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3 ■ 3^/ 










translation), ASOP'S FABLES, ETC., BTC^^^TG. 







Wb liave now probably emerged for good from the Pesha- 
war side of the Qaibar, and its ** Puksbtu/' and left 
" Paste " and " Pakbhto '* in the rear for ever, and 
entered tbe parts closely bordering the old seats of the 
PuSbtanah. Tbe Pui^bto therein spoken, as far west as 
the boundary of the province of Hirat extends in that 
direction, is very different from the "frontier dialects" 
contaminated with PeShawari provincialisms andPanjabi. 

This little book has been prepared at the express desire 
of the enterprising publishers, to meet the present 
demand for manuals of the vernaculars of India. My 
desire has been to make it useful, in the hope that it will 
meet the wishes of those who desire speedily to gain some 
acquaintance with the important language of Afghan- 

I would impress the necessity of acquiring the correct 
pronunciation of each letter from a true Afghanis lips. 

H. G. E. 
January let, 1880. 





The Pu^hto language is written in the NasU^ character 
of the Arabic, to some of which letters diacritical marks 
are added to express other sounds peculiar to PuiShto. 

The following is the alphabet, and an indication of the 
sounds of the letters : — 







a, a, i, u 

, As in English. 
















By reverting the point of the 
tongue to the palate. Like 
Sanskrit 7 




As th in thing, or lisped «. 



ts or tg 

As te or tz. 



A& j m judge. 




As in ehwrch. 



Shape. Name, jj^^^ Deacription. 

^ hey t Stronglyaspirated, as in doubled, 

ji ttey tb Guttural, as ch in Scotch loch, 

J dal d As in dear. 

^ dal d Harsh, as double dy or Sanskrit 

^ zal z As in zecU, 

* rey r As in run, 

* rey y As broad Northumbrian r. 
\ zey z As in English. 

^ ^^7 d§ or dz As da or dss would be in English. 

^ jzey jz As « in pZeodwre, or soft French y. 

^ Jzey JZ By reverting the point of the 

tongue on the palate. It is a 
slight degree harsher than the 
Persian j 

^ sin s As in sense, 

^ shin sh As in shell, 

^ 6hey ^h (W.) Peculiar to Pu^hto. Pronounced 

or or by bringing the tip of the 

k'hin k'h (E) tongue to the roof of the 

mouth. The Eastern Afghans 
pronounce it Yh ; the Westerns 
give it the softer sound of ^h. 

^ 9wad 9 ^ As 88 in dissolve, 

^j3 zwad z As in English. 

^ toey t English t, with slight aspiration, 

lo zoey z do. z do. 

© 'ain *a, 'i 'u, Guttural, changing with the 

vowel point. 

6 ghain gh Guttural. 










f As in English. 

k Guttural, 

k As in Mng, 

g As in give. 

1 As English I. 

mim m do. 

nun n do. 

rnun rn Pronounced run, a combination 

of the sounds of Ji and ^ 
Peculiar to Pu^hto and Sindhi. 

wao w,u,o,ow. According to the vowel points. 

hey h Slightly aspirated. 

^^ yey y, e, i, ai, 

aey, a% 
or ey According to the vowel points. 

» hamzah — As another form of alif. 

There are ten Arabic letters which never occur in pure 
Afghan words, to wit ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ L^ k>, g, <_*, 

and a J therefore the language really contains but thirty 

letters, including the eight peculiar to itself, namely, 

"^ t (i8)» "^ ^i t (^)» cK* and^ or ^ 

The Eastern Afghans, or Lar Pu^htanah, often change 
the ^ occurring in Persian words, used in Pu^hto, into ^ 

whidb they pronounce k'hin, and they also use the letter 
for A* 

* A Ghalzi MuUa, writing on the jargon spoken by 
the tribes about Peshawar, gives the following specimen 
of a pore Af^an sentence after it has undergone the 
Pe^hawari transmutation. It is : " Plar mi khujz wuh ; 

1 • 


In the same maimer the Western Af ghansy or Bar Pu^h- 

tanah, invariably give ^ the softer sound of ^hey, and 

use ^ in the place of i£^. The Qhalzis and some other 

tribes substitute {r for ^ ; and there are a few other minor 
local peculiarities of pronunciation which appear difficult 
at first, but a little practice makes these familiar to the 


There are three short vowels in PuiShto : a, as in America ; 
I as in pin ; and u as in put When followed by the letters 
*alif,' *yey,' and *wao' respectively, they become long, viz., 
' a ' as in fa/r, * i * as in police, and * u * as in rule, Wlien a 
short is followed by the letters * yey* or *wao,' a diphthong 
is produced, making 'ay ' or ' ai,' as in aisle, and 'au,' like 
* ou * in sound, A peculiar sound, shorter than short a, is 
in this book represented by (b diphthong. 

It must be borne in mind that aM letters must be 
sounded in Pu^hto ; thus W^wari, * humility ; ' Wbwa^hey, 
*a wife's mother.' Words of this formation drop the 
sound of w in Persian ; but this is not the case in Pui^hto. 



The Pui^hto language contains no article. The article is 
supposed to be inherent in the noun, or is expressed by 

sajz may shah," " My father was ill : this year he died." 
This in the " Paste," "Pukshto," or « Pakhhto" that we 
hear about would be '^ Plar mi Uiug wuh : sag ma^: shah." 
As Persian words are commonly used in the language, the 
translation is really, <'My father was a hog: the dog 


the indefinite numeral yow, or the demonstrative pro- 


Nouns in Pu^hto are of two kinds, primitive and deriva- 
tive ; the former proceeds from no other word in the 
language, as Halak, ' a boy ' ; Jina'i, ' a girl ' ; the latter 
spring from other nouns, or from verbs, as Tiara'h, 
* blackness ' ; Barna, * brightness.' 

Nouns are of two numbers, singular and plural ; and 
of two genders, masculine and feminine. 

There are seven cases : — the nominative, the genitive, 
the dative, the accusative, the vocative, the ablative, and 
the agent or instrumental case. 

The cases are formed by the addition of particles to the 
noun in an inflected state. 

The Gknitive is formed by prefixing da (sometimes dak) 
to the noun, as da dunya, * of the world.* 

The Dative is formed by the addition of either tah^ 
larah, or lah ; as safi tah, sa^i larah, or sari lah, ' to a 
man.' Sometimes the particle tah, assumes the form watah, 
or wa watah, of which the wa may precede the noun ; thus, 
wa sari tah, or wa sap watah, * to a man.' There is also a 
form of the dative in which the particles are omitted ; as 
'Umar as da Zaid wahi, * 'Umar strikes Zaid's horse.' 

The Accusative remains the same as the nominative, or 
assumes the dative form just given. 

The Vocative is formed b^ prefixing the particles at, a>o, 
or wo ; but these are sometimes dispensed with. 

The Ablative case is formed by prefixing lah to the 
noun, to which nah may also be af&xed ; thus, lah sari, or 
lah sari nah, ' from a man.' Nouns ending in a conso- 
nant reject the affixed nah in the singular only, and 
replace it by short a or oA, as ma]^, ' the face ; ' lah 
makba, or lah maUiah, ' from the face.' The particles tar^ 


dar, or di are occasionally used to form this case, the last 
generally having the noun followed by nah. Under this 
case may be included a Locative, with the sense of * in,* 

* on,' * with,' ' through,' * by means of.' It is formed by 
prefixing * pah ' or * pa ' to the noun ; also by jpah before 
the noun, and * ks'hey * or * ksQii' after it. 

All the preceding particles remain unaffected by either 
number or gender. 

The Agent or Instrumental case is simply the inflected 
form of the noun ; and it is used before transitive verbs, 
in all past tenses of the active voice. 


There are two genders in Pu^hto, the masculine and the 
feminine ; and they affect the terminations of nouns, ad- 
jectives, and verbs. ^ 

The genders of many nouns can be distinguished by 
attention to the different powers of the letters hey and 
yey^ in which a great number of them terminate. 

The letter h at the end of a word may be either percep- 
tible, as in we^htah, *hair;' or, imperceptible, as in 
^hadza'h, * a woman.' The former are all masculine, the 
latter are all feminine. 

Words ending in -aey (as saraey, * a man ') are mascu- 
line ; those endmg in -a'i (as jina'i, * a girl ') are feminine. 
Many feminine nouns (especially Persian derivatives) 
exist of the form mirtei, 'trouble,' i.e. they end in long * i ' 
without the preceding short a ; and foreign words ending 
in long * i ' which have crept into Pu^hto may be mascu- 
line or feminine according to the custom of the language 
whence derived ; thus hati, * an elephant,' is masculine, 
and da'I, ' a nurse,' is feminine. 

Nouns ending in silent e are all masculine ; as, dzo'e, 

* a son,' so'e, * a hare.' 


Some nouns derive their gender from their meaning, 
and not from their form; as, plar, *a father,* mor, *a 
mother,* w*ror, * a brother,' ^or, * a sister.' 

Feminine nouns can be formed from masculines by the 
addition of the imperceptible ^, as, u^h, ' a male camel,' 
u^ha'h, ' a female camel ' ; and by changing the masculine 
termination aey into a'l, as murghumaey, * a male kid,'* 
murghuma'iy / a female kid.* Words of the form mel- 
mah, 'a male guest,' insert an n to prevent hiatus; thus, 
melmana'h, * a female guest.' 


Pu^hto nouns have nine declensions, distinguished 
according to the various methods of inflection, and the 
formation of the nominative plural. 

Id Declension. — ^Nouns which take * i * or * i ' in the 
oblique cases singular and nominative plural ; and * o ' or 
* u '* in the oblique cases plural. 

The first variety comprises masculine nouns ending in 
oe^, and adds short; a in the vocative singular ; thus : — 


N. safaey, ' a man.' 
G. da sari, ' of a man.' 

C sap tah, larah, or lah '^ 
D. < wa sap tah, larah, or lah > ' to a man.' 

(, wa sayi wateih, &c. ) 

Ac. sa^aey, ' a man,' ' to a man.' 
V. ai sa^aeya, wo saraeya, or sayaeya, ' O man.' 
Ab. lah sari, or lah safi nah, ' from a man.' 
Ag. sari, ' by a man.' 

* Afghans, in writing, commonly write the short vowel 
u instead of the letter o, therefore this u may be pro- 
nounced as though were written. 



N. sayi, 'men.' 

G. da safo, ' of men.' 

{ sairo tah, larah, or lah '\ 
D. \ wa sayo tah, larah, or lah > ' to men.' 

(,wa sayo watah, &c. ) 

Ac. sari, 'men,' *to men.' 
V. ai sayo, wo sayo, or saro, ' men ! ' 
Ab. lah sayo, or laii Haro nah, ' from men.' 
Ag. sayo, * by men.' 

In some instances the final letter of the plural form 
may be retained in the oblique plural, as sayio tah, <&c., 
* to men.' 

The second variety comprises feminine, and generally 
inanimate, nouns which take short i (occasionally ey) in the 
inflected cases, vocative included ; thus : — 


N. lar, * a road.' 

G. da lari, * of a road.' 

D. lari tah, &c., * to a road.' 

Ac. lar, * a road, * to a road.' 

V. ai or wo lari, * road ! ' 

Ab. lah lari, or lah lari nah, ' from a road.' 

Ag. lari, * by a road.' 


N. lari, ' roads.' 

G. da laro, ' of roads.' 

D. laro tah, &c., * to roads.' 

Ac. lari, ' roads,' * to roads.' 

V. ai or wo laro, * roads ! ' 

Ab. lah laro, or lah laro nah, ' from roads.' 

Ag. laro, ' by roads.' 


2nd Declension, — ^Masculine nouns which do not inflect 
in the singular oblique cases. They take short a in the 
Tocative, and add two or more letters to form the plural 
nominatiye, and often shorten a long vowel in the base. 

The first variety takes * una ' or * unah ' in the nominative 
plm*al; thus: — 

plar, ' a &ther.' 

Sing. Plur. 

N. plar.* plaruna or plarunah. 

G. da plar. da pianino. 

V. ai or wo plara. ai or wo plaruno. 

Ag. plar. plaruno. 

The second variety, which are all masculine, inserts ' an ' 
before the final vowel in the plural ; thus : — 

melmah, ' a guest.' 

Sing. Plur, 

N. melmah. melmanah. 

G. da melmah. da melmano. 

y. ai melmah. ai melmano. 

Ag. melmah. melmano. 

The word ah, ' a sigh,' which is feminine amongst some 
tribes, takes the above masctdine form of the plural. 

^d Declension. — Feminine nouns ending in impercep- 
tible h, which becomes ey in the inflected form, as shown 

iShadga'h, ' a woman.' 

Sing. Plur. 

N. iShadza'h. ^hadzey. 

G* da ^hadzey. da ^hadzo. 

Y. ai ^hadzey. ai ^hadzo. 

Ag. iShadzey. iShadzo. 

* In the following declensions only those cases will be 
given which illustrate the changes of form. 


Certain nouns of this declension, which, however, are 
generally Persian derivatives, of the form mlrtei, ' distress,' 
duiShmam, * enmity,' are inflected thus : — 

8ing, Flv/r, 

IT. nurt§i. mirtsa'i. 

G. da mirtsa'i. da mirtsio. 

y. ai mirtsa'i. ai mirtsio. 

Ag. nurtfiia'i. mirtsio. 

MK Declension, — Nouns generally masctdine and of two 
varieties. The first take the peculiar vowel sound shorter 
than short a referred to at page 4, and represented here by 
<B, in the oblique singular and nominative plural. 

The first variety merely adds oe, and sometimes cehj 
thus : — 

g hal. * a thief.' 

Sing, Flv/r, 

N. ^al. ^'lee or gi'lfleh. 

G. da i^'lee. da ^'lo. 

V. ai ^'Ise. ai gh'lo. 

Ag.' ^'IflB. g h'lo. 

The second variety consists of such nouns as n'miindz, 
' prayer,' yun, * custom,' kojz, * a hyena,' and shkurn, * a 
porcupine ' ; and changes the * ii ' or * u ' of the base into 
* a', and aflBLxes short ' a,' or * ah,' as in the first variety ; 
thus : — 

n'miindz, * prayer.' 

Sing, Plur, 

N. n'miindz. n'mandza or n'mandzah. 

G. da n'mandza. da n'mandzo. 

Y. ai n'mandza. ai n'mandzo. 

Ag. n'mandza. n'mandzo. 

6th Declension, — The nouns of this declension, which 
contains many exotic words, are not subject to inflection, 
except in the vocative singular. In this case masculines 
take a or ah, and feminines i or ey. 


The first variety adds ' an ' in the plural ; thus : — 

u^h, ' a camel.' 

Sing, Plur. 

'N, uiSh. u^han. 

G. da u^h. da ui^hano. 

Y. ai u^ha. ai ui^hano. 

Ag. u^h. ui^hano. 

The second variety adds * gan * in the plural : thus : — 

mandamo, 'a churning stick.' 

Sing. Plur, 

'N. mandarno. mandarnogan. 

G. da mandarno. mandarnogano. ' 

Y. ai mandarno. ai mandarnogano. 

Ag. mandamo. mandarnogano. 

The third variety adds ' yan ' in the plural ; thus : — 

mulla, *a priest.' 

Sing. Plv/r. 

'N. mulla. midlayan. 

G. da mulla. da muUayano. 

Y. ai mulla. ai mullayano. 

Ag. mulla. mullayano. 

The fourth variety comprises nouns of consanguinity, 
and is somewhat irregular ; thus : — 

mor, * a mother.' 

Sing. Plur. 

N. mor. mendi or mendey. 

G. da mor. da mendo. 

Y. ai mori. ai mendo. 

Ag. mor. mendo. 


dzo'e, * a son.' 

Sing, Phir. 

N. dzo'e. dzaman. 

G. da dzo'e. -da dzamano. 

Y. ai dzo'ea. ai dzamano. 

Ag. dzo'e. dzamano. 

The fifth variety comprises nouns denoting sounds, the 
whole of which take * har ' in the plural ; thus : 

heng, ' a groan.' 

8ing. Plur. 

N. heng. hengahar. 

G. da heng. da hengaharo. 

Y. ai henga. ai hen^Jiaro. 

Ag. heng. hengaharo. 

6th Declension, — ^Noims which remain unchanged, 
except in the oblique plural. 

The first variety comprises masculines terminating in 
perceptible h, such as wa^hah, ' grass,' which, in the geni- 
tive plural, becomes da wa^ho, ' of grasses.' The second 
variety consists of f eminines ending in long ' a,' such as 
ghwa, * a cow,' the genitive plural of which is da ghwawo, 
* of cows.' A third variety comprises f eminines ending in 
long * i ' preceded by short * a ' (hamza'h), such as jina'i, * a 
girl,' the genitive plural of which is da jino, * of girls.' 
The fourth variety ends in short * a ' or * ah,' like barna, or 
barnah, ' an eyelash,' which, in the genitive plural, becomes 
da bamo, ' of eyelashes.' The fifth variety embraces all 
nouuslerminatig in any other consonants than those 
already mentioned ; and they shorten their last vowel to 
€B in the plural; thus, s^hwandar, 'a steer,' becomes, 
s^wandser, ' steers,' da s^wandsero, ' of steers,' <&c. The 
remaining cases of the plural throughout this declension 
follow the model of the genitive ; the singular, as said 
before, is unchangeable. 


7th Declension. — ^Maaculine nouns, which add short ' a ' in 
the oblique singular, and * una ' or ' unah ' in the nominative 
plural. They shorten a vowel in the base ; thus : — 

ghar. ' a mountain/ 

8ing. Plur. 

N. ghar. g^'runa or g h^runah. 

G. da £^'ra. da gh'runo. 

V. ai gJb'ra. ai gh'runo. 

Ag. g^'ra. gh^runo. 

Sth Declension, — Nouns ending in ' i,' which undergo no 
change in the singular, but which take ' a'i ' in the nomina- 
tive plural ; thus : — 

siz-ni, ' a swaddling-band.' 

Sing, Plur. 

N. siz-ni. siz-na'i. 

Ot, da siz-ni, &c. da siz-no, <&c. 

A few feminines in this declension are inflected as 
follows : — 

kuchutiy ' a puny female child.' 

Sing. Plv/r. 

"N, kuchuti. kuchuti. 

G. da kuchuti, &c. da kuchutio, &c. 

9th Declension, — ^Nouns which undergo no change of in- 
flection whatever ; thus : — 

wi-ar, * jealotLSj.' 

Sing. Plwr, 

N. wi-ar, * jecdousy.' wi-ar, * jealousies.' 

G. da wi-ar, * of jealousy/ da wi-ar, * of jealousies.' 

V. ai wi-ar, ' jealousv.' ai wi-ar, * jealousies.' 

Ag. wi-ar, * by jealousy. wi-ar, * by jealousies.' 



Adjectives should, in all cases, precede their nouns ; 
they assume the same terminations in gender, number, and 
case, as the nouns they qualify. 

The nominative, oblique, vocative, and plural forms are 
those which exhibit the changes of adjectives as of nouns ; 
thus, mashar, * elder ' ; mashar w'ror, ' an elder brother ' ; 
da mashar w'ror, * of an elder brother,' ai mashara w'rora, 
' elder brother ! ' mashar w'rurna, * elder brothers ' ; da 
masharo Vrumo, * of elder brothers ' ; ai masharo w'rumo, 
* elder brothers ! ' 

Before feminine nouns adjectives take the imperceptible 
h, and then follow the rule of the 3rd declension of nouns ; 
thus, lo-e-a'h jsel, ' a grown-up girl' ; dalo-e-ey jseley, * of a 
grown-up girl ' ; lo-e-ey jseley, ' grown-up girls ' ; da lo-eo 
jaelo, * of grown-up girls,' &c. 

Sometimes a noun is used instead of an adjective to 
qualify another noun ; as kamaey z'rah, * a hard (stone) 
heart.* In this case both nouns follow the usual inflection 
according to their terminations ; thus, da kami z'yah, ' of 
a hard heart' (see Declensions 1 and 2). 

Adjectives containing ' o ' change that letter to * a ' in 
the singular oblique and nominative plural, and affix per- 
ceptible h to the end of the word ; thus, soy, * cold,' makes da 
sarah in the genitive singular, sayah in the nominative 
plural, and da saro in the plural oblique. In the feminine 
the is changed to short a, and imperceptible h is added 
to the word ; thus, saya'h, nominative ; da sayey, genitive ; 
and sayey, nominative plural ; but the feminine oblique 
plural is the same as the masculine. 

There are a number of adjectives, principally active and 
past participles, which in the masculine terminate in aey 
(1st declension), whose feminines take *i' or *ey'; thus, 
wa-yunkaey, *a speaker/ wa-yunki or wa-yiinkey, femi- 


The ordinal numbers are declinable, and subject to the 
same changes by inflection as other adjectives. 

Oomparison of Adjectives, — The positive is made com- 
parative by the particles ta/r, lah, lah nah, &c., used with 
the object to which comparison is made ; thus, * bad spuk 
garnah tar bama'h ' (lit, ' evil light consider than a feather '), 

* consider evil lighter than a feather.' A mere repetition 
of the positive is commonly used in forming the compara- 
tive ; thus, puch puch wa-yi, * he talks great nonsense.' 

In forming the superlative, such words as tol, * all,' hadd, 

* boundary,' pahor-tah or por-tah, * over,' * above,' are used 
in addition to the particles employed to form the com- 
parative ; thus, daghah lah tolo lo-e daey (lit, * this than 
all big is'), * this is the greatest ' ; lah hadda zi-ata, 'beyond 
bounds ' ; da sa^raey lah tolo nah der hoi^h-yar daey (lit, 

* this man than all very clever is ') * this man is the cleverest 
of all.' 


The Pu^hto pronouns are of five different classes — the 
personal, demonstrative, reflective or reciprocal, interroga- 
tive, and indefinite. There are no peculiarly relative or 
co-relative forms. 

The first personal pronoun is not subject to any change 
on account of gender. 


N. zah, ' I.' 

G. dz'ma, * mine,' * of me.* 

p C ma tah, larah, lah, | * to me ' 

' \ wa ma tah, wa ma watah, &c. ) 
Ac. ma, * me,' * to me.' 
Ab. lah ma, lah ma nah, ' from me.' 
Ag. ma, * by me.' 



N". mungali, mungah, or mujz,* * we.* 
G. dz'mungali or dz'mujz, * of us,' * our.' 

( mungah tah or mujz tah ') 

D. < wa mungah tah or wa mu;^ tah > * to us.' 

(, wa mungah watah or wa mujz watah ) 

Ac. mungah or mujz, * us,' * to us.' 

A i^ C lah mungah or lah muiz 1 c£^ » 

Ad. i 1 , ° , , 1 X. " 1, r from us. 

( lah mungah nah or lah mujz nah ) 

Ag. mungah or mujz, ' by us.' 
The second personal pronoun is as follows : — 


N". tah, * thou.' 

G. sta or da ta, * of thee,' * thine.' 

D. ta tah, &c., * to thee.' 

Ac. ta, * thee,' * to thee.' 

V. ai ta or wo ta, * thou ! * 

Ab. lah tah, &c., * from thee.' 

Ag. ta, * by thee.' 

Maec. Flur. 

N". tasu or tasey, * ye,' * you.' 
G. stasu or stasi, * of you,' * yours.' 
D. tasu or tasey tah, &c., * to you.' 
Ac. tasu or tasey, * you,' * to you.' 
V. ai tasu or tasey, &c. * you ! ' 
Ab. lah tasu or tasey, &c. * from you.' 
Ag. tasu, or tasey, * by you.' 

• The forms built upon * mungah,' <fcc., belong to Eastern 
Pui^hto ; those deduced from * mujz ' belong to the Western, 

aSAMMAB. 17 

The third personal pronoun has a feminine form in the 
oblique cases of the singular, but the plural is the same 
as the masculine. 

Masculine Singular, 

ha^^ah, * he,' * it/ 
N. hai^ah, ' he,' * it/ 
G. da haghah. ' of him,' &c, 
D. haghah tah, &c., * to him,' &c. 
Ac. haghah, * him,' * to him.' 
Ab. lah haghah. <&c. ' from him.' 
Ag. haghah. * by him.' 

Feminine Singular. 

haghahy * she,' * it.' 
N. haghah. * she,' * it.' 
Ot, da hi^ih or da highey. * of her,' &c. 
D. highih tah or highey tah, Ac, * to her.' 
Ac. haghah, * her.' 

Ab. lah hi^ih or lah hi^ey, &c., * from her.' 
Ag. highih or highey, * by her.' 

Masculine and Feminine Plv/ral, 

N". ha g hah. 'they.' 

G-. da hu^o or da hu^oey, ' of them.' 

D. • hugho tah or hughoey tah, &c., * to them.' 

Ac. haghahy * them,' * to them.' 

Ab. lah hugho or lah hu^^oey, Ac, * from them.' 

Ag. hugho or hughoey ^ * by them.' 

The demonstrative pronouns are of two kinds, the 
proximate and the remote. 

The proximaie demonstratives are daghah and da, which, 
when inflected, are both masculine and feminine. 



Masctdine 8ingvla/r. 

M. & F. N". dagjiah or da, ' this/ 

M. G. da daghahy or da dey, * of this.* 

F. G. da dig^ih, da di^ey, or da dey, * of this.' 

M. D. daghah tah or dey tah, «&c., ' to this.' 

F. D. dighih tah, dighey tah, or dej tah, &c., * to 

M. Ac. da^ah, or da, * this,' * to this.' 
F. Ac. daghah or da, * this,' * to this.' 
M. Ab. lah daghah, or lah dey, <fec., * from this.' 
F. Ab. lah dij^ih, lah dighey, or lah dey, <fec. * from 

M. Ag. daghahy or dey, * by this.' 
F. Ag. di^ih , di^ey, or dey, * by this.' 

Plural (for both Oendere). 

N". daghah * these.' 

G. da dagho or da dewo, * of these.' 

D. da gh o tah or dewo tah, &c., * to these.' 

Ac. da^ah, * these,' * to these.' 

Ab. lah dag^o or lah dewo, &c., * from these.' 

Ag. da^o or dewo, * by these.' 

There is another form of the proximate demonstrative 
pronouja, more generally used by the Western than the 
Eastern Afghans, and more emphatic in its signification 
than the foregoing. It is not subject to change for gender 
or number, and is thus declined : — 


ha-yah, * this.' 

N". ha-yah. Ac. hayah. 

G. da ha-ey. Ab. lah ha-ey, &c. 

D. ha-ey tah, &c. Ag. ha-ey. 


Tbe remote demonstratives are * daey ' for the masculine, 
and * da ' for tbe feminine. Tbe latter is tbe same as one of 
the proximate demonstratives before described. Tbe 
difference is that tbe former is used for both genders, but 
tbe latter only for tbe feminine. 

daey, * that.' 

8ing, Plv/r. 

N. daey, M., da, F. du-i, M. and F. 

G. da dab or da dey. da du-i, or da du-io. 

D. dab tab or dey tab, &c. du-i tab or dii-io tab, <fec. 

Ac. daey or da. dii-i. 

Ab. lab daey or lab dey, Ac. lab du-i or lab dii-io. Sec, 

Ag. dab or dey. dii-i, or dii-io. 

Tbe reflective or reciprocal pronoun ^pul, * self,' is ap- 
plicable to all persons. It is placed before tbe verb in the 
sentence, and must refer to tbe agent or nominative either 
expressed or understood, whatever it may be. Tbe plural 
inflected form is used for both genders. It is declined as 
follows : — 




N". thpul. 

G. da thpul. 

D. l^pul tab, <&c. 

Ac. Uipul. 

Ab. lab kbpula, <&c. 

Ag. khpul. 


da kbpuley. 

Bipuley tab, &c 


lab ^puley, &c. 


Flwral. — Masculine <& Feminine, 

N. Uipul M., Uipula'b F. Ac. kipul M., kipula'b F. 

G. da kbpulo. Ab. lah ^pulo, &c. 

D. I^pulo tab, &c. Ag. ^pulo. 

Tbe interrogative pronouns are * tsok,' * kom,* and * kam.' 
Tbe interrogative * tsok ' is applied to persons, and rarely 

2 * 


to inanimate objects. It is used both for the singular and 
plural, and masculine and feminine, and is thus declined : — 

tsok, * who ? ' * which? ' ' what ? ' 

IT. tsok. Ac. tsok. 

G. da cha. Ab. lah cha. 

D. cha tah, <&c. Ag. cha. 

This pronoun is also in common use as an indefinite, 
and is for the most part applied to persons, but in some 
instances to things also. 

The interrogatiyes ' kom ' and ' kam ' are both singular 
and plural ; but they undergo change in gender ; thus : — 

kom or kam, ' what ? ' 

Maac. Fern, 

N. kom or kam. koma'h or kama*h. 

G. da kom or da kam. da komey or da kamey. 

D. kom tah or kam tah, <&c. komey tah or kamey tah, <&c. 

Ac. kom or kam. koma'h or kama'h. 

Ab. lah koma or lah kama. lah komey or lah kamey, <&c. 

Ag. kom or kam. komey or kamey. 

The pronoun ' tsah ' is used both in an interrogative as 
well as in an indefinite sense. It undergoes no change of 
form in inflection ; thus, teah, * what ? ' * a,' * an,' * any,' 
&c. ; da tsah, 'of what?' tsaJi larah or tsah tah, 'to 

There is another indefinite pronoun, dzini or dzini. It is 
applicable to things both animate and inanimate ; but is 
not subject to any change of termination on account of 
gender. It is both singular and plural. 

N". dzini or dzini. Ac. dzini or dzini. 

G. da dzino. Ab. lah dzino. 

D. dzino tah, &c. Ag. dzino or dzinu. 

Several pronouns admit of composition ; thus, har-tsok, 
* whoever,' har-tsah, * whatever,' har-yow, ' everyone,' kam- 


yow, * which one ? ' ' whichever ? ' These pronouns are 
subject to the same rules of inflection, and change of ter- 
mination for gender, as the pronouns from which they are 
derived ; thus, kam-yow (wcwc), kama'h yowa'h (fem,)^ 
* which one?'; da kam-yowa (masc.), da kamey-yowey 
(fern,), * of which one ? ' <fec. 

The word ' chih ' is used as a relative pronoun, and the 
co-relative is supplied by the demonstrative. 

In addition to the regular form of the pronoims already 
explained, there are three other forms, as follows : — 

First Form, — Sinqular, 

1st. mi or mi, * I, mine, to me.' 

2nd. di or di, * thou, thine, to thee.* 

3rd. yeh or yah, ' he, she, it, her, hers,' &c, 

Firet Form, — Plural, 

1st. iim, muh, or mu, * we, ours, to us.* 
2nd. mah or mo, * you, yours, to you.' 
3rd. yeh or yah, * them, theirs, to them.' 

The above pronouns are used with the past tenses of the 
active voice to denote the agent in a sentence ; but they 
have no meanings separate from the verbs. With any 
other than active or transitive verbs they point out the 
object or possessive case. They are not affected by gender, 
and may be prefixed or inserted. 

Second Form,^—8ingula/r and Plural, 


1st. ra, ra tah, ra larah, or ra lah, * to me, to us.' 

2nd. dar, dar tah, <fec., * to thee, to you.* 

3rd. war, war tah, Ac, * to him, her, it, them.' 

The above may be termed a pronominal dative prefix, as 
it is alone used to point out the object in a sentence. It 



is used witli all verbs ; but, like the first form, bas no in- 
dependent meaning. It is not subject to change on account 
of gender. 

Third Form. 

Person. Sing, Plur, 

1st. am, *L' u, 'we.' 

ey, * thou.' a'ai, * ye, you.' 

i, * he, she, it.' i, * they.' 

The above are used in forming the tenses of intransitive 
and substantive verbs, and, with the exception of the six 
past tenses, for those of verbs transitive also. They are 
inseparable from the verbs, and have no independent 
meaning. The regular personal pronouns may also be pre- 
fixed to the verbs with which they are used, but are not 
absolutely required, and not generally adopted. 


Verbs are of two kinds— primitive and derivative, which 
may again be divided into six classes-the substantive, 
intransitive, active or transitive (comprising causals), the 
derivative, and the passive. 

Active verbs may be obtained from some intransitives 
by changing the termination -al or -ecUd of the infinitive, 
into -ttwul ; as baledal, ' to take fire,' balawul, ' to set on 

Oausals are formed from intransitives and transitives in 
precisely the same manner; thus, zghaledal. *to run,* 
zghalawul, ' to cause to run.' 

Derivatives may be formed from nouns, adjectives, or 
pronouns, either by simply affixing the sign of the infini- 
tive, or by also shortening the long vowel of the base : as, 
poha'h, 'understanding,' pohedal, 'to understand,' pohawul, 
• to inform,' ' cause to understand ' ; wuch, ' dry,' wuchedal. 


* to become dry,' wuchawul, * to make dry ; ' rurna, * bright,* 
rumawul * to make bright ' ; gbara'h, * a brink or side,* 
l^aredal, * to turn aside * ; ghayawuL * to put aside.' 

Nouns and adjectives very frequently give rise to a kind 
of compound verb, by the mere addition thereto of a regu- 
larly conjugated verb ; thus, u-dah, * asleep,' u-dah kedal, 

* to go to sleep ' ; wajzaey, * hungry,' wajzaey kedal, * to 
become hungry.' 

The passive voice is formed by the addition of the dif- 
ferent tenses of the substantive or auxiliary verbs kedal 
and sh'wal, * to be or become,' to the past pajrticiple or im- 
perfect tense of a transitive verb, both of which are subject 
to the same changes in termination for gender as other 
verbs, to agree with the governing noun in the sentence. 

The Substantive Vbbb. 
Infinitive unknown. 

Freaent Tense. 

zah yam, * I am.' mujz or mungah yu, * we are.* 

tah yey, * thou art.' tasu ya'ai or yasta'ai, * you 


haghah daey or shtah, ' he hagbah di or shtah, ' they 

is.' are.' 

haghah da'h or shtah, ' she 


Past Tense. 

zah wum, ' I was.' mujg or mungah wu, ' we 

tah wey, * thou wast.' tasu wa'ai, * you were.* 

haghah wu or wuh, * he was.' haghah wii, * they were.' 
haghah wa'h, * she was«' hagl^ah wey, ' they were.* 


Fuiwre Tense, 

zah bah jam, ' I shall be.' mu jz or mungah bah ju, ' we 

shall be.' 
tah bah yey, * thou shalt be.' tasu or tasi bah jb,^b1* * you 

shall be.' 
haghah bah wi or bah wina, haghah bah wi or bah wina, 
* he, she, it, shall be.' * they shall be.' 

Aorist or Future Indefinite. 

zah, tah, or haghah wi or mujz or mungah, tasu or 
wina, * I, thou, he, she, or haghah wi or wimih, * we, 
it may be.' you, or they may be.' 

Conditional or Optative. 

zah wae, wae, or bah wum, mujz or mungah wae, wae, 

* were I.' or bah wu, * were we.' 

tah wey, wae, or bah wey, tasu or tasi wa'ai, or wae, or 

* wert thou.' bah wa'aj,t * were you.* 
haghah wae, wae, or bah haghah wae, wae, or bah wu, 

wuh, ' were he or it.' * were they.' 

haghah wae, wae, or bah haghah wae, wae, or bah 
wa'h, * were she or it.' wey, * were they.' 

The following, as well as the preceding verb, is used to 
denote mere existence. It is an auxiliary, and imperfect in 
its conjugation. 

* tasti oah yast, in Western Afghanistan, 
t tasu wast or bah wast in the West. 


aosedal, ' to be, exist, continue/ <&c. 

Noun of Fitness, 
da aosedo or da aosedalo, ' of or for being, existing,' &c. 

Active Participle, 

Singular. — Maac, aosedunkaej or aosedunaej. Fern., aose- 
duni or aosediinki ; aoseduney or aosedunkej, ' exister/ 

Plural, — Maac, and Fem,, aosediinki or aosadiini, 'existers,* 

Present Tense, 

zah aosam, ' I exist.' mujz or mnngah aosd, ' we 

tab aosey. tasu or tasi aos'ai 

ba^ab aosi. bagbab aosi. 

Conditional or Optative, 

2ab aosedam, * were I.' miijz aosedu, * were we.' 
tab aosedej. tasu aosed'ai or tasu aose- 

M. bagbab aosedab. bagbab aosedal. 

E. bagbab aoseda'b or bagbab aosedej, or aosedal- 
aosedala'b ey. 

Future Tense, 

zab bab wu aosam, * I will mujz or mungab bab wu 

exist.' aosu, * we will exist.' 

tab bab wu aosej. tftsu bab wn aos'ai 

bai^ab bab wu aosi. bagbab bab wu aosi. 


Aorist Tense. 

zah wu aosam, ' I may exist.' mujz or mungah wu aosu. 
tah wu aosey. tasu wu aos'ai. 

haghah wu aod. haghah. wu aosi. 


zah wu aosam, ' I should mujz or mungah wu aosu. 

tah wu aosey. tasu wu aos'ai. 

haghah di wu aosi. haghah di wu aosl. 

Throughout the above three tenses the prefix * wu * is 
optionally, and is often, omitted. 


tah aosah, ' exist thou.' 

haghah di aosi, ' let him, her, <&c., exist.' 

tasu aosa'i, * exist you.' 

haghah di aosi, ' let them exist.' 

The verb kedal, * to be or become,' used in forming the 
passive voice. 


kedal, * be be,* * become.' 

Fresemt Tense, 

zah keizam mu|z or mungah kejzii. 

tah kejzey. tasu kejz'ai. 

haghah kejzi. haghah kejzi. 

Eastern Afghans turn ' jz ' into ' g ' ; therefore, in this 
tense, they would use * g ' f or * jz ' throughout. 


Im^perfect Tenae, 

zah kedam, ' I was becom- mujz or mungah kedu. 


tah kedey. tasu ked'ai. 

haghah keda or kedah (M.). haghah kedal (M.). 

haghah keda'h or kedala'h haghah kedey or kedaley 

(F.). (F.) 

If between the pronoun and the verb, the particle * bah ' 
be inserted in this tense, it assumes the habitual form. 

Future Tense. 

zah. bah kejzam, ' I will be- mujz or mungah bah kejzu. 


tah bah kejzey. tasu bah kejz'al. 

haghah bah kejzi. haghah bah kejzi. 

In this tense the prefixed personal pronouns are often 
omitted in a sentence. 

The verb * sh'wal,' like that which precedes it, imports 
transition from one state to another. It is used to form 
the passive voice. 

sh'wal, * to be or become.' 

Noun of Fitness, 
da sh'walo or da sh'wo, * of or for being or becoming.* 

Active PaHiciple, 

Sing, — (M.) sh'wunkaey or sh'wunaey ; (F.) sh'wuney or 

sh'wunkey, * the becomer.* 
Plu/r. — (M. and F.) sh'wunld or sh'wuni, * the becomers.* 


Pcueive Participle, 

Sing, — (M.) sbawaej, shawalaej ; (F.) shawey or shawalej, 
' become.' 

Plur, — (M. and P.) sbawi or shawall, * become/ 

Pre$eni Tense, 

sham, * I become.' sliu, ' we become.' 

shej. shaa'i. 

haghah sbi. haghah shi. 

Imperfect Tense, 

sb'wam, bab sb'wam, or sb'wu, bah sb'wu, or sh'walu, 

sh'wablam, * I was becom- * we were becoming.' 


sh'wej, bah sh'wey, or sh'w'aa, bah sh'w'aa, or 

sh'waley. sh'wal'ai. 

haghah shah or bah shah haghah sh'wu, bah sh'wu, or 

(M.). sh'wal (M.). 

haghaJi sh'wa'h^bah sh'wa'hy haghah sh'wey, bah sh'wey, 

or sh'wala'h (P.). or sh'waley (P.). 

Past Tense. 

wu sh'wam or wu sh'walam, wu sh'wu or wu sh'walu, * we 

* I became.' became.' 

wu sh'wey or wu sh'waley. wu sh'w'ai or wu sh'wal'ai. 

wu shah (M.). wu sh'wu or wu sh'wal (M.) 

wu sh'wa'h or wu sh'wala'h wu sh'wey or wu sh'waley 

(P.)- . , (P.)- 

Throughout this tense the particle ' wu ' may be option- 
ally omitted. 

aBAMMAB. 29 

Ferfeet Tense. 

shawaey yam, * I liave be- shawi yu, *we have become.' 

shawaey yey. shawi ya'ai.* 

shawaey dey (M.). shawi di (M. andF.). 

shawey da'h (P.). 

Plwperfect Tense, 

shawaey wum, * I had be- shawi wu, * we had become.' 


shawaey wey. shawi wa'ai. 

shawaey wuh (M.). shawi wu (M.). 

shawey wa'h (P.). shawi wey (P.). 

let Fui/wre Tense, 

sham, * I should become.' shu, * we should become.' 

shey. sha'ai. 

ha^ah di shi. haghah di shi. 

The particle * wu ' may be prefixed to the verb through- 
out the above tense. 

2nd Future Tense, 

wu bah sham, *I will be- wu bah shu, 'we will be- 
come.' come.* 

wu bah shey. wu bah sha'ai. 

wu bah shi. wu bah shi. 

When the personal pronouns are prefixed to this tense 

the particles * wu ' and * bah ' are transposed ; thus, zah 

bah wu sham, * I will become ' ; haghah bah wu shi, * he, 

she, it, or they will become.* 

* In the West, * shawi yast.* 


Aorist Tense, 

WTi sliam, * I may, shall, will, wu shu, ' we may, shall, will, 
Ac, become.* Ac, become.' 

wu shey. wu sha'ai. 

haghah wu shi. haghah wu shi. 

The particle * wu,' may optionally be omitted. 

Conditional or Optative, 

kah zah sh'wae, ' If I be- kah mujz or mungah sh'wae. 


kah tah sh'wae. kah tasu sh'wae. 

kah haghah sh'wae. kah haghah sh'wae. 

Past Conditional, 

kah zah shawaey wey, * If I kah mujz or mungah shawi 

had become.' wey. 

kah tah shawaey wey. kah tasu shawi wey. 

kah haghah shawaey wey. kah haghah shawi wey. 

In the singular the feminine form of the past part. 
* shawey ' must be used in each of the three persons. 

PastJFuture Tense. 

shawaey bah yam, * 1 shall shawi bah yu. 

or will have become.' 

shawaey bah jey, shawi bah ya'ai. 

haghah shawaey bah wi. haghah shawi bah wi. 

The feminine form of the past participle is used for the 
singular in each person. 


wu shah, * become thou.' wu sha'ai, * become you.' 

ha^ah di wu shi * let him, haghah di wu shi, ' let them 
her, or it become.' become.' 

In the Imperative the particle * wu ' may be dropped. 


Tbansitiyb and Intbansitiyb Yebbs. 

All infinitives in the Pu^hto language end in * -1,' * -edal/ 
or * -wnl ' ; those ending in ' -1' are both transitive and intran- 
sitive, those which take *-edal' are, without exception, 
intransitive, and those ending in * -wul ' are all transitive. 

There are no less than thirty-seven classes of verbs, 
which comprise all the regular and irregular conjugations 
in the language. Thirteen of these classes are intransitive, 
including five imperfect, and twenty -four transitive, com- 
prising nineteen perfect and imperfect, and five imperfect. 

The peculiarities of each class will now be specified. 

For the sake of brevity it may be mentioned that the 
inflections of the verb arrange themselves under two 
groups; the first group includes the Present, Aorist, 
Future, and Imperative, and the other group the Imper- 
fect, the Past Tense, and generally the Past Participle. 


Class I. — ^After dropping the * 1 ' of the infinitive the last 
radical letter is changed to another in the 1st group of 
tenses, but remains in the 2nd group. Thus, pohedal, 

* to know * ; 1st. pohejzi, * he knows * ; wu pohejzi, * he 
may know ' ; wu pohejzah, * know * ; but 2nd. pohedah, 

* he was knowing ' j wu pohedah, * he knew * ; pohedalaey, 
' known.' 

Class IL — The two last radical letters are rejected in the 
1st group of tenses, and retained in the second group. 
Thus, z'ghaledal. * to run ' ; 1st. z'ghali, * he runs,' &c. ; 
2nd. z'ghaledah, ' he was running,' <&c. 

Class HI, — The three last radical letters are rejected in 
the 1st group of tenses, and retained in the 2nd group. 
Thus, k'l^henastal, 'to sit ' ; 1st. k'l^henl, * he sits,' <&c. ; 
2nd. k'l^henast, ' he was sitting.'* 

* These verbs do not take the particle * wu ' in the past, 
accordingly the imperfect and past have the same form, 

82 pirsHTO xAJiirAL. 

Olass^IV. — The lajst radical letter is rejected, and the 
long vowel elided in the 1st group of tenses. Thus, chaw- 
dal, * to split ' ; 1st. ch'wi, * he splits ' ; 2nd. chawd, * he 
was splitting.' 

Cla88 V. — ^The last radical letter is changed for two 
others in the 1st group of tenses. Thus, hiatal, 'to 
ascend'; 1st. khejzi, *he ascends'; 2nd. Ubot, 'he was 

Class VI, — The * -1 ' of the infinitive is simply rejected. 
Thus, m'ral, * to die ' ; 1st. m'ri, * he dies * ; 2nd. mar, * he 
was dying.' In the 1st group the verb * m'yal ' exception- 
ally changes * y ' to * r.' The past participle is simply an 
adjective ; thus, mar, * dead.' 

Class VIL — ^A letter is added after the last radical letter 
in the 1st group of tenses, and both that and the added 
letter are rejected in the 2nd group. Thus, swal, *to 
bum ' ; 1st. swadzi, * he bums ' ; 2nd. sah, * he was burn- 
ing * ; but the Western Afghans in the imperfect and past 
reject the perceptible * h ' in * sah * for * u ' ; thus, su, * he 
was burning.' 

Imperfect Verbs, 

Class VIIL — This class conforms to the rule of Class I. ; 
but all the tenses, except the Present and Imperfect, are 

k'l^henast, but are known from the construction of the 

* Verbs of this class make this change of short * a * to 
* o ' in the third person masculine singular only ; in the 
third person plural the * a ' becomes * a ' (e,g, ^atseh and 
khatal, the same as the infinitive itself, * they were ascend- 
ing ') ; in the remaining persons no change takes place ; 
thus, ^atam, * I was ascending,' &c., except in the third 
persons feminine, to form which imperceptible *h' is 
added to the root or to the infinitive, as, U^ata'h or 
IdbataJa'h, * she was ascending.' 


• * ' '- ' . 
GBAMMAB. ^vj^v'^) 33 

formed with the Past Papticiple, and the auxiliary verb 

* sh'wal.' Thus, matedal, * to break ' ; 1st. matejzi, * he 
breaks ' ; mat sld, * he shall or may break ' ; mat shah, ' let 
him break ' ; 2iid. matedah, ' he was breaking ' ; mat shah, 

* he broke ' ; mat or mat shawaey, * broken.'* 

Class IX, — ^Wanting in the 1st group of tenses, which 
are supplied from some other Terb; the 2nd group are 
regular. Thus, z'ghastal, ' to run ' ; 1st. z'ghalif ' he 
runs ' ; 2nd. z'ghast. * he was running.' 

Class X. — ^Wanting in the 2nd group of tenses, which 
are supplied from other verbs. Thus, driimal, * to go ' ; 
1st. drumi, * he goes ' ; wu driimi, * he may go' ; wu dromah, 

* go ' ; 2nd. tah, * he was going ' ; lar, * he went ' ; talaey 
or t'lalaey, * gone.* 

Class XI, — Consisting of such verbs as layal, *to go,' 
the deficiencies of which are supplied by help of sh'wal, 

* to become.* Thus, laral, * to eo* ; 1st. dzi, * he goes * ; 
lay shi, * he may or shall go * ; lay shah, * go * ; 2nd. tah, 

* he was going * ; lar, * he went * ; talaey or t'lalaey * gone.' 

Class XII, — Containing only the verb t'lal, * to go,' 
which has only the infinitive and imperfect. Thus, t'lal, 

* to go ' ; 1st. dzi, * he goes ' ; lar shi, * he may or shall 
go ' ; dzah, * go ' ; 2nd. t'lah or tah, * he was going ' ; lar, 

* he went ' ; talaey or t'lalaey, * gone. * The pronouns * ra,' 

* dar,' and * war ' (see p. 21), are used with this verb. 

Class XIII, — Containing only the verb raghlaly *to 
come,' which has merely a Past Tense and Past Participle. 
This is really a compound of *ra' and a verb *ghlal,' 
as the following indication of its tenses shows : — ra-ghlaL 

* to come ' ; 1st. ra-dzi, * he comes ' ; ra-shi, * he may come ' ; 
ra-dzah, ' let him come ' ; 2nd. ra-tah, * he was coming ' ; 
ra-ghaey, * he came ' ; ra-ghlalaey or ra-ghaJaeyy * come.* 

* These verbs are mostlv derivative, formed from ad- 
jectives, by aid of the termmation ' -edal.* 



As in the ca43e of Intransitives, before applying the 
following rules, the * -1 * of the infinitiye is first rejected. 

Class L — Lengthen the penultimate *a' to *a' in the 
2nd group of tenses. Thus, taral, 'to bind'; 1st. tap, 

* he binds * ; 2nd. tarah, * he was binding ' ; ta^alaey, * bound.' 
The Terbs of this class are the most numerous in the 

Class IL — In the Present and Imperative the personal 
terminations are simply added. The Imperative is some- 
times formed by the Sbddition of the imperative of kral, 
*to do,* to the shortened past participle. The Aorist, 
Future, and Past tenses are always formed by aid of 

* k'yal ' and the shortened past participle. In the Imper- 
fect the penultimate *a' is lengthened to *a.' Thus, 
^a^hawul, * to bury ' ; ^ai^hawi, * he buries ' ; kha^h k'yi, 

* he may bury ' ; khai^h kf ah, * bury ' ; ^a^hawuh, * he 
was burying * ; ^a^h kar, * he buried ' ; ]^a^h karaey, 

* buried.' The verbs of this class are very numerous. 

Class III, — The last two radical letters of the verb are 
changed to two others in the 1st group of tenses. The 
2nd group is regular. Thus, ghoiShtal, * to desire * ; Ist. 
ghwari, * he desires ' ; 2nd. ghoi^ht, * he was desiring ' ; 
gho^htalaey, 'desired.* 

The letter-change is as follows : — 

^ht becomes aj* ghoi^htal ghwari. 

st „ nd aghustal aghundi. 

i^ht „ rn skai^htal skami. 

^ho „ jzd or gd pre-iShowul prejzdi. 

Class IV, — The last two radical letters are supplanted 
by one other letter in the 1st group of tenses; but are 
retained in the 2nd group. Thus, mundal, ' to find ' ; 


1st. mumi, ' he finds ' ; 2nd. mund, * he was finding ' ; 
also, Twastal, * to read ' ; 1st. Twali, * he reads ' ; 2nd. 
I'wast, 'he was reading'; and a^istal, 'to seize'; 
1st. aldlli, ' he seizes.' 

Class F. — These verbs do not take the prefixed * wu ' ; 
and form all the tenses and the Imperative by the mere 
rejection of the *-l' of the infinitive; the 1st group of 
tenses taking the affixed, and the 2nd group the pre- 
fixed pronouns. Thus, ba'e-lal, * to lose (at play) ' ; 1st. 
ba'e-li, * he loses ' ; 2nd. ba'e-lah, * he was losing.' 

Class VL — ^The penultimate vowel of the verb is 
lengthened. Thus, wa-yal, * to speak * ; 1st. wa-yi, * he 
speaks ' ; 2nd. wa-yah, * he was speaking ' ; wayalaey, 

* spoken.' 

Class VIL — Short *a' becomes *o' in the 1st group 
of tenses, and 'a' in the 2nd group. Thus, balal, 'to 
call ' ; 1st. boll, * he calls ' ; 2nd. balah, ' he was calling ' ; 
balalaey, * called.' 

Class YIIL — ^In the 1st group of tenses the last radical 
letter is changed for another; in the 2nd group it is 
retained, and the penultimate 'a' lengthened to 'a.' 
Thus, wajzM, *to kill'; 1st. wajzni, *he kills'; 2nd. 
wajzah, *he was killing' ; wajzalaey, 'killed.' 

Class IX. — These verbs reject the prefixed * wu ' in the 
Past tenses. In the 1st group of tenses the last radical 
letter is changed. Thus, * pra-natal, * to unloose ' ; 1st. 
pra-na4zi, ' he unloosens ' ; 2nd. pra-nat, ' he was unloosen- 
ing * ; pra-nataey or pra-natalaey, * unloosened.' 

Class X, — In the 1st group of tenses the three last 
radical letters are changed. Thus, wishtal, * to discharge ' ; 
1st. wuli, * he discharges ' ; 2nd. wisht, * he was discharg- 
ing ' ; wishtalaey, ' discharged.' 

Class XL — ^The two last radicals are rejected in the 
1st group of tenses. Thus, arwedal, ' to hear ' ; 1st. arwi, 

* he hears ' ; 2nd. arwedah, * he was hearing' ; arwedalaey, 
' heard.' 

3 ♦ 


Class XII, — The lajsit radical letter is rejected in the 
Iflt group of tenses, and the penultimate vowel lengthened 
in the 2nd group. Thus, pejzandal, * to know ' ; Ist. pejzani, 

* he knows ' ; 2nd. pejzand, * he was knowing' ; pejzandal- 
aey, * known.* 

Class XIIL — The penultimate vowel is lengthened in 
the 1st group of tenses ; the simple infinitive, with the 
addition of the prefix * wu ' for the Past tense, is employed 
in the 2nd group. Thus, j^andal, 'to laugh'; 1st. 
^andi, ' he laughs ' ; 2nd. ]^andal, ' he was laughing ' ; 
wu khandal, ' he laughed ' ; ^andalaey, * laughed.' 

Class XIV, — The last radical letter is changed in the 
1st group of tenses. Thus, mui^hal, * to rub ' ; 1st. mujzi, 

* he rubs ' ; 2nd. mui^hah, * he was rubbing ' ; muiShalaey, 

* rubbed.' 

Imperfect Verbs, 

Class XV, — Wanting in the 1st group of tenses, and 
the Past tense, which are supplied by those of another 
imperfect verb wanting in other tenses. Thus, ye^hal, 

* to place ' ; 1st. jz'(H, * he places ' ; jz'di, * he may place ' ; 
jz'dah, * place ' ; 2nd. ye^h, * he was placing ' ; ke-^ho, * he 
placed * ; ye^haey, * placed.' 

Class XVI, — The verb ke-shwal, * to place,' illustrates 
this class. It has but one tense, which is used both for 
Imperfect and Past. The deficiencies are supplied by 
ke-jz'dal, *to place.' Thus,ke-^hwal, *to place'; 1st. ke-jz'di, 

* he places * ; 2nd. ke-i^ho, * he was placing ' ; ke-i^ho, * he 
placed ' ; ye^haey, * placed.' 

Class XVII, — A verb of this class, jz'dal, * to place,' 
has no Past tenses or Past Participle. Its deficiencies are 
supplied by other imperfect verbs. Thus, jz'dal, * to place ' ; 
1st. iz'di, * he places ' ; 2nd. ke-^ho, * he was placing * ; 
ke-i§ho, * he placed ' ; yei^haey, * placed.' 

Class XVIII, — Possibly the only verb of this class is 


w*yal, * to take or carry ' ; it takes its Aorist and Futures 
from the verb *yo-sal,' whicli is also imperfect. Thus, 
w'yal, *to take'; 1st. w'yi, * he takes'; yo-si, *he may 
take ' ; 2nd. way, * he was taking ' ; wayaey, * taken.' 

Class XIX, — Wanting in Aorist, Futures, and Past 
tenses, which are supplied from other imperfect verbs. In 
the Present and Imperative the last radical letter is 
changed to two others ; but is retained in the Imperfect. 
Thus, bi-wul, * to remove (inanimate objects) * ; bia-yi, * he 
removes ' ; bozi, * he may remove ' ; bi-ayah, * remove ' ; 
bi-wuh, *he was removing'; bot (from botlal), * he re- 
moved ' ; bi-walaey, * removed.' 

Class XX, — The Infinitives of this class prefix the post- 
position k'iShey, * in,' to another verb ; and lengthen the 
penultimate * a ' to * a ' in the 2nd group of tenses. Thus, 
k'^he-nawul, * to cause to sit ' ; 1st. k'^he-nawi, * he causes 
to sit ' ; 2nd. k'^he-nawuh or k*i§he-nawo, * he was causing 
to sit.' 

Class XXI, — Perfectly regular in inflection. Thus, 
satal, ' to nourish ' ; 1st. sati, < he nourishes ' ; 2nd. satah, 

* he was nourishing ' ; satalaey , * nourished.' 

Class XXII. — The last radical letter is rejected in the 
Ist group of tenses. Thus, n'ghaydal, ' to swallow ; 1st. 
n'ghayi. * he swallows ' ; 2nd. n'ghay d, * he was swallow- 
ing ' ; n'ghaydaey, * swallowed.' 

Class XXIIL^A letter is added in the 1st group of 
tenses. Thus, swal, * to bum ' ; 1st. swadzi, * he bums ' ; 
2nd. su or sah, * he was burning ' ; sawaey, * burnt.' 

Class XXIV. — The verb kawul, * to do,' represents this 
class, and is exceedingly irregular. Thus, kawul, * to do ' 
1st. kawi, * he does ' ; wu ki, * he may do ' ; kawah, * do ' 
2nd. ka-wo or ka-wu, * he was doing* ; wu kah, *he did ' 
kayaey, * done.' 


The Present Participle is formed by dropping the final 

* -1 ' of the infinitive, and adding — 1st. ' -nan ^ for the mas- 


culine, and ' -na'h ' for the feminine ; tlius, z'^astal, * to 
run ' ; z'ghastanah. * running.* 2nd. perceptible * li ' for 
the masculine, and imperceptible *b'for the feminine; 
thus, wulal ' to wash ' ; wulah (masc), wula'h (fern.), 

* washing.' 3rd. * h/ as before, and inserting * a ' before the 
last radical consonant ; thus, watal, * to come out ' ; watah 
or wata'h, * coming out.' 4th. * h,' as before, and inserting 

* a ' before the last radical letter but one ; thus, yastal, * to 
draw forth' ; yastah or yasta'h, ' drawing forth' ; jar-yastal, 
*to turn aside' ; jar-yastah, 'turning aside.' 6th. * -iin' ; 
thus, taral, * to bind ' ; tarun, * binding ' ; dakedal, * to 
fill ' ; dakedun, * filling.' (Most commonly intransitivea 
in *-edal ' reject the whole of that termination ; thus, 
dakedal, *to fill'; dlakun, * filling'; ga^edal, *to mix'; 
gadun, ' mixing.') 6th. * a-un,' by inserting ' a ' before the 
last radical letter to which * un ' is affixed ; thus, matawul, 

* to break ' ; mata-un (masc), mata-una'h (fem.), * break- 

All the above participles are capable of inflection ; those 
of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th forms, ending in imperceptible 

* h,' like nouns of the 3rd Declension, 1st variety ; those 
of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th forms, ending in perceptible * h ' 
or short * a,' like nouns of the 6th Declension, 1st variety ; 
those of the 1st, 5th, and 6th forms, ending in * -un,' like 
nouns of the 9th Declension.' 

The 'Perfect or Pcwi Participle is formed — 1st. by the 
addition of *-aey' to the infinitive for the masculine, 
and of * -ey ' for the feminine ; thus, k'^he-yastal, * to 
insert ' ; k'^he-yastalaey, * inserted.' 2nd. by the addition 
of * -aey' as before, after rejecting the *-l' of the infini- 
tive ; thus, aghustalj * to dress ' ; aghustaey, * dressed.* 
3rd. by irregular changes; thus, walaredal, *to stand'; 
walar, * standing ' ; pre- watal, ' to fall ' ; pre- wot, * fallen' ; 
nastal, * to sit ' ; nast, * seated.' 

The Past Participle is also used as a past conjunctive 
participle, as in Persian, an example of which is necessary ; 
thus, ' da rukhsat salam mi karaey tri bida sh'wam,' ' my 


parting salutation having made, I bade them adieu ' (lit 
*from them adieu took place or happened'). 

The Noun of Action is formed by dropping the * -1 * of 
the infinitive, and adding * -unkaey ' or * -unaey * for 
the masculine, and * -unkey ' or * -uney ' for the feminine.* 
The plural form of this participle is both masculine and 
feminine, and is formed by changing the * -aey,' or * -ey ,* of 
the singular, to ' i ' ; thus, Twastal, * to read ' ; rwastimaey 
or Twastunkaey, * a reader ' ; Twastuni, * readers.* 

The Noun of Fitness is merely the infinitive in the geni- 
tive case. 

On the Tbnsbs. 

The Past, — The formation of the tenses is best under- 
stood by starting from the Past tense, the 3rd person, the 
masculine singular forms of which have been already shown 
when speaking of the different classes of verbs, and from 
which five other inflections are formed by the addition of 
the affixed personal pronouns. It is only needful here to 
add that the 3rd person masculine plural of both transitive 
and intransitive verbs is generally the simple infinitive, 
with * wu ' prefixed or not, according to the nature of the 
verb. The 3rd person feminine plural is formed by 
changing the *-a'h' of the singular into *-ey. ' There 
is another form of the 3rd person masculine plural 
of this tense, which in writing may be mistaken for 
the 3rd person masculine and feminine singular, and 
in speaking is not easy to detect. It contains the sound 
shorter than short ' a,' mentioned at page 4 ; thus, wu 
ghuledah, * he was deceived ' ; wu-ghuleda*h, * she was 
deceived ' ; wu-ghuledaeh. * they were deceived.* The 
syllable *nah' or *na* is sometimes added to the 3rd 
person singular and plural of this, as well as other 
tenses, for the sake of euphony, and also as a respect- 
ful form in reUgious works. In the case of verbs formed 
by the junction of a preposition and a simple verb, 


it is usual to insert tlie particle * wu ' between the preposi- 
tion and the verb ; thus, pre-watal, ' to fall/ becomes pre- 
wu-wot, *he fell/ In case of rejecting the *wu,' it is 
simply * pre- wot.' Verbs which lengthen * a ' to * a ' in the 
Past tense singular, reject the long vowel in the plural. 

The Imjperfect — This tense is formed by simply rejecting 
the particle * wu * of the Past tense. When ' wu ' is not 
used with the Past tense, then both Past and Imperfect 
are identical in form. Intransitives derived from adjec* 
tives, Ac, have a regular Imperfect, although they have 
no regular Past tense. Transitive verbs of the 3rd and 
24th Glasses, lengthen the short vowel * a ' preceding the 
termination; thus, l^ai^hawul, *to bury'; ^ai^hawu or 
^a^hawuh, * he was burying.' Another form of the Im- 
perfect, implying continuity and habitude, is produced by 
prefixing the particle * bah ' to the Past tense. 

The Ferfect, — This is formed by adding the Present tense 
of the auxiliary * to be ' to the past participles of verbs, 
already described. The participle must agree in gender 
with the noun. 

The Flwperfect — This is formed in the same manner as 
the preceding, but with the addition of the Past tense 
of the auxiliary * to be ' instead of the Present tense. 

The Bovbiful Past — This tense is formed by the addi- 
tion of the Aorist of the auxiliary 'to be' to the past 
participle. Another form of this tense is produced by 
adding the 2nd Future of the auxiliary *to be' to the 
past participle. 

The Past Conditional. — This is obtained by subjoining 
the Imperfect or Conditional tense of the auxiliary * to be ' 
to the past participle. 

The Present, — The different ways of forming the Present 
tense were shown when discussing the Glasses of Verbs, 
and need not be repeated. 


The Aoriet — This tense is identical with the Present, 
with the addition of the particle * wu,' but it is often re- 
jected as redundant. Transitive verbs of the 6th, 9th, 
10th, 16th, 17th, and 20th Classes, reject the particle * wu' 
absolutely in the Aorist. Transitives of the 2nd Glass, 
require the Aorist of kawul or k'yal, * to do,' to complete 

First Futwre, — This tense is identical with the Aorist, 
with the exception that it adds the particle ' di ' to the 
3rd person smgular and plural, whether masculine or 
feminine. When a personal pronoun is used with the 3rd 
person of this tense, the * di * precedes the prefixed * wu ' ; 
but when the personal pronoun is not used, the * wu' 
precedes the * di.' 

Second Futv/re,^T\nB tense also is formed from the 
Aorist, by the addition of the particle * bah.' As in the 
First Future, when a personal pronoun is used with this 
tense, the * bah ' precedes the * wu ' ; otherwise the * wu ' 
precedes the * bah.' A noun or adjective, or a pronoun and 
no\m, may intervene between the *bah' and the verb 
in a sentence. 

Imperative, — This is a repetition of the Aorist, with the 
exception that it has no 1st person singular or plural, 
and that it drops the affixed personal pronouns for the 
2nd persons. It is not liable to change of termination 
for gender. 

The Passive Voice. 

The Passive is very simple, and is formed by prefixing 
the past participle to the auxiliaries sh'wal or kedal, * to 
be ' or * become,' just as in English. 

Another mode of forming the Passive is by using the 
3rd person singular and plural of the Imperfect tense of 
verbs with the auxiliaries for all three persons ; but this 
form is not used for the compound tenses. 



The foregoing explanation of the construction of the 
verb will enable the following paradigms of the most 
important and most irregular of the verbs in the langua^ 
to be fully understood. 

Intransitive Verb. 
Infinitive — raghlal,. * to come.' 

Present — *I come,' &c. 

ra-dzam. ra-dzu. 

ra-dzey. ra-d^a'al. 

ra-dgi. ra-d^. 

Imperfect — ' I was coming,' Ac. 

ra-t'lam or ra-t'lalam. ra-t'lu or ra-t'lalu. 

ra-t'ley or ra-t'laley. ra-t*la'ai or ra-t'lala'ai. 

ra-ta or ra-tah (M.). ra-t'lal or ra-t'leeh (M.). 

ra-t'la'h or ra-t*lala'h (F.). ra-t'ley, ra-t'Mey, rat'li, or 

ra-t'laH (F.). 

Continuative Imperfect — *I used to come,' Ac. 

bah ra-ghlam or bah ra- bah ra-ghlu or bah ra- 

ghlalam. ghlalu. 

bah ra-ghley or bah ra- bah ra-ghla'ai or bah ra- 

l^laley. ^lala'al. 

bah ra-|^i (M.). bah ra-ghM or bah ra-ghlash 

bah ra-ghla'h or bah ra- bah ra-^ley, bah ra- 
glilala'h (F.). ghlaley, bah ra-ghli, or 

bah ra-g^lali (F.). 


Fast — * I came,' <fcc. 

ra-ghlam or ra-^laJam. ra-ghlu. or ra-g^alu. 

ra-ghley or ra-ghlaley. ra-gUa'ai or ra-glilala*al. 

ra-ghi (M.). ra-ghlal or ra-ghlsBh (M.). 

ra-ghla'h or ra-ghlaJa'h (F.) . ra-g^ley , ra-ghlaley^ ra-ghliy 

or ra-ghlali (F.). 

Perfect — * I have come.* 
Singular, Plural. 

Masc. Fern, Masc, and Fern. 

ra-^alaey yam. ra- g haley or ra-ghaJi yam, ra-^ali yu. 
ra-ghalaey jej. ra-g^aley or ra-ghali yey. ra-ghali ya'ai. 
ra-ghalaey dey. ra-ghaley or ra-|^ali da'h. ra-ghali di. 

Pluperfect — * I had come/ Ac. 


Masc. Fern. 

ra- g halaey wum. ra-^aley or ra-^ali wum. 

ra-ghalaey wey. ra-ghaley or ra-^ali wey. 

ra-ghaJaey wah. ra-ghaley or ra-^ali wa'h. 


ra-ghali wu 
ra-^ali wa'al. 
ra-ghali wu (M.). 
ra-ghali wey (F.). 

let Fui/ure — * I should come,' &c. 

ra-sham. ra-shu. 

ra-shey. ra-sha'ai. 

haghan di ra-shi or ra di haghah di ra-sM or ra di 
shi. shi. 


2nd Future — * I will come,' Ac. 

zah bah ra-sham. mujz or mungah bah ra-shu. 

tah bah ra-shey. tasu bah ra-sha'al. 

ha^ah bah ra-shi. haghah bah ra-shi. 

Throughout the above tense the personal pronouns may 
be omitted, and then the prefix * ra ' may optionally 
precede the particle * bah.' 

Aorist — ^ I may, shall, etc. come,' &c. 

ra-sham. ra-shu. 

ra-shey. ra-sha'al. 

ra-shi. ra-shi. 

Doubtful Past — * I may have come,' <fcc. 


Mdsc. Fern. 

ra-|^alaey bah yam. ra-ghaley bah yam. 

ra-ghalaey bah jej. ra-^aley bah jej. 

ra-ghalaey bah wi. ra-ghaley bah wi. 

Plural. — Mase, and Fern, 

ra-^ali bah yu. 
ra-ghali bah ya'al. 
ra-ghali bah wi. 

Pa^t Conditional — * If I had come,' <fcc. 

kih ra-t'lam or ra-t'lalam. Mh ra-t'lii or ra-t'lalii. 

kih ra-t'ley or ra-t'laley. kih ra-t'la'ai or ra-t'lala'al. 

Mh ra-ta or ra-tah (M.). Mh ra-t'lal or ra-t'lah (M.). 

Mh ra-t'la'h or ra-t'lala'h Mh ra-t'ley, ra-t'laley,ra-t'li, 
(F.). or ra-t'lali (R). 



ra-sbah, ra-slia, ra-dzah, or ra-slia'sd or ra-dga'al, * come 

ra-dza, * come thou/ you.' 

ra di shi, ra di dzi, haghah 

di ra-shi, or haghah di 

ra-dgi, *let him, her, it, 

come,' * let them come.' 

Potential Mood. 

(This is really the Passive form of intransitive verbs.) 

PreeerU — * I can come,' &c. 
Singular, Plural, 

Masc, Fern. Masc, a/nd Fern, 

ra-t'laey sham. ra-t'ley sham. ra-t'li shu. 

ra-t'laey shey. ra-t*ley shey. ra-t'li sha'ai. 

ra-t'laey shi. ra-t'ley shi. ra-t'li slu. 

Past — * I could come,' &c. 

Singular. Phiral, 

Masc, Fern, 

ra-t'laey sh'wam. ra-t'ley sh'wam. ra-t'li sh'wu. 
ra-t'laey sh'wey. ra-t'ley sh'wey. ra-t'li sh'wa'ai. 
ra-t'laey shah. ra-t'ley sh'wa h. ra-t'li shu or sh'wal 

ra-t'li sh'wey (F.). 

Future — * I will come,' &c. 

zah bah ra-t'laey sham. mujz or mungah bah ra-t'U 

tab bah ra-t'laey shey. shu. 

haghah bah ra-t'laey shi. tasu bah ra-t'li sha'ai. 

haghah bah ra-t'li shi. 


In tlie Singular form of the Feminine the paorticiple is 
required as in other compound tenses ; and throughout 
Singular and Plural the particle *bah' may optionally 
follow, instead of precede the participle in hoik genders. 


ra-t'lunkaey or ra-t'lunaey ra-t'liinld or ra-t'luni (M. & 
(M.), ra-t'lunkaey, ra- F.), * the comers.' 
t'luney, ra-t'lunki, or ra- 
t'luni (F.), * the comer.* 

Past Participle. 

Singular, raghalaey (M.), raghaley or ra^^ali (F.) ; 
Plural, ra-ghali (M. and F.), ' come.' 

Noun of Fitness. 

da ra-t'lo or da ra-t'lu, da ra-t'lal or da ra-t'lalu, * of or 
for coming.' 

Intransitive Verb. 
Infinitive — ^t'lal, * to go.' 

Present — * I go,' &c. 

dzam. dzu. 

dzey. dza'ai. 

dzi. dzi. 

Imperfect — ' I was going,' &c. 

t'lam or t'lalam. t'lii or t'lalu. 

t'ley or t'laley. t'la'ai or t'lala'ai. 

tah or ta (M.). t'lal or t'lseh (M.). 

t'la'h or t'lala'h (F.). t'ley, t'laley, t'li, or t'lali 


Contin/uative Imperfect — * I used to go,' Ac. 

bab la^am. bab lapi. 

bab larej. bab la^a'ai. 

bab lap (M.). bab la^al or bab larsdb (M.). 

bab la|u'b, bab lara, bab bab lapej, bab la^ralej, baJi 
larala'b, or bab larala (F.). layi, or bah layali (P.) . 

Tbrougbout ibe above tense, witb sucb verbs as take 
the particle * wu,' it may optionally be inserted after *bab.' 

Past — * I went,' &c. 

lairam or la^ralam. lafu or laralu. 

larey or layaley. laya'ai or layala'aa. 

lar (M.). laral or laysBb (M.). 

lai*a'b, lapala'b, or layala layey, layaley, or laji (F.). 


Tbrougbout tbia tense tbe particle * wu ' may optionally 
be prefixed. 

Perfect — * I bave gone,' &c. 


Masc. Fern. 

talaey or t'lalaey yam. taley or t'laley yam. 

talaey or t'lalaey yey. taley or t'laley yey. 

talaoy or t'lalaey daey. taley or t'laley da'b. 


Maec, and Fern, 

tali or t'lali yu. 
tali or t'lali ya'ai. 
tali or t'lali di. 


Flwperfect — ^ I had gone,* &c. 


Masc, Fern. 

talaey or t'lalaey wum. taley or t'laley wum. 

talaej or t'lalaey wey. taley or t'laley wey. 

talaey or t'lalaey wah. taley or t'laley wa'h. 


tali or t'lali wu. 
tali or t'lali wa'ai. 
tali or t'laH wu (M.). 
tali or t'laH wey (F.). 

let Future — ^ I should go,' &c. 

lap sham. lap shu. 

lar shey. lar sha'ai. 

haghah di lar shi or lap di haghah di lap shi or lar di 
shi. slu. 

2nd Future—^ I will go,' <fec. 

zah bah lar sham. mujz or mungah bah lar shu. 

tah bah lar shey. tasu bah lar sha'ai. 

haghah bah lar shi. ha^^ah bah lar shi. 

Throughout this tense the particle * bah ' may optionally 
follow 'lar,' instead of precede it, when the affixed personal 
pronouns are not used. See also 2nd Future Tense, p. 44. 

Aorist — * I may, shall, etc. go,' &c. 

lar sham. lar shu. 

lar shey. lar sha'ai. 

lap slu. lap slu. 


Doubtful Past — * I may have gone,* <fcc. 

Masc, Fem, 

t'lalaej t'laley bah yam. t'lali bah yu. 

t'lalaey t*laley bah yey. t'Mi bah ya'ai. 

t'lalaey t*laley bah wi. t'lali bah wi. 

The other form of the past participle * talaey * may be 
used as an alternative masculine form, both singular and 
plural, and its feminine form for the feminine. 

Past Conditiandl — * Had I gone,' &c. 

kih t'lam or t'lalam. kih t'lu or t'lalu. 

kih t'ley or t'laley. kih t'la'ai or t'Ma'ai. 

kih tah or ta (M.). kih t'lal or tlseh (M.). 

kih t'la'h or t'lala'h (F.). kih t'ley or t'laley (F.). 


lap shah, wu lap shah, war lap sha'ai, wu lap sha'ai, war 
shah, or d^ah, ' go thou.* sha'ai, or dza'al, ' go you.' 

haghah di lai* shi, or lap di slu, haghah di dzi or ^ di, 
* let him, her, it go,' * let them go.' 

Potential Mood. 

This confoi*ms in all respects to the Potential of 
ra-ghlaly ' to come ' ; the participles throughout each tense 
being, of course, for the singular masc. t'lalaey, fern, 
t'laley, and for the plural of both genders, t'lali. 


t'lunkaey or t'lunaey (M.), t'lunki or t'luni (M. & F.), 
flunkey, t'luney, t'lunki, ' the goers.' 
or t'luni (F.), * the goer.' 



Past Participle. 

Singular, t'l|daey or talaey (M.) ; t'laley or t'lali, or talej 
or tali (F.) ; Plural, t'lali or tali (M. & P.)> * gone.' 

^01*11 of Fitness, 
da t'lalo, da t'lo, da t'lalu, or da t'lu, * of or for going.' 

Irregular Intransitive Verb, in which the particle * wu ' is 


Infinitive — ^atal, * to ascend.' 

Present — * I ascend,' &c. 

^ejzam.* ^ejzu. 

^ejzey. l^ejza'ai. 

^ejzi. khejzi. 

Invperfect — * I was ascending.' 

khatam or ^atalam. ^atu or Miatalu. 

khatey or ^ataley. Miata'al or ^atala'ai. 

^ot (M.). ^atal or khatseh (M.). 

^ata'h or ^latala'h (F.). ^atey, ^ataley, ^ati, or 

ttatali (F.). 

Continuative Imperfect — * I used to ascend,' &c. 

Identical with the Imperfect, with the particles * bah * 
and * wu ' prefixed to each Person. 

Past — * I ascended,' <fec. 

Identical with the Imperfect, with the particle * wu * 
only prefixed to each Person. 

* In the conjugation of this verb the Eastern Afghans 
would replace the letter *jz' by *j'; thus, ^ejam for 


Perfect — ' I have ascended,' <fec. 

Singular. Plural, 

Masc. Fern. Ma^c, and Fern, 

^atalaey yam. l^ataley yam. ^atali yu 
khatalaey yey. ^ataley yey. ^atali ya'ai. 
^atalaey daey. ^ataley da'h. ^atali di. 

Pluperfect — ^ I had ascended/ &c. 

Singular, Phiral. 

Mase, Fern, 

khatalaey wum. ^ataley wnm. U^atal! wu. 
kbatalaey wey. khataley wey. Idiatali wa'ai. 

khatalaey wuh. ^ataley wa'h. ^atali wii (M.). 

^atali wey (F,), 

let Future — * I should ascend,' &c. 

wu khejzam. wu ^ejzu. 

wu ^ejzey. wu kbejza'ai. 

haghah di wu ^ejzi or wu haghah di wu kbejzi or wu 

di Ubejzi. di ^ejzi. 

2nd Future — * I will ascend,' &c. 

zah bah wu l^ejzam or wu mujz or mungah bah wu 

bah ^ejzam. ]^ejzu or wu bah khejzii. 

tah bah wu ^ejzey or wu tasu bah wu ^ejza'ai or wu 

bah ^ejzey. bah ^ejza'ai. 

haghah bah wu Uh^ejzi or haghah baJi wu khejzi or wu 

wu bah U^ejzi. bah ^ejzi. 

Aorist — * I may, shall ascend,' &c. 

wu ^ejzam. wu ^ejzu. 

wu kbejzey. wu j^ejza'al. 

wu ^ejzi. wu ^ejzi. 

4 * 


Doubtful Past — * I may liave ascended/ Ac. 

Masc. Mase. and Fern, 

khatalaey bah yam. kfaatali bah yu. 

^atalaey bah yey. khatali bah ya'al. 

]^atalaey bah wi. ^atali bah m. 

In the feminine singular the feminine form of the 
participle ^ataley is used. 

Past Conditional — * had I ascended,' &c. 

kih ^atam or kih ^atal- kih ^atu or Idh khatalii. 

tdh ^atey or Idh ^ataley. kih k^ata'al or kih Uiatal- 

kih Ubot (M.). kih ^atal or kih U^atseh 

kih Uiata'h or Mh khatala'h kih ^atey or ^ataley (F.). 



wu ^ejzah or ^ejzah, wu kbejza'ai * ascend yon.' 
* ascend thou.' 

haghah di wu ^ejzi or wu di ^ejzi, * let him, her, it, 
ascend,' ' let them ascend.' 

Potential Mood. 

This conforms in all respects to the Potential of raghlalj 
' to come,' the masculine and feminine forms of the parti- 
ciples, of course, being used. 


^atiinkaey or Uiatunaey ^atunki or Saturn (M. and 
(M.), Uiatiinkey or ^at- P.), * the ascenders.' 
iiney (P.), * the ascender.' 


Past Participle. 

Singular, ^atalaey (M.), ^ataley (F.) ; Plural, ^atali 
(M. & F.), ' gone; 

Noun of Fitness. 

da ^atalo, da ^atalu, da ^ato, or da ]^atu, ' of or for 

The following is the conjugation of the Imperfect 
Transitive verb havml, * to do,' * to make,' or * perform,' 
which is chiefly used as an auxiliary in forming the inflec- 
tions of other verbs. The compound tenses are wanting. 

Infinitive — kawul, * to do.' 


kawum, * I do.' kawu, * we do.' 

kawey, * thou doest.' kawa'ai, * you do.' 

kawi, ka, or kandi, ' he, she, kawi, ka, or kandi, ^ they 

or it does.' do.' 


Transitive verbs in any past tense of the active voice 
must agree with the noim in gender and number, and 
whether it be in an oblique case or not. The imperfect 
tense is treated as a past tense in Pui^hto ; and as this 
tense will serve as a model for the others, it will be well 
to study it. The first pronouns are the inflected personal ; 
the others those mentioned at page 21. 


1st Form. — The goyeming noun being masc. singular. 

ma or mi kawuh, ka, kah, or ka, I was doing, 

ta or di kawuh, ka, kah, or ka, Thou wast doing, 

haghah (M.) ) yey, oryah kawuh, ka, C He or it was doing, 
hi^^ih (F.) ) kah, or ka, ( She was doing, 

mujz or mu kawuh, ka, kah, or ki. We were doing, 
tasu or mo kawuh, ka, kah, or ki, You were doing. 

hughOy yey, or yah kawuh, ka, kah, or They were doing, 

2nd. — The governing noun mascidine plxiral. 

ma or mi kawul, I was doing. 

ta or di kawul. Thou wast doing. 

Jlg^ W I yey. or yah kawul. { ^^l^ l^^^^' 

mujz or mu kawul. We were doing, 

tasu or mo kawul. You were doing, 

hughoy yey, or yaJb kawul. They were doing. 

3rd. — The goveming noun feminine singular. 

ma or mi kawula'h, I was doing. 

ta or di kawula'h. Thou wast doing. 

L^(f)^} ^«7,-3rahkawula'h.{|^/;it-^o^- 

mujz or mu kawula'h. We were doing, 

tasu or mo kawula'h. You were doing, 

hughoy yey, or yah kawula'h. They were doing. 

4th. — ^The governing noun feminine plural. 

ma or mi kawuley or kawuli, I was doing, 

ta or di kawuley or kawuli. Thou wast doing, 

haghah (M.) ) yey, or yah kawuley C He or it was doing, 
hi^^ih (F.) ) or kawuli, ( She was doing, 

mujz or mu kawuley or kawuli, We were doing, 

tasu or mo kawuley or kawuli. You were doing. 

hughOy yey, or jah kawuley or kawuli. They were doing. 


Gontirmative Imperfect — * I used to do,' &c. 

This tense is identical with the Imperfect, with the addi- 
tion of *bah' or *bah wu,' which, when the inflected 
personal pronouns are used, come between them and the 
verb. When the other form of pronouns is used, the 

* bah * or * bah wu ' precede the pronouns. 


This tense also is identical with the Imperfect, except 
that it takes ' wu ' after the pronoun if the inflected per- 
sonal are used ; and ' wu ' before the pronoun with the 
other form of pronoims. The particle 'wu' is sometime^ 
omitted in both cases. 

let Fviure — * I shoidd do,' &c. 

wu kam or wu kawum. wu kii or wu kawu. 

wu key or wu kawey. wu ka'ai or wu kawa'ai. 

ha^^^ah di wu ki or di wu hag]^ah di wu ki or wu kawi. 

Altematiye forms of the 3rd person are * di wu kandi,' 

* di wu ka,' * wu di ki,' * wu di kandi,' or ' wu di ka.' 

2nd Future—^ 1 wiU do,' &c. 

zah bah wu kam or wu ka- mujz bah wu ku or wu 

wum. kawu. 

tah bah wu key or wu ka- tasu bah wu ka'ai or wu 

wey. kawa'aa. 

haghah bah wu ki or wu haghah bah wu ki or wu 

kawi. kawi. 

Alternative forms for the 3rd person are ' bah wu kandi ' 
or 'bah wu ka.' The personal pronoun can, also, be 
omitted throughout, in which case the particles ' bah wu ' 
are transposed; thus, 'wu bah kam,' <&c. 


Aofiat — * I may or shall do,' <fcc. 

wu kam or wu kawtim. wu ku or wu kawu. 

wu key or wu kawey. wu ka'ai or wu kawa'ai. 

wu M, wu kawi, wu kandi, wu Id, wu kawi, wu kandi, 

or wu ka. or wu ka. 


kah, wu kah, kawah, or wu ka'ai, wu ka'al, wu kam'aj, 

kawah, ' do thou.' kawa'aa, or wu kawa'ai, 

haghfth di wu Id, di wu kawi, ' do you.' 

di wu kandi, di wu ka, or 

wu di Id, wu di kandi, wu 

di ka, 4et him, her, it, 

do,' * let them do.' 


Singular^ kawunkaey or kawunaey (M.), kawunkey or ka- 
wuney (F.) ; Plural, kawunki or kawoni (M. and F.). 

Notm of Fitness. 

da kawulo, ka kawulu, da kawo, or da kawu, ^ of or for 

Infinitive — ^k'lral, * to do.' 
Present — * I do,' <fcc. 







aSAMMAB. 57 

Ist Form. — ^The goyeming noun masculine singular. 

ma or mi kay,* I was doing. 

ta or di ka^, Thou wast doing, 

haghah (M.) ) _, , C He or it was doing, 

higiili (F.) 5 y^y* ^^ y^ ^^' I She was doing, 

mu J3 or mu kia.^, We were doing, 

tasii or mo ka^r, You were doing. 

hu|]^o, jQj^ or yah kay , They were doing. 

2nd. — The governing noun masculine plural. 

ma or nu k'^, I was doing. 

ta or di k'lral, Thou wast doing. 

hai^ah (M.) ) , , ,^, C He or it was doing. 

miijz or mu k'^al, We were doing, 

tasu or mo k'f'al, You were doing, 

huyhoy yey, or yah k'^, They were doing. 

8rd. — ^The governing noun feminine singular. 

ma or mi k'ya'h or k'fala'h, I was doing, 

ta or di k^ya'h or k'pala'h, Thou wast doing, 

hai^ah (M.) | yey, or yaJb k'lra'h or C He or it was doing, 
highih (F.) ) k'yala'h, ( She was doing, 

mujz or mil k'ra'h or k'rala'h, We were doing, 

tasii or mo k'ya'h or k'^ala'h, You were doing, 

huyhoy yey, or yah k'ya'h or k'lrala'h, They were doing. 

4th. — ^The governing noun feminine plural. 

ma or mi k'yey or k'raley, I was doing, 

ta or di k'yey or k*paley, Thou wast doinff. 

ha^^ah (M.) ") yey, or yah k'yey or C He or it was doing, 

highih (F.) ) k'yaley, ( She was doing, 
miijz or mu k'yey or k'paley, We were doing, 

tasii or mo k'yey or k'yaley. You were doing. 

hu|^o, yey, or yah k*yey or k'^aley. They were doing. 

* See the Imperfect of kawul, p. 53. 


Continuative Imperfect — ^ I used to do,' Ac. 

This tense follows precisely the analogy of the same 
tense in the verb * kamil,' in both its forms. 

Tas^r^' I did,' &c. 

This tense is identical with the Imperfect just described, 
with the addition of *wu' after the pronoun if the in- 
flected personal pronouns are used, and with the ^wu' 
before the pronouns if the other form is used. The * wu ' 
is sometimes omitted. 


1st Form. — For a noun masculine singular with both 
forms of pronouns. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.) highih (F.), or nu, di, jej, w yah 
ka^aey daey, ' I, iJiou, he, it, she, has done.' 

mujz, tasu, or hugho^ or mu, mo, hughoy yey, or yah karaey 
daey'(F.), * we, you, they, have done.' 

. For a feminine noun in the singular number the only 
difference in the conjugation is that karey, the feminine 
form of the past participle, is used in lieu of the mas- 

2nd Form. — For a noim masculine and feminine plural. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.) hi^ih (F.), or mi, di, yey, or yah kap 
di, ' I thou, he, it, she, has done.' 

mujz, tasu, or hugho, or mu, mo, hughOy ^^^^ or yah 
kayi di, * we, you, they, have done.' 


This is identical in every way with the Perfect, except 
in the auxiliary verb. 


let Future — * I should do,' &c. 

wu k'ram. wu k'yu. 

wu k'rey. wu k'ya'ai. 

haghah di wu k'p or wu di hagliah di wu k'p or wu di 

k'ri. k'lri. 

2nd Future — * I will do/ &c. 

zah bah wu k'^am. mujz bah wu k'yu. 

tah bah wu k'yey. tasu bah wu k'ra'ai. 

haghah bah wu k'p. haghah bah wu k'p* 

The pronoun can be optionally omitted throughout this 
tense, in which case the particle * wu' precedes * bah.' 

Bovhtful Fast, 

1st Form — ^For a noun masculine singular. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.) bah ka^aey wi, or bah 
mi, di, yey, or yah ka^aey wi, ' I thou, he, it, she, may 
have done.' 

mu]z, tasii, hugho bah karaey wi, or bah mu, mo, hugho. 
yey, or yah karaey wi, * we, you, they, may have done.' 

For a noun feminine singular the only difference in the 
conjugation is that ka^ey, the feminine form of the past 
participle, is used, instead of the masculine. 

2nd Form. — For a noun masculine or feminine plxiral. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.) bah kan wi, or bah mu, 
mo, hughOy yey, or yah kayi wi, * we, you, they, may have 

Fast Conditionah 

1st Form. — For a noun masculine singular. 

kih ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.) karaey wey or wae, 
or kih mi, di, yey, or yah ka^ra^y wae or wae, * if I, etc., 
had done.' 


kih mujz, tasu, hugho. ka^raej wae or wae, or kih mu, mo, 
hugho, yey, or yah kayaey wae or wae, * if we, etc., had 

For a noun feminme singular all that is necessary is to 
use kayey, the feminine form of the past participle. 

2nd Form. — For a noun masculine or feminine plural. 

Mh ma, ta, haghah (M.), hi^^h (F.) kayi wae or wae, or 
Mh mi, di, yey, or yah kayi wae or wae, * if we, etc., had 

kih mu]z, tasu, hugho, kari wae or wae, or kih mu, mo, 
hugbo, yey, or yah kayi wae or wae, * if we, etc., had 


wu k'yah or k'rah, *do wu k'ya'aa or k'ra'ai, *do 

thou.' you.' 

haghah di wu k'p or wu di 

k'yi, * let him, her, it, do,' 

* let them do.' 


Singular, k'yunkaey or k'runaey (M.), k'yunkey or k'runey 
(F.), * the doer ' ; Plural, k'yunld or k'pini (M. and F.), 
* the doers.' 

Noun of Fitness. 
da k'ralo, da k'ralu, da k'yo, or da k'yu, * of or for doing.' 


Passivb Voice. 

The construction of the Passive is so simple that it 
will be necessary only to give the third person singular of 
each tense.* 

Present — ^ka^raey shi (M.), karey shey (F.). 

Imperfect — ^kayaey shah (M.), kayey sh'wa'h or ka^ey 
sh'wala'h (P.). 

Continuative Imperfect — ^bah wu karaey shah (M.), bah 
wu kayey sh'wa'h or sh'wala'h (P.). 

Taat — ^wu kayaey shah (M.), wu kayey sh'wa'h or sh'wa- 
la'h (P.). 

Perfect — ^kayaey shawaey daey (M.), kayey shawey da'h 


Pluperfect — ^kaqraey shawaey wuh (M.), kayey shawey 
wa'h (P.). 

let Future, — haghah di wu karaey shi or wu di karaey shi 
(M.) ; haghah di wu karey shi or wu di kayey shi ^.). 

2nd Future, — haghah bah wu kayaey shi or wu kayaey bah 
shi (M.) ; haghah bah wu kayey shi or wu kayey bah 
shi (P.). 

Aorist — ^wu kayaey sH (M.), wu kayey shi (P.). 

Doubtful Poet — ^karaey shawaey bah wi (M.),kayey shawey 
bah wi (P.). 

Past Conditional. — kih haghah karaey shawaey wae or wae 
(M.) ; kih haghah kayey shawey wae or wae (P.). 

Imperative, — haghah di wu kayaey shi or wu di kayaey 
shi (M.) ; haghah di wu kayey shi or wu di kayey shi 


* See the conjugation of the auxiliary s'hwal (page 27), 
and mode of formation (page 41). 


Past Participle. — karaey sbawaej (M.), kairey sbawej (F.) ; 
kafi shawi (plural). 

Conjugation of a derivatiye transitive verb, formed 
from an adjective, which requires the verb * k'ral ' or 
' kawul ' in forming its different inflections. 

Infmitive — dUikawul, * to fill.' 

Present—' I fill,' &c. 

dakawam. (jUikawu. 

dakawej. ^ak&wsL^al, 

dakawi. dakawi. 


1st Form. — Governing noun masculine singular. 

ma, ta, ha^ah (M.), highih (F.), or mi, di, yey, or yah 
dak kar, * I, thou, he, it, she, ^ed.' 

mujz, tasu, hugho, or mu, mo, hu^^o, yey, or yah dak kar, 
* we, you, they, filled.' 

2nd Form. — Governing noun masculine plural. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.), or mi, di, yey, or yah dak 
k'ral, * I, thou, he, it, she, filled.' 

mujz, tasii, hugho^ or mu, mo, hugho^ yey, or yah dak 
k'ral, * we, you, they, filled.' 

3rd Form.— Governing noun feminine singular. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), hi^^h (F.), or nd, di, yey, or yah 
daka'h k'ya'h or k'rala'h, * I, thou, he, it, she, filled.' 

miijz, tasu, hu^^o, or mu, mo, hughoy yey, or yah daka'h 
k'ya'h or k'rala'h, * we, you, they, filled.^ 


4tli Form. — Goyeming noun feminine plural. 

ma, ta, ha^^^ah (M.), hi^^ (F.), or mi, di, jej, or yah 
dakej k'r^y or k'yaley, * I, thou, he, it, she, filled.' 

mujz, tasu, hu^o, or mu, mo, hu^o, yey, or yah daL:ey 
k'yey or k'raley, * we, you, they, filled.' 

Aorist — * I fill or may fill,' &c. 

4aik k'^m. 4^k k'fu. 

4ak k'rey. 4&k k'^a'al. 

4ak k'fi. 4^k k'^. 

For the feminine ' ^aik* becomes ' 4^ka'h ' in the singu- 
lar, and ' dakey ' in the plural. 


tah dak k'^ah (M.), tah tasu 4^k k'^'aa (M.), tasu 

4aka'h k'ya'h (R), *fiU 4akey k'ra'ai (F.), 'fill 

thou.' you.' 

haghah di 4^ ^?i or dak di haghah di ^^'k k'pi or dak 

k'yi (M.). haghah di daka*h di k'yi (M.)> ha^^ah di 

k'yi or 4aka'h di k'yi (F.), dakey k'p or 4akey di k'yi 

* let him, her, it, fiU.' (F.), ' let them fill.' 


Singular, ^akawunkaey or ^akawunaey (M.), ^akawunkey 
or dakawuney (F.), * the filler ; Plural, dakawunki or 
4akawuni (M. and F.), * the fillers.' 

Past Participle. 

Singular, dak kayaey (M.), ^ kayey (F.) ; Plural^ 4ak 
kayi (M. and F.), ' filled.' 

64 pushto manual. 

Causal Yebb Ebgulab. 

Infinitive — al-wuzawul, * to cause to fly.' 

Present — * I cause to fly,* &c. 

al-wuzawam. al-wuzawu. 

al-wuzawaey. al-wuzawa'aa. 

al-wuzawi. al-wuzawi. 


1st Form. — Governing noun masculine singular. 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.), or mi, di, yey, or yah 
wal-wuzawuh, * I, thou, he, it, she, caused to fly.' 

mujz, tasu, hu^o, or mu, mo, hugho. yey or yah wal- 
wuzawuh, * we, you, they, caused to fly.' 

2nd Form. — Governing noun masculine pluraL 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.), or nd, di, yey or yah 
wal-wuzawul, * I, thou, he, it, she, caused to fly.' 

mujz, tasu, hughoy or mii, mo, hug]^o, yey or yah wal- 
wuzawul, * we, you, they, caused to fly.' 

3rd Form. — Gk)veming noun feminine singular. 

ma, ta, ha^ah (M.), highih (F.), or mi, di, yey, or yah 
wal-wuzawula'h, * I, thou, he, it, she, caused to fly.' 

mujz, tasu, hughoy or mu, mo, hugho. or yey or yah wal- 
wuzawula'h, * we, you, they, caused to fly.' 

4th Form. — Governing noun feminine pluraL 

ma, ta, haghah (M.), highih (F.), or mi, di, yey or yah 
wal-wuzawuley, * I, thou, he, it, she, caused to fly.' 

mvLJz^ tasii, hughOy or mu, mo, hugho. or yey or yah wal- 
wuzawuley, ' we, you, they, caused to fly.' 


Aorist — *I may cause to fly,' Ac. 

wal-wnzawam. wal-wuzawu. 

wal-wuzawey. wal-wnzaw'al. 

wal-wnzawi. wal-wuzawi. 


wal-wuzawah or al- wuzawah, wal-wuzaw'ai or al-wuzaw'ai, 

' do thou cause to fly.* * do you cause to fly.' 

haghah di wal-wuzawi or wa 

di I'wuzawi, ' let liim, etc. 

cause to fly,' *let them 

eause to fly.' 


Singular, al-wuzawunkaey or al-wuzawunaey (M.), al- 
wuzawunkey or al-wuzawuney (F.), * the causer to fly ' ; 
Plural, al-wuzawunki or al-wuzawuui (M. and F.), ' the 
causers to fly.' 

Past Participle. 

Sinaular, al-wuzawulaey (M.), al-wuzawuley (F.) ; Plural, 
al-wuzawuli (M. and F.), * caused to fly.' 

Negation and I^ohibition. 

Negation and prohibition are expressed by the particles 
* nah ' and * mah,' the position of which, however, depends 
upon the kind of infinitives with which they are used. 

The particle * mah ' is alone used with the 2nd persons 
of the Imperative, and it invariably precedes the inflection 
of the verb with which it is used, whatever its description. 



InfinitiYeB, such as pre-watal, ^to fall,' which have a 
prefixed particle, place the ^ nah ' after the latter both in 
the past and present tenses. 

pre-watal, * to fall.* 

Past — pre nah wot, * he or it did not fall.' 

Aorist, — haghah pre nah wuzi or pre nah wuzi, ' he, she, 
it, may not fall.' 

Imperative. — ^mah pre-wazah, * do not thou fall.' 

Begular verbs, whether transitive or intransitive, take 
the * nah ' after the prefix * wu.' 

z'g^aledal, ' to run.' 

Past — ^wu nah z'ghaledah. *he or it did not run.' 

Aorist — ^ha^ah wu nah z'^ali, * he, she, it, may not run.' 

Imperative, — mah z'ghalah^ * do not thou run.' 

ra-w'ral, * to bring.' 

Past — haghah ra nah war or jej ra nah way, * he or it did 
not bring.' 

Aorist — ^ha^ah ra nah w'ri, ' he, she, it, maj not bring.' 

Imperative, — ^mah ra-w'yah, * do not thou bring.' 

When the negative is used with verbs similar to * daka- 
wul,' the * nah' follows the adjective or noun, and precedes 
the auxiliary ;^ thus, 

4akawul, ' to fill.' 

Past — ^haghah dak nah kar, or jej dak nah kay, * he or it 
did not fill.' ' 

Aorist — haghah dak nah k'p, * he or it may not fill.' 

Imperative, — ^mah 4akawah, * do not thou fill.' 


In the Passive tlie ' nah ' precedes the auxiliary ; thus, 

wish-tal, * to throw.' 

Past. — haghah wish-talaej nah shah or haghah nah shah 
wish-talaej, * he or it was not thrown.' 

Aorist — haghah wish-talaej nah shi or haghah nah shi 
wish-talaey, * he or it may not be thrown.' 

Imperative. — ^wish-talaey mah shah or mah shah wish- 
talaey, * do not thou be thrown.' 


The Adverbs are for the most part indeclinable; but 
some are subject to the usual change for the ablative case, 
and a few (derived from nouns and adjectives) are liable 
to the same change for gender, number, and case as the 
nouns they may qualify. Thus, der, *much,' makes in 
feminine singular, dera'h'; in feminine plural and oblique 
cases singular, derey or deri ; in plural oblique cases, both 
genders, dero. 

Adverbs of Place. 

here, hither — dal-tah, dali, before, in front, hitherto— 

or his-tah. w*randi or w'yandey. 

there, thither — haltah or behind, after — ^w'rustah or 

haltah ki. w'rusto. 

there, thither — ^huri or huri- hither, this side — daghah or 

tah. dey ^wa. 

hence, from this place — ^lah thither, that side — haghah 

daghah. or lah dey dza'ea ^wa. 

or dza'eah. beyond, there, on that side 

thence, from that place — lah — haghah ^wa or haghah 

haghah dza'ea or dza'eah. palau. 

6 « 



side by flide-Ulwa pah 

on both sides — dwaf ah 

elsewhere — bsBl char-tah or 

bael dza'e. 
here and there — daltah hal- 

here, on this side — dey ^wa, 

dej palan. 
above, overhead — portah or 

under, below, iSh'katah or 

so far, t<> this degree — ^tar 

daghah or tar dey pori 

or pori. 
so far, to that degree — tar 

haghah pori or pori. 

somewhere — chartah 
everywhere — har chartah, 

har yow dza*e. 
nowhere — ^hichartah. 
near, about — najzdey or 

somewhere or other — ^yow 

dza'e, yow chartah. 
where, wherever — ^har char- 
within, inside — danana, da- 

above and below — landi 

Tipside down — ^naskorah. 
far, at a distance — liri, lah 

round-about — chaperah. 

Adverhs of Time. 

now, presently — ^aos. 

ever, sometime — kalah. 

sometimes, frequently, occa- 
sionally — kalah kalah. 

never — hits kalah. 

always — ^har kalah. 

whenever — har kalah chih. 

sometime or other — kalah 
nah kalah. 

daily — hara'h rwadz or 

nightly — ^hara'h shpa'h. 

perpetually — war pah war, 
&jn. pah dam. 

instantaneously — zar pah 

gradually — paya'h pah pa- 

successively — palah pasey. 

before, prior — pah khwa. 

after, afterwards — pas. 

to-day — nan or nan wradz, 
or rwadz. 

to-morrow — ^aba. 

two days since — warama'h 
wra^ or rwadz. 

three days since — ^la wara- 
ma'h wradz or rwadz. 

four days since — la la wara- 
ma'h wradz or rwadz. 

at the dawn (of day) — sahr 



eyet — hargiz, hits kalah. 
long since, long ago — ^lar- 

last night — barayah, barayi 

shpa'hy begana'i shpa'b. 
as often, every time — ^har 

once, at last — ^barey, a^ir. 
often, repeatedly — ^teo war, 

tgo dzalab. 
repeatedly, often, frequently 
— ^war pan war. 
once — ^yow dzalah, yowa'h 

twice — dwah dzalah, dwey 

thrice — dre dzalah, dre pla. 
instantly, quickly, without 

delay — turt, sam lah 

quickly, speedily — zar zar, 

marah mar. 
shortly, soon — ^najzdey or 


unawares, suddenly — ^naga- 
han, na-tsapah. 

all at once, suddenly — ^yak 

first, in the first place — 
yunbaey or w'yunbaey. 

secondly — dway am. 

at last, at length, finally, at 
the end — a^ir. 

yesterday — ^parun. 

shortly, soon, to-day or to- 
morrow — nan |aba. 

the day after to-morrow — 
bsdl 9aba. 

early in the morning, be- 
times — wa^ti. 

always, ever — tal or tar talo. 

always, continually, ever — 
tal tah talah, tal tar talah, 

as yet, up to the present 
time — tar aosa,la tar aosa. 

sometimes — charey charey, 
or chari chari. 

Adverbs of Quantity, 

so much — ^hombra'h da gratuitously — weyia. 

hombra'h, tsombra'h. a great number, several— r 
that much — hombra'h kadr. ^o tso. 

this much — daghombra'h much, in a great degree, by 


far — 4©r. 

as much as — ^har tsombra'h. a little, a few — ^lajz, lakotey. 
howmuchsoever — har tgo. 

Adverbs of Similitude, 

thus, in this manner — da or thus, in this way — da or 
daghah shan. daghah rang. 



like, as, as if, just as, for all 
the world — ^lakah, shan, 
ghundi. dod, -pah. dod, 
ma^aej, pah tser. 

so, in that maimer — haghah 

so, in that way — haghah 

Adverbs of 

look out! have a care ! — wu- 

gorah, wu-winah. 
be cautious ! — bedar shah. 

thus, so, in this manner — 
hasej, daghah sej, da 
hasey, dasey. 

for example — masalan. 

that is to say — ^ya'ni. 

thus, in this manner — ^hasey 


know ! recollect! — poh shah, 
take care ! mind ! — ^abar- 
dar shah. 

Adverbs of Society and 8ejparation, 

alone — ^yawadzaey . 
face to face — makha-makh. 
apart, at a distance — liri, liri. 
far away, very far ofE — ^liri 

at the side — ar^, a^ra^. 
side by side — ^artt pah 

singly, individually — yow 

pah yow. 
back to back — sha pah sha. 
shoulder to shoulder — 

aojza'h pah aojza'h. 

apart, separately — beyal, 

beyala'h, beyal beyal. 
together — sarah. 
besides, except — ^beylah dey, 

siwa lah dey, pratah lah 

separately — tar pah tar. 
uselessly — ^wuch pah wuch- 

on opposite sides, on both 

sides — ^pori ra pori. 

Adverbs of Extremity and Termination, 

to, up to, until — ^tar, pori. 
hitherto, up to — tar dey 

pori, tar diaghah pori. 
until, up to^tso, tso chih. 
beyond bounds — bey hadda, 

lah hadda zi'at. 
to the last degree — ^tar 

hadda T>on. 

till now, as yet — ^tar aosa 

so far as — ^tar haghah pori. 
till when? how long? — tar 

kalah pori. 
to the end — tar a^ir pori. 
to the last, to the extreme — 

tar nihayata pori. 



Adverbs of Interrogation, 

where? wMther? — chartah, 

chari, cbari, kam dza'e. 
how? in what maimer? — 

since when? — lah kama or 

lah koma wakta. 
how much ? — tcfombrah, 

whence ? — lah kama, lah 

kama dza'e or dza'eah. 
when? at what time?— 

how much longer? — ^la tar 


until when? how long?— 
tar kalah, tar kalah pon, 
tar kama pori or tar ^o. 

how much ? — tsombrahkadr. 

how often ? — tso dzalah. 

why not ? — waley bah nah wi. 

why ? how ? wherefore ? — 
^ah larah, ,tsah lah, pah 

for what? wherefore ?— wa- 
ley, tsah daparah. 

in what way? how? — ^tsah 
rang, tsah shan, pah tsah 

Adverbs of Dubitation* 

perhaps, haply — i§ha-yi, gun- may be — ^bah wi. 

di, gundi. probably— pahgumansarah. 

perhaps not — ^nah di wi. may or may not be — ^wi Mh 

God knows — ^Qiuda-e z'dah. nah wi. 

Adverbs of Affirmation and EmpTuisis, 

certainly, doubtless — bey 

shakah, la char, 
necessarily — al-battah, ^o, 

yes, indeed, yea — ^ho. 
merely, only, exactly — ^joy. 
right or wrong — x^ai^ na 

^akk, kam nah kam. 
by no means, never — ^Mchar- 

ey, lah sarah, lasarah. 
reafiy, truly— pah ri^hti'a, 

by God ! — ^uda-e jzo. 

necessarily, it behoyeth — 

boyah, baedah. 
altogether, wholly, entirely 
— ^har gorah, yak la^tah. 
never, by no means — ha^o, 

only, simply — fakat. 
at all events, whether or 

not, nolens volens — 

^wah na-kbwah. 
exactly, quite, the very 

same — ^bedu, ho bah ho. 



Adverbs of Negation. 
no, not, nay — nah, yah. do not — ^mah. 


if — ^kih, agar. 

although — agar-chih. 

also, even, likewise— ham, 

but, yet, however — ^waley, 

besides, except — siwa, prat- 

if not, unless, otherwise — 

kih nah, ki-nah,. 
then, therefore — ^lah haghah 

but, moreover — ^balkih. 

notwithstanding — sarah lah 

unless — ^mangar, magar. 
and, also — ^aw, o. 
therefore, then — pas, sk^ 

that, because, since — chih. 
unless, if not — ^bey lah. 
then, because, therefore — 

dzakah, lah dey jihata, 

lah dey sababa, ^o. 
or — ^ya. 


of — da. 

to— tah, larah, lah, watah, 
wa larah, wa lah, wa wa- 

in — k'l^hey, pah k*i§hey. 

below, under — ^tar landi, da 

with — sarah. 

for, for the sake of — dapa- 

from — ^lah, lah nah, di, di 

to, until — ^tar. 

on, upon — par, par bandi. 

from him, her, it, or them — 
pri, prey. 

over, above— da pasa, dapa- 

before— -dzakhah. 

in, betwixt,between — ^mandz, 

in between, in the middle- 
pah mi-yandz. 




well done! bravo! — ^afrin! 

sliabash ! 
have a care! — ^tam shah! 

bedar shah! 
alafs ! alas ! — ^hai hai ! 
sorrow! alas! — dre^j^! 
aTaunt ! get away ! — chi- 

oh I — ^ao ! ad ! wahey ! 
dear! dear! — ^wuej! wuey! 
woe ! woe ! — ^wae ! wae ! or 

a^ ! a^ ! 

lackaday ! — af sos ! 

would to God ! — kash-ki ! 

kash-ki ! 
strange ! good God ! — *ajab, 

hae hu-e ! 
indeed ! really ! — ^hah ! 
begone ! get away ! — liri 

shah ! bi-artah shah ! 
hush ! silence ! — chhapah ! 

chhap shah ! 
hollo! oh! O!— ^ucha'h! 

ghuchah ! ghuchey ! 


1 yow or yowa'h. 

2 dwah. 

3 dre. 

4 tsalor. 

5 pindzah. 

6 shpajz. 

7 aowah. 

8 atah. 

9 nah. 

10 las. 

11 yow las. 

12 dwah las. 

13 di-yar las. 

14 tswar las. 

15 pindzah las. 

16 shapa^as. 

17 aowah las. 

18 atah las. 

19 nuh las or nunas. 

20 shil. 

21 yow wisht. 

22 dwah wisht. 

23 dre wisht. 

24 tgalor wisht. 

25 pindzah wisht. 

26 shpajz wisht. 

27 aoWah wisht. 

28 atah wisht. 

29 nuh wisht. 

30 dersh. 

31 yow dersh. 

&Q, &c. 

40 ti^we^ht. 

50 pindzos. 

60 shpetah 

70 ao-ja. 

80 at-ya. 

90 nawey or newey. 


100 sal or sil. 700 aowah ^awa. 

100 jow i^wa. 800 atali ^awa. 

200 dwah ^awa. 900 nuh ^awa 

300 dre ^awa or ter ^u. 1,000 zar or yow zar. 

400 tsalor ^awa or tsun^u. 2,000 dwah zarah. 

500 pmdzaJi9awaorpu]i9u. <&c. &c. 

600 slipajz ^awa. 

10,000 las zarah. 10,000,000 karor. 

100,000 lak. 1,000,000,000 behand or alif. 

1,000,000,000,000 nil. 

The first of the foregoing numerals becomes * yowa ' or 
* yowah ' ra the oblique cases ; and before a feminine noxm 
takes imperceptible ' h,' and is liable to the same changes 
for number and case as other adjectives. The other 
numerals, beiug plural, take the indirect form of the 
plural, and are not subject to any other changes for 
gender or number. 

The Ordinal Numhera. 

first — ^yunbaey, w'yunbaey, sixth — shpajzam. 

fern, yunba'i, w'yunba'i, seventh — aowam. 

awwal. eighth — ^atam. 

second — dwahyam. ninth — nuham, nam. 

third — dreyam. tenth — ^lasam. 
fourth — ^aloram, tsalaram. <&c. &c. 

fifth — pindzam. 

Before feminine nouns all ordinals but the first take 
imperceptible ' h ' like other adjectives. 


a quarter — pa-o. one and a half — ^yow nim 

a haK — ^nim, mma'h. or yowa'h nima'h. 

three-quarters — dre pawa, one and three-fourths — pao 

dre pawa'h. kam dwah. 
one and a quarter — pindzah 

pawa, pin^gah pawa'h. 



Days of the Week. 

Saturday — ^ali, shanbah. 

Sunday — ^it-bar, atwar, yek shanbah. 

Monday — gul, pir, do shanbah. 

Tuesday — ^nahah, sih shanbah. 

Wednesday — char shanbah. 

Thursday — pan shanbah, panj -shanbah.* 

Friday — ^jani'ah, adina'h. 

Months of the Tear, 


Hasan Husain. 

• * 

Runba'i khor. 
Bwahyama'h ^or. 
Breyama'h ^or. 
Tsaiorama'h ^or. 
Da Khuda-e mi-asht. 
Da sho kadr mi-asht or 


Ba barat nu-asht. 
Da rojzey mi-asht. 
Ba warah akhtar mi-asht. 
Mi-yani, Mi'ana'h, ]^ali. 
Ba lo-e akhtar mi-asht. 


Hasan Husain. 

The first Sister. 
The second Sister. 
The third Sister. 
The fourth Sister. 
God's month. 
The month of the Night of 

The Fast month. 
The lesser Fast month. 
The Intermediate month. 
The greater Fast month. 

The Seasons. 

Spring — psar-laey. Autumn — ^manaey. 

Summer — aoyaey, dobey. Winter — jzamaey. 

* Amongst the tribes north of Peshawar, Thursday is 
called da ziyarat rwa^z, ' the day of pilgrimage.' 


The Cardinal Points. 

North — ihsuej taraf . 

South — ^kirn taraf. 

East — ^n'war ^latah, n'mar ^atah. 

West — ^nVar pre-watah, n'mar pre-watah. 


The general order of words in a sentence is as follows : — 
First the nominative, the adjective preceding the sub- 
stantive ; then nouns in the different cases, as required ; a 
participle or adverb may follow; and the verb terminates 
the sentence. 


When nouns of different genders occur in the same 
sentence, the adjective, verb, and participle, governed bj 
them in common, must take the mascxdine form. 

Whenever a noun is to be used in the same sentence 
with another, which is more immediately acted upon by a 
verb, the former must be put in the accusative case, wmch 
in Fu^hto is the same as the nominative; thus, ' dul makr- 
iina hasi kandi chih wa khalk ta'amuna war-kawina ao 
j^pul dsan tah ^alkah marju' kawina',' ' Those (de- 
ceivers) practice such deceptions — they give victuals unto 
the people, and they bias the world towards themselves.' 

The particle 'da,* which governs the genitive case, 
generally precedes the noun it governs. 

When two nouns in the ablative case come together in a 
sentence, the ' a ' or ' ah,' the sign of the case, is only used 
with the last. 

The particles *tah,' *larah,' *lah,' <fcc., governing the 
dative case, are often used to denote ' for,' * for the sake 
of,' &c, ; thus, ' kih shahbaz larah sina'h da'h da chanjario. 


^ankabut larah sina'li da'h da magas/ ' If the breast of the 
partridge is for the falcon, for the spider is the breast of 
the fly.' 

In sentences where there are two objectiye cases, the 
one denoting the object and the other the person, the 
object of the transitiye verb muBi be put in the datiye 

The dative case is sometimes used instead of the geni- 
tive to express relation or possession ; thus, *ghah tuhfa'h 
<;hih wa'h plar ma tab rastawuley,' &c., * That curiosity 
which father had sent /or me,' Ac. 

Diminutives and terms of endearment are formed by 
the addition of one or other of the following terminations, 
-k, -aey, -a'i, -ra'i, -kaey, -gaey, -ot, -oyaey, -ukaey, 
-gutaey ; as bazargaey, * a small market,' jinaka i, * a little 
girl,' chargoyaey, * a young or little cock,* w'rukaey, * a little 
(boy),' &c. 


The adjective must always agree with its noun in gender, 
case, and number, except with an uninflected masculine 
noun in the plural number, when the adjective is used in 
the singular. 

Adjectives are often used alone, the substantive being 

When any other than the first numeral adjective is used 
with nouns in the masculine gender, the noun is most 
generally inflected, and takes *-a' or *-aii ' ; but occasionally 
it takes the plural form. When numeral adjectives are 
used with feminine nouns, the latter take the plural form 
without exception. 

When the first numeral adjective is used with nouns, it 
is subject to the same changes for gender, number, and 
case as the noun it qualifies. 




In the different tenses of intransitiye yerbs, and in the 
present, future, and aorist of transitives, in wliich the 
affixed personal pronouns are used, the separate personal 
pronouns may be altogether omitted, or may be used with 
them. When the meaning is clear without them, they 
may be dropped in the 3rd person singular and plural of 
intransitiyes also. 

The third personal pronoun ' haghah ' is sometimes used 
as the remote demonstratiye, and is declined in a similar 

The prepositions 'tar' and 'par,* meaning *to' and 

* upon * respectiyely, with the addition of long * i ' or 
short * i ' are used as pronoims, when they become * tri ' or 

* tri,' * from him, her,' &c., and * pri ' or^ pri,' * upon ViiTn, 
her,' &c. The particle * na ' or * nah,' to which * tey ' or 

* ti ' is prefixed in the oblique cases, is also used for * pri.* 
These substitutes for pronouns cannot be called prepo- 
sitions, because they haye a pronominal meaning inherent 
in them. They are used for both things animate and in- 
animate, and singular and plural, and are not subject to 
any change for gender ; thus, ' Da haghah^ Adam Trha.Ti 

daey chih Dur^ana'i tri biwaley da'h,' * This is that same 
Adam l^knfrom whom DurMiana'i has been carried off.' 

In speaking of one's-self with another, preference is giyen 
to the 1st person in the first instance. The Afghans also 
use the singular, not the plural form of the pronoun, 
when referring to one person only. 

When a third person is mentioned, the words of the 
speaker himself must be repeated, instead of using the 
3rd person ; thus, *Chih war tahyadah sh'wah chih k'ada'h 

mi kayey nah da'h,' * When he recollects that " the k'ada'h 
has not been performed by me" ' 

When a second pronoun is required to refer to the same 
person or thing as the subject, the reflectiye pronoun 


'U^pul' must be used; thus, 'Mirza! ^pul dzan pa- 
y^pulah sta-yi/ ' O Mirza ! he himself glorifieth himself.' 

When, howeyer, a pronoun in the second member of a 
sentence refers to the same subject or thing as the nomi- 
native or subject of the verb in the first, the personal 
and particular pronoun must be used, instead of the 

The reflective is joined to nouns and pronouns by way 
of identity, peculiarity, or emphasis ; thus, * ]Quda'e pa- 
l^pulah da wayalaey (daey),' * God himself hath said,' <fcc. 

The pronoun * tsah,' used both as an interrogative and 
an indefinite, is often employed as an exclamative ; thus, 
' Xsah bala saj^ta'h dana'h yam na-pohejzam ! ' ' What 
unfortunate hard grain I am, I know not ! ' It may, also, 
be used as a discriminative; thus, ' Tsah hakim tsah ra'iyat 
tsah i^air zer,' * Whether ruler or subject, whether foreign 
or strange.' 

The adverb * chartah ' is used emphatically to denote dis- 
similarity, contrariety, and non-existence between matters 
and things; thus, 'Chartah da yar shun^ey! chartah 
jdiam da dil o jan ! * * Where (are) the lips of the beloved! 
where (is) the sorrow of heart and soul! ' — ^implying that 
there is similarity between them. 


Transitive verbs, in any past tense of the active voice, 
must agree with the object in gender and number ; thus, 
^Bahram ^ala^a'h haghah jina'i Virala'h lah^kaidah,' 
*Bahram released that damsel from confinement.' The 
agent is used in the instrumental case, and takes the 
inflected form when capable of inflection. 

Some transitive verbs, such as * wayal,' * to speak,' and 
* katal,' * to look at,' * to observe,' absolutely require the 
object to be put in the dative case, without which the sen- 


tence would convey no meaning ; thus, ' Adam ]^an Bale 
tah wuh wej cYnh,' <&c., 'Adam ^an said to Balo, that/ Ac. 

Pu^hto nouns have no particular terminations for the 
objective ; it is distinguished by its position, which pro- 
perly is after the agent and before the verb. In all other 
instances the object may be known by the gender and 
number which the verb assumes to agree with it, and by 
the affixed personal pronouns which point out the objective 
case. Example : — ' C hih Auran g Bahram j^abar kah lah 

dey halah, andeiShno yey ^urat tao ka^: shah pareshana,' 
* When Aurang made Bah/rcmi acquainted with this circum- 
stance, care and anxiety excited him: he became distracted.' 

Eeverse the position of "Aurang," the agent, and he 
becomes the object. 

The infinitive form of the verb is often used to denote the 
absolute necessity of an action; thus, 'bal halal halal gamal 
daey,' * Moreover, what is legal and right, it is necessary 
to account lawful.* 

The infinitive in the genitive case, is the 'noun of fitness ' 
shown in the paradigms of conjugation. 

The past tense of a verb is often used in a future sense ; 
thus, ' bada ! kih da yar Uabar di ra-war, lah z'rah bah 
waMiley da hi j ran sawi daghuna/ * O gentle breeze ! if 
thou wilt bring (lit. if thou br<yughtest) news of the beloved, 
from the heart thou wilt remove the absence-burned 


Of intransitive verbs, the 3rd person singular and plural 
of the past tenses is alone subject to change of termina- 
tion for gender, and the first and second persons merely 
take the plural form of the affixed personal pronouns for 
the plural number. 

The present tense is in many instances used in a future 
signification ; thus, ' da janat naksho nigar tri porey hits 
shi chih ^h'karah ka yow nigar nigar lah ma^a,' ' the rap- 
ture and bliss of Paradise vnll be nothing in his eyes, when 


the beloTed displajetli one of the channs of her counten- 

The Puihto has no regular potential mood ; and the 
passiye form of the verb is used instead, with a slight 
difference in the construction. Inatransitive verbs haye 
no passive voice, but a passive form (that is, the different 
past participles with the auxiliary *to be ') is used for the 
potential in their case. The verb agrees with the agent, 
and the masculine or feminine form of the past participle 
must correspond accordingly. 

The transitive form of the potential is easily distin- 
guished from the passive voice, as both the agent and the 
object mAist be expressed for the former ; whilst, in the 
latter, the agent is never expressed, or remains unknown. 
The verb also agrees with the object in gender and 
number for the former, and the agent must be in the 
instrumental case in the past tense. 

The present .participle is constantly used as a noun ; 
thus, *alwatah* means both 'flight' and 'fleeing,' * pre- 
wataJi,* both ' a fall,' and * falling,' &c. 

The past participles of Pu^hto verbs are very often used 
as past conjunctive participles ; thus, ' da ru^^at salam 
ml kairaey tri bida shwam, ' having made my parting saluta- 
tion, I bade them farewell.' 

Sometimes a meaningless sound is added to a word to 
produce a jingle of rhyme ; thus, ' da dunya da sud da- 
parah baedah nah daey chih grewan k'rey da 'izat pah cha 
shuk piik,' * for the sake of the profit of the world, it 
behoveth not that thou shouldest rend the collar of any- 
one's fair fame.' 







1. Tapus aw Kowtarey. 

Yow tso kowtaro lali derah 
muddatali lah werey da yow- 
ali X&^iia pah na-arama'i 
k'shey rwadzi terawali, magar 
chih tal yey bedarikawula'h, 
awlahkorah^pulaliliri nah 
t'lali, lah hamlev da du^h- 
man tar-aosah-poripahaman 
wey. Nur chih tapus wu-po- 
hedah chih hamley mi bey- 
f a-idah di, war da f arib aw 

1. The Kite and Pigeons* 

Some pigeons had long 
lived in fear of a kite, but 
being always on the alert, 
and not going far from the 
dove-cote, they had con- 
trived hitherto to escape 
the attacks of the enemy. 
So when the kite found that 
his sallies were unsuccessful, 
having betaken himself to 
craft, he brought stratagem 

* These have been selected from my illustrated Pushto 
Edition of -^sop's Fables. 



da makr pra-natalaej, hilah- 
sazi yey w'randi wu-newal- 
a'h: nur yey wa-du-i tah wa- 
wey cldh, "Da jzwandun da 
tal - tar - talah andeshney 
tsalah ^wa^hawa'ip Kill 
fakat ma ^pul badshah 
k'ra'i hara'h hamla'h cbih 
pah tasu kedey zah bah mo 
da bala spar wum lah highey 
bah mi khundi kawxdey." 
Nur kowtaro, da dah pah 
khabaro wisah karaey, pah 
talAt da shaha'i yey k'l^he- 
nawo ; magar chih pah takht 
k'^henast pah ada kawulo da 
Upul badshaa'i hakk pah 
khwaralo da yowey kowtarey 
bara'h rwadz sar shah. Pah 
Udalo da dey hal yawey kaw- 
tarey chih intizar da war 
U^pul yey tskawuh, hum 
daghah kadr yey wu-wey, 
" Har-tsah chih wu-sh*wal 
lah-mujz-sarah la-ik daey." 
Fa-idah. — Haghah kasan 
chih lah ^pulah lasah wa 
kom zalim ya yowah du^h- 
man tah pah dzan tasallut 
war kawi, hits ta'ajjub di nah 
k'ri kih haghah pah a^ir 
k'^hey pah du-i zulm wu Fyi. 

2. Lumbay aw Wuza'h. 

Yow lumbar pah yowah 
kuhi h'^hey Iwedalaey wuh, 
aw lah derah muddatah yey 

to bear : so he said to them, 

" Why do ye prefer this life 
of continual anxiety ? If you 
would only make me your 
king, I would secure you 
from every attack that could 
be made upon you.'* 

The pigeons, trusting to 
his professions, placed him 
on the throne ; but when he 
was established thereon, he 
began to exercise his prero- 
gative by devouring a pigeon 
a day. 

Whereupon one pigeon 
that yet awaited his turn, 
said no more than, "It 
serves us right.' 


Moral. — They who volun- 
tarily put power into the 
hand of a tyrant or an 
enemy, must not wonder if 
it be at last turned against 

2. The Fox and Gh)at. 

A fox had fallen into a 
well, and had been casting 
about for a long time how 

6 * 



lah dzanah sarah ande^hna'h 
kawula'h cbih pah tsah taur 
bah lah dej kuhja pah bi-ar- 
tah wu-wuzi. A^ir yowa'h 
wuza'h wa haghah dza'e tab 
wu-ra-ghla'h, ^o^ht y ey cbih 
aoba'h wu-ts'iShi, nur lab lum- 
bay yeypu^htana'hwu-k'ra*h 
cbih aoba'h ^hey aw ^erej 
dey kib yah. Lumbal^ za- 
bira'h Miatra'b ^pula'h 
po^haley, war-tab yey wu- 
wey, " Ai dostey, ^h'katab ra- 
shah ; aoba'h bsbsey ^haghal« 
ey dey cbih nab pah aobe- 
jzam, aw bombrab derey dey 
cbih kam-wali nab-lari." Pah 
dey j^abara'b wuza'b pab- 
asana'i- sarah dalandi wa- 
kubi tab artawa'b sb'wa'h. 


Pah rasedalo da dey lumbar, 
pah ^h'karo da dostey ^pul- 
ey madad a^istaey, pah 
chalaka'i sarah dangedalaey, 
lab kulua da-bandi ra-wu- 
liot, aw wa bigbey fareb- 
^waraley gharibey wazey 
tab yey bey z'rab-swaeyah 
wu-wey cbih, "Pah nisbat 
wa jzira'b sta tab kib nimey 
da bi|^ih di poha'b dar- 
laley, pa-^wa tar a^tawe- 
dalo bah di kataley wuh." 

3. Lewab aw KamoL 

be should get out again. At 
length a goat came to the 
place (and) wantingto drink, 
asked Eeynard whether the 
water was good, and if there 
was plenty of it. The fox, 
dissembling the real danger 
of his case, replied, 

" Come down, my friend ; 
the water is so good that I 
cannot drink enough of it, 
and so abundant that it can- 
not be exhausted." Upon 
this the goat, without any 
more ado, leaped into the 

Upon her arrival the fox, 
taking advantage of his 
friend's boms, and nimbly 
having leaped, came out of 
the well, and coolly re- 
marked to the poor deluded 

" If you had half as much 
brains as you have beard, 
you would have looked be- 
fore you leaped." 

3. The Wolf and Crane. 

Pah stuni k'ibey da yowab A wolf had got a bone 
lewab yo ba4 af sbawaey stuck in bis throat, and, in 



wuh, aw pah der 'azab girif- 
tar daltah lialtah z'ghast. 
liar dzan-dar chih bah pah 
pe^h shah pah 'ajizi bah yey 
du'a da ^ala9a'i lah highey 
sa^ta'i tri gho^htala'h, aw 
pah trats k'^hey bah yey da 
wayal chih wa haghah nek- 
baU^t k'^hawunki tah bah 
^rali ^hseh in'am war-k'^am. 
Nur pah yowah kamol zara'i 
aw wa'dey da dah asar kai^ey, 
bey-fikrah jej iijzda'h 
l^ara'h ^pida'h da lewah 
pah kbula'h nanayastaley, 
haghah had yey lah stuni da 
dah ra-wu-yost. Nur pah 
narma'i sarah yey haghah 
in' am wa'da'h ka^raey tri wu- 
l^o^ht. Pah arwedalo da 
day lewah tandaey triw 
l^a^h spin karaey pah zahir 
^afah war tah wu-yey-wey, 
^^ Ai na-shukrah maMilukah! 
Zi'at tar dey in'am tsah 
ghwayey chih sar di pah 
zamo Iri^hey da lewah ysUh- 
aey, pah salamat di ra-wu- 
yost ! " 

Fa-idah. — Haghah kasan 
chih i^la§f-mandl kawi 
fakat pah umid da 'iwa^ 
mundalo, nah bo-yah chih 
ta'ajjub wu-Fyi kih pah 
mu'amalah k'ihey lah l^m 
zato sarah, pah 'iwa^ da 
shukraney bey ^addah rish- 
Uiand mumi. 

the greatest agony, ran up 
and down, beseeching every 
animal he met to relieve him 
of his pain, and hinted at a 
very handsome reward to the 
successful operator. A crane, 
moved by lus entreaties and 
promises, having ventured 
his long neck down the 
wolfs throat, drew out the 
bone from it. He then 
modestly asked for the pro- 
mised reward. On hearing 
this, the wolf, grinning and 
showing his teeth, replied, 
with seeming indignation, 

" Ungrateful creature ! 
What other reward do you 
ask for than that having put 
your head into a wolf's jaws, 
you brought it safe out 
again ! " 

Moral. — ^Those persons 
who are charitable only in 
the hope of a return, must 
not be surprised if, in their 
dealings with evil men, in 
lieu of thanks they meet 
with boundless jeers. 



4. K3iud-pasanda'h Ka- 

Yawey kagha*i ^ud-pas- 
andej pah hasej sban t§o da 
dey pah jajuri k'shey dza'e- 
da'h, tso bamey chih ta'usano 
achawuli wi waU^istali, 
pah ^pulo bamo k'shey 
yej lekey k'rey, aw kadim 
sialan ^pul na-tsizah shme- 
ralaey, ^an yey pah derey 
gustakha*! samh p^ yowah 
sail k*i^hey da dey rangino 
murghauo dakhil kar. Hu- 
gho bey draugah ahwal da 
hi^^ey bey - satah wa-ra- 
^aley daryaft kayaey, 
haghah 'ariatey bamey jej 
tri wu-k'^haley, aw pah ma- 
shuko wahalo hajum pri 
kari, lah khpulah sailah yey 
wu-yastala*h. Hij^ey bad- 
ba^tey bey na^ibey ka- 
gha'i. ^er azar mundaley 
lah haddah zi'ata afsos 
karey, biartah pah awwalnio 
sialano gadah sh'wala'h, aw 
^o^ht yey chih bi-a lah 
du-i sarah wu-astejzi goya 
chih hits pri shawaey nah 
wuh. Magar du-i maghriiri 
da dey pah yad dar-laley, 
lah ]^puley mal-gira'i yey 
wu-shairala'h, aw yowey lah 
hugho chih lajz muddat 
shawaey dey pah tsah nah 
shmerala'h, pah taur da dars 

4. The yain Jackdaw. 

A jackdaw, as yain and 
conceited as a jackdaw could 
well be, having picked up 
the feathers which some 
peacocks had shed, stuck 
them among her own, and 
despising her old compa- 
nions, introduced herself 
with the greatest assurance 
into a flockof those beautiful 

They instantly detect- 
ing the character of the in- 
truder, stripped her of her 
borrowed plumes, and falling 
upon her with their beaks, 
sent her about her business. 

The unlucky and unfor- 
tunate jackdaw, sorely 
punished (and) deeply sor- 
rowing, betook herself to 
her former companions, and 
would have flocked with 
them again as if nothing 
had happened. But they, 
recollecting what airs she 
had given herself, drummed 
her out of their society, 
while one of those whom she 
had but lately despised, 
read her this lecture : " Had 
you been contented with 
what nature made you, you 



yey war tah wu-wey : " Kih 
ta pah haghah togah cbih 
khuda-e paida k'rey kana'at 
karaey wae, lah saza da loe- 
ano tar ta aw hum lah maz- 
amatah da l^pulo sialano 
nijat bah di mundalaey 

would have escaped the 
chastisement of your betters 
and also the contempt of 
your equals." 

5. Kunda'h aw Chirga'h. 

Yowey kundey yowa'h 
chirga'h dar-lala'h chih bar 
sahar bah yey yowa'h haga'i 
achawula'h. Nur kundey lah 
dzanah sarahande^hna'hwu- 
k'ya'h, "Kih zah da l^pul- 
ey chirgey danah war do- 
chanda'h k'ram, dwah dzalah 
bah di rwadzi haga'i wa- 
chawi." Nur tadbir l^pul 
yey wu-azmayah, aw chirg- 
a'h hasey tsorba'h sh'wa'h, 
chih bi-1-kull lah haga'i 
achawulo wa-wata'h. 

Fa-idah. — Har-cbib kbalk 
atkalawi tal pah baghah 
shan pah wuku' nab ra-dzi. 

6. Ghar pah balat da 

Pah tero shawio rwadzo, 
pah yowah ^'rah k'^hey der 
zorawar gburumbey arwed- 
ah shah. Wayalaey shah 

5. The Widow and the 

A widow kept a hen that 
laid an egg every morning. 

So the widow thought to 
herself, " If I double my 
hen's allowance of barley, 
she will lay twice a-day." 

So she tried her plan, and 
the hen became so fat and 
sleek, that she left ofE laying 
at all. 

Moral. — What people 
imagine does not always 
happen. Figures are not 
always facts. 

6. The Mountain in La- 

In days of yore, a mighty 
grumbling was heard in a 
certain mountain. It was 
said to be in labour, and 



cliih ghar pah langalwah 
k'^hey daey, nur tolaey tol- 
aej malk lah liro najzdo, 
da-parah da Hdalo chili tsah 
bah wu - zejzawi jam'ah 
sh'wal. Pas lah ^erahinti- 
zarah tskawulo aw lah der 
^hsBh ^hsBh atkal kawulo da 
nandartsiano, na-tsapah da 
band! yow majzak ra-wu- 

Ea-idah. — Da ki^^a'h pah 
shan k'^hey da hugho kasano 
da'h chih lo-e-ey lo-e-ey wa - 
dey yey pah na-tslzah 'ami 
tar sarah rasejzi. 

multitudes flocked together 
from far and near, to see 
what it would produce. 

After long expectation and 
many wise conjectures from 
tile bystanders, suddenly 
out popped a mouse ! 

Moral. — This story applies 
to those whose magnificent 
promises end in paltry per- 

7. Chirg aw 

Marghal- 7. The Cock and the 

Tow chirg pah ghujal 
k'^hey da yowah bazgar pah 
unud da daney mundalo da- 
parah da iShadzey lipuley 
kbazala'h pah pi^ho lawast- 
aley palafala'h, kaza-kar 
nazar yey pah yowah gauhar 
wu-n*^hat cluh ittifakan 
haltah Iwe-dalaey wuh. Nur 
yey wu-wey, "Ho! tah }io 
yow ^hseh tsiz yey pah nazar 
da hugho chih ta 'aziz 
shmeri, magar wa-ma-tah 
yowa'h dana'h da aor-bushi 
bihtara'h da'h tar tamamo 
marghalaro chih pah dunya 
k'^hey cU." 

A cock scratching up the 
straw in a farm-yard in 
search of food for his hens, 
chanced to hit upon a jewel 
that by some chance had 
fallen there. "Ho!*' said 
he ; " you are a very fine 
thing, no doubt, to those 
who prize you, but to me one 
barley-corn is better than 
all the pearls in the world." 



Ea-idah. — Haghah chirg 
der lio^hyar chirg wuh, mag- 
ar der kam-'akl kasan di 
cbih zalil gami ba^ah tsiz 
cbih der giran baha wi f akat 
lah dej sababah chih wakif- 
ijat nah pah lari. 

8. Ser-laey aw Lewah. 

Yow ser-laey pah bam da 
yowey Twayey ^uney dare- 
daJaey, yow lewah yey 
k'l^hatah pah lari t'lunaey 
wu-lidah aw pah peghor 
war-kawulo wa-dah-tah sar 
shah. Lewah fakat da- 
parah da dzawab war kawulo 
wa-dah-tah daredalaey, wu- 
yey-wey, " Ai na-mardah ! 
da tah nah yey chih wa-ma- 
tah kandzal ^awey, balkih 
daghah dza'e daey chih tah 
pri walay J^J*^* 

9. KabWi aw Mor yey. 

Yowey kabla'i yowah 
rwadz wa-mor-tah wn-wey, 
" Ai adey, tar spaey ^o tah 
lo-ea'h yey, aw tar ga^randa'i 
aw tar ujzd sahey jej, aw 
da-parah da satalo da ^pul 
dzau ^h'kar hum larey ; nur 
^ah sabab daey chih lah 
^h'kario spio hombrah we- 
rejzey ? " Mor yey masedal- 

Moral. — ^The cock was a 
sensible cock, but there are 
many silly people who 
despise what is precious only 
because they cannot under- 
stand it. 

8. The Kid and Wolf. 

A kid being mounted on 
the roof of a lofty house, 
saw a wolf passing below, 
and began to revile him. 

The wolf, having merely 
stopped to reply, said, 
" Coward ! it is not you who 
revile me, but the place on 
which you are standing." 

9. The Fawn and her 

A fawn said to her mother 
one day, " Mother, you are 
bigger than a dog, and 
swifter and better winded, 
and you have horns to de- 
fend yourself; how is it, then, 
that you are so afraid of the 
hounds ? " Her mother, 
smiling, said, " All this, my 
child, I know full well ; but 



ey wu-yey-wey, " Ai farzand- 
ah, pah da folah, zah ^hseh 
pohejzam ; magar har-kalah 
chih ^apa da spi arwam, 
p^hey mi, las-pah-lasa, pah 
har-kadr tgo tuwanejzi jzir 
mi bia-yi." 

Fa-idah. — Pah hits dalil 
bah bey z'rah pah ghairat 

no sooner do I hear a dog's 
bark, than forthwith my 
heels take me off as fast as 
they can carry me." 

Moral. — There is no argu- 
ing a coward into courage. 

10. Lumbar aw M'zaraey. 10. The Fox and Lion. 

Tow lumbar chih luts- 
kalah yey m'zaraey lidalaey 
nah wuh, chih awwal war 
lah ittifakah lah-dah-sarah 
pe^h shah, hombra'h wera'h 
pri wu-raghla*h chih najzdey 
wuh lah werey mar shi. 
Dweam dzalah chih war- 
sarah mulakl shah, la dzini 
pah wera'h wuh, magar pah 
yowah shan yey ^pula'h 
wera'h puta'h k'ya'h. Dre- 
yam war chih yey wu-li-dah 
hasey bey-bakah shah, chih, 
pah w'randi yey wu-raghlaey , 
bara'h ga^ra'h yey war-sarah 


Fa-idah. — Lah 4©rey nas- 
tey walarey spuk-walaey 
paida kejzi. 

11. Zor iSh'kari Spaey. 

Tow i^h'kari spaey, chih 
pah lipul 'umr k'^hey pah 
^pul kar ^er mafanaey 

A fox who had never seen 
a lion, when by chance he 
met him for the first time, was 
so terrified that he almost 
died of fright. When he 
met him the second time he 
was still afraid, but managed 
to disguise his fear. When 
he saw him the third time 
he was so much emboldened, 
that, having gone up to him, 
he asked him how he did. 

Moral. — Too much fami- 
Harity breeds contempt. 

11. The old Hound. 

A hound who had been an 
excellent one in his time, and 
had done good service to his 



wuh, aw pah maidan da 
6h'kar yey da - parali da 
t§a^htan khpul ihsdh Idbid- 
mat pah ^a*e ra-wuraey 
wuh, a^ir lah derah 'umrah 
aw lah wafiro mihnato zor 
shawaey lah karah wu-wot. 
Yowah rwadz, pah wakt da 
^h'kar da so^aro, yow sodar 
yey tar ghwajz wu-niwah, 
magar ghai^hunah yey pah 
jzamo k'l^hey da haghah lah 
ao-urio wu-U^atal, aw pri 
lazim sh'wah chih niwah 
l^piQ prejzdi, nur sodar tri 
tiala? shawaey lap. S'h'kari 
pah daey pri ra-g^alaey, der 
yey malamat kay. Lekin 
haghah za'if spi dzawab war 
kar, " Kladim nokar ^pul 
mu'af k'rah ! Kuwat d^ama 
wuh nah irada'h mi chih 
kotahi yey wu-k'fah. Nur 
pah 'iwaz k'^hey da peghor 
ra-kawul wa-ma-tah da- 
parah da haghah chih aos 
yam, dar yad k'rah haghah 
chih pa-^wa wiim." 

12. As aw Sa-is. 

Tow sa-is wuh chih dana'h 
da as bah yey gh\& kayey 
pro-la'h, sarah lah dey chih 
tola'h rwadz bah lah sa^arah 
tarn'ma-^hamah pah ghasho 
aw timar da dah mashghul 

master in the field, at length 
became worn out with the 
weight of years and trouble. 

One day, when hunting the 
wild boar, he seized one by 
the ear, but his teeth gave 
way from the gums, and he 
was forced to let go his 
hold, so the boar escaped. 
Upon this the huntsman, 
coming up, severely rated 
him. But the feeble dog 
replied, "Spare your old 
servant ! It was the power, 
not the will, that failed me. 
Remember rather what I 
was, than abuse me for what 
I now am." 

12. The Horse and the 

A. groom there was who 
used to steal and sell a 
horse's com, yet was very 
busy in grooming and whisp- 
ing him all the day long. 
The horse said to him, " If 



wuh. As war-tah wu wey, 
" Kih pah ri^hti-a ^warey 
chih zah ^bseh ^h'karah sham, 
wa-ma-tah lah ^asho aw com. 
timarah lajz ra-krah, aw 
ziat lah daney." 

13. Dwey Dzola'i. 

Har saraey dwey dzola'i 
yowa'h par sha bsBla'h pah 
ghejz k'ihey aldbli, aw dwa- 
^'h dakey lah 'aibunah di. 
Magar haghah chih pah 
ghejz k'^hey da'h, daka'h lah 
'aibuno da humsayagano 
da'h, aw haghah chih tar 
sha da'h, daka'h lah 'aibuno 
Upula'h da'h. Nur hum 
daghah sabab daey chih 
khalk lah khpulah 'aibuno 
kama'h aw yanda'h di, 
magar da humsayagano jey 
hits kalah lah nazarah da- 
bandi na-dzi. 

you really wish me to look 
well, give me less of your 
currying, and more of your 

13. The Two Wallets. 

Brery man carries two 
wallets, one before and one 
behind, and both are full of 
faults. But the one before 
is full of his neighbour's 
faults, and the one behind 
of his own faults. Thus it 
happens that men are deaf 
and blind to their own 
faults, but never lose sight 
of their neighbour's. 

14. Spaey aw 'Aks. 

Yowah spi tukra'h 
ghwa^ha'h lah dukano da 
ka^f ab ghla k'ra'h, aw wa- 
taraf-tah da kor t'lalaey,pah 
yowah sind pori wot chih 
'aks ^pul yey k'^hatah pah 
aobo k'iShey wu - lidah. 
Eliiyal yey wu-kar chih bsel 
spaey daey, tukra'h da 

14. The Dog and the 

A dog stole a piece of meat 
out of a butcher's shop, and 
on his way home was cross- 
ing a river, when he saw his 
own shadow reflected in the 
stream below. He thought 
that it was another dog 
taking a piece of meat in 
his mouth, so he resolved 



ghwaiho pah l^ulah mwal- 
ey, nur jej lah ^zanah 
sarah mukarrar k'irah chih 
t§a^htan da highib bah hum 
sham ; magar pah U^ulo 
achawolo wa baghah ghani- 
mat sbmeralaej tab, baghah 
ghwa^ha'b chih dar-lodalej 
jej Jab ^uley pre-wata*h, 
aw pah da shan yej tola'h 
za-i* k'ya'h. 

Fa-Idah. — Las achawid 
wa-'aks-tah aw za-i' kawul 
da a^al da dab aksar bakfa- 
ra'h da bag^o kasano chih 
jow U^a9 tabai^uk pah ^at- 
rah k'^bej achawi da-paraJh 
da k^iaH neka'i mundal. 

within himself that he would 
become the master of that 
also ; but in snapping at the 
supposed treasure, the bit be 
was carrying dropped from 
his mouth, and in this way 
he lost all. 

Moral. — Grasp at the 
shadow and lose the sub- 
stance — this is the common 
fate of those who hazard a 
real blessing for some 
visionary good. 

15. Lewah aw W'm'i. 

Haghab wa^t chih yowab 
lewah pah sar da yowey 
chiney aoba'b ^'ihaJey yow- 
a'h w*ra'i awarah sbawaey 
jej wu-lida*b chih pah tsako 
Hri pah pa*e da chiney jej 
pah aoba'h k'^hey parnankey 
wahaley. Nur lah dzanah 
sarah yej niwal da dey muk- 
arrar Ear, aw pah filar shah 
chih tsah bahana'h da-parah 
da dey zulm jo]rah k*ram. 
Nur, pah w'ra'i war-z*ghas- 
talaey wu-yey-wey, "Ai 
sharira'i! da l^ah bey-^aya- 

15. The Wolf and the 

As a wolf was lapping 
at the head of a running 
brook, be spied a stray lamb 
paddling at some distance 
down the stream. 

He made up his mind to 
seize her, and bethought 
himself how he might jus- 
tify his violence. 

" YUlain I " said he, run- 
ning up to her, " how dare 
you muddle the water that I 



galwi da'h chih haghah 
aoba'h chih zah yey ts'^ham 
tah yey ^serawe " ? W*ra'i, 
pah *ajizi sarah, war- tah wu- 
wey, " Ei^hti'a wayam nah- 
winam chih pah tsah shan zah 
aoba'h khserawuley sham 
waley chih dz'ma lah taraf- 
ah sta pah khwa aoba'h 
nah bahejzi balkih sta lah 
loria dz'ma pah palo ra-dzi." 
Lewah dzawab war-kar, "Da 
Mh wi kihnah wi, magkryow 
kal shawaey daey chih ta 
ma larah der i^h'kandzal 
karaey wuh." W'ra'i rejz- 
dediiney war tah yey wu- 
wey, " Ai sardarah ! yow 
kal pa-^wa tar daey zah la 
nah-wum zu karey." Lewah 
wu-wey, "Sliseh daey, kih 
tah nah wey, sta plar kho 
wuh, aw da yow tsiz daey, 
lekin bey-fa-idah daey daHl 
ra-w'ral sta chih zah di shii- 
ma'h nah k'ram; " niir bey 
lah way alo da bseley Mh.abarey 
pah highey 'ajizey la-charey 
w'ra'i war wu-^urzedah 
sarah yey tsirey k'ra'h. 

Fa-idah. — Zalim hits kal- 
ah muhtaj da bahaney nah 
daey ; aw haghah kasan lajz 
iimid lari da-parah da rad- 
awalo da zulm da zalimano 
chih fa^at wasla'h da bey- 
gunaha'i aw da 'akl Ian. 

am drinking ? " " Indeed," 
said the lamb, humbly, " I 
do not see how I can disturb 
the water, since it runs from 
you to me, not from me to 

"Be that as it may," re- 
plied the wolf, " it was but 
a year ago that you called 
me many ill names." 

" Oh, Sir ! " said the lamb, 
trembling, " a year ago I 
was not bom." 

" Well," replied the wolf, 
"if it was not you, it was 
your father, and that is all 
the same ; but it is of no use 
trying to argue me out of 
my supper ; " — and without 
another word he fell upon 
the poor helpless lamb and 
tore her to pieces. 

Moral. — ^A tyrant never 
wants a plea ; and they have 
little chance of resisting the 
injustice of the powerful 
whose only weapons are 
innocence and reason. 



16. Tajz aw Lumbar. 

Yowah yajz lafey shafey 
pah bab k'^hey da der 
mubabbat lab insan sarab 
bab wabaley, wayal bab jej 
cbib bar-kalab daey mar wi 
zab bits-kalab daey nab 
tsandam aw nab yey tsiram. 
Lumbar masedalaey, war 
tab yey wu-wey, "Kib ta 
daey jzwandaey bits-kalab 
nab kbwayalaey ma bab sta 
^abara*b bibtara'b sbmeral- 

Fa-idab. — Bibtar daey sa- 
tanab da sari lab margab tar 
da cbib pas lab margah yey* 
'ilaj kawi. 

17. Macban aw Mangaey. 

Yow mangaey da 'asalo 
pab dukan k'l^bey da bakal 
naskor ka^raey sbawaey, ma- 
cban da- parab da tsatalo, yey 
tola'i tola*i pri jama' sbwal, 
aw bum yey barkat lab ba- 
gbab dza'eab tso yow t§ats- 
kaey la baki wub, kabal 
nab kar. A^ir p^bey yey 
basey pab k'iSbey wu-n'sbat- 
ey, cbib tuwan da alwatalo 
war pato nab sbab, aw pab 

16. Tbe Bear and tbe Fox. 

A bear used to boast of 
bis excessive love for man, 
saying that be never worried 
or mauled bim wben dead. 

Tbe fox, smiling, observed, 
"I sbould bave tbougbt 
more of your profession if 
you never ate bim alive.*' 

Moral. — ^It is better to 
save a man from deatb than 
wben dead to salve bim. 

17. Tbe Flies and tbe 

A pot of boney in tbe 
sbop of a grocer baving 
been upset, tbe flies, for tbe 
purpose of licking it up, 
gathered round it in swarms, 
nor would they move from 
tbe spot while one drop re- 

At length their feet be- 
came so clogged that they 
could not fly away, and, 
stifled in the luscious sweets. 

* This is tbe form of pronoun referred to in Q-rammar, 
page 21, as pointing out the object or possessive case. 



haghah slurini k'^hej ^afah 
sbawi, pah V war awaz jej wu- 
wa-yal, " Tsah bad-ba^tah 
makbluk ju, cbih da-parab 
da yowab sa'at kbwa^ba'i, 
mu abadi 'umir ba'elab ! '* 

18. Spaey, aw Cbirg, aw 

Towab spi aw yowab cbirg 
'abd da dosta'i wu-tarah 


sarab malgari sbawi pab 
^afar laral. Sbpa'b yey wa 
yowa'b dzangal tab wu-rasa- 
walab ; nur cbirg portab wa- 
yowey waney tab alwataey, 
pab ^bakhuno k'^bey yey 
dza*e wu-niwab, aw spaey 
k'l^batab tar bi^ey waney 
landi nim-kbwabi pre-wot. 
Cbib sbpa*b tera'b sb'wa'b, 
aw rwadz ra-wa-^at'ala'b aw 
sapedey-dagb sb'wey, cbirg 
muwafik da dastur MipiQ 
pab terab awaz sarab bang 
sburu' kar. Yowab lumbar 
da awaz arwedalaey, kbiyal 
yey wn-tarab cbib daey bab 
nibaraey Uipul k'ram, nur 
ra-gbi landi tar bighey 
waney wudredab, aw basey 
yey cbirg tab wu-wey, " Tab 
der ^bseb cbirgiiyaey yey, aw 
kbalko larab bum der f a-idab 
mand yey. K'^batab ra- 
sbab cbib mujz da sabar 
n'mundz sarab wu k'ru aw 
pab ^waiSbi sar sbu." 

they exclaimed with a loud 

" Wbat miserable creatures 
are we, wbo for tbe sake of 
an bour's pleasure have 
tbrown away our lives ! " 

18. Tbe Dog, tbe Cock, 
and tbe Fox. 

A dog and a cock baving 
struck ap an acquaintance 
went out on tbeir travels 
together. Nigbt found 
tbem in a forest; so tbe 
cock, flying up on a tree, 
percbed among tbe branches, 
and tbe dog dozed below at 
tbe foot. 

As tbe night passed away 
and tbe day dawned, tbe 
cock, according to his cus- 
tom, set up a shrill crowing. 
A fox hearing him, (and) 
thinking to make a meal 
of him, came and stood 
imder the tree, and thus ad- 
dressed him: "Thou art a 
good little cock, and most 
useful to thy fellow crea- 
tures. Come down, then, 
that we may sing our matins 
and rejoice together." 



Cliirg dzawab war kar, " War 
shah, ai dz'ma ^hseh dostah, 
wa-tal-tah da wanej, aw mu- 
assin ra-wu-bolah chih a^an 
wu-wa-yi.' Magar pah wa^t 
da t'laLo da lumbar pah 
nijzd da highey waney chih 
haghah ra-wu-boli, spaey, 
pah yowah gbota'h par ghnr- 
zedaJaey, lumbal^ yey niwal- 
aey, may yey kar. 

Fa-idah. — Haghah kasan 
chih dam da bsel pah lar 
k'^he-jz'dl akgir band! pah 
^pulah dana'h shi. 

19. Zai^a'h ^hadza'h aw 
U^iim da Sharabo. 

Yowey zayey iShadzey yow 
khali l^um da sharabo pah 
z'maka'h prot wii-lidah. 
Kih tsah hum yow tgatskaey 
lah hugho la'lo mu^abo chih 
pa-^wa tri 4ak shawaey wuh 
pahk'iShey pato shawaey nah 
wuh, magar marghub bu-e 
yey la wa-rah-guzro-tah 
war-kawuh. Bu^a'i, paza'h 
I^pula'h har-V:adr chih tu- 
wanedala'h war najzdey 
k'ya'h, aw pah tol nafas yey 
Burnawuh, pah narey sarat 
yey wu-wey, "Ai shirinah 
tsizah! yow wakt kbo bah 
tsah mazah-dar wuh har- tsah 
chih pah ta k'^hey wuh, har- 
kalah chih kbafbel yey hum 
hasey ^^r dil-kusha daiey ! " 

The cock replied, " Go, 
my good friend, to the foot 
of the tree, and call the mu- 
azsin to sound the call." 

But as the fox went to the 
tree to call him, the dog, 
with one spring, leaped out, 
seized the fox, and made an 
end of him. 

Moral. — They who lay 
traps for others are often 
caught by their own bait. 

19. The old Woman and 
the Wine- jar. 

An old woman saw an 
empty wine- jar lying on the 

Though not a drop of the 
liquid ruby with which it 
had previously been filled 
remained, nevertheless a 
grateful fragrance it still 
yielded to the passer by. 

The old woman, ap- 
plying her nose as close a« 
she could to it, and sniffing 
with all her might, ex- 
claimed, " Sweet creature ! 
how charming indeed must 
your contents once have 
been, when even the very 
dregs are bo delicious ! " 



20. i^achara'h. 

Yowa'h Uachara'h chili 
lah sababah da zi'at-wali da 
rozinah daney tsorba'li aw 
masta'h shawey wa*h yowa'h 
wrad^ daltah haltah l^ar- 
chiley wahaley, a^ir laka'i 
ttpiiley portah karey, pah 
narey sarah jej wu-wey, 
" Mor dz'ma shartey aspa'h 
wa*h, aw pah har taur lakah 
chih da ^hse'h wa'h zah hum 
hasey ^hse'h yam.'* Magar 
chih lah ^ar-tizo wahalo 
aw z'ghaBtalo jzir stayey 
sh'wa'h, na-tsapah wa-dey- 
tah pah yad sh'wa'h chih 
plar mi fakat Idbar wuh. 

Fa-idah. — Har-yow haki- 
kat dwah tarafah lari; 
nur pa-khwa tar mulditaraw- 
alo da kom yowah lah du-i 
nah, i^hseh daey nazar kawul 

20. The Mule. 

A mule that had grown 
fat and wanton on too great 
an allowance of com, one 
day, jumping and kicking 
about, at length, cocking up 
her tail, exclaimed, "My 
dam was a racer, and I am 
quite as good as ever she 

But being soon knocked 
up by her galloping and 
frisking, she remembered 
all at once that her sire was 
but an ass. 

Moral. — Every truth has 
two sides ; hence it is well 
to look at both before we 
commit ourselves to either. 

21. Halak Shpun aw Le- 

Yowah halak shpun, chih 
rama'h ^pula'h jej najzd- 
ey wa yowah kali tah po- 
wula'h ozini wakto jej pah 
taur da baza'i nara'h kawal- 
a'h, " Lewah ra-ghi ! Lewah 
ra-ghi 1 " Dwah drey warah 
yey da cham pah kar wu- 

21. The Shepherd, boy 
and the Wolf. 

A shepherd-boy, who 
tended his flock not far from 
a village, used to amuse 
himself at times in crying 
out, " Wolf ! Wolf ! " 

Twice or thrice his trick 



raghi. Tamam kalaey bah 
pah hapa'h da dej z'ghastal- 
aej wu«raghlal ; magar tol 
'iwaz chih du-i pah badalah 
k'^h^ da mil^iiat Uhpul 
mund rish-^and wuh. 
A^iru-1-Amar, yowa'h wradz 
lewah pah riihti-a pah ghelo 
ga4 shah. Halak lah z'rah 
narey wu-k*yey ; magar hmn- 
sayaJigan yey , hasey pohedali 
chlh tash^'h kadima'h bazi 
khpuWh kawi, pah naro da 
dan yey hits ghwajz wa-na- 
YOst, aw lewah rama'h dzab- 
lah teirey k'yala'h. Nur hal- 
ak z'dah k*rah, magar chih 
kar lah lasah wu-wot, chih 
pah darogh-jzano i'tibar nah 
kejzi kih tsah hiim riiShti-a 

22. Karghah aw Man- 

Yow karghah chih lah 
tandey najzdey wa marg tah 
wuh, pall 46ra'h khwaiha'! 
wa yowah mangi tah chih lah 
liri yey pah nazar k'^he-wat 
wal-wat. Magar chih najzd- 
ey wu-raghiy wu-yey-lidah 
chih aoba'h hombra'h k'^hat- 
a'h dey, chih kih har-^o war 
wu-dza]*edah aw war wu- 
ghazedah.war wa-nah-rasld- 
ah. Niir yey wu-gho6ht 
chih mangaey mat k'f i ; bi-a 
yey wTi»gho6ht chih naskor 

The whole village came 
running out to his assist- 
ance; but all the return 
they got was to be laughed 
at for their pains. 

At last, one day, the wolf 
got into the flock indeed. 

The boy cried in earnest ; 
but his neighbours, sup- 
posing him to be at his old 
sport, paid no heed to his 
cries, and the wolf devoured 
the sheep. 

So the boy learned, when 
it was too late, that liars are 
not to be believed even when 
they tell the truth. 

22. The Crow and the 

A crow that was ready to 
die with thirst, flew with joy 
to a pitcher which he saw at 
a distance. 

But when he came up to 
it, he foimd the water (is) 
so low, that with all his 
stooping and straining, he 
was unable to reach it. 

Thereupon he wanted to 
break the pitcher; then 
again he wanted to upset it ; 

. 7 • 

. t^ 




yey k'ri ; magar kuwat jej 
da-parah da jowah lah da^^o 
dwuo karo bas nah wuh. 
Attir, dzini gatey najzd- 
ey lidalali, yowa'n yowa'h, 
yey al^istey derey yey pah 
mangi k'^hey wacliawuley, 
aw lali kawTilo da dey karah 
aoba'li yey tah ^uley pori 
da mangi portah ra wu-rasa- 
wuley, aw tanda'li k'^pul- 
a*li yey pah mata'h Fya'h. 

Fa-idah. — Hunr aw ta'm- 
mul pah kar radzi haltah 
chih zor kotah wi, lakah chih 
matal di — " Ihtiyaj mor da 
ijad di." 

but his strength was not 
sufficient to do either. 

At last, seeing some small 
pebbles near at hand, he 
dropped a great number 
of them one by one into 
the pitcher, and, by doing 
this, raised the water to 
the brim of the pitcher, 
and by that means quenched 
his thirst. 

Moral. — Skill and patience 
will succeed where force 
fails, as the proverb runs — 
" Necessity is the mother of 

23. Eund aw Kimgaraey. 

Yowah randah sari 'adat 
dar-lah, chih har-kalah bah 
kom dzandar pah las war 
kar shah, ^howu bah jej 
chih kom jins daey. Yow 
wakt yow kungaraey da le- 
wah yey war-larah war wor. 
Dah las sar tar payah pri 
wu-ts'kawuh, aw chih pah 
shakk k'^hey wuh, wu-yey- 
wey, " Zah nah pohejzam 
chih plar sta spaey kih lewah 
wuh, magar hombrah po- 
hejzam, chih zah ta pah 
rama'h k'^hey da gsedo nah 
sham pre-^howulaey." 

23. The Blind Man and 
the Whelp. 

A blind man was wont, on 
any animal being put into 
his hands, to say what it 

Once they brought to him 
a wolf's whelp. 

He felt it all over from 
head to foot, and, as he was 
in doubt, said, " I know not 
whether thy father was a dog 
or a wolf, but this much I 
know, that I would not trust 
thee among a flock of 



Ea-idah. — ^Bad ^oeunah Moral. — Evil dispositions 
pah halak-walaej ^h'karah are early shown, 

24. Sharmai^han aw Gto4- 

Yew wakt lah wakto, 
sharmaiShano paigham pah 
las da astad^ wa gse4o tah 
war-stawuh, pah dey ^wah- 
ish chih pah gando k*iShey 
di 9ul-ha'h pah mi-yan^ 
dz'mujz aw stasu wi. Wu- 
yey-wayal, "Tsalarah mud- 
am da hala-hal jang sarah 
wu-k'yu? Da sharir spi 
sabab da tolo fasado di; 
du-i tal-tar-talah pah mujz 
ajzi-yi, aw tongra-yi. Du-i 
rukhgat k*raa'i, aw pas lah 
haghah pah abadi dosti aw 
ful-ha'h dz'miijz aw stasii 
V^hey bah hits harkat baki 
pato nah shi.'' Ahimako 
gse^o da l^abarey wu-n'gh- 
wajzaley, spi ru^^at shVal, 
aw rama'h, lah bihtarino 
satandoio beyal shawey, pah 
asana'i sarah ghanimat da 
^a-ino du^hmanano khpulo 

25. M'zara'i. 

Pah mi-yandz da folo hai- 
wano ier ba^s shawaey wuh, 
chih kom-yow tar niiro bah 
pah 46r-walaey da aulad 

24. The Wolves and the 

Once upon a time, the 
wolves sent an embassy to 
the sheep, desiring that 
there might be peace among 
them for the time to come. 

"Why," said they, 
" should we be for ever 
waging this deadly strife? 
Those wicked dogs are the 
cause of aU; they are inces- 
santly barking at us, and 
provoking us. Send them 
away, and there will be no 
longer any obstacle to our 
eternal friendship and 

The silly sheep listened, 
the dogs were dismissed, 
and the flock, thus deprived 
of their best protectors, be- 
came an easy prey to their 
treacherous enemy. 

25. The Lioness. 

There had been a great 
stir among all the beasts, 
which could boast of the 
largest family. 



lafey wu-wahi. Nur du-i 
pah w'randi da m'zara'i wu- 
raghlal, aw pu^htana'h jej 
tri wu-k'ya'h, " Tah ^o pah 
yowah war lang-tun tso ra- 
w'rej." Dej pah triw tand- 
aey war tah wu-wey, "Tow, 
magar haghah jow m'zaraey 

Fa-idah. — ^^La^^iiyat tar 
mikdar teraey kawi. 

So they came before the 
lioness, and inquired of her, 
"(And) how many do you 
have at a birth ? " 

She said, grimly, "One; 
but that one is a lion." 

Moral. — Quality comes 
before quantity. 

26. Lewah aw Gkeda'h. 

Yow lewah chih spi ^war- 
alaey wuh, aw pah der bad 
hal wu-garzedah, lakahchih 
tuwan da harkat kawulo yey 
nah darlah, yowa*h gseda'h 
chih haltah teredala'h war 
"vni-yey-gho^htala'h, aw ilti- 
mas yey tri wu-kar chih tsah 
aoba'h lah chiney chih hal- 
tah najzdey wa*h war larah 
ra-w'ri, aw wayal jej, " Kih 
tah dz'ma da-parah ts'^hak 
ra-w'rey, khwarak bah zah 
pa-khpidah paida k*ram." 
G«dey wu-wey, "Ho, zah 
pah dey bab k'^hey shakk 
nah-laram ; tsalarah chih, 
kih zah hombrah najzdey 
da-parah da dar-kawulo da 
aobo dar sham, tah bah jzir 
ma kima*h k*ri." 

26. The 

Wolf and the 

A wolf that had been 
bitten by a dog, and was in 
a very sad case, in such wise 
that he was unable to move, 
called to a sheep that was 
passing by, and begged her 
to fetch him some water 
from the neighbouring 
stream, and said he, " If you 
will bring me drink, I will 
find meat myself." 

The sheep replied, " I 
make no doubt of it ; for, 
if I come near enough to 
give you the drink, you will 
soon make mince-meat of 





27. J^Tzaraey aw nur 27. The Lion and other 
darindagan iSh'kar kawunkl. Beasts hunting. 

M'zari aw nuro darinda- 
gano da-parah da t'lalo pah 
^h'kar sarah 'ahd wu-kair. 
Har-kalah chih yow tsorb 
ga-waz yey wu-niwah m'zari 
khpul dzan pah taur da 
amin w'randi ka^ aw haghah 
^h'kar yey drey ba^rey kayi, 
basey *aml yey wu-kay: 
wu - yey - wey, " Awwala'h 
ba^rey bah pah sabab da 
man^ab da badshaha'i waU)- 
1am dzakah chih badshah 
yam ; dweama'h ba^ra'h 
bah ^i^^a'h khpula'h wakh- 
1am tsalarah-chih pa-^pul- 
ah pah ^h'kar k'^ney mal- 
gar wum; aw pah bab k'^hey 
da dreyamey ba^rey — ^har- 
tsok chih hasey jur'at land 

The lion and other beasts 
formed an alliance to go out 

When they had taken a 
fat stag, the lion proposed 
himself as commissioner, and 
having divided the game into 
three portions, thus pro- 
ceeded : said he, " The first 
portion I shall take of&cially 
as king, for king I am ; the 
second I shall take for my 
own perBonal share in thi 
chase ; and as for the third 
part, let him take it who 

28. Spaey aw £§a^htan 

Yow sayaey pah saf ar taJh, 
haghah wakt, spaeY U^pul 
paJi warah walar Kdalaey, 
pah narey yey war-tah wu- 
wey, " Tsalarah wit ^iilaey 
walar gorey ? Da-parah da 
t'lalo mh ma sarah taiyari 
wu-k'yah." Spi, laka'i 6hor- 
awaley, wu-yey-wey, " Ai 

28. The Bog and his 

A certain man was setting 
out on a journey, when, see- 
ing his dog standing at the 
door, he cried out to him, 
"What are you gaping 
about ? G^et ready to come 
with me.** 

The dog, wagging his tail, 
said, "I am all right, 



$ahibah zah musta'idd yam; 
ta larah taiyari karey bo- 

P^Jbi Pu^hto hum matal 
di. " Wa laram tah yey 
wu-wey, *Kuch daey.' Wey 
yey, *Bz*ma yowa'li lakai 
da'h/ " 

master ; it is you who have 
to pack up." 

There is a Proverb in 
Pu^hto likewise. " They 
said to the scorpion, **Tis 
time to march.' He replied, 
' I have only my tail.' " 

29. Bad-tto-e Spaey. 

Tow spaey hasey wahshi 
aw bad-kho-e wuh, chih 
tga^htan larah jej lazim 
wuh chih yow drund koland 
yey pah ^^ara'h pori wu-tari, 
chih lah khwaralo aw dah- 
ralo da ham-sayahgano 
^pulo man'a'h shi. Spaey, 
lah dey nughi ma^riir sha- 
waey, pah bazar k'^hey yey 
dzan zahir kar, kolan^ 
khpul ^horawulaey chih nuro 
war- tah wu-gori. Magar yo- 
wah ho^hyar dost yey karar- 
karar pah pas-pasey war-tah 
wu-wey, " Har kadr kam 
shuhrat chih pah dey bab 
k'^hey kawey bihtar daey; 
da niihana'h da im-tiyaz sta 
jaza da nek 'ami nah da'h, 
magar nughi da bad-nama'i 
da'h ! " 

Fa-idah. — Sari der wakt- 
unah shuhrat pah ghalat 
namus shmeri, aw pah 'iwaz 
k'^hey da dey chih shuhrat 

29. The Mischievous Dog. 

There was a dog so wild 
and mischievous, that his 
master was obliged to fasten 
a heavy clog about his neck, 
to prevent him biting and 
worrying his neighbours. 

The dog, priding himself 
on this badge, paraded him- 
self iu the market-place, 
shaking his clog to attract 
the attention of others. 

But a sly friend of his 
whispered to him, and said, 
" The less noise you make 
in this matter the better; 
your mark of distinction is 
no reward of merit, but a 
badge of disgrace." 

Moral. — Men often mis- 
take notoriety for fame, and 
would rather be remarked 
for their vices or their follies 



nah mumi num watal pah 
'aib aw ^ima^at ^pxd 

Pah Pu^hto wa-yi,— **Tow 
sa^aey wuh, num yey nah 
wot. Pah masjid k'^hey 
yey gandagi wu-k'yala'h, 
num yey wu-wot." 

than not be noticed at 

They say in Pu^hto— 
"There was a man; (but) 
he was not noted. He com- 
mitted a nuisance in the mas- 
jid, and his name got up." 

30. Sa^aey spi dah^alaey. 

Yow sayaey chih spi dah- 
l^alaey wuh, daltah haltah 
gSBrzedah, pu^htana'h yey 
kawula'h chih 'ilaj dz'ma 
tgok kawulaey shi. Yow 
sai^y chih war-sarah pe^h 
shah war tah yey wu-wey, 
"Ai ^a^ibah, kih ghwayey 
joy shey, yowa'h tukra'h 
4o4a'i pah wino da haghah 
za^m ^Lushta'h k']*ah, aw 
wa-haghah sp! tah chih tah 
yey dahyalaey yey wacha- 
wah." Haghah sap, mase- 
dalaey, wu-yey-wey, "K"ih 
zah paJi muafiV ^^ ma^lahat 
sta 'ami wu-k*]*am, lah folo 
spio da ^hahr bah dah]*alaey 

Pa-idah. — Haghah t§ok 
chih dzan taiyar da-parah 
da perodalo da du^hmanano 
^pulo zahirawi mul^^taj bah 
da 46r-wali da du-i nah shi. 

30. The Man bitten by a 

A man who had been 
bitten by a dog was going 
about asking if any one 
could cure him. 

One that met him said, 
" Sir, if you would be cured, 
take a bit of bread and dip 
it in the blood of the wound, 
and give it to the dog that 
bit you." 

The man, smiling, said, 
"K I were to follow your 
advice, I should be bitten 
by all the dogs in the city." 

Moral. — ^He who pro- 
claims himself ready to buy 
up his enemies will never 
want a supply of them." 



31. Spaey pali A^or 

Towah spi bechawma'h 
IdbpuWli pah yowah aU^or 
k'iShey jora*h k'ra'h, aw 
hag^ah dza'e tgiamlastalaej, 
pah ^apal aw Xam. wahal 
jej asan lah tsarah mana' 
kawul. Yowah lah hugho 
wu-wey, " Wu-gora'i, tsah 
bad ^o-e spaey daey, chih 
pah-Upulah dana'h nah-shi 
ttwayaley, aw nah bsel 
chih khwarali yey shi war 
prejz-di chih wu-yey khuri«" 

32. Ghuinasha'hawGhwa- 

Towa'h ghuinasha'h chih 
chaperah pah sar da yowah 
ghwayah burnedala'h, a^ir 
pah yowah ^h'kar yey k'lShe- 
nastaley, lah dah yey da 
ta^di' war-kawulo mu'afi 
wu-ghoshta'h, aw wu-yey- 
wey, " Kih drimd-wali dzma 
wa-ta-tah tsah taklif dar- 
kawl mihrbani karaey ra-tah 
wu-wayah aw zah bah pah 
yowah dam k*6hey lafa'h 
sham.'* Ghwayah war-tah 
wu-wey, " Pah dey bab 
ttpTil matzah mah khurah, 
tsalarah chih wa-ma-tah yow 
tgiz daey kih pato shey kih 
lara'h shey ; aw, kih ri^hti-a 
wu-wayam, zahnahwu-pohe- 
dam chih tah haltah wey." 

31. The Dog in the Man- 

A dog had made his bed 
in a manger, and there 
lying, by snarling and 
growling, kept the horses 
from their provender. 

One of them said, "See 
what a miserable cur it is ! 
who neither can eat com 
himself, nor will allow those 
to eat it who can." 

32. The Gnat and the 

A gnat that had been buz- 
zing about the head of a 
bull, at length settling her- 
self down upon one of his 
horns, begged his pardon 
for incommoding him, and 
said, " If my weight at all 
inconveniences you, pray say 
so, and I will be off in a 

"Oh, never trouble your 
brains about that," says the 
bull; "for it is all one to 
me whether you go or stay ; 
and, to say the truth, I did 
not know you were there." 



Fa-idali. — ^Har kadr chih 
'ilm kam daey ^ud-bini 
ziata'h da'h, masalan da 
Pei^hawar ^ud-pasand 'ali- 


Moral. — The smaller the 
mind the greater the con- 
ceit, as, for example, the 
self-satisfied wise men of 

33. M'zaraey aw drey 
Nadiman yey. 

M'zari gseda'h war-wa- 
gh o^htala'h aw wa-dey-tah 
wu-farmayil, " Wu-wayah 
Irih dz'ma ^iila'h bad bu-e 
lari kih yah/' Dey dzawab 
war-kar, " Ho." M'zari pah 
^a^ho sar da dey dzini pre- 
kar tsa]arah chih ahmaka'h 
yey wu-garnala'h. Nur le- 
wah yey wu-gho^ht, aw lah 
dahyey pu^htana'h wu-k'ra'h. 
Haghah wu-wey, "Yah." 
Daeyyey tukartiikaykar tsal- 
arah chih U^ushamad-gar 
yey wu-shmerah. A^iryey 
lumbar war-wu-ghoiSht, aw 
lah dah yey suwal wu-kay. 
Haghah wn-wey, " Pah 
ri^hti-a zah zukam shawaey 
yam, paza'h mi banda'h 

Fa-idah. — 'Akilkasan pah 
]diatar-nako zamano k'^hey 
hits nah wa-yi. 

33. The Lion and his 
three Councillors. 

The lion called the sheep, 
and asked her, " Say whether 
my breath smells bad or 

She said, " Ay." 

The lion bit off her head 
for a fool. 

Then he called the wolf, 
and asked him. 

He said, "No." 

He tore him to pieces for 
a flatterer. 

At last he called the fox, 
and asked him the question. 

He replied, " Truly I have 
got a cold, and cannot 

Moral. — Wise men say 
nothing in dangerous times. 

34. Dwah Degah. 

Dwah degah, yow Idbaw- 
rin, bsel da koto, lah sail- 

34. The two Pots. 

Two pots, one of earthen- 
ware, the other of brass, 



abah da yowah sind nezah- 
wap sh'wal. Dahkotodegwa 
khawrin tah iltinias karaey 
wu-yey-wey, " Kih dz'ma 
pah tsang aosey ^abar-dari 
bah di wu-k'ram." Khawrin 
wn-wey, "Da waina sta 
dera'h mihrbam da'h, magar 
lah dey karah ^o zah zi'ati 
werejzam; kih tah yawa- 
dzaey tsa^o tafawat satal- 
aey larey, ^ha-yi chih zah 
pah salamat pah sar da aobo 
lar sham, lekin kih mujz 
saxah wu-n'^halu, yakin daey 
chih zah bah azar miindal- 
aey sham." 

Fa-idah. — Parhez wu- 
k'raa'i lah dero zorawaro 
hamsayahgano; tsalarah 
chih, kih sarah wu-n'^hla'i, 
haghah chih kam-zoraey 
daey tabah bah shi. 

36. Tabib aw Mariz. 

Towah tabib lah tso mii- 
dey pori 'ilaj da yowah 
mariz ka-wuh, magar ha^ah 
yey pah 'ilaj k'^hey mar 
shah. Pah wakt da put- 
awulo tabib pri 'azizano yey 
gserzidah, wayal yey, "Kih 
haghah gharib dost dz'mujz 
chih haltah daey, f akat lah 
shrabo parhez karaey wae 
aw muwafik 'ilajunah jej 
musta'malawali Imltah ban 

were carried down a river in 
a flood. 

The brazen pot begged 
the earthen one, saying, " If 
you keep by my side I will 
protect yon." 

The earthen pot said, 
" Thank you for your kind 
offer, but that is just what 
I am afraid of ; if you will 
only keep at a distance, 
perhaps I may float down in 
safety ; but should we come 
in contact, I am sure to be 
the sufferer." 

Moral. — Avoid too power- 
ful neighbours ; for, should 
there be a collision, the 
weakest goes to the wall. 

36. The Doctor and his 

A doctor had been for 
some time attending upon a 
sick man, who, however, died 
under his hands. 

At the funeral the doctor 
went about among the rela- 
tions, saying, "Our poor 
friend there, if he had only 
refrained from wine, and 
used proper remedies, would 
not have been lying there." 



prot nah wuh." Towah lah 
wera'h-jzalio dzawab war 
kaiT, '^ Ai nekab f ahibab, aos 
basey ^abara'b kawul bej- 
f a-ii^Ekbda'b ; ta larab baedab 
wubtasb^if kawul da basey 
tgizo bagbab wakt cbin 
mariz da-parab da kbwayalo 
jzwandaey wob." 

Ea-idab. — Hasej kejzi 
cbib bibtarin naf i-bat mund 
sbi pas lab bagbab cbib kar 
lab-lasab wu-wat. 

36. Kbar aw Kbiar-kar. 

Tow ttar cbib pab lar 
k'^bey tsai^btan pab maU^ab 
sbaraii, na-tsapab w'^andi 
wu-ta^btedab, aw lo-ea*b lar 
jej pre-ya^bey, pab bar kadr 
jzser-ti-a cbib towanedab 
wa-tsandab-tab da yowab 
g'rang wu-z'gbast. Hagbab 
wakt cbib la bagbab dza'eab 
pri Iwedab sbab, t§a^btan 
yey mandey wabaley wa- 
ragbi. aw tar laka'i yey ting 
niwaley, ko^bi^b yey kawab 
cbib bi-artab yey war-wu- 
kajzi ; magar kli'rsBb muka- 
bilab karaey pab ^ilaf da 
dab yey zor wabab, nur sari 
las dzini a^staey, wu-yey- 
wey, " Kbiair, ai dzo-eab, kib 
pab zor dzan malik kawey, 
Uo, zab na-'ilajab yam. 
Bo-yab cbib sar-ka^b baiwan 
lar ^pula'b wu-nesi." 

One of tbe mourners an- 
swered bim, " My good sir, it 
is of no use saying tbis now ; 
you ougbt to have prescribed 
tbese tbings wben your 
patient was alive to take 

Moral. — ^It may so bappen 
tbat tbe best awivice may 
come too late. 

36. Tbe Ass andbis Driver. 

An ass tbat was being 
driven along tbe road by bis 
master, suddenly started on 
abead, and leaving tbe 
beaten track, made as fast 
as be could for tbe edge of 
a precipice. 

Wben be was just on tbe 
point of falling over, bis 
master ran up, and seizing 
bim by tbe tail, endeavoured 
to puU bim back ; but tbe 
ass resisting and pulling tbe 
contrary way, tbe man let go 
bis bold, saying, " Well, 
Jack, if you will be master, 
I cannot belp it. A wilful 
beast must go bis own 



37. Kaza'h Zarini Haga'i 

Tow saraej hasey nek- 
nasib wuli cliih yowa'h 
kaza'h jej darlala'h cliih 
harah wradz yey yowa'li 
zarina'li haga'i achawula'h. 
Magar lah hasey susta'i 
amadana'i na-razab sbawaey, 
kbiyal yey wu-kar, cbib tam- 
ama'b U^zana'b pab yow- 
ab dam pab kabza'b ra- 
w*ri, nur kaza'b jey m'ya'b 
k'ra'b; aw geda'b yey tsiraley 
tsab taur jej mund — basey 
lakab cbib nur kaz'an wi ! 

Fa-idab. — Der zi'tlti 


ghwari aw tol tabab k'ri. 

37. Tbe Goose with the 
Golden Eggs. 

A certain man bad tbe 
good fortune to possess a 
goose tbat laid bim a golden 
egg every day. 

But dissatisfied witb so 
slow an income, and think- 
ing to seize tbe wbole trea- 
sure at once, be killed tbe 
goose ; and cutting her 
open, found her — ^just what 
any other goose would be ! 

Moral. — ^Much wants more 
and loses all. 

38. Khar aw Tsa^btanan 

Yow l^ar cbib mal da 
yowab baghwan wuh, aw 
^warak yey lajz mibnat 
jey der wuh, iltimas jej lab 
Jupitarab wu-kar club dey 
lah kbidmatab da baghwan 
Ubalas k'ri, aw bsel tsai^btan 
war-k*ri. Jupitar, lah na- 
kbwaiSba'i da dab na-razab 

— " ■ • 

sbawaey, daey jej wa yowab 
kulal tab wu-sparah. Aos 
pab nazar wa-pa-^wa-tab 
bo-yah der lo-e barunab yosi. 
Bi-a yey wa-Jupitar-tah 

38. The Ass and his 

An ass tbat belonged to a 
gardener, and had little to 
eat and much to do, besought 
Jupiter to release him from 
tbe gardener's service, and 
give bim another master. 

Jupiter, angry at his dis- 
content, made bim over to a 

He bad now heavier bur- 
dens to carry than before, 
and again appealed to Ju- 
piter to relieve him, and 



shikajat wu-kar cliili da dah 
dast-giri wu-k'yi, aw Jupitar 
hasej tajwiz wu-kar chih 
dey pah kom ^myar wu- 
prolah shah. !^ar aos pah 
nisbat wa-w'yandini-tah wa 
4er bad hal tah wu-rasedah, 
aw chih da harey wradz- 
ey kar da tsai^htan jej 
mulahizah kawuh, pah 
zgerwaey yey wu - wey, 
" Af SOS ! af 80S ! tsah tor- 
ba^tah yam! Dz'ma da- 
parah bihtar wuh chih 
^ana'at mi pah Vrunbanio 
toa^htanano ka^ aey wae, tsal- 
arah chih zah aos winam 
chih aosanaey tsai^htan mi 
tgo jzwandaey yam yawadz- 
aey zi'ati mihnat bah pah 
ma nah kajzi, balkih chih 
mai* sham tsarman bah mi 
hum pre-nah-jz'di ! '* 

Fa-idah. — Haghah took 
chih pah yowah dza*e k'^hey 
nah kfawa^hah daey, kalali 
nah kalah bah bsel dza'e 
khwaih shi. 

Jupiter so contriyed that he 
was sold to a tanner. 

The ass haying now fallen 
into worse hands than eyer, 
and daily obserying how his 
master was employed, ex- 
claimed, with a groan, 

'' Alas ! alas ! what a wretch 
am I! It had been better 
for me to haye remained 
content with my former mas- 
ters, for now I see that my 
present owner will not only 
work me harder while living, 
but will not eyen spare my 
hide when I am dead ! " 

Moral. — He that is dis- 
contented in one place will 
seldom be happy in another. 

39. Ghal aw Spaey. 

Yow ij^al chih da-parah da 
ghla wa yowah kor tah war- 
tah ij^o^nt yey chih ghapa da 
spi pah achawulo da goley 
wa-dah-tah man'a'h k*|i. Spi 
war tah wu-wey, " Jzear lah 

89. The Thief and the 

A thief who was coming 
to rob a house would haye 
stopped the barking of a 
dog by throwing a sop to 
him. The dog said to 
him, " Away with you ! I 



daey dza'eah liri shah! pa- 
Uwa tar dej ma ^er shak- 
unah pah tah dar-lal, 
magar da bey-haddah mihr- 
bani sta wa-ma-tah yakin 
kawi chih luchah yey." 

Fa-idah. — ^Bada h pah las 
k'^hey zahirawi badi pah 

had my suspidons of you 
before, but this excess of 
ciyility assures me that you 
are a rogue." 

Moral. — ^A bribe in hand 
betrays mischief at heart. 

40. Kama-chl giriftar 

Yow kama-cbl pah jang 
k'^hey giriftar shawaey, pah 
dera'h j^aribi sarah yey 
aman wu-£^o^ht. Wu-yey- 
wey, "Ai neko ifa^ibano, 
ma mu'af k'yaa'i, aw ma bey- 
sababah wa-katl-tah mah 
rasawa'i, tsalarah chih ma 
pah-^pulah tsok wajzalaey 
nah daey, aw pratah lah dey 
karna hum hits wasla'h nan 
laram." Hu^o kasano chih 
dey yey giriftar kayaey wuh, 
wu-yey wayal, "Da-parah 
da dsHghah sabab ^o bah 
jzser wa-katl-tah wa-rasejzi, 
tialarah chih pah-^pulah 
lah jangkawulo bey himatah, 
nur ]^alk pah jang aw khun- 
rezi patsawey." 

Fa-idah. — Haghah saraey 
chih da-parah da jang nur 
patsawi ^er bad daey tar 
hu^o chih pah k'iShey 
sharik di. 

40. The Trumpeter taken 

A trumpeter haying been 
taken prisoner in battle, 
begged hard for quarter. 
Said he, ''Spare me, good 
sirs, I beseech you, and put 
me not to death without 
cause, for I have killed no 
one myself, and save this 
trumpet I have no other 

They who had seized him 
said, " For this very reason 
shall you the sooner die, for 
without the spirit to fight 
yourself, you stir up others 
to warfare and bloodshed." 

Moral. — ^He who incites 
to strife is worse than those 
who take part in it. 



41. Musafiran aw Tabar. 

Dwo sayo pah yowa'h lar 
k'^hej safar kawab, haghah 
wa^t yowah lah du-io yow 
tabar Iwe-dalaey wa!^ist 
aw wu-yey-wey, " Wu-gorah 
chib ma tsah tsiz mundal- 
aey daey!" Hag^ah beel 
wu-wey, "Mah wayab chib 
*ma,' balkib 'mujz,' mun- 
dalaeydaey." Paslabiajzey 
mudey, hagbo sai'o chib 
tabar wuruk ka^aey wii ra- 
gblal, aw par haghab saraey 
cbib tabar war dza^ah wuh 
tubmat da gbla yey ke-i^bod. 
Haghab wa-malgari ^pul 
tab wu-wey, " Af sos ! ' mu jz ' 
halak sh'wii ! " Haghab 
bsel dzawab war-kay, " Mah 
wayab chih 'mujz' halak 
sh'wii ; balkib wayab * zab ' 
halak sb'wam, dzakah chib 
haghab saraey chib nab 
pre-jz'di chin dost yey 
|^i99a'b-dar da ni'mat shi, 
bo-yah chih ^iyal wa-nah- 
k'ri chih ^i^^a'b-dar da 
^atar bah yey shi." 

42. Zof Safaey aw Marg. 

Yowah zapah saraey cbib 
yow lo-e ge^aey da largio 
yey aUiistey wa'h 4era'h lar 
t'lalaey wuh, basey stayaey 
shah chih haghab ge4aey 

41. The Travellers and 
the Hatchet. 

Two men were travelling 
along the same road, when 
one of them, picking up a 
hatchet, cried out, "See 
what thing I have found ! " 

The other said, " Do not 
say * I,' but that * we ' have 

After a while, up came 
the men who had lost 
the hhtchet, and charged the 
man who had it with the 

He said to his companion, 
"Alas! 'we' are undone" 

" Do not say * we ' are 
undone," replied the other ; 
but say ' I ' am undone ; for 
he that will not allow his 
friend to share the prize, 
must not expect him to share 
the danger." 

42. The old Man and 

An old man that had 
travelled a long way with a 
huge bundle of sticks, found 
himself so weary that be 
cast it down, and called 




yey wu-ghurzawuh, aw 
marg yey wu-^o6ht chih 
wa-dah-tah lah dey derey 
galiley zindagana'i khpuley 
khalasi war-k'ri. Marg 
barabar da balalo da dah 
jzir hazir shah, aw pu^h- 
tana'h yey tri wu-k'ra'h chih, 
" ^ah ^warey ? " Hag^ah, 
pah hairat k'^hey Iwe-da- 
laey, wu-yey-wey, " Ai nekah 
9ahibah, mihrbani karey 
fakat pah Li-a akbistalo 
k'shey da gedi wa-ma-tah 
madad ra k'rah." 

Fa-idah. — Gio^htal da 
marg yow tpiz daey, aw ra- 
t'lunkaey lidal yey bfiel teiz. 

43. Da Na^htar Wana'h 
aw Karkarna'h. 

Yowey waney da na^htar 
yowa*h wradz pah nijzdey 
da karkaraey lafey shafey 
wahaley war-tah wu-yey- 
wey, "Tah bi-l-kuU pah hits 
kar nah jey ; niagar tsah 
anbar-khanev aw kom kor- 
unah bey lah ma bina ke- 
daUshi?" Karkarney war- 
tah wu-wey, "Ai nekah 
^ahibah, haghah wakt chih 
tar-karnan lah- tabaro aw 
aro ]^pulo sarah daltah ra- 
shi, tso fidia'h bah di shan- 
daley wa'h kih na^htar nah 
yowah karkarn wey ? " 

Fa-idah.-Maskina'h baJi- 

npon Death to deliver him 
from his most miserable 

Death came straightway 
at his call, and asked him, 
" What do you want ? " 

He, filled with terror, re- 
plied, " Pray, good sir, do 
me but the favour to help 
me up with my burden 

Moral. — It is one thing 
to call for Death, and another 
to see him coming. 

43. The Fir-tree and the 

A fir-tree was one day 
boasting itself to a bramble, 
(and) said to it, " You are 
of no use at all ; but how 
could bams and houses be 
built without me ? 


The bramble replied, 
" Good sir, when the wood- 
men come here with their 
axes and saws, what would 
you give to be a bramble 
and not a fir ? " 

Moral. — A humble lot in 



ra'h pah salamat k*^hey 
bihtara'h da'h lah kbataro 
chih charperah par lo-eauo 
aw mutakabbirano wi. 

44. Bu^a'i aw suhelal 

Yowey zayey kuiKjey 
ho^h-yarey dwey suhelai 
darlaley, chih haghah bah 
yey tal pah wakt da chirg 
Dang wa-^idmat-tah wa- 
larawuley. Suhellodasal^ar- 
^ezi diera'h na-pasandaJey, 
yow lah bselah yey sarah 
j^arar wu-ta^ ah chih ghaya'h 
da chirg pechaley wa-yey- 
wajzni, lah dey jihatah chih 
dey pah sabab da wi^hawulo 
da mir-maney khpuley pah 
lo-e sa^ar k'^hey sabab da 
tolo mi^nato da du-i wuh. 
Har-kalah chih du-i da kar 
wu-kaf , highey zafey ^ahib- 
ey, mudami bang-kawun- 
kaey khpul nah darlalaey, 
weredunkey sh'wa'h chih 
nah - bada pah - kbpula'h 
bah zl'ata'h widah shi, nur 
tal bah yey wa^t ghalata- 
wuh, aw du-l bah yey nima'h 
shpa'h wi^hawuley. 

Fa-idah. — Lah haddah 
zi'ati hila'h baz! aksir kbpul 
dzan tah daghah war-kawi. 

45. Na-jo^ah M'zaraey. 
Yow m'zaraey , chih lah jih- 
atah da kam-zora'i da zai'ti-a 

security is better than the 
dangers that encompass the 
high and haughty. 

43. The old Woman and 
her Maids. 

A thrifty old widow kept 
two servant-maids, whom 
she used to call up to their 
work at cock-crow. 

The maids, disliking ex- 
ceedingly this early rising, 
determined between them- 
selves to wring o£E the cock's 
neck and kill him, as he was 
the cause of their trouble 
by waking their mistress so 

They had no sooner done 
this than the old lady, miss- 
ing her usual alarum, and 
afraid of over-sleeping her- 
self, continually mistook the 
time of day, and roused 
them up at midnight. 

Moral. — Too much cun- 
ning often over-reaches itself. 

45. The Sick Lion. 
.A lion, no longer able, 
from the weakness of old 

8 ♦ 



pah gando k'^hey tuwan da 
ih'kar kawulo da-parah 
da ^warak nah darlah, 
pah i^ar Upnl k'^hej k'l^he- 
nast, aw nafas pah ier 
mushkil k'^halaey, pah 
naraej ahwaz sarah, jej 
zahir k'ral chih zah lah had- 
dah zi-at na-jorah yam. 
Da awaza'h pah (jlerah tal- 
war sarah pah mi-yandz 
k'^hey da haiwanano mash- 
hura'h sh'wa'h, aw derey 
jzara aw arman lah jihatah 
da dah wu-shah. Yow pas 
lah bsBlah yey 'iyadey larah 
wa-raghlal ; magar, m'zan 
du-i hasey beyal beyal, aw 
pah ^ar Upul k'^hey mun- 
dali, pah asani jej ghanimat 
^pul k'ral, aw pah dey 
ta'am tsorb shah. Lumbar, 
lah rasta*! da dey ahwaza'h 
pah guman k'^hey Iwe-da- 
laey, aMiir da-parah da 
'iyadey yey wa-raghi^ aw 
tsa^o liri daredalaey pu^h- 
tana'h da hal da kiblahe- 
'alam ]^pul jey wu-k'ra'h. 
M'zari wu-wey, **Ao, lah- 
tolah-nah 'azizah dostah 
dz'ma, da tah yey ? Waley 
hasey liri lah ma walar yey ? 
Najzdey ra-shah, ai ^'ma 
shirinah yarah, aw da 'ajiz 
m'zari pah ghwajz k'^hey, 
diih lajz wakt da jzwandun 
Ian* yowa'h Uiabara'h da 

age, to hunt for his prey, 
hud himself np in his 
den, and, breathing with 
great difficulty, and speak- 
ing with a low Yoice, gave 
out that he was very iU 

The report soon spread 
among the other beasts, and 
there was great lamentation 
for the sick lion. 

One after the other came 
to see him ; but, the lion 
catching them thus alone, 
and in his own den, made 
an easy prey of them, and 
grew fat upon his diet. 

The fox, suspecting the 
truth of this matter, came 
at length to make a visit of 
inquiry, and standing at 
some distance, asked his 
majesty how he did. 

The lion said, ''Ah, my 
dearest friend, is it you? 
Why do you stand so far 
from me? Come near, 
sweet friend, and pour a 
word of consolation in the 
poor lion's ear, who has but 
a short time to live." 



z^rah da 4a4 wu-k'rah." 
Li(mbaf pah dzawab k'^hej 
war-tah wu-wey, " Wish, 
Uudae di pah zerma'h 
shah ! waley chih furfat da 
patedalo nah laram mu'af 
mi k'raa'i, tsalarah chih,kih 
ri^hti-a wu-wayam, zah ier 
dzal-baland sh'wam lah lida- 
lo da palo chih daltah pah 
nazar ra-dzi ^alarah folah 
wa ghar sta tah dar-ghali 
di, aw vow hum bi-yartah 
ra-wataiaey nah daey. 

Fa-idah. — Nanawatah 
pah karo k'^hey asan daey 
tar watah ; aw fakat rasmi 
ho^hyari da'h chih pa-khwa 
tar sar dananah kawulo lar 
da da-dabandi watalo wu- 

46. Lewah pah jama'h 
k'^hey da Gte^ey. 

Yow wakt lah wa^to yow- 
ah lewah ^su^d wu-kar chih 
9urat kbpul tabdil k'l*!, hasey 
^ial ka^aey chih pah day 
shan bah gusran ^pul der 
asan mumi. Nur, warg da 
yowey gsd^ej aghustaey. 
hasey tadbir yey wo-kar 
chih pah yowa'h rama'h 
k'^hey da gsd^o da^il shah, 
aw lah du-i sarah tsaridah, 
hasey chih shpun himi lah 
haghah makrah f areb wa- 

The fox, in reply, said to 
him, " Gbd bless you ! but ex- 
cuse me if I cannot stay, for, 
to tell the truth, I feel quite 
uneasy at the mark of the 
footsteps that I see here, for 
all are pointing towards your 
den, and not one returning 

Moral. — Affairs are easier 
of entrance than of exit; 
and it is but common pru- 
dence to see our way out 
before we venture in." 

46. The Wolf in Sheep's 

Once upon a time, a wolf 
resolved to disguise himself, 
thinking that he should thus 
gain an easier livelihood. 

Having, therefore, clothed 
himself in a sheep's skin, he 
contrived to get among a 
flock of sheep, and feed along 
with them, so that even 
the shepherd was deceived 
by the imposture. 



UiOf. Lakah chih shpa'h 
shVah aw shpol wu-tarah 
shah, lewah hum lah gsB^o 
sarah band shah, aw war 
wu-tayahshah. Magarhasey 
wu-sh'wah chih shpun, wa 
kom tsiz tah da-pa rah da 
shumey ^puley hajat-mand 
shawaej, da-parah da da- 
handi ra-wustalo da yowey 
gse^ey, dananah nana-wot, 
magar lah ^alatah lewah 
yow lah du-i ehmeralaey, 
ra-wu-yey-yost, aw jzir yey 
halal kar. 

When night came on and 
the fold was closed, the 
wolf was shut up with the 
sheep, and the door made 
fast. But it so ha])pened 
that the shepherd, wanting 
something for his supper, 
went in to fetch out a 
sheep, but mistaking the 
wolf for one of them, 
brought him out, and killed 
him on the spot. 

47. Sli'kari Spaey aw 

Yow iSh'kari spaey pas lah 
4ero z'ghastalo pah yowey 
Boeyey pasey,* pah akhir 
k'iShey barabar wa dey tah 
wu-rasedah, awwal bah jej 
dahai'ala'h bi-a bah yey tsa- 
tala'h. Soeya'h, pah matlab 
da dey kar da dah nah- 
pohedalaey, wu-yey-wey, 
" Kih tah mi dost jej, nur 
tgalarah ml dharey? aw kih 
duiShman jej tsalarah 
mina'h ra sarah kawey ? " 

Fa-idah. — Mubham dost 
bad-tar daey tar yakin 
duihman: bo-yah chih saf- 

47. The Hound and the 

A hound, after long chas- 
ing a hare, at length came 
up to her, and kept first 
biting and then liclang her. 

The hare, not knowing 
what to make of this, said to 
him, "If you are my friend, 
why do you bite me ? but if 
a foe, why do you caress 
me ? " 

Moral. — A doubtful friend 
is worse than a certain 
enemy : let a man be one 

i.e. pas yey. See Dictionary, p. 1105. 



aey ya yow teiz wi ya bsel, 
nur hapfhab wakt pohejzu 
chih pah i§3,h shan lah dah 
sarah mukabilah wa-k*]:u. 

48. 'Arab aw tT^h. 

Yowah 'Arab u^h khpul 
le^halaey, puiShtana'h jej tri 
wu-k'ra'h chih " wa-l'wafa'h 
lar-tah t'lal khwaiShawey kih 
wa-dz'wara'h lar." tJ^h pah 
kinayah sarah wu-wey, 
" Tsah, ai tsx^htanah, da 
samey lar 'ubur da maidan 
band shawey da'h ? " 

49. Khar pah tsarman da 

Yowah ^'rah tsarman da 
m'zari a^ustey, harah khwa 
tab gserzedah, Xo\ ab^i^rk 
^aiwanan chih pah pri pe^h 
sh'wal werawul yey, aw, yow 
lumbar lidalaey, pah ko^hii^h 
shah chih da hum wu-wera- 
wi. Magar lumbar, awaz 
da dah arwedalaey, wu-yey- 
W3y, " Pah tahkik, zah bah 
hum weredalaey wum, kih 
naral sta mi arwedalaey nah 

Fa-idah. — Haghah kasan 
chih yow wa^f chih tiakk 
yey nah wi pah dziin pori 
l^a^awi aksir wa^tunah lah 
ziyadati kawulo pah haghah 
k'^hey kbp^ dsan ^ha-yi. 

thing or the other, and then 
we know how to meet him. 

48. The Arab and the 

An Arab having loaded 
his camel, asked him whether 
he preferred going up hill 
or down hill. 

The camel dryly replied, 
^*Pray, mxstsr, is the 
straight way across the plain 
shut up ? " 

49. The Ass in the Lion's 

An ass haying put on a 
lion's skin, roamsd all about, 
frightening all the silly 
animils he met with, and, 
seeing a fox, he tried to 
alarm him also. 

But Raynard, having 
heard his voice, said to him, 
"Well, to be sure! and I 
should h ive been frightened 
too if I had not heard your 

Moral. — They who assume 
a character that does not 
belong to them generally 
betray themselves by over- 
acting it. 



50. Da S^'rah Seo-raey. 50. The Ass's Shadow. 

Yowah lah khfi d-pasandah 
'alimano da Peshawar, pah 
yowa'h toda'h rwadz k'^hey 
da won, da-parah da sware- 
dalo ^pul yow ^ar pah 
Mraha'h wa^ist chih lah 
Pe^hawarah Hot! Mardan 
larah t'lalaey wa yowah 
Farangi shagird l^pul tah 
izabah da '* Pakshto " ta'lim 
P rl . Pah nima' h rwadz k'shey 
gharmahhasey swunki sh'wal 
chih k'l^hatah shawaey.ghosht 
yey chih pah seo-ri k'^hey 
da li'rah ay^ wu-lagawi. 
Magar, da ]^'rah shai'unkaey 
cta-parah da haghah dza'e 
lah dah sarah jagara'h wu- 
k'ya'h, hasey wayai yey chih, 
''HakV dz'ma da-parah da 
dey dza'e sta tar ^akkah 
zi'ati daey." Khud-pasand 
'alim wu-wey, " Tsah ! ma 
^ar da drast saf ar da-parah 
pah kirahah a^istaey nah 
daey?" Ha^ah bsBl wu- 
wey, " Ho, ta Uar pah kira- 
hah a^istaey daey, lekin 
nah seo-raey da ^'rah." 
Pah dey mi^yandz k*^hey 
chih du-i jagara'h da-parah 
da haghah d7a'e sarah ka- 
wula'h, ^ar, na-tsapah lah 
haghah dza'eah wa-lori-tah 
da inairey taihtedalaey lap. 

One of the self-sufficient 
wise men of Peshawar, one 
hot summer's day, hired an 
ass in order to proceed from 
Peshawar toHoti Mardan to 
teach a Farangi pupil of his 
the Pakshto language. 

At mid-day the heat of 
the 8un ^Bsso Bcordung, 
that, having dismounted, he 
would have sat down to re- 
pose himself under the 
shadow of the ass. But the 
ass driver disputed the 
place with him, declaring 
that, " I have a greater right 
to this place than you." 

"What!" said the self- 
sufficient wise man, ** did I 
not hire the ass for the 
whole journey ? " 

The other replied, " Yes, 
you have hired the ass, but 
not the ass's shadow." 

While they were thus en- 
gaged in wrangling and 
fighting for the place, the 
ass suddenly took to his 
heels and ran off to the 



51. ^ar LeiSlialaey pah 

Yowah purdah - f arosh 
chih yow khar satah, basej 
arwedalaej chih malgah pah 
tsandah da darjab arzana'h 
pall las ra-dzi, ^ar l^pul 
yey wa hij^ih khwa tah da- 
parah da ra-mwalo da tsa^o 
Jah hi^^ey bot. Tro haiwan 
khpul yey pah har kadr chih 
yey w*falaey shah le^halaey, 
wa kor ^pul tah yey ra- 
wahah, magar, haghah wakt 
chih du-i lah yowey ^hwa- 
yandey par^hey teredal, 
kfaar k'^hata'h pah smd 
k'^hey pre-wat, aw inalga'h 
aoba'h shawey, dey lah 
^pulah barah ^ala? shah, 
nur pah asani wa-tsan^ah* 
tah wu-rasedah, pah safar 
l^pul w'i'andi spuk pah 
dzan aw pah naf s rawan 
shah. Haghah khurdah- 
&u:osh pas lah lajzey mudey 
bl-a wa-tsan4ah tah da dar- 
yab da-parah da ra-niwalo 
da tsakho nurey malgey l&x 
shah, aw ^ar yey pah nisbat 
wa-awwal-tah (lah mumkin 

51. The Ass carrying 

A certain huckster who 
kept an ass, hearing that 
salt was to be had cheap at 
the sea-side, took down his 
ass thither to buy some. 

Then having loaded the 
beast as much as he could 
bear, he was driving him 
home, when, as they were 
passing a slippery ledge of 
rock, the ass fell into the 
stream below, and the salt 
being melted, the ass was 
relieved of his burden, and 
then, having gained the bank 
with ease, pursued his jour- 
ney onwards light in body 
and in spirit. 

The huckster soon after- 
wards again set off for the 
sea-shore to bring some 
more salt, and loaded the 
ass (if it were possible) 
yet more heavily than be- 

* This noun is masculine in the Western dialect, and 
belongs to the first form of the 6th Declension, like many 
others of the same class. 



wae) zrati wu-le^liah. Pah 
wakt da bi-yartali ra-t'lalo 
da du-i, lakali diih 'ubur jej 
kawah lah haghah sindali 
cliili Ubar w*ran<K pali k'shey 
pre-wataey wuh, ^ar pali 
kasd pre-wat, aw lali aoba'li 
sli'walo da malgey, bi-a lab 
Idhpulab barab ^ala^ sbab. 
Tsasbtan yey, lab dey nuk- 
sanab pah ghazab sbawaey, 
fikr jej wu-kar cbib pab 
kom taur 'ilaj da dey cbal 
da dab wu-k'ri, nur pab bael 
war cbib yej saf ar wa-tsand- 
ab tab da daryab wu-kar 
dzanawar kbpiil jej pab 
sfanjo wu-le^bab. Ha^ab 
wakt cbib du-i pab pa-kbwa- 
naey sban wa bagbab sind 
tab wu-rasedal, l^'rab kadim 
cbal kbpul sburu' kar, aw 
^pul dzaa yey pab aoba'b 
k'sbey wu-r*gbarawub ; ma- 
gar sfanjuno bi-1-kull lawnd- 
ab sbawi, pab wakt k'sbey da 
t*lalo wa-kor-tab, khar pab 
^pul nuksan wu-pobedab, 
cbiJi pab 'iwaz da spukawulo 
da bar ttpul, ba^ab yey 
zi'ati tri dwuo bi^^o drund 
karaey wub. 

Fa-idab. — Yow rangab 
'amlunab bab muwafik da 
bar hal nab sbi ; aw basey 
bah wi cbib mujz ba^ah 
yow cbal yow war zi'ati wu- 

On their return, as they 
crossed the stream into 
which he bad formerly 
fallen, the ass fell down on 
purpose, and, by the dis- 
solving of the salt, was 
again released from his load. 

His master, provoked at 
the loss, and thinking how 
he might cure him of this 
trick, on bis next journey 
to the coast freighted his 
beast with a load of sponges. 

When they arrived at the 
same river as before, the ass 
was at his old tricks again, 
and rolled himself into the 
water ; but the sponges be- 
coming thoroughly wet, he 
found to his cost, as he pro- 
ceeded homewards, that 
instead of lightening his 
burden, he had more than 
doubled its weight. 

Moral. — The same mea- 
sures will not suit all cir- 
cumstances; and we may 
chance to play the same 
trick once too often. 



52. Najum-gtfr. 

Yow najum-gar hara'h 
shpa'li da-parah da mula- 
^izey kawulo da stoiio da- 
bandi tab. Nur yowa'li 
slipa'hhasejwu-sh'wali cliih, 
najum-gar pah cbaperah da 
^hahr gserzedali, tamamej 
andei^linej ttpuley yey paJi 
asman k'^hey 4»ibey shawey, 
pah yowah tsah pre-wat. 
Pah narey wahalo aw faryad 
kawulo da dah, yowah sapi 
chih wa-waila jej war-we- 
dah z'^astalaey war-larah 
wa-raghi. aw pas lah ghwajz 
niwalo wa-ki99ey-tah da dah, 
war-tah wu-yey-wey, " Ai 
nekah saraeya, pah hag^ah 
wakt k'shey chih tah ko^hiih 
kawey da-parah da tajassus 
kawulo pah asraro da f alak, 
lah 'amo tsizo chih landi tar 
piho sta di ghaflat kawey." 

53. Halakan aw Chan- 

Towah tolgi da ha- 
lakano pah tsaiKJla'h da 
yowey dau^ey baza'i kawul- 
aey, haghah wakt tso chan- 
g£k^hey pah aoba'h k'shey lld- 
ali, baran da 4^^^^o 7^7 
pah du-i ao-rawul shurii' 
k'ral. ^0 lah dey gharibah 
ma]^liikah yey la wajzali 
wey, chih yowah lah du-i 

52. The Astronomer. 

An astronomer used to 
walk out every night to gaze 
upon the stars. 

It happened one night 
that, as he was wandering in 
the outskirts of the city, 
with his whole thoughts 
rapt up in the skies, he fell 
into a well. 

On his holloaing and cry- 
ing out, one who heard his 
cries ran up to him, and 
when he had listened to his 
story, said, " My good man, 
while you are trying to pry 
into the mysteries of heaven, 
you overlook the common 
objects that are under your 

53. T&e Boys and the 

A troop of boys were 
playing at the edge of a 
pond, when, perceiving a 
number of frogs in the 
water, they began to pelt at 
them with stones. 

They had already killed 
many of the poor creatures, 
when one more hardy than 



z'fah-warah tar nuro, sar 
^Lpul lah aoba'h ra-yastal- 
aey, nara'h yey war-tah wu- 
k'ra'h, " Ai dz'ma halako, da 
bey-rahmah baza'i khpuley 
mau^ufey k'yaa'i; andesh- 
nah wu-k'f aa'i, chih har-chih 
tasu larah bazi da'h dz'mujz 
marg daey." 

54. Plar aw dwey Lumi 


Yowah sayi chih dwey 
lumi darlali, yowa'h yey wa 
yowah baghwan tah pah nik- 
ah war-k'ya'h, bsBla'h yey wa 
yowah kulal tah. Pas lah 
tsah mudey da ba^wan 
karah da-parah da mulakat 
wa-raghi, aw bara'h-ghaya'h 
yey lah luri sarah wu-k'ra'h, 
khair wa l^airiyat yey hum 
tri wu-pu^htedah. Dey dza- 
wab war-kay, "Fazl daey; 
mujz har-tsah chih ghwarii 
laru yey; ma-larah yawa^- 
aey yowa'h du'a shtah, chih 
dz'muj^ da-parah yow sa^t 
tofam baran wu-shi chih 
buzghali dz'mujz ser-ab 
k'yi." Nur plar da kulal 
karah rawan shah, aw ahwal 
da bsBley luri ^puley yey 
wu-puiShtedah. Hi^ey ^a- 
wab war-kay chih, "Hits 
tsiz nah-shtah chih mujz 
wa-hag^ah-tah moJ^taj yu, 

the rest, putting his bead 
out of the water, cried out 
to them, " Stop your cruel 
sport, my lads; consider, 
that what is play to you is 
death to us." 

54. The Father and his 
Two Daughters. 

A man who had two 
daughters, married one to a 
gardener, the other to a 

After a time he paid a 
yisit to the gardener's, and 
asked his daughter how she 
was, and how it fared with 

She replied, " Excellently 
well; we have everything 
that we want ; I have but one 
prayer, that we may have a 
heavy storm of rain to water 
our plants/' 


Then the &ther set off to 
the potter's, and asked his 
other daughter how matters 
went with her. She replied, 
saying, "There is not a 
thing we want, and I onfy 



aw zah yawadzaey da umid 
larom cnih da ^hsB'h hawa 
aw tod n'mar pato shi, da- 
parah dapa^awalo da loiShio 
^'mujz." Plar wa-yey- 
wej, "Dreghah! Dreghah ! 
kih tah gboihtunej da shsey 
hawa jejf aw khor di da 
baran da'h, nurzah da-parah 
da komey yowey du*a wu- 

hope this fine weather 
and hot sun may continue, 
to bake our tiles." 

"Alack! alack!" said 
the father, " if you wish for 
fine weather, and your sister 
for rain, which am I to pray 
for myself?" 

55. Serla'i aw Lewah. 

Yowa'h serla'i chih lah ram- 
ey awarah shawey wa*h yow- 
ah lewab pah maklxah k'ra'h. 
Har-kalah chih day wu-lidah 
chih hits bsBl umid da nijat 
nah-shtah, maldh yey wa- 
lewah - tah war - gurzawuh 
aw war-tah yey wu-wey, 
'' Ma-larah U^o V^'brd- 
awul bo-yah chih albattah 
fidia'h sta yam, magar lah 
dey sababah chih jzwandun 
dz ma aos lajz ba^i daey, 
prejz-dah chih pah ^wa^hi 
ter shi. Nur tah tsajd^o 
shpela'i wu-wahah, aw zah 
ball ga^ejzam." Pah wakt 
da shpela'i wahalo da lewali 
aw ga^ddalo da serla'i, spio 
haghah saz arwedalaey, da 
parah da lldalo chih haltah 
^ah kejzi z'ghastaJi ra-ghlal. 
aw lewah kbwaih wuh chih 

55. The Kid and the 

A kid that had strayed 
from the herd was pursued 
by a wolf. 

When she saw all other 
hope of escape cut off, she , 
turned round to the wolf 
and said to him, " I must 
allow, indeed, that I am your 
victim; but as my life is 
now but short, let it be a 
merry one. So do you pipe 
for a while, and I will 

While the wolf was piping 
and the kid was dancing, 
the dogs, hearing the music, 
ran up to see what was going 
on, and the wolf was glad 
to take himself off as fast 
as his legs could carry him. 



tashrif pah har-kadr jzir- 
walaej tso p^hey tar landi 
dzi lah ba gh ah dza'eah yosi. 
Fa-idah. — Haghah sari 
chih da-parah da kawulo da 
yowah be-hudah kar p^ha'b 
da-bandi lah lari aejz'di, nah 
bo-yab cbib ta'jjub wu-k'ri 
kib lab mundalo da ghani- 
mat kbata sbi. 

Moral. — He who steps 
out of tbe way to play the 
fool, must not wonder if he 
misses the prize. 

56. Da Jang As aw Khar. 

Yow da jang as pah khseh 
bargastawan arastab shaw- 
aey lakah tandara'h ghara 
kawunkaey pah yowa'h lar 
teredalaey, hasad da yowah 
gharib ]^'rah patsawub 
cbib pah drund bar pah sha 
darlalaey pah baghah lar 
pah karar karar tab. Ha gh ah 
maghrur as wu-wey . " Dza'- 
ma lab lari wu-wuzah ! kib 
nab tar p^ho bah di landi 
paemal kram.' * Kb'rab bits 
war-tab wu-nah-wey, magar 
puta'b ]^iila'h wa-tsandah- 
tab shah chih as ter shi. 
Pas lab tgakho miidey baghah 
da jang as pah jango Fi^hey 
hazir wuh, aw pah yowah 
jang saj^t za^ni a^istaey, 
da-parah da lasbkara'i kar 
na-la-ik wu-gserzedah, aw 
da-parah da kar da pafi da 
yowah zamindar was-tawuh 

56. The Charger and the 


A charger adorned with 
fine trappings came thun- 
dering along the road, ex- 
citing the envy of a poor 
Bss who was trudeing along 
the same way with a heavy 
load upon his back. 

The proud horse said, 
" Get out of my road ! or I 
shall trample you under my 

The ass said nothing, but 
quietly moved on one side 
to let the horse pass. 

Not long afterwards the 
charger was engaged in the 
wars, and being badly 
wounded in a battle, was 
rendered unfit for military 
service, and sent to work on 
the lands of a farmer. 



sliali. Nur chih ^'rali dey 
pah der mihnat sarah yowah 
drunda'h gada'i tskawuley 
wu-lidah, haghah wakt wu- 
pohedah chih teah kadr lajz 
sabab wuh ma larah hasad 
kawul lah hasey kasah sarah 
chih, pah wakt da ikbal 
khpul pah sabab da maghrur 
mizaj, wuruk kari wu liaghah 
dostan chih dah-larah bah 
yey pah wakt k'shey da zarur- 
at madad kawuh. 

67. Lewah aw M^zaraey. 

Yowa'hrwadz lewah yowa'h 
gflBda'h lah shpalah* akhis- 
tey wa*h, aw har-kalah chih 
wa ghar ^pul tah yey 
w'ra'h, lah yowah m'zari 
sarah pe^h shah, chih las- 
pah-las yey gseda'h dzini ra- 
niwaley tri yo-yey-w'ra'h. 
Lewah, liri daredalaey , iiara*h 
yey war-tah wu-k'ra'h, " Der- 
a'h da sharm ^abara'h da'h 
chih m'zari dz'ma mal ra- 
dzajiah ghla karaey daey." 
M'zari wu k'handal, aw wu- 
yey-wey, "Nur, zah khiyal 
kawum, chih magar haghah 

So when the ass saw 
him dragging with great 
labour a heavy waggon, 
he understood how little 
reason he had to envy one 
who, by his overbearing 
spirit in the time of his pros- 
perity, had lost those friends 
who might have succoured 
him in the time of need. 

57. The Wolf and the 

One day a wolf had seized 
a sheep from a fold, and 
when carrying him home to 
his own den, he met a lion, 
who straightway laid hold 
of the sheep and bore it 

The wolf, standing at a 
distance, cried out to him, 
'* It is a great shame that 
the lion has robbed me of 
my own." 

The lion laughed, and 
said, " I suppose, then, that 
it was your good friend the 

* This is the second variety of the 4th Declension here. 
The Eastern Afghans decline it as the first variety of the 
2nd Declension. 



nek dost sta ya'm slipun wuli 
chih gsd^a*'!^ yey wa-ta-tah 

baMishaley dar k'ya'h." 
58. Lewali aw Shpanah. 

Towah lewah dananah pah 
jowah tsapar k'^hey katalaey 
dzini shpanah chib tukra'h 
da gsedey ghwasha'h jej pah 
^wai^hi sarah U^warala'h 
wu-lidal, wu-yey-wey, " Tsah 
sa^ta'h hangania'h bah dey 
Ualko patsawuley wa*h kih 
yey zah hasey shumey l^war- 
fiiikaey mundalaey wae." 

Pa-idah. — Sari ^o aksir 
ka-il di pah zamm kawulo 
da hug^o karuno da nuro 
chih pa-^pulah yey du-i 

shepherd who 
sheep to you.** 

gave the 

68. The Wolf and the 

A wolf looking into a 
hut and seeing some shep- 
herds comfortably regaling 
themselves on a joint of 
mutton, said, "A pretty 
row would these men have 
made if they had caught 
me at such a supper.' 


Moral. — Men are too apt 
to condemn in others the 
very things that they prac- 
tise themselves. 

69. Mis-gar aw Spaey 

Yow mis- gar wuh chih 
vow woykaey spaey yey dar- 
lah. Pah tol wakt chih bah 
dah mis pah tsatka'i (akawul, 
spi bah ^Lub kawuh ; magar 
har-kalah chih bah dey pah 
khwarak k'she-nast, spaey 
bah weshedah. Mis- gar, 
yow had war achawulaey, wu- 
yey-wey, " Ai kahalah spaea 
chih jQj\ pah wakt k'shey 
da tak-o-tiik da sindan u-dah 

69. The Brazier and his 

There was a certain bra- 
zier who had a little dog. 
While he hammered away 
at his metal the dog slept ; 
but whenever he sat down 
to his dinner the dog woke 

The brazier, throwing 
him a bone, said, '^ Slug- 
gard cur that you are! you 
sleep through the noise of 
the anvil, but wake up at 



kawej, magar pah awwal 
k^ap da gha^ho ^'ma we^h- 

Fa-idah. — Khalk chili ko^ 
ghwajz wa randzo tah da 
dostano l^pulo kawi, da- 
parah da gharazo ^ipulo 
^h£eh we^h di. 

the first clatter of my 

Moral. — ^Men are awake 
enough to their own in- 
terests, who turn a deaf ear 
to their friends' distress. 

60. Lanbo-wahunkaey Ha- 

Towah halak pah yowah 
sind k'^hey lanbedah, aw, lah 
payo-aobodaVadd l^pulwat- 
alaey, najzdey wa-dubedo- 
tah wuh. Pah dey mi-yandz 
yow rah-guzar chih haltah 
teredah wa-yey-lidah, nur 
halak pah wa^ah zor Uipxd 
wa haghah tah narey k'^ey 
chih da-parah da madad yey 
war-shi. Haghah sari yow 
sabak war-tah shuru' Fra'h 
ah bab k'^hey da hasey na- 
ana'i chih yey wu-k*ya'h; 
magar haghah halak pah 
zari sarah narey kayey wu- 
yey-wey, "Ai sahibaih, aw- 
wal ma dar-wu-kajzah, pas 
lah haghah da dars ra-tah 

61. Ase-wan aw dzo-e yey 
aw !^ar da du-i. 

Yow ase-wan aw dzo-e 
yey ^bx M^pal da-parah da 

60. The Boy bathing. 

A boy was bathing in a 
river, and, getting out of 
his depth, was on the point 
of sinking. At this junc- 
ture he saw a wayfarer who 
was passing by, so he called 
out for help with all his 
might and main. 

The man began to read 
the boy a lecture for his 
f oolhardiness ; but the ur- 
chin cried out to him, " Oh, 
save me first, ^ir, and read 
me the lecture afterwards." 

61. The Miller, his Son, 
and their Ass. 

A miller and his son were 
driying their ass before 




UarteaiWiilo* da haghah 
pah yow da mausim bazar 
k'^hey cluh haltali najzdey 
wuh pah makhah sharah. 
Du-i la der liri t'lali nah wu 
chih lah yowey tola'i sarah 
da 'n'juno chih lah ^hahr- 
ah bi-yartah ra-t*lali, aw 
dzab-lah yey ^labarey ka- 
wuley aw ^andedaley pe^h 
sh'wal. Yowey lah du-i pah 
zorah wu-wey, " Haltah wu- 
gora'i ! tasu hit§ charey 
hasey ahmakan lidali di, 
chih pah lar pi-a-dah fapar- 
edali dzi, sarah lah dey 
chih tuwan da swarla'i 
lari ! " Haghah zarah da 
Uabara'h arwedaley, pah 
puta'h khula'h yey wa-dzo-e 
tah WTi-wey, chih pah kh*rah 
sor shah, aw pah-^pulah 
bah lah tsanga da haghah 
pah khwai^hi tai. Pas lah 
tsakho mudey wa yowah 
tolgi tah da zaro saro wu- 
rasedal chih pah garma'h 
mubahasa'h sarah Iwedali 
wu. Yowah lah hugho wu- 
wey, " Wu-gora'i ! haghah 
wa-isbat-tah rasawi har tsah 
chih ma wa-yal. Pah dey 
wradzo k*^hey tsah hurmat 
wa za^-ti-a tah war kawah 

them to a neighbouring 
fair to sell him. 

They had not gone far 
when they met with a troop 
of girls returning from the 
city, talking and laughing 

One of them cried out, 
" Look there ! did you ever 
see such fools, to be trudg- 
ing along the road on foot 
when they might be riding ! " 

The old man hearing this, 
quietly bade his son get on 
tiie ass, and walked along 
merrily by the side of him. 

Presently they came to a 
group of old men who were 
engaged in earnest debate. 

One among them said, 
"There! it proves what I 
was saying. What respect 
is shown to old age in these 
days? Do you see that 
idle young rogue riding, 

* To sell, especially in Western Afghanistan. 



kejzi ? Aya, tasu haghah 
kalial sharir halak sor 
shawaey -wma'i, lakah chih 
zor plar jej bo-yah paley 
lar shi P K'^hatah shah, ai 
na-pa-karah ! aw prejz-dah 
chih ha gh ah zor saraey stayi 
andamunah khpul hosa 
k'ri.'* Pah dey hal sarah 
plar wa-dzo-e U^piil tah da- 
parah da kuzedalo wu-wey, 
aw pah-khpulah sor shah. 
Pah dey shan la du-i liri 
t'lali nan wu chih lah yowah 
jami'-yat sarah da ^hadzo aw 
w'ruko makha-makh sh'wal. 
Tso kaso pah yowah dam 
jzabey U^alasey kayey, pah 
zor yey wu-wayal, " Ai sus- 
tah zarah chih tah jej ! 
Tsah shan pah haghah 
dzanawar swarli kawuley 
shey, lakah chih haghah 
gharib kuchnaey halak pah 
der mushkil sarah sta lah 
tsanga barabar t'lalaey 
shi." Haghah khwa^h miz- 
ajah ase-wan mulamata'h 
khpula'h wu-manala'h, aw 
jzir yey dzo-e tar sha sor 
kar. Nur najzdey wuh chih 
du-i wa-^hahr-tah wu-rasejzi, 
chih yowah ^hahri sari war- 
tah wu-wey, " Ai din-darah 
dostah, da ttar di ^pul 
mal daey ?" Zarah wu- 
wey, "Ho." Haghah wu- 
wey, "Pah dey shan chih 

while his old father has to 
walk? G-et down, you 
scapegrace ! and let the old 
man rest his weary limbs." 

Upon this the father told 
his son to dismount, and 
got up himself. 

In this manner they had 
not proceeded far when they 
met a company of women 
and children. 

Several persons let loose 
their tongues at once, and 
cried out, " Why, you lazy 
old fellow! how can you 
ride upon the beast, while 
the^poor little lad there can 
hardly keep pace by the side 
of you." 

The good-natured miller 
stood corrected, and imme- 
diately took up his son be- 
hind him. 

They had now almost 
reached the city, when a 
citizen said to him, " Pray, 
honest friend, is that ass 
your own ? " 

The old man replied 
"Yes." Said the other, 
" Oh, one would not ha^ 



tah dey barawey pah ri^hti'a 
tsok hasej ^iyal kawulaey 
nah-shi chili sta mal daey. 
Tasu bihtar ta-kat lara'i 
chih haghah ghanb haiwan 
waU^a'i tar dey chih haghah 
tasu dwarah wa^h ! " 
Haghah zarah sayi wu-wey, 
" Sliseh, pah har tsah chih 
sta marzi wi ; mujz ^lo az- 
mai^ht wu-k*yu.'* Nur, lah 
d^-eah sarah k'shatah sha- 
waey, p'^he da W^'rah yey 
sarah wu-taraley, aw pah 
madad da yowey bala'i pah 
aojzo ^ptdo attistaey da- 
parah da terawulo da dah 
pah yowah pul chih da shahr 
da lari pah mi-yandz k'^hey 
wuh koi^hi^h yey wu-kar. Da 
hasey da tafiih tamasha'h 
wa'h chih sari tola'i tola'i da- 
parah da ^andalo pah 
haghah da-bandi ra wu- 
z'g^astal ; tso chih ^'rah, 
haghah shor aw g^ogha aw 
halat khpul hum nah-pasan- 
dalaey, pah la gh ato wahalo 
rasa'i cMh pah taralaey yey 
wuh wu-shlawala'h, aw, lah 
hi^ey bala'i k'shatah Iwe- 
dalaey, pah sind k'shey pre- 
wat. Lah dey karah ^akah 
haghah zor saraey, Idiafah 
aw khijil shawaey, bi-yar- 
tah wa-kor Upul tah rawan 
shah — pah yakin pohedalaey 
chih pah koi^hi^h kawulo 

thought so, in truth, by the 
way you load him. Why, 
you two fellows are better 
able to carry the poor beast 
thau he you." 

The old man replied, 
"Anything to please you; 
we can but try." 

So, alighting with his son, 
they tied the ass's legs to* 
gether, and by the help of 
a pole endeavoured to carry 
him on their shoulders over 
a bridge that led to the 

This was so entertaining 
a sight that the people ran 
out in crowds to laugh at 
it; till the ass, not liking 
the noise nor lus situation, 
kicked asunder the cords 
that bound him, and, tum- 
bling off the pole, fell into 
the river. 

Upon this, the old man, 
vexed and ashamed, made 
the best of his way home 
again — convinced that by 
endeavouring to please 
everybody he had pleased 



Isi'iQiej da-parali da ^wa^- nobody, and lost his ass 
awulo da nar kas hits-tsok into the bargain. 
jej razi karaej nah wu, aw 
zi'ati tar haghah ^ar Ubpnl 
jej hum ba'e-lah. 

Ok thb Absiyal of a Gttbst ob Fbibnd. 

Host — Come always — 
thou art welcome ! 

Oueat — ^Long life be 
thine ! 

H. — May good betide 

(?. — God be with thee ! 

H. — Thou comest propi- 
tiously ! 

G. — May good attend 

H. — ^Thy journey be ad- 

0. — ^May success attend 

JT.— Art thou well ? 

0. — May adversity never 
be thine! 

H, — ^Artthou well (happy, 
Ac.) P 

6?.— Thank (God) ! 

H^.— Thou art well? 

6?.— Praise be to God (I 

H. — Har-kaJah ra-shah ! 

0. — Har-kalah aosey ! 

H, — ^Dar shah neki ! 

0, — Q^udae di mal shah ! 
H. — Pah U^ir ra-ghaley ! 

0. — Pah Ubair aosey ! 

H. — Safar di pah U^air! 

Q. — 'Akibat di pah ^air ! 

H.— Joy yev ? 

G. — Mah iswarej^ey ! 

JT.— Qushtal yey P 

G.— Shukr ! 
JT.— Tah jor yey ? 
&.— Al-^amdu lillahi ! 



H» — Are all the members 
of thy family well? 

6r. — ^It is the grace of Gbd 
(they are all well). 

H, — Mayest thou never 
feel fatigue ! 

(?. — Mayest thou never O. — Mah Bbwarejzey ! 
encounter adversity ! 

H, — ^Ahl-i-bait kam aw 
kabila'h di tol jor di ? 

G, — Pazl da ^Qudae 

H, — Stayaey mah shah ! 

H. — Mayest thou prosper 
(become great, &c.) ! 

O. — May blessings attend 

H, — Be religion thy daily 

O. — The Almighty be with 

H. — Peace be to thee ! 

O. — To thee be peace ! 

H, — ^Lo-e shey ! 

G, — Pah barkat shey ! 

H, — I-man di rozi shah ! 

(?. — Elhudae di mal shah ! 

H. — ^XJs-salam 'alaikum ! 
G. — 'Alaikum us-salam ! 

On Weathbb, Countbt, and Climate. 

The clouds are dark and 
dense, and I think it will 
rain much to-day. 

The rain generally falls 
heavily at this season. 

Slight rain is useless for 
the crops: the ground does 
not become moistened with 
it ; and summer rain is in- 

This rain is good for the 
crops, for it is heayy. 

War-yadzi torey aw gag^- 
ey di, hasey pohejzam chih 
nan wradz bah der baran 

Baran aksar gam pre- 
w'zi pah dey mausim k'^hey. 

Pa^al da-parah rangaey 
baran fa'idah nah lari: 
z'maka'h nah pah lam- 
bejzi; aw da wo-ii baran 
nuk^an lari. 

Da baran der i^hseh daey, 
tsalarah chih gam baran 



The fog is dense and the 
haze thick. 

If the wind blows, the 
clouds will be quickly dis- 

In winter snow falls, but 
only on the mountain tops. 

We have ploughed and 
tilled the land. 

This land is very produc- 
tive (fertile, strong, lit), and 
yields, more or less, twenty- 
fold in grain. 

Last year there was great 
scarcity (dearth), but it is 
to be hoped that such will 
not be the case this year. 

This seems to be a very 
hot (sultry) day. 

To-day the sky is clear 
(cloudless, blue) and the 
wind gone down. It is a 
fine (pleasant) day, but it 
blew hard yesterday. 

The sun is very hot to- 
day, and a thick nust covers 
the face of the ground. 

Yesterday the heat was 
great, but the dust was b>id 
by the rain. 

It rains but slightly; 
now set out, and return 

To-day's sultriness op- 
presses beyond all bounds. 

Laira'h garna'h da'h aw 
dund drund daey. 

Kih bad al-wazi war-yadzi 
(also, aor-yazi and aor-yadz- 
ey) bah la zser zser l^warey 

Pah jzamaey k'^hey waw- 
rey pre-w'zi, waley tash da 
g^'runo pah saro bandi. 

Z'maka'h mu yow-ya'h 
kayey aw karaley da*h. 

Da z'maka'h dera'h zor- 
awara'h da'h aw lajz ^er shil 
pah yowa da gh anam ra- 

Par-OS (or par-wosajz) kal 
4era'h kakhti wa'h, magar 
umid daey chih sajz kal bah 
hasey nah wi. 

Nan wradz dera'h toda'h 

Nan asman shin aw bad 
Iwe-dalaey daey. Giwara'h 
rwadz da'h, magar parun pah 
zor wal-wat (also wal-wot). 

Nan rwadz n'mar 4©r tod 
daey, aw da z'makey mafch 
gam dund niwalaey daey. 

Parun garmi dera'h wa'h, 
magar pah baran sarah duf- 
ey k'^he-nastey. 

Baran pastah ao-rl; aos 
lar shah, aw bi-a pah talwar 
sarah ra-shah. 

Da nan wrad^y tod- 
walaey tar l^addah zi-at agar 



If you do not manure 
(dress) tlie land, how can 
you sow grain ? 

The sun is eclipsed to- 
day, and there was a halo 
round the moon last night : 
rain will set in. 

With the heavy rain which 
fell last night, the dust is 

In this country, in winter 
also, it is at times very 
hot ; and sometimes, in 
summer, hail falls. 

It thunders much to-day : 
the reverberations are con- 

The wind blows very 
strong : it will root up the 

Kih wa z'makey tah sarey 
wa-nah-chawa'i ghala'h baJb. 
tsah-rang wu-kara'i ? 

Nan n'mar tandarey ni- 
waley dey, aw barayi (pr^ 
paruna'I), shpa'h spojzmal 
shpol ka^aey wuh: baran 
bah wu-shi. 

Pah gam baran sarah chih 
barayi shpa'h wu-aoredah, 
du^ey k'l^he-nastaley. 

Pah dey mulk k'6hey, pah 
jzamaey hum, kalah kalah 
zora'h-wara'h garmi shi ; aw 
kalah pah wo^aey dzol {cdao. 
jzala'i) Iwe-jzi {or^ ao-ri). 

Nan wradz asman ^^r 
ghurumbejzi : talanda'h sar- 
pah-sar dah. 

Per bad al-wazi : waney 
{or^ dara^tey) bah Twa^ra- 

On Tbavellino. 

How many kuroh (about 
two miles) is Paiway from 

How far may it be from 
this place to Shaluzan P 

Please God, it will be fif- 
teen kuroh. 

Show me the road, friend. 

That is the way ; take 
care thou dost not miss it. 

Paiwair lah dey d^a'e nah 
teo kuroha'h daey P 

Lahdeydza'eah tar Shalu- 
zan pori bah tsombrah liri 

In-sha AUah, pindzah las 
kuroh bah wi. 

Tarah, ma tah lar wu- 

Lar haghah da'h: wu- 
gorah chih hera'h di naJi 



What village do you be- 
long to ? 

(hi what road has she 

Where art thou going ? 

My desire is to go to that 
hill. Can I ride there ? 

It is a long road, and a 
good day's journey; more- 
over, thou canst not ascend 
it : there is no road up it. 

Can any one go round on 
the hither side of thy vil- 

No : on that side robbers 
infest the road. 

Will some bread, eggs, 
and milk, be procurable in 
this village or not ? 

Endeavour to bring some 
pure water. 

This brackish water is not 
fit to drink. 

Prepare some bread for 
him; he is pinched with 

What language speakest 
thou? I do not imderstand 

I do not understand what 
they say. 

!But Httle grass (fodder) 
is procurable in the village 
of Ghal^ Ban^a'h. 

Tasii da komey kaU yaa'I ? 

Pah komey lari t'laley 

Chartah dzey ? 

Irada'h mi da'h chih wa 
haghah gj^'rah tah la^ sham. 
Spor bah haltah t'lalaey 

Liii lar da'h, aw da wrac|zi 
purah manzil daey ; nur tah 
bah ^'rah nah shey ^at- 
alaey: da ^atalo lar nah- 

^ok sta kali wa-highey 
l^wa tah gserzedalaey shi ? 

Yah : haghah l^wa gh'keh 
lar wahi. 

Aya, pah dey kaH k'^hey 
bah tsah 4o4A'i9 aw haga'i, 
aw pa'i, paida shi kih yah ? 

Pah ra'w'falo da t§o 
khwajgo aobo wu-Fwajzah. 

Da tarwey aoba'h da 
ts'i^halo la-ikey nah dey. 

Da haghah da-parah tso 
4o4a'i pal^a'h k'^ra'h; nas 
yey pah kulmo pori n' shataey 

Eiuna'h jzaba'h wa-yey ? 
nah dar pohejzam. 

Nah pohejzam chih dii-i 
tsah wa-yi. 

Pah^alzi Banda'hk'i^hey 
wa^ah kam paida kej^i. 



Afzal is my companion: 
the road is soon got over 

Speak slowly if thou de- 
sirest me to understand thy 

From what part hast thou 
come, where is thy home, 
and whither goest thou P 

My home (house) is on 
that side of the Kupna'h 
river. I am come into 
Khost. and my intention is 
to proceed into Daway. 

They live on the banks of 
the river (or river's side). 

Show me the road ; I will 
accompany thee. 

G^t into the shade, and 
then sit down. 

Waken me at daybreak. 

Seek the man at cock- 

Milk the cow when the 
Mulla calls to prayer. 

My Kandahar is better 
than thy Kabid. 

I passed a long time 
there, and spent much 

I and thou both of us 
will go to (or set out for) 
Kan£i.har together* 

Whenever the rain lessens 
or ceases, be ready to pro- 
ceed to G^aznin. 

Afzal ra sarah mal-garaey 
daey : lar ^hse'h w'rey. 

W'ro Wbabarey kawah kih 
ghwarey sta pah waina wu- 

Tah lah kamey ]^wa ra- 
ghalaey yey, aw kor di 
chartah daey, aw kama'h 
U^wa tah dzey ? 

Kor mi da Kupney da 
sin haghah ghara'h daey. 
Khost tah ra-ghalaey ^am, 
aw da Dawar da t'lalo irad- 
a'h mi da'h. 

Du-i da sind pah ^a|ra'h 

Lar ra tah wu-^hayah; 
lah tah sarah bah l&x sham. 

Sio-ri tah dzan wu-rasa- 
wah, nur k'l^he-nah. 

Lo-e sahar ma wi^h k'lrah. 

Pah chirg bang ha|^ah 
saraey wu-lafawah. 

Da Mulla pah bang ghwa 

Kandahar dz'ma sta tar 
Kabxda i^hseh daey. 

SLaltah mi 4^1^'^ muda'h 
tera'h k'ra'h, aw derey riipa'i 
mi !^artsey k'yey. 

Zah aw tah bah dwarah 
sarah Kandahar tah lar 

Har-kalah chih baran 
narm shi ya wudrejzi, da- 
parah da t'lalo wa Ghaznin 
tah tai-yar aosah. 



In a few days (oTy a short 
time) — please Gk>d — ^thou 
wilt reach thine own country. 

The man is gone on a 
long journey, and I do not 
know on what day he will 
come back. 

Habib goes to Sujawand 
and Haibat remains at 

How far is the city of 
]^andahar from the Arghand 

But G-irishk is on the 
banks of the Hirmand, and 
Farah on the Farah river. 

My foot slipped, and I 
fell topsy-turvy into the 

Free the camel's foot 
from the mire. 

G-ive me a morsel of 
bread that I may break my 
fast therewith. 

Spread out my carpet. 

Spit this meat and roast 

The water gives out 
steam (boils), and the meat 
seems cooked. 

Are apples and pears 
come yet r 

Throw this dirty water 
away and bring me some 

Pah tso rwadzo k'l^hey — 
in-sha Allah — ^bah wa thpul 
watan tah wu-rasejzey. 

Haghah sa^aey pah ujzd 
safar t'lalaey daey, nah 
pohej^am chihkamah wradz 
bah bi-a ra-shi. 

Habib Sujawand tah d^ 
aw Haibat pah Ghaznin 
FiShey patejzi. 

S^hahr da Kandahar lah 
Arghand ab nah tsombrah 
liri daey? 

Magar Girishk da Hir- 
mand sin pah ij^a^a'h daey, 
aw ^hahr da Farah pali 
Farah rud daey. 

Pi^ha'h mi wu-i^hakedala'h, 
aw pah kol (or 4and) k'iShey 
naskor pre-watam. 

Da ush p^ha'h lah ^ato 
nah Uiala^a'h k'lra'h. 

Yow tiit do4a'i ra-k'yah 
chih niharaey yey k'^am. 

Dz^ma ^alicha'h wu- 

Dag^ah ghwa^hey pah 
si^t peyaley kabab yey 

Lah aoba'h b'^as walaj*- 
ejzi, nur ma'lumejzi chih 
j^wa^hey pa^ey dey. 

Marney aw nash-pati la 
rasedali di ? 

Da i^eeyey aoba'h to'e 
k'yah aw tsah pakey aoba'h 
ra larah ra-w'yah. 



This butter-milk will be 
of no use whatever, so 
throw it awaj. 

Da shlombi pah hits kar 
ra-nah-shi, tro wu-yey ghur- 


Pitch the tent under these 

First level the ground, 
after that pitch the tent. 

Strike the pegs with the 
mallet, drive them in deep, 
and pull the ropes tight. 

Pack up the tent and 
baggage, and load the 
camels; it is time to load 

Where hast thou pitched 
the tent P 

I have pitched it in an 
open place. 

Let the camel-men take 
out the camels to graze 
early in the morning. 

Take care you reach the 
camp in good time. Make 
no delay on the road, and 
keep the camels together. 

Did you see any men 
going in that direction ? 

Pah hugho chinaro wane 
bandi ^ema'h (aUoy dera'h) 

Bumbaey (pr^ Tunbaey) 
z'maka'h] sama'h k'rah, pas 
lah haghah dera'h wu-dara- 

Mojzi pah 4a»bali sarah 
wu-wahah, aw klak yey 
^hak'h kah, aw pa^i fii^g 

^^ema'h aw asbab wu- 
n'gharah. aw uihan wu- 
leshah ; wakt da lejzdo (or, 
da lejzdalo) shah. 

Dera'h di pah kama dza'e 
walar kayey da'h? 

Pakh arat dza'e mi wu- 

U^hbanah di ^ubal^ iiihan 
tsaralo tah bi-ayi. 

Baidar sha'al chih wa 
manzil tah pah khpul wakt 
ra wu-rasa'i. Pah Tar bandi 
dirang mah-kawa'i, aw 
ii^han tol-tal dzabalah ra- 

Tasu kom sa^i waha^^tiah 
Uwa tah t'lunki wu-lidal ? 



They went over the hill 
on that side, but came back 
again and stood on the top. 

Were they soldiers or 
were they villagers ? 

They were merely vil- 

Are the people here settled 
or are they nomads ? 

Some are settled, some 
are nomads. 

Can my horse get across 
that ravine ? 

Are the banks steep or 
sloping, and is the bottom 

Can any supplies be ob- 
tained in this village P 

Not a drop of water is to 
be obtained here. 

How far is the next halt- 
ing-place where water is 
obtainable P 

A shepherd has come in ; 
if thou commandest I will 
bring him in. 

O sir! one of thy ser- 
vants in the plain beat me 
severely ; do me justice. 

Come again after a little 

Haghah da j^'ra pah 
haghah tsang wu-lafal, 
magar ra-wu-gserzedal aw 
pah sar yey wudredal. 

Haghah sipahian wu kih 
da kali sar(^ wu p 

Tash da kali sa^o wu. 

Khalk da dey dza'e tal- 
aosedunki di kih powandah 

Dzini dzini tal-aoseduni 
^alk di, tsok kochi di. 

As nu lah haghah kbwar 
nah pori kedalaey shi p 

Qhayey yey Twarey di kih 
zawayey di, aw talaey yey 
pos daey kih klak P 

Pah dey kali k'^hey hits 
rasad paida kejzi P 

Daltah yow tsatekaey 
(also, takaey) aoba'h paida 
nah shi. 

Lah dey dza'e nah bsel 
manzil hal-tah chih aoba'h 
mundaley shi tsombrah Hn 


Yow ban4esaey sa^aey ra- 
ghalaey daey ; kih hukm 
kawey danana bah jej hazir 

^a^iba! sta lah naukarano 
yowah pah maira'h k'^hey 
zah ^er t^'kawulam; dz'ma 
in^af wu-k'rah. 

Pas lah lajzey mndey nur 
^azir shah. 



How deep is the water? 
Can a horse get through it P 

There has been a great 
deal of rain in the hills, and 
the river has i^sen; it is 

K it rains to-morrow the 
road will be slippery. 

They seized the bridles of 
the horses, and went to the 
water, and, having drank 
some, they set out for their 
own homes. 

Is there any danger in 
proceeding by this road at 

When I reach the place 
where the road divides into 
two, which should I take ? 

Take care of thyself if 
thou art not tired of thy 

This rifle will carry twelve 
hundred yards. 

How many cartridges 
hast thou in thy pouch, and 
how many caps will there 
be in thy cap-pouch ? 

The hammer of thy rifle 
is dirty and rusty ; clean it. 

How is it thy sword has 
become so rusty ?. 

Aoba'h ^ombrah jzawar- 
a'h da'h ? As lah aobo nah 
pori watalaey shi ? 

Pah gh'runo k'^hey der 
baran wo-redalaey daey, aw 
sin Ubatalaev daey ; pori 
nah shi kedalaey. 

Kih 9aba baran pre-w'zi 
lar bah i^hwayey (or, ^hwa- 
yandey) shi. 

Da asunah jalaw yey wu- 
niwah, aw aobo larah wu- 
raghi. aobah yey wu-ts'^hi, 
nur kor tah rawan sh'wal. 

Pah shpa'h k'^hey pah 
dey lar t'M hits wera'h lari ? 

Haghah wakt chih zah 
wa-haghah dza'e-tah rasejz- 
amhal-tah chih lar pah dwey 
lari beyalejzi, bah pah ko- 
mey dzam ? 

Khpul dzan wu-satal kih 
lah jzwandah mor nah jej. 

Da topak pah zser dwah 
sawa gaz wishtal kawi. 

Pah toshdan M^pul k'lihey 
tso kartusunah larey, aw 
pah kamr kisa'h k'^hey bah 
tso pata^ey wi ? 

Sta topak kolang ^iran 
daey aw zang-^^waralaey ; 
pak jej k'rah. 

Sta tura'h tsah ranga has- 
ey zang-W^waraley sh'wa'h. 



Draw the sword from its 

My sword is very sharp. 

Thy sword, then, is much 
sharper (keener) than mine. 

These swords are all 

My horse and mare are 
both lame. 

Is this thy pistol, or is it 

The man is shouting to 

The malik of the village 
has put the loss upon me. 

Go thou on ; I am after 

Dismount from thy horse 
and come in. 

My horse kicks much. 

Thy horse jumps very 

Hast thou found my stray 
camels again ? 

The camels have become 

Shall I be able to hire 
camels in this village P 

Hast thou committed this 
act knowingly, or through 
ignorance ? 

Make me acquainted with 
this matter. 

I am not acquainted with 
this matter ; inform me. 

Tura'h lah tekey nah wu- 

Tura'h mi dera'h tera'h 

Nut sta tura'h tar dz'ma 
turey nah dera'h tera'h da'h. 

Daghey turey toley patsey 

As aw aspa'h mi kho 
dwayah gu4 di. 

Da sta tamanchey da'h . 
kih dz'ma da'h ? 

Haghah saraey mujz tah 
narey wahi. 

Da kali malik tawan ra 
bandi ke-i^hod (also, k'l^he- 

W'yandi t'lah ; pasey 

Lah asa nah kuz shah aw 
dananah ra-shah. 

As mi derey latey wahi. 

As di der i^hseh top lari. 

Wuruk shawi ui^han mi 
di bi-a mundali di P 
tr^han paman shawi di. 

Pah deyjkali k'iShey uiShan 
bah pah kiraha'h a]^isti 

Tah pah ka^d sarah da 
kar kayaey daey, kih pah na- 

Pah da kbabara'h ma poh 


Pah dey hal ^abar nah 
yam ; ^abar mi k'^rah. 



This matter I am well 
aware of. 

I have no option in this 
matter ; the authority is in 
the hands of another. 

K thou grantest me leave, 
I intend to go to my native 

Of what village art thou, 
and where is thy country ? 

Get into the boat, and 
cross over to the other side 
of the Lohgar river. 

Why standest thou upon 
this low place? Stand on 
higher ground. 

Hast thou obtained a 
horse yet or not ? 

Is there quietness in the 
hill country at present ? 

People say there is great 
disturbance in Dera-wat. 

How far is that hill from 
this ? My object is to get 
to it by some road. 

Thou canst not get up 
there; there are many ob- 
stacles in the way. 

Who will forbid my 

Art thou not aware that 
there is a feud between the 
LuQ^s and the G^arshins P 

Da Uabara'h ra ^hsB'h 
ma'luma'h da'h. 

Pah dey kar k'^hey i^- 
tiyar nah-laram; wak da 
hsdl pah las daey. 

Kih rutt^at ra k'rey ni- 
yat mi da watan da t'lalo 

Da kom kali yej, aw wat- 
an di chartah daey ? 

Pah bera'i k'she-nah, aw 
da Lohgar sin wa-highey 
giarey pori wu-wuzah. 

Tsalarah pah daeykuz (or, 
dzway) dza'e wudrejzey ? 
Pah Twara'h z'maka'h wud- 

Tar aosa di as mundalaey 
daey kih yah ? 

Pah kohistan k'shey aos 
karari shtah kih nah shtah ? 

E3ialk hasey waM chih 
pah Dera-wat k'shey dl^r 
pasat daey. 

Haghah ghar lah daey 
dza'eah nah tsombrah liri 
wi? Ni-yat nu daey chih 
pah kamey lari bah war- 

Tah wa-gh'rah-tah U^t- 
aey nah i^hey; der a]-unah 

Tsok bah mi man'a'h 

Khabar nah jej chih da 
Lumio aw da Ghaxshino 
pah mi-yandz mirtsi da'h p 



Both have taken post on 
the boundary line, and are 
making reprisals on each 

On what matter has the 
feud been brought about 
(or, arisen) ? 

The cause of the mischief, 
as usual, is a woman. 

Under whose rule is thy 
village, and who are its in- 
habitants? Are they folks 
in easy circumstances (also, 
respectable, fig.), or are they 
hungry (thieves) ? 

They are quiet people, 
sir, noted for probity, and 
are not prone to dishonesty. 
They are Afghans^ and 
under the rule of the State. 

This village is imder me 
(or, in my charge). Thou 
art master ; whatever thou 
mayest require shall be pro- 

Sir! the soldiers are 
plundering my dweUing; 
do thou thyself do me jus- 

Whoever have done this 
deed deserve a severe punish- 

Remain here till the sun 

If our property becomes 
lost in such a place we shall 
not find it agam. 

Dwa^ah pah ^add (also, 
btirid) nast di, aw yow tar 
beela pah bota'h bramta'h 
kawal mash-ghul di. 

Pah kamey kb^barey mir- 
tsi patsawuley shawey dey? 

WeU^ da fasad, lakah 
chih tal shtah,^hadza'h da'h. 

Sta kalaey da chah pah 
l^ukomat k'ihey daev, aw 
astogyi yey took di ? Mairah 
wugap di kih wajzi daf wi. 


^a^iba, ma^ah kbalV ^h 
ah neki mashhur, aw 
ah bade wezar. Puihtanah 

di, aw da sarkar pah daulat 

k'^hey di. 

Da kalaey lah ma landi 
daey. Tah ^akim jej ; har- 
tsah chih di pah kar wi 
^azir kalaey biQi shi. 

^a^iba! sipahian kor ml 
lufawi ; dz'ma in^af tah pa- 
khpulali wu-k'yah. 

Har teok chih da kar kal- 
aey daey hugho tah sa^^ta'h 
saza kafaley bo-yah. 

Tso n'mar pre-Vzi daltah 

Pah hasey dza'e k'l^hey 
kih dz'mujz mal wuruk shi 
bi-a bah nah mumu. 




I reached my own yillage, 
safe from thieves and from 
rain, along with a convoy. 

On the way several thieves 
came in front of us, but as 
we were well armed they did 
not see any advantage in 
attacking ns. 

The Yasin Khel will re- 
taliate on the Daulat Khel 
in fine style. 

Is there any one aiding 
them or not ? 

How many men are there 
in the Mi-yandz-Lar Pass ? 

How much grain will 
there be in that village ? 

Take care not to lay your 
hands on the property of 
any poor people. 

Don't shoot the village 
people; merely fire your 
rifles over their heads. 

The enemy have all crossed 
over to the other side of the 
Logar rivet, and only the 
Tajziks remain in Ehiishi on 
this side. 

The Upper Banga^h people 
gained the victory, because 
they were the most nume- 
rous, and, in their difficult 
district, they are as bold as 

Zah, pah aman lah gh'lo 
aw lah barana, lah badragey 
sarah, ^pul kali tah wu- 

Pah lar k'iShey dz'mujz 
pah ma^ tso gh'heih ra- 
ghlal. wall kabu jej nah 
ra-tah lidal chih pah waslah 
put wu. 

Yasin Khel bah pah Dau- 
lat Khelo pah ihseh. shan 
badala'h wa-^li. 

Da hugho x>ah marasta'h 
tsok shtah aw kih nah-shtah p 

Pah Mi-yandz-Lar Gha^hi 
k'^hey tso tana di ? 

Pan haghah kali k'iShey 
tsomrah ^ala'h wi ? 

Da cha gharib sa^ri pah 
mal band! las mah-wa-cha- 

Pah kali khalko bandi 
mah waha'ai ; tash da dewo 
da sar da-pasa topak mo 
khalaig k'ra'ai. 

Du^hmanan tol da Logar 
sind pori wa-highey gharey 
tah watali di, aw siwa lah 
tajzik majzik hits tsok ra- 
pori pah Khushi k'^hey pa- 
taey nah daey. 

Bar Bangai^h ^al^baraey 
wu-gafah, dzakah chih dii-i 
der gam wii, aw pah saMjit 
mulk ^pul k'^ey, lakah 
m'zario <B. 



The case has become 
Tery serious, for blood has 
been shed on both sides. 

Why don't they settle this 
matter by compromise: is 
there no mediator to be 

The road is straight and 
not dificult : thou wilt not 
miss it, and there is no 
danger on it. 

First go straight forward, 
then turn to the left, and 
afterwards to the right. 

Sir! thieves have seized 
and carried off twenty of 
our camels. 

Are there many horses in 
your district ? How many 
may they amount to ? 

What is that on that de- 
tached hill on the left hand ? 
It is a man. He is coming 
towards us with a jaza'yU 
in his hand. 

Call out to him to stand, 
and if he does not stop I 
will take a shot at him. 

How many men have 
stayed behind in the village ? 

Not a man has stayed 
behind: all the people have 
run away. 

They are at feud with one 
another, and were afraid of 

Mukaddama'h 4era'h gran- 
a'h shawey da'h, tsalarah 
chih da dwayo lorio winey 
to-e shawey di. 

Da mukaddama'h pah 
ghwa^h wall nah ^washi : 
tsok ghwai^h-grandaey nah 
paida kejzi ? 

Lar sama'h da'h aw asan- 
a'h : wuruka'h bah jej nah 
k'rey, aw wera'h pah k'^hey 
hits nah-shtah. 

W'yumbaey ma^a-mal^ 
barabar lar shah, bi'a kirn 
las tah wu-gserzah, aw pas 
i^haev lor taSi. 

Sahiba ! gh'lo dz'mujz 
shil uiShan niwali botlal. 

Sta pah tapey k'^hey der 
asunah shtah ? T§o asunah 
bah wi? 

Da tsah daey da highih 
ghandey pah sar bandi? 
Yow sa^raey daey. Jaza'yil 
pah las niwalaey dey ^wa 
miijz larah ra-dzl. 

War tah narey wu-wahah 
chih wudrejzah, aw kih nah 
wudrejzi zah bah pri guzar 

W'rusto pah kali k'l^hey 
tso sa^ri patedal! di P 

Yow sayaey ^o patedal- 
aey nah daey : fol j^alV 
z'ghastali di. 

Da hu£^o pah mi-yandz 
mirtei pre-wataley dey, ' 

10 * 



treachery on the part of their 
own clansmen, therefore they 
did not stay. 

Which of these two gnns 
hast thou taken a fancy to ? 

Give this man in charge 
to the guard. 

I would have killed him, 
but I was afraid to do so. 

Mount the horse, and 
gallop him. 

The trees in the wood are 
so deuse that we cannot 
make our way through it. 

Set up some stick here as 
a mark, and cut down the 
dead trees, but leave the 

I am still standing exactly 
on that spot : I have not 
moved at sill. 

I went alone, voluntarily, 
to the top of the hill. 

My adversary gave me a 
cut with his sword. 

The mountaineers attacked 
the kafilah and plundered it. 

The regiment must march 
QXi hour before daybreak. 

After some little skirmish- 
ing the enemy fled. 

du-i da U^pulo 'azizano 
lah bey-imana'i nah wa- 
weredal, lah dey sababa pato 
nah sh'waL 

Lah dewo dwaro topako 
di kam-yow ttwa^h karaay 

Daghah sa^aey wa-pas- 
wan-tah wu-paslawah. 

Wajlaey bah mi wuh, 
magar wu-weredam. 

Pah as bandi sor shah, aw 

Da bam waney hasey 
gamey dey chih pah k'^hey 
nah shu t'lali. 

Da nai^hey da-parah dal- 
tah kom largaey lak k'rah, 
aw komey waney chih wuch- 
ey dey pre-vey k'ra'ai, waley 
nurey pre-jzda'ai. 

Ju^t (or, joy) pah haghah 
dza'e bandi walar yam : lah 
sarah nah yam khwadzedal- 

Ma pa-khpulah da |^un- 
da'i wa-sar-tah yawadzey 

Dui^hman mi da turey pah 
guzar ghwats k'ralam. 

Da gh'ra ^alko pah ka- 
filey bandi pre-watal aw 
mar-dar jej k'ra'h. 

Yow sa'at pa-^wa tar 
sapedi da^ pori bo-yah 
chih paltan kuch kawey. 

Pas lah tsa^o tas tus ka- 
wulo du^hmanan tai^htedali 



When you are within fifty 
paces of the enemy, at once 
charge them. 

Fifty or sixty men have 
come in, but they are all 
Damar Kaka^s and Isot 

There are one hawal-dar, 
two nayaks, and twelve 
sipahis on duty to-night, 
and that guard will furnish 
four sentries. 

Give the labourers two 
rupis each. 

I have two horses, but 
they are both lame. 

Look up like a soldier, not 
on the ground like a clod- 

Accoutre thyself, and go 
along with him. 

Take off thy accoutre- 
ments, and take my gun, and 
follow me : perhaps we shall 
find some game here. 

Set this lance upright in 
the ground. 

There is no vacancy in 
my regiment; if there had 
been I would have given it 
to thee. 

How many troops are there 
now present in camp ? 

When you cast your right 

Har-kalah chih du^h- 
manan lah tasu nah pindzos 
kadam liri wi, yek la^Ltah 
pri tamla'h wu-k'ya*ai. 

Pindzos shpetah sari ra- 
ghali di, magar (ol warah 
Damar Kakaran, aw Isot 
Pamian di. 

Nan-shpa'h (or, nanana'i 
shpa'h) yow hawal-dar,dwah 
nayak, aw dwah-las sipahian 
naukari kawi, aw haghah 
garat bah tsalor paswan war 

Mazduran larah dwey 
dwey rupa'i war-k'rah. 

Dwah asunah laram waley 
dwarah gud dl. 

Da sipahl pah shan portah 
wu-gorah, nah wa-z*makey- 
tah lakah da kali saraey. 

M'la taraley lah haghah 
sarah la^ shah. 

M'la pra-nataley, dz'ma 
topak wu-nisah (or, wu- 
nisah), aw pah ma pasey ra- 
dzah: i§ha-y! daltah tso 
^h'kar bi-a-mu-mu. 

Da neza'h sama'h pah 
z'maka'h wu-darawah. 

Dz'ma pah paltan k'iShey 
kom dza'e ^aH nah-shtah ; 
kih kh&li wae ta tah bah mi 
dar kayaey wuh. 

Tso tanah sipahian aos 
pah Urdu k'iShey hazir di ? 

Har-kalah chih tasu ^ha'i 



eye on the sight you should 
shut the left one. 

Surround the hill, for I 
imagine the enemy are lying 
there in ambush. 

First ascend to the top of 
the hill, and then their 
whereabouts will be yisible. 

They may perchance be 
lying in the ravine, or in 
yonder broken ground. 

If such be the case we 
will lay an ambush for them. 

It was mid-day when they 
got near the fort ; and the 
brave fellows attacked it, 
and in the short space of 
one watch (three hours) it 
was captured. 

Yahya Eban, together 
with his younger brothers, 
not one of whom had, as 
yet, reached man's estate, 
girded up their loins to 
avenge their father. 

Ascend to that high 
ground, and carefully recon- 
noitre all round; then select 
three men and station them 
thereon as a picket. 

starga'h pser didban jz'da'al 
kima'h s^ga'h puta'h karey 

Ghar cha-perah wu-nisa'ai 
(or, wu-nisa'ai) chih guman 
mi dasey kejzi chih du^h- 
manan haltah pah tsaw 
k'iShey nast di. 

Wrumbey da gh'ra pah 
sar bandi wu-^ejza'ai, nur 
da du-i dza'e dar i^h'karah 

Gundi pah Jiwar k'lShey, 
ya huri pah highey ^ar- 
mwara'i k'^hey nast wi. 

Kih hasey wi mujz bah 
pah p'suni k'^hey war-tah 

Boz-i-ro^han nima'h wradz 
wa'h chih kot watah najzdey 
sh'wii ; dzwanano pah kala'h 
manguli wu-lagawaley, pah 
yowah pahar k'^hey fath 

Yahya ^ban, lah kashar- 
ano w'rurno sarah, chih hite 
yow la balaghat tah rasedal- 
aey nah wuh, pah kisa^ da 
plar m'la wu-tarala'h. 

Pah highey I'warey bandi 
wu-^ejzah, aw cha-pirah 
pah ^hseh shan sarah pah 
dzir dzir wu-gomh ; pas drej 
kasa sipahian da yaJah- 
dara'i da-parah ^waih 
k'rah aw pah dey dza'e ban- 
di wudarawah. 



A bullet struck him in the 
side. He was not to arise 
again (i.e. being mortally 
wounded), and was left be- 

He displayed much 
bravery in action. 

He is not dead yet : see, 
he moves. 

Take out the mules and 
camels to graze, and be 
careful you all keep with 

My horse is stuck fast in 
the ravine, and can neither 
come up out of it, nor can 
he withdraw himself again. 

Come hither, and hold my 
horse that he may not run 
away, and throw him some 

Dismount from thy horse, 
and distribute fodder among 
the cattle. 

Accoutre thyself (gird up 
thy loins), the time to march 
has arrived. 

Make over these things to 
a certain soldier. 

Hire a camel for me. 

The treasury is empty of 

How many men hast thou 
brought in for service ? 

Twenty men, but they are 
all of one place, and all are 
kinsmen of each other. 

Gk)la'i jej pah ay^ wu- 
lagedala'h. Da ^ato nah 
wuh, pato sh'wah. 

Haghah pah jang k'^hey 
4er maranaey wu-k'yah. 

Tar aosa pori mar nah 
daey : gorah.. khwadzejzi. 

Kacharanawu^han tsaralo 
tah boza'ai, aw pah ^abar- 
dari tasu tol war-tah najzd- 
ey wudrejza'ai. 

As me pah ^war k'^hey 
wu-n'^hat, aw nah portah 
^ataey shah, nah pastanah 
watalaey shi. 

Haley ra-shah aw as 
dz'ma nisah chih wu-nah- 
ta^hti, aw tso wa^hah war ■ 

Lah asa nah kuz shah, aw 
wa^hah dzanwarano tah 
wesh k'rah. 

M'la wu-taya'h, wa^t da 
kuch ra-ghi. 

Da tsiziinah falani sipahi 
tah wu-sparah. 

Yow nih. dz'ma da-parah 
kiraha'h k'lpah. 

!^izana'h lah rupa'io nah 
tasha'h da'h. 

Tso sar! da naukara'i da- 
parah di niwali di ? 

Shil sari, magar tol da 
yowah dza'e di, aw fol sarah 
azizan di. 



This youth is round- 
backed and weakly : he will 
soon break down. 

I am stronger than they 


Sit down: arise: stand 
up: look up: do not look 
down : stand upright : put 
thy heels together: do not 

Obey my order : look to- 
wards me: what art thou 
looking at ? Stand so. 

The army regulations are 
very severe and momentous. 

Look at him what he is 
doing! O scapegrace! why 
dost thou not obey my com- 

Do not ungird thy loins : 
if thou dost not work with 
a will how wilt thou earn 

Pardon him his fault. 

Forgive me my fault this 
time ; for this command I 
had forgotten. 

Bun and seize him, and 
bring him hither. 

If you had, at that time, 
given me an order, I would 
have gone in pursuit of him : 
I would not have let him 

Da halak chughaey daey 
aw kam-zoraey: zser (alsOy 
jzir) bah stapaey shi. 

Zah lah hug^o nah pah 
zor-awar yam. 

K'lShe-nah : patsah: wud- 
rejzah : portah gorah : 
k'^hatah (or, kuz) mah- 
gorah : pun^a'i ^pidey yow 
dza'e k'^ah: sam wudrejz- 
ah : mah khwadzejzah. 

Dz'ma ^ukm pah dza'e 
ra-w'irah : ma-tah gorah : 
wu-tsah-tah gorey ? Hasey 

Da lai^hkar a'munah der 
saU^t aw gran di. 

Haghah wu- gorah chih 
tsah kawi ! Ai kam bakhta ! 
waley dz'ma hukm nah 

M'la mah pra-nadzah : kih 
mihnat pah dzan wa-nah- 
^ley rupa'i bah tsangah wu- 
gatey ? 

Da ha g hah gunah war-wu- 

Dz'ma gunah da dzala'h 
ra-wu-ba^^hah ; chih da 
^ukm mi her shawaey wuh. 

Pah manda'h lar shah: 
wu-yey nlsah, aw haley ra- 

Kih tasu ha^ah wa^t, 
ma tah ^ukm kapiey wae 
(aZffo, wae) pah ha^^ah pasey 
bah t'lalaiey wum: ma bah 
nah wuh pre-ya^haey. 



K you had not come to 
my succour they would have 
burnt my dweUing. 

The enemy are not nume- 
rous : a few men only it 

Fire off (discharge) thy 

It is obstructed (foul or 
choked), and will not go off. 

Clean the barrel inside, 
and see that the nipple is 
clear, then it will go off. 

Whenever thou mayest 
meet with a good sword buy 
it for me. 

On this speech they set to 

Adam Khan and Salim 
came home on leave. 

I will send someone else 
in thy place. 

Set up this target {or, 
mark) that I may fire at it 
with the rifle. 

If thou doest so thou wilt 
obtain a reward. 

There is no fear : God is 
our Protector. 

While you may remain in 
this country do not act op- 
pressively towards anyone. 

O Sir ! my wife is imwell : 
it will be a great favour on 
thy part if thou wilt grant 

Kih tasu dz'ma pah hapa'h 
nah wae {or, wae) ra-ghali 
du-i bah mi kor sawaey 

Du^hman lajz di: yow 
mm sap ma'lumejzi. 

Topak di kba^a? k'^rah. 

fopak band daey, nah 

Shpela'i jQj dananah pak 
k'r^'h, aw wu-gorah chih da 
ranjak dza'e saf daey, tro 
bah Uala9 shi. 

Har-kalah chih ^ha'h 
tura'h wu-winey dz'ma da- 
parah yey wakh-lah. 

Pah dey waina bandi jej 
lane wu-n'i^halawuh. 

Adam E^an aw Salim pall 
ruU^^at kor tah ra-ghlal. 

Sta pah badlah k'^hey 
bah nur tsok was-tawum. 

Da na^ha'h wudrawah 
chih pah topak j&j wu-wal- 

Kih hasey wu-k'^ey ina'am 
bah wu-gatey. 

Hits wera'h nah-shtah : 
!l|^udae dz'mujz Satunaey 

Tso pah dey mulk k'^hey 
aos'al pah cha bandi zulm 
mah kawa'ai. 

Sahiba! t^kbar mi na-jo^ra'h 
shawey dey : mihirbangi 
bah di wi kih ma-tah dwey 



me two or tliree days' leave 
to attend her. 

Sir! this soldier solicits 
three days* leave in order to 
meet his brother who has 
arrived at a certain village. 

Very good ; as I know he 
is a good man, I will consent 
to his leave. 

That soldier, Sir, repre- 
sents that a letter has 
reached him from his family, 
and the Treasury bill, which 
he had remitted to them 
three months ago, has not 
yet reached them. 

This affair happened be- 
fore : what is the fuss and 
noise about it now ? 

I was going in company 
with the Ghalzis towards 
the head of the Kajahah 
valley ; and in that same 
place, on the night in ques- 
tion, such quantities of hail 
and rain fell, that up to the 
dawn of the morning we 
entertained no hope of our 

The whole country has 
become perfectly white with 

When I set out it was a 
pitch-dark night. 

drey rwadz rukhsat ra-k'rey 
chih timar jej k'ram. 

Sahiba ! da sipahi da dro 
rwadzo ru^^at ghwari da- 
parah da mulakat da w'ror 
khpul chih wa-falani kali 
tah ra-^alaey daey. 

Shseh daey; chih yey 
pejzanam jor saraey daey, 
ru^^at bah yey kabul shi. 

Sahiba ! haghah sipahi 
'arz kawi chih da 'iyal lah 
taiuf a jej kaghiz ra-ghalaey 
daey, aw haghah Bil da 
Khizaneyy chih drey miasht- 
ey terey shawey dey war- 
stawalaey wuh, la naJb. daey 
war rasedalaey. 

Da khabara'h pa-khwa 
shawey wa'h: aos da dey 
jagara'h aw sharr-o-shor 
tsah daey? 

Zah hum da G-halzio 
sarah pah sar darey da Ela- 
jahah laram; pah haghah 
dza'e ra bandi pah ^hpa'h 
hasey jzaley aw baran wu- 
woredah, chih tar §abah pori 
miih (or, mxi) umid da zinda- 
gana'i nah wuh (or, wu). 

Tol mulk pah wawrey tak 
spin shawaey daey. 

Haghah wakt chih rawan 
sh'wam taka'h tora'h shpa'h 



Our coimtry is very rug- 
ged : it is all hill and dale. 

I am much fatigued, and 
hungry and thirsty to boot. 

They have come unseason- 
ably (late). Tell them to 
come in the morning; at 
that time I will talk with 

Whether they be camels, 
horses, or mules, wherever 
they may be, and whatever 
they may be, bring {or, lead) 
them along. 

Who is this man who ap- 
pears in sight? 

Through cowardice Bah- 
ram did not fight. 

Mulk mu ^<&t zijz daey : 
tol ^ar aw sama'h daey. 

Zah der sta^aev shawaey 
yam, aw pratah lah dey hum 
wajzaey aw tajzaey yam. 

Na wakta ra-ghali di. Du-i 
tah wu-wayah chih ij^aba^ ra- 
sh! ; haghah wakt bah lah 
du-i sarah khabarey wu- 

£[ih ui^han wi, kih asiinah 
wi, kih katar wi, har chir- 
tah chih wi, aw har tsah 
chih wi, ra-yey-walah. 

Daghah sa^raey chih pah 
nazar ra-dzi tsok daey ? 

Da na-marda'i lah ji^ 
hata Bahram jang wu-naJi- 


Who art thou ? 

I am an Afghan. 

What Patau art thou by 
lineage ? 

I am a Lumaey Mianah. 

Dost thou imderstand 
Pu6hto ? {or, Hast thou ac- 
quired Pu^hto ?) 

Yes, I understand Pu^h- 
to, but neither Pukhsto, 
Pakkhto, Pasto, nor Pashtu, 
nor any such nonsense. 

Tah tsok jqj ? 

Zah Pui^htun yam. 

Pah a^al kom Pu^htun 

Zah Lumaey l^anah yam. 

PahPui^htopohejzey ? {ory 
PuiShto di z'dah daey ?) 

Ho, Pu^hto ^o pohejz- 
am, wal-e nah Pukhsto, nah 
Pakkhto, nah Pasto, nah 
Pashtu, ya hasey puch go-e 
hits na'h pejzanam. 



What is thy name ? 

Tar Muhammad is my 

What village dost thou 
belong to ? 

I have come from tTrgun, 
and am going to Zar^un 

Art thou married or not ? 

I was married, but my 
wife is dead. 

Hast thou any sons ? 

How many children hast 

How old will the eldest 
son be? 

Is thy father living ? 

Yes, he is living, but is an 
old grey-beard. 

Is thy mother alive ? 

My mother is dead. 

Hast thou any brothers ? 

I have one brother. 

Is there a son bom in thy 
house, or a daughter? 

My wife has given birth 
to a son. 

What is thy name, and 
what name hast thou given 
to thy son ? 

Is thy master within or 

Sta num ^ah daey P {or, 
Num di tsah daey ?) 

Num mi Tar Muhammad 

Da, komey kali yey ? 

Lah tTrgiina raghalaey 
yam, aw Zarghun S^hahr tah 

Wada'h di karey dey* 
kih yah. 

Wada'h mi karey wa'h, 
wali fabar mi mai*a'h sh' wa'h. 

Dzaman di shtah ? 

Tso f arzand dl shtah ? 

Mashar ^o-e (aUoy zo-e) 
bah da tso kalo wi ? 

Plar di jzwandaey daey ? 

Ho, jzwandaey daey, 
wal-e zor spin-jziraey daey. 

Mor di jzwanda'i da'h ? 

Mor mi m'ya'h da'h. 

W'rumah di shtah. 

Yow w'ror laram. 

Sta pah kor k'^hey dzo-e 
shawaey daey, kih lur? 

Tabar mi dzo-e rawaraey 

Num di tsah daey, aw 
peer dzo-e di tsah num ya^h- 
aey daey ? 

Tsa^htan dl dananah daey 
kih nah daey ? 

See Syntax of the verb, para. 1, pa^e 79. 



Ib. anyone within (the 
house) ? 

Master is within. 

He has just now arisen 
from sleep (got up). 

Why hast thou come ? 

Why, during the whole 
day, didst thou not come? 

My house is defenceless. 

I was much astonished at 
this act. 

After having dressed thy- 
self come to me. 

When he comes inform 
(acquaint) me. 

Gome inside. 

Sit beside me, friend. 

My back itches : scratch 


I had become as one de- 

This peach is sweeter than 
sugar or than confection. 

The roof leaks : repair it 
(mend it). 

The cup cracked in my 
hand and went to pieces. 

That (female's) comeliness 
does not come up to this 
one's good looks. 

Attend to my words, and 
before going finish this 

Pah kor k'^hey tsok 
shtah ? 

Sa^ib pah kor k'^hey 


Waley ra-ghlaey yey ? 

Da t§ah da-parah drasta'h 
rwadz ra-nah-gley ? 

Kor mi ^ushaey daey. 

Lah dey kara mi ^^r ta'j- 
jub wu-kay. 

Zayukaey a g hustaey pah 
nazd dz'ma ra-shah. 

Har-kalah chih haghah 
ra-shi ma t^abar k'y ah. 

Dananah ra-shah. 

Tarah, ma tsaU^ah k'she- 

Sha mi ^ari^htejzi : wu- 

Da lewanaey pah shan 
shawaey wum. 

Da shuftalu tar kand tar 
halwa khojz daey. 

Da U^uney chat tsatsi : joi* 
yey k'yah. 

Dz'ma pah las k'l^hey 
piala'h wu-chawda'h darey 
dayey sh'wa'h (oTy sh'wala'h). 

Da highey ^ha-ist da 
dighey wa i^ha-ist tah nah- 

Dz'ma ^abara'h wu-man- 
ah, aw pa-U^wa lah t'lalo 
{pr^ pa-khwa tar t'lalo) da 
kar purah k'^rah. 



Witli this affair you have 
no concern. 

Draw the curtain back 
that there may be some 
light : the room is very 

It grows late : it is neces- 
sary we should depart. 

Keep this thing about 
thee (oTy with thee) : some 
time or other it will be use- 
ful to thee. 

Why have you come back 
agaiu ? 

What business have ye 

Call that little boy to me. 

Whom dost thou teach 

At this time, indeed, I 
have no pupil. 

I do juot know who thou 

Put this letter (lit. paper) 
into an envelope. 

This vessel (basin, pan), 
is filled with water. Empty 
it, but pour out the water 

With what object (desire, 
bent, longing) have you 

Come inside the door. 

Pah dey bab F^hey stasii 
hits gharaz nah-shtah. 

Parda'h liri k'rah chih 
rama shey: khuna'h dera'h 
tarika'h da'h. 

Na-waktejzi : bo-yah chih 
lar shu. 


Da tsiz lah dzana sarah 
wu-satah: kalah nah kalah 
pah kar bah di shi. 

Waley bi-yartah ra-ghali 
ya'ai ? 
Daltah tsah kar lar'ai? 

Haghah wu^rukaey halak 

Tah cha tah aos sabak 
war-kawey ? 

Pah dey rwadzo k'^hey 
kfao shagird nah laram. 

Tah nah pohejzam chih 
tsok yey. 

Daghah kaghiz pah lifa- 
fa'h k'iShey wachawah (pry 
pah lifafa'h k'l^hey dza-e 

Da lo-i^haey lah aobo nah 
dak daey. Tash yey k'rah : 
waley w'ro Vro yey to-e 

Pah kama'h tama'a'h 
sarah ra-ghali ya'ai ? 

Da warah dananah ra- 



Thou startest at this like 
a horse at a post. 

Drive away the dogs from 
the house (or, tent) : they 
annoy me much. 

Blacken Hafiz Nuri's 
beard, it has become 

I have never said so at 
any time. 

Weigh this thing how 
much it is. 

How much is this thing 
in weight)? 

Stand in dread of fire, so 
that thy house be not 

Do not be heedless of this 

Do not throw this thing 
away, it will become useful. 

Do not trouble me to-day : 
I will talk with thee on this 
subject some other day. 

Win 'TJmr have reached 
that place by this time ? 

At the time they were 
coming I was saying my 

I had told thee before 
that I would do so, so it 
behoveth me to do it. 

Tah lah dey nah hasey 
tarhejzey lakah as lah naiih- 

Lah derey nah spi wu- 
sha^rah: ^^r mi bad dzini 

Da Hafiz Nun jzira'h 
tora'h k'yah, braga'h shawey 

Ma hicharey (alsOy hits- 
kalah) dasey nah daey way- 

Da tsizah wu-talah chih 
tsombrah daey. 

Da tsiz pah tol k'l^hey 
tsombrah daey ? 

Lah aorah pah tara'h 
k'l^hey aosah, chih kor di wu- 

Lah dey wa-yalo nah bey- 
parwa mah shah. 

Daghah tsiz mah-ghserza- 
wah, bah pah kar ra-slu. 

Ma tah nan za^mat mah 
ra-kawah : bsela'h rwadz bah 
pah dey bab k'iShey lah tah 
sarah ^abarey wu-k'^ram. 

'TJmr bah tar aosa pori 
haghah dza'e tah rasedalaey 

Haghah wakt chih du-i 
ra-t'lal namundz mi kawuh. 

' Ma ta tah wa-yalaey wuh 
chih dasey bah wu-k'ram, 
nur bo-yah chih yey wu- 



After some time we will 

To-day a woman tlirew 
herself into a well. 

This boy is very bashful. 

Those maidens are very 

I passed a long time at 

Smell that flower: what 
delightful perfume it yields. 

It behoveth that this busi- 
ness be completed in a short 

Sell me this thing. 

The palm of my hand 
itches : some say it is a sign 
of coming wealth, but God 
knows whether it is true or 

Thou spendest my money 

Why dost thou grieve so 
much about this trifling 
ntoitter (or, affair) ? 

This is good and that too: 
both are good. 

Bring a needle and thread : 
my clothes are torn. 

All my garments are 
soiled witn mud. 

Pas lah tsah mudey bah 
mujz (dlao, mungah) ra-shu. 

Nan yowey iShadzey khpul 
dzan ku-i teh wu-ghserza- 

Daghah haJak der sharm- 
nak daey. 

Dii-i pegh-ley derey haya- 
darey dey. 

Pera'h muda'h mi pah 
Kandahar k'l^hey tera'h 

Haghah gul bu-e k'rah: 
tsah iSha-istah bu-e tri patsi. 

Pah lajz sa'at b'^hey (or, 
pah kama*h muda'h k'l^hey) 
da kar tamam karaey bo- 

Da tsiz pah ma wu-pro- 

Warghowaey mi ^ari^ht 
kawey, aw dzini wa-yi chih 
da naiSha'h da daulat da 
rat'lo da'h, magar Khudae 
z'dah chih ri^hti'a daey kih 

Tab dz'ma rupa'i bey- 
dza'eah khartsawey. 

Pah dey spuk kar k'iShey 
hombrah gham t§alarah 
khurey ? 

Da hum ^hseh haghah 
hum ^hsoh : dwarah ^hseh di. 

Stan aw spamsaey ra- 
w'rah : dz'ma n'mara'i tdrey 
shawey dey. 

Toley jamey nu pah kha^o 
sarah kakarey shawey dey. 



They are not five nor ten, 
but more. 

I have no small cliange, 
otherwise this thing is to be 
purchased (or, to be bought) . 

What merit do these men 
possess ? 

I do not understand the 
purpose of these men. 

It does not come within 
my comprehension that from 
them a good action will pro- 

Thou wilt be sorry for 
these words hereafter. 

I now much regret this 

So-and-so 19 ill : let us go 
and inquire after him. 

This act is incumbent on 

Bemind me at mid-day 
(mid-day prayer time), and 
I will do it. 

This is a very wonderful 
matter (or^ thing, <&c.) : I 
cannot understand it. 

In bygone (former) years 
it could not happen so. 

But this is a difficult 
matter : it is not to be done 
by him. 

I have made a bet (laid a 
wager) with thenu 

Pindgah nah <U aw nah 
las di, magar zi-at di. 

Paisey nah-laram, kih nah 
da tsiz da ra-niwalo daey. 

Daghah sari tgah ^ubi 
lari ? 

Da dagho sa^ro pah matlab 
bandi nah-pohejzam. 

Dz*ma pah poha'h nah 
ra-dzi chih lah du-10 bah da 
khair kar wu-shi. 

Pah dey ^abarey pasi 
(oTy pasey) bah tah arman 

Aos 4era'h toba'h kajzam 
lah dey kara. 

La^r shu, falanaey, mariz 
daey, pu^htana'h jej wu- 

Da kar pah tasu bandi 
lazim daey. 

Namaz-peiShin tah ma yad 
k'pah, da kar bah wu-k'f am. 

Daghah 4era'h nadira'h 
Uabara'h da'h, dz'ma 'akl 
nah pah rasejzi. 

Pah pa-kbwa kaluno 
k'iShey dasey nah shah ke* 

Wal-e da ^abara'h sakh- 
ta'h da'h: da dah kawulo 
nah da'h. 

Ma lah hugho sarah shart 




What ftffliotioii (oty dis- 
tress) has befidlen thee? 
What art thou annoyed 

With the will of God, 
such will take place (hap- 

What a good master so- 
and-so is ! 

He is a most ruthless fel- 

He is a most wrathful 

Oh friend! usedest thou 
to do this? 

If Mahmud comes I will 
give him a book. 

If you culldyate know- 
ledge you will obtain respect. 

ITsman is gone, friend! 
he was a good man: may 
God reward him! 

Oh !^an ! may God long 
preserve thee ! 

This man snores in his 

I want to sneeze, but can- 

Why hast thou shown so 
much tardiness in coming ? 
Didst thou meet with any 
obstruction ? 

Take a broom and sweep 
the place. 

laght the fire and put out 
the lamp. 

Pah ta bind! tsaih tangsa'h 
da'h ? Pah tsah swadzey ? 

Da S^udae pah ^ukam 
sarah bah hasey wu-shL 

Falanaey tsah ^hseh ^|a^ 
tan daey! 

Lah l^adda zi'at der na- 
kara saraey daey. 

Haghah tar hadda 4^ 
kshr-jsai. sardar daey. 

Yarah ! da kar baJi di wu- 

Kih Mahmud ra-sM kitSb 
bah war-k'^am. 

Kih 'ihn kar'ai 'icnsat bah 

TTsman wu-lar yarah ! 
ihsdh sa^raey wuh: Qiudae 
di ^air war pesh k'fi 1 

Rhan Sahiba! !^udae di 
tar (Jer jzwandaey larej ! 

Daghah sapaey pah ^ub 
k'iShey ^arkaey kawi. 

Ghwaram chih wu-n'jzam 
lekin n' jzaJa^ na-sham. 

Pah ra-t*lo k'lyiey dl waH 
hasey 4er dirang (or, dzan4) 
wu-kar? teah n'ihata'h li 
peiSha'h sh'wa'h (pr^ kj pe^h 

Bibuz (or, ribuz) wa^hkh 
aw dza'e tah jaru k'fi^. 

Aor bal Idk aw chirigh 
map k'pth. 



I hare no appetite: I am 
not hungry : I do not desire 

Dost thou not know the 
difEerence between right and 

Why dost thou bark like 
a dog? 

Such pain comes over me 
that I am unable to bear it. 

Hast thou seen my helmet 
anywhere ? 

xou made inquiry of me 

Do not keep the fast at 
this time, for thou art sick. 

Open the door. 

I may have opened it. 

Open the chest. 

Alas! alas! what is this 
thing that thou hast done P 

SaKm brought me by 

The kazi of our city iB 
.very just, and men of learn- 
ing he cherishes much. 

Does any acquaintance- 
ship exist between thee and 
so-and-so ? 

I do not know who he is. 

What dost thou call this 

This is called a lun^. 

Where are such things 

Wulgah mi nah-kejzi : 
lewal nah yam: hits nah 

Hits U^abar nah yey pah 
lljiaram aw pah ^alal ? 

Waley da spi pah shan 
l^apey p 

Da rangah dard ra-dzi 
chih z'ghamalaey yey nah 

Q}ol mi di ohartah lidal- 
aey daey? 

Tasu lah ma nah pa-]^wa 
pu^tana'h wu-k'fa'h. 

Pah dey rwadzo k'iShey 
rojza'h mah nisah chin 
mariz yey. 

War pra-nadzah. 

i^ialaf ke^wej bah mi wi. 

gmduV kbalas k'^rah. 
'reghah ! D'reg^ah! tsah 
kar daey chih di wu-kay ? 
Salim zah pah zor botam. 

Dz'mujz da i^hahr V^?^ 
4er 'adil daey, aw da 'alim- 
ano ^hseh tarbiyat kawi. 

Sta aw da f alani tar mi- 
yandg $gah pejgand-galwi 

Zah yey nah pej^anam 
chih t§ok daey. 

Da tsiz Ifiah boley! (or, 
Dey tah tsah wa-yey ? 

Da lunga'i wa-yaley shey* 

Hasey t^zunah pah kam 
ds^e joreji^i P 

11 ♦ 



: These words are contrary 
to reason. 

I have not the heart to do 
this (or, lit My heart does 
not desire that I should do 

I do not desire to come. 

My heart does not incline 
me to go. 

This is a momentous 
"affair: it requires to be 
done with reflection (or^ 

I ran at such a pace that 
all became astonished. 

I went to the bazar on 

Jalal said thus before the 
magistrate (or, official). 

Thou art a mean fellow 
that thou hast done this 

I am certain that this is 
thy doing. 

Why hast thou not in- 
formed me ? 

• These words of mine are 
for thy advantage, if thou 
(but) knowest. 

First look to your own 
advantage and injury. 
^ Whatever thing pleases 
thee, take it. 

• This is a bygone affair 
(matter) : it is not good to 
remember it in any way. . 

Da l^abarey lah 'akl nah 
lirey dey. 

Z'rah mi nah-ghwari chih 
hasey wu-k'ram. 

Nah ghwa^ram chih ra- 

Z'rah mi nah kejzi chih 

Da giran kar daey : pah 
fikr sarahkaraey bo-yah. 

Pah hasey z^ghasta'h wu- 
z'ghastam chih tol hairan 

Da Jum'ey pah rwadz 
k'iShey bazar tah laram. 

Jalal da hakim tar ma^a 
hasey wu-wa-yal. 

Tah spuk sajuey yej chih 
da kar di karaey daey. 

Yakin mi daey chih da 
da sta k'rah daey. 

Ta waley ma ^abar ka;« 
aey nah daey ? 

Da wa-yal mi sta da sud 
di kih pohejzey. 

W'pumbaey l^pul sud o 
zi-yan tah wu-gora'i. 

Har tsiz chih di ^wa^ 
wi wa-yey-^lah. 

Da tera'h ^abara'h da'h: 
yadawul jej pah Mts shan 
^hsBh nah da'h. 



This information (or, ac- 
count, rumour, &c.) ema- 
nated from the city. 

Come at noon : at present 
I am not at leisure. 

A long time has elapsed : 
what, has not that man 
arrived yet ? 

Sprinkle water here to lay 
the dust (lit. that the dust 
may lie). 

We are now freed of all 
our griefs. 

TVTiile you were coming I 
was donning my clothes. 

BoU water and get some 
tea ready. 

I took fifty rupis on loan 
(or, I borrowed fifty rupis). 

To whom shall I give the 
money ? 

I gave them to Daulat. 

*TJmr, Tusuf, and Isma'il 
(all three) beat A^mad. 
. I beat ^alil : I gave him 
such a beating that he will 
remember it. 

I saw 'Isa when we were 
(both) riding. 

I saw Farid while he was 
being beaten. 

The water is risen level 
with the wood. 

One rupi is a great deal 
between thee and Jamal too. 

Da kbabara'h lah i^hahra 

G^arma'h ra-shah: aos 
waz-gar nah yam. 

Per wa^t ter shah : aya 
haghah sa^aey tah aosa la 
ra-^alaey nah daey ? 

Aoba'h daltah wu-pashah- 
chih duyey k'lSheni. 

Aos lah tolo ghamo bey- 
gham yu. - 

Chih tasu ra-t'la'aa ma 
n'mara'i aghustaley. 

Aoba'h wu-yashawah aw 
chahey tai-yarey k'rey. 

Pindzos rupa'i mi pah por 

Rupa'i wa-cha-tah war- 

Ma wa Daulat tah rupa'i 
war k'yey. 

'TJmr, aw Tusuf, aw Is- 
ma'il Aljimad yey wu-wahah. 

^^alil mi wu-wahah (or, 
Ma Khalil wu-wahah) : pah 
hasey wahal mi wa-wahah 
chih yad bah yey lari. 

Ma 'Isa pah sparli k'^hey 

Farid mi wahalaey wu- 

Aoba'h lah largi sarah 
barabarey sh'wey. 

Pera'h da'h yowa'h rupa'i 
pser ta lah Jamal sarah. 



I brought Ibrahim on thy 

All are not the same 
alike: some are oldsters, 
some youngsters, some old^ 
some young. 

He is a great wag (wit, 
satirist, <fec.) 

Such may be the case or 
not, but if he is wise he will 
not practise his jokes upon 

Do not practise thy plea- 
santries upon me if tnou art 

If you act according to 
this advice (lit, speech, <fec.) 
you will obtain much ad- 

I cannot imagine that 
from this good will accrue. 

He did not see me, but I 
saw him. 

Do not say anything to 
them on this subject. 

They are base people: 
they never acted honestly. 

Do not act like an ass: 
use manliness in thy doings. 

Had we laughed, they 
would have been greatly 

May God preserve thee, 
but do not forget us. 

Ibrahim mi sta pah sabab 

Tol pah yowah shan nah 
di: tsfok masharan, dzini 
kasharan di, ^ok zor» dzini 

Haghah ^^r toki sa]raey 

Hasey bah wi kih bah nah 
wi, waley kih ho^hyar daey 
lah mujz sarah tokey bah 
nah k'fi. 

Lah ma sarah tokey mah 
kawah kih hoiShyar jej. 

Kih 'ami pah da wa-yal 
wu-k'^'ai ^er ^air bah mu- 

Dz^ma pah poha'h nah ra- 
^ chih lah dali da ^air kar 

Zah yey nah lidalam, 
waley ma yey wu-Hdah. 

Hugho tan pah dey bab 
k'iShey hits mah-wa-yah. 

Haghah kam a^l l^alk di : 
hits-kalah yey ri^hti'a nah 

Da U'rah pah dod (or, 
pah shan, ot, ghundey) kar 
mah-kawah :• saraey-tob pah 
kar ^artg k'^ah. 

Kih mujz Randall wae, 
dii-i bah der kbwa^h shawi 

Khudae di wu-satah, 
waley mujz mah herawah. 



God bless tliee ! (pr^ God 
be good to thee ! <&c.) 

May God preserve you: 
I haye committed you unto 

Tbis is a very upright 

They are honest men. 

That is an honest woman. 

These are upright women. 

That is a very old and 
toothless old woman. 

Fetch twenty-one rupis 
from him. 

Take this melon from 

That woman has fallen in 
loTO with (or, become at- 
tached to) him. 

I understand that thou 
art in love with Nadir's 
daughter ; in fact, that thou 
art mad after her. 

They sure my friends, if 
thou understandest. 

What sort of friendship 
(aX8o, intimacy) is it that 
'tiiou showest towards them? 

I will sing a ditty, do 
thou pipe a little. 

Wish, !^udae di pah zer« 
ma'h shah! 

Da IQ^udae pah aman: 
pser i^udae mi suparali 

Ha-yah 4^r ri^htinaey 
saraey daey. 

Haghah riiShtini sa^i <U. 

Haghah riihtiney kbadz- 
a'h da'h. 

Daghah riihtim kb&d^ey 

Haghah ^era'hza^ra'h kan* 
4asa'h da'h. 

War dzaU^ah yow-wisht 
rfipa'i ra-w*yah. 

Da sardah lab haghah 
dza^ah wakb-lah. 

Falana'i kbadza'h pah 
haghah bandi mayana'h 
shawey dey. 

Pohejzam chih da Na§iir 
pah lur bandi mayan yey; 
balkih pasey* lewanaey yey. 

Haghah ^'ma ashna'ean 
di kih pohejzey. 

Da kam rang da ashna'i 
da'h chih lab nugho sarah 
tab yey kawey ? 

Zah bah lan^al wayam, 
tab tsa^o shpela'i wu-wah- 

♦ For this form of pas and yey combined, see Dictionary, 
page 1105. 



. What doBt thou do (pvy 
occupy thyself in) at home ? 

' I pass my nights in idle- 

Is there a son bom in thy 
house, or a daughter ? 

My wife has given birth 
to a son. 

What is thy name, and 
what name hast thou given 
to thy son ? 

*Umr's father and mother 
are both blind. 

His sister is a widow, and 
his mother is grown very 

Women generally are 
weaker than men. 

My intention is not such 
that I would lend out money 
on usury : if thou imaginest 
such thou dost not under- 

These two youths are my 
foster brothers, and that 
man is my middle brother. 

That is a very pretty 

She is our foster sister. 

Which among these bro- 
thers is the youngest, and 
which the oldest ? 

This is a good man. 

These are good men. 

Pah tor k'llhey ^ah kar 

: Pah bey-kari shpey tera- 

Sta pah kor k'iShey dzo-e 
shawaey daey kih lur? 

Tabar mi dzo-e rawaraey 

'Nuxa di tsah daey, aw pah 
dzo-e di tsah num yashaey 

Da 'TJmr 'plar mor dwa^r- 
ah randah di. 

Khor yey kunda'h da'h, 
aw mor yey spinsara'h shaw- 
ey da'h. 

!Qbadzey aksar tar saro 
nah kam-zorey di. 

Ni-yat mi da rangah nah 
daey chih pah sud bandi 
rupa'i spari k^am : kih dasey 
atkalawey nah pohejzey. 

Daghah dwah dzwanan 
dz'ma da ti w'riimah di, aw 
haghah sa^raey ^'ma mi- 
yandzwaey w'ror daey. 

Da 46ra'h i^haista'h jina^i 

Dz'miijz ti JAor da'h. 

Lah hugho w'rumo nah 
kam yow mashar w'ror daey, 
kam kashar ? 

Da (or, daghah. or\ ha- 
yah) ihadh sa^aey daey. 

Da (oTy dau^ahy or^ ha- 
yah) ^hsBh sap di. 



This is a good woman. 
These are good women. 
What sayest thou to poor 


Would that Ea^man had 

I swear, by Qod, that I 
never drink wine. 

Who said so ? Hast thou 
heard so? 

This fellow contends with 

What ! did Shahbaz strike 

brother, hear my words ! 

Islam !^an is a great 
man ; he is very rich. 

If you come to me I will 
give you a present. 

1 shall not read with my 
pupils to-day, because it is 

I am the third generation 
(third in descent) from 
Midla Muhammad. 

This thing has come into 
my hands gratis. 
. Take out the meal from 

Da (or, daghah. or, ha- 
yah) iSha'h ^adza'h da'h. 

Da (or, daghah, or, ha- 
yah) iShey ^adzey dey. 

Ma ^war tah tsah wa- 

E!ash-ld Ea^man ra-ghal- 
aey wae ! 

^asm Khudae jzo kih 
sharab hits kalah wu- 

Hasey cha wu-wayal ? Ta 
hasey arwedalaey daey? 

Da sa^aey lah ma sarah 
jang ka^n. 

Tsah ! Shahbaz wu-wa- 
halejr ? 

Ai w'rorah, dz'ma ^a- 
barey war-wah ! 

Islam W^slh lo-e saraey 
da^ ; 4®r daulat lari. 

£[ihma tah ra-sha'ai in' am 
bah dar k'^am. 

Nan zah wa-shagirdano 
tah sabak nah-wa-yam, chih 
juma'h da'h. 

Lah Mulla Muhammad 
nah zah dreyama'h pe^ra'i 

Daghah tsiz mi wepa 

pah las k'iShey wataey daey. 

. Da wayah (or, aoyah) tri 

* Lit. " It is an oath bv God if I ever drink wine." 
Conscientious Musalmans will not take an oath. 



the liand-mill, and make 
bread with it. 

To-night give an enter- 
tainment to five or seven 

I am become somewhat 
himgry: I will eat some 

Bring me a little salt. 

I have lost a thing: if 
thou hast seen it bring it 
to me. 

IJnto whom did the lot 

In this affair you have 
wearied us much (greatly). 

My sleeve is very loose 
(or J open) : tighten it a 
Httle (somewhat). 

The kid sucks its mother's 

Pull up (root up) the tree 
from that place and plant it 
in another : it will strike. 

My father has cows, and 
I am his cow-herd. 

That cow is a stranger: 
it is not my property. 

Is this mountain-goat a 
female or a male P 

Upon what rids^es do the 
mouTtain - deer generally 

michan wu-basah, aw map- 
a*i tri pali^ah Frah. 

ITan shpey lah da pindzo 
aowo kaso melmasti'a wu- 

Zah lakutey(aZ90,lakatey) 
wajzaey shawaey yam : tsan 
ghwaihey wu-^uram. 

Lakutey malga'h ra-Iarah 

Tow tsiz mi wuruk shaw- 
aey daey : kih bah ta Gdal- 
aeywey ra-yey-Frah. 

Hiska'h da cha pah namali 
wu-U^atala'h (or, Pacha^h 
pah cha bandi pre- watala'h) ? 

Pah dey kar k'^hey tasu 
miijz der stari kari yu. 

Lasturnaey mi der arat 
daey : tsaU^o yey tang k'i*ah« 

Wurghumaey da mor la 

Da wana'h lah haghah 
dza'ea wu-kajzah aw bsdl 
dza'e yey kej^dah : wu-bah- 

Plar mi ghwa (in Western 
Af gh anistan the plural is 
ghwawi) lari: ghobah yey 
zah yam. 

Da ghwa prada'i da'h: 
dz'ma mal nah da'h. 

Da ghartsa'h khadza'h 
da'h kih nar daey ? 

Sijgey pah komo wawako 
bandi aksir tsar! ? 



Where is thy home? 
At G^wara^h Margha'h. 

That is a very distant 
country (also, home, &c.) : 
Gk)d only knows how we 
shall reach it. 

Do not entertain (nourish) 
any hope from it : you will 
not obtain any adrantage 

Call him hither who is 
standing at the gate : I have 
business with hun. 

There is neither room 
within nor without: where 
shall I recline (repose) my- 

Thou art not equal to me 
in height. 

Inform the master of the 
house that I have come. 

He is not within (not at 
home) : he has gone out. 

A man was going along 
the road with some woman. 
Another man met them, and 
he inquired of the man, 
What relationship is there 
between this woman and 
thee ? " He replied, " My 
mother - in - law and her 
mother-in-law are mother 
and daughter." What rela- 
tionship, therefore, bears 
this woman to the man ? 


Kor di chartah daey ? 

Pah Ghwara'h Margha'h 

Da 4©r liri watan daey: 
i^udae z'dah t§ah-rang bah 
war wa-raeejzu. 

Hits umid lah ha|^h 
mah lar'ai : f a'ldah bah nah 
tri wu-win'ai. 

Haghah chih pah wara 
bandi walay daey ra yey wu- 
bolah : kar pah laram. 

Nah dananah dza'e shtah 
nah dabandi: chartah aykh 
wu-lagawum ? 

Tah pah kadd k'^ey 
^z'ma barabar nah jej. 

Da kor tsa^htan ra-]^abar 
k'rah chih zah ra-glaey yam. 

Dananah nashtah : da 
bandi watalaey daey. 

Tow saraey lah komey 
iShadzey sarah peer lari ta-i 
(E., tah). Bsel sayaey peer 
pei^h shah, suwal yey tri wu- 
kar chih ''da i^hagza'h sta 
tsah da*h? '* Dah war-tah 
wu-wey, "dz'ma ^wai^hey 
da dey l^waiShey sarah mor 
aw lur di." Nur da i^hadza'h 
da dey sa^ri tsah kejzi ? 



Wise Saws and Sayings. 

Entertain not the hope of 
faithfulness from the base. 
' Error on the part of the 
honourable is not to be ex- 

The base possess not 
faithfulness : (nor) the noble 

Acquire knowledge, for it 
is glory in religion . and the 

This world is the field of 
the world to come: that 
which you sow that you will 

Guard thyself from igno- 
rance, for it is dishonour 
both in religion and the 

Every one is ignorant of 
his own fatilts. 

Grieve not about what 
has passed, for it will not 
come back again. 

To give abuse to anyone, 
or to terrify one out of one's 
life, is not the act of a man. 

The acquintanceship of a 
hundred years becomes 
severed in a moment. 

No human being is free 
from fault: all are stained 
with sin. 

The kid lies down by its 
mother's side. 

Lah bad-aiplah da wafa 
umid wa-mah-k'rah. 

Lah asilah da ^ata umid 
nah kejzi. 

Bad-a?! wafa nah lari : 
nek-sat bey-wafa'i. 

'Hm z'dah k'rah, chih 'izzat 
da din aw da dunya daey. 

Da dunya ki^ht da a^irat 
daey : har-chih kar'ai hagh- 
ah bah re-b'al. 

Lah jahla dzan wu-jz*- 
ghorahy chih bey 'izzati da 
din aw da dunya da'h. 

Har tsok pah khpul 'aib 
na-poh daey. 

Da ter shawaey kar arman 
mah kawah, chih bi-yartah 
pah las nah ra>slu. 

Peghor war-kawul wa- 
cha-tah, ya tsok lah dzana 
tarhawul, da maro kar nah 

Da salo kalo ashna'i pah 
yowah dam ghwutsa'h shi. 

Hits bani adam lah gun- 
aha khalagah nah daey: fol 
pah gunah aliidah di. 

Ser-la'i da mor pah tsang 
k'l^hey pre-w'zi. 



The brown (dusty brown, 
lit) dog is the wolfs bro- 

As the forest is, so is its 

Do not eject the water 
from the eyes of the blind. 

If the mountain is a for- 
ti*ess, there is a road on the 
summit of it. 

Than two raisins one date 
is good. 

The sport of an ass is 
either wind from behind or 
■a kick. 

Death on a full belly is 

Before reaching the water 
dofE not the sandals. 

From an empty gun two 
persons quail. 

Drive a thief, but not to 
the house. 

It is a great art to do the 
right thmg at the right 

Slow and steady wins the 

Pride at last shall have a 

Example is better than 

The most insignificant 
persons are generally the 
most presuming. 

Better be wise by the mis- 
fortunes of others than by 
your own. 

W^^X spaey da lewah 
w'ror daey. 

Lakah dzangal hasey yey 

Da irundo stargo aoba'h 

Qhar kih hi^ar da«y, pai 
sar yey lar dey. 

Tar dwey watskey yow 
^urma ^ha'h* 

Da ^'rah bazi ya goz ya 

Marg pah ^ak nas ^hseh 

Pa-liwa tar aobo gaw-li 
mah kajzah. 

Lah tasha'h t^paka'h 
dwai kasa werejzi. 

Ghal wu-sha^ah, magar 
nah tah kor. 

Lo-e hunr daey kawul da 
la-ik kar pah munasib wakt 

J^arar aw gabit-kadam 
shart gafi. 

Maghruri ^o bah a^ir 

Tamgil bih-tar daey tar 
pand kawulo. 

Per spuk aw na-karah 
]j^alk*aksar lah tolo nah la 
tar l^addah gusta^ di. 

Bih-tar daey hoi^hyar 
sh'wal lah afato da nuro tar 
afato Upulo. 



There is no eye like the 
master's eye. 

One man's meat is another 
xnan's poison. 

A bird in the hand is 
worth two in the bush. 

Stretch thy arm no farther 
than thy sleeve will reach. 

Old birds are not cai;ight 
with chafE. 


Avoid too powerful neigh- 
bours ; for, should there be 
a collision, the weakest goes 
to the wall. 

It is one thing to propose, 
another to execute. 

They who neglect their old 
friends for the sake of new, 
are rightly served if they 
lose both. 

He that prays harm for 
his neighbour, begs a curse 
upon himself. 

In choosing allies we must 
look to their power as well 
as their will to aid us. 

Nah-shtah hits starga'h 
lakah starga'h da tsaihtan. 

Khwaya'h da yowah 
8ha^9 zahr da bsel da'h. 

Yow murghah pah las 
k'^hey sh^eh daey tar dwo 
nasto pah butaey. 

Tax aoj^walaey da las- 
tiimo U^pulo las mah-ghaz- 

Zaipah murghan pah prar- 
ah nail- girif tare jzi. 

Parhez wu-kra'al lah dero 
zorawaro ham - sayagano ; 
tsalarah chih kih sarah wu- 
n'l^ial'ai, hagbah chih kam- 
zoraey daey tabah bah shi. 

Wyandi kawal da tadbir 
yow tsiz daey, magar pah 
*aml ra-w'ral bsel tsiz. 

Ha gl^ ah kasan chih ghaf- 
lat pah nisbat wa kadimi 
dostano tah da-parah da 
nai^o dostano kawi, Idh 
dwarah wuruk k'ri la-Ik 

Haghahtgok chih du*a da- 
parah da zi-yan da hum-sa- 
yah ^pul kawi, iltimas da 
bala pali ^pul dzan kawi. 

Pail ghwarah kawulo da 
'alidiano har kalah chih 
nazar wa-marzi-tah da du-i 
da-parah da madad dz'mujj 
kawii bo-yah chih pser 
tawan da du-i hum nazar 



He who incites to strife 
j8 woarse than he who takes 
f axt in it. 

There is more danger from 
a pretended friend than 
from an open enemy. 

The worth of money is 
not in its possession, but in 
its use. 

The quarrels of friends 
BJte the opportunities of 

Facts speak plainer thaa 

Eetribution, though late, 
ecfjnGB at last. 

Presumption begins in 
ignorance and ends in ruin. 

* It is too late to whet the 
sword when the trumpet 
sounds to draw it. 

One good turn deserves 

Better scare a thief than 
snare him — drive a thief, 
but not towards tihe house. 

When our neighbour's 
house is on fire, it is time to 
look to our own. 

Hafi^ah saraey chih da- 
paralTda Jang nir patgawi 
4er bad daey tar hugho 
chih pah k'l^hey shank di. 

Lah libasi dostah zi-atey 
^atra'h da'h tar zahiri 

Fazilat da datdat pah 
darlal k'^hey da haghah 
nah-shtah, balkih pah kar 
raVpalo da haghah daey. 

Jagrey da dostano f ur^at- 
unah da dulhmanano di, 

fzaba'h da j^^al fa^Jf, tar- 
a'h da'h tar j^aWh da ma^al. 

Jaza, kih tsah hum pah 
dirang wi, magar pah a^ir 
kho ra-dp. 

Gusta^ pah jahalat 
sharu' kejzi aw pah tabahi 
k'iShey tamamej^i. 

Har-kalah chih kama wa- 
haley shi da k'^halo da turey 
wa^t da-parah da terawalo 
da highey ter shah. 

Ei'l da neka'i wajibu-1- 
'iwaz daey. 

Werawul da ^'Iseh Jbih- 
tar daey tar achawulo jej 
pah dam k'^hey — ghal shaf - 
ah magar nah tah kor. 

Har-kalah chih pah kor 
da hum-sayah ^z'muj^ aor 
lagedalaey wi, wakt daey 
cluh mujz Uabardari da kor 
U^pul wu-k'fu. 


A coward can be a hero at Na-mard lah lin bahadur 

a distance ; it is tbe presence kedalaej shi ; magar buzur 

of danger that tests pre- da ^atrey daey chih azma' 

sence of mind. iiSlit da z'yab-war-tob kawi. 

It is a wise son who knows Per 'akil dzo-e daey chih 

his own father. ^pid plar pejzani. 

Fortune is like unto a potter: it &.shioneth and 

breaketh : 
Many, like unto me and thee, it hath created and 


Da f alak kulal daey ; sazawul aw matawul ka : 
Der jej ma wa ta ghiindi paida k'yal hum fana. 

He who placeth any hope upon the fabric of this world, 
Embarketh, on a tour of the ocean, in a paper boat. 

Chih umid pah 'imarat da di dunya ka, 
Da ka^iz pah kii^hti sair da darya ka. 

A spoiled son taketh not to discipline and instruction ; 
And a shaded palm-tree yieldeth not ripe dates. 

Nazawulaey dzo-e nah a^-li adab ; 
Aw da seo-ri na^l nah nisi ratb. 

The deeds of men will be many, (and) their words few ; 
But the acts of recreants are few, and their boastings 

Da mardano kardah 4^^t, wayal yey lajz wi ; 
Da na-mardo 'ami lajz wi, der yey laf wi. 






[n. noun; a, adjective; vd, verb intransitive; v.^. verb 
transitive ; Ice. where the auxiliary kedal is used ; ha, 
where kawal is used ; ad. adverb ; co, conjunction ; jpr. 
preposition ; jpo. post-position ; and in, interjection.] 


ahandon — ablution, 

abandon, v.t. pre-jzdal, pre-iShodal, pre-iSh*wal. 

abandonment, n. pre-^hodana'h, pre-i^howuna'h. 

ahaae, v.t. spukawul. 

abasement, n. spuk-walaej. 

abash, v.t. shannawul. 

abate, v.i. kamedal, lajzedal ; v.t. kamawul, lajzawul. 

able, a. tuwana ; to be able, v.i. tuwanedal, v.t. tuwan laral, 

takat laral, zor laral. 
ability, n. was, jarz, takat. 
ablution, n. ghusl^ (ceremonial) wazu. 


178 abode — accoutre. 

abode, n. astogah, dza'e, nushta'li. 

aboliehy T.t. maukuf ka., man'a'h ka. 

abominable, a. palit, bad, kraka'h, stu^. 

abominate, v.i stu^ lagedal, bad manal, kraka*li akhiatal. 

about, ad. chaper, chaperah ; pr. (relating to) da-parah, 

(time and place) najzdey, (quantity) pah andaz, pah 

abreast, ad. tsang-pah-tsang. 
abroad, ad. pah pradi mulk k'l^hey. 
absence, n. ghair ^aziii ; (separation) bejal-tun, hijran. 
absent, a. ghair ^azir, na-shtah, (separated) bejal, (in 

mind) 4^b pah fikr l?6hey. 
abstain, y.t. parhez ka., pal ka., dzan satal, las a^istal. 
abstemious, a. parhez-gar. 
abstract, y.t. k'iShal, kajzal, beyalawul. 
abundance, n. 4er-walaey, tal-walaej, wadani. 
abundant, a. der, f 'rewan, tal. 
abuse, n. ^h'kandzal, kanzal, peghor ; y.t. peghor war-ka- 

wnl, ^h'kandzal, or kanzal ka. 
accept, y.t. manal, pasandawnl, a^istal, khwai^hawul. 
acceptable, a. ghwarah^ ^wa^h ; to be acceptable, y.i. pas- 

andedal, ghwarah ke., Uhwashedal. 
a^icident, n. hadisa'h, afat, waki'a'h. 
a^ccidentaZ, Sb. kaza-i, kismati. 
a^icidentaUy, ad. pah sahwa'h, pah \BJzk, 
accommodate, y.t. dza'eawul, a^amal. 
accommodation, n. dza'e. 
accompany, y.i. mal-gari ke. 
accomplice, n. mal-garaey, sharik. 
accord, n. rog^a'h, jorii^nt, pal^ula-tob ; of one's own, ad. 

pah ^pulah, pah ^pul sar, lah ]^pulali anda ; of one, 

jow-z'irah, yek-jihat ; according to, pah-sarah ; (custom) 

pah dastur sarah; accordingly, ad. dzakah, lah dej 

jihata, tro. 
account, n. Ijiisab, shumar, (relation) ki^^a'h, bayan ; y.t 

garnal, pohedal, shmeral. 
accoutre, y.t. a g hustal^ m'la ta^al, drasta'h or wasla'h 


aecoutremenU— alike, 179 

accoutrements^ n. drasta'h, wasla'h. 

a^cumulatey T.i. toledal ; T.t. tolawul. 

accurate, a. ri^hti-a, ju^t. 

acctisa^ion, n. tor, tuhmat, daVa'h; T.t. tuhmat ta^al or 

wajal, tor pori ka. 
a^scuaer, n. mudda'i. 
a^ihe, n. ^ujz, randz, dard ; T.i. ran^zuredal, Uiujzedal ; 

T.t. dard kawnl. 
a^^tiaint, T.t. pohawul, ^abarawal, ^abar ka. 
a>equaintance, n. ashna-e, pejzandali, pejzandana'h. 
acquaintanceship, n. pejzan-galwi. 
acquire, T.t. gafal, mundal, ^a^ilawul. 
across, ad. pori, pori gharey. 
act, n. (action) kawuna'h, k'^rah, kar, 'ami; T.t. kawul 

k'fal, 'amal ka. 
active, a. tak^ah, chalak. 
actively, ad. pah chalak! sarah. 
activity, n. chalald. 
a>ctor, n. kawunkaej, k'piiikaey. 
a/iv^, a. terah, saj^t ; hoi^hjar, pohand. 
admonish, T.t. na^ihat ka. ; to accept admonition^ na^il^at 

advance, n. w'randi ; T.i. w'randi ke. 
advantage, see profit 
adversity, d. tangi, tangsa'h. 
advice, n. pand ; to advise, T.t. pand wa-yal. 
afar, ad. liii. 

afraid, T.i. tarhedal, weredal. 
after, ad. and pr. pas, w'rusto. 
again, ad. bi-a, bi-yartah. 
a^e, n. 'umr. 

agreement, n. itta-fak ; to agree, T.t. manal, kabulawul. 
aid, n. hapa'h, komak, madad, marasta'h ; to aid, T.t. hap- 

a'h ka., marasta'h ka., madad war-kawul. 
ailment, see sickness, 
alarm, n. wera*h; to alarm, T.t. werawul. 
alight, to, T.i. kuzedal. 
alike, see similar. 

12 • 

180 oZtve— opflw^. 

alive, a. jzwandaey. 

aU, a. toC'W'arah. 

allotf see distribute. 

alms, n. ^air, ^airat ; to give alms, v.t. khairat ka. ; to 

beg alms, T.t. ^air ghoi^tal. 
alone, a. jBiyrkdzaej. 

along with, ad. sarah, lah sarah, pah sarah. 
also, CO. hum. 
alter, see change, 
although, co. agar-chih. 
always, ad. tal, har-kalah. 
amass, to, T.t. tolawul, jama' kawul ; amass wealthy to, T.t. 

daulat tolawol. 
ambuscade, or arnbv^sh, n. psunaey, pat-gana*i; to lie in 

ambush, T.t. pah psuni k'^hey k'^he-nastal, put-ganal 

an^iestor, n. jadd, plar-nikseh. 
ancient, see old. 

ankle, n. pa^-kaey, ^atgaraey, gital. 
anger, n. b'fos-walaej, ^afagi, kahr. 
angry, a. ^a&li, b'ros, ghusga'h-nak; to become a/ngry^ T.t. 

kahr ka., b'lrosedal, T.i. Miafah ke. ; to mdke angry^ T.t. 

anim^al, n. dzan-dar, dzanawar. 
annoy, to, T.t. parawul, rab-yawul. 
a/noint, to, T.t. ghwayawul. 
answer, n. dzawab ; to answer, T.t. dzawab ka.y dzawab war- 

ant, n. mejzaej ; white ant, aoej-nah. 
antagonist, see enemy, 
antelope, n. aosaej, chikara'h, hosaej. 
antimony (for the eyes), n. ranjah. 
antler, n. ^h'kar. 
anvil, n. saiKJLan. 

anxiety, n. andei^hna'h, ^am, fikr, andoh. 
anodous, a. andei^h-man, ^am-jan, fikr-man. 
any, a. tsok, tsah. 
apart, a. beyal, juda, yawadzaey. 

a^parbnent — armpit. 181 

apartment, n..kbuna'li, dza-e. 

apparel, n. a^ustan, zapiki, n'waraej. 

appa/rent, a. tsargand, i^h'karali. 

appea/r, T.i. tsargandedal, iSh'karah ke., m'aluinedal. 

appea/ranee, n. tsihra'li, ^iirat, shakl. 

appea^ae, T.t. sapawal, papula ka. 

appetite, n. wulga'h, Twajza'h. 

applaud, see commeTtrC^. 

oppZottaa, see praise, 

apple, n. marna'h. 

applicable, a. munasib, jo]r. 

application, n. koi^lii^li, mi^mat, sawal, 'arz. 

apply, Y.t. lagawal, pori taral, pori ka., sawal ka., 'arz ka. ; 

Y.i. baxabaredal, joredal, lagedal. 
appoint, T.t. k'^he-nawal, wudrawid, gamaral, mul^arrar 

Ka., (a time) wa'da'h ka. 
apprehend, see seize, 
apprehension, see fear, 
apprize, T.t. ^abarawul, agab ka. 
approa^ih, T.i. najzdej ke. 
approbation, or approval, n. pasand, pirzo, ra^a, li^wai^hi ; 

to approve, T.t. pasand ka., U^wa^hawol, ^bagbal, manal. 
apt, a. munasib, la'il^. 
arable, a. shud-yar, da karalo. 
arbitrate, T.t. gwai^hal. 
arbitration, n. gwa^b. 
arbO/rator, n. gwa^h-grandaeT. 
ardowr, n. tod-walaey, todu^a'h. 
arduous, a. saJLbt, gran, driind. 
argument, n. dalil, bal^g, Ijiujjat. 
arid, see dry, 

arise, T.i. patsedal, U^tal, wudredal, wala]redal. 
arm, n. (lit. hand, but also signifying the whole arm), las, 

(from wrist to elbow) letea'h, sangal, (aboTe the elbow) 

gardaey letsaey, tor-gtia^aey. 
armed, a. m'la taralaey, wasla'h-dar ; to arm, m'la ta^al, 

darasta'h aghostal. 
armpit, n. t'Uiarg, arkb) tra]i^. 

182 orww — at 

arms, n. drasta'li, waisla'h, t^^^'^-^ftl Qi^* sword and 

army, n. fauj, lai^hkar. 

around, ad. chaper, cha-perah, char-cha-perah. 
arouse, v.t. patsawul, wiiShawul, baidarawul. 
arrange, v.t. jorawul, tan^al, ^ejzdal. 
arrangement, n. zerma'li, joriiSht, tartib. 
arrival, n. ratag, ratah, ra-t'lana'h, rasedana'li. 
arrive, v.i. ra-^lal, ra-t'lal, rasedal. 
arrogance, see pride, 
arrow, n. ghashaoy. 
artful, a. chal-baz, hilah-baz. 
artizan, n. karigar, peshah-war. 
artillery, n. top-^ana'b. 
as, CO. basej, lakah ; as if, lakab chib, gamah. 
ascend, v.i. khatal, portab ke. 
ascent, n. kbatab, ^atana'b, Twara'b. 
ashamed, a. pai^biman, sbarm-sar ; v.i. pa^biman ke., 

ash, v.t. pu^btedal, ^oi^btal. 

asle^, a. u-dab, kfaiib-waraey ; to fall asleep, v.i. u-dab ke. 
ass, n. Uar, (wild) gorab-^^ar, gb*yara'b. 
assault, n. bala'b, tsot ; to assault, v.t. bala'b ka., tsof ka. 
assay, v.t. azmayil. 
assemblage, or assembly, n. tolaey, jam'iyat, (for debate or 

counsel), jirga'b, majlis. 
assemble, v.i. toledal, jam'a'b ke. 
assent, to, v.t. manal, manziir ka. 
assessment, n. baj, U^iraj, maliya'b, kalang, ^b'kewaf. 
assist (see aid), v.t. las niwal, las war-kawul, marasta'b ka., 

pu^bti ka. 
assistance, n. marasta'b, pui^bti, madad, kumak. 
associate, n. mal, mal-garaey. 
association, n. mal-giri, mal-gar-ti'a. 
astonish, v.t. rabrawul, bairanawxd ; to become astomsKedf 

v.i. rabiredal, bairanedal. 
astonishment, n. bairat, ^airani, ta'jjub. 
atf pr. pab, pab k'l^bey ; ex. pab kor k'libey, at borne. 

attach — backwards. 183 

atta4:h, y.t. ta^al, pori ka., paiwastah ka. 

atta4:hmenty n. tapin, paiwastun ; ma-yan-tob, mina'h. 

attack, see assault 

attain, Y.t. mundal, gafal, rasedal, ^h'wal. 

aUemjpt, see essay. 

attend, y.t. timar ka., arwedal, ghwajz basal, n'ghwatal. 

l^azir aosedal, mal-giri ka. 
attendant, n. mal-garaej ; naukar, ^idmat-gar. 
attentive, a. ho^jar, baidar, Uiabar-dar. 
attire, n., see ga/rment. 
want, n. tror (father's brother's wife) tandor, (mother's 

brother's wife) mama'i. 
autumn, n. manaej. 
avarice, n. shumi, tam'a'h, bakbili. 
aversion, n. kraka'h, kajzana'h, ghandana'h. 
avoid, T.t. dzan satal, parhez ka. 
await, y.i. patedal, muntazir aosedal. See expect, 
awake, a. wish; to awake, y.i. wi^hedal; to awaken, y.t. 

wi^hawul, baidarawul. 
aware, a. z'dah, agah, li^abar. 

away, ad. liri, bi-yartah ; io. lin shah ! bi-jartah-shah I 
awe, n. wera'h, U^of . 
awful, a. werawunkaey, werawunaey. 
awktoard, a. Twa^. 
axe, XL tabar. 

axle, n. tirak, tfa-fliaej, laf. 
aaure, a. shin. 


hack, n. sha ; ad. bi-yartah, or bi-artah, Vrusto, pastanah ; 
to go or turn hack, y.i. w'rusto, or bi-yartah, or pastanah 
ke., stunedal; (aid) y.t. pushtl ka., or war-kawul. 

ha^ckbiter, n. chughul; to haclcbite, y.t. chugliull ka. 

hackhone, n. m'la tir. 

backside, n. kunataey, kuna'h. 

backwards, ad. paJbi oi-yartah, w'rusto. 

184 had — baein. 

body a. na-karah, U^rab, bad. 

badge, n. nai^lia'h. 

badness, n. khrabiy bad!, na-kari. 

bag, n. dzola'i, ka^opa'li, (large, of hair) ghundaey. (ammii- 

nition) kamr-ldsa'li, kisbat. 
baggage, n. asbab, saman, partal. 
bail, n. zamanat, zamini, (person) zamin. 
bait, aeefood, 

bake, v.t. kayawul, pa^awul (lit, to cook), Vritawul. 
baker, n. nan-paz, nan-wa-e. 
bald, n. kal, (from disease) ganjaey. 
ball, n. gola'i. 

band, n. tolaej, tolgaey, payk. 
bandage, n. ta^runae^, pata'i. 
banish, T.t. sbayal, ]ila-watan ka. 

bank, n. ^aya'li, (high) kamar, (opposite) pori ghara'h, 
banker, n. ^arraf . 
banner, n. tu^, bairak, nai^ha'b. 
bar, n. bul, tanba'h, (upright) a^ram; v.t. tanba'h, or, hoi 

or airam lagawul. 
barber, n. hajjam, na*i. 
bare, a. barbaiKJL, luts, (as a country of trees, etc.) wuch, 

barefooted, a. piihey-yabal. 
bare-headed, a. sar-tor. 
bark, n. ghap^ g hapa ; T.t. |^ap wahal, ^apal ; T.i. ghap- 

barley, n. aor-biishey, (a grain of) aor-busha'h. 
barley-bread, aor-bashina'h. 
barm, see yeajit, 

bam, n. ambar-J^ana'h, firman. 
barrel (tube), n. nal, nali. 
barren, a. shanda'h, (piece of land) 4ag, u-jay (lit waste, 

barrier, n. pulah, btirid (vul. brid), l^add. 
base, see vile, 
basin, n. (wooden) kun^a'i, kuma'i, (earthen) kandol, 


basket — believer. 186 

baahetf n. tokra'i, (flat) sli'koraey, (smaller) sh'kora'i. 

bastard, n. Jbtaram-zadah, ^ata-zowtdaey. 

ba;th (vapour), n. ^ammam, (cold) ghusL 

bastion, n. burj, damdama'h. 

bathCf T.i. lanbedal ; T.t. (wash or clean) lanbal, lanbawul, 

^usl ka. 
battalion, see regiment, 
batter, v.t. fakawul, narawul, wahal. 
battery, n. murcba'h. 

battle, n. jang, (array) t§i]ra'h, ^aff-tapm or tarana'b. 
battlement, n. kangura'h. 
ba/yonet, n. sikbcha'li, san^. 
be, T.i. aosedal, kedal. 
beam, n. bainsh, patera'h, laba^raey. 
bea/r (animal), n. yajz, milu ; T.i. sahedal, sahal, z'ghamal ; 

bring forth, v.t. w'^ral, ra-w'yal. 
beard, n. izira'h, (a grey-beard) spin-jziraey. 
beast, n. ^anawar, Taiwan. 
beat, v.t. takawul, k^fal, wahal ; defeat, v.t. bar ka., baraey 

ka., or gafal or miindal. 
beating, a, n. taVawuna'h, kutana'h, wahana'h. 
bea/utiful, a. ^h'kulaey, lilia-istah, pa'i-maUbaey. 
beauty, n. ^ha'ist, ^ha'ist-walaey, pa'i-ma^aey-tob. 
because, co. dgakah, lah dey nan, lah dey jahata, da dey da 

become, v.i. sh'wal, kedal, aosedal, (suit) perzo or munasib 

bed, n. bey-charaa'h, (stead) palang, manj, kat. 
befall, see happen, 
beg, v.t. ^air ghoiShtalf gho^htaly gada'I ka., (entreat, etc.) 

sawal ka. 
beggar, n. gada or gada-e, darwez-gar, kangal, fa^ir, muflis. 
beggary, n. gada'i, U^wari, muflisi, fa^iri. 
begin, v.i. sburu' ka., agl^az ka. 
beginning, n. sar, sharu', ibtida. See also origin, 
belief, n. bawar, i'tibar, iman, din ; v.t. bawar ka., iman 

ra-w'i^l, etc. 
believer, n. iman-dar, miimin. 

186 heUows— bleed. 

bellows, n. bana'!, pugar. 

belly f n. ge^a'h, ^eta'h, nas. 

belong, v.t. ta'liik laral ; T.i. lagedal. 

belt, n. tasma'h, rog, (waist) kamar band, kamr kisa'hy 

(sword) pata'h. 
bend J T.i. titedal, kajzedal; T.t. tit^'Wul, kajzawul. 
benefit, n. siid, fa'ida'h, nafa', gafa'h, ^he-gafa'h. 
bent, a. fit? kojz. 
besides, ad. nur, siwa, zi-at. 
bet, see wager. 

best, a. tar tolo ghwara'hy de^: de^: ^IisbIi, lah tolo nah ^hffik. 
better, a. ^wara'h, bihtax. 
bewail, y.t. wir ka., wa-waila ka. 
beware, v.i. pohedal, hoiSliyar ke., baidar ^h'wal. 
bier, n. tabut, da m'fi takl^ta^h. 
big, a. lo-e, gha^y star, katseh. 
bigness, see «ts;e. 
&i2Z (of a bird), n. ma^huka'h. 
bind, T.t. taral. 

bird, n. murgha'h^ (small) miirgha'i. 
birth, n. zejzedana'h, zowuna'h, (place) tun; to give birth, 

T.i. langedal. 
bit, n. tota'h, tofaej, t^k> ti^^kra'h, ^a^oza'h, (of a horse) 

m'luna'h, dabana'h. 
bite, T.t. chichal, dahral, khwa^ral. 
bitter, a. trikh. 
black, a. tor, (yerj) tak tor ; become or turn black, t.L tor- 

blacken, T.t. torawul. 
blackness, n. tor-walaej. 
blacksmith, n. psesli, ahangar. 
blade, n. te^, palka'h. 
blame, n. malamat, gram.walae7, taVfir ; T.t. trafal, ratal, 

blanket, n. shara'i, (felt) krasta'h. 
blaze, n. lamba'h, gnaranda'hy lu^ara'h ; T.i. baledal. 
bleed, T.i. winedal, winey bahedal ; T.t. winey k'^hal, wina- 


hleet'-boHanUeBa, 187 

hlesBi '^•t. du'a ka. 

blind, n. run4. 

blindness, n. riind-walaej. 

blood, n. winey. 

bloodshed, ^un. 

blow, n. guzar, (of fist) 4ab, suk, gasa'h ; v.t. (a fire) 

pukal, (as wind) alwatal, (as a flower) t^kedal, (out) 

m&x ka., sor ka., (a bugle, &c.) gl^ajzawul. 
bhie, a. shin, ml, asmani, abi. 
blunt, a. pats. 
bluntness, n. pats-walaey. 
boa/rd, n. ta^ta'h, tanba'h. 
boast, T.t. lafej ka., lafej wabal. 
boaster, a, n. lafuk, laf-jan, lafey-wahunkaej. 
boa;t, n. bera'i, kishta'i. 
boatman, n. man-gaej, mallah. 

body, n. dzan, ^urat, taa, (of people) tolaey, tolgaej, ^o\, 
bog, see quagmire, 
boil, n. nanaka'i, dana'b ; to boil, T.i. ae^hedal, ^ut 1^^* ; 

T.t. aesbawul. 
boiling, n. ae^hna, ^utkaej, ^uta-bar. 
bold, a. [(man) mayanaey, tur-yalaey, z'^ab-war, gustaUb, 

boldaiess, n. z'^b-war tob, maf ana'b, dilawari. 
bone, n. ba4, ba^ukaey. 
bony, a. bacjLawar. 
boolc, n. kitkb. 
boot, n. mozab, cbakma'h. 
booty, n. gafa'b, tala'b, luf. 
5or(2er, n. Ijiadd, burid, pMa'b, ghaya'h, tsan^a'h. 
bore, T.t. su|raey ka., petsal. 

bom,Si, zejzedaJaey, zowulaey ; T.i. zejzedal, zowul,paida ke. 
borrow, T.t. por a^istal, pali por a^istal, pah 'ariyat 

bosom, n. ghejzy t^tar, sina'h. 
both, a. dwa^ah. 

boUom, n. talaey, mun4, we^h, pa-yab. 
bottomless, a. bey-pa'e-an, na-pa-yab. 

188 hough — broad, 

houghy u. tsanga'h, iSha^, (small) laiShta'li. 

hounda/ryy see horder, 

bowels, n. kul-mej, lannanah. 

bowl, n. (earthen) kan^ol, kan^olaej, (wooden) kasa'h, 

box, n. sandu.]^, dablaej. 
boy, n. halak, woir-kaej, dzaraaej, dzamkaej. 
boyhood, n. lialak-walaey. 
brain, n. maghza'h. 
bramble, see thorn, 
branch, see bough, 
brass, n. zi-ja^ . 
brave, see bold. 

bray, v.i. na^al, hamedal (also to neigh). 
bread, n. doda'i, n'ma^a'!, ^amira'h. 
breadth, n. plan-walaej, psor. 
&reaA;, y.i. matedal ; v.t. matawul. 
breakfast, n. naraej, niharaej. 
breast, see bosom. 
breastv)ork, n. sangar, ^U. 
&rea^, n. sah, dam. 
breathe, v.t. sah or dam aU^stal or ra-k'^hal or wahal, or 

breed, n. na^l, ai^l, zat. 
br^e, n. ba^a'h. 

brick, n. (iinbumt) ^i^hta'h, (burnt) paja'h. 
bride, n. nawey. 

bridegroom, n. zalmaej (afeo a youth). 
bridge, n. pul, (of nose) tindoraey ; to bridge, v.t. pul ta^raL 
bricUe, n. m'luna'h, wagah, jalaw, (of a camel) pezwan. 
bright, a. rum, ro^han, spin. 
brightness, n. rama,rosh]ia'i, bre^hna ; to brighten (becom.e 

bright), y.i. rumedal, dzaledal ; v.t. rumawul, dzalawul. 
brim, or brink, n. morga'h, ghara'hy t§Ckn4&'h, lor. 
bring, v.t. (inanimate things) ra-w'^al, (animate) ra-wustal. 
bring forth, v.i. langedal. 
broad, a. plan, arat, sarah-war; to make broad, v.t. plan- 


hroJcen — hy. 189 

hroJeen, a. mat, (to bits) mat-gu^, char-clior, chor-machor. 

broom, n. jam, ribuz, (in-law) ao-^baej. 

brother, n. w'ror. 

brotherhood, n. w'ror-walaey Vror-galwi, w'rori. 

browse, see graze. 

brute, n. baiwan, dzanawar. 

bucket, n. boka'b, tagbaraey^ solagha'by ga^bal. 

bud, n. gbu^a*!. 

bugle, n. turaey. 

bugler, turi-mar. 

build, v.t. joyawul. 

building, n. mama'i, kor, 'imarat. 

buH, or bullock, n. ghwayaey,. gbwayaey^ (buffalo) san^ab. 

bullet, n. gola'i, mardak. 

bundle, n. ge^aey, pan^a'b, pan^ukaey, (of bay, <&c.) beda'b, 

burden, see load, 
burial n. ^a^bawuna'b, U^a^edana'b, (ground) goristan, 

burn, v.i. swal, baledal ; v.t. swadzawul, balawul, sedzal. 
burst, y.i. cbawdal, b'jzab ke., tsiredal, sbledal, (out) mat- 

edal, (into) v.t. cjusa'b ka. 
bury, v.t. U^a^bawul. 
bush, n. .butaey, (Jakaey. 
business, n. kar, pesbab, sbewa'b. 
busy, a. masbgbul, lagi'a. 
butcher, n. ka^^ab. 
butt, n. na^ba'b, muU^a*b. 

butter, n. kucb, (clarified, also grease, tallow, Ac.) ghwayi> 
butter-milk, n. sblom, sblombey, sblomley, (sour) tarwey. 
button, n. gbuta'i. (loop) pulwa^ba'b, ghayasha'b. 
buti/ress, n. pusbti, airam. 
^y, v.t. pirodal, piral, pab bai'a'b a^istal. 
by, p. by, witb, <&c. (by all means), pab bar sban sarab. 

190 eq^ole — ishain. 


cajole, v.t. ghulawnl. 

calamity, n. bala, afat. 

calculate, v.t. shmeral, gamal, l^isab ka. 

calf, n. sUiaej, (cancel) jungaej, (buffalo) kafaey, (of the 

leg) par^aey, s^apaej. 
call, v.t. nara'n wahal, ghajz ka., (summon) balal. 
camel, n. ii^h, (young, just fit for a load) jong or jung. 
camp, n. dera'h, urdii. 
canal, n. wala'h, (small) lai^btaej. 
cannon, n. top, topa'h, (ball) gola, gola'i. 
canbonment, n. urdu, cha'orni, ^al. 
ca{p, n. topa'i, l^ola'i. 

capital, n. a^l, majah, panga'h, (good) ^er ihsdh. 
captive, n. banda'n, burda'h. 
captivity, n. bandagi, band. 

caravan, n. karviran, kafila'h, (sara-e) karwan-sara-e. 
care, n. ande^hna'h, gham^ waswas. 
careful, a. ho^h-jar, ^abar-dar. 
ca/rele88, a. bey-parwa, bey-^abar, ghafil. 
carelessness, n. bey-parwa-i, ghaflaty bey-fikr-i. 
carpenter, n. tarkam, daruz-gar. 

carpet, n. ghaWi. ghalicha^h. ^ursh, (for prayer) sajjada'h. 
carry, v.t. w*yal, ra-w'yal. 
cart, or ca/rriage, n. arabah, gada'i. 
ca«%, n. nakd. 

cattle, n. hi^ar, kala', ga^a-i, kot. 
cat, n. pisho, (wild) pisho prang. 
catch, v.t. niwal, akfaistaly giriftar ka. 
catbse, n. sabab, jibat, (suit) mukaddama'h. 
cavalry, n. swarlani, swaran, (troop of) risala'h. 
cave, n. smats, ghar. 

cease, v.t. prejzdal, pre^odal, pre-i^h'wal ; v.i. tamamedal. 
ceiling, n. bam, (J/it, roof) tsapar, chat. 
certain one, or person, a. falanaey, p'lankaey. 
chaff, n. bus, pro?. 
chain, n. zanjir, zanzir. 

^hair — cistern. 191 

chair, n. kursi, chauki. 

chamber, u. khuna'h. 

champion, n. pahalawan, tur-jalaey. 

chance, n. puk, daw, war, (fate) kismat, na^ib; y.i. pse- 

watal, nazedal. 
change, v.i. badaledal, gserzedal ; v.t. badalawul, gserzawul, 

changeable, a. na-pa'e-dar, na-Varar, nima'h-Uiwa. 
channel, n. lar, la^htaej, l^wair, rud-U}ana'h. 
character, n. bashanj, namus, num, (lit disposition) ^o-e. 
charcoal, n. skor (pi. form, skarah), (live) skarwafa'h. 
charm, v.t. dam ka., huda'h ka. 
chase, n. ih'kar ; to follow the chase, v.t. ^h'kar ka. 
cha,sm, n. 4oghal daj-gholy gor-handa'h, jzawara'h, chawd. 
cheap, a. arzan. 
cheat, n. cbal-baz, darghaL makar ; v.t. cbal-bazi ka., dar- 

ghali ka., fareb ka., drobawul. 
cheek, n. anangaej, bar^o, rukhsar. 
chest, n. tatar, (cavity) gargas, gogal. 
chew, v.t. jzo-yal, jzowul, che-chal, krapawul, (the cud) 

shkhwand wabal. 
chicJeen, n. chirguiraej. 
chief, a. masbar, w'^unbaey, awwal; n. khan, sardar, 

malik, ra'is, hakim, arbab. 
chief ship, or chieftainship, n. kfaani, sardari. 
child, n. wof-kEiej, w'fukaej, farzand, tankaej, halak 

(females take fem. form). See Grammar, page 77. 
childbirth, n. langa'h lang-walaej. 
childhood, n. halak-walaej, w'yuk-walaey. 
chin, n. zana'h, zanakh. 
choice, n. (power to choose) wak, i^^tijar, U^wa^hi, raza ; 

a. ghwarahy ^hseh, ^a^?. 
choke, v.i. l^apa'h ke. ; v.t. ^apa'h ka., mara'i ^apa'h ka. 
choose, v.t. khwa^hawiily amawul, sbaghaL ghwarah ka. 
cinder, n. skor, (live) skarwata'h, ^ug-lan. 
circuit, n. daur, dauran, gai^ht, 'arfia'h. 
circular, a. ghiin^* 
cistern, n. ^awz, (jUui4> nawar. 

192 citadel — confess, 

citadel, n. arg, kala', bala-hi^ar. 

city, n. ^hahr, mi^r. 

claim, n. da*wa*h ; v.t. daVa'h ka. 

clan, n. khel, cham, ulus. 

claw, n. nuk, mangul, panja'h. 

clean, a. pak, spin, ^aif , pakizah ; v.t. pak ka., &c. 

clear, a. pak, ^af, rum, (apparent) t§fargand, autsar, (free) 

^ala?, jalali ; v.t. spe^a^ pal^ or ^af ka., spinawnl ; 

jalah or ^ala? ka. 
clearness, n. pak-walaej, <&c. ; tfifargand-walaej. 
cliff, n. kamar, tsaka'li, las^h. 
clima/te, n. ab-o-hawa, biwad. 
climb, y.i. ^atal. 
cloaJc, n. chogha'h , baraka'b, barana'i, (blanket) sbaira'i, 

(felt) kosaey, (fur or wool) postin. 
close, v.t. bandawul, joyawul, (as a door) pori ka. 
cloth, n. (linen) U^amta'b, sbo-e, karbas, (woollen) banat. 
clothes, or clothing, n. n'mari, zapiki, aghostan. 
cloud, n. war-yadz. 
clouds, war-ya^. 
coa/rse, a. gha^. Twa^ , pef. 
coai, n. andraJ^a'h, kada'i, kaba. 

cock, n. chirg, (crow) cbirg-bang, (of a gun) pa-e, kajak. 
cold, a. sor, yakh ; n. sa^rah, ya^ni, (a cold) zukam, diun- 

collect, y.t. tolawul, jam'a'h ka. 
colovT, n. rang, laun ; y.t. rangawul. 
colours, n. togh. jan^a'h, bairak. 
come, y.i. ra-t'lal, ra-gh*lal. 

command, n. hukm, farman ; y.t. hukm war-ka., farmaylL 
com^nion, or comrade, n. mal-garaey, mal. 
com^pany, n. tolaey, payk, ghoL 
complaint, n. gila, faryad. 
complain, y.t. faryad ka. 

complete, or conclude, y.t. tamamawul, pura'b ka. 
con^ceal, y.t. putawul, po^hal. 
concealment, n. put-walaey. 
confess, y.t. kablawul, or kabiilawul, ^wala'h wa-yal, manal. 

eonquer — crime. 198 

conquery v.t. baraej ka., landi ka., matawnl. 

conaider, y.t. ande^hna'h ka., fikr ka., gamal. 

eontenty n. moir.ti'a, pa^ula-tob. 

contented, a. mor, razi, Tpaoified) pal^ula. 

convey, y.t. (animate tbmgs) botlal, ra-wustal, (inanimate) 

convoy, n. badraka'b, badragha^h. 
cook, n. bawarclu ; y.t. pakbawuL 
cool, v.t. soirawiLl, jakbawTil. 
coolness, n. sara'h, soy-walaey. 
com, n. ly^ala'h, dana'h, (green) ^wid, ^asil, 
corpse, n. m'^aej, lash, murdah. 
coUon, n. ma^lach, (plant) kalaka'b. 
cough, n. Xukhwej ; y.i. fu^edal ; y.t. fu^ wahal. 
council, n. majlis, jirga'b, (a member of) jirgatu. 
counsel, n. pand, naf^i^at ; y.t. pand war-ka., &c. 
count, y.t. shmeral, gamal. 
countenance, n. ma^, (f ayour, <&c.) mara8ta'h« 
country, n. mulk, watan, (native) tun. 
cotiple, n. juft, dwah, joya'h. 
courage, n. marana'h, z'^ ah-war-tob, himmat. 
courageous, a. maranaey, z'^rah-war, dilawar. 
courier, n. ka^id, chapar, astadzi, (lit, messenger)* 
court, n. daxbar, dalbar, (civil) 'adalat. 
cover, n. sar-po^h, kara'h, (dish) bargholaey. 
cover, v.t. pu^awul, poiihal. * 
covet, v.t. tama' ka., hir? ka. 
covetous, a. tama'-jan, liwal. 
cow, n. ghwa. (milch) pa'i-wara'h ghwa. 
coward, n. na-mard, tu-zan. 
cowardice, n. na-mardi, tu-zan-walaej. 
crocA;, n. chawd, dafa'h, (sound) <jaz, t^s, ^rach; v.i. 

chawdal ; v.t. 4a>z wahal. 
crashed, a. chawd. 
crafty, a. chal-baz. 
create, v.t. joirawul, paida ka. 
creator, n. ^alilj:. 
crime, n. gunah, taV9ir, ^ata. 


194 crooked — deadly. 

erookedy a. kojz, tit, kpng. 

crop, n. fa?!. 

cross, v.i. poriwatal, porit'lal; v.t. terawul. 

cross, a. sut-but, marawar, ^apah. 

crowd, n. dala'b, tol, \o\sj&j, 

cry, n. jzara, napaJi, (weep) y.i. jza^al, (out) na^raly narej 

wahal or ka. 
cultivate, v.t. yow-ya*h or jsiwej ka., abadawul, wadan- 

cunning, a. cbal-baz, fareb-jan. 
cup, n. kan^ol, kan^olaej, (china) kasa'h, piala'h, (metal) 

cure, n. ragbawuna'h, jo^-walaej, 'ilaj ; y.t. raghawtiL 

curtain, n. parda'h, ^ij jab. 
curse, n. la'nat, ^hera'h ; y.t. la'nat wa-yal or ka., ^hera'h 

custom, n. dastur, rasm, dod, lar, (tax) malija, baj. 
custody, n. jzghorana'h. satana'h, hawala'h, fehundi-walaey. 
cut, n. tsira'h, (of a sword) guzar, (water, canal) wala'b, 

(small) la^htaej ; a. tsiralaej, jzobal, ghwuts ; y.t. teiral, 

pre-kawul, pre-k'yal, (wound) jzoblawul, ghwatsawul^ 

(witb a sword) gu^ar ka. See v)ound. 


da/mage, n. trot, tawan, nuk^an. 

damp, a. lund, nam-nak, z'yam-nak. 

danger, n. wera*h, ^atra'h. 

dark, a. tor. 

darkness, n. t'jara'h, tor-tam, tor-gamaej. 

date, n. tari^, (tree) kfaurma, ^ajur. 

daughter, n. lur, (in-law) n'jzor. 

day, n. wradz or rwadz, (light) rama wradz, (dawn) chirg- 

bang, sapedey or sapedey dagh. 
dead, a. mar, (as a tree) m'f am. 
deadly, a. katil. 

dsaf — desert 195 

deaff Sp. kum/ 

deafness, n. kiim-walaey. 

dear, a. gran, 'aziz. 

dearth, n. ka^ti, tangsa'h, tangsi'a, gram. 

death, n. marg, ajal. 

debt, n. por, ^irz. 

debtor, n. porawuyaey, ^?-dar. 

deceit, n. droh, chal, fareb. 

deceitful (person), a. drohunkaej, chal-baz, fareb- jan. 

deceive, y.t. ghulawnl. 

decrease, n. lajz-walaey ; y.i. lajzedal, kamedal ; y.t. lajz- 

awul, kamawul. 
deep, a. jzawar, star, (acute) hoi^hjar. 
defeat, a. mat, mat-ja'h, peep ; y.t. matawul, mat ka., peer 

defect, n. trot, wa^a'h, (deformity) *aib. 
defection, n. jarwatah, (sedition) yaghi-gari. 
defend, y.t. satal, jzghoral. gal-al. 
defUe, n. tangaey, kiii^ht, dara'h. 

delay, n. dirang, dzand, larghah ; y.t. dirang or dzand ka. 
delicate, a. naraey, baiik, nazuk, ih'kulaey. 
delight, n. ^waim, sa^a'h, U}ush-]^ali. 
deliver, y.t. azadawtd, yalah ka., (make oyer to) sparal, 

^awala'h ka. 
deliverance, n. U^ala^i, azadagi, azadi, yalah-walaey. 
- deny, y.i. miinkiredal, y.t. inkar ka. 
depart, y.i. t'lal, lairal, drumal, lejzdal. 
d^arture, n. tab, t'lab, t'lana'b, lejzdana'b, wartag. 
depend, y.L mau^uf ke., dzawrandedal, y.t. ta'luk laral, 

i'tibar ka. 
dependence, n. bawar, unud, i'tibar, talda'h. 
deplore, y.a. arman ka., afsos ka., tartab ka., toba'h iSb'kal. 
d^th, n. jzawar-walaey or jzawar-tob. 
desc&nd, y.i. prewatal, kuzedal, naziledal. 
descent, n. jzawaredana'h, jzawar-walaey, kuzedana'h, pre- 

watah; peira'i, a^l. 
desert, n. maira'h, daiht, ^a^ra, chul ; a. wijap, wairan ; 

y.t. (see abandon) tark ka., (run away) taiihtedal. 

13 ♦ 

196 deaerUr^diieaver. 

deserter, a, xl ta^htedonkaey. 

desire, n. gl^oiSlit, han^a'h, haWh $ bawi ; t.t. glioflital, 

han^a'li land. 
despise, y.t. kajzal, spuk gaisal, ghandal. 
destroy, y.t. waranawul, irangawiil, ^aribaw^l^ wija^aWiiL 
detain, y.t. patawul, man'a'h ka., ^ifalawuL 
devastate, y.t. natal, wijarawul, p&'e-ioal ksu^ taraj ka., 

devotee, n. zabid, darwesh. 
devotion, n. 'ibadat, n'mundz. 
deiff, n. parUba'h. 
die, y.i. m']ral, ibax ke. 
different, a. bsel, beyal, judi, nur. 
difficult, a. grajl, ss^t, musb^iL 
d[t^, y.t. kandal, kanodal. 
digestion, n. bazm ; to digest, y.t. ba|mli.wal. 
diminish, y.L kamedal, laa^edal; y.t. kamawul, laji^^wuL 
dinner, n. U^warak. 
d^, n. ghupa'h. ^ota'b ; y.t. 4ubawiil| i^ota'h war-kawul, 

ghupa*h Uwa^, or wabal. 
direction, n. lor, loraej, ma^, U^wi, pala'h, (order) Jt^iikm, 

farman, (of a letter) sar-nama'b. 
dirt, n. U^ira'h, ^piraej, rasb, na-pald. 
dirty, a. ^iran, ^achan, palid, na-pak. 
disaffected, &• yaghiy sar-ka^b, fasadi. 
discharge, n. X&lf, Xr^k, Xs^\, 4^9 sbilak, pre^jastana'by 

ru^^at, bar-tarafi. 
discha/rge^ y.t. basal, pre-basal, pre-^jastal, gbnrzawiilf 

wisbtai, ta^ ka., ^ala^awul, tasbjawtO, (dismiss) ^S^wab 

war-kawiil, bar-taraf ka., ru^^at ka., Hri ka. 
discipline, n. a'ln, l^a'ida'b, tadib ; y.t. tadlb ka. 
disciplined, a. ta^b kawulaej, amo^tah. 
disclose, y.t. tsargandawid, bartger ka* 
discontented, a. na-raz, U^apab, na-^waih. 
discontiwue^ y.t. pre-U^odaJ, pre-iSb'wal, tark ka. ; y.i. prejs- 

discord, n. fasad or fasat, fitna'b. 
discover, y.t. malumawul, pejzandal; mundal, bi-a-mundal. 

diseoBe — dream. 197 

diaeaae^ n. maraz, rand^, ni-rog^-ti'a, n&-jofi. 

disgrace^ u. bad-n^nu, ruswa'i, ma^-tori ; y.t. bey-nang 

ka., makb-tor ka., sharmawul, bej-'izzat ka. 
dishf n. taba'i, ta^araej, (iron) taba^aej, (brass) ri^aU. 
dismiss, see discharge. 

disperse, v.t. tar-pah-t&r ka., ^warawul, U^wadsawul. 
displease, v.t. marawur ka., wezarawul, kaqrawul, randzawul. 
displeaswre, n. marawur-tob, wezari, na-razi, Uiapa'h-gi. 
di^sition, n. Uo-e, ^wa, tab'a'h; tartib, jof-ti'a. 
dispute, n. jagfa'h, steza'b^ jang ; v.t. steza'h ka., &c. 
disrespect, n. bej-adabi, bej-^urmad. 
distance, n. lar, dza'e, f ark, (time) muda'h. 
distant, a. liri, prata'h. 

distinguish, v.t. pejzandal ; z'dah ka., ma'lumawal, lidal. 
distress, n. ^wari, tangsa'h, tangsi'a, mirt§ii, ^^am ; v.t. 

tangawul, zahirawul, rabfawul. 
district, n. tapa'h, cham, torman. 
distribute, v.t. weshaJ, bra^a'h or bald^ra'h ka. 
ditch, n. kb^'Uda^, ka-ba'i, kanda'h. 
dive, n. gho^a^h^ gMpa'h ; y.t. ghota'h ka., &o. 
divide, y.t. pre-kawul, pre-k'^al, tsirej ka., tfiirawul, ghwntg* 

awul ; weshal, wan4 ka., ^ismat ka. 
do, y.t. kawul, k'yal, joyawul. 
doer, n. kawunkaej, kafunkaey. jofawfmkaey. 
dog, n. spaej ; bitch, spa'i. 
domestic, a. ael or il, koranaej; il naukar, (economy) kor* 

walaey, kor-mana'h. 
door, 0. war. 

double, 9^ dwah-b^argah, dwah-bra^^^, dwah ta. 
doubt, n. shakk, guman, shubha'h; y.t. shakk laral, 

shubha'h ka. 
dough, n. I^amira'h, aiSbali, (mass of) pe^a^h, gfaiin4a*h. 
doze, y.t. par-na w'ral ; y.i. nim-^wabi pre-watal. 
drag or draw,Y.t, ra-kajzal, ra-^h'kal, ra-k'^hal, kashala'h ka. 
drawers, n. paftug, shalwar. 
dreadful, a. werawunkaey, sahm-nak. 
dream, n. kbub, (imagination) kbiyil; y.t, {[j^iib Hdal, 

Uliyal ka. 

198 dreu — early. 

dress, n. ag^ostana'h, zarukaey, n'mari, kalaey; y.t. 

aghostal. aghostawul, poiShal, (cook) pa^awul. 
drink, n. ts'shak ; y.t. ts'kal, ts'ihal. 
drip, or dribble, or drop, v.i. tsatsedal. 
dnessle, n. puna'h, rangaej baran. 
drive, y.t. (away) sharal, ratal, liii ka., tai^htawul, (cattle) 

bi-wal, botM, ramawul, (horse) zoral, (nail or peg), tak- 

awtil, manual, wahal. 
drop, y.i. (leak) tsatsedal, (descend), kuzedal, (slip) ^bwa- 

yedal, (fall) pre-watal, (leaye off) prejzdal, pre-i^hodaL 
drove, n. (sheep or goats) rama'h, ghela'h, kan^ak, (oxen) 

gohar, goram. 
drover, n. gorwan, ghobah, gaharaej, (of sheep) shpun, (of 

buffaloes) gujar. 
d/rown, y.t. cjubawul, gharkawul. (lay under water) lahu ka. 
drunh, a. mast, nasha'h-wa^r^key. 
d/ry, a. wuch, (as land) tajzaej, tosand ; y.i. wuchedal ; 

y.t. wuchawnl. 
dryness, n. wuch-walaey. 
dung, n. (horse) U^arshinah or ^arshirnah, (camel, sheep 

or goat) pachey, (of cows or buffaloes) ghushayahy 

(human) |^ul; y.t. ghul ka., ^a^ral, ^ajat ka., (heap 

of) de^an, ^adzala'h. 
dush, n. ma-sham, la^u'h. 
dust, n. duyey, ^awrey; y.t. tsan^al, (to dredge or 

sprinkle) durawul. 
dusty, a. du^edalaey, khawrin. 
d/aty, n. (military) pahra'h, tsoka'i, paswani, (tax) baj, 

chungaey, ^akk, (business) kar, (obligation) farz. 
dwarf, n. chiinaey, mandaraey, Tweshtinak. 
d/well, y.i. aosedal, astedal, patedal, m'ledal ; y.t. astogna'h 

ka., astoga'h ka., nnshta'h ka. 


ear, n. ^wajz, (of com) wajzaey. 

early, a. pah lo-e sa^r or sa^ar, pah sa.har, wa^ti, (crop) 

earn — enemy. 199 

earn, y.t. gafal, l^a^il ka. 

eoHh, n. kbawra'h, (land) z'maka'h, zanmiyinTilk, (the earth) 

na^ra'i, dunja, jahan. 
earthen, a. ^awrin. 

ease, n. astogna'h, dama'h, aram, asuda'h-gi. 
easy, a. asan, spuk, sam, (circumstances) mop. 
eat, y.t. kbwara). 
eatable, a. khwarald. 
edge, n. (of a sword, <&c.) mal^, dam, (brink) ghaya'h^ 

tselma'h, tsarma'h, (rim) ja'i, lor; to set on edge (the 

teeth), i^aih ^aghawuly (sharpen) tera'h ka. 
ediicate, y.t. palal, (cause to read) Pwalawul. 
effect, n. pazah, kar, agar; y.t. jopawul, kawid, k'^al. 
^ecta, n. mal, saman, asbab, kali. 
egg, n. haga'i, ha. 
elbow, n. tsangal, tsangala'h. 
elder, a. mashar ; n. mashar, spin-jziraej. 
el^Juint, n. hati, pil. 
elevation, n. khata'h, Tway-tob, IVair-ti'a, uchat-walaey, 

dope, y.i. (run away) taiShtedal; y.t. (with a woman) 

matiz ka., (as a woman) matiza'h ke. 
embark, y.i. pah jahaz or pah bepa'! U^atal or swaredal or 

embrace, n. ^ejz, ghiizaey ; y.t. pah gl^ejz or pah ghiizi 

k'^hey niwal, ba^garandi ka., bara'h-gaira'h ka., rogh«bay 

employment, n. kar, roz-gar, ^idmat, mashghula. 
empty, a. tash, 4a49 ^afi ; y.t. tashawul, to-yawul. 
encowrage, y.t. tasalli or dam-dilasa war-kawul, kbatir- 

dari ka., takia'h ka. 
end, n. pitska'h, pitskaey, sar, tsuka'h ; a^r, U^atm, 

l^iiadd, teehna'h ; y.t. aU^ir ka., l^atam ka., tamamawul, 

endv/re, y.i. sahal, sahedal ; y.t. z'ghamal. petsal ; (to last) 

y.i. pa'edal. 
endurance, n. pel^na'h, z'^^am, ^abr, ta^at, zor. 
enemy, n. dui^hman, mirtsaman, l^arif . 

200 engage^'-exeeuie. 

engage^ y.t. mashghulawuly lagawul, pah kir n'^haLawxd, 

(fight, set to) jang n'^hataL, jang n'^halawul ; y.L jang- 

enjoyment^ n. maza'h, U^wand, ^wa^hi, iShadL 
eiUa/rge, y.t. planawul, ujj^dawul, lo-e-amd. 
enmity, n. dushmani, mxr-t«[, badL, faka'h. 
enquiry, n. pu^htana'h, shanana'h, taiaj^^us. 
entcmgle, v.t. n'^halawul, tsapolaej ka. ; to heeame entangled, 

ya. n'^hatal, tsapolaej ke. 
enter, y.i nanawatal, k'ihe^watal, dakhiledaL 
entire, a. dra9t, tol-tal» tamam. v/ *^v^ 

entrails, n. la^manah, kul-mey. ^ V^^'^r 

entrance, n. nanawatah, war, kbula'h. H4ot^^ 

entreat, y.t. minnat ka., 'ar? ka., ^o^btal* — *.^ 

entrenchment, n. bara'h, sangar. 
equal, a. barabar, sam, jo-shan, maU^aey. 
erect, a. w'lap, jig, lak, ting ; y.t. w'U^wul, kho-jsdal, wud* 

eecofpe, n. U^ala^i, nijat, teihta'h; y.t. teihtedal, nijat 

mundal, ter-watal, ^ala^iidal, wur-hedal. 
eeeort, n, badral^'h, badragha'h, (cayaliy) swar^lam, swarli; 

y.t. rasawul. 
estimate, y.t. shmeral, garjpd. 
evacuate, y.i. jarwatal; y.t. tashawul, ^aH ka., (stool) 

even, a. sam, hawar, barabar, (alike) gund, yow shan, twaL 
evenneea, n. sam-walaej, hawar-ti'a, gun<^. 
evening, n, ma-^am, begah, ghiima'h. 
evil, n. badi, bala, wabal, kbaxabi, afat. 
ewer, n. kuza'h, kiiza'h-fa'i. 
examine, y.t. goral, dzir katal; shanal, lafairul; azmajil, 

azma'i^ht ka. 
e^ieeUent, a. ^ha^h, der ^hseb. 
exchange, y.t. badalawnl. 
epBcuee, n. bana'h (lit. bahaoa'h), hiral, ^xaspc, J^Ua'h ; y.t. 

bana'h ka., hira'i ka. 
execute (perform), y.t. kawul, k'yal, joyawul, pah d«»-e ka., 

(kill) wajzl, wajM, V^tlawul, ma^r ka. 

esMH--faU. 201 

exertf y.t. koiihidli ka., zor ka. or wahal. 

exhalation, n. bpas, Isqra'h, wajgm, wajzma'b. 

exhomstedy a. stairaey. 

am^, y.i. aosedal, kedal, sh'wal ; v.t. jzwandun ka. 

existence^ n. jzwand, jzwandun, jzwak. 

expect^ y.a. lar katal, timid laral, *intizar ka., tawakku' ka. 

expectation^ n. intizari, tama', tawakku'. 

expedient J a. ghwara*h. munasib, wajib, (contrivanoe) cbal, 

tadbir, cbara'h, band. 
expedition^ n. (military, campaign) safar, (inroad) ^ot, 

chapa-o, ta^t. 
esepeZ, y.t. sba^ral, basal, ratal, jastal, ^afal, pori-jzani ka., 

liri ka. 
expense^ n. ^arts, l^imat, bai'a'b. 

explain^ y.t. bajanawnl, pohawul, ^howul, tsargandawul. 
explode (go off), y.i. ^ala^edal, y.t. t^^ wahal ; (let off) Xk\ 

extent, n. plan^w&laej, fLJzd^walaey, andaza'h, kadr. 
extinguiehf y.t. ma^awul, sarawul. 
eye, n. starga'h. 

eye-hrow, n. Vrudza'h, Vruza'b. 
eye^laehf n. bama'h. 
eye'Ud, n. ^Q^m&'h, ^ejgmsJhy ^ezma'h. 


/oee, n. ma^. 

face to face, inaU^a-maU}} V^andi, 

fagot, n. ge^aey. 

faint, n. na-tuwan, za-if, bey-tab, bey-kbud; y.i. bey-hoiihe- 

daly bey-Uiud or bey-t&b ke. 
fair, a. spin, pa'i-^makbaeyi i^-istah, k'liliTilaey. 
fair (a), n. mausim bizar. 
faith, n. sah-wisa'li, Idialf biwar, iman, din. 
faithful, a. ri^tunaey, li^htinaey, din-dar. 
faithless, a. bey-wafa, bey-iman. 
fall, y.i. pre-watal, lwe-dal» drabal ; let fall, y.t. pre-yastal, 

pre-baisal, pre-jadaJl ; foUen^ a. prot, pre-wataey, etc. 

202 fdOr-felt. 

faUy n. pre-watah, pre-watana'h, drabawuna'h. 

foMow, a. lijah, waz-gar, shair, tash, wadl. 

false, a. daroghy daro^-jzan, batil. 

falsehood, n. palma'h, darogh. fareb. 

family, n. kor, koirma'h, ka^a'h ; tabar, nasi, aulad. 

famine, n. gram, kal^ti, 4^^^^!^- 

f amyous, a. masliur, namer. 

/or, a. liri, bi-yartah. 

farmer, n. zamin-dar, ijara'h-dar. 

fast, a. graiKJLaej, talwari, zser, halwak ; tu^g, klak, mazbut. 

fa^i, n. rojza'h ; v.t. rojza'h land or niwal. 

fasten, y.t. ta^al ; klakawul, tii^gawul. 

fai, a. tsorb, ^at, pey, peray, tand, pim4, ^arat ; n. 

(grease) wazda'h, wazga'h, spina'h, (melted) ghwan, mu. 
fate, n. Vismat, kaza, nasib, takdir. 
father, n. plar, (grand) mkah. 
fatherless, a. plar-mapaej. 
fatigued, a. sta^uej, stoman, bankah ; to hecoms fatigued, 

y.i. stapaej ke., haukah ke. ; v.t. staraej or haukah ka. 
fault, n. wabal, gnnah, kn^ur, takdir. 
faultless, a. bey-gunah, be j.« takdir. 
favour, n. ma&, mal^-mula^iza'h, sat, sela'b, sel- 

wa'b, mibrbangi ; v.t. sela'b or selwa'h ka,,, makh war- 

kawul, mibrbangi ka. 
fea/r, n. wera'b or yera'h, sahm, tara'h, tarbara'b, ande^b- 

na'b, ^of ; y.i. weredal, jeredal, tajrbedal, andei^hna'b 

fearful, a. weredunkaey, (inspiring fear) werawunkaey, tar- 
bur, ^of-nak. 
feeble, a. za-if, kam-zor, sost, 
feed, v.i. tsaredal, tearal ; v.t. ^waral, (nourish) palal, 

satal ; v.t. tsarawul, ^iirawul, wai^bab acbawul. 
feel, v.i. sabedal, k'^bal, ^waral, kajzal ; v.t. z'^^mal ; 

sbanal, latawul, lamsawul, (feel for) gham-khori ka., 

z'rab-s'waey ka. 
feeling, n. z'raJi-^waey, pob, rahm, tars. 
fellowship, n. rogha'hy jopi^bt, mal-gar-ti'a. 
felt (material made from wool), n. lamtsa'i, krasta'b. 

femdl&-'flat 203 

femalef n. kba^'h, artina'h ; a. kba^ga'h. 

ferry, n. guzar, gudar, pafam. 

/er^, n. Iap-t§»>t9 fi^aJa'li-kbez. 

fetch, see &fun^. 

/ei^(2, n. bad!, mirtsi. 

fever, n. taba'h. 

/ev;, a. laj[z, tso, patsamey, pofuskaey, pufaey. 

fidelity, n. wafa-dari, iman-dari, namak-^alaU. 

field, n. (aUotment) wau4, pafaej, kii^ht. 

fiery, see ^^. 

/2a%^i^, n. jang, mdVaddama'h ; T.t. jang n'^halawul, jang- 

edal, (a skirmisli) jauguraej. 
fill, T.t. 4akawul. 

find, T.t. mundal or mundal, bi-a-mundal, paida ka. 
Jme (a), n. tawan, nagha^h ; a. naraej, majun, bank ; T.t. 

tawan a^istal. 
finger, n. guta'h (aUo a toe), (thumb and great toe) bafa'h 

or kata'h guta'h. 
fir, n. na^btaor. 
fire, n. aor, (wood) balam, (place) n'gharaeyy aor-ghalaey ; 

T.t. (set on) sedzal, balawul, aor pori ka., (discbarge) 

^ala^awul, wisbtal, wabal, acbawul. 
firm, a. klak, ting, pa'e-dar, mazbut. 
first, a. awwal, awwulnaey, um^raey, w'pmbaey, w'fumbal- 

fish, n. mahaey. 
fid, n. suk, muf, mutaey. 
fit, a. ]ox, barabar, pirzo, yarzan, baedah, dza-e lari, muna- 

sib, wajib, lazim ; T.t. barabarawul, palah-pori ka., jo^r- 

awul, (as a dress) T.i. barabaredal. 
fitnees, n. joir-ti-a, pirzo-walaey, H-akat. 
fix, T.t. ta^ral, lagawul, pori ka., w'larawul, wudrawul, n'jat- 

al, kba^bawul. 
flame, n. lanba'h, sbu^la'h, ba^ran^a'b, lu^aira'h; T.i. 

flask (for powder), n. kisbat. 
flat, a. sam, sat, hawar, (flat, table-land) steza'h, buira'hi 

(stale) bey-kbwand, (pressed) tsap-lak, cbit, chit-pit. 

204 fAxtten—frciMd. 

flatten, T.t. samawul, hawar ka., tsap-lafc ka., ehit-ipLt ka. 

flattery, n. chaplusi, (jdrpali. 

flsece, n. warg. 

fl£8h, n. ghwakha'h. 

flight, n. tashtedana'h, tei^hta'h. 

fling, v.t. achawul, wishtal. 

fl^at, y.i. bahedal, lahu or lanbah ke« 

flock, n. rama'h, kan^ak. 

fl^og, v.t. wabal, karoyey wahal. 

flood, n. m-uz, niz, sail-ab, (of tears) rat. 

flA)ur, n. aofa'b. 

fl>ow, y.i. babedal, rawanedal. 

fly, v.i. alwatal, wur-zedal. 

fodder, n. tgar wai^bab, alaf, ^wid, shna'h. 

foe,,BeQ enemy. 

fog, n. larab, dand. 

fold (sheep), n. shpol, (layer) bragh. 

fold (up), v.t. n'gha^htal. 

follow, y.i. palah-pasey ka. ; manal, laman niwal, pai^n^u! 

food, n. ^wara'b, shuma'b, (lit bread) n'in9.ra'i. 
fool, n. palwan4» x>ohar, pobairaey, na^dan. 
foot, n. p^ha'h, (on foot) palaey, pah pi^ha'h, 
foray, n. ^sot, botah^ z'ghast, hapa'h, ilghar. 
forhld, v.t. man'a'h ka. 

force, n. was, bram, zor, tawan, kuwat ; jabr^ zulio. 
ford, v.t. pori t'lal or watal. 
forenoon, n* pe^hin, tsa^ht. 
forest, n. bam, ^angal, beiha'h. 
forget, v.t. herawul. 

forgive, v.t. ba^^hal, psBlawnl, pulawuL 
forgivenees, n. bal^h, bakb^hana'h. 
form,, v.t. joyawul, sazawul, tan<jLal. 
forsake, see ahcmdon, 
foundation, n. we^, bonsat, bunyad, af 1. 
fovmtain, n. china' h. 
fowl, n. cbirg, (hen) chirga'hr 
fravdi, n, chaL, droh, ghla^ fareb. 

free^ a. aelali^ yala3i, stH-ah, waz-gar, azad, ^alaf. 

freshy a» slun, zarghiin. tazah, tai^yar, tak^h. 

friendy n. dost, ashna'e, jar. 

friendship^ n. dosti, ashna'i, pejzand-galwi or gali, jari, 

fright, see fear. 

frighten, v.t. werawul, tarhawnl, darawul. 

front, n. ma^, Tin front) ma^a-ma^. 

/ro«^, n. kangal Qvt. i^), jakh (Zt^. ice), (hoar) asa'i. 

frozen, a. ja^-shawaej, kangal-shawaey. 

fry, v.t. talawul, te-yal, Vritawul. 

fud, n. b&lam, kbaJsala'h, war'-^ar&'l^y largaey. 

fusee, n. falita'h, fatila'h. 

/ttK» a. ta^ 4ak> mop. 


9(»{i», n. gata'h, sad, naf a'h, fa-ida'h; v.t. gatal, Aiundal. 

gale, n. sila'i, tufan, bad. 

gallop, v.t. tezal, po-ya'h ka. 

garh (garment), n. zarukaey, &^ostana'h, aghustany 

n'waraey, libas, jama'h ; (fashion, mode), toga'h, shan, 

garrison, n. da kil'ey or da ^i^ar U^al^. 
gather, v.t. tolawul, jam'a'h ka., (pluck) arnawul, shuk- 

gathering (of people), n. tol, tolaey, tolga'i. 
genealogy, n. pera'i, pusht, zu-2at, shajrah, nasab, nasal, 

generation, a, n. pusht, pera'i ; daur, zamana'h. 
generosity, n. ba^i^hana'h, sa^awat, sakhi-tob. 
gentle, a. ^alim, afil. 
get, v.t. mundal, gatal, paida ka., (up) v.i. patgedal,^ por- 

tah ke. 
gift, see present, 
girl, n. ]ina'i, jinaka'i, pe^^la'h, (betrothed) changala'h, 

(slave) win^a'h. 
girth, n. tang, tatang, pa(a'i. 

206 give — gra4se, 

give, T.t. ra-kawTil, dar-kawul, war-kawul (see Grammar, 

p. 21), bakb^hal, ihandal, (eyidence or pay respects) 

tal, lawdal. 
giver, n. war-kawunkaey. 
glad, a. ^wai^h, ihad, ^ush-hal. 
glad-tidings, n. zeraej, (a bringer of) zerah-garaej. 
gladness, n. kfawa^hi, ^hadi, l^ush-hali. 
glare, n. dzala'h, rama, (glow) bre^hna, wajzm. 
glass, n. ^hi^ha'h, (mirror) a-ina'lL. 

glow, n. todu^a% tod-walaey, swaey ; v.i. todedal, swaL 
go, y.i. t'lal, dramal, drumedal, la^ rawanedal; T.t. 

kuch ka. 
goat, n. wuz, psah, (she) b'za'h, waza'h, (wild) mar-U^ur, 

(hair) aojz-ghuney. 
Ood, n. Allah, iQiuda-e, Eabb; Ood knows, l^uda-e 

gold, n. sarab zar, zar, tila. 
good, a. ^hsdh, ^haghalaey. ghwarah. nek ; n. i^he-gara'h, 

^he-garey, neki, sud, fa'ida'h. 
goodness, see preceding. 

goods, n. asbab, mal, ra^t, kali (plural of kalaey). 
gorge, n. dara'h, tangaey, mara'i, ku^ht. 
govern, y.t. hukamat ka., hukm ka., 'ami ka. 
government, n. hukumat, 'ami dari, sardari, j^ani, (state) 

governor, n. hakim, sardar, 'amr-dar. 
grain, n. dana'h, ghala'h. 
granary, n. anbar khana'h. 
grant, y.t. ba]^i^hal, manal, kabulawul. 
grasp, y.t. pah mut or pah mangaley niwal. 
grass, n. wa^hah, 'alaf . 
grave, n. gor, kabr, (clothes) kafan. 
gravel, n. jzaghal. shiga'h, gitaey, (small) gita**!* 
gravelly, a. shiglanah, gitin. 
gray, a. speraeh, ^aer (lit mud-coloured), (hair) brag, (a 

horse) shin. 
graze, y.i. tsaredal, tsaral, (abrade) blosedal, b'lodal, sul- 

edal ; y.t. powul, pia-yil, tsarawul. 

grassier — gu$1i. 207 

grassier, n. (also a nomad) powandah,* powunkaey. 
grease, n. ghwayaey^ spina'h, mu, wazda'h, wazga'h ; T.t. 

greasy, a. gnway. 
great, a. star, ghat. ^o-'Oy z'barg. 
grea;tne88, n. star-walaej, ^at-walaey, lo-e-walaej. 
green, a. shin, zarghuif. (unripe) um, tanda'h. 
grief, see sorrow. 

grievous, a. sa^t, randz-nak, gham-nak. 
grind, y.t. ao-]rawul, ao-ira'li ka., amal. 
grindstone, n. tsarU^ psan, (for com) median. 
groan, n. zgerwaej, neng (plural, henga-har) \ y.t. zger- 

waej ka., henga-har laxal, henga-har ka. 
ground, n. z'maka'h, zamin. 
grow, y.i. (as yegetation) tukedal, zarghunedalf (increase) 

zi-atedal, gha^edal. lo-e-edal, (become) kedal, (old) zEqr- 

growl, y.i. ghyunbedal. 
guard, n. paswan, tsoH-dar, pahra'h-dar, (a protector) 

satandoaej, satunkaej, jz'n^oraej; y.t. paswani ka., 

tsoka'i ka., jz^ghoraly satal. 
guest, n. melmah. 
guide, n. lar-iho-wunkaej, balad, (spiritual) pir, peshwa, 

guilty, a. gram, gunah-gar, ta^^iri, tak^ir-war. 
gun, n. fopak or topak, (powder) daru, (ball) mardaka'h, 

mardal^j, gola'i. 
gunner, n. topak-chi, top-chi. 
gvsh, n. dara'h, shuturaka'h, ^fapka'h ; y,i. dara'h wahal, 

shuturaka'h wahal. 

* From the yerb " powul." The nomad Af ^ans are 
known as Powandahs and Kochis, but some of the " masters 
of the subject" style them "Proyindahs" and "Proyin- 
diahs," and erroneously imagine the name to refer to tribes 
of Af n^ans so-called. 

SOS 1uAilation^-*ear. 

habitation, n. astoga'h, astogna'h, borjal, kor, mishta'h. 
haily n. jzala'h, jzala'i ; T.t. jzaley or jzala'i aoredal. 
hair, n. weiihtah, (goats') aojz-ghuney. 
half, n. nim, nimajali ; y.t. mmawul, dwah nimali ka« 
halt, y.i. astedal, daredal, wudredal; y.t. dem'h ka., mu^am 

hamlet, n. ban^a'h, kala^y. 
hammer, n. pselk, tsafak, (wooden, a mallet) ^balaej, 

4abla'i, ba£^ar ; y.t. takawul, t&k wahal, trakawul, wa- 

hand, n. las, cbaka'b, mangul^ panja'h, (handful) lapa'fa, 

(double handful) lapakaey. 
hamdie, y.t. las lagawul, las war-w'ral, las mthal. 
handsome, a. iha-istah, k'lihulaej, pa'i-ma^aej. 
hapj^en, y.i. pe^hedal, pre-watal, teredal, sh'wal, kedal, 

ha/ppy, a. ^wai^h, U^ush-ljial. 
harass, y.t. azarawul, rab^awul. 
hard (rigid), a. klak, Xmg, sa^t, (diflcolt) gran, (ripe, 

hard, etc.) po^. 
harvest, n. fa^l, (spring) ao^aej, (autumn) tnanaej, 

(gathered in) lau. 
haste, n. talwar, ga^randaey-tob ; (to make) y.t. garandaej 

ka., talwar ka. 
hate or hatred, n. du^hmani, duiihni, bad!, Uwa-badi, fak- 

a'h, ghachy kraka'h ; to hiUe, y.t. kajzal, g^AnrJAlj kraka'h 

ha/ve, y.t. darlal, laral. 
hay, n. wuch wa^ba'h, pash-kalaey. 
head, n. sar, ko^aej. 

heal, y.i. ra^^edal, joredal ; y.t. la^awul, jofawul. 
health, rogh-ti*a or walaey, joy-ti'a or wakej. 
heap, n. ^^ra'i, top, (dung) deran, rash; y.t. tapal, ghnnj* 

hear, y.t. arwedal, ghwaj^ basal. 

heart — humble. 209 

heart, n. z'^ab, dil. 

heat, n. tod-walaej, todutta'li, garmi ; v.t. todawul, (warm) 

taira^ni ka., (boil) yasbawul. 
heavy, a. drund. 

height, n. ucbat-walaey, Twaf-walaey. 
he^, see assistance, 
helpless, a. z'mol, la-cbar, na-tawan, 'ajiz, (from wounds) 

herd, jl park, (cows, bullocks) gabar, gobar, (borses) 

gala'b, (buffaloes) goram. 
herdsman, n. sbpun (of sbeep), gabu, ghobab (of cows and 

oxen), gujar (of buffaloes, also name of a non-Afghan 

people in parts near Peibawar). 
hide, v.i. pu^edal ; v.t. putawul. 
hiU, n. gbiin^a'b, (billock) gh uncjla*!. See mountain, 
hinder, v.t. bafalawul. 

hire, n. kira-ba'b ; v.t. pab kira-ba'b a^istal. 
hold, v.i. patedal, Xinged&l, dza-edal, n'^batal, lagedal ; v.t. 

niwal, satal, kbundi ka., a^istal, jzghoral. 
hole, n. suira'b, suf'aej. 

hollow, a. kawak, tabana'b, dB4 ; n. jzawara'b. 
home, n. astogna'b, astoga'b, kor, borjal, misbta'b 
honesty, n. rilbti'a, dijanat, dijanat-dari. 
honour, n. nang, num, ma^, 'izzat. 
hoofy n. swa'b, sum, (cloven) ^ongaraej, nuk. 
hope, n. umid, ^al, tama* ; v.t. umid or taw^ku' laral. 
horn, n. ^b'kar. 

horse, n. as, (pack) yabu (lit. pony), (man) swor, spor. 
hospitality, n. melmasti'a. 
host, n. tsa^btan, me^rab, (army) fauj, lai^bkar. 
hostess, merman, tgaibtana'b. 
hostility, see enmity, 
hot, a. tod, garm, 

hov/r, n. sa'at, (a watcb of tbree bours) pabar. 
house, n. kor (also bousebold), ]^una'b, mena'b, (storied) 

hum>anity, n. sari-tob. 
humble, a. na-tsiz, gbarib^ 'ajiz. 


^10 humid — infantry, 

humidy see damp. 

humility, n. na-tsizi, gharibiy 'ajizi. 

hunger, n. Iwajza'li, lewal-tob. 

hungry, a. wajzaey, nagh-land* lewal. 

husband, n. mefaJi, tsa^htan. 

husbandman, n. zamin-dar, baz-gar, ki^ht-kar, (hired) 

/ charey-kar, dih-kan, or dih-gan. 

husbandry, n. kar, ki^bt-kari, zamln-dari. 


ice, n. kangal, ya^. 

idle, a. a^al, lat, sust, gharand. (unemployed) wazgar, 
(trifling, as talk) puch, puch-piicb, prat, prata'b, 

idleness, n. laf-walfiey, wazgar-tob. 

iqnorance, n. nab-pobi, bey-^abari. 

til (sick), a. na-jor, na-rogb, randzur, bimar. 

illness, n. na-jo^r-ti'a, etc., randzuri, randz, bimaii. 

illegal, a. baram, na-bakk, na-rawa. 

impassable, a. bey-gudar or gu^ar, bey-lar. 

impede, see hinder, 

implements, n. lo^bi. 

important, a. gran, lo-e, bada'i, (weigbty) drund. 

imprison, v.t. kaid ka., band ka. 

improper, a. na-kar, na-munasib, na-i^banaey, na-la-ik, na- 

inclination, n. ^wa, gho^bt, mina'b, z']*ab, 

increase, n. zi'at-walaey, der-walaey, wadam ; v.i. zi'atedal, 
4eredal, (expand) parsedal, ^waredal, wadanedal ; v.t. 
zratawul, derawTil, wadanawul, parsawul, ^warawul. 

indolence, n. sbatal-walaey, sbadal-w^aey, laf-walaey. 

industry, n. ko^bi^b, mibnat, jabd. 

infancy, n. kacbut-walaey, tufiiliyat. 

infant, n. tandaey, tanka.ey, wof-kaey, kachutaey, (suck- 
ing) pa'i-rawaey. 

infantry, n. pi-adab-gan, (battalion) paltan. 

inferior — intrust. 2H 

inferior, a. (in age, rank, etc.) kashar, lar, ih'keah, k'^hat-* 

a'h, (mean, unimportant) spuk, adna, dun. 
infidel, a. kafir (lit unbelieving), bey-din, bey-iman ; n. 

infirm, see weak, 

inflict, v.t. war-kawul, rasawul, k'yal, kawul, acbawul. 
inform, v.t. j^abarawul, ^abar ka., pohawul, ^bo-wul. 
information, n. ^abar. 
ingress, n. nanawatab. 
inhabit, v.i. astedal, aosedal ; v.t. astoga'b or astogna'h ka., 

pre-mishtal, mishta'h ka., wadanawul. 
inhabitant, n. aosedunkaey, astedunkaey, astogyaey. 
inheritance, n. miras. 
injwe, v.t. azarawul, ziyan or tawan rasawul ; wranawul, 

(pain) tapi ka., jzobalawul, khujzawul, randzurawul. 
injury, n. tap, kbujz, ziyan, azar, randz, nu^^an. 
injustice, n. zulm, bey-dadi, bey-insafi, na-^akki. 
innocent, a. bey-gunah, bey-tak^ir, pak, ^af , spin. 
inquire, v.t. pushtedal, pui^htana'b ka., sawal ka., (seek, 

examine into) latawul, sbanal. 
insensible, a. bey-ho^h, bey-U^ud ; bey-parwa, bey-^abar. 
insolent, a. sar-kai^h, bey-adab, gusta^, diler. 
inspect, see see, 

inspection, n. katana'h, katah, lidah, Hdana'b. 
injector, n. katunkaey, lidunkaey, nazir, daro^^ah. 
instalment, n. ugf'a'i, 
instruct, see teach. 

instrument, n. lo^haey, kalaey, alat, hatiyar. 
insurgent, n. ya^i-gar, fasadi, pasati. 
intellect, n. poha'h, bosh, fabm, 'akl. 
intelligence, n. poha'h, fabm, 'akl, hoiSh-yari. 
intention, n. ka^d, niyat. 
interrogate, see question, 

interval, n. (of time) muda'h, war, (space) dza-e. 
interview, n. katah, lidah, lidana'b, didan, mulakat. 
intimidate, v.t. werawul, darawul. 
intrust, v.t. sparal, paslawul, ^awala'h ka., amanat yei^- 


14 * 

21fi invade — kiek. 

invade, y.t. da^a'h ka. or pre-watal, ta^jit ka. 

invent, y.t. jofawul, ^ikmat rawanawul, paida ka. 

invention, n. ^ikmat. 

invert, v.t. arawul, naskorawul, badalawal. 

invest, v.t. hi^arawul, mahasara'h ka. 

investigate, y.t. puihtedal, lafawul, shanaly ta^^Ipk ka. 

invite, y.t. sat m, balal, da'wat ka. 

iron, n. aospana'h, aospina'h. 

irrigate, y.t. lundawul, ^a^rob ka. 

irritate, see vex, 

island, n. jazira*h. 

issue, y.i. watal, bahedaJ, pre-watal ; y.t. jari ka. 


jaw, n. jzama'b, (upper) portana'i jzama'hy (lower) k'ihat- 

ana'i jzama'h. 
join, y.t. jorawul, ga4awul, paiwand ka. 
joint, n. joy ; ghuta'b ; paiwand, band. 
jov/rney, n. safar, pand, (day's) manzil. 
joy, n. ^wa^hi, ^usb-hali. 
joyful, see hajf>py, 

judge, n. kazi, mon^if (also as, just, foir, etc.). 
judgment, n. hukm, fatwa, mun^ifi, (intellect) poha'hy sud, 

tamiz, *akl, (opinion) fikr, kijas, rae. 
jump, y.i. trapedal ; y.t. fop wahal, traplal, (j^eer wahaL 
just, a. 'adil, mun^if ; rast, risbtini ; barabar, jukht, sam. 
justice, n. in^af , dad, njaw. 


"keep, y.i. (continue, etc.) patedal, pa-e-dal, aosedal ; y.t, 
(retain, etc.) jz^^oral, sataJ, (nourish, etc.) palal, par- 
waral, n'manzal, (obey) manal. 

lee&per, n. jzj^oraey, satandoaey, satunaey, palunkaey. 

Icicle, n. lata'h, la^at, laghata'h ; y.t. lata h wabaJ, la^^tey 
wahal, pah la^^atey wahal. 

kid^'4ame. 218 

hidf n. serlaej, psharlaey, chelaej» nr-ghumaeyy wur« 

ghiimaey. (^d) wuz-garaey. 
kiU, y.t. wajlal wajzaJ, wajzlal, l^atlawnl, map ka., (for 

food) l^alalawul. 
hilled, a. wajlalaej, wajzalaey, wajzlalaej, mar-ka^aey, 

Jdnd, a. mihrban^ (sort, species) rang, shan, jins, Ipsm, 

dod, t&ur. 
kindle, see Iia^. 

X:itu2r6(2 or X^ii, n. 'azizan, UieiShan. 
king (badshah, sultan, malik (this is the title by which the 

head-men among the Afghans are styled). 
kinsmcmf n. 'aziz, Utei^h, (on the mother's side) mor-ganaey, 

(on the father's) plar-ganaey. 
kiss, n. k'l^hul ; y.t. V^hi^wul, k'lihul ka. 
kna/very, n. chal-bazi, farebi, bey-imam, kb^'Jftnat. 
knee, n. zangun, 4oga'h. 
kneel, y.t. pah zangano or pah 4ogo k'4he-nastal, zaugano 

lagawul, char zano k'l^he-nastal. 
knife, n. cha^ra, (small) cha^u-ka'i. 
knock, y.t. takawul, t^^P or tira^ wahal (against, come 

in contact) b'losedal, b'lodal, kbwairal. 
know, y.i. pohedal, ^^abaredal, ma'lumedal, z'dah ke.; T.t. 

pejzandal, z'dah ka., gargal. 
knowledge, n. pejzand-galwi, pejzandah, pejzandana'h, 

pohedana'h, poha'h, kbabar, ap, 'ilm. 


laborious, a. gran, sa^^t, mushVil. 

Idbowr, n. mi^nat, koiShi^h, dak, mashaW^'t, Utwari, (child* 
birth) stam ; y.t. mil^t ka., koi^hiih ka., kbwari ka^ 
etc. y.i. (be in labour, as a woman) langedal. 

labourer, n. mazdur. 

lad, n. halak, za^gaey, zalmaey. 

lady, n, merman, mermana'h, 9a]|^iba'h, bibu 

lame, a. gu4> kbujs, ka^am. 

214 lamenes* — level. 

lameness f n. gu^-walaej, ^ujz-walaej. 

Icumentf y.t. jza^ral, wir ka., gila'li ka., wa-waila ka. 

2amp, n. chiragh, (J^'^a'ljL. 

landy n. z'maka'li, zamin. 

landholder, n. zamin-dar, daftari, jagir-dar, braU^'h or 

baj^ra'h j^of. 
2ap, y.t. tsatal. 
large, a. lo-e, gh&X, star. 
last, a. pasin, w'rustaej ; y.i. (contmue) patedal, aosedal, 

late, a. na-wakt, (recent) aosan, aosanaej. 
laugh, y.i. ^andedal ; y.t. Randal. 
laughter, n. ^anda. 
law, n. sliara', shari'at, a'in. 
lead, y.t. biwal, botlal, ra-wustal. 
leader, n. sardar, peshwa, sar-guroh. 
leak, y.i. tsatsedal, taledal. 
lean, a. dangar, naraej, khwar. 
lea^, see jump. 

learn, y.t. z'dah ka., jadawul. 
learning, n. 'ilm. 

least, a. kashrin, lab or tar folo nab wur or lajz. 
leather, n. tsarman. 
leave, n. ruj^^at, ijazat, bukm, raza ; y.t. (abandon, etc.) 

prejzdal, pre-sbodal, pre-^bwal, (take) ru^^at akfaistaL 
ledge, n. morga'b, f^a'b, kamar. 
left, a. kim, gats. 
leg, n. ibanga'b, piSba'b (applied to tbe leg as well as to 

tbe foot wbicb is tbe literal signification), (below tbe 

knee) pa^kaej, lengaej. 
leisure, n. wazgar-tob or ii'a, format. 
lend, y.t. por war-kawul, karz war-kawul. 
length, n. ujzd-walaey, (of time) der-walaej. 
lengthen, y.t. iijzdawul. 
lessen, y.i. lajzedal ; y.t. lajzawul. 
let, see permit, (bire) pab kiraba'b war-kawul. 
level, a. sam, sat, barabar, bawar ; y.t. samawul, bawarawul) 

(raze) na^wul. 

liberal — hfty. 215 

liberal, a. saU^i, ba^^hunkaej, war-kawunkaej. 

liberate, y.t. prejzdal, jalah ka., ^ala^awul. 

liberty, n. jalah-tob, azadagi, ^ala^i, (option, etc.) wak, 

i^tiyar, (permission) rul^^at, ijazat. 
Uch, y.t. tsatal. 

lie, n. palma'h, darogh ; y.t. palma'h kawul, darog^ wayaL 
lie down, y.i. m'lastal, tsamlastal, (in wait) ghalaey ke. 
life, n. jzwand, jzwak, jzwandiin, ^lajat, dzan. 
lifeless, a. ma^, bey- dzan. 
lifetime, n. jzwandun, ^ayat, 'umr. 
lift, y.t. ^ejzawnl, portan ka., riyawdal. 
light, n. rama, rarna'i, ro^hna'i ; a. rurn, rum, ro^ban, 

ro^ban, (not beavy) spuk; y.i. mrnedal, ro^ban ke., (de- 
scend) kuzedal, pre-watal, naziledal, (as a fire) baledal; 

y.t. rurnawnl, ro^ban ka., balawnl. 
lighten, y.t. spukawul, kamawul ; y.i. rumedal, bre^bedal,, 

lightning, n. bre^bna, bark, balk. 
like, a. tser, gbundaey, rang, sban, dod ; y.t. ^wa^bawnly 

ghoiSbtaly pasand ka., kabul ka. or kabulawul. 
limit, n. burid (vul. brid), badd, pula'b; y.t. ^add tai*al. 
lineage, n. ^awraey, nasab, a^l. 
lion, n. m'zaraey, (furious) sbln m'zaraey. 
lioness, m'zara'i. 
lijp, n. sbun^a'b, sbun^. 
listen, y.t. n'ghwatal. ghwajz niwal or basal, arwedal, 

(eayes-dropping) g^^wajz tsaral. 
little, a. la^, spuk, l^armandey, z'wam, kam, pufaeji 

potuskaey, woy, woykaey. 
live, y.t. 'umr terawul, rozgar ka., guzran ka. See exist, 
livelihood, n. rozi, rozgar, guzran. 

load, n. bar, (one of two loads eacb side of a camel, etc.) 
' an^aey, waraey or wuraey, (for tbe bead) pan^a'b^ 

(small) pan^uKaey ; y.t. lejzdiEi.1, le^bal, barawnl ; dak:« 

loan, n. por, V^?> (borrowing a tbing to be returned) 

lofty, see high. 

8l6 lon^ — maintain, 

long, a. ujzd (also tall), (time) der, (distance) liri. 

I ongingy n. ghoiht, lewal, lewal-tob, tswab, ndna'h, perzo- 

jana'h, perzo-walaej, arman ; y.t. mina'h ka., ghoshtaL 
took, n. katah, katana'li, lidah, lidana'li, nazar ; y.t. katal^ 

goral, Hdal, nazar ka. 
loose, a. arat, gharand, spa^alaej, spai*dalae7, pranatalaej, 

pranataej, ^ushaej, (wandering) jalah ; y.t. arat ka.| 

pranatal, prejzdal, jalah ka., etc., ^ala^awul. 
lose, y.t. wuruk ka., (at play, or a cause) ba'elal ; v.i. paef 

loss, n. trota'h, ziyan, nnk^an, ba'elana'h, psera'h. 
lost, a. wuruk, put, ba'elawaey, ba'elalaey. 
tot, n. ba^t, nasib, kismat, (portion) ba^ra'h, wesh, wand, 
. hisk ; to cast lots, y.t. hisk ka. or acbawul, (with straws) 

Uasarnaey acbawul, (with orbicular dung of sheep, 

goats, etc.) pacha'h achawul, (to win) pacha' h w'yaL 
love, n. mina'h, mayan-tob, *ishk, muhabbat. 
low, a. kuz, landaey, k'^hata'h, lar, chit, (mean) spuk, gan- 

dah, spajzan, (price) arzan ; y.i. ghurchedal. y.t. ram- 

bara'h wahal. 
lower, a. k'^hatanaey, k'^henaey, kuz, lar, landaey ; v.t, 

k'shata'h ka., Idizawul, landaey ka., (bend downwards) 

titawul, (debase) spukawul, kamawul, (frown) brandlawul, 

y.i. (as the sky) toredal. 
loyalty, n. daulat-^wahi, namak-hallali. 
hick, n. bal^t, nek-ba^ti, na^ib. 
lurking-place, n. p'siinaey, put-gana'i, tsawaey. 
lustre, n. brei^hna, rama, ruma, rarna'i. 


fnad, a. (also, a madma/n) lewanaey, ^ushaey or khushaey. 
fnadness, n. lewan-tob. 

magnitude, n. lo-e-walaey, ghat-walaey. star-walaey. 
maid, n. peghla'h, juna'i, jina*!, (servant) chiiya'i, suhelii 
' (bond) win^a'h. 

maintain, y.t. (support) palal, satal, (defend) jzghoraJj 
kbundi ka. 

make — ma/mry. 217 

makey v.t. joyawul, sazawul, kawul, k'^al, (mix) ga4awi]l ; 

n. shakl, ^urat, taur, dod, rang, 
waiter, n. joiraw^nkaej, kawunkaej, {in eomp,) saz, kar, 

male, a. nar, narinah, meirah, (of cattle for breeding) 

mxiXice^ see enmity, 

mMety n. ^Bhh^^j, ba^^dar, (washerman's) tsoba^raej. 
man, n. sayaej, insan, (an individual) wagayaey, jzawaey. 
manage, v.t. chalawul, tadbir ka, intizam ka. 
m^anagement, n. tadbir, kar-sazi, intizam. 
mane, n. ao^hi, aowi, w'rajz, yal. 
manhood, n. (virility) dzwani, zalmaey-tob, mardi, (bravery) 

m^anifestf a. tsargand, ^h'karah, bartser, zahir ; v.t. tsar- 

gandawul, ih'karah ka., zahirawul, bartser ka. 
manhindf n. sa^I, narinah, insan, ^aUf, ban! adam. 
manly, see brave, 

manner, n. toga'b, shan, rang, taur, tarata'h. 
mantle, n. kosaey, cbogWh. (a female's) payunaey, pacbor- 

aey, chayal. 
manure, n. sara, sara'b; v.t. (to manure land) sarey 

ma/ny, a. ^er, garn. 

m>arch, n. koch or kiicb ; v.t. koch or kiicb ka. 
m>are, n. aspa'b. 
m^argin, n. ghaya'h. teelma'b, trats, 4&4a'h, tsan^a'h, mor« 

ga'b, laman. 
m^irh, n. andzor, darak, naiha'h, rakish, da^ ; v.t. naiha'h 

lagawul, da^^awul. 
market, n. bazar, char-su. 
marriage, n. wada'h, nika^. 
married, a. (a man) wada'b-kafaey, (a woman) wada'h- 

sbawey, v.i. (to be married, a woman) wadedal, (a mar- 
ried woman) ma^ro-iha'h. 
marry, v.t. (as a man) wadawul, wada'h ka., (as a priest) 

nikah taqraJ, (take a husband) t§aihtan ka., (take a wife) 

^hadga'h ka.^ kor kawul. 

218 mason — merchandise. 

m,ason, n. mi'mar. 

m^aster, n. tsaihtan, bad-ar, j^awand, merab, malik, 
(teacber) ustad, a^un or a^und (also signifies a 
learned man, tbeologian, preacber). 

m^ateriaUf n. asbab, saman, kali, batiyar. 

m^attoch, n. kodala'i, saibsora'b. 

mattress, n. tola-i, tosbak, nibali. 

meadow, n. wursbo, cbaman, rkgh, jal-gab, ulang. 

meaZ, n. aorab, wo]rab, (fine) maidab. 

m>ean, a. spnk, dun; ba^l, sbum, na-karab, (middle) 
aowsat, miyandzwaey. 

meaning, n. matlab, mnrad, ma'ni. 

msans (manner), n. to-gaey, sban, rang, wajba'b, taur, 
(competence, resources) panga'b, saga'b, sar-maya'b, 
mal, amadani, (aid) kabl, wasila'b, wa^ita'b. 

measure, n. mecb, kacb, paimaesb, andaza'b, joka'b, (por- 
tion) wesb, (for grain, etc.) aojzaey, (fourtb part of 
aojzaey) kurbaey, kuraey; v.t. mecb ka., mecbawul, 
kacb ka., andaza'b ka., andaza'b niwal, jokal, (liquids) 
v.t. p'yamal, (apportion) v.t. wesbal. 

m^at, n. gbwa^ba'b^ (food) ^warak. 

msdiate, v.t. gwai^bal, gwasb-grandaey ka. 

mediator, n. gwa^b-grandaey, mandz-garaey. 

medicine, n. dawa, daru, darman. 

meet, v.i. pe^bedal, ma^a-ma^sb'wal; v.t. b'lodal, b'los- 
edal, (witb, find) mundal. 

fneeting, n. bara'b gara'b^ didan, mulakat, wa^lat, (assem- 
bly) tolaey, tola'i, jam'a'b, jam'iyat, majlis, (for delibe- 
ration) jirga'b. 

melt, v.i. will ke., aobab ke. ; v.t. wili ka., aobab ka. 

memory, n. yad. 

menace, v.t. tra^al, 4arawul, ratal, werawul. 

m£nd, v.t. jorawul, ragbawuL (darn) bezal, pezal, (improve) 
v.i. tan^al, joredal, ragbedal. 

merchant, n. tajir, saudagar, bazargan, (clotb, draper) 

m£rchandize, n. mal, sauda, (commerce) tijarat, sauda- 

merctf — moist 219 

mercy, n. ra^m, rahmat. 

merciful, a. rahm-dil, (God) rahim, ral^man, karim. 

m^erit, n. ^ubi, sazawan, kadr, li-akat. 

message, n. paighaniy (command) kar-ya'h. 

msssenger, n. astadzaey, astodzaey, V^^id* 

mid-day, n. gharma'h, takkama'n or takanda'li gharma'h, 

nima'li wradz. 
middle, a. mijandzwaey, mijandzmaej, mi'anah, (the 

middle) miyandz, mi'an. 
mid/night, n. nima'h-slipa'li. 
mid-way, n. nima'h-lar. 
might, see power, strength, 
mighty, a. zorawar, tuwana, kawi. 
military, a. jangi, la^hkari. 
miUc, n. pa'i, sliaudseh ; y.t. I'waslial. 
mill, n. (hand) mechan, (water) jzaranda'h, a-sija. 
miller, n. a-sija-wan, a-sewan, jzarand-garaej. 
mind, n. poha'h, ho^h, 'akl, dzan, z'^ah. 
mine, n. kan, (sap) sarangaey, na^b. 
minute, n. dam, sa'at, la^za'h. 
mire, see mud. 

mischief, n. nuk^an, zijan, badi, pasat, fasad, shai'arat, 
: wita'h. 

miser, n. shum, bakbil. 

misery, n. ^wari, tangsi'a, tangsa'h, muflisi, na-kari. 
misfortune, n. tor-ba^ti, bad-baU^ti, afat, bala, mu^ibat. 
mist, n. dnnd, <j[a4uza'h, lara'h. 
mistake, n. U^ata, ij^alat, ghalati ; y.t. ^ata*ka., ghalat 

or ghalati ka. 
mistress, n. merman, mermana'h, t§a^htana'h, bad-ara'h ; 

m'ashuka'h, jara'h. 
mistrust, see doubt, 
mix, y.t. ga^awul, laral, rakawnl. 
moan, n. zgerwaej, bilama'h ; y.t. zgerwaej ka., angahar 

ka. ; y.i. bilama'h ^atal. 
mode, XL shan, rang, togaej, toga'h ; rasm, dastur, tarik- 

moist, a. lund, z'jam-nak, nawan. 

220 moitture — mummr, 

moisture^ n. z'jam, lund-walaej, naw. 

moment, n. dam, sa'at. 

m>om>entou8, a. driind, gran, muslildl, zariir. 

money, n. rdpa'i, nakd, dunja, daulat. 

month, n. mi-asht. For names see Grammar, page 75.* 

m^ntMy, a. mi-asht pah mi-asht, mah-wari, mah pab mail. 

moorif n. (new) mi-asht, (full, also moonlight) spojzmal. 

morass, n. bo^htana'h, bushtana'h, tarama'h, jaba'h. 

more, a. 2a'at, zi'ati, nur. 

more or less, lajz der. 

morning, n. sahi*, sa^ar, (to-morrow) ^aba, ^ubha. 

mortal, n. sa^aej, jzawaej, wuga^aey, insan. 

mortar, n. (mud) pa^sa'h, lew, (cement) ahak, gach, 

mostly, ad. aksar, agblab. 
mother, n. mor, (term of endearment) adej ! aba'i ! (in* 

law) maira'h, (a father's other wife) been or bsen mor. 
mound, n. potaey, 4ora'i, ghun<Ja'i, ghuncjLa'iy ^sb^. 
mount, y.i. kbatal, (get on) sparedal, y.t. (to raise up) 

mountain, n. ghar, koh, (ridge) kamar, (crest of a pafis) 

gha^haey ; a. ghartsah. ghartsanaey. kohistani. 
mourn, y.i. nuledal ; y.t. gham ka., gnam ^waral, jza^al, 

wir ka. 
mouth, n. U^ula'h, (small) ^ulga'i or U^ulaga'i. 
mouthful, n. gola'h, n'wara'i. 
move, y.i. khwadzedal ; y.t. U^wadzawul. 
mow, see reap. 

mvoh, a. 4^t, frewan ; n. 4er-walaey, frewani. 
mvd, n. l^ata'h, la-e, (mixed for mortar) pa^sa'h, lew. 
mule, n. ^achar, ghatoy kachar. 
murmur, n. pus-pus, gungosaey, ^h'kalwah, zwajz, juy juj, 

kur l^ur ; y.t. gila'h ka., mana'h ka., (as a brook) juf ka., 

jufahar wahal, zwajz ka., (as the intestines) iuf juf ksL^ 

kur kur ka., (of conyersation) i^h'kalwah laral or ka. 

* The names of Indian months are peculiar to Peiiha- 
war and parts nearest India. 

imuiket — Tidce. 221 

fnushet, topak, banduU^. 

mvstery y.t. sbmeral, san niwal, to^*^^^^ l^a^irawul; y.i. 

^aziredal, toledal. 
mutilate, y.t. jzobalawul, ghwatsawuly kapam ka.y pre-ka- 

mutiny, n. fasad, pasat, yaghi-gariy balwa. 
mutineer, n. fasadi, pasati, yagni-gar. 
mutinous, a. yaghiy sar-ka^n. 
mvMon, n. da geedey ghwa^ha'h. 


nail, mekbi mogaey ; (of finger or toe) n. nuk; y.t. fak- 

naked, a. barban^, luts, luts, (stark) lutg-puts, lutg-lapaf . 

na/me, n. num ; to give a name to, y.t. num ye^hawul or 
kejzdal ; to name (style), y.t. numandaej ka. 

named, a. numandaej, numafaej. 

narrow, a. tang. 

narrownees, n. tang-walaey, (meanness) baU^ili. 

nature, n. ^o-e, ^a^lat, mizaj, tab'a'h. 

nea/r, a najzdey. 

necessary, a. baedah, bo-yab, lazim. 

neck, a. ghara'h, mara'i, markan^a'i, (the nape) aormej^y 

needful, a. pab kar, zarur, lazim. 

needle, n. stan, (and thread) stan aw spamsaey. 

negligent, a. bey-parwa, ^afil, bey-^abar. 

neigh, n. ham^ shashrnaey ; y.i. barnedal, shashmedal. 

neighbour, n. gawan4aey, gawaniji, hnmsayah. 

nephew, n. (brother's son) w'rarah, (sister's) ]^orah-yaey. 

new, a. nawaey, aosanaey, tazah. 

news, n. Ubabar, (good) zeraey, sar. 

nice, a. aghala'h. ghwarahy ^ha-istah, maza'h-dar, (deli- 
cate) nazuk, (accurate) juJdlt, jof, barabar, (fine) barik, 

222 niece — ohvioua. 

niece, n. (brother's daughter) warera'h, (sister's) ^bor^ 

nigh, see near, 

night, n. shpa'h, (to-night) nan-shpa'h. 
nimble, a. gai^andaej, zghard, tak-lastaey, chalak. 
noble, a. lo-e, gha^: ; sahu, sawu, ashraf, a^il ; n. * sardar, 

^an, amir, arbab. 
noise, n. jzwajz, zwajz, ghajz, ghao. chagh^ bang, shor ; y.t, 

(create a noise) gnajzawuly chaghawuly jzwajz ka. 
nominate, see appoint, 
noon, n. gharma^hy t^^^^^a^^'^ or takanda'h ghanna'hy do- 

noae, n. paza'h, poza'h. 

noted, a. num-war, mashur, nam-dar, tsargand. 
nothing, n. hits, na-tsiz. 
notice, n. katana'h, lidana'h, nazar, (warning) jar, ittil'a, 

izhar; y.i. katal, lidal; y.t. nazar ka., jar wahal, ittila' 

ka., izhar ka. 
notify, see preceding. 

nourish, y.t. palal, n'mandzal, satal, parwarai. 
numb, a. kar^echan, marghechan. 
number, 'adad, hisab, shumar ; y.t. hisab ka., shmeral, 
numerous, a. ^^r, gam, wadan. 


oath, n. kasm, half, saugand ; y.t. kasm a., (to administer 

an oath) kasm war-tawul. 
obey, y.t. manal, hukm pah dza'e ra-w'ral, n'ghwatal. 
obligation, n. (duty) farz, (favour) minnat. 
obscure, a. tirah, yund, put, (ignoble) kam a^l. 
observe, y.t. katal, lidal, goraJ, nazar ka., (say) wajal. 
obstinacy, n. hod, hoda'h. 
obstinate (person), a. hodaey. 
obtain, y.t. ga^al, mundal, bi-a-mundal. 
obvious, a. tsargand, 6h'kaiuh, barjger, zahir. 

occasion — order, 223 

occasion, n. bar, dgal, hey, hera'h, pla, nobat, war, muda'b, 

(cause) sabab, ba'ig, j^^araz, ihitiyaj ; v.t. kawul, k'^al, 

occupy, see employ, 
occur, v.i. ^b Val, kedal, teredal, peiShedal, pre-watal, (to tbe 

mind) yadedal, pah yad raghlal. 
occurrence, n. hadisa'h, waVi'a'h. 
offence, n. gunah, tak^ir, wabal, (umbrage) Uiafagi, randz, 

marawur-tob, etc. ; y.t. gunah ka., tak^ir ka., marawar 

ka., U^afah ka. 
offender, n. gunah-gar, tak^ir-dar, tak^iri. 
office, n. kar, man^ab, ^idmat, dza'e, 'uhda'h. 
officer, n. man^ab-dar, 'uhda'h-dar, sardar. 
offspring, n. aulad, farzand, nasi, zu-zat, zah-o-zad. 
old, a. zof , (man) spin-jziraey, (woman) spin-sara'h, (age) 

zar-ti'a, zar-walaey. See ancient 
often, ad. der dzalah. 
omit, v.t. pre-jzdal, terawul, pre-iShwal. 
onset, n. tsot, Vrid, ^amla'h, guzar. 
ooze, Y.i. tsatsedal, watal. 
open, a. arat, pranataey, pranatalaey, waz, (clear) spin, ^af , 

(apparent) ^h'karah, tsargand ; v.i. aratedal, gbwayedal, 

kbwaredal ; v.t. pranatal, ^ala^awul, aratawul, (spread) 

ghwarawul, ^^warawul, spaydal. 
opinion, n. poha'h, rae, guman, fikr. 
opportunity, n. war, puk, dao, muda'h, wakt, raU^na'h. 
oppose, v.t. mukabala'h ka., a^awul, hafalawul, man'a'h 

ka. ; v.t. (in battle) barabap ka., v.i. jangedaL 
opposition, n. ho4, ho^a'h, zidd, dzel, ikhtilaf . 
oppress, v.t. zulm ka., jaf a ka., azarawul, dzwarawul. 
oppression, n. zulm, jaia, dzwar, zorawari, zabardasti. 
oppressor, n. zalim, jafa-kar, sitam-gar. 
option, n. i^tiyar, wak ; to have option, v.t. i^tiyar laral, 

wak laral. 
order, n. ^ukm, farman, (method) yun, intizam, tartib, 

(kind) kam, jins, (custom) rasm, dastiir, tarika'h, ka'id- 

a'h ; v.t. hukm ka., ^ukm war-kawul, farmayil ; tanijial, 

jofawul, atgamal. 


224 ordina/nce—folm, 

ordinance^ n. amr, hukm ; a'ln, ^a'ida'h, V^i^^ shar^ali, 

origin^ n. affl, bonsat, nasi, weU^. 
outrage J n. jafa, zor, zulm. 
(ndsiae, n. bahir, ma^. 
overhf n. tanur. 

overcast, a. tor, gur, gam, puf. 
overcome, y.t. wahal, landi ka., psB^ ka., baraej ka., inagh» 

lub ka. 
overloolcy y.t. goral, lidal, katal, (pass over, forgive) 

pulawul, ba^i^bal. 
overset, y.t. a^awul, naskorawul. 
overthrow, n. mat-ja'h, sat, sbikast; y.t. nairawul, matawul, 

naskorawul, (ruin) pa'e-mal ka., lata^awul; sat ka., 

sat ^ shikast war-kawul. 
own,Y,t, dar-lawul, dar-lal, laral, (assent) manal, kabiilawiiL 
owner, n. tsa^btan, malik, me^ab, ^awand. 
ox, n. gbwajaey, ghwayaey^ gbutskaej, ijia^g^u' (also a 



pace, n. yiin, tag, raftar, kadam, pal. 

j^ify, y.t. papula ka., sai^wm, dUasa or tasalli war- 

jpack-saddle, n. palan, kata'b, mof'a'b. 
pad, n. (for a saddle) X&ghax, (small, for tbe band) bali^i- 

tak, (to support a round-bottomed yessel) manjila'b. 
pain, n. ^ujz, dapd, randz, swaey, sozisb, *azab ; y.i. (to 

acbe) Ubuj^edal, swal, dardedal, y.t. (cause) U^ujsawul, 

swaey ka., 'azab ka., dapdawul. 
painful, a. kbujz-mand, dard-mand. 
pains, n. ko^bi^b, jabd, mibnat, zor, (of cbildbirtb) da 

langedalo or langedo dard ; to take pains, y.t. koibiiib 

ka., mibnat ka., jabd ka., zor ka. 
pale, a. zi-yay (lit yellow), spor (lit, grey). 
palm, n. war-£^owaey, j^apa^r, lapa'b, (measure) tsapak. 

pailpitate — jpay, 225 

jpalpitate, T.i. rapedal, drakedal. 

jpan, n. bat, kaiuhaej, (earthen) loshaey, kafwaey, taba'i, 

(wooden) i^hanak, kachkol. 
jpanic, see fear, 

jmraJn/ais, n. shall, guzan, (of the face) lakwa'h. 
j^ralyUcy a. shall-o-shul, guzan-wahalaej. 
fHirdon, n. baU^^h, ba^ihana'h, mu'af ; y.t. mu'af ka., 

jfHirentf n. plar, mor. 
jfHirentage, see origin, 

parry, v.t. daf a'h ka., gsBrzawnl, liri ka., bachawul. 
part, n. baM^ra'h, wesh, hi^^a'h, (place) ^wa, dza'e, muk- 

am, taraf ; v.i. bejaledal, I'wu^htal ; v.t. beyalawul, 

juda ka., weshal. 
partiality, n. pas-walaej, taraf-dan, marasta'h, sela'h, sel- 

wa'h, (affection) mina'h, (inclination) ^wa. 
particular, a. kha^s, (detail) taf^iL 
pase, v.i. teredal, t'lal, laral, (by) ter watal, (cross) pori 

watal; n. (defile) tangaey, dara'h, (over a mountain) 

^aiShaey, kotal, (state) hal, (permit) rawana'h, par- 

wana'h, (stroke) guzar, daw, war. 
past, a. ter, ter ^hawaey, t'lalaey. 
pasture, n. (ground) wursho, tsarah-gah, (forage) waihah, 

tsar, 'alaf ; v.t. tsarawul, powul, piayal. 
path, n. lar, wat, (narrow or bye, unfit for horsemen) tsar- 

a'h-lar, (one by which a horse can go) da as lar. 
patience, n. tahammul, 9abr ; v.t. (to have) 9abr niwal, 9abr 

ka., 9abr laral, tahammul ka. 
patient, a. ^abr-nak, ^abir ; n. (sick person) bimar, mariz, 

na-jor, randzur. 
patrol, n. talaya'h ; v.t. talaya'h ka. 
pattern, n. namuna'h, na^ha'h, kalib. 
pause, v.t. dama'h niwal, v.i. wudredal, v.t. (reflect) fikr ka. 
pawn, v.t. gama'h ka., (put in pawn) pah garney k'^hoy 

ke-sShwal or ke-^hodal, grau ka. 
pay, n. talab, mawajib, tanUi^wah, mahina'h (lit, monthly 

pay) ; v.t. mawajib or talab or mahina'h war-kawul, 

(discharge, settle) ada ka. 


226 peaee^^piaui* 

peace, n. ^ul^a'h, ashli, rogha'h, t^tob, paM^tila tob or 

walaej, aram, asudagi; y.t. ^ul^a'hka. ashti ka.yro|^'h 

ka., (treaty of) ^ulba'h nama'h. 
peaceable, a. i^arib, papula. 
peasant, n. bazgar, zamindar, dihgan, dibJkan, (la>bourer, 

plougbman) charikar. 
pebble, n. gjXs^j, gi\8k\ (large) gita'h, gataey, tarara'h. 
pebbly, a. gifin. 

pedigree, n. pera'i, affl, nasab, pusht. 
pedlar, n. ^urda'h farosh. 
peg, n. sparU^y, mojzaej, mekb. 
pdt, y.t. acbawiQ, wishtal, t&P ^ 
penetrate, v.i. pori ra pori watal, pori aori wataL 
penitent, a. paibiman, toba'h-gar. 
penitence, n. pa^himanl, toba'n. 

people, n. 'alam, U^alk, wuga^i ; y.t. abadawul, wadanawul. 
perceive, y.i. pohedal, pejzandal ; y.t. lidal. 
perform, y.t. kawul, k'i'ad, ada ka., purah ka., pah dza'e 

period, n. muda'h, wakt, wal^t, nobat, war, he^. 
perseverance, n. bimmat, koi^hi^h. 
pereon, n. saraej, wuga^aej, tan, kas, (tbe body) d^an, 

9urat, andam. 
pestilence, n. waba, ta-wun, ta'un. 
petition, n. 'arz, darkhwast, sawal. 
physic, n. dawa, darman, dlru, (practice) tabibi. 
physician, s. tabib, Itiakim. 
pick, y.a. sb^awuL, (gather) amawul, (the teeth, etc.) 

funbal, (up) a^stal. 
pick-axe, n. kaha'i, parokaey, taraza'h, tswaL 
piece, n. to^aey, tuk, tiik, tukaey, pina'h, (land) pa^aey, 

wan4, marima'h. 
pierce, y.t. sufaey ka., tetsal, zanal, ea^hal, tsar^L ka. 
pillage, see plunder, 
pillow, n. balii^ht. 
pine, n. nai^htar, sanobar. 
pinCf y.i. pa^sedal, zahedal, ka^redal, nuledal. 
pious^ a. iman-dar, din-dar, n'man^^. 

pi8tolr--poinU 227 

jpistolf n. tamanclia'li. 

pitf n. tubkaej, t^blaej, j zawar-ghalaeYy 4Qghaly ka^lial. 

jpitch (as a tent), v.t. J^ejzawul, walayawul, wudrawul, 

(cast) wishtal, achawul. 
jnty, n. z'rah s'waey, ^wa-^oizi, rahm, dard. 
jplace, n. dza'e, mukam, (dwemng) astoga'h, astogna'h, 

nushta'h, (instead) badaJ, (rank) martaba'h ; v.t. iz'daly 

ke- jz'dal, ke-^hodal, ke-iShwal, ye^hawul, jeiShal, yeiinodal. 
plague, see pestilence, 
plain, a. (simple) sadah, (flat) hawar, sam, sat, (pure) tor- 

aej, spor, karah, (apparent) bartser, tsargand ; n. 

plan, n. tadbir, band, tajwiz, ^ikmat, chal, sa^tagi, tugh- 

jan ; T.t. tadbir ka., chal ka., l^ikmat ka., joi^wul. 
plank, n. ta^ta'h, tanba'h. 
plant, n. buzghalaej, tandaej, bufaey, te^ ; v.t. n'jatal, 

karal, ^a^hawul, jz'dal, zanal. 
plaster, n. akherana'h, a^a^rab, gacb, (mud plaster) lew, 

kbata'h, (for a wound) malham, paha'b, tab ; v.t. a^e^al, 

fefaata*h ka., lewawul. 
play, n. loba'b, luwaba'b, lobey, bazi, (gambling) ju'ari ; 

y.t. loba'b or lohej ka., luwaba'b ka., bazi ka., ju'ari ka., 

(act) pe^hey ka., (music) ghajzawul,. taxana'h or taraney 

pleasant, a. ^hseh, U^wand-nak, maza'b-dar, lazizi aghalahy 

please, y.t. ^wand war kawul, maza'h ka., l^waibawul, 

^usl^alawul, razi ka., iShaghal. 
plenty, n. 4er-walaey, f'rewam, wadani. 
plot, n. (of land) wan<j[, pataey, (stratagem) lamghaya% 

jofii^ht, (conspiracy) sazish, bandish. 
plough, n. yow-y a'h, kulba'h ; T.t. yow-ya'h or yawey ka., 

kulba'h ka. 
plunder, n. awar, ulja'h, tar. ta^ak, tala'h, talan, cbiir, luf ; 

y.t. tala'h or talan ka., liita^wul, natal, awar ka., ta^ak ka., 

taf ka., etc. 
point, n. tsuka'h, sar, peza'b ; y.t. (sharpen) tera'h ka., 

(point out) ^howul, ^bayal. 

15 * 

228 'polish — quit 

polish, y.t. mui^hal, tojzal, z'doyal, saiVal ka. 
pollute, Y.t. ^iranawul, palitawiQ, na-pak ka., kakarawuL 
pool, n. 4and, (small) ^an^a'h, dan^ukaey, joejr, dab, kol. 
poor, a. ^war, tai'ah, dar-mandah, na-dar, muflis, bey-zar, 

populous, a. wadan, abad. 
portion, n. ba^ra'h, hi^fa'h, wan4, wesh, (destiny) kis- 

position, n. dza'e, mukam, tama'h. 
possess, y.t. dar-lawal, dar-lal, laral. 


quagmire, n. bo^htana'h, tramna'b, yala'li, ^ata'h. (lit 

qu>dke, y.i. larzedal, pai'akedal, rapedal. 
quantity, n. andaza'b, ^adr, wazn. 
quarrel, n. jang, jagara'b, steza'h, kaziya'b; y.t. Jang ka., 

jagara'h ka., kaziya'h ka., steza'b ka. ; y.i. jangedal. 
quarter, n. tsalorama'h ba^ra'h, pao, (place of abode) 

astoga'b, astogna'h, astojza'b, dza'e, (side) tselma% 

ttwa, lasta'b, lor, loraey, (mercy) aman, amn. 
queen, n. malika'h, (m her own right), sultan, badshah. 
quell, y.t. k'^be-nawal, sa^rawul, matawid. 
quench, y.t. sarawul, ma^r ka. 
question, n. pu^htana'h, sawal, (doubt) shakk, guman ; y.t. 

pui^btana'b ka., sawal ka., sbakk ra-w'ral, guman ka. 
quick, a. zser, zghard, garandaey, g^andaey, talwar, tez, 

quiclcsand, n. ghal sbiga'b. 
quiet, a. aram, karar, ghalaey, (meek) gharib ; quiet or 

quietness), n. aram, karar, ^^alaey-tob ; j^aiibi. 
qu%lt, n. brastan, tola-i, nihali. 
quit, see lea/oe. 

race — rashness. 229 

ra^ce, n. z'^^ast, z'gha^ht, inan4a'h, (kind, lineage) kor, 
nojza'h, a^l, nasi, zat, ^anadan ; y.t. z*ghalawiiL. 

raft, n. jala'h, dzala'h, zango. 

rafter, n. bainsh, pafera'li, laharaej. 

ragged, a. gand-po^li ; re^liey re^hey, tuk tuk, ^ukL tuki. 

raiment, see clothes. 

rain, n. baran, (heavy) sliebali or sbabah baran, gam 
baran, (slight) puna'h, rangaey baran, (spring shower) 
da psarH baran, ha^hma'h, wasa'h, (summer) da wo-ri 
baran, (rainy season, the rains, used by Afghans of 
Peshawar and parts nearest the Panj-ab) parshakal, 
(bow) shna'h zarghuna'h. shna'h kasa'h sara'h kasa'h, 
da bu^a'i tal ; v.i. aoredal, woredal, baran pre-watal. 

raise, v.t. (up) patsawul, portah ka., ^ejzawul, (erect) 
lakawul, wudrawul, walarawul. 

ram, n. majz, gsed. 

rampart, n. bara'h, ^hahr-panah. 

range, n. (moving about) ga^ht, (of shot, etc.) partab ; v.t. 
ga^ht ka. 

ranic, a. s^a, w'rost; n. martaba'h, darja'h, dza'e, (of 
soldiers) ^aff, para'h, katar ; (to form into a rank) v.t. 
i^aff taraJ, para'h taral or ka, ; v.i. (to move in rank) 
pah para'h t'lal, (to stand in rank) pah para'h dar- 

ransom, n. da ^ala^a'i baha, (for bloodshed) khun-bahfly 
di-yat, (black-mail) bunga'h ; v.t. khala^awuL 

ra/pacious, a. gharat-gar, luf-mar. 

rope, v.t. pah zabardasti zina ka., {yul.) pah jabr ghowuL 

rapid, see quiclc. 

rare, a. matra'h, nadir, (thin, scant) naraey, z'wam. 

rascal, n. charland, laralaey, bad-ma' ash, harami. 

rash, a. talwar-grandaey, bey-ihtiyat, bey-bak, bey-ta'm- 
mul, bey-tadbir, jalt. 

rashness, a. tal-wal, bey-ihtiyati, jur'at ; (to act with rash- 
ness) v.t. ta]-wal ka., bey-i^tiyati ka., jur'at ka. 

230 rate — recompense. 

rate, n. nir^, bai'a'h, kimat, ^isab, (ratio) andaza'li ; slian, 

taur ; v.t. nirkh, iai^l, (to scold) tratal, ratal. 
raUle, n. shrang, gar, gar-kaej, g'ranj, (a child's) chan- 

chamaey, g'yanjawu ; v.i. shrangedal, g'raajedal. 
ravage, n. ujar-walaey, ujayi, wejar-walaey, mar-dar, wa- 

rani ; y.t. ujafawtd, etc., mar-da|' ka., warahawul, natal, 

latai'awnl, t&x ^^'f chiir ka. 
ravine, n. !^wa]r, kanda'h, algada'h, cbur, khur. 
ravish, v.t. bikr shlawul, (seize forcibly) pah jabr or zor 

raw, a. aom, amghalan, nim-garaey, nima'h-^wa, nim-pokh, 

(cold) soy, ya^, (abraded) suledalaey. 
rawness, n. aom-walaey, sop-walaey, sa^ra'h. 
raze, v.t. narawul. 

reach, v.i. rasedal, ra-t'lal ra-ghlal, (touch) lagedal. 
read, v.t. Twastal. 
ready, a. tai-yar, hazir. 

real, a, ri^htunaey, rkhti'a, ri^htinaey, a^H, karah. 
reojp, v.t. rebal, rawdal, lau ka. 
reaper (a), n. lau-garaey, rebunkaey, rawdunkaey, (reaping 

hook) lor, lawa-aor. 
rear, n. sha. (lit the back) w'rustah, dumbal ; ad. in the 

rear, pah w'rustah, pah w'rusto, pah sha, pastanah. 
rear, v.t. palal, parwaral, n'mazal, n'mand^al. 
reason, n. poha'h, 'akl, (proof) dalil, ^ujjat, subut, (cause) 

ba'is, sabab, jihat, wasita'h. 
reasonable, a. munasib, wajib, ^hseh, pirzo, perzo. 
rebel, n. baghi-gar. ya|^i-gar, sar-ka^h, mufsid ; v.t. sar- 

kaiShi ka. ; v.i. baghi ke., ya^i ke. ; v.t. yaghi-gari ka« 
rebellion, n. yaghi-gari. fasad, baghawat. khuriij. 
rebelliovs, a. fasadi, sar-kai^h, baghi, baghiy yaghi. 
receive, v.t. miindal, a^istal, (allow) manal. 
reckon, v.t. shmeral, shmaral, garnal, pohedal, hisab ka. 
recline, v.i. tsamlastal, m'lastal, ghazedal. 
recognize, v.i. pejzandal. 
recollect, v.t. yadawul, z'dah ka. 
recommend, v.t. sparal, siparish ka. 
recompense, n. sawab, badal, tawan, jaza. 

reconcile — religion. 231 

reconcile, v.t. papula ka., U^wa sarawul. 

recover, y.i. jofedal, raghedal ; y.t. (fiii4 again) bi-a-mun- 

recovery, n. joi'edaiia'li, raghedana'h, joy-ti*a. 
redress, n. in^af , nyaw, dad-rasi ; y.t. nyaw ka., tawan war- 

kavnQ, dad-rasi ka., jorawul. 
red, a. sur, surU^. 
reduce, y.t. kamawul, lan4awul, (oyercome) matawul, psBf 

refuge, n. panah, nanawatah. 
refuse, y.t. iba ka., iba ra-w'iral, inkar ka., na-manal ; y.i. 

munkiredal, ghayedal ; y.t. na-l^abulawtd. 
regiment, n. paltan. 
regret, n. arman, afsos, pa^hemam, toba'b ; y.t. arman ka., 

afsos ka., toba'h ka. ; y.L pai^heman ke. 
regulation, n. a'in, l^anun. 
reject, y.t. basal, jar-basal, yastal, jar-jastal, ^ha-yal, 

shairal, liri ka. 
rein, n. waga'h, (reins complete) m'luna'h, (a leading rein, 

a rope) ba^gol. 
rejoice, y.i. ^ush-^aledal, iShadedal; y.t. ^ush-^ali ka., 

^hadawul, (oyer another spitefully) wi-a]ral. 
relate, y.t. bajanawul, pah bayan ra-Viral, Vi??^'!^ ka., 

wajal, (appertain) ta'lluk: laral, nisbat laral; y.i. lag- 

edal, (attribute) nisbat ka. 
relation, n. bayan, l^i^^a'h, (reference) ta'lluk, nisbat, (kin- 
dred) ^e^h, 'aziz, (paternal) plar-ganaey, (maternal) 

reloitionship, n. ^pulawi, khpul-wali, l^pul-walaey, j^pul- 

galwi, (by marriage) ^leshi ; to contract relationship, 

y.t. !^e^ ka., ^pulawi ka. 
release, n. ^ala^i, ^ala^iedana'h, azadi, azadagi ; y.t. 

Ifcbalagawul, azadawtd, wur-hawul. 
reUa/nce, n. bawar, i'tibar, umed. 
relieve, y.t. madad war-kawal, komak war-kawul or rasa- 

wul, hapa'h ka., aram war-kawul, (lessen) sayawuly 

(change) badalawul. 
religion, n. din, mashab, iman. 

232 relinquish — retaliate. 

relinquish, v.t. prej'zdal, pre-i^hwal, pre-iShodal. 
rely, y.t. bawax ka., i'tibar ka., tawakkul ka. or laral. 
remain, v.i. patedal, pato or patey ke., aosedal, pa'edal. 
remedy, n. 'ilaj, darman, dawa, tsara'li, tadbir; v.t. 'ilaj 

ka., darman ka., etc., tadbir ka., jorawul, raghawuL 
remember, v.t. z'dah ka., yadawul, (recognize by recollection) 

remembrance, n. pejzandah, pejzandana'b, yad. 
remind, v.t. yad war-kawul. 
remit, v.t. (send) astawul, lejzdal, (lessen) kamawnl, lajz- 

awul, (absolve) ba^i^hal, pnlamil. 
remove, v.t. U^ejzawnl, liri ka., (migrate) ka^a'h ka., kuch 

ka., lethal. 
renowned, a. nam-war, mashur, tsargand* 
rent, n. ijara'b, kira-ba'b. 
repair, v.t. jorawul, raghawul^ tan^al. 
repent, v.i. pai^heman ke. ; v.t. toba'h ka. or k'l^hal, arman ka. 
repentance, n. paiihemani, toba'h, arman. 
reply, see answer, 
report, n. ^abar, awaza'h, (soiuid) bang, ]^jra8, daz, 

repose, n. %kX6h, aram ; v.i. (take rest) tsamlastal, m'lasial, 

u-dah ke., ghazedal ; v.t. ^ub ka. 
reprimand, see reprove. 

reprove, v.t. fratal, ratal, malamat ka. malamatawnl. 
repulse, v.t. matawnl, hatalawul, ta^htawtd, daFa'h ka., 

tar pah tarawul, shikast ka. 
reputation, n. num, abru, nang, nek-nami. 
request, n. ghosht, sawal, dar&wast, 'arz ; v.t. sawal ka., 

etc., gho^htaly pui^htedal. 
reside, see dwell. 

resolute, a. z'rah-war, diler, klak. 
respect, n. 'izzat, adab. 
rest, n. aram. karar, (sleep) ^ub, (pause) dama'hy war ; 

v.i. tsamlastal, m'lastal ; v.t. aramawul, ^ub ka., (the 

rest) a. pato, pataey, nur. 
retaliate, v.t. badal or badla'h or jaza or kisa^i akj^istal, 

bota'h bramta'h ka., intikam a^istal. 

retinue — roaet 233 

retinue, n. swarli. 
retire, see retreat, 
retreat, n. te^hta'h, (asylxim) panah, nanawatah; y.i. tasht- 

edal^ z^ghaledaly z'gnastaly pah stana'h puri watal ; y.t. 

sha war-kawul. 
return, n. jarwatah, jarwatana'h, (profit) sud, gata'h, 

gatana'h, jaza ; y.i. bi-artah raghlal. bi-artah geerzedal, 

jar- watal, stunedal; y.t. (send back) pab bi-artah 

revenue, n. mah^ul, baj, ^iraj, saw. 
revile, see aibuse. 
reward, n. sawab, jaza, in'am, ba^iShana'h, (retiim for 

labour) ujrat, mi^nat. 
riee, n. w'rijey, (in husk) sholey, shala'i, (field) shala*i- 

zara'h, shol-gara'h, (ground prepared for sowing rice) 

rich, a. daulat-man, mal-dar, dunja-dar. 
riches, n. dunya, daulat, mal. 
ride, y.i. swaredkl, sparedal ; y.t. swarli ka. 
rider, n. swor, spor, sporlanaey. 
ridge, n. kamar, warsak, pu^hta'h. 
right, a. jor, juMit, ri^hti'a, rawa, barabar, ^hseh, lazim, 

wajib, rast, (not left) i^haey, (hand) ^haey las, (right 

and left) ^haey ow kim ; n. hakk. mal, milk, (justice) 

in^af, 'adl; (make right) y.t. joyaWul, samawul. 
ring, n, kara*i, (finger) tsalaey, (seal or signet) muhr ; y.i. 

trangedal, shrangedal, g'^anjedal; y.t. shrangawul, 

g*ranjawul, etc. 
ringleader, n. sar-guroh. 
ripe a. pokh, khuyin. 
rise, n. ^atah, (eleyation) pechuma'h, pechumaey; y.i. 

patsedal, ^atal, walayedial. portah ke. 
river, n. sin, sind, rud, daryab, (small) nahr. 
rivulet, n. lai^htaey, wila'h, wela*h. 

road, n. lar, rah, wat (peculiar to PeiShawar and its yicinity). 
rooAT, n. tarn, g hrumb. dandukar ; y.t. tamahar ka. or laral; 

y.i. jj^yumbedal ; y.t. ghyumbal. 
roast (ox fry), y.t. talawul, te-yal, w'ritawul. 

234 roh — ruined. 

rob, T.t. ghla ka., natal, lufal, lutawul, lar wahal. 

robber, n. ghal. 

robbery, n. ghla. 

ro66, see garmient 

rock, n. s^ar, dabara'h, tejzah, gaf; T.t. tal ^wairal, 

juta'i ^wa|:al ; v.i zangal, zangedal, shanedal ; y.t. tal 

wahal, juta'i war-kawul, zangawul, shanawul. 
roehy, a. ^Aharinah, gatin, sang-laU^. 
rogvs, see rascal, 
roll, n. r'gha^hty n'gha^ht^ wal, tao, (of paper) dasta'hy ferd, 

(list) daftar; T.t. (up), n' g ha^taly n'gharal ; (on the 

ground) v.i. r*gha6htaly r'ghayedal. 
roof, n. bam, sa^f , tsapar, chat. 
room, n. l^una'h, dza'e, kota'h, l^njra'h (also in Pe^awar 

and parts adjacent, a public room for travellers, a guest 

root, n. muncji, wula'h, we^, (base) kunsata'h, bonsaf, bun- 

yad ; (to root up) v.t. lah muncjia basal or jastal, etc., or 

weBtj wula'h, etc., kajzal or k'^hal or k'^hawul. 
rope, n. pai^y, rasal, (hair, etc.) wa^h, wa^h-kaey, cola*!, 

(made ^om fibre of palm-leaf) bum, bijasta'h, (of 

strips of hide) sar-bancjiej. 
rot, v.i. Vrastedal, sha^rhedal, s^a ke., bomedal. 
rotten, a. w'rost, s^a, shairhedalaej, bomedalaej. 
rottenneee, n. w'rost-walaey, sU^a-tob or ti'a or walaey. 
rotLgh, a. zijz, (to the taste) z'mo^, z*mo^t, triw, (austere) 

but, Tway , klak, (plain, unmixed, etc.) spor. 
round, a. g hund. g huncjL ; n. (beat) ga^ht, (bout) gusar, 

war ; (to turn round) v.i. churledal, gserzedal; v.t. churi- 

awul, gsBrzawul. 
rouse, see wake, 
rout, see r^ptdse. 
rub, v.t. mu^hal, mujzal, tojzal. 
rubbish, n. kbadzala'h, war-^a|ra'h. 
ruin, n. warani, wiyay-walaey, ^arabi, rang-walaey ; v.t. 

waranawul, wijayawul, yangawul, nayawulj l^rab ka. 
ruined, a. waran, wija^, rang, khyang o ^rang, mat-gu4,na;|ra- 


rule — salve, 285 

rule, n. l^ukumat, ^ukm, ^ukm-rani, 'amal, (regulation) 

a'in, kanun, ka'ida'h, tarika'h ; y.t. ^akumat ka., Ijiukin- 

rani ka. 
rtUeTf n. ^akim, amir, wall. 
mn, n. z'gj^ast, man^a'h, dau ; v.i. z'ghaledal, z'^^astal, 

z'gj^a^htal ; v.t. man^ey wahal ; (away) v.i. ta^htedal ; 

(away with) taiShtawul, (after) pasey z'^^aledal, pasey 

pre-watal, (over) to-yedal, (out) watal, (flow) bahedal ; 

(down, disparage) v.t. ghandaL (down, overtake) v.t. 

landey ka., (up) v.i. ^atal ; v.t. ^ejzawul. 
ruet, n. zang. 
ruetf/y a. zang-sliawaey, zang-^wa^alaey. 


$aeJc, n. (of goat's hair) ghundaeVy (of hair or hemp) tsaf- 

a'h, juwal, dzola'i; v.t. (plunder) natal, lutawul, mar- 

dar ka., na-tar ka. 
aadf a. zahir, gham-jan. gham-nak. gham-gin, dil-gir, 

saddle, n. zin, (pommel) n'gubaey, kash, (cloth) zin-po^h, 

to g ham^ (bag) ^urjin, (girth) tang, tatang, (pad) U^o- 

gir ; v.t. zinawul, zin ye^hawul. 
saddler, n. zin-saz, sarraj. 

sadness, n. zahir-ti'a or walaev, gham^ dil-giri, nul. 
safe, a. aman, salamat; n. (conduct) badraga'h, (guard) 

pushti, panah. 
saint, n. pir. wall, abdal, z'barg, (the saints) auliya. 
sale, n. prolana'h, prowuna'h, plor, bai'a'h; v.t. prolal, 

prowul, ploral, bai'a*h ka. 
saU, n. malga'h ; a. malgin. 
saMation, n. salam, allah-bash, rogh-bay. barga^andi ; v.t. 

(salute or make salutation) salam achawul, ro^-bar or 

bargantndi ka., allah-bash ka. 
saUve, n. malham, paha'h. 

236 $and — secret, 

aand, n. shiga'h, (sandy soil) shiglana'h, (sandy desert) 

sandal, n. tsapla'i. 
sandy, a. shiglan. 

sap, v.t. surang or surangaey wahal, suyaey ka. 
satiety, n. mor-ti*a, moy-walaey, marah khwah. 
satiate, v.t. marawul, 4^^^^^^) soyawul. 
satisfaction, n. raza-mandi, khatir-khwahi. 
satisfy, v.t. razi ka., Uatir-jam'i ka., pohawul. 
save, v.t. satal, jzghoral, ^undl ka. 
saw, n. ara'h, (dust) chur. 
say, Y.t. wayal, ^abarey ka., lal, lawdal. 
scabbard, n. teka'h, tekaey, mi'an. 
scales, n. tala'h, tarazii. 
scarce, a. pitsamey, lajz, rangaey, matra'li, kam, pufaey, 

scarcity, n. kakhti, tangsi'a, kam-yabi, dukal. 
scatter, v.t. ^warawul, khparawul, tar-pah-tarawul, rajz- 

awTil, tarmey tarmey ka. 
scholar, n. shagird, (erudite) 'alim, mulla. 
school, n. maktab, (master) ustad, mu'allim, a]^und. 
science, n. 'ilm, hikmat. 
scour, v.t. mu^hal, mujzal, tojzal, z'doyal. 
scout, n. tsari, zaraey, yalah-dar, tsar-kawunkaey ; v.t. tear 

ka., tsaral, zarana'i ka. 
scrap, n. tota*h, tuk, parukaey. 
scrape, v.t. garawul, garjzal, skoyal. 
scratch, see scrape, 
scream, n. surey, jala'i, nara'h, chighara'h ; v.t. narey surej 

ka., jala'i wahal, narey wahal, chig^ara'h ka. 
screen, v.t. putawul, po^hal. 
screw, n. pech, marwat, (of a violin, etc.) ghwajzj ghwajz- 

seal, n. muhr ; v.t. muhr lagawul or muhr ka. 
seami, n. jor, darz, sko-e, sko. 
search, v.t. shanal, lafawul. 
season, n. mausim, f a^l ; wakt, muda'h* 
secret, a. put-pinham. 

secure — setUe. 237 

secure, aman, salamat; Xmg, j^a-im, mazbut, (against 

surprise or attack) bej-kabii ; v.t. satal, jzghoraly ka-im 

ka., inazbut ka. 
security, n. ^undi-tob, jz^j^orana'h, (bail) zamanat, sala- 
mat, (bond, bondsman) zamin. 
sedition, n. balwa, fasad, pasat. 
see, T.t. katal, goml, lidal ; v.i. (understand) pobedal, ras- 

seed, n. tn^m, dana'h, (of fruit) za^raej, zamaej, (sperm) 

man!, (progeny) aulad, zu-zat, za-o-zad. 
seeing, n. katah, katana'h, lidah, lidana'h, nazar; a. bina. 
seem, v.i. tsargandedal, ^b'karah ke., ma'lumedal. 
seize, v.t. niwal, akhistal. 

select, v.t. amawul, U^wa^bawul, ghwarah ka., pasand ka. 
selfish, a. Upul (j^araz, ^pul matlab. 
sell, v.t. prowul, prolal, ploral, pah bai'a'h war-kawul, 

bai'a'h ka. 
send, v.t. astawul, lejzdal, (for) balal, ra-balal, gho^htal. 
senior, a. lo-e, mashar. 
sense, n. poha'h, f ahm, pahm, hoi^li, 'a^l, (meaning) ma'ni ; 

(to have) v.t. hosh lajral, 'al^ laral ; (have sense oQ v.i. 

sensible, a. pohand, ho^h-jar, bedar, kbabar-dar. 
sentence, n. hukm, fatwa. 
sentinel, n. pasban, tsoka'i-dar, pahra'h-dar. 
s^arate, a. be^al ; v.i. beyaledai, Twui^htal, Twaf edal ; v.t. 

beyalawul, juda ka, rwarawul. 
separation, n. bejaltun, juda-i. 
servant, n. naukar, chakar, kfaid mat-gar. 
serve, v.t. naukari ka., ^idmat ka., chakari ka. 
service, n. naukari, khidmat, chakari. 
serviceable, a. pah kar, fa'ida'h-man, sud-man. 
set, v.t. (place) iz'dal, ke-jz'dal, ke-^hwal, ke-'6hodal, ke- 

^howul, ye^hal^ye^hodal; jorawul, lagawul, k'iShe-nawul, 

k'^he-yastal ; v.i. (go down) Imzedal, pre-watal, (set out) 

t'lal, laral, drumal, drumedal, rawanedal. 
settle (down), v.i. astedal, basiya ke., k'l^he-nastal ; v.t. 

astawul, astogna'h ka., abadawul, basiya ka., dga'e niwal, 

288 setUmnent — shoot 

mishta'h ka., k'^he-nawul, mukarrar ka., (an account) 
ada ka., (a quarrel, d^erence, etc.) paU^ula ka. 
gwaiShal, (arrange, set in order) atearnal, tartib ka., jo^r- 
awul, (finish) tamamawul, J^alafawul,- (a suit) fai^ala'h 

aMement, n. (of reyenue) bandobast, (colony) no-abadi, 
(of a dispute) gwash, (of a suit) faif ala*h. 

fever, v.t. Twarawul, pre-kawul, bejalawul. 

severe^ a. tund, tez, sa^t, zii^bt, Mak. 

sew, T.t. gandal, sko-e ka., (sew up) age-jil. 

ehadef n. sew-raey, seo-raey ; v.t. sew-raey or seo-raey ka. 

shadow, n. 'aks, cbali. See shade. 

shake, v.i. Miwadzedal, rapedal, ^horedal ; T.t. Ubwad^wul, 
rapawul, ^horawul, (down) drabawul. 

shallow, a. tawshal, pa-yab (Jit, fordable, within one's 

shame, n. sharm, haya, sharmindagi, ^^airat. 

sha/meful, a. bad, dl^r bad. 

share, n. ba^ra'h, wesh, wancji, wanda'h, hi^^a'h. 

sharp, a. tera'h, tez, (clever) pohand, (acid) toiw. 

sharpen, v.t. tera'h ka., tez ka. 

shatter, see break. 

shave, v.t. ^'riyal, tojzal. 

shear, v.t. skustal, skwal ka. 

sheep, n. (male), majz, gsed, (ewe) mejz, g8a4a'h9 (lamb) 
gsedoraey, w'raey, (ewe lamb) gflB^ora'i, w'ra'i, (long- 
tailed sheep) heraey, (ewe) hera'i, (wether) wuch-kM, 
wuch-kulaey, (cot) shpol, banda'h. 

shelter, n. panah, s'yab, chah, satana'h. 

shepherd, n. shpun, (boy) shpankaey. 

shine, v.i. dzaledal, brelhedal, rumedal. 

ship, n. jahaz. 

shirt, n. ]^ata'h, pairahan, kami^. 

shiver, v.i. rapedal, larzedal; v.t. (shatter) matawul, (in 
pieces) dar dar ka. 

shoe, n. parna'h, juta'h, (horse) na*l. 

shoot, v.t. wishtal, topak, etc., j^alafawul, (as plants) ; va. 
tukedal, zarghiinedal. 

shop— akin. 239 

shop, n. dukan, (keeper) dukan-dar. 

shore, n. ghara'h, tsanda'h. 

sh^ort, a. (in len^h), land, (in size or quantity) lajz. 

sh>orten, v.i. lan^edal ; v.t. landawul. 

sTiot, n. (small) cbara'h, (bullet) mardakaej, (cannon) gola'i, 

(a discharge) guzar. 
slwulder, n. aojza'h, (blade) walaey. 
shout, see cry out 
show, n. nandara'h, tamasha'lL ; v.t. tsargandawul, bartser 

ka., ^howul, ^b'karah ka., pohowul, fabmawul. 
shower, n. (spring) da psarli baran, (summer) wasa'h, da 

woyi baran, (slight) rangaey baran, (heavy) gam or 

shebah baran. 
shrub, n. butaey, (thorny) karkarna'h. 
shut, v.t. bandawul, pe^hawiQ, (as a door) pori or pala'h pori 

ka., (a book) tapawul, (the eyes) putawul. 
sick, a. randzur, na-jof, na-roghy bimar, (sick of, disgusted) 

wezar, sta|:aey, stoman, (at stomach) mi^h jnlih, 
sichnees, n. randz,na-jo|:-ti'a, bimari. 
side, n. tselma'h, j^wa, (jb^a'h, loraey, lor, palan, taraf , (of 

the body) ar^, tgang. 
sight, n. katah, katana'h, lidah, lidana'h, nazar, (show) 

sign, n. ishara'h, isharat, naiSha'h, na^iSha'h, 'alamat. 
sin, n. gunah, tak^ir, ^ata, wabal. 
sinner, n. gunah-gar, ta^^iri. 
single, a. tsayah, yawadzaey, witar (of one fold, not 

double) yawa-stawaey, (unmarried) lawanijL. 
sink, v.i. diibedal, gharkedal ; v.t. cjiibawul, gharkawul. 
sister, n. ^or, (husband's) n'dror, (wife's) iShena'h, (foster) 

da ti khor. 
sit, v.i. k'she-nastal, nastal. 
sitting, n. nasta'h, k'she-nasta'h, (a seat, a place for sitting 

on) da nastey dza'e. 
size, n. star-walaey, andaza'h, j^adr. 
skin, n. tsarman, pot, (bark), ^war, (for water) mashk, 

mashkoraey, (small) jaey ; v.t. tsarman ti^awul or 

kajzal or k'^hal, spinawul. 

240 skirmish — soU. 

skirmish, n. tas-tus ; Y.t. ta>s-tus ka. 

skuUy n. kakara'i. 

sky, n. asman, (cloudless) sliiii asman, (cloudy) gam or 

gur asman. 
slander, n. palama'h, pe^^or, tor, tuhmat. 
sla^, n. sila'i, 4&b, tsapefa'h, tak ; y.t. tsapepa'h wahal, tak 

wahal, sila'i wahal. 
slave, n. m^rajaey, g^ulam, (girl) windza'h, barda'h, (who 

has borne a child to her master) sur-jata'h. 
slavery, n. m'rayaey-tob, ghulami. 
slay, Y.t. wajzal, wajzlal, wajM, katlawul, (for food) ^alal- 

sleep, n. ^ub ; y.t. ^ub ka., udah ka. ; (fall asleep) y.i. 

^ub zangedal ; y.t. parna w'ral, (grow sleepy) khab 

ra-ghlal ; (put to sleep) y.t. ^ub w'ral, (put to bed) 

sleepy, a. ttub-wayaey, parna wayey stargey, draney stargej. 
slender, a. naraey. 
elide or slip, y.i. ^hwahedal, shwayedal; n. (a slip) lihwah- 

edana'h, laghzy (slippery ground) ; shwahanda'h z'mak- 

slippery, a. iShwaey, ^hwayand, iShwayandar. 
small, a. wor, lajz, kuchinaey, kachiitaey, kachut-walaey, 

smallness, n. lajz-walaey, wuy-walaey. 
smell, n. bu, bu-e ; y.i. (emit) bii-e Vial ; y.t. (sniff) bu-e 

smoke, n. lu, lii-gaey, (jiaduza'h. 

smoothe, a. sam, hawar ; y.t. samawul, hawarawul, ateamal. 
sneeze, n. pranj, pranjaey, prach; y.i. pranjedal, prachedal, 

(cause to sneeze) pranj awul, prachawul. 
snore, n. lAaer, ^serkaey ; y.t. ^8Br wahal, ^serkaey ka, 
snow, n. wawra'h ; y.i. wawrey aoredal or pre-watal. 
soak, see steep, 
soh, n. aswelaey, salga'i ; y.t. salga'i ka., ar^a^h k'Shal w 

ka., (with yiolence) alhang ka., aswelaey ka. 
soft, a. post, pos, ^uyin, narm. 
soil, y.t. ^ran ka., palitawul, kaka^rawuL 

tqfoumy 666 dweU. 

ioldier, n. sipah-!, (vtd,) spahi, (feudal retainer) m'la tftf • 

ioldiership, n. sipah-gaii. 

ioldiery, n. fauj, la^hkar. 

^on, n. dzo-e, zo-e, (in-law) zum, zumgaeji (grand) n'Tras- 

aey, n'masaev, (only) kasliaey, 
iBOothe^ Y.t. tasalli ka. or war-kawuL 
9ore^ n. (also a wound) tap, zaMim ; a. gazak. 
iorrow, n. arman, ^awr, randz, |^a^ nid; y.t. gham 

U^waral, arman ka. ; y.i. randzedal, nuledal, Ss^'Wredal. 
9^>rry, a. pa^heman, toba'h-gar. 
$orty n. sban, rang, \\am ; y.t. atsamal. 
$oulf n. ruh. See spirit, 
Bound, n. zwajz, gbajz, bang, awaz ; a. (well) jop, rogh, 

(safe) salamat, amani, gabit, (right) juU^t. 
aour, a. triw, (morose) but, sut but. 
§ouree, n. nun4, weUj, 'a?!, sar. 
tow, y.t. karal. 
Bpa/re, a. (scanty) lajz, rangaey, (surplus) ziyat, faltu, (tin* 

occupied) wazgar, kbali ; y.t. (saye) baUj^haJ, pulawol. 
9parJc, n. batsarkaey, batsaraey, ghurutskaey. 
sparkle, y.i. bre^hedal, ^aledal, rumedal. 
speaJc, y.t. wayal. 

spear, n. neza*h, (small) shal, sbalgaey. 
special, a. kha?§i. 
species, n. jins, zat, kism. 
spectacle, n. nandarah, tamaiSlia'h. 

speech, n. jzaba'h, wayana'h, wdijsbejf w'rasba'liy kbabara'li. 
speechless, a. gung. 
spend, y.t. kharts ka., ^arf ka. 
spill, y.i. to-yedal, to-edal ; y.t. to-yawul. 
spin, y.i. churledal, tsarkbedali gserzedal ; y.t. churlawul, 
; tsar^awul, gserzawul. 
spindle, n. tsar£baey, tsar^algaey. 
spirit, n. (resolution) z'rab, dil, (courage) himmat, mar- 

ana'b, gbairat, nang, (essence) kbo-e, mizaj, 'ara^, jau- 
' bar, (immateriality) ru^, naf s, dzan, sab. 
spirited, a. z'^ah-war, mayanaey, bimmat-nak. 


242 $pii — daUmini. 

spit (spike), n. si^, si^cha'h ; T.t. pew-dal, pe-yal ; T«ti, 
• (expectorate) tukal, tu ka., ink ka., larnej tukaL 
epitey n. kbwa-badi, droh, g^ach, Idna'h. 
sptttle, n. lara'hy larnej, tuk. 
€plit, n. chawd, chawda'h, trak, (sound, as wood splitting^ 

kras ; v.i chawdal, shledal ; v.t. chawal, shlawal. 
spoil, n. tala'h, tala, lut, shuka'h, gharat ; v.t. (plunder) 

natal, lufal, lufawul, shukawul, gharat ka., (destroy) 

wranawul, rangawul, kbarabawul. 
spcutj n. t§^^hWh, tsu^hkaej, tsu^ha'i, (gush) dara% 

shuturaka'h, cha^ak (also, sound of water spouting); 

T.i. pah darej watal or bahedal ; v.t. shuturaka'h wahal, 

dara'h wahal, cha^a^ahar wahal. 
spreadt v.i. Uiwaredal, pheledal, wiredal, ^paredal ; T.t. 

kbwarawul, phelawul, wi|rawul, Uiparawul, tarawul. 
spring, n. (leap) top, trap, trapa'h, tindak, dang, ghur^ 

zang, (source) china'h, (instrument, lit. a bow) kaman* 

cha'h ; y.t. top wahal, traplal, tindak or ghurzang wahal, 

dangal ; Y.i. (issue) khalal, watal, bahedal, (germinate) 

tukedal, zarghunedal. 
sprinkle, y.t. (as water) pashal, (with flour or the like) 

sprout, n. buzghalaeyy tegh^ ^alaey; y.i. (ukedal, ghnndg# 

edal, zarghunedal. 
spy, n. jasus, zaraey. See scout, y.t. jasusi ka., zaranal 

stah, n. tsarUi, zal ; y.t. tetsal, zanal, tse^al, sugbawol, 

stage, n. manziL 
stand, y.i. patiedal, wudredal, walaredal, (&8t) tarn ke., 

(erect) neghedal, lakedal, (at bay) jah ke. 
standing, a. walai:, lak, ne g hy pa'edar. 
start, y.L (fear) tarhedal, bugnedal, (set out) rawanedal, 

staie, n. (condition) l^al, l^alat, (realm) daulat, mam1afcat» 

saltanat, (ostentEition) shauljAt. 
statemerd, n. bayan, wayana'h, wayaey, (account) I^sab; 

y.t. (to state) bayanawul^ lal, lawdaC wayaL 

station — strange. 243 

gtation, n. (place) dza'e, manzil, (degree) darja'h, martab-* 

a*h ; v.t. k'^he-nawul, walarawul. 
8tay, y.i. astedal, aosedal, patedal, pato-kedal ; (stop, pre-i 

vent) Y.t. man'a'h ka., hitalawul. 
gteal, Y.t. ghlsi ka. 
eteaUhf n. g^alaey-tob, put-walaej. 
etee^ySi,. zawar, IVar, uchat, (liigli) hask, (a steep), Twai*-* 

a'h, kamar. 
steep (soak), y.t. ^ushtawul, lundawul. 
step, n. pal, kadam, yun, gam. 
sterile, see barren, 
stem, a. zijz, triw, but, sut but. 
stick, y.i. n'^hatal, n'shaledal ; y.t. (pierce), tetsal, tsekjbtal, 

sughamil. (to stick in, plant) n'jatal, n'jzatal. 
stiff, a. ting, Idak, lak, ne g h. zijz, (erect) Tway. 
stiU, a. band, bey-harakat, puta'h khula'h. 
stir, v.t. lai'al, (mix) rakawul, gadawul. 
stomach, n. geda'h, kheta'h, aojzraey, (crop) jajura'h, 

stone, n. karnaey, (a monolith) tejza'h, (of fruit) ha4 

zaraey ; y.t. paJi kamo wishtal, sangsar ka. 
stony, a. kamedz, karnaey, (ground) tara|:a*li, karnedza'h 

z'maka'h, sang-lakh. 
stoop, y.i. tit^^^; '^•t* (bend or stoop the 'head) sar fit- 

stop, y.i. tarn ke., (continue) aosedal, patedal, pato ke., 

(halt) wudredal, walayedal ; y.t. (impede) arawul, kari- 

yabawul ; y.i. n'iShatal, n'iShaledal, (prevent) hitaledal ; 

v.t. (delay) dzancjiawtil, (discontinue) tark ka., (rest) 

aram mwaJ. 
store, n. ambar, ganj, (house) ambar Uiana'h, khizana'h ; 

v.t. tolawnl, jam'a'h ka. 
stores, n. asbab, saman, to^ha'h, tsowraey, za^ira'h. 
storm, n. sila'i, tiif an ; v.t. (assault) ^amla'h ka. 
stout, a. tsorb, |^at, katseh, khris, gagar, napar, mazbut, 
stra^^le, y.i. ^waraey Uiwaraey t'lal or gcerzedal. 
straight, a. sam, sat, tsak. 
strange^ a. beganah, pradaey. 

16 ' 

244 sbrcdagem — Bumman, 

itratagem, n. lam^^ara'!, hHa'h, fareb. 

straWf n. ]^ass, ^assarnaej, (chopped or broken) bus. 

stray^ a. wuruk, wuruk-shawaej, ^ushaej ; v.i. immk ke. 

or wurukedal, ^ushaej gserzedal. 
itream, n. (gush of water) dara'h, shuturaka'h, (riytQet) 

laihtaej, wala'h ; y.t. dara'h wahal, shuturakah wahaL 
atrength, n. bram, zor, kiiwat. 
itrengtJien, v.t. zor war-kawul, mazbut ka. klakawoly (as a 

fortress) tingawuL 
gtriet, a. sa^t, Xing, klak, zorawar. 
itrife, n. jang, steza'h, mirtsi, jagra'h. 
strikey y.t. wahal, t^^^wul. 
stri^, v.i. barbandedal ; v.t. barbandawul. 
strive, v.t. ko^hi^h ka. mihnat ka. 
strohef guzar, war, waraey, (at play) daw ; v.t. (make or 

deliver) waraej ka., gugar ka. 
stubborn, a. takarnaej, jah, ^pul-sar, sar-kai§li, bo4. 
sttimble, v.i. drabal, budii or skandari or kangas ^wapal. 
stupid, a. palwan4, kaw-dan, na-poh. 
sturdy, see stout, 

svhdue, v.t. landey ka., ghamawul, magblub ka. 
subject (see svhdue), (a subject), n. ra'ijat, zer-dast, tabi'- 

dar, tabin. 
submit, v.t. hukm manal, farman w'^al, farman-bordari 

ka., ita*at ka. 
subordinate, a. k'sbatab, kashar. 
subsistence, n. rozi, rizk, roz-gar, gugran. 
success, n. baraej, gat ah, gafana'h, wserana'h, baU^t. 
succour, see aid, 
such, v.t. (breast or teats) rawdal, (imbibe) chupal, 

z'bei^hal, jiskawul, ts'^hal. 
suckle, v.t. taey war-kawul. 
suffer,, v.t. petgal, z*g^amal, (in comp,) w*yal, ^Lwajral, 

k'^al ; v.i. sahedal, sahal ; v.t. (allow) pre-jg'dal, pre- 

jShodal, ijazat or hukm or ru^^at war-kawul. 
suitable, a. pirzo, perzo, jarzan, muna^ib, wajib, lihsBh. 
summit, n. peza'h, tsuka'h, selma'h, sar. 
eumm>on, v.t. balal, ra-balal, talab ka. 

sunr^talh. 246 

iwiy n. n'mar, n'war, (rise) n'mar ^atah or hhataiia'h» 

(set) n'mar prewatah or pre-watana'h. 
Muperior, a. (greater) lo-e, ghat:, star, (age or rank) mashar, 

(preferred) ^warah, (upper) bar, pasanaey, portanaey. 
mipplicationf n. minnat, du'a. 
support f n. palana'h, n'mandzana'li, parwarish, (preserve) 

satal, jzghoral. (assist) marasta'li ka., pushti ka. 
supporter, n. palunkaej, jzghoraey. satandoaey, satunkaey. 
mippoae, y.i. pohedal ; v.t. gamal, angeral. 
surprise, v.i. na-tsapah pre-watal. 
swrrov/ndy v.t. chaperah niwal, isarawul, hisarawul (corrup. 

of Ib^^ar), (by men — post men around) cliaper dzan ^.zan 

survive, v.i. jzwandaey ke., jzwandaey pato ke., pa'edal ; 

Y.t. zist ka. 
suspect, y.t. shakh ka. or ra-w'ral, guman ka. 
sustenance, n. ^wa^ak, ts'i^hah ^wa|:ah, rod. 
Bwallow, Y.t. n'g^ardal, terawul. 
swear, y.t. ]k.asam khwa|:al, saugand j^wa^ral, (to administer 

an oath) l^am, etc., war-kawul. 
sweat, n. Unwala'h ; y.i. U^wala'h or khwaley ka. 
stoe&p, y.t. jarii ka. 
sweet, a. U^oj^; (become) y.i. ^ojzedal; (make) y.t. 

surift, a. gai;undaey, jalt, tez. 
swell, y.i. parsedal, pun^edal. 
smm, y.t. lanbo wahal. 
sword, n. tura'h, tegh. 
swordsman, n. turzan, tur-yalaey. 


tail, n. lam, laka'i. 

iaike, y.t. a^istal, niwal, (carry) V^al, yosal, (lead) botlal, 

biwal, (out) kajzal, k'shal, (o£E) basal, yastad. 
t<M, n. wayana'h, wayaey, w'rasha'h, kh^bara'h; y.t. 

wayali khabarey ka. 

046 taUr-IMck. 

idU, a. (in stature), dang, I'war, (high) hask, achat, njsd. 
tary n. ^randza^'ah, chu^el* 

target, n. naiSha'h, mu^a'h, kuhara'h, (shield) spar. 
taste, n. (flavour) kbwand, maza'h, tsaJdndan, to^ka'h ; y.t. 

Uiwand a^istal or ka., tsakal, (give savour) ^vrand or 

maza'h wahal or laral, tsakindan wahal. 
tax, n. baj, ^iraj, saw, mah^ul. 
teach, v.t. I'walawul, sabak war-kawul, ^howal, amok^tah 

ka., t'alim ka. 
teacher, n. ustad, mu'aUim, aU^iind. 
tea/r, v.i. tsiredal, shledal, Vraredal ; v.t. tsiral, Vraraimli 

shlawul, (out) basal, kajzal, jastal. 
tear, n. aoi^ha'h, (tears) ao^hej, (tearful ejes) aoiihajiej 
{ stargej; v., v.i. (shed tears), ao^ej toejedal. 
teat, n. taej. 

tell, v.t. wajal, bayanawul, ^howul, ^abar ka. 
temper, n. ^o-e, lo^haey, ^a^lat, tab', tab'ijat, (of metals) 

dam, ab. 
tempest, see etorm. 

tend, v.t. timar ka., Miidmat ka., (sheep) shpam ka. 
tent, n. dera'h, ^aima'h, (hair tent of the pastoral tribes) 

kijzda'i, (rope) mazaej, mandara'h, maranda'h. 
terrible, a. haul-nak, khof-nak, haibat-nak. 
terrify, v.t. tarhawul, da^awul, dhalawul, werawul, haibat 

wahal or ka. 
terrified, a. haibat- wahalaej, tarhawulaej, werawulaey, tar* 

terror, n. tor, wera'h, tara'h, tarhara'h, haibat, Hiof. 
test, v.t. azmajil, azmojal, azmiidah ka., azmai^ht ka. 
testify, v.t. gawahi lal or lawdal, or gawalil ada ka., shahidi 

lal or lawdal. 
tJumk, n. shukrana'h or shukr pah dza'e ra-w'ral, shukr 

guzaral, shukr ka. 
thatch, n. tsapar, chat. 

thaw, n. wi-li-walaey ; v.L wi-li ke ; v.t. wi-li ka. 
iheft, n. ghla. 
ihicJc, a. gh&X, (bulkv)'per, IVay, (inspissated) tmg, (dense, 

as trees, hair, etc.) tat, tal, gam, (as the voice) 4a4* 

thief — time. 247 

ihief^ n. g^al, (expert) chakah ghal. 

ihighf n. w'riin, patun, (including leg and foot) ^hanga'h. 

thin^ a. (lean) trandz, dangar, H^war, (scanty) rangaey, 

(delicate) naraej, barik, mahin. 
ihingy n. tsiz, kalaey, shai. 
ihinle, y.i. pohedal; y.t. angeral, gamal, ande^hna'h, 

goman, ^ijal or fikr ka. 
ihirttf n. tanda'h, tajzaej-walaej ; y.i. (become thirsty) 

tajzaej ke. 
thirstyy a. tajzaej. 
thorn, n. aghzaej, (bush) karkama'h, (thorns, brambles) 

S^nej, (thorny tree) aghzana'h wana'h. 
thought, n. ande^hna'h, guman, poha'h, ^iyal, fikr. 
thrash, y.t. wahal, t^kawul, kufal, (com) gnobal ka. 
thread, n. spamsa'i, mazaey ; y.t. pew-dal, pe-yal. 
threaten, y.t. ^a-rawul, tarhawul. 
throat, n. mara'i, mar-kanda'i, gharaey^ gharandaey, 

(fauces) s^ara'h, (larynx) stunaey, (tonsil) da jzabey 

LajT or ha4. 
throw, y.t. wishtal, achawul, lawastal, (away) ghurzawnl, 

to-yowul, (down) pre-wastal, pre-yastai. 
thrust, y.t. (into) manual, k'^he-yastal, |k*^he-basal, t§e- 

^aly nanayastal, (push aside) t6yl wahal. 
thumb, n. ^afa'h guta'h. 
thump, y.t. suk wahal, dabawul. 
thunder, n. talanda'h, tamah, (bolt) tandar, %2^dih; y.i 

tidings, n. ^abar, (good) sar, zeraey, (a bearer of) zerah- 

tie, n. tarun, tarna'i ; y.t. ta^al, lagawul. 
tight, a. ting, ting, ra-k'^halaey, tang, (yery tight) tap tingi 

(fitting) chust. 
tighten, y.t. ting taral or ka., ra-k*^hal, klakawul. 
tCll, y.t. karal. See plough, 
tillage, karana'h, kar, zamln-dari. 
tim^e, n. wakt, awan, daur, zamana'h, (age) 'umr, kal; 

(season) mausim, miida'h, naubat, (turn, spell) t^ng, 

war, pla, d^^ guzar, her, (leisure) f urfat, waz-gar-tob. 

M8 tire — tramport. 

Ure^ y.i. Btapaej ke. ;*v.t. stairaej ka. 

Uredi a. staraej, stoman. 

ioBf n. da pihej guta'h. 

toU^ y.t. mihnat ka., ko^hi^h ka., jahd ka., chopa^ wahaL 

toJlf n. mah^ul, chunga'i. 

ton^e, n. jzaba'h, (long-tongued) jzaba'h-war, (on the 

tip of) da jzabej pah sar. 
toolf n. kalaej, alat. 
iooth, n. g^ash, (less) kandas, kapshap, (ache) ghaAh- 

iop, n. peza'h, tselma'h, tsuka'h, sar. 
ioTcht n. (of pine wood slip) shunta'i. 
torment, see torture, 
torrent, n. niz, ni-uz, sail-ab. 
torture, n. 'azab ; y.t. azab ka. 

to88, y.i. ghurzedal ; y.t. ghurzawuly achawul, lawastal. 
total, n. tol, wa^ah, tol-tal, drast. 
touch, y.i. b'losedaJ; y.t. b'lodal, las achawul, las war- 

w'fal, lams ka., (the feelings) lamsawul. 
tough, a. klak, pata^i, sakbt. 
tower, n. burj. 
town, n. ^hahr, Ifia^ba'h. 
track or trace, n. man4, darak, belga'h, raksh, na^hali, 

(way) lar ; y.t. mundal, belga'h basal, latawul. 
tract (of country), n. hewad, z'maka'h, mulk, (leyel) sama'h. 
trade, n. tijarat, saudagari, sauda, pesha'h, kasb, kar, war- 

k'lrah ra-k'^'ah. 
tradesman, kasb-gar, peshah-gar. 
trader, n. tajir, saudagar, paranchah. 
train, y.t. amo^tah ka., taiyarawul, riijzdawul, (following) 

BwarH, jalab, hashmat. 
tramjple, y.t. pa'emal ka., latarawul, ghobal ka., ghoey- 

man 4 or ghwaey-mand ka. 
tranquilize, y.t. tatob ka., sapawul, aramawul, aram war- 

kawul, pakbula ka., l^ararawul. 
transfer, y.t. paslawul, sparal, taslim ka. 
transport, y.t. (animate things), botlal, biwal, (inaiumate) 
. Vral, yosal, (banish) jala-watan ka. 

travel — tvm. 249 

ira/oelf y.t. safax ka. ; y.i. (to set out on) pah safar t'lal. 

iraveUer, n. musafir. 

treachery, n. ^ayanat. 

tread, y.t. p^hey jz'dal, (under foot) pa'e-mal ka., lata^al, 

(out com) ^obal ; y.i. (as birds) ^atal. 
treoion, see rebellion, 
treaiy, n. ta^a'h, tapana'h, tapin. 'ahd, ^ulha'h, (enter into) 

*ahd ka., tapun ka., ^ul^a'h ka., (articles of) 'ahd nam- 

a'h, ^ul^a'h nama'h. 
tree, n. wana'h. 

tremble, y.i. rejzedal, larzedal, pa^kedal, rapedal. 
trial, n. (test) azma'ii^ht, imti^an, (of a case) tajwiz. 
tribe, n. V^'Um, iQus, firka'h, (section of a) kbel. 
trick, n. ghulat. na^ra'h, fareb, (habit) ^o-e. 
trivmph, n, wi-a^rana'h, baraey ; y.t. baraey mundal, wi- 

troop, see crowd, 
trot, n. 4achko, ^a^chka'h, England ; y.i. pah 4a^hko or pah 

^ugWd t'lal. 
trovile, n. randz, dzawr, talwasa'h azar, rabap , mihnat, dil« 

azari ; y.t. randzawul, dzawrawul, rab^awal, azar rasa- 

trothgh, n. nawa'h, (small) nawa'h-gal, piil, tamao. 
trudge, y.i. taparedal. 
true, a. riiihtinaey, rii^htiinaey, riihti'a, rast, (genuine) 

trust, n. sah-wisa'h, bawar, ^bal, Ttibar, (credit) nasia'h, 

(hope) umed, tawakkul, (charge) ^aw^'h. 
trusty, a. i'tibari, mu'tabar, wafa-dar. 
truth, n. rii^hti'a, rasti. 
try, y.t. azmoyal, azmayil, azmai^ht ka., was ka., ko^hi^h 

ka., (a suit) 'adalat ka., tajwiz ka. 
tumuU, n. balwa, jzwa^, zwajz, tirap, shar, ghulghula*h. 
turhan, n. dastar, (small) patkaey, (a doth tied oyer the 

turban and under the chin) man^us. 
turn, n. (reyolution) tsarkh, daur, (time, occasion) pla, war, 

d^aly he^) guzar, (twist) pech, marwat, wal, (also, bend) 

tao, (bend) kajz-lech, kal-kfich; y.i. awuihtal, tifar]^- 

250 imst — unfold. 

edal, churledal, gserzedal, ^a^redal, stunedal, (back) 
jar-watal, (become, grow, etc.) sh'wal, kedal; ▼.t. 
tsar^awul, cburlawtQ, gaerzawul, ^arawul, (back) 
stunawul, jar-jastal, (out) shafal, (from) prejzdal, tark 
ka., (over) apawul. 

twist (bend)»n. pecli, tao, wal, marwat; v.i. tawedal, kjing- 
edal; v.t. pech j^wa^al, t^awul, wal ka., wal kbwaral, 
kpngawul, wal ka., (spin) gt^htal, gharawuly ghaj^ 

tyranny f n. zulm, jafa, jawr, zor, jabr. 

tyrannize, v.t. zulm, jafa, etc., ka. 

tyrant, n. zalim, jafa-kar. 


ugly, a. triw-ma^aej, bad-shakl, bad-furat. 

unable, a. na-tawan. 

unanimity, n. jorii^ht, rogha*hy jek-dili, jek-jihati, ittafa^. 

unbecoming, a. na-la-ik, na-mtma^ib, na-kardaej. 

unbeliever, n. bey-din, kafir. 

uncertain, a. na-jakin. 

uncle, n. (paternal) trah, (maternal) nu-e. 

unclean, a. ^iran, palid, na-pak, na-wulaej. 

unconcerned, a. bej-parwa, bej-|^am. 

uncultivated, a. shar, wijar. 

und&rgo, v.t. z'ghamal, sahedal, Vpal. 

understand, v.i. pohedal. 

understanding, n. poha'h, fahm, 'akl. 

undo, Y.t. pra-natal, spa^rdal, ^warawul. 

undress, jamej or zaf^ukaej basal or jastaL 

unemployed, a. a-fal, bej-kar, waz-gar. 

uneven, a. Twair, jzawar, tubki tubki, kandej kawdarej, 

unfit, a. na-]^abil, na-la'ik, na-muna^ib. 
unfold, Y.i. Uwaredal, ^waredal, fukedal, (manifest) 

tsargandedal; y.t. pra-natal, spa^dal, (manifest) tsar- 

gandawul, i^b'karah ka. 

unfortunaie — utter. 251 

unforttmatef a. tor-ba^t, asi, afat walialaej, iia-t§ar, sham, 

bad-na^ib, na-mubarak, bej-nafib. 
unfruitful, a. shan^. 
ungrateful^ a. na-shukr, na-^akk-sliixias. 
unhappy, a. zabir, ^am-jan, maliil. 
uninhabited, a. gh air-abad. wairan. 
union, n. (accord) ittafa^, jofii^ht, rogha*hy paiwastun, 

tapin, tarana'h. 
unite, Y.t. paiwastah ka., taral, lagawiQ. 
universe, n. nafa'i, jahan, dunja. 
unjust, a. bej-in^af, na-ba^k, bey-dad, jafa-kar. 
unlawful, a. ^aram, na-rawa. 
unload, y.t. tashawul, bar kuzawul. 
unlucky, see unfortunate, 
unmarried, a. (man) na-wadah ka^aej, lawan^^ (female) 

na-wadah shawej. 
unripe, a. aom, umghalaiiy nimah-Uwa, nim-gafaej. 
unroll, y.i. Ubwaredal, ghwayedaly wi^edal ; v.t. pra-natal, 

spa^dal, ^warawiQ, etc. 
unsafe, a. ^atr-nak. 
untie, see unloose, 
upper, a. bar, pasanaej, portanaey. 
upright, a. (honest) iman-dar, ri^htunaej, riihtinaej, 

(erect) w'lap, jig, lak, negh. 
upset, Y.i. naskoredal, nairedal, pair-ma^ or paf-makhaej 

pre-watal ; v.t. naskorawul, narawul, ap awul. 
urge, y.t. tezal, zoral, (enjoin) takid ka., (stimulate) ajzi* 

jil, lamsawul. 
urgent, a. zarur. 
use, n. f a'ida*h, kar, (possession) ta^arruf ; y.t. pah kar 

ra-w'^al, ta^arruf ka. 
useless, a. puch, tash, na-kara, bej-f a'lda'h. 
usurp, y.t. pah jabr a^istal, pah zor dzan tah aU^istaL 
utter, a. bashpsqr,- nihajat ; y.t. (speak) wajal, lal, lawdal, 

(set agoing jari ka., chaJawul. 

2S2 vaeani — vioIenM. 


v<icantf a. tasli, ^usliaej. See empty, 

valianiy a. ma^anaej, tor-jalaej, z'^ah-war, bahadur. 

valley (between two mountains or ranges), dara'h. 

value^ n. ^imat» bai'a'h ; v.t. kimat or bai'a'h tapal. 

vanquish^ v.t. landaej ka., psBi: ka., matawul. 

vapour, n. la^a'h lugaey, lu, b'yas. 

vary, y.i. gserzedal, badaledal; v.t. awuihtal, gserzawul, 

vasaal, n. bum-sajab, fa^ir. Tbese terms are almost ex- 
clusively used by tbe tribes immediately nortb of 

vegetable, n. (in general) sabu, (culinary vegetables) aag, 

vein, n. rag, nabz {cor. nas), (open a) rag wabal. 

venerate, v.i. grohedal. 

vengea^nce, n. badal, intikam; v.t. badal akbistal, intil^am 

verdant, a. sbin, zargbiin. 

verdure, n. sbin-gaibti, sbin-walaey. 

verge, n. tsan^a'b, ja'i, morga'b, gbaya'h. 

vessel, n. (recipient) lo^baey, katwa'i. 

vex, v.t. payawul, tongreyil, tongawul, rab^awul. 

victim, n. jar, dzar, kurban. 

victory, n. baraey, w'yana'h, zafar. 

victuals, see food, 

view, n. mandara'b, katab, lidana*b, lidab, nazr, (inten- 
tion) matlab, niyat, g^araz ; v.t. lidal, katal, goraX nazr 
ka., (bave in view) matlab laral, niyat laral, ghara^ 
laral, (deem) gamal. 

vigilance, n. baidan, boiOiyari, ^abardaii. 

vUlage, n. kalaey, dib. 

villager, n. da kali sa^aey, dibkan. 

violence, n. jabr, jafa, zor, zulm, zabardasti, (inclemency) 
tundi saU^ti. 

virtue — watehftd. 253 

virtue^ n. ^e-gai*a']i, cUn-dari, neH, nekokari, (qualify) 

U^o-e, ^a^lat, jauhar, lo^kaey, ^ifat. 
visible^ a. autsar, bartser, tgargand, ^h'karah, zahir. 
voice, n. zwajz, jzagh. jzwajz, bang, awaz, tarana'h. 
volley, n. shilak; y.t. (pour in a) shilak war-kawul. 
vow, n. loya'h, wada'h, neta'h ; v.t. lop a'h ka., wada'h 

ka., neta'h tapal, j^o, (Bj thy head, I vow !) sta pah 

sar jzo. 


wages, n. talab, ma-wajib, mihnat, muzd. 

wagon, n. 'araba'h, ga^a'i. 

toail, see lamentation, 

waist, n. m'la, landa'h. 

wait, y.t. aosedal, patedal, ^azir aosedal, (attend) khidmat 

wake, Y.i. wishedal, patsedal, baidar ke. ; y.t. wishawul, 

pat§awul, baidar ka. 
wall, n. diwar, sadd. 
wander, y.i. ramedal, bey-lari ke. 
wanfd, n. ghoi^hty ^ajat, (poyertj) tangsi*a, tangsa'h, 

khwari ; y.i. ^waredal ; y.t. ghoshtaly ^ajat land, 

^wari k'l^hal. 
war, n. jang, kar-zar, (religious) jihad, |^aza. 
warlike, a. jangi, tur-yalaey. 
warm, a. tod, garm, (luke) taram, (somewhat) todukaey ; 

y.t. todawul, garm ka. 
warmth, n. tod-walaey, todul^'h, garmi. 
wa/m, see adm^onish. 
wash, y.t. w'lal, windzal, (for prayers) awdas or wazu ka., 

(one's self) lambal ; y.i. lambedal ; y.t. lambawul. 
waste, &, rang, shair. wijar, wairan, uja^r; n. shaira'h, mair- 

a'h, (misuse) talaf ; y.t. talaf ka., na-l>akk kba»rts ka. 
watch, n. paswan, ^oka'i-dar, pahrah-dar, kashak-chi, 

(oyer cultiyation) ka^haey, (house) tsoka'i, tai^a'h. 
watchful, a. hoshyar, baidar, ^abar-dar. 

254 vxUer — white. 

wateTf n. aobah, (carrier) mashH, sakao ; y.t. (cattle) aob- 

awul, lundawul, U^a^ob ka., tsakawul. 
watery, a. aoblan, lund, z'yam-nak, nam-nak. 
wave,n. ^apa'h, mauj. 
way, n. lar, (babit, etc.) togab, ^o-e, sban, dod, taur, 

waylay, y.t. lar mwal, put-gana'i ka., pab patsunl k'^bej 

wayward, a. ^tak, ^pul-sar, sar-ka^b. 
weak, a. za-if, (jjangar, na-tuw^an, kam-zor, kam-k:nwat, 

(unimportant) ^war, spuk» na-tsiz. 
wealth, n. daulat, dunja, mal, zar. 
wealthy, a. daulat-man, mal-dar, dunja-dar. 
weapon, n. drasta'b, wasla'b, y'ra^, batiyar. 
wear (clotbes), y.t. ag^ostal, aghustaly pab dzan acba- 

wul; y.i. (last) pa'edal, (abrade) suledal, (wear out) 

weary, a. staraej, stoman, baukab. 
wedge, n. sbpetaey, pa-na'b. 
weep, y.t. jzaral aoibey to-yedal ; y.t. (cause to) ao^bej 

weigh, y.t. tolawul, tol ka., talal, jokal. 
weight, n. driind-walaey, darab-nawaey, tol, jok, wazn, 

well, n. tsab, kubaey, spargba*b. (witb steps to go down) 

baba'i, (witb a Persian wbeel, at Pedbawar and in 

vicinity) arbat. 
we^l, a. ^bseb, jor, ro^, (bom) sawu, sabu. 
wet, a. ^usbt, lund, nau-an, nawan, z'yam-nak, nam-nak ; 

y.t. lundawul. 
wetness, or wet, n. nam, nau, z'yam, lund-walaey, l^usbt- 

wheat, n. ghanam. 

wheel, n. tsar^ ; y.i. cburledal, tsarkbedal, geerzedaL 
whet, y.t. tera'b ka., tez ka., (stone) belaw, barju, p'san. 
whisper, y.t. pas pasey ka. 
whi^, a. spin ; y.i. (turn) spinedal ; y.t. (make wbite) spin- 


whiteness — wither^ 255 

whitenessy n. spin-walaey, spin-ti'a. 

whhz, n. sajz, sagh ; v.t. sa^ or sagh ka. 

wicked, a. bad-kar, sharir, gunah-gar. 

wiclcedne88y n. bad-kan, gunah, badi. 

wide, a. (broad) plan, psorawar, sarahwar, (open, gaping) 

wit, wit, ching, (as a door) liri, (unconflned) arat, 
width, n. plan-walaey, sor, psor, arat-walaey, 'arz. 
widen, v.t. planawul, (open wide) chingawul, wit ka., (as a 

door) liri ka., (relax) aratawul. 
widow, n. knn^a'h, kun^a'h. 
widower, n. kun4 or kund. 
wife, n. artina'b, artina'b, t^bar, ^aram, merman, kor, 

(contemporary) been, (" feme covert ") mapo^ha*h, (hus- 
band's brother's) yor, (brother's) warandar, (son's) 

witd, a. dai^hti, dzangali, wal^shi, ^a^ra-i ; n. da^ht, $a^ra, 

maii*a'h, dzangal. 
witdemesB (see wild), n. bayaban, bedia, da^ht, ^ahra. 
will, n. ihwa^hi, U^atir, raza, marzi, (control) ^wak, t^km, 

i^tiyar, was. 
willing, a. ^wa^h, razi, hazir. 
win, v.t. gatal, w'fal, peer ka., (gain over) grohedaL 
wind, n. wo, bad,' hawa, (hot) paro, tod bad, (cold) sop 

bad, sula'i, (breath) sah, dam. 
wind, see tvrist 

winding, a. kojz-wojz, kajz-lech, wahlandaev. 
window, n. darbacha'h, daricha'h, kafka'i. 
wine, n. mai, sharab. 
wimiow, v.t. tsapawul, tsap wahal. 
winter, n. jzamaey, sapa'h. 
wijpe, v.t. muihal, saf ka. 

wisdom, n. poha'h, 'a^l, fahm, sha'ur, danish, dana'i. 
wise, a. pohand, dana, 'akil, hoi^hyar, (way) toga'h, shan, 

dod, rang. 
wish, n. ^osht, han4a'h, hatsa'h, arzu, irada'h; v.t. 

ghoshtal. han<}a'h, etc., laral. 
wither, v.i. m'^amedal, m'fawedal, kumai^edal; v.t. 

m'ramawul, etc. 

256 hffithitand — yam. 

withstand, v.t. hitalawal, a^wnl, dafa' ka., barabaii ba. 

witness, n. shahid, gawah. 

wolf, n. lewah, sharma^h. 

woman, n. ihadza'h, 'aiirata% zan. 

wonder, v.t. ta'jjub ka.; Y.L {lit become astonished) 

wood, n. largaey, (fire) balam, (brake, copse) jap. 
wool, n. wara'i, Qit down) pashm, (made of wool) wapnah, 

woolly, a. waran. 
word, n. ^abara'h, wajana'h, wajaej, bfz, (intelligence) 

work, n. kar, char, kasb, shughl, mi^nat, j^idmat; yX 

kar, etc. ka., k'ral, (man) kan-gar, kar-kawunkaej. 
world, see universe, 
worm, n. cbinjaey. 
worn, a. zor, (rubbed or frayed) suledalaey, (fatigaed, 

worn out) tap staraey. 
wound, n. parhar, za^m, zam, ^ujz, ^ujz ; v.t. wi.^]Tni 

ka., ghwutsawul, jzobalawul, ^ujzawul. 
wounded, a. parhar- jzalaey, ^ujz, ^ujz-mand, ghwntSy 

jzobal, zal^mi, (badly) zam-zamolaey. 
wrap, v.t. n'ghaihtal, n*gharal. 
wretched, a. khwar, tarah, tabah, bey-kas. 
wretchedness, n. l^wari, tabah-i, tor-bakhti. 
wring, v.t. nichorawul. 
wrist, n. marwand. 

write, v.t. kajgal, k'shal, Uatt kMhal, tahrir ka. 
writing, n. ^att, tahrir. 
wrong, a. haram, na-hakk, na-rast, na-rawa, na-la-i|^, na- 

muna^ib ; n. bey-in^afi, zulm, jabr, jafa, zarar, niik^an, 

(incorrect) ghalat, Uiata ; v.t. zulm, etc. ka., zarar 

avnil, etc. 
wry, a. tsor, kojs, kring. 


yard, n. gaz, (enclosure) hadera'h, gholaey. 
yam, n. sparnsaey. 

year — zealous. 245 

year, n. kal, (this) sajz or sajznaej or sakh tal, (next) 

ra't'lunaej kal, maU^aej kal, (last) paros or paro-sajz 

yearn, v.t. pa^sedal, pirzawa'h ka. 
yeast, n. j^amira'h, tomna'li. 
yield, v.t. (produce, bring in) ra-w'yal, war-kawul, paida 

ka., (consent) manal, n^ghutal. n'^watal, (consign) 

paslawul, sparal. 
yoke, n. jngh. 
young, a. dzwan, halak. 
youth, n. dzwani, zalnu-tob, lialak-walaej, (a youth) dzwan, 

zalmaej, halak. 


zeal, n. ghairaty tapak, gharmi, jan-fishani. 
zealous, a. ghairat-mandy tez, sar-garm. 

The words in this vocabulary have been taken 
from my English-Pu^hto Dictionary now preparing for 
the Press. 





Recently published, which may be obtained of 


"We cannot but regard the contributions of Captain 
Ravertj to the study of Asiatic literature as eminently 
useful and valuable. The author has now devoted many 
years of menta^l toil to the* task he has undertaken, having 
commenced when a very young man in 1853 ; and the pre- 
faces and introductions to the Dictionary and G-rammar were 
composed in a solitary military station in India. Never- 
theless, Captain Eaverty has in these introductory treatises 
presented much curious matter on the origin, language, 
and literature of the Afghans, which may be read with 
interest even by those who do not contemplate making a 
study of the Puihto tongue."—" Daily News," April, 1864. 

" M. le capitaine Raverty, s'est surtout appliqu^, d'une 
mani^re toute sp^ciale, k T^tude du puschtu ou langue 
des Af gans, qui n'^tait gu^re connue avant lui que par les 
travaux de M. B. Dom, de Saint-Petersbourg ; mais qui, 
par ceux de M. le cap. Raverty, est mise tout a fait en 
lumifere et peut etre ^tudi^e d^sormais aussi facilement que 
les laugues orientales pour lesquelles abondent les res- 
sources de r Erudition europ^enne. . . . Les ouvrages 
de M. Raverty sur la langue puschtu off rent un ensemble qui 
permet d'apprendre la langue sans avoir recours k d'autres 
livres que les siens." — " Journal Asiatique," 1862. 


In One Vol., Imp. 8to., pp. xxxvi. and 1166, strongly and liand- 

somelj bound. Price £3 3«. 





" He has shown an unwearied patience in collecting and 
expounding the whole word-treasure of the language. 
There are very few words that are in use in writing and 
good conversation which have escaped the industrious 
collector. Besides the pure Afghan vocabulary, he has 
also inserted the Arabic and Persian idioms, <fec., which 
are so prevalent in this language.'' — Dr. Sprenger, 1862. 

"This is hardly the place for reviewing a Pooshtoo 
Dictionary, further than to mention that it is beautifully 
printed, full without being too explanatory, and has re- 
ceived the approval of competent scholars. . . . He 
has a claim to be justly congratulated, in the phrase of 
Dr. Dorn, on having * executed a monumental work ' ; or, 
to use his own modest words, on having * rescued from 
oblivion, and thrown considerable light upon, an ancient 
and unique language, which has not hitherto received the 
attention it deserves from Oriental scholars.* " — " Scots- 
man," Feb. 1866. 

" There had not been above two attempts at Afghan 
vocabularies before Captain Eaverty's dictionary appeared 
, . . From our ignorance of the Pushto tongue, we 
are, of course, entirely disqualified from speaking of the 
merits of Captain Eaverty's works, except that they 
appear to be the results of great study, elaborate research, 
patient toil, and untiring industry . . . Dr. Dorn, in 
particular, speaks of his dictionary in terms of the highest 
eulogy, describing it as a monumental work, which 
scarcely needs addition, and with the aid of which one 
may read and understand any Afghan writer.*' — "London 
Review,** June, 1864. 

"A peculiar feature of the work, which we notice at the 

first glance, is, that under every infinitive are given, the 
third persons masculine singular of the present, past, and 
future tenses, the imperative mood, the active and past 
participles, and the verbal noun. This is to obviate the 
greatest difficulty in the path of the student — the some- 
what complex nature and the irregularity of the verbs in 
many instances. The slight differences of pronunciation 
of the Eastern and Western Afghan tribes are also given, 
together with the plural form of each noun, and the class 
or declension to which it belongs, as arranged in his 
Grammar of the language. This^ would not have been 
necessary in the Dictionary of a language already known 
to the world ; but being, as it is in reality, a language 
now, so to say, for the first time brought to light, it 
greatly smoothes the path of the learner, and considerably 
enhances its practical value." — "Naval and Military 
Gazette," June, 1864. 


Uniform with the above, One Vol., pp. 416. Frioe £2 2s. 




" The * Gulshan-i-Roh,' or Text-book, is a very useful 
complement to the above-mentioned works. The texts, 
both poetical and prose, are well chosen, and are printed 
correctly ; so that in any future examination of students 
of PuiShto, they will prove to be of superior use. Who- 
ever will, in future, have to teach the Afghan language, 
will most certainly take the ' Gulshan-i-Eoh ' for his 
guide-book, and it will be an excellent one." — ^Dr. Dom, 
Feb. 1862. 

"Captain Raverty's other works in the Pushto lan- 
guage comprise a complete Grammar (which has gone 
through a second edition), a large selection of prose and 
poetry, called the * Gulshan-i-Boh ' (which is the text-book 
in the examinations in the Panjab), and his English trans- 
lation of Afghan poetry Q The Poetry of the Afghans ') 


will enable the student to acqtiire a thorough knowledge 
of the Afghan language without being obliged to have 
recourse to any other books ; indeed, they are the sole 
implements to pioneer the way." — " Naval and Military 
Gazette," June, 1864 

" Le Gulschan-Eoh " le Jardin de Roh," c'est-k-dire de 
I'Af gauistan ou plut6t de la partie montagneuse du pays 
d'oil est tir^ le nom de Eohillas, offre un choix consider- 
able de fragments des meilleurs ^crivains afgans en prose 
et en vers." — " Journal Asiatique," 1862. 


In One Vol., pp. 265, nniform with the above. Price £1 la. 




" A grammar of the Afghan language was, strange to 
say, a complete desideratum until the year 1855, so that 
no English of&cer before that time had any opportunity of 
learning the rudiments of the tongue. Previous to the 
breaking out of the Afghan war, more than twenty years 
ago, the Emperor of Russia had appointed a professor of 
Pu^hto (the language of Afghanistan) at St. Petersburg, 
in which capital all young diplomatists were made to pass 
examinations in the Roh dialect. Notwithstanding this 
example on the part of the Russian Government, nothing 
was done by our country in the way of assisting officers 
and plenipotentiaries in India in acquiring the Afghan 
language; and even when employed on missions of the 
greatest importance, they had to depend entirely on the 
honesty of interpreters for correct iiiormation." — "Lon- 
don Review," June, 1864. 

" It will hardly be believed that before the year 1857 
there was no grammar to be had in England or in TTirlifl 
from which an English officer might acquire the rudiments 
of the language of Afghanistan. Nor can it be too often 
repeated that, even before the beginning of the Afghan 
wars, the Russian Government had appointed a Professor 


of Pushto, the language of the Afghans, at St. Peters- 
burg. There, in the northern capital of Eussia, an 
Afghan grammar and reading-book was published bj 
Professor Dom, at the expense of the Emperor's Govern- 
ment, before our Government even knew that the Afghans 
had a language of their own. There, at St. Petersburg, 
young officers and diplomatists had to pass examinations 
in the dialect of the warlike mountaineers of Eoh, while 
our generals and ambassadors, employed on missions of 
the highest importance, in the very heart of that country, 
had to depend for information on the honesty of inter- 
preters. Afghan chiefs were able to talk treason in 
Pushto before the noses of our generals, while assuring 
them of their fidelity in high-flown strains of Persian 
eloquence . . . We claim for Captain Eaverty public 
support, and we are glad indeed to see that his long and 
very valuable and laborious undertaking has already re- 
ceived an amount of encouragement which argues well for 
the future success of a work which is to all intents and 

Purposes national." — "Army and Navy Q«»zette," June, 

" The Grammar of Lieutenant Eaverty, which is suffi- 
ciently elaborate, and in which the rules are supported by 
copious and well-chosen extracts from classical (Pushto 
authors, will be gladly hailed by every linguist." — 
" Athenaeum," August, 1856. 

" The first edition, which was printed at Calcutta in 
1855, has now been followed by a second edition, which 
has had the benefit of the author's careful corrections, 
and will probably continue the standard Grammar of tliis 
interesting and important language for many years to come. 

. . . Of the practical importance of an Afghan Gram- 
mar we need not waste any words." — " Saturday Eeview," 
Nov. 1860. 

" M. Eaverty explique la formation de la langue 
et entre dans des details curieux sur sa littdrature. II 
aborde enfin les regies de la grammaire d'apris la nomen- 
clature arabe, et il appuie tou jours les regies qu41 donne 
d'exemples bien choisis et empruntes aux meilleurs ^cri- 
yains en prose et en vers." — " Journal Asiatique," 1862. 

" When on my last travels in Central Asia, I often con- 
sulted, at Hirat, at Sabzdwar, etc. etc., the Sidars and 
Moolahs as to the correctness of the phrases and examples 
cited by the Author, in order to prove the rules of his 
Gmmmar; and I was especially desirous to take their 
opinions on the way in which Captain Eaverty explains 
the arrangement and conjugations of the Pushto verbs, so 
difficult and complicated as they are to unravel ; and I 
am much pleased to repeat, that their opinions were very 
favourable to the conscientious and intelligent work of 
Captain Eaverty."— M. N. de Khanikoff, Feb. 1862. 

New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo., pp. 380. Price 14». 




Translated into English from the original Pus'hto, with Notices of the 

different Authors^ and remarks on 


" The volume is of undeniable interest, and its execu- 
tion must have been most laborious and difficult. Quaint 
wisdom, reminding the reader of the * Proverbs ' (Solo- 
mon's, not Tupper's), and fanciful imagery used to illus- 
trate * the old, old story,* told in every language that has 
ever been written or spoken, imagery which is sometimes 
beautiful, and sometimes ludicrous, are the principal cha- 
racteristics of the poems." — "Morning Post," April, 1862. 

" Captain Raverty's new volume in truth opens a new 
source of enjoyment to all lovers of real poetry, and at 
the same time a rich field of inquiry for our philologists, 
and students of the varieties of our race, with their intel- 
lectual peculiarities." — " Daily News," March, 1862. 

" We feel much indebted to Captain Eaverty, who (un- 
like so many of his comrades, with; equal opportunities 


and imlimited command of time) has turned his leisure 
to such excellent account, and introduced us to a totally 
new field of literature, in which his own carefully-compiled 
grammar and dictionary form the best, almost the sole, 
implements to pioneer the way." — " The Parthenon,*' 1862. 

"Some among the poems remind the reader of the 
Book of Ecclesiastes, in their melancholy clear insight 
into the * vanity of vanities,' and the transitory nature of 
this world, and all it cont.iins. Others of the poems, even 
in their literal translation, are singularly beautiful; in 
their original melody and rhythm they must be captivat- 
ing."—" The AthensBum," August, 1862. 

" From these scanty passages some notion may be 
formed of the treasure of new poetical delights Captain 
Raverty has collected in this volume. He deserves the 
thanks of all classes of readers for opening up such a 
fresh vein of literary enjoyment; and we trust that his 
book may have as wide a circulation as its singular merits, 
and marked originality, eminently deserve." — "The Home 
News," June, 1862. 

" The volume which is now before us (* The Poetry of 
the Afghans ') is more likely to command general atten- 
tion than his previous works : it has attractive matter to 
the theologian as well as to the general reader. It is a 
remarkable circumstance that the productions of the 
Afghan poets are now for the first time rescued from 
oblivion, and the other dangers which beset manuscript 
literature, by being printed in an English translation." — 
" Christian Reformer," October, 1863. 

" As to the merit of their poetry, we cannot form an 
adequate notion. But the * Selection' which Captain 
Raverty has translated enables us to understand that, in 
many respects, it differs from the poetry of other Eastern 
nations, and to conclude that the subject eminently de- 
serves the attention of all those who believe that a nation's 
truest history is written in its literature." — " Westminster 
Review," July, 1862. 

"The highly meritorious labours of Captain H. G. 
Raverty, in a field so little cultivated as that of the Afghan 

language and literature, have met with due appreciation 
in a former number of this journal. They have gained 
him a European reputation amongst Oriental scholars, 
and the present volume, * Selections from the Poetry of 
the Afghans,* is a worthy successor to the' learned and 
elaborate works previously published." — " The Army and 
Navy Gazette," 1862. 

New and Cheaper Edition. Imp. 16mo. Price 5«. 



Used in Buildingf Engineering f and other useful Arts, 

" We would draw particular attention also to his valu- 
able little work, ' English and Hindustani Technical 
Terms, used in Building and other Useful Arts, and 
Scientific Manual of Words and Phrases in the Higher 
Branches of Knowledge.* This useful and long-required 
manual has been found extremely useful to, and has been 
highly commended by, officers of the Engineers and the 
Public Works Department throughout the three Presi- 
dencies of India, by the officials and working staff of the 
different railways, by interpreters of regiments, and the 
public generally. But it requires a special notice from us, 
since by the recent orders issued from the India Office and 
the Admiralty, naval officers, consequent upon the aboli- 
tion of the Indian navy, have great encouragement held 
out to them to study Hindustani, Persian, and Arabic ; 
and Captain Eaverty's little book is the only one that we 
know of which contains a long chapter on naval terms, 
which being chiefly Aj^bic and Persian words, are used 
alike in all three languages. It cannot fail, therefore, to 
be of great use to all naval officers serving in the Indian 
seas, as well as to their brothers of the army, since the 
work contains a key to the pronunciation, and all the 


words and plirases are given in Eoman as well as the Arabic 
and Persian character." — "Naval and Military Gazette," 

The Secretary of the Civil and Military Examination 
Committee, Bombay, reports on this work, " In reply the 
undersigned is directed to report that the work is doubt- 
less very useful."— Bombay Castle, 2nd August, 1859. 

Crown 8yo., toned paper. Price 12a. 


Translated into the Afghdn Language^ 


'^ His latest work, translated from James's ^sop into 
Pushto of a simple but pure kind, ought to become a 
useful reading-book for students in the earlier stages of 
their progress." — " The Home News," April, 1872. 

Preparing for Publication^ 



" A dictionaiT, English and Pushto, is now in prepara- 
tion by Major Kaverty, but it can only be brought out 
by the aid of the Q-ovemment, for the expense of printing 
such bookci, consisting, in a great measure, of foreign 

words reqxdring a special and peculiar type, is very large. 
Judging from previous experience, SMajor Eaverty has 
but little hope of Sir Charles Wood supporting his efforts, 
though the Russian Government, never forgetful of any- 
thing which may facilitate its designs on Central Asia, has 
taken a great many copies of the works already published ; 
for the young officers and diplomatists of St. Petersburg 
have for many years been obHged to pass examinations in 
Puihto. It would be extremely humiliating to this 
country if the English-Pu^hto Dictionary were to be 
brought out at the expense of that very Power which 
we have most to dread in the far East. Yet such might 
be. Up to the present time the gallant officer has had to 
thank the Bussian G-ovemment far more than that of his 
own country for support and countenance." — ^* Daily 
News," 2nd April, 1864.