miles, and has an area of a little over 400
square miles. Its principal boundaries, are
New River, Little River, and outlying ranges of the
Alleghany Mountains. Its lands are almost entirely
of a limestone formation, the county being situated
upon the same vein of limestone which, starting from
Niagara Falls, runs through the most fertile portion:
of Pennsylvania and through the famous Shenandoah
Valley in Virginia, everywhere making rich lands
with an inexhaustible sod of the finest of bluegrass,
upon which are fattened beef cattle unsurpassed any-
where in the world.
The county is distant 3C0 miles from Norfolk, 250*'
from Richmond, 100 from Lynchburg, and 50 from
Roanoke. It was named for the Polish Count Pulaski,,
of Revolutionary fame, and was created from portions
of the counties of Montgomery and Wythe by an Act
of the General Assembly of Virginia passed March 30,
The boundaries of the county which remain sub-
stantially the same today — are thus set forth in the
"Beginning at a line dividing the county of Giles
from Montgomery on New River, thence with said
line to the head of a hollow above Hiram Davis', on
Little Walkers Creek; thence to a point on the main
road between the lands of John T. Sayers and Harvey
4 Pulaski County
Shepherd, including the plantation of David G. Shep-
herd; thence to the mouth of Pine Run on New
River; thence to the Grayson county line, including
Sally King's plantation on Reed Island; thence with
the Grayson line to the Floyd line, and with the same
to the mouth of Indian Creek on Little River, and
with the same, including the farm of Creed Taylor, to
New River, and with the same to the beginning. ' '
John Gardner of the county of Montgomery, Cyrus
Adams of the county of Wythe and Levi Vermillion
of the new county of Pulaski, were appointed by the
Act Commissioners to run and mark the lines between
the counties of Montgomery and Pulaski on the one
side, and the counties of Wythe and Pulaski on the
other, the report of the proceedings of said Commis-
sioners to be recorded in the Clerk's offices of the
counties of Montgomery, Wythe and Pulaski, respect-
ively, ' ' and in all controversies which may hereafter
arise, touching said lines, shall be conclusive evi-
dence. ' '
William Campbell of the county of Bedford, Samuel
Hale of the county of Franklin, Samuel McCamant of
the county of Grayson, Albert G. Pendleton of the
county of Giles and Joseph W. Davis of the county of
Smyth, were appointed a Commission who, or a major-
ity of whom, should ascertain ' ' the most proper place
for holding courts and erecting public buildings for
the said county of Pulaski. ' '
These Commissioners filed a unanimous report in
favor of the town of Newbern as the county seat of
Pulaski county, and selected for the site of the court
house and jail a certain lot belonging to James Lane,
together with a portion of a lot owned by John N.
Bosang. The Bosang lot was given to the county,
and Michael Jordan paid Lane $600 for his lot and
gave it to the county.
Subsequently, in the year 1840, upon petition of a
number of citizens, the General Assembly of Virginia
passed a special act allowing the citizens of Pulaski
county to vote upon the question whether the pub-
Pulaski County 5
lie buildings should be placed upon the site selected
by the Commissioners or should be erected upon a
plot of ground consisting of a lot belonging to Thomas
Cloyd and a part of the lands of Henry Hance. The
election resulted in favor of the latter site; the court
house and jail were erected thereon, and the County
Court laid a levy and repaid Michael Jordan the $600
paid by him for the Lane lot and said Jordan con-
veyed said lot to the Justices for the benefit of the
In 1893 the site of the court house and jail was,
by popular vote, removed from Newbern to the town
of Pulaski. Here an elegant and commodious court
house, constructed of Peak Creek sandstone and fit-
ted up in handsome style, affords every comfort and
facility for the transaction of public business. A jail
and jailer's residence are situated on the same street
but at a distance of several blocks from the com t
The First County Court.
The first County Court for Pulaski was held at the
residence of James Tiffaney, in Newbern, on the 10th
day of May, 1839. It was composed of the following
justices of the peace ( the latter word in numerous
instances upon the records of that early day being
spelled "piece"): John M. C. Taylor, John Hoge,
James Hoge, Samuel Shields, Randolph Fugate, John
G. Cecil, Henry Wysor, James Crockett, John Calfee,
George R. C. Floyd, Joseph Cloyd, Samuel Calfee,
David G Shepherd, Joseph H. Howe, David T. Mar-
tin, and David F. Kent.
William B. Charlton was the first clerk of the
county, with Lynch A. Currin as deputy. Samuel
Shields was appointed sheriff by Governor David
Campbell, his commission being dated May 17, 1839,
to take effect June 6, 1839, he to continue in office
until the first quarterly court in 1840. He executed
three bonds, each in the penalty of $30,000, the sheriff
at that time performing the duties of treasurer. In
one of his bonds there is a quaint echo of the former
times when tobacco was used as a substitute for
money, for he is required ' ' well and duly to pay and
satisfy all sums of money, and tobacco by him re-
ceived by virtue of such process, ' ' etc.
At the first term of the County Court Andrew Boyd
and James M. Henderson were appointed constables
for the whole county. At the ensuing June term the
court divided the county into four districts, and con-
stables were appointed for these districts as follows;
1 ~^ 'Pjj
Pulaski County Court House.
Jas. M. Henderson for the first district, Russell H.
Cecil for the second, Gordon Dobbins for the third,
and William R. Fugate for the fourth.
Pulaski county has always been noted for the law
abiding character of its cit'zer.s, and the early crim-
inal business was confined almost entirely to breaches
of the peace, it being then the custcm for men to
meet on the court green and settle their differences
with only the weapons furnished them by nature.
P ulaski County 7
The first criminal business of the county was all of
this kind, there being seven cases. Three were tried
by jury and found ''not guilty;" three (it is pre-
sumed they were the other parties to the fisticuffs)
confessed and were fined by the court $1.00 and
costs; one man of the peculiar name of Seacat was
bound over to the peace at the suit of James Lane.
The act creating the county of Pulaski attached it
to the same judicial circuit with with the county of
Montgomery. Judge James E. Brown held the first
term of the Circuit Superior Court of law and Chan-
cery for Pulaski. His first order was a decree in
vacation granting an injunction.
At present there are no County Courts. There are
four terms annually of the Circuit Court for Pulaski
county, which is in the 21st judicial district, with
Honorable Robert C. Jackson as Judge.
What has been said as to the law abiding disposi-
tion of the citizens of Pulaski county is emphasized
by the fact that during the year 1906 there were for
the whole county only twenty indictments found.
This is a remarkable showing for a county with a
population of probably 17,000 and numbers of mines,
furnaces, mills, and other public works. This happy
condition is no doubt in large measures due to the
fact that nowhere— not only in the State, but in the
United States — is justice more strictly meted out to
criminals than in Pulaski county. Pulaski juries,
while fair to the innocent, are " strict to mark ini-
quity," and evil-doers give the county a wide berth.
The aphorism, "Happy is that people whose annals
are brief," applies with peculiar force to this county.
The people have lived quiet, frugal, industrious, and
God-fearing lives, and there are few notable incidents
in the history of the county. It has been the home
of three governors of Virginia — Dr. John Floyd, his
son, John B. Floyd, and J. Hoge Tyler. It furnished
to the Confederate Armies four full companies, be-
sides a number of soldiers who were in other com-
mands, the total being about seven hundred.
PULASKI IN THE CIVIL WAR.
The Battle of CloycTs Farm.
The battle of Cloyd' s Farm, which, in proportion
to the numbers engaged, was one of the most san-
guinary conflicts of the Civil War, was fought in
Pulaski county on May 9, 1864.
Some fourteen regiments of federal infantry and
cavalry, under the command of (jr^-.ieral George Crook,
came through on a raid from West Virginia, their
object being to strike the railroad at Dublin in
Pulaski county, destroy the Confederate stores col-
lected there, and tear up the railroad and render it
To confront the Federal Army General Albert G.
Jenkins had only the 36th, 45th and 53rd regiments
of the Virginia Infantry; he had also three very effect-
General Jenkins took up a position on high ground
on the Cloyd farm, his batteries commanding the
point where the turnpike crossed Cloyd' s Mountain.
The Federals attempted to establish a battery in the
road on the mountain, but their guns were speedily
silenced. Their main force was then guided by a
negro slave, by a path across the mountain at a point
further east, thus bringing them to a position from
which they could attack the right flank of the Con-
federates. Their movements were almost entirely
screened by heavy woods. By their superiority of
numbers they were enabled to throw out troops who
threatened to turn the right flank of the Confeder-
ates and at the same time to make a direct attack
in front on the Confederate line of battle.
To meet this flanking movement, Confederate
troops were transferred, two companies at a time,
from the left to the right of the Confederate posi-
tion. It was while conducting this movement that
Lieutenant-Colonel Edward H. Harman, of thet 45h
Pulaski County 9
regiment was mortally wounded. General Jenkins
was mortally wounded early in the action, and the
command devolved upon Colonel John A. McCausland.
The Federal assault in front was led by Colonel
Rutherford B. Hayes, afterwards General and Presi-
dent of the United States. He was at the time Col-
onel of the 23rd Ohio Infantry, and was in command
of the brigade that made the charge. Lieutenant
William McKinley, afterwards Major and President
of the United States, was in this charge. The first
assault was repulsed and a second charge was made.
In the meantime, a number of Federal troops, who
had not yet been engaged in the battle began to flank
the Confederate left, which had been greatly weak-
ened by the withdrawal of troops to strengthen the
right, and the Confederate forces were in danger of
being entirely surrounded. Under these circum-
stances, the second charge of the Federal troops,
commanded by Colonel Hayes, proved entirely suc-
cessful, the Confederates being routed. Company E,
of the 23rd Ohio, under the leadership of Lieutenant
McKinley, was the first to scramble over the Confed-
erate fortifications and silence their guns. In an
address upon President Hayes at Delaware, Ohio, in
1893, Major McKinley spoke thus of the attack led by
Colonel Hayes: "The advance across the meadow
in full sight of the enemy and in range of their guns,
through the creek and up over the ridge, was magnif-
icently executed, and the hand to hand combat in the
fort was as desperate as any during the war. Still
another charge was made, and the enemy was driven
The routed Confederates were saved from almost
total capture or annihilation by a body of troopers
from the command of General John Morgan, the
General himself having been captured in the preced-
ing summer. These troops arrived too late for the
battle, but they took up a position across the turn-
pike in a body of woods about a mile and a half north
of Dublin, near New Dublin church. At this point
1(F Pulaski County
Morgan's men, although only about 500 in number,
held the Federal forces in check for more than two
hours and thereby saved the routed Confederate
troops and also the town of Dublin, the main body of
the Federals, after this check, turning off to the east
in the direction of what is now Ingles' Ferry, but
where there was then a wagon bridge. This bridge
they burned, and the next day they destroyed the
railroad bridge at New River Depot.
Near the latter point the opposing forces engaged
in an artillery duel in which the Confederates had
rafeer the better of the argument, and General Crook
then left the county by way of Pepper's Ferry, and
went thence, with frequent encounters, to Staunton,
Pulaski County 11
Soldiers That Served in the Confederate
Army From Pulaski County.
Co. C, 4th Va. Vol. Infty.— Pulaski Guards.
Names of the members of the Pulaski Guards, Com-
pany C, 4th Virginia Infantry, Stonewall Brigade:
James A. Walker, Captain, promoted to Major Gen-
eral, dead; R. D. Gardner, First Lieutenant, promoted
to Lieutenant-Colonel, dead; Thomas I. Boyd, Second
Lieutenant, captured at Kernstown; Charles H. Keif-
fer, color bearer, dead; George W. Morehead, Lieu-
tenant, dead; Capt. J. N. Bosang, captured at Spott-
sylvania; R. J. Glendy, First Lieutenant, killed at
Gettysburg; William H. Bosang, Second Lieutenant,
wounded second Manassas and Wytheville, dead;
James F. Cecil, Third Lieutenant, wounded at first
Manassas and in Wilderness, dead; J. B. Caddall, pro-
moted to First Lieutenant, dead; J. P. Kelly, pro-
moted to Second Lieutenant, H. H. Alexander, Orderly
Sergeant; John Arnold, wounded first Manassas; Davis
Akers, dead; C. H. Baxter; Thomas Baxter, dead; J.
R. K. Bentley, dead; G. W. Bennett, dead; Andrew
Boyd; William Boyd, killed at Chancellorsville; E. R.
Boyd; C. H. Burton, dead; C. T. Burton, dead; G.
W. Burton, killed at Cedar Creek; James Burton;
killed at Franklin; James Boothe; James Black, killed
at Chancellorsville; N. E. Brady; John A. Bosang,
killed at the Wilderness.
S. S. Caddall, promoted to Aide to General Walker,
dead; John H. Caddall, dead; T. W. Caddall, dead;
W. I. Carper, wounded first Manassas, dead; L. Cal-
loway, dead; Witten Cecil, died in hospital; Thomas
M. Cecil, wounded at Chancellorsville, Mitchell Cecil,
dead; W. R. Cole, dead; David Conner, died in prison;
T. I. Cox, Mexican soldier, dead; Fugate Clark, dead;
George H. Chumbley; William A. Chumbley, wounded
12 Pulaski County
at Mine Run; Thomas C. Craig; James Crowell, killed
first Manassas; D. C. Crowell; A. N. Crowell, wounded
first Manasses; R. M. Crockett, dead; James Cofer,
J. B. Darst, dead; W. B. Darst; J. W. Darst, killed
second Manassas; William S. Dawson, wounded first
Manassas: Albert Davis, killed second Manassas; John
S. Draper, dead; T. E. Durham, lost arm first Manas-
sas; R. S. Dudley, lost arm at Gettysburg; Thomas
Dudley, missing at Hagerstown; W. R. Dudley, dead;
William Elkins, dead; W. G. Farris, dead; F. M. Far-
mer, wounded first Manassas; J. D, Foote, wounded;
William Gardner, dead; J. D. Graham, dead; Cal-
vin Graham, killed; James R. Guthrie; Gibson;
Thomas K. Hall; Fonrose Haney, killed at Kerns-
town; W. E. Haney, died in prison, Elmira, N. Y. ;
H. L. Haney, dead; T. P. Hammon, deserted; T. D. ;
Hawkins; James Harris, dead; A. G. Haylton, killed
second Manassas; G. W. Haylton, killed second Ma-
nassas; Jesse Hinkle, killed Mine Run; T. L. Hines,
dead; J. H. Hines; John Honaker, killed first Manas-
sas; L. D. Howell, died at hospital; H. Hunter, killed
at Cedar Creek; J. H. Hughes; Henry Irison, deserted.
John Jamison, dead; H. A. Jamison, dead; E. S.
Ed. Kelly, dead; J. G. Kent, dead.
William Lane, dead; J. D. Linkous; Wheeler Link-
ous, dead; Robert Lorton, wounded first Manassas,
dead; Thomas Lorton; John Lowman, died in hos-
pital; R. F. Leedy; J. L. Lyon, G. A. W. Lyon, V. Lye,
William Mabe, W. S. Mathews, wounded first Ma-
nassas; J. Midkiff, William J. Monroe, dead; John H.
Newby, lost arm battle of Malvern Hill.
Levi Odell, E. W. Odell; John Owens, dead.
J. B. Painter, Whitfield Painter; J. D. Pollock,
killed first Manassas; D. S. Pollock, -captured at
Kernstown; W. L. Pugh, William Pool, dead; W. J.
Price, J. W. Price; George T. Pratt, wounded.
Pulaski County 13
W. W. Raney, N. B. Raines; James Ranking, dead;
Edward Ray; S. D. Ray, deac 1 ; James Rittrr, dead;
Hiram Saunders, killed first Manass.cs; M. S. Soun-
ders, at Soldier's Home, Richmond; James A. Saun-
ders; Abner Sayers, killed at Getty sbun?; Jackson
Silver, B. P. Stevens; D. S. Scantlin, Mexican soldier,
dead; P. M. Sturtivant dead; James Sloan, killed at
second Manassas; M. C. Stone, wounded at Chancel-
lors ville and Gettysburg; George Snuffer, killed at
Malvern Hill; H. Shufflebarger, dead.
John Tabor, killed at Chancellorsville; Crawford
Talley; W. B. Teaney, killed first Manassas; J. W.
Teaney, killed at first Manassas; C. L. Teaney,
wounded first Manassas; W. D. Thomas, killed first
Manassas; T. J. Thompson, dead; P. Thornton, dead;
James T. Trolinger, captured at Kernstown; E. S.
W. T. Vickers; J. W. Vickers, dead; Uriah Ver-
M. C. Wallace, dead; H. C. Wilson, dead; Amel
Willis, died in hospital; S. Wimbush, dead; A. W.
Williams, dead; R. E. Wright, dead; William Wright;
John Wygal, dead; J. S. Wygal, J. B. Wygal; John
Woolwine, killed first Manassas.
J. W. Zirkel; S. C. Zirkel, wounded first Manassas.
Co. E 24th Va. Vol. Infty.
(Sketch by Major W. W. Bentley. i
The second company that Pulaski county furnished
for the Confederate armies in 1861 was made up by
three young men only a few months from college —
W. W. Bentley, W. M. Radford, and James R. Kent,
Jr., who were elected to fill the offices of captain,
first and second lieutenants in the order named and
B. Gunn was elected third lieutenant. It is to be very
much regretted that there is no roll to be found of
the non-commissioned officers and men of this gal-
lant band, who shed their blood on every battle field
of the Army of Northern Virginia from Bull Run to
After the organization was completed and services
14 Pulaski County
tendered the Governor, the company was ordered to
Lynchburg where it was mustered into service and
formed Company E, of the 24th Virginia Infantry;
thence to Manassas Junction, rendezvous of the Con-
federate Army in Northern Virginia, where the regi-
ment formed the nucleus of Early's Brigade; partic-
ipated in the battle of Bull Run on July 18th and in
the battle of the 21st
This company did special service in a skirmish near
Mason's Mill and in sight of Washington, and was
highly commended for its conduct; and again in front
of our fortified line at Yorktown with three other
companies in a night attack upon the enemy's picket
line when General Early ordered its captain to take
the battery in the rear of their line. At the battle of
Williamsburg the losses were very heavy, and among
the killed was Lieutenant W. M. Radford. General
Hancock, of the Federal Army, said the 24th Virginia
deserved the word " Immortal" on its banners for its
heroic conduct in this battle.
A few days before the battle of Seven Pines an
order was sent to the regiment for a captain and two
other officers and fifty men. The captain of this com-
pany was selected and one or two of the other officers
and a number of the men also from this company,
and the next morning before day light they were in
the enemy's camp, and the object of the reconnois-
sance was accomplished. The battle of Seven Pines
followed in a day or two, and the casualties were
heavy, as they also were in the Seven Days battle that
resulted in the rout of McCellan's army.
After the Peninsular Campaign in the spring of
1862 the regiment was transferred to the First Bri-
gade in Pickett's Division and contributed its full
share to the glory of that immortal command in the
subsequent great battles of the war. In addition to
the battles of the Army of Northern Virginia this
First Brigade (Kemper's) was sent to North Carolina
in the winter of 1863 and 1864 to check the incursions
of the Yankees from the coast and was engaged in the
Pulaski County 15
siege and capture of Plymouth, where two or three
thousand prisoners and a great many guns and stores
of all kinds were taken. This strongly fortified p]ace
was stormed in a night attack, and this company-
together with several others, comprising one wing- of
the regiment and commanded by its captain were the
first to enter the stronghold of the enemy in the t'ace
of infantry and artillery fire from a position well mgh
From this field the brigade was ordered to join the
division in Virginia where active operations had com-
menced, and was engaged in the very early morning-
attack upon Butler's Command when he was ''bot-
tled" in the junction of the James and Appomattox
rivers. In this fight the company suffered terribly,
losing about seventy-five per cent, of the number
engaged, including Lieutenant Frederick Saunders,
and four or five killed besides the mortally wounded.
They were next ordered to Cold Harbor battlefield,
and were engaged in the battle and skirmish that fol-
lowed to the end of the war.
Of all the officers the company had during the war
only two survived, and both of them had been
wounded several times. Lieutenant Gunn had been
promoted to Captain and W. W. Bentley to Major and
commander of the regiment the last year of the war.
The company was admirably disciplined and made a
Co. I, 50th Va. Vol. Infty.
This company was enlisted in Pulaski county and
was regularly mustered into service at Newbern in.
July, 1861. Captain S. H. Stone, who commanded it
during its last years of service, furnishes the follow-
ing partial roll and memoranda respecting it:
Captain, Thomas Poage, afterward Colonel of the
regiment and killed at the battle of Kelly's farm, Jan-
uary 31, 1863; First Lieutenant, Stephen PL Stone,
lost voice at Gettysburg, July 1863; Charles Lane,
Second Lieutenant until time of re-organization;.
16 Pulaski County
Stephen Hurst, Third Lieutenant, served first year;
Ephriam Dickens, captured at Fort Donelson Febru-
ary 16, 1862; Albert Bridges, Second Sergeant;
wounded in leg at at Fort Donelson February 15,
1862; Charles Martin, killed at Fort Donelson Febru-
ary 15, 1862; Johnson Warden, killed at Fort Donel-
son February 15, 1892; Isaac Smith, wounded at Lew-
isburg, West Virginia, May 1862; Alexander Smith;
John 0. Smith, wounded and taken prisoner at Lew-
isburg; Calvin Smith; Wesley Smith; John Smith,
captured at the Wilderness May 5, 1864; Thomas
Smith, David Smith, C. B. Smith; James Smith, died
in prison in 1864; Asa Quesenberry; Ballard Quesen-
berry; Calvin Quesenberry, killed at Chancellorsville
May 3, 1863; Samuel Quesenberry, killed at Chancel-
lorsville May 3, 1863; James Warden, Jr., killed at
Chancellorsville May 3, 1863; Montgomery Quesen-
berry; John Quesenberry, died in prison in 1864; Bal-
lard W T illiams, died of small-pox in prison in 1864; Dan-
iel Arnold, killed in action in the battle of the Wilder-
ness May 5, 1864; William Sutton, wounded at Lewis-
burg May 1862— wounded in several other engage-
ments and finally killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,
July 2. 1863;— John C. Sutton, William H. Songer,
Isaac Griffith, captured and died in prison in 1864;
John F. Hollingsworth, Peter A. C. Honaker; Charles
Howery; Alvis Marshall, wounded and captured at
Lewisburg May 1862; Stephen Moore, Stephen C.
Nickols, John R. Ratcliffe, John G. Redpath, Zachar-
iah Wright, Jesse Worrell, Joshua Worrell; Aaron
Worrell, died in prison in 1864; Gordon Moore, died
in prison in 1864; Crockett Moore, John Moore, Gor-
don Bowden, Milton Nunn; James Calfee, died in
prison in 1864; Benjamin Smith, died of disease at
Blue Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, August 1861;
Henderson Bell, died of disease at Sweet Sulphur
Springs, West Virginia, September 1861; John Bell,
taken prisoner at Spottsylvania Court House 1864,
and died in prison; Thaddeus Hawthorne, died of dis-
ease at Sweet Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, August
1861; Benjamin Duncan, John Duncan, Amos Galla-
more, Preston Phillips, Wesley Lindsey, James Hay-
maker; Evan Tipton, killed in action at Fort Donel-
son February 15,1862; William Tipton, John Brown,
Thomas Warden, Oscar Warden, James Warden; Wil-
liam King, lost an arm in action in Shenandoah Val-
ley in 1864; James King, Chester B. King; Russell
King, captured at Spottsylvania Court House May 12,
1864, and never returned; Chapman King, missing in
action at Lewisburg and never afterward heard of;
William Galbreth, Ray burn Cofer, Aaron I. Morgan,
discharged for disability at Narrows of New River,
1862; Isham Puckett; Montgomery Mullen, taken pris-
oner in the invasion of Pennsylvania and never after-
ward heard of; Jackson Shufflebarger, wounded and
left on the field of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3,
1863; John Black, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863;
William Burton, Jerome B. Davis, Thomas Simpkins,
Sr., Thomas Simpkins, Jr., Joseph D. Simpkins,
Joseph Simpkins; Gabriel Simpkins, drummer; A. J.
Clark, J. E. W. Lane, Alfred Lyon, Nathan Marshall,
wounded and captured at Lewisburg, West Virginia,
May 1862; Aaron Caudle, John Galbreth, discharged
for disability; Mark Ashworth, discharged for disa-
bility at Camp Jackson, Virginia, July 1861; Newton
J. Morton, discharged for disability at Bowling
Green, Kentucky, 1862; Jesss Nickols, wounded and
captured at Lewisburg May 1862; William Mathews;
Crockett Patton, killed at the battle of the Wilderness
Residence of Hon. J. c. Wys
May 5, 1864; William Hufford, wounded in the leg at
Fort Donelson February 15, 1862; John Hufford, taken
prisoner at Spottsylvania Court House and died in
prison; Joseph Hufford, wounded in leg in 1865; Dan-
iel Harlen, transferred to Company F, 54th Regi-
ment, 1862; William Richardson, John Owen, Isaac
Tipton, T. T. Fleager, Jacob Fleager, James Owen,
captured at Kelly's Farm, Virginia, January 31, 1863,
Jackson Lasley, Samuel Brookman, killed or captured
Pulaski County 19
and died in prison; Robert Brookman, killed or died
in prison; Gustavus Brookman; Jeremiah Odell,
wounded in thigh at FortDonelson February 15, 1862;
Robert Odell, Sheffey Cooley, William Andrews, John
Houchins, Jackson Peak, Stephen Bryson; James Bry-
son, discharged for disability; John W. French; John
French, discharged for disability; Russell Conley, dis-
charged for disability; Joseph Conley, thigh broken
at Lewisburg May 1862; Hugh Conley, Preston Snow,
James Scott, Whitefield Monroe, died at Greenbrier
White Sulphur Springs, October 1861; Rush Calfee,
died of disease at Sweet Sulphur, West Virginia,.
August 1861; Babe Goad, killed in action at Chancel-
lors ville May 3, 1863; James Lorton, killed at Chan-
cellorsville May 3, 1863; Ralph Elkins, wounded at
Lewisburg May 1862; John Baxter, promoted to Ser-
geant-Major, in 1862; Leander Quesenberry, Harvey
Darmon, William Mabe, Beverly Griffith; Alexander
Bryson, died at Chattanooga of injuries received on
train; Willis, died on his way returning from
prison in 1864; John Black (Dice) ; John Cook; Henry
Cook ; , William Sayers.
Co. F, 54th Va. Vol. Infty.
List of names belonging to Company F, 54th Vir-
ginia Regiment, Confederate States of America, from
1861 to 1865. Some names are missing. This list was
copied and revised by Captain Jacob Anderson, Wil-
liam B. Cecil and Henry C. Wysor now living at Dub-
Jacob Anderson, Captain 1864-65; Moses Akers,
Dandridge Akers, Amos Akers, Third Lieutenant
1861; J. C. Andrews, Frank A. Allison, Robert
Andrews, M. S. Barger, Jasper Barger, W. A. Bar-
row. James T. Beard, Third Sergeant; Gordon C.
Black, J. F. Brown, William Brown, Abram Brown,
E. C. Burton, G. S. Baskerville, D. F. Bailey, T. H.
Crawford, First Sergeant 1862-65; J. H. Chinault,
Corporal; G. W. Chumbley, Corporal; A. M. Chum-
bley, W. B. Carper, L. S. Calfee, W. B. Cecil, First
Sergeant; S. W. Cecil, John N. Carnahan, N. J. Car-
nahan, W. F. Carnahan, John Cofer, Joseph H.
Cofer, Jacob Carper, James Chinault, A. E. Covey,
Robert Craig, Corporal; J. H. C. Craig, Samuel Chin-
ault, P. J. Clark, G. W. Clark, Pembroke Charlton,
D. C. Charlton, J. H. Douthat, Third Lieutenant; B.
W. Dodson, T. W. Dial, James Dial, W. A. Duncan,
John Durman, David Durman, W. F. Eaton, Cap-
tain 1862-64; J. G. Early, J. W. Farmer, Sergeant;
Thomas Farmer, J. H. Fanner, Jerry Farmer, — Stew-
Kesidence of k. E. Harman
ard, William Farris, C. H. Farris. Valentine Fink,
Stephen Fink, John Fieeman, Luke Fleeman, George P.
French, John Frost, Lewis B. Gibbs, J. W. Gerbrich,
George Goings, George R. Graveley. Decatur Grogg,
Robert Harris, William Hannon, P. T. Haley, J. J.
Haley, Daniel Harless, William F. Harris, Jno. H. Har-
ris, Jesse T. Harris, F. M. Harless, William N. Hoge,
0. F. Honaker, Abram Honaker, C. C. Hoy, Gabriel
Hyton, — Howry, Henry Journell, James Journell,
William C. Journell, Anderson James, A. L. Jordan,
Robert Johnson, W. J. Jordan, Captain, '61; C. I. Jor-
dan, John T. Kelley, John H. Kibler, Jackson Kin-
drick, Fleming King, J. P. Leslie, A. J. Leslie, J. H.
Lefler, Isaac Lefler, Charles Lefler, J. R. Lloyd, G.
W. Long, William Linkous, Matt Linkous, William
McKinnon, M. J. Meredith, W. A. Meredith, John K.
Miller, S. W. Miller, D. K. Miller, John Miller, Wil-
liam Millirons, David Millirons, A. S. Morehead, B.
F. Morehead, S. C. Morehead, R. G. Mullen, Austin
Residence of H. L. Trolinger. — Pulaski.
Mullen, J. N. McCoy, Perry Nunn, — Nester, F. A.
Owen, D. M. F. Owen, Corporal; Joseph Owen, James
A. Pratt, 3rd Lieut. ; R. H. E. Painter, Martin Payne,
Jackson Payne, Chas. H. Pannill, B. F. Pannill, A.
A. Phleger, Captain 1865; D. S. Phlegar, — Penn,
F. S. Quesenberry, J. A. Quesenberry, F. F. Repass,
Turner Ransom, Sergeant; Jackson Richman, D. S.
Ritter, Birdine Ritter, James Rogers, Robert Rogers,
Thomas Rogers, Harvey D. Ross, John Rcss, Booker
Richardson, James Sayers, William Sayers, Anderson
Sayers, Henry S. Sifford, Samuel Sifford, Joseph
Sifford, Hamilton Sifford, William Simpkins, —
Simpkins, W. J. Shelburne, Second Lieutenant;
Joseph Shelburne, Daniel Shelburne, John Shelburne,
John Slusher, Solomon Sowers, F. M. Stone, Robert
Scott, Solomon Scott, Samuel St. Clair, Gordon
Sadler, W. R. Taylor, Joseph Tickle, J. W. Turner,
T. B. Tatum, Peter Thornton, H. S. White, M. C.
Walton, Samuel Walton, J. M. Wysor, Hen*y Wysor,
KES1DENOBOF R. R. MOOKE. — Pulliski.
H. L. Wysor, J. G. Wygal, Wilson White, William
Ballard Calfee, Corporal; Jessee Brown, Henry Say-
ers, Watson Turner, Samuel Wallace, Coleman Wal-
lace, S. F. Moore.
Pulaski County 23
(Compiled iiv GEN. JAMES MACGILL.)
This report on the climate of Pulaski county is
Ibased on a record that I have kept for the last thirty-
seven years— from January 1870 to April 1907. The
figures here given are the averages based on a daily
record, which shows the temperature at 6 A. M., 12
noon and 10 P. M., and it will be seen that Pulaski
has an all-year-round climate that is hard to excel.
During this entire period of thirty-seven years, I
find only one morning that the mercury registered
above the sixties and this was at 6 A. M., June 14th,
1897, when it was 72.
The thermometer from which my record is taken is
located on the north side of the house, twelve feet
away from same, and is never reached by the sun.
Altitude 2400 feet above tidewater.
The tables given below are for the period of thirty-
seven years mentioned above.
Average Range of Temperature.
Mean Temperatures for Each Month.
January, 31; February, 30; March, 44J; April, 48;
Mi/, 6 0; June, 62|; July, 69; August, 69; September,
61; October, 51; November 43; December, 27|.
The general mean temperature for the entire
psriod was 51i. The lowest that the mercury has
ever registered during the entire period was 13 below
zero, this was January 13th, 1895.
During the entire thirty-seven years we have had
only sixty -three cays that the mercury registered at
z ero or below. In 1885, 1893 and 1899 there were.
in i mu ni
(i A. M.
24 Pulaski County
five such days in each year. In 1893 there were six
days when the mercury went to zero and below.
During twenty-eight of the thirty-seven years the
mercury went to zero and below some of these for
only one day and from that up to six days in 1896.
There were nine years in this time when the mercury
did not reach zero at all, 1902 and 1906 being among
The highest point the mercury has ever reached
during this period was 99 on July 12th, 1881. This
was a very dry summer, when no rain fell from May
until September. The next highest point was 93 on
July 1st, 1887, but during the remaining thirty-five
years there were only eight days in all, that the
mercury reached 90
Though my notes show each day that we have had
rain, sleet and snow in the thirty-seven years, I
have not kept the number of inches of the rain fall,
I therefore give the report of the U. S. Weather
Bureau as taken at Wytheville Station, which was
kindly given me by Mr. J. I. Wedmeyer, Observer in
charge of the Wytheville Station, U. S. Weather
Rain fall for this section of Virginia. Average
monthly rainfall in inches; January 3.03, February
3.38, March 3.80, April 3.05, May 3.80, June 4.20, July
3.73, August 4.51, September 3.39, October 2.74,
November 2.21, December 2.77. Average annual
rain fall 40.61 inches for thirty-six years.
Some comparative statistics will be of interest as
showing the early and present conditions, of the
county. The statistics for the early history are in
the main for the year 1850, as there is full informa-
tion for that year in the proceedings of the Constitu-
tional Convention which met in 1850.
Total population in 1840, 3,739; in 1850, 5,114; in
1890, 12,790; in 1900, 14,609. The population for the
present year (1907) is estimated at the same ratio of
increase, at 17,000, and probably exceeds that figure.
NATURE OF LAND 1850
Number of acres
Value exclusive of buildings
Value of buildings
Total assessed value land and bldgs
Average assessed vulus per acre. . .
Value exclusive of buildings
Value of buildings
Total value lots and buildings . . .
s 6,575 00
29, 40 J 00
Aggregat? valua lands and lots . .
Total State taxes assessed on same
1 *f)27,489 00 $2,491,578 00
983 87 I 8,721 91 ■
It should he remembered that in 1850 the rate of
taxation on land was only 10 cents on $100; it should
also be remembered that for the year 1906 the
assessed valuation is not half the actual worth, and,
besides that, all land-mountain, upland and valley-
good, bad and indifferent— is included. As an exam-
ple of the great value of the higher grades of land in
Pulaski county, it may be noted that a fine farm of
2,000 acres sold, in March, 1907, at a price that
averaged $60 per acre for the entire tract.
An inspection of the foregoing table will disclose a
striking^increase in the value of real estate in the
The value of lands, exclusive of buildings, has
increased more than 60 per cent.
The value of buildings on lands has increased
nearly 300 per cent. This indicates the very great
increase of comfort in which the rural population now
The aggregate value of lands and buildings has
increased 75 per cent.
But the most remarkable increase is in the value of
lots and of buildings on lots.
The value of lots, exclusive of buildings, shows an
actual increase of $175,266, or 2,665 per cent.
The value of buildings on lots has increased $716,-
125, or 3,138 per cent.
The aggregate value of lots and buildings thereon
has increased $331,391, or 3,032 p?r cent.
t In 1850 the schedule of personal property subjec
o taxation was brief and the rate in th2 main quitet
smiU. Th) t)til ti; as^ssei in th3 CDJiby for the
State purposes on real estate, personal property, and
licenses for the year 1850 was $1,604.58. Of this sum
only $349.21 was assessed against personal property
(not counting the tax on slaves, of whom those above
12 years of age were assessed at 32 cents apiece).
The rate of taxation on horses, mules etc. , was 10
cents each; on watches — gold at $1.00, patent lever
50 cents, others 25 cents; on clocks— brass or other
metallic at 25 cents; all others 12J cents. The rate
on all other taxed personal property was 1J per cent,
on the value.
The population was sparse, roads and public works
and improvements were few, there was little done in
the way of public education, and the objects which
called for public revenue were not numerous.
A comparison between the items of personal prop-
erty taxed in 1850 and similar items for the year 1906
will be of interest. The reports for the year 1850 do
not give the values, but only the amount of tax
assessed, so the values can not be stated for that
Horses, mules, etc. .
Vehicles of all kinds
Mechanic's tools . .
Sewing machines . .
JJI I J,
si 64 30
It will be observed from the foregoing table how
very large in proportion to the population was the
number of horses in 1850. There were in the county
that year just a few over 800 white males above 16
years of age, as the negroes did not then own horses,
there were two horses for every white man and boy
above the age of sixteen.
It will also be observed how very much higher was
the tax on watches and clocks in 1850; and that 30
coaches and 20 carryalls paid more tax in 1850 than
1260 vehicles of all kinds in 1906.
The total amount of personal property, tangible
and intangible, assessed for the year 1906 was $958,-
Total Taxes and Rate.
The total assessed value of real estate for the same
year was $2,491,578.
Total assessed valuation of all taxables in the
county, real and personal for 1906, $3,450,073.
On this sum there is a gross State tax of $12,-
Maple Shade I xx.— Pulaski.
129,16, of which four-sevenths is for the support of
the State government, two-sevenths for public
schools, and one-seventh for pensions for disabled
There is also a State capitation tax assessed on all
males over twenty-one, which amounted in 1906 to
$4,251. Its payment is a pre-requisite to voting.
Pulaski County 29
The total county and district levies for the year
1906, amounted to $42,130.33. This includes a road
capitation tax of $1100, the residue being laid on real
and personal property.
The county levies were appropriated as follows:
For county purposes, $12,553.15; for public schools,
$15,058.90; for roads and bridges, $14,518.28. The
total taxes and levies, state, county and district,
aggregated a grand total of $58,500.49. (This is
exclusive of license taxes. )
Under an assessment made by the State Corpora-
Trolinger-Price Hardware Co. — Pulaski.
tion Commission, transportation and transmission
companies pay county and district levies amounting
to $7,156.26. This is not included in the amount of
The State taxes are assessed at a uniform rate of
35 cents on the $100, and the county levy at the rate
of 30 cents on the $100. The rates of district levies
vary slightly, but the average district and county
levies amount to about $1.10 on the $100. This makes
the average total rate of taxation $1.45 on the $100.
30 Pulaski County
With regard to legal affairs Pulaski county has
never been a litigious community. In its earner his-
tory there was an almost incredibly small amount of
business transacted in the Circuit Court.
The records for the years 1841 to 1849, inclusive,
(with the exception of the year 1845, for which the
clerk made no report) show that during nine years
the court was in session only 58 days; there were only
13 criminal cases tried, only 39 final chancery decrees
entered, and only 76 judgments rendered in law cases.
There being two terms of the court each year, this
made the average session of court only three days
with not quite one criminal case and a little more than
two chancery and four law cases tried at each term.
No wonder that the clerk time and again, in the
remarks appended to his reports, used the expressive
language "Poor pay."
Of course the County Court, composed of the jus-
tices of the peace, tried the minor criminal offenses
and small civil cases; but the business was so slight
that, for the year ending September 30, 1850, the
charges for supporting criminals confined in jail
amounted to $11.85.
This non-litigious character is still dominant. The
Circuit Court is now the sole judicial tribunal. It has
four terms annually, but its four sessions do not total
on an average more than forty days each year. At
the end of the year 1906 there were pending on the
docket 10 indictments, 44 law cases, and 153 chancery
causes, and a very small proportion of the cases were
to be litigated.
With every advantage of soil and climate, with vast
amounts of undeveloped wealth, with resources well-
nigh inexhaustible, with diversified, industries, with
abundant facilities for transportation, with an indus-
trious, peaceable, and law-abiding population, the
history of Pulaski county discloses the fact that it.
offers a most attractive field for home-seekers and
Pulaski County 33
AGRICULTURAL FEATURES OF
The settlement of the scope of territory in which
Pulaski is situated, was considerably delayed by
what is known as " Boquet's Treaty," which was
negotiated between England and France at the time
of the French and Indian Wars. By one article of
this treaty there were to be no English settlements
made upon the Ohio River and its tributaries. As
New River empties into the Ohio, this delayed settle-
ments in the territory traversed by New River.
About the year 1757, however, the land comprised
in the county of Pulaski began to be settled.
The majority of the settlers were Scotch-Irish
people who came up the Valley of Virginia. They
found here a beautiful country of high table land
traversed here and there by lovely streams of spark-
ling limestone water. The creek bottoms were cov-
ered with a growth of small bushes, averaging about
eight feet in height. Wherever the timber was not
too thick there was a luxuriant growth of naturaY
grass of the finest quality.
The long distance from market, the absence of any
means of transportation other than by wagons,
through an almost trackless wilderness, made it impos-
sible to market grain from this country in early days.
This difficulty, together with the natural adaptability
of the country to the production of grass of a supe-
rior quality and the innate love of stock in the Scotch-
Irish inhabitants conspired to make this a live stock
The demand for meat and butter in the only mar-
ket then in reach, gradually made cattle and hogs
the leading stock produced. Early in its history,
this county made a reputation second to no county in
the State for its fine cattle. This reputation it has
held until the present time.
34 Pulaski County
The county of Pulaski produces about 2500 export
cattle annually, and 3000 for the markets of the
United States. The cattle of this county have a rep-
utation in the markets of America and England
which might well be envied by any county. Our
greatest advantage as a beef producing section exists
in the fact that the beef is made almost entirely
A Buncb of Thoroughbred Polled Angus Cattle Owned by
J. R. K. Bell.— Pulaski County.
upon grass, which is tiue of few other beef countries.
We are, therefore, exempt ficm the very heavy
and expensive grain feeding in both winter and sum-
mer, necessarily practiced in other export cattle pro-
ducing sections. The quality of beef produced here
has'; held its place at the tcp of the markets of Amer-
ica. In 1S78 it was the privilege of the writer to
take to England one of the first cargoes of cattle
exported from the United States. This cargo was
made up entirely of Pulaski cattle. At that time
American cattle were sold in the open markets of
London and Liverpool, and were not subjected to the
restriction now put upon American cattle. The
butchers who bought this cargo of cattle told me that
after being butchered, a large per cent of the beef
A Bunch of Yearling Shorthorns. — Pulaski County.
would be sold as Irish heifer beef, which was then,
and is still considered the best quality of beef on
the English market
Pulaski County, for many years, has been a leader
in the production of thoroughbred cattle. In Ante-
Bellum days, when the short horns outstripped all
other beef breeds, this county held its own, producing
some of the finest specimens of that breed in Amer-
38 Pulaski County
ica. The work was then carried on by J. — . Sayers,
Major Joseph Cloyd. General James Hoge, D. C.
Kent, James Cloyd and others. Since the war this
work has been ably carried forward with equal credit
by Major W. W. Bentley, Ex-Governor J. H. Tyler,
N. P. Oglesby, and others. Some of the finest show
animals of America, claimed this county as their
home. Polled Angus cattle are now being success-
**-;■_ : ■•'
L'lWHBr 4 V- *;,'■
« ^ftpB5fWsW^**^Sl HfeL *" ■ '
■ ,.-. v-
Thoroughbred Polled Angus Bull Weighing 1800 lbs. Owned by
J. R. K. Bell.— Pulaski County.
fully bred by J. R. K. Bell. This breed is finding
ready sale in other states, as well as in our own,
which fact speaks for itself as to the value of Mr.
The Herefords have their admirers here also.
H. B. Howe has, in recent years, brought to this
c ounty representatives of the best herds this side of
^he Atlantic, and rich reward seems in store for his
Practically nothing has been done here in dairying;
certainly not in a commercial way. The sun does
not shine upon a country naturally better adapted to
this occupation. The rolling land with its beautiful
carpet of the finest of grasses, free from onion,
garlic and other noxious weeds; shady groves, abun-
dant supplies of the finest spring water, a climate
exempt from the extremes of cold in winter; cool
Cattle on the Farm of J. H. K. Bell.— Pulaski Connty.
nights in summer, never the extreme heat in the day;
close proximity and efficient railroad communications
with the best markets for dairy products, either
south, north or east; all of these things conspire to
make this an ideal dairy section that the world cannot
surpass. Some time in the near future, when the
farms are subdivided and the areas are smaller, this
branch of agriculture will take its natural place, and
will easily rank first in importance in the county.
While wheat is, in a sense, a by-product here, by
reason of the fact that it is raised rather as.a'nurse
crop for grass than as a money crop. Still, the
county shows up well as compared with other sec-
tions where much more careful attention is bestowed
Thoroughbred Hereford Bui
H. B. Howe-
and Lincoln Sheep Owned by
upon its production. The average yield is from 12 to
15 bushels per acre, while many crops run as high as
25 bushels per acre. The quality of the wheat here
is extra good, as the millers are always willing to
pay an advance over the market as an inducement to
get it, claiming for Pulaski wheat that it is harder
and will make a better yield of first grade flour
can be gotten from wheat raised elsewhere.
While this is not a corn country in the usual accep-
tation of the term, as it is not raised here for market
except in a small way, still quite a large acreage is
devoted to its culture. The crop is mainly fed to
cattle, horses and hogs. The quality is unusually
A Bunch of Export Cattle
good for both bread and feed. The average yield of
the county for a term of years is about 35 to 40
bushels of shelled corn per acre. Many crops reach
the 70 to 80 bushel mark.
This county is well adapted to
oats. In years gone by, quite a
the production of
large acreage was
46 Pulaski County
devoted to its culture, but of late, not a great deal
has been raised here. The range of quantity pro-
duced is from 20 to 40 bushels per acre.
Other Small Grains.
Rye, buckwheat, sugar-cane and millet are pro-
duced in a small way as feed crops for stock. Their
culture so far has been rather a side-line and of
secondary consideration, and these crops have not re-
ceived the care attention that their importance and
value justifies. The good crops of these grains seen
over the county indicate clearly the possibilities along
this line with proper care and attention.
Successful ventures have, in the last few years,
been made in trucking here by farmers adjacent to
shipping points, the principal products being cab-
bage, potatoes and melons. Though this industry is
in i ts infancy yet, every indication points to its rapid
enlargement in the near future. The short and
quick transportation to the coal fields, which is a
splendid market for such products, will likely make
this a leading line of agriculture in this county.
The production of hay has become quite an impor-
tant factor in the agriculture of the county. The
average yield is from lh to 2 tons per acre of fine
marketable hay, which finds ready sale, and is in
demand in the nearby coal fields of Virginia and West
Virginia. This line of agriculture is destined to be
largely increased in the near future. The yield will
be much increased as more and better attention is
bestowed upon its production. No agricultural pro-
duction offers to the farmers of this county, better
profit where proper care and attention is given to the
land devoted to it.
Attention has been given to poultry raising in the
48 Pulaski County
last few years. Many persons in the county have
done quite a handsome business on improved domestic
fowls. Turkeys are easily in the lead, and very fine
ones are raised here. The shipments from the town
of Dublin alone (in the fall and winter of 1906-7)
amounted to the neat sum of $10,000. From the
town of Pulaski about $15,000. And large ship-
ments were made from other points in the county.
Mutton and Lambs.
The county of Pulaski has for years, enjoyed an
enviable reputation both at home and abroad for her
Spring lambs and mutton. There is none better made
in the United States, and New York butchers claim
that the world cannot beat Pulaski. The high, well-
drained table lands, luxuriant bluegrass sod, and
abundant streams of fine, fresh, spring water, make
an ideal home for the production of the best mutton
and lambs. All the mutton breeds are represented
here. The county has, oftener than otherwise,
topped the New York market for many years with
her June lambs. It is not unusual to see car load
after car load of lambs leave here before the 20th of
June, averaging in weight from 90 to 100 pounds,
perfectly ready and finished for the market.
There is always strong competition among the
buyers for the Pulaski lambs. sSo great is this com-
petition that the lambs are all sold sometimes as
much as two years before the time of delivery. This
county puts upon the market annually 15,000 lambs,
which bring from $3.00 to $6.00 per head, and about
40,000 pounds of wool; also a large number of grown
sheep find their way to the meat market.
h In addition to this, there are a number of pure
bred flocks, representing the different mutton breeds,
whose offspring are sold as fancy sheep, at much
higher prices than can be realized upon the market.
Hogs thrive well here, and are cheaply made as
compared with ota?r places. Most farmers are able
to market two lots per year; one in the Spring, made
principally from the waste of cattb in the winter
feed lets; the second coming from the fattening
pens in the fall. The county produces about 7,000
hogs per year.
For years, the county has been remarkably free
from any epidemic disease among hogs, which is
always a menace to this business.
\ B — 3
i ■ '. • '
"Victoria" [mported Percheron Stallion Owned by a
Company of Pulaski Fanners.
There is no country known to the writer, better
adapted to horse raising than Pulaski county.
The' rich grass grown on limestone land, varying as
it does'! frcm the low soft creek bottom land to the
high hi Us with the limestone jutting out here and
there, give to the young horses fine development of
every syscem of muscles. The rough and rocky places
in the pastures make good, solid feet of fine shape,
and go:d wearing quality. The bone is generally
strong and flat. These youngsters accustomed to
racing up and down the hills from their infancy, go
into service well fortified against the strain of any
reasonable demand that can b2 made upon them.
Thoroughbred Percheron Stallion bred in Pulaski County
Owned by J. R. K. Bell, Job Draper, and
The climate, the nature of the grass, the lay of the
land, the abundance of fresh limestone water, all
tend to produce horses of fine style, good size, splen-
did bone, elegant action, and above all, unsurpassed
endurance. There is put upon the market annually,
quite a large number of horses, representing almost
every class, except, possibly, the thoroughbred run-
ning horses. In Ante-Bellum days some attention
was paid to ra'sing racing horses, and at that period
Pulaski county was frequently winner upon the race
track. Since then, however, practically ;,no /attention
has been given to the racers. Many fine saddle and
harness horses are produced here, '.which ^find ready
sale at remunerative prices in the Eastern markets.
For the last half century, Pulaski's greatest and
Pure Bred Percheron Mares Owned by D. M. Cloyd
just iii from a hard day's work.
most extended reputation in the horse business has
been made and maintained by her heavy draft ani-
mals. In the production of this class of horses,
Pulaski can hardly be surpassed in America.
This county seldom, if ever, gets the credit, but
the facts bear out the assertion that Pulaski county
was among the first in the United States, to begin
thelbreeding of French Percheron horses.
Mr. Walters, of Baltimore, Md., and S. W. Ficklin,
of Charlottesville, Va., made the first importation
from the Perche in the summer of 1866. John S.
Draper, of Drapers Valley, Pulaski county, intro-
duced these horses into this county in the Spring of
1867 by purchase from Mr, Ficklin. Following close
upon this, Colonel Wm. T. Jordan, of Newbern,
brought in other fine specimens of the breed. Later
Old Galbreth Tavern.— Pulaski County.— Once a favorite
stopping placa of President Andrew Jackson.
on, Cloyd and Harman added new and fine specimens
of the same breed. At the present time, several
companies own as fine, pure bred Percheron horses
as can be found on the American Continent. Nota-
bly " Perfection," the property of Bell, Draper and
Kirby. This horse was bred and raised in this
county, and traces directly to Ficklin 's celebrated
importation of 1836.
58 Pulaski County
Recently another company of farmers have brought
into the county, "Victoria," the prize winner of
two continents. The future of the Percheron horse
business seems brighter than ever before. There
are now some half dozen stables of pure bred Perch-
erons, small in number, but unsurpassed in quality
and breeding. For the last thirty years, Pulaski's
heavy draft horses have been preferred to any others
by Pennsylvania feeders and buyers.
The county is often stripped of many fine horses
that ought not to be allowed to leave, on account of
the superior indue 3m en ts offered by Eastern and
Northern buyers. These facts demonstrate how
these horses are regarded by men who have handled
them and know their value.
There is no reason why, with proper care and
attention to the business, Pulaski county should not
become one of the largest producers of pure bred
heavy draft horses on this continent.
It is an admitted fact that this section of the coun-
try possess advantages over any part of the West.
Farming land when on the market ranges in price
from $50.00 to $100.00 per acre, according to quality
The present inhabitants of this county are for the
most part, the descendants of the Scotch- Irish
pioneers, who first discovered this little gem in the
mountains, and who here built their humble c abin
houses, and here erected their alters.
The land has descended from father to son until
this, the sun-rise of the twentieth century
60 Pulaski County
MINERAL FEATURES AND
While a county that is primarily agricultural,
Pulaski has its mountain section in which immense
stores of mineral wealth are deposited and which are
the basis of the chief industrial activity.
In the county of Pulaski are Draper's Mountain in
which are the valuable Clayton iron mines owned and
operated by the Pulaski Iron Company, Max Mountain
which contains many rich iron deposits, some of
which are now being operated and others that lie
awaiting the capital and enterprise necessary to
development. And also within the county is Walker's
or Cloyd's Mountain that is rich m both coal and iron
ores. The coal deposits in this section being more
accessible are new profitably operated by the Pulaski
Anthracite Coal Company, the Belle Hampton Coal
Mining Company, and the Bertha Mineral Company.
The 'iron ores of this latter section are as yet
untouched, but form one of the many reserves that
shall contribute to the future development and
prosperity of Pulaski.
The adjoining counties of Wythe and Carroll are
famous for their iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and
lead deposits, and are directly tributary to Pulaski,
being penetrated by th? N)rth Carolina extensions
of the Norfolk and Western Railway, which makes
its junction with the main line at Pulaski. And in
addition may be mentioned the innumerable lime-
stone quarries of this section and the proximity of
the celebrated Pocahontas coal and coke region of
Virginia and West Virginia, which lie within 100
The principal iron ore is of the brown hematite
class and is associated in at least four well recognized
belts extending in a general northeast and southwest
direction. The ores of this zone are of an exception-
62 Pulaski County
ally good quality, rich in metallic iron, showing an
analysis of from 43 to 60 per cent. , are low in phos-
phorus, comparatively free from silicious matter, and
with a generally open cellular structure.
Thus, the occurrence here of a first-class and
cheaply mined ore, the nearness of a magnificent
coking field, with limestone everywhere, with a con-
stant supply of water, surrounded by a fertile agri-
cultural and grazing country capable of supporting
a large population and with numerous sites for manu-
facturing and industrial purposes, the region of
which Pulaski is the center, offers unusual advantages
for the investment of capital.
While great ravages have been made upon the
primitive forests of Southwest Virginia in the last
few years, there still remains a large amount of
timber in the mountains and valleys, for which
Pulaski affords a natural outlet.
Although poplar was once abundant, the great de-
mand in past years has led to its rapid disappearance
but there is still a bountiful supply of oak, white pine
and spruce that is easily accesssble for manufactur-
The great Wilderness forest of Bland County con-
tains millions of feet of the finest of oak and pine
and is yet untouched. This timber product will
naturally come to Pulaski when certain proposed
roads are built.
Max Mountain, near Pulaski, contains an immense
quantity of white pine that is highly valuable for
commercial purposes, and the recent extension by
the Norfolk and Western Railway of its North Caro-
lina branch has opened up large timber areas that
can contribute to a manufacturing supply at this
point. Likewise various tracts of more or less size
all over this entire section will produce for years to
come a sufficient quantity of lumber to maintain
many good working industries.
The lumber industry of Southwest Virginia is one
of large proportions, and Pulaski is so situated as to
receive the product of an aggregate of 250 miles
of railroad within a distance of fifty miles each way
radiating from this point.
L >gs R ;ady for Shipment, Scene at Draper Depot
Pulaski ( 'oiuitv.
66 Pulaski County
INDUSTRIAL FEATURES AND
As will be seen from the foregoing pages, while
Pulaski is primarily an agricultural county, and has a
soil of such character that it will easily raise suffici-
ent products for a large population, there are also
such other resources of various kinds that when
developed will contribute to great industrial possibili-
ties in this section.
With the finest of iron ore, easily accessible, an
abundant supply of timber in oak, white pine, spruce
and other woods, with zinc, lead, copper and other
metals besides the iron already mentioned, with the
innumerable quarries of limestone, sandstone and
other stones for both building and manufacturing
purposes, with an intelligent and prosperous class of
labor, and with all these a splendid farming section
from which to draw at reasonable prices every neces-
sity of life, it can be seen that Pulaski County is
indeed a favored section for the establishment of
many different kinds of industries, and is a field of
commercial enterprise not to be excelled in the South.
It is recognized that growing industries can only
be carried on successfully and economically where
the laborer can be supplied with his daily necessities
at a moderate price, so that in developing any com-
munity the agricultural, commercial and industrial
interest must needs go hand in hand. And with a
county so blessed by Nature as is Pulaski, it requires
only the determined and intelligent development of
its natural resources to make this county stand out in
a class to itself before the world as the bright and
particular star among the counties of Southwest Vir-
ginia, whose future greatness in the industrial world
will only be limited by the amount of intelligent
energy which is expended on it.
Already has considerable progress been made in
the development of this section and in the last twen-
68 Pulaski County
ty-five years the population of the county has been
practically doubled, and this section which a few years
ago was only a farming country with here and there
a few charcoal iron furnaces scattered about at long
distances, is now well settled with a number of young
but thriving industries that are but the beginning of
what will be done when the required capital shall
have been interested and directed with executive
The principal industries of the county are located
at Pulaski, the county seat of Pulaski county, a town
of about 5,000 inhabitants. In 1879 the Altoona Coal
& Iron Company built the Altoona Railroad to its
coal mines in this county about nine miles from
Pulaski. In 1880 the Bertha Zinc Company was or-
ganized and built its first zinc furnaces. The pres-
ent Bertha Mineral Compay is the successor of the
Bertha Zinc Company, and this plant has been in
continuous operation since its first organization and
is today one of the most prosperous of its kind in the
United States, giving employment to a large number
of men at good wages.
The Pulaski Iron Company is the pioneer in the pig
iron production with the modern blast furnace in
Southwest Virginia, having built its large furnace in
1887 which has been in blast continuously ever since
except for such brief periods as was necessary to shut
down for repairs.
The Pulaski Iron Company owns and operates
mines at various places along the Cripple Creek
branch of the Norfolk & Western as well as the Clay-
ton mines within two miles of town. From these it
receives a sufficient supply of ore to produce 150 tons
of the finest pig iron per day. This company also
operates its own coal and coking plant at Eckman,
W. Va., from whence its necessary fuel is received.
The Dora Furnace is a part of the Virginia Iron,
Coal and Coke Company system and is one of its best
70 Pulaski County
and most productive furnaces, When many other
iron furnaces throughout the country were idle the
Dora Furnace at Pulaski was running at full blast.
This plant was originally built in 1890 under the
leadership of Geo. L. Carter and John W. Robinson
but was bought and became an integral part of the
Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company in 1899.
The Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company also
has a large and complete Foundry in connection with
its Dora Furnace, where it does all the repair work
for all of the coal mines, coking operations and all of
of the furnaces of the entire system. The import-
ance and magnitude of this foundry work can be ful-
ly comprehended when it is known that it cares for
all the work of this corporation which has a $10,000,-
The Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Company also
owns and operates at this place one of the best
equipped flouring mills in the State which has rec-
ently been enlarged and refitted with new and the
most improved machinery. Its daily capacity is 150
barrels of flour which is renowned for its excellence
The latest acquisition to Pulaski's furnace interests
bids fair to become one of the largest and most im-
portant plants in this section. This is the Pulaski
Mining Company, whose plant utilizes the sulphurous
iron ore that is found in large quantities in Carroll
County from which it manufactures sulphuric acic as
its principal product and iron cinder as a valuable by-
Already a large plant has been erected at a cost of
several hundred thousand dollars and employment
given to a large number of men. And this company
has now begun to increase its plant and proposes to
double its capacity at once and make still further en-
largements later on.
This is a new industry for this section and its rapid
and permanent development is assured owing to the
abundance of the class of ore used.
72 Pulaski County
In addition to the metal producing plants mentioned
above, there are a number of other industries in the
county including flouring mills, lumber and planing
mills, coal mines and others that are just beginning
to show the possibilities in these different branches
of commercial activity. Chiefly among these are the
Pulaski Roller Mills, the Dublin Roller Mills, the Peak
Creek Roller Mills, located about four miles from
Pulaski, and the roller mills of H. A. Sizer. All of
these are equipped with modern machinery and pro-
duce a high class of mill products. As has already
been mentioned, the wheat raised in Pulaski County
is eagerly sought by all millers, as it produces a
quality of flour that is unsurpassed.
In the business of producing lumber there are a
number of sawmills located in this section, and from
Pulaski, Dublin, Draper and Allkonia, all of which
points are in this county, large shipments are made
and the annual output runs up into the millions of
feet. The one firm alone of J. A. Wilkinson, ship-
ping from Dublin, has an output that reaches from
five to six million feet a year. Located in Pulaski
are the wood working plants of the Rumbarger
Lumber Company and the Trolinger Lumber Com-
pany, preparing for local and domestic markets the
finished products of our forests; but the output of
these industries is by no means adequate to the
Mention has already been made of the coal deposits
that lie in the Northern section of the county in
Cloyd's Mountain, and such development as has
already been made show this to be an excellent
quality of semi-anthracite, and the operations of the
Pulaski Anthracite Coal Com r any and the Belle Hamp-
ton Coal Company, which have lately been installed
with up-to-date equipment-, demonstrate that this
industry is yet in its infancy, and will eventually
become a large source of fuel supply. In addition to
these operations there are sufficient other deposits
and veins to indicate an abundant quantity of this
coal to furnish, when properly developed fuel for both
domestic and. manufacturing purposes.
Stones and Clays,
The deposits of limestone, sandstone, shale, clay
and sand in this county are of excellent quality and
in unlimited abundance. As building stones, the
Partial View oi I'Uiaski iukv.ii from Western portion of town.
limestone, sandstone, and others are of excellent na-
ture, easily quarried, and susceptible of beautiful fin-
ish. There are numerous buildings, including the coun-
ty court-house in this county that attest the value
and beauty of the Pulaski sandstone as a building
stone. Up to this time but little effort has been
made to develop this feature of our resources, but
sufficient investigation has demonstrated that this is
a field which only awaits the enterprising investor
Pulaski County 75
and will yield large return on the capital to put in it.
In the manufacture of Portland cement, lime, red
clay brick, and sandstone brick, there is in this
county every advantage and opportunity to be desired
as all of the necessary material is found in abundant
quantity, and up to this time practically nothing has
been done in this line al chough there is a large local
demand, and in addition large demand from adjoin-
ing sections for these products, and no section is more
favorably situated for their economical manufacture.
In addition to the different classes of industry
already mentioned, there is still nsaiad in this section
factories and manufacturing plants that will work
up into finished products the raw matertal and
natural resources of the county, and among these
are wood-working establishments that use oak,
hickory, white pine, and a number of other kinds of
wood that are found on the mountains of Southwest
Virginia and all of which is within easy reach of
Pulaski. And in view of the large amount of tan
bark that is within reach of this point, it is an ideal
location for a tannery, which is desired and which
will be found profitable.
An immense amount of wool is annually produced
on the surrounding farms and with direct railroad
connection with the cotton fields of the South, and
with abundant natural power and a plentiful supply
of labor for such class of manufacturing, Pulaski
should be an excellent point for the location of cotton
mills, woolen mills, knitting mills and other kindred
The location of metal working plants and such
establishments as produce finished articles in iron,
zinc and lead is sought for this county and the advan-
tages mentioned above equally apply in this case also.
In short there is every reason in the world why
Pulaski should be looked upon most favorably when
the choice of a manufacturing location is to be con-
sidered, for with the immense amount of raw
material that lies at our very doors and an unlimited
supply of natural power that only needs to be har-
nessed by the ingenuity of man, and if steam power
is desired, the proximity of the great Pocahontas
coal fiields from which fuel can be put to this point
at a minimum cost and together with these advan-
tages are to be considered the healthfulness of the
climate and the abundance of labor which can be
Residence of B. C. Hurst, Pulaski.
obtained at a moderate price because of the fact
that the cost of living together with the educational
and social advantages of a high order are within the
reach of all persons of an average income.
Nearly every part of Pulaski County lies adjacent
Pulaski County 77
to the Norfolk & Western Railroad which traverses
the county with three lines, and there are some
eight or ten depots located at various points affording
abundant facilities for the marketing of products and
locations for the establishment of enterprise. The
town of Pulaski is located at the junction of the main
line of the Norfolk & Western and the North Caro-
lina branch of the same road that runs for nearly 100
miles through the counties of Wythe, Carroll and
Grayson and bring the products of these counties
into Pulaski. Pulaski is also one of the principal
stations on the main line from Norfolk to Bristol and
therefore has the advantage of a Southern outlet on
two sides together with the additional advantages of
easy access to the markets of Washington, Baltimore,
Philadelphia and New York, and it will be seen from
its location that Pulaski affords unusual advantages
for wholesale and jobbing houses because as a dis-
tributing center thousands of people can easily be
reached at small expense of freight and other items.
There are now located in Pulaski two wholesale
grocery houses and one wholesale hardware house,
together with two commission and brokerage estab-
lishments, but the field is yet open for numerous
other lines such as dry goods, boots, shoes, etc.
Pulaski County 79
WATER POWER SITES IN PULASKI
Big Reed Island Creek, a large, ever-flowing
stream, with a water site having a clear fa]
feet. This site has been purchased by the town of
Pulaski at a sum approximating $5000 for the pur-
pose of constructing a hydrc-electric power plant.
The minimum horse power of 1000 will be utilized in
the beginning. Of the above amount, 250 horse
power will be used for lighting the streets of Pulaski
and furnishing house lighting to private consumers
of the town and the balance furnished to manufac-
turers. By raising the dam of this site, 2000 or 2500
horse pow T er can be developed (within 14 miles of the
The Wheeler Site is within six miles of Pulaski
on New River. By taking of an island with a portion
of the river only dammed, 800 horse power can be
gotten. By damming across the stream, 5000 horse
power can be easily developed.
Peak Creek Near Alliance Mill, six miles from
Pulaski, 250 horse power can be developed at a very
Big Walker's Creek, twelve miles from Pulaski,
800 to 1000 horse power is available. This is on a
stream with a fine flow of water, and is a most valua-
Reed Island Creek, twelve miles from Pulaski,
800 horse power can be developed easily at reasonable
On New River, within distances ranging from 10
to 14 miles from Pulaski, there are at least three
other fine water power sites, each capable of furnish-
ing several thousand available horse power.
Although Pulaski County is small and has only
about 345 square miles of area with about 17,000
population, it is well supplied with educational
facilities, and has more than fifty school houses with
about 85 teachers that form the public school system
of the county, and moreover its location affords easy
Country Home of Maj. W. W. Bexteey, Pulaski County.
:access£to£ theTgreaterJ schools [ofJthelState that are
devoted to higher and special education. The Vir-
ginia'Polytechnic Institute is at Blacksburg, not over
twenty miles from the county's eastern border. The
University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Washington
and Lee University at Lexington are both within a
few hours' ride of Pulaski
A moment's study of the following figures will
show the condition of^the public schools in this
county: ■ , ■ rr ' - * <i^
( lountry Ile-idei
Draper, Pulaski County.
Summary of Report of Public School System in Pulaski
County, Session 1906-1907.
Public School Buildings .... 50
Public School Teachers . . .85
Schools Doino: High School Work . . 14
Number of White Pupils Enrolled . . 2,800
* Number of Colored Pupils Enrolled . . 620
Total Number 3,420
Value of Public School Property . . $59,800
Amount Paid for Teachers . . . $16,000
Total Amount Paid for Support of .
Public School System . . . $19,400
Average Salary of Teachers . . $35.00
*The white and colored schools are separate, the
colored having teachers of its own race.
Pulaski County is also well furnished with splendid
private schools, and notable among them are the
Dublin Institute at Dublin, and the St. Albans School
for boys near Radford, besides others'at the county
Dublin Institute is located on a beautiful eminence
overlooking the thriving town of Dublin, t Virginia,
and is one of the most prosperous preparatoryiSchools
Country Home of Francis Bell, Pulaski County.
in the State. Last session the enrollment reached
227 students and the graduating class numbered 21
students. Nearly all th33e graduates will enter our
best colleges and universities, all of which give due
credit to the work done at the Dublin Institute.
The Institute is co-educational, and has separate
dormitories for the girls and boys. An unique fea-
88 Pulaski County
ture of the school is to be instituted with the opening
of next session; the younger boys are to be given a
dormitory to themselves, and for them a handsome,
commodious building is now being erected. The
faculty of teachers, who are men and women of large
experience, and represent our best colleges and uni-
Country Home of A. C. Sjm.tts, Pulaski County.
versities, live with the pupils at the dormitories, and
exercise a most faithful and sympathetic guardian-
ship over them at all times. The superior advantages
and moderate rates maintained at the Institute will
continue to increase the enrollment. $144 pays all
expenses for full session of nine months.
There are all told afccut fifly churches in Fulaski
County, with 35 white congregations and 15 colored.
Among the white race the various denominations
are represented as follows: Southern Methodist, 15
congregations; Presbyterians, 8; Missionary Baptist,
4; Diciples, 6; Lutherans, 1; Freewill Baptist, 2;
Apostolic, 1; Episcopalian, 1.
The church property in the county is easily worth
Country Home of J. Howe Kent, Pulaski County.
$150,000, and with not less than twenty resident
ministers in the county, there is good reason why
Pulaski has so good a moral record and is an ideal
place for a home.
There are three banks in Fulaski County as fol-
lows: The Pulaski National Bank, Pulaski; The
Peoples Bank of Pulaski, Pulaski, and The Bank of
Pulaski County at Dublin. They are all strong insti-
tutions and well officered by men of experience, and
do a large business throughout the county. The total
assets of the three reach close to $5C0,CC0.
Country Heme of D. M. Cloyd, Pulaski County.
The government of Virginia counties is simple and
has been reduced to the minimum of expense com-
patible with good government.
Pulaski County is divided into four magisterial dis-
tricts with a supervisor for each, and these al-
together form a Board of Supervisors, which have
Country Home of J. R. K. Bell, Pulaski County.
the general management of the county's finances and
The Supervisors are R. M. Chumbley, New River,
Dublin District, Chairman; P. R. Hicks, Pulaski,
Pulaski District; E. T. Pratt, Draper, Newbern Dis-
trict, and W. H. Showalter, Snowville, Hiawassie
The other officers of the county are Clerk of Cir-
cuit Court, Jesse N. Bosang, Pulaski; Common-
wealth's Attorney, John S. Draper; Treasurer, J. F.
Wysor, Pulaski; Sheriff, Joseph Graham, Draper;
Commissioner of Revenue, W. R. Crockett, Draper;
Superintendent of Public Instruction, D. S. Pollock,
Country Home of H. B. Howe, Pulaski County.
Wealth and Taxation.
The assessed property valuation of Pulaski County,
which contains 345 square miles, is about $3,250,000,
and it is conceded that the assessed value is about
one-third of its cash value, thus making the wealth of
the county approximately $10,000,000, and the total
tax rate on the assessed valuation does not exceed li
per cent. Thus with a low assessment and a low
rate of taxation, the investor avoids the large ex-
pense incurred in this item at many other places.
fc gy g Country Home of E. D. Withrow, Pulaski County.
Pulaski cordially invites all persons desiring good
locations for business enterprises, either large or
small, to consider her advantages and opportunities,
and her gates are open to welcome all comers to join
the industrial and commercial activity that is rapidly
making Pulaski the progressive leader of Southwest
Parties desiring specific information are requested
to wr ite J. W. Miller, Secretary of Pulaski Board of
Trade, Pulaski, Va.
Pulaski of Board Trade.
Any persons desiring further information concern-
ing this county and its resources, can obtain same^cy
writing to any of the following officers of the Pulaski
Board of Trade, Pulaski, Virginia: J. A. Van Mater,
president; L. S. Calfee, vice-president; J. W. Miller,
Country Home of R.iC.Boothe, Pulaski County.
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