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Full text of "The Purgatorio of Dante Alighieri"

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Edited by 
ISRAEL 
GOLLANCZ 
M.A. 



First Editioll, NO'iJember 190 I 
Second Edition, April 1901 
Third Edition, S
ptember 19 0 3 



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PORTRAIT OF DANTE WITH THE MOUNT OF PURGATORY IN THE BACI<GROUNO. 
FROM THE PAINTING BY DOMENICO 01 MICHELINO IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE_lt65_ 



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Ordina quest' A
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J ACOPONIt DA TODI. 1 


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A 



PURGATORIO 


pROLOGUE (1-12). The poets issue on the low.. 
lying shore east of the Mount of Purgatory, and 
Dante's eyes, which in Hell have shared the misery of 
his heart, become once more the instruments of delight, 
as he looks into the clear blue sk y and sees Venus near 
the eastern horizon (13-21). The South Pole of the 
Heavens is well above the southern horizon, and all is 
bathed in the light of the glorious constellation neverseen 
since man, at the Fall, was banished to the Northern 
Hemisphere (22-27). Turning north, the poet per- 
ceives the venerable figure of Cato, his face illuminated 
by the four stars, typifying the four moral virtues 
(2.8-39). He challenges the poets as though fugitives 
from Hell (40-48); but Virgil pleads the command 
of a Laùy ù[ Hedven, and explains that Dante still 


Ant.i- Per correr miglior acqua alza Ie vele J 
purgatono omai 1a navicella del IDio ingegno, 
che lascia retro a sè mar sì crudele. 
E canterò di quel secondo regno, 
dove l' umano spirito si purga 
e di salire al ciel diventa degno. 
Ma qui la morta poesì risurga, 
o sante Muse, poichè vostro sono, 
e qui Calliopè alquanto surga, 
seguitando il mio canto con quel suo no, 
di cui Ie Piche misere sentiro 
10 colpo tal che disperar perdono. 
Dolce color d' oriental zi-1ffiro, 
che B' accoglieva nel sereno aspetto 
dell' aer puro infino al primo giro, 
agli occhi miei ricoo1inciò diletto, 
tosto ch' i' uscii fuor dell' aura marta) 
che m' avea contristati gli occhi e il pett.o. 


If 


I 


I 



OANTO I 


livei, and is seeking that liberty for love of which 
CatO himself had renounced his life. He further 
aprea1s to him, by his love of Marcia, to further their 
journey through his realm (49-84). Cato is untouched 
by the thought of Marcia, from whom he is no\v in- 

'\_rdly severed; but in reverence for the heavenly 
mandate he bids Virgil gird Dante with the rush of 
humil
ty and cleanse his face with dew from the stains 
of Hell, that he may be ready to meet the ministers 
of Heaven. The sun, now rising, will teach them 
the ascent (85-108). The poets seek the shore, as 
the sea ripples under the morning breeze; and Virgil 
follows Cato's behest, cleansing Dante's face with dew, 
al 1 d plucking the rush, which instantly springs up again 
miraculously renewed (109-136). 
T a course o'er better waters now hoists sail the Proem 
little bark of my wit, leaving behind her a sea 
so cruet 
And I will sing of that second realm, where the 
human spirit is purged and becomes worthy to 
ascend to Rea ven. 
But here let dead poesy rise up again, 0 holy Invocation 
Muses, since yours am I, and here ]
t CaHi- 
ope rise somewhat, 
ac.companYlng my song with that strain whose 
stroke the wretched Pies felt so that they 
despaired of pardon. 
Sweet hue of orient sapphire which was gather- Approach 
ing on the clear forehead of the sky, pure of Dawn 
even to the fi rst circle, 
tc mine eyes restored delight, soon as I issued 
forth from the dead air which had affiicted 
eyes and heart. 


3 



Anti- 1..10 bel pian eta che ad an1ar conforta 
purgatorio J:. . d l ' . 
Iaceva tutto n er onente, 
velando ,i Pesci ch' erano in sua scorta. 
10 mi yolsi a n1an destra, e posi mente 
all' altro polo, e vidi quattro stelle 
non viste mai fuor che alia prinla gen tee 
Goder pareva il ciel di lor fian1melle. 
o settentrional vedovo sito, 
poichè privato sei di mirar quelle ! 
Con1' io dal loro sguardo fui partito, 
un poco me volgendo all' altro polo 
1à onde il Carro già era sparito, 
vidi pres so di me un vegl-io solo, 
, degno di tanta riverenza in vista, 
che più non dee a padre alcun figliuolo. 
L unga 130 barba e di pel bianco mista 
portava, a' suoi capegli sin1i gliante, 
de' quai cadeva al petto doppia lista. 
Li raggi delle quattro luci sante 
fregiavan sì la sua faccia di lume, 
ch' io '1 vedea come il sol Fosse davante. 
"Chi siete voi, che contro al cieco fìun1e 
fuggito a vete la prigione eterna ? " 
diss' ei, movendo quell' oneste piume. 
" Chi v' ha guidati? 0 chi vi fu lucerna, 
uscendo fuor della profonda notte 
che scn1pre nera fa la valle inferna ? 
Son Ie leggi d' abisso così roUe? 
o è mutato in ciel nuovO consiglio, 
che dannati venite aIle n1Ìe grotte ? " 
Lo duca n1io alIor mi diè di piglio, 
e con parole e con mana e con cenni, 
riverenti n1Ï fe' Ie gambe e il ciglio. 


4 


PURGATORIO 


19 


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CAr-I TO I 


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The fair planet which hearteneth to love was The Planet 
o h 1 E J h 0 1 0 h VeU11S 
makIng the woe -I ast to aug, vel lng t e . 
Fishes that were in her train. 
I turned me to the right hand, and set my n1ind The Four 
I d e Stars 
on the other po e, an saw lour stars never yet 
seen save by the first people. 
The heavens seen1ed to rejoice in their flames.' 
o Northern widowed clime, since thou art 
bereft of beholding them! 
When I was parted from gazing at them, turning 
me a little to the other pole, there whence the 
Wain had already disappeared, 
I I saw near me an old man solitary, worthy of Cato 
such great reverence in his mien, that no son 
owes more to a father. ( 
Long he \vore his beard and nlingled \vÎth white 
hair, like unto his locks of which a double 
list fell on his breast. 
1'he rays of the four holy lights adorned his 
face so with brightness, that I beheld him 
as were the sun before him. 
" Who are ye that against the dark stream have 
fled the eternal prison?" said he, moving 
those venerable plumes. 
"Who hath guided you? or who was a lamp 
unto you issuing forth fi'om the deep night 
that ever maketh black the infernal vale? 
Are the laws of the pit thus broken, or is there 
some new counsel changed in Heaven that 
being damned ye come to my rocks? " 
I Then did my Leader lay hold on me, and \vith Virgil 
words, and with hand, and \vith signs, made 
reverent my knees and bro\v. 



6 


PURGATORIO 


Ant}- Poscia rispose lui: "Da ß1e non venni. 
purgatono Donna seese del ciel, per Ii cui preghi 
della nlia compagnia costui sovvenni. 
Ma da ch' è tuo voler che più si spieghi 
di nostra condizion com' ella è vera, 
esser non puote il mio che a te si neghi. 
Questi non vide mai I' ultima sera, 
ma per la sua foIlia Ie fu sì presso, 
che molto poco tempo a vo]ger era. 
Sì come io dissi, fui mandato ad esso 
per lui campare, e non v' era altra via 
che questa per la quale io mi son mesao.. 
Mostrato ho lui tutta la gente ria ; 
ed ora intendo ßlostrar quelli spirti, 
che purgan sè sotto la tua balìa. 
Come io }' ho tratto, saria lungo a dirti : 
dell' alto seen de virtù che m' aiuta 
conducerlo a vederti cd a udirti. 
.Or ti piaccia gradir la sua venuta : 
libertà va cercando, che è sì cara, 
come sa chi per lei vita rifiuta. 
Tu il sai, chè non ti fu per lei amara 
in Utica la morte, ove lasciasti 
Ia vesta che al gran dì sarà sì chiara. 
Non son gli ewtti eterni per noi guasti : 
chè questi vive e Minos me non lega; 
ma son del cerchio ove son gli occhi casti 
di Marzia tua, che in vista ancor ti prega, 
o santo petto, che per tua la tegni : 
per 10 suo an10re adunque a noi ti piega. 
Lasciane andar per Ii tuoi sette regni : 
grazie riporterò di te a lei, 
se d' es:>er mentovato laggiù degni." 


52 


55 


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CANTO I 


7 


Then ans\vered hinl: "Of n1yself I came not. Virgil 
AI d d f . H h h h ' discourses 
a ycame own lorn eaven t roug w o
e of Dante's 
prayers I succoured this man with my company. journey 
But since it is thy will that more be unfolded 
of our state, how it truly is, my will it cannot 
be that thou be denied. 
He hath ne'er seen the last hour, but by his 
madness was so near to it, that very short 
time there was to turn. 
Even as I said, 1 was sent to him to rescue him, 
and no other way there \vas but this along 
which I have set me. 
I have shown him all the guilty people, and now 
do purpose showing those spirits that purge 
them under thy charge. 
How I have brought him, 'twere long to tell 
thee: Virtue descends from on high which aids 
Ine to guide him to see thee and to hear thee. 
Now may it please thee to be gracious unto his His prayer 
coming: he seeketh freedom, which is 80 to Cato 
precious, as he knows who giveth up life for her. 
Thou knowest it; since for her sake death was not 
bitter to thee in Utica, where thou leftest the 
raiment which at the great day shall be so bright. 
The eternal laws by us are not violated, for he 
doth live and Minos binds me not; but I am 
of the circle where are the chaste eyes 
of thy 11arcia, VJho visibly yet doth pray thee, 
o holy breast, that thou hold her for thine 
own: for love of her then incline thee unto us. 
Let us go through thy seven kingdolns: thanks 
of thee I will bear back to her, if thou deign 
to be mentioned there below. 
, 



8 


PURGATORIO 


Ant!- "Marzia piacque tanto agJi occhi miei, 
purgatOrlO h ' 0 f 0 d o ] ' " d o, 1 . 1] 
mentre c 10 UI 1 a, ISS eg I a ora, 
"che quante grazie valse da me, fei. 
Or che di là dal nlal fiume dimora, 
più mover non nli può per quella legge 
che fatta tu quando me n' uscii [uora. 
Ma se donna del ciel ti n10ve e regge, 
con1e tu di', non c' è mestier lusinghe : 
bastiti ben che per lei mi richegge. 
Va dunque, e fa che tu costui ricinghe 
d' un giunco schietto, e che gli Javi il viso 
sì che ogni sucidulne quindi stinghe : 
chè non si converria ]' occhio sorpriso 
d' alcuna nebbia andar davanti al prinlo 
ministro, ch' è di quei di Paradiso. 
Questa isoletta intorno ad imo ad imo, 
laggiù, colà dove la batte ]' onda, 
porta de' giunchi sopra illl1011e limo. 
Null' aJtra pianta, che facesse fronda 
o indurasse, vi puote aver vita, 
però che aIle percosse non seconda. 
Poscia non sia di qua vostra reddita; 
10 sol vi mostrera, che surge omai, 
prender 10 monte a più lieve salita." 
Così sparì; cd io su mi ]evai 
senza parJare, e tutto mi ritrassi 
al duca mio, e gli occhi a lui drizzai. 
Ei cominciò: "Figliuol, segui i miei passi : 
volgianlci indietro, chè di qua dichina 
questa pianura a' suoi ternlini bassi." 
L' alba vinceva I' ôra mattutina 
che fuggia innanzi, sì che di 10ntano 
conobbi il tremolar dell a marina. 


85 


88 


9 1 


94 


97 


100 


10 3 


106 


log 


112 


lIS 



CANTO I 


9 


" Marcia was so pleasing to mine eyes while I Cat
 
was yonder," said he then, " that every grace vi

it to 
she \villed of me I did. 
No\v that she dwelJs beyond the evil stream, no 
more may she move me, by that law \vhich was 
made when I thence can1e forth. 
But if a heavenly lady moves and directs thee, as 
thou sayest, no need is there for flattery: let 
it suffice thee that in her name thou askest me. 
Go then, and look th,lt thou gird this man with 
a sn100th rush, and that thou bathe his face 
so that all filth may thence be wiped a"Nay: 
for 'twere not meet with eye obscured by any 
mist to go before the first minister of those 
that are of Paradise. 
This little isle all round about the very báQe, 
there, where the \vave beats it, bears rushes on 
the soft mud. 
No other plant that would put forth leaf or 
harden can live there, because it yields not 
to the buffetings. 
Then be not this way your return; the sun, 
which now is rising, will show you how to 
take the mount at an easier ascent." 
So he vanished; and I uplifted me without Virgil and 
speaking, and drew me all back to Iny Leader, Dante 
and directed mine eyes to him. . 
He began: "Son, follow thou my steps: turn we 
back, for this way the plain slopes down to 
its low bounds." 
The da\vn was vanquishing the breath of morn 
which fled before her, so that from afar I 
recognised the trembling of the sea. 


. 



10 


PURGATORIO 


An
i- N oi andavam per 10 solingo piano, uS 
purgatono , h 11 d 
COlT! uom C e torna a a per uta strada, 
che infino ad essa gli par ire in vano. 
Quando noi funlmo dove la rugiada 121 
pugna col sole, per essere in parte 
dove ad orezza, poco si dirada, 
ambo Ie mani in su I' erbetta sparte 12 4 
soa vemente il mio maestro pose; 
ond' io che fui accorto di su' arte, 
porsi ver lui Ie guance lagrimose : 12 1 
qui vi mi fece tutto discoperto 
que] color che I' inferno mi nascose. 
Venimmo poi in suI lito diserto, 13 0 
che mai non vide navicar sue acque 
uomo che di tornar sia poscia esperto. 
Quivi mi cinse sì cOlne altrui piacque: 133 

 . 0 ßlaraviglia! che qual egli scelse 
I' umile pianta, cotal si rinacque 
subitamente là onde Ia sveIse. 13 6 


* * * See" Dante's Purgatory," "The Chronology oC 
tht Purgatorio," and the Editorial Note at the close of 
this volume. 
9-17.. Calliope-the Muse of Epic Pot:try.-The 
Pierides, the nine daughters of Pierus, I(ing of 
Emathia, having challenged the Muses to a contest 
of song and suffered defeat, were changed by them 
into magpies (see Ovid's .llie/am. v. 7.93 sqq.). 
19-2.1. Venus was not actually in Pisces in the 
spring of 1300, but Dante is probably following a 
tradition as to the position of all the planets at the 
moment of Creation (cf. In}'. i. 37-40). In the repre- 
sentation of the Creation in the Collegiate Church at San 
Gemignano, Venus is depicted as being in Pisces. See 
diagram on p. 59. 
23-27. We must assume either that Dante invented 
these four stars, which he identifies with the íour 



CANTO I 


13 


We paced along the lonely plain, as one wh 
returns to his lost road, and, till he reach it; 
seems to go In vaIn. 
When we can1e there where the dew is striving 
with the sun, being at a place where, in the 
cool air, slowly it is scattered; 
both hands outspread, gently my Master laid 
upon the sweet grass; \vherefore I who was 
ware of his purpose, 
raised towards him my tear-stained cheeks: there 
made he all revealed my hue which Hell had 
hidden. ' 
We came then on to the desert shore, that never 
saw man navigate its waters who thereafter 
knew return. 
There he girded me even as it pleased Another: 
o marvel! that such as he plucked the lowly 
plant, even such òid it forthwith spring up 
again, there whence he tore it. 
cardinal virtues-Prudence, Justice, Fortitude and 
"femperance (
f. Purg. xxix. 130-132; xxxi. 103- 
106); or that he had learnt the existence of the 
Southern Cross from some traveller.- The prima genie 
are probably Adam and Eve. When these were 
driven from the Earthly Paradise (situated on the 
summit of the Mount of Purgatory), the southern 
hemisphere was held to be uninhabited (if. In}: xxvi. 
117: mondo senza gente): for according to medieval 
geography the whole of Asia and Africa were north of 
the equator. 
30. Only a portion of the Wain would at any time 
be visible in the supposed latitude of Purgatory, and it 
was now completely below the horizon. 
3 1 s'l'l. Cato of Utica (born B.C. 95), one of the chief 
opponents of Cæsar's measures. After the battle of 
Thapsus, he committed suicide rather than fall into 
his enemy's hands (B.C. 46). This was regarded as 



10 


NOTES 


Anti- 
è supreme act of devotion to liberty \ Conv. iii. 5 : 90; 
purgatorio jJe Mon. H. 5: 98), and partly accounts for his position 
here (see "lIV. 71, 72,); though Virgil's line-secrttosque 
Pios, his dantemJura Catonem (Æn
 viii. 670), which refers 
to the good set apart from the wicked in the world 
beyond, probably weighed more heavily with Dante. 
OUf poet's general conception of Cato is derived from 
Lucan (Pllarsalia, ii. 373-391); and his intense admira- 
tion of the man and of his character finds expression in 
several passages of the COll'Vito (i v. 5: 10 3; 6: 71; 
27: 2.3; 2.8: 92.). Cato's position ,as warder,Aof the 
Christian Purgatory is probably to be explained in a 
similar way as the position of Ripheus in Paradise (see 
Par. xx. I 18 sqq., and note); note especially the alle- 
gorical significance of the stars in 'Vv. 37-39, and the 
fact that Sole is often synony
ous with God. 
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The course of the Poets round and up the northern half of the 
Mount of Purgator!J,from Ea.rt to West. Seen from ah()'lJe. 



CANTO I 


13 


40. See Inf. xxxiv. 13 0 . 
58-60. ulJima sera, here used in the double sense of 
bodily and spiritual death (if. Con'V. iv. 7: 102 sqq.). 
The verses refer, of course, to the allegory of Irif. i. 
77. For Minos, see I nf. v. 4 S'lq. 
78-80. Marcia (for v{hom see Inf. iv. 128) was the 
second wife of Cato, who yielded her to his friend 
Q. Hortensius. On the death of the latter, she was 
again married to Cato. The Con
ito (iv. 28: 97-159) 
contains an elaborate allegory, in which the return of 
Marcia to Cato signifies the return of the noble soul 
to God. 
86. di là. These \vords when used by themselves in 
the Purgatorio al ways mean" in the other hemisphere." 
8 8. The mal fume is the Acheron (see Ilif. iii. 
7 0 S'lq. ). 


r j I 


Showing the portio1ls of the mountain under light and shade 
at 6 o'clock a.m. Cf. Purg. ii. 1-9, ix. 44 (two hours 
later), xix. 39, xxvii. 133. 



PURGATORIO 


A 1" Jerusalem day is setting and night rising, and 
in Purgatory day rising and night setting (1-9); 
and as the poets, pondering on their course, are delaying 
their journey against their will, they see glowing red 
in the east a light swiftly approaching them; which 
Virgil soon recognises as Charon's angelic counterpart, 
,vho with stroke of wing guides a light barque with 
its charge of happy souls to the mountain of purifica- 
tion (10-45). As they land the souls chant the psalm oj 
the Exodus, and with the sign of the cross their angelic 
guard departs, to renew his mission (46-5 I). Thf 
risen sun now shoots full daylight into the sky, obliter. 
ating Capricorn from the zenith; the new-come folk 
inquire the way and Virgil answers that he and hi
 
companion are strangers like themselves (51-66). 
whereon the shades observe that Dante breathes anc 
is still in the first life, and in their eagerness almosl 
forget the cleansing for which they have c:ome t< 
the mount (67-75). One especially, the musiciar 
Casella, presses forward with a look of such affectior 
that the poet opens his arms to embrace him
 bu' 
he only clasps an empty shade (76-87). Dante mus' 
Anti- Già era il sole all' orizzonte giunto, 
purgatorio ]0 cui meridian cerehio coperehia 
Jerusalem col suo più alto punto ; 
e Ia notte ehe opposita a lui cerehia 
useìa di Gange fuor con Ie bilanee, 
ehe Ie eaggion di man quando soperchia: 
sì che Ie bianche e Ie vermiglie guance, 
Jà dove io era, della bella Aurora, 
per troppa etate divenivan ranee. 
Noi eravam lunghesso il mare ancora, 
come gente che pensa suo cammino, 
che va col core, e col corpo dimora ; 


I 


II 



CANTO II. 


lOW explain the mystery of his own presence in that 

Jace while still in the flesh, and Casella in his turn 
must explain the delay of many months between his 
leath and his admission into the boat of the redeemed 
I that gathers its happy charge at the mouth of Tiber 
I 
g 8- 10 5). Dante's heart and senses are still aching 
from the anguish of Hell; and the loveliness of earth, 
sea and sky has re-awakened his perception of the 
healing power of beauty. So a great longing comes 
over him once more to hear the sweet singer's voice 
that has so often soothed him and 
anished all his 
cares. Does that power of song which on earth seems 
akin to the spiri t world, survive the great change? (106- 
1 I I). Casella's answer is to sing, in tones the sweet- 
ness whereof can never die, a song that Dante himself 
had written to the praise of Wisdom; whereon .Virgil 
and all the other souls gather eagerly around, till re- 
buked for this premature indulgence and repose by 
the stern Cato, who bids them to press forward the 
cleansing work of the mountain (11%-1%3). Whereon 
they scud along the plain like startled doves (1%4- 
133). 
Already had the sun reached the horizon, whose Dawn 
meridian circ]e covers Jerusalem with its d oC t
e first 
h . h . ay 10 
Ig est pOint, Purgatory 
and night \vhich opposite to him revolves, fi'om 
Ganges forth was issuing \vith the Scales, 
that fan from her hand when she prevails; 
so that fair Aurora's white and ruddy cheeks, 
there where I was, through too great age \vere 
turning orange. 
\Ve \vere alongside the ocean yet, like folk who 
ponder o'er their road, who in heart do go 
and in body stay; 


IS 



16 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- ed ecco, qual suI pres so del n1attino 
purgatorio per Ii grossi vapor Marte rosseggia 
giù nel ponente sopra il suol marino: t .. ,. 
cotal m' apparve, s' io ancor 10 veggia, 
un lume per 10 mar venir sì ratto, 
che il mover suo nessun volar pareggia; 
àa] qual com' io un poco ebbi ritratto 
}' occhio per don1andar 10 duca mio, 
rividil più lucente e maggior fatto. 
Poi d' ogni lato ad esso m' apparìo 
un non sapeva che bianco, e di sotto 
a poco a poco un altro a lui uscÌo. 
Lo mio n1aestro ancor non fece motto 
mentre che i primi bianchi apparser ali; 
allor che ben conobbe if galeotto, 
gridò: "Fa, fa che Ie ginocchia cali; 
ecco l' Angel di Dio: piega Ie mani: 
ornai vedrai di sì fatti ufficiaJi. 
, 
Vedi che sdegna gIi argomenti urn ani, .. Á 
sì che remo noft vuol nè altro velo 
che l' ale sue tra liti sì lontani. 
Vedi come I' ha dritte verso il cieIo, 
trattando }' aere con I' eterne penne, 
che non si mutan COOle mortal pelo." 
Poi come più e più verso noi venne 
l' uccd divino, più chiaro appariva ; 
per che }' occhio da presso nol sostenne, 
ma chin ail giuso; e quei sen venne a riva 
fon un v
sello snelletto e leggiero, 
 
tanto che l' acqua nulla ne inghiottiva. 
Da poppa stava il celestial nocchiero, 
tal che parea beato per iscritto ; 
e più di cento spirti entro sediero. 


I
 


I 


16 


I; 


22 


2S 


28 


3 1 


34 


37 


4 0 


43 



CANTO I I 


17 


lnd 10, as on the approach of morn, through the The Angel 
d . M b d 1 · W of God 
ense mists ars urns re , ow In the est draws near 
0' er the ocean-floor; 
mch to me appeared-so may I see it again !- 
a light coming o'er the sea so swiftly, that no 
flight is equal to its motion; 
Tom \vhich, when I had a while withdrawn 
mine eyes to question my Leader, I saw it 
brighter and bigger grown. 
fhen on each side of it appeared to me a some- u
ing his 
thing white; and from beneath it, Jittle by :;:il;s as 
little, another whiteness came forth. 
\1 y Master yet did speak no word, until the 
first whitenesses appeared as wings; then, 
when well he knew the pilot, 
1e cried: "Bend, bend thy knees; behold the 
Angel of God: fold thy hands: henceforth 
shalt thou see such ministers. 
Look how he scorns all human instruments, so 
that oar he wills not, nor other sail than his 
wings, between shores so distant. 
See how he has them heavenward turned, plying 
the air with eterna.l plumes, that are not mewed 
like mortal hair." 
Then as more and more towards us came the 
bird divine, brighter yet he appeared, where- 
fore mine eye endured him not near: 
Jut I bent it down, and he came on to the shore 
with a vessel so swift and light that the waters 
nowise drew it in. 
In the stern stood the celestial pilot, such, that 
blessedness seemed writ upon him, and more 
than a hundred spirits sat within. 
Ð 



18 


PURGATORIO 


Ant.i- " In exitu Israel de Egitto," 
purgatono cantavan tutti insieme ad un
 voce, 
con quanto di que1 sa1n10 è poscia scritto. 
Poi fece il segno lor di santa croce; 
ond' ei si gittar tutti in su la piaggia, 
ed ei sen gì, come venne, veloce. 
La turba che rimase Ii selvaggia 
parea del loco, rimirando intorno 
come colui che nuove cose assaggia. 
Da tutte parti saettava il giorno 
10 so], ch' avea con Ie saette conte 
di mezzo il ciel cacciato il Capricorno, 
quando 1a nuova gente alzò la fronte 
ver noi, dicendo a noi: "Se voi sapete, 
mostratene la via di gire al ßlonte." 
, E Virgilio rispose: "v oi credete 
forse che siamo esperti d' esto loco; 
ßla noi siam peregrin, cOlne voi siete. 
Dianzi venimmo, innanzi a voi un pocò, 
per altra via che fu sì aspra e forte, 
che 10 salire omai ne parrà gioco." 
L' anime che si fur di me accorte, 
per 10 spir:lre, ch' io era ancor vivo, 
maravigliando diventaro snlorte; 
e come a messagger, che porti olivo, 
tragge la gente per udir novelJe, 
e d i calcar nessun si mostra schivo : 
così al viso mio s' affissar queUe 
aninle fortunate tutte quante, 
quasi obbliando d' ire a farsi belle. 
\ } 10 vidi una di lor trarsi davante 
\ per abbracciarmi can sÌ grande affetto, 
l I che nlosse me a far 10 simigliante. 
l 


4 6 


49 


S:i! 


S! 


S
 


6' 


6 


6 


7 


'/ 


j 



CANTO II 


19 


" I'll exitu Israel de Af'g;'jfO," sang they all to- The souls 
h . h . . h h f h I about to 
get er WIt one vOIce, WIt \v at 0 t at psa m enter Pur- 
is thereafter written. gatory 
Then nlade he to them the sign of Holy Cross, 
whereat they all flung them on the strand and 
quick even as he came he went his way. 
The throng that remained there seemed strange 
to the place, gazing around like one who 
assayeth new things. 
On every side the sun, \vho with his arrows bright 
had chased the Goat from midst of heaven, 
was shooting forth the day, . 
\vhen the new people lifted up their faces towards 
u
, saying to us: "If ye know show us the 
h " 
\vay to go to t e mount. 
And Virgil answered: " Ye think perchance Virgil 
that we have ex p erience of this P lace but speaks to() 
, them 
we are strangers even as ye are. 
'Ve came but now, a little while before you, by 
other way which was so rough and hard, that 
the climbing now will seem but play to us." 
The souls \vho had observed me by my breath- Their 
ing that I was yet alive, marveJIing grew amazement 
pale; 
and as to a messenger, who bears the olive, the 
folk draw nigh to hear the news, and none 
shows himself shy at trampling; 
so on my face those souls did fix their gaze, 
fortunate everyone, well nigh forgetting to 
go and make them fair. 
f S:l\V one of them draw fOT\vard to embrace me 
with such great affection, that he moved me 
to do the like. 



An
i- 0 oDlbre vane, fuor che nell' aspetto ! 
purgatono tre volte retro a lei )e mani avvinsi, 
e tante mi tornai con esse al petto. 
Di maraviglia, credo, mi dipinsi ; 
per che l' ombra sorrise e si ritrasse, 
ed io, seguendo lei, oItre mi pinsi. 
SoaveOlente disse ch' io posasse; 
ållor conobbi chi era e '1 pregai 
che per parlarmi un poco s 'arrestasse. 
Risposemi: "Così com' io t' amai 
nel mortal corpo, cosi t' amo sciolta : 
però ro' arresto; ma tu perchè vai ? " 
"Casella mio, per tornare altra volta 
là dove son, fo io questo viaggio," 
diss' io; "ma a te com' è tanta ora tolta ? " 
Ed egli a me: "Nessun m' è fatto oltraggio, 94 
se quei, che leva e quando e cui gli piace, 
più volte m' ha negato esto passaggio: 
chè di giusto vol
r 10 suo si face. 
V eramen te da tre mesi egli ha tal to 
chi ha voluto entrar can tutta pace. 
) Ond' io che era ora aHa marina volta, 
dove l' acqua di Tevere 5' insala, 
benignamente fui da lui ricolto. 
I A quella foce ha egli or dritta }' ala; 
I però che sen1pre quivi si raccoglie 
I qual verso d' Acheronte non si cala." 
Ed io: "Be nuova legge non ti togJie 
menlorÍa 0 usa all' amoroso canto, . \ 
che mi solea quetar tutte mie voglie, 
di ciò ti piaccia conso]are alquanto 
I' anin1a mia, che, con la sua persona 
venendo qui, è affannata tanto." 


20 


PURGATORIO 


79 


82 


85 


88 


9 1 


97 


100 


10 3 


106 


log 



CANTO II 


21 


o shades empty save in outward show! thrice Dante and 
behind it my hands I clasped, and as often Casella 
returned with them to my breast. 
With wonder methinks I coloured me, whereat 
the shade smiled and drew back, and I, foHow.. 
ing it, flung me forward. 
Gently it bade me pause: then knew I who it 
was, and did pray him that he would stay a 
\vhile to speak to me. 
He answered me: " Even as I loved thee in 
the mortal body so do I love thee freed; 
therefore I stay: but wherefore goest thou? " 
" Casella mine, to return here once a gain where 
I am, make I this journey," said I, "but how 
hath so much time been taken from thee? " 
And he to me: " No wrong is done me, if he 
who bears away when and whom he pleases 
hath many times denied me this passage; 
for of a just \viJI his will is made. Trul y for 
three months past he hath taken, in all peace, 
whoso hath wished to enter. 
'\Therefore I, who now was turned to the sea- The Tiber 
shore where Tiber's wave grows salt, kindly mouth 
by him was garnered in. 
To that mouth now he hath set his wings, be- 
cause evermore are gathered there, they who 
to Acheron sink not down." 
And I: "If a new law take not from thee 
memory or skill in that song of love which 
was wont to calm my every desire, 
may it please thee therewith to solace awhile 
my soul, that, with its n10rtal form journeying 
here, is sore distressed." 



22 


PURGATORIO 


Ant.i- ., Amor che nella mente mi rngiolla," 
purgatono conlinciò egli allor sì dolcemente, 
che la dolcezza an cor dentro mi suona. 
Lo lnio maestro ed io e quella gente 
ch' eran con Iui parevan sì contend, 
come a nessun toccasse altro la D1ente. 
Noi eravam tutti fissi cd attent.i 
aIle sue note; ed ecco il veglio onesto, 
gridando: "Che è ciò, spiriti lenti? 
qu
l negligenza, quale stare è questo ? 
Correte al monte a spogliarvi 10 scoglio, 
ch' esser non Jascia a voi Dio manifesto." 
Come quando, cogliendo biada 0 10gIio, 
Ii colombi adunati alIa pastura, 
queti senza mostrar l' usato orgogIio, 
f;e cosa appare ond' eHi abbian paura, 
subitamente Jasciano star I' esca 
perchè assaliti son da maggior cura: 
così vid' io quella masnada fresca 
lasciar 10 canto, e gire in ver Ia costa, 
come uom che va, nè sa dove riesca ; 
nè la nostra partita fu men tosta. 133 
1-9. It is sunset at Jerusalem; and midnight on the 
Ganges, i.e. in India [when the sun is in Aries, the 
night is in the opposite sign of Libra, or the Scales; 
and Libra falls from the hand of night at the time of 
the autumn equinox, when the sun enters the constella- 
tion, and the nights become longer than the days]: it is 
therefore sunrise in Purgatory (see the diagrams on 
pp. 13, 34 and 35). 
46. According to Dante CEp. ad Can. Grand. 
 7) the 
anagogical meaning of this Psahn (cxiv.) is " the exit 
of the sanctified sou) from the slavery of this corruption 
to the liberty of eternal glory." Cj. COIl'V. ii. I : 63-65, 
and see Par. xxv. 55-57, note. 
55-57 and 67, 68. See the chronological note, p. 435. 
The light of the rising sun (which ,vas in Aries) had 


112 


115 


u8 


121 


12 4 


12 7 


13 0 



CANTO II 


23 


"Love that in my mi1ld discourseth to me," began Casella 
he then so sweetly, that the s\veetness yet singeth 
within me sounds. 
My Master and I and that people ",ho \vere · 
with him, seenled so g1ad as if to aught else 
the mind of no one of then1 gave heed. 
I We \vere all fixed and intent upon his notes; Cato wroth 
and 10 the old luan venerable, crying: :
r
hing 
"What is this ye laggard spirits? Y 
what negligence, what tarrying is this? Haste 
to the mount and strip you of the slough, that 
lets not God be manifest to you. 
As doves ,vhen gathering wheat or tares, all 
assembled at their repast, quiet and showing 
not tht=ir ,von tcd pride, 
if aught be seen whereof they have fear, straight- 
way let stay their food, because they are 
assailed by greater care; 
so saw I that ne\v company leave the singing, 
and go towards the hiHside, like one who 
goes, but knoweth not where he may come 
forth; nor was our parting less quick. 
blotteà Capricorn out of mid-heaven (Capricorn touch- 
ing the meridian at the moment '\vhen Aries touches 
the horizon). See diagram on p. 59. 
j6. Casella
 a musician of Florence or of Pistoia, and 
a personal friend of Dante's, some of \\
hose verses he 
is said to have set to music, including perhaps the 
canzone Amor eke nella me/lie mi ragiolla (see verse 
112) which was subsequently annotated by the poet 
in the third book of his Cm'iJito. 
98. da tre I'll,si, i.e., since the beginning of the Jubilee 

 if. Ill! xviii. z8- 33). 
100-105. Salvation is to be attained only in the true 
Church, which has its seat at Rome: hence the souls 
of those th:1t are not damned assemble at the mouth of 
the Tiber, the port of Rome. 



PURGATORIO 


W HEN Dante has recovered from his confusion, 
and Virgil from the self-reproach caused by 
his momen tary neglect of his charge, the poets look 
west toward the mountain. The sun shines behind 
them and throws Dante's shadow right before him. 
Now for the first time he misses Virgil's shadow, and 
thinks that he has lost his companionship; but Virgil 
reassures him. It is nine hours agone since the sun 
rose in the place where lies tha
 part of him which 
once cast a shadow (1-30). The nature of the aerial 
bodies in the spirit world is unfathomable by human 
philosophy, which yearns in vain for solutions of the 
mysteries of faith (31-45). When they arrive at the 
foot of the mountain, the poets are at a loss how to 
scale its precipices; but at their left Dante perceives 
a group of souls slowly moving toward them from the 
south (46-60). With Virgil's sanction they go to 
meet them, and by thus reversing the usual direction 


Anti- Avvegna che la subitana fuga 
purgatorio dispergesse color per Ia campagna, 
rivolti al monte, ove ragion ne fruga, 
io mi ristrinsi alla fida compagna; 
e come sare' io senza lui corso? 
chi m' avria tratto su per la montagna ? 
E i mi parea da sè stesso rimorso : 
o dignitosa coscienza e netta, 
come t' è picciol fallo amaro morso ! 
Quando Ii piedi suoi lasciâr la fretta, 
che }' onestade ad ogni atto disn1ag
, 
la mente mia, che prima era ristretta, 
10 intento raIIargò, sì come vaga ; 
e diedi iI viso mio incontro al poggio, 
che inverso il ciel più aho si disla ga. 
24 


4 


7 


10 


1'3 



CANTO III 


which the souls take, following the sun, they excite 
the amazement of the elect spirits from whom they 
inquire their way (61-78). These sheep without a 
shepherd-for they are the souls of such as died in 
contumacy against the Church, and they must dree 
their rebellion against the chief Shepherd by thirty 
times as long a space of shepherdless wandering- 
are yet more amazed than before when they see Dante's 
shadow and hear from Virgil that he is still in the 
first life ( 79-99)' They make sign to them to 
reverse their course; and one of them, King Manfred, 
when Dante has failed to recognise him, tells the story 
of his death at the battle of Benevento; of the pitiless 
persecution even of his lifeless body by the Bishop of 
Cosenza and Pope Clement. He declares that the 
Infinite Goodness hath so 'wide an embrace that it 
enfolds all who turn to it; explains the limitations or' 
the power of the Church's malediction, and implores the 
prayers of his daughter Constance (100-145). 
Although their sudden flight \vas scattering then1 The Poet;5 
o'er the plain, turned to the mount where ;.

11 thetr 
justice probes us, 
I drew me close to my faithful comrade; and 
how should I have sped without him? who 
wDuld have brought me up the mountain? 
Gná wed he seemed to Ole by self-reproach. 0 
w
ble conscience and clear, how sharp a sting 
_ giva lit
le fault to thee! 

 sr}('n hIS feet had lost that haste which mars 

the dignity of every act, my mind, that ere- 
I n!.vhile was centred within, 
\V
ened its scope as in eager search, and I set 
fUY face to the hiIJside \vhich rises highest 
1heavenward from the waters. 
J 


25 


I 



2Ó 


PURGATORI0 


An
i- Lo sol, che retro fiammeggiava roggio, 
purgatono rotto m' era dinanzi, alIa figllra 
eh' aveva in me de' suoi raggi l' appoggio. 
10 mi volsi dalJato con paura 
d' esser abbandonato, quando io vidi 
80]0 dinanzi a me la terra oscura. 
E il mio conforto: "Perchè pur diffidi ? " 
a dir mi cominciò tutto rivoJto ; 
"non credi tu Ole teeD, e ch' i0 ti guidi ? 
Vespero è già colà, dov' è sepolto 
10 corpo, dentro al quale io facea on1bra : 
Napoli }' ha, e da Brandizio è tolto. 
Ora, se Ìnnanzi a me nulla s' adombra, 
non ti maravigliar più che de' cieli, 
che l' uno all' altro raggio non ingombra. 
A sofferir tormenti, caldi. e gieli 
simili corpi la virtù dispone, 
ehe, come fa, non vuol ehe a noi si sveJi. 
Matto è chi spera che nostra ragione 
possa trascorrer la infinita via, 
ehe tiene una Bustanzia in tre persone. 
State eontenti, umana gente, al quia: 
chè, se potuto aveste veder tutto, 
mestier non era partorir Maria; 
e disiar vedeste sen za frutto 
tai, ehe sarebbe lor disio q uetato, n 
eh' eternalmente è dato lor per lutto. I' 
 
, 
10 dieo d' Aristotele e di Plato ... f:ro 
e di Inolti altri." E qui chinò la [ronte l 
e più non disse, e rimase turbato. , 
N oi divenimmo intanto al piè del n1onte: Ni
 
quivi trovammo ]a roccia sì erta, 
che indarno vi sarien Ie gambe pronte. 


:16 


19 


22 


25 


28 


3 1 


3 t 


3' 


4 



CAI'ITO I I I 


27 


l'Ì1e sun, that behind us was flaming red, was Dante's 
broken in front of me in the figure in which fears 
it had its beams stayed by me. . 
I turned me aside from fear of being for- 
saken, \Vht'D I saw only before n1e the earth 
darkened. 
And n1Y ConJfort began to say to Ole, turning set a
 r
st 
full round: "Why dost thou again distrust? by V1rgil 
believest thou not me with thee and that I do 
guide thee? 
It is already evening there, where the body buried 
lies \vithin which I made shadow: N
'ples 
possesses it, and from Brindisi 'tis taken. 
Now, if before me no shadow falls, Inarvel not 
more than at the heavenly spheres, that one 
doth not obstruct the light from the other. 
'fo suffer torments, heat and frost, bodies such 
as these that power disposes, \v hich wills not 
that its workings be revealed to us. 
Mad is he who hopes that our reason may 
compass that infinitude which one substance 
in three persons fills. 
Be ye content, 0 human race, with the quia t 
F or if ye had been ab1e to see the whole, ñó 
need was there for Mary to give birth; 
and ye have seen such sages desire fruitlessly, 
whose desire had else been satisfied, which is 
given them for eternal grief. 
I speak of Aristotle and of Plato, and of many 
others." And here he bent his brow, and said 
I no more, and rem3.ined troubled. 
I\Ve reached meanwhile the mountain's foot: The foot of 
there found we the cliff so steep that vainly the Mount 
there \vould legs be nimble. 



28 


PURGATORIO 


Ant.ï- Tra Lerici e Turbîa, Ja più diserta, 
purgoatono 1 . ù . . è ] 
a pi rom Ita via una sca a, 
verso di quell a, agevole cd aperta. 
" Or chi sa da qual man la costa cala," 
disse il l11é1estro mio fernlanào il passo, 
" sì che possa salir chi va senz' ala?" 
E ll1cntre ch' ei teneva i1 viso basso 
esaminando del cammin Ja mente, 
ed io nlirava SUBO intorno al sasso, 
da man sinistra m' apparì una gente 
d' anime, che movieno i piè ver noi, 
e non parevan, sÌ venivan lente. 
" Leva," diss' io, "111aestro, gli occhi tuoi : 6 
ccco di qua' chi ne darà consiglio, 
se tu da te nlcdesmo aver nol puoi." 
Guardò a loro, e con ]ibero piglio 6. 
rispose: "Andiamo in là, ch' ei vegnon piano 
e tu ferma la speme, dolce figlio." 
Ancora era que! popo] di lontano, 
dico dopo Ii nostri nlille passi, 
quanto un buon gittator trarria con mano, 
quando si strinser tutti ai duri massi 
delJ' aha ripa, e stetter Fermi e stretti, 
come a guardar, chi va dubbiando, stassi. 
"0 ben finiti, 0 già spiriti eletti," 
VirgiJio incominciò, "per quella pace 
ch' io credo che per voi tutti si aspetti, 
ditene dove Ja montagna giace, 
sÌ che possibil sia l' andare in suso : 
chè perder tempo a chi più sa più spiace." 
Conle Ie pecorelJe escon del chiuso 
ad una, a due, a tre, e l' altre stanno 
timidette atterranclo l' occhio e il muso ; 


4' 


5 


5 


5 


6- 


7 1 


7: 


7 1 


7! 



CANTO III 


29 


'rwixt l,erici and Turbia, the way most desolate, The nature 
I . .. d r. of the 
most so Itary, IS a staIrway easy an rree, ascent 
compared with that. 
" N O\V who knows on which hand the scarp 
cloth slope," said my Master, halting his steps, 
"so that he may climb who wingless goes? " 
And while he held his visage low, searching in 
thought anent the way, and I was looking up 
about the rocks, 
on the left hand appeared to me a throng of The ,excom.. 
I h d h . r d d mUlllcate 
sou S, \V 0 move t elr Ieet towar s us, an 
yet seenled not to advance, so slow they came. 
"Master," said I, "lift up thine eyes, behold 
there one who \vill give us counsel, if of 
thyself thou mayest have it not." 
He looked at thenl, and with gladsome mien 
answered: "Go we thither, for slowly they 
come, and do thou confirm thy hope, sweet son." 
As yet that people were so far off (I mean after 
a thousand paces of ours) as a good slinger 
would carry with his hand, 
when they all pressed close to the hard rocks of 
the steep cliff, and stood motionless and close, 
as he halts to gaze around who goes in dread. 
"0 ye whose end was happy, 0 spirits already 
chosen," Virgil began, "by that same peace 
which I believe by you an is awaited, 
tell us where the mountain slopes, so that it may 
be possible to go upward; for time lost irks 
him most who knoweth most." 
As sheep come forth from the pen, in ones, in 
twos, in threes, and the others stand all timid, 
casting eye and nose to earth, 



3 0 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- e ciò che fa la priola, e l' altre fanno, 
purgatorio addossandosi a lei s' ella s' arresta, 
sempJici e quete, e 10 'mperchè non sanno : 
sì vid' io movere a venir ]a testa 8 
di queHa mandria fortunata allotta, 
pudica in faccia, e nell' andare onesta. 
Come color dinanzi vider rotta 
la luce in terra dal olio destro canto, 
sì che l' ombra era da me aHa grotta, 
restaro, e trasser sè indietro alquanto, 
e tutti gli altri che venieno appresso, 
non sapendo il perchè, Fenno altrettanto. 
" Senza vostra domanda io vi confesso, 
che questo è carpo uman che voi vedete, 
per che illume del sole in terra è fesso. 
Non vi maravigliate; ma credete 
che, non senza virtù che dal ciel vegna, 
cerchi di soperchiar questa parete." 
Così i1 maestro; e quella gente degna : IC 
" Tornate," disse, "intrate innanzi dunque,: 
coi dossi delle man facendo insegna. 
Ed un di Ioro incominciò: "Chiunque 
tu se', così andando volgi il viso, 
pon mente, se di là mi vedesti unque." 
10 nli volsi ver lui, e guardail fi80 : 
biondo era e belJo e di gentile aspf1tto ; 
ma I' un de' cigli un colpo avea diviso. 
Quando io nli fui un1Ílmente disdetto 
d' averlo visto mai, ei disse: "Or vedi" : 
e mostrommi una piaga a sommo il pette. 
Poi sorridendo disse: "10 son Manfredi, 
nepote di Costanza imperadrice ; 
and' io ti prego che quando tu ried
, 


8 



 


s 


ç 


Ie 


It 


I' 


I 



CANTO III 


3 1 


and what the first one doeth, the others do also, The 
xcom- 
huddling up to her if she stand still, silly and mUDlcate 
quiet, and know not why, 
so saw I then the head of that happy flock move 
to conJe on, modest in countenance, in move- 
ment dignified. 
When those in front saw the light broken on the Their 
d . h " d h h h d doubts 
groun on my ng t SI e, so t at t e s a o\V 
was from me to the rock, 
they halted, and drew them back somewhat; 
and all the others that ca.me after, knowing 
not why, did the like. 
"Without your question I confess to you, that this dispe
le
 
is a human body ye see, by \vhich the sun's by Virgil 
light on the ground is cleft. 
Marvel ye not, but believe that not without 
virtue which cometh from heaven, he seeks 
to surn10unt this wall." 
So my Master; and that \vorthy people said: 
"Turn ye, enter then before us," with the 
backs of their hands making sign. 
And one of them began: "Whoever thou art, Manfred 
thus while going turn thy face, give heed if 
e'er thou sa,vest me yonder." 
I turned me to him, and steadfastly did look: 
golden-haired was he, and fair, and of noble 
mien; but one of his eyebrows a cut had cJeft. 
When I humbly had disclaimed ever to have 
seen him, he said: " Now look"; and he 
showed me a wound above his breast. 
ï"hen smiling said: "I am Manfred, grandson 
of Empress Constance; wherefore I pray thee, 
that ..when thou returnest, 



3 2 


PURGATORIQ 


Ant.i- vadi a mia bell a figlia, genitrice 115 
purgatorlo dell' onor di Cicilia e d' Arauona 
b , 
e dichi il vero a lei, s' altro si dice. 
Poscia ch' i' ebbi rotta la persona lIB 
di due punte mortal i, io mi rendei 
piangendo a quei che volentier perdona. 
o rribil furon Ii peccati miei ; 121 
ma la bontà infinita ha sÌ gran braccia 
che prende ciò, che si rivolge a lei. 
Se il pastor di Cosenza, che alia caccia 124- 
di me fu me
so per Clemente, allora 
avesse in Dio ben letta questa faccia, 
}' ossa del corpo mio sarieno ancora 12 7 
in co' del ponte pres so a Benevento, 
sotto la guardia della grave mura. 
Or Ie bagna la pioggia e nJove il vento 13 0 
di fuor del regno, quasi lungo il Verde, 
dov' ei Ie trasmutò a lume spento. 
Per lor maleJizion sì non si perde, 133 
che non possa tornar I' eterno aOlore, 
n1entre che la speranza ha fior del verde. 
Ver è che quale in contumacia muore 13 6 
di santa. Chiesa, ancor che al fin si penta, 
stargli convien da questa ripa in fuore 
per ogni tempo, ch' egli è stato, trenta, 139 
in sua presunzion, se tal decreto 
più corto per buon preghi non diventa. 
Vedi oramai se tu mi puoi far lieto, 14 2 
rivelando alla mia buona Costanza 
come m' hai vis to, ed anco esto divieto : 
chè qui per quei di là n10lto 5' avanza." 145 
%.5-27. Vupero is the Jast of the four divisions of the 
day, from 3 to 6 P.M. (ef Conv. iii. 6: %,0; iv. %.3: 129). 



CANTO III 


33 


hou go to ß1Y fair daughter, parent of the glory The
xcom- 
of Sici1y and of Aragon, and tell her sooth, mumcate 
if other tale be told. 

fter I had my body pierced by two mortal 
stabs, I gave me up weeping to hin) who 
\villingly doth pardon. 
rtorrible were my transgressions; but infinite 
goodness hath such wide arms that it ac- 
cepteth all that turn to it. 
[f Cosenza's Pastor, who to chase of n1e was 
set by Clement, then had well read that page 
in God, 
.he bones of my body would yet be at the bridge- Ma
fred's 
head near Benevento: under the guard of the bunal 
heavy cairn. 

 ow the rain \\lashes thenl, and the wind stirs them, 
beyond the Realm, hard by the Verde, whither 
he translated them with tapers quenched. 
By curse of theirs man is not so lost, that eternal 
love may not return, so long as hope retaineth 
aught of green. '... 
frue is it, that he who dies in contumacy of Holy The 
Church, even though at the last he repent, needs fh



o
.. 
ßlust stay outside this bank municate 
:hirtyfold for all the time that he hath lived in 
his presumption, if such decree be not shortened 
by ho] y prayers. 
Look now, if thou canst make nle glad, by reveal- 
ing to my good Constance how thou hast seen 
. , 
me, and also thIS ban: for here, through those 
yonder, n1uch advancement comes." 

rhen it is 3 P.M. in Italy, it is 6 P.M. at Jerusalem and 
:; A. M. in Purgatory (see diagrams on pp. 34 and 35). 
c 



34 


NOTES 


27. This tradition is recorded by Virgil's biographer: 
Donatus and Suetonius. rrhe body was transferred b 
order of .A.ugustus (if. Purge vii. 6). 
37. Be satisfied that it is, without asking the reaso 
wh!J. "Dt:monstration is two-fold: the one dem0l1 
strates by means of the cause, and is called propter qUI 
. . . the other by means of the effect, and is called th 
demonstration quia" (Thomas Aquinas). 
3 8, 39. Had human reason been capable of penetrat 
iug these mysteries, there would have been no nee 
for the revelation of the Word of God. 
49. Lerici and Turbia are at the E. and W. ex 
tremi ties of Liguria, respecti vel y. 
89, 90. The mountain was on their right, and th 
sun on their left. 
103-145 This is Manfred (ca. 1231-1266), grands01 
of the Emperor Henry VI. and of his wife Constanc 
(for whom see Par. Hi. 109-12.0), and natural son a 


Clock marking simultaneous hours at different regions 0/ tht 
earih. To indicate changes if hour, the reader ma,y imagint 
the rim if the clock to re'Vol-vc counterclock"lvise, "lvhi!e the ji'V4 
hands remain stationary, or the hands to re'Vol-ve clockwise, 
whilc thc rim remains stationary. 



CANTO III 


35 


t the Emperor Frederick II. Manfred's \vife, Beatrice 
of Savoy, bore him a daughter who (in 12.62.) married 
Peter III. of Aragon (for whom and for whose sons 
see below, Canto vii. 112-123; if. also Par. xix. 
130-138). Manfred became King of Sicily in 1258, 
usurping the rights of his nephew Conradin. 1"he 
Popes naturally opposed him, as a Ghibelline, and 
excommunicated him; and in 1265 Charles of Anjou 
came to Italy with a large army, on the invitation 
of Clement IV., and was crowned as counter King of 
Sicily. On February 16, 1266, Manfred was defeated 
by Charles at Benevento (some thirty miles N. E. of 
Naples), and slain. He was buried near the battlefield, 
beneath a huge cairn (each soldier of the army con- 
tribu ting a stone); but his body was disinterred by 
order of the Pope, and deposited on the banks of the 
Verde (now the Garigliano, cf. Par. viii. 63), outside 
the boundaries of the Kingdom of Naples and of the 
Church States, and with the rites usual at the burial of 
those who died excommunicate ("lI. 131). 



 Ë 
 
:... :... 
0 (1) 0 
.aJ - .aJ 
ro c= ('j co;i ro 
b.O >. en b.O 

 'a - ::J :a :... 
::J 
 ro I-< ::J 
p.., .aJ Q) s:: 
U1 - 
 - p.., 
t t t Á t t 
I 
I I I 
I I I I I I 
I I I I 
I I I 
180 0 9 00 45 0 0 0 9 00 180 0 
W +-- Longitude --->- E 



PURGA.TORIO 


I N the eagerness of his attention to Manfred's tale, 
Dante takes no note of the passing time, and 
thereby Furnishes a practical refutation of the Platonic 
doctrine of the plurality of 
ouls; for if the soul that 
presides over hearing were one, and the soul that notes 
the passage of time another, then the com pletest 
absorption of the former could not so involve the latter 
as to prevent it from exercising its own special function. 
It is three and a half hours from sunrise when the souls 
point out the narrow cleft by which the pilgrims are 
to ascend the mountain; after which they take their 
leave of them (1-2.4). It is only the wings of longing 
and hope that enable Dante to overcome the impedi- 
ments of the ascent, and bring him through the cleft 
to the open slope of the mountain, which he breasts 
at Virgil's direction though it lies at an angle of more 
than forty-five degrees (2.5-42.). In anr,wer to hiE 
weary plea for a pause, Virgil urges him to gain a 
terrace that circles the mount a little above them (43- 
51). There they rest, and, looking east, survey theÏ1 
ascent, after the complacent fashion of mountain- 
dim bers; but Dante is alnazed to find that the sur. 
is north of the equator and strikes on his left shouldel 
(52.-60). Virgil explains that this is because the) 
are in the southern hemisphere, at the antipodes 0 
Jerusalem. Were the sun in Gemini instead of Aries 
he would be further to the north yet (61 -75). Dantl 
rehearses and expands the lesson Virgil has taugh 
him, and then (having meanwhile apparently turne( 
west, facing the slope) makes inquiry as to the heigh 
of the mountain (76-87)' Virgil, without makinl , 


Anti- Quando per dilettanze ovver per doglie, 
purgatodo che alcuna virtù nostra comprenda, 
}' anima bene ad eS<3a si raccog]ie, 
3 6 



CANTO IV 


.UIY direct answer, cheers his weary companion by 
assuring him that as they mount higher, the ascent 
becomes ever less arduous, till mounting up becomes 
as spontaneous as the movement of a ship dropping 
down stream; and then comes rest (89-96). Whereat a 
voice suddenly rising from behind a great stone lying 
south of them, intimates to Dante that he ,vill probably 
experience a keen desire for rest hifore that consumma- 
tion (97-10Z). Whereon the poets move to the shady 
or southern side of the rock where they see souls whose 
repentarLce had been deferred to the moment of death, 
stretched in attitudes of indolence. And in particular 
Bdacqua, an old friend of Dante's, sits hugging his 
knees like Sloth's own brother. It is he who had 
given Dante his mocking warning, and who now in 
the same vein taunts him with his readiness to reproach 
others for their sloth the moment after he himself had 
implored Virgil to wait for him; and also with his slow. 
ness to understand the astronomical phenomena of the 
southern heavens (I03-1Z0). A smile of relief and 
amusement lightens Dante's face as he finds his friend 
among the saved, and still his old self. Cannot even 
the spirit life check his nimble wit or stir his sluggish 
members? (1 Z 1- I z6). But Belacqua answers sadly that 
unless aided by the prayer of some soul in grace, he 
must live as long excluded from purgation as he had 
lived in the self-exclusiun of impenitence upon earth 
\..lz7-135). It is now noonday in Purgatory; night 
reigns from Ganges to Morocco; and Virgil urges his 
charge to continue the ascent (136-139). 


W hen through impression of pleasure, or of pain, The excom- 
\vhich some one of our faculties receives, the municate 
soul is wholly centred on that faculty, .. 
37 



3 8 


PURGATORIO 


Ant.i- par che a nulla potenza più intenda; 
purgatono è ]} h d 
e questo contra que 0 error, c e cre e 
che un' anima sopr' altra in noi s' accenda. 
E però, quando s' ode cosa 0 vede 
che tenga forte a sè l' anima volta, 
vassene il tempo, e l' uonl non se n' avvede: 
ch' altra potenza è quella che }' ascolta, 
ed altra queJIa che ha I' anima intera ; 
questa è quasi legata, e quell a è sciolta. 
Di cÎò ebb' io esperienza vera, 
udendo quello spirto ed ammirando : 
chè ben cinquanta gradi salito era 
10 sole, ed io non m' era accorto, quando 
venimmo dove quell' anime ad una 
gridaro a noi: "Qui è vostro doo1ando." 
Salita Maggiore aperta InoJte volte impruna, 
con una forcatella di sue spine, 
l' uom della villa, quando l' uva imbruna, 
che non era la calla, on de sanne 
10 duca mio ed io appresso, soli, 
come da noi la schiera si partìne. 
Vass'} in Sanleo, e discendesi in Noli; 
montasi su Bismantova in cacume 
con esso i piè: ma qui convien ch' uOln voli; 
dico con l' ali sneIle e con Ie piume 2S 
del gran disio, di retro a quel condotto, 
che speranza mi dava e facea lume. 
N oi salivam per entro il sasso rotto, 
e d' ogni lato ne stringea 10 stremo, 
e piedi e man voleva il suol di sotto. 
Poi che noi fummo in su l' orIo supremo 
dell' alta ripa, alIa scoperta piaggia : 
" Maestro mio," diss' io, "che via faremo ? " 


4 


7 


10 


13 


16 


IÇ 


2
 


2
 


3 1 


3.. 



CANTO IV 


39 


it seems that it gives heed to no other of its The 
xcom- 
po\vers; and this is contrary to that error, munlcate 
h " h b I " h 1 b h " Dante's 
W IC e leves t at one sou a ove anot er IS rapt 
kindled within us. wônder 
And therefore, when aught is heard or seen 
,vhich holds the soul strongly bent to it, the 
time passes away and we perceive it not; 
for one faculty is that which notes it, and another 
that which possesses the undivided soul; the 
former is as 'twere bound, the latter free. 
I Of this I had true experience, while hearing that 
spirit and marvelling; for full fifty degrees had 
climbed 
the sun, and I had not perceived it, when we came The poets 
h h 1 . h . . d leave the 
to were t ose sou s WIt one VOIce cne out excom- 
to us: "Here is what you ask." municate 
A bigger opening many a time the peasant hedges 
up with a little forkful of his thorns, when the 
grape is darkening, 
than was the gap by which my leader mounted, 
and I after him, ,ve t,vo alone, when the troop 
parted from us. 
One can walk at Sanleo and get down to NoJi; Difficulty of 
one can mount Bismantova to its summit, with the ascent 
feet alone; but here a man must fly, 
I mean with the swift wings and with the plumes 
of great desire, behind that Leader, who gave 
me hope, and was a light to me. 
We were climbing within the cleft rock, and on 
either side the surface pressed against us, and the 
ground beneath required both feet and hands. 
After we were on the upper edge of the high cliff, 
out on the open hillside, " Master mine," said 
I, " what way shall we take? " 



4 0 


PURGA TO RIO 


Ant.ï- Ed eg1i a me: "N essun tuo passo caggia ; 37 
purgatono I 
 
pur su a monte retro a me acqulsta, 
Salita J: 1 ' . I . " 
un C 1e n appala a cuna scorta saggla. 
Lo sommo er' alto che viocea la vista, 4 C 
e la costa superba più assai 
che da mezzo quadrante a centro lista. 
10 era lasso, quando cominciai : 4
 
"0 dolce padre, volgiti e rimira 
com' io rimango so], se non ristai." 
" Figliuol mio," disse, "iofin quivi ti tira," 4 é 
additandomi un balzo poco in sue, 
che da quel lato il poggio tutto gira. 
Sì mi spronaron Ie parole sue 4Ç 
ch' io n1Í sforzai, carpando appresso lui, 
tanto che il cinghio sotto i piè mi fue. 
A seder ci ponemmo ivi ambo e dui 5
 
volti a levante, ond' eravam sa]iti : 

 chè suole a riguardar giovare altrui. 
Gli occhi prima drizzai a' bassi liti ; 5
 
poscia gJi alzai al sole, ed ammirava 
che da sinistra n' eravarll fcriti. 
Ben 5' avvide il poeta, che io stava s
 
stupido tutto al carro della luce, 
dove tra noi ed Aquilone intrava. 
Ond' egli a me: "Se Castore e PolIuce 61 
fossero in con}pag
ia di queUo specchio, 
che su e giù del suo IUDle conduce, 
tu vederesti il Zodiaco rubecchio 64 
ancorå all' Orse più stretto rotare, 
se non uscisse fuor del camn1in vecchio. 
Come ciò sia, se iJ vuoi poter pensare, 6'j 
dentro raccolto, immagina Sion 
con questo monte in su la terra stare, 



CANTO IV 


4 1 


\nd he to me: "Let no step of thine descend, Dant.e's 
h b 1 . d . h wearll1e'
s 
ever up t e mount e un me win t y \vay, -- 
. 1 0 " 
unH some wise escort appear to us. 
)0 high \vas the top that it surpassed my sight, 
and the slope steeper far than a line from mid- 
quadrant to centre. 
Weary was I when I began: "0 sweet father, 
turn thee and look how I remain alone, if thou 
" 
stay not. 
" !Viy son," said he, " so far as there drag thee," 
pointing out to me a terrace a little higher up, 
\V hich on that side circles the whole mountain. 
So did his words spur me on, that I forced me, 
creeping after him, so far that the ledge was 
under my feet. 
There we both did sit us do\vn, turned towards The poets 
the East, whence we had ascended; for to rest 
look back is wont to cheer men. 
First mine eyes I directed to the shores below; The posi- 
d O d . d 11 d tion of the 
then 1 false them to the sun, an marve e sun 
that we were smitten by it on the left side-. 
Right well the Poet perceived that [ \vas all 
astonished at the chariot of the light, where 
'twas entering between us and the North. 
Whereupon he to me: "If Castor and Pollux explained 
. f h . h . h by Virgil 
were In company a t at mIrror, w IC purveys 
of his light upward and downward, · 
thou wouldst see the glo\ving Zodiac revolve 
yet closer to the Bears, unless it strayed from 
its ancient path. (
 
If thou wouldst have po\ver to conceive how that 
may be, rapt \vithin thyself, imagine Zion and 
this n10unt to be placed on tbe earth 



4 2 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- sì che ambo e due hanno un solo orizzon 
purgatorio d o 0 0 0 d I d 
e IverSl emlspen; on e a stra a, 
che mal non seppe carreggiar F eton, 
vedrai come a costui convien che vada 
daB' un, quando a colui daB' altro fianco, 
se l' intelletto tuo ben chiaro bada." 
"Certo, maestro mio," diss' io, "unquanco 
non vidi chiaro sÌ con}' io discerno, 
Ià dove mio ingegno parea manco, 
che il mezzo cerchio del mota superno 
che 
i chiama Equatore in alcun' arte, 
e che sempre riman tra il sole e il verno, 
per la ragion che di', quinci si parte 
. verso settentrion, quanto gli Ebrei 
vedevan lui verso la calda parte. 
Ma se a te piace, volentier sap rei 
quanto avemo ad andar, chè il poggio sale 
più che salir non posson gli occhi miei." 
I Ed egli a me: "Questa montagna è tale, 
che sempre al cominciar di sotto è grave, 
e quanto uom più va su, e men fa male. 
Però quand' ella ti parrà soave 
tanto, che il su andar ti fia leggiero, 
come a seconda giuso andar per nave, 
aIlar sarai al fin d' esto sentiero : 
quivi di riposar l' affanno aspetta. 
Più non rispondo, e questo so per vero." 
E, com' egli ebbe sua parola detta, 
una voce di presso sonò: "F orse 
che di sedere in prima avrai distretta." 
Al SUOD di lei ciascun di noi si torse, 
e vedemmo a mancina un gran petrone, 
del qual nè io nè ei prima s' accorse. 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 



CANTO IV 


43 


o a that both have one sale horizon and different Virgil con- 
hen1Ïs p heres. wherefore the wa y which to ti.nues his 
, " discourse 
his hurt, Phaeton knew not how to drive, 
hou shalt see must needs pass this on the one 
side when it passes Zion on the other, if thy 
mind right clearly apprehends." 
;, Of a surety, Master mine," said I, "never 
saw I so clearly as I discern, there where my 
\vit seemed at fault, 
that the n1edian circle of the heavenly motion, which 
is called Equator in one of the sciences, and 
which ever remains 't\vixt the sun and winter, 
for the reason that thou tellest, departs here 
to\vards the North, as far as the H ebre\vs used 
to see it towards the hot climes. 
But if it please thee, willingly would I know how 
far we have to go, for the hillside rises higher 
h . h " 
t an mIne eyes can reac . 
And he to me: "This mountain is such, that and tells 
h b . . b I ' . . 1 d how the 
ever at t e eglnnlng e ow tis tOl some, an ascent be- 
the more a man ascends the less it wearies. comes more 
easy 
Therefore when it shan seem to thee so pleasant 
that the ascending becomes to thee easy, even 
as in a boat to descend with the stream, 
then shalt thou be at the end of this path: there 
hope to rest thy weariness. No more I answer, 
and this I know for truth." 
A nd when he had said his word, a voice hard The Late- 
b y sounded: "Perchance ere that thou wilt Repentant 
. B


 
have need to Sit." 
At sound of it each of us turned him round, and 
we saw on the left a great mass of stone, which 
neither I nor he perceived before. 



44 


PURGATORIO 


Ant.i- Là ci traemmo; ed ivi eran persone 
purgatorlO che si stavano all' ombra dietro al sasso 
, 
com' uom per negligenza a star si pone. 
Ed un di lor, che mi sembrava lasso, 
sedeva ed abbracciava Ie ginocchia, 
tenendo il viso giù tra esse basso. 
" 0 dolce signor mio," diss' io, "adocchia 10 
colui che mostra sê più negligente 
che se pigrizia Fosse sua sirocchia." 
Allor si volse a noi, e pose mente, 
movendo il viso pur au per Ia coscia, 
e disse: "Or va su tu, che se' valente." 
Conobbi allor chi era; e quell' angoscia, 
che m' avacciava un poco ancor la lena, 
non m' impedì }' andare a Iui; e poscia 
che a lui fui giunto, alzò Ia testa appena, 
dicendo: "Hai ben veduto come il sole 
dall' omero sinistro il carro mena? " 
Gli atti suoi pigri e Ie corte parole 
mosson Ie labbra mie un poco a riso; 
poi cominciai: "Belacqua, a me non duole 
di te omai; ma dimmi, perchè assiso I:;õ 
quiritta sei? attendi tu iscorta, 
o pur 10 modo usato t' hai ripriso? " 
Ed ei: "Frate, l' andare in su che porta? 
chè non mi lascerebbe ire ai martiri 
l' uccel di Dio che siede in su la porta. 
Prinla convien che tanto il ciel ßl' aggiri 
di fuor da essa, quanto fece in vita, 
perch' io indugiai al fine i buon sospiri; 
. .. , . 
8e oraZlone In pnma non malta, 
che surga 8U di cor che in grazia vi va : 
l' altra che va], che in ciel non è udita? " 


10; 


101 


II 


II 


II 


12 


I
 


l
 


J
 



CANTO IV 


45 


'hither drew we on ; and there were persons, The Late- 
I - . h h d b h - d 1 k Repentant 
ounging In t e s a e e In t 1e roc , even as 
) _ r I . Dante and 
a man sett es 111m to rest lor aZlness. Belacqua 

nd one of them, who seemed to me weary, was 
sitting and clasping his knees, holding his face 
lo\v down between thenl. 
; 0 sweet my Lord," said I, " set thine eye on 
that one who shows himself lazier than if Sloth 
h - -" 
were IS very SIster. 

hen turned he to us and gave heed, moving his 
face only over his thigh, and said: "N O\vgo 
thou up who art valiant-" 
rhen kne\v I ,vho he was; and that toil which 
sti1) oppressed a little nlY breath, did not hinder 
my going to him; and after 
_ had got to him, his head he scarce did lift:, sa y- 
in g: "Hast thou truly seen how the sun drives 
his chariot on thy left side? " 
:-:I is lazy actions and the brief words moved my 
lips to smile a little; then I began: "Belacqua, 
it grieves me not 

or thee now; but ten me, why art thou seated 
here? clost thou a\vait escort, or hast thou but 
resumed thy wonted habit? " 
And he: "Brother what avails it to ascend? Thepenalty 
F G d ' . d 1 h . h of the Late- 
or 0 s WInge ange t at SIts at t e gate, Repentant 
\vould not let me pass to the torments. 
First must the heavens revolve around me out- 
side it, so long as they did during my ]ife, 
because I delayed my healing sighs to the end: 
unlesR before, a prayer aids me, \vhich may rise 
up from a heart that live3 in grace: \vhat profits 
another that in heaven is not heard?" 



4 6 


NOTES 


Ant}- E già il poeta innanzi mi saliva, 13' 
purgatoClo e dicea: "Vienne omai, vedi ch' è tocco 
meridian dal sole, e dalla riva 
copre la notte già col piè Marrocco. " 13 
5, 6. "Plato asserted that there were divers soul 
with distinct organs in one and the same body: 
(Thomas Aquinas). On the Aristotelian doctrine 0 
the three kinds of soul-vegetative, animal, and rational 
see below, Canto xxv. vv. 52 sqq. 
12. For this use of qUeJta and quel/a, if. Purge xxv. 54 
15. The sun traverses fifteen degrees every hour: i 
is therefore now 9.20 A.M. 
25, 26. Sanleo: in the territory of Urbino; Noli 
on the coast of Liguria, between Savona and Albengé! 
Bismantova: a hill in the Emilia, about twenty mile 
S. of Reggio. 
40, 41. The angle of the quadrant (quarter of 
circle) is 900; that of a half quadrant is th
refore 4f 
57. Th
y were looking east, and therefore had th 
north to their left and th
 south to their right. Sout' 
of the equator the equinoctial sun is north of th 
zenith at midday, for the same reason that north ( 
the equator he is south of it. 
61-66. See Argummt. Castor and Pollux = th 
Twins (if. Par. xxvii. 98 and note), which sign j 
further north of the equator than Aries. The sun i 
called Jþecchio (like Saturn in Par. xxi. 18), because, i 
common with the other planets [for the sun =a plane 1 
if. Irif. i. 17, note], he receives the divine light fror 
above, the spheres intervening, and reflects it down 
wards (if. Par. xxviii. 127); and this is probably th 
attribute of the sun referred to in "V. 63, though som 
commentators take the line to mean that he illuminate 
the northern and southern hemisphere alternatd) 
The Zodiaco rUDe&&hio=that part of the Zodiac in whic 
the sun is. The Orse indicate the North Pole. 
68-72. Consider that Purgatory is at the exac 
an ti podes of Jerusalem . -The strada = th e path of the sur 
the ecliptic. For Phaëton, see Inf. xvii. 106-108, not 
82-84. The equator is equi-distant from Jerusaler 
and from the Mount of Purgatory. 



CANTO IV 


47 


) 
nd already the poet was n10unting before me, The Late- 
and saying: "Come on now, thou seest the Repentant 
meridian is touched by the sun, and Night · 
already v/ith her foot covers from Ganges' 
banks to Morocco." 
98. The Florentine Belacqua, a friend of Dante's, was 
maker of musical instruments, notorious for his sloth. 
J 23. Seeing that thou art on the road to salvation
 
137-139. It is noon in Purgatory, sunrise on the 

anges (the riva), and sunset in Morocco == Spain (see 
he diagrams on pp. 34,35, and below). 


s 


Showing the portions of the mountam under light- and 
rhade at..noonda.!J' Cf. Purge iv. 136-139, xii. 81 (com-' 
'Jare XXll. 118-120 with x xv. 1-3), xxxiii. 10 3- 10 5. 



PURGATOIlIO 


A s they pass up the mountain, Dante's 5hadow stil' 
excites the amazement of the souls; but Virgi: 
bids him pay no heed to their exclamations (1-12). .A 
group of souls chanting the lVfiserere breaks into é 
cry of wonder, and when two of them, sent out al 
messengers, have received Virgil's statement tha' 
Dante is still in the first life, the whole group crowe 
around him (22-42). T]1t:
y tell him that they an 
souls of the violently slain, who repented and madt 
their peace with God at the last moment. Virgil bid: 
Dante pursue his path, hut suffers him to promise to beai 


Ant.i- 10 era già da que]]' ombre partito, 
purgat0r10 e seguitava }' orme del mio duca, 
quando di retro a me drizzando il dito, 
una gridò: "V e' che non par che Iuca 
10 raggio da sinistra a quel di sotto, 
e come vivo par che si conduca." 
G Ii occhi rivolsi al suon di questo motto, 
e vidile guardar per ßlaraviglia 
pur me, pur me, e illume ch' era rotto. 
" Perchè l' animo tuo tanto s' impiglia," I 
disse il maestro, "che }' andare allenti? 
che ti fa ciò che quivi si pispiglia ? 
Vien retro a me, e lascia dir Ie genti ; I 
sta come torre ferma, che non croJIa 
giammai la cima per soffiar de' venti: 
chè sempre l' uonlO, in cui pensier rampolla I 
sopra pensier, da sè dilunga il segno, 
perchè la foga l' un dell' altro insolIa." 
Che pate va io ridir, se non: "10 vegno? " 
Dissilo, alquanto del color consperso 
che fa l' uom di perdon tal volta dcgno. 
4 R 



CANTO V 


'ws of these souls to their friends on earth and implore 
eir prayers (43-63). Dante hears the tale of Jacopo 
-1 Cassero (64-84). Then Buonconte da Monte Feltro 
lIs the story of his death at Campaldino, the struggle 
, th{; angel and the devil for his soul, and the fate of 
s deserted body (85-129). And lastly Pia rehearses, 
brief pathetic words, the trag
dy of her wedded 
:e, and implores the poet when he is rested from 
s long journey to bethink him of her (130- J 36). 


was already parted from those shades, and was The Late- 
following my leader's footsteps, when behind Repentant 
me, pointing his finger, 
ne cried: "See, it seemeth not that the light Their 
shines on the left of him below, and he amazement 
appears to demean himself like one alive." 
.fine eyes I turned at sound of these words, and 
saw them gazing in astonishment at nle alone, 
me alone, and at the light that was broken. 
; Why is thy mind so entangled," said the Virgil 
Master, "that thou slackenest thy pace? \vhat Di

:f
r 
ß1atters it to thee what they whisper here? tarrying 
ì allow me and let the people talk; stand thou 
as a firm tower which never shakes its summit 
for blast of winds: 
or ever the man in whom thought wells up on 
, thought, sets back his mark, because the one 
foips the force of the other." 
I I' e lat could I answer, save: "I come"? This 

 said, suffused some\vhat with that coiour 
which ofttinles makes a man \\'orthy of pardon. 
D 49 


1\ 



50 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- E intanto per la costa di traverso 2 
purgatorio . . . . . 
venlvan gentl InnanZI a nOI un poco, 
cantando Miserere a verso a verso. 
Quando s' accorser ch' io non dava loco, 2 
per 10 mio corpo, al trapassar de' raggi, 
mutar lor canto in un ' oh ' lungo e roco ; 
e due di loro in forn1a di messaggi 
 
corsero incontro a noi, e donlandarne : 
"Di vostra condizion fatene saggi." 
E il 111io nlaestro: "V oi potete andarne, 
e ritrarre a color che vi n1andaro, 
che il corpo di costui è vera carne. 
Se per veder la sua ombra restaro, 
com' io avviso, assai è lor risposto ; 
facciangli on ore, ed esser può lor caro." 
V apori accesi non vid' io sì tosto 
di prima notte mai fender sereno, 
nè, sol calando, nuvole d' agosto, 
che color non tornasser suso in menD ; 
e, giunti là, con gli altri a noi dier volta, 
come schiera che corre senza freno. 
" Questa gente che preme a Doi è molta, )" 
e vengonti a pregar," disse il poeta ; 
"però pur va, ed in andando ascolta." ( 
f ' a anima, che vai per esser lieta 
con quelIe men1bra, con Ie quai nascest1," 
venian gridando, "un poco il passo queta. 
Guarda se alcun di noi unque vedesti, 
sÌ che di ]ui di là novelle porti : 
deh, perchè vai? deh, perchè non t' arres 
N oi fumn10 già tutti per forza morti, 
e peccatori inhno all' ultim' ora: 
quivi lume de) ciel ne fece accorti 



CANTO V 


51 


nd mean\vhile across the mountain slope canle The Late- 
people a little in front of us, chanting the 

fee
i;nt 
Miserere verse by verse alterne. slain 
'"hen they perceived that I ga ve no place, because 
of my body, to the passage of the rays, they 
changed their chant to an Oh! long and hoarse; 
d two of them in the guise of messengers ran They 
to meet us, and asked of us: "Make us to parley with 
f d " 
 " the poets 
know 0 your con Itlon. 
nd my Master: "Y e may go hence and bear 
back to those who sent you that the body of 
this man is very flesh. 
r they stayed for seeing his shado\v, as I opine, 
enough is answered: let them do him honour 
and he may be precious to them." 
e'er saw I flaming vapours so swiftly cleave 
the bright sky at early night, or August 
clouds at setting sun, 
t that they returned upward in less, and, arrived 
there, with the others wheeled round to us, 
like a troop that hastes \vith loosened rein. 
Th!r\\t)eople that presses on to us is many, and 
thf Est
e to entreat thee," said the poet; "but 
go.- bevoDfer on and, while going, listen." 
a soul, that goest to be glad with those 
members which thou wast born with," they 
came crying, "arrest a \vhile thy step. 
, ook if e'er thou sawest anyone of us, so that thou 
Inayst bear tidings of hin1 yonder: ah, where- 
fore goest thou? ah, wherefore 8tayest thou not? 
I T e were all slain by violence and sinners up to 
the last hour: then light from heaven n1ade 
s ware 



52 


PURGATORIO 


Ant!- S1 che, pentendo e perdonando, fuora 5 
purgatono di vita uscimmo a Dio pacificati, 
che del disio di sè veder n' accora." 
Ed io: "Perchè ne' vostri visi guati, s 
non riconosco alcun; ma, se a voi piace 
cosa ch' io possa, spiriti ben nati, 
voi dite; ed io farò per quelJa pace, 6 
che, retro ai piedi di sì fatta guida, 
di mondo in mondo cercar mi si face." 
Ed uno incominciò: "Ciascun si fida 6 
del beneficio tuo senza giurar1o, 
7" pur che i1 voler nonpossa non ricida. 
[Ond' io, che solo innanzi agli altri parlo, f 
ti prego, se mai vedi quel paese 
che siede tra Romagna e queI di Carlo, 
che tu mi sie de' tuoi preghi cortese Î 
in F ana sì che ben per me s' adori, 
perch' io possa purgar Ie gravi offese. 
Quíndi fu' io; ma Ii profondi fori, 7 
onde uscì il sangue in suI qual io sedea, 
fatti mi furo in grembo agli Antenori, 
Ià dov' io più sicuro esser credea. 'ì 
QueI da Esti i1 fe' far, che m' avea ir 
assai più Jà che dritto non voJea. ita." 
Ma s' io fossi fuggito in ver lJa Mira, 
quando fui sopraggiunto ad Oriago, 
ancor sarei di là dove si spira. 
Corsi al paludc, e ]e cannucce e il brago 
m' impigliar sì ch' io caddi, e Ii vid' io 
deHe mie vene Farsi in terra Iago." 
Poi disse un a1tro: "Deh, se quel disio 
si compia che ti tragge all' alto monte, 
con buona pietate aiuta it mio. 



CANTO V 


S3 


t that, repenting and pardoning, we can1e forth The Late- 
fì · OJ:' 0 1 d o h G d h Repentant 
rOin lIIe reCODCI e wit 0, W 0 penetrateð violently 
us with desire to behold him." slain 
..nd I: "How nluch soever I gaze in your 
faces, I recognise none; but if aught I can do 
ll1ay please you, ye spirits born for bliss, 
)eak ye; and I will do it for the sake of that 
peace, which, following the steps of such a 
guide, nlakes me pursue it from world to \vorld." 
Lnd one began: "Each of us trusts in thy good ]acopo del 
ffì 0 . h o h O f I f Cassero 
0.. Ices without tIne oat ,Ion y want 0 
power cu t not off the will. 
{herefore I, \vho ll1erely speak before the others, 
pray thee, if e' er thou see that country which 
lies between Ronlagna and that of Charles, 
lat thou be gracious to me of thy prayers in 
I Fano, so that holy orison be made for me, 
that I may purge away my heavy offences, 
I "hence sprang I; but the deep wounds 
vhence 
fto\vt'd the blood \vherein n1Y life was set, 
were dealt nle in the bosom of the Antenori, 
lere \v here I thought to be most secure. He 
of Este had it done, who held Ine in wrath 
far beyond what justice wouid. 
I tut if I had fled towards L a Mira, when I ,vas 
surprised at Oriaco, I should yet be yonder 
\vhere men breathe. 
I ran to the nlarshes, and the reeds and the mire 
Inatang]ed Ole so, that I fell; and there sa\v I 
fo pool growing on the ground from nlY veins." 
í Teen said another: "Prithee,-and so be that Buonconte 
If . 0 f o d h o h d h h I c. da Monte- 
t, eSlre satts 1e w.. IC raws t ee up t e OIty feltro 
11011nt-with kindly pity help my desire. 


, 


1 



Anti- 10 fui di Montefeltro, io son Buonconte ; 
purgatorio Giovanna 0 altri non ha di Ole cura : 
per ch' io va tra castor con bassa fronte." 
Ed io a lui: "Qual forza 0 qual ventura 
ti traviò sì fuor di Campaldino 
h . . I >" 
c e non 81 seppe mal tua sepo tura . 
" a h," rispos' egli, "a piè del Casentino ç 
traversa un' acqua che ha nome l' A rchiano, 
che sopra l' Ermo nasce in Apennino. 
Dove il vocabol ßUO diventa vane 
arriva' io fora to nella gola, 
fuggendo a piede e sanguinando il piano: 
Quivi perdei la vista, e 1a parola 
nel nome di Maria fii1ii; e quivi 
caddi, e rimase la mia carne soja. 
10 dirò iJ vero, e tu il ridi' tra i vi vi ; 
l' angel di Dio mi prese, e quel d' inferno 
gridava: '0 tu del ciel, perchè mi privi ? 
Tu te ne porti di costui l' eterno 
per una ]agrimetta che illni toglie ; 
ma io farò dell' altro altro governo.' 
Ben sai come nell' aere si raccoglie 
quell' umido vapor, che in acqua riede 
tosto che sale dove il freddo il coglie. 
Giunse quel mal voler, che pur nlal chiede, I 
con }' intelletto, e mosse il fummo e il vente 
per la virtù, che sua natura diede. 
lndi la valle, come if dì fu spento, 
da Pratomagno al gran giogo copcrse 
di nebbia, e il ciel di sopra fecc intento 
sì che il pregno aere in acqua si converse: 
la pioggia cadde, ed ai fossati venne 
d i lei ciò che Ja terra non sofferse ; 


54 


PURGATORI0 


8 


s 


I( 


Ie 


" 


II 


I 


q 


/) 


J 



CANTO V 


was of Montefeltro, I am Buonconte ; Giovanna, Th" 
or any other hath no care for me; wherefore 

f:
tl 
I go among these, with downcast brow." slain' 
Lnd I to him: "What violence or what chance 
made thee stray so far from Campaldino, that 
thy burial place ne'er was known? " 
Oh," ans\vered he, "at Casentino's foot a Buon- 
h o h 0 d A 1 0 d conte's 
stream crosses, w IC IS name rc 11ano, an death at 
rises in the Apennines above the Hermitage. 
!
pal- 

here where its name is lost, did I arrive, pierced 
in the throat, flying on foot, and bloodying 
the plain. 
fhere lost I vision, and ended my ,vords upon 
the name of rvlary; and there fell I, and my 
flesh alone was left. 
_ will speak sooth, and do thou respeak it among The devil 
the living; the angel of God took me, and one 
fsh


ï
 
from Hell cried: '0 thou from Heaven, where- 
fore robbest thou me ? 
fhou bearest hence the eternal part of this DIan, in vain 
for one little tear that snatches him from me ; 
but with the other will I deal in other fashion.' 
Thou kno\vest ho\v in the air that damp vapour The 0 
gathers, which turns again to water soon as it ri::: ng 
ascends where the cold condenses it. 
[ He united that evil will, which seeks ill only, 
with intellect, and stirred the mist and wind 
by the po\ver \vhich his nature gave. 
Then when day was spent, he covered the valley 
from Pratomagno to the great mountain chain 
... with mist, and the sky above made lowering 

(> that the saturated air was turned to water: 
l II the rain fell, and to the water-rills came what 
of it the earth endured not; 
( 
\ 



r: 


PURGATORIO 


...&t
- e come a' rivi grandi si convenne, 121 
pu
ator1Q ver 10 fiuale real tanto veloce 
si ruinò, che nulla la ritenne. 
Lo corpo mio gelato in su la foce 1:24 
trovò I' Archian rubesto; e q uel sospinse 
nell' Arno, e sciolse al mio petto la croce, 
ch' io fei di me quando il dolor mi vinse ; 12 7 
voltommi per Ie ripe e per 10 fondo, 
poi di sua preda mi coperse e cinse." 
"Deh, quando tu sarai tornato al mondo, 13 0 
e ripùsato della lunga via," 
seguitò il terzo spirito al secondo, 
" ricorditi di me, che son la Pia; 133 
Siena mi fe', disfecen1i Maremma : 
salsi colui che innanellata, pria 
disposando, m' avea con la sua gemma." 13 t 


2.4. The lHiserere-Psalm lie 
37-39. Medieval science held falling stars anc 
weather lightning to be due to " flaming- vapours." 
63-84. Jacopo del Cassero (probably related to the; 
Guido of ('if. xxviii. 77), a Guelf of Fano (situated ir 
the mark of Ancona, between Romagna and the kingdorr 
of Naples, which was ruled by Charles II. of Anjou) wa: 
Podestà of Bologna in 1296. Having incurred the; 
wrath of Azzo VIII. of Este (for whom see I,if. xii.. 110. 
I 17.; if. also Purge xx. 80), ,vhose designs on the cit) 
he had frustrated, he hoped to escape his vengeance b) 
exchanging the office at Bologna for a similar one a' 
Milan (1298). He was, ho'wever, murdered by Azzo', 
orders [among the assaf,sins being- Riccardo da Carn 
rni no, for 'whom see Par. ix. 49-5 I] while on his wa) 
thither, at Oriaco, between Venice alJd Padua [th' 
Paduans are called Antenori in "lI. 75, from the;: J: 
reputed founrler Antenor, for whom see Inf. xxxi 
88, note; his escape to I tály after the fall of Tro}' 
and his building of Padua are recorded by \Tirgil 



CANTO V 


nå as it united into great torrents, so swift! y it .L. 
rushed to\vards the royal stream, that naught 

f
b) 
held it back. slij,iD 
t1 y frozen body at its mouth the raging Archian The devil's 
r d d .. h A d I d vengeance 
loun , an swept It Into t e roo, an oose on BaOll- 
the cross on m y breast conte's 
, body 
Ihich I made of me \vhen pain o'ercame DIe: 
it rolled me along its banks and over its bed, 
then covered and wrapped me with its spoil-;." 
'Pray, ,vhen thou shalt return to the world, and La Pi
 
art rested from thy long journey," followed 
the third spirit after the second, 
, Remenlber me, who anl La Pia: Siena made 
me, rdaremma uno)ade me: 'tis known to him 
who, first plighting troth, had wedded me with 
his gem." 
!Ell. i. 24-2 sqq.]. Oriaco is situated in a marshy 
:ountry, while La Mira would have been easier of 
Lccess to Jacopo in his flight ('V'V. 79-81). 
85-129. Bllonconte of :rvlontefdtro, son of the 
}uido whose death forms the subject of a very similar 

pisode in Inf. xxvii., and, like his father, a GhibdHne 
eader. H
 was in command of the Aretines when they 
.vere defeated by the Florentine Guelfs at Campaldino, 
>11 June II, 1289, and was himself among the siain. 

 According to Bruni's testimony, Dante took part in 
:his battle on the Guelf side; see Inf. xxi. 94-96, 
lote]. Giovanna ('V. 89) was Buonconte's wife. Cam. 
;Jaldino is in the Upper Val d'Arno, or district of 
Casentino (bounded by the mountains of Pratomagno 
)0 the west and by the principal chain of th
 Apennines 
:>0 the east-'ll. 116; if. Info xxx. 65, and Purge xiv. 
43), between Poppi and Bibbiena. At the latter place 
the Archiano, which rises in the Apennines at the 
monastery of Camaldoli ('V. 9 6 ; '!f. Par. xxii. 49
 note), 
falls into the Arno ('V'V. 97, I 24--1 26).-With 'V'V. 109- 
III, if. Purge xxviii. 121-12 



.
ti- 

at(' 
pu 


. 


r 


NOTES 


130- I 36. Until recently the story of la Pia, as given 
by the various commentators, was as follows:- The 
unfortunate lady belonged to the Sienese family of the 
Tolomei, and married Nella d'Inghiramo dei Pannoc- 
chieschi (Podestà of Volterra in 1277, and of Lucca in 
J 3 14; captain of the Tuscan Guelfs in 1284; still living 
in 1322). She was put to death by her husband in 1295 
at the Castello della Pietra, in the Sienese Iv1aremma: 
some say that she was thro\vn out of a window, by 
Nella's orders, others that she died in some mysterious 
way (which pïobably gave rise to the tradition that the 
unhealthy marshes of the district were intended to, and 
actually did, kill her). Nella's motives are variously 
given: according to some accounts he was jealous (with 
or without cause); according to others he wished to get 
rid of his \vife in order to be able to marry the Countess 
Margherita degli Aldohrandeschi, the widow of Guy 
of Montfort.-In the year 1886 this identification of 
ta Pill was proved (by Banchi) to be impossible; and it 
is difficult to say how much truth there may be in the 
legends clustering round her name, till fresh documents 
concerning her are unearthed. 



. T\j . 
. ,...1- 


 
.
.
 
0:3 

 


. 
.E- 


::1& 
OU' 
0('1) 
:::1c;o 


.s. 
Showing the hours at which the u'Veral signs of the Zodiac 
hegill to rise at the spring equinox. Eac/z sign hegins to set 
trzl.1e1ve hours qfter it hegins to rise. TIle spectator is looking 
North. 



PURGATORIO 


LIKE a successful gamester who must clèave his way 
by payments through the host \vhose quickened 
sense of friend;
hip overflows in obstructive congratula- 
tions and reminiscences, so Dante must pay his way by 
promises through the crowd of souls to whom he has 
power of granting such precious boons (1-11.). Of some 
of these souls he tells us news, not without side thrusts 
of \varning or reproach at the living (13-24). "Then 
again free to converse 'with his guide, Dante asks him 
to explain the seeming contradiction bet\veen the 
anxiety of these souls for the prayers of others, and his 
(Virgil's) declaration that the divine Fates cannot be 
bent by prayer (25-33). Virgil explains, firstly, that 
no bending of the divine will is involved in the grant- 
ing of prayer; secondly, that his rebuke \-vas uttered 
to souls not in gn.ce; and, finally, that the complete 
solution of such questions is not for him (Virgil), but for 
Beatrice (34-48); at the mention of whose name Dante 


Anti. Quando si parte il giuoco dell
 zara, 
purgatorio colui che perde si riman dolente, 
ripetendo Ie volte, e tristo impara; 
con l' altro se ne va tutta la gente : 4 
qual va dinanzi, equal di retro il prende, 
equal da lata gli si reca a rnente. 
Ei non s' arresta, e questo e quel10 intende; i 
a cui porge la man più non fa pressa ; 
e così dalJa calca si difende. 
Tal era io in queJIa turba spessa ; I? 
volgendo a loro e qua e Jà ]a faccia, 
e promettendo, n1i sciogIiea da essa. 
Quivi era l' ...:\retin, che dalle braccia 13 
fiere di G hin di Tacco ebbe la morte, 
e }' altro che annegò correndo in caccia. 
60 



CANTO VI 


'lsnes to make greater speed in ascending the moun- 
lin, whereto Virgil answers that the journey is of 
lore days than one (49-57). The poets, now in the 
hade of the mountain (since they are on its eastern 
Lope and the sun is already west of north) so that 
)ante no longer casts a shadow, and is therefore not 
nstantly to be recognised as a living man, perceive the 
oui of Sordello gazing upon them like a couching lion; 
mt on hearing that Virgil is a Mantuan, he breaks 
hrough aU reserve and embraces him as his fellow- 
:ountryman (5 8 -75). The love of these two fellow- 
:itizens cans back to Dante's heart the miserable 
lissensions that rend the cities of Italy, and the 
:allousness with which the Emperors leave them to 
:heir fate (76-126). But from the reproaches thus 
aunched against the Italians, Florence is sarcastically 

xcepted, till the sarcasm breaks down in a wail of 

eproachful pity ( 12 7- 1 5 1 ). 
\'!hen the game of dice breaks up, he who loses The Late- 
. . h h d dl Repenta.nt 
stays sorrowing, repeating t e t rows, an sa y violently 
learns: slain 
with the other all the folk go a way: one goes They 
in front, another plucks him from behind, and 


c::dg 
another at his side recaI1s him to his mind. Dante 
He halts not and attends to this one and to that: 
those to whom he stretches forth his hand press 
no more; and so he saves him front the crowd. 
Such ,vas I in that dense throng, turning my face 
to them, nOw here, now there, and by promis- 
in g freed Ole from them. 
There ,vas the Aretine who by the savage arnlS Benincasa 
f Gh ' d . T h . d h d and Guccio 
o In 1 acco met IS eat ; an the 
other vlho was drowned as he ran in chase. 
61 


I 
1 



62 


PURGATORIO 


Ant}- Q uivi pregava con Ie mani sporte 16 
purgatono F d . N 11 I . 
e eflco ove 0, e que da PIsa 
che fe' parer 10 buon Marzucco forte. 
Vidi Cont' Orso; e l' anima divisa 19 
dal corpo suo per astio e per in veggia, 
come dieea, non per coJpa commisa- 
Pier daHa Broecia dico: e qui provveggia, 22 
mentr' è di qua, la donna di Brabante, 
sì che però non sia di peggior greggia. 
Come libero fui da tutte e quante 25 
quell' ombre, che pregar pur ch' altri preghi, 
SJ che s' avacei illor divenir sante, 
io cominciai: "E' par che tu n1Ï neghi, 28 
o luee mia, espresso in alcun testo, 
che decreto del cielo orazion pieghi; 
e questa gente prega pur di questo. 3 1 
Sarebbe dunque loro speme vana ? 
o non m' è il detto tuo ben manifesto?" 
Ed egli a me: "La mia serittura è piana, 34 
e là speranza di costor non faHa, 
se ben si guarda con la mente sana. 
Chè cinla di giudizio non s' avvalla, 37 
perchè foco d' amor compia in un punto 
cÍò che dee satisfar chi qui s' astalla ; 
e là do v' io fermai cotcsto punto, 4 0 
non S1 ammendava, per pregar, difetto, 
perchè il prego da Dio era disgiunto. 
Veramente a così alto sospetto 43 
non ti fermar, se quella nol ti dice, 
che lume fia tra il vero e I' in teHetto. 
N on so se intendi: io dieo di Beatrice; 4 6 
tu la vedrai di sopra, in su la vetta 
di questo ß10nte, ridente e Felice. " 



CANTO VI 


'1here was praying, with outstretched hands The Late- 
F d . N - 11 - d h f P . h d Repentant 
e engo O\ie 0, an e 0 tsa w 0 ma e violently 
the good Marzucco show fortitude. slain 
O d f . Federico & 
saw Count rso, and the soul severe ron1 Its Farinata 
body throuuh hatred and envy, so it said, and Count 01"SO 
b .. and Pier de 
not for any SIn comnutted- la Brosse 
>ierre de la Brosse I n1ean: and here let the Lady 
of Brabant take heed, while she is on earth, so 
that for this she be not of a ,vorser herd. 
Vhen I ,vas free from aU those shades 'v hose one 
prayer ,vas that others should pray, so that their 
I way to blessedness be sped, 

 began: "It seemeth that thou, 0 n1Y I.Jight, Efficacy 
I d . 1 . . h of prayer 
I entest express Y In a certaIn passage, t at prayer 
l11ay bend heaven's decree; 
lnd these people pray but for this. Can then 
their hope be vain? or are not thy words right 
clear to me ? " 
!\.nd he to me: "My ,vriting is plain and the 
hope of them is not deceived if weB thou con- 
siderest with mind \vhole. 

 or the height of justice is not abased because fire 
of love fulfils in one moment the satisfaction 
which he owes who here is lodged: 
lnd there where I affirmed that point, default could 
not be amended by prayer, because the prayer 
was severed from God. 
But do not rest in so profound a doubt except 
she tell it thee, \vho shall be a light between 
truth and intel1ect. 
f know not if thou understand: I speak of 
1 Beatrice; thou shalt see her above, on the 
S summit of this mount, smiling and blessed." 


( 



62.. 


PURGATORIO 


Ant.i- Ed io: "Signore, andiamo a olaggior fretta; 49 
purgatono chè già non m' affatico come dianzi ; 
e vedi omai che il poggio }' ombra getta." 
" N oi anderem con questo giorno innanzi," 52 
rispose, "quanta più potremo omai ; 
ma il fatto è d' altra forma che non stanzi. 
Prima che sii lassù, tornar vedrai ss 
colui che già si copre delJa costa, 
sl che i suoi raggi tu romper non fai. 

1a vedi là un' anima, che, posta sa 
sola soletta, verso noi riguarda; 
queJIa ne insegnerà la via più tosta." 
V enimmo a lei. a anima Lombarda, 6) 
come ti stavi altera e disdegnosa, 
e nel mover degli occhi onesta e tarda ! 
Ella non ci diceva alcuna cosa ; 6. 
ma lasciavane gir, solo sguardando 
a guisa di leon quando si posa. 
Pur Virgilio si trasse a lei, pregando 6
 
che ne mostrasse ]a mig1ior salita ; 
e quella non rispose al suo domando ; 
ma di nostro paese e deJIa vita 7' 
c' inchiese. E il dolce duca incominciava : 
" Mantova," . . . e l' ofilbra, tutta in sè romita 
surse ver lui del loco ove pria stava, 7 
dicendo: "0 M antovano, io son Sordel1o 
della tua terra." E l' un l' altro abbracciava. 
Ahi serva ltalia, di dolore ostello, 7 
nave senza nocchiero in gran teo1pesta, 
non donna di provincie, ma bordello! 
QucB' anima gentil fu cosi presta, ! 
sol per 10 dolce suon deJIa sua terra, 
di fare aJ cittadin suo qui vi festa ; 



CANTO VI 


65 


nd I: "My Lord, go we with greater haste; The Late- 
for already I grow not weary as before, and Repentant 
look, the hillside cloth now a shadow cast." 
We with this day will onward go," answered 
he, "so far as yet we may; but the fact is 
other than thou deemest. 
re thou art above, him shalt thou see return that 
now is being hidden by the slope, so that thou 
makest not his rays to break. 
ut see there a soul which, placed alone, solitary, Virgil and 
looketh towards us; it will point out to us the Sordello- 
O k " 
qUIC est way. 
ve came to it: 0 Lombard soul, how wast thou 
haughty and disdainful, and in the movement of 
thine eyes n1a jestic and slow! 
[aught it said to__ us, but allowed us td go on, 
watching only after the fashion of a lion when 
he couches. r!. t ny 
. et did Virgil draw on towards it, praying) that 
it would show to us the best ascent; and 
spirit answered not his demand, '
 
, ut of our country and of our life did ask us. 
Ana the sweet Leader began: "Mantua," 
. . '. and the shade, all rapt in self, 

apt towards him from the place where first it Mantuans 
was, saying: "0 Mantuan, I am Sordello of both 
thy city." And one embraced the other. 

h Italy, thou slave, hostel of \voe, vessel \vith- Dante 
out P ilot in a might y storm, no mistress of inve.igh t s 
o agalns 
provinces, but a brothel! Italy 
['hat gentle spirit was thus quick, merely at the 
sw
et name of his city, to give greeting there 
10 his fellow-citizen; 
\ E 
\ 
I 



66 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- ed ora in te non stanno senza guerra 
purgatorio Ii vivi tuoi, e I' un I' altro si rode 
di quei che un muro ed una fossa serra. 
Cerca, misera, intorno dalle prode 
Ie tue marine, e poi ti guarda in seno, 
se alcuna parte in te di pace gode. 
Che val, perchè ti racconciasse il freno 
Giustiniano, se la sella è vota? 
Senz' esso fora Ia vergogna meno. 
Ahi gente, che dovresti esser devota, 
e lasciar seder Cesar in la sella, 
se bene intendi ciò che Dio ti nota! 
guarda com'. esta fiera è fatta fella, 
per non e
ser carretta dagli sproni, 
poi che ponesti mano aHa predella. 
o Alberto Tedesco, che abbandoni 
costei ch' è fatta indomita e selvaggia, 
- e dovresti inforcar Ii suoi arcioni, 
:Pur h' ) giudizio dalle stelle caggia I 
c e .Jra il tu
 sangue, e sia nuovo ed aperto, 
e &1 che il tuo sU,ccessor temenza n' aggia: 
rr chè avete tu e il tuo padre sofferto, I 
per cupidigia di costà distretti, 
che il gíardin dell' imperio sia diserto. 
Vieni a veder Montecchi e Cappelletti, J 
Monaldi e Filippeschi, uom senza cura: 
. color già tristi, e costor con sospetti. 
Vien crudel, vieni, e vedi la pressura J 
de' tuoi gentili, e cura lor magagne, 
e vedrai Santafior C001' è sicura. 
I Vieni a veder la tua R.oo1a che piagn p , 
vedova e sola, e di e notte chiama: 
"Cesare mio, perchè non m' accompagne >t' 



CANTO VI 


67 


ad now in thee thy living abide not without war, pan
e 
and one doth rend the other of those that one 
n;:il;
s 
wall and one foss shuts in. Italy 
earch, wretched one, around thy seacoasts by 
I the shores, and then gaze in thy bosom, if any 
part of thee en joy peace. 
Vhat avails it that Justinian should refit thy bridle The 
if the saddle is empty? , But for that the shame Emperor 
were less. 
I \.h people, that shouldst be obedient, and let 
Cæsar sit in the saddle, if well thou under- 
standest what God writeth to thee! 
ee ho\v this beast hath grown vicious, for not 
being corrected by the spurs, since thou hast put 
thy hand to the bridle. 
) Gernlan Albert, that dost forsake her who is 
beCOfile wanton and 'savage, and that oughtest 
to bestride her saddle-bo\v, 
nay just judgment fan from the stars upon thy 
blood, and be it strange and manifest, so that 
thy successor may have fear thereof: 
or thou and thy father, held back yonder by 
covetousness, have suffered that the garden of 
the empire be laid waste. r1 
:onle and see Montagues and Capulets, Monaldi 
and Filippeschi, thou ßlan without care: those 
already sad, and these in dread. 
:ome, cruel one, come, and see the oppression 
of thy nobles and tend their sores, and thou 
shalt see Santafior how secure it is. 
20nle and see thy Rome that weepeth widowed 
and alone, and day and night doth cry: 
" Cæsar min(
, wherefore clost thou not conl- 
panion me ? " 



68 


PURGATORIO 


Ant}-""Vieni a veder la gente quanto s' ama; II 
pnrgatono e se nulla di noi pietà ti move, 
a vergognar ti vien della tua fama. 
E se licito m' è, 0 sommo Giove, II 
che fosti in terra per noi crucifisso, 
son Ii giusti occhi tuoi rivolti altrove ; 
o è preparazion, che nell' abisso I
 
del tuo consiglio, fai, per alcun bene 
in tutto daB' accorger oostro scisso? 
Chè le città d' Ttalia tutte piene I
 
Bon di tiranni, ed un Marcel diventa 
ogni villan che parteggiando viene. 
Fiorenza mia, ben puoi esser contenta I
 
di questa digression che non ti tocca, 
rnercè del popol tuo che s' argomenta. 
Molti han giustizia in cor, ma tardi 8cocca, I. 
per non venir senza consiglio all' arcó ; 
ma il popol tuo l' ha in son1mo della bocca. 
Molti rifiutan 10 comune incarco ; I 
ma il popol tuo soHecito risponde 
senza chiamare, e grida: "To mi sobbarco.' 
Or ti fa lieta, chè tu hai ben onde : I 
tu ricca, tu can pace, tu con senno. 
S' io dico '1 ver, I' effetto nol nasconde. 
Atene e Lacedemone, che Fenno 1 
l' antiche leggi e furon sì civili, 
fecero al viver bene un picciol cenno 
verso di te, che fai tanto sottili I 
provvedimenti, che a mezzo novembre 
non giunge quel che tu d' ottobre fili. 
Quante vo1te del tempo che rimembre, I 
legge, nloneta, offizio e costume 
hai tu mutato, e rinnovato nlembre ! 



CANTO VI 


69 



ome and see how thy people love one another; pan
e 
d O f . r h d InveIghs 
an 1 no pity lor us move tee, come an against 
shame thee for thy fame. 1 Italy 
\.nd if it be permitted me, 0 highest Jove, who 
on earth for us wast crucified, are thy just 
eyes turned elsewhithe
 ; 
r is it preparation which thou art making in the 
depths of thy cc;>unsel, for some good end 
wholly cut off from our vision? 
r i or the cities of Italy are all full of tyrants, and 
every clown that comes to play the partizan 
becomes a Marcellus. 
) my Florence, thou indeed mayst rejoice at this Florence 
I digression which touches thee not, thanks to 
thy people that reasons so well. 
o 
any have justice in their hearts, but slowly it 
I is let fly, for it comes not without counsel to 
the bow; but thy people hath it ever on its lips. 
3 
any refuse the public burdens; but thy people 
I answers eagerly without call, and cries out: "I 
bend me to the charge." 
6 
 ow make thee glad, for thou hast good reason: 
thou rich, thou at peace, thou so wise. If I 
I speak sooth, the facts do not conceal it. 
\thens and Lacedemon, that framed the Jaws of 
I old and were so grown in civil arts, gave a 
ßlere hint at well living 
)Cside thee, who dost make such subtle provision, 
that to mid-November reaches not what thou 
in 0 ctober spinneste 
! :-low often in the time which thou rememberest, 
laws, coinage, offices, and customs hast thou 
changed, and renewed thy members! 



70 


PURGATORIO 


A t nt
- E se ben ti ricordi e vedi lume, 14 
purga OrlO d o o. 1 0 II . 1:'. 
ve ral te Slffilg lante a que a InIerma, 
che non può trovar posa in su Ie piUlU\::", 
rna con dar volta suo dolore scherma. 15 


I. Zara, a game of chance played with three dice. 
13, 14. "The Aretine" is Benincasa da Laterina 
who, as judge to the Podestà of Siena, condemned t 
death a relative of Ghin di rracco, a notorious high 
wayman. The latter subsequently revenged himseJ 
by murdering Benincasa, while he was sitting as 
magistrate at Rome. 
15-17. "The other Aretine" is Guccio of th 
Tarlati, which family was at the head of the Ghibe1 
lines of Arez'Zo. He was drowned in the Arno; accord 
ing to som
 accounts, while engaged in pursuing th 
Bostoli (a family of exiled Aretine Guelfs, who ha 
taken refuge in the Castel di Rondine), according t 
others, wh He being pursued by them after the battl 
of Campaldino (for which see the preceding canto).- 
Federico Novello, a member of the great Conti Gui( 
family, was slain by one of the Bostoli at Campaldin< 
while assisting the Tarlati. 
17, 18. It séems probable that Marzucco, of th 
Pisan Scornigiani family, "showed his fortitude" b 
pardoning the murderer of his son (the qucl da Pisa) 
though other authorities declare that he slew tb 
assassin. 
19. This murder points to a continuation of th 
feud between the brothers Alessandro and Napoleon 
degli Alberti, alluded to in Inf. xxxii. 41-60: fe 
Count Orso was the son of Napoleone, and h 
murderer Alberto the son of Alessandro. 
19- 24. Pierre de la Brosse was surg-eon and afteJ 
wards chamberlain of King Philip III. of Franc. 
On the sudden death, in 12.76, of Louis, Philip's so 
by his first wife, and heir to the throne, his secon 
wife, Mary of Brabant, was suspected of havin 
poisoned him, so that her o\vn son might succee( 
Among her accusers was Pierre de la Brosse. Sh 



CANTO VI 


71 


Lnd if thou well bethink thee, and see clear, thou pan
e 
shalt behold thee like unto that sick one, who 
a;;:il;
S 
can find no rest upon the down, but by turning It ly 
about shuns her pain. Florence 



terminecl to poison all minds against him and 
ring about his downfall. According to popular 
'adition she accused him of having made an attempt 
n her honour; but as Pierre was eventually (in 
!78) hanged on a charge of treasonable correspond- 
, lce with Philip's enemy, Alfonso X. of Castile, it 
1 
ems more probable that she attained her end by 
lusing these letters to be forged. J J 
2.8-30, 40-41. Among the persons Æneas meets in ( 
ell is his former pilot, Palinurus, who, having been 
rowned at sea, is not allowed to cross the Acheron 
>r a hundred years: that being the penalty imposed J 
n the souls of those who have not been duly interred. 
Ie entreats Æneas to take him across the river, where- 
pon the Sibyl rebukes him with the words: "Cease 
) hope that the decrees of the Gods are to be altered 
I y prayers" (Æn. vi. 371). These words are addressed 

 a heathen and to a spirit in hell. Note that Æneas, 

hose aid is invoked by Palinurus, is a heathen, too, 
, nd does not fulfil the conditions of Purg. iv. 133- 1 3S 

i. 33. 
58 sqq. Sordello, one of the most distinguished 
mong the Italian poets who elected to write in 
)rovençal rather than in their mother-tongue, was 
lorn at Goito, some ten miles from Mantua, about 
he year 1200. He led a chequcred and wandering 
ife, the latter portion of which was devoted to the 
ervice of Charles of Anjou, by whom he was well 
ewarded. The latest record of him that ha
 come 
lown to us is dated 1269. To the Dante student 
)ne episode of Sordello's life and one of his poems 
Lre of special interest. Between the years 12.27-1119, 
;vhile staying at Treviso with Ezzelino III. of Romano, 
le had a liaison with the latterJs sister Cunizza (see Par. 
x. 2.5-36), who was the wife of Count Ricciardo di San 
Bonifazio, but whom Sordello had abducted (for political 



72 


NOTES 


reasons) at the request of her brother. When th. 
latter discovered the intrigue Sord
.llo was forced t( t 
flee to Provence. About the year 12.40 he wrote ; 
very fine p/anch (or song of lamentation) on the dead 
of Blacatz, himself a poet and one of the barons 0 
Count Raymond Berenger IV. In this poem the lead 
ing sovereigns and princes of Europe are exhorted tc 
eat of the dead man's heart, so that their courage ma: 
increase, and they be fired on to noble d
eds. Thes 
,yerses may have indirectly inspired the patriotic out 
burst for which the appearance of Sordello is made th 
pretext; and they certainly induced Dante to assign to 
Sordello the task of pointing out the princes in th 
following canto.-There is a reference to Sordello i! 
the JTu/g. E/oq. i. 15: 9-14. 
88, 89. One of the many passages to be fount 
throughout Dante's works, which show that wha 
was really in his mind when he spoke of the Roma! 
Empire was an executive power adequate to enforc 
Roman law. (For Justinian in this connection, if. PaT 
vi., Argument). Much confusion in medieval thought 
and much difficulty in understanding- Dante's positiOi 
arises from the fact that the King of the Germans \Va 
the feudal head of the territorial nobility who represente l 
the invaders and conquerors of Italy, ,vhereas the Em 
peror of Rome was the traditional champion of Roma! 
law and civilisation which represent the native Italial 
aspirations; and since the King of Gennany and th 
Emperor of Rome were one and the 
ame person, i 
was possible to regard him as the representative c 
either of the two conflicting tendencies and ideals, o. 
the clash of which the whole medieval history of Ital- 
turns. 
91-96. These lines are addressed to the priests, 
vh 
should leave all secular rule to the Emperor. 



CANTO VI 


73 


97- 10 5. Both Rudolf (for \vhom see the following 
mto, 'Uv. 94-96) and his son Albert I. (Emperor 
om 1298-1308) neglected Itair (v'l'. 103-(05): the 
,rrner devoted his attention to Austria and Suabia, 
-hile a specimen of the latter's activity is given in 
'are xix. I [5- I 17. Verses 100-10 I refer, by anticipa- 
on, to Albert's violent death, at the hands of his 
ephew, John. Albert was succeeded by Henry VII. 
f Luxemburg ('[1. 102), on whom Dante rested all his 
opes (see Gardner, pp. 30-34; cf., too, the following 
anto, 'lJ. 96, and Par. xvii. 82; xxx. 133 sqq.). 
106, 107. Shakespeare has so familiariscd us with 
he feud of the Veronese Montagues and Capulets, 
hat a hint from the old commentators to the effect 
hat the Monaldi and Fillippeschi were hostile families 
If Orvieto is sufficient to assure us that Dante is here 
;iving us two examples of the internal strife so common 
n the Italian cities of those days. The reference appears 
o be to party strife in general, not to the factions of 
he Guelfs and Ghibellines in particular. A more 
'ecent interpretation, according to which all the four 
lames are. those of Ghibelline families belonging to 
lifferent towns and requiring- the aid of the Emperor, 
"alls to the ground, because at least one of the fë.milies 
:the Monaldi) was certainly Guelf. 
II I. Santafiora-a county in the Sienese Maremma, 
Jeld for almost five centuries by the great Ghibelline 
:amily of the Aldobrandeschi (see below, Canto xi. 
S8 sqq.). These were constantly at war with the 
:ommune of Siena, till the year 1300 when an agree- 
ment was arrived at. 
12 5. Marcel, i.
., an opponent of the empire [Marcel- 
Lus, the Roman consul, was one of Cæsar's most violent 
opponents]. · 
 


T 



PURGA TORIO 


A FTER repeatedly embracing Virgil, only becaust 
he is a Mantuan, Sordello questions him further 
and on hearing who he is, after a moment's pause 
amazed and half-incredulous, falls at his feet to embract 
his knees (I - I 5). In answer to Sordello, Virgi 
rehearses in words of deepest pathos the nature of hi: 
mission and the state of the souls in Limbo wh( 
practised the moral, but were never clad with tht 
theological, virtues (16-36). In answer to Virgil': 
questioning concerning the way, Sordello expound: 
the law of the mount which suffers no soul to ascen( 
while the sun is below the horizon; and he offers t< 
lead the pilgrims, ere the now approaching sunset, t< 
a fitting place of rest, where they shall find noteworth1 


Ant.i- Poscia che l' accoglienze oneste e liete 
purgatono furo iterate tre e quattro vo1te, 
Sordel si trasse e disse: "V oi chi siete?" 
"Pri.l.lla che a questo monte fosseI' vo1te 
l' ani me degne di salire a Dio, 
fur }' ossa mie per Ottavian sepolte. 
10 son Virgilio; e per null' altro rio 
10 ciel perdei, che per non aver fè" : 
così rispose aHora il duca mio. 
Qual è colui che cosa innanzi sè 
subita vede, ond' ei si maraviglia, 
che crede e no, dicendo: "Ell' è, non è " ; 
tal parve quegli, e poi chinò Ie cigIia, 
ed umilmente ritornò vel' lui, 
ed abbracciollo ove il minor s' appiglia. 
"0 gloria de' Latin," disse, "per cui 
mostrò ciò che potea la lingua nostra, 
o pregio eterno del loco ond' io fui, 
74 


I( 


I
 


It 



CANTO VII 


uls (37- 6 9)' In a little lap or dell of the mountain 
.ey find the pensive souls of kings and rulers who had 

glected their higher functions for selfish ease or 
lfish war. Now they are surrounded by every sooth- 
Ig beauty of nature; but relief from the serious cares 
: life, which erst they sought unduly, is now an 
19uish to them, and their yearning goes forth to 
Ie active purgation of the seven terraces of torment 
bove them. With the enumeration of the kings- 
ld enemies singing in harmony, and fathers mourning 
ver the sins of their still living sons-are mingled 
ributes to the worth, or gibes at the degeneracy of 
he reigning monarchs, and reflections on the unlike- 
less of sons and fathers (7 0 - 1 3 6 ). 



fter the greetings dignified and glad had been The Late- 
repeated three and four times, Sordello drew Repentant 
him back, and said: "Who art thou? " X



li:d 
;c Ere to this mount were turned those spirits 
worthy to ascend to God, my bones by 
Octavian had been buried. 
I am Virgil; and for no other sin did I lose 
heaven than for not having faith": thus 
answered then DIY Leader. 
As one who seeth suddenly a thing before him 
whereat he marvels, who believes, and believes 
not, saying: "It is, it is not " 
 
such seemed he, and forthwith bent his brow, and 
humbly turned back towards my Leader, and 
embraced him where the inferior clasps. 
"0 glory of the Latins," said he, "by whom 
our tongue showed forth all its power, 0 
eternal praise of the place whence I sprang, 
7S 



76 


PURGATORIO 


Ant!- qual merito 0 qua] grazia mi ti mostra? 
purgatoClo S' io son d'udir Ie tue parole degno, 
dimmi se vien d' inferno, e di qual chiostra.'; 
" Per tu
ti i cerchi del dolente regno," 2 
rispose lui, "son io di qua venuto. 
Virtù del ciel mi mosse, e con lei vegno. 
Non per far, ma per non far ho perduto 
di veder I' alto Sol che tu disiri, 
e che fu tardi da me conosciuto. 
Loco è laggiù non tristo da martiri, 
ma di tenebre solo, ove i lamenti 
non suonan come gual, ma son sospln. 
Quivi sto io coi parvoli innocenti, 
dai denti morsi dell a morte, avante 
che fosser dall' umana colpa esenti. 
Quivi sto io con quei che Ie tre sante 
virtù non si vestiro, e senza vizio 
conobber l' altre e seguir tutte e quante. 
1vla se tu sai e puoi, alcuno indizio 
dà noi, per che venir possiam più tosto 
là dove Purgatorio ha dritto inizio." 
Rispose I: "Loco certo non c' è posto : 
licito m' è andar suso ed intorno; 
per quanto ir posso, a guida mi t' accosto. 
Ma vedi già come dichina il giorno, 
ed andar su di notte non si puote ; 
però è buon pensar di bel soggiorno. 
Anime sono a destra qua rimote ; 
se '1 oli consenti, io ti merrò ad esse, 
e non senza diletto ti fien note." 
" Com' è ciò ?" fu risposto; "chi volesse 
salir di notte, fora egli impedito 
d' altrui ? 0 non sarria che non potesse ? " 


J 


2 


2 


3 


3. 


.... 
;;) 
 


4 C 


42 


4 6 


49 



CANTO VII 


77 


hat merit or what favour sheweth thee to me ? The Late 
If I am worthy to hear thy ,vords, tell me if Repentant 
r. H 1 ] d r. h 1 . " Virgil and 
thou cornest Ifom e, an Ifom \v at c Oister. Sardello 
Through all the circles of the woeful realm," 
answered he him, "came I here. A virtue 
from heaven n10ved me, and with it I come. 
rot for doing, but for not doing, have I lost the 
vision of the high Sun, \vhom thou desirest, 
and \v ho too late by me was known. 
)own there is a place not sad with torments, Limbo 
but with darkness alone, where the lamenta- 
tions sound not as wailings, but are sighs. 

here do I abide with the innocent babes, bitten 
by the fangs of death, ere they were exempt 
from human sin. 
rhere dwen I t with those who clad them not 
with the three holy virtues, and without 
offence kne\v the others and followed them all. 
But if thou knowest and canst, give us some sign 
whereby we may most quickly come there 
where Purgatory has right beginning." 
n.e answered: "No fixed place is set for us: 
'tis permitted to me to go up and around; so 
far as I may go, as guide I place me beside thee. The law of 
But see now ho\v the day is declining, and ascend the ascent 
by night we 
 cannot; therefore 'tis weJl to 
think of sonie fair resting-place. 
Here are souls on the fight apart; if thou anow 
it I will lead thee to them, and not without 
joy will they be known to thee." 
" How is that?" ,vas answered; "he who wished 
to ascend by night, \vould he be hindered by 
others, or would he not ascend because he 
could not? " 



7 8 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- E il buon Sordello in terra fregò il dito, s 
purgatorio dicendo:" V edi, sola q uesta riga 
non varcheresti dopo il sol partito ; 
non però che altra cosa desse briga, s 
che Ia notturna tenebra, ad ir suso : 
quella col non poter la voglia intriga. 
Ben si poría con lei tornare in giuso, s 1 
e passeggiar la costa intorno errando, 
mentre che I' orizzonte il dì tien chiuso." 
AHora il mio signor, quasi ammirando: 6 
"Menane, dunque," disse, "là ove dici 
che aver si può diletto din10rando." 
Poco allungati c' eravam di lici, L 6 
quand' io m' accorsi che il monte era scemo, 
a guisa che i vaHon Ii sceman quici. ' 
Valle" Colà," disse quell' ombra, "n' anderemo 6 
dove la costa face di sè grembo, 
e quivi il nuovo giorno attenderemo." 
Tra erto e piano era un sentiero sghembo, 7 
che ne condusse in fianco della lacca, 
Ià dove più che a mezzo n1uore illembo. 
Oro ed argento fino, cocco e biacca, 7 
indico Iegno Iucido e sereno, J 
fresco smeraldo in I' ora che si fiacca, 
daB' erba e dalli fior dentro a quel seno 7 
posti, ciascun saria di color vinto, 
come dal suo maggiore è vinto il meno. 
Non avea pur natura ivi dipinto, 7 
ma di soavità di mil1e odori 
vi facea un Incognito e indistinto. 
Salve, Regina, in sui verde e in sui fiori 8 
quivi seder cantando anime vidi, 
che per Ia valle non parean di fuori. 



CANTO VII 


79 


nd the good Sordello drew his finger across The Late- 
I the ground, saying: "Look, even this line R
p
ntant 
J . VIr 11 and 
thou wouldst Q t cross after the sun IS set ; Sor
ello 
)t for that aught else than the darkness of night 
gave hindrance to going upward: that hampers 
the wi}] with lack of power. 
'ruly by night one might return downwards, and 
walk, wandering around the mountain side, 
while the horizon holds the day closed." 
'hen my Lord, as tho' marvelJing, said: "Lèad 
us therefor
 where thou sayest we may have 
delight in tarrying." 
 
hort way had we thencç adyanced, when I per- 
ceived that the mount was scooped out l after 
the fashion tha,t vaJleys scoop them wout here. 
There," said the shade, " we will go where the The valley 
o O d k f . If b d of the 
mountain-si e ma es 0 Itse a osom, an negligent 
there will. await the new day." Rulers 
Jeither steep nor level was a winding path, that 
led us to the side of that hollow, there where 
the valley's edge more than half dies away. 
:;'old and fine silver, cramoisy and white, Indian 
wood bright and clear, fresh emerald at the 
moment it is split, 
vould each be surpassed in colour by the grass 
and by the flowers placed within that fold, as 
the less is surpassed by the greater. 
\fot only had Nature painted there, but of the 
sweetness of a thousand scents made there 
one, unknown and indefinable. 
rhere, seated on the grass and on the flowers, 
singing Salve Regina, saw I souls. who be- 
cause of the valley were not seen from without. 



80 


PURGATORIO 


Ant}- " Prima che il poco sole omai s' annidi," 
purgatono cominciò iI Mantovan che ci avea volti 
Valle .. . ..' 
"tra color Don voghate ch' 10 VI gUldl. 
Di questo balzo nleglio gli atti e i volti 
conoscerete voi di tutti e quanti, 
che nella lama giù tra essi accolti. 
Colui, che più sied' alto e fa sembianti 
d' aver negletto ciò che far dovea, 
e che non n10ve bocca agli altrui canti, 
Rid olfo imperador fu, che potea 
sanar ]e piaghe ch' hanno Italia n10rta, 
sì che tardi per altri si ricrea. 
L' altro, che neHa vista lui conforta, 
re-sse la terra dove I' acqua nasce, 
che Molta in AJbia ed Albia in mar ne porta 
Ottacchero ebbe nome, e nelle fasce 10 
fu meglio assai, che Vincislao suo figlio 
barbuto, cui lussuria ed 
zio pasce. 
E quel nasetto, che stretto' a consiglio 
par con colui ch' ha sì benigho aspetto, 
mori fuggendo e dis60rando il giglio : 
guardate là come si batte il petto. 
L' altro vedete ch' ha fatto alIa guancia' 
dell a sua palma, sospirando, letto. 
Padre e suocero soo del mal di Francia: 
sanno Ia vita sua viziata e Iorda, 
e quindi viene iI duol che sì Ji lancia. 
Quel che par sì membruto, e che s' accorda II 
cantando con colui dal maschio naso, 
d' ogni valor portò cinta 1a corda. 
E se re dopo lui Fosse rimaso 
10 giovinetto che retro a lui siede, 
bene andava il valor di vasa in vaso; 


8 ,I 


8 


9 


9 


9 


10 


:10 


10 


II 



CANTO VII 


81 


Ere the little sun no \\I' sinks to his nest," be- The 
gan the Mantuan who had led us aside, 

f
;;ent 
"desire not that I guide you among them. 
rom this terrace ye will better know the acts 
and faces of them alJ, than if received among 
them down in the hollow. ' 
,e who sits highest, and hath semblance of having Ru<\,olph 
left undone what he ought to have done, and 
who moves not his lips with the others' Bongs, 
as Rudolph the Emperor, who might have healed 
the wounds that were the death of Italy, so that 
too late through another is she succoured. 
he other, who looks to be comforting him, ruled Ottocar 
the land where the water rises which the 
Moldau carries away into the Elbe, and the 
EJbe into the sea: 
Ittocar for name had he, and in swaddling 
clothes was better far than bearded Wenceslas 
his son, whom lust and sloth consume. 

nd that snub-nosed one, who seems close in Philip III. 
I 0 h h o h h h k o dl 0 of France 
counse Wit 1m t at at 60 In y a mien, and Henry 
died in flight and deflo\vering the lily: of Navarre 
ok there how he is beating his breast. The 
other see, who, sighing, hath made a bed for 
his cheek with the palIn of his hand. 
ather and father-in-law are they of the plague 
of France: they know his wicked and foul life, 
and hence comes the grief that pierceth them so. 
[e who seems so stout of lin1b, and accords his Peter III. 
si
ging with him of the virile nose, was begirt 

:éh

ïes 
with the cord of every worth. . 0 10 of Anjou 
..nd if the lad who sits behind him had re- Pet
r's 
mained king after him, the worth would in sons 
truth have passed from vessel to vessel; 
F 



82 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- che non si puote dir dell' altre erede. 
purgatorio J F d . h . . 
acoma e e enco an no I reaml; 
Valle d I .. 1 . . d 
e retagglo mlg lor nessun possle e. 
Rade volte risurge per Ii rami 
I' umana probitate: e questo vuole 
quei che la dà, perchè da lui si chiami. 
Anche al nasuto van no mie parole, 
non men ch' all' altro, Pier, che con lui cant 
onde Puglia e Provenza già si duole. 
Tant' è del seme suo minor la pianta, 
quanto, più che Beatrice e Margherita, 
Costanza di marito ancor si vanta. 
Vedete il re della semplice vita 
seder là solo, Arrigo d' I nghilterra : 
questi ha ne' ran1i suoi migliore uscita. 
Quel che più basso tra costor s' atterra, 
guardando in suso, è Guglielmo marchese, 
per cui ed Alessandria e la sua guerra 
fa pianger Monferrato e Canavese." 
6. Otta'lJiano, the Emperor Augustus (if. above, CaJ 
iii. 2,7, note). 
7, 8 and 2,5-3 6 . See Inf. iv. 15-42.. 
44, 49-57. The sym bolism is clear if we bear 
mind the analogy between the sun ('lJ. 54) and God. 
82,. Salve Regina, the famous antiphon invoking' 
aid of the Virgin Mary. It is sung after vespers. 
91-10%.. The Emperor Rudolf 1. (1%.18-1%.7%.-I%.Ç 
see the preceding canto, 'lJv. 10%.-105) began by serv; 
under Ottocar II., King of Bohemia (1%.53-1%.78); . 
on his election as Emperor he asserted his suprema 
Ottocar's refusal to acknowledge it gave rise to hostilit 
which ended in his defeat and death in a battle n 
Vienna (12.78). Ottocar's son, Wenceslas IV. (I%. 
1305), was permitted to retain Bohemia (vv. 98, ç 
but had to yield Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carni 



CANTO VII 


83 


hich nlay not be said of the other heirs. Janles The. 
and Frederick have the realms. of the better NeglIgent 
· Rulers. 
heritage none hath possession. Peter's 
.arely doth human probity rise through the sons 
branches: and this he wills who giveth it, so 
that it may be prayed for from him. 
.Iso to the big-nosed one my words do go, not Jess The de- 
h h h P h ... . h generate 
t an to t e ot er, eter, w 0 IS sInging Wit son of 
him, wherefore Apulia and Provence now moan. C f h A ar1
s I. 
o nJou 
3 much is the plant degenerate from its seed as, 
more than Beatrice and Margaret, Constance 
yet boasts of her husband. 

e the king of the simple life, sitting there Henry III. 
alone, Henry of England: he in his branches of England 
hath better issue. 
hat one who lower down humbleth himself William 
h . d . W . II ' h the 
among t em, gazing upwar ,IS I lam t e Marquis 
Marquis, through whom AIessandria and its war 
make Montferrato and the Canavese to weep. 


Rudolf, who placed them under the rule of his own 
ns, Albert and Rudolf. 
103-111. Philip III., the Bold, of France (1245- 

70-1285), the nasetto, was in 1285 defeated ('V. 105) 
T Roger di Loria, the admiral of Peter III. of Aragon 
ee the following note), whose crown he was attempt- 
g to seize on behalf of his son, Charles of Valois, and 
ith the connivance of Pope Martin IV. Philip's son, 
hilip IV., the Fair (1268-1285-1314; one of Dante's 

t aversions: see Inf. xix. 87; Purge xx. 91; xxxii. 
)2; Par. xix. 118-120), married Joan, the daughter of 
:enry, the Fat,of Navarre (1270-1274; 'lJ. 104); and it 
the young man's wickedness that is here uniting his 
ther and his father-in-law in a common sorrow. 


112-114- Peter III. of Aragon (1276-1285) and his 
rmer enemy, Charles I. of Anjou (12%0-12.85; King 



84 


NOTES 


of Naples and Sicily, 1266-1282), respectively. Wb 
Charles was dri ven from the throne of Sicily after t 
terrible outbreak known as the" Sicilian Vespers," 
was succeeded by Peter, whose claim to the cro' 
was based on his marriage with Constance, t 
daughter of Manfred, King of Sicily. In spite of strer 
ous efforts, Charles '\vas never able to regain the kir 
darn.-Note that Peter III. and both his French fe 
Charles I. of Anjou and Philip III. (uncle and nephe\ 
all died in the same year, 12.85. 
1 I 5 - I 20. Peter III. of Aragon had three so 
Alfonso III. (King of Aragon, 1285 - 12.91), 1 
giovinet/o; James II. (King of Sicily, 1285-129ó, Ki 
of Aragon, 1291-132]); and Frederick II. (King 
Sicily, 12.96-1337). In the present passage AlfOl 
is praised, while the other t\vo are termed degenera 
The blame is repeated in Par. xix. 130; xx. 63; Co, 
iv. 6; De Yulg. El. i. 12. But Purge iii. 116 rai 
a difficulty. The verse cannot apply to Alfonso, '\V 
'\vas never King of Sicily. The onor of Sicily 
gent"rally taken to be Frederick, and the Ollor 
Aragon, James. There is no inconsistency here 
we consider that Manfred is speaking of his grandso 
and assume that the view expressed is his rather t" 
Dante's. Some scholars reject this theory 011 1 
ground that it is inadmissible to regard the repenté 
Manfred as displaying a mere fam ily pride, and h. 
that, at a certain period of his life, Dante lapsed Í! 
an unprejudiced and just estimate of James 3 
Frederick. To those '\vho cannot conscientiously Sl 
scribe to either of these t\VO theories, it may be poin' 
ont that, in any case, there is no definite histori 
inaccuracy. For it was Frederick's very devotion 
Sicily that led him to neglect the wider im peJ 
interests of Italy, an omission which probably accou 
for Dante's adverse judgment ill. the other passages ( 
the note to Par. xix. 130-132). With regard 
James, it is true that his conduct in Sicilian affairs v 



CANTO VII 


honourable; but he must have ruled ,veIl in Spain, 
e his subjects '\vould not have caned him" the Just." 
that it is, at a stretch, possible to explain the 
)rds onor di Cicilia ed' Aracrona. even if we take them to 
ò 
Jresent Dante's own consistent view. 
121-123. On the subject of heredity see Par. viii. 
- 14 8 . 
124-129. Charles II. (1243-1309), I(ing of Naples 
:ApuIia) and Count of Anjou and Provence, is as 
èrior to his father, Charles I. of Anjou (the ntljuto), 
this Charles I. (the husband first of Beatrice of 
ovence and then of l\1argaret of Burgundy) is inferior 
Peter III. of Aragon (the husband of Constance). 
mte frrquently inveighs against Charles II. (see PU1g. 
. 79-81; Par. xix. 127-129; xx. 62.,63; Con <v. iv. 
182, 3; De Yulg. Et. i. 12.: 36- 38); in return for 
lich he once gives him a word of praise (Par. viii. 
, 83)' 
130-132.. Henry III., the pious King of England 
2.16-1226-12.72), who formed so strong a contrast 
his active and warlike son. Ed\vard I. (1239-1272- 
07). It is 'w0rth noting that Henry's ,viCe, Eleanor 
Provence, was a sister of the Beatrice nlentioned in 
128. 
133- 13 6 . William, Marquis of Montferrat and 
.navese (1254-1292), at one time favoured Charles I. 
Anjou, but subsequently became the chief of a 
'midable league against him, which was joined by 
feral important towns
 including Alessandria (in 

dmont). Some of these towns at times rebelled, 
d in 1290 Alessandria rose against him. While 
:empting to quell this disturbance, he was captured 
the citiLenE, and exhibited by them in an iron cage 

 seventeen months (till his death in 1292). Willianl's 
:1, John I., tried to avenge his father; but his efforts 
ded in failure, for the Alessandrians invaded Mont- 
-rat and captured several places. 


85 


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9. 



PURGATOR
O 


Ie 


A T the pensive hour of sunset the souls devoutly 
join in their evening hymn, with eyes uplifted 
to heaven (1-18). As though to remind them that 
whil
 outside the gate of the true Purgatory their 
wills are not intrinsically above the reach of tempta- d 
tion, but are guarded only by the express intervention 
and protection of divine grace, two angels descend a
d 
stand on either bank of the dell to guard them against 
the serpent who would enter this counterpart of Eden 
(19- 39)' At the mention of the serpent Dante shrinks 
close up to Virgil; but Sordello invites them to descend, 
as the twilight deepens, into the litde vale, \vhere Dante 
meets his friend Nino, Judge of Gallura, and in ans\ver 
to his question tells him that he is still in the first life; 
whereon both he and Sordello start back in amazement. 
Nino summons Conrad Malaspina to witness this 
wonder of God's grace, and then turning to Dante 
again, implores him to obtain the prayers of his 
daughter; for his wife, wedded to a Visconte, has 
surely forgotten him (40-84). Dante, looking to 


Anti- Era già l' ora che volge il disio 
purgatorio ai naviganti, e intenerisce il core 
Valle 10 dì ch' han detto ai dolci amici addio; 
e che 10 nuovo peregrin d' amore 
punge, se ode squilla di lontano, 
che paia il giorno pianger che si 010re : 
quand' io incominciai a render vano 
}' lldire, ed a mirare una dell' alme 
surta, che l' ascoltar chiedea con mano. 
Ella giunse e levò ambo Ie palme, 
ficcando gli occhi verso }' oriente, 
come dicesse a Dio: "D' altro non calme." 
9 2 


4 


7 


xo 



.... 


CANTO VIII 


eaven
 notes that in this season of repose the four 
:ars that represent the moral virtues have vanished 
ehind the mountain, and the three that represent 
1e theological virtues shine in the sky. This is 
ne of the nlany indications that the proper business 
f Purgatory is ethical, the recovery of the sound 
10ral will. The season in which tbe souls 
I lay actually ascend is the one over which the four 
.:ars preside (85-93)' Meanwhile the dreaded serpent 
pproaches, but the angels swoop like celestial hawks 
pon it, ar.d having put it to flight return to their 
osts (94-108). During the whole assault Conrad 
as not ceased to gaze on Dante; and he now asks him 
If ne\vs of his country of Valdemagra, and of his 
insfolk there; to which Dante replies that he has 
; ever visited those parts, but the noble character of 
he Malaspini rings through all Europe (109-132); 
{hereon he receives the significant comment that ere 
ix years are gone he shall know the worth of the 
Æalaspini better than reportingly (133-139). 
Twas now the hour that turns back the desire The 
of those who sail the seas and melts their heart, 




ent 
that day when they have said to their sweet Sunset of 
friends adieu, the first 
d h . h . 1 .' h I . f day in 
n t at pIerces t e new pI gnm WIt ove, I Purgatory 
from afar he hears the chimes which seem to 
mourn for the dying day; 
vhen I began to annul my sense of hearing, and 
to gaze on one of the spirits, uprisen, that 
craved a listening with its hand. 
[t joined and lifted up both its palms, fixing its 
eyes towards the east, as though 'twere saying 
to God: "For aught else I care not." 
93 



94 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- " lè iucis ante" sì devotamente 
purgatorio 1 ' d . b ' d 1 · 
V 11 e usel Iocca, e con SI 0 el note, 
a e h J: . d . 
e e Ieee me a me uselr 1 nlente. 
E ]' altre poi dolcemente e devote 
seguitar lei per tutto l' inno intero, 
avendo gIi oechi alJe superne rote. 
Aguzza qui, lettor, ben gli occhi al vero, 
ehè il velo è ora ben tanto sottile, 
certo, ehe il trapassar dentro è Ieggiero. 
10 vidi quello esereito gentile 
tacito poseia riguardare in sue, 
quasi aspettando pallido ed umi]e ; 
e vidi uscir dell' alto, e seender giue 
due angeli con due spade affocate, 
tronehe e private delle punte sue. 
Verdi, come fogliette pur mo nate, 
erano in veste, ehe da verdi penne 
pereosse traean dietro e ventilate. 
L' un poco sopra noi a star si venne, 
e l' altro seese in ]' opposita sponda, 
sÌ ehe la gente in mezzo si eontenne. 
Ben discerneva in lor la testa bionda ; 
ma nelle faeeie I' oeehio si smarria, 
come virtù ehe al troppo si eonfonda. 
"Ambo vegnon del grembo di Maria," 
disse Sordello, "a guardia della valle, 
per 10 serpente ehe verrà via via." 
Ond' io, ehe non sapeva per qual calle, 
mi voIsi in torno, e stretto m' accostai 
tutto gelato aIle fidate spalIe. 
E Sordello aneo: "Ora avvalliamo omai 
tra Ie grandi ombre, e parleremo ad esse; 
grazioso fia lor vedervi assai." 



CANTO VIII 


95 


, Te Iuds ante" so devoutly proceeded from its The. 
mouth, and with such sweet music, that it rapt 

r:

ent 
me from Iny very sense of self: Evening 
\nd the others then sweetly and devoutly ac- Hymn 
companied it through the entire hymn, having 
their eyes fixed on the supernal wheels. 
R.eader, here sharpen well thine eyes to the 
truth, for the veil now is indeed so thin, 
that of a surety to pass \vithin is easy. 
saw that noble army thereafter silently gaze 
upward, as if in expectancy, pale and 
lowly; 
lnd I saw two angels come forth from on high Two 
and descend below with two flaming swords, :e

:
d 
broken short and de p rived of their P oints. f H !"om 
eaven 
Green, as tender leaves just born, was their 
raiment, which they trailed behind, fanned 
and smitten by green wings. 
One came and alighted a little above us, and the 
other descended on the opposite bank, so that 
the people was contained in the middle. 
Clearly 1 discerned the fair hair of them; but in 
their faces the eye \vas dazed, like a faculty 
which by excess is confounded. 
"Both come from Mary's bosom," said 
Sordello, "as guard of the vale, because of 
the serpent that straight\vay will come." 
Whereat I, who knew not by what way, 
turned me around, and placed me all icy 
cold close to the trusty shoulders. 
And SordeIlo again: " Now go we into the vale 
among the mighty shades, and we will speak to 
them; great joy will it be to them to see you." 



9 6 


PURGATORIO 


An
i- Solo tre passi credo ch' io 8cendesse, 4 
pnrgatono fi 0 d " O d o h 0 
e UI I sotto, e VI I un c e nllrava 
V
e 0 1 
pur me, come conoscer mi vo esse. 
rrempo era già che l' aer s' annerava, 4 
ma non sì che tra gli occhi suoi e i miei 
non dichiarisse ciò che pria serrava. 
Ver me si fece, ed io ver lui mi fei: s 
Giudice Nin gentil, quanto mi piacque, 
quando ti vidi non esser tra i rei! 
Nullo bel salutar tra noi si tacque ; 
 
poi domandò: "Quant' è che tu venisti 
a piè del monte per Ie lontane acque ? " 
"0," diss' io lui, "per entro i lochi tristi 
venni stamane, e so no in prima vita, 
ancor che l' altra sÌ andando acquisti." 
E come fu la mia risposta udita, 
SordeHo ed egli indietro si raccolse, 
come gente di subito smarrita. 
L' uno a Virgilio, e I' altro ad un si valse 
che sedea lì, gridando: "Su, Corrado, 
vieni a veder che Dio per grazia valse." 
Poi vo1to a me: "Per quel singular grado, 
, che tu dei a colui, che sì nasconde 
10 suo primo perchè, che non gli è guado, 
quando sarai di là dalle larghe onde, 
di' a Giovanna mia, che per me chiami 
là dove agl' innocenti si risponde. 
Non credo che la sua madre più m' ami, 
poscia che trasmutò Ie bianche bende, 
Ie quai convien che misera ancor brami. 
Per lei assai di lieve si comprende, 
quanto in femn1Ìna foco 
' am or dura, 
se I' occhio 0 il tatto spesso non l' accende. 



CANTO VI I I 


97 


lly three steps methinks I descended, and was The 
b I d h . I Negligent 
e o\v, an saw one w 0 was gazing on y at Rulers 
me, as tho' he ,vould recognise me. Nino de' 
was now the time when the air was darkening, Visconti 
yet not so dark but that what between his eyes 
and mine before was hidden, no\v grew clear. 

 advanced towards me, and I to him: Noble 
judge Nino how did I rejoice when I saw 
thee, and not among the damned! 
) fair greeting was left unsaid between us; then di
courses 
he asked: "How long is it since thou earnest with Dante 
to the foot of the mount over the far waters?" 
)h," said I to him, "from within the places of 
woe came I this n10rn, and am in my first life, 
albeit by this nIY journeying I gain the other." 
ad when my answer was heard, Sordello 
and he shrank back like folk suddenly be- 
wildered. ... 
1e one turned to Virgil, and the other to one who 
was seated there, crying: "Up, Conrad, come 
and see ,vhat God by his grace hath willed." 
len turning to me: "By that especial grace 
which thou owest to him who so hideth his 
first purpose that there is no ford to it, 
1en thou art beyond the wide waters, tell my 
tGiovanna that she pray for me there where the 
innocent are heard. r 
10 not think her mother loves me more, since 
she hath changed her white win1ples, which 
hapless she must long for once again. 
{ her right easily may be kno,vn, ho,v long 
the fire of love doth last in woman, if eye 
and touch do not oft rekindle it. 


G 



9 8 


PURGA'rORIO 


Anti- Non Ie farà sì bell a sepoltura 7 
purgatorio I " h " I M O l 
a Vlpera c ell anese accampa, 
Valle com' avria fatto i] gaUo di Gallura." 
Così dicea, segnato del1a stan1pa a 
nel suo aspetto di que I dritto zelo, 
che misuratamente in core avvampa. 
Gli occhi miei ghiotti andavan pure al cielo, 
 
pur là dove Ie stelle son più tarde, 
sì come rota più presso aHo stelo. 
E il duca nlio: "Figliuol, che ]assù gUélrde ?" f 
Ed io a lui: "A queUe tre facelJe, 
di che il polo di qua tutto quanto arde." 
Ed egli a DIe: "Le quattro chiare stelle, 
che vedevi staman, son di là basse, 
e queste son salite ov' eran queUe." 
Com' ei parlava, e Sordello a sè il trasse 
dicendo: "V edi là il nostro avversaro " ; 
e drizzò il dito, perchè in là guardasse. 
Da quel1a parte, onde non ha riparo 
la picciola vallea, era una biscia, 
forse qual diede ad Eva il cibo amaro. 
Tra }' erba e i fior venia 1a mala striscia, I 
volgendo ad or ad or la testa al dosso, 
leccando come bestia che si liscia. 
10 nOD vidi, e però dicer non posso, I 
come mosser gli astor ceIestiaIi, 
ma vidi bene e I' uno e I' altro 010SS0. 
Sentendo fender l' aere aUe verdi ali, 
fuggì il serpente, e gli angeli dier volta 
suso aile poste rivolando egualio 
L' ombra, che s' era aI giudice raccolta 
quando chiamò, per tutto quell' assalto 
punto non fu da me guardare sciolta. 



CANTO VIII 


99 


'he viper that the Milanese blazons on his The 
shield will not make her so fair a tomb as 

f;;
ent 
Gallura's cock would have done." Nino 
'hus spake he, his countenance stamped with 
the mark of that righteous zeal which in due 
measure g]ows in the breast. 
I y yearning eyes were again turned to,vards The Three 
heaven, even there where the stars are slowest, Stars 
like a wheel nearest the axle. 
lnd my leader: "Son, what gazest thou at up 
there?" And I to him: "At those three torches, 
where\vith the whole pole here is flaming." 

nd he to me: "The four bright stars which 
thou sawest this morn are low on the other 
side, and these are risen where they were." 

s he was speaking, 10 Sordello dre\v him to him- The 
self, saying: "See there our adversary," and Serpent 
pointed his finger so that he should look thither. T 
)n that side \vhere the little vale hath no 
rampart, was a snake, perchance such as gave 
to Eve the bitter food. 

hrough the grass and the flowers came the evil 
reptile, turning round now and again its head 
to its back, licking like a beast that sleeks itself. 
saw not, and therefore cannot tell, how the 
celestial falcons moved; but full well I saw 
both in motion. 
-lea ring the green \vings cleave through the air, the P!1t to 
serpent fled, and the angels wheeled around, 
h;hÁ
:els 
flying in equal measure back to their posts. 
rhe shade that had drawn close to the judge Conrad 
when he called, through all that assault was Malaspina 
not loosed a moment from gazing at me. 



100 


PURGATORIO 


Anti- " Be la lucerna che ti Inena in alto 112 
purgatorio trovi nel tuo arbitrio tanta cera, 
Vaile , , . . fì I 1 " 
quant e InestIero In no a sommo sma to, 
cominciò ella, "se novella vera us 
di Valdimacra 0 di parte vicina 
sai, dilla a me, che già grande là era. 
Chian1ato fui Corrado Malaspina: uS 
non son l' antico, ma di Iui discesi ; 
a' miei portai I' amor che qui raffina." 
"0," diss' io Iui, "per Ii vostri paesi 121 
giammai non fui; ma dove si dimora 
per tutta Europa, ch' ei non sien palesi ? 
La fama che la vostra casa on ora 12 4 
grid a i signori e grida la contrada, 
sì che ne sa chi non vi fu an cora. 
Ed io vi giuro, s' io di sopra vada, 1. 2 1 
che vostra gente onrata non si sfregia 
del pregio della borsa e della spada. 
U so e natura sì la privilegia, 130 
che, perchè il capo reo 10 n10ndo torca, 
sola va dritta, e il mal cammin dispregia." 
Ed egli: "0 r va, chè il sol non si ricorca 133 
sette voIte nelletto che il Montone 
con tutti e quattro i piè copra ed inforca, 
che cotesta cortese opinione 13 6 
ti fìa chiavata in mezzo della testa 
con n1aggior chiovi che d' altrui sermane. 
se corso di giudizio non s' arresta." 139 
1-6, 49-5 I. See diagram on p. 103. 
13. The Ambrosian hymn, Te /ucis ante t
rTliinum, sung 
c' at CGJIlpline (the last office of the day). 
rS -...." 19-3\.<k In addition to the general explanation given 

 in the Argument, the following points should be noted. 
!:: Li 
 ) The greeþ robes and wings of the angels speak of hope. 


" ->. 
, t'_ 
',' '1 



CANTO VI I I 


101 


So may that light which guideth thee on high, The 0 
find in thy will as much wax as is needful to 


I:;ent 
reach the enamelled summit," Conrad 
began, "if thou know true tidings of V aldi- Malaspina 
macra, or of neighbouring parts, tell it me who 
once was mighty there. 
\\ras called Conrad Malaspina: not the elder 
am I, but descended from hinl: to mine own 
I bore that love which here is purified." 
Oh," said I to him, "through your lands I ne'er Dante 
have been but where do men dwell throu g h- praises 

e 
, Malasplnl 
out Europe to whom they are not renowned? 

he fame which honours your house proclaims 
abroad its lords, and proclaims the country, so 
that he knows of it who there hath never been. 
lnd I swear to you, so may I go on high, that 
your honoured race strips not itself of the 
glory of the purse and of the sword. 

uston1 and nature so do privilege it, that for all 
that the guilty head sets the world awry, it 
alone goeth straight and scorns the path of evil." 
\..nd he: " Now depart, for the sun goeth not and is 
to rest seven ti
es in :he bed which the Ran1 b;C
:;
d's 
covers and bestndes with all four feet, cheering 
h o .. h II b . 1 d . 1 prophecy 
re t IS courteous opinIon s a e nal e In t Ie 
midst of thy head, with bigger nails than other 
men's words, if course of judgment be not 
stayed. " 
fhe pointless swords are usually taken to indicate 
ustice tempered with mercy (if. below, Canto xxxi. 

1, note); but perhaps they mean that the battle is in 
ruth already decided, the deadly thrust no longer 
leeded, and that the sword-edge alone is adequate 
,see below, Canto xxxi. 2., 3). 



102 


NOTES 


47-84. Nino' de' Visconti of Pisa (for whom see Inf. 
xxii. 8 3, not
, and xxxiii. I -90, not
) was appointed by 
the Pisans to the judgeship of Gallura in Sardinia, in 
the last decade of the 13th century. He married 
Beatrice of Este (see, in the Inferno volume, tht 
table on p. 7.37; and, above, those on pp. 90: 91) 
by 
vhom he had a daugh ter, Giovanna ["lI. 71; i1 
is interesting to note that in 132.8 the Commune 0: 
Florence voted a pension of 100 piccoli fiorini to thi! 
Giovanna, on account of her father's faith and devotior 
to Florence and the Guelf party, for the injuries anc 
vexations he had suffered from the Ghibellines, anc 
as compensation for the spoliation of all her good: 
by the Ghibellines]. After his death, Beatrici 
married Galeazzo Visconti, of Milan; the formalitie 
were probably completed by Easter, 1300, but th. 
ceremony did not actually take place till June 0 
that year. Verse 74 refers to casting off the garb 0 
widowhood (black robe and white veil), and "lI. 75 t4 
the misfortunes of the Milanese Visconti, which dat 
from 1301. The viper and the cock ("V"V. 80, 81) in 
dicate the arms of the Milanese and Pisan Visconti 
respectively. These two families appear to have beel 
in no way connected with each other; the former wer 
Ghibelline, the latter Guelf. 
85-93. It must be steadily borne in mind that onl 
half the heavens are visible to Dante at this point c 
the journey. The steep wall of Purgatory cuts off th I 
whole portion of them west of the meridian. The fou 
bright stars are near the south pole; but in the latitud 
of Purgatory the pole itself is only about 37. 0 above th 
horizon, and the stars are now behind the mountai 
and beneath the pole. 
65, 10 9- 1 39. Currado I. of the MaJaspina famil 
(l'antico of 'tI. 119) was grandfather of the three cousin 
Currado 11. (d. ca. 17.94), the present speaker; MoroelJ 
III. (d. ca. 1315), to whom Dante's third epistl, 
accompanied by Canzone xi., is probably addressee 
and for \vhom see Inf. xxiv 143- I 50, no/
; and FraT 
; 



CANTO VIII 


10 3 


schino (d. between 1313 and 132.1), who was 
lnte's host at Sarzana, in Lunigiana, in the autunln 
13 06 ('V'V. 133-139: l
ss than seven years-the sun 
.w being in Ari
s-from the moment at which 
]rrado is sp
aking). The Malaspini were for the 
ost part Ghibelli.nes; but Moroello III. formed a 
.table exception. Yaldimacra ('V. 116): the Macra 
tWS through Lunigiana (north-west of Tuscany), 
hich formed part of the territory of the Malaspini 
r. Inf. xxiv. 14S).-A table of the Malaspina family 
ill be found on p. 141 ; 5ee, too, the table on p. 89. 
Cera ('I" I13} material to feed the flame (lucerna) of 
od's grace; the sommo sma/to being either the summit 
I : the Mount of Purgatory or the Empyrean. With 
131 compare xvi. 94-111; though gome refer the 
'ords specifically to Boniface VIII. 


N 


. Jh,. 

 . 


Showing the portions of the Mountain under light and 
hade at 6 o'dock p.m. Cf." Purgatorio," viii. 1-6, 
.9- 5 I ; xvii. 1-7"1.; xxvii. 1- 6 9' 



PURGATORIO 


I T is now about two and a half hours since snnse' 
The Scorpion has begun to pass the horizon, an 
the lunar aurora is already whitening in the eas: 
when Dante, reclining in the bosom of the valle) 
resting from his four-night watch and the toil an 
anguish of his journey, drops into a deep sleep (I-I
 
In the morning hour \vhen dreams are true, he seem 
to be clasped in the talons of an eagle-the symb( 
at once of justice and of baptismal regeneration-an 
to be borne up into the sphere of fire, the burning ( 
which awakens him; and he starts to find himse: 
alone with Virgil, higher on the mount, nigh to th 
gate of Purgatory proper. He learns from his guid 
that, as he slept, Lucia bore him away from Sordell 
and the other denizens of the valley, and placed hir 
here (13-63). His dismay is thus turned into deligh 


Anti- La concubina di Titone antico 
purgatorio già s' imbiancava al balco d' oriente, 
Valle fuor delle braccia del suo dolce amico ; 
di gemnle la sua [ronte era lucente, 
paste in figura del freddo animale, 
che con la coda percote la gente ; 
e la notte de' passi, can che sale, 
fatti avea due nelloco ov' eravanlO, 
e il terzo già chinava in giuso l' ale; 
quand' io, che meco avea di quel d' Adamo, 
vinto dal sanna, in su }' erba inchinai 
ove già tutti e cinque sedevamo. 
Nell' ora che comincia i tristi lai 
la rondinel1a presso alla mattina, 
forse a memoria de' suoi primi guai, 
10 4 


Ie 


I; 



CANTO IX 


he follows his guide to the narrow portal with its three 
ps and its angel guard, who first challenges the pil- 
ms, but on learning their divine authority gives them 
uteous welcome (64-93). On the steps of sincerity, 
ltrition and love, the poet mounts to the gate and 
."ows himself at the feet of its guardian to implore ad- 
ssion(94-1 I I). The angel car\"es on Dante's brow seven 
ì, the symbol of the seven deadly sins (peccata), which 

 purged on the terraces above, and then turning the 
iden and the silver key which he holds in charge 
m Peter, he admits Dante; with the solemn warn- 

 that he is not to look behind him, when once past 

gate (111-131). The seldom-turned hinges grate as 

 portal swings, and a half-heard song of praise to 
>d is the first sound that falls on the poet's ear within 

 gate, drawing his heart upward (133- [45). 


o,v was the concubine of ancient rrithonus at The first 
eastern terrace g rowin g white, forth from her n p ight i t n 
, urga ory 
sweet lover s arnls; begins 
th gems her forehead ,vas glittering, set in the 
form of the cold animal that strikes folk with 
its tail ; 
d Night, in the place where we were, had ßlade 
two of the steps wherewith she climbs, and the 
third was already down-stooping its wings; 
1en I, who with me had somewhat of Adam, and Dante 
vanquished by sleep, sank down on the grass ::-;\
::

r 
where already all we five were seated. 
t the hour when the swaIlo\v begins her sad 
lays nigh unto the morn, perchance in memory 
of her former woes, 


105 



106 


PURGATORIO 


Ant
- e che ]a mente nostra, peregrina 
purgatorl0 . ù d I] d ' . 
pI a a carne e men a pensler presa, 
aIle sue vision quasi è divina: 
in sogno mi parea veder sospesa 
un' aquila nel ciel con penne d' oro 
con l' ali aperte, ed a calare intesa. 
Ed esser mi parea là dove foro 
abbandonati i suoi da Ganimede, 
quando fu ratto al sommo consistoro. 
Fra me pen sa va: "Forse questa fiede 
pur qui per uso, e forse d' altro loco 
disdegna di portarne suso in pied e." 
Poi mi parea che, roteata un poco, 
terribil come folgor discendesse, 
e me rapisse suso infino al foco. 
Purgatorio Ivi pareva ch' ella ed io ardesse, 
e sì l' incendio imaginato cosse, 
che conv
nne che it sonno si rompesse. 
Non altrimcnti Achille si riscosse, 
gli occhi svegliati rivolgendo in giro, 
e non sapendo là dove si fosse, 
quando Ia madre da Chiron a Schiro 
trafugò lui dormendo in Ie sue braccia, 
là cnde poi Ii Greci il dipartiro; 
che mi scoss' io sì come dalla faccia 
mi fuggì il 80nno, e diventai ismorto, 
come fa I' uom che spaventato agghiaccia. 
Da lato m' era solo il mio conforto, 
e il sole er' alto già più che due ore, 
e il viso m' era alIa marina torto. 
" Non aver tema," disse il mio signore; 
"fatti sicur, chè noi siamo a buon pun to ; 
non stringer, ma ral1arga ogni vigore. 



CANTO IX 


107 


ld \vhen our mind, more of a wanderer from the Dante ... 
fl h d I . d b h h . . drealns of 
es an ess pnsone y t oug ts, In Its the Eagle 
visions is al most prophetic; 
I a dream ß1ethought I saw an eagle poised in 
I the sky, with plumes of gold, with wings out- 
spread, and intent to swoop. 
lnd meseemed to be there where his own people 
were abandoned by Ganymede, when he was 
snatched to the high consistory. 
thought within me: "Haply he strikes only here 
through custon1, and perchance scorneth to bear 
aught upward from other place in his talons." 

hen meseemed that, having wheeled awhile, 
terrible as lightning, he descended and snatched 
me up far as the fiery sphere. 
:1 
here it seemed that he and I did burn, and the and awakes 
I visionary flame so scorched that needs was at morn 
my slumber broken. 
4 
 ot otherwise Achilles startled, turning his 
a,vakened eyes around, and knowing not 
where he might be, 
vhen his mother carried him away sleeping in 
her arms from Chiron to Scyros, there whence 
the Greeks afterwards made him depart, 

 
han I startled, soon as sleep fled from my face, 
and I grew pale even as a man who freezes 
with terror. 
\Ione beside me was my Comfort, and the sun 
was already more than two hours high, and 
mine eyes were turned to the sea. 
'Have no fear," said my Lord, "make thee 
secure, for we are at a good spot; hold not 
back, but put out all thy strength. 



108 


PURGATORIO 


Purgatorio Tu se' omai al Purgatorio giunto : 
vedi là il balzo che il chiude d' intorno ; 
vedi l' entrata là 've par disgiunto. 
Dianzi, nell' alba che precede al giorno, 
quando }' anima tua dentro dormia 
sopra Ii fiori, onde Iaggið è adorno, 
venne una donna, e disse: '10 son Lucia; 
J. lasciatemi pigliar costui che dorme, 
sì l' agevolerò per la sua via.' 
Sordel rimase, e l' altre gentil forme. 
Ella ti tolse, e come il dì fu chiaro 
sen venne suso, ed io per Ie sue orme. 
Qui ti posò; e pria mi din1ostraro 
gli occhi suoi bel1i quell' entrata aperta ; 
poi ella e il sonno ad una se n' andaro." 
A guisa d' uom che in dubbio si raccerta 
/ e che muta in conforto sua paura, 
poi che la verità gli è discoperta, 
mi cambia' io; e come senza cura 
videmi il duca mio, su per 10 balzo 
si mosse, ed io di retro in ver I' altura. 
. Lettor, tu vedi ben com' io innalzo 
la mia materia, e però con più arte 
non ti mara vigliar s' io la rincalzo. 
N oi ci appressaplffio, ed eravamo in parte, 
che là dove pareami in prima un rotto, 
pur come un fesso che muro diparte, 
Porta del vidi una porta, e tre gradi pi sotto, 
Purgatorio per gire ad essa, di color diversi, 
ed un portier che ancor non facea motto. 
E come l' occhio più v' apersi, 
vidil seder sopra il grado soprano, 
tal nella faccia, ch'io non 10 soffersi; 



CANTO IX 


10 9 


.ou art now arrived at Purgatory; see there Virgil 
:he rampart that compasseth it around; see :h

 r: nte 
:he entrance there where it seems cleft. h p as reached 
. . . urgatory 
I 
whlle, In the dawn which precedes the day, 
Nhen thy soul was sleeping within thee upon 
r :he flowers wherewith down below is adorned, 
le a lady and said: 'I am Lucy, let me take 
his man who sleepeth, so wiII I prosper him 
)n his way.' I 
odello remained and the other noble forms. borne 
,he took thee, and as day was bright, came 



er by 
>n upward, and I followed in her track. 
re she placed thee; and first her fair eyes 
lid show to me that open entrance; then she 
Lnd sleep together went away." 
doth a rnan who in dread is reassured, and 
vho changes his fear to comfort after the 
ruth is revealed to him, 
hanged me; and when my Leader saw Ine The poets 
o d fì h d b h resume 
ree rom care, e move up y t e rampart, their way 
.nd I following, towards the height. 
ider, well thou seest how I exalt my sub- 
ect, therefore marvel thou not if with greater 
.rt I sustain it. 
1 
 drew nigh, and were at a place, whence 
I here where first appeared to me a break just 
I ike a fissure w hieh divides a waH, 
5 ,pied a gate, and three steps beneath to go to and reach 
f d O:ll. I d d h the gate of 
t, 0 Ivers co ours, an a war er w 0 as yet Purgatory 
pake no word. 
9 d as more I opened mine eyes there, I saw The 0 
o d h h 0 h o Guardlan 
urn seate upon t e topmost step, sue In IS Angel 
.ountenance that I endured him not; 



110 


PURGATORIO 


Porta del ed una spada nuda aveva in mano, 
Purgatorio h . fl . .. . 
c e n etteva 1 raggl SI ver nOl, 
ch' io dirizzava spesso il viso in vano, 
" Dite costinci, che volete voi ? " 
cominciò egli a dire: "ov' è Ia scorta ? 
Guardate che il venir su non vi noi ! " 
" Donna del ciel, di queste cose accorta," 
rispose il mio maestro a lui, "pur dianzi 
ne disse: 'Andate là, quivi è la porta.' " 
" Ed ella i passi vostri in bene avanzi," 
ricominciò il cortese portinaio ; 
"venite dunque a' nostri gradi innanzi." 
Là 've venimmo, allo scaglion primaio, 
 
bianco marmo era sÌ pulito e terso, 
ch' io mi specchiai in esso quale io paio. 
Era il secondo tinto più che perso, 
d' una petrina ruvida cd arsiccia, 
crepata per 10 lungo e per traverso. 
Lo terzo, che di sopra s' ammassiccia, 
porfido mi parea sì 6ammeggiante, 
come sangue che fuor di vena spiccia. 
Sopra questo teneva ambo Ie piante 
I' angel di Dio, sedendo in su la soglia, 
che mi sembiava pietra di diamante. 
Per Ii tre gradi su di buona voglia 
mi trasse il duca mio, dicendo: "Chiedi 
umilemen te che il serran1e scioglia." 
Divoto mi gittai a' santi piedi; 
misericordia chiesi che m' aprisse ; 
ma pria nel petto tre fiate mi diedi. 
Sette P neJIa fronte mi descrisse 
col punton della spada, e: "Fa' che lavi, 
quando se' dentro, queste piaghe," disse. 


:I 


J 



CANTO IX 


III 


f I in his hand he held a naked sword which The 
reflected the rays so towards us, that I directed Xuar1ian 
. . c.. . nge 
mine eyes to It Olt In vain. 
rel1, there where ye stand, what would ye ? " 
he began to say; "where is the escort? Be- 
ware lest coming upward be to your hurt! " 

 heavenly lady who wen knows these things," 
my Master answered him, "even now did say 
to us: 'Go ye thither, there is the gate.' " 
A.nd nla y she speed your steps to good," 
again began the courteous door-keeper; 
"colne then forward to our stairs." 
here where we came, at the first step, was The three 
white marble so polished and smooth that I 


P:
:e 
mirrored me therein as I appear. 
he second darker was than perse, of a stone, 
rugged and calcined, cracked in its length and 
in its breadth. 
he third, which is massy above, seemed to me 
of porphyry so flaming red as blood that 
spurts from a vein. ' 

 pon this God's angel held both his feet, sitting 
upon the threshold, which seemed to me 
adamantine stone. 
rp by the three steps, with my good wilJ, my 
Leader brought me, saying: "Humbly ask 
that the bolt be loosed." 
)evoutly I flung me at the holy feet; for mercy Dante 
I craved that he ,vould open to me; but first 
dZ:
ion 
on my br
ast thrice I smote me. 
leven P's upon my forehead he described with The seven. 
the point of his sword and: "Do thou wash p's 
these wounds \vhen thou art within," he said. 



112 


PURGATORIO 


Porta del Cenere 0 terra che secca si cavi 
Purgatorio d' un color fora col suo vestimento, 
e di sotto da q uel trasse due chia vi. 
L' una era d' oro e l' altra era d' argento; 
pria con la bianca, e poscia con la gialla 
fèce alIa porta sì ch' io fui contento. 
" Quandunque l' una d' este chiavi falla, 
che non si volga dritta per la toppa," 
diss' egli a noi, "non s' apre q uesta calla. 
Più cara è l' una; ma l' altra vuol troppa 
d' arte e d' ingegno avanti che disserri, 
perch' ell' è quell a che il nodo disgroppa. 
Da Pier Ie ten go ; e dissemi ch' io erri 
1 anzi ad aprir, che a tenerla serrata, 
pur che la gente a' piedi mi s' atterri." 
Poi pinse l' uscio aHa porta sacrata, 
dicendo: "Entrate; ma facciovi accorti 
che di fuor torna chi 'ndietro si guata." 
E quando fur ne' cardini distorti 
gli spigoli di quella regge sacra 
che di mètallo son sonanti e forti, 
non rugghiò sì, nè si mostrò sì acra 
Tarpeia, come tolto Ie fu iI buono 
Metello, per che poi rimase macra. 
10 mi rivolsi attento al primo tuono, 
e Te Dellm lalldamus mi parea 
udir in voce mista al dolce suono. 
Tale imagine appunto mi rendea 
 
ciò ch' io udiva, qual prender si suole 
quando a can tar con organi si stea : 
che or sì or no s' intendon Ie parole. 


II 


II 


12 


12. 


12: 


13< 


I3: 


I3( 


13Ç 


"r 


14
 


I4 é 


1-9. Dante never distinguishes between the signs 
and the constellations of the Zodiac; that is to say, 



CANTO" IX 


113 


l.shes, or earth which is dug out dry, would be of The Angel 
one colour with his vesture, and from beneath f

Wke;
rtb 
it he drew forth two keys. 
)ne was of gold and the other was of silver; 
first with the white and then with the yellow 
he did so to the gate that I was satisfied. 
Whensoever one of these keys fails so that it 
turns not aright in the lock," said he to .us, 
"_ this passage opens not. ,". 
fore precious is one, but the other requires ex- 
ceeding art and wit ere it unlocks, because it is 
the one which unties the knot. - , 

. Qrt 
rom Peter I hold them; and he told me to err 
rather in opening, than in keeping it locked, if 
only the people fell prostr;rte at my feet. 1 " õ 
'hen he pushed the door of the sacred portal, and opens 
saying: "Enter, but I make you ware that the portal 
he who looketh behind returns outside again." 
.nd when in their sockets \vere turned the pivots 
of that sacred portal, which are of metal ring- 
ing and strong, 
arpeia roared not so, nor showed her so harsh J 
\v hen good Metell us was taken from her, \v here- 
by she after remained poor. - 
turned me intent for the first sound, and Te 
Deum lau.damus me seemed to hear in a voice 
mingled with sweet music. 
1st such ilnpression gave me that which J heard, 
as we are wont to receive when people are 
singing with an organ, and now the words 
are clear, and now are not. · , 
v 

 disregards the phenomena which he held to be the 
'oper motion of the sphere of the stars (if. Vita 
H 



114 


NOTES 


Nuo'Va, 
 ii. 9-IZ and Con'V. ii. 3: 3 6 -45; 15: lot-lIS). 
It is the phenomenon kno'wn in modern astronomy as tht 
precession of the equinoxes. Perhaps the reason wh)' 
Dante did not make this correction was that ht 
regarded it as countt:rbalanced by the error of tht 
Julian calendar (see Par. xxvii. 14z, 143, note), in tht 
other direction. "rhus, he would regard the day or 
which, by the uncorrected calendar, the sun enters tht 
com.tellation of Aries as coinciding with the day or 
which, by the corrected calendar, he would be in tht 
real equinox, i.e. the first point of the sign of Aries 
He chose, therefore, to take his ideal equinox rather b
 
calendar and constellation than by the strict astrono 
mical equinoctial point. This st.-ems to be the mean 
ing of Inf. i. 38-40, and may account for his treatin! 
the statement that the sun 'was at the equinoctial poin 
at the time of his journey now as an exact statemen 
(Par. x. 31-33), and now as an approximation (Par. i 
44). This premised, a reference to the chronologica 
note at the close of this volume \vill show that th 
retardation of the moon now amounted to two hour 
and thirty-six minutes, and that she 'was therefore il 
the constellation of Scorpio. Of the six hours i; 
\vhich the night rises, two were gone, and the thir. 
had just passed the summit of its course. T'he luna 
aurora was therefore on the horizon By a somewha 
odd analogy she is called the" mistress " of Tithonu 
because ßhe is a spurious aurora, and the genuin 
Aurora was the" wife" of Tithonus. 
15. See below, Canto xvii: 19-21, note. 
19- 3 3. The eagle, in the" Bestiaries," is said to ft 
up in his old age into the circle of fire, where he burr 
otf all his feathers and falls blinded into a fountain ( 
,,-ater, 'whence he issues with his youth renewe( 
This is a sy
bol of baptismal regeneration. An 
here Dante, true to the ethical note which pervades Ü 
Purgatory, connects him with moral rather than wit 
ceremonial purification by connecting him with 1"'ro' 
i.e. Rome, i.e. the Empire, law and justice: for Gan
 
mede (whose beauty had attracted Jupiter, and wh 
having been borne aloft by an eagle while hunting \vit 
his friends on Mount Ida in Mysia, became the cUI 



CANTO IX 


lIS 


>earer of the Gods) was the son of Tros, an ancestor of 
Æneas. 
This is the first of three dreams or visions (for the 
>thers see below, Cantos xix. and xxvii.), each of 
Nhich takes place shortly before dawn (the time being 
ndicated in a terzina beginning with the words Ne/t' 
Ira-see above "v. 13, and, in the other cantos, "V"V. I and 

4, respectively) and is a forecast of the events im- 
Tlediately following. 
34-39. See Inf. xxvi. 62, note. The amazement of 
Achilles is recorded by Statius (AchiJ/. i. 2.47 sf}fJ.). 
44. See the diagram on p. J 3. 
55. For Lucy, who must be more or less closely 
identified with the eagle of Dante's dream, see Inf. ii. 
97, 9 8 , note. 
78. portier. This angel represents the priest con- 
fessor. 
82-84. The sword of Divine Justice, whose ways 
are inscrutable to men. 
99. crepata, perhaps because contrition breaks the 
stubbornness of the heart. 
104, 105. The stone of adamant possibly indicates 
the firmness and constancy of the confessor. 
112.. Kraus connects the seven P's not only with the 
seven peccata, but with the seven scrutinies as wen, 
which figured in the Roman Liturgy till the end of the 
12th century, and formed part of the service on the 
seven Sundays from the first in Lent to Easter Sunday. 
1 15, 116. This hue appears to be a token of the 
humility with '\vhich the confessor should exercise his 
function. 
117- 12 9. Cf. Par. v. 55-57, note. 
136-138. Metellus, a follower of Pompey, made a 
futile effort to protect the Roman treasury (kept in the 
temple of Saturn on Mons l
arpeius) against Cæsar 
(B.C. 49)' Lucan (Phars. iii. 153-168) lays special 
stress on the noise made by the opening of the temple 
gates on this occasion. 
140. The famous Ambrosian hymn, sung at matins 
and on solemn occasions. Some commentators refer to 
Luke xv. 10, and connect the present singing of the 
hymn wi th the entry of a soul into Purgatory. 


v 



...,.. . 


PURGATORIO 


\ 
T HE closing door rings behind the poets, but 
Dante, mindful of the warning, looks not back 
(1-6). r-rhe cleft through which the pilgrin1s mount 
is as tumultuous as the heaving sea, and it is three 
hours after sunrise ere they issue upon the first terrace, 
some eighteen feet in breadth, stretching uniformly as 
far as the eye may réach in either direction (7-'1.7). 
1-'he outer rim of the terrace verges unprotected upon 
the precipitous downward slope of the mount. The 
inner side is of marble, cut vertically out of the monn- 
tain, and carved with scenes from sacred and pagan 
history, illustrative of humility, seeming to live and 
speak in thdr beautiful and compelling reality ('1.8. 


Ss:lita al Poi fummo dentro al sogIio della porta, 
Glrone I che il nlalo amor dell' anime disusa, 
perchè fa parer dritta la via torta, 
sonando la sentii esser richiusa ; 
e s' io avessi gli occhi volti ad essa, 
qual fora stata al faHo degna scusa? 
Noi salivam per una pietra fessa, 
che si moveva d' una c d' altra parte, 
sì come I' onda che fugge e s' appressa. 
"Qui si convien usare un poco d' arte," I( 
cominciò il duca mio, "in accostarsi, 
or quinci or quindi, allato che si parte." 
E ciò fece Ii nostri passi scarsi I: 
tanto, che pria 10 scen10 della luna 
rigiunse al letto suo per ricorcarsi, 
che noi fossimo fuor di quella cruna. It 
Ma quando fummo Jiberi ed aperti 
su dove il monte indietro si rauna, 
116 I 



CANTO X 


9 6 ). As Dante is gazing unsatiated upon the intaglios, 
Virgil bids him look to the left, where he beholds 
;trange objects approaching him, which his eyes cannot 
it first disentangle, but which presently reveal them- 
;clves as human forms bent 'under huge burdens of 
;tone, crumpled up in postures of agonised discomfort 
:97-12.0). These are the forms of the proud, mere 
arvae not yet developed into the angelic imago, who 
lad none the less exalted themselves on eàrth in un- 
:easonable pride, and pow wail only that the limits 
)f their strength enable them to bear no more and 
)end no lower in their hUlnility (12.1-139). 
. 


Nhen we were within the threshold of the gate, The gate is 
which the evil love of souls disuses because it shut behind 
. ' the poets 
makes the crooked way seem straIght, 
.Y the ringing sound I heard it was shut again; 
and had I turned mine eyes to it what would 
have been a fitting excuse for the fault? 
N e climbed through a cleft rock, which was and 
hey 
moving on one side and on t
e other? even as 
g



:nt 
a wave that recedes and approaches. b 
'Here we must use a little skill," began my 
Leader, "in keeping close, now hither now 
thither, to the side that is receding." & 
\..nd this made our steps so scant, that the wan- Morning 
ing orb of the moon regained its bed to sink of the d d 
. secon ay 
agaIn to rest t in Purga- 
- . , tory 
re we were forth from "tbat needle's eye. But 
w hen we were fi-ee and on the open above, 
where the ßlount is set back, 


117 



118 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I io stancato ed ambedue incerti 
di nostra via, ristemmo su in un piano 
solingo pið che strade per diserti. 
Dalla sua spanda, ove confina il vano, 
al piè dell' alta ripa, che pur sale, 
misurrebbe in tre volte un corpo umano ; 
e quanta I' occhio mio potea trar d' ale, 
or dal sinistro ed or dal destro fianco, 
questa cornice rni parea cotale. 
Lassù non eran mossi i piè nostri aneo, 
quand' io conobbi quella ripa intorno, 
che, dritta, di salita a veva manco, 
easer di marmo candido, e adorno 
d' intagli sì che non pur Policreto, 
ma la natura II avrebbe scorno. 
L' angel che venne in terra col decreto 
dell a n101t' anni lagrimata pace, 
che aperse il ciel dal suo lungo divieto, 
dinanzi a noi pareva sì verace 
quivi intagliato in un a tto soave, 
che non sembiava imagine che tace. 
Giurato si saria ch' ei dicesse: A
e, 
però che ivi era imaginata quella, 
che ad aprir l' alto amor volse la chiave. 
Ed avea in atto impressa esta favella, 
Ecce ancilla Dei, propriamente, 
come figura in cera si suggella. 
"Non tener pure ad un loco la mente," 
disse il dolce maestro, che m' avéa 
da quelJa parte oode il core ha la gente; 
per ch' io mi mossi col viso, e vedea 
di retro da Maria, da quella costa 
onde m' era colui che mi mavea, 


:19 


22 


25 


28 


3 1 


34 


3: 


4 1 


4 


.. 


4 



CANTO X 


119 


wearied and both uncertain of our way, we The proud 
stood still on a level place more solitary than 
roads through deserts. 
i rom its edge where it borders on the void, to 
the foot of the high bank which sheer ascends, 
a human body would measure in thrice; 
nd so far as mine eye could wing its flight, now 
on the left now on the fight side, such this 
cornice appeared to me. 11 
rhereon our feet had not yet moved, when I 
discerned that circling bank (which, being up- 
right, lacked means of ascent,) 
o be of pure white marble, and adorned with Exal1}(>lesof 
I Humility- 
sculptures so that not only Polyc etus, but 
Nature there would be put to shame. 
rhe angel that came to earth \vith the decree of The 
C . h o h d Virgin 
peace wept ror sInce many a year, w IC opene Mary 
heaven fron1 its long ban, 
>efore us appeared so vividly graven there in 
gentle mien, that it seemed not an image which 
is dumb. 
)oe would have sworn that he was saying: Ave; 
for there she was fashioned who turned the key 
to open the supreme love. 

nd in her attitude were imprinted these \vords, 
Ecce ancilla Dei, as expressly as a figu
e is 
stamped on wax. '7 
., I{eep not thy mind only on one place," said the 
sweet Master, who had me on that side where 
folk have th
 heart; 
'vherefore I n10ved my face about, and saw 
behind Mary, on that side of me where he 
was who was urging me on, 



120 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I un' altra storia nelJa roc cia imposta: 
per ch' io varcai Virgilio, e femmi presso, 
acciocchè Fosse ag]i occhi miei disposta. 
.,. 
Era intagliato lì nel marmo stesso 
10 carro e i buoi traendo l' area santa, 
per che si teme officio non commesso. 
Dinanzi parea gcnte; e tutta e quanta 
partita in sette cori, a' ò ue n1iei sensi ) 
f:1ceva dir l' un "No," I' altro "Si, canta." 
Simiìemente, al fumn10 degl' incensi , r 6 
.
 che v' era imaginato, gli occhi e il naso .u 
ed al sì ed al no discordi fensi. 
 

 
Lì precedeva al benedetto vaso, 
trescando alzato, I' u01ile salmista, 
e più e men che re era in que 1 caso. '1 
D' incontra effigiata ad una vist
 t 
d' un gran palazzo Micol ammirava, 
sì come donna dispettosa e trista. 
10 mossi i piè del loco dov' io stava, 
per avvisar da presso un' altra storia 
che di retro a Micol mi biancheggiava. 
Quivi era storiata I' alta gloria 
d
l ronlan principato, il c,ui valore 
mosse Gregorio aHa sua gran vittoria : I" 
io dico di Traiano imperfldore ;'
 "f { .. 
cd una vedovella gli era al freno, 
di lagrime atteggiata e di dolore. 
Intorno a lui pare a calcato e pieno 
di cavalieri, e l
 aquile nell' 0
9J 
sopr' esso in vista al vento si movieno. tr"\ 
I.Ja nliserella intra tutti costoro 
pare a ,dicer: "Signor, fan)mi vendetta 
del mio figliuol ch' è morto, ond' io m' accoro.' 


5<;- 


5': 


5
 


6 


6 


b 


] 


'J 


l . 


7 


"} 


, 



 



.J CAI
TO X 


121 


not her story set in the rock, wherefore I crossed The pr{)ud 
b V o 0 1 d d . h h 0 . h b Examples of 
y lrgi an rew me nig , t at It mig t e HumiHty- 
displayed to mine eyes. JJ David 
rhere was graven on the very marble the cart 
and the oxen drawing the sacred ark, whereby 
we fear an office not committed to us. 
n front appeared people; and th
 whole divided 
into seven choirs, to two of my senses, made the 
one say "no,
' the other, " yes, they do sing." 
:n like ,vise, at the smoke. of the incense which 
there was i01aged, eyes and nose were made 
discordant with yes find no. 0 r 
rhere went before. the blessed vessel the lowlv 
Psalmist, dancing, girt up; and more and le;s 
than king was he in that case. 

igured opposite at a window of a great palace 
was Michal, looking:' on even as a woman 
scornful and sad. I 

 moved my feet from the place where r I stood, 
to scan closely another story which bel}ind 
Michal shone white before me. I 
rhere was storied the high glory of the Roman Traja.a 
prince whose worth moved Gregory to his 
great victory; 10::> 
)f Tra jan the émperor I speak; and a poor 
widow was at his bridle in the attitude of 
tears and of grief: n.;; 
Round aboút f him appeared a trampling and 
throng of hors.emen and the eagles in gold 
above him moved visibly to the wind. 
 
The poor creature among all these seemed to say: 
" Lord, do me vengeance for my ,son who is 
slain, whereby my heart is pierced." 



GirODe 


122 


PURGATORIO 


Ed egli a lei ri8pondere: "Ora aspetta 85 
tanto ch' io torni." Ed quella: "Signor mio," 
come persona in cui dolor s' affretta, 
" se tu non tomi ? " Ed ei: "Chi fÌa dov' io Sf 
1a ti farà." Ed quella: "L' altrui bene 
a te che fia, 8e il tuo mctti in obblio? " 
Ond' egli: "Or ti conforta, chè conviene 9] 
ch' io sol va il mio dovere, anzi ch' io mova: 
giustizia vuole e pietà mi riticne." 
Colui, che mai non vide cosa nuova, 
produsse esto visibile parlare, 
novello a noi, perchè qui non si trova. 
Mentr' io mi dilettava di guardare 
Ie imagini di tante umilitadi, 
e per 10 fabbro loro a veder care; 
" Ecco di qua, ma fanno i passi radi," 
mornlorava il poeta, "molte genti ; 
questi ne invieranno agli alti gradi." 
Gli occhi miei ch' a mirar eran intenti, 
per veder novitadi onde son vaghi, 
volgendosi ver lui non furon lenti. 
Non yO' però, lettor, che tu ti smaghi 
di buon proponimento, per udire 
come Dio vuol che il debito si paghi. 
Non attender la forma del martire ; 
pensa la succession; pensa che, al peggio, 
oltre la gran sentenza non può ire. 
10 cominciai: "Maestro, quel ch' io veggio II 
.1l10Ver a noi, non mi sembran persone, 
h ' I d . " 
e non so c e, 81 ne ve er vanegglO. 
Ed egii a me: "La grave condizione 
di lor tormento a terra Ii rannicchia, 1 
sì che i miei occhi pria n' ebber ten zone. 


9' 


.., 


9: 


10 


10 


10 


10 


II 



CANTO X 


12 3 


nd he to ans\ver her: "N ow wait until I The proud 
return." And she, like a person in" whom 
grief is urgent: ., My Lord, 
thou do not return? " And he: "One who 
shall be in my place will do it for thee." And 
she: "What to thee will be another's good 
deed if thou forget thine own?" 
"herefore he: "Now comfort thee, for needs 
must I fulfil my duty ere I stir; justice wills 
and pity holds ßle back." 
e, who ne'er beheld a new thing, wrought this 
visible speech, new to us be
ause here it is not 
found. 
Thile I was rejoicing to look on the images of 
humilities so great and for their Craftsman's 
sake precious to see, ' 
Lo here," murmured the Poet, "much people, Virgil's 
but few they make their steps; these will send counsel 
us on to the high stairs." 
rine eyes, that were intent on gazing to see new 
things whereof they are fain, were not slow in 
turning towards him. 
would not, reader, that thou be scared from a 
good purpose through hearing how God ,vilIs 
that the debt be paid. 
reed not the form of the pain; think what 
followeth, think that at worst beyond the 
great jud gment it cannot go. 
began: "Master, that which I see moving 
towards ùs seems not persons to me, yet I 
kno\v not what, so ,vanders .my sight." 

nd he to me: "The g
ievous state of their 
torment doubles them down to e
rth so that 
nlÎne eyes at first thereat were at strife. 



12 4 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I Ma guard a fiso là, e disviticchia 
col viso quel che vien sotto a quei sassi; 
già scorger puoi come ciascun si picchia." 
o superbi Cristian miseri lassi, 
che, del1a vista deUa mente infern1Î, 
fìdanza avete ne' ritrosi passi ; 
non v' accorgete voi, che noi siam vermi 
nati a formar I' angelica farfaH a, 
che vola alIa giustizia senza schermi ? 
Di che I' animo vostro in alto galla, r 
poi siete quasi entomata in difetto, 
sì come verme, in cui fornlazion falla. 
Coole per sostentar solaio 0 tetto, 
per nlensola tal volta una figura 
si vede giunger Ie ginocchia al petto, 
la qual fa del non ver vera rancura 
nascere a chi la vede: così fatti 
vid' io color, quando posi ben cura. 
V t:r è che più e menD eran contratti, 
secondo ch' avean più 0 menD addosso ; 
equal più pazienza avea negli atti, 
piangendo parea dicer: "Più non posso." 


2.. if malo amor. See below, Can to xvii. 103 - 105. 
3 2 . The Greek sculptor Po lycletus (ca. 452-4 I 2 B. 
is lauded by a number of classical writers known in 
Middle Ages, and his art is extolled by Italian po 
. D u 
pnor to ante. 
34-45. The Annunciation (see Luke i.). · Note t! 
the first example of the "virtue opposed to the v 
punished on the seven terraces (here, humility 
opposed to p.ride) is, in each case, an episode dra" 
from the life of the Virgin Mary. 
55-63. For' David dancing before the Ark, set 
Sam. vi. 



CANTO X 


12 5 


lut look steadily there and disent\vine with thy The proud 
sight \vhat is coming beneath those stones; · 
already thou canst discern how each one beats 
his breast." 
Þ ye proud Christians, wretched and weary, 
who, sick in mental vision, put truat in back- 
ward steps, 

rceive ye not that we are worms, born to forIp 
the angelic butterfly that Rieth to judgment 
without defence? . 
\Thy doth your mind soar on high, since ye are 
as 'twere imperfect insects, even as the grub 
in which full fornl is wanting? 
LS to support ceiling or roof is sometimes The.ir 
seen for corbel a figure joining knees to punishment 
I breast, 
rhich of unreality begetteth real discomfort in 
I him who beholds it; in such wise saw I 
these when I gave good heed. \ 
'rue it is that more and less were they con- 
I tracted, according as they had more or less 
upon them, and he who had most patience in 
his bearing, weeping seemed to say: "I can 
no more." 
1 
73-93. This version of the popular Trajan story is 
pparently derived from the Fiore di Filosoji, which used 
> be erroneously attributed to Brunetto Latini. 'rhe 
I lcident is again alluded to in Par. xx. 44, 45. The 
thical bearings of the legend that Pope Gregory's 
Itercession brought about Trajan's recall from Hell, 
I ) that the Emperor might have a respite for repent- 
nee (-v-v. 74, 75), are discussed in Par. xx. 106-117 
I see notu). 1" he reference in -vv. 80, 81, is 
) the metal (gold-bronze) eagle, the outspread 
rings of which might seem to be fluttering in the 
rind. 



PURGATORIO 


T HE humbled souls approach, ,vith a paraphrase. 
the Lord's Prayer upon their lips, the petitic 
for protection against temptation being uttered for tl 
sake of those they have left behind, whether on ear! 
or, perhaps, in the anti-purgatory, since souls inside t] 
gate are beyond its reach (1- 30); ,vhich loving offic 
of prayer the living should surely reciprocate for tho 
who are no\v purging themselves (31-36). In answer 
Virgil's inquiry, one of the souls directs the pilgrir 
to turn to the right, circling the mount 'with the SI 
(37-51). It is the Sienese Omberto, whose insolen 
had made him little better than a brigand, and h 
involved all his race in ruin (51,-72). As the pc 
bends down to hearken, another soul, painfully turni 
beneath his burden, gazes upon Dante \vho recogni: 
him as the miniature painter, Oderisi, now willing 
admit the superior excellence of his rival Franco, a 
fully sensible of the empty and transitory nature 
human glory. Cimahue's school of painting is sup 
seded by Giotto's; the older poetic school of Guitto 


Girone I "0 Padre n08tro, che nei cieli 8tai, 
non circonscritto, ma per più amore 
che ai primi effetti di ht8SÙ tu hai, 
laudato sia il tuo nome e il tuo valore 
da ogni creatura, com' è degno 
di render grazie al tuo dolce vapore. 
Vegna ver noi la pace del tuo regno 
chè noi ad essa non potem da noi, 
8' ella non vien, con tutto nostro ingegno. 
Come del suo voler gli angeli tuoi 
fan sacrificio ate, cantando O.ranna, 
così facciano gli uomini de' suoi. 
126 



CANTO XI 


Guido, of Arezzo and his companions has been 
perseded by that of Guido Guinicelli, to which Guido 
lvalcanti and Dante himself belong; and who knows 
I hether the founder of yet another school that shall 
legate them all to obscuri ty, may not already be born! 
'3-99). Worldly reputation is always of the same 
npty quality, though the momentary object to which 
attaches itself changes, one empty reputation differ- 
Ig from another only in name, and all of them 
vallowed up in the course of years, what matter 
-hether few or many! One of the heroes of Monta- 

rti and victims of Colle de Valdelsa, who is pac- 
Ig before them, is already all but forgotten on the 

ry scene of his triumphs and defeats. What are his 

putation and his pride to him now, where the only 
:t of his life that avails him is his self-humiliation in 
egging ransom for his friend, in the market place 
I f Siena? an act whièh Dante himself shall learn 
etter to appreciate in the days of his own anguish 
f humiliation (100-142.). 


'0 our Father who art in heaven, not circum- The 
roud 
scribed, but through the greater love thou LY
' e 
hast for thy first works on high, , P

y:r 
>raised be thy name and thy worth by every 
creature, as 'tis meet to give thanks to thy 
sweet effiuence. 
\fay the peace of thy kingdom come upon us, 
for we cannot of ourselves attain to it with all 
our wit, if it come not. 1 
A.s of their will thine angels make sacrifice to 
thee, singing Hosanna, so may men make 
of theirs. 


12 7 



128 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I Dà oggi a noi la cotidiana manna, 
senza la qual per questo aspro diserto 
a retro va chi più di gir s' affanna. 
E come noi 10 mal che a vem sofferto 
perdoniamo a ciascuno, e tu perdona 
benigno, e non guardare al nostro merto. 
N ostra virtù che çi leggier. s' adona, 
non spermentar con l' antico avversarÇ>, 
ma libera da lui, che sì la sprona. 
Quest' ultima preghiera, Signor caro, 
già non si fa per noi, cr.è non bisogna,. 
nla per color, che. retro a noi res taro. " 
COSt a sè e noi buona ramogna I .. n. 
quell' ombre orando, andavan sotto'il pondo, 
.Iff simile a quel che talvoIta si sogna, 
dispa
;nlente angosciate tutte a' tóndo, L ! 
e lasse ll su l )er la P I rinia cornice, 
 
j .. c; 0 J' 
purgando le..s
ligini 
e
 mondo. 
Se di là sen1pre ben per noi si dice, 
di qua che dire e far per lor si puote 
da quei ch' hanno al voler buona radice ? 
Ben si dee loro aitar lavar Ie note, 
che portal' quinci, sì che mondi e lievi 
possano uscire aIle. stellate rate. ! 
" Deh! se giustizia e pietà vi disgrevi 
tosto, sì che possiate mover l'ala, 
che secondo il disio vostro vi levi, 
mostrate da Iqual mana in ver la scala 
si va più corto; e se c' è più d' un varco, 
quel ne insegnate che men erto cala: 
chè questi che vien meco, per I' incarco 
del1a carne d' Adamo ond 'ei si veste, 
al montar SU, contra sua voglia, è parco. 



CANTO XI 


12 9 


rive us this day our daily manna, without which The proud 
he backward goes through this rough desert, LJ;.
?se 
who most toileth to ad vance. Prayer 
..nd as \ve forgive everyone the evil we have 
suffered, do thou forgive in loving-kindness 
and regard not our desert. 
ut not our virtue, which lightly is subdued, to 
trial with the old adversary, but deliver us from 
him who so pricks it. 
'his last prayer, dear Lord, is not made for 
us, for need is not, but for those who have 
remained behind us." 
thus those shades, praying good speed for them 
and for us, \vere going under their burden, 
like that whereof we sometimes dream, 
lequal all in anguish around and weary, along 
the first cornice, purging away the foul mists 
of the world. 
I f there ever a good word for us is said, what Admonition 
can be said and done for them here, by those 
hfd
iJor 
who have their will rooted in good? 
'ruly we ought to help them to wash away their 
stains, \vhich they have borne hence, so that 
pure and light they may go forth to the starry 
spheres. 
Pray! -so may justice and pity soon unload Virg
l 
you, that ye may spread the \viI1g which may 
hi

:d 
uplift you according to your desire,- 
10W us on which hand we go 'luickest towards the 
stairway; and if more than one passage there 
be, tell us that which least steeply ascends; 
)1' he who cometh with me, because of the \veight 
of Adam's flesh wherewith he is clad, at 
clin1bing up is slow against his will." 
I 



13 0 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I Le lor parole, ehe rendero a C)ueste, 
ehe dette avea eolui eu' io seguiva, 
non fur da cui venisser manifeste; 
L ma fu detto: "A man destra per la riva 
. con noi venite, e troverete il passo 
possibile a salir persona viva. l- 
E s' io non fossi impedito dal sasso, 
ehe la cervice mia superba dom
, 
onde portar con vienmi il viso basso, 
cott" sti che ancor vive, e non si norna, 
guardere 'io, per veder s' io 'I eonosco, 
e per farlo pietoso a questa soma. 
10 fui Latino, e nato d' un gran Tosco: 
Guglielmo Aldobrandesco fu mio padre: 
non so se il nome suo giamlnai fu vosco. 
L' antico sangue e I' opere leggiadre 
de' miei maggior mi fer sì arrogante, 
che, non pensando alla comune madre, 
ogni uomo ebbi in dispetto tanto avante 
ch' io ne mori', come i Sanesi sanno, 
e sallo in Canlpagnatico ogni fante. 
10 sono Omberto: e non pure a Ole d3nno 
superbia fa, chè tutti i miei consorti 
ha ella trattÎ seco nel n1alanno. 
E qui convien ch' io questo peso porti 
per lei, tanto che a Dio si satisfaccia, 
poi ch' io no] fei tra' vivi, qui tra' morti." 
Ascoltando, chinai in giù la faccia ; 
ed un di lor, non questi che parlava, 
si torse sotto il peso che 10 impaccia; 
e videmi e conobbemi e chiamava, 
tenendo g]i occhi con Fatica fisi 
a me, che tutto chin coo loro andava.. 


4' 


.. 


s 


s 


.: 


t 



I 
I rom 
t. 'm came the words which were re- The proud 
I r 
I turned to those which he ,:vhom I ,:vas 
following had said, was not manifest, 
It it was said: "To the right hand along the Omberto 
bank come with us, and ye shall find the pass 
;

deschi 
possible for a living peröon to ascend. · replies 
..nd if I were not impeded by the stone \v hich 
subdues my proud neck, wherefore needs must 
I carry my visage low, 
im who is yet alive, and names not himself, 
would I look at, to see if I know him, and to 
make him pitiful to this burden. 
was Italian and son of a great Tuscan: and tells 
Guglielmo Aldobral1desco was my father; I his story 
know not if his name was ever with you. 
fhe ancient blood and gallant deeds of my 
ancestors made me so insolent that, thinking 
not of our common mother, 
.11 men I held in such exceeding scorn that it 
was the death of me, as the Sienese kno\v, 
and every child knows in Campagnatico. 
[ am Humbert; and not to me alone pride works 
ill, for all my fellows hath it dragged ,:vith it 
to n1Íshap. ( 
And here must I therefore bear this load among 
the dead, until God be satisfied, since I did it 
not among the living." 
Listening I bent down my face; and one of Oderisi of 
h h ' k "" d 1 " Gubbio 
t em, not e wno was spea 109, tWlste 11111- 
self beneath the weight \vhich encumbers him; 
and saw me and knew me and was calling out, 
keeping his eyes with difficulty fixed upon me, 
who all bent was goin g with them. 


CP...NT"O XI 


13 1 



13 2 


PURG.t
:rORIO 


Girone I "0," dissi lui, "non sei tu Oderisi, )h 

 l' onor d' Agobbio, e l' onor di quell' at h f 
che 'alluminare' è chiamata in Parisi? " 
rt 
" Frate," diss' eg1i, "più ridon Ie carte 
che pennelleggia Franco Bolognese: 
l' onore è tutto or suo, e mio in parte. 
Ben non sare' io stato sì cortese 
nlentre ch' io vissi, per 10 gran disio 
dell' eccellenza, ove mio core intese. 
Di tal superbia qui si paga il fio ; 
cd ancor non sarei qui, se non fosse, 
che, possendo peccar, mi volsi a Dio. 
o vanagloria dell' umane posse, 
cOIn' poco verde in su la cima dura, 
se non è giunta daB' etati gr08se ! 
Credette Cimabue nella pittura . 
tener 10 campo, ed ora ha Giotto iI grido, 
si che Ia fama di coIui è oscura. 
Co
ì ha tolto l' uno all' altro Guido 
Ja gIoria della lingua; e forse è nato 
chi l' uno t; l' altro caccerà di nido. 
Non è il mondan rornore a]tro che un fiato It. 
di vento, che or vien quinci ed or vien quindi 
" e muta nome, perchè muta Jato. 
Che fama avrai tu più, se vecchia scindi 
da te )a carne, che se fossi morto . 
innanzi che lasciassi il pappo e iI dindi, 
pria che passin mil1' anni? ch' è più 'êorto 
spazio all' eterno, che un nlover di ciglia 
al cerchio che più tardi in cieIo è torto. 
Colui, che del cammin sì poco piglia 
dinanzi a me, 1"oscana sonò tutta, 
ed ora a pena in Siena sen pispiglia, 


"(:1:1 


II 


12 


ù 


y 
Ù' 
\: 


IC 


IC 


IC 



NTO XI 


133 



ereof 1: to him, "art thou not Od erisi, The proud 
unour of Gubbio, and the honour of that Oderisi · 
éhich in Paris is called 'illuminating' ? " 
Der," said he, "more plea
ing are the leaves 
_a1 Franco Bolognese paints; the honour 
i ' is all his and mine in part. 
I I should not have been so courteous while 
I ved, because of the great desire of exccl- 
; \vhereon my heart was bent. 
lch pride here the fine is paid; and I should 
yet be here, were it not that having power 
>in, I turned Ole to God. 
pty glory of human powers! Ho\v short The fkkle 
" time its green endures upon the top, if it Fe;

f 
not overtaken by rude ages! 
ue thought to hold the field in paIntIng, 

I now Giotto hath the cry, so that the fan1e 
a:he other is obscured. 
( so one Guido hath taken from the other 
Ii glory of our tongue; and perchance one 

rn who shall chase both from the nest. 
:ard fame is naught but a breath of ,vind, 
w}l now cometh hence and now thence, 

rhanges name because it changes direction. 
l'b"
reater fame shalt thou have, if thou strip 
a of thy flesh when old, than if thou hadst 


d ere thou wert done with pap and chink, 

.e a thousand years are passed? which is shorter 
fface to eternity than the twinkling of an eye to 
I e circle v/hich slowest is turned in heaven. 
Tuscany rang with the sound of him who Proven
a.n 
aves so slowly along the way in front of me, Salvanl 
d now hardly is a whisper of him in Siena, 



134 


PURGAT IO 


) 
'.. <:1 
 
Girone I ond' era sire , q uando fu distruttå J 
1
 ....,.+{ 
la rabbia fÌorentina, che 8uperba 
fu a quel tempo, sì com' ora è putta. 
La vostra nomina.nza è color d' erba, 
che viene eva, e quei la discolora, 
per cui ell' esce della terra acerba." 
Ed io a lui: "1,0 tuo ver dir m' incora t 
i buona umiltà, e gran tumor m' appiani; 
\, ma chi è quei di cui tu parlavi ora ? " 
"Quegli è," rispose, "Provenzan Salvani t 
ed è qui, perchè fu presuntuoso 
a recar Siena tutta aile sue mani. 
Ito è cos1, e va senza riposo, 
poi che mod: cotal moneta rende 
a satisfar chi è di là tropp' oso." 
2 
Ed io: "Se quel10 spirito che attende, 
pria che si penta, I' orIo della vita, 
laggiù dimora e quassù non ascende, 
se buona orazion lui non aita, 
prima che passi tempo quanto visse, 
come fu ]a venuta a lui largita ? " 
" Quando vivea più glorioso," disse, 
" liberamente nel campo di Siena, 
ogni vergogna deposta, 8' affisse; 
e lì, per trar l' amico suo di pena 
che sostenea nella prigion di Carlo, 
si condusse a tremar per ogni vena. 
Più non dirò, e scuro so che parlo ; 
ma poco tempo andrà che í tuoi vicini 
faranDo sì che tu potrai chiosarIo. 
Quest' opera gIi tolse quei confini." 


8::0 



CANTO XI 


135 


(ereof he was lord, when the rage of Florence Th
 proud 
tvas destroyed who at that time was proud even Oderisi 
as nc\v she is degraded. 
Blr repute is as the hue of grass which cometh 
! ,.nd goeth, and he discolours it through whom 
I it springeth green from the ground." 
.nd I to him: "Thy true saying fills my heart 
lwith holy humility, and lowers my swollen 
pride, but who is he of whom but now thou 
wast speaking ? " 
That," he ans\vered, "is Provenzan Salvani; recounts 
and he is here because in his presu
ption he 
i



i'S 
thought to bring all Siena in his grasp. 
hus he hath gone and goes without rest since he 
died; such coin he pays back in satisfaction 
who yonder is too daring." 
.nd I: "If that spirit who awaits the brink of 
life, ere he repents, abides there below, and 
mounts not up hither, 
.less holy prayers aid him, until so much time 
be passed as he hath lived, how has the coming 
here been vouchsafcd to him? " 
When he lived in highe
t glory," said he, "in 
the market-place of Siena he stationed himself 
of his free will and put away all shame; 
,d there, to deli ver his friend from the pains he 

was suffering in Charles's prison, he brought 
himself to trel11ble in every vein. 
.0 more will I teli, and darkly I kno\v that I 
speak, but short time will pass ere thy neigh- 
bours will act so, that thou shalt be able to 
in terpret it. This deed released him from 
those confines." 



13 6 


NOTES 


1-2.1. A paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer (.l'v.latt. v 
9-13; Luke xi. 1-4).- The prim; dJelt; of 'V. 3 are t}1 
heavens and the angels. For Ûrconscritto ('V. 2.), s( 
below, Canto xxv. 88. 
49-71. Om berto, Count ot Santafiora, in the Siene: 
Maremma, was a member of the Aldobrandeschi fami] 
for which see above, Canto vi. III, note. He was pI 
to death at Campagnatico in 1259 by the Sienese, \vb 
had long been at warfare with the family and we) 
anxious to be rid of their authority. The mode c 
Omberto's death is variously given. 
74 sqq. Oderisi (of Gubbio in Umbria), an illumÎI 
ator and miniature painter. He appears to have bee 
at Rome in 12.95, for the purpose (so says Vasari) . 
illuminating some MSS. in the Papal Library f( 
Boniface VIII. According to the same authority, tl 
,vork on that occasion was shared by Franco c 
Bologna. 
91-93. A reputation does not survive the gener. 
tion in which it was built up, unless a gross an 
unenlightened age happen to follow. 
94-96. The works of the Florentine painter Cimabl 
(ca. I24o-ca. 1302.) are instinct with genius, and mark 
considerable advance on the stiff Byzantine schoo 
but it was reserved for his pupil, Giotto (12.66-1336 
to draw his inspiration at the fount of Nature hersd 
and to become the father of modern painting. -Giotto 
said to have been a friend of Dante's. and the wel 
known Bargello portrait of the po
t is doubtful! 
attributed to him. 
97-99. The interpretation of these verses given i 
the Ar
lIment is not the one usually adopted; the vie" 
generally held bein
 that the two Guidos are Guic 
Guinicelli (see below, Canto xxvi.) and GuiC 
Cavalcanti (see Inf. x. 60, note), and that Dante himse 
is the poet destined to eclipse the latter. .Again: 
this more obvious interpretation, it may be urged the 
it yrould be out of keeping with the general tone of d 
passage; and specifically with xii. 7-9. Moreove 
there is no indication in Dante's works of his regardin 
Guido Guinicelli as a superseded worthy, or distir 



CANTO XI 


137 


uishing bet\veen the schools of these t\vo Guidos; 
Lthough he repeatedly contrasts the school of Guido (or 
}uittone) of .i\rezzo with the new school of which he 

garded Guido Guinice1!i as the chief, and Guido 
. 
avalcanti and himself as disciples (xxvi. 97-99; see, 
lrther, xxiv. 55-63, xxvi. 114-17.6; Dc Vulg. EI. i. 
3: 7, 8; iÏ. 6: 85-89). On the other hand, it may 
'e advanced in favour of the more popular theory, that, 
vhatever Dante may say in other passages, Guido 

avalcanti and the other Florentines actually did write 
loetry superior to that of Guido Guinicelli; that a 
I >upil may surpass his teacher and yet regard him 'with 
I .ffection and admiration; that Dante would probably 
lave used the form Guittonc in this passage, so as to 
nake his meaning clear; and that the prophecy may 
yell refer to our poet himself, who, though in the 
:ircle of the Proud, is probably as conscious of his 
iterary greatness now as he was in Limbo (see Inf. 
v. 100-105). 
10 5. Before you left off your child's prattle: pappo 
= pane, bread, and dindi = danari, money (if. Inf. 
tC:xxii. 9). 
10 9- 1 3 8 . Provenzan Salvani, a Ghibelline, ,vas chief 
.n authority among the Sienese at the time of the 
jattle of Montaperti; and after the defeat of the 
Florentines he was the strongest advocate in favour 
of the destruction of their city ('V'V. 112-1 J 4; see 
In]'. x. 85-87, 91-93, notes). He once humbled him- 
self by affecting the garb and manner of a beggar in 
the market-place of Siena, so as to procure the money 
wherewith to ransom a friend, who was the p'risoner of 
Charles of Anjou. Pro\'enzan 'was eventually defeated 
and slain (June 17.69) in an engagen1ent with the 
Florentines at Colle, in Valdeha (see below, Canto 
xii i. 1 I 5 - 1 1 9 ). 
116. quci = the sun. 
17.7- 1 3 I. See above, Canto iv. 13 0 - 1 35. 
139- 1 4 1 . A prophecy of Dante's exile from Florence 
(13 0 7.). l'he poet will know from bitter experience 
what it is to live on the charity of others (if. Par. 
xvii. 58-60). 



PURGATORIO 


D ANTE has bent do\vn in a sympathetic attitude of 
humility to converse with Oderisi, and when 
Virgil bids him make better speed he straightens his 
person so far as needful to comply, but still remain
 
bo\ved down in heart, shorn of his presum ptuous 
thoughts (1-9)' As he steps forward with a good 
will, Virgil bids him once more look down at the 
pavement which he is treading, and there he sees as 
it were the lineaments of the defeated proud, from 
Lucifer and Briareus to Cyrus and Holofernes and 
Troy. The proud are laid low upon the pavement as 
the humble were exalted to the upspringing mountain. 
side ('o-T
). A wide stretch of the mountain is circled 
ere they come to the gentle angel of this terrace of the 
proud, whose glory is tempered as a morning star, 
and who promises them an easier ascent henceforth 
(73-96). A stroke of his wing touches the poet's 


Girone I Di pari, corne buoi che van no a giogo, 
m' andava io con quella anin1a carca, 
fin che il sofferse il dolce pedagogo. 
Ma quando disse: "Lascia lui, e Vc1rca, 
chè qui è buon con la vela e coi remi, 
quantunque può ciascun, pinger sua barca " ; 
dritto, sì come andar vuolsi, rife' mi 
con la persona, avvegna che i pensieri 
mi rimanessero e chinati e scemi. 
10 m' era mosso, e seguia volentieri 
del mio maestro i passi, ed ambo e due 
già mostravam come eravam leggieri, 
quando mi disse: "V olgi gli occhi in giue : J:: 
buon ti sarà, per tranquillar la via, 
veder 10 letto delle pi ante tue." 
13 8 



 


IC 



('4. 


CANTO XII 


ow, who then approaches such a stair as was made 
ease the ascent to San Miniato in the good old days 
hen weights and measures were true and public 
cords ungarbled (97-108). As they mount the 
lir the blessing of the poor in spirit falls on their 
rs, with sound h!->w different from the wild laments 
. Hell I And Dante notes how the steep ascent 
ems far more easy than the level te:-race of a moment 
lck (109-17.0). It is because the P of pride was 
'ased by the stroke of the angel's wing, and thereon 
1 the other six became shallower. This Dante, at a 
int from Virgil, ascertains by feeling his brow with 
Jtspread fingers, and in innocent delight at the dis- 
)very of the cause of his lightened steps, he looks 
lto Virgil's face which answers with a smile of 
fmpathy and encouragement (111-136). 



ven in step, like oxen which go in the yoke, The proud 
I went beside that burdened spirit, so long as 
the sweet pedagogue suffered it. 
3ut when he said: "Leave him, and press on, for 
here 'tis well that with sail and with oars, each 
one urge his bark along with aU his might" ; 

rect, even as is required for walking I made me 
again with my body, albeit my thoughts re- 
mained bowed down and shrunken. 
[ had moved me, and willingly was foIIowing 
my master's steps, and both of us already 
were showing ho\v light of foot we were, 
when he said to me: "Turn thine eyes down- 
ward: good will it be, for solace of thy \f:ay, 
to see the bed of the soles of thy feet." 
139 



14 0 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I Come, perchè di lor memoria sia, 
sopra i sepolti Ie tombe terragne 
portan segnato quel ch' elli eran pria; 
onde lì mo1te volte se ne piagne 
per la puntura della rimembranza, 
che solo ai pii dà delle calcagne: 
sì vid' io 1ì, ma di miglior sembianza, 
secondo l' artificio, figurato 
quanto per via di fuor dal monte avanza. 
Vedea colui, che fu Dobil creato 
più ch' altra creatura, giù dal cielo 
foJgoreggiando scendere da un lato. 
Vedea Briareo, fitto dal telo 
celestial, giacer dall' altra parte, 
grave alIa terra per 10 mortal gelo. 
Vedea Timbreo, vedea Pallade e Marte, 
armati ancora intorno al padre 101'0, 
mirar Ie menlbra de' giganti sparte. 
Vedea N embrot a piè del gran lavoro, 
quasi smarrito, e riguardar Ie genti 
che in Sennaar con lui superbi foro. 
o Niobe, con che occhi dolenti 
vedeva io te, segnata in su la strada, 
tra sette e sette tuoi figliuoli spenti! 
o Saul, come in su la propria spada 
quivi parevi morto in Gelboè, 
che poi non sentì pioggia nè rugiada ! 
o folIe Aragne, sì vedea io te 
già mezza aragna, trista in su gli stracci 
dell' opera che mal per te si fe' ! 
o Roboam, già non par che minacci 
quivi il tuo segno; ma pien di spavento 
nel porta un carro prima che altri il cacci! 



CANTO XII 


14 1 


\.s in order that there be memory of them, the The proud 
tombs on the ground over the buried bear Examples 
fi d h h b e of Pride- 
gure w at t ey were elore; 
therefore there, ßlany a time men weep for 
thenl, because of the prick of remembrance 
which only to the pitiful gives spur; 
o saw I sculptured there, but of better similitude 
according to the craftsmanship, all that which 
for road projects from the mount. 
sa\v him \vho was cr
ated nobler far than Satan 
other creature, on one side descending like 
lightning from heaven. 
: saw Briareus, transfixed by the celestial bolt, Briareus 
on the other side, lying on the earth heavy 
with the death chill. 
sa\v Thynlbræus. I saw Pallas and Mars, The Giants 
armed Yt::t, around their father, gazing on the 
scattered limbs of the giants. 
[ saw Nimrod at the foot of his great labour, Nimrod 
as though bewildered, and looking at the 
people who \vere proud with him in Shinar. 
o Niobe, with \v hat sorrowing eyes I saw thee Niobe 
graven upon the road between seven and 
seven thy children slain! 
o Saul, how upon thine own s\vord there didst Saul 
thou appear dead on Gilboa, \vhich thereafter 
felt nor rain nor dew! 
o mad Arachne, so sa\v I thee already half Arachne 
spider, sad upon the shreds of the \vork which 
to thy hurt was wrought by thee! 
o Rehoboam, no\v thine image there seem3 no Rehoboa.m 
more to threaten; but full of terror a chariot 
beareth it away ere chase be given! 



14 2 


PURGATORIO 


Girone I .l\iostrava ancor 10 duro pavimento 
come Aimeon a sua madre fe' carD 
parer 10 sventurato adornamento. 
Mostrava come i figli si gittaro 
sopra Sennacherib dentro dal tempio, 
e come, morto lui, quivi il laseiaro. 
Mostrava la ruina e il crudo scempio 
che fe' Tamiri, quando disse a Ciro : 
" Sangue sitisti, ed io di sangue t' empio." 
Mostrava come in roUa si fuggiro 
gli Assiri, poi che fu morto Oloferne, 
ed anehe Ie reliquie del martiro. 
Vedeva Troia in eenere e in caverne: 
o Ilion, come te basso e vile 
Mostrava il segno che lì si discerne! 
Qual di pennel fu Inaestro 0 di stile, 
che ritraesse }' oßlbre e i tratti, ch' ivi 
mirar farieno ogn' ingegno sottile? 
Morti Ii marti, e i vivi parean vivi: 
non vide me' di me chi vide il vero, 
quant' io calcai fin che chinato givi. 
Or superbite, e via col viso altiero, 
figliuoli d' Eva, e non chinate it volto, 
sì ehe veggiate il vostro mal sentiero ! 
Più era già per noi del monte volto, 
e del cammin del sole assai più speso, 
che non stilnava l' aninlo non seioho ; 
quando colui, che sempre innanzi atteso 
andava, incominciò: "Drizza la testa; 
non è più tempo da gir sì so
peso. 
Vedi colà un angel che s' appresta 
per venir verso noi; vedi che torna 
dal servigio del dì l' ancella sesta. 



CANTO XII 


143 


It showed-the hard pavement-again how The proud 
Alcn1æon made the luckless ornament seem Exa
ples 
of Pnde- 
cost! y to his mother. Eriphyle 
It sho
ed how his sons flung themselves upon Sen- 
Sénnacherib \\-ithin the temple, and how, him nacherib 
slain, there they left him. 
It showed the destruction and the cruel slaughter Cyrus 
which 1'olnyris wrought when she said to 
Cyrus: "For blood thou diqst thirst and with 
blood I fill thee! " 
It showed how in a rout the Assyrians fled, after Holofernes 
Holofernes was slain, and also the relics of the 
assassination. 
I saw Troy in ashes and in ruins: Troy 
o Ilion, thee how base and vile [discerned! 
It showed-the sculpture which there is 
'Vhat master \vere he of brush or of graver, who 
drew the shades and the lineaments, which 
there would nlake every subtle wit stare? j 
Dead seemed the dead, and the living, living. He 
saw not better than I who saw the reality of all 
that I trod \Jpon while I was going bent down. 
Now wax proud and on with haughty visage, ye 
children of Eve, and bo\v not down your faces, 
so that ye may see your evil path! 
Already more of the mount was circled by us, The .poets 
d f 1 ' h h h contmue 
an 0 t 1e sun spat rouc more Rpent, t an their way 
the mind, not set fi.ee, esteenu
d ; 
when he, who ever in front of me alërt was 
going, began: "Lift up thy head, this is no 
tin1e to go thus engrossed. 
See there an angel who is making ready to come 
towards us; look how the sixth handmaiden 
is returning from the day's service. 



144 


PURGATORIO 


Salita al Di riverenza gli atti e il viso adorna, 
Girone I I " h . d " I . 1 . . .. 
SI C ell ettl 0 InVlarCl In suso : 
pensa che questo dì nlai non raggiorna." 
10 era ben del suo amnlonir uso, 
pur di non perder tempo, sì cÍ1e in queJIa 
materia non potea parlarmi chiuso. 
A noi venia ]a creatura bella 
bianco vestita, e neJl3. faccia quale 
par tremolando mattutina stella. 
Le braccia aperse, ed indi aperse l' ale; 
disse: "V enite; qui son presso i gradi, 
ed agevoIemente onlai si sale." 
A questo invito vengon molto radio 
o gentc umana per volar su nata, 
perchè a poco vento così cadi? 
Menocci ove ]a roccia era tagliata ; 
quivi mi battèo l' ale per la [ronte, 
poi mi promise sicura l' andata. 
Come a man destra, per salire al monte, 
dove siede la chiesa che soggioga 
la ben guidata sopra Rubaconte, 
si ronlpe del montar l' ardita foga, 
per Ie scalee, che si fero ad etade 
ch' era sicuro il quaderno e la doga: 
così s' allenta 1a ripa che cade 
qui vi ben ratta dall' altro girone; 
ma quinci e quindi l' alta pietra rade. 
Noi volgendo ivi Ie nostre p
rsone, 
" Beati pauperes spiritu" voci 
cantaron sì che no 1 diria sermone. 
Ahi! quanto son diverse qut::lle foci 
daJIe infernaJi: chè quivi per canti 
s' entr3, e Iaggiù per lanlenti feroci. 


8 


f 


I' 


I 


I 


I 


J 



CANTO XII 


145 


ldorn with reverence thy bearing and thy face, The Anß"
l 
so that it may delight him to send us upward; of Humility 
think that this day never dawns again." 

ight welJ was I used to his monitions never to 
lose time, so that in that n1atter he could not 
speak to n1e darkl y. 

 0 us came the beauteous creature, robed in white, 
and in his countenance, such as a tremulous 
star at morn appears. 
fis arms he opened and then outspread his 
wings; he said: "CoD1e; here nigh are the 
steps, and easily now is ascent made." 
ro this announcement few be they who come. 
o human folk, born to fly upward, why at a 
breath of wind thus fall ye down? 
i:e led us where the rock ,vas cut; there he 
beat ?is wings 
pon my forehead, then did 
pronl1se me my Journey secure. 

s on the right hand, to ascend the mount where Nature of 
stands the church which, over Rubaconte, the ascent 
dominates the well-guided city, 
;he bold scarp of the ascent is broken by the 
steps, \vhich were made in the times when 
the records and the measure were safe. 
even so is the bank made easier, which here 
right steeply falls from the other cornice, but 
on this side and on that the high rock grazes. 
While we were turning there our persóns, "Beali The first 
pauperes spiritu" voices so s\veetly sang, that no Beatitud
 
speech would tell it. 
Ah! how different are these openings from those 
in Hen! for here we enter through songs, and 
down there through fierce wailings. 
Ie 



14 6 


PURGATORIO 



alita at Gîà montavam su per Ii scaglion santi, 
Glrone II ed esser mi parea troppo più lieve, 
che per 10 pian non mi parea davanti ; 
ond' io: "Maestro, di', qual cosa greve 
levata s' è da me, che nulla quasi 
per me Fatica andando si riceve? " 
Rispose: "Quando i P, che son rimasi 
ancor nel volto tuo presso ch' estinti, 
saran no, come l' un, del tutto rasi, 
fien Ii tuoi piè dal buon voler sì vinti, 
che non pur non Fatica sentiranno, 
ma fia diletto loro esser su pinti." 
Allor fec' io, come color che vanno 
con cosa in capo non da lor saputa, 
se non che i cenni altrui sospicar fanno : 
per che la mano ad accertar s' aiuta, 
e cerca e trova, e quell' officio adempie 
che non si può Fornir per Ia veduta ; 
e con le dita della destra scempie 
trovai pur sei Ie lettere, che incise 
quel dalle chiavi a me sopra Ie tempie: 
ache guardando il mio duca sorrise. 


1.5-17. Satan (if. Luke x. 18).-Not only are 1 
examples of the vices drawn alternately from sac. 
and profane history like those of the virtues; b 
within certain limits, as Dr Moore has pointed 0 
the two sets of examples on each terrace correspc 
numerically. On the first, third, fourth, and sevel 
terraces, the correspondence is exact; on the secc 
and fifth it becomes so, if we divide the second 
into groups [distiPlguished, in the present instan 
by the three groups of ter%ine, beginning with 1 
words Yedea, 0, and Mostra-va-'Vv. %.5-60, and sumrr 
up in a final terzina--vv. 61-63] ; while on the sb 
there is apparently no attempt at carryingoutthedesi; 



CANTO XII 


147 


row were we ßlounting up by the sacred steps, The ascent 
and meseemed I was exceeding lighter, than 


i:; 
nleseemed before on the flat; 
rherefore I: " Master, say, what heavy thing 
has been lifted from me, that scarce any toil 
is perceived by me in journeying? " 
-Ie answered: "When the P's which have re- 
n1ained still nearly extinguished on thy face, 
shall, like the one, be whoHy rased out, 
hy feet shall be so vanquished by goodwilJ, 
that not only will they feel it no toil, but it 
shall be a delight to them to be urged upward." 
rhen did I, like those who go with something 
on their head unknown to them, save that 
another's signs make them suspect; 
J 
lIherefore the hand lends its aid to make certain, 
and searches, and finds, and fulfils that office 
which cannot be furnished by the sight; 
lnd with the fingers of nlY right hand outspread, 
I found but six the letters, which he with the 
keys had cut upon me over the ten1ples: 
whereat my Leader looking did smile. 


2.8- 3 0 . Briarëus (for whom, see Inf. xxxi. 9 8 , note) 
must be separated from the other giants. The parallt"ls 
are, Lucifer: Briarëus; the Giants: Nimrod. 
3 0 -32.. Jupiter, Apollo (called Thymbræus, from his 
temple at Thymbra in the Troad), Minerva and Mars, 
having defeated and slain the giants, are gazing upon 
their scattered Hm bs. 
34-3 6 . For Nimrod, see lnf. xxxi. 46-81, note. 
37-39. Niobe, the wife of Amphion, King of Thebes, 
was so proud of her fourteen children that she offended 
Latona, who had only two-Apollo and Diana. These 
latter, in revenge, shot all the fourteen \vith their 



14 8 


NOTES 


arrows, and Niobe herself was changed by Jupiter in 
a stone statue, lifeless save for the tears it shed (8 
Ovid, Metam. vi. 146-312). 
4 0 -4 2 . Saul, after his defeat by the Philistines 
Mount Gilboa, "took a sword and fell upon i1 
(I Sam. xxxi. 1-4). V
rse 42 refers to the wor 
of David's lament on the death of Saul: " 
 
mountains of Gilboa, let there I be no dew, neith 
let there be rain, upon you, nor fields of offeringf 
(2, Sam. i. 2.1). 
44-45. Arachne of Lydia, having boasted of h 
skill in weaving (if. Inf. xvii. 18), and challeng 
Min
rva to a contest, was eventually changed by t 
goddess into a spider for her presumption (see Ovi 
lVIdam. vi. 1-145). 
46-48. The ten tribes revolted against RehoboaJ 
K.ing of Israel, because he refused to lighten th, 
taxes. "Then King Rehoboam sent Adoram, w: 
was over the tribute; and all Israel stoned him wi 
stones, that he died. Therefore King Rehoboam ma 
speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalen 
(I Kings xii. 1-18). 
49-5 I. See Par. iv. 103, 104, note. 
52-54. Sennacherib, King of Assyria, was defeat 
by He7.ekiah
 King of Judah, and subsequently slain 
his own sons (2, Kings xix. 37). 
55-57. Cyrus, founder of the Persian Emp 
(560-529 B.C.), treacherously murdered the son 
1'omyris, the Scythian queen, whereupon he " 
himself defeated and slain by the outraged moth 
She had his head cast into a vessel filled with blo( 
and scotTed at it, saying: Satia te sanguine quem siti. 



CANTO XII 


149 


I ljus per annos triginta insatiahilis peru'Vera.rti (Orosius, 
. . 7, 
 6). Cf. De Mon. ii. 9: 43-4 8 . 
58-60. When Holofernes, one of Nebuchadnezzar's 
aptains, was besieging Bethulia, the Jewish widow 
udith obtained access to his tent and cut off his head. 

his she had dispJayed on the walls of the city; where- 
pon the Assyrian host took to flight, pursued by the 
. e\vs (.Judith x-xiv). 
61-63. Cf. lnf. i. 75 ; xxx. 13- 1 5; see, too, Æn. iii. 

 3: Ceciditque superDum Ilium. 
81. It is therefore just past noon. The conception 
.f the hours as handmaidens serving the day is repeat
d 
lelow, in Canto xxii. 118. See the diagram on p. 47. 
87. 11lattutina stella has been n:ndered "a star at 
norn," rather than "the morning star," because the 
atter, being a planet, does not twinkle. 
100-10%.. The church of San Miniato commands 
;'lorence across the Rubaconte bridge [i.e. Miniato is 
lOt aDo'Ve the bridge J.-la /;en guidata, as applied to 

lorence, is, of course, ironical. 
105. See Par. xvi. 56 and 105, notes. 
110. "Blessed are the poor in spirit; for their's is 
:he kingdom of heaven" (Matt. v. 3)' Towards 
:he end of Dante's sojourn on each terrace, he hears one 
)f the Beatitudes from the Sermon on the Mount. Tn 

ach case, except the present, the angel of the re- 
I -,pective circle is specially named as uttering the 
i words. It has therefore been suggested that the angel 
r is speaking here, too. But the word 'lJ0&Í constitutes a 
I considerable difficulty, nor is this difficulty removed by 
I a reference to the øvocÎ of Canto xxii. 5. 


1 



PURGATORIO 


T HE poets mount to the second terracè; of dart 
rock, tenantless so far as the eye can stretch 
and without mark or indication of any kind (1-9) 
Virgil apostrophises the sun, and in lack of any counte, 
reason, determines to follow him from east to wes 
( 10- 21 ). After a time voices ring through the ai 
in praise of generosity, the virtue counter to envy 
and Virgil antici pates the direct warning against tha 
vice ere they leave this the circle of its purification (22 
42). Meanwhile they encounter the once enviou 
spirits, appealing with full confidence to the ungrudg 
ing love of Mary, of the angels, and of the saints 
The envious eyes that once found food for bitter 
ness in all sights of beauty and joy, must now i: 
penance refrain from drinking in the gladness of se 
and sky and human love, for the lids are draw 
together with such a suture of wire as is used to tam 
the wildness of the untrained hawk; and their inwar 
dark!1ess is matched by their sober raiment. The 
lean one against another in mutual love and fc 
mutual support, and upturn their sightless counter 
ances like the blind beggars that gather round churc 
portals (43-72). Dante is shamed, as though he \vel 


Girone II N oi eravamo al sommo della scala, 
ove secondamente si risega 
10 monte, che salendo altrui dismala. 
I vi cosi una cornice lega 
dintorno il poggio, come la primaia, 
se non che l' arco suo più tosto piega. 
Ombra non gli è, nè segno che si paia; 
par sÌ ]a ripa, e par si ]a via schietta 
collivido color dclla petraia. 
1:50 



CANTO XIII 


.king ungenerous advantage of those whom he se
s, 
Jt who cannot know his presence; and, having 
ained Virgil's leave, addresses the souls in words 
f soothing beauty and aspiration. In answer to 
is question whether any of them are of Latium, 
apia the Sienese, tells that they are all citizens of 
ne true city; but that she, amongst others, had Ii ved 
1 her earthly pilgrimage in Latium (73-108). She 

lls the story of her evil joy at the defeat of the 
ienese by the Florentines at Colle in Valdelsa, and 
tters her thanks to the humble saint whose prayers 
ave secured her admission to expiatory suffering 
arlier than the else appointed time (109-129)' In her 
urn Sapia questions Dante as to his journeYt-\vith 
pen eyes as she judges, and with breath-fornled 
peech,-around this circle; and he answers that 
Ie too shall one day have his eyes closed there, but 
lot for long, since he has sinned far less through 
nvy than through pride (130-138). He further reveals 
o her the wonder of his pilgrimage and receives her 
>etition for his own prayers, and her commission to 
)ear news of her to her kinsfolk among the vain and 
ight-minded Sienese (139-154). 


We were at the top of the stairway where a Th
 
second time the mount is cut away which, by envIOUs 
our ascent, frees us from evil. 
There a cornice binds the hill around like unto 
the first, save tha\ its curve more sharply 
bends. 
No shade is there, nor figure which may be seen; 
so naked the bank appears and even so the way, 
with the livid hue of the stone. 


15 1 



15 2 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II " Se qui per domandar gente s' aspetta," IC 
ragionava il poeta, "io temo forse 
che troppo avrà d' indugio nostra eletta." 
Poi fisamente al sole gli occhi porse; I: 
fece del destro Jato al mover centro, 
e la sinistra parte di sè torse. 
u 0 dolce lume, a cui fidanza i' entro II 
per 10 nuovo cammin, tu ne conduci," 
dicea, "come condur si vuol quinc' entro: 
tu 8caldi il mondo, tu sopr' esso luci; I 
s' altra ragione in contrario non pronta, 
esser den sempre Ii tuoi raggi duci." 
Quanto di qua per un migliaio si conta, 2 
tanto di là eravam noi già iti, 
con poco tempo, per la vogJia pronta; 
e verso noi volar furon sentiti, 2 
non però visti, spiriti, parlando 
alla mensa d' amor cortesi inviti. 
La prima voce che passò volando, :2 
" Vinum non habent," altamente disse, 
e retro a noi I' andò reiterando. 
E prima che del tutto non s' udisse 3 
per allungarsi, un' altra: "10 sono Oreste " 
passò gridando, ed anco non s' affisse. 
"0," diss' io, "padre, che voci son queste i" 
 
e com' io don1andava, ecco la terZa 
dicendo: "Amate da cui male aveste." 
E 'I buon n1aestro: "Questo cinghio sferza 
 
]a colpa den' invidia, e però sono 
tratte da amor Ie corde della ferza. 
Lo fren vuol esser del contrario suono ; L 
credo che I' udirai, per Inio avviso, 
prima che giun 
hi al past;o del perdono. 



CANTO XIII 


153 


If here we a,vait people to ask of," the poet Th
 
o I e h h h 0 envIous 
vIas saYIng," lear perc ance t at our c olce 
olay have too great delay." 

hen fixedly on the sun his eyes he set; he 
made of his right side a centre of movement, 
and the left part of him did turn. 
'0 sweet light, in whose trust I enter on the 
new way, do thou lead us," said he, "as we 
would be led here \vithin ; 
hou givest warmth to the world, thou shinest 
upon it; if other reason urges not to the con- 
trary, thy beams must ever be our guide." 
\s far as here counts for a mile, so far there had 
we already gone, in short time, by reason of 
our ready will ; 
Lnd, flying towards us were heard, but not seen, Examples 
spirits, speaking courteous invitations to the :
Fí.

::" 
table of love. 
fhe first voice which passed by in its flight The Virgin 
loudly said, " ]1 inum non habent," and went Mary 
on repeating it behind us. 
A.nd ere it had wholly passed out of hearing Orestes 
through distance, another passed crying: "I 
am Orestes," and also stayed not. 
"0 Father," said I, "what voices are these?" Christ's 
d I r k o I h h . d . gospel of 
an as was as lng, 0 t e t If saYIng: Fraternal 
"L ove them from whom ye have suffered evil." Love 
And the good Master: "This circle doth 
scourge the sin of envy, and therefore the 
cords of the whip are drawn from love. 
The bit must be of contrary sound; I think thou 
wi1 t hea r it, ;:\s lapine, ere thou reach est the 
Pass of Pardon. 



154 


PURGA TORIO 


Girone II Ma 6cca gli occhi per I' aer ben 6so, 4
 
e vedrai gente innanzi a noi sedersi, 
e ciascun è lungo la grotta assiso." 
AHora più che prima gli occhi apersi ; 4 t 
guarda' mi innanzi, e vidi ombre con manti 
al color della pietra non diversi. 
E poi che fumnlo un poco più avanti, 4' 
udi' gridar: "Maria, ora per noi," 
gridar "Michele, e Pietro, e tutti i Santi." 
Non credo che per terra vada ancoi 5 
uomo sì duro, che non Fosse punto 
per compassion di que! ch' io vidi poi: 
chè, quand' io fui sì presso di lor giunto 5 
che gli atti loro a me venivan certi, 
per gli occhi fui di grave dolor munto. 
Di viI ciIicio mi parean coperti, s 
e l' un sofferia l' altro con la spalla, 
e tutti dalla ripa eran sofferti. 
Così Ii ciechi, a cui la roba faHa, ( 
stanno ai perdoni a chieder lor bisogna, 
e I' uno il capo sopra l' altro avvalla, 
I perchè in altrui pietà tosto si pogna, 
non pur per 10 sonar delle parole, 
ma per la vista che non nleno agogna. 
E come agli orbi non approda il sole, 
così all' ambre, là 'v' io parlay' ora, 
luce del ciel di sè largir non vuole : 
chè a tutte un 61 di Ferro il cigJio fora, 
e cuce sì, come a sparvier selvaggio 
si fa, però che queto non dimora. 
A me pareva andando fare oltraggio, 
veggendo altrui, non essendo veduto: 
per ch' io mi volsi al D1io consiglio saggio. 



Cl\,NTO XIII 


155 


)ut fix thine eyes through the air full steadily, Th
 
I and thou shalt see people sitting down in front envIouS 
of us, and each one along the cliff is seated." 

hen wider than before mine eyes I opened; I 
looked before me, and saw shades with cloaks 
not different from the hue of the stone. 
\.nd after we were a little further forward, I 
heard a cry: "Mary, pray for us"; a cry: 
"Michael, and Peter, and all Saints." 
. believe not that on earth there goeth this day 
a man so hardened, who were not pierced with 
compassion at what I then saw; 
or when I had reached so nigh to them that 
their features came distinctly to me, heavy 
grief \vas wrung from D1ine eyes. 
With coarse haircloth they seemed to me covered, Their 
and one was supporting the other with the punishment 
shoulder, and all ,vere supported by the bank. 
Even so the blind, to whom means are lacking, 
sit at Pardons begging for their needs; and 
one sinks his head upon the other, 
so that pity may quickly be awakened in others, 
not only by the sound of their words, but by 
their appearance \vhich pleads not less. 
And as to the blind the sun profits not, so to 
the shades there where I \vas now speaking, 
heaven's light will not be bounteous of itself; 
for all their eyelids an iron wire pierces and 
stitches up, even as is done to a wild ha\vk 
because it abideth not still. 
I seemed to do them wrong as I went my way 
seeing others, not being seen; wherefore I 
turned me to my wise Counsel. 



Girone I 


15 6 


PURGATORIO 


Ben sapev' ei, che volea dir 10 muto ; 
e però non attese mia domanda, 
ma disse: "Parla, e sii breve ed arguto." 
Virgilio 
i venia da quella banda 
dell a cornice, onde cader si puote, 
perchè da nulla sponda s' inghirlanda; 
dan' altra parte m' eran Ie devote 
ombre, che per }' orribile costura 
premevan si che bagna van Ie gote. 
V olsinli a loro, ed: "0 gente sicura," 
incominciai, "di veder l' alto Jume, 
che il disio vostro solo ha in sua cura; 
se tosto grazia resolva Ie schiume 
di vostra coscienza, SI che chiaro 
per essa scenda della mente il Gume, 
ditemi, chè mi fia grazioso e caro, 
s' anima è qui tra voi che sia latina; 
e forse a lei sarà buon, s' io l' apparo." 
"0 frate nlio, ciascuna è cittadina 
d' una vera città; ma tu vuoi dire, 
che vivesse in ltalia peregrina." 
Questo n1Î parve per risposta udire 
più innanzi alquanto, che là dov' io stava; 
and' io mi feci ancor più là sentire. 
Tea l' altre vidi un' ombra che aspettava I( 
in vista; e, se volesse alcun dir: "Come?': 
10 mento, a guisa d' orbo, in su levava. 
"Spirto," diss' io, "che per salir ti dome, IC 
se tu se' quelli che oli rispondesti, 
fammiti conto 0 per loco 0 per nome." 
"!' fui Sanese," rispose, "e con questi 
altri rimondo qui la vita ria, 
lagrimando a Colui che sè ne presti. 


1 t 


7
 


8 


8 


8 


9 


s 


s 


II 



CANTO XIII 


157 


.Vell knew he what the dumb would say, and Th
 
therefore awaited not my questioning, but said: envIous 
" Speak and be brief and to the point." 
lirgil was coming with me on that side of the 
cornice whence one may fall because it is 
surrounded by no parapet; 
)n the other side of me were the devout shades, 
who, through the horrible seam, were pressing 
forth tears so that they bathed their cheeks. 
. turned me to them and began: "0 people Dante 
assured of seeing the Light above, which alone 

h
hem 
your desire hath in its care; 
,0 may grace quickly clear a\vay the scum of your 
conscience, that the stream of memory may 
descend clearly through it, 
ell me (for to me ' t \vill be gracious and dear) if 
any soul be among you that is Italian, and per- 
chance it will be good for him if I know of it." 
'0 brother mine, each one is a citizen of a true 
city; but thou \vouldest say, that lived a pilgrim 
. I I " 
In ta y. 
rhis meseenled to hear for ans\ver somewhat 
farther on than there VI here I was; w here- 
fore I nlade me heard yet more that \vay. 
l\nlong the others I saw a shade that was ex- Sapia 
pectant in look, and if one would ask, "how 
so ?" its chin it lifted up after the manner 
of the blind. 
:, Spirit," said I, "that dost subdue thee to mount 
up; if thou art that one who answered me, make 
thyself known to me by place or by name." 
" I was a Sienese," it answered, "and with these 
others here do cleanse my sinful life, weeping 
unto Hinl that he lend himself to us. 



Isg 


PURGATORIQ 


Girone II Savia non fui, avvegna che Sapia J 
fossi chiamata, e fui degli altrui danni 
più lieta assai, che di ventura mia. 
E perchè tu non credi ch' io t' inganni, J 
odi se fui, com' io ti dico, folIe. 
Già discendendo l' arco de' miei anni, J. 
eran Ii cittadin miei presso a Colle J 
in campo giunti coi loro avversari, 
ed io pregai Iddio di quel ch' ei volle. 
Rotti fur quivi, e volti negli amari 
passi di fuga, e veggendo la caccia, 
letizia presi a tutte altre dispari ; 
tanto ch' io volsi in su I' ardita faccia, 
gridando a Dio: 'Omai più non ti ten10,' 
come fa il merlo per poca bonaccia. 
Pace 
olli con Dio in su 10 stremo 
della mia vita; ed ancor non sarebbe 
10 mio dover per penitenza scen10, 
se ciò non Fosse che a memoria m' ebbe 
Pier Pettinagno in sue sante orazioni, 
a cui di me per caritate increbbe. 
Ma tu chi se', che nostre condizioni 
vai domandando, e porti gli occhi sciolti, 
sì come io credo, e spirando ragioni ? " 
" Gli occhi," diss' io, "mi fieno ancor qui tolt 
ma picciol tempo, chè poca è I' offesa ] 
fatta per esser con invidia volti. 
Troppa è più la paura, ond' è sospesa 
I' anima mia, del tormento di sotto, 
che già 10 incarco di laggiù mi pesa." 
Ed ella a me: "Chi t' ha dunque condotto ] 
quassù tra noi, se giù ritornar credi ? " 
Ed io: "Costui ch' è meco, e non fa mott, 



CANTO XIII 


159 


;apient was I not albeit Sapia I was named, The: 
and of others' hurt I was far more glad than envIous 
. d c Sç
 
of mine o,vn goo fortune. 
\.nd that thou mayst not think I deceive thee, 
hear if I was nlad as I tell thee. Already 
when the arc of my years was descending, 
I oy townsmen, hard by Colle, were joined in 
battle with their foes, and I prayed God for 
that which he had willed. 
I rhere were they routed, and rolled back in the 
bitter steps of flight, and seeing the chase I 
took joy exceeding all other; 
[ 0 oluch, that I lifted up nlY impudent face, 
crying to God: 'Now I fear thee no more,' 
as the blackbird doth for a little fair weather. 
would have peace with God on the brink of 
ß1Y .life; and my debt were not yet reduced by 
penitence, 
lad it not been that Peter the Combseller re- 
membered Ole in his holy prayers, who in his 
charity did grieve for Ole. 
3ut who art thou that goest asking of our state, 
IJ and bearest thine eyes unsewn, as I believ<:>, 
and breathing dost speak? " 
, Mine eyes," said I, "from Ole here shall yet Dante's 
ti be taken; but for short time, for small is the enyyand 
pnde 
I offence they did through being turned in envy. 
}reater far is the fear wherewith my soul is 
suspended, of the torment below, for even 
now the burden down there weighs upon me." 
\nd she to me: "Who then hath led thee up 
here among us, if thou thinkest to return 
below? " And I: "He who is with me 
te and saith no ,vord ; 



160 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II e vivo 80no: e però mi richiedi, 
spirito eletto, se tu vuoi ch' io mova 
di Jà per te ancor Ii mortai piedi." 
" Oh questa è ad udir sì cosa nuova," :I 
rispose, "che gran segno è che Dio t' ami; 
però coI prego tuo talor mi giova. 
E chieggioti per quel che tu più brami, 
se mai calchi la terra di rr oscana, 
che a' miei propinqui tu ben mi rinfami. 
Tu Ii vedrai tra quella gente vana 
che spera in Talamone, e perderagli 
più di speranza che a trovar la Diana ; 
ma più vi perderanno gli ammiragli." 


I 


I 


2.2. The expression "so far as here counts for 
mile" (that is to say, "if you think of \valking a mi 
you will get the right impression "), is an indicati 
which should be carefully noted, that we must r 
expect to be able to arrive at any consistent represen' 
tion by exact matter-of-fact measurements in Hell a 
Purgatory. Dante was well acquainted with f 
approximate size of the earth (COIIV. Hi. 5: IOO-IC 
and elsewhere), and cannot represent himself, 
example, as having literally climbed from the centre 
the circumference in something under 2.4 hOl 
He is content to avoid all glaring errors of princiI 
and to make the several scenes realisable (if. In/. X
 
86, 87, not
.) 
2.8- 30. At the marriage in Cana. " And when tl 
wanted ,vine, the mother of Jesus said unto him, TJ 
ha ve no wine" (Joh1l ii. 3). 
J 
3 z., 33. Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, renow' 
for his friendship with Py1ades. When Orestes , 
condemned to death, Pylades wished to take his ph 
saying that he was Orestes. Cicero alludes to this 
cident in a passage of the De A17licit;a (
 7), which' 
certainly known to Dante. 
35
 3 6 . "But I say unto you, Love your enem 



CANTO XIII 


161 


nd I am living, and therefore do thou ask of Th
 
me, spirit elect., if thou wouldst that yonder I envI.ous 
lift yet for thee n1Y mortal feet." Sapia 
'Oh this is so new a thing to hear," she anSi\vered, 
"that 'tis a great token that God' loveth 
thee; therefore profit me son1etimes with thy 
pra yers. 
\.nd I beseech thee by all thou most desirest, if 
e'er thou tread the land of Tuscany, that thou 
restore my fame mnong my kinsfolk. 
rhou wilt see thetn among that vain people who 
put their trust in 1-'alatnone, and will lose 
there more hopes than in finding the Diana; 
but the admirals shall Jose most there." 


I ,less them that curse you, do good to them that hate 
I 'ou, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and 
)erst:cute you " (Matt. v. 44). 
39-42. The examples of charity are the "whip," 
I he examples of envy, the" bit" (c}. below, Canto xiv. 
.43- 147); and for the" Pass of Pardon " (of which 
here is, of course, one on each terrace), see, in the 
>resent case, Canto xv. 35, 36. 
51, 52. The Litany of the Saints, in which, after the 
frinity, are invoked the Virgin Mary, the archangel 
VIichael with the other angels, St Peter with the other 
lPostles, and finally the other saints 
100 sqq. Sapia. a noble lady of Siena, the wife of 
vi viano dei Saracini, lord of Castiglioncello. She was 
illed with envy of her fellow-citizens, and rejoiced at 
. heir defeat under Provenzan Sal vani at Colle (see above, 

anto xi. 109-138, note). In 1265 she assisted her 
1usband in founding a hospice for wayfarers, and after 
1is death (( 269) she n1ade a grant of his castle to the 

ommune of Siena. These acts of generosity supply a. 

loss to 'V'V. 124, 125; and the latt
r of the two also 
proves that she must have become r
conciled to the 
3ienese shortly aft
r tht>ir rout (1269). 
108. Ct. Par. i. 22. 


L 



162 


NOTES 


114. C.f. I nf. i. I, /lote. 
12.1- I 2. 3. According to a popular Italian tradit 
and proverb, the blackbird, at the close of J anua 
cries Qt\t: "I fear thee no more, 0 Lord, now that 
winter is behind me." Sapia meant to imply that, n 
she had obtained the dearest wish of her heart, she J 
no more need or fear of God. 


12.7-12.9. Pier, a native of Chianti, was a Francis 
who had settled at Siena, where he died in 1289. 
was renowned for his piety, and long venerated 2 
saint, his festival being officially recognised in 13 2.
 
133- I 38. Scartazzini, ever anxious to 'whitewash 
hero, ingeniously quotes Psalms lxxiii. 3, to accc 
for Dante's self-accusation of envy: " For I was env 
at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity of 
wicked."-With regard to our poet's pride, his 
and works afford ample proof th
reof. Villani, am 



CANTO XIII 


16 3 


1ers, says of him (ix. 136): "On account of his I 
rning, he was sonlewhat presumptuous, and harsh, ' \ 
d disdainfuL" 
I 51- I 54. Siena still preserves two documents, dated 
" 95 and I 303 respectively; the former of which refers 
a resolution to search for the stream of Diana, which 
LS supposed to flow beneath the city; and the latter, 
the purchase (for 8000 gold florins, from the Abbot 
San Salvatore) of the small port of Talamone (on 

 Tyrrhenian Sea, S. W. of the Sienese Maremma), 
lich would have been a useful outlet to the sea, if 
ly the creek could have been kept clear of sand and 
ld. Both projects failed (at any rate in I)ante's 
ne); and in the latter enterprise a number of 
mirals [perhaps = contractors, as some early COffi- 

ntator8 think], directing the dredging opelations, 
It their lives ('V. 154) owing to the unhealthiness of 
e place. 



PURGATORIO 


A s Dante converses \vith Sapia, revealing 1 
wondrous conditions of his own pilgrim
 
and the mysterious presence of his guide, he is ov 
heard by two spirits who are leaning for support ( 
against 
nother at his right. Nearest to him is Gu: 
del Duca of Bertinoro, who is the chief speaker, 
other being Rinieri da Calboli of ForB. They 8pt 
chiefly to each other, but draw Dante into their C4 
versatioll, questioning him as to his origin; and wI 
he indicates by a circumlocution that his birthpl 
lies upon the Arno, Rinieri asks Guido why Da 
conceals the name under dark hints as though it w 
a shameful thing; \vhereon Guido approves of Dan 
shrinking from expressly naming this accursed di 
which rises in the midst of brutishness, and as 
swirls through deeper pools, finds ever fie:-cer or m 


Girone II " Chi è costui che il nostro monte cerchia, 
prim
 che morte gli abbia dato il volo, 
ed apre gli occhi a sua voglia e coperchia ? 
" Non so chi sia; ma so ch' ei non è solo; 
domandal tu che più gli t' avvicini, 
e do]cemente, sì che parli, acco' 10." 
Così due spirti, l' uno aH' altro chini, 
ragionavan di me ivi a man dritta, 
poi fer Ii visi, per dirmi, supini ; 
e disse I' uno: "0 anima, che fitta 
ne] carpo ancora, in ver ]0 ciel ten vai, 
per carità ne con sola, e ne ditta 
onde vieni, e chi sei; chè tu ne t:'li 
tanto maravigliar della tua grazia, 
quanto vuol cosa che Don fu più nlai." 
16 4 



CANTO XIV 


. 


:raded neighbours, till it reaches the crowning in- 
lY of Pisa (I-54). There follows a prediction of 
woe
 which Rinieri's relative Fulcieri shaH wreak 
Florence in 1303 (55-72). Deeply stirred by their 
:ourse, Dante questions the spiri ts as to their o\vn 
t, and Guido accompanies his answer by a lamenta- 
1 over the degeneracy of the Romandiola from which 
y both spring; and implores Dante to pass upon 
way and leave him to weep undisturbed (73- 126). 
sured that they are pursuing the fight \vay, since 
: generosity of these once envious souls would else 
Ie notified them of their mistake, the two poets 
rsue their way, as the warning voices against envy, 
:icipated by Virgil, ring in their ears; to \vhich Virgil 
is his sad reflections on the things which human 
)ice relinquishes and the things it grasps (117-15 I). 


Who is this that circles our mount ere death The 
have given him flight, and opens and shuts his en
ious 
e y es at his will 
 " GUido del 
. Duca and 
I know not \vho he may be, but I kno,v that Rinieri da 
h . I d h . h . h Calbal: 
e IS not a one; 0 t ou questIon 1m \V 0 . 
art nearer to him, and gently greet him that 
he may speak." 
hus two spirits, one leaning against the other, 
,vere discoursing of me there on the right 
hand; then held up their faces to speak to nle ; 
,d one said: "0 soul, that fixed yet in thy 
body dost journey towards heaven, for charity 
console us, and tell us 
hence thou cornest, and who thou art; for 
thou dost ßlake us marvel so greatly at thy 
grace, as needs ß1USt a thing that never \vas." 
J: 6 s 



166 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II Ed io: "Per mezza Toscana si spazia 
un fiumicel che nasce in Falterona, 
e cento miglia di corso nol sazia. 
Di sorr' esso rech' io questa persona; 
dirvi ch) io sia, saria parlare indarno, 
chè it nome mio ancor n1olto non suona." 
" Be ben 10 intendin1ento tuo accarno 
con 10 intelletto," aHora mi rispose 
quei che prima dicea, "tu parli d' Arno." 
E l'altro disse a lui: "Perchè nascose 
questi il vocabol di quella riviera, 
pur com' uom fa dell' orribili cose ? " 
E I' ombra, che di ciò domandata era, 
si sdebitò così: "Non so, ma degno 
ben è che il nome di tal valle pera: 
chè dal principio suo, dov' è sì pregno 
l' a]pestro monte, ond' è tronco Peloro, 
che in pochi lochi passa oItra quel segno, 
infin là 've si rende per ristoro 
di quel che il ciel della marina asciuga, 
ond' hanno i fiumi ciò che va con loro, 
virtð così per nimica si fuga 
da tutti, cOlne biscia, 0 per sventura 
del loco 0 per mal uso che Ii fruga: 
ond' hanno sì mutata lor natura 
gli abitator della misera valle, 
che par che Circe gli avesse in pastura. 
Tra brutti porci, più degni di galle 
che d' altro cibo fatto in uman uso, 
dirizza prima il suo povero calle. 
Botoli trova poi, venendo giuso, 
ringhiosi più che non chiede lor possa, 
ed a lor, disdegnosa, torce if muso. 



I 
f \.nd I: "Through the midst of Tuscany there Th
 
spreads a stream \vhich rises in F alterona and envIous 
f h d d " I 0" The Arno 
a course 0 a un re mt es satiates It not. 
i'rom its banks I bring this body; to tell you 
who I may be were to speak in vain, for my 
name as yet sounds not for much." 
'If I penetrate truly thy meaning \vith my 
understanding," then answered me he who 
first spake, "thou art talking of the Arno." 
\.nd the other said to him: "Why did he 
conceal the nante of that river, even as one 
does of horrible things? " 

nd the shade who was asked this question, its valley 
acquitted hin1 thus: "I know not, but verily 
'tis meet that the name of such a vale perish; 
TIrfrom its beginning (where the rugged mountain- 
chain, \vhence Pelorus is cut off, is so fruitful 
that in fe\v places it exceeds that mark) 
lS far as there where it yie]ås itself to restore 
that ,vhich the sky soaks up from the sea, 
\vhence rivers have that ,vhich flows with them, 
virtue is dri ven forth as an enemy by aU, even 
as a snake, either because of the ill.favoured 
place or of evil habit which incites them; 
wherefore the dwellers in the wretched vale have and those 
h d h . h . O f that dwell 
so c ange t elf nature t at It seems as 1 therein- 
Circe had them in her pasturing. 
Among filthy hogs, more worthy of acorns than The " 
of other food made for use of man, it first CasentlI
S 
directs its feeble course. 

rhen, coming do\vnv/ard it finds curs snarling the " 
more than their power ,varrants, and from them Arebnes 
scorn full y turns aside its snout. 


CAN I"U XIV 


167 



168 


PURGA TORIO 


Girone II Vassi cadendo, e, quanto ella pit) ingrossa, 4
 
tanto più trova di can Farsi Iupi 
la maledetta e sventurata fossa. 
Discesa poi per più pelaghi cupi, s
 
trova Ie volpi, sÌ piene di froòa 
che non temono in gegno che Ie occupi. 
Nè lascerò di dir, perch' altri m' oda ; 5: 
e buon sarà a costui, se ancor s' anlnlenta 
di ciò, che vero spirto mt disnoda. 
10 veggio tuo nipote, che diventa 51 
cacciator di quei lupi, in su Ja riva 
del fiero fìun1e, e tutti gli sgomenta. 
Vende la carne loro, essendo viva; 6: 
poscia gli ancide come antica belva : 
molti di vita, e sè di pregio priva. 
Sanguinoso esce della trista selva; 6 
lasciala tal, che di qui a mill' anni 
nello stato prinlaio non si rinselva." 
Come all' annunzio de' dogliosi danni 6: 
si turba il viso di colui che ascolta, 
da qualche parte il periglio 10 assanni : 
così vid' io l' altr' aniola, che volta 7< 
stava ad udir, turbarsi e farsi trista, 
poi ch' ebbe la parola a sè racco1ta. 
Lo dir dell' una, edell' altra la vista 7: 
mi fe' voglioso di saper lor nomi, 
e domanda ne fei con preghi mista : 
per che 10 spirto, che di pria parlòmi, 7 f 
riCOlninciò: "Tu vuoi ch' io mi dcduca 
nel fare a te ciò, che tu far non vuo' mi ; 
ma da che Dio in te vuol che tral uca 7
 
. ." 
tanta sua grazla, non tl saro scarso : 
però sappi ch' io son Guido del Duca. 



CANTO XIV 


16 9 


n it goes in its descent, and, the greater its The:: 
increase, the more it finds the dogs growing to envIous. 
wolves, this accurst and ill-fated ditch. T F h 1 e t . 
oren Ines 
:aving then descended through many deep gorges, aJ}d the 
it finds the foxes, so full of fraud that they fear Plsans 
no wit that may trap them. 
.or ,viII I cease speaking, for all that another 
may hear me; and it will be well for him if 
he mind him again of what true prophecy 
unfolds to me. 
see thy grandson, ,vho is becoming a hunter of Fulcieri da 
h I h b f h fì . Calboli 
t ose ,vo ves on t e ank 0 t e erce rIver, 
and strikes them all ,vith terror. 
[e sells their flesh while yet alive; then slaughters 
them like worn-out cattle: olany he deprives 
of life and himself of honour. 
[e cometh forth bloody fron} the sad v/ood; 
he leaves it such, that hence a thousand years 
it re-woods not itself to its primal state." 
..s at the announcement of grievous ills the face 
of him who listens is troubled, from whatever 
side the peril may assault him, 
Þ saw I the other soul, that had turned round 
to hear, grow troubled and sad, after it had 
gathered these words to itself. 
'he speech of the one and the other's counte- 
nance made nle long to kno'\\' their nanlCS, and 
question I nlade of them mingled with prayers: 
herefore the spirit that first spake to me, began 
again: "Thou ,vouldst that I condescend in 
doing that for thee which thou wilt not do for me ; 
1t since God wills that so much of his grace 
shine forth in thee, I will not be chary with 
thee; therefore kno,v that I am Guido del Duca
 



170 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II Fu il sangue mio d' invidia sÌ riarso, 
che, se veduto avessi uom Farsi lieto, 
visto m' avresti di livore sparso. 
\ Di mia semente cotal paglia mieto. 
o gente umana, perchè poni il core 
là 'v' è mestier di consorto divieto ? 
Questi è Rinier, quest' è il pregio e I' on ore 
della casa da Calboli, ove nullo 
fatto s' è erede poi del suo valoree 
E non pur 10 suo sangue è fatto bruHo, 
tra il Po e il monte e la marina e il Reno, 
del ben richiesto al vero ed al trastullo : 
chè dentro a questi termini è ripieno 
di venenosi sterpi, sÌ che tardi 
per coltivare omai verrebber meno. 
Ov' è il buon L izio ed Arrigo Mainardi, 
Pier Traversaro e Guido di Carpigna? 
o Romagnoli tornati in bastardi ! 
Quando in Bologna un F abbro si ralligna? 
quando in Faenza un Bernardin di Fosco, 
verga gentil di picciola gramigna? 
Non ti maravigliar, s' io piango, rrosco, 
quando rimembro con Guido da Prata 
U golin d' Azzo che vivette nosco, 
Federico 1'ignoso e sua brigata, 
la casa Traversara e gli Anastagi 
(e l' una gente e I' altra è diretata), 
Ie donne e i cavalier, gli affanni e gli agi 
che ne invogliava anlore e cortesia, 
là dove i cor son fatti sÌ malvagi. 
o Brettinoro, chè non fuggi via, 
poichè gita se 0' è la tua famiglia, 
e molta gente per non esser ria? 



CANTO XIV 


17 1 


viy blood ,vas so inflamed with envy, that if I Th
 
had seen a man n1ake him glad, thou wouldst envIous 
have seen me suffused ,vith lividness. · 
)f my sowing such straw I reap. 0 human 
folk, why set the heart there where exclusion 
of partnership is necessary? 
fhis is Rinier; this is the glory and the honour 
of the House of Calboli, where none since 
hath made himself heir of his \vorth. 
And not only his blood between the Po and the 
mountains, and the seashore and the Reno, is 
stripped of the good required of truth and 
chivalry, 
for inside these boundaries is choked with Invective 
poisonous growths, so that tardily novi v/ouJd 



na 
they be rooted out by cultivation. 
Where is the good Lizio, and Arrigo Mainardi, 
Pier Traversaro and Guido di Carpigna ? 0 
ye Romagnols turned to bastards! 
When in Bologna shall a Fabbro take root again? 
when in F aenza a Bernardin di Fosco, noble 
scion of a lowly plant? 
Marvel thou not, Tuscan, if I weep, when I re- 
member with Guido da Prata, U golin d' Azzo 
who lived among us, 
Federico Tignoso and his fellowship, the Hou
e 
of Traversaro, and the Anastagi (the one 
race and the other now without heirs), 
the ladies and the knights, the toils and the 
sports of '
Jhich love and courtesy enamoured 
us, there where hearts are grown so wicked. 
o Brettinoro, why dost thou not flee away, since 
thy household is gone forth, and much people 
in order not to be guilty? 



17 2 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II Ben fa Bagnacaval, che non rifiglia, XI! 
e mal fa Castrocaro, e peggio Conio, 
che di fig1iar tai conti più s' impiglia; 
ben faranno i Pagan, dacchè il demonio nf 
lor sen girà; ma non però che puro 
giammai rimanga d' essi testimonio. 
o U golin de' F antolin, sicuro 12: 
è it nome tuo, da che più non s' aspetta 
chi far 10 possa tralignando oscuro. 
Ma va via, Tosco, omai, ch' or mi diletta I2.! 
troppo di pianger più che di parJare, 
sì m' ha nostra ragion la mente stretta." 
Noi sapevam che queH' anime care 12: 
ci sentivano andar; però tacendo 
facevan noi del cammin confidare. 
Poi fummo fatti soli procedendo, I3( 
folgore parve, quando l' aer fende, 
voce che giunse d' in contra, dicendo : 
"Anciderammi qualunque m' apprende " ; :1:3: 
e fuggì, come tuon che si dilegua, 
se subito la nuvola scoscende. 
Come da lei l' udir nostro ebbe tregua, I3 t 
ed ecco l' altré} con sì gran fi-acasso, 
che somigliò tuonar che tosto segua: 
" 10 sonG Aglauro che divenni sasso" ; 1:3S 
cd aHor per ristringermi at poet a, 
indietro feci e non innanzi il passo. 
Già era l' aura d' ogni parte queta, :1:4 2 
ed ei mi disse: "Quel fu il duro caOlO, 
che dovria l' uom tener dentro a sua nleta. 
Ma voi prendete l' esca sì che l' amo 145 
dell' antico avversario a sè vi tira; 
e però poco val freno 0 richiamo. 



CANTO XIV 


173 


Well doth Bagnacaval that beareth no more sons, Th
 
and ill doth Castrocaro, and Conio worse, that envIous 
yet troubleth to beget such Counts; Invective 
the Pagani will do well \vhen their Demon shall R



na 
go away; but not indeed that unsulJied witness 
ma y ever remain of them. 
o U golin de' F antolin thy name is safe, 
since no more expectation is there of one who 
may blacken it by degenerating. 
But now go thy way, Tuscan, for now it delights 
me far more to weep than to tal k, so hath our 
discourse wrung my spirit." 
We knevl that those dear souls heard us going; 
therefore by their silence they made us con- 
fident of the way. 

"-fter we \vere left alone journeying on, a voice, Examples 
that seemed like lightning when it cleaves the of 
nvy- 
. . 
 Cain 
all', smote against us, saYing: 
" Everyone that 6.ndeth me shall slay me "; and 
fled like a thunderclap which peals away if 
suddenly the cloud bursts. 
When from it our hearing had truce, 10 the Aglauros 
second, with such loud crash that 'twai like 
thunder that follows quickly: 
"I am Aglauros who was turned to stone" 
and then to press me close to the Poet, I nlade 
a step back, and not forward. 
Now was the air quiet on every side, and he 
said to file: "That was the hard bit \vhich 
ought to hold man within his bounds. 
But ye take the bait, so that the old adversary's 
hook draw s you to him, and therefore little 
avails bridle or lure. 



174 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II Chiamavi il cie1o, e intorno vi si gira, q 
mostrandovi Ie sue bellezze eterne, 
e l' occhio vostro pure a terra mira; 
oode vi batte chi tutto discerne." J
 


I sqq. These words are spoken by Guido del Due 
(who bears the brunt of the speaking throughout th 
canto) and Rinier da Calboli (who does most of th 
listening), respectively. 
Guido del Duca, a Ghibelline of Bertinoro, belonge 
to the Onesti family of Ravenna (other members c 
which were Pietro and Romualdo; see Par. xxi. an 
xxii). In 1199 he was judge to the Podestà of FJmini 
For years (from 1202, or even earlier) he was a 
adherent of the Ghibelline leader, Pier Traversaro ('t 
98). In 1218, Pier, aided principally by the Mainard 
("lI. 97) of Bertinoro, obtained the chief po'wer a 
Ravenna, and drove out the Guelfs; whereupon th 
latter attacked Bertinoro, destroyed the houses of th 
Mainardi, and expelled Pier's adherents. AmonJ 
these was Guido, who followed his chief to Ravenn:3 
and the last preserved record of whom is a deed signe, 
by him in that city in 12.29. 
Rinier, belonging to the Guelf family of da Calholi 
of ForB, ,vas Podestà of Faenza ( 1247 ), of Parma (1252- 
and of Ravenna (1265 ; and again in 1292). In 1276 h 
attacked Forlì (assisted by other Guelfs, among then 
Lizio da Valbona; "lI. 97); but the force had to retir 
to Rinier's castle of Calboli (in the valley of Montone' 
where they surrendered to Guido of Montetdtro, th 
Captain of FùrB, who destroyed the stronghold. WhcJ 
Rinier was re-elected Podestà of Faenza in 1292., th 
captain of the city was Mainardo Pagano (ov. 118) 
The cithens, supported by their leaders, opposed 
tax levied on them by the Count of Romagna. rrh 
expedition against him and the Ghibdlines on hi 
side (including the Count of Castrocaro, "lI. I 16) \va 
entir
ly successful. In 1294 the da Calholi, who ,veri 
becoming too powerful in ForB, \vere expelled by th, 
Ghibellines; but they returned, together with othe 
exiled Guelfs, in 1296, when the bulk of their enf:mie 



CANTO XIV 


Ii5 


he heavens call to you, and circle around you, Th
 
displaying unto you their eternal splendours, enVIOUS 
and your eye gazes only to earth; wherefore 
he who discerns all things doth buffet you." 



re absent on an expedition against Bologna. 
iortly afterwards, however, the Guelfs were again 
uted and expelled by the Ghibellines, led among 
hers by one of the Ordelaffi. On this occasion the 
;ed Rinier was slain. 
Guido's invective against Romagna ('lIv. 9 1 - 12 3 of 
.e present canto) should be compared with Illf. xxvii. 
7- 54. 
16,18 and 31-36. Falterona is a summit of the Tuscan 
pennines (N.E. of Florence), where the Arno has its 
.urce. Pr
gno, as applied to Falterona, may refer 
rher to the rivers, or to the secondary mountain 
lains, springing from it; taken in conjunction with 
33, the latter is, geographically, the more correct 
Iterpretation. Peloro (the modern Cape Faro; if. 
are viii. 68) is at the N.E. extremity of Sicily, being 

parated from the end of the Apennines only by the 
trait of Messina; geologicaUy, the Sicilian mountains 

e, of course, only a continuation of the Apennines.- 
Jter a course of about 150 miles, the Arno flows into 
1e Mediterranean Sea (in.fin là, 'V. 34= as far as the sea: 
>r the vapours exhaled by the sea through the heat of 
1e sun come down again as rain, swell the rivers and 
re thus eventually restored to the sea-'Vv. 34-3 6 ). 
37-54. Dante conceives the inhabitants of the Val 
, Arno to have been, as it '\vere, transformed into 
easts by the enchantress Circe, \vho was endowed with 
his power. Thus the people of Casentino (see above, 

anto v. 8 5-129, not
) have become hogs, the Aretines 
-curs, the Florentines-wolves, and the Pisans-foxes. 
58-66. Rinier's grandscn, Fulcieri da Calboli, was 
)odestà of various cities-Milan, Parma and Modeila, 
.ut is chiefly notorious for his tenure of that office at 
;'lorence (13 0 3), where he proved himself a bitter foe 
If the Whites and Ghibellines (see Villani, viii. 59).- 
telva ('V. 64)=Flor
nce; if. Inf. i. 2. not
. 



17 6 


NOTES 


86, 87. See the following canto, 'Vcv. 44-81. 
91-123. The people mentioned in these lines we 
all inhabitants of the Romagna (the limits of \yhic 
are defined in v. 92, as the Po and the Apennines, t] 
Adriatic and the Reno; for the latter if. IIf: xviii. 61 
For some of the names see above, not
 to v. 1 sqq. 
Lizio da V albona
 a Guelf nobleman of Bertinoro ar 
follower of Rinier da Calboli; he died between 12' 
and 1300. - Arrigo Mainardi, a Ghibelline of BE 
tinoro and adherent of Pier Traversaro, together wi- 
whom he \\pas captured by the people of Faenza 
1170; he was still alive in I 228.-Pier Traversaro (, 
I J45-12.25), the most distinguished member of tJ 
Ghibelline family of the casa Trav
rsara (v. 107); J 
\vas repeatedly Podestà of his native city, and play. 
a leading part in the politics of Romagna for mal 
years.-Guido of the Carpegna (a noted family settl. 
in the district of Montefeltro) was renowned for }- 
liberality. - Fabbro, one of the Ghibelline Lambt: 
tazzi of Bologna, was Podestà of several cities. Aft 
his death, in 1259, his sons had a bitter feud with t] 
Geremei (see Inf. xxxii. 122, 123, not
).-nernardin 
Fosco distinguished himself in the siege of Faen' 
against the Em peror Frederick II. (12.40); his fath 
was a field labourer.-Guido da Prata (d. ca. 1245), 
native of Ravenna, near which city he appears to ha 
owned considerable property. - Ugolin d'Azzo, 
'wealthy inhabitant of Faenza, one of the Ubaldini (, 
below, Canto xxiv. 2.9, note). He married Beatri 
Lancia, the daughter of Provenzan Salvani (see abov 
Canto xi.) and died at a great age in 1293.-Frederi 
1.'ignoso: a nobleman of Rimini, noted for his genE 
()sity, who appears to have lived in the first half of tì 
13th century. -l'he Traversari and Anastagi we 
noble Ghibelline families of Ravenna. On the dea 
of Pier 'rraversaro, his son Paolo turned Guelf- 



CAI\JTO XIV 


177 


'te-face that soon undermined the influence of the 
nily. About the middle of the 13th century, the 
lastagi were very much to the fore, owing to their 
'ife with the Polentani and other Guelfs of Ravenna. 
reconciliation was effected ca. 12.58, and after this 
I te there is no mention of them in the records.- 
ettinoro (now Bertinoro), a little town between 
I )rlì and Cesena; its inhabitants, several of whom 
.ure in this canto, had a great reputation for h08- 
tality. Dante is apparently alluding here to the 
I mpulsoryexodus of the Ghibellines from the town 

e above, note on Guido del Duca), and rejoicing that 
ey were spared the spectacle of the place in its 
('sent condition.- The Malavicini, Counts of Bagna- 
vallo (between Imola and Ravenna), were Ghibel- 
leSe In 12.49 they drove Guido da Polenta and his 
.low Guelfs from Ravenna. Subsequently they were 
ttorious for their frequent change of party.- 
lstrocaro and Conio: strvngholds near Forlì; the 
unts of the former place were Ghibellines, those of 
e latter Guelfs. - The Pagani were Ghibellines of 
le,1za (or lmola). For Ivlainardo see Inf. xxvii. 
'-51, note (if. Villani, vii. 149). According to 

nvenuto, he was caHed "devil" because of his 
nning.-Ugolino de' Fantolini (d. 12.78) did not 
ke part in public affairs, but led an honourable 
tired life. One of his sons was killed at Forlì 
282.) in the engagement with Guido of lVlonte- 
.tro (see Ilif. xxvii. 43,44), and the other died before 
.9 1 . 
132.-135. The words of Cain, after he had slain his 
other Abel (Gen. iv. 14). 
137- 1 39. Aglauros, the daughter of Cecrops, King 
Athens, being jealous of Mercury's love for her 
iter, Hersë, was changed by the God into stone (see 
vid, Me/am. xiv. 139)' 


M 



PURGA TORIO 


I T is three o'clock in the afternoon, and the poet 
(ha ving circled nigh a fourth part of the mounta 
and reached its northern slope) are facing the weste 
ing sun, when the dazzling light of the angel guardi. 
of the circle warns them that they have approach 
the next ascent (1-33). They are \.velcomed to 
stair far less steep than those they have alrea, 
surmounted, and hear the blessing of the mercifl 
together 'with songs of lofty encouragement, chant 
behind them as they mount (34-39). Dante's n1i 
goes back to words in \vhich Guido del Duca, wh 
confessing his own envious disposition on earth, h 
reproached mankind for fixing their hearts on t 
things \\,hich exclude partnership; and now 
que5tions Virgil as to the meaning of this sayi 
(4 0 -45). Virgil answers first briefly, and then in f 


Girone II Quanto tra l' ultin1ar dell' ora terza 
e il principio del dì par delJa spera 
che sempre a guisa di fan ciullo schcrza: 
tanto pareva già in verla sera 
essere al sol del suo corso rimaso : 
vespero là, e qui mezza notte era. 
E i raggi ne ferian per mezzo il naso, 
perchè per noi girato era sì il monte, 
che già dritti andavan10 in ver l' occaso, 
quand' io s
nti' a n1e gravar Ia fronte 
aHo splendore assai più che di prinla, 
e stupor m' eran Ie cose non conte: 
ond' io levai Ie nlani in ver Ia cima 
delle'mie ciglia, e fecimi il solecchio, 
che del soperchio visibile linla. 
17 8 



CANTO XV 



tail, that the more of any material thing one man 
1S, the less of it there is for others; 'whereas the 
ore peace or knowledge or love one man has, the more 
lere is for all the others. Hence envy disturbs men's 

arts only because they are fixed on material instead 
: spiritual things. If this ex position does not satisfy 
lm, let him await further light from Beatrice, and 
leanwhile let him make all speed upon his journey 

6- 8 1 ). On this they reach the third terrace-that of 
1e wrathful-,vhereon Dante in ecstatic vision beholds 
Kamples of meekness and patience (82.-1 14). Waking, 
alf-bewildered, from his trance, he is called to him. 

lf by Virgil (115-138), and the two walk toward 
he evening sun, till a dark cloud of smoke rolling 
J\vards them, plunges them into the blackness of 
lore than night (139- 1 45). 
\.S much as between the end of the third hour The 
and the beginning of the day appears of the envious 
sphere which ever sports after the fashion of 
a child, 
iO much appeared now to be left of the sun's Afternoon 
course towards evening; it was vespers there, of the... 
d h . d . h seconu 
an ere ml Dig t. day in 
A.nd the rays were smiting on the middle of our Purgatory 
noses, for the mount was so far circled by us, 
that we now were going straight to the west, 
when I felt my brow weighed dowll by the 
splendour far more than before, and amazement 
to n1e were the unknown things; 
wherefore I raised my hands towards the top of 
my eyes, and made me the shade which dulls 
the excess of light. 


179 



180 


PURGATORIO 


Girone II Come quando dall' acqua 0 dano specchio 
salta 10 raggio all' opposita parte, 
salendo su per 10 modo parecchio 
a quel che scende, e tanto si diparte 
dal cader della pietra in egual tratta, 
sì conle mostra esperienza ed arte : 
così mi parve da luce rifratta 
i vi dinanzi a me esser percosso, 
per che a fuggir la mia vista fu ratta. 
" Che è quel, dolce padre, a che non possa 
schermar 10 vi so tanto che mi vaglia," 
diss' io, "e pare in ver noi esser mosso ? " 
" Non ti maravigliar, se ancor t' abbaglia 
la fanliglia del cielo," a me rispose ; 
" messo è, che viene ad invitar ch' uom sagli 
Tosto sarà che a veder q ueste cose 
non ti fia grave, ma fiati diletto, 
quanto natura a sentir ti dispose." 
Poi giunti fummo all' angel benedetto, 
con Iieta voce disse: "Entrate quinci 
ad un scaleo vie men che gli altri eretto." 
Noi montavam, già partiti da linci, 
e "Beali misericordes " fue 
cantato retro, e "Godi tu che vinci." 
Salita at Lo mio maestro ed io soli ambo e due 
irone III BUSO andavamo, ed io pensava, andando, 
prode acquistar nelle parole sue; 
e dirizza' n1Ì a lui sì donlandando : 
"Che volle dir 10 spirto di Romagna, 
e 'divieto ' e ' consorto' menzionando?" 
Per ch' egli a me: "Di sua nlaggior magagna 
conosce il danno; e però non s' amo1iri, 
se ne ri
rende perchè men sen piagna. 



CANTO XV 


181 


I s when a ray of light leaps frorn the water or Th
 
from the mirror to the opposite direction, as- en
lous 
cending at an angle similar 
that at which it àescends, and departs as far from 
the line of the faI1ing stone in an equal space, 
even as experiment and science shows, 
I seemed to be smitten by reflected light in The 
fj f c 0 or. Angel of 
ront 0 me, where10re mIne eyes were S'\-"I1t Fraternal 
to flee. Love 
"\Vhat is that, sweet Father, from which I can- 
not screen my sight so that it may avail me," 
said I, "and seems to be moving to\vards us}" 
Marvel thou not if the heavenly household yet 
dazes thee," he answered me, "'tis a messenger 
that cometh to invite us to ascend. 
Jon wi]} it be that to behold these things shall 
not be grievous to thee, but shall be a joy to 
thee, as great as nature hath fitted thee to feel." 
I Then we had reached the blessed angel, with 
gladsome voice, he said: "Enter here to a 
stairwa y far less steep than the others." 
I' Ie were mounting, already departed thence, and The 
" BeatÏ misericorde.r" was sung behind, and Be

ti
ude 
" Rejoice thou that overcomest." 
[y Master and I, alone \ve two, ,vere mounting Dante 
up, and I thought while journeying to gain d

b
 a 
profit from his ,vords ; 
I ld I directed me to him thus asking: "What 
meant the spirit from Romagna by mentioning 
, exclusion' and 'partnership' ? " 
f \Thereupon he to me: "He knoweth the hurt of and is 
his greatest defect, and therefore let none m;lrvel b;sVi

f 
if he reprove it, that it be less mourned for. 



182 


PURGATORIQ 



alita al Perehè s' appuntan Ii vostri disiti 
Glrone III dove per compagnia parte si seem a, 
invidia move il mantaeo ai sospiri. 
Ivfa se I' an10r del1a spera suprema 
torcessse in suso it desiòerio vostro, 
non vi sarebbe al petto quella tema: 
chè per quanti si dice pit} lì nostro, 
tanto possiede più di ben ciascuno, 
e più di caritate arde in quel chiostro." 
" 10 son d' esser contento più digiuno," 
diss' io, "che se mi fOBSi pria taciuto, 
e più di dubbio nelJa mente aduno. 
Com' esser puote che un ben distributo 
i più posseditor faccia più ricchi 
di sè, che se da pochi è posseduto ? " 
Ed egli a me: "Però che tu rificchi 
Ia mente pure aile cose terrene, 
di vera luee tenebre dispicehi. 
Quello infinito ed ineffabil bene 
che è lassù, eosì corre ad amore, 
come a lucido corpo raggio viene. 
Tanto si dà, quanto trova d' ardore, 
sì che quantunque earità si estende, 
cresce sopr' essa I' eterno vaIore; 
e quanta gente più Iassù s' intende, 
I più v' è da bene amare, e più vi s' ama, 
e come specchio I' uno all' altro rende. 
E Be Ia mia ragion non ti disfama, 
vedrai Beatrice, ed el1a pienamente 
ti torrà questa e ciascun' altra brama. 
Procaccia pur che tosto sieno spen te, 
come son già Ie due, Ie cinque piaghe, 
che si richiudon per esser dolente." 



CANTO XV 


18 3 


Forasmuch as your desires are centred where the Virgil's 
. 0 I d b h o discourse 
portIon 18 essene y partners Ip, envy moves on worldly 
the bellows to your sighs. and O at 
maten 
But if the love of the highest sphere \vrested goods 
your desire upwards, that fear \vould not be at 
your heart; 
for by so many more there are who say 'ours,' 
so much the n10re of good doth each possess, 
and the more of love burncth in that cloister." 
"I am more fasting from being satisfied," said I, 
"than if I had kept silent at first, and more 
perplexity I amass in nlY mind. 
How can it be that a good when shared, shall 
make the greater nunIber of possessors richer in 
it, than if it is possessed by a fe\v ? H 
And he to me: "Because thou dost again fix 
thy mind merely on things of earth, thou 
drawest darkness from true light. 
That infinite and ineffable Good, that is on high, 
speedeth so to love as a ray of light comes to 
a bright body. 
As much of ardour as it finds, so much of itself 
doth it give, so that how far soever love ex- 
tends, eternal goodness giveth increase upon it; 
and the more people on high who comprehend 
each other, the more there are to love well, 
and the more love is there, and like a mirror 
one giveth back to the other. 
And if my discourse stays not thy hunger, thou 
shalt see Beatrice, and she ,viII free thee wholly 
from this and every other longing. 
Strive only that soon, even as the other two are, 
the five wounds may be rased out, which are 
healed by our sorrowing." 



18 4 


PURGATORIO 


Girone III Com' io vole\Ta dicer: "Tu m' appaghe," 
vidimi giunto in su l' altro girone, 
sì che tacer mi fer Ie luci vaghe. 
I vi ß1i parve in una visione 
estatica di subito esser tratto 
e vedere in un tempio più persone ; 
ed una donna in su l' entrar con atto 
dolce di madre dicer: "FigliuoI mio, 
perchè hai tu così verso noi fatto ? 
Ecco, doIenti, ]0 tuo padre ed io 
ti cercavamo "; e come qui si tacque, 
ciò che pareva prima disparìo. 
lodi m' apparve un' altra con quelle acque 
giù per Ie gote, che il dolor distilla 
quando di gran dispetto in altrui nacque ; 
e dir: "Se tu se' sire deUa villa, 
del cui nome ne' Dei fu tanta lite, 
ed oode ogni scienza disfaviIIa, 
vendica te di queUe braccia ardite 
che abbracciar nostra figlia, 0 Pisistrato." 
E il signor mi parea benigno e mite 
risponder lei con viso temperato : 
" Che farem noi a chi mal ne disira, 
Be quei, ehe ei ama, è per noi condannato ? " 
Poi vidi genti aceese in foeo d' ira, Ie 
con pietre un giovinetto anciJer, forte 
gridando a sè pur: "Martira, martira! " 
e Iui vedea chinarsi, per la D10rte 
che l' aggravava già, in verla terra, 
ma degli occhi facea sempre aJ ciel porte, 
orando all' alto Sire in tanta guerra, 
ehe perdonasse a' Buoi persecutori, 
con quell' aspetto che pietà disserra. 


14 


1< 


IC 


u 



CANTO XV 


18 5 


t\s I was about to say: "Thou dost satisfy me," The 
I . d h .. h wrathful 
saw nle arnve on t e next CircuIt, so t at 
my eager eyes nlade me silent. 
rhere meseemed to be suddenly caught up in a Examples 
d f d . of gentle- 
ream 0 ecstacy, an to see nJany persons 10 ness- 
a telnp]e, 
lod a WOOlan about to enter, with the tender The Virgin 
attitude of a mother, saying: "My son, why Mary 
hast thou thus deah with us ? 
3eho]d thy father and I sought thee sorrowing" ; 
and as here she was silent, that which first 
appeared, disappeared. 
fhen appeared to me another woman, with those Pisistratus 
waters adown her cheeks which grief distils 
,vhen it rises in one by reason of great anger, 
.od saying: "If thou art lord of the city for 
whose name was so great strife among the gods, 
and whence all kno,vledge sparkles, 
venge thee of those daring arms which embraced 
our daughter, 0 Pisistratus. And the lord 
seemed to me kindly and gently 
o answer her with placid n1ien: "What shall we 
do to him who desires ill to us, if he ,vho 
loveth us is condemned by us? " 
['hen sa,v I people, kindled with the fire of anger, Saint 
I slaying a youth with stones, and ever crying Stephen 
out loudly to each other: "I(iIl, kiH! " 
nd hin1 saw I sinking: towards the ground, be- 
cause of death, which already was w
ighing 
him down, but of his eyes ever made he 
gates unto heaven, 
raying to the high Lord in such torture, with 
that look which unlocks pity, that he ,vould 
forgive his persecutors. 



186 


PURGATORIO 


Girone III Quando l' anima mia tornò di fuori 
aIle cose, che son fuor di lei vere, 
io riconobbi i miei non falsi errori. 
Lo duca mio, che mi potea vedere 
far sì com' uom che dal sonno si slega, 
disse: "Che hai, che non ti puoi tenere, 
ma se' venuto pið che mezza lega, 
velando gli occhi e con Ie gambe avvolte, 
a guisa di cui vino 0 sonno piega ? " 
" 0 dolce padre olio, se tu m' ascolte, 
io ti dirò," diss' io, "ciò che n1i apparve 
quando Ie gambe mi furon sì tolte." 
I Ed ei: "Se tu avessi cento larve 
sopra la faccia, non mi sarien chiuse 
Ie tue cogitazion, quantunque parve. 
. Ciò che vedesti fu, perchè non scuse 
d' aprir 10 core all' acque della pace 
che dall' eterno fonte son diffuse. 
Non domandai, , Che hai,' per quel che face 
chi guard a pur con l' occhio che non vede, 
quando disanimato it corpo giace; 
ma domandai per darti forza al piede : 
cORì frugar conviensi i pigri, lenti 
ad usar lor vigilia quando riede." r 
Noi andavanl per 10 vespero, attenti 
oltre, quanto potean gli occhi allungarsi, 
contra i raggi serotini e lucenti ; 
ed ecco a poco a poco un funlmo Farsi 
verso di noi, come la noUe oscuro, 
nè da quel10 era loco da cansarsi. 
Questo ne tolse gli occhi e l' acr puro. 
1-6. l'he Zodiac, which is improperly described 
a sphere (instead of a zone or great circle on t 


I 


I 


I 


I 



CAI'lTO XV 


1 8 7 


When my soul returned outwardly to the things The 
h " O d . I 0 d wrathful 
W lch are true outSl e It, recognlse my not V . 0 1 d 
lrgl an 
false errors. Dante 
My Lcader, \vho could see me acting like a ß1an 
who frees hínlself from sleep, said: "What 
aileth thee that thou canst not control thyself, 
but art come more than half a league, veiling 
thine eyes, and ,vith staggering legs, after the 
manner of him \vhom ,,,.ine or sleep overcomes?" 
"0 sweet Father mine, if thou listen to me, 
I wiU tell thee," said I, "what appeared to 
me ,vhen my legs were thus taken from me." 
And he: "If thou hadst a hundred masks upon 
thy face, thy thoughts, however slight, would 
not be hidden from me. 
What thou sawest was in order that thou have 
no excuse from opening thy heart to the 
waters of peace, which are poured from the 
eternal fount. 
I asked not: 'What aileth thee,' for that reason 
which he asks who looks but with the eye that 
seeth not \\.' hen i)enseIess the body lies, 
but I asked to give strength to thy feet; 80 must 
the slothful be goaded \vho are slo\v to use 
their waking hour when it returns." 
We were journeying on through the evening, 
straining our eyes forward, as far as we could, 
against the evening and shining rays; 
lnd lo,little by little,a smoke, dark as night, roHing 
to\vards us, nor any room was there to escape 
from it. This reft us of sight and the pure air. 
iphere), is compared to a skipping child, because in 
:he cours
 of the day its extremities on the horizon 



188 


NOTES 


play up and down, and the semi-circle above th 
horizon is now all north of the equator, now all south 
and now crossing it from north to south, or from sout] 
to north. At the equinox a quarter of it crosses th 
eastern horizon between sunrise and nine o'clock 
Dante tells us, therefore, that, at the moment of whid 
he is speaking, a quarter of it had to cross the westen 
horizon before sunset, i.
. it was three o'clock in th 
afternoon (here, in Italy, it was midnight, for Roma) 
time is nine hours later than Purgatory time, and ther 
it was Vespers, or 3 P.M. ; see above, Canto iii. 25-27 
not
 and diagrams on pp. 34 and 35)' 
7-9. The representations of the Mount of Purgator 
given in the editions of the Commedia usualJy depic 
the poets as having circled the whole mountain in th 
course of their journey. But this is erroneous. The' 
circle only the northern or sunny side, from east t. 
west. Here, towards the close of the day, they ar 
travelling almost due west, and are almost at th 
northern point of the mountain. 
38, 39. "Blessed are the merciful, for they sha] 
obtain mercy" (Matt. v. 7).- The words God; ill cl. 



CANTO XV 


18 9 


JlnCI are variously referred to Matt. v. 12.; Rom. 
die 2. I ; or Re#(}. ii. 7, 
44, 45. See the preceding canto, øvøv. 86, 87. 
85-93. Mary's words to the child Jesus, after he had 
'tarried behind in Jerusalem, and Joseph and his mother 

new not of it" See Luke ii. 43-50. 
94-105. Pisistratus Atheniensium t!/rannus [ca. 605-5Z7 
. c.], cum ado/escen.r quidam, amore þ/iæ ejus 'Virgin is 
ccensus, in publico oD'lJiam sib; foctam osculatus esset, hortante 
x ore, ut ah eo capitale suppliciu1ll stlmeret, respondit: "Si 
')s, qui nos a11l<lnt, interficimus, quid his faciemus, quihus odio 
!J1JillS.J> " (Valerius Maximus, Fact. et diet. memo vi. I.) 
'er
e 98 alludes to the strife between Minerva and 

eptune, as to which of them should name the city of 
uhens (see Ovid, Me/am. vi. 70 sqq.). 
106-114. The stoning of Stephen (Acts vii. 54-60). 
117. Dante recognised that the scenes which had 
assed before him were nlerely visions (errori), though 
isions of events that hall actually occurred in times 
one by (therefore, non falsi). 



PURGATORIO 


C LOSING his eyes against the gross and bitter fOl 
led by Virgil like a blind man, Dan te hears d 
harmonious and tender chant of the" Lamb of God 
arise from the lips of the once wrathful spirits (1-2.4 
One of them, who has heard Dante's conversation wit 
Virgil, questions him and turns back with him t 
hear his wondrous tale. The spirits in other eircl 
have recognised the special grace shown to Dante; 
his anticipated vision of unseen things; and to th 
grace Dante himself now appeals to win from his n
 
companion an account of himself, and directions 
to the journey; for meeting these souls circling fro 
west to east raises a doubt in his mind whether he at 
Virgil have been right in still following the sun (2. 
45). ,The spirit reveals himself as Marco Lombard 
refers, as other spirits had done, to the degeneracy 
the times, reassures Dante as to the course he is takit 
and Ï1nplores his prayers (46-51). Dante, \vhile givir 
him the required pledge, catches at this rene\ved insi
 
ance on the evil tÍ1nes, and asks 'whether it is due 
un favourable conjunctions in the heavens or to inhere 
degeneracy of earth (52.-63). Marco heaves a de, 
sigh at the blindness implit:d in such a question; 
if man 'were handed over helplessly to planeta 


Girone III Buio d' inferno e di notte privata 
d' ogni pianeta satto paver cielo, 
quant' esser può di Duvol tenebrata, 
non feee al visa mia sì grosso velo, 
come quel fun1n1o ch' ivi ei coperse, 
nè a sentir di così aspro peIo; 
chè l' occhio stare aperto non sofferse : 
onde ]a scorta mia saputa e fida 
n1Ï s' accostò, e l' omero n1' offerse. 
19 0 


". 


1 
Fe 



CANTO XVI 


influences! As if he had no free will and no direct 
dependence upon God, which may make him superior 
to all material influences! (64-81 ). The causes of 
degeneracy n1ust be sought on earth and will be found 
in the absence of any true governor who perceives 
at least the turrets of the true ci ty, and so can lead 
the guileless and impressionable souls of men on the 
right path. And this evil springs not from corrupt- 
ness of human nature in general, but from the worldli- 
ness and ambition of the clergy who have grafted the 
sword upon the crook, so that the two lights of the 
world that once shone in Rome have quenched each 
ather; and the temporal and spiritual powers, con. 
founded together, have ceased to guide and check each 
Jther. Hence the world is so degenerate that only 
three good old men remain as a rebuke to the living 

eneration (8Z-1 z9). Dante accepts the sad wisdom 
Jf Marco's discourse, only requesting a word of 
I)
r
nal explanation as to one of the three still sur. 
"iIJ 
g types of antique virtue; and thereon he begins 
,e tl
 the light struggle through the enveloping dark- 
:, 
nd and is told that the angel guardian of the next 
. ffis at hand (130-145). 
sh 
;, I \m of Hell and of a night bereft of every The 
Ït anet under a meagre sky, darkened by cloud wra
hful 
h. h . b Their 
muc as It can e, punishment 
The
 not to my sight so thick a veil, nor of a 
d4e so harsh to the feel, as that smoke which 
h lere covered us; . 
and t suffered not the eye to stay open: where- 
t1re nlY v/ise and trusty Escort closed up to 
ITe, and offered me his shoulder. 


19 1 



19 2 


PURGATORIO 


Girone III Sì come cieco va dietro a-sua guida 1: 
per non snlarrirsi, e per non dar di cozzo 
in cosa che il molesti 0 forse ancida : 
In' andava io per I' aere amaro e sozzo, 
ascoltando il olio duca che diceva 
pur: Guarda che da me tu non sie mozzo." 
10 sentia voci, e ciascuna pare va 
pregar, per pace e per misericordia, 
I' Agnel di Dio, che Ie peccata leva. 
Pure " Agnus Dei" eran Ie loro esordia ; 
una parola in tutti era ed un modo, 
sì che parea tra esse ogni concordia. 
" Quei sono spirti, maestro, ch' i' odo? " 
diss' io. Ed egli a nle: "Tu vero apprenc 
e d' iracondia van solvendo il nodo." 
" Or tu chi se', ehe il nostro fummo fendi, 
e di noi parli pur come se tue 
partissi aneor 10 tempo per ealendi ? " 
Così per una voce detto fue; 
onde it maestro nlio disse: "Rispondi, 
re] 
e domanda se quinci si va sue." :let 
Ed io: ." 0 creatura, che ti mondi, 
per tornar bella a eolui cbe ti fece, 
ta 
nlaraviglia udirai se mi seèondi." 
" 10 ti seguiterò quanto mi Ieee," 
rispose; "e se veder fummo non lascia, 
I' udir ci terrà giunti in quella vece." 
AHara inco111inciai: "Con quella fascia 1. 
che la morte dissol ve men vo suso, 
e venni qui per la infernale an1bascia ; j -.!. 
e, se Dio m' ha in sua grazia richiuso 1 
tanto, che vuol ch' io veggia la sua corte Fe 
per n10do tutto fuor del modern' uso, 



CANTO XVI 


193 



ven as a blind man goeth behind his guide in The 
order not to stray, and not to butt against aught wrathful 
that may do him hurt, or perchance kill hinl, 
o went I through the bitter and foul air, listen- 
ing to my Leader \vho was saying ever: 
" Look that thou be not cut off from me." 
[ heard voices, and each one seemed to pray for They chant 
peace and for nlercy, to the Lamb of God 
:nus Dei 
tbat taketh a\vay sins. 
Jnly "Agnus Dei" were their beginnings; one 
word ,vas with them all, and one measure; so 
that full concord seemed to be among them. 
, Are those spirits, Master, that I hear?" said 
I. And he to me: "Thou apprehend est 
truly, and they are untying the knot of anger." 
'Now V/ho art thou that cleavest our smoke, Marco 
and speakest of us even as if thou didst still Lombardo 
measure tinle by calends?" 
rhus by a voice \V3S said; \vherefore nlY 
- .' Master said: "Answer thou and ask if by 
vl1Jthis way we go up\vard." 

e.nd I: "0 creature that art cleansing thee to 

' return .f:1ir unto him who made thee, a marvel 
shalt thou hear if thou follow me." 
;, I \vill follow thee so far as is permitted nle," 
it answered, "and if the snloke lets us not see, 
hearing shall keep us in touch in its stead." 
Then began I: "'Vith those swathings which 
death dissolves I anl journeying upward and 
here did come through the anguish of Hell ; 
:lnd if God hath received llle so far into his grace 
that he wills that I may behold his court in a 
manner quite outside modern use, 
N 



194 


PURGATORIO 


Girone III non mi celar chi fosti anzi la morte, 
ma dilmi, e dimmi s' io vo bene aI varco ; 
e tue parole fien Ie nostre scorte." 
" Lombardo fuj, e fui chi.amato Marco; 
del mondo .
seppi, e quel valore amai 
aI q uale ha or ciascun disteso I' areo ; 
per mon tar su dirittamente vai." 
Così rispose; e soggiunse: "10 ti prego 
che per nle preghi, quando su sarai." 
Ed io a lui: "Per fede mi ti lego 
di far ciò che mi chiedi; ma io scoppio 
dentro a un dubbio, s' io non me ne spiego. 
Prima era scempio, ed ora è fatto doppio 
nella sentenza tua, che mi fa certo, 
qui ed altrove, quello ov' io l' accoppio. 
Lo mondo è ben così tutto diserto 
d' ogni virtute, come tu mi suone, 
e di malizia gravido e coperto ; 
ma prego che nl' additi la cagione, 
sì ch' io la veggia, e ch' io la mostri altrui : 
chè nel cielo uno, ed un quaggiù la pone." 
Alto sospir, che duolo strinse in "hui! " 
mise- fuor prima, e poi cominciò: "Frate, 
10 nlondo è cieco, e tu vien ben da lui. 
V oi che vivete ogni cagion recate 
pur suso al cieIo, sì come se tutto 
movesse seco di necessitate. 
Se così fosse, in voi fora distrutto 
libero arbitrio, e non fora giustizia 
per ben, letizia, e per male, aver lutto. 
1.0 cielo i vostri movimenti inizia ; 
non dico tutti, ma, posto ch'io il dica, 
lunle v' è dato a bene ed a malizia, 


. " 



CANTO XVI 


195 


ide not from me who thou wast before death, but The 
tell it me, and tell me if I am going aright for wrathful 
the pass; and thy words shall be our escort." Marco 
'A Lon1bard was I and was called Mark; I had 
knowledge of the world, and loved that worth 
at which now everyone hath unbent his bow; 
or mounting up thou goest aright." Thus 
answered he, and added: "I pray thee that 
thou pray for me, when thou art above." 
\.nd I to him: " By my faith I bind me to thee to Dant.e 
do that which thou askest of me, but I am burst- 
hi


:e 
ing within at a doubt, if I free me not from it. of vice 
iirst 'twas silnple, and now is made double by 
thy discourse, which makes certain to me, both 
here and elsewhere, that whereto I couple it. 
rhe \vorld is indeed so wholly desert of every 
virtue, even as thy words sound to me, and 
heavy and covered with sin; 
lut I pray that thou point the cause out to me, 
so that I may see it, and that I may sho\v it 
to others; for one places it in the heavens and 
another here belo\v." 
L\. deep sigh, which grief compressed to " Alas!" Marco's 
he first gave forth, and then began: "Brother, reply 
the \vorld is blind, and verily thou comestfron1 it. 
{e who are living refer every cause up to the ?tellar 
heavens alone, even as if they swept all with Influence 
them of necessity. 
v\r ere it thus, Free\viH in you would be destroyed, and 
and it wer
 not just to have joy for good and Freewill 

ome, tring for evil. 
have Uf"enS set your impulses in n1otion; I say 
one an, but suppose I said it, a light is given 
that to know good and evil, 



Girone I I I 


19 6 


PURGATORIQ 


e libero voler, che, se Fatica I 
nelle prime battaglie col ciel dura, 
poi vince tutto, se ben si nutrica. 
A maggior forza ed a miglior natura 
liberi soggiacete, e quelJa cria 
la mente in voi, che iI ciel non ha in sua cu 
Però, se i1 mondo presente disvia, 
in voi è la cagione, in voi si cheggia, 
ed io te DC sarò or vera spia. 
Esce di mano a lui, che la vagheggia 
prima che sia, a guisa di fanciuìla , 
che piangendo e ridendo pargoleggia, 
I' anima semplicetta, che sa nulla, 
salvo che, mossa da lieto fattore, 
volentier torna a ciò che la trastulla. 
Di picciol bene in pria sente sapore ; 
quivi s' inganna, e retro ad esso corre, 
se guida 0 fren non torce suo amore. 
Onde convenne Iegge per fren porre ; 
convenne J
ge aver, che discernesse 
della vera cittade almen la torre. 
Lc leggi son, ma chi pon mana ad esse? 
Nullo.: però che iJ pastor che precede 
ruminar può, ma non ha I' unghie fcsse., 
Per che la gente, che sua guida vede 
pure a quel ben ferire ond' ell' è ghiotta, 
di quel si pasce, e più oltre non chiede. 
Ben puoi veder che la mala condotta 
è la cagion che il nlondo ha fatto reo, 
e Don natura che in voi sia corrotta. 
Soleva Rama, che il buon m
ndo feo J 
due soli aver, che l' una e I' altra ftr2d; 
facean vcdere, e del filondo e di Deo. 


í 



CANTO XVI 


197 


I Id Freewill, which, if it endure the strain in its The 
first battlings with the heavens, at length gains wriJ,thful 
I 0 0 f . b 11 d Marco 
the who e vIctory, I It e we nurture. continues 
1 0 b .. Ii d his 
e Ie su 
ect, In your ree om, to a greater po\ver discourse 
and to a.better nature; and that creates in you 
I mind which the heavens have not in their charge. 
I 'herefore, if the world to-day goeth astray, in 
you is the cause, in you be it sought, and I 
now will be a true scout to thee therein. I 
rom his hands \vho fondly loves her ere she is 
in being, there issues, after the fashion of a little 
child that sports, now ,veeping, now laughing, 
Ie simple, tender soul, \vho knoweth naught save 
that, sprung from a joyous maker, willingly she 
turneth to that which delights her. 
irst she tastes the savour of a trifling good; 
there she is beguiled and runneth after it, if 
guide or curb turn not her love aside. 
vherefore 't\vas needful to put law as a curb, Spiritual 
needful to have a ruler who might discern at 

poral 
least the tower of the true city. power 
,aws there are, but who putteth his hand to thelTI? 
None; because the shepherd that leads may · 
che\v the cud, but hath not the hoofs divided. 
\Therefore the people, that see their guide aiming 
only at that good whereof he is greedy, feed 
on that and ask no further. 

learly canst thou see that evil leadership is the 
cause which hath made the world sinful, and 
not nature that may be corrupted within you. 

ome, that made the good world, was wont to 
I have two suns, which made plain to sight the 
one road and the other; that of the \\'orJd, and 
that of God. 



19 8 


PURGA TORIO 


Girone III L' un l' altro ha spento, ed è giunta 1a spada IC 
col pastorale; e l' un con }' altro insierne 
per viva forza mal convien che vada : 
però ehe, giunti, }' un }' altro non teme. 
Be non Ini eredi, pon mente alIa spiga, 
eh' ogni erba si conosee per 10 serne. 
In suI paese ch' Adige e Po riga 
solea valore e cortesia trovarsi, 
prima che Federico avesse briga; 
or può sicuramente indi passarsi 
per qualunque lasciasse per vergogna 
di ragionar coi buoni 0 d' appressarsi. 
Ben v' en tre vecchi ancora, in cui ranlpogna J:i! 
}' antica età la nuova, e par lor tardo 
che Dio a miglior vita Ii ripogna : 
Corrado da Palazzo e il buon Gherardo 
e Guido da Castel, che me' si noma 
franceseanlente il semplice Lombardo. 
Di' oggimai ehe la Chiesa di Roma, 
per confondere in sè due reggimenti, 
eade nel fango, e sè brutta e la soma." 
"0 Marco mio," diss' io, "bene argomenti; I
 
ed or discerno, perchè da retaggio 
Ii figIi di Levì furono esenti ; 
ma qual Gherardo è quel c
e tu, per saggio, I
 
di' eh' è rimaso del1a gente spenta, 
in rimproverio del seeol se} vaggio ? " 
" 0 1 ,. ,." 
tuo par ar m Inganna 0 e ml tenta, 
rispose a me; "ehè, par1andomi tosco, 
par che del buon G herardo nulla senta. 
Per altro soprannome io nol conosco, 
8' io nol togliessi da sua figlia Gaia. 
Dio sia eon voi, chè più non vegno vosco. 


IJ 


1] 


II 


I
 


I
 


I
 


I
 



CANTO XVI 


199 


One hath quenched the other; and the sword is The 
joined to the crook; and the one together with wrathful 
the other must perforce go ill; ( 
because, being joined, one feareth not the other. 
If thou believest me not, look wen at the ear, 
for every plant is known by the seed. 
Over the land which the Adige and the Po Marco 
water worth and courtes y were wont to be attributes 
, the cor- 
found, ere Frederick met opposition; ruption of 
. Lombardy 
now, safely may It be traversed by \vhomsoever 
had, through shame, ceased to hold converse 
with good men, or to draw near them. 
Truly three elders yet are there in whom the olden 
times rebuke the ne\v, and it seems to them 
long ere God removes them to the better life: 
Corrado da Palazzo, and the good Gerard, and 
Guido da Castel, who is better named in 
French fashion the guileless Lombard. 
Say henceforth, that the Church of Rome, by to Rom
's 
confounding two powers in herself, falls into 
:
h
abon 
the mire, and fouls herself and her burden." temporal 
"0 my Mark," said I, "wéll thou reasonest, power 
and no\v I perceive why Levi's sons were 
exempt from inheriting; 
but what Gerard is that, who thou sayest is left Ge
ard and 
behind for ensample of the extinct people, in Gala 
reproof of the barbarous age?" 
"Either thy speech beguiles me, or it tempts me," 
he answered me, "for thou, speaking to me in 
Tuscan, seemest to know naught of the good 
Gerard. 
By other surname I know hin1 not, except I 
take it from his daughter Gaia. God be with 
you, for no further I come with you. 



200 


PURGA TORIO 


Girone II I Vedi l' albòr, che per 10 fummo raia, 14 2 
già biancheggiare, e me convien partirmi, 
l' angelo è ivi, prima ch' io gli appaia." 
Così tornò, e più non voIle udirmi. 145 


17- 1 9. See JOhfl i. z9; though the reference here is 
rather to the prayer in the Mass-Agnus Dei qui tol/iJ 
peccata mundi, miserere nobis, dona nohis pacem. 
Z5 sqq. The speaker is Marco Lombardo, of Venice: 
a learned and honourable courti
r, noted for hh 
liberality, who flourished in the latter haif of the 13th 
century. . 
z7. As though thou wert still alive. In the eternal 
regions human measurements of time do not apply. 
37. Con que/fa fascia, i.e. with my body. 
4 z . tuttofuor del modern' uso. See Inf. ii. 13-30. 
80. The free will by its nature seeks good (Par. 
X xxiii. I G 3, &c.), and since God is the suprenle good: 
the free agent is subject to him in the sense that th{ 
whole course of his action is determined by him as i t
 
goal. But this determination of the will to good h 
the fulfilment, not the restrictions of liberty. The ideei 
is familiar to us from the words of the Prayer Book: 
. . . "whose service is perfect freedom." 
97. See above, Canto vi. 88-90, note. 
9 8 , 99. "Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them 
that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: a
 
the camel, be<..ause he cheweth the cud, but divided' 
r.ot the hoof; he is unclean unto you" (Lecv. xi. 4). 
According to Thomas Aquinas the" chewing of tht 
cud" signifies meditation and l1nderstandhl 6 ' of thf 
Scriptures; while the "cloven hoof" stands for thf 
po\ver to discern and di.-tinguish between certain sacrec 
things-here used apparently of the spiritual and 
temporal po\ver (which are, of course, not mentioned 
by Aquinas). 



CANTO XVI 


201 


I ee the light, that beams through the smoke, now The 
. b . h h 1 . h d . wrat.hful 
waxing ng t; t e ange IS t ere, an It 
behoves me to depart ere I am seen of hin1." 
So turned he back and no more would hear me. 


115- 11 7. Lombardy, or, in the wider sense, Upper 
aly-a veritable hot-bed of dissension, by reason of 
le struggle between the Emperor Frederick II. and 
Ie Pope. 
1%4-12.6,133-140. Currado da Palazz rt , a Guelf of 
rescia, Vicar for Charles of Anjou at Florence (12.76), 
odestà of Siena (11.79) and of Piacenza (I %88). 
Gherardo da Cammino, Captain-General of 1-'reviso 
'om 12.83 till his death in 1306 (when he was suc- 

eded by his son Riccardo; see Par. ix. 50 sqq.). 
'he commentators differ as to whether his daughter 

aia ('V. 140), who died in 13 I I, 'was renowned for 
er virtue or notorious for her loose Inorals; probably 
1e latttr is the correct interpretation. Dante once 
gain takes Gherardo as a type of nobility in the 

OIl'V. iv. 14: 114- I 23. 
Guido da Castel was a gentleman of Treviso, famed 
)r his bounty and hospitality. Some think that 
. 126 refers to the fact that the French called all 
:alians LomDart; but Guido was a Lombard, so that 
here would be no point in this unless we lay the 
tress on the umplia, and assume that he was known 
o them as " the simp/
 Italian." Mr Toyn bee's theory, 
hat seml/ice L'Jmbardo .= "honest usurer." is ingenious; 
he French often used the appellation Lomhart for 
; usurer," and so this nickname might have been 
,Iayfully given to Guido, with reference to his 
'enero
ity. Guido is alluded to in the Con'lJ. iv. 16: 
'7-74, by way of contrast with the Asdente of lrif. 

x. 1 18. J 


131, 132.
 So that they might confine themselves 
o spiritual atfJirs. See Num. xviii. %0, Deut. xviii. 
" Josh. xiii. 14; and if. De 1'v.lon. iii. 13, 64-76. 



PURGATORIO 


A s the mists cleave on a mountain side and reve 
the prospect, so the cloud that swathed tl 
wrathful opened, and the poets looked on the settir 
sun, as the shadow of night was already creeping 1 
the slope (I -1 z). Visions of the wrathful, correspondir 
to the visions of the placable and peaceful already see} 
come upon Dante (13.39); from which he is awakent 
by the shining light and the glad summons of t1 
angel of the stair, to whose spontaneous invitation tl 
poets gladly respond (40-63). On the first step Dan 
feels again the stroke of the angel's wing and hea 
the blessing of the peace-makers. But already, wht 
they reach the summit of the stair, the shadow h: 
passed beyond them, the rays of the sun fall only (J 
the higher reaches of the mount, and in accordan( 
with the law of the place they can rise no hight 
while night reigns (64-,8). After listening in vain f( 
any sound in the new circle, Dante questions his guiè 
as to the nature of the offence purged there. Virg 
answers that it is sloth, and takes occasion to expOUD 
the general system of Purgatory. Not only the Creato) 
but every creature also, is moved by love. Natur
 
10Te, as that of heavy bodies for the centre, of fire fc 
the circumference, or of plants for their natural habitat 
is unerring; but rational love may err by being mis 


Girone III Ricorditi, lettor, se mai nell' alpe 
ti colse nebbia, per la qual vedcssi 
non altrimenti che per pelle talpe, 
come, quando i vapori umidi e spessi 
a diradar cominciansi, ]a spera 
del sol debi]emente entra per essi: 
e fia 1a tua imagine leggiera 
in giugnere a veder, com' io rividi 
10 sole in pria, che già nel corcare era. 
202 



OANTO XVI:L 


irected; or by being disproportionate, by defect or 
xcess. Love directed to primal and essential good, 
r to secondary good in due measure, cannot lead to 
,n; but perverse and disproportioned love is the seed 
f all sin, jUit as much as rightly directed and measured 
)ve is the seed of all virtue. A human being who has 
ot become a monster cannot love (that is, cannot be 
rawn towards and take delight in) evil to himself or 
e vii to the God on whom his very being depends. All 
lerverse rejoicing, then, must be rejoicing in the ill of 
ur neighbour, and this may be caused by pride, envy, 
,r anger, which are purged on the three circles already 
lassed (79-116). Apart from these evil gratifications, 
) veryone ha
 at least some confused apprehension of a 

 upreme good wherein the soul can rest, and everyone 
herefore seeks to gain it. But this supreme love, 
vhich is no other than the love of God, may err by 
lefect, either speculative or practical; and the slothful 
vho have thus erred recover their lost tone in the circle 
he pilgrims have now reached (12,7- I 32,). The inno- 
:ent or needful enjoyment of which the bodily frame is 
l .he seat, cannot confer true bliss and may be pursued 
N'ith disproportionate keenness, or in neglect of the 
livinely imposed restraints. Such sins are purged in 
:he three uppermost circles. (133- 1 39). 
Reader, if ever in the mountains a mist hath caught The 
thee, through which thou sawest not otherwise wrathful 
than moles do throu g h the skin, remen1ber :r he p:>et t s b 
Issue lor 
how, when the damp and dense va p ours be g in to fr?m the 
I f mist 
me t away, the sphere 0 the sun enters feebly 
through them: 
and thy fancy will lightly come to see how 
first I beheld the sun again, tbat now ,vas at 
the setting. 


20 3 



20 4 


PURGATORIO 


. 
Girol1e III 81, pareggiando i miei co' passi fidi 
del mio maestro, uscii fuor di tal nube, 
ai raggi, rnorti già nei bassi lidi. 
o immaginativa, che ne rube 
tal volta sì di fuor, ch' uom non s' accorge, 
perchè d' }ntorno suonin Inille tube, 
chi move te, s
 il sensa non ti porge? 
Moveti lume, che nel ciel s' informa 
per sè, 0 per voler che giù 10 scorge. 
Dell' empiezza di lei, che mutò fortTIa 
nell' uccel che a cantar più si diletta, 
nell' imagine mia apparve l' orma; 
e qui fu la mia n1ente sì ristretta 
dentro da sè, ch
 di fuor non venia 
cosa che Fosse a110r da lei recetta. 
Poi piovve dentrú all' alta fantasia 
un crocifisso, qispettoso e fiero 
nel1a sua vista, e cotal si n1oria. 
Intorno ad esso era il grande Assuero, 
Ester sua sposa e il giusto Mardocheo, 
che fu al dire ed al far così intero. 
E come questa imagine rompeo 
sè per sè stessa, a guisa d' una bulla 
cui manca l' acqua sotto qual si feo, 
Burse in mia visione una fan ciulla, 
piangendo forte, e cliceva: "0 regina, 
perchè per ira hai v01uto esser nulla? 
Ancisa t' hai per non percler Lavina; 
or m' hai perduta; io son essa che Iutto, 
madre, alla tua pria ch' alJ' altrui ruina." 
Come si frange il sonno, ove di butto 
nuova luce percote il viso chiuso, 
che Fratto guizza pria che moia tutto : 


J 


I 


I 


I' 



 


:2 


2. 


21 


3
 


3 


3'; 


4 C 



CANTO XVII 


20 5 


k 0, measuring mine with the trusty steps of nJY The 
Master, I issued forth from such a cloud, to wrathful 
the rays already dead on the low shores. 
13 ) fantasy, that at tinles dost so snatch us out of Examples 
I 1 . f 1 of wrath- 
ourse yes t lat we are conSCIOUS 0 nang 1t, even . 
though a thousand trumpets sound about us, 
16 rho nloves thee, if the senses set naught before 
thee? A light moves thee which takes its 
fonn in heaven, of itself, or by a will that 
sendeth it down. 
rhe traces of her in1piety, who changed her forn1 Procne 
into the bird that most delights to sing, 'ap- 
peared in my fan cy ; I 
.nd here my mind ,vas so restrained within itself, 
that fi'onl outside came naught vlhich was then 
received by it. 
fhen feU \vithin my lofty fantasy one crucified, Haman 
scornful and fierce in n1Ïen, and even so was 
he dying. 
Round about him were the great Ahasuerus, 
Esther his \vife, and the just Mordecai, who 
in speech and deed was so sincere. 
And as this L'lncy broke of itself, after the fashion 
of a bubble to which the water fails wherein 
it was made, 
there arose in my vision a maiden weeping sorely, Amata 
and she \vas saying: "0 Queen, \vherefore 
through wrath hast thou willed to be naught? 
Thou hast slain thee not tù lose Lavinia; now 
me hast thou lost; I am she that mourn, 
nlother, for thy ruin rather than for another's." 
As sleep i
 broken when on a sudden ne\v light 
strikes on the closed eyes, and being broken, 
quivers ere it \
. holly dies av:ay ; 



206 


PURGATORIO 


Girone III COSl l' imaginar rnio cadde giuso, 
tosto ch' un lume il volta mi percosse, 
maggiore assai che quello ch' è in nostr' use 
10 n1Ï volgea per vedere ov' io fosse, 
quand' una voce disse: "Qui si nlonta," 
che da ogni altro intento mi rimosse ; 
e fece la rnia voglia tanto pronta 
di riguardar chi era che parlava, 
che lnai non posa, se non si raffronta. 
Ma cOlne al sol, che nostra vista grava, 
e per soperchio sua figura vela, 
così la mia virtù quivi mancava. 
" Questi è divino spirito, che ne la 
via d' andar su ne drizza senza prego, 
e col suo lume sè medeS010 cela. 
Sì fa can noi, come l' uom si fa sego : 
chè quale aspetta prego, e l' uopo vede, 
malignamente già si mette al nego. 
Ora accordiamo a tanto invito il piede : 
procacciam di salir pria che 5' abbui, 
chè poi non si poria, se il dl non riede." 
Salita al Così disse il mio duca, ed io con lui 
Girone IV volgemmo i nostri passi ad una scala; 
e tosto ch' io al primo grado fui, 
senti' mi presso quasi un mover d'ala, 
e ventarmi nel visa, e dir: u Reali I 
pacijici, che son senza ira mala." 
Già eran sopra noi tanto levati 
gli ultimi raggi che la notte segue, 
che Ie stelle appari van da più lati. 
"0 virtù mia, perchè si ti dilegue ? " 
fra me stesso dicea, chè mi sentiva 
la possa delle gambe posta in tregue 



CANTO XVII 


2 0 7 


>> my imagination fell down soon as a light smote The 
L. c. h h h o h 0 0 Angel of 
on my lace, greater lar t an t at w IC IS In Meekness 
our use. 
turned me to see v/here I was, when a voice 
which removed me from every other intent, 
said: "Here one ascends" ; 
ld it gave my desire to behold who it was that 
spake, such eagerness as never rests until it sees 
face to face. 
,ut, as at the sun which oppresses our sight, and 
veils his form by excess, so my virtue there 
was failing me. 
This is a divine spirit, that directs us to the 
way of ascent without our prayer, and conceals 
itself \vith its o\vn light. 
t doeth unto us as a man doth unto himself; for 
he who awaits the prayer and sees the need, 
already sets him unkindly towards denial. 
r ow accord we our feet to such an invitation; 
strive \\'e to ascend ere the night cometh, for 
then we could not until the day return." 
'hus spake my Leader, and I with hinI did 

 turn our footsteps to a stairway; and soon as 
l I was at the first step. 
ear me I felt as 'twere the stroke of a wing, and The third 
c. c. d d h d B 0 Beatitude 
my lace lanne , an ear one say: " eatt 
pacifici who are without evil wrath." 
Tow \vere the last rays whereafter night follow- S.econ
 
h e. b h I mght In 
et so far nsen a ove us t at t L Ie stars were Purgatory 
appearing on many sides. 
o my virtue, wherefore dost thou pass a\va y 
from nle thus?" I said within me, for I felt 
the power of my legs put in truce. 



208 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV N oi eravam dove più non saliva 
1a scala su, ed eravamo affissi, 
pur come nave ch' alla piaggia arriva ; 
ed io attesi un poco s' io udissi 11 
alcuna cosa nel nuovo girone; 
poi mi volsi al maestro nlio e dissi: 
"Dolce Inio padre, di', quale offensione 
si purga qui nel giro, dove semo ? 
Se i piè si stanno, non stea tuo sf'rmone." 
Ed egli a Tne: "L' amor del bene, scemo 
di suo dover, quiritta si ristora, 
qui si ribatte il mal tardato remo. 
Ma perchè più aperto intendi ancora, 
volgi la mente a me, e prenderai 
alcun buon frutto di nostra dimora." 
" Nè creator nè creatura nlai," 
conlincið ei, "6gliuol, fu senza an1ore, 
o naturale 0 d' animo; e tu il sai. 
L 0 natural è sempre senza ('rrore, 
 
ma l' altro puote errar per olalo obbietto, 
o per poco 0 per troppo di vigore. 
Mentre çh' egli è ne' primi ben diretto, 
e ne'''secondi sè stesso misura, 
esser non può cagion di mal diletto ; 
ma, quando al mal si torce, 0 con più cura 
o con Olen che non dee corre nel bene, 
contra il fattore adopra sua fattura. 
Quinci con1prender puoi ch' esser conviene 
anlor sementa in voi d' ogni virtute, 
e d' ogni operazion che merta pene. 
Or, perchè mai non può dalla salute 
amor del suo suggetto torcer viso, 
dall' odio proprio son Ie cose tute; 



CANTO XVII 


209 


Ve stood where the stairway ascended no higher, The 
and were fixed even as a ship which arrives slothful 
on the shore: 
nd I gave heed awhile if I might hear aught in 
the new circle; then did turn me to my 
Master and said: 
. Sweet n1Y Father, tell, \vhat offence is purged 
here in the circle where we are? If our feet 
are stayed, stay not thy discourse." 
\.nd he to me: "The love of good scant 'of its 
duty, just here restores itself; here is pli
d 
again the ill-slackened oar. 

ut that thou mayest understand yet more 
plainly, turn thy mind to me, and thou shalt 
take some good fruit from our tarrying." 
Ie began: "Nor Creator, nor creature, Iny 
irgil 
. . d1scourses 
son, was ever without love, eIther natural or of Love 
rational; and this thou knowest. 
, 'hc natural is always without error; but the 
I other nlay err through an evil object, or 
through too little or too much vigour. I 
9 1 Vhile it is directed to the primal goods, and in 
the secondary, nloderates itself, it cannot be 
the cause of sinful delight; 
o ut when it is turned awry to evil, or speeds 
to\vards the good with more or less care than 
it ought, against the Creator his creature works. 
Ience thou ß1ayst understand that love must be 
the seed of every virtue in you, and of every 
deed that deserves punishnlent. 
I Tow inasmuch as love can never turn its face 
from the \veal of its subject, all things are safe 
from self-hatred; 


o 



210 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV e perchè intender non si può diviso, 
e per sè stante, alcuno esser dal primo, 
da quel10 odiare ogni affetto è deciso. 
Resta, se dividendo bene estimo, 
che il mal che s' ama è del prossimo, ed ess 
alTIOr nasce in tre modi in vostro limo. 
, 
E chi per esser suo vicin soppresso 
spera ecceHenza, e sol per q':!esto brama 
ch' e' sia di sua grandezza in basso messo ; 
è chi podere, grazia, onore e fama 
teme di perder perch' altri sormonti, 
onde s' attrista sì che il contrario ama ; 
ed è chi per ingiuria par ch' adonti 
sì che si fa della vendetta ghiotto, 
e tal convien che il male altrui in1pronti. 
Questo triforme amor quaggiù di sotto 
si piange; or vo' che tu dell' a1tro intende, 
che corre al ben con ordine corrotto. 
Ciascun confusamente un bene apprende, 
nel qual si queti l' animo, e disira: 
per che di giugner lui ciascun contende. 
Se lento aITIore in lui veder vi tira, 
o a lui acquistar, questa cornice, 
dopo giusto penter, ve ne martira. 
Altro ben è che non fa I' uon1 felice; 
non è felicità, non è la buona 
essenza, d' ogni ben frutto e radice. 
L' amor, ch' ad esso troppo s' abbandona, 
di sopra noi si piange per tre cerchi ; 
ma come tripartito si ragiona, 
tacciolo, acciocchè tu per te ne cerchi." 
1-77.. See diagram on page 103. 
I 8. Through the influence of the stars, or 
Divin
 will. 



I 
nd because no being can be conceived as exist- The 
ing alone in isolation fronl the Prime Being, slQthful 
every affection is cut off from hate of him. 
t follows, if I judge well in my division, that Perverted 
the evil we love is our neighbour's, and this Love- 
love arises in three ways in your clay. 
I 'here is he who through his neighbour's abase- Pride 
ment hopes to excel, and soleJy for this 
desires that he be cast down from his greatness ; 
lere is he who fears to lose power, favour, honour Envy 
and fame because another is exalted, wherefore 
he groweth sad so that he loves the contrary; 
ad there is he who seems to be so shamed through and Wrath 
being \vronged, that he becomes greedy of ven- 
geance, and such must needs seek another's hurt. 

his threefold Jove down below is mourned for: 
now I desire that thou understand of the other, 
which hastes toward good in faulty degree. 
:ach one apprehends vaguely a good wherein the 
mind may find rest, and desires it; \vherefore 
each one strives to attain thereto. 
! f lukewarm love draw you towards the vision Defective 
of it or the gaining of it, this cornice, after 


h- 
due penitence, torments you for it. 
. 
nother good there is, which maketh not men Excessive 
happy; 'tis not happiness, 'tis not the good Love- 
essence, the fruit and root of aU good. 

he love that abandons itself too much to this, is Avarice, 
mourned for above us in three circ!es: but ho\\r 

dtt>:
 
it is distinguished in three divisions, I do not 
say, in order that thou search for it of thyself." 


CANTO XVII 


211 


19-11. Procne's husband, Tereus, di
honoured her 
ster Philomela, and cut out her tongue, so as to 



212 


NOTES 


ensure her silence. The injured girl, ho\-vever, iJ 
parted to her sister the knowledge of what h 
happened by means of a piece of tapestry; \-vherèup 
Procne, in a frenzy, sle\v her son Itys, and ßl3 
'I'erells unwittingly partake of his flesh at tab 
On discovering the truth he pursued the sisters wi 
an axe, bent on slaying them; but at their prayer 
three were changed into birds. According to O. 
(.ß,fet. vi. 412-676), whom Dante follo\-vs, Pro( 
becClme a nightingale, and Philomela a s\vallo,,' (: 
above, Canto ix. 14, 15). 
25-30. See Esther iii.-vÏi. Ahasuerus, King of t 
Persians, advanced Haman to high honours, till t 
latter 'vas accused by Esther of having designs on t 
life of Mordecai. "So they hanged Haman on t 
gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then v 
the king's \vrath pacified" (/.c., vii. 10). 
34-39' Lavinia, daughter of Latinus and Amd 
was first betrothed to Turnus, and then promh 
to Æneas; whereupon hostilities broke out bet
lt 
the tv.ro heroes. In the course of these. Amata (w 



CANTO XVII 


21 3 


as opposed to tlH
 marriage with Æneas), thinking 
.at Turnus 'was killed (though, in point of fact, he 
as not yet slain) hanged herself in a frenzy of 
'
pair (Æn. xii. 595 .rqq.). 
62, 63. See above, Canto vii. 44, 53- 60 . 
68, 69. "Blessed are the peace-makers: for they 
,all be called the children of God" (J.Vlatt. v. 9.). 
9 1 - 1 39. A careful study oÎ the Argument, and of 
.e 8econd paragraph in the" Note on Dante's Purga- 
.ry" at the close of this volume, will make this 
1portant passage clear. See, too, Gardner, pp. 107 
ad 1 10. 


Llmore d' animo (vv. 92, 93) = conscious dèsire
 as dis- 
nguished from the unconscious trend of inanimate 

ings [both of which impulses are rt'garded as 
love ".1; with these lines if. C!Jnv. iii. 3, and Par. i., 
pecial1y V'll. I I 8-120.-ne' primi ben (v. 97), to"vards 
od and virtue; ne' secondi ('V. 98). to\vards 'worldly 
)odf.'. 



PURGATORIO 


VIRGIL'S discourse has suggested to Dante's mint 
the question as to the nature of love which th. 
group of poets to which he belonged were incessantl: 
discussing. Would Virgil resent as irrelevant 0 
flippant a question on this subject? Or might hi 
(Dante) take this unique opportunity of learning th. 
true answer? (1-6). Virgil encourages his question 
and then proceeds to answer it. Love implies ; 
potential attraction to the loved object. When first i 
is presented to the mind, the mind sways towards it 
and then the experience of delight in communion wit1 
it confirms the original attraction; and the desire thu 
waked can only be stilled by fruition. Thus, whil 
the capacity for love, that is to say, sensitiveness ÍJ 
general, is the sign of a higher organism, and therefor 
good, it is a profound misconception to regard ever: 
act of love as itself good, since love ot some sort is th 
root of all evil as of all good conduct (7-39). Dant. 
follows keenly; but this universality of love as ; 
motive power, this necessity of the presentation fron 
without of its object, and this spontaneous respons. 
of the corresponding and pre-existing latent impuls 
within, seem to obliterate all merit or demerit (40-4S
 
Virgil refers to Beatrice for the final answer, but de:: 
elares meanwhile that every human soul has a certai] 
intellectual and emotional constitution (for which i 
deserves neither praise nor blame) in virtue of which i 
cannot help believing the supreme truths (the axioms 


Girone IV Posto avea fine al suo ragionamento 
l' alto dottore, ed attento guardava 
nella mia vista, s' io pare a contento; 
ed io, cui nuova sete ancor frugava, 
di fuor taceva e dentro dicea: "F orse 
10 troppo domandar, ch'io fo, gli grava." 
21 4 



OANTO XVIII 


ld loving the supreme good (God). Intellectual 
lerit begins when we refuse to believe things that 
resent themselves to us with a specious appearance of 
.uth but cannot really be affiliated to the axioms. 
..nd so moral meri t begins when we refuse to love and 
>llow things that are speciously attractive but cannot 
e affiliated to the love of God. It is not in loving 

od, then (which is natural to man), but in rejecting all 
npulses which do not harmonise with that love that 
lan's moral freedom vindicates itself; and it is therein 
J.at his merit consists (46-75.) It is now near mid. 
ight; the moon has been some hours above the hori- 
on, but being well advanced in Scorpio, she has risen 
Juth of east, and has therefore not yet been visible to 
he poets who are facing due north, and who command 
o portion of the southern semi-circle of the horizon; 
ow she emerges from behind the mountain (76-81). 
)ante is dropping into a contented slumber, when he is 
e-a wakened by the rush of the once slothful souls; 
vho will not suspend their act of penance even in 
,rder to secure the prayers of the living which would 
lasten the fruits of their penitence; so they shout 
heir directions and their answers to the questions 
hey have been asked, together with the rehearsal of 
'ncouraging and warning examples, as they hurry past 
82- 1 3 8 .) Then Dante sinks through a succession of 
'hanging thoughts into dream and sleep (139- 1 45). 


rhe lofty Teacher had put an end to his The 
argument, and was looking intent in my face, slothful 
if 1 seemed satisfied; 
lnd I, whom a new thirst was yet tormenting, was 
silent outwardly, and within said; "Perchance 
the too great questioning which I make irks hin1." 
211) 



216 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV Ma quel padre verace, che s' accorse 
del timido voler che non s' apriva, 
parlando di parlare ardir mi porse. 
Ond' io: "Maestro, il mio veder s' avviva 
sì nel tuo lume, ch' io discerno chiaro 
quanto la tua ragion porti 0 descriva ; 
però ti prego, dolce padre caro, 
che n1Ï dimostri amore, a cui riduci 
ogni buono operare e il suo contraro." 
"Drizza," disse, "ver nle l' acute luci 
dello intelletto, e fieti manifesto 
l' error dei ciechi che si fanno duci. 
L' animo, ch' è creato ad amar presto, 
ad ogni cosa è mobile che piace, 
tosto che dal piacere in atto è desto. 
V ostra apprensiva da esser verace 
tragge intenzione, e dentro a voi la spiega, 
sì che l' anin10 ad essa volger face. 
Ese, ri volto, in ver di lei si piega, 
quel piegare è amor, queIJo è natura 
che per piacer di nuovo in voi si lega. 
Poi Con1e il foco movesi in altura, 
per la sua forma, ch' è nata a salire 
là dove più in sua materia dura: 
così I' animo preso entra in disire, 
ch' è Inota spiritale, e mai non posa 
fin che ]a cosa anlata il fa gioire. 
Or ti puote apparel' quant' è nascosa 
la verirade alIa gente, ch' avvera 
ciascuno amore in sè laudabil cosa; 
p{:arò che forse appar 1a sua matera 
sempr' esser buona; ma non ciascun segno 
è buono, ancor che buona sia la cera." 


I 


I 


II 


I! 


2: 


2
 


2f 


3] 


34Q 


37 



CANTO XVIII 


217 


lut that true Father, who perceived the shrink- The 
ing desire which disclosed not itself, by slothful 
speaking put courage in me to speak. 
,Therefore I: "Master, my vision is so quick- 
ened in thy light, that I discern clearly al1 
that thy discourse imports or describes; 
1erefore I pray thee, sweet Father dear, that 
thou define love to me, to which thou dost 
reduce every good work and its opposite." 
; Direct," said he, "towards me the keen eyes VirgU 
of the understanding, and the error of the blind 
h
N
ture 
V/ho make them guides shall be manifest to thee. of Love 

he mind which is created quick to love, is 
responsive to everything that is pleasing, soon 
as by pleasure it is awakened into activity. 
Tour apprehensive faculty draws an in1pression 
from a real object, and unfolds it \vithin you, 
so that it makes the mind turn thereto. 
\..nd if, being turned, it inclines to\vards it, that 
inclination is love; that is nature, which 
through pleasure is bound anew \vithin you. 
rhen, even as fire moves up
.vard by reason of 
its form, whose nature it is to ascend, there 
where it endures longest in its material; 
o the enamoured mind falls to desire, ,vhich is 
a spiritual nlovement, and never rests until the 
object of its love nlakes it rejuice. 

ow nJay be apparent to thee, ho\v deeply the 
truth is hidden from the folk who aver that 
every act of love is in itself a laudable thing, 
)ecause, forsooth, its nlaterial nlay seem always 
to be good; but not every inlprint is good, 
a]beit the wax may be go
'd." 



218 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV " Le tue parole e il mio seguace ingegno," 4 
risposi lui, "m' hanno amor discoperto ; 
ma ciò m' ha fatto di dubbiar più pregno: 
chè, 5' amore è di fuori a noi offerto 4 
e }' anima non va con altro piede, 
se dritta 0 torta va, non è suo merto." 
Ed egli a me: "Quanto ragion qui vede 4 
dirti poss' io; da indi in là t' aspetta 
pure a Beatrice, ch' opera è di fede. 
Ogni forma sustanzial, che setta 4 
è da materia ed è con lei unita, 
specifica virtude ha in sè colletta, 
la qual senza operar non è sentita, 5 
nè si dimostra ma' che per effetto, 
come per verdi fronde in pian ta vita. 
Però là onde vegna 10 intelletto 5 
deJIe prime notizie, uomo non sape, 
nè de' primi appetibili }' affetto, 
che sono in voi, 51 come studio in ape 5; 
di far 10 mele; e questa prima voglia 
merto di lode 0 di biasmo non cape. 
Or, perchè a q uesta 0 gni altra si racco glia, 6: 
innata v' è 1a virtù che consiglia, 
edell' assenso de' tener la soglia. 
Questo è il principio, là onde si piglia 6. 
ragion di meritare in voi, secondo 
che buoni e rei amori accoglie e viglia. 
Color che ragionando andaro al fondo 6
 
8' accorser d' esta innata libertate, 
però moralità lasciaro al mondo. 
Onde, pognao1 che di necessitate 7 C 
surga ogni aOlor che dentro a voi s' accende, 
di ritenerlo è in voi la potestate. 



CANTO XVIII 


21 9 


I Thy words and my attendant wit," I answered The 
h o h d I 1 0 b h slothful 
1m," ave ma e ove pain to me, ut t at 
has made me more teeming \vith doubt; 
)r if love is offered to us from without, and the 
soul \valks with no other foot, it is no merit 
of hers whether she go straight or crooked." 
f Lnd he to me: "So far as reason sees here, I Virgil 
. treats of 
can tell thee; from beyond that pOint, ever Love and 
await Beatrice, for 'tis a matter of faith. Freewill 
I r 
very substantial form, which is distinct from 
matter and is in union with it, has a specific 
virtue contained within itself 
rhich is not perceived save in operation, nor is 
manifested except by its effects, just as life in 
a plant by the green leaves. 

herefore man knows not whence the uncler- 
I standing of the first cognitions nlay come, nor 
the inclination to the prime objects of appetite, 
vhich are in you, even as the instinct in bees to 
make honey; and this prinle will admits no 
desert of praise or of blame. 

 ow in order that to this will every other may 
be related, innate \vith you is the virtue which 
giveth counsel, and ought to guard the thres- 
hold of assent. 
rhis is the principle whence is derived the reason 
of desert in you, according as it garners and 
winnows good and evil loves. 
fhose who in their reasoning went to the 
foundation, perceived this innate freedom, 
therefore they left ethics to the world. 
Wherefore suppose that every love which is 
kindled \vithin you arise of necessity, the 
power to arrest it is within you. 



220 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV La nobiJe virtù Beatrice intende 
per 10 libero arbitrio, e però guarda 
che l' abbi a mente, s' a padar ten prende." 
La luna, quasi a mezza notte tarda, 
facea Ie stelle a noi parer più rade, 
fatta com' un secchione che tutto arda ; 
e correa contra iI ciel, per queUe strade 7 
che il sole infiamma allor che quel da Roma 
tra i Sardi e i Corsi il vede quando cade. 
E quell' ofilbra gentiJ, per cui si noma 
Pietola più che vi]]a Mantovana, 
del mio carcar deposto avea la son1a: 
per ch' io, che la ragione aperta e piana 
sopra Ie mie questioni avea ricolta, 
stava con}' uom che soonolento vana. 
Ma quest a sonnolenza mi fu tolta 
subitamente da gente, che dopo 
Ie nostre spalle a noi era già volta. 
E quale Ismeno già vide ed Asopo 
lungo di sè di notte Furia e calca, 
pur c he i 1'eban di Bacco avesser uopo : 
cota} per quel giron suo passo falca, 
per quel ch' io vidi di color, venendo, 
cui buon volere e giusto amor cavalca. 
"r osto fur sopra noi, perchè correndo 
si movea tutta queHa turba Inagna; 
e due dinanzi gridavan piangendo: 
" !vf:tria corse con fretta alIa nlontagna," 
e: "Cesare, per soggiogare Ilerda, 
punse Marsilia e poi corse in Ispagna." 
" Ratto, ratto, che il tempo non si perda 
per poco arnor," gridavan gli altri appresso, 
" che studio di ben far grazia rinverda.." 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9' 


9: 


10< 


10 3 



CANTO XVIII 


221 


3y the noble virtue Beatrice understands FreewilJ, The 
and therefore, look that thou have this in mind, slothful 
if she betake her to speak with thee thereof." 
I fhe moon, almost retarded to midnight, made 
the stars appear n10re thin to us, fashioned 
like a bucket all burnir.g ; 
.nd hf'r course against the heavens \vas on those 
paths which the sun inflames, when they in 
Ron1e see him between the Sardinians and the 
Corsicans at his setting. 

nd that noble shade through ,vhom Pietola is 
nlore reno\vned than élny Mantuan town, had 
put off the burden I had laid upon him ; 

vherefore I, who had garnered clear and plain 
reasons to my questionings, stood like one 
who is rambling drowsily. 
But this drowsiness was taken from me on a 
sudden, by people VJho behind our backs had 
already come round to us. 
A.nd eve
 as Ismenus and Asopus saw of old a The.ir 
fury and a rout along their banks by night, if pun1shment 
but the T hebans had need of Bacchus, 
>uch\vise .along that circle, quickening their pace, 
,v ere cOIning, by y;hat I saw of them, those 
whom good will and just love bestride. 
Soon ,,,,ere they upon us, because all that great Examples 
throng was moving at a run; and two in front of zeal- 
were shouting in tears: 
;, Mary ran with haste to the hin country," and The Virgin 
"Cæsar to subdue llerda, stabbed Marseilles C Maryand 
. æsar 
and then raced to Spain." 
" Haste! Haste! let no time be lost through 
little love," cried the others afterwards, " that 
striving to do well fl1ay rene\v grace." 



222 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV" 0 gente, in cui fervore acuto adesso 
ricompie forse negJigenza e indugio, 
da voi per tepidezza in ben far messo, 
questi che vive, e certo io non vi bugio, 
vuole andar su, pur che il sol ne riluca ; 
però ne dite ov' è presso il pertugio." 
Parole furon queste del mio duca ; 
ed un di q uegli spirti disse: "Vieni 
di retro a noi, e troverai la buca. 
Noi siam di voglia a moverci si pieni, 
che ristar non potem; però perdona, 
se villania nostra giustizia tieni. 
10 fui abate in San Zeno a Verona, 
satta 10 imperio del buon Barbarossa, 
di cui dolente ancor Milan ragiona. 
E tale ha gia l' un piè dentro la fossa, 
che tosto piangerà quel n10nastero, 
e tristo fia d' averne avuto possa: 
perchè suo figJio, mal del corpo intero, 
e della mente peggio, e che mal nacque, 
ha posto in loco di suo pastor vero." 
10 non so se più disse, 0 s' ei si tacque, 
tant' era già di là da Doi trascorso ; 
nla questo intesi, e ritener mi piacque. 
E quei che m' era ad ogni uopo soccorso 
disse: "v olgiti in qua, vedine due 
venire, dando all' accidia di morso." 
Di retro a tutti dicean: "Prima fue 
morta Ja gente, a cui il mar s' aperse, 
che vedesse Jordan Ie erede sue"; 
e: "Quella, che j' affanno non sofferse 
fino alla fine col figliuol d' Anchise, 
sè stessa a vita senza gloria offerse." 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I: 


I::; 


I; 


13 


13 



CANTO XVIII 


223 


o people, in whom keen fervour now perchance The 
doth make good negligence and delay used by sl
thful 
you through lukewarnlness in well-doing, 
tis one who lives, and surely I lie not to you, de- 
sires to ascend, if but the sun shine to us again; 
therefore tell us where the opening is near." 
u 'hese were my Leader's words; and one of The Abbot 
I those spirits said: "Come behind us, and S
n Zeno 
thou shalt find the cleft. 
[ V" e are so filled with desire to speed us, that 
stay we cannot; therefore forgive, if thou hold 
our penance for rudeness. 
was Abbot of San Zeno at Verona, under the 
rule of the good Barbarossa, of whom Milan 
yet discourses with sorrow. 
I lnd one I know has already a foot in the grave, condemns 
whosoon shall nlourn because of that monastery, AI
erto 
and sad will be for having had power there; tiuse?pe 
h " d r d . h " h I b d d deUa Scala 
ecause IS son, elOrIne In IS woe 0 y an 
worse in mind, and who \vas born in shame, 
he has put there in place of its true shepherd." 
f more he said, or if he was silent, I know not, 
so far already had he raced beyond us; but 
this I heard and was pleased to retain. 
\.nd he who was my succour in every need, Examples 
said: "Turn thee hither, see two of them of sloth- 
that come biting at sloth." 
I -last of then1 all they said: "The people for The 
I h 1 d d d J d Israelites 
W om t le sea opene , were ea ere or an 
saw its heirs". 
, 
.nd: "That folk who endured not the toil to the The 
end with Anchises' son, gave them up to a Trojans 
life inglorious." 



224 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV Poi quando fur da noi tanto divise I, 
quell' ombre che veder più non potersi, 
nuovo pensiero dentro a me si mise, 
del qual più altri nacquero e diversi ; I. 
e tanto d' uno in altro vaneggiai, 
che gli occhi per vaghezza ricopersi, 
e il pensamento in sogno trasmutai. I 


2.2. 23. The apprehensive faculty receives the in 
pression (intmzione) of the concrete thing, form ar 
material alike (see the note on Í1ztmza in Par. xxiv. 7 
for this ,vord with a different sense). According' 
Albertus Magnus, "the intention is not part of tl 
thing like the form, but rather the appearance of tl 
whole thing as apprehended." ['rhus, the form 
a statue would not be affected by the nature of tl 
material - marble, bronze, &c., but the intenti( 
would].-q. Par. iv. 41, 42, note. 


29. forma, i.e. its essential principle. 


30. The circle of fire. 


32. All change or action is regarded in the Ari 
totdian philosophy as motion. The act of love 
a spiritual as distinct from a local movement. 


49, 50. These lines contain a definition of tl 
human soul. Thomas Aquinas says that "ration 
souls" are "forms which are in a certain sen 
separated, but yet have to abide in material "; whh 
he explains by adding that the intellect is se:-arat( 
inasmuch as it is not "the act of any bodily orga 
as the visual power is of the eye" (see below, Can 
xxv. 66, note), but is nevertheless the vital princip 
of a (human) body. Cf., further, Bonaventure 
"Spiritual sub$tances [;.
. beings] are either con 
pletdy joined to bodies, as is the case with bru 
souls, or joined separably to them, as are rational soul 
or completely separated from them, as are celesti 



CANTO XVIII 


225 


hen, when those shades were so far parted from The 
us, that they could be seen no more, a new slothful 
thought was set within me, 
herefrom many and divers others sprang; and I?ant
 
I I d I smks 1nto 
so from one to another ramb e ,that a slumber 
closed mine eyes for very wandering, and 
thought I transmuted into dream. 


irits, which the philosophers call intelligence, and 

 call angels." · 
5 t. A power specific to it as a human soul, i.e. 
longing to all human souls and to them only. This 
ecific power is that of the H possible intellect," 
tter known to students of English literature as the 
liscursive" intellect, that is, the intellect which 
oceeds constructively from the known to the un- 
lown: develops itself and passes from one objt::ct to 
mother; as distinct from th.e" intuitive" intellect of 
gels, which understands without process of thought 
d embraces all objects of contemplation at once 
: Par. xxix. 31, 33, note; De Mon. i. 3: 45-65; 
n
. iii. 3: 34, 35; Paradise Lost, v. 486-490; and 

 below, Canto xx v. 64-66, note.) 
56, 57. prime notizÎe=the primal or supreme con- 
ptions or notions = the axioms; primi appetibili = the 
imal or supreme objects of desire = God. The 
L1ral form is doubtless used because the supreme good 
iy present itsdf in many forms (goodness, perfect 
d noble things, blessedness, truth, supreme t:x- 
ence, supreme unity, etc. etc.), but all of these 
'upreme objects of desire" are not rivals but rays 

eting and coinciding in the focus, God. 
63. Ought to be absolute master, whether the will 
;ent or dissent. 
73, 74. Note that the Italian idiom reverses our 
'n. Cf. Yita Nuo'lJa, 
 39: il cuore intendo per J'appelito. 
I" >y the heart I mean the appetite." 
79- 81 . The setting of the 5un between Sardinia and 
, .rsica cannot be actually seen from Rome, 50 that 

 accuracy of this datum would depend on a rather 
p 



226 


r NOTES 


T elaborate calculation, and \vould be limited by t 
2 accuracy of Dante's knowledge of the exact latitu 
and longitude of the places in question. The mode 
astronomers give Sagittarius, but Benvenuto da tmo: 
who perhaps better reflects the state of knowledge 
Dante's time, gives Scorpio as the position of the mo 
. indicated. The latter agrees with our other data. 
75. See Par. v. 19 .s'l'l' Y 
83. Pietola is identical with the classical And, 
Virgil's birthpiace.. 
91-93. The Thebans, when invoking the aid 
Bacchus for their vineyards, were wont to crowd to t 
banks of the Ismenus and Asopus, rivers of Boeot 
near 1"hebes (if. Statius, Theb. ix. 434 .s'l'l)' 
100. After the Annunciation. "And Mary an 
in those days, and went into the hill country wi 
haste, into a city of Juda" (Luke i. 39)' ( 
101, 102. In order to save time, Cæsar left the sie 
of Marseilles, on which he had been engaged, in t 
hands of Brutus, and rushed off to Herda (the roode 
Lerida) in Catalonia, where he defeated Afranius a 
Petreius, the lieutenants of Pompey (B.C. 49.) Luc 
(Phar.s. i. 151-154), speaks of Cæsar as a thund. r 
bolt. 



CANTO XVIII 


227 


I 13-126. The speaker is a certain Abbot of San 
eno (a church and monastery at Verona), probably 
herardo II., who died in 1187 (during the reign of 
:-ederick Barbarossa, 1152-1190 ; Milan was destroyed 
:1 . the Emperor in 1162, and rebuilt in 1.169.) He 

 )braids Alberto della Scala (d. 130I:"lI. 121), for 
'pointing his illegitimate (che mal nacque, 'V. 125) and 
praved son, Giuseppe, to the abbacy of San Zeno. 
iuseppe held the office from 1191 till 1314, so that 
:mte may have known him during his first sojourn at 

rona (1303-1304). For the Della Scala family, see 
e table in the Inferno volume, p. 333. 


I 
133-135. The Israelites who, after being delivered 
)111 Pharaoh in the Red Sea, still murmured and 

used to follow Moses, whereupon they perished in 
e desert, before reaching the Promised Land (the 
rdan = Palestine.) See Ex. xiv. 10-20; Num. xiv. 
39; Deut. i. 26-3 6 . 
136-138. The Trojans, whom Æneas left behind in 
t 
ily with Acestes-" as many of the people as were 

l1ing, souls that had no desire of high reno\vn" 
I 'E'l. v. 604 sqq.; if. Conv. iv. 26: 92-96, where the 
:ident is quoted in proof of Æneas' solicitude fOf 
:l age). 


n 



PURGA TORIO 


. 
A s morning approaches Dante has a vIsIon of ' 
Siren, whose filthiness Virgil, at the exhortat: 
of a lady from heaven, exposes (1-33). Dante is rou: 
by Virgil's repeated summons. The sun is fully I 
and the pilgrim, deep in thought, advances to 1 
next stair, where once again he feels the breath 
the angel's wing, and hears the blessing of them t] 
mourn (34-51). Dante is still plunged in his reveJ 
from which Virgil rouses him by question, explanati. 
and admonition. They who have yielded to the Sir 
-foul but seeming fair,-must expiate their offences 
the three remaining circles. Let Dante tread the eal 
like a man and raise his eyes to the heaven above. A 
so they reach the fifth circle. There the souls of 1 
avaricious and prodigal cleave to the pavement, 
longer in sordid love, but in the anguished sense tl 
they are unworthy to look upon aught more fair; a 
the limbs which had bound themselves on earth are nl 
held in helpless captivity (51-75). Virgil inquires t 
way, and from the form in which the answer is gh 
Dante gathers the la, v of Purgatory, hereafter to 
more fully confirmed, which permits souls to p. 
without delay or scathe through any circles of t 


Girone IV Nell' ora che non può il calor diurno 
intiepidar più il freddo della luna, 
vinto da terra 0 talor da Saturno; 
quando i geomanti lor maggior Fortuna 
veggiono in oriente, innanzi all' alba, 
Burger per via che poco Ie sta bruna: 
mi venne in Bogno una femmina balba, 
negli occhi guercia e Bopra i piè distorta, 
con Ie man monche, e di colore scialba. 
228 



CANTO XIX 


. 


unt wherein sins are purged by which they them.. 
res are unstained. He silently asks Virgil's leave to 
y and question the soul that has spoken (76- 87) 
s Pope Adrian V. who for little over a month bore 
weight of the papal mantle, scarce tolerable to him 
o would keep i
 from defilement; and in answer to 
nte's tender entreaty he expounds the nature of the 
aalties of this circle. He himself had been given 
r to avarice till he reached the summit of human 
atness, saw its emptiness' and turned in penitence to 
d (88-126). When Dante speaks again, Adrian 
ceives that he has knelt down, in reverence to Peter's 
cessor; whereon he bluntly bids him straighten his 
" and explains that no formal or official position or 
I 
tion, however close or however august, has place in 
spirit world, where personality is stripped of office 
7-138). Then he urges Dante to pass on and leave 
penitence · undisturbed, making a reference to his 
:e who had married one of Dante's future friends 
Malaspini; which reference the pilgrim may, if he 
choose, interpret as a request for prayers for the 
arted soul (139- 145). 


, 
the hour when the day's heat, overcome by The 
Earth or at times by Saturn, can no more slothful 
Harm the cold of the moon; 
I en the geomancers see their Fortuna Major, 
-ising in the East, before the dawn, by a way 
}J hich short time remains dark to it, 
re came to me in a dream, a stuttering woman, Dante 
. h . d k d h r dreams or 
Nit eyes asqulnt, an croo e on er leet, the Siren 
Nith maimed hands, and of sallow hue. 
229 



23 0 


PURGATORIO 


Girone IV 10 la mirava; e, come il sol conforta 
Ie fcedde membra ehe la notte aggrava, 
così 10 sguardo mio Ie facea scorta 
la lingua, e poscia tutta la drizzava 
in poco d' ora, e 10 smarrito volto, 
come amor vuol,' eosì Ie coloca va. 
Poi eh' e)}' avea il par1ar così diseio1to, 
cominciava a cantar sì che con pena 
da lei avrei mio intento rivolto. 
" 10 s
n," eantava: "io son' dolce Sirena, 
che i marinari in mezzo mar dismago : 
tanto son di P iacere a sentir P iena. .t 
.1 th 
10 volsi Ulisse del suo eamolin vago . { 
col canto mio; e q\!al meco si ausa 
rado sen parte, sì tutto l' appago." 
Aneor non era sua bocca richiusa, 
quando una donna"apparve santa e presta 
lunghesso me per far colei eonfusa. 
" 0 Virgilio, a Virgilio, chi è' questa ? " 
fierarnente diceva; ed ei venia U _ f 
can gli ocehi fitti pure in quella onesta. 
'1 r 
L' altra prendeva, e dinanzi I' apria t 
fendendo i drappi, e mostravan1Î il ventre; 
c.Iuel mi sveg1iò sol puzzo ehe n' us
ia. 
Ioo}ossigliocehi,eilbuon Virgilio: "Almentre 
voci t' ho nlesse,'" dieea; "surgi e vieni, 
troviam I' aperta per la qual tu entre." 
Salita al Su mi levai, e tutti "
ran già pieni 
Girone V dell' alto di i giron del sacra nloote, rp c 
ed andavam coP sol nuovo aHe reni. 
Seguendo Iui, portava la n1Ïa frÓnte f 
1 coo1e colui che l' ha di pensier carca, 
che fa di bè un nlezzo arco di ponte, 



CANTO XIX 


23 1 


gazed upon her; and, as the sun comforteth The 
- 
ld ] . b h . h . h . h d slothful 
the co 1m S w IC nlg t welg s own, so · 
I . d I Dante 
my ook made rea y t8 dreams 
er tongue, and then set her full straight in of the Siren 
short time, and her pallid fa
e even as' love 
wills did colour. J J . L J 
Vhen she had her tongue thus loosed, she began 
to sing, so that with difficulty should I have 
turned my attention from her. .. n 1 t 
, I am," she sang, , I am the 8we
t Siren, who 
leads mariners astray in mid-sea,' so full am I 
of pleasantness to hear. . rf 
turned Ulysses from his wandering way with 
my song, and whoso liveth with me rarely 
departs, so wholly do I satisfy him." 
-ler mouth was not yet shut, when a lady 
appeared holy and alert alongside me, to put 
her to confusion. J' I J I 
I '0 Virgil, Virgil, \vho is this?" angrily she 
said; and he came with eyes ever fixed on 
that honest one. 1 )' 
-Ie seized the other, a!:?, rending her cJotþes, 
laid her open in front and showed me her 
belly; that awakened me with the stench 
which issued therefrom. 
turned my eyes, and the good Virgil said: 
"At least three calls have I uttered to thee; 
arise and come, find we the opening by which 
thou mayst enter." f 
J p I lifted me, and all the circles of the ho] y Mornipg of 
mount \vere nOVJ fined \vith the high day, and 


 \
lrd 
we journeyed with the ne\v'sun at our backs. Purgatory 
Following him, I ,vas bearing my brow like one 
that hath it burdened with thought, who makes 
of himself half an arch of a bridge, 



23 2 


PURGATORIO 


S.a1ita al quand' io udi': "V enite, qui si varca," 
Glrone V parJare in modo soave e benigno, 
qual non si sente in questa morta) marca. 
Con 'ali aperte che parean di cigno, 
vo)seci in su colui che sì parIonne, 
tra' due pareti del duro macigno. 
Mosse Ie penne poi e ventilonne, 
qui lugent affermando esser beati, 
ch' avran di con solar l' anime donne. 
" Che hai
 che pure in ver la terra guati ? :' 
la guida mia incominciò a dirmi, 
poco ambo e due dalJ' angel sormontati. 
Ed io: "Con tanta suspizion fa irmi 
novella vision ch' a sè n1Í piega, 
sì ch' io non posso dal pensar partirnli." 
" V edesti," disse, "queIJa antica strega, 
che sola sopra noi omai si piagne? 
vedesti come l' uom da lei si slega? 
Bastiti, e batti a terra Ie calcagne, 
gli occhi rivolgi al logoro, che gtra 
10 Rege eterno con Ie rote magne." 
Quale il falcon che prima ai piè si nlira, 
indi si volge al grido, e si protende 
per 10 disio del pasto che là il tira : 
tal mi fee' io, e tal, quanto si fende 
la roc cia per dar via a chi va suso, 
n' andai infino ove il cerchiar sÌ prende. 
Girone V Com' io nel quinto giro fui dischiuso, 
vidi gente per esso che piangea, 
giacendo a terra tutta volta in giuso. 
"Adhaesit pa,;imento anima mea," 
senti' dir lor con sì aIti sospiri, 
che la paroIa appena s' intendea. 



 



 


f 


6 


6 


l' 


7: 



CANTO XIX 


233 


len I heard: "Come, here is the pass," The Angel 
spo ken in a tone so gentle and kind as is not of 
eal 
heard in this mortal confine. 
rith outspread wings which swanlike seemed, 
I he who thus spoke to us did turn us upward, 
between the two walls of the hard stone. 
e stirred his pinions then, and fanned us, affirm- The fourth 
. 0 l b bI d J:. h h 11 Beatitude 
In g qUI ugent to e esse, lor t ey s a 
have their souls rich in consolation. 1. 
What aileth thee, that thou gazest ever to the 
ground?" n1Y Guide began to say to me; both 
of us having mounted a little above the ang 1. 
nd I: "In such dread I am made to go by a 
a.nte's 
o . h o h b d . If. VIS1Qn 
strange VISIon, w IC en s me to Itse ,. so explained 
that I cannot keep me from thinking ther
on." by Virgil 
Sa west thou," he said, "that ancient witch 
because of whon1 alone above us now they weep? 
Sa west thou how man frees him from her? 
et that suffice thee, and spurn the earth with 
thy heels, turn thine eyes to the lure which 
the eternal I(ing spinneth round \vith the 
. h h " f 
mJg ty sp eres. r 
ike the falcon, that first gazes at his feet, then 
turns at the call, and spreads his wings with 
desire of the repast which draws him there, 
,ch I became; and, far as the rock is cleft to 
give passage to him who mounts, such I went, 
up to where the circling is begun. 
Then I was in the open, on the fifth circle, I The. 0 
saw people about it who wept, lying on the 
;dr
hl
us 
ground all turned downwards. prodigal 
Adhaesit þavimento anima mea," I heard them 
say with such deep sighs that hardly were the 
words understood. 



234 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V "0 eletti di Üio, Ii cui soffriri 
e giustizia e speranza fan men duri, 
drizzate noi verso gIi alti saliri." 11 
" Se voi venite dal giacer sicuri, 
e volete trovar la via più tosto, J J . 
Ie vostre destre sien sempre di furi. 17 
CosÌ pregò il poeta, e SI risposto 11 
.. poco dinanzi a noi ne fu; per ch' io 
nel parlare avvisai l' altro nascosto, 
e voIsi gli occhi aHara al signor mio : 
ond' egli ro' assentì can Iieto cenno 
ciò che chiedea la vista del disio. 
Poi ch' io potei di me fare a'mio senno, 
trassimi sop!a quella creatura, r 
Ie cui parole pria notar nlÌ fenno, 
dicendo: "Spirtô, in cui pian ger matura 9 
queI senza il quale a Dio tornar n
n puossi, 
Bosta un poco per me tua maggior cura. 
Chi fosti e perchè volti avete i dossi . 1 9 
al su, mi di', e se vuoi ch' io t' ilnpetri 
cosa di là, ond' io vivendo mossi." 
Ed t>gIi a me: "Perchè i nostri diretri 
rivolga il cielo a sè, saprai; ma prima, 
scias quod eg
 fui successor Petri. 
Intra Siestri e Chiaveri si adil11a 
1 1 
una fÌumana bella, e del suo nome 
10 titol del mio sangue fa sua cima. 
Un mese e poco più pro va' io come 1 c.. IC 
pesa iI gran manto a chi daI fango il guarda, 
che piuma sembran tutte }' aItre some. 
La mia conversione, omè! fu tarda; 
ma, come fatto fui Roman Pastore, 
cosÌ scopersi la vita bugiarda. 


'1 


7 


-3 8 


r [ 


...d 


r 8 


B 


ç 


t 


IC 



. 


IC 



CANTO XIX 


... 
235 


· 0 chosen of God, ,vhose sufferings both The. .'
 
.. d h k 1 h d d . a vanClOUS 
Justice an ope. ma e ess ar, Irect us and the 
towards the high ascents." : 'f prodigal 
; If ye COOle secure from lying prostrate, and Pop
 
d . fi d h . kl I Adnan V 
eSIre to n t e way most qUIC y, et your 
right hands be ever to the outside." n
j. t 10 
_'hus prayed the poët, and _ thus a' little (in front 
of us \vas answer" made; 'wherefore I noted 
what else \vas concealed in the words,. il rt 
nd turned mine eyes. then to my Lord; where- 
at he gave assent with glad sign to \vhat the 
look of my desire was craving. .301 
N"hen I could do with me accórping to my o,vn 
mind, I drew forward above that creature 
whose words before made file take" note, lC 
aying: "Spirit, in whom \veeping matures that 
without which one cannot turn to God, stay a 
while for me thy greater care. 
ATho thou wast, and why ye have your backs 
turned upward, tell me, and if thou woulds 
that I obtain aught for th
e. yonder, ,\Thence 
living I set forth." ( ú 
I' t 
\nd he to me: "Wherefore heaven turneth narrates 
If I .. {] his story 
our backs to itse sha t thou know; but Jrst, 
scÏas quod ego fui success
r Petri. " 
3etween Sestri and Chiaveri flows do
.
 a fair 
river, and from its name the title of illY race 
takes origin. . ,) 
)ne month, and little more, I learned how the 
great mantle weighs on him ,vho kf'eps it from 
the 111ire, so that all other burdens seén1 feathers. 
I \1. Y conversion, åh Ine! was late; but \vhen I 
was luade Pastor of Roo1e, so I discovered 
the life which is falf"C'. 



23 6 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V Vidi che 1ì non si quetava il core, 
nè più salir poteasi in quella vita: 
per che di questa in me s' accese amore. 
Fino a quel punto misera e partita 
da Dio anima fui, del tutto avara : 
or, come vedi, qui ne son punita. 
Quel ch' avarizia fa qui si dichiara 
in purgazion deJl' anime converse, 
e nulla pena il monte ha più amara. 
Sì come }' occhio nostro non s' aderse 
in alto, fisso aIle cose terrene, 
così giustizia qui a terra il merse. 
Con1e avarizia spen5e a ciascun bene 
10 nostro amore, onde operar perde' si, 
così giustizia qui stretti ne tiene, 
ne' piedi e nelle man legati e presi ; 
e quanto fia piacer del giusto Sire, 
tanto staremo immobili e distesi." 
10 m' era inginocchiato, e volea dire; 
ma com' io cominciai, ed ei s' accorse, I 
solo ascoltando, del mio riverire, 1 j 
" Qual cagion," disse, "in giù così ti torse ?" 13 0 
Ed io a lui: "Per vostra dignitate 
mia coscienza dritto mi rimorse. H I 
"Drizza le gambe, levati su frate," 
rispose; "non errar, conservo sono 
teco e con gli altri ad una pot estate. 
Se mai quel santo evangclico suono 
che dice ' Neque nubent' intendesti, 
ben puoi veder perch' io così ragiono. 
Vattene omai; non vo' che più l' arresti, 
chè Ia tua stanza mio piallger disagia, 
col qual maturo ciò che tu dicesti. 


IO! 


II
 


II
 


uS 


1 
 


)J 


121 


12 4 


12 1 


:1:33 


13 6 


:l:39t' 



CANTO XIX 


237 


[ saw that there the heart was not at rest, nor The. . 
could one mount higher in that life; where- :
dr:h
us 
fore love of this was kindled within me. prodigal 
Up to that moment, I was a soul wretched and 
parted from God, wholly avaricious; now, as 
thou seest, here am I punished for it. 
What avarice works, here is declared in the The form of 
. f h d . d 1 d their 
purgatIon 0 t e own-turne sou s, an no punishment 
more bitter penalty hath the mount. explained 
. . by Adrian 
Even as our eye, fixed on earthly thIngs, dId not 
lift itself on high, so here justice hath sunk it 
to earth. 
As avarice quenched our love for every good, 
wherefore our works were lost, so justice here 
doth hold us fast, 
)ound and seised by feet and hands; and so long as 
it shall be the pleasure of the just I-Iord, so long 
shall we lie here motionless and outstretched." 
[ had knee]ed down, and was about to speak; The Pope 
but as I began, and he perceived my reverence If:
fe
s 
nlereI y by listening, reve
ence 
. furh
 
"What reason," he said, "thus bent thee person 
down? " And I to him: "Because of your 
dignity my conscience smote DIe for standing." 
"Make straight thy legs, uplift thee, brother," 
he answered; "err not, a fellowservant am I 
with thee and with the others unto one Power. 
If ever thou didst understand that hallowed 
gospel sound which saith, 'Neque nubent,' well 
canst thou see why thus I speak. 
Now get thee hence; I desire not that thou stay 
longer, for thy tarrying disturbs my weeping, 
whereby I mature that which thou didst say_ 



23 8 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V Nepote ho io di là ch' ha nome Alagia, 
- buona da sè, pur cne la nostra casa J. IU 
non faccia lei per esemplo malvagia-; 
e questa sola di Ià D1' è rinlasa." .. 
. ) 
1-6. An hour before dawn when the la
t srars ( 
Aquarius and the first of Pisces would have risen. TI- 
portions of the constellations indicated mar be COt 
ceived in the form : : : . . this being the figUl 
termed Fortuna Major in geomancy (an occult scien( 
by v.rhich events are predicted according to point 
placed in certain positions). Verse 3 refers to th 
coldness of the earth before dawn, and of the frigi 
Saturn (Virgil's Frigida Saturni . . . st
"a, Georg. 
33 6 ; if. Par. xviii. 68, and xxii. (46, notu); ta/or, i.e 
when this planet is on the horizon. 


I.: 


I..: 


7-33, 55- 6 3. Dante's second .dream, that of th 
Siren (Sensual Pleasure) has reference to the three sin 
that remain to be purged ("lI. 59): avarice, glutton} 
and lust - being concei ved as due to the 'wiles of th 
Siren. The donna of 'V. 26 probably stands for the ligh 
of reason, which unites with human wisdom (Virgil 
'lI'l1. 28-3 2 ; if. Inf. i. 63, note) in showirJg Dante th 
emptiness of sensual delights. There is a difficulty i 
"V. 2 %.: for, according to Homer, Ulysses, of courst 
,vithstood the Sirens. Dr Moore sugge..ts that Dante' 
knowledge of the episode is derived from a passage i 
\vhich Cicero, commenting on Homer's Song of th 
Sirens
 implies that Ulysses was ensnared by them (L 
Finibus, v. 18). For the rest, if. Inf. xxvi. 7"'-75, an 
100- (42, notu. 
39. See above, diagram on p. 13, 
50, 51. "Blessed are they that mourn: for the" 
shall be comforted" (Matt. v. 4). 
73. "My soul cleaveth unto the dust" (Ps 
cxix. 2.5). 
79. The speaker is Pope Adrian V. (see belo\v, not 
to'll. 97 1'1'1'). 



CANTO XIX 


239 


A niece have I yonder, by name Alagia, good The. . 
. h If. . f b h k h avarICIOUS 
In erse, 1 ut our Quse ma e er not and the 
evil by ensample; and she alone is left me prodigal 
Y onder." 
drian's 
niece 


I 
84. This line has been much discussed. We take 
the "concealed" or U implied" thing, which was in- 
volved in the direct answer to the question, to be 
 
revelation of the fact that souls are purged in as many 
circles as may be necessary, but that some may pass 
free hrough certain circles
 if they have not been 

uilty of the sins purified in them. This is the first 
indication in the poem of this fact; but it is illustrated 
.ater on by Statius rising from the circle of the 
Avaricious and making his way straight through the 
:wo that are left, perhaps delaying his course somewhat 
:or the sake of Virgil's company (xxiv. 8, 9), but not 

etarded to endure the penalties of the circles. Dante 
.las already indicated (xiü. 133-138) his anticipation 
)f the necessity of sinful souls being purged severally 
n the successive terraces, and Statius' confession (xxi. 
58; xxii. 93) subsequently confirms it. But this is 
:he first passage which indicates the possibility of 
iouls passing through any circle without enduring its 
)enal ties. 
97 .rqq. Ottobuono de' Fieschi (of Genoa), who 
lad, while Cardinal, been sent to England as Papal 
egate (1268), was elected Pope, as Adrian V., on 
ruly 12, 1276, and died on August 18 of the same 
rear ("lI. 103). The Fieschi were Counts of Lavagna, 
lnd derived their title from a little river of that name, 
vhich flows into the Gulf of Genoa between Sestri 
Jevante and Chiavari (

. 100-102). The words in 
'1. 99 (" Know that I ,vas a successor of Peter") are 
poken in Latin, as the official language of the Church 
md Popes. 
Adrian's niece, Alagia (
'V. 142-145), was the wife of 
Moroello III. Malaspina (for whom see above, Canto 
,iii. 109-139, not
). One of her sisters, Fiesca, married 

lberto, belonging to a different branch of the Mala- 
pina family; and the other, Jacopina, was the wife 
)f Obizzo iI. of Este (see above, the tables on pp. 



24 0 


NOTES 


9 and I, the ODe opposite, and the one on p. z 3 
of the Infer"" volume". 
13f-13 . The Sadducee, having told lese of 
woman who had married even brothers in uere 
ior 
and ac:ked him: "Therefore in the resurrection who 
wife hall he be of the seven. for they aU had hel 
Je u answered and said unto them, Y do err, no 
knowing the criptures, nor the power f God. Fo 
in the r urrection they neither marry, nor are give 
in marriage. but are as the angels (f God in heav n 
( .J.1fda t. xxii. 2. 3- 3 ; Ma l xii. 18-2.5; Lu e xx. 2.7- 35 
ï he pas
ge i urjually ta en t r fer specifically to th 
p( pe a the spOll of the Church f. Inf. xix. 56, 57 
Pur"'). xiy. 2.2. But surely it may t e taken with 
wider ref rence. Marriage is regarded a. the c1oc:e 
in rance of 
ptcial rdation which haTe orne leval () 
official anction \tr and above the purdy per"on 
re 
 tion on which th
 re La ed, r which prinJ 
out hem. All ucb rd j n ar ab Jlish d in th 
pirit world c. Par. vi. 10, and oth r pa!
a e8. 
141. The fruit f re nunce e aLoy , "V. 92. . 



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1. 



PURGA TORIO 


U NWILLING to break short his conference, bu 
more unwilling yet further to trespass on th, 
courteous forbearance of his interlocutor, Dante passe 
among the weeping souls, through whose eyes tha 
curse of all the ;vorld is distilling itself away! Whet 
'will He come who shall chase the '\voU of avarice fron 
earth? (I-IS). Dante hears one of the prostrate soul 
reh
arse 
xamples of generous poverty (16-33), anc 
learns that he is the ancestor of the royal line 0 
France, the root of that evil tree that darkens al 
the Christian lands with its shadow. Comparativel
 
harmless in its earlier generations, this house hac 
gathered evil as it gathered strength; hero and sain 
alike have been its victims; it couched the lance 0 


Girone V Contra miglior voler voler mal pugna: 
onde contra il piacer mio, per piacerli, 
trassi dell' acqua non sazia la spugna. 
Mossimi; e il duca mio si mosse per Ii 
lochi spediti pur lungo la roc cia, 
come si va per muro stretto ai merli: 
chè la gente, che fonde a goccia a goccia 
per gli occhi il mal che tutto il mondo occupa: 
daB' altra parte in fuor troppo s' approccia. 
Maledetta sie tu, antica lupa, 
che pið di tu tte l' altre bestÏe hai preda, 
per la tua fame senza fine cupa ! 
o ciel, nel cui girar par che si creda 
Ie condizion di quaggiù trasmutarsi, 
quando verrà per cui questa disceda? 
Noi andavam con passi lenti e scarsi, 
ed io attento all' ombre ch' io sentia 
p1etoR
mente piangere e lagnarsi; 
24 2 


1< 


I
 


It 



T 


CANTO XX 


udas against Florence; its own flesh and blood 
nd the sacred orders of chivalry are alike regarded 
y it as things to coin; and the very person 
f the Vicar of Christ has been crucified by it 
,hile thieves ,,,ere left alive. At such deeds wrath 
,ould torture the divine peace itself were it not 
)othed by the prospect of vengeance (34-96). Warn- 
Ig examples of avarice uttered at night balance the 
aily recitation of the virtuous counterparts (97- 11 3). 
'he mountain now shakes as with an earthquake, and 
mighty cry of "Glory to God in the highest" rises 

om aU its terraces; startled and perplexed by ,vhich, 
lough bidden by Virgil not to fear, Dante swiftly 
ursues his path (114- 15 I ). 


\.gainst a better \\rill the will fights ill, where- The 0 0 
r: 0 I I h o I avariCIOUS 
lore, agaInst my p easure, to p ease 1m, and the 
dre\v the sponge from the water unfilled. prodigal 
moved on, and my Leader moved on by the 
free spaces, ever along the rock, as one goes 
by a wall close to the battlements; 
Jr the people who distill through their eyes, drop 
by drop, the evil that fills the whole world, 
on the other side approach too near the edge. 
\.ccurst be thou, she-wolf of old, that hast 
more prey than all the other beasts, for thy 
hunger endlessly deep! t 
) heaven, in whose revolution it seenlS that 
conditions here belo\v are thought to be 
changed, when wiU he come through whom 
she shall depart? 
Ve went on, with steps slow and scant, and I 
intent on the shades that I heard piteously 
weeping and complaining; 


243 



244 


PURGATORIO 


Girooe V e per ventura udi': "Dolce Maria," 1 
dinanzi a noi chiamar così nel pianto, 
come fa donna che in partorir sia ; 
e seguitar: "Povera fosti tanto, 2 
quanto veder si può per quell' ospizio, 
ove sponesti il tuo portato santo." 
Seguentemente intesi: "0 buon F abbrizio, 2 
con povertà volesti anzi virtute, 
che gran ricchezza posseder con vizio." 
Queste parole m' eran sì piaciute, 2 
ch' io mi trassi oltre per aver contezza 
di quello spirto, onde pare an venutc. 
Esso parlava ancor della larghezza 3 
che fece Niccolao aIle pulcelle, 
per condurre ad onor lor giovinezza. 
" 0 anima che tanto ben favelle, 3 
dimmi chi fosti," dissi, "e perchè sola 
tu queste degne lode rinnovelle ? 
Non fia senza mercè la tua parola, 3 
s' io ritorno a com pier 10 camn1in corto 
di quella vita che al termine vola." 
Ed egli: "I 0 'I ti dirò, non per conforto 'Ie 
ch' io attenda di là, ma perchè tanta 
grazia in te luce prima che sii n10rto. 
10 fui radice della mala pianta, 4: 
che la terra cristiana tutta aduggia 
sì che buon frutto rado se ne schianta. 
Ma, se Doagio, Lilla, Guanto e Bruggia 4( 
potesser, tosto ne saria vendetta ; 
ed io la cheggio a lui che tutto giuggia. 
Chiamato fui di là U go Cia petta ; <4-
 
di me son nati i Filippi e i Luigi, 
per cui novellamente Francia è retta. 



CANTO XX 


245 


.nd by chance I heard one in front of us calling The 0 . 
with tears: "Sweet Mary," even as a woman ::dr;h
us 
who is in travail; prodigal 
nd continuin g . "So P oor wast thou as md. Y Examples 
.. , 0 of Poverty 
be seen by that hoste]ry where thou dldst lay a
d Liber- 
d h h I b d " ahty- 
own t y 0 y ur en. The Virgin 

 ollo\ving I heard: "0 good Fabricius, thou M F a b 
 . 
d O d d . .. h a riCtUS 
I st eSlre to possess virtue WIt poverty, 
rather than great riches with iniquity." 
rhese words were so pleasing to me, that I drew 
me forward to have knowledge of that spirit, 
from whom they seemed to have come. 
[t went on to speak of the bounty which a
d 5t 
Nicholas gave to the maidens, to lead their Nicholas 
youth to honour. 
., 0 spirit, that discoursest so much of good, 
tell me who thou wast," said I, "and where- 
fore thou alone renewest these worthy lauds ? 
fhy words shall not be without reward, if I 
return to complete the short way of that life 
which is flying to its end." 
A.nd he: "I will tell it thee, not for any solace Hugh 
that I expect fi'om yonder, but because so Capet 
much grace shineth in thee ere thou art dead. 
[ was the root of the evil tree which o'er- 
shadows all Christian lands, so tbat rarely is 
good fruit plucked therefrom. 
But if Douay, L ille, Ghent and Bruges .had 
power, soon were vengeance taken for it, and 
I beseech this from him who judgeth all. 
Hugh Capet was I called yonder; of me are 
born the Philips and the Lewises by whom 
of late France is ruled. 



24 6 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V Figlio fu' io d' un beccaio di Parigi. 
Quando Ii regi antichi venner menD 
tutti, fuor ch' un, renduto in panni bigi, I 
trovaimi stretto neHe mani il freno 
del governo del regno, e tanta possa 
di nuovo acquisto, e sÌ d' anlici pieno, 
ch' alla corona vedova promossa 
la testa di mio figlio fu, dal quale 
cominciar di costor Ie sacrate ossa. 
Mentre che la gran dote Provenzale 
I al sangue mio non tolse la vergogna, 
\ poco valea, ma pur non facea male. 
L ì cominciò con forza e con menzo gna 
la sua rapina; e poscia, per ammenda, 
Pontì e Normandia prese e Guascogna. 
Carlo venne in Italia, e, per amnlenda, 
vittima fe' di Curradino; e poi 
ripinse al cie1 T ommaso, per ammenda. 
Tempo vegg' io, non molto do po ancoi, 
che tragge un altro Carlo fuor di Francia, 
per far conoscer meglio e sè e i suoi. 
Senz' arme n' esce solo e con la lancia 
con 1a qual giostrò Giuda; e quella 
onta 
sì, ch' a Fiorenza fa scoppiar la pancia. 
Quindi non terra, ma peccato ed onta 
guadagnerà, per sè tanto più grave, 
quanto più lieve simil danno conta. 
L' altro, che già use ì preso di nave, 
veggio vender sua figlia e patteggiarne, 
come fanno i corsar dell' altre schiave. 
o avarizia, che puoi tu più farne, 
poscia ch' hai 10 mio sangue a te sì tratto, 
che non si cura della propria carne? 


5: 


5! 


Sf 


6J 


6-1 


67 


7 0 


73 


7 6 


79 


T 


82 



CANTO XX 


247 


30n was I of a butcher of Paris. When the The Î 
ancient kin g s came to an end all save one avaricious 
, and the 
given over to grey garments, prodigal 
[ found tight in my hands the reins of the 
governn1ent of the realm, and so much power 
from new possessions, and so rich in friends, 
hat to my son's head the widowed cro\\,rn ,vas The 
promoted, from whom began the consecrated 
:xi::

n 
bones of those. 

o long as the great dowry of Provence had not 
taken shame from my race, it was of little 
,vorth, but yet it did no evil. 
There by force and fraud its rapine began; Charl
s I. 
and then, for amends, Ponthieu and Normandy of AnJou 
it seized, and Gascony. 
Charles came to Italy, and, for amends, made a 
victim of Conradin; and then thrust Thomas 
back to heaven, for amends. 
A time I see, not long after this day, that Charle
 
brings another Charles forth from France, to of ValOls 
n1ak e both him and his better known. 
Forth he comes, alone, without an army, and 
with the lance wherewith Judas jousted; and 
that he couches so, that he makes the paunch 
of Florence to burst. 
Thence shall he v:in, not land, but sin and 
shame, for hirnself so much the more grievous, 
as he the more lightly counts such wrong. 
The other, who once came forth a captive from Charles 
a ship, I see selling his daughter, and haggling the Lame 
over her, as piràtes do with other bondwomen. 
o avarice, what more canst thou do to us, since 
thou hast so drawn my race to thee, that it 
hath no care of its own flesh? 



248 


PURGA TORIO 


Girone V Perchè men paia il mal futuro e il fatto, 
veggio in Alagna entrar 10 fiordaliso, 
e nel vicario suo Cristo esser catto. 
Veggiolo un' altra volta esser deriso ; 
veggio rinnoveHar l' aceto e il fele, 
e tra vivi ladroni esser anciso. 
Veggio iI nuovo Pilato sì crudele, 
che ciò nol sazia, ma, senza decreto, 
porta nel tempio Ie cupide vele. 
o Signor mio, quando sarò io lieto 
a veder la vendetta, che, nascosa, 
fa dolce l' ira tua nel tuo segreto? 
Ciò ch' io dicea di quell' unica sposa 
dello Spirito Santo, e che ti fece 
verso me volger per alcuna chiosa, 
" " 
tant e nsposta a tutte nostre prece, 
" I d ' d d ' , , 
quanto 1 1 ura; ma, quan e s annotta, 
contrario suon prendemo in quella vece. 
Noi ripetiam Pigmalione allotta, 
cui traditore e ladro e patricida 
fece la voglia sua deB' oro ghiotta; 
e la miseria dell' avaro Mida, 
che seguì alla sua domanda ingorda, 
per la qual sempre convien che si rida. 
Del folIe Acam ciascun poi si ricorda, 
come furð Ie spoglie, sÌ che l' ira 
di Josuè qui par ch' ancor 10 n1orda. 
Indi accusiam col marito Safira; 
lodiamo i calci ch' ebbe Eliodoro ; 
ed in infamia tutta il monte gira 
Polinestor ch' ancise Polidoro. 
Ultimamente ci si grida: 'Crasso, 
dicci, chè il sai, di che sapore è l' oro? ' 



 


9 


10 


10, 


lot 


Ies, 


U2 


Tl5 



CANTO XX 


249 


, n order that the ill to come and past, may The. . 
1 I h fl d 1 Al avariCIOUS 
seem ess, see t e eur- e- ys enter agna, and the 
and in his vicar Christ made captive. prodigal 
\ second time I see him mocked; I see the 

ilWair 
I vinegar a?
 the .gaB renewed, and him slain f:c
 tIÏt 
between h vlng thIeves. 
see the new Pilate so cruel, that this sateth 
I him not, but, lawlessly, he bears his greedy 
sails into the temple. 
) n1Y Lord, when shall I rejoice to see the 
vengeance, which, being hidden, maketh sweet 
thine anger in thy secret counsel? 
Vhat I was saying of that only Bride of the 
Holy Ghost, and which made thee turn 
toward me for some gloss, 
o much is the answer to all our prayers, as long Examples 
as the day lasts; but when the night cometh, rf e Av ar - 
a contrary sound we take up instead of that. 

hen we rehearse Pygmalion, whom insatiate Pygmalion 
lust of gold made traitor, thief, and par- 
ricide, 
nd the misery of the avaricious Midas, which Midas 
I followed his greedy request, because of which 
'tis right we forever laugh. 

he nlad Achan then each one recalls, how he Achan 
I stole the spoils, so that Joshua's wrath seems 
here yet to bite him. 

hen we accuse Sapphira and he
 husband; we Sapp
ira, 
praise the kicks which Heliodorus had; and 
:damas 
all the mount doth circle in infamy Heliodorus 
)oIYI11nestor who slew Polydorus. Last of all Polym- 
I h ' C II r h nestor and 
ere we cry: rassus, te us, rOr t OU Crassus 
knowest, of what savour is gold? ' 



25 0 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V Talor parla }' un alto e I' altro basso, 
secondo l' affezion ch' a dir ci sprona, 
ora a maggiore, ed ora a n1inor passo ; 
però al ben che il dì ci si ragiona, 
dianzi non er' io sol; ma qui da presso 
non alzava la voce altra persona." 
N oi eravam partiti già da esso, 
e briga vam di soperchiar la strada 
tanto, quanto al poder n' era permesso ; 
quand' io senti', come cosa che cada, 
tremar 10 monte: onde mi prese un gelo, 
qual prender suol colui che a morte vada. 
Certo non si scotea sì forte Delo, 
pria che Latona in lei facesse il nido 
a partorir Ii due occhi del cielo. 
Poi cominciò da tutte parti un grido 
tal che il nlaestro in ver di me si feo, 
dicendo: "N on dubbiar, mentr' io ti guido. 
" Gloria ill excelsis," tutti, "Deo," t. 
dicean, per q uel ch' io da' vicin compresi, 
onde intender 10 grido si poteo. 
Noi ci restammo immobi]i e sospesi, 
come i pastor che prima udir quel canto, 
fin che il tremar cessò, ed ei compièsi. 
Poi ripigliammo nostro cammin santo, 
guardando I' ombre che giacean per terra, 
tornate già in su l' usato pianto. 
Nulla ignoranza mai con tanta guerra 
mi fe' desideroso di sapere, 
se la memoria mia in ciò non erra, 
quanta pare' mi all or pensando avere; 
nè per la fretta domandarn' er' oso, 
nè per me lì potea cosa vedere : 
così m' andava timido e pensoso. .. 


:! 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I, 


I. 


I. 


t. 


J
 



CANTO XX 


25 1 


I ometilnes we discourse, the one loud the other The" " 
I d " h " 1 h " h avanclOUS 
ow, accor lng to t e lmpu se W IC spurs us to and the 
speak, now \vith greater, now with lesser force; prodigal 
.1 lerefore at the good we tell of here by day, 
I was not alone before, but here, near by, no 
other person \vas raising his voice." . 
r 4 V" e were already parted fron1 hin1, and striving 
to surn10unt the way so far as was permitted 
to our power, 
7 rhen I felt the Inountain quake, like a thing T M he . 
I h " h . J:'. II " h h " ll " d ountaln 
W IC IS Ia lng; w ereupon a c I gnppe shakes 
me, as is wont to grip hin1 who is going to death. 
)f a surety, Delos was not shaken so violently, 
ere Latona made her nest therein to give 
birth to heaven's two eyes. 
, 'hen began on all sides. a shout, such that the 
Master drew toward me, saying: "Fear not 
while I do guide thee." 
'Gloria ill excelsis IJeo," all \vere saying, by 
what I understood from tho.se near by, whose 
cry could be heard. 
, ,1otionless we stood, and in suspense, like the 
shepherds who first heard that hymn, unti] 
the quaking ceased and it was ended. 

hen we took up again our holy way, looking 
at the shades, that lay on the ground already 
returned to their wonted plaint. 
I 
o ignorance, if my memory err not in this, did 
ever with so great assault give me yearning 
for knowledge 
s I then seemed to have, while pondering; nor 
by reason of our haste was I bold to ask; nor 
of myself could I see aught there: thus I 
went on timid and pensive. 



25 2 


NOTES 


8, 10-15. The mal and the antica tupa are, of cow 
Avarice (see Info i. 49-60; 94-101); while the 
liverer anxiously alluded to in'll. 15 corresponds 
the 'Uettro of Inf. i. 101-1 II, though the indication h 
is less definite than in the earlier passage-perh. 
because Dante was beginning to lose hope at the ti 
of the composition of the present Canto? 
13, 14. See above, Canto xvi. 67 .rqq. 
19-2.4. "And she brought forth her first-born se 
and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid h 
in a manger; because there was no room for them 
the inn" (Luke ii. 7).-With 'lJ'lJ. 19-2.1, if. Par. 
 
133-135, and note. 
2.5-2.7. Caius Fabricius, the RODlan Consul (E 
2.81) and Censor (2.75), refused the gifts of the Samni 
on settling terms of peace with them, and, subsequent 
the bribes of Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, when negotiati 
with him concerning an exchange of friends. Virgi 
words in this connection-parvoque potentem Fahrici, 
(Æn. vi. 844) are quoted in the De Mon. ii. 5: 90-9 
and in the Con'lJ. iv. 5: 107-110, there is a furth 
allusion to Fabricius' refusal of the bribes (here he 
mentioned together with Curius Dentatus; as by Luca 
Phars. X. 15 I, who quotes the pair for their simplici 
of manners and contempt of luxury-et nomina paupe. 
4'lJi Fabricio.r Curios que graves). 
31-33. Nicholas (fourth century, Bishop of Myra 
Lycia) saved the three daughters of a fellow-townsma 
who was in dire straits of poverty, from leading liv 
of shame, by secretly throwing into their window 
night bags of gold, which served them as dowries ar 
enabled them to marry (see the Legenda Aurea and Brt' 
Rom. ad 6 Decemb.). 
40 .rqq. The speaker is Hugh Capet, King , 
France (987-996); but as some of the details given IJ 
Dante can apply only to his father, Hugh the Gre. 
(Duke of the Franks, etc., and Count of Pari 
d. 956), it is plain that the poet has confused thef 
two personages. In 'lJ. S2. 'we find a legend ver 
generally accredited in those days, but always referre 
to the father, never to the son. Verses 53-59 state tha 
when the Carlovingian dynasty came to an end (wit 



CANTO XX 


253 


)uis V., d. 987), the speaker's son succeeded, whereas 
reality it was Hugh Capet himself who succeeded. 
nd it was Hugh Capet who founded the Capetian 
:r 'nasty ('lJ"V. 59, 60), not his son and successor, 
obert I. 
46-48. The treachery of Philip the Fair and his 
other Charles of Valois towards the Count of Flanders 
1199 (Villani, viii. 32.) was avenged three years 

er at the battle of Courtrai, in which the French 
o 
re completely routed by the Flemish (Villani, viii. 
iJ - 5 8 ). 
, 50, 5 I. Between the years 1060 and 1300, the French 
rone was occupied exclusively by four Philips (I.-IV.) 
c d four Louis (VI.-IX.). 
54. When Louis V. died in 987 without children 
ere '\vas only one formidable Carlovingian teft- 
larIes, Duke of Lorraine, the son of Lonis IV. Hugh 
lpet, seeing the danger, promptly had him put into 
ison, where he died in 991. Dante is wrong in say- 
g that Charbs was a monk; there is probably a con- 
I sion with Childeric III., the last of the Merovingians, 
:10 was deposed in 752. and ended his days in a convent. 
61. After the death of Count Raymond Berengar of 
.ovence, Charles I. of Anjou married, in 12.46, his 
ughter, Beatrice, who had inherited the county (see 
ove, Canto vii. 118, and Par. vi. 12.7-142., notes). 
650 Note the irony of the per ammenda, thrice re- 
a ted. 
66. A reference to the English chronicles and 
,tories will show that Dante does not adhere strictly 
the correct chronology in this line, and that the 
igin of the differences between the French and English 
ings alluded to goes back to a date earlier than that 
the gran dote pro
f!nzale. However, he is right in all 
e essential facts, which held good, as stated by him, 
r many years. 1'hus, Villani says that Edward lIT., 
ben on the point of invading France in 1346, told 
s b:uons that the French King "was '\vrongfully 
cupying Gascony, and the county of Ponthieu, 
hich came to him [Edward] with the dowry of his 



254 


... 


NOTES 


mother, and that he ,vas holding Normandy by frau 
(xii. 63)' 
67, 68. For Charles of Anjou's expedition to It<: 
see above, Can to Hi. 103 - 145, note; and for the bat 
of 'fagliacozzo, in which he defeated Conradin, . 
last of the Swabians, see Itif. xxviii. t 7, 18, note. 
Oct. 2.9, 12.68, two months after his defeat, Conrad 
who was in his seventeenth year, was beheaded 
Charles' orders. ' 
69. Dante here follows a popular but errone( 
tradition (see Villani, ix. 218), according to whi 
Thomas Aquinas, while proceeding to the Council 
Lyons in 12.74, ,vas poisoned in the Abbey of Fos 
nuova, at the instigation of Charles of Anjou. 
70-78. 
harles of Valois, the brother of Philip t 
Fair, entoced Florence, with some nobles and 500 hor 
men ('V. 73), on November I, 1301, and left the city 
April 4 of the following year. For the success of t 
Blacks over the Whites, which was solely due to t 
favour he treacherously ('V'V. 73, 74) showed to t 
former party (at the .instigation of Boniface VIn., w 
had sent him to Florence ostensibly as" peacemaker 
see Inf. vi. 64-69, note, and Gardner, pp. 2.1-2.3. Ch:u 
was nicknamed Senzaterra =" Lack-land" ('V. 76), p. 
haps because of the ignominious failure of his expel 
tion to Sicily in 1302., or because he was a young 
son. 
. 
79-84. While Charles the Lame (see above, Car 
vii. 12.4-12.9; Par. vi. 106-108, notes, etc.) was assisti 
his father, Charles I. of Anjou, in his futile attempt 
recover Sicily, he was defeated by Roger di Loria, t 
admiral of Peter III. of Aragon, and taken prisor 
(June 12.84). In 1305 he married his youngest daught, 
Beatrice, to Azzo VIII. of Este, who was her senior 
many years. We have no record of the n10neta 
transaction which excited Dante's wrath. 
85-90. For Boniface VIII. (the cause of most 
Dante's troubles, whom the poet invariably condeml 
but whose death is in the present passage treat 
as an outrage on the Holy See) see 1'!f. vI. 69, x: 
52.-57, xxvii. 7 0 - 111 ; Purge viii. 13 1 (?), xxxii. 15 
xxxiii. 44; Par. xii. 2.5-2.7, 9 0 , xvii. 49-51, xxv 
12.-2.4, xxx. 146.148. 



CANTO XX 


255 


" Sciarra Colonna and William de Nogaret, [the cvicv; 
frolli, .". 90] in the name of Philip the Fair [the 
rdali.ro, .". 86] seized Boniface VIII. at Anagni [the 
)pe's birthplace, about forty mBes S.E. of RODle] 
d treated the old Pontiff with such barbarity that 
, died at Rome in a few days, October 11th, 1303" 

ardner, p. 16; see Villani, viii. 63). 
91-93. Philip the Fair (who is called nuovo Pilato 
cause he delivered Boniface to his enenlies, the 
)lonnesi, even as Pilate delivered Jesus to the will of 
e Jews) caused the Order of the Templars to be per- 
cuted, from the year 1307. According to Villani 
Hi. 92.), many people held that the accusations levied 
ainst them were unjust, and prompted only by the 
sire to obtain their treasure. 
94-96. Cf. Par. xxii. 16-18. 
97-99 and 118-123. Hugh I is answering Dante's 
lestion contained in ."v. 35, 36 and relating to the 
I ample dra\vn from the life of Mary ('V. 19 sqq.), 
, long others. 
103.r'l'l. According to Dr Moore (see above, Canto 
i. 25-27, note), the groups of the examples of vice 
e, on this fifth terrace, marked off by "putting 
rd/ler two or more instances from Profane and Sacred 
istory respectively, instead of making the instances 
:ernate. " 
103-105. Pygmalion, the brother of Dido, and 
urderer of her husband (their uncle), Sichaeus: "He, 
,pious, and blinded with the love of gold, having taken 
chaeus by surprise, secretly assassinates him before 
e altar, regardless of his sister's great affection" (Æn. 
35 0 J'lq.). 
106-108. Bacchus was so grateful to Midas, King 
Phrygia, for the kindness he had shown to his friend 
lenus, that he promised to grant him any request. 

idas wished everything he touched to be turned to 
lId, but soon begged Bacchus to relieve him of this 
'ivilege, when he found that even his food changed 
to the precious metal. It is somewhat strange that 
ante should consider this incident laughable; the 
'Ily really funny thing about Midas (which however, 



25 6 


NOTES 


has nothing to do with greed of gold) being the as: 
ears, that were bestowed on him by Apollo, for J: 
suming to decide against him and in favour of I 
after a singing contest. (See Ovid, Met. xi. 100 sqfj 
109-1 I I. At the capture of Jericho, Joshua orde 
all the treasure to be consecrated to the Lord; w h 
decree having been disregarded by Achan, he and 
family were stoned and burned (Josh. vi. 19, éi 
vii. ). 
II z. After the Apostles had preached to the peol 
" the multitude of them that believed were of one he 
and of one soul: neither said any of them that ou
 
of the things which he possessed was his own; I 
they had all things common . . . and great grace v 
upon them all. Neither '\-vas there any among th 
that lacked: for as many as were possessors of lands 
houses sold them, and brought the prices of the thir 
that were sold, and laid them down at the apost] 
feet: and distribution was made unto every man; 
cording as he had need. And J oses . . . having lal 
sold it, and brought the money, and laid it at t 
apostles' feet. But a certain man named Anani 
with Sapphira his wife, sold a possession, and kt 
back part of the price, his wife also being privy to 
and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostl 
feet." Ananias and his wife were rebuked by Pe 
for their hypocrisy, and fell down dead. (See Acts 
32.-37; v. I-II.) 
I I 3. Heliodorus, the treasurer cf King Seleuc 
having gone with his guard to the Temple of Jerusale 
to remove the treasure, " there appeared unto them 
horse with a terrible rider upon him, and adorned wi 
a very fair covering, and he ran fiercely, and smote 
Heliodorus with his forefeet, and it seemed that 



CANTO XX 


257 


at sat upon the horse had complete harness of gold" 
Mace. Hi. 2.5.) 
I I 15. ,. This Polydore unhappy Priam had formerly 
lt in secrecy, with a great weight of gold, to be 
Jught up by the King of Thrace [PolymnestorJ, 
len he now began to distrust the arms of Troy, and 
.v the city with close siege blocked up. He, as soon 
the power of the Trojans was crushed, and their 
rtune gone, espousing Agamemnon's interest and 

torious arms, breaks every sacred bond, assassinates 
)Iydore, and by violence possesses his gold. Cursed 
irst of gold, to what dost thol1 not drive the hearts 
, " (Æ . .. ) 
men. n. 111. 49 SfJfJ. 
116, I 17. Marcus Licinius Crassus, surnamed Di'Ve.1, 
e \Vealthy, was triumvir with Cæsar and Pompey, 
:. 60. He was so notorious for his love of gold, that 
len he had been slain in a battle with the Parthians, 
eir King, Hyrodes
 had molten gold poured down his 
roat. Florus (Epitome, iii. I I) says that his head 
. . /udibrio fuit, ne'lue indigno. Aurum enim li'luidum in 
-tum oris iTifusum est, ut cuju.1 animu.1 ar.rerat auri cupiditate, 
'.1 etiam mortuum et exsang"e corpus auro ureretur. 
12.8. See the following canto, "V'V. 40-72.. 
130, 32.. Juno, being jealous of Jupiter's love for 
ltona, drove the latter from place to place, till she 
ached Delos, which had been a floating island, tossing 
out in the sea, till Jupiter made it fast in order to 
cdve her. Here she bore him two children-Apollo 
d Diana-the sun and the moon (cj. Par. x. 67, xxii. 
i9, xxix. I). See Ovid, Met. vi. 18 9 .1fJfJ. 
1 36, 140. Gloria in exu/sis Deo, pax hominibu.1 bon4 
luntati.1. (" Glory to God in the highest, and on 
.rth peace, good will toward men.") See Luke ii. 8- 1 4. 


R. 



PURGATORLO 


W ITH the thirst for kno\vlt'dge, which God 01 
can slake, keen within him, hastening alo 
the impeded path to keep pace \vith his leader, a 
pierced with sympathetic grief for the souls at ] 
feet, Dante pursues his "vay, till a shade comi 
behind them gives them the salutation of peace, 
\vhich Virgil answers (1-15). They are on t 
western side of the mountain, and the sun st 
neighbours the east, so that Dante casts no shado 
and the new-come soul does not recognise him 
one stillli ving in the first life; and so he gathers frc 
the words of Virgil's benediction that he and t 
companion alike are souls excluded from bliss (16-2.1 
[n ans\ver to the question that hereon arises, Vir! I 
explains his o\vn state and Dan te's; and to the kef 
satisfaction of the latter, asks in his turn for , 
explanation of the earthquake and the shout (22-39 
The shade answers that no material or casual thir 
can affect the sacred ways of the mount. It trembl 
only "vhen some soul rises from lying prone with tl 
avaricious, or starts from any other point of tl 
mount to ascend to the earthly Paradise (40-6c 
The repen tan t souls, though they wish to gain tl 


Girone V La sete natural che mai non sazia, 
se non can I' acq ua onde la femminetta 
Sammaritana domandò la grazia, 
mi tra vagliava, e pungean1i la fretta 
per la in1pacciata via retro al mio duca, 
e condoleami alla giusta vendetta; 
ed ecco, sì come ne scrive L uca 
che Cristo apparve ai due ch' erano in via, 
già surto fuor della sepulcral buca, 
25 8 



CANTO XX
 


t! 


rtrd gather the fruit of their penance, are mean- 
hiLs kees to suffer as once they were to sin; 
Id len their present impulse unites with their 
I tin desire and creates the instant will to rise, 
is iD;elf is a token and assurance that their 
ugatjs complete, and the whole mountain rings 
ith t")raises of the spi
its. May thty, too, soon 

 spe
on their way 1 (61-78). Virgil now asks 
e sh
o reveal himself, and learns that he is the 
Jet 
us. He combines '\vith an enumeration 
. his n '\vorks a glo'\ving tribute to the Æneid 
Id itthor; to have lived on earth with whom he 
oJllde p t another year of exile (79-102.). Virgil's 

 (cfecks the smile that rises on Dante's face at 
.words, but not till Statius has caught its flash 
his features. Pressed on either side, the poet is 
r released from Virgil's prohibition, and informs 
s that he is indeed in the presence of that very 
ho strengthened him to sing of men and gods 
2.9); whereon StatÍLIs, forgetting that he and 
. are empty shades, drops at his dear master's 
I kiss them (130-136). 


natural thirst \vhich never is sated, save The 
h the water VI hereof the P oor Samaritan avaricious 
C and the in's 
man asked the grace, prodigal .g 
urning within me, and haste was goading me 
ng the encu}nbered way behind my Leader, 
1 I was grieving at the just penance; 
. 13, even as Luke writes to us that Christ 
>eared to the two \vho were on the way, 
::ady risen from the mouth of the tOlnb, 
259 



260 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V ci apparve un' ombra, e retro a noi venia 
( da piè guardando la turba che giace ; 
nè ci addemmo di lei, sì par lò pria, 
dicendo: "Frati miei, Dio vi dea pace." 
Noi ci volgemmo subito, e Virgilio 
rende' gli il cenno ch' a ciò si conface. 
Poi cominciò: "Nel beato concilio 
ti ponga in pace la verace corte, 
che me rilega nen' eterno esilio." 
1 . 
"Come," diss' egli, e parte andavam forte ro 
" se voi siete ombre che Dio su non def h 
chi v' ha per la sua scala tanto scorte? "t I ;- 
E il douor mio: "Se tu riguardi i segni l 
che questi porta e che I' angel profila, et 
ben vedrai che coi buon convien ch' ei n a 
Ma perchè lei che di e notte fila 
9 
tn 
non gli avea tratta ancora la conocchia, 
it 
che Cloto impone a ciascuno e conlpila, I- 
I' anima sua, ch' è tua e mia sirrocchia, 
venendo su, non potea venir sola, 
però ch' al nostro modo Don adocchia: 
ond' io fui tratto fuor den' an1pia gola 
d' inferno, per mostrargli, e nlostrerolli 
oltre, quanto il potrà menar mia scuola. 
Ma dinne, se tu sai, perchè tai crolli 
diè dianzi il monte, e perchè tutti ad una 
parver gridare infino ai suoi piè molli ? " 
Sí mi diè domandando per la cruna 
del mio disio, che pur con la speranza 
si fece la mia sete men digiuna. 
Quei cominciò: "Cosa non è che sanza 
ordine senta la religione 
de]]a Oìontagna, 0 che sia fuor d' usanza. 




I 


sf 


0' ' 



CANTO XXI 


261 


ade appeared to us, and came on behind us, The. . 
" "r h d avaricIOus 
1zIng at Its Ieet on t e prostrate crow , nor and the 
.id we perceive it until it first spake, prodigal 
rrr " M b h G d " " Statius and 
hi.ng : Y rot ers, 0 give you peace. Virgil 
d
uickly we turned us, and Virgil gave back 
tin) him the sign that is fitting thereto. 
is in began: "May the true court, which binds 
lrgat in eternal exile, bring thee in peace to the 
ith t:ncil of the blest." 
. spe(.v," said he, and meantime we went sturdily, 
e 8h:: ye are shades that God deigns not above, 
>et" 
o hath escorted you so far by his stairs? " 

l
Smy Teacher: "If thou lookest at the marks 
! 

ich this man bears, and which the angel out- 
ot cc es , clear! y wilt thou see 'tis meet he reign 
'". .ith the good. 
.ut since she who spins day and night, had not 
yet drawn for him the fibre ,vhich Clotho 
charges and packs on the distaff for each one, 
is spirit, which is thy sister and ll1ine, coming 
up, could not come alone, because it sees not 
after our fashion: 
rherefore I was brought forth from Hell's wide 
<< jaws to guide him, and I will guide him on- 
ward, so far as my school can lead hin1. 

ut tell us, if thou knowest, why the n10unt gave Cause 
before such shakin g s, and wherefore all seemed Q M f o t
 l e.l. I " I 
.. _ u. 1I..a n s 
to shout with one voice do\vn to its soft base." trembling 

hus, by asking, did he thread the very needle's 
eye of my desire, and with the hope alone my 
thirst was made less fasting. 
:'hat spirit began: "The holy rule of the 
mount suffereth naught that is arbitrary, or 
that is outside custom. 



262 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V Libero è qui da ogni alterazione; 
di quel che il ciel da sè in sè riceve 
esserci puote, e non d' altro, cagione : 
perchè non pioggia, non grando, non neve, 
non rugiada, non brina più su cade 
che la scaletta dei tre gradi breve. 
Nuvole spesse non paion, nè rade, 
nè corruscar, nè fìglia di Taumante, 
che di là cangia sovente contrade. 
Secco vapor non surge più avante 
ch' al sommo dei tre gradi ch' io parlai, 
ov' ha il vicario di Pietro Ie piante. 
Trema forse più giù poco od assai ; 
ma, per vento che in terra si nasconda, 
non so come, quassù non tremò mai. 
Trell1aci quando alcuna anima monda 
sentesi, sì che surga, 0 che si mova 
per salir su, e tal grido seconda. 
Della mondizia sol voler fa prova, 
che, tutta libera a mutar convento, 
l' aln1a sorprende, e di voler Ie giova. 
Prima vuol ben; n1a non lascia il talento 
che divina giustizia contra voglia, 
come fu al peccar, pone al tormento. 
Ed io che son giaciuto a questa doglia 
cinquecento anni e più, pur mo sentii 
libera volontà di mig]ior soglia. 
Però sentisti il tremoto, e Ii pii 
spiriti per 10 monte render lode 
a quel Signor, che tosto su gl' invii." 
Così ne disse; e però ch' ei si gode 
tanto del ber quant' è grande la sete, 
non saprei dir quant' ei rni fece prode 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


7 1 


7 



CANTO XXI 


26 3 


ere it is free from all terrestrial change; that The 
h o 1 H 0 0 0 If fi 0 If avaricIOus 
W IC 1 eaven receives Into Itse rom Itse and the 
nlay here operate as cause, and naught else: prodigal 
o h 0 h 0 1 d Statius 
lce nelt er raIn, nor aI, nor snow, nor ew, continues 
nor hoarfrost, falls any higher than the short I d 1 !s 
o 0 IS course 
lIttle staIrway of the three steps. on the 
d d h o 1 0 h . earthquake 
ou s, ense or t In, appear not, nor Ig tnIng and its 
flash, nor '-fhaumas' daughter, who yonder oft cause 
changes her region.. 
ry vapour rises not higher than the top of the 
three steps which I spake of, where Peter's 
vicar hath his feet. 
quakes perchance lower down Jittle or much, but 
by reason of wind which is hidden in the earth, 
I know not how, it has never quaked up here. 
quakes here when some soul feeleth herself 
cleansed, so that she may rise up, or set forth, to 
mount on high, and such a shout follows her. 
f the cleansing the will alone gives proof, ,vhich 
fills the soul, all free to change her cloister, 
and avails her to will. 
le wills indeed before, but that desire permits it 
not which divine justice sets, counter to ,vil1, 
to\vard the penalty, even as it ,vas toward the 
sin. 
nd I who have lain under this torment five 
t hundred years and more, only now felt 
free will for a better threshold. 
n.erefore didst thou feel the earthquake, and hear 
the pious spirits about the mount give praises 
to that Lord-soon may he send them above." 
JUS he spake to us; and since we en joy Blost 
the draught in proportion as our thirst is great, 
I could not tell ho,v much he profited me. 



264 


PURGATORIO 


Girone vEil savio duca: "Omai veggio la rete 
che qui vi piglia, e come si scalappia, 
per che ci trema, e di che congaudete. 
Ora chi fosti piacciati ch' io sappia, 
e, perchè tanti secoli giaciuto 
qui sei, nelle parole tue mi cappia." 
" Nel tempo che il buon Tito con I' aiuto 
del sommo Rege vendicò Ie fora, 
ond' uscì il sangue per Giuda venduto, 
col nome che più dura e più onora 
era io di là," rispose quello spirto, 
" famoso assai, ma non con fede ancora. 
Tanto fu dolce mio vocale spirto, 
che, T olosano, a sè rni trasse Roma, 
dove mertai Ie temDie ornar di mirto. 
.t 
Stazio la gente ancor di là mi nOD1a ; 
cantai di Tebe, e poi del grande Achille, 
ma caddi in via con la seconda soma. 
Al mio ardor fur serne Ie faville, 
che n1i scaJdar, della divina fiamma, 
onde sono allumati più di mille : 
dell' Eneida dieo, la qual n1amma 
fummi, e fummi nutrice poetando ; 
senz' essa non fermai peso di dramma. 
E, per esser vivuto di là quando 
visse Virgilio, assentirei un sole 
più che non deggio al mio uscir di ban do. " 
V oiser Virgilio a me queste parole 
con viso che, tacendo, dicea: "T aci. " 
Ma non può tutto la virtù che vuole : 
chè riso e pianto son tanto seguaci 
alla passion da che ciascun si spicca, 
che men seguon voler nei più veraci. 


I 


I 


II 



CANTO XXI 


26 5 


A.nd the wise Leader: " Now I see the net that The 
h h d h b k h h avaricious 
catc es you ere, an ow one rea s t roug , and the 
wherefore it quakes here, and wher
at ye n1ake prodigal 
glad together. 
N ow may it please thee that I know who thou 
,vast; and why thou hast lain here so many 
ages, let me learn from thy words." 
;, What tin1e the good Titus with help of the Statius 
H o h TTO d h d h narrates 
Ig est .l
lng avenge t e woun s w ence his history 
issued the blood by Judas sold, 
with the name which most endures, and honours 
most," ans\vered that spirit, "I was yonder, 
great in fame, but not yet with faith. 
So sweet was the n1usÌc of mv ,vords, that me, 
a Toulousian, Rome drew t
 herself, where I 
did n1erit a crown of myrtle for my brow. 
Statius folk yonder still do nan1e n1e; I sang of 
Thebes, and then of the great Achilles; but 
I fell by the way with the second burden. 
The sparks, \vhich warmed me, from the divine His 
fl d b reverence 
ame whence more than a thousan have een for Virgil 
kindled, were the seeds of my poetic fire: 
, of the Æneid. I speak, which was a n10ther to 
l' me, and was to me a nurse in poesy; \vithout 
it I had not stayed the weight of a drachm. 
3 And to have lived yonder, when Virgil \vas alive, 
I I would consent to one sun more than I owe 
to my coming forth fron1 exile." 
These words turned Virgil to me with a look 
that silently said: "Be silent." But the 
virtue which wills is not all powerful; 
for laughter and tears follow so closely the 
passion from which each springs, that they 
least obey tLe will in the most truthful. 



266 


PURGATORIO 


Girone V 10 pur sorrisi, come I' uom ch' ammicca: 
per che I' on1bra si tacque, e riguardommi 
negli occhi, ove il sembi ante più si ficca. 
E "Be tanto lavoro in bene asson1mi," 
disse, " perchè la faccia tua testeso 
un lampeggiar di riso dimostrommi ? " 
Or son io d' una parte e d' aItra preso : 
I' una mi fa tacer, l' altra scongiura 
ch' io dica; ond' io sospiro, e sono inteso 
dal mio maestro; e "Non aver paura," 
mi disse, "di padar; ma parla, e digli 
quel ch' ei domanda con cotanta cura." 
Ond' io: "Forse che tu ti maravigli, 
antico spirto, del rider ch' io fei ; 
ma più d' ammirazion yO' che ti pigli. 
Questi, che guida in alto gli occhi miei, 
è quel Virgilio, dal qua] tu tog]iesti 
forza a cantar degli uomini e de' Dei. 
Se cagione altra al mio rider credesti, 
lasciala per non vera esser e credi 
queUe parole che di lui dicesti." 
Già si chinava ad abbracciar Ii piedi 
al mio dottor; n1a egJi disse: "Frate, 
non far, chè tu se' ombra, ed ombra vedi." 
Ed ei surgendo: "Or puoi la quantitate 133 
con1prender dell' amor ch' a te mi scalda, 
quandù dismento nostra vanitate, 
trattando I' ombre come cosa salda." 


10 


II: 


II! 


II
 


121 


12 4 


12 7 


13 0 


13 6 


I. Dante begins his C01lvito by quoting Aristotle's 
'words (Metaphysics, i. I), that "all m(>n naturally 
desire knowledge." 
2, 3. See JOh'l iv. 7-15: "Whosoever drinketh of 
the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; 



CANTO XXI 


267 


did but smile, like one who makes a sign; The 0 0 
h h h d O l d 1 k d avaricIous 
W ereat t e s a e was SI ent an 00 e at and the 
me in the eyes, where most the soul is fixed. prodigal 
\. d h O d S I 0 1 h o Statius 
n e sal : " 0 may sue 1 great tal ac leve and Virgil 
its end; v/herefore did thy face but now 
display to me a flash of laughter? " 

 ow am I caught on either side; one makes me 
keep silence, the other conjures me to speak; 
wherefore I sigh and am understood 
)y my Master, and he said to me, "Have no fear 
of speaking, but speak, and tell him that which 
he asketh with so great desire." 

Vherefore I: "Perchance thou dost marvel, 0 
ancient spirit, at the laugh I gave, but I desire 
that yet greater wonder seÍze thee. 
:-Ie who guideth mine eyes on high, is that 
Virgil from whom thou drewest power to 
sing of men and gods. 
[f thou didst believe other cause for n1Y laughter, 
set it aside as untrue, and believe it was those 
words which thou spakest of him." 

lrcady was he stooping to enlbrace my Teacher's 
. - feet; but he said: " Brother, do not so
 for 
thou art a shade and a shade thou seest." 
f\nd he, rising: "N O\V canst thou comprehend 
the n1easure of the love which wanllS me 
toward thee, when I forget our nothingness, 
and treat shades as a solid thing." 


o 0 0 r-rhe 'woman saith unto him, Sir: give me this 
vvater, that I thirst not 0 0 ." 
7-90 Luke xxiv. I 3- 15 : "i\.nd, behold, two of them 
went that same day to a village called Emmaus, \vhich 
was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongso And 



268 


NOTES 


they talked together of all these things which ha 
happened. And it came to pass, that, while the: 
communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drev 
near, and went with them." 
10 sqq. This is the poet Statius, \vho remains wit} 
Dante till the end of the Cantica (see below, Cant. 
xxxiii. 134, 135). He '\vas born at Naples about th 
year 50, and died there ca. 96. In making Statius : 
native of Toulouse ('V. 89) Dante follo'ws a commOJ 
medieval error, probably due to a confusion with th 
poet's contemporary, Lucius Statius, the rhetorician 
\vho really was born at Toulouse. The poet livec 
mostly at Rome (cv. 89) during the reign of VespasiaI 
(69-79), whose son, Titus, captured Jerusalem in th. 
year 70 (cv'V. 82.-84; if Par. vi. 92., 93 and vii.). Th. 
nome of 'V. 85 is, of course, that of poet. Statius wa 
author of the Thebaid and of the Achilleid, a fragmen 
('V'll. 92., 93), which deal with the expedition of tht 
Seven against r-rhebes and the Trojan war, respec. 
tively, and with which Dante was well acquainted 
[The MS. of the Sil'Vae was not discovered till th( 



CANTO XXI 


26 9 


ginning of the 15th century]. For cu. 68, see the 
llowing canto, "lICU. 92., 93.-ma non con fcde ancora ("lI. 
"): see the following canto, V'll. 59-91. 
15. The early commentators, who probably knew 

st, say that the regular "countersign" con- 
;ted of the words-Et cum spiritu tuo, "And with 
y spirit." 
2.5-2.7. Clotho prepared the thread of life, which 
as spun by Lachesis and cut by Atropos (if. In}'. 

 xiii. 2.6; Purge xxv. 79). 
3 0 . Being still chained to its body. 
33. Çf. above, Canto xviii. 4 6 -4 8 . 
44. A human soul (see above, Canto xvi. 8 S 
''1. ). 
50, 51. Iris, the daughter of Thaumas and Electra. 
1 classical mythology she personified the rain bow, 
ad ,vas represented as the messenger of the gods 
f. Par. xii. 10-12., xxviii. 32.,33, xxxiii. 118). 
64. Compare the distinction made between the 
bsoîute and the practical 'v ill. in Par. iv. 100- 11 4. 



PURGA TORIO 


T HE pilgrims have already begun to mount t} 
stair that leads to the sixth circle. Anoth 
P has been struck by an angel-wing frOln Dantt 
brow, and the blessing pronounced on those th 
thirst after righteousness (1-6). Virgil, wi th friend 
insistance, presses to know how so great a soul i 
that of Statius could have harboured so puny a vie 
as avarice; whereon the other acknowledges with 
smile the tender friendliness which this very pe 
plexity implies, but answers that the keen scent e 
friendship is this time follo'wing a false track, for 
is prodigality, not avarice, that has kept him mOl 
than five hundred years a prisoner in the fifth circlt 
where the two opposing sins are punished togethe1 
Nor had he escaped the pains of Hell for his offence 
though committed in ignorance, had he not read 
hidden warning in lines of Virgil's own (7-54). Virg: 
goes on to ask how Statius became a Christian, fo 
there is no indication in his poems of his conversion 
and Statius answers that it was Virgil's self who 
like one passing through the night, bearing a lanterJ 

alita al Già era l' angel retro a noi rimaso, 
Glfone VI l' an ael che n' a yea volti al sesto g iro 
b , 
avendomi dal visa un colpo rasa; 
e quei ch' hanno a giustizia lor disiro, 
detto n' avea beati, c Ie sue voci 
con sitiunt, senz' altro, cÍò forniro. 
Ed io, più lieve che per l' aItre foci, 
m' andava sì che senza alcun labare 
seguiva in su gli spiriti veloci ; 
quando Virgilio cominciò: "Amore, 
acceso di virtù, sempre altro accesc, 
pur che la flamma sua paresl:ìe [uore: 
27 0 


IC 



CANTO XXII 


)ehind him, had lightened the path for the feet of 
)thers, though not for his own. It was that pro- 
>hetic Eclogue which had revealed the truth to him, 
.nd won his sympathy for the persecuted saints; 
)ut he concealed his faith, and had atoned for his 
aggard love in the circle of the slothful for over 
our hundred years (55-93). Statius in his turn 
lO'W questions Virgil as to the fate of other Latin 
wets, and Virgil tells him of the sad and noble life 
n Limbo, of the Greek and Latin poets there, and 
If the heroic souls whose story Statius himself had 
old (94-114). It is past ten o'clock in the morning 
vhen the pilgrims issue upon the sixth terrace, and, 
'lith the tacit approval of Statius, follow their usual 
ourse with the sun counter-clock'wise, Dante eagerly 
tearkening to the converse of the two Latin poets 
115-129). This is the circle of the gluttons; and 
he pilgrims encounter a wondrous tree, fruit-laden, 
nd bedewed 'with clear water from a neighbouring 
all. from the midst of the foliage of which a voice 
'ecites examples of abstinence (130-154). 


\lready was the angel left behind us, the angel The 
that had turned us to the sixth circle, havin g A L !1 b gel O l .f t 
l 1 era 1 y 
erased a scar from my face, 

nd had said to us that those who have their de- The fifth 
sire to righteousness were blessed, and his words Beatitude 
accoll1plished that with sitiut/t, and naught else. 
\nd I, lighter than by the other passages, went on 
so that without any toil I was following the 
fleet spirits upward, 
vhen Virgil began: "Love, kindled by virtue; 
hath ever kindled other love, ir but its flame 
\vere sho.wn forth : 


27 1 



27 2 


PURGATORIO 


Salita al onde, daB' ora che tra noi discese 
Girone VI nellimbo dello inferno Juvenale, 
che la tua affezion mi fe' palese, 
mia benvoglienza inverso te fu quale 
più strinse n1ai di non vista persona, 
sÌ ch' or n1i parran corte queste scale. 
Ma dimmi, e come ami co mi perdona 
se troppa s
curtà m: allarga il. freno, 
e come amiCO omal meco reglona : 
Come potè trovar dentro al tuo seno 
loco avarizia, tra cotanto senno 
di quanto, per tua cura, fosti pieno4l..? " 
Queste parole .Stazi? mover !en
o 
un poco a nso pna; pOSCIa fIspose : 
" Ogni tuo dir d' amor n1' è carD cenno. 
Veramente più volte appaion cose, 
che danno a du bitar falsa matera, 
per Ie vere rag ion che sono ascose. 
La tua don1anda tuo creder m' avvera 
esser ch' io fossi avaro in I' altra vita, 
forse per quella cerchia dov' io era. 
Or sappi ch' a varizia fu partita 
troppo da me, e questa dismisura 
migliaia di lunari hanno punita ; 
e, se non Fosse ch' io drizzai n1Ïa cura, 
quand' io intesi là dove tu esclame, 
crucciato quasi all' umana natura: 
'Perchè non reggi tu, 0 sacra fame 
dell' oro, ]' appetito de' mortali ? ' 
voltando sentirei Ie giostre gran1e. 
Allor m' accorsi che troppo aprir }' ali 
potean Ie n1åni a spendere, e pente' nli 
così di quel come degli altri mali. 


I 


I 


1 


2 


2 


:2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


&1 



CANTO XXII 


273 


hercfore from that hour when Juvenal, who The 
in of 
made thy affection manifest to me, descended Stabus 
anlong us in the limbo of Hell 
y goodwill towards thee hath been such as 
never yet did bind to an unseen person, so that 
now these stairs will seem short to me. 
ut tell me, and as a friend forgive me if too 
great confidence slacken nl y rein, and talk with 
me now as with a friend : 
'ow could avarice find place in thy breast, amid 
so much ,visdom as by thy diligence thou wast 
I filled with
'-' 
hese words first moved Statius a little to 
laughter; then he answered: "Every word 
of thine is a prècious token of love to me. 
ruly many times things appear that give false 
matter for doubting, because of the true reasons 
which are hidden. 
hy qu
stion proves to me thy belief to be, that 
I was avaricious in the other life, perchance 
because of that circle where I was. 
)w know that avarice was too far parted frolIl 
I me, and this excess thousands of moons have 

 punished ; 
7 :l were it not that I set straight my inclination, 
when I gave heed to the' lines where thou ex- 
claimest, angered as 'twere against human nature: 
IJ Vherefore dost thou not regulate the lust of 
mortals, 0 hallowed hunger of gold? ' -at the 
rolling I should feel the grievous jousts. 
I len I perceived that our hands could open 
their ,vings too ,vide in spending, and I 
. epented of that as well as of other sins. 
s 



274 


PURGATORIO 


Salita at Quanti risurgeran coi crini scemi, 
Girone VI per ignoranza, che di questa pecca 
toglie il penter vivendo, e negli estremi 1 
E sappi che la colpa, che rimbecca 
per dritta opposizione alcun peccato, 
con esso insieIne qui suo verde see ca. 
Però, s' io son tra quella gente stato 
che piange I' avarizia, per purgarmi, 
I . , , . " 
per 0 contrano suo D1 e 111Contrato. 
to, Or quand 0 tu eantasti le crude arn1i 
della doppia tristizia di Joeasta," 
disse il cantor de' bueolici carmi,.. 
" per quello che Cliò teeo lì tasta, 
non par che ti facesse ancor fedele. 
la fè, sen za la qual ben far non basta. 
Se così è, qual sole 0 quai eandele 
ti stenebraron sì, che tu drizzasti 
pas cia di retro al pescator Ie vele?" 
Ed egli a lui: "Tu prima m' inviasti 
verso Parnaso a ber nelle sue grotte, 
e poi appresso Dio m' allulninasti. 
F acesti come quei che va di notte, 
che porta il IUD1e retro e sè non giova, 
ll1a dopo sè fa Ie persone dotte, 
quando dicesti: 'Secol si rinnova ; 
torna giustizia e primo tempo umano, 
e progenie discende dal ciel nuova.' 
Per te poeta fui, per te cristiano; 
n1a perchè veggi me' ciò ch' io disegno, 
a colorarë stenderò la mano. 
Già era il mondo tutto quanto pregno 
della vera credenza, seminata 
per Ii messaggi dell' eterno regno; 



CANTO XXII 


275 


-:I ow many will rise again with shorn locks, The .sin of 
through ignorance, which taketh away repent- StatIns 
ance of this sin during life and at the last hour! 
\.nd know that the offence which repels any sin 
by its direct opposite, here, together with it, 
dries up its luxuriance. 
rherefore if I, to purge me, have been among 
that people who be\vail avarice, this hath 
befallen me because of its contrary." 
, Now when thou didst sing of the savage strife His 
on- 
f J ' c ld ". d 1 . verSIOn to 
o ocasta s t\VOrO sorrow, sal t )e tnnger Chris- 
of the Bucolic lays, tianity 

 by that which Clio touches with thee there, it 
seems not that faith had yet made thee faithful, 
without which good works are not enough. 
I f this be so, what sun or \vhat candles dispelled 
the darkness for thee, so that thou didst there- 
after set thy sails to follow the Fisherman?" 
\.nd he to him: "Thou first didst send me 
towards Parnassus to drink in its caves, and 
then didst light me on to God. ; 

hou didst like one \vho goes by night, and 
carries the light behind hiln, and profits not him... 
self, but maketh persons wise that follow him, 
,hen thou saidst: ,"rhe world is renewed, 
justice returns and the first age of man, and a 
new progeny descends from I heaven.' 
'hrough thee I was a poet, through thee a 
Christian, but that thou mayst see better \v hat. 
I outline! will put forth my hand to fill in colour. 

lready the w)1ole world was big with the true 
belief, sown by the apostles of the everlasting 
kingdom; 



276 


PURGATORIO 


Salita al e la parola tua sopra toccata 
Girone VI, 0 0 d o 0 
SI consonava al nuoVI pre leantl, 
ond' io a visitarli presi usata. 
V enner
i poi parendo tanto santi, 
ehe, quando Domizian Ii perseguette, 
senza mio lagrimar non fur lor pianti. 
E mentre ehe di là per me si stette, 
io Ii "sovvenni, e lor dritti costumi 
fer dispregiare a me tutte altre sette; 
e pria eh'io conducessi i Greei ai fiumi 
di Tebe, poetando, ebb' io battesmo ; 
ma per paura chiuso eristian fu' mi 
lungamente n10strando paganesmo ; 
e questa tepidezza il quarto cerehio 
cerehiar mi fe' più eh' al quarto eentesmo. 
Tu dunque, che levato hai il eoperehio 
che m' aseondeva quanto bene io dieo, 
mentre che del salire avem soperchio, 
din1mi dov' è Terenzlo oostro antico, 
Cecilio, Plauto e Varro, se 10 sai ; 
dimmi se son dannati, ed in qual vieo." 
"Costoro, e Persio, ed io, e altri assai," 
rispose il duea n1io, "siam con quel Greco 
che Ie Muse lattar più ch' altro mai, 
nel primo einghio del earcere eieeo. 
Spesse fiate ragionian1 del monte, 
che sempre ha Ie nutriei nostre seeo. 
Euripide v' è nosco ed Antifonte, 
Simonide, Agatone ed altri piùe 
Greei, che già di lauro ornar la fronte. 
Quivi si veggion delle genti tue 
Antigone, Deifile ed Argia, 
ed Ismene sì trista come fue. 


J 



CANTO XXII 


277 


I nd thy words, touched on above, harmonised so Statius'. 
\vith the new preachers, that the habit took 
glCh:i
l
n 
me of visiting them. tianity 
I ['hey then became so holy in my sight, that 
when Don1itian persecuted them, their wail- 
ings were not \vithout tears of mine. 
I \.nd \vhile by me yon world \vas trod, I succoured 
them, and their righteous lives made me despise 
all other sects; 
nd ere in my poem I had brought the Greeks 
to 1'hebes' rivers, I received baptism, but 
through fear I was a secret Christian, 
long time pretendin g paganism; and this luke- 
warmness made me speed round the fourth circle 
more than four times a hundred years. 
I fhou therefore, who hast lifted the covering The 
h o 1 h O d r. h d I 11 f. worthies of 
W IC 1 1 Irom me t e great goo te 0, antiquity 
\\rhile we have time to spare on the ascent, 
e11 lne, where is our ancient Terence, Cæcilius, 
, Plautus, and Varro if thou knowest; tell me 
if they are damned, and in what ward." 
"'fhey, and Persius, and I, and many others," 
my Leader answered, " are with that Greek 
to whom the Muses gave suck more than to 
any other, 
l n the first circle of the dark prison. Ofttimes 
we talk of the mount which hath our foster- 
n10thers ever \vith it. 

uripjdes is there with us, and Antiphon, 
Sin10nides, Agathon, and many other Greeks, 
I who once decked their brows with laurel. 
Virgin 
'here are 
een of thy people Antigone, ..ry 
Deiphyle and Argia, and ISlnene so sad as 
she was. 


_ 
....J 
,)les 
nper- 



27 8 


PURGATORIO 



alita al V cdesi quell a che mostrò Langia; 
Glrone VI evvi Ia figlia di Tiresia, e T"eti, 
e con Ie suore sue Deidamia." 
Tacevansi ambo e due gia Ii poeti, 
di nuovo attenti a riguardare intorno, 
Girone VI liberi dal salire e dai pareti; 
e già Ie quattro ancelle eran del giorno 
rimase addietro, e la quinta era al temo, 
drizzando pure in su ]' ardente corno ; 
quando il mio duca: "10 credo ch' aHo estremo I::i 
Ie destre spalle volger ci convegna, 
girando il monte come far soleulo." 
CosÌ I' usanza fu lì nostra insegna, 
e prendemmo Ia via con men sospetto 
per I' assentir di quell' anima degna. 
Elli givan dinanzi, ed io BoIetto 
diretro, ed ascoltava i lor sermoni 
ch' a poetar mi davano intelletto. 
Ma tosto ruppe Ie dolci ragio"ni 
un arbor che trovamrno in mezza strada, 
con pomi ad 'odorar soavi e buoni. 
E come abete in alto si digrada 
di ramo in ramo, così quello in giuso, 
cred' io perchè persona su non vada. 
Dal lato, onde il cammin nostro era chiuso, I
 
cadea dell' aha roc cia un liquor chiaro, 
e si spandeva per Ie fog lie BUSO. 
Li due poeti all' arbor 8' appressaro; 
ed una voce per entro Ie Fronde 
gridÒ: "Di questo cibo avrete caro." 
Poi disse: "Più pensava Maria onde 
fasser Ie nozze orrevoli ed intere, 
ch' alla sua bocca, ch' or per voi risponde. 


II 


II 


II 


I:;; 


I
 


I
 


I; 


I: 


r" 



CANTO XXII 


279 


l 



here is seen she \vho sho\ved L angia; there is The 
T " " , d h d Th " d D " d "worthies of 
Ireslas aug ter, an etls, an el amJa antiquity 
with her sisters." 

 ow \vere both poets si1ent, intent anew on 
gazing around, freed fron1 the ascent and 
from the \va]]s; The 
" gluttonous 
nd already four handmaids of the da y were 
left behind, and the fifth was at the chariot 
pole, directing yet up\vard its Raming horn, 
,hen n1Y Leader: "I' think it behoves us to 
turn our right shoulders to the ed ge and 
circle the mount as \ve are wont to do." 

hus cust001 there was our guide, and \ve took 
up our \vay \virh less doubt because of the 
assent of that worthy spirit. 

"hey journeyed on in front, and I, solitary, 
behinJ; and I hearkened to their discourse 
which gave n1e understanding in poesy. 
3ut soon the sweet. converse was broken by The pro- 
a tree which we found in the midst of the way, fh"::: o
:
 
\\iith fruit \vholeson1'e--and pleasant to s01ell. is hindered 
\ d -
 . d 1 1 I by a tree 
"1..n even as a pIne tree gro\\'s gra ua IY ess 
from bough to bough up1.vards, so did that 
downwards; I think so that none may go up. 
)n the side \\Jrhere our path was blocked, a clear 
spring fell from the high rock and spread 
itself above over the leaves. 
rhe t\vo_poets drew near the tree; and a voice from wþich 
Ii . h " 1 J:" I " " d Of h " r d are recited 
rom \Vlt In t 1e rO lage cne :" t IS rOO Examples 
ye shan have scarcity." of Temper- 
fh " " d M h h ance- 
en It sal :" ary thought more ow t e Th V . " 
d " , e lrgm 
\ved lng-feast nlight be honourable and com- Mary 
plete, th1n of her own mouth, \vhich now 
answers for you. 



280 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI E Ie Romane antiehe per lor bere [4 
eontente furon d' aequa, e Daniello 
dispregiò eibo ed aequistò sapere. 
Lo seeo] prio1o quant' oro fu bello; 14 
fe' saporose con falne Ie ghiande, 
e nettare can sete ogni ruseello. 
Mele e Iocuste furon Ie vivande 15 
ehe nutriro il Batista nel diserto ; 
per eh' egii è glorioso, e tanto grande 
quanto per l' Evangelio v' è aperto." 15 
4-6. Matt. v. 6: Beati qui [esuriullt etJ sitiUl, 
;ustitiam; "Blessed are they ,vhich do [h unger and 
thirst after righteousness." The words of thi 
Beatitude that have been placed in square bracket 
are reserved for the Angel of the sixth terrace (se- 
below
 Canto xxiv. 151-154). 
13. Juvenal, the satirist, lived ca. 47-130; h 
praises Statius in the seventh Satire, 'V. 82 sqq. 
37-42. Dante frequently misunderstood the classica 
Latin writers. He evidently read them with the sam. 
ease and security and the same keen appreciation bu 
frequent misconception with which an Englishman 
who has made no special study of Elizabethal 
I English, re
ds Shakec;peare. But if he really tool 
Virgil's quid non mortalia pect'Jra cogis Auri sacra fames (Æn 
Hi. 56, 57) to mean that a moderate, and therefor. 
hallowed, desire for wealth ought to moderate ex 
travag-ance, it constitutes a more portentous blunde 
in Laiinity than any other that can be brought horn. 
to him. Many ingenious attempts have been mad. 
to escape this; but the only legitimate one is t< 
suppose that Dante, while understanding the sens. 
in which Virgil uttered the words, considered him 
self justified in supposing that his writings, like th, 
Scripture, had many senses, and that for purposes 0, 
edification we must look into all the possible mean. 
ings that any passage might have apart from tht 
context in which it occurs. [For the context 0 
the passage in question, see above, Canto xx. I 15 
note]. And, as a matter of fact, this was tht 



CANTO XXI I 


281 


t\.nd the Roman \vomen of old were content The 
. h e h . d . k d D . I d . d gluttonous.. 
'Vlt ,vater lor t elf nn ,an anle esplse Examples 
food and gained wisdom. of Temper- 
r fi c . Id . d ance- 
he rst age was raIr as go ; It ma e acorns The Roman 
savoury with hunger, and every stream nectar D
r;;i
ï and 
with thirst. The Golden 
Honey and locusts were the me
t \vhich nourished fo\
 the 
the Baptist in the wilderness; therefore he is Baptist 
glorious, and so great as in the Gospel is 
revealed to you. 

enerally received theory in Dante's day.- Verse 42. 
dludes to the punishment of the Avaricious and 
?rodigal in Hell (see ITif: vii. 2,2, sqq. ). 
4 6 . q. Inf. vii. 56, 57. 
+9-51. The idea of virtue being the mean between \ 
.\VO extremes is, of course, the guiding principle of , 
:\.ristotle's Ethics, but it does not harmonise well 
Nith the Christian scheme, which regarded many 

xtrenles that Aristotle actually or hypothetically 

ondemned, as virtues. In the Christian scheme, for 
nstance, there could be no excess of self.denial or of 
lumiiity. In his abstract ethical sympathies, if not 
n his concrete instincts, Dante is far more Christian 
:han Aristotelian, and can therefore find no room for 
:he consistent application of the Aristotelian doctrine, 
Nhich is indeed conspicuous by its absence from the 
Commcdia. But here, where he finds a concrete 
nstance which appeals to him, he takes the oppor- 
:unity of expressing it as a general principle. 
55-60. Jocasta, the mother, and afterwards the wife, 
)f Oedipus, by whom she had the two sons alluded 

o in Inf. xxvi. 53, 54 (see noté). Virgil (here called 
:antor dc' bucolici carmi, probably in anticipation of the 
\Terses from his fourth Eclogue quoted below) is not 
referring to the invocation to Clio, the Muse of 
History, with which the Thcbaid begins, but to the 
pagan theme and entirely pagan treatnlent of the 
\vhole poem. 
63. pcscator, "the Fisherman," i.e. St Peter. 



282 


NOTES 


66-73. Magnus ah integro st2culorllm na...citur ordo Jûm 
redit et 'lllrgo, redmnt Saturf1ia regna,. Jam nO'lJa progenies 
cælo demittitllr alto (Virgil, Eclogue iv. 5-7). No one 
who reads Virgil's fourth Eclogue can fail to be 
impressed by its similarity to " Messianic" passages 
of the Old Testament, particularly Isaiah. it is easy 
to understand that it ,vas universally accepted as a 
divinely inspired prophetic utterance in the Middle 
Ages. It seems probable that, as a matter of fact, 
the poem is an inùirect imitation of Isaiah, for the 
Jews of Alexandria wrote a number of Sibylline 
verses; that is to say, Greek hexameters embodying 
their religious ideas, and largely based on Scripture. 
which they put into the mouths of the Sibyls. Some 
of these date from pre-Christian times, and Virgil 
may well have come across them, have been struck 
by them, and have combined them with features of 
the pagan tradition in this remarkable poem. 
83. The Emperor Domitian (81-96) is accused by 
Eusebius and Tertullian of having cruelly persecuted 
the Christians; but there is no conten1porary evidence 
of this. 
88, 89. With these words Statius is generally sup- 
posed to indicate the en tire Thehaid
 not any particular 
episode in the poem. We have no record of Statius. 
conversion. 
97-108. All these writers, divided into two groups, 
Roman and Greek respectively, are in Limho, together 
with Homer ('lJ'lJ. 101-103). Verses 104 and 105 
refer, of course, to Mount Parnassus and the Muses. 
Terence (195-159
 B.C.), Caecilius Statius (d. 168, 
B.C.), Plautus (:2.54-184, B.C.): COlllic poets; Varro 
(born 82., B.C.): author of epics and satires [perhaps 
the reading should be /Tario; in which case the 
reference is to Lucius Varius Rufus, author of a 
tragedy and epics, who lived in the Augustan Age 
and is mentioned by Horace, Ars Poet., 54, 55, 
together with Caecilius and PlautusJ; Persins 
(34- 6 2.): the satirist.--Euripides (480-441, B.C.), 
An tiphon and Agathon (ca. 448-400, B.C.): tragic 
poets; Sin10n ides (ca. 556 -46 7, B.C.): lyric poet. 
109-114. The genti of Statius are the people he. 
celebrates in the Thebaid and Achi/leid:- 



CANTO XXI I 


28 3 


Antigone and Ismene: daughters of Oedipus, by 
s nlother Jocasta, and sisters of Eteocles and 
)lynices (see above, <v<v. 55-60, note); Deiphile (the 
other of Diomed) and Argia (the '\vife of Polynices): 
.ughters of Adrastus, K.ing of Argos; Hypsipyle 
'. 112; if. Inf. xviii. 91-95) to ,vhom Lycurgus 
Ld entrusted his son, Archemorus, directed the 
ven heroes who fought against Thebes to a fountain 
lled Langia, and, the child having been killed by a 
rpent in her absence, Lycurgus would have slain 

r, had not her ,sons came to the rescue (see belo'w, 
lnto xxvi. 94, 95, and qf Con<v. iii. I I: 165- I 69) ; for 
iresias and his daughter Manto, see Inf xx. 40-45, 

 .rqq. and 55-93, note; for Thetis and Deidamia, 
e Iiff. xxvi. 6 I, 62, note. 
118-120. It is past 10 A.M. Çf above, Canto xii. 
81. 
131-138. Some comlnentators hold that because 
Ie companion tree, situated at .the end of the terrace, 
as raised from the tree of knowledge of good and 
ril (see belo'\v, Canto xxiv. 116,117), the present 
ee must have some connection with the tree of life 
;en. ii. 9)' TIu t this appears some,vhat dOll btflli. 
142-144. Dante has used this incident once already, 
i an example of generosity (see above, Canto xiii. 

-30). 
Lt 5, 14 6 . l'homas Aquinas, in a pasRage recom- 
ending sobriety to women and young people, 
l10tes the words of Valerius Maxinlus (II. i. 3.): 
,ni usus olim roman is fæminis ignotlls fuit. 
14 6 , 147, See ])an. i. 8, 17: "But Daniel purposed 
I his heart that he would not defile himself with 
Ie portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which 

 drank: . . . and Daniel had understanding in all 
sions and dreams." 
14 8 - 1 5 0 . For the Golden Age, if. I,!/. xiv. 96, 106 
1d 112, and Purge xxviii. 139-144. See, too, Ovid, 
1et. i. 103 sqq., whose description Dante may have 
ld in mind. I 
151-154. For the locusts and honey eaten by John 
Ie Baptist, see Matt. iii. 4, Mark i. 6; and for his 
lory and greatness, see Matt. xi. II, Luke vii. 2.8. 



PURGA TORIO 


D ANTE'S eyes sparch the foliage of the tree ti 
he is summoned to ad vance by Virgil. ThE 
he hears the cry, at once grievous and soothing, of d 
souls who presently overtake the trav
llers and turn t 
look upon them as they pass, though without pausin 
(1-21). These are the once gluttonous souls, wit 
faces now drawn by thirst and hunger, so emaciatE 
that the extremest examples of famine in sacred ( 
profane records rush to Dante's mind. Their ey( 
sockets are like rings that have lost their gems; an 
he who reads omo (homo) ffi on the face of man woul 
find the three strokes of the m writ plain enough i 
the gaunt bones of cheek and nose (22- 33). How ca 
the fruit and trickling water work in such fashio 
on the shadowy forms? (34-39). One of them turn 
his eyes from deep down in the sockets upon Dan tt 
who, ,vhen he speaks, recognises his old companio! 
Forese; and each of the astonished friends demand 


Girone VI Mentre che gli occhi per la fronda verde 
fie cava io cosi, come far suo Ie 
chi retro agli uccellin sua vita perde, 
10 più che padre mi dicea: "F igliuole, 
vienne oramai, chè il tempo che c' è impasto 
più utilmente compartir si vuole." 
10 volsi il viso e il passo non men tosto 
appresso ai savi, che parlavan sìe 
che l' andar mi facean di nullo costo. 
Ed ecco piangere e cantar s' udie : 
"Labia mea Don-line," per n10do 
tal che dilctto e doglia parturìe. 
"0 dolce padre, che è quel ch' i' odo? " 
comincia' io; ed egli: "Ombre che vanno 
forse di lor dover solvendo i1 nodo." 
28 4 


Ie 


I:: 



CANTO XXIII 


riority of satisfaction for his own amazed curiosity 
4-0-60). Forese explains that there are other trees 
I ke to this, and that each renews the pain of the 
urging souls; nay, rather their solace; for they 
xult in crucifying with Christ the old Adam in 
hem (61-75). Forese further shows how he owes 

 his widowed Nella his speedy promotion to the 
weet bitterness of torment. She is all the dearer to 
}od in proportion to the loneliness of her virtue in 
he place of infamy in which she Ii ves (76-96). Forese 
t roceeds to denounce the dissolute fashions of the 
I {omen of Florence (97-1 II). Dante must now in 
I .is turn unfold the story of how he had been rescued 
rom the worldly life which he and Forese had once 
ived together, of' the strange journey on which 
Tirgil has conducted him, of the promise that he 
hall meet Beatrice, and of the manner in which 
hey have encountered Statius (I 12-133). 


Nhile I was thus fixing mine eyes through the The 
green leaves, even as he is wont to do who gluttonous 
throws away his life after birds, 
oy more than father said to n1e: "Son, come 
now onward, for the time which is allotted to 
us must be more usefully apportioned." 

 turned my face, and nlY step not less quickly, 
towards the sages, who were discoursing so 
that they made the going of no cost to me. 

nd 10, in tears and song was heard: "Lahia mea 
Domi1le," in such manner that it gave birth to 
joy and grief. 
;, 0 s\veet Father, what is that which I hear? " 
began I; and he: "Shades that perchance 
go loosening the knot of their debt." 


28S 



286 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI Sì come i peregrin pensosi fanno, 
giugnendo per camn1in gente non nota, 
che si voIgono ad essa e non ristanno : 
così di retro a noi, più tosto mota, 
venendo e trapassando, ci amlnirava 
d' anime turba tacita e devota. 
Negli occhi era ciascuna oscura e cava, 
pallida nella faccia, e tanto scema 
che dall' ossa la pelle s' infoflTIava. 
N on credo che così a buccia strema 
Eresitone Fosse fatto secco, 
per digiunar, quando più 0' ebbe ten1a. 
10 dicea fra me stesso pensapdo: "Eceo 
la gente che perdè J erusalen1n1e, 
quando 11aria nel figlio die' di beceo." 
Parean l' oechiaie anella senza gemme : 
chi nel viso degli uOlnini legge omo, 
ben avria quivi conosciuto l' emme. 
Chi crederebbe che l' odor d' un porno 
si governasse, generando bran1a, 
e quel d' un' acqua, non sapeodo como? 
Già era in amn1irar che sì gli affama, 2 
per la ca gioné ancor non nlanifesta 
di lor magrezza e di lor trista squama; 
ed eeco del profondo del1a testa 4 
volse a me gli occhi un' ombra, e guardò fisc 
poi gridò forte: "Qual grazia m' è quest a ? ' 
Mai non I' avrei riconosciuto al viso; 4 
ma nella voce sua mi fu palese 
ciò che I' aspetto in sè avea conquiso. 
Questa favilla tutta mi raccese 4 
mia conoseenza alla cambiata labbia, 
e ravvisai la facciå di Forese. 



CANTO XXIII 


28 7 


3:ven as musing wayfarers do, who on over- The 
taking strange. folk by the way, turn round to gluttonous 
them and stay l1Ç>t, 
I iO behind us, moving more quickly, coming, 
and passing by, a throng of spirits, silent and 
devout, was gazing upon us in \vonder. 
Dark and hollo\v-eyed \vas each one, pallid of The.i r 
-. d d h h k o k punishment 
face, an so waste away t at t e s in too 
form from the bones. 
[ do not believe that Erysichthon became thus 
v:ithered to the very skin by hunger, when 
greatest fear he had thereof: J 
[ said in thought \vithin me: "Behold the 
people that lost Jerusalem when Mary fed on 
1 1 O ld " 
üer C 11 . 
rheir eye-sockets seemed gem]ess rings: he who 
reads ' 01110' in the face of man would clearly 
have recognised there the 'm.' 
Who, not kno\ving the reason, \vould believe 
that the scent of fruit and that of ,vater had 
thus wrought, by begetting desire? 
Already I was in astonishlnent at \vhat thus 
famishes them, because of the reason not yet 
manifest, of their leanness, and of their sad scurf, 
when 10, from the hollow of the head a shade Forese 
turned its eyes to me and fixedly did gaze; Donati 
then cried aloud: "Whatgrace is this to me? " 
Never had I recognised him by the face, but in 
his voice, was revealed to me, that which was 
blotted out in his countenance. 
l'his spark rekindled within me all my know- 
ledge of the changed features, and I recognised 
the face of Forese. 



288 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI "Deh non contendere all' asciutta scabbia, 
che mi scolora," pregava, "la pelle, 
nè a difetto di carne ch' io abbia ; 
n1a dimmi il ver di te, e chi son que lIe 
due anime che là ti fanno scorta ; 
non Timaner che tu non mi favelle." 
" La faccia tua, ch' io lagrimai già morta, 
mi dà di pianger mo non minor doglia," 
rispos' io lui, "veggendola sì torta. 
Però mi di', per Dio, che sl vi sfoglia ; 
non mi far dir menu" io mi maraviglio, 
chè mal può dir chi è pien d' altra voglia." 
Ed egli a me: "Dall' eterno consiglio 
cade virtù nell' acqua, e nella pianta 
rimasa retro, ond' io sì m' assottiglio. 
Tutta esta gente, che piangendo canta, 
per seguitar la gola oItra misura 
in fame e in sete qui si rifà santa. 
Di bere e di mangiar n' accende cura 
I' odor ch' esce del pon1o, e dello sprazzo 
che si distende su per la verdura. 
E non pure una volta, questo spazzo 
girando, si rinfresca nostra pena, 
io dico pena e dovrei dir sollazzo ; 
chè quella voglia all' arbore ci n1ena, 
che menò Cristo lieto a dire: 'Eli,' 
quando ne liberò con la sua vena." 
Ed io a lui: "Forese, da quel dl 
nel qual mutasti mondo a miglior vita, 
cinqu' anni non son volti infino a qui. 
Se prin1a fu la possa in te finita 
di peccar più, che sorvenissc ]' ora 
del buon dolor ch' a Dio ne rimarita, 



5 


5:< 


S
 


Sf 


61 


64 


6, 


70 


73 


7 fJ 


79 



CANTO XXIII 


28 9 


Ah stare not," he prayed, "at the dry leprosy The 
which discolours my skin, nor at any àefault gluttonous 
f ß. 1 I h Forese and 
o es 1 that may ave, Dante 
It teJl me sooth of thyself, and who those two 
spirits are that there make thy escort; abide 
thou not without speaking to Ine." 
Thy face," answered I him, "which in death 
I wept for once, gives me now not less grief, 
even unto tears, seeing it so distìgured. 
herefore tell me, in God's nalTIe, what strips you 
so ; make me not talk while I anl marvelling, for 
ill can he speak who is full of other desire." 
nd he to me: "From the eternal counsel virtue 
descends into the water, and into the tree left 
behind, whereby I thus do waste away. 
.11 this people, who weeping sing, sanctify 
themselves again in hunger and thirst, for 
having followed appetite to excess. 
'he scent which issues from the fruit, and from 
the spray that is diffused over the green, 
kindles within us a desire to eat and to drink. 
.nd not once only, while circling this road, is 
our pain renewed, I say pain and ought to 
say solace; 
Ir that desire leads us to the tree, which led 
glad Christ to say: 'Eli' when he nladc 
us free with his blood." 
..nd I to him: "F orese, from that day on 
which thou didst change the world for a 
better life, not five years have revolved till now. 

 power to sin more canle to an end in thee ere 
the hour supervened of the holy sorrow which 
weds 11!\ anew to God, 
T 



290 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI come se' tu quassù venuto? Ancora 
io ti credea tfovar laggiù di sotto, 
dove tempo per tempo si ristora." 
Ed egli a me: "Sì tosto m' ha condotto 
a ber la dolce assenzio de' martiri 
la Nella n1Ïa col suo pianger dirotto ; 
con suoi preghi devoti e con sospiri 
tratto m' ha della costa ove s' aspetta, 
e liberato m' ha degli altri giri. 
Tant' è a Dio più cara e più dilctta 
la vedovella rnia, che n10lto amai, 
quanto in bene operare è più soletta : 
chè la Barbagia di Sardigna assai 
nelle felnmine sue è più pudic a 
che la Barbagia dov' io la lasciai. 
o dolce frate, che vuoi tu ch' io dica ? 
Tempo futuro m' è già nel cospetto, 
cui non sarà quest' ora moho antica, 
nel qual sarà in pergamo interdetto 
aIle sfacciate donne F iorentine 
l' andar mostrando con Ie poppe iI petto. 
Quai Barbare fur mai, quai Saracine, 
cui bisognasse, per farle ir coperte, 
o spiritali 0 altre discipline? 
Ma se Ie svergognate fosser certe 
di quel che il ciel veloce loro ammanna, 
già per urlare avrian Ie bocche aperte : 
chè, se l' antiveder qui non m' inganna, 
prima fien triste che Ie guance impeli 
colui che mo si consola con nanna. 
Deh, frate, or fa che più non mi ti celi ; 
vedi che non pur io, ma questa gente 
tutta rimira là dove il sol veJi " 


:I 


:I 


I 



CANTO XXI I I 


29 1 


ow art thou come up here? I thought to find The 
d b I h . L. . . gluttonous 
thee yet own e ow, were tIme lor tIme IS 
repaid. " 
I \nd he to me: "Thus soon hath led me to Forese 
drink the sweet wormwood of the torments cç)Dtr
s!s 
, his wife s 
my Nella by her flood of tears; virtues 
IY her prayers devout and by sighs she hath 
brought me from the borders where they wait, 
and set nle free from the other circles. 
)0 much more precious and beloved of God is 
my dear widow, whom I loved so well, as she 
is the more lonely in good works; 
I or the Barbagia of Sardinia is far more modest 
ith the 
in its women than the Barba g ia where lief.... vices of the 
L other 
her. Florentine 
women 
) sweet brother, what wouldst thou have me 
say? Already in my vision is a tin1e to 
come to which this hour shall not be very old, 
vhen the brazen-faced women of Florence shaH 
be forbidden fi'onl the pulpit to go abroad 
showing their
 breasts with the paps. 
Nhat Barbary, what Saracen women ever lived, 
to whom either spiritual, or other discipline 
were necessary, to make them go covered? 
t3ut if the shameless creatures were assured of what 
swift heaven is preparing for them, already 
would they have their mouths open to how] : 
or if prevision here beguile me not, they shaH 
be sorrowing ere he shall clothe his cheeks 
\vith down, who now is soothed with lullaby. 
I Pray brother, look that thou hide thee no longer 
from me; thou seest that not only I, but all this 
people are gazing where thou veilest the sun." 



29 2 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI Per ch' io a lui: "Se ti riduci a mente 
qual fosti meco e quale io teco fui, 
ancor fia grave il memorar presentee 
Di quella vita mi volse costui 
che mi va innanzi, l' altr' ier, quando tonda 
vi si rnostrò la suora di colui-" 
(e il sol nlostrai). "Costui per la profonda I 
notte menato m' ha da' veri marti, 
con q uesta vera carne che il seconda. 
lndi m' han tratto su Ii suoi conforti, 
salendo e rigirando la montagna, 
che drizza voi che il mondo fece torti. 
Tanto dice di farmi sua compagna, 
ch' io sarò la dove fia Beatrice; 
quivi convien che senza 1ui rimagna. 
Virgilio è questi che COSl mi dice 
(e addita' 10), e quest' altro è quell' ombra 
per cui scosse dianzi ogni pendice 
10 vostro regno che da sè 10 sgombra." 


I 


I 


1 


I 


I, 


I I. "0 Lord, open thou my lips; and my mout 
shall shew forth thy praise" (Ps. Ii. 15 ). [All t
 
offices begin with the invocation Domine lahia m. 
operic:s. ] 
25-2.7. The Thessalian, Erysichthon, cut down a 
oak in the sacred grove of Ceres, whereupon d: 
goddess punished him by making him endure sue 
hunger that he was reduced to gnawing his ow 
flesh; of which, by that tÏnle, there was so little Ie: 
that his hunger opened the yet more terrible prospec 
of death by starvation (Ovid, JI.-fet. viii. 738-8]8). 
28- 30. During the siege of Jerusalem by 'j'itus, th 
famine becanle so terrible, that a Jewess, name 
IVlary, killed her child and devoured it (see Josephu
 
De Bello J ud. vi. 3)' 
3 2 , 33. Longfellow quotes an interesting passag 
from a sermon of Brother Berthold (a Francisca' 



CANTO XXIII 


293 


\Therefore I to him: "If thou bring back to The 
mind what thou hast been with me and what gluttonous 
Forese and 
I have been with thee, the present men10ry Dante 
will still be grievous. 
from that life he who goeth before n1e did 
turn me, the other day, when full was shown 
to you the sister of him," 
and I pointed to the sun). "This one through 
the deep night hath led me from the truly dead, 
in this solid flesh which folJows him. 
. rhence his comforts have brought n1e up, ascend- 
ing and circling the mount, which makes you 
straight whom the world made crooked. 
r )0 long he talks of making 01e his comrade, 
until I shall be there where Beatrice will be ; 
there must I remain bereft of him. 
Tirgil is he who thus speaks to me (and I 
pointed to him) and this other is that shade for 
whom before in every scarp your realm did 
shake which no\v discharges him from itself." 


I riar who lived at Regensburg in the 13th century), 
I vhich proves, what is indeed implied in Dante's 
f vords, that this conception was current at the 
ime. 
40 sqq. This is Dante's friend, Forese Donati, the 
I )rother of Corso (see the following canto, "V'll. 79- 
I. 
o) and of Piccarda (see the following canto, "V"V. 10, 
I .3- 15, and Par. iii. 34 J'lq., especially the note to 
J. 49). Forese, who bore the nickname of Bicci 

ovello, died on July 28
 1296 ("V. 78). For his 
"elations with Dante, which throw considerable 
. ight on the somewhat unedifying but highly 
nteresting and important period of our poet's life 
hat followed the death of Beatrice, see "V'll. I 15 - 119 
lnd if. Gardner, p. 14 sq. 
73-75. "And about the ninth hour Jesus cried 



294 


NOTES 


with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani' 
that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thOl 
forsaken me ?" (Matt. xxviii. 46, Mark X v. 34).- 
ljuella 'Uoglia-the desire to conform our will to th 
\vill of God. 
79-84. 'If you delayed repentance till the las 
moment, how is it that you are not still in th- 
An ti purgatorio ? ' 
85-93. In one of the sonnets referred to belov 
(note to "lJ'U. 115-119) Dante describes Forese's neglec 
of his wife, Nella, but with a coarseness that is well 
nigh incredible. r-rhe present passage may have beel 
intended by the poet to atone in a measure for tha 
poem, and to offer the wido\v some consolation b
 
representing Forese, in his new condition, as one 0 
the tenderest of husbands. 
94-11 I. Dante compares the shamelessness of thr 
Florentine women with that of the WOlllen in Bar 
J:-agia (a mountainous district in the south of Sardinia) 



CANTO XXIII 


295 


ho are said to have been descended either from the 
andals or the Saracens. We have no contemporary 
cord of sernlons or decrees relating to this subject. 
law dealing with a kindred nlatter-the luxury of 
le women-is mentioned by Villani (ix. 245) as 
lving been passed in 1324. See Par. xv. 99 sq'1' 
115-119. These verses afford a clear proof that the 
fe from which Virgil rescued Dante was not merely 
le of philosophical or religious error, as has been 
)ntended, but of moral unworthiness. 1'here is 
ill extant a poetical correspondence between Dante 
1d Forese (consisting of three sonnets by the fornler 
ld two by the latter) on a level quite beneath any- 
ling else that \ve possess of Dante's. The two 
'iends rail at each other in a vein which nlay have 

en meant playfully, but is extrenlely stinging and 
nything but refined. 
119, 120. See Inf. xx. 127-129. 
127-129. See Ilif. i. 112-126. 


;: 



PURGATORIO 


T HE souls gather in amazement round the liviJ I 
man; who utters a surmise to his friend tb 
Statius is perchance lingering on his way for t 
sake of Virgil's companionship; and then questio 
him concerning his sister Piccarda, and learns th 
she is alrearly in heaven (1-15). The souls are 
emaciated as to be barely recognisable, and ForE 
names a number of then1 as he points them out 
Dante; an office which they accept with complacenc 
for recognition can bring no added shame, but m: 
bring sympathy or aid to souls in Purgatory (16-33 
Amongst them is Buonagiunta cia Lucca, a poet 
the old school of Guittone of Arezzo, who mutters 
prophecy concerning a child of the nanle of Gentucc 
whose gracious offices to Dante when she comes 
woman's estate, shall give hinl tender associatioJ 
with that city of Lucca which he and others ha' 
so fiercely denounced (34-48). Then he questÏOJ 
Dante as to the secret of the new school of Tusc, 
poetry which has superseded the one to which I 
belonged, and learns that it lies in the principle 
trying not to say things beautifully, but to s, 


Girone VI Nè i1 dir I' andar, nè l' andar 1ui più lento 
fàcea, ma ragionando andavanl forte, 
sì come nave pinta da buon vento. 
E l' ombre, che parean cose rimorte, 
per le Fosse degli occhi anlmirazione 
traean di nle, di mio vivere accorte. 
Ed io, continuando il luio sermone, 
dissi: "Ella sen va su Forse più tarda 
che non farebbe, per l' altrui cagione. 
29 6 



CANTO XXIV 


eautiful things truly; a criticism in '\vhich he 
cquiesces with fuB content and satisfaction (49-63). 
"hen all the other souls sweep forward, while 
orese, like a straggler from a caravan, remains 
ehind to question Dante as to his expected term 
f life, to hear his lamentations over the state of 
'lorence, to utter a prophecy of the death of his 

lative Corso Donati, and then to speed forward 
) rejoin his companions, leaving Dante to follow 
Ie two great poets (64-99). The pilgrims now 
ass another tree like the one already encountered. 
'hey hear that it is a shoot from the one whereof 
,ve tasted the fruit; and from amongst its foliage 

arning examples of gluttonous excess are rehearsed 
(00- 12 9). After a lengthened n1arch in silent thought, 
ley are startled by the hlinding glory of the angel 
uardian, whose wing wafts a breath laden as with 
erfume of flo\vers on a May morning upon Dante's 
row; and the pilgrims hear the blessing pronounced 
n those whose hunger is measured by righteousness 
( 3 0 - 1 54). 


r either did our speech make the going, nor the The 

. going, it more slow; but, talking we went gluttonous 
bravely on, even as a ship driven by a fair 
wind. 
I lnd the shades, that seemed things twice dead, 
drew in wonder01ent at me through the pits of 
their eyes, aware of my being alive. 
lnd I, continuing my discourse, said: "Per- 
chance he goeth upward more slowly than he 
would do, for another's sake. 


297 



2g8 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI Ma dimmi, se tu '1 sai, ov' è Piccarda ; 
dimmi s' io veggio da notar persona 
tra questa gente che sì mi riguarda." 
" Lamia sorella, che tra bella e buona 
non so qual Fosse più, trionfa lieta 
nell' alto Olimpo già di sua corona." 
Sì disse prima, e poi: "Qui non si vieta 
di nominar ciascun, da ch' è sì munta 
nostra sembianza via per la dieta. 
Questi (e mostrò col dito) è Bonagiunta, 
Bonagiunta da Lucca; e quella faccia 
di là da lui, più che I' altre trapunta, 
ebbe la santa Chiesa in Ie sue braccia : 
dal Torso fu, e purga per digiuno 
}' anguille di Boisena e la vernaccia." 
Molti altri mi nomò ad uno ad uno; 
e del non1ar parean tutti contenti, 
sÌ ch' io però non vidi un atto bruno. 
Vidi per fan1e a vôto usar Ii denti 
Ubaldin dalla Pila, e Bonifazio 
che pasturò col rocco mol te genti. 
Vidi nlesser Marchese, ch' ebbe spazio 
già di bere a F orlì con men secchezza, 
e sì fu tal che non si sentì sazio. 
Ma, come fa chi guarda e poi s' apprezza - 
più d' un che d' altro, fe' io a quel da Lucca 
che più parea di me aver contezza. 
E i 1110rmora va, e non so che " Gentucca " 
senti va io là ov' ei sentia la piaga 
della giustizia che sì Ii pilucca. 
"0 anin1a," diss' io, "che par sì vaga 
d i parIar meco, fa sì ch' io t' intenda, 
e te e n1e col tuo parlare appaga." 


I 


1 


I 


I 


:2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


.; 



CANTO XXIV 


299 


>ut tell me, if thou knowest, where Pic carda is ; The 
tell me if I see any person to be noted an10ng gl"uttono
s 
h " 1 h " Plccarda s 
t IS peop e w 0 gaze so at me. place in 
I . ; My sister, who, whether she were more fair or Paradise 
more good I know not, now triumphs, re joic- 
ing in her crown on high Olyn1pus." 

hus spake he at first, and then: "Here 'tis Forese 
r. b . dd h " points out 
not lor I en to name eac one, since our some fellow 
features are so wrung by abstinence. spirits 
, 
his (and he showed with his finger) is Bona- Bonagiunta 
. B . f L d h " of Lucca 
giunta, ?naglu
ta 0 ucca ; an t at visage, and Pope
 
beyond him, shnvelled more than the others, Martin IV 
eld Holy Church within its arms: from Tours 
sprang he, and by fasting purges the eels of 
Bolsena and the sweet wine." 
i.lany others he named to me, one by one, and 
all did seem glad at the naming, so that I 
saw therefore not one black look. 
I . saw Ubaldino della Pila using his teeth for very Ubaldino 
hunger on the void; and Boniface who pastured Ê

iface 
many peoples with the rook. 

 sa\v Messer Marchese, who once had leisure Messer 
to drink at ForB \vith less thirst, and yet vias Marchese 
so craving that he never felt sated. 
')But as he doth who looks, and then esteems one Dante and 
more than another, so did I to him of Lucca Bonagiunta 
who seemed to have most knowledge of me. 
He was muttering, and something like" Gen- 
tucca," I heard there where he was feeling the 
wounds of Justice, which so cloth pluck then1. 
-a 0 soul," said I, "that seemeth yearning so to 
talk with me, speak so that I may understand 
thee, and satisfy me and thee with thy speech." 



3 00 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI " F emmina è nata, e non porta ancor benda," "' 
cominciò ei, "che ti farà piacere 
la mia città, come ch' uom la riprenda. 
Tu te n' andrai con questo antivedere ; 
 
se nel mio mormorar prendesti errore, 
dichiariranti ancor Ie cose vere. 

1a di' s' io veggio qui colui che fuore 
 
trasse Ie nuove rime, cominciando: 
, Donne, ch' a'Vete ï1lte//etto d' .Amore.'" 
Ed io a lui: "10 mi son un che, quando 
 
amor lni spira, noto, ed a quel modo 
che ditta dentro, vo significando." 
"0 fi-ate, issa veggio," disse, "il nodo 
che il Notaro, e Guittone e me ritenne 
di qua dal dolce stiJ nuovo ch' i' odo. 
10 veggio ben come Ie vostre penne 
di retro al dittator sen vanno strette, 
che delle nostre certo non avvenne. 
, Equal più a guardar oltre si mette, 
non vede più dall' uno all' altro stilo " ; 
e quasi contentato si tacette. 
Come gli augei che vernan lungo il N ilo l 
alcuna volta in aer fanno schiera, 
poi vol an più in fretta e vanno in filo: 
cosi tutta la gente che Ii era, l 
volgendo il viso, raffrettò suo passo, 
e per magrezza e per voler leggiera. 
E come I' uonl che di trottare è lasso , 
lascia andar Ii compagni, e si passeggia 
fin che si sfoghi }' affollar del casso: 
sì lasciò trapassar ]a santa greggia 7 
Forese, e retro meco sen veniva, 
dicendo: "Quando fia ch' io ti riveggia? " 



CANTO XXIV 


3 01 


. A woman is born and wears not yet the The 
. 1 " I b h O Il k 0 gluttonous 
Wln1p e, 1e egan," w 0 WI ma e my city 
1 . h h b k 0 Bona- 
p easing to tee, o,vever man may re u e It. giunta's 

hou shalt go hence with this prophecy; if thou prophecy 
hast taken my muttering in error, the real facts 
will make it yet clear to thee. 

ut tell if I see here him who invented the He 
r 1 b .. L d o 1 h discourses 
new r Iymes eglnnlng: ' a zes toat ave with Dante 
intelligence of LO
l'e.'" on poetry 
tnd I to hin1: "I am one who, when Love 
inspires me take note, and go setting it forth 
after the fashion which he dictates within me." 
o brother," said he, " now I see the knot which 
kept back the Notary, and Guittone, and me, 
short of the sweet new style that I hear. 
'ruly I see how your pens follow close after 
him who dictates, which certainly befell not 
\vith ours. 

nd he who sets himself to search farther, has lost 
all sense of difference between the one sty Ie and 
the other"; and, as if satisfied, he was silent. 
I 
s birds that winter along the Nile sonletimes 
make of themselves an aerial squadron, then 
fly in greater haste and go in file; 
':1
J all the people that were there, facing round, 
quickened their pace, fleet through leanness 
and desire. 
I \.nd as one \v ho is weary of running lets his 
comrades go by, and walks until the panting 
of his chest be eased; 
3 Forese let the holy flock pass by, and came 
on behind with me, saying: "\Vhen shall it 
be that I see thee again?" r 



3 02 


PURGA TORIO 


Girone VI "Non so," rispos' io lui, "quant' io mi viva; 
ma già non fia il tornar mio tanto tosto, 
ch' io non sia col voler prima alIa riva: 
però che illoco, u' fui a viver posto, 
di giorno in giorno più di ben si spolpa, 
ed a trista ruina par disposto." r 
"Or va," diss' ei, "chè quei che più n' ha colpa 
vegg' io a coda d' una bestia tratto 
in ver la valle, ove mai non si scolpa. 
La bestia ad ogni passo va più ratto, 
crescendo sen1 pre, fin ch' ella il percuote, 
e ] ascia il corpo viln1ente disfatto. 
Non hanno n10lto a volger quelle rote, 
(e drizzò gli occhi al ciel) che ti fia chiaro 
ciò che il mio dir più dichiarar non puote. 
Tu ti rimani on1ai, chè il tempo è caro 
in questo regno, sÌ ch' io perdo troppo, 
venendo teco sÌ a paro a p::tro." 
Qual esce alcuna volta di galoppo 
10 cavalier di schiera che cavalchi, 
e va per farsi onor del primo intoppo, 
tal si parti da noi con maggior valchi ; 
ed io rimasi in via con esso i due, 
che fur del mondo sì gran n1aliscalchi. 
E quando innanzi a noi entrato fue, 
che gli occhi miei si fero a lui seguaci 
come la mente aIle parole sue, 
parvermi i rami gravidi e vivaci 
d' un altro porno, e non moho lontani, 
per esser pure allora volto in làci. 
Vidi gente sott' esso alzar Ie mani 
e gridar non so che verso Ie Fronde ; 
quasi bramosi fantolini e vani 



CANTO XXIV 


3 0 3 


I know not," answered I him, " how long I may The 
[ I " O Il b b h gluttonous 
Ive, yet my return WI not e so soon ut t at 
, I be not before with my desire at the bank: 
)r the place where I was put to live, is day by The misery 
I d " d f d d d d of Florence 
ay n10re stnppe a goo, an seems oome due to 
to \voeful ruin." Corso. 
N "o d h r. h " h " . Donati 
ow go, sal e, "lor 1m W 0 IS most In whose 
fault I see dragged at the tail of a beast, d
:
rc

d 
towards the vale where sin is never cleansed. by Forese 
'aster goes the beast at every step, increasing 
ever till it dashes him, and leaves his body 
hideously disfigured. 
. on wheels (and he lifted his eyes up to the 
heavens) have not long to revolve ere that 
shall be clear to thee which my words may 
no further declare. 
r ow remain thou behind, for time is precious in 
this realm, so that I lose too much coming with 
thee thus at equal pace." 
lS a horseman sometimes comes forth at a gallop 
from a troop that is riding, and goes to win the 
honour of the first encounter, 
) parted he from us with greater strides; and I 
was left by the way with the two who were such 
great marshals of the world. 
'\.nd when he had advanced so far ahead of us, 
that mine eye3 made such pursuit of him, as 
my mind did of his words, 
. le laden and green boughs of another tree ap- A second 
peared to me, and not very far away, for I was tree 
but then come round thither. 
saw people beneath it lifting up their hands, and 
crying out something towards the foliage, like 
spoilt and greedy children, 



3 0 4 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI che pregano, e il pregato non risponde, 
ma per fare esser ben la voglia acuta, 
tien alto lor disio enol nasconde. 
Poi si partì sì con1e ricreduta; 
e noi venimmo al grande arbore adesso, 
che tanti preghi e lagrime rifiuta. 
" 1'rapassate oltre senza farvi presso; 
legno è più su che fu morso da Eva, 
e qucsta pianta si levò da esso." 
Sì tra Ie frasche non so chi diceva ; 
per che Virgilio e Stazio ed io, ristretti, 
oltre andavam dallato che si leva. 
" Ricordivi," dicea, "dei maledetti 
nei nuvoli formati, che satolli 
'1' eseo combattêr coi doppi petti; 
e degli Ebrei, ch' al ber si mostrâr molli, 
per che no' i volle Gedeon compagni, 
quando ver Madian discese i colli." 
Sì accostati all' un de' due vivagni 
passammo, udendo colpe della gola, 
seguite già da miseri guadagni. 
Poi, rallargati per la strada sola, 
ben mille passi e più ci portaro oltre, 
conten1plando ciascun senza parola. 

, Che andate pensando sì voi sol tre? " 
subita voce disse; ond' io mi scossi, 
come fan bestie spaventate e poltre. 
Drizzai la testa per veder chi fossi ; 
e gianlmai non si videro in fornace 
vetri 0 metaHi sì lucenti e rossi, 
com' io vidi un che dicea: "S' a voi piace 
montare in su, qui si convien dar volta; . 
quinci si va chi vuole andar per pace." 


J 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


1 


I 


I; 


I: 


I: 



CANTO XXIV 


3 0 5 


'ho beg, and he of whom they beg, answers not, The 
but to make their longing full keen, holds gluttonous 
what they desire on high, and hides it not. 
'hen they departed as though undeceived; and 
now ,ve came to the great tree which mocks 
so nlany prayers and tears. 
Pass onward without drawing nigh to it; higher From the 
U p is a tree which was eaten of b y Eve and second.tree 
, are recIted 
this plant was raised from it." Examples 
hus alnid the branches some one spake; wnere- C:luttony- 
fore Virgil and Statius and I, close together, 
went forward by the side ,\\Thich rises. 

emelllber," he said, "the accursed ones formed The 
in the clouds, who when gorged, fought Centaurs 
Theseus with t.heir double breasts; 
d the Hebrews who showed thenlselves soft The 
I at the drinking, ,vherefore Gideon would have Hebrews 
thelll not for comrades when he came do"wrn the 
hills to Midian." 
I hus we passed close against one of the two 
margins, hearing sins of gluttony, once 
followed by woeful gains. 
ben, spread out along the solitary way, full a 
thousand paces and more bore us onward, each 
in contemplation without a word. 
')'o\\That go ye thus pondering on ye lone three," The Angel 
sudden voice did sa y . wherefore I startled of Temper- 
, ance 
as frightened and timid beasts do. 
'aised my head to see who it ,vas, and never in a 
furnace were glasses or metals seen so glowing 
and red, 
I saw one who said: "If it please you to 
mount upward, here must a turn be given; 
hence goeth he who desires to go for peace." 
u 



3 06 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VI L' aspetto suo m' avea la vista tolta : 
per eh' io mi volsi retro a' miei dottori, 
com' uom ehe va secondo eh' egli aseolta. 
E quale, annunziatriee degli albori, 
}' aura di maggio movesi ed olezza, 
tutta impregnata dall' erba e da' fiori : 
tal mi sentii un vento dar per mezza 
la fronte, e ben senti' mover la piuma, 
che fe' sentir d' ambrosia I' orezza. 
E senti' dir: "Beati cui alluma 
tanto di grazia, ehe I' amor del gusto 
nel petto lor treppe disir non fuma, 
esuriendo sempre quanto è giusto." 


10, 13-15. For Piccarda, see Par. Hi. 34 sqq. 
19 s9q. Bonagiunta Orbicciani degli Overardi, 
Lucchese poet, who was still living in 1296. S 
below, note to "lIV. 52-63. 
2.0-24. Simon de Brie was Pope, as Martin I' 
from 1281 till 1285. See Villani, vii. 58 and 106; 
the latter passage we learn that" he was a good m 
and very favourable to Holy Church and to those 
the house of France, because he ,vas from Toun 
Martin died of eating too Dlany eels from the La 
of Bolsena stewed in Vernaccia wine. His epita] 
ran: Gaudent anguillae, quia mortuus hie jaeet ille Qui qu 
morte rea.r excoriahat ear. 


29. Of Ubaldin dalla Pila, a member of the Tusc 
Ghibelline family of the Ubaldini, we kno\y that 
was a glutton, and that he was brother of t 
Cardinal Ottaviano (I,!/: x. 120), father of the Arc 
bishop Roger of Pisa (Inf. xxxiii.), and uncle 
Ugolino d'Azzo (see above, Canto xiv. 105). 
2.9, 3 0 . This is probably Bonifazio dei Fieschi, w 
was Archbishop of Ravenna (1274-1295). We ha 
00 record of his greediness.-Rocco refers to the orr 



CANTO XXIV 


3 0 j 


-lis countenance had bereft me of sight; where- The 
fore I turned nle back to my Teachers, like gluttonous 
one ,vho goeth according as he listens. 
\nd as the May breeze, herald of the dawn, stirs 
and breathes forth s'.veetness, all impregnate 
with grass and with flowers, 
uch a wind felt I give on the middle of my bro\v, 
and right v/ell I felt the pinions n10ve v/hich 
v/afted ambrosial fragrance to n1Y senses; 
\.nd I heard say: "Blessed are they who are The sixth 
. 11 . d b h h h 1 f Beatitude 
1 Umine y SO muc grace, t at t e oye 0 
taste kindleth not too great desire in their 
breasts, and \vho hunger always so far as is just." 


nent, shaped like a rook at chess, at the top of the 
Lncient pastoral staff of the Archbishops of Ravenna. 
3 1 -33. Messer Marchese, of ForB, who belonged 

ither to the Argogliosi or to the Ordelaffi family, 
Nas podestà of Faenza in 1296. "Then told that he 
.vas always drinking he retorted by saying that he 
.vas ahvays thirsty. 
37-4 8 . A much discussed passage. A few of the 

arly commentators, some,,"hat absurdly, took gelltucca 
1S a substantive, the pejorative of gente. It seems 
[)robable that Minutoli's identification is correct, and 
t that the lady in question was Gentucca Morla, the 
beautiful wife of Cosciorino Fondora, of Lucca, in 
';1'whose will (1317) she is mentioned. The friendship, 
for such it assuredly \vas, may be placed between the 
years 1314-1316, when Dante is most likely to have 
bèen at Lucca (see Gardner, p. 35). In 1300 Gentucca 
\-vas still quite young and unmarried, and therefore did 
not yet wear the helllfa ('V. 43), \vhich was reserved for 
married women (and, when white, for widows, see 
above, Canto viii. 'V. 74). 
51. The first line of a canzone contained in the 
Vita Nuo'lJa, 
 xix. 
5 2 - 6 3. Italian lyrical poetry before 1300 may be 



3 08 


NOTES 


roughly divided into three schools. (a) The Sicilic 
school (continued in Central Italy), which was bast 
on Provençal traditions; to this belong Jacopo ( 
Lentino, commonly called it No/aiD, Bonagiunta, ar 
Guittone of Arezzo in his first period. (b) TI 
philosophical school, which may be represented t 
the later poems of Guittone and which reached i 
climax in the works of Guido Guinicelli of Bologn 
(c) The Florentine school of the dolce slit ItIIO'lJO, d 
most distinguished representatives of which aJ 
Guido Cavalcanti and Dante. Their poetry 
strongly influenced by that of Guido Guinicelli, bi 
shows more genuine inspiration than any that h
1 
gone before in Italy. See above, Canto xi. 'lJ'lJ. 77-7c 
note. [Bonagiunta wrote a poem in derision of Guid 
Guinicelli; and if, as seems probable, this poel 
induced Dante to select Bonagiunta for the purpo
 
of making him eat humble pie in the present cant<. 
we have another piece of evidence in favour oÍ th 
theory that the two Guidos are Guittone of Arezz 
and Guido Guinicelli.] 
79-9 0 . Corso Donati, Podestà of Bologna (1283 
1288) and of Pistoja (1289), and head of the Floren 
tine Blacks, ,vas from all accoun ts a very distinguishe 
man; but he ruined himself and wrought incalculabl 
harm to others through his ambition. When th 
disturbances of Florence became so unbearable, i 
13 00 , that the heads of both factions were exiled, h 
went to Rome and induced Boniface to send Charle 
of Valois to the ci ty as peacemaker. rrhe latte 
favoured the Blacks, who exiled their enemies and actel 
relentlessly towards them for many years. Cors( 
finally tried to obtain supreme authority, and bein! 
suspected of a treacherous intrigue with his fathe
 



CANTO XXIV 


3 0 9 


-la\v, the Ghibelline captain Uguccione della 
Lggiuola, he was condemned to death. He attempted 
escape but was captured on the way; whereupon, 
I ther than meet so ignominious an end, he l
t him- 
If slip from his horse and "vas killed (Oct. 6, 1308). 
e Villani, viii. 96; if. ITif. vi. 64-69 and Purge xx. 
I -7 8 . 
103-117. See above, Canto xxii. 131-138, note. 
121-123. The Centaurs (born of Ixion and a cloud 
the shape of Hera), "vere present at the ,vedding 
their half-brother, Pirithous, King of the Lapithae, 
d Hippodame. Oneoftheir nun1ber, Eurytus, heated 
ith wine, attempted to carry off the bride, and the 
st followed his example with the other ,vomen. 
heseus, the friend ofPirithous, having rescued Hippo- 
me, a general fight ensued between the Lapithae 
d the Centaurs, in which the latter were vanquished 
ee Ovid, Met. xii. 210-535). 
124-126. See Judges vii. 1-7: . . . "and the Lord 
id unto Gideon, Everyone that lappeth of the water 
ith his tongue, as a dog lappeth, him shalt thou set 
r himself; likewise everyone that bO,:weth down 
)on his knees to drink. And the numÐcr of them 
at lapped, putting their hand to their mouths, were 
ree hundred men: but all the rest of the people 
)wed down upon their knees to drink water. And 
e Lord said unto Gideon, By the three hundred 
en that lapped wiU I save you, and deliver the 
[idianites into thine hand: and let aU the other 

ople go every man unto his place." 
. 151-154. "Blessed are they which do hunger [and 
':1'.irstJ after righteousness: for they shall be filled" 
Watt. v. 6). See above, Canto xxii. 4-6, note. 



PURGATORIO 


THE pilgrims pursue their way up the stair 
single file (1-9). As the little stork longs bl 
ventures not to try its wings, so Dante feels tl 
question as to the meaning of what he has seen eVI 
kindled by longing and quenched by diffidence on h 
lips (10-15); tin, encouraged by Virgil, he set'ks f( 
instruction as to how the shadowy forms which net: 
no sustenance can present the appearance and e
 
perience the sensations of gnawing hunger (16-2 I 
Virgil hints by analogies from pagan story and froJ 
natural philosophy that our own experiences an 
sensations may wen rt:flect themsdves in unsubstanti; 
appearances; or may be connected with physic; 
changes in matter other than that of our bodies { 
flesh and blood; but refers to StathIs, his Chrhtia 
counterpart, for fuller exposition; for in truth th: 
matter, though no part of Christian revelation, yt; 
verges on those mysterious and intricate portions ( 
Aristotle's doctrine which none save Christian philc 
Bophers have had vision clear enough truly to expeun 
(22-30). Statius, after a polite disclaimer
 pr0ceeds t 
expound the Aristotelian doctrines of generation an 
embriology, showing how the human fætus passe 
through every stage, differing only from the lowe 
forms of plant, polype, or animal, in that it posseses th 
potentiality of further development; whereas the' 
have reached their goal (31-60). At the critica 


. Salita al Ora era onde il salir non volea storpio, 
Glrone VII chè il sole avea 10 cerchio di merigge 
lasciato al Tauro e la notte allo Scorpio. 
Per che, come fa l' UOln che non s' affigge, 
ma vassi ana via sua, checchè gli appaia, 
se di bisogno stimolo il trafigge: 
3 10 



CANTO XXV 


oint noW reached. Averroës himself \vent wrong, for 
.nding no organ in the human body appropriated to the 
:nmaterial principle of intelligence, he conceived it to 
Ie no part of the individual life of man, but a universal 
ll-pervading principle; whereas in truth the human 
oul or life is inbreathed direct by God into the 
)erfect animal form of the man that is to be; and 
hereon it draws into itself all the lower vital functions 
llready active there (61-78). Therefore 'when the 
)ody :lies
 the gates of sense are indeed closed; but the 
ioul itself which came from without remains with the 
?urely immaterial powers of memory, intelligence, and 
.vill, isolated indeed from intercourse with outward 
things, but in themselves more vivid than ever (79- 8 4). 
Then the soul drops at once to the bank of Acheron 
or the mouth of Tiber, becomes aware of its 
destination, and reflects itself upon an aerial body, 
flame- or rainbow-like, and through the instrumentality 
of this aerial body renews its intercourse with the outer 
world and the experiences of sense (85- 108 ), They 
have no\V reached the topmost circle, which is filled 
with flames, save a narrow outward margin on which 
the poets march, single file, and ,vhereon Dante must 
take good heed to his steps; so that he can give but 
broken attention to the souls ,vho commemorate 
,'. examples of chastity from the midst of the glow ing 
heat ([09- 1 39). 


'Twas an hour when the ascent brooked no im- Afternoon 
d ' c h h B 11 d . h of the third 
pe Iment, lor t e sun to t e u, an nIg t day in 
to the Scorpion, had left the meridian circle. Purgatory 
Wherefore as does a n1an who halts not, but goes 
on his way whatever n1ay appear to hin1, if the 
spur of necessity prick him, 


3 1 :1 



3 12 


PURGATORIO 


. Salita at così entramn10 noi per la cal1aia, 
Glrone VII uno innanzi altro, prendendo la scala 
che per artezza i salitor dispaia. 
E quale il cicognin che leva l' ala 
per voglia di volare, e non s' attenta 
d' abbandonar 10 nido, e giù la cala : 
tal era io con voglia accesa e spenta 
di domandar, venendo in fino all' atto 
che fa colui ch' a dicer s' argomenta. 
Non lasciò, per l' andar che fosse ratto, 
10 dolce padre mio, ma disse: "Scocca 
]' arco del dir che insino a1 ferro hai tratto." 
Allor sicuramente aprii la bocca, 19 
e cominciai: "Con1e si può far magro 
là dove l' uopo di nutrir non tocca? " 
" Se t' amlnentassi COlne Meleagro 
si consumò al consumar d' un stizzo, 
non fora," disse, "questo a te sì agro ; 
c se pensassi come al vostro guizzo 
guizza dentro aHo specchio vostra image, 
ciò che par duro ti parrebbe vizzo. 
Ma perchè dentro a tuo voler t' adage, 
ecco qui Stazio, ed io lui chiamo e prego, 
che sia or sanator delle tue piage." 
" Se la veduta eterna gli dislego," 
rispose Stazio, "là dove tu sie, 
discolpi me non potert' io far nego." 
Poi cominciò: "Se Ie parole mie, 
figlio, la mente tua guarda e riceve, 
Jume ti fieno a) conle che tu die. 
Sangue perfetto, che mai non si beve 
dall' assetate vene, e si rinlane 
quasi alimento che di mensa leve, 


I 


x, 


I( 


512 


25 


28 


3 7 


34 


37 



CANTO XXV 


3 1 3 


) we entered by the gap, one In front of the Dante's 
o h 0 h o h b 0 doubts con... 
other, mountIng t e stauway, \V IC Y Its cerning the 
straitness P arts the climbers. leann<:s
 of 
the Spirits 

nd like the little stork that lifts its wing through 
desire to fly, and, venturing not to abandon the 
nest, drops it down, 
ven so was I with desire to ask kindled and 
quenched, going so far as the movement which 
he makes who is preparing to speak. 
1: y sweet F ather did not cease, even though the 
pace was swift, but said: "Discharge the bow of 
thy speech which thou hast drawn to the iron." 
.'hen securely I opened my mouth, and began: 
"How can one grow lean there where the 
need of food is not ft:lt ? " 
. If thou wouldst call to mind how Meleager 
I was consumed at the consuming of a firebrand," 
said he, "this would not be so difficult to thee; 
nd if thou wouldst think how, to your every 
movement your image flits about in the mirror, 
that which seems hard would seem easy to thee. 

ut in order that thou mayst find rest in thy dispelled 
desire 10 here Statius and him I can and P ra y by St
tius, 
" , who dlS- 
that he now be the healer of thy wounds." courses on 
If. " d s o I e ld h o 0 generation 
tX: , answere tatlus," unlO to 1m In thy 
presence the eternal things he has seen, let 
DIY excuse be that I nlay not deny thee." 

hen he began:" Son, if thy mind heed and 
I receive my words, they shall be a light unto 
thee on the how which thou utterest. 
)erfect blood, which never is drunk by the 
thirsty veins, and is left behind, as ' twere food 
which thou removest from the table, 



3 1 4 


PURGATORIO 


Salita al prende nel core a tutte membra Ulnane 
Girone VII " " C" 11 
virtute Inrormatlva, come que 0 
ch' a farsi quelle per Ie vene vane. 
Ancor digesto, scende ov' è più belJo 
tacer che dire; e quindi poscia geme 
sopr' altrui sangue in natural vasello. 
I vi s' accoglie l' uno e I' altro insieme, 
l' un disposto a patire e I' altro a fare, 
per 10 perfetto loco onde si pre me ; 
e, giunto lui, comincia ad operare, 
coagulando prima, e poi avviva 
ciò che per sua materia fe' constare. 
Anima fatta Ia virtute attiva, 
qual d' una pianta, in tanto differente, 
che quest' è in via e queJIa è già a riva, 
tanto opra poi che già si move e sente, 
come fungo marino; ed indi imprende 
ad organar ]e posse ond' è semente. 
Or si spiega, figliuolo, or si distende 
la virtù ch' è dal cor del generante, 
ove natura a tutte membra intende ; 
ma come d' animal divegna fante, 
d " " I 
non ve 1 tu ancor; quest e ta punto 
che più savio di te fe' già errante : 
sÌ che, per sua dottrina, fe' disgiunto 
dall' anima il possibile intelletto, 
perchè da lui non vide organo aRsunto. 
Apri al1a verità che viene il petto, 
e sappi che, sì tosto come al feto 
l' articular del cerebra è perfetto, 
10 Motor primo a lui si volge, lieto 
sopra tanta arte di natura, e spira 
spirito nuovo di virtù repleto, 


4( 


4: 


4 t 


4
 


5: 


5! 


51 


6 


6 


6. 


7 1 



CANTO XXV 


3 1 5 


lcquires in the heart a virtue potent to inform Statins dis- 
all human members, like that blood which 





i

 
flows through the veins to become those. 
Refined yet again, it descends there whereof to 
be silent is more seemly than to speak, and 
thence afterwards distils upon other's blood, in 
natural vessel. 
fhere the one is mingled with the other; one 
designed to be passive, the other to be active, 
by reason of the perfect place whence it springs; 
lnd, joined thereto, it begins to operate, first 
coagulating, and then giving life to that \vhich 
it had solidified for its own material. 
The active virtue having become a soul, like that 
of a plant, in so far different that the former is 
on the way, and the latter is already at the goal, 
:hen effects so much that now it moves and feels, 
like a sea-fungus; and then sets about develop- 
ing organs for the po\vers whereof it is the germ. 
N O'V, son, expands, now distends, the virtue 
\vhich proceeds from the heart of the begetter, 
wbere nature intends all human members; 
but how from an animal it becomes a human and on the 
b 0 h h o 0 h 0 infusion of 
elog t Oll seest oot yet; t IS IS t at pOInt the rational 
which made one ,viser than thou to err · soul into 
o 0 0' the body 
1)':>0 that Ly hIs teachIng he made the Intellectual 
faculty separate fronl the soul, because he sa,v 
no organ occupied by it. 
Open thy breast to the truth which is coming, 
and know that so soon as the organisation of 
the brain is perfect in the elnbryo, 
the First Mover turns him to it, rejoicing over 
such handiwork of nature, and breathes into 
it a new spirit with virtue filled, 



3 16 


PURGATORIO 


Salita al che ciò che trova attivo quivi tira 73 
Girone VII . . r.. , I 1 
In sua sustanzla, e JaSSI un a ma so a, 
che vive e sente, e sè in sè rigira. 
E perehè meno ammiri la parola, 7(, 
guard a il calor del sol che si fa vino, 
giunto all' umor che dalla vite cola. 
E quando I
achcsls non ha più lino, 19 
solvesi dalla carne, ed in virtute 
ne seeo porta e l' unlano e il divino: 
I' altre potenze, tutte quante mute; 82 
melnoria, inteHigenza c YsIGn
:lde, 
in alto moho più che prima acute. 
Senz' arrestarsi, per sè stessa cade 85 
mirabilmente all' una delle rive; 
quivi conosce prima le sue strade. 
Tosto ehe loco lì la circonscrive, 88 
la virtù formativa raggia intorne, 
così e quanto nelle nlelnbra vive ; 
e come l' aer, quand' è ben pierno, 9 1 
per I' altrui raggio che in sè si riflette 
di diversi color diventa adorno, 
così l' aer vicin quivi si mette 94 
in quella forma che in lui suggeila 
virtual mente l' alma che ristette ; 
e simigliante poi aHa fiamlnel1a 91 
che segue il fuoco là 'vunque si muta, 
segue aHo spirto sua forma novella. 
Però che quindi ha poscia sua paruta, 100 
è chiamat' ombra; e quindi organa poi 
ciascun sentire in fino alIa veduta. 
Quindi parlian1o, e quindi ridiam Doi, 10] 
quindi facciam Ie lagrÌ1ne e i sospiri 
che per 10 monte aver sentiti puoi. 



CANTO XXV 


3 1 7 


.vhich draws into its substance that which it finds Statius, 
active there and becomes one sin g le soul that continu
ng, 
, , deals w1th 
lives, and feels, and turns round upon itself. the soul 
1\ d 1 h 1 I d after death 

n t lat t ou mayst nlarve ess at my wor s, 
look at the sun's heat, that is made wine when 
combined with the juice which flows from the 
VIne. 
tind when Lachesis has no more thread, it frees 
I itself from the flesh, and bears a\vay in potency 
both the human and the divine; 
:he other powers, the \vhole of them nlute; 
I Inemory, intelligence and vÚll, keener far in 
action than they were before. 
Staying not, it falls of itseJf in wondrous wise 
to one of the shores; there it first learns its 
ways. 
Soon as it is circumscribed in place there, the and with 
formative virtue radiates around, in form and a b e
l.al 
o 0 1 0 0 b 0 1es 
quantIty as In the IVlng mem ers; 
lnd as the air, when it is full saturate, becomes 
decked with divers colours through another's 
rays which are reflected in it, 
)0 the neighbouring air sets itself into that form 
which the soul that is there fixed impresses 
upon it by means of its virtue; 

'.1nd then, like the flame 'v hich follows the fire 
wheresoever it moves, the spirit is followed by 
its new form. 
Inasmuch as therefrom it afterwards has its sem- 
blance, it is called a shade; and therefrom it 
forms the organs of every sense ev
n to sight. 
By this we speak, and by this we laugh, by this 
we make the tears and the sighs which thou 
mayst have heard about the mount. 



3 18 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VII Secondo che ci affiiggono i disiri 
e gli al tri affetti, I' 0111 bra si Ii gura ; 
e questa è la cagion di che tu ammiri." 
E già venuto all' ultima tortura 
s' era per noi, e volto aHa n1an destra, 
ed eravamo attenti ad altra cura. 
Quivi la ripa fiamma in fuor balestra, 
e la cornice spira fiato in suso, 
che la riflette, e via da lei sequestra: 
onde ir ne convenìa dallato schiuso 
ad uno ad uno; ed io ten1eva il [oco 
quinci, e quindi ten1ea cadere in giuso. 
Lo duca mio dicea: "Per questo loco 
si vuol tenere agli occhi stretto il freno, 
però ch' errar potrebbesi per poco." 
" Sllmmae Deus c/ementiae" nel seno 
al grande ardore allora udii cantando, 
che di volger mi fe' caler non l11eno ; 
e vidi spirti per la fiamlna andando : 
per ch' io guardava loro ed a 7 luiei passi, 
compartendo la vista a quando a quando. 
Appresso il fine ch' a quel]' inno fàssi, 
" d 1 TT' " 
gn avano a to: "y trum non cognfJSCO ; 
indi ricon1inciavan I' inno bassi. 
Finitolo, anco gridavano: "AI bosco 
si tenne Diana, cd Elice caccionne 
che di Venere avea senti to il tosco." 
lndi al cantar tornavano; indi donne 
gridavano e mariti che fur casti, 
come virtute e n1atrimonio imponne. 
E questo modo credo che lor basti 
per tutto il tempo che il foco gli abbrucia: 
con tal eu fa con vi en, con cotai pasti 
che la piaga dassezzo si ricucia. 


101 


10 


II: 


II
 


II
 


I2J 


I2
 


I2J 


13< 


I3
 


I3 f 


I3 C 



CANTO XXV 


3 1 9 


'he shade takes its form according as the desires The lustful 
and the other affections prick us, and this is the 
cause of that whereof thou marvellest." 
tnd now had "fwve come to the last turning, and 
had ,vheeled round to the right hand, and were 
intent on other care. 

here the bank flashes forth flames, and the Theil 
cornice breathes a blast upward, which bends punishment 
them back, and keeps them away from it ; 
,herefore it behoved us to go on the side which 
was free one by one; and on this side I feared 
the fire, and on that I feared to fall downward. 
-iy Leader said: "Along this place the rein 
must be kept tight on the eyes, because lightly 
a false step might be taken." 
Summae Deus clementiae" I then heard sung in 
the heart of the great burning, which Inade me 
no less eager to turn aside; 
nd I saw spirits going through the flames; 
wherefore I looked at them and at my steps, 
with divided gaze fi'om time to time. 

ter the end which is made to that hymn, they Examplesof 
cried aloud: "Virum non cognosco". then Chasb
y-:- 
. ' The V lrgln 
softly began the hymn agaIn. Mary 
t being finished, they further cried: "Diana Diana 
').'. kept in the wood, and chased Helice forth 
who had felt the poison of Venus." 
'hen turned they to their chanting; then cried 
they women and husbands who were chaste, 
as virtue and marriage require of us. 
\.nd this fashion I think suffices them for all the 
time the fire burns them: with such treatment, 
and v!ith such diet, must the last wound be 
healed. 



3 20 


NOTES 


1-3. In Purgatory it is two o'clock P.M., or late 
Aries being on the Purgatory meridian at noon, tl 
succeeding sign of Taurus holds that position at 2 P.M. 
while at the same time Scorpio (the sign opposi 1 
Taurus) is on the meridian of Jerusalem, where 
is consequently 2 A.M. 
10- I 2. 'rhe stork, in the" Bestiaries," is the type t 
obedience. It does not attempt to fly out of its ne: 
till its mother gives it leave. 
22, 23. At the birth of l'vIeleager, son of Oeneu 
King of Calydon, and Althaea, the Fates predicted th. 
he would live as long as a certain log of wood w. 
not consumed by fire. Subsequently he slew tr 
Calydonian boar, and gave the 8kin to his mistres 
Atalanta. His uncles (Althaea's brothers) having take 
it from her, he killed them, too; whereupon Althat 
in a rage threw the log on the fire, and brought abOl 
her son's death (Ovid. Met. viii. 445-525). 
3ï, 3
L With this passage, compare COI1'V. iv. 21: 28-4
 
52, 55, 61. The three souls, vegetative, animal an 
rational (if. above, Canto i v. 5, 6.) 
64-66. Brutes have no intel/cetus. Man's intellect i 
" possible," i.e. has powers undeveloped or not i 
action; whereas the angelic intellect is continuousl 
and perfectly "actualised" (if. Par. v. 22-24; xxh 
76-81). Hence" no creature save man, either abov 
or belo\v hinl, apprehends by possible intellect" (L 
MOll. i. 3: 52-55). It follows that none of the corpon 
organs which are common to men and animals can b 
the seat of intellect. \\Thence" the possible iutcllec 
is called separate because it is not the act of a corporC3 
organ " (Aquinas). For the erroneous inferences (ad 
verse to the doctrine of personal immortality) whic: 
Averroës drew from this fact, see Argument. Cf., toe 
above, Canto xviii. 5 I, note. 
75. On the subject of self-consciousness there is som 
confusion in the writings of the schoolmen. Dant 
with sound insight folhnvs Averroës in making it th 
special characteristic of the rational or intellectual soul 
as life is of the vegetable, and sensation of the anima 
soul. "The action of the intellect is likened to ; 
circle, becau!'e it turns round upon itself and under 
stands itself" (.l\.verroës) 



CANTO XXV 


3 21 


79' See above, Canto xxi. 15-17, note. 
83- Çf. Par. xxix. 7 1 . 
8S-8j. See Inf. iii. 70 S'I'I. (e.g. 111-119); and Purg. 
I co-roS.-It has been pointed out that in dealing 
th the two Montefeltros (If1{. xxvii., Purg. v.) Dante 
lows the popular ideas r
ndered familiar by re- 

sentations in art, but not strictly reconcilable with 

 doctrine here laid down. 
88. cÎrconscri'Ue. "A thing is said to be in space h!J 
cumscription, when a beginning, middle and end can 
assigned to it in space, or if its parts are measured 
, the parts of space; and in this sense the bod!J is in 
ace. A thing is said to be in space 
'J dtþnition, when 
is here in such a sense as not to be els
where; and in 
is sense Angels are in space, for an Angel is wl1ere 
is operative. And, according to Damascenus, thi, is 
e case also with disembodied souls. I say disembcdied 
cause the soul \" hen united with the body is in the 
me place as the person in his totatity. A thing is 
id to be in space rtpltti-vel!þ because it fills 
pace; aJld 
us God is said to be in every place becau
e he fiils 
ery place" (Albertus Magnus). Cf. PUI g- xi. 1, 
Jr. xiv. 30. 
121-127,129-130,133. The hymn sung by the lust- 
I began with the verse quoted by Dante in his day, 
ld for some thr
e hundred years after his time (till the 
reviary v:as revis
d by Pope Urban VIII. in 1631). 
his may be seen by a reference to the ancient" uses," 
; Dr Moore points out. The hymn is entirely appro- 
riate to the occupants of this terrace, the third verse 
lnning-Lumbos jecur'lue morhidum Flal1lmis adure congruis, 
,'c:cincti ut artus t'xcubent Luxu remoto pessimo. 
I). 128. "And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy ,,'omb, 
ad bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. 
. . l'hen said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, 

eing I koO'w not a man? " (Luke i. 3 1 - 34 ). 
130- 132. Helice or Callisto, one of Diana's nymphs, 
aving borne Jupiter a son (named Areas), was dis- 
1issed b}' Diana and changed into a bear by Juno: who 
las jealous of her. In that form she was being pursued 
y Areas: when Jupiter set both the mother and the 
3n in the sky as constellations (see Ovid, Md. ii. 401- 
3 0 , and if. Par. xxxi. 3 2 , 33). 
X 



PURGA TORIO 


T HE flames redden under Dan te's shadow and 1 
amazed souls gather to him, careful, however, t 
to issue from the flame (I - I 5). One of them has ban 
questioned Dante, when a group, circling the mountö: 
in the opposite direction, meets them with a br 
salutation, and each group alike proclaims a warni 
example of lust; after which they s\veep past ea 
other like flocks of birds, and continue to utter t 
wail and song suited to their state (J 6-48). But tl 
does not prevent their drawing again to Dante, w; 
tells them his tale and questions them as to their sta 
(49-66). When the souls have somewhat recover 
from their amazement, one of them explains that tl 
group accompanying the poet failed to restrain tht 
carnal appetites within the limits prescribed by tl 


Girone VII Mentre che sì per I' odo, uno innanzi altro, 
ce n' andavamo, e spesso il buon maestro 
diceva: "Guarda; giovi ch' io ti scaltro." 
Feria mi il sole in su I' omero destro, 
che già, raggiando, tutto I' occidente 
mutava in bianco aspetto di cilestro ; 
ed io facea con I' ombra più rovente 
parer la fiamma; e pure a tanto indizio 
vid' io molt' ombre, andando, poner mente. 
Questa fu la cagion che diede inizio I 
10ro a parIar di me; e cominciarsi 
a dir: "Colui non par corpo fittizio." 
Poi verso me, quanto potevan farsi, I 
certi si feron, sempre con riguardo 
di non uscir dove non fossero arsi. 
"0 tu che vai, non per esser più tar do, II 
ma forse reverente, agli altri dopo, 
rispondi a me che in sete ed in foco ardo ; 
3 22 



CANTO XXVI 


>cial institutions of humanity
 whereas the other 
I roup had not even observed the laws laid do\vn by 
ature (67-87). Dante's interlocutor is Guido Guini- 
I :lli, the founder (or precursor) of the new style of 
'uscan poetry, the father of Dante and of his betters j 
) whom Dante renders his passionate homage of affec- 
on and loyalty (88-114). But he points to the shade 
I -: the Troubadour Arnaut Daniel as superior to himself 
I ld superior to all Provençal rivals by as much as the 

w rT'uscan school excels the old school of Guittone 
I : Arezzo (115- 1 25). Then, with a petition for Dante's 
I rayers, he yields his place to Arnaut himself; who 
I 
lls of his state, in his own Provençal tongue; and 
I 1 his turn implores Dante's prayers (127-148). 
I 


Vhi]e we were thus advancing, one in front of the The lustful 
other, along the brink, often the good Master 
said: "Give heed, let my skill avail thee." 
)n my right sh')ulder the sun was beating, that 
already with his rays was changing the whole 
fåce of the west from azure to white; 
nd with my shadow, ruddier I made the flames 
appear, and even at so slight a sign many 
shades I sa\v, as they passed, give heed. 
,=,.
his was the cause which gave them an opening to 
speak of me; and one to the other they began 
to say: "He doth not seem a shadowy body." 

hen certain of them made towards me, so far as 
I they could, ever on their guard not to corne 
forth where they would not be burned. 
; 0 thou that goest behind the others, not for being Guido 
slacker but perchance for reverence, make an- Guinlcelli 
swer unto me who in thirst and fire do burn; 
3 2 3 



3 2 4 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VII nè solo a nle la tua risposta è uopo: 
chè tutti questi n' hanno n1aggior sete 
che d' acqua fredda Indo 0 Etiopo. 
Dinne com' è che fai di te parete 
aI sol, come se tu non fossi ancora 
di morte entrato dentro daHa rete." 
Sì mi parlava un d' essi, ed io mi fora 
già nlanifesto, s' io non fossi atteso 
ad altra novità ch' apparve aIlora : 
chè per 10 mezzo del canlmino acceso 
venia gente col viso incontro a questa, 
Ia qual mi fece a rin1irar sospeso. 
Lì veggio d' ogni parte Farsi presta 
ciascun' ombra, e baciarsi una con una, 
senza restar, contente a breve feita : 
così per entro loro schiera bruna 
s' anlnlusa I' una con l' altra formica, 
forse ad espiar lor via e lor Fortuna. 
Tosto che parton l' accoglienza arnica, 
prinla che iI primo passo lì trascorra, 
sopragridar ciascuna s' affatica ; 
la nuova gente: "Soddonla e Gonlorra," 
e I' altra: " Nella vacca entra Pasife, 
perchè il toreIlo a sua lussuria corra." 
Poi come gru, ch' aIle montagne Rife 
volasser parte, e parte in ver I' arene, 
queste del gel, queUe del sole schife: 
l' una gente sen va, I' altra sen viene, 
e tornan lagrimando ai prilni canti, 
ed al gridar che più lor si conviene; 
e raccostarsi a me, come davanti, 
essi rnedesnli chc n1' avean pregato, 
attenti ad ascoltar nei lor sembianti. 



CANTO XXVI 


3 2 5 


Ir alone to me is thine answer needful, for alI The lustful 
these have greater thirst for it than Indian or 
Ethiop for cold water. 
ell us how it is that thou makest of thee a wall 
against the sun, as if thou wert not yet caught 
,vithin death's net." 
hus spake one of them to me, and already ,vould 
I have revealed myself, had I not been intent 
on another strange thing which then appeared; 
r through the midst of the fiery path, people Their 
. . h h . c . h twofold 
v/ere coming Wit t elr laces opposite to t ese, division 
who made nle pause in wonderment. 
here I see on either side each shade make 
haste, and one kiss the other without staying, 
satisfied with short greeting: 
en so within their dark battalions one ant 
rubs muzzle with another, perchance to spy 
out their way and their fortune. 
Jon as they break off the friendly greeting, ere 
the first step there speeds onward, each one 
strives to sbout loudest, 
e new people, "Sodom and Gomorrah," and 
the other: "Pasiphaë enters the cow that the 
young bull may haste to her lust." 
"'
hen like cranes that should fly, some to the 
Rhipean mountains, others towards the sands; 
these shy of the frost, those of the sun, 
e one people passes on, the other comes away, 
and weeping they return to their former chants, 
and to the cry which most befits them; 
ld those very same who had entreated me, drew 
close to me as before, intent on listening in 
their appearance. 



3 26 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VII 10, che due volte avea visto Jor grato, 
incominciai: "0 anime sicnre 
d' aver, quando che sia, di pace stato, 
non son rilnase acerbe nè mature 
Ie membra mie di là, ma son qui meco 
col sangue suo e con Ie sue giunture. 
, Quinci su vo per non esser più cieco ; 
donna è di sopra che n' acquista grazia, 
per che il mortal pel vostro mondo reco. 
Ma, se ]a vostra maggior voglia sazia 
tosto divegna, sì che i1 ciel v' alberghi, 
ch' è pien d' amore e più an1pio si spazia, 
ditemi, acciocchè ancor carte ne verghi, 
chi siete voi, e chi è quella turba 
che se ne va di retro ai vostri terghi ? " 
Non altrimenti stupido si turba 
]0 montanaro, e rimirando ammuta, 
quando rozzo e salvatico s' inurba, 
che ciascun' ombra fece in sua paruta; 
ma poichè furon di stupore scarche, 
10 qual negli alti cor tosto s' attuta, 
" Beato te, che delle nostre marche," 
ricominClO colei che pria m' inchiese, 
"per viver meglio, esperienza inbarche ! 
La gente che non vien con noi offese 
di ciò per che già Cesar, trionfando, 
, Regina' contra sè chiamar s' intese: 
però si parton ' Soddoma' gridando, 
rimproverando a sè, com' hai udito, 
ed aiutan l' arsura vergognando. 
Nostro peccato fu ermafrodito ; 
ma perchè non servammo umana legge, 
seguendo come bestie l' appetito, 



 



CANTO XXVI 


3 2 7 


, who twice had seen their desire, began: "0 The lustful 
souls, certain of having, whenever it may be, 
a state of peace, 
lY members have not remained yonder, green or 
ripe, but here are with me, with their blood 
and with their joints. · 
Ience upward I go to be blind no longer; there is 
a lady above who winneth grace for us, wherefor 
I bring my mortal body through your world. 
tut-so may your greater desire soon be satisfied, 
so that the heaven may house you which is 
filJed with love and broadest spreads- 

ll me that I may yet trace it on paper, who are 
ye and what is that throng which is going 
away behind your backs?" 
r ototherwise the dazed highlander grows troubled 
and stares about speechless, when rough and 
savage he enters the city, 
lan each shade did in its appearance; but after 
they were unladen of their bewilderment, which 
in lofty hearts soon is calmed, 
Blessed thou," began again the shade that first Guido 
did ask of me "who for a holier life art em- r
sumes his 
" 'discourse 
barking knowledge of our borders! 
I)':he people who come not with us offended in 
that for which Cæsar of old in his triumph 
heard' Regina' called out against him; 
. lerefore they part from us crying out ' Sodom ' 
reproving themselves as thou hast heard, and 
aid the burning by their shame. 
)ur sin was hermaphrodite; but because we ob- 
served not human law, and followed our lusts 
like brute beasts.. 



3 28 


PURGATORIO 


Girone VII in obbrobrio di noi, per noi si legge, 
quando partiamci, il nome di colei 
che s' Ímbestiò nell' imbestiate schegge. 
Or sai nostri atti, e di che fumnlo rei; 
se forse a nome vuoi saper chi semo, 
tempo non è da dire, e non saprei. 
F arotti ben di me volere scemo : 
son Guido GuinizeIIi, e già mi purgo 
per ben dolernli prima ch' all' estremo." 
Quali nella tristizia di L icurgo 
si fer due figli a riveder Ia nladre, 
tal mi fec' io, ma non a tanto insurgo, 
quand' i' odo nomar sè stesso il padre 
mio, e degli altri miei miglior, che n1ai 
rime d' amore usar dolci e leggiadre ; 
e senza udire e dir pensoso andai, 
lunga fiata rimirando lui, 
nè per 10 foco in là più m' appressai. 
Poichè di riguardar pasciuto fui, 
tutto m' offersi pronto al suo servigio, 
con I' affermar che fa credere altrui. 
Ed egli a me: "Tu lasci tal vestigio, 
per quel ch' i' odo, in file e tanto chiaro, 
che Lete nol può tor, nè farlo bigio. 
Ma, se le tue parole or ver giuraro, 
dimmi che è cagion per che dimostri 
nel dire e nel guardare avern1Î caro." 
Ed io a lui: "Li dolci detti vostri 
che, quanto durerà I' uso moderno, 
faranno cari ancora i Ioro inchiostri." 
" a frate," disse, "questi ch' io ti scerno 
col dito" (ed additò un spirto innanzi) 
" fu miglior fabbro del parIar materno. 


8; 


8: 


9' 


9- 


9: 


10< 


10: 


JOI 


lOt 


IX: 


II! 



CANTO XXVI 


3 2 9 


o our infamy by us is read, when we part us, The lustful 
the name of her who imbruted herself in the Guido 
brute-like framework. 

 ow knowst thou our deeds and what we ,vere 
guilty of; if haply thou wouldst know who \ve 
are by name, there is no time to tell, nor could I. 
_fhy desire of me, I will indeed make to wane: 
Guido GuiuiceJIi am I, and already purge me, 
because I full repentance made before the end. ' , 
As in the sorrow of L ycurgus two sons became Dante's 
on beholding again their mother, so became 

;hi:nce 
I, but not to such height do I rise, forerunner 
when I hear name hin1self the father of me, and 
of others my betters, who ever used sweet and 
graceful rhymes of love; 
and without hearing and speaking, pondering I 
I \vent, long time gazing at him, nor because 
of the fire drew I nigher thither. 
When I was filled with beholding, I offered me 
all ready to his service, with the oath ,vhich 
compels another's belief. 
And he to Dle: "Thou leavest, by that which I 
hear, traces so deep and so clear, that Lethe 
cannot take them away, nor make thenl dinl. 
But if thy words just now sware truth, tell ll1e, 
I). \vhat is the cause wherefore thou showest in 
speech and look that thou holdest me so dear." 
And 1 to him: "Your sweet ditties, which so 
long as modern use shall last, will make their 
very ink precious." 
"0 brother," said he," this one whom I dis- Guido 
tinguish to thee with my finger" (and he pointed Ä



tout 
to a spirit in front) "was a better craftsman of Daniel 
the mother tongue. 



33 0 


PURGA TORIQ 


Girone VII Versi d' amore e prose di romanzi lIS ] 
soperchiò tutti, e lascia dir gli stolti 
che quel di IJemosÌ credon ch' avanzi. 
A voce più ch' al vel' drizzan Ii vo!ti, 121 
e cosÌ Ferman sua opinione 
prima ch' arte 0 ragion per lor s' ascolti. 
Così fer molti antichi di Guittone, 12 4 
di grido in grido pur lui dando pregio, 
fin che I' ha vinto il ver con più persone. 
Or, se tu hai si ampio privilegio, 12 7 
che licito ti sia l' andare al chiostro, 
nel quale è Cristo abate del collegio, 
fagli per me un dir di un paternostro, 13 0 
quanto bisogna a noi di questo mondo, 
dove poter pee car non è più nostro." 
Poi, forse per dar loco altrui secondo, 133 
che pres so avea, disparve per 10 foco, 
come per l' acq ua pesce andando al fondo. 
10 mi feci al mostrato innanzi un poco) 13 6 
e dissi ch' al suo nome il mio disire 
apparecchiava grazioso loco. 
Ei cominciò liberamente a dire: 139 
" Tall m' abelis 
'ostre cortes deman, 
qu' ieu no-m puesc, ni-m vueil avos cobrirc. 
leu sui Arnaut, que plor e evau eantan ; 14 2 
eonsiros ve; la pas sada ,f%r, 
e evei jatlsen /0 jorll, qu' esper, denan. 
Ara vos pree, per aquella valor 145 
que evos guida al som de l' fscalina, 
soevegTla evos a temps de ma dolor." 
Poi s' ascose nel foco che gli afl1na. 14. 8 
16 sqq. The speaker is Guido Guinicelli (ca. 1230- 
co. 1276; see above, nfJtes to Cantos xi. 97-99 and xxiv. 



CANTO XXVI 


33 1 


: n verses of love, and prose tales of romance, all The lustful 
he surpassed, and let fools talk, who think that 
he of Limoges ex eels. 
fo rum our rather than to truth they turn their 
faces, and thus do fix their opinion ere art or 
reason is listened to by them. 
)0 did many of our fathers \vith Guittone, shout- 
ing in turn and praising him alone; but truth 
has prevailed at length \vith most persons. 
'J' O\v if thou hast such ample privilege, that 'tis 
permitted thee to go to the cloister \vherein 
Christ is abbot of the college, 
10 me there the saying of a Pater N oster so far Guido 
as is needful to us of this world, \vhere power e d n 1 . ds his 
. . , , scourse 
to SIn IS no more ours. 
fhen perchance to give place to another follow- 
ing close, he vanished through the flames, like 
a fish going through the water to the bottom. 
!\. little for\vard I drew me towards the one he Arnaut 
had pointed out, and said that my desire \vas Daniel 
preparing a grateful place for his name. 
Willingly he began to say: "So doth your 
courteous request please me that I cannot, nor 
\vill I, hide me from you. 
':if am Arnault that \veep and go a-singing; in 
thought I see nlY past madness, and I see 
\vith joy the day \vhich I await before me. 
Now I pray you, by that Goodness which guideth 
you to the summit of the stairway, be mindful 
in due time of my pain." Then he hid him 
in the fire \vhich refines them. 


52-63), a member of the Ghibelline Principi family, of 
IBologna. Little is known of his life, save that he was 



33 2 


NOTES 


Podestà of Castelfranco in 1170, and that he was exiled 
in I 274, together \vi th the La m bertazz i (if. I nf. x x x H. 
112. 123; Purg. xiv. 99, 100, nOlts); the city of his 
refuge and death may have been Verona. As a poet, 
Guido began as an imitator of the later method of 
Guittone d' Arezzo, but he soon outshone his model 
("[.I'V. 124-126), and his best works (notably the famous 
canzone Al cor genlil yipara sempre Amore, which may be 
said to mark an epoch in ItaJian literature), inspired 
much of the poetry of the Florentine school ('V'V. 
97-99). For Guido see, in addition to the references 
given above, De Vulg. El. i. 9, 15; ii. 5, 6; CO'I"lJ. iv. 
10; Vita Nuo'Va, Sonnet x. 'V. 1 (il Saggio). 
40 and 79, For Sodom and Gomorrah, see Gen. 
xix. 
41, 42 and 86, 87. For Pasiphaë, who attained her 
end by entering an artificial cow, made by Daedalus, 
see I if. xii. 12-18, note. 
43, 44. '.1'he Rhipean mountains !'-a general term 
'\vith medieval geographers and writers, to express 
mountains in the north of Europe and Asia; "the 
sands," i.e. those of the African desert. 
59, 60. Some hold that Dante is alluding to Beatrice 
(I
f. ii. 51 sqq.); others, that the reference is to the 
Virgin Mary (ib., 94 sqq.). 
62, 63. The Empyrean; see Par. xxx. 39 sqq. 
77, 7 8 . This opprobrious epithet was given to 
Cæsar on account of his relations with Nicomedes, 
K.ing of Bithynia. See Suetonius' Cæsar [491; though 
Dante's immediate source was probably rather the 
Magnae Deri"lJationes of Uguccione da Pisa, S.'V. 
triumplzus. 
82.-87. Their sin was indeed bi-sexual [enn,ifndíto: 
Hermaphoditus, having excited the love of a nymph to 
which he remained indifferent, she prayed that their 
bodies might be joined together for ever; and the gods 
granted her prayer-see Ovid, Met. iv. 288- 388J, and 
so far natural and generically human; but inasmuch 
as it transgressed the specifically human law of n1arriage 
: see the preceding canto, 'V. 135), there was an elemen t 



CANTO XXVI 


333 


.f brutishness in it. Bestialità is used by Dante in 
nany different senses; but always as opposed to the 
pecifically human element in man. In general terms 
hat specifically human element is reason, and therefore 
.utialità (like the French bêtiu) is sometimes used for 
c stupidity" or "want of intelligence," as, for ex- 
.rople, in Con
. iv. 14: 107. Here it implies simply 
. neglect of the specifically human regulations of a 
'elation ,vhich is not specifically human in itself. 
94-9 6 . Thoas and Euneos, the sons of Hypsipyle; 
or the incident, if. above, Canto xxii. 112, and see 
>tatius, Theb. iv. 785 sqq., v. 499 .r'1q. 
108. Lethe, the river of forgetfulness; see below, 

anto xxviii. 130, etc. 
I 15. 1'1'1' Arnaut Daniel
 a distinguished Provençal 
Joet, flourished ca. 1180-1200. Among his patrons 
vas Richard Creur-de-Lion. He was a master of the 
io-called trobar &ius, or obscure style of poetry, ,,,-hich 
"evelled, besides, in difficult rhymes and other compli- 

ated devices. As such, he was very naturally" cadare 
:0 the general"; and the lines in \vhich Dante deals 
.vith the popular preference for Guiraut de Bornelh 
=qu!l di Lemosì; co. I 17 5-ca. 1220; called by his 
:;ontemporaries c. master of the troubadours"] are easier 
:or us to understand than his own evident bias in 
favour of Arnaut. For the best modern criticism not 
Jnly places Guiraut ,vell above Arnaut (whose fame 
is at a very low ebb), but is almost unanimous in 
5etting him at the head of all the troubadours; his 
:>nly rival, if rival he have, being Bernart de Ventadorn 
':\
\vhom Dante never nlentions).- Verses 1 I 8, 119 
mean, not that Arnaut wrote better love songs and 
better prose romances than anyone else (for it is 
practically certain that he wrote no prose at all), but 
that he surpassed every writer in France, not only 
the troubadours of the South, but also the authors ot 
the prose romances in the North [in De Vulg. El. 
10: 12- I 6, Dante speaks of prose works as the speda) 
province of the langue d'oïl, or Northern FrenchJ.-For 
Arnaut, if. De VIIlg. El. ii. 2., 6, 10, 13; and for 
Guiraut, ib. i. 9; ii. 2., 5, 6. 



PURGATORIO 


N IGHT had already fallen on the foot of the moun 
tain when the angel of the circle greeted th 
poets and pronounced the blessing on the pure ir 
heart (1-9). When summoned to cross the flaml 
Dante recalls with horror the sight he had ere no"" 
witnessed of men burned to death; and remains dea 
to all Virgil's appeals, till the utterance of Beatrice', 
name at last overcomes his reluctance; wherea 
Virgil, for reasons of his own, smiles as we smilt 
at a child that knows not what he seeks (10-45). 
Then Virgil, Dante and Statius enter the awfuj 
burning, Dante comforted by Virgil's discourse o
 
Beatrice and by the welcome and blessing of th{ 
angel at the further side (46-60). Meanwhile thE 
shadow of night has been creeping up the n1ountain, 
and before they have ascended many of the steps 
\vhich they are now climbing, it swallows the poet's 
shadow, and he is bereft of power further to ascend 
(61-75). Each of the pilgrims makes a stair his 


Girone VII Sì come quando i primi raggi vibra 
là dove il suo F attore il sangue sparse, 
cadendo Ibero sotto l' aha Libra, 
e l' on de in Gange da nona riarse, 4 
sì stava il sole: onde il giorno sen giva, 
quando l' angel di Dio lieto ci apparse. 
Fuor della fìamma stava in su la riva, 7 

 e cantava: "Bea!Ï mundo corde, " 
in voce assai più che la nostra viva. 
Poscia: "Più non si va, Be pria non morde, xo 
anime sante, il foco; entrate in esso, 
ed al cantar di la non siate sorde," 
334 



OANTO XX VII 


:ouch, and Dante, like a goat between two shepherds, 
iees the great stars shine brighter than their wont, 
LS he drops into such a sleep as sees the things that 
lre to be (76-93). Towards daybreak he has a 
rision of Leah, the type of the active life, singing 
)f herself and her sister Rachael, the type of the 
:ontemplative life (94-108). Now nigh to his im- 
nediate goal, he a"vakes with the morning, and 
virgil tells him that he is at last to gather that 
'ruit of liberty which he has so long been seeking; 
md when he has n10unted eagerly to the summit of the 
tair his guide informs him that his function is now 
lischarged, for they have reached the goal of Purga- 
ory. Dante has recovered from the dire effects of 
he fall of man; his will is free, unwarped and 
ound; he has no further need of direction or 
tirective institutions; he has reached the goal of 
11 imperial and ecclesiastical organization and is I 
:ing and bishop of himself ( 10 9- 1 42.). 


\.S when he shoots forth his first beams there The lustful 
where his Creator shed his blood, while Ebro Sunset of 
falls beneath the loft y Scales the 
hird 
, day In 
.nd Ganges' waves by noonday heat are scorched, Purgatory 
,=,. d h · h . r h d The Angel 
so stoo t e sun, w eI erore tea y was pass- of Chastity 
ing away when God's glad angel appeared to us. 
)utside the flames on the bank he was standing The 
and sin g in g "Beali mundo corde" in a voice seve
th 
Beatitude 
more piercing far than ours. 
fhen: " No farther may ye go, 0 hallowed 
souls, if tîrst the fire bite not; enter therein and 
to the singing beyond be not deaf," 


335 



Passo ci disse conle noi gli funlnlo presso : 
attraverso h '. d o . 1 d 1 . . 
la fiamma per c 10 Ivennl ta quan 0 0 Intesl, 
quale è colui che nella fossa è 111esso. 
In su Ie man commesse mi protesi, 
guardando il foco, e inlnlaginando forte 
umani corpi già veduti accesi. 
V olsersi verso me Ie buone scorte, 
e Virgilio mi disse: "F igliuol nlio, 
qui può esser tormento, ma non nlorte. 
Ricordati, ricordati . . . e, se io 
sopr' esso Gerion ti guidai salvo, 
che farò ora presso più a Dio? 
Credi per certo che, se dentro all' al vo 
di questa fiamma stessi ben n1ill' anni, 
non ti potrebbe far d' un capel calvo; 
e se tu credi forse ch' io t' inganni, 
fatti ver lei, e fatti far credenza 
con Ie tue mani al lembo de' tuoi panni. 
Pon giu olnai, pon giù ogni temenza; 
volgiti in qua, e vieni oltre sicuro." 
Ed io pur fermo e contro a coscienza. 
Quando mi vide star pur fermo e duro, 
turbato un poco disse: "Or vedi, figlio, 
tra Beatrice e te è questo muro." 
Come al nome di Tisbe aperse il ciglio 
Piramo in su la morte, e riguardolIa, 
allor che il gelso di ventò vermiglio : 
così, là. mia durezza fatta solla, 
mi volsi al savio duca, udendo il nome 
che nella mente sempre mi rampolla. 
Ond' ei cronù la testa e disse: "Come? 
volell1ci star di qua? " indi sorrise, 
come al fanciul si fa ch' è vinto al pome. 


'4 \ 

 


33 6 


PURGATORIO 


13 


If 


IÇ 


22 


25 


28 


3 1 


34 


37 


4 0 


43 



CANTO XXVII 


337 


e said to us when \ve were nigh to him; where- Virgil 
fore I became when I heard him, such as one 'D:::e 
who is laid in the grave. t th O pass h 
rong 
bent forward over my clasped hands, gazing at the flame 
the fire, and vividly imagining human bodies 
once seen burnt. 

he kindly escorts turned them toward me, and 
Virgil said to me: "My son, here may be 
torment but not death. 
temelnber thee, remember thee, . . . and if 
on Geryon I guided thee safely, what shall I 
do now nearer to God? 
)f a surety believe, that if within the womb of 
these flames thou didst abide full a thousand 
years, they could not make thee bald of one hair; 
nd if perchance thou think est that I beguile 
thee, get thee toward them, and get credence 
with thy hands on the hem of thy garments. 
">ut away now, put away all fear; turn thee hither, 
and on\vard come securely." And I, yet 
rooted, and with accusing conscience. 
Nhen he saw me stand yet rooted and stubborn, 
troubled a little he said: "N O\v look my son, 
t\vixt Beatrice and thee is this wall." 
,:\.'\s at Thisbe' 8 nan1e Pyramu8 opened his eyes 
at the point of death, and gazed at her, when 
the mulberry becanle red, 
;0, my stubbornness being softened, I turned me 
to my wise Leader on hearing the name which 
ever springs up in my mind. 
Whereupon he shook his head, and said: "What? 
do we desire to stay this side? " then sn1Íled as 
one does to a child that is won by an apple. 
y 



33 8 


PURGATORIO 


Passo Poi dentro al foco innanzi mi si mise, 4 
a
fi
v


 pregando Stazio che venisse retro, 
che pria per lunga strada ci diyise. 
Come fui dentro, in un bogliente vetro 4 
gittato mi sarei per rinfrescarmi, 
tant' era ivi 10 incendio senza Inetro. 
Lo dolce padre mio, per confortarmi, 5 
pur di Beatrice ragionando and ava, 
d icendo: "G Ii ocehi suoi già veder parmi." 
Guidavaei una voee ehe cantava 5. 
di là; e noi, attenti pure a lei, 
venimmo fuor là dove si montava. 
" Vtnite henedic/Î pa/ri.r mei," S2 
sonò dentro ad un lume che lì era, 
tal ehe mi vinse e guardar nol potei. 
" Lo sol sen va," soggiunse, "e vien la sera; 6] 
non v' arrestate, ma studiate il passo, 
mentre che I' occidente non s' annera." 
Salita a1 Dritta salia la via per entro if sasso, 6", 
Paradiso I h ' . I " . . 
Terrestre verso ta parte, e 10 tog leva 1 raggl 
dinanzi a me del sol ch' era già basso. 
E di poehi scaglion levammo i saggi, 67 
che il sol corear, per l' ombra che si spense, 
sentimmo retro ed io e Ii miei saggi. 
E pria ehe in tutte Ie sue parti in1mense 7<- 
Fosse orizzonte fatto d' un aspetto, 
e notte avesse tutte sue dispense, 
ciascun di noi d' un grado fece Ietto: 73 
chè Ia natura del nlonte ci affranse 
Ia possa del salir più che il diletto. 
Quali si fanno ruminando manse 7 6 
Ie capre, state rapide e proterve 
sopra Ie cinle, avanti che sien pranse, 



CANTO XXVII 


339 


['hen he entered into the fire in front of n1e, pray- The 
ing Statius that he would come behind, who rh:
:
h 
for a long way before had separated us. the flame 
Vhen I was within, I would have flung me into 
molten glass to cool me, so immeasurable there 
was the burning. 

 y sweet Father, to encourage me, went on dis- 
coursing ever of Beatrice, saying: "Already 
I seen1 to behold her eyes." 
\. voice guided us, which was singing on the 
other side, and we, intent only on it, came 
forth, there where the ascent began. 
'Venite benedicti patris mei," rang forth from 
within a light which was there, so bright that 
it vanquished me, and look upon it I could not. 
, The sun is sinking," it added, "and the even- 
ing cometh; stay ye not but mend your pace 
while the west grows not dark." 
>traight the way mounted through the rock, The 
to\vard such a q uarter that in front of me I three poets 
, resume 
stayed the rays of sun \vho already was low. their way 
but soon 
\nd of fe\v steps made we assay, when I and my halt for 
sages perceived that the sun had set behind us, repose 
because of the shado\v which had vanished. 
').\..nd ere the horizon in all its stupendous range 
had become of one hue, and night held all her 
don1inion, 

ach of us Inade a bed of a step; for the law of 
the mount took from us the power, rather than 
the desire, to ascend. 

s goats that have been agile and wanton upon 
the heights ere they are fed, grow tame while 
ruminating, 



34 0 


PURGATORIO 


Salita al tacite all' ombra, n1entre che il sol ferve, 
Paradiso d d I h . I 
Terrestre guar ate a pastor, c e In su a verga 
poggiato s' è, e lor poggiato serve; 
e quale il mandrian che fuori alberga, 
lungo il peculio suo queto pernotta, 
guardando perchè fÌera non 10 sperga : 
tali era vamo tutti e tre allotta, 
io come capra ed ei come pastori, 
fasciati quinci e quindi d' alta grotta. 
Poco po tea parer lì del di fuori; 
ma per quel poco vedev' io Ie stelle, 
di lor solere e più chiare e maggiori. 
81 ruminando, e sì mirando in queUe, 
mi prese il sonno: il sonno che sovente, 
,.. anzi che il fatto 6ia, sa Ie novelle. 
Nell' ora, credo, che dell' oriente 
prima raggiò ne] monte Citerea, 
che di foco d' amor par sempre ardente s 
giovane e bella in sogno mi parea 
donna vedere andar per una landa 
cogliendo fiori; e cantando dicea: 
"Sappia, qualunque il mio nome domanda, 
\ ch' io mi son Lia, e vo movendo intorno 
\ le belle mani a farmi una ghirlanda. 
Per piacermi alIo specchio qui m' adorno ; 
ma mia suora Rachel mai non si smaga 
dal suo miraglio, e sìede tutto giorno. 
Ell' è de' suoi begli occhi veder vaga, 
com' io dell' adornarmi con Ie mani : 
lei ]0 vedere, e me l' oprare appaga." 
E già, per gli splendori antelucani, 
che tanto ai peregrin surgon più grati 
quanto tornando albergan men lontani, 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9- 


9: 


IOC 


IO
 


Iof 


I
 



CANTO XXVII 


34 1 


ilent in the shade, when the sun is hot, guarded Dante 
by the herd who has leaned upon his staff, 
i

t
t;> a 
and, leaning, minds them; 
Lnd like the shepherd who lodges in the open, 
holds silent vigil by night 10ngside his flock, 
watching Jest a wild beast scatter it ; 
;uch \vere \ve then aU three, I as a goat and 
they as shepherds, bounded by the high rock 
on this side and on that. 
Little of the outside could there be seen, but 
through that little I sa\v the stars brighter 
and bigger than their \vont. 
As I was thus ruminating, and thus gazing at them, 
sleep fell on me, sleep \vhich oft doth know 
the news ere the fact come to pass. 
In the hour, methinks, when Cytherea, who and dreams 
seemeth ever burning \vith fire of love, first 

cf
fh 
beamed from the east on the nlount, Rachel 
meseemed to behold in a dream, a lady, young 
and fair, going along a plain gat
1ering flowers; 
and singing she said: 
" !(now, \vhoso 
sketh my name, that I am Leah, 
and go moving my fair hands around to make 
me a gar land. 
')..T 0 please me at the glass here I deck n1e; but 
Rachel my sister ne'er stirs from her mirror, 
and sitteth all day. 
She is fain to behold her fair eyes, as I to deck 
me with my hands: her, contemplation; me, 
action, doth satisfy." 
And now, at the brightness ere dayspring born
 
\vhich rises the gratefu.ller to wayfarers as on 
their return they lodge less far fi-om home, 



34 2 


PURGATORIO 


Salita. al Ie tenebre fuggian da tutti i Iati, II 
ParadISO " I " d '. I ' " 
Terrestre e 1 sonno mlO con ess8e; on 10 eva ml, 
veggendo i gran maestri già Ievati. 
"Quel dolce pome, che per tanti rami II 
cercando va Ia cura dei mortali, 
oggi porrà in pace Ie tue fami." 
Virgilio inverso me queste cota]i II 
parole usò, e mai non furo strenne 
che fosser di piacere a queste eguali. 
Tanto voler sopra voler n1i venne 12 
dell' esser su, ch' ad ogni passo poi 
al volo mi sentia crescer Ie penne. 
Come la scala tutta sotto noi I2", 
fu corsa, e fummo in suI grado superno, 
in me ficcò Virgilio gli occhi suoi, 
e disse: "II temporal foco e I' eterno 12 1 
veduto hai, figlio, e sei venuto in parte 
dov' io per DIe più oltre non discerno. 
Tratto t' ho qui con ingegno e con arte; 13 0 
10 tuo piacere omai prendi per duce: 
fuor sci dell' erte vie, fuor sei dell' arte. 
Vedi Ià il sol che in fronte ti ri]uce; 133 
vedi l' erbetta, i fiori e gli arbuscelIi, 
che qui la terra sol da sè produce. 
Mentre che vegnan lieti gli occhi belli, 13 6 
che lagrimando a te venir ïñi fenno, 
seder ti puoi e puoi andar tra eHi. 
Non aspettar n1io dir più, nè mio cenno. 139 
Libera, dritto e sana è tuo arbitrio, 
e fallo fora non fare a suo senno : 
per ch' io te sopra te corona e mitrio." 14 2 
1-5. It was sunrise at Jerusalem, midnight in Spain 
(where Libra, the sign opposite to Aries, would be on 



CANTO XXVII 


343 


Ie shades of night were fleeing on every side, and Dan
e 
I . h h .c I awaKes 
my seep WIth t tern; ,v erelore arose, see- 
ing the great Masters already risen. 
That sweet fruit whereof the care of mortals 
goeth in search on so many boughs, this day 
shall give thy hungerings peace." 
V ords such as these did V irgil use to lDe, and 
never have there been gifts that were equal in 
s,veetness to these. 
o greatly did desire upon desire come over me 
to be above, that at every step after I felt my 
pinions gro\v for the flight. 
Vhen the stair,vay ,vas all sped beneath us, and 
Vie were upon the topmost step, on me did 
Virgil fix his eyes, 
nd said: "Son, the temporal fire and the eternal, Virgil's 
hast thou seen, and art come to a place where last words 
1, of myself, discern no further. 
lere have I brought thee with wit and with art; 
now take thy pleasure for guide; forth art thou 
from the steep ,va ys, forth art from the narrow. 

eho]d there the sun that shineth on thy bro,v. be- 
I hold the tender grass, the flowers, and the shrubs, 
I which the ground here of itself alone brings forth. 
I)'.Vhile the glad fair eyes are coming, which weep- 
I ing made me come to thee, thou canst sit thee 
I down and canst go among them. 
I 
o more expect my word, nor n1Y sign. Free, 
upright, and whole, is t.hy will, and 'twerea fault 
not to act according to its prompting; ,vhere- 
fore I do crown and mitre thee over thyself. 


he meridian) and noon in India: it was, therefore, 
I unset at the base of the Mount of Purgatory (see 



344 


NOTES 


diagrams on pp. 34 and 35). But there was still al 
interval before sunset at the height the poets hat 
reached (if. above, C
nto xvii. "V. I%. ).-See diagran 
on p. 103. 
6. As this angel corresponds to the angels tha 
welcome and direct Dante at the end of his jou rne
 
through each of the other circles, we must SUPpOSI 
that he struck the last P from Dante's brow with hi 
\ving. It is vain, therefore, to seek for any persona 
confe
sion in Dante's statement that he had to pas. 
through the flame. The same is true of Statius, fo' 
\"hose final liberation the souls of Purgatory ha< 
alrf'ady sung their hymn of glory to God. The fac' 
seems to be that this flame, in addition to being the 
instrument of purification on the seventh circle, doe: 
duty for the \vall of fire, \vhich, according to somt 
representations, surrounds the Garden of Eden. 
8. "Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shal 
see God" (Matt. v. 8). 
13. See Inf. xvii. 79 sqq. 
37-39. While Thisbe was waiting for her lover: 
Pyramus, near a mulberry-tree, a lioness came up from 
which she fled, dropping a garment in her haste. 
This the beast stained with blood, having just devoured 
an ox. When Pyramus came up and saw it on tht 
ground, he thought that Thisbe was dead and stabbed 
himself Thisbe returned just in time to see her 
lover die and then slew herself too; whereupon the 
colour of the mulberries changed from white to red. 
Dante knew the story from Ovid, Md. iv. 55-166, 
and refers here specially to 'lJ'lJ. 145, 146: Ad 110men 
This6es oculos jam morte gra'lJatos p'1jramus erucit
 'l}i.,-aque 
recondidit ilia. See below, Canto xxxiii. 69, and cl. De 
Mon. ii. 9: 3 0 -34. 
43-45. In mentioning Beatrice, Virgil is appealing 
to a higher motive than any he has yet urged; but he 
knows that Dante takes the reference on a lower plane. 
As yet Dante knows nothing of the celestial Beatrice, 
and it is an earthly emotion, however pure, that 
responds to Virgil's heavenly appeal. Hence a kind 
of half pathetic amusement on Virgil's part, on seeing 



CANTO XXVI I 


345 


he eagerness \vith which Dante respc,nds, not to the 
ligher plea he urged, but to the lower plea he sug- 
;ested. 
5 
L The words to be spoken to the righteous at 
.he Last Judgment: "Then shall the King say unto 
hem on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my 

aT her, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 
.he foundation of the \\'orid" (lVfatt. xxv. 34). 
91-93. Cj'. Inf. xxvi. 7, and Purge ix. 16-18. 
95. Venus is often called Cytherea by Virgil, from 
I :he island Cythera, near which she rose from the sea 
lnd \vhere she was 'worshipped with special venera. 
:ion. For the position of the planet Venus in Pisces 
I :the constellation preceding Aries or dawn), see above, 
2anto i. 19- Z I, not
. 
97-108. 1"his third and last vision of Dante's, in 

hich Leah and Rachel, the Old Testament types of 
:he .A.ctive and Contemplative Life (Gen. xxix. s'l'l.) 
ippear to him
 is a forecast of the positions Matilda 
Ind Beatrice will occupy in the Earthly Paradise. [It 
should be noted that Mr Gardner, whose vif:W is shared 
by ot hers, holds that Matilda's" counterpart, as Rachel 
to Leah, is not Beatrice, as sometimes supposed, but 
St Bernard, in the dosing cantos of the Paradiso."] 
r n the New l'estament the types are represented by 
l.Vlal tha and Mary; see Con'lJ. iv. 17: 85-111: "Verily, 
it is to be known that we can have in this life two 
happinesses by follo\ving two different roads, both 
good and excellent, which lead to them; the one is the 
I).Active Life and the other is the Contemplative Life, 
I which (although by the Active Life one may attain, 
as has been said, to a good state of nappiness) leads us 
to supreme happine
s, even as the philosopher proves 
in the tenth bo(:k of the Ethics; and Christ affirms it 
with his own lips in the gospel of Luke, speaking to 
lVIartha, when replying to her: 'Martha, Martha, thou 
art anxious and troubled about many things : Verily, 
one thing alone is needful,' meaning, that which thou 
hast in hand; and he adds: 'Mary has chosen the 
better part, which shall not be taken from her.' And 
Mary, according to that which is previously written 



34 6 


NOTES 


in the gospel, sitting at the feet of Christ, showed fie 
care for the service of the house, but listened only tc 
the words of the Saviour. For if we will explain thh 
in the moral sense, our Lord wished to show thereb} 
that the Contemplative Life was supremely good, al- 
though the Active Life might be good; this is evident 
to him who will give his mind to the ,vords of tht: 
gospd." See, too, Conv. iv. 2: 156-162. 
115. The pome is the summum honum, peace wi th 
God, as opposed to the many false ideals of men on 
earth. Cf. Par. xi. 1-15, and Conv iv. 12: 138-20 l. 
127-142. Note that Virgil's mission is over when 
he has brought Dante to the Earthly Paradise, which 
is the immediate goal of the souls in Purgatory. Some 
difficulty has been found in tht:: last lines of the canto, 
because it is said that Virgil cannot make Dante bishop 
as well as king of himself; but we learn from the De 
Mon. iii. 5: 107-117, that in Dante's opinion man 
would not have needed the Church, as an organised 



CANTO XXVII 


347 


Istitution, any more than the Empire, had he not 
ll
n from the state of innocence. Accordingly, when 

 recovers that state he is absolved from the spiritual 
i 'well as from the temporal rule. The institutions 
. the Empire and th
 Church are, of course, to be 
stinguished from the human and divine reason, or 
hiiosophy and Revelation, of which they ought to be 
lardians and exponents. The concluding chapter of 
,e De Mon. shows U3 very clearly the distinction 
.tween the essential means of temporal and spiritual 
essedness (human reason as developed by the philo- 
phers, and Revelation as declared by the writers of 
ripture) on the one hand, and the external institu- 
Jns or regimens on the other, founded to check the 
rversity which perpetually drives mankind out of 
e true path thus indicated. 
For'lJ. 133, see the diagram on p. 13; and with V'lJ. 
4- 135 compare the following canto, 'V'V. 69 and 
8 SCj'l. 


i) 



PURGATORIO 


D ANTE en ters the Garden of Eden from the we: 
facing the rising sun, and meeting a sweet bree 
laden wi th the odours of Paradise and full of the SOJ 
of birds to which the leaves of the divine fort 
murmur a pedal bass (1-21). On the opposing bal 
of a stream that flows pure under the forest sha( 
he perceives a lady gathering flowers and singing, 
enamoured (22-42). It is Matilda, the genius 
Ede
; and in answer to Dante's petition she a 
proaches the stream with downcast eyes, the song I 
her lips growing ever more articulate. Then, h 
hands still busy with the flo'wers, she flings UP( 
him the blaze of her laughing eyes (43-69). As 
responsive rapture a\vakes in Dante's heart, s1 
initiates him into the frank and innocent love al 
joy of Eden, and proffers all further service he m: 
desire (70-84). In answer to his question she co 
firms what Statius had already said as to the high 
regions of the mount above the gate being unaffect. 
by meteorological phenomena. The stream and t] 


Paradiso Vago già di ccrcar dentro e dintorno 
Terrestre la divina foresta spes sa e viva, 
ch' agJi occhi temperava il nuovo giorno, 
senza più aspettar lasciai la riva, 
prendendo Ia canlpagna lento lento 
su per 10 suo I che d' ogni parte oliva. 
Un' aura dolce, senza mutamento 
avere in f;è, mi feria per Ia fronte 
non di più colpo che soave vento, 
per cui Ie fronde, tremolando pronte, 
tutte e quante piegavano alIa parte 
u' la prim' ombra gitta il santo n1onte; 
34 8 



,) 


CANTO XXVIII 


reeze, therefore, are not such as those on earth. 
'he breeze is caused by the sweep of the atmospheric 
lvelope of the earth, from east to west, with the 
rimum mobile; and it bears with it germs from the 
ivine forest; which may explain the seeming spon- 
Lneous generation of wondrous plants on earth. 
.nd the water of the stream does not rise from the 
ulsations of any mist- and rain-fed vein, but issuefi 
.om a fountain which dra,vs supplies for this and 
companion stream direct fronl the will of God. 
'hese streams are Lethe and Eunöe, the one of 
rhich washes away all memory of sin, and the other 

stores the memory of all righteous doing; and for 
1e full effect to be experienced, both alike must be 
Lsted. So much in answer to Dante's questions. 
ut Matilda further delights her pupil by suggesting 
lat some confused tradition of the state of innoc
!"("p. 
LY behind the dreams of the classical poets who sang 
fthe Golden Age; whereon he sees a smile of recog- 
ition lighten the faces of Virgil and Statius (85-148). 


Jow eager to search within and around the divine Dante 
forest dense and verdant, which to mine eyes di.;:: the 
was tempering the new day, fore
t at 
. . . I I r.. h . snnrlse 
I)'.'lthout ,valtIng more elt t e mountain-side, 
crossing the plain with lingering step, over the 
ground vlhich gives forth fragrance on every side. 
\. sweet breeze, itself invariable, was striking on 
my brow \vith no greater force than a gentle 
wind, 
efore which the branche
, responsively trembling, 
were all bending toward that quarter, where 
the holy n10unt casts its first shadow; 
349 



35 0 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso non però dal lor esser dritto sparte 
Terrestre h I " II " I " 
tanto, c e g 1 auge ettl per e clme 
lasciasser d' operare ogni lor arte; 
ma can piena letizia I' ôre prime, 
cantando, ricevièno intra Ie foglie, 
che tenevan bordone aIle sue rime: 
tal qual di ramo in ramo si raccoglie 
per la pineta in suI lito di Chiassi, 
quand' Eolo Scirocco fuor discioglie. 
Già m' avean trasportato i lenti passi 
dentro alla selva antica tanto, ch' io 
non potea rived ere ond' io 01' entrassi; 
ed ecco il più andar mi toise un rio, 
che in ver sinistra con sue picciole onde 
piegava l' erba che in sua riva uscÌo. 
1"'utte l' acque che son di qua più monde 
parrieno avere in 'sè olistura alcuna, 
-- .verso di quella che nulla nasconde ; 
avvegna che si mova bruna bruna 
sotto }' on1bra perpetua, che mai 
raggiar non lascia sole ivi, nè luna. 
Coi piè ristetti e con gli occh i passai 
di là dal fiumicelIo, per mirare 
-la gran variazion dei freschi mai ; 
e là m' apparve, SI com' egli appare 
subitamente co sa che disvia 
per maraviglia tutt' altro pensare, 
una donna soletta, che si gia 
cantando ed iscegliendo fior da fiore, 
ond' era pinta tutta Ia sua via. 
"Deh, bella donna, ch'.,ili raggi d' amore 
ti scaldi, s' io vo' credere ai sembianti 
che soglion esser testimon del core 


1 


I 


I' 


2 


2, 


2: 


3 


3- 


3: 


4( 


4
 


( 



'- It. 
T'T'f"'\ YYVJT" 



 t'r:;r 


t so far bent aside fi-om their erect state, Dante 
t d t wanders on 
e nc: the little bird s in the tops cease 0 
thactise their every art; 
prainging, with full gladness they welcon1ed 
ut, a first breezes \vithin the leaves, which were 
thfonuring the burden to their songs; 
ml
r åch as from bough to bough is gathered 
ven t )ugh the pine wood on Chiassi's shore, 
thI:
n Aeolus looses Sirocco forth. 
WW 1fr my slow steps had carried me on so far 
llre
(in the ancient wood, that I could not see 
Wil.1 nee I had entered; 
whe 
I a stream took fronl nle further passage till he 
Id l
:h, toward the left with its little waves, L:t

es 
wh
 the grass which sprang forth on its bank. 
ben e waters which here are purest, would seem 
JI th iave some n1Ïxture in them, compared with 
to 1 which hideth nou g ht. 
, , 
t
a
uIl darkly it flows beneath the everlasting 
!belt \e, which never lets sun, nor moon, beam 
sh!1t e . 
T 
helfeet I halted and with mine eyes did pass 
Ith <,nd the rivulet, to gaze upon the great 
b
y
 
ity of the tender blossoms; 
dlV g e to me appeared, even as on a sudden 
. t).d tle et 1Ïng appears which, through amazement, 
sonT all other thought astray, 
sets ] . 1 I .. d . 
Ý so Itary, \V 10 went a ong sInging, an Matilda 
I ladJing flower after flower, wherewith all 
cu
 path was painted. 
hene, fair lady, who at love's beams clost warm 
I Pra:e if I may believe o.utward loôks, which 
theh
ont to be a witness of the heart, 
al :h, 



 



35 2 
o PUR
ATnnT 
Paradiso vegnati vogiia di trarreti avanti," 
Terrestre d "' " I . . . 
ISS 10 a el, "verso questa rIVIera, 
tanto ch' io possa intender che tu canti. 
Tu mi fai rimembrar, dove e qual era 
Proserpina nel tempo che perdette 
la madre lei, ed ella primavera." 
Come si volge, con Ie piante strette 
a terra ed intra se, donna che J,alJi, 
e piede innanzi piede a pena mette" 
volsesi in sui vermigli ed in sui gialli 
fioretti verso me, non altrimenti 

 - che vergine che gli occhi onesti avvalli ; 
e fece i preghi miei esser contenti, 
sì appressando sè, che il dolce suono 
veniva a me co' suoi intendimenti. 
Tosto che fu là dove I' erbe sono 
bagnate già dan' onde del bel flume, 
di levar gli occhi suoi mi fece dono. 
N on credo che splendesse tanto ]ume 
sotto Ie ciglia a Venere trafitta 
dal figlio, fuor di tutto suo costume. 
Ella ridea dall' altra riva dritta, 
tracndo più color con Ie sue mani, 
che I' alta terra senza seme gitta. 
Tre passi ci facea il fi ume 10ntani ; 
ma Ellesponto, dove passò Xerse, 
an cora frena a tutti orgogli umani, 
più odio da Leandro non sofferse, 
per mareggiare intra Sesto ed Abido, 
che quel da me, perchè allor non s' aper( 
:. 
" V oi siete nuovi, e for
e perch' io rido," _e 
comínciò ella, "in 'questo loco eletto 
all' umana natura per suo nido, 


4 6 


49 


S2 


S
 


Sl 


6 ( 


t I 


( !1 

 


T 


enl 


II' 
! 



CANTO XXVIII 


353 


lay it please thee to draw forward," said I to Dante and 
her, "towards this stream, so far that I nla y Matilda 
understand what thou singest. 
fhou makest me to renlember, where and what 
Proserpine was in the time her mother lost 
her, and she lost the spring." 
\.S a lady who is dancing turns her round with 
feet close to the ground and to each other, 
and hardi y putteth foot before foot, 
he turned toward n1e upon the red and upon 
the yellow flowerets, not otherwise than a 
virgin that droppeth her modest eyes; .1... 
nd made my prayers satisfied, drawing so near .
 
that the sweet sound reached me with its 
meanIng 
>oon as she was tnere, where the grass is already 
bathed by the waves of the faIr river, she 
vouchsafed to raise her eyes to me. 
. do not believe that so bright a light shone forth 
under the eyelids of Venus, pierced by her son, 
against all his wont. 
3he smiled fron1 the Tight bank opposite, gather- 
ing more flowers with her hands, which the 
high land bears without seed. 
"Three paces the river kept us distant; but 
Hellespont, where Xerxes crossed, to this 
day a curb to all human pride, 

ndured not more hatred from Leander for its 
turbulent waves 'twixt Sestos and Abydos, than 
that did from me, because it opened not then. 
, N ew--comers are ye," she began, "and per- 
chance, because I am smiling in this place, 
chosen for nest of the humanrace, 


'l 



57 
..1 0 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso maravigliando tienvi alcun sospetto ; 
Terrestre 1 d " I 1 D l " 
ma uce ren e 1 sa mo e ectastl, 
che puote disnebbiar vostro inteJletto. 
E tu, che sei dinanzi, e mi pregasti, 
di' s' altro vuoi udir: ch' io venni presta 
ad ogni tua question, tanto che basti." 
" JJ' acqua," diss' io, "e i1 suon della foresta, 8 
impugnan dentro a me novella fede 
di cosa, ch' io udi' contraria a questa." 
Ond' ella: "10 dicerò come procede 
per sua cagion ciò ch' ammirar ti face, 
e purgherò la nebbia che ti 6ede. 
Lo sommo Ben, che solo esso a sè piace, 
fece l' uom buono, e a bene, e questo loco 
diede per arra a lui d' eterna pace. 
Per sua díffalta qui dimorò poco; 
per sua diffalta in" pianto ed in affanno 
cambiò onesto riso e dolce gioco. 
Perchè i1 turbar, che sotto da sè fanno 
l' esalazion dell' acqua e della terra, 
che, quanto posson, retro al calor vanno, 
alI' llomo non facesse alcuna guerra, 
questo monte saJio verso '1 ciel tanto; 
e libero n' è d' indi, ove si serra. 
Or, perchè in circuito tutto e quanta 
I' aer si voIge con la prinla volta, 
se non gli è rotto il cerchio d' alcun canto, 
in questa altezza, che in tutto è discioJta 
nell' aer vivo, tal mota percote, 
e fa suonar la selva perch' è folta; 
c la percossa pianta tanto puote, 
chc delIa sua virtute I' aura impregna, 

 q nella poi girando intorno scote ; 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


IC 


IC 


IC 


If' 



CANTO XXVIII 


355 


ß1e doubt doth hold you marvelling; but the 
ati1da 
psalm Delectasti giveth light which may clear 


h
rses 
the mist from your understanding. wind in the 
d h OC. d cl o d Earthly 
n thou, w 0 art In Iront, an 1 st entreat Paradise 
me, say if aught else thou \vouldst hear: for 
I came ready to all thy questioning till thou 
be satis6 ed." 
-rhe water," said I, "and the music of the 
forest, are combatting within me a ne\v belief 
in a thing which I have heard contrary to this." 
Therefore she: "I will tell from \vhat cause 
that arises \vhich makes thee marvel, and I 
will purge away the mist that offends thee. 
he highest Good, who himself alone doth please, 
made man good and for goodness, and gave 
this place to him as an earnest of eternal peace. 
hrough his default, snlall tiI;t1e he sojourned 
here; through his default, for tears and s,veat 
he exchanged honest laughter and s\veet play. 
order that the storms, which the exhalations of 
the water and of the earth cause below it, and 
I which follow so far as they can after the heat, 
auld do no hurt to man, this mount rose thus 
far towards heaven, and stands clear of them 
from where it is locked. 
,;.::JW since the whole of the air revolves in a 
circle \vith the prin1al motion, unless its circuit 
is broken in some direction, 

h motion strikes on this eminence, \vhich is 
all free in the pure air, and makes the ,vood 
to sound because it is dense; 
d the smitten plant has such power that ,vith its 
virtue it impregnates the air, and that in its 
revolution then scatters it abroad: 



35 6 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso e l' altra terra, secondo ch ' è degna 
Terrestre per sè e per suo ciel, concepe e figlia 
di diverse virtù diverse legna. 
Non parrebbe di là poi mara viglia, 
ud)to questo, quando alcuna pianta 
senza serne palese vi s' appiglia. 
E saper dei che la caolpagna santa, 
ove tu sei, d' ogni semenza è piena, 
e frutto ha in sè che di là non si schianta. 
L' acqua che vedi non surge di vena 
che ristori vapor che giel converta, 
come flume ch' acquista e perde lena; 
ma esce di Fontana salda e certa, 
che tanto dal voler di Dio riprende, 
quant' ella versa da due parti aperta. 
Da questa parte con virtù discende, 
che toglie altrui Inernoria del peccato ; 
dall' altra, d' ogni ben fatto la rende. 
Quinci Letè, così daB' altro lato 
Eunoè si chiama, e non adopra, 
se quinci e quindi pria non è gustato. 
A tutt' altri sapori esto è di sopra ; 
ed avvegna ch' assai possa esser sazia 
la sete tua, perch' io più non ti scopra, 
darotti un corollario ancor per grazia; 
nè credo che il mio dir ti sia men caro, 
se oltre promission teco si spazia. 
Quelli che anticamente poetaro 
}' età dell' oro e suo stato felice, 
forse in Parnaso esto loco sognaro. 
Qui fu innocente }' un1ana radice ; 
qui primavera è sen1pre, ed ogni frutto ; 
nettare è questo di che ciascun dice." 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 


I 



CANTO XXVIII 


357 


Id the other land, according as it is worthy of Mat
ldC!-, 
. If d t .. 1 . . d b . contlnumg 
Itse an 0 Its c lmate, conceIves an flngs treats of · 
forth divers trees of divers virtues. the plants 
1 ere this understood, it would not then seen1 a 
marvel yonder when some plant takes root 
there withou t manifest seed. ... 

nd thou must know that the holy plain where 
thou art, is full of every seed, and bears fruit 
in it which yonder is not plucked. 
'he water which thou seest wells not from a and of the 
spring that is fed by moisture which cold con- :

; 
denses, like ::t river that gains and loses volume, Earth
y 
. . ParadIse 
It Issues froill a fount, constant and sure, which 
regains by God"s will, SOl much as it pours 
forth freely on either side. 
'n this side it descends with a virtue which takes 
from men the memory of sin; on the other it 
restores the n1emory of every good deed. 
tn this side Lethe, as on the other Eunoe 'tis 
called, and works not except fìr
t it is tasted 
on this side and on that. 
'his exceedeth all other savours; and albeit 
thy thirst may be full sated, even tho' I 
reveal no more to thee, 
t). will give thee yet a corollary as a grace; nor 
do I think that my words \\Till be less precious to 
thee if they extend beyond my promise to thee. 
'hey who in olden times sang of the golden age and of its 
and its happy state, perchance drean1ed in Xolden 
Parnassus of this place. ge 
Iere the root of man's race was innocent; here 
spring is everlasting, and every kind of fruit; 
this is the nectar whereof each one tells." 



35 8 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso 10 mi volsi di retro aHora tutto 
Terrestre a' miei poeti, e vidi che con riso 
udito avevan }' ultimo costrutto ; 
poi alIa bella donna tornai il viso. 


1>4 


14 


II, 12. Towards the west. 
19-2 I. 1'he mournful notes heard in the pine-for

 
of Ravenna, on the Adriatic shore [Chiassi, nea 
Ravenna, = the Classis of the Romans, who used it as 
naval station and harbour; in Christian times a fortre
 
was built there], when Aeolus, king of the "vinè 
(Aen. i. 52, sqq.), lets loose the sirocco, or S. E. wine 
See Byron's Don Juan, iv. 105. 
40. This is Matilda (see below, Canto xxxiii. I I
 
J 19)
 in all probability to be taken as the type ( 
the Active Life ("lJ. 80). Historically, it is safest t 
iden tify her with Matelda, the Grancont
Sja of Tuscan 
(1046-1115), the supporter of Pope Greg-ory VII., th 
friend and bounteous benefactor of the Holy See an 
Church. Other attempts at identification have bee 
made, some of them, notably Göschel's and Preger'. 
being of great ingenuity; but here, as so often, w 
shall do best in following the early commentators. 
49- 51. While gathering- flo"vers in a lovely meado\\ 
Proserpina was carried off b)' Pluto (if. Inf. ix. 44, ) 
80), in the presence of her mother and com pan ion: 
A refl'fence to Ovid, Met. v. 385 sq.q. and to Pur. XX} 
6, 'will sho,,"v that prima"lJerJ means the "sprin 
flowers" that fdl from her tunic, when Pluto bor 
her off in his car. 
64-66. \Vhen she became enamoured of Adoni: 
See Ovid, .lWd. x. 525- 526: Namque pharetratus duo 
dat puer oscula matri, Inscius exstanti destrinxit arllndit 
pectus. 
7 1 -75. When Xerxes, King of Persia (485-465 B.C. 
crossed the Hellespont (the modern Dardanelles) OVt 
a bridge of boats, to invade Greece, he had with hir 
a host of a million soldiers; on his return, in a fishin, 
boat. he was accompanied by a few men only [Orosiu. 
'whom Dante probably follows, points a similar mor< 



CANTO XXVIII 


359 



hen did I turn me right back to my poets, and Dante and 
saw that with smiles they had heard the last Matilda 
interpretation; then to the fair Lady I turned 
my face. 


-ii. 9 and 10]. The same strait separated Leander 
.om his mistress Hero; in order to see her, he S\"lam 
;:ross it many times and was eventually drowned 
,ee Ovid, H
roid. xviii., xix.). 
80. Dele&tasti m
, Domine, in fadura tua. . . . "For 
10U, Lord, hast made me glad through thy work: 
will triumph in the works of thy hands" (Ps. 
cÏi. 4). 
87. See above, Canto xxi. 43 sqq. 
102. From the Gate of Purgatory (see above, Canto 
{. 76, 130 sqq. ). 
1 03- I 08. "The air also flows in a circle , because 
: is drawn along with the circulation of the 'whole" 
Aristotle). -" And thus that air which exceeds the 
reatest altitude of the mountains flows round, but 
he air which is contained within the altitude of the 
lountains is impeded from this flow by the im- 
loveable parts of the earth" (Thomas Aquinas). 
109-117. Here Dante gives a sort of supernatural. 
a.tionalistic explanation of what was in his day an 
ccepted fact. "And the same holds with plants also, 
ince some are produced by seed, others spontaneously 
';'. y nature" (Aristotle ). 
121- J 23. For the formation of rain on earth, if. 
hove, Canto v. 109-111. 
124- 1 26. See Genesis ii. 4-6 and 10 sqq.: "These are 
he generations of the heavens and of the earth when 
hey were created, in the day that the Lord God made 
he earth and the heavens, And every plan t of the field 
efore it was in the earth, and every herb of the field 
efore it gre'w: for the Lord God had not caused it to 
ain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till 
he ground. But there went up a mist from the earth, 



3 60 


T 


NOTES 


and watered the whole face of the ground. . . . An( 
a river went out of Eden to water the garden; an( 
from thence it was parted, and became into foUl 
heads. "Çf. below, Canto xxxiii. 'V'V. 112. 114 
note. 
128. For Lethe, see Inf. xxxiv. 130 and Purg. 
i. 4 0 . 1 
130-132. It would be natural to understand thi: 
passage as asserting that the drinking of Lethe pro, 
duced no effect until Eunoë had been also drunk; bw 
we see from xxxiii. 91-99 that this is not the case. Wf: 
are therefore compelled to interpret the passage mon 
subtJy. It appears, then. that the true function of thf 
twofold stream is to sift out evil and sinful memorie
 
from the sources of joy and gratitude with which they 



CANTO XXVIII 


3 61 


re often inseparably mixed up on earth. For instance
 
rhen some unkindness or neglect of our own has been 
tle cause of revealing to us the beauty and generosity 
f another's character; or when the shock consequent 
pon some error or sin that we have committed has 
Dused within us the powers of r
sistance and aspira- 
ion, or brought us irJto contact with some strong and 
e!pful soul, it appears that the immediate effect of 
rinking Lethe is not to separate out the good and 
ad, but to engulf in the forgetfulness of all evil, into 
rhich it thro\vs the soul, the memory of all incidental 
ood that was connected with it. See below, Canto 

xiii. 9 I -99, note. 
139-144 For the Golden Age, see above, Canto 
.xii. 148-150, note. 


,;.' 



PURGATORIO 


A S she chants a blessing on those whose sins art 
forgiven, Matilda takes her way along ont 
bank of the stream, while Dante keeps pace with 
her on the other; till the air, kindling with splen. 
dour and laden with sweet strains of song, fills Dante 
at once with the rapture of the Earthly Paradise and 
a sense of indignation against the act of sin which 
had bereft him and mankind of such delights- 
delights which all the waters of HeHcon can scarCf 
enable him to set in verse (1-41). Dante is pacing 
eastward, with the stream on his left hand flowing 
towards him, and on the other side of the stream a 
divine pageant approaches him; the details of which, 
together with words of song, are gradually disen- 
tangled by eye and ear. But when he turns to Virgil 
for enlightenment, his faithful teacher can no longer 
instruct him; these are things beyond the reach of 
his art (43-57). Seven lights leave the air painted 
with seven great rainbow streamers of colour stretch- 
ing away as far as the eye can reach, throwing their 


Paradiso Cantando come donna innamorata, 
Terrestre continuò col fin di sue parole: 
B . " 
" eatt, quorum tecta sun! peccata. 
E come ninfe che si givan sole 
per Ie salvatiche ombre, disiando 
qual di veder, qual di fuggir 10 sole, 
allor si mosse contra il fiume, andando 
su per la riva, ed io pari di lei, 
picciol passo con picciol seguitando. 
Non eran cento tra i suo' passi e i miei, 
quando Ie ripe igualmente dier volta, 
per modo ch' a levante mi rendei. 
3 62 


4 


7 


10 



OANTO XXIX 


e glory over the heaven and glowing upon the stream. 
They represent the sevenfold gifts of the spirit, and 
I beneath their glory tread four and twenty elders, 

rowned with lilies, representing the books of the 
I Old Testament, chanting blessings on the Virgin 
:58-87). They are followed by the four Gospel 
beasts as described by Ezekiel and John, enclosing 
between them the triumphal chariot of the Church, 
resting on the two wheels of the contemplative and 
active life, drawn by a grifon whose twofold nature 
represents the t'\vo natures in one person of Christ 
(88-114). The sun itself has not so glorious a 
chariot. By the right wheel the three theological 
virtues dance, and by the left the four cardinal virtues 
(115-132). Then come two elders, then four, then 
one, crowned with roses, representing the remaining 
books of the New Testamf:nt (133-150). When 
Dante is just opposite the car, a peal of thunder 
arrests the whole procession (151-154). 


At the end of her words, singing like an Dante and 
enamoured lady, she continued: "Beali, quorum Matilda 
tecta sunt peccatfl." 
i ;; And, as nymphs who used to wend alone 
I through the woodland shades, one desiring 
to see, another to flee the sun, 
she then advanced against the stream, walking 
on the bank, and I abreast of her, little step 
answering with little step. 
Not a hundred were her steps with mine, when 
both banks alike made a bend in such vlise 
that I turned me to the east. 


3 6 3 



3 6 4 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso N è ancor fu così nostra via molta, 
T errestre d 1 d . 
q uan 0 a onna tutta a me Sl torse, 
dicendo: "Frate mio, guard a, ed ascolta." 
ed ecco un lustro subito trascorse 16 
da tutte parti per Ja gran foresta, 
tal che di balenar mi mise in forse. 
Ma perchè il balenar, come vien, resta, 
e que] durando più e più sp]endeva, 
nel n1Ío pensar dicea: "Che cosa è questa?" 
Ed una melodia dolce correva 22 
per l' aer IUlninoso; onde buon zelo 
mi fe' riprender l' ardimento d' Eva, 
che, là dove ubbidia la terra e il cielo, 
femn1ina sola, e pur testè [ormata, 
non sofferse di star sotto alcun velo ; 
sotto il qua], se devota Fosse stata, 
avrei queUe ineffabili deli.lie 
sentite prima, e più lunga fiata. 
M entr' io m' andava tra tante primizie 
dell' eterno piacer, tutto sospeso, 
e disioso ancora a più letizie, 
dinanzi a noi, tal qua]e un foco acceso, 
ci si fe' l' aer sotto i verdi rami, 
e il dolce suon per canto era gia inteso. 
o sacrosante V er gini, se fami, 
freddi 0 vigilie mai per voi soffersi, 
cagion mi sprona, ch' io mercè ne chiami. 
Or convien ch' Elicona per me versi, 
ed Urania m' aiuti col suo coro, 
forti cose a pensar mettere in versi. 
Poco più oltre sette arbori d' oro 
falsava nel parere illungo tratto 
del mezzo, ch' era an cor tra noi e 10ro; 


:1:3 


I9 


25 


28 


3t 


34 


37 


4 0 


43 



CANTO XXIX 


3 6 5 



or yet was our way thus very far, \vhen the Atproach 
lady turned her full round to nle, saying, Di;
e 
" Brother mine, look and hearken." Pageant 

nd 10, a sudden brightness flooded on alJ sides 
the great forest, such that it set me in doubt 
if'twere lightning. 
aut since lightning ceases even as it cOlneth, and 
that enduring, brighter and brighter shone, in 
DiY mind I said: ",What thing is this? " 
o\nd a sweet melody ran through the luminous 
air; wherefore righteous zeal made me reprove 
Eve's daring, 
.vho, there where heaven ana earth obeyed, a 
woman alone and but then formed, did not 
bear to remain under any veil, 
lnder which, if she had been devout, I should 
have tasted those inef['Lble joys ere this, and 
for a longer tinle. 
While I was going amid so many first-fruits of 
the eternal pleasance, a11 enrapt and sti11 yearn- 
ing for nlore joys, . 
'he air in front of UB under the green boughs, be- 
came even as a flaming fire to 115, and the sweet 
sound was heard as a chant. 
;.
 holy, holy, Virgins, if e'er for you I have Invocation 
endured fastings, cold, or vigils, occasion spurs 


:s 
me to crave my reward. 
Now 'tis meet that Helicon for me stream forth 
and Urania aid me with her choir to set in verse 
things hard to conceive. 
A little farther on, a delusive semblance of seven The seven 
trees of goJd was caused by the long space 
i
;e- 
that was yet between us and them ; 



3 66 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso ma quando fui si presso di lor fatto, 4 6 I 
Terrestre che I' obbietto comun, che il senso inganna, 
non perdea per distanza alcun suo atto, 
Ia virtù ch' a ragion discorso ammanna 
sÌ com' eHi eran candelabri apprese, 
e nelle voci del cantare, "O.ranna." 
Di sopra fiammeggiava il bello arnese 
più chiaro assai che luna per sereno 
di mezza notte nel suo mezzo mese. 
10 mi rivolsi d' ammirazion pieno 
al buon Virgilio, ed esso mi rispose 
con vista carca di stupor non meno. 
I ndi rendei l' aspetto all' alte cose, 
che si moveano incontro a noi sì tardi, 
che foran vinte da noveIle spose. 
La donna mi sgridò: "Perchè pur ardi 
sì nell' aspetto delle vive luci, 
e ciò che vien di retro a lor non guardi ? " 
Genti vid' io allor, com' a lor duci, 
venire appresso, vestite di bianco: 
e tal candor di qua giammai non fuci. 
L' acqua splendeva dal sinistro fianco, 
e rendea a me la mia sinistra costa, 
s' io riguardava in lei, come specchio anco. 
Quand' io dal1a mia riva ebbi tal posta, 
che solo il fiume mi facea distante, 
per veder Ineglio ai passi diedi sosta, 
e vidi Ie fiammeHe andar davante, 
lasciando retro a sè I' aer dipinto, 
e di tratti pennelli avean sembiante ; 
sì che h sopra rimanea distinto 
di sette liste, tutte in quei colori, 
onde fa l' arco il sole e Delia il cinto. 


49 


52 


S5 


58 


61. 


6.J 


67 


1() 


13 


7 6 



CANTO XXIX 


3 6 7 


: when I had drawn so nigh to them that the The Divine 
1 0 or d fh o h.hd. h Pageant 
genera I Slmlltu b e O d ot Ings, 'v IC f 0 eC
lves t e The seven 
senses, ost not y Istance any 0 Its Ieatures, Candle- 

 faculty which prepares material for reason sticks 
distinguished them as candlesticks, even as 
they were, and in the words of the chant, 
" Hosannah." 
)ove, the fair pageant ,vas flaming forth, brighter 
far than the moon in clear midnight sky in her 
mid n10nth. 
.11 of wonderment I turned me to the good 
Virgil, and he answered me with a face not 
less charged with amazement. 
len I turned my countenance back to the subl ime 
things, \vhich moved towards us so slowly, that 
they would be vanquished by new - \vedded brides. 
le lady cried to me: "Wherefore art thou so The seven 
ardent only for the vision of these bright lights, Pennants 
and heedest not that which comes after thenl ? " 
len I beheld people, clad in white, following 
as after their leaders; and \vhiteness so pure 
here never \vas with us. .JI 
ight shone the water on my left flank, and re- 
flected to m.e my left side, if I gazed therein, 
even as a mIrror. 
;, 'hen I was so placed on my bank that the 
river alone kept me distant, to see better I 
gave halt to my steps, 
:l I saw the flames advance, leaving the air 
behind them painted, and of trailing pennants 
they had the semblance; 
that the air above remained strea k ed with 
seven bands, all in those colours whereof the 
sun makes his bo\v, and Delia her girdle. 



3 68 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso Questi ostendali retro eran nlaggiori 
Terrestre che la mia vista; e, quanto al mio avviso, 
dieci passi distavan quei di fuori. 
Satto così bel ciel, com' io diviso, I 
ventiquattro seniori, a due a due, 
coronati venian di fiordaliso. 
Tutti cantavan: "Benedetta tue 
nelle figlie d' Adamo, e benedette 
sieno in eterno Ie bellezze tue." 
Poscia che i fiori e l' altre fresche erbette, 
a rimpetto di me daB' altra sponda, 
libere fur da queUe genti elette, 
sì come luce luce n cieI seconda, 
vennero appresso lor qLattro animali, 
coronato ciasçun di verde fronda. 
o gnuno era pennuto di sei ali, 9: 
Ie penne piene d' occhi; e gli occhi d' Argo: 
se fosser vi vi, sarebber cotali. 
A descriver lor forme più non spargo 
rime, lettor; ch' altra spesa mi strigne 
tanto, che a q uesta non posso esser largo. 
Ma Ieggi Ezechiel, che Ii dipigne 
come Ii vide dalla fredda parte 
venir con vento, con nube e con igne: 
e quali i troverai nelle sue carte, 
tali eran quivi, salvo ch' aIle penne 
Giovanni è meco, e da Iui si diparte. 
Lo spazio dentro a 10l quattro contenne 
un carro, in su due rote, trionfale, 
ch' al collo d' un grifon tirato venne. 
Esso tendea in su l' una e l' altr' ale 
tra la mezzana e Ie tre e tre liste, 
sì ch' a nulla fendendo facea n1ale. 


7 


8 


8 


8: 


9' 


9: 


IOC 


IO
 


lot 


IO
 



CANTO XXIX 


3 6 9 


rhese banners streamed to the rearward far The Divine 
beyond my sight, and as I might judge, the Pageant 
outermost were ten paces apart. 

eneath so fair a sky, as I describe, came four The four 
d ld b d . h and twenty 
an t\venty e ers, two y two, crowne \Vlt Elders 
tlower-de-Iuce. 
\.11 were singing: "Blessed thou among the 
daughters of Adam, and blessed to all eternity 
be thy beauties." 
Vhen the flowers and the other tender herbs 
opposite to me on the other bank, were free 
from those chosen people, 
yen as star follows star in the heavens, four The four 
creatures came after them, each one crowned Beasts 
with green leaves. 
:veryone was plumed with six wings, the plumes 
full of eyes; and the eyes of Argus, were they 
living, would be such. 
'0 describe their form, reader, I spill no more 
rhymes; for other charges bind me so, that 
herein I cannot be lavish. 
>>ut read Ezekiel who depicts them as he saw 
them coming from the cold region, \vith 
whirlwind, with cloud, and with fire; 
r L1d as thou shalt nnd them in his pages, such 
were they here, save that in the pinions John 
is with ll1e, and differs from him. 
'he space within the four of them contained a The . 
car triumphal, upon two wheels, which came 

d
h: 
drawn at the neck of a grifon. Grifon 

nd he stretched upwards one wing and the other, 
between the middle and the three and three 
bands, so that he did hurt to none by cleaving. 
2 A 



37 0 


PURGATORIO 


Tanto salivan, che non eran viste; 112 
Paradiso 1 b d ' II 
Terrestre e mem ra oro avea, quanta era ucce 0, 
e bianche I' altre di vermiglio nliste. 
Non che Roma di carro cosÌ bello 115 
rallegrasse Affricano, 0 vero Augusto, 
ma quel del sol sari a pover con elIo : 
quel del sol, che 8viando fu combusto, 1I8 
per l' ora zion dell a Terra devota, 
quando fu Giove arcanamente giusto. 
1're donne in giro, dalla destra rota, :1:21 
venian danzando: }' una tanto rossa 
ch' a pena fora dentro al foco nota; 
l' altr' era come se Ie carni e I' ossa I
4 
fossero state di smeraldo fatte; 
la terza parea neve testè mossa; 
ed or parevan dalla bianca tratte, 12 7 
or dalJa rossa, e dal canto di q uesta 
I' altre togliean I' andare e tarde e ratte. 
Dalla sinistra quattro facean festa, 13 0 
in porpora vestite, dietro aI modo 
d' una di lor, ch' avea tre occhi in testa. 
Appresso tutto il pertrattato Dodo, 133 
vidi due vecchi in abito dispari, 
ma pari in atto, ed onesto e soda: 
I' un si mostrava aicun de' famigliari :1:3 6 
di quel sonlmo I ppocrate, che natura 
agli animali fe' ch' ell' ha pið cari ; 
nlostrava I' altro la contraria cura 139 
con una spada lucida ed acuta, 
tal che di qua dal rio mi fe' paura. 
Poi vidi quattro in umile paruta, 14 2 
e di retro da tutti un veglio solo 
venir, dormendo, con la faccia arguta. 



CANTO XXIX 


37 1 


o high they rose that they were not seen; his The Divine 
members had he of gold, so far as he was a bird, Pageant 
and the others white mingled with vermilion. 

:riot 
rot only Africanus, nor in sooth, Augustus, e'er (t;.


e 
rejoiced Rome with a car so fair, but that of 
the sun would be poor beside it, 
lat of the sun, which straying was consumed at 
the devout prayer of the earth, when Jove ,vas 
mysteriously just. 
three ladies came dancing in a round by the The Theo- 
I d h h dl Id logical 
fight whee ; one so re t at ar y WOU Virtues 
she be noted in the fire; 
le next was as if her flesh and bone had been 
ß1ade of emerald; the third seemed new fallen 
snow; 
ld now seemed they led by the white, no,v by 
the r
d, and from the song of her the others 
took measure slow and quick. 
Yr t
e l Ief; I W I he
l, four l c la d d i f n purple f ' made 


dinal 
restlva, 10 oWing the ea 0 one 0 them, Virtues 
who had three eyes in her head. 

fter all the group described, I sa,v two aged 
uk[ and 
men, unlike in raiment, but like in bearing, au 
and venerable and grave: 
"le showed him to be of the familiars of that 
highest Hippocrates whom nature made for 
the creatures she holds most dear; 
.e other sho,ved the contrary care, with a 
sword glittering and sharp, such that on this 
side the stream it made me afeard. 
'hen saw I four of lowly senlblance; and The 
. rearguard 
behind all, an old man solitary, coming Jß a 
trance, with visage keen. 



37 2 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso E questi sette col primaio stuolo 145 
Terrestre erano abituati; n1a di gigli 
dintorno al capo non facevan broIo, 
anzi di rose e d' altri fior venlligli : 14 8 
giurato avria poco lantano aspetta, 
che tutti ardesser di sopra dai cigli. 
E quando iI carro a me fu a rimpetto, ISI 
un tuon s' udì; e queUe genti degne 
parvero aver I' andar più interdetto, 
fenllandos' ivi con Ie prin1e inscgne. 154 
3. "Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, 
'whose sin is covered" (Ps. xxxii. I). 
27. Çf. Ptlr. xix. 48, note. 
37-42
 With this invocation to the Muses, if. Itif 
ii. 7-9, xxxii. 10, II; Purge i. 7- 12 ; Par. i. 16,17, 
ii. 9, xviii. 82-85.-Helicon was in reality a mountain 
in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses (from which sprang 
two fountains associated with them-Aganippe and 
Hippocrene). Urania-the Muse of astronomy and 
heavenly things. 
43, 50. . . . "And being turned, I saw seven 
golden candlesticks . . . and the seven candlesticks 
. . are the seven churches" (Rev. i. 12, 20) . . . 
"and there were seven lamps burning before the 
throne" which are the seven Spirits of God" (Rev. iv. 
5). Dante seems to have amalgamated these two 
passages for the purpose of his allegory. See, too, 
Conv. iv. 21: 100-112: "By the rrheological way 
it is possible to say that, when the supreme Deity, 
that is God, sees his creature prepared to receive his 
good gift, so freely he imparts it to his creature in 
proportion as it is prepared to receive it. And 
because these gifts proceed from ineffable Love, and 
the Divine Love is appropriate to the Holy Spirit, 
therefore it is that they are called the gifts of the 
Holy Spirit, which, even as the Prophet Isaiah distin- 
guishes them [Pulgate, xi. 2, 3J, are seven, namely, 
Wisdom, Understanding,Counsel, Might, Knowlt'dge, 
Pity and the Fear of the Lord.:' 
47. The" proper" objects of the senses are those 



CANTO XXIX 


373 


lnd these seven V/ere arrayed as the first The Divine 
b f 1 ' 1 . d h . h d Pageant 
company; ut 0 lies aroun t elr ea s no halts 
gar land had they, 
tther of roses and of other red flowers; one who 
viewed from short distance \vould have SVlorn 
that all ,vere aflame above the eyes. 
Lnd when the car ,vas opposite to me, a thunder 
clap was heard; and those worthy folk seemed 

o have their further ßlarch forbidden, and 
halted there ,vith the first ensigns. 
hich are perceived by one sense only, as colour by 
e sight, sound by the hearing, savour by the taste; 
Id in these, according to Aristotle, the senses cannot 

 deceived. " But the common objects are motion
 
st, number, shape, size; for such things are not 
e proper objects of any sense, but are common to 
i," and with respect to them the senses may err. 
49. Probably the apprehensive faculty (see above, 
Into xviii. 22, 23, note ).-Mr Butler quotes Hamlet! 
2: "A beast that wants discourse of reason." 
51. "Hosanna," the word with '\vhich the Je'\vs 
tiled Jesus on his entry into Jerusalem (J.vlatt. xxi. 9 ; 
[ark xi. 9; John xii. 13); here used by the t\venty- 
ur elders ('lJ'lJ. 64,83) preceding Christ's chariot. 
73- 8 1. The seven bands or pennons trailing behind 
e candlesticks may be taken as the seven sacramen ts, 
, perhaps better, as the \vorking of the seven gifts. 
he colours of the rain bo\v and of the moon's halo 
")iana was born on the island of Delos] may have 
en suggested by Re'lJ. iv. 3: " . . . and there '\vas 
rainbow about the throne in sight like unto an 
lerald."- The paces of 'lJ. 8 I probably indicate the 
n cornmandmen ts. 
83, 84. These elders represent the twenty-four 
'oks of the Old Testament (the Pentateuch, the 
storical books and the three ascribed to Solomon 
unting as one each). Their voices and their white 
rmen ts (emblematical of Faith; see Hehrerzlls xi.) 

re referred to above in 'lJ'V. 5 I, 64-66: and the 
lole conception of them was derived by Pante frC'Ir. 



374 


NOTES 


Rev. iv. 4: "And round about the throne were fou 
and twenty seats; and upon the seats I saw four anI 
twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raim':nt; ani 
they had on their heads crowns of gold." Th 
crowns of "flower-de-Iuce" suggest the purity () 
their faith and teaching. 
85, 86. "Blessed art thou among women "-th 
words of the angel and of Elizabeth to Mary (Llll 
i. 28, 42); here addressed either to Mary or t. 
.Beatrice. 
92-105. See the description of these four beasts ÍJ 
Ezek. i. 4- 1 4 and R/f#lJ. i v. 6-9. The faces of th 
man, lion, ox (or calf) and eagle represent Matthew 
Mark, Luke, and John, respectively. The gree' 
leaves indicate Hope (" Lord Jesus Christ, which i 
our hope" 1 Tim. i. I). According to Pietro d 
Dan te the beast's six wings are the six laws- 
natural, Mosaic, prophetic, evangelical, Apostoli 
and canonical; [in Ezekiel 'we read that "everyon 
had four wings;" while John says that" the fou 
beasts had each of them six wings about him "J 
Tne eyes indicate the knowledge of things past an 
future; [for Argus, with the hundred eyes, se 
below, Can to xxxii. 64-66, note]. 
107. The two wheels have been explained in man 
different ways, the interpretati')n adopted in th 
Argument being one of the most satisfactory. Accorè 
ing to others, they indicate the Old and the Ne\ 
Testament; the orders of the Dominicans an 
Franciscans, etc., etc. 
109-111. "Looking to P.rs. xxxvi. and lvii. an 
comparing verses 5 and 7 of the former with I an 
I I of the latter, it seems that "we n1ust understan 
them [the wings] as denoting-the one mercy, th 
other truth or justice. Then their position 'wit 
regard to the bands will be made intelligible by 
reference to Ps. xxxvi. 10: '0 stretch forth th 
mercy over those that k now thee [scientia], and th 
justice over them that are of a right heart [consilillm] , 
(Butler). 
I 13, 114. "My beloved is white and ruddy, tl- 
chiefest among ten thousand His head is as tI- 
most fine gold . . . (SlJng of Solomon, v. 10, I I). 



CANTO XXIX 


375 


115, 116. The cars used by these and all victorious 
Roman generals in their" triumphs." 
I 17-120
 For Phaëton see Inf. xvii. 106-108, note. 
121-129. Faith (white), Hope (green) and Charity 
(red).; if. above, Canto viii. 89-93. The song of 
Charity leads the measure because, according to 
I Cor. xiii. 13: ". . . now abideth faith, hope, 
charity, these three; but the greatest of these is 
charity. " 
130-132.. For the moral or cardinal virtues, see 
above, Canto i. 'lJ'V. 23-27, note.-Even in the Con 'Vito 
:iv. 17: 77-84), where Dante follows Aristotle (in 
whose system Prudence is an intellectual virtue), he 
feels constrained to say: "By many, Prudence, that 
is \Visdom, is well asserted to be a moral virtue; 
but Aristotle numbers that amongst the intellectual 
virtues, although it is the guide of the moral, and 
points out the way by which they are formed, and 
without which they cannot be." The three eyes of 
Prudence have reference to the past, present and 
future, and the purple garb of the four virtues to the 
Empire (if. belo"v, Canto xxxii. 'V'V. 58, 59, note). 
134-141. These two are Luke (considered as author 
of the Acts) and Paul. Paul describes Luke (in 
Col. iv. 14) as "the beloved physician"; he is 
therefore regarded as a spiritual Hippocrates (this 
being the name of a famous Greek physician). The 
animali of 'V. 138 of course=mankind. The explana- 
tion of Paul's s\vord is to be found either in his 
own words (Eph. vi. 17): ". . . the sword of the 
Spirit, \vhich is the word of God"; or in the cÍrcum- 
;;stance that he \vas always represented with one (in 
reference to his martyrdom by sword). 
142. James, Peter, John and Jude-the authors of 
the four canonical epistles. 
J 43, 144
 John, considered as author of Re'Velation 
- a series of visions, concerning things that must 
, shortly come to pass: hence he is represented a& 
dormendo and con la faccia arguta. 
145-150. We saw that thefiordaliso ('C). 84) was em- 
blematicalof the purity of the Old Testament; no\v 
the charity of the New 'restament is indicated by the 
ro.re and a/tri jior 'Verm{r:1i. 



! rr 
I 
. 
I 
I 


o 
:. 


Go
 



r.HÀ 


( 


MAP OF UPPER AND 



TE 'S TIME 
DAN 



PURGA TORIO 


WHEN the car arrests itself, all the elders ,vh. 
had preceded it, turn and face round to it 
and when one of them invokes the bride of Lebanon 
blessed spirits rise up around it, as men shall rise a 
the last day. Flowers are flung in a cloud from thei 
hands as they utter blessings, culled from Christiat 
and Gentile scriptures; and a form clad in the colour 
of the three theological virtues rises like the sur 
in their midst (1-33). Dante without further testi 
mony from his eyes, recognises the tokens of the 
ancient flame, and like a terrified child turns roune 
to ask comfort and support from Virgil (34-4 8 ). Bu' 
Virgil has gone, and not even the joys of the Earthl) 
Paradise can prevent Dante's cheeks, though clean see 
by the mountain dew, from darkening again wiÜ 
tears (49-54). But the sense of out'\vard loss ,vher 
bereft of Virgil is soon swallowed up in the sense 0; 
inward loss caused by his own faithlessness and sin; 
for Beatrice sternly recalls him to face his own 


Paradiso Quando il settentrion del primo cielo, 
T errestre h ' . , 
c e ne occaso mal seppe ne orto, 
nè d' altra nebbia che di colpa velo, 
e che faceva lì ciascuno accorto 
di suo clover, come il più basso face 
qual timon gira per venire a porto, 
fermo si affisse, la gente verace, 
venuta prima tra il grifone ed esso, 
al carro volse sè, come a sua pace; 
ed un di loro,' quasi da cie] messa, 
" Veni, sponsn, de Lihano" cantando 
gridò tre volte, e tutti gli altri appresso 
Quali i beati al novissimo bando 
surgeran presti ognun di sua caverna, 
la rivestita voce alleluiando, 
37 8 


4 


7 
. 


10 


I) 



CANTO XXX 


:nsulted and outraged ideal (55-75). Bereft of Virgil's 
mpport when he looks around, encountering his own 
I .mage in the stream when he looks down, like a child 
Jefore an angered mother, Dante feels his heart at first 

rozen by reproaches, then melted by the pleading 
.n tercession of the angels (76-99)' But Beatrice is still 
lnbending; and turning to the angelic presences she 

ehearses the promise of Dante's youth and the un- 
Northiness of his manhood, the gracious and fleeting 
)eauty of his early vows, the pursuit of false good to 
which he then surrendered himself, her own unavail- 
.ng pleadings with him, and his fall, so deep that 
1aught save the vision of the region of the lost, won for 
:linl by her prayers and tears, could avail to save him 

loo-141). The deep fate of God were broken 
;hould he taste of the higher joys, access to which 
,he had won for him, without paying some scot of 
penitential tears (147.-1 4S)' 


When the wain of the first heaven which setting The Divine 
. . k " I f h "Pageant 
nor flslng never new, nor vel 0 ot er nust 
than of sin, 
3.nd which made there each one aware of his 
duty, even as the lower wain guides him who 
turns the helm to come into port, 
hhad stopped still, the people of truth, who had 
first' 
ome between the grifon and it, tunl'ed 
them to the car as to their peace; 
and one of them as if sent from heaven "Veni 
sponsa de' Lihano" did shout thrice in song, 
and all the others after him. 
As the saints at the last trump shall rise ready 
each one froln his tomb, with re-clad voice 
singing Halleluiah, 


379 



3 80 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso cotali, in su la di vina basterna, 
Terrestre . I d '. 
SI evar cento, a 'Vocem tanit suus, 
ministri e messaggier di vita eterna. 
Tutti dicean: "Benedictus, qui 'Venis " ; 
e, fior gittando di sopra e dintorno, 
" lVlanibus 0 date lilia plenis." 
10 vidi già ne] corninciar del giorno 
la parte oriental tutta rosata 
e I' altro ciel di bel sereno adorno, 
e la faccia del sol nascere ombrata, 
sÌ che per temperãDza di vapori, 
l' occhio la sostenea lunga hata = 
così dentro una nuvola di fiori, 
che dalle mani angeliche saliva 
e ricadeva in giù dentro e di fuori 
sopra candido vel cinta d' oliva 
donna m' apparve, sotto verde manto, 
vestita di color di fiamma viva. 
E 10 spirito mio, che già cotanto 
tempo era stato che alIa sua presenza 
non era di stupor, tremando, aff'ranto, 
senza degli occhi aver più conoscenza, 
per occulta virtù che da lei mosse, 
d' antico alTIOr sentì la gran potenza. 
Tosto che nel1a vista mi percosse 
l' aha virtù, che già m' avea trantto 
prin1a ch' io fuor di puerizia fosse, 
volsimi alla sinistra col rispitto 
col quale il fantolin corre alIa ßlamma, 
quando ha paura 0 quando egli è affiitto, 
per dicere a Virgilio: "Men che dramlna 
di sangue m' è rimaso, che non tremi; 
conosco i segni den' antica fiamma." 


16- 


1(}; 


22 


25- 


23 


31. 


34 


37 


4 0 


43 


46 



CANTO XXX 


3 81 


llch on the divine chariot rose up a hundred ad The Divine 
. . .. d f Pageant 
'Vocem tantz senrs, I111nlsters an n1essengers 0 
1 ife eternal. 
\.11 were saying: "Benedictus qui 'Venis "; and, 
strewing flowers above and around, "Manibus 
o date lilia pie 11 is . " 

re now have I seen, at dawn of day, the 
eastern part all rosy red, and the rest of 
heaven adorned with fair clear sky, 
nd the face of the sun rise shadowed, so that by 
the tel11pering of the mists the eye long time 
endured hin1 : 
o within a cloud of flowers, which rose from 
the angelic hands and fell down again within 
and without, 
,live-crowned over a white veil, a lady appeared Beatrice 
to me, clad, under a green mantle, with hue 
of living flame. 
\nd my spirit, that now so long a time had 
passed, since, tren1bling in her presence, it 
had been broken down with awe, 
vithout having further knowledge by mine eyes 
through hidden virtue which went out from 
her, felt the mighty power of ancient love. 
ri )oon as on my sight. the lofty virtue Sl11ote, 
which already had pierced l11e ere I was out 
of my boyhood, 
: turned me to the left with the trust vÚth which 
the little child runs to his mother when he is 
frightened or when he is afflicted, 
o say to Virgil: "Less than a drachm of blood 
is left in me that trembleth not; I recognise 
the tokens of the ancient flame." 



3 82 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso Ma Virgilio n' avea lasciati scemi 49 
Terrestre di sè, Virgilio dolcissimo patre, 
Virgilio a cui per mia salute die' mi : 
nè quantunque perdè l' antica matre 52 
valse aIle guance nette di rugiada, 
che lagrimando non tornassero atre. 
"Dante! perchè Virgilio s
 ne vada, 5S 
non planger anco, non planger ancora : 
chè pianger ti convien per altra spada." 
Quasi ammiraglio, che in poppa ed in prora ss. 
viene a veder la gente che ministra 
per gli altri legni, ed a ben far la incuora, 
in su la sponda del carro sinistra, 61 
quando mi volsi al suon del nome mio, 
che di necessità qui si regista, 
vidi la donna, che pria m' appario 64 
velata sotto I' angelica festa, 
drizzar gli occhi ver me di qua dal rio. 
Tutto che il vel che Ie scendea di testa, 67 
cerchiato daUa fronde di Minerva, 
non la lasciasse parer manifesta, 
regal mente nell' atto ancor proterva 1 0 
I continuò, come colui che dice 
I e il più caldo padar di retro serva : 
"Guardami ben: ben son, ben son Beatrice. 73 
Come degnasti d' accedere al monte? 
non sapei tu che qui è l' uom Felice ? " 
G Ii occhi mi cadder giù nel chiaro Fonte ; 7 6 
ma, veggendomi in esso, i trassi all' erba, 
tanta vergogna mi gravò la fronte. 
Così la madre al figlio par superba, 79 
com' ella parve a me: perchè d' amaro 
sente '1 sapor della pietade acerba. 



CANTO XXX 


3 8 3 


It Virgil had left us bereft of himself, Virgil 
:d11

te 
sweetest F ather, Virgil to whom tor my weal 
I gave me up ; 
r did all that our ancient mother lost, avail to 
keep my dew-washed cheeks from turning 
dar k again with tears. 
Dante, for that Virgil goeth away, weep not 
yet, weep not yet, for thou must weep for 
other sword." 
ven as an admiral, who at stern and at bow, 
comes to see the folk that man the other ships, 
and heartens them to brave deeds, 
on the left side of the car, when I turned me 
at sound of my name, which of necessity here 
is recorded, 
sa\v the lady, who first appeared to me veiled 
beneath the angelic festival, directing her eyes 
to me on this side the stream. 
Jbeit the veil which fen from her head, crowned 
with Minerva's leaves, did not let her appear 
manifest, 
leenlike, in bearing yet 
tern, she continued, 
like one who speaks and holdeth back the 
hottest words till the last: 
tiLookatmewelI; verily am I, verily am I Beatrice. 
How didst thou deign to draw nigh the mount? 
knewest thou not that here man is happy? " 
fine eyes drooped down to the clear fount; but 
beholding me therein, I dre\v them back to the 
grass, so great a shame weighed down my brow. 
o doth the mother seem stern to her child, as 
she seemed to me; for the savour of harsh pity 
tasteth of bitterness. 



3 8 4 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso Ella si tacque, e gli angeli cantaro 
Terrestre d " b " T D " . " 
1 su ItO: ".In Ie, OmLTle, spera'Vt ; 
ma oltre "pedes meas " non passaro. 
Sì come neve tra Ie vive travi 
per 10 dosso d' I talia si congela, 
soffiata e stretta dagli venti schiavi, 
poi liquefatta in sè stessa trapela, 
pur che la terra, che perde ombra, spiri, 
sì che par foco fonder la candela: 
così fui senza lagrime e sospiri 
anzÌ il cantar di quei che notan sempre 
retro aIle note degli eterni giri. 
Ma poi che intesi nelle dolci tempre 
lor compatire a me, più che se detto 
avesser: "Donna, perchè sì 10 stempre? " 
10 gel che m' era intorno al cor ristretto, 
spirito ed acqua fessi, e con angoscia 
per la bocca e per gli occhi uscì del petto. 
Ella, pur fern1:! in su la detta coscia 
del carro stando, alle sustanzie pie 
volse Ie sue parole così poscia : 
" V oi vigilate nell' eterno dìe, 
sì che notte nè sonno a voi non fura 
passo che faccia il secol per sue vie : 
onde la n1Ïa risposta è con più cura 
che m' intenda colui che di là piagne, 
per che sia colpa e duol d' una misura. 
N on pur per opra delle rote magne, 
che drizzan ciascun serne ad alcun fine, 
secondo che Ie stelle son campagne; 
ß1a per larghezza di grazie divine, 
che sì alti vapori hanno a lor piova 
che nostre viste là non van vicine, 


8: 


8, 


81 


9] 


94 


97 


100 


10 3 


106 


1<>9 


112 



CANTO XXX 


3 8 5 


he was silent, and straightway the angels sang: Beatrice 
"In fe, Domine, speravi; " but beyond "pedes and Dante 
meos " they passed not. 
.s the snow amid the living rafters along ltalia's 
back is frozen under blast and stress of 
Slavonian winds, 
en melted trickles down through itself, if but 
the land that loseth f5hade do breathe, so that 
it seems fire nlelting the candle, 
without tears or sighs was I before the song 
of those who ever accord their notes after the 
melodies of the eternal spheres. 
ut when I heard in their sweet harmonies their 
compassion on me, more than if they had said 
" Lady, why dost thou so shame him?" 
t.e ice which had closed about my heart became 
breath and water, and with anguish through 
mouth and eyes issued from my breast. 
he, standing yet fixed on the said side of the 
car, then turned her words to the pitying angels 
th us : 
Y e watch in the everlasting day, so that nor 
night nor sleep stealeth from you one step 
ë which the world may take along its ways; 
herefore my ans\ver is with greater care, that 
he who yon side doth weep may understand 
me, so that sin and sorrow be of one measure. 
ot only by operation of the mighty spheres that 
direct each seed to some end, according as the 
stars are its companions, 
It by..:\... bounty of graces divine, which have 
for th
ir rain vapours so high that our eyes 
reach not nigh them, 
2 B 



3 86 


PURGATORIO 


. Paradiso questi fu tal nella sua vita nuova 
Terrestre virtualmente, ch' ogni abito destro' 
fatto averebbe in lui rnirabil prova. 
Ma tanto più rnaligno e più silvestro 
si fa il terren col mal serne e non coIto, 
quant' egli ha più del huon vigor terrestro. 
Alcun tempo iJ sostenni coI mio volto ; 
mostrando gli occhi giovinetti a lui, 
meco iI rnenava in dritta parte volto. 
Sì tosto come in su la soglia fui 
di mia seconda etade, e mutai vita, 
questi si toIse a me, e diessi altrui. 
Quando di carne a spirto era salita, 
e bellezza e virtù cresciuta m' era, 
fu' io a lui men cara e men gradita ; 
e volse i passi suoi per via non vera, 
imagini di ben seguendo false, 
che nulla promission rendono intera. 
Nè impetrare spirazion mi valse, 
con Ie quali ed in sogno ed altrinlenti 
10 rivocai; sì poco a lui ne calse. 
Tanto giù cadde, che tutti argomenti 
aIla salute sua eran già corti, 
fuor che mostrargii Ie perdute genti. 
Per questo visitai I' uscio dei morti, 
ed a colui che I' ha quassù condotto 
Ii preghi miei, piangendo, furon porti. 
Alto fato di Dio sarebbe rotto, 
se Lete si pas sasse, e tal vivanda 
fosse gustata senza aicuno scotto 
di pentimento che lagrirne spanda." 


1'1 


II 


12 


12 


12 


13 


13 


13' 


13! 


I4
 


I.:J 


I4! 


1-6. The "wain of the first heaven" are the seven 
candlesticks, which are the spiritual guides of the: 



CANTO XXX 


3 8 7 


his man was such in his new life potentially, Beatrice. 
that every good talent would have made and D
nte 
wondrous increase in him. 
3ut so much the more rank and wild the ground 
becomes with evil seed and untilled, the more 
it hath of good strength of soil. 
)ome time I sustained him with my countenance ; 
showing my youthful eyes to him I led him 
with me turned to the right goal. 
;0 soon as I was on the threshold of my second 
age, and I changed life, he forsook me, and 
gave him to others. 
N"hen I was risen from flesh to spirit, and beauty 
and virtue were increased within me, I was les
 
precious and less pleasing to hilTI ; 
nd he did turn his steps by a way not true, 
pursuing false visions of good, that pay back 
no promise entire. 
oJ or did it avail me to gain inspirations, ,vith 
which in dream and otherwise, I called him 
back; so little reeked he of them. 
;0 low sank he, that all means for his salvation 
were already short, save showing him the lost 
.. people. 
(I 
ì or this I visited the portal of the dead, and to 
him who has guided him up hither, weeping 
OlY prayers were borne. 
I ;od's high decree would be broken, if Lethe 
I were passed, and such viands were tasted, 
i without some scot of penitence that may shed 
" 
i tears. 
.ghteous; even as the seven stars of the Septentrio 
r Ursa Minor direct the mariner making for port. 



3 88 


NOTES 


7, 8. The twenty-four elders. 
10, II. The elder representing the books () 
Solomon sang aloud three times the words of th 
Song of Solomon (iv. 8): "Come with me from Lebanon 
my spouse, with nle from Lebanon." 
17, 18. These are identical with the angels of 'VCZ! 
z9 and 82; ad 'Vo&em tant; unis, "at the voice of Sl 
great an elder." 
19. "Blessed art thou that comest." See Matt 
xxi. 9, Mark xi. 9, Luke xix. 38, John xii. 13; and lj 
the preceding canto, 'V. 5 I, note. 
2 I. " Oh, with full hands give lilies" (Æn. vi 
884 ). 
31-33. This is Beatrice. Note the colours 0 
Faith, Hope and Charity. In the Pita Nuo'Va [th, e 
whole of which should be read in conjunction with tho 
present and the following canto; see, too, Gardner 
pp. 8, 9, 13- 1 5, 45-53J, Beatrice appears in red anc 
white, but never in green. The olive was sacred t< 
Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom ('V. 68). 
34-48. The appearance of Beatrice has the same 
effect on Dante now as in the days of the Pìta Nuo'Vf. 
(
 ii. 19 sqq., xL, xiv. 24-49, xxiv. 1-14). Cotant 
ttmpo ('V'V. 34. 35): ten years- 12 9 0 - 1 300; see belo\v 
note to'V'V. 124, 125. Dante first met Beatrice whet 
he \vas in his ninth year ('V. 42), she being also eigh 
years old, but some months younger (Yita Þluo'Va, 
 ii.) 
Verse 48 is a translation of Virgil's Agnosco 'Vetf'r; 
-vestigia ßammæ (ÆI1. iv. 23). 
52. The beauties of the Earthly Paradise. 
53. See above, Canto i. 95 .rqq. 
55, 63. The only instance in which Dante's namt 
occurs in the Commedia (for in Par. xxvi. 104, da tt 
is almost certainly the correct reading). In the Yitt 
Nuo'Va, Con'V. and De Mon. he does not name hinlself 
either; and in the De Yulg. El. he goes out of hif 
way to call himself amicus Gin; or al;us Florentinus. rrht 
explanation of this circumstance (which would paSt 



CANTO XXX 


3 8 9 


3I1oticed \vith almost any other author, but \vhich 
curious in the case of so personal and subjective a 
'riter as Dante) is to be found in the Con'll. (i. 2.), 
here "re learn that "it appears to be unla\vful for 
1yone to speak of hin1self"; and that "one does 
ot permit any rhetorician to speak of himself with- 
Jt a necessary cause." In his epistles, which are 

rsonal communications, not posing as literature 
hough they have since achieved literary fame), 
'ante does not follow this rule. 
S 3, 84. See Ps. xxxi. 1-8: "In thee, 0 Lord, 
) I put my trust . . . thou hast set my feet in a 
rge room." 
8 5-90. These lines describe the snow on the ridges 
:- the Apennines, first congealed, when the winds 
lOW from the north; and then dissolved, at the time 
f the warm and gentle breezes that come from Africa 
, \vhere twice a year, at noon, the sun touches the 

nith of each point; so that the shadow of an opaque 
)dy, in a vertical position, falls at its base and ap- 
ears no\vhere. "-Antonelli). 
93. See Par. i. 7 6 - 8 4. 
101. sustanzie. See above, Canto xviii. 49, 50, note; 
:Jd if. Par. vii. 5, etc. 
10 9- 11 1. Cf. Inf. xv. 55 sqq., and Purge xvi. 73 sqq. 
112.-114. g. Par. xx. 118-12.0, xxxii. 65,66. 
I IS. The use of the phrase 'Vita nuo'Va in this line is 
";:lied on by those who understand Dante's work 
rhich bears this title simply as a record of his 
Early Life"; but it is better to reverse the argu- 
lent, and take this verse to mean: "but in the new 
.fe into which love led him, had such power," etc. 
'or though there are many cases in which no'Va età 
leans" early life," none has been produced in which 
')'Ua 'Vita has that meaning, and Dante's elder con tem- 
orary, Dante da Majano, \vhose language evidently 
ad a considerable influence upon Dante Alighieri, 
ses the phrase (in the poen1 which begins Gio'l'ane 
onna dentro at cor mi siede) in such a way as to leave 



39 0 


NOTES 


v 


no rOOD1 for ambiguity: Gli spirti innamorati cui dildt, 
QlIuta lor nvva 'Vita (" the enamoured spirits, whorr 
this new life of theirs delights). 
12.1-12.3. For sixteen years, from 12.74, the year ir 
\vhich Dan te first met Beatrice, till 12.90, the year 0 
her death. 
12.4-12.5. Beatrice was twenty-five years old when 
she died-a period that covers the first of Dante'
 
fourages. "The first is called Adolescence, that i
 
the growth of life. .. . Of the first no one doubts: 
but each wise man agrees that it lasts even to tht 
twenty-fifth year; and up to that time our soul wait
 
for the increase and the embellishment of the bod v ' 
(Con'lJ. iv. %.4: 1-4, II-IS). " 
12.6-132. These lines refer to the period of Dante'E 
life (12.90-1300) which has already been touched 011 
in connection with Forese Donati (see above, Cantc 
xxiii.). Verses 12.7-12.9 (like 'V'V. %.%.-30, 49-63 of tht: 
following canto) have a very personal ring, and 
would seem to refer not so much to the donna gent;l: 
of the JTita Nuo'Va, 
 xxxvi. sqq. (,vhether allegori- 
cally or literally, and ,vhether, in the latter capacity, 
she be Gemma Donati or another), as to those other, 



CANTO XXX 


39 1 



ss creditable, infidelities to Beatrice's memory, of 
rhich our poet was undoubtedly guilty at this time, 
nd to which several of his minor poems and Purge 
xiii. bear witness. On the other hand, 
'lJ. 13 0 - 1 32. 
ossibly allude to Dante's temporary indifference to 

ligion, due to his philosophical studies during this 
eriod; and may therefore be connected with the donna 

ntil
 of the Yita Nuo'lJa, who is, in the Con
. ii. 13, 
lentified with Philosophy. 
t 
133- 1 3S in sogno. A vision of this kind, and 
pparen tly the last, is described in the Yita Nuo'lJa, 
xl., where Dante tells how his" heart began pain- 
l11y to repent of the desire by which it had so basely 

t itself be possessed during so many days, contrary 
o the constancy of reason. And then, this evil 
esire being quite gone from me, all my thoughts 
urned again unto their excellent Beatrice. And I 
ay most truly that from that hour I thought con- 
tantly of her with the whole humbled and ashamed 
teart; the which became often manifest in sighs, 
hat had among them the name of that most gracious 
reature, and how she departed from us." 
136-141. See Inf. ii. 52. sqq. 



PURGATORIO 


T URNING direct to Dantt:, Beatrice receives hi
 
broken confession of how he fell away so soon 
as her countenance \vas hidden from him (1-3 6 ). 
Whereon she shows him how that very loss of her 
bodily presence, ,vhich he urges as the cause of his 
defection, should have taught him the emptiness of 
all earthly and mortal beauty, weaned his heart from 
earth and given it to her in heaven (37-63). Like a 
chidden child, dumb \vith shame, confessing and 
repenting, Dante stands; but Beatrice will not suffer 
him to take refuge in childish pleas or excuses, and 
in the very terms whereby she summons him to look 
on her, remind him that he has reached man's estate, 
and should long have put away childish things. 
Whereon, in yet deeper shame, he wrenches up his 
downcast face to look on her, and sees her surpassing 
her former self more now than erst she surpassed all 
others. The passion of his penitence and his hatred 
of all those things which had enticed him away from 
her so vanquish him that he fans senseless to the 


Paradiso " 0 tu che sei di là dal fiume sacro," 
T errestre ' 
volgendo suo par lare a me per punta 
che pur per taglio m' era paruto acro, 
ricominciò, seguendo senza cunta, 
"di', di', se questo è vero: a tanta accusa 
tua confession conviene esser congiunta." 
Era la mia virtù tanto confusa, 
che ]a voce si mosse e pria si spense 
che dagli organi suoi Fosse dischiusa. 
Poco sofferse, poi disse; "Che pense? 
Rispondi a me: chè Ie meInorie triste 
in te non sono ancor daB' acqua offense." 
39 2 


4 


7 


10 



CANTO XXXI 



round (64-90). Dante comes to himselt neck -deep 
n the stream, into which he plunges his head, of 
.vhich he drinks, and which he crosses, by 1\.1:atilda's 
ninistration. . After which he .is drawn into the 
lance of the four star-nymphs '\vho promise to lead him 
o the light of Beatrice's eyes; into which their three 
isters, Faith, Hope and Charity, \.vill strengthen 
lim to gaze (91-111). They keep their word; but 
)ante's passionate reminiscences and longings are 
lwed by the august impersonation of Revelation, 
vhom he has found where he looked only for the 

lorentine maiden he had lost on earth. The divine 
md human nature of Christ are flashed alternately 
rom the reflection in her eyes though ever conlbined 
n the mysterious being himself, '\vhile the three 
lymphs implore Beatrice to turn their light upon her 
aithful pilgrim and unveil to him the beauty of her 
mile (111-138). Never was poet who could utter in 
vords the splendour that no\.v bursts upon him 
139- 1 45). 


'0 thou that art yon side the sacred stream," Beatrice 
her speech directing with the point towards me, and Dante 
,vhich even with the edge had seemed sharp 
r to me, 
he began again, continuing without delay, " say, 
say, if this is true; to such accusation thy 
confession must be joined." 
vi y virtue was so confounded that the voice 
stirred and was spent ere it was set free from 
its organs. 
,hort time she forebore, then said: "What thinkest 
thou? Answer me, for the sad menlories in 
thee are not yet destroyed by the water. 
393 



394 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso Confusione e paura insieme miste 
Terrestre .. I ' ", r:. d II b 
illl pInsero un ta 'S1 luor e a occa, 
al quale intender fur mestier le viste. 
Come balestro fioange, quando scocca 
da troppa tesa, la sua corda e l' arco, 
e con men foga l' asta il segno tocca : 
sÌ scoppia' io sott' esso grave carca, 
fuori sgorgando lagrime e sospiri, 
e la voce allentò per 10 suo varco. 
Ond' ella a me: "Per entro i miei disiri, 
che ti menavano ad amar 10 bene 
di là dal qual non è ache s' aspiri, 
quai fossi attraversati 0 quai catene 
trovasti, per che del passare innanzi 
dovessiti cosÌ spogliar Ia spene? 
E quali agevolezze 0 quali avanzi 
nella fronte degli altri si mostraro, 
per che dovessi lor passeggiare anzi ? II 
Dopo la tratta d' un sospiro amaro, 
a pena ebbi la voce che rispose, 
e Ie labbra a Fatica la formaro. 
Piangendo dissi: "Le presenti cose 
col [also lor piacer volser miei passi, 
tosto che il vostro viso si nascose." 
Ed ella: "Se tacessi, 0 se negassi 
ciò che confessi, non fora men nota 
]a colpa tua : da tal giudice sassi. 
Ma quando scoppia dalla propria gota 
l' accusa del peccato, in nostra corte 
rivolge sè contra il taglio la rota. 
Tuttavia, perchè DIO vergogna porte 
del tuo errore, e perchè altra volta 
udendo Ie Sirene sie più forte, 


13 


16 


19 



::l 


25 


28 


3 1 


34 


31 


4 0 


41 



CANTO XXXI 


395 


Confusion and fear, together mingled, drove forth Beatrice 
Y " h h and Dante 
from my mouth a " ea suc t at to 
I understand it the eyes were needed. 
I 
I As a cross-bow breaks, when shot at too great 
tension, both its string and bow, and with less 
force the bolt hits the mark, 
)0 burst I under this heavy charge, pouring forth 
a torrent of tears and sighs, and my voice died 
away in its passage. 
: \Vherefore she to ßle: "Within thy desires of 
I me which led thee to love the good beyond 
! which is nought that may be aspired to, 
I what pits didst find athwart thy path, or what 
chains that thou needs must strip thee of the 
hope of passing onward? 
And what allurements or what advantages were 
displayed to thee in the aspect of the others, 
that thou must needs ,vander before them? " 
After the heaving of a bitter sigh, scarce had I 
voice that answered, and my lips with labour 
gave it form. 
Weeping I said: "Present things with their 
false pleasure turned away my steps Boon as 
I your face was hidden." 
And she: "If thou wert silent, or if thou hadst 
denied what thou confessest, not less noted 
were thy fault; by such a judge 'tis known. 
But when self-accusation of sin bursts froDI the 
cheeks in our Court, the grindstone is turned 
back against the edge. 
Howbeit in order that now thou mayst bear 
shame for thy transgression, and that other 
time hearing the Sirens thou be of stouter heart, 



39 6 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso pOD gi
 il serne del piangere, ed ascolta: 
Terrestre sì udirai come in contraria parte 
mover doveati mia carne sepolta. 
Mai non t' appresentò natura 0 arte 
piacer, q uanto Ie belle membra in ch' io 
rinchiusa fui, e sono in terra sparte; 
e se il sommo piacer sì ti FaBio 
per Ia mia marte, qual cosa mortale 
dovea poi trarre te nel s
o disio ? 
Een ti dovevi, per 10 primo strale 
delle cose fallací, levar suso 
di retro a me che non era più tale. 
Non ti dovean gravar Ie penne in giuso, 
ad aspettar più coIpi, 0 pargoletta, 
o altra vanità con sì breve usa. 
N uovo augelletto due 0 tre aspetta ; 
ma dinanzi dagli occhi dei penn uti 
rete si spiega indarno 0 si saetta." 
Quali i fanciulli vergognando muti 
con gli occhi a terra, stannosi ascoltando, 
e sè riconoscendo, e ripentuti, 
tal mi stay' io. Ed ella disse: "Quando 
per udir sei dolente, alza la barba, 
e prenderai più doglia riguardando." 
Con men di resistenza si dibarba 
robusto cerro, 0 vero al nostral vento, 
o vero a quel dell a terra di larba, 
ch' io non levai al suo comando il mento; 
e quando per la barba il viso chiese, 
ben conobbi il velen dell' argomento. 
E COIl1e la Il1ia faccia si distese, 
posarsi queUe prime creature 
da loro aspersion l' occhio comprese ; 


4 6 


49 


52 


ss 


58 


61: 


64 


67 


7 0 


73 


7 6 



CANTO XXXI 


397 


)ut away the seed of weeping, and hearken; so Beatrice 
shalt thou hear how my buried flesh should and Dante 
have moved thee towards a contrary goal. 
N e' er did nature and art present to thee pleasure 
so great as the fair men1bers '\vherein I was 
enclosed, and are scattered to dust; 
lnd if the highest pleasure thus failed thee by my 
death, what mortal thing ought then to have 
drawn thee to desire it? 
Truly oughtest thou, at the first arrow of deceit- 
ful things, to rise up after me \vho was such 
no longer. 
Young damsel or other vain thing with so brief 
enjoyment, should not have weighed down thy 
wings to await more shots. 
The young bird waits two or three, but before 
the eyes of the full-fledged in vain the net is 
spread or arrow shot." t 
As children, dumb with shame, stand listening 
with eyes to earth, self-confessing, and re- 
pentant, 
such stood I. And she said: "Since through 
hearing thou art grieving, lift up thy beard and 
more grief shalt thou receive by looking." 
With less resistance is uprooted the sturdy oak, 
whether by wind of ours, or that which blows 
from larbas' land, 
than at her command I lifted up my chin; and 
when by the beard she asked for my face, well 
I knew the venom of the argument. 
And when my face was stretched forth, my 
sight perceived those primal creatures resting 
from their strewing, 



39 8 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso e Ie Inie luci, ancor poco sicure, 79 
Terrestre vider Beatrice volta in su Ia fiera, 
ch' è sola una persona in due nature. 
Sotto suo velo ed oltre la riviera 82 
vincer pareami pÌù sè stessa antica, 
vincer che l' altre qui quand' ella c' era. 
Di penter sÌ mi punse ivi l' ortica, 8.5 
che di tutt' altre cose, qual mi torse 
più nel suo amor, più mi si fe' nimica. 
T anta riconoscenza il cor mi morse, 88 
ch' io caddi vinto, e quale aHora femlni 
salsi colei che la cagion mi porse. 
Poi, quando il cor di fuor virtù rendemmi, 9 1 
la donna ch' io avea trovata sola 
sopra me vidi, e dicea: "Tiemmi, tiemlni." 
Tratto m' avea nel fiume infino a gola, 94 
e, tirandosi me dietro, sen giva 
sopr' esso I' acqua, lieve come spola. 
Quando fui presso alla beata riva, 97 
"Asperges me" sì doIcemente udissi, 
ch' io no] so rimembrar, non ch' io ]0 scriva. 
La bell a donna nelle braccia aprissi, 100 
abbracçiommi la testa, e mi SOlnmerse 
(kÞ ove convenne ch' io l' acqua inghiottissi ; 
, r.. rv\N · d o 0 t I b t ' iT 103 

) ftA 
 ;. >- In 1 rot 0 se, e agna 0 n1 Orrerse 
I 
1-A.' dentro alla danza delle quattro belle, 
to" e ciascuna del braccio nli coperse. 
" Noi siam qui ninfe, e neI ciel sianlo stelle; 106 
pria che Beatrice discendesse al nlondo, 
fummo ordinate a lei per sue an celIe. 
Menrenti agli occhi suoi; ma nel giocondo log 
Iume ch' è dentro aguzzeranno i tuoi 
Ie tre di ]à, che miran più profondo." 



CANTO XXXI 


399 


nd mine eyes, as yet hardly steadfast, saw Beatrice Beatrice 
turned towards the beast, which is one sole and Dante 
person in two natures. 
J nder her veil and beyond the stream, to me she 
seemed to surpass more her ancient self, than she 
surpassed the others here when she was with us. 

he nettle of repentance here so did sting me, 
that of all other things, that which turned 111e 
most to love of it became 1110st hateful to me 
:0 much remorse gnawed at my heart that I fell 
I vanquished, and what I then becan1e, she 
knoweth who gave me the cause. 
I rhen when my heart restored to me the sense of Matilda 
outward things, the lady whom I had found tS

f:into 
alone I saw above me; and she said: "Hold Lethe 
me! Hold 111e ! " 
.he had drawn 111e into the river up to my neck, 
I and, pulling me after her, went along over the 
water light as a shuttle. 
Nhen I was nigh unto the blessed bank 
"Asperges me" so sweetly I heard th:lt I cannot 
remember it much less describe it. 
I rhe fair lady opened her arms, clasped my head, 
I and dipped me where I must needs swallow 
I" of the water ; 
hen drew me forth, and led me bathed within The hand- 
h d f h r c. 0 d h d O d maidens of 
t e ance 0 t e lour laIr ones, an eac I Beatrice 
cover me with her arm. 
'Here we are nymphs and in heaven are stars; 
ere Beatrice descended to the world we were 
ordained to her for her handlnaids. 
We will lead thee to her eyes; but the three on 
the other side who deeper gaze, will sharpen 
thine eyes to the joyous light that is within." 



4 00 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso COSt cantando conlinciaro; e poi 
Terrestre al petto del grifon seco rnenarrni, 
ove Beatrice volta stava a noi. 
Disser: "F a che Ie viste non risparnli ; 
posto t' avern dinanzi agli snleraldi, 
ond' Arnor già ti trasse Ie sue arnli." 
Mille disiri più che fiamma caldi 
strinsern1Ï gli occhi agli occhi rilucenti, 
che pur sopra il grifone stavan saldi. 
Come in 10 specchio il sol, non altrimenti 
la doppia fÌera dentro vi raggiava, 
or con uni, or con altri reggimenti. 
Pensa, lettor, s' io mi Inaravigliava 
quando vedea la cosa in sè star queta, 
e nell' idolo suo si trasmutava. 
1vlentre che, piena di stupore e lieta, 
I' anima mia gustava di quel cibo, 
che, saziando di sè, di sè asseta ; 
sè dimostrando di più alto tribo 
negli atti, I' altre tre si fero avanti, 
danzando alloro angelico caribo. 
" V olgi, Beatrice, volgi gli occhi santi," 
era la lor can zone, "al tuo Fedele 
che, per verderti, ha mossi passi tanti. 
Per grazia fa noi grazia che disvele 
a lui la bocca tua, sÌ che discerna 
la second a bellezza che tu cele." 
o isplendor di viva Iuce eterna, 
chi pal1ido si fece sotto l' ombra 
sì di Parnaso, 0 bevve in sua cisterna, 
che non paresse aver la mente ingombra, 
tentando a render te qual tu paresti 
là dove armonizzando il cieI t' adombra, 
quando nell' aere aperto ti solvesti? 



12 


ns 


uS 


121 


12 4 


12 7 


13 0 


133 


13 6 


139 


14 2 


145 



CANTO XXXI 


4 01 



hus singing they began; and then did lead me Christ 
o h h h b f h ,or. h reflected 
WIt t em up to t e reast 0 t e gI lIon, were in the eyes 
Beatrice stood turned towards us. of Beatrice 

hey said: "L ook that thou spare not thine 
eyes; we have placed thee before the emeralds 
whence Love once drew his shafts at thee." 
\. thousand desires hotter than flame held mine 
eyes bound to the shining eyes, which remained 
. ever fixed upon the grifon. 
\.S the sun in a mirror, not othervlÏse the twofold 
beast was beaming within them, now with the 
attributes of one, now of the other nature. 
rhink, reader, if I marvelled ,vithin me when I 
saw the thing itself remain motionless, and in 
its image it ,vas changing. 
Vhile my soul, filled ,vith wonderment and glad, 
was tasting of that food which, satisfying of 
itself, causes thirst of itself, 
he other three, showing them to be of the 
chief est order in their bearing, drew forward, 
dancing to their angelic roundelay. 
'Turn, Beatrice, turn thy holy eyes," was their 
song, "to thy faithful one, who to see thee 
hath llloved so many steps. 
(i)f thy grace do us the grace that thou unveil 
thy mouth to him, that he may discern the 
second beauty which thou hidest." 
) glory of living light eternal, who that so pale Beat
ice 
hath gro,vn beneath the shade of Parnassus, or unveiled 
hath drunk at its well, 
hat would not seem to have mind encumbered, on 
trying to render thee as thou appearedest, when 
in the free air thou didst disclose thee, whef(
 
heaven in its harmony shadows thee forth? 
2 C 



4 02 


NOTES 


11. The \vatcr of Lethe (see above, Canto xxviii. øv. 
12.8; and'lJv. 94-107. of of the present canto). 
7.3, 19. hene=God; altri [beni] = worldly ideals. 
42.. Confession, by softening the Divine wrath, 
blunts the edge of the sword of Justice. q: above, 
Canto viii. 'lJv. 2.6, 27, and the first interpretation 
given in the note to those lines. 
59. It seems best not to attempt to identify the 
pargo/etta. 
6 I. due 0 Ire [1&. co/pi]. 
62, 63. Cf. Provo i. 17, in the Vulgate: Fru.rtra 
jadtur rete ante oculo.r pennatorum. 
71, 72. no.rtra/ vento-the wind blows from the 
north of Europe (the continent in which Italy is); 
que/ de//a terra di Iarba-the south wind coming frolD 
Africa, called "larbas' land" from the Libyan king 
of that name, one of Dido's suitors (see Æn. iv. 19 6 ). 
77. prime creature, the angels; if. Inf. vii. 95 ; Purge 
xi. 3. 
98. "Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: 
,vash me, and I shall be whiter than snow" (P.r. 
Ii. 7). 
106. See above, Canto i. 2.3-27, note. 
107, 108. It is quite natural for those \vho argue 
that Beatrice is a purely allegorical character to 
insist on this passage as implying her pre-existence 
in heaven, before her incarnation as an earthly 
maiden. The passage, however, does not necessarily 
imply this, for it is only carrying a little further the 
familiar language employed by Dante in the Vita 
NUO#fJa, xxvi., lines 7 and 8 of the sonnet; Con'lJ. iv. 



CANTO XXXI 


4 0 3 


8: 5-10; Purge xx. 68, 69; xxi. 44; Par. xxx. 114 
-all indicating that the soul con1CS from heaven. 
rom the assertion that the ascent to heaven at death 
ì a return, it is but a very small step to describe the 
irth as a descent to the world. 
I 16. The eyes of Beatrice are called" emeralds," 
ot with reference to their colour, but because of 
leir brightness (occhi rilucellti, -zl. 119). 
117. Çf. P,ta Nuo'lJa, 
 xxi, the first line of the 
onnet: "My lady carries love within her eyes." 
'his idea occurs else\vhere in Dante's poems and is 
commonplace with his predecessors and contem- 
oraries. 
121-126. This passage is to be taken in a purely 
llegorical sense. 'We nlay read in Revelation no\.., 
he divine and now the human attributes of Christ; 
ut the human mind is incapable of combining them. 
\..8 we contemplate Revelation we may see no\v one 
nd now the other, but not both at once.' 
128- 1 29. Cf. the words of Wisdonl in Eccles. xxiv. 
.1: "They that eat me shall yet be hungry, and 
hey that drink me shall yet be thirsty." 
13 8 . See -zl-zl. 55-58 of the (;anzone in the third 
)ook of the Con'lJito, which run as follows : "Her 
i.spect shows delight of Paradise, Seen in her eyes 
lnd in her smiling face; Love brought them 
:here as to his dwelling-place." From Dante's 
:ommen tary to the words Dico negli occhi e nÛ 
'uo dolce riso (ib. chap. 8), it seems probable that la 

'uonda hellezza, to which the theological virtues are 
10W leading Dante, is the smil
 of Beatrice; the car- 
linal virtues having guided him to her 
!Jes (see above, 
V'V. 106-11 J) 



PURGATORIO 


T HE eager gaze with which Dante quenches hi: 
ten years' thirst, is for a mon1ent blinded by tht 
glory on which he looks (1-9). When he recover
 
his full powers of vision he perceives the processior 
deploying north, toward the noon-day sun; and ht 
and Statius take their places by the right \vheel of tht 
chariot; and pass on, to the accompaniment of angeli( 
song, through the forest, till Beatrice descend
 
(10-36). They approach the tree of the knowleJgt 
of good and evil, \vhich represents the principle 0: 
obedience, and therefore of the Empire, whereas tht 
car from which Beatrice has descended represent
 
the Church; the ideal relations bet\veen which twe 
powers are represented by the reverence of the grifon 
for the tree, the binding of the pole of the chariot to 
it, and the spring beauty that at once falls on it 


Paradiso Tanto eran gli occhi miei fissi ed attenti 
Terrestre a disbramarsi la decenne sete, 
che gli altri sensi m'eran tutti spenti; 
ed essi quinci e quindi avean parete 4 
di non caler, cosi ]0 santo riso 
a sè traeali con l' antica rete; 
quando per forza mi fu volto il viso 7 
ver 1a sinistra mia da queUe Dee, 
perch' io udia da loro un "Troppo 6so." 
E la disposizion, ch' a veder ee yo 
negli occhi pur testè dal sol percossi, 
senza la vista alquanto esser mi fee; 
ma poi che al poco il viso riformossi I] 
(io dico al poco, per rispetto al molto 
sensibile, onde a forza mi rin10ssi), 
4 0 4> 



CANTO XXXII 



7-6o). Here slumber falls upon the poet, from 
'hich he '\vakes be,\\yildered: like the apostles after the 
'ansfiguration, to find Beatrice bereft of all her 
Lorious escort save the seven nymphs, bearing in 
1eir hands the seven tapers (61-99). Here, in this 

serted Earthly Paradise, which would be thronged 
'ith inhabitants had Church and State b
en true to 
1eir mission, Dante beholds an allegorical portrayal 
f the perverse relations between the two, and of the 
isasters and corruptions of the Church, of her per- 

cutions, of the heresies that threatened her, of the 
et more fatal favour of Christian emperors, of the 
reat schism of Islam, of the foul corruption of the 
! 
ourt of Rome, and the Babylonian captivity of 

vignon (100-160). 


)0 fixed and intent were my eyes on satisfying Dante's 
their ten years' thirst, that all my other senses rapt gaze 
were quenched; 
nd they on either side had a wan of unconcern, 
so the holy smile drew them to itself in the 
;; toils of old; 
vhen perforce my face was turned toward my 
left by those goddesses, because I heard from 
them a: "Too fixedly." 
t\nd that condition of the sight, which is in eyes 
but just smitten by the sun, made me remain 
a whi1e without vision; 
Jut after my sight re-formed itself to the lesser (I 
nlean the lesser in respect to the greater object 
of sense wherefrom perforce I turned me away) 
4 0 5 



4 06 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso vidi in suI braccio destro esser rivolto 
Terrestre 1 1 . . . 
o g onoso eserCIto, e tornarSl 
col sole e con Ie sette fiamme al volto. 
Come sotto gli scudi per salvarsi 
volgesi schiera, e sè gira col segno 
prima che possa tutta in sè mutarsi: 
quella milizia del celeste regno, 
che precede va, tutta trapassonne 
pria che piegasse il carro jJ primo legno. 
lndi aIle rote si tornar Ie donne, 
e il grifon mosse il benedetto carco, 
si che però nulla penna crollonne. 
La bella donna che mi trasse al varco, 
e Stazio ed io seguitavam la rota 
che fe' I' orbita sua con minore arco. 
Sì passeggiando I' alta selva, vota 
colpa di quell a ch' al serpente crese, 
temprava i passi un' angelica nota. 
Forse in tre voli tanto spazio prese 
disfrenata saetta, quanta eranlO 
rimossi quando Beatrice seese. 
10 sentii mormorare a tutti: "Adamo"'; 
poi cerchiaro una pianta dispogliata 
di fiori e d' altra fronda in ciascun raniO. 
La coma sua, che tanto si dilata 
più quanto più è su
 fora dagl' lndi 
nei boschi lor per altezza ammirata. 
" B-eato sei, grifon, che non discindi 
col becco d' esto Iegno dolce al gusto, 
poscia che mal si torce il ventre quindi." 
Cosi d' intorno an' arbore robusto 
gridaron gli altri; e J' animal binato: 
" Sì si conserva iJ sen1e d' ogni giusto.." 


It 


IÇ 


2:;; 


25 



g 


3 1 


34 


37 


4':> 


43 


4 6 



CANTO XXXI I 


4 0 7 


saw the glorious host had wheeled upon the The DiviDe 
right flank, and was returning with the sun 


::nt 
and with the seven flanles in its face. eastwards 
LS under its shields a troop turns about to 
retreat, and wheels round with the standard 
ere it can wholly change front, 
lat soldiery of the heavenly reahn, ,vhich was 
in the van, passed all by us ere the car turned 
. ts pole. 

hen to the wheels the ladies returned, and the 
grifon nloved the hallowed burden, so that 
thereby no plume of it was ruffled. 

he fair lady who drew me across the ford, and 
Statius, and I, ,vere follo,ving the wheel which 
made its orbit \vith the lesser arc. 

o pacing the lofty forest, empty through the 
fault of her who gave credence to the serpent, 
a melody of angels gave measure to our steps. 
-Iaply in three flights so much space an arrow 
shot forth had covered, as we had advanced 
when Beatrice descended. 
heard all nlurmur " Adanl!" Then did they The mystic 
surround a tree despoiled of flowers, and of Tree 
;; other foliage, in every bough. 

ts crown of foliage, \vhich more expands the 
loftier it is, would be marvelled at for its 
height by Indians in their \voods. 
'Blessed art thou, grifon, that with thy beak 
dost rend naught from this tree s\veet to taste, 
since ill writhes the belly therefrom." 
rhus round about the sturdy tree the others 
cried; and the beast of two natures: "Thus 
is preserved the seed of all righteousness." 



4 08 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso E volto al temo ch' egii avea tirato, 
Terrestre trasselo al piè della vedova Frasca ; 
e quel di lei a lei lasciò legato. 
Come Ie nostre piante, quando casca 
giù la gran luce mischiata con quell a 
che raggia retro alIa celeste lasca, 
turgide fansi, e poi si rinnovella 
di suo color ciascuna, pria che il sole 
giunga Ii suoi corsier sott' altra stella: 
men ch e di rose e più che di viole 
colore aprendo, s' innovò la pianta, 
che prima avea Ie ramora sì sole. 
10 non 10 intesi, e qui non si canta 
I' inno che quella gente allor cantaro, 
nè la nota soffersi tutta quanta. 
S' io potessi ritrar come assonnaro 
gli occhi spietati, udendo di Siringa, 
gli occhi a cui più vegghiar costò sì caro : 
come pittor che con esemplo pinga, 
disegnerei com' io m' addormentai ; 
ma qual vuol sia che l' assonnar ben finga. 
Però trascorro a quando mi svegliai, 
e dico ch' un splendor mi squarciò il velo 
del son no, ed un chiamar: "Surgi, che fai? " 
Quale a veder dei fìoretti del n1elo, 73 
che del suo porno gli angeli fa ghiotti 
e perpetue nozze fa nel cieIo, 
Pietro e Giovanni e Jacopo condotti, 
e vinti ritornaro aHa parola, 
dalla qual furon nlaggior sonni rotti, 
e videro scemata 10ro scuola, 
così di Moisè come d' Elia, 
ed al maestro suo cangiata stoIa: 


49 


S2 


ss 


58 


61 


64 


67 


7 0 


7 6 


79 



CANTO XXXII 


4 0 9 


\.nd having turned to the pole which he had The mystic 
drawn, he dragged it to the foot of the widowed Tree 
bough; and to it left bound that which came 
from it. 
\.S trees of our land when the great light falls 
down mingled with that which beams behind 
the celestial carp, 
urgeon forth, and each then is decked anew 
with its colour ere the sun yokes his steeds 
beneath another constellation, 
'pening out into a hue, less than of roses and 
more than of violets, the tree renewed itself, 
which before had its boughs so naked. 
understood it not, nor here is sung, the hymn 
which then that people sang, nor did I endure 
its melody outright. 
f I could pourtray how the pitiless eyes did 
slumber hearing of Syrinx, the eyes whose 
longer vigil cost so dear, 
s a painter \\' ho paints from a model, I would Din
e 
depict how I feel asleep; be he who he may 
 ;l
:

r 
that can rightly image drowsiness. 
Nherefore I pass on to when I awoke, and I 
I say that a bright light rent the veil of my 
r sleep, and a call: "Arise, what doest thou?" 
\s to behold some flowerets of the apple tree, 
which makes the angels greedy for its fruit, 
and makes perpetual marriage feast in heaven, 
?eter and John and James were brought, and, 
being overcome, came to themselves at the word 
by which greater slumbers had been broken, 

nd saw their band diminished by Moses, as 
well as by EJias, and their Master's raiment 
changed, 



4 1 0 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso tal torna' io, e vidi quell a pia 82 
Terrestre sopra me starsi, che cond ucitrice 
fu de' miei passi lungo il fiume pria. 
E tutto in dubbio dissi: "Ov' è Beatrice? " 8s 
ond' ella: "V edi lei sotto la fronda 
nuova sedersi in su la sua radice. 
Vedi la compagnia che la circonda ; 88 
gli a1tri dopo i1 grifon sen vanno suso, 
con più àolce canzone e più profonda." 
E se più Iu 10 suo parlar diffuso 9 1 
non so, però che già negli occhi m' era 
quella ch' ad altro intender m' avea chiuso. 
Sola sedeasi in su la terra vera, 94 
come guardia lasciata lì del plaustro, 
che legar vidi ana biforme fiera. 
10 cerchio le facevan di sè claustro 97 
Ie sette ninfe, can quei lumi in mana 
che son sicuri d' Aquilone e d' AUGtro. 
" Qui sarai tu poco ten1po silvano, 100 
e sarai meco, senza fine, cive 
di que1!a Rama onde Cristo è ROlnano. 
Però, in pro del mondo che mal vive, 10 3 
al carro tieni or gli occhi, e quel che vedi, 
ritornato di là, fa che tu scrive." 
Cosi Beatrice; ed io, che tutto ai piedi 106 
de' suoi comandamcnti era devoto, 
la n1ente e gli occhi, ov' ella volle, diedi. 
Non scese mai can sì veloce mota 109- 
foeo di spessa nube, quando piove 
da quel confine che più va remota, 
cOIn' io vidi calar l' uccel di Giove uz 
per ]' arbor giù, rOlnpendo della scorza, 
non che dei fiori e delle foglie nuove ; 



CANTO XXXII 


4 11 


len so I came to myself, and saw that pitying Dante 
b d O' 1 b f.' O d awakes 
one en lng 0 er me, \V 10 erore was gUI e and sees 
to mv ste p s alon (J the stream. Beatr!ce 
J b pu

 
Lnd all perplexed I said: "where is Beatrice! " the chariot 
and she: "Benold her sitting beneath the 
net.V foliage upon its root. 
ehold the company that encircleth her; the 
otheïs are mounting up after the grifon with 
f)\veeter and profounder song." 
..nd if her words extended farther I know not, 
because now before mine eyes \\'as she, \vho 
had shut me off from heeding aught else. 
..lone sat she upon the bare earth, left there as 
guardian of the chariot, \\,hich I had seen the 
beast of two fonns make fast. 
'he seven nymphs in a ring made of them a fence 
about her, with those lights in their hands \vhich 
are secure from north \\,ind and from south. 
B ere shalt thou be short time a forester, and Dante's 
with nle everlastingly shalt be a citizen of that mission 
ROBle v/hereof Christ is a Ron1an. 
'herefore to profit the \\'orld that liveth iJI, fix 
now thine eyes upon the car, and look that thou 
tr write what thou seest, ,,,hen returned yonder." 
'hus Beatrice; and I, \vho \\'as all obedient at 
the feet of her COll1nlands, gave nlÏnd and 
eyes whither she \vil1ed. 
"e' er did :fire from dense cloud descend, \vith The Eagle 
motion so s\\,ift, v.,hen it falls fron1 that confine 
\\,hich is most relll
te, 
I saw .Jove's bird swoop down through the 
tree, rending its bark, like\\,ise its flowers 
and its new leaves; 



4 12 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso e feri il carro di tutta sua forza, 
Terrestre ond' ei piegò come nave in fortuna, 
vinta daB' onde, or da poggia or da orza. 
Poscia vidi avventarsi nella cuna 
del trionfal veiculo una volpe, 
che d' ogni pasto buon parea digiuna. 
Ma, riprendendo lei di laide coIpe, 
la donna n1Ïa la volse in tanta futa, 
quanto sofferson l' ossa senza polpe. 
Poscia, per indi ond' era pria venuta, 
}' aquila vidi scender giù nell' arca 
del carro, e lasciar lei di sè pennuta. 
Equal esce di cor che si ran1marca, 
tal voce uscì del cielo, e cotal disse : 
" 0 navicella mia, com' mal sei carca! " 
Poi parve a me che la terra s' aprisse 
tr' ambo Ie rote, e vidi uscirne un drago, 
che per 10 carro su la coda fisse ; 
e, come vespa che ritragge I' ago, 
a sè traendo la coda maligna 
trasse del fondo e gissen vago vago. 
Quel che rimase, come di gramigna 
vivace terra, della piuma, offerta 
forse con intenzion sana e benigna, 
si ricoperse, e funne ricoperta 
e I' una e I' altra rota e il temo, in tanto 
che più tiene un sospir Ia bocca aperta. 
Trasformato così il dificio santo 
mise fuor teste per Ie parti sue, 
tre sopra il temo, ed una in ciascun canto. 
Le prime eran cornute come bue ; 145 
rna Ie quattro un sol corno avean per [ronte: 
simile Inostro visto ancor non fue. 


IIS 


118 


121 


12 4 


12 7 


13 0 


133 


13 6 


139 


I4
 



CANTO XXXII 


4 1 3 


ld he smote the car with all his might; whereat The Eagle 
it reeled like a vessel in a storm, beaten by the 
waves, now to starboard, now to larboard. 
'hen saw I a she-fox, that seemed fasting from The Fox 
all good food, leap into the body of the 
triumphal vehicle. 
aut, rebuking her for foul sins, my Lady put 
her to flight, as swift as the flesh less bones 
did bear. 
'hen, from thence whence he first had come, I The 
I saw the eagle descend down into the body of the ;,


e
s 
car, and leave it feathered \vith his plumage. descent 
lnd as a voice comes from a heart that sorroweth, 
I such voice came from heaven, and thus it spake: 
" 0 my little bark, ho\v ill art thou laden! " 
'hen it seemed to me that the earth opened twixt The 

 the two wheels, and I sa\v a dragon come forth Dragon 
I that fixed his tail up through the car; 
ld like a \vasp, that dra\vs back her sting, draw- 
ing to hin1 his spiteful tail he \\'renched out part 
I of the bottom and \vent his vagrant way. 
'hat which remained,-even as teeming land The 
. h . h h I h I rr d Chariot's 
WIt grass,-wIt t ose p urnes, ap y onere trans- 

 \vith sincere and kind intent, formation 
id again cover itself, and both wheels and the 
pole were covered again by then1, in such time 
that a sigh keeps the mouth open longer. 
'hus transfornled, the sacred edifice put forth 
heads above its parts, three over the pole, and 
one at each corner. 

he first were horned like an ox, but the four 
I had one single horn at the for.ehead; such 
monster never yet was seen. 



4 1 4 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso Sicura, quasi rocca in alto monte, 
Terrestre seder sopr' esso una puttana sciolta 
m' apparve con Ie ciglia intorno pronte. 
E, come perchè non gli Fosse tolta, 
vidi di costa a lei dritto un gigante, 
e baciavansi insieme alcuna volta; 
ma, perchè l' occhio cupido e vagante 
a me rivolse, C)uel feroce drudo 
la flagel1ò dal capo infin Ie piante. 
Poi, di sospetto pieno e d' ira crudo, 
disciolse il mostro, e trassel per la selva 
tanto, che sol di lei mi fece Bcudo 
alIa puttana ed alla nuova bel va. 


:::4
 


15 1 


154 


157 


I6c 


z. Çf. above, Canto xxx, 121-125, notes. 
9. "[Thou art gazing on Beatrice] too fixedly." 
26, 27. These lines perhaps mean that Christ 
guides I-lis Church, not by force or external means, 
but with the spirit only. 
29, 3 0 . ,The right wheel; for the whole procession 
had turned to the righ t ('V. 16). 
37. mormorare = "reproachfully murmur." See 
Rom. .". 1 2 : ""Therefore, as by one man sin 
entered into the world, and death by sin; and so 
death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." 
3 8 . For this tree, see Gen. Ïi. 9, and if. above
 
Canto xxii. 131-138, note. 
40-42. Çf. the following canto, 'lJ'V. 64-66.-1t 
seems probable that Dante's conception of the height 
of trees in India was derived from Virgil, Georg. ii. 
122- 12 4. 
48. "Thus "-namely, by not allowing the spiritual 
a.nd secular powers to encroach on each other. 
49-51. According to legend, the cross was made of 
V'{ood taken from the tree of the knowledge of good 

nd evil. 



CANTO XXXI I 


4 1 5 


;eated upon it, secure as a fortress on a steep The harlot 
hill, a shameless harlot a pp eared to me , ,vith and the 
giant 
eyes quick around. 

nd, as though she should not be taken from 
him, a giant I saw erect at her side, and from 
time to tin1e each kissed the other ; 
ut, because her lustful and vagrant eye she turned 
upon rne, that fierce paran10ur did scourge her 
from head to feet. 

hen filled with jealousy and cruel with rage, he 
loosed the monster, and dragged it so far through 
the wood, that of this alone he made a screen 
bet\\'een me and the harlot and the strange beast. 


52.-54. In spring, \vhen the sun is in Aries (the 
,gn following Pisces-here called "the celestial 
lrp "). 
58-60. The purple of Empire (if. above, Canto 
xix. 131). 
63-65. The" all-seeing" Argus (cf. above, Canto 
xix. 95) was set by Juno to watch over 10, whom 
he had, in a fit of jealousy, changed into a cow for 
ielding to Jupiter. The goddess selected Argus 
ecause he was able to keep awake longer than 
thers (più 'lJegghiar), resting some of his eyes while 
r he others were watching. The monster was lulled 
r D sleep (and then slain) by Mercury, while listening 
I 0 the god's recital of the story of the nymph Syrinx 
who, when pursued by Pan, was at her prayer 
I hanged into a reed; see Ovid, Met. i. 568 sqq.). 
66-81. The Transfiguration; see Matt. xvii. 1-8: 
'And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James and 
I ohn his brother, and bringeth them up into an high 
nountain apart, and was transfigured before them: 
I nd his face did shine as the sun, and his raimen t 
; vas white as the light, and, behold, there appeared 
I Into them Moses and Elias talking with him. 



4 16 


NOTES 


Then answered Peter and said unto Jesus, Lord, it 
is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make 
here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one fot 
Moses, and one for Elias. \Vhile he yet spake: 
behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: anè 
behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, Thi
 
is my beloved Son, in whom I anI well pleased: 
hear ye him. .And when the disciples heard it: 
they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. Ani 
Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, ani 
be not afraid. And when they had lifted up their eyes 
they saw no man, save Jesus only." Jesus is callei 
"the apple tree" in 'U. 73, according to the alJegor) 
of the Song of Solomon ii. 3 (" As the apple tree anIon
 
the trees of the ,vood, so is my beloved among the 
sons "). 
86, 87, and 94-96. Divine Wisdom is seated at th<< 
root of the tree (Rome, the seat of the Empire) 
and in the shadow of "the ne\v foliage," whicl 
blossomed forth when the Church (whose seat is a 
Rome, too) was united to the Empire (see above, 'U'U 
49-60), she is left to guard the interests of tha 
Church (the plaustro of 'U. 95). 
100. Mr Butler holds that qui" signifies 'in thi 
world,' denoted by the Earthly Paradise"; and he 
quotes (from the De Mon. iii. 15: 45-47): heatudinen 
. . . hujus 'Uitae, quæ . . . per terrestrem Paradi.run 
þguratur. 
109- 117. The ten persecutions of the Christial 
Church, instigated by the Emperors, from Nero t( 
Diocletian (64-314). For the eagle, if. Ezek. xvii. 3 
and see Par. xviii.-xx. 
118-123. The heresies which threatened the earl
 
Church, but which were eventually suppressed b
 



CANTO XXXII 


4 1 7 


the writings of the Fathers and more violent measures. 
With the fox, if. Lam. v. 18, etc. 
12 4- 1 2.9. This second descen t of the eagle indicates 
the" donation of Constantine"; see Par. xx. 55- 60 , 
note. 


13 0 - 1 35. The dragon, in all probability, represents 
the great schism wrought by Mohammed (who figures 
among the "
owers of discord" in Ifif. xxviii.). 
Though Dante's dragon was undoubtedly suggested 
by the dragon of Re'l.'. xii. 3, it is not necessary to 
assume that the two beasts have the same syn1bolical 
meaning. (The Biblical n)onster was in the Middle 
Ages identified with Satan.) 
13 6 - 1 41. According to Mr. Butler, the fresh feathers 
signify H the further gifts of territory made by Pippin 
and Charles." 
14 2 - 1 47. It seems best to take these seven horned 
heads (which were evidently suggested by Re-u. xvii. 
3) as the seven capital sins. 
148-160. The harlot (seeRe-u. xvii. 
 sqq. and if. 
Inf. xix. 
07 sqq.) represents the Papal Court in its 
corrupt condition under Boniface VIII. and Clement 
V. 1'he giant is the French dynasty, notorious for its 
intrigues with the Popes; the king specially referred 
to being undoubtedly Philip the Fair. He it Was 
whose bitter feud with Boniface, after pseudo-alli- 
ances for political ends ('Y. 153), was crowned by the 
Pope's death ("V. 156 ; if. above, Canto xx. 85-9 0 , note); 
and, again, it was with Philip's connivance that 
Clement V. transferred the Papal See to Avignon (-v-v. 
15 8 - 16 0; if. Inf. xix. 79- 8 7, notes).-Vt:rse 155 is 
very difficult. It is perhaps safest to take Dante as 
occupying here the position he represents through- 
out the entire poem-that of the typical Christian. 


ZD 



PURGATORIO 


T HE seven virtues in alternate strains now proclaim 
with tears, that the forces of the world havt 
found their hour; and Beatrice declares that thougl 
her glory will for a time be withdrawn from them, i 
is but for a season (1-12). Then she signs to Matilda 
to Dante and to Statius to follow her; but after onl
 
a few steps, graciously summons Dante to her side 
bids him drop all diffidence, interprets the things ht 
has just seen, and hints at the political Messiah wh( 
shall restore the due relations of Church and State anc 
purify them both (13-45). But her comment is fat 
darker than the text. So at least she kno\vs it wil: 
seem to Dante's dull and over-crusted mind; wherefon 
the stamp has been impressed upon his eye rather than 
on his unreceptive intellect (46- 8 I). Dante gently 
expostulates with her for uttering herself only in 
inextricable enigmas. She answers that she does so 
to show him how inadequate has been the training 
of the teaching he has lately followed; but he, who: 
since he drank of Lethe, has forgotten all the in ten"a] 
between his loss of Beatrice upon earth and his finding 
of her again in Eden, answérs that he cannot mind 
him of ever having \vandered from her or being in 
need of any other school than that of her \visdom; 


Paradiso" Deus, evenerunt gentes" alternando, 
Terrestre or tre or quattro, dolce salmodia 
Ie donne incon1inciaro, e lagrimando ; 
e Beatrice sospirosa e pia 4 
queUe ascoltava sì fatta, che poco 
più alla croce si cambiò Maria. 
Ma poi che I' altre vergini dier loco 7 
a lei di dir, levata dritta in piè 
risrose, colorata come foco : 
4 18 



CANTO XXXIII 


upon which she reminds him that this forgetfulness 
3f ever having left her is a sign that it 'was tainted 
with evil; for only the memory of what is so tainted 
is washed away by Lethe. Finally she promises that 
henceforth she will vex him no more by veiled dis- 
:ourse, but will speak with the naked simplicity that 
h.s untrained powers demand (82-101). The sun is 
no\V in high heaven, and they reach a fountain whence 
two streams flow, and seem loth to part from each 
other. Dante has forgotten all that Matilda told him 
about thenl, not so much that Lethe has washed a'\vay 
the thought, for surely it was untainted by any evil, 
as that before Eunoë is tasted and secures every good 
impression from being obliterated, such all-absorbing 
experiences as have but now been Dante's, may ob- 
literate from the memory even the most beautiful 
thoughts that have preceded them. Henceforth, how- 
ever, all fair memories of good, ,vhatsoever their rela- 
tive significance, shall be secured against oblivion and 
shall take their perfect place in the perfect \vhole; for 
Dante, followed by Statius, drinks of the stream of 
Eunoë; and thence with life fresh as the leaves of spring 
he issues, inly equipped and cleansed for his further 
journey to the stars (103-145). 


" Deus, vellerunt gentes": now three, now four, Beatrice 
alternately and weeping, a sweet psalmody the :
:e
he 
ladies began ; virtues 
and Beatrice sighing and compassionate was 
hearkening to them so altered, that little 
more did Mary change at the cross. 
But when the other virgins gave place to her to 
speak, uprisen erect on her feet, she answered 
in hue of fire: 


4 1 9 



4 20 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso" Modicum, et non videbitis me, II 
Terrestre et iterum, sore lIe mie dilette, 
modicum, et vos cvidebitis me." 
Poi Ie si mise innanzi tutte e sette, I: 
e dopo sè, solo accennando, mosse 
me e la donna e il savio che ristette. 
Così sen giva, e non credo che fosse It 
10 decimo suo passo in terra posto, 
quando con gli occhi gli occhi mi percosse ; 
e con tranquillo aspetto: "Vien più tosto," IÇ 
mi disse, "tanto che s' io parIo teco, 
ad ascoltarmi tu sie ben disposto." 
Sì com' io fui, com' io doveva, seeo, 2
 
dissemi: "Frate, perchè non ti attenti 
a domandarmi omai venendo meco?" 
COlne a color, che troppo reverenti 2
 
dinanzi a' suoi maggior parIando sono, 
che non traggon la voce viva ai denti, 
avvenne a me, che senza intero suono 28 
incominciai: "Madonna, n1ia bisogna 
voi conoscete, e ciò ch' ad essa è buono." 
Ed ella a me: "Da [ema e da vergogna 3 1 
voglio che tu omai ti disviluppe, 
sì ehe non parli più com' uom che sogna. 
Sappi che il vaso, che il serpente ruppe, 34 
fu e non è, ma chi n' ha calpa creda 
che vendetta di Dio non teme suppe. 
Non sarà tutto tempo senza ereda 37 
l' aqui1a che lasciò Ie penne al carro, 
per che divenne mostro e pas cia preda : 
ch' io veggio certamente, e però il narro, 4 0 
a darne tenlpo già stelle propinque, 
sicure d' ogni intoppo e d' ogni sbarro, 



CANTO XXXIII 


4 21 


"Modicum, et non 
idebitis me, et iterum, nlY Beatrice 
beloved sisters , modicum , et 
os 
idebitis and the 
seven 
me. " virtues 
Then she placed them all seven in front of her, 
and, merely by her nod, motioned behind her, 
me and the Lady and the Sage who had stayed. 
Thus she went on, and I believe not that her 
r tenth step was put on the ground, when with Beatrice 
her eyes mine eyes she smote ; and Dante 
and with tranquil mien did say to me: "Come 
more quickly so that if I speak with thee, thou 
be well placed to listen to nle." 
Soon as I was with her, as 'twas my duty to be, she 
said to nle: " Brother, wherefore coming now 
\vith nle, venturest thou not to ask of nle ? " 
As to those, \vho in presence of their betters are 
too lo\vly in speech so that they bring not their 
voice whole to the lips, 
it happened to me and without full utterance I 
began: "My Lady, my need you know, and 
that which is good for it." 
And she to me: "F ronl fear and from shalne I 
,vould that now thou unbind thee, so that thou 
speak no more like one that is dreaming. 
!(now that the vessel which the serpent broke, She 
was and is not. but let him \vhose fault it is prophesies 
" , the future 
believe that God's vengeance fears no sops. of the 
Not for all time shall be without heir the eagle 




 and 
that left the plunlage on the car, whereby it 
became a monster and then a prey; 
for of a surety I see, and therefore do tell it, stars 
already nigh, secure from all inlpedinlent and 
from all hindrance, that shall bring us times 



4 22 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso nel quale un cinquecento diece e cinque, 43 
Terrestre n1esso da Dio anciderà la fuia 
, 
con quel gigante che con lei delillque. 
E forse che la n1ia narrazion, buia 4 6 
qual Temi e S6nge, n1en ti persuade, 
perch' a lor n10do 10 intelletto attuia ; 
ma tosto fien Ii fatti Ie N aiade, 49 
che solveranno questo enigma forte, 
senza danno di pecore 0 di biade. 
Tu nota; e, sì come da me son porte, 52 
così queste parole segna ai vivi 
del viver ch' è un correre alIa morte; 
ed abbi a mente, quando tu Ie scrivi, 55 
di non celar qual hai vista la pianta, 
ch' è or due volte dirubata quivi. 
Qualunque Tuba quella 0 quella schianta, 58 
con bestemn1ia di fatto offende a Dio, 
che solo all' uso suo la creò santa. 
Per morder q uella, in pena ed in disio 61 
cinquemili' anni e più l' anin1a prima 
bramò Colui che il morso in sè punio. 
Dorme 10 ingegno tuo, se non estima 64 
per singular cagione essere eccelsa 
lei tanto, e si travolta neIla cima. 
E, se stati non fossero acqua d' Elsa 67 
Ii pensier vani intorno alla tua n1ente, 
e il piacer loro un PiraIno alla geIsa, 
per tante circostanze solamente ,/0 
la giustizia di Dio, nello interdetto, 
conosceresti all' arbor n10ralmente. 
Ma, perch' io veggio te nello intelletto '/3 
fatto di pietra ed, impietrato, tinto 
sì che t' abbaglia il lun1e del n1io detto, 



CANTO XXXIII 


4 2 3 


, wherein a five hundred ten and five, sent by God, Beatric
 
I h II 1 h th o r 0 h h . h . prophesies 
s a s ay t e leI, WIt t at gIant w 0 SIns the future 
with her. of the 
Church and 
And perchance my prophecy, obscure as Themis Empire 
and Sphinx, doth less persuade thee, because 
after their fashion it darkens thy mind; 
but soon the facts shall be the Naiades that will 
i solve this hard riddle without loss of flocks 
or of corn. 
Note thou; and even as these words from me are 
borne, so do thou signify them to those who live 
that life which is a race unto death; 
and bear in mind when thou writest then1, not to 
conceal how thou hast seen the tree which 
now twice hath been despoiled here. 
Whoso robs that or that doth rend, with blas- and 
h . iT. d h G d h I r discourses 
p emy In act orren et 0, W 0 a one lor on the 
his service did create it holy. sacredness 
of the Tree 
F or eating of that, in torment and in desire, of Empire 
five thousand years and more the first soul did 
yearn for him who punished the bite in himself. 
Thy wit sleepeth if it judge not that tree to be 
for special cause thus lofty and thus trans- 
posed at the top. 
And if thy idle thoughts had not been Elsan 
waters about thy mind, and their pleasantness 
a PyraInus to the mulberry, 
by so many circumstances alone thou wouldst 
recognise in the tree morally, God's justice 
in the ban. 
But because I see thy mind turned to stone and, 
stonelike, such in hue that the light of my 
word dazes thee, 



4 2 4 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso voglio anche, e se non scritto, aImen dipinto, 
Terrestre che il te ne porti dentro a te, per quello 
che si reca il bordon di pa]ma cinto." 
Ed io: "Sì come cera da suggello, 
che la figura impressa .non trasmuta, 
segnato è or da voi 10 mio cervello. 
Ma perchè tanto sopra mia veduta 
vostra paro]a disiata vola, 
che più la percle quanto più s' aiuta? " 
"Perchè conoschi," disse, "quella scuola 
ch' hai seguitata, e veggi sua dottrina 
come può seguitar la mia parola ; 
e veggi vostra via dal1a di vina 
distar cotanto, quanto si discorda 
da terra il ciel che più alto festina." 
Ond' io risposi lei: " Non mi ricorda 
ch' io straniassi me giammai da voi 
nè honne coscienza che rimorda." 
cc E se tu ricordar non te ne puoi," 
sorridendo rispose, "or ti rammenta 
come bevesti di Letè ancoi; 
e se dal fummo foco s' argomenta, 
cotesta oblivion chiaro conchiude 
colpa nelJa tua voglia a]trove attenta. 
Veramente oramai saranno nude 
Ie mie parole, quanto converrassi 
queUe scoprire alla tua vista rude." 
E più corrusco, e con più lenti passi, 
teneva it sole il cerchio di merigge, 
che qua e là, come gli aspetti, fassi, 
quando s' affisser, sì come s' affigge 
chi va dinanzi a gente per iscorta, 
se trova novitate 0 sue vestigge, 


76- 


19 


82 


8S 


8& 


9 1 


94 


91 


100 


1 0 3 


106 



CANTO XXXIII 


4 2 5 


I also will that thou bear it a\vay within thee, Beatrice 
and if not written at least outlined, for the and Dante 
reason that the pilgrim's staff is brought back 
wreathed with palm." 
And I: "Even as wax under the seal, that 
the imprinted figure changeth not, my brain 
is no\v stamped by you. 
But \vhy doth your longed-for word soar so far 
beyond my sight, that the more it straineth 
the more it loses it? " 
"That thou mayst know," she said, " that 
School which thou hast followed, and see how 
its teaching can keep pace with my word; 
and mayst see your way so far distant from the 
divine \vay, as the heaven which highest 
speeds is removed from earth." 
Wherefore I answered her: "I remember not 
that I e'er estranged me from you, nor have 
I conscience thereof that gnaws me." 
"And if thou canst not remember it," smiling 
she answered, "now bethink thee how thou 
didst drink of Lethe this very day; 
and if from smoke fire is argued, this forgetful- 
ness clearly proves fault in thy desire other- 
where intent. 
But now DIY words shall be naked, so far as shall 
be meet to discover them to thy rude vision." 
Both more refulgent, and with slower steps, the Noon in 
sun \vas holding the meridian circle, which t p he E::thly 
. . h d h . h . ara lse 
vanes hIt er an t It er as positIons vary, 
when did halt, even as he haIts who goes for 
escort before folk, if he finds aught that is 
sty ange or the traces thereof, 



4 26 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso Ie sette donne al fin d' un' ombra sn1orta, 10 9 
Terrestre qual sotto foglie verdi e rami nigri 
sopra suoi freddi Fivi I' Alpe porta. 
Dinanzi ad esse Eufrates e Tigri 1:12 
veder mi parve uscir d' una fontana, 
e quasi arnici dipartirsi pigri. 
" 0 luce, 0 gloria della gente umana, 115 
che acqua è questa che qui si dispiega 
da un principio, e sè da sè lontana ? " 
Per cotal prego detto mi fu: "Prega u8 
Matelda che il ti dica "; e qui rispose, 
come fa chi da colpa si dislega, 
)a bella donna: "Questo, ed altre cose 121 
dette gli son per me; e son sicura 
che l' acqua di Letè non gliel nascose." 
E Beatrice: "Forse maggior cura, 12 4 
che spesse volte la memoria priva, 
fatto ha la mente sua negli occhi oscura. 
Ma vedi Eunoè che là deriva: J21 
men
o ad esso, e, come tu sei usa 
Ia tramortita sua virtù ravviva." 
Com' anima gentil che non fa scusa, 13 0 
ma fa sua voglia della voglia altrui, 
tosto ch' ell' è per segno fuor dischiusa: 
così, poi che da essa preso fui, J33 
la bella donna mossesi, ed a Stazio 
donnescamente disse: "Vien con lui." 
S' io avessi, lettor, più lungo spazio 13 6 
da scrivere, io pur canterei in parte 
10 dolce ber che mai non m' avria sazio; 
IDa perchè piene son tutte Ie carte 139 
ordite a questa Cantica seconda, 
non mi lascia più ir 10 fren dell' arte. 



CANTO XXXIII 


4 2 7 


those seven ladies at the margin of a pale shadow, Dan
e and 
such as beneath green leaves and dark boughs, 
:i

u
f 
the Alp casts over its cool strean1S. Eunoë 
In front of them I seemed to behold Euphrates 
and Tigris welling up from one spring, and 
parting like friends that linger. 
"0 light, 0 glory of human kind, what water 
ì is this that here pours forth from one source, 
and self from self doth wend away?" 
i\.t such prayer was said to me: "Pray Matilda 
that she tel] it thee ;" and here made answer, 
as he doth who frees him from blame, 
the fair Lady: "This and other things have 
been told him by me, and sure am I that 
Lethe's water hid thenl not from him." 
And Beatrice: "Haply a greater care that oft 
bereaves of memory hath dimmed his mind's 
eyes. 
But behold Eunoe, which there flows on; lead 
him to it, and as thou art wont, requicken his 
fainting virtue." 
As a gentle soul that maketh no excuse, but makes 
her will of the \viH of another, soon as it is 
disclosed by outward sign, 
so the fair Lady, after I ,vas taken by her, 
set forth, and to Statius with queenly mien 
did say: "Come with him." 
If, reader, I had greater space for writing, I 
would sing, at least in part, of the sweet 
draught which never would have sated me ; 
but forasmuch as all the pages ordained for this 
second canticle are filled, the curb of art no 
further lets me go. 



4 28 


PURGATORIO 


Paradiso 10 ritornai dalla santissim' onda 
Terrestre rifatto sì, come piante novelle 
rinnovellate di novella [ronda, 
puro e disposto a sa lire alle stelle. 


14 2 


145 


I. Ps. lxxix., beginning: "0 God, the heathen 
are come into thine inheritance; thy holy temple 
have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem on 
h
aps. " 
10-12. Christ's words to his disciples: "A little 
while, and ye shall not see me: and again, a little 
while, and ye shall see me, because I go to the 
Father" (John xvi. 16). 
34, 35. See the preceding canto, vv. 13 0 - 1 35. 
Dante applies to the Church (corrupted as it was in 
his time) the words used by John in Rev. xvii. 8 : 
" The beast thou sawest was, and is not." 
35, 3 6 . "In the olden time in Florence, if an 
assassin could contrive to eat a sop of bread and 
,vine at the grave of the murdered man, within nine 
days after the murder, he was free from the vengeance 
of the family; and to prevent this they kept watch 
at the tomb. There is no evading the vengeance of 
God in this way. Such is the interpretation of this 
passage by all the old commentators" (Longfellow). 
37. senza ereda. In the Con'll. iv. 3: 38-43, Dante 
speaks of Frederick II. (d. 12,50) as " the last Emperor 
of the Romans (I say' last' with respect to the pre- 
sent time, notwithstanding that Rudolf, and Adolphus, 
and Albert were elected after his death and from his 
descendan ts ). " 
38, 39. See the preceding canto, vv. 124-129, and 
14 2 - 160 . 
40-45. Another of the so-called ratro passages (if. 
It:!. i. 101-105, note, and see above, Canto xx. 8. 
10- 1 5, note). The numbers of 'V. 43 are generally ex- 
plained as DVX = leader (on the analogy of the 
numbers in Rev. xiii. 18, which indicate Nero); but 
surmises as to who that leader might be (whether 



CANTO XXXIII 


4 2 9 


I ca1ne back from the most holy waves, born Dal}te 
again, even as new trees renewed ,vith new f:rrh

d 
foliage, pure and ready to mount to the heaven- 
ward 
stars. ascent 


Can Grande, or Henry of Luxemburg, or another) 
are entirely futile. For'V'V. 44, 45, see the preceding 
canto, 'V'V. 150-160. 
46-51. When <Edipus had solved the famous riddle 
of the Sphinx, Themis (renowned for her oracle) was 
so enraged that she sent a wild beast to work havoc 
among the herds and fields of the Thebans. See 
Ovid, M
t. vii.- The Naiads had nothing to do \vith 
the solving of riddles; Dante followed a corrupt 
reading in 'V. 759 of the passage in Ovid, where 
Heinsius' emendation of Laiades (for J.Vaiades) is no,v 
almost universally adopted [Laiadu = ffidipus, the son 
of Laius]. 
57. First by Adam, then by the giant: for the 
wood of the chariot-pole came from the tree (see the 
preceding canto, 'V. 51), and the chariot was dragged 
away by the giant (ib. 'V'V. 15i-160). 
61-63. Dante follows the chronology of Eusebius, 
according to \vhich Adam was on earth for 930 years, 
and in Limbo for 430Z. years, nlaking 5232 years in 
all. q. Par. xxvi. 118-120. With 'V. 63 if. Par. 
vii. 25 Jf}f}. 
64-66. See the preceding canto, 'V'V. 40-42. The 
height probably indicates the vast extent and might 
of the Empire; while the widening towards the 
summit may be compared with 'V. 135 of Canto xxii., 
and taken to denote the inviolability of the Empire, 
as desired by God. 
67-69. These lines are glossed by'V'V. 73-75. The 
Elsa is a 1'uscan river, whose water has, in certain 
portions of its course, the property of turning objects 
to stone; and the hues of the mulberry (pure white 
changed to guiJty red) are explained in the note to 
Canto xxvii. 'V'V. 37- 39. 



43 0 


NOTES 



 V" 
& 


78, 79. per que/lo, namely, to show that thou hast 
been in the Earthly Paradise. q;: Yita Nuo-va, 
 xl. 
44-4 6 : "They are called Palmers who go beyond the 
seas eastward, whence often they bring palnl- 
branches. " 
85-99. Great stress is very naturally laid upon this 
passage by Witte and his followers, who maintained 
that Dante's sin consisted, primarily at any rate, not 
in n10ral but in philosophical aberrations. rrhey 
understand Beatrice to reproach Dante with having 
followed Philosophy instead of Religion, and, on his 
declaring that he had no recollection of any such 
thing, to answer that it is because he has drunk of 
Lethe and forgotten all evil actions. But the passage 
cannot really be cited to support this vie,v. The 
school that Dante has followed just before coming to 
Beatrice, and which has so imperfectly prepared him 
to understand her, is the school of Virgil (see above
 
Canto xxi. v. 33). And it is impossible to suppose 
that Beatrice reproaches Dante for having followed 
Virgil, who was her own emissary. He was the 
initial instrument of Dante's salvation from his error, 
not the seducer 'who led him into it. 
We must apparently suppose that 'v hen Dante 
drank of Lethe, he forgot his fall and all the steps 
that led to his recovery from it, which required for 
their understanding a conscious reference to it. 
Therefore, when Beatrice speaks of the inadequacy 



CANTO XXXIII 


43 1 


(not the perversity) of the training he has had as 
yet, he misunderstands the reference as an im- 
plication that he had wandered from her to some 
other school. Beatrice takes him up on his own 
ground, and replies that, for the nlatter of that, 
so he did desert her, and guiltily too, else he would 
not have forgotten it. 
When Dante has further drunk of EUl1oë, he \vill 
remember all the incidental good of Virgil's faithful 
love and guidance; but it will no longer be painfully 
associated with his own sin; and that sin he will re- 
member again, but as an external thing that does not 
now belong to his own personality. It will dwell 
in his mind merely as the outward occasion of the 
love manifested and the blessings secured to him. 
Çf. Par. ix. 103-105; and see above, Canto xxviii. 
CZI'V.13 0 - 1 3 2 ,note. 
103-105. See the diagram on p. 47. 
109- I I I. At the edge of the forest, whose shadow 
resembled the shado,v cast by the trees at the foot of 
the Alps on to the streams below. 
112-114. Dante was probably thinking not of G
n. 
ii. 14, but of Boëthius' verses (D
 Cons. Phil. v. metro 
i.): Tigris et Euphrates uno u fonte resol'Vunt, Et mox 
aijunctis dissociantur afjuis. 
121, 122. See above, Can to xxviii. CZI
.. 85 sqq. 
H. O. 



NOTE ON 
DANTE'S PURGATORY 



 I. THE CENTRAL IDEA OF THE PURGATORY. 
THE key to the comprehension of Dante"s representa- 
tion of Purgatory is to be found in the connection of 
the mountain with the Earthly Paradise, or Garden of 
Eden, situated at its summit. We learn from careful 
reading of the last lines of the Inferno that the mountain 
of Purgatory was thrown up (like a mole-hill, if one 
may use such an illustration) when Satan was hurled 
down from heaven to the centre of the earth. His 
upper bulk was thrust into Hell, \vhich was already 
there to rt:ceive him; and beneath the Muunt of 
Purgatory the earth closed up behind him, leaving a 
huge cavern, into which his nether limbs stretched up. 
So the fall of Satan was the occasion for a portion 
of the substance of the earth to leap up heavenward 
above all the elemental perturbations of the lower 
atmosphere, thus making itself worthy to become 
the seat of that human race which was to replace 
the fallen angels. 
Now the life ot Eden, had man persevered, was to 
have been an earthly life, including what may be 
thought of as natural religion,-a consciousness of the 
love and nearness of God, a perfect spontaneity of 
human joy and goodness, and a knowledge of all 
earthly wisdom. But the higher revelations which 
would complete the life of man, not as an earthly but 
as a heavenly being, were to have been subsequently 
added. Therefore, when man fdl he forfeited im- 
n1ediately the perfect earthly life, and ultimately the 
. perfect heavenly life. His first task, then, must be 
to recover the life of the Earthly Paradise; and as 
purgation, or recovery from the fall, consists primarily 
in regaining Eden, the mountain pedestal of the 
Garden of Eden becomes by a necessity of symbolic 
43
 



DANTE'S-PURGATORY 433 


logic the scene of purgation. Physically and spiritually 
man must climb back to the" uplifted garden." Hence 
the key-note of the Purgatory is primarily ethical, and 
only by implication spiritual. Cato, the type of the 
moral virtues, is the guardian of the place; Virgil, the 
type of human philosophy, is the guide; and the 
Earthly Paradise, the type of the " blessedness of this 
life" (D
 Mon. iii. 16: 43-52.), is the immediate goal. 
B
atrice is only realised by Dante as he had known 

er in the Eden-like" new life" of his youth, and by 
no means as the august impersonation of revealed truth. 
She appears to him in due course, surrounded by her 
escort, when he has reached the state of earthly per- 
fection; and th
 vacancy of that region of earthly bliss 
is explé1.ined to him by the Vision of false and confused 
government, wherein is portrayed the failure of Church 
and State to bring man back to the life of Eden. 1"0 
the Church as an earthly organisation, or regimen, the 
grace of God has committed by anticipation such re- 
vealed truth as is necessary to help the enfeebled will of 
man to recover the state of Eden. But the Church, as 
a regimen, is not to be confounded with Revelation 
Beatrice) herself. The proper office of the Church, as 
a regimen, ends when the proper office of Beatrice 
begins. See De MCJ1larchia, Hi. 4: 107-1.11 I. 

 2.. THE DIVISIONS OF THE PURGATORY. 
The details of the second cantica follow the general 
scheme; based on three, sub-divided into ieven, raised 
by unlike additions to nine, and by a final member on 
a totally different plane, to ten. 
The threefold division, which is expounded at length 
in Canto xvii., rests on the distinction between (i) per- 
verse, (ii) defective, and (iii) excessive love. By perverse 
Jove is meant a delight in things which ought to grieve 
us, and of the three natural objects of love, God, self, and 
neighbour, the two first are secured (except in case 
of such monstrous perversion as is punished in Circle 
7 of Hell) from hate. (I) Perverse love, then, must 
consist in taking a delight in evil that befalls oth
rs. 
The proud man desires to excel, and therefore rejoices in 
def
ating the attempts of others (i). The envious man 
hates being over-shadowed and made to think meanly 
2 E 



434 DANTE'S PURGATORY 


of himself and his belongings, and therefore rejoices in 
the misfortunes of others (ii). The angry man wishes in 
his indignation to make those who have offended him 
smart, and so finds a satisfaction in their sufferings (Hi). 
(II) T.hey who are spiritually and intellectually sluggish 
in the contemplation of the áivine goodness, or sluggish 
in the will to pursue it, are alike guilty of sloth, or 
inadequate love (iv). (Ill) And those who pursue 
wealth (v), or the pleasures of the table (vi), or carnal 
appetite (vii), without observing due limitations, are 
guilty of excessive and ill-regulated love for things which 
should only take a secondary place in their affections. 
Hence the threefold division, by sub-division of its ex- 
treme members, has given us a sevenfold division which 
coincides with the seven deadly sins of the Catholic 
Church. Besides this we have on the island at the base 
of the mountain those who have died in contumacy 
against the Church; and on the slopes of the mount 
belo\v the gate we have the late-repentant. These 
t\vo classes raise seven to nine; and at the top of the 
mountain \ve have the Earthly Paradise, not part of 
Purgatory at all, but the goal to \vhich the purified 
souls are led. 


10 


The Garden of Eden 


The Earthly 
Paradise 


9 
8 
1 
6 
5 
4 
3 



 { Excessive III. 

 Defective II. 

 
Perverted I. 


{ Carnality vii. 
Gluttony vi. 
Avarice v. 
Sloth iv. 
{ Anger iii. 
Envy ii. 
Pride i. 


} The seven 
circles of pur- 
gation of the 
seyen deadly 
sins 


The Late-repentant 
The Excommunicate 


} Antepurgatory 
P. H. W. 



THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE 
" PURGA TORIO" 


IT is near sunrise when the poets issue at the eastern 
base of the Mount of Purgatory (i. 19-2. I), and close 
upon sunrise, 6 A.M., as they leave Cato (i. 107-117). 
The stars in mid heaven have disappeared when the 
souls are discharged from the angel's boat (ii. 55-57), 
though shadows are not yet distinctly visible since the 
souls recognise Dante as a living man only by his 
breathing (ii. 67, 68). The sun is up and the hour 
of Vespers, 3 P.M., has already arrived in Italy, as 
the poets turn westward again towards the mountain 
(iii. 16-26). The conversation with Manfred is over 
about 9.20 A.M. (iv. 15). It is noonday when Dante 
has finished his conversation with Belaqua (iv. 137-139); 
that is to say, the sun is in the north; and since the 
poets are almost on the due east portion of the 
mountain, it is not long ere the sun disappears behind 
the hill (vi. 5 I ). So Dante casts no shadow, and is 
not recognized as a living man by Sordello, with whom 
Virgil converses till day is declining (vii. 43) At 
sunset the souls in tht valley of the kings sing their 
evening hymn (viii. 1-18); very soon after which the 
poets descend (descent being possible after sunset, 
though they could not have ascended, if. vii. 58, 59) 
into the valley, as twilight deepens (viii 43-51). 
Taking the moment of full moon to have been at 
sunrise on the Friday morning, it is now 3 X Z 4- hours 
since full moon, and the retardation of the moon is 
therefore 3 x 52. minutes = 2. hours 36 minutes; and the 
moon, therefore, has passed through the Scales and 
is 36 minutes deep in Scorpion. l'he first stars of 
Scorpion, then, and the g]ow of the lunar aurora are 
on the horizon, and it is just over 8.30 P.M. on what 
(with the reservations indicated in the chronological 
2 i:* 435 



436 CHRONOLOGY OF "PURGATORIO" 


note on the Ilifetno) we may call Monday evening, 
when Dante falls asleep (ix. 1-12). Before dawn on 
the next morning Dante has a vision of the eagle, 
and is in point of fact carried up by Lucia near to 
the gate of Purgatory (ix. 13-63), where he awakes 
at about 8 A.M. (ix. 44). The retardation of the moon 
is now 3 hours and 2 minut
s, and when they issue 
upon the first terrace she has already set (x. 13- 16). 
It is therefore about 9 A.M. About 12 o'clock noon 
they reach the stair to the second circle (xii. 80, 81). 
When the poets pass from the second to the third 
terrace they are \valking westward and have therefor
 
reached the northern quarter of the mount, and it is 
3 o'clock in the afternoon (xv. 1-9); and their direction 
has not sensibly changed when they meet the wrathful 
(xv. 139)' The sun has already set at the base of 
the mountain (xvii. 11) \vhen the final visions of 
the circle of the wrathful come upon Dante, and 
he sets to the poets, high up on the mountain, 
just as they have completed the ascent of the stair to 
the fourth circle (xvii. 70-75). By comparing these 
data
 it will be seen that the poets traverse portions 
of the first three circles, constituting altogether a 
quadrant or a little more, d'Jring this day. They 
start on the eastern side of the mountain, and end at 
the north, or a little west of it, and have spent about 
three hours in each circle. About three hours more 
are occupied by Virgil's discourse, which ends towards 
midnight, \vhen the moon. which rose at 9. 28
 a good 
,yay south of east, now first appears due east, or a 
trifle north of due east, from bd1ind the mountain 
(xviii. 76-81) Before dawn (xix. 1-6) on what we 
may call Wednesday, Dante has his vision of the Siren, 
and it is full daylight \vhen he wakes. They still 
travel due, or nearly due, west, with the newly risen 
sun at their back1; (xix. 37-39). "rhey swiftly pass 
the fourth circle and reach the fifth, in which they 
stay so long that it is after ten when they reach the 
sixth circle (xxii. 1 1 5-120). Though they are now well 
to the west of the mountain, the sun has traveHed with 
them, so that Dante casts a shadow (xxiii. 114). In- 
deed it is after two o'clock when they reach the stair 
which leads to the seventh circle (xxv. 1-3), so that by 



CHRONOLOGY OF "PURGATORIO" 437 


this time shadows are visible on the mountain from 
near the north-east to near the south-west of its 
surface. As Dante converses with the shadeB on the 
seventh terrace the sun is almost due west; the poet is 
walking nearly due south, the sun on his right and 
the flan1e glowing redder under his shadow at the left 
(xxvi. 1-9). And the position is not perceptibly changed 
when the angel of the circle appears to them as the 
sun sets at the base of the moun rain (xxvii. 1-6); nor 
;have they mounted many stairs after passing through 
the flame, before the sun, exactly behind them, sets on 
the higher regions of the mount 'where they now are 
(xxvii. 61 - 69). Before sunrise (x xvii. 94- 96) on the 
day we may call Thursday, Dante sees Leah in his 
vision, and wakes at dawn of day (xxvii. 109-114). 
The sun shines full upon their faces as they enter the 
Earthly Paradise from the western point, facing east 
(xxvii. 133); and it is noonday (xxxiii. 103-105) as they 
reach the source of Lethe and Eunoë. 
... For the time references in the Paradiso, see Parad. 
xxvii. 83, 84, Argument, note and map. 


P H. W. 



TIle present edition of the" Purgatorio," uniform 'with 
the" Inferno" and" Paradiso" already issued in " The 
Temple Classics," has heen edited by Mr H. Oelsner, 
M.A., Ph.D., who is responsihle for th
 Italian text 
(based on the editiolls if Witte, Moore and Casini), 
and for th
 notes at the end if 
ach canto. The English 

ersion is by Mr Thomas 0 key, joint author (.with Mr 
Bolton I(ing) if" Italy To-day," translator if Mazzini's 
" Essays," 
c. The Arguments ha'lJe h
en 'written by the 
Rev. Philip H. Wicksteed, M.A., who has also contri. 
buted the matter on pages 432.-437 (uniform 
vith the corr
- 
Jpondín

 papers from his pen at the close 0/ the other two 
'Volumes): alld hy whom most of the diagramj ha-ve again bee" 
designed. 


I. G. 


Octo
er 14, 1901. 


439 



TRANSLATOR'S NOTE 


THE translation of the Pl/rgatorio here offered to 
the public has been undertaken solely to enable the 
publishers to complete their issue of the Commedia 
in The Temple Classics. Its aim is to lend a helping 
hand to those who, already possessing some know- 
ledge of Latin or of a kindred language, may desire 
to read the poem in the original Italian. It is not 
intended to compete with, still less to supersede, any 
existing translation. Some experience in introducing 
Dante to English students has convinced the writer 
how essential it is, if interest and enthusiasm are to 
be maintained, that the text should be studied in 
Italian. Few are they who begin their author in a 
translation but \vho soon decide, either to drop the 
study, or to learn to read him in the original. Tbe 
difficulties that beset the reader of the Commetlia are 
not so much philological as exegetical. Of the suprenle 
poets none loses so much by translation as Dante; 
none so quickly repays a study of the original text. 
Many passages indeed are clearer in Italian than in 
English. It will be found that text and translation 
correspond consistently terzetto for terzelto, but not 
line for Ii ne, and that for greater clearness the text 
has generally been construed in accord with the 
English rather than the Italian idiom. Where a 
literal rendering would convey no meaning a para- 
phrase (as in xxix. 47) has been hazarded, and the 
technical equivalent, when thought necessary, given 
and explained in a note. 
The translator is keenly conscious how far he has 
fallen short of achievement, and will welcome any 
suggestio:1s for the improvement of his work. He 
hopes that at least his labours will facilitate the 
passage of a few pilgrims through the secondo regno, 
and further in some small way the ever-growing 
interest in Dante studies in England. 


T. O. 


44 0 



-i. 


EDITORIAL NOTE 


I DESIRE to acknowledge once again my special in- 
debtedness (in the way of references and historical 
data) to Mr Paget Toynbee's Dante Dictionary, a work 
to which all Dante students and scholars must turn 
with gratitude; and to express my heartiest thanks to 
Mr Wicksteed for a number of valuable suggestions 
(relating especially to astronomical, philosophical, 
and al1egorical points, and to the finer shades of the 
poet's meaning), which, I feel, impart to my 
Purgatorio notes any distinction they may be found 
to possess. Dr Moore kindly consented to n1Y 
reproducing the diagrams on pp. 34 and 35 from his 
Time-References. The map of Upper and Central 
Italy is copied, with certain alterations, from the one 
prep
red by Witte for I(annegiesser's German trans- 
lation of the Com'Jledia (Leipzig, 1843). Reference 
should be made throughout to Mr E. G. Gardner's 
Dante in the Temple Primers. A useful handbook for 
the numerous historical passages illustrated by 
Villani is Selfe and Wicksteed's Selections.flom Villani's 
Chronicle. For the general scope of the notes the 
reader is referred to the Editorial Note at the close of 
the volume containing the Paradiso. 


H. O. 


44' 



INDEX TO PLATES, TABLES, ETC. 


PAGE 


DIAGRAMS SHOWING- 


Co) THE COURSE OF 7HE POETS ROUND AND UF 
THE NORTHERN HALF OF THE MOUNT OF 
PURGA TOR Y, FROM EAST TO WEST I 2 


(b) THE PORTIONS OF THE MOUNTAIN UNDER 
UGHT AND SHADE AT 6 O'CLOCK A.M. . 13 


(c) THE PORTIONS OF THE MOUNTAIN UNDER 
LIGHT AND SHi\DE AT NOONDAY . 47 


Cd) THE PORTIONS OF 7HE MOUNTAIN UNDER 
LIGHT AND SHADE AT 6 O'CLOCK P.M. . 103 


DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING SYNCHRONISMS 


34, 35 


SHOWING THE HOURS AT WHICH 7HE SEVERAL SIGNS 
OF THE ZODIAC BEGIN TO RISE AT THE SPRING 


EQUINOX 


59 


F AMIL Y TABLES . 


86-9 1 , 24 1 


MAF OF UPPER AND CENTRAL ITALY 


3'7 6 , 377 


44 2 


JJ. 




 


I'RINTED BY 
TURNBULL AND SPEARS,- 
EDINBURGH 



440,J64- 





PO Dante Alighieri, 1265-1321. 
4306 The Purgatorio of Dante 
.A 1 Alighieri. -- 
1903 



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