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Full text of "Punjabi Musalmans"

^C. Co-nperanve Marke 

V.ctona Road. KARACHI 

^Yest Pakistan. 



PUNJABI 
MUSALMANS 



Lt. Col. J.M. Wikeley 



Second Edition 



THE BOOK HOUSE 



8, Trust Building P.O. Box 734, 
LAHORE. 



Price Bs. 7-50 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 

1 'Punjabi Musalmans' by Captain Hamilton. 

2 The Gazetteers of the Punjab and North 
Western Frontier Province. 

3 Census Report 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1931, 

4 Tod's 'Rajasthan'. -\ ^ 

5 Thompson's 'History of India'. 

6 Elphinstone's 'History of India'. '^ I 

7 McGrindle's 'Ancient India' Vj ^ 

? Handbooks an 'Rajputs, Jats and Gujars . 

9 Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the 
Punjab and North Western Frontier 
Province. 

10 'The Gypsies of India' by Mackeritchie. 

11 'A History of the Muglia:l&=^:egatt£' Asia' 
by N. Elias and 




Printed By : Muhammad Saeed Sheikh at ACCURATE PRINTERS 
And Publisaed by Him fOR THE BOOK HOUSE, LAHORE. 



The aim in produciug this 
book is to put into an easily accessible 
form and as much informative as possi- 
ble concerning the history, customs 
etc., of the people of Punjab who have 
embraced Islam. This book gives the 
origin and history of almost all the 
important Punjabi Tribes. 

Publisher 





CONTENTS 




Chapter I : 


Punjabi Musalmans. 


Page 
1 


Chapter II : 


Sketch of the History of the 
Punjab. 


13 


Chapter III : 


History of Islam. 


25 


Chapter IV : 


Customs and Ceremonies of the 
Punjabi Musalmans. 


47 


Chapter V : 


Distribution of Tribes— Short 
Accounts of Punjabi Musalman 
Tribes. 


65 



Chapter VI : 

A Breif Account of Cis Indus 
Pathans and Tribes peculiar to 
Hazara District N. W. F. P and 
akin to Pathans. 151 



PUNJABI MUSALMANS 

Chapter I 

The term Punjabi Musalmans roughly describes 
those Muslim Classes and Tribes which are to be found m 
that portion of the Punjab and North West Frontier Pro- 
vince which lies between the Indus and the Sullej Rivers 
to the South of the main Himalavan Range. This includes 
Hazara District, portion of Jammu and Poonch (Kash- 
mir territory), and the Hill Tracts of Rawalpindi District. 

2. Four Main Divisions of Punjabi iVlusaltnaas. 

Punjabi Musalmans may be classed under four 
main heads : — 



(0 


1. 


Rajputs. 


(//) 


2. 


Jats. 


(/•//) 


3. 


Gujars. 


(/v) 


4. 


Others. 



3. The history of the Punjab until the commence- 
ment of the Muhammadan invasions in A. D, 1001 is 
fragmentary and incomplete, interrupted by long periods 
of which we have no definite record. Certain incidents 
stand out as recorded facts and establish historical land- 
marks. Between these, nations, races and dynasties appear 
and disappear, leaving but faint traces of their existence 
to be unravelled by the Archaeological experts from their 
coins and inscriptions on stone and brass. 

4. Origin of Punjabi Musalman Tribes. 

Most Punjabi Musalman tribes trace their origin to 



periods prior to the Muhammadan invasions, others claim 
fanciful or mythical ancestors, while the remainder are 
satisfied that they came into the country with the 
Muhammadan conquerors. The traditionsof their past are, 
as a rule, handed down by the tribal 'mirasis' who record 
in song the exploits of their heroes. These bards keep 
the tribal genealogical tree, the roots of which extend 
back to some legendary hero : in some cases even to 
Adam. 

In the absence of more satisfactory records we have 
generally to accept these statements, where they are not 
at variance with the opinion of ethnological authorities. 

In chapter V there is a short account of each tribe, 
based on these sources of information. Only those tribes 
or sub-tribes are dealt with which are of some interest. 

Below is the description of the four main divisions 
mentioned in paragraph 2. 

R A .1 P U T S 

Aryan Origin of Rajputs. 

All 'Rajputs' claim Aryan origin and this claim has 
been accepted as correct by mosi ethnological authorities. 
Their common birth dates back, however, to so remote 
a past, that the term Rajput now describes races 
which are most dis-similar. The effects of time, claimate, 
and political vicissitudes have wrought great changes in 
the various branches of the race. We now find the Rajputs 
of Rajputhana differ greatly from the Rajputs of South- 
ern Punjab and these again from the Rajputs of the 
. North West portion of that province. In Punjab there 
are many types of the race, distinguished from one an- 



other by their moral and physical characteristics, and 
possessing, in varying degrees, the qualities which make 
good soldiers. 

The Aryan descent of all Rajputs cannot be said to 
have been established beyond dispute, and it is probable 
that some, at least, of the Rajput tribes are of Scythian or 
Hun origin. It seems likely that most of the Punjabi Musal- 
man Rajputs are sprung from this source, for they belong 
chiefly to the Agnicular or 'Fire-born" tribes. "These 
are generally considered to have been Scythian v^arriors 
who assisted the Brahmans in their final struggle with the 
Buddhists, and were admitted into the ranks of the 'twice- 
born' as a reward for their services to Hinduism. The 
title 'Fire-born' was bestowed on them in order to disting- 
uish them from the original Rajput races which claim 
descent from the Sun and Moon." 

The word Rajputs is derived as follows : — 

The Aryans having settled down in the lands they 
had won from the Dravidians, the aboriginal race, 
improved in civilization and by a process of natural selec- 
tion gradually resolved themselves into three classes : — 

(1) The Barhman, or priestly class. 

(2) The Kshatriya, i.e., Rajput or governing and 
military caste, composed of the Maharajas and 
their warrior kinsmen and companions, whose 
duty it was to fight, rule and administer 
justice, and protect the community in general. 

(3) The Vaisiya, or trading and agricultural caste, 
now represented by the Bunnia. 



Rajput a Social Grade. 

The Rajput therefore represented the aristocracy, and 
the word implies this distinction to this day. So much 
so is the case that Rajput in the Punjab has come to 
mean a social grade rather than an ethnological term. 

The decennial censuses show how many tribes endeav- 
our to substantiate their claim to high social position by 
returning themselves as 'Rajput', numbers of whom have 
no title to that distinction. Others have fallen io J at 
status owing to their non-observance of those social laws 
recognised as necessary for the retention of their position 
as Rajputs. Many tribes have both a Rajput and a Jat 
branch, while others rank as Rajputs in one district and 
Jats in another. 

So clearly is this social position of the Rajput reco- 
gnised, that it is common to find men adding the word 
fiajput to the name of their tribe, even when the tribe is 
well known to have no claim whatever to Rajput origin ; 
It implies that the man considers himself to be of Rajput 
status. 

Pride of Race or Tribe. 

The Punjabi Musalman Rajput as a Rajput has what 
may be called a "pride of tribe' of which he is most 
tenacious and which he maintains by strict adherance to 
the rules which govern his marriage customs. He does 
not look on himself as a Rajput first and then as a 
Gakhar, or a Janjua or an Awan, but as member of one of 
these tribes first, and then as Sahu or as Rajput which 
entitles him to a certain social position. It is his tribe 
which distinguishes him and of which he is a proud 



member. This is a feeling which it is important to foster. 
He will not give his women in marriage to members of 
any tribe which is regarded as lower in the social scale 
than his own. As a rule he will not undertake menial 
labour, unless driven thereto by stress of circumstances. 
Those Punjabi Musalman tribes which have become lax 
in the observance of these social laws have inevitably 
fallen from the rank of Rajput to that of Jat. 

The Aristocracy of the Rajput. 

The Punjabi N'lusalman Rajputs belong to the aristo- 
cracy of the Punjab, and though a few other tribes con- 
sider themselves their equals, there are, with the exception 
of the Sayads and the Gakhhars, none that rank above 
them. 

Conversion to Islam. 

The general conversion of the Muslim Rajputs from 
Hinduism is supposed to have taken place towards the 
end of the 13th or early in the 14th century A. D. The 
Muslim conquests undoubtedly accelerated this change 
of religion, but the preaching of several renowned Muslim 
Saints, especially Bawa Farid of Pakpattan and Syed Ali 
Hijveri (Data Gunj Bakhsh) of Lahore, whose eloquence 
drew large numbers to hear them, helped considerably to 
this end. 

Separation of the Hindu Rajput from the 
Musalman Rajput. 

Prior to the Muslim conquests the who4e of the 
Punjab and Northern India was ruled by the Rajput 
princes. The decissive battles of Thanesur, Kanouj and 
Benares fought by Muhammad Ghori in 1193 A. D. 



against the Rajputs and Rathors, broke up their power 
and their effective combination. A great immigration of 
Rajputs into Marwar and Northern and Western Rajputana 
then followed, and in that quarter they became the ruling 
race ; there they retained their independence and religion, 
and the final separation between the two branches (Hindu 
and Muslim) was then complete. 

Military service is looked on by the best Punjabi 
Muslim Rajputs in their true 'Metier', and all the best 
known families have given their sons to the Army. 

J ATS 

Origin. 

The origin of the people known as Jats in the North 
Western Punjab, and as Jats East and South of the Sutlej, 
has been the subject of much learned discussion by 
ethnological authorities, and very divergent views have 
been expressed. No degree of certainty has been reached, 
and what the Jats are, or whence they came, is still an 
historical problem which remains to elucidated by 
archeaological or other antiquarian research. 

Conjectures as to Origin of Jats. 

The Jats have been identified by one writer with the 
gypsies of Europe, another makes their original home in 
the Mesoootamian marshes, others again consider them to 
be the descendants of the Jatii, Getae and other Scythian 
races, which entered India about the beginning of the 
Christian era. Recent opinion, however, leads to the 
conjecture that at no time has there been a J at or Jaat race 
as distinct from the Rajput race. It is probable that both 
have spung from the same Ayran stock. 



"Jat" Signifies Social Status. 

Whatever the origin of the term Jat may be, it now 
signifies in the North Western Punjab an occupation or 
degree of social status, rather than a tribe or race. Rajputs 
represent the highest social grade while Jats may be con- 
sidered to rank next to them. 

The term Jat is also used to describe an occupation : 
in one locality it means the cultivator or "Jat Zamindar", 
in another it is applied to the camel-driver, and elsewhere 
to cattle graziers. Jats are essentially tillers of the soil 
and as cultivators they superior to Rajputs. 

Jat Claim to Rajput Descent. 

In fact, most Jat tribes trace their origin from Rajput 
status, and ascribe their fall in social rank to the mesal- 
liance of some Rajput prince or princess with a person 
of lower grade. To lay down a common ancestry for all 
Punjabi Musalman Jats and to describe them as distinc- 
tive race, is warranted by neither historical facts, tribal 
legends, nor distinctive physiognomy. The majority of 
the traditions of the Jat tribes in the Punjab point to 
their being recent arrivals in the land of their adoption. 

Stability for the Army. 

From a recruiting point of view Jats vary consider- 
ably according to the locality in which they are found. 
While in one district they are not good, in another they 
are well worthy of consideration. The Muslim Jats of 
the Eastern Punjab and the districts bordering on it, are 
a very different people to the Jats of the North West, 
and these again from the Jats of Multan. 



8 

Jats often to be Prefered to Rajputs. 

There are Jat tribes which in every way, physique, 
spirit and manhness, are to be prefered as soldiers to 
others of Rajput status. 

Mention of Jats in History. 

Subsequent to the first Muhammadan invasions we 
find the Jats frequently mentioned in history. In 1024 
A. D. Mahmud of Ghazni had great difiiculty in over- 
coming the Jats of Sind, and he is said to have finally 
reduced them after a naval engagement near Multan, 
presumably on the Chenab. It is probable, however, 
that the word Jat has been used in a very loose sense by 
the historians who relates this event. In 1658 A. D. the 
Jats appear as valuable allies to Aurangzeb in the 
troubled times that followed the deposition of 
Shah Jehan. Babar mentions the Jats of the Salt Range 
in his memoirs. 

Good Physique of Jats. 

In the area where water is scarce, the Jats are a 
pastoral people owning in one place cattle, in another 
camels. The opening of the great Punjab canals has 
effected them greatly and now they are well-to-do culti- 
vators. Their occupations, especially in localities where 
they have led a pastoral life, have affected their physique 
favourably; they are, as a rule, heavy thickest men with 
good chests. Their mental equipment is also now ap- 
preciable due to their paying attention to Education. 

Conversion to Islam. 

It is uncertain when the Jats and Gujars of the 
Punjab embraced Islam, but when Baber invaded India in 



1525 A. D. he found that in the Salt Range they had been 
subdued by the Awans, Janjuas and other Rajput tribes, 
which had adopted the Muslim religion; we may con- 
clude therefore that they ware Muslims. Punjabi 
Musalman Jats have been, and still are, democratic in 
their tribal arrangements. 
PUNJABI MUSALMAN GUJARS 

Origin, 

While the /ar/7 and Getae were moving into India 
from the Kandahar valley, another Scythian tribe called 
the Yuch-Chi, whose modern representatives are the 
Gujars, had established themselves in Kabul, Kashmir and 
the Northern Punjab, where their settlements may be traced 
in the names of places and districts such as Gujranvvala 
and Gujrat. Before the end of the 3rd century a portion 
of Yuch-Chi had begun to move Southward and were 
shortly afterwards separated from their Northern brethren 
by the advance of the Getae or Jats from the Bolan. 

As has before been noticed, the distinction between 
Jats, Gujars and Rajputs is probably social rather than 
ethnic. Those families of the Aryo-Scythian stock whom 
the tide of fortune raised to political importance, became 
Rajputs, almost by virtue of their rise, and their descend- 
ants have retained the title with the privileges by 
observing the rules by which the higher are distinguished 
from the lower castes in Hindu scale of precedence ; by 
refusing to intermarry with families of inferior rank ; by 
rigidly abstaining from widow-marriage ; and by refrain- 
ing from menial and degrading occupations. Those who 
transgressed these rules fell from their high estate and 
were reduced, some to the grade of Jats or cultivators, 
others to that of Gujar or herdsman. 



10 

Gurjara Empire, 

Indian history also mentions an obscure tribe known 
as the Gurjaras who apparently flourished in the North 
West for the short period about the 3rd or 4fh century 
A. D. One authority fixes as Gurjara Empire, with its 
capital at Kanauj and embracing nearly the whole of 
Northern India, about A. D. 840 under Bhojal. This 
tribe is supposed to be of Scythian or Hun origin. It 
seems more than probable that the words Gujar, Gujrat 
and Gujarat are derived fro.n this source. But the origin 
in history of the Gujaras is so obscure that no definite 
statement can be made on the subject. 

Gujars, a Pastoral People. 

The Gujars as a race have always been recognised 
as a past ral people, and the larger portion of them 
occupy themselves with the herding of cattle, sheep and 
goats. They are found throughout the Punjab ; in some 
localities they belong to the resident population and 
combine cultivation of land with the herding of cattle, in 
others they are purely nomadic. As already mentioned 
the Punjabi Musalman Gujars were probably converted 
to the Muslim faith during the 15th Century A. D. The 
Punjabi Musalman Gujar is a patient tiller of the soil, 
arid his physique is good. As in the case of Punjabi 
Musaimau Jats it is impossible to describe the charac- 
teristics of all Punjabi Musalman Gujars as being alike. 
Both vary with the locality in which we find them, and 
the ocupation which they follow. The education standard 
of this tribe is now raising. 

OTHER TRIBES 

Among Punjabi Musalmans there are certain tribes 



11 

which claim to be of other origin than that of Rajput, 
Jat or Gujar. Those may be classed as Foreign tribes 
as there advent into India is of comparatively recent date. 
They came with the Muslim conquerers and have always 
been Musalmans by religion. 

Arab Invasion of Sind. 

The Arabs were the first Muslim conquerers o\ 
India ; they appeared in Sind during 8th century A D. 
having landed at a point near the site of Modern Karachi. 
They overcame the Brahmans and, leaving a garrison 
behind, marched up the Right bank of Indus. Defeating 
Brahman armies en route they finally captured Multan. 

No Punjabi Musalman tribes appear to claim descent 
from these Arabs, though it may be that with these 
adventures came the first Sayads and Koreshis. 

Awans and Gakkhars. 

Mahmud of Gazni was the next Muslim Conquerer 
of India (1001 A. D.). Several tribes, notably the 
Gakkhars and Awans claim to have come with him, 
through it is difi^ieult to reconcile their statements with 
historical records of the time. 

Turks and Mughuls. 

Both Timur and Babar brought Turks and Mughals 
with them. From the latter a number of tribes claim to 
be descended, and it is now the fashion for many Punjabi 
Musalman tribes to call themselves Mughals. Among 
these are the Khattars, Kassars, Ghebas and others. Of 
the Turks but few remain, a single tribe in Hazara being 
the sole representative. 

Persians. 

The Gakkhars are the only tribe which claims 



12 

Persian origin. If we except Darius who sent an ex- 
pedition to fndia about 500 B. C, the only Persian 
monarch who invaded India was Nadir Shah in 1739 
A. D. He came and went, but leaving no garrison and 
no Persian rule. 

Sayads, Koreshis and Sheikhs. 

The Sayads and Koreshis are Arabs, the former being 
the direct descendants of the Prophet's tribe, the ancient 
guardian of the "Kaaba" at Mecca. Both tribes have 
many branches, which claim to have come into India at 
different periods. 

Shiekhs. 

The only caste which includes miscellaneous converts 
is the "Sheikh", which is really a title of respect and was 
applied originally to the Arab spirtual guides. 

These tribes have little to distinguish them from 
the ordinary Punjabi Musalman Rajput : except in 
rare instances (especially among true Moghals) their 
physiognomy and characteristics are those of the people 
among whom they lies. 

A further account of them will be found in Chapter V. 

Pathans. 

Inhabiting Hazara District, North West Frontier 
Province, and the banks of the Indus in Attock and 
Mianwali Districts are purely Pathan tribes and tribes 
allied to Pathans. 

These tribes are fully dealt with in Chapter VI. 



Chapter 11 

SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF THE PUNJAB 

The history of the Punjab before the advent of the 
Muslims, is a record of legendary events, obscure dynas- 
ties and foreign invasions, the sequence of which has 
not yet to be clearly established. 

It is difficult to fix definitely when legend ends and 
true history begins. 

The first event which stands out as a solid historical 
fact, recorded by trustworthy writers, is the campaign 
of Alexander the Great, in B. C. 327-324. 

Before this (with the exception of the Persian expedi- 
tion under Syklax), we have to rely for our knowledge 
on the legends contained in the Vedas ; after it, the scanty 
information we possess has been obtained from the coins 
and inscriptions found in various parts of the country, 
and, for short periods, from the memoirs of two Chinese 
writers. 

The record of the expedition under Syklax was 
found in Persia, and is contained in two inscriptions. 
The force was sent out by Darius 1 of Persia between 
521 and 484 B. S. It passed through the Punjab and 
Syklax "Fitting out a Fleet of boats, navigated the Indus 
to its mouth and utlimately returned home by a sea 
route". (Thompson). 

He thus anticipated Alexander's similar movement 
by over 160 years. A portion of the Punjab is supposed 

13 



14 

to have formed a Satrapy of the Persian Empire of 
Darius, and later it may have been included in the 
Achaemenian Empire of that country. 

Many centuries before this the Aryans are supposed 
to have entered India from the North West. They came 
in succeeding hordes which followed each other at great 
intervals of time. 

Until recently the approximate date of those immig- 
rations was fixed at between 2,000 and 1,003 B. C, but 
Pandit Hari Kishan Kaul, in his "Report on the Census 
of 1911", has antedated the Aryan invasion by 3,i00 
years, and fixes the date of the first Aryan movement as 
being not later than 5 000 B. C. This learned writer's 
conclusions are based on Count Bjournstjerna's 
"Theogany of the Hindus", and are further strengthened 
by certain dates, fixed astrologically, in the Vedas. 

"That ancient Bactrian documents called t h e 
"Dabistan" found in Kashmir by Sir W. Jones gives a 
list of Bactrian kings, who were Hindus whose first king 
reigned in Bactria, 5,000 years before Alexander's expedi- 
tion to India. And what would thus prove that India 
was linked with Bactria, and enjoyed a splendid civiliza- 
tion 6,000 B. C./or nearly 8,000 years ago." 

We know very little of the Aryans, and all we do 
know has gathered from the ancient Hindu documents, 
the Rig Veda. 

We learn that the Aryans overcame the aboriginal 
tribes, whom they drove before them as they penetrated 
into the country. 

These aborigines have been named Dravidians : 



15 

nothing is, however, known about them, and their origin 
is hid in the mists of antiquity. The wild and semi- 
wild tribes of India, such as Sonthals and the Bhils and 
others, are supposed to be their descendants. 

It is probable that a large portion of the Dravidians 
became subjects of Aryans, and an inter-mixture of blood 
may have taken place. 

Each successive swarm of the Aryans pushed their 
predecessors further into India, East and South. 

The Aryans founded the Hindu religion and divided 
themselves into three great branches or castes: — 

The Brahmans— the Kushtriyas— and the Vaisiyas, 
which represented the Priestly caste, the Ruling or 
Fighting caste and the Trading or working caste. 

The country was divided into principalities, under 
different rulers who waged war on one another. 

Hinduism was the religion of the country, and the 
Brahmans paramount, until the 4th Century B. C. when 
a change came. Gautama, the Buddha, commenced his 
teaching, Budhism increased rapidly, rose to its zenith 
under Asoka— 272-231 B. C— and remained the popular 
religion for over 600 years. 

In 327 B. C. Alexander the Great appeared on the 
scene. His Army entered India in two columns, the 
first followed the Kabul river into the Peshawar valley 
and established itself on the right bank of the Indus 
near Attock, where a bridge to span the river was com- 
menced. 

Alexander led the second column through the moun- 



16 

tainous country north of the Peshawar velly and the 
Yusufzai plains: the brave tribes of these hills were over- 
come and the flank of the great Army made secure. 
Crossing the Indus, Alexander entered the kingdom of 
Ambhi, who reigned over the territories lying between 
that river and the Jhelum, and who had already tendered 
his submission. The Macedonians were guests rather 
than conquerers while at Taxila, the capital of Ambhi's 
kingdom. Taxila has been indentified with the ruin 
mounds near Shah-ki-Dheri in the Rawalpindi district, 
and extensive excavations are now in progress on the 
former site of this city, under the direction of the 
Archaeological department. 

A very complete account of Taxila, its institutions, 
religion and learning has been recorded by Aryan, the 
historian of Alexander's campaign. The brilliant exploits 
which followed and their termination in the death of 
Alexander while in Persia, are too well known to need 
further record here. 

The effects of the campaign were but transitory, and 
the history of the Punjab was unaffected by them. The 
Bralimanical chronicles do not even meation Alexander's 
name, though his fame is established throughout Muslim 
Asia. 

The Macedonian garrisons were driven out of the 
country or submerged by 324 B. C. 

All the time of Alexander's visit the Punjab appears 
to have been under the rule of three kings, the names — 
Ambhi, Porus and Mousikanos have come down to us. 
The Mouryas dynasty, which consolidated these terri- 
tories under one throne, and which ruled the Punjab 



17 

(as well as a great portion of India), came in with 
Chandra Gupta in 321 B. C. and lasted for about 90 
years. The great Budhhist king Asoka, belonged to this 
line, and has left lasting monuments of his piety in ihe 
edicts, named after him, and found throughout India. 

Then followed the Bactrians, Parthias, and Kushan 
dynasties, which bring us into the third century of our 
era. 

The Bactrians had attained a considerable degree of 
Greek civilization, and their ruling classes were 
Macedonian and Greek. Their princes appaar to have 
ruled the Punjab from the fall of the Mauryan dynasty 
until about the end of the second century B. C, when 
the Parthians came on the scene. 

The Parthians came from the country to the South- 
east of the Caspian Sea, and are described as a nation 
of fierce horsemen. They were followed in the first 
century A. D. by the Kushan emperors, who belonged to 
that section of a people known as the Yuch-chi. 

The best known of these emperors was Kanishka, 
whose empire included Bactria, Afghanistan, Kashmir 
and Eastern Turkistan as well as the Punjab. Kanishka, 
like Asoka, encourged Buddhism, and his name as 
celebrated in China and Tibet as that of Ashoka in 
Burma and Ceylon. His capital was at Peshawar, then 
known as Purushapura. 2nd Century A. D. has been 
fixed as being the period in which this monarch reigned. 

During the 3rd and 4th centuries A. D. the history 
of the Punjab is shrouded in obscurity. The Gupta 
dynasty, commencing with a second Chandra Gupta, 



IS 

appeared in the south, about 320 A. D., but the PunjJb 
does not seem to have come under its sway. 

" The White Huns entered the Punjab early in the 6th 
century and remained in power until about the year 530 
A. l>. Their capital was Sakala, now iden'ified with 
Sialxot, and their best known kings were Tdramana and 
Mihiragula, of whom the latter overraij Kashmir. 

These Huns "were akin to those other Huns, who 
cavaged-the e:9stjofEyropg and) spread theiir terror far 
and wide ^.by , the-, j^ayagery of ila^eir . manaers . and . the- 
uncouthne^ss of their , appearance. ; ThBy;, were ai race J>i 
the Mongolian t\pe with'the high icheek" bones, sunkieni 
eyes and snub noses." (Thompson's fiistoryof India). 
With them were associated, •in some obscure manner, a 
peo Te known as the Guriara. 

.■■ ' \- ' ■' ' -;• . ' . >.. , ^ , 

Though the power of the Huns did not last long, 
th.^y left their mark on the histor . "And' added a new 
clement to the population of India". (Thompson). One 
of the Royal clans of Rajpuiana— the Hunas. may possibly 
be their descendants, and a small Rajput tribe in the 
Punjab is known as Hun. 

The Gurjara are supposed by some to be the ances- 
tors of the Gujars and have left their name in— Gujar 
Khan, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Gujarat: The downfall 
of the Huns was accomplished by the Yaso'dharman, 
whose name only has come down to us. A gap of about 
100 years follows this obscure event. This period 
Budhhism lost its place as the popular religion of the 
country, and the Brahmans again raised Hindiism in its, 
former position and themselves to power. This change 
was not brought about by peaceful methods alone, and 



19 

the Agnicular or "Fire-born" Rajputs tribes are said to 
have owed their admission into the fold for the help they 
gave to the Brahmans during their struggle for superniacy. 

After the Huns— 630 A. D. —The Punjab appears to 
have come under the rule of petty Rajput princes, who 
parcelled out the country into small independent states, 
of which, early in the 8th century, the most important 
had their capital at Garh Gajni (Rawalpindi), Si.tlkot, 
and Lahore. The Hindu kings of . Kashmir probably 
ruled a part of it until the end of the 9th century, vvheti 
the Northwest Punjab west of the river Jhelum, came 
under the Brahman rulers of Kabul, known as Shahi 
kings. It was these kings whom Sabuttagin, the first of 
the Ghaznawid (Muslim) dynasty overcame. 

In 712 A. D. Islam made its first appearance in 
the country with Arab conquerors of Sindh. 

The Arabs under Muhammad Bin Kasim, a cousin 
of the Governer of the province BabyloniEi, under jthe 
country npar modern Karachi. A portion of tlKir.ifarce 
came gverland ^hile the rei^aindpi; wer(?,cpnveyed. by an 
Arab fleet Overcoming the Hindu Kings they pi^rched 
up the right bank of the Indus, an'd finally established 
themselves at'M'ultain. "The Afab soldiers renamed in 
Sindh, where they formed Military colonies and settled 
down in permanent occupancy. When the powers of the 
Khalif of Baghdad and of the Provincial Governor 
declined, the local rulers became independent. From 
about the year 879 A. D. there were Sultans reigaingat 
Mansura and Multan." (Thompson's: History of India) 
Their power did not however, last long, and their adveat 
made little or no change in the religion of the country. 



20 

Sabuktagin, the first of the Ghaznawids, added Kabul 
and Peshawar, to his dominions, and defeated Jaipal. 
King of Lahore, at Lamghan in 988 A. D. He was 
succeeded by his son, Mahmud of Ghazni, in 988 A.D., 
and followed the Muslim conquerors of India. Mahmud 
«s said to have undertaken 17 campaigns against India. 
Mahmud's first great battle was against Jaipal, who had 
suffered defeat at the hands of his father in 988 A. D. 
The tight is believed to have taken place on the Chach 
plain near Hazro on the Indus. The Gakkhars, at that 
time a very powerful race, who held all the hilly country 
Jrom the Margalla pass to the Jhelum, made an impetuous 
change with 30,000 men on Mahmud's camp and almost 
decided the fate of the day in favour ot Jaipal, but 
Mahmud averted disaster and won the battle. In the 
year 1009 A. D. Mahmud met the Rajput confederacy 
under Anandpal, the son ot" Jaipal, at Bhaimda, and for 
the second time the Gakkhars were nearly succeeding in 
turningthe scale in favour of Rajputs when. Anandpal's 
elephant, which had been wounded, bolted from the field, 
and the Hindus concluding that their leader was fleeing, 
gave away. Mahmud thus won his second great victory. 

Miihmud was succeeded by his son Muhammad, who 
was early deposed by Masud, another son, and put to 
death in 1030 A. D. Masud emulated his father with 
but poor success, and lost most of the territory he had 
won: Ghazni and a portion of the Punjab alone remained. 

The Ghaznawids were expelled from Ghazni in 1 155 
A.D. by Ala-ud-din Ghori, and the last of them took refuge 
in Lahore where he was captured by Muhammad Ghori 
in 1185 A. D. 

Muhammad Ghori, also known as Shahab-ud-din 



21 

Ghori, was a nephew of Ala-ud-din, the Ghori chief, 
from the mountains to the west of Ghazni. Mahmud 
of Ghazni has been able to keep these chiefs in checic, 
but on the decline of the Ghaznawids they rose in power 
and finally, as we have seen, wrested Ghazni and the 
Punjab from the house of Ghazni. 

The Rajput Chiefs formed a coalition under Prithvi- 
raj to stem the torrent of Muslim invasion, and Muslim 
met Hindu near Karnal in 1191 A. D. Muhammad Ghori 
was defeated and his army fled. The following year, 
however, Muhammad Ghori again led an army against 
the Rajputs, a battle was fought on the same ground as in 
the previous year, and this time Muslims were victorious. 
Delhi was captured and became the centre of 
Muhammadan power. 

Muhammad Shahab-ud-din Ghori was assassinated in 
1206 A. D. by a hand of Gakkhar or Khokhar (it is un- 
certain which) who swam the river Indus and entered his 
tent at night. 

The Ghoris were followed by the dynasty known as 
the Slave Kings, which commenced with Aibak, and ruled 
at Delhi from 1206 to 1290 A. D. It was during the reign 
of Altamash of this line that the Moghals first appeared : 
Chingiz Khan ravaged the Punjab and Sindh. 

After the Slave Kings came the Afghans known as 
Khaljis 1290-1320 A. D. who were followed by the Tuglak 
Shahis, 1320-1412 A. D. 

The Punjab, to the west of the Sutlej, appears at this 
time to have been under the rule of governors appointed 
from Dehli. 



22 

Taimur the Tartar (a Moghal) entered India in 1398 
A. D. He crossed the Indus at Attock and marched on 
Delhi, meeting with no opposition on the way. Delhi 
was taken after a battle fought under its walls. Taimur 
remained in Delhi only a fortnight, and during his return 
waged a war against the Hindus of the Himalayan 
valleys. 

From 1412 to 1526 A. D. there was no permanant 
power ruling in India, and the Punjab appears to have 
been held by Viceroys, nominally under the authority of 
the king of Delhi, but in reality more or less independent. 

" •lni414A. D. {he Saya J, Khizr Khan, Governor of 
Miiltan, sie2ed the throne and established a line known as 
the Sayads/who; were followed by the Lodhis, and Afghan 
clan, from 1451 to 1 526 A. D. Thethird king of this 
dynasty gave grea^qflfepce tp the, Afghan nobles,, and one 
of them who wa^ t]ien Qftve.rnor of. the Punjab "Invited 
the Moghul Babar, to ^ep in ^nd (redress their grievaacjaa" 
(Thompson). . . p { 

Babar, sixth in descent from Taimur, advanced on 
Delhi, and at Panipat, in April 1526 A. D. tought one of 
the decissive battles of the world and gained a great 
victory. He elected to stay in the country : and with 
him commenced the line of the great Moghal Emperors, j 

Until the dechne of the Moghal power in 1707 A. D. 
the Punjab was under the form of a settled Government, 
and in Akbar's reign formed one of the fifteen "Subahs" 
or provinces, under a Viceroy. 

J The year 1739 A. D. is memorable for the invasion of 
Nadir Shah. That such an expedition was possible shows^ 



23 

the state of decay and weakness to which the Moghal 
power had fallen. Another batile was fought near Karnal, 
and Delhi was sacked for the third time. Nadir Shah 
took away with him to Parsia an immense amount of 
booty, which included the famous Peacock throne and the 
Koh-i-nur. 

During this period, with the loss of all central control 
from Delhi, the Punja-b seems to have broken away from 
authority and to have formed a systeni of small states 
owned by petty tribes, which were more -or less indepen- 
dent. There were the Gakkhars in the hill C-dUfitry between 
the Margalla pass and the Jhelum, iheJ-diipa^ Q.ti6Awans> 
in. the J S^lt ^ Range, the Sials. pjT Jhapg^,,. the Kharrals of 
Montgomery, and others, who appointed, tli.eir owi^ chiefs 
and fo -med their pwn revejiues. Matters .remained in this 
state unt^l the Siklis rose to power and asserted their 
authority from Lahore. Sikh Sardars were placed.as 
Governors and, backed up by Sikh troops, took over the 
revenue. 

This was not accomplished without severe fighting, 
at)d some of the tribes, notably the Gakkhars and Janjuas 
gave the Sikhs infinite trouble. 

From the latter half of the 18th century the North 
West Punjab \Vas under 5//:/z dominion, and it'sorehiained 
until the country was taken over by the British after the^ 
second Sikh war in 1849. . 

This short sketch of the history of the Punjab shovJ^s' 
that, from earliest times, the movement of 'the peopfes' 
into the Punjab has been from the North West. Until conn' 
paratively recent times almost each century has been the 
arrival of new races— Aryafts, Bactrians, Scythians, Huns 



24 

and many others, differing widely in race, in culture and 
physiognomy, have entered the Punjab : some have 
remained and some passed on further east and south. It 
is impossible that there has been no intermingling of blood 
and it becomes exceedingly difficult to fix, with any degree 
of accuracy, the origin of most of the tribes which we now 
call Punjabi Musalmans. 

There has, however, been also another current of 
immigration into the Punjab which this account c.innoi 
show, viz from Rajputana and Hindustan into the southern 
and eastern parts of the Punjab, and is ib.olated instances, 
even further north. 

The details of this second movement are most obscure 
and its causes not easily explained. The Manj, Punwar 
and Chauhan Rajputs appear to have been those which were 
most effected by it. The best known of these movements 
occured in the reign of Ala-ud-din, of the Khalji dynasty 
(1296-1316), when the ancestors of the Kharrals, Tiwanas, 
Ghebas and Chaddars, emigrated from the Provinces of 
Hindustan to the Punjab. 

Some retained their status and name of Rajput while 
others became Jats, but the tribes which have resulted 
from this second movement are probably of purer Rajput 
and Jat descent than the other Punjabi Musalmans who 
claim the same origin. 

Though Punjabi Musalmans have been devided into 
four main sections, Rajputs Jats Gujars and other 
tribes, in another chapter, it must not be concluded that 
this division is ethnologically correct. 



Chapter III 
HISTORY OF ISLAM 

Birth of Muhammad (Be Peace upDn him) 

Muhammad (Be peace upon him), the founder of the 
Musalman rehgion, was born at Mecca in the year 570 
A. D. His parents belonged to the Koresh tribe. The 
sanctity of the Koresh dates from nearly two centuries 
before the birth of Muhammad (Be peace upon him), at 
which period the tribe acquired the guardianship of the 
"Kaaba" at Mecca. The "Kaaba" is said to have been 
built by prophet Abraham, and from remote antiquity, 
had been a centre of pilgrimage and worship for all the 
tribes of Arabia. 

The Arabs at this time were steeped in Idolatry and 
their religion was decrepit and effete. Muhammad (Be 
peace upon him) received light from heavens and declared 
that he is a prophet, commissioned by the only GOD, 
to put down the idolatry, and restore the religion of 
Abraham. He told about the Day of Judgment when 
everyone will appear before the Creator of the World and 
will be rewarded for his goods and punished for his sins. 
The Meccans were annoyed wiih this announcement, for 
the Gods denounced by Muhammad (Be peace upon him) 
were their holy things and their attachment to the 
traditional worship of their fathers was the greater since 
the prosperity of their town rested upon the sanctity of 
the "Kaaba," which, besides being a great centre of 
pilgrimage, was also a trading mart for all the tribes of 
Arabia. 

25 



26 

During the next few years Muhammad (be peace 
upon him) endured every species of insult and persecution, 
at the hands of the people of Mecca. He finally decided 
to abandon Mecca and fled to Yaihreb, whose inhabitants 
had taken kindly to the new doctrine. This flight or 
' Hijra" took place in 622 A. D. and has become the era 
of Islam. It marks the establishment of a new religion 
destined to be one of the most powerful influences of 
civilization tne world has ever known. Yathreb was hence- 
forth named the city of the Prophet "Madinat-un-Nabi" 
or shortly Madina. Muhammad (be peace upon him) was 
elected chief magistrate of Madina. By wise decisions 
and the creation of law and justice where previously only 
violence existed, the people of Madina became his great 
lovers and devotees. 

After a series of victories which he was granted from 
Almighty, he advanced to Mecca where he entered as a 
victorious. While entering in Mecca, Muhammad (be 
peace upon him) declared that there should be no blood- 
shed. He took pains to preserve the sanctity of the city, 
and confirmed all its rights and privileges. Besides the 
abolishing of idols, every sanctuary, except the "Kaaba," 
vvasdestroyed. '"Kaaba" was declared there cognised centre 
of Islam. 

After that, the faith of Islam rapidly spread through- 
out Arabia. In 632 A D. at the time of the death of 
Muhammad (Be peace upon him) the Arabia was full 
of true Muslims. Within six years of his death Islam 
speard over Syria, Persia and Egypt, which was in fact 
due to the sincere efforts of the true believers of the 
Prophet. Islam was meant to throw light of civilization 
on the whole world and this light was spread over a great 



27 

part of the world by the followers of Muhammad (Be 
peace upon him) who understood the reality and impor- 
tance of Islam. Rome, Africa and Spain were introduced 
with the Islamic civilization, and within a century the true 
Muslims had pushed their conquests into the heart of 
France. All Europe would probably have been overrun 
by the soldiers of the Crescent, had not the Muslims 
stopped their advancement. 

On the death of Muhammad (be peace upon him) 
Hazrat Abu Bakr was appointed "Khalifa" the Amir-ul- 
Musalmeen. Hazrat Abu Bakr died in 634 A. D. and was 
succeeded by Hazrat Omar the Great. Hazrat Omar the 
Great died in 6-14 A. D. and was succeeded by Hazrat 
Osman. Hazrat Osman faced amutiny in 656 A. D. 
in which he lost his life. On Hazrat Osman's assassination 
Hazrat Ali was elected KhaJif unconditionally. He, 
however, met with much opposition from Moawiyeh, a 
follower of his predecessor, who compelled him to come 
to terms. This led to a conspiracy among his own 
partisans, three of whom murdered him at the doors of a 
mosque. A great mausoleum was afterwards erected 
over his tomb, which became the site of the town of 
Meshed, one of the holiest shrines of the Shiah pilgrims. 

On Hazrat All's death in 661 A.D. his eldest son Imam 
Hassan was elected to the Khalifate, but he resigned office 
in favour of Moawiyeh, on condition that he should re- 
sume it on the latter's demise. Moawiyeh, however, who 
wished his son Yazid to succeed him, caused Hassan to be 
murdered by his wife. Yazid succeeded his father, and 
the Omayyad dynasty was thus firmly established in the 
Khahfate. 

Up to this time the office of Khalifa was elective and 



28 

democratic, but Moavviyeh, whilst retaining the form of 
election, made it in reality hereditary. 

With the accession of Moawiyeh the Omayyad came in- 
to power, and from this time, the feud between the Hashmi 
(the Koresh tribe to which Muhammad (be peace upon 
him) belonged and the Omayyad, which originated two 
centuries before the birth of the Prophet (be peace upon 
him) and had been passed on from generation to genera- 
tion, received fresh impulse. 

Imam Hussain, the second son of Khalifa Ali, has never 
acknowledged the title of Yazid, and when the ^Tusliras 
of Mesopotamia invited him to release them from the 
Omayyad, he proceeded to Iraq, accompanied by his 
family and a few retainers, to place himself at the head of 
the former. On the way, at Kerbala, Imam Hussain was 
overtaken by an Omayyad army and, after a heroic 
struggle listing four days, he and his following were all 
slaughtered, save the women and a child named Ali. 

This took place on the 10th of Muharram in the year 
680 A. D. It is in Commemoration of this e\ent that the 
Shia/is of Pakistan, India and Persia observe the first ten 
days of the Muharram as a period of mourning. 

Thus within Islam, from earliest times, there have 
been two faction, the Hashmites and the Omayyad. The 
Hashmites are to-day, generally represented by the Shiahs, 
and the Omayyad by the Siinnis. 

The Shiahs believe in the absolute sanctity of the Des- 
cendants of Hazrat Ali. They maintain that on the death of 
Prophet Muhammad (be peace upon him) the office of 
Kbalif is vested by divine right in Hazrat Ali, and after 



29 

him in his two sons Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain. and 
they reject as usurpers, the first three Khalifs. 

They detest the memory of the Omayyad Khalifs who 
wrested the Khalifate from its rightful holder and in parti- 
cular, that the Yazid, who slew the martyr Imam Hussain. 
They observe the first ten days of Muharram as a fast in 
commemoration of the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali and his 
sons, and carry about "Taziahs,"' meant to represent the 
tombs of the two latter, witli loud lamentation and 
mourning. 

The Suiwis observe only the tenth day of Muharram 
and abhor t'le "taziahs". They consider themselves the 
only true followers of Muhammad (be peace upon him) 
on the ground that they accepted Hazrat Abu Bakr, 
Hazrat Omar the Great and Hazrat Osman as rightful 
Khalifs and that they submit themselves the authority 
of the "Sunneh" or "Hadis," recognising six books of 
"Hadis." Shiahs recognise only four books. 

The religion of Islam. 

The Sunnis are devided into four schools— //o/zq^, 
Sliafi, Maliki and Hambali. Majority belong to the first. 

The Shiah or Imamate doctrine indicates the Imamate 
being a light (nur) which passed by natural descent from 
one to the other, the Imam are divine, and this heritage is 
inalienable. Thus the second Imam, Hassan, the eldest 
son of Hazrat Ali. although he resigned the Khalifate 
could not resign the Imamate which had descended to 
him, and on his death passed by inheritance to Imam 
Hussain. Its subsequent devolution followed the natural 
line of descent, thus : — 



30 



Hazrat Ali (the first Imam) 



Hassan (the 2nd Imam) Husain (the 3rd Imam) 

I 
Ali II, Zain-ul-Abid-din (4tb) 



Ismail 



Muhammad Bakar (5th) 
Jafir Sadiq (6th) 



Musa Kazim (7th) 



Ali III Naqi (8th) 

I 
Muhammad Taqi (9th) 

I 
Ali IV (10th) 

I 
Hassan Askari (11th) 



Muhammad Abdul Qasim 
or 
Imam Mahdi (12th) 

Jafir, the sixth Imam, nominated Ismail, his eldest 
son, but on the latter's premature death he declared that 
Musa was his heir to the exclusion of Ismail's children. 

The claims of Ismail were supported by one party 
among the Shiah despite the declaration of Jafir, and 
thus was founded the Ismail sect who held that the last 



31 

visible Imam was Ismail, after whom commenced the 
succession of concealed Imams. 

The other party, the Imamites, support the claims of 
Musa, and believes that the 12th Imam, Muhammad Abdul 
Qasim, is still alive that he wanders over the earth and is 
destined to re-appear. 

Shiahs and Sunnis have minor differences is their 
manner of offering prayers and performing ablution. 
The principal difference being that Sunnis, when praying, 
cross the arms over the breast, while Shiahs, keep the 
arms straight by the sides. 

Another sect which may be mentioned is that of the 
Wahabis, founded by Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahab. 
This sect are very puritanical and rejected all traditional 
teaching except that of the Prophet's (be peace upon him) 
companions. They prohibit pilgrimages to shrines or 
tombs, and in other respects try to restore Islam to its 
pristine purity. They are extremely fond of advocating 
'Jihad' or Holy wars against infidels. 

The great majority of Punjabi Musalmans are Sunnis. 

DOCTRINE 

The Koran is the Holy book of Islam, embodying 
the orders of Almighty and the teaching and precepts of 
the Prophet (be peace upon him) The work is written 
in prose, and apart from its religious importance, is a 
model of literary elegance, and a perfect storehouse of 
the purest and most classical Arabic. The name given 
to this religion is Islam, signifying 'safety' or 'salvation' 
its adherents being called either Musalmans, Muslims, 
or Momins. 



32 

The cardinal principle of Islam is a belief in the Unity 
of God and the acceptance of Muhammad (be peace 
upon him) as the messenger of God. "The central 
porposition which regulates the structure of Islam, is that 
there is fear in Nature, and the object of Islam is to free 
man from fear. It is fear that dominates man. The 
essential nature of man consists in will, not intellect or 
understanding. That a man's fate is written on his fore- 
head is entirely of Hindu origin." (Extract from a lecture 
by Dr. Sh. Muhammad Iqbal). 

The Koran inculcates belief in the immortality of the 
soul, man's moral resposibility for his life on earth, a day 
of judgment, and in the hereafter a reward of existence 
in paraside, or a punishment. 

The Muslim creed enjoins prayer, charity, truthfulness 
industry and thrift, justice, devotion and humanity to 
animals. 

Periodical fasting as an excercise in subjugation of 
the senses, and purification before prayer are prescribed. 
As regards the former "but he amongst you who shall be 
ailing or on a journey (shall fast) an equal number of 
other days, and they that are able to keep it (and do not) 
shall make atonement by maintaining a poor man". Re- 
garding the latter, purification, the hands, face and feet as 
the parts most likely to be soiled, is intended. Conditions 
may exist, however, which may render ablutions impossible 
and a soldier in the field, a traveller in tiie desert, the 
denizens of a wintry land, and others similarly situated, 
may dispense with ablution before prayer. 



33 
Haij. 

To keep alive the feeling of brotherhood and to 
perpetuate the memory of the sacred spot where the great 
message was delivered, Muslims are directed if circum- 
stances permit, to make a pilgrimage to Mecca (The Hajj). 

A man may marry one, two, three or four wives 
provided he can deal with them "equity." Divorce is 
allowed. 

Envy and mischief-making, pride and vanity, are 
alike condemned, and compulsion in religion is strictly 
forbidden. Drinking intoxicants is reprehended. 

RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES AND FESTIVALS 

The Khutbah. 

The khutbah is the oration or sermon delivered every 
Friday and on the Idul Fitr and the Id-ul-Zuha, after the 
mid-day prayer. 

Zikr 

"Zikr" is the religious ceremony or act of devotion 
practiced by the various religious orders of "Fakirs" and 
"dervishes." "Zikrs" are either recited aloud or in a low 
voice or mentally. The most common form of "Zikr" is 
a recital of the ninety-nine names of God, and for those 
who recite them have their reward in paradise. 

The Tasbih. 

The Tasbih consists of ninety-nine beads and is used 
to facilitate the repetition of the ninety-nine names of God. 
In addition to the "Zikr" already mentioned, there are 



34 

four others even more generally used. They are used as 
exclamations of joy and surprise, such as "Subhan Allah" 
"Holliness be to God.", Alham-do-Lilla," "Thanks, be to 
God", "La-ilaha-il-lal-lahu," "There is no diety but God". 
"Allah-Akbar," "God is Great". 

The repetition of two of these sentences a hundred 
times, morning and evening ensures forgiveness for all 
venial sins. 

Imams, Maulvies or MuUas. 

Each Musjid has its Imam, who leads the daily 
prayers and is in receipt of the revenues of the Masjid, 
while the Mouh ies and Mullahs are the teachers of the 
Faith, and correspond, more or less, to the doctors of 
divinity. 

The religion of Islam comprises two essentials "Iman" 
or "implicit faith," and "Din" or "practical religion." 

The foundations of the Islam are five in number :— 

1. The recital of the "Kalima" or creed. 

2. The observance of the "Namaz" or "Sula" i. e. 

the five prescribed periods of prayer. 

3. The observance of the "Roza" or thirt> days 
fast Ramzan. 

4. The bestowal "Zakat" or alms. 

5. The performance of the "Hajj" or pilgrimage to 
Mecca. 

Of these the Kalima is by far the most important. 
It consists of repeating the following Arabic sentence 



35 

correct as follows— "La-ilaha-Illallaho Muhammad-ur- 
Rasul Allah."— "There is no God but God, and Muhammad 
is his messenger". It is in fact, the Muslim confession of 
faith, and has to be repeated when anyone is converted to 
Islam. 

Namaz or five periods of prayer. 

"Namaz" is the name given to the five p:riods of 
prayer which a devout Musalman is required to observe 
daily. The prescribed periods are— day break, 2 o'clook in 
the afternoon, before sunset, after sunset and on retiring 
to rest. 

Takbir and Rikat. 

The regular form of prayer begins with the "Niyyat" 
or introduction which is recited in the "Quiam" or stand- 
ing position, the right hand placed on the left and the eyes 
looking to the ground in self-abasement. Next follows 
the *Tateha" i. e. the recital of the first chapter of the 
Koran, after which come "Takbir-i-Ruku" and the 
"Takbir-i-Sijdah," the former repeated while making an 
inclination of the head and body and placing the hands 
upon the knees, and the latter in the attitude of "Sijdah'' 
or prostration, in which the forehead is made to touch 
the ground. Then raising the head and body and sinking 
backward on the heels and placing the hands on the thighs, 
the worshipper says the "Takbir-i-Jalsa" in the "Quiam" 
or standing position as before. A "Takbir" in the standing 
position completes each "Rikat" or form of prayer. 

Each "Takbir" consists of a number of pious ejacula- 
tions repeated several times such as "Allah Akbar" — 
"God is Great." 



36 
The "Azan" or Call to Prayer. 

Namaz may be said in private or in company, or in 
the Masjid. The latter is considered the most meritorious 
and must be proceeded by the "Aza:i" or call to prayer 
recited by the "Muezzin." All prayers must be made in 
the direction of Kaaba. 

The "Roza" or thirty days fast. 

The toza or thirty days fast take place in the month 
of Ramzan. The Ramzan according to Christian calendar 
changes about a period often days id each year, e. g., if 
it commences on the 10th day of September in one year, it 
will commence about the 31st of August in the following 
year, and so on. The fast is strictly observed from sun- 
rise to sunset daily : the fast does not commence in the 
Muslim world until the new moon is seen and the news 
telegraphed in each country by the Imams of the "Jammia 
Masjid" or by the concerned department of a Muslim State. 
Tf the sky is overcast and the moon not visible, the fast 
commences on the completion of thirty days from the 
beginning of the previous month. The fast of the Ramzan 
should be kept by every Musalman except the sick, the 
aged and woman who are either pregnant or nursing their 
children. Soldiers on service and travellers are also 
exempt. In the case of a sick person or a traveller, the 
fast should be kept as soon as circumstances permit. 

"Zakat" or alms giving. 

The term Zakat literally means "purification". It is 
the name now given to the legal alms which every devout 
Musalman is enjoined by the Koran to bestow upon the 
poor or to devote for religious purposes. "Zakat" should 



37 

be given annually on five descriptions of property, viz., 
money, cattle, fruit, merchandise, and land, provided the 
donor has been the possessor of a minimum amount of 
each for a year. The' 2| per cent on money, cattle, and 
merchandise should be given, but on land the amount 
may vary from l-20th to 1-lOth. 

The Hajj or Pilgrimage. 

The Hajj is enjoined on all Musalmans possessing the 
means to perform it. Pilgrimages to minor shrines of 
Islam are called "Ziarat" to distinguish them from the 
Hajj or great pilgrimage to Mecca. All Musalmans who 
have performed the Hajj enjoy the title of "Haji" and may 
wear a green turban as an outward indication of their 
rank. 

Observances by the Masses. 

All Punjabi Musalmans are, of course, observe the 
following principles of the religion: — 

1. The performance of circumcision. 

2. The five daily prayers (which cannot be said to 

be strictly observed by the majority). 

3. The assembled prayers on Friday in a mosque. 

4. The abhorrence of pork 

5. Observance of the fast of Ramzan and the 
celebration of the Ids. 

Piri Muridi 

The practice is common all over the Punjab, but most 



38 

prevalent in the Upper Punjab where every single person 
is supposed to have a Pir or preceptor, who initiates him 
into the secrets of divine worship and guides him in his 
spiritual progress, No one can inspire confidence as a 
truthful or straightforward man until he has done 
"Bai'at" (affiliated himself) to some Pir. Once this is 
done, the "Murid" (disciple) depends upon the Pir for 
helping him through all his difficulties and having him 
absolved of all his sins. Pirs are a class separate from the 
priest or Mulla; Sayads are generally selected. 

Ghaziz 

Those who engage in war against infidels are called 
Ghaziz, and their reward is distinctly indicated in the 
following quotations from the Koran: "God hath indeed 
promised paradise to every one, but God hath preferred 
those that fight for the faith." And, "Those who fight in 
defence of God's true religion God will not suffer their 
works to perish". 

Shahid 

The title of "Shahid" or martyr is given to any one 
who dies as a soldier for the faith; accidentally at the hands 
of another; from the plague or by drowning; by the acci- 
dental fall of a wall; by burning; from hunger; through 
refusing to eat unlawful food; and while performing the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Fakir or Darweshes. 

The word Faqir means "poor," it is used in the sense 
of one "poor in the sight of God" rather than "one in 
need of worldly assistance". Darwesh is applied to those 



39 

who have no worldly ambitions. Both terms are generally 
used for those who lead religious lives. Those who attain 
to a high degree of sinctity are called "Pir" and "Walis", 
while those who attain the highest rank are called 
"Ghaus". 

Angels. 

Belief in angels is enjoined by the Koran. Of these 
the four most important are Gabriel who is God's 
messenger, Michael who is the protector of the Jews, 
Israfil who will sound the last trump at the final resur- 
rection of the dead, and Azrael the angel of death. 
Besides the above, there are a few angels to whom special 
functions are allotted. The "Muaqqibit" are recorders 
of good and evil and are perpetually engaged in noting 
down a man's actions whether good or evil ? Munkir and 
Nakir are two angels, whose business it is to interview 
every man in his grave, and assertain the genuineness of 
his faith in Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (be peace 
upon him). 

Devil and Ginns. 

The devil is known as Ibh's or Shaitan, and is con- 
sidered to be fallen angel turned out of paradise because 
he refused to do homage to Adam. Jinns are really the 
old house hold gods worshipped before Islam in many 
parts of the world. Jinns are of two kinds -good and evil. 
The former extremely handsome, the latter repulsively ugly. 

Prophets of Islam. 

The six prophets (besides others) recongnised by Islam 
are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad 



40 

(be peace on all these). Each of these is supposed to 
have been entrusted with special mission, and to have 
brought new law for the guidance of mankind which 
successively abrogated those that preceded them. The 
Koran contain everything worthy of record contained in 
all previous works. It is called Koran Sharif, the noble 
Koran. 

FOOD 

A Muslim (in theory) cannot object to feed with a 
Christian so long as the food he eats is "halal". Any 
objection to do so must arise from ignorance. 

Rules regardiog the slaughter of animals for food. 

No animal's flesh is lawful food to a Muslim unless it 
has been "halaled" i. e. slaughtered in the manners pre- 
scribed in the Koran, viz., by drawing a knife across the 
throat, and cutting the wind-pipe, the carotid arteries, and 
the gullet, repeating at the same time the words : 
"Bismillah Allah Akbar"— "In the name of the Almighty 
God." A clean animal so slaughtered becomes lawful 
food for Musalmans. 

The following creatures are "Hilal" or lawful:— 

1. Animals that are clovenfooted and chew the 
cud and are not beasts of prey. 

2. Birds that do not seize their prey with their 
claws or wound them with their bills, but pick 
up food with their beaks. 

3. Fish that have scales. 

4. Locusts. 



41 

Horse-flesh and fish found dead in the water are 
generally considered unclean. Swine's flesh is held in 
utter abhorrence. 

FESTIVALS 

The Islamic year. 

n 
An account of the principal festivals of Islam may 

appropriately be prefaced with a list of the twelve Islamic 
months. The twelve lunar divisions into which Musalmans 
divide their year are as follows: — 



1. Muharram 


7 


Rajab 


2. Safar 


8. 


Shaban 


3. Rabi-ul-awal 


9. 


Ramzan 


4. Rabi-ul-akhir, or 


10. 


Shawal 


Rabi-us-sani 


11. 


Zul Qaudah 


5. Jamadi-ul-awal 


12. 


Zul Hajja 


6. Jamadi-us-sani or 






Jamadi-ul-akhir 






The Idul Fitar. 







The Id-ut-Fitr or breaking on the fast forms the con- 
clusion of the Ramazan. It is held on the first day of 
the month of Shawal, immediately after conclusion 
of the Roza. On this day after making propitiatory 
offering to the poor, the people assemble in the principal 
mosque or Musjid and proceed to the Idgah, a special 
place of worship, and there the Khateeb or priest reads the 
service. The prayers should be read between 7 or 8 a. m. 
usually. At the close of the service the members of the 
congregation salute and embrace each other, and return- 
ing to their homes, spend the rest of the day in feasting 
and merriment. 



•i: 



42 
The Id-ul-Zoha or Bakr-Id. 

The Id-u!-Zoha or Bakrid is held on the ninth of 
the month called Zul Hajja. The festival is said to 
commemorate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son 
Ismail ; it is the greatest Islamic festival, and is celebrated 
most magnificently. At this feast every Muslim who 
is in possession of the regulated means, i. e. seven tolas 
of gold or money equivalent to that, besides a house 
and furniture, is bound to sacrifice either a goat, or 
ram, or cow, or female camel in the name of God. This 
sacrifice is generally called Kurbani, and the flesh of 
the Kurbani is divided into three portions, one is reser- 
ve J for the sacrificer himself : a second is given in alms 
to the poor and indigent ; the third is bestowed among 
relati^'es and friends. 

The sacrifice of a cow or camel is held to be equiva- 
lent to that as seven goats or rams. The special reason 
given for the sacrifice is that those who offer up the 
animal will find them in readiness to assist them over 
the puhirat or bridge which separates heaven and hell, 
over which all mankind will have to cross on the resur- 
rection day. The righteous will pass over it with ease, 
and with the swiftness of lightning : but the wicked 
will miss their footing, and fall headlong into hell. 

Muharram 

The Muharram commence on the first of the month 
of that name and is continued for ten days. The period 
is observed by the Shiahs to commemorate the martyr- 
dom of Hazrat Ali, and of Imam Hassan and Imam 
Hussain. The Ashura is also held sacred by Sunnis as it 



43 

also commemorates the birth of Adam and Eve and the 
creation of heaven, hell, and the human race. 

Muhammad (be peace upon him) enjoined on his 
followers the observance of ten customs during the 
Muharram, vize., — 

1. Bathing. 

2. Wearing Fine apparel. 

3. Allpying Surma to the eyes. 

4. Fasting. 

5. Prayers. 

6. Cooking more food than usual for the poors. 

7. Making peace with one's enemies, or establishing 
it among others. 

8. Associating with pious or learned Moulvies. 

9. Taking compassion on orphans, and 
JO, Bestowing alms. 

The ceremonies of the Muharram vary greatly in 
different places, but the following are the main features 
observed by Shiahs. A few days before the Muharram 
a place is prepared called as Imambara, or Ashurkhana 
in the centre of which is a pit, in which fires are kindled 
at night. Across those fires the people fence with sticks 
and swords, and while dancing round them, call out 
"Ya Ali Shah Hassan, Shah Hussain! Hai dost! Rahio!" 
"Oh Ali ! Noble Hassan ! Noble Hussain ! Alas 
friend stays ! etc. These cries are repeated until the 
people reach the highest pitch of excitement. They then 
form themselves in a circle and beat their breasts ; while 
the Maulvies read extracts from the Rowzatul— Shahadat 
or Book of Martyrs. 



On the seventh day of the Muharram banners are 
conveyed in procession and representations are made 
of the marriage of Kasim who married Imam Hussain's 
daughter on the morning of the battle of Karbela in 
which the latter lost his life. Commemoration, that is 
called Mehndi. On the eighth day a spear is carried 
ab~)iit in the morning to represent Imam Hussain's head 
which was carried on the point of javelin, and in the 
evening there are processions of men carrying banners 
and representation of Zul-Jannah the emblem of Imam 
Hussain's celebrated charger. On the ninth day it con- 
cludes with illumination and processions of tabuts or 
Tazias which are supposed to be models of Imam 
Hussain's tomb at Kerbela. They generally consist of a 
bamboo frame work covered over with tinsel and 
coloured paper, inside which are two miniature ullums or 
tombs, intended to represent those of Imam Hassan and 
Hussain. The last or tenth day is the Shahdat-ka-roz, 
or 'day of martyrdom'. On it, upto 8 p. m. the Zul- 
Jannah and all the tazias are conveyed in state from the 
imambaas to some selected place. This completes the 
Commemoration. 

Shab-i-Barat. 

The Shab-i-Barat is 'the night of record.' It is 
observed during the evening of the fifteenth day of the 
month of Shaban, and is so called becuase the AUniighty 
on that night registers all actions which men are to per- 
form in the course of the ensuing year. Some Muslims 
often call the Shabi Barat the Shub Quadr, o^ 'night of 
power.' and thus confuse it with the Lylatul Quadr, a 
totally distinct festival which takes place on the 27th 
night of the month of Ramzan. 



45 

Bara Wafat. 

The Bara Wafat commemorates the death of the 
Prophet (be peace upon him) which occured on the 12th 
of the month known as Rabbi-ul-awal. Devout Muslims 
assemble daily, morning and evening, either in the mosque 
or at their own houses and recite from the Hadis (The 
Hadis are records of the sayings of the Prophet (be 
peace upon him), and they form the oral law of the 
Musalman legislator and are regarded as a supplement to 
Korran). They also read the Buran and the Wafat-nama 
or story of the Prophet's (be peace upon him) death. 

Akhiri Chahar Sbamba. 

The Akhiri Chahar Shainba, or last Wednesday of 
the month of Safar, is observed as a festival by Muslims, 
because the Prophet (be peace upon him), took his bath 
on that day on curing from sickness. Among devout 
Muslims it is usual on this occasion to write texts from 
the Koran on slips of paper, and then to wash off the ink 
with water, and drink the liquid to secure immunity from 
misfortunes. The day is observed as a holiday, and is 
spent in prayer. 



Chapter IV 

CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIES OF THE PUNJABI 
MUSALMANS. 

1. Ceremonies relating to brith. 

When a child is born the Moulvi is sent for and 
utters the call to prayer (bang or azan) in the child's ear, 
receiving a small present. After a few days the child's 
hair is cut and a name is given it and presents are made to 
the midwife, moulvi and menials. The usages are the same 
on the birth of both boys and girls, but the rejoicings are 
much greater on the birth of the former. 

2. Circumcision. 

Circumcision (sunnat or Khatna karna) is performed 
up to 8 or 12 years of age by the nai when sweetmeats are 
distributed and the nai receives a small present of money. 

3. Marriage. 

Marriage accoring to Islam is a sacrament and not 
merely a social function or a matter of convenience. 
Although the Musalman tribes of the Punjab are, to a 
large extent, of Hindu origin. Islamic Law has had such a 
strong effect as regards inter-marriage, that it has entirely 
abrogated the rule forbidding marriage between relations 
in fact, the endeavour is always made to arrange marriages 
within the circle of near relations, and marriages between 
first cousins are common. If it is found necessary to go 
further afield a bride is usually sought within the tribe, 
failing even that, a marriage is arranged with a girl from 

47 



48 

a tribe of equal or only slightly lower status. Punjabi 
Musalmans will give their daughters only to tribes of 
equal or higher social position. All tribes will give their 
dalighters to SayVads, keeping in mind their religious 
status and dignity. The only abiding rule is that in every 
marriage the husband's family must be at least equal in 
social estimation to that of the wife. 

4. Betrothal ,£ no Sf 

Marriage is nearly always preceded by formal betro- 
thal inata, Vurmai or mangewa) which usually takes place 
bestween the ages of 15 and 25. After some preliminary 
negotiations conducted by the nai, or mirasi, or a 
kinsman, a date is appointed upon which the boy's father 
provides gw or mit/uii, a small sum of money, clothes for 
the girl, and jewels according to their station — very often 
a plain ring. These are placed on the head of the nai, who 
wiib the mirasi accompanies the boy's father to the girl's 
hotts^i, In Rawalpindi and Attock and in Shahpur a 
clove and some coloured thread is also sent. 

The girl's/ father takes the gur or mithai inside, and 
the nai takes care of the rest. That night the girl's father, 
gives a fea,sV to th^ boy's father and others, and next 
morning the" girl's relations assemble and feast the guests, 
and place the giir or mithai sent by the boy's father, 
before all the relations of the girls. The other articles — 
clothes, jewels, clove, etc., etc., taken charge of by the nai 
are placed in a thai or open vessel, and set before the girl's 
relatives. The Mullah then comes forward and prays for a 
blessing on the betrothal ( dua khair ) which sometimes 
repealed three times. The gur or mithai then divided 
amongst all present and all the other articles are taken 



49 

by the girl's relatives. In some districts one rupee is placed 
in the girl's hand as a token (nishan ). Presents are made 
to the Mullah, nai, and mirasi, and the boy's father and 
relatives then take leave. The clove bought by them, 
coloured with saffron, is at the same time returned by the 
girl's father to the boy's father. Occasionally, too, purgis 
are given to some of those accompanying the boy's father. 
The girl's father then feeds his own relatives and dismiss 
them. The girl's female relatives at this time sing songs 
of rejoicing. 

On the "Id following, the boy's parents send a 
present of clothes, ornaments and money and soaie 
eatables, according to their status, for the girl. 

Others do without any formal ceremony except that 
of having the ''dua khair'" recited in the presence of the 
assembled relatives. It is not usual to write out a contract 
cS betrothal. 

5. Marriage 

The date "ukad" of the actual marriage is tixed at 
another meeting, accompanied by ceremonies, and court- 
esies arranged at the instance of the boy's father. After 
fixing the date the parents of both parties despatch pre- 
sents of gur, methai etc, to their more distant relatives and 
friends by the^ hands of the nai, who receives small 
presents of money, or of grain at each house. This prac- 
tice is known as sending the "gandh'' 

A week before the wedding, the ceremony of enoin- 
ting with oil is performed. In the afternoon the female 
relatives and those of the mirasi assemble and sing at the 
houses of the bride and bridegroom. They place each of 
the betrothed, at their respective houses, upon an inverted 



50 

basket in the yard of the house and four women hold a 
canopy over his or her head. 

From that date until after the wedding the betrothed 
do no work but get good food. The wom;n of both the 
houses assemble and sing. 

Then comes the ceremony of bathing the bridegroom. 
On the morning of the ''baraf' (marriage procession) the 
pott:r's wife brings an earthen vessel. The waterman 
fills it, this is called "gharah garauli" The Miissali or 
sweeper then prepares and brings a Khara'n or basket, 
turns it upside down, puts the bridegroom on it, and lights 
a lamp under it. The bridegroom is then bathed by the 
village servants with the water from the gharah, the whole 
brotherhood, male and female, standing, around. In Shah- 
pur the brother bridegroom's sister or niece siezes his 
sheet and is bribed \y\i\\ a present; to let it go. In Rawal- 
pindi the nai places water in the bridegroom's hand, who 
scatters it to the four cardinal points, signifying his 
desire to include all in happiness similar to his own. 

On getting up off his seat the bridegroom crushes 
with his right foot the earthenware lid of jar, this is 
supposed to avert the "evil eye." The dirty clofhes worn 
by the bridegroom are then taken by the nai as his per- 
quisite, and the bridegroom is clothed in new graments. 

The order of the foi^egoing ceremonies is sometimes 
altcicd. Then comes the receiving of the wedding presents 
{netmdra). Tne wedding procession {harat or janj) is then 
formed and proceeds to the village of the bride. In various 
districts of the Punjab before the departure of the /jtf/ar 
the bridegroom's sister offers grain to his horse and holts 
its. halter, for which she received a present. The party on 



51 

arrival at the village of the bride is received by the 
respectable people of the village. The party adjourns to 
some large building arranged for the purpose., where the 
bride's father gives a feast to the guests, fakirs, beggars, 
etc. Then certain of the guests accompaning the bridegroom 
and his father enter into the hjuse carrying trays of 
present. After this the marriage contract {nika) is perfor- 
med by the Maulvi. The bride's elders answer for her and 
the bridegroom answers for himself. 

• ( 

A display is then made of ihe bride's dower (daj). 
After that the barat conveys the tribe to the bridegroom's 
house. She remains there for two or three days and she 
then returns to her parents. Her husband later on goes in 
procession (bpdah) to fetch her home for good. 

Marriage customs differ slightly according to the 
tribe or locality, but the foregoing gives some idea of the 
main obsprvance. Amongst Muslims marriage nearly 
always takes place of, puberty and the bride goes to live 
with hqr .husband at once„ other-wise ^he lives with her 
parents till of fit age.] ,,, 

Expanse of MarrikgfeS. 

Marriages are usually very extravagant, each stage 
of the whole ceremony being marked by feasts and 
presentations by either or both parties, and the mirasis 
and menials of both parties reap a rich harvest of gifts. 
Thus the average expense of wedding ranges from .-. 
Rs. 1000/- to Rs.50,000.00 or more according to the" 
status of the parties. An endavour has been made to 
reduce the marriage expenditure and recently law is 
framed to minimise the expenses made on do\vree (Jahez)). 



52 

6. Marriage Seasons. ,. 

• There is no special time or season for marriages, but 
they are forbidden during the month of Muharram, on' 
the 'Ids, during the first thirteen days of Safar. 

7. Widow re-marriage 

The 'Sliara' (Islamic Law) does not forbid the 
mai'riage of widows and the general custom amongst 
Muslims does not enforce widowhood. 

8. Marriage (>ontract. 

At no age can a women enter into a contract for, 
her own marriage. The contract of betrothal is revocable, 
at any time before the actual Nikoli. 

9 marriage within the tribe. 

Among Punjabi Musalmans marriages are generally 
confined to one's own tribe, sub-tribe or caste, and where 
possible, alliances are arranged between the brothers and 
sisters offspring as a means of retaining the same family, 
the property inherited by the boy and the girl. Marrying 
outside one's own caste or tribe is not against Islamic 
Law. 

TERMS OE RELATIONSHIP 

Father ... Bap. Walid or Piu 

Mother ... Man or Ma 

Fatljer's. Father ... Dada 

Father's Young brother ... Chacha 

Father's sister ... Phupi or Bua 

Father's sister's husband ... Phuphar 

Mother's sister ... Masi 



53 



Mother's brother 

Mother's brother's wife 

Mother's father 

Mother's mother 

Mother's father's father 

Mother's mother's mother 

Father-in-law 

Mother-in-law 

Wife's brother 

Wife's sister 

Wife's sister husband 

Daughter 

Son 

Sister's child 

Brother's child 



... Mama 

... Mami 

... Nana 

... Nani 

... Parnana 

... Parnani 

... Susra or Saohra 

... Sas or Sass 

... Sala 

... Sail 

... Sandu 

... Beti 

... Beta or Putr 

... Bhanja or Bhanji 

... Bhattija or Bhattiji 



Burial Ceremonies. 

Funerals — At funerals the services prescribed in the 
Koran are followed. The grave is dug with a xqcqss, {same) 
along the western side, in which the body is placed with 
its face towards the south. Bricks and stones are then 
placed leaning over the corpse so that no earth may rest 
on it. 

Before the burial the Imam recites the burial service 
(janaza) accompanied by the mourners, and after the 
burial alms are given to the poor. The Imam is presented 
with a copy of the Koran and a small money present. 

On the third day after the funeral the relations read 
the "ATw/" and distribute food to those who came to 
condole with them. This completes the obligatory period 
of tnourning, the full period according to the Koran is 
forty days. 



54 

Language. 

With the exception of the Mishwanis of the Hazara 
district, the universal language is Punjabi, but each tract 
has its own dialects. These dialects shade off impercep- 
tibly into one another and the residents of one tract are 
intelligible to those of any other tract. 

Manners and Gestures. 

When friends meet they join hands, or if they are 
great friends, they embrace each other breast to breast, 
first one side and then the other. If a man meets a holy 
person he kisses the lattcr's hands by way of salutation. 
Shou|d'^cqua^nia!iices pass each other, one says "Salam 
alaikyrn",(peace;^e unto thee) and the other replies "Wa 
Alaikum ussalam" (and on thee be peace). They then 
enquire after each other's health the usual question being 
"is it well" (khair)' undthe answei^ '''fairly*^ fw/) or 
"thank to God" (shukf')/ 'Whtn a visi or comes to >a 
house he is saluted with a wdlcome o^j ij i^i; 
"a'ji aea nun" and answers "Blessings be oA thee" {khoiri 
howi) - iS^ j^ 

Thr salam and salutations. — When a person makes a 
'^selam^' and any of the assembly rise and return it, it is 
considered sufficient for the whole company. The lesser 
number should always salute the greater, he who rides 
should salute him who walks, he who walks to him who 
stands, the stander the sitter, and so on. A man should 
not salute a woman on the road. Salutes should be m.de 
with the right hand. 

Salams are of various kinds, the ordinary salam 
among equals consists of merely touching the forhead with 



55 

the right hand. "Bandugi"' is very much the same, except 
thai the head is inclined gently forward so as to meet the 
hand. "Kurnish'^ o-'-'-^- is the same as the latter but the 
body is bent as well as the head. "Taslimaf c.UJl_7 
consists in touching the ground with the finger and then 
making "salam". It is generally repeated thrice before 
the Kings (that is the custom of old days, and not now) 
"Gale tnilna'' is the form of salutation usual among 
intimate friends who embrace each other -by throwing 
their arms across each other's necks, and, in that position 
incline the head three times, first on one-shoulder and 
then on the other. Homage or "Kadm hosf' ^-ji f-^ is 
paid by kissing the feet of the ruler or the edge of the 
carpet on which he stands. > Soldiers or persons allowed 
to bear arms, generally offer their swords to superiors as 
a ''nazzar'' or offering of their services. The person 
saluted signifies his acceptance of the gift by touching the 
hilt of the weapon. Homage in some countries is 
sometimes paid by casting the turban at the feet of the 
conqueror; a man who wishes to throw himself on one's 
mercy and asks for clemency, will sometimes do this. 
Touching the knee of the person saluted is often the sign 
of affectionate respect. (This old Hindu custom is now 
no more anywhere in Punjab. 

Gestures.- '^om^ of their gestures are peculiar : 
although as in Europe, a nod of the head means "yes" or 
"come" and a shake of the head means denial. Thus a 
backward nod means enquiry; a click of the tongue with 
a toss of the head means "no"; jerking the fingers inwards 
means "I do not know"; holding the palm inwards and 
shaking the hand means enquiry, holding the palm out- 
wards and shaking the hand is a sign of prohibition. 



56 

holding up the thumb (thutth) means contemptuous 
refusal ; wagging the middle finger (dhiri) provokes a 
person to anger, and holding up the open palm is a great 
insult. In beckoning to a person the hand is held up 
palm outwards and the fingers moved downwards and 
inwards. 

Laws of Inheritance. 

Although the question of inheritance is dealt with by 
Muslim law, most Musalmans adhere to their tribal 
customs which are generally those of the races 
from which they were originally converted. In many parts 
of the Punjab, succession to landed property is regulated 
by two rules, viz., "Pagriband'' when the estate is divided 
equally among the sons irrespective of the number of 
wives, and ''chadarband" when the property is divided 
among the wives so that each family may come in for a 
share. Where there are sons, daughters receive nothing 
and widows are only entitled to maintenance. Where 
there are no sons, a widow may have a life interest in the 
property, which would afterwards descend either to a 
daughter, or to a distant collateral in the male line. 
Daughters very seldom succeed to landed property, and 
when they do, it is necessary that the land should have 
been given as a dowry, or formally bestowed during the 
life-time of the father. An illegitimate son cannot inherit. 
A son, however, by a woman whom the father could not 
have legally married, such as a dancing girl, a prostitute, 
or a woman of very low caste, cannot inherit under any 
circumstances. Adoption is very rare among Muslim. It 
is only permissible on the failure of issue, and even then 
must be proclaimed openly by the adopter during his life 
time and supported by the written deed. 



57 

Food and Drink, Cloths, Personal Habits etc., etc. 

The Punjabi Musalman has usually two meals a day,— first 
inthe morning and second in the evening. Lunch (mid-day 
meal) is familierin the cities. If a cultivator has some hard 
work in hand, he generally eats some of the food left over 
from the previous night, before starting for his daily toil. 
His morning meal, which consists of three or four cakes 
made of wheat, barley and gram or jowar is sometimes 
brought to him in the fields but is more often eaten at 
home, as the woman being secluded, are unable to leave 
their houses. The evening meal consist of roti, i. e., 
chapatis, pulses, /. e. dal, lentils, etc., vegetables and a 
few relishes, such as salt, pepper, chillies, and curry-stuffs, 
with masala or various kinds of condiments. As a change, 
most Muslims, eat rice, khichri, i.e., rice or "bajra" mixed 
with dal, dhai or curds, eggs, fish and enormous quantities 
of sugarcane whenever procurable. Meat is too expensive 
a luxury to be indulged in more than occasionally, but 
when it is procurable, it is served in various forms, such 
as pillaos, kabbabs and curries. Lassi or butter-milk is an 
important article of diet, particularly among Jats. At the 
Bakr-Id and on the occasions of rejoicing, such as births 
and marriages, even the poorest classes manage to sacrifice 
a goat or dumba, i. e., fat-tailed sheep. 

The usual beverages are water, milk, and sherbets. 

All kinds of drugs and liquor are forbidden in the 
Koran. Some Muslims however, indulge in the former 
"sub rosa", and the use of the latter in the form ofcharas, 
bhang and opium, is very prevalent. Charas (the exudation 
of the flowers of hemp, collected with the dew, and pre- 



58 

pared for use as an intoxicating drug) is generally mixed 
with the tobacco of the huka and smoked, -bhang (made 
with the leaves of the hemp plant) is taken in a liquid 
form. 

Smoking is universal, and the huka is always within 
easy reach. 

Clothes— Tht usual garments are a majh or loin cloth 
worn round the waist like a kilt, a kurta or loose skirt 
sometimes confined by a kainmarband, a chadar or wrap- 
per and a turban or /;ag wliich varies ia size and colour 
according to the rank of the wearer. The pagri and 
majla of the well-to-do classes is usually white, but Jats, 
Gujars. and Baluchis, delight in coloured garments, blue 
being their favourite dye. The wealthy and educated 
classes are taking more and more to clothes fashioned on 
the English pattern. Salwar, Kamee: and Achkan is the 
National dress. 

Hospitality to strangers is enjoined by the Koran and 
is a marked characteristic of the Punjabi Muslims. 
Travellers are lodged in the /iw/Va or guest-house of which 
every village possesses at least one or two. Guests are 
fed at the public expense and their wants are attended to 
by the Kamins or village servants. The hujra besides 
being a resting place for travellers, is a place of public 
resort where the male population of the village meet in 
the evening to discuss affairs. 

Personal habits. — Although the Koran enjoins personal 
cleanliness, majority do not pay as much attention to 
their ablutions as instructed. 

Ablutions are of two kinds, viz., wazu or washing the 
face, hands and feet, etc., which is necessary before every 



59 

kind of prayer, and ghusal or washing the whole body 
after certain defilements. 

Besides the ablutions prescribed by their religion, 
Muslims observe certain practices called '"fitraf which 
have been prevalent among Arabs since the time of 
Abraham. The more important of these are the clipping 
of the moustache, so that the hair may not enter the 
mouth; not cutting or shaving the beard; cleaning the 
teeth; cleaning the nostrils with water at the usual ablu- 
tions; cutting the nails: cleaning the finger joints; pulling 
out the hair under the arms: and a few similar customs. 

Amusement and Games. 

Although the agriculturist of the Punjab leads a hard 
laborious life as a rule, he allows himself a certain amount 
of time for recreation. Attendance at weddings and other 
domestic celebrations afford one means of breaking the 
monotony of his life, and a fair or two are probably 
visited in the course of the year. 

Pir kaudi. — There are also games of various kinds, 
though the extent to which these are indulged in, varies a 
good deal in different localities. The best known game 
is called "Pirkaudi". The competitors in this game form 
groups at two sides of a square where they are surrounded 
by their respective friends and backers. One man {bahari) 
is selected from a side and advances into the arena — this 
is the challenger of all comers. Two opponents (andari) 
are selected and advance against the challenger, their 
object being to throw the challenger over and make his 
back and shoulders touch the ground, while he tries to 
tackle one at a time and do likewise. The opponents of 



60 

the challenger, however, are not allowed to commence 
their attack until he has touched them. To keep his 
opponents off, the challenger is allowed to slap, push or 
throw them over or to trip them up in any way he can, 
and dodge away before they can touch him. if the two 
succeed in throwing the challenger, their side have to send 
out a man as challenger, and so the game continues until 
the champion is determined. 

Saunchi.— In some parts another form of kaudi is 
played called ''saunchr. Two men stand facing each 
other bare-breasted, one hits the other with his open palm 
the whole game consisting in his endeavour to do so 
without letting his opponent seize his wrist. 

Lamhi Kaudi and Kaudi Kabadi.—Thtse are quite 
different from "/?//• kaudi'^ and are kinds of "prisoner's 
base." 

Chappan chott and Lukcbbip- These are the same as 
"Hide and Seek." 

^:a«/!i/n7a/<7.— Correspondence to tipcat. 

Chinji tarap.—lhxs is a form of "Hopscotch". 

Culli danda.— Is very like hockey. 

There are various other games of a similar kind to the 
above. 

Bagdar uthana or Tarar ul tan. —This consists in, the 
lifting of heavy weights. 

Mungli pherna.— This is the working of heavy Pak 
clubs. 



61 

Putting the stone also arouses great interest and 
competition. 

The old men play "Chaupatt"' a game something 
similar to backgammon played with dice (fcaMr/), and some 
play chess ''Shatranj.'' 

A favourite card game is 'Uash'\ This is somewhat 
similar to whist and is played with 51 cards, the deuce of 
diamonds being discarded. 

Shikar with long dogs is most popular in Rawalpindi, 
Shahpur and Mianwali Districts. 

SUPERSTITIONS 

In matters pertaining to his superstitions, the Punjabi 
Musalman now does not belive much in fabulous tales due 
to general rise in education. But illitrate are yet super- 
stitions. It is not so long ago that an individual in 
the Rawalpindi district, extracted large sums of money 
out of the inhabitants of his tahsil by claiming the power 
to double any money placed in his charge. In very recent 
years a belief that the foxhounds in Peshawar were 
periodically fed on criminals, who were actually "thrown 
to the dogs," was prevalent. 

Those who live in the hills are possibly more supersti- 
tious than the plains folk, a similar fact being observed 
by Buckle in his "Civilisation in Europe." 

"The evil eye " talisman, amulets lucky and unlucky 
days, etc., etc., all have a real significance to the Punjabi 
Musalman. Horses and cattle may have lucky and 
unlucky Marks. Certain marks branded on an animal 
may improve it, for instance, a very sluggish horse can be 
turned into a spirited animal if a line is branded horizont- 



62 

ally round its body, the idea being that the animal will 
always be endeavouring to jump out of this mark. 

There are n uriierou s P/r5' or saints who have the 
power of preventing hydrophobia in any one who has 
been bitten by a mad dog or jackal. 

Visits to different Ziarats or shrines are often under- 
taken for a specific object connected w ith the supposed 
power in the shrine to cure certain ailments. 

Many localities are supposed to be haunted, and no 
one vv'ill go near them after dark. Instances have actually 
occurred where sentriee have been overcome by fear 
owing to this belief. 

The belief in the e\\] eye is universal. An amulet 
{tawiz) containing a verse from the Koran, is worn as a 
protection against the evil eye. This is worn round the 
arm, the neck, or tied up in the end of the pugri Every 
carpet or piece of embroidery will have a small portion of 
it which is out of harmony with the pattern as a protection 
against the evil eye. 

J(?wr/iey5.— Tuesdays and Wednesdays are unlucky 
days and Mondays and Fridays are lucky days on which 
to start on a journey, northwards. For a southward 
journey Thursday is a bad day and Wednesday a good 
day on which to start. Monday and Saturday are bad 
and Sunday and Tuesday good for an eastward journey. 
For a vv-estward journey Sunday and Thursday are bad 
and Monday and Saturday good. 

On starting on a journey it is fortunate to meet 
^6riieone carrying water, a sweeper, a dog, a woman with 



63 

a child, a maiden, all kinds of flowers, a mali, a donkey, 
a Raja, a horseman, a drum or anyone who is carrying a 
vessel containing milk, curds, ghi, vegetables or sugar. 

It is considered unlucky to meet a Brahman, a man 
with a bare head, any person weeping, a crow flying 
towards one, a broken vessel in a parson's hand, a cat, a 
mali with an empty basket, a goat or cow or any black 
animal, a snake, or an empty gharah carried by someone. 
To hear the sound of crying or sneezing while on a 
journey is most unlucky. 

Enquires as to a mans tribe, sub-tribe, etc., etc.— To 
find out a man's clan, sub-section or sub-tribe, is some 
times difficult, owing to the various meanings of the words 
"zat," "got," "kom," etc. 

"Zat" and "kom" are usual for the tribe, /. e., "teri 
ki zat" or "ki kom," the man then gives the name of his 
tribe, viz., Awan, Gakhar, Dhund, or Tanaoli, etc., and 
the next question would generally be "kera Awan" or 
"kera Gakkhar"; this should elicit the answers:— Admal, 
Sarangal, etc., etc., or "Kutbshahi" for the Awan. If 
further information is required, the questions would take 
the form of "kis Khandan se hai" or "teri ki walhai" 
or "kis pusht se chala hai," etc., depending on the tribe 
the man belongs to or the part of the country he comes 
from. 



Chapter V 

DISTRIBUTION OF TRIBES, 

Short accounts of Punjabi Musa I man tribes of Rujput, 
Jat, Gujar and others. 

1. Alpials. 

1. Male /Jo/7w/^//o«.— Approximately 4,500. (Census 
1931). 

.2. Locality— Tho. Alpials occupy a compact block of 
villages on both banks of the Sohan river, in the Sil Sohan 
circle of the Fatehjang tahsil, Attock district. 

3. Headman.— The recognised head of the tribe 
belong to the family of the Chaudris of Chakri. 

. 5. History and particulars. —The alpials have recor- 
ded themselves as Manj Rajputs, and their claim to 
Rajput origin is generally admitted. They appear to have 
settled in their present locality about the same time as the 
Jodhras and Ghebas, /, e., about the 15th Century, having 
first wandered through the country now contained in the 
Khushab and Talagang tahsils before settling down in the 
southern corner of Fatehjang. 

The Alpials are hardworking and excellent cultiva- 
tors, generally tilling their own land, and working 
laboriously on their own wells. Socially they rang high, 
and they inter-marry freely with the Ghebas. 

They are reported to be a bold and courageous, 

65 



66 

Sturdy, independent, and wonderfully quarrelsome. Their 
physique is fair, the men being somewhat light and of 
medium stature. 

2. Andwal. 

1. Mole population.— About 1,300 (Census 1931) 

2. Locality.- -The Andwal are found in the Abbottu- 
bad tahsil of the Hazara district. 

3. Particulars. — The Andwal are classed by Sir 
Denzii Ibbetson as being a section of the Dhunds. 

They endeavour, at times to pass themselves otf as 
Hindwals, which is a section of the Tanaoli^. 

3. Arains. 

Male population.— 7,26,913 (Census 1931) 

The Arains or Rains are a Musalman agricultural 
tribe, good cultivators, skilful, industrious, hardy and 
thrifty. 

The Arains claim to have come originally from 
Arabia, to have settled in Sind, thence spread to Uch in 
Upper Sind, and later migrated to the Punjab by way of 
Multan and Sirsa. They may be designated as a fighting 
race which has produced many Civil and Military Officers 
who have rendered good services to the nation. 

4. Awan. 

1. Male population.— 2,S8,:A0 {Census 1931) 

2. Locality.— Awans are found throughout the 
Punjab, but their characteristics, physique and social 



67 

status vary greatly in each district. They are at their best 
in the Salt Range and in the districts adjoining it. 

3. Leading Families.— A\l Awans of the Salt Range 
acknowledge the Malik of Kalabagh as their head. 
Other well-known families are to be found in Lawa, Kund, 
Kufri, Tamman, Monara, Kallar Kahar, and Buchal 
Kalan. 

History and particulars. —The Awans claim Arab 
descent from Kutb Shah of Ghanzi, who ruled at Herat, 
but joined Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in his invasions 
of India (1001 A. D.) and received from him the name 
ofAwanor "helper". Kutb Shah was descended fVom 
Hazrat Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet, (Peace be upon 
him) and the Awans have been Musalmans from the 
beginning; Kutb Shah had six sons: — 

Kalan Shah — who settled near Kalabagh, 

Gauhar Shah — who settled near Sakesur, 

Chohan Shah — who settled in the hills near the 
Indus, 

Khokhar Shah —who settled in the country about 
the Chenab, 

Tori Shah and Jhajh Shah— who remained in the 
trans-border country where their descendants are said 
still to live in Tirah and the Kurram Valley. 

Doubt has been thrown on this account by some 
ethnological authorities and a Hindu orgin has been 
assigned to the Awans by some writers, who point to the 
originally Hindu character of two of Kutb Shah's sons. 



68 

Chohaii and Khokhar, which is not explained away by 
the tradition that these two sons took their mother's 
name. A more precise version of the Awan legend, which 
obtains among the Awans of Kapurthala, make them 
Alwi Sayads who, oppressed by the Abbassides, sought 
refuge in Sindh and eventually allied them-selves with 
Sabukhtagin (Father of Mahmud of Ghaznavi), who 
bestowed on them the title of Awan. They may, according 
to this tradition, possibly have come into Sindh with the 
first Arab invaders and have worked their way north. 
It is beyond question that they found the Janjuas in 
possession of the Western Salt Range and ejected them. 

The above explanation of their origin, by the Awan 
and others, has been rejected by Pandit Harikishan Kaul 
in his report on the census of 1911. Pandit Harikishan Kaul 
considers the evidence in favour of the Hindu origin of the 
Awans to be too strong to set aside. He points out that 
the name Awan is the unalloyed Sa^nskrit term "Awan" 
meaning defender or protector. Moreover, the tribe still 
retains strong traces of Indian customs. He considers 
that it is probable that they have, from time immemorial, 
been located in the tract north of the Salt Range and that 
they received the title Awan in the Hindu times, owing to 
the successful defence of their stronghold against aggression. 
Further at a much later date, i.e.. after the Muhammadan 
invasions, they seem to have been converted by Syad 
Kutb Shah, after which the Awans began to call them- 
selves Kutb Shahi, i.e., the followers of Kutb Shah. 

The Awans are divided into numerous clans (N4uhi) 
which take their name from the common ancestor. Thiis 
the Mumnals are descended from Moman, the Saghrals 
from Saghar, and the Shials from Shehan, and so on. 



69 

The following are the best known of these clans :— 

Khokhar Rehan Darhal Saghral Chajji 

Mumnal Jand Gulshahi Shial Saidan 

Khattar Babkal Kang Sudkal Parbal 

Kalgan Khurana Chohan Bugdial Ballial 

But besides these there are over 709 sub-castes of Awans. 
It is seldom that any Awan will mention one of these as 
his clan, he will inveriably say that he is a Kutab Shahi 
Awan. 

6. Political factions. — The Awans of the Salt Range 
are divided into two well-known political factions or 
parties :— Ujjal Khan's party and Khan Beg's party. Every 
village has its adherents of each party. The parties inter- 
marry freely, but yet they are antagonistic to one another 
and will always take sides with their faction in any dis- 
pute. 

The Awans have possessed political importance for 
a considerable period of time in the Salt Range and in the 
adjoining districts, and it is here that the best material for 
the Army is to be obtained. 

In the Salt Range the Awans are described as being a 
brave, high-spirited people with frank, engaging manners, 
at the same time headstrong and irascible to an unusual 
degree. 

Their characteristic failings are vindictiveness and a 
proneness to keep alive old feuds. As a rule they do not give 
their daughter in marriage to other tribes except to Sayads. 
They abstain from marriage in the same got or sept. 



70 
5. Bachharas. 

1. Male Population. — Approximately 2,000 (Census 
1931). 

2. Locality.— The South East border of the Mianwali 
district. Their chief village is Wan Bucharan. 

3. Headman.— The most influential man of the tribe 
is a Zaildar. His son was given a direct commission in a 
cavalary regiment. 

4. History and particulars.— The Bachhars are Khokhar 
Rajputs. They state that their original home was in the 
Gujrat district, whence they moved, first to Buggi Bhooki 
near Girot in Shahpur, and later to their present site, 
which was chosen on account of the "wan" or large well 
built by Sher Shah. These wells were placed at intervels 
of about a day's march apart on the road from Gujrat to 
Bannu and the frontier. 

The name "Bachhar" seems to have been a form of 
endearment applied to them by some forgotten Tir". 

Their circumstances have been much changed of late, 
owing to their discovery that the soil of "thai" was most 
suitable for the cultivation of gram : they are now very 
well-off. In appearence and general characteristics they 
resemble the people of the Shahpur district, 

6. Badhal. 

This small tribe is supposed to be allied to Bhakral, 
but the members of the tribe itself do not agree to this. 
Like the Bhakral, they are said to have come across from 
Jammu territory. The tribe to classed as Rajput, but it 



71 

does not hold a very high social position. They are of fine 
physique and good cultivators. They enlist freely and 
make good soldiers. 

7. Badhan. 

1. Male population.— 3,0m (Census 193 1 ). 

2. Locality. — Found chiefly in Jammu andPoonch, a 
few are met with in the Sialkot district. 

3. Particulars.— In Poonch the tribe is reported to 
have originaily been weavers. 

The Badhans utterly deny that they were ever weavers 
and claim to be Janjaus. Some of the tribe also claim 
connection with the Sudhans, but the Sudhans look them 
with contempt. They share a few villages with the Sudhans 
in Poonch. 

8. Baghial and Bangial 

1. Male population.— -ApproKimsiiely 2,000 (Census 
1931). 

2. Locality. — The tribe is found chiefly in the Rawal- 
pindi district, where they occupy five villages in the Giijar 
Khan tehsil. There appear to be a few also in the Jhelum, 
Gujrat and Gujranwala districts 

3. Particulars.— The Baghial and Bangial appear to 
be the same tribe, those members of it which are in the 
Rawalpindi district are classed as Rajputs, while in Gujrat, 
Gujranwala and Jhelum they are Jats. They describe 
themselves as being Punwar Rajputs. The first ancestor of 
Musalman faith was Bangash Khan. 



72 

They enlist freely and make good soldiers 

The tribe is not to be confused with the Bagial sec- 
tion of the Gakkhars with whom they have no connec- 
tion. 

9. Bajwa and Bajju. 

1. Male population. — 3,500 (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The Bajwa are found mostly in the 
Sialkot district, but also in the Multan district. 

3. Chief families.— The families of the Chaudhri of 
Chakwandi and Khanawali in the Zaffarwal tahsil of the 
Sialkot district, are the most important. 

4. History and particulers. - The Bajju ranks as Rajput 
and the Bajwa as Jat. Both branches have given their 
name to the Bajwat or country at the foot of the Jammu 
hills in the Sialkot district. 

They say they are Solar Rajputs and that their ancestor, 
Raja Shalip was driven out of Multan in the time of 
Sakandar Lodi. The Bajju Rajputs are said to marry their 
daughters to the Chibs and Manhas Rajputs. 

In their betrothals, dates are used, and custom pur- 
haps brought from Multan. The Bajwa inter-marry with 
all the principal Jat tribes. 

10. Baluch. 

1. Jidale population.— 3,4^,544 (Census 1931). 

2. Locality.— The Montgomery, Shahpur, Mianwali, 



73 

Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Dera Ghazi Khan 
districts, Bahawalpur State and the Chenab Colony. 

3. Chief families.— \n the Shahpur district there are 
two families of importance, one in Sahiwal which is 
mentioned in the "Punjab Chiefs" and another in 
Khushab. 

4. History and particulars.— The. Baluchis claim 
Arabian extraction, asserting that they are descended from 
Amir Hamza an ancle of the Pra/7/7eM-^) (peace be upon 
him) and from a fairy (Pari). 

They consistently place their first settlement in Al- 
leppo, from which they were expelled in A. D. 680 by 
Yazid, the second of the Ommayyad Caliphs. 

Their migration took them first to Karman, then to 
Sistan, and finally, a great portion of the race, into the 
Punjab plains about the 13th century. Their claim to 
Arabian descent has generally been allowed. 

About the beginning of the 16th century the Baluchis 
were driven out of the Khelat valley by the Brahuis and 
Turks. Yielding to pressure they moved eastward into 
the Sulaimans, drove out the Pathans, and settled along 
the banks of the Indus. Three Baluch adventurers 
Ismail Khan, Fatteh Khan, and Ghazi Khan, founded 
the three Dehras that bear their names, and established 
themselves as independent rulers of the Lower Derajat and 
Muzaffargarh, which they and their descendants held for 
nearly 300 years. Thence the southern Baluchis gradually 
spread into the valleys of the Indus, Chenab, and Sutlej, 



74 

and in 1555 a large body of Baluchis, under their great 
leader Mir Chakar, accompanied the Emperor Humayun 
into India. It is probable that many of the Baluch settle- 
ments, in the Eastern districts of the Punjab, were 
founded by Humayun's soldiers. Mir Chakar settled in 
Sahiwal and his tomb still exists at Satgarha, where he 
founded a military colony of "Rinds." 

Long before Mir Chakar's time, Mir Jalal Khan was 
one of the B.iluch historical rulers, and from his four 
sons— Rind, Lashar, Hot and Korai spring the four main 
Baluch tribes. The Jatoi are the children ofJatoi, Jalal 
Khan's daughter. These main sections are now divided 
into innumerable septs. Throughout the Punjab the term 
Baluch denotes any Muslim camel-man. The word has 
come to be associated with the care of camels, because 
the Baluch settlers of the Western plains have taken to 
the grazing and breeding of camels rather than to 
husbandry, and every Baluch is supposed to be a camel- 
man and every camel-man to be a Baluch. 

The Baluch of tlie Punjab plains is now altogether 
separated from the Baluch tribes of Baluchistan and the 
Derajat, although the same tribal names are still found 
among them. Long residence in Punjab and inter-marriage 
with the Jats has deprived them of many of their national 
characteristics, and they have now forgotten the Baluch 
language and have abandoned the Baluch dress. 

They are good Muslims, fair agriculturists, and 
make good soldiers. In proportion to their population 
the number that enlist in the army as well as in the civil is 
small. 

In character they are brave, chivalrous, and honour- 



75 

able. In physique they are tall, thin, wiry, hardy, and 
frugal in iheir habits. 

The following clans are those most commonly fonnd 
in the Cis-Indus districts of the Punjab : — 

Korai Gopand Muhori Rind Gumiani Dashti 
Jatai Gishkauri Mazari Hot Pitafi Zangeza 

The Rind, Jatoi and Korai are numerous in Multan, 
Jhang, Sahiwal, Shahpur and Muzaffargarh districts. 

The Gopangs are a servile tribe as also are the 
Dashtis, both are found in the Muzaffargarh district. 

The Hot are found in Jhang, Multan and Muzaffar- 
garh. 

The Gurmanis, Giskhauris, Pitafis in Muzaffargarh. 
The Mazaris in Jhang. The Zangeza are met with in the 
Mianwali and Shahpur districts. They are Shiahs. The 
Magassi Baluch, who are found in Multan, Muzaffargarh, 
Mianwali and Jhang, appear to be a "peculiar people" 
rather than a tribe. Both Sunnis and Shiahs are found 
among them and they have several peculiar customs not 
to be found among other Baluchis. 

The Baluchis of the Punjab inter-marry with the 

Jats. 

11. Bambas. 

Though few in numbers the Bambas are an important 
tribe in Kashmir, where they are chiefly found in the 
Muzaffarabad district between the Jhelum and Kishen- 
ganga rivers. 

They are represented in the Boi tract of the Munsehra 



76 

tahsil of Hazara by two families, ons of Boi and the 
other of Jabri Kahsh. The Boi family, is one of great 
importance in the Hazara district, second only to the 
Amb family of Tanawal. 

12. Bhakral, 

1. Population. -6,600. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality. — In the Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi 
tahsils of the Rawalpindi district, also a few villages in 
the Chakwal tahsil of the Jhelum district. 

3. Chief families. — There are several pensioned 
Military officers belonging to the tribe notably at Saba 
Mora in the Chakwal Tahsil (Jhelum) and Kamtrila in 
the Gujar Khan tahsil (Rawalpindi). 

4. History and particulars. - The Bhakral claim to be 
Punwar Rajputs, and since the 1901 census was taken, 
a large number have returned themselves as such. They 
probably came from Jammu territory across the Jhelum 
river. The tribe now ranks as Rajput and appears to 
hold a high place in the social scale. They do not appear 
to marry outside the tribe. They are good cultivators, of 
fine physique, fond of military service, and make excellent 
soldiers. 

13. Bhatti. 

1. Population in the P///;yfl/). —Rajput.— 319,800, Jat, 
41,500. (census 1931). 

2. Locality.— The Bhattis are found throughout the 
Punjab, but are most numerous in the Lahore, Multan, 
Rawalpindi, Giijranwala and Sialkot districts. 



77 

3. History and particulars. The Bhatti is one of the 
best known of the Rajput clans, the modern representa- 
tives of the ancient Yadiibansi Rajputs, and supposed to 
be the "Baternae" mentioned by Pliny. 

Their traditions connect the tribe with Bikaner, 
Jaisalmer and iht old fortress of Bhatner. In each 
locality appear variations of the story of their origin. 
The most common story is that they were driven across 
the Indus, from the East, in very early times, and that they 
returned across the river some 700 years ago, when they 
took possession of the country to the south of the lower 
Sutlej. The tribe gives its name to the Bhattiana, 
and to the Bhattiora tracts, as well as to various places 
such as Bhatinda, Bhatner, Pindi Bhattian, etc. 

The various branches of the Bhatti differ in social 
status and characteristics according to the locality in 
which they are found. 

Probably the best representatives of the tribe are 
now to be found in the Bhattiora tract north of the 
Chenab (in the Sarghoda tahsil and the Chiniot tahsil 
of Jhang). Here, they are "fine race of men, industrious 
agriculturists, good horse breeders, and very fond of 
sports" and they have also now proved themselves good 
soldiers. 

In the Gujar Khan tahsil of the Rawalpindi district 
there are also to be found good represenetatives of the 
tribe. 

The Bhattis of Gujranwala enjoyed considerable 
political importance and still hold 86 villages in that 
district. The Bhattis of the Sialkot district will not give 



78 

their daughters in marriage to any of the neighbouring 
tribes. In the Salt Range the Bhatti seem to hold ordi- 
nary position. 

Muslim Bhattis were converted about the end of the 
15th century. 

14. Chaddar. 

1. Population.— Jat~n, 000, Rajput — 3,600. (census 
1931). 

2. Locality.— The tribe is found along the whole 
length of the Chenab and Ravi valleys, but is most 
numerous in the Chenab Colony and Jhang. 

3. History and particulars.— The Chaddars of Jhang 
claim to be Rajputs, elsewhere they rank as Jats. 

They say that they left their original home in Raj- 
putana in the time of Muhammad of Ghor and settled 
in Bahawalpur, where they were converted by Sher Shah 
of Uch. Thence they came to Jhang, where they founded 
an important colony and spread in smaller numbers up 
the Chenab and Rabi. The Chadder are of Tunwar 
Rajput origin. 

Their chief sub-tribes are : — 

The Rajokes, Kamokes, Jappas, Luns, Pajiken, 
Deokes, Bullankes, and Sajokes. 

They are described as being good agriculturists. 

The name of this tribe is, better represented by the 
spelling Chaddrar. 



79 
15. Chattha. 

1. Population.— 4,600. (census 1931). 

2. Z,om//7r.— This tribe is chiefly found in the 
Gujranwala district, and also in small numbers scattered 
about the central Punjab. 

3. The Chattha is a Jat tribe. They claim Chauhan 
Rajput descent. From Chattha, a grand-son of Prithi Raj, 
the Chauhan King of Delhi. Some 500 years ago, Dahru 
came from Shambhal in Moradabad, where the bards of 
the Karnal Chauhan still live, to the banks of the 
Chenab, and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala. 
They were converted to Islam about 1600 A. D. The 
tribe rose to considerable importance under the Sikhs, 
and their leading family is mentioned in the "Punjab 
Chiefs." 

16. Chauhan. 

1. Population in the Pimjah.^lX, 000. (census 1911). 

2. Loc^///r.— Chiefly found in the Amballa and 
Karnal districts, in small numbers in the Lahore, Jhulem, 
Rawalpindi and Multan districts. 

3 Particulars. — The Chauhan is one of the 36 royal 
Rajput tribes. Pirthi Raj, the last Hindu ruler of 
Hindustan, was of this tribe. Ajmer and Sambhar seem 
to have been their original home before they moved to 
Delhi. In the Punjab they now retain their dominant 
position. They are found scattered throughout the 
Punjab. Many tribes of doubtful status claim to be 
Chauhans. 



80 
17. Chib. 

1. Mole population in the Punjab and Jamnni. — 
10,800. (census 1931). 

2. Locality. — This tribe is found chiefly in the 
Kharian tahsil of Gujrat, and also in the adjacent ter- 
ritory of Jammu. 

3. Chief families. —The Pothi family is head of the 
tribe, the present representative lives in the Jhelum and 
receives a pension from Government. In Besa the family 
of a late Risalhar-Major of the 12th Cavalry is vvellknown, 
and there are other good families in the same village. In 
Mirpur (Azad Kashmir) there are well-known representa- 
tives of the Chibs in Panjeri, Kosgoma, and Lehri. 

4. History and particulars. — The Chib is a Rajput 
tribe of high standing. It gave its name to the Chibhal, 
the hill country of Kashmir on the left bank of the 
Jhelum river along the Hazara border, though it no 
longer occupies those hills. The tribe claim descent in 
the female line from the Katoch and Kangra, and their 
eponym, Chib Chand, is said to have left Kangra 
14 centuries ago and settled near Bhimbar. Sur Sadi was 
the first of the tribe to become a Muslim, his tomb is still 
venerated, and no male child is considered a true Chib 
until his scalp-locks have been offered up at this tomb. 
Sur Sadi's (or Shadi Khan's) Hindu name was Dharam 
Chand. He was famed for his skill in medicine and was 
summoned to Delhi to attend the Emperor Jehangir. He 
was successful in effecting a cure and received a daughter 
of the Emperor in marriage, became a Muslim and 
changed his name to Shadi Khan. He deserted his bride 



81 

and fled home, and was eventually killed in an invasion 
of his country by the Moghals. 

The chief of the tribe used to be known as the Raja 
of Bhimbar. 

The tribe is divided into three social grades— Mandiai, 
Garhial, and Dherial, feeling still runs high on the point 
of these distinctions even though it is difficult to say who 
is Mandial and who Garhial. The Garhial stand high 
and will not give their daughters to the others. The Chibs 
seek marriages for their daughters among Sayads and 
Gokkhars whom they admit to be their superiors. 

There are fourteen septs : — 



Rupyal. 


Barwana, 


Jaskal, 


Dhural, 


Darwesal, 


Malkana. 


Mamdal, 


Baranshahia, 


Ghanlyal and 


Samwalia, 


Miana, 


Ghaghila. 


Malkal, 


Daphral, 





The tribe is one of short stature, and their men are 
rather thick set. They are deservedly popular as they 
make excellent soldiers. 

18. Chima. 

1. Population in the Punjab. —17,600. (census 1931). 

2. Locality. In the Punjab the tribe is chiefly found 
in the Sialkot and Gujranwala districts, there are a few 
also in most of the other Cis-Jhelum districts. 

3. Chief families.— There is a family of fair status 
at Badoke, in the Da ska tahsil of the Sialkot district. 



82 

4. History and particulars.— Jht Chima is one of 
the largest Jat tribes in the Punjab. It claims descent 
from the Chauhan Rajput. They fled from DehH on the 
defeat of Prithi Raj by Muhammad of Ghor, to Amritsar, 
where Chotu Mai, a son of Prithi Raj, founded a village 
on the Beas in the time of Ala-ud-din It is from his 
grand-son Rana Kang that the Chimas say they are 
sprung. They are a powerful and united tribe. The bulk 
of the tribe embraced Islam in the time of Firoze Shah 
and Aurangzeb, but rrany retain their old customs. They 
marry witin the tribe as well with their neighbours. 

19. Dhamial. 

[(Rajput, 8,000)1 
1. Pof Illation. —9,500. -{ ^(census 1931). 

t (Jat, 1,500). J 

2. Locality. '-Chiei]y found in the Rawalpindi 
District, but also in Gujrat, Jhelum and Attock. 

3. Particulars.— The Dhamial are of both Rajput 
and Jat status. The Rajput branch receive daughters in 
marriage from the Jat section but do not give girls to 
them, otherwise the two branches appear to mix freely 
and are one tribe. They account for themselves as having 
come originally from Ghazni to the Sialkot district, from 
whence they went to Dhamiak (Jhelum tahsil) where they 
built a fort. They take service freely and make satisfac- 
tory soldiers. 

The Dhamial have no connection wiih the Dhanials, 
the two tribes being quite distinct. 

20. Dhanial 

1 . Male population. — (Approximately) 3,400. (census 
1931). 



83 

2. Locality.— The Dhanials are found chiefly in the 
lower spurs of the Murree hills in the Rawalpindi tahsil 
of the Rawalpindi district; there are about a dozen 
villages of the tribe in Hazara, and two in Gujar Khan 
(Rawalpindi). 

3. Chief families. — The tribe is well represented by 
pensioned Military Officers in Kala Basand, Dakhian and 
Karor, The Zaildars of Find Begwal, Bhambatrar and 
Chirah are probably the most influential men. 

4. History and particulars. — The Dhanials claim to 
be desended from Hazrat Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet 
(Peace be upon him). The Dhanni country in the Chakwal 
tahsil of Jhelum, is supposed to take its name from the 
tribe, but no Dhanials are to be found there at the present 
time and they themselves do not connect themselves with 
that locality in any way. 

The Dhanial must not be confused with the Dhamial 
who are quite distinct from and have no connection with 
them. There appears also to be no Jat branch of the 
tribe, though the census returns have shown a certain 
number. 

The Dhanials inter-marry with the Dhunds, Sattis, 
Khetwals and Jasgams. 

They make good soldiers. 

21. Dhudhi. 

1. Population. — 5,800. (census 1931). 

2. Locality. — This tribe is scattered about Lahore, 
Shahpur, Jhang, Multan, Sahiwal and the Bahawalpur 
State. 



84 

3. History.— This is a small clan of Punwar Rajputs 
found along the banksof the Sutlej and Chenab. They 
are supposed to have come originally from Multan. They 
are said to be "fair agriculturists and respectable members 
of soceity". 

22. Dhund. 

f Punjab, 29,000. ^ census 

1. Male population.- -i In Poonch (Azad Kashmir ) )- of 

L 7,800. J 1931 

2. Locality— The Dhunds are found chiefly in the 
Murree tahsil of the Rawalpindi district and the Abbotta- 
bad tahsil of Hazara, also on the left bank of the Jhelum 
in the Bagh tahsil of Poonch. 

3. Chief families. — The recognised head of the 
Dhunds belongs to the Phulgraon family in the Rawal- 
pindi tahsil. Other well-known families of the tribe are 
found at Sehanna, Potha, Dewal, Chattar and Sila in the 
Rawalpindi district and in Lora, Bakot, Kalahan in 
Hazara. 

4. History and particulars.— The Dhunds claim 
descent from Hazrat Abbas, the paternal uncle of 
the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Another tradi- 
tion makes Takht Khan who came with Taimur to 
Delhi, their ancestor. Notwithstanding this claim to 
purely MusUm ancestry Colonel Wace wrote of the 
Dhunds than "thirty years ago their acquaintance with the 
Muslim faith was still slight, and though they now know 
more of it, and are more careful to observe it, relics of 
their Hindu faith are still observable in their social habits". 
It is reported of them that even until recent times they 
refused to eat with other Muslims or to allow them to 



85 

touch their cooking pots. They have now lost this 
extreme exclusiveness. Among the Punwar clans Tod 
mentions the Dhoonda and Dhoond which were supposed 
by him to be extinct, and it is possible that the Dhunds 
are either one of these. 

The tribe was almost exterminated by the Sikhs 
in 1837. 

They are very proud of their tribe. 

Physically the Dhunds are a fine race and are 
intelligent. 

The Sattis and the Dhunds are supposed at one time 
to have been deadly enemies, at the present day the two 
tribes live amicably together and intermarry freely. 

There are four sections of the tribe, which are divided 
into many "wals" or clans. 

1. The Chandal, found chiefly in Poonch in the 
Bagh tahsil. 

2. The Gaiyal, descendants of Gai Khan, whose 
tomb is near Duberan in the Kahuta tahsil. This section 
have villages on the right bank of the Jhelum near 
Tangrot. There is one family in Karor and a few in 
Poonch. 

3. The Ratnial, these are common in the Murree 
and Abbottabad tahsils. 

4. The Andwal, which is a small section in Hazara. 
The Jasgams say they are branch of the Dhunds and 



86 

though the Dhunds sometimes admit this relationship, it 
is doubtful whether there is any foundation for it except 
the mythical descent of both tribes from an uncle and an 
ancestor of the Prophet (peace be upon him). 

In the Rawalpindi district the tribe inter-marry with 
the Sattis, Khetwals, Dhanials and Jasgams. In Hazara 
with the Karrals. 

23. Dogar. 

1. Male population.— 30,000. (census 1931) 

2. Locality. — This tribe is found in the upper valleys 
of the Sutlej and Beas rivers above the lower border of 
the Lahore District; they have also spread westwards 
along the foot of the hills into the Sialkot district. 

3. History and particulars. — In social standing the 
Dogars rank as Rajputs. The trible claim to be 
of Rajput descent but this is strenuously denied by their 
Rajput neighbours, and their distinctive physiognomy 
makes it probable that there is very little Rajput blood 
in their veins. They are often classed with Gujars, whom 
they much resemble in their habits. 

There are many clans, chief of which'are: — 

The Matter, China, Tagra, and Chokra. 

24. Duli. 

1. Male population.— 1,500. (census 1931) 

2. Locality.—The Duli are found in the vicinity of 
Seirha in Mehanda tahsil of Poonch State. 

3. Particulars.— They claim to be Rajputs and that 



87 

the tribe migrated from Jammu. They should make fair 
soldiers. 

25. Gaiyal. 

The Gaiyals are a branch of the Dhunds. There are 
about 2C0 men serving in the army who belong to this 
sub-tribe. 

26. Gakkhar. 

1. Male population.— Punjah, 17,200 and Kashmir 
6,700 (census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Gakkhars are most numerous in the 
Jhelum tahsil of the Jh3lum district. They are found 
throughout the Rawalpindi district, there is a small 
section in the Abottabad tahsil of the Hazara district and 
they are to be met with in Poonch and the Mirpur district 
of Azad Kashmir. The tribe is heavily recruited in the 
army. 

3. Chief families. — The Admal family ofPharwala 
and the Sarangal family of Khanpur are the best known, 
the former place is in Rawalpindi and the latter in Hazara. 
Other well-known representatives are the Sarangal of 
Saidpur. Admals of Kaniat and Channi in Rawalpindi. In 
the Jhelum district are the Admals of Sultanpur, the 
Iskandrials of Lehri and Bakrala and the Bugial families 
of Domeli, Padri and Baragowah. At Sanghoi, Malhu 
and Adrana there are also families of good standing. 

4. The Gakkhars in popular estimation rank socially 
above all other Musalman tribes in which they are found, 
and they refuse to give their daughters in marriage to any 
but Sayads, 



88 

The origin of the tribe is most obscure, and ethnolog- 
ical experts are not agreed as to the race from which 
they are sprung. Ferishta mentions them as a brave and 
savage race who lived mostly in the hills and had little or 
no religion, but the Gakkhars hold that Ferishta has 
often confused them with the Khokhars, and even that 
he had a grudge against them for their maltreatment of 
his ancestor Hindu Shah. 

The Gakkhars describe themselves as being descended 
from Kaigohar, of the Kaiani family once reigning in 
Isphan that they conquered Kashmir and Tibet and 
ruled those countries for many generations, but were 
eventually driven back to Kabul whence they entered the 
Punjab with Mahmud of Ghaznavi early in the 1 1th 
century. This story is rejected by Ibbetson, because it is 
certain that they held their present possessions long before 
the Muhammadan invasion of India and also, on 
Ferishta's showing a Gakkhar army resisted Mahmud and 
almost turned the tide of victory against him on two 
occasions. 

It is believed however, that the Gakkhars entered 
India considerably earlier than the date they themselves 
jBx. Some authorities give A. D. 300 as the probable date 
of their immigration. 

The assassination of Shahab-ud-din Ghori has been 
put down to the Gakkhars, but it seems possible that it 
was accomplished by the Khokhars with whom the 
Gakkhars have been confused by Ferishta. 

Whatever their origin may be, the history of the 
Gakkhars, since the first Muslim invasion, is closely 



89 

interwoven with that of the North West Punjab, and 
their exploits in the field have always redounded to their 
credit as fighters. 

They were the ruling race in the hill country between 
the Indus and the Jhelum until the rise of the Sikh 
power. 

Their conversion from nominal Buddhism to Islam, 
is said to have taken place in 1205 A. D. when they were 
crushingly defeated by Shahab-ud-din Ghori. At the 
time of Timur's invasion the Gakkhars were among the 
foremost of the defenders of India. They also resisted 
Babar early in the 16th century and were only subdued 
after a very determined resistance. 

Subsequently the Gakkhar chief attended Babar, with 
a Gakkhar force to Delhi. Under the later Moghals the 
Gakkhar Rajas governed as feudal chiefs. They espoused the 
cause of Humayun when be was a fugitive in Afghanistan 
and it was at this time (1541) that Sher Shah built the 
famous fort at Rohtas near Jhelum to hold the Gakkhars in 
check and to hinder Humayun's return. On Humayun's 
return to power they were richly rewarded for their services 
and were held in favour by the great Akbar, one of whose 
most noted generals was a Gakkhar. Their downfall was 
accomphshed by Sardar Gujar Singh, a powerful Sikh 
chief, who defeated them at Gujrat in 1765; and was 
further accelerated by internal dissensions. 

Their ancient forts are still to be seen at Pharwala, 
near Kahutah and on the Jhelum at Dangali and 
Sultanpur. 

The Gakkhar chiefs enjoyed the title of Sultan, now 



90 

they are known as Raja and sometimes Mirza, though the 
only family which can rightfully claim the former title is 
that of the Admal chief of Pharwala. 

The Gakkhars, especially those of the Rawalpindi 
district, are deteriorating physique, owing chiefly to their 
general indolence, their early marriages and to the pre- 
vailing custom of inter-marriage within the clan. 

In the Jhelum district they maintain their fine qualities 
and prosperity. 

The Gakkhars are divided into the following 
branches:— Admal, Sarangal, Firozal, Bugial, Iskandrial, 
Hatial. Other clans such as the Paharial, Jodhial, 
Mangral, Kainswal, Farmsial, Sunal, Kul Chandral, 
Tulial, Sakhal, and Sagial are not recognised as true 
Gakkhars by the others. 

The Gakkhars are deservedly much sought after by 
both cavalry and infantry regiments for they have on all 
occasions proved their worth in the field. 

It is unlikely that there are as many Gakkhars at the 
census returns show, or that all those in the army can be 
members of the tribe. 

The Pharwala family and some Sarangals, are said to 
adhere to Shiah tenets, and some Gakkhars have stated 
that they were originally all Shiahs. This belief may 
possibly be attributed to their claim to Persian descent. 
At the present time none of them can be described as 
bigoted Shiahs for they do not follow Shiah customs 
during the Muharram. 



91 
27. Gheba. 

1. Male population,— About 3,800 (census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Ghebas are found in the western 
portion of the Fattehjang tahsil, Attock district. 

3. Chief families. — The Sardar of Kot is the most 
important of all the Ghebas. Next are the Malal family. 
The Dhurnal and Maiyia families are of good standing. 

4. History and particulars.— The tribe claim to be 
Moghal and are returned as such in the census reports. 
The Ghebas have either given their name, or received it, 
from the Gheb, they explain it as the latter reason and 
prefer to be known as Moghals. A not improbable 
conjecture is that they were a small band of broken 
Rajput families, fleeing from the central Punjab, who 
joined the Jodhras and settled down on their borders. 
The tribe rose to independence and in social status in the 
later years of Sikh rule. They are now considered equal 
in rank with the Jodhras and Alpials. 

The tribe is well off and thrifty. 

They are a fine manly race, delighting in hawking 
and field sports they are horse-breeders and good 
horsemen. 

Owing to their small numbers they can give few men 
to the army. 

28. Ghorewaha. 

1. Male population.— 16,230. (census 1931) 

2. History and particulars.— The Ghorewaha is of 



92 

Rajput descent from Kush, the second son of Rama, 
Raja Man of Kot Kurman (now Udaipur) had two sons, 
Kachwaha and Hawah : the tribes state that they are of 
the lineage of Kawaha. The name Ghorewaha is sup- 
posed to be derived from an offering of a horse made by a 
member of the tribe to Shahab-ud-Din Ghori. The 
tribe settled in its present tract while it was still Hindu, 
and in the time of Akbar theii possession would seem to 
have been more extensive than they are now. 

They are said to give their daughters to the Naru 
Rajputs. Their physique is good, especially in the village 
near the foot of the hills and they are anxious for military 
service. 

The tribe sends many emigrants to foreign countries, 
especially to Australia, Africa and the United States of 
America. 

29. Gondal. 

1. Male popuIation.~\9M0. (census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Gondals are found chiefly in the 
Bhera tahsil of the Shahpur district in the tract known as 
the Gondal Bar. They are also found in the Gujarat, 
Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts. Those in Jhelum and 
Rawalpindi have no connection with the true Gondals of 
the Bhera, and are unlike them in general appearance and 
in their characteristics. 

4. Chief Families. — There are some families of special 
importance. The Zaildars of Miani Gondal and Kot 
Moman are men of influence. 



93 

5. History and particulars. — The Gondal's claim to be 
Chauhan Rajputs and say that their ancestor came from 
Naushahra in the south to Pakpattan where he was con- 
verted to Islam by Bawa Farid (-^^ ai'^^-j), if this is so 
they probably occupied their present abodes within the 
last six centuries. The tribe now ranks as Jat, it inter- 
marriages freely with the other Jat tribes of the districts, 
such as the Ranjhas, the Harrals and Laks. Formerly, 
before the Jhelum canal was introduced into their 
country, they were a pastoral people subsisting almost 
entirely on the produce of theirlarge herds of cattle. Now 
they are, taking more and more to agriculture and are 
in very easy circumstances. Physically they are a fine 
race, strong and well made. 

The Gondals are well fitted for military service. 

30. Gujars. 

1. Male population— 2, 83, 495 (census 1931) 

2. Locality. —The, Gujars are distributed throughout 
the Punjab and Kazara. 

3. History and Particulars.— Iht history of this people 
has been given in Chapter 1. 

Gujar clans are most numerous, the following being 
the best known and the most suitable for military 
service: — 

Kathana . . . 51,000 Cheschi . . . 39,0:0 
Chaudam . . . 27,000 Kasana . . . 15,000 



94 



Poswal 


. . 28,000 


Bhamla 


. . 4,000 


Kalas 


. . 12,000 


Bijar 


. . 19,000 


Monan 


. . 9,000 


Gorsi 


. . 19,000 


Thakria 


. . 9,000 







All these, with the exception of the Poswal, claim 
Rajput descent from some one of the best known Rajput 
tribes. The Poswal say they came into India with Wajih 
Kalbi, a companion of the Prophet ^ (peace be upon him) 
who accompanied Ahutas ruler of Yemen when he con- 
quered Kashmir, and they subsequently settled in the 
Sialkot district. At the present time this clan is indis- 
tinguishable from other Gujars and has the same customs 
and ceremonials. 

No one of these clans can claim any definite sup- 
eriority over the rest, but some are more exclusive than 
the others as to whom they give their daughters in marri- 
age. The Kathana, for example, used to consider it dero- 
gatory to give daughters to any Gujar at all and sought 
bridegrooms in more exalted families. 

Gujars rank in most districts with Jats and Ahirs. 

Gujars vary greatly with the locality in which they 
are found, those in the hills quite unlike the caste of the 
same designation in the plains. In the hills they are 
exclusively pastoral, they cultivate scarcely at all and 
maintain their existence by the sale of the produce of 
their herds. In the plains they are generally good cul- 
tivators but, there also, always keep cattle or sheep and 
goats. 



95 
31. Harral. 

1. Male population.— (ApproximatQly) 5,000. (census 
1931) 

2. Locality. —The Harral are found in the Sahiwal 
Jhang and Shahpur districts. 

3. The Harral are a Jat clan of unknown origin. 

32. Hoon or Hun. 

1. Population.— Under 500 (census 1931). 

2. Locality.— Iht Hun are located chiefly in the 
Rawalpindi tahsil of the Rawalpindi district, there are 
also a few in the Gujar Khan tahsil and some in Hazara. 

Headmen.— Iht Zaildar of Gujar Khan belongs to 
this clan. 

4. Particulars.— The Hun are Panwar Rajputs de- 
scended from a Raja Judgeo. The tribe is a very small, 
one. 

33 Jalap. 

1. Male population. — 400 (census 1931) 

2. Locality. — This small tribe is met with chiefly in 
the Pind-Dadun Khan tahsil of the Jheluni district, there 
are also a few small villages in the Bhera tahsil of 
Shahpur. 

?>. Chief families.— The best known families reside at 
Chak Sadi and Pinnanwal. 

4. History and particulars.— The Jalaps claim to be 
Khokhar Rajputs, but their neighbours do not admit this 



96 

claim. They rank with Lillas and Phaphras and are 
probably below Rajput status, but considerably above 
that of Jat. 

The tribe is well off and have not taken to military 
service until lately. It is certain that without fighting 
qualities they could not have maintained themselves in 
the most valuable tract in the Jhelum district, against the 
Janjuas and others. 

34 Janjua. 

1. Male populatian.—Approximatdy 12,000 (census 
1931). 

2. Locality.— The Janjuas are most numerous in the 
Pind-Dadun-Khan and Jhelum tahsils of the Jhelum 
district; there is also a large branch of the tribe in the 
Kahuta tahsil of Rawalpindi. They are found in small 
numbers scattered about the Punjab and North-West 
of Frontier. In the Shahpur district there are two 
villages owned by a branch of the tribe which appears to 
be quite distinct from the others. 

The tribe is heavily recruited in the army; over twenty 
Infantry and several Cavalry Regiments enlist them. 

3. ChieJ families.— Tho. Darapur family is, perhaps, 
the best known, it has given many Officers to the Army: 
In Chakri Malot, Saloi, Walwal and Wahali, all of which 
are in the Jhelum district, good representatives of the 
Janjuas are to be found. In Kahuta is the Mator family, 
and in Shahpur one of good status in Khutta Sagral. 

4. History and particular. — The Janjuas are said to be 
of Rajput descent. According to Mr. Thomson:— "At 



97 

some uncertain period, some clans of Rahthor Rajput*^, 
emigrating from Jodhpur, occupied the uplands of the 
Salt Range. The leader of this movement, according to 
common account, was Raja Mai. The Rajputs first 
seated themselves at Malot in the west Salt Range. If 
Babar be read with attention it will be seen that he re- 
presents the Janjuas as confined to the hills, and ruling 
over various subject tribes, who cultivated the plains. 
The Janjuas were long the predominant race in the centre 
and west of the district (Jhelum). When Sultan Mahmud 
ofGhazni invaded India the Janjuas opposed him, were 
defeated, and fled to the jungles. Mahmud followed 
them up and succeeded in capturing Raja Mai himself. 
The Raja was released on condition that he and his tribe 
should embrace Islam. When the conversion took place 
the 'janju' or caste thread was broken, and the neophytes 
have been called Janjuas ever since." 

It is impossible that the Raja Mai who led the tribe 
from Jodhpur to the Salt Range, was the same person who 
was captured by Mahmud. The first event must have 
preceded the second by some centuries, and another 
account which relates that Jaipal, who opposed Mahmud 
at Nandana 900 years ago, is their ancestor, is probably 
more correct. "Raja Mai is a little mythical and any 
action of doubtful origin is apt to be fathered upon him." 

The tribe was well established between Nilab and 
Bhera when Babar visited the country. 

They were the natural enemies of the Gakkhars from 
time immemorial. 



98 

Raja Mai had six sons: — 

Raja Wir and Jodh, whose descendants are found 
in the Jhelum district. Those of Jodh being 
also found in the Kharian tahsil of Gujrat. 

Kakha— whose descendants are found in Poonch and 
Kashmir, and are known as Kakkhe. 

Tarnoli— from whom spring the Tanaolis of Hazara 
(the Tanaolis do not agree to this and claim 
Moghal origin). 

Dabuchara —descendants found in Hazara (and 
known as Janjuas) and also in Sialkot. 

Pir Kala— the Kahrwal and Dallal Janjuas of the 
Kahro ilaqua of Rawalpindi (Kahuta tahsil) 
are the descendants of this son. 

With (he exception of the descendants of Wir and 
Jodh the others are now distinct tribes, having nothing in 
common and not even inter-marrying. The Janjuas of 
the Salt Range are the most aristocratic and make the 
best soldiers. 

The Janjuas were, at the time of Babar's visit (1526 
A. D.) the predominant race in the Salt Range. They 
subsequently became divided, lost their strength in 
combination, and the Awans and Gakkhars were able to 
contend successfully against them and wrest much of 
their power and territory from them. When the Sikh 
power arose, the Janjuas like the Gakkhars and Awans, 
came under their rule, not however, without much stub- 
born resistance. They held out for many months, in 
their strongholds at Makhiala and Kusak, but were even- 



99 

tually compelled to capitulate from the want of water. 
Raujit Singh himself is said to have undertaken the 
siege operations against Kusal. The Sikhs took over the 
salt mines at Khewra which had been their most valued 
possession. 

The Janjuas rank second only to the Gakkhars in the 
Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts. Their headmen are 
known as Sultan and the second son as Malik. In the 
Jhelum district the tribe is invariably known as "raja," 
the word Janjua hardly ever being heard. 

Janjua goots are found among such menials as Telis, 
Lobars, Tarkhans and Musallis. 

Their observances at various ceremonials are much 
the same as those of the Chibs. 

The Janjuas are said to be the only really pure 
Rajputs in the plains of the Punjab. They have great 
pride of race (as being Janjuas) and make fine soldiers, 
most suitable for cavalry, as they are of light build. 

35. Jaral. 

1. Male population.— 4,000. (census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Jaral are found in the Riasi and 
Mirpur districts of Kashmir. 

3. Particulars. — The Jarals are Rajputs of good 
standing. They are said to have given Raja Gulab Singh 
much trouble. The rank above the Mangrals and inter- 
marry with no other tribe, but give their daughters to 
Gakkhars. 



100 
36. Jasgam. 

1 . Male population.— T\\Q Jasgams have been included 
among the Dhunds in the last census. They number 
probably about 1,200 males, (census 1931). 

2. Locality— l\\\s tribe is found near Panjar in the 
Kahuta tahsil (Rawalpindi). 

Headmen.— A family which was rewarded for its 
services in 1857 in Salitta is head of the clan. 

5. History and particulars. -The Jasgams, like the 
Dhunds and Khatrils, claim descent from Manaf an 
ancestor of the Prophet -^ (peace be upon him) and they 
say that they got possession of the tract they now occupy 
under Gakkhar rule, when one Hazrat Zubair, a des- 
cendant of the Prophet, (peace be upon him) came 
from Arabia and settled near Kahuta. On this claim they 
represent themselves as Dhunds and wish to be enlisted 
as such. They did not join the Dhunds in their 
attempted raid on Murree in 1857 and in character they 
more resemble the Sattis. They intermarry freely both 
with the Sattis and Dhunds. 

The tribe is a very small one and not very prosperous 
They accept all the military service they can get and 
make satisfactory soldiers. 

The Khatril are found in small numbers in Gujar 
Khan and Mandra and are classed as Rajputs. 

37. Jar. 

Besides the Punjabi Musalman Jat tribes described in 
this chapter, there are innumerable divisions and sub- 
divisions of Juts throughout the Punjab; a description of 



101 

each will be found in "a glossary of the tribes and castes 
of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, 1911. 

The census report of 1931 gives the male population 
as 16,04,628. 

38. Jatal. 

1. Male population. About 750 (census 1931) 

2. Locality -The Jatal are found in Kahuta Tahsil of 
Rawalpindi district. 

3. Particulars. — They are classed as Rajputs. They 
make good soldiers. 

39. Jethal. 

1. Male population —About 500 (census 1931) 

2. Lolality.- The Jethal are found in the Jhelum 
thai between the Jhelum river and the Lilla estate. 

Particulars -They claim Bhatti Rajput descent, but 
other people say they are Bhuttas and in this they are 
supported by their pedigree table. They make good 
soldiers. 

49. Jodhra. 

1. Afa/e/7o;jz//ar/o/;.— Approximately 1,40J. (Census 
1931). 

2. Locality. ~T\\Q Jodhras inhabit the south-eastern 
portion of the Pindigheb tahsil and the valley of the Sohan 
extending, on the south, to the Talagang border. 

3. Chief families.— T\iQ Maliks of Pindigheb, who 
are closely related by marriage with the Gheba family of 
Kot, have great possessions and are the best known. 



102 

4. History and particulars. — The Jodhras account 
for themselves as being of Rajput origin, and derive their 
name from Jodhra who was converted to Islam by 
Mahmud of Ghazni, and who settled in Kashmiir. 

They appear, however, to have come to the Attock 
district about the end of the 16th century as a small band 
of military adventurers. They possessed themselves of the 
Sohan and Sill " illaquas " and much of Talagang. The 
Awans, the original owners, were not evicted but remained 
as tenants under the conquering Jodhras, who never them- 
selves cultivated. 

The Jodhras became independent chiefs keeping up a 
large body of armed retainers. Their power was recognised 
by the Moghals, and Malik Aulia Khan, their first chief 
known to history, held a revenue assignment of Pindigheb, 
Talagang and parts of Chakwal. 

Owing to family feuds and other causes the tribe has 
lost much of its original prosperity and is now much less 
well-to-do than its neighbours, the Ghebas, who have been 
their ancient rivals and enemies. The two tribes now 
inter-marry and are on friendly terms. 

The Jodhras breed horses and are fond hawking and 
field sports. They prefer service in Cavalry to Infantry, 
and being usually of light build are more suitable to that 
arm. 

40. Joiya. 

1. Popw/ar/o«.— 37,190 (Census 1931). 

2. Locality.— Tht Joiya are found on both banks of 
the Sutlej from the Multan-Montgomery boundary to 



103 

nearly as far down as its confluence with the Indus. Also 
in Lahore, Multan and Muzaffargarh, and Shahpur. They 
are numerous in Bahawalpur. 

3. Chief families.— The Joiyas as a tribe regard the 
Rais of Shahr Farid as their chief, and his influence 
extends over the Joiyas of Multan. No Joiya who has 
committed a fault will deny the fact in the presence of his 
chief. 

4. History and particulars. — The Joiya is one of the 
36 Royal races of Rajputs, but at the present time at least 
one-third of their number is returned as Jat. The ancient 
chronicles describe them as holding Hariana, Bhatiana 
Bhatner and Nagor, and also in common with the Dehia, 
with whom their name is always coupled, the banks of the 
Indus and Sutlej near their confluence. 

Some seven centuries ago they were apparently driven 
out of the Indus tract and partly subjugated by the 
Bhattis. In Bahawalpur the Daudpotras overcame them 
in the time of Nadir Shah. 

In Sahiwal and Multan the Joiyas as a tribe appear 
to rank both as Jats and Rajputs, and in Shahpur as Jats. 

They are considered a brave race. They are devoted 
to horses and buff"aloes. 

The Joiya septs are very numerous. The Lakhwera 
clan is the highest in the social scale and has a grat reput- 
ation for courage. The men are generally short and of 
light physique. 

42. Junhal 

1. Male population.— About 700. (Census 1931) 



104 

2. Locally.— The Juhnal are found in Poonch State 
and also Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. 

3. Particulars.— The Junhal claim to be Rajputs. 

They were once numerous and powerful but were 
nearly all destroyed by the Gakkhars. They make good 
soldiers. 

43. Kahlon 

1. Male fopulation. — UfiiO. (Census 1931). 

2. Lacality.— The bulk of the tribe is found in the 
Zafarwal tahsil of the Sialkot district ; it is also numerous 
in the Gujranwala district. 

3. Headmen. — The most important representative of 
tribe in the Sialkot district is the Zaildar of Dullan in 
the Zafarwal tahsil. 

History and particulars. — The Kahlon rank as Jat, and 
claim descent from Raja Vikramajit of the lunar race, 
through Raja Jagdeo of Daranagar, concerning whom 
they tell the well worn legend that in his generosity he 
promised his sister whatsoever she might ask. She claimed 
his head and he fulfilled his promise, but was miraculously 
restored to life. His descendant in the 4th generation, 
Kahlwan gave his name to the tribe. Fourth from him 
came Soli or Sodi under whom they left Daranagar and 
settled near Batala in Gurdasaur, whence they spread to 
Sialkot. 

The Muslim portion of the tribe appear to have been 
converted to Islam, not much time passed. 



105 

The tribe is agricultural and the men of goo.1 
physique. 

They inter-marry with Jats of good standing. 

44. Kahlotra 

The Kahlotra is a small tribe of fair social standing 
found in the south eastern portion of the Kotii tahsil of 
Poonch. (Azad Kashmir) 

45. Kahrwal. 

Male population.— Approximately 1,600. (Census 
1931). 

2. — Locality.— The Kahrwal are found in the Kahuta 
tahsil of the Rawalpindi district. 

3. Chief families.— There are no families of much 
importance, but those of Dulal and Mator are probably 
the best known. The Zaildar of Kahuta belongs to the 
Dula sept. 

4. History and particulars. ■ The Kahrwal is a branch 
of the Janjuas of the Salt Range, their social position 
being somewhat below that section of the tribe. 

They rank above the ordinary Rajput and are a fine, 
sturdy, self-respecting race. They are far from prosperous, 
and even in their richest villages, are largely dependent on 
military service. A large number have become Military 
Officers. 

They claim descent from Pir Kala, a son of Raja Mai, 
who married Kaho Rani when he came to the Kahuta 
hills, and named the ilaqua Kahru after her. Hence the 
descendants are called Kahrwal. 



106 

The Diilal is a sub-division of the tribe. This branch 
should not be confused with the Dolal Qureshis of Gujar 
Khan. 

46. Kahut 

1. Male population. —5,500. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The bulk of tribe is in the Chakwal 
tahsil of the Jheluni district, small numbers are found 
scatterd about the Rawalpindi, Hazara, Gujart and Shah- 
pur districts. 

3. Chief famili 's. -The best known are in Kariala 
(Jhelum). In Langah and Ramshinh are also representa- 
tive families. 

4. History and particulars. —The Kahut claim to 
have come from Arabia and to be o{ Koreshi origin, but 
this is not acknowledged by others. It seems unlikely 
that they are of Rajput extraction. 

The Kahuta hills of the Rawalpindi district are 
supposed to have derived their name from the tribe, but 
no record remains of them in that tract. 

About the year A. D. 1359 their ancestor Said Nawab 
All migrated to Delhi, on the way he defeated a pagan 
king of Sialkot, named Sain Pal. On reaching Delhi they 
paid there respects to the King who ordered to hold the 
Dhanni (in Chakwal) and the Salt Range on his behalf. 
They accordingly retraced their steps and settled at the 
foot of the Salt Range, realising the revenue from the 
Janjuas and the Gujar graziers and remitting it to Delhi. 
Chaudri Sahnsar, 8th in descent from Kahot, was their 
ancestor in the lime of Babar. 



107 

They may be considered to rank as Rajputs in social 
status. 

The Kahuts inter-marry to some extent with the 
Mairs and Kassars and now and then with Awans, both 
giving and taking daughters. 

They have no special customs except that the males 
will not wear blue clothes, or if they do they fall ill ! 

They are bold man of independent character, and of 
good physique, keen sportsmen and good riders. 
The tribe has no clans. 

47. Kakkezat. 

1 . Male population {in the Punjab). 8,4003. (Census 
1931). 

2. Locality. — The Kakkezai are scattered about the 
Punjab, the most numerous clans being in Lahore and 

Sialkot. 

3. Leading families. — Probably the best known in 
the Pasrur family in the Sialkot district. 

4. History and particulars. — The Kakkezai claim to 
be of Pathan extraction, descended from Afghans of 
Sistan. They are known as Sheikhs. It is probable that 
they, like the Khoja Hindus, were converted at an early 
period of the Muslim invasions and affiliated to a Pathan 
class. Sir Denzil Ibbetson says of them " the class (Kalal) 
was raised in importance, many of its members abandoned 
there hereditary occupation (of distilling liquor) and its 
Musalman section also grew ashamed of the social stigma 
conveyed by the confession of Kalal origin, it occordingly 



108 

fabricated a story of Pathan origin, and adding to the first 
letter of the caste name the Pathan tribal termination 
called itself Kakkezai. The name was at first only used 
by the most wealthy members of the caste, but its use is 
spreading. The well-known sheikhs are Kalals, who 
while claiming Pathan origin call themselves Sheikhs. 
They are now mostly known as Muslim traders and are 
found all over Pakistan and as far west as Kandahar. 
They as clever and usually prosperous, generally arriving 
at distinction where employed, and most anxious for 
aristocratic status. 

48. Kakkhe. 

1. Male population. — Approximately 1,500. (Census 
1931). 

Locality. This tribe is found on the left bank of the 
Jhelum between Kohala and Uri (Kashmir), and also in 
the Bagh tahsil of Poonch. 

3. Particulars.—The Kakkhe claim to be of Rajput 
descent from Kakha, a son of Raja Mai, the ancestor of 
the Janjuas. They share with Bambas, a privileged status 
in the Jhelum valley, both are styled Raja and both are 
looked on as the most aristocratic of the Jheium tribes. 
They inter-marry only with each other. 

The Kakkhes and Bambas successfully resisted 
Akbar's first invasion of Kashmir and drove him back in 
1582. Under the Afghans they were practically 
independent. 

The Kakkhe appear to hava fallen somewhat from 
their former high estate, but they are still a well-made 
handsome race, and should make efficient soldiers 

The Tezal are sub-division of the Kakkhe. 



109 
49. Kambohs. 

1. Male poputation.— 5^^,481. {Census 1931). 

2. Loca//7>'.— The Kambohs are found in the upper 
Sutlej valley as low down as Sahiwal. 

3. History and particulars. — The Kambohs are com- 
monly supposed to be closely related to the Arains. Sir 
Denzil Ibbetson and other authorities, however, consider 
it doubtful if this supposed relationship has any further 
basis than the fact that Kambohs and Arains both came 
from the west, and are both of much the same social and 
agricultural repute. The Kambohs are not merely agricu- 
lturists, as they infrequently engage in trade, and have 
even taken service in the Army, in offices, and as private 
servants. 

They claim Rajput descent from Raja Karan. 

Musalman Kambohs held Sohna, in Gurgaon, some 
centuries ago and the tombs and mosques left by them 
show that they must have injoyed a considerable position. 
Several Kamboh Sardars were Amirs and Mansabdars in 
the Court of Akbar, and one of the Emperor's generals, 
Shahbaz Khan, who greatly distinguished himself in 
Rengol, was a members of this tribe. 

In appearance the Mussalman Kambohs are generally 
of short stature, their physical development is good and 
their intelligence appears to hi up to the average, 

50. Karral. 

1. Male popuIation.~U, 300. (Census 1931) 



110 

2. Locality.— The Karrals are found on the right 
bank of the Harro river in the Nara tract, between the 
Rajoia plain and the Dunga Gali range in the Hazara 
district, and also in the Boi hills of the same district. 

3. Leading families. — The Jagirdars of Diwal Manal 
and Dabran. 

4. History and particulars. —The Karrals are believed 
to be Indians in origin, though they themselves deny it, 
and claim to be Moghals, who came from Kian. Their 
ancestor, Kallar Shah was, they say, in the service of an 
Emperor of Delhi, with whom he went to Kashmir. On 
his return he took the Bakot tract and Nara hills from the 
Gakkhars. As a matter of fact, it is more probable that 
the Karrals were already in these parts when the 
Gakkhars invaded their country. They appear to have 
thrown off the Gakkhar yoke in the 17th century. 

The ordinary members of the tribe seem to be in very 
poor circumstances and their Physique is not good. 

They inter-marry with the Dhunds of Hazara, with 
whom they are supposed, by some to be identical in 
origin. 

51. Kashmiri. 

Male population.— \,U,1 59. (Census 1931). 

Lahore Division 75,298 

Rawalpindi Division 32,875 

Multan Division 3,603 

Punjab States 1,983 

Total 113,759 



Ill 

The word Kashmiri is perhaps, applicable to the 
members of any of the races of Kashmir, but it is com- 
monly used in Kashimir itself to denote the people of the 
valley of Srinagar. In any case the term is a geographical 
one, and probably includes many of what we should, in 
the Punjab, call separate castes. In the Punjab the term 
Kashmiri connotes a Musalman Kashmiri. Most 
immigrants from Kashmir are called Kashmiris whatever 
their original tribe. These must be distinguished from 
the well-known Musalman tribes of Poonch and 
Jammu who are mostly of Rajput descent and not Kash- 
miris at all. The Kashmiris are a prosperous class and 
seek eagerly for military employment, many have 
risen to commissioned rank. The principal tribes in the 
Punjab are Bat, Batte, Dar, Lun, Mahr, Man, Mir, 
Shaikh, Wain and Warde. 

52. Kassar Moghal.) 

1. Male population. -Approximatdy 4,000. (Census 
1931) 

2. Locality.~Thc Kassars are peculiar to the north 
west quarter of the Chakwal tahsil, Jhelum district. 

2. Chief families.— The best known family is that of 
Dullah the head of which is the Zaildar. Another family 
of good standing is the one at Chawli, a member of which 
received a direct commission in an Infantry Regiment. 

3. History and particulars —The K'dssavs were noted 
at one time for claiming neither Rajput, Awan or Moghal 
origin, they asserted that they came originally from 
Jammu and that they obtained their present territories by 



112 

joining the armies of Babar. Since the census of 1881 
they have recorded themselves as Moghals, and this claim 
have now developed into a genealogical tree in which the 
Kassars are shown as being of common origin with the 
Moghal Emperors. They now account for themselves as 
follows : — 

They were originally located in the country of Kinan 
in Asia Minor, whence they migrated to Ghazni at some 
time unknown, with the ancestor of the Moghal dynasty, 
and subsequently accompanied Babar in his invasion of 
India in A. D. 1526. Their ancestors at that time being 
Gharka and Bhin according to same, or Jhajha, Lati and 
Kaulshinh according to others. All agree however, in 
stating that Gharka is buried on a mound in Mauza Hatar 
not many miles from Dhok Pipil in Bal Kassar which is 
said to be the original settlement of the tribe in these parts. 
The Dhanni was then in the hands of wandering Gujars, 
while Changas Khan Janjua held the hills to the south 
living at fort Samarkand in Mauza Maira. Babar made 
over to them the western portion of the Dhanni, on condi- 
tion that the would drain off the water with which the 
eastern part was then covered, and Gharka obtained some 
additional country to the south-west as a reward for restor- 
ing to Changas Khan a favouritemare, which the Janjua 
raja had lost. 

They state that the original profession of the tribe 
was "hakumat" or government, and that it is now agricul- 
ture or Government employment. 

Their headmen receive the tittle of "Chaudhri." 

Their customs do not differ from the tribes surround- 



113 

ing them. They hold a good position among the tribes of 
the Jhelum district, ranking in popular estimation with 
the Mairs and Kahuts. They inter-marry freely with the 
former, both giving and taking daughters, but a Kassar of 
good family who married his daughter to a Kahut of fair 
standing, incurred the displeasure of the brother-hood. 
They do not inter-marry with any other tribe. 

In character the Kassar is supposed to be passionate 
and revengeful, given to bitter feuds— which may be said 
to be a common trait in these parts. 

Their Chaudris are men of engaging manners and fine 
appearance, good riders and fond of hawking. They breed 
a very fair stamp of horse. 

Their average physique is good and ihey should prove 
excellent material for the army. 

53. Kathia. 

1. Male population.— 1,600. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The Kathias are found in the Ravi 
valley of the Multan and Sahiwal districts, also in the 
south of the Jhang district. 

3. History and particulars. —The Kathias claim to be 
Punwar Rajputs descended from a Rajput prince named 
Kathia who lived about the time of their conversion to 
Islam, in the reign of the Emperor Akbar. An attempt 
has been made to identify the tribe with the Kathoei, who 
in their stronghold at Sangla, so stoutly resisted the vic- 
torious army of Alexandar, but it cannot be said that any- 
thing definite is known about the tribe. 



114 

They are of Jat status. 

Their average physique is good, owing to the fact thcit 
they do not allow their children of eitlier sex to marry 
until they have attained the age of puberty. 

64. Kethwal. 

1 . Male population.— 1 ,250 (Census 1931). 

2. Localiiy.—ThQ Charihan spur of the Murree range 
is the home of the Kethwalas, this tract is in the Murree 
tahsil of the Rawalpindi district. 

3. Headmen. — There are no families of importance, 
the Zaildar of Chirihan and some Military OHficers form 
the aristocracy of the tribe. 

4. History and particulars. The Kethwal belong to the 
same group as the Dhund and Satti, but claim decent from 
Alexander the Great ! 

They say that they are the oldest inhabitants of these 
hills and that they came into them before either the Dhund 
or Satti. They were almost exterminated by the Dhunds, 
at some time, the date of which is uncertain and they are 
now a very small tribe. Their appearance and character 
much resumble that of the Dhunds, but their physique is 
not so good. The tribe is a poor one and is glad to accept 
all the military employment it can secure. The Kethwals 
inter-marry with the Dhund, Satti and Dhandial. 

55. Khakha. 

1. Population— 11,260. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The tribe is to be met with practically 
throughout the Punjab. 



115 

3. Particulars. -The Khakhas are supposed to b.- 
Khatris converted to Islam. They engage exclusively m 
trade. 

56. Kharral. 

|. Male population.— 1^,650. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The Kharrals are common in the Sahi- 
wal district and are also found in Lahore, Gujranvvala, 
Multan and Bahawalpur. The valley of the Ravi, from the 
junction with the Chenab to the boundary between Lahore 
and Sahiwal is the chief habitat of this tribe. 

3. Chief families. — The best known and one of most 
importance is the Kamalia talukdar family which is men- 
tioned in "Punjab Chiefs". 

4. History and particulars. —The Kharrah appear to 
be a true Rajput tribe, though a considerable portion of 
them are styled Jat. They trace their origin from one 
Bhupa, a descendant of Raja Karan who settled at Uchh 
and was there converted to Islam. From Uchh they moved 
to their present territory. They are now divided into two 
main factions,the upper Ravi and the lower Ravi, the head- 
quarters of the latter being at Ket Kamalia. 

The Kamalia Kharrals rose to some prominace in the 
time of Alamgir, but the upper Kharrals are now the more 
powerful. They stoutly resisted the English Army in 
1857. 

Their phjisique is above the average, and their activity 
and endurance is remarkable. The tribe has been chiefly a 
pastoral one. 

Many of them served in Ranjit Singh's army. 



116 

57. Khattar. 

1. Male popuJation.—l, 730. (Census \9?>l) 

9. The Khattar country is the Kala Chitta range of 
the Attock district and extends from Hassan Abdal and 
Jani-ki-Sang to the Indus. There are also a few villages 
near Shah-ki-Dehri in the Rawalpindi district. 

3. — Chief families. — The best known families are 
those of Wah and Dhreik both of which are mentioned in 
Sir Lepel Griffin's "Punjab Chiefs."' The Dhreik family 
has suffered much from internal feuds, ruinous litigation 
and bad conduct. The Bahtar branch of this family is of 
considerable importance. 

4. History and particulars.— Socially the Khattars hold 
an intermediate place, ranking below the Awans, Ghebas, 
Jodhras and other high class Rajputs. 

The Khattars themselves are divided in belief as to 
their descent, while some claim Indian origin, others deny 
it and allege that they are closely allied to the Awans, 
having come from Arabia. The Awans do not always 
admit this relationship. 

The Khattars were some time divided into two 
main branches, though they themselves rarely speak of it. 
These are the Kala Khattars and Chitta Khattars. To the 
former belongs the Dhriek family, to the latter the Wah 
family. The Kala branch, who are darkish in colour, are 
converted Hindus, and the Chitta of true Musalman descent 
overpowering and observing their predecessors. 

Sir Lepel Griffin makes them originally inhabitants of 
Khorasan, who come to India with the early Musalman 
invaders. 



117 

The Khattars are now anxious for military sevice, 
preferring cavalry. 

They used to have a name for keeping horses and 
hawks, but their circumstances in the present day do not 
appear to permit of much expenditure in this direction. 

There are numerous sects though they are not often 
mentioned. The chief being : — 

Firozal, Sarhal, Isal, Garhal, Balwal, Mitha, Kharial, 
Jandal, and Ranial. 

They give their daughters, to G.ikkhars, Awans, 
Pathans, and Sayads, but receive them only 
from Awans. 

58. Khokhar 

1. Male population— 32,6,00, (Of which 12,000 are 
Jats). (Census 1931). 

Locality. —The Khokhars are found throughout the 
Punjab, but chiefly in the Shahpur, Jhang, Multan districts 
and in the Chenab Colony and Bahawalpur State. 

3. Chief families. — The Khokhars, are well presented 
by families of good standing, some of the best known 
are :— 

In Shahpur, the Malakwal family in the Bhera, 
tahsil, others in Majoka Jaura, and Bandiol 
in the Khushab tahsil, and also the Barath 
family near Miani Gondal. 

In the Jhelum district are the Pind-Dadan-Khan and 
Ahmedabad families and of Badshah Khan in the Chakwal 
tahsil. 



118 

In the Gujrat district the Garhi Gauhar Khan family 
of the Phalian tahsil. 

5. History and particulars. — Rajputs, Awans, Jats, 
and Arains, have all Khokhars branch and the Khokhars 
themselves vary in status. 

The origin of the Khokhars is as obscure as that of 
any Punjab tribe. Tradition invariably connects them with 
the Awans, making Khokhar one of Qutab Shah's sons and 
Khokhar Qutb Shahis his descendants, who would thus be 
akin to the Juhans, an Awan tribe in the Sialkot. But this 
pedigree probably mainly records the fact that the Awans 
and Khokhars owe their conversion to Islam to Saints 
Qutbshah or his disciples, or that they both accepted his 
teachings. 

In Sialkot Khokhars inter-marry with other tribes 
which the Awans will not do. In Gujrat, where they hold 
a compact block of village about Mung on the Jhelum, 
the leading Khokhars are called Raja, as being of Rajput 
decent. Yet they claim kinship with the Awans and inter- 
marry with them and the Bhattis, giving wives to Chibs 
but not getting brides in return. 

About Pind-Dadan-Khan the Rajput Khokhars are 
said to be entirely distinct from the Jat Khokhars, though 
flsewhere in the Jhelum district the tribe has become 
merged with the Jat cultivators. Those of Rajputs status 
marry into some of the best Janjua families. 

The Khokhars have at times been confused with the 
Gakhars, who state that the historian Ferishta has him- 
self made this mistake. The Khokhars were well settled 
in the Punjab centuries before the Gakkhars, and were 



119 

early spread all over the central districts of the province 
before the Gakkhars acquired their seats in the Salt Range 
and in the hilly country extending from the Jhelum to 
the Khanpur "ilaqa" in Hazara, to which they have always 
been confined. 

The earliest distinct mention of the Khokhars occurs 
in the "Taj-ul-Ma'asir." a History written in A. D. 1905, 
which describes a revolt of the tribe against Sultan 
Muhammad of Ghor in the country between the Jhelum 
and the Chenab, when they were defeated by Qutb-ud- 
Din Aibak. After this the tribe is repeatedly mentioned 
in Islamic historical records as breaking out into re- 
bellion and giving trouble generally. The localities with 
which they are identified were Lahore, the Salt Range, 
Multan, between the Indus and the Chenab and also east 
of the Beas river. They appear to have played an impor- 
tant part in the resistance offered to the invading armies 
of Timur. Sheikh Kukari, one of their leaders, submitted 
to Timur and was employed by him in his advance on 
Delhi. After Shaika, Jasrath makes his appearance, in 
A. D. 1420 he attacked the King of Kashmir who was 
marching into Sindh, captured him and took all his 
"material". Jasrath appears to have harried the country 
with varying success (attacking Lahore itself on two 
occasions until 1432, when he disappears. In the time of 
Akbar the Khokhars held portions of the Bari Doab, the 
Jullunder and Rachna Doabs, Multan and portions of 
Jammu and Sialkot, with a population estimated at 200,000 
souls. Prior to the historical records of the tribe a 
traditional history of the Khokhars commences their 
record from about 1500 B. C. and makes them Descen- 
dants of Bustam Raja surnamed Kokra, who was governor 



120 

of the Punjab. Driven thence by Faridur who had acquir- 
ed the Persian throne, Bustan sought refuge in the hill of 
Ghor, West of Kandahar, where his people ruled for 
generations, being called Ghori of Ghoria. Later the 
Khokhars re-entered the Punjab under chiefs such as Jot, 
Sirkap, Vikram and many others, and thenceforth held 
the Punjab. 

The Jhelum, Gujrat and Shahpur districts produce 
the best men. 

59. Kichi and Khilchi. 

1. Population— 5,000. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality.— The Kichi are found almost exclusively 
round Mailsi in the Multan district, and in the Gugera 
tahsil of Montgomery. 

3. History and particulars. — The Kichi is a tribe of 
Jat status which claims Chauhan (Rajput) origin and des- 
cent, from one Kichi, a ruler in Ajmer. Driven out of 
Delhi by the Muhammadans his descendants migrated to 
Multan. The tribe fought with the Joiyas, then paramount 
in those parts, and they say also that they were sent 
against the rebellious Baluch of Khai by the Moghals, in 
Multan. In Montgomery they state that they were con- 
verted to Islam by Bahawal Haqq. 

There is a Jat tribe in Shahpur named Khilchi who 
have probably originated from the Khilji, a Moghal sub- 
tribe. 

60. Kizilbash. 

1. Population. -220. (Census 1931) 



121 

2. Locality.— This very small clan is found cheifly in 
the Lahore and Lyallpur districts. 

Several prominent members of the tribe are servinj 
as Officers in the Army as well as in the civil. 

3. Leading families. — The best known family is that 
of Nawab MuzaflFar Ali Khan of Lahore. In the Dehra 
Ismail Khan district there are also families of good status. 

4. History and particulars.— The original Kizilbash 
were a tribe of Tartar horsemen from the Eastern 
Caucasus, who formed the backbone of the old Persian 
army and of the force with which Nadir Shah invaded 
India. Many of the great Moghal ministers have been 
Kizilbash, and notably Mir Jumla, the famous minister 
of Aurangzeb. 

They form an important military colon\ in Kabul. 
Those found in the Punjab are descendants of the families 
who came with Nadir Shah or after him. 

They are all Shiahs. 

61. Koreshi 

1. Male population (in the Punjab). — Over 50,003. 
(Census 1931). It is probable how-ever, that comparatively 
few of those who have returned themselves as Koresh 
have any real title to the name. 

2. Locality. — Koreshis are found throughout the 
Punjab, they are most numerous in the Rawalpindi, 
Multan and Jhang districts. 

3. Leading families. — In the Gujar Khan tahsil 
(Rawalpindi) is the family of a pensioned Subedar Major 



122 

who was A.D.C. to the Commander-in-Chief and a Zaildar. 
The family of the Ilaqadar of Banhar, Chak Misri, Pindi- 
Dadun-Khan tahsil (Jhe!um). In the Shorkot tahsil of 
Jhang there are several families, known as Sheikhs, here a 
title of honour. The "Makhdum" family of Multan and 
other well-known Koreshi families in the Multan district, 
two of whom are descendants of the Saint Bahawal Haqq. 

4, History and particulars. — The Koreshis claim 
descent form the tribe to which the Prophet ■i--*^ (peace be 
upon him) belonged. Among those who so style themselves 
many claim to belong to the Faruqis or descendants of 
Hazrat Umar, the second Kaliph, or to Sadiqis or descen- 
dants of Hazrat Abu Bakar the first Kaliph both of 
whom were Koreshi by tribe. 

In Gujar Khan there is a well-known section known 
as Dolal, among whom there have been several disting- 
uished Officers. 

Another section in the same tahsil is known as Jagial. 

The Shorkot Koreshis (Jhang district) have an excel- 
lent record as soldiers. 

The tribe is respected by for its sanctity. 

The best class are agriculturists. 

62. Lillas. 

1. Male population.— '&90. (Census) (1931) 

2. Locality.— This small tribe is peculiar to the 
Jhelum district and lives west of, and near to, Pind-Dadun 
Khan. 

3. Headmen.— IhQ Lumbardars of their four vill- 
ages :— Lilla Bharwana, Lilla Hindwana, Lilla Bhera and 
Lilla Guj. 



123 

4. History and particulars.— The Lillas wish to be 
known as Moghals, but are of Jat rank. They state ihat 
they are relations of the Prophet -'-'^ (peace be upon him) 
on his mother's side, and therefore if they had their rights, 
are Koreshis. 

In the time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, a member 
of the tribe migrated to India with a band of 160 men as 
as well dependants. After many wanderings from Multan 
to Gujranwala they finally settled in their present home. 

They are Sunni Muslims and say they were so long 
before their migration to India. They show no signs 
of Indian origin. 

The tribe is supposed to inter-marry with any Jat tribe. 

Being such a small tribe they can give but few men to 
the Army and civil. 

63. Mair and Mair Manhas 

1. Male population.— 7,800. {Census (1931) 

2. Locality.— The Mairs are found chiefly in the 
Chakwal tahsil of the Jhelum district and are also scatter- 
ed about the adjacent of districts Rawalpindi and Attock. 

3. Leading families.— Their headmen are known as 
"Choudhri." In Chakwal is the family of an (late) Extra 
Assistant Commissioner. Other families of standing are 
in Kot Rupwal Ghugh, Badshahan, Chakral Chak 
Naurang and Mian Mir. 

4, History and particulars.— The Mairs say they are 
Manhas Rajputs (Manhas being a word denoting agri- 
cultural pursuits, applied to Rajputs who took to agri- 
cultural) and that they are Dogars of the same stock as 



124 

the Maharaja of Jammu : this has apparently been admit- 
ted by one Maharaja. 

Their ancestors lived in the hilly country west of 
Jammu. 

The Dhanni country (Chakwal) was then part of 
Kingdom of the Dogras, and was given to their forefather, 
Bhagiar Der, as his share of the ancestral estates. He 
went there with his following, some time before the advent 
of Babar. 

The country was then occupied by wandering 
Gujjars who were rejected by the Mairs. The eastern 
part of the Chakwal tahsil was covered by a great lake 
which Babar drained by cutting through the Ghori Gala 
by which the Bunha torrent novv escapes. The Mairs 
took up the drained country. 

The Mairs like their neighbours, the Kassars, are 
passionate and revengeful. They gave the Sikhs much 
trouble, and it required Ranjit Singh's presence in their 
tract to bring them to order' 

Thep joined the Sikhs in 1848 and on making over a lady 
(Mrs. George Lawrence) to them, all their Jagirs were 
confiscated by the English. 

In the 1857 they distinguished themselves by some 
services and by good conduct, and thus obtained a rever- 
sal of their attainder. 

The Mairs inter-marry with the Kassars and, to a 
less extent, with the Kahuts. 

There appears to be a social distinction between the 
ordinary Mair and Mair Manhas ; the latter consider 
themselves Rajputs and of the aristocracy of the tribe. 



125 

Physically the Maiis are active and well made and 
are high-spirited ; well suited in most respects for military 
service. 

64. Maldial. 

1. Male population. — 57,00{Ccnsiis 1931) 

2. Locality.— The Maldial inhabit both banks of the 
iVTahl river in Poonch (Azad Kashmir). 

Particulars. ~l\\e tribe claims to be of Moghal des- 
cent, but can produce no evidence to substantiate this 
claim, their neighbours do not allow it and will not give 
their daughters in marriage to the tribe. 

The men are of medium stature and well-built. 

' 65. Maliar. 

Maliars are cultivators and gardeners and are the 
same a Malis or Baghbans. They are found every where, 
but are most numerous in Rawalpindi, Attock and Jhelum. 

Maliars are fond of calling themselves by the name of 
some tribe higher in the social, as Awan or Janjua. 

They are excellent cultivators. 

66. Malik 

1. Male population. -19, Om. (Census 1931) 

2. Particulars.— The Malik is a tribe of lower Rajput 
status found in Poonch and Jammu. 

They describe themselves as having been brought into 
Poonch by the Emperor Akbar to guard the passes into 
Kashmir from the Punjab. They sometimes call them- 



126 

selves Malik Manhas. A certain number are employed 
in the Kashmir Imperial Service Troops. 

They do not marry outside the tribe. 

67. Mangral. 

1. iMale population.- About 4,500 (Census 1931). 

2. Particulars.— M^ngrals are of good social position 
and are found chiefly in the Kotli tahsil of the Mirpur. 
(Azad Kashmir). 

A good number is seving in the Army and some Officers 
of the tribe have been in the Frontier Force. 

They are sometimes known as Mangral Gakkhars but 
appear to have no real connection with the Gakkhars except 
that they will not give their daughters to any other tribe. ^ 
The men are small but of good physique, and they are keen 
on military employment. 

68. Manhas. 

1. Male population. — Approximately 2,500. (Census 
1931). 

2. Locality. — The tribe is found scattered about in 
small communities in the Sialkot and Rawalpindi districts. 

3. Leading families.—TheTQ are none of any im- 
partance. 

4. History and particulars.— The word Minhas or 
Manhas refers to agriculture and denotes that section of 
the tribe which took to agricultural pursuits. The Jamwal 
is the royal branch who do not engage in agriculture. The 
tribe has an illustrious pedigree and claims to be of Solar 
origin through Ram Chandra of Ajudhya. Their ancestors 



127 

are supposed to have settled in Jammu and Kashmir. They 
now occupy rather a humble place in the Rajput scale of 
precedence. They nevertheless make excellent soldier. 

69. Manj. 

1. Male population.— About S,000. (Census 1931). 

2. L(3ca//7v.— Pre-partition this tribe belonged mainly 
to the Jullundur district but is found in Lahore and Rawal- 
pindi. 

The Alpials of the Rawalpindi district claim to be 
Manj Rajputs. 

3. History and particulars. — The Manj claim to be 
connected with the Bhatti, and descended from a mythical 
Raja name Salvahan. South of the Sutlej the Manj Rais 
of Talwandi and Raikot ruled over a very extensive ter- 
ritory till dispossessed of it by Ranjit Singh and his Sikhs. 
North of that river the Manj never succeeded in establish- 
ing a principality. 

With the exception of the Alpial branch, the Manj has 
now little to recommend him except his good physique. 
Too proud to till the land themselves they cultivate it as a 
rule through the agency of servants, or lease it out to 
tenants. In either case they only receive landlord's profits, 
while the sturdier Jat, cultivating with his own hands, reaps 
the profit of both landlord and cultivator. 

The conversion of the tribe to Islam probably took 
place in the reign of Shahab-ud-Din Ghory, i.e., in the 
middle of the 12th century. 

70. Mekan. 

1. Male population.— Probably 3,000. (Census 1931). 



128 

2. Locality. —The Mekan are chiefly found in the 
Shahpur district, and also, in very small numbers, in Jhelum 
Multan and the Kharian tahsii of Gujrat. 

3. Headmen.~The best known of the tribe are two 
families of the Zaildars in the Shahpur tahsil, in the villages 
Kot Bhai Khan and Kot Pahlwan. 

4. Particulars .—The Mekan are said to be of Panwar 
origin, descended from the same ancestor as the Dhudhi. 
They are a partial tribe and are said to be somewhat tur- 
bulent. 

They rankas Rajput and are generally of fine physique. 

71. Meos or Mawatis 
Male population.— 1\, (ill). (Census 1931). 

The early history and origin of the Meos is abscure ; 
they themselves claim Rajput origin, alleging descent from 
an ancestor converted in the time of Kut-ub-Din. It seems 
probable, however, that the Minas and Meos are connected 
and they are probably both representatives of the earlier 
non-Ayran inhabitants of the country. In former times 
the Meos were noted for their turbulance. As soldiers they 
are cheery and willing workers. Their physique is excellent 
as they have strong thighs and broad chests. There is 
ample and good material for enlistment in infantry. 

72. Moghal. 

1. Male Population.— There are over 100,000 so-called 
Moghals males in the Punjab. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — Moghals are common throughout the 
Punjab but the census returns show that the Jhelum district 



129 

contains the largest number, over 11,000 males in that 
district having returned themselves as Moghal; Rawalpindi 
with nearly, 8,000 and Attock with 5,000 come next. 

3. History and particulars. — Moghuh or Mongols, 
either entered the country with Babar or were attracted 
during the reign of his dynasty. Of the figures given above 
only a small number are of pure Mongolian blood. Irres- 
pective of the mixture of blood resulting from inter-mar- 
riage of the Moghals with the local castes, there is a strong 
tendency among men of low status to claim Moghal 
descent, and it has even become the fashion of late years 
for some well-known tribes to describe themselves as 
Moghal. Among such are the following : — 

Ghebas, Kassar, Phaphras, Tanaolis, and even some- 
time the Gakkhars. In "A History of the Mcghals of 
Central Asia" by N. Elias and E. D. Rose we find the 
following :—"Iii origin there is little difference between 
the Turk and Moghal. The word 'Moghal' even where it 
is used in an ethnic sense, is frequently misapplied, and so 
extended at certain periods in history, as to comprise many 
tribes of real Turki race (among the others) until large 
numbers of people who were not of Moghal race came to 
be called Moghals. This habit appears to have been pre- 
valent first in the time of Chingiz Khan and his immediate 
successors, and subsequently during the ascendency of the 
Chaghatai (or so called Moghal) dynasty in India. The 
third conclusion is that the application and signification of 
all these names.— Turk, Tartar and Moghal— varied at 
different times and in different countries." 

The true Moghal has great pride of race, which feeling 
usually accompanied those qualities which we look for in 
the soldier, 
I 



130 

The best known clans are— The Barlas, Chaghatta and 

Kiani, whilst in the Lahore district are some known are 

Turkmal and Ghori. The true Moghal will always add 

"Beg" to his name, and generally uses "Mirza" as a 

prefix. 

A man who calls himself Moghal but who cannot tell 
the name of his clan should generally be rejected as an un- 
desirable. 

73 Narma. 

The Narma is a Rajput tribe with a male population 
of 3,300, found chiefly in the Bagh tahsil of Poonch and the 
Kotlia (ahsil of Azad Kashmir. They are also to be found 
in small numbers in Kahutta, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi 
Tahsil. 

Their tradition connects them with Puran. said to be 
a son of Raja Salvahan from whom also come the Bhattis 
and Manj Rajputs. 

They connect themselves with the Solhan Rajput with 
whom they inter-marry. 

They are generally of good physique, short and sturdy 
with good legs. 

74. Naru. 

1. Male population.— About 12,000. (Census 1931). 

2. Loca//0'.— Pre-partition this tribe belonged mainly 
to the Hoshiarpur and Jullundur districts, and a few in 
Gurdaspur and Amrilsar. Now in Pakistan they one found 
in Lahore and Rawalpindi and Sahiwal and Miiltan. 

4. Headmen. — Their headmen were "Raaas" of 



131 

the four "Parganas"" in Hoshiarpur, and one in Jullundur 
(India). 

5. History and particulars. — The Narus say that they 
are Surajbansi Rajputs converted in the time of Mahmud 
of Ghazni. They came originally from Muttra and thence 
through Jaisalmer to the Punjab. 

Their ancestor, Raja Tilochand, having applied for 
help in a civil war to the King of Delhi, was sent to con- 
quer the Punjab, which he did, and in return was made 
ruler of the country. 

His son Nihal Chand, became a Muhanimadan, and as- 
sumed the name of Naru Shah. Naru Shah first settled at 
Mau in Jullundur (India) whence his son RatanPal founded 
Phillaur. Thence were founded the four Naru "parganas" 
of Hariana, Bajwana, Sham Chaurasi and Ghorewaha 
in Hoshiarpur and Bahr in Jullundur (India). The chief 
man in each of these "parganas" is known as "Rai" or 
"Rana". 

75. Panwar. 

1. Male population.— About 30,000. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality.— The Panwar is found in the Bahawalpur 
State, in Multan, Sahiwal and Lahore. 

3. History and particulars. — The Panwar or Pramara 
was once the most important of the Agnicula Rajputs. 
"The world is the Pramaras" is an ancient saying denoting 
their extensive sway, and the Nankot Marusthali, extend- 
ing along and below the Sutlej from the Indus almost to 
the Jamna, signified the Maru Asthal or arid territory 
occupied by them. But many centuries have passed since 



132 

they were driven from their possessions, and in 1826 they 
held in independent sway only the small State of Dhat in 
the desert. 

Ranghars (Musalman Rajputs). 

The Musalman Rajputs of the Ambala Division are 
commonly known as Ranghars. After partition they have 
settled down in the Lahore, Sheikhupura and Multan 
districts. 

They belong chiefly to the Batti, Chauhan, Ponwar, 
Jatu, Taoni and Tonwar clans. They are much superior 
in quality to the Eastern R ijput. 

76 Phaphra or Phiphra 

1. Male population. — 350. As shown in the census 
returns (1931) but from the number who are serving in the 
army there must be many more than this. 

2. Locaity, — The Phaphra have a few villages a* the 
foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan in the 
Jhelum district. 

3. Headmen.— A retired Extra Assistant Commis- 
sioner and Subedar Major are perhaps, the most influen- 
tial members of the tribe. 

5. History and particulars. — The Phaphras follow the 
prevailing fashion and call themselves Moghals, to which 
they have no claim. 

The tribe is classed as "semi-Jat" ranking somewhat 
above the Jat status in popular estimation. They inter- 
marry with the Lillas, Gondals and Varaich, etc., who are 
for the most part certainly Jats. 

In character, customs and physique they do not seem 



133 

to differ from the othsr agricultural tribes of the Jhelum 
district. 

77. Phularwan. 

1. Male population.— Abowi 1,700. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The Phularwan occupy a compact block 
of 10 villages in the Zaffarvval tahsil of Sialkot round 
Chobara and also few villages in the Phillaura tahsil. 

3. Headmen. — The Zaildar of Pindi Bago. 

4. History and particulars. —L'lttlQ is known about this 
tribe and it is not mentioned in the census returns. 

The "Rivaj-i-am" describes it as Rajput, and accounts 
for it as follows : — 

One Feroze Shah became a convert to Islam and was 
given land in the Jhang district, where he founded a village 
called Bharwal. For five generations his descendants lived 
in Bharwal, they then offended the authorities and all were 
put to the sword, except one Manga, who escaped. Manga 
came to Zaffarwal and his descendants established them- 
selves in their present habitations. 

Phuler Awan has been suggested as the derivation of 
the tribal name, but there appears to be nothing definite 
to support this supposition. 

78. Punjabi Pathan. 

Male population.~l,93,S}5. (Census 1931). 

The Pathan is generally associated with the Trans- 
Indus districts, but scattered about the Punjab are to be 
found small colonies of Pathans who, in order to dis- 



134 

tinguish them from the Pashtu-speaking Pathan of the 
borders, are here termed Panjabi Pathans. 

These non-frontier Pathans are usually known by the 
town or locality in which they are settled, e.g., Kasur 
Pathans, Multani Pathans. These colonies of Pathans 
are accounted for by Sir Densil Ibbetson in the following 
manner : — 

"During the Lodi and Sur dynasties many Pathans 
migrated to India especially during the reign of Bahlol Lodi 
and Sher Shah Suri. These naturally belonged to the 
Ghilzai section from which those kings sprung. 

But large numbers of Pathans accompanied the armies 
ofMahmud Ghaznavi, Shahab-ud-Din and Babar, and 
many of them obtained grants of land in the Punjab plains 
and founded Pathan colonies which still exist. Many 
more Pathans have been driven out of Afghanistan by 
internal feuds or by famine and have taken refuge in the 
plains east of the Indus. 

The tribes most commonly to be found in Punjab 
are the Yusufzai including the Mandahr, the Lodi Kakar, 
Sarwani, Orakzai, the Karlauri tribes and the Zamand 
Pathans. Of these the most widely distributed are the 
Yusufzai, of whom a body of 12,000 accompanied Babar in 
the final invasion of India, and settled in the plains of 
India and the Punjab. But as a rule the Pathans who have 
settled away from the frontier have lost all memory of 
their tribal divisions, and indeed almost all their national 
characteristics. 

Multani Pathans.—The descendants of Zamand very 
early migrated in large numbers to Multan, to which 



135 

province they furnished rulers, till the tiaie of Aurangzeb, 
when a number of the Abdali tribe under the leadership of 
Shah Husain were driven from Kandahar by tribal feuds, 
took refuge in Multan, and being early supplemented by 
other of their kinsmen who were expelled by Mir Wais, 
the great Ghilzai chief, conquered Multan and founded 
the tribe well known in the Punjab as Multani Pathans. 

Zahid Khan Abdali was appointed Governor of Multan 
with the title of Nawab, at the time of Nadir Shah's inva- 
sion. Multan was Governed by different members of this 
family, until in 1818 the city was captured by the Sikhs 
under Ranjit Singh, after a heroic defence in which the 
Nawab and five of his sons were slain. 

Kasw Pathans. — When the Zamand section was bro- 
ken up, the Khweshgi clan migrated to the Ghorband 
defile, and a large number marched thence with Babar and 
found great favour at his hands and those of Humayun, 
One section of them settled at Kasur, and are known as 
"Kasuria Pathans" 

The Kasuria Pathans increased in numbers and impro- 
tance until the chiefs thought themselves strong enough to 
refuse to pay tribute to the Moghals. After some severe 
fighting the Kasuria Pathans were compelled to give in, 
they never lost heart however and maintained their inde- 
pendence until 1807, when they were finally subdued by 
the Sikhs. After the confiscation of Kasur by Ranjit 
Singh, the Pathans were ordered to remain on the left bank 
of the Sutlej where their leader was assigned the Jagir of, 
Mamdot. 

Besides these two better known clans, there are, 



136 

as already mentioned others to be found in small colonies 
throughout the Punjab. 

Many distinguished Officers, from cavalry regiments, 
belong to this class. 

79. Rajputs. 

The Punjabi Musalman Rajput tribes described in 
this chapter have been mainly those of the Rawalpindi 
Civil Division. The term Rajput has to a large degree 
come to mean a social grade rather than an ethnological 
term among Punjabi Musalmans. The Census Report of 
1931 gives the male population af Punjabi Musalman Raj- 
puts as 9,19,165. 

80. RaDJha. 

1. Male population.— About 8,000, (Census 1931) 

2. Locality.— The bulk of the Ranjhas are to be 
found in the Bhera tahsil of the Shahpur district, there are 
a few also in Gujranwala and Jhelum. 

3. //eflf/me/7.— The most influential members of the 
tribe are the Zaildars of Mid Ranjha and Bhadar in the 
Bhera tahsil. The lumbardars of Pind Dadun Khan and 
Lilla in the Jhelum district are men of some standing. 

4. — History and particulars. — The Ranjhas are gen- 
erally classed as Jat though they are Bhatti Rajputs. Lat- 
terly a few of the tribe have claimed Koreshi origin. 
They closly resemble the Gondals, with whom they inter- 
marry. 

The Ranjhas show little desire for military service. 



137 

81. Sakhal. 

This tribe is found chiefly in the Mirpur district 
where they own a group of viHages round Khattar. A 
few are also in Poonch. They are "' Sahu " and claim to 
be Gakkhars. The Admal Gakkhars describe fhe Sakhal 
as having formerly been servants of the Gakkhars. 

The tribe is a small one. 

82. Salehria. 

1 Male population.— BtiWQtn 12,003 and 14,000. 
(Census 1931\ 

2. Locality. —The Salehria are mostly found in the 
Zaffanval (Sialkot) and Shakargarh. There are some also 
in the Lahore district. 

3. Headmen. —The best known and most influential 
family belong to a village named Rupar Chak in the 
Zaffarwal tahsil, its head is a Zaildar. 

4. — History and particulars. — The Salehria are Som- 
bansi Rajputs who trace their descent from Raja Saigal, of 
fabulous antiquity, and from his descendant Chandra 
Gupta. They say that their ancestors came from the 
Deccan, as part of a military force, to suppress an 
insurrection among the Khokkars, and settled in Sialkot. 

83. Sarara. 

1. Male population.— 4,600. Census 1931). 

2. This tribe is met with only in the Boi tract, bet- 
ween the Thandiani Range and the Kunher river, in the 
Hazara district. 



138 

They connect themselves with both the Dhunds and 
the Tonaolis, but say at the same time that they come 
from Pakpattan in the Sahiwal district. The tribe is 
classed as Sahu and inter-marry on equal trems with the 
Dhunds. 

Their physique is above the average. 

84 Satti. 

1. Male population.— 9, 12>Q. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality.— Iht Satti occupy the lower range of 
the Murree hills in the Murree and Kahuta tahsils of the 
Rawalpindi district. 

3. LeflJ/Mg-Za/n/V/e^. — The head of the Sattis lives at 
Kanira blow the Narh hill. Another good family is at 
Chujjana in the Murree tahsil, the head of which is a 
Zaildar. 

4. History and particulars. — Next to the Dhunds the 
Sattis are the largest and most important of the hill tribes 
of the Rawalpindi district. They occupy the whole of the 
Kotli spur in the Murree tahsil and they divide the whole 
of the mountainous portion of the Kahuta tahsil with the 
Jasgams. 

They are probably of the same descent as the Dhunds 
who pretend to look down on them. They were at one 
time the traditional enemies of the Dhunds but at the pre- 
sent day the two tribes have no feud and inter-marry 
freely. 

The Sattis have two traditions: as to their origin, one 
connects them with Hazrat Abbas, the paternal of the 



139 

prophet J# (peace be upon him) while the other makes 
them the offspring of one Takht Khan, who came with 
Timur to Delhi. The Dhunds account for the Sattis 
in yet another manner which is absolutely rejected by 
them as false. 

There is little doubt that they were originally Hindu, 
probably Ponwar Rajput's, whose conversion to Islam is of 
comparatively recent date. 

The tribe came to English assistance when the Dhunds 
attacked Murree in 1857. 

Holdings among them are very small and without 
military service they could not live. The tribe is of good 
social standing and among them tribal feeling is strong. 
They hold together and look up to there headman. 

They make first-rate soldiers, enlist readily, and are 
always in great demend. 

85. Sayad. 

1. Male population.—Ower 2,50,000. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. Sayads are found everywhere in the 
Punjab. (West Pakistan). 

3. History and particulars. — True Sayads are the 
descendants of Hazrat Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, who 
married Fatima Prophet's (Be peace up on him) daughter. 
Many Sayads, however, profess to be his descendants 
through other wives. 

The Sayads of to-day obviously contain a very large 
mixture of Indian blood, partly by marrying wives from 
the Indian Muslims of other castes and partly by the 



140 

tendency of the lower castes to stop gradually into the 
folds of that holy caste. An niimense number of those 
who profess to be Sayads have really no claim to the title. 
In the Eastern Punjab they form a comparatively small 
portion of the population, and are mostly the descendants 
of true Sayads who followed the Muslim conquerors, and 
were given grants of land which their descendants continue 
to enjoy. In the Central and Western Punjab, and more 
especially on the Frontier, on the Indus, and in the Salt 
Range, ther are numerous. 

As a rule they are cultivators and depend more upon 
their income from " Piri Muridi," /. e., dues received as 
holy people, than on agriculture. Their influence on the 
whole is declining, but they still have considerable power. 
They are as a rule intelligent. Their social position is 
very high and they will not give their daughters in 
marriage to any one except a Sayed or Koreshi, while 
tribes of the highest social standing marry their daughters 
to Sayads. 

Sayads generally add Shah to their names and are 
respectfully addressed as " Shahji '". They are found in 
every branch of the army and opinions differ greatly as 
to their value as soldiers. 

Probable the most compact colony of Sayads are 
those of the Kagan valley in Hazara, descendants of Jala 
Baba, who led the Swathi invasion into Hazara. It 
required an expediton in 1852 to enforce complete sub- 
mission. 

The following are the principal sub-divisions in the 
Punjab : — 



141 

Hasani, Bokhari, Gilani, Hussaini, Mashaidi, Shirazi, 
Zaidi, Jafiri, Gardazi. Most Sayads are " Pits," having 
a large following of " Murids " or disciples. 

86. Sheikh. 

1. Male population.— US1,370. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — Sheikhs are met with everywhere thro- 
ughout the Punjab. 

3. Origin and particulars.— The word Sheikh means 
" learned," and was originally applied to holy immigrants 
from Arabia, but it came to be usea for converts from 
Hinduism. A man may be a Sheikh by birth or become 
one if he is not a Muslim. 

The term Sheikh includes over 1,0 JO sub-castes, many 
of which appear to have assumed high sounding titles. All 
Koreshis are Sheikhs but, except in a few localities, they 
prefer to be known as Koreshis. 

87. Sial. 

1. Male population. -About 50,000. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality.— The bulk of the Sials are in the Jhang 
and Multan districts : in the former they are located in 
Shorkot and Jhang tahsils and the latter in th; Kabirwala 
tashil. They are found also in lesser numbers, in Sahiwal, 
Shahpur, Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, the Chenab 
Colony and the Bahawalpur State. 

3. Leading families.— The descendants of Kabir 
Khan, the 17th Sial chief, who died in 1801, live in Jhang- 
Maghiana. 



142 

Other families of standing are at Kharanwala, Bad 
Rajbana and Rustam Sargana. In the Multan district 
the best known are those of Kund Sargana and Bager. 

4. History and particulars. — The Sials are descended 
from Taj Shankar a Ponwar Rajput, whose home was at 
Daranagar, between Allahabad and Fattehpur. A branch 
of the Ponwars had previously emigerated from their 
native country round Delhi to Jaunpur, and it was there 
that Rai Shankar was born. One story has it that Rai 
Shankar had three sons— Seu, Teu and Gheu - from 
whom have descended the Sials of Jhang, the Tiwanas of 
Shahpur, and the Ghebas of Pindi Gheb. Another tradi- 
tion states that Sial was the only son of Rai Shankar, 
and that the ancestors of the Tiwanas and Ghebas were 
only collateral relations of Shankar and Sial. Owing to 
dissensions among the members of the family, Sial emigr- 
ated during the reign of Ala-ud-din Ghori to the Punjab. 
Sial in his wanderings came to Pakpattan, and was there 
converted to the Muslim religion by the eloquent exhorta- 
tion of the sainted Baba Farid ^M -i ^*^j of Pakpattan. 

The alleged connection of the Sials with the Tiwanas 
and Ghebas is most improbable. The tribe is undoubtedly 
of Rajput origin and migrated west during the reign of 
Ala-ud-din Ghori when many Rajput families, including 
the ancestors of the Kharrals, Tiwanas, Ghebas and 
Chaddars, emigrated from the provinces of Hindustan 
to the Panjab. Crossing the river Ravi in its lower reaches, 
the tribe appears to have reached the Chenab in the 
vicinity of Shorkot in the 14th century, and to have found 
it necessary to entrench itself against the local tribes, in 
forts, which mark the country. From this base they 



143 

appear to have spread n:)rth and south along the river, 
the Thai proving an insuperable barrier to their further 
progress westward. 

The Sials appear to have reached the zenith of their 
power shortly after Ahmed Shah Abdali's first invasion of 
the Punjab (1754-55). After a brief period of prosperity, 
the tribe gradually succumbed to the Sikhs, and was 
finally conquered by Ranjit Singh, though still retaining 
considerable political importance. 

About one-fifth of the tribes has returned itself as 
Jat, and the remainder as Rajput. 

They appear to have no connection with the town of 
Sialkot. 

88. Sohlan. 

The Sohlan is a Rajput tribe connected with the 
Narma. 

The Muslim section is found chiefly in the Mirpur 
district of Azad Kashmir. 

Their physique and characteristics are much the same 
as the Narma with whom they inter-marry. 

The tribe is a small one. 

89. Sudhan. 

1. Male population.— 25,300. (Census 1838) 

2. Locality.— The Sudhanoti tahsil of Poonch is the 
home of the Sudhans, but they spread also into the 
Havali, Bagh and Kotli tahsils and a few even are to be 



144 

met with across the Jheluni in the Kahuta tahsi of Rawal- 
pindi. 

3. Leading families.— 1\\Q Rais of Alisozel in Sudha- 
noti is perhaps, the most influential man of the tribe. 

Other families of good status are at Neriya Chowki 
and Kirk in the same tahsil. 

4. History and particulars.— The Sudhans are the 
most important tribe of Poonch, and of late years an in- 
creasing number have been enlisted in the Army. 

They claim Pathan origin and say that they are desce- 
ndants of Ismail who founded Dera Ismail Khan, and also 
of one Jassi, who was a Pathan. 

According to them they first settled near Kotli, in the 
Murree hills (not the place of the same name in Jammu 
territory), which was at that time occupied by Brahmans. 
A tribe known as the Bagar held the opposite bank of 
the Jhelum and tyrannised over the Brahmans, who called 
in the Sudhans to their aid. The Sudhans having defeated 
the Bagars, seized their country and named it Sudhanoti, 
it was at this time that they took the name of Sudhan, 
which they had earned as a compliment to their valour 
from the Brahmans. If all this has any foundation in 
fact, it must be very ancient history for there is now no 
trace of the Bagars in Poonch. 

The Sudhan varies in physique, and other desirable 
qualities, with the locality in which he is found. The best 
are obtained from Sudhanoti, and the nearer they are to 
the centre of that tahsil the better they are ; here their 
physique is excellent. 



145 

Large numbers of Sudhans take domestic service and 
are to be met with in Murree, Rawalpindi and the Galis. 

The Sudhans have pride of race and look on them- 
selves as superior to any of the other tribes of Poonch, 
but they cannot be considerd high class Rajputs, which 
term, notwithstanding their claim to Pathan origin, they 
apply to themselves. 

They marry chiefly among themselves but also take 
and give wives to the Maldials and some of ihe Murree 
hill tribes. 

90. Tarar. 

1. Population.- 1 \, 100. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality. — They bulk of the Tatars are in the 
Phallian tahsil of the Gujrat district, the tribe is also met 
with in Gujranwal, Shahpur, Jhelum and Sialkot. 

3. History and particulars. —The Tarar rank as Jat 
though they claim Solar Rajput origin, apparently from 
Bhatti of Bhatner. They say that their ancestor Tarar 
look service with Mahmud of Ghazni but that his son 
Lodhi, from whom they are descended moved from 
Bhatner to Gujrat, Gujranwala and Shahpur. 

They inter-marry with the Gondal, Varaich, Gil, 
Virk and other leading Jat tribes of the neighbourhood. 

91. Tezal. 

1. Population. About 5,400, (Census 1931) 

i 

Locality. —The Tezal are found on the right bank of 
the Mahl river in the Bagh tahsil of Poonch. 



146 

3. Particulars.— The tribe appears to be a sub-divis- 
ion of the Kakkhe and ranks as Rajput. 

They inter-marry with the Sudhan and Chandal of 
the same locality. 

They are of the short stature but robust physique. 

92. Thatal 

1. Population.— 1,216. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Shahpur and Jhelum district. 

3. Particulars.— An obscure tribe of Jat status. 

93. Tiwana 

1 . Male Population. —About 1 , 1 00. (Census 1931) 

2. Loca/Z/v.—Tiwanas inhabit the Thai country west 
of Kushab in the Shahpur district, a few are also to be 
found in the Bhera and Shahpur tahsils. 

3. Leading families. — The Tiwanas although numeri- 
cally a small tribe possess more families of distinction 
then any other tribe. In fact, "Maliks" appear to 
predominate over the ordinary rank and file of the tribe. 

The Mitha Tiwana family is by far the most impor- 
tant in the Shahpur district. Its history is given in '"The 
Punjab Chiefs." There are many branches of this family, 
the wealthiest and probably ihe most important being that 
of which Malik Umar Hayat Khan was the head. 

Other families of high status are in Hanioka and 
Hadali. 



147 

5. History and Particulars. — Notwithstanding their 
claims to high Hindu Descent, the Tiwanas were until 
about a century ago an ordinary Punjab Musalman tribe, 
inhabiting a few villages at the north of the Thai desert. 
After a severe struggle with their neighbours, the Awans, 
the head of the clan established independent authority 
over the Thai, and even after the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, 
brought them under subjection, they found it advisable to 
employ the Tiwana Chiefs as their local Governors. Their 
earlierhistory represents them as being Ponwar Rajputs 
who emigrated from Hindustan to the Punjab, probably in 
15th century. Their first settlement appears to have been 
at Jahangir on the Indus, where they became converts to 
Islam. 

Moving eastwards they eventually occupied Shahpur, 
and in 1680 built Mitha Tiwana. 

The Tiwana, rendered valuable service in 1848 when 
the Multanis rose against English and again in 1857, 
when they proved their loyalty to the English by furnish- 
ing over 1 ,000 horsemen for the irregular cavalry raised in 
the Punjab by Lord Lawrence. 

The Tiwanas are essentially cavalry soldiers, and also 
serve in infantry. 

Their Maliks breed excellent horses. 

Closely related to the Tiwanas are a family of Nums 
(Bhatti Rajputs) with whom the Tiwanas inter-marry. 

94. Traggar. 

1. Population— 900. (Census 1931) 



148 

2. Locality. — The Traggar are found only in ihe 
Multan and Muzaffar-garh districts. 

3. Particulars. — This tribe claim to be Bhatti Rajputs, 
and take their name from their ancestral home at Traggar 
in Bikanir. 

The social position of the tribe is good, they are fond 
of horses and are anxious to serve in cavalry, 

95. Varaich. 

1. Male population.^ khowi 40,000. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Varachi are chiefly found in the 
Phalia and Gujrat tahsils of the Gujrat district, they have 
also spread in to Gujranwala Sialkot, Jhelum, Lahore 
and Rawalpindi. 

3. Leading families. —Thz VVazirbad family is the 
most important and is mentioned in the "Punjab Chief's." 
At Jallalpur Jattan, in th." Gujrat tahsil, there is another 
fanmily of good status, the head of which is a Zaildar. 

4. History and particulars.— The Varaich is one of 
the most important of the Jat tribes of the Punjab. 
There are many stories as to its origin, the most general- 
ly accepted of which is that their ancestor Dhudi was a 
Jat who came into India with Mahmud of Ghazni and 
settled in Gujrat. The other stories make them Rajputs, 
which but few Varaiches claim to be. There is little 
doubt that Gujrat was their first home and that their 
movement has been eastwards. 

It is a disgrace for a member of the tribe to marry a 
low caste woman. Their social standing is good, and they 
marry with the best local tribes. 



149 

The conversion of the Varachi to Islam took place 
comparatively recently. 

The physique of the men is excellent and they make 
good soldiers. 

96. Virk 

1. Po/7M/a//o/?.— 16,290. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality.— The Headquarters of the Virk Musal- 
man's appears to be the Gujranwala and Lahore districts. 
The tribe is also found in Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhang and 
Multan. 

3. History and Particulars. —The Virk claim origin 
from a Manhas Rajputs named Virak, who left Jammu 
and settled in Amritsar. They are now of Jat status and 
they marry freely with Jat tribes of their neighbourhood. 

Virks are more Sikhs than Muslims. 

The tribe rose to some political importance about the 
end of the 18th century, when they ruled a considerable 
tract in Gujranwala and Lahore until subdued by Ranjit 
Singh. 

97. Wattu. 

1. Populatio ].--24,500. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality. — The Wattu are to be found along both 
bank of the Sutlej and Ravi in the Sahiwal and Lyall- 
pur districts. There are some also in the Lahore and 
Sheikhupura districts. 

3. History and particulars.— The V^aUu are a Bhatti 



150 

clan, descended from Rajpal, grandson of the Bhatti 
Raja Salvahan of Sialkot. 

The Sutlej Wattus have now taken to agriculture,and 
are peaceful and industrious cultivators. 

The tribe was coverted to Islam by Baba Farid of Pak- 
pattan in the 13th century. 

Wattu's are also good soldiers. 

Beside the Punjabi Musalman tribes described in the 
foregoing pages, there are a large number which are class- 
ed in the census returns as Rajput and Jat. 



CHAPTER VI. 

A brief account of Cis-Indus Pathans, and tribes 
peculiar to Hazara District N-W-F-P and akin to 
Pathaus. 

The Awans and Gujars of Hazara District numbering 
approximately 50,000 and 70,000 males respectively are 
spread all over the District, and from long residence 
therein have acquired the manners, customs, etc. of the 
Hazara tribes among whom they dwell, are indistinguish- 
able from them and are different to the Awans and Gujars 
of the Punjab. 

Other purely Punjabi Musalman tribes such as 
Gakhars, Dhunds, Kethwals, Karrals, and Sararas are 
found in the Southern and South Eastern hills of Hazara 
District, extend into Rawalpindi and Murre Tehsils. A 
history of these tribes and also of the Awans and Gujars 
is given in Chapter V. 

Akazais. 

1. Population. — Muster 1,000 fighting men, (Census 
1931) 

2. Locality. —The left bank of the Indus to the Black 
Mountain. 

3. History and particulars. — The Akazais are a tribe 
of Isazai Yusafzais, they are divided into four clans— the 
Barat Khel, Aziz Khel, Tasan and Painda Khel. 

They should make satisfactory soldiers for the 
country. 

151 



152 

Chagarzais. 

Po/?i//fl//o/;.— Cis-IndusCha[?arzais muster about 2,500 
fighting men. (Census 1931) 

Locality.— Both banks of the Indus from the Trans- 
Indus Dama mountain on the West, to the Black Moun- 
tain on Hazara Border. 

History and particulars. —The Chagarzai are a tribe 
of Malizai Yusafzais, closely allied by family to the Buner- 
wals. They are divided into three clans, the Firoz Khel 
entirely Trans-Indus and the Nasrat Khel and Basi Khel 
on both banks of the Indus. 

The Chagarzais are a purely race owning cows, buffa- 
loes and goats. They are men of excellent physique, 
good mountaineers, have a great reputation for bravery 
and make excellent soldiers for the country. 

Chachh Pathans. 

1. Male population.— Abcut 10,000. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality.— The Chachh plain in the northern 
portion of Attock Tehsil, Attock District, on the left 
bank of the Indus. 

History and particulars.— Many Pathans have migra- 
ted from Afghanistan, Tribal Territory and Trans-Indus 
Territory for various causes during the past two centuries 
an<i taken refuge in the plains to the East of the Indus. 
The Pathans in the Chachh area have retained their 
coustoms and language and are mainly decendants of the 
Yusafzai including the Mandaur, the Lodi, the Tarin and 
the Dilazak tribes. 



153 

Enterprise is a very marked characteristic of the 
Chachh Pathan, as an agriculturist he is excellent— he is 
a curious blend of farmer, trader and is of very good 
physique, and makes a very good soldier when he does. 

Dilazaks. 

1. Male population.— Khoni 1,200. (Census 1931) 

2. Locality.~\n Haripur Tehsil of Hazara and the 
Chachh plain of Attock Tehsil. 

3. History and particulars.— Tho, ong\n o{ \h\s iuh& 
is doubtful, they are acknowledged by Pathans as belong- 
ing to the Kodai Karlani branch of the Ghurghushl 
Pathans, but are probably a race of Scythic descent. 
The formerly occupied the country about Peshawar and 
the Indus, and on the borders of Ningrahar. They 
were driven across the Indus by the Yusafzais, 
Muhammadzais, Mohmands, and Khalils, at a last fight 
near Kapur-da Garhi in the Yusafzai plain, in the 16th 
century. 

They make satisfactory soldiers for the country. 
Hasanzais. 

1. Population. ~C\s-\nd\xs Hasanzais muster about 
1,000 fighting men (census 1931) 

2. Locality.— hoih. banks of the Indus, the Cis-Indus 
portion living on the Black Mountain and the Trans-Indus 
portion immediately opposite them. 

I 

3. History and particulars. — The Hasanzais are a tribe 
oflsazai Yusafzais. The tribe is divided into 11 clans, 
six living Cis-Indus and 5 Trans-Indus. The Khan Khel 



154 

is considered the Chief clan and from it is elected the 
Khan of the Isazais, otherwise known as the Sahib-e- 
Dastar (master of the Turban.) 



is- 


Indus — 




Trans-Indus — 


1. 


Nasrat Khel. 




I. Lukman Khel. 


2. 


Mamu Khel. 




2. Nanu Khel. 


3. 


Dada Khel. 




3. Zakaria Khel. 


4. 


Mir Ahmad 


Khel. 


4. Kotwal. 


5. 


Sayads. 




5. I^a Khel. 


6. 


Khan Khel. 







They should make satisfactory soldiers for the 
country. 



Jaduns. 

Male population.— \n Hazara 6,500. (Census 



1931) 



2. Locality. — Abbottabad and Haripur Tehsils of 
the Hazara District, 

3. Chief families.— The Hassazai family of 
Dhamtour once held the Khanship of the tribe and are 
still looked up to. Other families hold jagirs of Banda 
Pir Khan and Bandi. 

History and particulars. — The Jaduns are an offshooi 
of the Transfrontier Jaduns of the Mahaban Range. 
About the end of the 17th century, they crossed the Indus 
and spread up the Dor Valley as high as Abbottabad, 
latter thev further extended their holdings at the expense 
of the Dilazaks and the Karrals. At the present day 



155 

their settlements are along the banks of the Dor between 
Bagra and Mangal, part of the Abbottabad plateau and 
its neighbourhood, and in the Nillan Valley. 

The divisions of the tribe are : 

1. Solar— 

(/) Mat Khwazai. 
(;7) Utazai. 
(//■/) Sulinianzai. 

2. Mansur — 

(/■) Daulatzai. 
(//) Musazai. 
(///) Khadarzai. 

3. Hassazai. 

The men are of good physique but small statute, 
they make good soldiers for the country. 

Khattaks. 

A very complete description of Khattaks is given in 
the Hand book on Pathans. The following sections of 
this tribe are found in the Punjab : 

Part of the Saghris, inhabiting the left bank of the 
Indus about Makhad in the south Western portion of 
Pindigheb Tehsil of Attock District. The Bhangi 
Khel, inhabiting the Mountainous tract north of 
Kalabagh in the Isa Khel Tehsil of Mianwali District. 

Mishwani 

I . S4ale population— 'iSm. (Census 1 93 1 ) 



156 

2. Locai/ty.—The north Eastern end of the 
Gandghar Range in the Haripur Tehsil of Hazara. 

3. Chief families.— There aie several Maliks of good 
standing, they are all in or near Srikot, their chief village. 

4. History and particulars.— The Mishwanis are 
Ghurghusht Pathans, said to be descended from a Sayad, 
Muhammad-i-Gisu Darez, by a Shirani woman and thus 
Allied to the Shiranis, Ushtaranas, and Gandapurs. 
Their original home was probably in Baluchistan whence 
they attacked themselves as retainers to the Yusafzais in 
their return to the Peshawar Valley in the 15th or 16th 
century. A portion of them accompanied the Utmanzai 
Yusafzais into the Hazara District. 

They are a sturdy industrious and well behaved race 
and their loyalty and courage are beyond question. 
Major Abbott found in them his staunchest supporters 
in 1848 and described them as "one of the bravest races 
in the world." The chief clans are :— 

\ Mani Khel 

2. Hasain KheL 

3. Dura Khel. 



Niazis, 






1. Male population — 






Mianwali 

Kohat 

Bannu 

Dehra Jsmail Khan 


. 19,500 

. 2,500 

. 2,000 

500 


] 

1 

1 

(- (Censu* 

1 1931) 



24,500 I 
; 



157 

2. Locality.— On both banks of the Indus chiefly in 
the Isa Khel and Mianwali Tehsils of the Mianwali 
District. 

3. History and particulars. -The Niazis are a Pathan 
tribe descended from Niazai one of the three sons of 
Ibrahim, surnamed Lodai. They are thus Lodi Pathans 
and akin to the Dotanni, Prangis, Surs, etc. After their 
defeat by the Marwats at the beginning of the 16th 
century, they found a home in the Trans-Indus portion of 
the Mianwah District, east of the Tanga Darra by expel- 
ing or reducing to serfdom the Awans and Jats who they 
found there. The Sarhani section subsepuently occupied 
the left bank of the Indus. They are still fairly numerous 
in Kohat and Bannu Districts and are found in small 
numbers in Dera Ismail Khan. Part of the tribe is 
nomadic, trading between Khorasan and the Derajat, 
pitching their camp at Isa Khel in the winter. Although 
their language (Pashto) has been completely replaced by 
Punjabi in the Mianwali Tehsil and is undergoing the 
same process in the Isa Khel Tehsil, they retain great 
pride in being Pathans. The Awans and Jats living 
amongst them from the great mass of the population but 
are in the great majority of cases only tenants. The tribe 
is almost entirely agricultural, they have been enlisted for 
the Infantry and prove a great success as soldiers, their 
physique is very much above the average. 

Swatis. 

1. Male population. ^-20,000 (Census 1931). 

2. Locfl//7v. —The Swatis called the Swatis of Pakhli 
inhabit Konsh, Bhogarmang, the Chatar Plain, Part of 



158 

Agor and some villages on the Kamhar River in the 
Kagan Vally, all in Hazara District. 

The Swatis of Allai, in independent Territory, extend 
northwards from Mansehra Tehsil to Kohistan. 

3. History and particulars. — The Swatis claim to be 
Pathans, descendants of the people who inhabited Swat 
and Buner before the Yusafzai invasion which drive them 
into Hazara about the end of the 17th century. 

The are divided into the following clans : — 

1. Jehangirai. 

2. Argoshal Mulkal. 

3. Ishmaili. 

4. Mir Khani Sulemani. 

5. Sarkheii. 

6. Mandrawi. 

7. Panjghol. ( Shamota. 

' Lochal. 

8. Doodhyal i Mayor. 

( Bishgrami. 

9. Panjmiral. 

10. Alisheri. 

These Divisions are represented by a number of chiefs, 
namely, those of : — 

Ghari Habibullah. 

Mansehra. 

Giddarpur. 

Doodhyal. 

Bhogarmang. 

Ratal. 

Batigram. 

Dhannial. 



159 

The country is rich in cultivation and cattle and the 
population is dense. There are a number of large and 
thriving villages. 

Tanaolis. 

1. Male population.— 35,000, of whom 20,00^ are 
feudal Tanawal. 

2. Locality.— The Hindwal section occupy feudal or 
upper Tanawal and extend to the right bank of the Indus, 
the Pallal lower Tanawal, including Badhnak and a num- 
ber of villages in the Girhian tract of the Mansehra 
Tehsil. 

3. Leading families. — The recognised Chief is the 
Nawab of Amb (feudal Tanawal). 

The leading clan of the Fallals is the Labhya, com- 
monly called Suba Khani, whose best known families are 
those of Phuhar, Bir and Shingri which are represented 
by three Jagirdars— besides these there are the Jagirs of 
Sherwan and Chamhad. 

4. History and particulars. — The Tanaolis claim de- 
scent from Amir Khan, a Barlas Moghal, whose two sons 
Hind Khan and Pal Khan crossed the Indus about the 
end of the 17th century, from the country round Maha- 
ban, and settled in the Mountainous area now held by 
them and named after the tribe — Tanawal. 

The Tanaolis are industrious cultivators of good Phy- 
sique make very good soldiers. Punjabi is the Mother 
Tongue though a few speak Pushtu as well, they have 
many Pathan customs and take much pride in their dress 
and appearance. 



160 

The sub-divisions of the tribe are : — 

1. Hindwal. — 

fCbaryal. 
(0 Jamal -{ Ledhyal. 



fLalal. 
(//■) Saryal. -! Hedral 



L Abdwal. 

fLalal. 
{ Hedrs 
I Baizaj 



(//■/) Jalwal. 

(iv) Bohal. 

(v) Baigal. 

(v/) Tekral. 

(v/7) An sal. 

(v//7) Masand. 

{ix) Rains. 

2. Pallal. 

(/) Labhya (Suba Khani). 

(//) Matyal. 

{in) Bainkaryal. 

(iv) Dairal. 

(v) Sadhal. 

(v/) Judhal. 

(yii) Baigal. 

(vm) Tekral. 

{ix) Asnal. 

{x) Masand. 
{xi) Rains. 



161 

3. BhujaL- 

Tarins 

1 . Male population- 1 ,000 (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. —Hamrsi District and Attock Talisil. 

3. History and particulars. — The Tarins are Sarbani 
Pathans, despendants of Tarin, son of Sharkaban, son of 
Sarban. According to tradition Tarin had three sons 
Abdul Khan, Tor Khan and Spin Khan— from the first 
are descended the Saddozais and Durranis ; from the 
second and third the Tarins themselves. Some Tor Tarins 
lie in the Haripur Plain and there are a few Spin Tarin m 
Tarbela and Attock tahsil, the remainder of the tribe are to 
be found in the Quetta Peshin District. The Tarins came 
to Hazara with the Utmanzai Yusafzais early in the 18th 
century and rose to be the most important tribe in Lower 
Hazara, but with the advent of the Sikhs their power 
waned. 

The Tarin are divided into the following clans. 

Tor Tarins — 



1, 


Saigi. 


2. 


Nurzai. 


J. 


Makhiani. 


4. 


Malikyar, 


6. 


Alizai. 


6. 


Abubakar 


Spin 


Tarins — 


1, 


Zaam. 


2. 


Wanechi. 



162 

3. Semani. 

4. Raisani. 

5. Marpani. 

6. Lasiani. 

7. Advvani. 

8. Malgrani. 

The men are of good physique and make good soldiers 
for the country. 

Tarkhelis. 

1. Mole population.— 5Q0. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — The Khari tract and the lower end of 
the Gandgarh range in Hazara, with several villages in the 
Attock Tehsil. 

3. History and particulars. — The Tarkhelis are a sub- 
section of the Alazai Utmanzais, they do not inter-marry 
with the rest of Utmanzai, and their customs also differ. 
Inheritance is per capita and not by the cbundawand rule. 
The Tarkheli make excellent soldiers. 

Turks. 

1. Male population.— f^honX 2,000 (Census 1931). 

2. Locality.— Haripur and Mansehra Tehsil of Hazara 
District. 

3. Chief families. — The Jagirdars of Biali in the 
Mansehra Tehsil is probably the best known and most in- 
fluential man of the tribe in Hazara District. 

4. History and particulars. — The name of Turk is a 
Tartar word meaning "Wanderer". The Turks are 



163 

descendants of the Mogolian Karlagh Turks who entered 
India with Tamerlane in 1399 A. D. at one time they domi- 
nated Hazara District, but gradauUy Pathan and other 
tribes evicted them from their possessions and in A. D. 
1786 they appealed to Timur Shah Durani to reinstate 
them in Manakrai — the Headquarters of the clan near 
Haripur, from which the Gurgust Pathans had ousted them. 

They are now of little importance, but make satisfac- 
tory soldiers. 

Utmanzai. 

1. Male populatiofj -2,600. (Census 1931). 

2. Locality. — Both banks of the Indus, the branch on 
the right bank is independent, musters about 400 fighting 
men, and is situated on a narrow strip between Gadun 
country and the Indus— their chief villages are Kabal and 
Kaya : the branch on the left bank inhabits the Tarbela — 
Khalsa tracts in Hazara on both banks of the Siran, from 
above its junction with the Dor River to the Indus. 

3. History and particulars.— The Utmaazais are a 
tribe of a Mandanr Yusufzais, the physique of the Cis- 
Indus branch is good and they make excellent soldiers. 
Taibela is a Kanazai centre and is the principal village. 

The are divided into the following clans : — 

1. Alazai , Tarkhe lis. 

2. Kanazai. 

3. Akazai. 



4. Saddozai-(Trans-Indus). \ \ ^'' ^^niad Khel. 

' ' 3. Umar Khel 



1. Aba Khel. 

2. Mir Ahma 

3. Umar Khe 
.4. Bazid Khel. 



DS Wikeley, J. M. 

427 Punjabi Musalmans 

19— 



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