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§xtoial mln ^mmmhx mmt$f mli mts 










J. L. STEWART, m.d., 









2j at Anemone, enter '' S. kukra.^* 

3, at Delphinium BaVNONiANUMt enter '^ S. supalu, rtukar, 
Kokpa; Lad., Udara." 

7, at Berberis vuLOAHis, for ^'AtvensiSj'' read '^^tnen-^ 

818. '^ 

9, at Meconopsis, enter '^ S. kanda." 

10, at Papavbr, enter "S./fm.'' 

11, line 11, under Brassica, for '^ Hyperanthera,'' read 


13, line 19, read " Cheiranthus cheiri,'' and enter " Wall-. 

flower^' at ditto. 

line 26, enter '^ Christolea cra8sifolia. Lad., shangsho. 
Grows from 10,000 to 15,000 feet in Lad&k; is 
browsed by goats, but little by ydksJ' 

14, line 8, enter " Mr. A. O. Hume states to me that the 

Farsetia is a favourite food of the large bustard. '' 

line 4, enter '^ Lepidium latipolium. L. Lad., gtmyuch. 
Grows in Lad&k, 10,000 to 14,000 feet ; is browsed 
by sheep and goats, little by ydks.^^ 

at Nasturtium, enter "Water-cress/' 

20, at Drosera, enter '' S. chitra.'^ 

line 13, enter ''Alsine sp. Lad., pangMm. Grows in 
Lad&k at 15,000 to 18,000 feet. A clumpy prickly 
species which furnishes a very poor fuel, only used 
imder stress/' 

21, at GossYPiUM, enter '^ Flax.'' 

22, at LiNUM, enter '^ Cotton. " 

26, at CoRCHORus capsularis, enter '^ Jute." 

29, at line 15, for " Lunbtta," read '^ Limetta," 

81, under Pavia, at S., enter '* kinor." 

84, under Cedrela toona serrata, at S., enter '^ dalKJ^ 

85, under ViTis Indica, enter '^grapes, an$^r,'' 

87j under Faoonia, at T. I.^ enter '^ aghzii,^^ and at B. D.j &c.j 



44^ under Zizythus yitloarib^ for '' anmia," read '' amnia,'* 

47, at PisTACiA VERA^ enter ^* Pistachio tree," and under the 
same^ for " bozoffhanf," read '' bozghanj." 

52, line 4, for '' bubbiir," read '^ iaftiwr/' 

57, under Arachis, for '' nut,'' read '' seed/' 

60, under Cjesalpinia sepiaria, for "relml," read "rehii." 

63, at CiCER SooNOARicuM, entar " P. tsarri." 

68, under Edwarubia mollis, for '' buiuU" read '' buna." 
under Erwm, for '' herge," read " kerze." 

69, at Faba, enter " Bean/' 

70, read " Lathyrus aphaca." 

72, after Ougeinia, enter ''Oxttropis macrophylla. DC. 

Lad., niargal; P. tdksha. Grows in Lad&k and 
Spiti £rom 12,500 to nearly 18,000 feet; is browsed 
by sheep and ydks." 

73, at PisuM, enter " Pea." 

76, at Trifolium repens, enter " Dutch clover." 

78, under Amyodaltts Persica var. lavis, for " shoftdli" 
read " 8haftdM." 

81, line 6, for " 10,000," read " 16,000." 

read " Prinsepxa. " 

85, line2, for'' wn," read ''*«!»." 

87, line 9, for '' surgauch," read surganch. 

88, under Conocarpus, for *' dhan," read " dhau." 

96, under Cucumis Colocynthib, for ''Ptychotis," read 


97, under Cucvrbita, enter ''Plains, &c.," before kaddii 


99, at Dubiee, 8, for " pepo," read " haxima." 

at PoRTULACA, enter "Purslain." 
100, over Kalanchob, enter " N. O. CRASSULACE^." 

105, at " C^jMiN^M," enter " Cumin." 
at Daucxts, enter " Carrot." 

106, at Ferula, read "AsAFCETiDA." 

107, under Pimpinella crinita, for '* Ptychotis," read " Li- 


108, line 1, read Plbvrospermum. 

116, at RuBiA, read " Wild Madder." 

117, luider Bubia tinctorvm, enter " S. bacho. 



119, at Achillea, enter " Yarrow/^ 

under Aflotaxis, for '' Serratula,^^ read 'f Vernonia/' 
121, under Artemisia sacrorvm, for "zbiir/^ read ^^zbur.'^ 

line 11, before taitoen, enter " J,'' 

124, 6th line from below, for '' it,'' read " this plant ; '' 2nd line 
from below, after "both,'' enter "varieties." 

129, under Saussvrba obvallata, enter " S. birm-kanwal." 

189, line 15, after " 12,000 feet," enter (" Hf. and T.") 

under Olba, for " khan/' read " ArAoti." 

140, line 1, for " that, " read " the last." 

142, line 8 from below, for " said," read " used." 

147, under Agathotes, for " ckirreia/* read " chiretta" 

150, line 7, after veH, enter "Lad., tikHgma/' "In Ladak it 
is eaten by cattle." 

154-5, under Macrotomia, read ^^ gao-zabdn/* quater. 

157, line4, for" Marr.," read" Murr." 

165, under Callicarfa, for " baimti/' read " bannii." 

170, linel4, after "be," enter "used in." 

at OciMUM, enter " Sweet Basil." 

line 8 fi^m below, for *^pdur/' read ^^pdnr." 

176, line 15, after "uncommon," enter "wild." 

178, at Chbnopodium album, enter '' Qoosefoot." 

180, under ^rua, at T. I., enter '^ spera wanne.'* 

182, line 3 from below, for ^^pumde/' read "punde." 

192, at Buxus, enter " Box." 

198, at Euphorbia Helioscopia, enter " Sun Spurge." 
J 98, line 4, after " and," enter "for." 

199, line24, for "others," read "other oaks.'* 

208, line at bottom, for fastioiata, read " nigra." 
204, line 5, ditto, ditto. 

209, at Celtis, enter " Nettle-tree." 

210, under Ulmus, line 1, omit "which grows to a large 

size," and lines 5 and 6, omit sentence beginning 
"Imay, &c." 

215, (and elsewhere), for "Nussibssya," read "Missiessya." 

line 2 from bottom, after " common," enter " wild. 
220, line 15, after "region," enter "in the Himalaya. 
222, under Juniperus, for " mich, chich/' read " ntfcA, chdch. 



227, at Taxus, enter " Himalayan Yew/' 

228, under Efhedba Gerabdiana, for " tsems/* read '^ tremo.*' 

229, lowest line, add '^ and by Europeans, raw or frittered, &c. '' 

230, under Liliacejs, enter Agave from 232. 

line 5 from below, for " khakhocl, '' read '' khdkhoU' 
236, at AcoBUs, enter " Sweet Sedge.'' 
at EuLOFHiA, enter " Salep orchis." 

245, Ph(enix dactylifeba. Leaves used to make mats. 

line 12 from bottom, for "last," read ''next." 

line 7 ditto, for "the last," read "P. dactyli- 

246, line 11, for " the last species," read ''P. dactylifeba." 
250, line 10, for ''donax," read ''Donax." 

253, at Cymbopooon, enter '' Lemon grass." 

257, at Obyza, enter " Bice, " 

259, line 5, for '' Lum," read '' Lam." 

261, line 9, for " babbar," read '' baggfar." 

262, at Tbiticum jbstivum» enter ''Wheat." 

263, at Zea, enter "Maize, Lidian com." 


In tbe coarse of 1867^ it for the first time struck me that 
many of the items of information I had accumulated regarding the 
Tegetation and regetable products of the Punjab^ if supplemented by 
other tUita available^ might well be put into such a shape as to be 
useful. Accordingly^ the compilation of this work was commenced^ 
and His Honor the Lieutenant Oovemor^ and Colonel Maclagan^ 
Secretary Public Works Department^ having kindly consented 
that it should be printed at the expense of Goyemment^ and by 
the Public Works Department Press^ the materials were mostly 
arranged by about the middle of 1866. 

Since commencing the work^ I have at times thought that its 
publication might have been deferred with advantage^ until, while 
on furlough, I should have an (^portunity of getting correct 
identifications of all my plants. But this would have entailed 
great delay and probably considerable alteration in the nature of 
the work, — ^while in this form, even with its numerous defects, 
it will perhaps answer the purpose for which it is intended nearly 
as well as if it had a more technical arrangement and form^ and 
ranked higher as to scientific accuracy. 

It comprizes some notice of almost all the trees of the Pro>- 
Tince, of most of the shrubs of some size, indigenous or cultivated, 
and of the herbs wild or cultivated, which are, or are supposed to 
be, usefdl or hurtful, or are otherwise interesting. All of these 
that I have met with in the Punjab, or that are mentioned in such 
books, reports, and papers as I have access to, get some notice, 
longer or shorter, according to their apparent importance or 
interest. As a rule, with the exception of trees of some size, but 
few plants are inserted which are not considered by natives at 
least to be of note in themselves or for their products, or are not 
cultivated as flowers. As a rule also, but with one or two excep- 
tions, plants which are cultivated only by Europeans are not 
inserted. And on the whole I have tried to err rather on the side 
ef fulness than of scantiness of detail, so far as this oould be 
done without rendering the book too bulky. 

The Natural Orders are arranged as in DeCandoUe, and under 
each the genera, and under these the species are given alphabeti- 
cally, except in the case of doubtful plants, which are entered last 


under their Natural Order or genus. The scientific nomenclature 
of the species is perhaps the feeblest part of aU; and besides 
the need for numerous marics of interrogation or otiier notes of 
doubts there are probably many errors as to this. But to those 
who have worked at a distance £rom libraries and standard collec- 
tions^ no profuse apologies will be necessary on this score. I can 
only say I have done my best with the aids at my command. 

It would probably be superfluous to dilate on the need for 
some such work as this is intended to be^ for the benefit of 
Officers and other residents, as well as trayellersj in the Prorince. 
And however inadequately the present attempt may have been 
carried out^ there may perhaps be room for hope that it will in 
some d^ree supply what has hitherto been a desideratum for the 
Punjab. In it will be foimd many, though often n^essarily 
meagre, items of some importance or interest in connection with 
commercial vegetable products, some of them of great antiquity, 
e. g., Aucklahdia root ; or peculiar to the Province, e, jr., Datisca 
root, with timbers and their uses, with drugs, with poisons, some 
hitherto unpublished, e. jr., Scopolia, and with adulterations. 

And with regard to the identification of even common trees, ftc., 
the work may be of use. For in the Punjab parallels might 
be found to the well-known story of the English nobleman who 
went into ecstasies over a fine tree somewhere on the continent, 
and, after having plants imported, found that it was the ordinary 
hornbeam, common on his own estate I The similarity of native 
names of different trees in the several parts of the Province is 
apt, where there is no guide, to lead to error. For instance, the 
MA», Populus Euphratica of the southern Punjab, has been reported 
of as likely to famish a tanning material, from confusion with the 
bhdn, Bhus Cotinus of Hazdra. Again, this work will at least help 
to obviate the recurrence of such errors as the importation from 
the Nilgiris of seed of Urtica heterophylla, which is common in 
many parts of our Himalaya. 

The following is some account of the sources of information, 
and of the materials on which the work is founded. From 1856 
to 1861, while serving with various regiments, I had an oppor* 
tunity of studying, with some degree of minuteness, the Flora of 
parts of the northern Trans-Indus Frontier, including considerable 
portions of the hills visited on three Military Expeditions, of 
marching across various parts of the Province, and of botanising 


Has&ra and the Kaslimfr Valley. While holding my pieaent 
appointment^ I have had ample opportunities for inyestigating the 
Mora of the Ponjab generally^ have marched across almost every 
district in the plains^ been a second time through considerable 
portions of Haz&ra and Kashmir, and traversed great parts of the 
intramontane basins of each of our great rivers. An extensive 
tour in Lad4k, south, north, and east of LS, during 1868, has 
completed my own wanderings in search of ioformation as to the 
Flora in and near the Punjab. Some of the data collected in 
1861-63 in the upper Oangetic Do&b, Bohilkund, Garhw&l, and 
Kumaon, have also been incorporated with the rest, as well as 
various items acquired during a short official tour in Sind in 1866* 

The very extensive series of vegetable products, collected for 
the Punjab Exhibition of 1863, now carefully arranged by 
Mr. Baden Powell in the Lahore Maseum3 with the reports and 
notes on these by District Officers, have afforded me great 
assistance, especially with reference to cultivated plants and their 
products, as to which perhaps I stood most in need of aid* 
Regarding these also I have received willing and liberal assistance 
firom Dr. G. Henderson and Dr. T. E. B. Brown, on matters with 
which they are more familiar than myself. 

The published information on which I have drawn most 
largely comprizes the following. Many items have been excerpted 
from the printed reports of the Agri- Horticultural Society of the 
Punjab, and the Selections from its records, and some from the 
Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society of India. As to the 
plains of the Province, I have been largely indebted to Dr. 
Bellew's Report on Eusufz&i ; Dr. Aitchison^s papers on the Flora of 
Jhelam in the Journals of the Linnsean Society, and of the 
Asiatic Society ; Mr. Edgeworth's papers on Amb&la and Mdltfin 
in the Asiatic Society's and Linnaean Society's Journals ; Mr. W. 
Coldstream's paper on the products of Mozaffargarh in the Journal 
of the Agri-Horticultural Society of India ; and the Settlement 
Reports of certain Punjab districts. Various details have also 
been supplied by Firminger's work on gardening in India, and 
many items extracted from Honigberger's book on the Punjab. 
But I regret to say that items from the latter require very fr^uent 
notes of interrogation, both as to names and uses of plants. 

Regarding the plants of countries west of the Indus, in 
particular A%h£ni8t&n^ I have been chiefly indebted to Irvine's 


Report (Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society oi Indis^ 
1839); the works of Griffith, Maason, and Vigue, and BeUeVs 
'^ Kandah&r Mission/' 

Many items of informjition as to the plants and products of 
Kashmir and various parts of the Himalaya hare been excerpted 
from Yigne's and Hugel's books on Kashmir ; the more scientific 
works of Boyle, Jacquemont and Thomson on the Himalaya ; and 
papers by Lowther on Kashmir (Journal Agri-Horticultural Society 
of India) ; and by J. D. Cunningham and Hutton on Kan&war 
(Journal of the Asiatic Society) ; Dr. Cleghom's Punjab Forest 
Report, 1864; an official Report by Colonel Lake on the timber 
trees of Kdngra ; and Dr. Aitchison's paper (Journal of the Linnsean 
Society) on the Flora of Lahoul, from specimens and information 
collected by Reverend H. Jaeschke, a ten years' resident there-. 
Hoffineister's travels,^ and various papers by Colonel Madden 
(Journal of the Asiatic Society) have also been drawn upon as to> 
parts of the Sutle) basin and the Himalaya to the eastward. 

Concerning the plants of the plains of the N. W. Provincesy 
many items have been culled from the Sah£ranpur catalogue of 
Dr. Jameson, which, however, is perhaps hardly so full upon the 
uses of plants as that gentleman's great and long experience 
might have rendered it, and from Mr. Edgeworth's papers on 
Banda (Journals of the Asiatic Society and Linnsean Society). 
Notes have also been taken when necessary from Long's papers 
on the Flora of Bengal (Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society 
of India), from Drury's useful plants of India, the Bcmibay 
Flora, and Dr. Birdwood's Bombay Products. 

For information personally received, I am also indebted especi- 
ally to Dr. Cayley, British Agent at L@, Reverend H. Jaeschke, 
Dr. Bellew, Mr. J. Watson, Madhop^ Workshops, and Mr. G. W. 
Strettell, Forest Department, Sind, concerning respectively the 
plants of Lad4k, of Lahoul, of the Peshawar Valley and AfiPgh&nis- 
t4n, the uses of certain timbers, and the plants of Sind. 

It may be well to make some observations on the native 
names of plants which are inserted so lavishly. In strictly scien- 
.tific works, these are frequently entirely ignored ; but in what is 
intended to be in some measure a hand-book for general reference, 
it appears to me they are a rine qud non. For the most part only 
names have been inserted which are in use in the Punjab, or in 


the coimtries to the north and west (which it has been thought 
ndTisable to introduce^ as these are not accessible in a collected 
form) with a few of the N, W. Provinces, &c. The vernacular 
names given, numerous as they are, do not assume tobe exhaustive 
even of those noted by myself, and many have been left out as 
merely modifications or corruptions of those that are given. 
Almost all the vernacular names of growing plants (i. e., 
exclusive of drugs and commercial products) have been got by 
my own enquiries on the spot, except where it is otherwise noted 
or evident from the text. 

In the plains, from the greater inter-diffusion of tribes and 
tongues, some vernacular names extend over wide tracts, though 
there are marked exceptions to this. In the Himalaya, on the 
other hand, where, owing to geographical difficulties and peculiari- 
ties, as well as comparative sparseness of popidation, dialects 
remain more distinct, there are much greater varieties in the 
names of the same plants, and it is not uncommon for several 4;o 
be in use for even a tree or a shrub of some size within a space of 
a few miles on the same river. In other cases again, certain 
names of trees, &;c., extend at times in modified forms over 
considerable portions of the basins of more than one river. And 
there may be more marked instances of this than any I have 
known or noted. It may be remarked that in the Punjab, as in 
other countries, names of places are not unfrequently derived from 
those of trees, either from a single large specimen as Simbal, 
Bombax, or from an abutidance of a certain tree as Palosiuj from 
pahsa, Pushtii for Acacia modesta. 

As in other countries also, so here some marked quaUty leads 
to frequent repetitions of the same name more or less modified 
and applied to different plants. Among the more notable instances 
are such names as bdnsa, basmatt. Sec., from bds smell ; gdndla, &c., 
also denoting odour ; kandidra, &c., from hdnta, a thorn ; khtUta or 
amla implying sourness; nil kanthi, &c., '^ blue-throated, '^ applied 
to blue-flowered plants ; pirf (strictly pihic) mdr, flea-killer ; and 
chaitri, &c., umbrella-like, applied to plants such as mushroom. 
Euphorbia helioscopia, &c. In other cases a^ain, a standard name 
(such as rattanjot, btgr-banj) is at times given to various plants 
other than that to which it was originally applied^ owing to some 
real or fancied resemblance. 


Besides ordinary Funj&bi (Pi.) and Hindostfini (Hi.) names 
inserted^ the chief linguistic or dialectic varieties of which 
examples occur are the following. Some Persian names are 
applied to drugs^ or are used in Affgh&nist&n. The Pusht6 names 
include those in use in that country, and those employed in our 
Trans-Indus territory and the Sdlim&n Range, &c. Numerous 
Kashmir and Lad4ki (Tibetan) names are given, and a small 
number of Sind and Beluchist&n. A few Arabic and still fewer 
Greek terms are entered as applied to drugs, the latter having 
filtered through the Arabian physicians and hakims to the Indian 
Baz&rs, where they are not always very recognizable. Many of the 
Lahouli names, included with those of the Chen&b basin, belong 
to a branch of the Tibetan language, as do those of Spiti. 

It would have been difficult in the text to escape entirely the 
use of some common Indian words, such as Jdmpdn, sharbatj &c. 
These with short definitions have accordingly been included in the 
vernacular Index. It may be noted that where the spelling of the 
names given in the Indices differ from that in the text, the former 
are generally the more correct. Much of the text laboured under 
the disadvantage of being printed when I was constantly on the 
march, hundreds of miles in the interior. And the absence of the 
conjoined letters kh, gh, &c., has somewhat affected the correctness 
of the spelling of vernacular words. 

A few words seem necessary as to uses of plants which have 
been entered. In most cases where these are not the result of my 
own enquiries, the authority is given. And only in a few instances 
has it seemed necessary to note uses to which plants or their 
products are put elsewhere than in the Punjab. 

Curious results are at times evolved from comparing the 
uses of various timbers. Thus we find that several soft or loose 
grained woods, e. g,, Phoenix, Ficus, Bombax, Cedrela toona 
serrata, &c., are preferred for water conduits, well-curbs, and 
supports of small bridges, &;c., which is perhaps hardly what we 
should expect. The weights which are here given for some of the 
lands of timber are from my own experiments. 

Respecting vegetable substances used as drugs, I have con- 
stantly been in the habit of making enquiries as to local usage in 
this matter^ and hare besides for several years been collecting from 


dealers^ Sec., the sabstancea employed under the more or less 
orthodox systems of native practitioners. And although I have as 
yflt failed to procure no fewer than 850 of the drugs mentioned in 
various publications on the native Materia Medica of northern 
India, (partly no dqjibt through inaccurate names, but chieHy 
because they are not used in the parts of the country where I have 
been,) I have got together about 500 vegetable substances applied 
or given medicinally in the Punjab. In collecting and identifying 
these, I have been much aided by the collections and lists made 
for the Punjab Exhibition, and have received much valuable 
assistance from Dr. T. E. B. Brown, Mr. Baden PoweU, Pundit 
Bidha Kishen, whose knowledge of this subject is very extensive, 
and Bim Sing, an intelligent native drug-merchant, who does a 
large business in Lahore and Umritsur. Of the whole number 
collected, only between 25 and 30 remain completely unidentified, 
although, as might be expected, there is often in the case of 
roots, &c., a good deal of doubt as to the plants yielding them. 
As a rule, only substances used as drugs in the Punjab and 
Affghdnist&n have been noted, and those used only in eastern and 
southern India have been but rarely included. But, when necessary, 
advantage has been taken of the information contained in Dr. Forbes 
Watson's Ust, O'Shaughnessy's Bengal Dispensatory, and Boyle's, 
Irving's, and Butler's lists for the N. W. Provinces, Ajmere, and 
Oudh. As to identifications, I have been favoured with some hints 
ttom Mr. M. C. Cooke, of the India Museum. 

Of drugs proper, t. e., those regularly coUected and vended in 
the Baz&rs, only the best-known names have been entered, hundredis 
of others having been left out. And when the ordinary designa- 
tion of the drug has as adjunct the name of the part, e. ff,, 
bekh, root, and tukhm, seed, the latter has for the most part been 
omitted. Here frequently crop out errors arising from the con- 
fused and uncertain system of native nomenclature : thus, kdlijarri 
and similar names are locally applied to certain plants often not 
resembling the real kdU zlri (Vemonia anthelmintica) or only 
like it in some minor particular. In the identification of the 
medicinal kankol mirch (fruit of Celtis Caucasica) one is apt to be 
led astray by Elaeagnus being called kankoU in some parts of tlie 
Himalaya ; and difficulties of this kind frequently occur. 

Although considerable care has been bestowed on the collec- 
tion and identification of these drugs, and their ''uses'' have been 


entered^ I must confess to a belief that the effects of most of 
them are nil or not of the kind attributed to them. The state of 
medicine among the natives of India would appear to be very 
considerably behind what it had reached in England 800 years 
ago, — ^when so many substances, now known to be quite ineffective^ 
were included in the Materia Medica. In India now, as in 
Europe then, almost every substance, especially if possessing any 
peculiarity of colour, shape^ smelly or taste^ is believed to have 
some medicinal virtue. And in India now, as during the middle 
ages in Europe^ much reliance is placed on the doctrine of the 
signatures, t. e., the belief that a substance which has some of 
the physical characters of an organ or of the symptoms of a 
disease, will have power over what it resembles ; many instances 
of this are noted in the body of the work. It would even appear 
that some substances (chiefly animal, however) are considered to 
have medicinal virtues merely £rom their oddity, e. ^., pikhdl miiSj 
rats' dung, the gall bladder of the brown bear, the hairs of a 
tiger's whisker, &c. Difficulty of acquisition would also appear 
to add virtue; thus it frequently happens that of two kinds of a 
drug, the one which is more rare is considered much the more 
powerful, in some cases indeed when neither would appear to have 
any special virtue. The hakims have curious beliefs as to the 
plants which produce some of the foreign vegetable drugs, and 
still more curious theories are held as to the source of some of 
those of mineral origin. Thus I have been gravely told that 
zahrmohra, which comprises several mineral substances given 
medicinally, is formed by the spittle of the mdrkhor (Capra 
megaceros) falling on stones in the Kohist&n, west of the Indus. 

The great number of substances to which by natives, and in 
their books on medicine, aphrodisiac virtues are attributed, is 
remarkable, some in connection with the doctrine of signatures, 
and most of them probably quite destitute of the qualities attri- 
buted to them. 

Of the plants noted in this work, and indeed of all I have 
ever collected, only a very few are in all probability new to 
science. Royle, through his collectors, and Falconer and Thomson 
personally, had so thoroughly botanized the Punjab Himalaya, 
and the same may be said of Griffith for Affgh&nist&n, that but 
few new species could have been left to be gleaned by their 


Bucoessors. This the more especially^ as^ considering the extent 
of the region, the Flora is not a large one as to number of species, 
nor is there great variation within it, even at points distant firom 
each other. 

A few remarks may not be out of place here as to the geo- 
graphical and climatic conditionsT most likely to a£Pect the nature 
of the Flora in the tract with which we have to do. The two 
chief modifying circumstances to be noted as to the Punjab are — 
that cold increases as we rise in the hills or pass more towards 
the north, and that on the whole the ram-fall is less and the 
aridity greater as we go further into the Himalaya, or proceed 
to the west, either in hills or plains. But there * are important 
exceptions as to the latter point in the plains, where distance 
from the hills also increases the aridity. The most arid part of 
the plains of the Punjab is probably near and to the west of 
Mult&n, where the annual rain-fall is reckoned by fractions of 
an inch. 

In the plains of the Punjab, although certain plants, as 
Calligonum polygonoides and others, are peculiar or nearly so 
to the driest tracts, mere aridity does not so much modify the 
nature as it lessens the amount of vegetation. In the Himalaya, 
however, the former also is much affected by the diminution of 
moisture. Thus in passing from the outer and middle ranges 
into the arid semi-Tibetan tracts on the upper Sutlej and upper 
Chen&b, not only does vegetation, arboreous, shrubby, and her- 
baceous, very much diminish in quantity, but there very many 
of the species are diverse firom those in the moister parts. This 
is still more marked in Spiti and Lad&k, where, great elevation 
being added to intense aridity, trees are almost unknown, and 
shrubs rare, and where by far the majority of the members of the 
herbaceous Flora are widely different from those growing in the 
outer hills. Different families also prevail in either of these 

Some of the results of latitude and aridity on the families 
most apt to be modified by such conditions, will be apparent from 
the following. Ferns are nowhere very common in the plains of 
northern India; but, while Edgeworth found seven species in 
Bauda (N. W. Provinces), only two occur rarely and locally in 
the Punjab plains, and not more than three have been found in 


the west^ even in the Salt Bonge^ which reaches 5^000^ and in the 
hills Trans-Indus^ up to 8>000 feet. In the Himalaya again, 
seventy kinds of ferns, out of one thousand species of plants 
collected, were got in the moister climate of Qarhw&l and Kumaon, 
while of 870 species collected on the Chenab and lULvi, only 30, 
and of nearly 700 species collected in Haz&ra, only 20, were ferns. 
And in each of Lahoul and Lad4k only three or four ferns have 
been found. In going west also, epidendric ferns, which require 
more moisture than others, diminish in numbers, and seem to cease 
entirely about the R&vi. Actiniopteris radiata, which affects the 
driest habitats near Dehli and to the east, has not, so far as 
I know, been found within the Punjab proper. A small Ophiog- 
lossum, which Beddome considers near O. vulgatum, occurs in the 
Salt Bange and (probably the same) in so different a locality as 
the low land by the great rivers near Amb41a. 

Orchidaceous plants are rare throughout the plains of 
northern India, and in the Punjab only the ubiquitous Zeuxine 
sulcata occurs generally, while Eulophia is found locally, — ^and 
only one other was found in the Trans-Indus hills to 8,000 feet. 
In the Himalaya, this family, like the last, decreases very much 
in numbers towards the west. Out of one thousand Garhw&l and 
Kumaon plants, more than 30 were orchids, while in Hazara 
only four out of 516 belonged to this family, and not more 
than three have been found in each of Lahoul and Lad&k, in 
the latter very sparingly and in a very confined area. Epidendric 
orchids like epidendric ferns I have not observed west of the Bdvi. 

Aroid plants diminish very much in number of individuals 
towards the west, but I found nearly the same number of species 
in Haz&ra as in Garhw&l and Kumaon. Of Balsams again there 
are not half the number of species in the former that occur in the 
latter, while the number of individuals is infinitely smaller. The 
diminution towards the west of Gesneraceae and Begoniacese, two 
families which luxuriate in a moist atmosphere, is remarkable ; 
about a dozen species of these were found in Garhw&l and 
Kumaon, while I have only seen a single specimen west of the 

A peculiarity of growth, which doubtless depends on climatic 
causes, as yet uncertain, is that the deod^, which, like most other 
conifers, prefers the shady aspects in most parts, undoubtedly 


thrives best on the sunnier aspects on the Kishenganga and 
Knnh&r^ two tributaries of the Jhelam in the extreme north-west. 
I am inclined to think this arises from the circumstance that 
there^ from increase of latitude^ the tree gets on the shady slopes 
less heat throughout the year than what is necessary to its well- 

It may be well to note here various other circumstances as to 
the distribution of plants not peculiarly affected by droughty &c.^ 
-and which do not very evidently depend on obvious climatic causes 
or arise firom other conditions. Of each of Urtica and Euphorbiaj 
only a single peculiar species appears to be found in Lad&k^ while 
of the former several^ and of the latter many^ occur in the 
Himalaya further out. Of Parasites^ several Orobanchaceous 
plants occur in the latter^ two extend to Lahoul^ and only one to 
Lad&k; several species of Cuscuta are found in the outer and 
middle Himalaya^ and two species occur in Lahoul^ while one 
only has been met with in Lad&k ; several species of Viscum 
are common in the outer parts of the hills^ one species only 
is peculiar to the pencil cedar in Lahoul^ and none occur in 

Marrubium vulgare is the most limited as to area of habitats 
of any plant I have met with. I have only found it over an extent 
of a few yards at each of six or seven different places^ the extremes 
being hundreds of miles apart from each other in the Himalaya 
and elsewhere above the plains levels and always near habitations^ 
though there seems no reason to suppose that it was introduced in 
these places. Mirabilis Jalapa also is for the most part only 
seen near villages^ &c,^ but its habitats are much more numerous 
than those of Marrubium. 

The frequency of Ficus religiosa and F. Indica depends very 
much on the proportion of Hindds among the population. In 
some parts^ where the latter is almost entirely Mussalm&n^ these 
trees are very rare^ even allowing for differences of climate. Of 
plants now become quasi-indigenous^ but which we know to have 
been introduced witlun the historical period^ the most remarkable 
is perhaps Argemone Mexicana, which is stated to have been 
introduced into India firom Mexico three centuries ago^ and is now 
abundant wild in many parts of India^ including the eastern part 
of the Punjab. In 1854^ Edgeworth states that it had not reached 


Miiltin^ but Trithin the last three years I and others have found it 
3outh of that place. 

The proportion of grasses relative to the total Flora of this 
part of India would appear to be larger than that which haa been 
assigned by Hooker and Thomson for the whole country^ yiz.^ 
one-thirtieth. Thus^ of 1^000 species collected in Garhw&l and 
Kumaon^ 50 were grasses^ while of 516 got in Haaara^ 86^ of 460 
near Peshawar^ 60^ and of 400 Trans-Indus further souths 50 were 
of this family. 

As to extent of range in the plains^ a good many plants^ some 
of considerable size^ are found from end to end or nearly so. But 
most plants extend over a much less wide area^ generally being 
found from the outer edge of the Proyinoe in any direction only 
to a certain distance inward. To illustrate this it may be men- 
tioned that of 540 species of plants collected in the Salt Range^ a 
well-defined and somewhat central tracts 66 are Western or Affgh&n 
forms which are not found to the east or souths 19 occur to the 
souths but not to the north of the Range^ and 44 species of the 
Himalaya and Siw&liks to the east have not been found to the 
north-west or Trans-Indus. 

As to plants of considerable elevational range^ no great 
account need be made of such species as hare a deep range within 
the Himalaya themselves {e, g., Saxifraga ligulata) or of such 
European species occurring at very various heights within our 
limits as are of extensive distribution in different parts of the 
worlds and tolerant of wide variations of climate. Among the 
most noted of these which are found in the Punjab plains and to 
great elevations in the Himalaya^ are Silene oonica^ Stellaria 
media^ Vaccaria^ Solanum nigrum^ and Poa annua. 

More notable perhaps are the following, all of which are 
found in parts at least of the Punjab plains, and, so far as identi-^ 
fications have yet been made, the same or very nearly allied 
species occur also at great heights in the mountains. Banunculua 
aquatilis, Malcolmia Africana, Tribulus terrestris, TiaTnium 
amplexicaule, Salsola Kali, Juncus bufonius, Potamogeton crispus^ 
P. gramineus, and Scirpus maritimus. AU occur at 10,500 ot 
11,000 feet, while Amebia hispidissima reaches 15,000, and As« 
tragalus multiceps 16,500 feet in Lad&k. Of this class, still more 
notable on account of their size are — ^Ballota limbata^ found 


hy Thomaon above Iskardo^ and Capparis spinosaj Tamarix 
Oallica^ and Populus Euphratica^ which reach 10^500 feet in 

In conclusion^ a few remarks may not be unnecessary as to 
the geographical divisions which have been adopted for the range 
imd vernacular names of plants. For the Himalaya the main 
portion of each different river basin has for the most part been 
kept as a distinct region under the initial letter of its name. But 
Ladfikj a portion of the upper part of the Indus basin with a 
distinct Flora and a distinct language, of itself constitutes a 
region, as does the Kashmir Valley, a portion of the Jhelam basin 
with a distinct language and to some extent a Flora of its own. 
The Jhelam basin abo here includes the whole of Haz&ra^ although 
a portion of the latter is within the Indus water-shed. 

The heights given for the range of Himalayan plants are 
mostly founded on my own observations supplemented by data 
from a large set of Hooker and Thomson's East Indian distribu- 
tion, for which lam indebted to Dr. Hooker^s liberality; from 
Hooker and Thomson's Flora Indica and its continuation the 
Prsecursores in the Journal of the Linnsean Society; fix>m Drl 
Thomson's travels in the N. W. Himalaya ; from Jacquempnt ; 
and from Dr. Aitchison's paper on the Flora of Lahoul already 
referred to ; as well as from information personally received from 
Bevd. H. Jaeschke. 

The term Siw&lik tract, so frequently used, includes the range 
80 called by Europeans, lying under and external to the Himalaya 
at frt)m 1,000 to 2,500 and occasionally rising to 3,000 feet. 
Many of the trees, shrubs, &c., which grow in that tract, extend 
to some distance within the Himalaya in the valleys of the great 
rivers to a similar height, and where a similar climate prevails to 
that of the Siw&liks, nor has it been thought necessary in each 
instance to note this fact. 

As to the range of growth of plants in the plains and the ver- 
nacular names used there, the natural geographical divisions by the 
great rivers into Do&bs (from west to east Sind S£gar, Chuj, 
Rechn&b, Biri and Jalandar Do&bs) has as far as possible been 
adhered to and the initials of these employed. The most marked 
exceptions to this are the Salt Range in the upper part of the 
Sind S6gar Do&bj which^ from its somewhat peculiar conditions 


and Flora, it has been thought well to keep separate, and the 
tract between the SuUej and Jnmni^ which it seems advisable to 
divide into Amb&la to the north, and to the south Ferozeptir and 
Dehli, with between them Harri&na, a convenient and well known 
ancient name here applied to the districts of Sirsa, Hiss&r, and the 
western part of Bohtuck. Southern Punjab again includes the 
lowest part of the Sind Sdgar and B&ri Do&bs. The Trans-Indus 
plains and lower hiUs have necessarily been kept distinct, as over 
the greater part of them the names used (with the language 
spoken) is either Pushtu or Beluch or largely interlarded with one 
of these. 

Where only '^ plains'' or " Himalaya'' is used in the text, it 
is to be understood that this means within the Punjab. And 
where no regional letter is prefixed to a vernacular name it is 
undersood to be used in the Cis-Indus plains generaUy. Such 
names as Dehra Ghdzi Khan, Loodiana, &c., of course, apply to 
the districts so called. 

The diagram, with initials and names, has been introduced in 
order to render more clear the terms, &c., employed as to distribu- 
tion of plants and their native names. 

J. L. S. 
Lahorej February, 1869. 



& Jlitr^ 







AcoNiTUM. Aconite, Wolf s-bane. 

Several species are common to considerable heights in many 
parts of the Punjab Himalaya. They are handsome flowering 
plants. The roots of some are officinal, and those of seyeral 
are poisonous ; the kinds found with native drug-sellers, under the 
following names, being assigned to Aconites, generally A. fbrox,- 
sometimes A. Napbllus — bikh^ singiay mitha zahr^ mitha tilia^ mitha 
dodia^ dUdhia^ makrela. Moorcroft states that the stupefiant effects 
of honey in certain localities in Eumaon during spring is attributed 
to the bees feeding on an Aconite. 

A. FEROX. Wall. 

Vernacular. B. diidhia maura^ S. maura bikh Baz&r, root, bikh^ 

This plant grows in various parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
at from 10,000 to 14,000 feet. The root is a strong poison. In 
Bissahir it is used for destroying wild animals. (Gleghorn). In 
Chumba it is ground and applied externally, after scarification, for 
headache. It is officinal in the plains, being reckoned anodynei 
and used externally and internally in bronchitis, &c. 


Vernacular. J. sUkM hari (from the fresh roots springing 
from the dry ones), chitijaHy pairU. C. banga, B. paHs^ 
B. S. and Baz&r, root, (Uis. 

In many parts of the Punjab Himalaya this grows at from 
8,000 to 12,000 feet. The root is very bitter, and in Haz^a is given 
for the eruptive fevers (?) of children ; in Chumba it is taken for 



indigestion. From some parts of the hills it is largely exported to 
the plains, where it is officinal. As a tonic and febrifuge, it is 
undoubtedly of some value. 

A. Napellus. L. (A. DissECTUM. Don). Monkshood. 

Vernacular. J. piiifif mohri, S. tUia kachang. Bazfir, root, 

The range of this plant is given at 10,000 to 16,000 feet ; 
it is frequent in parts of the Punjab Himalaya. Gleghorn states 
that in Bissahir the root is used for destroying wild animals. It 
is officinal in the plains. Davies* Trade Report gives !20 seers of 
mitha tilia as annually exported to E4bul from Peshawar. In Europe, 
aconitina, the most virulent poison known, is extracted from the 
root of this plant. 

AcTiSA SPICATA. L. Baneberry. 

Vernacular. (?) 

This plant is found in various parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
at from 6,000 to 10,500 feet. But I have found no trace of its 
being used or dreaded, although in Europe the plant is poisonous, 
and the root is given in catarrh. 

Anemone obtusiloba. Don. (A. discolor. Royle). 
Vernacular. K. rattanfog. R. padar. 

This appears to be very common at from 7,000 to 13,000 feet 
in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya. In Haz&ra the pounded 
root, which is acrid, is mixed with milk and given internally for 
contusions. In Bissahir it is said to be used as a blister, but to 
be apt to produce sores and scars. 

Galtha palustris. L. Marsh Marigold. 

Vernacular. J. mamiri. S. bairingu. 

Not uncommon in the Punjab Himalaya at from 8,000 to at 
least 12,000 feet. In Hazdra the root is considered poisonous. 

CiMicrruQA FCETiDA. L. (frioida. Royle). Bugwort. 

Vernacular. C. jiML 

Occasional in the Punjab Himalaya at from 7,000 to 12,000 
feet. Here it appears to be considered inert, though the root is 
found to be poisonous in some other countries. In Siberia the 
plant is used to drive away bugs and fleas, whence the generic name. 



There are numerous species in the Himalaya ; many of them 
noted for their handsome flowers, and several for their scent. Only 
one needs special notice here. 

C. Nepaleksis. (0. MoNTANUM. Don?) 

Vernacular. T. I. pawanne. J. hirH. S. wandah. 

One of the more rare species occurring at medium heights. 
In Ean&war the leaves are said to act deleteriously on the skin, 
but this seems unlikely. 

Delphikium. Larkspur. 

There are many species in the Himalaya, and one at least 
grows in the plains, Trans-Indus. Some of them have fine flowers 
(all being blue), but otherwise they are not of much importance. 

Delphinium Ajacis. L« 
Vernacular, nafurmdn. 
Cultivated in flower gardens in the plains. Of no known use. 

Delphinium Brunonianum. Boyle. 

Vernacular. B. BapfdlU S. laskar^ spd pannL 

Common in parts of the Puniab Himalaya at from 14,000 
to 18,000 feet. On the Chen&b, Bavi, and Sutlej, it is prized for 
its strong scent of musk, is ofiered to the deota in temples* and 
worn in the cap. 

D. CiBRULEUM. Jacqt. (?) 

Vernacular. S. dakhang^, 

A slender plant with light blue flowers, apparently near this 
species, is common on the Sutlej at from 5,500 to 9,000 feet; but 
the range given for the above is 14,000 to 15,000 feet, so tifnt 
this may be different. The root of the latter is applied to kill 
the maggots in the wounds of goats, &c. 


Vernacular. (?) 

The root of this plant is stated by Madden to be chewed by 
the Bissahiris for toothache, but on Sundays only ! 


D. Kashmirianum. Royle. (D. Jacquemoktianitm. Camb). 
Vernacular. B. amlin. 

This also has a strong scent of musk. I found what appears 
to be it at 10,000 to 13,000 feet on the B&vi. 


Vernacular. Baz&r. flowers K. asharg^ ghdfia. 

Under the former native name a considerable import takes 
place from Affgh&nist&n into the Punjab of the flowers of perhaps 
the species named. Thej are used in Multdn, &c., with aklbir 
(see Datisca) and alum to dye silk yellow. Mr. Edgeworth first 
brought this substance to notice many years ago, and supposed 
these were the flowers of D. altissimum. Wall ; but it does not 
appear to grow so far west. The drug called gM^ consists of 
the flowers of this or a very similar but larger-flowered species, 
brought from the west also. They are very bitter, and are given 
as a febrifuge. 


Vernacular. Ma;Ym, kalaunjL Aff. shewaddrti, sigdhddrii. 

The seeds are found in the baz&rs of the Punjab (and the 
plant has been grown from them by Dr. Brown), being imported 
from Hindust&n and probably the west, for they appear to be the 
shewaddrUy which Davies* Trade Beport states to be imported 
from K&bul to Peshawar to the extent of 10 maunds annually. 
They are reckoned stimulant, and are administered by hakims^ 
often in milk, for rheumatism and cough, especially on the 
Yundni system. They are also said by Honigberger to be put 
among clothes to keep off insects. 

Pjsonia oFFicmALiB. L. Paeony. 

Vernacular. T. I. and J. mamekh. 

This plant occurs frequently in the Western Himalaya gene- 
rally at about 7,500 to 8,000 feet. Dr. Bellew states that the 
roet is in BonSr, &c., given to cattle to render them prolific, and 
in combination is a favorite remedy for bruises, strains, &c. 
Madden mentions that in Kumaon the young shoots are eaten 
as a vegetable, and suggests that the long root may furnish one 
of the kinds of Ukh (generally Aconite q. v.) 

Bantjncitlus. Crowfoot. 

Many species grow in the hills at various elevations, and 
several in the plains. Only one needs mention here. 


Ranunculus aryensis. L. 

Vernacular. S. S. D. chambaL 

Not uncommon in the Himalaya up to 5,000 or 6,000 feet» 
and common in the plains N. W. Punjab. Madden states that 
in Eumaon it is frequently fatal to sheep and goats, who eat it 

Thaliotbum. Meadow Bue. 

There are a good many species in the Punjab Himalaya at 
TariouB heights. Only one falls to be noticed here. 

Thaliotrum fouolosum. DC. 

Vernacular. B. giirhidni. S. pashmaran. Baz&r, root, piUjarip 

Two centuries ago, Bemier mentions " mamiron^ a little root, 
good for the eyes, as being brought (along with rhubarb, musk, 
and the wood of China) from Cathay to Kashmir by a long 
journey,** in which /Ai^ are described as being crossed. He 
afterwards suggests that this is Jinseng^ the ** man-root;" but it is 
now known to be mostly if not entirely derired from the plant 
named above, which is common in many parts of the Himalaya 
from 5,000 to 9,500 feet, whence it is exported to the plains. 
Madden, however, mentions a large kind as brought '^frorn 
Persia;** and Bellew informs us that the powder of the ** leaves 
and stems*' (root?) of mamira is largely used as an anjan^ or 
application in ophthalmia, in Affghfinist^n. This also is the prin- 
cipal use of the root in India; but it is likewise given as a tonio 
and antiperiodic. A. Delphinium is called mamira in Haz&ra, so 
that other roots than the one named may be used under this appel- 



Vernacular, champa of Bengdl and Hindust&n, &c. B. B. 
and S. durniba. Baz^ fruit, chamakhH^ chamoH. 

This tree is prized in many parts of India for furniture, Ac, 
and is said to polish well. It is doubtful whether the planted 
trees called chamba^ which occur above K&lka, in E&ngra, and 
Chumba, at 2,000 to 8,000 feet, are the same species, but their 
wood is prized for similar qualities, and is said not to be subject 
to worms, or to be apt to warp. In Kangra it was one of the 


padshdhi trees, f. «., reserved for Mdjas. Most of the larger 
chamha trees in K&ngra have long ago been cut, and those left 
are mostly hollow. Handsome specimens of 7 or 8 feet girth 
and 60 or 70 feet high may still occasionally be seen near 
Chumba, &c. Its timber is valued for well-work, verandah-posts* 
&Q. It is a handsome tree, with odorous flowers, which are 
offered up at Hindu shrines. Its capsules also are odorous» and 
are rubbed on the body at marriages, &c. 

Anamirta Coccxtlus. W. and a. 
Vernacular. (?) 

One planted tree of this is stated by Edgeworth to exist 
at Miilt&n. 


Vernacular. C. bai bel, parhik. R. katorL B. zakhmi haiydU 
batindH. S. S. D: patdkL R. D. katori, Baz&r, leaves, 
pdth^ root, pilijarl (partly). 

Is not uncommon in the outer low hills and in parts of the 
plains. The leaves are said to be applied to abscesses, and its 
root is stated to furnish part of the jrf/i;ar(^-(see Thalictrum). 

CoccuLus Lejeba. DC. 

Vernacular. T. I. parwatti^ perkhat'&na. S. S. D. iUar biliary 
vehri. B. D. vaUiir. 

A climbing plant of the Arabian flora, common Trans-Indus, 
and extending more sparingly as far as Umritsur, and occasional 
apparently to some way further east, reaching 8 or 4 feet in girth 
at times. It is said to be browsed by goats, but by no other 
animal, and is of no apecial use. 


Vernacular. B. batindii^ zakhmi haiydt. Bazfir, &c., giio. 
Diy extract, sat^lo. 

Seems to occur (?) as far west as Trans-Indus. The root 
and extract are esteemed as tonic and febrifuge in native 
pharmacyt and have been recommended by some Europeans. 


Berberis. Barberry. 

Many species occur in the Himalaya from low to very con- 
siderable heights. The chief of these must be noted collectively, 
as they have frequently not been distinguished in practice. 


B. AsuTiCA. Box. 
B. Ltcium. Boyle. 

Vernacular. T.-I. kuraskdU hoerei. J. sitmlil. E. enkasing. 
K. C. & B. simlii^ kemal^ kemliif kanda^ (&c.) B. kasmaL 
8. kammalj titirUm^ chatra^ jataun. Baz4r, root, ddrhald^ 
ddrchob. Extract of root, rasaut. 

One or other or more of these is common in most parts of 
the N. W. Himalaya and Trans-Indus hills. The fruit of many 
is eaten, and of several is very palatable. The fruit of one or 
other is in Ean&war used to flavour spirits, and Moorcroft states 
that the juice of a barberry is in Eumaon boiled with capsicums 
to be used as sauce. Bellew mentions that in Affgh&nistdn an 
electuary of the fruit is given as a cooling laxative to children. 
The latter also states that the stems are used as diaphoretic, and 
laxative in rheumatism. The root is used in native practice 
internally as a stomachic, and in diarrhoea, &c., and with oil is 
rubbed externally in rheumatism. The dried extract of the root 
rasavi is extensively used as a purgative for children, and especially 
as an application in ophthalmia. I am assured on the best autho- 
rity that it is an excellent application for sun-blindness. The 
specific name, Lycium, was given by Boyle, under the impression 
that the rasavi was the Lycium of the ancients. 

Berberis vulgaris. L. var. Atveksis, &c. 

Vernacular, zirishk. 

This was found by Bellew growing abundantly on the SafSd 
Koh, and its fruit is stated to be largely dried. It also occurs in 
the Punjab Himalaya at from 6,000 to 12,000 feet. The dried 
barberries, which under the name zirishk tursh (t. «., sour currants) 
are imported in small quantity from Kdbul (one maimd annually 
according to Davies' Trade Beport), are probably, in part at least, 
supplied by this species. They are also said to be imported 
from Her&t to Kandahir. They are officinal in the Punjab, being 
given as diuretic, and for the relief of heat, thirst, and nausea. 


Mahonia Nepalensis. do. (BsbberisN. Spr.) 

Vernacular. B. amiuUinda^ chiror. 

This haDdsome shrub, which is sometimes mistaken for holly, 
seems to come sparingly only to the B&vi (near which it may be 
seen about 5,000 to 7,000 feet), though it is common in many places 
east of the Sutlej. Its fruit is eaten. 

PonoPHTLLUM Emodi. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. papri^ banbakri. C. wanwdngan chijdhri. 
chimydka. B. bankdkra^ gill kdkru. 

Is common in parts of the N. W. Himalaya at from 6,000 to 
11,000 feet up to near the Indus. Europeans consider that its 
handsome red fruit (ripe in September and October) is insipid, 
and even the natiyes do not praise it much although they eat it in 
most parts. In Lahoul it seems to be used medicinally. 

Euryale perox. Salisb. 

Vernacular. K. jewat (Beng&l, &c., makhdnaj Bazdr, flow- 
ers, ph'&imakhdna. 

This, which is a common aquatic plant in Bengdl, &c., is only 
known to grow in Kashmir, west of the Satlej. Its seeds are 
eaten by the Kashmiris. 

Nymph^a. Water Lily. 

There is some uncertainty about the species, but one or other 
of all of the following is understood to grow in marshes and ponds 
in various parts of the plains of the Punjab, being more common as 
the tract is more moist. The first at least grows in Kashmir 
(5>000 feet). 


N. oiBRULBA. Sav. 

N. puBiscENS. Willd. (N. Lotus. L.) 

N. STELLATA. Willd. 

Vernacular. Ki. brxmposh. Plains, nilofar. Bazdr, roasted 
seeds, kamud bij\ 

The roasted seeds are officinal in the plains, and the root and 
seeds are eaten in times of scarcity. An infusion of the flower and 
fruit is given in diarrhoea, and as a diaphoretic. 



Nblumbium speciosum. Willd. Pythagorean Bean. 

Vemacttlar. K. pamposb. Plains, kdnwaL Bazdr« &c., root, 
kcantoal kakri ; seed, h gatte. 

This magnificent flower is common in many tanks and marshes 
in the plains up to Peshawar; is abundant in Kashmir (5,000 feet), 
and occurs at Mozaffarab4d, &c. 'J'he sliced roots, dug about 
October, when the leaves dry up, are sold as food, and are used 
cooked or as picUe. Moorcroft states that in Kashmir the stalks 
are eaten as a vegetable. The broad leaves are sold as plates. 
The flowers are sold in Kashmir to be used as offerings ; and 
Bellew mentions that in the Peshawar valley they are used in 
sharb€Us. The seeds are used as food, and are considered somewhat 
medicinal, being given to check vomiting, and as diuretic and 
refrigerant to chUdren. According to Mowcroft, this plant in 
Kashmit supports, perhaps, 5,000 people for eight months of the 


Argbmone Mexicana. L. 

Vernacular. B. D., &c., kandidru East, hateH^ hhat katefja. 

This is a cold-weather spinous4eaved plant with yellow 
flowers, which has been introduced within the historical period. 
It is only now working up the Punjab, and has not been noted 
as occurring much to the west of Lahore. In 1854, Edgeworth 
observes that it had not reached M^ltan ; but in 1866 it was seen 
in the extreme south-west of that district, near the junction of 
the Trim&b (Ghen&b), with the Garra (Sutlej), and recently 
I have heard of it at Bhawulpoor to the south of the latter. 
It does not appear to be used in the west ; but near Dehlf, where 
it is more abundant, an oil is extracted from the seeds, which 
is used for burning, and is applied medicinally to indolent ulcers, 
Ac., and to eruptions. 

Meconopsis aculeata. Boyle. 

Vernacular. J. guddi kutn, B. gUdia. 

A blue-flowered spinous-leaved plant common in the Himalaya 
at 9»000 to 14,000 feet. In Kashmir, according to Honigberger, 
the root is officinal as a narcotic, and in Chumba it is stated to 
be poisonous. 


Papaysb souNnrxBUM. L. (tab* album generally, nigbum 


Vernacular. T. I. khashr-Jchash. Cis-Indus pod. Baz6r, &c., 
heads, doda. Opium, afim. Seeds, khishnkhAsh* 

Is cultivated (the red-flowered more rarely) throughout the 
plains of the Province, but less common in the north-west. I 
have seen it cultivated in the Bi&s basin to nearly 7,500 feet. The 
area cultivated with poppy has much increased in certain tracts 
of late years. The Shahpur Settlement Report gives no less 
than 3,000 acres for that district in 1865-66, an increase of 
800 per cent, in about 10 years. The same report gives a good 
account of its cultivation, &c. Is generally ^own in rich irri- 
gated soil. A good deal is raised in Kashmir, where Rs. 200 
per annum is said to be drawn by the Maharaja as duty on it. 
In Garhw^, Moorcrofb states that the young plant is used as a 
vegetable, raw, or cooked with buttermilk; also that oil is 
extracted from it, as is likewise the case in some parts of the 
plains of the Punjab, where it is used medicinally as a narcotic 
in headache, &c. Davies' Trade Report gives 50 maunds of 
poppy seed as annually imported from K&bul to Peshawar. 

The poppy-heads and seeds are used medicinallv as sedatives. 
But the plant is grown principally -for opium, which is largely 
used by the Sikhs. A considerable quantity of the drug is 
exported from the British possessions vtd LSh to Yirkand, with 
some assumption of secrecy, on account of the prohibition of the 
Chinese Government. Davies' Report puts the quantity exported 
from LSh by Ydrkand at 210 maunds, worth 50,000 rupees ; but 
for the last two years, since the Chinese were expelled from 
Western Tiirkist&n, the trade seems to have ceased. Indeed, 
Cayley states that in 1867, 24 seers were brought to L6h from 
EuUu, while 12 maunds were sent hack. 



A good many species grow in the Himalaya at various 
elevations. One only needs mention here. 


Vernacular, hudkhes. 

This plant grows in the Punjab Himalaya at 8,000 to 12,000 
feet. The native name is given by Jameson ; but it is not certain 
that it is applied to this plant west of the Sutlej— (see Umbellifera 
for uses of hudkhes). 



Vernacalar. Plains and Baz&r, shdhtaraj pit^pdg^a. 

Is abundant in fields, &c., in the Punjab plains in early 
spring, and occurs to 3,500 feet, Trans-Indus, &c. The seeds 
and leaves, &c., are considered as cooling, diaphoretic, diuretic, 
and laxative, and enter into the composition of many ^rhats. 



Includes cabbages, turnips, and mustards (formerly Sinapis). 
There is considerable complication in the names of these, and 
their scientific nomenclature has been frequently altered. It 
woald appear that some wild species of mustard are utilized in 
parts of the Punjab (as in the North Western Provinces), e. g.^ 
jBellew mentions that two or three wild mustards are used in the 
Peshawar valley, some as vegetables and carminatives, the seeds 
of some for flatulent colic, and the oil of others as an application 
to skin diseases in man and beast. The medicinal seed, iamarkas^ 
would appear also to be in part produced by a wild mustard. 
The gum of Butea frondosa and Hyperanthera (q. v.), as well as 
the bark of Cathartocarpus fistula, are also called by this name. 
And the following species are notable. 

Brassica CaIipestris. L. (and many synonyms). 

Vernacular, l^lains, sarson^ «arrti, sarri. Baz&r, seeds, rdi 
Bandrsi. (? Edgeworth). 

This (which furnishes the colsa oil of Europe, and which is 
supposed to be the origin of the Swedish turnip) is extensively 
grown as a cold-weather field crop in the plains. Edgeworth' 
mentions that in parts of Ambdla where water is abundant it is 
m^own as a summer crop. It appears to be cultivated in the 
Himalaya — (see B. sp. p. 13) — ^up to over 10,000 feet in T^bet; 
also in Affghdnist&n. It is said to be subject to be spoiled by 
frost. When young it is eaten as a pot-herb. But it is chiefiy 
grown for the bland oil extracted from its seeds, which is burned, 
and which natives use in cooking. The seed has recently begun 
to be exported largely towards Karr&chi from near Lahore. BeUew 
mentions that in the Peshawar valley the seeds are often roasted 
and eaten with parched wheat. The rdi Bandrsi is reckoned the 
best for cataplasms, but it is doubtfully furnished by this species. 

B. Eruca. L. (Eruca satiya. Lam). Bocket. 

Vernacular, tara^ usi, fUsdUf dssii, hSIa sarsan. 

Is very extensively cultivated, especially in the more arid 
parts of the Province, for its bitter oil, which is employed for 


burning, &c. It is generally raised in the cold'-weather» but with 
water is, like the last, said to be grown as a summer crop. The 
young plant is used as greens, as in France, &c. 

B. GRiFFiTHn. Hf. and T. 

Vernacular. T. I. aizgdi, mok. S. S. D. iardni mvlU lihdcha^ 

Has a rather pretty lilac flower, and is not uncommon in 
parts of the lower hills, Trans-Tndus, and of the Salt Range, from 
1,000 to 4,500 feet (as well as in Beluchist^n and Affgh&nist&n). 
It is uded as a pot-herb. 

B. JUNOBA. L. (and many synonyms). 

Vernacular. Plains, rdij Hria^ Bazdr. Seeds, khardU. (?) 

Appears to be much less extensively cultivated in the plains 
than the sarson^ which it resembles. Appears to be grown also 
in the Himalaya up to say 10,000 feet in Tibet, as well as in 
Affghd^nist&n. Its somewhat acrid oil is burned, used for inunc- 
tion, &c., and occasionally employed in cooking. Its seeds are 
often added to native pickles, and the khardil of the. Bazars, in 
part doubtfully furnished by this, is held to be diaphoretic in 
native medicine. 


Vernacular. Plains, gobi^ hohL 

This is at times cultivated by natives in the plains, but is 
understood to have been introduced by Europeans. I believe, 
however, that I have seen it grown in the Kashmir valley (5,000 
feet), and at 5,500 feet in Chumba. 

B. RAPA. L. Turnip. 

Vernacular. J. thipar ; E. gdnglu^ gdgchi ; C. mohdU g^ngli^ 
g'&gli ; B. gumbar ; S. ^laghar^ shirwa. (?) Lad. niuma* 
j?lains, shalgham. 

In the plains is extensively grown in Jhang, Mozaffargarh, and 
Mult&n, to feed cattle with, and is held to improve both milk and 
beef. In the plains also it is eaten raw and as dchdr (pickles), and 
sliced and dried in the sun, when it will keep for many months. 
In some parts of the hills, as on the Chenab, where it is cultivated 
up to 8,000 feet, the root is eaten; and Hugel states that in 
Kan&war it is dried and pounded with flour for bread ; while 
elsewhere in the hiUs, as on the Kishen^anga, and in Lad&k, 
where it is grown to nearly 13,000 feet, and where the roots are 
eaten raw, the tops are used as a pot-herb (Moorcroft). Aitchison 
states that the dry roots are also brought from Ladak to Lahoul ; 


«ad Longden mentions that he saw a *' few small turnips *' grown 
in the latter. In Kashmir it would seem to be sown in autumn, 
** when the Elseagnus is ripe,*' though it is probably for the mo^t 
part a summer crop in the hills. 

Brabsica sp. (B. napus, L., &c.) 

Vernacular. J. sarH; CR. kdi kranar^ shdt, sarria^ sarrii; 
B. shdl ; S. shdk^ chdyang^ skanoa; Lad. mtinter, niudear; 
leaves, chodnud. 

These are cultiyated species (probably B. campestris, B. juncea* 
and B. napus) which in many parts of the hills are often grown at 
considerable heights (to 11,000 feet, Kan&war, HofiEmeister and 
Cleghorn ; 10,000, Zanskar; and 12,000, Ean&war, Thomson; and 
13,000, Lad&k, Cayley and myself) ; to furnish oil aboye where the 
apricot will flourish (Cunningham). They are also used as pot-herbs. 

Cardahinx hirsuta. L. 

Vernacular. (?) 

This grows at Hassan Abdal, in the plains of the north-west 
Punjab, where it is freely eaten as water cre8s--^(see Nasturtiumy. 


Vernacular. Baz&r, seeds, todri surkhf and L na/armdni or 
i. slydh* 

The seeds of this plant, which is cultivated for its flower, are 
officinal with natives, and held to have similar properties to ihose 
of Mathiola incana (q. v.) 

Crambb gordifolia. 

Vernacular. (?) 

Thomson mentions a species (probably this) as growing at 
12,000 feet on the Sutlej, the young leaves of which are used as a 

Ertsdcum strictum. Gsert, (E. robttstuh. Don). 

Vernacular. (?) 

This is found in the Punjab Himalaya at from 6,000 to 
13,500 feet ; and under the name *' Nep&l wall-flower *' is mentioned 
by Madden as grown by natives near Simla, in gardens. 

Farsbtia EnoEwoRTHn. Hf. and T. 
F. JAGQUSMONxn. Hf. andT. 
F. HAMiLToNn. Boyle. 

Vernacular. T. I. muki. B. D., &c., fdrid hMU l(tihta. 

One or other of these is common in many parts of the arid 
tracts throughout the Punjab plains, from benli to Peshawar. 


They have a pleasant pungent taste, are ponnded and taken as 
cooUng medicine, and are considered specific for rheumatism 


Vemacnlar. T. L shargundei^ $arma. Cis-Indos and Baz^, 
iezakf hdlinu 

This is commonly cultivated in the plains, and is probably 
the ** cresses** of Matson, at K&bul. The leaves and seeds are 
pungent and officinal. The latter are given and applied as lacta- 
gogue, and administered after being boiled with milk to cause 
abortion (Bellew). 

Maloolioa stbtoosa. Boiss* 

Vernacular. T. L ihunserdia. S. S. D. patthra, pdchan, 

A pretty little lilac flower abundant in many places on the 
Salt Rimge and nmrth-west of it, sometimes called ** heather*' by 
Europeans. Not known to be of any use. A nearly allied species, 
M. Africana, grows in the plains of the north-west Punjab, and 
also apparently at 10,500 feet in Lad6k. 

Mathiola akkua. Sw. Stode. 
Vernacular, shab bii. 

Cultivated in European gardens only in the Punjab, but 
stated by Vigne to be grown at EAhvl. 

M. iKCAirA. Br. 

Vernacular. iodH saftd^ t lUa. 

Grown for its seeds, which constitute some of the several 
kinds of todri, reckoned aphrodisiac 




Vernacular. (?) 

These three species grow at various elevations in the Punjab 
Himalaya. The first I found wild at 2,000 feet near the Indus, 
the second grows at a greater elevation, and the third I have 
found wild in Slashmir up to over 9,000 feet. All more or less 
resemble the water-cress, but Hf. and T. doubt if the second or 
toue water-cress is really indigenous. 



Vernacular, mingra. 

First made known from Northern India by Mr. Bell, Saha- 
ranpur Gardens. Not uncommon cultivated about Lahore. Its 
immensely elongated fruit is cooked as a pot-herb. 


Vernacular, idra mtra. 

Given by Edgeworth as cultivated at AmbiJa ; but Brassica 
eruca may be meant, especially as Hf. and T. only mention 
AflfehAnistin as a habitat of the above. 

R. SATivus. L. Badish. 

Vernacular, mti/i, fruit, sengra. 

Commonly grown in the Punjab, and in the Himalaya includ- 
ing (it is said) Lad&k, not only for the root, but for the young 
fruit (and leaves occasionally ?) used as a pot-herb. It has been 
stated (A. H. S. Selections) that it is grown for oil, but this seems 
.doabtAil. The seeds are officinal, being reckoned emmenagogue. 

SiSTifBRiUM Ibio. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. jangli sarsan. S. S. D. naktrtisa. Baz£r 
seeds, ih^b halan^ khdksL 

Common wild throughout the Punjab plains (Honigberger is 
probably mistaken in saying it is cultivated at Lahore). Davies* 
Trade Report gives 5 maunds of its seeds as annually imported 
from Affgh&nist&n by the Bolan. They are reckoned febrifuge 
by natives. 

S. Sophia. L. 


Is also indigenous in the plains of the north-west Punjab, 
and its seeds are said occasionally to be used under the same 

Capparis aphylla. L. (Sod ADA dscidua. Forsk). 

Vernacular. T. I. hirra. S. S. D. karia, harin. B. D., &c.,' 
hard. Bud, tU. Fruit, tentU delha^ ptnjd. 

A curious, green, twiggy-looking shrub, which has handsome 
red flowers in spring and red fruit in April. It is characteristic 


of the Punjab, being common towards Debli and along Harriina, 
and gets abundant in the Sirsa tract, as well as in Miiltdn, and 
to the north and west, and Trans-Indus. It is less common 
outside th^e tracts, especially where the climate is less arid. It 
at times attains a considerable size, the largest on record being 
one of 8 feet girth mentioned by Edgeworth near Chichawatni ; 
but its ordinary girth is not a fourth of this. It has immense 
roots, and the natives in some parts assert that it never grows 
from seed, but that each plant has been growing from all time. 
I am not aware of any successful attempt in the Punjab to raise 
it either from seed or by cuttings, even in places where it is very 
common ; but Dr. Anderson has recently informed me that he has 
grown plants of it in Calcutta from seed sent by me. It is com- 
monly used for fuel by natives, burning with a strong gaseous 
flame even when green, and does for brick-burning, but is not 
suited for burning alone in furnaces, &c., on the large scale. Its 
wood is stated to be very durable, is bitter, and not liable to the 
attacks of white ants, being often untouched among other timbers 
destroyed by them. It is much used for the rafters of small 
buildings, Trans-Indus, in the Southern Punjab, and up as far as 
the latitude of Lahore to the westward of it. Ploughshares are 
made of it in Dehra Ghizi Khan, and it is said to be used for 
turning in Jhelam (Aitchison). In Bind the timber is often used 
for knees in boat-building. 

The bud is cooked fresh as a pot-herb. The fruit is about 
the size of a marble, and is very largely consumed by the natives, 
great numbers of whom go out for the purpose of collecting it both 
when green and after it is ripe. In the former -state it is gener- 
ally steeped for 15 days in salt and water, being put in the sun 
to ferment till it becomes acid, pepper, &c., and oil being then 
added. It is said that it will thus keep for a year, and is eaten 
to an ounce or two at a time usually with bread. The ripe fruit 
is generally made into pickle with mustard or other oil (Hindus 
are not allowed to use vinegar) to be eaten with bread. In this 
state it is frequently exported as far east as Cawnpur. 

The top shoots and young leaves are ground to make a blister 
in native pharmacy. 

Cappasis hourida. L.^or C. Sbpuria. L. 

Vernacular. B. hiUngama. J. D., &c., his^ S. P. karvila. 

Occasional in the Punjab Siw&Iiks and in the plains as far 
west as Lahore, and south to Multdn, &c. The wood is only 
used for fuel. In the Southern Punjab and Sind the fruit is 
made into pickle, and in the latter the leaves are applied as a 



Vernacular. Lad. kdbra. T. I. kbarra. S. S. D. kaur, 
kidr(, taker, bauri. C. ber» B. bardH. S. bandar, 
kakrij bassar^ 

This plant, whicli in Europe fomishes the caper, generally 
grows in the Punjab exactly as a recent traveller has described 
it on Sinai : '^ In bright green tufts hanging down from the clefts 
of the rocks/' and adorned with a very handsome large flower. 
It is found near Multdn, in the Salt Range, along the Trans- 
Indus hills to Peshawar, and in the vaUeys of some of the great 
rivers, ascending to 5,000 feet at Wangtu, on the Sutlej (8,000 
• feet, Thomson), and on the Indus above Iskardoto about 10,500 
feet (Jacquemont and Thomson), and it occurs to 12,000 near 
LSh. The ripe fruit is made into pickles by the natives of the 
Salt Range, &c. ; but in some places at least eaten only by 
Hindus. Mr. Edgeworth prepared the buds in the European 
style as capers, and found them first-rate. In Laddk the leaves 
are used as greens. They are eaten by goats and sheep, and in 
Kingra the roots are said to be applied to sores. 

Cl^ome ruta. Dne!. 

Vernacular. T. I. kastere, B. D. dandt bitt, bigri, biijra, 

A small inconspicuous plant, with a yellow flower and a 
strong Rtitaceous smell, which is common in many places in the 
Punjab plains from the Sutlej westward, and up to the Suliman 
Grange. In the Southern Punjab the plant is pounded and taken 
for colic» 


CRA.tJEVA RELiGiosA. Ham. (C. RoxAvR&Hii. Bn?) 

Vernacular. Plains, &c., bama, bamdM. 

A handsome tree with a luxuriant flush of pretty white 
flowers in spring. It is generallv of rather small size, but at 
times reaches a girth of 7 or 8 rcet. It occurs in the Siwalik 
tract in the east of the Punjab, and is frequently seen planted 
at wells, &c., west as far as Jheliun and south to Miiltan. The 
wood is soft and easily cut, but tolerably tough, and is used for 
tnaking small wheels, and for carving models, making writing- 
boards and combs, &c. In Peninsular India, the root, bark, 
leaves, juice, and seeds of this or allied species, are used for 
rarious purposes. Aitchison states that at JTielum the fruit is 
mixed with mortar to form a strong cement, and the rind as a 
mordant in dyeing. 


Oynanbrofsis pentaphylla. DC. (Clbome p. L.) 



Vernacular, hulhul, bugra, gandhulL 

These herbs^ the former with white, the latter with yellow 
flowers, occur throughout the ProYince in the plains and to 
2,500 feet. They appear to be at times confiised by natiYCS. 
The former is used as a Yegetable (Edgeworth), and the seeds of 
one or other are officinal, being considered stimulant. In Sind^ 
women use the plant (?) for their hair to destroy Yermin. 



Vernacular. T. I. and J. kikai, B. kangu, kukoa. S. S. D. 
kukoa. J. D. kartgH, U. kandei. 

A large shrub which is found along the lower hills sometimes 
to 3,500 feet, in the Salt Range, and on the skirts of the Sulim&n 
range, &c. The timber is occasionally employed for ploughs, 
but is too small for most purposes. It is straight and close- 
grained, and is used for combs and in turnery. The fruit is 

F. SEPiABiA. Box. (F. Bahotchi. L. Her.) 

Vernacular. T. I. sherawane, zargal, dqfkar. S. B. dajkar, 
jidkar, D. khatdi. H. kingaro. 

A small shrub which' occurs about Dehli, in the arid 
tract to the west, in the Salt Bange, and on the skirts of the 
Sulim&n range. Its wood is too small to be of use (Ycry much 
the largest trunk I haYe noted was 3 feet in girth), and the spines 
are so strong that its twigs cannot be eaten by cattle, but the 
leaYCs are thntshed out for them. The fruit is small, hard, and 
insipid, but is said to be eaten by natiYes. 



Vernacular, kdfnbt. Baz&r, gum, kat(ra. 

I haYe not seen this tree west of the Junma, but it probably 
exists in the SiwaUk region, in the east of the Punjab. Its gum 
is officinal^ being used as demulcent in coughs^ ftc. The ktUtra, 



of which 10 maimds are stated by Dayies' Trade Report to be 
amported anmially vid Peshawar^ must be entered by mistake^ 
or be the product of a different plant. And odd enough^ the 
same authority gives 50 maunds of this substance as exported 
from '^ Loodiana'^ to Affgh&iist&n by the Bolan. 


YioitA. Violet, 

v. ciNBBBA. Boiss. grows to the plains level, Trans-Indus, 
and in the Salt Range, and several species are found in the 
Himalaya up to 10,000 feet, perhaps the commonest being — 

V. SERPENS. Wall. 

Vernacular. Him. and Baz&r, banqfsha. 

The plant of this (chiefly) and other species is found in the 
Bas&rs, and considered diaphoretic and aperient. 

V. Pateinii. DC. 

Vernacular. (?) 

Found in Hassfira, &c. A dark-flowered variety has a parti- 
cularly fine scent. 



Willd.) Horse-radish tree. 

Vernacular. Plains, &c., soanjna, sdnjna, senjna. 

A tree which grows wild in the Siwfidk region in the Eastern 
Punjab, and is seen commonly planted throughout the Province 
up to 1,200 or 1,500 feet. It is said to be very easily raised 
from seed, but is almost never grown except by natives. The 
wood is excessively soft and quite useless, and said to be ^' not 
even fit for fuel.'*' In some parts the twigs and leaves are largely 
lopped for fodder. The roots have the flavour of horse-racQsh^ 
and are occasionally used for it. The flowers, which are rather 
handsome, come out about February, preceding the leaves. 
The long pod-like fruit ripens about April, and is eaten by 
the natives, cooked as a pot-herb, or in curry, or is made into 
a pickle described as ''most nauseous to Europeans. ''^ The fruit 
is stated by Honigberger to be officinal. Where the tree is 
ptentiful^ in the wlii state at leasts incisions are made in the 


trunks from which^ in a day or two^ a gum exudes. This is used 
in rheumatism^ or is given as kamarka» — (see Butea frondosa). 
No oil is known to be extracted from the seeds in the Punjab, 



Vernacular. (?) 

The leaves of this plant (or perhaps D. lunata. Ham.) ai^ 
stated by Madden to be used for blisters in Kandwar, X do not 
know gf any D. being found to west of th^ Sutlej. 


This family abounds in the Himalaya^ and a few species 
grow in the plains^ but almost all are quite useless, 

GouFFi;iA HQLosTEOiDBS, Camb, 

B. hah^a. S. gandiaL Lad. cMH. 

This appears to be the herb which^ growing at firom 5^500 to 
10^000 feet^ is used as a vegetable in Chumbfi and Lad&k. 1\ 
is also probably Madden^s Stellabia cbi;spata. Wall. — ^usedina 
similar way in Bissahir. 

Lychnis Indica. Benth, 



Aitchison states that in Lahoul the root an4 leaves of the^Q 
are used for soap, 

N. O. LINEiE, 


Vernacular, (?) 

Aitchison states that this is to be found in some quantity 
in Lahoul, though not used. And it probably furnished the 
seed of '' linseed growing wild in Spiti/' which nuoiy years ago 
was sent fo;p trial to the Agri-Horticuitural Society at Lahore. 


Vernacular. J. karMn. S. B. hour, gud batal C, B., and 
Plains, basant, bdl-basant. 

A small shrub with a fine yellow flower, common at low 
^evations in the hills generally, and oocasionidly seen to 6,000 


feet, and cultivated in many gardens in the plains. It is stated 
to be administered as a medicine for founder in cattle. 


Yemacular. K. alish. Plains^ i{si, alsi. 

Not uncommon as a field crop, the seed ripening in April, 
but more rare towards the north-west. Is grown in the Kashmir 
Valley (5,000 feet). Being raised only for its oil, is always 
sown wide, alone, (or sometimes mixed with Cicer) ; and as the 
plants are generally only from 18 to 24 inches high, the fibre is 
useless for textile purposes. By proper treatment, however, good 
fibre can be got from plants raised from European seed, or even 
from country seed if properly sown. Operations were carried on 
by a Company at Sealkdt from 1863 ; but, owing to various 
circumstances, these have recently been brought to a close. The 
seeds are officinal with natives, being given (as infrision ?) for 


AbeIiMOschus esculentus. L. (Hibiscus longifolius. 

W. and A.) 

Yemacular. bhinda tori, rdmturdi. 

Grown by natives and Europeans in the plains throughout 
the Punjab. The fruit is cooked and eaten as a vegetable. 

A. FicuLNEUs. W. and A. 
Vernacular, diila. 
Occurs in fields in the plains. Seeds put in sweetmeats. 

Abvtilon Indicum. O. Don. 

Vernacular. T. I. siinbal. S. B,. piU MtL B, D. pataka. 

Not uncommon wild up to the skirts of the Sulimfin range. 
Edgeworth states that it is given in coughs (the seeds. ?) 

Althjba officinalis. L. Marshmallow. 
Stated by Bellew to be used about Kandah&r^ Jkc., as greens. 

A. ROSEA. Cav. Hollyhock. 

Vernacular, gul-khaira, khatmi, root, risha khatmi. 

Commonly grown as a garden-flower. Its seeds are officinal^ 
being nrocUaginoas and^ dmuloent^ diuretic and febrifuge, and 


the flowers are reckoned cooling and diuretic, and given in 
rheumatism. Of the former it would appear &om Davies' Trade 
Report that 5 maunds, and of the latter 10 maunds^ are annually 
imported from Affghlmistin vid Peshawar. The root is con- 
sidered astringent, luid given in fever and dysentery. Of it also 
Davies' Trade Report gives 10 maunds as annually imported from 
AfFghfinistin vid Peshawar. 


Vernacular. K. lug^pas, hapd. C. kapd. Plains, kapd$, kapd, 
bdri, S.P.vcfr. Clean cotton, rtii; seeds, 6inau/a,£ardii^. 

Commonly grown in many places all over the Punjab as 
a hot-weather crop, ripening up to Christmas. It is cultivated 
up to the Kashmir Yidley (5,000 feet), but the quality does not 
appear first-rate. It is most firequent in places which are not 
the best and moistest, nor yet too dry^ yet in some rather arid places, 
{e. g.f Shahpiir)^ it is raised in quantity without irrigation. Is 
rare in Northern Trans-Indus, though abundant in places up to 
near Attock. Is frequently treated as a biennial or even trien- 
nial crop (Agri-Horticultual Society Selections). The Punjab 
probably furnishes a considerable supply for Affghdnist&n, but the 
distance from the sea as yet restricts the export by the Indus. 
The seeds are ofEicinal, being esteemed diaphoretic. 

Hibiscus cannabinus. L. 

Vernacular. J. 8han. Plains, san, sanhohlay pation. 

Not uncommon throughout, except in the extreme north-west. 
But BeUew states that it is grown at Ghuzni (about 7,000 feet), 
and it is not uncommon to 8,000 feet in the N. W. Himalava. 
It is generally raised in narrow strips along the edges of fields 
of cotton or pulse, being sown either about April, and irrigated 
up to the rains, or sown during the latter, the former giving much 
the best results (Edgeworth) . Its fibre is used for the manufac- 
ture of ropes, twiae and sacking. In Sind its fibre is considered 
the best for nets and ropes, but it is rarely used for doth. The 
seeds are officinal. 


Vemacnlar. guUufydib, 

Commonly cultivated in flower-gardens. 


Vemaeolar. paiwa. 

Said to have been introduced from the West Indies. Is 
coltiyated for its succulent add calyces^ which make excellent 

jelly. These come to maturity in the Punjab^ but even at Lahore 
the seeds hardly ever ripen. 

H. sp.? 

Vernacular, jangli sankokra, jangli binda. 

A plant growing wild in the Siw&lik tract, the firuit of which 
is used as a pot-herb. 

Lavatera Cachemibiana. Camb. (?) 
Vernacular. J. gul khair. C. sazposh. 

A handsome plant like hollyhock, growing in parts of the 
basins of the Jhelum and Chendb at from 5,000 to 10,000 feet. 
Of no known use. 

Malva paryiflora. L. 
m. botundifolia. l. 
m. sylyestris. l. 

Vernacular. S. narr. T. I. panirak, stipra. S. B. scmchal, 
gogi 96g. 

There is some confusion as to these species. The first, 
howeyer, and probably the second, grow in the hiUs to 8,000 or 
9,000 feet, and are common cold-weather weeds in the plains. 
The third also appears to occur in the hills from 5,000 to 9,000 
feet. They are frequently eaten as pot-herbs, especially in time of 
dearth. And the seeds, being demulcent, are used in coughs and 
ulceration of the bladder (Honigberger) . In Ean&war, women 
clean their hair with (an inAision of?) the root, and woollen cloth 
is washed by its aid. Bellew states that the root is used as ritiha 
khatmi ? — (see Althaea rosea) . 


Vernacular, hharenti ; Baz&r, seeds, Mjband, ckika, hamdz, 
kowdr, sttndk. 

A common small wild plant of the plains, whidi is used in 
feyers. The seeds are reckoned aphrodisiac, and are administered 
in gonorrhoea. Bellew states that they are given for^ colic and 
tenesmus. For other seeds, &;c., used under some of the Bass&r 
names given above (each of which was applied to q>ecimens of this 
seed sent to the Punjab Exhibition) see Rumex acutos^ 
coimculata^ and Bhus parviflcnra. 


Thsspesia populnea. Con*. 

Vernacular, pdrcis pipal (oomipted into pahdri pipat) . 

Two trees only are known to grow in the Punjab^ at Kh&ngai4i 
in the Mozaffargarh district. These were raised from seed brought 
from the south by a fakir about forty years ago. The larger is 
about four feet girth and thirty-fiye in height^ but their seed does 
not ripen. The Hindus carry off their leayes to be used in piija 
at deaths. 


Adansonia digitata. L. 

Vernacular, imli Khorasdni, 

This tree^ of which some specimens are stated to exist in the 
K. W. Provinces^ and which is common in parts of Central India and 
Bombay^ has never been grown in the Punjab^ although seeda were 
tried at Lahore so far back as 1853. 


Vernacular. J. sum; Plains^ Sic., sembal, Hmbalj svrtimal < 
Baz&r^ gum, mochras^ sembalgond ; root, musali sembal. 

This tree grows to a very large size, and, about March, is a 
striking object with its immense buttressed trunks, and its large 
showy red flowers, six inches in breadth, clustered on the leafless 
branches. The latter generally leave the trunk by six or seven 
radiating from about one level. The tree occurs wild in the Siw&Iik 
tract, occasionally to 8,500 feet, and perhaps to beyond the Indus, 
as Bellew mentions it in Chingl&i. It may sometimes be seen as 
high as 6,000 feet near the R&vi, and is not uncommonly planted 
in the plains as far as Miiltdn. Curious discussions occasionally 
take place as to whether the prevailing wind or what other cause 
leads to the formation of the buttresses on particular aspects of the 
trunk. The tree furnishes a whitish, coarse-grained, weak, brittle 
wood, which is very subject to the attacks of white ants. It is 
thus for the most part used only for planks, doors, boxes, Scc^f and 
is said not even to be good fuel. But curious enough, like some 
other woods of similar texture, moisture seems to render it more 
durable, and it is a favourite for well-curbs (nimchaks), water 
conduits, troughs, and bridges. It is also made into scabbards in 
K&ngra and Yusafz&i. In some places, e, g,y near K4ngra, the 
leaves and twigs of the tree are severely lopped, probably for 
fodder. The flower buds are eaten as a pot-herb, and the cotton 
of the pods is occasionally used to stuff pillows ; it is too short- 
stapled and smooth to be applicable to textile purposes. The gum^ 


wliich exudes firom the bark^ is giyen often with Mgle (q. ▼.) for 
dysentery and diarrhoea. The root furnishes one of the kinds of 
mmsaUy being considered coolings astringent^ and aphrodisiac^ and 
is given in gonorrhoea^ &c. 

Kydia calycina. Box. 
Vernacular. C. pMi, B. ptild. B. paid. Y. puld. S. B. 

A tree which is common wild in many parts of the Siw^k 
tract to 3^000 feet^ up to the Indus^ and occasionally seen planted 
in the plains. The wood is used for buildings charcoal^ and fuel. 
I do not know that the bark is used in the Punjab as in the N. W. 
Provinces for clarifying sugar. 

Pentapetes Ph^nicea. L. 
Vernacular, fful dupaharia. 
Commonly cultivated as a garden flower. Its fruit is officinal. 


Helictebss Isora. L. 

Vernacular. marorphaUy kupdsi. Saz&r, firuit, marorphaU. 

A large shrub which is found wild in the Siwilik tract for 
flome distance into the Punjab. Its fiiiit is spirally twisted^ and 
on ''the doctrine of signatures/' which prevails in India as it 
was universally held in Europe some centuries ago^ is esteemed as 
efficacious in colic (and dysentery) being given in powder. It is 
sometimes applied externally also (Honigberger) . 

There is some confusion about the species of this. 

S. viLLosA. Box. 

Vernacular. C. gulkandar, ktM. S. oshd. U. godguddla. 
S. B. massii. 

Sometimes a tree, but often seen very small, is common 
in many places in the outer hills to 3,500 feet or more, up to the 
Indus, and occurs in the Salt Bange. Its bark is frequently made 
into ropes of some strength ; in Southern India, elephant ropes, 



and in Bombay bagging are made of it. In Dehra Doon good 
paper has been made firom it. 

S. Walichii. 

Vernacular. C. kirt. R. ^Idn. B. wulena. 

A shrub, occasional to 3,600 feet in similar places, and with 
similar qualities to the lastj but apparently less widely distributed. 



Vernacular. Beng&l, pat. 

Occasional wild in the Punjab. Cultivated largely in Bengal 
for its fibre^ called jute in commerce. 


Vernacular, baphalli, Mrand, 

Common wild in the Southern Punjab. The plant is rubbed 
down and given as a cooling medicine. 


Vernacular. Bengfil^ banpat. 

Found wild in the Punjab. Is cultivated in Beng&l for its 


Vernacular. bdphallL Baz&r^ seeds^ isband ? 

Not uncommon wild. The plant is officinal, and may furnish 
the officinal seeds^ isband, which are ^ven in rheumatism. 

Grewia asiatica. L. 
Vernacular, phdlsa. 

A small tree commonly cultivated in the plains for its 
pleasantly acid small fruit. The appearance of its leaves has 
caused Europeans to mistake it for the Hazel. The leaves and 
buds are officinal. 

THiIACE^. 2l 


Yemacular. T. I. gangi, inzarre, khircha. S. R. and S. S. 
D., ganger. 

A small shrub common on the low hills^ Trans-Indus^ in the 
Salt Bange up to 3^000 feet^ and in the more arid tracts of the 
Western^ Southern^ and Eastern Punjab as far as Delhi. The 
natives eat the small fhut and^ as usual> call it " sweety ^^ but it has 
neither substance nor flavour. 

G. ELASTiCA. Boyle. (?) 

Vernacular. S. B. farti, dhamman, J. D. dhamman. 

In the Salt Bange^ and Siwfilik tract below K^gra. The 
timber is said very strong and elastic. The fruit is eaten. 


Vernacular. J. C. and B. thamman, dhamman, B. and B. 
dhamman, bitU, bahuL U. dhdman. T. I. past^anna. 
S. B. dhamman. 

A small tree common in all the lower hills; Cis and Trans- 
Indus^ and in the Salt Bange^ up to 4^500 feet. Lowther mentions 
trees as thriving at IDiii near Ferozepur ; but these were probably 
Celtis (q. v.)^ whidi distantly resembles this in appearance. The 
wood is tough and elastic, and is valued for handles^ shafts, bangy- 
sticks, kc.j the ring for supporting the seat of the single-rope 
bridge, &c. And Vigne states that in the Sulim&n range bows are 
made of it (though no other aotharity seems to mention bows as 
being used by any of the tribes in that tract). The chief value of 
the tree is on account of the leaves^ which largely serve as fodder, 
wherever it is common, and are said to increase the quantity of 
milk. The bark is made into sandals^ &c., and after being steeped 
for 10 or 15 days in watar, makes a fair rope, which^ however^ is 
stated not to be durable. Und» European supervision a fair paper 
has been manufactured from the bark in the K4ngra Valley and 

G. BoTHii. DC. 
Vernacular. S. B. bather, nikki bekkar. 

G. viLLOSA. Both. 

Vernacular. T. I. inzarra, pastuwanne. S. B. jalidar, 
kaskiisrl, thamther. 

Both spedes occur in the lower hills^ Trans-Indus^ and in the 
Salt Bange. The fruit of both is eaten, but is very poor. 


Triumpetta anoulata. Lam.? 
Vemacolar. ? 

Occurs in the Punjab plains ; has been eaten as a pot-herb in 
times of famine. 


Shore A robusta. Rox. 

Vernacular, sdi. Resin^ rdl zard; r, sufid; r. kdla, Mdnd. 

West of the Jumna there is only one considerable tract 
of this valuable tree, close to that river at 1,500 to 2,000 feet, 
and even there it does not attain any considerable size. While in 
two small patches in the Siw&lik region below Kd&gra, the climate 
is so unfavorable that the trees as a rule remain quite small and 
crooked. This tree is very difficult to raise even close to its 
natural habitat ; and outside of the hills in the Punjab I only 
know of a very few specimens. In Saharunpur Sotanic Grardens, 
a tree of 35 years old is 7\ feet in girth. The timber is hard and 
heavy and durable, and is one of the best possible for all purposes 
where great strength is required and weight is no objection. The 
resin which exudes from the tree is officinal, and is used in the 


^GLE Marmelos. Con*. Bengdl Quince. 

Vernacular, bil, bel. Fruit pulp, bel giri. 

This small tree, which is not uncommon at different places 
below Simla to about 4,000 feet, extends sparingly up to near 
the Indus, and is said by Bellew and others to be found beyond 
that river. It is occasionally seen planted in the plains up to 
2 or 3 feet in girth. The wood is whitish, clean-grained, hard 
and strong, and is valued for building and making charcoal, but 
is not often used (in K&ngra at least), as the Hindus venerate 
the tree and offer its leaves on the sbrines of Siva. The pulp 
of the fruit, fresh or dried, is undoubtedly of use in affections of 
the bowels, nor do I see any reason to place credit in a newspaper 
statement, that from the trees of these hills it is less efficacious 
than from those growing further east. The pulp is also used in 
lime cement. In Peshawar, large numbers of snuff-boxes for 
Affghdns are made from the shell of the fruit, which is prettily 
carved over, and fitted with a small bone-plug for the opening in 
the end which serves as entrance and exit for the snuff. 



Beroera Konigii. L. 
Vernacular. B. gdndla. B. gandla, gdndaM. 

A common slirub in the outer low hills reaching to 4^000 
feet or more up to the BAvi at least. It is large enough for fuel 
only. Its leaves are applied to blows (Lake) . 


I know of no species wild in the Punjab^ although some are 
found in the Siwalik tract and outer lulls further east. The 
usual species and varieties are grown^ comprized for the most part 
under the following. Some of them are cultivated up to 4^000 
feetj but it is doublfiil if the fruit ripens at that elevation. 


Sour lime. 
Sweet lime. 

MUha nimbiA. 
BajavH rUmbti. 

Feronia ELEPHANTUM. Corr. Wood apple. 

Vernacular, kait, bilin. 

I have not seen this tree wild in the Punjab except sparingly 
in the Siwfilik tract above Hoshyarptir. It is occasionally seen 
planted in the eastern part of the Province. Its timber is not 
valued, and its fruit and gum do not appear to be used in the 
Punjab as elsewhere in India. 

Skimmia Laureola. Zucc. (Limonia. Wall.) 

Vernacular. J. ner. B. barr4, shalangU. (?) 

A common small shrub in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
from 5>000 to 9,000 feet up to the Indus. In Haz&ra the leaves, 
which have an orange-like smell when crushed, are burned near 
smallpox patients, with a view to curative effects. As the leaves 
are dotted, this may have arisen from '^ the doctrine of signatures.'' 
Jameson states that the hiU-people assert that the musk-deer gets 
its musk by feeding on the leaves of this plant. Madden com- 
ments on Ogilby's statement in Boyle's Illustrations, that the same 
animal is supposed to get its musk from the roots dug up by its 
teeth I (It IS, however, a " kind of ground nut" wUch Ogilby 
mentions in this connection). 



Hyperigvm perforatum. L. St. John^s wort. 

Vernacular. B. bassant. B. dendM. 

A small plant common (mth several others of the same genos) 
in many parts of the Himalajra from 2^500 to 10^000 feet. 
Honigberger states that it is not officinal^ but is recommended in 
Arabic medicine for a vermifuge^ &;c. 


HiPTAOE Madablota. Ga&rt. 

Vernacular. C.endra. "R.chqpar. B. benkoTj khiimb. Plains^ 
chdbuk chiirL 

A fine large climber with handsome flowers found at low 
elevations (generally under 3,000 feet) in many places of the 
outer hills up to near the Indus. Cultivated at I^ore. 


Acer Creticvm. L. (?) 

Vernacular names multitudinous, the following are a selec- 
tion: — J. tilkhan, trekhana, kukandra, K. aerdn, tiU 
pattar. C. kitld, kdkrdi, tnandar, kdngla, B. mandar. 
S. tian. 

A small tree, which strongly resembles the description of the 
above species, is not uncommon at places on most of the great 
rivers from the B4vi westward from 8,500 up to 6,000 feet. Of 
no special use. 

A. cuLTRATUM. Wall. Maplc. 

Vernacular. J. trekan, iilpaitar, MM. K. UlpattaTf kxipat^ 
tar, kanur. C, hanzal, kanzal, kanzru, kdkrd, mandar^ 
B. mandar, chirindL B. mandar, kaura. S. nuindar, 
kdnjar, kalindrafjarimti, law. 

It is not attempted to separate tibese two species of maple as 
they much resemble each other, often grow in similar or the same 
places, and are frequently confosed. They are found on aU 
the rivers up to near the Indus at from 4,000 to 10,000 feet, 
the latter generally growing at somewhat greater elevations 
than the former. They are handsome trees, and attain a con- 
siderable size; (I have frequently seen specimens of the latter 


up to 12 feet girth) > but the timber is not particularly valued. 
It is^ however^ close-graiaed and tolerably strongs and in K&ngra 
is uaed for making ploughs^ bedsteada^ and j&mpdn^^XeA. From 
Bissahir^ &c.> there is a considerable export of drinking-cups of 
maple-wood^ to Tibet^ where they are much used and often set in 
silyer. Gerard states that they are made of juniper^ and Moor- 
croft says horse-chesnut — (see Pavia) — ^but J. D. Cunningham 
mentions the knots or excrescences of these two maples (by native 
names) as giving the best kinds. The juice of the leaves is in 
Kan&war said to be so acrid as to hurt the hands, but the leaves 
and twigs are in places, high in Haz&ra especially, much lopped 
for fodder. 

Caediosperhuh Halicacabum. L. 
Yemacttlar. Baz&r, seed, habb ul kulkuL 

A pretty, slender climber found wild in the lower hills, and 
occasionally cultivated in gardens. Its seeds are officinal. 


Vernacular. J. sanattha. C. sdnthd. R. ban mendti. B. 
mendr^. T. I. ghurdBkef veravena, shumshdd, S. R. 
sanatha. Plains, alidr, 

A handsome small evergreen shrub, well suited for hedges, for 
which it is often used, and generally called ^^bog myrtle,'^ why 
I know not. It is common in the lower hills, Tnms-Indus, and 
east of that river extends to Umb, Cis-Bi&s, in the outer hills, and 
it occurs frequently in the Salt Range. Its branches are tough^ 
and used by natives in the last to put under the earth of their 
roofs. The leaves are hard and d^, and only eaten by cattie 
when very hungry. Jameson and others consider this a distinct 
species from D. Burmanniana, and he calls it D. Mackesonii; 
and it is probably the indigenous species ''with small leaves, '' 
which Firininger names D. dioica. Our plant is certainly dioeci- 
ous, and as certainly not a scandeht shrub as the Bombay Flora 
states that D. Burmanniana is. 

Favia Indica. Wall. Himalayan Horse-chesnut. 

Vernacular. J. bankhor, K. hdne, hantldun. C. ffufffi,fftin. 
R. ffiin. B. kanor. S. kaniir. T. I. torjaga. Baz4r, 
fjmXfjauz mukaddam. 

A fine tree frequently seen up to 10 and occasionally 15 feet 
girth, very like the European horse-chesnut; grows in most of 
the higher hills Cis and Trans-Indus from 4,000 to 9,000 feet. 


The bark peels off in long strips upward on the trunks as was 
remarked by Jacquemont; and compared to that of North 
American hickory by Yigne. The wood is light-colored and easily 
worked^ but is not much yalued^ being for the most part only used 
for ordinary building purposes^ for packing cases^ water troughs^ 
tubs, platters, &c. It is sometimes employed for furniture, and 
makes nice-looking tea-boxes. Part of the drinking-cups, so 
lai^ely used by the Tibetans, are made firom the wood of this 
tree, out not the best kind — (see Acer cultratum). Mr. Watson, 
Madhopur Workshops, states that it does well for rough pattern- 
making. The leaves are much lopped for winter fodder in the 
Himalaya, as in K&ffirist&n (Grriffith), and the fruit is collected for 
feeding cattle and goats. The latter is in some parts also used as 
food for man, especially in times of scarcity, after being steeped 
in water for many days, and is generally mixed with flour, as, 
when taken alone, it is very bitter and apt to produce colic. The 
fruit is officinal likewise, being applied externally in rheumatism 
(Honigberger) . 

Sapindus deteroens. Boyle. (?) Soapnut tree. 

Vernacular. R. B. and S. chdan; fruit, ritha. 

A handsome smallish tree, not uncommon planted up to 3,500 
feet in the valleys as far as the B^vi. The largest tree noted by 
me was 8^ feet in girth. The timber is white, soft, and weak, and 
is in no repute. In K&ngra the leaves are used as fodder. The 
large seed is used for washing woollen and silk (Honigberger), 
and is also employed for cleaning the hair, though Vigne is 
mistaken in saying a decoction of it is applied to cause the hair 
to grow ! The seeds are also officinal, being given in cases of 
salivation, in epilepsy, and as expectorant. 


Vernacular. B. samma, ? U. jamoa, ? Plains, &c., gausam. 

This valuable timber tree occurs rarely wild in the Siw&lik 
tract up to the Bi&s, and is seen planted occasionally in the plains ; 
but it is much too unfrequent in the Province to require more 
than a passiQg notice here. 


AiSADiRACHTA Indica. Ad. dc Juss. 

Vernacular, nim. 

Is common planted in the more eastern part of the Province 
(Cis-Sutlej) where it is often seen of 6 or 7 and up to 8 or 9 feet 


in girth. West of the Sudej it is comparatively rare, and is 
not often seen of more than 2 or 3 feet in girth. Beyond the 
Jhelam it speedily disappears altogether, and I do not Imow that 
a single specimen exists Trans-Indus. It is stated not to grow 
firom cuttings, but to graft readily on the next mentioned tree. 
The wood is said to be ant-proof. The leaves are good fodder for 
camels, an infiision of them is given medicinally, and they are 
applied to boils, &c. From incisions in the bark, some very old 
trees discharge a large quantity of juice which is reputed to have 
medicinal powers. In Sind, " the aromatic seeds are used for the 
hair by women,'' and an oil, which is applied to sores, is extracted 
from them. This oil appears to be largely extracted and exported 
from Southern India. Honigberger mentions that the bark like- 
wise and a '^ gum'' of this tree lae officinal. The gum is likewise 
mentioned in Southern India as medicinal. 


posiTA. Willd.) Bead-tree. 

Vernacular. B. kachen, jek. Plains, &c., generally, drek^ 
bakdin. Baz&r, se^, habb ul b&n. 

In the Punjab this tree (in which I can see no specific 
difference, although two or three species are made out by some) 
replaces the last, being rare in the east, and abimdant in the 
centre and west. With its bunches of light colored fruit hanging 
on the bare arms for some months of the year, it is not a favourite 
tree with Europeans, although it was frequently planted along 
roads, &c., in the rudimentary stage of arboriculture after annexa- 
tion of the Province. But it is liked by natives for its pleasant 
shade and verdure in the hot weather, and is generally planted 
by them at wells, &c. Griffith meiVtions that it is common 
planted at villages in the less elevated parts of Affgh&nist^. 
In the Himalaya it is seen to 5,000, and occasionally to 6,000 
feet ; but I am not aware that I have ever observed it truly wild 
anywhere. Below Chumba, &c., at about 2,800 feet, trees of 12 
or 14 feet girth may occasionally be seen. In the plains I have 
nevar seen any at all approaching this size. The wood is yellowish, 
soft, brittle, and weak, but is bitter and not subject to the attacks 
of insects. In Beng&l it is used for making idols, and in Sind 
well-curbs are constructed of it. The leaves are said by Honig* 
berger to be officinal. The fruit is greedily eaten by goats and 
sheep (Aitchison). The seeds are considered hot and are given 
in rheumatism, and in K&ngra pounded and mixed with apricots 
^ey are rubbed in for the same disease. 




Yemacular. tin. Baz&r^ flowers^ g^l Hn. 

This fine tree does not^ as a nile^ seem to grow much over 2^500 
feet^ though many trees of 7 or 8 feet girth^ and some to 10^ may 
be seen at 3^000 near Chumba^ one at the bridge there exceeding 
12 feet girth^ and I have noted one fine tree at 4^800 feet. It is 
indigenous in the outer hills^ and at one time there have been 
large numbers wild and planted in the Siw&lik tract between 
Kdngra and the plains^ where it was formerly a " royal tree/' «. e., 
preserved for the use of the rulers. Out in the plains it is grown 
throughout the Province^ Cis-Indus^ though more uncommon 
west of the Jhelam. In its earliest stage it^is not very easily 
raised from seed ; recently some trials of growing it from cuttings 
have succeeded. Its growth is fairly rapid, and as its darkish 
wood is not subject to worm or warp, and looks well when pro- 
perly polished, it is a favourite for cabinet work, which has led 
to most of the best trees being cut down. Unless some means 
are taken for extending its cultivation, the wood will by and bye 
be exceedingly scarce and dear. From the flowers a fleeting 
bassanti (yellow) dye is got, and they are officinal, being considered 
emmenagogue and abortive. 

C. TooNA. var. serbatta. Boyle. 

Vernacular. J., K. drawiy drab, HnL C. deri, ckiti sirin, 
B. der, dori, bisru, fftildar. B. daral. S. daral, khiahing, 

Is considered to be only a variety of the last, the chief differ- 
ence being that the leaves of this are always serrate or saw-edged. 
It is found in most of the valleys from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, up to 
near the Indus. The wood is often very red, and it has a strong 
foetid smell when fi^h. It is lighter and more open in texture 
than the last (for which it is at times sold), and is in Kan&war said 
to be well suited for bridges. It appears to be pretty tough^ as in 
some places the hoops of sieves are made from it. 

Swietenia Mahogani. L. Mahogany, 

I know of no tree of this in the Punjab. At Saharanpdr a 
tree of 85 years is 8 feet in girth. 



C1S8U8 CiUiNOSA. Lam. (Vitis* Wall). (C. cafeeolata. ?) 

Yemacnlar. C. kdrik^ dmal beL B. gidard&k. B. drikri. 
B. D. valMar. 

A pretty climber (perhaps two species?) irhich js foimd in 
several of tibe valleys firom 2^000 to 8^000 feet^ and occurs in parts 
of the plains. It is eaten by camels in the latter^ and in Jummoo 
the root ground with black pepp^^ is applied to boils* 

Leca aspeba. WalL 

Vemacalar. B. holma. 

Occasional np to the Bi&s at from 4^000 to 6^000 feet. The 
fimit is eaten. 

YiTis Indica. L. 


:CA. L. ^ 

. Box. > Vine. 

tA. L. y 

Yemacnlar. Plains and hills g^ieratly, ddkh. J. MiH. 
K. tanauT, talor dach, newala. C. dakki, dehla. B. 
gandeli, mdmre, S. laning. B^zar^ currants^ zirishk 
mitha. Lad. bdsho^ 

I have not distinguished between these three species. That 
with velvety^ white or red-backed leaves (Y. lanata), which is only 
found wild> appears to run into the glabrous-leaved wild one ; these 
are generally found at firom 3^000 to 6^000 feet^ and appear to give 
both purple and green fruit; cultivated, the vine is geneiuQy 
seen at 5—6,000 in Kashmir, fee., to 6,500 or more on the Upper 
Chen&b, to 9,00Q (at Simgnam) on the Sutlej, and from 6,500 to 
more than 9,000 feet in Tibet. The fruit is of either color, 
and the crop is very precarious, especially in Kan4war on the 
Sutlej. Grapes of varying quality are raised at most places in 
the Punjab plains, those of Peshawar being the best ; currants are 
made from a small grape in Kan4war, as well as in Western 
Tibet and Y&rkand. Cayley mentions that 15 maimds of 
currants were imported into lAh from Kashmir in 1867. In 
Kan&war a spirit prepared from the juice is compared to grape* 
brmdy by Hofimeister. This spirit is, according to Longden^ 
called rak or arrak, and he mentions that a wine also (sheQj 
is made there. The circumstance that the Hindu name it 
applied to this and the barley brandy of Lahoul — (see Hordeum)— * 
would seem to imply that the art of distillation has been 
introduced into these countries from below. In A£Pgh&nist&n, 
Bellew states that a grape wine is prepared, which is consumed 


by well-to-do Mussalmins, and a raisin wine for Hindus. Several 
attempts have been made to manufacture wine in the Punjab on 
European principles. And a correspondent has recently informed 
the Agri-Horticultural Society of India, that sparkling and good 
wine was made at Peshawar about 1861, and he states that since 
then still better results have been attained. 

Ebodium and Oekanium. 

A good many species grow in the Himalaya, and some in 
the plains of the Western Punjab. Only one of the latter genus 
needs mention here. 

Geranium nodosum. L. (O. Napaulenss. Sw. ?) 

Vernacular. Baz&r, root, rotail, bhdnd. 

The root of a species of G. is brought from the hills. (G. 
Napaulense appears to grow at from 3^^500 to nearlv 12,000 
feet), and sold as a red dye. In appearance it resembles ro^/- 
of^ot — (see Onosma). 


Impatiens var. sp. Balsam. 

Vernacular. J. bantil. K. baniil, tatiira, tniaL R. pallii, 
iilphar. S. hdH, JUk. 

The seeds of some of the numerous Himalayan species are 
eaten in Chumba, &c., and the oil expressed from them is on the 
Sutlej both eaten and burned. The occurrence of HI in the 
names of some of them points perhaps to this, or more probably 
to the resemblance of the flower to that of the Sesamum. 
Madden states that I. Balsamina flowers (?) are in Gurhw&l used 
for a dye, whence it is called majiti — (see Bubia). 

I. SULCATA. Wall. 

Vernacular. (?) 

Aitchison states that in Lahoul the husks of the seeds of 
tbis species are eaten raw. 

I. TiNGENs. Edge. 
Vernacular. (?) 

This species, so named by Edgewprth from its coloring his 
herbarium paper yellow, is a -common weed in Lahoul^ where 


Aitchison states that an oil is expressed from the seeds^ only 
to be used^ however^ for polishing the cups^ &c., made by the 
inhabitants from the knots of chiefly Acer (q. v.) perhaps imported 
from farther down^ as on the Sutlej. 


Aybrbhoa Carambola. L. 

Vemacnlar. kamrakk. 

This tree is very rare in the Punjab. It produces fruit 
at Hoshyarpur, and there is at least one tree in Lahore. 

OxALis ACETOSELLA. L. Wood sorrel. 

Has been found by myself and others in yarious parts of the 
N. W. Himalaya at fit>m 8,500 to 9,000 feet. 


Vernacular. S. r&rcM. T. I. irawuke. S. B. khaita mitha. 
Baz&r, plant, chUkhd. 

Common in the plains and in the hills up to 8,000 feet. 
In Kan&war it is eaten raw, and cooked as a pot-herb. The plant 
is officinal. 

Faoonia Cbbtica. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. spalaghziU. B. D., &c.^ &c., dhamdj^ 

A small spinous weed common in most parts of the Punjab 
plains, and occurring in Aflfgh&nist&n to about 3,500 feet (Bellew)* 
The plant is given as a febrifuge and tonic, and Bellew states 
that in the Peshawar Valley it is administered to children as a 
prophylactic against smallpox. 

Tribvlus ALATxrs. Del. 


Vernacular. T. I. krUnda. S. S. D. htak. B. D. &c.^ 
bakhra, bhitkri. Lad. rdsha, kokuttak. Bas^^ gokhHi 

One or other species common in the plains in most parts of 
the Froviiiee. Some of them oocor to from SjOOO to 5,000 fbet 


in the Himalaya^ and one is found to 10^600 teet in Tibet. The 
young plant is in some places eaten . as a pot-herb^ and the 
seeds are used as food^ especially in times of scarcity. Th^ are 
also officinal^ being considered diuretic and astringent^ and Bellew 
states that in the Peshawar Valley they are taken by women to 
ensure fecundity^ and that water^ yiscidified by the fresh plants is 
drunk for impotence^ and an infusion of the stems taken for 

Ztoophtllum simplex. L. 

Yemacular. aUthi. 

In Mdlt&n^ where the plant occurs, Edgeworth states that the 
seeds are swept up off the ground by the poor to be used as food. 


Peoanum Harmala. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. spelane. Plains generally^ harmaL 
Bazar, seeds, isband LaAouH, 

Abundant in many parts of the Punjab plains from the 
Sutlej westward, is more rare to the east. It also occurs in the 
N. W. Himalaya up to Kashmir (5,000 feet), and in Tibet at 8,300 
feet (Thomson) . Has a strong, nauseous smell, was remarked 
by Elphinstone {en route to Kdbul) near Peshawar, and com- 
pared to " Devil in the bush,'' so was supposed by Boyle to be 
NioBLLA. The burned seeds are in some places applied to the 
cut navel-string and other wounds. The seeds are officinal and 
considered narcotic, being given in fevers and colic, and Bellew 
states that in the Peshawar Valley they are burnt near the sick to 
keep off evil spirits at night, and to avert the evil eye, that a decoc- 
tion of the leaves is given for rheumatism, and the powdered root with 
mustard oil is applied to the hair to destroy vermin. The seeds 
of this plant are (or were) imported into England from the 
Crimea, &c., as a red dye, and three years ago enquiries were 
made with a view to sending some for trial from the Punjab. 
iSut it was found that they would not have a chance, chiefly owing 
to the discovery of the cheap coal-tar dyes. 


Vernacular. Baz&r, seeds, tuddb. 

I am not aware that this plant is cultivated in the Punjab (as 
in some parts of India) for the seeds, which are officinal, and found 
in the Baz&r, those of /Euphorbia dracuncuxiOIdbs ? (q. v.) being 
sometimes substituted. They are given for colic^ &c. 




Vemacular.. C. ptUhoHn^ bera^ mdihH, mant. R. berinff* 
.S. pesho, khashbar, birgo. 

A tall straggling plant common in places in the Ponjab 
Himalaya at from 3^000 to (occasionally) 9^000 feet from the 
Sutlej to the Chen&b. It is browsed by goats and sheep^ and in 
Chumba the leaves are applied to itch. In some parts the red 
fruit is eaten. 


Xanthoxtlon hostile. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. HmbHr. K. HmhHi timbar. C. Hmbrd, 
tirmaL B. timbar. B. Urmar, tezmal. S. iimrii, Umar. 
Baz^r^ seeds and bark^ tezbalj kabdba. 

A very prickly large shrub common in many parts of the 
hills up to near the Indus from 2^000 to 6^000 feet. The stems 
are made into walking-sticks and clubs^ and Honigberger states 
that they are often used in preference to bruise bhang — (see 
cannabis)^ as the wood gives it a pepper-like flavour. The twigs 
are employed as tooth-sticks. The aromatic^ pungent fruity though 
turpentiny^ is exported to be used as a condiment. It^ as well as 
the bark^ is officinal^ the former being given for digestion^ the 
latter as astringent. The latter is in some places said to be 
employed to kill fish (Brandis) ; a gum is mentioned as obtained 
from the plant. In Kumaon a prickle is pushed under the tooth 
for toothache. 

N. O. ? 

CoBiARiA Nepalensis. Wall. . 

Vernacular. J. ffuch. E. iadrelH, baleL C. shdlH, baulH. 
B. kande, skald, rau, B. ratsahara, armHra, phapharchor. 
S. drchdbadj shere, Hchakhro. 

A straggling small shrub found sparingly in many places in. 
the Himalaya up to near the Indus at from 2^500 to 7^00 feet. 
The branches are browsed by sheep. The fruit is very insipid, 
but is frequently eaten, although at times it is said to cause thirst 
or colic, and at one place on the Chen&b was called deadly poison t 
As is weU known, the fruit of certain species in other oountries is 



Staphylsa Emodi. Bojle. Serpent-stick. 

Yemacolar. T. I. mdrchob. J. K. ckUra, kMsni. C. 
chual, ban shdffaU, ban bakhwH. B. thandH, B. g{ildar, 
S. ndgdaun, kaghania. 

A small tree^ the bark of whose branches is speckled^ whence, 
on the ^' doctrine of signatures/' arises the belief that a branch or 
stick of it kept by one will driye away snakes. It is often found 
in the Himalaya from 6^000 to 9,000 feetj up to the Indus, and 
beyond it. 


Ilex diftbena. Wall. Himalayan hoUy. 

Vernacular. C. shangala. B. kanjr&, hareUi, diHinda, B. 
dodrH, di$isa, krucho. S. kaliicho. 

A moderate sized tree not uncommon in the Punjab Himalaya 
up to near the Indus at from 5,000 to 9,500 feet. The wood is 
not esteemed. On the Bids, the leaves an occasionally given as 
fodder to sheep. 


Celastbus paniculata. Willd. 

Vernacular. C. nuUkangni, sankhH. B. sankMr. Basfir, 
seeds, mdl kangni. Leaves, kot(y, kuier. 

A large scrambling shrub common in parts of the outer 
Punjab Himalaya at from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. The red seeds are 
given to cattle and are officinal, being considered hot and 
administered for rheumatism. An oil is extracted from them, which 
is rubbed and given internally in rheumatism. The leaves also 
are officinal. 

Elaodbndkon Boxbubghii. W. and A. (Nsbua dichotoma. 


Vernacular* B,. padri'&n, merandii. B.merandit. JJ.jamod. 

A small tree not unconunon in the eastern part of the 
Siw&Uk tract up to the Bavi. The timber is white, soft, and brittle^ 
and is used only for small wood-work by the natives and for 



£. Hamiltonii. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. stki, battal, barphali, K. sihi, pakiid, 
chudl. C. tvattalj dudhdpar, hanchu, mard, pdpar, 
pdsh, B. banchoTy randi, trithu. B. kdrun, chUean, S. 
Hdhera, Idoch, rang-chuL 

These two trees are common in many places in the Punjab 
Himalaya up to near the Indus^ the former at firom 6,000 to 10,500 
feet, and the latter at from 3,800 to 8,500 feet. They do not 
grow to a great sixe, and are not valued for construction, but the 
wood is close-grained and tough, and spoons are made of it. 
The leaves are eaten by goats, and on the Sutlej the red seeds are 
strung into ornaments for the head. 

Gyhnospobia spinosa. Hf. 

Vernacular. J. kandidri. K. Idp^ paidkL C. //, kamla, B. 
parmiaun. B. badlo. S. kadewar. T. I. suraghzdiy 
kharazza, kandazera, zaral. S. B. kander, patdki, 

A shrub with strong spines, common Trans-Indus, in the Salt 
Range, to 5,000 feet, and to 3,500 feet in the low valleys of the 
outer Himalaya, along which I am doubtful as to how far it 
extends to the east. In the Salt Bange the smoke of the seeds 
is said to be good for toothache. 


Bebchemia Sp. or Paliurus Sp. ? 

Vernacular. C. brinkol, shonfol, karur, phdmphlL B. drdngd, 
B. katrain, chdunsh. S. kdnda, thum. 

A shrub which is not uncommon from the Sutlej to the 
Chendb at from 3,000 to 7,500 feet. In most places the small 
black fruit is only eaten by goats, in a few men also cat it. 
P. aculeatus is common in the Holy Land, and is called Christ's 
thorn from the tradition that the platted crown of thorns was made 
from, its twigs. 

Bhamnus Pebsica. Boiss. 


Vernacular. T. I. kiikai,wdrdk. S. B. nikkl kander Jalidar, 

A shrub which is common at from 2,000 to 5,000 feet on the 
Salt Bange, and the low hills, Trans-Indus, and may extend to 


some distance along the outer Himalaya^ hnt has been somewhat 
confused with R. Virgatus. The small black fruit is said to be 
sweety but to affect the head when eaten in excess. 

B. PuRFUREUs. Boyle. 

Vernacular. J. bal sinjal. C. kdH, memarM^ tadr4, B. 
ktinji, ttindhe, tundna maddna. S. chatemL 

This tree is common up to near the Indus at £rom 4^500 to 
9^500 feet. In Hazdra the fruit is used as a puj^ti^e. The 
fruit of some of the European species is powerfully purgative. 

B. YIROATfTS. Box. (?) 

Vernacular. J. phipni, dadrH, tad^kr^ setapajja. K.ndr, 
tadrtt, dadiir, C. mamrdl. B. hby'L B. reteon, sindrol, 
S. mUttic, romush, niar, chattr. 

A smaU tree common on all the rivers up to near the Indus 
at from 4,000 to 9,500 feet. The fruit is said to be bitter even 
when ripe, and to cause diarrhoea when eaten. 

Sageretia Brandrethiana. Aitch. 

Vernacular. J. ganger, hanger. K. bhdndi bajan, gather. 
T. I. miimdni, S. B. koher. 

A large shrub which was first collected by GriflSth {" Maimanna 
of the Affghdns'^), and has been named by Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison, 
after Mr. A. Brandreth, c. s. It abounds in places Trans-Indus 
from 2,000 to 3,500 feet, and in the Salt Bange, and occurs low in 
the Jhelam basin. The fruit, which is wdl known in the Baz&ra 
of Peshawar and Affghdnistdn, is small and black, and is very 
pleasant eating when fresh and in sufficient quantity, the flavour 
being not unlike that of the bilberry. In the Salt Bange, a 
chatni is made of the fruit. 

S. opposiTiFOLiA. Brongn. (?) 

Vernacular. K. hanah, gidarddk. B. drange. B. girthan, 

A shrub which appears in some measure to replace the last 
to the eastward at from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in the outer hills. 
Its fruit also is eaten. 


Vernacular. J. sinjU. K. sinjUj simlij bdrj, bdn. C. beri. 
B. ber, relnti, 

A large shrub or small tree which is not uncommon at places 
from 2,400 to 6,500 feet, from the Bdvi to near the Indus. It 

RHAMNE^. 43 

has glossy green leaves, and is the handsomest of these Zizyphi, 
and when planted (as near Chnmba) and taken care of, grows 
to a considerable size. I have noted specimens of 5 or 6 feet 
in girth, and 25 or 80 high. The fruit is well-flavoured, 

Z. JxroTBA. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. herra. Plains generally, 5er; cultivated 
var. pewandi, Baz&r, fruit, unndb. 

Several varieties (and perhaps species ?) are included here, 
particularly Var. hortensis, the cultivated kmd, and EdgewortVs 
Hysudbicus, which he states to be the most abundant of all 'in 
the Punjab. With him, I am in great doubt as to the tree being 
found truly wild in the Province, tdthough it is common all over up 
to 8,000 and occasionally 4,000 feet, but less frequent in the east. 
The cultivated kind is said to be most affected by Mussalmans, 
and is not unfrequently seen of over 10 feet in girth (at the gate 
of Sh&lim&r near Lahore there is a specimen almost this size). 
The excellence of the fruit of those about P&k Pattan and Dep^- 
pur is spoken of far to the east of the Sutlej, a hundred nules 
off. The fruit was called Pomum Adami by Marco Polo, and 
Sir Henry Elliot identified it with the lotus of the ancients ; but 
although the large juicy product of the garden Zizyphus is by no 
means bad, yet, as Madden quaintly remarks, one might eat any 
quantity of it without danger of forgetting home and friends. 

The wood is tough, and tolerably strong and durable, and is 
used in ordinary constructive work, for well-curbs, well-wheels, 
ploughs, &Co and for charcoal. The bark is employed by tanners. 
Bellew states that near Peshawar the lather (?) formed by the 
leaves in water, is used by women to wash the head. It is not 
certain that part at least of the unndb fruit of the Baz&r is not 
imported from the west. It is given as a mediciue in bronchitis, 
&c., and natives sot that a few of the ordinary fruit after meals 
help digestion. La K&ngra, Jhelam, &c., 'lakh for dyeing is 
collected from the tree in the rains, being generally found on 
Yar. Hysudbicus (Edgeworth). For some years it has been 
known that in K4ngra the cocoon of a wild silk worm is found 
on this tree, but apparently in no very great quantity. This silk 
was or is generally used for tying the barrel on the stock of the 
matchlock, being found better for the purpose than sinews or 
leathern thongs. 

Z. NUMMTTLABiA. W. and A. 

Vernacular. J.Jand, ber. B. birdr. T. I. karkana. S. R. 
ber, birota. Plams generally, malldf kokni ber^ mar a ber, 
jharbeH, zaH. 

A small shrub abundant in many parts of the plains, though 
less common in the Southern Punjab, and ascending occasionally 


to 8>500 feet in the outer hills. It is sometimes called '^ camel- 
thorn '' erroneously — (see Alhaoi). The fruit though small is 
eaten^ and at times is fairly well-flavoured. The bush is of value, 
and is largely cut each year to make heaped fences^ and at times 
a very good and neat fence is made by sticking the branches 
upright and binding them with straw ropes. The leaves are 
beaten from the prickly branches^ and largely used as bhtisa, 

Z. vuLOARis. Lam. 

Vernacular. J. K. phitni, hohan ber. C. ffanyeri. B. kdn^ 
dika, kandiariy bardri. S. shatnof. T. I. karkan ber, 
S. II. amldiy anmid, 

A large shrub, common at many places in the Punjab 
Himalaya, especially towards the west at from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, 
and in Kashmir to 6,000 feet. It also occurs in the Salt Range, 
and is occasional in gardens, in the Punjab (Edgeworth). The 
fruit is small and sour, but is eaten. 

Casearia tomentosa. Box. 

Vernacular, chila, chilla. 

A small tree not uncommon in the Siw&lik r^on at from 
2,000 to 3,000 feet, up to near the Indus. The timber is whitish^ 
soft, and brittle, and is only used for small wood-work by natives, 
but is said to fmrnish good fuel. In some places the fruit is used 
for poisoning fish. 


Balanites ^otptiaca. Del. 

Vernacular, hingotj MngoL 

This is cultivated in Egypt under the name soum, its sour 
leaves being used as anthelmintic, and a recent traveller states 
that the turners of Jerusalem^ near which it grows, often make 
use of its straight yellow wands for walking sticks, on which 
they inscribe '^ Jordan '^ in Hebrew characters. So far as I know, 
it is found in the Punjab only from Dehli westward to Rohtuk, 
where it reaches 18 inches in girth. The wood is soft, and 
shoe-makers^ boards are made from it. The young twigs, &c., seem 
to be browsed by cattle. The hard shell of the orange-sized fruit 


is used for dndrs in native pyrotecliny, and the seed^ are given for 


Vernacular, sdlhe. 

This tree is found just to the west of the Jumna in the 
Siw^ilik tract within the Punjab, but not in numbers sufficient to 
render it of much economic interest. 

Garuoa pinnata. Box. 

Vernacular, kharpat. 

This also only extends sparingly within our limits, just to 
west of the Jumna. The wood is of no great value, the bark is 
used by tanners, and the leaves for fodder. 



Vernacular. chirauU. 

It is doubtful if this tree extends in any numbers far into the 
Punjab, in the Siw&lik tract. The wood is worthless, the leaves 
are used for dishes, and the bark by tanners, and the oily kernels 
of the firuit are put in confectionery. 

Makgifera Inbica. L. 

Vernacular. Mm, amb. Baz&r, unripe fruit, dmcMr; seeds, 

This valuable tree, so common in the N. W. Provinces, 
extends to Lahore in some numbers, being most common towards 
the hills and nearer the south, e. ^., in Harri&na ; is abundant in 
parts of the Qurdaspfir district and the Kdngra Valley, &c., to the 
north, and common at Multdn to the south; westward from 
the line of the Rdvi it almost disappears, except at one or two 
places in Mozaffargarh .and about Se^lkdt. At Peshawar there 
are only a few small trees with indifferent fruit, and it is very rare 
further down Trans and Cis-Indus, except in the extreme south. 
It grows to 3,500 feet, but at such elevations is said to give fruit 
only each second year. Even the largest trees rarely exceed 10 or 
12 feet girth in the Punjab. Its wood is coarse-grained, and 
prone to be insect-eaten and not very strong or durable, and is 
only used for ordinary work, packing cases, &c. Early flowering 
is said to portend much heat^ and a prodwrtive season of the fruit 


is bclieyed by natives to indicate an unhealthy season. According 
to Edgeworth the firoit of some of the Mult&n trees is notably 
good^ and similar to that of the grafted Bombay kind^ the best 
being the Shdh-pasand, with a thm skin and smooth velvety flat 
stone^ the fruit of which in former times was kept for the reigning 
sovereign. This tree is inserted among those yielding gum in 
K&ngra. Even the kernels are eaten in times of famine; the 
unripe fruit and the seeds^ are ofGlcinal^ the former being used in 
ophthalmia and eruptions^ and the latter in asthma. 

OniNA wonisR. Box. 

Vernacular. J. Mdmil. C. kambal, batrin, MmM. B. kem^ 
baL B. dhauntika, kemal, koamla, suldmbra. S.pichka, 
lidra. S. B. dila, hamJAi. Baz&r^ fpoixa^ jingna or hani 

A tree which attains a considerable size in the Siw&lik region, 
and to 8>500 and occasionally 4^000 feet up to near the Indus^ and 
in the Salt Bange. In some parts it is called the male of Bhus 
BucKiAMELA. Thc outcr wood is very subject to worms, the inner 
is dark colored and tolerably durable when ^ell-seasoned, being 
used for door-frames, &c. In some places it is lopped for fod- 
der (?) . The gum is used in cloth-printing, and is officinal, being 
given in asthma, and as a cordial to women. 


Several species growing to the west and south of the Punjab 
seem to merit notice here. 

P. Atlantica. Desf. 
Vernacular, toffho of AiPghfinist&n. 

Yields mastic called Rtimi mastigi, hindar BAnU in the 
Baz&rs, of which Davies^ Trade Beport states that 5 maunds are 
annually imported vi& Peshawar. It is given for asthma and 
mixed in ointments, &c* 


Of the Mediterranean region, also yields a mastic, and is 
said in books to yield the officinal seeds tantarik (see Bhtjs 

P. Cabulica* Stocks. 
Was found by Stocks to yield a resin like mastic in Sind, 


P. VERA. L. 

Of Persia and Turkistdn yields the pista or pistacliio nut, an 
oily small seed which is imported into Northern India in consider- 
able quantities^ being eaten with relish by natives^ though probably 
indigestible. Davies' Trade Report gives 40 maunds as annually 
brought through the Bol&n pass. It also (probably) yields the 
gall of native druggists called gUli pista or bazghanj fbozaghanjj, 
which is used as an astringent and dye for siU:. Davies' Trade 
Report gives the quantity of this annually imported vi& Peshawar 
as 50 maunds, and 100 maunds as brought down by the Boldn.- 
And the officinal post Uruni pista are the shells of its fruit. They 
are given for digestion. 

P. iNTEGEBBiMA. Hf. and T. (Rhus inteoebbima. Wall) . 

Vernacular. J. khahkar, hangar. E. kakkar, drek, gurgii. 
C. kakkrei, tanhdrl, kdkrd. B. kakkeran, kdkrd, liingu. 
B. kakrdin. S. kakla, kakkar, kakkrangche. T. I. 
shne, sarawdn, masna. S. R. kakkra, khangar, Bazdr, 
excrescence, kakkra singi ; fruit, sumdk. 

Not uncommon in many places from 1,500 to 5,500 feet, from 
the Sutlej to the Indus, and occasionally beyond that river, and 
in the Salt Range. Is most common of all in parts of Haz^ra. 
It may be the shne of Affghdnist&n called '' xanthoxylon ?'' by 
Griffith, but this Pushtu name appears to be applied by the Aff- 
ghdns to several species of Rhus and.PisTACiA (see next species). 
Trees of over 10 feet girth are now but rarely seen (I have noted 
only two of 12 feet and one of 15), as its zebra wood makes 
handsome chairs, cabinets, &c., and much of it has been felled for 
the use of Europeans. In K&ngra the wood is said at times to be 
used for sugar-mills. There the tree was reserved for the ruler's use 
in former times. Of late years it has been introduced into gardens 
at various places in the plains, and does fairly well. It is 
ornamental, especially in spring when the young red leaves are 
coming out. In Haz&ra particularly the twigs and leaves are 
lopped off, to serve for fodder, and I have seen them browsed by 
camels. An excrescence which forms on the leaf-bud, dark and 
horn-like, sometimes grows to 6 or 7 inches long and as thick aa 
a finger. I have found a spider with young nestled in one, and 
the natives said '' it is always so,'' but I doubt if it is not caused 
by some other insect. Stocks found a similar excrescence on a 
PiSTACiA (Cabulica or Atlantica ?) in Bel6chist4n. This Punjab 
excrescence is officinal, and is given for cough, &c. The officinal 
sumdk found in the Bazdrs appears to be the fruit of this tree. It 
is administered for strengthening ^gestion. 


P. Tebebihthus. L. 

Vernacular. Aff. khifyak ? T. I. shne. 

Bellew states that this tree is common over the hills of eastern 
Affghdnist^n^ and I found a single tree of what appears to be this in 
Wazirist&n on the eastern skirts of the Sulimfin Range. According 
to Bellew the fruit is in A£Pgh&nist&n considered warm^ stimulating^ 
and stomachic^ and is given in colic and dyspepsia^ and the gum 
(the aluk uUumiat of the native pharmacopeia^ and according 
to Stocks yielded in Sind also by this tiee) is used as a masticatory 
and in various ointments. The books state that this tree yields 
elk ul butm, ^^ Chian turpentine/' and to it is attributed the source 
of tantarik, which appears in the Punjab to be generally the fruit 
of Rhus parviflora q. v. 


There is confusion among the native names of the species^ 
and as to the identity of some^ but I have made the best I could 
of those I have got. 

Rhus acuminata. DC. 

Vernacular. J. arkhar. K. arkhoL C. arkhol, lakhar, tUar. 
R. arkhar, titru B. arkhar, rtkhiiL Bazdr^ fruity habat ul 

Tliis tree is not uncommon in the Kashmir Vallev, and 
occurs more sparingly to the eastward from 4,000 to 7,000 or 
8,000 feet. Vigne states that the juice of the firesh leaves blisters 
the skin, and the Kashmirians said the same to me, but on my 
showing that it had not blistered mine, they declared it only 
affected those who feared it ! The wood is not valued. Bears are 
said to eat its fruit, which seems to be the officinal habat ul khizra 
administered in phthisis. 


Vernacular. J. arkhar, tairl, tetar, thissa. K. tetar, titri, 
chechar, C. titri, arkol, kakkarL R. titri, kakkaran, 
B. vrdsh, Htri, knUri. S. titrl, kdshin, hulashing, wdsho. 

A tree common on all the rivers up to near the Indus, from 
2,500 up to 7,000 feet or more. In some places this is called the 
female of the Odina. The timber is valueless, except for fuel. 
The fruit is said to be sometimes eaten, and is given for colic. 



Vernacular. J. pddn, bhdn. K. phdn, bhdn, bana, manii. 
C. baura, tUng, tittri. B. Mng. S. B. largd. 

A large ahrab common in places Trans-Indus and eastward 
in the Himalaya to at least the Bdvi^ from 2^300 occasionally to 
6^000 feet) as well as in the Salt Range. The largest I have noted 
was about 3 feet in girth; but the usual size is very much under 
that. The wood is yellowish, resembling that of Pistacia inteoeb- 
BiK Aj but small. The twigs are used for baskets. The leaves have 
a pleasant balsamic odour when bruised^ and they as well as the 
burk are used for tanning. 


Vernacular. S.^ &c. Mnff, tUnffla, Bazfir, seed, taniarik, ting. 

It is doubtful if this shrub, which resembles the last, comes 
further west than the Sutlej. The wood is hard and yellowish 
like that of the last. The tantoHk of the Baz^ (generally 
attributed in books to Pistacia lentiscus (q. v.) and P. 
TsKEBiNTHus) appears in the Punjab to be the firuit of this. It is 
used in Hindu medicine, and, mixed with salt, is said to act like 

B. succebanea. L. 

Vernacular. J. titar, tatH. C. chohli, holdshi. B. hold, 
haldi. S. kakkrin, hilaahing. 

This tree appears to be found on most of the great rivers 
from 3,000 up to 8,000 feet. It does not grow to a great size, nor 
does its wood seem to be valued. The juice of its leaves is stated 
to blister the skin. In Bombay, a varnish is said to be yielded by 

B. veenicifeea. DC. 

Vemaculai:. C. guddmbaL B. HkhaU, arkhar. S. arkoi, 
urkiir, huldsa, rikhiil. 

In Bombay, this tree is stated to yield a varnish. Its wood 
is not esteemed. Corrosive properties are attributed to the juice 
of the leaves, which in some places is rubbed on thread to 
strengthen it. 

Semecabptts Anacabdixtm. L. Marking nut. 

Vernacular, bhildwa. 

I have not seen this tree much to the west of the Sutlej 
in the Siwilik tract. But its firuit is found in all Baz^, being 


used to prepare a wash for salivatioiij and its smoke is reckoned 
efficacious for impotency. It is also employed instead of ink. 

Sfonbias Mangifera. Pers. Hog-Plum. 

Vernacular. C. bdhamb. B., fcc, ambdrd. 

Extends sparingly as far west as the Chen&b in the Siw6Iik 
tract. The timber of this tree (which is entered as producing 
gum in K&ngra) is worthless^ being soft and brittle. The fruit is 
like a particularly bad mango; and Firminger^ who implies that it 
is cultivated (?) at Calcutta, hardly does justice to its poorness. 
Unripe it is used for chatni^ and ripe for pickles. 



Vernacular. ghiincM. 

A small slender climber growing in the outer hills, and 
in the plains in the east of the Prorince. Its red (and occasion-' 
ally white) seeds are well known as goldsmiths' weights (ratti). 
They are also officinal, being applied for fistula in Hindu medicine. 
Eaten they are stated to prevent fecundity. They are said to 
be used as food in Egypt, which disposes of the assertion of 
their poisonous qualities, attributed by some to the white kind 
only. The roots of this are used and sold as liquorice (see 
Olycirrhiza) and an extract is made from them as from it. 

Acacia Ababica. Willd. 

Vernacular, kikkar {babul in N. W. P.) Baz&r, baric, kikkar 
kichal, gum, kikkar^ke-gond. Extract ? dkdkia. 

This tree, which is rare in Bohilkund, becomes more frequent 
about Dehli, though not attaining the same luxuriance as in the 
west, and is profuse over the Central and Southern Punjab. In 
the tracts north of the Salt Range and Trans*Indus, it is rare 
or unknown, commencing to flourish about the line of the Jhelum 
and Chendb, and it is not common in Harriana. Stunted trees 
may occasionally b^ seen up to 3,000 or 4,000 feet in the Himar 
laya. But the attempt of Gk)ldb Sing (mentioned by Lowther 
as in progress in 1851 ?) to grow kikkar in Kashxmr for gun- 
carriages was hopeless. I have seen it nowhere indigenous except in 
Sind, where to the south of Sukkur there are considerable natural 
forests of the tree ranging to over 6 feet girth. In the Punjab 
it will, under tolerably favorable circumstances, reach SO inches 
in girth in 10 or 12 years^ and trees of 9 wd 10 feet girth are 



not nnoommon. Of several over 9 feet girth dose to Lahore^ one 
at a Mnssalm&n Bfarine^ which is said to be one hundred years old, 
and has been dying for 20 years^ only one bough being now alive, 
is said to have shed blood when the sacrilegious Sikhs attempted 
to fell it. Edgeworth mentions one of 16 feet 4 inches near 
Mult&n ; very (dd trees are frequently hollow. In the upper parts 
of the Oangetic Do&b I find it is raised from cuttings, but else- 
whCTe it is grown from seed. It germinates easily, and its chief 
enemies are rats and frost. The former are fond of its sweet 
roots, the latter nips the tender seedlings often to the ground, 
or the young shoots of larger plants. In Sind and more rarely in 
the Punjab (notably in winter 1867-68), the effects of the frost are 
much more severe, voung trees to 12 and 15 feet high having 
■lany of their branches nipped or even the trunks killed. And 
at times some of the smaller plants are killed down to the ground 
for several years running. 

The lighter-colored sap-wood of this tree is subject to be 
attacked by white ants, the heart wood much less so it properly 
seasoned. The latter is dark-colored, reddish, hard, strong, and 
heavy, weighing 70 lbs. a cubic foot green, 40 llSs. dry. It is 
said that even seasoned wood will only float for a few days. For 
particular work the wood is generally water-seasoned. It is much 
used for parts of boats, well-curbs, cart-axles, and wheels, sugar* 
rollers, the portion of the plough above the share, Persian 
wheels, &c. The wood is an excellent friel, and ihe tree is being 
lai^ly raised in the Railway fuel plantations. The bark is exten- 
sively used in tanning (and ia Sind for dyeing a reddish brown), 
and in some parts the large branches are cruelly lopped to get 
tiie bark. The latter (especially from the roots ?) is also put into 
native spirits. It is likewise officinal, being reckoned demul- 
cent. (?) The leaves are eaten by goats and sheep. In Sind 
much Idkh is collected from this tree, but only below Sukkur 
where the climate is less arid than in Upper Sind and the Southern 
Punjab. The gum is used for the ordinary purposes of Gum 
Arabic, and in Yun4ni medicine is given in cough, &c. The 
dkdkia appears to be an extract, and may be from this tree or may 
be imported from the west. It is given as a purgative to children. 

The variety A. A. spina-^albida, mentioned by Griffith, 
Jameson, Aitchison, kc*, is conceived b^ myself and others to be 
no true variety, most strong shoots springing after a young tree 
has been cut down^ &;c., having very large long spines. 

A. A. Vab. CtTf besbiformis. 

Yemacular. Kdbuli^ kihkar. 

This is a well-marked variety, which grows like a cypress, with 
the fatanckes closing up to the trunk. The Darwinian reason has 


been aasigned for this pecoliarity^ that it has ensued from ng» 
of ruthless lopping of the side^boughs I This variety is found in 
Bombay, irhere it is called rdm babHtl, and in Sind where it has 
the Punjab prefix Kabuli fbtibb^rj. In the Punjab it is most 
abundant and most typical in the upper part of the Jech Do&b, 
between Qoojr^t and Jhelam. It is rather common also to the 
ftouth of this near Jhang, and is seen, though in small numbers, 
and generally of less typical form, at some places Trans-Indus and 
at Lahore, aaid many other places east as far as Dehli. At Saha- 
ranpur, there are two trees of 17 years old, 12 or 15 inches in. 
girth, and about 25 feet high. Edgeworth states that near 
Mult&n this is sometimes seen on the same tree with the ordinary 
form. I am inclined to think there must be some mistake here 
in the wording of the statement at least. The timber of this 
Tariety is said to be less sound and durable than that of the 
ordinary Hkkar. 

A. Catechu. Willd. 

Vernacular. T. I. khwarech. Elsewhere, khdir, kheir, kher, 
Baz4r, extract, kath, kattha, 

A small tree found along the Siw&lik tract to 3,000 and occa* 
sionally to 4,000 feet up to the Indus, and sparingly beyond it. 
One of the best tracts I know in the Punjab is below Tr6t, where 
for miles it is the chief tree, running up to 5 or 6 feet in girth. 
The timber is dark-colored, hard, heaTy, and not subject to the 
attacks of insects, and though somewhat brittle is much yalued for 
all purposes where strength is required and weight is no objection^ 
and it is carried for sale to fairs, &c., many miles from the place 
of growth. It is valued for pestles, sugar-crushers, cotton-roUers, 
weayers' beaDois, shafts of ploughs, axles, &c. The extract, catechu, 
is used in dyeing, and in medicine as an astringent, and for 
gonorrhoea, and externally in ointment, &c., for itch, syphilis, and 

A. EBUBNEA. Willd. 

Vernacular. T. I. babMi. S. R. kikkaH, dadda. 

A small shrub very like a miniature kikkar, found abundantly 
in the Salt Range, and more sparingly Trans-Indus up to 8,000 
and occasionally to 5,000 feet. Is of no special use. 

A. ELATA. Wall. Dhoon Siris. 

Vernacular. sitfSd siris ; (T^areo It W. P.) 

A very handsome large tree with greenish-white bark, 
nowhere wild in the Province, but occasionally cultivated, although 


less so than it should be^ as it is a much finer tree and groira 
quicker than the common siris (A. bpeciosa q. y.)^ and its timber^ 
in the parts where it is common^ is said to be about as good. Has 
a great capacity for growing firom cuttings^ quite large poles used 
to support climbers sometimes shoot and grow, 

A. Farnesiana. Waid. 

Vernacular. babM wildyaH kikkar, pahdran kikkar, Kdbul 

A large shrub nowhere wild in the Province, though occa- 
aionallj naturalized, as at places on the Western Jumna Canal. I 
have seen plants of it up to nearly 5,000 feet in the Himalaya. It 
is usually grown as a fence, for which purpose it answers well if 
planted close. It is in flower in the cold weather, the blossoms 
having a fine scent ; and in Europe they are said to yield a per- 

A. Jacquemonti. Bth. 

Yemacular. J. kandidrU T. I. hanza. Si S. D. babbih 
B. D. babHH, .H. ban^4l D. dr. 

A small shrub with immense white spines, which grows in 
clumps from 6 or 7 up to 10 feet high, common on sandy knolls 
and ridges in many parts of the arid tract from Dehll westward 
by Ham&na, Sirsa, Montgomery, &c., to Trans-Indus, to about 
2,000 feet. The flowers are yellow, and the seeds ripen about 
May. Its spines prevent it from being much browsed by cattle, 
but its leaves are thrashed out to feea them. The flowers have 
a delicious odour which scents the whole air near. The bark of 
the root is put into native spirits '^ to render them stronger/' in 
the same way as that of the kikkar (A. Arabica q. v.) 


Vernacular. B. D. rerA. J. D. karir, jand. H. rauty, 
nimbar. D. raunj, jand. 

This tree extends in some numbers from about Lahore along 
the arid tract to Dehll. It has a greenish-white bark, whence the 
name, and the young spines are diurk brown, otherwise the tree is 
in appearance not uidike A. Arabica. It does not, however, reach 
the same si^e ; one of the largest I know is about 6 feet girth, 
hanging over B&ba Attains tank at Umritsur, old, crooked, and 
gnarled. But I am told of one of 16 feet girth, and 80 or 90 feet 
high, at the Kasil chauki on a cut of the B^ Do&b Canal south 
of Umritsur. This is rarely planted^ but the natives often spare 

it '' for its shade/^ in some of die more treeless tracts. It flowers 
during and after the rains^ the finiit ripening at the beginning of the 
hot weather. The wood is said to be very subject to the attacks 
of insects, and is not valued exc^t for fuel. A good many treeff 
stood on some of the land recently cleared for Railway fudL near 
Lahore, and it is said to be the best of all now in use there. The 
firuit appears to be largely collected for fodder in places where the 
tree is common. On the twigs of some trees a woody excrescence 
is very common, similar to, but softer than that of Prosofis 
(q. v). 

A. MODESTA. Wall, o 

Vernacular. T. I. palosa. Elsewhere, phald, phukU, 

This ^e, which in its natural state does not often readi or 
get a chance of reaching a large size, is indigenous in the Salt 
Range and all the low hills east to the Sutlej at least, in the 
plains Trans-Indus, and in the extreme north-west of the Proyince, 
as well as the most northern portion of the B4ri and Jalandar 
Dodbs, and the .north-western comer of that of Ambdla. Planted 
trees may occasionally be seen in other localities* It ordinarily 
prefers rough, rocky, urid ground, but in .some places, markedly in 
the Bids Khddir near Kanow&n, it may be seen growing in num« 
bers in almost marshy places, so much so that an early observer 
states that the tree ^^ only grows in moist places/' These are, 
however, mostly tall and weedy as if under unnatural conditions, 
and their timber would seem to be less good than of trees grown 
elsewhere. In the M&itin Division, Edgeworth states that it 
'* only grows towards the north,'' where I have seen it on the hilU 
close to Chiniot, and do not think it exists on the level plain near 
that. The largest specimens are generally those which have been 
preserved, near houses, &c. I have noted several of 10 feet and 
one or two of 12 feet girth, and in some places many wUd trees 
may be seen of 5 or 6 feet girth and 25 feet high. There is one 
of 9 feet in the station of Amb&la. In Saharanpur garden, a tree 
of about SO years old ib 5^ feet girth and 30 in height. 

As a tree it is not often planted, for it is of slow growth, but 
it is frequently grown by Europeans as a fence, for which purpose 
it aasw»s well. Edgewordi uptly notes the delicate green of the 
foliage mingled with the white spikes of blossoms, and the delight* 
fal perftune of the ktter in spring, and the rapid passing away of 
both, as the flowers soon fode, and the leaves become giey« The 
seed ripens in the cold weatter. The wood of an old tree is rat^ 
diik brown, or nearly bhdk:, hard, strong, and heavy. Oreen it 
weighs 69i IKs., and dry 68^ a cubic foot. It is veiy duraUe, and 
is a favourite for eart-wheels, sugar-mills, plough-stodu and 
shares (? Bdlew)9 Fersiaa wheels^ the maUets for deamng 


cotton, kc. I have been infonned by a friend who was through 
the second Punjab campaign, that after Chilianw^ many of the 
elephants were affected by a disease in which the " hoofs dropped 
off/' which was attributed to their browsing this tree (?), but 
have no means of verifying this. In some parts the fallen 
blossoms^ mixed with some leaves, are swept up and given to 
cattle, goats, &c. The tree yields sparingly a gum similar to 
gum Arabic, which Bellew states the people of the Peshawar 
Valley consider to be restorative. 

A. sPECiosA. (A. siRissA. Buch. Albizzia Lebbek. Bth. 
A. Mollis, var. Julibbissin. Bth.) 

Vernacular. J. UuHn, lasrian. C. sirin^ kdUsirCn. E. 
sirin^ sh^ungrii. B. shirs, shirt, mathirsM. S. shirsh^ 
mathirsh. Plains generally, siris, siri. 

Under this head are probably included several species which 
grow wild in the Himalaya from the Indus eastward from 2,200 
to 5,000 feet. Cultivated the siris is common in most parts of 
the plains, except the most arid tracts about Harridna and Sirsa, 
and in some of the western Do&bs where it is rare, short-trunked^ 
and scraggy. But it was probably very much less common at 
annexation, for in 1851 we find a good authority recommending to 
the Agri-Horticultuial Society its introduction into the Punjab. It 
is easUy raised from seed, (occasionally from cuttings, and poles 
stuck in as supports readily shoot) is tolerably hardy, except 
against great drought, and grows with notable rapidity, perhaps 
quicker by a fourth or fifth than Dalbbroia (q. v.) In Sind, the 
rapidity of growth of this tree is remarkable. Specimens of 6 
and 7 feet in girth are not very uncommon in the Punjab — one of 
about 12 feet stands near the Anarkullee Dispensary. It rej^uires 
a large space in order to grow freely, and in groves, &c., is apt 
to be overborne by other trees, and its branches are frequently 
broken by wind and other accidents. The natives in some parts 
call it a bdrah mdsi tree, but although it flowers for weeks, the 
period does not by any means extend the whole year. The 
blossoms have an agreeable odour which diffuses itself to some 
distance. The seeds ripen in the cold weather. The heart-wood 
of an old tree is dark-colored, hard, heavy, and strong, and, if 
properly seasoned, is not subject to warp or crack, but it is said 
to be less lasting tiian Dalbbboia. It is stated in Mysore to be 
equal in strength to teak. It is used for ordinary constructive 
poiposes (the Hindus in K&ngra, however, consider it unlucky)^ 
and for mortars for oil-mills, for well-curbs, and for parts of 
boats, and the heart-wood makes good diarcoal. The leaves and 
twigs axe gathered as fodder for camels and other animids. The 
bark is stated to be applied to hurts of the eye (Madden)i and 


the seed is officinal^ forming part of an anjan for ophthalmic 
disease. The gum is similar in quality to gum Arabic^ but I do 
not know of its being collected or sold in quantity. The name 
of the Julibrissin is a curious instance of how names become 
altered when transferred to another language^ it being an altered 
state of gul abresham, ''the silky-flowered.'' 

A. STIFULATA. DC. (A. Kano&aensis. Jamesou). 

Vernacular. J. lasren. C. MiirangrUf kasir, ban drenkh. 
R. ola. B. ohi, durgdH. 

There is some little doubt as to the identity of this tree on 
the various rivers, where it grows at from 8,000 to 4,000 and 
up to 6,000 feet occasionally. It is handsome in appearance, 
resembling somewhat Poinciana rsoia, and is seen in great abun- 
dance and luxuriance in portions of the K&ngra Valley, where 
it reaches 7 and 8 and occasionally^ 9 feet in girth. It has been 
sometimes grown in the plains, though more rarely than it 
deserves. In Saharanpur Botanic Garden there it a specimen 
of 7 feet in girth said to be only about 17 years old. If so, the 
growth is extremely rapid, even for India. The wood of the old 
tree in K&ngra is stat^ to be brownish, soft, brittle, and light, 
and it is not valued, being used only for planks and other ordinary 


Vernacular. B. D. jhijan, jhanjhan. 

A plant of dubious species which grows tall and rank (to 
6 or 8 feet high) in waste land. A pretty strong rope for home 
use is made from its fibre, which is also said to be used to 
adulterate other kinds of tow. This may be Roxburgh's plant, 
which he states to be cultivated in parts of Bengal for its fibre. 

Albizzia odoratissima. Bth. 

Vernacular. C. slHy lasre, poldch, drekj tanddi, B. karmnS, 
kardmbrti. U. siri. 

This tree grows sparingly in valleys at from 2,600 to more 
than 5,000 feet, up to the Chen4b. Its timber is valued in some 
parts of India as being hard, light, and strong, but in K&ngra 
is said to be soft and only used for fuel. The tree produces a 
gum^ and the leaves^ &c.j are used for fodder. 


Alhagi Maubobvm. Toum. Camel-thorn. 

Vernacular. T. I. zoz, zozdn (jojh Per.?; S. E. tamiya. 
Plains, generally, Jawd, jawdsa^ Jawdn. Baz&r, manna, 
turanj bin. 

This is the sMtar khdr (camel-thorn) of the Persians, camels 
delighting in it above most other plants, and it abounds in many 
of the arid parts of the Punjab plains. In parts of the Southern 
Punjab where the usual grass for making tatties — (see Anathb- 
bum) — ^is scarce, these are made of this, and in Sind all appear 
to be constructed of it. The officinal manna of this, which is 
used as a purgative, does not appear to be found in the Punjab ; 
but we know from Griffith, Bellew, and Irvine, that near Kandah&r 
and Her4t it is found on the bushes at the flowering time, ^^ just 
after the spring rains,'' and is shaken off them and collected. 
Davies' Trade Report gives 25 maunds as the quantity yearly 
brought from AffgMnist4n to Peshawar. 

Alysicabpus nummulabifolius. DC. 
Baz&r, plant, ndff hala. 
This, which grows wild, may be the officinal plant so called. 

Abachis htpog^sa. Box. 

Vernacular, miing phalU. 

Not very commonly cultivated in the Punjab, except towards 
the east. Is largely grown, and the nut and oil exported from 
parts of India. ' Thid nut is a favourite food of the Hindus on 
fasts, in Bombay. 


Vernacular. Baz4r, pods, akUUuUmalih. 

A small prostrate plant occasional in the central Punjab. 
The pods are officinal, and are groimd to be mixed with plasters. 


Vernacular. C. kandidra kandei, much kdnta gdgarhand, 
bramatsa, kdtarkanda. Lad. jAsar. P. kiitu. T. I. 
splnaghzdi, sarmdl, pishkan, bizu da hhwan. S. R. 
tindni, diddani, jandL AS.,? butd-i-miswdk. Ba^&r^ 
plant, ? dthnil. 

This is a very spinous plant with yellow flowers, somewhat 
reflembling gorse. It may at times have been confused with 


some of the other spinous Astragali, of which a good many Bre 
found in the Himalaya, but appears to be common Trans-Indus, 
in the Salt Range, and in parts of the western outer Himalaya 
tip to 5,000 feet. It also grows in Lahoul and Piti up to 10,000 
feet, and in Laddk to 16,500 feet. It is at times browsed by 
cattle, and in the Salt Range the calyces, which have a sweetish 
pleasant taste, are eaten ; on the Chenab the seeds are given for 
colic. It appears to be this species which is found in the Baz&rs 
under the name <UhnU, and used for leprosy. This or a very 
similar plant is called by the name given above in Affgh^uiist4n 
(Bellew), but I know not if it is used for tooth-sticks fmiswdkj. 
Several other similar species grow on the eastern skirts of the 
Sulim&n Range^ and others in Lad&k. 

A. SF. 

Vernacular. S. niamcho, raskidch. 

Strongly resembling the previous plant, grows in Kan&war at 
9,000 to 10,500 feet. Is occasionally browsed by horses, goats, &c., 
and is burned so as to remove the spines^ and then used as 


Vernacular. T. I. offdi. 

The seeds of this, which grows in the western and central 
parts of the Punjab plains, appear to be used medicinally. 

Bauhinia farviflora. Vahl. 

Vernacular. J. D. kosundra, 

A great climber, which is found in the eastern part of the 
Punjab SiwdUk tract. Its gum is used medicinally in Southern 

B. RACEMOSA. Vahl. (B. Vahlii. W. and A.) 

Vernacular. C. marwir. B. tour. U. mdljan. 

An immense climber with very large leaves and great flowers 
and pods which grows in the Siwdlik tract as far west at least as 
the Chendb. The branches are used as ties for fences, &c., and a 
strong and durable rope is manufactured from the bark, without 
steeping. The leaves are eaten by buffaloes, &c., and are used for 
packing and for making umbrellas (being put between strips of 
bamboo, so as to overkp each other). They are also favourite 
leaves for plates^ used at the marriages of Br&hminSj Scd, for 


which purpose they are at times brought from some distance* 
The seeds are eaten in various places. 


Vernacular. J. koldr, kardl. C. iolidr, padridr, R. hardt^ 
B. kardUiy anguri. Aff. arghawdn. S. B. koldr. Plains^ 
generallj^ hachnir. 

A small tree which occurs in the Salt Range^ and is common 
wild in the outer hills to near the Indus^ and perhaps beyond it^ up 
to 4^000 and occasionally 5^000 feet. It is often planted in the plains 
for its fine purplish lilac and white flower blossoming in March. 
It is evidently the red arghawdn — (sec Edwardsia for the yellow), 
mentioned by Mastf^n, Griffith, &c., as still growing at Baber's 
tomb at Kdbul, where it was introduced by that Monarch. Irvine 
calls it the '^ anemone shrub/' and mentions that it grows there 
(and in Badaksh/in ?) to 20 feet in height, that its wood is used 
for making spear shafts, and that it is '^ most remarkable for the 
beauty of its flowers. '^ This tree sometimes has an upright 
cupressiform shape. The wood is red, light, soft, decays quickly, 
and is subject to insects, and is little used except for fuel. The 
flower buds are used as a pot-herb in curries and pickles, and the 
leaves are given as fodder. The bark (" the leaves" by mistak&j^ 
Irvine) is used by tanners. 


Vernacular. C. sariira. R. pld. Plains, generally, j!?a/i&, 
pldy chichra, dhak. Baz4r, flowers, kesti ; gum, kamarkas. 

Ordinarily seen as a shrub, but when preserved grows to a 
considerable tree, reaching 10 or 12 feet in girth and 40 high, 
with a large handsome i^ flower, blossoming in March, April. 
Is conmion south-east of Ambdla, and more rare to the west, 
except in patches or over somewhat isolated tracts in the Jalandar 
and B4ri.Do&bs,' &c. Is rare to the south of Lahore, a few 
planted trees only occurring in the extreme south, but is more 
conmion along near the hills, and to a little way within them, as 
far as Jhelam. Trans-Indus, in the Peshawar Valley, I have seen 
trees, but doubt if they were wild, for the natural habitat appeaiB 
to finish suddenly near Bukr&La, in the eastern Salt Range. 
The natives in some parts have a very good opinion of the soil 
where the tree flourishes, but may have put the cart before the 
horse in the statement that its leaves destroy kallar. The wood 
is fibrous and rather tough, but not strong or durable. Here the 
only special use it is put to is for well-curbs, and it is sometimes 
burned for gunpowder charcoal. In parts of Southern India it 
appears to be used for building, &e. It is a £ftir domestic fuel> 


bat is only poor food for the locomotiye^ though it has perforce to 
be used at times. 

From the root-bark a kind of rope is occasionally made^ and 
it is said to be employed for matches^ and is stated to be useful for 
the same purpose as oakum by Jameson^ who correctly notes that 
Griffith must have been mistaken in the remark that paper is 
made from the tree. The trees are often mercilessly lopped 
and stripped of the leaves^ which are used for elephant^s fodder^ 
for bedding cattle^ for plates^ and for wrapping up^ &c. The 
flowers are used in dyeing basantiy a fleeting yellow^ in preparing 
the Holi powder^ and are used as a poultice to orchitis^ &c.^ in 
Yiindni medicine. According to Bellew they are given in decoction 
to puerperal women^ in cases of diarrhaea^ and to sheep for 
haematuria (on "the doctrine of signatures^'?), and are applied to 
bruises and sprains. One of the books mentions an officinal 
zard gopi, which consists of the yellowed faeces of cows which have 
been fed on kesii ! The seeds are given as purgative, mostly in 
veterinary medicine. The bark is in some places extensively 
incised for the gum, which is a kind of kino. It is used in 
dyeing blue, in tanning (? Aitchison), and in medicine as an 
astringent. In Hindust&n, Mkh is formed on this tree, and in 
1861 some of the insects were transplanted into some Butea 
preserves in the Jalandar Do&b. They were spreading up to 
1864, since which time I have no information. 


Vernacular, bakkam, patang. 

Erroneously stated by Irvine to grow in the mountains of 
Kashmir. Is indigenous nowhere near the Punjab. 


Vernacular. J. phulwdi, ^ran. K. kando, tiW. C, reM, 
dodiir, B. relmi, didridn, dhdr^kUkarer. B. dndi, arle(, 
daghauH. S. ongwA. 

A large, straggling, prickly climber with fine yellow flowers, 
which grows wild in the outer Punjab Himalaya to 5,000 and 
occasionally 6,000 feet. It is called " Mysore thorn'' in the south> 
and is said to have been grown by Hyder Ali round his forts, &c.^ 
as a defence. In Chumba the bruised leaves are applied to 

Cajanus Indictts, Sprengel. (C. flavus. DC. and C. 


Vernacular. orTiar, dinger, tohar. 

The yellow and parti-colored kinds are not uncommon, the 
one as a cold weather^ the other as a hot weather crop, in the 

IiEGXriilKOSiB. 61 

eastern and central Punjab, and extend sparingly to Trans- 
Indus. They are rarely cultivated in fields by themselves, but 
generally in narrow strips round other crops. The pulse is said 
to be easily digested, and suitable for invalids. 

Canavalu gladiata. DC, 

Vernacular, sem. 

A kind of bean cultivated in gardens, for its unripe pod as 
well as its seed. 

Casagana FYGMJEA. DC. (vEBsicoLOB. Eoyle). 

Vernacular. Lad. tdma, trdma, ddma, 

A small prickly shrub, somewhat resembling furze. Com- 
mon in Tibet and the drier parts of the inner Himalaya from 
12,000 to 16,000 and occasionally to 16,500 feet. It is at times 
browsed by goats, and although it bums very fast, it is much 
valued for fuel in these treeless, shrubless parts. Bellew found 
it at 8,000 to 9,000 feet near the SuflSd Eoh, Trans-Indus. 


Vernacular. J. sat bargi. K. drob, burkundii. 

A largish prickly shrub, which occurs in Kashmir and 
Haz&ra at about 5^000 feet, and near the SufHd Eoh. I am not 
sure that it is of any use. 

Cassia abstts. L. 

Vernacular. Baz&r, seed, chdks^, 

A small plant with an orange flower growing in the eastern 
part of the Punjab plains. Its seeds are officinal, being powdered 
and blown into the eye, or applied in ointment^ for ophthalmia. 


Vernacular. san$ia MdkH* 

Cultivated for senna-leaves in various parts of India, and 
said by AitchUon to be so in the Punjab^ where I hare not 
observed it. 


C. OBOVATA, Wall, 

Vernacular. T. l.jijan, san butl, saHndlga. S. B. sanna. 

A small prostrate species found in tlie Salt Range and 
Trans-Indus up to 2^500 feet ; its leaves are used as senna^ and 
collected for native druggists in some places. 


Vernacular. Baz&r^ seed^ kaaaunda, ponwar. 

A tall weed not uncommon in the Punjab plains, the seeds 
of which are officinal, being given and applied for eruptions, &c. 
From the second native name, it would appear to be sometimes 
confiised with the next. 

C. TORA. L. 

Vernacular. C. hini. Baz&r, seeds, ponwdr; leaves, iAa-- 

Smaller than the last, and more common. Its seeds are 
stated to be eaten in times of dearth, and are likewise officinal* 
The leaves also appear to be officinal under the above name.. 

Cathaetocabpus fistula. Pers. (Cassia. L.) 

Vernacular. C. harangal. R. lAdr. B. dU, hanidr. U. 
iarwdla. Plains generally, amaltds. Baz&r, bark^ 

A small tree common in the Siwdlik tract up to 4,.000 feet 
to near the Indus, and said by Bellew to grow in the hills north 
of the Peshawar Valley. Is frequently planted in the plains for 
its handsome yellow flowers, which cause it to be sometimes 
called Indian Laburnum. Aitchison states that it generally 
flowers and fruits twice a year, but flowering again in a mild 
autumn is only occasional. The wood is worthless, being- brittle 
and very liable to insects. The bark is used by tanners and 
dyers, and is officinal under the above name (and see Butea). 
Tlie dried pulp of the long fruit (the sound of the seeds in whicb 
cause the tree to be called chimkat^^ the ''rattler'' in Sind) is 
officinal, being used as a purgative. Bellew mentions that the 
root is given as a tonic and febrifrige. 

Ceratonia siliqua. L. Carobtree. 

Vernacular. Bazfir, pod, khamib ntibtL 

This tree grows in the Mediterranean region, and is supposed 
by some to have furnished the ''locusts'' of St. John. For some 


jrears it has been introdueed into the Punjab^ in parts of which 
it thrives and is spreading somewhat, though it does not grow 
rapidly, and does not jet ripen its seed, or indeed produce pods, 
except in rare instances. One or two female trees existed in one 
of the Lahore gardens, and were cut down by the owner. Vandal- 
like, probably because he did not care to be bothered by questions 
from the Agri-Horticultural Society as to their progress. It is 
curious that in the Saz&rs the pods are sold as an astringent 
medicine under the name above given, probably finding their way 
from Syria by devious routes. In those parts of southern 
Europe where the tree is common^ the pods are given as fodder 
to horses. 

CicEB ABiETiNUM. L. Chick-pca j gram of Europeans. 

Yemacnlar. channay chola. 

Commonly cultivated as a cold weather crop throughout the 
Punjab plains, alone, or mixed with cereals; when reaped is 
sometimes pulled up, but generally cut ; needs no irrigation (indeed 
dislikes moisture, and after much rain is subject to weevil, sufuK), 
and wants but little cultivation, and is very largely grown in the 
high tract between Bawul Pindl and the Ftinjab Salt Bange. It 
is extensively exported to Sind, &c., is the chief grain given to 
horses, and \s much eaten parched fchabenaj by men. Masscn 
states that made into bread it is sweet, and was a favourite of the 
Sikh Sirddrs,^ and it is still frequently eaten thus in parts of the 
Punjab. The leaves have often a sour moisture (oxalic acid) on 
them, and are occasionally eaten. The stalks and leaves, after 
the seed is thrashed out, constitute one of the most valued kinds 
of bh'&sa for fodder. 


Vernacular. C. tizM^ jaw&ne, banyarts. Lad, idrrlf senri. 

A small plant somewhat resembling the last, which grows 
wild on the Upper Sutlej and Chendb, in the Jhelam basin and 
in Lad4k, at from 8,500 to 15,000 feet. It is said to fatten 
cattle quickly. Its seeds were sent to the Agri-Horticultural 
Society many years ago (having been first found in the Himalaya 
by Captain Munro about 18M-45), with information that the 
grain is eaten by the people, the young shoots are prepared as a 
pkskle by 'Hhe Chinese,^' and a vinegar is made from the leaves. 
The latter are often covered by a viscid exudation, with a strong 
aromatic odour. Aitchison states that in Lahoul they are used 
as a pot-herb, and that the peas are eaten there as they are^ both 
raw and cooked in parts of Lad4k. 


* Clitorba tebnatea. L. 

Vernacular, dhanattar. 

A garden flower^ the leaves and seeds of which are officinal ; 
the former being given in infusion for eruptions^ and the latter 
being aperient. 

CoLUTEA ARBOREscENs. L. Bladder Senna. 
Vernacular. Lad. brda. 

This plant grows in the south of Europe where its purgative 
leaves are employed to adulterate officinal Senna. It was found 
by Bellew in Affgh4nist&n ; but I am not aware that it is used 
there. A species, perhaps this, grows in Lad&k at 10,500 feet on 
the Sutlej and further east, in the Himalaya. 

Crotalaria Burhia. Ham. 

Vernacular. T. I. sisy sUsdiy meini, pola. S. R.' khippL 
S. S. D. biita^ khep, B. D. khip^ bhata, biii. H. Idthia^ 
kharsan. D. kauridla, 

A naked-looking, bushy plant common in all the more arid 
parts of the Punjab from Dehli to Trans-Indus, up to Peshawar. 
It is browsed by cattle. It has a very tough bark, and with 
exactly the smeU of broom when bruised, which probably gets 
it the name biH, '^smeller.'' Years before I knew it was used 
for ropes, I suggested that it seemed a likely material for sudi 
purpose. Ropes are in many parts made from it by the dry 
process, (and apparently sometimes after two or three days 
steeping) but notably not so in places near Dehll, trhere the khip 
used for this is a very different plant, Orthanthera (q. v.) The 
rope is not strong, and is probably only used on account of the 
cheapness of the material. In Sind also no rope is made from 
it. I presume the plant has some coagulant power, as a bunch 
of it is sometimes used to stir milk. The branches and leaves 
are in the east used as a cooling medicine. 


Vernacular. sannL 

Commonly cultivated for its fibre in the plains, except in the 
extreme north-west, generally in strips round other crops, but 
at times in patches alone. It is sometimes called the female of 
9an — (Hibiscus cannabinus q. v.) The fibre ia used for lopesj 
cordage^ strong packing-cloth^ Sec* 

LEGUMINOS-ffi. 65 

C. MEDicAoiNEA. Lam. ? 

Vernacular. Bazar^ plants guldbl. 

' This appears to be the small ofScinal plant sold under the 
above name. 

C. SEBiCEA. Betz. 

Vernacular, sanni, 

A plant resembling C. juncea, which is cultivated as a 
garden flower. 

Cyamopsis psoraloides. DC. 

Vernacular, kauri^ phaUgudr. Bazdr, plant, bhedmangi. 

A tall plant occasionally cultivated as a hot weather crop 
for its pulse, west to the Ravi at least. Its stem and leaves appear 
to be officinal under the above name. 

Dalberoia sissoo. Box. 

Vernacular. J. tdlL K. sqfeda. C. tall, skishdx, shin, 
nelkar. S. tali, shia, T. I. skewa. Plains generally, 
tdli, shisham, sissH, Bazdr, raspings, bdra-de'Shisham^ 

In the Himalaya I have generally seen this tree indigenous 
at about 2,000 to 3,500 and occasionally 4,500 feet, where it is 
seen in many places scattered over steepish slopes in considerable 
numbers, but short-trunked and rarely exceeding 2 feet in girth. 
But planted trees, even at some height in the hills, often do 
well ; I have noted several of 8 feet girth and 50 high at about 
3,000 feet. In the Punjab plains the only place I know where 
this tree seems certainly indigenous is the Kachhi Forest on 
islands in the Indus opposite Bunnoo, where there are many 
thousands of trees, and have been more, some of considerable 
size, but generally much less synmictrical than trees grown 
by man. In similar situations on the Surdah and the Oudli 
rivers the tree is common. In some places the natives say that 
this tree was formerly much more abundant than now; but 
I agree with Aitchison that what with our planting, &c., there 
are now in most districts more tdli than at any former period. 
Still there is no doubt that handsome black old wood has often 
to be brought from great distances, and in some places very many 
fine trees have been cleared within the traditional period, e, g,, 





on the Indus above Attock^ where thousands are said to have 
been destroyed bv the eataclysm of 1889; and in the tract on the 
Chendb south of Jhang, where very many trees were cut for 
Sawan Mull at Mult&n^ the natives tell of one thousand (?) trees 
from the lands of a certain village. In the excessively arid tract 
of the Sind Sdgur Do&b to the west of this^ the tree is raised 
with very great difficulty^ and specimens are very rare, although 
fine trees up to 10 feet in girth stand at Sakkar near the Indus^ 
on the western edge of the tract, and the Eachhi itself is not 
far off to the north. In the southern parts of Mult&n and 
Mozaffargarh, on either side the Chenab (Trim&b) trees of i6Xi 
are exceedingly numerous and fine. Aitchison recommends for 
zemindars the her and kikkoTy as the tdli is slow of growth. But 
from the average of actual measurements of many trees it is 
known under fair conditions to grow to about 30 inches girth 
in 10 or 11 years ; and at ShSkhoptira, near Lahore, there is a 
tree 33 years old of 6 feet in girth. Specimens of 6 or 7 feet 
girth are not uncommon in the Punjab, and in the station of 
Anarkxdlie there is one upwards of 8 feet ; the largest I know 
of, being one at Mozaffargarh, 13i feet girth. In this Province 
tdli is generally raised from seed ; but in Jhang, Mozaffargarh, 
and Mult^n, it is often or always grown from cuttings. In Sind, 
where the tree gets very rare to the south, it is invariably propa- 
gated in the latter way. The natives there say that the seed of 
these trees is never fertile, and it may be so in Sind where 
seedlings are stated never to spring up under the old trees as in 
the Punjab ; but I believe that at Lahore, Sind seed, sent up for 
this experiment, was found by Dr. Henderson to germinate and 
grow like any other. The young trees are very subject to be 
browsed by cattle, goats, and camels ; the last especially preferring 
them to most others. They are not very subject to be nipped 
by frost. The timber of this tree is hard, strong, and heavy, a 
cubic foot weighing 68 lbs. green and 48 (?) dry. It is also very 
durable, and said not to be attacked by white ants, even when 
green. It is much valued, and the tree was in K&ngra a padshdki 
one, («. e., preserved for the ruler^s use). The wood is one of 
the best for gun-carriages, and in some parts of India is said 
to be largely used in dockyards. It is also employed for furni- 
ture, building, boxes, camel-saddles, &c. On especially the 
western rivers, where it is more easily got, it is milch used for 
boat-building, and a boat built of it is stated to last 20 years. 
The wood is likely to be a valuable fuel (hitherto it has not been 
cheap enough to be largely tried), and will be extensively grown 
in the Fuel Plantations. Possibly, when it is available of sufficient 
size and in sufficient quantity, it may come into use as Railway 
sleepers. The raspings of the wood are officinal, being considered 


Dbsmodium aboenteum. Wall. 

Vernacular. C. sambar. R. pri, S. miisSy chlti mart, 

A shrub of some size which is found on sevenil of the rivers^ 
where the climate is somewhat dry^ at &om 3^500 to 9^000 feet. 
In Kandwax its bark is used for ropes after steeping in water. 
These are not lasting^ but very strongs and on the Hindustan and 
Tibet Road, when platted as thick as the wrist^ were found to 
stand under a heavy temporary strain when English ropes snapped. 
Cleghom states that in Kan&war the bark is used for making 
paper. Aitchison notes that in Lahoul paper is occasionally made 
fircmi a D.^ and^ although he says that several species are met 
with there^ none appear to have been sent to England with the 
collections on which his paper is foimded^ nor did I see any so far 
up the Chen&b. 


Vernacular. J. chamydr, chamrd, chamkdt. K. chamkdt, 
mardra. C. fftir kats, diid shambar, gir shagal, B. 
plrhiy pri. B. hathL S. labetj kail mort, Baz&r^ 
leaves? shdl puml. 

A shrub of much wider distribution than the former, being 
found abundantly in many places on all the rivers at from 2,800 
to 8,000 feet. It is browsed by cattle, the twigs are used for 
tying loads together, and Cleghorn recommends the tough bark 
as a paper-making and textile material. The leaves appear to be 
the shdl puml of the Baz&rs (which, however, may be those of 
D. Gangbticum, Wall., as given by Jameson) . 


Vernacular, catjang, kdla labia. 

Cultivated for its unripe pod as well as its seed in gardens 
in the plains. 

D. Sinensis. L. 

Vernacular, hbia. 

Commonly cultivated as a hot weather crop, the seeds being 
eaten, parched and otherwise, and the leave9 cooked as a pot-herb. 


D, xTNiFLORUs. Lam. 

Vernacular. J. kalatt, kiilat. C. kjilt, holt, R. roiong 
rdwan, B. koUh, gdglu S. bardt, botang^ gu4r kiilatt, 
Saz&r^ seed^ gulatti. 

There is some doubt as to the native names of this^ but it is 
commonly cn][tiTated for its pulse in the Himalaya up to 7^000 feet 
or more. Occasionally grown outside near the base of the hills^ 
Amb&la (Edgeworth). The seeds appear to be officinal in the 

Edwardsia Hydaspica. Edge. 
Vernacular. S. B. hiin, kohen, mdlan, 

A small shrub with a fine yellow flower, somewhat resembling 
broom, which is common at many places in the Salt Range and 
Trans-Indus firom 2,000 to 5,000 feet. Goats occasionally browse 
on it^ but it is said to .be fatal to other animals. 

E. MOLLIS. Royle. ? 

Vemacidar. J. bund, K. jangli kits, bankeinti. C. tilun, 
tami, kathL R. brisarL AS. arghawdn, T. I. gojdr, 

There is some doubt as to whether these are all the same 
species or whether some of the western specimens may not belong 
to the last. This is a larger shrub than the latter, and grows at a 
good many places in the lulls at from 2,500 to 8,000 feet, generally 
in rather arid parts. It appears to be the species found by Bellew 
on the Sulimin Range at 8,000 feet, and is doubtless the second 
kind of arghawdn — (see Bauhinia tarieoata) — ^mentioned by 
Baber or his translator as growing at Baber^s tomb at K^bul, as 
Bellew give^ his plant that name. No special property is assigned 
to it, except the beauty of its flowers. I have seen it cultivated 
in Kashmir. 

Ervttm Lens. L. Lentil. 

Vernacular. Plains and hills generally, masiir. Lad. 
chanching, kerge. S. P. mauri. 

Commonly cultivated in the cold weather for its pulse, but 
not generally in the more arid tracts. I believe I have seen it 
grown as high as 5,500 feet on the Chendb, and it is cultivated in 
parts of Ladak to 11,500 feet. ltd pulse is said to be heating, and 
apt to cause eruptions. 


Ebythbina abbobescens. Box. ? (E. stbicta. Box. ?) 


Vemacular. C.thab, 'Si,.gileni, gaderwa. B.paridla. S. 
puddrd. U. dhaul dhdk. Plaina generally^ gul n'dsar, 
gul nashtar, 

A tree with large prickles growing from the young stem and 
branches, which is common wild in the Siw^Uik tract, and occurs 
further in, at least to the Chendb, up to 4,500 feet. It is also 
seen occasionally planted in the plains. It grows to 50 feet high 
in its natural habitats, and has a striking appearance with its hand- 
some red flowers which blossom before the leaves show. Its wood 
is white, soft, and tough, and sieve hoops and scabbards are made 
of it, and it is occasionally employed for the short planks of roofs. 

Faba vtjloabis. Mfiench. (Vicia Faba. L). 

Vernacular. K. kdiiin. S. chdstang. Lad. ndkshan, nakh^ 
than. Plains, bdkla. 

Probably not grown in the plains except by Europeans, but 
commonly cultivated in Kashmir, 5,000, and Kandwar, Spiti, and 
Tibet, 8,000 to 12,000 feet. The beans are ground into flour for 
food, and are, on the Sutlej, given to cattle (Hugel). 

Glycibbhiza tbiphylla. F. and M. 
G. sp. 

\'cmacular. Aff. zaisi. Bazar, root, aslaads^ jetimadhy 
muleti ; inspissated juice, rabisfis. 

Several species, possibly including that of Europe, G. olabba 
L., are common wM in Affghdnist4n, where they are mentioned 
by Griffith, and where Bellew collected two as above at 5,000 to 
6,000 feet. Davie's^ Trade Beport gives 10 maimds of the root (?) 
as annually imported from Kdbul vid Peshawar. The root and 
extract are both officinal, and are given mixed with purgatives 
and for colds, &c. Honigberger is probably mistaken when he 
states that these are imported from Tibet also. And Bellew's 
Glycirrhiza, found in the Peshawar Valley, is probably Abbus 



Vernacular. Tcatharanj, 

. A great thorny climber with yellow flowers rarely seen 
cultivated in the Punjab. Its seeds are sold in the Bazars^ being 
tonic and antiperiodic. 


Indigofera hetsrantha. Wall. 

Yemacular. J. hhentL E. kutz, C. shdgali, kdUii, kuts. 
B. kdthi, kdthii, mattii. B. kdti, kathL S. kathi, 
kathewat. T. I. kaskei. 

The commonest of the Himalayan species, a shrub which is 
abundant in many places in the hills and the eastern skirts of the 
Sdliman Range from 2,500 to 8,000 feet. In Kashmir and 
elsewhere the twigs are largely used for making baskets, &c., 
and in some cases they form part of the twig-bridges — (see 
Parrotia). In K4ngra the flowers are used as a pot-herb. 

Indigofera linifolia. Setz. 

Vernacular. tarkL 

A small prostrate plant common in the plains up to near the 
Indus. Honigberger states that it is given medicinally in febrile 

I. TiNCTORtA. L. Indigo. 

Vernacular, nil. Baz&*, extract, nilbarL 

Is not very commonly cultivated in the Punjab, although 
indigo from the Indus is said to be mentioned in Arrian's Periplus, 
and manv traces of an export of it by the same river to Europe 
arc found in the historical records as early as the middle of the 
17th century. At present the chief tracts for its cultivation are 
in the Southern Pimjab near Mult&n, &c., about H&nsi, and in 
portions of the upper parts of the Jalandar and Bfiri Do&bs. It 
is very rarely grown in the extreme N. W. Punjab. In some parts 
Hindus are said to have a prejudice against cultivating it. Con- 
siderable quantities are exported from the Southern Punjab to 
AfPgh&nistIn ; and in 1863 a company of Europeans and Natives 
was formed at Multin for growing and preparing it, but it appears 
to have been unsuccessful. Locally indigo is used to dye cloth, 
and to colour the hair and beard. Cayley states that a few 
maunds were, in 1867, exported to L6 thence to be carried into 
eastern Tibet and Tiirkistin. The extract is officinal, being 
administered in epilepsy and nervous disorders. 

Lathtens aphaca. L. 

Vernacular, rawauj rawdri. 

A common field-weed all over in the plains, and in some 
places pulled up and collected as fodder for cattle. Said to be 
cultivated near the Jumna^ the seeds at times lying dormant in 
the ground for a year. 


li. SATITVS. L. 

VemacTilar. kisdrij mattar^ churdL Lad. karas, Jearil. 


Often cultivated in the plains as a cold weather field crop 
for its pulse^ and grown to 12^000 feet in Tibet. Edgeworth states 
that in AmMla he never saw it cultivated^ though it was common 
as a weed in fields with pulse or cereals. It is also common as a 
weed in parts of the Himalaya to 9^500 feet. I have never heard 
of its producing paralysis in the Punjab^ as it is said to do at 
times in the N. W. Provinces; but Thomson suggests it may 
have had something to do with a paralysed village he visited at 
11,000 feet in Tibet. 

Medicaoo denticulata. Willd. 

Vernacular, maind. 

Abundant as a weed in fields in the central Punjab, and said 
to be cultivated also. Is largely gathered for fodder, being con- 
sidered good for milk. 


Vernacular. ? 

Common as a weed in part of the plains, in many parts of 
the hills, and to 12,000 feet in Zanskar (Thomson). Collected 
for fodder. 

M. Sativa. L. (?) Lucerne. 

Vernacular. Aff. rishka, dureshta. Lad. hoL 

Is found wild in the N. W. Himalaya from 5,000 to 12,000 
feet, and is cultivated extensively in Affgh&nist&n, where it is used 
as fodder for horses, &c, Moorcroft says that it also grows wild, 
and it is cultivated in Laddk for the same purpose, and he states 
that fields of it continue to be regularly cut for several, up to 
"50 or 60 years."' 

Melilotus leucantha. Koch. (M. alba. Lam. ?) 
Vernacular, chita sinjL 

Occurs wild in several parts of the Punjab plains, and to 
8,500 feet or more in the Himalaya. In the former it is said 
to produce swelling of the belly in cattle which browse it. 


M. PARYiFLOiUt Desf. 

YeiTiacular. Mry'L 

Is extensiTely cultivated for fodder in parts of the central 
Punjab^ and said to be good for milk. Also occurs wild in the 
plains and hills^ and is perhaps the Melilot mentioned by Thomson 
at 13,000 feet in Zanskar. 

M. sp. ? 
Vernacular. ? 

A tall yellow-flowered species grows in the outer hills, where 
it is said to be browsed by camels only. 

Mimosa bubicaulis. Lam. 

Vernacular. J., K., and C. rdly riaul. E. didridr. B. arlu. 
S. B. alia. B. D. kikkri, Baz4r, fruit, deo khddir. 

A very prickly shrub of some size which grows in the outer 
hills to 3,000 and occasionally 4,000 feet, up to near the Indus, 
and is at times found on the banks of rivers or canals, some way 
into the plains. In Chumba the bruised leaves are applied to 
bums, and the fruit appears to be officinal under the above name. 



Found in the Salt Range, where its seeds are used as a 

OuGEiNiA Daldebgioidbs. Bth. (Dalbeboia Ouoeinensis. 


Vernacular. J. to U. sannan^ sdndan. 

A smallish, somewhat crooked tree, from, which in Bombay a 
kind of kino is said to be obtained, grows sparingly throughout 
the Siw41ik tract to 4,000 feet occasionally, up to the Jhelam. 
The timber is hard and strong, resembling that of Dalbeboia, and 
is said to be very diirable, and not subject to warping or to worms. 
It is much valued for ploughs, wheels, sugar and cotton-rollers, 
combs, &c. 

OrrTBOPis SP. ? 
Vernacular. ? 

Moorcroft says that in Ladak a kind of ^^ sainfoin'^ is much 
eaten by sheep^ and that its inner bark is there the only material 
for paper. 


Pabkinsonia aculbata. DC. 
Vemacular. wildydti hikkar. 

Since annexation this has spread largely throughout the Punjab^ 
but as it only becomes a scraggy small tree^ is not much valued by 
Europeans except for hedges^ for which it answers well if sown 
close and well cropped^ and it needs but little water. It is 
subject to be severely lopped of its smaller branches^ &c., to be 
given as fodder to goats^ as may at any time be seen on the 
Lahore roads. 

Phasbolxts aconitifolius. Jacq. 

Vernacular, moth (sometimes applied to other pulses in the 

Commonly cultivated as a hot weather crop^ for its pulse, all 
over the Punjab plains, but chiefly iu the arid parts with light 
SOU. The pulse is not much valued, and is thought to be heatiog. 


Vernacular, m^ng, m4ng{, m4ji. 

Commonly cultivated in the plains, and to 3,500 feet in the 
hills, for its pulse, which is considered nutritious and digestible. 

P. RADiATus. Box. (P. RoxBUEGHii. W. and A.) 

Vemacular. in plains and hills, rndsh^ mdhy (urad). 

Cultivated as a hot weather crop, for its pulse, in the plains, 
and to 6,500 feet in the hills. This is considered the most 
heating, and apt to give colic, of all the pulses. 


Vemacular. B. Ben. B. D. mattar, khandii. Lad. shdnmd 

Cultivated for Europeans' use in the plains by natives in 
parts of the central Punjab,.and in the outer hills near K&ngra, &c., 
as well as in Kan&war, Spiti, Lahoul, and Ladak, up to 13,000 
or 14,000 feet. At the latter height it does not ripen its seeds, 
but is chiefly used as fodder. Masson also mentions '^ peas" at 
Bamean, in Afigh&nist&n, at a considerable elevation. 


Vemacular. sukh chein. Bazfir, pod, bara karanj. 

A handsome tree occurnng in the Siw4lik tract up to near 
the B&vi, and not uncommon planted out in the plains, but not 



growing to a large size in the Punjab. Its leayes and pods are 

Frosofis spicigera. L. 

Vernacular^ T. I. aghzdkdi. S. B. seh. H. Tchdr. Plains 
generally^ jhand, jandi, jand : pod, sangoTf sankhri, 
shdngar, Saz4r, galls, hhamiib Hindi, 

Abounds generally as a large shrub (from lopping, &or,) in 
the central Punjab, and occurs more sparingly to either side. 
Is also common in Sind, and in Sikanir is said to be the chief 
plant of any size. The natives in some parts say that it especially 
favours' a heavy soil which needs much irrigation. About 
MozafPargarh they state that the best land is where it grows small 
but abundant. When protected in villages, &c., the tree attains 
SL respectable size, the bark being often furrowed into large divisions, 
resembling the scales of a reptile, and the finely drooping branches 
with light green foliage and yeUow spikes of flowers look pretty 
about the latter part of April. Trees of 5 feet girth are not 
uncommon; the largest I have seen being (one of 9 feet girth at 
Gumbaz in Sind) one of 9 feet girth and 60 feet high at Bhow&ni, 
north of Jhang, one of 8 feet girth near the same place, one of 
8 feet girth and 35 feet high near Dehra Gh&zi Khan, one of 8 feet 
girth and 25 feet high, and another very fine tree of 6 feet and 
45 feet at Sirsa, and one of 6 feet and 40 feet at Bilot, Trans-Indus. 
At Sdnpla near Rohtuk there is a well-preserved plot of himdreds 
which range up to 6 feet girtlj^ and 40 in height. The trees 
occasionally assume a cupressifoim appearance, a fine specimen of 
4i feet girth and 50 high standing at Mittank8t. But these are 
rari nantes, for by far the greater part of the Prosopis seen in the 
Punjab are lopped, browsed, and hacked into dwarfhood and 
deformity, many with their trunks hollow from the constant 
deprivations they have undergone. The growth of the tree is 
slow, probably not to more than 15 inches in girth in 15 years. 
One in Saharanpur Botanic Gardens, said to be 30 years old, is 
3 feet in girth. The wood is soft and open-grained, and subject to 
be eaten by white ants. A cubic foot dry weighs 51 lbs. It is 
used as timber only for the commonest purposes, except for 
well-curbs, and in Sind where much frimiture is made of it. 
But it is a good fuel either for domestic or Railway use, and bums 
fairly well even when recently felled. In the central Punjab 
this is the chief plant used for friel on the large scale. 

The pods; which ripen before and during the rains, contain, 
when scarcely ripe, a considerable quantity of a sweetish farinaceous 
substance, which in many places is largely consumed as food, in 
some parts by all classes, in others only by the poor or in times of 
scarcity. It is eaten green or dry, raw and alone, or boiled with 


salt, onions, ghi, &c., and eaten with bread, or mixed with dahi. 
The quantily which may be consumed at once by a man has been 
variously put to me from a chittdk to a ser, I am not certain 
that the pod is not sometimes used medicinally. On many trees 
a spongy wooden gall is produced, sometimes in great quantities. 
It is probably inert, but is officinal under the above name, being 
reckoned astringent. From the stumps of pruned branches and 
other scars, a gum exudes similar to gum Arabic, but I do not 
know that it is collected or used. 


Vernacular. Bazir, seed, bdbehi. 

An herb which occasionally occurs in the drier tracts of the 
plains and in the Salt Range. Its seeds are officinal, being used 
in ointments, and internally as a yermifuge. 


Vernacular. bakhtmaL 

Resembles the preceding; is common in some arid tracts 
in the plains up to the Indus. Edgeworth states that camels 
delight in it. 


Vernacular. C. ndU, baddr, R. sidli, saloha. Baz&r> 
tuber, bildi hand, biddri kand. 

A great climber, common in some parts of the Siw^lik tract 
np to near the Indus. The very large tuberous yam-like roots 
are eaten, and said to be sweet, and are exported to the plains, 
where they are officinal as a cooling medicine, and are used as 


Vernacular, jait, jainiar. Baz&r, seed, riwdsan, jeL 

A straggling large shrub commonly cultivated in gardens as 
a hedge, and for its bunches of flowers, particoloured, yellow, and 
occasionaUy white. It is a ready and quick grower, but haa 
nothing special to recommend it, nor is the wood of any use, 
although it sometimes attains 2 feet in girth. The seeds are 
officinal, being applied in ointment for eruptions, for which also 
the juice of the bark is given internally. 


SoJA HI8PIDA. W. and A. 

Vernacular, bhut. 

A patch of this pulse was seen by Cleghom at 6>000 feet in 

Tamabindus Inbica. L. 

Vernacular. imlL Baz4r, fimit^ tamar Hindi. 

This fine tree, which is common in the N. W. Provinces, and 
whose wood being hard, heavy, and strongs is very valuable for 
naves, sugar and oil-mills, &c., &c. ; is rare in the Punjab except 
about Dehlf. A few trees are found as far west as Multin, 
Jhelam, and towards Rajaori, but even so far east as Ambala 
the fruit is said not to ripen. - Its pulp is valuable as food and as 
a laxative medicine, and the powdered seeds are given for 
rheumatism in the Hindu system^ and for herpes by the Yunanis. 

Tephrosia purpurea. Pers. 

Vernacular. H. bdnsa. D. jhqpirii, sarphohka. Baz&r, plants 

This or a closely allied species is not uncommon in the plains 
from Dehli west as far as the Jhelam, and in the Salt Range, but 
is rare or unknown in most parts to the south and in the extreme 
north-west. In Harri&na the twigs are used for making baskets. 
The plant is officinal, being considered depurative and cordial, and 
in some places an infusion of the seeds is considered cooling. 

Trifolium pratense. L. (T. fragiperum. L. ?) 

Vernacular. J. trepattrn, K. chit batto. 

Not uncommon in parts of the N. W. Himalaya fit)m 3,500 
to 8,000 feet up to the Indus, and to 8,600 feet in Tibet (Thomson) . 
It is ei^ten by cattle. 


Vernacular. T. I. shajial, shotul. 

Common in many parts of the Himalaya up to 10,000 feet, 
and in the plains of the extreme N. W. Punjab. It ia eaten by 
cattle, and does well for turfing lawns in the hills. 


T. sp. 

Yemacular. A£P. shafial, shotuL 

Stated by Irvine to be wild in Affgbdnist&n where it is 
abundantly cultivated as fodder for horses^ &c.^ much of it being 
twisted into long cableis to be dried for winter use. Moorcroft 
says that he "never saw ground so covered with hay of any kind" 
as with this at K&bul. Bellew mentions that it is grown in Sw&t^ 
and I have seen a kind cultivated imder the above names in 
Haz4ra at 3^000 feet^ which is probably the same plant, 


Vernacular. methL 

Commonly cultivated in the plains in the cold weather^ the 
leaves^ &c.> being used as a vegetable. If eaten by cows> is said 
to be heating and to dry up the milk. The seeds are oflBicinal^ 
being used in fomentations^ and given for colic and flatulency^ 
and in the Arabian system for dysentery. 


Vernacular, maini. 

A common field weed in the central Punjab. Is said to 
cause swelling of the belly in cattle which eat it. 

Ubabia chetkubra. Jameson. (Hedtsabum alopecuboides. 

Royle) . 

Vernacular. Baz&r, leaves^ chitkabra Hindi, pusht bamL 

The identity is uncertain of the plant whose leaves are 
officinal imder the above names. They are supposed to increase 
the flow of bUe. 

U. picTA. Desv. (?) 

Vernacular. Baz&r^ seed^ deterddne. 

Occasionally grown in gardens. Fruit is found in the Bazars, 
and used officinally under the above name^ being applied to the 
sore mouths of children. 


Amtgdalus communis. L. Almond. 

Vernacular, baddm. 

Sometimes cultivated in the Punjab plains, but rarely bears 
firuit^ and still more rarely ripens it. Vigne states that in 


Kashmir (?) it furnishes much oH, but he proBably refers to the 
kernel of the Apricot — (see P&unus abmeniaca). Large quan- 
tities of sweety and some bitter aknonds^ are imported from the 

A. PsBsicA. L. Peach. 

YemacuLur. J. drii. K. sfinnii, tsun^, C. ariii, ehinannu. 
B. darf&L B. dni. S. bem beimi, T. I. ghwareshtai^ 

Cultiyated in the plains^ the fruit being generally very poor, 
but very good at Peshawar. I believe I have seen it wild at 
several places from 3^000 to 6^000 feet with miserably small poor 
fruit in the Himalaya^ where it is cultivated to 10^000 feet in 
Kan&war^ and to 9flOO feet in Lahoul^ but fruit not good at the 
higher Umit^ and not worth much below. In Lad&k it is possibly 
cultivated at higher elevations than these^ but Yigne says the 
fruit is generally small. In Kashmir some of the fruit is said 
to be excellent. One of the kinds grown at Kandah&r^ Bellew 
states to be the best peach he knows. Vigne states that in Lad&k 
the foot rot in sheep is treated by a decoction of the leaves* 

Amtodalus Pebsica. L. var. ljsvis. Nectarine* 

Vernacular, shoftdlii, miindla dru. 

Barely cultivated in the Punjab plains (but not very sue* 
cessfiiUy) and frequently in Affghanist&n. Dr. Cayley states 
that trees occur in at least one village near JA, and ripen fruit. 
The fruit is said by the natives to have the property of killing the 
intestinal parasite kenckwa — (Ascaris lumbriooides) • 

A. sp. 

Vernacular. Aff., baddm talkk. 

A small species found wild by Bellew near the SufiSd Koh, 
of which the thin outer bark is used as a covering for pipe-stem^ 
is probably the A. mentioned by Gri£5ith under tiie above native 

Ce&asus vulgaris^ Mill. Cherry. 

Vernacular. K. gilds. Aff. dlH bdlic. 

The cherry is not cultiyated by natives^ and has always failed 
with Europeans in the plains of the Punjab. In Kashmir the 
tree is commonly cultivated^ and some of the kinds are good, both 

EOSAGE^. 79 

sweet and bitter^ the latter excellent for cherry-brandy. One tree 
of the latter kind^ planted in Pangi on the Upper Chendb^ has done 
irell^ and bears abnndant fruit. Cherries are cultivated at 
Kandah&r (Bellew) and at K&bul. Masson states that three yarieties 
were introduced by Baber as recorded in his Memoirs. The wild 
tree is said also to be a favourite at Kdbul and Kandah4r^ being 
planted for the sake of its white blossoms. 


Vernacular. J. liinL E. lehan, Un, khdriz, C. riti, rau, 
linii, lilMn. B. riiiy Hsh. S. reiis, rt, T. I. kheroa^ 
kheraba. S. B. sichu. 

Of several species of Cotoneaster^ these two^ which are apt to 
be conftised^ are most common^ from 4,000 to 10,500 feet in the 
Punjab Himalaya. Their wood, though small, is tough and strong, 
and is much used for the secondary supports of roofs, axe-handles, 
and walking-sticks, and it is said for jdrnpan-^igoleR (?) In 
Kashmir the twigs are extensively employed for basket-making, 
and are frequently mixed with Farrotia (q. v.) for the twig* 

Crataovs crenulata. Box. 

Vernacular. gingarU* 

I have not seen this shrub except to the east of Punjab 
limits, but Cleghom states that on the Sutlej it is used for 
staves, &c. 

C. oxYAGANTHA. L. Hawthom. 

Vernacular. J. ban-sanfU, s^r sinfU. K. ringo, ring. C. 
pingydi, ramnia, ring, B. phinddk, patdkhen. T. I. 
ghwanza. Aff. durdna. 

Not unconmion from the B£vi westward, from 6,000 to 9,000 
feet, and found in the Sulim&n Bange up to 9,000 feet by Bellew 
near the SufM Koh. Griffith and Masson mention it at KILbul, 
and the latter states that it was brought thither from the hills. 
In the Himalaya trees may be seen 5 feet in girth and 25 feet high, 
but I do not know that its timber is applied to any special purpose. 
On the Chenib particiilarly the fruit is large and really decent 
eating, much better than I recollect of at home. 


Cybonia vulgaris. Pers. Quince. 

Vemaculax. K. bam tsiintu. Plains^ &c., generallj^ bihL 
Baz&T; seed^ bihi ddna. 

Cultivated in the plains in many places^ but not of particu- 
larly good quality^ and grown in the Himalaya to 5^500 feet. 
Common in Kashmir^ where the fruit is said by Vigne to be very 
fine. Cayley states that a small quantity is exported from Kashmir 
into Tibet. Abundant in AlBfghdnist^^ whence fruit and seed 
are largely imported into the Punjab (Davies' Trade Report gives 
two maunds of the latter as annually imported vift Peshawar), and 
where, according to Bellew, the fruit is eaten fresh, candied or 
dried. Irvine states that that of Affgh^st&n excels all other 
quinces in quality (but that except them, '^ there is no other fruit 
of remarkable goodness.^') The seed is officinal, being demulcent 
and cooling. 

Pbaoaria vbsca. L. Strawberry. 

Vernacular. J. kamars. K. ifkgrdch, yang task. C. paljor. 
R. Miniinj muarini. S.banaphaL T.I. tawdi. 

Found wild in most«parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 
4,000 to 12,000 feet. Adams states that the brown bear is very 
fond of its roots. The fruit, though small, is excellent when 
gathered diy, and has been proved by various trials to be improved 
by cultivation in a garden. The strawberry is only cultivated in 
the gardens of Europeans, and very good and abundant fruit is 
rais^ in some stations even in the plains. 

P. Inbica. Andr. 

Is common in the Himalaya, and has a small tasteless fruit ; 
is sometimes mistaken for the other by Europeans. 



Appears to be frequent in Ean&war, Spiti, and Lad£k, from 
11,500 to 15,000 feet. The under-surface of the leaves is covered 
with a fine dust, which, when the plant is shaken^ causes violent 


P. Inolisii. Royle. (P. pruticosa. L. var.) 

Vernacular. C. spang jhd^ merino. Lad. pinjung, penmd. 

Is not uncommon in the higher parts of the Chen&b basin^ 
where Aitchison and Longden state that its fragrant leaves^ &c., 
are used as a substitute for tea. It also grows in Spiti and hai&k, 
occurring in the latter up to over lO^QOO feet. Is browsed hj 


Vernacular. S. rattanjot. 

Not uncommon in the Punjab Himalaya at 6,000 or 7,000 
feet. The reddish root is exported to the plains under the above 
name from some parts. There are, however, several other roots 
sold under the same name — (see Onosma) . They are employed in 
dyeing wool, and are officinal, being considered depurative, and 
they are used externally in the Ytinani system, the ashes being 
applied with oil to bums« 

P. Salesovii Stepb. 

Vernacular* Lad. shour. 

Grows in Lahoul, Spiti, and Laddk, at 11,000 — 12,000 feeti 
Is browsed by sheep« 

Pbinsiepia utilis. Royle. 

Vernacular. J. gurinda, chamba, arund, C. tattia, phiil- 
wdra, rdrt, jinti. R. bekkli, kamgiira. B. behkuh S. 
bheklcal, bekkar, bekhitl, bekhwa, bekling. 

A common slirub throughout the Punjab Himalaya from 
2,500 to 8,000 feet, up to near the Indus. Its wood is said to be 
used for walking-sticks. The fruit yields an oil, which is eaten or 
burned, or both, except in the extreme north-west where the shrub 
is more rare. 

Pruntjs Armeniaca. L. Apricot. 

Vernacular. J. hdri^ harian. K. gurddlu, cherkiish, C 
chiroU, tser-hyi, chuK, chiVj sdri. R. cMr, cMran, sdri. 
B. s/ubri. S. jalddr^ chulL Lad. cMU, T« I. mandata, 
dried, khubdnly moist, hhista, 

I believe I have seen the apricot wild in many places from 
4,000 to 6,000 feet, in the Punjab Himalaya. It is commonly culti- 
vated all over up to 10,000 or perhaps 10,500 feet (and not 11,200 


as stated by Hoffmeister) in some places in the arid climates 
of the Upper Sutlej and the Upper Chenab, and even to 11,500 
or 12,000 feet in parts of Tibet. A great deal of the fruit, especi- 
ally at the higher elevations, is very inferior, and in Tibet 
particnlarly Yigne mentions that it is generally small, which 
would seem to be corroborated by the fact that 200 maunds were 
imported into L6 from Kashmir in 1867 (Cayley). Yet 
Aitchison states that the dried apricots are imported into Lahoul 
from Tibet. But very fair firuit is grown in many parts, and in 
some of especially the Kanawar villages, the trees constitute a chief 
form of the wealth of the inhabitants, and yellow heaps of it may 
be seen drying in thousands on the roof of almost every house. 
A considerable quantity (Davies^ Trade Report puts it at 100 
maunds via Peshawar) of dried apricots are annually imported 
into the Punjab from Affgh&nistan where the tree is largely grown. 
The fruit is eaten green or dried, and the kernels are sometimes 
eaten separately, or more frequently pounded with the pulp 
to lessen the sourness of the latter. Hoffineister states that 
mixed these are considered an antidote to hill sickness. Wherever 
the tree is common the kernels are pounded, and their oil expressed 
by hand. It is stated to have a pleasant taste with a bitter almond 
flavour, and is largely consumed as food and burned. It is also 
used for the hair, though probably not specially as a perfrime, as 
Moorcroft states. In various parts the half ripe fruit dried are 
used by goldsmiths to remove the black oxide fix)m silver, or as 
in Affghanistdn, a decoction is employed for this purpose (Bellew) • 
In Tibet an apricot is applied after mastication to ophthalmia, 
and Bellew mentions that the dried fruit is in Affgh4nist&n used 
as a laxative and refrigerant in fevers, &c. A gum, similar to 
gum Arabic, exudes from wounds in the bark of the tree. The 
wood does not appear to be used for any special purpose, except 
occasionally for making the Tibetan drmking-cups, as stated by 
J, D. Cunningham — (see Acer). 

P. BoKHABiENSis. Roylc. Bokh&ra Plum. 

Vernacular. dM Bokhdra, 

The fruit is imported from Affgh&nistdn, and the tree thrives 
in the Upper Provinces (Pirminger). It grows well at places 
near !{jahore, producing a deep red fruit. 


Vernacular* K. olchij cr, aor (?) Plains, &c., alucha. 

Appears to be common wild and cultivated in Kashmir, and 
is cultivated in Affgh^nistan, &c. (Moorcroft mentions some 

EOSACE^. 83 

from Y&rkand as " infinitely preferable to the best French plums/') 
It is also cultivated in the Punjab plains^ yielding a waxy yellowish 
fruit. In Kashmir the wood is used for maluag the skeletons 
of the '^papier mache'^ boxes. 

F. Padus. L. (Cebasus cobnitta. Boyle) . Bird cherry. 

Vernacular. J. pdras, kdla kdt, gidar ddk, bart. K. zamb 
chule, C. jamiin, kriin, R. dUdla, jamti, S. krtin, 
jdmu, jammu. 

A fine tree, with handsome bunches of white flowers in 
April, which grows in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 
4,000 to 10,500 feet, up to the Indus. The Wood is not much 
valued, but is used for ploughs, railings, &c., and for spoons. 
The firuit is eaten by the natives, but has a mawkish astringent 
taste, not peculiarly attractive to Europeans. The specific name 
given to this tree by Eoyle arose from the fact, that from the 
puncture of some insect the fruit frequently grows into a horn- 
like dark excrescence up to 3 inches in length. These are occa^^ 
sionally seen in most seasons, and were exceedingly common on 
many trees in parts of Hazara in 1867. 

P. PROSTRATA. Labill. 

Vernacular. palt'A. 

Stated by Aitchison to occur at one village in Lahoul 9,500 
feet, and to be cbmmon in Kan&war (but there would appear here 
to have been some confusion with Pyrus Kumaonensis q. v.) 

P. PuDDUM. Lind. 

Vernacular. J. chamidri, amalgiich. B. pajja, paddam. 
S. pcai^i P^j^' 

A small tree which occurs in the Punjab Himalaya from 
3,000 to 5,000 feet, up to near the Indus. The fruit is eaten by 
the natives, though it is always somewhat bitter. The wood is 
coarse-grained, light, soft;, apt to split, and to be attacked by 
insects. It is used in building, and occasionally for implements* 

Ptrus Aucufaria. Gaert, P. ursina. Wall. Moimtain ash, 


Vernacular. J. battak C. rdnthUl wdmpii litsi, S. rangrek, 

A small tree which occurs occasionally from 8,500 to 11,500 
feet in the Punjab Himalaya, up to near the Indus. It has red 


fruit (sometimes white^ according to Madden)^ wliich resembles 
those of F* AUCUPABiA of Europe in flavour. They are not eaten. 

P. BACCATA. Wall. 

Vernacular, liu, Uw&r, Jhijo, Hist, 

A small tree which is common wild^ and I think cultivated 
on the Upper Chen&b from 8,200 to 10,000 feet. Its fruit is very 
small and very sour, but has the true apple flavour, and Aitchison 
states that it is much eaten by the LahouUs. 

P. COMMUNIS. L. (P. Sinensis. Lindl. ?) Pear. 

Vernacular. J. and K. tariffs batangy batank. C. ndk. Plains, 
&c., ndshpdti, ndk. 

The pear tree is occa3ionally cultivated in the Punjab plains, 
producing a wretched fruit, and appears to be quasi-indigenous in 
Kashmir. It is also cultivated there and in Afighanistin, and 
according to Vigne in Tibet, but this is doubtful. Some of the 
fruit, which is imported into th^ Punjab (Davies' Trade Report 
puts it at ten camel loads annually vi& Peshawar) is juicy and 
tolerably good — ^much of it indifferent. Aitchison states that 
it is quite unknown in Lahoul, but ftirther down on the Chenab 
at 8,000 to 8,500 feet, a pear tree, sometimes wild and sometimes 
apparently cultivated, is not uncommon. Irvine states that in 
Kashmir a spirit is manufactured from the fruit, but this is 



Stated by Madden to grow on the Sutlej, but with no notice 
of its fruit or uses. 

P. KuMAONENsis. Wall. (P. AEiA. Ehrh.) 

Vernacular. J. doda^ chota. K. chitanoj mdil tang. C. 
mdil, mahaul, litH. R. maul, kanglu. B. banpdla. S. 
marphol, p&ld, bisir. T. I. gdn pahs. 

A small tree' common in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
from 6,000 to 10,500 feet, up to the Indus, and doubtless beyond 
Jthat river from there being a PushtiJ name for the tree. The 
smallish fruit ripens about October and looks well, but is very 
indifferent eating even when half rotten, in which state it is 
generally consumed by the natives. 

eosaceje:. 85 

P. Malus. L. 

Vernacular. J. sher. K. tsUnt, famriij sun. C. is^ni, chungj 
seu, kashu. B. khajH, seu, cho. S. li. Lad. kiishti, 
T. I. mdna. Plains generally^ seu. 

Is cultiTated in parts of the Punjab Himalaya^ and is 
apparently wild in places with a miserable fruit from 5^000 to 
9^000 feet on the Chenab and Sutlej ; is also grown in Lad^ to 
11^500 feet, and in AfiFgh4nist4n, whence Davies' Trade Report 
says that 75 maunds are imported annually vi& Peshawar. In 
some parts, especially towards the west, the fruit is juicy and 
pleasant, though not to be compared with English apples. Some 
years ago an European was got out by the Maharaja of Kashmir 
to initiate the manufacture of cyder, but the attempt broke down. 
Vigne says the apples of Tibet are excellent, and they are really 
Tery palatable. Apples are also cultivated in the plains^ but of 
very inferior quality, 


Vernacular. J. batangi. E. shindar, tang, tdngi. C. keint^ 
kithH^ ffddkiijL B. keint, kiat. B. keitha, kent. S. 
keint, shegM. 

A moderate sized tree, occasionally reaching 6 feet in girth, 
and foimd in most parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 2,500 to 
7,000 feet, up to the Indus. The timber is tolerably strong, and 
is used for implements, walking-sticks, &c. The fruit is harsh 
and bitter until half rotten, like a medlar, when it is eatable. 

BosA BauNONis. L. 


Vernacular. J. phulidri, chal, K. phicl wdri, kriir, C. 
karer. B. karlr, kajei. B. k'&jo, kuji, phuUdri, gungdrL 
S. Mi, kahL T. I. guhb ghurei. 

A fine wild white rose climbing luxuriantly over bushes and 
even tall trees. Is common in the outer Himalaya from 2,400 to 
7^000 feet, up to and probably beyond the Indus. 


B. Damascena. Mill. 
B. Indica. J. 


Vernacular, guldb, sewtiy &c. Baz&r, stamens, zireh guldb. 

All of these appear to be cultivated in the plains. From the 
first especially, and perhaps others^ rosewater and attar of roses 


are prepared in many places. The flowers are officinal^ being 
considered aperient and cordial^ and the stamens are used as a 
cooling aperient in inflammations. 


One or more wild yellow roses are found in Kashmir^ Lahoul^ 
Tibet^ &c. Lowther states that they are sometimes double^ and 
Thomson mentions double yellow roses at 11^000 feet in Lad4k. 
Masson speaks of a K&bul rose^ the petals of which are yellow 
externally (perhaps yariety funicsa of B. eolanteria) . 


Vernacular. J. shingdrL C. ffuldb, Jikjik. B, banguldb, 
akhidri. S. bankijfru, yal, tHndj t4mb{. 

There is some confusion as to this species^ but it seems to 
grow over a wide range up to the Indus^ from 4,500 to 10,500 
feet. Its fruit is eaten, and is stated by Madden to become very 
sweet when black and rotten. In Ean&war a perfome is said 
to be extracted frt>m the flowers for export towards the plains. 

B. Webbiana. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. kantidn. C. sikanda, manyar^ shdwali cMa^ 
S. Hngydlf kugina. Lad. ^a, sea. 

This rose is found chiefly in the rather arid tracts of the 
Punjab Himalaya from 5,000 to 9,500 feet, up to near the Indus^ 
and in Laddk it reaches 13,500 feet. Its firuit is eaten, and in 
parts of Spiti the stems are largely used for fiiel. 


The native names are inextricably confused. I have made 
the best possible of them and of the species. 


Vernacular. J. akhreri, C. kantanch, kharidra. B. karer, 
B. ankren. S. bumbal, insra, bdlang, kalkaUn. 

A red fruited species which appear to be common in many 
places in the Punjab Himalaya from 5,000 to 10,500 feet, up to 
the Indus. 

B. FLATUS. Ham. 

Vernacular. J. pukdna, gurdcha. B. dkM, kundcMy gurdcha. 

Yellow fruited, not very common from 2,500 to 7,000 feet^ 
up to near the Indus, 

EOSACE^. 87 


Vernacular. E. dlish, shdU dag gdach, B. akhL T. I. 

With dark purple fruit is not uncommon at rather low 
elevations (up to 5^000 feet occasionally) ^ and found at the foot of 
the hills in the extreme N. W. Punjab. 


Vernacular. J. ffundcha, pagiinai, pakdna. E. pakdnt, 
gurdcha, handid/ra, kharmach, surgauch. C. tulanch, 
oche, T. I. manzakhta. 

A black fruited species one of the commonest of all^ from 
3^000 to 8^000 feet^ up to and beyond the Indus. 

B. PUBPUBEUs. Bunge. 

Vernacular. ? 

Mentioned by Aitchison as growing in Lahoul at^ say^ 10^000 


Vernacular. J. kanachi, krora. E. chench, kandchi, pukdna. 
B. dkhra, kharen. B. dnkhL S. esar. 

With yellow fruity not uncommon at rather low elevations 
(from 2,300 to 6,000 feqj;) up to the Indus. The identity of this 
species is very doubtful. 


Vernacular. E. pulla, 

A black fruited species not uncommon from 4,500 to 8,500 
feet, up to the Indus. The fruit is not much prized. 

Of the fruit of the Himalayan Bubi, Moorcroft says that the 
red is nearly equal to English^ but the light and dark yellow are 
not so good. 

Spibsa Eamtschatika. Fall. 

Vernacular. E. angrdsiha. S. zh'ik. 

A small and pretty species resembling the meadow-sweet of 
Europe, one of the less common kinds, grows from 6^000 to 
lO^OOb feet. Is of no use so far as I know. 



Yemacular. J. kihri. E. dor, bai pis, C. kdpru, kurhni, 
rdntML B. dodal, kime, amrethi. S. kartfftar, MgK, 
hrustj kanHri. T. I. sarlakhtei. 

A shrub with fine white flowers the handsomest and one of 
the commonest of the Himalayan species of SpiRjtA^ grows from 
4^000 to 10^500 feet^ up to and beyond the Indus. Is of no 
special use. 



Vernacular, dhan, chdL 

A large and handsome tree common in the Siw&lik tract up to 
the RAvi. In some parts of India the timber is much valued for 
beams, naves, and in ship-building, &c. Here it is reckoned strong 
and durable, and is used for implements, beams, &c. It also 
fomishes a very good charcoal. The leaves are employed for 
tanning, and in some parts are exported to the plains for this 
purpose. The gum, which exudes from incisions made in the bark, 
is used in cloth-printing. 

Fentaftera toMENTosA. Rox ; and P. GLABEA. Rox. 

(Terminalia. W. and A.) 

Yemacular. dsan, sein. 

Grows to a large tree, and is found in the Siwdlik tract up to 
near the R4vi, but is not common within Punjab bounds, except in 
the extreme east. Its wood is of fair quality, and is employed for 
ordinary purposes, and for making charcoal. 

Tebminalia abjttna. W. and A. (Pentapteba. Rox.) 
Vernacular. B. drfan. Plains, jumla. 

A tree which occurs scantily in the Siw&lik tract up to the 
Ravi. The dark heart-wood is said to be heavy, hard, and strong, 
but to be apt to split and liable to the attacks of white ants. In 
K4ngra the bark is applied medicinally to sores^ &c. 


T. Bellbbica. Box. Belleric Myrobalans. 

Vernacular, bahera. 

A large tree which grows in the eastern part of the Siw&lik 
tracts and occurs planted^ attaining a considerable size^ in some 
places in the plains up to the Indus> and in the hills north of the 
Peshawar Valley (BeUew) . Its yellowish wood is coarse-grained, 
and subject to tiie attacks of white ants and other insects. It is 
used in buildings but in K&ngra is considered unlucky when thus 
employed. In K&ngra also the leaves are considered the best 
fodder for milch cows. They are likewise used in tanning. The 
firuit is employed as a mordant in dyeing and in tannings and for 
making ink. Half ripe they are purgative, and ripe they are 
astringent, and are used medicinally in mucous discharges from 
the lungs and bowels. 


T. CHSBULA. Betz. Chebulic Myrobalans. 

Vernacular, hear, Jiarrar. Baz&r, fruit, har of three or four 
. kinds according to ripeness and size. 

Grows to be a large tree, Ijut mostly planted, in the Siwdlik 
tract, up to the Peshawar Valley (Bellew) . The wood is yellowish, 
hard, and heavy, and is used for agricultural implements, &c., 
but is not valued. The fruit is employed by dyers as a mordant, 
and in various stages, under different names, is used medicinally, 
mostly in diseases of the bowels. 


Tbapa bispinosa. Box. Water caltrops. 

Vernacular. K. gaiinri. Plains, &c., singhdrd. 

Not uncommon in pools and tanks (probably always intro- 
duced) in parts of the Punjab plains up to Peshawar, and in 
Kashmir (5,000 feet). The fruit, wliich in flavour resembles a 
chesnut, is eaten both raw and cooked, especially by the Hindus, 
as it is phaldhar, i. e., may be eaten in their fasts. In Kashmir 
miles of the lakes and marshes, &c., are covered with this plant. 
Moorcroft states that in the valley it famishes ahnost the only 
food of at least 30,000 people for five months of the year, and 
that from the WilLar lake ninety-six to one hundred thousand 
ass-loads are taken annually, the Government drawing 90,000 
rupees duty on it. And within the last few years it has been 
stated on good authority that the Maharaja gets more than a 
14kh of Company's^rupees annually from this source. 



Ammannia axjriculata. Willd.") y 


Vemacular. jangli mehndL Baz4r^ plants dddmdri. 

It seems probable that blisters are prepared from both of 
these plants in the Punjab. They grow in wet places ; the former 
apparently at least to some little elevation (4,000 or 5,000 feet) 
in the hills. The plant is officinal for blistering purposes, in parta 
of India. 


Vernacular. JT. tdwL K. tdwi, tML R. tdwiy tau. B. 
dahdi, dhdwi hhurd. U. dhd. S. R. tdwi, ddwi. 

A shrub with a fine red flower, which grows abundantly in 
many parts of the Siw&lik tract, and in the Salt Range, up to 
4,000 feet, and occasionally still higher. The wood is only used 
for fuel, being small. The flowers are employed in dyeing, and 
in medicine are considered astringent, and applied in plaster for 
headache, &c. The leaves also are officinal in the Punjab. In 
Kdngra, part of the plant is stated to be used in the preparation 
of spirits. (?) 

Lagebstbjemia pa&viflora. Rox. 
Vernacular. bdkU, dhdu, dhaura. 

This, which grows to be a large tree, is not common in the 
Punjab Siwdlik tract. Its timber is yellowish, elastic, and tough, 
and is valued for agricultural implements, &c. In the N. W. 
Provinces it is reckoned one of the best woods for buggy- 
shafts, &c. 

Lawsonia inebmis. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. nakrize^ Plains generally, mehndi, hinna, 

A small shrub cultivated throughout the Punjab plains for its 
leaves, which are used to dye cloth, the feet and hands, and beard. 
There is a detailed account of the method of cultivation by 
Edgeworth in the Journal As. Soc, for September 1838. From 
Davies' Trade Report 50 maunds would appear to be annually 


imported into Peshawar frooi Jal&lab&d^ and curiously enough 
2,000 maujids as exported to Affgh&nistdn by the Bol&n. (?) 


Myricaria elegans. Royle. 

Vernacular. S. htimbii. (?) Lad. ^mbi^ hicmbH. 

There is some confusion as to these two species^ but I believe 
I have found this at 9^000 feet sparingly on the Sutlej^ and it 
grows from 10,000 feet on the Upper Chenab to 15,000 in Lad&k, 
Aitchison states that in Lahoul its leaves are applied to bruises, &;c. 
The leaves are often covered with a saline efflorescence. The 
twigs are in Laddk browsed by sheep and goats. 

M. Germanica. Desv. (?) 

Yemacttlar. J. bis. K. shdlakdt. C. hitmb^hj kathL S« 
humb6. Lad. iimb&, joarakise. 

Not uncommon in various parts of the basins of the Jhelam, 
Chen&b, and Sutlej, and in Spiti and Laddk, from 6,000 to 
14,000 and occasional specimens up to over 16,000 feet. Is 
smaller and less handsome than the other^ and of no use so far 
as I know. 

Tamarix dioica. Box. Tamarisk. 
T. Gallica. L. (T. Indica. Box.) 

Vernacular. Jhaii, Idi, kachlei, ghazlei, pilcM, rttkh, kodn. 
Lad. rgelta. Bazdr^ twigs, hdsha. 

I shall not attempt here to distinguish between these two 
species. The former, with sometimes the latter, is common along 
much of the banks of the great rivers, by small streams and in 
other moist sandy places. The latter is found to 10,600 feet on 
the Sh&yokk in Laddk. The former is generally small, but 
the latter reaches 3 feet in girth and 30 high, and furnishes much 
of the steamer fiiel in the Southern Punjab, and still more in 
Sind. There also the wood, which is coarse-grained and often 
very red, is used for Persian wheels, in turning, &c., as well as 
occasionally in the Southern Punjab. In Lad&k where wood is 
scarce, this is used for the handles of the sticks for polo, hockey 
on horseback. For manna and galls, said sometimes to be pro- 
duced by the latter of these, see the next species. The twigs are 
used in medicine as astringent* 


T. 0BIBNTALI8. L. Tamarisk. 

Vernacular, ghwd, ghuz. Plains generally, farwd (fords) 
Hkhdn, rukh, kharlei, narleu Baz&r, galls, mdi bari, 
mdi chhoH ; manna, gazanj bin, misH lei; flowers, it^r. 

A tree, sometimes mistaken by Europeans for a fir, which 
grows commonly in the Punjab plains, chiefly from Dehli west- 
ward, along the more arid tracts up as far as Peshawar, flowering- 
afler the rains. A proportion of the trees grow with their 
branches rather upright and close to the trunk, somewhat like 
Acacia Arabica citpressina q. r. Elphinstone remarked ita 
extremely sombre cypress-like shade, but the twigs, with small 
scale-like leaves, are so fine that it furnishes a very insufScient 
guard from the sun. It grows very rapidly, and to a large size, 
and I have frequently seen trees of 10 or 12 feet girth (there is 
one of 12 feet at the tomb close to the Agri-Horticultural Society's 
garden, Lahore) and 60 or 70 high ; but it speedily decays at the 
heart, and most of the larger specimens are hollow. Edgeworth 
states that he has seen trees of six or seven years as much as 5 
feet in girth, and that they often fall of old age at 20 years. It 
mostly grows where the soil is saline, but not too light. The 
small light downy seeds would be extremely difficult to collect, 
but it is raised very readily from cuttings, and it is stated that a 
branch or log will shoot when lying on the ground. The cuttings 
to be put in about June may be a foot long, and the upper end should 
be covered with cowdung to prevent rotting ; they are frequently 
merely buried lengthwise in the groimd. The timber is coarse- 
grained, and weighs 92 lbs. per cubic foot green, and 60 lbs. dry. 
In the Southern Punjab it is used for ploughs, Persian wheels, 
and small rafters, being often cut as coppice for the last purpose. 
In Sind the wood is employed in turnery. When the green wood 
is used for friel, it is said to give out a most offensive odour, 
rendering it intolerable in a room, whence the European soldiers 
at Peshawar gave it a ludicrous nickname. But when dry it 
bums without smell, and makes a tolerable friel for ordinary 
purposes, although by the Bailway people only the SaIvadoba 
(q. V.) is reckoned worse for the locomotive. The galls appear 
mostly or altogether to be derived from this species, and the 
two names seem to me to indicate merely difierence of size, not of 
origin. They are employed as a mordant in dyeing, and in 
medicine are reckoned astringent, being used in gargles, &c. ; Trans- 
Indus the bark is stated to be used for tanning. The manna of 
the Tamarisk is said to be very accurately described by Diodorus 
Siculus. Near Sinai it is stated to be produced by the borings 
of an insect. Aitchison notes that he never saw it on the tree in 
the Punjab, nor have I observed anything nearer it than a white 
caterpillar-looking larva, with which I have repeatedly seen 


trees infested. It is, however, said to be produced largely in 
parts of the Punjab, e. ff., near Jhang, but I have been unable to 
get detailed information. Masson states that in Brahuist&n it is 
produced on the white flowered kind only (in the Punjab some 
few trees have whitish, instead of reddish flowers), and in alter- 
nate years with the galls, but this hardly seems probable. The 
twigs have often or always a saline taste from a very minute 
efflorescence of salt, and Edgeworth mentions that poor people near 
Miiltdn dip them in water in order to season bread. In parts of 
the Punjab the flowers are said to be used in dyeing. 

Mablea beoonifolia. Box. 

♦ . Vernacular. J. Hlpattra, chit pattra, kurkni. K. prot. C. 
sidlii. B. padlfi. B. bodard, mandrd. 

A handsome small tree with maple-like leaves, occurring from 
about 8,200 occasionally to 6,000 feet, up to near the Indus. Its 
leaves are eaten by sheep. 


Fhiladelfhus Sp.? 

Yemacular. S. biizr^, m^dnd, zhbang. 

On the Sutlej at least, what appears to be a species of P., 
occurs at from 8,000 to 9,500 feet, and is stated to be used for 


Eucalyptus Sp. var. Oum tree. 

These Australian trees have as yet not been foimd easy to 
raise in the Punjab, although improvement is taking place in that 
respect. But several of the trees, which have succeeded at 
Lahore and Madhoptir, when they were first introduced in 1860, 
by seed obtained from Dr. Chalmers, have grown at least twice as 
rapidly as the ordinary Punjab trees. 

Mtbtus communis. L. 

Vernacular, vildyati mehndi, mUrad. Baz&r, leaves, miirad; 
fruit, habb ul ds, habMil. 

. Occasionally grown in the Punjab, by Natives and Europeans. 
The leaves^ however, seem also to be brought from the west, and 


are officinal^ being giyen in cerebral affections> and for flata-^ 
lenee^ &e. The habb ul ds, though nominally always the firoit of the 
myrtle^ appears at times to be the small fruit of some other 
plants not yet identified with certainty. It is given in cases of 
diarrhoea and internal ulcerations^ as an emetic^ and in cases of 

PsiDiuM OuAJAYA. Guava^ 

Vemacnlar. amriit, amr^d. 

Not very commonly cultivated except in the east of the 
Punjab^ and probably introduced by Europeans^ 

PuNicA GBANATUH. L. Pomcgnoiftte. 

Vernacular. J. ddr^Si, daruni, dariun. C. dardni, danii, 
dddn, R. jaman. B. ddriiy ddran, T. I. anor. Plains 
generally^ dndr. Baz4r^ rind, ndspdl; seeds, dndr ddna» 

Is common wild in the N. W. Punjab Himalaya at from 
about 2,500 to 6,000 feet, from the Bi4s up to and beyond the 
Indus. It is commonly cultivated in the plains. The wood is 
used by the natives for roofs, &c. Thongh the fruit of the Punjab 
is immensely inferior to what comes from the west, (Davies' 
Trade Report puts the quantity annually imported vi& Peshawar 
at 2,250 maunds), yet curiously enough, Masson says that the 
Affgh&nist&n fruit is not so much esteemed as that of warmer 
regions. The Punjab fruit, such as it is, is eaten by the natives,, 
and Moorcroft mentions that its juice is boiled with Capsicums to 
make a sauce. The rind is extensively used in tanning and dyeing^,, 
and the seeds are reckoned astringent, and given for coughs. The 
root bark is an excellent vermifuge, deserving attention even from 
European practitioners, and is said to be useftd in diarrhoea. 

SizYoiuM Jambolanum. DC. 

Vernacular. Jdman, jaman. 

A tree commonly cultivated in the Punjab, thongh less 
frequent towards the north-west. One authority states that it 
will succeed in the most alkaline soil. It grows to a large size, 
and even in the Punjab, trees of 8 and 9 feet girth, and 70 or 
80 feet high, are not uncommon. There is one of 11 feet 
girth at the Chiniot ferry on the Chen&b, one of 1^ feet below 
DhunSra at 8,000 feet near the R&vi, and another of 15 feet 
at 8,200 feet elevation, on the top of Tilla in the Salt Range. 
The heart-wood is reddish and strong, and not subject ta 
worms, but is apt to warp, and is said not to last well in au% 

HT&TACSiB. 95 

althougli it is a favourite for well-work. Agricultural implements^ 
sugar-mills^ Scc.j are sometimes made of it. The astringent fruit 
is eaten by natives^ and is said to be employed for making spirits. 
Even the kernels are eaten in time of famine; they are used 
in medicine as astringent^ and a decoction of the bark is employed 
as a gargle in sore mouth. 


Cabbta a&bobea. Box. 

Vernacular. U. k&mbhi. Baz&r^ flowers, vakhUmba. 

As this tree appears just to cross the Jumna into the Punjab 
in the Siw&Uk re^on, it is necessary only to mention it here. 
Its flowers are officinal^ being given by Hindus after child-birth. 


Beyoxia umbellata. Wmd. 

Vernacular. J. ffwdl hakri. S. mohaJcH. 

Not uncommon at from 2^500 to 7^500 feet in the Punjab 
Himalaya. The fruit is eaten^ and on the Sutlej the root is said 
to be given for spermatorrhea. 

Benincasa cebifeba. Savi. 
Vernacular, petha, chdl humra, gol kaddii. 
Cultivated for its fruity a large pumpkin. 

GiTBULLus YtTLGABis. Schrad. var. Cuct7bbita citbullvs. L. 
(CiTcuMia ciTBULLus. Scr.) Water-melon. 

Vernacular. H. tnathira. Plains^ generally^ tarbuz^ hind* 

Commonly cultivated throughout the Punjab plains. If not 
really wild, it ia apparently so and covers the ground for miles 
in sandy deserts near Sirsa, and in the Sind Sagur Do&b, ripen- 
ing in the cold weather. It grows also over immense tracts on 
the low ground along some of the rivers, e. g,, the Bids, in 
"Gtirdaspur, &c. Its fruit is a favourite with natives, and in some 
parts (e. g., Shahpur) the seeds are eaten parched^ with other 


C. VULGARIS. Schrad. yar. C. ustvlobvb. Stocks. 

Yemacidar. iind, albinda, dilpasand, 

A small round gourd commonly cultivated (in Sind where 
it was first described by Stocks and) near Mtilt&n and Lahore^ 
and it is said much fiu*ther east. It is sown about April, and 
ripens in July; is cooked as a gourd, and has a pleasant 
flavour when young, but the seeds are troublesome as it gets old. 
A French authority maintains that this and the last, unlike as 
they are, are only varieties produced by long-continued culti- 

CocciNEA Indica. W. and A. 

Yemacular. kanduri, ghol, Mndrii. 

Not uncommon wild in the Punjab plains, except peihaps in 
the western parts. Its fruit is eaten, generally uncooked. 


Colocynth gourd. 

Yemacular. T. I. maragMne, hhartuma. S. B. gh^in&mba. 
S. S. D. Mrtamma. B. D. kharttima, tumbi. H. 
ghoriimba. Baz&r, fruit, hanzal, indrdgan; seeds, itJ^m 

This plant, which furnishes the colocynth of the European 
pharmacopeias, grows abimdantly in most of the arid sandy tracts 
of the Punjab, from Dehli up to Peshawar (as it does in the 
deserts by the Jordan and near Sinai) . Its fruit is extensively 
used as a purgative for horses, &c., and the pulp is officinal, being 
given to men, in preference when fresh, in warm water, or when 
dried with ajwdin — (see Ptychotis) &c., and it is reckoned espe- 
cially valuable in cholera, which smacks of homaeopathy. The 
seeds also are officinal. The fresh root is used as a tooth brush, 
and dried and powdered is given as a purgative (Bellew). 

C. MELo. L. Musk melon. 

Yemacular. kharbiSuia. Lad. zaghim. AS. sarda, paUz. 

Cultivated all over the Punjab plains, some of the kinds 
being excellent, especially some of those of Multan and Jhang. 
Those of the latter have been compared to the best Egyptian. 
Those of Kashmir are stated to be rather watery ; but Moorcroft 
declares the people fatten on them, '' as horses are said to do at 
Bokh&ra.'^ Yigne states that the melons of Tibet, where they are 
grown to 10,500 feet^ are small but good. In reality those of 


Ladik are rery similar to those of the plains^ ftc.j but with 
less flavour. In Affgh&nist&n (where paliz appears to mean the 
CucuRBiTACEJS generally, and not m^on-fields as Masson puts 
it) several varieties of melon are extensivdy grown, and Davies' 
Trade Report states that 800 mule loads are annually imported 
thence vi& Peshawar. The best known and most valued of these 
is the sarda, which by express reaches the N. W. Punjab in good 
condition. It has been frequently raised in the Punjab^ but is 
said speedily to degenerate to the ordinary standard. 


Vernacular, kaehrdf phdni. 

Cultivated throughout the Punjab plaias for its fruit. 


Vernacular, kachri. 

Occurs wild in the Punjab plains. The small fruit is eaten. 

C. sATivxrs. L. Cucumber. 

Vernacular, khtra. Baz4r, seeds^ tukhm( khh/drain. 

Commonly cultivated throughout the Punjab plains. The 
seeds of this and the next are officinal, being considered cooling. 
May be the balam khiraj or hill cucumberj mentioned by Lowther. 

C. UTiLissiHUS. Box. 

Vernacular, kakrt. 

Cultivated throughout the Punjab plains, and to a consider- 
able elevation (I believe I have seen it at 6,000 feet on the B4vi) 
in the hills. This gourd attains 2 or 2i feet, and is stated to 
reach the extraordin^T' length of 5 feet. 

CucxTBBiTA MAXTMA. W. and A. C. Pepo. L. (C. melopepo. 

WiUd.)? Squaah. 

Vomacnlar. K.alP Iad.daffhan,kaddtistff4d,mUhakaddji, 
halwa kaddu. 

There is a confusion as to this species, but it is ctQtivated 
throughout the plains, and apparently in Kashmir, to 6,000 feet, 
or possibly to 9,000 in other parts of the Himalaya, and at 
10^500 fieet in Lad&k^ for its fruit, a large pumpkin. 


Laoenaria vuloabis. Ser. 

Vernacular, kaddti, KdbuU kaddic, lauki, Hmba. 

A large gourd cniltiyated throughout the Punjab plains. Its 
seeds are used medicinally^ being given in headache^ &c. 


Vernacular, kdli toH, turdiy jhinga (?) 


Vernacular, ghia torij gki turdi. 

Both of these appear to be cultivated throughout the Punjab 
plains for their fruit, which is cooked and eaten as a vegetable. 
Bellew states that in the Peshawar Valley the seeds of one or both 
are given^ with black pepper in warm water, as emetic and 


Vernacular, harela. 

Cultivated in the plains for its bitter fruit, which requires 
steeping ere being used. Edgeworth mentions that it is wild on 
sand-hnis in the Southern Punjab. 

M. DioiCA. Box. 

Vernacular. €. dhdr harela. S. B. Mrara. 

Wild in various places in the outer hiUs, Salt Bange, and 
plains. (?) I am not aware that it is used. 


Vernacular, kakora. 

Wild in parts of the Punjab plains. The fruit is cooked and 
eaten, and is also said to be officinal. The root likewise is used 
medicinally, being given as an astringent and warm medicine^ 
and in Hindustan is applied to hsBmorrhoids, &c. (Honigberger). 



Grows wild in the Southern Punjab (Edgeworth) . 


TsiCHOBANTHSs AN6TTINA. L. Snake gourd. 

Veniactilar. gdlar tori, pandol, chichinda. (Hi.) 

Cnltiyated extensively throughout the plains for its fruity 
cooked and eaten as a vegetable. 

T. DioiCA. Box. 

Vernacular, palwal. 

Wild in the eastern and central parts of the Punjab. Its 
fruit is cooked and eaten. 

The identity of each of t]ie following Cxtcubbits is doubt- 

1. S. S. D. banga or donga, a cucumber said to be peculiar 
to Jhang ; may be a variety of Ctjcumis utilissimtjs (q. v.) 

2. F. kehra, a sweet fruited wild gourd growing near Fe- 
jpozep^^ and much eaten by natives ; perhaps Momordica mubicata 

3. B. D. Mora, a kind of pumpkin^ resembling a vegetable 
marrow^ cultivated in the plains ; may be Cucubbita rspo (q. v.) 

4. F. kuchsa, grows wild near Ferozepurj its add fruit used 
for flavourings and used by goldsmiths to clean metals. 

5. J. tribri with a smaJlish fruity which is eaten ; grows wild 
in fields at about 6,000 feet in Haz4ra ; may be a variety of 


6. With a small oval eatable fruit like Cucumis pubescenes 
(q. V.) common wild in fields, &c., at 8,500 to 4,500 feet in parts 
of the Jhelam basin. 

Cabica Papaya. L. 
y^nacular. arand hharbiiza, and-kharbiiza. {?) 

Of this tree, which is occasionally seen in gardens in the 
N. W. Provinces, I have remarked or know of none further west 
than Dehli, where there are a few specimens. 



Vernacular, hmcik. Baz4r, seeds, dhamni. (?) 

A common garden and field weed in the plains, and apparently 
to 7^000 feet in the Punjab HimiJaya. Often eaten as a pot-^herb^ 


especially in times of scarciiy. The seeds may be the officinal 
dhamni. This and P. sativa seem at times to be used indif- 


Yemacnlar. Mnak, haksha. 

Not uncommon in the Salt Kange^ and low hills^ Cis and 
Trans-Indus^ to 3^000 and at times 4^000 feet. It is used as a 
vegetable^ and is considered cooling. 


Vernacular, khtiffa. Baz&r^ seed^ dhamnL 

Cultivated as a pot-herb in the plains. Bellew states that 
the fresh leaves of this or P. oleracea are used as a cataplasm in 
erysipelas. The seeds of one or both are considered cooling and 
astringent J and given as demulcent in internal inflammations, &c. 


Yemacular. aleihi. 

Very common in some of the desert tracts of the Punjab^ and 
found up to Peshawar. Edgeworth mentions that near Mult4n 
its seeds are swept up in times of famine and eaten. 


Yemacular. biskhapra, itsU, norma. 

A common weed in waste ground in the plains. Eaten as a 
pot-herb in times of scarcity, but apt to produced diarrhoea and 
paralysis. The plant is officinal, being considered astringent in 
abdominal diseases, and is also stated to be used to produce 
abortion (Edgeworth). 

EaiiANChoe vabians. Haw.? 

Yemacular. B. B. taldra. S. rungrii. Plains, haiza-ha* 

A fleshy-leaved, yellow-flowered plant; apparently this 
species is found growing in places up to 5,000 feet in the outer 
luUs as far as the R&vi. It is poisonous to goats, and the leaves 
are, at Lahore, where it is grown in some native gardens, reckoned 
a specific for diolera. In K&ngra they are burned and applied to 


SsDUM Bhodiola. DC. 
Vernacular. ' shrolo. 

S. TiBBTicuM. Hf. and T. 

Vernacular. ? 

Both of these are. stated by Aitchison to grow in Lahoul 
(10^000 feet)^ and to be eaten as pot-horbs. 


Olinus lotoides. L. 

Vernacular. B. D. gandi biH, porprang. Baz&r^ plants 
zakhmi haiy&t. 

Not uncommon wild in the eastern and central Punjab 
plains. It is officinal^ and is gi\:en in the Punjab as a purgative 
in diseases of the abdomen under the name of zcMmA haiydt, which 
is generally ascribed to Sphoeranthits hirtus (q. v.) Cissamfelos 
PABEi&A (q. Y.) is also occasionally so called. 


'# »' ^^ . 

Cactus Indicus. Box. C?y '^"*" ' ' 

Vernacular. Mbikli tsM, gdngi sho, hinghi chu. 

This plants which Boxburgh supposed to be indigenous in 
India^ and later writers conceive to have been introduced firom 
America^ is not uncommonly grown as a hedge in the outer hills 
to 4^000 and occasionally to more than 5^000 feet, as far up 
as the Jhelam, and is sometimes seen in the plains at least 
as far south as Lahore and Jalandar. GrifBith mentions his 
having seen a specimen in a garden in EaflSrist&n said to be 
brought from Bajaur to the eastward. Previous to annexatiouj 
this plant would appear to have so abc^unded at places from 
AmhAla. to Goojr&t that the Sikhs prohibited its extension as 
a niusance. In 1844 it is stated to have ''dried up/^ or have 
been so destroyed by an influx of the cochineal insect, which feeds 
on it, that in 1852 only one hedge remained near Loodiana where 
it fixrmerly abounded. Jameson about 1840 stated that the 
Cactxts abounded near Gk)ojr&t ; but it is mentioned that it almost 
disappeared in that tract in the rains of 1849, from an irruption 
of the insect. Pnrdon mentions that in 1851 he saw the latter 
on this plant to the west of Gk>ojr6t, No experimmt on the dye 

*r* -■ 


appears to have been. made in the Punjab. Bnt the wild kind of 
cochineal insect^ grana sylvestra, was introduced from Mexico into 
the country near Calcutta before the end of last century^ and the 
experiment of its propagation continued for twelve years. And^ 
although from 1796 to 1807 as much as 90^000 lbs. of the dye 
were sent to Europe, it appears that the operations did not pay, 
so they were discontinued ; and a reward of two thousand pounds 
sterling, offered by Government with sanction of the Court of 
Directors for the introduction of the grana fina, seema to have 
led to no result. 

Bibbs obossulabia. L. (R. Himalbnsis. Boyle.) Gk)oseberry. 
Vernacular. C. amldnch, kdnsi, pilsa, teila. S. ^r-ka-ch^p. 

Is not uncommon wild in the arid parts on the Upper 
Sutlej, Chen&b, and Jhelam, and in Tibet, from 8,000 to 12,000 
feet or more. It was also found by Bellew near the Su£ld Koh 
at about 10,000 feet. The fruit is small and intensely sour, land 
hardly ever eaten even by the natives. The European gooseberry 
grows, but does not thrive or give much fruit in the Himalaya. 

B. LEFTOSTACHTirM. Duc. (B. viLLosuic. Wall.) Yellow 


B. NiGBUM. L. Black currant. 

Vernacular. J. gwdldakh. C. murddh, ndbar, iadash niangna. 
B. mandri. B. hddar, beli. S. shaktekaa. Lad* askiiia. 

These are not uncommon from 7,000 to 14,000 feet in the 
Himalaya, and the former at least grows in Tibet, and was found 
by Bellew at about 10,000 feet near the SufSd Koh. ^e fruit 
of the latter is very like the cultivated black currant, and very 
fair eating. 

B. BUBBUH. L. (B. HiMALiENSE. Duc.) Bed currant. 

Vernacular. J. dak, kagh ddk. C. rdde, dns^ phuldnch, 
nangke. B. hddiar, khddrl. T. I. wara wane. 

This appears to be the red-fruited species, which frequently 
occurs in the Punjab Himalaya from 5,800 to 11,000 feet, up to 
the Indus, and probably beyond it. But it may partly be B. 
GLACiALE, Wall. Its fruit is nearly worthless, so far as I have 
seen or tried it. Aitchison calls it a sweetish acid^ and I should 
say the latter predominates. 



Saxifraga ligulata. Wall. 

Vemacolar. J. bat pia. K. popal, toat pMta. C. shaprocM, 
kiSargotarj dharposh, banptUrak. B. saprotri, til kachdl^. 
B. skibldch makhdn bed. S. dakachr4. T. I. hamargh* 
wal. Bazar^ root^ pakhdn bed, Jintidna, maslUn. 

A large species with great leaves and handsome flowers^ often 
found growing on rocks^ %cc,y firom 4^500 to 13^000 feet^ in the 
Punjab Himalaya up to the Indus^ and got by myself at 7^000 
and Bellew at 10^000 Trans-Indus. The leaves are frequently used 
as plates, and the root is bruised and applied to boils or to ophthal- 
mia in some of the places where the plant grows. The root is also 
officinal generally under the first, occasionally under the second 
Baz4r name given, and I have once heard it called by the third 
name — (see Polygonum bistortum). It is reckoned absorbent^ 
and given in dysentery and cough, &c. 


Hydrangea, sf. 

Vernacular. ? 

A Bcandent species is mentioned by Thomson as growing at 
6,500 feet on the Sutlej, the loose bark of which is used for 


It may be noted that, although a considerable number of this 
family are cultivated as condiments, &c., in the plains, and a great 
many grow wild in the hills, the products of some of which are 
used, yet almost none are cultivated in the latter. 

Anethum sowa. Box. Dill. 

Vernacular, soya. 

Cultivated in the plains, the plant used as a vegetable. The 
«eeds are officinal, being considered emmenagogue. 

Angelica glavca. Edge. 

Vernacular, churd. 

A plant under the above native appellation, and named as 
above by Edgeworth as growing at 8^000 to 10,000 feet on 



Hattd^ &c.j near the Sutlej ; is found ako in the Dhania Dh4r 
Bange above the K&ngra Valley. Its aromatic root is added to 
food to give it '^ a celery flavour'' (Cleghom). 

Apium graveolens. L. Celery, 

Vernacular, ajmod. Baz4r, root^ harqfsh, bekk-harqfsh, 
bhM jhata ; seeds^ qfrnod, karqfah. 

This is cultivated by Europeans in the usual way, and by 
natives in the Punjab for the officinal root, which is considered 
alterative and diuretic, and given in anasarca and colic, and for 
which that of Fjsnicultjm (q. v.) may sometimes be substituted. 
The seeds also are given as stimulant and cordial. 


Vernacular. B. fomr. S. lasser. 

An aromatic root of the Himalaya is mentioned by Hoff- 
meister under the names lasser and Astrantium — (see Ferula). 
Longden notes in Kullti at 11,000 a plant called tosur^ which is 
highly scented, and eaten as a stimulant. 


Vernacular. E. kdli zewar, S. sipU, zira, (?) 

This and allied species are abundant in many parts of the 
Punjab Himalaya, from 2,500 to 11,500 feet. In Ean&war the 
root is stated to be eaten raw, and the seeds to be exported as 
zira — (see Carum). 

Carum carui. L. (C. oracilb. Bth. C. nigrum. Boyle.) 


Vernacular. C. gii,mii/,n. Lad. imbin, Bazfir, seed, sAra 

Carum carui (as well as C. gracile, if it is distinct) grows 
in profusion in many of the more arid tracts on the Sutlej and 
Chen&b, Sec., and in Kashmir and western Tibet, from 9,000 to 
145,000 feet. It would ako appear to grow in Affgh&nist&n, as 
Davies' Trade Beport gives an annual import vift Peshawar of 
no less than 100 maunds (but there may be some mistake, as the 
same authority gives 50 maunds as exported by the same route). 

The carraway seeds are used to season vegetables, and are 
largely exported to the plains from some of the parts where the 
plauat growBj to be used as a condiment^ and in medicine as a 


CoRiAND&uM BA.TTWM. L. Corionder, 

Yemacular. dharua, Bazir^ seeds^ dhania, kashnlz. 

Abondantly cultiyated throughout the plains^ and firequently 
seen (quasi) wild in fields as noted by Edg^worth. The plant is 
eaten as a vegetable^ and the seeds as a condiment. The latter 
are also imported firom Affgh&nist&n (% maunds per annum 
according to Davies' Trade Eeport)^ and are also used medicinally^ 
being given in decoction for colic^ and on the Yun&ni system for 
cerebral diseases. 


Yemacular. C. zlra, Baz&r^ seed^ zira 9vfid, 

Bellew mentions this as being wild in the hills north of the 
Peshawar Valley^ and Aitchison states that it is common wild in 
Lahoul (lOjOOO feet)^ whence the seeds are largely exported 
towards the plains. Dairies' Trade Report gives 500 maunds as 
annually imported from Afighdnist^n thrctugh the Bol&n Pass^ but. 
Ist^ the name zira has probably caused Carum (q. v.) to be mis- 
taken for this ; and 2nd^ the quantity seems enormous. The same 
authority also gives 25 maunds as exported by the same route. 
The seeds are officinal^ being considered diuretic and lactagogue. 

Baucits carota. L. 

Vernacular. K. mor miSJ, bal m^j, kdch. Plains^ ffii^'car. 

Cultivated, extensively for the root in many parts of the 
Punjab plains^ and towards the west often given to horses^ whose 
coat it i» said to improve veiy much. It is also common wild 
from 8^200 to 5^000 feet in Kashmir and some of the neighbouring 
tracts, where I was once only told that its root is eaten. Dr. 
Adams, in his ''Wanderings of a Naturalist/' mentions that in 
Kashmir the brown bear is fond of a small white wild carrot, 
but this must apply to some Umbellifer growing at a greater 
elevation than tins. The seeds are officinal^ being considered 
aphrodisiac^ and also given in uterine pains. 

Ertnoixtm planum. L. or E. bichotomuh. Desf. 

Vernacular. J. poU, mitti&a (Cleghom) . K. kandti. Bazar, 
root, shakdkul misri, pahdri gdjar, AS., seeds^ ntirdlam. 

An Ertnoitjm grows wUd in Kashmir and the nei^bouring 
tracts up to 5^000 feet, as well as in the Peshawar plain, and in the 
Salt Range, On the spot it is not said to be of any use, but 


Roylej I knor . not on what grounds^ assigns to EaYKOiVM (cam- 
pestke)^ th0 origin of the officinal root called as above, the true 
source of which is still unknown, Honigberger having assigned 
it to '' Pastinaca sicacul/' and some previous writers to sium. 
Davies' Trade Report estimates the annual quantity of this 
imported from Affgh&nist4n vift Peshawar at as much as 25 
maunds. It is considered tonic snd aphrodisiac possibly on the 
'' doctrine of signatures/' In Kandahar the seeds are stated to 
he officinal under the above name. 

Ferula a8SAF(btida. L. (nabthex. Falc.) Assafoetida. 

Vernacular. A£f. ang^za. Bazdr, gum resin, hinff. Eash- 
mir, yofi^r. 

I got this plant in Kh£g&n (Jhelam basin) at about 6,000 
feet, and Cleghorn mentions specimens of it as bein^ brought to 
him on the Upper Chen&b at over 8,000 feet. (It is also given 
by Aitchison as growing in Lahoul (10,000 feet), not much 
farther up the Chen&b, but I find from Mr. Jaeschke that this 
was a Dobeha). Cleghorn also states that Dr. Falconer sent 
seeds of the plant from Iskardo to Mussooree and England (where 
it thrives in the open air) . Dr. Adams states that he saw the 

Slant in Kashmir, and that loads of it are taken to « Sirinuggur, 
ut Dr. Elmslie assures me that the plant is not known there. 
And it is hardly likely to be common or its product known as 
derived from it, Cis-Indus, for what assafgbtida is used in the 
Punjab Himalaya is imported from Affgh4nist&n viS the plains. 
In Affghdnistin the plant grows wild abundantly on the plains 
to the west of KiUti-Ohilsi (7,000 feet), and the chief supply 
is obtained firom the hills to the north of the Bol&n Pass, and 
about the Halmand (perhaps 3,500 feet) according to BeUew. 
He states that in April and May incisions (chiefly long cuts which 
produce lumps, sometimes pricks which yield tears) are made 
across or round the crown of the root. Gum exudes and is 
collected for a fortnight from these, to the amount of from one 
ounce to two pounds (?) from a single plant. Bellew also 
mentions that in Afighwist&n the leaves, which likewise have the 
alliaceous smell, are used as a vegetable, and the succulent part of 
the young stem is eaten after roasting with salt and butter. The 
Affgh^ns only use the gum medicinally, but very large quantities 
of it are annually imported into India to be used as a condiment 
by natives. . In some parts, e. ^., Kashmir, only Hindus eat it. 
Davies estimates the vearly import vi4 Peshawar at 200 maunds. 
It is also officinal, being considered absorbent, and given in 
colic, &c. This has been conjectured to have produced the laiser 
of the ancients — (see Astrantia) — ^which, however^ is now ascribed 
to a. Thapsia. 


PiBNicuLUM TXTLOABB. Gtert. B^eiinel. 

Vernacular, smmf. Baz&r^ root^ bekh kar(i^sh.(?) 

Cultivated commonly in the Punjab plains as a pot-herb. 
Its seeds are officinal^ being considered carminative, and the root 
appears to be occasionally used under the above name for that of 
AriUM (q. v.)^ being considered alterative and.diuretic, and given 
in anasarca, and likewise in colic. 


Vernacular, B. paddlU. S. pordl. 

This (one of several Himalayan) species is common in parts 
of the hills from 8,500 to 11,000 feet. In Bissahir and Chumba 
it is collected for winter fodder, and Cleghom mentions that it is 
believed to increase the mOk of goats fed with it. 

LiGUSTicxTM AJowAN. L. (Ptychotis jkJowAN. DC.) Lovsge. 

Vernacular, cfjwain. 

Cultivated in the Punjab plains for its seeds, which are given 
in colic, strangury, &c. 

Pbtbosblinttm sativum. Hoff. Parsley. 

Vernacular, ptiar saUri. 

Cultivated in the plains, but probably only for Europeans, 
as the native name is merely a corruption. 


Vernacular. anisAn. 

I have not seen this cultivated for use as a pot-herb in the 
Punjab, but Bellew states that in the Peshawar Valley the plant is 
used as a vegetable. About Lahore, &c., it is grown for the seeds, 
which are officinal, being carminative. 

P. CBiNiTA. Boiss. 

Vernacular. S. B. bal qfwdin. 

A small plant common in the Salt Range up to about 2,000 
feet, and in several of the more arid tracts of the Punjab, Cis and 
Trans-Indus. In some parts the seeds are given for colic, but 
they are not identical with thfe. bal qfwdin of the Lahore drug- 
sellers, whidi has not yet been identified with certaiaijr,^ but may 
be a speoiea of P* — (see Pttcbotis) • 



VemacTilar* ? 

Grows at from 10^000 to 15,000 (?) feet in parte of the 
Himalaya. Mr. Jaeschke informa me that the natives in some 
places attribute the pass-headache to this plant. 

Pranoos PABUiiARiA. Lindl. 

Vernacular. Lad. prangos. {?J AS. komal, komdl. Baz&r, 
seed^ fitrastililin. 

This plant grows south from Iskardo in western Lad&k at 
10,000 feet, in parte of Kashmir at 6,000 to 6,000 feet (I found 
it above Yerndg, where Moorcrofr also says he saw it), and in 
Affgh&nist&n, in iJie high land roimd Ghuzni, about 7,000 or 8,000 
feet (Bellew), and near Maid&n, close to K&bul, at 6,000 feet, 
and towards H&jiguk, perhaps 12,000 feet (Moorcroft, who calls 
it komaii) . Bellew brought at least one other species of P. fit>m 
Affghdnistdn. In Laddk and AfPgh&nist&n it is collected (with most 
other plante, as in these countries vegetation is scarce) for winter 
fodder for cattle, sheep, and goate, horses taking to it less readUv, 
and no animal browsing more than ite flower while it is growing. 
In Affgh&nist&n it would appear to grow much shorter than 
Cis-Indus, where its seed ripens about August. Moorcroft wrote 
that it is *^ one of the most valuable fodder plante in Ladak, and 
perhaps of any country whatever,'^ and considered that ite use 
accounted for the absence of liver fluke in the sheep of that 
country. He also reported to a Member of the Court of Direc- 
tors, that ite '^probable utility is unrivalled in the history of 
agricultural productions/'^ And since then a strong desire has at 
various times arisen that other countries might reap the advantage 
of ite being introduced as a fodder-plant; quite recently an 
urgent request for its seeds came to the Punjab from Madras, 
and a large supply has just been got through Dr. Cayley. But 
it would appear that Moorcroft unintentiooAlly very much ex- 
aggerated the virtues of the pran^»\ He himself states that 
the peasante of Kashmir (where vegetation is much more abund- 
ant than in Lad&k) were ignorant of these supposed virtues, and 
Yigne in Lad&k iteelf apparently heard no great accounte of its 
reputation. In Kashmir and Affghdnist&n (?) Falconer also found 
it nowhere highly prissed, and Griffith says that in Afigh&nistfin 
80 great is the dearth of herbage that the people cut almost every 
plant of any size for fodder. (Falcon^s statement is difficult 
to reconcile with the curious remark of — ^I think — ^Bumes, that he 
found it ^ten even by his fellow-travellers on account of its supposed 
finttening powers). Moorcroft^s editor mentions that the plant 
raised firom the seeds, sent to England by the former in 1822^ had 


died^ and none liad been got since. But within the last few months^ 
a writer in the Gardener's Chronicle mentioned that it had been 
ndsed in Engknd, and that there is no reason to suppose that the 
bdief in its virtues as to liver fluke are aught but illusory. It 
was raised at Mussooree firom Ealooner^s seeds, and is said still to 
grow there. Moorcroft states that the water in which the plant 
is steeped ''destroys snails/' and that its root rubbed on itch 
will cure the disease. The fttraadlii&n (a term corrupted £rom 
the Greek) found in the Lahore Baz&rs, and used as an aphro- 
disiac, is the seed of this or some nearly allied species of Pbangos. 

Pttchotis coptica. DC. 

Vernacular. S. B. bal igwain. 

Is stated by Edgeworth to be cultivated in the N. W. 
Provinces (for its seeds ?), and is not uncommon wild in the 
Salt Bange up to 2,000 feet. In the latter its seeds are given 
mediciiially — (see Pimpikella cbinita) . Several dubious Umbbl* 
LiFSBJE may be noted here for what the information is worth—* 

1. B. Budkes — (see Cobtdalis) . B. giidiA miisaU. S. spogii, 
(tee (or more) species growing to 12,000 feet in Chumba^ 
Kullu, &c., of which the bitter roots and young leaves are put 
into the fermented liquor of those parts to ''make it strong. '' 
This may be one of the species of obbocome of Edgeworth. I 
think it is l^e leaves, of the same plant, which in Kan&war 
(growing also about 9 — 12,500 feet) are stuck by the men in their 
caps as ornaments, and on account of their odour. 

2. S. Magdzira grows near moisture at about 9,500 feet in 
Kan&war, of which the seeds are eaten, and some exported. 

8. J. Morchar^ a fine plant, one of the largest of the Umbbl- 
LiFEBs that I know, growing with a very thick stem, &c., to 5 or 
6 feet high in moist places at 8,000 to 9,500 feet in Khfig&n. 
Its very large root, redundant with yellow juice, has a pleasant 
odour, and is pounded and mixed with snuff, which is sud. to be 
good for headache. . 

4. B. Tilla, Singo (apparently a generic name) a slender tallish 
plant growing at 6,800 to 13,800 feet in Cbomba. The tuber is 
eaten, both raw and cooked. This may be a Bunium " Earth- 
nut,'' of which several species are found in the Punjab Himalaya^ 
particularly B. (Cabuh Koch) buia^castanum L., a Britiah 
species which occora above 6,000 feet. 

5. S. A white flowered Umbbllipbb (which I did not have 

Cinted out to me on the spot, and it may be the same as tiie 
it) grows high in Kan&war, of which the tuber is eaten, its 
flavour being compared to that of chesnnts by Europeans. Its 
»e^ «]» said to. be exported to the plains as irtro— (see Cabum). 

110 PUNJAB TLAan. 

6. About 1851 (?) the seeds of an Umbsllipxe were sent ta 
the Agri-Horticultural Society at Lahore from Nu^^ in KuUu* 
Planta had there been raised from seed got from Lahoul, where 
the plant grows wild. Its root was prated as a y^etable^ and 
said to resemble '' fa&snip or scoasoNsaA.^^ 


Akalia Cachbhibica. Due. 

Vernacular, banakhar, ch^iridl. C. dAiM, ehandnH, tdror, 
salod. ? 

A rank plant growing to 6 or 8 feet high^ which is abundant in 
some places in the Jhehim and Chen&b basins at 6,200 to 9>000 
feet. It is said to be eaten by goats. 

Hbdbba Helix. L. lyy. 

Vernacular. J. halbambar, arbambaL K. karmora, mandii. 
C. hgroU B. kwrie, kar4r. B. briimbr^m, dakdrl. S» 
karb&rii, kaniurU T. I. parwatH. 

Is common in the Punjab Himalaya at places from 8,200 to 
8,000 feet, and occurs in the Salt Range and Trans-bidus* 
Bellew got it at 9,000 feet near the SufSd Koh. It is stated to be 
a fisTourite food of goats, and in Kullti the leaves are said to be 
added to the beer of the country to make it strong. 


Pabbotia Jacqubmontiana. Due. Wych haseL 

Vernacular. J. paher, pishor. K. pdhti, po, C. Mllar, 
kirri, pdre. B. killar. S. $hd. T. I. $pileeha. 

A shrub of some size which grows abundantly in many places 
on most of the rivers up to the Indus (as well as mare sparingly 
beyond it) frx>m 2,800 to 8,000 feet. It is generally seen in 
dusters and thickets, the stems ranging up to 12 or 1& inches 
girth, and 15 or 20 feet high. The leaf resemblea that of the 
hasel, for which this plant has frequently been taken by Europeans, 
although the fruit is very different. In some placea its leaves are 
said to be browsed by cattle. The wood is hard and strong, sad 
makes good pegs, native bedsteads, rice-pestles, walldng-«tiGks, tc., 
and Vigne states that he had an exodlent flute made of ita 


wood in England. The twigs are alao used for binding loadsj 
Tyia.1cing baaketfl^ ftc. But the chief nse of the plant is for the 
twig-bridges. These are in most places made of Pakbotia twigs, 
either in whole, or mostly (Cotoneasteb, olia and Indioofeiu. 
HSTSiLANTHA q. ▼., being sometimes mixed with these), and in some 
cases it must be read for the ''birch-bark^' of travellers. For 
the bridges, ftc., Pabrotia is cuf at all seasons, and ia not yery 
lasting, requiring frequent piece-meal renewal. Longden mentions 
a birchen jhdla at Koksar now replaced by a bridge, and willow is 
stated to be employed in Spiti, Zanskar, Lad&k, &c. Near Mozaffar- 
ab&d there are several bridges of the same construction, (viz., one 
longitudinal rope to walk on, and two lateral ones to hold by 
connected with the former by thinner ropes), but made of twisted 
hide, and one is mentioned by Hutton in Kan&war made of Yak's 



Yemacolar. B. thanoar. S. ihut. 

A small tree which occurs in the Punjab Himalaya at fronji 
4,500 to 7,000 feet, as far west only as the Bi^. Thd ripe fruit 
is sweetish, and eaten by the natives, and Cleghom states tiiatitis 
made into a preserve. 


Vernacular. J . kandar, kandtii. K.koiir. C.haddi,harri$. 
B. hariii, haleo, nang. B. kochan, hch&r. S. kak$h, 
kdga$h, sAia. 

A tree which grows to a considerable size, and is common in 
many parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 8,000 to 8,000 feet, up 
to near the Indus. Its wood is used for making gunpowder char- 
coal, goats feed on its leaves, and the natives are stated to eat -tiie 

C« OBLOKOA. Wall. 

Vemacolar. 3. ban k&kir. U. bakar. 

A smallish tree which occurs sparingly in tiie Siw£Iik tract 
oecasioBall y to 4,000 feet up to near the Indus. Its timber is of 
mo special use. 




Abceuthobivm Oxycbdbi. Bieb. 

Vemaoular. C. shUksdr. 

A pretty little species of nusletoe^ common on Junifbrus 
xxcBLSAj at some places, 9^000 to 9,500 feet in Lahoul. It firequ- 
etitly kiUa the trees which it attacks. It is said to flower generally 
in winter. One of the Lahoul Missionaries had an idea that only 
plants of one sex of this would be found on a single tree, but 
this was found not to be the case. 


Vernacular. K. pond. B. par and. B. parand, paud, S. 
amti/. U. banda. 

A handsome parasite with branches sometimes 6 or 7 feet 
long, large broad leaves and orange-coloured flowers, which is 
found in the Punjab Himalaya, chiefly on the eastern rivers, firom 
1,600 to 8,000 feet, and occasionally higher. I have seen what I 
conceive to be this species on Ficus bblioiosa, Platanus, Mobus, 
Mblia, Salix, oak, Bottlbba, Peach, Pear, and Acacia blata, and 

A. MODESTA. (?) 

' L. sp. 

Yemacular. ph4gH. 

A similar but smaller species with scaly calyces, which 
I have seen on the lUlvi and Bi4s at 2,500 to 4,600 feet, growing 
on OuGEiNiA and Olba. 

YiscuM ALBUM. L. Misletoc. 

Yemacular. J. bambaL K. wahal, ahalic. S. kaXbanff, 
ringt T. I. HrapdnL Generally, bhdngrdi bdndd. 

This parasite occurs in many places at from 8,500 ta 9>000 
feet, in the Punjab Himalaya up to tiie Indus, and in the StiUmin 
Bange. I have noted it frequently on the apricot, peach, and 
walnut, repeatedly on the pear, Lombabbt poplab, olba, and 
ULMUs CAMPBSTBis, Bud at IcBst oucc ou each of Pavla, Alntjb, 
QuBBCUs, MoBus SEBBATT7S, and Cbatjsotts cbbnulata. As is 
now well known, the '^baleful mistleto'^ is rare on the oak 
in England, and is supposed to have been so even in the time 
of the Druids, who hdid the oak-mistleto in such high regard. 
In England it most fr^uently occurs on the apple-tree, on which 
it can readily be propagated by rubbing the viscid s^ds on the 


bark until they adhere. It is occasionally found on some twenty 
other kinds of trees in England* I have only seen it once on an 
oak in the Himalaya— (see next species) — ^but Griffith appears to 
have met with it on Querctts ilex (as well as the olive at 3^600 to 
4^000 feet) in Affghdnistin^ where he says it is used ''for 
fodder." (?) I know of no use to which it is put in the Himalaya ; 
but Honigberger states that it is given in enlargement of the 
spleeuj in cases of wound^ tumour^ diseases of the ear^ &c. 


Vernacular. B. bUdii. B. pand. 

One (or both ?) of these occurs^ but more rarely than the 
last; at from 4^000 to 7^500 feet^ up to near the Indus. I have 
repeatedly noted it on Qvbrcus ilbx^ and Q. incana^ and oc« 
casionally on Q. dilatata^ Diosptbos^ and Apricot. 


Abblia trifloba. Br. in Wall* 

Yemacidar. J. cheti bdta. ' C. ban bakhuri, satauker. R. 
daMng, hut, sdi, S. zbam, matz bang, peni, nagdaun, (?) 
1*. 1. adei, pakhtdwar. 

A shrub which grows abundantly in many places from 4,000 
to 9,500 feet in the Punjab Himalaya, and was found in the Suf8d 
Koh and Sulimdn Range at 10,000 and 6,000 feet by Bellew 
and myself. It has a pretty scented flower, and is browsed by 
goats, but appears to be of no special use. 


Vernacular. C. mithiga. R. Jinjrii. S. pilrH. 

What appears to be this species is a small shrub, which is 
not imcommon in the Punjab Himalaya from 7,500 to 13,000 
feet, up to near the Indus. Its small, red, sweet fruit is eaten. 

Li GLAUCA. Hf. and T. 

Vernacular. Lad. ahing Hk, ahea, ahetoa. 

A shrubby species found up to 14,000 feet in Lad&k, ul parts 
of which its seeds are given to horses for colic. 


L. HTPOLsircA. Dne.? 

Vemacolar. C. hharmo, hodU S. zhihOj rapeslio. 

A smaU Blmb which is common in the arid tracts in part 
of the Jhelam basin^ and on the Upper Chen&b and Sntlej, at 
from 8^400 to 11^200 feet. Goats are said to fatten on its 
leaves^ &c. 

L. QUiNQVELocTTLABis. Hardw. Himalayan Honeysnckle. 

Yemacolar. J. pk&t. TSL tita bateH, pdkhur. C. bakhr^. 
B. kh^m, $&. B. dendrii. S« kUiinU, zbang, razbam, 
bijffdi. T. I. jarlangei, add. 

A shmb which grows most abundantly of all this genns at 
from 2^500 to 9^000 feet in the Punjab Himalaya, and was found 
Trans-Indus at 9,000 feet near the SufM Eoh^ and 6,000 feet 
in the 8ulim&n Range l^ Bellew and myself. It is browsed by 
and given as fodder to cattle^ &c. 

Sambucits Ebxtlvs. L. Dwarf Elder. 

Vernacular. J. Hchh kas, muahkidra, ganhdla. C. ffdndal, 
gwandish, sUke^ idsar* 

Found abundantly at many places in the upper parts of the 
basins of the Chenfib and Jhelam at from 4,500 to 11,200 feet. 
Its smell, especially when bruised, is most fcetid, resembling that 
of burnt flesh. Tmder is said to be made from its bark (?) on 
the Chen&b. 


Vernacular. J. Hchh HkHc, bankinch. K. Hchh&bl kilmich, 
giich. C. baihor, pdpat kalam, khimor, rdjal, tiiimma, B. 
kdtonda. S. Jdwa^ khaiip, tusiiis, stissii. T. I. margh' 

A shrub which grows abundantly from 4,000 to 11,000 feet 
in the Punjab Himalaya, and in various parts of the Stilim^ 
Bange, Trans-Indus. Its ripe fruit is sweetish^ and is eaten in 
many places. 

V. rcETBNS. Dne. 

Vernacular. J. g^chj Hklii, kinch. E. kilmich, gUch, kwillimt 
kuldra, Jamdra. C. tiaulandhd, pHlmd, tildts, tuin. B» 
talhang, tandei, idndhej hmdn{ zandni. B. Hlbir^ griistd, 
iaUidnd, S. talena, nagdaun. 

A common shrub in the Punjab Himalaya at from 6,000 to 
10,800 feet^ and found near the Suf^d Koh by Bellew. The frui^ 

when ripe is sweetislij and is eaten in most places where it grows. 
In Kan&war It is sa^ to be put into the beer locally made by 
natives. As Madden remarks^ the flowers have a delicious scent^ 
the name Wng derived firom tiie stench emitted when the branches 
are bruised^ &c. 

V. NBBYostJH. Don, (V. cTLiNn&icuM. Ham.?) 

Vernacular. B. dmirej amrolaj^ drin B. ris, d&b. 

A shrub occasionally found in the Punjab Himalaya at from 
5^000 to 7,000 feet. Its pretty red fruit is eaten* 

V. STELLULATUK. Wall. (V, MuiiLAHA. Ham.) 

Vernacular. , J. jal bdgH. K. amlidcha, phuUel. 

A shrub frequently found at frx)m 4,500 to 10,000 feet on 
some of the rivers of the Punjab Himalaya. The ripe fruit though 
sour is eaten. 


Hamiltoxia suavbolens. Box. 

Vernacular. C. muskeiy katUdlu, fisdiinu B. fdggi^ tulenni 
phM, gohinla. B. kanera, puddri. S. philld, 

A shrub which is common at places in the Pimjab Himalaya 
from 2,500 to 6,000 feet, up to near the Indus. Its wood is very 
small, but in Chumba it is said to be used for making gunpowder 

Hymbnodictyon ExcsisrM. Wall. (?) 
Vernacular. R. thab (?)y bcarthoa. 

There is some doubt as to the identity of this, which grows 
to be a large tree, and appears to extend up to the Rdvi low in 
the Siw&lik region. Its timber is white, soft, and light, and used 
for inside work, yokes of ploughs, and especially scabba^s. The 
leaves are given as fodder (and in Southern India the bark is 
employed in tanning) • 


Vernacular, dl. 

Irvine states that this tree grows wild in Bajaur, &c., to the 
north of the Peshawar Vallqri and that the root is used, not in 

116 PtJNJAB P£A19fS. 

dyeing (as in general)^ but as a cathartic. But there is no 
probability that the tree grows within Punjab limits. 

Nauclea coBDiroLiA^ Box. 

Vernacular. U. haldH* 

I have only seen this (which in the N. W. Provinces is 
oonunon^ and grows to be a very large tree) sparingly in the 
eastern part of the Punjab Siwdlik tract near the Jumna. It 
yields a poor wood^ which is used for planksj &c.^ and is said to 
decay quickly when exposed to moisture, 


Vernacular. C. kdm. B. B. halham. U. D. keim. 

A tree which grows to a considerable size^ seen in some 
numbers in the Siw&lik tract up to the Bias^ and occasional speci- 
mens (probably planted) to the Chen&b. It is rarely seen out in 
the plains even in the central Punjab ; but at S&npla^ west from 
Dehlij there are some hundreds of trees up to 10 feet (one about 
13) in girth, and 50 or 60 feet high. The wood is white, light, and 
soft, and said to be subject to the attacks of worms. It is used 
for agricultural implements, beams, &c., of native houses, and 
combs are made of it. The leaves are given as fodder. 

Bandia dumetobum. Lam. 

Vernacular. U. mindhal. Baz4r, fruit, mendphal, 

A small tree, probably this species, extends some little way 
into the Punjab in the Siwalik tract, and I have seen specimens up to 
4 feet in girth in the plains in the east of the Province. The wood 
is not much valued. The bark is applied with cowdung to bruises, 
and the fruit is officinal, being used as an emetic, and on the Hindi 
system used externally as an anodyne in rheumatism. 

BuBiA coBDiFOLiA. L. Willd. Madder. 

Vernacular. J. kukarphaU, tiHrii. K. dandU, faharffhds. C. 
maiyit, khuri, ahenlj rtina. B. mtiu. B. mafU, S. 
miinzat, rAnang. 

This plant grows abundantly in many parts of the Punjab 
Himalaya from 3,200 to 10,000 feet, and occurs in the Sulim&n 
Bange. In one part of Kashmir territory, low in the Chenab 
basin, I was told distinctly that it is sometimes cultivated (but it 
may have been the next species which was meant), and its root 
is certainly used as a dye in many places^ although in some parts 

. BTJBIAOE^. 117 

where it is common vild^ it is not^ but other substances are used 
for dyeing reddish brown. The published notices do not clearly 
distinguish between this and the next species^ but it is probably 
this with which Moorcroft says that the Bhotias in Kumaon and the 
Lad&kis dye woollen cloth after a bath of alum. Madden (7) also 
refers to a similar practice of the Bhotias in Garhw41. On the 
Sutlej the people say it is collected for export^ and give details of 
the prices they get^ &c. It may be this or the next species which 
Cleghom states to be sold in the Simla Bazdr. He mentions that 
from the Nilgherries a bale of roots^ not nearly so fine as to size 
and colour as those of the Punjab Himalaya^ was sent to England^ 
and that the report of a dye chemist on the former was yery 

B. TiNCTORUM. L. (?) Madder. 

Vernacular. Aff. rodang, manjit. 

Resembles the preceding, and is probably identical with the 
European plant. It is only known in its cultivated state in Asia. 
Dr. Brandis first found it being grown in small quantity on the 
Sutlej at about 8,000 to 8,500 feet for hoine consumption, to dye 
wool red, but I have not observed it in the Punjab Himalaya 
elsewhere than in Kan&war. Beyond the Indus, Irvine mentions 
that a little is collected in Gand&va, Bel&chist&n, and parts of 
Turkist&D, but that the chief tract for its cultivation is from 
Kdbul to near Kandah&r. In that tract BeUew mentions seeing 
it at Ehushi and Ghuzni (7,000 feet), while Masson notices it at 
Mastung to the south (3,500 feet ?) near Quetta, where OrilBith 
refers to it at length. He states that it is occasionally dug up 
after two years, but usually is allowed to remain in the ground for 
five or six seasons. There it is probably propagated by buds or 
sets from the rhizomes, as was found to be the case in Kan&war* 
Griffith also mentions that the herb is used as camel-fodder, and that 
the young shoots have a pleasant salad-like flavour. Davies' Trade 
Beport states that 250 maunds are annually imported from 
Affgh&nist&n vi& Peshawar. But there must be some mistake in 
the statement by the same authority that 6,000 maunds (?) are 
imported by the Boldn. From the Punjab, part is again exported ; 
Caylgy mentions a small quantity as carried beyond Ld to the 
east. According to Cleghom, madder has been grown in the 
Punjab from French seed, I know not with what permanent 

Wendlandia exserta. DC. ? (W. cinerea. Wall.) 

Vernacular. B. and B. pansira. 

There is some doubt about this species, but it appears to 
grow as a large shrub in the Si^falik tracts up to the B&id at least. 

lis PmSf AB VIAHI^. 

Edgewcorth found two specimenB hoc dovm in tbe Pimjab pbdiiSi 
whither tbey or the aeeds had been carried by the rivers. The 
wood IB imiJl and soft^ and is not valued or used except for fiiel. 
The leaves are stated to be given as fodder in K6ngra. The 
flowers have a strong scent. 


Nabdostachts Jatamansi. DC. 

Yemacular. 'R^maithHsaL B9auir^rQoi,bdlchar,MmbaluItibg 
Jaiamdsi, indurlaiib ? 

I have been unfortunate as to this plants and can say bat 
little as to itff habitats in the Punjab Himalaya, where it ranges 
from 10,000 (?) feet upwards. In Chumba its root is said to be 
added to the beer of that tract, and it is exported to the plains to 
be used in medicine, being considered cordial. The indurlaiib, of 
which Davies^ Trade Report states that five maunds are im^rted 
from Persia vi& Kdbul and Peshawar- annually, has been dubiously 
identified with this drug. 

Yalebiana Haedwickii. Wall. Valerian. 

Vernacular. B. and B. nahdnL T. I. char. Baz&r^root^ 
dsdruHj bdla, tagffor. 

Is not uncommon in various parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
apparently at from 6,000 to 12,000 feet, and seems to occur 
beyond the Indus, llie root of this and the next (and probably 
other) species is exported largely to the plains, where it is officinal, 
its properties being similar to those of the Valerians of Europe. By 
some of the books cudrUn is ascribed to Asabum Eubopcbum, but 
probably only from similarity of name. In the hills the root is 
also put among clothes to keep off insects. 

V. Wallichii. DC. 

Vernacular. J. mushkwdU, bdla. Baz&r, root, as last. 

Grows in the hills apparently from 5,000 to 11,000 feet, up 
to the Indus. Its roots are exported to the plains to bemused 
medidnaUy, as the last. 


MoBiNA bbbvifloba. Edge. 


First found by Edgeworth at 10,000 to 11,000 feet near the 
Kiti Passj in Kumaon; is stated by Aitduson to be thrown on thQ 


fire las an incense^ by tke Bmddldsta in Lahoul^ giving an agreeable 


Vemacttlar. K. m(mddrfil^ ehopdndiga, AS. Hi mddardn. 

This plant is common in many parts of the Prmjab Himalaya 
from 8^500 to 12,000 feet. The officinal but mdrfnrii^— (see 
A&TEMisiA Indica)— -of India has in the books generally been 
assigned to Abtemisia absinthium, or other species of A. But 
Bellew, who probably saw the plant growing, says it is '' yarrow.'^ 
It consists of flower-heads^ &c.^ which are used medicinally as an 
aromatic stimulant. 

Antenkabia contobta. DC. 

Vernacular. jMla, bokla^ gifa. 

Madden mentions that seyeral species are used for tinder and 
,moxas on the Sutleg, &c. — (see Obeoseais). Jameson gives the 
specific and native names as above. 

A. sp. 

Vernacular. (Kumaon moM^ gigula) • 

A species whidi also grows at 11 — 12,000 feet in the Punjab 
Himalaya, I found was used in Kumaon as an offering at shrines, 


Aflotaxis canbicans. DC. 

Vernacular. J. batAla. S. B., T. I. kdli ziH. 

This is not imcommon in the outer hills from 1,800 to 6,500 
feet, in the Salt Bange, and on the skirts of the Sulim&n Bange, &c.^ 
Trans-Indus. The seeds are in some places said to be .collected 
for the drug-sellers, and the name would indicate a connection 
with one of the ziras, so that it is probably sometimes gatheredj 
and used for* the true kdli ziri — (see Sebbatula akthelmintica) • 

A« oossypina. DC. (Saussubba qosstiqna. Wall.) 

Vernacular. S.. ia^bdl, biit pjesh. 

Madden motions that this plant is offeored at shrines on the 


AbTEMISIA ELS0AN8. BoX. (A. 8COPARIA. W. fllld E.) 

Yemacalar. K.jhau^lasaJ. Cpttajau. R.j7iau. S. biuf, 
hingkhak. T. I. durunga, lawange. S. B. lawange. 
Hi. donii maria. Baz&r^ plants ch^ri saroj^ danti. 

This plant has a very wide range of growth^ being found np 
to 9^000 feet in the HimkUya^ and abounding in many parts of 
the Punjab plains^ especially in the arid desert tracts. Edgeworth. 
alludes to its ''most delicious fragrance^'' and the odour in 
brushing througb masses of it is at times Yerj powerful^ and not 
unpleasant. The branches appear to be officinal in the Punjab^ 
their smoke being considered good for bums^ and their infusion is 
given as depurative. 

A. Indica. Willd. 

A. VESTITA. Wall. 

Vernacular. K. iataur, piityan, banjir&. B. chambra. S. 
libusha. T. I. tarkha. Baz&r^ plaut^ bHi mddardn, 

These two species have got into concision in my hands. One 
(or both) of them is common in parts of the plains of the 
western Punjab^ and in the Himalaya up to 12^000 feet; also 
Trans-Indus. Bellew states that in Affghamst&n a strong decoc- 
tion is given as a vermifoge, and a weak one to children in 
measles. He also mentions that infusion of any of the Arts- 
MisiAs is given as a tonic. The officinal qfsuntin, used as a 
febrifuge^ appears to be one of these or some similar species. For 
another bici mddardn, see Achillea. 

A. PABVirLOBA. Box. 

Vernacular. C. kanyiirts. Lad. biirmoTi basna tashang. 

A species, apparently this, is common from 10,000 feet 
upwards in Laboul and Ladak, occasionally attaining nearly 
17,000 feet in the latter. Browsed by goats and sheepj not much 
liked by yaks. 

A. Pbbsica. Boiss. 

Bellew collected this species in Affgh4nist&n, where he states 
that it is very abundant^ the plant being used as a tonic, febrifuge^ 
and vermifuge. 

coMi^oftms. 121 

A. 8ACKORUM. Led. 

VemaculBT. E. tatwen. C. munyti, niurtsi, jau. B. chiim^ 
bar. S. xlMr. Lad. biimak. 

A short absinthoid species resembling A. Persica (q. ▼.)j 
which grows to considerable heights in the drier tracts on several 
of the rivers up to near the Indus. It is browsed by cattle^ 
sheep, ftc., and in Chumba is said to be given medicinally to 
horses in affections of the head. In Lad&k its thick roots are at 
times used as fuel. 


Vernacular, taiwen. 

This is found in the Jhelam and Chen&b basins^ &c., from 
8,000 to 11,500 feet. It is stated by Honigberger to be given in 
fevers, fcc. 

A. sp. 

Vernacular. J. chau. 

This is a species resembling the last with, broad leaves white 
on under-surface, and growing from 9,000 to 12,000 feet, which in 
Khiig&n \A said to cause the nausea and faintness sometimes felt 
at considerable heights. With a view to prevent these, the people 
stick some of the leaves of the plant into each ear, 


A. spp. 

Vernacular. ? 

Mr. Jaeschke informs me that in Lahoul the leaves of several 
species of Artemisia are boiled to a paste and applied to the 
<meek for toothache. 

Aster sp. (?) 
Vernacular. S. gulbds. 

A white-flowered species in gardens in Kan&war at 8,000 


Vernacular. Ht, kot. Baz4r, root, Ht or H^t talkh. H&a* 
gal, pachak. 

This plant, whose root excited attention for long before its true 
source was made known, and the plant named by Dr. Falconer, 



Kas probably for ages been exported firom tbe tracts near Kasbmir. 
It grows at fix)m 10^500 to 13^000 feet in parts of the basins of 
the Jhelam and Chen4b. Bears are said to be fond of the yonng 
shoots. The Sanscrit name^ Kdshmirja, of the root indicates the 
chief place whence it was brought. Cleghom states that it is also 
exported firom Pangl on the Upper Chen&b to the plains. The 
loads of it^ when passings scent the air to some distance. It is 
used locally for hair powder^ and to protect shawls from 'insects. 
It is also officinal in the Punjab^ being applied in powder to ulcers^ 
for worms in wounds^ &c.^ and for tootlmche^ and also given in 
rheumatism. But great part of it passes on through the Punjab 
to be sent to China^ where it is used as incense. Davies' Trade 
Brcport gives 2Q maunds as exported to Affgh&nist&n via the 
Bolan. Boyle mentions that in one year (1837-38)^ 6^697 maunds 
of this root (called pachak in Calcutta)^ valued at Bs. 99^000^ 
were exported from Calcutta to China ; and I find that in the 
official year 1867-68, 347 cwt., nearly 10,000 maunds, were 
exported from Calcutta to China. In Kashmir territory the 
Maharaja is said to take it over from the collectors at half the 
price at which he sells it again. In 1864 his income from this 
source was put by what ought to have been good authority at 
8,00,000 chilkl equal to nearly 1,90,000 Company's rupees, but 
this is hardly credible. It is sa,id by Kashmiris to be apt to be 
adulterated with five or six other kinds of roots — (see Ligularia). 
Dr. Johnstone had live roots brought from the hills to Goojrat, 
where I saw them shooting the succeeding year. (Up to that 
time they had not had a very good chance, being exposed to the 
frill sun of the plains). I do not know if they are still alive. 
I may note here that the source of kii,t shirin, another officinal 
root, is still quite unknown. It has by some been assigned to 
CosTus q. V. It is considered depurative and aphrodisiac. 

Be&thelotia lanceolata. DC. 

Vernacular, reshamij reaham-buti, T. I. sdrmei. Baz&r, 
leaves, rdsanna, (Sind^ kiira sanna) . 

An annual plant which grows abundantly in many parts of 
the plains up to Peshawar, in places forming thickets up to 4 and 
5 feet high. Its roots extend to several yards, sending up other 
shoots as they go. And although it is not considered particularly 
troublesome by Punjab agriculturists, it is said to be one of the 
chief evils with which cultivators near Agra, Jounpur, &c., have to 
contend. (Specimens of it were on this account sent to Lahore 
for identification by J. H. Batten, c. s., when Commissioner, 
Agra Division) . Almost every specimen of Baz&r rdsanna 1 have 
seen consists of the leaves of this plant^ and in Sind also it i» 


said to be used to adulterate^ or rather, instead of sanna — (see 
Cassia acutifolia) as a purgative. 

Calendula officinalis. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. zerguL (Gardens, aadbarg). 

Is common wild in some parts of the plains and low hills 
Trans-Indus. Bellew states that, when browsed by cows, it is 
considered to increase the quantity of milk. For sadbarg see 
Cabfesium sf. 

Cabdutts nutans. L. 

Vernacular. B. kanchhdri. S. Hso. Bazfir, flowers, bdd-- 

Not uncommon from 5,000 to 11,000 feet in the Punjab 
Himalaya up to the Indus, and got at 7,000 feet in the Sulim&u 
Bange. It is greedily eaten by camels when they get a chance. Its 
flowers, &c., are officinal as a febrifuge in the Lahore Bazar, under 
the above name, which is by some of the books attributed to 


Carfesium racemosum. Wall. 

Vernacular. Baz&r, plant, hukmanddz. 

This plant is given by Honigberger for Kashmir, where he 
says it is used medicinaUy. 

C. SF. 

Vernacular. wotidngiL 

A species which is common in and near Kashmir at 2,500 to 
5,000 feet. As mentioned by Vigne, the plant is used in Sirinag- 
gar in dyeing silk yellow. 

C. SF. 

Vernacular. Baz&, plant, Badbarg. 

The plant of one species is officinal at Lahore ; as mentioned 
under Calendula; the latter is called aadbarg (by gardeners). 

Carthamus oxyacantha. Bieb. 

Vernacular, kantidri, kandidra, polL T. I. khdreza. 

Abundant in many of the more arid tracts of the Punjab 
from Amb41a up to Peshawar. In many places the seeds are eaten 


parcHed alone^ or with wheats or ground and mixed with wheaten 
flower for bread (as are said to be those of C. or Onobroma 
Pebsicus). Near Peshawar and elsewhere an oil extracted firom 
the seeds, is burned and eaten. Bellew states that it is also used 

C. TiNCTOBius. Box. Safflower. 

Vernacular, k^am, k&rtam. Baz&r, seed, khar, polian. 

Cultivated to some extent in most parts of the Punjab plains, 
and rarely in the hills, occasionally to 5,500 feet, and more 
sparingly towards the north-west (oddly enough, Irvine states that 
it is mostly grown in Kashmir, &;c., in the hills, and not in wanner 
parts). Moorcroft and Masson mention it at K&bul, and the 
former says that what is raised there gives more colour than that 
of India, to which the flowers are exported, but this seems unlikely. 
Davies' Trade Report gives 150 maunds as imported from Affgha- 
nistdn vift Peshawar and 28 vift the Boldn. The flowers are 
largely used as a dye, and are also given medicinally in diseases of 
the tonsils. I do not find that in the Punjab the seeds are eaten 
or have the oil extracted as in the (last) wild species, but they 
are officinal^ being considered diuretic and tonic. 

Chrtsanthsmum Indicvm. Box. (?) 

Vernacular. gendL C. bdgdtar. Lad. kalzang. 

Commonly cultivated in gardens in the plains, in Kashmir 
(yellow, white, and pink, according to Hugel), on the Upper 
Chen&b, &c., to 9,200 feet, and in Ladak at 11,300 feet. Masson 
mentions a C. at Kabul. 


Vernacular. K. hand, g4l. C. suchal, hand. Plains^ 

The pilose variety is not uncommon wild in the plains of the 
N. W. Punjab and in Kashmir, &c., to 5,500 feet, and Aitchison 
mentions it in Lahoul 9,500 feet, but without specimens, and it 
does not appear to grow tiiere. The young plant is in some places 
used as a vegetable. Davies^ Trade Beport gives 20 maunds of 
the seed as imported from Affgh&nist&n vift Peshawar. The seeds 
of both appear to be officinal, being considered carminative and 
cordial. The root also is used medicinally. 



Vernacular. ? 

Not uncommon in the Punjab Himalaya from 1,000 (?) to 
10,000 feet. Aitcliison states that in Lahoul the plants are left 
standing in the reaped fields as amulets. 


Vernacular. Baz&r, flowers^ &;c., babiina. 

This plant would appear to grow wild in the eastern part of 
the Punjab plains, and probably furnishes part of the officinal 
bab^na — (see MATBicAaiA) — ^which is heated with oil and applied 
in rheumatism^ &c. 


Vernacular. T. I. lakhtei. S. B. poli, kandidri. 

Is not imcommon wild in the plains Trans-Indus, and in the 
Salt Bange to 2,000 feet. In the latter the young plant is used 
as a vegetable. 

C. 8P. 

Vernacular. E. kriiz. C. iruisa, biah, t9uk. P. tfise. 

Much larger than the last. Grows in Kashmir at 5,000 and 
on the Upper Chen^b and in Spiti from 8,500 to 12,000 feet. 
Its leaves are bruised and used for tinder — (see Oreoserib) — and 
it is browsed by goats. 

CvNARA ScoLTMTTS. L. Artichokc. 

Vernacular. hAH chuk. 

Only cultivated by or for Europeans. There is no probability 
in a recent newspaper statement that a wild variety had been found 
near Simla. The next plant may possibly be the one meant. 


Vernacular. J. B. dhup. C. dhiipa. E. B. dhiip, ffiigal. 
S. zhanffor, dhiip, g'Ugai. Baz&r^ root^ dMip^ pokhoT'^ 

Not uncommon from the Sutlej up to the Indus at from 
10^500 to 18^000 feet^ often growing as noted by Aitchison on the 


crests of ridges. The odorous root is locally used as incense 
offered at shrines and to Rajas (Madden)^ and the flowers also are 
placed in temples on the Sutlej. The bruised root is likewise 
applied to eruptions^ and a decoction of it is taken in colic, &c. 
Aitchison also remarks that some part of the plant is used medici- 
nally. The root is from many places exported to the plains^ 
sometimes after being pounded and made up into cakes with its 
own juice, as I was informed in Kh^&n. And it appears to be 
officinal in the Punjab Bazdrs under both of the above names. It is 
considered cordial, and given in puerperal fever, &c. This is pro- 
bably the jarx (root) dfaSipy of which nearly seven maunds from 
Bissahir were exposed for sale at the Bpampur fair in 1867^ accord* 
ing to the Official Report. 

EcHiNOPS NivEA. Roylc. 

Vernacular. R. br&gh, laura briish. B. bush. S. t90, pCar^ 

A large spinous annual plant with tomentose leaves, which is 
not uncommon in the drier tracts of the Punjab Himalaya from 
5,500 to 10,000 feet, up to near the Indus. In various parts the 
leaves are used for making tinder (for which bacha appears to be 
the Eandwari word) — (see Oreosebis). 


Yemacular. bUkan, bhangra. Bazfir, plant, bhangra, muk- 
and bdbri. 

Abundant all over in the plains at moist places, and occasional 
to 5,000 feet in the hills. The plant is officinal, under both the 
above names, being considered cooling. 

Francobubia cbispa. Cass. 

Vernacular. Jtif, ffidi. T. I. sutei. S. R. phatmer. 

Common all over in the Punjab plains, &c. In the Salt 
Range the dried plant is bruised and applied as a vulnerary to 
bruises, &c., of bullocks. 

Onaphalium sp. 
Vernacular. ? 

Madden states that one species is used on the Sutlej for 
tinder and moxas — (see O&eobsbis). 


G. 8P.? 

Vernacular. Baz&r^ leaves, fee., bdl r^ksha. 

These are officinal in the Bazfirs^ and appear to be from a 

Lactuca sativa. L. Lettuce. 

Vernacular, kdhti. 

Cultivated in the plains for its seeds, which are officinal, being 
considered diuretic and purgative. Masson mentions the lettuce 
as abundant at Kdbul, and Davies' Trade Report gives 10 maunda 
of the seed as imported thence vi& Peshawar. 

LiGULA&iA sp. (Senecillis Jacquemontiana. Dne.) 

Vernacular. K. poahkar. 

A tall yellow-flowered plant which grows at 7,500 to 
11,000 feet on the Plr Punj&l, and various other parts as far east 
as the Bdvi at least. Birdwood states (but does not mention his 
authority) that the root of a plant with this native name is used 
for adulterating kut — (see Aucklandia) — and Kashmiris at Lahore 
make the same statement, so there must be some foundation for it. 
But it may not be this plant, as in Kashmiri poshkar appears 
merely to signify a large herb with showy flowers. Jacquemont's 
plant seems to be the same as mine, and was found near the same 
locality as some of my specimens. 

Matbicabia Chamomila. L. Chamomile. 



Vernacular, babuna, T. I. suteiffuL 

The first is cultivated and wild in the plains of the eastern 
Punjab. The two others are found wild Trans-Lidus. The 
flowers of all are probably at times sold and used as babuna — (see 
Cotula)— either of the two last may be Bellew's ^' Anthbmis, '* 
of which he states that in Affghanist^n it is wild ''all over the 
country,'^ and that a weak infusion is given as tonic and febrifuge, 
and a strong infusion as an emetic, and that an oil from the 
flowers is used as a liniment for rheumatism. 


Vernacular, batthal, dudhlak, T. I. tarizhaj spiidukei. 

A common weed throughout in the plains and up to 6,000 
feet occasionally in the hills. Li the Southern Punjab the plant 
is used medicinally, in sharbaL 



Vemacular. Lad. khdwe. 

Common in Lad4k from 11^000 to 14^600 feet. It is occa- 
sionally browsed by sheepj but is said at times to produce bad 

Mtbiootns minuta. Less. 

Vernacular, nakhchinkni. 

A common weed in the plains of the eastern and central 
Punjab. The plant is officinal^ as it excites sneezing (whence the 
native name), and is powdered and snuffed up in cerebral affections. 
It is also said to be used in kimia (alchemy). 

Oebosxris lantjginosa. DC. (Chaftalia 60SSTFINA. Boyle.) 

Vemacular. J. patpai^la, E. kho. C. btir, buzli, kapfl. 
B. purjH, bajlo, kapfi, Uar. B. k(tfl. S. kdifra. T. I. 

Common in the Himalaya up to the Indus^ (and found in the 
hills beyond it) firom 3,200 to 7,000 feet. Wherever it grows in 
any quantity, tinder and occasionally moxas appear to be made 
from it, sometimes by beating up the body of the leaf with the 
tomentum on its under surface (as is done with some other plants)^ 
but generally by breaking through the former and tearing off the 
latter to be used alone. (For other plants used for tinder, see 
Antennaria contobtum, Cousinia sp., Echinofs, Gnafhaliitm 
SF., and CoMFosiTA Dubia land 2). Several newspaper writers 
and others have stated that cloth is made from this, but I have no- 
where found this to be the case in the Punjab Himalaya. Still 
more have recommended it for such purposes, but the practical 
objections to doing this on the large scale (apart jGrom the proba- 
bility that the fibre is not strong enough) are these — 1st, the plant is 
quite small, and does not grow closely, so that a wide area would 
need to be searched to get any considerable quantity of the tomen- 
tum; and 2nd, the process of removing the latter is a tedious one^ 
and would probably be costly. 


Vernacular. S. B. ganhiiU. 

A small herb which grows at firom 2^000 to SjBOO feet in the 
Salt Bange^ where it is given for colic. 

. coicposrr^. 129 

Pluchea 8P. ? 

Vernacular. T. I. dingH. Baz&r plants mt^ni. (?) 

A herbaceous plant found Trans-Indus and in the Salt Bange 
to 1^500 feet. It is eaten by goats^ and appears to be the officinal 
WKHf/ni of the Lahore Bazdrs. 


Vernacular. S. morta. 

Several species are common in many parts of the Punjab 
Himalaya from 8^200 to 8^500 feet. In Kandwar the seeds of 
what appears to be this species are given for colic. 

Ptbbthkum sr. 

Vernacular, akarkara, zoeniL 

Honigberger mentions under the above native names a species 
which grows in Kashmir, the root of which, when given for 
salivation, cures it, and in excess produces salivation. Akarkara is 
a common drug applied for toothace, and assigned by Jameson to 
SpiijilNthes oleracea. It is probably derived firom different 
plants in diffo^nt places. 

Saussxtbea obvallata. Edge. (Aplotaxis. DC.) 
S. SACRA. Edge. 

Vernacular, kanwal. 

Edgeworth mentions that these two species (which probably 
grow in the Punjab Himalaya also) are offered up at the shrines 
of Budrinath, &c. 


Vernacular. B. B. ff^L 

Grows at from 9,000 to 14,500 feet on the Chen&b, B&vi, and 
Bi&s. In Chumba it is offered up at shrines. 

Senecio anoitlosus. Wall.? 

Vernacular. J. chitawdla. 

A tall species growing at 6,000 feet in Haz&ra, where its 
leaves (large with white under surface) are applied to boils. 


S. LACiNiostra. Wall. Bagwort. 

Yemacnlar. C. Bonggye, mentog. Baa&r, Aowen, Slc., 

This species appears to be oommon in many parts of the 
Punjab Himalaya from 5,000 to 13,200 feet. Honigberger states 
that it is officinal in Kashmir. In Lahonl it is held as sacred 
to Buddha. It is probably the nimbar of Lahore dmg-sellersj 
which is a Senecio. 


Vernacular. Plains, dodak. 

A common weed from the plains to 8,500 feet in the Punjab 
Himalaya. The Kashmiris are said to use it as a vegetable, and it 
is probably the ''dwarf sow thistle,^' the shoots of which the 
Lad&kis use in a similar way, according to Moorcroft^ though this 
may be the Taaoopogon (q. v.) 

Sphjeranthus HiBTUS. Willd. (Indicits. L. Mollis. Rox.) 

Vernacular, m^ndi butL Baz&r, plant, hhamddr'iSy mindi, 
gMndiy zakhmi haiydi. 

This plant is common in the eastern and central Punjab, and 
seems to yield the officinal flowers, &c., sold under the above names, 
and which are highly esteemed, being used as alterative, depurative, 
cooling, and tonic. Honigberger states that the root is anthel- 

Taoetes ebecta. Willd. African marigold. 
T. PATULA. L. French marigold. 

Vernacular. S. tangla. Lad. mentoh. Plains, ginda. 

Both are grown by natives iu the Punjab plains, and one is 
commonly cultivated for its flower in Kashmir 5,000 feet, on the 
Upper Chen&b to 6,400 feet, on the Sutlej (red and yellow^ 
Hoffimeister) to 8,000 feet, and in Lad&k 11,300 feet. Masson 
mentions French and African marigolds at K4bul. Lowthcr states 
that the flower of the latter was a favorite of the late Maharaji^ 
of Kashmir, and strings of them are often hung up at shrines^ &c, 

Tanacstuh tenuipoliuh. Jacq. Tansy* 

Cleghom states that this, growing at 10^000 feet otn the Sutlq j 
is useful for flavoring puddings* 

COiaOBJTM. 131 


Vernacolar. Lad. pikrkar. 


Common in Laddk from 14^000 to 17^000 feet. It is at times 
browsed hj goats^ and its thick roots are occasionally nsed as foel. 


Yemacnlar. peilmundi. 

Mentioned by Honigberger nnder tKe above names as being 
officinal in Kashmir. 

Ta&axacttm officinale. Wigg. Dandelion. 

Vernacular. K. diidah C. baron. B. kanpMl, dtidli. S. 
radam. Lad. yamagM khd, rasidc. T. I. shamukei. 
S. B. diidh batthal. 

A common weed from the level of the plains in the N. W. 
Punjab to 13^800 feet in the Punjab Himalaya^ and occasionally to 
17j500 feet in Laddk. In many places the young plant is eaten 
as a vegetable^ and Honigberger mentions that it is officinal in 
Kashmir. The leaves are found in the Himalaya as in Europe to 
be excellent food for tame rabbits. 

Tkagopogon majob. Jacq. 

Vernacular. ? 

The young root is eaten as a vegetable in Lahoulj where the 
plant is common wild at 10^000 to 12,000 feet. It is also said 
to be cultivated^ but this appears doubtftil. 

TxTssiLAGO Fabfasa. L. Coltsfoot. 

Vernacular. C. w&tpan. 

Not uncommon in many places in the Punjab Himalaya from 
'5^000 to 11^000 feet. Its leaves are sometimes applied to wounds. 

Vebnonia anthelmintica. Willd. 
(Sebbatula anthelmintica Rox). 

Vernacular. Saz&r^ seed^ kdHJM. 

The seeds are ofiidnalj being given in anasarca^ and used in 
plasters for abscesses. 

132 PUNJAB PLAinrs. 

Waldheimia tribacttlitks. Ear. and Kir. 

Yemacalar. Lad. pallo. 

A small plant with a pretty lilac flower^ common in Lahonl 
and Laddk. In the latter it attains 18,500 feet, being the greatest 
elevation reached in the N. W. Himalaya by any flowering plant 
known to me. It is browsed by goats and sheep when under 
stress of himger. 

Xanthium strumarium. L. 

Yemacnlar. K. tsur, Idne tsdrii. C. toangan ts^ru, chirrH, 
kuri, jqfre. B. aUngtii. S. gudaL T. I. baggidri. 
Bazar, fruit, gokhr4 kaldn. 

Not uncommon locally in the plains of the N. W. Punjab, 
and in many parts of the Himalaya up to 6,500 feet, and in 
the Sulim&n Range at 5,000 feet. The fruit is officinal, being 
considered cooling, and given in small-pox (on the ^'doctrine of 
signatures'^ from the appearance of the fruit ?). In some parts it 
is burnt and applied to diseases of the mouth. 

The following CoMPOSiTiB must be left among the Dubijs in 
the meantime : — 

1. Kufra, posha, a plant of 2 feet high, which grows at 
6,000 feet on the Sutlej. Its tomentum is used for tinder — (sec 
Oreoseris) — and the stems are said to be used for making paper. 

2. Damang-bacha, a tall plant growing at 9,000 feet on the 
Sutlej, the dried leaves of which are rubbed up for tinder — (see 


CoDONorsis ovata. Benth. 

Vernacular. C. Mdut. 

Occurs from 9,000 to 11,000 feet in several parts of the 
Punjab Himalaya, and was got in Affghftnist&n by Griffith. 
Aitchison states that in Lahoul its large tap-root is ground into 
flour and eaten, and is applied as an emolUent to bruises, and swolkxL 
joints, &c. 

Cyananthus sp. ? 
Vernacular. R. murra. 

With a pretty blue flower growing at 10,000 to 12,000 feet in 
Chumba. The calyces are eaten, being mawkish-sweet, and are 
said to be good for asthma. 

BftlCACEiB. 183 

Anbromsda oyalifolia. Don. 

Vernacular. J. K. rattankdt. C. rattankdt, arur. R. eUan, 
eilanr. B. eran, ellal, bheL S. erana^ ayatta, T. I. 

A small tree abundant in many parts of the outer Punjab 
Himalaya^ often growing along with Bhododendron arboreum^ at 
from 4^000 to 7^000 feet. The seeds and young leaves are poisonous 
to cattle^ goats^ &c.^ {rattankdt means blood-cutter) in the spring 
months only. One man told me that they produce cerebral symp- 
toms^ and that his herd recovered by the use of lassi (sour milk) . 
Madden states that the honey^ got from the flower^ is poisonous 
also. The wood is soft and weak^ and used for foel and charcoal 


A. VASTioiATA. Wall. (Cassiofe. Don.) 

Vernacular. B. chhota lewar. 

Occasional in the Punjab Himalaya at £rom 10^500 to 18^000 
feet. It strongly resembles heather^ and is the ''Himalayan 
heather'^ of some travellers. 

Rhododendron anthopogon. D. Don. (Osmothamnus 


Vernacular. J. nichni, rattankdt, nera. E. tdzak-tsun. R. 
hdi zabdn, moHuij talUa. B. talisri. Baz^, leavesj 

These two small bushy species often grow together^ and are 
apt to be confused as they strongly resemble each other, the chief 
easily observable difference being that the flowers of the former 
are yellowish white, and of the latter reddish or lilac. The leaves 
of both are very aromatic^ and their smoke is considered useful 
externally in some diseases. The leaves are officinal in the plains^ 
being considered stimulant. 


Vernacular. J. arddwaL C. manddl. R. ehiiif drd. B. 
brds, brodj chacheon. S. brds. T. I. trikh gandere. 

A small tree common at many places in the outer Himalaya 
(often in the Quercvs incana tract, along with Andromeda 
OYALiFOLu) from 3,000 to 6,000 feet or occasionally to 8,000 feet^ 


and also found Trans-IndtiB. The goi^eons flasli of crimaon flowers 
adorns some of our hill-stations about March^ but occasionally 
trees will flower as early as Ist February (Masson)^ with snow 
on the ground. In 1867 again^ the newspapers reported that 
hardly a tree flowered till the middle of June. The seed is said 
to ripen about Christmas. Dishes^ &c.^ are sometimes made of 
the wood^ but it is soft and weak, and mostly only used for char- 
coal; and for native houses. Madden states that the young leaves 
of thi) also— (see And&omeba) — ^are poisonous. The flowers have 
a sweet-sour taste, and are said to make a good sub-acid jelly. 
They are in some parts of the Himalaya eaten by natives, who, 
according to Madden, get intoxicated if they consume a large 
number. It is also stated that they are medicinal, and they are 
applied to the forehead for headache on the Bi&s. Hoflhieister 
mentions that in Nep&l they are offered in temples. He also notes 
that a snuff, made fix)m the bark of the tree, is excellent. 


Vernacular. K. gaggar ytirmi. B. iomgat, shinwala. B. 
shcargar. S. simrung. Bsx&r, leaves, tamdku or hidds or 
patti KaihmiHj bargi Tibet. 

A shrub which is not very common in the Punjab Himalaya 
at from 9,500 to 14,000 feet, up to near the Indus. The whitish 
or lilac flowers (Honigberger mentions rose-coloured and yellow 
flowers as rare) appear from May to July, and the seed ripens 
in October. It seems certain that the leaves of this likewise— 
(see last species) — sometimes are poisonous to goats. Yigne 
states that bees are very fond of the buff'-coloured under-surfaoe 
of the leaf, and that a few of the latter are therefore put into or 
near hives. The leaves are exported to the plains, where they 
are officinal under the above names, being errhine and ground 
to be mixed with tobacco for a medicinal snuff used in hemicrania. 
The smoke of this, when used as fiiel, is the most acrid and 
irritant of any I have ever experienced. 


Anaoallis asvihsis. L. 

Vernacular. S. B. dhabbar. 

A common weed throughout the plains and in the Himalaya 
up to 6,000 and occasionally 9,000 feet. All the plants I have 
ever seen in the plains are of the blue«-flowered variety, which is 
isie in Great Britain (but occurs with the other in Sydney). On 

tiie other hxoA, all those I have seen in Kashmir are the ordinary 
xed"»flowered. variety of England* Madden mentions that thie 
triturated plant is used to poison fish^ and to' expel leeches fiom 
the nostrils. 


Mtbsinb Afrigana. L« 

Vernacular. J. bebrang, kokhihr. C. jfUfful, brdnshj prdhhH^ 
brdnH. B. chachk, jutrd. B. ban-dMi. S. dtdlgAh 
binsin. T. I. sAamshdd. S. B. papHj vdvaranff, Baz&r, 
fruity bebrang. 

A smallish shrub common in many places in the Himalaya 
from 2^500 to occasionally 8^500 feet, as well as in the Salt Bange 
and Trans-Indus. In the Punjab Baz&rs the officinal bebrang, 
used as an anthelmintic for small intestinal worms, appears 
always to be the fruit of this, although generally ascribed to 
Embelia kibes, which does not seem to grow within our limits. 
This plant is well worth trying as a hedge in our hill-stations^ as 
it would look neat, and would probably stand trimming. 

Beftonia buxifolia. a. DC. (Edoeworthia. Falconer.) 

Vernacular. T. I. gurg4ra. S. R. garar. 

A small tree common in the Trans-Indus hills frx>m 2,000 to 
8,000 feet, and occasional in the western part of the Salt Bange. 
Its wood, though small, is hard, strong, and fine-grained, ^e 
fruit, which i& mentioned among those of AfFghfimst&n by El- 
phinstone, &c., is collected in Apnl and eaten by the natives, but 
to European tastes is very poor. Dr. Falconer first described 
this plant, and named it after Mr. Edgeworth, B. C. S.j but the 
name appears to hare been pre-occupied. 


Bassia latifolia. Box. 

Vernacular, mahwd, maunvd. 

This tree does not appear to be indigenous in the Funjabj 
but tdanted trees (from seed) are not uncommon in and near the 
Siw^uik tract, up to the BAvi, and single specimens may be seen 
as fiir from the hills as AmbSla and Bat41a. The wood is said 
to be dnnamon^xdouied;, dose^ haid^ heavyi and duxiMe^ aoid 


is U8^ for building in K&ngra^ &c. An oil is extracted firom the 
9eed^ which is eaten and burned^ and " used to aduHerate ghi^'' and 
spirits are extracted from the flowers. 

MiMusops Elenoi. L. 
. y Vernacular, maubart. 

^ >r*/^^^ ^ handsome tree occasionally planted in the east of the 

h%fi^^y^ Punjab for its ''appearance and the fine smell of the flowers/^ 
^\y^'^ though even near Dehli I was told that the fruit does not ripen. 
'^ ^//^ There are one or two small specimens about Lahore and Umritsur, 
j/^,.--^- UisA one tree in the Hazuri bagh^ Multanf is mentioned by Vigne 
'^'^^ y^^il *^^ Edgeworth as traditionally stated to have been brought by a late 
1 A ^ /^^[^aw4b from Mecca^ which may perhaps be doubted, especially as it 
r j^^^^weems unlikely that the tree grows there at all. The bark is 
i/i ^^^ officinal at Lahore. 

>A . /*n M. Kaxtki. L. 

/^ f Vernacular, khimi^ Baz&r. root, hhxrrd lodh. 

^ A tree occasionally planted as far west as Hoshiirpur, Miilt4n, 

Lahore, and Eminabfid, near Goojanw&la. The seeds are applied 
powdered in ophthalmia^ and the root is also officinal at Lahore. 




Vernacular. ff(U. 

I have no knowledge of this tree growing in the Punjab, but 
Ronigberger states that it grows at La[hore, and that the bark has 
been used in intermittent fevers. 

D. Lotus. L. ? 

Vernacular. J. amlok, malUk^ (male) gwalidar. B. Bissdhri 

A tree which is not uncommon in the western part of the 
Jhelam basin from 2,500 to 6,000 feet, and appears to be common 
in some parts of the northern Trans-Indus hills ; and one or two 
specimens were grown at Peshawar. It is a handsome little tree, 
growing generally to 3 or 4 feet in girth, the largest I have seen 
in its usiud habitats being one of 6 feet girth and. 85 feet high afe 


Jared in Eh^g&n^ and another about the same size on the Kishen* 
ganga. But curiously enough^ there are three trees (probably 
introduced by fakirs) at Juggatsukh (6^000 feet) in Kvdlu^ and 
there called BissahH pdla, tibe largest of which is a remarkably 
fine tree of 12 feet girth. These were first noted by His Honor 
the present Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab^ when Commis- 
sioner of Jalandar Division^ and are the trees mentioned by 
Cleghom as D. tomentosa (q. y.) I do not know that the wood 
is specially valued^ but I have nowhere seen the tree so common 
that much of it could be got. As Griffith remarks^ the fruit is 
"not worthy of any notice/' but when fresh or even carefully 
dried it is sweet and pleasant enough^ and the Affgh&ns^ &c.^ prize 
it, large quantities being brought to the Peshawar Bazdrs firom 
Sw&t, &c. Bellew mentions that it is eaten plain or with rice, or 
is used in iharbais. I presume Irvine was mistaken in stating 
that spirits are in the Punjab distilled from the fruit. 

D. Montana. Rox. ? 

Vernacular. B. kendHtj htrek, D. kendi, pasendd, 

A small handsome tree whose bright green spring foliage 
looks pleasant. Is not uncommon along l£e Siw&lik tract up to near 
the Ravi, and occasional out in the plains westward from Dehli to 
near Sirsa. I remarked one tree in central Sind. It ordinarily 
grows to about 3 feet girth. I have seen two trees of 7 feet. The 
wood is used for native roofs, &c. The fruit is not eaten, and 
I have heard it called " poisonous/' In some places it is applied 
to the hands for boils, to which bhistis are said to be subject. 


Vernacular. B. kinnii. U. kendiij tindu. Bazar, raspings^ 
bdira de abniis. 

Occasional, in some places common, in the Siw&Iik tract west- 
ward near to the R&vi. I have almost never seen a decent 
unlopped tree of 2 feet girth within Punjab bounds. Many 
years ago. Sir Donald McLeod (then Commissioner of Jalandar) 
wrote that he had great difficulty in getting good specimens of the 
timber; and in 1866 it took 15 .days searching in Hoshidrptir to 
find a fair specimen to send to Europe for the Secretary of State. 
The heart^wood of a good tree is generally cdSleddbntis, ''ebony,'' 
and is fine, black, hard, and somewhat brittle. It carves well, 
and insects are said not to touch it. Mr. Watson, Madhop^r 
Workshops, informs me it is good for cogs if it could be got, though 
hardly so strong as olsa (q. v.) In and near the Rohilkund 
Siw&iik tract, where the tree is more common or better looked 


to^ handsome woik-boxesr^ kc., ate made from the wood. CombB 
are made from it in the Ambdla dittnct* In Kdngra^ &c., it 
is used for ploughs^ in house-bailding apd for small ^xes. The 
fruity which is said to ripen in June with the mango, is eaten, 
being sweetish and astringent, and not nnpkasant. But I find 
one authority reports its pulp as hitter, foetid, and emetic* Basp* 
ings of the wood are officinal, bdbg given as alterative. 


Stmflocos CHATiBOoinxs. Don. 

Vernacular. C. lodar. K. U, laudar. B. hj, losh. BadoTj 
bark, lodh PathdfU. 

It appears to me to be the same species^ which, as a small tree, 
is found in the Punjab Himalaya at from 8,000 to 7,000 feet, up 
to near the Indus, though very scarce towards the north-west. 
The wood does not seem to be specially valued ; an oil is said to be 
extracted from the seeds, and the leaves are stated to be used in 
dyeing. Cleghom mentions that the bark is employed for dyeing 
with madder, and it is officinal, being considered tonic in the Hindu 
system of medicine, and also used in ophthalmia. 


Chionanthits sp. ? 

Vernacular. B. B. rabdn. B. sira. 

A small tree probably belonging to this genus, is occasionally 
seen in the outer Punjab Himalaya from 4,000 to 6,000 feet, up to 
the Biivi at least. Its wood is white^ soft, and light, and is used 
for native houses and implements in Edngra, where also the bark 
is said to be medicinal, and the leaves to be used as fodder. 

Fraxinus flobibunda. Wall.? Ash. 

Vernacular. J. stim. K. hum, hamd. C. sinnid, shiiim4. 
B. siintifi. T. I. iiffdi, shing, banaush, 

A handsome tree with a deeply furrowed bark, growingr 
occasionally to upwards of 12 and at times to 15 feet in g^th ana 
120 feet high, the finest specimens being those planted at villages 
and temples, &c. It is found sparingly wild, and rarely seen 
planted in one or two places on the lUtvi, more abundantly in parta 
of the basin of the Chen&b^ and rarely on the Jhelam^ at from: 

0LEACEJB. 139 

4^000 to 8^00 feet. It also growi I^ns^Indus in tbe hills^ having 
heen coUacted bf Bdlew. The wood is exoellent^ posaessing most 
of the qualities of EuTopean ash, though at tiioes it has been. 
BfdkjbJi lightly of, possibly from tiie tiees haying been felled at the 
wsong season. It is valued for /<i»/»(in*poles, ploughs, platters^ 
sfMBning-wfaeels, &c«, and in Kashaoix i» reckoned by fan^ the best 
vood for oajrs* A supply of it wss, on one oecasion^ taken from 
Hadura as feur as Peshawar for a li^cial purpose. 

F. Xijf99orrLLoiDEB. Wall. (P. MooacvorruNA. Wall.) 

Vernacular. J. nuch, han^z, shilU, E. cMjla, chUj^ HjiiJ 
G. biitr4, sandal, shangal, ch^Sm. S. chiAm, tki&m. T. I. 

A small tree, or as generally seen, a large shrub eonpimon in 
the arid tracts on the Sutlej and Chen&b, and in the Jhelam basin, 
from 3,500 to 9,000 feet, and in Tibet to 12,000 feet. It also 
occurs on the eastern skirts of the Sulim&n Bange at 5,000 feet» 
It very rarely reaches 5 feet in girth and 25 feet high. Its wood 
is hard, heavy^ and strong, but, being small, is mostly only used for 
bandies, &c., and for fuel. Cleghom states that it is at times used 
for jioiap^in-poles. The leaves vary remarkably in size on the same 
tree, the upper beinff often three or four times the size of the 
lower. They iare used as fodder. 

F. sp. 

Yemacular. Aff. siydh ehob. Bazar, manna, shir khist. 

Masson mentions that the tree with the above native name 
grows in the mountains to the north of Kdbul, and was seen by 
him as a good sized bush on the mountain Chehal th&n (10,000 
feet ?) north of the Bol&n Pass. It may possibly be the species 
first mentioned above (P. PLoaiBUNnA), and is known to yield the 
officinal 8h{r khist (as a manna is yielded by an O&nus, flowering 
ash, in Italy, &c.) This is imported into the Punjab from 
Affgh&nist4n, and is used as a laxative. Davies' Trade Beport 
gives the annual quantity imported by each of Peshawar and the 
Bol&n as one maund. 

Olea Europ.«a. L. var. cuspibata. Wall. 

O. FSBBT70INEA, Boylc. OlivC. 

Vernacular, kau, khan, ko, kohi, fbankau). S. /i. T. I. 
khwan, shwan, shwawan. Aff. (Per.) zditdn. 

A smallish tree abundant Trans- Indus from the plains levels 
and in tbe Salt Bange, common in the western part of the 
SiwAUk tract, and over a considerable part of Haz&ra (wheire it is 
loemurkably fi^^, e. g., below Wt), and fou^ on the Chen&b^ B4vij 


and Sutlej^ reaching 6^000 feet on that riyer. (It is also found in 
the Jumna basin to the eastward). Its foliage looks more dense 
than it really is, and gives a rather checquered shade. The tree 
grows to 6 feet in girth when well preserved^ and I have seen a 
few trees of 10 or 12 feet girth. I think there must be some 
error in Jameson^s statement of '^ several trees in lower Haz4ra 
of upwards of 8 feet diameter at 3 feet from the ground. '^ The 
wood is hard, strong, and close-grained, and Mr. Watson states 
that it is the best he knows for cogs of wheels. It is also used 
for agricultural implements, cotton-wheels^ walking-sticks^ in 
turning, and for combs. The crooked timbers are largely used 
for the knees of boats on the Indus near Attock. On the Chen4b 
at one place, I found that the twigs are used for the short sus- 
pending rope of the jhiila — (see Parrotia) — ^for which purpose^ 
however, the people said it did not answer well. The leaves are 
bitter, and are considered one of the best kinds for fodder for 
goats. The fruit ripens in October, but I think that, as a rule, 
most of the trees do not yield every year. Elphinstone says that 
the Sherdwanis eat the fruit, both fresh and drv, but there must 
be some mistake here, for there is but little fleshy pericarp to eat, 
even were it pleasant to the taste, which it is not. Oil is nowhere 
extracted from the fruit so far as I know, but Irvine states it is 
used for medicine, as does Bellew. In the Agri-Horticultural 
Society^s records is an account of an experiment on a sufficient 
scale made by bruising the fruit in a common kolhii after fermen- 
tation, at Kohat (in 1851 ?). The oil is reported to have been 
very like European olive oil, burning and tasting well, but the 
success was hardly sufficient to justify extension of the experiment, 
as only one gallon of oil was got from a maund of dry fruit. 
One or two European olive trees were imported into the Punjab 
long ago, and a good many have been got within the last 
eighteen months, in order to test the effect of grafting on the 
Punjab variety, as suggested by Lowtber as far back as 1850, 
which it is to be hoped will be successful. Firminger mentions 
that the European olive had been introduced into the Calcutta 
Botanical gardens in 1800, but up to 1864 had not borne fruit. 
I may note that the native name ban-hau, used in parts of Haz&ra, 
puzzled me for long, but I have recently found that it is applied 
to the variety, or rather those specimens in which the imder-surface 
of the leaf is rust-coloured (whence the name proposed by Royle, 

who considered this a distinct species) . 

> • 

Strinoa Emodi. Wall. 

Vernacular. C. b6n ph^nt, ban ddkhiir, j{bari. B. Mrmar, 
bancMr. B. chknii. (?) S. «A4/ri, diidh, hlii, rang chiU. 

A shrub occurring at many places in the Punjab Himalaya at 
7^000 to 11^000 feet up to the Indus^ and collect by Bellew at 


9,000 feet near the Sufi&d Koh. The wood is white and close- 
grained, and carves well. The leaves are eaten by goats. 

S. Persica. L. var. B, laciniata. Yahl. ? 
Vernacular. K. Mdsmin. 

A shrub cultivated in some of the gardens on the Kashmir 
lake seems to be var. laciniata of this. I found what I think is 
var. INTE6RIFOLIA of the same species, growing wild in Wazirist^ 
on the eastern skirts of the Suliman Range at 8,000 feet. 

Jasminum orandiflobuh. L. 

J. SAMBAC. Ait.,.&C. 

Vernacular, chamba, chambeU, mtigra, &c. 

Cultivated in the plains for their flowers. From these and 
those of the other species a perfumed water is prepared in a 
similar way to rosewater. 


J. REvoLUTUH. Sims ; and var. pubiqerum. 

Vernacular. J. K. chamba. C. aim, rU S. sMng, piiring, 
martL T. I. naugei. Plains, Jdi. 

Both are cultivated in gardens, and grow wild in the Himalaya, 
the former from 3,500 to 8,500 feet, the latter to 6,000 feet, and 
they are found Trans-Indus. Honigberger states that the root of 
the former is believed to be useful in ringworm. 

Nyctanthes arbor tristis. L. 

Vernacular. C. laddrL R. pdkura, B. U. Artiri. Gardens^ 

A tall shrub which grows wild in the Siw&lik tract up to the 
Chen&b, and is occasionally cultivated in the plains. The wood is 
only used for fuel ; the flowers give a transient yellow dye. 


Carissa Carandas. L. 

Vernacular, karaunda. 

A large shrub which is not much cultivaited in the Punjab 
plains. Its fruit is made into pickle by natives (and makes a very 
good jelly). 



Vemacolar. gan, gama, garinda. 

A shrub which is oammoH along the Siwttik tvftct and in the 
outer hills to 2,500 feet up to the Indtts, and in the eastern Punjab 
extends into the plains to the south of Dehli and Ambdla. The 
small flowers vary from white to pinkish, and have a fine scent, 
which about April perfumes the air around. Groats and sheep eat 
the leaves. The cut bushes are employed for fences, and the wt)od 
is used for combs, in turning, &c., and as fiiel. A Kdngra 
authority states that the very old wood gets quite black and 
fragrant, and is sold at a high price as aggcer^ or ikd Hindi, an 
officinal wood generally referred to Aloexylon agoalochum, which 
is given as a tonic and cholagogue. 


R, Br.) 

Vernacular. C. kogar. R. B« .tttuHir. U. itira. Baz4r, 
seed, indarjdu. 

A milky-juiced lai^ shrub or small tree which is common in 
parts of the SiwiUik tract up to the Chen4b. The leaves appear 
to be used as fodder (or litter) ? The wood is white, light, and 
dose-grained, and is cut into spoons, combs, &c. The seeds are 
officinal, being considered febriAige, and in some parts of India 
(but not in the Punjab so far as I know) the bark also is given for 

Nerium odorum. Soland. 

Vernacular. C^ kanira. R. ganhira. B. ianira. T. I. 
gandere. Per., kharzahra. S. R. kan{ra,ganira. Plains 
generally, kaner. 

Commonly cultivated in gaxd»E» for its flowers, and grows 
wild in the plains Ti^ms-Indus, in the Salt Rangei along the 
Siw&lik tract, and in the outer hills, up to 3,500 feet. The stalks 
are in some places said to make hookah tubes. The leaves are 
considered poisonous (whence the Persiw uftme ass-poison»), but 
are said to be eaten by goats. In some parts they are given dried 
for colic, and Bellew states that in powder they are used as an 
errhine in neuralgia, &c. ; the root is poisonous. In E4ngra I am 
informed that the bark and root of this plant &irmsh the foison 
most frequently used by suicides. From the bark a wash is made 
for curing itch and destroying vermin. 

A?OCTKA£]BJE. 143 

Rhaxya aniGTA. Dne. 
Vernacular. S. R. vena. T. I. gander a. Baz&r^ fruitj 

A small shnib somewhat resembling the last (whence the 
Pashtd name), which grows abundantly in many places Trans- 
Indus, and occurs in the Salt Bsnge at low elevations. The dried 
branches are used as fuel. The leaves are given as food to goats 
afier steeping for some days. They are also bruised and given with 
milk to children for eruptions, and an infusion of them is stated to 
be good for sore throat. The fruit and upper leaves were sent as 
olBBcinal to the Punjab Exhibition in 1863, being considered 
efficacious in cases of boils and eruptions. 


Vernacular. ratianJoL 

This species is cultivated in the plains. It is mentioned as 
ratta^fot — (see Onosma) — ^under the name of V. hinob by Honig- 
berger^ and certain medical properties attributed to it« 

Wbiohtsa mollissibca. Wall. 

Vernacular. B. ktldnoa. 

A large shrub occasional in the Siw&lik tract, sometimes to 
3,500 feet, up to near the Indus, though very rare west of the 
BL&s. The wood is a yellowish white, Ught, and soft, and does 
well for turning, carving, &c. For combs it is taken as far as 



Vernacular, char&nffli, chungi. T. I. pawanne, pamanke, 
panjangusht (Per.) 

This is doubtless the '^ stapelioides eaten as a vegetable,'^ 
mentioned by Griffith as found in the Khyber, and Masson's 
medicinal ''Uchen'' got Trans-Indus (page 80, Volume 2). It 
is found in the western part of the outer Himalaya, in the Salt 
Bange, and Trans-Indus, to 8,000 feet. Its juicy stems, about 
4 or 5 inches long, are in bunches somewhat resembling fingers 
(whence some of its names), and have a very bitter taste like 
iorejei^— (see Mohobhioa). They are said to be sometimes cooked 
like it| but axe generally eaten raw^ being considered stomadbicy 


carminittirej and tonic. Bellew states tliat Trans-Indus they ai^ 
also used as vermiAige^ and Masson mentions that dried and 
powdered they are taken as stimulants. 

B. SDULis. Edge. 

Vernacular. S. S. D.^ &c.^ ehunff, pipp^U pippd. S. P. n^^fi. 

I have not seen live specimens of this^ but it is not uncom- 
mon in the arid tract from the Salt Range southward to the 
boundary of the Punjab (and in Sind^ Edgeworth) • Its stems are 
longer and thinner than those of the former^ and the natives say 
they are less bitter and somewhat saline tasted^ but more powerful. 
Coldstream states that they have a pleasant sub-acid taste. They 
are largely eaten by the poorer classes as a relish to farinaceous 
food^ and may sometimes be seen for sale in the Baz&rs of the 
southern Punjab. 

Calotbopis pbocera. B. Br. (C. Hamiltonii. Wight.) 

Yemacular. ah (Hi. dk, muddr) . T. I. ipulmei, spiilmak, 
pashkand. Bazdr^ manna^ shakar ul ashar, shakar al 

This plants which is Masson^s ''milky EtrpHO&BiA/' is found 
also in Palestine^ Arabia^ &c.^ and in Abyssinia. It is common 
in many places throughout the Punjab plains up to Peshawar^ 
and occurs to 3^500 feet Trans-Indus. In the extreme east it 
does not appear to reach the same size as near Sirsa^ north of 
Dehra Ismail Khan^ and in parts of Montgomery and Mult&n^ 
where it is often seen in quantity^ of 15 inches girth and 10 or 
12 feet high^ ''quite arboreous^ ^^ as Edgeworth remarks^ mention- 
ing that it reaches 18 inches girth. In Central Sind^ however, 
it grows still larger, and I have there seen trunks of 4 and 5 feet 
girth, though not taller than the largest Ptmjab specimens. If 
the plant was less common*, the flowers would be considered both 
handsome and curious ; they exhale a strong and not unpleasant 
scent at times. In Sind the bark of the plant is stripped off^ and 
by the dry process is made into halters for cattle, painters for 
boats, nets, and fishing lines^ which are said to be very durable. 
In 1854> a sample of this textile material was sent to the Bombay 
Chamber of Commerce, which reported favorably of its strength 
and fineness^ but nothing further appears to have been done. At 
Leia and Jhang, experiments were made on it about the year 
1852, (?) and the twine produced was reported very strong. The 
silky floss of the seeds is in some parts used to stuff pillows, and 
hopes of its becoming an important textile material have at 
various times arisen. The fibre^ however^ is very shorty BJki, 


under the microscope^ quite smootli^ so that it is not likely to 
prove of much value, and experience has confirmed this. In 
1863, seven hundred pounds of this floss were sent from the 
Punjab to England to a mercantile firm, for whom it was spun 
into thread and worked up. But it was reported on as unsuited 
for ordinary machinery, and very weak, so as to be worth only 
8} pence per lb. in England, whereas it had cost for collecting and 
carriage to Sukkur nearly 5 pence per lb., so that thus far there 
is no chance for it. All parts of the plant abound with an acrid 
milky juice, which is stated to be used by the Bijputs to destroy 
their surplus daughters. It is rubbed on leather to ^^ remove its 
odour'' and to clean it, and Bellew mentions that in the Peshawar 
Valley it is employed in the preparation of catgut, and used for 
raising blisters and discussing chronic tumours. He also states 
that the fresh root, used as a tooth-brush, is considered by Path&ns 
to cure toothache. Irvine mentions that some part of the plant 
is employed in dyeing, but I have no further information as to 
this. He also notes that charcoal is made from the stems. The 
bark of the root is used by natives in medicine, and has frequ- 
ently been tested by European practitioners, who find that its 
effects are very similar to those of ipecacuan. The manna, which 
I have never seen on the plant, and which is said to be brought 
from the east^ is officinal, and used in medicine like other kinds of 

Cerofeoia escttlenta. Edge. 

Vernacular, gaht. 

This plant, I believe I have not met with, but Edgeworth 
mentions that its tubers and acid leaves are used as a vegetable 
in Mult^ (and Sind). 


Vernacular, karial, 9idU, trotd, 

A climber occasionally found in the Salt Range and Trans- 
Indus. It is browsed by goats. 

Mabsbenia Boylii. Wight. 

Vernacular. C.pathar. S. R. tar, veri. 

A climber found in the outer hills and in the Salt Range at 
2,000 to 4,000 and occasionally to 8,000 feet. The unripe fruit 
is in some places powdered and given as a cooling medicine, and 
Madden and Jameson mention that excellent fishing lines are 
made from the fibre of the plant. 


Orthanthera viminea. Wight. 

Yemacular. B.matU. T.l. mowd,ldnebar. D.khip. (SIndj 

A twiggy leafless plant not nncommon about DeUi^ and 
I think in sOme other parts Cis-Indus^ occasional in the Siw&lik 
tract, and Trans-Indus. Jameson mentions that the fibres are 
well fitted for cordage, and near Dehli, after four or five days 
steeping, its fibre is extracted for making rope. In Sind also 
it appears to be this plant of which the unsteeped stalks are 
made into ropes for Persian wheels, which are said to be yery 
durable, as they do not readily rot from moisture. 


Vernacular. B. D. gharot, gani. 

A slender climber not uncommon in the arid tracts of the 
central and southern Punjab. The fruit is eaten. 

Pentatbopis spiralis. Due. (P. uicrophylla. W. and A.) 

Vernacular. T. I. ambarvel, B. D. van vert. Baz&r, flower, 
ark pmhpl. 

A slender climber found in the central Punjab. In spring 
the people state that tubers, which grow on its root to a couple of 
ounces each, are peeled and eaten, being "sweet^^ and filling. 
(There may here have been some confusion with Ceropeoia q. v.) 
The flowers of this apparently are officinal in the Punjab under 
the above name. 

Periploca aphylla. Due. 

Vernacular. J. C. b&ta. T. I. S. S. D. barrarra, barre. 

A plant with leafless erect stems, common in many places 
Trans-Indus, and in the Salt Bange, and occurring in the outer 
hills east to the Chenab, occasionaUy up to 8,5CX) feet. In parts 
of the Peshawar Valley it is so common as to be used for fuel. 
It is eaten by goats. In various places the buds are eaten raw, 
or cooked as a vegetable; and, on one occasion, I was informed 
that as food they are considered to have a beneficial effect on 
wounds 1 

ViNCETOxicuM CANESCENS. Duc. (V. vuLGARE. Boem. and 


Vernacular. B, tranna. 

Not uncommon in parts of the western Punjab Himalaya 
from 5^000 to 9,500 feet. In some places the natives commend 



its hhishbo (perfume) J "which is really a rank heavy srneU giyen 
out when it i& biuised. 



v. vuLOABB is stated by Honigberger to be officinal in 
Kashmir. It may be this or the prec^dng, as both grow there. 



Ophelia alata. Griseb. O. augustipolia. Don.^ 
and O. CHiBATA. Oriseb. 


Vernacular. K. bi&L Baz&r^ plants chirreta, kasb ul zarlra, 
hdimtilf harHntiUia. 

I shall not attempt to distinguish between these^ which are 
slender plants of the Gentian order^ many of which grow at 
moderate heights in the Punjab Himalaya^ several of them being 
exported to the plains for use in medicine. Chiretta has undoubt- 
edly tonic and febrifuge properties^ is largely used by natives, and 
occasionally by Europeans. Honigberger supposes hartintuHya to 
be from one of these — (see Colchicum sp.) 

Gentiana decumbens. L. 


Common at considerable elevations in the various parts of 
the Punjab Himalaya. A tincture of it has been used as a 
stomachic by the Lahoul Missionaries. 

G. KUBBOO. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. nilkant. C. nilkaht, kamalp/ml. B. ntiaMl. 
Saz&r^ root, iorrtS. 

This, which has a handsome blue flower, is common on rather 
sunny slopes in many places in the Punjab Himalaya at £rom 
8,000 to 9,000 feet. Locally its root is used as a tonic and 
febrifuge, or given to cattle in inflammations, and it is exported 
to the plains in some quantity, constituting part of the officinal 
harr^ — (see Picbobbhiza) — ^which is given in ascites^ &c., and also 
applied externally. 

148 PtJKJAB PLAirra. 


Yemacular. Lad. iita. 

Pound in various parts of the Punjab Himalaya up to 15,000 
feet in Laddk. Aitchison states that in Lahoul a decoction of 
the leaves and stems of this and other species is given in fevers. 
In Lad£k its root is put into spirits. 


Vernacular. K. kuriij khair posh, gul jafaH pumka. 

Common in the lakes of Kashmir^ where it is very largely 
used for fodder. Honigberger states that the milk oi cows is 
increased by feeding on it. 


Amphicomb arouta. Royle. (Incarvillea. Iloyle.) 
A. Emodi. Boyle. (Incarvillea. Wall.) 

Yemacular. S. chali. 

These probably constitute one species which occurs locally 
Trans-Indus, in the Siwfilik tract, and in the valleys of some 
of the rivers from 2,000 up to 5,000 feet, and on the Sutlej to 
8,000 feet. It is of no use that I know of, but has perhaps the 
finest flower of our Punjab herbs, and generally occupies striking 
habitats, hanging with its handsome green leaves and pinkish 
trumpet flowers from the face of perpendicular cliffs. 

BiGNONiA Indica. L. (Calosanthes. Blume.) 

Yemacular. C. mulin, sort, B. B. tdt mordnfff tat palang, 
Bazir, leaves, sionak. ? 

A small tree growing in the Siw&lik tract up to the Chen&b. 
The timber is said to be soft, spongy, and useless. It has an 
enormous flat pod-like fruit resembling a scimetar, filled with 
seeds having very broad membranaceous wings. These are in 
some places applied to abscesses, and elsewhere are said to be given 
in hemicrania. The officinal sionak of the Punjab Baz&rs appears 
to be the leaves of this tree. 

B. suAVEOLENs. Box. (Stereospermxjm. DC.) 

Vernacular. B. pddal, kalthdun, summe. 

This, which, imder favorable circumstances, grows to be a large 
tree with an useful timber, extends sparingly in the Siw&lik tract 
up to the Bdvi. Its wood is used for charcoal. 



Yenuumlar. roMra, lahiira, Mdr. T. I. regddwan, reoddn, 

A small stiff-looking tree occuiring locally^ chiefly in the arid 
tracts, from Dehli westward through Harri^a^ and the central 
Ponjab to the Salt Range and Trans-Indus^ where it occurs up to 
2^500 or 3^000 feet. Edgeworth also mentions it in the Siw&lik 
tract opposite Amb&Ia^ and Dr. Jameson foimd a specimen close to 
the Bi&s below K&ngra (and Hardwicke first found it near Cawn- 
jvor) • TIds has perhaps the handsomest flower of any indigenous 
Punjab tree, and its gorgeous orange blossoms make quite a show 
in some parts in the west of the Province about April ; in the east 
their colour appears to be much more faint. Trees of 4 and 5 feet 
girth are not uncommon ; and in Sirsa, near the Sutlej, I saw a 
group of a score up to 7 or 8 feet girth and 40 feet high. The 
leaves vary greatly in size, upon which circumstance chiefly 
Dr. Henderson is inclined to make two varieties of the tree. 
The foliage is browsed by cattle. The wood is hard, close-grained, 
and strong, but is rarely large or abundant enough to be much 
used except for natives' ordinary work. 


Marttnia dianb&a. Olox. 

Vernacular, bichii, ? Baz&r, fruit, &c., hathqjoH, 

This plant is only known in gardens in the Punjab (but is 
naturalized in several places in and near the Siwdlik tract of 
Bohilkund). Its fruit is officinal in the Punjab Baz^. 

Sesamum Indicum. L. 

Vernacular, til. 

Is grown alone (or sometimes mixed) as a hot-weather crop, 
but rarely in the western Punjab, except in the hills, where I have 
frequently seen it at 2,500 and occasionally at 6,000 feet. 
Thomson observed it in Kashmir at the latter elevation. The 
seeds are sometimes eaten parched, and are put in sweetmeats, but 
are mostly used for the oil, which is sweet and largely consumed in 
food. The oil-cake is given to cattle, and sometimes used by the 

eor as food when mixed with flour. The seeds are also officinal^ 
ing considered diuretic^ but are said to injure digestion. 



Satatas edvlis. Choifi. , (Conyolyulus Basatas. L.) 

Vernacular, shakarkand. 

■ Is commonly cultivated (in the cold weather) in the eaatem 
part of the Punjab plains. The root is eaten us a vegetable. 

Convolvulus akvensis. L. 

YemaculaTi . veri ? Baa&r> plants JAranpadU 

An abundant weed aU over the plains of the Punjab^ and to 
10^000 feet in the Punjab Himalaya. The officinal hirtmpadi 
(deer's foot) appears to be this plant. 

C. PLU&iCAULis. Chois. 

Vernacular, porpr^mgy gorahh pdHw, baphalH, dddak. 

A common plant in. many places throughout the Punjali 
plains. It is eaten by cattle^ and is. reckoned- cooling, and used 
as a vegetable or given in sharbcU. 


Vernacular. Baz&r^ plant, sankh pushpi. 

Common in many parts of the Punjab plains. The plant 
appears to be the officinal sankh pmhpl of the Bazfirs. 

Ipomcea reftans. Poir. 

Vernacular. C. ganihian. B. D. ndri^ ndlL 

An aquatic plant, common in parts of the eastern and 
central Punjab. It is frequently eaten as a vegetable by the 
poorer classes, and in places its root also appears to be eaten. 


Vernacular, bhdnwar. 

, Occnm sparingly in the plains up to the western frcmtier, 
. It is one of the plsmts which in Indian famines is eaten. 


Vernacular, chita bdnsa ? Bazir, root, turbud, tiisot. 

. Bellew states that tins is indigenous in the Peshawar ^ Valley, 
but I h&ve no knowledge, of ii nearly so. fn w£st« j He jAeaJaauM 

covvaxxrmjLCEM. 151 

that the stems are considered Aemtilcent and laxative. The root 
is officinal^ and considered beneficial in diseases of the mucous 
membrane^ in leprosy and paralysis. 

Phaebitis Nit.. Chois. 

YemacDlar* J. bildiy ker. C. ktrpdioa. B, phapnl sdg. 
Baz4r, seed^ hildddna. 

Not nncommon in the Siwdlik tract and outer hills occa- 
sionally to 5^000 feet^ up to near the Indus. The seeds are pur- 
gative^ and are found in all Baz&rs. This appears to be the plant 
whichj when young, is used on the Bids as a pot-herb. 



Vernacular. J. nlla thdri, C. dmil. 

I have allowed my species of Cuscuta to get into confusion, 
but this appears to be common in the Punjab Himalaya from 
6,000 to 9,000 feet, up to the Indus. It is found on Populus, 
Salix, Spib£a, Loniceba, Dbsmodium, Ubtica, and Polygonum. 
Like some of the other species it exhales a very strong scent at 
times. It is eaten by cattle and goats. Edgeworth mentions 
that the mountaineers believe that crows pluck sprigs of this (and 
C. ANQU2NA, Edge.) to drop into water, when they become snakes, 
and so furmsh food for tnem. Madden states that the natives 
promise boundless wealth to him who finds the root of it, while 
others again believe that the possession of its root will confer the 
gift of invisibility. 


Vernacular. K. kwiklapot, zrdnd. C. amM. 

This is found on Mobus, LeftopuSj Plectbanthus, Polygo- 
num, Abtemisia, &c., in Kashmir, &c.; from 4,000 to 5,000 feet, 
and was got in Afigh&nistdn by Bellew on Tamabisk, Alhagfj 
and Pbga^um. 


Vernacular. ? 

Edgeworth found this in fields of Kashmir lucerne, at Goo- 
gaira, in Montgomery, and it is common in Lahoul and Laddk 
up to 11,000 feet, growing on. Cabxjm, < Abtbmisia oiNBBBAy and 




Vernacular. J. andal. K. midasat, C. andal, bounds, B. 
ffhdsvel, minjHj sairawala, akllH. T. I. zarbHtei, 
banausha, parwatti. S. R. nira tdr. Plains generally, 
nila t&riy niradhdr, Baz&r, seed, dkds bel, dftimin, kasus. 

This is common in the Punjab plains^ generally on Zizyphus 
or Adhatoda vasica^ and less often on Dalbergia, Populus 
EuPHRATiCA, or Ficus CARicoiDEs. In the hills it appears to 
grow to 9^060 feet on Spirjsa, Sambucus, Indigofera, Carduus, 
Salvia, and Nepeta, &c. The flowers have a pleasant and power- 
ful scent. In various parts the seeds are boiled and put over the 
stomach as a carminative, and bruised for washing the head, or 
bruised or burned they are applied as anodyne. They are also 
officinal as dkdsbel or aftimun, which is given in cold inmsion as a 
depurative, and they constitute part at least of the kasiis of drug- 
sellers, given as a purgative and cholagogue. 


Arnebia echioibes. a. DC. 

Vernacular, paighanibari phiil or giUy sparlei gil, mumantU. 

This plant is mentioned by Bumes as '' a violet'' under its most 
common native name '' prophet's flower/' "probably so called on 
account of its fine odour." I have only seen it in the northern 
Trans-Indus, where it is common, but to no great elevation. It 
is liked by the Path&ns on account of its delightful scent, and is 
also held in veneration by them, as the five dark marks on the 
corolla are said to be those of Mahomed's fingers. 



This small plant is chiefly remarkable for its great range. It 
is common in the plains of the central and eastern Punjab and 
N. W. Provinces, and a species found in Lahoiil 9,500 and Tibet 
16,000 feet appears to be the same. 


Vernacular, kuara, lasidra. 

A tree which grows wild in the Siwilik tract up to the R&vi, 
and is conunonly planted in the plains and outer hills up to 8,500 
or 4,000 feet. The wood in £&ngra is said to be white and 


8oft^ and is mostly used for fuel. The leaves are used for fodder 
and for plates. The astrin£cent viscous fruit is eaten by natives. 
and is uied for the markii^ nut (Semecabptts q. v.), tLugh it^ 
colour is transient. It is also officinal^ being given for coughs^ &c.j 
and in Sind is employed in the distillation of spirits. In Sind 
also fose is prepared firom the bark of this tree. 

C. BoTHii. B. and S« (C. augustivolia. Box.) 

Vernacular, jfondnij gtmdL 

This small tree with a small viscous fruit and worthless wood 
is common planted in the central and pastern Punjab plains^ and 
occurs up to the Indus. 

C. vssTiTA. Hf. and T. (C. incana. Boyle.) (Gtnaion 


Vernacular. B. ktimbi. S. B. karik. 

A small tree^ rare in the Siw&lik tract nearly as far as the 
Jhelam. One or two Ixees (probably planted) are seen on Tilla 
in the Salt Bange to 8,000 feet. Where the tree is common (N. W. 
Provinces Siw&liks> &c.,) the wood is valued for wheel-work. 
The fruit is eaten^ and said to be sweet. 


Vernacular. Baz&r^ plants nilahrdi^ 

This officinal plant appears to be the above^ which grows in 
and near the plains in the N. W. Punjab, and to 7,000 feet in the 


Vernacular. B. gin. B. chamarr. T. I. maraghiine, khara* 
wi&ne, khabarra, iuHri, lor. S. B. saggar ^ ganger, baH 
kander. S. S. D. chambaL Plains generally, chamror» 

A small tree not uncommon in the Siw^lik tract. Salt Bange, 
and Trans-Indus, to 2,500 feet, and occasional in the plains 
throughout. Edgeworth states that the timber is much valued for 
its hardness, but I have not heard this from natives. The bark is 
said to be ground and mixed with flour and eaten in times of 




Vernacular. J. «tim. B. kdlthdun. Grenerally^ p^nnd. 

A small tree fireqnent in parts of the Punjab Siw^lik tract 
and in the outer hills^ occasionally to 5^000 feet^ up to near the 
Indus. Its timber is said to be tolerably strong and durablci and 
tol)e used for house-building, impl^nents, &c. 


Vernacular. T. I. kharai, tindu. S. B. stffid bhangra. 
Baz&r, plant, chitipMl, gcrdkh pdnw. 

A small plant common in many parts of the Punjab plains. 
It is ofBcinal under the ab«ve names. 

H. EuaoFJBtTM. L. 

Vernacular. "S.l. nil kattei. S. S. D. M/Aita. '&.J>.atwin, 
popai bUtL Generally, gidar tamdkd. 

Not uncommon throughout the Punjab plains. A yellow- 
flowered variety (7) grows in parts of the Peshawar Valley. The 
plant.bmised isemetic, and is also given after snake-bite. 

H. BAHOsissiMUH. Sieb* 
H. STBioosuu. Willd.' 


Vernacular. pipaUbutL Bazar, plant, jati misdk. 

These are found in several places of the Punjab plains, &c., 
and one or other is in some places given after snake-bite, and with 
tobacco oil is applied to the bite itself. Is also officinal under the 
above name. 

MAcaoTOMti Benthami. DC. ? ? 

Vernacular. ? 

Found at 10—12,000 feet on the Pir Punj&l and elsewhere. 
. It is collected as medicine, being considered useful in diseases of 
the tongue and throat. 

M* EUCBBOHA. Hf. and T. (Lithosfekmum xuchbomok. 


Onosma echiodes. L. 

Vernacular. C. rattanjot, koame, moghsi. B. ratmiindL S. 
khomiye, khdme, bocho. Bazar, root, rattanjot ; leavesj 
gaozab&n; Aowers, gul gaozubdn. 

1 have unfortunately confused these very different plants, 
which grow in the more arid regions of the Himalaya to 10^000 


and in Tibet to 16,000 feet, and the latter at least occurs down to 
near the plains level Trans-Indus. The bruised root of one or 
other or both is locally applied to eruptions, and is sent to the 
plains as the officinal rattaiyot — (see Potsntilla nsfalbnsis) — 
which is also used in dyeing wool. Boyle assigned ratiar^fot to 
LiTHosFERMUM TESTiTUM (and See Geranium nodosum). In 
Lahoul, Spiti, and Kan&war, it is used by the Lambas to stain 
images, and as a red dye for cloth, being applied with gM or the 
add of apricots. The seeds were many years ago sent as those of 
•a ANCHuaA to the Agri-Horticultuna Sode^ I^^hon, for trial, 
but apparently without result. The leaves of ike latter appear to 
be most of the officinal gauzabdn — (see Trichodesma sp.) — ^used 
as an alterative, and its flowers are apparently those sold by the 
drug-sellers under the same name, as stimidant and caraiac, 
Davies^ Trade Report states that 25 maunds of gaiusabdn, and one 
maund of guligauzabdn, are annually imported vi& Peshawar from 


Vernacular. J. lendi. C. lenwa; root^ muUn. Lad. shomd, 

Pound in parts of the basins of the ChenAb and Jhelam at 
4,000 to 10,000 and in Lad&k up to 16^000 feet. The pounded 
root is applied to abscesses, and appears to be exported to the 
plains, altiiough I have not identified it with any drug from the 

Trichodesma Indicum. R. Br. 

Vernacular. J. undiH. S. R. hamri b£H. Bazfir^ leaves, 

Common in many parts of the Punjab plains and occasionally 
found to 4,500 feet in the hills. Locally it is used as a cooling 
medicine, and its leaves are officinal imder the above name, a 
cold infusion being considered depurative. 

T. sp. 

Vernacular. T. I. parbiir pdnL 

Four species, two from Affghfinist&n about 6,000 or 7,000 
feet, by BeUew, and two I found on the rocky mounts at Chhiiot 
on the Chen&b, resemble each other very strongly, especially in 
iheir extremely harsh leaves. Part of the officind gauzabdn — (see 
Okosma) — consists in the Punjab of the leaves of one or other of 

156 PUNJAB PiiAirrs. 


Atbofa Belladonna. L. 

Vernacular. S. siccM, 

A plant found wild in Kandwar at 8^500 feet appears to be 
this, ^ere it is stated to be burned in order to kill fleas. 

Capsicum annuum. L. Bed pepper. 

Yemaciilar. E. matitsa wdngru. C. and plains^ &c., Idl 
mirchf marcha, 

Conunonly cultivated for its fruity used as a condiment^ in tbe 
plains throughout, in Kashmir, &c., and on the Chendb to 6,500 
feet. When grown at the greater altitudes, it is said to be more 
pungent than that of the plains. The fruit is also used medici- 
nally in plasters, and taken in cholera, and to counteract bad 

Datura stramonium. L. (D. alba. Nees.) 

Vernacular. K. tatHr^ dattHr. Plains, &c., generalljj 

.Not uncommon in waste ground near houses in the plains 
throughout, and up to 9,000 feet in the Himalayas, and mentioned^ 
by Griffith in Afighdnist&n. Its seeds are used in poisoning, and 
are given medicinally in asthmatic complaints, being sometimes 
smoked with tobacco thus, and for vicious indulgence. The leaves 
are applied to boils and ulcers, and are also smoked with tobacco 
for asthma. 

Hyoscyamus nigee. L. 

Vernacular. C. dandHra, bazrbang. R. denHrii. S. datura, 
sura, T. I. damHrOj bangidiwdna, Baz&r, seed, bazr ul 

Frequent in waste ground near houses, from 5,000 to 10,000 
feet in the Punjab Himalaya, where it is stated on first-rate 
authority to be eaten by cattle. The seeds are on the Sutlej said 
to be poisonous, and are officinal in the plains for their narcotic 

Ltcium Europjeuh. L. 

Vernacular. B. D. hangf&j Mngii, garyer. H. mrdl. D. 

A small thorny shrub not uncommon in the drier tracts of the 
Punjab plains from Dehli west to the Sulim4n Range, The plant 


is browsed by camels, goats, &c., and is used for fiiel and wattling. 
The berries are eaten in some places, and are used medicinally as 

L. BuTHENicuM. Marr. 

Vernacular. Lad. hhickoTf kitsarma. 

Besembles the last, and is common in parts of laJ3£k firom 
10,000 to 14,000 feet. The fruit is eaten, but is very mawkish. 

NicoTiANA BusTicA. L. Latakia tobacco. 

Vernacular. J. Childssi tamdM. C. kakkar t. Lad. tamdkii. 
Plains, kalckar t, KandahdH /., Kdlkatii t. 

The existence of this species in India appears not to hare 
been suspected till ia the spring of 1865 I discovered that it is 
grown in considerable quantities about Lahore, sometimes equal 
in area to the ordinary kind. Subsequent enquiries haye elicited, 
that, under yarious names, it is cultivated at many other places in 
the Punjab, M61tfin, Hoshilirpur, Dehli, Harri&na, &c. ; also in the 
Oangetic Do4b, Oudh, &c., and quite recently what appears to be 
this species is reported to the Agn-Horticultural Society of India, 
as grown to some extent in Cooch Bahar, Bungp&r, and Assam. 
I ^ye also seen it cultiyated in some quantity in Pangi on the 
Upper Chen&b from 7,500 to 9,400 feet, in Kh&gAn and on the 
Sasnenganga in the Jhelam basin from 3,800 to 4,500 feet, and 
in Ladak at 10,500 feet. I have not certainly identified it in 
Kashmir, but there is some evidence that it is grown in parts 
of the valley (5,000 feet) about IsUmab&d, &c. The accounts 
in most of these localities agree that more of it than of the 
ordinary kind can be grown per acre, especially as in many 
places the flowers of it are not plucked off, but are mixed with 
the leaves for smoking, and that it brings a larger price than 
the ordinazy species. It is said to be much stronger than 
the latter, and to be generally smoked mixed with a large pro- 
portion of it. Its qualities, when smoked in the European pipe, 
give assurance that, if properly cured, it would rival Turkish 
tobacco. I have hitiierto failed to discover how it reached India. 
At Sah&ranp^, where it was known as N. quadbivalvis, there are 
two statements given—- one, that its seed had been brought from 
K&bul by a Captain Lawson or by Affgh&n merchants for Falconer, 
another, that it had been got from Calcutta in Griffith's time ; nor 
can I get any definite information as to its source from the Agri- 
Hortiraltural Society, Calcutta. Towards the east its name would 
indicate a Calcutta origin ; towards the west the names Kandah^ 
and Childsi would suggest that it came from the other direction. 


WhencesGHeyer. it ispresA it would appear to .hare leached the 
Plii\}ab very long ago, or it could hardly have penetrated to near 
tiie centre of the Himalaya in Lahoul ; and yet it must ^tiU be 
spreading, for in one district a complaint was made to the Magis- 
trate that a plant was being sold for tobacco which was sometlun^ 
quite di£ferent. 

N. Tabacum. Tobacco. 

. Yemacnlar. idmdkji. 

This is the common species which is largely cnltiTated, in 
good soil and with plenty of water and manuie, all orer the 
plains, in the Himalaya up to 7,400 feet at least on the Chenfib, 
to 11,000 feet on the Sutlej (Hoffmeister), and in Afigh&nist&n* 
Aitcluson states that none is grown in Lahoul, and I certaiDly saw 
none so far up. Moorcroft mentions that tobacco is cultifated in 
a. few gardens in Lad&k — (see N. bttstica) — ^but a good deal is 
probably imported thither, as Ca^ley gires 32 mannds as taken to 
JA from Kashmir in : 1867. DaTiies^ Trade Report states that 7,500 
ipftB^yi^ft of tobacco are annually brought from AffghAnistAn yift Pe- 
shawar, and 440 maunds, as well as 50 mauhds of snuff, by the Bol&n* 
But in return, the Peshawar snuff being famous, Bellew mentions 
that much of it is carried to K&bul, &c. In. the plaios the. chief 
harrest of it takes place in spring, but in some places, under 
favorable conditions, it is cultivated all the year. It may be 
noted that among the Path&ns, as well as in Kan&war (Hoffmeister 
notes this), and in Lad&k, it is jiot uncommon in default of a pipe 
to improvise one by two small holes formed in the ground and 
connected by a little tunnel. 

Phtsalis Indica. Lam. (NicANnaA Indica. B. and S. 


Vernacular, Baz&r, frxdt, habbi iHknqf. 

So far as I am aware, this is not cultivated in the Punjab, 
but the fruit is officinal in the Baz&rs, being considered tonic, 
diuretic, and purgative. It is probable that Honigberger is 
wrong in attributing this to P. alkekenoi L. So far as the 
Punjab is concerned, Birdwood is quite mistaken in ascribing 

hdhuff to' WiTHANIA COAGULANS (q. V.) 

P* SP. 

Vernacular. ranffoK. 

With a large inj9ated, coloured calyx^ not uncommon wild in 
pa^rts of th^/JhelamJlwin^ wJieve itsjruit is eaten. 


ScopoLiA p&AALTA. Duu; (Belibnia p. Dne.) 

Vemacnlar. C. sholar, bajar bang, lang tanff^ nandt^i dan* 
darwa. Lad. lang thang. T. L khardag. 

Common in wiaste ground in parts of the Chenilb basin from 
6,800 to 9,500 feet, in Zanskar and Spiti, and to IGjOOO feet in 
^bet, and apparently found sparingly Trans-Indus in the plains^ 
and perhaps the same plant in one place near Lahore. In the 
hills the leayes are applied to boils, and are also said to be 
poison, the mouth swelling from their tonch, and the head and 
throat being affected when they are eaten. A man was poisonously 
affected by eating the plant gathered in the Lahore habitat, and 
the Negi of Lahoul, when at Ld in 1867, suffered from its narcotic 
effects for two or three days, some of its leaves having been 
gathered by mistake with his sag. At the same time they can 
hardly be Tcry poisonous to all animals, for in Lahoul they are 
browsed by cattle. In a recent oommomication to the Agri* 
Horticultural Society of India, Dr« Christison of Edinburgh 
states that this has the same property of dilating the pupils as 


Vemacnlar. Baz&r, leaves, &c., r&ba barih. 

This occurs in the Punjab Himalaya at 7,000 to 7,600 feet^ 
Its leaves, &;c., (or those of S. nio&um q. v.) are officinal under 
the above name. 

S. oBAciLiPBs. Dne. 

Vernacular. T. I. hcwdy margM pal. S. B. kauri bfiti, kan* 
didrl: S. S. D. pilak. B. D; valiri patirawdld damd. 
Baz&r; leaves, gdhra. 

A slender straggling thorny plant foimd Trans-Indus, in the 
Salt Bange, and as far east as Lahore and Montgomery. In 
flome places the small fruit is eaten ; in others it is said to be 
collected by hakims to be applied in otitis. The leaves, &c«, axe 
officinal under the above name. 

S. Ltcopebsicum. L. (L. esculbntum. Mill. Tomato. 

Vernacular. wUayati bengan. 

I anti informed that one kind of tfais> which it generally 
supposed to have been introduced from America, has for long' 
been cultivated by the natives* It is said to ham dustered or 
much tubercidated fruity and to have oome^ from Kashitrfr; (P ?) > 



Vemacolar. bengan. 

Cultivated abundantly in the plains for the large firuit, which 
is eaten as a vegetable. It is a favourite with natives^ but is 
considered heating and apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. 


Vernacular. E. kdmbei. T. I. hwan sqf iofei. Plains^ kc,, 
generally, kdchmdch, riaungi. Bazar, leaves^ &c., rti&a« 
baHk ? Fruit, anb^dlib, tnako. 

A common weed throughout the plains and to 9,000 feet in 
the Himalaya, a pilose variety being not nn&eqnent. The fruit 
is commonly eaten, without bad effects, as it is stated to be by 
children in Sydney, New South Wales. It is also officinal, being 
given in anasarca, fcc. The leaves ako of this or S. Dulc^maba 
(q. V.) are kept by drug-sellers under the above name. 


Vernacular. T. I. maraghiine. S. B. barl mauhoHi fMhoH. 
Generally, tingi. 

Seen occasionally Trans-Indus, and in the Salt Range, &c.j 
to 4,500 feet. In some places the fruit is eaten fresh and in 

S. TXJBEBosuM. L. Potato. 

Vernacular. d/iS. 

Is now cultivated at a good many places in the plains as a cold 
weather crop, and abundantly and with still greater success in 
parts of the hills up to 9,000 feet, but mostly only for Europeans. 
Khatris, &c., occasionally use them as food, but most classes 
of natives think they tend to indigestion and flatulence. In some 
parts of the hiUs, however, they are largely consumed by nativesj 
being cooked and eaten with buckwheat, &c. 


Vemaculieff. J. lata mewa. C. ti&rt. B. B. old. T. I. 

A shrub of some size occasional in the Siw&Iik tract and 
outer hills to 4,000 feet, and also found Trans-Indus. I do not 
know of its being used in the Pnniab, though in southern 
it is cultivated for the fruity whidi is used in cnxries. 




Vemacolar. warfimba, kharidn maroffMne, S. B. chhoH 
mauhari, mahori. S. S. D. hamduU. B. D. kc., 
kandidri, mamoli^ pilak. Bazdr^ fruity katela, bat kateya. 

Common througliout the Punjab plains and occasional to 
5^000 feet in the outer hills. In some places the seeds are eaten. 
They are also applied for bruises and in otitis. The fruit likewise 
is officinal^ being bruised and applied for pain. 


Vernacular. T. I. spin baj^a, shdpiang, kh^mazare, ffutkhazura, 
panfr. S. B. khamjira, kuHldna. S. P. panir. Baz&r^ 
fruity akrij panir. 

A small shrub with light-coloured leathery leaves^ which is 
common Trans-Indus and along the Salt Bange (to 4^500 feet), and 
occurs in the southern Punjab, generally near houses or fields, 
seldom in the real desert. Griffith and Bellew state that the Affgh&ns 
use it for curdling milk to make cheese, whence its Persian name 
pcmfrbdd and some of those used in the Punjab. The seeds are 
considered stomachic about Peshawar, as was first remarked by 
Masson, and they probably possess anodyne or sedatiye properties 
like those of the next species. In home practice they are given to 
children for colic, and are used in veterinary medicine, and are sold 
in most Baz&rs. Honigberger states that the bitter leaves of this 
plant are given as a febrifuge by the Lohinis. 


Vernacular. C. ak. T. I. k&tildl, sin* S. B. aksan, Baz&r^ 
root, asgand NagauH, vaman. 

Is not uncommon in waste ground up to the Stilimin Bange, 
and in the outer lulls to 8,500 feet. The plant is browsed by 
goats, so the leaves, &c., can hardly be dangerously narcotic. In 
many places the root is given in veterinary practice. It is also 
officinal, being consider^ aphrodisiac, and given for lumbar 
pains, &c. At least one case has occurred in the Punjab in which the 
root was used with a view to effect ciriminal abortion, and I learned 
that in Sind this practice is not uncommon. The second name, 
under which this is sold, seems to be a corruption ot behman, with 
T^ard to the origin of both red and white kinds of. which, as 
usually told, we are sfill quite in the dark. Davies' Tirade Beport 
gives 25 maunds as the quantity of both behmans aimually brought 
from Affgh^uustdn vi& Peshawar, 

162 PUKJAB BMim. 

DuBiA. pdlh&ra. 

A fine herbaceous plants Teaching 5 or 6 feet in height, &nnd 
in various places in the Jhelam basin at firom 7,000 to 7,500 feet. 
Goats eat it, but in several places, where its fruit had been by 
mistake included among pot-herbs, delirium for several days had 

luNCEA TiBETicA. Hf. and T. 

Vernacular. ? 


With a blue flower, one of the prettiest of the herbaceous 
plants of Lad&, where it occurs up to 16,000 feet. 


Yemacolar. ? 

Aitchison mentions that this grows in Lahoul (9,500 feet) 
where some part of it is used in medicine. 

P. PBCTINATA. Wall. (?) 

Vemacnlar. S. michren. 

Common in the Punjab Himalaya from 5,000 to 12,000 feet. 
In Kan&war the pounded leaves are given for haemoptysis. This 
is probably the species which Honigberger says is officinal in 


Vernacular. ? 

A small almost stemless species with a handsome long yellow 
corolla, which is seen carpeting the ground in places by streams 
in Lad&k up to 15,000 feet. 

p. SP. 

Vernacular. (?) 

Aitchison mentions an unnamed species of Lahoul (9,500 
feet) as often having a scent of musk like that of DiiiPHiNnTK 
Bbunonianvm (q. v.) 



Yemacolar. B. karni. Baz&r^ root^ harr&j hdH kAtki. 

Common ia the Punjab Himalaya at firom 5^500 to 14^000 
feet. Honigberger states that it is more frequently used in 
Teterinaiy than in human medicine^ but in the latter its root is 
one of the regular febrifoges^ and is given for ascites and applied 
in plaster. It must be used in considerable quantity^ as 86 maunds 
of kamni are reported as exposed for sale from Kullu at the Bamptir 
fair in Bissahir in 1867. Part of the iorrtl sold is the root of 
Obntiana kubboo (q. t.)j and some of it is possibly produced by 
other plants. Davies' Trade Beport gives 20 maunds of hiUlA as 
annually exported from Peshawar to E&bul. 


Vernacular. Lad.j shUsti. 

Conmion in Lad&k from 14^000 up to 16^500 feet. It is 
browsed by goats^ but not by yak$^ 

Yebbascum Thapstjs. L. Mullein. 

Vemacnlar. K. vAlr, pML C. ban iamdk&, phaarik, bMin 
ke dum, S. eklbir, kadanda^ phikntary kwispre. T. I. 
khargosh, kharkhamar^ spin khamdr. S. B. gUbrganna, 
kardthri, rewand chinL B. D. gtdar tamdkH. 

Not uncommon in the plains^ and grows in the Himalaya to 
11^000 feet^ a white-flowered variety occasionally occurring at the 
higher elevations. It is eaten by camels^ goats, &c. In Bissahir 
the root is given as a febrifuge. The name rewand chini woidd 
seem to indicate that the root is at times used to adulterate or 
employed for rhubarb— (see Bhsum)* 

VsBovicA Bbccabitnoa. L. 

Vernacular. (?) 

Frequent in the Himalaya at from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. 
Honigberger states that the plsjit is officinal in Kashmir. 


Phblipjba Calotbopipis. Walp* 

Vernacular. T. L JMza, kharUmne, shartd (Per.) S. B. 
khakUri, khiiryin. B.V.bhfbnphor^bhoiphUh U.m^al. 
{Sind, bbanphor) • 

This was first fonnd near Ambfila by Edgeworth, and named 
firom the cixcomstance that he oonsiderB (and the natives sometimes 


say so also) that it groirs ovlj on Calotbopis. There is/hoir« 
ever^ some reason to doubt this. Dr. Henderson and I beliere 
that we have frequently seen it where there was no Calot&opis 
near. At the same time it probably affects that plant most. It 
grows in sandy places Trans-Indus, in the Salt Range (not oyer 
1,600 feet) in the southern Punjab, and parts of Ambtta, Sirsa, &c., 
east of the Sutlej. Its stem is very succulent and juicy, dry 
though its habitats are, and it presents a curious appearance witi^ 
its stem coyered with fine flowers an inch and a quarter long 
bursting through sand {bhiimphcrj means " eartii-splitter^^) often 
below bushes. It attains a girth of 6 or 8 inches and a height of 
2 or 2i feet above the surface, and sometimes even exceeds these 
dimensions. The bruised stem is applied to sores in horses, and 
in Mozaffargarh the upper part of it is given as fodder to oxen 
and goats, and less firequently to camels. 


Adhatoda Yasica. Nees. 


Vernacular. J. bhekkar. K. pekkar. C. B. basHH, basoH, 
B. bishi, basM. T. I. tara b^a. S. B. bekkar. Baiir, 
leaves, bdnsa sabz. 

A small shrub with a large white flower, common in all the 
outer lulls, occasionallv to 4,000 feet, and sometimes even higher 
in the Salt Bange, and east of the Sutlej often seen far out in the 
plains. Has a strong smell when bruised, whence several of the 
native names from Ms, odour. Most animals do not browse on 
it, and even goats only crop a few leaves. It is firequently used 
for mating the finable charcoal employed for gunpowder. There 
was a case of suspected poisoning b^ this plant at Hoshiirpur 
within the last two years, but there u no reason to suppose that 
it i» poisonous. BeUew states that the leaves are given as a cattle 
medicine, and to men for rheumatism, and that the firesh flowers 
are bound over the eyes for ophthalmia. The leaves are officinal 
at Lahore> being given for coughs, ftc. 

iBcHMANTEBKA Wallichii. N. ab £. var. b. oossTPniA. 

Vernacular. B. patrang, ban marud. 

There is some doubt about this plant, but it ap]^ears to be not 
uncommon in the Punjab Himalaya firom 8,000 to 6,000 feet. 
Madden states that bees are particularly fond of its flowers, and 
Jameson mentions that a land of doth is made £rom the tomentum 
of the leaf. 



Vernacular. Btaix, seed^ tal makhdna. 

Not imcommon in moist places in the eastern and central 
parts of the Punjab plains. The seeds are oflb^inal^ being given 
for gonorrhsea. 

Bablbbia cbistata. L. 

Vernacular. J. tadrelH. Bass&Tj leaves, bdtisd wydh. 

Occurs in the outer hills to 4,000 and occasionally to 5,000 
feet, and is found at times Trans-Indus. Madden states that the 
seeds of this or a similar species are administered for snake-bite, 
lie leaves (apparently of this) are ofBcinal at Lahore, being given 
for coughs, ftc. 

DicLiPTBBA Kozbubghii. N. ab E. 

Vernacular. J. hirch. B. aamnL Baz&r, plant, lakshmana. 

Not imcommon Trans-Indus, in the Salt Bange, in the 
Siwilik tract, and in the outer Punjab Himalaya occasionally to 
6,500 feet. The plant is officinal. 


Caixicabpa incana. Box. 

Vernacular. J. paUharman, bd-pattra, b(nm4. 0. i4m4lu 
B. denihar, drfi$9. 

A shrub frequent in the outer Himalaya to 4,500 feet. In 
Haafira the leaves heated are applied to rheumatic joints (whence 
the name bd-pattra from bd rheumatism} . 


Vernacular. B.hdlibdidK. 

A speeies, apparently this, occurs in the Siw£lik tract and 
occasionaHy out in the plains, and it is probably the one that 
Edgeworth mentions as being used to give fire by friction in tiie 
Amb^ tract. 

C. SiPHONANTHUS. SpT. /(n^cV^i h 3ii 

Vernacular. B. D. amU Baiir, xoot> &c.j dotmS mubdnk* 
Occasionally seen in gardens. Its root and leaves are officinaL 


OmsIiIka aeborx^ Box. 

Yemacular. kHrnhdrt gimMor^ Bass&r, fruity Mk6A(itnhaA. 

A tree wliich occurs wild in the easternmost part of the 
Punjab Siwilik tracts and is occasionally seen Ranted in the plains, 
up to the Chen&b at least. In parts of India^ where the tree is 
common^ its wood is reckoned strong and durablcj and is much used. 
Q3ie fruit is officinal in the Punjab. 

LippiA NOBirLOBA. Rich. 

Vernacular. S. B. B. D. mokna, bdkan, Jalnim, &c. Bazfir, 
plants gorakh mundL 

Common in and near water all over the Punjab plains, and 
to 2,000 feet in the hills. The plant is officinal, being considered 

Prehna mttcronata. Box. 
Vernacular. C. ganhtla. B. gian, bankdr. B. bankdr. 

A tree which occurs in the Siw&lik tract to 3,000 feet up to 
the B&vi. In parts of India where it is common, the timber is 
found good and useful, and the juice of the bark is employed 
medicinally. The wood is said to be good fuel. 


Vernacular. »dgiin. 

This Taluable tree is extremely difficult to raise in the Punjab, 
and only a few specimens exist as far west as Lahore. 

Verbena officinalis. L. 

Vernacular. K. pdmUkh, Baz&r, plant, kar&iia. 

Common in moist places all over the Punjab plains and at 
places to 7,000 feet in the hills. Bellew states that the fresh 
leaves are used as febrifuge and tonic, and the plant is officinal 
at Lahore, being considered depuratiye and febrifuge. 


Vernacular. J. iirbanna, morann, marwan. C. bbma. B. 
bwma. B. banna, smdke. S. shwdri. T. I. marwande, 
warmande. S. B. fnarwan, mawra. Bas&r, root and 
leaves, MOim&lii ; fruit, filfil bari» 

A common shrub in the Siwfiik tract and up to 8,500 feet in 
tib» wjm Mb and oocaskmal in the Salt Bange and oat la the 

liABXATJS* 167 

plabs. The branches are uaed for ^wattle-work. The leates are 
in Chmnba given for colic; they are alao officinal and iified in 
ponhices. ^e root and firuit likewise are officinal. 


Many of the members of this fiimily being odorons or with 
a strong taste firom the presence of essential oils^ a considerable 
proportion are used in native medicines. 

Ajxtoa bbactxata. Wall. 7 

Yemacnlar. J. kauri bitL B. karhU. S. nUkanthi. T. I. 
khdrbdnei. S. R. wad{ b{M. Baz&r^ plants jdniadam^^ 
(see Salvia lanata) — mickand bdM, ntikantM (Boyle.) 

This and several other species resembling it^ occur in the 
Ponjab Himalaya from 1^000 to 8^500 feet, and in the Salt Bange. 
In the latter it is used to kill lice. The plant is also officinal 
under the above names, being considered depnrative. 


Ballota limbata. Benth. 

Vernacular. J. btHj pMtkanda, K. phUt (?) Jandi. C. 
kandidrif Una. T. I. aghzan^ spinaghzdi. S. B. awdni 

A small pridely shrub with yellow flowers, which occurs in 
the Salt Bange, Trans-Indus, and in the Jhelam basin, at times to 
4,000 feet. It is browsed by goats, and the juice of the leaves is 
applied to children's gums, and to ophthalmia in man and beast. 

Calamintha umbrosa. Benth. (Melissa. Bieb.) 

Vernacular. Bazfir, seed, faranj mushk. 

This is common in the Punjab Himalaya from 2,500 to 9,500 
feet. It is probably the Melissa calamintha, whose seeds Hon- 
igberger says he found all the Bazdr faranj muahk to be — (see 
OciiiVM Basilicitm). 


Vernacular. J. d4$9i sampni. C. $Mtt. B. dIUs. B. bridlt, 
basiiH. S. barmera. T. I. shakarddna. S. B. phis 

A large shrub which occurs in the Siw£lik' tract to 4,000 feet, 
and in the Salt Bange and Trans-Indus. Guiqpowder charooal 


is made fit>m itj and its leates are applied to wounds and 

Dracociphalum hxtebophtllum. Benih. 

Vernacular. Lad.^ zdnda, shankd karamm. 

Grows from 18,000 to 16,000 and even to 17,000 feet in Ladik, 
wliere its root appears to be used as a vegetable. It is also browsed 
hy goats and sheep. 

Elsholtzia polystachta. Benth. 

Vernacular. J. rangchari, mehmU. C. garudar^ tappaddar. 
B. duss. S. pothi. 

A shrub found in the Punjab Himalaya at 6,000 to 10,000 
feet. To the south of Kashmir it is said to be used as a dye. 

Erxmostachys Vicabyi. Benth. 

Vernacular. S. B. gurganna, khakUra, rewand chtni. 

A fine yellow-flowered plant common in the Salt Bange to 
2,600 feet (and Trans-Indus ?) . The seeds are given as cooling 
medicine, and in a statement for the Punjab Exhibition it is 
mentioned that the plant is used for poisoning. fish in the Eusufsai 
near Peshawar. 

Lallemantia Boyleana. Benth. (Daacocephalum. Wall.) 

Vernacular. T. I. gharei kaahmdlfi. S. B. ttMm-malanga. 
Bas&r, seed, tukhm bdlang^. 

Is common wild in many places in the Salt Bange and 
Trans-Indus to 5,000 feet. Its seeds are officinal, being con- 
sidered cooling and sedative. 

Leucas Cephalotis. Spr. 
L. aspe&a. Bth. 

Vernacular. K. phiiman. Baz&r, plant, dsaliiu^ maldoda, 
guldoda, chatra. 

One or both common in the western Punjab plains, and to 
4,000 feet in the hills. The plant is stirred in milk ''for its 
odour J '' and is officinal, being reckoned stimulant. 

Lycopvs EuBOPJEVs. L. Gipsywort. 

Vernacular. K. gandamgiindii. Basfir, leaves, kc.^Jalnim. 

Occurs wild Trans-Indus and in Kashmir to 7,000 . feet. 
Part of this plant appears to be officinal under the above namcj 
as a cooling drug. 




Mabrttbiitm vuloa&e. L. White Horehoiuid. 

Vernacular, ? 

This species (apparently) t have fonnd in some eight or nine 
different places in and near Kashmir, on the Chen4b, in the Salt 
Range and Trans-Indus, at eleyations varying from 2,000 to 
7,000 feet. I have only seen it growing locally and scantily near 
habitations, but have no occasion to think that it is cultivated, 
nor could I learn that it is used for any purpose. 

Mentha INCANA. Willd. ''Persian mint." 
M. BoYLEANA. Benth. 

Vernacular. J. babUH. K. vien. C. yiira, piidna. B. 
k&9hma, S. hoshii. T. I. velanne. Baz4r, leaves, mushk 
tara mushi. 

The former of these is common in the plains Trans-Indus, 
and one or other in the Himalaya and Tibet, to 11,000 or 12,000 
feet. The former is also occasionally cultivated in gardens, and 
its leaves are officinal as astringent. 

M. SATiVA. L. (var. of M. abvensis. L. ?) Marsh whorled 


Vernacular, podina. 

Grown in gardens in the plains. Honigberger states that 
its leaves are officinal at Lahore. M. arvensis is found wild in 
Kashmir from 5,000 to 9,000 feet. 

M. ViRiDis. L. Spearmint. 

Vernacular, pdhdri podina, Baz&r, leaves, podina. 

Cultivated in gardens in the plains. Probably constitutes 
with the last, the podina of the drug-sellers, which is stimulant 
and given in cholera, &c. 


Vernacular. ? 

Abundant in most parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 2,000 
occasionally to 9,500 feet, and found Trans-Indus. It has a weak 
odour of thyme, which it somewhat resembles in appearance, and 
is ofteii mi^tAkcn by Europeans for it. 


Nepeta ciliaris. Benth. (N. leucophtlla. B1.) 

Ycmacular. Bazdr^ plants Z'&fa ydbU. 

Occurs in the Punjab Himalaya at from 4^000 to 8^000 feet. 
This or some very similar species seems to be the zitfa ydbis of the 
Lahore drug-sellers^ which^ however^ is brought from Affghdnistan 
(to the large extent of 50 maunds in a year^ according to Davies'' 
Trade Report) , and is by the books connected with hyssop, probably 
from a resemblance of the names. It is given in sharbat for fever 
and cough. 

N. ELLiPTicA. Boyle. 

Vernacular. S. R. takht malanga. 

What appears to be this species is found in the Salt Range 
and in the Punjab Himalaya from 3,000 to 9,000 feet. In the 
fgrmcr its seeds ai*e said to be medicine, but my informant may 
have confused it with Lallemantia (q. v.) 

N. FLoccosA. Benth. 

Ycmacular. Lad., chongmongo. 

This appears to be the species which is found at from 10,000 
to 16,500 feet in Laddk, where it is browsed by goats and sheex). 

N. KUDEBALis. Ham. 

Vernacular. Bazdr, leaves, bilU lotan, bddranj boy a, bebrang 

What is apparently this plant grows in the Siwdlik tract and 
Salt Range to 3,000 feet. It seems to be part at least of the 
officinal billi lotan, which has been assigned to various Labiate 
plants, and is probably obtained from several. It is considered 

N. sp. ? 
Vernacular. Baz&r, plant, gordil. 
This, which is sold as medicine^ appears to be a species of 


OciMUM Basilicum. L. 


Vernacular, tulsi, babtiri, Bazfir, seed, &c., faranj-mushk, 
Hlsi or rehdn; plant, nigand bdbri, nig and (pdurj. 

These species are cultivated in the plains, and the latter at 
least in Kashmir (5,000 feet) . The latter is also found wild in the 

LABIATE. " 171 

Salt Range at 1^500 feet. The seeds of these probably constitute 
the chief part of the officinal leaves^ flowers^ and seeds^ called 
faranj-muahk, &c.^ which are attributed to various species of 
OciMUM and other LABiATiE (e. g., Calamtntha q. v.) The seeds 
and flowers are reckoned stimulant^ diuretic^ and demulcent^ and 
are much used. The leaves are ground and applied to scorpion- 
stings. Part of the officinal nig and bdbri also appears to be one 
of these; it is considered to be febrifuge. Curiously enough, 
Davies' Trade Report gives 25 maunds of rehdn as annually 
imported, and the same quantity as exported vi& Peshawar. The 
former is probably correct. 


Vernacular. S. banjere. 

This, which is cultivated in the plains of parts of India, seems 
to be a species found in gardens in Kan&war at 6,800 feet, where 
the seeds are eaten mixed in ordinary bread. 

Origanum normals. Don. (O. vulgare. L.) Marjoram. 
Vernacular. Bazdr, plant, mirzanjosh. 

This herb grows commonly in the Punjab Himalaya from 
2,500 to 10,500 feet, and appears to be the officinal plant above 
named. Aitchison states that in Lahoul it is eaten as a pot-herb. 
I do not know what may be the '^ sweet marjoram ^^ of Lahore 
gardens mentioned by Honigberger, but O. Marjorana is said to 
be cultivated in southern India for its seeds, which are there offici- 
nal, being considered astringent. 

Plbctranthus rttoosus. Benth. 

Vernacular. J. itii. K. aolei, C. piumar, (Flea-killer), 
chugxiy sold, solei. R. koi, siringri. S. pek, rosbang, 
chichHy tsarbs, T. I. hhwangere, S. R. itsit. 

A small, rather slender, shrubby plant, abundant in the 
Punjab Himalaya from 3,000 to 9,000 feet, and occurring in the 
Salt Range. In places it is used as bedding to keep off fleas. In 
a recent paper in the Journal of the Linnsean Society on the plants 
of the tract near Sinai, I see an allusion to the fact that powerful 
smelling herbs keep off such insects. 

Prunella vulgaris. L. 

Vernacular. Baz&r, flowers, &c., adstakhadils. 

Common in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 3,500 
to 10,500 feet. It constitutes the chief part of the officinal 


substance above named^ wbicli is considered expectorant nnd 
antispasmodic^ and has been attributed to various Labiata {e. ff., 
Stjechas^ probably from the similarity of name) . 


Vernacular. B. kaur. B. haurt. 

Occasional in the outer hills up to the lUkvi about 3^000 feet. 
An infusion of the leaves is drunk for blows (and farther east in 
the Himalaya it is used as a bitter tonic) « 

Salvia lanata. Box. 
S. MooacBOFTiAXA. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. kdU /arrt. C. shoirt. B. thUt. S. potti^ 
kananffy hdlii. &. B. giirganna, khaldtri, laphra, pdprcu 
Baz^^ leaves^ fardsiim, jdmadam (Lowther) ; seedj 
kanocha, kalauncha, shorli (Honigberger). 

These two species have been confused in my hands, and 
must be treated together, though it is certain that most of the 
medicinal properties are ascribed to the latter of the two. Either 
(or both) is common wild in the plains of the N. W. Punjab, in 
the Ssdt Bange, and in the Himalaya to 9,000 feet, the latter 
having the wider range as to elevation. In the Salt Bange the 
stalks of the latter are peeled and eaten, being mawkish-sweet in 
taste, and there the root is given for coughs, the seeds for vomiting, 
and the leaves are applied to guinea-worm. In Haz^ the leaves 
are applied to itch. The leaves are also officinal as fardsiHn^ and 
Lowther states that poultices of them, under the name otjdniadanir-^ 
(see Ajuoa) — are applied to woimds; The seeds are the officinal 
kanocha, which Bellew states to be tak^i for haemorrhoids. At 
Lahore they* t^e given in colic and dysentery, and are applied to 


Vernacular. B. D, aathf. S. P. samtindar sok. Baz&r, seed^ 
stamilndar sok. 

C!ommon as a field weed in the plains and to 5,000 feet in 
the Punjab Himalaya. The seeds are officinal, and are much used 
in the Hindu system^ as mustard, and for gonorrhsea and m^ior- 

S, PVMiLA. Benth, 

Vernacular. S. B. Hikhm malanga. 

A smaU half-shrubby plant common in the Salt Bange and 
Trans-Indiui to 2,500 feet. Goats and sheep are said to be very 


fond of it. The seeds are used in diarrhseaj but from the 
yemacular name it would seem to be confused with bdlang'd — (see 
Lallemantia) . 

Scutellaria linea&is. Benth. 

Yemacular. S. B. mastidra. 

Not uncommon in the Salt Bange and Jhelam basin to 4j000 
feet. In the former the plants which is very bitter^ is eaten. 

Stachys FA&yiFLo&A. Bcuth. 

Vernacular. S. B. kfrimdr, (worm-killer) baggUbM. 

Common in many places^ Hazara^ the Salt Bange and Trans- 
Indus^ and found by Bellew in Affgh&mst^ from Eandah&r 
to Ghuzni (3,500 to 7,000 feet) . In the Salt Bange the bruised 
stems are applied to guinea-worm. 

Thymus sebpyllum. L. Thyme. 

Vernacular. C. mdsho. S. r&ng$bir. T. I. marUha, shakei. 
Baz&r, kalandar zatar ? 

Common in the Punjab Himalaya and Tibet from 5,000 to 
15,000 feet, and in the Stilim&n Bange. On the Chendb the seeds 
are given as a '' warm'' medicine, and Honigberger states that the 
plant is officinal in diseases of the eyes and stomachy under the 
name given above, but I have not met with it. 


Plumbago Zeylanica. L. 

Vernacular. Baz&r, root, 161 chitra. 

This plant is occasionally cultivated in gardens in the plains, 
and is not uncommon wild in the lower hills to 8,000 feet. The 
root is officinal, being used as a vesicant, and is employed locally 
to produce abortion. 


Plantago amplbxicaulis. Cav* 

P. CILL4TA. Desf. 

p. dbcumbens. Forsk. 

Vernacular. T. I. spiff hwol. S. B. isafyhoL 

These species are common wild Trans-Indus^ and in the Salt 
Bange, &c., imder 2^000 feet. 


P. isFAOHiriii. Box. 

VemacTilar. Baz&r, seeds^ isafgholy bdrtang ? 

Edgeworth states that this is cultivated at Mdlt&n. I have 
never seen it cultivated in the Punjab^ but understand it is grown 
sparingly at Lahore. It is probable that the seeds of all these^ 
and of the following^ and it may be of others of the wild species^ 
at times are collected and sold as the officinal seeds known under 
the two names given. These are considered cooling and emollient^ 
and given in diarrhsea and fever^ &c. 

P. MAJOR. L. var. Asiatica. 

Vernacular. K. gidi UafgoL C. haret. T. I. ghuzhbe. 
Baz&r^ fruity gcLZ pipaL 

Common wild in the Siwdlik tract and Punjab Himalaya to 
11^000 feet^ and occurs in the plains at Peshawar, &c. The fruit 
forms in the Punjab part of the officinal ga:g pipal — (see Abiss) — 
which is generally ascribed in books to pothos. In Lahoul the 
leaves are applied to bruises. 


Salvado&a Indica. Wight. (S. Persica. Box.) 

Vernacular. S. P. T. I., &c., /«'/, kauri vdn, kauHJdlj chhoti 
van. D. and N. W. P., Jdl. 

Differs from the next species in being taller, with very white 
branches, which are more graceful and less stiff; the leaf is larger, 
and the fruit is bitter. It grows over a much smaller area in the 
Punjab than the other species. I have only seen it in quantity 
from Bdjanpur south towards the Sind border (and in Sind itself). 
Edgeworth states that it itf rare in Mult&n. I have been told that 
it grows in the south of Mozaffargarh (but saw none there), and 
also that it is found to the east of Jhkng. I observed one or 
two trees at Dehli and the Kutab, and was told of one near 
Eerozeptir. I have also seen it planted in Bohilkund. Edge- 
worth mentions a tree of 14 feet 9 inches in girth; I have noted 
none at all approaching this. It is said to flower in the hot 
weather. The wood of the tree is useless, "even for burning;'' 
the leaves are eaten by camels, and Edgeworth states that they are 
used as salad. Pieces of the wood are carried to long distances 
for sale, as it is much favored for tooth-sticks, "miswdk," by 
Mussalm&ns, who use theirs for a number of times (Hindus using 


theirs only once) . The employment of it thus is said to be good 
for the digestion^ and speedily to core bleeding gums. 

S. oLEoiDXs. Dne. (S. Persica. L.) 

Vernacular, jdl, van, vdni (mithivdn ; fruity pUu, pilj, and 
dried fruity khokar: T. I. plewane ; fruity tdk. 

A more stiff-looking tree than the former^ and with greyer 
foliage^ except for a short time in spring ; when with Tamarisk^ &c., 
it gives some appearance of verdure to parts^ which^ from aridity 
and saline soil, would otherwise be hideous. In the black kallar, 
howeyer, $. e,, where there is probably more common salt in the 
soil which looks dark and damp, even this tree does not flourish 
as it does where there is the oidinary saline impregnation. This 
species grows in Palestine, &c., and has by some been identified 
with the '^mustard tree'^ of scripture, perhaps on insufficient 
grounds. It occurs as far east as the Jumna, and is not uncom- 
mon at the Kutab near Dehli, extending thence westward through 
Harri^na, and probably reaching its maximum of luxuriance in 
the central and southern Punjab, Cis and Trans-Indus, where in 
many parts it forms almost the only vegetation of any size over 
miles of country. It is also common in parts of Sind. I have 
seen a tree of 12 feet girth (at the ground), a few miles east of 
the Sutlej. Edgeworth mentions one of 11 feet 4 inches and 
another of 12 feet girth near Mult4n, and Coldstream at Mozaf- 
fargarh measured one of 14 feet girth, several feet from the 
ground. These very large trees, however, are rare, and are 
generally hollow. This species flowers about April, and the fruit 
ripens at the beginning of the hot weather. It is sweetish, and 
is largely eaten by the natives, immense numbers of whom go out 
to collect it in the season, and so much do they depend on it that 
Coldstream states that a bad crop is reckoned as a calamity. 
Trans-Indus, aphrodisiac qualities have been attributed to the 
fruit, but the phenomena leading to this theory are probably 
rather to be attributed to the fact of crowds of both sexes wander- 
ing in the wilds at the ripening time. A Subordinate Medical 
Officer at Sirsa states that there the people say, if the fruit are 
eaten singly, they cause tingling and small ulcers of the mouth, 
therefore they prefer to eat them by handfiils, seeds, and all, and 
the latter are apt to accumulate in masses in the sigmoid flexure 
of the intestines, &c., leading to disagreeable results. Coldstream 
states that in Mozaf^rgarh the fruit is often dried for future use, 
and has then much the appearance and flavour of currants. The 
leaves are browsed by and occasionally collected as fodder for 
camels. In the southern Punjab the wood is at times used for 
rafters and Persian wheels, and in Sind it was found to answer 
well for the knee-timbers of boats. It frimishes a 'poor fuel^ the 


worst the Railway get^ as it smoulders^ and has no body for bumiiig 
alone even if thoroughly dried. But, mixed with deoddr and 
pine scrap-wood^ it has been found to answer well for burning 
bricks^ &c. When burned green, it is said to give a very bad 
smell. In some parts a gall, which is common on the tree, appears 
to be used in dyeing. In Sirsa the root is ground and used as a 
blister. Royle states that in the Baz4rs the leaves are sometimes 
sold as rdsanna — (see Be&thelotia) — ^but I have not found this 
to be the case in the Punjab. 


Phytolacca decand&a. L. yar. b. acinosa. (P. acinosa. 


Vernacular. J. Mbar. R. btirffii, denitiriij rinsdff. B.jirka. 
S. matazor, Borunga. 

Not uncommon in the Punjab Himalaya from 3,500 to 8,000 
feet, and mentioned by Brandis as cultivated east of Simla. The 
fruit is said to be occasionally eaten, and elsewhere is stated to 
produce cerebral symptoms. The leaves are in some places eaten 
as a vegetable in curries, &c. In Ean&war a variety with dark- 
coloured petioles was pointed out to me as having in the presence 
of my informant produced delirium when eaten as a vegetable by 
some of the forest workmen. 


Anabasis multiflora. Moq. 

Vernacular. T. I. gkalme. S. R., R. D. Una. B. D. metra 
Idne, ffora lane. Fe., ddna, shori Idna. 

Occurs sparingly to a short distance east of the Sutlej ; in the 
central and especially l^e southern Punjab is in many places 
abundant and conspicuous, growing bushy to 6 or 7 feet high, with 
rose-coloured flowers. Is not uncommon Trans-Indus. In some 
places is held to indicate a good, — ^in others, and probably more 
correctly, a bad soil. Camels are fond of the plant. Aitchison 
iBtates that near Jhelam it is occasionally used for the preparation 
of sajfi — (see Caroxylon Gripfithii) — ^but I have nowhere been 
told that it is so employed. In some parts, however, it is used for 
washing clothes, and it is probably this which Bellew states to be 
used by women m the Peshawar Valley for washing the headi 

BiXSOLACE^. 177 

Atriplex hortensis. L. Orache, 


Yeruacular. T I. kardke, S. R. surakka. 

The former has been found wild at varioiis places in the plains 
Trans-Indus^ and by Bellew at 3^500 feet in Affghdnist&n. The 
latter is abundant wild in many places Trans-Indus^ occurs in the 
Salt Range, and from 12,000 to 14,000 feet in Tibet (Hf. and T.) 
I presume it must be the former which Bellew states to be a 
favorite vegetable in the Peshawar Valley, as it once was in 
Europe. It used to be cultivated in England. 

Basella alba. L. var. rubra. 

Vernacular. poL * 

A conspicuous climbing plant. Rarely cultivated by natives 
in the Punjab, to be eaten as a pot-herb. 

Beta vxtlgaris, Moq. var. orientalis. (B. Bbngalensis. Rox.) 

Country spinach. 

Vernacular, pdlak. 

Frequently cultivated by natives, and used as a pot-herb. 
The seeds are officinal, being considered cooling and diaphoretic. 
Bellew mentions that the fresh leaves are applied to bums and 
bruises. It may be worth noting that many years ago an Euro- 
pean was. induced by the late Maharajah to come out to Kashmir 
for the purpose of growing Beet — (B. vulgaris) — ^for sugar to be 
extracted from its root, but the scheme came to nothing. 


Vernacular. J. sUndar. C. kupald. 

I have found this wild at several places in the Jhelam and 
Chenab and R&vi basins and Trans-Indus from 7,000 to 10,000 
and in Laddk to 12,500 feet. The extremely insipid fruit is 
sometime mistaken by Europeans for a kind of strawberry, which 
it much resembles. In Ladsik the leaves are eaten as a pot-herb. 

Caroxtlon fjstidum. Moq. 

Vernacular, moti Idne^ gord lane. 

Not uncommon in the central and southern Punjab and 
Trans-Indus (and Sind) . Aitchison states that near Jhelam this 
is the plant chiefly used for 8(yji — (see C. Qriffithii) — ^though 


178 PltNJAB VUL^PtB. 

tins is not the case elsewhere in the Punjab. In Sind^ howeveri 
it is stated to be generally used for this purpose. 

C. Qbiffithii, Moq. (Salsola GbifHthii. ?) 

Vernacular. T. I. laghme. Cis-Indus, khdr. 

Although many square miles of the barren clay tracts of the 
central and southern Punjab and southern Trans-Indus are covered 
almost entirely by various Salsolacejb firom any or all of which 
Europeans are apt at first to suppose that sctjlfi is made, yet, as 
mentioned by Edgeworth, this, which is the chief source, is one of 
the more rare kinds, only extending to a little way east of the 
Sutlej, so far as I know in the latitude of Montgomery, nor did I 
observe it in Harri&na. As a rule throughout the Punjab, this 
alone is used in making that substance, probably as giving the 
most abundant out-turn. Edgeworth implies that it is common 
in Bhutti&na to the south of Sirsa, and it is found at 10,000 to 
15,000 feet in Tibet (Hf. and T.), and this is also probaUy one of 
the two plants whence saj^i is chiefly made in Sind. Sajji being 
an impure carbonate of soda, is equivalent to the barilla of 
commerce manufactured in Spain, chiefly, according to Edgeworth^ 
from Salsola soda and Salicornia hebbacea, which resemble 
this plant, and are there cultivated for the purpose. The plant is 
cut about the month of November, (?) burned and lixiviated. 
Captain Davies gives a description of the process in his Settlement 
Report of Shahpar. Great quantities of the salt are manufactured 
to the north of Mult&n, whence it is largely exported to all parts 
of the Punjab, &c. It is also prepared at two or three places in 
the Peshawar Valley. Edgeworth states that much is sent from 
Bhutti&na to Europe, and considers that the plant could be profit- 
ably cultivated. It is a very favorite food of camels, and he 
mentions that large quantities of it are brought fresh into Mult4a 
to be sold as fodder for them. 

Chenopodixth album. L. 

Vernacular. (X irr. Lad., em* Plains, batMa, jausd{f, 

A common weed throughout the Punjab plains, and appa* 
rently to 8,500 feet in parts of the Himalaya, and 13,^00 feet in 
Ladidc. It is often obnoxiously abundant in the cold weather 
crops in the plains. The plant is sometimes eaten as a pot-herb 
in Lad&k and in parts of the plains. 


Vernacular. bdiiSi, kiir^tnd, kharatua. 

A common weed in the Punjab plains. It is used as a pot- 

8AL80LACEJ3. 179 


Vernacular. K. mustakh. B. gaddi dUngar, bajar banj, 
ratio. B.siridri. ^MtM,bdtM,t&kii. lihA., gniii (?) 

This poBsibly indudeB two species, and is cultivated in the 
Punjab Himalaya from 5^500 to 9^000 feet up to the B&vi at least, 
and is said to be grown in Kashmir and Lad&k. It is, so far as I 
have seen, most common towards the east. The leaves are eaten 
as a pot-herb on the Sutlej, but the plant is chiefly cultivated for 
its grain, which is considered better than buckwheat. Within the 
last year, considerable stir has been made by correspondents of the 
Agri^HorticuItural Society of India, regarding the introduction 
into the Himalaya of the C. Quinoa, Willd. of the Andes ; and the 
Society made arrangements to get a supply of seed, which has 
arrived and been dwtributed. The original proposition appears 
to have been made in ignorance of the fact that a C. is cultivated 
extensively in the Himalaya, and there seems reason to doubt if 
very much would be gained from the introduction of the Quinoa 
in these mountains, where cereals are cultivated to quite as high 
elevations as men can occupy throughout the year. 


Vernacular. Japshan, ffipshan, bH/tse. Tf. burse. 

A small shrubby species which occurs in Affgh&ust&n, and is 
one of the commonest and most wide-spread plants of desert Lad&k, 
where it is found from 12,000 to 16,000 and at times up to 17,500 
feet. It is browsed by yaks when the^ are hard pressed by 
hunger, but its chief use is as fiiel, for which its thick woody roots 
are lai^ely used. 

Pandbaia filosa. F. and M. 

Vernacular, kavra ro, biU. Baz4r, stem and leaves, biit 

Is abundant in many places in the central and southern 
Punjab and Trans-Indus, and occurs at from 8,000 to 12,000 feet 
in [nbet. The plant is officinal in the Bazlbrs. 

Salsola kali. L. 
Vernacular. ? 

Has been found sparingly in the northern Trans-Indus. 
This may possibly be the plant which Bellew states to be burned 
for sajji — (see CABorvLON Gbiffithii) — ^in the Peshawar Valley, 
thongbl believe the $qiji used there is mostly imported from the 


Spinacia oleracea. Spr. Spinach. 

Vernacular. ? 

Stated by Edgeworth to be cultiyated at Mvltkn, baying been 
introduced not by Europeans^ but by Arabs. I have not heard of 
its being cultiyated elsewhere by natiyes. 

SujsDA FBUTicosA. Moq. (S. Indica. Moq. ?) 

Vernacular. T. I. zamdi, Cis-Indus^ lunak, chhoH Idne, 
phesak lane, baggi Idna, ddna. Bazfir, leayes^ hashasa ? 

Abundant in many parts from Trans-Indus to east of the 
Sutlei on to Harri&na. and grows to a considerable bush in parts 
of thi central Punjab; wherl it is in perfection, covering many 
square miles in places^ and where its growth is said to indicate a 
yery inferior soil. It is eaten by camels. Edgeworth mentions 
that doubtless Bajji — (see Caboxylon Gbiffithii) — could be 
prepared from this^ and I was told that it is so prepared in 
small quantities for home use in Montgomery, and Aitchison 
states that it is at times made from this p4t near Jhelam 
also. It is sometimes subject to haye numerous woolly ex- 
crescences on the tips of the branches. The ofBicinal kaskasa 
of the Baz&r appear te be the dried leayes of this plants and from 
the Pushtu name^ giyen by BeUew, these would appear in the 
Peshawar Valley to be mashed when fresh, and appHed as a poultice 
to the eyes for ophthalmia. ^^ ^ 



Vernacular. T. I. k^tre, Cis-Indus, baggidrij pitkanda. 
Baz&r^ tops^ apamarg^ chirchiita. 

Common in the Punjab plains^ and occurs to 2,500 feet (5000 
Thomson) in the Himalaya. The dried plant is locally giyen to 
children for colic, and is officinal under the aboye names, being 
giyen as an astringent in gonorrhsea. In Oudh, Madden states 
that the plant is considered protectiye from scorpions. 

^BUA Bovii. Webt). 

jE. jAyANICA. Juss. 

Vernacular. T. I. azmei, spirke, sassdi. Cis-Indus, b^t, 
jdri. Baz&r, flowers, &c., b^i kaldn. 

Of seyeral species which occur in the Punjab plains and 
occasionally to 3,000 or 4,000 feet in the outer bills, up to and 


1)e7ond the Indua^ these are probably the most common. (Edge- 
worth considers the first a distinct species^ and not a mere variety 
of the second) . The flowers of some of them have a sweet smell. 
In Sind the woolly fruit is used for stuffing pillows^ and rats are 
probably fond of the seeds^ as Z have observed heaps of the wool 
at the mouths of their burrows. The plant is subject to woody 
galls. The flowering tops are officinal. 

Amaranthus anabdana. Ham. 
A. Oangeticus. L. 

Vernacular. -'J. K. ganhdr. C. siul, sdwal, bhaM. B« 
hUi Hwal, Idl siwal, siwdkard. B. Hril, sardiri, saridra^ 
bdiA, ganhdr. S. sorer a, dankar, Mihii, chauki, tulsia. 
P. dart^. Plains^ Idl chauldi. Baz&r^ seed^ M. 

There is doubt as to the species of Amaranth cultivated in 
the Himalaya^ where it is common both red and green^ being often 
grown among other crops to 9^000 feet. The second species appears 
to be wild also in the plains. The leaves are eaten as a pot-herb, but 
it is grown chiefly for the seed, used as a food grain after pardbing. 
It is considered heating. The second species at least is iJso culti- 
vated in the plains to be used as a pot-herb. The seeds of one of 
these appears to be officinal^ being considered astringent and 


A. oLEEACEUs. Moq. (EuxoLus CANDATUS. Moq.) 
A. POLTGAMUs. L. (EuxoLus. Moq.) 

Vernacular, chauldi, ganhdr , rdm-ddna, marsa ? 

All of these appear to be occasionally cultivated in the 
plains^ the leaves being used as pot-herbs. 

A. FOLYooNOiDEs. L. (Ambloqyna. Bafiu.) 
A. spiNosus. L. 

Vernacular. chauldL 

Frequent weeds in the plains, which are used as pot-herbs by 
the poor^ and in times of scarcity. 

Celosia arqbntea. L. 

Vernacular. sanvdlL 

An abundant field weed in the Punjab plains, and occasionally 
to 5,000 feet in the Himalaya. It is used as ^ pot-herb in times 
of scarcity. The seeds are officinal. 


C. CBiSTATA. Moq. Cockscomb. 

Yemacalor. K. mdwaL Baz&r^ flower^ tdji hhoros, bostSu 

Cultivated as a flower in the plains, and in parts of the 
Himalaya, e. g., Kashmir (5,000 feet) . The flowers are officinal, 
and Bellew states that in the Peshawar Valley the seeds are con- 
sidered demulcent. 


Vemacolar. tartara, tandala, leswa. 

A common field weed in the Punjab plainS) and to 2,500 feet 
in the Himalaya. Frequently eaten as a pot-herb. 



Vernacular. S. P. heir a. 

Occurs Trans-Indus, and appears to be abundant in the 
southern Punjab, where Edgeworth states that its mucilaginous 
seeds are collected in the desert and eaten by the natives. 


Vernacular. J.n&kbeh T.l.pdndarwdsh. CiB-InAxm, iint, 

A common weed in the Punjab plains, and to 4,000 feet in 
the Himalaya. It is said to be browsed by animals. On the 
Jhelam, the plant is given as a cooling medicine. 


Vernacular, gvi abbds. 

Cultivated as a flower in the plains, and (as noted by Madden) 
naturalized in many places in the Himalaya up to near the Jhelam 
from. 2.800 to 7,500 feet. In waste ground near villages, &c., in 
the hills, great beds of this plant may frequently be seen, with 
flowers of two or three different colours. The leaves are used as 
poultices^ and from the root a medicinal conserve is prepared. 


Vernacular. S.pumde, bdus. 

This is a scrambling viscous plant with a lai^ carrot-like rootj 
2 feet long, originally found (and described) by Edgeworth at 

70LYQ0KACSJB. 183 

7>800 to 8^000 feet on the Dhauli, not far from the Sutlej, on which 
latter alone for a few miles in the lower part of Kan&war at 5^000 to 
9,000 feet^ I have seen it. The flowers are usually reddish^ but 
a variety has them white. It is collected by the inhabitants for 
winter fodder. 


Calligonum polygonoides. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. balaiyay berwqfa, tatike. Cis-Indusj 
phok, phog ; flowers^ phogaUi. Baz&r^ root^ &c.^ timi ? . 

This^ which is a moderately sized shrub^ was first noted by 
Elphinstone en rwUe to K&bul^ who mentions it as abundant^ and 
notes the use to which its flowers are put from Shekhawuttee to 
the Sutlej. Madden calls it an Ephedra^ though oddly enough he 
describes the fruity &c.^ correctly. He very much exaggerates 
the verdure of the shrub^ which^ however^ is pleasing enough 
with its leafless branches and small pink flowers^ which have a very 
strong scent as of over-ripe fruity and about May are succeeded by 
the small three-cornered wigged fruit. The plant is reported on 
good authority to be abundant in the Bikanir desert^ but I have 
not seen it east of the Sutlej to the northward of that.' It 
is not uncommon to the west of Shahpur^ and for some miles 
north of Jhang^ and is abundant in the Birl Dodb, in places 
southward from 60 miles north of Miiltiin^ and it forms great part 
of the jungle westward from Mozaffargarh for some miles. It is 
also common near the southern and eastern skirts of Shaikh 
Budin^ and occurs near Bijanpur in the southern Trans-Indus* 
I also saw it in Sind. The shoots are greedily eaten by goats and 
camels^ and the wood is used as fuel^ and in Bikanir the twigs are 
much used for huts^ and for the linings of shallow wells. Cis- 
Sutlej and in the southern Punjab^ the flowers^ having fallen off, are 
swept up from the ground, and used largely as food (not, however, 
Trans-Indus apparently) . Coldstream states that in Mozaffargarh 
they are made into bread, or are cooked with ghi and eaten as a 
relish. The officinal trini or timi of the Punjab seems to me to 
be the root and lower part of the stem of young plants of this^ 
but the point is very doubtfdl. 

Faooftbum Ctmosvm. Meisn.? 
Vernacular. . S. banogul. 

What appears to be this species is common wild in parts of 
^e Punjab Himalaya at from 6,500 to 8,000 feet, and probably 
higher* I could not find that its grain is used* 

184 PUNJAB PLAin». 

F. EMABGiNATUM. Meisn. (F. TULGABis. ?) Buckwheat. 

Vernacular. C, dardu. C. B. ohal^ phMan? S. ogal^ 

Of the two most common cultivated species (I think there 
are at least three in the Punjab Himalaya)^ this with reddish 
flowers is generally said to grow lower than the other^ but I have 
seen both at the same level about 8^500 feet on the Sutlej. The 
leaves of this are used as a pot-herb. There is confusion as to 
the identification of these^ and the remarks on both may be 
entered under the next. 



Vernacular. J. h&la tnlmba^ chin. K. tri&mba. C. karma 
bres, kdtu, brapu drawa^ R. bres, katti, phaphra. B. 
k&thfk. S. braa^ phiphri^ ulgo i&gal^ tsdbri. P, k(Uh4 
trdo. Lad.^ trdo, rjao (?) Baz&r^ seed^ kaspat. 

This is said to be inferior as to quality of grain to the former^ 
but neither is considered equal to the millets even in the hills. 
And in the plains to which a good deal of buckwheat is brought 
under the name of hoH (to be eaten chiefly by Hindus^ as it is to 
HiMNfLphal&hoTy f. e^i lawful to be used during their bari or fasts) ^ 
it is considered heatings and not very palatable. Buckwheat grows 
at about 6,000 feet (and scattered plants are often seen much 
lower) on the Jhelam, 5,000 to 10,000, on the Chendb and B&vi, 
8,000 to 9,000 on the Bids, and on the Sutlej it is grown com- 
monly to 11,500, and Gerard states he has seen it at 13,600 
feet. Thomson notes it at 13,000 feet in Zanskar, and Cayley 
mentions it as cultivated to 14,000 in Lad&k, where I have seen it 
to over 13,500. Bears are more fond of it than almost any other 
food, and commit much damage to the standing crop. In Lahoul^ 
Aitchison states that the leaves are much used as a pot-herb in 
summer when other greens are not easily got. 


Vernacular. B. amli. 

Common in the Punjab Himalaya at from 10,500 to 12,500 
and in Tibet to 15,000 feet. Has a pleasant sorrel taste. lu 
Chumba is eaten raw and in chatniy and is considered cooling, and 
Cleghom mentions that in Kandwar it is used in medicine. 


Vernacular. B. kwri. T. I. bandittke. 

Abundant of different varieties from the plains where, in 
springs with its myriads of flowers it forms masses of pink wherever 


water has stood^ to 12^000 feet in the Himalaja generally^ and 
considerably oyer that in Tibet. In Cbumba it is applied exter- 
nally as an anodyne^ and Honigberger^ states that it is officinal in 


Yemacnlar. S. B. narri. 

Not uncommon in wet places in the Punjab plains^ and to 
8^500 or more feet in the hills. Honigberger states that it is 
officinal in Kashmir. 


Vernacular. J. K. C. maslun. C. mamech. S. dorC, bqfir, 
bilauri. Bazto^ root^ anjabir. 

Common at places in the Punjab Himalaya from 8^500 to 
12,000 feet. On the Sutlej the root is said to be applied to 
abscesses, and it is officinal in the plains, being very astrmgent. 

P. Nepalsnsb. Meisn. ? *(P. sphjbbocbphalum. Wall. ?)^ 

Yemacnlar. B. Bat baton. 

This species appears to be common in the Punjab Himalaya 
from 3,000 to 9,500 feet. In K4ngra its leaves are applied to 



P. poltmobphum. Led. 

Yemacular. C. amldandi, chUchL B. tror. 

These are tall plants with fine flowers, one at least of them 
exhaling a strong honey smell at times. Both appear to be com- 
mon locally in the Punjab Himalaya from 6,000 to 12,000 feet. 
The young leaves are used by the natives as a pot-herb, and a very 
good imitation of rhubarb {chiichi is the name of both in some 
parts) is got by stewing the stalks, which also, after peeling, are 
eaten raw by the natives in some places. 

P. TOBTUosuM. Bon. 

Vernacular. Lad., nidla. P. nidh. 

This species, which grows to 15,000 feet in the Himalaya, is 
said to yield a yellow dye in LahouL In Lad&k it is browsed by, 
goats and yakg. 

2 A 


P. 8P. 

Vernacular. Lad., r^tsii. 

The roots of a small species with sagittate leaves, which is 
found to 15,500 feet in Ladak, are eaten as a vegetable. 

Rheum Emodi. Wall. (B. Webbianum. Boyle.) ^ 

B. MooBCROFTiANUH. Mcisn. (Wall. ?) > Bhubarb. 

B. spiciFORME. Boyle. J 

Vernacular, J. chutidL C. chotidl, pambash, dtsii, art90, 
khabidn, lacM, B. cMkrl, kandauL B. chiichL S. arts. 
Lad., lachA. P. Idchti. AS., rawdshj chiihrL Baz&Tj 
stalks, ribds ; root, rewand chlnl. 

At least two species of rhubarb are frequent in parts of the 
Punjab Himalaya from 6,200 to 14,000 feet, the second named 
occurring still higher from 15,000 to 17,000 feet, but these have 
got into confusion in my hands, and their separate identity is 
therefore not established here. In some parts of the hills, no, 
portion of these plants is used, but in most the stalks are eaten 
either boiled with water or pounded and mixed with salt and pep- 
per, and in Haz4ra the dned leaves are boiled with water and 
eaten with meat. At one place in Uhumba, and also in Lahoul> 
I was told that the flowers are eaten. The officinal ribds of the 
drug-sellers consists of the dried stalks from Kdbul, which may partly 
be produced by B. Bibbs, Gron., a native of Carmel, &c., eastern 
Persia (where it is called rivds) , and the Hindu Kh6sh. In Affgh&- 
nistdn the plant is always wild, and appears to grow abundantly in 
many parts. When green, the leaf stalks are ratadsh, and, when 
blanched by heaping up stones and gravel round them, are called 
chuM; when fi^h (in which state they are sometimes brought to 
Peshawar in spring), they are eaten either raw or cooked, and they 
are also dried for use to be eaten with other food, and are some- 
times made into a preserve. The officinal root is imported into 
Affghdnist&n and India to be used as a purgative. In the former 
country, however, the people appear to have no idea that it is the 
root of a plant similar to their own rawdsh, and the roots of the 
latter are, according to Bellew, spongy and tasteless. Moorcroft 
also mentions that the roots of the Lad&k rhubarb are mostly 
rotten in the centre, and what roots have been brought &om the 
Himalaya for trial at Lahore, &c., though found to \)e possessed 
of laxative properties, are by no means to be relied on. Aitchison, 
however, states. that, although in Lahoul the B. Emodi is not used 
medicinally, yet its leaves, even when cultivated in a garden, had 
medicinal effects when eaten in salad. It is stated by Moor- 
croft (?) that the Bhotias of Garhwdl apply the powdered root to 
wounds and bruises, and that they use it with mqfit — (see Bubia) — 
and potash for dyeing red. 


BuMsx ACUTU8. Box. (R. Wallichii. Meisn.)^ or R. denta- 

TUB. Campd. ? 

Yemacolar. J. hiUla. E. ob4L T. I. zagiikei. B. D. 
hhattikanjjangli p&lah. Bazar^ seeda^ &y band. 

Common at wet places throughout the plainsj and to 12^000 
feet in the Punjab Himalaya. The leaves are bruised and used as 
a pot-herb^ and are considered cooling. Bellew states that in the 
Peshawar Valley they are applied to sores and bums^ &c. The 
seeds appear to be sometimes sold as the officinal bij band — (sec 



Vernacular. J. khattimal, katambal, C. B. dmi. B. malorU 
gh&, amla. S. amlora. * 

Common in many parts of the Himalajra where not too moist, 
from 2,500 to 9,000 feet. Thie leaves are eaten raw, having a 
pleasant acid taste, to which amla and khatta refer. Almora (for 
and-wdra) in Kumaon is said to get its name from the notable 
abundance of tids plant near it. 


Vernacular* T. I. triwakka, khatbiri. Cis-Indus, khattitan, 
katta mitha) saMnt, 

Common in arid places in the Salt Bange and Trans-Indus to 
8,000 feet. Tastes like the last, but more pleasant. It is eaten 
raw, and in some places used as a pot-herb. It grows near Sinai, 
and a recent traveller there mentions that it is excellent as a salad. 



C. Tamala. Fr. Nees. var. albiflora. 

Vernacular, ddl cMni. Baz&r, bark, tajkalmi ; leaves, tezpat. 

This tree, which is not uncommon in the Himalaya, east of 
the- Sutlej, grows sparingly at about 5,000 feet as far as the B^yi, 
and probably in Haz&ra. Its timber does not appear to be valued. 
Part at least of the officinal bark and leaves above named are 
probably derived from this tree. The former is given for 
gonorrhoea, and the latter are used in rheumatism^ being considered 

188 PmrJAB TLAiXTB. 

LmjBA. SP.7 

Yemacnlar. C. ehimdt B. cMndi, ehiIoti&, rauU, shalangli. 
B. charkd. 

A small tree wUcli is not onfrequent in parts of the Panjab 
Himalaya at 2^500 to 6^800 feet^ up to the Chen&b. In some 
places in Chnmba^ an oil^ expressed trovcL the firoit^ is bnmedj and, 
according to Madden, a species of Litsjka, which may be this, 
yields a coarse oil in Knmaon. 

Machilits oDOKATissisnrs. Nees. ? 

Yemacnlar. J. kdlban. chdu. C. tdura. B. chdu, badror, 
chandna, shalangH. B. badror, prora, mitpattar, miikni. 
S. bqfhol, shir. 

Thp identity of this tree is somewhat doubtful, but it appears 
to occur occasionally in the Punjab Himalaya at from 4,000 to 
7,000 feet, up to near the ludus. It is of no special use, and even 
goats do not browse its leaves, which have a pleasant orange-scent. ' 

Tetbanthera moxopetala. Box. 

Vernacular. B. ridn. B. gfod^ harem. Baz&r, bark, meda 

A tree of moderate size, which occurs in the Siwfilik tract up 
to the B&tI. The wood is not yalued. The bark (with that of 
the next) is officinal, being considered stimulant, and, after being 
bruised^ applied fresh or dry to contusions, and sometimes mixed 
with milk or made into plaster. 

T. BoxBUBOHii. Nees. 

Vernacular. S. B. medasak. U. chandna. Baz&r, bark, 
meda lakri. 

Is found in the Punjab Siw4Uk tract, and although it grows 
in the Salt Bange to 2,500 feet, I have not seen it so far west as 
the last species in the former. ISie bark is used as that of the 


Daphne cannabina. Wall. (D. paptbacba. Wall.) 

Vernacular. B. niggi, mahadev kaphdl. 

A laurel-like shrub which occurs 8paringly> so far as I hare 
observed, up to near the Indus in the Funjab Hinudaya at from 


■8^600 to 8,000 feei. ClegKom mentions tliat paper is made from 
its bark in the Pmqab, but I have nowhere been told that this is 
the case, though in Kumaon, &o., large quantities are manufac- 
tured from it (the purple-flowered yariety. Madden) . In Ghumba, 
the flowers appear to be hung up as offerings in temples. 

D. oLiioiDXS. Schreb. (mucbonata. Boyle.) 

Vernacular. J. kiUH Idl, kanthan. B. gandknaj gdndaldn. 
C. kdffsarij ritid, 9wdna, dona, miMvr, shalangH. B. 
niggiy channi. S. zhi kak, zosho. T. I. loffhiSme. 

A shrub which is common at places on most of the rivers in 
the Punjab Himalaya at from 2,300 to 9,000 feet, and also occurs 
Trans-Indus. The latter may be D. mucronata, var. b. ArroHA- 
KicA, which in Beluchistdn is said to be very hurtful to camels, but 
all these seem to me to be of one species. In Chumba, gunpowder 
charcoal is made from the wood. In Kan&war the bark is given 
loT colic, and it is used by women for washing their hair. It has, 
I believe, been tried for paper, I know* not with what success. 
On the Chen&b, the leaves or an infusion are given for gonorrhsea, 
and applied to abcessses. The pretty red berries are not unfre- 
quently eaten, but are said to be apt to cause sickness. 


Vernacular. B. bhaini^gi. B* tkildk. 

A small shrubby plant, which occurs sparingly on some of 
the Punjab rivers in the Himalaya at from 6,500 to 7,000 feet^ 
up to near the Indus. Madden states that paper (inferior to that 
from the Daphne q. v.) is made from its bark in Kumaon, and that 
it furnishes a strong rope at Nynee Tdl. 


Eljsagnus confebta. (Box.) 
E. MooBOROFTii. Wall. 
E. PAEviFOLU. Boyle. 

Vernacular. J. E. giwdin, kankot C. gidnhan. B. gMn^ 
giken. B. hidin. S. gihdin, rinsoL Lad., sartsing. 
Aff., sanfdt. Baz^, flowers, gul sanjadj ddk& phaL 

The identity of this is doubtful, but it seems to me to be the 
nsiae species, which, as a considerable shrub, is frequent wild and 
perhaps sometimes planted in the Punjab Himalaya fix>m 2,600 
to 9,000 feet, while the species cultivated in Lad&k to 10,600 feet 


is apparently very different^ having a mucli lai^r leaf^ and grorwing 
to a much larger size. I have not seen the latter in flower or fruit, 
E. MooRCBOFTii is given by DeCandoUe as growing in Lad&k. 
Moorcroft states that there it grows to the west of the capital only, 
and I do not know of its being observed there out of Nubra and 
Baltistitn. It may possibly be either the Himalayan or the Lad6k 
species^ which is common in Affgh&nist&n^ though this can hardly 
be^ if^ as Bellew mentions, the fruit there is as large as a cherry ; 
and Moorcroft states that at K&bul a tree in good years will yield 
16 or 20 fts. of dried fruit, but I have never in the Himalajra seen 
one I should consider capable of anything like this. Thomson 
states that the tree supplies most of the winter fuel at Iskardo. 
The flowers have a pleasant odour. The somewhat acid fruit is 
eaten, and Griffith states that it is used medicinally as an astringent. 
The flowers at least are officinal in the Punjab, being considered 
cardiac and astringent. We might suppose that this is the shrub 
with an edible fruit noted by Vigne^ as occurring below Bdramula, 
but elsewhere he states that from it (by name, so that he recognized 
it) a spirit is distilled in Y4rkand. Moorcroft also mentions that 
a brandy is made from the fruit for the Mussalm4ns and Clunese 
of Yarkand. 


Vernacular. J. kdla Msa. C. bdni pMt, amb, tnaakj kando, 
tserkar, starbit. B. mileeh, miles. S. silts, rill. Lad. 

tsarmanffj tsuk, tarrii. P. tsarma niechak ; fruit, tfrkH. 


A shrub which occurs in some places on most of the rivers 
of the Punjab Himalaya up to the Indus at from 7,500 to 10,500 
feet, and is common in Lahoul, Spiti, and Tibet, to 13,000 or 
14,000 feet, and even 15,500 feet in the last. It would appear 
that Griffith found it near Kdbul (6,000 feet) in Affghinist&n 
also. In Lahoul it is mentioned that female are much less 
common than male shrubs, but I have not noticed this markedly. 
The small fruit is so intensely sour, that in many places even 
the natives do not eat it. But Cleghom states that a good jeUy 
can be made from it, and Aitchison says it is really excellent with 
half its weight of sugar. The natives of Kan&war are stated by 
Longden to eat it as a sort of chatni, but Aitchison mentions 
that those of Lahoul do not use it at all, although the above 
recipe is recommended for lung complaints in a Tibetan pharma- 
copia. In Lahoul and Lad&k the plant often reaches 5 or 6 feet 
in girth and 20 or more in height ; and as the wood is hard^ 
it yields the best friel and charcoal. In these tracts also, the 
spinous branches are largely used for fences, a purpose which they 
answer admirably. 



Datisca cannabina. L. 

Yemacular. J. kaMr. C. egilbir, drinkhari, ^da atsu. 
Bazar^ root^ akUbir. 

This occurs ou most of the great rivers in the Punjab 
Himalaya up to near the Indus at from 3^800 to 9,000 feet. It is 
a tall herbaceous plant exceedingly like hemp— (see Cannabis) — ^in 
appearance. In some of the places where it grows, the yellow 
root is used to aid in dyeing reAy and Cleghom states that it is 
exp<Nrted £rom Pangi, Lahoul, and Kull6, to Nadoun and Umritsur, 
to be used in dyeing woollen thread. Edgeworth mentions that 
for this purpose it is combined with asbarff — (see Delphinium 
SANicuLiEFOLiuM) . About 1853, several attempts were made to 
transport live roots of this plant to Lahore. (It has since been 
raised from seed I brought down, but appears to have died out) ; 
and about the same time enquiries were made as to the price the 
root would be likely to bring in Europe. But the reply was, that 
yellow dyes are very cheap in England. In Kh&g&n the bruised 
root is applied to the head as a sedative, and Madden mentions 
that under the name of bajr banga it is used medicinally in 


Abistolochia 8P. 

Yemacolar. Baz&r, root, zardwand. 

Lowther states that he found a species growing near Punch, 
in Kashmir territory^ but this is extremely improbable. Some of 
the kinds of the officinal zardwand, considered to resemble sdlib 
misri in effect — (see Eulophia) — are said to be roots of a species 
of A. 


Adblia serbata. 

Vernacular. C, cliopray chHndL R. chlmdi. B. cMraunda, 
'drendfi, thakola, kathdglL 

A small tree common in the Siw&lik tract to 4,000 feet at 
times, up to the Chendb. Its wood is used for fuel and charcoal. 


Anbhachnb tslxfhioibss. L. ? 

Vernacular. T, I. tik. B. P. dodah. 

A srofLll weed occasionally found in the. Punjab plains Cis 
and Trans-Indus. In some places it appears to be mixed with 
corrosive sublimate previous to subliming the latter for medicinal 

Baliospebmum Indicum. Dne. (B. Montanum mullbb. 


Vernacular. C. supldd^ ddnt. B. nilMJapArotL T. I. tora^ 
pdna. Baz&r^ aeed,jamdlffota. 

A weed of considerable size^ which is common at places in the 
Punjab Siw&lik belt and near it up to 3^200 feet^ Cis and Trans- 
Indus. Its seeds are cathartic^ and probably furnish greater part 
of the januUgota of the drug-sellers. Madden states that east of 
the Sutlej its leaves ar^ in h^h repute fgr wounds^ and its sap is 
believed to corrode iron* 


Vernacular. J. chiknU B. skumshdd, shum^y, 9ufid dhdwL 
S. pdprang. T. I. shdnda laghfine. S. ^*pdpr%, pappar. 
Baz&r^ wood^ chikri* 

Generally seen as a shrub from loppings but at times grows 
to a tree of some girth, locally only, on the Sutlej and Bf&s, upon 
the Rattan Pfr, near Punch, above Bawul Pindi, in the Salt Bange^ 
and Trans-Indus. The flowers have a strong and not unpleasant 
smell. Near its places of growth, the branches are put under the 
earth of roofs, as they are said not to decay easily. Ghoats will 
browse a few of the leaves, but other animals will not touch 
them, unless in oases of dearth, and they have at times proved 
fatal to camels, &c. Mr. Watson, Madhopur Workshops, states 
that the wood is not equal to that of olive — (see Olba) — ^but the 
specimen must have been an inferior one or badly seasoned^ 
for^ when well seasoned, this is said to be equal to that of Europe^ 
for the uses to which the latter is generally applied. It is carried 
to Umritsur and other places in the plains to be made into 
combsj but the supply is probably getting exhausted. 

Cbozophora plicata. Mull. 

Vernacular. B. D. piit handa. Baz&r, leaves^ &c,^ nilkhanthi. 

Occurs sparingly, in the plains of the central and southern 
Punjab. In the Biri Do&b^ the ashes of the root are given to 


ehildi^eii for cough. The leaves^ &c.^ of this or the next species 
are offidnal under the above name (wluch is applied to several other 
substances^ e. g.^ Ajuoa q. v.) They are considered depurative. 


Vernacular. B. D. tappal b4ti, nllan. Wl., kukranda. 

Not uncommon in the central, southern, and western Punjab. 
So abundant on some of the low ground near Lahore that it is cut 
and carried into the city to be used as fuel for ovens. 

Emblica otpicinalis. Gsert. 

Vernacular. C. amblL B. ambaL B. amla. Plains, donla, 

A tree of some size, which grows in the Punjab Siw&lik tract 
to 8^000 feet up to near the Indus, and is not uncommon 
cultivated ou{ in the plains except in the extreme west. Speci- 
mens of 6 or 7 feet girth occur, — I have noted one of 9 feet. The 
wood is hard, strong, and straight-grained, but is said to be some- 
what brittle. It is used for gun-stocks, door-frames, well-work, &c. 
The fruit is very sour (whence the native names), and is used 
in pickle and preserve ; also in medicine as a purgative, antispas- 
modic, and tonic, alone or mixed with salt or black salt. It is also 
employed in making ink and in black dye, as well as for washing 
the hair. Pavies^ Trade Report gives the annual export vift Pesh- 
awar to Affgh&nist&n at 50 maunds. In various parts of India, 
the leaves, bark, &c., are used medicinally. 

EuFHOBBiA DKAcuNCULoiDEs. Lam., or E. Nepalbnsis. Boiss. 

Vernacular. Bazdr, fruit, &c., rickni, 9uddi ; plant, kangl. 

Both of these species are rather common field-weeds in parts 
ef the Punjab plains, but are less frequent towards the west. The 
fruit of one or both is officinal under the first name, and it is 
often sold as tuddb — (see Ruta). From the first species it would 
appear that oil is or was extracted near Loodiana (Journal Agri- 
Horticultural Society, India, Vol. 2, page 91. The second appears 
to be oflBicinal under the name hangi. 

E. Helioscopia. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. ganda bite. S. R. d^daL B. D. kulfa- 
dodak, chairiwaL 

A common field-weed in spring throughout the Punjab plains 
and the Siw&lik tract, and to 7,000 feet in the outer Himalaya. The 
milky juice is applied to eruptions^ and Honigbei^er states that 

2 B 


the seeds are given with roasted pepper in cholera. It is probabty 
this species^ of which^ as " common spurge/^ Bellew mentions that 
in Affghdnistdn the jtdce is used as a Imiment in neuralgia and 
rheumatism^ and the root is given as an anthehnintic. 


Yemacular. Baz&r^ seeds and leaves^ hazdrddna. 

A small species common in many parts of the Punjab plains 
and the Siw&lik tract. In some places it is given with milk to 
children for colic^ and would appear to be officinal under the above 

E. LONOiPOLiA. Don. 


A tall species found in the Punjab Himalaya apparently at 
from 4^000 to 11^000 feet. Honigberger mentions that in Kash- 
mir its root is applied to fistulous sores. 

E. BoYLSANA. Bois. 

Vernacular. J. siiU. C. chtila. B. cMn. B. chd, chid, 
chtkngha, sUtrs, S. sur&f tsiii. S. B. tordanday danda, 
tor, Baz&r^ dried juice^ afdrbidn ? 

Common wild in the Siw&lik tract to 8^500 and occasionally 
found to 5^000 feet^ up to the Jhelam only^ as far as I have seen. 
Is frequently planted as a hedge to some little way from the hills^ as 
at Jalandar^ Sealkdt^ &c., but does not grow very freely farther out 
in the plains^ although a few plants are at times seen at fakirs/ &c. 
In the tract where it is indigenous^ when the accidental gaps 
are helped by thorns^ &c.^ it forms a most formidable and impene- 
trable fence. In that tract it grows from cuttings with great ease^ 
and I have seen these flourishing when stuck into ridges of shale 
splinters without a speck of soil. The stems are frequently 2 feet 
and sometimes reach 5 or 6 feet in girth^ but do not often exceed 
15 or 16 feet high. The structure of the wood is radiating and very 
loose^ and it is of no use. Honigberger states that the milky 
juice^ which abounds in the plants is used in medicine^ both ex- 
ternally and internally, but my enquiries have failed to elicit this^ 
and I suspect he must have confused it with the next plant. This 
may, however, possibly ftirnish part of the officinal qfdrbiiin, 
which is the inspissated juice of some Euphorbia. It was reported 
many years ago to the Agri-Horticultural Society, Punjab, that 
at Pind Dadun Khan the inspissated juice of this is used for 
adulterating opium, but otherwise I have not heard of this. An 


Euiopean Engineer in the service of the Maharajah of Jummoo made 
some experiments on the milky juices of yarioiis plants in order 
to get a substitute for red lead in closing steam joints^ and as a 
coating for cisterns^ &c. He found that by boiling down the 
juice of this Euphorbia^ adding dates and again boiling and 
skimmings he got a gutta-percha-like material better fitted for his 
purpose than from the Ficus Indica or F. relioiosa^ &c. But 
practically the experiment does not appear to have had much 

E. sp. 

Yemacnlar. B. gdngickH, 

A species which much resembles the last^ but the stems are 
not hexagonal^ as the rows of spines run spirally^ not straight up 
and down. ^May be E. Neriifolia, L. This I have nowhere 
seen wild^ but an occasional specimen is seen with the other out 
in the plains, and it is not uncommon in hedges in parts of the 
Siw&lik tract. Its milk is applied to incipient abscesses^ and is 
said to be e£fectual in preventing suppuration. 


Vernacular, bora dodak (Honigberger) • Baz&r^ leaves and 
flowers^ hazdrddna, 

A common weed in parts of the Punjab plains. Honigberger 
mentions that its juice is said to be a violent pui^tive. 'Die 
fruity &c.^ are officinal at Lahore. 

Fluggea leucoptrtts. 

Vernacular. J. karkHn. C. Hthei, guliU. B. B. girthan. 

A small tree occasionally seen wild in the Siw&lik tract to 
4,000 feet up to near the Indus. It appears only to be used for 

F. TiROSA. Box. 

Vernacular. B. girh T. I. perel pastdwane. S. B. bdta, 

A small tree which occurs at low elevations in the Siwfilik 
vegion. Salt Bange, and Trans-Indus. The fruit is eaten by men 
and animals^ and the wood is close-grained and strong, and is used 
for making part of a loom. 



Vernacular. J. ffol kamila, samd. C. bera. R. samd, ambld. 
B. kodmil, kalam. S. piindna. 

A small tree not uncommon in the Punjab Siw&llk tract up 
to near the Indus. The wood is only used as fuel^ the bark is 
employed for tanning. 

Jatropha cubcas. Willd. 

Vernacular. C. rattanjot. 'R.japkrota. B. ratianjotyjablota, 
pun. Baz&r^ seeds, jumd^ota, 

A soft-wooded shrub not uncommon planted by houses, &c., 
in or as a hedge in and near the Punjab Siwdlik tract up to the 
Chen&b. It is said to be readily propagated by slips. The leaves 
are in some places applied to bruises, &c., and the milky juice is 
used to destroy maggots in sheep's sores. The seeds are commonly 
given as a purgative, probably Aimishing part of the jumdlffota, 
but are said to be less powerful than those of Baliosfe&mum 
(q. V.) The fruit is stated to kill cattle that eat it. 

Leptofus cordifolius. Dne. (Arachne corbifolia. Mull.) 

Vernacular. J. ktirhti, gvrgiiU. R. kurhUi. C. bersii. R. 
barotrif maddre. B. mUtkoTy cM,rmiUti,pin. S. tsdtin. 

A slender shrub frequent in parts of the Punjab Himalaya at 
from 2,600 to 7,500 feet. The twigs and leaves are said to kill 
cattle when browsed in the early morning on an empty stomach. 


Vernacular. C. R. B. putdjan. Baz&r^ seeds, jiapota ; leaves^ 

A tree which occurs in the eastern part of the Siw£lik tracts 
and is occasionally planted in and near it. It is handsome, and 
has fine foliage, but does not generally reach a large size. I have 
seen one or two trees of 9 feet girth. The leaves, &;c., are lopped 
off for fodder. The wood is white, strong, and durable, and in some 
parts of India is used by turners ; in ti^e Punjab it is only made 
into implements^ &c. The leaves and the stones of the fruit are 
officinal in some parts of the Punjab, and the latter are used by 
Hindd fakirs, &c.^ as necklaces {tasbih), but most of the supply 
probably comes from the east. 


Vernacular. C. aner&. S. R. hamaulL Generally^ or and. 

This shrub is occasionally seen in waste ground in the Punjab 
plains throughout, and is not uncommon up to 3,500 and occa- 
sionally 4,000 feet in the hills. It is easily raised from seed^ but 

Beems to be liable to injury from frost. Animals are stated to be 
killed by eating its leaves^ and in Harriina they are applied to 
guinea-worm to promote its expulsion. Elphinstone says that 
sweet oil is extracted firom it at Peshawar^ but it is not common 
there^ and I do not find that the oil is extracted in the Punjab. As 
it grows well however^ projects have been raised for cultivating it 
on the lai^e scale for oil in the desert tract south of Lahore^ kc., 
but have as yet failed. Bellew states that near Ohucni (7^000 
feet) in Affgh&nist&n, the oil is used for domestic and culinary 
purposes^ but I cannot find that in the Punjab it is ever used 
except medicinally. Aitchison mentions that in Jhelam the seeds 
are put into curries. They are commonly used for a purgative^ 
half a dozen being sufficient for an adult. Bellew states ikni the 
flowers are given as a laxative, but this seems doubtful. 


Vernacular. J. hamtta. C. kembal. B. kdmiL B. idmil, 
kemaL S. retin, U. reini. Baz&Tj powder off fruit, 
katnela ; seed, bdobrang. 

An abundant shrub, growing sometimes to a considerable size 
(I have seen it of 3^ feet girth, though a size even approaching 
this is rare) throughout the Punjab Siwdlik tract and outer hills 
occasionally up to 4,500 feet. The wood is poor, and is for the 
most part only used for fuel, though it is said that it is not subject 
to insects. The bark is in some places used by tanners. The 
red powder brushed off the capsules is employed as a red dye for 
silk, is a valuable vermifuge, especially for tape-worm, and is 
mixed with ointment for skin diseases. There is but a small 
quantity on each capsule, and there is some slight exaggeration in 
the recent statement in a newspaper that in K^gra enough could 
be collected to dye half the clothes and physic aU the patients in 
the world. The seeds are officinal as bdobrang (pernaps from 
some confusion with bebrang — see Mtrsine), being given for 
uterine pains, &c. 


Alnus sp. (Clxthbopsis nitida. Spach.) Alder. 

Vernacular. J. 9krol, rikknra. K. trol, iowdli, silein. C. 
ehdmp, tsdpH, pidk. B. koe. S. kdmh, k4nich niH. 
T. I. giro, ghushbe. B. D. rqfdin. 

It seems to me that the Alders I have seen from 9,000 feet in 
the Punjab Himalaya to a few miles into the plains in the B&ri 
Do&b and in the Peshawar Valley, are all of one species or very 


nearly allied. The tree is handsome^ attains a large Bixe, specimens 
of 10 or 12 feet girth and 90 to 100 high^ being frequent. The 
leaves appear to be sometimes used as fodder. The twigs are 
employed for binding loads and parts of bridges^ &c. The wood is 
white^ said to be weak^ but is used for bedsteads^ for the hooked 
stick of rope bridges^ &c. Cleghom states that it is also made 
into charcoal for iron-smelting^ and into gunpowder charcoal. 
The bark is employed for tanning and dyeings and Madden 
mentions that it enters into the preparation of red ink. 

Betula Bhojfutra. Wall. (B. Jacquemontii. Spach.) Birch. 

Vernacular. J. bilty, ph^z. K. bUrjH. C. bUrzalf bhUif, 
9hdgy stoffpa; bark^ drowa. B. bicrf. S. shag, shdk, 
tagpa (Longden) . Lad. takpa. 

The birch^ found abundantly in the Punjab Himalaya at fix)m 
7^000 to 11^500 feet; appears to me to be all of the same or very 
closely allied species. It also occurs on the border of western 
Tibet. It grows to a higher elevation than most other trees^ and 
may generally be seen occupying a tract above coniferous forests. 
The tree at times reaches 6 or 7 feet^ and I have seen it 10 in 
girth and 35 feet high. The wood is almost valueless^ and is only 
used for ploughs^ small bridges^ &c., at altitudes and in tracts 
where other trees are scarce. Mr. Watson^ however, tells me that 
it is good for turning, and in Kan&war poles of it are used for 
carrying and swinging a heavy kind of ark in religious proces- 
sions, which implies some strength and elasticity. In Lad&k the 
striking part of the stick for polo, " hockey on horseback/' is made 
from it. In E&ngra, ''being sacred/' the bark is used for 
funeral piles, and at the shrines of Umm&th, in Kashmir, the 
pilgrims are said to strip and indue themselves with this. (?) In 
Kashmir and Kumaon it is found very durable put under the 
earthen roofs, and it is largely used for covering umbrellas and 
packing apples, pomegranates, tobacco, and drags. It is also 
employed for writmg paper, for which it is said to do excellently, 
and is exported to the plains for wrapping round hooka tubes. It 
sells for three rupees a hharwdry (ass-load) in Kashmir, according to 
Lowther. The price in Chumba was stated to me at ten to sixteen 
seers for a rupee. Longden mentions that the old bridge at 
Koksar (now replaced by a more civilized one) was made of birchen 
twigs — (see Pabbotia) • 



Vernacular. J.bren^brdn. R.bannijindri. B.banni, S.bdtmU 

A moderate sized tree occasionally seen on most of the rivers 
of the Punjab Himalaya in warm sunny situations at from 2^000 


to 5^600 feet. The wood ia wUte and similar to that of Q. incana, 
and is not valued. 

Q. DiLATATA. Lindl. (Q. FLORiBUNDA. Lind.) 

Vernacular. J. parungi, bar char, hdli ring, chora. K. bardin, 
C. maurii, harsh. B. mar^, batyi, banni. B. satriin. S; 
fnor&, marghang. 

This tree is abundant in many parts of the Panjab Himalaya 
(being more common within the outer ranges) from 4^500 to 9,000 
feet. Bellew found it near the SufM Koh at 9,000 to 10,000 feet. 
It grows to a large size, trees of 8 and 10 feet girth and 80 to 100 
high being not uncommon. I have noted one of more thaa 
15 feet girth. Madden mentions a tree of 19 feet girth at 5 feet 
from the ground. It fiimishes probably the best wood of any oak 
of the N. W. Himalaya, the timber being hard, heavy, durable^ 
and much used for ploughs, axe-handles, house-building, &c. It is 
also said to be much used for jdmpdn-^^&A at some hill stations. 
The leaves are frequently given as fodder, for which purpose the 
trees are often very severely lopped and reduced almost to hop-poles. 

Q. Ilex. L., (and Q. Baloot. Oriff. ?) 

Vernacular. J. chUr, C. irrl, yfru, khareo. B. bdn, hathiin 
bdn. S. bre. T. I. spercherei, pargdi, kharanja. AS., 
shdh balut. 

This tree, which does not grow to such a large size as most 
of the others, is common in part of the arid tracts of most of the 
Punjab rivers at from 3,200 to 8,000 feet. It is also abundant on 
the eastern skirts of the Sulim&n Range, Trans-Indus, and abounds 
in the northern part of Affgh£nist&n. Bellew got it at 10,000 
feet near the Sufi(d Koh. These last and part of those Cis-Indus 
may be Q. Baloot, Griff., if that species has stood. The tree is 
ordinarily about 5 or 6 feet in girth, but is not unfrequently seen 
of 9 or 10 feet girth and 60 to 70 high. Ploughs and handles are 
at times made of its wood, but it is not much valued, and is mostly 
used for fuel ; a considerable part of that for the station of Pesha- 
war is furnished by it. The leaves being very prickly, the 
branches are employed for fences, and the leaves are sometimes 
used for winter fodder. The fruit is said to be a favourite food 
of the langiir monkey (Semkopithecus) . 

Q. INCANA. Box. (Q. LANATA. Sm.) 

Vernacular. J. ring, rinj, banj. C. bdnj, mdrii, Tchcershu, 
shindar. R. banj, bdn, dagh^n-bdm. B. ban, b<bi. S. bdn. 
T. I. kharpata serei. S. R. vari. Baz&r^ fruity bdliit; 
galls, maju ? 

The commonest of all the oaks of the N. W. Himalaya, 
but more particularly affecting the outer ranges. It grows at 


from 8,000 to 8,000 feet, and reaches 7 or 8 and occasionally 9 feet 
in girth. It has at times been grown in the plains, and in Sah4- 
ranptir Botanical Garden there is a tree of 2 feet girth and 25 
high. The tree generally sheds its old leaves, and throws ont new 
shoots in April, bnt in 1867 (an early year in India and Europe) 
it is stated to have retained the old leaves till June or even 
September, and to have thrown out no new shoots. The timber 
is reddish, heavy, and coarse, and is not much valued, but is 
sometimes used for ploughs, handles, beams, &;c. Mr. Watson 
speaks well of it, but says — '' I have never got it good -/' and a larse 

Juantity of it, which was got down for locks on the B^ Doab 
lanal, was, I believe, never used. It may, however, have been cut 
at the wrong season, a mistake apt to occur in our Himalaya, 
where deod&r, the chief tree, is feUed in summer. A good deal of 
the fuel of some hill stations is furnished by this tree, and it is 
used for charcoal. The bark is employed in tanning, and the 
leaves are consumed for fodder. The bdliit of the drug-sellers, 
which are considered diuretic and given in gonorrhsea, consists of 
its fruit. . Part of the galls of the Bazars, used as medicine, may 
be got from this or some of the other species noted, but I have 
never observed galls on the trees, and I believe the former are 
imported from the west. They are used as astringent in diar- 
rhoea, &c., and in dyeing the hair. 


Yemacular. J. banchar, jangal pariingi, C. khareu, B. 
kreu. B. karshii. S. khareo, kharsM, kharsM. 

This grows to the largest size of any oak of the N. W. 
Himalaya, and may not unfrequently be seen in numbers up to 7 
or 8 and occasionally 11 or 12 feet in girth, and 60 or 70 feet high. 
I have noted trees as much as 15 feet in girth. It is common in 
many places on all the rivers from 8,000 to 11,000 and occasionally 
12,000 feet, and is abundant on the SufSd Koh, &c., Trans-Indus, 
at 10,000 feet (Bellew) . The large acorns ripen about August, 
and generally germinate within a very short time after falling. 
The timber is whitish, hard, and heavy, and one of the best frir- 
nished by these oaks, but is said to be apt to warp^ and to be 
subject to the attacks of insects. It is used for plough-shafts, 
/iffnpin-poles, helves, door-frames, fee., and for charcoal. The 
leaves are stored for winter fodder for cattle and sheep. 


Carpinus vihinea. Wall. Hornbeam. 

Vernacular. B. charkhre. B. shirdah. S. imar. 

A moderate sized tree, which is seen occasionally in the Punjab 
Himalaya at from 5,500 to 6,000 feet up to the B&vl. Cleghom 
states that its wood is esteemed by carpenters. 



and yar. c. Jacquemontii. (C. Jacquehontii. Dne.) 

Vernacular. J. urmL K. tpinri. C. wiSariay toiri, thangolL 
R. thdngi. B. sharoU, sharoi, S. sharoli, shurli, ge^ 
Baz&r, nut, findak. 

A small tree common on some parts of tLe rivers in the 
Punjab Himalaya from 5,500 to 10,500 feet. It sometimes 
reaches 6 or 7 feet girth and 35 or 40 feet high, but most 
trees are much under these dimensions. Cleghorn states that 
the wood is light and compact, but I have not heard that it 
is particularly esteemed. The nuts are small, but fairly good, 
are largely eaten by the natives, and find their way in some 
numbers into several of the hill stations. Excessive rains are 
apt to lessen the crop of a season very much. The translator 
of Hoffineister states that the kernels are not unfrequently pressed 
^for oil, but I have not heard of this practice in the Punjab 
Himalaya. The nuts are not uncommon in drug-sellers' shops, 
being considered tonic. One authority mentions that the term 
findak is also applied to the apricot kernels and almonds — (see 
Amydalus and Pritnus Armbniaca) — ^imported from Affghanistdu 
into Peshawar. 



Vernacular. J. akhrot. K. diin, chdrmaffhz. C. than ihdn, 
khar, kdy darga* R. khoVy akhori, krot. S. krot, ka-botang. 
Lad., starga* T. I. ughz, waghz. Bazdr, bark, dinddsa. 

Not uncommon wild, and common cultivated in the Himalaya 
from 5,000 to 10,000 feet, and to nearly 11,000 feet in Tibet. 
Planted this may occasionally be seen in the outer hiUs down to 
about 3,500 feet, and yotmg trees can be raised in the plains, 
though they generally die early; one, however, I have known to 
yield fruit in Peshawar. On the Chendb and Sutlej the walnut 
does not ripen its fruit above 9,000 feet, but wild trees may be 
seen on jhe latter to 10,500. The tree also grows Trans-Indus, in 
Affgh&nist&n, &c., and there are said to be a few in Beluchist&n. 
The largest trees I have noted were 'one of 28 feet girth in KuUu, 
and one of 22 feet in Chumba, and specimens up to 12 and 15 feet 
are not very rare. The produce of the wild tree is generally said 
to be very inferior, and hardly worth eating. The fruit ripens 
about August, and for some time forms a large proportion of the 
food of the people of those parts of especially Kashmir, and the 
ChenAb and Sutlej Valleys, where the tree is most abundant. It is 

2 c 


mostly eaten raw, part being exported to the liill stations. A 
considerable quantity of the kernels are bruised by stones, and tbe 
oil expressed by hand. The oil is used for food, and at times for 
burning. In Kashmir the soft skin of the fruit is employed for 
dyeing drab (without a mordant), a little black being added to 
darken it if necessary. The wood of an old tree is dark, hardish, 
and strong, and takes a good polish, nor is it subject to warp or 
be attacked by insects. It is cniefly made into gun-stocks, cabinet- 
work, the shells of the Kashmir painted boxes, &c. Mr. Watson 
says that it is useful when got large. The bark is lai^ely exported 
to the plains to be sold under the name of dinddaa for women's 
tooth-sticks, or for chewing to give a red colour to the lips ; it is 
said to prevent the formation of tartar. It abo seems occa- 
sionally to be used in medicine. The small branches and leaves are 
regularly and severely lopped to furnish winter fodder. On the 
Sutlej it is said that if the trees get a rest in this respect every 
fourth year, the quality of the fruit is not deteriorated. Honig- 
berger states that a twig is recommended to be kept in a room to 
dispel flies. 


Mtkica Sapida. Wall. 

Vernacular. R. B. S. kaphaL Baz&r, bark^ kdiphal, hdhi 
hahela ? 

Within Puniab limits the tree is by no means common except 
on the lower Sutlej, and a few trees may be seen at from 3,200 to 
6,000 feet up to the R&vi. The fruit has not much flesh, but is a 
pleasant sour sweet. It is mostly used in aharbats. The bark is 
officinal in the plains, being considered hot, and given in rheuma* 
tism, and mixed in plaster. 


Platanus obientalis. L. Plane. 

Vernacular. K. biiin, biina ; elsewhere, chindr, chandr. 

I have never seen this tree wild, and statements to the effect 
that it is indigenous in or near Kashmir (as by Hugel), probably 
arise from some confusion with Acxa, owing to the resemblance 
of the. leaves. It appears to be tolerably common planted in 
Affghinistiln, and is frequently seen at villages, &c., in the Punjab 
Himalaya, extending sparingly east to the Bids, and up to 8,300 
feet in Tibet. In the Kashmir Valley it is abundant^ the trees 


ranging up to 75 feet high, and I have noted seven or eight of 
about or more than 20 feet^ the largest being 28 feet girth^ in 
Srinaggar^ Kashmir. The spread of two trees measured by me 
told a radius of 87 and 44 feet respectively in one direction. 
I have been told by an European Officer of one seen by another 
Officer near the Wular lake of 84 feet in girth^ but this seems 
doubtful^ and is possibly a corruption of Yigne's statement 
that he saw one of 66 feet girth under the Elburz near Teheran. 
The finest grove in Kashmir^ or perhaps in the worldj is 
the Nasim Bagh, on the banks of the h^e, near the city of 
Srinaggar^ which at one time consisted of 1^200 noble trees said 
to be planted nearly 200 years ago. The tree is propagated by 
cuttings (and occasionally by seed in Kashmir). In the Punjab 
plains trees may occasionally be seen> as at Peshawar and Lahore, 
there being one or two of fair size in old native gardens at the 
latter place. To the eastward it does not thrive ; one small tree, 
dead at top^ stands in Sah&ranour Botanic Gardens. The wood 
has a peculiar and rather handsome grain^ but appears not to be 
strong and is not valued. Yet^ in K&bul^ where timber is scarce^ 
Irvine states that it is the only material for gun-carriages^ and in 
Kashmir it furnishes part of the wood for making the small 
painted boxes. Honigbeigei states that the bruised fresh leaves 
are applied to the eyes in ophthalmia^ and he mentions that the 
bark, boiled in vinegar, is given in diarrhsea. Attention has been 
drawn to a corky hypertrophy of the bark in Kashmir, and the 
substance might be useful, but seems to be far from common. 

PopuLus Alba. L. White Poplar. 

Vernacular. J. safMa, chita baffnti, K. Jras, jangli-frasty 
rikkan. C. rlkkan, prasH, sannan, chaniinL S. mdl. 
T. I. spelda, sperdor. Plains, safMa. 

A tree which grows wild to a considerable size in parts of the 
basins of the Jhelam and Chen&b, and is occasional on the Sutlej, 
ranging firom 4,000 to 8,300 feet, reaching 9,000 in Tibet. Trees 
of 6 and even 8 feet in girth and 50 or occasionally 70 in height 
are seen, but they are mostly considerably smidler than these 
sizes. Of thousands of specimens I have never seen one in fruit. 
"Wild trees are often seen uprooted by the wind. The tree is also 
common planted in parts at least of Affgh&nist&n to 9,200 in Tibet 
(Thomson) , is not uncommon planted at Peshawar, and grows at 
Lahore. It is propagated by cuttings. The timber is white and 
soft, but not strong or durable, and is not valued. In AfFghin- 
ist&n it (with perhaps that of P. fastioiata q. v.) is used for 


mannfactariiig the round boxes in wliich grapes are exported to 

P. BALSAMiFERA. L. Balsam Poplar. 

Yenxacxdar* C. yarpa. Lad.^ beffa, makal, mdghah P. 
m&alf changma. 

This tree, which I have in part confused with P. pastioiata 
(q. v.), is common planted in Lahoul (at 9 — 10,000 feet), and in 
Lad&k (up to 14,000 feet), in Spiti (to 12,500 feet), and probably 
on the Sutlej. Aitchison mentions that in Lahonl it is never 
cut, as it is supposed to be the abode of the dewa (deity), and 
festivals are held under some of the finer specimens, which reach 
50 feet in height. In Lad&k they reach 60 or 70 feet, and I have 
there noted a plank of the wood 2i feet broad, and seen one tree 
of 9 feet girth. 

P. ciLiATA. Wall. Himalayan Poplar. 

Vernacular. J. sufSdar, shdwa, bagntit phalja. K. s^fidar, 
bagnii, suldli, dudfras. C. supiday rikkan, ban frasitiy 
flass^, chaniiny pabe. R. chalon, tallon, falsh, B. 
chalonwa, falsh. S. chahnway kramali. 

This tree grows to a large size, occasionally reaching 10 feet 
in girth, and from its leaves, resembling those of the pipal — (see 
Ficus belioiosa) — is frequently called by that name by plainsmen. 
It is common wild in the Punjab Himalaya up to the Indus at 
from 4,000 to 10,000 feet. The wood is soft and not valued, but 
is used for water troughs, and in Haz&ra occasionally for gun- 
stocks. In some places the leaves are given as fodder. There is 
a plcntiAil floss round the seeds, which has at times been recom- 
mended for paper-making, &c. 


Vernacular. Lad., hodung, hotung. T. I. and S. P. bdhan, 
sufSda, sperawan ? 

This tree, which grows on the Jordan, Tigris, and Euphrates, 
is common wild in Sind and in the southern Punjab in the low 
land along near rivers. I have seen trees of it as high as Dera 
Ishmail ELhan, and on the Indus it is said to be found occasionally 
in nooks up to Attock. Far above that on the Indus river or 
its tributaries, it is found in parts of Tibet (western) to 10,500 
feet, and Aitchison mentions it in his Lahoul list, but this specimen 
may have been a Tibetan one, of which there appears to have been 
« few in the collection. In the southern Punjab (where planted 


specimens occur in Mnlt&n, &;c.,) the tree grows to no gremt size, 
specimens of 5 feet girth not being common, but this may partly 
depend on the excessive lopping to which it is subjected to provide 
fodder for goats. In Sind, where it is better cared for, trees of 
7 or 8 feet girth are not uncommon. The leaves vary in shape to 
a considerable extent, especially in the plains, some being quite 
narrow, long, lanceolate, entire, and knife Jike, and others exces- 
sively broad with a comb-like edge. The leaves of the Lad&k trees 
vary much less. Thomson^s statement, that the narrow leaves 
are .found on young plants and pollarded shoots, and the broad 
ones on old trees, is to a considerable extent correct. These and 
intermediate varieties occur on both male and female trees, the 
latter being more common, so far as I have observed, in the Punjab 
plains. In places where the tree is subject to inundations, it is 
sometimes covered with short horn-like roots to 18 inches from 
the ground. (I have seen a similar growth on willows in like 
circumstances in Kashmir) . From the wood of the tree on parts 
of the trunk, short spines project into the inner part of the bark 
(and see Ulmus erosa) . The wood is generally white, soft, and 
toughish, and, when unseasoned, is very subject to the attacks of 
white ants. But in old trees there is usually a large pvoportion 
of very dark strong heart-wood. In the southern Punjab the 
timber is for the most part only used for wells, &c., but in Sind 
it is largely employed for beams, &c., (not for planks), and in 
turnery. In Sind idso the smaller trees are cut as coppice, and 
speedily spring again to fiimish a fresh crop of rafters. The wood, 
being white (and so not flesh-colouTei) , is preferred for construc- 
tive purposes by Hindus, and for the same reason the twigs are 
used by them as tooth-sticks. The wood is rarely used for boats 
in Sind, but is said to be largely so employed on the Euphirates, &c. 
It is also employed for fdel in the south (in part even for 
steamers, althougn from its lightness it is not very suitable), and 
in parts of Tibet, where it grows, it furnishes much jSre-wood. 
In Sind the bark is given as a verxnifuge, and the liber is employed 
as a gun-match. 

P. NIGRA. L. var. b. pyramidalis. Italian Poplar. 

Vernacular. K. frost C. frost, prost, forsh, sirfSdo, mak- 
hot, pakhshii bHit. S. kromoU, biiins. Lad.^ changma^ 
yarpo, yMatt, kabUl, koM. Plains, sufidar. 

This tree is common planted in Kashmir, on the Chendb, at 
from 8,000 to 11,500 feet, and on the Sutlej, and in Lad&k, to 13,300 
feet. Scattered specimens are not uncommon elsewhere in the 
hills, and it is occasionally seen at places in the plains, as Pesha- 
war, Lahore, &c. I have never seen a wild tree or flower or fruit 
of this species. It appears to be common in Affgh&nistAn^ where 


the wood se^ns to be used as that of P. alba (q. v.) Elseirhere; 
I am not aware that it is employed for any special purpose. lit 
Kashmir it grows in great luxuriance^ being generally planted in 
rowsi sometimes so very closely that two trees will srow together 
at the base (as seems to be the case in Affghdnistan also). In 
Kashmir trees of 6 or 8 feet in girth are not uncommon, and 
some reach 10 and 12 feet. The celebrated '^ poplar avenue/' close 
to Srinaggar, the capital^ is probably one of the finest things of 
its kind in the world. It is perfectly straight, a row of trees on 
each side of a level road more than a mile long. They number 
about 1,700 in all. Most of them range from 90 to 105 feet 
high. A local guide-book says that these were planted by the 
Sikhs, but Lowther is much more likely to be correct in caUing 
the avenue a '' tasteful relic of the Moslems.'' In Ladiik few of 
the trees exceed 50 or 60 feet high, with a proportionate girtb» 
The bark is officinal in the plains, an arak being- extracted from 
it, which is considered depurative. The tree is lopped in some 
places, probably for fodder. 


The Himalayan species have not yet been thoroughly identic 
fied (Aitchison mentions nine undetermined species in Lahoul), 
and unfortunately I have not always sufficiently discriminated 
those I have seen or collected. I must here do the best with the 
data I have. 

Salix alba. L. (?) 

Vernacular. J. bis. K. vwlr. C. yur, changma. Lad., 
changmdf chdmmd, mdlchang, kalchan, P. changma. 
T. I. kharwala. 

There is considerable doubt as to this species, but it or an 
allied one appears to be common in many parts of the Himalaya, 
as Kashmir, Pangi, Lahoul, and Laddk &c., frotn 5,000 up to 
14,500 feet occasionally in the last, and it seems to occur Trans- 
Indus; It is generally planted, but is probably wild also in many 
places. It reaches 8 and 9 feet in girth when well protected. 
Moorcroft mentions one of 16 feet, but the largest trees are very 
often hollow. In Kashmir the willow is used largely for basket- 
making I and in Tibet Thomson mentions that many of the 
houses are made of willow wattle and dab. Twig bridges of willow 
are mentioned in Spiti, Zanskar, and Lad&k, where Parrotia (q. v.) 
is not found. In Kashmir the twigs are employed as tooth-sticks. 
There also, and still more on the Chen&b and in Ladak, the trees 
are severely and systematically lopped, the yoimg shoots and bark 
of the larger, removed by hand^ being used as fodder. It is worth 


oonsideration whether the great quantity of saliciii the cattle 
miut consume there ought not to have some effect on them. In 
Lahoul the branches are mostly cut for this purpose about every 
3rd or 4th year only> just ere the grass springs up^ but are accept* 
able to cattle at any time. (Moorcroft erroneously supposed that in 
Lahoul the willows are all pollarded for basket-work). Aitchison 
states that the timber is not much used in Lahoul, but Moorcroft 
says that in Tibet the whole plough (except the point, which 
is iron) is generally made of willow. Irvine notes that in Affgh&n* 
istin willow wood is generally used for building, as insects do not 
attack it. On the Chen4b, pails, &c., are rudely cut from single 
blocks of the wood, and, according to Moorcroft, combs, to remove 
the fine goat's hair from the animaFs back, are in Lad&k made of 
it. In Spiti, &c., the poles and wattle-work of bridges are made 
of this. In Lahoul the tsee is propagated in spring by cuttings 
up to 9 or 12 feet long, three of which are generally put in 
tc^ether along watercourses, &c. These are sometimes boimd 
round with cord, cloth, &c., or surrounded by cut branches, to 
protect them from animals, but in many cases, where not so pro- 
tected, the whole of the outer surfaces of the trees which are not 
nearly in contact, have the bark gnawed off by cattle, forage being 
very scarce in that tract. Mr. Jaeschke, of the Moravian Mission, 
Lahoul, informed me that all the cultivated willows there appear 
to be male. 

S. Babtlonica. L. 

Vernacular. K. bisa, giwr. C. biddi, bitsu. R. B. badd. 
T. I. taala. Plains generally, bed mqfniin, laila (?) 
katira. Baz&r, leaves, bed rnaji. 

This tree is very common planted in the plains through- 
out the Punjab, being fully more abundant to the west, and 
frequently being of the graceful " weeping*' type. It also grows 
to 5,500 feet in the hills, including Kashmir. Near Chumba 
I have seen trees of 12 feet girth. It grows rapidly, and is 
easily raised in moist places by cuttings up to stakes of 
considerable size, which are often planted to consolidate the banks 
of water-cuts, &c. Its branches and twigs are laj^ely used for 
baskets, wattles, weirs, &c. I do not know that the natives use 
its wood for any special purpose, but good cricket-bats have been 
made from it. Ihe leaves are officinal, being reckoned tonic, 
possibly from the salicin in them. 

S. Caprea. L. 

Vernacular, bedmuahk. Baz&r, . distilled water, bedmushk, 
khildf Balkhi. 

The only two places where I have seen this tree cultivated are 
Lahore and Peshawar, but I am told it is grown at Umritsur and 


several other pieces in the plains. Elphinstone mentions it at 
Koh&t^ and I know of its having been cultivated at one place in 
Rohilkund. A native correspondent of the Agri-Horticultural 
Society states that the tree was introduced at Lahore from Kashmir 
by Hari Chund soon after he conquered that country for Runjeet 
Singh, but I think this is extremely doubtful. Close to Lahore 
there are a good many acres of it, and there it is raised by cuttings, 
which are planted out in March. The tree, which is irrigated through- 
out the year, does not grow to a large size, and is said only to flourish 
for 11 or 12 years. The large yeUowish catkins of flowers appear- 
in February, and are collected and sold at about 6 or 8 rupees 
per maund to attdrs, who at once distil a scented water £rom them. 
This is mixed with water and drunk as a sharbat, which has a 
rather pleasant though somewhat medicinal taste. It is a great 
favourite with well-to-do natives, and is much belauded by native 
writers on medicine, &c. 'It is considered cordial, stimulant, and 
aphrodisiac, and is applied externally for headache and ophthalmia. 
The ashes of the wood are said to be useful in haemoptysis, and 
with vinegar are applied to haemorrhoids, &c. The stem and 
leaves are considered astringent, and the juice and^m fPJ also are 
said to be used medicinally. 


Vernacular. J. bis. B. bidd. Plains, bed leila, badha, 

This species is less common than S. Babylonica, planted in 
the plains, and is occasionally seen in the outer hills to 4,000 feet. 
Madden (?) mentions that it grows to 5,000 or 6,000 feet in 
Kumaon. It is readily raised by cuttings and grows rapidly to a 
considerable size. I have seen trees of 6 feet girth. I am aware 
of no special use to which the timber is put. The most frequent 
names of this and S. Babylonica, viz., latla and majniin, are 
supposed to allude to the story of the well-known eastern lovers of 
these names. 

S. var. sp. Arboreous, including S. eleoans. Wall. S. fraoi- 

LIS. L.> and S. viminalis. L. 

Vernacular. C. bets, bitsu, bed, bidd, belt, yir. R. bada. S. 

These grow at heights in the Punjab Himalaya from 6,000 
and some of them in Laddk to 11,000 feet, and the twigs and 
leaves of many of them are used for fodder. The wood is not 


S. YAK. 8P. Slmibby, including S. flabellaris. Anda. S. has- 


Yemacular. S.bisa. C. bushan,janff albeit "R. ber, mathi. 
B. bak shel. S. shun, bhdil. P. beli. 


These also are found at variouB elevatioua in tlie Punjab 
Himalaya and Lad&k from 6^000 to 15^000 feet^ and the leaves^ &c., 
of several are used as foddei. In Spiti^ baskets appear to be made 
from the twigs. 

S. sp. 

Vernacular. Baz£r^ manna, bed khist. 

I have not met with this officinal substance, but it is men- 
tioned. by various writers, and may be not^ here. It is used as a 
laxative. Irvine states that it is said to be produced on a dark- 
barked cultivated willow in Turkist&n, which may be one of those 
noted above. 

Ckltis Caucasica. WiUd. 

Yemacular. J. batkar. K. brimd^, br^mij, brimla. C. 
bigni, bvdgH, kharg, R. khark, B. khirk, karik. S. 
kharaJc, khalk, ku. T. I. takhum, tdgho, S. R. batkar^ 
tDattamman, Baz4r, fruit, kanghol mirch, indarba. 

This fine tree is common wild from 2,500 to 8,500 feet in the 
Punjab Himalaya, and occurs Trans-Indus down to 1,600 feet, 
and appears from Griffith, &c., to be cultivated in Affgh&nist&n. 
It is occasionally planted ; there is a magnificent avenue near 
Chumba, composed chiefly of this tree, the largest specimen being 
164 f^t ^^ girth. Trees of 7 or 8 feet are not uncommon. Win- 
ter fodder is often stored in the forked boughs of this tree. Its 
timber is white, light, soft, weak, and subject to the attacks of 
insects. It is chiefly used for zeminddrs' work, charcoal, and fuel. 
Bellew mentions that in the Peshawar Valley it is often made into 
charms to keep off the evil eye from man and beast. Cleghom 
atates that its bark is used for sandals, but I have not heard of 
.this otherwise. The fruit, a small drupe, is eaten by the natives^ 
who call it sweetish, but it has almost no flesh. Madden states 
that it has been supposed to be the Lotus of the ancients. The 
fruit is also officinal, being given as a remedy in amennorrhsea^ 
and Bellew states that it is administered for coUc. 



C. Nefalensis. Planch. 

Vernacular. J. batkar. T. I. tdgho. 

This is much, more- rare than the preceding. I have only 
found it in parts of the Jhelam basin and Trans-Indus at about 
2^500 to 8^500 feet. The Fath&ns are said to use its tough wood 
for chum-sticks. 

Sfonia Wiohtii. Planch. 

Vernacular. B. mdmL U. kanghL 

A small tree found very sparingly in the Siwdlik tract up to 
the Bias^ and occurring also in the Salt Range. Locally F do not 
know that it is used for any special purpose, but in some parts of 
India its exceedingly harsh rough leaves are employed to polish 
wood and horn. 

Ulmus camfestris. L. (U. Wallichiana. Planch. ?) £lm« 

Vernacular. J. idtn. K. brdri, hreH, brankuL C. brori, 
marazh, mardri, R. mardl. B. mardl, mdrun, hembar, 
S. imbir, marran, $hko. 

This tree, which grows to a large size, is common wild in many 
parts of the Punjab Himalaya up to the Indus from 3,500 to 
9,500 feet. It grows to a large size, trees of 10 and 11 feet girth 
and 60 high being occasionally seen. I have noted one more 
than 16 feet in girth. I may note that I have never observed 
flower or fruit of this or the following tree. The wood is not 
valued by natives, being reckoned less strong than that of the next 
species. But it is tough, and is used in Kan&war for ark-poles — 
(see Betula) — and an European contractor in Haz4ra has found 
it light; strong, and useful for the panels of dog-carts, &c. The 
bark is very tough, and is used for bed-string, and sandals made 
frx>m it will last for two days under hard work. The leaves are 
a favourite fodder, and the trees are often very severely lopped 
on this account. 

U. EROSA. ? 

U. FUMILA. Pall. ? 

Vernacular. J. mdnii, mann4. K. bren^ bran, amrdi. C. 
bratmii, mer^, chipdl, B. mardl, mandu. B. mdnyi, 
mdiim. S. mal dting mortin. Lad., yUmbok, 

This, which may include the two species named, is a much 
less common tree in the wild state than the last ; is more frequ- 
ently seen plants at villages, kc.j and reaches a larger size. It 


attains 100 feet -in height, and I have noted a good many of more 
than 20, one of 25, and one of 28 feet in girth. Madden men- 
tions one of 29 feet girth at Ch&sn, on the Sutlej, and Cleghom 
one of 30 feet girth on the Bias. I have seen it as planted as low 
as 2,500 feet, and it occurs, introduced I believe, to 10,500 feet 
in Lad&k. The wood is considered better than that of the last, 
but does not appear to have any special use. Short spines pro- 
ject from the wood of the trunk into the inner surface of the bark 
as in PopulVs EupfiRATicA (q. v.) In parts of the Jhelam basin, 
gun-fiise is made from the bai^. 

It is somewhat singular that I have never observed flower or 
fruit of either of the two above Elms on any of hundreds of trees. 


Vernacular. B. hhulen, rajain. U. iachdm. D. pdpri. 

A handsome tree, rare in the Punjab Siwilik tract up to the 
Bias, and seen planted in the plains about Dehli, &c. The wood 
is light, white, and rather apt to Splinter, but in parts of India is 
used for carts, door-frames, spoqps, &c., and in the Punjab is 
employed for roof planks. At Mussooree, a wood called pdpH is 
said to be employed for the same purposes as Box, but it can hardly 
be that of this tree. Near Dehli the bruised leaves of thia are 
applied to boils. 


Artocabpits integbifolia. L. Jack-fruit tree. 

Vernacular. B. tiicn. B. daheu. 

A large tree occasionally seen planted in the Punjab Siwilik 
tract up to the B&vl. The fruit is used for dchdr, 

Ficus CABiCA. L. Fig tree. 

Vernacular, C. phagwdra, fdg^. R. jambr. Plains gene- 
rally, anjir^ pkagwdra. 

This frnit tree is not tmcommon cultivated in (both English 
and) native gardens in the Punjab plains. I have also seen it 
as high as 5,000 feet on the Ravi. It reaches 7 feet in girth 
occasionally. Bdlew says that it is common about Kandah&r, 
mostly wild, (?) and that the white fruit is generally kept for 
home use, and the black exported. Davies gives 20 maunds of 
the fruit as annually imported from Affgh^s&n vift Peshawar, , 



Vernacular. J. phdg, phagwdri. K. Jdrmri. C. phagar^, 
fdg^f phog, thapur, R. phagura, jamir (?) B. fdguy 
dhtira, dhi&di, daholia, S. kak, kok, phed^, U. kimrL 
T. I. inzar. S. B. phugwdra, khabdre^ B. D.| &c.^ 
phugwikri, fagiiri. 

A small tree strongly resembling the former^ wliicli oocmrs 
irild occasionally in waste places in the plains Cis and Trans- 
Indus, and is not uncommon in the Himalaya to 6,000 feet. It 
not unfrequently reaches 5 or 6 feet, and I have noted one of more 
than 10 in girth. The £ruit is eaten by the natives, and at 5,000 
feet in the hills I have found it excellent, though it is generally 

7. COBDIFOLIA. Box. (?) 

Vernacular. B. rdmbal, puldkh. B. pilkhan, badha. 

A tree which occurs occasionally in the Punjab Siw^Uik tract 
up to the B4yi. The fruit is eaten. 

F. CUNIA. Buch. 
Vernacular. . C. hath giilar, trumhah B. kamdol. S. k4r{. 

A smallish tree occasional in the Punjab Siw&lik tract up to 
the Chen&b. The fruit is not eatable, but in parts of India is 
used in medicine, and in the Peninsula the rough harsh leaves are 
employed for polishing wood-work. 

F. BLASTicA Boxb. India Tubbcr Fig. 
Vernacular. ? 

I do not know if this tree had been introduced by natives, 
nor have I heaid of any specimens further west than Amb&la, 
except quite small ones recently planted. 


Vernacular. B. rUmbah S. B. bat bar, paUk. B. D. 

' (Common cultivated in the plains N. W. Provinces) rare in 
the Punjab plains, and occasional wild in the eastern part of the 
Punjab Siw&lik tract, and in the Salt Bange. In parts of India 
the coarse brittle wood is tlsed for well-frames. The fruit is 
very inferior, but is occasionally eaten by the poor, raW and in 
cunies, &c. 


F. Indica. Rox. BanyaiL'bree. 

Vernacular. C. bera. Plains^ bor, bargad. Baz&r^ fibres of 
air-roots^ rl$h bargad. 

This tree is common planted in most parts of the pkdnSj a&d 
occasionally to 4^000 feet in the hills^ wherever there are maAy 
Hindus. It is rare Trans-Indus^ and in Haz&ra^ &c., where there 
are few of the latter. It also occurs wild in the Siw&lik tract and 
Salt Range^ growing in the driest^ rockiest places. I have noted 
trees of more than 30 feet girth^ and have probably sten many larger. 
A correspondent of the Agri-Horticultural Society records a 
magnificent specimen^ the Pir ha bar, which ** covers many acies'' 
in Jhang district^ just under the junction of the Jhelam with the 
Chendb. This tree is easily raised from cuttings. Dr. Henderson 
tells me that those trees which respectively have and want the charac- 
teristic root stems are called male and female by the natives. These 
ibot stems are in parts of India used for dandy-igole^. The wood 
of the tree is said to be made into oil-presses in Kdngra^ although 
it^ being coarse-grained and lights like that of the other figs^ does 
not seem well adapted for this purpose. The fruit is said to be 
eaten by the starving poor in famines. The leaves are a favourite 
fodder for elephants^ and the trees are sometimes severely lopped on 
this account. The milky juice of the tree is stated by Honigberger 
to be used in medicine by natives, externally and internally. It is 
in Lahore employed to aid in the oxidation of copper, &c. The 
root-fibres are officinal, being given in gonorrhsea, as they are con- 
sidered by bedcJcs to resemble sarsapiurilla. In the eastern and 
central Punjab, Idkh appears to be occasionally collected on the 
tree, and in 1863 a single bar is mentioned in Proceedings, Agri- 
Horticultural Society, which brought a revenue of 12 rupees per 
annum on this account. 


Vernacular. B. dadi&ri, rumbaL B. degar, 

A small tree with very rough leaves not uncommon in the 
Punjab Siw&lik tract up to the B&vi. The fruit is not eaten. In 
K&ngra the milky juice is said to be used medicinally. 


Vernacular. plpaL 

' This fine tree is common in most parts of the pUdns o£ liie 
Punjab where there are many Hindis. It is. also wild in the 
easttm part of the Siw&Iik tract, and Ihave seen a pbmted speci- 
men of 25 feet girth at neaorly 6^)00 feet in ChuniMU Thistase 


is eaflily raised bj cuttmgs, and is spread by birds on the tops of 
buildings^ Sec, where it grows from crevices with apparently not a 
particle of soil. It is seen in greatest numbers at old established 
cantonments^ as at Loodiana and Amb&la. At the latter place the 
tree (as well as some mangoes^ &;c.) have a tendency to decay, 
which kills them off at top, and often wholly, in some numb^ 
each year. (I have also observed this in F. Ikdica in the southern 
Punjab). Tl^e timber is coarse-grained, and very subject to the 
attacks of whitQ ants, and is not much used except for fuel and 
charcoal. The leaves Aimish a favourite fodder for elephants, and 
complications are common from the resistance of the people to their 
trees being lopped for this purpose. Ldkh is occasionally formed 
on this, as well as F. Indica. (Mr. Strettell, of the Forest 
Department, Sind, states that ldkh, though common on Acacia 
AaABiCA (q. V.) in lower Sind, is never found on any Ficus there, 
which may possibly depend on the excessive diought of the 


. Vernacular. J. bat phagdr, n&gar jamuin. K. thaiur. C. 
phogH. B. diidagr^y mambre. B. d4gwr^, sMnUi, 
mathdgar. S. karambal, gareM. 

A climbing species found in the Punjab Siw&lik tract and 
Himalaya at from 1,000 to 6,000 feet up to near the Indus. It is 
browsed by goats, &c. 

F. RoxBUBOHii. Miq. (F. MAcaorHYLLA. Box.) 

Vernacular. J. i&rbiil, urmul, .burh. C. tiisi, trimbuL B. 
tremal, dadtiri. B. trimbal, tiamle. S. Mmal, tirml. 

A small tree not uncommon in the Siw&lik tract and outer 
Punjab Hintalaya, and seen occasionally to 6,000 feet. The wood is 
not valued. On the Sutlej I was told that the bark is uaed for 
ropes. Tl% fruit is «aten, being sweetish. with a pleasant flavour^ 
and Qeghorn states that it is sold in the SimU Baz&r. 

F. VENOSA. Ait. (F. INVEOTOBIA. Willd.) 

Vernacular. J. pdkhar. B. paldkh. B. trimbal. U. pU* 
khan. S. B. ie;ar, palhM. 

G«nerally a small tree in the Punjab, though it reaches 6 or 7 
feet girth at times. It is not uncommon in the low hills Cis 
and T^ns-Indus, and in the Salt Bange. The leaves are given as 
fodder to elephants, iand in southei^ India the root is used as a 
red dye, and the root bark is xnadet into bowstrings. 



Vemacalar. J. amrer, chenjul, sanddri. C. sansdru, siiss. 
B. sidril, thdna. B. sidrii, S. sidrii, pincho, prin. T. 
I. shakei. AS.j kharwala, 

A slirub which is common^ generally near water, at many 
places in the low hills from 1,500 and occasionally to 6,000 feQt^ 
Cis and Trans*Indus, and which occurs in the Salt Range. In the 
eastern part of the Punjab, its bark appears, as in the N. W. 
Provinces, to be used for making ropes, but - it is not generally 
employed in tlus way. It is browsed by sheep. 


Procbis sp. 


A species occurs in the Punjab Himalaya which may be the 
same as that which Madden states to be used as a pot-herb in 

Urtica hetbrophylla. Willd. (Gerardinia. Wall.) Neil- 

gherry nettle. 

Vernacular. J. keri. C. kingi, B. ein, sanoli. B. dn^jdn, 
. kaL S. kdrla, bhdbar, 

A fine tall nettle with immense leaves and a vigorous stingy 
which is not uncommon in many places of the Punjab Himalaya, 
2,500 to 7,000 feet. Its stems are often employed for making 
twine and ropes by the dry process, but these are not prized, and 
perish quickly from wet. At the Punjab Exhibition (December 
1863), the offer of a prize of Bs. 250 did not elicit any specimen 
of the fibre worthy of reward. 


Vernacular. Lad., zaHd, dzdtsuttj stokpo tsodma, 

A smallish species common in parts of Lad&k from 11,500 to 
17,000, and occasionally to nearly 18^500 feet. Its young leaves 
are eaten as a pot-herb. 


Cannabis sativa. L. (C. Indica. Lam.) Indiaa Hemp. 

Vernacular. K. bangi. C. bhangl, bengi. B. bhang. S. 
^ bhang J kas ; seeds, ^i^/ti ; fibre, chisL Plains, bhang. 
Baz&r, tops, bhang, $ab^i; exudation^ charras; seeds, ^« 
ka ki bij. 

Common in waste places in many parts of the Punjab plains 
Cis and Trans-Indus^ and much more abundant and large (reaching 


9 or 10 and 12 or 14 feet in height at times) in many places in (he 
Himalaya up to 10^000 feet. It appears to be more commonly 
cultivated in Garhw&l^ &c., than in any part of the Punjab Hima- 
laya. But in the latter it is frequently grown in small patches on 
the Sutlej and Bl&s at 5^000 to 7^000 feet^ and I have seen fields 
at 10^000 on the Chen4b, in Lahoul^ and Aitchison^s statement 
as to its fibre not being used there is incorrect. Within Punjab 
bdunds the fibre of the stem^ for which it is cultivated^ appears only 
to be made into rope, bed-string, &c., and sandals (the latter are 
said to last for 8 or 9 days, t . e., much longer than rice straw or 
elm bark, but to be less safe in difficult places than the latter), 
but further east it is made into sacking, as well as into cloth for 
wearing in the hot season. The wild plant also is used for making 
rope, &c., at places on the Jhelam, west of Kashmir, and on the 
Ghen&b> &c. In Kashmir a proportion of the fibre is mixed with 
the material for paper-making. On the Sutlej the seeds of the 
cultivated plant are roasted and eaten in small quantity with 
wheat. The most important product of this plant is the resinous 
.exudation, which does not appear to be produced below a certain 
elevation in the hills. It is used as a narcotic, as are the dried 
tops of the plant. The latter are gathered for home use in many 

{' >arts of the hills, and also occasionally in the plains (they are 
argely used in Sind, where the plant appears to be grown in fields 
for this purpose), but the great source of the charras is Turkist^. 
Dr. Cayley states that in October 1867, this drug to the value of 
Rs. 44,760 was imported from Ydrkand into Ld, and Rs. 19,422 
worth of bhanff was exported from the latter to the Punjab in the 
same month. During 1867, 1830 maunds were imported from 
Ydrkand to Ld, and 817 maunds were sent from the latter south- 
ward by various routes. The drug is mostly consumed with 
tobacco in a hookah, its use extending to AfFgh&nist4n, according 
to Bellew. Davies' Trade Report gives 75 maunds of charras 
as annually imported from Affgh&nistan viS Peshawar, and two 
maunds by the Boldn. A cold infusion of the tops is generally 
used, and is in great favour with the Sikhs, who are debarred 
from tobacco, and so make up by the use of this, opium, and 
spirits. Bellew states that in the Peshawar Valley the tops, 
bruised into pulp, are applied to haemorrhoids and other painful 
tumours. The tops, exudation, and seeds^ are all officinal^ on 
account of their narcotic qualities. 

HuaiULus LxrruLus. L. Hop. 
Vernacular. ? 

Lowther states that he had heard of the hop plant being seen 
in Kashmir (as others have done elsewhere in the Himalaya) , but 
jit la nowhere indig6nou«« In 1851 he proposed its iatxoduatioiil 



lA Kashmir. It has been sacoessfdlly cultivated in Delira Doon 
for many years, so far as mere growth is concerned, but heavy 
rain at the flowering period prevents the flower from reaching 
perfection as to quantity and quality of the powder, on which its 
value depends, and the results have, on the whole, been unsatis- 
fadxny. Within the last few years, the plant has been tried at 
Kyelaag and Kil&r in the aria tract on the upper Chen&b, and 
it has flourished. But unfortunately it appears to have been 
foiOnd out, after several years care, that the sets, introduced at the 
latter place, were those of male plants I So tlutt the experiment 
has still to get a fair trial there. At Kyelang, female flowers are 
sparingly produced. At the Murree Brewery^ however, whei*e the 
ndn-fiUl is much lighter than fiirther east, a considerable number 
of hop plants have been grown for some years with fair success 
as to quantity and strength of hops actually got. And it may be 
hofed, that stUl better results will by-and-bye be attained. 


Falconbria insionis. Royle. 

Vernacular. B. kardlla, bilodar, ankhar, S. bilqja. 

This tree only extends scantily along the Punjab Siwalik 
tracts as far as the Bi&s. The wood is occasionally employed for 
domestic purposes^ but is of no special use. 



m! IrUwr^'Si". ^^^' [Mulberry. 


M. Tatabica. Willd. 

Vernacular. K. taiklH, i'&H ; elsewhere, ttU^ shdh tit, &;c. 

There is considerable doubt as to the species of Mobus, but 
all of the above appear to be cultivated in the Punjab plains, and 
some of them in the hills up to Kashmir, 6,000 feet, where they 
abound, and to 7,000 feet on the Chendb. Vigne states that the 
mulberry grows in parts of Tibet, where Thomson mentions it at 
over 9,000 feet. From the accounts of Bellew and others, nine 
Oft ten kinds would appear to be abundant in parts of Affgh&nistdn. 
In the plains of the Punjab, the mulbeiry varies much in frequ- 
ency, and is more common than elsewhere in the northern Trans* 
Indus. Some of the trees attain a large size, specimens of 10 

2 B 


and 12 feet girth are not very uncommon^ and I hare noted one 
of 16 feet in the Salt Range. The wood of old trees is strong 
and useful, and is much employed for construction, implements, &c., 
in parts where the tree is common. About Peshawar it is the 
staple ordinary timber. The fresh twigs are in Kashmir used for 
tying loads. This tree is chiefly grown for its fruit, which is 
mawkish-sweet in flavour, and often very palatable. In Kashmir^ 
Moorcroft states that the fruit, fresh or dried, furnishes much of 
the food of the inhabitants from Jime to September. In Affgh&n- 
ist&n also it is consumed fresh, or dried in sacks, and eaten as a 
substitute for corn-flour, being, according to Bellew, found sweety 
wholesome, and fattening. Davies' Trade Beport gives 500 maunds 
of the dried fruit as annually imported from A£fghanistdn vi& 
Peshawar, but this is surely over the mark. Bellew states 
that in times of scarcity the leaves are often eaten raw by the 
poor. Lowther mentions that a strong spirit is in Kashmir 
distilled from the fruit, but I can find no other evidence of this. 
A considerable quantity of silk is got in Kashmir and near it 
from worms fed on the mulberry. And the raising of these is 
carried on upon a small scale, and has been at various times tried 
more extensively in Peshawar, Hazdra, the B&ri Do&b, &c. These 
large experiments have as yet, however, not been successful ; nor 
are the causes of failure always evident. But sometimes the 
obstacles are sufficiently patent, e. ff», in parts of K&ngra the 
leaves are said to be attacked by an insect just at the time when 
they are most needed by the worms. 


The cultivation of these two foreign species has been largely 
extended in the Punjab, chiefly from the Sahdranptir Botanic 
Gardens, with a view to sericiculture, and now there are thousands 
of them in the B&ri Do&b, &c., ready for use, when the proper 
method of managing the worm has been foimd. At times the eager- 
ness in certain quarters to cultivate these has been, on a small sode, 
like the maina for growing Mobus multicaulis for silk, which 
prevailed in parts of the United States about 1835^ and led to the 
ruin of many. 

M. PABViFOLiA. Boyle. 
Vernacular. C. tiiL Plains, ttitH. 

A small tree^ which occurs wild in the plains of the eastern 
Punjab^ and to 5,000 feet in Kashmir, &c. Its fruit dees not 
appear to be valued. Cleghdm states that its leaves are prized as 
cattle fodder. 

MOEAOEiB. 219 

M. 8BREATA. Box. (M. cuspiBATA. Wall.) Himalayan 


Vernacular. J. knin, Mt, shdh Ht, HluhiL C. MlkM, kdri 
tut, tiilkM. R. kriiny kr4m, B. krun, chimii, cMn. S. 
cHmu, kim4, soa, an. 

This tree is common in many parts of tlie Punjab Himalaya 
from 2^500 to 9^000 feet. It grows to a large size^ trees of 10 and 
12 feet girth being not uncommon; I have seen seyeral over 
20 feet^ and at Barmaor^ in Chumba^ there is a magnificent 
specimen of 28 feet girth. The fruit of this species is not much 
valued. Its wood is yellow and strongs but is subject to the 
attacks of worms. It is used in construction and for ploughs, 
troughs, toys, &c. The twigs are in some parts largely lopped for 


Abies Smithiana. Wall. Himalayan Spruce. 

Vernacular. J. kachal, kachan, ban liidar. K. 84ngal,pistul. 
C. sarei, salla, rdg, re, kanlL R. tos, re, bang, re. B. 
rdi. S. rcy rdiang kandre. T. I. wesha. Baz&r, young 
cone, gaz pipal. 

A handsome but not a very useful tree common in many parts of 
the Punjab Himalaya at from 5,500 to 1 1 ,000 feet. Prom Griffith's 
notes it would appear that it also grows in K&firist&n, Trans- 
Indus. It does not as a rule attain quite such a large size as some 
of the other Himalayan conifers, but trees of 10 to 12 feet girth 
and 130 to 140 feet high are not unfrequent. Thomson notes one 
of 17 ; Madden mentions one of 20; and I have seen a specimen 
of 21 feet girth. The timber is soft and light, often with much 
sap-wood, and the fibres are frequently twisted. It is the least 
valued of all the conifers by the natives for construction. In some 
parts, however, especially on the Bi&s, it is largely used for 
shingles, which are said to last for two or three years, and under 
cover it will last twice that period. In houses built for Europeans 
it has been found to look and answer well for inside work. The 
resin of the tree is mentioned in K&ngra, but I doubt if it is largely 
produced or used anywhere. Part at least of the officinal gaz pipal 
of Punjab Baz&rs, generally attributed to Pothos scanbens (and see 
Plantaoo major), and said by the Lahore drug-sellers to be the 
fruit of the BoBAssvs flabelliformis, consists of the young cones 
of (apparently) this tree. It is in the Hindi system considered 
stimulant, warm, and tonic. 


Cedbus bbodara. Loud. (Pinub. Box.) Himalayan Cd&r. 

Vernacular. J. didr, paliidar. K. didr, dewddr. C. didr, 
dcLdar, gey&r, kildr, kelH. B. kelu, kileij kelL B. keM, 
heoU, S,kenwalykeolikelmanffiffiam.T.l.lmdnza, AS., 
nakhtar. Baz4r^ wood^ dedwdr Khatdi ; oil, didr he teL 

The existence of tins noble tree in the Punjab Himalaya first 
became known to £nropeans about the beginning of the centoryj 
when specimens were sent to Boxburgh^ who named it a Pinus^ 
but within a few years Gerard is said to have called it a Cedar. 
It is now believed by many to be specifically identical with the Cedar 
of Lebanon. It grows in many parts of the Himalaya at frocu 4,000 
to 10^000 feet from the Ganges to the Indus, and beyond it on the 
Sufild Koh (Bellew), and 'the mountains north of Jal&lab6d 
(Griffith), apparently at about the same elevations^ but of smaller 
size than in habitats towards the centre of the Cedar r^on. The 
seeds of this tree were sent to England by Captain Gerard as early 
as 1819, and from the first it was a favourite in England owing to 
its yery handsome and characteristic appearance. But for many 
years young plants sold high in England until shortly before 1852, 
when Dr. Jameson mentions that for years he had been sending 
home 400 or 500 lbs. of seed annually, so that the price of young 
plants had fallen to ^1 a hundred. It does not seed in Europe, so 
that the demand for seed continues. In its natire mountains it 
grows to a gigantic size, the finest specimens being generally seen 
near temples, &c., where they have been well-preserved. Several 
trees of 36 feet in girth have been noted, and a few of more than 
200 feet in height have been felled. The deoddr germixiates very 
readily from seed, but the young riioots and plants are eagerly 
browsed by goats, &;c., who witib the forest fires keep down ndn-* 
ously the reproduction of the tree. 

Moorcroft appears to have been the first to note the exceeding 
durability of the wood, which has been so often commented upon 
^ince. The deoddr pillars of the great mosque in the capital of 
Kashmir are said to be more than four hundred years old (the date 
804 Hijri is entered in an inscription over the door), and some of 
the bridges, where part of the timber is at times exposed to the 
influence of the water, are said to be still older. Madden mentionSj 
but dubiously, temples in Kan&war asserted to have been erected 
600 or 800 years ago, and says there is no doubt that deoddr in,- 
Gerard^s house near B&mpur was sound affcer being up 200 yean. 
Lowther states that no subaqueous insect will touch the wooa> and 
Colonel A. Taylor tells me that, when used as telegraph post6> the 
white ants never attack any but the sap-wood. The latter also 
mentions that when fairly tried along with Acacia Ababica, &c., 
as for the knees of boats, it answers better than any. It is 
strong, sufficiently elastic, and not too heavy, and^ on the whole,. 

niay he reokoned one of tlie best eoBJferous timbers in tbe 
world. For many years it has been very largely exported from 
ibe Himalaya into the Punjab plains^ where it is the con- 
stnietiye wood in general nse for any bat the most ordinary 
or tempore purposes. And po extensire have been the fellings, 
that whatever efforts are made to preserve what remains and 
aid reproduction (as a tree takes from 80 to 120 years to 
reach 6 feet girth, felling size) a period of great scarcity must 
inevitably begin before long, to last for some years. Indeed 
within the lart few years the price of this excellent timber has 
doubled, and it must rise much higher still. Far down the Indus, 
in Sind, where its price is of course even greater than in the 
l^lnjab, it is not in use for many purposes for which cheaper 
timber will answer. Even there, however, as in the Punjab, the 
boats in use are mostly built of it : it is said that one of them 
iriHl last for more than 20 years with fair usage. In the hilU it 
is used for almost every purpose for which timber can be em- 
ployed, indeed so lavishly that even the shingles for small native 
nouses are in some parts made of it. In this shape, as in others^ 
it outlasts all the other coniferous timbers of the Himalaya. 

Many of the deoddr trees, especially, as would appear^ those 
growing on arid exposed situations, have very oily timber, which 
is firequently employed for the flambeaux Qagni) that are largely 
employed by the natives of the hills. From the wood, often that 
of the roots, is extracted by a process of destructive distillatibn, 
(accnratefy described by Hoffmeister) an oil, which is dark-coloured 
and thickish, with an empyreumatic odour, and resembles crude 
turpentine in its nature. Dr. Burton Brown has analysed this, 
and states that its specific gravity is 987, and that, when distilled, 
it gives off water and a little acetic acid, foUowed by a clear 
▼eUow oil sp. gr. 965, whidi leaves a dark resinous mass solidify- 
ing into a black brittle solid. The yellow oil is volatile, burning 
with a very jsmoky flame, and, though possessing a different odour, 
resembles oil of turpentine^ and is likely to be useful for similar 
purposes. The deoddr oil is used, on the R£vi and Bi&s at least, 
for anointing the inflated skins used in crossing rivers, and 
catching logs, ftc., three seers it is said being put into each of the 
larger ones eveir month, and firequently shaken about. It is alsa 
a favourite and frequently effective remedy for eruptions and 
ulcers in man^ and mange m horses, and sore feet in cattie, and is 
likewise administered internally. Quite recently several gentiemen 
have found that it possesses some at least of the virtues of carbolic 
aeid as a dressing for sores^ fte. In Lahore, from the knots of 
the deoddr y I have been ioU that this oil is largely prepared, and 
sold for ordinary machinery purposes, &c., at a cheap rate. It 
is asserted, I know not witii what truth, that this oil, rubbed on 
other wood^ imparts to it some of the dorttbilil^ of the deoddr i 


Boyle states that tlie leares and young twigs of the tree are miich 
used in native medicine^ but I have found no trace of this witlmi 
the Punjab. However^ it may be quite correct opposite Sah&ran- 
ptir^ Royle's head-quarters^ where the tree is rare or only planted 
by temples^ &c.^ and therefore more revered. In K&ngra^ the 
wood is pounded with water on a stone, and the paste is applied 
to the temples for headache. The dedwdr Khatdi of the Lahore 
Baeir, which is officinal as a tonic, consists of chips of this wood. 

CuPBBSsus sBUPBaviiusNs. WiM. Cypress. 

Vernacular, sard. 

This tree is seen planted in gardens inHhe Punjab plains, and 
in the outer Himalaya to 5,000 feet, attaining a girth of 6 to 8 
feet and a height of 40 to 45 in the latter. Masson states that 
it also grows at K&bul. It is only planted for its sombre beauty, 
and its wood is of no special value. 

C. TOBTTLosA. Dou. Twistod Cypress. 

Vernacular. B. devl didr. B. deodar. S. galla, deoddr. 

Of this tree, which in appearances has a considerable resem- 
blance to JuNiFBRUs EXCELSA (q. V.), there are only one or two 
patches on the Rd?i, and rather more in one part of the Bi&s at 
5,500 to 8,000 feet. On the former it reaches 6 to 7 feet girth 
and 60 to 70 in height, and I saw one tree of 15 feet girth and 
120 high. On the outer hills, near the Sutlej, it is more common 
(as well as farther east, including the forest at Nynee Tdl at about 
8,000 feet) . In the Sah&ranpur Botanic Garden, there is a tree 
about 20 feet high. In some of the eastern localities, Madden 
tells us the inhabitants believe that death would follow the felling 
of a tree for a secular purpose, so that its wood is only used as 
incense there. In Kullu the people say it is chiefly used for 
making images, &c. ; but elsewhere no such sanctity attaches to 
the tree. On the Rdvi and Sutlej it is used for beams, &c., and 
Madden mentions that at Nvnee T&l it is employed for roofs and 
indoor purposes, but is too flexible and weak to support mudi 
weight. He also states that it seems too soft to be durable^ 
though the people assert that it lasts for centuries. 


Vernacular. J. pettkH. C. petthar, betthal, taefyar, pdma, 
gid shdk. E. betthal, laesar. B. mich, chich, betar, 
dhUp. S. lewar, Imgshtir, theld, dhiSip, giigil. P. cMU 
eMpa. Baz4r, fruit, haulber, abhiU. 

I have confused these two shrubby species, as the natives often 
do^ so must give them together. They are common in many parta 


of ihe Punjab Himalaya from someidmes as low as 7,000 to at 
times as high as 13,000 feet (and occur near the SofSd Koh, Trans- 
Indus), often forming a belt or more frequently patches above the 
upper limit of trees (although, as noted, seen at times very much 
below that). On the Sutlej I have seen the shrub planted at a 
temple. There and on the Bi&s it is used as incense, whence some 
of the native names. The wood bums fairly well, and on the passes it 
is frequently the only decent fuel to be got within miles. Madden 
states that from the berries, with barley meal, a spirit is distilled, 
the former being probably only added to impart a gin flavour. 
The berries are officinal in the plains, and are used in decoction^ 
being considered stimulant. 

J. EXCBLSA Bieb. Pencil cedar. 

Vernacular. J. chaUH, chalet. C. shiSJcpd, shiir, lewar, 
{deoddrj. S. shi&rffd. Lad., shiSikpa. P. shjUq^a. Bel., 

This tree is said to be abundant in Nep&l, and to occur below 
the Nid Pass in Kumaon. In the Punjab Himalaya it is conmion 
in the upper and more arid parts of the basins of the Sutlej and 
Chen&b. It likewise occurs in Lad&k. It is also found in some 
numbers on the KAnh&r, a tributary of the Jhelam, and occurs 
near the Su£M Koh (Bellew), and on Cheheltdn, in Beluchist&n 
(Masson, ftc.) Cleghom gives the crest of the Dhauladh&r, above 
K&ngra, as a habitat, which is perhaps doubtful, as the climate 
there is moist. The devational range may be put at 8,000 to 
nearly 15,000 feet. At the high^ altitudes it is only seen as a 
shrub, but at 9 — 10,000 feet acquires a considerable girth. It 
tapers rapidly, however, and quickly divides into several trunks 
(in the manner of the yew) , and with its frequently distorted boughs 
and short stature onen presents a most grotesque appearance^ 
The general sise of the trees is from 4 to 8 feet in girth and 25 to 
80 in height. On the Kunhar I noted one of 14^ feet girth and 
45 feet high, and a second 19^ feet girth and 25 high. The most 
remarkable and largest tree I have seen is one near the Moravian 
Mission station of Kyelang, in Lahoul, which is 83^ feet in girth 
and only 80 in height. The timber, which has the same fragrance 
as that (also produced by a Juniper) from which pencils are made, 
is light, and not strong, but is used for many purposes in the 
almost treeless parts where this generally grows. It is employed 
as supports for water channels, and I am told that the heart-wood, 
when in moi^t earth, is nearly imperishable. In Lahoul it is also 
used, alternating with stones, for the walls of houses, as well as 
for beams. And on the Sutlej some of the temples are built of it, 
and it ii said to be in some request for boxes (atSimla). InKan&war 
abo vessel made of it are much esteemed^ and some c)iarooal is 


made from it. It gives a good fuel at elevadoBA where littleelse is 
available^ and is much used for this purpose in Ld^ the capital 
of Lad&k^ bits being collected firom the Zanskar river^ a few miles 
south. I have seen it planted at a temple in Kan&war, and 
Thomson mentions a tree at the Lipa temple in the same tract, 
where, as well as in Lahoul, it is reckoned sacred. In the former 
the wood is used as incense, and offered by the Lamas to thei? 
deities, and in the latter the twigs are used by the priests in several 
religious ceremonies, and tiie friut is^ regularly burnt as incense by 
the Buddhists. In Lad4k, small branches of it are placed upon the 
cairns, Jcc. Masson states that on Cheheltfin the froit is emjdoyed 
medicinally, and is exported to Hindustan, so that it nuty co0sti« 
tute part of the abhtil — (see J. communis). In Kh&gka, on the 
Kunhar, the small branches under the name of chalet ke dhiip axe 
burned near the patient as a remedy for the deliriiuu of fever* 

PiCBA Webbiana. Lamb. (var. Pindrow and EHinraow). 

Vernacular. J. palUdar, rewari, K. badar, bUdar, Hng. C. 
dhfirmii, rdgy rdil, pe, salle, sard. B. dhunnd, re. B. 
tos. S. spun, krok, pandrdi kdlre. T. I. bajHr. 

This tree, of which the two Tarieties tiiat have by some, 
been called species probably depend on climate, and seem not to 
be very constant or well-marked, is abundant in many parts of 
tiie Punjab Himalaya firom sometimes as low as 5,500 to 11,500 
fbet, firequently forming dense forests at or near the highest belt 
ei arboreous vegetaticm up to the Indus. Griffith found it in 
Kilfirist&u, and Bellew collected it near tiie Su£ld Koh, Trans- 
Indus. It attains a great height (though I have nowhere seen it 
up to the 200 feet mentioned by Hoffhieister) and large girth, 
T^nees of 10 to 12 feet girth and 130 to 140 high are not uncom- 
mon, and I have noted a specimeu more than 17 feet in circum- 
ference. (Hooker mentions a tree in Bhot&n of 80, and Madden 
one of 32 feet girth). The fibres of the trunk are ofien twisted, 
and the wood is white, soft, coarse-grained, and rots readily when 
there is much moisture, so that this is one of the least valued of 
Himalayan conifers. Even on the Bids, however, it is said to last 
as shingles for two or three, and under cover for five or six years. 
In Kashmir, Vigne states that it is used for door-^firames. And in 
the drier climates of Kan&war and Lahoul it is a good deal used* 
In the latter the Moravian Missionaries informed me that und» 
shelter it would last as long as deoddr. And in Murree, where the 
rain-fall is smaller than to the east, and where tiiere is a dearth of 
the better timbers, this is frequently used for shingles and indoor- 
work even in European buildings, and is found to last fairly well. 
In parts of the Jhelam basin the twigs and leaves 9xe much used 
as fodder. 


r G017IPEIUE. . 225 

P1NU8 EXCBiiSA. Wall. 

Vemactilar. J. bidr. K. yero, ydriy Jcdtar^ tser, chU. C. 
chir, kachir, ddrchfr, keUri, Ihim, som shing. R. chiL 
B. haiL S. kdily chil, Um, aomshing, P. 8am,pdbam. 

TUds tree has recently been identified with P. pevcb^ whidi 
grows only in a confined locality in Macedonia at from 2^400 to 
5^800 feet. It is conunon in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya, 
generally growing in mixed forests^ from 5^000 to perhaps 11,(X)0 
feet ; the 13,000 feet, given as a maximum by Aitchison, is probably 
a mistake. It also grows sparingly in western Tibet at 8,000 to 
10,000 feet, Trans-Indus. Griffith found it in K&firist^, and 
Bellew near the SufSd Koh, at 9,000 to 10,000 feet. Trees of 8 
and 9 feet girth are not unfrequent, but it rarely reaches 100 feet 
in height, although trees of 150 feet occur at times. It furnishes 
the best wood for most purposes of all our conifers next to deoddr^ 
and, where the latter is scarce or dear, this is used for all the ordi- 
nary purposes of construction. In Kiillu as shingles it is said to 
last 7 or 8, and inside 15 years. In the more moist eastern 
climate, howerer, it is stated to decay if not kept under cover, 
but even on the Sutlej it is often used for building. And at 
Murree, where it is the best wood procurable for shingles and 
ordinary purposes, the supply is rapidly getting exhausted. Mr* 
Watson tells me that it is the best of all for pattern-making, 
because it works well, and is non-resinous. But he must have had 
picked specimens, or perhaps got pieces of some of the other 
inferior conifers, for this is very inflanmiable, and is in most parts 
where it grows preferred to all (except the next) for torches. Its 
resin is mentioned in a Kangra Report, but I cannot fitid that it is 
largely produced or collected anywhere. 

P. Oerabdiana. Wall. Edible Pine. 

Vernacular. C. cMri, prita, mirri, galbqja. R. kashti. AS,, 

This tree is said to be found below the Niti Pass high in 
Kumaon, but the dried specimens at Saharanptir hardly agree* 
It is common in a part of the upper Sutlej basin, at one spot on 
the R&vi, and on a short portion of the upper Chen&b and its 
tributary, the Marru. It is also reported by Falconer and Winter- 
bottom, as growing near Astor and Gilghit, not far from the Indus, 
is found near the Su£^d Koh (Bellew), and in Kdfiristdn, &c., 
north of K&bul (Griffith). Its range in the Punjab Himalaya 
may be put at from 5,800 to 8,800 feet (I believe there is some 
mistake in Cleghom^s 10,500 feet on the Sutlej) . It does not, as 
^ rulcj exceed 6 or 7 feet in girth^ although I have seen it up to 

2 F 


12 feet, and its height does not generally range orer 50 or 
60 feet. It is a short-tronked tree, and the boughs and often 
the stem are much curved. The timber is bat little used 
for constructiouj but must be considered tough^ for I have 
seen it used for the sticks on which the passenger by the swing- 
bridge sits, and on which his life depends. It is rery resinous, 
and is generally reckoned the best of tdl for torches and fuel, h\A 
on account of the yalue of its fruit is not often taken for these 
purposes. Major Longden says that the Kan&waris do not use 
its resin, as it " gets too hard,'' bathe extracted excellent tar from 
the wood by destructiye distillation. On the Sutlej, a rude basket 
is formed from a piece of the bark, having its comers fastened 
together by wooden pins.* The chief product of the tree consists 
of the seeds, of which there are more than a hundred in a full 
sized cone. In the Himalaya they ripen about October, and are 
extracted from the unopened cones by heating. They are largely 
consumed by the inhabitants, which, as above noted, has probably 
caused the wood of the tree to be less used than it would otherwise 
have been. On the Sutlej they are said to be partly stored for 
winter use, and partly exported towards the plains. From Aff- 
gh&nistdn they are extensively imported to the Punjab, Davies' 
Trade Report giving 250 maunds as annually brought down vi& 
Peshawar, and 50 maunds vi& the BoUm. They are oily and 
difficult of digestion, but have a rather pleasant flavour, and are 
by the natives ^' idly supposed to have many good qualities'' 
(Irvine) . They are officinal, being considered anodyne and stimu- 
lant, and an oil extracted from them is said to be applied externally 
in diseases of the head. 


Vernacular. J. chir, chiL C. cMr, drab chfr, B. B. S. 
chiL T. I. nakhtoTj ranziim (?) Baz&r, resin, ganda 
btroza ; purified ditto, biroza, aat-biroza. 

This tree is common in parts of the Siw&lik tnuH; and outer 
hills from 1,800 to 5,000 and occasionally 6,000 feet, up to 
and beyond the Indus. In the part of the StUimiln range seen 
on the Mahsud Expedition its lower level seems to be over 
9,000 feet, probably depending on the peculiar aridity of the 
climate. It can easily be raised from seed in the Punjab plains> 
and there are occasional planted trees in the N. W. Provinces 
(down as far as AUahabfid, I believe) some of them up to 6 feet 
girth. In the hills it does not reach the same size as most of ous 
other conifers, and only occasionally now are there many trees up 
to 8 feet girth and 100 high (I have, however, seen trees of 11 
and 13 feet girth) . This partly depends on its growing for th6 
most part in tolerably, accessible places^ lAxkh has caused very 


many of iihe burger trees to be felled. In some parts manj of tbe 
trees have twisted trunks and libres (so mucb so in parts of 
Knmaon^ &c.^ that Jameson calls this a separate variety). The 
timber is resinous and strongs but is not very durable. It is used 
hf the natives for construction, for roofis, &c., and (with the other 
inferior coniferous timbers) is largely employed in making the 
bottoms of boats on those (eastern) rivers where deodar is very 
dear. The heart wood is used for torches in some places. In 
some places baskets are made of thin slips of the wood. It is a 
favourite tree from which to make charcoal for export to the plains 
in places where the seignorage has been kept low enough to 
permit of this abuse of good timber. The bark is in many places 
emjdoyed by tanners, and Madden states that in Kumaon it is 
much employed for smelting iron, but these uses also are perhaps 
hardly in accordance with good conservancy. In parts of the Jhelam 
basin, the turpentiny seed is at times eaten when food is scarce, 
but it cannot be a pleasant, and is probably not a nutritious food. 
The resin of Uns tree is more largdy collected and used than that 
of any other of the Himalayan comfers. . It is procured by incision, 
which is detrimental and idtimately destructive to the tree. 
Purified and unpurified it is used internally, and as a plaster, and 
is sometimes employed in coating timber which is to be exposed 
to water. The oil of turpentine is extracted from it, but probably 
the practice was introduced by Europeans, as has been that of 
extracting tar fr^m the* wood by destructive distillation, for 
applying to timber to be exposed to the weather, ftc. 

Taxus baccata. L. 

Vernacular. J. birm{, tting, thUmi. K. tUng, mnguly postil. 
C. barmd, kautu, R. barmi, dh^wCi,, chogii. B. rakhaL 
S. rikhdi, nyamdal, thana, kadenni. T. I. Bordpj badar, 
Baz4r, leaves, birmL 

This tree occurs in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya up 
to the Indus at from 5,000 to 10,000 feet, but sparingly in almost 
all except in parts of Haz&ra, where it is pretty common. It was 
also found by Bellew Trans-Indus, at 9,000 to 10,000 feet near 
the Su£ld Koh, &c. Its foliage is very like that of Picea, with 
which it is frequently confused by Europeans and natives. But 
otherwise it d£Hers much even in appearance, as it generally divides 
into several trunks at a few feet up, and is never ^H, The tallest 
y^w in Britain is said to be 68 leet high, but I do not remember 
stay in the Himalaya nearly so tall as this. I have in Hasfira 
espeeially seen* trees of 8 and 9 feet girth. Madden mentions one 
of 16 feet near the Sutlej, and quotes from Hooker another in 
SikUm of 18 feet. Madden correctly remarks that the hard, 
heavy, strong wood of .this tree has apparently Jbeen quite 



neglected in the Himalaya. ' It is tolerably elastic, and is used for 
making native bedsteads, and in some parts for jdmp(hi^^le9 
(Cleghom mentions bows on the Sntlej). The wood of an old 
tree is of a fine red colour and polishes well, and seems adapted 
for upholstery purposes. Mr. Watson teUs me that it is well 
fitted for turnings and Yigne states that in Kashmir it is used for 
making clogs. The branches seem in some places to be used for 
putting under the earth of the roofs of native houses. The berries 
appear to be eaten in most places (and once I was told they are 
collected for panadris) . Lindley states that in Europe they are 
not dangerous unless the seeds are crushed so as to break their 
hard shell. He also mentions that if the leaves are partially dried, 
they are a dangerous poison, but in the Punjab they are officinal, 
being reckoned stomachic. In Hazara I was told that they sell 
for their weight in coppers. Madden (?) states that the bark of 
the yew is imported from Kand^war into Lad&k to be used as tea, 
and for a red dye. And Hooker notes that the red juice of the 
bark is employed in Nep&l as an inferior dye, and by the Brahmins 
for staining their foreheads. 


Efhedba alata. 

Vernacular. T. I. bandUkcA. S. B. Mchan^ brdta, tandala, 
lastuk. B. D. nangarwaL 

Not uncommon in the southern part of the B^ri Dodb, in 
the Salt Range, and Trans-Indus. In the Salt Bange it is used 
for scrubbing metallic dishes, and this may be the '^Ephedra 
used for snuff,'' of Griffith near the Khyber, although I have not 
otherwise heard of its employment thus. 

E. Ge&abdiana. Wall. 

Vernacular. J. dsminia. C. bdhhtir, b^dshUr, chewa. S. 
khatma. Lad., tsapati Uems. P. isci 

This plant is found at places on the Sutlej and Chen£b, and 
in the Jhelam basin, at firom 7,800 to 11,200 feet, and in Lad^ to 
15,000 feet. It is eaten by goats. On the Sutlej the pretty red 
berries are eaten. On the Jhelam they are not eaten, but I tried 
them, and foimd that there, as elsewhere, they have a not unpleasant 
makwish-sweet taste, and are not unwholesome. In parts of 
Lad&k the stems fiimish Aiel. Aitchison states that in Lahoul 
some part of the plant is used medicinally. 





Vernacular. J. kntsa. K. JcnUs, hiss. C. tar, kiihi, krlis, 
hheli. B. kithiy dharur. B. tardi, tharri. S. kdns, 
gimgrii. T. I. kaspat, parwaiH. Bazdr^ leaves^ tarar 

There is some doubt as to whether all these are the same plant ; 
but^ if sOj it grows abundantly in many parts of the Punjab 
Himalaya from as low as 2^000 up to 9>2()0 feet, and is found 
Trans-Indus. The root is used in Kashmir for washing ike pashm 
for shawls, and there and on the Chen4b and Sutlej for washing 
wooUct cloth. Yigne states that in Kashmir the shawls are washed- 
with it, and that Uiere is a smaller kind of the same name with 
which cottons are washed. I have also had it mentioned to me that 
silks are washed with it in Kashmir, but this is probably incorrect^ 
as well as Honigberger's statement that there it is employed in 
dyeing furfarmini (blue) . The root of this or a variety (?), a yam, 
which grows to several pounds weight, is largely eaten cooked, 
after steeping in ashes and water to remove acridity, by various 
classes in parts of the Siw&liks and outer hiUs, but in other places 
is not used, and once I was told that the tongue would rot from 
eating it I Honigberger says that it is used medicinally. The 
leaves, apparently of this species, are officinal in the plains under 
the above name. 

D. SATivA. Willd. 

Vernacular. raidUi. 

A cultivated ^am much grown in parts of the eastern and 
central Punjab plams. 

MusA Pababisiaca. L. 
Vernacular, hela. 

This is largely grown in places towards the east of the Punjab 
plains^ and in the Siw&lik tract and outer hills (on the Sutkg it 
may be seen up to 4,000 feet). It becomes very irare towards the 
north-west. There are fewer varieties, and the quality of the fruit 
is less good in the Punjab than to the east and south. Unripe it 
is a vegetable, and ripe' is eaten by natives, raw or made 
into pickle, _ . 

880 PUKJAB PLA3rrs« 



Vernacular. J. baphola. S. R. baphar, isafyhoL 

It ia somewhat doubtful if these are the same ; that on the 
2helam growing at 8^400 and in the Salt Range at 2^000 feet (the 
latter not seen in flower). In the Salt Range the seeds were said 
to be medicinal under the name isqfyhol — (see Flantago) . 


Vernacular, lioriintutiya. 

This is given on the authority of Masson^ who states that its 
dried juice is used as an application in ophthalmia. (Honigberger 
supposes harHwt&tvya to be fix>m Aoathotes chibxtta — (see A. sr.) 


Allium ascalonicum. L. ' Shallot. 

Vernacular, gandhan. AS., gandana. 

This is given by Firminger as cultirated. And it (or A. 
PoRBUMj L. leek) may be the plant mentioned by Masson, (?) as 
cultivated at and near K&bul for the leaves^ and by Bellew as 
growing wild near Ohuzni (7^000 feet)^ where it is not eaten. 
The former states that the leaves may be cut two or three times a 
year for 25 or 80 years^ and mentions one field at K&bul^ dating 
firom the time of N&lir Sh&h^ more than a hundred years before 
his visit. 

A. CEFA. L. Onion. 

Vernacular. S. R. gotta, jangU pidz, pad wassaL Lad.^ 
tding^ Plains generally^ pidz, ganthia. 

Commonly cultivated in the Punjab plains and in some parts 
of the hiUs. It is grown to 10^500 feet in Lad&k. Cunningham 
states that there is a kind of onion grown on the Sutlej. A wild 
onion^ found in the Salt Range^ may be this species. The root of 
it is not eaten however^ as it is said not to have the flavour of the 
cultivated plant. 


Vernacular. S. fdzhH. T. I. khakhocl, hhokhdn. S. B. 
janglipidz, bardni pidz, gad vassals Plains generally, 

This . slender-leaved species is common in the N« W. Punjab, 
including the Salt Range, and in the Siw&Iik traot^ ea«t to near 

ULLLCSiB. 231 

the Sutlcg^ and the Ean&war plant growing at 9^000 feet^ as well 
as one found in Lahoul still higher^ seem to be the same. In most 
places the root is eaten raw or cooked. 

A. Sativum. L. Garlic. 
Vemacnlar. lahtidn. 

Commonly coltivated in the Punjab plains^ to be eaten as a 
condiment. The root is also officinal^ being given in confection 
for rheumatism. 



This with another species is mentioned by Aitchison (and 
probably is that referred to in early records of the Agri-Horticul- 
tural Society for Spiti) as growing wild in Lahoul (10,000 feet), 
where the root and dried leaves are eaten^ the former being exported 
to Kullu in some quantity. 

A. SP. (A. ODORUM. L. ?) 

Vernacular. J. bhiik. Lad.^ skodze. 

A long-leaved species growing in Kh&g4n at 12,000 to 12,500 
feet, the root of which is eaten raw, and the leaves used as a 
pot-herb. The Lad&k plant, growing about 10,500 feet, and all 
the parts of which are eaten, seems to be the same. 

A. SF. 

' Vernacular. J. hhatu P. phtindti. 

With very broad leaves, growing in Kh&g&n at 10,500 feet ; 
the leaves are dried and eaten in winter with meat ; the root is 
not eaten. What appears to be the same species occurs in Spiti 
at 12,000, but no part of it is eaten. 

A. SP. 

Vernacular. R. ki{tr. Lad., kosse gokpai 

A much smaller species than either of the two last, growing 
in Chumba at 10,500 feet. The root is eaten. Of the Lad&k 
plant, common at 10,000 to 13,000 feet, and apparently the samcj 
a few leaves are added to fllftvour other vegetaUes-. 


A. sp. 


Mr. Jaeschke infonns me tliat the bruised leaves of several 
epecies are exported from Lahoul to KoUq to be used by the 
Hindus as a condiment. Also that towards the K&rakoram, the 
headache^ caused by great elevations is attributed to an Allium-— 
(see Plbubospbbmum and Abtemisia sp.) 

Aloe perfoliata. L. (A. Indica. Royle.) 

Vernacular, phikwdr, hwdr gandal, masH. Bva&r, dried 

juice, ebva ?. 


Occasionally cultivated hj fakirs, &c., throughout the Punjab 
plains, and in the outer hills, where I believe I have seen it to 
4,500 feet. And it ma^ possibly be the species Griffith mentions 
as cultivated in Kafinst&n, having been brought thither from 
Bajaur to the north of Peshawar. The pulp of the leaves (after 
removing their skin) is eaten by poor people, and in famines. It 
is also applied to boils, and is used in veterinary medicine. One 
observer mentions that the root of this (or Gloriosa superba q. v.) 
is given in colic. I have been told that the seeds of the plant are 
eaten in times of scarcity. . This is given by books as one of the 
sources of officinal aloes, which is, I think, very doubtful. 

AoAVE Americana. L. 
Vernacular, wildyati kantdla. 

Grows well as a hedge, &c., in many parts of the Punjab 
plains. The fibre of it yields a first-rate textile material, which 
has not yet been utilized on the large scale. 

A. cxjntala. Rox. (A. vivipara. Royle.) 

Vernacular, kantdla, kitkL 

Probably indigenous in India ; common in parts of the Punjab 
plains. Yields a fibre as last.. 

Amaryllis orandiplora. Herb. (Brunsvigia. Lindl.) 

Vernacular, mihhdarsan. 

Cultivated for its flower. A correspondent of the Agri-Hor- 
ticultural Society states that the strained juice of two drams^ 
reduced to a pulp with water, is a good emetic^ and that one drop 
into the ear will generally cure earache. 


A9PAEAQIT8 fiLiciNus. Ham. (A. cvbillus. Box.?) 

Vernacular. K.attipallL "R. sanspaur. 8* sensor pdl, sat- 
garra* Baz4r^ root^ ? sitdwar, musU sufid. 

Ooours firequently^ though nowhere common in the Punjab 
Himalaya, from 3^000 to 8,500 feet. Its root is exported from 
Kanawar to the plains^ for which reason I have put the officinal 
root under this species. It is considered tonic and astringent, 
and thought to resemble salep— (see Eulophia) — ^in its effects. In 
Kan&war a sprig of this (af of the next species) is put in the hand 
of small-pox patient&as a curative measure I 


Vernacular. S. sensarpdly ehutl. T. I. warchecMnM, chan- 
Jan wale, lashte. S. B. ki^ckan, banatha, ehiM, saroch. 
Plains generaUy, diiz, soa gandal, sanmdlL Baz&r, leaves, 

_ • 

This plant, which has slender acicular leaves, and resembles 
A. OFFICINALIS (garden asparagus), is common in parts of the plains 
of the Punjab, east to the Sutlej (and apparently occasional to Tha- 
ndsar) , as well as in the Salt Bange, and on the Sutlej to 5,500 feet. 
It is frequent Trans-Indus, and may be the species mentioned by 
Bellew as growing high near the SufSd Koh. He states it to be 
there eaten as a vegetable, and in the plains the young shoots are 
in some parts employed thus, but in others they are not eaten. 
In the Salt Bange the twigs are used for scrubbing metallic 
vessels, and on the Sutlej a sprig of it (as of the preceding species 
q. V.) is put in the hand of small-pox patients. The leaves are 
officinal at Lahore. (For ch^H sarqf, see Artemisia elegans) . 

A. racehosus. Willd. 

Vernacular. J. sabiinL K. sejpdn. C. sanspaur. B. soma 
phaur. B. sensafdi. S. lashori, chhota kelu. S. B. vtn- 
janhora, phut kanda,jdri kandidlt U. ritrdwal. Baz&r, 
root, boziddn ; fruit, halUin, 

This species, which is fiimished with small spines, is common 
in parts of the Salt Bange, Siw&lik tract, and outer hUls, up to 
5,000 feet. Its root is used medicinally for man and beast, and it 
probably supplies part of the officinal sitdwar — (see A. filicinus) — 
as well as the boziddn. The latter, which is given as an aphrodisiac, 
is by some authorities considered as identical with the former. 
The stems of probably this species have been used as garden 
Asparagus, and liked by Europeans, although Dr. Adams states 
that none of those growing in Kashmir have the esculent qualities 
of the latter. 

2 o 



Vernacular, pidzi^ bokdi. Baz&r, seed, binffhdr Mj. 

Abiindant as a field-weed in most parts of the plains of the 
Punjab, so much so near Jhelam as to be troublesome to the 
cultivator (Aitchison). It is eaten as a T^etable in times of 
famine^ and appears to be the plant which near the Bol&n Pftss 
Griffith describes the camp-followers as eating when the provisions 
of the Kandahir force ran scarce. The seed is officinal at Lahore. 


Vernacular ? 

Is common in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya from 
6^000 to 11^000 feet^ and occurs Trans-Indus near the Su£^ Koh 
(Bellew). Aitchison states that in Lahoid the powdered root is 
used as soap. 


Vernacular. S. shalgham misriy dangshaUs. 

This is still more common than the last over the same region 
from 6^000 to 11^000 feet. In Kan4war the roots are collected 
and eaten. They have a not unpleasant flavour^ and shalgham 
misrl may have some connection with salibMisH — (see Eulophia) — • 
which they slightly resemble. 

Ebbhubus spbctabilis. Bieb. 

Vernacular. J. sMlL C. bre, prau, ben. 

This magnificent plants which grows to 5 or 6 feet high with 
close spikes of white flowers to half that lengthy is common at 
places on the upper Chen&b and in the Jhelam basin at from 
6,000 to 9,000 feet. It is probably the '' Obnithooalum?'' of 
7 feet high, mentioned by Royle as having been found by Falconer^ 
and called /irvf/m^ by the Kashmiris.' The leaves when young 
are much eaten, both fresh and dry cooked as a v^etable, and the 
members of the Moravian Mission in Lahoul found them excel- 
lent treated ''as spinach. '' 

Fritillabia Meleaobis. L. Fritillary. 


Is commonly grown in graveyards in Kashmir, along with 
Ibisi and is frequent on the huls near the valley to II^OOO feet« 

UJJJiOBM, 235 

QhomuMA smpiRBA. L* (Mbthomica. Lam.) 

Vernacular. Baz&r> root^ mulim, karidH. 

This fine^flowered plant occurs sparingly in the Siw&Iik tract 
up to near the Jhelamj where Lowther states that he found it 
near Punch. It also appears to grow out in the plains in Amb&la, 
near the Junma (Edgeworth). In some parts of India, the root 
is commonly used as a poison, but I do not know of its being 
thus employed in the Punjab. 


Vernacular. K. nargis^ Baz&r, root, Msa T 

Honigberger states that the roots of this are officinal^ being 
brought £n)m Kashmir. (I believe I hare seen the plant alluded 
to, common along field-edges, &c., in and near the valley about 
5,000 — ^5,500 feet). The root has been found to be possessed 
of emetic properties by a French savant. The iriaa, however, is 
generally referred to Iris flokbntina (q. v.) I luiow not the 
grounds of either identification. 


Vernacular, gul »hab bo. 

Very commonly cultivated for its flowor, though not '^ indige* 
nous^' Trans«Indu8, as stated by Masson% 


Vernacular. T. I. shandU gUl, ghentol. S. B. bhUmphcr, 
chamiinij padiina, jal iiikar. Plains, chamoti. 

With a pretty little flower is common in the Salt Range, 
Trans-Indus, and along the Siwalik tract and outer hills (to 
Kumaon). In many places the bulbs are eaten ; in some they are 
not (except by animals). They are regularly sold in the Baz4rs of 
Peshawar, in the plains near which the plant is abundant, and 
Madden states that they are exported from Kumaon to the plains. 

Urginia Indica. Kth. (Scilla. Box.) Squill. 

Vernacular. S. B. ph(g»hor, kachwassaL 

What I take to be this plant (but good specimens have not 
been got) has been found in the Punjab only in the Salt Bange at 
about 2,000 feet, although it probably grows in the Siw&lik tract 
alsQ in the Punjab as in the N. W. Provinces. In the latter the 


bulbs are used medicinally with the same effect as the Squill of 
Europe, and their juice is employed to give body to thread, but I 
have not found that they are applied to any special use in the 

N. O. ORONTIACE^. -jL ^ 

AcoRus CALAMUS. L. yV^fr^^^ 

Vernacular. E. bari. S. baf. Baz&r, root, bach, ghorbaeh. 

Occasional in the Punjab Himalaya from 8,000 to 6,000 feet. 
The root is officinal in the plains, being given for rheumatism 
and flatulence, and is also used in veterinary medicine. Yigne 
mentions buj, a sweet reed from which sweetmeats are made, but 
as he says it is everywhere common in the ditches in Kashmir, he 
probably confused this with Typha (q. v.), or Iris fssudacorus 
(q. V.) 

Anileha tubbrosuv. Ham. (Commbltna scafiflora. Box* 


Vernacular. Baz&r, root, rw&sH nydh, 

I have found this but rarely to the west of the Jumna, 
although it is common further east. Its roots are said to -furnish 
the officinal m'iuU siydh, which is considered astringent and tonic 
(and has been assigned to species of Curculigo by authors). 


Vernacular. C. chura. Plains, kanna. 

One or both of these species occurs in the Punjab plains^ in 
the Salt Range, and in the outer hills, to 6,000 feet. The leaves 
are eaten as a pot-herb by poor people, and in times of scaroity. 


E. HBRBACBA. Liudl. 

E. VBBA. Boyle. 
Vernacular. Baz&r, tuber, sdUb MisH* 

The Botanical names given are Boyle^ as I have no kiiow^ 
ledge that any better identifications haye been made sine^ hia tisie 

o&cfiXDAeSiE. 28? 

of the Orchiss, producing the officinal Mlep, silib Mini. Hie ftret 
ia found in Oudh and Bohilkhund^ and in the Siw&liks of the 
Gangetic Do&b^ and I belieye I hare found it in low land by the 
Bdvi^ close to Lahore ; the seccmd in (southern India and) the outer 
Himalaya^ near the Jumna; and the third (so named proyisionally 
by Boyle) '' near the Jhelam river/' in the Punjab Himalaya, 
^he tubers of all three appear at times to be used or exported as 
salejr/aqid.t^^se of the Lahore plant are collected for this purpose. 
Doubtless it' ifti obtained from other species^ as well in yarious 
places, as there are generally three or four different kinds of tubers 
found among the salep of the Baz&r. The most yalued kind, not 
the largest or nicest looking, has holes for stringing the tubers 
together, and is said by the dealers to really come from Migr 
(Egypt), the others being brought fit>m nearer India. Cleghom 
also mentions that the old residents of Simla and Ootacamund (in 
the Nilghiris) are in the habit of collecting the tubers of several 
Orchids for family consumption as salep. The best kinds, however, 
are said by some authorities to come from Affgh&nist£n and 
Kashmir. In the latter I heard nothing of the collection of 
Orchid roots, and the family is rare, but Dr. Adams mentions a 
*^ salep Orchis with large yellow flower'' as common on the northern 
side of the Baltal Pass. Nor do Orchids appear to be very common 
in Affgh&nist&n, and Irvine (?) states that the salep of the Kdbul 
Baz4r is said to come mostly from Bokh&ra, and " a little from 
Russia." Davies' Trade Report gives one maund as annually 
imported from Affgh£nist6n into Peshawar, and one maimd by the 
Bol4n Pass, and part of it would from Bumes' statements, frc., 
appear to come from beyond the former, which agrees with the 
dealers' information given above. By the natives the salep is 
chiefly esteemed as a tonic and aphrodisiac (on the '' doctrine of 
signatures"), by Europeans it is frequently used for children as 
an easily digestible form of farinaceous food, consisting mostly df 
baasorin. In Europe, salep, consisting of the roots of Orchis 
MAscvLA and other species, is used as an agreeable article of 

Orchis sr. ? 

Bellew mentions seeing on the hills around Ohmmi (8,000 
feet), and about Hasrak near the Su£Sd Koh (11,000 feet), an 
Orchis with thick fleshy leaves, which the natives cooked with gkl, 
and which the European Officers of the Kandah&r Mission tasted 
as an experiment. This may, however, have been a inember of 
some oth^ fiunily of plants, as I do not find noted any (othor) 
instance of the Imves of one of these being eaten. 

^ PimJAB FlaAKTO* 

ZsirXINB ftVLGATA. Liiidl. 


This small Obchid is common at places througlioat tlie Panjab 
plains^ as elsewhere in India. It generally grows in tnrfy gvomid 
in low parts. I have onoe been told that its tubers also are locally 
nsed as salep by natiyes.. 



Vernacular. Baz&Tj kiit sMrin P 

This plants which is common in the Siwilik tract and else^ 
where outside the Punjab^ I have not found within the Unfits of 
the latter^ but Edgeworth states that it grows out in the plains at 
Thanisar^ south-east of Amb&la. The flowers are remarkably 
handsome^ and the root is made into a preserve in some parts of 
India. To the root likewise some writer^ have assigned the 
officinal kdt shMn, which has also been ascribed to various other 
species of C. — (see Aucklanbia) . It is given as a depurative and 

Curcuma longa. Box. ? Turmeric. 
Vernacular. B. haldar. S. haffa. Baz&r^ root, haldL 

This is commonly grown frequently along the edge of fields 
of ginger — (see Zinoibbr) — ^in the Punjab Siw&lik tract and outer 
hills from 2,000 to 4,000 and sometimes to 5,500 feet, up to the 
B&vi at least, and occasionally beyond that. Irvine is probably 
mistaken in stating that it is cultivated in Peshawar and Bunnu. 
The root is extensively used by natives as a condiment, and ia 
employed as a dye. It is also applied to wounds and bruises. 
Some export takes place towards the west and north, as Davies' 
Trade Beport gives 500 maunds as exported vi& Peshawar to 
Affgh&nistlm. Cayley mentions that in 1867, 11 maunds were 
brought to IA from KuUu, to be sent on to the east and to 

Elsttabia Cabbamomuh. Maton«? Cardamum, 

Vernacular. illdcM. 

Specimens of what is said to be this pla^t are occasionally 
aeen in ipucdens in the Pui^ab Siwttik tneti Asc., bat they never 



Yemacular. R. ban kela, $dkL B. banhdldi, shliiL S. kkor, 
»halw{. Bas&r, root^ kapiir kachri, kach^. 

This plant is not uncommon in parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
op to near the Jhelam at leasts at from 3^500 to 7^500 feet. Its 
large broad leaves are twisted and made into coarse mats for sleep- 
iug on J &c. The tuberous roots hare, as " wild ginger/' been tried 
by Europeans as a preserve:, but without success. In Ghirhwfil^ I 
was UAd they are used in washing the newly married^ and Madden 
states that they are pounded with tobacco for the hookah. They 
are officinal under the above names, being considered tonic and 
stimulant. Honigberger is apparently in error in stating that they 
are only used in veterinary medicine. Cayley mentions that there 
is- some import from the south to lA, and export from the latter 
to Y&rkand of kaehiir, which is probably this, but may be tikia 
kuch&r or nar kachur, said to be the produce of Cubcvma 
SBBUMBST^ Box. Davics' Trade Report gives 25 maunds of 
kaehiir as annually exported vi& Peshawar to Affgh4mst&n. 

RoscoEA PUBPVBEA. Boyle. 

Vernacular. B. banhaldL 

Occasional at 5,000 to 6,000 feet up to the lUivi. In K&ngra 
its root is used in veterinary medicine. 

ZiNGiBEB OFFICINALIS. Roscoc. Oiuger. 

Vernacular, adrak, ada. 

Frequently cultivated in the outer hills apparently up to near 
the Indus at about 2,000 or 2,500 feet. The root is used as a 
condiment, and in medicine as a stimulant. Davies' Trade Report 
gives 100 maunds as annually exported to Affgh&nist&n vi& 


Cbocvs 8ATIVUS. All* Saffirou. 

Vernacular. K. hmg9. Bai^, stigmata, ke$mr, zqfwrdn. 

This plant, which is cultivated in the south of Europe, for the 
saffron which is used in colouring and flavouring, is grown in 
Kashmir, but only so fiur as I know in one small tract at P4mpurj 
not far fix>m the cajyital. On the spot I was informed that the bulba 
are planted in June, that they are not irrigated, and that the crop is 


linrt hj mucli moifttaTe. When the bulbs have got old, after 10 oc 
12 yean, they are all dug up, and aproportion of the younger ones 
are planted out in fresh ground, llie pretty flowers are in bloom 
about October, when the crop of yellow stigmata is collected. 
I brought down some bulbs to Lahore in 1866, which flowered at 
Lahore in the following spring. The saffron is exported both to 
south and north from Kashindr. Yigne says it goes mostly to 
Y&rkand, and Cayley mentions that in 1867 5^ maunds reached 
JA, which would be worth at Ylurkand Bs. 8,640. Dalies' Trade 
lU^rt mentions that about 10 seers are brought annually to 
Peshawar yi& Affgh4nist4n '' from Persia '^ (Lumsden also states 
that it comes ** from the west'' to Kandah&r), the buying price in 
the latter being Rs. 35, and the selling price at Peshawar Bs. 40 
per seer. Daries gives 20 maunds as annually imported from 
Affgh&nistiin by the Bolan. In India it is used as a condiment 
by the wealthy, and is officinal as a cordial and tonic. In large 
doses it is said to affect the head, and Vigne (I think) tdls a 
story of one of the Mogul Emperors, who, having heard that an 
over-dose is poisonous, experimented with a large quantity on a 
condemned criminal, but the man escaped with his life. 

Ibis flobsntina. L. ? 

Vernacular. Bazfir, root, irisa. 

This officinal root, which is used externally in rheumatism, 
is attributed by some to the above plant — (see Nabcissus). 

I. Eamaonensis. Wall. 

Vernacular. C. pidz. B. karkar. Lad., tezma. 

^ This species, with narrowish leaves and purplish blue flowers, 
having a pleasant odour, is common in parts of the Punjab 
Himalaya from 5,000 to 12,000 feet, and apparently in Lahoul and 
Ladak, to at least 14,000 feet. In Chumba the root and leaves 
are given in fever. In parts of Lad&k the leaves appeal to be 
used as fodder. 

I. Nepalbnsis. Wall. 
Vernacular. J. chaiiindar. K.' $Q$an. B. $hoH^ S. chll- 

A broadish-leaved species occurring at various places through- 
out the Punjab Himalaya from 2,500 to 9,600 feet. In Kashmir 
and other parts of the Jhelam basin, and I think Trans-Indus^ 
it is commonly planted in graveyards. 

IBIDl^. 241 

I. psiTTDAcomua. L. ? Comflag. 
Vernacular. K. hHshun, imaijal, maryal. 

There is some doubt as to the identity of this plants which 
I haye only seen in and near the Kashnur Valley^ 5^000 feet — 
(see Acomus). 

I. SP. 

Vernacular. B. shr^l, shecho. 

A tall species with fine purplish lilac flowers found at 5^000 — 
7^000 feet on the Bi&s. Its leaves are used as bedding for cattlej 
and for thatch. 


Hydbilla vebticillata. Rich. 

Vernacular, jhanjh, jdla ? 

This^ which is common in water in parts of the Punjab 
plains up to Peshawar^ is stated by Edgeworth to be used (with 
other aquatic plants) east of the Sutlej^ for refining sugar^ but 
at Mtiltin^ west of that river^ these are not obtainable, 

Vallisnsbia spibalis. 


This plant occurs occasionally within the Punjab^ in the 
Salt Bange^ and elsewhere^ up to Peshawar. But I have nowhere 
seen it common^ and Honigberger may have been confusing it 
with other aquatic plants^ where he states that it is used for sugar 
refining^ '^ animal charcoal being forbidden by the Hindu religion. 




Vernacular, sawil ? Lad.^ chtisbaL 

Not uncommon in the Punjab plains^ and (apparently) 
abundant at 9^000 to 11,000 feet in Lad4k. It is probably one 
of those used in refining sugar here as elsewhere. In Xiad& 
it is used as fodder. 

2 H 



Vernacular. sawdU ? jdla. Lad.^ zimbil chupein, pMs. 

As the laat^ and probably employed for the same purpose in 
the parts of tl^e plains where it grows. I have seen it being 
carted into JalancLeur^ perhaps to be used thus. The name Jala 
appears to be given to whatever aquatic plants are employed for 
this purpose. In Laddk this also (or a very similar species) is 
used for fodder. 


Vernacular ? 

The former appears to be a species common in Kashmir, 
where also the latter, common in parts of the Punjab plains, 
seems to grow. In Kashmir, large quantities of these are used 
as fodder. 

N. O. PALMiE. 

Chamjsbofs Bitchiana. Oriff. Dwarf Palm. 

Vernacular. J. patha. T. I. mzarS, patha. S. B. patha, 
Hlfij kaliun. Bel., pis ; stones, kaur. 

This plant, which Bellew calls "tiger grass, ^' and Massou 
writes of as "aloe,'^ has its chief habitats along the Sulim&n 
Bange, principally on and near the eastern skirts from the plains 
to about 3,000 feet. It is also common in a portion of the Salt 
Bange near its centre, and occurs in the Siw&lik tract in one 
place east of the Jhelam, near Sumdni, above Bhimbur. The two 
young plants, mentioned by Aitchison as having been found by 
him near the river Jhelam, may have come down as seed from the 
last locality. I have seen the plant raised in Sind from Beltichis- 
t£n seed, and in the Saharanpiir Botanical Garden there is a fine 
specimen, with a trunk 10 or 12 feet high, said to have been 
grown from Trans-Indus seed, sown within the last 20 years^ 
In the height of the trunk, and some points as to the leaves, 
the Sah&ranpur specimen appears to differ from the wild plant 
as ordinarily seen, but this may result from climate, and being 
grown in cultivated ground. The finer leaves are made into 
mats, and the more coarse ones into ropes, sandals, &c. A 
considerable quantity of them are exported from the places of 
growth as far at least as Jhelam to the east to be made into 
cordage for beds, well-ropes, &c. One season the supply of 
mUnj — (see Sacchabum sa&a) — ran scarcCj and the ropes for 

PAL1L£. 243 

tlie bridge of boats were made of the paiha, but are aaid to 
have snapped at once under a strain which miinj ropes could 
have resisted. The Path&ns twist up spirally a segment of a leaf^ 
to be used as a tobacco-pipe^ for which purpose it answers better 
than the two holes in the ground — (see Nicotiana tabacum) — 
used at times by Path&ns and some of the Himalayan tribes. On 
the firontier, a rude drinking vessel also is often formed by tying 
together the points of the segments of a leaf; these may frequently 
be seen lying by pools, &c., Trans-Indus. The red mossy-looking 
rete from the axils of the leaves is used for tinder, occasionally, as 
Bellew states, after being steeped in the juice of mulberry leaves ? 
Bellew also mentions that the delicate young leaves, which have a 
sweet astringent taste, are in great repute for the treatment of 
diarrhsea and dysentery ; and that at a later stage (?) when they 
become very sour, they are used as a purgative, chiefly in veterinary 
medicine. An official report states that large quantities of the 
stones of the fruit (which Trans-Indus ripens about July) are 
exported from Gwddur to Muscdt ea route to Mecca, to be manu- 
factured into rosaries for the pilgrims. 

Ph(ENix acaulis. Ham. Stemless Date-palm. 

Vernacular, pind hkajir. 

In this, which I take to be a distinct species, there is no stem 
whatever, and the clusters of fruit are half-buried in the ground. 
It is small but eatable. In parts of India a rope is made from 
the bruised leaves. I have not seen this species in the Punjab, 
except in the Siw&lik tract, close to the Jumna. 

P. DACTTLiFERA. L. Datc-palm. 

Vernacular, khajtir khajx; fruit, pind, chvnvi, bagri; cab- 
bage of leaves, gadda, galU ; gum, hokmchil. 

Much information as to this tree is given by Edgeworth in 
various papers and communications to the Agri-Horticultural 
Society of India, &c. He describes it as having been introduced 
into the southern Punjab in the 7th (or 9th) century, and states 
that the true Date is nowhere known in any quantity to the north 
or east of Tulamba and Jhang (both close to the Chen&b), although 
the tree has been tried in the districts of Lahore and Umritsur, 
and there are a few in the northern part of Jalandar, where, how- 
ever, the chief use of the tree is for the sweet juice — (see P. syl- 
vssTBis). He also mentions that there are some at Sah&ranpur, 
which give good fruit especially when the rains are late. The 
finest trees range up to 100 and 120 feet high, and the leaves are 
longer in this than in the following species. Edgeworth mentions 


that the natiyes assert that it will not grow except whei^ the soil is 
or has been subject to inundation. There are now hundreds of 
the trees about various towns in Mtilt^n and Mozaffargarh, but I 
think it is most abundant near Dehra Ghdzl Khan^ Trans-Indus, 
where the country for ten or twelve miles firom north to south has 
such numbers of trees that eight or ten thousand rupees are said 
to be annually got by G-ovemment from the small tax which is 
levied on each female tree (the sexes are on separate individuals). 
At Mult&n and several other places^ there are some trees which 
appear to branchy the most remarkable^ according to Edgeworth^ 
hieing one close to the kachheri at Jhang^ which is 12 feet high^ with 
a branch of 3^ feet. These have by some been assigned to the 
HvPHiENE or Doilm Palm of Egypt, but I quite agree with Edge- 
worth that they merely result from seeds falling into and germi- 
nating in the axils of the petioles. Smaller specimens of such 
branches are not uncommon about MMtto, &c., generally growing 
near the top of the tree, whether the latter be short or tall. The 
male trees, in which the flower stalks are much shorter and less 
spreading than in the female, are frequently cut down, and as the 
roots don't readily rot and won't bum, they give some trouble. 
The stem lasts as a beam for five or six years in the arid climate of 
Mult&n, and the wood is also used for rafters. It is likewise 
employed for water channels, and for supporting the earth of small 

This, the true Date, has large bunches of orange, amber, or 
purple fruit, than which, as Edgeworth remarks " nothing can be 
more excellent when they are fresh,'' either eaten raw or cooked as 
a pudding. And for some part of the year they form a consider- 
able proportion of the food of the natives of the parts where the 
tree is common. The outer leaves of the tree are often cut off to 
let the fruit get more sun and air. As taken from the tree, iiie 
fruit is called |n»^, and Coldstream mentions that when split up, 
chirwi, it is still more palatable, while bagH, iiie produce of the 
poorer trees, boiled in oil and water, are much inferior to both. I 
do not know that the trees at Lahore and Peshawar (there are a 
good many about both places) are, as a rule, of this species, but 
near both the fruit is evidently valued, as each bunch has often a 
piece of mat tied round it (leaving only a small air hole) for pro- 
tection from the birds. Cay ley mentions dates as imported into TA 
from the Punjab. Into the latter dates are brought from the west. 
And in the southern Punjab those from Kech (Mekr&n) are reckoned 
so much superior to the ordinary fruit that they sell at five times 
the price of the latter. At Mult&n there is a beddna (>. e., seed-^ 
less) fruit in which the stone and its kernel are represented 
only by a little shrivelled membrane, the rest of the fruit 
consisting of the pleasant sweet pulp. Edgeworth states that 
there is only one tree producing thescj which was formerly^ 

PALMJS. 245 

reckoned badshdhi, ''royal/' t. e., the produce was resenred for 
tilie ruler of the conntry. Bat Colonel Yoyle (when Deputy 
Commisaioner of Mult&n) informed me, and I was told on the 
spot, that several trees produce these, which are the upper fruit 
rip^oing after the lower ordinary datea of the same tree. 

Edgeworth, when Commissioner of Mult&n, got men from 
Jessore in Bengal, who were acquainted with the method of 
extracting sugar from the juice of P. stlvestbis there. They 
remained at Mult&n for some time experimenting; and although 
tiiey seem to have been hostile to ilie success of the scheme, and 
said there was less saccharine matter in the juice of this than 
of the other species, it seems to have been shown that the fruit 
of a female tree is much more valuable than its sugar was likely 
to be, and the male tree has but little puice. The rete forms a 
regular net round the base of each petiole, but it is difficult to 
remove, and is said to be taken from felled trees only. It is made 
into pack-bags for oxen, and ropes, and although I was told on the 
spot that it stands alternations of wet and dry, Coldstream 
mentions that it is rarely used for well-ropes. For these he states 
that the stalk and pinnse of the leaf generally are used. The 
leaves set on end in the earth, and bound together, make a neat 
and good fence. The terminal bunch of young leaves, taken only 
when a tree is cut down, according to Coldstream, who notes that 
it is mentioned by Baber, is much eaten by the natives both raw 
and cooked. Edgeworth states that it is excellent, and Coldstream 
vouches for its making a good curry. Honigberger mentions that 
the '' inspissated juice'' of this tree is officinal at Lahore under 
the above name. 

P. HUMiLis. Boyle. Dwarf Date-palm. 

Vernacular. khqjUH. ^ 

This I conceive to be merely a variety of the last. It grows 
in the Siw&lik tract to some distance within Punjab limits, as 
further east. 

P. STLVESTBIS. Box. Wild Date-palm. 

Vernacular, khq/^, ihqji ; juice, sendhij tdri. 

This tree, which strongly resembles the last, occurs wild in 
many places in and near the Siw&lik tract up to and probably 
beyond the Indus, in the Salt Bange, and out into the plams in the 
east of the Province. It is not seen much above 8,000 feet in 
the outer hills, and Vigne correctly poiats out that the " palms 
of Baramoule" in Kashmir were creations of Moore's imagi- 
nation, Adams seems to note tiiat Bemier also motions pah^ 


in Easlimfr^ but I can find no such reference in that anthor. 
The fri^t of this tree is small, and, though etUable, is not ralaed 
even by natives, but generally left to be consumed by birds. One 
man in the Salt Range told me that it is actually noxious, that 
he himself had eaten it, and been ill with head symptoms for days. (?) 
The most valuable product of the species is the saccharine juice 
got by iucising below the tuft of leaves. It is largely extracted 
in many places, generally to be drunk fresh, when it is sweet and 
pleasant as a beverage, sometimes to be kept till it ferments into 
an intoxicating liquor. The wood and leaves are used for similar 
purposes to those of the last species. 



Vernacular. K. pttz, yira. B. boj. T. I. Itikh. Plain* 
generally, dib, Mndar, patira, gond. 

The former species is common in marshes, &c., in most parts 
of the Punjab plains, at about 4,000 feet in KuUii, and up to 
the Kashmir Valley (5,000 feet) ; the latter is much more rare. 
The roots are eaten in Kashmir — (see Acobus) — and on the Sutlej 
I have seen the lower succulent part of the stiem used for clearing 
the water of the swollen river, which it does speedily and e£fec- 
tually. The stems are used for making sieves in Kaslonir, The 
leaves are in many parts used for roofs of houses ; in Kashmir 
the thatch of the boats is constructed of them, and in the central 
and eastern Punjab and KuUu (where CnAMiBBOFS q. v. is not to 
be got) floor and other pats are generally made of them. In 
some places also they are made into boat-ropes, which it is said 
will last a month. In Peshawar, and probably elsewhere, the 
down of the ripe fruit (not the flower as mentioned by Vigne) is 
used to bind mortar for wall-plaster. 

N. O. ARACE^. 

Abitm camfanulatum. Box. (Ahobfhofhallus. Blume.) 


Vernacular, zaminkand. 

Commonly cultivated for its root, a kind of yam, in parts 
at least of tiie eastern and central parts of the Punjab plains. 

AEACEiB. 247 

A. coLOCAsiA. L. (CoLocAsiA ANTiQtJOBUM. Schott.) Yam. 


Vernacular. B. rdb^ dM. S. kasauri, gdgli. Plains^ &c.j 
ffwian, kachdia. 

This is yery commonly cultivated in the plains by natives for 
its root^ which they are fond of. Its leaves likewise are at times 
eaten. It is also grown at places in the hills to a considerable 
elevation ; I have seen it at nearly 7^600 feet in Chumba and 

A. CURVATUM. Rox. (Abis^ma. Kth.) 

Vernacular. J. s&rtn. C. dor. R. ktr k( chdlH. B. kira 
kdL S.jdnfftish. 

There is some doubt as to the identity of these^ but the 
species appears to -grow at many places in the Punjab Himalaya 
from 4^000 to 6,5(X) feet. On the Jhelam and Sutlej it is stated 
to have poisonous qualities. In KuUu the seeds are said to be 
given with salt for colic in sheep. 

A. sPECiosuM. Wall. (Abisjbma. Mart.) 

Vernacular. J. samp M khumb. B. kiri M kukri. B. MrdM. 

This very handsome species^ the coloured hood and pro- 
truding dark point of the spadix of which are^ as Madden remarkd^ 
^'alarmingly like a cobra/' is not uncommon in ps^s of the 
Punjab Himalaya from 6^000 to 8^500 feet. In Hazira the root is 
stated to be poisonous^ and in Chumba it is applied pounded to 
snake-bites^ probably on the doctrine of signatuijps. In KuUuj 
where the root is given to sheep for colic, the miit is said to 
have deleterious effects on the mouth when eaten by children* 

A. TOBTUOSUM. Wall. (Abis^ma. Schott.) 

Vernacular. B. kiri ki kiXkri. 

This, which was found in Ch^imba at about 7,000 feet, is 
much smaller than any of the preceding, and may be the above 
species, which also was found by Bellew near the SufSd Koh. 
Its root is in Chumba applied to kill the worms which infest 
cattle in the rains. 

A. SF. ? 
Vernacular. nUrialam. 

Mentioned by Bellew as growing in Sw&t, &c., north of 
the Peshawar Valley^ where he states that the fleshy root .is used 


as a cure for impotence and steriUtjr. As he only gives '^ Aram ?'^ 
thus^ and the properties ascribed are like those attributed to the 
orchids^ I am incUned to think this must be a S(Uib MisH — (see 


(Elueopus bepens. Trin. 


Common in some saline tracts in the Punjab plains. Aitchison 
states that in certain of those near Jhelam it quite replaces 
Ctnodon dactylon (q. v.) 

Alofbc0eus pbatensis. L. (or A. AoaissTis. L. ?) 


This is common wild in many jparts of the Punjab plains^ and 
I believe I have seen it cultivated for fodder just to the east of 
the Junma near the head of the Qtingetic Dodb. 

Anathbeum mueicatum. Beauv. (Andeofogon. Retz. 

Vetivbeia. Virey.) 

Vernacular, panni ; roots, khas ; stem, sink. Baz^ 4op8, 
sink, b^ra de jdrob. 

Not uncommon in the Punjab plains, but only iQcaMy, e, g,, 
Edgeworth mentions that it is not found within 80 jiailes north of 
Mult&n, though abundant above that. And when tbe odorous roots 
have to be got in considerable quantity to make tatties for troops, it 
has sometimes to be brought from many miles o^ This root is the 
best substance for making these tatHeSy or matljpd doors on which 
water is sprinkled to cool down the air whhin tl^i^ room, and when 
it cannot be got, the twigs of Alhagi (q. v.)>RiQ substituted. The 
stem of this grass is used for thatching, &c. The officinal &iSra 
de forob, given as an alterative, is generally ascribed to Sacchaextic 
8AEA (q. v.), but what I have seen seems to be the upper part of 
this grass. 

Andeofooon at^nulatus. Forsk. 
Vernacular, palwdn, tninydr. 

Abundant in many parts of the Punjab plains. It is consi* 
dered excellent fodder for bullocks^ Sec., and for horses when green. 

GEAMINE^. 249 

A. iNvoLUTus. Stend. 

Vernacular. J. baggar. B. S. miinjX baggar. 

This grass is common in many parts of the Siw&lik tract and 
outer Himalaya^ at from 2,300 to 4,000 feet, up to the Indus, and 
occurs beyond that river also, though more rarely. It is commonly 
used for cordage, swing-bridges, &c., and probably supplies in the 
Punjab, as in the N. W. Provinces, most of the bdbar or baggar 
fibre which is in part exported for making rope, &c. — (see 

A. sp. 

^ Vernacular. U. bavii. 

This is mentioned by Edgeworth as occurring in Ambdla^ 
where it is considered poisonous. And it may be the same which 
Bellew alludes to as hurtful to cattle in the Peshawar Valley. 

Anthistiria anatheba. Nees. 

Vernacular ? 

Abundant in parts of the Salt Range, Trans-Indus, and in the. 
outer hills from 2,300 to 8,500 feet. Madden mentions that in 
Kumaon its roots are frequently luminous, whence it is there called 

Abistida defbessa. Betz. 
A. ssTACEA. Eetz. 

Vernacular. T. I. spin khalak, spin toege, jdndar. Plains 
generally, lamba. 

This (or these) species is very common in many dry parts of 
the central and western Punjab and Trans-Indus, and in parts of 
the outer hills towards the west up to 2,500 feet. It is said to be 
a favourite food of cattle. In Madras, A. setacea is stated to be 
iiaeA {or tatties — (see Anathebum) . 

Abundinabia falcata. Nees. (with A. utilis. Cleghorn) . 

Vernacular. R. nirgdl, ndgre, B. nigal, nirgdly kdthi, narri^ 
garri, gero, S. spi'dg, gorwa, spikso, pltso. 

It is difficult to disentangle the accounts of these, so I give 
them together, especially as Colonel Munro makes them one species 
in an elaborate paper on the BAMBusACEiB, in the last part of the 
transactions of the Linnean Society, I have, however, found two 

2 I 


kinds always distinguislied by the hillmen. The former is described 
as the smaller^ and said to be the tougher of the two^ and to have 
no hollow, and as-growing at 9,000 to 12,000 feet, apparently up 
to the Bi&s only. The latter is stated to be larger and hollow, and 
to grow at 5,000 to 8,000 feet, and is found up to the B&vi. They 
are largely used for making baskets and other wicker-work and 
mats, and for putting imder roofs, and the larger is employed for 
shepherds' pipes, &c., and is exported in some quantity to the 
plams for the ndicha (hookah-tube) . 

A&uNDo DOKAX. L. (A. Kabka. Box.) Beed. 

Vernacular. J. bag narH, K. ndL C. nar. B. na/^. T. I. 
dwdrenOj drUmbij ghwarga. Plains generally, nar^ naria, 

I have made some confusion as to this plant, but it is common 
wild and frequently cultivated in the Punjab plains, and appears 
to occur in the hills, up to Kashmir (5,000 feet) . The leaves are 
used for fodder, and the stems for hookah-tubes, chiks (screens), 
baskets, and hurdles, &c. About Calcutta, mats are constructed of 
the split stems of this or a similar species, and in Sind they are 
made into chairs, and a fibre is said to be extracted from the upper 
part of t^m (?) 

A. Fhraohitis. L. ? 

Vernacular. J. dila. Lad., ddmbd, 

A short species, growing on the Kishenganga at about 6,000 
feet, appears to be this. Sandals are in winter made of its stems. 
It is abundant in Lahoul and Lad&k, up to 14,000 feet, and 
reaches 6 or 7 feet in height. In Lahoul it is much used for 
roofing, but appears to be considered useless in Lad&k, except that 
it is eaten by cattle. 

A. sp. ? 

Vernacular. B.phroL S. rajal, tdma. 

A smallish species of Arundo (?) common at places on the 
Bi£s and Sutlej from 8,000 to 9,000 feet. Baskets are made of 
its stems. 

AvENA PATUA. L. Wild oats. 

Vernacular. C. gozang, kdsamm. Lad., ydpoj iipwa. Plainsj 
ganer, gandal, jei (Hi.) 

This is common as a field-weed in cereal crops throughout the 
Punjab plains, and in many places in the Himalaya, up to 9,500 feet. 


Lahoul^ and to 11^600 feet at least, Lad&k. In almost all the 
places where it grows, it is pulled and gathered for fodder (Moor- 
croft mentioning that in Lad&k it is given to the cattle ^^ at night/') 
In Kumaon, Madden mentions that '^ the straw'' is used as fodder> 
but is suspe<;ted of occasionally producing bad effects. 

A. SATITA. lu Oat». 

Vernacular. Jei. 

Is occasionally cultivated in the plains of the Punjab by or 
for Europeans, to serve as horses' food. In the records of the 
Agri- Horticultural Society it is stated that in a trial at Jhang^ 
nine maunds of seed gave 260 maunds of crop in the straw. 

Bambusa abundinacea. Rets. Bamboo. 

Vernacular, magar bdns^, ndd bans r young shoots, kalla bdnt. 

This species, which grows to 14 or 16 inches in girth and 
60 or 60 feet high, is commonly cultivated in the Punjab Siw&lik 
tract, and may be seen in the outer hiU» to 4,000 and occasionally 
6,000 feet. It is rare out in the plains, and I doubt if it is thia 
(but more probably the next) species which Edgeworth mentions 
as planted at Baghdfid, 40 miles north of Mult&n. The nativea 
state that this (like the next, q. v.) grows to its full thickness and 
height in one year. It is used for (foo/y-poles and such-like 
purposes. The young shoots are made into pickle, &c. 

B. STBICTA. B.OX. (Dbndbocalamus STBICTI7S. Nccs.) Male 


Vernacular, b&us. Bazar, silicious secretion, banslochan, 

This, a much smaller species, many of the stems of which 
are solid, and therefore called " male bamboo,'^ is common wild 
in some parts of the Punjab Siw&lik tract. Its chief habitats 
are near the Sutlej, above Hoshyfirptir and east from Niirpur 
in a good many places, in one or two places on the Chen&b in 
fewer numbers^ and north from Rawul Pindi, where it appears 
to be still more limited in extent. There are also a veiy few 
scanty clumps at two or three places in the eastern portion of 
the Salt Range. Its range in the Punjab may be from 1,500 to 
2,500 feet. It generally occurs on arid shingly slopes, and where 
the clumps are pretty close together there is but little ar1x>reous 
or shrubby vegetation among them. The natives assert stoutly 
that this bamboo accomplishes the whole of its growth in two or 
three weeks during, the rains,t and some experiments we have 


made seem to indicate that in ita natural habitats a very consider- 
able proportion of the whole growth as to size, though not as to 
eonsistency, takes place within the first season. The new stems 
of the year are of a much brighter green, and the sheaths remain 
on them. The seeding in quantity of some of the species of 
bamboo is beliered by the natives to presage famine. Single stems, 
and not the whole of a clump of this, as of some other, species, 
generally seed, and in most cases such stems die after the seed 
ripens about June. The husks remain on the stems, so that those 
which have died in several successive years, being seen togther, 
are apt to deceive. The natives deny that there is any repioduc- 
tion except from roots, and no doubt as conservancy has been, 
this is very much the case in most of our bamboo jungles, but 
this state of things results chiefly from the tender young seedlings 
being generally browsed or burned down. The stems are much 
valued for roofs, wattling, basket-work, ftc, and the leaves are 
used aJB fodder (with wheat-straw, &c.) The silicious matter, 
found in the joints of some kinds of bamboo, though certainly 
inert, is officinal, being considered cooling, tonic, and astringent, 
but I do not know that any of it is produced in the Punjab from 
this or the preceding species. 

Cenchrus echinatus. L. 

Vernacular, basla, led, lapta, bhort (Irvine). 

This grass is not uncommon in the more arid parts of the 
Punjab plains. In some places it is called middling, in others 
it is said to be excellent fodder. The seed is frequently used as 
food in times of scarcity, and this seems to be the C. mentioned 
by Edgeworth as one of those which are swept up in the deserts 
of the southern Punjab for this purpose. The hooks on the 
fruit cause it to stick to the traveller's clothes in a troublesome 
way, but even in Bikanir the difficulty from it is probably not 
so great as to warrant Irvine in calling it '^ the chief annoyance 
to the traveller. '' The "considerable price'' also which he men« 
tions as at times paid for its seed (as food) would probably 
diminish on strict enquiry. 

Chrysopooon olaucoptis. Stend. 
Vernacular. K. sMH gh&. 

This is found in parts of the Punjab Himalaya at froni 
2,500 to 9,500 (?) feet, and its stems, or those of a species very 
near it, are used for the sieves employed in paper-making in 
Kashmir, for which purpose they arc very neatly" tied together 
with horse hair. This also, or a nearly allied species, is noted in 
the Sahiranpur Herbarium, as having luminous roots in the rains. 

GBAltlNEJS. 263 

Cymbofooon Iwarancusa. Schiilt. (Andropogon. Rox, 


C. LANioEB. Desf. 

Vernacular. T. I. sargara. S. E. aan. Plains generallj^ 
khawi, panni, soldra. H. b^. Hi.^ injanL Sazar, 
root-slieatliSj azkhar, mirchiagand, Mmjakj katran. 

I have not been sufficiently careful to distinguish between 
these two species^ which are not uncommon in many parts of the 
plains^ and which are frequently confased by the natives. One or 
other is yery abundant in some of the desert tracts of the Punjab^ 
and the coarse lemon grass^ mentioned by Bellew as growing among 
the ruins of old Kandah&r^ may be one of them. The smell of 
especially the former is that of lemons, but more turpentiny, and 
is sometimes very perceptible when a tract, covered by the grass^ 
is being marched over by a body of men and animals. It is said 
to be much more powerful at certain seasons than others. The 
statements as to whether it is liked or not by cattle are most 
diverse in different places. Edgeworth, who suggests that this 
may possibly be the Nabdus of Arrian, mentions that in the 
Ambala tract it is much liked by them, and it is said to give a 
flavour to the milk and butter, and Boyle asserts even to the flesh 
of animals feeding on it. Yigne states that near Hassan Abd&l 
a stimulating oil is extracted from it, and in various parts this 
is extracted and used in medicine. The " grass oil'' of Nim^^ 
which is similar if not the same, is reckoned of great use in 
rheumatism. A spirit farakj is also distilled from the grass with 
spices, &c., and is said to be usefiil in indigestion and fever. 
Madden mentions that the roots are sometimes luminous. They 
appear to be officinal under all the above names in the Punjab^ 
where also the heads are officinal, both being considered desiccant^ 

C. sp. 


Madden mentions a species as common from 4,000 to 8,000 
feet in Kumaon, which is so strongly aromatic that it is refdsed 
by cattle, 

Cynodon dactylon. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. bardwa. Plains generally, khabbalj khab- 
bar. Hi., drib. 

This well-known grass, which is said to be held sacred by the 
Hindus on account of its tenacity of life, is abundant except in 
the lightest soils, and the most arid localities throughout the 


Puxgab plains^ and st places to 6^000 feet in the Himalaya. On 
account of its rooting stolons and close growth when watered^ it 
is well adapted for turfing^ and is generally used for that purpose. 
From universal testimony it is the best of all our grasses for 
fattening and milk-producing powers. It seems to be peculiarly 
subject to smut in the Punjab. 


Vernacular. T. I. chubrei. Plains generally^ maddnOj chim^ 

Common in many places throughout the plains of the Punjab. 
Its seeds are occasionally eaten in times of scarcity, and it is 
reckoned good as a fattening and milk-producing pasture. 


Vernacular. T. I. khurdsh. Plains generally, moU khabbaF^ 
takkrij farw. 

Occurs in many parts of the Punjab plains, and in the 
Himalaya to 9,000 feet. Is considered one of the best pasture- 

Elevsine corocana. Gsert. 

Vernacular. C. kodra, mandwa. B. mandal. B. kodra. 
S. kutra, kodon, mandwa. 

This, which is said by Cleghom to be perhaps the most 
productive of all the Indian cereals, but is stated by natives to 
yield a somewhat bitter and indigestible grain, is not much culti- 
vated in the Punjab plains. It is pretty frequent in the Himalaya 
as far west as the Chen&b, up to 6,000 and 7,000 feet. Monkeys 
are said to prefer it to other crops. 


Vernacular. T. I. chubrei. Plains generally, chimbari, 

Abundant in manv of the more arid parts of the Punjab 
plains, especially towards the west. In some places it is stated to 
be a favourite with cattle. 

Eraqbostis cynosuroides. B. and S. 
Vernacular, dab, dib. Hi., kusa, davolia. 

This grass is frequent throughout the Punjab plains. It is 
coarse, but is said to be liked by buffaloes, and, having long roots. 

&EAHIK£JB« 255 

to remain pretty fresh througliout the year. The upper part of 
its stem is in some places used for making ike sieves employed in 

E. spp. 

Vernacular, lamb, miruketr, ktiH, chinked 

There are several species common in the Punjab plains, which 
are considered good pasture-grass. One at least is used as a 
pot-herb^ and the pounded seeds of several are eaten mixed with 
other flour in cakes, pottage, &c., the lamb particularly in certain 
Hindii fasts and festivals. A correspondent of the Agri-Horti- 
cultural Society mentions that the years 1809 and 1831, when 
wheat (flour ?) rose to seven seers and ten seers per rupee, are 
respectively known near Lahore by the names of the lambwdla sdl 
and the mirukarwdla sdl, from the fact of the seeds of these two 
' grasses being so largely employed for food by the starving poor. 
In the latter year, mirukar was fortunately abundant owing to the 
early (winter ?) rains having been abundant. 

Hetebopooon contortus. B. and S. 

Vernacular. T. I. bartveza, aarmal. Plains generally, suridla, 

Is common in some parts of the Punjab plains, and abundant 
at places in the hiUs in some cases up to 7,000 feet. When young 
it is good fodder. The flowers are furnished with long twisted 
awns, which are troublesome to the traveller through their fixing 
themselves in his clothes, or still worse in his skin, from which 
they sometimes have to be cut out if they are not noticed in time. 
The humidity of the air affects the twist of the awn, and in the 
Bengal Asiatic Society Transactions of many years ago, there is a 
suggestion to employ one as a simple kind of hygrometer. 


Vernacular. oH ? 

A peculiar species of barley grown in some parts of the inner 
Himalaya, mentioned by Thomson at 11,500 feet in Tibet. 

H. cjsLESTE. (Viborg. ?) 

Vernacular. C. grim ? elo P S. ud, {cjan. Lad., grim, nas ? 

This grain is cultivated on the Sutlej to 13,600 feet 
^Gerard), and to 15,000 (? Cleghom). Moorcrofk appears to 


mention it in Lahoiil> and I bdieve I have seen it in Pangi further 
down on the Chen&b to 8^000 feet. In the latter place it is said 
to be hardy but not very digestible. I am not sure that the 
ffrim, grown in the Wurdwan Valley in the Chendb basin at 7,000 
feet, and that of Laddk common to over 14,500 feet, are this species. 
In the latter, dough made &om it and used as food (like the sattti 
of the outer hills) is called ampe. 

H. HEXASTicHUM. L. Barley. 

Yemacular. C. thanzatti ndi,jawa. S. chdk. Plains, /ott; 
cut as fodder, kawid, Jcasil, patha. Lad., sod^ Jhotak, 
shiroka; (bearded, shrUk; heaxdless, yanffma, Cayley). 
P. trOf ne. C. chung. Beer, lugar. S. biSiza. Lad.^ 
chang. Spirits C. and Lad., arrak. Baz&r, ashes, /atc^a- 

This species of barley is frequently cultivated as a cold- 
weather crop in the plains of the Punjab, as it requires less labour^ 
and gives more produce than wheat, even in inferior soil, and 
where the water is deep below the surface. Varieties of it are 
also cultivated to great elevations in the Himalaya. In some parts 
above 8,000 feet, it is much more common than wheat, while at 
lower levels it is less grown. In Lahoul and Lad&k it is abundantly 
cultivated with Paoopybtjm (q. v.) up to 13,000 feet ; in the 
latter some kinds of barley may be seen to over 14,000 
feet, about Hanle, near the Tsomoriri lake. On the Chen&b, 
in some places when ripe, it is pulled up, not cut. In the 
plains it is frequently cut two or even three times, when 
young, as fodder, with little or no injury to the ear, which is 
formed afterwards. In Lahoul and on the Sutlej, a kind of beer 
is made from its grain, the ferment in the former being brought 
from Tibet as little farinaceous looking cakes, the size of a fig, 
called pab or phap. In Lad4k also a similar beverage is made by 
the aid of the same substance which is said to be made in Dras 
to the west, from barley flour, mixed with cloves, cardamoms^ 
ginger, and an herb which is probably an Umbellifer (and then 
fermented ?) On the Sutlej, Moorcroft states that in the prepa- 
ration of the beer rice is mixed with it, and the root of a " bitter 
aromatic from high'^ — (see budkes, Umbellifera) — ^is added to 
prevent indigestion. In Lahoul, Aitchison^ mentions that spirits 
made from barley are used by some of the richer inhabitants, and 
spirits are also made in Laddk. In some parts of the hills, sandals 
are made of barley-straw. The ashes of barley stalks, which 
consist chiefly of an impure carbonate of potash, are officinal in 
the plains^ being given for indigestion. 

anAHiNXJS. 267 

Impb&ata Kosnigii. BeauY. (I« cylindrical Beauv. Sac* 


Vernacular, sir, siL HI., bharwL 

A silky^headed small grass abundant at low spots in many 
parts of the Punjab plains. Its leaves are coarse, and Edgeworth 
states that it is not eaten by cattle when any other forage can be 

Melica sp. ? 

Vernacular. Lad., chlpkian. 

A tall grass (mentioned by Thomson) reaching 5 and 6 feet 
in height. Abundant in Laddk from 10,000 to 12,000 feet. It is 
used for basket-work. 

Nardus stricta. L. 

Vernacular. T. I. samd. 

A small grass, which is found Trans-Indus, and to considerable 
elevations in the Jhelam basin, &c. It may be the N., mentioned 
by Adams as a favourite food of the Ibex in Kashmir. 

Oplismenus yrumentacbus. Kth. (Fanicum. Rox.) 

Vernacular. S. sdmuka. Plains $amd, sdnwak. 

A cultivated cereal, uncommon out in the plains except Ci«- 
Sutlej, and common in places^ in the eastern part only of the 
Punjab Himalaya. Its grain is considered heating, and is one of 
the poorer of the millets. 

Ortea sativa. L. 

Vernacular. 3. tdL K. dein, tdni. C. dhdn, S. dhdn, and 
plains generally; varieties, bdsmaii, chita, &c. 

Commonly cultivated in the plains where the soil is low and 
good, and water abundant, throughout the Punjab, especially in the 
upper part of the Jalandar Do4b. It is also abundantly grown 
throughout the Siw&lik tract, and up the valleys to an elevation in 
places of 6,000 or even nearly 7,000 feet. The varieties of it are 
Very numerous, the best of all in each locality being generally 
called bdsmati (literally, ''the odorous. ^^) Very large quantities 
of the grain are exported to the plains from K&ngra, &c. In 
Kullu and Lahoul, a kind of beer is stated to be prepared from 
rice^ and on the Sutlej some rice appears to be mixed with barley 

2 i: 


for making beer^-(8ee Hqbdeum hbxastichvm) . In Kashmir 
and elsewhere^ sandals are ma4e of the straw; they only last 
about one day's hard-work^ on a heavy European foot at least, 
in the Punjab I have not seen or heard of a wild rice^ such as in 
the N. W. Provinces and elsewhere is stated to grow in wet places^ 
the seed being collected and eaten in times of scarcity. 

Panicum antidotale. Retz. 
(P. MAXIMUM. Jacq. ?} 

Vernacular. T. I. male, shamiikha. Plains generally^ fform, 
ffirtii, mangrivr. 

A tall grass common in many parts of the Punjab plains and 
Siwalik tract. In some places it is said to be good forage for 
cattle ; in others it is called bitter^ and is not relished, and this 
seems more likely. Near Lahore the smoke of it is used to 
fumigate wounds. 


Vernacular, sdnwak, jangli sdmai. 

Common wild in most places throughout the Punjab plains* 
It is one of the best grasses for forage. I have never seen it 
cultivated in the Punjab, as Aitchison states it to be near Jhelam. 
The seeds are often eaten by the poorer classes, being swept off 
the ground in the rains by a brush to which it is said the moisture 
makes them adhere. Bellew mentions that in the Peshawar 
Valley this seed is especially eaten during Hindii fasts, and that it, 
with milk, has for 30 years constituted the chief food of the 
Akhoond of Swat, for whom it is cultivated. 

P. Hydaspicum. Edge. 
Vernacular ? 

This grows wild in the southern Punjab, where Edgeworth 
mentions that its seeds are swept up from the ground to he eaten 
by poor people. 


Vernacular. J. china. K. chinwa. C. chini, anne, sdtan. 
R. chena, S. rad, chini. Lad., tsedze. Per., arzan. 

This is cultivated in some parts of the Punjab plains, as 
about Mult&n, for its grain and for fodder, and is common in many- 
parts of the Himalaya up to the Indus, being most common from^ 

GRAMINfiiB. 259 

8,000 up to 8,000 feet (at places on the Chen&b). It is also 
grown at 10,000 — 11,000 feet in Lad&k. Its grain is considered 
digestible and nutritious, and in some parts is mostly consumed 

P. MiUA&E. Lum. 

Vernacular. kutkL 

Does not appear to be common in the Punjab, but Edgeworth 
mentions it at Mult&n. 

Paspalum scbobiculatum. L. 

Vernacular. C. kodra, 

I have not observed this in the Punjab plains, but Edgeworth 
notes it at Mult&n. Unless it has been coi^fiised with Eleusine 
(q. v.)^ it is grown on the Chenab at about 6,000 feet. Edge-* 
worth, however, states that it is not cultivated in the hills, further 
east, and I may have been misled. The grain is one of the poorest 
of the millets. 

Penicillabia spicata. Willd. 

Vernacular* bdfra. 

Largely cultivated in some -parts of the Punjab plains, and in 
the high and dry tract, south from Bawul Pindi, constitutes the 
chief cereal crop. Its grain is considered heating. In many parts 
it is much grown as fodder. Its stems sometimes reach to a great 
height ; I have seen fietcLs of it to 12 or 14 feet high. 

Pennisetum cenchboides. Rich. 

Vernacular. T. I. taura. Plains generaUy, dhaman, tdman, 

Common in many parts of the Punjab plains, and reckoned 
one of the best of all the wild grasses for forage, both for cows and 
horses. It would appear from Edgeworth that near Mult^n its 
seeds are swept up from the ground to be used as human food. 

P. Italicum. B. Br. (PANictrM. L. Setabia. Beauv.) 

Vernacular. J. kangni, chiihr, kher, K. shdU, pingL C. 
kaunif s?uil4, sdlan. (?) B. kauni. S. Mai, huhi. 
T. I. gal. Plains generally, kangni. 

This is rarely seen grown in the Punjab plains^ but is* 
eommonly cultivated in the Himalaya^ occasionally up to 6,500 


feet. The grain is reckoned rather heating. At places on the 
Chen&b the leaves are used as a pot-herb. This plant is common 
wild or acclimatised in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya^ and 
is collected to be given as fodder to goats, &;c. 

Saccharitm opficinarum. L. Sugar-cane. 

Vernacular, gatma, kamdnd, with paunda and other varieties. 
Products, chini, nUsri, ffUr, &c. ; refuse cane, pachL 
Roller-mill, belna, kulhari (?) pesUe-mill, kolh^. 

Is grown extensively in parts of the Punjab plains, especially 
towards the east, or where the soil is low and good, manure plen- 
tiful, and irrigation abundant. The chief sugar tracts are in the 
northern part of the Jalandar Do&b, and there is a considerable 
quantity grown at places along the Western Jumna Canal, and in 
the southern parts of Mdlt&n and Mozaffargarh. There is even' a 
good deal cultivated in limited localities in the Peshawar Valley, 
but much sugar is carried from the east up to Peshawar, and beyond 
it into AfPgh&nist4n. Kupar Bdm, when governor of Kashmir, is 
stated by Vigne to have tried the cane in the valley, but the 
eTevation is much too great, and he found that although the plant 
ffreWy that was all. Indeed, when cultivated in other than low 
rich lands, the stalks are often markedly thinner. Curious enough, 
a good deal of the cane is grown in Amb^la (and perhaps else- 
where) where there is no irrigation whatever, but I am told that 
most of it is used as chaH, fodder for the Commissariat elephants. 
In the N. W. Provinces, the kolhu, pestle-mill, which is employed 
for extracting oil all over northern India, is used for sugar-pressing 
also; but about half way between the Junma and Sutlej, the belna 
or roller-press (is the name kulhaH, given for this by Edgeworth 
in Amb&la, Journal Agri-Horticultursd Society of India, 1838, a 
mistake) takes its place for sugar, and is in general use throughout 
the central Punjab. Trans-Indus, however, the kolhti again 
appears. One authority states that the latter is more effective 
and less expensive, and it is mentioned that for certain soft canes 
(as the paunda, which is juicy and generally eaten, and not 
pressed) it alone will do, while another says the belna is the better 
of the two. 

No doubt, the cultivation of sugar-cane has been much 
increased by the extension of canals under British rule; but 
about Rdhtuk, near the Western Jumna Canal, I was told that 
the natives blame the canal for making the^^r (unrefined product) 
sink in in weight within some months, which good giir wiU not 
do for years. But Colonel Voyle, an officer of experience, assured 
me that the fault lay with the cultivators, who in that tract over- 
crop and under-manure their land. In places like Multdn, where 
the aquatic weeds — (see Hyd&illa and Fotamoobton) — employed 

GEAlflKEiB. 261 

elsewhere to refine and remove the moisture from the raw produce, 
are not procurable, the latter has to be used unrefined, or to be sent 
to other places for purification. In Shahpur it is reported that 
much giir is brought to certain marts in order to be refined. A 
correspondent of the Agri-Horticultural Society states that the 
long have8 of the cane niake the best well-ropes, but he probably 
refers to the refuse crushed stalks, which are sometimes used for 
cordage, and on the Chen&b, ropes of this pachi are preferred for 
tying the logs into rafts, to Uiose made of babbar — (see Anbro- 



Vernacular. T. I. dargd, karre, S. R. sarfit. S. P. kdnda, 
kura, sacha. De. jhUnd. Plains generally, sar, sara, 
aardr, sarpat, sarkara, sarkanda, miinja, baunkcnr. Parts 
of plant, kdna^ sentha, sirki, sarka, mUnj. Baz&r, root, 
garba ganda. 

I have probably confused here, at least two species, to one or 
other of which these remarks may be understood to imply, and which 
are common in low sandy places and along canals, &c., in many 
parts throughout the Punjab plains, and are occasionally planted 
as fences, &c., and for their products. They are very tall, often 
raising their white silky heads to 16 or 17 feet. The sheaths of 
the upper leaves are by beating made into fibre for the munj^ 
cordage, which is a favourite for track-ropes, &c., as it stands 
moisture and strain well. The leaves themselves are in some parts 
of India made into mats. Bundles of the stems are used for 
floating heavy timber on the rivers. The stems are made into 
blinds, chairs, tatties, and basket-work, and are used for thatch, 
and they are laid down on sandy roads in default of macadamizing. 
Coldstream states that the tops, ju8t before flowering, are reckoned 
good fodder for milk, and that in the southern Punjab the delicate 
pith, contained in the upper part of the stem, is eaten by the poor. 
The root of this or of the next appears to be officinal under the 
name oi garba ganda. It is burned near women after child-birth^ 
and near bums and scalds, as its smoke is considered beneficial. 


Vernacular, kdn, kdhL 

A smaller species which is common on islands, &c., through* 
out the Punjab plains. It is used for chiks, thatch, &c., and pens 
aire made from its stem. It is also given as fodder to buffaloes. * 


S. spp. 

Vernacular. C. nau. B. kd. B.jab. 

Various other species are found in the Punjab Himalaya up 
to 8^500 feet^ some of which are used for similar purposes with 
the former^ such as thatch^ &c. 

Secale ce&eale. L. Bye. 

Vernacular ? 

Various early writers on Affgh&nist&n mention rye as being 
cultivated in that country^ but I can find no recent or definite 
intelligence as to its being grown there or in the Punjab. 

SoaoHUM Halepbnsb. Pera. 

Vernacular. J. baru, K. brahdm, T. I. bar^a. S. B. 

I have not observed this lai^e grass in the plains of the Punjab, 
but it is common in parts of the Siwalik tracts and in the outer 
hills to over 5,000 feet. It is at times browsed by cattle, but 
I was told in Haz&ra that after eating it they sometimes have fatal 
head affections. 

S. vuLOABE. Pers. 

Vernacular, jodr ; close sown for fodder, ckttri ; stalks, 

Is cultivated in many parts of the Punjab plains, closely 
sown for fodder, or grown for food, chiefly in the same tracts as 
Pemcillabia (q. v.) The grain is reckoned heating. 

Stipaobostis plvmosa. Munro. ? (Abistida. L.) 

Vernacular, rondk, lonak. 

A very handsome little grass which occurs in the central and 
southern Punjab, and is common in places up to the base of the 
Sulim4n Bange. It is said to be an indifferent fodder. A similar 
species occurs in Lad&k to 18,000 feet. 

Tbiticum dubum. Desf. 
Vernacular, pambhan kanak, barkanak. 


Vernacular. C. rozatt, dro, do. S. !sud. Lad., tro, shruk f 
{tokdr (white) , tomdr (red) Cayley) . P. nU, to. PUins, 
&c., kanak. Per., gandum ; red rust, k^ngi ; smut, 
siydM, kabfoiH. Baz4r, starch, nishasti gandum. 

Wheat is cultivated abundantly as a winter crop throughout 
ilie Punjab plains, T. uBstivum being the common species, and 

GUAMINE^. 263r 

T. DVRTTM frequent about Loodiana^ Mult&n^ &c. (Edgeworth). 
It is of many varieties, white or red, generally bearded, but 
beardless wheat is common in some parts. Some kinds are also 
grown to great heights in the Himalaya, it being one of the chief 
crops up to 9,500 feet on the Chenab, and occurring to 15,000 
feet on the Sutlej ? (Cleghom), good to 11,500 feet, and grown to 
13,000 feet in Lad4k. The quality of the crop is excellent in 
many places, and I think the finest fields of wheat I have ever 
seen were in Sind, where the standing grain was about 5^ feet 
high, close and with fine ears. Edgeworth mentions that in 
Amb&la, wheat (as well as barley) is sometimes sown as early as 
AuguBt or September, so as to be in flower by December, but that 
thus treated it is frequently killed by frost. He also states that 
white ants and rats are very destructive to it in irrigated lands. 
It is subject to red rust, and more frequently to smut, which is 
said to prevail most when much rain has been followed by cloudy 
weather. It is often cut as kasil — (see Hordium hexastichum) — 
or green fodder, generally once only if the grain also is wanted, 
but otherwise several times. Irvine, however, states that taking 
kasil even once is said by many to injure the grain. The starch 
of wheat is officinal, being considered astringent and tonic, and 
used in plasters. 


Vernacular ? 

The seeds of this are said by Edgeworth to be swept up by 
the poor in the southern Punjab, in order to be used as food. 

Zea mays. L. 

Vernacular. maiM, makkei, mak, kukri, bard jodr. 

A common hot weather crop in the Punjab plains as else* 
where in India, and abundant towards Rawul Pindi. In some 
parts of the Province it forms a staple food of the people, ground 
and made into bread, a much smaller pi'oportion of it being eaten 
roasted in the ear than elsewhere in northern India. It is of 
many kinds, red and white, &c. It is frequent also in parts of 
the Himalaya, being grown to 7,500 and even 8,000 feet on tfa|p 
Chen&b and Rdvi. It is a favourite food of the black bear. In 
parts at least of the Kashmir Valley, I observed that this crop 
was not oyer 3 feet in height, and Moorcroft notes that near 
K&bul it is not generally more* than that height (instead of 5 or 6 
feet^ which it reaches or exceeds in the plains). 



Carex Indica. L. ? 

Vemacular. C. m^ter, chart. 

A fibre under the above botanical name (I know not on what 
authority)^ and with the former vernacular appellation^ was sent 
to the Punjab -Exhibition as ''used for snow shoes in Pangi and 
Lahoul/' In the Wurdwan Valley at 8,000 feet, a Cyperus caUed 
eharij which may be the same, is used for making sandab. 

Cyperus juncipolius. ? 

Vernacular. Bazir, root, ndgar motha, mutran sialidn. 

This root is officinal, being considered cordial, stomachic, 
and desiccant, and is used for washing the hair. The books give 
the above as the botanical name of the plant. 


Vemacular. kaserii, dila. 

In the N. W. Provinces the root is used as food, and is 
officinal as kaseni. The dila root, mentioned by Bellew as eaten 
in the Peshawar Valley, may be the same. Dila, however, appears 
to be a generic name for the CvPERACEiB, the roots of several of 
which are eaten by pigs, and their stems, &c., browsed by cattle, 
as is one called mUrg, which may be Scirpus (q. v.) 

Eriophorum comosum. Wall. (E. cannabinum. ?) 

Vemacular. J. biiji babbar, baggi babbar. C. babbi. R. 
ban baggar. B. kdsh, miinfa, baggar, gorbagra. S. klunji, 
munzij uchL S. R. babtir 

This grows throughout the Punjab Siw&lik tract and outer 
hills to 5,000 feet, and in the Salt Range. Although most of the 
baggar or babbar rope appears to be made of Andropogon invo- 
LUTUS (q. v.), yet in some places part of the cordage for bedsteads, 
Persian wheels, &c., is unquestionably made of this, which, 
however, is, I believe, not so much valued as the other. 

Malacochjete pectinata. Nees. ? 

Vemacular. K. bud. 

This is a common aquatic sedge in the plains, and isj I think, 
that one which in Kashmir is used for mats^ &c. 

I*ILICES. 265 


Yemacular. m^ah^ dila, 


Is<;ommon in marshes^ &c., in the Punjab plains^ and when 
fresh is fair forage^ but soon gets too dry. It also appears to grow 
in Lad4k at 10,500 feet. 


AniANTUM CAPILLUS Yenebis. L. Maiden hair. 

Vernacular. E. dtim Hll. T. I. Mwatzei, bisfdij (?) S. B. 

Not unconunon along ditches, &c., in the extreme north-west, 
and occasional in wells Airther east in the Punjab plains, and 
common in the Siw&lik tract and lower hills occasionally up to 
8,000 feet. In the Salt Range it is given with pepper as a 
febrifuge, and it may occasionally be the officinal pareseoshdn — 
(see A. tenustitm). Bellew mentions birfdij, a fern growing in 
wells in the Peshawar Valley, of which the leaves and stems are 
purgative, which may be this (the only other ferns I got in the 
valley were Nephrodium molle and Ptekis lonoifolia, neither 
jof which grow in wells). But for the ordinary biafdij, see 



Vernacular. J. adhsarita hajaH, kanghdi, gunhirL 

Common in the Punjab Siwfilik tract and outer hills to 4,000 
feet, and occasional in the Salt Range, growing often on arid 
rocks in hot sunny places. Near the Rattan Plr it is called by 
the first of the above names, significant of its use there, viz., as a 
medicine in hemicrania. 


Vernacular. B. ghda. Baz&r, plant, hantrdjy pareseoshdn. 

This gracefiil little fern is very common in many parts of the 
Punjab Himalaya from 5,000 to 11,000 feet. In Chumba it is 
pounded and applied to bruises, &c., and the plant appears to 
supply in the Punjab most of the officinal hansrdjf which is 
administered as an anodyne in bronchitis, &c., and is considered 
diuretic and emmenagogue, 

« 2 h 


Nephrodium eriocabpum. 

Vernacular ? 

Madden states that this is commonly eaten and occasionally 
brought to market in spring in Kumaon — (see Ptebis). It also 
appears to grow in the Punjab Himalaya. 


Vernacular. Baz&r^ root^ bisfay. 

This officinal root is common in the drug-venders' stores^ and 
is by the books ascribed to the above species. I have no clue as 
to which of our Himalayan ferns it is generally derived from^ or 
whence it is brought^ but K&bul is given by one authority^ and 
Honigberger says ^Hhe hills.''' It is used as an alterative. 

Ptebis AQ17ILINA. L. (^^Asplbnium polymorphum.'\ Madden.) 


Vernacular. C. kakhash. B. kdkei^ liicngra. B. lUngar. 
S. dio, liringra. 

This fern is abundant in many parts of the Punjab Himalaya 
from 4>0Q0 to 12^000 feet. It is certainly eaten at times as a 
pot-herb in various parts. But I am by no means certain that 
others also are not thus employed. The fronds are generally used 
in quite a young state^ so that it is not easy or possible to identify 
them. Cleghorn states that when cooked it is juicy^ but rather 
insipid ; another officer informs me that it is exactly like Asparagus^ 
but that one kind^ sometimes taken by mistake^ is apt to cause 
colic. The fronds are sometimes used fo put under the earth of 


Mabsilea qitadbipolia. L. 

Vemacular. K. pafli^ Plains, tripatira ? 

Abundant growing in water throughout the Punjab plains and 
in the hills to 5,000 feet. This is the nardoo so often mentioned 
as furnishing a sort of food from its tubers to famished travellers 
in Australian wilds. The plant is eaten as a pot-herb in some 
parts of India, but I have nowhere heard of its being so used in 
the Punjab. Nor have I ever noted it in flower or fruit. 



Equisetum debile. Box. Horse tail. 

Vemacular. K. mattL S. sHnung. T. I. bandukei. Plains 
generally^ naHj trotak, biihi. 

This is abundant in wet places throughout the Punjab plains, 
and (the same species I thmk) to at least 10,500 feet in the 
Himalaya. The plant is administered as a cooling medicine, and 
near Jhelam is given for gonorrhsea. I believe it is also at times 
given to cattle as fodder. 


Agaricus campestbis. L. Common Mushroom. 

Yemacular. K. m&ns kheh C. moksha. Plains, khiimbah, 
khdmbHtri chaitri, Aff., Bamarogh. Baz&r, kiimbh, samo' 



It is by no means certain that these are all the same species ; 
at the same time it is not unlikely that most or all of them are 
identical. The common mushroom is abundant in cattle fields in 
many parts of the central Punjab after the rains, and also abounds 
in the desert tracts of the central and southern Punjab. Cold* 
stream describes it near Mozaffargarh as pure white, with a pow- 
dery surface, and, so far as he had seen, no giUs. It is largely 
eaten by the natives in most places where it grows, and is described 
as excellent, and equal to the English mushroom by those Euro* 
peans who have eaten it. It is idso extensively dried for fiiture 
consumption, and is said to preserve its flavour tolerably well. 
The same species also appears to grow commonly in Kashmir and 
EuUti, sparingly in Lahoul, and abundantly in Affghfinist&n, 
where Bellew states that the poor use it largely as food. In 
Kashmir I was told by the people that the edible mushroom is 
always white, and the non-edible or poisonous kinds, called herar, 
are always dark*coloured, and that they have ixq other test of the 
quality. Dried mushrooms (generally small) are officinal in the 

Boletus ioniarius. ? (Agaricus albus. ?) 

Vernacular. K. bulgar janglL C. bM ha mochka. Plains, 
kidin, Baz&r, ghdnkiin, 

I have put together here two Fungi mentioned separately by 
Honigberger under the above botanical names, as they are 
probably the same. The ghdrikiin appears to come from the west. 


Davies' Trade Report giving 16 seers as imported yi& Peshawar 
annually. It is officinal^ being given for internal disorders^ and 
Honigberger states that the Boletus is got in Kashmir^ where its 
tinder (?) is used to stop haemorrhage. The Chen&b Fukous, 
which appeared to be a Boletus^ I saw in Lahoul growing on 
willow trunks at about 9^500 feet. It is cooked with salt and 
eaten by the natives. 

Lycopebdon oehmatum. Batsch. Puffball. 

Vernacular. Baz&r^ spores ? hinba. 

What appeared to be this I have seen repeatedly in the 
Punjab Himalaya up to 11^500 feet^ and in Lad^ at 13^000 feet. 
I do not know that it is used in any way. But the black spores 
of this or some other Fungus are officinal at Lahore^ being con- 
sidered warm. 


MoBCHSLLA semilibeba. (M. esculenta. L.) MorcI. 

Vernacular, kdna kachj kan gach, kdnha bichu, ffircAhatra, 
Plains^ khtimb. 

This appears to be abundant in and near Kashmir^ fiom which 
considerable quantities are after drying exported to the plains. I 
have only once noticed it growing, fresh, at 6,000 feet, near 
Chumba. It is much eaten by natives, both fresh and dry, and is 
said to be preferred by them to the mushroom. Dried it is a not 
unsatisfactory addition to a stew even for an European taste. I 
have no proof that a morel, which is found abundantly in the desert 
about Jhang, &c., and is said to be got near Hoshi&rpur, &c., is 
the same species. It is considered a great dainty by natives, and 
relished by those Europeans who have tasted it. 

TuBEB cibabium. Sib. Truffle. 


There has b^n a good deal of debate at times as to whether 
truffles really are found in the Punjab Himalaya. But it is certain 
that they do grow there, for I have once at least seen genuine 
specimens got down to settle the point from towards Kashmir. 
They are said to be found also above Kfingra* 

Fungus sp. ? 

Vernacular. J. shirian. B. bat baJcH. 

A thm, flat, ragged-looking Fungus, yellow above, and with 
white gills below, which is got on dead trees in various parts of 

PUNGI. 269 

the Punjab Himalaya at 8,000 to 8,600 feet. The natives slice 
and cook them either fir^h or dry, and eat them as a relish with 
bread. I hare tried them in stews, &c., but found them leathery 
and flavourless. 

F. sp.? 

Vernacular, boenphah 

An underground mushroom, mentioned by Edgeworth as 
found in cultivated ground near Mult4n, and eaten by natives, and 
which he states he did not find at all palatable. 

N. O. ALG-ffi. 


Vernacular. giUar pattr. 

An algal marine plant, consisting of long ribbon-like pieces, 
which is foiuid in most Baz&rs, being brought from the northward 
to be administered for goitre {gillar or gat), a common disease in 
many parts of the Himdaya. Cayley states that 16 seers of this 
were imported from Y&rkand to Ld in 1867. Honigberger men- 
tions that the natives say it is produced in a salt lake in Tibet^ 
but it is probably brought from the sea through China. 

Parmelia Kamtschadalis. Esch. 
Vernacular. chalchaUra, charchaHla, aimeh. 

A lichen found in the Punjab Baz&rs, and probably gathered 
in the Himalaya. It is used as a dye, and is also officinal, being 
given as a stimulant to digestion, and on the Yun&ni system in 
mania. Honigberger states that it is also administered in disor- 
ders of the iifomach and womb, and in cases of calculus. 

P. SP.? 

Vernacular. B. hifimeiw. 

This lichen I saw common on rocks at various places in 
Chumba from lljSOO to 15,000 feet. It is applied to bums. 






Alhagi, 57 ; at Cuscuta pedioellata^ 

151 ; at Anatberum, 248. 

Abelim 118. 

Alliiiin, 230-282. 

AbolmoflchuB, !2L 

Almond, 78. 

Abies, 219 ; at Flantago major^ 174b. 

AlnuB, 197. 

AbruB, 50; at G-lycirrhua tri- 

Aloe, 282; "Aloe" at Cham©ropB, 

pbylla, 69. 


Abutilon. 21. 

Aloexylon, at Carissa diffusa^ 142. 

Acacia, 50-56; at Picua religioea, 

AlopecuruB, 248. 

214 ; at Cedrus, 220. 

Alsine, (before GJ-ouffeia^ omitted in 

Acanthacees, 164. 

text) 20. 

Acer 80 ; at Flatanufl orientalis, 202. 

Altbffia, 21. 

Acennee, 80. 

AlyssicarpuB, 57. 

AchiUea, 119. 

Amarantaceffi, 180. 

Achyranthes, 180. 

Amarantiis, 181. 

Aconite, 1. 
Aoonitam, 1-2. 

Amblo^yna, at Amarantus poly- 
gonoides, 181. 

AcoruB, 286 ; at Iris peeudacorus, 

Ammannia, 90. 

241 ; at Typha^ 246. 

AmorpbopballuB, at Arum cam- 


panulatiim, 246. 

AdanBonia, 24. 

Ampelide®, 55. 

Adelia, 191. 

Ampbicome, 148. 

Adhatoda, 164 ; at Cusouta leflexa, 

AmygdaluB, 77-8 ; at CoiyluB, 201. 


AmyrideiB, 44. 

Adiantnm, 265. 

Anabasis, 176. 

JBchmanthera, 164. 

Anagallis, 134. 

^le, 28. 
iBhiropus, 248. 

Animiirta, 6. 

Anatberum, 248 ; at Albagi, 67 ; at 

-fl^rua, 180. 

Aristida, 249. 

jSBschynoinene, 56 ; at Sesbania, 75. 

"Ancbusa," at Macrotomia eucb- 

African marigold, 130. 

roma, 155. 

AgaricuB, 267. 

An^omeda, 188 ; at Sbododendron 

AgathoteBi 147 : at Colchicum Bp., 

arboreum, 133. 


Andropogon, 248; at Anatberum; 

Agaye, 232. 

248; at Cymbopogon, 258 Us; 

Ajuga, 167 ; at Salvia Moorcrofb- 

at Saccbanim, 261; at Eriop- 

iana, 172 ; at Crozopbora plicata^ 

borum, 248. 


Anemone, 2, << A. sbrub/' at Baubinia 

AlangiaceiB, 98. 

variegata, 69. 

Albizzia, 56 ; at Acacia Bpedosa, 66. 

Anetbum, 103. 

Alder, 197. 

Angelica, 103. 
Anilema, 236. 

Algie, 269. 


Anteimaria, 119, 

"Anthemifi," at Matricaria €liam- 

omila, 127. 
AntluBtiria, 249. 
Apium, 104i ; at roeniculuin, 107. 
Aplotaxia, 119^ at Sauasurea 

obyallata, 129. 
ApocyaaoeiBy 141 
Apricot, 81; at Viscum attenua- 

tam, 118, 
Araceie, 246. 
Arachisy 67. 

Arachne, at Leptopus, 196. 
Aralia, 110. 
AraliacesB, 110. 
Arceuthobiom, 112. 
Argemone, 9. 

AnMBma^ at Arum, 247 fer. 
Aristida, 249 ; at btipagrostiB, 262. 
Aristoloclua, 191. 
Aristolochiacese, 191. 
Artemisia, 120-1 ; at Achillea, 119 

his; at Cuscuta pedicellata, 151 ; 

at 0. planiflora, 151 bis; at 

Allium, 232 ; at Asparagus Punj., 

Artocarpuai, 21L 
Arum, 246-7. 
Arundinaria, 249. 
Arundo, 250. 

Ash, 138 ; mouiitain do. at 83. 
Asparagus, 233. 
Asphodelus, 234. 
Asplenium, at Pteris, 260. 
Aster, 121. 
Asteracantha, 165. 
Astragalus, 57-8. 
Astrantia, 104 ; at Ferula, 106. 
^'Astrantimn," at Astrautia, 104. 
Atriplex, 177, 
Atropa, 156. 
AucUandia, 121 ; at lagularia^ 127 ; 

at Costus, 238. 
Aurantiace®, 28. 
Averrhoa, 37. 
Azidirachtai 32. 

Balanites, 44. 

BaJiospermiUDv 192; at Jatropha, 

Ballota, 167, 
Balsam, 36. 
Balsamine®, 36. 
Bamboo, 250 ; Male do., 250. 
Bambusa, 250. 
Baneberry, 2. 
Banyan tree, 213. 
Barberry, 7. 
Barieria, 166. 
Barley, 256. 
Barringtoniace», 95. 
Basella, 177. 
Basil, Sweet, (Odmtun Basilicum, 

omitted in text) 170. 
Bassia, 135. 
Batatas, 150. 
Bauhinia, 58-9; at Bdwardsia 

mollis, 68. 
Bean (Eaba, omitted in text) 69 ; 

Pytiiiagorean do., 9. 
Belenia at Scopolia, 159. 
Belleric Myrobahm, 89. 
Bengal Quince, 28, 
Benmcasa, 95. 
Benthamia, 111. 
BerberidesB, 7. 
Berberis, 7 ; at Mahonia, 8. 
Berchemia, 41. 
Bergera, 29. 
Bertholotia, 122; at Salvadora 

oleoides, 176. 
Beta, 177. 
Betula, 198 ; at Ulmus campestrisy 

Betulaceffi, 197. 

Bignonia, 148 ; at Tecoma, 149. 
BignoniaceiB, 148. 
Birch, 198 ;*Birch bark at Parrotia, 

Bird cherry, 82. 
Black currant, 102. 
Blitum, 177. 


Bcdhmeria, at Nussiessya, 215. 

Boerhaavia, 182. 

'^Boff Myrtle;' at Dodonm, 8L 

BoUb&ra Plum, 82. 

Boletus, 267. 

Bombace», 2i. 

Bombaxy 24. 

Boragineie, 152. 

Borassus^ at Abm, 21^ 


Bouoerosia, 146. 

Box, (Bnztts, omitted m text) W2. 

Brake, 266. 

Brasflica^ 11; at BaphanuB rapha- 

nifitrum, 15. 
Bronsrigia^ at Amaryllis, 232. 
l^onia, 95 f at Mukia» 98. 
Bucbananra, 45. 
Buckwheat, 184. 
Bugwort, 2. 
Bubufih, 246. 
BuDsum, at 4 BubuD, 109, 
Bupleurum, 104. . 
Butea, 59 ; at Brassica^ 11. 
Buxus, 192. 
ByttneriaceflBy 2& 

Cabbage, 12. 

Cacteie, 101. 

Cactus, 101. 

CflBsalpinia, 60 ; at GuilaniTuia,. 69. 

Cajanus, 60. 

Calamintha, 167 ; at Odmnm, 171. 

Caleiibdula, 123*. 

Callicarpa^ 165. 

Calligonum, 183. 

Calosanthes, atBignonia Indica,14S, 

Calotropis, 144 ; at Phelipssa, 164. 

Caltba, 2. 

Caltrops, Water, 89. 

Camel thorn, 57.' 

Campanulacesd, 182. 

Canayalia, 61. 

Cannabinace®, 216. 

Cannabis, 215 ;. at Xanthoxylon, 34 ; 

at Datisca, 191. 
CapparideiBy 15. 
Capparis, 15-17. 
CaprifoMacefB, 113. 
Capsicum, 156 ; at Punica, 91. 
Caragana, 61. 
Caraway, 104. 
Cardamine, 13. 
Cardamum, 238. 
Cardiospermxun, 31. 
Carduus, 123 ; at Cuscuta reflexa^ 

Carex^ 264. 
Careya,. 95. 
Carissa^ 141-2. 
Carob tree, 62. 
Caroxylon^ 177 ; at Anabasis, 176 ; 

at Salsol% 179 ; at Susda, 180. 
Carpesium, 123. 
Carpinus, 200. 
Ganeiv (Daucus^ omitted in text) 

Carthamus, 123-4. 
Carum, 104 ; at Cnmfniim, 106; at 

4 and 5 Dubiie, 109. 
Cai7oi)hyUee, 20. 
Cassia^ 61-2; at Cathartocarpus, 

62 ; at Berthelotia, 128. 
Cassiope, at Andromeda fast., 133. 
Cathartocarpus, 62 ; at Brassica, 11. 
Cedar, Himalayaa,. 220 ; Pencil da, 

Cedrela, 34 
CedrelaceiB, 34. 
Cedrus, 220. 
CelastnneiB, 40. 
Celastvus,. 4(k 
Celery, 104. 
Celosia, 181-2. 
Celtis, 209-10; at Ghewia oppo- 

sitifoUa, 27. 
CenchruB,. 252. 

Cerasus, 78 ; at Pnmus Padua, 88. 
Ceratonia, 62. 



Ceropegift, 145; at Pentatropie, 

Cbamffirops, 242 ; at Typ'^*' 246. 
Chamomile^ 127. 
Chaptalia, at Oreoseris, 128. 
Chebulic Myrobalan, 89. 
Cheiranthus, (before Cbeiri, omitted 

in text) 13. 
CbenopodiuiDy 178. 
Cherry, 78. 

Cbian Turpentine, at Pirtacia, 48. 
Chick Pea, 68. 
Chionanthns, 138. 
ChriBtolea, (before Crambe, omitted 

in text) 18. 
Chrysanthemum, 124. 
Chrysopogon, 252. 
Cicer, 63. 
Cichorium, 124. 
Cimicifuga, 2. 
Cinnamomum, 187. 
Cirsium, 125, 

Cissampelos, 6 ; at OlinuB, 101. 
CiseniB, 35. 
Cistine», 18. 
Citron, 29. 
Citrullus, 95^; at Cucumis Colo- 

cynthis, 96, 
Citrus, 29. 
Clematis, 3. 
Cleome, 17; at Gynandropsis and 

Polanisia, 18. 
Clerodendron, 165. 
Clethropsis, at Alnus, 197. 
Clitorea, 64. 
Cloyer, Dutch, (Trifolium repens, 

omitted in text) 76. 
Coccinea, 96. 
Cocculufl, 6. 
Cochlospermum, 18. 
Cockscomb, 182. 
Codonopsis, 132. 

Colchicum, 230 ; at Agathotes, 147. 
Colebrookia, 167. 
Coloca^ia, at Arum C, 247. 
Colocynth gourd, 96. 
Coltsfoot, 131. 
Colutea arborea, 64. 

CombretaceflB, 88. 

Gommelynacffi, 236. 

Conmielyna, 236 ; at Amlema^ 286. 

Common mushroom, 267. 

Compositse, 119. 

ConifertB, 219. 

ConocarpuB, 88. 

Conyallaria, 234. 

ConYolyulaces, 160. 

ConvolTulus, 150 ; at Batatas, 15a 

Coral tree, 69. 

Corchorus, 26. 

Cordia, 162^. 

Coriander, 105. 

Coriandrum, 105. 

Coriaria, 39. 

Com, Indian, (Zea, omitted in text) 

Comeaa, 111. 
Com-ftag, 241. 
Comus, 111. 

Corydalis, 10 ; at 1 Dubi«, 109. 
CorylacesD, 201. 
Corylus, 201. 

Costus, 238 ; at Acorus, 122^ 
Cotoneaster, 79 ; at Parrotia 111. 
Cotton, (Gossypium, omitted in 

text), 22. 
Cotula^ 125 ; at Matricaria, 127. 
Country spinach, Beta> 177. 
Cousinia, 125. 
Crambe, 13. 
Crassulace®, (abore Kalanchoe, 

omitted in text) 100. 
CratsBgus, 79 ; at Cardi^us, 123. 
CratsBYa, 17. 
Crocus, 239. 
Crotalaria, 64. 
Crozophora, 192-3. 
Cruciferse, 11. 
Cucumber, 97. 
Cucumis, 96-7 ; at Citrollus 95 ; at 

1, 5, and 6 Dubias, 99. 
Cucurbita, 97 ; atX^itruIlus, 95 ; 9^ 

3 Dubi», 99. 
CucurbitacesB, 95. 
Cumin, (Cuminumy omitted in text) 




CyamopBiB, 65. 
Cydoma, 80. 
Ciiminum, 106. 
CupresBUB, 222. 
CupulifertDy 198. 
Curculigo, at AiiilemA, 236. 
Curcuma, 238 ; at Hedychium, 289. 
Currant, black, red, aud yellow, 

CuBCuta, 151-2. 
Cyananthus, 182. 
CynaruB, 125. 

Cynodon, 258 ; at ^luropuB, 247. 
CynogloBsum, 158. 
CyperacesB, 264. 
CyperuB, 264 ; at Carex, 264. 
C^resB, 222 ; Twiatod do., 222. 

Dactyloctenium, 245. 

Diemia^ 145. 

Dalbergia, 65, at Acacia 55; at 

Ougeinia 72; at CuBcuta re- 

fleza, 152. 
DandeUon, 131. 

Daphne, 188-9; afWikatrffimia, 189. 
Date Palm, 248 ; dwarf do., 244, 

Wild do., 245. 
DatiBca^ 191 ; at Delphinium Banjc- 

ul»folium, 4. 
DatiBcace», 191. 
Datura, 156. 
DaucuB, 105. 
Delphinium, 8-4 ; at Pedicularis sp., 

162 ; at DatiBca, 191. 
DendrocalamuB, at Bambusa, 250. 
DoBmodium, 67-8, at CuBCUta mac- 

rantha, 151. 
Dhoon SirriB, 52. 
Dicliptera, 165. 
Digera, 182. 
Digitaria, 254. 
DiU, 103. 
DioBcorea^ 229. 
DioBCoreacesB, 229* 

DioBpyroB, 186-7 ; at Yiscum atten 

nuatum, 118. 
DipBacace», 168. 
DipterocarpaceiB, 28. 
Do(don8B% 81. 
DolichoB, 67. . 
Dolomi»a, 125. 
Dorema, at Ferqla, 106. 
Doum palm, at Phieniz daclyU 

ifera, 244. 
Dracocephalum, 168 ; at LaUeniaii- 

tia, 168. 
DroBera, 20. 
DroBeracen, 20. 
Dubi» CompoBite, 182 ; do. Cuour- 

bitaceiB, 99; do. Umbellifers, 109; 

do. Solanace®, 162. 
Dutch clover, (Trifolium repens, 

omitted in text) 76. 
Dwarf Date Palm, 245 ; dwarf £1. 

der, 114 ; dwarf Palm, 242. 

Earth-nut, at 4 Dubi^, 109. 

Ebenace«, 186. 

EchinopB, 126. 

EcHpta, 126. 

Edgeworthia, at Beptonia, 186. 

Edible Pine, 225. 

EdwardBia, 68 ; at Bauhinia varie- 

gata, 59. 
Ehretia, 158-4. 
ElsBagnaceie, 189. 
EkeagnuB, 189. 
ElaBodendron, 40. 
Elder, dwarf, 114. 
Elettaria, 288. 

ElenBine, 254 ; at Paspalum, 259. 
Ehn, 210. 
ElBholtzia, 168. 
Embelia, at Mynine, 186. 
Emblica, 193. 

EmbryopteriB, at DrospyroB E, 18d. 
Ephedra, 228 ; at CalBgonum, 188. 
EquiBotaceiB, 267. 
Equisetum, 267. 


Eremostachys, 168. 
EremuniB, 234. 
Ericaceie, 133. 
Eriophorum, 264 ; at Andropogon 

involatuB, 249. 
Erodium, 36. 
Eraca, at Brassica^ 11. 
Smim, 68. 
Erynpiiimy 105. 
.EryBimumi 18. 
Erythriius G^- 
Eucalyptogy 98. 
EulopW^ 236; at ArisiolochiA, 191 ; 

at AsparaguB filidnus, 233; at 

Convailaria Tertddllata^ 234 ; at 

Arum sp , 248. 
Euonymns, 40 
Euphorbia, 193-5; at Calotropis, 

EuphorbiaoeiB, 191* 
Eurotia, 179. 
Euiyale, 8. 
EuxoluB, 181; at Amarantus ole- 

raceuB, 181. 
EyoIyuIuSi 150. 


Eagonia, 87. 

Eagopyrum, 183-4; at Hordeum 

nexastichum, 256. 
Ealconeria, 217. 
E^urtetia, 18. 
Eennel, 107. 
Eeronia, 29. 
EeruK 106. 
EicoB, 211-14 ; at Cuflcuta refleza, 

152 ; at Euphorbia Boyleana, 195 

5m; at Fopulus cilista^ 204. 
Eig tree, 211. 
moeB, 265. 
Elacourtia» 18. 
Eiacourtiaiie»» 18. 
Elax, (Linum uflitatisBimum, omitted 

in text), 21. 


FluYiales, 241. 

FoBniculum, 107 ; at ApnaSr 104. 

Fragaria, 80. 

ErancoBuria^ 126. 

EraxinuB, 138-9. 

Yrenxlbi Marigold, 130. 

Fritillaria^ 234. 

Fritillary, 234. 

Fumaria» 11. 

Eumariaoe», 10» 

Fungi, 267. 

FUnguB, 26.8-9. 


Gku*Ec, 231. 

GFaru^ 45. 

Gtontiana, 147-8; at Ficrorhixa^ 163. 

€tentianace», 147. 

G^eraniacetB, 36. 

Geranium, 36 ; at Macrotomia en- 
chroma, 135. 

Gerardinia^ at TTrtica heterophyQa^ 

Ginger, 239. 

GlinuB, 101. 

Glochidion, 196. 

GlorioBa, 235 ; at Aloe, 232. 

Glycirrhua, 69 ; at AbruB, 50. 

Gmelina, 166. 

Ghiaphalium, 126-7. 

QnetacesD, 228. 

Gt)OBeberry, 102. 

GooBofoot,. (Chenopodium albums 
omitted in text), 178. 

GoBm»ium, 22. 


Grammes, 248. 

Ghrana fina, and G. aylreBtra, at 
CactuB, 102. 

GraBB, Lemon, (Cjinbopogon Iwar- 
ancusa, omitted in text)^ 258. 

Grewia, 26-7. 


GroBsularie»y 102. . 

Guava, 98. 



GKiilandJTift, 69. 

Ghim tree, 98. 

Oymnosporiay 41. 

C^ynaion, at Cordia yestita, 188. 

Ghynandropsis, 18. 

Gypsywopt, 168, 

Halorage», 89. 

Hamamelides, 110. 

Bjuniltonia, 115. 

Hawthorn, 79. 

** Hazel, " at Grewia Asiatica, 26. 

** Heather, " at Malcolmia, 14 ; Hun- 

alajran Heather, at Andromeda 

fastigiata, 188. 
Hedera, 110. 
Hedjchimn, 289. 
Hedjsarum, at Uraria, 77. 
Helicteres, 25. 
Heliotropium, 154. 
Hemp, Indian, 215. 
Hen^uie, 156. 
Heradenm, 107. 
Heteropogon, 255. 
HibkcuB, 22-8 ; at AbelmoBchus, 

21 ; at Crotalaria juncea, 64. 
HimaJayan Cedar, 220; do. Heather 

at Andromeda fiwtigiata, 188; 

do Holly, 40 ; do. Honeysuckle, 

114 ; do. Horsechesnut, 31 ; do. 

Mulberry, 219 ; do. Spruce, 219 ; 

do. Tew, (TaxuB, omitted in text), 

Hippophae, 190. 
Hiptaee, 80. 
Hog-plum, 50. 
Houmrhena, 142. 

''Holly," atMahonia^ 8; Hima- 
layan Holly, 40. 
Hollyhock, 21. 

Honeysuckle, HimaUyan. 114. 
Hop, 216. 

Hordeum, 255-6 ; at Oryza. 268 ; ftt 
Triticum, 263. 

Horehound, White, 268. 

Hornbeam, 200. 

Horsechesnut, Himalayan, 81. 

Horse-radish tree, 19. 

Horse tail, 267. 

HumuluB, 216. 

Hydrangea, 108. 

Hydrangeaceo, 108. 

Hydrilla^ 241; at Saccharum o£- 

ficinarum, 260. 
HydrocharidaceflD, 241. 
Hymenodictyon, 115. 
HyoscyamuB, 156. 
Hyperanthera, (for Moringa), at 

Brassica, 11 ; at Moringa, 19. 
Hyperica, 80. 
HyperidneaB, 80. 
HyphsBue, at Ph«nix dactylifera^ 



Hex, 40. 

IlidneiB, 40. 

Impatiens, 36. 

Imperata, 257. 

Incarvillea, at Amphicome, 148 

Indian com, (Zea^ omitted in text), 
268 ; Indian hemp, 215 ; *' Indian 
Laburnum" at CathartocarpuSy 

India rubber fig, 212; 

Indigo, 70. 

Indigofera, 70 ; at Parrotiay 111 ; 
at Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 

Ipomoea, 150. 

Iride», 289. 

Iris, 240-41 ; at Fritillaria, 234 ; at 
Narcissus, 285 ; at Acorus, 286. 

Ivy, 110. 


Jack firuit tree, 211. 
Jasmine®, 141. 


Jasmmtiin, 141. 

Jatroplus 196. 

Jugla^daoeo^ 201. 

JuglanB, 201. 

Juniper, 222. 

Jimiperufl, 222-8 ; at Aroeuthobiiiiii, 

112 ; at CupressuB toruloBa^ 222. 
Jute, (Corchorua eapflrularisi omitted 

in text), 26. 

iKalanehoe^ 100. 
Ehutrow, at Fice% 224. 
Kydia, 25. 

LabiatA, 167. 

Lablaby at Dolichofl L., 67. 

Lactuca, 127. 

Lagenaria, 98. 

Li^rstnBinia, 90. 

Lallemantia, 168 ; at Nepeta^ 170 ; 

at Salvia pumila, 174. 
Laminaria, 269. 
Lanoea, 162. 
Xjarkspur, 6. 
Latakia tobacco, 157. 
Lathyrus, 70-71. 
Lauraces, 187. 
Layatera, 28. 
LawBonia, 90. 
Legumino«% 50. 
Leea, 85. 

Leek, at Allium ABcaUonicum, 230. 
IiemonG-raM, (Cymbopogonlwaran* 

euBa, omitted in texit), 258. 
Lentil, 68. 
Lepidium, 14; and L. latifolium, 

omitted in text. 
LeptopuB, 196 ; at Cuscuta pedioel- 

lata, 151. 
Lettuce, 127. 
lioucas, 168. 

"Lichen," at Bouceroflia Aueheri, 

Lichenes, 269. 

Ligularia, 127 ; at Aucklandia, 121. 
LiguBticum, 107 ; (for Ptjdiotii) at 

Cucumis ColocynthiB, 96. 
LiliacesD, 280. 
Lime, sour, and sweet, 29. 
Limonia, at Skimmia, 29. 
Limnantiiemum, at Yillanda, 148. 
Lines, 20. 
Linum, 20-21. 
Lippia, 166. 
Lithospennum, at Macfotomia eu- 

chroma, 154, 155. 
LitB»a, 188. 
" Locusts '* of St. John, at Ceiratonia^ 

Lonicera, 118-4. 
Loranthace», 112. 
LoranthuB, 112. 

*' Lotus, " at Celtis Caucasica, 209. 
Lovage, 107. 
Lucerne, 71. 
Luffa, 98. 

Lychnis, 20. j 

Lycium, 156-7 ; at Berberis, 7. 
Lycoperdon, 268. 

Lycopersicum, at Solanum L., 179. 
Lycopus, 168. 
Lythrarieie, 90. 


Machilus, 188. 

Macrotomia, 154. 

Madder, 117; Wild do., 116. 

MapnoliaceiB, 5. 

Mahogany, 84. 

Mahonia, 8. 

Maiden hair, 265. 

Maize, (Zea, omitted in text), 263. 

Malacochsete, 264. 

Malcolmia, 14. 

Male Bamboo, 250. 

Malpighiaces, 80. 

Malya, 28. 



Halyace®, 21. 

Mangifersi 45. 

Marigold, Africaii, and i^nch, 180. 

Marjoram, 171. 

MarVing Nut» 49« 

Marrubinm, 169. 

Mansdenia, 145. 

MarsK Mallow, 21; Marsh Mari* 

gold, 2; Miqnh whorled mint, 

Marsilea, 266. 
Marsileaces, 266. 
Marfcynia, 149. 

Mathiola, 14 ; at Cheirantlius, 13. 
Matricaria^ 127 ; at Cotula^ 125. 
Meadow Bue, 6. 
Meconopsifl, 9. 
Medicago, 71. 
Medlar, 85. 
MelanthacesB, 280. 
Melia, 88. 
Melica, 267. 
Melilotns, 71-2. 

Melissa at Galam]ntha,-167, his. 
Melon, Musk, 95; Water do., 95. 
MenispermaceiB, 6. 
Mentha^ 169. 
Mesembryace®, 101. 
Methonica, at GJ-loriosa, 285. 
Michelia, 5. 
Micromeria, 169. 
MicrorhyndixiB, 127. 
Mimosa^ 72. 
Mimiisops, 186. 
Mint, Persian, at Mentha incana^ 

168 ; Mint, Marsh whorled, 168. 
Mirabilis, 182. 
Mistletoe, 112. 
Momordica, 98 ; at 2 Dubi», 99 ; at 

Boncerosia Aucheri, 148. 
Monkshood, 2. 
Moraoeie, 217. 
Morchella^ 268. 
Morel, 268. 
Morina, 118. 
Morinda^ 115. 
Moringa^ 19. 

Moringaceas, 19. 

Moms, 217-19; at C^scuta pedi- 

cellata, 151. 
Mountain Ash, 88. 
Muctma, 72. 
Mukia, 98. 

Mulberry, 217 ; do. Himalayan, 219. 
Mulgedium, 128. 
Mullein, 168. 

Murdannia at Anilema, 286. 
Musa, 229. 
Musaceffi, 229. 
Mushroom, common, 267. 
Musk Melon, 96. 
Myrica, 202. 
Myncaoeea, 202. 
Myricaria, 91. 
Myriogyne, 128. 
Myrobalans, Belleric and Chebulic, 

Myrsinace», 185. 
Myrsine, 135 ; at Bottlera, 197. 
MyrtacesB, 93. 
Mysore Thom^ 60. 

NarcissaSy 285 ; at Iris Florentina, 

Kardoo at Marsilea, 266. 
Nardostaehys^ 118. 
" Nardus *' at Gymbopogon, 258. 
Nardus» 257. 
Narthex at Perula, 106. 
Nasturtium, 14 ; at Cardamine, 18. 
Kauclea, 116. 
Nectarine, 78. 
Neilgherry Nettie, 215. 
NelombiaceflB, 9. 
Nelumbium, 9. 
" Nepal waU-flower/* at Erysimum, 

Nepetai 170; at Cuscuta reflexa^ 

Nephrodium, 266; at Adiantom 

C. v., 265. 



Nerija^ at EIieodendroxL, 40. 

Kerium, 142. 

Kettle tree, (Celtis, oinitted in 

text), 209. 
Nettle, Neilgherrj, 215. 
Kicandra, at Fhysalifl, 158. 
Kicotiana, 157-8 ; at Ghammropi, 

Nigella, 4. 
Nightshade, 160. 
Nima, 89. 
NuBsieBsja^ 215. 
NjctaginaceiB, 182. 
Njctanthee, 141. 
Njmphaa, 8. 
NjmphMceA, 8. 


Oats, 251 ; wild do., 250. 
Ocimum, 170; at Calamintha, 167. 
Odina, 46 ; at Bhus Buckiamela, 48. 
Olea, 189 ; at Parrotia, 111 ; at Di- 

osp jroB tomentoMy 137 ; at 

BuxuB, 192. 
OleaoesB, 138. 
Olive, 139. 
Onion, 280. 
Onobroma, at Carthamas ozyacan- 

tha, 124. 
Onosma, 154 ; at Ymca, 148 } at 

Tnckodesma 0p.> 155. 
Ophelia, 147. 
OpliBmeniiB, 257. 
Orache, 177. 
Orange, 29. 
OrchidaoesB, 236. 
Orchis, 287 ; at IBulophia campestris, 

237, his ; Orchis, Salop, E. c, 

(omitted in text), 286. 
Oireoeoine, at 1 IhibiiB, 109. 
Oreoseris, 128 ; at Antennaria eon- 

toita, 119) at Co«udlna sp., 125 ; 

at Echinops, 126 ; at GhoLaphaliiun 

«p., 12*; at 1 ttdd 2 JMrn^ 192. 
Origanum, 171. 

''Omithogaltim,*' at Eremums, 284. 
Omus, at FrazinuB sp., 189. 
OrobanchaceiB, 168. 
Orontiacoffi, 236. 
Orthanthera^ 146; at Crotalifiria 

Burhia, 64. 
OryjBa, 267. 
OBmathamnns, at Bhododendron 

anihopogon, 188. 
Ougeinia^ 72. 
OxaLidoffi, 87. 
OxaliB, 87. 
OxybaphuB, 182. 
Oxjria^ 184. 
Oxystdnus 146. 
Oxytropis, 72 ; (O. maorophylla, 

omitted in text). 

Pffionia, 4. 

PaliiiruB, at Berchemia, 41, dif. 

Pahn, date, 248 ; Palm, dwarf date, 

245; Palm, stemleBB date^ 248; 

Pahn, wild date, 245 ; Pahn, Doum, 

at Phsnix dactylifera, 244 ; Plahn, 

dwarf, 242. 
Pabme, 248. 
Panderia^ 179. 
Panicum, 258-9; at OpUsmenns, 

257 ; at PenniBetum, 259^ 
Papaver, 10. 
Papaveraceie, 9. 
Papaj^aoete, 99. 
Parkmsonia^ 78. 
Parmelia, 269. 
Parrotia^ 110; at Indigolbra, 70; 

at Olea, 140 ; at BgQa, 198; at 

Salix alba^ 206. 
Parsley, 107. 

" Parsnip, " at 6 Dubia, 110. 
Paspalum, 259. 
Pastinacai at Exyngimn, 10& 
Payia, 81. 

Pea, Pisum, (omitted m text)| 99. 
Pear, 84. 




Fedioolaana, 162. 

Peganum, 88 ; at Cusouta pedi441- 

kta, 151. 
PBndl Cedar, 2^8. 
Penicillaria, 259 ; at Sorghum, 262. 
Pennisetum, 259. 
Pentapotis, 25. 
Pentaptera, 88. 
Pentatropis, 146. 
Pepj»er, red, 156. 
Penploca, 14(6. 
Perowakia, at Guscuta planiflor% 

Pendaa Mmt> at Mentha mcana^ 

Petroflelinum, 107. 
Fli»nopii8, 128. 

Phanera, at Battbioia yariog^tay 59. 
PharbitiB, 151. 
Phaseolus, 78. 
Pheliptea^ 168. 
Philadelphes, 98. 
Philadelphus, 98. 
PhoBniz, 248-5. 

PhjllanthuB, at Glochidion^l96. 
Physalis, 158. 
Phytolacca, 176. 
Phytolaccacese, 176. 
Picea» 224 ; at Taxus, 227. 
Picrorhiza, 168 ; at G-entiaQa Kar- 
roo, 147. 
Pisapinella, 107 ; at Ptychotis, 109. 
Pincurow, at Picea, 224. 
Pine, Edible, 225. 
PinuB, 225-6 ; at CedruB, 220. 
Pifltacia, 46-8 ; at ShuB CotinuB, 49. 
Pistachio tree, P. Ter% (omitted 

in text), 47. 
Pisnm, 78. 
Plane, 202. 
Plantaginaceid, 178. 
Flantaeo, 178-4 ; at Abies, 219; at 

Colchicum sp., 2^0. 
Platanacew, 2(^. 
Platanns, 202. 
Plectranthns, 171 ; at Cuacutapedi- 

cellata^ 151. 

Pleurospermum, 108 ; at Allium sp., 

PInchea, 129. 

Plum, 82. 

Plumbaginaee89, 173. 

Plumbago, 178. 

Podophyllum, 8. 

Toinciana, at Acacia 8tipulata> 56. 

Polanisiap, 18. 

Polianthes, 285. 

PolygonaoefB, 188. 

Polygonum, 184-6; at Cuscuta 
macrantha and 0. pedLcellatay 
151 ; at Sazifiraga, 108 ; at Pago- 

pyrum, 184. 

Polygonatum, at Conyallaria^ 284^ 

Polypodium, 266 ; at Adiantum G. 

v., 265. 
Pomegranate, 94. 
Ponsamia, 78. 
Fopbr, Balsam, and P., Himalaras, 

204 ; P., Italian, 205 ; P., white, 

Populus, 204-5; at Cuscuta mac- 
rantha, 151 ; at G. reflexa, 152. 
Portulaca, 99-100. 
PortulacesB, 99. 
Potamogeton, 241-2 ; at Saccharum 

officinarum, 260. 
Potato, 160. 
Potentilla, 80-81 ; at Macrotomia 

euchroma, 175. 
Pothos, at Flantago Major, 174 ; at 

Abies, 219. 
Prangos, 108. 
Prenanthes, 129. 
Primulaces, 184. 
Prinsepia, 81. 
Procris, 215. 
" Prophet's flower, 

echioides, 152. 
Prosopis, 74. 
Prunella, 171. 
PnmuB, 81-8; at Amygdalus, 77; 

at Coiylus, 201. 


at Amebia 



Pndium, 94, 
Psoralea, 75, 
Fteris, 266; at Adiantum 0. Y., 

265 ; at Nephrodum, 266. 
Ftychotis, 109 ; at LiguBticum, lOT ; 

at Ouciunia Colocpithi0| 96, 
Pueraria, 75. 
Puff ball, 268. 
Pumelo, 29. 
Puiuoa, 94. 
Furslabi, Portulaca olenK^ea, (oipit- 

ted in text), 99. 
Putranjiva, 196. 
PyTOthruxn, 12a 
PyruB, 88-6. 
PytliagOTean Bean^ 9. 


QuereuB^ 198-200; at Yiscum al- 
bum, 118 ; at Y. attoniiatum, 118, 

Quiaoe, 80; Bengal quiAce,, 28, 


Sadish, 15. 

Bagwort, 130. 

Bandia, 116. 

Banunculacete^ 1, 

BaniinculuB, 4. 

BaphanuSy 15. 

Bed currant, 103. 

Bed Pepper, 166, 

Beed, 250 

fieptonia, 185. 

Bhamnese, 41. 

BhamnuB, 4L-2, 

Bbazja^ 148. 

Bheum, 186 ; at YerbaBCum, 163. 

Bhododendron, 188-4; at Andro- 

medflj 183. 
Blkubaro, 186 ; at Polygonum polj- 

rtachyum, 188. 

Bhua, 48-9; at Odina, 46; at Pista- 

da integerrim% 47. 
Bibes, 102. 
Bioe, Ory^a sativa, (omitted in text), 

BicinuB, 196. 
Bocl;et, 11.. 
BoBa, 85-6. 
BoBcea, 77. 
BoBaoe», 289. 
Bottlera, 197. 
Bowan, 88. 
Boylea, 172. 

BuDia^ 116-7 ; at Bhemn, ISe. 
BubiaoetB, 115. 
BubuB, 86-7. 
Bmnex, 187. 
Buta, 88; at Euphorbia dracun* 

culoidoB, 193, 
Butacesd, 88. 
Bye, 262. 


Saccharum, 201-2 ; at CfaanuBrops^ 

242; at Anatberum, 248; at 

Lnperata» 257, 
SaAower, 124, 
Saffron, 289. 
Sageretia, 42* 

*< Sainfoin," at O^tropis, 72. 
Salop Ordiia, Eulophia campestriB, 

(omitted in text), 236. 
SalicacesD, 203. 

Salicomia, at Caroxylon, 178. 
Salix, 206-9; at Cusouta n^tcrantha^ 

SalBola^ 179 ; at Caroxylon, 178, Mr, 
Sakolacesd, 176. 
Salyadora, 174-5 ; atTamarix orien-^ 

talis, 92. 
Salyadoraoee, 174. 
Salvia^ 172; at CuBCuta refiexa, 

162 ; at Ajuga, 167. 
SambucuB, 114 ; at CuBcuta i^flexa, 




SamydetB, 4A. 

Sapindaoen, 81. 

Bapindiui, 82. 

Sapotaceidy 185. 

8aiiBsurea» 129; at Aplotazis gos- 

sypina^ 119. 
Saxifrage 108. 
Saxdfri^aceflB, 108. 
Scfaleicnera, 82. 
Sdlla^ at Urginia^ 285. 
ScirpiiB, 265 ; at Cyperus tuberofius, 

8copolia» 169. 
Bcorzonera^ at 6 Dubio ComporitfB, 

Scrophularia, 108. 
ScrophulariaoesB, 162. 
Scutellaria, 178. 
Secale, 262. 
Sedge, Bweet, Acoros Calamus, 

(omitted in text), 286. 
Sedum, 101. 
SemecarpuB, 49 ; at Cordia Myxa, 

Semn^pithecus, at Quercus Ilex, 

Serpent Stick, 40. 
Seeames, 149. 

Sesamum, 149 ; at ImpatienB, 86, 
Sesbania, 75. 

Betaria,at Fennifletumltalicum, 259. 
Shorea, 28. 

Sida, 28 ; at Bumex acutuB, 187. 
Silene, 20. 
SimarubesB, 89. 
Sinapis, at BraBsica, 11, 
Sisymbrium, 15. 
Slum, at Eryngium, 106. 
Sisygium, 94. 
Snake Gourd, 99. 
Soapnut tree, 82. 
Sodada^ at Capparia apbylla, 16, 
Soia, 76. ^ ^ 

Solanace», 166. 
SolaaiuDi 159-61. 

SoIenanthuB, 155; at Cuscuta 

planiflora^ 151. 
Solomon's Seal, 284, Hi. 
Sonchus, 180. 
Sorghum, 262. 
Sour Lime, 29. 
Sowthistle, 180. 
Spear mint, 168. 

SpluBranthus, 180 ; at GMinus, 101. 
Spilanthes, at Pyrethrum, 129. 
Spinach, 180 ; country do., 177. 
Spir»a» 87-8 ; at CuBcuta macrantha, 

151 ; at C. reflexa^ 152. 
Spondias, 50. 
Sponia^ 210. 

Spruce, Himalayan, 219. 
Spurge, sun, Euphorbia Helioscopia, 

(omitted in text), 198. 
Squash, 97. 
Squill, 285. 
Stachys, 178. 
'' Stapelioides, " at Boucerosia 

Aucheri, 14^. 
Staphylea^ 40. 
StaphyleacesB, 40. 
Stetlaria, at Gouffeia, 20. 
Stemless Date palm, 248. 
Sterculia, 25-6. 
SterculiacesB, 25. 

Stereospermum, at Bignonia, 148. 
Stilaginacesd, 217, 
Stipagrostis, 262. 
St. John's Wort, 80. 
Stschas, at E^nella, 172. 
Stock, 14. 
Strawberry, 80. 
SiyracacesB, 188, 
Suieda, 180. 
Sugarcane, 260. 
Sun Spurge, Euphorbia Helioscopia, 

(omitted in text), 198. 
Sweet Basil, Odmum, (omitted in 

text), 170. 
Sweet lime, 29. 
Sweet Sedce, Acorus CalamuSi 

(omitted in text), 286. 



Swietenia, 84. 
SjxnploooB, 138. 
Sjnnggf 140-41. 

Tagetes, 130. 

Tamarindus, 76. 

TamariBciiie83, 91. 

Tamarix, 91 ; at Cuacuta pedicellata, 

151 ; iit Salvadora oleoideSy 175. 
Tanacetum, 130-31. 
Tansy, 130. 
Taraxacum, 131. 
Taxus, 227. 
Tecoma, 149. 
Tectoius 166. 
Tepbrosia, 76. 
Terebintliacesd, 45. 
Terminalia, 8B-9 ; at Fentaptem, 88. 
Tetranthera, 188. 
Tl^ctrum, 5. 
Thapsia, at Ferula, 106. 
Thespesia, 24. 
Thorn apple, 156. 
Thymelseaces, 188. 
Thymus, 173. 

** Tiger grass," at Cham^rops, 242. 
Tiliace», 26. 
Tinospora, 6. 

Tobacco, 156 ; at Latakia, 157. 
Tomato, 159. 

TragopogOD, 131 ; at Sonchus, 130. 
Trapa, 89. 
Trianthema, 100. 
Tribulus, 87. 
Trichodesma^ 155 ; at Macrotomia 

euchroma, 155. 
Trichosanthes, 99. 
TrifoHum, 7€-7. 
Trigonella, 77. 
Triticium, 262. 
Triumfetta, 28. 
Tuber, 268. 
Turmeric, 238. 

Turnip, 12. 
Tussil^;o, 131. 
Twisted cypress, 222. 
Typha, 246 ; at Acorus, 236. 
Typhace», 246. 


TTlmacesB, 209. 

Ulmus, 210-11 ; at Fopulus Eu^ira- 

tica, 205. 
XJmbellifer», 103. 
Ucaria^ 77. 
TJrginia, 235. 
Urtica^ 215 ; at Cuscuta macrantha^ 

Urticace», 211. 

Valerian, 118. 

Valeriana, 118. 

Valeriane», 118. 

Vallisneria, 241. 

Verbascum, 163. 

Verbena, 166. 

Verbenace», 165. 

Vemonin^ 131 ; at Aplotaxis, 11% 

Veronica, 163. 

Vetrreria^ at Anatfaerum, 248. 

Viburnum, 114-15. 


Vilfa, 263. 

ViUarsia, 148. 

Vinca, 143. 

Vincetoxicum, 146-7. 

Vine, 35. 

Viola, 19. 

ViolariesB, 19. 

Violet, 19; ^'mlefe" Amebia, 182. 

Viscum, 112-13. 

Vitex, 166. 

Vitis, 85. 




Waldheunia, 182. 

WaMower, Cheiranthiis (omitted 

in text), 18. 
«< Wallflower, Nepal," at Erjaimum, 

Walnut, 201. 
Water caltrops, 89. 
Water cress, Nasturtium, (omitted 

in text), 14. 
Water melon, 95. 
Wendlandia, 117. 
Wheat, Triticum, (omitted in 

text), 262. 
White Horehound, 168. 
White Poplar ; 208. 
Wikstrsmia, 189. 
Wild Date palm, 245. 
Wild oats, 250. 
Willow, at Panrotia, 111 ; at Populus 

Euphratica, 205. 
Willow, weeping, 207. 
Withama, 161 ; at Physalis Indica, 

Wolfs-bane, 1. 
Wood-apple, 29. 
Wort, 8t. John's, 80. 
Wriffhtea, 148; at Holarrhena, 142. 
Wjdi Hazel, 110. 


Xanthium, 182. - 
Xanthoxyllaceie, 39. 
Xanthoxjlon, 89. 


Yam, 246-47. 

Yarrow, Achillea, (omitted in text), 

Yellow Currant, 102. 
Yew, Himalayan, Taxus baccata^ 

(omitted in text), 227. 


Zea, 268. 

Zeuxine, 238. 

Zingiber, 239 ; at Curcuma, 238. 

ZingiberacesB, 238. 

Zizyphus, 42-4 ; at Guscuta reflexa^ 

ZjgophjUea, 37. 
Zygophjllum, 38. 





(ptl) dbhds, Mirabilis Jalapa, 182. 

abhUj Jumperus communis^ 222. 

ahnif, bird de abnus^ Diospyros to- 
mentosa^ 187. 

(^Q abreMhamy Acacia spedosa^ 66. 

aehdrj pidde, 12, 211. 

0(2a, Zingiber officinalifl, 289. 

adeiy Abelia triflora, 118 ; Lonicera 
quinquelocularis, 114. 

adhsarita kajaH, Adiantum caud- 
atam, 265. 

adraky Zi^ber officinalis, 289. 

ftfdrhiun^ Euphorbia Boyleana, 194 

({fhny Papayer somnifenun, 10. 

qfhmtbi^ Artemisia Indica, 120. 

qfUminy Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 

aggar^ at Carissa diffusa, 142. 

agkzMy Fagonia Cretica, (T. I. omit- 
ted in text), 87. 

(ipal) aghzdiy Pagonia Cretica, 87. 

Oipin) aghzdC, Astragalus multiceps, 
67 ; Ballota limbata, 167. 

(tAr) aghzHf Ghymnosporia spinosa, 

aghzakdi, Prosopis spicigera, 74. 
aghzan^ Ballota limbata, 167. 
ahandil, Pisum sativum, 78. 
(gilj-i-c^'diby Hibiscus mutabilis, 22. 
ajmod^ Aj)ium graveolens, 104. 
qjwdmy Liqusticum ajowan, 107. 
Ofoi) ajvmn^ Pimpinella crinita, 

107 ; Ptychotis Cfoptica^ 109. 
aky Calotropis procera, 144; Wi- 

thania somuifera^ 161. 
£ky Calotropis procera, 144. 
akdkia, Acacia Arabica, 50. 
akarkarOf Pyrethrum sp., 129. 


akdi hely Cuscuta reflexa, 162. 
akhiy Bubus fruticosuSy 87. 
dkhiy Bubus flavus, 86. 
akhidrt^ Bosa macropbylla, 86. 
(ban) akhor, AraliaCacnemirica, 110. 
akhoriy Inglans regia, 201. 
dkhra, Bubus rotimdifblius, 87. 
akhrert, Bubus biflorus, 86. 
akhrot, Inglans regia, 201. 
Akhoondy the priest-king of Swdt^ 

north of Pesnawar, 258. 
aklbtr, Datisca cannabina, 191 ; at 

Delphinium saniculsBfolium, 4. 
akUlr-ulrmalik^ Astragalus hamosus, 

akrl, Withania coagulans, 161. 
aJcMn^ Withania Somnifera, 101. 
al ? Gucurbita maxima, 97. 
My Morinda citrifolia, 115. 
Mindiiy Citrullus vu^aris var. fistu- 

losus, 96. 
cdelliy Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
dUihij Zjgophyllum simplex, 88; 

Trianthema crystallina, 100. 
iliy Cathartocarpus fistula, 62. 
aliiTy Dodonasa Burmanniana^ 81. 
alUhy Bubus fruticoBus, 87. 
dlUhy Linum usitatissimum, 21. 
alldy Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 
alUpall4y Asparagus filidnus, 288. 
ahiy Linum usitatissimiim, 21. 
(Uu, Solanum tuberosum, 161 ; Arum 

Colocasia, 247. 
dlu bdliy Cerasus vulgaris, 78. 
dlu Bokhdra, Prunus BokhariensiSi 

(gurd) dluy Prunus Armeniaca, 81. 
(kach) dluy Arum Colocasia, 247. 
(tU) kachdlu, Saxi&aga ligulata, 108. 


(Hr) dl&f Arum Bpeciosuxn, 247. 
(rat) dlu, Dioscorea sativa, 229. 
(shaft) ilij AmygdaluB Perrica Tar. 

IsbyIb, 78. 
alueha, Frunus domesticus, 82. 
aluk'Ul-umbaty Pistacia TerebinthuSy 

dm, Mangifera Indica, 45. 
amal^ &e,, sour. 
dmal bel, Cissus camosa, 85. 
amalguch, Prunus Puddum, 83. 
amalfdsy Cathartocarpus fistula, 62. 
amb, Mangifera Indica, 45; Hip- 

pophae rhamnoides, 190. 
ambaly Emblica officinalis, 193. 
ambarvely Pentatropis spiralis, 146. 
amhdra, ^^pondias Mangifera, 50. 
€BmbUy Emblica officinaUs, 193. 
ambluy Ghlochidion sp., 196. 
dmbre, Viburnum nervosum, 115. 
dm cAur and dm-ki-^ikhU, Mangifera 

Indica, 45. 
dmi, Eumex hastatus, 187. 
dmil, Cuscuta macrantha, 151. 
amla, sour. 
amla, Humex bastatus, 187 ; Emblica 

officinalis, 198. 
amldiy Zizypbus vulgaris, 44. 
amldnch, Kibes grossularia, 102. 
amidandij Polygonum poljstachyum 

amlidcha. Viburnum stellulatum, 

amlin. Delphinium Easbmirianum, 

amlokf Diospyros Lotus, 136. 
amlora, Humex bastatus, 187. 
amlu, Cuscuta pedicellata, 151 ; 

Oxyria reniformis, 184. 
amnio, Zizypbus vulgaris, 44. 
ampe, at Hordeum caaleste, 256. 
amrdi, TJlmus «rosa, 210. 
amrer, Nussiessya bypoleuca^ 215. 
amrethi, SpirsBa Linafeyana, 88. 
amrola, Viburnum nervosum, 115. 
amri sun, Pyrus Malus, 85. 
amrud, amrut, Psidium Guajava, 94. 

am^ danda, Mahonia Nepalensis, 8. 

amii, Loranthus longiflorus, 112. 

an. Moms serrata, 219. 

dn, Urtica heterophylla, 215. 

andr, a kind of firework, 45. 

andr, andr ddna, Punica granatumy 

anbi&tdlih, Solanum nigrum, 160. 

andal, Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 

dndi, CsBsalpinia sepiaria, 60. 

and-kharhiza ? Carica Papaya^ 99. 

anddui, Trichodesma Indicum, 155. 

aauTU, BicinuB communis, 196. 

angrdsha, Spinea Kamtscbatika, 87. 

ang{kr, grapes, Vitis Indica^ (omit- 
ted in text), 35. 

aryurt, Baubinia varie^ta^ 59. 

anguza, Ferula Asafoetida, 106. 

anisun, Pimpinella anisum, 107. 

anjahdr. Polygonum Bistorta, 185. 

anjan, application for eye-diseasesy 
5, 56. 

a^ir, Eicus carica, 211. 

ankhar, Ealconeria insi^s, 217. 

dnkhi, Bubus rotundifoTius, 87. 

ankren, Bubus biflorus, 86. 

crnne, Panicum miliaceum, 258« 

anor, Punica granatum, 94. 

dns, Bibes rubrum, 102. 

d<mla, Emblica officinalis, 193. 

aor ? Prunus domestica, 82. 

apamarg, Acbyrantbes aspera, 180. 

apurs, JuniperuB excelsa, 223. 

ar. Acacia Jacquemonti, 53. 

arak, spirits, 35, 206, 253 ; Horde- 
um bexasticbum, 256. 

arand, Bicinus communis, 196. 

arand kharbuza, Carica Papaya, 99. 

arbamhal, Hedera Helix, 110. 

drchdlwa, Coriaria Nepalensis, 39. 

arddwal, Bbododendron arboreum, 

ar^aiodn, Baubinia variegata, 59 ; 
JEidwardsia mollis, 68. 

arhar, Cajanus Indicus, 60. 

dri, Viburnum nervosum, 115. 

arjan, Terminalia arjuna, 88. 



arkhary Bhi» acuminftta, 48^ S. 

Backiamela^ 48; B. Yormcifera^ 

ariputifm, Pe&tatropia spiralis, 146. 
arknol, Khus aciuninAta, 48. 
orito/, £hu8 Buckiomela, 48 ; B. 

Temicifera, 49. 
arleiy CsBsalpiziia sepiaria,. 6(X 
arU, Mimosa rubicaiilis, 72. 
armiray Conavia Kepalensis^ 89.. 
ami^ Clerodendron SiphouaDithiLs, 

or^o^, Boerbaavia diffusa, 182. 
arUy arUOy Bheiun Emodir 186. 
druy Amygdalus Persica, 78 ; Bho- 

dodenoron arboreum, 133. 
(jald) druy Fnmus Armeniaca, 81. 
(mAndluy irA^ Amygdalus Fendca 

var. levis, 78. 
drwy Amygdalus Persica^ 78.. 
arundj Prinsepia utilis^ 81. 
aruTy Andromeda ovalifolia, 139* 
arzan^ Panicum miliaceum, 258. 
{habh uT) ds, Myrtus communis, 93. 
dsan, Pentaptera tomentosa, 88. 
dsdrAn^ YalenaQa Hardwickii, and 

V. WaUichii, 118. 
asbar^. Delphinium SaniculsBfoUum, 

4 ; at Datisca caonabina, 191. 
iuff€tnd Nagauriy Withania somni- 

fera, 161. 
(ikakar ul) ashoTf Calotropis pr^ 

cera, 144. 
askuta, Bibes lentostachyum, 102. 
ttslcuw, G-lycyrrniza tripbylla, 69. 
dgmdnia, Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 
iU9Ut Brassica Eruca, 11. 
Athfdlj Astragalus molticeps^ 57. 
atU, Aconitum heterophyUum, Ir 
dUu, Bheum Emodi, 186. 
attoTy essence, 85. 
a$tdry maker of essences, 208. 
dtuhfdny Myrsine Africana, 135. 
atwmy Heliotropium Europseum, 

aitneh^ Paimelia Eamtschadalis, 


aiitakhadus^ Prunella vulgaris, 17L 
awdnlhuli, Ballota limbata, 167. 
ayatt€ty Andromeda ovalifolia, 133. 
azkhoTy Cymbopogon Iwarancusa, 

azmdy: JSrua Bovii^ 180. 


hdbary at Andropogon involutus,- 

(haag^ habhar, huji habhary labhi^ 

Eriophorum comosum,. 264. 
hahhilj Acacia Jacquemonti, 53. 
babhur (Sind),. at Acacia Arabica- 

var. €upiesriformis, 52. 
bdbchiy Psoralea corylifolia, 75. 
(mukand) bdbrlj Eclipta erecta, 126. 
babul. Acacia Arabica 50 ; A. Pame- 

siaoa, 53. 
{Bdm) babul, Acacia Arabica yar. 

Gupressiformis, 52. 
babult, Acacia ebumea, 52. 
babuna, Cotola anthelmintica, 125 ; 

Matricaria Chamomila, 127. 
bahuri, Acacia Jacquemonti, 53^ 

Mentha incana, 169; Ocimum 

Basilicum, 170. 
bachrffhorbach, Acorus calamus, 236. 
bacha, tinder^ 126> 
(damang) bacha, 2 ] Dubi® Com- 

posito, 182. 
^rcho) bacha, Echinops nivea, 126. 
haeho, Bubia tinctorum, (S. omitted 

m text), 117. 
badd, Salu Babylonica, 207 ; S. sp.^ 

baddm, Amygdalus communis, 77. 
baddm talk%, Amygdalus sp , 78. 
badar, Picea Webbiana, 224 ; Tazus 

baccata, 227. 
baddr, Pueraria tuberosa, 75. 
bddauxsrd, Carduus nutans, 123. 
badhd, Salix tetrasperma^ 208 ; Ficus 

cordifolia, 212. 
badlo^ Ghymnosporia spinosa, 41. 



hddranf loya^ Nepeta ruderalis, 170. 
hadroTy MachiluB odoratiBsimus, 188. 
hadahihi^ royal, ». e,^ kept for the 

ruler, 245. 
ligduTy Chiysanthemum Indicum, 

haggar, Andropogon involutus, 249. 
iwibr, Eriophorum comosum, 264. 
(fian) haggar^ Eriophorum comosum, 

"baggi hifi, Staehjs parviflora, 173. 
i(^g* Una, Su»da fruticosa, 180. 
lagMriy Xanthium Btrumarium, 132 ; 

Achyranthes aspera, 180. 
hagnarri, Arundo donax, 250. 
hufnUf Populus ciliata, 204. 
(ckita) hagni, Populus alba, 203. 
(gor) bagra, Eriophorum comoflum, 

hwri, Phoeniz dacWlifera, 243. 
bahambj Spondias MaE^gifera, 50. 
hd^n, Populus Enphratica, 204. 
hahera, Terminalia jBellerica, 89. 
hahul, Orewia oppositifolia, 27. 
lairingi, CalUia palustris, 2. 
hqfaroang, Scopolia prsMJta, 159. 
hqfar hanga, at Datisca cannabma, 

Iqfar btmf, Chenopodium sp., 179. 
hajawri mmbi. Citrus medic% 29. 
iqjhol ? MachiluB odoratisaimus, 

Ixj^vTy Poljr^onum Bistorta, 185. 
(«p6^ lajja^ Withania coagulans, 

(tord) hajja, Adhatoda Yasica, 164. 
biJTay Penieillaria spicata, 259. 
hajur, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
iahdin^ Melia Azedarach, 83. 
haidrf Comus oblonga, 111. 
hakhra, Iribulus alatus, 37. 
hakhru^ Lonicera quinqueloenlaris, 

(ban) hakhnyi, Staphylea Emodi, 

40 ; Abelia triflora, 113. 
hakhtmalf Psoralea plicata, 75. 
lakkamj Ciesalpiiua sappau, 60. 

Mkla, Faba vulgaris, 69. 

hdkU, Lagerstrtemia parnflora, 90. 

{ban) bakri, Podophyllum Emo^ 8. 

(bai) bakriy Fungus sp. P 268. 

bakshel, Saliz sp., 209. 

balf wild. 

bal ajwdin, PimpineUa crinita^ 107 ; 

P^chotis Coptica, 109. 
bdl basant, Linum trig^rnum, 20. 
bdla, Yaleriana Hardwickii, and Y. 

Wallichii, 118. 
balam kh{ra, at Cucumis satiytts,97. 
bdlangu, Lallemantia Boyleana, 168. 
balanfa, Calligonum polygonoides, 

bdlehoTf Naidostachys Jatamansi, 

balel, Coriaria Nepalensis, 39. 
bal mujf Daucus Carota, 105. 
bdl raksha, Onaphalium sp., 127. 
bal dnjalf Bhamnus purpuieus, 423. 
(khili^) BalkU, SaluE Oaprea, 207. 
(shdk) baUe, Quercus Sex, 199. 
bdl^ Quercus incana, 199. 
bambalf Yiscum album, 112. 
bamhul, Acacia Jacquemonti, 58. 
bam tsikUuy Cydonia Tulgaris, 80. 
ba^f of the forest, wild. 
ban, Quercus incana, 199. 
ban baggoTf Eriophorum comosmn, 

ban bakkuri, Staphylea Emodi, 40 ; 

Abelia triflora, 113. 
ban bakrif Podophyllum Emodi, 8. 
ban char, Quercus semecarpifolia^ 

ban ddkhuTy Syringa Emodi, 140. 
ban ddrA, Myrsine Africana, 135. 
ban drenkh, Acacia stipulata, 56L 
banfraHi, Populus dfiata^ 204. 
ban gvldb, Bosa macrophylhs 86. 
ban haldi, Hedychium spicatum, and 

Boscoea puipure% 239. 
banjere, Ocunum gratissimiim, 171. 
ban ;«r^, Artemisia Indica, 120. 
ban kdkra, Podophyllum Emodi, 8. 
ban kan, Olea Europa0% 189. 



han keinUy Edwardua mollis, 68. 
ban kelOf Hedychimn spicatum, 289. 
han khoTj Payia Indica, 81. 
him hiiniy fiosa inacrophylLs 86. 
htm kukwr^ GomuB oblonga, 111. 
han kunehy Yibamum cotmifolium, 

han l^doTf Abris Smitiiiana, 219. 
han marioy .Scfamanthera WaUichii, 

ban mendi^ DodoiUMt Burmaimiana, 

han ognl^ Pagopynuii Cymosum? 

hanpUay Pyma KumaonenBis, 84. 
hanpaij Corchoms olitorius, 26. 
hanpa^aky Saxifiraga liralata, 103. 
hdnpkuniy Syringa fSmodi, 140. 
hanMoniUy Cratrcus oxyacantha, 79. 
han skoffoUy StamiTlea Emodi, 40. 
han tamdkA^ Verbaacum ThapsuB, 

han Uly Impatiens sp., 86. 
Mft, Zizyphus flezuosa^ 42 ; Querccus 

Dez, 199. 
(hyhb fd) hdny Melia Azedarach, 88. 
(kaihin) hin^ QaercuB incaius 199. 
hmuty Bnus Cotmna, 49. 
hanafthoy Viola serpeiiB, 19. 
hanakkoTy Aralia Cfachemirica^ 110. 
hanaphdly Eragaria Tesca, 80. 
hanathoy ABparagOfl PunjabenaiBi 

hanawihy Eraziiius floribunda, 188. 
hanauihoy Cuacuta reflexa^ 152. 
hanchiry Sjiringa Emodi, 140. 
hanehoTy Euoimnus fimbriata, 41. 
handay Lorantnus longifloros, 112. 
hdndOy Yiscum album, 112. 
hmndaiTy Gapparia BpinoBa» 17. 
handUMy Ephedra alata, 228. 
handikey Foiysonum aTicnlare, 184. 
handikeiy EquiBetcim debile, 267. 
hanffo^ Cucnmis vtiliBsimaB P 99. 
hangty Oannabia 8ativ% 215. 
itMm dnoina. HyoeeyamuB ziiger. 


han^ re, Abies Smithiana, 219. 
hanfy hdnfy Quercos incana, 199. 
hanfiy Quercua dilatata, 199. 
hankdTy Fremna mucronata, 166. 
bannay tdr hanna, Yitez Negnndo^ 

hann{y Quercus aniralata 108 ; Q. 

dilatata, 199. 
bdnn{, Quercus annulata, 198. 
bannuy CaUicarpa incana, 165. 
hin9y Bambusa stricta, 251. 
(Jealhi) bdniy fnagar hdnSy ndl hdm, 

Bambiua anindinacea, 251. 
bdnta, Tephroaia purpurea, 76. 
hdma mtbgy Adhatoda Yasica, 164. 
bdnw iM^ Barleria Gristata, 165. 
ba$Uloeiany Bambuaa stricta^ 251. 
bdntphintf HippophaaB rhamnoideSf 

banvairUy Oicer Soongaricum, 68. 
(ruba) hartky Solanum Dulcamara^ 

159 ; S. nigrum, 160. 
bdobrmffy BoUlera tinctoria^ 197. 
bd, Bheumatiam. 

bdpattray Callicarpa incana, 165. 
baphalliy Corehorua depresaus, 26 ; 

Convolyulus pluricaulis, 150. 
bdphalUy Corehorua trilocularis, 26. 
bi^holay baphoTy Colchicum sp. 280| 
(JhU) baTy ticuB glomerata^ 212. 
baray barty large. 
bora dodakf Euphorbia ihymifoUa^ 

barajodr^ Zea Mays, 268. 
bara karanfy Pongamia glabra^ 78. 
bdrah mdsty of twelye monihB| $. 0,p 

throughout the year, 55. 
bardiny QuercuB diiatata, 199. 
baran^ Taraxacum officiiiale, 181. 
hardrdmaiy Bnuudca Ghiiffithii, 12. 
bardntptibfy Allium rubeUum, 280. 
hardroy Capparia BpinoBa, 17. 
hardn, ZizjuhuB TulgariBi 44. 
hardty DohonoB uuiflorua, 68. 
hardway Oviiodon dactylon, 268. 
harchar, Quercua dilatotai 199. 
hargad^ W«fcftar^iEicaaIiidica»218. 



harg, leaf. 

hargi Tibet, Bhododendron camp- 

anulatum, 184. 
{sad) harg, Caiendula officinalis^ and 

Carpeedum sp., 128. 
(jat) hargiy Caragana tragacanthoi- 

des, 6i. 
hari, Acorns calamus, 236. 
hdri, Gossypiom herbacenm, 22. 
hari kandeTf Ehretia aspera, 158. 
hart ntauhati, Solanum sanctum, 

C/llJU) hari, Vitex Negnndo, 166. 
hdrj, Zizjphns flexnosa, 42. 
har kanaky Triticum durum, 262. 
harma, hamU, Taxus baccata, 227. 
harmera, Colebrookia oppositifolia, 

hamdf hamdkif Cratseva religiosa, 

Q^ht) hami, TTraria cbetkubra, 77. 
harotri, Lepix)pus cordifolia, 196. 
harphaU, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
harrarra, harre, Periploca aphylla^ 

harHi, Skimmia Laureola, 29. 
5ar^, Hindti fast, 184. 
hartf Prunus Fadus, 88. 
hdriang, Plantago ispaghula P 174. 
harihoa, Hjmenodictyon excelsum, 

hqru, hariOf harwa, Sorghum Hale- 

pense, 262. 
harungi, Ghossypium herbaceiim, 22. 
harwezoy Heteropogon contortus, 

hoiant, hiU^fosatU, Linimi trigynum, 

hoianii, yellow, 84, 60. ^ 

hdshal, Salix, spp., 208. 
hdsht, Adhatoda Yasica, 164. 
hdtho, Yitis Indica, 35. 
hasla, Cenchrus ecbinatus, 252. 
hdsmoH, Oryza sativa, 257. 
hama tdiJuiigf Artemisia par?iflora, 

hoiotif Adhatoda Yasica^ 164. 

haesanif Hypericum perforatum, 80^ 
ha99ar, Capparis spinosa, 17. 
6flt)ni^, Adhatoda Yasica, 164 ; Cole* 

brookia oppositifolia, 167. 
kiU hasuH, Clerodendron unfortu- 

natum, 165. 
hatkar, Geltis Caucawicar 20^; 0. 

Nepalensis, 2lOr 
hat kateya, Argemone Mexicana^ 9 f 

Solanum xanthocarpum, 161. 
hatphagdr, Eicus reticulata, 214. 
hat bakriy Fungus sp. P 268. 
&a^ dor, Ficusglomerata, 212. • 
hat helf Cissampelos Pareira, 6. 
hdta, Periploca aphylla^ 146 > Plug- 

gea yirosa, 195. 
hatang, Pyrus communis, 84. 
hdt-ang, Bubus biflorus, 86. 
hatangiy Pyrus yariolosa, 85. 
hatank, Pyrus communis, 84. 
hather, G-rewia Bothii, 27. 
hathor, Yibumum cotmifolium, 114^ 
bdth4, Chenopodium sp., 179. 
hathia, Chenopodium album, 178. 
hatindi, Cissampelos Pareira, 6 ; Ti- 

nospora cordifolia, 6. 
hatpuiy Saxifiraga lisulata, 108. 
hatpis, Spiraea LincQey ana, 88. 
hatrin, Odina wodier, 46. 
hattalf Euonymus fimbriata, 41;. 

Pyrus Aucuparia, 83. 
(gud) hattal, Linum trigynum, 20. 
hatthdl, Microrhynchus nudicaulis, 

(didh) hattkalj Taraxacum offid* 

nale, 181. 
hdtu, Chenopodium murale, 178 ', 

Amaranthus anardana, 181. 
hattUa, Aplotaxis candicans, 119. 
hauluy Coriaria Nepalensis, 89. 
haunde, Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
baunkar, Saccharum Sara, 261. 
haura, Bhus Cotinus, 49. 
hauri, Capparis spinosia, 17. 
hdu8, Oxybaphus Mimalaicus, 182* 
havUf Andropogon^Bp., 249. 
hazgJumf, Pistada Vera, 47. 



haer hang^ haer ul banj, Hyoscyainus 

niger, 156. 
hthrangj MyrsiiLe Africana, 186 ; at 

Bottlera, 197. 
hebrang^ khaim^ Nepeta ruderalisy 

^df Salix Bpp., 208. 
bed khisiy Salix, sp., 209. 
bed leUa, Salix tetrasperma, 208. 
bed fnajnun, bed ma;u, Salix Baby- 

lonica, 207. 
bed mushk, Salix Caprea, 207. 
(makhdn) bedy pakhan bedy Saxi&aga 
' ligulaia^ lOB. 

beddk, a Hindd practitioner, 218. 
Jfeddna^ seedless, 244. 
behkuly Frinsepia utilis, 81. 
behman, at Withania sonmifera, 161. 
beimi, Amygdalus Fersica, 78. 
beisj Salix spp., 208. 
bekhy root. 
bekh karqfsh, Apium graveolens, 

104 ; Eoeniculum Yulgare, 107. 
bekhily bekhwa, Frinsepia utilis, 81. 
bekkoTy Frinsepia utilis, 81. 
(nikki) bekkar, Grewia Rothii, 27. 
Iphis) bekkoTf Colebrookia opposi- 
. tifolia,167. 

bekkUy beklingy Frinsepia utilis, 81. 
hel (vel, vert), a climber. 
(akdi) bel, Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
idmaV) bely Cissus carnosa, 85. 
[bat) bel, Cissampelos Fareira, 6. 
(ndk) bel, Boerbaavia diffusa, 182. 
bel, belgiA, ^gle Marmelos, 28. 
heli. Kibes leptostacbyum, 102 ; 

Salix spp., 208 ; Salix spp., 209. 
(Jangli) beli, Salix spp., 209. 
belna, a roUer-mill, at Sacchunun 

officinarum, 260. 
hem, Amjgdalus Fersica, 78. 
ben, Eremurus spectabilis, ^84. 
bengan, Solanum melongena, 160. 
(mldyiUi), bengam, Solanum Lj- 

copersicum, 159. 
bengi. Cannabis sativa, 215. 
benkavy Hiptage Madablota^ 80. 

ber, Capparis spinosa, 17 ; Zizypbus 

flexuosa, 42; Z. Jujuba, 43; Z. 

nummularia, 43 ; Salix spp., 209. 
(karkan) ber, kokan ber, Zizyphua 

Yulgaris, 44. 
(kokwt) ber, mora ber, Zizypbus 

nummularia, 48. 
bera, Nima quassioides, 39 ; Ghlocbi- 

dion sp., 196 ; Eicus Indica, 218. 
berfa, Fopulus balsamifera, 204. 
beri, Zizypbus flexuosa, 42. 
(jhar) bert, Zizypbus nummularia^ 

bering, Nima quassioides, 89. 
berra, Zizypbus Jujuba, 48. 
bereu, Leptopus cordifolius, 196. 
berwaja, CaUigonum polygonoides, 

betar, betthal, Juniperus communis, 

bMbar, Urtica beteropbylla, 215. 
bhahri, Amarantus anardana, 181. 
bhdil, Salix spp., 209. 
bhdn, Bbus cotinus, 49. 
bhdnd, Geranium nodosum, 36. 
bhdndibajaf^, l^ageretia Brandretbi- 

ana, 42. 
bhang, bhdng, bhangi. Cannabis 

sativa, 215. 
bhangra, Eclipta erecta, 126. 
bhdngra, Yiscum album, 112. 
bhdnwar, Ipomcea sessiliflora, 150. 
bhartoi, Imperata Koenigii, 257. 
bhdta, Crotalaria Burbia, 64. 
bhat kateya, Argemone Mexicana^ 9. 
bhat niggi, Wikstrnmia salicifolia, 

189. ^ 
bhed mangi, Cyamopsis psoraloides, 

bhekkal, Frinsepia utilis, 81. 
bhekkar, Adhatoda Yasica, 164. 
bhel, Andromeda oyaUfolia^ 188. 
bhildwa, Semecarpus Anacardium, 

bhinda tori, Abelmoscbus esculen- 

tus, 21. 
(jangli) bhinda^ Hibiscus sp., 28. 



IhUUy a water carrier, 137. 
Iha^hul, bkonphoTf Phelipasa Cat- 

otropidifl, 163. 
bkartf uenchnui echinatuB, 252. 
hhuft Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
Ihuk, Allium Bp., 231. 
bh4krt, Tribulus alatus, 87. 
bhimphoTf '^ earth-Bplitter, *' Fheli- 

pasa GalotropicUs, 163; Tulipa 

BteUata, 235. 
Ihun ke dum^ YerbaBCum ThapBUB, 

hhuM^ chaff, or cut siaraw or leavoB, 

&c., for feeding, 44, 63. 
M«/, Soja^ hiBpi&y 76. 
hhutjhaiay Apium grayeolexiB, 104. 
hidr^ PinuB exoelBa, 225. 
bOnieha, BraBsica Griffithii, 12. 
Uehuj Martynia diandra, 149. 
biddj Salix tetraBperma, 208 ; 8. Bpp., 

biddi, Salix Babylonica, 207. 
biddri kand, Fueraria tuberoBa^ 75. 
b^i, CeltiB GaucaBica, 209. 
biki, biM dJma^ Cydonia yulgariB, 

M', Beed. 
h^ band^ 8ida oordifolia^ 23 ; Bu- 

mex acutuB, 187. 
(Jkamid) b^\ NymphsBa alba, 8. 
(iuka hi) Uff GannabiB Bativa, 215. 
b^ gdi^ Lonicera quinqueloculanB, 

bfkk^ AoonitaxDL and A. ferox, 1 ; at 

Fsonia offidnaliB, 4. 
(numra) bikk^ Aconitum ferox, 1. 
bU^ 2Sgle MarmeloB, 28. 
biUi hmd^ Fueraria tuberoBa, 75. 
bOauriy Folygonum Bistorta, 185. 
bildl, FharbitiB nil, 151. 
UUnf Eeronia elephantum, 29. 
bOU ktat^ C< cat-roUing,") Nepeta 

rudenJiB, 170. 
bUodoTf bilafa^ Falconeria inBigniB, 

binaulitf G-OBBypium herbaceum, 22. 
(jonsfi) M^^ Hibiscus sp., 23. 

bingkAr btt^ Aspbodelus fistulosus. 

binna^ Yitex Negundo, 166. 
bifuiny Myrsine Africana^ 135. 
birdr, Zisyphus nununularia^ 48. 
birffOy Nima quassioides, 39. 
(hrm) kantoal, 8auBBurea obvallatai 

(8. omitted in text), 129. 
birm, Taxus baccata, 227. 
birota^ ZizyphuB nummularia, 43. 
biroza^Qanaa biroza, iot birozOf Finus 

longifolia^ 226. 
btrrif Clematis NepalensiB, 8. 
bis, Myricaria Gtermanica^ 91 ; Salix 

alba, 206 ; 8. tetrasperma^ 208. 
btsa, Salix Babylonica, 207 ; 8. sppu, 

(kdla) bita^ Hippophae rhamno« 

ides, 190. 
bUfdijy Adiantum C. Y., 265. 
bikr^ PyruB Kumaonensis, 84. 
bUkki^prOy Trianthema pentand^^ 

MfTtf, Gedrela toona serrata, 34. 
Bissakri pdla, Diospyros Lotos, 186L 
bUkuj Chenopodium sp., 179 ; Am»> 

rantus anardana, 181. 
bttkua^ Heliotropium Europadum, 

biUuy Salix Babylonica^ 207 ; S. spp., 

biuauj Geltis Caucasica, 209. 
biuiy Grewia oppositifoUa, 27. 
biunSf Fopulus nu;ra, 205. 
biur, Arten^isia elegans, 120. 
bbfi da kkuHMj AstragaluB multicepa, 

bockOf Macrotomia euchroma, 154. 
bodardy Marlea begonifolia, 93. 
hoenpkal. Fungus sp P 269. 
bq;, AcoruB calamus, 236 i Typhlk 

angustifolia, 246. 
bokdi, Aspbodelus fistulosuB, 234. 
bokla^ Antennaria contorta, 119. 
bongay Aconitum heterophyllum, 1. 
boTy Ficus Indica, 213. 
bottin qfiroZf Gelosia cristata^ 182* 



lotana, Doliclios uniflorus, 68. 
(kd) ootatMr, Ju^la&B regia, 201. 
hozgKanjy Fistacia vera, 47. 
hoziddn, Asparagus racemosus, 233. 
hrda, Colutea arborescens, 64. 
hrakdm. Sorghum Halepense, 262. 
hramatsa. Astragalus multiceps, 57. 
bran, Ulmus erosa, 210. 
hrdn, Quercus annulata, 198. 
hranktU, Ulmus campestris, 210. 
hrannu, Ulmus erosa, 210. 
hrdnghy hrdnti, Myrsine Africana, 

irapuy hrasj Fagopyrum esculentum, 

Irds, Bhododendron arboreum 133. 
hrdiay Ephedra alata, 228. 
hre, Quercus Hex, 199 ; Eremurus 

spectabilis, 284. 
IreHf Quercus annulata, 198 ; Ul- 
mus erosa, 210. 
hrerCj Ulmus campestris, 210. 
hret, karma hresy Eagopyrum escu- 

lentum, 184. 
hruUi, Colebrookia oppositifolia, 167. 
brtmdu, brimla, Celtis Caucasica, 

hrim poshf NymphsBa alba, 8. 
hrinholy Berchemiasp., 41. 
hrUari, Edwardsia mollis, 68. 
hrod, Ehododendron arboreum, 133. 
hrorij Ulmus campestris, 2L0. 
hrughy Echinops nivea, 126. 
hrwn brum, Hedera Helix, 110. 
brumlj, Celtis Caucasica, 209. 
(laura) hrttsh, Echinops nivea, 

hud, Malacochsete pectinata ? 264. 
hudaVf Ficea Webbiana, 224. 
hudkesy 1, Dubi®, UmbellifersB, 109 ; 

at Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
hMkhesy Corydalis Govaniana, 10. 
hudshuTy Ephedra G^erardiana, 228. 
huduy Yiscum attenuatum, 113. 
bugU, Spiraea Lindlejana, 88. 
hugrtty Gjnandropsis pentaphylla, 

hugriy Cleome ruta, 17. 

huiy Crotalaria Burhia, 64 ; Aga- 
thotes sp., 147 ; FrancoBuria cris- 
pa, 126 ; Ballota limbata, 167 ; 
Flectranthus rugosus, 171 ; -^rua 
Bovii, 180 ; Panderia pilosa, 179. 

hwi chhoUy Panderia pilosa, 179. 

hui kaldjiy Miua, Bovii, 180. 

bui mddardny Achillea millifolium, 
119 ; Artemisia Indica, 120. 

butriy Platanus orientalis, 202. 

buiy Acorus calamus, 236. 

huji babbar, Eriophorum comosum, 

bujloy Oreoseris lanuginosa, 128. 

hujra, Cleome ruta, ly. 

bukdriy Eclipta erecta, 126 ; Lippia 
nodiflora, 166. 

bukiy Equisetum debile, 267. 

bulffarjafwli,Bo\etvLBignisiim&? 267. 

bunibuly Kubus biflorus, 86. 

btmay Edwarsia mollis, 68; Plata- 
nus orientalis, 202. 

bunufty Fra^aria yesca, 80. 

bury Tamarix orientalis, 92 ; Oreo- 
seris lanuginosa, 128 ; Cymbopo- 
gon Iwarancusa, 253. 

bura de dbnuSy Diospyros tomentosa, 

bura de jdroby Anatherum murica- 
tum, 248. 

bura de shishaniy Dalbergia sissoo, 65. 

burguy Phytolacca decandra, 176. 

burhy Ficus Boxburghii, 214. 

buriy Vitis Indica, 35. 

burjy burjriy Betula Bhojpatra, 198. 

burkimdu, Caragana tragacanthoi- 
des, 61. 

burmar, Artemisia parviflora, 120. 

burnaky Artemisia sacrorum, 121. 

buraCy Eurotia ceratoides, 179. 

burzaly Betula Bhojpatra, 198. 

hushy Cousinia sp., 125 ; Echinops 
nivea, 126. 

bu^hauy Salix spp., 209. 

buta, butty a shrub or plant. 

butay Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 

butd-umUwdky Astragalus multiceps^ 




(cheti) htUay Abelia triflora, 113. 
(ganda) hufe, Euphorbia Heliosco- 

pia, 193. 
(zar) huteiy Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
hiti ha mochha^ Boletus igniarius ? 

(awdnt) huttj Ballota limbata, 167. 
ihaggi) huH, Stachjs parviflora, 173. 
(dmdi) b4ttj Cleome ruta, 17. 
(farid) butt, Parsetia Edgeworthii, 

(aandi) huti, Glinus lotoides, 101. 
(Kawn) h4t%, Trichodesma Indica, 

155 ; Solanum gracilipes, 159 ; 

Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
(khar^ huiiy Oreoseris lanuginosa, 

(mind!) hutij SpbsDranthus hiiius, 

(p4lt) hiti, Abutilon Indicum, 21. 
(pipat) hm, HeUotropium ramosis- 

simum, 154. 
{resham) huti, Berthelotia lanceo- 

lata, 122. 
(popat) hitiy HeUotropium EuropsB- 

um, 154. 
(son) huH, Cassia obovata, 62. 
(tappal) huiiy Crozophora tLnctoria, 

(wad%) butt, Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
h^t pesky Aplotaxis gossypina, 119. 
hi^ sMr, Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 
huza, Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
huzUy Oreoseris lanuginosa, 128. 
catjangy Doliehos lablab, 67. 
chahenoy parchecl pulse, 63. 
chdbuh cniriy Hiptage Madablota, 

ehacheony Bhododendron arboreum, 

chachrty Myrsine Africana, 135. 
chdky Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
chakaunda, Cassia tora, 62. 
chakotray Citrus decumana^ 29» 

chdk^. Cassia absus, 61. 

chaly Bosa Brunonis, 85. 

chtdy bark. 

chdly Conocarpus laidfolia, 88. 

chdl kwnray Benincasa cerifera, 95. 

(kikkar kt) chaly Acacia Arabica^ 

chaldiy Juniperus excelsa, 223. 
ehal chaUray rarmelia Kamtschadalw^ 

ehaUiy Juniperus excelsa, 223. 
ckaliy Amphicome arguta, 148. 
chalan, ckahnway Fopulus ciliat% 

chMndar, Iris NepalensiA, 240. 
ehamakhriy Michelia Champaca, 5k 
cJutnutrr, Ehretia aspera, 153. 
ckambay Michelia Champaca, 5 ; 

Prinsepia utilis, 81 ; Jasminum 

grandiflorum, and J. ofScinale, 

ekanibal, Banunculus arrensisy 5| 

Ehretia aspera. 153. 
chambeKy Jasminum grandifionuDi 

chamhray Artemisia Indica, 120, 
chamidriy Prunus Fuddum, 83. 
ehamkdtf Desmodium tilisdfolium^ 

chdmmdy Salix alba, 206. 
ehamotiy Michelia Champaca, 5; 

Tulipa stellata, 235. 
chdmpy Alnus sp., 197. 
champay MicheGa Champaca, 5. 
ch^imrdy Desmodium tilisBfolium, 67^ 
ehamroTy Ehretia aspera, 153. 
ohamunt, Tulipa stellata, 235. 
chandvy Platanus orientalis, 202. 
ehandwriy Aralia Cachemirica, llOL • 
chmchingy Ervum Lens, 68. 
chandray Machilus odoratissimus 9 

and Tetranthera Boxburghii, 188i 
charuty Hordeum hexastichum, 256. « 
(mdt) chancy Salix alba, 206. 
chcmgrndy Populus balsamifera, 204 -^ 

P. nigra 205 ; Salix alba, 206. 



ehan^mdj Salix alba, 206. 

chanjan wale^ ABparagus Punjaben- 

sis, 233. 
ehmna, Cicer arietinum, 63. 
channi, Daphne oleoides, 189. 
chanin, Fopulus ciliata, 2(Mi. 
ekanuni, Fopulas alba^ 203. 
(ban) chart Quercus semecarpifolia, 

ehar, Yaleriana Hardwickii, 118. 
char maghz, Juglans regia, 201. 
ekarunffU, Boucerosia Aucheri, 143. 
chareharUay Pannelia KamtachadaliB, 

ehaHy stalks of millet, &c., for fod- 
der, 260. 
ehari^ Sorghum vulgare, 262 ; Carex 

Indica ? 264. 
(rang) ehitri; Elsholtzia polystachya, 

charka^ LetEHea sp., 188. 
eharkhre^ Carpinus viminea, 200. 
eharratj Cannabis sati^a, 215. 
ehdstanpy Eaba vulgaris, 69. 
ehatemiy Bhamnus Purpureas, 42. 
ehatnly a compound spiced, acid, 

condiment, ^, 50, 184. 
chatra, Leucas Ce^alotis, 168. 
ehatriwaly Euphorbia Helioscopia, 

thattry Bhamnus virgatus, 42. 
ehattr$, Agaricus campestris, 267. 
ehaUy Artemisia sp., 121 ; Machilus 

odoratissimus, 188. 
ehauldt, Amaranthus mangostanus, 

and A. polygonoides, 181. 
(Idl) chamcd, ehaulei, Amaranthus 

anardana, 181. 
ehdunshy Berchemia sp., 41. 
chd^an^y Brassica sp., 13. 
ehechar, Bhus Buckiamela, 48. 
ehel. Cannabis sativa, 215. 
ehemri, Eleusine flagellifera, 254. 
ehena, Fanicum miliaceum, 258. 
ehenjMy Nussiessya hypoleuca, 215. 
(•per) cherei, Quercus Ilex, 199. 
eherkushf Prunus Armenica, 81> 

ehetihuta, Abelia triflora, 113. 
chewa. Ephedra G-erardiana, 228. 
fyir) chhatra, Morchella semilibera, 

ehhota, small. 
ehhota kelu. Asparagus racemosus; 

ehhota lewar, Andromeda fastigiata^ 

chhoti lane, Suseda fruticosa, 180. 
chhoti mauhari, Solanum xantho* 

can>um, 161. 
chhoti vdn, Salvadora Indica, 174. 
(nun) chhoti, Tamarix orientalis, 921 
ehichinda, Trichosanthes anguina; 


ehichra, Butea frondosa, 59. 
chichri, Plectranthus rugosus, 171. 
chijdJcH, Podophyllum Emodi, 8, 
chijla, Eraxinus Xanthoxylloides, 

ehik, a kind of screen for doors, &c., 

250, 261. 
chikan, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
ehiki, G-ouffeia holosteoides, 20. 
ehikni, chtkri, Buxus sempervirens', 

ehil, Pinus excelsa, 225 ; F. longi- 

folia, 226. 
chtla, Casearia tomentosa, 44. 
Childsn tamdku, Nicotiana rustica 

ehUghaxa, Pinus Gerardiana, 225. 
chilH, a rupee of Kashmir, value 

ten annas, 122. 
ehilla, Casearia tomentosa, 44. 
chilotd, Lits»a sp , 188. 
chUuchi, Iris Nepalensis, 240. 
chimbari, Doctyloctenium -Slgypti- 

acum, 254. 
chimbari, Eleusine flagellifera, 254: 
chimkani, Cathartocarpus fistula, 

ehimuy S3rringa Emodi, 140 ; Morus 

serrata, 219. 
chwHfdka, Podophyllum Emodi, 8. 
chin, Fagopyrum esculentum, 184. 



ehtnay Fanicum miliaceum, 258. 
chindkay Brassica Qriffithii, 12 ; 

Malcolmia strigosa, 14. 
chindr, Flatanus orientalis, 202. 
cMndi, Litsssa sp., 188. 
cMm, of GlUny i. e., China. 
ehiniy Fanicum miliaceum, 258 ; Sac- 

chanim officinarum, 260. 
(rewa/nd) Chiniy VerbascumThapsus, 

163 ; Eremostachys Yicaiyi, 168 ; 

Elieum Emodi, 186. 
ehinka, Eragrostis spp., 255. 
ckinwa, Fanicum miliaceum, 258. 
chipSf Ulmus erosa, 210. 
chtpktan, Melica sp., 257. 
chtr, Frunus Armeniaca, 81 ; Finus 

excelsa, 225 ; F. longifolia, 226. 
(ddr) chir, Finus excelsa, 225. 
(drab) chiry Finus longifolia, 226. 
(Ara) chir, Finus excelsa, 225. 
chiraUy Frunus Armeniaca, 81. 
chirauU, Buchanania latifolia, 45. 
chiraunda, Adelia serrata, 191. 
ehirchitta, Lycium Europceum, 166 ; 

Achyranthes aspera, 180. 
ehiretta^ Agathotes sp., 147. 
chtriptdZf Allium rubellum, 230. 
ohirindiy Acer cultratum, 30. 
cMrmutti, Leptopus, cordifolia, 196. 
chimdi, Litsasa sp.^ 188 ; Adelia 

serrata, 191. 
ehirruy Xanthium strumarium, 132. 
chi/rwiy FhcBnix dactylifera, 243. 
chiroli, Frunus Armeniaca, 81. 
chiror, Mahonia Nepalensis, 8. 
chit boHo, Trifolium pratense, 76. 
chita, chitiy white. 
chita, Oryza sativa, 257. 
chita hagniy Fopulus Alba, 203. 
chita hdnsa, Ipomoea turpethum, 150. 
chita dnjtj Melilotus leucantha, 71. 
chitawdloy Senecio angulosus ? 129. 
chitana, Fyrus Kumaonensis, 84. 
chit%jari, Aconitum heterophyllum, 


chMmort, D^smodium argenteum, 

chtttphuly Heliotropium breyifolium^ 

chUiiirin^ Cedrela toona serrata, 84. 
chitkahra Sindiy Uraria chetkubra, 

chitpattra, Marlea begonifolia, 93. 
ehitra, Staph^lea Emodi, 40 ; Dro- 

sera muscipula, (S. omitted in 

text), 20. 
{Idl) chittQy Flumbago Zeylanica^ 

chittdk, a natiye weight equal to 

two ounces^ 75. 
chiu, Bhododendron arboreum, 133 ; 

Euphorbia Eoyleana, 194. 
ehiundi, Adelia serrata, 191. 
chiurr, Fennisetum Italicum, 259; 
chOf Fyrus mains, 85. 
chob, a stick or pole. - 
(mdr) chob^ Staphylea Emodi, 40. 
(siydh) choby Eraxinus sp.,. 139. 
ehodmaly Brassica sp., 13. 
choguy Taxus baccata, 227. 
chokl{t^ Bhus succedanea, 49. 
eholay Cicer arietinum, 63. 
changmangOy Nepeta floccosa, 170. 
chopdndigay Achillea millefolium^ 

chopar, Hiptage Madablota, 30. 
choprtty Adelia serrata, 191. 
(phaphar) chor, Coriana Nepalen8i8> 

char ay Quercus delatata, 199. 
chota, Fyrus Kumaonensis, 84. 
chotidl, Kheum Emodi, 186. 
ehotra, Berberis aristata, 7. 
chuy Euphorbia Eoyleana, 194. 
(jdngt) chuy Euphorbia sp., 195. 
chuay Bosa Webbiana, 86. 
chualy Staphylea Emodi,^ 40 ; Euon j-» 

mus fimbriata, 41. 
chubreiy Dactyloctenium ^gyptia- 

cum, 254; Eleusine flag^lifera^ 

chuch, Juniperus eommunis, 222. 
chuchiy Folygonum polystachyum, 

185 ; Eheum Emodi, 186. 



ekipA Fteetnnthfitii mgosti0, 171. 
chui thipd, Juniperus comnnmis, 

eMu rraainmiXMrfbQxylloidea, 189; 
et&a, SidacovdifoUa, 2a 
ekukhdj Oialss eomicidaitflv 87. 
eh^ikri, Sheum Emodi, 189. 
eM2«» Bcipliorbia.Boyleains IM^ 
eAff^y Pranufl Fadus^ 88. 
eh4Uy Pnmtui Annemacft, 91. 
ehum^ Enoiiiiw XautiuxxyUoides, 

cMm&fr, ArtemiBUb saeromitf, 121. 
cA<im, Euphorbia Boyleana, 194; 

Morus serrata, 219. 
tkunffy Hordeum hezastichum, 296. 
ehiine, Fprua MaluB, 85 ; Bouceroeia 

emlift, IM. 
ekin^hdj Eupfaovbia Boyleaiia, 194. 
ehun^ Bouceroflia Aucneri, 14i3i 
cihtptfrn^ Botamogeton gramineuBj 

«%i»r, QuercuB Hex, 190. 
ehuroy CommelTna Bengalensisj 286| 
ehurd, Angelica glauca, 103. 
ehurM, LathyruB satiyuB, 71. 
ehM saroehf Asparagua Funjaben:- 

eh4n sarqf, Artemisia eleganB, 120. 
ehuridlj Aralia Cacbemirica, 110. 
ehMalj Potamogeton crispuB, 241. 
ehuU, AnMusgoB FiunabensiB) 288. 
ekaidly Sheum Emodi, 186. 


dddn^ Pttnica granatum, 94. 
dlo&y EragroBtis cynoBuroideB, 254. 
ddby Yibumum nerrosum, 115. 
daeh, YitiB Indica, 85. 
daddr^ Cedrus deodira, 220. 
dadda. Acacia eburnea, 52. 
dadhurt, EicUB glomerata, 212. 
dddmdriy Ammannia auriculata, 90. 
dadri^ dadit^ Bhamnus virgatuB, 

<faAK I^«n» oppoBttifoSo, 218 ; F. 

Boxburghii, 214. 
da^JUn^ Cuciirbita maxima, 97. 
diMhauri, CaBBalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
dakH^ Grislea tomentOBa, 90. 
daheu, ArtocarpuB integrifolia^ 211. 
dah4y Coa^nhited milk, 75. 
dahoHa, EieuB cari<cord6B, 212. 
daikar, Flacourtia Bepiaria, 18;^ 
dak, kagh ddk, BibeB rubrom, 102. 
(gidar) dik, CisBUB camoBa, 85 ; Sa- 

geretia oppositifolia^ 42 ; FrunoB 

FaduB, 88. 
dakachrui Saxifinm ligolata^ 108; 
dakdri, Hedera I&lix, 110. 
ddkh, YitiB hidlcai, 85. 
dakhoMUj Delphinium c»ruleiim, 8. 
(ban) ddkh4r, Byringa Emodi, JM. 
dakk{j YitiB Inaicay 85. 
ddk^phalf EheagnuB oonferta, 186C 
ddlchwU, Cinnamomum albiflorom^ 

dalU, Cedrela toona Berrat^ (A 

omitted in text), 84. 
dalvmg, Abelia triflora, 113. 
damdy Fagonia cretica (B. D., Ao;^ 

omitted in text), 87. 
(patrmodld) damd^ Solanum graci** 

lipeB, 159. 
ddma, Caragana pygmsea, 61. 
dimumff4taehay 2, l)ubia compoflitfe^ 

ddnibi, Arundo Fhrag|mitiB, 250. 
damiydy Faffonia Cretica, 37. 
damtttra, IfyoBcyamuB nigra, 156. 
ddna, grains, seeds. 
ddna^ Anabasis multiflora, 176; 

Suseda fruticosa, 180. 
(hih{) dina, Cydonia vulgaris, 80. 
{hazir) ddna, Euphorbia hyperidfo- 

lia, 194 ; E. thymofolia, 195« 
(kdld) ddna, Fharbitis nil, 151. 
(Bdm) ddna^ Amaranthus mangOBta-> 

nuB, 181. 
(fhakar) ddnOy Colebrookia opposi*' 

tifoli% 167. 



danda^ tor danda, Euphorbia Boyle- 
ana, 194. 
dandartoa, Scopolia prsalta, 159. 
dandi butty Cleome ruta, 17. 
dandura, HyoscyamuB nigra, 156. 
dandy, a light hill-litter, 218. 
{deter) ddne, Uraria picta, 77. 
danga, Cucumis utiliBsimiis P 99. 
dangMhaUe^ Gonvallaria verticillatai 

dankoTy Amaranthus anardana, 181. 
ddntj Baliospermum Indicum, 192. 
ddntt, Artemisia elegans, 120. 
ddniif Punica granatum, 94. 
daral, Cedrela toona aerrata, 84. 
daran, Eagopyrum emarginatum, 

ddran, Punica granatum, 94. 
ddrehir, PinuB excelsa, 225. 
ddr choh, ddrhaMy Berberie aristata, 7. 
darga, Juglans regia, 201 ; Saccha- 

rum sara, 261. 
dariiny Punica granatmn, 94. 
dartUy Amaranthus anardana, 181. 
ddni, medicine. 

ddru, dan&tU, Punica granatum, 94. 
dattity Datura stramonium, 156. 
dkatiuray Hyoscyamus niger, 156. 
davoliay Eragrostis cynosuroides, 

dawdi mubarihy Clerodendron Sipho- 

nanthus, 165. 
ddiioiy Ghislea tomentosa, 90. 
dedwdr Khatdty Cedrus deodira, 220. 
degaTy Eicus oppositifolia, 218. 
dehhiy Cappans aphylla, 15 ; Yitis 

Indica, 85. 
deiny Oiyza sativa, 257. 
dendlu, Hypericum perforatum, 80. 
dendruy Lonicera quinquelocularis, 

denthoTy Callicarpa incana, 165. 
dentMt, Hyoscyamus niger, 156; 

Phytolacca decandra, 176. 
deoddvy Cedrus deod^ra, 220; Cu- 

pressus torulosa, 222 ? Juniperus 

ezcelsa, 223. 

deo ihddtTy Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 

deotay a deity, 8. 

deTy deriy Cedrela toona serrata, 84. 

deeiy of the country indigenous. 

{gohhri) desi, Tribulus alatus, 37. 

deter ddne, Uraria picta, 77. 

deviy deway (204), a deity. 

devi didTy Cupressus torulosa, 222. 

dewddr, Cednis deodiLra, 220. 

dhd, G-rislea tomentosa, 90. 

dhd^har, AnagaUia arrensis, 184. 

dhaky Butea fiondosa, 59. 

(dhauf) dhdkf Erythrina arboies- 

oens, 69. 
dhamdy Fagonia Cretica, 37. 
dkamanj Pennisetum cenchroides, 

dhdmofiy Grewia oppositifolia, 27. 
dkamnumy Grewia elastica^ 27 ; G-. 

oppositifolia, 27. 
dhamniy Portulaca oleraceaP 99; 

P. sativa, 100. 
dhdtiy Oryza sativa, 257. 
dhanattoTy Clitoria tematea, 64. 
dhaniay Coriandrum sativum, 105. 
dhdry a hill. 

dhdr karelay Momordica dioica, 98. 
dhdr-ki-karer, Ciesalpinia sepiariai 

dharposhy Sazifraga ligulata, 108. 
dharury Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. 
dhaturay Datura stramonium, 156. 
dhaUy Conocarpus latifolia^ 88 ; La- 

gerstrsBmia parviflora, 90. 
dhaul dhdkf Erythrina arborescens, 

dhauruy Lagerstrsamia parviflora, 90. 
dhdtfft khurdy Grislea tomentosa, 90. 
(tiif^d) dhdwty'BxLx.mi sempervirenSy 

dhudty Ficus caricordes, 212. 
dhufMy Shorearobusta, 28. 
dhunnu, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
dh^LnUy Taxus baccata, 227. 
dh4my incense. 
dhmiy Dolomijeamacrocephala, 125 ; 

Juniperus communis, 222. 



(ehalei he) dhup^ JuniperaB excelsa, 

(jari) dhup, dhupa^ Dolomi»a mac- 

rocephalay 125. 
dhira^ iPicua caricoidee, 212. 
didr, didr he tel, Cedrus deod&ra, 

(devO didry Cupreasua tonilosa, 222. 
diby TyP^ angustifolia^ 246 ; Erag- 

roeuB cynosuroides, 254. 
diddanty AstragaluB multiceps, 67. 
didndtiy CaBsalpima eepiaria, 60. 
didridry Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 
dily heart. 
diipoiandy Citrullus vulgaris yar. 

nsiTulosus, 96. 
dilay Odina wodier, 46. 
dUay Arundo Phragnutes, 250 ; Cy- 

perus tuberosusy 264; Scirpus 

maritimus, 265. 
dimmuky SolenanthuB sp , 155. 
drnddsa, Juglans regia, 201. 
dinger, Cajanus Indicus, 60. 
dingriy Pluchea sp., 129. 
ditudy Bex dipyrena, 40. 
dioy Fteris aquilina, 266. 
doy Triticum ffistiyum, 262. 
dodaky d&daly &c., milky, firom dudk. 
doday Paparer somniferum, 10 ; 

Pyrus Kumaonensis, 84. 
(git) doda, mal doday Leucas Cepha- 

lotea, 168. 
dodaky Sonchus oleraceus, ISO ; Con- 

volvTiluB pluricaulis, 150 ; Andra- 

chne telephioides ? 192. 
(hara) dodaky Euphorbia thymifo- 

lia, 195. 
(Jcvlfa) dodaky Euphorbia Heliosco- 

pia, 193. 
doaaly Spir»a Lindleyana, 88. 
dodaUy Sapindus detergens, 32. 
(mitha) dodia, Aconitum, 1. 
dodruy Ilex dipyrena, 40. 
dodur, Cflasalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
dondy Artemisia elegans, 120 ; Daph- 
ne oleoides, 189. 
dooh/y alitter, 251. 

doTy SpirsBa Lindleyajxa, 88 ; Arum 

curvatum, 247. 
doriy Cedrela toona serrata, 34; 

Polygonum Bistorta, 185. 
draby Cedrela toona serrata, 34. 
drab chir, Pinus longifolia, 226. 
drdngey Sageretia oppositifolia, 42. 
drdngiy Berchemia sp., 41. 
drawi, Cedrela toona serrata, 34. 
drawoy Pagopyrum esculentum, 184. 
dreky Melia Azedarach, 33 ; Albizzia 

odoratissima, 56. 
dr&nduy Adelia serrata, 191. 
(ban) drenkhy Acacia stipulata, 56. 
drinkharty Datisca cannabina, 191. 
drOy Triticum SBstivum, 262. 
droby Caragana tragacanthoides, 61. 
drowa, Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
drukrt, Cissus camosa, 35. 
drumhiy Arundo Donax, 250. 
drunday Ilex dipyrena, 40. 
drissy Callicarpa incana, 165. 
duby Cynodon dactylon, 253. 
dudfrasy Populus ciliata, 204. 
dud shambaKy Desmodium tiliffifoli- 

um, 67. 
dudagruy Eicus reticulata, 214. 
dudaiy Taraxacum officinale, 131 ; 

Euphorbia Helioscopia, 193. 
didhbatthaly Taraxacum officinale, 

didhdpaTy Euonjrmus fimbriata, 41. 
dudhiay Aconitum, 1 ; A. Napellus, 

dudhia mauray Aconitum ferox, 1. 
dudhlaky Microrhynchus nudicaulis, 

dudloy Prunud Padus, 83; Syringa 

Emodi, 140. 
dudUy Taraxacum officinale, 131. 
dugwruy Ficus reticulata, 214. 
dulay AbelmoschuB ficulneus, 21. 
dwn tvUy Adiantum C. Y., 265. 
duny Juglans regia, 201. 
dunuky Aralia Cachemirica, 110. 
{gil) ditpi^ariay Pentapetes Ph^e- 

nicea, 25. 



durdna, Crat»^. ozyacantbai. 78i. 
dureshta, Medicago satiYiv 71* 
durgdri^ Acacia stipulata^ ^^^ 
dwnmoa^ Artemiaia ele^uoB, 120. 
dus9^ Colebrookia oppo^tifolia, 167 ; 

Elsholtzia polystacbya, 16S. 
duz. Asparagus PuBJabenaiA, 233.. 
dwdrena, Aiwido Doiia?^ 200*. 

egtlhir^ Datiaca cannabuuK 191.. 
eilan^ eihmr, AAdi^mada. oralifolia^ 

ein^ Urtica hetesopbylla» 215. 
eklHrj Yerbaacuia l|hap8U0^ 163. 
elk ul btUmf Fiatacia TerebinlihuBy 

ellalf Andromeda oyalifoli% 188;. 
ehoa, Aloe perfoliata, 232* 
em, Gbenopodium album* 178* 
endra, Hiptage Madablota^ 30: 
enkawng, Berberia arii»tatay 7. 
«r, Prunus domestical 82. 
eraiij erana, Andromeda oTAlifolia^ 

e$ar, £ubuB rotuudifoUuB, 87. 


fdffu^ Eicua carica^ 211 ; F. caricoif 
des, 212. 

fdguri^ Eicus caricoidesi 212. 

fakir^ religious mendicant,, or de- 
votee, 232. 

fMk^ Populus ciliata, 204. 

faranj mushk^ Calamintha umbrosa, 
167 ; Odmum Baailicum, 170. 

fords, Tamarix orientalis, 92. 

fardsi^^ Salvia lanata, 172. 

/arid huti, Earsetia Edgewortbii, 

farri, Grewia elastica, 27. 

farih, Populus nigra, 205. 

fano, Digitaria sanguinalis, Z54i» 

fm»w9^ Tamant orienialiSy, 92. 
jam hari, Vitex Negundo, 166.. 
J)m^ Papaver sonmi&rHm, (S. cmii* 

ted in text), 10. 
findak, Corylua Colnma, 20L 
JUdumi^ Hamiltonia BaavieoleB% 11&. 
fitroMnMy Pran^os pabulari% lOS. 
fiassi^ Populus cilia1tt» 204.. 
froBy Populus Alba, 203. 
{dM) fra%^ Populus ciliato, 204.. 
froMt^ ropuluB nigra^ 205. 
' yanM) fratt, Popidus alba, 208L 

anj.froM, Populua dliata, 204b. 


yi$, Dioflpyros.embrjropt0ri0^ia&. 
gadkAji, Pyrus variolosa, 85. 
gad vasstUy Allium rubellumif 230*. 
gadda^ Phoenix dactylifiara^ 2^A,. 
gaddi Mngar^ Cbenopodinm sp^ 

gaderwa, Erythiina arboresGens, 6SL 
gdgarkandf Astcagalua muUioepa» 

gaggar vurmi^ Bhododandson. cam-. 

panulatum, 134. 
gdgU, Dolicbos uniflonur^ 68 ;. AroiiL' 

Colocasia, 247. 
gdgoTy Daucus oacota, 105.. 
(pahdri) gdjar^ Eryngium plaxuun, 

gdkra^ Solanum gracilipeSy 159*' 
gal, goitre, 269. 
gal, Pennisetum Italicum, 259.' 
gdlar torif Trichosanthes, anguina^ 

gcdla, Cupressus torulosa, 222. 
gdlK, Pbcsnix dactylifera, 243. 
gdlhqja^ Pinus Gherardiana» 225^ 
gdlot, Ceropegia esculenta^ 145. 
gan, Garissa.mffusa^ 142. 
gand, smell. 
(mirchid) gand^ Cymbopogon Iwar*. 

ancusa, 253. 
ganda hiroza, Pinus longifolia^ 226. 



Mfida hite^ Euphorbia Helioscopia, 

(forba) ga/niay Saccharum sara, 261. 
gandal, Avena fatua, 250. 
(kwdr) gandal, Aloe perfoliata, 232. 
(9oa) gandal, Asparagus Funjaben- 

sis, 233. 
gdndahiy Bergera Konigii, 29. 
gdndiltm, Dapline oleoides, 189. 
gandamgundUf Lycopus Europseus, 

gandanOf gandhan, Allium Ascaloni- 

cum, 230. 
gandeU^ Yitis Indica, 35. 
gaUidera^'ShAzjdk stricta, 143. 
gandere, Nerium odonun, 142. 
(trikh) gandere^ Bhododendron ar- 

boreum, 133. 
gandhuU^ Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 

gandi hiiit G-linus lotoides, 101. , 
gandidl, Ghouffeia holoste aides, 20. 
gandlttj Bergera Konigii, 29. 
gandumy nishasti gandwn, Triticum 
' iBstiTuin, 262. 
gan&r, Avena fatua, 250. 
ganger, Gbewia betulsefolia, 27 ; Sa- 

geretia Brandrethiana, 42 ; Ehre- 

tia aspera, 153; Lyciiim Euro- 

p»um, 156. 
gangf, Grewia bitulaBfolia, 27. 
gdngt eh4, Euphorbia sp., 195. 
gdngisho, Cactus Indicus, 101. 
gofMr, Amaranthus anardana, 181 ; 

A. mangostonus, 181. 
ganhUay Fremna mucronata, 166. 
ganhira^ Nerium odorum, 142. 
ganhula, Sambucus Ebulus, 114. 
ganhulit l^sBnopus sp., 128. 
gam, Ozystebna esculenta, 146. 
gantraf iNerium odorum, 142. 
gonna, Saccharum officinarum, 260. 
ganihia. Allium cepa, 230. 
ganthian, IpomoDa reptans, 150. 
gangeri, Zizyphus vulgaris, 44. 
gafSsubdn^gulg.j Macrotomiaeuchro- 

ma, 154. 

garar, Beptonia buxifolia, 135. 
garba ganda, Saccharum sara, 261. 
garelu, Eicus reticulata, 214. 
garinda, Oarissa diffusa, 142. 
garm, Fanicum antidotale, 258. 
gama, Carissa diffusa, 142. 
(hiun) gama, Capparis horrida, 16. 
garrt, Arundinana falcata, 249. 
garudar, Elsholtzia polystachya, 168i 
gotta, Allium cepa, 230. 
gaunri, Trapa bispinosa, 89. 
gausam, Schleichera trijuga, 32. 
gazanjhin, Tamarix orientalis, 92. 
gazptpol, Flantago major, 174; 

Abies Smithiaua, 219. 
ge, Corylus Goluma, 201. 
gmda, Tagetes erecta, 130. 
gendi. Chrysanthemum Indioum, 

geydr, Cedrus deodara, 220. 
ghd, ghds, grass, herb. 
(m€dor%) ghd, Bumex hastatus, 187. 
{shiU) ghd, Chrysopogon glaucop- 

tis, 262. 
qh^z, Delphinium saniculadfolium, 

ghdlme. Anabasis multiflora, 176. 
gharei kashmdlu, Lallemantia Boyle- 
ana, 168. 
gharghashtdi, Amygdalus Fersica, 

78. ^ 
ghdrikun. Boletus igniarius ? 267. 
gharot, Ozystelma esculenta, 146. 
ghdg, Adiantum yenustum, 265. 
ghds vel, Cuscuta refleza, 152. 
ghazlei, Tamarix doica, 91. 
ghentol, Tulipa steUata, 235. 
ghi, clarified butter, 75. 
ghi tural, gh4a tori, Luffa pentand- 

ra, 98. 
ghi kwdr. Aloe perfoliata, 282. 
ghin, Eliea^us, 189. 
ghol, Coccmea Indica, 96. 
ghar bach, Acorus calamus, 236. 
ghorumba, Cucumis Colocynthis, 96. 
ghunchi, Abrus precatorius, 50. 
ghundt, Sph»ranthu8 hirtus, 180. 



gkwrdske^ Dodoniea Bonnanniana, 

ghurumiba^ Cucumis ColocyntliiB, 

ghuZj Tamarix orientalis, 92. 
ghuzhbe, Plantago major, 174 ; Alnus 

sp., 197. 
ghwd, Tamarix orientalis, 92. 
ffhwanza, Cratffigiis oxyacantha, 79. 
ghwareja, Edwardsia, mollis, 68. 
ghioareshtdi, Amygdalns Persica, 78. 
ghwarga, Arundo Donax, 2$0. 
gid 9h{kh^ Juniperus communig, 222. 
giam, Cedras aeod&ra, 220. 
gum, Premna mucronata, 166. 
gidnhan, Elseagnus conferta, 189. 
gidoTy jackal. 
gidar ddk, CiBsus camosa, 35 ; Sa- 

feretia oppositifolia, 42 ; Primus 
^adus, 83. 
gtdar tamdhi, Heliotropium Euro- 
pium, 154 ; Yerbascum Tfaapsus, 

g(dty FrancoBuria crispa, 126. 
gihdin, gihen, Elnagnus oonferta, 

gild9^ Cerasus vulgaris, 78. 
gilerii, Erythrina arborescens, 69. 
gillar, goitre, 269. 
gillorpattr, Laminaria sp., 269. 
gilo, (sat) gUoy Tinospora eordi- 

folia, 6. 
gii^y Ehretia aspera, 153. 
gingdrti, Cratrogus crenulata, 79. 
gipshan, Eurotia ceratoides, 179. 
gvra^ Alnus sp., 197. 
gir chhatra, Morcbella semilibera, 

girk, Pluggea virosa, 195. 
girthan, Muggea leucopyrus, 195. 
gtrthafiy Sageretia oppositifolia^ 42. 
g{ru{, Panicum antiaotale, 258. 
giur, Salix Babylonica, 207. 
giwdin, Elseagnus conferta, 189. 
gni{t ? Cheuopodium sp., 179. 
gohi, Brassica oleracea, 12. 
godguddla, StercuUa yiUosa, 25. 

gogi fdg, Malra paryiflora, 28. 
gakinla, Hamiltonia suayeolens, 115. 
yo/or, Edwardsia mollis, 68. 
gohhru ded, Tribulus alatus, 37. 
^gokhni kaldn, Xanthium stromari- 

um, 182. 
gokpa, Allium sp., 231. 
gol, round, globular. 
gol kadduy Benincasa cerifera, 95. 
gol kamila, GRochidion sp., 196. 
gondf gum. 

gond, Typha angustifolia, 246. 
(jingna or ham) gond, Odina wo- 

dier, 46. 
(kikkar ke) gand, Acacia Arabica, 

(senibdl) gond, Bombax heptaphyl. 

lum, 24. 
gond(, goitdnt, Cordia Botbii, 158. 
gongich, Lepidium latifolium, (Lad. 

omitted in text), 14. 
gara Idna, Anabasis multiflora, 176. 
gora Idne, Caroxylon fsetidum, 177. 
garakh mundiy Lippia nodiflora, 166. 
gorakh pdnw, Convolyulus pluricaa« 

lis, 150 ; Heliotropium brevifo* 

lium, 154. 
gorhagra^ Eriophorum comosum, 

gordil, Nepeta sp., 170. 
gorwa, Arundinaria falcata, 249. 
gozang^ Avena fatua, 250. 
gram, Cicer arietinum, 68. 
grim, Qrim, Hordeum cteleste, 255. 
gn&gtUy Viburnum foetens, 114. 
gudr, Dolicbos uniflorus, 68, 
^haJ^ gudr, Cyamopsis psoraloides, 

gMt^ Coriaria Nepalisnsis, 39; Yi- 

bumum cotinifolium, 114; Y« 

foetens, 114. 
(amal) guch, Pnmus Paddum, 88. 
gud bcfttaly Linum trigynum, 20. 
gudaly Xantbium strumarium, 182. 
gudumbal, Bhus vemicifera, 49. 
gudi kirn, gidia, Meconopsis aeule- 




ffidi mumtUj 1, Dubie UmbellifenB, 

ffufa^ Antennaria contorta, 119. 
gugalj Dolomisda macrocephala, 125 ; 

Mynime Afncana» 135. 
yuaent, Brassica rapa, 12. 
ffu^, SausEOU^a Borocephala, 129. 
ffu^fil, JimiperuB communis, 222. 
4^U, Brassica rapa, 12. 
yii^, Favialndica, 81. 
gugala^ Antennaria sp., 119. 
yi»/, flower. 
gulj Cichorium Intybus, 124 ; Plan- 

tago major, 174. 
gil abhdsy Mirabilis Jalapa, 182. 
^l abregham, Acacia speciosa, 56. 
^ bos. Aster sp., 121. 
guUut^dib^ Hibiscus mutabilis, 22. 
g^l doda, Leucas Cepbalotes, 168. 
ffil dupahariya^ Fentapetes Pbaeni- 

cea, 25. 
gH gaozahdny Macrotomia eucbro- 

ma, 154. 
gil i&fari pumka, Yillarsia nym- 

pboides, 148. 
gul kdkru, Fodopbyllum Emodi, 8. 
gul kandary Sterculm villosa, 25. 
gtd khtUr, Lavatera Cacbemiriana, 

gul khairaf Altbsa rosea, 21. 
gtU ndiaTy gUl nashtar^ Erytbrina 

arborescens, 69. 
guUpiBta^ Fistacia vera, 47. 
gul sanjad, Elsagnus conferta^ 189. 
g4l shahho, Foliantbes tuberosa, 235. 
gul fun, Cedrela toona, 84. 
(paighambari) gul, Amebia ecbioi- 

des, 152 
(ghanddi) gul, Tulipa stellata, 235. 
(tparlei) g^l, Amebia ecbioides, 152. 
(futei) guly Matricaria Cbamomila, 

(zer) gilj Calendula officinalis, 123. 
guldb, Rosa centifolia^ 85 ; B. ma- 

crophylla, 86. 
(ban) guUby Bosa macropbylla, 86. 
Ixireh) guldb, Bosa centifona, 85. 

guUbi, Crotalaria medicaginea^ 65. 

(kaeh) gular, Ficus cunia^ 212. 

guUuU, Dolicbos uniflorus, 68. 

gtUdar, Cedrela toona serrata, 84. 

gulder, Stapbylea Emodi, 40. 

g^UUy Fluggea leucopyrus, 195. 

guldb ghureif Bosa Brunonis, 85. 

gulu, Cannabis satira, 215. 

gumhar^ Brassica rapa, 12. 

g^mhar, Gfmelina arDorea^ 166. 

y«n, Favia Indica, Indica 81. . 

gundcha, Bubus lasiocarpus, 87. 

gungdri, Bosa Brunonis, 85. 

gungUi, Brassica Bapa, 12. 

gungrUf Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. 

gunkiriy Adiantum caudatum, 265. 

gtinpalos, Fyrus Kumaonensis, 84. 

gv/ngun, Carum carui, 104. 

guvy 8accbarum officinale, 260. 

gurdcha, Bubus flavus, 86 ; B. lasio* 
carpus, 87. 

gurbianiy Thalictrum foliolosuin, 5. 

gurd dlu, Frunus Armeniaca, 81. 

gurganna, Yerbascum Tbapsus, 168 ; 
Eremostacbys Vicaryi, 168 ; Sal- 
via lanata, 172. 

gwrgi, Fistacia integerrima^ 47. 

gurguU, Leptopus cordifolius, 196. 

gurgura, Beptonia buxifolia, 185. 

gurinda, Frinsepia utilis, 81. 

gur kats, gur shagalf Desmodium ti- 
liadfolium, 67. 

g{Mi, kernel. 

gwd, Tetrantbera monopetsda, 188. 

gtodlddkhy Bibesleptostacbyum, 102. 

gwdl kakri, Bryonia umbeuatay 95. 

gwalidar, Diospyros Lotus, 186. 

gwdndishf Sambucus, Ebulus, 114' 

gtnan, Arum colocasia, 247. 

hdbat ul khizra, Bhus ^uminata 

habb, a seed or fruit. 
habbi kdknaj, Fhysalis Indica, 158. 



hahh ul dSf Mjrtus communis, 93. 
habh ul hdn, Melia Azedarach, 83. 
hM ul JMJMy Cardiospermumfia- 

licacabum, 31. 
hahhuly MyrtuB communiB, 93. 
hddttTf Bibes leptostachjum, 102 ; 

Bibes rubrum, 102. 
"kaddi, CornuB macrophjUa, Ul. 
haizay cholera. 
haiza-kapatta, Kalanchoe varianB, 

hakim, a physician (Mussalm^), 

4, 159. 
hakshoj Fortulaca quadrifida, 100. 
haldy haldt, Bhus succedanea^ 49. 
halbamhary Hedera Helix, 110. 
haldar, haldt, Curcuma longa, 238 
(ban) haldi, Hedychium spicatum, 

and BoBCoea puipurea, 289. 
haldu, Naudea cordifolia^ 116. 
haleOf Comua macrophylla, 11 1. 
hdkfn, Lepidium satiYum, 14. 
Aa&'tfn, Asparagus racemosus, 233. 
halja, Curcuma longa, 288. 
hdlfti, Impatiens sp , 86 ; Salvia la- 

nata, 172. 
halwa kaddUf Cucurbita maxima, 97. 
Jkambukhf Myricaria Qermanica, 91. 
hammdZf Sida cordifalia, 23. 
hamu, fVaxinuB floribunda, 138. 
hanehu, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
handf Cichorium Intybus, 124. 
hdne, Pavia Indica, 81. 
han8 rdff Adiantum venustum, 265. 
hamlMn, Pavia Indica, 81. 
hanuZf FraxinuB xanthoxylloides, 

hanaa, Acacia Jacquemonti, 53. 
hanzaly Acer cuitratum, 30 ; Cucu- 

mis Colocynthis, 96. 
har, TerminaJia chebula, 89. 
harein, Tetranthera monopetala^ 

hdri, hoHan, Prunua Armeniaca^ 81. 
harUi, Comus macrophylla, Ul. 
harmal, Peganum Harmala, 38. 
hamaidi, ttolanum xanthocarpum, 

161 ; BicinuB communis, 196. 

harrar, Terminaria cbebula, 89. 
harri, Comus macrophylla, 11 1. 
harsint^hdr, NyctantheB arbor tristifl^ 

haruntitia, Agathotes sp., 147 ; Col- 

chicum sp , 230. 
hdgha, Tamarix dioica, 91. 
hathdjoriy Martynia diandra, 149. 
hdti chuk, Cynara dcolymus, 125. 
hdtmulf AgathoteB sp., I%7. 
haulber, Juniperus communis, 222. 
haxdr ddna, Euphorbia hypericifo- 

Ka, 194 ; B. thymifolia, 195. 
helra, Boerhaavia elegans, 182. 
hembaVf Ulmus campestris, 210. 
herar, at Agaricus campestris, 267. 
hidsmin, Syringa Persica, 141. 
(khamib) Hindi, Prosopis spicigera, 

{tamar) Hindi, Tamarindis Indica, 

{id) Hindi, at Carissa difiusa, 142. 
hindtodna, Citrullus yulgaris, 95. 
hinff, Perula assafoetida, 106. 
hingol, hingot. Balanites ^gyptiaca^ 

hinna, Lawsonia inermis, 90. 
hiran padi^ Convolvulus arvensis, 

hirek, DiospyroB Montana, 137. 
Hru, Cassia tora, 62. 
his, hiungama, Capparis horrida, 16. 
hiunsew, ParmeHa sp. ? 269. 
hodung, Populus Euphratica, 204. 
hokmchil, PhcBnix dactylifera, 243. 
hoi, Medicago sativa, 71. 
holdshi, BhuB succedanea, 49. 
Holi, a Hindti festival, 68. 
holma, Leea aspera, 35. 
hodung, Populus Euphratica^ 204. 
howd, 8olanum gracilipes, 159. 
hukmanddz, Carpesium racemosum, 

hila, Bumex acntas, 187. 
hulds, snuff. 
huldi Xiashmiri, Bhododendron cam- 

panulatum, 134. 
huidsa, Bhus vemicifera, 49. 



huUiMna, Bhtifii BucIdfuneK 48 ; B. 

•Buecedanea, 49. 
hulkil^ (^ynandropsis pentapbjlla, 

Mm, PraxmuB floribunda, 138. 
humbi, Mjricaria G-ennanica^ 91. 
himbuf Mjricaria elegaiiB, 91. 


iUdehiy Elettaria Cardamomum, 28&. 
illar hillary Cocculus LesDba, 6. 
ima/ify Carpinus viminea, 200. 
imarjalj Iris psaudacoruB^ 241. 
imhir, TJlmus campestriB, 210. 
imli, TamarinduB Indica, 76. 
imU Khorasdnff AdaoBonia digitata, 

imdarha, CeltiB Caucasica, 209. 
indariauj Holarrhena antidyBonte- 

rica^ 142. 
4iid/r6iyany CucumiB ColocyntbiB, 96. 
indi\ QuercuB anziulatay 198. 
indurUM t NardostachTB Jataman- 

• Bl, 118. 

inyrdch, Fragaria voBca, 80. 
i^fanif Cymbopogon Iwarancusa^ 

fM#ra, Subos bifloruB, 86. 
4nzari PicuB caricoides, 212. 
inzarra, Ghrewia Botbii, 27. 
(nzarre-, Grewia betulsefolia, 27. 
iriw, NarciBBUB Tazetta^ 235 ; Lib 

Florentina, 240. 
thf, Chenopodium album, 178. 
{rr%, QuercuB Hex, 199. 
ifofyhol, Flantago amplexicauliB, 

178 ; P. iBpagbula, 174 ; P. major, 

174 ; Colcbicum Bp., 230. 
uhdndf CorcborUB triloeulariB, 26. 
uhand Lahawri^ Peganum Harmala^ 

itsit, Triantbema pentandra, 100 ; 

PlectranthuB rugOBUB, 171 ; Bo- 

• erhaayia diffusa, 182.. 



job, Saocbarum Bpp.^ 262. 
jahlotay Jatropba curcuB, 196. 
joffni, a flambeaux, 221. 
(j/fd) jdfari pumka^ YillarBia nymr 

pbiDoideB, 148. 
jof, Jasminum officinale, 141. 
jaintaTy jait, BeBbania .^lg3rptiacay 

jdl, Salvadora Indica, 174 ; S. ole- 

oidoB, 175. 
(kauri) jily Salvadora Indica, 174. 
jdla, HydrUla verticillata, 241 ; Por 

tamogeton gramineus, 242. 
julhdgi. Viburnum stellulatum, IIS. 
jald dru, PrunuB Armeniaca, 81. 
jalidar, Ghrewia Botbii, 27 ; Eham^ 

nuB purpureuB, 41. 
jalkukar^ Tulipa stellata, 236. 
jalnim, Lippia nodiflora, 166 ; Ly^^ 

copuB Europ»uB, 168. 
jamalgota, BalioBpermum IndicUm, 

jaman^ Punica granatum, 44 ; Sify« 

gium Jambolanum, 94. 
jdman, Sizjgiiun Jambolanum, 94. 
jamdra^ Yibumum foetens, 114. 
(ndgar) jtmidn, EicuB reticulata^ 

jamCr, Ficus carica, 211 ; F. cari- 

coideB, 212. 
jammiy PrunuB PaduB, 88. 
jatnoa f Scbleicbera triiuga, 82 ; 

Ebeodendron Boxbm^pfnii, 40. 
jdmpdn^ a litter for tbe nilLsy 81, 79f 

189 his, 199, 200, 228. 
jdm&yjamin, PrunuB PaduB, 88. 
jdn, tfrtica heteropbyll% 215. 
jand, Zizypbas nummularia, 48; 

Acacia leucopbliea, 53; ProBopis 

Bpicigera, 74. 
jdndar, AriBttda depreBBa^ 249. 
jandi, AstragaluB muIticepB,^ 57 ; 

ProBopis spicigera, 74; Ballota 

limbaU, 107. 


jangal heli, Salix spp., 269. 
janaal parinffi, Quercus semecarpi- 

folia, 200. 
Janffliy of tlie Janyal, wild. 
fan^U hinda, Hibiscus sp., 23. 
jan^U frost, Populus alba, 203. 
jan^hi kits, Edwardsia mollis, 68. 
jangU mehndi^ ATninanpia aurictt- 

lata, 90. 
janglipdlnk, Bumex acutus, 187. 
jangK pidz, Allium oepa, and A. 

rubellum, 230. 
jangK sdmak, Fanicum colonum, 

jangli sanhokra. Hibiscus sp., 23. 
jangU sarson, Sisymbrium Irio, 15. 
(bulbar) iangU^ Boletus igniarius ? 

jdng^h. Arum cuiraioim, 247. 
Jdn-i-adam, Ajuga bracteata, 167 ; 

Salvia lanata, 172. 
japhrotOf Jatropha curcas, 196. 
(nikkt) japhroHf Baliospermum In- 

dicum^ 192. 
Jar, a root. 
jaridhip^ Dolomisa macroeephala^ 

(fidhsarita la) Jari, Adiantum caU" 

datum, 265. 
(chitf)Jdri, Aconitum heterophyl- 

lum, 1. 
jdri, .^irua Bovii, 180. 
jdrt kdndidlly Asparagus racemosus, 

jarpm4, Acer cultratum, 80. 
yorZa^y^ Lonicera qujnquelocularis, 

(hura de) Jdroh, Anai;henun muri- 

catum, 248. 
(kdK) jarri. Salvia lanata^ 172. 
Jatamdsif Nardostachys Jatomapsi, 

Jataun, Berberis aristata, 7. 
joHmisik, Heliotropium ramosissi^ 

mum, 154. 
ja/u, Artemisia sacrorum, 121 ; Hor<* 

deum hexastichtim^ 256, 

jau sag, ChenopodiunTalbum, 178^ . 

(p%ld) jdu, Artemisia el^ans, 120. 
Jaua mukaddam, Pavia Indica, 81. 
jatoa, iawa khdr^ Hordeum liexaB« 

tichum, 256. 
jduM, jawdn, Alhagi Maurorum, 57* 
jawd, Yibumum cotinifolium, 114, 
jawdne, Cicer Soongaricum, 63. 
jawdsa, Alhagi Maurorum, 57. 
jei, Avena fatua, 250; A. Sativa^ 251. 
jeJe, Melia Azedarach, 33. 
jel, Sesbania ^^yptiaca, 75. 

(bm) jere^ Ocunmn gratissimuni^ 

jeti madh, GHveirrhiza tripliyll% 6^, 
jewar, Euryale ferox, 8. 
jhand, Prosopis spicigera^ 74. 
jhanjh, Hydnlla verticillata, 241. 
jhanfhanf .£schjnomene cannabin% 

jhar heri, Zizyphus nummularia^ 48* 
jhaUy Tamarix dioica, 91 ; Artemisia^ 

elegans, 120. 
jhyan, .Sschynomene cannabina^ 6Qk 
jhmga, Luffa acutangula, 98. 
jhojru, Tephrosia purpurea, 76. 
jhotak, ^ordeiim nexastichum, 256. 
jhula, a tirig-bridge, 5« 111, 140. 

jhila, Antennaria contorta^ 119, 
jhund, Saccharum sara, 261. 
jiapota, Putranjiya Eoxburghii, 196* 
jidkar, Elacourtia sepiaria^ 18, 
jijan. Cassia obovata, 62. 
jikjik, Bosa macrophyUa^ 86^ 
jmgna gond, Odina wodier, 46. 
jiniru, Lonicera augustifolia, 113. 
jinseng, at Thalictrum foliolosum, & 
jinti, ransepia utilis, 81. 
jmtidna, Saxifraga ligulata, 103, 

(kdla) jtra^ Nigella satiY% 4, 
jirka, Phytolacca decandra^ 176. 

(ban) jiru, Artemisia Indica^ 120. 
jt/^8al¥adora Indica^ 174. 
Jiunti, Cimicifuga foetida, 2. 
jodr^ Sorghum yulgare« 262. 

(bara) joor, Zea may«y 268. 
joaraktse, Myricaria fl^rmanica^ 91, 



j€jh^ Alhagi Mautermn, 67. 
jqire, Xanthium stnuuariuin, 182. 
jidHy Syringa Emodi, 140. 
iUki Impatiens sp., 80. 
jumdlgota^ Jatropha curcas 196. 
jumla^ Termiaalia arjuna, 88. 
Jutrtij Myndne Africana, 185. 
jifotUk motif Anthifltiria jEuiathesa, 

Jca eUry FinuB excelsa, 225. 

jli, kd hotangy Juglans regia, 201. 

kd, 8accharum spp., 262. 

habdba^ Xanthoxylon hoBtilOp 89.. 

kdbra, Capparis spinosa, 17. 

(ckit) kabra Sinm^ Urana chetkub- 

pa, 77. 
kabil, PovukiB nigra. 205. 
Kibul kuckoTy Acacia Famesiana, 

J^dbuK Jkadduy Lagenaria YulgariB, 

JfUUnUi kikkoTy Acacia Arabica rar. 

cupreBsiformis, 51. 
KdhuU twii, Gactufl Indicua, lOL 
kc^ dluy Anim Colocasii^ 247. 
(jiif) kach dluy Saxi&a^ Ugulata^ 

hu:h l&i, Tamarix dioica, 91. 
kach wosmIj Urgiaia Indica, 235. 
(kdna) kachy Monchalla Bemiiibeia, 

kdch, DaucuB carota, 105. 
kachal, Abies Smithiana, 219 
hichdmy UlmuB integrifdiia^ 2U. 
kachati, Abies Smithia&a» 219. 
(Hlia) kofiTwn^.^ Aconitum Napel- 

luB, 2. 
kaeheny MeUa Azedaracb, 33. 
kachheri^ a court-house, 24A, 
kdchmdchf Solaauu iii^;rumy 160. 
kachndr, Bauhiiaa iranegata^ 59, 
kachra, Cucumis momordica, 97. 
kdiekrif Cucumis pubescens, 97. 

(h^ir) kackriy kaohw% Hedyddun 

spicatum, 239. 
(nor) kaekury {tikia) kac^nr^ at He- 

djckium spicatum, 239. 
kadanda^ Verbascum Thapsus, 163. 
kddush, BibeB leptostachyum, 102. 
kadd/&, Lagevaria rulgans, 98. 
kaddu gufSd, Cucurbita maxima, 97. 
(^ol) kaddu, Beniacasa ^eiifera, 95« 
(Judtoa) kaddif Cucurbita* maxima^ 

(Kdbult) kaddUf Lagenaria yulgaris, 

(mUha) kaddij Cucurbita maxima, 

kadenriy Taxns baccata, 227. 
kadwwr, G-jmmosporia spiuoaa, 41. 
kafi, Oreoseris lanugiiiosa, 128 
kmgashy Comufl macropbylla, 111. 
kaghanta, Staphylea Emodi, 40. 
ka^h ddky Sibes rubrum, 102. 
kfysart, Daphfte oIe<»deB, ^S9. 
kahi, Saccbarum spoataneum, 26 U 
kdht kahela ? Myiica sapida^ 202. 
kahuy Lactuca sativa, 127. 
kdiphaly Myrica >8apida, 202. 
kdi zaban, rhododendron amthopo* 

gon, 133. 
kdiar, kail, kdH, FifLUB-excelsa, 225. 
kdin, TJlmus campestris, 210. 
kdit, Eerenia eLephanjbum, -29, 
kaiun, Eaba vulgaris, 69. 
kateiy Bosa Brunonis, 85. 
kaky EicuB caricotdes, 212. 
kdkei, kakh^uh, Pteris aquitina, 260. 
kakloy hakkmry Pifltacia iutegerrima, 

kakkar Umihiy Mcotiana rustica^ 

kakkaraUy kgkkariy £h«s Buckiame* 

la, 48. 
kakkeratiy k/gkhra Unat, kdhkrangehe^ 

kakkreiy Pistacia mtegerrima, 47. 
kakkriny Bhus sucoedauea, 49. 
{kabhi) kdknajy Phyaalw Indica» 158. 
kdkddumbari, Ghneliua arborea, 160. 
kakoroy Momordiea mnricata, 98.. 




takrdf Pistacia integerrima, 47. 

kdkrd, Acer cultratum, 80. 

(ban) kdkrd, Podophyllum Emodi, 

kdkrdCf Acer Creticum, 80. 
kakrditij, Fistacia integerrima^ 47. 
kahrif Capparis Bpinosa, 17 ; Cucu- 
.' mis utiuBsiinuB, 97. 
iawdl) kakrit Bryonia umbellata, 95. 
^dnwal) kakrif iNelumbium spedor 

sum, 9. 
(jiU) kdkrUf FodopEylluin ^modi, 

kaksh, Comus macrophylla, 111. 
kakua, Gouffeia holosteoides, 20. 
kal^ Urtiea heterophylla, 215. 
(^kira) kdl. Arum curvatum, 247. 
kdla, kdli, black. 
kdla hud, Hippophae rhamnoides, 

kdld ddnd, PharbitiB ml, 151. 
kdla jira^ Nigella sativa, 4. 
kdXa lobiuy Dolichos lablab, 67. 
kdla mewa, i^olanum verbascifolium, 

kdla sanon, BrasBica Eruca, 11. 
kdld tr4mho, Eagopyrum eBCulen- 

tum, 184. 
kdlakdt, PrunuB PaduB, §3. 
kalam^ Qlochidion bd., 196. 
ipdpaty kalam^ Yibumum cotmi- 

folium, 114. 
kdldriy large. 
(jokhru) kaldn, Xantbium stiauna- 

rium, 132. 
(khub) kaldn, SiBymbrinm Irio, 15. 
kalandar zatar ? Thymus serpyl- 

. liim, 178. 
kalaft, DolichoB uniflorus, 68. 
ktdaunjiy Nigella sativa, 4. 
kdlban, Machilus odoratissimuB, 188. 
kaUnr, DatiBoa caomabina, 191. 
kalehan, 8alix alba, 206. 
kalhamy Naudea parrifolia, 116. 
kalt basuft, Clerodendron inforhina- 

.tum, 165. 
kdli.jarri, Salvia lanata, 172. 

kdUjiri,' Vernonia anihelmintica^ 

kdli k^ki, Picrorhiza kurrooa, 163. . 
kdU morty Desmedium tiliiefolicim^ 

kdl4 rinff, Quercos dilatata, 199. 
kdli sir%nf Acacia specioBa, 53. 
kdl4 sfwalf AmaraathuB anardanv 

181. . , 

kdli tori, Luffa acutangula, 98. 
kdli zewar, Bupleurum marginatum, 

104. : 

kdli ziri, Aplotaxis candicans, 119. 
kallndra, Acer cultratum, 30. 
kaliin, Cham»rop8 Bitehian% 242. 
kdlkalin, Bubua biflorus, 86. 
kalla bdnsy Bambusa anmdinacea^ 

kallar, saline im^egnation of soil, 

59, 175. 
kalfhdun, Bignonia Buaveolens, 148L 
kdUhdun, Ehretia serrata, 154. 
kalucho^ Ilex dipyrena, 40. 
kdlyatti, smut ; at Triticum aBstivum^. 

kakang, Chrysaiithemum Indieunv 

kdm, Nauelea parvifolia, 116. 
kamalpkil, Gentiana kurroo, 147. 
kamdnd, &ccharum offidnarum^ 

kamatyhioal, Saxifra^a ligulata, 103.. 
kamarkat, at Brassica, 11 ; at Mo- 

ringa, 20; Butea frondosa, 59; 

CathartocarpuB fistula^ 62. 
kdmbei, Solanum nigrum, 160. 
kam$la, kdmil, kdmil, kamila, Bot* 

tlera tinctoria, 197. 
(gol) kamil^, Glochidion sp., 196. 
kamla, Berberis aristata, y ; Gym* 

nosporia spinosa, 41. 
kamldi^ Odina wodier, 46. 
kammal, Berberis aristata, 7. 
kamrakh, Averrhoa Carambola, 37. 
kamud bij, Nymphsa alba, 8. 
kan, Saccharum spontaneum, 261. 
kan phuly Taraxacum offidnale, 131. 





1^ Sftcdianim sara, 261. 
kAia Icaek^ Horohella m 

268. ^• 

hiMchij kandcMf tLabuB rotimdi- 
• foUus, 87. 
Jxmakj Sageretia oppositifolia, 42 ; 

Triticum estiYuixL 262. 
(&ir; koMk, pambhan Jeanah, !Friti* 

cum durum, 262. 
Tcfmehh&ri^ OarduuE nutans, 128. 
Jumd^ voot. 
(biddri) kand, (InldO iani, Fueia- 

na tuberosa, 75. 
(jigar) kand^ Astragalus multic^pSy 

^mA^ iani, Calotropis prooera, 144. 
^Aa^of^ hind^ Batatas edulis, 160. 
{zamtn) handy Arum Colocasia, 246. 
%and rSf Abies 8mitbian% 219. 
imdaj a spine or prickle. 
kanda, Meconopsis aculeata, (S. 

omitted in text), 9; Berchemia 

sp., 41 ; Saccharum sara, 261. 
(Idtm-yhimda, Aitragalos multi- 

cepSy 57. 
(phut) handa, Ballota limbata, 167 ; 

Asparagus racemosus, 283. 
(ptU) kandoj Acbyranthes aspera, 

180; Crozophora plicata, 192. 
hmdar, Oomus macroph^lla, 111. 
fyH) kandar, Sterculia TiUosa, 25. 
ktmddul, Bheom Emodi, 186. 
kandazeray GTmnosporia spinosa^ 

Joandey Ooiiaria Kepalensis, 89. 
ka/ndeiy Placourtia sapida, 18 ; As- 
tragalus multiceps, 57. 
ktmdMi, Ziz jphus vulgaris, 44. 
kander, Gymnosporia spinosa^ 41. 
(bari) kander, £nretia aspera, 153. 
(nikki) kander^ Bhamnus Persica, 

(Jan) kandidli, Asparagus racemo- 

Bus, 233. ' 
Itmdpira, Astragalus multiceps, 57 ; 

Bubus lasiocarpus, 87. 

kandidrtj Argemone Ifezicansk 9; 
Gymnosporia spinbsa, 41 ; ^isy- 
pbus vulgaris, 44 ; Acacia Jae** 
quemonti, 53;; Carthamus ozya-. 
cantha, 123 ; Cousinia caldtra- 
pnformis, 125 r Solanum grad- 
Hpes, 159 ; S. zanthocarpum, 161 1 
BaUota limbat% 167. 

kando, OsBsalpinia sepiaria, 60 ; Hip« 
popbae rhamnoides, 190. 

kaifuHij Comus macropbylla, 111. 

kandu, Eryngium planum, 105. 

kandiri, Coccinea Indica, 96. 

kaner, Nerium odorum, 142. 

kanerOy Hamiltoiiia suaveolens, 115w 

kangachy Morcbella semilibera, 268. 

kangary Pistada integenima, 47. 

kemgeTy Sageretia Brandrethiana, 42i 

kanglMy Adiantum caudatum, 265; 

Jeanghly Sponia Wigbtii, 210. 

kinghi ekuy Cactus Indica^ 101. 

kanghol mireh, Celtis Caucasica^ 209. 

kar^y Ifihipborbia dracunculoidos, 

kiMgloy Acer Creticum, 30. 

kangluy Pyrus ElUmaonensis, 84. 

kangtUy Pennisetum Italicum, 259. 

kangtoTy Spirsa lindleyana, 68. 

kanf4y Placourtia sapida, 18 ; Ly* 
dum Europsum, 156. 

kdnhaUchiy Morcbella semilibera^ 

kanigond, Odina wodier, 46. 

kanioTy Cathartocarpus fistula, 62. 

i^of^o, Nerium odorum, 142, 

kaniMy Hedera Helix, 110. 

kdnjoTy Acer cultratum, 30. 

kdnji, Bbus Temidfera, 42. 

kanJTUy Hex dipyrena, 40. 

kankoly EUeagnus conferta, 189. 

kanliy Abies Smitbiana, 219. 

kannay GommelynaBengalensis^ 286. 

Jkanoehoy Salvia lanata, 172. 

kanar, ravia Indica, 31. 

ikdns, DioBCorea deltoidea, 229. 

kdruiy Bibes grossularia, 102. 



Mnta, a tboiai, &e. — see han^^ . 
(much) kdntay Astragalus multiceps, 

67. . 
tdntdla, Agave cuntala, 282. 
(microti) kmtdla, Agaye America- 
na, 232. 
kantdli, Hamiltonuk suayeolens, 115. 
kantanch, IRubus biflorus, 86. 
kanthun. Daphne oleoides, 189. 
kmtian, Eosa Webbiana, 86. 
kantidri, Carthamus ozjaqantha, 

kanur, Acer cultratum, 80. . 
kani&r, Payia Indica, 81. . 
kanuri, Spinea lancQejana, 88. 
kanwalf Neliunbium speciosnm, 9 ; 

8auBsurea obyaUata, 129. 
kdnwal gatie^ kdnuoal hahriy Nelum- 

bium speciosum, 9. 
Qnrm) kanwal, Saussurea obyallata, 

(S. omitted in text), 129, 
kam/iirts, Artemisia paryifiora, 120. 
hanzal^ Acer cultratum, 30. 
kanzars, Fragaria yesca, 80. 
kanzriy Acer cultratum, 30. 
kapd, kapds, Ghossypinm herbaceum, 

kapfi^ Oreoseris lanuginosa, 128. 
kaphalf Mjrica sapida, 202. 
kappoBy Ghossjpium berbacenm, 22^ 
kaprij Spiraea lindleyana, 88. 
k<xpur kachrif Hedycnium spicatum, 

(hat) kar, Celtis Oaucasica, 209 ; 

C. Nepalensis, 210. 
kardUa, Verbena officinalis, 166. 
kardl, Bauhinia variegata, 69. 
kardlUt, Falconeria insignis, 217. 
kardlliy Banbinia variegata, 69. 
karamhal, Eicus uticulata, 214. 
kardmbru, Albizi^ia odoratissima, 66. 
karangaily Cathartocarpus fistula, 62. 
(hard) Aroron^V ^ongamia glabra, 73. 
(hat) karar^f Ouilandina Bonduc, 

kardr, Baubinia variegata, 69. 
karatf Latbjrus sativus, 71. 

karifhrf, Yerbascum Thapsus, 168. 
karaunda, Carissa Carandas, 14il. 
karhdri, Hedera Helix, 110. 
karhi, Sorgbum vulgare, 262^ 
karela^ Momordica cbarantia, 98 ; 

at Boucerosia Aucberi, 143. 
(dhdr) karela, Momordica dioica, 98. 
kareOf Acacia elata, 62. 
karer^ Rosa Brunonis, 86 ; Bubus 

biflorus, 86. 
karet, Plantago major, 174. 
kdrt^ Bbamnus.purpureus, 42. 
kariaf Capparis apbylla, 15. 
karialy D»mia extensa, 145. 
karidriy GMoriosa superba, 235. 
kdrikf Cissus camosa, 36. 
karOe, Celtis Caucasica, 209. 
kdrilf Latbjrus sativus, 71. 
karil, kartn, Capparis aphylla, 15. 
kartTf Acacia leucopblsBa, 63. 
karkana^ Zizvphus nummularia, 43. 
karkan her, Ziz jpbus vulgaris, 44^ 
karkoTf Iris Kamaonensis, 240. 
karku, AmgA bracteata, 167. . 
karkin, Liniun trigynum, 20 ; Elug« 

gea leucopyrus, 196. 
kdrla^ XJrtica beteropbylla, 215. 
karma hret, Fagopyrum esculentum, 

karmoTy Syringa Emodi, 140. 
karmara, Hedera Helix, 110. 
karmrtt, Albizzia odoratissima, 66. 
kamdol, Eicus cunia, 212. 
kamgt^ra^ Prinsepia utilis, 81. 
karrcy Saccbarum sara, 261. 
karru^ Ghentiana kurroo, 147; Pi* 

crorbiza kurrooa, 163. 
karshf Qi^ercus dilatata, 199. 
karshu, Quercus semecarpifolia^ 200. 
kdrt tut, Morus serrata, 219. 
karuky Cordia vestita, 163. 
kdrtm, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. , 
karur, Bercbemia sp., 41 ; Hederfi 

Helix, 110. 
karvOa, Capparis. borrida, 16. 
kanodla, Cathartocarpus fistula^ 62. 
karwdreij Bubus firuticosus, 87. 



hu, CannabiB aatiya, 216. 
himmm, Avena &tius 250. 
koBaunda, Casia ocddentaliB, 62. 
kasaurtj Arum colocaaia^ 247. 
Jcoibal^ AplotaxiB gossypina, 119. 
htuA ul zartray Agathotea sp., 147. 
kaseruy Cyperas tuberosuB, 264. 
JtdMhf Eriophorum comosom, 264. 
ka$kln, EhuB Buckiamela, 48. 
(yharei) koikmili^ LaUemantia Boj- 

leaius 168. 
{huUu) JSjuhmM, (patti) EMthmH, 

Ehododendron campanulatum, 

JKashmirjay at Aucklandia Costus, 

huhmby Coriandmin BatiYam, 105. 
JeathH, FmuB G^rardiana, 225. 
koBki^ FyroB MaluB, 85. 
hutty Hordeum hexafltichum, 256 ; 

at Triticum SMtiYum, 268. 
harify ComuB macrophjUa, 111. 
koikoM ? Susda firuticosa, 180. 
hukeif Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
%aakiUrt, Grewia Bothii, 27. 
kamaly BerbeiiB aristata, 7. 
kdsni, Cichorium IntybuB, 124. 
katpaif Fagopyrum eBCulentum, 184; 

at DioBcorea deltoidea, 229. 
koitere^ Cleome mta, 17. 
k(u4sy CuBcuta reflexa, 152. 
kaUmbal, Buinex haBtatoB, 187. 
kdiarkanda, AstragaluB multicepBy 

kaiela, Solanum zanthocarpxun, 161. 
kateU, Argemone Mexicana, 9. 
(jbhai) kat&ya^ Argemone Mexicana, 

9 ; Solanum xanthocarpum, 161. 
kathy Acacia Catechu, 52. 
kathaular, EicuB cunia, 212. 
kathigUy Adelia Berrata, 191. 
kaihewaty Indigofera heterantha, 

kathi, DeBmodium tiliffifolium, 67 ; 

Indisofera heterantha, 70; Ed- 

war£ia moUiB, 68. 

kdiht, Indigofera heteraniha, TO; 

Myricaria Gbrmanica, 91 ; Arun- 

dinaria falcata, 249. 
kdthUf Indigofera heterantha, 70; 

Eagonjrum eBCulentum, 184. 
kathun liny QuercuB Hex, 199. 
kdHy Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
kaUray CocbloBpermum gOBfiypium, 

18 ; Salix Babjlonica, 207. 
katkaranfy ftuilandina Bonduc, 69. 
kat kroMTy BraBBica Bp., 18. 
kdtondoy Viburnum cotinifolium, 

kaiort, CisBampeloB Fareiia^ 6f. 
katrainj Bercbemia Bp., 41. 
kairany Cjmbopogon IwarancuBa, 

(air) kaiiy Desmodium tQiiefoUum, 

kiUiy Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
katta mUhay Bumex yeBicariuB, 187. 
koHhUy Acacia Catechu, 52. 
kaiiy Jeitiy Eagopyrum eBCulentum, 

ktHby hankaUy Olea EnropsMS 139. 
kaUly PopuluB nigra, 205. 
ka&niy PenniBetum Italicum, 259. 
kaur, CappariB BpinoBa, 17 ; lanum 

tngjnum, 20; Boylea eleganB, 

172 ; Cham»ropB Bitchiana, 242. 
kaiwray bitter. 

kauray Acer cultratum, 8Q. 
kaura roy Panderia piloBa, 179. 
kauriy CyamopBiB pBoraloideB, 65 ; 

Boylea elegauB, 172. 
kawn huUy Trichodesma Indicum, 

155 ; Solanum gradlipoB, 159 ; 

Aju^a bracteata, 167. 
kawrijdly kauri vdtiy Salyadora Indi- 

ca, 174. 
kauridlay Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 
kautUy TaxuB baccata, 227. 
kawoTy Holarrhena antidyBenterica, 

kawidy Hodeum hexaBtichum, 256. 
kbarray CappariB spinosai 17. 



^ • • 

Ar^vr. Odmufl mad^opliylla, 111. 
heirfi, Frnus exeelta, 225. 
iei^, N^udea par^6Ha, 116. . 
Ar^n^, PyniB yftrioloeia, S5. 
('(ftflw) Jceintij Bdwardfiia molliB, 68. 
keithaf Pyrus yariolosa, 85. 
Jttfib-ay MoiQM^ca mnricata P 09. 
iM^, Mnsa Faradifliaca, 229. 
(ban) kelQf He^ychium spicatom, 

keU,, kelmang kM, Oedms 'deodira, 


(chhota) kelUf Asparagua lacemoeruB^ 

kemdlf B€n4>eri0 aristata,?; Odina 

ffodier, 46 *; Bf^yttiera tiiictoria, 

kembid, Od^a "vrodMr, 46 ; Bottiera 

tinctoria, 197. 
kemli, Berberis ariistata, 7. 
kenchuoa^ an intestinal worm, 78. 
kendi, BiospyroB Montana, and D. 

tomentofla, 137. 
kentoalj keoU, Cedrus deodira, 220. 
kentj Pjrus variolosa, 85. 
kcTf TJrtica heterophyllm 21S. 
kerze,'Emim Lens, 68. 
kemTy Crocus satirns, 289. 
ketru, Polygonum aricnlare, 184. 
kesA, Btttea frondosa, 59. 
khabaray Ehretia aspera, 158. 
khabdre. Picas caricoides, 212. 
Mqhbaly Oynodon dactylon, 2^. 
(moti^ kluAbal, Digitaria sanguina- 

lis, 254. 
khabbar, Ornodtm dactylon, 258. 
khahi^m, Bneum Emodi, 186. 
khddir, low alluvial land near rivers, 

khddri, Bibes rubrum, 102. 
khdir, Acacia CAtechu, 52. 
khiiir posh, Yillarsia nymphoides, 

(jul) khdir^ Lavatera Cacbemiriana, 

(jul) khdira, Altbaa rosea^ 21. 

ArAo^' Pb(Biu ' diMsikyliftrfi^ 24&r P^ 

sylvestEiB, 245. 
kh^i^ThmB jnakis,. 86. 
Mo^iSr, Pbtsnix daclylifera, 2A ; P. 

sylvestris, 245. 
(pirn) A?i^/iir, Phoenix acaulis, 20. 
hkajArij PmBniz btunilis, 245. 
khakkar, Pistacia integenima, 4V. 
khdkhol, AUimn nibeUom, 230. 
kbdkHy Sisymbtiui Irio, 15. 
khaldtra, iSremostaQhy s Yicaryi, 168. 
khaldtri, Phelipsa Calotropidis; 

168 ; Salvia ianata, 172. 
khalky Celtis Caucaaica, 209, 
khennddrisy Spb»n^lras kirtus, 180. 
khdmbAr, Agaricus campestri^ 267* 
Him«, ly^uirotOBna eucbroma, 154.- 
khamfiray Witbania coagolans, 161, 
klumamy Cedrela toona serrata^ 84. 
HoimM, Pisnm sativum, 78. 
hhangavy '• Pistacia integenima, 47. 
khanna. Ephedra Gkrardiana, 228. 
khar, a donkey. 
kharkhamdry Yeibascam TbapBtts, 

khar leiy Tamarix orientaHs, 62. 
khar gdhray Nerimn odorum, 142. 
kkdry Prosopis spicigera, 74; Oa^ 

roxyion G-nffitbii, 178. 
kharaiy Heliotropiian brevifolinm, 

kharakf Geltis Caucaaica, 200. 
kharanjUy Quercus Bex, 199. 
kharatiMy Cbenopodiummurale, 178. 
khmxminey Bbretia aspera, 156 ; Bo« 

lanum verbascifolium, 160. 
kharaxtOy Gymnosporia spinoSa^ 41. 
khtitrbdxa, Cucumis melo, 96. 
(onJ) khatrbita T arand k., Oarica 

Papaya, 99. 
kharaaay Bcopolia pnealta, 159. 
^Afff^Y, Brassica juncea ? 12. 
khare biU, Oreoseris lanugindsa^ 

A;Aiin0n,'Bobns rotnndifolius, 87* 
kharewUy Sida cordifolia^ 28. 



HiareOykiareUfQmercxiB semecarpi* 

folia^ 200. 
Jehareza, CartibamuB ozyacantha, 123. 
Jckoflrg^ Celtia Caucaaica, 209. 
Jchargogk, Yerbascum Thapsus, 163. 
ihairUM §iMragkune^ Solaaum zan- 

thocarpum, 161. 
Jehariara, SubuB biflorus, 86. 
ihdriz, Gotoneaster obtuaa, 79. 
khitrkf CeltiB Caucasica, 209. 
iharlamke, Phelipa^ Calotropidis, 

iharmachj BubuB lasioearpus, 67. 
kkarmo, Lonicera hypoleuca, 114l 
(khar) khamdr^ C^p^) khamdr^ Y er- 

bascuiu Thapsus, 163. 
hkamib Sinth, Flrosopifl spicigera^ 

ihamib nibHy Ceratoxua siliqius 62. 
kharpat, G-aruga piimata, 45. 
hharpdta sereif Quercusincana^ 199. 
iharsan, CrotalBxiA Burhia, 64i. 
kiarsh4, kharM, Quercufl Bemecar- 

khartima, Cucumis ColoqriLtbis, 96. 
AAartooZa, Salix alba, 206 ; Mkaies- 

sya hypoleuca^ 215. 
khartodry an ass load, a measure of 

weight in Kashmir, 198. 
kJuuMoTy Nima quassioides, 89. 
khashkhaah, Papayer somnif erum, 10. 
JOuOdi, of CatW (China). 
(hehram) Khattk, Nepeta ruderalis, 

{iedwdr) KhaMy Gedrus deodira^ 

itAa/i», Elaconrtia sepiaria, IS. 
khai hiri, Bumez yesicarius, 187. 
khatipy Yibumum cotinifolium^ 114. 
khatmi, Althsa rosea^ 21. 
khatta, sour, 187, Ac 
khatta mitha, Ozalis comiculata, 87. 
khfOti kofif Bumez acutus, 187. 
kKaiti maly Bumez hastatus, 187. 
khatii tan, Bumez yisicarius, 187. 
f^hauj Olea Europsa^ 139; Album 

sp., 231. 

khawej Mulgedium Tataricum, 128« 
khatoij Cjmbopogon Iwaranousa^ 

khelif Dioscona deltoidea^ 229* 
kheir^ Acacia Catechu, 52. 
khisntiy Indigofera heterantiia, 70. 
khep^ Crota&ria Burhia, 64. 
kh^y Acacia Catechu, 52 j Fenoi^ 

setum Italicum, 252. 
kherabaj kherod, Cotoneasterobtuflfl^ 

khtch4iy QremA betulaofolia, 27<. 
khiehto'y Ljcium Buthenicum, 157^ • 
khildf JBalkhi, Saliz Ca^rea, 207. 
khimor, Yibumum cotinifolium, 114* 
khmjakf Fistacia Terebinthu^ 48. • 
khipy Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 
khp, Orthantiieza Timinea, 146^ 
khippij Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 
kh^a^ Cucumis satiyuSy 97 ; halamm 

khira, at ditto. 
khirky Celtis Caucasica, 209. 
khimij khimilodh, MimusopsKaukif 

kkidttff, Oedrela toona serrata, 84. 
khish-khdsh, Papayer somniferqnu 

(led) khist, Saliz sp., 299. 
khutaf Prunus Armeniaea, 8L ^ 
(tukhnd) khkf drain, Cucumis satiyui^ 

khba, Fhelipaea Calotropidis, 168. 
(habat ul) kiizra, Bhus acuminata^ 

kho, Oreoseris lanuginosa, 128. 
khokar^ Salyadora oleoides^ 175* 
hhokhdn^ Allium rubellum, 23L 
khonUyey Macrotomia euchroma^ 154* 
khoTy Juglans regia, 201^ Hedj«> 

chium spieatum, 239. 
(l>an) khoTy Payia Indica, 81. 
khora, Cucurbita maxima P 99. 
khubM, Prunus Armeniaea, 8L 
khub kaUmy Sisymbrium Irio, 15. 
khuUfhy Ulmus mtegrifolia^' 21L 
kkumy Lonicera quinjueloculari^ 




khiTftazare, Witiiama coagulaiua, 

ihimb, Hiptage Madablota, 30; 

Morchella Bemilibera, 268. 
(samp ki) khimb, Arum speciosiun, 

Mumbdhf Agaricus campestris, 267. 
khunserdia, Malcolmia strigosa, 14. 
khurdsh^ Digitaria sanguinalis, 254. 
khur bdjieij Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
khurfa, Fortulaca satiya, 100. 
khushboy " sweet smell," 148. 
khwan, Olea EuropsBa, 139. 
(jbizu da) khwan, Astragalus multi- 

ceps, 67. 
hhwangere^ Plectranthus rugosus 

hUsarmayljjAMm Buthenicum, 157* 
kidifiy Elseagnus conferta, 189 ; Bo- 
* letuB igniarius, 267. 
kidmily Odina wodier, 46. 
kidvy Capparis spinosa, 17. 
kiat, Pyrus variolosa, 85. 
Hhrij Spirsa Lindleyana, 88. 
kikkar, kikkar ke chdl, kikkar ke 
^ gondy Acacia Arabica, 50. 
(Kdbul) kikkar^ Acacia Eamesiaiia^ 

(Kabuli) kikkar ^ Acacia Arabica 
^ var. Cupressiformis, 51. 
(pqMran) kikkar, Acacia Eamesi- 

ana, 53. 
{wildyati) kikkar ^ Acacia Famesi- 

ana, 53 ; Parkinsonia aculeata, 

kikkart, Acacia ebumea, 52. 
kikkriy Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 
kildr, Cedrus deodara, 220. 
kildwa, Wrightea mollissima, 143. 
kileiy Cedrus deoddra, 220. 
killar^ Parrotia Jacquemontiana^ 

kilf/dch, Viburnum foetens, 114. 
(richhdbi) kilmichf Viburnum coti- 

. nifolium, 114. 
Mlpattar, kUH, Acer cultratum, 80. 
killar. Viburnum foetens, 114. 

kUiy Ghamserops Bitchiajia, 242. 
kimia, alchemy, 128. 
kimlUf Odina wodier, 46. 
kifnrt, Ficus caricoides, 212. 
kimUy Morus serrata, 219. 
kingaro, Flacourtia sepiaria, 18. 
kingi, TJrtica heterophylla, 215. 
king khak, Artemisia elegans, 120. 
ki/nnu, Diospyros tomentosa, 137. 
kiochy Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
kipy Orthanthera viminea, 146. 
k%r dluy Arum speciosum, 247. 
Kr K chdMy Arum curvatum, 247. 
kira, ktrty insect, serpent. 
kira kdly Arum curvatum, 247. 
kiri ki kukriy Arum speciosum, and 

A. tortuosum, 247. ' 

kiri mdr, Stachys parviflora, 173. . 
kirmri Reus caricoides, 212. 
kimey Spiraea Lindleyana, 88. 
kirpdway Pharbites ml, 161. 
kirray Capparis aphyUa, 15. 
Hrri{, Parrotia Jacquemontiana, 110,' 
kisdriy Lathyrus satiya, 71. 
kithiy Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. 
Mthuy Pyrus variolosa, 85. 
kitkiy Agave cuntala, 232. 
kitlay Acer Creticum, 30. * 

(jangli) kitSy EdwardJeda mollis, 68. . 
ktury Allium sp , 231. 
ki&tUy Astragalus multiceps, 57. 
kUuntiy Lomcera quinquelocularis,- 

klunjty Eriopborum comosum, 264. 
kntsgy Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. ^ 
knitriy Ehus Buckiamela, 48. 
koy Qlea Europsea, 139. 
kodmey Macrotomia eucbroma, 154. 
kodmily G-lochidion sp., 196. 
kodmlay Odina wodier, 46. 
kodny Tamarix dioica, 91. 
kobiy Brassica oleracea, 12. 
kochatt, Oomus macrophylla. 111. 
kodty Lonicera hypoleuca, 114. 
kodoHy Eleusine corocana, 254. 
koiiray Eleusine corocana, 254 ; Pas-* 

palum scrobiculatum, 269. 



Jkoe^ Alnus sp., 197. 

Jkoyor, Holaixliena antidyseiiterica^ 

Jcohetij Edwardsia Hydaspica, 68. 
koh&r, Sageretia Brandrethiana^ 42, 
iufhu, Olea Europssa, 139. 
kok, ELcus caricoides, 212. 
kokallak, TribuluB alatus, 37. 
kokhtiry Mjrsine Africana, 135. 
holkiy a pestle-mill for oil seed, 

Bi^ar-cane, &c., 140 \ Saccharum 

officinamm, 260. 
(son) A;o^2a,HibiBC\iBcaimabmus,22. 
KoJean her, Zizjohus Tulgarifl, 44. 
hokwi her, Zizymius nummulana, 43. 
(jofUfU son) koieray Hibiscus sp., 23. 
holaVy A:oZu{ryBauhiniayariegata,59. 
kolty kolthy Dolicbos uniflorus, 68. 
komaly komdlj Frangos pabalaiia^ 

kongsy Crocus satiyus, 239. 
karake, Atriplex hortensis, 177. 
koshuy Mentna incana, 169. 
koeWy Allium sp., 231. 
kosundra, Bauhinia parviflora, 58. 
kot, Aucklandia, Costus, 121 ; Plec- 

tranthus rugosus, 171. 
kotajy Celastrus paniculata^ 40. 
kotu, Fagopjrum esculentum, 184. 
kowdry Sida cordifolia, 23. 
kramaUy Fopulua dliata, 204; P. 

nigra, 205. 
kreu, Quercus semecarpifolia, 200. 
krUhii/n, Iris pseudacorus, 241. 
krisSy Dioscorea deltoidea^ 229. 
krUzy Gousinia sp., 125. 
kroray Bubus rotimdifolius, 87. 
kroty Juglans regia^ 201. 
krucJuty Ilex dipyrena, 40. 
krimy Morus serrata, 219. 
kruny Prunus Fadus^ 83; Moras 

serrata, 219. 
krundtty Tribulus alatus, 37. 
JcruVy Bosa Brunonis, 85. 
krusty SpirsBa Lindlejana, 88. 
kuf Geltis Caucasica^ 209. 

kuehany Ephedra alata, 228 ; Aspa- 

ragus ruujabensis, 233. 
kicl^y Bhamnus Persica, 41. 
kuehsoy 4, Dubi» CucurbitaceiB, 99. 
kifray Oreoseris lanuginosa, 128 ; 1^ 

DubisB Composite^ 132. 
kuginoy Bosa Webbiana^ 86. 
k&y kujty Bosa Brunonis, 85. 
(jdd) Kuiiy Pjrus yariolos!^ 85. 
(Uer) kujiy Prunus Armeniaca, 81.; 
(han) kiiruy Bosa macropHylla, 86.. 
kukaiy Flacourtia sapida, 18 ; Bham^ 

nus Persica, 41. , 

kukoGy Flacourtia sapida, 18. 
kukray Anemone obtusilobai (^ 

omitted in text), 2. 
kikriy Zea mays, 263. 
(kiri kC) kikrf, Arum speciosum^ 

A. torfcuosum, 247. , 

kukrondoy Crozophoratinctoria, 193, 
(han) kukuTy Comus oblonga^ 111* 
kul rey Picea Webbiana, 224. 
kuldra, Viburnum, foetens, 114. 
kulaty Dolichos uniflorus, 68» 
kidfa dodaky Euphorbia Helioscopia^ 

kulhari ? Saccharum officinarum, 

(hahhu[) kulMHy Cardiospermum 

Halicacabum, 31. 
kilty Dolichos uniflorus, 68. 
kimbhy Agaricus campestris, 267. , 
kumbhiy uareya arborea, 95. 
kumhfy Cochlospermum gossypium, 

18 ; Cordia yestita, 153. 
kumhdry G-melina arborea, 166. 
(chdl) kumra, Benincasa cerifera^ 

kufiy Edwardsia Hydaspica, 68. 
kundchiy Bubus floribundus, 86. 
kunha ? Lycoperdon gemmatum, 

kimhy Viburnum fc&tens, 114. 
{bm) kinchy Viburnum cotinifolium, 

kunda/Ty Typha angustifolia, 246. 



iindar Bwniy at Fistacia Atlantica^ 

•■46'. • 

Jcwndri^ Coocmea Indica, 96. 

kun^^ red rust ; at Tritictim sesti- 

• vum, 262. 

IcingUi Ljcitim Earopsumy 156. 

k^nich, AlnuB gp., 197. 

huf^iy BkamnuB purpureuB, 42. 

Jnmar, Pavia Incuca, (S. omitted in 

text), dl. 
httnshy Alnus sp , 197. 
Jeupaldy Blitum yirgatum, 177. 
ktmdriy Helicteres Isora^ 25. 
ivra, Holarrhena antidysentericay 

142 ; Saccharum sara, 261. 
Uratioima, Berthelotia lanceolata, 

kurand, Corchorus depressus, 26, 
liiragklU, Berberis arbtata, 7. 
Icurgotar^ Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
hw%, Sterculia yilloBa, 25 ; 8. Wal- 
• Uohiiy 26 ; Xanthinm stnmiaTimn, 

132 ; Nyctanthes arbor tristis, 

I4i ; Ficas cunia, 212 \ Eragros- 

tis, spp.y 255. 
JbArie^ ElMera Helix, 110. 
JcurJcdn^ Pennisetuin cenchroides, 

IcwrhfUy Staphylea Emodi, 40 ; l^i- 
■ ' rsBa Lindieyana^ i58 ; Marlea be* 

gonifolia, 93 ; L^topUB eordifo- 

liuB, 196. . 
TewrkuU, Leptopas eordifoliuB, 196. 
hurgl^ Hedera Helix, 110. 
h&rtam^ CarthamuB tinctorius, 124. 
hurtamma, Cucumis ColocynthiB, 96. 
Jcuru, Yilkrsia nymphoides, 148. 
Jsurind^ CSienopodium munJe, 178. 
kusa, EragrostiB cynosuroides, 254. 
Jsisam, CarthamuB tinctoriuB, 124. 
kushnuiy Mentha incana, 169. 
Jcufht^ Pennisetam ItaUeuniy 269. 
hushu^ Pyrus Mains, 85. 
hust tidhhy Ancklandia Goetus, 121. 
JsUy AJbelia triflora, 113. 
hit ghirin. at Ancklandia Costus, 

121. 7 

kit talkh Ancklandia CostnB, ^L . 
kuter, CelaatruB panicnlata, 40. 
kfdi W, Withaaia somnifera, 16L 
kuit Una, Witbania coagulans, 161« 
kutki, Panicnm miliare, 259. 
(kdU) kitki, Picrorhisa knrrooa. 

kutratf Elensine coracana, 254^ 
kitre, Achyrantbes, aspera, 180. 
kuts, Indi^ofera beterantha, 70. 
kitti IM, Dapbne oleoides, 189. 
kutZy Indigofera heterantba, 70. 
kuwatzei, Adiantum 0. Y., 265. 
kwan Mof sqfei, Solanum nigrain, 

160. ' 

kwdr ifondal, Aloe perfoliata^ 232. 
kwereiy Berberis anstata, 7. 
kmklapot, Cnscnta pedicellata^ 151. 
kwillim, Vibnmnm foetens, 114. 
kwispre^ Yerbaacnm Thapsns, 163. ' 

Idber, Desmodinm tili»folinm, 67. ^ 
lachu, Idchi, Bbenm Emodi, 186. 
Iddara. Delpbininm Ennomanmn, 

(Lad. omitted in text), 3. 
laduriy Nyctantbes arbor tristis, 

laghmey Garoxylon Ghiffithii, 178. 
laghinej Dapbne oleoides, 189. 
(Mnda) laghune^ Buxus sempern? 

rens, 192. 
lahsan, Allinm satimm, 231. 
lahira, Tecoma nndulata> 149. 
Idif Tamarix dioica, 91. 
Idkh, lac, 43, 51, 60, 213, 214. 
lakhaVy Bbns acuminata, 48. 
Idkhteiy Cousinia calcitrapsrfbnnLB^ 

lakshmana, Didiptera Soxburgbi^ 

lakri, wood. 

(meda) lakri, Tetrantbera monope* 
^ talaj and T. Boxburgbii, 188. 
Idlf red. 



Idl ckitra. Plumbago Zeylanica, 

lil mirck. Capsicum annuum, 156. 
(Jcitx) Idly Withania somnifera, 161. 
Ihkti) Idly Daphne oleoidos, 189. 
lamby Eragrostis spp., 255. 
lamba, Anstida depressa, 249. 
Idmjahy Cjmbopogon IwaraucuBa, 

UfWy Ballota limbata, 167 ; Aua- 

therum muricatum, 176. 
{haagi) Idna, Su»da fruticosa, 180. 
i^kuti) Una, Withania coagulans, 

(sTtori) Idnay Anabasis multiilora, 

(cMoii) Hne, 8u»da fruticosa, 180. 
(^ora) laney Anabasis multiflora, 

176 ; Caroxylon fsstidum, 177. 
(metro) lane, Auabasis multiflora^ 

(moti) Idne, Caroxylon fffitidum, 

(peshah) lane, Su^eda fruticosa, 180. 
Idnehar, Orthanthera viminea, 146. 
Idne imru, Xanthium strumarium, 

Jang shur, Juniperus communis, 

langtang, langthang, Scopolia prsB- 

alta, 159. 
langur, a large mojikey, 199. 
Idning, Yitis Indica, 35. 
lap, G-jnmosporia spinosa, 41. 
laphra. Salvia lanata, 172. 
lapta, Cenchrus echinatus, 252. 
Jargd, Rhus Cotinus, 49. 
lasaj, Artemisia elegans, 120. 
lashoH, Asparagus racemosus, 233. 
lashte. Asparagus Punjabensis, 233. 
lasidra, Cordia Myxa, 152. 
laskar. Delphinium Brunonianum, 

lasora, Cordia Mjza, 152. 
lasre, lasrtan, lasrm, Albizzia odora- 

tissima, 56. 
Ia89ar, Juniperus communis, 222. 

lasser, Astrantia sp., 104, 

la^si, sour milk, 133. 

lastuk. Ephedra alata, 228. 

Idthia, IWsetia Edgeworthii, 13 ; 

Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 
laudar, Symplocos crataegoidos, l:JS. 
lauki, Lagonaria vulgaris, 98. 
laur, Acer cultratum, 30. 
laura brush, Echinops nivea, 126. 
lawange, Artemisia elegans, 120. 
Idzhu, Allium nibollum, 230. 
led, Cenchrus echinatus, 252. 
lehan, Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
(ghaz) lei, Jcach lei, Tamarix dioica, 

{hhar) lei, mieri la, nar lei, Tamarix 

orientalis, 92. 
laOa ? SaHx Babylonica, 207. 
{J)ed) leila, Salix tetrasperma, 20.S. 
lendi, lenwa, Solenanthus sp , 10.3. 
leswa, Digera arvensis, 182. 
lewar, Juniperus communis, 222 ; 

J. excelsa, 223. 
(chhota) Uwar, Andromeda fasti^.;i- 

ata, 133. 
Ihijo, PyruB baccata, 84. 
Ihim, Pmus excelsa, 225. 
U, Gymnosporia spinosa, 41 ; P\ rus 

Malus, 85 ; Olea Europsea, ] :>l). 
lichakhro, Coriaria Nepalensis, o«^. 
lidra, Odina wodier, 46. 
lillun, Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
Urn, Pinus excelsa, 225. 
lin, lini, Cotoneaster obtusa, 79 
liokpa. Delphinium Brunoniaiiuni, 

(S. omitted in text), 3. 
lUd, Pyrus baccata, 84 ; P. Kuma- 

onensis, 84. 
liu, Pyrus baccata, 84. 
liungra, Pteris aquilina, 266. 
Uwar, Pyrus baccata, 84. 
Imdnza, Cedrus deodara, 220. 
lohia, Dolichos Sinensis, 67. 
{kola) lohia, Dolichos lablab, 07. 
lodar, lodh Pathdni, Symplocoa cra- 

taegoides, 138. 
(khirni) /<?(^A, Mimusops Elauki, 1:J6. 



Iqjh, Symplocos cratsagoides, 138. 

lolti, Syringa Emodi^ 140. 

/on, lun^ salt. 

lojuik, Fortulaca oleracea, ^ \ Sti- 

p^rostis plumosa, 262. 
2or, Ehretia aspera, 153. 
loshy Symplocos cratsBgoides, 138. 
loswr, Astrantia sp , 104. 
lotah, TribuluB alatus, 37. 
lu, Symplocos cratsDgoides, 138. 
ludr, Tecoma iindulata, 149. 
lubaty Phytolacca decandra, 176. 
(ban) ludar, Abies Smithiana, 219. 
luduty Codonopsis ovata, 132. 
lu^ar, Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
lukh, Typha angustifolia, 246. 
lunak, Fortulaca quadiifida, 100; 

Cheno^odium album, 178 ; Suso- 

da fruticosa, 480. 
linear, Pteris aquilina^ 266. 
luniy Gotoneaster obtusa, 79. 

mdaly Fopulus balsamifera, 204. 
maddna, Dactyloctenium JBgyptia- 

cum, 254. 
maddre, Leptopus cordifolius, 196. 
ma^ar hdna^ Bambusa Arundinacea, 

mdffhal, Fopulus balsamifera, 204. 
(char) moffkz, Juglans regia, 201. 
ma^o ztruy 2, Dubi» UmbellifersB, 

fndh, Phaseolus radiatus, 73. 
mahadev ha phul, Daphne cannabi- 

na, 188. 
mahaulf Fyrus Kumaonensis, 84. 
mahoriy Solanum sanctum, 160 ; S. 

xanthocarpum, 161. 
mahwa, Bassia latifolia, 135. 
mdi hariy mdi chhoti, Tamarix orien- 

talis, 92. 
Ttidily mdil tang, Fyrus Kumaonen- 
sis, 84. 
Moina^ Medicago denticulata, 71. 

mainiy Trigonella polyserrata, 77. 
majU, Bubia cordiiblia, 116; at 

Eheum Emodi, 186. 
majiti, at Impatiens sp., 36. 
ified) majnun, bed maji, Salix Baby- 

lonica, 207. 
mdjuy Quercus incana ? 199. 
maky Zea, mays, 263. 
mahalj Fopulus balsamifera, 204. 
mahhdn bed, Saxifraga ligulata, 203. 
mahhdna^phul mahhdna, Euryalefe- 

rox, 8. 
{tal) mahhina, Asteracantha iQngi- 

folia, 165. 
mahhazura, Withania coagulanSy 

mahhal, Fopulus nigra, 205. 
makkei, makkt, Zea mays, 263. 
mako, 8olanum nigrum, 160. 
makrela, Aconitum, 1. 
nuU, Fopulus alba, 203. 
mdlan^ Edwardsia Hydaspica, 68. 
(takht) malanga, Nepeta elliptiea, 

(tukhm) mahmga, Lallemantia BoyU 

eana, 168 ; Salvia pumila, 172. 
malchang, Salix alba, 206. 
mal doda, Leucas Cephalotis, 168. 
maldung^ Ulmus erosa, 210. 
male, Fanicum antidotale, 258. 
mdljan, Bauhinia racemosa, 58. 
mdl kangni, Celastrus paniculata, 

maJld, Zizyphus nummularia, 43. 
malofighd, Bumex hastatus, 187. 
maluk, Diospyros Lotus, 136. 
mambre^ Ficus reticulata, 214. 
mamech, Polygonum Bistorta, 185. 
mamekh, Pseonia officinalis, 4. 
mamira, Thalictrum foliolosum, 5. 
'' moTrUron,'^ at Thalictrum foliplo- 

sum, 50. 
mamin, Caltha palustris, 2. 
mamoU, Solanum xanthocarpnm, 

mamrdl, Bhamnus virgatus, 42. 
mdmre, Yitis Indica, 35. 



mdrni, Pyrus Malus, 85. 
mandaly Eleuedne corocana, 254. 
manddlf Bhododendron arboreum, 

mandar, Acer Creticmn^ and A. cul- 

tratum, 30. 
mandata, PrunuB Armeniaca, 81. 
mandid, Hedera Helix, 110. 
mandrdf M arlea begonifolia, 93. 
mandn. Kibes ieptogtacbyum, 102. 
fnandu, TJlmuB erosa, 210. 
mangrir^ Panicum antidotale, 258. 
manJU, Eubia cordifolia, 116 ; B 

tmctorum, 117. 
mannu, TJlmus erosa, 210. 
mdn khel, Agaricus campestris, 267. 
manu, Khus cotinus, 49. 
fndnuy TJlmus erosa, 210. 
manyoTy Eosa Webbiana, 86. 
mdnyi, Ulmus erosa, 210. 
manzakhta. Bubus lasiocarpus, 87. 
fndr, a snake. 
rndfy a kiUer. 

mar choh, Stapbylea EmodI, 40. 
(Hr%) mar, Stachys parviflora, 173. 
(piu) mar, Plectranthus rugosus, 

mardy Euonymus, fimbriata, 41. 
maraghune^ Cueumis Colocyntbis, 

96 ; Ehretiaaspera, 153 ; Solanum 

sanctum, 160. 
(kharidn) marayhune, Solanum zan- 

tbocarpum, 161. 
mardl, Uunus campestris ; IT. erosa, 

mardray Desmodium tiliiefolium, 67. 
mardri, mardzh, Ulmus campestris, 

marcha, Capsicum annuum, 156. 
marghmg, Quercus dilatata, 199. 
margMpal, Solanum gracilipes, 159. 
marghwalatoa, Viburnum cotinifoli- 

um, 114. 
mdrtzha. Thymus serpyllum, 173. 
marjaly Iris pseudacorus, 241. 
mdrtii, Sponia Wightii, 210. 
maroTf a twist, gripes. 

marorphaU, Helicteres Isora, 25. 
marpholy Pyrus Eumaonensis, 84. 
marran, ULoaus campestris, 210. 
marsa? Amaranthus mangostanus, 

martan^ Desmodium argenteum, 

martiy Jasminum officinale, 141. 
mdru, Quercus dilatata^ and Q. in- 

cana, 199. 
maruct, Artemisia elegans, 120. 
(ban) marua, ^chmanthera Walli- 

cbiana, 164. 
mdrun, TJlmus campestris, 210. 
martoan^ marwande, Yitex Negundo, 

martodr, Eaubinia racemosa, 58. 
mdsh, Phaseolus radiatus, 73. 
mdshiy Antennaria sp., 119. 
mdahOf Thymus serpyllum, 173. 
mdshurf Daphne oleoides, 189. 
maslun, Saxifraga ligulata, 103 ; Po- 
lygonum Bistorta, 185. 
masna, Pistacia integerrima, 47. 
mas8u, Sterculia yillosa, 25. 
masti, Aloe perfoliata, 232. 
mastidraj Scutellaria linearis, 173. 
nuuur, Ervum Lens, 68. 
matazoTy Phytolacca decandra, 176. 
mathdgar, Ileus reticulata, 214. 
mathi, Salix spp., 209. 
tnatkira, Citrulius yulgaris, 95. 
mathirshy mathirshif Acacia speciosa, 

fndfhu, Nima quassioides, 39. 
matitsa wdngrt^, Capsicum annuum, 

mattoTy Lathyrus satiyus, 71 ; Pisiun 

sativum, 73. 
fnath{k8dly Nardostachys Jatamansi, 

matH, Orthanthera yiminea^ 146; 

Equisetum debile, 267. 
mattUy Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
truUz hang, Abelia triflora^ 113. 
(bari) fnauhart, Solanum sanctum, 




(rhhoH) mauhari, Solanum xantho- 

carpum, 161. 
wnul, PyruB Kumaonensis, 84. 
1 miiharif MimuBops Elcn^, 136. 
liidura, Yitex Negundo, 1(56. 
"iPMura Mkh, dudhia maura, Aconi- 

tum ferox, 1. 
innuriy Ervum Lens, 68. 
rjauruy UlniUB erosa, 210. 
wffurUf Quercus dilatata, 199. 
"ijutwalt Celosia eristata, 182. 
Oiinwwd, Basdia latifolia, 135. 
^nrda lakri, Tetrantbera monopetala, 

and T. Boxburghii, 188. 
'iucda sak, Tetranthera Eoxburgbii, 

7ji^Ji?td4, LawBonia inennis, 90; 

Elsbpltzia polystachya, 168. 
{'angJi) mehndt, Ainmannia auri- 

ciilata, 90. 
(Hldyati) Tnehndi, Mjrtus commu- 
- Tiis, 93. 

rnrini, Crotalaria Burbia, 64. 
')>irmqrdr%y Bhamnus, purpureuB, 42. 
onendphal, Eandia dumetorumy 116. 
mendruy ban mendn, Dodonsea Bur- 

manniana, 31. 
^p en fog, properly me-tog, Tibetan, a 

men tog, Senecio laciniosus, 130. 
vicntok, Tagetes erecta, 130. 
r.ierandu, ElsBodendron Eoxburgbii, 

merino, Potentilla Inglisii, 81. 
meru^ UlmuB erosa, 210. 
metM, Trigonella E83num Graecum, 

mefra Idne, Anabasis multiflora, 176. 
mewa, fruit. 
{k'dla) metoa, Solanum verbascifoli- 

um, 160. 
michren, Fedicularis pectijiata, 162. 
m ilecJi, miles, Hippopbae rbamnoides, 

mindhal, Bandia dumetorum, 116. 
oninjri, Cuscuta reilexa, 162. 
^/i /wyar, Andropogon annulatus, 248. 

(kanghol) mircJi, Celtis Caucasicay 

(7a/) mirch. Capsicum annuum, 156. 
mirchia gand, Cymbopogon Iwaran- 

cusa, 253. 
mCn'%, Finns Gerardiana, 225. 
mirukar, Eragrostis spp., 255. 
mirzanjosh. Origanum normale, 17 L 
Misr, Egypt, 237. 
mUri, Saccnarum officinarum, 260. 
misri lei, Tamarix oricntalis, 92. 
(sdlib) Misi'i, Eulopbia Campcstris, 

(shakdkuT) Misri, Eryngium pla- 
num, 105. 
(shalgham) Mi^, Convallaria ver- 

ticillata, 234. 
mtt pattar, Macbilus odoratissimus, 

mistcdk, tootb -stick, 58, 174. 
(hutdi) miswdk, Astragalus multi> 

ceps, 57. 
mitha, mithi, sweet. 
mitha dodia, Aconitum, 1. 
mitha kaddu, Cucurbita maxima, 97. 
mitha nimhu. Citrus limetta, 29. 
mitha tilia, Aconitum, 1 ; A. NapeU 

lus, 2. 
mitha zahr, Aconitum, 1. 
(katta) mithd, Bumexvesicarius, 187. 
(khatta) mithd, Oxalis corniculata^ 

(zirishk) mtthd, Yitis Indica, 35. 
mithi van, Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
mithigd, Lonicera angustifolia, 113. 
mittua, Eiyngium planum, 105. 
mitu, Bubia cordifolia, 1 16. 
(buti ka) mochka. Boletus igniariusy 

mochras, Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
moghsi, Macrotomia eucbroma, 154. 
mohakri, Bryonia umbellata, 95. 
mohri, Aconitum Napellus, 2. 
mokali, Brassica rapa, 12. 
mokna, Agaricus campestris, 267. 
mole, Brassica Griffitbii, 12. 
momddru, Achillea nullefolium, 119. 



ffwnt, Nima quassioides, 39. 
moran fly Yiten Negundo, 166. 
morchar, 8, Dubi» IJmbelliferaB, 109. 
mor muj, Daucus carota, 105. 
(chtti) morty Desmodium argente- 

um, 67. 
{Mli) morty Desmodium tilisBfolium, 

fnorUiy Prenanthes quinqueloba ? 

moruy Quercus dilatata, 199. 
morua, Bhododendron anthopogon, 

warun, Ulmus campeBtris, 210. 
woth, Fhaseolus aconitifoliuB, 73. 
(nd^ar) mothoy Cyperus juncifolius, 

moM khabhaly Digitaria sanguinalis, 

moU Idne, Caroxylon fsBtidum, 177. 
tnowa, Orthanthera viininea, 146. 
mrdly Lycium EuropsBum, 156. 
much kdntOy Astragalus multiceps, 

muddvy Calotropis procera, 144. 
mudnu, Fhiladelphus sp. ? 93. 
mugra, Jasminum granaiflorum, 141 . 
mujiy Fhaseolus mungo, 73. 
mujni? Fluchea sp., 129. 
mukand hdbri, Ecbpta erecta, 126. 
mukand hdbriy Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
mukru, MachiluB oaoratissimus, 188. 
m^I, a root. 
(pokhar) muly Dolomisea macroce- 

phala? 125. 
muleiy Farsetia Edgeworthii, 13. 
muletiy Glycirrhiza tripbylla, 69. 
muK^ Eapnanus sativus, 15. 
muU hardniy Brassica Griffithii, 12. 
muHm, Gloriosa superba, 235. 
multn, Bignonia Indica^ 148 ; Sol- 

enanthtis sp., 155. 
mumdni, Sageretia Brandretluana, 

mumannt, Amebia echioides, 152. 
(peil) mundiy Tanacetum vulgare, 

mxmdib&Hy Spli»ranthu8 hirtus, 130. 

(fforakh) mundty Lippia nodiflora, 

{rat) mundt, Macrotomia eucbroma, 

154 ; Trichodesma Indica, 155. 
mundla dru, Amygdalus Fersica 

var. laBvigata, 78. 
m4ng, Fbaseolus mungo, 73. 
mung phalli, Arachis hypoga^a, 57. 
m^ngra, Bapbanus caudatus, 15. 
munjy Saccbarum sara, 261 ; at Cba- 

msDrops Eitcbiana, 242. 
munjay Saccbarum sara, 261 ; Erio- 

pborum comosum, 264. 
munjt, Andropogon involutus, 249. 
ntungUy Artemisia sacrorum, 121. 
munzaty Bubia cordifolia, 116. 
munziy Eriopborum comosum, 264. 
mv/rady Myrtus communis, 93. 
murddhy Bibes leptostacbyum, 102. 
muraky Scirpus maritimus, 265. 
murg, at Cyperus tuberosus, 264. 
murray Cyanantbus sp. P 132. 
musal, FbelipsDa Calotropidis, 163. 
musalt sembaly Bombax neptapbyll- 

um, 24. 
(gtldu) musalt y 1, Dubiee TJmbelli- 

ferae, 109. 
mushky mttsky scent. 
mushk tara mushiy Mentba incana, 

mushk icdK, Valeriana Wallicbii, 

(bed) mushky Salix Caprea, 207. 
(faranj) mushky Calammtbaumbrosa, 

167 ; Ocimum Basilicum, 170. 
mushkidroy Sambucus Ebulus, 114. 
muskeiy Hamiltonia suaveolens, 115. 
musli stgdhy Anilema tuberosa, 236. 
musU sufedy Asparagus filicinus, 233. 
musrtn6, Eragaria vesca, 80. 
musSy Desmodium argenteum, 67. 
mustakhy Cbenopodium sp., 179. 
mutcTy Carex Indica ? 264. 
mutkoTy Leptopus cordifolius, 196. 
m^ktrany Cyperus juncifolius, 263. 
muttUy Bbamnus virgatus, 42. 
mzardiy Cbamserops Bitcbiana, 242. 




ndbar, Bibes leptostacliyuin, 102. 

nafimndn^ Delpninium Ajacis, 8. 

nafarmdni, blue, from the flower, 

ndfiiy a serpent. 

n^ hala, Alysicarpus nummulari- 
folius, 57. 

ndadawn^ Stapb jlea Emodi, 40 ; Abe- 
lia triflora ? 118 ; Viburnum foe- 
tens, 114. 

ndgar jamidn, Ficus reticulata, 214. 

nagar motha, Cyperus juncifolius, 

ndgre, Arundinaria falcata, 249. 

nahdni, Valeriana Hardwickii, 118. 

ndi, Arundo Donaz, 250 ; Hordeum 
hexastichum, 256. 

ndicha, tube of a hookah, 250. 

ndk, FyruB communis, 84. 

ndk hel, Boerhaavia diffusa, 182. 

naH(;^fnA:n{Myriogyneminuta, 128. 

nakktar, Cedrus deodAra, 220 ; Fi- 
nns longifolia, 226. 

nakhthan/FAha, vulgaris, 69. 

nakrize, Lawsonia inermis, 90. 

ndkshan, Eaba vulgaris, 69. 

naktrusa, Sisyinbrium trio, 15. 

nal, Arundo I)onax, 250. 

ndl, tube or channel. 

ndl hdns, Bambusa arundinacea, 

ndlt, Ipomoea reptans, 150. 

nal4, Arundo Donax, 250. 

nandriy Scopolia prsalta, 159. 

nanffj Comus macrophylla, 111. 

nangairwal. Ephedra alata, 228. 

nangke, Bibes rubrum, 102. 

nor, Arundo Donax, 250. 

nwr kachurf at Hedychium spicatnm, 

nar lei, Tamarix orientalis, 92. 

ndr, Bhamnus virgatus, 42. 

narangi, Citrus aurantium, 29. 

nargis, Narcissus tazetta^ 285. 

nor^ Equisetum debile, 267. 
ndrty Ipom^a reptans, 150. 
naria, Arundo Donax, 250. 
norma, Trianthema pentandra, 100. 
natTy Malva parviflora, 23. 
narrt, Polygonum barbatum, 186 j 

Arundinaria falcata, 249. 
(hoff) tiarri, Arundo Donax, 250. 
nas, Hordeum cseleste, 255. 
(gul) ndsary Erythrina arborescenSy 

ndshpdtt, Fyrus communis, 84. 
(gul) nashtar, Erythrina arborescenSy 

ndipdl, Punica granatum, 94. 
nau, Sacchamm spp., 262. 
Tiamei, Jasminum officinale, 141. 
ne, Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
nelkoTy Dalbergia sissoo, 65. 
ner, Skimmia Laureola, 29. 
nera, Bhododendron anthopogon, 

newdUiy Vitis Indica, 35. 
nvUa, nidlo, Polygonum tortuosum, 

185. ^^ 

niamcho, Astraffsius sp., 58. 
niangna, Bibes leptostachyum, 102. 
n{ar, Bhamnus virgatus, 42. 
niargal, Oxytropis macrophylla, 

(omitted in text), 58. 
niokniy Bhododendron anthopogon, 

niechak, Hippophae rhamnoides, 

ni^dl, Arundinaria &lcata, 249. 
nigand hdbri, nigandpdnr, Odmum 

Basilicum, 170. 
niggi, Hamiltonia suaveolens, 116 ; 

Daphne cannabina^ 188 ; D. ole« 

oides, 189. 
(hhat) niggt, Wikstnemia salicifolia^ 

nikki, small. 

nikkt bekkar, Grewia Bothii, 27. 
nikki japhrott^ BaUospennum Indi« 

cum, 192, 



nikkt hmdcTy Ehanmua Persica, 41. 
nily blue, from the next. 
nilj nU bart. Indigo tinctoria, 70. 
nil kant, G-entiana kurroo, 147. 
nil kanthiy Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
nil katteiy Heuotropium breyifoH- 

um, 154. 
nil khanthiy Grozophoraplicata, 192. 
nUa thdriy CuBCuta macrantha, 151. 
nilim^ Crozophora tinctoria, 193. 
nilakil, Gentiana karroo, 147. 
nUakrdi, C jnoglossum micranthum, 

nilqfar^ Nymphsea alba, 8. 
nim, Azadirachta Indica, 32. 
nimhar^ Acacia leucophbea, 53 ; Se- 

necio laciniosus, 130. 
ntmbuy Citrus acida, 29. 
(bajauri) nimM, Citrus medica, 29. 
{mttha) ntmbuy Citrus limetta^ 29. 
nimchak, well-curb, 24. 
niradhdr, niratdi'^ mratdHy Cuscuta 

reflexa, 152. 
nirgaly Arundinaria falcata, 249. 
nw, nishasti gandumy Triticum sesti- 

vum, 262. 
nisoty IpomoBa turpethum, 150. 
^t4, Alnus sp , 197. 
niumay Brassica rapa, 12. 
niunkar, Brassica sp., 13. 
niuriti, Artemisia sacrorum, 121. 
niuskar, Brassica sp., 13. 
(khamib) nubti^ Ceratonia siliqua, 

nf»cA,Fraxinus xantboxylloides, 139; 

Juniperus communis, 222. 
nirilamy Eryngium planxim, 105. 
nuridlam, Arum sp. r 247. 
nyamdaly Taxus baccata, 227. 


obaly ragopyrum emarginatum, 184. 
ohuly Eumex acutus, 187. 
ochey Eubus lasiocarpus, 87. 
0g6i Astragalus tribuloides, 58. 

ogaly Eagopyrum emarginatum, 184. 
(pan) oguly fagopyrum cymosum, 

ohtf Acasia stipulata, 56. 
old, Acacia stipulata, 56 ; Solanum 

verbascifolium, 160. 
olchiy Frunus domestica, 82. 
ongtoa, Ceesalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
osha, Sterculia villosa, 25. 
ou, H:)rdeum ^giceras, 255. 


pdatiy Bhus Cotinus, 49. 

pab, a ferment for beer, <&c., 256. 

pabey Pdpulus ciliata, 204. 

pachaky Attcklandia Costus, 121. 

pdchan, Malcolmia strigosa, 14. 

pachiy Saccharum officinarum, 2G0. 

pad toassaly Allium cepa, 230. 

pddaly Bignonia suaveolens, 148. 

paddlUy Heracleum sp., 107. 

padaVy Anemone obtusiloba, 2. 

paddam, Prunus Puddum, 83. 

padlu, Marlea begonifolia, 93. 

padridvy Baubinia yariegata, 59. 

padriiuy Ebeodendron Eoxburghii, 

padshdhl, of the king, kept for ru- 
lers, 6, 66. 

padunay Tulipa stellata, 235. 

pqfluy Massilea quadrifolia, 266. 

pagunaiy Bubus lasiocarpus, 87. 

pahdvy a hill. 

pahdran kikkar, Acacia Pamesiana, 

pahdrigdjary Eryngium planum, 105. 

pahdri podirMy Mentha yiridis, 169. 

paighambar, prophet. 

paighambari guty p, phtUy Arnebia 
echioides, 152. 

pdhtty Parrotia Jacquemontiana, 110. 

pdjoy pajjoy Prunus Puddum, 83. 

(jseta) pajjoy Bhamnus yirgatus, 42. 

pakdnoy pakdni^ Eubus lasiocarpus, 



paJchdn led, Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
pakhtdwar, Abolia triflora, 113. 
pdkhar, Ficus venosa, 214 
pdkhur, Lonicera quinquelocularia, 

pakshubuf, Populus nigra, 205. 
pakua, Euonjmus fimbriata, 41. 
pakura, Nyctanthes arbor tristis, 

pdlak, Beta vulgaris, 177. 
(iangU)pdlak, Eumex acutus, 187. 
paldk, iicus glomerata, 212. 
paldkh, Ficus venosa, 214. 
(ban) pdia, Pvrus Kumaonensis, 84. 
{BUsahri) pala, Diospyros Lotus, 

paldSf Butea frondosa, 59. 
palhdra, Dubia, Solanaceas, 162. 
paliz, Cucumis melo, 96. 
paJjoTf Fragaria vesca, 80. 
palkhi, Ficus venosa, 214. 
pallOf "Waldheimia tridactylites, 132. 
palluj Impatiens sp., 36 
ptdosa, Acacia moaesta, 54. 
pdUarHy Pinus excelsa, 225. 
palfu, Prunus prostrata, 83. 
pdlu, Pyrus Kumaonensis, 84. 
paludar, Cedrus deodara, 220 ; Pi- 

cea "NVebbiana, 224. % 
palwal, Tricbosanthes dioica, 99. 
palwdn, Andropogon annulatus, 248. 
pdma, juniperus communis, 222. 
panianke, Boucerosia Aucberi, 143. 
pamhash, Rbeum Emodi, 186. 
pamhhan kanak, Triticum durum, 

pamposh, Nelumbium speciosum, 9. 
pdmukh. Verbena officinalis, 166. 
pand, Loranthus longiflorus, 112 ; 

Viscum attenuatum, 113. 
pand rat, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
pdndarwdsh, Boerbaavia diffusa, 182. 
pandol, Tricbosantbes anguina, 99. 
jyanir, Witbania coagulans, 161. 
panirhdd, at ditto. 
panirak, Malva parviflora, 23. 

panj angusht, Boucerosia Aucberi, 

(nigand) pdnr, Ocimum Basilicum, 

(jorakh) pdnw, Convolvulus pluri- 

caulis, 150 ; Heliotropium brevi- 

folium, 154. 
panni, Anatberum muricatum, 248 ; 

Cymbopogon Iwarancusa, 253. 
pansdrt, a drug-vendor, 228. 
pansira, Wendlandia exserta, 117. 
pdpar, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
pdpat kalam, Viburnum cotinifolium, 

pappar, Buxus sempervirens, 192. 
pdpra. pdprang. Salvia lanata, 172. 
pdpriy Podopbyllum Emodi, 8 ; Myr- 

sine Africana, 135. 
papH, Buxus sempervirens, 192 ; 

Ulmus integrifolia, 211. 
parand, Lorantbus longiflorus, 112. 
pdras Prunus Padus, 83. 
pdras pipalf Tbespesia populnea, 24. 
parhik, Gissampelos Pareira, 6. 
parburpdni, Tncbodesma sp., 155. 
pdre, Parrotia Jacquemontiana, 110. 
pareseoshdn, Adiantum venustum, 

265 ; at A. C. V., ditto. 
pargdiy Qiiercus Ilex, 199. 
paridla, Erytbrina arborescens, 69. 
parmtaun, Q-ymnosporia spinosa, 41. 
parshawarshay Adiantum C V., 265. 
jyarungij Quercus dilatata, 199. 
(jangli) parungi, Quercus semecar- 

pifolia, 200. 
parwatHy Cocculus Leaeba, 6 ; .He- 

dera Helix, 110 ; Cuscuta reflexa, 

152 ; Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. 
pasandf pleasing. 
(dil) pasandf CitruUus vulgaris 

var. Fistulosus, 96. 
{shah) pasandf at Mangifera Indica, 

pMendu, Diospyros montana, 137. 
posh, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
pa^hkandf Calotropis ])rocera, 144. 



pMim, fine wool, or hair, 229. 
fMlmara», Thalictnuu folioloBum, 

I, Grewia oppoeitiiblia, 


pattu wanne, Orewia villoBa, 27. 
(perei) pattwanne, Fluggea riroea, 

pat, patta, pattr, &c., a leaf. 
pat, Corchorue cftpauluia, 26. 
(ion) pat, CorchoruB olitoriue, 20 
(ux) put, Cumamomum albiflorum, 

pataka, Abutiloa Indicum, 21. 
patdti, ClBBfuupelos Parein>t 6 ; 

Ornmosporia spinoaa, IL, 
patdichen, Cratsgus ozjacanthit, 79. 
patanff, CsBBalpiuia eappan, SO. 
pdth, 0Ubuq[^08 Pareira, 6. 
patha, CttamsropB Ritchiaoa, 212 ; 

Eordeum hexastdchum, 256. 
pathor, Mandenia Bojlii, 146. 
paiira, Typha auguetit'olia, 216. 
paiii, Aeoaitum heterophjUum, 1. 
patpatila, Oreoaeria lauuginoaa, 

(ban) patrak, Saxi&ag& ligulata, 

patraicdla datnd, Solanum gracilipes, 

pattan, Hibiscus cannabinua, 22. 
patria, Aconitum heterophyUum, 1. 
(Aatza ka) patta, Kalaochoe variane , 

(mA) potior, Machilua odoratasei- 

muB, 188. 
(til) paitar, Acer Creticum, &nd A. 

cultratuni, SO. 
puttharman, CaUicarpa incana, 165. 
patthra, Malcolmia Btrigosa, 14. 
patli Kathmiri, BhododoDdroii cam- 

panulatum, 131. 
(aitdaiar) patti, Aspanigufl Punjab- 

eiuiB, 2^18. 
(tfillor) pattr, Laminaria sp., 269. 
(tarar) pattr, DioBCorea deltoidea, 


(tiV) pattro, Marlea begonifolia, 93. 
(Ire) polfra, Trifolium pratenee, 76. 
(Iri) pattra, Maraiiea quadrifelia ? 

patwa, HibiscuB Babdariffa, 22. 
patmda, Baccharum officinamm, 

patoanne, ClematiB Nepaleoais, 3 ; 

Boucerosia Aucberi, 113. 
pe, Picea Webbiana, 221. 
peit mvndi, Tanacetum vulgare, 131. 
pek, PiectrantbuB rugoBus, 171. 
pekkar, Adhatoda Vasica, 161, 
peni, Abelia triflora, 118. 
penma Potentilla Inglifdi, 81. 
perei patt^teanne, l^luggea virosa, 

perkhatuna, Cocculue Lesba, 6. 
petko, Kima quossioidea, 89. 
petho, BeuincHsa cerifera, 95. 
pettAar, petthri, Juniperus commu- 

nia, 21!2. 
pewand, a graft. 
peiamdi, ZizypliuB Jujuba, 43. 

^oidflB, 212. 

)U8 reticulata, 214. 

aricoidea, 212. 

la ap., 112. 

aricoidea, 212. 

s carica, 211; F. 


, „ caricoide8,212. 

phal, a &uit. 

(bom) pkal, Fimgua sp. ? 269. 
(daku) phal, ElsagnuH conferta, 

(kdi) phal, Myrica Sapida, 202. 
(mend) pkal, R^niiia dumetorum, 

phald. Acacia modesta, 51. 
phaldkar, lawful to be eat^n in 

Hindu faata, 89, 181. 
phali guar, Cyamopsis paoraloidetr, 

(mar or) phali, Helicteres Isora, 23. 
phaljo, PopuluB ciliata, 201. 
(miag) phalli, Aradus hypogsa, 57. 


phaUa, Orewia asiatica, 26. 
phdmpU, Berehemia sp., 41. 
phduy Bhus Cotinus, 49. 
phapy a ferment for beer, Ac, 256. 
pJu^harchoTf Coriaria Nepalensis, 

phaphar, Pagopyrum emarginatmn, 

phaphra, phdphrd, Fagopyrum escu- 

lentum, 184. 
phaphor, TJrgima Indica, 235. 
phnpni sdg, FharbitiB nil, 151. 
(til) phar, Impatiens sp , 86. 
phasruk, Yerbascum Tnapsue, 163. 
phatmer, Erancoeuria crispa, 126. 
phedu, EicuB caricoides, 212. 
phesaJe lane, Suseda fruticosa, 180. 
philluf Hamiltonia suayeolens, 115. 
phinddk, Crataegus oxyacantha, 79. 
phipnt, BhamnuB virgatus, 42. 
phu hekkar, Colebrookia oppositifo- 

Ha. 167. 
phitm, Zizyphus vulgaris, 44. 
phoa, Calligonum polygonoides, 183 ; 

PicuB caricoides, 212. 
phogalKy Calligonum polygonoides, 

pliogri^ Reus reticulata, 214. 
phok, Calligonum polygonoides, 

phrolf Arundo sp ? 250. 
phul, a flower. 

phul, Verbascum ThapBus, 168. 
phiil makhdna, Euryale ferox, 8. 
(kamal) phul, Gentianalurroo, 147. 
(kan) pnul, Taraxacum officinalis, 

131. . 
(mahadeo ka) phul. Daphne canna- 

bina, 188. 
(paighambari) phil, Amebia echi- 

oides, 152. 
(tulcnnf) phul, Hamiltonia suayeo- 
lens, 115. 
phuldi, Acacia modesta, 54. 
phuloft, Pagopyrum emarginatum, 

phuldnch, Sibes rubrum, 102. 

phuliari, Bosa Bninonis, 85. 
phulseL Viburnum stellulatum, 115. 
phulfjcm, Cffisalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
ph^lwdra, Prinsepia utilis, 81. 
phulwdri, Bosa Brunonis, 85. • 
phuman, Leucas Cephalotes, 168. 
phunt, Cucumis momordica, 97. 
(ban) phunt, Syringa Emodi, 140. 
phuntar, Yerbascum Thapsus, 163. 
phundu. Allium sp., 281. 
phupdri, Gymnosporia spinosa, 41. 
ph4rz, Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
ph4f, Potamogeton gramineus, 242. 
ph4t, Lonicera quinquelocularis, 

114 ; Ballota limbata ? 167. 
phutkanda, Ballota limbata, 167 ; 

Asparagus racemosus, 238. 
ptdk, Alnus sp., 197. 
ptdz. Allium cepa, 230 ; Iris Kamaon- 

ensis, 240. 
(hardni) pidz, chiri pUz, Allium 

rubellum, 230. 
pidzi, Asphodelus fistulosus, 284. 
pichka, Odina wodier, 46. 
pit, Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
pila, piU, yellowish. 
pUajau, Artemisia elegans, 120. 
pilaky Solanum gracilipes, 159 ; 8. 

xanthocarpum, 161. 
pilchi, Tamarix dioica, 91. 
pili butt, Abutilon Indicum, 21. 
pili jari, Thalictrum folioloBum, 6 ; 

Cissampelos Pareira, 6. 
pilkhan, Picus cordifolia, 212 ; P. 

yenosa, 214. 
piln&, Lonicera angustifolia^ 113. 
pilsa, Bibes Grossularia, 102. 
pilu, Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
pin, Leptopus cordifolius, 196. 
pincho, Missiessya hypoleuca, 215. 
pind. Phoenix dactyKrera, 243. 
pind khajur. Phoenix acaulis, 243. 
pinji, Pennisetum ItaUcum, 259. 
ptngydt, CratsBgus oxyacantha, 79. 
pinju, Capparis aphylla, 15. 
pinjung, Poteutilla Inglisii, 81. 
pipal, Picus religiosa, 213. 



Qfoz) pipdly Flantago major, 174 ; 

Abies Smithiana, 219. 
(pdrai) jpipal, Thespesia populnea, 

p^al htUi, Heliotropium ramoBissi- 

mumy 154. 
pifn>afpippuy Boucerosia eduHs, 144. 
PiT, a MuBsalmiLn holy man, 2 13. 
pvrhi, Desmodium tilisBfolium, 67. 
puj Cliam»rops Ritehiana, 242. 
pMOffpishkan, Astragalus multiceps, 

pithor^ Farrotia ^Jacquemontiaaa, 

pista^ guli pitta^ pott hiaruni pista, 

Fistacia vera, 47. 
pUar saleri, Fetroselinum sativum, 

pitpdproy Fumaria parviflora, 11. 
pitso^ Arundinaria falcata, 249. 
pUz, Tjpha augustifolia, 246. 
piuj (ptkujj a flea. 
pwmary Flectrantbus rugosus, 171. 
piun, Aconitum Napellus, 2. 
pldj Butea frondosa, 59. 
pletoane, Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
po, Farrotia Jacquemontiana, 110. 
podinaj Mentha sativa, and M. viri- 

dis, 169. 
(paihdri) podSnOy Mentha yiridis, 169. 
poiy Basella alba, 177. 
pokhoT tniltl, Dolomisa macrocep- 

hala ? 125. 
paid, Kydia caljcina, 25 ; Crotalaria 

Burhia, 64. 
poMch, Albizzia odoratissima, 56. 
poUy Eryngium planum, 105 ; Car- 

thamus oxyacantha^ 123 ; Cou- 

sinia caldtrapsDformis, 125. 
politm, Carthamus tmctorius, 124. 
pohy Tibetan game of hockey on 

horseback, 91, 198. 
ponwdr, Cassia occidentalism and C. 

pcpal, Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
popai hutiy Heliotropium Europ»- 

um, 154. 

pordlf Heradeum sp., 107. 
potpranff, Glinus lotoides, 101 ; 

Convolyulus pluricaulis, 150. 
posh, Ki., a flower. 
(khatr) posh, Yillarsia nymphoides, 

{pom) poshy Nelumbium speciosum, 

(sax) poshy Lavatera Cachemiriana> 

posha, 1, Dubi», Composite, 132. 
poshkar, Ligularia sp., 127. 
post, Fapaver somQiferum, 10. 
post hirunipista, I^stacia vera, 47. 
postily Taxus baccata, 227. 
potM, Elsholtzia polystachya, 168. 
potu kanangy Salvia lanata, 172. 
prangosy Frangos pabularia, 108. 
prasti, Fopulus Alba, 203. 
prdtshiy Myrsine Africana, 135. 
profiy Eremurus spectabilis, 234. 
pri, Desmodium argenteum^ and D. 

tiliffifolium, 67. 
priiiy Missiessya hypoleuca, 215. 
pritay Finus Qerardiana, 225. 
prora, Machilus odoratissimus, 188. 
prosty Fopulus nigra, 205. 
prot, Manea begonifolia, 93. 
prusterietiy at I^murus spectabilis, 

psheTy Farrotia Jacquemontianai 

puddra, Erythrina arborescens, 69. 
puddrty Hfuniltonia suaveolens, 115. 
pudnay Mentha incana, 169. 
pukdnoy Bubus floribundus, 86 ; B. 

rotundifolius, 87. 
puldy Kydia calydna, 25. 
puldkh, Mcus cordifolia, 212. 
pAliy Kydia cal^cina, 25. 
pulla, Bubus tihaceuB, 87. 
p4lli, Kydia calycina, 25. 
piUni, viburnum foBtens, 114. 
p{my Jatropha curcas, 196. 
pundcy Oxybaphus HimaUicus, 182. 
p4ndnay Gflochidion sp., 196. 
punjan^ Artemisia Inoica, 120. 



punna, Ehretia serrata, 154. 
purcho hacha, Echinops nivia, 126. 
puHnff, Jaeminum officinale, 141. 
(thdl) purm, Desmodium tilisBfoli- 

um, 67. 
pwy'luj Oreoseris lanuginosa, 128. 
purkdr, Tanacetum tomentosam, 

(arJcYpuahpiy Pentatropis spiraliB, 

(sanJeli) pushpi, Ev olvnlus alsinoides, 

pushtharm, Uraria chetkubra, 77. 
pitstulf Abies 8niithiana, 219. 
put kanday Achyrantbes aspera, 180 ; 

Crozopbora plicata, 192. 
puthorm, Nima quassioides, 39. 
putdjem, Putranjiva Eoxburgbii, 196. 

rd«anita,Bertbelotia lanceolata, 122 ; 

at Salvadora oleoides, 176. 
rdb, juice. 

rah % SU9, Glycirrbiza tripbylla, 69. 
rdby Arum Colocasia, 247. 
rabdn, Cbionantbus Bp., 138. 
radt Panicum miliaceum, 258. 
radam. Taraxacum officinale, 131. 
rdde, Kibes rubrum, 102. 
rdy, Abies Smitbiana, 219; Picea 

Webbiana^ 224. 
rdC, Brassica juncea, 12 ; Abies Smi- 

rdiBandrd, Brassica campestris, 11. 
(pand) rdi, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
rdmnOf Abies Smitbiana. 219. 
rdil, Pii«ea Webbiana, 224 
rajdin, Alnus sp., 197 ; Ulmus in- 

tegrifolia, 211. 
rajal, Arundo sp. ? 250. 
f^'al, Viburnum cotinifolium, 114. 
rakhal, Taxus baccata, 227. 
r.dlf Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 
rdl kdla, r. 9ufidy r. zard, Sborea 

Tobusta, 28. 

Bdmy a Hindu incarnation of a deity. 
rdm babAl, Acacia Arabica var. Cup- 

ressiformis, 52. 
rdm d4na, Amarantbus mangosta- 

nus, 181. 
rdm turdt, Abelmoschus esculentus, 

ramnia, Crataegus oxyacantba, 79. 
randi, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
rang^ colour, dye. 
ranffchari, Elsnoltzia polystaebya, 

rangchul, Euonymus fimbriata, 41 ; 

Syringa Emodi, 140. 
ran^oU, Pbysalis sp., 158. 
rangreky Pyrus Aucuparia, 83. 
rangsh^r, TbyiDUs serpyllum, 173. 
rdnthuly Pyrus Aucuparia, 83.; Spi- 

riea Lindleyana, 88. 
ranzttru, Pinus longifolia ? 226. 
rapeshOf Lonicera bypoleuca, 114. 
rdrar, Aralia Cacbemirica, 110. 
rdrfj Prinsepia utilis, 81. 
rasdutj Berberis aristata, 7. 
rdsha, Tribulus alatus, 37. 
raskidch. Astragalus sp., 58. 
rtmtk. Taraxacum officinale, 181. 
rat dlu, Dioscoria satiya, 229. 
rat mundi, Macrotomia eucbroma, 

154 ; Tricfaodesma Indica, 155. 
ratsahara, Coriaria Nepalensis, 39. 
ratta, Chenopodium sp , 179. 
rattanjogy Anemone obtusiloba. 2. 
rattanjofj at Geranium nodosum, 

36 ; Potentilla Nepalensis, 81 ; 

Yinca rosea, 143 ; Macrotomia 

eucbroma, 154 ; Jatropha curcas, 

rattankdty Andromeda oyalifolfa^ and 

Ebododendron antbopogon, 133. 
rattiy Abrus precatorius, 50. 
raUy Coriaria Nepalensis^ 39 ; Coto- 

neaster obtusa, 79. 
rauU, Litssea sp., 188. 
raunj, Acacia leucopbl»a, 53. 
rdwan, Lathyrus apnaca^ 70 \ Doli* 

cbos uniflorus, 68. 




rowdn, Lathyms aphaca, 70. 
ratcdsh, Hbeum Emodi, 180. 
razbamy Lonicera quinquelocularis, 

re, Abies Smithiana, 219 ; Ficea 

Webbiana, 224. 
{bang) re, kandre^ Abies Sinithiaxia» 

(HI) re, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
rebdun, regddwan, Tecoma undulata, 

rehdn, Ocimum Basilicum, 170. 
reini, Eottlera tinctoria, 197. 
relnu, Zizjpbus flexuosa, 42 ; Cie- 

salpinia sepiaria, 60. 
reluy CiBsalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
reoddn, Tecoma undulata, 149. 
rertt, Acacia leucopblsBa, 53. 
resham buH, reehamt, Bertbelotia 

laneeolata^ 122. 
retean, Ehamnus yirgatus, 42. 
rewt, Rottlera tinctoria, 197. 
reus, Cotoueaster obtusa, 79. 
rewand ChirU,^ Yerbascum Thapsus, 

163 ; Eremostachys Yicaryi, 168 ; 

Bbeum Emodi, 186. 
rewdri, Ficea Webbiana, 224. 
rgelta, Tamarix dioica, 91. 
ri, Cotoneastor obtusa, 79 ; Jasmi- 

num officmale, 141. 
rum, Tetranthera monopetala, 188. 
riaul, Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 
riaungi, Solanum nipum, 160. 
r^^. Rheum Emodi, 186. 
rtchh, a bear. 

riekh kae, Sambucus Ebulus, 1 14. 
riehh ukl^, rkhhdbi, hilmieh, Yibur- 

num cotinifolium, 114. 
riehni. Euphorbia dracuuciiloides, 

rikhdi, Taxus baccata, 227. 
rikhaU, Bhus yemicifera, 49. 
rikh4lf Bhus acuminata^ 48; B. 

yermcifera^ 49. 
rikkan, Fopulus alba^ 208 ; P. dli^ 

rtkinrOf Alnus sp., 197. 

rin »dg, Phytolacca decandra, 176. 
ring, Crataegus oxyacantha, 79; 

Quercus incana^ 199. 
(hdl%) rmg, Quweus dilatata, 199. 
ringi, Yiscum album, 112. 
rtngo, Crataegus oxyacantha, 7§. 
ringydl, Bosa Weboiana, 86. 
rinj, Quercus incana, 199. 
rinsot, 'EheAgauB eonferta, 189. 
m, Yibumum nervosum, 116. 
risk, Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
risk, beard. 

ruh bargad, Ficus Indica, 213. 
rtsha Jehatmi, Althsea rosea, 21 ; at 

Malva parviflora, 23. 
rishha, Medicago sativa, 71. 
rUha, l^pindus detergens, 32. 
rtthei, Fluggea leucopyilis, 195. 
Hu, Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
rivda, at Bheum Emodi, 186. 
riwdsan, Sesbania JSgyptiaca, 75. 
rjao, Fagopynim esculentum, 184. 
(kaura) ro, Fanderia pilosa, 179. 
rodang, Bubia tinctorum, 117. 
rohfra, Tecoma undulata, 149. 
roiong, Dolichos uniflorus, 68. 
romusk Bhamnus yirgatus, 42. 
rondk, Stipagrostis plumosa, 262. 
rotbang, Flectranthus rugosus, 171. 
rami, Gheranium nodosum, 36. 
rozatt, Triticum flsstiyum, 262. 
ruba barik, Solanum JDulcamara^ 

159 ; S. nigrum, 160. 
rut, &oBsypium herbaceum, 22. 
rukh, Tamarix dioica, 91 ; T. orien- 

talis, 92. 
rul, Hippophae rhamnoides, 190. 
rimbal, Ficus oordifolia, and F. glo- 

merata, 212 ; F. oppositifolia^ 218, 
Bum, Turky. 
BumifhasHgi, (kundar) Biml, At Pis* 

tada Atmntica, 46. 
nina, rinana, Bubia cordifolia, 116. 
ringnSt, EAlanchoe yarians, 100. 
rwikar. Delphinium Brunoniantun, 

(8. omitted in text), 8. 
rt^si, Polygonum sp., 186. 




9ahin{^ Asparagus racemosus, 283. 

Mobzy green. 

9ahz(, Cannabis satiya, 215. 

gaeha, Saccharum sara, 261. 

Mod, a hundred. 

Modbarg^ Calendula officinaHs, and 

Carpesium sp., 123. 
9afid, white. 
9aflida^ Dalbergia sissoo, 65 ; Fopu- 

lus alba, 203 ; Salix tetrasperma, 

tdff^ a vegetable, pot-herb, 159 ' 

^ag%) s^, Malva parviflora, 23. 
jau) sdff, Chenopodium album, 178. 
jhapr^) sdg, Pharbitis nil, 184. 
(rin) sdgf Ph}rtolacca decandra, 176. 
%aqgafr^ £hretia aspera, 153. 
wgun^ Tectona grandis, 166. 
«<i», Abelia triflora, 113 ; Lonicera 

quinquelocularis, 114. 
#^ii a soda salt manufactured 

from ashes of plants, 176, 177, 

178, 179. 
M^ a year, 255. 
«!/, 8horea robusta, 28. 
Man^ Panicum miliaceum, 258 ; 

Pennisetum Italicum P 259. 
Molauker, Abelia triflora, 113. 
sdlhey Boswellia glabra, 45. 
Mib Muri, at Anstolochia sp., 191 ; 

at Convallaria verticillata, 234 ; 

Eulophia campestris, 236; at 

Arum sp., 248. 
gaUOf Abies Smithiana, 219. 
wdle, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
salodf Aralia Cachemirica^ 110. 
salohay Pueraria tuberosa, 75. 
mdiiniy Bumex vesicarius, 187. 
tarn, Pinus excelsa, 225. 
sa$nd, Ghlochidion sp., 196 ; Nardus 

stricta, 257 ; Oplismenus frum- 

entaoeuB, 257. 
(jangU) sdmak, Panicum, colonum, 


samdluj Yitex Negundo, 166. 
samarogh, Agaricus campestris, 267. 
sambar, Desmodium argenteum, 67. 
eambul ul ttb^ Nardostachys Jata- 

mansi, 118. 
gamma, Schleichera trijuga, 32. 
sdmp, a snake. 
sdmp hi khumb, Arum spociosum, 

gdmpniy Colebrookia oppositifolia, 

samuka, OplisJhenus frumentaceus, 

samundar 9ok, Salvia plebeia, 172. 
son, Hibiscus cannabinus, 22 ; Cym- 

bopogon Iwarancusa, 253. 
san butt. Cassia obovata, 62. 
san kohla. Hibiscus cannabinus, 22. 
(jangU) san kokra. Hibiscus sp., 23. 
y>a^) san, Hibiscus cannabinus, 22. 
sandke, Yitex Negundo, 166. 
sanattha, Dodon^a Burmanniana^ 

sandal, FraxinuB xanthoxylloides, 

sdndan, Ougeinia Dalbergioides^ 

sanddri, Missiessya hypoleuca, 215. 
sangar, Proso^s spicigera, 74. 
sanggge Senecio laciniosus, 180. 
{gtd) sanjad, sanfat, ElsagnuB con- 

ferta, 189. 
(ban) sanjH, Crataegus oxyacaiitii% 

sdnfna, Moringa pterygosperma, 19. 
stmkh pushpij Evolvulus alsinoides, 

sankUr, CelastruB paniculata, 40. 
sankhri, Prosopis spicigera, 74. 
sanhhu, Celastrus paniculata, 40. ^ 
sanmali^ Asparagus PunjabensiSy 

sanna,^ Cassia obovata, 62. 
sanna Makkl, Cassia acutifolla, 61. 
(kura) sanna, Berthelotia lanceola- 

ta, 122. 



(rd) Mnna, Berthelotia lanceolata, 

122 ; at Salvadora oleoides, 176. 
sannany Ougeinia Dalbergioides, 72 ; 

FopuluB alba, 203. 
sanni, Crotalaria juncea^ 6li; C. se- 

ricea, 65. 
tanoli^ IJrtica heteropliylla, 215. 
tansirit, MisBiessja hypoleuca, 215. 
^ansaphaury Asparagus racemosus, 

Monspauvy Asparagus filicinus, and 

A. racemosus, 233. 
•dwthdy Dodoniea Burmanmana, 31. 
Mdmoahy OpliHmenus frumentaceus, 

257 ; Panicum colonum, 258. 
tanwoTy Bliazya stricta, 143. 
sapfaliy Delpninium Erunouianmn, 

saprotrt, Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
Mr, sara, Saccharum sara, 261. 
jora, Picea Webbiana, 224. 
sardiri, Amarantlius anardana, 181. 
sardr, Saccharum sara, 261. 
sarawdny Pistada integerrima, 47. 
wrd(iy cool. 

tarda, Cucumis melo, 96. 
sareiy Abies Smithiana, 219. 
iorera, Amarantlius anardana, 181. 
sar^afra, Cymbopogon Iwarancusa, 

tdrt, Prunus Armeniaca, 81. 
wridra, Amaranthus anardana, 181. 
Morindigd, Cassia obovata, 62. 
sarka, sarkanda, tarkara, Saccharum 

. sara, 261. 
Morlakhtei, Spir»a Lindleyana, 88 ; 

Andromeda ovalifolia, 133. 
sarmal, Heteropogon contortus,255. 
9drmeiy Berthelotia lanceolata, 122. 
sarmul. Astragalus multiceps, 57. 
wmgary Rhododendron campanula- 

tum, 134 
9arpat, Saccharum sara, 261. 
garphonkay Tephrosia purpurea, 76. 
9arriy Brassica campestris, 11 ; B. 

sp., 13 ; Cicer Soongaricum, 63. 
tarriay Brassica sp., 13. 

tarruy Brassica campestris, 11 ; B. 

sp., 13. 
sarsan, Brassica campestris, 11. 
(jangli) sarsofiy Sisymbrium Irio, 15. 
(kdia) sarson, Brassica Eruca, 11. 
tarunga, Phytolacca decandra, 176. 
sarura, Butea frondosa, 59. 
iorut, Saccharum sara, 261. 
sarwdliy Celosia argentea, 181. 
sasidiy JErua Boyii^ 180. 
wU balon. Polygonum Nepalense, 

sat hargiy Caraganatragacanthoides, 

sat hiroxa, Pinus longifolia, 226. 
satgiloy Tinospora cordifolia, 6. 
satniy Salvia plebeia, 172. 
satrawala, Cuscuta refleza, 152. 
satrun, Quercus dilatata, 199. 
sat zarroy Asphodelus fistulosus^ 

saunf, FsBuiculum vulgare, 107. 
sawal, Potamogetoh crispus, 241. 
sdwaly Amaranthus anardana, 181. 
sawdli, Alnus sp., 197 , Potamoge- 

ton gramineus ? 242. 
saz poshy Lavatera Cachemiriana, 23. 
sehy Prosopis spicigera^ 74. 
sia, Bosa Weboiana, 86. 
sein, Pentaptera tomentosa, 88. 
sej pdfiy Asparagus racemosus, 233. 
se^n, Canavalia gladiata, 61. 
sembaly sembal gond, musaU semhal, 

Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
sen, Pisum sativum, 73. 
sendhiy Phoenix sylvestris, 245. 
sengra, Raphanus sativus, 15. 
senjna, Moringa pterygosperma, 19. 
sensafdiy Asparagus racemosus, 233. 
sensarpdl, Asparagus filicinus, and 

A. Punjabensis, 233. 
senthay Saccharum sara, 261. 
scTy a weight, 2 9>s., 75. 
serdn, Acer Creticum, 80. 
(kharpata) serei, Quercus incana^ 

serriy Cicer Soongaricum, 63. 



9€ia paJjOj Rhamnus rirgatuB, 42. 

teu, ryrus Malus, 85. 

gewU, fiosa oentifolia, 85. 

9hdf Parrotia Jacquemontiana, 110. 

(jiil) 9habbo, Polianthes tuberosa, 

(shah) hu, Mathiola annua, 14. 
fhdfri, Smnga Emodi, 14iO. 
shqftal, Tidfolium repenB, 76 ; T. 

BD., 77. 

Mhmdlu, Amjgdalus Pendca var. 

myia, 78. 
€ka4ji, Mff^ Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
{gur) thoffalj Desmodium tilisBfoli- 

um, 07. 
thdgM^ Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
{ban) shdbah, Staphylea Emodi, 40. 
Mluwhar, ^brassica rapa, 12. 
9hah, (king) royal, large, &c. 
Mhdh haJ^ty QuercuB Ilex, 199. 
9hah pasand, at Mangifera Indica, 

9hdh tara, Fumaria paryiflora, 11. 
shdh tiity Moms alba, &c., 2 17 ; M. 

serrata, 2 19. 
9hdi, BrasBica sp., 18. 
shak, PemiiBetum Italicum, 259. 
shdkf Brassica sp , 18. 
shakdkul Muri, Eryngium planum, 

105. - 
skakar, sugar. 
shakar dona, Golebrookia oppositifo- 

lia, 167. 
shakar hand. Batatas eduHs, 150. 
shakar ul a$har, shakar ul ttghdl, 

CalotropiB prooera, 144. 
thakeif liiymuB Berpyllum, l78; 

BiisBieflBya hypoleuca, 215. 
shaktekaSy Bibes leptostachyum, 

thdlpurfd Desmodium tili»folium, 

shald, Ooriaria NepalensiB, 89. 
ghdlakdty Myricaria Oermanica, 91. 
AdlangKy Skimmia Laureola, 29. 
9kalanali, litsaea sp. ? 188 ; Ma- 

chelaB odoratissimus, 188. 

shalan^fi, Daphne aleoides, 189. 
shahham, Brassica rapa, 12. 
shahham Muri, ConTallaria rerd* 

cillata, 234. 
shdlij Pennisetum Italicum, 259. 
ghdli dag gdnch, Bubus fruticosus, 

ghil^y Ooriaria Nepalensis, 89; Pen- 
nisetum Italicum, 259. 
shalxioiy Hedvchium spicatum, 289. 
{dud) tkambar^ Desmodium tiliaefo- 

lium, 67. 
shdmor, Zizypbus Yul«uis, 44. 
shamshdd, Myrsine Anricana, 185. 
shamukeif Taraxacum offidnale, 13 L 
shamukha, Panicum antidotale, 258. 
<Aan, Hibiscus cannabinus, 22. 
shdnda laghune, Buxus semper- 

yirens, 192 
shanddCgul, Tulipa sfcellata, 285. 
shang, thangal, fVaxinus xantbox- 

yUoides, 139. 
Mhangala, Ilex dipyrena, 40. 
shdt^ar, Prosopis spicigera, 74. 
shanku kannnm, Dracocephalum 

heterophyllum, 168. 
shdnmd, Pisum satirum, 78. 
shdpiang, Witbania coagulans, 161. 
sh^ochi, Saxifraga ligulata^ 103. 
tharbat, a cooling beverage, 127, 

137,150, 170,202,ii08. 
«Aafy<^r, Bhododendron campanula- 

tiun, 184. 
shdri, Prunus Armeniaca, 81. 
thdridy Phelipa>a Calotropidis, 168. 
fhargwndeiy Lepidium satiTum, 14. 
9haro{, akaroh^ Corylus Columay 

sharwa, Brassica sp., 18. 
shdwa, Populus ciuata, 204. 
thdwaltj Bosa Webbiana, 86. 
shea, Lonicera glauca, 118. 
shegal, Pyrus Tariolosa, 85. 
sheniy Bubia cordifolia^ 116. 
•heoy wine, at Yitis Indica, 85. , 
sher, Pyrus Malus, 85. 
sherawane, Flacourtia sepiaria, 18. 



Mikerey Coriaria Nepalensis, 89. 
shewa^ Dalbergia sbsoo, 65; Loni- 

oera glauca, 113. 
tihewa&Hki Nigella sstiva, 4. 
9Ma^ Dalber^a sissoo, 65. 
shibldchy Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
thUt, Eremurus spectabilis, 234. 
MU ghdy Chrysopogon glaucoptis, 

9kilUy FraxiniiBxanthoxylloides, 139. 
Mhiny Dalbergia sissoo, 65. 
shindar, Pyrus yariolosa, 85 ; Quer- 

cus incana^ 199. 
skinffy FraxinuB floribunda, 138. 
skin^f Jasminum officinale, 141. 
(9om) shindy Pinus excelsa, 225. 
^hingdriy Bosa macropbjlla, 86. 
9fwng Wcy Lonicera glauca^ 113. 
thinwalay Rhododendron campanu- 

latum, 134. 
shtTy Machilus odoratissimus, 188. 
shMuy Acacia speciosa, 55. 
(k^) Mritiy Costus sp. ? 238 ; at 

Aucklandia Costus, 122. 
Mr khisty Fhhzinus sp., 139. 
thiroka, Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
Mr^y Mrshy Acacia speciosa, 55. 
thirulty Eicus reticulata, 214. 
shirway Brassica rapa, 12. 
shhhdiy thisham, Dalbergia sissoo, 

9hkay Comus macropbjlla. 111. 
thkoy nimus campestns, 210. 
9hlu(y Hedychium spicatum, 239. 
shney at Pistacia integerrima, 47 ; P. 

TerebinthuB, 48. 
gholoTy Scopolia pnealta, 159. 
gholrf, Salvia lanata, 172. 
ghomdy Solenanthus sp., 155. 
Mhonfoly Berchemia sp., 41. 
shorliy Salvia lanata, 172. 
shotiy Iris Nepalensis, 240. 
Mhotuly Trifolium repens, 76 ; T. sp., 

MhouTy PotentiUa Salesovii, 81. 
Mhroly AlnuB sp., 197. 
throloy Sedum Bhodiola, 101. 

shruky Triticum estiyum, 262. 
shruky Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
ahruly Iris sp., 241. 
shuk pdy Juniperus excelsa, 223. 
•hukidry Arceuthobium Oxycedri, 

(pS) 9h4k, Juniperus communiB, 

shumajy Buxus sempervirenB, 192. . 
shumshddy Dodonsa Burmanniana, 

31 ; BuxuB semperyirens, 192. 
shuHy Salix spp., 209. 
9h4amiy EraxinuB floribunda^ 138. 
ghuvy Juniperus excelsa^ 223. 
(long) ehuTy Juniperus communis, 

shArgUy Juniperus excelsa, 223. 
shurU, Corylus Golunus 201. 
sMrungriy Acacia speciosa, 55. 
shustiy Scrophularia Kotschyi, 163. 
th^Uar hhdry Alhagi Maurorum, 57. 
thwcm^ Olea Europsea, 139. 
shwdriy Yitex Negundo, 166. 
shuHtwaUy Olea Europsea^ 139. 
My Bosa Webbiana, 86. 
ridlty Pueraria tuberosa, 75 ; DsomiA 

extensa, 145. 
tialidn Oyperus junidfolius, 264. 
Mluy Morlea begonifolia^ 98. 
Mriy Missiessja hypoleuca, 215. 
tichiy Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
Ma atsUy Datisca cannabina, 191. 
Mhera, Euonjmus flmbriata, 41. 
s{/uy IVaxinuB xanthoxylloideB, 189. 
sikanday Eosa Webbiana, 86. 
sikiy Euonjmus flmbriata, 41. 
tUy Amaranthus anardana^ l81 ; Im- 

perata Kcenigii, 257. 
nleiny Alnus sp., 197. 
simy Jasminum officinale, 141. 
Midky Sida cordifolia^ 28. 
simbaly Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
HmUy ZizyphuB flexuosa, 42. 
iindiy Berberis aristata, 7. 
iimmaly Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
timrungy Bhododendron campanu- 

latum, 134. 



tifif Withania coagulans, 161. 
sind, Daphne oleoideB, 189. 
sindroly KhamnuB yirgatus, 42. 
sinfhdrdf Trapa bispinoBa, 89. 
nnghta Aconitum, 1. 
(kakkra) singiy FiBtacia integerri- 

ma, 47. 
singo, 4, DubisB Umbellifer», 109. 
(hal) sinjal, Bhamnus purpureuB, 

smjif MelilotuB parviflora, 72. 
(chita) stnji, Melilotus leucantha, 

sinjUf Zizjphus flexuosa, 42. 
(sur) sinjH, CrategUB oxjacantha, 

smk^ Anatberum muricatum, 248. 
sinntiy FraxinuB floribunda, 138. 
nonak, Bignonia Indica, 148. 
sipil, Bupleurum marginatum, 104. 
«fr, Imperata Koenigii, 257. 
Hra^ Cnionanthus sp., 138. 
tirddr, a leader or cnief^ 63. 
siriy Acacia speciosa, 55 ; Albizzia 

odoratissima, b^. 
riridriy Chenopodium Bp., 179. 
siril, Amarantaus anardana^ 181. 
strin, Acacia specioBa, 55. 
{chitt) sirin, Cedrela toona serrata, 

(kali) sirin, Acaci/i speciosa, 55. 
siringri, FlectrantbuB rugosuB, 171. 
firisy Acacia speciosa, 55. 
(stifed) sirity Acacia elata, 62. 
9trki, Saccbarum Bara, 2G1. 
9i8, Crotaliiria Burbia, 64. 
tisdliusy Leucas CephaloteB, 168. 
siskey i^ambucuB Ebulus, 114. 
sissdiy Crotalaria Burbia, 64. 
sissuy Dalbergia siBsoo, 65. 
titdwavy AsparaguB filicinus, 288 ; at 

A. racemoBus, 233. 
sitdwar patti. Asparagus Punjaben* 

sis, 233, 
titrdwaly Asparagus racemosus, 233. 
tituny Bouc^rosia edulis, 144. 
tiuly Amarantbus anardana, 181. 

(gaddi) nuHgar, Cbenopodium sp., 

(kdli) siwaly Idl siwaly nwdlard^ 

Amarantbus anardana, 181. 
sigdh, black. 

si^dh ehoby Fraxinus sp., 139. 
stgdh ddruy Nigella sativa, 4. 
(miuli) iiydhy Anilema tuberosa, 

(zira) siydhy Carum Carui, 104. 
stgdhiy smut, Triticum SBstivum, 262. 
sizgdiy Brassica Griffitbii> 12. 
skechoy Iris sp., 241. 
skinangy Equisetum debile, 267. 
skiochy Euonymus fimbriata, {S. 

omitted in text), 41. 
skodzCy Allium sp., 231. 
sotty MoruB serrata, 219. 
9oa gandaly Asparagus Punjabensis, 

8ody Hordeum hexasticbum, 256. 
soanjnay Moringa pterygosperma/ 

soldy Flectranthus rugosus, 171. 
soldrtty Cymbopogon Iwarancusa, 

soleiy Flectranthus rugosus, 171. 
som shinoy Finus excelsa, 225. 
somniy JDicliptera Boxburgbiauay 

sonchaly Malva parviflora, 23. 
soriy Bignonia Indica, 148. 
sorfnoy Lepidium sativum, 14. 
tosauy Iris Nepalensis, 240. 
soumy at Balanties ^gyptiaca, 44. 
sogay Anethum sowa, 10i3. 
gpalaghzdiy Fagonia Cretica, 37. 
spalniaky Calotropis procera, 144. . 
spang jhdy Fotentilla Inglisii, 81. . 
sparlei gxtly Amebia echioides, 152. 
spelanCy Feganum Harmala, 38. 
speldoy PopuluB Alba, 203. 
sperawan, FopulusBupbratica ? 204. 
spera wannCy ^rua Bovii, (T. . I. 

omitted in text), 180. 
sperchereiy Quercus Ilex, 199. 
sperdor, Fopulus Alba, 203. 



tpetparmi. Delphinium Bmnonia- 

num, 3. 
spikso, Anindinaria falcata, 249. 
sp^hwal, Plantago amplexicaulis, 

spilecha, Farrotia Jacquemoutiana, 

spin, white. 

spin a^hzdiy Astragalus multiceps, 
. 57 ; Ballota limbata, 1G7. 
spin bajja, Withania coagulans, IGl. 
t^n khalak, Aristida depresBa, 249. 
spin khamdr, Yerbascum Thapsus, 

spin weffe, Aristida depressa, 219. 
spirJce, ^rua Bovii, 180. 
spiug, Arundinaria falcata, 249. 
spoguy 1 , Dubiffi UmbelliferaB, 109. 
spudukei, Microrhynchus nudicaulis, 

spidtnei, Calotropis procera, 144. 
spun, Ficea Webbiana, 224. 
srol, Alnus sp , 197. 
stagpa, Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
starbu, Hippophae rnamnoides, 190. 
starga, Juglans regia, 201. 
stohpo, XJrtica hyperborea, 215. 
sudli, Colebrookia oppositifolia, 167. 
suchal, Cichorium Intybus, 124. 
suchi, Atropa Belladonna, 156. 
suddb, Buta augustifolia, 38 ; Eu- 
phorbia dracunculoides, 193. 
sufed, white. 
sufed dkdtd, Buxus sempervirens, 

sufed siris, Acacia elata, 52. 
(musli) sufed, Asparagus filicinus, 

(asira) sufed, Cuminum Cjminum, 

sufida, Fopulus Euphratica, 204 ; 

F. nigra, 205. 
sufSdar, Fopulus dliata, 204; F. 

nigra, 205. 
suka ki hij. Cannabis sativa, 215. 
sukhchein, Pongamia glabra, 73. 
sukhdarsan, Amaryllis grandiflora, 


sikhi hari, Aconitum heterophyl- 

lum, 1. 
suldli, Fopulus ciliata, 204. 
suldmhra, Odina wodier, 46. 
suli. Euphorbia Eoyleana, 194. 
sum, Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
sum, Fraxinus floribunda, 138 ; Eh- 

retia, serrata, 154. 
sumdk, Fistacia integerrima, 47. 
sumdli, Callicarpa incana, 165. 
sumlu, Berberis aristata, 7. 
summe, Bignonia suaveolens, 148. 
(amru) sun, Pyrus Malus, 85. 
sunhal, Abutilon Indicum, 21. 
sundar, Blitum virgatum, 1 77. 
sundi, a kind of weevil, 63. 
sungal, Abies Smithiana, 219. ' 
sungtu, Xanthium strumarium, 132. 
sunnu, Amygdalus Fersica, 78 ; 

Fraxinus floribunda, 138. • 
supalu, Delphinium Brunonianum, 

(S. omitted in text), 3. 
supeda, Fopulus ciliata, 204. 
suf)ldd, BaHospermum Indicum, 192. 
supra, Malva parviflora, 23. 
sur.aghzdi, Gymnosporia spinosa, 41, 
sur sinjli, CratsBgus oxyacantha, 79. 
surd, Hyoscyamus niger,^150. 
surakka, Atriplex hortensis, 177. 
surangru. Acacia stipulata, 56. 
surdri, Heteropogon contortus, 255, 
surchi, Oxalis comiculata, 37. 
sur ganch, Eubus lasiocarpus, 87. 
suridla, Heteropogon contortus, 

surin. Arum curvatum, 247. 
sur-ka-chup, Kibes grossularia, 102. 
surs, suru. Euphorbia Boyaleana, 

(asla) sus, (rabi) sus, Glycirrhiza 

triphylla, 69. 
suss, Missiossya hypoleuca, 215. 
sussu, Viburnum cotinifolium, 114. 
sutei, Francoouria crispa, 1 26. 
sutei gul, Matricaria Chamomila^ 

suts, Hippophae rhamnoides, 190. * 
swdna, Dapiine oleoides, 189. 




tdbathtr, BambuBa stricta, 251. 
tadrelu, Coriaria Nepalensis, 89 ; 

Barleria cristata, 105. 
tadr4, EhamnuB purpureus, and B. 

yirgatuB, 42. 
taduTf BhamnuB purpureus, 42. 
taggar^ Valeriana Hardwickii, and 

V. Wallichii, 118. 
tdglwj Pistacia Atlantica, 46 ; Gel- 

tis Caucasica, 209 ; C. Nepalen- 

bIb, 210. 
tagpay Betula Bhojputara, 198. 
i&, Oryza Bativa, 257. 
idji khoros, CeloBia cristata, 182. 
t(tf kalnU, Cinnamomum albiflonun, 

idk, Salvadora oleoideB, 175. 
taker J CappariB spinosa, 17. 
takht malanam, Nepeta elliptica, 170. 
takhum, CeltiB Caucasica, 209. 
iakkri, Digitaria Banguinalis, 254. 
takpa, Betula Bbojputra, 198. 
tdksha^ (OxytropiB maerophjlla, 

Lad. omitted in text), 72. 
tdkiiy Chenopodium sp , 179. 
tal makhdna, ABteracantha longifo- 

lia, 165. 
taJdra, Kalanehoe yarians, 100. 
talenaj tdlMna^ talhangy Yibumum 

foetens, 114. 
tdU, Dalbergia bIbboo, 65. 
taUsa, tdlirfar^ talisrt. Rhododen- 
dron anthopogon, 133. 
talkh, tarkh, bitter. 
(baddm) talkh, AmjgdaluB Bp., 78. 
(kist) talkh, k&t talkh^ Aucslandia 

CoBtUB, 121. 

tallon, PopuluB ciliata, 204. 

talor^ YitlB Indica, 85. 

tdma, Caragana pygmasa, 61 ; Arun- 

do BD. ? 250. 
tamdku, Nicotiana ruBtica, 157 ; U. 

Tabacum, 158. 
iaindki Kashmiri^ Bhododendron 

eampanulatum, 184. 

(Jban) tamdkiy YerbaBCum Thapstu^ 

{ChildM()tamdkd, Nicotiana nurticak 

(g%dar) tamdku, Heliotropium £a« 

ropiBum, 154 ; Yerbasciun Thap- 

BUB, 168. 
(kakkar) tamdku^ KalkatH tamdkUf 

JKandakdritamdku, Nicotiana ruB- 

tica, 157. 
^<lmai>,PenniBetnm cenchroides,259.- 
tamar Hindi, Tamarindus Indica, 

tamiga, Albagi Maurorum, 57. 
tanaitr, Yitia Indica, 85. 
tanddif Albizzia odoratiBflima, 66. 
tanddla, Digera arveuBiB, 182; Ephe-^ 

dra alata, 228. 
tandei, Yibumum foeteuB, 114. 
t€mg, PyruB communis, 84 ; P. yari*^ 

oloBa, 85. 
{mdiV) tang, Pjrus KumaoHensiBy 

tdngi, PyruB yariolosa, 85. 
tangla, Ta^etoB erecta, 130. 
tajihdri, PiBtacia integerrima, 47. 
tdni, Oryza Batiya, 257. 
tantarik, Pistacia LentiBcus, 46 ; at 

P. TerebinthuB, 48 ; Bhus parti- 
flora, 49. 
tappaddar, ElBholtzia polystachya, 

t€^al Uti, Grozopbora tinctoria/ 

tar^ DioBcoreadeltoidea,229; Mai8-< 

denia Boyaleana, 145. 
tara, Brassica Eruca, 11. 
tdra mSra, Bapbanus raphaniBtrum,^ 

tarar pattr, DioBCorea deltoidea^- 

tarhiiz, CitrulluB yulgans, 05. 
tardi, DioBcorea deltoidea, 229. 
tdri, Phoenix BylyestriB, 242. 
tartzha, MicrorhynchuB nudicaulifl, 

tarkha, Artemisia Indica, 120. 



tamlf Edwordsia mollis, 68. 
tartaroy Digera anrensis, 182. 
tarru^ Hippophae rhamnoidesi 190. 
tdsarf Sambucus Ebulus, 114. 
toAih^ a rosary, 196. 
tat morang^ tat patang^ Bignonia 

Indica, 148. 
tataur^ Impatiens sp., 86 ; Artemi- 
sia Indica, 120. 
tatri^ £hus Buckiamela, 48 ; B. buc« 

cedauea, 49. 
tJdH^ a matted screen kept wet to 

cool the wind entering a housei 

67, 248, 261. 
tattuTj Datura stramonium, 156« 
tatw»^ Frinsepia utilis, 84. 
tatike^ Calligsnum polygonoides, 

tatxoen^ Artemisia sacrorum, 121. 
tau^ Grislea tomentosa, 90. 
taur^ Bauhinia racemosa, 58. 
taura^ Machilus odoratissimus, 188 ; 

Fennisetum cenchroides, 259. 
tawdij Eragaria vesca, 80. 
tdwij Grislea tomentosa, 90. 
Uxah Uuiiy Bhododendron anthopo- 

ffon, 138. 
tmaf Eibes grossularia, 102. 
tel, oil. 

(didr ke) tel, Cedrus deodar^ 220. 
^691^ Capparis aphylla, 15. 
tetar, Ehus Buckiamela, 48. 
Uzaky Lepidium sativum, 14. 
tezhaly Xantboxylon hostile, 89. 
teztnOy Iris Kumaonensis, 240. 
iezmaly Xanthoacylon hostile, 89. 
texpaty Cinnamomum albiflorum, 


ikdby Erjrthrina arborescens ? 69 ; 
• Hymenodictyon excelsum, 115. 
ihdi, Grislea tomentosa, 90. 
thakola, Adelia serrata, 191. 
thimman, Grewia oppositifolia, 27. 
thamther, Grewia Eothii, 27. 
than, thdn, Juglans regia, 201. 
thdna, Missiessya hypoleuca, 215. 
thandrif Staphyiea Emodi, 40. 

thdngiy thmgoUy Corylus Columay 

thanzattf Hordeum hexastichumi 

thapur, Eicus caricoides, 212. 
tkarriy Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. 
tharwoTy Benthamia fragifera, 211. 
thaur, Eicus reticulata, 214. 
thetij Benthamia fragifera. 111. 
thildk, Wikstrsmia salicifolia^ 189. 
thipar, Brassica rapa, 12. 
thissay Rhus Buckiamela^ 48. 
thumy Berchemia sp., 41. 
thwny Erazinus zanthozylloideSi 

thit, Salvia lanata, 172. 
tiamle, Eicus Roxburghii, 214. 
tian, Acer Creticum, 80. 
tidriy Solanum verbasdfolium, 160. 
tiaulandhdy Viburnum foetens, 114. 
(shakar al) tighdly Calotropis pro-* 

cera, 144« 
tiky Andrachne telephioides ? 192. 
t^ tiamay Convolvulus arvensiSi 

(Lad. omitted in text), 150. 
tikia kachuVy at Hedychium spica- 

tum, 289. 
til, Sesamum Indicmn, 149. 
(han) til, Impatiens sp., 86. 
til kach (Uu, Saxifraga ligulata, 108. 
til pattar, Acer Creticum, and A. 

cultratum, 80. 
til pattra, Marlea begonifolia, 93. 
tilphar, Impatiens sp., 86. 
tilats. Viburnum foetens, 114. 
tUia kaehang, Aconitum Napellus, 

(mitha) tilia, Aconitum, 1 ; A. Na« 

pellus, 2. 
tilxhan, Acer Creticum, 80. 
Hlla, 4, DubisB Umbellifer®) 109. 
tilufif Edwardsia mollis, 68. 
timar, timbar, ttmbrtt, timbir timrti, 

Xuithoxylon hostile, 89. 
tindnt, Astragalus multiceps, 57. 
tind, Citrullus vulgaris var. fistulo- 

sns, 96. 



tinduf Drospyros tomentosa, 1S7. 
^191^, Solanum sanctum, 160. 
tirku, Hippopbae rhamnoides, 190. 
tirmal, Xantnoxylon hostile, 39. 
tirmi, Ficus Koxburgbii, 2l4r. 
tirmar^ Xanthosylon hostile, 39. 
Hmi^ Calligonum pol jgonoidesi 183. 
iiri, Linum usitatissimum, 21. 
tUoj Carduus nutans, 123. 
Utf Capparis aphylla^ 15. 
tita^ Qentiana tenella^ 148. 
Hta hateri, Lonicera quinquelocu- 

laris, 114. 
iitar, Ehus acuminata^ 48 ; B. sue- 

cedanea, 49. 
titHf £hus Buekiamela, 48. 
tittri, BhuB Cotinus, 49. 
iiun, Artocarpus integrifolia, 211. 
tiuru, Bubia cordifolia, 116. 
ttzhii, Cicer Loongaricum, 63. 
tOf Triticum sestivum, 262. 
todri lila, todri sufed, Mathiola in- 

cana, 14. 
todri nafarmdni^ todri turkh, todri 

Miydh^ Cheiranthus cheiri, 13. 
tohar^ CajanuB Indica, 60. 
tokdr^ tofndr, Triticum sBstivum, 262. 
tor, Euphorbia Boyleana^ 194. 
tor hanna, Vitex Negundo, 166. 
tor danda^ Euphorbia Bo}rleana, 194. 
tora hujja, Aahatoda vasica, 164. 
tora pdna, BaHospermum Indicum, 

(bhinda) tori, AbelmoschuB escu- 

lentus, 21. 
(jjfilar) tori, Trichosanthes anguina^ 

(ghia) tori, Luffa pentandra, 98. 
(Jcdli) tori, Luffa acutangula, 98. 
torjaaa, Pavia Indica, 81. 
torhi, Indigofera linifolia, 70. 
t08, Abies Smithiana, 219; Picea 

Webbiana^ 224. 
irdma, Caragana pjgm®a, 61. 
tranna, Vincetoxicum caaesceiuiy 

trao, ragopyrum esculentum^ 184« 

trawake, Oxalis comiciilata, 37. 
trepetttra, Trifolium pratense, 76. 
trekhan, Acer cultratum, 30. 
trekhana, Acer Creticum, 30. 
tremal, Ficus Boxburghii, 214. 
tremo, Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 
tri pattra, Marsilea quadrifolia? 

tribri, Cucunus sativus, 99. 
trikh ganderBy Bhododendron ar* 

boreum, 133. 
trimdl, Ficus Boxburghii, 214. 
trimbal, Ficus yenosa, 214. 
trimbul, Ficus Boxburehii, 214.. 
trind, Bosa macrophylm, 86. 
trini, at Calligonum polygonoides, 

trithi, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
triwakka, Biimex TesicariuB, 187. 
tro, Hordeum hexastichiim, 256; 

Triticum sBstiyum, 262. 
trar. Polygonum polystachyum, 185. 
trotah, Equisetnm debile, 267. 
trotu, DsBmia extensa, 145. 
trial, Impatiens sp., 36. 
trimba, kola trumba, Fagopyrum 

esculentum, 184. 
trunibal, Ficus cunia, 212. 
trutsa, Cousinia sp , 125. 
tsdbri, Fagopyrum esculentum) 184. 
tsapatt. Ephedra G^rardiana^ 228. 
taapi, Alniis sp., 197. 
t9ar, OreosenB lanuginosa, 128. 
tsarhs, Plectranthus rugosus, 171. 
tsarma, Hippophae rhamnoides, 190. 
(ki) tgarma, Xydum Buthenicum, 

tsarmang, Hippophae rhamnoideSi 

tsarri, Cicer Soongaricumi (P. omit- 
ted in text), 63. 
tsdtin, LeptopuB cordifolius, 196* 
tse, I^hedra Gtorardiana, 228. 
tsedze, Panicum miliaceum, 258. 
tser, FinuB excelsa^ 225. 
tserkar, Hippophae rhamnoides, 




Uer kujt, Prunus Armeniaca, 81. 
isOt EcninopB nivea, 126. 
Uodmay Urtica hyperborea, 215. 
tM, Euphorbia Sroyleana, 19^. 
(^KdbuU) Uuiy Cactus Indicua, 101. 
Uuk, Cousinia sp., 125 ; Hippophae 

rhamuoides, 190. 
tsingt Alliutu cepa, 230. 
tsunt, Pyrus malus, 85. 
(ban) tsuntUy Cydonia vulgarig, 80. 
Uunu, Amygdalus Persica, 78. 
tsur^ lane tsuru, wangan tsuri, Xan- 

tbiuui strumarium, 132. 
tswak, Hippophae rhamnoides, 190. 
tuin^ Viburnum foetena, 114. 
tukhm, seed. 

tukhtn hdlangu, Lallemaiitia Boyle- 
ana, 168. 
tukhm % khiyarain^ Cucumis sativus, 

tukhm malanga, Lallemantia Boyle- 
ana, 1(58 ; 6alvia pumila, 172. 
tukhm tumma^ Cucumis Colocynthis, 

96. . 

tuly Moms parvLfolia, 218. 
tulanchy Bubus lasiocarpus, 87. 
tulenni phul, Hamiltonia suaveo- 

lens, li5. 
tulkluy Moms alba, &c, 217; M. 

serrata, 219. 
tulsty Ocimum Basilicum, 170. 
tuUiay Amaranthus anardana, 180. 
iulukul, Morus serrata, 2 19. 
• tumba, Lagenaria vulgaris, 98. 
tumbi, Bosa maerophylla, 86. 
tummtty Viburnum cotinitblium, 114. 
(tukhirC) tumma, Cucumis Colocyn- 

this, 96. 
fun, gul tun, Cedrela toona, Bk 
tundna maddna, Bhamnus purpure- 

us, 42. 
tundnt xandniy Viburnum footens, 

tundhe, Bhamnus purpureuSi 42 ; 

Viburnum foetens, 1 14. 
tun^f Bhus Cotinus, and B. parvifo- 
lia, 49 ; Picea Webbiana, 224 ; 
Taxus baccata, 227. 

tungla^ Bhus parviflora, 49. 
tungu, Pistacia integerrima, 47. 
ti£kni, Cedrela toona serrata, 34. 
turdij Luffa acutangula, 98. 
(ghi) turdCy Luffa pentandra, 98. 
(rdm) turdi, Abelmoschus esculen- 

tus, 21. 
turanjbih, Alhagi Maurorum, 57. 
turbud, IpomcDa turpethum, 150. 
turia, Brassica juncea, 12. 
turpdni, Viscum album, 112. 
tursh, sour. 

(zirishk) tursh, Berboris vulgaris, 7. 
tuse, Cousinia sp., 125. 
tustf Ficus Boxburghii, 214. 
tu^tus, Viburnum cotinifolium, 114; 
iiU, shah tut, Morus alba, &c , 217 ; 

M. serrata, 219. 
(kdrt) tuty Morus serrata, 219. 
tuti, Morus alba, &c , 217. 
tutiri, Ehretia aspera, 153. 
tutriy Morus parvifolia, 218. 
tutrum, Berberis aristata, 7. 


udj Hordeum cieleste, 255. 

ubu9ha, Artemisia Indica, 120. 

uchi, Eriophorum comosum, 264. 

ud Sindiy at Carissa diffusa, 142. 

ugdi, Fraxinus floribunda, 138. 

ugaly Pagopyrum esculentum, 184. 

ughZj Juglans regia, 201. 

ujan Hordeum caeleste, 255. 

ukhdn, Tamarix orientalis, 92. 

uklUf Viburnum foetens, 114. 

(rickh) uklu, Viburnum cotinifoli- 
um, 114. 

uldn, Sterculia "Wallichii, 26. 

ulgoy Pagopyrum esculentum, 184. 

itnbUf Myricaria elegans, and M. 
Germanica, 91 ; Carum carui, 

(char) ungli, Boucerosia Aucheri^ 
143. . 

unndbf Ziz3rphus Jujuba, 43. 
upioa, Avena fatua, 250. 



uradf Phaseolus radiatus, 7S. 
iran^ CsBsalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
urlM, Ficus Boxburghii, 214. 
urij CsBsalpinia sepiaria, 60. 
urhur, Ehus vernicifera, 49. 
urmul, Ficus Boxburghii, 214. 
urmi, Corylus Columa, 201. 
isin^ uei, Brassica Enica, 11. 

vaMimha, Careya arborea, 95. 
valUvj Cocculus Leseba, 6 ; Cissus 

camosa, 35. 
vaHry Solanum gracilipes, 159. 
vamartf Withania coagulans, 161. 
van, Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
van veriy Fentatropis spiralis, 146. 
(chhoit) van, kauri van, Salvadora 

Indica, 174. 
(mithi) van, vdni, Salvadora oleoides, 

vaniihi, Fluggea virosa, 195. 
vdr, Gossypium herbaceum, 22. 
vart, Quercus incana, 199. 
(gad) vassal. Allium rubellum, 230. 
vdvarang, Myrsine Africana, 135. 
vehrC, Cocculus LesBba, 6. 
vel, veri, &c , a climber. 
(ambar) vel, Fentatropis spiralis, 

(ghds) vel, Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
velanne, Mentha incana, 169. 
vena, Uliazya stricta, 143. 
vera vena, Dodomea Burmanniana, 

veri, Marsdenia Royaleana, 145 ; 

Convolvulus arvensis, 150. 
(van) veri, Fentatropis spiralis, 146. 
vien, Mentha incana, 169. 
vildyati mehndi, Mvrtus communis, 

vinjanliora. Asparagus racemosus, 

vrdsh, Bhus Buckiamela, 48. 
vulr, Verbascum Thapsus, 163. 
vwir, Salix alba, 206. 


wadi huti, Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
waghz, Juglans regia, 201. 
ioahal, Yiscum album, 112. 
wala, khartoala, Salix Babjlonica, 

wan, wanna, &c., a shrub, or plant. 
(spera) wan ? Fopulus Euphratica, 

(pastu) wanna, Qrewia oppositifo- 

lia, 27. 
(pa) wanne. Clematis Nepalensis, 3 \ 

Boucerosia Aucheri, 143. 
(pastu) wanne, Grewia villosa, 27. 
Qperei pastu) wanne, Fluggea vero- 

sa, 195. 
{pie) wane, Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
{shera) wanne, Flacourtia sepiaria, 

(spera) wanne, ^rua Bovii, 180. 
(wara) wane, Bibes rubrum, 102. 
(Jehara) icune, Ehretia aspera, 153 ; 

Solanum verbascifolium, 160. 
wandah. Clematis Nepalensis, 3. 
wanwdngan, Fodophyllum, Emodi, 

war, Ficus venosa, 214. 
warawane, Bibes rubrum, 102. 
warche chundi, Asparagus Funjab- 

ensis, 233. - 
warmande, Vitex Negundo, 166. 
warumba, Solanum xanthocarpum, 

wdsho, Bhus Buckiamela, 48. 
(kach) wassal, Urginia Indica, 235. 
(pad) wassal. Allium cepa, 230. 
watpan, Tussilago Farfara, 131. 
watphuta, Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
wattal, Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
wattamman, Celtis Caucasica, 209. 
wesha, Abies Smithiana, 219. 
wetyar, Juniperus communis, 222. 
wildyati, vildyati, foreign. 
wildyati hengan Solanum Ljcoper- 

sicum, 159. 
wildyati kantdla, Agave Americana^ 




mldyati hihkar^ Acacia Famesiana, 
63 ; Farkinsoiiia aculeata, 73. 

mldycai mehndi, Myrtus commumB, 

fcinri, wiriy Gorylus Columa, 201. 

wotidngil^ Carpesium sp., 123. 

tDtdena^ Sterciuia Wallichii, 26. 

iiDurdky Bhamnus Fersica, 41. 

miria, Gorylus Columa, 201. 

(psifa) yd hit^ Nepeta ciliaris, 170. 

ydky Bosgrunniens of Tibet, 120, 
163, 179, 185. 

yalf Bosa macrophjUa, 86. 

yamaghi khd. Taraxacum officinalis, 

yany^ Ferula AsafoBidda, 106. 

yanyma, Hordeum hexastichuix^ 

yanytash, Fragaria vesca, 80. 

ydiiy Finus excelsa, 225. 

yarpa, Fopulus balsamifera, 204 ; 
F. nigra, 205. 

yero, Finus excelsa, 225. 

yir, Salix spp , 208. 

yira, Tjpha angustifolia, 246. 

ytrUf Quercus Hex, 199. 

yulatt, Fopulus nigra, 205. 

yumbokhy Ubnus erosa, 210« 

Tundni, Greek, a system of medi- 
cine, 4, 51, 269. 

yupOj Avena fatua, 250. 

yur, Salix alba, 206. 

yura, Mentha incana, 169. 

(yayyar) yurmi, Bbododendron cam- 
panulatum, 134. 

zafarduy Crocus sativus, 239. 
zayhim^ Cucumis melo, 96. 

zayukei, Bmnux acutus, 187. 

ZMTf poison. 

(mitha) zahr, Aconitum, 1. 

Ikhar) zahra, Nerium pdorum, 142. 

zdUij Olycirrbiza triphylla, 69. 

zditun^ Olea Europ»a, 139. 

zakhmi hatydi, Cissampelos Fareira, 

and Tinospora cordifolia, 6 ; G-li- 

nuB lotoides, 101 ; Spb»ranthus 

hirtus, 130. 
zamdi, Susda fruticosa, 180. 
zamb, Frunus Fadus, 83. 
zamin, earth. 
zamin kand, Arum campanulatumy 

zdnda, Dracocephalum heterophyl 

lum, 168. 
zar btUeif Cuscuta reflexa, 151. 
zaralf Qymnosporia spinosa, 41. 
zardwandy Aristolochia sp., 191. 
zardf yellow. 

zardyopi, at Butea frondosa, 60. 
2;arya^, flacourtia sepiaria, 18. 
zatif Zizyphus nummularia, 43. 
(kasb uT) zanrGf Agothotes sp., 147. 
(kalandar) zatar^ Thymus serpyU 

lum? 173. 
zatidi Urtica hyperborea, 215. 
zham^ Abelia trinora, 113. 
zbany, Lonicera quinquelocularis, 

(mat) zhany, Abelia triflora, 113. 
zhilr, Artemisia sacrorum, 121. 
zeryul, Calendula officinalis, 123. 
(Jeali) zetoar, Buplurum margina- 
tum, 104. 
zhanyar^ Dolomiaea macrocephala^ 

zhhany, Fhiladelphus sp. ? 93. 
zhikak, Daphne oleoides, 189. 
zhiko, Lomcera hypoleuca ? 114. 
zhuk, SpirsBa Elamtschatika, 87. 
zinMly Fotamogeton gramineuB, 

zira, Buplurum marginatum, 104 ; 

Cuminum Cyminum, 105 ; at Ap- 

lotaxis candicans, 119. 



zira 9iydht Carum carui, 104i. 

zira sufed, Cuminum Cyminuxa, 

{ma^o) ztra, 2, Dubiffi ITmbellifers, 

zireh guMby Bosa centifolia, 85. 
{kdli) ztrt, Aplotaxis candicanfi, 

airishk, zirUhk tursh, Berberifl thI- 

garis, 7. 

zirukkmiAa, YitiB Lidica, 85. 
zoenil, Fyrethrum ep , 129. 
Z09ho^ Daphne oleoides, 189. 
zozy zozdn, Alhagi Maurorum, 57. 
zrand, Cuscuta pedicellata, 151. 
ztid, Triticum sstivum, 262. 
zufa yibUi Nepeta ciliaris, 170. 




Abortion, ifc, — 

Abrus precatorius^ 50. 
Cedrela toona, 84. 
Lepidium sativum^ 14. 
Plumbago Zeylanica, 173. 
Triantbema pentandra^ 100. 
Withania Somnifera^ 161. 

Absorbent — 

Ferula Asafoetida^ 106. 
Saxifraga ligulata^ 103. 


EupborbiaRoyleana^ 194. 
Ligularia sp.^ 127. 

Alchemy — 

Myriogyne minuta^ 128. 

Alterative — 

Anatherum muricatum^ 248. 
Apium graveolens^ 104. 
Dalbergia sissoo^ 66. 
I)io8pyro8 tomentosa^ 138. 
Foeniculum vulgare, 107. 
Onosma ecbioides^ 155. 
'^ Polypodium vulgare/' 266. 
Spheeranthus birtus^ 130. 
Ibricbodesma sp.^ lo5. 

Amenorrhea — 

Celtis Caucasica^ 209. 


*Aconitum ferox, 1. 
Adiantum yenustum^ 265. 
Cuscuta reflexa^ 152. 
Papaver somniferum^ 10. 
Pinus Oerardiana^ 226. 
Polygonum aviculare, 185. 
Roy lea elegans^ 172. 


Solanumxantbocarpum^ 160. 
Witbania coagulans^ 161. 

Antispasmodic — 

Emblica officinalis^ 193. 
Prunella vulgaris^ 172. 

AphrodisiaCy ^c» — 

Acacia modcsta^ 55. 
Amarantbus anardana^ 181. 
. Arum sp.^ 248. 
Asparagus filicinus^ 233. 
A. racemosus^ 233. 
Bombax beptapbyllum^ 25. 
Bryonia umbellata^ 95. 
Cbeirantbus cbeiri^ 13. 
Costus speciosus^ 238. 
Daucus carota^ 105. 
Eryngium planum^ 106. 
Eulopbia campestris^ 237. 
Lycium Europeeum^ 157. 
M athiola incana^ 14. 
Prangos pabularia^ 109. 
Bumex acutus^ 187. 
Salix Caprea, 208. 
Salvadora oleoides^ 175. 
Semecarpus Anacardium^ 50. 
Sida cordifolia^ 23. 
TribuluB alatus^ 38. 
Witbania Somnifera^ 161. 

Ashes, medicinally — 

Crozopbora plicata^ 192. 
Cuscuta reflexa^ 152. 
Hordeum bexasticbum, 256. 
' Ealancboe varians^ 100. 
Peganum Harmala^ 38. 
PotentiUa Nepalensis^ 81. 
Salix Caprea, 208. 
Xantbium strumarium^ 132. 


Asthma — 

Cyanantlius sp.^ 132. 
Datura stramonium^ 156« 
Linum usitatissimum^ 21. 
Mangifera Indies^ 45. 
Odina wodier, 46. 
Pistacia Atlantica^ 46. 

Astringent — 

Acacia Catechu^ 52. 
Achyrantlies aspera, 180. 
iEgle Marmelos, 28. 
Althaea rosea^ 21. 
Amaranthus anardana^ 181. 
Anilema tuberosa^ 236. 
Asparagus filicinus^ 233. 
Bambusa stricta^ 252. 
Berberis aristata, 7. 
Bombax beptapbylla^ 25. 
Butca frondosa^ 60. 
Ceratonia siliqua^ 63. 
Chamserops Bitchiana, 243. 
Elaagnus conferta, 190 bis. 
Grislea tomentosa^ 90. 
Helicteres Isora^ 25. 
Ipomoea turpethum^ 151. 
Malva parviflora, 23. 
Mentha incana^ 169. 
Momordica muricata^ 98. 
Moringa pterygosperma, 20. 
Myrtus communis^ 94. 
Nymphsea alba^ 8. 
Origanum marjoranum^ 171. 
Pistacia vera^ 46. 
Plantago amplexicaule, 174. 
Platanus orientalis, 203. 
Polygonum Bistorta^ 185. 
Portulaca sativa^ 100. 
Prosopis spicigera^ 75. 
Punica granatum^ 94 bis. 
Quercus incana, 200. 
Salix Caprea, 208. 
Salvia lanata, 172. 
S. pumila, 172. 

Saxifraga ligulata^ 103. 
Sizygium Jambolannm^ 95. 
Tamarix dioica> 91. 
T. orientalis^ 92, 
Terminalia Bellerica^ 89. 
T. Chebula, 89. 
Trianthema pentaadra^ 10O.~ 
Tribulus alatus^ 38. 
TrigoneDa Fsenum Gnecum^ 

Triticum ssstivum^ 263. 
Xanthoxylon hostile, 39. 

Barilla (sajjl) — 

Anabasis multiflora, 176^ 
Caroxylon faetidum, 177. 
C. Griffithn, 177. 
Salsola kali, 179. 
Suseda frutioosa^ 180. 

Barky as food — 

Ehretia aspera, 153. 

Basket-work, wattling, &c. — 
Arundo Donax, 250. 
A. sp., 250. 

Arundinaria falcata, 250. 
Bambusa stricta, 252. 
Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
Melica sp., 259. 
Parrotia Jacquemontianl^ 

Pinus Gerardiana, 226. 
P. longifolia, 227. 
Rhus Cotinus, 49. 
Saccharum sara, 261. 
Salix alba, 206. 
S. Babylonica, 207. 
S. spp., 209. 
Tephrosia purpurea, 76. 
Vitex Negundo, 167. 

Seer — 

Hedera Helix, 110. 
Hordeum hexastichumj^ 256* 



Nardostachys Jatamansi^ 

Oryza sativa^ 257, 
Viburnum fcetens^ 115. 

Binding loads, 8fc, — 
Alaus sp.^ 198. 
Bauhinia racemosa^ 58. 
Moms alba^ &c.^ 218. 
Parrotia Jacquemontiana^ 

Blister, ^c. — 

Ammannia auriculata^ 90. 
Anemone obtusiloba^ 2. 
Calotropis procera, 145. 
Capparis aphylla, 16, 
C. horrida, 16. 
Drosera museipula^ 20. 
Plumbago Zeylanica^ 173. 
Salvadora oleoides^ 176. 

Boats, ships^ oars, &c. — 
Acacia speciosa^ 55. 
Capparis aphylla^ 16. 
Cedrus deodara^ 22Q. 
Dalbergia sissoo^ 66. 
Fraxinus floribunda, 139. 
Olea Europsa^ 140. 
Pinus longifolia, 227, 
Populus Eupbratica, 205. 
Salvadora oleoides, 175. 

Boils, ^c. — 

Aloe perfoliata, 232. 
Azidirachta Indica^ 33. 
Signonia Indica^ 138. 
Cissampelos Pereira, 6* 
Cissus camosa^ 35, 
Daphne oleoides^ 189. 
Datura stramonium^ 156, 
Diospyros montana^ 137. 
Euphorbia sp., 195. 
Kalanchoe yarians^ 100. 
Polygonum Bistorta^ 185. 

Saxifraga ligulata^ 103. 
Scopolia prsealta^ 159. 
Senecio angulosus^ 129. 
Solenanthus sp.^ 155. 
Ulmus integrifolia, 211. 
Yernonia anthelmintica^l31. 

Boxes, small — 

Juglans regia^ 202. 
Platanu>s orientalis^ 203. 
Populus alba^ 203. 
P. nigra^ 205. 

Bridges, ifc. — 

Alnus sp., 198. 
Bombax heptaphyllum^ 24. 
Cedrela toona serrata^ 34. 
PhoBuix dactylifera, 244. 
P. sylvestris, 246. 
Salix alba, 207. 

Bridges, swing — 

Andropogon involutus, 249. 

Bridges, twig — 

Betula Bhojputra, 198* 
Cotoneaster obtusa^ 79. 
Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
Olea Europsea^ 140, 
Parrotia Jacquemontiana^ 

Salix alba, 206. 

Bruises, soreSj, wounds, &c. — 
Abrus precatorius, 50. 
Acacia speciosa, 55. 
Adiantum venustum, 265. 
Anemone obtusiloba, 2. 
Aplotaxis candicans, 119*. 
Argemone Mexicana, 9. 
Aucklandia Costus, 122, 
Baliospermum Indicum, 19]i^.. 
Beta vulgaris, 177. 
Capparis spinosa, 17. 
Cedrus deodara, 221. 
Codonopsis ovata, 132. 



Colebrookia oppositifolia, 

Curcuma longa, 238. 
Datura stramonium^ 156. 
Euphorbia longifolia^ 194. 
• Jatropha curcas, 196. 
Myricaria elegans^ 91. 
Plantago major^ 174. 
Pseoma ofSciualis^ 4. 
Bandia dumetorum^ 116. 
Bheum Emodi^ 186. 
Bumex acutus^ 187. 
Salvia lanata, 172. 
Solanum xanthocarpum^ 161. 
Terminalia arjuna^ 88. 
Tetranthera monopetala, 

T. Boxburghii, 188. 
TussDago Farfara, 131. 

Bums and scalds — 

Acacia Catechu^ 52. 
Artemisia elegans, 120. 
Beta vulgaris, 177. 
Butea frondosa, 60. 
Mimosa rubicaulis, 72. 
Farmelia sp. ? 269. 
Potentilla Nepalensis, 81. 
Bumex acutus, 187. 
Saccbarum sara, 261* 

Cardiac — 

Elseaguus conferta, 190. 
Nepeta ruderalis, 170. 
Onosma echioides, 155. 

Carminative, ^c, — 

Acorus calamus, 236* 
Bouccrosia Aucberi, 144« 
Brajssica sp., 11. 
Cicborium Intybus, 124. 
Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
Pceniculum vulgare, 107. 
Pimpinella anisum, 107. 

Trigonella Eseuum^ Grscom, 

Xanthoxylou bostile, 39. 


Arundo Donax, 250. 
Saccbarum sara, 261. 

Charcoal for gunpowdei 
Adbatoda Yasica, 164. 
Alnus sp., 198. 
Butea frondosa, 59. 
Colebrookia oppoeitifolia, 

Comus macropbylla, 111. 
Daphne oleoides, 189. 
Hamiltonia suaveolens, 115. 

Ohiks, and screen-doors, &c. — 
Arundo Donax, 250. 
Saocharum sara, 261. 
S. spontaneum, 261. 

Cholagogue — 

Carissa difiusa, 142. 
Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
Uraria picta, 77. 

Cholera — 

Capsicum annuum, 156. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia, 193. 
Kalanchoe varians, 100. 
Mentha Viridis, 169. 

Clearing water-^ 

Typha angustifolia, 246. 

Coagulant, ^c. — 

Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 
Leucas Cephalotes, 168. 
Withania coagulana, 160. 

Cochineal — 

Cactus Indicus, 101. 

Colic, Sfc. — 

Acbyranthes aspera, 180. 
Aloe perfoliata, 232« 



Apium graveolens, 104. 
Arum curvatum, 247. 
Astragalus multiceps, 58. 
Celtis Caucasica^ 209. 
Coriandrum sativum^ 105. 
Daphne oleoides^ 189. 
Dolomisa macrocephala^ 

Euphorbia hypericifolia, 194. 
Ferula Asafoetida^ 106. 
Fo&niculum Tulgare, 107. 
Helicteres Isora^ 25. 
Ligusticum ajowan^ 107. 
Nerium odorum^ 142. 
Peganum Harmala, 38. 
Phsenopus sp. ? 128. 
Pimpinella crinita^ 107. 
Pistacia Terebinthus^ 48. 
Prenanthes quinqueloba^ 129. 
.,. Rhus Buckiamela^ 48. 
Ruta augustifolia^ 38. 
Salvia lanata, 172. 
Sida cordifolia, 23. 
TrigoueUa Faenum 6r»cum^ 

Villarsia nymphoides^ 167, 
Withania coagulaus^ 161. 

Condiments, spicea^ pickles — 
Allium sp., (4), 232. 
Angelica glauca, 104. 
Artocarpus integrifolia, 211. 
Bambusa arundinacea, 256. 
Bauhinia Yariegata, 259. 
B^beris aristata, 7. 
Bouccrosia ednlis^ 144. 
Brafisica juncea, 12. 
Brassica. rapa^ 12. 
Bupleurum marginatum, 

Calligonum polygonoidea, 

Capparis aphylla, I6« 
C. horrida^ 16. 

C. spinosa, 17. 
Capsicum annuum, 156» 
Carissa Carandas, 141. 
Carum carui, 104. 
Cicer Soongaricum, 63. 
Coriandrum sativum, 105. 
Crocus sativus, 239. 
Cucurbitacese, (4), Dubise, 

Curcuma longa, 238.. 
Elettaria Cardamomum, 238. 
Emblica ofiicinalis, 193. 
Ferula Asafoetida^ 106. 
Ficus glomerata, 262. 
Hippophae rhamnoides, 190. 
Moringa pterygosperma, 19. 
Musa Panidisiaca, 229. 
Nelnmbium speciosum, 9. 
Oxyria reniformis, 184. 
Punica granatum, 94. 
Ricinus communis, 197. 
Sageretia Brandrethiana, 42. 
Salvadora Indica, 174. 
Solanum sanctum, 160. 
S. verbascifolium^ 160. 
Spondias Mangifera, 50. 
Tanacetum tenuifolium, 130. 
Umbelliferse, (2), Dubi», 

Xanthoxylon hostile, 39. 
Zingiber officinalis, 239. 

Cooling — 

Althaea rosea, 22. 
Artemisia Indica, 120. 
Bambufla stricta, 252. 
Berberis vulgaris, 7. 
Beta vulgaris, 177. 
Boerhaavia diffusa, 182. 
Bombax heptaph^Uum, 25. 
Convolvuluapluncaulis, 150. 
Corchorus depressus, 26. 
Crotalaria Burhia, 64. 
Cucumis sativus, 97. 



C. utilissimus, 97. 
Cydoniarulgaris, 80. 
Eclepta erecta^ 126. 
Equisetum debile^ ^7. 
Eremostachys Vicaryi, 168. 
Farsetia Edgeworthii, 14. 
Fumaria parviflora^ 11. 
Lallemantia Reyleana^ 168. 
Lippia nodiflora^ 166. 
Lycopus Europaeus^ 168. 
Marsdenia Roylii^ 145. 
Nelumbrium speciosum^ 9. 
Plantago amplexicaule^ 174. 
Portulaca sativa^ 100. 
Pninus Armeniaca^ 82. 
Pueraria tuberosa, 75. 
Rosa centifolia^ 86. 
Rumex acutus^ 187. 
Spharanthus nirtus, 130. 
Tamarindus Indica^ 176. 
Tiichodesma Indicum^ 155. 
Xanthium stramarium^ 132. 

Cordage — 

jiEschynomenecannabina^ 56. 
Andropogon involutum, 249. 
Arundo Donax^ 250. 
Bauhinia racemosa^ 58. 
Butea frondosa^ 60. 
Calotropis procera, 144. 
Cannabis sativa^ 216. 
Carex Indica ? 264. 
Chamserops Ritcbiana^ 242. 
Crotalaria Burhia^ 64. 

C. juncea, 64. 
Desmodium argenteum^ 67. 

D. tilisefolium ? ^7. 
Eriophorom comosum^ 264. 
Ficus Roxburgbiij 214. 

F. venosa^ 214. 
Grewia oppositifolia, 27. 
Hibiscus cannabina, 22. 
Marsdenia RoyUi, 145. 
Missiessya hypoleuca^ 215. 


Orthanthera viminea, 146. 
Philadelpbus sp. ? 93. 
Phoenix acaulis^ 243. 
P. dactylifera, 245. 
P. sylvestris, 246. 
Saccharum officinarum^ 261. 
S. sara, 261. 
StercuUa villosa> 25. 
Typha angustifolia^ 246. 
Ulmns campestris, 210. 
Urtica heterophylla, 215. 
Wikstrsemia salicifolia^ 189. 

Cordial — 

Apium graveolens, 104. 
Cichorium Intybus, 124. 
Crocus sativa, 239. 
Cyperus juncifolius, 264. 
Dolomisea macrocephala^ 

Nardostachys Jatamansi, 

Odina wodier, 46. 
Rosa centifolia, 86. 
Salix Caprea, 208. 

Cork'like — 

Platanus orientalis^ 203. 

Cough, ^c, — 

Abrus precatorius^ 50. 
Abutilon Indicum^ 21. 
Acacia Arabica^ 51. 
Aconitum ferox, 1. 
Actea spicata^ 2. 
Adhatoda Yasica^ 104. 
Adiantum venustum^ 265. 
Balanites ^gyptiaca^ 44. 
Barleria cristata^ 165. 
Cochlospermum gossypium^ 

Cordia Myxa, 153. 
Crozophora plicata^ 192. 
Glycirrhiza triphylla, 69. 
Hippophae rhamnoides^ 190. 



Malva parviflora^ 23. 
Nepeta ciliaris^ 170. 
Pistacia integerrima^ 47. 
Prunella vulgaris, 172. • 
Punica granatum, 94. 
Rhus acuminata, 38. 
, Salvia Moorcroftiana, 172. 
Sapindus detergens, 32. 
Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 
Terminalia Bellerica, 89. 
Zizyplius Jujuba, 43. 

Cyder — 

P}rrus MaluSj 85. 

Dandy, Sec, poles, dan^-sticks, 
shafts — 

Acer cultratum, 31. 
Bambusa Arundinacea, 251. 
Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
Cotoneaster obtusa, 79. 
Ficus Indiea, 213. 
Fraxinus floribunda, 139. 
F. xanthoxylloides, 139. 
Grewia oppositifolia, 27. 
Lagerstrsemia parviflora, 90. 
Quercus dilatata, 199. 
Q. semecarpifolia, 200. 
Taxus baccata, 228. 
Ulmus campestris, 210. 

Demulcent — 

Acacia Arabica ? 41. 
Althaea rosea, 21. 
Celosia cristata, 182. 
Cochlospermum gossypium, 

Colchicum sp. (?) ? 230. 
Cydonia vulgaris, 80. 
Ipomcea turpethum, 151. 
Malva parviflora, 23. 
Ocimum Basilicum, 171, 
Portulaca sativa, 100. 


Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
Artemisia elegans, 120. 
Costus speciosus, 238. 
Crozophora plicata, 193. 
CuBCuta reflexa, 152. 
Populus nigra, 206. 
Potentilla Kepalensis, 81. 
Sphseranthus hirtus, 130. 
Tephrosia purpurea, 76. 
Trichodesma Indicum, 155. 
Verbena officinalis, 166. 

Desiccant — 

Cymbopogon Iwarancusa, 

Cyperus juncifolius, 264. 

Diaphoretic — 

Berberis aristata, 7. 
Beta vulgaris, 177. 
Brassica juncea, 12. 
Fermaria parviflora, 11. 
Crossypium herbaceum, 22. 
Nymphsea alba, 8. 
Viola serpens, 19. 

Dishes, leaves used for — 
Bauhinia racemosa, 58. 
Buchanania latifolia, 45. 
Butea frondosa, 60. 
Cordia Myxa, 153. 
Nelumbium speciosum, 9. 
Saxifraga ligulata, 103. 

Diuretic — 

Adiantum venustum, 265. 
Althsea rosea, 21. 
Apium graveolens, 104. 
Berberis vulgaris, 7. 
Carthamus tinctoria, 124. 
Cuminum Cyminum, 105. 
Foeniculum vulgare, 107. 
Fumaria parviflora, 11. 



Lactuca sativa^ 127. 
Nelumbium speciosum^ 9. 
Ocimum Basilicum^ 171. 
Physalis Indica^ 158. 
. Quercus incana^ 200. 
Se9amuiii Indicum^ 149. 
Tribulus alatus^ 38. 
. Urginia Indica^ 236. 

Dropsy — 

Apium graveolens^ 104. 
Aplotaxis candicans^ 119. 
Foenculum vulgare, 107. 
Gentiana kurroo^ 147. 
Picrorhiza kurrooa^ 163. 
Solanum nigrum, 160. 
Yernonia authelmintica^ 131. 

Dyeing, cloth-printing, &c. — 
Acacia Arabica, 41. 
A. Catechu, 52. 
Alnus sp., 198. 
Butea frondosa, 60 bis. 
Cactus India, 101. 
Calotropis procera ? 145. 
Carpesium sp., 123. 
Cathartocarpus fistula, 62. 
Cedrela toona, 34. 
Conocarpus latifolia, 88. 
Crataeva religiosa, 17. 
Crocus sativa, 239. 
Curcuma longa, 238. 
Datisca cannabina, 191. 
Delphinium saniculaefolium, 

Elsholtzia polystachya, 168. 
Emblica officinalis, 193. 
Ficus yenosa, 214. 
Greranium nodosum, 86. 
Grislea tomentosa, 90. 
Impatiens sp., 36. 
Indigofera tinctoria, 70. 
' Ijawsonia inermis, 90. 
Macrotomia euchroma, 165. 

Morinda citrifolia, 116. 
Nyctanthes arbor tristis, 141. 
Parmelia Kamtschadalis, 

Peganum Harmala, 38. 
Pistacia vera, 46. 
Polygonum tortuosum, 1^. 
Potentilla Nepalensis, 81. 
Punica granatum, 94. 
Quercus incana, 200. 
Rheum Emodi, 186. 
Rubia cordifolia, 116. 
Rubia tinctorum, 117. 
Salvadora oleoides, 176. 
Symplocos cratsegoides, 138 

Tamarix orientalis, 92, 93. 
Taxus baccata, 228. 
Termiualia Bellerica, 89. 
T. Chebula, 89. 

Emetic — 

Amaryllis grandiflora, 232. 
Calotropis procera, 145. 
Biospyros tomentosa ? 38. 
Heliotropium Europieum, 

Luffa acutangula, 98. 
L. ^entandra, 98. 
Matricaria Chamomila, 127. 
Myrtus communis, 94. 
Narcissus Tazetta, 235. 
Randia dumetorum, 116. 

Emmenagogrte — 

Adiantum renustum, 265. 
Anethum sowa, 103. 
Cedrela toona, 84. 
Raphanus satiyus^ 15. 

Emollient — • 

Plantago amplexicaulis^ &c.j 


OF USBS^ &C.' 

Eruptions, ifc. — 

Acacia Catechu^ 52. 
Argemone Mexicana^ 9. 
Brassica sp.^ 11. 
Cassia occidentalism 62. 
Cedrus deodara^ 221. 
Clitorea ternatea^ 64. 
Dolomisea macrocepliala^ 

Euphorbia Helioscopia, 193. 
Jasminum officinale^ 141. 
Macrotomia euchroma^ 154. 
Mangifera Indica^ 45. 
Nima quassioides^ 39. 
Prangos pabularia^ 109. 
Rhazya stricta^ 143. 
Rottlera tinctoria^ 197. 
Salvia lanata^ 172. 
Sesbania iEgyptica, 75. 
Tamarindus Indica^ 76. 
Uraria picta^ 77. 

Externally, in plaster^ oint- 
ment^ &c. — 

Astragalus hamosus^ 57. 
Capsicum annuum^ 156. 
Ficus Indica, 213. 
Gentiana kurroo, 147. 
Helicteres Isora, 25. 
Mirabilis Jalapa^ 182. 
Myrica sapida^ 202. 
Picrorhiza kurrooa, 163. 
Pinus longifolia^ 227. 
Pistacia Atlantica^ 46. 
P. Terebinthus, 48. 
Polygonum Nepalense, 185. 
Psoralia corylifolia, 75. 
Pueraria tuberosa, 75. 
Trigonella Faenum Grsecum^ 

Triticum ©stivum, 263. 
Vitex Negundo, 167. 

Fasts, eaten during — 

Fagopyrum esculentum^ 184, 
Panicum colonum^ 258. 
Trapa bispinosa^ 89. 

Febnfage, antiperiodic— 

Aconitum heterophyllum, 1. 
Adiantum Capillus Veneris^ 

Agathotes sp., 147* 
Althaea rosea^ 21. 
Artemisia Indica 7 120. 
A. vulgaris, 121. 
Carduus nutans, 123. 
Carthartocarpus fistula, 62. 
Cymbopogon Iwarancusa^ 

Delphinium saniculaefolium? 

Diospyros embryopteris, 136. 
Fagonia Cretica, 37. 
Gentiana kurroo, 147. 
G. tenella, 148. 
Guilandina Bonduc, 69. 
Holarrhena antidysentericaj 

142 6m. 
Indigofera linifolia, 70. 
Iris Kamaonensis, 240. 
Juniperus excelsa, 224. 
Matricaria Chamomila, 127. 
Nepeta ciliaris, 170. 
Ocimum Basilicum, 171. 
Peganum Harmala, 38. 
Picrorhiza kurrooa, 163. 
Plantago amplexicaulis, &c., 

Sisymbrium Trio, 15. 
S. Sophia? 15. 
Thalictrum foliolosum, 5. 
Tinospora cordifolia, 6. 
Verbascum Thapsus, 163. 
Verbena officinalis, 166. 
Withania coagulans, 161. 



Fences, hedges — 

Acacia Famesiana^ 53. 
Acacia modesta^ 54. 
Agave Americana^ 232. 
A. cuntala, 232. 
Bauliiaia racemosa^ 58. 
Caesalpinia sepiaria^ 60. 
Carissa diffusa^ 42. 
Dodonsea Burmanniana^ 31. 
Euphorbia Boyleana^ 194. 
E. sp., 195. 

Hippophae rhamnoides^ 190. 
Jatropha curcas^ 196. 
Myrsine Africana? 135. 
Parkinsonia aculeata^ 73. 
Phoenix dactylifera, 245. 
Quercus Ilex, 199. 
Sesbania ^Egyptiaca, 75. 
Zizyphus nummularia, 44. 

jPwA, to poison — 

Anagallis arvensis, 135. 
Casearia tomentosa, 44. 
Eremostachys Vicaryi, 168. 
Xanthoxylon hostile, 39. 

Floats, for timber — 

Saccharum sara, 261. 

Flower, grown for, or worn — 
Althaea rosea, 21. 
Amaryllis grandiflora, 232. 
Aster sp., 121. 
Bauhinia variegata, 59. 
Cardiospermum Halicaca- 

bum, 31. 
Celosia cristata, 182. 
Cerasus vulgaris, 79. 
Cheiranthus cheiri, 13. 
Chrysanthemum Indicuin, 

Clitorea ternatea, 64. 
Crotalaria sericea, 65. 
Delphinium Ajacis, 3. 
D. Brunonianum, 3. 

Edwardsia mollis, 68. 
Erysimum strictum, 13. 
Pritillaria Meleagris, 234. 
Hibiscus mutabilis, 22. 
Hiptage Madablota, 30. 
Iris Nepalensis, 240. 
I. pseudacorus, 241. 
Jajsminum grandiflorum, &c. ^ 

J. officinale, &c., 141. 
Martynia diandra, 149. 
Mirabilis Jalapa, 182. 
Pentapetes Phsenicea, 25. 
Polianthes tuberosa, 235. 
Rosa oentifolia, &c., 85. 
R. eglanteria, 86. 
Syringa Persica, 141. 
Tagetes erecta, 130. 
T. patula, 130. 
Vinca rosea, 143. 

Flowers or buds, eaten raw — 
Astragalus multiceps, 58. 
Cyananthus sp. ? 132. 
Periploca aphylla, 146. 
Rhododendron arboreum^ 

Flowers or buds eaten, cooked 
or prepared — . 

Bauhinia variegata, 59. 
Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
Calligonum polygonoides, 

Capparis aphylla, 16. 
C. spinosa, 17. 
Hibiscus sabdariffa, 22. 
Indigofera heterantha, 70. 
Periploca aphylla, 146. 
Rheum Emo<U, 186. 

Fodrfer,leave8,&c.,of cultivated — 
Acacia Arabica, 51. 
Azadirachta Indica, 33. 
Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 


OV .U8I8^ &C. 

Cicer arietinum^ 63. 
Cordia myxa^ 153. 
Gramiaese pp.^ 248^ &c. 
Juglans regia^ 202. 
Medicago sativa, 71. 
Melilotus parriflora^ 72. 
Moringa pterygospenna^ 19. 
Parkiusonia aculeata^ 73. 
PisQin sativum^ 73. 
Bnbia tinctoram^ 117. 
Sapmdns detergens^ 32. 
Terminalia Bellerica^ 89. 
Trifolium sp., 76. 

Fodder y leaves, &c., of wild — 
Acacia Jacquemonti, 53. 
Acer cultratum, 31. 
Albizzia odoratissima, 56. 
Alnus sp., 198. 
Astragaliis sp., 58. 
Bauhinia variegata, 258. 
Bombax heptaphylbim, 24. 
Butea frondosa, 60. 
Caroxylon Griffithii, 178. 
Chionanthus sp., 138. 
Cordia myxa, 153. 
Comus macrophylla, 111. 
Equisetum debile, 267. 
Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
Ficus Indica, 213. 
F. religiosa^ 214. 
F. venosa, 214. 
Flacourtia sepiaria, 18. 
Fraxinus xanthoxylloides, 

Oaraga pinnata, 45. 
Graminese pp., 248, &c. 
Grewia oppositifolia, 27. 
Heracleum sp., 107. 
Holarrhena antidysenterica ? 

Hymenodictyon excelsum, 

Hex dipyrena, 40. 

Iris Eamaonensis, 240. 
Juglans regia, 202. 
Lathyms aphaca, 70. 
Lonicera quinquelocularis^ 

Marlea begonifolia, 93. 
Medieago denticulata, 71. 
M. lupulina, 71. 
Morus parvifolia, 218.. 
M. serrata, 21^.. 
Nauclea paarrifoKa, tiff*. 
Odina wodiej ? 46^ 
Olea Europaea, 130. 
Oxybaphus Himalaicus) 182» 
Favia Indica, 32. 
Picea Webbiana, 224. 
Pistaeia integerrima, 47. 
Populas ciliata, 204. 
P. Euphratica, 205. 
P. nigra, 206. 
Potamogeton crispiM; 241. 
P. gramineus, 242. 
P. liTcens, 242. 
PrangoB pabularia, 108. 
Putranjiva Boxburghii, 196. 
Quercus dilatata, 199. 
Q. Kex, 199. 
Q. incana, 200. 
Q. semecarpifolia, 200. 
Rhazya stricta, 143. 
Salix alba, 206. 
S. spp., 208. 
S. spp., 209. 
Salvadora oleoides, 175. 
Syringa Emodi, 141. 
Ulmus campestris, 210. 
Villarsia nymphoides, 148. 
Wendlandia exserta, 118. 
Zizyphus nummularia^ 44. 

Food for cattli 

Acacia leucopblsea (fruit), 54. 
Brassicarapa (root), 12. 
Ceratonia siliqua (fruit), 63. 



DaucxLs carota (root)^ 105. 
Faba vulgaris (seed), 69. 
Melia Azedarach (fruit), 83. 
Fhelipsea Calotropidis (plant) , 

Fruit of cultivated, cooked or 
prepared — 

Abebnoschus esculentus, 21. 
Averrhoa Carambola, 37. 
Benincasa cerifera, 95. 
Cucumis momordica, 97. 
C. sativus, 97. 
C. utilissimus, 97. 
Cucurbita maxima, 97. 
DoUchos lablab, 67. 
Lagenaria vulgaris, 98. 
Luffa acutangula; L. pen- 

tandra, 98. 
Momordica charantia, 98. 
Moringa pterygosperma, 19. 
Phoenix dactylifera, 244. 
Trichosanthes anguina, 99. 
UmbeUiferae, 1, and 3,I)ubi8e, 


Fruit of cultivated, eatein raw — 
Amygdalus Persica, 78. 
A. Persica, var. laevis, 78. 
Carica Papaya, 99. 
CitruUus vulgaris, 95. 
C. vulgaris var. fistulosus, 96. 
Citrus spp., 29. 
Cordia myxa, 153. 
Cucumis melo, 96. 
C. momordica, 97. 
C. sativus, 97. 
C. utilissimus, 97. 
Ficus carica, 211. 
Mangifera Indica, 45. 
Mimusops Kauki, 136. 
Moms alba, &c., 217. 
Musa Paradisiaca, 229. 
Phoenix dactylifera, 244. 

Prunus Armeniaca, 82. 
P. Bokhariensis, 82. 
P. domestica, 82. 
Psidium Guajava^ 94. 
Pyrus communis, 84. 
P. malus, 84. 

Sizygium Jambolanum, 94. 
Zizyphusflexuosa; Z. JujubO;, 

Fruit of wild, cooked or pre- 
pared — 

Hibiscus sp., 23. 
Momordica muricata, 98. 
. Pavia Indica, 32. 
Pistacia vera, 47. 
Solanum sanctum, 160. 
Trichosanthes dioica, 99. 

Fruit of wild, eaten raw — 

Benthamia fragifera. 111. 

Berberis aristata; B. vulga- 
ris, 7. 

Berchemia sp., 41. 

Bryonia umbellata, 95. 

Celtis Caucasica, 209. 

Cerasus vulgaris, 78. 

Coccinea Indica, 96. 

Cordia myxa; C. vestita, 153. 

Coriaria Nepalensis, 39. 

Cornus macroyhyUa, 111. 

Crataegus oxyacantha, 79. 

Cucumis pubescens, 97. 

Cucurbitaceae, 2, 5, and 6, 
Dubise, 99. 

Cydonia vulgaris, 80. 

Diospyros Lotus, 137. 

D. tomentosa, 138. 

Elseagnus conferta, 190. 

Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 

Feronia elephantum ? 29. 

Ficus caricoides; F. cordifolia; 
P. glomerata, 212; F. 
Indica, 213; F. Roxbur- 
ghii^ 214. 



OF'trSES^ &c. 

Flacourtia sapida ; F. se- 

Solanum gracilipes, 159; S. 

piaria^ 18. 

nigrum, 160. 

Fluggea virosa^ 195. 

Tamarindus Indica, 76. 

Fragaria vesca, 80. 

Taxus baccata, 228. 

Grewia Asiatica, 26 ; G. 

Trapa bispinosa, 89. 

betiilapfolia ; G. elastica; 

Viburnum cotinifolium, 114. 

G. Rothii ; G. villosa, 27. 

V. foetens ; V. nervosum ; 

Hippophae rhainnoides, 190. 

V. stellulatum, 115. 

Leea aspera^ 35. 

Vitis Indica, 35. 

Lonicera augiLstifolia^ 113. 

Zizyphus flexuosa ; Z. Juju- 

Lycium Europ«eum, 156 ; 

ba, 43 ; Z. nummularia ; Z. 

L. Buthenicum^ 157. 

vularis, 44. 

Mahonia Nepalensis^ 8. 

Myrica sapida^ 202. 

Fuel, more notable used as — 

Kima quassioides^ 39. 

Alsine sp., (omitted in text). 

Oxystelma esculenta, 146. 


Phoenix acaulis^ 243; F. 

Artemisia sacrorum, 120. 

sylvestris, 246. 

Calligonum polygonoidea, 

Physalis sp., 158. 


Phytolacca decandra^ 176. 

Caragana pygmnpta, 61. 

Podophyllum Emodi, 8. 

Crozophora tinctoria, 193. 

Prosopis spicigera^ 74. 

Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 

Prunus Padus ; P. prostrata ; 

Eurotia ceratoides, 179. 

P. Puddum, 83. 

Hippophae rhamnoides, 190. 

Punica granatum^ 94. 

Juniperus communis, 223. 

Pyrus baccata; P. Kumao- 

J. excelsa, 224. 

nensis, 84 ; P. variolosa. 

Periploca aphylla, 146, 


Bhazya stricta, 143. 

Beptonia buxifolia, 135. 

Bosa Webbiana, 86. 

Rhamnus Persica, 41. 

Tanacetum tomentosum. 

Rhus Buckiamela ? 48. 


Bibes grossularia? B. nig- 

rum; B. rubrum, 102. 

Fumiffatory drugs — 

Bosa macrophylla; B. Web- 

Artemisia elegans, 120. 

biana, 86. 

Gymnosporia spinosa, 41. 

Rubus biflorus; B. flavus, 86; 

Juniperus excelsa, 224. 

B. fruticosus ; B. lasio- 

Panicum antidotale, 258. 

earpus ; B. purpureus ; B. 

Peganum Harmala, 38. 

rotundifolius; B. tiliaceus. 

Bhododendron arboreum. 



Sageretia Brandrethiana; S. 

Saccharum sara, 261. 

oppositifolia, 42. 

Semecarpus Anacardium, 50. 

Salvadora oleoides, 176. 

Skimmia Laureola, 29. 



Goitre — 

Laminaxia sp.^ 269. 

Ganorrhcsa — 

Acacia Catechu^ 52. 
Achyranthes aspera^ 180. 
Asteracantha longifolia^ 165. 
Bombax heptaphyllum^ 25. 
Cinnamomum albiflorum, 

Daphne oleoidea^ 189. 
Equisetum debile^ 267. 
Ficus Indica^ 213. 
Quercus incana^ 200. 
Bumex acutus^ 187. 
Salvia plebeia^ 172. 
Sida cordifolia^ 23. 
Tribulus alatus^ 38. 

Gr ajreef and browsed^ morenotable^ 
(and see fodder) — 

Adhatoda vasica^ 164. 

Anabasis mnltiflora^ 170. 

AraUa Cachemirica^ 110. 

Artemisia parvifiora^ 120; 
A. sacrorum^ 121. 

Astragalus mnlticeps^ 58. 

Balanites ^gyptiaca^ 44. 

Ballota limbata^ 167. 

Boerhaayia diffusa^ 162. 

Calendula officinalis^ 123. 

Calligonum polygonoides^ 

Capparis spinosa^ 17. 

Caragana pygmsea^ 61. 

Carduus nutans^ 123. 

Christolea crassifolia^ (omit- 
ted in text)^ 13. 

Cicer Soongaricum^ 63. 

Cissus camosa^ 34. 

Cocculus Leseba^ 6. 

Coriaria Nepalensis^ 89. 

Cousinia sp.^ 125. 

Crotalaria Burhia^ 64. 

Cttscuta macrophylla^ 151. 

Dsemia extensa^ 145. 
Dalbergia sissoo^ 66. 
Dracocephalum heterophjl* 

lum, 168. 
Edwardsia Hydaspica^ 68. 
Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 
Eurotia ceratoides^ 179. 
Ficus reticulata, 214. 
Hedera Helix, 110. 
Hyoscyamus niger, 156. 
Lepidium latifolium, (omit-^ 

ted in text), 14. 
Lonicera hypoleuca, 114. 
Missiessya hypoleuca, 215. 
Mulgedium Tataricum, 128, 
Myricaria elegans, 91. 
Nepeta floccosa, 170. 
Nima quassioides, 39. 
Oxytropis macrophylla, 

(omitted in text) , 72. 
Polygonum tortuosum, 185. 
Potentilla Inglisii ; P. Sale- 

sovii, 81. 
Psoralea plicata, 75. 
Salvadora Indica, 174; S. 

oleoides, 175. 
Salvia pumila, 172. 
Scopolia prsealta, 159. 
Scrophularia Kotschyi, 163. 
Tanacetumtomentosum, 130. 
Tecoma undulata, 149. 
Waldheimia tridactylites, 

Withania somnifera, 161. 

Guinea-worm — 

Bicinus communis, 197. 
Salvia Moorcroftiana, 172. 
Stachys parviflora, 173. 

Gumy resin, &c. — 

Abies Smithiana, 219. 

Acacia Arabica, 41 ; A. 
Catechu, 62 ; A. modestSj 
55 ; A. speciosa, 66. 


OF crsBs^ &c. 

Albizzia odoratissima^ 56. 
Azadirachta Indica? 33. 
Bauhinia parviflora^ 58. 
Bombax heptapfayllum^ 25. 
Butea firondosa^ 60. 
C!ochlo8permum gossypium^ 

Conocarpus latifolia^ 88. 
Feronia elephantum ? 28. 
Ferula asafoetida^ 106. 
Mangifera Indica ? 46. 
Moringa pterygosperma^ 20. 
Odina wodier^ 46. 
Finus excelsa 225 ; P. longi- 

folia, 227. 
Pistacia Atlantica ; P. Cabu- 

lica ; P. Lentiscus, 46. 
Prosopis spicigera, 75. 
Prunus Armeniaca^ 82. 
Salix Caprea, 208. 
Sborea robusta^ 28. 
Xauthoxylon hostile ? 29. 

Gun-stocks — 

Juglans regia^ 202. 
Populus ciliata^ 204. 


Pedicularis pectinata^ 162. 


Boletus igniarius ? 268. 


Cannabis sativa^ 216. 
Momordica murieata^ 98. 
Salix caprea^ 208. 
Salvia lanata^ 172. 

Hair, to wash, dye, &c. — 
Aucklandia Costus, 122. 
Azadirachta Indica, 33. 
Cuscuta reflexa, 152. 
Cyperus juncifolius, 264. 
Daphne oleoides, 189. 
EmbUca officinaUs, 193. 

Malya parviflora, 23. 
Planum Harmala, 38. 
Prunus Armeniaca, 82. 
Quercus incana, 200. 
Sapindus detergens, 32. 

fiboAraA-tubes, &c. — 
Amygdalus sp., 78. 
Arundinaria falcata, 250. 
Arundo Donax, 250. 
Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
Nerium odorum, 142. 

Hygrometer — 

Heteropogon contortus, 255 ? 


Cupressus torulosa, 222. 
Macrotomia euchroma, 155 ? 
Melia Azedarach, 33. 

Ignites by friction — 

Clerodendron infortunatunij 

Incense — 

Aucklandia Costus, 122. 
Cupressus torulosa, 222. 
Dolomiseamacrocephala, 126. 
Juniperus communis, 223; J. 

excelsa, 224. 
Morina breviflora^ 119. 

Alnus sp., 198. 
Cordia myxa, 153. 
Emblica ofScinalis, 193. 
Semecarpus Anacardium, 50. 
Terminalia Bellerica, 89. 

Insects^ maggots, &c. — 
Ajuga bracteata, 167. 
Anagallis arvensis, 135. 
. Arum tortuosum, 247. 
Atropa Belladonna, 156. 
Aucklandia Costus, 122. 
Cimicifuga foetida, 2. 



Delphinium caeruleum, 3. 
Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 

Jatropha curcas^ 196. 
Juglans regia^ 20^. 
Nerium odorum, 142. 
Nigella sativa, 4. 
Peganum Harmala, 38. 
Plectranthus rugosus, 171. 
Prangos pabularia, 109. 
Valeriana Hardwickii, 118. 

Kernels, eaten — 

Amygdalus communis, 78. 
Corylus Colurna, 201. 
Juglans regia, 201. 
Mangifera Indica, 45. 
Fistaeia vera, 46. 
Prunus Armeniaca, 82. 
Sizygium Jambolanum, 95. 

Lac — 

Acacia Arabica, 41. 
Butea frondosa, 60. 
Picus Indica, 213 ; F. reli- 

giosa, 214. 
Zizyphus Jujuba, 43. 

Lactagoffue — 

Cuminum Cyminum, 105. 
Lepidium sativum, 14. 

Leaves of cultivated, cooked as 
pot-herb, &c. — 

Allium ascalonicum, 230. 

Althaea officinalis, 21. 

Amaranthus anardana; A. 
mangostanus, 181. 

Anethum sowa, 103. 

Arum Colocasia, 247. 

Basella alba, 177. 

Beta vulgaris, 177. 

Brassica sp. ; B. campestris ; 
B. Eruca, 11 ; B. oleracea^ 
B. rapa, 12; B. sp., 13. 

Canavalia gladiata, 61, 
Chenopodium sp., 79. 
Goriandrum sativum, 105. 
Dolichos Sinensis, 67. 
Fagopyrum emarginatum ; 

F. esculentum, 184. 
Foeniculum vulgare, 107. 
Papaver somniferum, 10. 
Pennisetum Italicum, 260. 
Petroselinum sativum, 107. 
Pimpinella anisum, 107. 
Spinacia oleracea ? 180. 
Trigonella Faenum Gr«cum, 


Leaves of cultivated, eaten raw — 
Aloe perfoliata, 232. 
Cicer avietinum, 63. 
Papaver somniferum^ 10. 

Leaves of wild, cooked or prepar- 

Allium sphserocephalum ; A. 

sp., 1, 2, and 3> 231. 
Amaranthus polygonoides, 

Asphodelus fistulosus, 234. 
Atriplex hortensis, 177. 
Blitum virgatum, 177. 
Brassica Griffithii, 12. 
Capparis spinosa, 17. 
Celosia argentea, 181. 
Ceropegia esculenta, 145. 
Chenopodium album ; C. 

murale, 178. 
Cicer Soongaricum, 63. 
Cichdrium Intybus, 124. 
Commelyna Bengalensiffj 

Convolvulus pluricaulis, 150. 
Cousinia calcitrapa&fdrmis^ 

Crambe cordifolia, 13. 
Digera arvensis, 182. 


OF rSES^ &c. 

Eragrostis spp.^ 255. 
Eremurus spectabilis^ ZM. 
Ferula Asafoetida, 106. 
Gouffeia holpsteoides^ 20. 
Gynandropsis pentaphylla^ 

Ipomoea reptaus; I. sessili- 

flora, 150. 
Malva parviflora, 28. 
Marsilea quadrifolia, 266. 
Nephrodium eriocarpum^ 

Orchis sp. ? 237. 
Origanum normale^ 171. 
Oxalis corniculata^ 37. 
Pharbitis nil> 151. 
Phytolacca decandra^ 176. 
Polygonum polystachyum, 

Portulaca oleracea, 99; P. 

quadrifida^ 100. 
Procris sp., 215. 
Pteris aquilina, 266. 
Rheum Emodi^ 186. 
Rumex acutus ; R. vesicari- 

us, 187. . 
Sedum Rhodiola^ 101. 
Sonchus oleraceus, 130. 
Taraxacum officinale^ 131. 
Trianthema pentandra^ 100. 
Tribulus alatus, 38. 
Triumfetta angulata, 28. 
Urtica hyperborea, 215. 

Leaves of wild, eaten raw— 
Cardamine hirsuta, 13. 
Nasturtium amphibium, 14. 
Oxalis corniculata, 37. 
Oxyria reniformis, 184. 
Polygonum polystachyum, 

Rumex hastatus ; R. vesica- 

rius, 187. 
Salvia Moorcroftiana, 172. 
Scutellaria linearis, 173. 

Leprosy — 

Astragalus multiceps, 58. 
Ipomoea turpethum, 151. 

Luminous roots^^ 

Anthistiria anathera, 249. 
Chrysopogonglaucoptis, 252. 
Cymbopogqn Iwarancusa, 

Manna — 

Alhagi Maurorum, 51. 
Calotropis procera, 145. 
jPraxinus sp., 139. 
Salix sp., 209. 
Tamarix orientalis, 93. 


Arundinaria falcata, 250. 

Arundo Donax, 250. 

Chamaerops Ritchiana, 242. 

Hedychium spicatum, 339. 

Malacochsete pectinata? 264. 

Phoenix daclylifera, (omitted 
in text) , 245 ; P. sylves- 
tris, (ditto ditto), 246. 

Saccharum sara, 261. ' 

Typha angustifolia, 246. 

Menorrhagia — 

Salvia plebeia, 172. 

Metal, cleaning — 

Cucurbitaceae, 4, Dubiae, 99. 
Prunus Armeniaca, 82. 

Metal, corroding*— 

Baliospermum Indicum, 

Metal, subliming, &c.— 

Andrachne telephioides ? 192. 
Ficus Indica, 213. 

Mortar, and cement — 
^gle Marmelos, 28. 
Crataeva religiosa, 17. 



Euphorbia Royleana^ 195. 
Typha angustifolia^ 246. 

Musfirooms, edibl< 

Agaricus campestris^ 267. 
Boletus sp., 267. 
Morchella semilibera^ 268. 
Tuber cibarium, 268. 
Fungus sp.j 1 and 2^ 269. 

Narcotic — 

Cannabis sativa^ 216. 
Humulus Lupulus^ 217. 
Hyoscyamus niger^ 156. 
Meconopsis aculeata^ 9. 
Papaver somnifera^ 10. 
Peganum Harmala^ 88. 

Nervtms and cerebral diseases— 
AconitumTerox, 1. 
Adiantum caudatum^ 265. 
Bignonia Indica^ 148. 
Cedrus deodara, 222. 
Coriandrum sativum, 105. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia^ 194. 
Grislea tomentosa, 90. 
Indigofera tinctoria, 70. 
IpomcBa turpethum^ 150. 
Lagenaria Tulgaris, 98. 
Myriogyne minuta^ 128. 
Myrtus communis^ 94. 
Farmelia Kamtschadalis^ 

Pinus Gerardiana, 226. 
Rhododendron arboreum ; R. 

campanulatum^ 134. 
Sapindus detergens^ 32. 

Odour of musk — 

Delphinium Brunonianum^ 
3; D. Kashmirianum^ 4. 
Pedicularis sp., 162. 

Officinal, special use unknown— 
Aeonitum Napellus^ 2. 
yErua Bovii, 181. 

Agaricus sp. ? 267. 
Alysicarpus nummularifoli- 

us, 57. 
Aristolochia sp.> 191. 
Asparagus Punjabensis^ 233. 
Asphodelus fistulosus^ 234. 
Astragalus tribuloides^ 58. 
Azadirachta Indica^ 33. 
Boletus igniarius ? 267. 
Calligonum polygonoides ? 

Cardiospermum Halicaca- 

bum^ 31. 
Carpesium racemosum; C. 

sp., 123. 
Carthamus oxyacantha, 124. 
Cassia tora, 62 bis. 
Cathartooarpus fistula, 62. 
Cedrus deodara? 222. 
Celastms paniculata, 40. 
Celosia argentea, 181 j C. 

cristata, 182. 
Chionanthus sp., 138. 
Cichorium Intybus, 124. 
Clerodendron Siphonanthus, 

165. • 
Convolvulus arvensis, 150. 
Corchorus trilocularis, 26. 
Crotalaria medicaginea, 65. 
Cucumis Colocynthis, 96. 
Cyamopsis psoraloides, 65. 
Cynoglossum micranthum, 

Datisca cannabina, 191. 
Desmodium tilisefolium ? 67. 
Dicliptera Roxburghiana, 

Dioscorea deltoidea, 229 bis. 
Dolichos uniflorus, 68. 
Dolomisea macrocephalaj 

Emblica oflScinalis, 193. 
Ephedra Gerardiana, 228. 


OF tJSB9^ &C. 

Euphorbia cbnKnoaicuioides^ 

193; E. hypericifoUa ; E. 

Boyleana^ 194; £. thymi- 

folia, 195. 
Evolvulus alsinoides^ 150. 
Ficus cunia^ 212; F. Indica^ 

F. oppositifolia^ 213. 
Gmeliua arborea^ 166. 
Gnaphalium sp.^ 127. 
Grewia asiatica^ 26. 
Heliotropium hreyifolium ; 

H. ramosissimum^ 154. 
Hibiscus cannabinusy 22. 
Juglans regia, 202. 
Juniperus excelsa^ 224. 
Lepidium sativum^ 14. 
Mart3niia diandra, 149. 
Mentha sativa^ 169. 
Melia Azedarach^ 33. 
Microrhynchtis nudicaxilis^ 

Mimosa rubicaulis^ 72. 
MimusopsElengi; M. Kauki^ 

Mirabilis Jalapa^ 182. 
Momordica muricata^ 98. 
Moringa pterygosperma^ 19. 
Narcissus Tazetta^ 235. 
Nepetaelliptica; N. sp., 170. 
Nymphsea alba^ 8. 
Olea Europsea^ 140. 
Oxalis comiculata^ 37. 
Oxyria reniformis^ 184. 
Pauderia pilosa^ 179. 
Pedicukris Hookeriana; P. 

pectinata, 162. 
Pentapetes Phsenicea^ 25. 
Pentatropis spiralis^ 146. 
Phoenix dactylifera^ 245. 
Pinus longifojia^ 227. 
Plantago major^ 174. 
Pluchea sp.^ 129. 
Podophyllum Emodi^ 8. 

Polygonum aviculare ; P. 

barbatum^ 185. 
Pongamia glabra, 74. 
Premna mucronata^ 166. 
Prosopis spicigera^ 75. 
Ptychotis coptica^ 109. 
Putranjira Roxburghii^ 196. 
Rhododendron arboreum^ 

Salix Caprea, 208. 
Senecio laciniosus^ 130*. 
Shorea robusta^ 28. 
Solanum Dulcamara ; S, gra- 

cilipes^ 159; S, nigrum^ 

Tanacetum vulgare. 131. 
Taraxacum officinale^ 131. 
UmbellifersB, 5 Dubise, 109: 
Veronica Beccabunga, 163. 
Vinca rosea^ 143. 
Vincetoxicum officinale^ 147.. 
Viscum album> 113. 
yitex Negundoj 167. 

Oil for domestic use, &c. — 

Amygdalus communis? 78. 
Argemone Mexicana, 9. 
Bassia latifolia, 135. 
Brassica campestris ; B*. 

Enica, 11; B. juncea, 12; 

B. sp., 13. 
Carthamus oxyacantha, 124. 
Cedrus deodara, 221. 
Corylus Colurna? 201. 
Euphorbia dracunculoides>^ 

Impatiens sp., 36 ; I. tingens^ 

Juglans regia, 202. 
Linum usitatissimum^ 21. 
Litssea sp., 188. 
Papaver somniferum, 10. 
Frinsepia utilis, 81.. 



Prunus Armeniaca, 82. 
Ricinus communis^ 197. 
Sesamum ludicum^ 149. 
Symplocx)8 crataegoides, 188. 

Oil, medicinal — 

Azadirachta Indica, 83. 
Srassica sp.^ 11 ; B. juncea, 

Cedrus deodara^ 221. 
Celastrus paniculata^ 40. 
Cymbopogon Iwarancnsa, 

Olea Europeea, 140. 
Papaver somniferum^ 10. 
Pinu8 Grerardiana, 226. 
Bicinns commxinisj 197. 

Ophthalmia — 

Acacia spedbsa^ 56. 
Adhatoda vasica^ 164. 
Sallota limbata^ 167. 
Berberis aristata^ 7. 
Cassia absus^ 61. 
Cissampelos Pareira ? 6. 
Colchicum sp., (2), 230. 
Mangifera Indica, 46. 
Himusops Kauki^ 136. 
Platanus orientalis^ 203. 
Prunus Armeniaca^ 82. 
Saxifraga ligulata^ 103. 
Suaeda iruticosa^ 180. 
Symplocos cratsegoides^ 188. 
Thalictrum foliolosum^ 5. 
Thymus serpyllum, 173. 


Butea frondosa^ 59. 


Euonymus fimbriata^ 41. 

Otitis, 4rc.~ 

Amaryllis grandiflora^ 232. 
Solanum gracilipes^ 159; S. 
xanthocarpumj 161. 

Packing — 

Bauhinia racemosa^ 54. 
Betula Bhojputra^ 198. 

Paper — 

Betula Bhojpntra^ 198. 
Cannabis satiya, 216. 
Compositse^ 1 Dubi»^ 132. 
Daphne cannabina ; D. ole* 

oides? 189. 
Desmodinm argenteum^ 67. 
Orewia oppositifolia^ 27. 
Hydrangea sp.^ 103. 
Oxytropis sp., 72. 
Populus ciliata ? 204. 
Stercnlia riUosa, 25. 
Wikstraemia saHcifolia^ 189* 

PoM-headache^ aaid to cause — 
Allium sp., (4), 232. 
Artemisia sp., 121. 
Pleurospermum Grorania- 
num, 108. 

Pens — 


Pillows, to stuff — 
^ma Bovii, 181. 
Bombax heptaphyllum, 24. 
Calotropis procera, 144. 

Pipes, shepherds' — 

Arundinaria falcata, 250. 

Pith as food — 

Saccharum sara, 261. 

Poisonous or deleterious — 
Acacia modesta ? 55. 
Acer cultratum ? 31. 
Aconitum sp. ; A. ferox, 1 ; 

A. Napellus, 2. 
AotSBa spicata, 2. 
Andromeda ovalifolia, 133. 
Andropogon sp., 249. 


OF trSESj &c. 

Arum ciirvatum ; A. specio- 

siim, 247 bis, 
Avena fatua^ 251. 
Buxus sempervirens, 192. 
Calotropis procera^ 145. 
Caltha palustrisj 2. 
Clematis Nepalensis^ 3. 
Coriaria Nepalensis^ 89. 
Crocus sativus, 240. 
Daphne oleoides^ 189. 
Datura stramonium^ 156. 
Dioscorea deltoidea ? 229. 
Diospyros montana^ 137. 
Edwardsia Hydaspica^ 68. 
Gloriosa superba^ 235. 
Hyoscyamus niger^ 156. 
Jatropha curcas^ 196. 
Kalanchoe varians^ 100. 
Lathyrus sativa, 71. 
Leptopus cordifolius^ 196. 
Meconopsis aculeata^ 9. 
Melilotus leucantha^ 71. 
Mulgedium Tataricum^ 128. 
Nerium odorum^ 142 bis. 
Phoenix sylvestris ? 246. 
Phytolacca decandra, 176 

Pteris aquilina 7 266. 
Ranunculus arvensis, 5. 
Rhamnufl Persica ? B. virga- 

tus^ 42. 
Rhododendron arboreum 

(bis) ; R. campanulatum^ 

Rhus acuminata^ 48; R. 

Buccedanea j R. yemicifera^ 

Ricinus communis^ 197. 
Scopolia prsealta, 159. 
Solanacese, Dubia^ 162. 
Sorghum Halepense^ 262. 
Taxus baccata^ 228, 

Trianthema pentandra, 100. 
Trigonella Fsenum Oraecum ; 
T. polyserrata, 77. 

Polishinff, wood or metal — 

Asparagus Punjabensis, 233. 
Ephedra alata, 228. 
Ficus cunia^ 212. 
Sponia Wightii, 210. 

Purgative, 8fc. — 

Abrus precatoriuSj 50. 
Acacia Arabica, 41. 
Adiantum C. V., 265. 
Aloe perfoliata ? 232. 

Baliospermumlndicum^ 192. 
Berberis aristata^ 7. 
Berthelotia lanceolata^ 123. 
Butea frondosa^ 60. 
Cassia acutifolia^ 61 ; C. 

obovata^ 62. 
Cathartocarpus fistula^ 62. 
Chamaerops Ritchiana^ 243. 
Clitorea tematea^ 64. 
Colutea arborea^ 64. 
Cucumis Colocynthis, 96 bis. 
Cuscuta reflexa^ 152. 
Emblica officinalis, 193. 
Euphorbia thymifolia^ 195. 
Fraxinus sp., 139. 
Fumaria parviflora, 11. 
Glinus lotoides, 101. 
Glycirrhiza triphylla, 69. 
Ipomoea turpethum, 151. 
Jatropha curcas, 196. 
Lactuca sativa, 127. 
Luffa acutan^ula; L. pen- 

tandra, 98. 
Morinda citrifolia^ 116. 
Mucuna sp., 72. 
Pharlntis nilj 151. 
Physalis Indica^ 158. 



Prunus Armeniaca^ 82. 
Brhamnus purpureus ; B. vir- 

gatus^ 42. 
Rheum Emodi^ 186. 
Rhus parviflora^ 49. 
Ricinus ccftnmunis, 197. 
Rosa centifolia^ 86 bis, 
Salix sp., 209. 
Salvadora oleoides^ 176. 
Tamarindus Indica^ 76. 
Terminalia Bellerica^ 89. 
Viola serpens^ 19. 

Rheumatism — 

Acorus Calamus^ 236. 
Adhatoda vasica^ 164. 
Allium sativum^ 231. 
Althaea rosea^ 21. 
Aucklandia Costus^ 122. 
Callicarpa incana^ 165. 
Celastrus paniculata^ 40. 
Cinnamomum albiflorum^ 

Corchorus trilocularis? 26. 
Cotula anthemoides^ 125. 
CTmbopogon Iwarancusa^ 

Euphorbia Helioscopia^ 194. 
Iris florentina^ 240. 
Matricaria Chamomila^ 127. 
Melia Azedarach^ 33. 
Moringa pterygosperma^ 20. 
Myrica sapida^ 202. 
Myrtus communis^ 94. 
Nigella sativa^ 4. 
Pavia Indica^ 32. 
Peganum Harmala^ 38. 
Randia dumetorum^ 116. 
Tamarindus Indica^ 76. 

Rind J for snuff boxes^ ^gleMar- 
melos, 28 ; for fire-work^ Bala- 
nites jEgyptiaca^ 44. 

Road'^a,y — 

Saecharum sara^ 261. 

Root of cultivated, as food — 

Allium cepa, 23 ; A. satiya, 

Arum campanulatum, 246; 

A. Colocasia, 247. 
Batatas edulis, 150. 
Brassica rapa, 12. 
Cynara Scolymus, 125. 
Daucus carota, 105. 
Dioscorea sativa, 229. 
Moringa pterygosperma, 19. 
Nelumbium speciosum, 9. 
Raphanus sativus, 15. 
Solanum tuberosum, 160. 

Root of wild, as food — 

Allium rubellum ; A. sphse- 

rocephalum; A. spp., 1, 

and 3, 231. 
Ceropegia esculenta, 145. 
Codonopsis ovata, 132. 
Convallaria verticillata, 234. 
Cyperus tuberosus, 264. 
Daucus carota ? 105. 
Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. • 
Dracocephalum heterophyl- 

lum? 168. 
Eulophia campestris, 237. 
Ipoinoea reptans, 150. 
Nympfasea alba, 8. 
Pentatropis spiralis, 146. 
Polygonum sp., 186. 
Pueraria tuberosa, 75. 
Tragopogon major, 131. 
Tulipa stellata, 235. 
Typha angustifolia, 246. 
Umbelliferse, 4 and 5, Dubise, 
. 109; 6, 110. 
Zeuxine sulcata ? 238. 

Saccharine juice — 

Phoenix dactylefera, 243 ; P. 
sylvestris, 246. 


OF vn»j &c. 

Sacred y offered up^ for rosaries^ 
&c., (and see incense) — 
jEgle Marmelos, 28. 
Antennaria sp.^ 119. 
Aplotaxis gossypina^ 119. 
Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
Butea frondosa^ 60. 
Cedrus deodara^ 222. 
Chama&rops Ritchiana^ 243. 
Daphne cannabina^ 189. 
Delphinium Brunonianum^ 

Dolomisea macrocephala^ 
Jnniperus communis^ 223; 

J. excelsa^ 224. 
Michelia Champaca^ 6. 
Nelumbium speciosum^ 9. 
Populos balsamifera^ 104. 
Putranjiva Boxburghii^ 196. 
Rhododendron arboreum^ 

Saussurea obvallata ; S. 

sacra; S. sorocephala^ 

Senecio laciniosns^ 130. 
Tagetes erecta; T. patula^ 

Thespesia popubiea^ 24. 

Salivation, given for— 
Pyrethrum sp., 129. * 
Sapindus detergens, 32. 
Semecarpus Anacardium, 

Salt, used as — 

I'amarix orientalis^ 93. 


Arundo Phragmites> 250. 
Cannabis sativa^ 216. 
Carex Indica ? 264. 
Celtis Caucasica^ 209. > 
Chamserops Ritchiana^ 242. 

Grewia oppostisfolia^ 27. 
Hordeum hexastichum^ 256. 
Oryza sativa^ 258. 
Ulmus campestrisj 210. 

Scabbards — 

Bombax heptaphyllum^ 24. 
Erythrina arborea ? 69. 
Hymenodictyon excelsum^ 


Acacia Farnesiana^ 53. 
Jasminum grandiflorum^ 141 . 
Michelia Champaca^ 6. 
Rosa centifolia, 85 ; R. ma-* 
crophylla, 86. 

Scorpions — 

Achyranthes aspera^ 180. 
Ocimum Basilicum^ 171. 

Sedative — 

Datisca cannabina^ 191. 
Lallemantia Royleana^ 168. 
Nelumbium speciosum^ 9. 
Salvia Moorcroftiana^ 172. 

Seeds of cultivated^ as food — 
Aloe perfoliata^ 232. 
Amaranthus anardana^ 181. 
Brassica campestris^ 11. 
Cannabis sativa. 216. 
Chenopodium sp.^ 179. 
CitruUus vulgaris, 95. 
Euryale ferox, 8. 
Fagopyerum emarginatum ; 

F. esculentum, 184. 

Gramineae pp., 248 — 63. 

Nelumbium speciosum, 9. \ 

. Ocimum gratissimum, 17. 

Sesamum Indicum, 149. 

Seeds of wild, as fooA— 

Abelmoschus ficulneus, 21* 
Bauhinia racemosa, 59. 



Soerhaayia elegans^ 183. 
Carthamus oxyacantha^ 123. 
Cassia tora ? 62. 
Gramineae pp., 248 — 63. 
Impatiens sp. ; I. sulcata, 86. 
Nymphsea idba, 8. 
Pmus Gerardiana, 226; P. 

longifolia, 227. 
Solanumxanthocarpum, 160. 
Trianthema crystalliiia, 100. 
Tribulus alatus, 38. 
ZygophyUum simplex, 88. 

Sharbat — 

Convolvulus pluricaulis, 150. 
Diospyros Lotus, 137. 
Fumaria parviflora, 11. 
Microrhynchus nudicaulis, 

Myrica sapida, 202. 
Nelumbium speciosum, 9. 
Nepeta ciliaris, 170. 
Salix Caprea, 208. 

Shoots, or stalks, &c., of culti- 
vated, as food — 
Nelumbium speciosum, 9. 
Bubia tiuctorum, 117* 

Shoots, or stalks, &c., of wild, as 
Asparagus Funjabensis; A. 

racemosa, 233. 
Ferula Asafoetida, 106. 
Fseonia officinalis, 4. 
^ Salvia Moorcroftiana, 172. 
Sonchus oleraceus ? 130. 


Cedrela toona.serrata, 34. 
.Chrysopogonglaucoptis, 252. 
Eragrostiscynosuroides, 255. 
Erythrina arborea, 69. 
Typha angustifolia, 246. 

Signatures, doctrine of— 
Arum speciosum, 247. 
Butea frondosa, 60. 
Eryngium planum, 106. 
Helicteres Isora, 25. 
Skimmia Laureola, 29. 
Sti^bylea Emodi, 40. 
Xantluum strumarium, 132. 


Morus alba, &c. ; M. multi- 

caulis, &c., 218. 
Zizyphus Jujuba, 43. 

Small'poa? — 

Asparagus filicinus ; A. Pun- 

jabensis, 233. 
Fagonia cretica, 37. 
Xanthium strumarium, 132. 

Smut, and rust — 

Cynodon dactylon, 254. 
Triticum sestivum, 263. 

Snake-bite — 

Arum speciosum, 247. 
Barleria cristata, 165. 
Heliotropium Europseum ; 
H. ramosissimum, 154. 

Soap, used as, &c. — 

Anabasis multiflora, 176. 
Convallaria verticillata, 234. 
Dioscorea deltoidea, 229. 
Hedychium spioatum, 239. 
Lychnis Indica, 20. 
Malva parviflora, 23. 
Sapindus detergens, 32. 
Silene viscosa, 20. 
Zizyphus Jujuba, 43. 

Spirits, in preparation of— 

Acacia Axabica, 41 ; A. Ja- 

cquemonti, 53« 
Bassia latifolia^ 186. 


OF tJSESj &C. 

Berberis aristata^ 7. 
Cerasus vulgaris, 79. 
Cordia Myxa^ 158. 
Gymbopogon Iwarancusa^ 

Diospyros Lotus ? 137. 
Elseagnus conferta^ 190. 
Gentiana tenella^ 148. 
Orislea tomentosa, 90. 
Hordeum hexastichum, 356. 
Juniperus communis^ 223. 
Moms alba ? 218. 
Phoenix sylvestris, 246, 
Pjrrus communis, 84. 
Sizygium Jambolanum, 95. 
Umtelliferae, 1 Dubi», 109. 
Yitis Indica, 35. 

Stermetatory — 

Myriogyne minuta, 128. 
Potentilla discolor, 80. 

Stimulant — 

Abies Smitbiana, 219. 
Achillea millefolium, 119. 
Apium graveolens, 104. 
Astrantia sp., 104. 
Boucerosia Aucheri, 144. 
Bupleurum marginatum, 

Carum Carui, 104. 
Cinnamomum albiflorum, 

Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 

Hedychium spicatum, 239. 
Juniperus communis, 223. 
Lepidium sativum, 14. 
Leucas Cephalotes, 168. 
Lycoperdon gemmatum, 268. 
Mentha viridis, 164. 
Momordica muricata, 98. 
Myrica sapida, 202. 
Kigella sativa, 4. 

Ocimum Basilicum, 171. 
Onosma echioides, 155. 
Parmelia Kamtschadalis, 

Pistacia Terebinthus, 48. 
Rhododendron anthopogon, 

Salix Caprea, 208. 
Salvia plebeia, 172. 
Tetranthera monopetala; T. 

Roxburghii, 188. 
Thymus serpyllum, 178. 
Valeriana Hardwickii ; V. 

Wallichii, 118. 
Zingiber officinalis, 239. 

Stomachic — 

Berberis aristata, 7. 
Boucerosia Aucheri, 143 ; B. 

edulis, 144. 
Cymbopogon Iwarancusa^ 

Cyperus juncifolius, 264. 
Gentiana decumbens, 147. 
Hordeum hexastichum, 256. 
Parmelia KamtschadaUs, 

Pistacia integerrima,- P. 

vera, 47 ; P. Terebenthus, 

Salavadora Indica, 175. 
Taxus baocata, 228. 
Thymus serpyllum, 173. 
Withania coagulans, 161. 
Xanthoxylon hostile, 39. 
Zizyphus Jujuba, 43. 

Sugar — 

Beta vulgaris, 177. 
Phoenix dactylifera, 245. 
Saccharum officinarum, 260. 

Sugar, clarifying — 

Hydrilla verticillata^ 241. 
Kydia calycina, 25. 



Fotamogeton crispus^ 241; 

P. gramineus^ 242. 
Yallisneria spiralis^ 241. 

Superstition, presages^ &c. — 
Amebia echioides, 152. 
, Asparagus filicinus; A. 
Punjabensis^ 283. 
Bambusa stricta^ 252. 
Celtis Caucasica, 209. 
Cirsium argyracantbum^ 

CupressTis torolosa^ 222. 
Cuscuta macrantba^ 151. 
Delphinium denudatum^ 3. 
Mangifera Indica^ 45. 
Terminalia Bellerica, 89. 

Sweet-meats, confections^ &c. — 
Abelmoscbus ficulneus^ 21. 
Acorus Calamus ? 236. 
Buchanania latifolia^ 45. 
Sizygium Jambolanum^ 149. 

Tanning — 

Acacia Arabica^ 41. 
Alnus sp.^ 198. 
Bauhinia variegata^ 59. 
Buchanania latifolia^ 45. 
Butea frondosa ? 60. 
Calotropis procera, 145. 
Cathartocarpus fistula^ 62. 
Conocarpus latifolia^ 88. 
Garuga pinnata^ 45. 
Glochidion sp., 196. 
Hymenodictyon excelsum, 

Juglans Tegia^ 202. 
Pinus longifolia, 227. 
Punica granatum^ 94. 
Quercus incana^ 200. 
Rhus Cotinus^ 49. 
Bottlera tinctoria, 197\ 
Terminalia Bellerica^ 89 

Zizyphus Jujuba> 43. 


Pinns Gerardiana^ 226; P. 
longifolia^ 227. 

Tatties — 

Alhagi Maurorum, 57. 
Anatherum muricatum, 248. 
Aristida setacea, 249. 
Saccharum sara^ 261. 

Tea, used as — 

PotentiUa Inglisii, 81. 
Taxus baccata, 228. 


iEchmanthera WaDichiana, 

Agave Americana; A. 

cuntala^ 232. 
Calotropis procera? 144. 
Cannabis sativa^ 216. 
Corchorus capsularis ; C. 

olitorius; 26. 
Crotalaria juncea^ 64. 
Hibiscus cannabina^ 22. 
Linum usitatissimum^ 21. 
Oreoseris lanuginosa ? 128. 
Sterculia villosa, 26. 

Thatch, roofing — 

Anatherum muricatum^ 248. 
Arundinaria falcata^ 250. 
Arundo Phragmitis, 250. 
Bambusa stricta^ 252. 
Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
Buxus semperrirens, 192. 
Calligonum polygonoides^ 

Dodonsea Burmanniana^ 31. 
Iris sp.^ 241. 
Pteris aquilina^ 266. 
Saccharum sara ; S. spon- 

taneum, 261 ; S. spp., 262. 
Taxus baccata, 228. 
Typha angustifblia^ 246. 


OF tlSES, &C. 

Thread, for strengthening— 
£hus vernieifera^ 49. 
Urginia Indica^ 236. 

Tlwiftcr-trees, chief or notabl 
Acacia Arabica^ 51; A. 

Catechu^ 52 ; A. elata^ 53 ; 

A. modesta^ 54; A. specio- 

sa^ 56. 
Acer cultratum^ 31. 
iBgle Marmelos^ 28. 
Albizzia odoratissima^ 56. 
Azadirachta Indica^ 33. 
Bassia latifolia^ 135. 
Betula Bhojputra^ 198. 
Bignonia suaveolens^ 148. 
Bombax heptaphyllum^ 21. 
Capparis aphylla^ 16. 
Carpinus viminea^ 200. 
Cedrela toona ; C. T. serrata^ 

Cedrus deodara, 220, 
Conocarpus latifolia^ 88. 
Dalbergia sissoo^ 66. 
Ehretia aspera^ 153; E. 

serrata^ 154. 
Elseodendron Eoxbnrghii^ 

Emblica officinalis^ 193. 
Flnggea yirosa^ 19^. 
Fraxinus fioribunda^ 139. 
Omelina arborea, 166. 
Grewia elastica, 27. 
Juglans regia^ 202. 
Juniperus excelsa^ 223. 
Lagerstrsemia parviflora^ 90. 
Mangifera Indica^ 45. 
Melia Azedaracb^ 33. 
Michelia Champaca, 5. 
Moras alba^ &;c.^ 218. 
Odina wodier^ 4(3. 
Olea Europsea, 140. 
Ougeinia Dalbergioides^ 72. 
Favia Indica, 32. 

Pentaptera tomentosa^ 88. 
Finns excelsa^ 225 ; F. 

longifolia^ 227. 
Fistacia integerrima^ 47« 
Flatanus orientalis^ 203. 
Fremna mncronata^ 166. 
Quercus dilatata^ 199; Q. 

semecarpifolia^ 200. 
Sapindns detergens^ 32. 
Schleichera trijuga, 32. 
Shorea robusta^ 28. 
Tamarindns Indica^ 76. 
Tamarix orientalis^ 92. 
Taxus baccata, 227. 
Tectona grandis^ 166. 
Terminalia aijuna^ 88. 
Ulmns campestris ; U. erosa^ 

210 ; U. integrifolia, 211. 
Zizyphns Jujnba, 43. 

Tinder, gun-rmatch — 

Antennaria contorta^ 119. 
Butea frondosa^ 60. 
Compositse^ 1 and 2, Dubiae, 

Chamaerops Ritcbiana, 243. 
. Cordiae Myxa, 153. 
Consinia sp.^ 125. 
Ecbinops nivea^ 126. 
Gnaphalium sp.^ 126. 
Oreoseris lanuginosa^ 128. 
Fopulus Euphratiea^ 205. 
Sambucus Ebulus^ 114. 
Ulmus erosa, 211. 

Tobacco, smoking, snuff — 
Cannabis sativa^ 216. 
Chamserops Bitcbiana^ 243. 
Datura stramonium^ 156. 
Ephedra alata^ 228. 
Hedychium spicatum^ 239. 
Myriogyne minuta^ 128. 
Nerium odorum^ 142. 
Nicotiana rustica^ 157; N, 
Tabacum^ 168; 



Bhododendron anthopogon; 

R. campanulatnm^ 134. 
Umbellifere. 3 Dubise, 109. 

Tonic — 

Abies Smithiana^ 219. 
Aconitum beterophyllmn, 1. 
Agathotes sp., 147. 
Anilema tuberosiun, 236. 
Artemisia Indica ; A. Persi- 

ca, 120. 
Asparagus filiciniis, 233. 
Bambusa stiicta^ 252. 
Boucerosia Aucheri, 144. 
Carissa diffusa^ 142. 
Carthamus tinctoria, 124. 
CathartocarpiLs fistula^ 62. 
Cedrus deodara^ 222. 
Corylus Colurna, 201. 
Crocus satiyus^ 239. 
EmbUca officinalis^ 193. 
Eryngium planum^ 106. 
Erdophia campestris, 237. 
Fagonia cretica^ 37. 
Gentiana kurroo^ 147. 
Ouilandina Bonduc^ 69. 
Hedychium spicatum^ 239. 
Matricaria Cbamomila, 127. 
Physalis Indica^ 158. 
Boylea elegans^ 172. 
SMix Babylonica, 207. 
Sphseranthus hirtus^ 130. 
Symplocos crateegoides^ 138. 
Ilialictrum foliolosum^ 5. 
Tinospora cordifolia^ 6. 
Triticum cestiTum, 263. 
Verbena officinalis^ 166. 

Tanaik, ifc. — 

Carthamus tinctorius^ 124. 
MacrotomiaBenthami? 154. 
Rhazya stricta, 143. 

Tooth-ache, gums^ &c. — 
Artemisia spp., 121. 
Aucklandia Costua^ 122. 

Ballot limbata^ 167. 
Calotropis procera, 145. 
Delphinium deni]^datam, 3. 
Gymnosporia spinosa^ 41. 
Pistacia Terebinthus^ 4^. 
Pyrethrum sp,, 129. . 
Salvadora Indica^ 175. 
XuLthoxylon hostile^ 39. 


Astragalus multiceps ? 58. 
Calotropis procera, 145. 
Cucumis Colocynthis, 96. 
Juglans regia, 202. 
Populus Euphratica, 205. 
Salix alba, 206. 
Salvadora Indica, 174. 
Xanthoxylon hostile, 39. 

Torches — 

Cedrtts deodara 221. 
Pinus excelsa, 225 ; P. Ge- 
riurdiana, 226 ; P. longifo- 
lia, 227. 

Cynodon doctylon, 254. 
Trifolium repens, 76. 

Turnery, combs, cups, spoons, 
toys, &c.— 

Acer cultratum, 31. 
Balanites ^gyptiaca, 44. 
Betula Bhojputra, 198. 
Buxus sempervirens, 192. 
Capparis aphylla^ 16. 
Carissa diffusa, 142. 
Celtis Nepalensis, 210. 
Crataeva religiosa, 17. 
Diosporos tomentosa, 137. 
Euonymus fimbriata, 41. 
Flacourtia sapida, 18. 
Fraxinus floribundus, 189. 
Holarrhena antidysentericaj 

Juniperus excelsa^ 223. 

OF V8B8, ftc. 


Moras serrata, 219, 
Nauclea parnfolia^ 16. 
Olea Europ»a/140. 
Ougeinia Dalbergioides^ 72. 
Pavia Indica, 82. 
PinuB excelsa^ 222. 
Populus Euphratica, 205. 
Prunofl Armeniaca^ 82 ; P. 

domestica ; P. Padua, 88. 
Putaranjiva B^xburghii, 196. 
Rhododendron arboreum, 

Salix alba, 307. 
Syringa Emodi, 141. 
Tamarix dioica, 91 ; T. ori- 

entaliB) 92. 
Tamarix baccata, 228. 
Ulmua integrifolia> 211. 
Wrightea molIi8sima> 143. 


Pinus longifolia, 227. 
Pistacia Terebinthus, 48. 

UmbreUoB — 

Bauhinia racemosa, 58. 
Betula Bhojputra, 198* 

Urinary diseaaes— - 

Liguaticum ajowan, 107. 
Malva parviflora, 98. 
Parmelia Kamtachadalis, 

Uterine affections — 
Careya arborea, 95. 
Daucus carota, 105. 
Dolomisea macrocepliala, 

Parmelia Kamtscbadalis^ 

Kottlera tinctoria, 197. 
Saccharom sara, 26 !• 

Vamiih — 

Rhus succedanea; R. vemi- 
cifera^ 49. 


Amygdalus Persica var. 
lasvis, 78. 

Artemisia Indica ; A. Persi- 
ca, 120. 

Balanites ^gyptiaca, 44. 

Bouoerosia Auchcri, 144. 

Euphorbia Helioscopia^ 194* 

Hypericum perforatum, 80. 

Myrsine Africana, 185. 

Populus Euphratica, 205. 

Psoralea corylifolia, 75. 

Punica granatum, 94. 

Rottlera tinctoria, 197. 

Sphseranthus hirtus, 180. 

Veterinary medicine—* 
Acorus Calamua, 286. 
Adhatoda Vasica, 164. 
Aloe perfoliata, 282. 
Amygdalus Persica, 78. 
Artemisia sacrorum, 121. 
Arum speciosum i A. tortu- 

rosum, 247. 
Asparagus rascemosus, 288* 
Baliota limbata, 167. 
Butea frondosa, 60. 
Cedrus deodara, 221. 
Celastrus paniculata, 40. 
Chamaerops Ritchiana, 248. 
Cucumis Colocynthis, 96. 
Francoeuria crispa, 126. 
Grentiana kurroo, 147. 
Hedychium spicatum, 289. 
Linum trigynum, 21. 
Lonicera glauca, 118. 
Phelipsea Calotropidis, 164. 
Picrorhiza kurrooa, 168. 
Roscoea purpurea, 289. 
Withania somnife^^ 161. 

Cicer Soongaricum, 68. 



Walking-sticks, clubs — 
Cotoneaster obtusa^ 79. 
Cratsegus crenulata, 79. 
Olea Enropsea^ 140. 
Parrotia Jacquemontiana^ 

Prinsepia utilis^ 81. 
Pyrus variolosa^ 85. 
Xanthoxylon hostile^ 39. 

WcUer-tronghs ifc. — 

Bombax heptaphjllum^ 24. 
Juniperus excelsa^ 223. 
Morus serrata^ 219. 
Pavia Indica^ 32. 
Phoenix dactylifera, 244 ; P. 

sylvestris, 246. 
Populus ciliata^ 204. 


Acacia Arabica^ 51 ; A. spe- 

ciosa^ 55. 
Bombax heptaphyllum^ 24. 
Sutea frondosa^ 59. 
CaUigonum polygonoides^ 

Emblica officinalis^ 193. 

Ficus glomerata^ 212. 
Melia Azedarach^ 33. 
Michelia Champaca^ 6. 
Populus Euphratica^ 205. 
Prosopis spicigera^ 74. 
Sizygium Jambolanum^ 95» 
Zizyphus Jujuba^ 43. 

Wheel-work, 8fc. — 

Acacia Arabica^ 51; A. 
Catechu^ 52 ; A. modesta^ 
54; A. speciosa^ 55. 

Cordia vestita^ 153. 

Cratseya religiosa^ 17. 

Diospyros tomentosa^ 137. 

Olea Europsea^ 140. 

Ougeinia Dalbergioides^ 72. 

Pavia Indica, 47. 

Tamarindus Indica^ 76. 

Salvadora oleoides^ 175. 

Sizygium Jambolanum^ 95. 

Tamarix dioica^ 91; T. ori- 
entalise 92. 

Zizyphus Jujuba^ 43. 

Wine — 

Yitis Indica^ 35. 


C/ T\?