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Thb publication of this volume has been long delayed: owing 
partly to the fact that for a considerable part of the time daring 
which he was writing his commentary Mr. Conington was 
engaged upon other works^ partly to the labour of seeing the 
sheets through the press^ partly to the lamentable event which 
devolved upon me the duty of bringing out the book. 

I must briefly explain what has been my share in the work. In 
1863 Mr. Conington first proposed to me that I should assist hiTn 
in the third volume of his edition of Virgil by writing the notes 
on the last three books of the Aeneid. I did not begin my part of 
the work until 1864; and on my finding that I could not keep 
pace with him^ we agreed ultimately that he should write the notes 
on Book 11^ and that I should confine myself to Books 10 and 12. 
The notes oir Books 7, 8, 9, and 11 are accordingly the work of 
Mr. Conington^ while for those on Books 10 and 12 I am mainly 
responsible. I say mainly^ for Mr. Conington made considerable 
additions to the notes which I had originally written on Book 10. 
He had not^ however^ read through the notes on more than about 
three hundred lines of Book 12 before his death. The rest of the 
notes on Book 12 have been looked through by Professor Munro^ to 
whose kindness I owe some valuable remarks^ some of which have 
been embodied in the notes^ and others printed among the Ad- 
denda. To the notes on Book III myself made a few additions^ 


besides writing the introduction. Two Essays on parts of Rib- 
beck's Prolegomena, originally published by Mr. Oonington in 
the Cambridge Journal of Philology, are printed at the end of 
the volume : which^ like the two preceding ones, has had the 
benefit of Mr. Long's revision throughout. 

Mr. Conington's death deprived a large circle of intimate friends 
of one whose powers of sympathy were never exhausted, and in 
whom succession after succession of students found a centre of 
encouragement for their talents and industry : while to philological 
study was lost a scholar whose gifts were of a singular and repre- 
sentative order, deserving the more to be dwelt upon as they are 
unlikely to be replaced. Mr. Oonington was, in a striking manner, 
a representative of that kind of criticism which is supported rather 
by acuteness of the linguistic and literary sense than by width of 
reading, and which rests on the study of the formal rather than of 
the real side of Philology. This is the side of scholarship which, 
as is well known, has been chiefly cultivated in England during the 
present century : it is in this direction that the main effort of our 
clasisical education has been made. Prom this point of view Mr. 
Oonington approached his favourite authors, the Greek tragedians 
and Virgil. Three points in his method of study deserve notice, 
all depending upon the general character of it which I have endea- 
voured to sketch. First, he turned his attention mainly to a few 
authors, with whose characteristics his great powers of memory and 
swifb critical insight readily gained him an astonishing familiarity. 
This comparative confinement of range, which would be dangerous 
to a student of inferior capacity, was in his case to a great extent 
prevented from exercising a narrowing influence by the singular 
energy which he brought to bear upon his chosen field, the energy 
of a mind endowed with first-rate ability and no mean creative 
power. Those who, like myself, enjoyed his intimacy, will recall 
the fruitful way in which a few first-class authors were employed 


in his hands for the illnatration of points of literature^ or the 
philosophy of lan^uage^ outside their immediate circle; the way 
in which his mind, readily seizing on principles of criticism, would 
draw with rare judgment and insight far-reaching and suggestive 
inferences ; the penetration with which he would seem at once to 
comprehend the range of a train of thinking, and the prudence 
with which he would point out its limits. 

Connected with this limitation of his studies to a few authors 
was the concentration of his energies upon the linguistic as 
opposed to the real side of their writings. The predominance in 
his mind of the literary and grammatical, as opposed to the antiqua- 
rian interest, might be considered almost an advantage when the 
object of his study was Virgil, a poet in whose thoughts, however 
stored his memory might be with antiquarian, historical, and philo- 
sophical reminiscences, there can hardly be a question that the 
literary interest occupied the chief place. Here Mr, Conington 
was assisted by the thoroughly poetical bent of a mind intimately 
familiar with the master-pieces of English literature. It will, I 
think, be generally acknowledged that the language of Virgil has 
received new and valuable explanation and illustration &om his 
commentary. To do over again for this century what Heyne did 
for the last, — ^to draw into focus all the light which contemporary 
study, critical, historical, antiquarian, and linguistic could throw 
upon the works of the most learned and allusive of ancient poets, 
— ^would require a combination of gifts not usually found in a 
single mind. 

Thirdly, though Mr. Conington had a singular talent for con- 
jectural emendation, as his work on the fragments of the Greek 
tragedians sufficiently shows, his interest lay, on the whole, rather 
in interpretation than in textual criticism. It may be that this 
bias was encouraged by labouring on an author like Virgil, whose 
text is comparatively well established, and the nature of whose 

viii PREFACE. 

writmg makes emendation in it extremely periloas, while it 
stimulates the utmost efforts of the interpreter. It was the very 
rare combination, which his friends so much admired in him, 
of subtle aad acute insight with a kind of Johnsonian sense and 
shrewdness, that made his remarks on any point connected with 
interpretation peculiarly valuable. On this ground his sight 
seemed clearest and his tread firmest* 

Mr. Gonington's name has so long enjoyed the recognition and 
deep respect of the public, that the separate testimony of a single 
friend might seem superfluous if not affected. But, in bringing 
out the work to which he devoted so much of his best labour, I 
have been unable to refrain from thus doing something towards 
paying my own tribute to the memory of one with the graces of 
whose character and intellectual gifts an intimate friendship of 
several years brought me into inner and continual "contact, fi^m 
whom I received my first introduction to the methods of classical 
study, and to whose sympathy, encouragement, and guidance I, in 
common with many others who take an interest in that study, am 
so deeply indebted. 


Ma/rch, 1871. 




The Seventh Book of the Aeneid introduces ns to the second half of the poem, the 
Iliad of war which succeeds the Odyssey of travel. Its subject is the landing of the 
Trojans in Latium> and the causes of the native rising which threatened to exterminate 
the new settlers. 

As in other cases, we know that there were other versions of the stoiy, substantially 
agreeing with Virgil's while circumstantially differing from it : as in other cases, we 
have no means of judging how far the differences in Virgil's account are attributable to 
his own fancy, how far to his having followed yet other accounts, now lost. The first 
event after the landing, the casual fnlfilment of the prophecy that the Trojans should 
eat their tables, seems in one form or other to have been a prominent part of the 
legend. Ancient authors related it variously, even Virgil's own account of the pro- 
phecy as ^ven here being inconsistent with that given in the Third Book : modem 
critics have seen a philosophical meaning in it, of which Virgil may safely be pro- 
nounced never to have dreamed, and with which therefore a commentator on Virgil 
has no occasion to trouble himself. The interview of Ilioneus with Latinus perhaps 
reminds us too much of his interview with Dido in the First Book : but the effect 
on Latinus' own mind, prepared as it had been by omens and predictions, is well and 
forcibly portrayed. The interposition of Juno and the introduction of AUecto are 
apparently original, and quite in the style of epic poetry. It is not impossible that 
Virgil's whole account of the relations between Aeneas and Latinus may be the result 
of his desire to harmonize the stories which he found current into a consistent poetical 
narrative. As we learn from Livy and others, one version spoke of the settlement of 
the Trojans as effected by conquest, another as brought about by agreement : Virgil 
may have imagined that the conception of an old king, swayed one way by the voice of 
oracles and by hospitable feeling, another by regard for his wife and his kinsman, and 
his subjects, presented a solution of the discrepancy. 

No attempt has been made to estimate the historical value of the catalogue with 
which Virgil, in imitation of Homer, introduces the story of the war,, An annotator 
on a poet is not obliged to be an historical critic : an annotator on the Aeneid may be 
pardoned for suspecting that when Virgil invokes the Muses to supplement the defects 
of human tradition, he simply asserts a poet's licence to deal with his materials in the 
way which he judges to be most poetically effective. 



Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Aeneia nutrix, 

Aetemam moriens famam^ Caieta^ dedisti j 

Et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen 

Hesperia in magna^ si qua est ea gloria^ signat. 

At pius exsequiis Aeneas rite solutis, ' 5 

Aggere conposito tumuli, postquam alta quierunt 

Aequora, tendit iter velis, portumque relinquit. 

Adspirant aurae in noetem, nee Candida cursus 

Luna negat, splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus. 

1 — 24.] 'Aeneas' nurse too dies und is nam." Wagn. seems right in his former 

horied in a place called after her Caieta. explanation ofthe words 'the name of a city 

Aeneas sails thence, coasting along the and promontory in Italy is your epitaph,' 

land of Circe.' ' Hesperia in magna' going rather closely 

1.] * Tu quoque,* i. e. hesides Misenus with * nomen.' Comp. 6. 776, ** Haec 

and Palinums. Cerda comp. the opening tum nomina erunt." "Hesperia in magna " 

of G. 3, *< Te quoque, magna Pales." 1. 569. ' Si qua est ea gloria ' as equiva- 

Heyne (Excursus 1) remarks that the lent to "quae magna est gloria," just as 

nurse was a personage of great consequence we might say ' if the glory of sepulture in 

in an ancient family, as appears in the a great country be more than a dream.' 

tragedians. Comp. 5. 645. The town Serv. and Don. think there is a reference 

and promontory of Caieta were on the to the insensibility of the dead, which is 

confines of Latinm and Campania, near not improbable, on comparison of 10. 828. 

Formiae; and at Formiae, according to 5.] Med. (originally) and Rom. have 

Livy 40. 2, there was a temple of Apollo ' Aeneas exsequiis,' just as in y. 2 Pal. and 

and Caieta. For the legend and ety- Gud. originally had " famam moriens." 

mology of the name see Heyne, Exc. 1, 6.] " Aggere tumuli " 5. 44. Comp. 3. 

Lewis vol. 1. pp. 326 foil. 'Litoribus 63 "Aggeritur tumulo tellus." For 

nostris ' is a vague or exa^erated ex- * quierunt' Serv. mentions a variant ' qui- 

pression. Caieta may be said to have erant,' supported by a grammarian whose 

conferred fame on a single spot on the name is variously given as Hebrus and 

Italian <5oast : the coast itself rather con- Acron Helenus. " Quierant aequora " 4. 

ferred fame on her. The poet speaks 523. The reference perhaps is, as Wagn. 

in his own person, as in 9. 446, though suggests, to the gales mentioned by Pali- 

the feeling here is more national tlmn nurus 6. 354 foil. 

personal. * Aeneia nutrix ' like ** Aeneia 7.] * Tendit iter velis' as " tendere iter 

puppis" 10. 156, « Aeneia hospitia" ib. pennis" 6. 240. Comp. 5. 28, "Flecte 

494. So the Homeric filri 'HpcucXfitlri, viam velis." Probably Virg. also meant 

3.] ' And thy renown still broods over his readers to think of " tendere vela." 

thy resting-place.' ' Sedem ' like " sedi- Pal. and Gud. have ' portus,' which is 

bus" 6. 328. 'Servat' seems to include perhaps the more usual expression in Yir^., 

the notions of haunting (G. 4. 459), being found in various places where only a 

guarding (6. 575), observing and preserv- single harbour seems to be meant (below 

ing in memory. Perhaps the last is the v. 22., 5. 813., 6. 366 ; besides many 

most prominent in the parallel 6. 507» others where the reference is uncertain) ; 

'* Nomen et arma locum servant." Ov. but we have had " Caietae portum " 6. 900. 

M. 14. 443 gives Caieta's epitaph. 8.] A &ir wind blows steadily into the 

4.] Med., Pftl., and Gud. a. m. p. have night (i. e. it does not fall at sunset and 

' sig^nant,' which Heins. preferred and at other times, 3. 568), and the moon 

Wagn. now adopts. But though ' signare rising bright enables them to hold on their 

nomen ' might possibly mean to impress a course. At other times they put in for the 

name, ' signat,' the reading of Hom. and night, 3. 508 foil. ' In noctem ' like 

most MSS., is far more natural, and the "Nilus in aestatem crescit" Lucr. 6. 712, 

confusion of sing, and pL by transcribers *'humor in lucem tremulo rarescit abaestu" 

is common enough. ' Signare' then will ib, 875, where it seems better to interpret 

mean to commemorate, as in 3. 287. ^^^t the words 'as summer comes on,' 'as day 

Germ. 28 has " nomen signet loci memo- come§on/ than with Mr. Munro "aestate," 


Proxuma Circaeae raduntur litora terrae, lo 

Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos 

Adsiduo resonat cantu^ tectisque superbis 

Urit odoratam noctuma in lumina cedrum^ 

Arguto tenuis percurrens pectine telas. 

Hine exaudiri gemitus iraeque leonum 15 

Vincla recusantum et sera sub noete rudentum, 

Saetigerique sues atque in praesepibus ursi 

Saevire, ae formae magnorum ululare luporum, ' 

''lace/' 'Nee cnrsus negat' ="et sinit transferred to Circe. Circe is the daughter 

carrere." ' Candida ' and * tremulo' seem of Helios and Perse, Od. 10. 188. 

to be from Enn. Melan. fr. 4. Yahlen, 12.] 'Besonat,' makes them rine; a 

" Lamine sic tremnlo terra et cava caemla use of ' resonare' for which no paraUel is 

candent/' as Macrob. Sat. 6. 4 remarks. quoted, though it is imitated by Sil. 14. 30. 

10.] ' Proxuma' after leaving Caieta. Hom. says of Circe's song 9dw€9oy U^&ww 
* Raduntur* by the ships in passing, 8. kfupifidfivKty. ' Adsiduo' expresses that she 
700. 'Circaeae terrae/ Circeii; which, is always plying her loom, so that the 
being on the miunland, is identified with Trojans see the light in her palace as they 
Homer's Uland of Circe (Od. 10. 135 foil.) pass it in the night, 
by supposing that the island had become 18.] 'Nocturna in lumina' : see onG. 1. 
joined to the mainland, by aUuvial de- 291., 2. 432. The parallel in Od. 5 is in 
posits or, as Varro ap. Serv. says, by the favour of supposing fire-light to be meant 
draining of marshes. Comp. Theophrast. here. "Noctuma ad lumina" occurs Lucr. 
Hist. Plant. 5. 9, Pliny 8. 6. 9 (quoted 6. 900, where again the reference is doubt- 
by Heyne). Yirg. himsdf calls it "Aeaeae ftil. Med. has "noctumo in lumine." 
insula Circae," 8. 886, where Helenus 14.] Nearly repeated from G. 1. 294, 
predicts that Aeneas should visit it. West- which is itself from Od. 5. 62, Itrrhv 
phal (Die R5mische Kampagne p. 59) says 4iroixo}i^vyi xp^fftln KtpKiti* t^aivtv, 
that the promontonr was certainly no island 15.] ' Exaudiri, reached the ears of the' 
even long before Homer's time, but that it Trojans. In Hom. the lions and wolves 
looks like an island from the sea at a are tamed by Circe's sorceries, so that they 
moderate distance fi'om the shore, where fawn upon comers, and are suffered to run 
the flat land of the marshes sinks below loose. The swine are men metamorphosed, 
the horizon. For the legends which con- and are kept in sties. There are no wild 
nected Ulysses with this part of Italy see boars or bears. " Hinc exaudiri gemitus " 
Lewis pp. 327 foil. Telegonus, son of 6. 557. ' Gemere' is used bv the Roman 
Ulysses and Circe, is the m^hical founder poets of the roaring of wild beasts, as by 
of Tusculum. The very name Caieta was Hor. Epod. 16. 51 of bears. Lucr. 3. 297 
said by some to have been originally A(^Ti} has "leonum Pectora qui fremitu rum- 
(oomp. Caulon, Anion, note on 3. 558), a punt plerumque gementes Nee capere 
name aaaodated' by Lycophron, v. 1273, iramm fluctus in pectore possunt, " which 
with the mooring of the Argo there, but Yirg. probably had in his mind, as he cer- 
more probably having to do with the Aeaean tainly had when writing v. 466 below. 
Circe, the sister of Aeetes of Colcfais. ' Gemitus iraeque ' is thus %v Hih Hvotv, as 

11.] ' Dives' refers to the splendour of Serv. takes it, though Gossrau wishes to 

her palace (' tectis superbis'). Comp. Od. (tistinguish between the tones of grief and 

10. 211, 348 foil. ' Lucos/ The palace of those of indignation. 

Circe in Homer is in a wood*(Od. 10. 210), 16.] ' Rudere * is another word used 

which may be called 'lucus/ as the abode loosely by Roman poets : see on G. 3. 

of a goddess. ' Inaccessos,' unapproach- 874. On ' sera sub nocte ' Serv. says, 

able, because daneerous on account of her with some imaginative feeling, "quasi 

sorceries. CHrce islieerd by the companions eo tempore quo natural! libertate uti con 


and it is Aer cave that is fttU of the scent of ' ursi/ Lucr. 5. 969 has " saetigeris subus/' 

burning cedar, an incident which Yirg. has 18.] There seems no reason with Stuns 

B % 


Qiios hominum ex facie dea saeva potentibus herbis 

Induerat Circe in voltus ac terga ferarum. 20 

Quae ne monstra pii paterentur talia Trees 

Delati in portus, neu litora dira subirent, 

Neptunus ventis impleyit vela secundis, 

Atque fugam dedit, et praeter vada fervida vexit. 

lamque rubescebat radiis mare, et aethere ab alto 25 
Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis : 
Cum venti posuere, omnisque repente resedit 
Flatus, et in lento luctantur marmore tonsae. 
Atque hie Aeneas ingentem ex aequore lucum 

ap. Wagn. to take ' saevire ' as a special 24.] ' Fugam ' need only mean a swifb 
expression for the roaring of hears. It passage : but in the present context it may 
implies, like 'gemitus iraeque/ that the be taken strictly. With* * fugam dare' 
animals were confined. Ribbcck rather comp. " cursus negare " above v. 8. ' Vada 
ingeniously suggests that ' saevire ' may fervida,' as Heyne remarks, is the breakers 
have been corrupted by * saetigeri,' having on the headland of Circeii. " Fervetque 
been originally * mugire.* Price on Ap- fretis spirantibus aequor " G. 1. 327. 
puleius Met. 4. p. 76, approved by Wagn., 25 - 36.] * In the morning they come to 
understands ' formae ' as denoting the size a river, sail up it, and land.' 
of the creatures : but it is more probably 25.] The poet of course purposely times 
to be explained by wha^ follows. They the voyage of Aeneas so as to bring him 
were men in the form of wolves. Comp. the to the promised land at dawn and amidst 
use of the word to denote unreal shapes 6. the pomp of sunrise. 
289,293. 'Saevire' and *ululare' arc equi- 26.] * Lutea,' KpoK6irfir\os II. 8. 1. 
valent to "saevientes" and "ululautes ex- " Roseis quadrigis " 6. 535. There is of 
audiri." course no difficulty in the juxtaposition of 
19.] " Hominis facies " 3. 426. " Po- the two colours : Hibbeck however reads 
tentibus herbis" 12. 402 (comp. ib. 396) ; * variis ' from * vaseis,' the first reading of 
here with * induerat,' not with * saeva.* one of his cursives, and Schrader and Bent- 
It is a translation of iirtl Kcucit (pdpfAouc' ley wished to read ' croceis ' from Ausonius' 
I8(tfic€v, Od. 10. 213. Periocha of II. 8, where this line is repeated. 
20.] " Indue voltus " has occurred 1. Comp. Ov. F. 4. 714 " Memnonis in roseis 
684. "Induit in florem" G. 1. 188. lutea mater equis." Serv. says "Multi 
The construction with ' ex ' may remind iungunt * inroseis,' i. e. non rubicundis." 
us of " exuere." * Voltus ac terga ' ex- 27.] * Posuere,' sc. " se," * fell.' Comp. 
presses briefly Hom.'s oi 9^ ffvwv fiey ^x^^ 1^* ^^^* " ^^™ Zephyri posuere." It is 
K€(paXas ipMjrfiy re rplxas t€ Koil tiffias, possible that the expression may be nau- 
Od. 10. 240. tical. Lucan 3. 523 has "posito Borea." 
21.] 'That the Trojans might not un- 28.] 'Lento,' sluggish. Pliny 36. 26, 
dergo this dire transformation.' So " mon- ** lentus amnis." The water, being quiet, 
stra perferimus" 3. 884 of suffering from seems to oppose a greater resistance, 
preternatural sounds. * Pii ' gives the though in 8, 89 the thought is just the 
reason of Neptune's solicitude. SoAnchises contrary. 'Luctantur tonsae.' It is of 
3. 265 prays " Di talem avertite casum Et course implied that the sails had been 
placidi servate pios," and Ilioneus, 1. struck. 'Tonsa' for an oar is as old as 
526, calls the Trojans "piogeneri." Ye- Ennius, in three of whose fragments it 
nus had however engaged the favour of occurs, A. 7. frr. 6, 7, 8. 
Neptune for the Trojans, 5. 779 foil. 29.] " Atque hie Aeneas " 6. 680. For 
* Quae' is followed by * talia' here and 10. 'atque ' comp. 6. 162., 10. 219, for * hie ' 
298 as " haec " G. 4. 86 by " tanta." 1. 728. "Prospiceres arce ex summa" 
22.] 'Delati ill portus' 3.219. 'Subire' 4.410. 'Lucum:' there is still a wood in 
of entering a haven 1. 400., 3. 292. the Isola Sacra, and a great forest, S^lva 
23.] Toiaiv 8* Xxiiivov oZpov Xu ixdcpyos di Ostia, extends south along the coast 
*Av6\\wy U. 1. 479. from the Stagno di Ostia. 



Prospicit. Hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoeno 30 

Verticibus rapidis et multa flavus arena 

In mare prorumpit. Variae cireumque supraque 

Adsuetae ripis volucres et fluminis alveo 

Aethera mulcebant cantu^ lueoque volabant. 

Flectere iter soeiis terraeque advertere proras 35 

Inperat, et laetus fluvio suceedit opaeo. 

Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora rerum, 
Quis Latio antiquo fuerit status, advena classem 
Cum primum Ausoniis exercitus adpulit oris. 

30.] * 'nberinus' of the Tiber 6. 873, data moenia cernam;'* 6. 83, "Ansonium 

after Enn. A. 1. fr. 55, "Teque, pater quicunqueest,quaerereThybrim." "Flecte 

Tiberine, tuo cum flumine sancto." Here viam " 5. 28, said by AeiTeas to the pilot, 

and in 8. 31, where the words recur, "Terris advertere proi-am" G. 4. 117. 

*ffuvio amoeno' seems to be abl. of cir- 37—45.] *A new part of my subject 

cumstance, or, which is the same thing, commences, tlie war in Latium and its 

a descriptive abl. antecedent circumstances/ 

3] .] ' Multa flavus arena ' is a specific 37.] This invocation marks a great 

description of the Tiber, which is con* epoch in the poem, and the commencement 

stantly called ' flavus,' Hor. 1 Od. 2. 13., of a new class of characters and legends. 

8. 8., 2. 3. 18. Comp. 9. 816. Gossrau The, first words are from ApoU. R. 3. 1, 

remarks that Ov. F. 6. 502 mentions the £< 8* &y€ yvv, *EpaTc6, vapd $* Itrratro, koI 

'vertices' at the mouth of the Tiber, fioi ivurvt. But £rato, as the Muse of 

' Verticibus rapidis ' may be either modal Love, is more appropriately invoked to 

abl. or constructed with < flavus.' In any rehearse the loves of Jasou and Medea 

case the line seems to qualify ' prorumpit.' than the present theme, though Germ. 

32.] Ov. M. 14. 447, in his brief narra- thinks that the war in Italy may be said 
tive of Aeneas' landing, nearly repeats to have been kindled by the love of La- 
Virg., " lucosque petunt ubi nubilus um- vinia's suitors, •* ttinquam flabello." Virg., 
bra In mare cum flava prorumpit Thybris by the help of the Muse, will describe the 
arena." Lucr. 6.436 has "prorumpitur posture of aflairs (* tempora reruro*) and 
In mare " of the wind. ' Variae volucres ' the condition of Latium (* quis Latio auti- 
G. 1. 383. Comp. Lucr. 2. 344 foil , Id. 1. quo fuerit status ') when Aeneas arrived, 
689 and Munro's note. 'Supra' is long else- and will trace the origin of the war be- 
where in Virg. Stat. Theb. 9. 114 ends a tween Aeneas and the Latins (primae 
line similarly, "cireumque supraque," revocabo exordia pugnae*). * Qui reges' 
though he also elsewhere, as Markland seems to be said generally, including 
observes, makes the first syll. long. Rib- Latinus and his ancestors, Turnus, and 
beck fancies the original reading may have perhaps the other Italian princes. With 
been " circum superaque " in both pas- * tempora rerum ' comp. the expression 
0agesy an opinion in which few writers " reipublicae tempus," which occurs more 
of hexameters will agree with him. than once in Cic. (Off. 3. 24 <Sbc.), though 

34.] "Aera muleentes motu" Lucr. * tempora ' here means * times * rather than 
4. 136. Wakef. would read *aera' here; 'emergencies.' Virg. has said *the times 
and so Ov. F. 1. 155, " et tepidum volucres of affairs ' where we. should rather talk of 
concentibus aera mulcent." But in Virg. * the circumstances of the time.' Serv. ex- 
winged creatures fly in the aether, and plains the words philosophically, " quia, 
the aether is said to be filled with sound, secundum Lucretium, tempora nisi ex 
w. 65, 395 below. ' Luco,' about the grove, rebus colligantur, per se nulla sunt." 

35.] Aeneas had been warned by Creusa Peerlkamp connects * rerum * with 'status,' 

(2. 781) that his destination was Italy, very improbably. 

*'ubi Lydius arva Inter opima virum leni 38.] * Advena' a^ectively, like "advena 

fluit agmine Thybris :" and he says himself possessor " E. 9. 2. 

3. 500, "Si quando Thybrim vicinaque 39.] "Adpulit oris" 1. 377., 3. 838, 

Thybridos arva Intrarim gentique meae 715. 


Expediam^ et primae revocabo exordia pugi^ae. 40 

Tu vatem, tu, diva, mone. I Dicam liorrida bella, 

Dicam acies, actosque animis in funera reges, 

Tyrrhenamque maaum, totamque sub arma coactam 

Hesperiam. Maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo, 

Maius opus moveo. Rex arva Latinus et urbes 45 

lam senior longa plaeidas in pace regebat. 

Hunc Faunp et nympha genitum Laurente Marica 

Aecipimus> Fauno Pious pater; isque parentem 

Te, Saturne, refert ; tu sanguinis ultimus auctor. 

40.] ' Bevocare ' of recalling the past, of wars with the narrative of wanderings. 

Sen. Ben. 5. 25. So " repeto " y. 123 helow. the Iliad with the Odyssey. " Nascitar 

'Primae exordia pngnae/ a variety for ordo"E. 4. 5. 

"prima exordia pngnae." 46—106.] 'Latinus, king of Latium, 

41.] < Mone/ aid his memory. Comp. had a daughter, Lavinia, whose hand was 

" monumeutum," and see v. 645, '* Et sought hy Tumus, a Rutulian prince : but 

meministis enim, divae, et memorare po- various portents indicated that she was 

testis ; Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur destined to have a foreign husband, and 

aura." The word is in keeping with at last her father receiv^ a distinct ora- 

' revocabo,' and with the fdnctions of cular intimation to that effect.' 

the Muse as the daughtei* of Mnemo- 45.] 'Moveo' stir, and so commence, 

syne, E. 7. 19 note. 'Horrida bella* 6. Comp. v. 641 "cantusque movete," and 

86. Livy 23. 39, " movere ac moUri quicquam." 

42.] 'lieges.' The list of them is For Latinus, the Italian god Faunus, 

given V. 647 foil. 'Actos animis in Ainera' and the nymph Marica, who was wor- 

seems to mean, spurred by their courage to shipped at Mintumae, see Diet. Myth, 

encounter death, either the risk or the cer- ' Arva et urbes ' 3. 418. 

tainty of it. The general sense is parallel 46.] ' Jam senior ' 5. 179., 6. 304. ' In 

to 9. 460, " Sed furor ardentem caedisque pace ' with 'regebat :' "placida populos in 

insana cupido Egit in adversos." If we pace regebat " 8. 325. 

take it " in funera inferenda," we may 47.] In 8. 314 the Fauns and Nymphs 

comp. 12. 528 "nunc totis in volnera are the indigenous race that inhabited 

viribus itur." Italy when Saturn came down to civilize 

43.] * The Tyrrhene force * is naturally it. * Laurens ' is properly the name of 

enumerated among the subjects of this that territory and tribe whose capital was 

part of the poem, as the strife between Laurentum : but Virg. uses it as a syno- 

Mezentius and his subjects had an im- nym of "Latinus." Thus Tumus the 

portant influence on the struggle. ' Tyrrhe- Rutulian is called " Laurens " below v. 650. 

namque manum ' is not to be taken with Latium in its latest and widest significa- 

' coactam,' anymore than ' acies ' V. 42 with tion would include Mintumae on the 

' actos.' ' Totam Hesperiam ' is of course Liris. 

not strictly true, but it probably refers to 48.] ' Accipimus ' belongs to the his- 

'Tyrrhenam manum' and expresses that torian rather than the poet : but the Muse, 

the war involved other states besides as we have seen (v. 41), inspires him to 

Latium. ' Sub arma coactam,' called write history. 

out together to war. 'Sub arma *= "sub 49.] The present 'refert* may be used 

armis/* the regular phrase for ' in arms ' either with reference to the actual exist- 

(5. 440 &c.), with an additional notion of ence of Picus as a god, or to his exist- 

motion. ence in history. For the possible mean- 

44.] ' A grander series of events opens ings of the verb itself here see on 5. 564. 

before me,' grander, that is, than what he Virg. seems here to treat the Italian 

has hitherto related, if measured by the divinities as a line of semi-divine earthly 

standard of importance in the Aeneid, for kings. For Saturn see 8. 319 foil. 'Ulti- 

otherwise they could hardly be grander mus auctor' like "ultima ex origine" 

than the fall of Troy. But Virg. may CatuU. 4. 15. 

mean to contrast generally the narrative . 


Filius huic fato divom prolesque virilis 50 

Nulla fuit, primaque oriens erepta iuventa est. 

Sola dommn et tantas servabat filia sedes^ 

lam matura yiro^ iam plenis nubilji@ j.nnis. 

Multi illam mag&o e Latio totaque petebant 

Ausonia ; petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis 55 

Tumus, avis atavisque potens, quern regia eoniunx 

Adiungi generum miro properabat amore ; 

Sed variis portenta deum terroribus obstant. . 

Laurus erat teeti medio in penetralibus altis. 

Sacra comam, multosque metu servata per annos^ 6o 

Quam pater inventam, primas cum conderet arces, 

50.] *Fato divom/ by the decree of the simply an ennobling epithet, 
gods, * fatum * being used in its primary 65.] ' Ante ' pleonastic after a super- 
sense. Comp. 3. 716 note. The gods lative, as in 1. 347 after a comparative, 
decreed that Latinus should have no son, in 56.] 'Potens,' probably with reference 
order that Aeneas might obtain his king- to hb claims as a suitor, 'with the prestige 
dom with the hand of Lavinia. Possibly of a great line,' or * with a high lineage to 
there may be a reference to some specific back his claim ;' though SiUus (8. 388) 
oracle which formed part of the legend, has "avis pollens" merely for 'high born.' 
'Filius prolesque virilis' can hardly be Comp. "parvo potentem" 6. 843; also 
considered as otherwise than a pleonasm, " dives avis " 10. 201. 
though 'proles virilis' marks the exact 67.] * Properabat ' in the sense and with 
point more accurately than ' filius.' the construction of " studebat." Comp. 

61.] ' Nulla fuit,' was no more, i. e. at ^irovtd(tty, and the phrase " nihil mihi est 

the time when Aeneas landed. Comp. longius," *' there is nothing for which I 

Virg. (?) Catalect. 14. 7, " sed tu nullus am more impatient," alluded to in Forb.'s 

eris," CHc. 3 Q. Fr. ep. 4, *' sed vides nullam note. It must be remembered that the 

esse rempublicam, nullum senatum, nulla infinitive, whether active or passive, is 

judicia, nullam in ullo nostrum digni- really a noun constructed with the verb, 

tatem," and the common comic phrase * Amore,' eagerness, as in 2. 10, " si tantus 

" nullus sum." Serv. says that Virg. has amor casus cognoscere nostros." 

taken the death of Latinus' male offspring 68.] ' Yariis portenta terroribus ' is equi- 

from " history," which relates that Amata valent to " varia et terrifica portenta," 

had two sons, whom she killed, or, as though 'terroribus' might be abl. instr* 

others said, blinded, for siding with their with ' obstant.' 

father in promising Lavinia to Aeneas. 59.] ' Tecti medio ' should be under- 

52.] 'i:^rvabat domum.' remained in stood, as Ueyne says, with reference to 

the house, as in 6. 402, " Casta licet the custom of planting trees in the " im- 

patrui servet Proserpina Umen," with pluvium " of a house, 2. 512, Hor. 3 Od. 

a further notion of preserving the family. 10. 5. ' Penetralibus,' the " impluvinm 
< I>omum ' perhaps refers rather to her being in the centre of the house. Corn- 
being the hope of his family, ' tantas pared with 2. 514, it illustrates the con- 
sedes * to her being the heir of his estate, nexion between the ' penetralia ' and the 
In the imitation by Stat. Theb. 1. 572, "Penates." 

" Mira decore pio servabat nata penates," 60.] 'Sacra comam,' "frondibus intac- 

we are meant also to think of worshipping tis," Heyne. " Multos servata per annos " 

the gods. 2. 715 note. < Metu«' through fear, 3. 

53.] If any distinction can be drawn 213., 4. 164, 
between the two parts of this line, it is 61.] 'Primas cum conderet arces' is 

that the first relates to ripeness of person, ec|uivaIentto"c(uum primum arces (urbem) 

the second to sufficiency of age. conderet." Qossrau comp. 3. 17, "Moenia 

54.] ' Petere ' of seeking in marriage prima loco.'* He finds the bay growing 

12. 42. ' Magno,' like "magna" v.* 4^ \n the spot where he is going to build. 


Ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus, 
Laurentisque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis. ^ 
Huius apes summum densae — mirabile dietu — 
Stridore ingentt liquidum trans aethera veetae, 65 

Obsedere apicem, et, pedibus per mutua nexis, 
Examen subitum ramo frondente pependit. 
fContinuo vates. Externum cemimus, inquit, 
Adventare virum, et partis petere agmen easdem 
Partibus ex isdem^ et summa d©minarier arce. 70 

Praeterea, eastis adolet dum altaria taedis 
Et iuxta genitorem adstat Lavinia virgo. 
Visa, nefas, longis eonprendere crinibus ignem, 
Atque omnem omatum flamma crepitante cremari, 
Begalisque accensa comas, aceensa coronam, 75 

62.] * Ipse ' seems simply to add gravity i.e. the 'arx.' Bom. has 'agmine ^ see 

to the narrative ; unless we like to say that on 3. 614. 

the king assumes the priestly function. 70.] * Partibusez isdem/ i.e. apparently 

63.] For the construction 'Laurentis' from the quarter of the sea, though we have 

in apposition with 'nomen' see Mad v. not been told explicitly whence the bees 

§ 246 obs. 2. who quotes Livy 1. 1, " filium came. ' Summa dominarier arce ' implies 

cui Ascanium parentes dixere nomen." that the palace of Latinus was in the 

" Mihi ponere nomen " Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 93, * arx :' and the expression of course denotes 

the Greek ivofia 94ff9m. With ' quam ' complete dominion over the city, 

followed by *ab ea' Wagn. comp. Cic. 71.] 'Adolet:* see note on E. 8. 65. 

Orator 3, "species pulchritudinis . . quam 'Castis' refers to the rite, as performed 

intuens in eaque defixus." meetly and in order. Comp. 3. 409, " Hac 

65.] Comp. G. 4. 59 (of bees), "Nare casti maneant in religione nepotes." 

per aestatem liquidam suspexeris ag- The altar was that in the centre of the 

men." house. Comp. v. 77 and 2. 512. 

66.] 'Apicem* answers to 'summa 72.] 'Et' is the reading of all Rib- 

arce' v. 70. 'Per mutua' is obviously beck's uncials but Rom., which is ap- 

equivalent to " mutuo " or " vicis- parently illegible, and it is now adopted 

sim." But it is not easy to fix the by Wagn. for 'ut.' Lavinia has been 

^xact sense of the preposition. Perhaps mentioned 6. 764. 

we may compare such usages as "per 73.] 'Nefas:' comp. 8. 688, "sequi- 

ludum," " per speciera," &c. — * in the turque, nefas, Aegyptia coniunx." It 

way of reciprocity.' The expression seems seems to express the first feeling of the 

to be a variation of 'mutua' used adver- spectators, who regarded the event with 

bially by Lucr. e. g. 5. 1100, " Mutua dum horror and alarm, like Aeneas and his 

inter se rami stirpesque tenjntur." family in the similar case of Ascanius 

67.] Comp. generally G. 4. 61, 557. 2. 680 foil. ' Comprendere crinibus ignem :' 

' Subitum ' seems to denote the unexpect- the more ordinary expression would be 

edness of the appearance, as "subitum f ignis crinem comprendit," as in G. 2. 

monstrum" is ft*equently used. Heyne 305. 'Visa,' was seen, not seemed. It 

remarks that this occurrence was reckoned was a " visum " or portent, 

an evil omen, Pliny ii. 17. 74.] ' Omatum ' to be taken afler 

68.] ' Continuo ' as in v. 120 below. ' cremari,' like ' coronam ' after ' accensa.' 

The prophet sees the meaning of the por- " Flamma crepitante crematur " occurs 

tent at once. ' Cemimus,' 1 behold, as a Lucr. 6. 155. 

seer. Comp. 6. 87 (the Sibyl), " Bella, 75.] Wagn. considers the repetition of 

horrida bella, Et Thybrim mnlto spuman- ' accensa ' as equivalent to a second ' que ' 

tern sanguine cerno." (" accensa comasque coronamque "), and 

69.] 'Easdem,' the same as the bees, refers the line to the class of cases noticed 


Insignem gemmis ; turn fumida lumine fulvo 

Involvi, ac totis Volcanum spargere tectis. 

Id vero horrendum ac visu mirabile fern : 

Namque fore inlustrem fama fatisque canebant 

Ipsam^ sed populo magnum portendere bellum^ 80 

At rex sollicitus monstris oraeula Fauni^ 

Fatidici genitoris, adit, lueosque sub alta 

on E. 4. 6, where see note : ' accensa ' bright fortunes, that which spreads from 

would then be coupled as a participle her over the palace portends the general 

with 'visa est cremari/ This seems the conflagrationof war over the land of which 

best way of taking the passage. The she was to be the cause, 

common method is to take ' accensa ' as 80.] Wagn. Q. V. 13. 2 d. remarks on 

" accensa esse visa est," which is rather the metrical effect of the initial spondee, 

clumsy, and involves moreover a tauto- ' ipsam,' followed by a pause. It is diffi- 

logy, inasmuch as * omnem omatum ' in- cvlt to say whether the subject of ' por- 

eludes * comas ' and ' coronam.' Jahn tendere ' is * Lavinia ' or some word to be 

proposes to strike out the semicolon after supplied from ' id ferri.' 

*gemmis' and arrange the words: 'et, dl.] 'Bollicitus" (originally a parti- 

accensa comas, accensa coronam, tum ciple) has here the force of " sollicitatus." 

(i. e. "postquam accensa est," comp. 5. 719) Wakef. read * monstrorum ' from a MS. of 

visa est involvi fumida lumine falvo.' Donatus. 

But it is more after the manner of Virg. 82.] * Lueosque,' &c. The chief thing 

to begin a new clause with ' tum/ as the with a view to explaining this difficult 

last point in a description: see 11. 724, passage is to ascertain what and where 

G. 2. 296. Ribbeck considers v. 74 to Albunea is. Heyne and Forb. take it 

have been Virg.'s first draught, which he as a spring, and Heyne's ultimate interpre- 

afterwards amplified, intending to retrench tatiou, given in a review in the G5ttingen 

the superfluity. It is singular that in Gelehrt. Anzeig. for 1804, p. 1672, was 

descriptions like these (especially in si- "Albunea aqua, quae sonat fonte Eacro, 

miles) Virg. is apt to leave the reader in maxima (aquarum) nemorum, i. e. ne- 

doubt about the exact construction in- moris." But in the first place it is diffi- 

tended. * Regalis ' probably refers to the cult to understand the meaning of '* lacos 

tiring and general appearance of the hair, sub Albunea aqua," and in the second 

which was worthy of a queen. * Insignem place ' quae maxima nemorum ' for " quae 

gemmis ' proves, as Heyne remarks, that maxima aquarum nemorum," and that for 

the 'corona' is the royal, not the sacri- "aquarum nemoris," seems hardly ad- 

ficial crown. missible. G. 2. 15, "nemorumque Jovi 

76.] < Tum,' &c. till at last she became quae maxima frondet Aesculus" is not 

wrapped in dusky and smoking flame, nearly so strong. Wagn., following Bon- 

' Fumida' belongs in sense to 'lumine,' stetten's Voyage snr la sc^ne des six 

the words being nearly equivalent to " lu- derniers livres de I'En^ide (p. 205), takes 

mine fulvo et fnmoso." ' Fulvus ' is twice Albunea as a wood, which removes some 

applied to the colour of the eagle, 11. difficulties, but leaves 'lucos sub alta 

751., 12. 247. Serv. explains the smoke Albunea ' to be explained. It is however 

g^tesquely, as causing and therefore sym- not yet determined where Albunea itself 

bolizing te&rs. is. Serv. places it "in altis montibus 

78.] ' Id vero * implies that this por- Tiburtinis," and Heyne originally identi- 

tent follo'wing and surpassing the other fied it with the fall of the sulphurous 

brought their fear to its height. Comp. waters of the Albula into the Anio at 

the ube of '* tum vero " 2. 228., 4. 450., Tibur : but Bonstetten thinks he has dis- 

5. 659, 720. 'Ferri,' was accounted or covered it in the sulphurous spring of 

rumoured. Comp. 2. 229, ** scelus expen- Altieri near the fane of Anna Perenna on 

disse merentem Laocoonta ferunt," Hor. the road to Ardea, and his opinion was 

2 Od. 19. 27. accepted by Heyne, and is adopted by 

79.] 'Fama fatisque' seems equivalent Mr.Bunbury,Dict.G.' Ardea.' The former 

to "Claris fatis." Comp. 8. 731, "fa- view is confirmed by Hor. 1 Od. 7. 12, 

mamque et fata ncpotum." The fire round where "domus Albuneae resonantis" is 

the princess herself portends her own coupled with " praeceps Anio et Tiburni 

■ '^"y^ 



Consnlit Albtmea^ neinoram quae maxuma sacro 
Fonte sonat^ saeyamque exhalat opaca mephitim. 
Hinc Italae gentes omnisque Oenotria tellus 85 

In dubiis responsa petunt; hue dona saoerdos 
Com tulit et caesarnm ovinm sub nocte silenti 
Pellibus incubuit stratis gonmosque petivit^ 
Multa modis simulacra videt Tolitantia miris^ 
£t varias audit voces^ fruiturque deorum 90 

Conloquio^ atqne imis Acberonta adfatur Ayemis. 
Hie et turn pater ipse petens lesponsa Latinus 
^ntum lanigeras maetabat rite bidentis, 
Atque harum effultus tergo stratisque iacebat 
Yelleribus : subita ex alto yox reddita luco est : 95 

lacns," and by Lactant. Inst. 1.6 (qaoting was tlie son of Amphiaraus. This again 

Varro) **deciniam (Sibyllam) Tiburtem, tends to jiroretbat the oracle mentioned by 

nomine Albnneam, quae Tibari colitnr nt Virg. was at or near Tibnr. Serv. observes 

dea, iuxta ripas amnis Anienis." ' Sonat ' that ' incubare ' Is the proper term for 

here and "resonantis" in Hor. seem to this mode of consoltation, answering to 

imply a waterfall. Mr.Long hasnodoabt iymoifaaffBat: comp. Plat. Core. 2. 2. 16, 

that the Albunea was the solphur lake (or Cic. Div. 1. 43. Bams wfire sacrificed, 

nymph of the lake) from which issues the and the worshipper slept in their skins, 

canal of the Albula. Virg., he says, has Pausan. 1. 34 (of Amphiaraus), Strabo 6. 

confused the lake and the woods round p. 284 (of Calchas in Baunia). 

the lake. The difficulty (he continues) is 89.] Luer. 4. 127, " Noscas rerum sima« 

that the lake is not at Tibur, but at least lacra vagari Multa modis multis," Id. 1. 

two Roman miles below the heights of 123, '* simulacra modis pallentia miris." 

Tibur, where the cascade is. Comp. also Id. 6. 789, where, though the 

83.] "Nemorum quae maxuma" G. 2. verbal similarity is less, the passage nuy 

15 note. ' Sacro :' comp. note on G. 4. 319. have been in Virg.'s mind, as the context 

84.] ' Mephitin ' was the old reading, is all about mephitic vapour. 

'Mephitim' was restored by Heins. Arom 90.] "Sermone frnuntur" 8. 468. 

Med. Ac. Mephitis was worshipped as a 91.] ' Acheronta' for the powers of hell 

deity in various parts of Italy, as at v. 812 below, "Flectere ri nequeo Su- 

Amsanctus (see v. 564 below), Pliny 2. 93, peros, Acberonta movebo." We may 

at Cremona, Tac. H. 3. 33. It had a either take 'imis Avemis' as "ex imis 

temple and grove at Rome on the Esqui- Avemis " with Heyne (which however 

line, Varro L. L. 5. 49, Festus s. v. "Septi- would be to press rather far the transferred 

monlis." Serv. says some made it a male sense of ' Acheronta '), or we may take it as 

power, connected with Leucothea like Vir- an abl. of place, connecting it closely with 

bins with Diana, which may possibly ac- * Acberonta,' ' the powers of the deepest 

count for 'saevum,' the reading of Med. hell.' 

Comp. generally 6. 240. 'Saevam' like 92.] 'Et tum,' then too, as in other 
" saevior pestis " 3. 214. Virg. may have emergencies. Wag^. seems right In re- 
thought of Apoll. R. 599, \lfiyri5 els wpo» marking that Latinus himself is here the 
Xoiit wo\vfi€tf$4os* ^ 8* llri vvv w€p Tpa^- priest and takes the oracle alone. But 
fun-os ai$oft4yoio fiapvv iufotmicUt krfiSy. the practice seems to have been different 

85.] ' Oenotria :' see 1. 532. in different places : comp. the passages 

86.] There were many oracles of this quoted on v. 86 with Hdt. 1. 182, Strabo 

kind in Greece, generally in caves, as that 14, pp. 649, 650. ' Ipse,' not, as Gossrau 

of Trophonius at Lebadea and that of thinks, contrasted with messengers, but 

Amphiaraus at Thebes and Oropus. Virg. either in the sense of ' also,' or strengthen- 

seems to have transferred the custom to ing ' pater.' 

Italy. Heyne remarks that Tiburtus, the 94.1 ' Effultus' 8. 368. 

founder of Tibur (mentioned below v. 670), 95. J Med. has ' subito.' 


Ne pete connubiis natam soeiare Latinis^ 

O mea progenies^ thalamis neu crede paratis ; 

Extern! venient generic qui Banguine nostrum 

Nomen in astra ferant^ quorumque ab stirpe nepotes 

Omnia sub pedibus^ qua Sol utrumque recurrens lOO 

Aspicit Oceanum, vertique regique videbunt. 

Haec responsa patris Fauni monitusque silenti 

Nocte datos non ipse suo premit ore Latinus, 

Sed circum late yolitans iam Fama per urbes 

Ausonias tulerat^ cum Laomedontia pubes 105 

Gramineo ripae religavit ab aggere elassem. 

d6.] For 'connubiis' as a trisyllable see read 'a stirpe' with Bibbeck irom Horn., 

1. 73 (which will also illustrate the con- or 'ab' with Wagn. from Med. and Pal. 

struction^ though 'connubiis' here may The division of the MSS. here and else- 

= ** mantis'') and Munro on Lncr. 3. 776. where (see on 8. 130) shows that there is 

97.] ' Paratis ' is opposed to ' venient,' no meai)s of judging which Yirg. is likely 

as ' Latinis ' is to ' eztemi :' ready without to have preferred. 

the trouble of seeking : oomp. " urbemque 100, 101.] The Caesars (' nepotes ') and 

paratam" 4. 75, "frui paratis" Hor. especially Augustus are here spoken of in 

1 Od. 31. 17. ' Credere ' of undertaking terms applicable at once to universal em- 

a new and untried thing, something like pire and divinity. Comp. E. 6. 56, " Can- 

" se credere caelo " 6. 15. But the object didus insuetum miratur limen Olympi Sub 

of the verb may be ' natam.' Comp. G. 4. pedibusque videt nubes et sidera Daphnis,'^ 

48 note. with the common metaphorical expression 

98.] * Venient * is the reading of Med., " sub pedibus " for subjection. * Verti,' 

Pal., Bom., Gud., &c. Others, of less which denotes the natural movement of 

authority, with Serv. and a quotation in the universe (though probably with tl|^ 

Prob. Inst. 1. 6. 3 have 'veniunt,' which transfeiTed sense of absolute disposal), iP' 

would do very well, whether we took it more appropriate to the god; *reg^' recalls 

literally, ' are on their way,' or as the pro- the emperor : * shall see the world move 

phetic present for ' shall come.' So Heyne beneath their feet in obedience to their 

and Forb. 'Sanguine,' by allying their sway.' 'Utrumque Oceanum,' East and 

blood with ours. West, like " utroque ab littore " G. 3. 33, 

99.] * Qui—iferant,' 'destined to raise.' "uterque Neptunus" Catull. 29 (31). 3. 

Comp. 1. 19, "Progeniem sed enim Tro- 'Recurrens' in the language of Ps. 19. 6 

jano a sanguine duci Audierat Tyrias olim (Prayer Book version), " running about 

quae verteret arces ;" ib. 286, ** Nascetur unto the end of the heaven again." 

. . Caesar . . famam qui terminet astris." 103.] ' Ipse ' is to be taken closely with 

Heins. read * ferent ' from the Leyden ' suo ' and is pleonastic. For * premit ore ' 

MS., which would be neater : but perhaps comp. the opposite expression evos (piyey 

we may question whether the subj. in such Ip/cos o96vrwv, " Premit mente " (" corde," 

cases may not originally have been parallel " pectore ") would have been the more 

to the future. In Enn. Alex. fr. 11 Vahlen, usual phrase : but Yirg. chose to combine 

" Nam maxumo saltu superabit gravidus with it the expression " premere os " (6. 

armatis equus Suo qui partu perdat Per- 155). 

gama ardua," it is difficult to believe that 104.] " Libyae magnas it Fama per 

"perdat" is not = "perdet" or "perditurus urbes " 4. 173. 

est." In such cases an early writer will 105.] * Laomedontia ' simply = " Tro- 

often throw light on a later. ' In astra iana," as in 8. 18, not, as in 3. 248., 4. 542, 

ferant ' probably refers to the superhuman conveying a reproach, 

glory of the race, rather than to the deifi- 106.] " Religarat udo Litore navim " 

cation of Aeneas, in spite of the distinc- Hor. 1 Od. 32. 7. * Aggere ripae ' for 

tion made by Wagn. between " ferre ad " ripa aggesta," like " aggere viae " 5. 273 

astra " and " ferre in astra." See farther for " via aggesta," ** aggeribus murorum ". 

on 3. 158. It signifies little whether we 10. 24 for " muris aggestis." 


Aeneas primique duces et puleher lulus 
Corpora sub ramis deponunt arboris altae^ 
Instituuntque dapes^ et adorea liba per herbam 
Subiieiunt epulis, — sic luppiter ille monebat — i lo 

Et Cereale solum pomis agrestibus augent. 
Consumptis hie forte aliis, ut vertere morsus 
Exiguam in Cererem penuria adegit edendi 
Et violare manu malisque audacibus orbem 
Fatalis crusti patulis nee pareere quadris, lis 

Heus, etiam mensas consumimus ! inquit lulus. 

107 — 147.] * As the Trojans are eating * foretold/ for Jnpiter did not foretell what 
after their landing, they inadvertently is denoted by 'sic' here, but 'inspired/ 
fulfil an/)racle which said that they should There is reason to suppose that the custiOm 
one day eat their tables in the land where of using cakes for platters was a reli- 
they w^re to settle, and thence conclude gious one, as Serv. on 1. 736 says " tan- 
that they have come to the end of their git ritum Bomanorum, qui paniceas 
wanderings/ sacratasque mensas habebant, in quas 

^07.] " Ductores primi " 9. 226. " Pul- libabant /' comp. Id. on 3. 257. 

chpr lulus " 5. 570. 111.] For ' solum ' (that on which any 

108.] Made up of two lines in Lucr., thing rests) comp. 5. 199, " subtrahiturque 

1. 258., 2. 30. solum,'' where it is the sea on which the 

109.] "Instituereconvivia" occurs Suet, ship rests, and the use of the word in 

Ut. 7. Festus calls " ador " " farris genus, Lucr. 1. 927 &c. for the sole of the foot, 

fidor quondam appellatum ab edendo, vel ' Cereale solum ' is a dignified expression 

quod aduratur, ut fiat tostum, unde in for a cake used as a platter. 

3acrificio mola salsa eflScitur," and Pliny 112.] 'Aliis' in the sense of "ceteri," 

18. 8 says " far, quod adoreum veteres " reliqui :" see Freund. Some MSS. have 

appellavere^" so that Virg. doubtless in- 'morsum,' which was perhaps the first 

tentionally used an antiquarian and sacri- reading of Pal. 

ficial word. * Liba ' were properly sacri- 113.] * Exiguam * refers to the thinness 

ficial cakes, and ' augent ' (below v. Ill) of the cakes. < Edendi ' is not the pass, 

was the word for laying gifts on the altar part. (" penuria mus quod edendum esset, 

(8. 284., 9. 407.> 11. 50, Plant. Merc. 4. comedi posset" Heyne), but the gerund, 

1. 11). Probably such language is used to like " amor edendi " 8. 184, where " amor 

lend dignity to a trivial subject. compressus edendi " is a translation of 

110.] 'Liba subiieiunt epulis' for 'epulas i^yiriios 4^ %pov %vro, 'Penuria edendi' 

imponunt libis." So ** subiieiunt veribus like " penuria cibi " Lucr. 5. 1007. 

prunas" 5. 103 note. Heins. restol*ed 114.1 'Violare' and 'audacibus' are 

* luppiter ille ' from Med. (second reading) probably used with reference to ' fatalis ;' 

and some other MSS., supported by Serv. though there is some confusion in the 

and Prisdan. Pal., Hom., Gud., and the rest thought : fate so fai as it was embodied 

of Ribbcck's MSS. with the first reading of in this ' crustum ' was fulfilled, not vio- 

Med., have ' ipse.' ' luppiter ille ' is not to lated. If the platters themselves were 

be taken as the Jupiter of 3. 251, as Serv. sacred, there is a further justification for 

thinks, but like " pater ille " (v. 556., 2. the expression. 

779., 10. 875), and Plant. Mostell. 2. 1. 51, 115.] The * quadrae ' were squares 
" ita ille faxit luppiter," Id. Cur. 1. 1. 27, marked on the ' orbis crusti.' Moret. 47, 
'* nee me ille sirit luppiter," ' ille ' in this " iamque subactum Laevat opus, palmisque 
expression originally signifying on high suum dilatat in orbem, Et notat, im- 
('that god away from us'), though the pressis aequo discrimine quadris." 'Pa- 
phrase probably ceased in time to have tulis,' flat. ' Crustum ' is a rarer form of 
a definite meaning. Possibly however it "crusta." 

may be urged on the other side that in all 116.] A period or semicolon is commonly 

these passages some one is speaking, which placed after ' lulus,' so as to make ' nee 

is not the case here. ' Monebat ' is not plura (dixit) adludens ' an elliptical clause 


Nee plura^ adludens. Ea vox audita laborum 
Prima tulit finem, primamque loquentis ab ore 
Eripuit pater, ac stupefactus numine pressit. 

Continuo, Salve fatis mihi debita Tellus, 120 
Vosque, ak, o fidi Troiae salvete Penates : 

Hie domus, baee patria est. Genitor mihi talia nam- 

by itself. But the other seems the easier by Wagn. to taking 'pressit' as "vocem 

punctuation. The propriety of putting Ascanii repressit/' that Ascanius had done 

this pleasantry into the mouth of Ascanius (' nee plura ') and did not require to be 

has often been remarked on. In Dion. H. stopped, assumes that there was no fear 

1. 55 it is said by some unknown member of his beginning again. Besides ' lo- 

of the company. quentis ' implies that Aeneas broke in 

117.] ' Adludens,' jesting, as in Cic. 1 before he had well got the words out. 

De Or. 56, " Galba autem, adludens varie Nor does * nee plura ' seem to denote a 

et copiose, multas similitndines afferre, dead stop so much as that it was a careless 

multaque pro aequitate contra ius dicere." and passing exclamation. Wagn.'s own 

The pleasantry consists simply in per- interpretation, *' animo pressit " (pondered 

cdiving the resemblance of the platter to on it), is inconsistent with ' continuo,' and 

a table and the incongruity of the notion is not supported by such expressions as 

of eating the latter. * Vox ' of an utter- " dolorem," '* curam corde premit," im- 

ance 2. 119. plying deep or suppressed emotion. Jahn 

118.] * Tulit finem ' like " finem ferat " apparently takes * pressit ' as * followed it 

8. 145, where, as here, "ferre " may have up,* comparing " argumentum premere:" 

the sense of '* nuntiare." But it seems but this would not agree well with ' stu- 

better in both passages to make it = pefactus numine.' Aeneas did follow As- 

" dare :" comp. 1. 241, " quern das iinem, canius* speech up immediately, but it was 

rex magne, laborum ?" and for " dare" of while he was recovering his bewilderment, 

the announcer of a blessing 3. 85 note. With 'eripuit' Cerda comp. trpoofyirdCtiy 

* Prima ' almost = *' tandem :" comp. E. &A.A^Xw ra ktydfieya Plato Gorg. p. 454 o, 
1. 45 note, A. 9. 110. It is not e^sy to and " arripuit omen Paullus " Val. Max. 
give a definite sense to ' prim am :' it may 1. 5. 3. 'Numine,' the divine power 
be " ut primum omen " (comp. 3. 547, a manifested in the words ; nearly eqniva- 
sense which perhaps lurks in 'prima' lent to "omine." Comp. 2. 123, "quae 
also) : it may have the force of * in- sint ea numina divom ;" 3. 363, " cuncti 
stantly ' (comp. " quam primum ") : or it suaserunt numine divi Italiam petere," 
may be a mere repetition of 'prima,' both referring to oracles, and see on 8. 
iterating the notion that this was the 78. 

dawn of hope. Comp. generally 1. 442, 120.] * Continuo,* v. 68. ' Fatis debita :' 

450, which will illustrate these different see on 6. 67., 3. 184. 

shades of meaning, and perhaps incline us 121.] ' Fidi ' includes fidelity to Aeneas 

to believe that Virg. had all of them and his race (3. 156) as well as the truth 

in his mind. " Narrantis ab ore *' 4. of their prediction that he should find a 

79. settlement in Latium (ib. 163). With the 

119.] * Eripuit — ac — pressit,' ' snatched latter we may comp. Romeo's " O true 

it from his mouth (caught it up) and apothecary!" 

stopped his utterance,' that he might 122.] We might have expected " haec 

not mar the omen by saying more, domus :" but ' hie ' = " in hac tellure quae 

* vocem ' being the object both of ' eripuit * patria est." Some M SS. read ' hie patria 
and 'pressit,' though in the sense of speech est/ "Hie tibi certa domus, certi, ne 
in .one case and of speaking in the other, ahsiste, Penates" 8. 39. ' Domus— patria ;' 
Comp. 2. 378, "retroque pedem cum voce both his and the Penates'. 3. 167, "Hae nobis 
repressit," 9. 322, " Sic memorat vocem- (Penatibus) propriae sedes ; hinc Dardanus 
que premit," though the 'vox' there is ortus, lasiusque pater, genus a quo prin- 
that of the subject of the verb, there being cipe nostrum." With the expression comp. 
nothing in the context, as here, to deter- 4. 347, " Hie amor, haec patria est," 
mine it otherwise. The objection made though 'hie' there is probably the pro- 


Nunc repeto^ Anchises iatorum arcana reliquit : 

Cum te^ nate^ fames ignota ad litora vectum 

Accisis coget dapibus consumere mensas^ 125 

Tum sperare domos defessus ibique memento 

Prima locare manu molirique agg^re tecta. 

Haec erat ilia fames ; haec nos suprema manebat^ 

Exitiis positura modum. 

Quare agite et primo laeti cum lumine solis^ 130 

Quae loca^ quive habeant homines^ ubi moenia gentis^ 

noun. Heyne placed a comma afber ' talia/ suppose that ' sperare ' can stand as inf. 
taking ' namque' with 'nunc repeto;' but for imperative. See on 3. 406. 
* namque/ in this way, has less meaning, 127.] '* Moliri aggerem," or " cingere 
and beginning a clause at the end of a tecta aggere'' (below y. 159), would be the 
line, it is harsh. For the position of this natural expression. ' Moliri aggere tecta ' 
particle as the fourth word in the clause combines both. * To build dwellings and 
comp. 5. 732., 10. 614, where as here raise a rampart round them.' The ex- 
it ends a line. Otherwise ' namque ' would pression is appropriate to a settlement 
come in naturally in a parenthetical clause : which was not to be so much a city as a 
comp. Ov. M. 15. 160, "nam memini," camp, v. 159. 'Prima' should be taken 
&c. semi - adverbially, and connected with 

123.] "Nunc repeto" 3. 184. 'An- 'turn' and «ibi.' 'Manu' half-pleo- 

ehises' introduces a difficulty. Celaeno (3. nastically of personal exertion, G. 2* 

255) prophesies that they should be driven 156. 

to eat their tables, and Helenus (ib. 394) 128.] "Haec ilia Charybdis" 3. 558. 

confirms it, with an assurance that the 'Manebat,' was waiting for us all the 

fates should find a solution. The words of time, though we knew it not, like "quanta 

Celaeno, "ambesas subigat malis absu- laborabas Charybdi" Hor. 1 Od. 27. 19. 

mere mensas," are almost exactly the One early edition gives 'monebat' (sc; 

same as those which are here ascribed to Anchises), which might be 8upp<»ted 

Anchises, and she connects the incident from 3. 559. Bom. has 'manebant.' 

with the foundation of the city, though ' Suprema' is explained by the next 

she does not make it a token that they line. 

have found their home. The discrepancy 129.] ' Exitiis ;' for the plural, comp. 

is only one out of several which exist be- Cic. pro Mil. 2, "quos P. Clodii furor 

tween the Third Book and other parts rapinis et incendiis et omnibus exitiis 

of the poem. Some have fancied that pavit." One MS., in the library at Gotha^ 

this was one of the things revealed by An- gives ' exiliis,' which agrees very well with 

chisestoAeneas in Elysium (6. 890 foil.), but the sense of v. 126, and the words of 

' reliquit ' points to predictions delivered in 2. 780 (comp. ' positura modum ' with 

life, perhaps altered or bequeathed on the "longa"). Burm. approves it, and Wakef. 

deathbed. ' Ignota ad littora ' is again and Ribbeck adopt it. The external au- 

inconsistent with the speech of Celaeno, thority is probably worthless ; but the 

who expressly mentions Italy. "Fatorum confusion is natural enough: see on 10. 

arcana " 1. 262, apparently = " arcana 850. Perhaps we may defend ' exitiis ' 

fata." by supposing the thought to be that un- 

124.] ' Fames coget ' like " fames like ordinary hunger, which is itself ' ex- 

subigat " 3. 256. So above v. 113^ " pe- itium,' this puts an end to ' exitia.' 

nuria adegit edendi." 130.] " Primi sub lumina solis " 6. 255. 

125.] 'Accisis,' running short. Hor. 'Cum lumine' like &fi* ey. With these 

S. 2. 113, " Integris opibus novi non lines comp. generally 1. 305 folL ' Laeti :' 

latins usum, Quam nunc accisis." Serv. see on v. 430. 

explains it as if he may have read *an- 131.] 'Habeant' i. q. "habitent" v. 

cisis.' 696 below. "Genti data moenia" 3. 

126.] 'Sperare memento' is rather 501. 
long-drawn: but we must not therefore 


Vestigemus^ et a portu diversa petamus. 

Nunc pateras libate lovi^ precibusque vocate 

Anchisen genitorem^ et vina reponite mensis. 

Sic deinde effatus frondenti tempera ramo 135 

Inplicat^ et Geniumque loci primamque deorum 

Tellurem Nymphasque et adhuc ignota precatur 

Flumina, turn Noctem Noctisque orientia Signa 

Idaeumque lovem Fhrygiamque ex ordine Matrem 

Invocat, et duplicis caelpque Ereboque parentes. HO _ 

Hie pater omnipotens ter caelo clarus ab alto ^^ 

Intonuit^ radiisque ardentem lucis et auro ^^ 

132.] ' Et petamus ' would be more na- '* Mods Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula 

tnrally expressed by a participle — ' let us nostrae ") and of Mt. Ida in the Troad, 

explore, going in different directions.' addressed in Horn, as Zcv wdrtp "UriBtv 

133.] 'Pateras libate' like "libabant /if^duy, < Ex ordine,' i<pf(yis, 'next,' im- 

pocula " 3. 354. ** Animamque vocabat plying uninterrupted series or* succession : 

Anchisae" 5. 98. comp. G. 3. 84>1, ** totnm ex ordine men- 

134.] 'Vina reponite mensis:' see on sem." But we might take it =" rite," as 

G. 3. 527. The language here and in v. 146 Serv. suggests, like '* ordine " 8. 548., 

seems to waver between an ordinary second 5. 53. 

course and a second banquet instituted in 140.] " Caeloque Ereboque " 6. 247. 

honour of the good news. Comp. 8. 283. ' Duplicis' =:" duo," as in 1. 93. Venus 

135.] The wreath was assumed for a and Anchises are of course meant.' 'Caelo' 

religious act as well as for a religious ='in caelo,' not unlike "plurima caelo 

office (comp. 5. 71), and here for the prayer monstra " below v. 269. 

and libation. So Teucer in Hor. 1 Od. 7. 141.] 'Clarus intonuit caelo ' is i. q. " in- 

23 " Tempora populea fertur vinxisse co- tonuit claro (puro, sereno) cae!o ;" the 

rona," when he said "nunc vino pellite epithet of the sky being here as often given 

curas," the drinking implying a libation : to the god who is manifested in it. 

see further on 8. 274. * Sic deinde effatus :' Thunder in a clear sky, or whatever was 

see on 5. 14. taken for it, was a great omen (* omen 

136.] "Geniumloci" 5. 95. He prays magnum' v. 146) for good or evil. Comp. 

first to the divinities of the place, then to 9. 680., 1. 487., Hor. 1 Od. 34. 5, and 

those of the hour (' Noctem Noctisque Macleane's note. Thunder however itself 

orientia signa'). Wagn. takes ' primam is an omen 2. 692, and ' clarus intonuit ' 

deorum' to mean, that prayer is made to may = " clarum intonuit." The three- 

her first: but it evidently denotes prece- fold repetition of course makes the pre- 

dence among the Gods, as Serv. takes it. ternatural character of the phaenomenon 

Comp. Aesch. Eum. 8, irpwroy fi^y thxv T^8e more evident. 

wp^afit^w BtStv T^y wpotT6f4Myriy Tcuay, 142.1 'Radiisque' &c. It is not clear 

Soph. Ant. 338, $e&y rktf {nrfprdrw Tw, what this prodigy is. A cloud gilded by 

The Earth-goddess seems to be worshipped the sun would be no prodigy at all ; nor 

as represented by the particular land would this agree well with ' ostendit ' and 

where they were settling* ' quatiens,' which imply sudden appearance 

187.] The nymphs and rivers are closely and quivering motion. But these words 

connected, as in 8. 71 foil., where the Ian- would be quite applicable to summer 

guage about the Tiber will illustrate ' ad- lightning, the broad fiash of which might 

hue ignota flumina.' also agree pretty well with ' uubem.' 

138.] For the idea that the stars were Comp. 8. 524 foil., where the phaenomenon 

animated and divine see on G. 2. 342. appears to be exactly parallel, thunder and 

'Orientia' implies that the stars were lightning from a clear sky, and there is a 

now coming out. "Nox et noctis signa similar mention of "inter nubem." On 

severa" Lncr. 5. 1190. the other hand in 8. 622 we have "qualis 

139.] ' luppiter Idaeus ' is probably both cum caerula nubes Solis inardescit radiis 

the Jupiter of Mt. Ida in Crete (3. 105, longeque refulget>" words sufficiently pa<« 


Ipse manu quatiens ostendit ab aethere nubem. 
Diditur hie subito Troiana per agmina rumor, 
Advenisse diem, quo debita moenia condant. 145 

Certatim instaurant epulas, atque omine magno 
Crateras laeti statuunt et vina eoronant. 

Fostera eum prima lustrabat lampade terras 
Orta dies, urbem et finis et litora geutis 
Diversi explorant; haee fontis stagna Numici, 150 

Hunc Thybrim fluvium, hie fortis habitare Latinos. 
Tum satus Anchisa delectos ordine ab omni 

rallel to the present passage, and evidently and for ' vina eoronant ' G. 2. 528. 
denoting a sunlit cloud. Mr. Long, re- 148 — 159.] *The next morning they 

marking that the time intended is evening, explore. Aeneas sends an embassy to 

says "The phaenomenon is common in Latinus, and meantime makes a sort of 

southern latitudes, where darkness follows camp-town.' 

close on sunset, and a black cloud often 148.] 'Cum prima' is to be taken as 

begins on a sultry evening to discharge " cum primum." With the different parts 

electricity." * Radiis lucis et auro * is i. q. of the line comp. 5. 42., 4. 6. 
"radiisaureaelucis." Comp.5.87,"macu- 149.] 'Orta dies,' 12. 114. With 

losus et auro Squamam incendebat fulgor." ' urbem et finis et litora gentis ' comp. 

143.] 'Ostendit' perhaps involves the "moenia gentis" above v. 131. 
sense of f'ostentum," i. q. " prodigium," 150.] 'Diversi' of persons 9. 416. 

but in 5. 443 we have the woid simply in Comp. v. 132 above. Three parties are sent 

the sense of ' holding up ' or ' holding out.' out, as this and the following line show. 

' Ab aethere ' may denote a clear sky : but With * haec fontis stagna ' &c. comp. 

the word can hardly be pressed: comp. 2. 29, "Hie Dolopum manus" <Sbc. 

1. 90, "Intonuere poli, et crebris micat There seems to be no means of choosing 

ignibus aether." In Soph. O. C. 1456 between 'Numicl* and 'Numici,' both 

Iktuttcv ai^^p seems to refer to a thunder- the forms 'Numicius' and 'Numicus* 

storm : comp. vv. 1502 foil. * Ipse manu ' (Sil. 8. 179) being found : Sil. however 

G. 4. 329 &c. may have altered the form to suit his 

144.] The MSS. vary between 'diditur' metre. The position of the Numicius is 

and ' deditur ' as usual : see on G. 2. 8 much disputed (v. Heyne Excurs. 3 on this 

&c. ' Dicitur,' * creditur,' and * editur,' are book, with Wagn.'s additions). Westphal 

also found. ' Didere ' is a favourite word and Bunbury, approved by Mr. Long, 

of Lucr. Gossran quotes Diod. Sic. 4. 47, identify it with the Rio Torto (see Diet.*/ 

ZieJio6fi(n\s rTjs (p^ifiris cis B.rravra rAvov, G. ' Numicius ') : others apparently make 

145.] ' Debita,' v. 120 above. A few it the Rio di Turno, a smidleiv <9tream in 

MSS. have * condent.' See on v. 99. the same neighbourhood, near Lavinium. j 

146.] ' Instaurant epulas ' is i. q. " vina Wagn. believes the ' fontis stagna Numici ' •;. 
reponite mensis " v. 134. ' Omine magno ' to be the Stagno cTi Levante, not far from 
may be taken separately, as a sort of abl. the ancient channel of the Tiber, partly on 
of circumstance : comp. w. 249, 284. But the strength of vv. 241, 747, where the 
it seems better, in spite of the position of Tiber and Numicius are mentioned toge- 
the words, to take it with 'laeti:' comp. ther,aconjunction which may be explained 
10. 250, " animos tamen omine tollit." by the historical connexion, without sup- 
Probably Virg. did not distinguish the two posing immediate local proximity. It was 
constructions as sharply as we should do. in the Numicius that Aeneas ultimately 
'Omine magno' like "magno augurio" 5. perished in his war with the Rutuli, and 
522. Comp. II. 1. 239, 6 94 rot fityas on it was his shrine or tomb (Livy 1. 2) ; 
ifftrtTai BpKos. So "omina tanta" 9. 21. which again is in favour of a stream near 
The fulfilment of the prediction, being a Lavinium as against one close to the Tiber, 
supernatural event, is an omen of success. 152.] ' Tum satus Anchisa ' 5. 244, 424. 

147.] For 'crateras statuunt' see 1. "'Ordine ab omni:' ex omni qualitate 

724 (nearly identical with the present line), digpnitatum : quod apud Romanos in lega- 





Centum oratores augusta ad moenia regis 

Ire iubet^ ramis velatos Palladis omnis^ 

Donaque ferre vifo, pacemque exposeere Teucris. 155 

Haud mora^ festinant iiissi rapidisque feruntur 

Passibus. Ipse humili designat moenia fossa^ 

Moliturque locum, primasque in litore sedes 

Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit. 

lamque iter emensi turris ac tecta Latinorum 160 

tione mittenda hodieque servatnr/' Serv. were liable, according to the practice of 

Comp. however 11. 331. Lersch § 63 re- antiquity, to be treated as enemies, 

marks that the number sent here and 11. 156.] * Festinant iussi/ they hasten 

331 is much larger than any known to their mission. 

have been sent by the Romans, who seem 157.] For the custom of solemnly trac- 

from Livy generally to have sent three : ing out the site of cities comp. 5. 755 note, 

he suggests however that the number may ' Humili/ shallow. Tac. A. 1. 61 has 

have been taken from the hundred senators "humili fossa" and Pliny Ep. 8. 20. 5 " hu- 

of Bomulus, or may be the number ten mili radice." Comp. the double sense of 

(which he argues from Livy 33. 24., 37. 55 '' altus." This first settlement, distinct 

to have been the ancient number of an from Lavinium, was part of the common 

embassy) multiplied into itself, and remarks version of the legend : see Lewis p. 332. 

generally on Virg.'s partiality for the According to Cato ap. Serv. and Livy 1. 1 

bumber 100. it bore the name of Troia. 

153.] 'Oratores,* 8. 505., 11.100,331. 158.] *Molitur locum/ breaks ground. 

It was an old Roman word for an ambas- by digging entrenchments and founda- 

sador : see Varro L. L. 7. 3, § 41, where tion. Comp. G. 1. 494, " Ag^icola incurvo 

Ennius is quoted, Cic. 2 Legg. 9. 'Moenia terram molitus aratro." ' Moliri ' is 

regis,' Laurentum, v. 63. used for the same thing above v. 127. 

154.] " Velati ramis oleae " 11. 101. * Primas * of the first settlement, not, as 

The expression seems parallel to iKriiplois Heyne, i. q, " primo litore," on the edge of 

K\dZoi(riv 4^€(rT€fifA4ifoi Soph. O. T. 3, which the shore. So " prima tecta " v. 127 above, 

is now generally understood as = jcKd^ovs 159.] ' Castrorum in morem,' i. e. like a 

4^€(rr€fifx4uovs ixovTts, The token of peace Roman camp, with its fossa, agger, and 

was an olive-branch borne in the hand, 8. vallum, and its internal divisions and ar- 

116, 128., 11, 333, sometimes wreathed rangements, including the praetorium in 

with wool (8. 128). To this wreathing the centre, 9. 230. The site chosen also 

i^effrefifietfoi is generally understood to seems to have been one which aRoman stra- 

refer : and the same may be the case with tegist would have approved, the camp being 

' velatos/ " Yelamenta " is the regular defended on one side and at the same time 

term for tokens of snpplication, Livy 24. supplied with water by the river. See 

80., 29. 16., 30. 36., 35. 34. cited by Lersch § 44. Virg.'s castrimetation, like 

Ler8ch§.52,andPlant.Amph. 1. l.lOlhas his discipline and tactics, is that of his 

" velatis manibus orant." But the " vela- own, not of the heroic age. * Pinnae ' are 

tio "may be merely the covering aflEbrded by taken by Lersch as i. q. "vallum/* they 

the leaves of the boughs : an interpretation are distinguished from " vallum *' however 

which would agree with some words in Livy by Cues. B. G. 7. 72 (comp. ib. 5. 40), 

30. 36, ** velata infulis ramisque oleae Car> and appear fromVarro L. L. 5. 142 (Muller) 

thaginiensium occurrit navis," and with the to have been the battlements of a wall or 

nse of " velare" in Virg. (note on 2. 249). parapet. Mr. Long thinks that as Virg. 

There is a sort of parallel ambiguity in the does not mention the "vallum" he means 

Greek use of trritpos &c. : see Conington on the ' pinnae ' to include all that is placed 

Aesch. Cho. 95. * Rami Palladis/ G. 2. 181. on the * agger.' 

155.] * Dona / comp. 11. 333. * Viro ' 160—194.] * The ambassadors arrive, 

seems added to bjing out the honour in- and are admitted to an audience of king 

tended to Xatinus. * Pacem exposeere,* Latinus, who is sitting in an ancient tem- 

3. 261. * Pacem ' to be taken strictly, not, pie, adorned with figures of his divine and 

as Heyne, i. q. " foedus et amicitiam.*' human ancestors.* 

Landing as strangers on the coast, they 160.] * Iter emensi,* 11. 244. * Turres 



Ardua cemebant lureneB^ mtiroqne snbibant. 

Ante urbem pueri et primaevo flore iuventus 

Exercentur equis, domitantqne in pulvere currus, 

Aut acris tendunt arcus^ ant lenta lacertis 

Spicula contorquent, cursuque ictuque lacessunt : 166 

Cum praevectus equo longaevi regis ad auris 

Nuntius ingentis ignota in veste reporfcat 

Advenisse viros. lUe intra teeta vocari 

Inperat, et solio medius eonsedit avito. 

Tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis, 170 

ac tecta/ 12. 132. * Et teeta ' is here tbe well stand for boxing, of which " icere *' is 
first reading of Med. and Gud. For <La- used (comp. 5. 377, 428, 444, 457, 459), 
tinomm * Med. from a correction and and tautology would thus be avoided. ' La- 
others have ' Latini/ obviously a change cessunt (alius alium) cursu' like "provocare 
to get rid of the hypenneter : see on v. beneficio," "hello." So "contendere cnrsu." 
237 below, 6. 33. So some give ' Latinum.' 166, 167.] * Cum ' refers to * iamque * 
* Latinorum' is supported by Serv., as well v. 160, the words 'ante — lacessunt' being 
as by Med. originally. Pal., Rom. &c. parenthetical. ' As they approached the 

161.] * Muroque subibant, * 9. 371, city, one of a party of youths whom they 

where as here there is a reading <mu- found exercising before the walls galloped 

rosque,* supported here by Rom. Serv. off to announce their arrival.' Wagn. 

distinctly acknowledges the dative. Comp. thinks that 're' in 'reportat' and si- 

3. 292. Wagn. makes a doubtful distinc- milar words denotes the representation or 

tion between ** subire loco," to approach, repetition by the messenger of what he has 

and "subire locum," to enter a place. Gud. seen or heard; but it seems more natural 

has a variant ' propinquant.' to say that the words were originally ap- 

162.] This picture was probably sug- plied to one sent to fetch tidings, and 

guested by the Campus Martins : but there thence to all who brought tidings, whe- 

was a similar public ground for exercise ther they had been sent to fetch them or 

\icpoaffr€to¥) before other cities. Heyne not. 'Praevectus' riding in advance of the 

comp. Hesiod, Shield 285, toX 5* aZ xpo- rest. 'Ad auris' with 'reportat.' "Referatis 

vdooiOe v6\rios IJuff tw^ruy iirifidyres ad auris " E. 3. 73. On 'ingentis 'Serv. re- 

iOvytoy. marks, " £x stupore nuntii laus ostenditur 

163.] "Exercentur agris," G. 4. 159, of Troianorum: et bene novitatis ostendit 

the bees. Here ' equis ' is abl. instr. opinionem : ingentis enim esse quos primum 

Elsewhere (v. 782 below) the man is said vidimus opinamur." ' In veste,' 4. 518. 

to exercise the horses. ' Cumis :' the car 168.] 'Intra teeta vocari Inperat:' comp. 

is said to be broken in, as in G. 1. 514, not 1. 520, " Postquam introgressi et coram 

to hear the reins. So 12. 287, " Infrenant data copia fandi." 'Teeta' is explained 

alii currus." by v. 170. 

164,5.] Virg. first enumerates the several 169.] 'Solio avito,* as well as 'regia 
parties, ' aut — aut ' (comp. G. 4. 167), then Pici,' seems inconsistent with v. 61 foil, 
passes into a description of the various occu- where Latinus himself is made the founder 
pations of the whole, 'que— que.' "Inten- ofLaurentum. * Medius '="mediistecti8." 
dunt acris arcus " 9.665. The epithet seems Comp. 1. 505 note. The description there, 
nearly ="durus," but with a greater notion where Dido receives the Trojans in the 
of activity, as if the bow had an energy of its temple, is closely parallel to this, 
own. Perhaps a contrast is intended with 170.] This edifice combines the temple 
' lenta spicula ' (" lenta hastilia " 11. 650., and the senate-house. Virg. has also em- 
12. 489), the darts being regarded as pas- ployed it as a sort of museum of Roman 
sive and owing their force to the arm that antiquities. Some have thought that he 
bends them. 'Lenta' itself would most had m his mind the temple of Apollo built 
naturally mean flexible. ' Contorquent,' by Augustus clase to his own house on the 
12. 490., 2. 52 note. ' Ictu ' is commonly Palatine, where he often convoked the 
explained = " iaculatione," after Serv., Senate. Embassies in particular were con- 
denoting at a mark : but it might equally stantly received in temples, especially in 


Urbe fuit summa, Laurentis regia Pici^ 

Horrendum silvis et religione parentum. 

Hie sceptra accipere et primos attoUere fasces 

Regibus omen erat ; hoc illis curia templum^ 

Hae sacris sedes epulis; hie ariete caeso 175 

Perpetuis soliti patres considere mensis. 

Quin etiam veterum effigies ex ordine aTorum 

Antiqua e cedro, Italusque paterque Sabinus 

Vitisator, curvam servans sub imagine falcem^ 

that of Bellona, which was outside the gested by Mr. Long); opposed to the 

walls, Livy 30. 21, Festus s. v. " Senacula/' " triclinia." The practice appears to be pri- 

See Lersch § 15. ' Augustus ' (con- mitive, as well as * considere ' instead of 

nected with "augurium") is nearly equi- "accumbere." Ov. F. 6.305, "Antefocos 

yalent to " sanctus,'' Oy. F. 1. 609. ** Sub- olim scamnis considere longis Mos erat, et 

limibus alta columnis" Ov. M. 2. 1. mensae credere adessedeos.*' There seems 

171.] ' Urbe summa,' 4y rp iucpoTr6Kti, no need to suppose an allusion to the daily 

for which iif Tr6\€t &.KpoTdrri occurs II. entertainment of privileged persons as in 

22. 172. Some inferior MSS. and Diomedes a Pry taneum : the reference is rather to 

p. 498 read 'media,' from 1.441. 'Regia/ an occasional sacrificial banquet, 
his hall of state, where he sate as king. 1^7.1 ' Ex ordine,' in a row, between 

172.] * Silvis,' the sacred grove round the pillars of the portico. They are not in 

the temple. For such gloves round temples the order of succession. See vv. 45 foil, 
in cities comp. 1. 441., 9. 86. ' Horrendum 178.1 The reading before Heins. was 

silvis et religione parentum ' is equivalent ' ex cearo.' Some copies leave out the 

to " cinctum silvis horrendis et religiosis," preposition. Wood was the material of 

' religione ' probably referring to the awful statues before marble, and cedar was 

antiquity of the grove. So on 8. 598, chosen as the most durable wood. " Tunc 

"lucus — religione patrum late sacer." For melius tenuere fidem cum paupere cultu 

'horrendum' comp. Lucan 3. 411, *'Ar- Stabatinexigualigneusaede deus" Tibull. 

boribus suus horror inest." 1. 10. 19. Mr. Long refers to Pausaniaa 

173, 174.] 'Primos' is for "primum." 8. 17. 2, to?? 8i dy^pe^irott rh ipxatou, 

' Attollere fasces,' to have the fasces raised Ziroaa koX rj/xe^s KarafxaBtlv i^vpiidrifiev, 

or boime before them. Comp. the oppo- roffdHt ^v &^' S>v rh ^Sava iiroiovvro, Hfityos, 

site phrase "submittere fasces." 'Omen Kwdpiatros, at K4Jipoi, rh, 8pt;iVa, ^ (r/i(Aa|, 

6rat,' it was a custom without observing 6 \<or65. This mixture of the eponyms 

which the reign would not have com- and gods of different races, Italus, Sabinus, 

menced auspiciously : not merely, it was a Saturnus, Janus, goes to prove that Virg. 

lucky thing to do it. ' Here each king, as was rather a lover of antiquity than an 

he would have a happy reign, assumed the accurate antiquarian, as some have consi^ 

sceptre and the fasces.' The assumption dered him. Italus has been referred to 1. 

of the sceptre and fasces would of course 533 : see further Lewis vol. 1. pp. 

be the coronation of a Roman king. 'Hie' 276—279. Sabinus, according to Cato ap. 

is the emphatic word : the coronation, to Dionys. H. 2. 49, was the son of Sancus, 

be auspicious, was to take place here, who is generally identified with the *' dius 

175.] For *hae' Eom. has * haec,* Fidius." The hiatus after 'cedro' is Greek, 
which may be plural. ' Sacrae epulae,' 179.] 'Yitisator' is applied to Bacchus in 

otherwise " epulum," a banquet given in a fragment of Accius quoted by Macrob. 

honour of a god, to attend to which was Sat. 6. 5. " Vitis sator" Lucr. 2. 1168. 

the business of the " epulones." ' Ariete The pruning-hook is elsewhere the familiar 

caeso,' after the sacrifice. * Perpetuis attribute of Saturn, G. 2. 406, and Peerl- 

mensis' is explained by Heyne as long kamp wishes to *e-arrange the passage so 

tables, at which they sat in an unbroken as to invest him with it here. But the 

row (comp. " perpetui tergo bovis " 8. Sabines were wine-growers. * Curvam 

183, " perpetnas ollas," a continuous row servans sub imagine falcem,' holding as 

of " oUae " in a Boman tomb, Fabretti a statue (' sub imagine ' comp. 6. 293) the 

Inscr. p. 11 ed. 1699, a reference sug- pruning-hook which he held in life. 

c 2 


Satumusque senex lanique bifrontis imago, 180 

Vestibulo adstabant, aliique ab origine reges, 

Martiaque ob patriam pugnando volnera passi. 

Multaque praeterea sacris in postibus arma, 

Captivi pendent curnis, eurvaeque secures, 

Et cristae capitum, et portamm ingentia claustra, 185 

Spieulaque clipeique ereptaque rostra carinis. 

Ipse Quirinali litiio, parvaque sedebat 

Succinctus trabea, laevaque aneile gerebat 

Pious, equunfdomitor j quern capta cupidine eoniunx 

180.] For Satumns and Janus see the Oreek ships. Heyne thinks they are 

Diet. M. taken from pirate ships destroyed on the 

181.] This and what follows open a coast. The house of Pompey was decorated 

vista of previous history far more exten- with the heaks of ships captured in his wai* 

sive than what is sketched in w. 45 foil, against the pirates, Cic. Phil. 2. 28. 

It is probably not without reference to the ** Tribulaque traheaeque " G. 1. 164, 

feelings of Augustus that Virg. gave this where, as here, the double letter helps the 

picture of national and patriotic glory and ictus in lengthening the syllable, 

senatorial dignity under a monarchical 187, 188.] Heyne is probablv right in 

rule. 'Ab origine,' 1. 642. Comp. the taking 'succinctus trabea et htuo' as a 

word "Aborigines." zeugma, though it is a strong one. Forb. 

182.] This line is nearly a repetition of considers ' Quirinali lituo * as an abl. of 

6. 660, " Hie manus ob patriam pugnando quality, or an attributive abl. Virg. may 

vulnera passL'' ' Martiaque ' fragm. Vat. have intended the latter construction to 

(2nd reading). Pal., Bom., Gnd., * Martia help out the former. Romulus was an 

qui * fragm. Vat. (1st reading), Med. augur, and founded the city by help of the 

Comp. 6. 772. The former reading is art. Hence the lituus (augur's staff or 

more harmonious and better suited to the crook) is called ' Quirinaiis.' Ov. F. 6. 

sense, distinguishing the warriors from the 375, ''lituo puleher trabeaque Quirinus." 

kings, who seem to have been mainly But the epithet comes in rather strangely 

peaceful. With ' Martia volnera ' comp. here. Gossrau wishes to take ' Quirinali ' 

*ApTif<paros, of Mars, comp. Dion. H. 2. 48, supposing 

183.] * Sacris in postibus arma.' Comp. Virg. to refer to some unknown story 

3. 287., 5. 360. 'In postibus' = "in fori- which associated the 'lituus' with Mars, 

bus." He remarks that the pie into which Pieus 

184.] * Captivi pendent currus.' The was turned is known as ** picus Mai-tius " 

ancient chariots were so light that Dio- (Pliny 10. 18, Ov. F. 3. 37), and that 

med (II. 10. 505) thinks of carrying off Picus is represented as a Salian priest 

that of Rhesus on his shoulder. 'Captivi' with the 'aneile.' The 'trabea,' a toga 

of things 2. 765. The 'seeuris,' battle- with horizontal stripes of purple, was the 

axe, was the weapon of Asiatic nations garment both of the kings and of augurs, 

(" Amazonia seeuris " Hor. 4 Od. 4. 20) though it seems to have been purple and 

and of the primitive nations of Europe, white for the kings, purple and saffi'on for 

in whose barrows it is often found. It is augurs. The epithet ' parva ' probably re- 

the weapon of the Italian shepherds, below fers to the scanty size of the primitive, 

w. 510., 12. 306, and of Camilla 11. 696. compared with the more luxurious, toga. 

' Curvae ' from the shape of the axe- For the ancilia, see Diet. A. 

head. 189.] ' Equum domitor ' is the Homeric 

185.] ' Cristae capitum ' like " iubas tmrSdafios. Picus is called " utilium hello 

capitis " 9. 638. * Portamm,' the gates studiosus equorum " Ov. M. 14. 321, in the 

of captured cities. ' Claustra portarum ' story of Circe's love for him, and ib. 343 

= " portae." he is represented as on horseback. Circe 

186.] ' Ereptaque rostra carinis.' It is appears from Ov. 1. c. to have been only in 

remarked that these naval spoils are an love with Picus, and to have turned him 

anachronism : though Hector (II. 9. 241) into a bird because he preferred the nymph 

threatens to cut off the &Kpa K6pvfji,fia of Canens. But possibly Virg.'s view of the 


A urea percussum virga versumque venenis 190 

Fecit avem Circe, sparsitque coloribus alas. 
Tali intus templo divom patriaque Latinus 
Sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit; 
Atque haec ingressis placido prior edidit ore : 

Dicite, Dardanidae, neque enim nescimus et urbem 195 
Et genus, auditique advertitis aequore cursum. 
Quid petitis ? quae caussa rates, aut cuius egentis 
Litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit ? ^ 
Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti, 

I^end may not have been exactly the 193.] • Vocavit ' by a messenger. "In- 

same as Ovid's. Otherwise we may take tra tecta vocari Inperat ** v. 168. 

* capta cupidine coniux ' closely together, 194.] '* Placido ore " 11. 251, of Diomed. 

i. q. " capta cupidine coniugil " like 195—211.] ' Latinus asks the Trojans 

•* coniugis amore " E. 8. 18. what they want, offers them hospitality, 

190.] In Od. 10. 234 foil. Circe first and remembers that Dardanus, their del- 
gives her victims a magic potion and then fied ancestor, originally came from Italy.' 
strikes them with her wand. They are 195.] * Neque ' followed by " et " or 
restored by the external application of " que ** is not uncommon even in prose ; 
another drug, v. 392. With *versum venenis' Cic. 2 Cat. 13, " Perficiam ut neque bonus 
comp. Hor. Epod. 5. 87, " Yenena magnum quisquam intereat, paucorumque poena vos 
fas nefasque non valent convertcre hu- omnesiamsalvi essepossitis." SeeFreund, 
manam vicem." • Aurea,' dissyllable, 1. • neque.' It is not clear whether Latinus 
698. Nothing is said in Hom. of the means that he had heard of Troy by 
material of Circe's rod. Virg. may have fame, like Dido, or that he had heard 
thought of '£p/i^s XP^^W^''^^^* ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ these strangers were the Trojans. In 
Odysseus about Circe Od. v. 277, and is the latter case we must understand ' ad- 
mentioned by Circe herself v. 331. Serv. vertitis aequore cursum ' rather widely, 
makes 'aurea' nominative. the thing meant being 'ye have landed on 

191.] 'Avem,' the picus Martins (see our shores:' though it is conceivable that 

on w. 187, 8), an important bird in an- news of their coming may have been re- 

gury. * Sparsitque coloribus alas * i. q. ceived e. g. from Cumae. Comp. however 

*' dedit ei alas sparsas coloribus." See Ov. v. 167. * Urbem et genus ;' comp. Dido's 

M. 14. 393 foil., and comp. E. 2. 41, words 1. 565, " Quis genus Aeneadum, 

" sparsis pellibus albo." quis Troiae nesciat urbem ? " • Auditi,* 

192.] ' Intus ' is generally taken as a heard of, like ** audire magpios iam videor 

preposition for " in :" but Hand 3. 447 cites duces " Hor. 2 Od. 1. 21. * Aequore,' over 

no clear case of such a use of ' intus.' On the sea, 5. 862. 'Cursus,' the reading before 

the other hand ' intus ' is frequently used Heins., is found in none of Bibbeck's MSS. 

with *in* pleonastically, which rather ex- 197.] Virg. probably had in his eye the 

eludes the idea of its being used for it. It queries addressed to strangers on landing 

seems best therefore to understand ' tem- in Hom. Od. 3. 71 foil., 9. 257 foil., though 

plo' as "in templo," and to regard 'intus' he has, for obvious reasons, omitted the 

as pleonastic. Munro on Lucr. 4. 1091 mention of piracy. ' Quae caussa rates, 

cit^ the present passage along with se- aut cuius egentis vexit' is a confused ex- 

veral from Lucr. and one from Livy appa- pression made up of " qua de caussa aut 

rently as instances of ' intus' with abl. : cuius egentes rates vectae sunt " and 

but in all of them with the partial excep- *' quae caussa aut cuius egestas vexit." Had 

tion of the present 'intus ' comes after its critics dealt with the text of Virg. as they 

case, and may very well be understood have dealt with that of the Greek drama- 

adverbially. ' Patria sede ' = " solio avito " tists, ' egestas ' would doubtless have been 

V. 169. It is coupled by ' que ' to * tali substituted. ' Cuius egentis ' asks more 

templo / or the whole clause ' patria definitely what has been asked more ge- 

sedens' is coupled with * tali templo,' not nerally by "quae caussa." 

unlike " extremus galeaque ima subsedit 198.] ' Tot vada,' 5. 615. 

Acestes" 5.498. 199.] " Pelagine venis erroribus actus " 


Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto^ soo 

Fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetisi 

Ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorate Latinos 

Satumi gentem, baud vinclo nee legibus aequam^ 

Sponte sua veterisque dei se more tenentem. 

Atque equidem memini — fama est obscurior annis — 205 

Auruncos ita fem senes, his ortus ut agris 

Dardanus Idaeas Pbrygiae penetrant ad urbes 

Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samotbracia fertur. 

6. 532. 'Errore viae,* mistake of the Cerda comp. Ov. F. 6. 103, "obscurior 

way, like "errore locomm" 3. 181. Livy aevo Fama.'* Scaliger thought the sense 

24. 17 has " errore viarum." was " Haud ita multi sunt anni, sed fuma 

200.] ' Qualia multa ' is a transhition of pervagata non est." The dimness of the 

the Homeric phrase old rt troWd. Germ, tradition accounts for the appeal to the 

cites ApoU. R. 4. 1556, which Virg. may Auruncan elders. The ' Aurunci ' (or 

haveimitated,€t $6 rtr^trSc ir6povt ficUtaO' Ausones) were regarded as a primitive 

a\6s, otdr€iro\Kh''Aydpwirotx<'^'''^ovariv iir^ people, and identified with the Abori- 

&\\o5airf Tr€p6tavrfs, gines. The tradition was preserved only 

201.] ''Si quando Thybrim ..... by the oldest men of the oldest race, 
intraro" 3.501. 'Portus* of a landing * Ut ' is epexegetical of * ita.' Co- 
place in the mouth of a river. '* Nilus . . . rythus or Cortona being in Etruria, * his 
Per septem portus in maris exit aquas,'* agris * must be taken with some latitude. 
Ov. 2 Am. 13. 10, quoted by Fore. 207.] * Penetravit,' the reading before 

202.] Comp. 11. 109, " qui nos fugiatis Heins., is restored by Bibbeck from Med., 

amicos?" ib. 113, "rex nostra reliquit Pal., fragm. Vat. &c. for 'penetrarit* 

hospitia," said by Aeneas to the Latins. (Rom.). It is difficult to see how the indi- 

' Ignorate * might mean ' mistake their cative could be constructed, as it clearly 

character :' but it is better to understand does not come under the cases mentioned 

** ne ignorate Latinos Saturni (esse) gen- on E. 4. 52. Heyne, writing before these 

tern,' like " scio me Danais e classi- constructions were understood, thought it 

bus unum *' 3. 602. Med. has * nee fugite.' savoured of epic gravity. Possibly it 

203.] ' Saturni gentem ' seems to mean might be explained in connexion with 

descendants of Saturn rather than the na- ' ita :* ' the old men told the story a^ee- 

tion of Saturn. * Haud vinclo nee legibus * ably with his having made his way ' &c. ; but 

is a hendiadys. The ablatives are instru- this would be harsh enough. The abbrevi- 

mental or modal. 'Haud— nee* as in 1. ated form is constantly mistaken by tran- 

327., 3. 214, Hor. 1 Ep. 8. 4 foil. The scribers, as Wagn. remarks. * Idaeas 

picture is that of the golden or Satumian Pbrygiae ad urbes * substantially like 

age, Ov. M. 1. 89 foil. « Bebrycia Amyci de gente *' 5. 373, 

204.] ^ Se tenentem,' that keeps itself *'EuboicasCymarumoras*'6.2, for"Phry- 

from wrong, i. q. " se continentem." There giae Idae urbes." 

is perhaps an allusion to the common 208.] ' Samum * is the reading of Rib- 
phrase " lege teneri.** * Veteris dei more,' beck's MSS., except Med., which has * Sa- 
the rule of the golden age when Saturn mom.* Others have * Samon,* which Wagn. 
reigned. Saturn is called * veteris * as the adopts, remarking (Q. V. 4) that Virg., 
god of the olden time. Comp. '*Quis though not consistent in his usage with 
neque mos neque cultus erat '* 8. 316, respect to Greek names, generally prefers 
of the state of Italy before Saturn. It the Greek inflection in the case of islands, 
is not said that the Latins had no laws, The island is called ScI/aot QpifiKlfi in II. 
which would be inconsistent with 8. 322, 13. 12. In Hdt. 2. 51 it is :&afio$pr)tKij. 
but that they were not virtuous for fear of We can hardly suppose Virg. not to have 
law. But it may be better to acknowledge known that the two names were the same, 
some inconsistency in the poet. though, if he did know it, the line seems 

205, 206.] " Atque equidem Teuorum very pointless. The ordinary legend was » 

memini Sidona venire *' 1. 619, where, as that lasius settled in Samotbracia (note N 

here, * atque * expresses the appositeness on 3. 168) : but Vii^. here may mean to ^ 

of the remark. ' Annis,* by reason of years, include him. 


Hinc ilium Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede profectum 

Aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli 210 
Accipit et numenim diyorum altaribus addit. 
Dixerat ; et dicta Ilioneus sic voce secutus : 
Bex^ genus egregium Fauni^ nee fiuetibus actos 

Atra subegit hiemps vestris succed<^re terris. 

Nee sidus regione viae litusve fefellit; 215 

209.] ' Hinc ' is explained by ' Corythi him, when he has not been mentioned in 

Tyrrhena ab sede ;' Latinos means that it the claose, is in the manner of Virg. 

was from Italian antecedents that he rose * Novis altaribus/ or any other similar 

to be a god. * Hinc ' with ' profectnm ' pro- epithet pointing indirectly to the person 

bably, not with ' accipit.' For * Corythi ' intended, would have been a different 

see on 3. 170 : for ' Corythi Tyrrhena sede ' thing. * Numerum — addit/ on the other 

note on v. 207 just above. hand, in the sense of 'adds his number/ 

210.] 'Stellantis,' glittering with stars; or 'adds him as an item' (in prose ^'nQ« 

not fall of stars, winch would be "stel- meratillnmintei'divosqaialtariahabent"), 

latus." Lucr. 4. 212, " caelo stellante.'^ seems sufficiently Yirgilian, though no 

'Begia caeli' G. 1. 603. With 'solio one has supported this nse of 'numems' 

accipit' comp. *<toro accipit" 8. 177, pro- by any thing nearer than " sideris in nu* 

bably a local abl., like ** gremio accipiet '' merum " G. 4. 227, where see note. <Na- 

1. 685, though it may be modal. mero — i\^dit ' would be a possible reading': 

211.] "Accipies caelo" (deification) 1. but it is not easy to estimate its external 

290. On the other hand the deified per- authority, especially in our ignorance of 

-son is said '*deum vitam accipere" £. 4. the relation which Pal. bears to Gud.,aud 

15. If the present is to be pressed, we ' altaribus ' = « altaribus positis " would 

may say that it expresses here the per* periiaps be a little harsh. Those who 

petuityof the divine life, perhaps also the support 'auget' may quote Livy 1. 7» 

daily feasting. 'Numerum — addit:' the "Te (Herculem) mihi mater . . aucturum 

reading before Heins. was ' numenim — caelestium numerum cecinit, tibique aram 

augfet. He introduced 'numero — addit' hie dicatnm iri." 

ih)m Gud. (1st reading), the object of 212 — 248.] ' Ilioneus, as spokesman of 

'addit' being understood to be * ilium/ the embassy, explains that the Trojans 

Dardanus, who is added to the number of were come to ask leave to settle in their 

the grods by altars, i. e. by having altars ancient country, and presents the gifta 

raised to him. The editors since his time which Aeneas had sent.' 

have generally preferred 'numerum — 212.] Ilioneus ("maxumus Ilioneus") 

addit,' supposing it to be found in Bom., is the chief speaker before Dido 1. 521 

if not in Med., and explaining it ' adds his foil., and his speech here is in many points 

number to (or, as some appear to have an exact counterpart of his speech there, 

taken it, ' adds number to,' increases the * Voce secutus ' 1. 406. With ' dicta 

number of) the altars of the gods.' It voce secutus ' comp. " Teucri clamore se* 

now appears from Bibbeck that all the quuntur" 9. 686 note, 

uncials (fragm. Vat., Med., Pal., Bom.) 218.] "Egregium Veneris genus" be- 

read 'auget,' and all 'numerum/ except low v. 556, where however the words are 

perhaps Pal., which has ' numerum ' ironical. ' Fiuetibus acti ' 1. 833. 

altered into ' numero.' ' Numerum — 214.1 ' Subegit ' with inf. 8. 257, G. 4. 

addit ' is the second reading of Gud., and 85. ' Vestris ' not for *' tuts," but r^erring 

is found in two other of Bibbeck's cur- to the Latin nation. < Tectis ' was read 

sives. 'Auget' is no doubt the easier before Heins. : comp. 1. 627. 

reading : yet without saying that it is to 215.] This is an answer to "errore viae " 

be distrusted on that account, we may v. 199, as the line before is to " tempes- 

tftill urge, what was urged when the MS. tatibus acti." ' We have not strayed ftY>m 

testimony for it was unknown, that it our course by mistaking the stars or the 

looks like a correction by some one who landmarks' — the two things by which 

did not see that ' divorum ' belonged to they steered. Comp« 5. 25. ' Sidus ' how- 

' altaribus,' not to ' numero / and it may ever might conceivably stand for a storm 

farther be questioned whether the addi- (stormy season): see 11. 259. For <re- 

tion of 'altaribus/ with altars built ta gioae viae' see on 2. 737. 'Fallere re* 


Consilio banc omnes animisque volentibus urbem 

Adferimur^ pulsi regnis^ quae maxuma quondam 

Extreme veniens Sol aspiciebat Olympo. 

Ab love principium generis ; love Dardana pubes 

Gaudet avo ; rex ipse lovis de gente suprema^ 220 

Troius Aeneas^ tua nos ad limina misit. 

Quanta per Idaeos saevis effiisa Mycenis 

Tempestas ierit campos^ quibus actus uterque 

Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis, 

Audiit, et si quem tellus extrema refuso 225 

Submovet Oceano, et si quem extenta plagarum 

gione viae' (to deceive in or in respect of 223.] 'Qoibos fatis/ wbat were the 

the course) occurs ag^in 9. 385, where see fortunes (literally the destinies) of the 

note. struggle. " Acti fatis " 1. 32. 

216.] Contrast 1. 377, "Forte sua 224.] * Europae atque Asiae' explains 

Libjcis tempestas adpulit oris.' ' Omnes ' ' uterque orbis/ the two divisions of the 

expresses the national character of the world, Europe and Asia. This view of the 

movement. Comp. 3. 129, &c. 'Urbem Trojan war as a struggle between Europe 

adferimur' like "advehitur Teucros" 8. and Asia is quite un-Homeric, and arose in 

136. Greece after the Persian war. See Hdt. 1, 

218.] 'Extreme veniens Olympo' is the earlier chapters. With this image 

well explained by Gossrau : " Sol si vel ab oomp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 7, " GraeciaBarbariae 

extremo caelo venicbat, non videbat mains lento collisa duello." 

regnum: itaque maxumum erat in omni 225.] 'Tellus extrema refuso Oceano/ 

terrorum orbe." If there is any special the furthest land against which Ocean 

reference in ' extremo/ it must be to the beats, or, from which Ocean is beaten 

great kingdoms of the East. Comp. gene- back : — ' refuso Oceano ' being taken as 

rally Hor. Carm. Sec. 9 foil. For the an ablative of quality or attributive abla- 

legendary greatness of the Trojan empire tive with ' tellus.' The Ocean, as in 

comp. 2. 556. Hom. II. 24. 543 foil, is Hom., is supposed to encircle the earth, 

more moderate. the extremity of which accordingly repels 

219.] 'Ab love principium' was pro- it. For ' refuso ' see note on G. 2. 163, 

bably suggested to Yirg.'s ear by Aratus's " lulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso." 

'Ek Aihs kpx^ii^^<T9a (Phaen. 1) : comp. ib. Virg. had in his mind Britain or Thule, 

5, rov yhp koL y4vos icficy, and see note on though of course he could not put those 

E. 3. 60. names into the mouth of Ilioneus. ' Sub- 

220.] 'Avo/ generally an ancestor. Our movet' and 'dlrimit,' separate from the 

king Aeneas himself, who sent us hither, rest of the world : oomp. with Cerda, 

is descended from Jove, i. e. more imme- " penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos " E. 

diately through Venus. < Suprema 'is 1. 67 ; Prop. 3. 1. 17, " et si qua extremis 

not i.q. "ultimus" v. 49, but means tellus se subtrahit oris/' Wagn. and 

' most exalted,' as in 10. 350, " Boreae de Forb. think that the Ocean is said to be 

gente suprema." Comp. Plant. Most. 5. 2. ' refusus,' " quatenus ambiens insulam 

20, " quod faciunt summis nati generi- (Britain or Thule) in semet refund! vide- 

bus/' ' Supremus ' is a title of Jove, like tur j" and so Heyne, after Tumebus, in- 

H^tffTos, " summus :" see Fore. s. v. ' Su- terprets the expression like k^6^poo9 

premus.' So probably Enn. A. 184, 'Hiccavos in Hom. (II. 18. 399 &c.), the 

'•' Nomine Burrus, uti memorant, a stirpe only difference being that this last view 

supremo," which Virg. perhaps imitat^. supposes the Ocean to encircle the earth. 

" Genus ab love summo " 6. 123. " De But these interpretations will not agree 

gente " 5. 373. with the clearly parallel passage G. 2. 163. 

221.] ' Ad limina ' denotes the humility 226.] There is no elision after ' Oceano,' 

of supplicants. Comp. 6. 113, with many the word being treated in Greek. Comp. 

other instances. 3. 74, G. 1. 437. For the use of the 

■ 222.] For the imagery comp. 5. 693folL torrid zone as a type of remoteness comp. 


Quattuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui. 

Diluvio ex illo tot vasta per aequora veeti 

Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus 

Innocuum et eunctis undamque auramque patentem. 230 

Non erimus regno indecores, nee vestra feretur 

Fama levis, tantique abolescet gratia facti^ 

Nee Troiam Ausonios gremio exeepisse pigebit. 

Fata per Aeneae iuro dextramque potentem, 

Sive fide sen quis bello est expertus et armis : 235 

Multi nos populi, moltae — ne temne^ quod ultro 

6. 796 foil. The sentiment is repeated soverei^s.' Comp. 1. 572, "Voltis et 

from 1. 565 foil. For the zones comp. his mecumpariterconsidereregnisP" where 

0. 1. 233 foil. * Plagae ' of the zones Ov. as elsewhere what Dido offers is what 

M. 1. 48. Virg. may possibly have thought Ilioneas now asks. ' Nee vestra feretur 

of Lucr. 5. 4S1, '* Maxuma qua nunc se Fama levis.' ' Nor light will be the reputa- 

ponti plaga caerula tendit.'^ tion which our praises will g^n you among 

228.] ' Diluvio ' carries on the metaphor men.' A similar promise is made by Aeneas 

of ' tempestas ;' but we must take it of a to their benefiictress Dido 1. 607 foil. But 

swollen river or torrent, not of rain, which the clause, taken in connexion with the 

would be unpoetical. Comp. Hor. 4 Od. preceding one, may refer to the g^ry 

14. 25, ''Aufidus— saevit horrendamque accruing to the Latins from their union 

cultis Diluviem meditatur agris." * Cam- with the Trojans : in which case we may 

pes ' renders such a metaphor appropriate, comp. 4. 47 foil., and read ' tantive ' in the 

Some in Serv.'s time actually took ' di- next line. 

luvio ex illo ' with the preceding sentence, 282.] ' Levis :' " neque enim leve nomen 

" ex quo mundus est constitutus, hoc est, Amatae " below v. 581. ' Abolescet,' 

ex quo Chaos esse desiit.'' ' Per aequora ** apud nos." ** Et bene apud memores 

vecti ' 1. 376. veteris stat gratia facti ?" 4. 539. Bom. 

230.] Wagn. comp. the phrase "aqua and one of Bibbeck's cursives have ' tan- 

et igni interdicere." The sense of the tive,' which most editors prefer, 

passage apparently requires 'innocuum' 283.] Comp. 1. 68, "Ilium in Italiam 

to be taken actively, ' where we shall hurt portans." 

no one,' rather th^ passively, ' where no 234.] * Fata Aeneae ' like " Priami fa- 
one will hart us,' as Scrv. and others prefer torum 2. 554. Aeneas is of course 
(as in 10. 302) ; but Virg. may have in- throughout the Aeneid the special care of 
tended both senses. Ilioneus speaks of destiny. Compare the later Boman 
the shore, as he had already complained practice of swearing by the Fortune of the 
1. 540, "hospitio prohibemur arenae," emperor. "Perfortunas" isanacyuration 
referring here probably to the camp- in Cic's letters (Att. 5.11. 1 &c.). 'Dex- 
aettlement on the coast, which he may tram :' Dido adjures Aeneas " per dextram 
have thought was the destined city. See tuam " 4. 314. 

generally the passage from Cic. quoted on 235.] This line is appai*ently connected 

1. 540. The lines are almost translated closely with * potentem,' powerful whether 

in an excellent couplet in Dean Stanley's tried in friendship or in war. ' Fide,' 

Oxford Prize Poem, The GKpsies : *' They probably constructed like ' hello et armis ' 

clfum no thrones, they only ask to share with ' expertus,' though it might go with 

The common liberty of earth and air." ' potentem,' the construction being changed 

231.] ' Indecor ' or * indecoris ' is a in the next clause. Fabricius thinks Virg. 

rare word; Virg. however uses it in four has imitated Cic's language to Caesar (ad 

other places, 11. 423, 845., 12. 25, 679. Fam. 7. 5), " manum tuam istam et vic- 

< Begno ' is probably dat., on the analogy toria et fide praestantem." Comp. Dioneus 

of the construction of " decorus," which on Aeneas 1. 544. 

however is once found with an abl.. Plant. 236.] * Multi :* the only oflfer of the 

Mil. 3. 1. 25. Ilioneus apparently means kind actually mentioned in the Aeneid is 

« we shall be no disgrace to your kingdom,' that of Dido. 'Populi— gentes' is pro- 

not * we shall not be unworthy of being bably a mere verbal variation. * Ultro,' 


Praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba precantia — 

Et petiere sibi et voluere adiungere gentes ; 

Sed nos fata deum vestras exquirere terras 

Inperiis egere suis. Hinc Dardanus ortus ; 240 

Hue repetit iussisque ingentibus urg^et Apollo 

Tyrrhenum ad Thybrim et fontis vada sacra Numici. 

Dat tibi praeterea Fortunae parva prioris 

Munera, reliquias Troia ex ardente receptas. 

Hoc pater Anchises auro libabat ad aras ; 2i5 

Hoc Priami gestamen erat, cum iura yocatis 

More daret populis, sceptrumque sacerque tiaras 

Hiadumque labor vestes. 

that we become petitioners instead of being ("optimae notae" Heyne) readg'^Hnnc 

petitioned. repeti iussis ingentibos ni^get Apollo/' 

237.] For ' vittas * see note on v. 154 which we might snpport from 3. 129. 

and oomp. IL 1. 14, Sr^/c/uir' %x^^ ^^ With "iassis ingentibus" comp. "prae- 

X^P^' " Praeferimns manibns vittas ac cepta maxnroa ** 3. 546. 

verba' is a zengma : we may comp. 242.] For the Namicins see on v. 150. 

however Hosea 14. 2, "Take with yon 'Vada' here answers to 'stsgna' there, 

words." Bom. and others have 'et verba.' 'Sacra' need merely be an ordinary epi- 

' Precantia ' was restored by Heins. from thet of a foontain ; see on v. 83 above : 

Med., fragm. Vat., Pal. &c. The metrical Forb. ho^'ever thinks it may have an 

anomaly (for which see on 6. 33) has led anachronistic reference to the sanctity ac« 

here as there to various readings. Bom. quired by the river as the place where 

and others having ' precantum,' the Codex Aeneas disappeared. Perhaps it is best to 

Bigotianus of the 12th century ' pre- make ' ad lliybrim ' &c. epezegetical of 

eantis/ while a correction in ^gm. Vat. 'hue/ making 'iussisque ingentibus urguet' 

gives "vittasque precantia verba." Stat, a half parenthetical clause, as if it were 

Silv. 1. 4. 46 has "Dignariqne manus "iussis ingentibus urg^nens." "Tuscnm 

humiles et verba precantum." Tiberim " G. 1. 499. 

238.] 'Petiere' courted our alliance 243.] 'Dat.' The soverogn whose 

(comp. vv. 54v 55) ; nearly the same as umbassadors they are is easily understood, 

' voluere adiungere ' (comp. v. 57). "Mul- and therefore there is no need actually to 

tasque viro se adiungere gentis " 8. 13. go back for a nominative to v. 221 or 

2i39.] ' Fata deum ' may refer specifi- v. 234. ' Praeterea ' however goes back to 

cally to oracles, not generally to decrees ' mistt ' v. 221 : comp. 1. 647. Gossrau 

of the gods. The difference between the and Bibbeck think the passage imper- 

two senses however would not be great to feet. ' Fortunae prioris munera ' = " mu- 

Virg. " Desertas quaerere terras Auguriis nera quae prior Fortuna dedit." Comp. 

agimur divom " 3. 4. other passages where a thing which had 

240.] " Inperiis egere suis " 6. 463. been receiv^ as a present from one person 

"Hinc Dardanus ortus" 3. 167. is given as a present to another, e.g. 5. 

241.] 'Hue repetit,' 'reealh us hither.' 535 foil. 

Cic.(?) De Domo 57, " Vos, qui maxime 244.] " Munera praeterea Iliacis erepta 

me repetistis atque revocastis :" Cic. Brut, ruinis " 1. 647, a passage geneiiilly paralleL 

16. 63, " Lysias est Atticus, quamquam ' Beceptas ' 5. 80., 6. 111. 

Timaeus eum quasi Licinia et Mucia lege 245.] ' Aurum ' for a thing made of 

repetit Syracusas." This punctuation was gold. " Pleno se prolnit auro " 1. 739. 

introduced by Wagn. in accordance with Comp. also " pateris libamus et auro " G. 

the suggestion of Heyne, who however in 2. 192. 

his text adhered to the old punctuation, 246 — 248.] Seeon5. 758, "patribusdat 

placing no stop after * Dardanus,' and iura vocatis," and on 1. 293. Perhaps we 

making ' Dardanus ' the nom. to ' repetit. ought not to separate so sharply as is done 

The MS. known as Menagianus primus on the latter passage between giving laws 


Talibus Ilionei dictis defixa Latinus 

Obtutu tenet ora^ soloque inmobilis haeret^ 250 
Intentos volvens oculos. Nee purpura regem 
Fieta movet^ nee seeptra movent Priameia tantum^ 

Quantum in eonnubio natae thalamoque moratur^ 
Et veteris Fauni volvit sub pectore sortem : 

Hunc ilium fatis externa ab sede profeetum 255 
Portendi generum^ paribusque in regna vocari 

and giving judgment, fdnctions which in 8* oth* M<rta oifrc wporpiriyhs iy^fia. Enn. 
the heroic age would run very much into A. 1. It. 67., 3. fr. 4 seems to use " solum " 
each other. The sceptre is the peculiar in the sense of " solium :** but such a thing 
symbol of the judge in Horn., U. 1. 238., is not likely in Virg. 
18.505. 'Populis/ because there were 251.] "Volvens oculos" 12. 938, of 
several nations in his empire, 2. 555. Aeneas gazing on the fallen Tumus. 
' Gestamen ' is most appropriate tx) a thing Donatus notices the inconsistency between 
held with the hand, as a sceptre or shield 'intentos' and 'volvens,' but does not 
(3. 286^ "clipeum magni gestamen Aban- solve it, merely observing that those who 
tis"); and so "gerere'' 1.657, "sceptrum are in thought roll their e3'es. Virg.'s 
Bione quod gesserat olim :** but we have meaning seems to be that the face is fixed 
"gerere" applied to a diadem 12. 289. on the ground, but the eyes move. 
Ajsllionenssays'sceptrum — tiaras— vestes,' 'Begem' significant after 'purpura' ("pur- 
he must be supposed to hand over the para regum " 0. 2. 495, which, from the 
gifts ; and this may account for the some- context, may have been in the poet's mind 
what lax way in which the list of objects is here) : he is not moved by what would 
appended. This once was borne by Priam otherwise move a king, 
when he judged the people ; this sceptre, 252.] ' Picta,' embroidered. ' Soeptra 
this diadem, these robes, the work of Priameia :' see on v. 1 above. 
Trojan women. ' lliadum labor,' Hom. 253, 254.] ' Moratur,' is absorbed. " In 
fpya yvueuKwp, Tlie tiara or mitre (4. 216., solo Volscente moratur " 9. 439. ' Noa 
9, 616) is the Eastern head-dress, which tantum movent— quantum moratur ' ex- 
Virg., in a somewlfiit intermittent zeal for presses that he is too much absorbed in 
accuracy of costume,- attributes to the the thoughts suggested by the speech of 
Trojans. He is followed by Juv. 10. 267. llioneus to look up at his gifts. The 
fieyne rather ingeniously but needlessly words ' et — sortem ' are a part of the same 
oomp. " sceptrum Assaracique tiaras." thoughts, in which Latinus is buried and 

249—285.] ' Latinus is struck with the which prevent him from attending to the 
thought of the approaching f\xlfilment of gifts : the editors are therefore wrong in 
the prediction. He welcomes the Trojans, placing a semicolon after ' moratur.' ' Con- 
begs that Aeneas will come, and hopes he nubio :' see on 1. 73. ' Sortem,' oracle, 
will prove the destined son-in-law; and 4. 346. 'Veteris:' perhaps Virg. uses 
dismisses them with a present of horses the epithet rather in relation to himself 
for themselves and Aeneas.' and to his readers than to Latinus. See 

249.] ' Talibus Ilionei dictis,' abl. of also on v. 47 above, 

circumstance. Comp. v. 284, " Talibus 255.] * Hunc ilium,* " hunc esse ilium 

donis— dictisqne Latini," and see 2. 336. quern fata portendant." See note on v. 

'Defixa,' Kwrh, x^ophs 6fifxaTa ir^|ay, 11. 128. 'Fatis' with 'portendi.' 'Absede 

3.217. "Defixi ora tenebant" 8. 520. profeetum,' al)ove v. 209. 

See on 2. 1. It seems best to take ' obtutu ' 256.] ' Paribus auspiciis :' to be his col- 

adverbially, as equivalent to " obtutu in league in the kingdom : see on 4. 102. 

uno " 1. 4-99. It may be observed that the idea of two 

250.] ' Haeret :' Latinus remains seated kings would berepresented to a Roman mind 

(w. 169, 198), as Gossrau remarks ; but both by the joint reign of Romulus and 

Cerda may be right in supposing the Tatius, and by the image of a divided 

picture to be taken from Ulysses in II. 3. monarchy in the two consuls. Possibly 

1. c. In that case ' nee seeptra movent ' is here, though not in 4. 102, the reference 

an odd verbal coincidence with (rKTJirrpoy may be to magistrates created by equal 


Auspiciis j hulc progeniem virtute futuram 

Egregiam, et totum quae viribus occupet orbem. 

Tandem laetus ait : Di nostra incepta seeundent 

Auguriumque suum ! Dabitur, Troiane, quod optas. 260 

Munera nee spemo. Noji vobis, rege Latino, 

Divitis uber agri Troiaeve opulentia deerit. 

Ipse modo Aeneas, nostri si tanta cupido est. 

Si iungi hospitio properat sociusque vocari, 

Adveniat, voltus neve exhofrescat amicos. 265 

Pars mihi pa<;is erit dextrain tetigisse tyranni. 

Vos contra regi mea nunc mandata referte. 

Est mihi nata, viro gentis quam iungere nostrae 

Non patrio ex adyto sortes, non plurima caelo 

auspices, so that ' auspiciis * m&j go with and the presents sent imply. 

* vocari.* But to connect it with *regna' 264.] " Hospitio cum iungeret ahsens" 
seems hetter. 'Vocari/ by fate: see on 9. 361. 'Sociusque vocari:' comp. 11. 
8. 185, where it is joined with " por- 105. Fragmm. Vat. and Verona, Rom. &c. 
tendere/' and comp. 5. 656, "fatisque have 'sociusve.' 

vocantia regna." 265.] * Voltus amicos :' comp. Ov. M. 8. 

257.] The Codex Oblongns and the 677, " super omnia voltus Acoessere boni 

Medicean of Pierius have *hinc,' the read- nee iners pauperque voluntas,*' Aesch. Cho. 

ing before Heins., which is very plausible : 671, BiKodwy r* hfjifidrau irapovala. There 

comp. 1. 21. But all Ribbeck's MSS. give is apparently some playfulness in ' ex- 

* huic* horrescat ' and in the next line. 

258.1 Many MSS. (including one of 266.] 'Pars pacis,' a condition of, or 

Ribbeck's cursives) omit ' et,' and Heyne essential to, our league. In Ov. M. 9. 

would have preferred to do so. Wagn. 291, "pars est meminisse doloris," which 

thinks that it gives the clause an adjec- Thiel. comp., 'pars' is not =" magna pars," 

tival force; but this would be given in but means 'some of the pain I felt then 

either case by the subjunctive. "Totum comes back as I recall the past.' 'Tyranni* 

sub leges mitteret orbem " 4. 231, of is of course a term of the republican and 

Aeneas and his descendants. 'Occupet dramatic, not of the heroic and epic age. 

orbem viribus' like "occupat os saxo" Aeneas cites his having come in person, 

10. 699, "flammis" 12. 300, "manicis instead of sending ambassadors, to Evander 

iacentem occupat " G. 4. 440. as a special mark of confidence 8. 143. 

259.] ' Incepta,' because he now makes ' Dextram tetigisse,' Se^ms 0iy€7v, 

the first step towards his great object. 267.] ' Contra,' in reply, 1. 76. 

* Seeundent,' 3. 36. 268.] Serv. defends Latinus against ob- 

260.] ' Augurium,' the oracle of Faunus, jectors who thought it indelicate in the 

perhaps also the omen of the appearance king to offer his daughter, alleging both 

of the Trojans. the oracle and the manners of the heroic 

261.] Peerlkamp may be right in think- age (comp. with Heyne Alcinous Od. 6. 

ing that Latinus says 'nee spemo' 311 foil.); and Donatus has an amusing 

apologetically, as he had not heeded the note : " Verecunda oblatio et adversus 

gifts. ' Rege Latino ' like " te consule " omnem exprobrationem munita : ne forte 

is. 4. 11. Comp. "regem optatis Acesten" illud dici posset Terentianum (Andr. 1. 5. 

1. 570. 15), ' Aliquid monstri alunt, et quoniam 

262.] Instead of a pittance of ground nemini obtrudi potest, itur ad me.' " 

on the seashore (w. 229, 230) he will give 269.] ' Non sinunt '=" vetant." Comp. 

them a rich domain. "Ubere glaebae" oifK iav. Three of Burm.'s MSS. have 

1. 531. ' Troiae opulentia ' refers to v. 217. ' patriae,' which might be worth adopting. 

Pal. a m. s. and Gud. have ' Troiaeque.' if the authority were better. * Caelo,' in 

263.] * Si tanta cupido est,' 6. 133. or from the sky. 
' Tanta,' as great as the words of Ilionens 


Monstra sinunt; generos extemis adfore ab oris, 270 

Hoc Latio restare canunt, qui sanguine nostrum 

Nomen in astra ferant. Hunc ilium poscere fata 

Et reor, et, si quid veri mens augurat, opto. 

Haec efiatus equos numero pater eligit omni. 

Stabant ter centum nitidi in praesepibus altis. 275 

Omnibus extemplo Teucris iubet ordine duci 

Instratos ostro alipedes pictisque tapetis ; 

Aurea^pectoribus demissa monilia pendent ; 

Tecti auro, fulvum mandant sub dentibus aurum ; 

Absenti Aeneae currum geminosque iugalis 280 

Semine ab aetherio, spirantis naribus ignem, 

Dlorum de gente, patri quos daedala Circe 

271.] 'Hoc Latio restare '=*' hoc La- 4. 4. *Duci' as in 8. 552, *' ducunt 

tium manere" 'Such is the destiny of exsortem (equiim) Aeneae/' perhaps a mix- 

Latimn/ See 10. 29. Latinns par- ture of leading the horses and taking the 

tially repeats the words of the oracle, yv. gifts (5. 385 : see on 5. 534). 

97 — 99. ' Canunt,' " sortes et monstra." 277.] Lucr. 6. 765 has ** alipedes cervi." 

' Canunt * is strictly applicahle only to the For this nse of < alipes ' absolutely comp. 

former, bat it is nsed m the general sense '* sonipes." In 12. 484 ' eqnl ' is expressed, 

of predicting. The coming of Aeneas had ' Ostro pictisque tapetis, ' embroidered 

been predicted by portents as well as by purple housings. ** Equus tuns speciosius 

the oracle, v. 68. instratus erit quam uxor vestita ? " Livy 

272.] ' Hunc ilium esse quern fata 84. 7. From this line to v. 645 there is a 

poscunt.' See above v. 255. g^p in Pal. 

273.1 Comp. Soph. O. T. 1086, ftinp 278.] The *monile' is not the same as 

4yii> fAdyris elfiX koX Karh yvt&fiay npis. '* torquis," but a necklace, that is, either a 

273.] ' Opto,' I embrace its (fate's) string of beads, circles, &c., or a band with 

award. Comp. "optavit locum regno" drops. It is mentioned elsewhere as an 

(3. 109), ** extemos optate duces " (8. ornament of horses. Diet. A. ' Monile.' 

503), " non ego cuncta meis amplecti ver- 279.] * Auro,* " tapetis auro pictis." 

sibus opto " G. 2. 42, and Aesch. Ag. 1650 We have often purple (* ostro ') embroidered 

(according to the best reading), Sexo/x^votf with gold. * Fulvum,' red, the epithet 

\4yus 0avuy ac r^y Tvxt\v 9* alpoifieOa, in perhaps denoting the genuineness and 

which dexofityots is the ordinary word for richness of the metal (see on 2. 173), 

accepting an oracle or omen, and alpo6' though it may be merely an imitation of 

fi€0a involves a use of aiputrOai very like antique simplicity. Comp. generally 4. 

this of 'opto.' 134,135. 

274.] 'Numero,' abl. with 'eligit,' from 280.] * Iubet duci' is repeated from v. 

the whole number of horses, not, as Serv. 276. Vv. 278, 279, like v. 275, are paren- 

Buggests as an alteration, for the whole thetical, like "Tyriitenuere coloni" 1.12. 

number of Trojans (v. 273). Thus, it is • Iugalis ' subst. Sil. 16. 400. 

explained by * tercentum.' ** Omni ex 281.] Comp. the description (H. 5. 265 

numero " 1. 170. foil.) of the horses of Aeneas, which An- 

275.] 'Nitidi ' is perhaps to be explained chises had bred by stealth from descen- 

in connexion with 'praesepibus.' Comp. dants of those given to Tros by Zeus, 

G. 3. 214, " satura ad praesepia," and II. Trjs yevtris ^^Act^cy iya| ay^pwy ^Ayxlffris 

6. 506, &5 9* tir€ ris <rrarhs Tinros &<co- Ad,0pri Aao/xdioyros Oiroffx^y B'fl^easXirirovs. 

(TT-fiffas M <l>dryi^. ' Praesepibus altis ' like 282.] * Patri ' the Sun. Hence the horses 

" stabula alta " 9. 388. Latium has been are'spirantesnaribusignem,' like the horses 

. indicated as a horse-breeding country v. of Diomedes, Lucr. 5. 29, from which the 

189. Comp. G. 2. 145. words are taken. Fragm. Vat. has 'fla- 

276.] ' Omnibus,' the hundred ambassa- grantis.' * Patri creavit,' raised up to her 

dors, V. 154. 'Ordine,' successively, G. father, as the owner of the hoi-ses. '* Crearo 


Snpposita de matre nothos iiirata creavit. 

Talibus Aeneadae donis dictisque Latini 

Sublimes in equis redeunt, pacemque reportant. 285 

Ecce autem Inachiis sese referebat ab Argis 
Saeva lovis coniunx^ aurasque invecta tenebat^ 
Et laetum Aenean classemque ex aethere longe 
Dardaniam Siculo prospexit ab usque Pachyno. 
Moliri iam tecta videt, iam fidere terrae, 290 

Deseruisse rates. Stetit aeri fixa dolore. 
Turn quassans caput haec effiindit pectore dicta : 
Heu stirpem invisam^ et fatis contraria nostris 

prolem alicui " is said of a woman bearing 288.] Heins. read 'longo' from Med. and 

children to her husband (12. 271 &c.) : here apparently one other MS. The cormption 

it is applied to Circe» as the real agent, probably arose from ' aethere.' ' Longo ' 

' Daedalus/ a fiivoarite word with Lacr., might stand, nota8="longinqau8," which 

applied by Ennins (inc. lib. 21) to Minerra. seems nerer to be the case, but as indicating 

288.] 'Furata'i8^icA6i^€y,Il.l.c. In con- the length of the prospect, and it is con- 
struction it is taken closely with ' creavit ' firmed by Yal. F. 3. 43, Stat. Theb. 12. 
i. q. " furtim creavit." * Supposita de matre ' 659, quoted by Heins. (comp.G. 3. 223) : but 
is a translation of uiro<rx&>y BijKtas tmrovs, ' longe ' is simpler, has much greater au- 
' supposita' being further intended to thority, and is supported by Od. 5. 283, 
give, like * nothos,' a notion of spurious- rfi\6B€M ix 2oA^/a»v 6pt»v XBey. " Longe 
ness, being the word applied to illegitimate prospexit" occurs again 11. 909. 
children introduced into a family. Varro 289.] ' Prospexit,' from the air above 
B. R. 2. 8 has " suppositicia," apparently Pachynus : see v. 323. ' Ab usque' is found in 
of a mare suckling an ass's foal. Observe no prose writer but Tacitus, who imitates 
the use of ' pater ' and ' mater ' here, not as the Augustan poets. Comp. " ad usque " 
correlatives, and comp. E. 8. 49. 11. 262. " Trinacrii Pachyni " 3. 429. 

284.] Comp. V. 249, though here 'sub- 290.] 'Moliri tecta' v. 127: comp. 1. 

limes' may have a notion of "superbi." 424., 3. 132. 'Fidere terrae,' settle on 

285.] ' In equis,' 5. 554. " Arduus it, as safe and assured : comp. 3. 387, 

altis equis " v. 624 below. " Fidem re- " Quam tuta possis urbem conponere ter- 

portant " 11. 211. rae," and the use of" credere" v. 97 above. 

286 — 322.] ' Juno observes the landing Some inferior MSS. have ' sidere.' 

of the Trojans, compares her baffled efforts 291. ' Fixa dolore,' oi^ypai itfirapfieyos 

with the successes of other gods, and re- II. 5. 399. 

solves to retard what she cannot wholly 292.] Kirfi<ras 8^ icdpii irporl hp fiv0ii<raro 

prevent, by stirring up war.' 0vfi6v Od. 6. 285. " Caput quassans " 

286.] Juno passes over Pachynus on her Lucr. 2. 1164. 
return from Ai^ros to Carthage, as the 293.] ' Fatis contraria nostris lata 
gods were supposed to visit each of their Phrygum,' because the destinies of the 
favourite seats in the course of the year. Trojans and of Rome were contrary to, and 
See, among many other instances, 4. 143. conflicted with, those of Argos and Car- 
Here Virg. was thinking of the return of thage, which were the favourites of Juno. 
Poseidon from the Ethiopians, when he This is the chief cause of her hostility in 
sees Odysseus on the sea, Od. 5. 282 foil, the Aeneid. Comp. 1. 12 — 24. ' Fata 
' Inachius ' of Argos 11. 286. ' Referre se,' contraria fatis ' of course implies the idea 
2. 657 : comp. v. 700 below. With the fol- of a number of particular destinies acting 
lowing speech comp.Juno's speech 1.34 foil, like separate forces in the world, as op- 

287.] " Cara lovis coniunx," 4. 91. ' X^- posed to that of one universal law. Comp. 

nebat,' she had left the land and was w^ll 9. 133 foil., and Venus' words 1. 239, 

embarked (so to say) on the air. "Pelagus "fatis contraria fata rependens," where, 

tenuere rates " 5. 8. " Caelo invectus " though the fates spoken of are the pro- 

1. 155. sperous and adverse fates of Troy, the 



Fata Pliryguin ! num Sigeis occumbere campis^ 

Num capti potnere capi ? num incensa cremavit 295 

Troia viros ? medias acies mediosque per ignis 

Invenere viam. At, credo, mea numina tandem 

Fessa iacent, odiis aut exsaturata quievi — 

Qain etiam patria exeussos infesta per undai 

Ansa sequi, et profugis toto me opponere ponto. 300 

Absumptae in Teucros vires caelique marisque. 

Quid Syrtes, aut Scylla mihi, quid vasta Charybdis 

Profuit ? optato conduntur Thybridis alveo, 

Seeuri pelagi atque mei. Mars perdere gentem 

contrast is really tbe same, as the adverse 40, " sapere ande." ' Toto ponto :' Juno 

fates of Troy would be the prosperous means that she had proved their enemy in 

fates of its enemies. evety pctrt of the deep : but the contest is 

7 294i] This oxymoron is borrowed from represented as extending over the whole 

Enn. A. 11. fr. 3 (preserved by Macrob. deep, to give an increased notion of grandeur. 

Sat. 6. 1)^ '* Quae neque Dardanils cam- 801.] Comp. G. 8. 178 note. Cerda 

peis potuere perire. Nee, cum capta, capi, quotes Catull. 62 (64). 242, " Anxia in 

nee, cum combusta, cremari.'' Heyne re- adsiduos absumens lumina fletus." " Cae> 

marks that Virg. has here imitated the lique marisque " 5. 802. 

rhetorical point and spirit of the tra- 802.] The form of the line is from 

gedians, especially of Euripides. See In- Catull. 62 (64). 156, ** Quae Syrtis, 

troduction to Aeneid. ** Iliacis occumbere quae Scylla rapax, quae vasta Charybdis," 

eampis'^ 1.97. The whole Troed is sup- as Pierius remarks. 

posed to take it^ name irom the Sigean 303.] ** Portu so condidit alto " 6. 243. 

promontory (2. 812), as in 3. 106 from ' Alveo ' dissyll. 6. 412. 

the Rhoeteftn. The object of < potuere oc- 304.] ' Securus ' with gen. 1. 350.- 

cumbere ' is ' Phryges,' not < capti,' ' Mars' &c. So in 1. 37 foil. Juno compares 

which is confined to the next clause. For her case with that. of Minerva, who had 

the general sentiment of the iudestructi- been permitted to destroy the Greek fleet 

bility of the Trojan race comp. the well- for the sin of Ajax, son of Oileus. Serv. 

known lines Hor. 4 Od. 4. 49 foil. well remarks that she here chooses in- 

296.] Comp. 2. 632 folL, 664, Hor. stances of destruction by war as there by 

Carm. Sec. 41 foil., and for the preposition shipwreck. The quari'el between the Cen- 

with the second of two substantives 5. taurs and. Lapithae at the marriage of 

612., 6. 692. Peirithous (in which the Lapithae were 

297.] ' Numina ' plural of a single god, victorious) is generally, and by Virg. him- 

3. 543, G. 1. So. With the case ironically self (G. 2. 456), ascribed to the influence 

put here comp. the more serious language of Bacchus. The only light on this pas- 

of Hera II. 4. 26 foil. sage seems to be derived from Serv., who 

298.] " laceant perculsa " 11. 810. has a story that Peirithous invited all the 

' Odiis exsaturata quievi :' comp. 5. 781, gods but Mara to the marriage feast, and 

784, 786. that Mars in revenge for the slight 

299.] 'Ansa' is constructed with 'qui- brought about the quarrel : but this looks 

evi.' She negatives the ironical supposi- suspiciously like an adaptation of the very 

tion that the escape of the Trojans was similar story of Diana's vengeance on 

owing to her inactivity by pointing to Oenens of Calydon, who had omitted to 

what she has done. Peerlkamp inge- sacrifice to her when he sacrificed to all 

nioasly conjectures ' quaene,' which Kib- the other gods, II. 9. 533 foil. The ascrip- 

beck supposes to be really identical with tion of a bloody quarrel to Mars is natural 

' quin.' " Ausus quin etiam " 2. 768. enough, as the Greeks made him the au- 

* Exeussos,' forced out of, 9. 68. thor of violent deaths of all sorts (Aesch. 

300.] * Ansa,* VXoo-a,* I who brought my- £um. 355), and even of pestilence (Soph, 

self to follow them.' Comp. 8. 364, " Aude, 0. T. 191). 
hospes, contemnere opes," Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 


Inmanem Lapithum valuit ; concessit in iras 305 

Ipse deum antiquam genitor Calydona Dianae ; 

Quod scelus aut Lapithas tantum^ aut Calydona merentem ? 

Ast ego, magna lovis coniunx, nil linquere inausum 

Quae potui infelix, quae memet in omnia verti, 

Yincor ab Aenea. Quod si mea numina non sunt 3io 

Magna satis, dubitem baud equidem inplorare quod usquam 

Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acberonta movebo. 

805.] < Inmanem ' (gigantic) and * an- that the first was the original reading, that 

tiquam ' seem used to magnify the great- the second was introduced by some one 

ness of the enemies whom Mars and Diana who did not understand the construction 

had been permitted to destroy, compared (Pomponius Sabinus, retaining the accu- 

with Aeneas — " Vincor ab Aenea." * Dianae * satives, attempts to supply " vidisti "), and 

seems to be dat. after * concessit/ " in iras ** that the third is simply a mixture of the 

meaning ' for purposes of vengeance/ two. Bibbeck imagines that Virg. him- 

306.] * Ipse deum genitor/ as Minerva self left a choice of readings, the first and 

is said to have wielded the thunderbolt second. The inferior MSS. multiply the 

of Jove, 1. 42. variations almost indefinitely. * Quod scelus 

307.] The reading of this line is not merentem,' a variety for ''cuius soeleris 

certain. In Priscian's time, as appears poenas merentem /' see on 2.229, and for a 

irom his words p. 1081, there were three further variety comp. 2. 685. 

readings, * Lapithas — Calydona meren- 808.] Comp. 1. 46, " Ast ego quae divom 

tem,' 'Lapithis— Calydone merente,' and incedo regina Jovisque Et soror et con- 

* Lapithis — Calydona merentem.' Pris- iunx." * Inausum ' reminds us of * ansa * 

dan thinks that the third can be ex- v. 300. The word occurs 8. 205. 

plained as a double construction, but pre- 309.] * Potui,* * stooped to,* which har- 

fers the first or second. Serv. is for the monizes with 'infelix/ So perhaps 'potui' 

second, as the only one which will make 4. 600, ' had the heart to,' " non potui " 

sense, but as he does not expressly mention being explained like " non licuit ** 4. 

the two others, merely objecting to reading 550. ' Quae memet in omnia verti,* who 

' Calydona,* it is not clear whether he is have taken every shape, i.e. tried every 

arguing against one or both. Of the MSS. mode of opposition. Comp. Hdt. 3. 124 

Bom. is for the second, unequivocally ; ircanoiri iylvtro /x^ &iro8i}/A^(rai rhv IIoXu- 

fragm. Vat. is for the third, though its Kpdrta, 'Cerda comp. "Verte omnis tete 

original reading was ' Calydo / Med. was in facies *' 12. 891, where Aeneas defies 

originally for the second, except that it Tumus to escape him. 

read ' merentes,* but its second reading 310.] ' I am defeated by one man,* as in 

is for the first; Gud. was originally for the 1. 47 she complains that she cannot prevail 

third, but ' merentem ' has been altered over a single nation (" una cum gente tot 

into ' merente.* Heins. restored the first, annos bella gero **), while Minerva could de- 

and subsequent editors have followed him : stroy the whole confederate fieet of Greece. 

Bibbeck however recalls the second. The 311.] " Namque aliud quid sit, quod 

first is decidedly to be preferred to the iamimplorarequeamus?**10.19. Judo here 

second, as at once neater and more difficult, expresses euphemistically what she says 

while in external authority they appear plainly in the next line. Thisuse of 'usquam' 

to be equal. If the third could be ex- in an affirmative sentence for "uspiam**is 

plained, it might easily be defended on rare and perhaps poetical. Freund cites 

external grounds, as the original reading Ov. M. 12. 41, " Unde quod Wi usquam, 

which was altered in two ways for the quamvis regionibus absit, Inspicrtur/* 

sake of symmetry : but there is nothing 812.] Heyne quotes Aesch. Suppl. 160 — 

in the context to supply any construction 168, as containing a parallel sentiment, 

for ' Lapithis,* and to understand it as an There is almost a play on the sense of 

abl. abs., borrowing ' merentibus * from ' movebo,* which = ' fiectere ' (" Quo fietu 

'merentem,* would be quite impossible. Manis, qua numina voce moveret P** G. 4. 

The most probable view then seems to be 505), and at the same time has the notion 



Non dabitur regnis, esto, prohibere Latinis^ 
Atque inmota manet fatis Lavinia coniunx : 
At trahere, atque moras tantis licet addere rebus; 315 
At licet amborum populos exscindere regum. 
Hac gener atque socer coeant mercede suorum. 
Sanguine Troiano et Rutulo dotabere, virgo, 
Et Bellona manet te pronuba. Nee face tantum 
Cisseis praegnans ignis enixa iugalis ; 320 

Quin idem Veneri partus suus et Paris alter, 
Funestaeque iterum recidiva in Pergama taedae. 
Haec ubi dicta dedit, terras horrenda petivit : 

of stirring up or setting in action. Virg. Hecuba the daughter of Cisseus. Horn, 

may have thought of the phrase irdyra II. ]6. 718 makes her the daughter of 

Kiveiu iTfTpoy, which Cerda comp., and of Dym&9, in which he is followed by Ov. M. 

the language of Zeus to Hera II. 8. 478 11. 762. This legend of Hecuba's having 

foil. dreamed that she was pregnant with a 

313.] * Regnis Latinis/ from becoming burning torch before she brought forth 

king of Latium : he had already found Paris is alluded to by Enn. Alex. fr. 8, and 

entrance into the territory. * Esto * 4. by Cic. de Div. 1. 21. * Ignis iugalis/ the 

35. conflagration caused by the union of Paris 

314.] * Lavinia coniunx/ his marriage and Helen, which Hecuba is said to have 

with XJavinia. ''Manent inmota tuorum brought forth in bringing forth Paris. 

Fata tibi " 1. 257. ' Fatis ' is here abl. The torch seems to have portended mar- 

of instr. or circumstance with ' manet.' riage, which was the source of the con- 

315.] For the notion that fate cannot flagration, as well as the conflagration itself, 

be averted, but can be delayed, comp. And this wiU give a double sense to ' taedae' 

1. 299, Hdt. 1. 91. ' Tantis ' seems meant below. 

to give a natural reason why they might 321, 322.] Venus shall have (or, has) 

be delayed. ' Trahere ' seems better taken such another offspring of her own. What 

with "res" than * moras/ though "trahere follows is an explanation of * idem partus/ 

moram " is found. With ' moras addere ' * et ' being epexegetic, and * taedae ' an- 

Qossrau comp. Ov. Her. 19. 8, " parvi tern- swering to * face.' * Quin ' confirms and 

poris adde moram." adds to what has gone before. The parallel 

316.] Sheincludes Latinusinher enmity, is of course between Paris and Helen on one 

and threatens in fact that he and Aeneas side and Aeneas and Lavinia on the other, 

should be kings without nations. Aeneas is called a second Paris in a dif- 

317.] * Mercede suorum ' may either be fcrent connexion by larbas 4. 215. 

price paid by their subjects, or their sub- * Funestae ' seems to be an epithet, not a 

jects paid as a price by themselves, predicate, and ' in Pei*gama ' is constructed 

The latter is perhaps better. For in- with * taedae,' or with the verbal notion 

stances of this sense of * merces ' as the which has to be supplied to the sentence, 

cost of an advantage see Fore. ' Recidiva :' note on 4. 344. 

318.] Comp. for 'sanguine dotabere' 323 — 340.] 'Juno calls up the Fury 

Aesch. Ag. 406, irfowd r* (*E\4yn) ^vrl^ AUecto, and bids her sow enmity between 

<f>€pyov *lki<fi (pdopdy. For ' Rutulo ' we the Latins and the Trojans.' 
should have expected ' Latino :' but Juno 323.] Juno follows her complaint, as in 

has passed irom the thought that the Book 1., by appealing for aid to one of the 

people of the two kings shall be destroyed inferior powers ; but her appeal to the 

to the more general thought that the powers of hell is of course the last resort 

bridal shall take place after bloodshed. and shows that destiny is about to be 

319.] * Tantum :' nor is Heciib^ the only accomplished. * Ubi * is constructed, like 

one that gives birth to a firebrands " Face *' postqnam/' with the perf. in some cases 

praegnans Cisseis " 10. 704. ' \ where we should use the pluperf. See 

320.] Virg., like Euripides, and (accord* Madv. § 338 b. * Horrenda ' apparently = 

ing to Serv.) Ennius and Pacuvius, makes *' torva," as in 11. 507. 



Luctificam Allecto dirarum ab sede dearum 

Infemisque ciet tenebris^ cui tristia bella 325 

Iraeque insidiaeque et crimina noxia cordi. 

Odit et ipse pater Pluton, odere sorores 

Tartareae monstrum : tot sese vertit in ora. 

Tarn saevae facies^ tot pullulat atra colubris. 

Quam luno his acait verbis^ ae talia fatur : 330 

Hunc mihi da proprium, virgo sata Nocte, laborem, 

Hanc operam^ ne noster honos infractare cedat 

324.] * Allecto' for *Alecto,' like Homer's relative of 'pater.* Other accounts as- 

iWriKTov iro\€fii(€i¥ for i\riKroy, So signed a different parentage to the Faries 

Orph. Arg. 966, Titri<p6yri re <ra) 'AXXriicrif (see Diet. M. 'Eumenides'), Sery.e.g. speak - 

jcal STa Mtyaifta. The names of the Furies ing of them as daughters of Acheron and 

are not given in the poets before the Night. We must suppose them then in 

Alexandrine period, MuUer Diss. Eum. Yirg.'s view to be the children of Pluto 

§ 78. For ' dearum/ * sororum ' was the and Night, though to a Greek this would 

old reading and that of Heyne, and is sup- have involved a confusion between the 

ported by Med. second reading, Rom., and older and younger gods. ' Fluton/ the 

Gud. second reading. Wagn. introduced Greek form : so Hor. 2 Od. 14. 7, " illacri- 

' dearum ' from fragm. Vat., Med. first mabilem Plutona." 

reading, and Gud. first reading. 'Sororum ' 328.] * On,* aspects, nearly the same'as 

is less likely, on account of * sorores * fol- ** voltus ;" * facies,' forms. " Faciem mu- 

lowing so near in v. 327, and was probably tatus et ora '' 1. 658. * Tot sese vertit in 

introduced from v. 454. We have " dea ora ' seems to be an allegorical expression 

dira " 12. 914. ' Dira ' is sometimes used parallel to " tibi nomina mille, mille no- 

absolutely as a name for the Furies, 4. 473, cendi artes " v. 337. This multiformity is 

610. ' Dims ' appears to mean rather a substantive jmrt of the Fury's horrors, 

awiiil and appalling than horrible (see 8. and there is no need to fetch an epithet for 

350), so that 'dirae deae' would nearly <ora' either from 'saevae' or from the 

correspond to crc^vol Seed. ' Luctificus ' general context. Comp. generally v. 447 

occurs in Cicero's translation from Aesch. below, " tot Erinys sibilat hydris, Tantaque 

Prom. Unbound, Tnsc. 2. 10. Comp. se facies aperit." 

" luctificabilis," Pers. 1. 78. 329.] 'Atra' belongs in sense to 'colu- 

325.] 'Infemisque tenebris' epexege- bris.' Bom. and some other MSS. have 

ticaL ' Tristia bella ' E. 6. 7, Hor. A. P. ' ora.' 

73. 330.] Bom., Gud., and others have 

326.] ' Irae ' denotes open violence, op- ' dictis ' for * verbis.' 

posed to ' insidiae,' treachery. Comp. the 331.] Comp. 12. 846, Aesch. Eum. 

use of "irasci" for attacking, 10. 712. 69, Nuwr^s iraXatal irai8cs. 'Proprium,' 

'Crimina,' grounds of quarrel, and so especial, for herself alone (see the next 

quarrels simply. Comp. " crimina belli " line) ; opposed to the duties of Allecto in 

V. 339. the moral world. Donatus explains ' pro- 

327.] Comp. Aesch. Eum. 73 (Apollo of prium' peculiar to thyself: "ergo non 

the Erinnyes), Murfifiar* iivZp&v xai $€&y laborabis, quia nihil peto alienum a te," an 

'Okvfivlwv. Virg. was also thinking of interpretation also given by Serv. as an 

II. 20. 65, rd re arvy fovtrt $€ol irtp, alternative. ' Dare laborem ' on the ana- 

Heyne comp. II. 5. 890 (Zeus to Ares), logy of " dare munus " &c., combined with 

*'Ex<>«rToj Be iioi itral 9t&v, o\ "OKvfivoy **dare operam," which is a phrase for 

Uxovaiy Aiel ydp roi fyis re (plKri, irS- taking trouble. Bom. has 'labomm,' 

X'ffiol re /idxat t€, from which vv. 325, 6 which could not well stand. There is the 

are evidently taken. Virg.'s sentiment is, same variety in E. 10. 1. 

of course, stronger than either. 'Pater' 332.] For the sentiment comp. 1. 48, 

is probably to be understood strictly, as " Et quisquam numen lunonis adorat,'' &c, 

Orph. Hymn. 69 calls the Eumenides ayyai The construction of ' ne ' after ' dare 

Bvyaripes ficyd\oto Aths xBovioio ^tpae- operam ' is common. ' Infracta cedat loco ' 

if>6yris T*, and ' sorores ' is the natural cor- is well explained by Heyne as an ampli- 


Fama loeo, neu connubiis ambire Latinum 

Aeneadae possint^ Italosve obsidere finis. 

Tu potes unanimos armare in proelia fratres 335 

Atque odiis versare domos, tu verbera tectis 

Punereasque inferre faces, tibi nomina mille, 

Mille nocendi artes. Fecundum concute pectus, 

Disiice conpositam pacem, sere crimina belli ; 

Arma velit poscatque simul, rapiatque inventus. 340 

Exin Gorgoneis AUecto infecta yenenis 
Principio Latium et Laurentis tecta tyranni 
Celsa petit, tacitumque obsedit limen Amatae, 

fication of ^nfringatar" or "inminuatar." anything in it. See Macleane's note on 

It is opposed of course to establishment on Hor. 1 S. 3. 34, ** denique te ipsnm Con- 

a solid foundation. We may contrast Lucr. cute/' which Heyne oomp. There may be 

5. 1164, ''Quae nunc in magnis florent sacra a further notion of arousing what is dor- 

rebu' locisque." " Loco cedit " 9. 220. mant. Gossrau quotes an imitation in 

333.] ' Neu connubiis/ &c. would appeal Sil. 2. 539 foil., where Juno similarly 
to the malignity of the Fury. Comp. v, excites Tisiphone against the Romans, 
329. 'Ambire Latinum connubiis' may "quidquid scelerum, poenarum quidquid 
be simply construed to conciliate Or gain et irae Pectore fecundo coquitur tibi, con- 
over Latinus by this marriage ; though gere praeceps In Rutulos, totamque £rebo 
there may be also a reference to " ambire demitte Saguntum." 
connubium," like " ambire magistratum." 339.] * Disiice * = ** rumpe." Sil. 2. 
The plural 'connubiis' (their marriages) 295 has "disiectaque pax est," doubtless 
perhaps has something of bitterness in it, an imitation. 'Pacem conponere' occurs 
as also has ' obsidere,' to beset. again 12. 822. ' Sere crimina ' like " serit 

335.] ' Unanimes,' the reading before, rumores " 12. 228. 
Heins., is found in one of Bibbeck's 340.] Juno says in effect, ' Cause a sud- 

cursiires. den quarrel that may lead to bloodshed 

336.] * Versare ' hardly = " vertere," to before Aeneas and Latinus can interpose/ 
overturn (v. 407), but rather i.q."turbare." The wish, the demand, and the taking of 
' Verbera ' and ' faces ' are the whips and the demand for granted are to be con- 
torches of the Furies (comp. w. 451,457), temporaneous. "Arma volunt" 12. 242. 
and here that which the whips and torches ' Poscat,' apparently of Latinus and Ae- 
allegorize, whether the madness of crime neas, like " helium poscunt " below v. 584. 
or the fires and lashes of remorse. ' Fune- Some of Pierius' MSS. gave " Troiana 
reas * is only the same as " atro " v. 456 inventus " for ' rapiatque inventus/ 
and "atris" 4. 384. Another view makes 341 — 372.] 'iJlecto goes to Latinus' 
' verbera ' quarrels and ' fiinereas faces ' palace, and plants a snake in the bosom 
the funerals of those who are slain. But of the queen, who inveighs against the 
besides the fact that ' verbera ' and ' feces ' Trojan alliance, reminds her husband of 
are the undoubted attributes of the Fury, his promise to Tumus, and attempts to 
' verbera ' is never used in Virg. in the explain away the oracle.' 
general sense of blows, but only of a whip 341.] ' Infecta venenis ' instead of 
or lash. " cincta serpentibus veneno infectis," be- 

337.] 'Nomina mille' alludes to the cause the venomous serpents on her head 

variety of names, expressive of their were part of herself, vv. 346, 450. Comp. 

various attributes, which were given to Claud, in Bufin. 1. 66, " tortos serpentum 

the goda, and from which they were called erexit hiatus, Noxiaque effudit ooncusso 

iroKvdtfvfioi, * Your power is felt under a crine venena." * Qorgoneis ' is properly 

thousand names ;' a reason why she would an epithet of the serpents, like those of 

find it easy to gratify Juno. Medusa. 

338.] ' Concute :' the metaphor is pro- 342.] ' Tyranni :' v. 266 above, 
bably from the shaking of a cloak, or some- 343.] ' Tacitum ' has been interpreted 

thing of the same kind, to see if there is either as in a retired part of the house 

D 2 


Quam super adventu Teucrum Turnique hymenaeis 

Femineae ardentem curaeque iraeque coquebant. 345 

Huic dea caeruleis unum de crinibus anguem 

Coniicit inque sinum praecordia ad intima subdit. 

Quo furibunda domum monstro permisceat omnem. 

lUe, inter vestes et levia peetora lapsus, 

Volvitur attactu nuUo, fallitque furentem, 350 

Vipeream inspirans animam ; fit tortile coUo 

Aurum ingens coluber, fit longae taenia vittae, 

Innectitque comas, et membris lubricus errat. 

Ac dum prima lues udo sublapsa veneno 

and BO silent, or as lonely, because Amata agency, like "quo motu" G. 1. 329 note, 

was sitting apart to indulge her melan- * Domum permisceat' like "versare do- 

choly. It may however have reference to mos *' above v. 336. 
the silence of night. Comp. v. 413, where 349.] * Levia * gives the reason of ' vol- 

AUecto visits Tumus at midnight. * Ob- vitur attactu nuUo,' as * furentem ' does of 

sedit' implies hostility. *Limen' is the *fallit:' and throughout the passage there 

threshold of Amata's room; and as the is an eflfort of ingenuity to sustain the 

rooms were very small there is no incon- physical probability. The serpent takes 

gruity in the idea of the Fury reaching the form of the serpentine " torquis '* and 

Amata where she was lying without pass- * taenia,* and it infuses its venom by the 

ing the threshold. For the threshold as breath, not with the tooth. " Inter pateras 

the seat of the Furies comp. 4. 473., 6. 563. et levia pocula serpens '* 5. 91. Rora. and 

344.] * Super* as in v. 358 below, 1. some of Pierius' MSS. have 'levia cor- 

750 &c. pora.' * Devia * is rather an ingenious 

345.] The sense of * coquebant ' is fixed variety in one MS., the Rottendorph. tert. 
by 'ardentem' as being nearly i. q. "in- 350.] *Attactu8,* a very rare word, 

flammabant," perhaps with a further notion found only in the abl. sing. Freund. 

of agitation, as in the simile vv. 462 foil. * Fallit,' passes unnoticed by her. * Fallit,' 

The sense therefore is not the same as though governing 'furentem,* is to be 

Tecrtreiv x^^^^* t» digest, smother one*s joined with 'inspirans,' tXaBev elffirviwv, 

anger. Virg. probably thought of the as Heyne suggests. Gossrau comp. Lucan. 

well-known lines of Ennius (A. 10. fr. 5), 6. 64, " Prima quidem surgens operum 

" O Tite, si quid ego adiuero curamve structura fefellit Pompeium." With the 

levasso Quae nunc te coquit et versat in general character of the passage we may 

pectore fixa, Ecquid erit praemi?" comp. 1. 688, "Occultum inspires ignem 

346.] * Coniicere ' with dat. below v. fallasque veneno." 
456. " Caeruleos inplexae crinibus anguis *' 351.] * Vipeream animam,* not, a spirit 

G. 4. 482 : see on G. 1. 236. The identity like that of a serpent, but, its poisonous 

of the hair and the serpents is shown here breath. " Inspirantque gravis animas " 

partly by the epithet * caeruleus,* partly Ov. 1. c, who adds characteristically " nee 

by the expression * unum de crinibus an- volnera membris UUa ferunt : mens est 

guem * instead of " unum de anguibus ** or quae diros sentiat ictus.*' * CoUo ' probably 

" de crinibus." Gossrau comp. Ov. M. 4. a local abl. (see on v. 140 above), rather 

495, where the description of the agency than, as in 1. 654, a dative, 
of the Fury upon Ino and Athamas is 352.] 'Tortile aurum,' i. q. "torquis." 

throughout modelled on Virg., though Heyne remarks that " torques *' in the form 

Ovid's luxuriant fancy contrasts signifi- of serpents often appear in ancient art. 

cantly with Virg.'s self-restraint. The ' taenia ' was the end of the ribbon 

347.] The meaning expressed in full forming the ' vitta,' which hung down in 

would be " subdit in sinum ita ut ad prae- serpentine undulations. ' Ingens coluber ' 

cordia perveniat." is the subject. 

348.] 'Furibunda' (Amata) with ' mon- 353.] * Innectit comas,' as being changed 

stro.' 'Monstro' may refer specifically into the * vitta.' 
to the serpent or generally to the whole 354.] 'Prima pertemptat* &c. 'is but 


Pertemptat sensus atque ossibus inplicat ignem, 355 

Necdum animus toto percepit pectore flammam^ 
MoUius, et solito matrum de more, locuta est, 
Multa super nata lacrimans Phrygiisque hymenaeis : 
Exsulibusne datur dueenda Lavinia Teucris, 
O genitor ? nee te miseret gnataeque tuique ? 360 

Nee matris miseret, quam primo aquilone relinquet 
Perfidus, alta petens abducta virgine, praedo ? 
At non sic Phrygius penetrat Lacedaemona pastor 

beginning to penetrate/ 'prima' being 360.] Wagn. restores 'gnatae* for 'na- 

in sense adverbial. It is difficult to say tae' from Med., Horn. &c. See on 2. 

whether 'udo vencno' is to be taken as a 663. She calls him 'genitor/ as she calls 

material abl. with 'lues/ or as an abl. of herself 'mater * v. 361. 

the mode or form with ' sublapsa' or 'per- 361.] She looks upon Aeneas as a royer, 

temptat.' ' Udo ' is another attempt to who has no intention of settling, and treats 

make the thing physically credible, the the marriage as an abduction, like those 

moist breath of the serpent being supposed at the beginning of Hdt. 1. ' Primo aqui- 

to penetrate her frame. lone/ with the first fair wind. She ex- 

355.] "Ossibus inplicet ignem'' 1. 660 pects him to be going southward, though 

note. it is perhaps better not to press the word. 

356.] The 'animus' is the dweller in 362.] "Alta petens" 5. 508, G. 1. 142, 

the 'pectus/ like the "anima" 11. 409. in different senses. 

"Cunctoconcepit pectore flammam"Catull. 363.] * At non' Rom., Gud., 'an non* 

62 (64). 92, comp. by Cerda. Rom. has Med., which Ribbeck adopts. Serv. re- 

' concepit ' here. ' cognizes both. The same expression occurs 

357.] Med. and Gud. a m. pr. omit 9. 144, where there is the same variety of 

'est.' reading, though the authority for 'at 

358.] ' Natae ' Med. &c., ' nata ' Rom., non ' there is greater. Those who adopt 

Gud. a m. sec., and some others, in- 'at non' make the sentence here an ironical 

eluding the Balliol MS. Pal. and the affirmation, there an interrogation: yet 

Vatican and Verona fragments are want- the two cases are obviously parallel. On 

ing. ' Nata ' is the common reading, the whole the interrogation seems best in 

Wagn. restored ' natae,' and later ecU- both places, though it is not easy to decide, 

tors have followed him. But ' natae There is a passage in the Batrachomyo- 

Phrygiisque hymenaeis' for " natae Phry- machia vv. 78 foil, which might be pleaded 

gisque hymenaeis " would be a little for making the sentence here affirmative : 

hai*sh, though not unexampled ; and ' na- but there the mouse seems to say seriously 

tae' may have arisen from 'gnatae' just that his passage on the frog's back is not 

below. ' Nata ' would point to the per- so safe and pleasant as Europa's on the 

sonal peril of her daughter, ' Phr^giis back of the bull. For ' at ' in questions see 

hymenaeis' to the impolicy of a foreign Hand Turs. vol. 1. p. 438. Virg. thought 

alliance, both which motives are urged in of 11. 3. 46 foil., where roi6(rJi€ idtv answers 

Amata's speech. One or two MSS. have to ' sic ' here, though the sense is different. 

" natae Turnique hymenaeis " from v. * Penetrat ' has been supposed to be a con- 

398 (comp. V. 344 above), which may tracted form of "penetravit" (see on 5. 

further account for ' natae,' though of 57), but it is merely the historic present, 

course it might be used to justify that 'Penetrat' implies difficulty, which suits 

reading. Amata's feelings, as she wishes to show the 

359.] ' Exsulibus :* the pi. is contemp- difference of the habits of the roving 

tuous, and points the general objection Phrygian and those of the peaceful Latin : 

to the alliance. ' Datur ' closely with ' du- it may also have a notion of secrecy and 

cenda.' " Tibi ducitur uxor " 8. 29. Pier, stealth, G. 2. 504. "Phrygius pastor:" 

says that some old MSS. have " Exsulibus comp. Hor. 1 Od. 15. 1. Forb. comp. 

dueenda datur Lavinia Teucris," which is Bion 2. 10, Upwatre rhv *E\4vav iroff 6 

the usual quantity. See however 1. 255, fiovK6\os. 
270 &c. 


Ledaeamque Helenam Troianas vexit ad urbes ? 

Quid tua sancta fides ? quid cura antiqua tuorum 365 

Et consanguineo totiens data dextera Tumo ? 

Si gener externa petitur de gente Latinis^ 

Idque sedet^ Faunique premunt.te iussa parentis^ 

Omnem equidem sceptris terram quae libera nostris 

Dissidet, extemam reor, et sic dicere diyos, 370 

Et Tumo, si prima domus repetatur origo, 

Inachus Acrisiusque patres mediaeque Mycenae. 

His ubi nequiquam dictis experta Latinum 
Contra stare videt, penitusque in viscera lapsum 
SerpentiB furiale malum, totamque pererrat, 375 

Turn vero infelix, ingentibus excita monstris. 

364.] ^'Ledaeam Hermionen" 3. 328. of the person or by 'animo/ ** Sedet . . . 

Here the epithet may be meant to show ferre iter inpavidum " Stat. Theb. 1. 324. 

that the bride was a stranger to the bride- Comp. " stat " 2. 750. 

groom, and so to contrast with * Tro- 369.] ' Libera ' expresses independence, 

ianus.' 'dissidet' separation. ' Dissidet ' of phy- 

365.] ' Quid tua sancta fides ' &c. The sical separation, like " distat," only in the 

sense is obvions, ' what has become of poets : see Freund. 

your solemn pledge' &c., though it is 370.] 'Sic dicere,' that such is their 

difficult to say what is the exact ellipse, meaning. The first reading of Med. is 

Por similar, if not wholly parallel uses comp. ' poscere.' 

10. 672, G. 3. 258, 264. * Sancta * may be 371, 372.] Acrisius, the father of Danae 

a participle, ** quam sanxisti," as if it were (y, 410), was the fourth king of Argos, 

''pacta fides.'' 'Antiqua,' an appeal to Inachus being the first. "Si prima re- 

his past and so habitual conduct, as in petens ab origine pergam " 1. 872. ' Me- 

5. 688. One MS. has ' iura.' diaeque Mycenae,' the heart of Mycenae : 

366.] ' Consanguineo,' the kinsman, that he is a thorough Mycenian. " Nou Maurus 
is, of Amata, who was the sister of Tur- erat . . . mediis sed natus Athenis " Juv. 
nus's mother Yenilia (10. 76), according to 3. 80. Yirg. may have thought of Od. 1. 
a legend cited by Victor, Orig. Gent. Q44, Koff [EWdda koI fi4<roy''Apyos, From 
Bom. 13, on the authority of Hso, and 'patres' of course we must supply the 
doubtless adopted by Yirg. See Heyne notion of a mother-city. 
Excursus 7 on this book. Yirg. however 873—405.] 'Failing to persuade La- 
may have meant to represent Ihimus as tinus, the queen becomes furious, and 
the kinsman of Latinus through Pilumnus carries her daughter into the woods in a 
(10. 76, 619), who seems to have been feigned religious frenzy, bidding the La- 
connected with Saturn. "Data dextera" tian women join her in an orgie.' 
4. 307. Latinus had doubtless promised 373.] 'Dictis' seems to be instr. abl. 
Lavinia to Tumus before the portents with 'experta.' "Yirtute experiamur" 
mentioned vv. &8 foil. £nn. A. 6. fr. 13. 

367.] 'Latinis' seems better taken with 374.] 'Contra stare,' fixed in opposi- 

Forb. "incommodumLatinorum" (Wagn. tion. 

comp. 11. 472, "generumque adsciverit 375.] 'Malum serpentis,' not a peri- 

urbi") than with Peerlkamp "a Latinis." phrasis for "serpens mains," but rather 

In either case we may comp. the pi. the poison of the serpent. ' Fnrialis,' of 

' Teucris ' V. 359, and note the intended the nature of a Fury, recurs v. 415. 

contrast between ' externa ' and ' Latinis,' 376.] ' Turn vero ' after a previous clause 

as if the heir of a Latin throne ought not 6. 720. " Tum vero infelix " 4. 450. 

to be a stranger. ' Monstris,' phantasies. Comp. 3. 583, 

368.] ' Idque sedet :' comp. 2. 660., 4. " inmania monstra Perferimus," the sights 

15., 5. 418, where it is followed by a dative and sounds of Aetna, ib. 307, '* magnis 


Inmensam sine more farit lymphata per urbena : 
Ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turbo, 
Quem pueri magno in gyro yacua atria eircum 
' Intenti ludo exercent ; ille actus habena. 380 

Curvatis fertur spatiis ; stupet inscia supra 
Inpubesque manus, mirata volubile buxum ; 
Dant animos plagae. Non cursu segnior illo 
Per medias urbes agitur populosque ferocis. 
Quin etiam in silvas, simulato numine Bacebi, 385 

exterrita monstris/' the sadden apparition Ribbeck's MSS. ' Insda ' goes closely 

of Aeneas to Andromache. with * stupet/ but is nevertheless coupled 

377.] * Sine more,' wildly, breaking with * inpubes :' see on 2. 86. 

through all decency. Comp. 8. 635 and 382.] 'fiuxum/ of a top, Pers. 3. 51, 

note on 5. 694. ' Inroensam ' as applied perhaps in imitation of Yirg. Comp. the 

to Laurentum is only a part of the general use of " aurum," " ebur," &c. 

amplification, meaning little more than 383.] Dryden supposed the subject of 

when it is said of Dido 4. 68, " tota va- * dant ' to be * pueri,' ' plagae * being dat. 

gatur urbe furens." Thus we do not need sing., ** And lend their little souls at every 

Heyne's 'inmensum,' which Kibbeck stroke;" but Trapp properly corrected 

adopts, or Burm.'s 'incensam,' ingenious him, pointing out that 'plagae' is nom. 

as both are. * Lymphatus ' is explained pi. It may still be questioned whether 

by Varro L. L. 7. 87, '* 'lymphata' dicta the meaning is that the lashes give life to 

a 'lympha:' 'lympha' a 'nympha ' . . . the top, or that the exercise of whipping 

In Graecia commota mente quos ' nym- inspirits the boys and makes them go on. 

pholemptos ' appellant ab eo ' lymphatos ' ' Illo ' may be ' turbine,' ' cursu segnior ' 

dixerunt nostri." like " segnior ubere " G. 2. 275 ; or 

378.] Heyne thinks it certain that this ' cursu illo ' may = " illius cursu," as in 

simile is taken from some lost Greek poet, the instances mentioned on 2. 171. 8. 414 

a singular way of vindicating Yirg.'s taste b perhaps slightly in favour of the latter, 

at the expense of his originality. The 384.] "P(^ulosque ferocis" 1. 263, 

* turbo ' or " turben " (top) was the Greek also of the nations of Italy. Here the 
p6fi0os or fi4fi$i^. Comp. Callim. Epigr. epithet seems to point partly to the in- 

1. 9, and also Tibull. 1. 5. 3, " Namque sensibility of Amata, who braves insult, 
agor, ut per plana citus sola verbere turben partly to the contagion which her fury is 
Quern celer assueta versat ab arte puer." likely to spread among the Latins. 

* Torto verbere,' G. 3. 106 note. * Quon- 385.] This description of Bacchic orgies 
dam,' G. 4. 261 note. and frenzy is altogether Greek, and sug- 

379.] ' Magno,' ' vacua atria,' ' intenti gested by some Greek work, such as the 

ludo exercent ' all denote the frenzy and Bacchae of Euripides. The Bacchanalia 

wideness of Amata's wanderings. 'Atria ' were introduced into Rome from Southern 

also suggests patrician boys, and lends Italy through Etruria, but their celebra- 

dignlty to the simile. "Vacua atria" tion leading to dreadful excesses, they 

2. 528. were suppressed throughout Italy by a 
380.] ' Exercere aliquem ' without a decree of the Senate B.C. 186. See Livy 

modal abl. qr other case G. 1. 210. ' Ha- 39. 8 foil. Perhaps Yirg.'s 'nefas' may 

bena ' of a thong 9. 587 : specially of a be a touch of Boman feeling. Comp. 4. 

lash Hor. 2 Ep. 2. 15. Bom. has ' ha- SOI foil., where Dido is compared to a Bac- 

benis.' chant. Med. and one of Ribbeck's cursives, 

381.] We may take ' spatiis ' either as both a m. pr., have ' in silvis.' Rom. and 

the circles on the ground (as it were a some others have ' nomine,' which might 

circular race- course, 'spatia') or of the stand; but 'numine* is better. Serv. 

motion of the top. Comp. G. 2. 541 note, thinks 'simulato' means delusion, not 

< Supra,' as Heins. says, denotes the bend- conscious pretence, appealing to v. 405 

ing of the ring of boys in wonderment below: but Virg. doubtless means that 

over the top. The reading before his the pretended enthusiasm eventually took 

time, ' turba^' does not appear in any of real hold on her. Ov. M. 6. 594 (of 


Maius adorta nefas maioremque orsa furorem, 
Evolat, et natam frondosis montibus abdit. 
Quo thalamum eripiat Teucris taedasque moretur, 
Euoe Bacche, fremens, solum te virgine dignum 
Vociferans : etenim mollis tibi sumere thyrsos, 390 

Te lustrare choro, sacrum tibi pascere crinem. 
Fama volat, furiisque accensas pectore matres 
Idem omnis simul ardor agit, nova quaerere tecta. 
• Deseruere domos, ventis dant coUa comasque ; 
Ast aliae tremulis ululatibus aethera conplent, 395 

Pampineasque gerunt incinctae pellibus hastas. 
Ipsa inter medias flagrantem fervida pinum 

Procne) is, as usual, more explicit, " funis- 8* avrhv rpitpw. * Pascere ' for ** nutrire ** 

que agitata doloris, Bacche, tuas simulat." or " alere " Hor. 2 S. 3. 85, " pascere 

386.] Rom. reads * exorsa ' unmetri- barbam." 

cally (according to Ribbeck : Pierius re- 392.] When the matrons hear, they are 

ports 'maiorem exorsa'). Schrader conj. caught by the contagion. * Pectora ' is the 

* ausa.' first reading of two of Ribbeck's cursives. 

387.] * Frondosus ' of mountains 5. 252, 393.] " Idem omnis simul ardor habet *' 

G. 1. 282. 4. 581. It matters little whether * quae- 

388.] Schrader wished to read * tae- rere ' be constructed with * ardor ' (see 

dasve,' but such exactness would be rather note on G. 1. 213) or with *agit' (vv. 

out of place here. 239, 240 above). 

390.] * Mollis,' from the conical bunch 394.] * Deseruere,* implying the instan- 

of vine or ivy leaves, with giapes or taneousness of the action. Comp. G. 1. 

berries, in which the thyrsus ended. Diet. 330. * Ventis dant colla comasque,* they 

A. * Thyrsus.' So E. 5. 31, " foliis lentas let their hair flow unconfined about their 

intexere mollibus hastas.*' Or 'mollis* necks. See v. 403, and comp. 1. 319, 

may itself be i. q. " lentus." Amata's " dederatque comam diffundere ventis." 

words in oratione recta would be: "Tu solus For the custom of unbinding the hair in 

virgine dignus ; etenim tibi mollis sumit religious enthusiasm see 3. 370. 

thyrsos." She represents her daughter in 395.] * Ast aliae,' &c. This seems to 

the act of devoting herself to Bacchus. be the height of the Bacchic frenzy, and 

391.] * Choros ' seems to be the reading so distinguished from what precedes. But 

of the bulk of MSS., including Bom. and he may merely be imitating CatuU. 62 

Gud., the latter of which originally^ had (64). 256 foil., where the actions of the 

* chorus.' * Choro ' is the first reading of Bacchants are similarly distributed. Rib- 
Med., * s ' having been afterwards added, beck transposes this and the next verse, 
and of some others, including Canon, after Peerlkamp, who wishes also to read 
Heyne restored ' choro,' and his sue- * illae ' from a correction in Med., distin- 
cessors have followed him. The error guishing * illae' from *ipsa.* * Tremulis,* 
arose from the first letter of the next as if under the influence of wine ; they 
word (see on G. 2. 219) and was perpe- have no command of their voices. 

tuated by those who did not understand 396.] * Pampineas hastas :' comp. Ov. 

the construction. * Te lustrare choro,' M. 3. 667, " Pampineis agitat velatam 

Bacchus being the choragus, and the frondibus hastam." Bacchus was said to 

Bacchants dancing round him. Soph. Ant. have converted the thyrsi into dangerous 

1150, Upo<pdi/'ri6i' & Na^iais (raTs dfia irepi- weapons by concealing an iron point in the 

'jr6\ois QulaiffiVf at <re fiaivSfifyai vdyyvxoi conical head of leaves. So Catull. 1. c. 

Xopt^fovai rhu rafilav "Icucxoy. Also Hor. " tecta quatiebant cuspide thyrsos." But 

2 Od. 19., where "carmina docentem" 'hastas' need only be spearlike wands, 

means teaching the chorus, as a choragus. * Pellibus ' are the skins of fawns, ytfiplBts, 

So " lustrare choreis " 10. 224, Prop. 3. 1. 1. which the Bacchants wore. 

For * sacrum tibi pascere crinem ' comp. 397.] Soph. Ant. 1126, 2^ 5* {tvkp 

Bur. Bacch. 494, ^lephs 6 tr^SKafios, r^ Oc^ Stk6^oto leirpas arr^po^ 5ir»ir€ Aiyy^i* 


Sustinet^ ac natae Tumique canit hymenaeos^ 

Sanguineam torquens aciem, torvumque repente 

Clamat : lo matres^ audite^ ubi quaeque^ Latinae : / 400 

Si qua piis animis manet infelicis Amatae 

Gratia^ si iuris materni cura remordet, 

Solvite crinalis vittas, capite orgia mecum. 

Talem inter silvas, inter deserta ferarum, 

Reginam AUeeto stimulis agit undique Bacchi. 405 

Postquam visa satis primos acuisse furores^ 
Consiliumque omnemque domum vertisse Latini^ 
Protinus hinc fiiscis tristis dea toUitur alis 
Audacis Rutuli ad muros, quam dicitur urbem 
Acrisioneis Danae fundasse eolonis^ 410 

Praecipiti delata Noto. Locus Ardea quondam 

The torch however in the hand of Amata under the form of an old priestess, and 

has a further reference to ' natae Tumique bids him make war on the Trojans and, 

hymenaeos.' *' Inter medias " 5. 618. if necessary, on Latinus/ 

' Pinus/ of a pine-wood torch, 9. 72, which 406.] It does not seem quite clear whe- 

is parallel in other respects. tber Allecto actually pursues Amata in her 

398.] Comp. for the rhythm CatuU. 62 wanderings and orgies, as ' agit ' in the 

(64i). 20, " Turn Thetis humanos non de- last line would seem to imply, or whether 

spexit hymenaeos." she merely poisons her mind and then 

399.] " Sanguineam volvens aciem " 4. leaves the venom to work, passing on to 

643. ' Torvum ' transferred to sound, as Turnus, which would accord better with 

in the well-known line Pers. 1. 99, " Torva 'primos.* " Acuunt iras " 9. 464. 

Mimalloneis implerunt cornua bombis." 407.] Latinus was still in Aeneas' fa- 

Appul. Flor. 3 p. 357 has " vox humana vour : but Allecto had really changed his 

tuba rudore torvior." purpose, by sowing the seeds of discord 

400.] "Ubicunque" was the old reading, that would frustrate it. 

Heins. restored *ubi quaeque' on the an- 408.] "Fuscis alis" 8. 369. The Fury 

thority of the MSS. (all Ribbeck's) and has wings, as in 12. 848. So Eur. Orest. 

Priscian p. 1060. ' Ubi quaeque ' = 317, UpofidBes & Trrtpo<l)6poi, comp. by 

" omnes, ubicunque estis," 50i eKdirrri, Cerda. 

401.] *Piis' of natural feeling, here 409.] The epithet ' audax ' is again ap- 

probably that between mother and child, plied to Turnus, 9. 3. 126. ' Tollitur alis 

** Per si quis Amatae Tangit honos ani- ad ' like " volat ad." 

mum " 12. 56. 410.] The adj. * Acrisioneus * (from 

402.] "Cura remordet" 1. 261 note. 'AKpiffiwy, another form of 'Ajcphios) is 

The prefix here expresses the haunting found in Ovid, M. 5. 239, so that Serv. is 

nature of care. wrong in making * Acrisioneis' a fam. 

403.] 'Crinalis,' 11. 576, a poetical patronymic agreeing with Danae, and 

word. *Capite' = "suscipite," "suscipere Heins. in proposing ' Acrisionaeis/ from 

sacra " being a phrase. Comp. Prop. 4. 11. " Acrisione " = Danae. Heyne refers the 

49, " cape, Roma, triumphum." Schrader story of Danae having founded a colony in 

conj. ' quatite.' Italy to the similarity between Danae and 

404.] " In silvis inter deserta ferarum " Daunia. It may however have arisen 

3. 646, where " lustra " is added. from the existence of a temple of Juno at 

405.] ' Stimulis undique Bacchi,' with the Ardea like that at Argos. See v. 419 and 

stimulants of Bacchus (a Bacchic fury) Pliny 35. 10. ' Colonis ' may be dat., but 

acting on her from every side. With it is more probably abl. instr., i. q. " co- 

* undique ' comp. Hor. 2 S. 3. 223, lonis deductis." 

" Hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona 411.] Wagn. once referred 'praecipiti 

cruentis." delata Noto ' to Allecto. But it is much 

403 — 434.] ' Allecto then visits Turnus, more natural to take it of Danae, who is 


Dictus avis ; et nunc magnum tenet Ardea nomen ; 

Sed Fortuna fiiit. Tectis hie Tumus in altis 

lam mediam nigra carpebat nocte quietem. 

Alleeto torvam faciem et furialia membra 415 

Exuit ; in voltus sese transformat anilis 

Et frontem obscenam rugis arat ; induit albos 

Cum vitta crinis ; turn ramum innectit olivae ; 

Fit Calybe lunonis anus templique s^x^erdos : 

Et iuveni ante oculos his se cum Yocibus offert : 420 

Tume, tot ineassum fusos patiere labores, 

Et tua Dardaniis transcribi sceptra eolonis ? 

Rex tibi coniugium et quaesitas sanguine dotes 

Abnegate extemusque in regnum quaeritur heres. 

represented as having landed in Italy by 418.] The * vitta/ or ribbon which con- 
stress of weather (" noto compulsus " 1. fined the hair, is of course different from 
676). Virg. may have thought of Si- the chaplet of olive. The latter is sacer- 
monides' celebrated lines about Danae on dotal, v. 751 below, 6. 808, G. 3. 21. 
the sea, though he apparently means her 419.] Wagn. seems right in taking the 
to have companions like Dido. Some of words ' sacerdos anus lunonis et templi,' 
Pierius' MSS. read * Ardua,' so as to make and comparing 2. 319, ** Pantbus, arcis 
a difference between the original and sub- Phoebique sacerdos." 
sequent name of the city. But the point 421.] 'Patiere— fusos (esse) et — tran- 
of the passage is that Ardea retains her scribi.' ' Fusos,' i. q. " effusos :" comp. G. 
ancient name but has lost her ancient 4. 492, "omnis effusus labor,'' the me- 
glory. The city was desolate in the time taphor in each case being from the spilling 
of Virg., who is evidently speaking of his of water, and for ' ineassum fusos ' Lucr. 
own day in saying < nunc' One legend 2. 1165 there referred to. 
was that the name came from a heron 422.] * Tua sceptra,' i. e. the sceptre he 
which Hew out of the ashes when the town was to inherit with Lavinia. For the tech- 
was sacked (Ov. M. 14. 574 foil.), and nical use of ' transcribere ' see the Dictt. 
some have fancied that * avis ' here means Here it merely means to assign. It is used 
a bird. 5. 750 in a different connexion, though a 

412.] It is difficult to decide between colony is the subject. The first reading of 

' manet ' (Verona fragm., Med. first read- Gud. is * transcribis :' see on v. 391. 

ing, Gud.) restored by Heins., and 'tenet' 423.] ' Quaesitas sanguine:' it is im- 

(Med. second reading, Rom., Verona plied v. 426 that Tumus had assisted 

Schol.), recalled by Wagn. <* Tenet no- Latinus in war against the Tyrrhenians, 

men " 6. 235. How this is to be reconciled with the long 

413.] 'Fortuna' G. 4. 209 note. 'Fuit' peace spolcen of v. 46 does not appear: 

2. 325. We have had the words in a dif- we can scarcely suppose that Tumus 

ferent sense 3. 16. fought the battles of the Latins without 

414.] ' Mediam quietem ' like " prima their help. In 8. 55 the Arcadians (who 

quies " 2. 268. * Nigra ' brings back the may be meant by the Tyrrhenians here, 

notion of midnight. though this is hardly probable) are said to 

415.] " Faciemque deae vestemque re- be constantly at war with the Latins. The 

ponit " 5. 619. dowry is of course the kingdom of La- 

416.] Comp. V. 20 above. Bibbeck need- tinus, which Tumus has earned, ' quae- 

lessly reads ' cultus ' from a quotation in sivit.' " Sanguine quaerendi reditus " 2. 

Arusianus p. 265. 118. ' Abnegat tibi couiugium ' (con- 

417.] It is difiicult to say whether structed like "negat" 3. 171) opp, to 

* obscenam ' belongs to the brow of the " dare coniugium " v. 433. 

Fury (comp. 12. 876), or to that of the old 424.] ' In regnum' seems to go both with 

woman. In the latter case the epithet ' heres ' and with ' quaeritur.' 
will be proleptic. 



I nuDC^ ingratis offer te, inrise^ periclis ; 425 

Tyrrhenas, i, steme acies; tege pace Latinos. 

Haec adeo tibi me^ plaeida cum nocte iaceres^ 

Ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia iussit. 

Quare age, et armari pubem portisque moveri 

Laetus in arma para, et Phrygios, qui flumine pulchro 430 

Consedere, duces pictasque exure carinas. 

Caelestum vis magna iubet. Bex ipse Latinus, 

Ni dare coniugium et dicto parere fatetur, 

Sentiat, et tandem Turnum experiatur in annis. 

425.] On the vocative * inrise ' see 2. " quaesitas/*' ** quaeritur " just above, w. 

283 note. For the sarcastic use of the 423, 424. Peerlkamp conj. 'arva,' which 

imperative with 'nunc' comp. E. 1. 73 Ribbeck adopts. Virg. was perhaps think- 

note. ' Ingratis/ thankless, 6. 213, E. ing of the "Oyttpos II. 2. 28, Bi»pfj^al crc xd- 

1. 35. Acvtrc KapriKofi6wvTas *Ax^ioifs Tlaycvliii^. 

426.] ' Tege pace Latinos,' protect them 430.] Wagn., Forb., and Gossrau couple 
with peace, i.e. give them peace by your, 'hietns in arma.' But 'laetus' is con- 
protection, stantly used in Yirg. of the spirit with 

427.] ' Adeo ' here appears merely to which a person is bidden to obey a com- 
give emphasis to <haec' (comp. E. 4.11 mand, v. 130 above, 3. 169 &c. 'Para' 
note) and connect it with what precedes — most MSS., including Rom., fragm. Vat. 
'and this message/ &c. * laceres,' of lying and Gud., * iube * Med. supported by a quo- 
asleep, 3. 150. * Plaeida ' expresses here tation by Serv. on 1. 35. Ribbeck adopts 
what is there expressed by " in somnis." the latter, but it looks like a change to 
Burm. mentions an ingenious conj. *'iace- make the construction easier. <Paro' is 
rem." 'Cum iaceres' connected with 'fari,' mostly used with inf. act, ; we may comp. 
and so marking not the time when Juno however a rare use of it with " ut " or 
gave the commission, but the time when " ne :" see Freund. Comp. also note on 
the commission was to be exercised. As 1. 18. 

elsewhere (see on 1. 355., 2. 296., 3. 151) 431.] ' Considere ' is a military term for 

there seems a confusion between a vision taking up a pontion (see Freund): but it 

and a dream. In Hom. dreams in the may here only mean to settle, as in 1. 572 

form of living persons speak of themselves &c. ' Duces exure ' is a zeugma, the oppo- 

as sent by some god, in other words an- site to that in 4. 375. " Pictas carinas," 

nounce themselves as dreams, e. g. the 8. 93. 

"Ovct/vof in 11. 2. 26, Iphthime Od. 4. 829 : 432.] For ' caelestum vis magna ' comp. 

but here the supposed Calybe apparently 12. 199, " vim deum infemam iuro." Forb. 

wishes it to be thought that she has re- makes 'magna' i. q. "res magnas," which 

ceived a communication from Juno in her is obviously worse. "Rex ipse Latinus" 

capacity as priestess. below v. 556., 11. 231. 

428.] It is difficult to say whether 433.] * Dicto parere fatetur,' like 12. 
* palam ' goes with * fari ' or with * iussit.' 568, " Ni frenum accipere et victi parere 
Tlie former would seem more natural, but fatentur ;" 'dicto parere ' for obedience or 
there would be little force in the word, submission being common in Virg., e. g. 1. 
The latter would cohere with ' ipsa,' show- 693., 3. 189 (comp. " dicto audire "). 
ing the clearness of the revelation, as Heyne however understands ' dicto parere' 
' manifestus ' and iyapyfis are frequently " promisso stare," which is not impossible. 
used in a similar connexion ; but in that ^yith this sense of * fateor,' implying con- 
case we should almost have expected some sent on compulsion, comp. bfioXoytlv, So 
additional circumstance, such as would be Prop. 5. 6. 79, " sero confessum foedere 
supplied by the conj. 'iacerem.' Parthum." 

429.] ' Moveri in arma,' to march out ^ 434.] Wagn., Forb., &c. strike out the 

to war. "Movebit in arma viros" 6. 813. 'comma after * sentiat,' but 'sentiet' is 

The concurrence of 'armari' and ''in used absolutely in a threat Ter. Adelph. 

arma ' is one of the instances of want of 1. 2. 59, "iste tuus ipse sentiet Posterius;" 

finish in the later books of the poem. So and we may comp. yy(&<rti rdxa Aesch. 


Hic iuvenis, vatem inridens, sic orsa vicissim 435 

Ore refert : Classis invectas Thybridis undam 
Non, ut rere, meas effugit nuntius auris ; 
Ne tantos mihi finge metus. IsTec regia luno 
Inmemor est nostri ; 

Sed te victa situ verique effeta seneetus, 440 

O mater, curis nequiquam exereet, et arma 
Regum inter falsa vatem formidine ludit. 
Cura tibi, divom effigies et templa tueri, 
Bella viri paeemque gerent, quis bella gerenda. 

Ag. 1649, fdx* (ia^Tai Choeph. 305, and your dotage.' ' Situs' seems to denote all 

note on the latter passage. In support of overgrowth or incrustation arising from 

the other punctuation however might be long neglect, especially that on untilled 

quoted II. 18. 268 foil., ci 8* ififie Kix'tio'trai fields (see on G. 1. 72) ; and here meta- 

ivddS* Uvras AHpioy dpfirideU ffvv rtiix^ffiv, phorically the dulness which comes over the 

ti vit Ti$ ahrhv Tvtixmaiy which certainly senses in an inactive old age. Ovid uses 

bears a strong resemblance to this line, the word absolutely for old age M. 7. 302, 

Comp. also lb. 125, yvoUv S' &$ 8^ hr)phv " demptos Aesonis esse situs." * Victa 

^7^ vo\€fioio ircirav/xai, which will illus- situ' is not unlike " pulvere victa " G. 1. 

trate * tandem,' as if Turnus had been too 180. * Veri effeta ' like " steriles veri " 

forbearing, though we are also meant to Pers. 5. 75. So " veri vana " 10. 630. 

think of Latinus as finding at last an ' £fietus ' is applied to exhausted land G. 

enemy in one from whom he had hitherto 1. 81 ; and is perhaps a metaphor of the 

received kind offices. same kind as * situ.' But it may equally 

435 — 444. J 'Turnus ridicules the ad- well refer to the exhaustion of the body in 

monition, and bids her confine herself to old age, Turnus telling her that she is 

her temple-duties.' enfeebled in mind as in body, in opposition 

435.] * Orsa :' passive, 10. 632, here used to the common sentiment which contrasts 

strangely for "verba quae orsus est." the fiiilure of bodily powers in the old 

Val. Fl. 5. 470 has the same use, doubtless with their increase in foresight, 

jmitating Virg. * Vatem :' she is pro- 441, 442.] " Exercita curis " 5. 779. 

.'phetess as well as priestess, and it is 'Arma regum inter' among visions of 

in her prophetic capacity that he ridi- warring kings. The words are not to be 

cules her. interpreted, as Forb. thinks, by what fol- 

436.] * Undam :' fragm. Vat., Med. &c., lows, " ergo in rebus quae r^bus curandae 

* alvco * Rom., supported by some other sunt, non tibi." * Ludit vatem,' deceives 
MSS. and a variant in Gud. Heins. re- you as a prophetess, mocks your power of 
stored the latter: but it seems to have foresight. With the position of * inter* 
been introduced from v. 303 above. * In- comp. G. 2. 345. 

vectus ' with ace. occurs 8. 714. Wagn. 443.] " Effigies divom " 3. 148. Comp. 
recalled ' undam,' and Ribbeck retains it. the word " aecUtuus." 

* Unda ' and * undas ' are also found. 444.] u6\efjLos 8* Aytpeaai /AcA^irci, II. 

437.] 'Nuntius' with an object clause 6. 492., 20. 137 (comp. 5. 428 fblL). This 

6. 456. It may here be news, not a mes- parallel seems to support ' gerent,' the 

senger : but see on 4. 237. ' Efiugit ' reading of fragm. Vat., Rom., Gud. &c., 

like " fugit " G. 2. 265. It is common in retain^ by Heyne and Ribbeck. Heins. 

prose : see Freund. Se we talk of a thing introduced ' gerant ' from Med. and Schol. 

escaping a person, whether he has not Veron., and is followed by Wagn. and Forb. 

heard it, or has heard and forgotten it. ' Quis bella gerenda ' is marked as spurious 

438.] * Metus,' referring to v. 421 — 424. by Heyne after a suggestion of Heumann, 

* Mihi ' is probably the dat. eth. " Regia but the words are found in all the MSS., 
luno " 4. 114., 10. 62. though the somewhat inartificial substi- 

440.] The connexion is ' Do not conjure tution of ' bella ' for ' bella pacemque ' 
up these fears : Juno will not sufier this may perhaps show that the passage is not 
to befall me : it is but the wandering of finished. Perhaps Virg. may have thought 


Talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iras. 445 

At iuveni oranti subitus tremor occupat artiis ; 
Deriguere oculi : tot Erinys sibilat hydris, 
Tantaque se facies aperit ; turn flammea torquens 
Lumina cunctantem et quaerentem dicere plura 
Reppulit, et geminos erexit crinibus anguis, 460 

Verberaque insonuit, rabidoque haec addidit ore : 
En ego vieta situ, quam veri effeta senectus 
Arma inter regum falsa formidine ludit ; 
Respice ad haec : adsum dirarum ab sede sororum ; 
Bella manu letumque gero. 455 

Sic effata faeem iuveni coniecit, et atro 
Lumine fumantis fixit sub pectore taedas. 
Olli somnum ingens rumpit pavor, ossaque et artus 

of a passage in Od. 21. 352, r6^oy S* Fury is said expressly to pull off two 

&y^p€(rffi fif\'fia'€i Uaffi, fxiXiffra 8' ifioi' serpents from her head : and we might 

TOW yhp Kpdros %<tt* iv\ oXKtf, perhaps argue from the lines in Ov. imme- 

4i4-5 — 474.] 'Allecto, enraged, appears in diately preceding that *verbera insonuit' 

her true form, and flings a torch at him. need only refer to the rapid motion of the 

He wakes in frenzy and calls to arms, snakes on Allecto's head. 
The Rutulians respond.* 451.] * Verbera,* i. e. " verbera flagelli," 

446.] * Oranti :' corap. 10. 96, ** Talibus is a sort of cognate ace. to * insonuit.' 

orabat luno.'* This use of the woini Comp. 5. 579, "insonuitque flagello." 

(nearly i. q. "loqui") appears to be an "Haec addidit ore" 2. 593. 


archaism. See Plant. Most. 3. 1. 152. The 454.] * Haec,' the form and attributes 

etymology is doubtless from "08," as Freund of the Fury. An old poet in Cic. Tusc. 

remarks. As usual, some MSS. have 1. 16 has "Adsum atque advenio Ache- 

* subito.' Heins. introduced * subitos ' runte " (inc. inc. fr. 78 Ribbeck). See on 

from a correction in Mentel. pr., but this v. 324. 

would not be in Virg.'s manner. " Tremor 456.] * Iuveni coniecit ' for " in iuve- 

occupat artus *' 11. 424. nem " as in v. 346. The torch is of course 

447.] For the orthography 'Erinys ' see as appropriate in the case of Turnus as the 

2. 337 note. 'Deriguere' 3. 260, 308. serpent in that of Amata. 

'His eyeballs are stiffened in his head.' 457.] For*atrolumine*comp.4.384note, 

Comp. above v. 328. and for ' lumine fumantis ' comp. v. 76. The 

448.] Allecto expands again into the torch, being preteniatural, penetrates the 

gigantic stature of a Fury. Her size is breast without wounding, like the serpent, 

dwelt on here, as in v. 329 her multi- See on v. 349. In the imitation by 

formity. Bom. has ' fumea,' which is pos- Stat. Theb. 2. 94 foil., the spirit of Laius 

sible, ' lumina ' being understood of her appears to Eteocles in the form of Tiresias, 

torch, as in 6. 593. and ends by taking his true shape, ex- 

449.] ' Cunctantem ' should be taken posing the death-wound in his throat, and 

closely with * quaerentem,' and implies that sprinkling the sleeper with the blood, 

Turnus was in the attitude to speak, which however in the next line is called 

Comp. 10. 717, ** partis cunctatur (aper) " vanus cruor." 

in omnis," and the use of fieWrjats for 458.] 'Ossa* is harsh, but it expresses 

intention as well as delay. This agrees the penetrating nature of the sweat, so 

with 'reppulit.' The substance of the line that we need not conj. 'ora' with Heyne 

has occun-ed 4. 390. and Peerlkamp. For the same incident 

450.] She raises two of the serpents on comp. 3. 175. * Rupit,' Rom., which was 

her head, as it were horns. Ribbeck sup- the reading before Heins. Med. has 

poses that she turns them into a scourge, 'perfudit,' which Wagn. restored. A case 

comp. Ov. M. 4. 495. There however the might be made out for either or for both ; 


Perfudit toto proruptus corpore sudor. 

Arma amens fremifc, arma toro tectisque requirit ; i6o 

Saevit amor ferri et scelerata insania belli, 

Ira super : magno veluti cum. flamma sonore 

Virgea suggeritur costis undantis aeni, 

Exsultantque aestu latiees ; furit intus aqiiai ; 

Fumidus atque alte spumis exuberat amnis ; 465 

Nee iam se capit unda ; volat vapor ater ad auras. 

Ergo iter ad regem polluta pace Latinum 

Indicit primis iuvenum, et iubet arma parari. 

but as fragm. Vat. and Ribbeck's cursives Vat., Rom., Gud. a m. s.). Serv. ap- 

seem to agree in the two presents, it is parently says that Virg. wrote * aqaae vis/ 

best to follow them. and Tacca and Varius introdnced the 

459.] ' Proraptus ' 1. 246. diaeresis : a gloss in the MS. known as the 

460.] ' Arma ' is a cogn. ace. with primus Moreti represents Tucoa as having 

*fremit.' "Fremit arma inventus" 11. introduced 'aquae vis.* Both are evi- 

453. ''Armarequirunt" Enn. A. .dently old readings, and we must decide 

Tumus looks for the sword at his bed- Ion internal grounds. 'Aquae vis' would 

head, and for the rest of his arms in the ^ involve the trtyection of ' atque/ which is 

house. Comp. 6. 523, '' arma omnia tectis not in Virg.'s manner (see on E. 6. 38), so 

Emovet, et fidum capiti subduxerat that Heins. and later editors seem right in 

ensem." reading * aquai/ and supposing that it was 

461.] ' Insania belli ' seems to stand for changed to avoid the archaism and perhaps 

'Mnsana cupido belli" (comp. £.10.44), the separation of *aquai — amnis.' The 

on the analogy of *Ap€ifiMjrfis and similar supposed third reading, ' aquae anmis,' 

words in Greek. Comp. " belli rabies " seems to rest on a corruption in the text 

8. 327. 'Insanire in aliquam' is found of Serv. For the position of < fumidus ' 

for to be madly in love with a per- comp. that of " spumeus " 2. 419., 11. 

son. 626. ' Fumidus ' in fact goes closely with 

462.] * Super,* to crown all (" insignem * furit.* 

aliquam accessionem denotat," Wagn.). 465.] *Fumus* of steam Q. 2. 217. 

Tumus' natural sentiment seems to be 'Aquai amnem* like "aquae rivum*' E. 

distinguished, not very happily, from his 8.87. 'Amnis' of river water 12. 417. 

preternatural fury for war. For a more So * fontes ' 2. 686. 

successful picture of a mixture of feelings 466.] ' Vapor ater,' dense steam. " Nee 

comp. 12. 666 foil. The following simUe capere irarum ductus in pectore possunt " 

is a Virgilian amplification of three very Lucr. 3. 298. Trapp remarks on the effect 

homely lines in which Hom., II. 21. 362 produced by the number of short words, as 

foil., describes the boiling of the Xanthus if the line could not contain its component 

when attacked by Hephaestus. There is parts. 

an effort throughout to raise the subject 467.] ' Polluta pace * seems to refer to 

by dignified language — * Magno sonore ' — the breach of the peace by Tumus, not, as 

* virgea fiamma ' — ' aeni ' — * latiees ' — some have thought, to the breach of cove- 

* aquai ' — * amnis.' Some touches also are nant charged by Tumus on Latinus. 
taken from Lucr. 3. 294 foil., where the Tumus in fact invades Latium with an 
effect of anger is spoken of in metaphors army, intending to make war on Latins . 
borrowed from water and fire. and Trojans both (v. 470), though, as it 

463.] 'Costis aeni,' ydtrTp^v rplvodos happens, he finds the Latins willing to 

Od. 8. 437. 'Virgea flamma,' for "flam- join him. 'Polluta :' see on 3. 61. 

mantes virgae," like " stuppea flamma " 8. 468.] * Parari ' — * tutari ' — ' detrudere :* 

694, for " flammans stuppa." Hence ' sug- for a similar change of construction see 

geritur.' " Undam aeni " G. 1. 296. 3. 60, 61., 5. 773, E. 6. 85. * Primis iu- 

464.] "Exsultant vada" 3. 557. The venum,' 8. 105., 9. 785, the captains of his 

MSS. are divided between ' aquai ' (Med., army. 
Gud. a m. pr. ?) and * aquae vis ' (fragm. 


Tutari Italiam, detrudere finibus hostem ; 

Se satis ambobas Teucrisque venire Latinisque. 470 

Haec ubi dicta dedit divosque in vota vocavit, 

Certatim sese Butuli exhortantur in arma. 

Hunc decus egregium formae movet atque iuventae, 

Hunc atavi reges, hunc claris dextera factis. 

Dum Tumus Butulos animis audacibus inplet^ 475 

AUecto in Teucros Stygiis se concitat alis. 
Arte nova speculata locum^ quo litore pulcher 
Insidiis cursuque feras agitabat lulus. 
Hie subitam canibus rabiem Cocytia virgo 
Obiicit et noto naris contingit odore, 480 

Ut cervum ardentes agerent ; quae prima laborum 

470.] ' Ambobus ' of two parties or wiles, opp. to thosd which she had practised 

bodies, like &fA<f>w, ifA^6rtpoi. See note on on Amata and Tumus. It is the Homeric 

1. 458, which passage however is not an HyBi' adr* &AA* ivi^fff. So 1. 657. Wagn. 

exact parallel to this. 'Satis ambobus' and later editors, on the suggestion of 

i. q. '* parem ambobus.'' " Cni, si con- Heyne, place a full stop at ' alis ' and a 

iuret populus, vix totu' satis sit " Lncil. comma at < lulus/ making ' arte nova ' 

1 fr. 10, Gerlach. Corap. also Soph. Aj. refer to what follows and begin a new 

1123, A&v i^tAbs apKfvatfu aoi 7* &ir\t<r' sentence of which * Cocytia virgo ' is the 

fieyqtf. nom. But this is awkward, especially with 

471.] "Divosque in vota vocasset" 5. regard to *hic.* If there be any difficulty 

234 note. " Messapum in proelia .... in ' speculata locum,' said of the moment 

Hortatur " 11. 520. when she took wing (* se concitat alis '), it 

473.] Some are impressed by Tumus' may be removed by comparing v. 289. 

personal beauty, others hj his ancestry, ' Quo litore,' in which part of the shore, 

others by his valour. *' Euryalus forma ' litore ' being the antecedent repeated in 

insig^is viridique iuventa" 5. 295, though another form. Serv. says strangely that 

there 'viridi iuventa' may be an attri- Virg. has only used this mode of expression 

butive abl., not coupled with ' forma.' once. Fabricius refutes him by comparing 

One of Ribbeck's cursives and some others v. 409, " muros, quam . . . urbem." 

have ' iuventa.' *' Classem quo litore linquant" 1. 517. 

474.] " Atavis edite regibus" Hor. 1 Od. « Pulcher lulus " 5. 570. 

1. 1. * Claris factis,' attributive abl. 478.] * Insidiis cursuque,' by snares and 

475 — 539.] 'As Ascanius is hunting, by mnning down. "Feras agitare" 11. 

Allecto throws in his way a pet stag be- 686. 

longing to the family of Latinus' chief 479.] There is apparently a confusion 

herdsman, which he kills. The herdsman's between the physical image of presenting 

daughter rouses her father and the neigh- an incitement, and the mental one of 

hours. A battle ensues : one of the herds^ exciting a feeling (comp. y(7Kos ififioKtiy 

man's sons is killed, and also a wealthy and similar expressions). For 'rabiem' 

land-owner.' see on v. 493 below. 

475.] Comp. Odpifos irA^tre <pp4vas, II. 480.] *Noto odore,' "CCTvino: solent 

17. 573. Macrob. Sat. 5. 17 and others enim ita institui," Serv., r^telrring to Hor. 

have objected to the incident of the stag 1 Ep. 2. 65 foil. ^ . 

as too trivial, as if there were any thing 481.] ' Contingit ut aa^nt :' Mad v. 

unnatural in a small spark causing a large § 382 obs. 3. ' Prima l&wUim caussa ' II. 

train to explode, or as if the contrast itself 22. 116 (of the abductidn of Helen) V* 

were not an element of greatness. Heyne ^irAcro vc/kcos &/>x^* ^^^ old reading 

suggests that Virg. may have thought of before Pierius and Heins. was ' malorum,' 

Soph.'s story of Agamemnon and the stag which is the second reading of Med. 

at Aulis. Probably it came from 4. 169, where again 

477.] *Arte nova,* with new arts or there is a variant 'laboram.' Virg. is 


Caussa fuit belloque animos accendit agrestis. 

Cervus erat forma praestanti et comibus ingens, 

Tyrrhidae pueri quern matris ab ubere raptum 

Nutribant Tyrrheusque pater, cui regia parent 485 

Armenta, et late custodia credita campi. ^ 

Adsuetum inperiis soror omni Silvia cura 

MoUibus intexens ornabat cornua sertis, 

Pectebatque ferum, puroque in fonte lavabat. 

Ille manum patiens mensaeque adsuetus herili 490 

Errabat silvis rursusque ad limina nota 

Ipse domum sera quamvis se nocte ferebat. 

Hunc procul errantem rabidae venantis luli 

Commovere canes, fluvio cum forte seeundo 

fond of using * labor ' of sufferings in war, rastis populos." Serv. remarks that 

2. 11, 284., 4. 78., 11. 416, like vdvos Tyrrheus is " saltuarius " as well as " ma- 
Ac. gister pecoris." 

482.] ** Accendam animos " 7. 550. 487.] * Soror ' with reference to * pueri ' 

'Bello,' prob. dat., "in bellum." 'Animos and 'pater.' 'Adsuetus inperiis* is a sort 

agrestis ' i. q. " animos agrestum," like of paraphrase of " mansaetus,'' which is ex- 

" mortalis cura " G. 3. 319 for " mortalium panded further v. 490 below. Serv. 

cura." remarks of * Silvia ' " bonum puellae rus- 

483.] ' Forma praestanti,' attrib. abl., ticae nomen formavit ;" but the name was 

not with ' ingens ' as Serv. thinks. " In- doubtless chosen from its connexion with 

gentior armis " 11. 124. Gossrau remarks early Italian history, e. g. Bea Silvia and 

that the expression is a proper one here, Silvius Aeneas. 

as the height of the horns contributes to 488.] * Omni cura ' with 'ornabat/ which 

the size of the stag. governs ' adsuetam inperiis.' ' Intexens 

484.] " Depulsus ab ubere matris " G. cornua sertis ' explains ' omni cura.' But 

3. 187. " Ab ubere raptos " 6. 428. Virg. has chosen to make the position of 
485.] * Nutribant :' Madv. § 115 b. his words confused. * Ornabat,' the care 

Bibbeck restores * Tyrrhus ' for ' Tyrrheus ' specified being of an ornamental character, 

from all the best MSS. except perhaps " Hortos quae cura colendi ornaret " G. 4. 

fragra. Vat. (Med. has ' Tyrrus,' • Tymdae'). 118. 

The lengthening of the penult of the 489.] 'Ferum' 2. 51 note. Here 

patronymic is supported by " Belidae " 2. it is singularly inappropriate, unless we 

82, which however, as is there mentioned, suppose Virg. to be representing it as 

is noted by Priscian as an exception to the turned by these endearments from wild to 

rule. On the whole it seems safer to fol- tame. 

low analogy, even in the face of the MSS., 490.] * Manum patiens ' i. q. " mansue- 

which in the case of proper names are tus," x^^po'h^'ns- 

notoriously untrustworthy. Tyrrheus 491.] Comp. the description of the goats 

seems to have been the name of the herds- G. 3. 314 foil., and also E. 4. 21. 
man at whose house Lavinia brought forth 492.] * Quamvis ' with ' sera :' however 

Silvius. See Serv. on 6. 760. late it was, he found his way home of 

486.] ' Late,' Med. (second reading), himself (* ipse *). " Multa referunt se 

Gud. (first reading), and two other of nocte " G. 4. 180. 

Ribbeck's cursives, 'lati' Rom., fragm. 493.] ' Rabidae ' v. 479. It is a special 
Vat. and Verona, Med. (first reading), epithet of dogs on the game : see Di*aken- 
Gud. (second reading). The first seems borch on Sil. 10. 127. " Commota co- 
preferable in spite of its inferiority in ex- lumba " 5. 213. 

temal evidence, as more likely to have been 494.] "Missusque seeundo defluit amni 

altered. Comp. 1. 21, "late regem," and G. 3. 447. 
V. 737 below, " late dicione premebat Sar- 



Deflueret, ripaque aestus viridante levaret. 495 

Ipse etiam^ eximiae laudis succensus amore^ 

Ascanius curvo direxit spicula comu ; 

Nee dextrae erranti deus afuit^ aetaque multo 

Perque uterum sonitu perque ilia venit arundo./ 

Saucius at quadrupes nota intra tecta refugit^ 500 

Successitque gemens stabulis^ questuque enientus 

Atque inploranti similis tectum omne replebat. 

Silvia prima soror, palmis percussa lacertos, 

Auxilium vocat et duros conelamat agrestis. 

Olli^ pestis enim tacitis latet aspera silvis^ 505 

Inprovisi adsunt, hie torre armatus obusto, 

Stipitis hie gravidi nodis ; quod cuique repertum 

Bimanti^ telum ira faeit. Vocat agmina Tyrrheus, 

495.] The connexion of the clauses by Dryden in his Annus Mirabilis talks of 

'que ' implies that the stag was floating and the ' beseeching eyes ' of a hunted stag, 

reposing on the bank alternately, leaving it " Gemitu tectum omne replebat ** 2. 

uncertain which he was doing at the mo- 679. 

ment when the hounds came upon him. 503.] ' Lacertus ' is the upper part of 

This approaches to the same class of cases the arm (opp. to '* bracchium/' the lower), 

as 6. 616, where ' que ' couples the actions striking which with the hand of the other 

of different agents, as it does here those of arm seems to have been an expression of 

the same agent at different times. ' Aestus ' grief. No other instance however is quoted 

connects the sense of the two clauses. but Claudian Bapt. Pros. 2. 248, " planctu- 

496.] ' Laudis amor,' 5. 394 : comp. G. que lacertos Verberat." For the con- 

8. 112. struction see on 4. 590. 

497.1 * Curvo comu,* bending his bow. 504.] * Conelamat' i. q. " clamore con- 
Bibbeck reads 'derexit' from Bom. and vocat :" comp. Ov. M. 13.73, "Conelamat 
firagm. Vat. and Gud. a m. p., as in every socios," Claud. Bapt. Pros. 8. 4. 
other passage in "Vlrg. where ' dirigere ' 505.] The Fury contrives that the pea- 
occurs, except 6. 57. The testimonv of sants should be at hand. ' OUi,' Bom., 
the MSS. is by no means uniform in these Med. first reading, 'illi/ Med. second read- 
passages, and in a case where confusion ing, Verona fragm., Gud. 'Pestis' of a Fury 
is so common (see G. 2. 8 &c.) it is rather 12. 845. Cerda strangely supposes the 
hazardous to ootrude a new word upon the sense to be that the passion for war is 
dictionaries. concealed in the rustic nature. 

408.] ' Erranti,' i. e. "ita ut erraret:" 506.] 'Inprovisi,' before Silvia looked 

comp. 3. 237 and countless instances in for them. "Inprovisi aderunt" 2. 182. 

Greek tragedy. * Deus * used generally, ' Torre obusto ' i. q. " sudibus praeustis " 

like ffhp 0t^ II. 9. 49 &c, * Afuit,' re- v. 524, a stake with its end hardened in 

stored by Heins. for ' abfuit,' is the reading the fire. Comp. II. 13. 564, &vrt vie&Kos 

of all Bibbeck's MSS. but a single cursive. irvplKavtrros. So 11. 894, "Stipitibus 

Wagn. remarks that the Latins avoided the ferrum sudibusque imitantur obustis." 

combination " abf," saying " aufero " and 507.] * Stipitis gravidi nodis * for *« sti- 

"aufugio" for"abfero" and "abfugio." pite nodis gravido," 'gravidus' not being 

Comp. 8. 147. synonymous with " g^vis." Comp. 8. 220, 

499.] With * venit arundo ' Cerda comp. " nodisque gravatum Bobur." Bom. and 

II. 16. 478, ff\u^ itKaicfi. some others have " repertum est." 

500.] * Tecta,' the group of buildings, 508.] * Bimanti,' groping about : comp. 

or homestead: see what follows. G. 1. 384. 'Telum ira facit' like "fdror 

501.1 'Stabulis,' the abode of the herds- arma ministrat" 1. 150. 'Vocat,* leada 

man, like au\'n. them to the attack : comp. 2. 614. 

502.]' "Anhelanti similis" 5. 254. 



Quadrifidam quercum cuneis ut forte coactis 

Sciiidebat, rapta spirans inmane securi. 5io 

At saeva e speculis tempus dea nacta nocendi 

Ardua tecta petit stabuli, et de culmine summo 

Pastorale canit signum^ comuque recurvo 

Tartarean! intendit vocem, qua protinus omne 

Contremtiit nemus et silvae insonuere profiindae; 615 

Audiit et Triviae longe laeus ; audiit amnis 

Sulfurea Nar albus aqua fontesque Velini, 

Et trepidae matres preesere ad pectora natos. 

Turn vero ad vocem eeleres, qua bucina signum 

Dira dedit^ raptis concurrunt undique telis 620 

509.1 'Quadrifidam' with 'scindebat.* "EkXhov ot iroWhif ixds &c. 'Protinus* 

* Coactis/ driven together, so as to meet may be either rendered * forthwith ' or * on- 

in the centre. The words * cuneis coactis ' ward/ with reference to the spreading of 

are used in a totally different sense 12. 457. the sound over the woods (comp. 6. 33, 

*' Cuneis scindere " 6. 181, G. 1. 144. " quin protinus omnia Perlegerent ocu- 

510.] 'Spirans inmane,' panting with lis"). The cdlocation seems rather iu 

savage rage. The expression is probably favour of the latter way. 

indicative of rustic anger. 515.] 'Intonuere,' the reading of two 

511.] 'E speculis nacta:' she was in of Bibbeck's cursives, and others, was read 

the woods (v. 505), and on the look before Wagn. "Silvas proinndas" Lucr. 

out. 5. 41, height and depth being the same 

512.] ' De culmine summo,' G. 1. thing viewed differently : comp. E. 4. 51. 

402. Here 'profundae' goes closely with 'in- 

513.] Alluding to a rustic and primitive sonuere.' 
practice of giving the alarm with a horn 516.] This is more local than the pa- 
in case of sudden dangler. Heyne remarks rallel in ApoU. B., and therefore charac- 
that the ComitiaCenturiata were convoked teristic of Virgil. 'Triviae lacus' is the 
by the sound of a horn. ' Cornu ' is here lake near the grove and temple of Diana 
L q. ' bucina,' the shape of which, exactly at Aricia : comp. v. 761. ' Audiit et — 
answering to ' recurvus,' may be seen in audiit :' see on £. 4. 6. Rom. has ' Audit 
Diet. A. B. V. For the use of the ' bu- et Troiae — audit et amnis,' an aberration 
dna ' by herdsmen comp. Prop. 5. 10. 29, which may warn us against over-estimat- 
** Nunc intra muros (Veiorum) pastoris ing its authority in such passages as 5. 274. 
bncina lenti Cantat." 'Pastoralis' recurs 517.] * Sulfurea' explains 'albus.' Virg. 
y. 817 below. ' Signum canere ' is a phrase doubtless thought of Enn. A. 7. fr. 19, "Sal- 
(Freund s. v. 'Cano'), and 'signum' is fureas posuit spiramina Naris ad undas." 
sometimes the subject of * canit,' which is ' Pontes Velini ' appears^ be the " lacus 
used intransitively : see on 10. 310. Velinus " in the hills beyond Reate and 

514.] Med. a m. p. and Rom. have 'in- close to the Nar, at least seventy miles 

cendit,' which Wagn. is inclined to adopt ; from the Trojan camp. The limit may 

comp.9. 500., 10.895., 11. 147. 'Intendere be merely poetical, or it may designate 

vocem ' is to strain the voice (comp. " con- loosely the Sabine country as the extremity 

tenta voce dicere," reli^fip <l>wv^v), and ' in- of the confederacy. 

tendere vocem cornu ' to strain the voice 518.] ApoU. B. 4. 136 foil., Atlfiari 9* 

«7»7A or on the horn,— blows a loud blast of i^4y porno \cx»l^e9> kfjapX 84 irai<rl Ni}- 

her Tartarean voice on the horn. Heyne irtJixois, oXrt a<t>iv inr* ayKoKiitfffftr tavoy, 

remarks that this blast of Allecto may have *FoiC<j» iraWofidyois, x^H^* fidXo¥ icxoL- 

been su^ested by the shout of Eris, XL xScoirai, 

11. 10 toll, (where HWriKrov. iroK€fd{€iif 519.] "Ad sonitum vocis vestigia 

occurs). But the passage obviously imitated torsit " 3. 669. 'Qua ' after ' vocem.' 

in what follows is Apoll. R. 4. 127 foil. 520.] Enn. A. 7 has "ansatis con- 

(of the hiss of the dragon), ikfjupl 84 fxcucpal currunt undique telis." But there ' con- 

*Hi6y€s iroTafioto, Koi Aaxtroy Ifa^cv &\iro5. currunt' means 'engage' here 'collect,' 


Indomiti agrieolia^ ; nee oon et Troia pubes 

Ascanio auxilium castris effundit apertis. ^ 

Direxere acies. Non iam certamine agrestic 

Stipitibus diiris agitur Budibusve praeustis^ 

Sed ferro ancipiti decemunt^ atraque late 525 

Horrescit strictis seges ensibus^ aeraque fulgent 

Sole lacessita^ et lacem sub nubila iaetant : 

Fluctus uti primo eoepit cum albescere vento^ 

Paulatim sese tollit znare et altius undas 

Erigit^ inde imo consurg^t ad aethera fundo. 530 

Hie iuvenis primam ante aeiem stridente sagitta^ 

521.] 'Indomiti/ hardy; much the bris." Heyne comp. ApoU. B. 8. 1355, 

same as <*diiro8 SLgtestia" ▼. 604i, Comp. ppi^tv ik ir4pi imfiapoU <raK4€ff<ri—^Aptios 

Hrpitros. rifityos* ' A tra,' dense and so dark, comp. 

522.] Barm, wished to read * oampis :' v. 466. There may also be a reference to 

bnt * castris apertas ' is throwing open the the colour of the iron : comp. passages cited 

gates of the camp» Contrast "clausa from Books 11 and 12. The outline of 

moenia" (of the camp) 10. 22. the image, as Cerda remark^, is from II. 

523.] ' Dirigere aciem ' is a phrase for 13. 338, ^^pi{f v 5^ f^X"! <p^nrliAfiporos iy- 

drawing up an army in battle array, Ot. 2. x*h^^' 

281. The plural seems to show that both 527.] With 'solelacessita' Qerm.comp. 

sides are here intended. 'Certamine Lucr. 4. 217, " Corpora quae feriant oculos 

agresti ' seems a general abl. of circum- visumque lacessant.'' *' lactat lucem " 

stance, ' stipitibus ' and * sudibus ' instru- Lucr. 5. 576. 

mental. 528.] The swelling of the quarrel from 

524.1 'Sudibus praeustis' i. q. "torre a rustic brawl to a pitched battle is com- 

obusto ▼. 506, where see parallel passages, pared to the gradual rising of the waves 

525.] ' Ferro ' is the emphatic word of in a gale at sea. Med. and Bom. 

which 'anoipiti' is an epithet, probably (whose conjunction, Wagn. remarks, is 

meaning double-edged (comp. kfjL^iT6iMv strong authority) have 'ponto,' adopted 

|(^os), with a collateral signification of by Heins., who took the words 'primo 

deadly, so as to balance the epithets ponto ' to mean on the edge of the sea, as 

' duiis ' and ' praeustis.' Wagn. thinks " prima terra " 1. 541 means the edge of 

the notion is that of " certamen anceps." the land, and so to answer to iv olyiaX^ 

' Decemere ferro ' is as old as £nn., A. 2. in the parallel passage from Hom. referred 

fr. 11. to below ; while Jahn, also reading ' ponto,' 

526.] It is doubtful whether ' strictis takes < primo ' as an adverb and opposed to 
ensibus ' goes with ' seges * or with ' hor- 'inde.' Heyne and Wagn. (followed by Bib- 
rescit.' The ordinary meaning of 'seges ' beck) read ' vento ' ftom Ghid.j which has 
would rather suggest the former, the ordi- 'ponto' as a variant, and apparently Bib- 
nary usage of construction the latter, beck's other cursives, considering it clear 
Yirg. may very well have intended both, that 'ponto' arose from a recollection of G. 
at the same time that he thought of the 3. 237, " Fluctus uti medio eoepit cum 
other meaning of ' seges,' the land, not albescere ponto," a constant source of 
the crop, which would make this passage error. On the whole the balance of con- 
parallel to 11. 601, " late ferreus bastis Hor- siderations seems to be in favour of ' vento,' 
ret ager." There is the same question about in spite of its having no uncial authority. 
12. 663, "strictisque seges mucronibus Pal., we must remember, is wanting, as 
horret Ferrea." In Q. 2. 142 the warriors well as the fragmentary MSS. For the 
seem to be called a ' seges ' independently whole passage comp. II. 4. 422, which 
of their spears, though we must not sharply relates distinctly to the breakers on a 
distinguish the two notions. 'Horrescit' shore, 

as compared with 'horret* seems to imply 530.] "Fluctus erigit" 8. 423. "Imo 

motion : comp. G. 3. 198, " segetes altae fundo " 2. 419. 

campique natantes Lenibus horrescunt fla- 531.] " Primam ante aciem " below v. 

B 2 



Natorum Tyrrhei fuerat qui maxumus^ Almo, 
Stemitur ; haesit enim sub gutture volnus et udae . 
Vocis iter tenuemque inclusit sanguine vitam. 
Corpora multa virum circa, seniorque Galaesus, 635 

Dum paci medium se offert, iustissimus unus 
Qui fuit Ausoniisque olim ditissimus arvis : 
Quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant 
Armenta, et terram centum vertebat aratris. r 

Atque ea per campos aequo dum Marte geruntur, 640 
Promissi dea facta potens, ubi sanguine bellum 

673., 9. 596, apparently meaning no more 
than in the first rank of combatants. 
" Stridens sagitta" 9. 632. 

532.] Some inferior MSS. have 'Al- 
mon.' Heins. restored 'Almo.' GK>ssraa 
remarks that Virg. ^ves several of his 
characters the names of rivers, as here 
* Almo/ V. 535 "Galaesus," v. 745 "Ufens," 
V. 752 "Umbro," 11. 670 "Liris." ' Fuerat ' 
may be simply i. q. " erat " (Madv. § 338 
obs. 6) : but there is more force and pathos 
in Forb.'s explanation, that he ceased to be 
the eldest at his death. Comp. 12. 519. 

533.] * Haesit volnus,' a 8<»rt of confu- 
sion between the arrow and the wound. 
' Enim ' is an imitation of Hom., e. g. II. 5. 
4(0. *Udae' belongs more properly to 
'iter,' though perhaps it includes the 
sense of flexible : comp. hypby iefSciv. 

534.] 'Tenuem vitam:' comp. G. 4. 
224. << Intercludere " is more common in 
the sense of cutting ofi^ than 'includere,' 
but several instances of the latter are 
given in Fore. These particular descrip* 
tions of wounds are, of course, in imitation 
of Hom., though it is a mitigated imita- 

535.] 'Corpora' sc. "stemuntur," sup- 
plied from V. 533. 

536.] 'Dum paci medium se ofibrt' de- 
scribes both the action and purpose of 
Galaesus throwing himself between the 
combatants to mediate. ' Offert ' as well 
as 'medium' will suit both meanings: 
comp. 6. 291, " strictamque aciem venien- 
tibus offert." The dat. ' paci ' is i. q. " ad 
pacem," or " ad pacem faciendam :" but 
the construction is probably helped by the 
analogy of such phrases as "morti se 
offerre," &c. 

537.] Comp. 2. 426, "Rhipeus, justis- 
simus unus Qui ftiit in Teucris et servan- 
tissimus aequi." The justice and wealth 
of Galaesus both render him a natural 
mediator and increase the pity and indig- 

nation (v. 571) at his fall. Heyne remarks 
that it is Homeric to interest us by de- 
scriptive touches in the individual com- 
batants: comp. e.g. II. 5. 152 foil., 612 
foil. Perhaps the poet was thinking here 
of Axylus, II. 6. 12 foil. It may be 
remarked that the river Gkdaesus runs 
through a country very rich both in 
com and pastures, and especially famous 
for its sheep: comp. Hor, 2 Od. 6. 10 
and the commentators thereon. 'Di- 
tissimus arvis:' "Dives agris, dives posi- 
tis in foenore nummis" Hor. A. P. 421. 
Elsewhere Virg. has the construction with 
the gen., e.g. 10. 568, "ditissimus agri 
Qui fuit Ausonidum." Some MSS. here 
have ' agris,' which is found as a variant 
in Gud. ' Olim,' like ' fuerat,' is pathetic : 
before that moment he was the wealthiest 

538.] ' Bedibant,' i. e. from pasture; and 
perhaps from their summer pasture on the 
hills, comp. Hor. Epod. 1. 27. 

539.] On this and the previous line 
Serv. remarks " Duo <Uxit a Catone me- 
morata, qui interrogatus qui esset pater- 
familias, respondit, eum qui bene pascit 
et bene arat." 

540—571.] ' Allecto reports her success 
to Juno, who tells her she has done enough 
and must return below. She vanishes in 
a sulphurous pool.' 

540.] The commentators compare H. 5. 
84, *Xls ol fihy iroviovro : but the parallel 
is not close. Virg. however no doubt stu- 
died the Homeric transitions. "Atque 
ea diversa penitus dum parte geruntur," 
9. 1. ' Aequo Marte ' is probably the 
Homeric bfioilos ir6\ffios. Neither had as 
yet been routed, though we gather in the 
sequel that the advantage was with the 
Trojans. Comp. 10. 755, "lam gravis 
aequabat luctus et mutua Mavors Funera, 
and the following lines. 

541.] ' Promissi facta potens' for " com 



Imbuit et primae commisit funera pugnae^ 
Deserit Hesperiam, et caeli conversa per auras 
lunonem victrix adfatur voce superba : 
En, perfeeta tibi bello discordia tristi; 545 

Die, in amicitiam coeant et foedera iungant. 
Qaandoquidem Ausonio respersi sanguine Teucros, 
Hoc etiam his addam, tua si mihi certa voluntas : 
Pinitimas in bella feram rumoribus urbes, 
Accendamque animos insani Martis aniore, 550 

Undiqae ut auxilio veniant : spargam arma per agros. 
Turn contra luno ; Terrorum et fraudis abunde est : 
Stant belli caussae : pugnatur comminus armis ; 

p08 facta," or the simple ** potita." Comp. she moves being expressed in the verb of 

Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 13 " Victor propositi '* and motion. Any thing like understanding 

** victrix " V. 544. So Ov. M. 4. 510 speaks ' per * twice, as some g^mmarians pro- 

of the Fary as "victrix iussiqae potens." pose, or taking 'caeli convexa' in apposi- 

542.] 'Imbuit' probably contains the tion to 'auras,' which is Heyne's view, 

two notions of embruing("imbueremanus, seems quite out of the question. Canter 

arma sanguine :" comp. vv. 547 — 554) ingeniously supposed ' per auras ' to have 

and of setting on foot, using or doing for beien corrupted from ' peragrans ' or ' per- 

the first time, koivovv (comp. Prop. 5. errans.' Bibbeck thinks there is a lacuna. 

10. 5 " Imbuis exemplum primae tu 545.] ' Perfeeta hello,' consummated in 

Bomule palmae," and CatuU. 62 (64). 11). or by war. 

** Primae pugnae," the beginning of the 546.] ** Ac si dicat, Ita bella conmovi, 

battle ; she leaves the field while it is still ut ne tuo quidem inperio possint in pacem 

undecided, " aequo Marte " v. 540. But redire. £t hoc est, ' adfatur voce su- 

the words may mean that this was the perba.'" Serv. 

first act in the* war. ' Committere funera 547.1 Hevne altered the old pointing, 

pug^nae' is a variety for "committere which joinea this line with the preceding, 

pugnam," 'funera' however being im- The connexion seems to be 'now that I 

portant, and indeed emphatic, like ' san- have done thus much, it will be easy for 

guine ' in the line before, referring to the me to do more,' an ostentatiously liberal 

deaths of Almo and Qalaesus. Markland offer to exceed what she had promised, 

rather ingeniously conj. 'munera,' a me- 'Ausonio sanguine' seems to imply that 

taphor from gladiators, which might be the bloodshedding had been on one side, 

supported by Hor. 1 Od. 28. 17 " Dant 548.] ' His ' refers to the contents of 

alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti." the line before. " Tua si mihi certa 

543.] ' Convexa ' is the reading of all voluntas " 4. 125 note, 

the MSS. except Med. first reading ' con- 549.] ' Rumoribus :' comp. 9. 464., 12. 

versa,' and the second Moretan, which 228, and the description of Fame in 

has ' connexa,' as well as of Probus, Book 4. 

Asper, Donatus, and Serv. Wagn. and 550.] " Incenditque animum famae ve- 

Forb., supposing 'convexa' to have arisen nientis amore" 6.889. "Insanus amor 

from " caeli convexa " 4. 451, have Martis " E. 10. 44. 

adopted 'conversa,' which Wagn. interprets 551.] ' Spargam arma per agros, ' 

"convertcns se a terris," a sense which, even stronger than " sere crimina belli " v. 339 

if it can be given to ' conversa' alone, is very above, which Serv. comp. 

poor. On the other hand it is very diffi- 552.] For this use of ' abunde ' with a 

cult to construe 'convexa,' unless we may ex- gen. see Hand Turs. 1. 71. ' Ac ' was read 

plain it by the analogy of " devexus " G. 4. before Heins., whether from any MS. is not 

293, " Usque coloratisamnis devexus ah In- known. 'Terrorum et fraudis :' there is 

dis," and suppose it by a rather extraordinary enough of false panic without any fresh 

combination of ideas to have reference to rumours (v. 549). Comp. v. 578., 4. 187. 

the flight of the Fury up the slope or cope ' Fraudis ' however may merely =" noxae. 
of heaven, the shape of that over which 553.] 'Stant* i.q. "sunt," with a 



Quae fors prima dedit^ sangais noms imbuit arma. 

Talia coniugia et talis celebrent hymenaeos 555 

Egregium Veneris genus et rex ipse Latinus. 

Te super aetherias errare lioentius auras 

Haud Pater ille velit, summi regnator Olympi. 

Cede locis. Ego^ si qua super fortuna laborum est^ 

Ipsa regam. Talis dederat Saturnia voces ; 560 

Ilia autem attollit stridentis anguibus alas^ 

Cocytique petit sedem^ snpera ardua linquens. 

Est locus Italiae medio sub montibus altis, 

additional notion of €xitY. Oomp. Hor. may be used liere to aroid that special 

1 Od. 16. 17, "Irae — aitis nrbibas al- meaning, thongb it may be equally well 

iimae Stetere cauasae cur perirent Fnn- referred to metrical convenienoe or poetical 

ditns," from whicb Virg. may bave taken Tariety. The sense obriously is * Be gone 

the phrase. "Certandum est oomminus from hence.' Canon, has 'loco,' omitting 

-armis" 12. 890. 'ego,' nnmetrically. 'Laborom,' the war: 

554.] ' Prima ' with ' fors ' (corop. 2. 387) comp. v. 481. " Fortuna laborum " G. 3. 

rather than with ' quae.' ' Sanguis novus,' 452. Virg. probably imitates 11. 1. 522 

the first blood, is said with reference to the (Zeus to Thetis), *AAAck (rh fjiku ww aJbris 

«ense of ' imbuit,' i. q. " auspicatus est," inr6ffTix^ fi-fi irt yoiiffn "Hpri' iftol h4 k€ 

mentioned on v. 542. The meaning is raura fA€\iiaerai, &^pa Tc\c<r<r«, as Cerda 

not that the chance weapons of the rustics remarks. For the tmesis ' super est ' 

(v. 508) have been stained with blood, but comp. 2. 567, £. 6. 6. 

that the quarrel which was begun acci- 560.1 ' Begam ' = " dirigam," 9. 409 

dentally has proceeded to bloodshed. &c, ' Dederat :' in these cases Virg. uses 

555.] 'Connubia' waa retained by the perfect and pluperfect tenses indif- 

Heyne : ' coniugia ' however Is found in ferently. 

an Bibbeck's MSS., the best authority for 561.] Snakes in her wings are a new fea- 

* oonnubia' being the first Mentdian. ture : the allusion cannot bo to the snakes 

'Connubia' may have been introduced in her hair. Doubtless they supply the 

from 4. 316. place of feathers, as feathers answer to 

556.] 'Egregium' ironical, as m 6. hair. « Strid^tibus alis " 1. 897> of the 

523. " Bex ipse Latinus " above v. 432. ordinary rushing sound of wings. 

Here 'ipse' seems merely to give dig- 562.T Med. and Bom. have *wfxget' 

nity. which lUbbeok adopts, as in 6. 241, 750^ 

557.] See Wagn.'s remark quoted on 787. 

1. 680. Strictly speaking, the Fury was 563.] Some MSS. and the old editions 

not wandering above, but in the upper air. have 'in medio.' Heins. gected 'in.' 

Tbe opposition is between the light of day, Amsanctus is fixed by Ctc. de Div. 1. 36, 

as shared by men and gods, and the dark- Pliny 2. 95, in Hirpini, and therefore 

ness of the world below. Jupiter, as ' Italiae in medio ' is said only witb re- 

'aummi regnator Olympi,' prevents the ference tothelnreadth, notto theleqgth of 

Fury from trespassing on his domain. Italy. 1 am indebted to Mr. Long for 

Comp. Aesch. £um. 865 foU., and indeed some extracts from a paper by Mr. Hami)- 

the play generally. ' Aetherias auras :' see ton in the London Geographical Journal 

on 1. 546 ' Errare hcentius ' combines vol. 2. p. 62, describing the place. It is 

the notions of free movement ('errare' as in a small pond, in the smallest dimension 

E. 1.9) and wanderiug from the proper place, about twenty paces, and not more than 

558.] ' Pater iUe :' comp. 2. 779, and thirty in the longest. " The water 

see on v. 110 above. " Begnator Olympi " bubbles up with an explosion resembling 

10. 437. The first Mentelian, a variant in distant thunder." " On one side of the " 

Gud., and others, have 'ipse.;' Gud. also pond "is a constant and rapid stream of 

gives ' superi ' as a variant. the same blackish water rushing into it 

559.] " Cedere loco " is a phrase for giv- from under" a " barren rocky hiU," under 

ing way in battle, and perhaps the plural which the pond is : " but the fiUl is not 


Nobilis et fama moltis memoratus in oris^ 
Amsancti valles ; densis hune frondibus atrum 566 

Urguet utrimqae latus nemoris^ medioque fragosus 
Dat sonitum sa^ds et tortx) vertice torrens. 
Hie speeus horrendum et saevi spiracula Ditis 
Monstrantur^ ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago 
Pestiferas aperit fauces^ quis eondita Erinys^ 670 

Invisum numen^ terras caelumque levabat. 

Nee minus interea extremam Satumia bello 
Inponit regina manum. Buit omnis in urbem 

more than a few feet." "A little above the apertures. The latter xuune, and that 

are apertures in the ground through which of '' Charoneae scrobes/, are said by Pliny 

warm blasts of sulphuretted hydrc^n gas 2. 93 to have been generally given to 

are constantly issuing with more or less places of this kind. Comp. Lucr. 6. 762 

noise.'' The name is derived from the foil., where the supernatural explanation 

old "am"="circum" and *'sanctus." is protested against. For 'saevi' Wagn. 

565.] 'Valles' uom. sing., as in 11.522, rightly comp. v. 84, "saevam mephitim." 

where see note. 'Frondibus' may go either "Spiracula muudi" Lucr. 6. 483. 

with ' urguet ' or with ' atrum.' 569.] ' Monstrantur,' 6. 440. ' Rupto 

566.] ' Latus nemoris,' a woody steep Acheronte,' formed by the bursting up of 

cliff: comp. Hor. 2 S. 6. 91, " Rrae- Acheron: 'rupto' like "rupto turbine "2. 

rupti nemoris dorso," and note on v. 82 416. Turn. comp. &to^^^| II. 2. 755, which 

above. 'Medioque' sc. 'nemore.' Freund however is rather the arm of a river, 

seems wrong in explaining ' fragosus ' here 'Air<(<rira(r/ia, as used by Plato, Phaedo 61 

of sound, though probably we are meant (see the passage quoted on 6. 551), seems a 

to be reminded of that sense of " fragor." better parallel. 

Here it doubtless means frill of bi^eaks, 570.] ' Pestiferas :' Mr. Hamilton says 

which is its general sense. In Val. F. 2. the vapours are at times fatal. Mod., Qud., 

622., 4. 261 it may have the sense of and others have ' condit,' a natural error, 

sound, but it may equally well refer to mentioned as a various reading by Serv. 

the broken waves, if it is not to be taken 571.] Wakef. and Jahn make 'numen' 

actively, ship- wrecking. Some MSS. have ace. after 'eondita,' which would be harsh, 

'fragosis.' Rom. and others have 'levavit,' which 

567.] ' Saxis et torto vertice,' doubt- would bo easier, as ' levabat ' is not suffi- 

less refers to the bubbling up of the water ciently supported by 11. 827, " linquebat 

among the rocks. habenas," where we are meant to dwell on 

568.] 'Horrendum et saevi' is the the gradual relaxation of Camilla's grasp 
reading of all Ribbeck's MSS. but one in death. Perhaps one may say that the 
(Pal. and Vat. and Verona fragmm. are description of Amsanctus has the same 
wanting), which omits ' et.' Serv, says effect here, making us linger on the con- 
that ancient copies read 'speeus horren- templation of the Fury's disappearance: 
dus,' which doubtless shows that they or the point may be the gradual relief 
had not the copula, though it :has been caused by her removal. 
Boggosted that the copyists may have 572—600.] 'The Latins, backed by 
thought that 'us' could be elided. 'Et' Turnus, clamour for war against the 
was omitted by Heins. and Heyne, who Trojans. Latinus resists long, but even- 
read 'monstratur ;' but the authority seems tually yields under protest, abandoning the 
insufficient, especinlly as the copies which conduct of affairs to others.' 
omit 'et' do not agree in reading 'mon- 572.] 'Manum extremam,' 'ultimam/ 
strantur.' Rom. is the only one of Rib- ' summam imponere ' is a common phrase 
beck's MSS. that has 'monstratur,' and for completing a thing: see the Die- 
it retains ' et.' ' Speeus ' is fern, in tionaries. The metaphor is taken, as Serv. 
Ennius, Pacuvius and Attius, masc. in and Donatus remark, from a work of art. 
ordinary Latin, neut. here and in Sil. " Nee minus interea " 6. 212. 
13. 425. ' Speeus ' is the pool, ' spiracula ' 


Pastorum ex acie numerus, caesosque reportant 
Almonem puerum foedatique ora Galaesi^ 675 

Inplorantque deos^ obtestanturque Latinum. 
Turnus adest, medioque in crimine caedis et ig^i 
Terrorem ingeminat : Teucros in regna vocari ; 
Stirpem admisceri Phrygiam : se limine pelli. 
Tum^ quorum attonitae Baceho nemora avia matres 580 
Insultant thiasis, — neque enim leve nomen Amatae^ — 

574.] The army seems to have consisted woald be improved by amplification, while 

of shepherds (vv. 519 foil.) ; so that ' ex * terrorem ' would perhaps be weakened by 

acie ' must mean that they broke up their it. On the other hand it must be admitted 

battle array and ran to the city. It seems that ' ignis criminis ' is somewhat a bold 

to be implied that they were defeated, if metaphor in Latin ; it is helped out how- 

not routed. ever by the zeugpma, which enables us to 

575.] ' Ora Galaesi ' as connected with take ' medio in crimine caedis et igni ' as 
' reportant ' is a periphrasis for ' Galaesum ' a kind of hendiadys, ** in the midst of the 
(comp. 4. 511, O. 4. 12) : in itself however furious outcry at the slaughter," and sup- 
it is not a mere periphrasis, but fixes at- ported by 11. 225, " medio in flagrante 
tention on the face, as the part in which tumultu," where, though the expression is 
the ghastliness and disfigurement of his much more common, the image is really 
violent death were most visible : comp. 2. the same, and the turn of the words sufil- 
286 (of the mangled apparition of Hector), ciently similar to make it probable that 
*' quae caussa indigna serenos Foedavit Virg. wrote * igni ' here, 
voltus ?" The construction thus brings 578, 579.1 ' Terrorem * by itself seems 
out the double sense of ' foedare,' which is best referred to the threats of Turnus. Cic. 
both to wound and to disfigure. Brut. 11, § 44 speaks of " [Periclis] vim 

576.] Comp. the phrase " deorum atque dicendi terroremque." 'In reg^a,' "in 

hominum fidem inplorare,"andCic. 2yerr. partem regni:" comp. v. 313. Turnus 

5. sub fin., " CeteixM item deos deasque speaks as usual of Aeneas and the Trojans 

omnes inploro atqae obtestor." ' Obtes- as one : but the grievance is not the ad- 

tautur Latinum ' probably denotes merely mission of the Trojans as subjects of Lati- 

an appeal for protection, and not, as Forb. nus, but the association of a foreigner in 

thinks after Serv., an appeal to witness the the empire. So ' admisceri ' is rather 

breach of the treaty which Turnus either " regiae domo '* than " Latinorum populo," 

threatens himself (see above vv. 467 foil.) and 'limine' is the royal hoase. Gossrau 

or bids them expect from the Trojans comp. ** limine prohiberi " Cic. pro Caec. 

(comp. 10. 77, where the Trojans are 12, § 35, Emm., "limine summoveor" 

charged with employing fire against the Juv. 8. 124. 'Admisceri' refers to the 

Latins). So "ipsum obtestemur" 11. mixture of blood: comp. 6. 762., 8. 

358. 510. There may be a taint of effemi- 

577.] Heyne, following the editors before nacy implied in 'Phrygiam,' as Forb. 

Heins., reads ' ignis,' which, if taken with thinks. 

'terrorem,' would give a good sense, 580.] 'Attonitae Baceho,' inspired by 

' terrorem caedis et ignis ' being the alarm Bacchus : the word is common for strong 

of fire and sword. But this reading is divine inflaence, as in 6. 53, Hor. 3 Od. 

supported only by Qud. and some inferior 19. 14, " attonitus vates." So Archiloch. 

MSS. (including the Balliol) and by fr. 79 Bergk, oti^^p avyKtpavv»etU ^p4vas, 

Donatus ; while the authority of the other ' Matres,' i. q. " matronae," ' quorum ' 

MSS. and Serv. is in favour of 'igni,' being probably their relations generally, 

which was the reading of Heins., and has ' Insultant nemora ' is a Grecism : comp. 

been restored by Wagn. ' Igni ' also may Soph. Aj. 30, inid&tn-a xtiia &c, Comp. 

derive some confirmation from the structure also "navigat aequor" (1. 67), "natat 

of the verse, which is similar to 6. 255, freta" (G. 3. 260), and the converse con- 

"Ecce autem primi sub lumina solis et struction in "bsicchata virg^ibus Tay- 

ortus." Poetically speaking, 'igni' seems geta" (G. 2. 487). 

preferable: that is, 'medio in crimine' 581.] 'Thiasis,' E. 5. 30. The autho- 


Undique coUecti coeunt, Martemque fatigant. 

Ilicet infandum cuncti contra omina bellum^ 

Contra fata deum, perverso numine poscunt. 

Certatim regis circumstant tecta Latini ; 585 

lUe velut pelagi rupes inmota resistit, 

Ut pelagi rupes magno veniente fragore. 

Quae sese^ multis circum latrantibus undis^ 

Mole tenet ; seopuli nequiquam et spumea circum 

Saxa fremunt, laterique inlisa refunditur alga. 590 

Verum ubi nulla datur caecum exsuperare potestas 

lity of Amata combines with family sym- apprehend. It occurs in all the MSS. 

pathy to put the relatives of the matrons except the 2nd Leipsic of the 18th cen- 

on the side of war. tury. In two others, the second Mentelian 

582.] *' Undique coUecti " 2. 414. 'Mar- and the Bigotian, it is added as a correc- 

tem ' is the substance of the reiterated cry tion, having, no doubt, been omitted by 

expressed by 'fatigant.' " Cry, War, War !" accident, it not being necessary to the con- 

This seems the best way of explaining the struction. The repetition of 'pelagi rupes,' 

ace., which in Greek would be readily ac- which is obviously for poetic efiect, may 

counted for as a cogn. There is a some- be paralleled from II. 20. 371, T^ i* 

what similar use in Sil. 2. 675, ** Inde iyi» iun-ios tlfii, Koi el irvpl x<<ip<(s HoiKev, 

agitant consulta patres curasque fatigant." El irvpl x^^P^^ HoiKt, n4vos 8* aXBotvi (rid'fip<p : 

To take ' Martem ' as the god and ' fati- ib. 22. 127, &Tf irape4vos ii1$€6s re, nape4' 

gAut ' as i. q. ** precibus fatigant " would yos ^t6e<js r* oapl^frov aW^KoiXy : and 

be simpler ; but we should then lose the from Lucr. 5. 950, " proluvie larga lavere 

force of ' fatigant ' as expressing the effect humida saxa, Humida saxa, super viridi 

on Latinus. stillantia musco." Comp. also 12. 546, 

583.] 'Infandum' (i.q. "nefandum") is "domus alta sub Ida, Lymesi domus 

explained by ' contra omina — contra fata.' alta." 

The 'omina' are those narrated vv. 46 foil. 588.] Forb. comp. 8. 432, " Scyllam 

' Fata deum ' refers to the oracle of Faunus et caeruleis canibus resonantia saxa." The 

vv. 96 foil. ' Ilicet ' seems to show that expression has been imitated by Silius 

' poscunt helium ' is a stage beyond ' Mar- and Claudian. 

tem fatigant:' they call definitely for 589.] ' Mole' is ofconrse for "mole sua' 

war. (10. 771), which would be the more regular 

584.] ' Perversus ' occurs E. 3. 13 as a expression. Med. (corrected), Verona 

synonym for "malignus," which is pro- fragm. &c. omit *et,' owing to a wrong 

bably its sense here (comp. Catalecta 14. punctuation, condemned by Serv., by which 

7, "perversi Manes"). "Hie dies per- the stop was placed after ' seopuli.' *Sco- 

versus atque adversns mihi obtigit" puli' are the peaks, 'saxa' the smaller 

Plaut. Men. 5. 1. Serv., who is followed rocks over which the sea breaks (' spumea'), 

by Gossrau, takes ' perverso ' as i. q. " ad- while * rupes ' is the whole cliff. ' Nequi^ 

verso :" Heyne, with whom Forb. agrees, quara,' because, in spite of the din, the 

renders ' perverso numine ' " perversa, con- cliff remains unmoved, 

turbata, et infirmata deorum voluntate." 590.] ' Laterique ' &c. is not an idle 

They are going against the will of heaven addition, as Wagn. thinks, but adds to 

and fate, but it is under the influence of a the picture both of the violence of the 

malign preternatural power. waves and the stability of the rock. Some 

586.] This simile is an amplified and copies have ' aspersa ' for ' inlisa.' 

ornamented imitation of II. 15. 618 foil., 591.] Comp. 3. 670, " Verum ubi nulla 

where the image is applied to the serried datur dextra adfectare potestas." It is 

array of the Greeks, repulsing a charge of difficult to say whether ' caecum consilium ' 

the Trojans. is the hidden purpose of Juno and the Fury 

587.] Heyne, following Heins., has or, as Serv. and others take it, the blind 

abolished this line on grounds which he will of the people, 
thinks obvious, but which are difficult to 


Consilium, et saevae autu lunonis eunt res, 

Multa deos aurasque pater testatus inanis, 

Frangimur heu fatis, inquit, ferimurque procella ! 

Ipsi has sacrilego pendetis sanguine poenas, 695 

O miseri. Te, Turne, nefas, te triste manebit 

Supplicium, votisque deos venerabere seris,^ 

Nam mihi parta quies, omnisque in limine portus ; 

593.] Comp.9.24, "Multa deos orans, "ego omnis, totus, sum in limine, aditu, 

oneravitque aethera votis." 'Inanis' is portus; in portu iam tantum non na- 

an ordinary epithet of * anras ;' here how- vigo ;" and so Gossran, ** iam prope ahsum 

ever it denotes the ineffectualness of the a portu, iam sum ad limen portus, quem 

protest, a feeling which Latinus may have introeam." ITie objection to the former 

expressed. Comp. Catull. 62 (64). 164 view seems to be the apparent confusion 

foil, i of metaphor between * portus ' and * li- 
mine' ('in limine' not having been yet 

" Sed quid ego ignaris nequiquam con- shown to be a current synonyme for " in 

queror auris, promptu "), and the application of * omnis ' 

Externata malo, quae nullis aensibuf to * portus,' which, though it may very 

auctae well be used simply for ' rest ' in a context 

Nee missas audire queunt nee reddere for this, like our * haven,' could hardly be 

voces?" generalized by 'omnis,' while the order 

of the words is rather against taking <om- 

With the appeal to the sky we may perhaps nis' as a predicate, i.q. '*omnino in limine." 

comp. Prometheus' soliloquy, Aesch. Prom. The objection to the latter is the omission 

88 foil. Marklaud ingeniously conjectured of * sum,' and generally the want of speci- 

< aras,' which is found in the 2nd Hamb. lication of the subject of the clause. This 

a m. p., and is supported by 12. 496. would be removeid by taking away the 

694.] ' Frangimur :' " fraoti boUo fatis- stop after ' portus,' so as to make ' spolior ' 

que repulsi" 2. 18. 'Ferimur procella' the principal verb: but the sense would 

like " fertur equis," as Germ, remarks. then seem scarcely to cohere, Latinus saying 

595.] ' Has poenas,' the penalty of this : in one breath that he has rest in store for 

see on 2. 171. * Sacrilege,' because it was him and that he loses a happy death, 

against the will of heaven : comp. v v. 583, 4. Ladewig attempts to bring the clause into 

*' Scelerato sanguine " 12. 949. ' Ipsi,' in harmony by adopting a variant in the 

your own persons, not in mine : see v. Codex Minoraugiensis, * non ' for * nam,' 

598. Latinus being made to say that he had 

596.] 'NefaSj'the punishment of crime : lost his proq)ect of peace. A better way 

comp. 7. 307, " Quod scelus aut Lapithas of expressing this would be to read ' rapta' 

tantum, aut Calydona merentem ?" For for * parta,' just as in 8. 317 "rapto" for 

' manebit ' we might have expected " ma- " parte " is one of the readings of Med. 

net :" Latinus however is not speaking But this is clearly not what Virg. means : 

destiny, but denouncing punishment con- the g^st of Latinus' speech is not that 

tingently on crime. Turnus and the Latins will suffer for dis- 

598.] ' Nam ' refers to what precedes, turbing the quiet of his la^t days, but 

* You will suffer, not I : for ' &c. The that retribution for the war will fell on 
difficulty of ' omnisque in limine por- them, not on him ; all that he can lose is 
tus' is well known. Serv. renders it a death of quiet, his final rest being as- 
" securitas omnis in promptu est," taking sured. Possibly this may be express^ by 
'portus' as the uom., and so it seems the sentence punctuated as prop(^ed above, 
to have been understood by Paulli- 'omnisque in limine portus Funerefelicispo- 
nus, Carm. 12. 31, who evidently imitates lior,' if we suppose the main stress to fell 
Virg., " Inque tuo placidus nobis sit limine on the first words, ' it is only when just 
portus." Kuhkopf interprets it similarly, on the harbour's verge that 1 am robbed 
" omne auxilium mihi ante pedes et para- of a happy death :' but the sentence then 
tum est seni," and Wagn. and Forb. con- would be inconveniently loaded. On the 
cur. On the other hand Heyne makes whole it seems best to accept the ellipse of 

* portus ' gen., paraphrasing the words < sum,' awkward as it is, supposing that 


Piinere felici spolior. Nee plura locutus 

Saepsit se tectis, rerumque reliquit habenas. / 600 

Mos erat Hesperio in Latio^ quern protinus urbes 
Albanae coluere sacrum^ nunc maxuma rerum 
Boma eolit^ cum prima movent in proelia Martem^ 
Sive Getis inferre manu lacrimabile bellum 

Hyrcanisve Arabisve parant^ seu tendere ad Indos 605 

Tirg. tmsted to the proximity of ' spo- ing this in mind, we need hardly inquire 

lior' to make the subject of the clause whether be had any definite meaning in 

dear. Canon, has a remarkable reading, " urbes Albanae," such as the Alban 

" somnusque in limine partus :" but though colonies. Livy 1. 19 assigns this institu- 

this would remove all difficulty, it seems tion, like other parts of Homan religion, 

hardly in the style of Virg., who would to Numa. 

scarcely have repeated 'partus' except as 602.] For the grammatical relation Be- 

substitute for " quae :'* see on £. 4. 6. tween ' maxuma ' and ' rerum ' see on G* 

Wordsworth on Ttaeoer. 2. 126 had already 2. 534, <* Boina— pulcherrima rerum.'' The 

conjectured 'somni' for 'omnis,' a very ordinary sense of the gen. as partitive 

plausible change if we were dealing with may be supported from Hor. Carm. Sec. 

an author whose text was less supported 11, "possis nihil urbeKomaVisere mains." 

by MSS. "Vobis parta quies" 3. 495 "Hinc maxuma porro Accepit Koma" 5. 

(see on 2. 784), though the <quies' of 600. 

Helenas and Andromache, like that of 603.] 'Prima' is adverbial, though 

Antenor 1. 249, is peaceful life, not death, agreeing with ' proelia.' ' Movent in proe- 

The metaphorical use of ' portus ' is as old lia Martem :' the image seems to be that 

as £nn. Thy est. fr. 16, " Keque sepulcrum of crying on a god with the intent of 

quo recipiat habeat, portum corporis, Ubi rousing him, if not of laying hands on 

remissa humana vita corpus requiescat his statue. See on 8. 3. 

malis." 604.] The allusions which follow are 

599.] Comp. 2. 646, "facilis iactura probably all to theforeignwarsof Augustus, 

aepulcri," where the thought is the same. The Qctae represent the tribes on the 

though Xiatinus does not extenuate the Danube, whose incursions disturbed that 

privation as pointedly as Anchises. frontier of the empire (G. 2. 497), and 

600.] " Linquebat habenas " 11. 827. against whom Leutulus made a successful 

*'Legum habenae" occurs in a poet quoted expedition about A.u.c. 729. Catullus 

by Cic. de Or. 3. 41 ; " habenas profundi " (11. 5 foil.) mentions the Hyrcanians and 

Lucr. 2. 1096. By the secession of La- Arabians together with the Sacae and 

tinns, as Heyne observes, Turnus becomes Parthians as representatives of the East, 

cliief of the Latin confederacy, in which and perhaps the Hyrcani and Arabians are 

otherwise, though called " rex," he is a sub- used in the same general way here. A 

orcUnate, so that, though a Rutulian, he is special expedition was however made into 

called *' Laurens Turnus " (v. 650). Arabia Felix by Aelius Gallus, governor of 

601—640.] ' War is formally declared, Egypt under Augustus in A.u.c. 730 
according to a custom still observed at (Diet. B. ' Gallus, Aelius '). The rest re- 
Borne, by opening the temple of the war- lates to the real diplomatic success and 
god, an act here performed by Juno her- imaginary warlike victories of Augustus 
self. Five great cities of the Ausonian in the East ; to his protection of Tiridates, 
confederacy rush to arms.' the defeated pretender to the throne of 

601.] "Hesperia" being an ancient name Parthia, who tied to him when he was in 

for Italy, " Hesperius " will be equivalent Syria after the battle of Actium, and to 

to ancient or primitive. Connect ' pro- his recovery of the standards and captive 

tinus coluere sacrum,' kept up the ob- soldiers of Crassus through the fears of the 

servance of it; 'protinus' denoting that newly restored king Phraates A.n c. 729. 

the custom passed without a break from Comp. 6. 794 foil., G. 3. 30 foil. ' Lacri- 

the ancient Latins to the Albans, like mabile bellum ' is the Homeric iroK6SaKpvs 

"porro" 5. 600. Here as elsewhere (1. '^Apris, 9aKpv6us ]r<(Ac/uos. ' Manu,' 2. 645 

6, 265 foil., 12. 826) Virg. makes Alba &c. 

succeed to Latium, Rome to Alba. Bear- 605.] ' Hyrcanisque Arabisque ' is the 


Auroramque sequi Parthosque reposcere signa : 

Sunt geminae Belli portae, sic nomine dicunt, 

Religione sacrae et saevi formidine Martis ; 

Centum aerei claudunt veetes aetemaque ferri 

Bobora^ nee eustos absistit limine lanus; 610 

Has, ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnae. 

Ipse Quirinali trabea cinctuque Gabino 

Insignis reserat stridentia limina Consul ; 

reading of MSS. mentioned by Pierius, and 609.] In A. 1. 1. c. the bars are not 

is partially supported by fragm. Vat., mentioned: Fury however is represented 

which has ' Hyrcanisque/ but afterwards as bound " centum aenis nodis." ** Duri 

is defective or illegible. 'Arabis' as if robora ferri" Lucr. 2. 449. Bars of 

from " Arabus/' "Arabibus" being metri- iron seem to be intended, as well as of 

«ally unmanageable. The adj. 'Arabus' brass. 

is cited by Charisius p. 99 from Plaut. 610.] Hor. 2 £p. 1. 255 has a somewhat 

Poen. 5. 4. 6, where the common reading different conception, " Claustraque cus- 

is " Arabius/' from a passage, now lost, in todem pacis cohibentia lanum.'' 

the Bacchides of the same author, and 611.J ' Sedet :' comp. v. 368., 2. 660 &c. 

from Lucilius, Book 25; he also quotes ''Sententia sedif 11. 551. 'Pugnae' 

'Arabi' as a substantive from a letter probably with 'sententia' rather than 

of C. Cassius to Dolabella. Serv. comp. with 'certa,' though 'sententia pugnae' 

Aethiops," " Aethiopus," " Hiber," " Hi- for a resolution in fovour of war seems un- 


berus." ' Indos :' comp. 8. 705, G. 2. 172, exampled. 

Hor. 1 Od. 12. 56. 612.] 'Quirinali trabea' as "Quirinali 

606.] 'Auroram sequi,' to penetrate to lituo" v. 187. The 'trabea' ("parva 

the furthest East. Comp. 10. 193, "si- trabea" v. 187) was probably transmitted 

dera voce secutum," 12. 592, "ardua pennis with the other of the regal insignia from 

Astra sequi." the kings to the consuls as the heirs of 

607.] The reference is to the gates of their majesty. Juv. 8. 259, "Ancilla 

Janus, once supposed to have been the natus trabeam et diadema Quirini — me- 

gates of a temple, but now agreed to have ruit." The ' cinctus Gabinus ' was formed 

been two doors at each end of a passage by girding the toga tight round the body 

where a statue of Janus stood. Virg. by one of its " laciniae " or loose ends. It 

calls them * Belli portae ' here and in 1. appears to have been one of the primitive 

294, which agrees with Plut. Numa 19, fashions which were preserved on sacred 

Iran Hh avrov (Numa^ ica^ vecbs 4v 'P(^/at7 occasions. Its connexion with Gabii is 

bldvpos, hif UoKdfiov UvXriv KaXovtri, Comp. unexplained. Serv. has a story that Gabii 

also the lines from Ennius cited on v. 622. was invaded during the performance of a 

' Sic nomine dicunt ' would certainly seem sacrifice, whereupon the citizens went in 

to show that the name was a recognized their sacrificial ' cinctus ' and repulsed the 

one. It is difficult to say whether Virg. enemy. 

means ' Bellum ' here to be confined within 613.] ' Has — reserat stridentia limina * 

the gates, like Fury 1. 294. The guardian- is an anacoluthon common in Greek (e. g. 

ship of Janus would seem to imply that Soph. El. 1364, robs yhp iv fiicefi \6yovs 

there is some one or something to IIoAAal KUK\ovvTai vitKrcs rnufpai r* Xaat, 

guard. At raurd aoi Uti^ovatv, *HX€KTpa, craiprf), 

608.] 'Formidine,' the terrible infiuence There is a similar instance 2. 438 foil., 

or presence : comp. G. 4. 468, " caligantem where Virg. begins intending to construct 

nigra formidine lucum." " Religione " ingentem pugnam " with " cemimus," 

sacer " 8. 598. Here the more special and then interposes a parenthetical clause 

'formidine Martis' explains the general which suggests the variation of the ex- 

' religione.' Mars seems to be introduced pression and the introduction of a new 

simply as the patron of every thing war- ace. * Limina' = " fores," as in 2. 479. 

like, not identified with ' Bellum,' at least 'Stridentia:' "foribus cardo stridebat 

if 'Bellum' is intended to be confined aenis" 1. 449. 
within the gates. 


Ipse vocat pugnas, sequitur turn cetera pubes, 

Aereaque adsensu conspirant comua rauco. 6i5 

Hoc et turn Aeneadis indicere bella Latinus 

More iubebatur tristisque recludere portas. 

Abstinuit tactu pater, aversusque refugit 

Foeda ministeria, et caecis se condidit umbris. 

Turn regina deum caelo delapsa morantis 620 

Inpulit ipsa manu portas, et cardine verso 

Belli ferrates rumpit Saturnia postis. 

Ardet inexcita Ausonia atque inmobilis ante ; 

614.] * Vocat pngnas ' does not simply gates were thrown open, not burst from 

mean 'proclums war/ though that is really their hinges. We need not inquire how 

what the image comes to, but expresses the bars were removed. ' Bumpit ' will 

the notion that there was some presence then express violent opening, 

within the gates which the consul had to 622.] ' Rumpit ' Med., < rupit' Rom. : 

evoke. See on v. 603., 8. 3. ' Sequitur,' fragm. Vat. Wagn. and Ribbeck adopt 

takes up the cry : comp. 9. 54, 636. Serv. the former ; Heyne retained the latter, 

however says that the phrases ' vocat ' As in other cases (see vv. 458, 9 above), it 

and ' sequitur ' refer to the special kind of is not easy to choose. Horace (1 S. 4. 60) 

service called "evocatio'' (" nam ad subi- quotes from an old poet ** Postquam Dis- 

tnm helium evocabantur") when the consul cordia tetra Belli ferratos postis portasque 

used the words " Qui rempublicam salvam refrcgit.'' The Scholiasts intimate that 

eEse volt me sequatur." the poet is Ennius, and so says Serv. on 

615.] The blowing of horns or trumpets this passage. For the double denomina- 

follows the proclamation of war in tion 'regina deum— Saturnia' comp. 1. 

8. 2. 195 foil., 411 foil., 691 foil. Here there is 

616.] 'Iubebatur indicere bella' im- nothing to difference the second designa- 
plies a constitutional monarchy like that tion from the first: but the repetition 
of legendary Rome, in which the king leads us to dwell on Juno's persona- 
was the first magistrate, and made peace lity. ' Postis ' = " fores," as in 2. 493 
and war by consent of the Comitia Curiata &c. 

and Senate (see Lewis 1. p. 415), an idea 623.] * Inexcita ' i. q. " inexcitabilis :" 

which is not sustained throughout. La- comp. " invictus," " indomitus " &c. The 

tiuus makes a covenant with the Trojans word occurs Stat. Achill. 2. 352. ' Ante,' 

on his own authority v. 266, and he is till the sacred gates of War were opened, 

called " tyrannus " v. 342. ' Ardet ' indicates the instantaneous efi'ect 

618.] 'Pater' expresses the feelings of of the opening. Ribbeck changes the 

a good king. order of the following lines, supposing 

619.] "Triste ministerium " 6. 223. 624— 627 to have been written by the poet 

* Umbris,' the deepest retirement of the as an alternative with 638 — 640, which in 

palace. So Amphiaraus is said " atra sede the autograph copy they preceded, and to 

tegi " Stat. Theb. 3. 571, and Oedipus ib. have been transposed accidentally by a 

1. 49 is spoken of as "indulgentem tene- confusion of the transcriber between 'signa' 

bris imaeque recessu Sedis inaspectos v. 628 and ' signum ' v. 637. But 624 — 

caelo radiisque penatis Servantem." 627, really answer not to 638 — 640, but 

620.] The king refusing to perform his to the whole 629—640, combining, what 

second and indispensable function, and in the longer passage are kept separate, 

nobody, according to Roman ideas, being preparing for the fight and actually taking 

able to perform it for him, Juno descends the field. The scouring of shields and 

to remove the obstacle to war. 'Morantis,' sharpening of axes would precede, not 

" bella differentis " Serv. " Caelo de- follow, the sounding of the trumpet. The 

lapsa " 5. 722. simple fact is that Virg. has chosen to give 

621.] * Inpulit,' thrust open : comp. 1. a brief general description first, a more 

82 note. " Ipsa manu " G. 4. 329 &c. detailed one after. It is possible of course 

'Cardine verso' (3. 448) implies that the that he may not have intended both to 


Pars pedes ire parat campis^ pars ardnns altis 
Ptdverulentus eqnis furit; omnes arma reqairunt. 625 
Pars levis clipeos et spicala lucida tergent 
Arvina pingui, subiguntque in cote secures ; 
Signaque ferre invat^ sonitusque audire tabarum. 
Qoinqne adeo magnae positis incudibus urbes 
Tela novant, Atina potens Tiburque superbnm, 630 

Ardea Crustumerique et torrigerae Antemnae. 

stand, tlioug;li the possibility is infini- " conferre signa "), with the notion also of 

tesimal; but in that case we must suppose coarse of the pride taken in displaying or 

that he wrote the lines in the order in advancing the standards. Med. has 'iubet,' 

which we have them, bat that on revision the same variety as in 4. 498, from which 

he woald have left oat w. 624 — 627, if not Heins. plaasibly suggests 'labet,' a variety 

V. 628. actually found along with 'iuvat' 9. 514. 

624.] " Pedes apparat ire ** 10. 453. " It But the copyist may have thought of 8. 

campis"4. 404. *Pars arduns' &c. is a 498, "signaque ferre iubent." QeneraUy 

mixtureoftwo common constructions, "pars we may comp. Hor. 1 Od. 1. 23, "Multos 

ardua " and *' pars ardui ** (nom. masc.), castra iuvant et lituo tuhae Permixtos 

resulting, no doubt, from the use of 'pedes' sonitus," which may have been in Yirg.'s 

immediately before. For 'arduus' comp. mind. 

V. 286, "Sublimes in equis redeunt." 629.] 'Quinque adeo,* literally, a* «a«y 

' Pulverulent us fiirit* should, as Forb. says, at five great cides : but 'adeo' should in 

be taken closely together, as if it were fact merely be rendered by an emphasis on 

''fhrendo pulverem excitat :" this will re- 'quinque :' see on v. 427., 3. 203. 'Positis 

move the difficulty of the two epithets, incudibus :* they set up anvils, for which 

*arduus altis equis' alone being opposed they had previously had no occasion. Forb. 

to ' pedes.' comp. Ov. F. 4. 473 " Antraque Cyclopum 

625.] ' Bequirunt ' i. q. " quaerunt :" positis exusta caminis." 
oomp. V. 460 &c. Macrob. Sat. 6. 1 630.] 'Tela novant' like "transtra 
quotes from Ennius (A. 10), "Balan- novant" 5. 752. Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 35. 
tum pecudes quatit : onmes arma requi' 38, " O utinam nova Incude diffingas re- 
runt." tusum in Massagetas Arabasque ferrum." 

626.] ' Tergunt' was introduced by Atina is apparently regarded by Virg. as 

Heyne, from a misunderstanding of the a Latin city, though it seems to have been 

critical notices of Pierius and Heins. It originally Volscian, while historically it was 

is really supported only by a correction in Samnite (Diet. G. s. v.). 'Hbnr is called 

Gud., by some MSS. of less authority, in- 'superbum' doubtless with reference to 

eluding Canon, and Balliol, and by some its position, though Serv. fancies there is 

notices in the grammarians, who speak of an allusion to an answer given by the 

it as equally admissible with ' tergent,' Roman senate on one occasion to a Tibur- 

though Serv. says * tergo tergis* is obso- tine embassy, " superbi estis." 

lete. 'Levis' and 'lucida' are of course 631.] 'Ardea' above v. 411. 'Crus- 

proleptic. tumeri' would seem to be the inhabitants 

627.] Serv. quotes Suetonius de Tltiis of Crustumerium, the people b(»ng men- 

Corporalibus to prove that ' arvina ' is the tioned instead of the town on metrical 

hacd fat between the skin and the flesh : grounds : they are however gaierally called 

others however, he says, gave the name to " Crustumini," and the place is sometimes 

lard. The only other writers who use it, called " Crustumium," which woald have 

Prudentius and Sidonins Apollinaris, make suited the metre. For the questicms about 

it a synonyme for fat. ' Subigunt,' rub its origin see Diet. G. It was said to have 

down, and so, whet. So it is used of been conquered by Romulus along with 

kneading bread : seeFreund. For 'securis' Antemnae and Caenina, all of which took 

see on v. 510. up arms to avenge the rape of their women 

628.] This line describes the march of at the Consualia (Livy 1. 9 ibll.). There 

the assembling troops. ' Signa ferre,' to are similar questions about the origin of 

advance, 8. 498 (comp. "inferre signa," Antemnae (Diet. G.). Sil. 8. 365 calls it 


Tegmina tuta carant capitum^ flectuntque salignas 

Umbonum cratis ; alii thoracas aenos 

Aut levis ocreas lento ducunt argento ; 

Vomeris hue et falcis honos^ hue omnis aratri 635 

Cessit amor ; recoquunt patrios fomacibns enses. 

Classica iamque sonant; it bello tessera signum. 

Hie galeam tectis trepidns rapit ; ille frementis 

Ad iuga cogit equos ; clipeumque auroque trilicem 

"prisco Crustumio ptior."' It whs so 'ocreas' were so pronounced or changed 

called from its position "ante amnem," e. g. into "lamnas" (see Harios Plotius 

below the confluence of the Anio and De Metris pp. 247, 261 of Qiusford's 

Tiber. Scriptt. Latt. Bei Metr., Diomedes p. 495). 

632.] The alliteration, which was doubt- Serv.'s remark "estautem spondaicus et 

less intended, may remind us of Lucr. 2. reciprocus versus ''("reciprocus" rhyming, 

618» " Tympana tenta tonant palrab et alluding to ** lento---argento ") only means 

cymbala circnm Concava." * Tegmina that there is a spondee in the 5th place, 

capitum' w. 689, 742 below. "Leves ocreas" 8. 624, whera the metal is 

633.] The frame- work of the shield was gold and electrum : comp. 11. 488. 

made of twisted osiers, which were covered 635.] ' Hue cessit :' the esteem in which 

with hides and finally bound round with agriculture was held is swallowed up in 

metal (Diet. A. 'Clipeus'). Hence ir4a the enthusiasm for war. They cease to 

is used for a shield Bur. Supp. 697, Tro. make agricultural implements, and per- 

1201. We may say either that "umbo" is haps, though this is not expressly stated, 

put ibr tbo whole shield, or that 'cratis turn them into warlike weapons, as in 

umbonum ' is the wicker-work to which G. 1. 508> where the imagery is generally 

the boss was fitted. Lersch §. 31 comp. parallel (comp. especially v. 506, " non 

Caes. B. G. 2. 33 "partim scutis ex cor- ullus aratro Dignus honos"). With 'hue 

tice factis aut viminibus intextis, quae cessit,' which implies that one feeling has 

snbito, ut temporis exiguitas postulabat, passed into the other, comp. 8. 395, " fi- 

pelUbus induxerant," arguing that it was ducia cessit Quo tibi, diva, mei f" Virg. 

the " scutum," not the " clipeus," that was seems generally to have had in his mind 

so constructed. Others comp. the Persian the description in Lucr. 5 of the gradual 

ydf^y, Hdt. 7. 61, of which ' crates ' may discovery of the use of metals, " Nunc 

be a translation. "Crftteras aenos" 9. iacet aes, aurum in summum snccessit 

165. honorem " (v. 1275 : comp. the following 

634.] It matters little whether 'lento lines, where 'honore' occurs twice), "Inde 
ai^uto' be taken with 'ocreas' as a minutatim processit ferreus ensis Versa- 
material abl. or with ' ducunt.' The que in opprobrium species est faXcw aenae " 
former would be more symmetrical : but (vv. 1298, 4, quoted afi parallel by Macrob. 
the latter is more in accordance with Yirg.'s Sat. 6. 1). 

love of variety, as if " ducunt thoracas 636.] ' Recoquunt ensis ' like " diffingas 

aere " had preceded, and is suppcnrted by ferrum " Hor. 1 Od. 35. 39, quoted on y. 

Fliny 7. 37, " [Alexander] edixit ne quia 630 above. 

ipsum alius quam Lysippus ex aere 637.] 'Iamque' second in a clause 8. 

duceret;" Appul. Flor. 1, "qui solus effi- 588., 5. 225. |' Classica" G. 2. 539, here 

giem regis Polycletus aere duceret," used in its strict sense of the sound of the 

quoted by Forb. ' Ducere ' in these cases horn which called the Romans together to 

is to extend by beating, and answers nearly battle or other assemblies. < Tessera,' 

to our sense of 4\a0yeitf, as " ducere Diet. A. s. v., originally a cube used as a 

murum " (1. 423) does to another. The token w tally, hence, as here, a watchword, 

spondaic metre expresses the slowness of which passes, 'it,' from man to man. 

the process. Forb. asserts that ' ocreas ' The preparations are over, and the actual 

is to be pronounced as a dissyllable, being march begins. 

apparently misled by one or two of the 638.] ' Tectis ' from his house, from the 

early writers on metre, who quote this line chamber where it b stored, 

as one which would be purely spondaic if 639.] ' Cogit :' brings together, implying 


Loricam induitur, fidoque accingitur ense. 640 

Pandite nunc Helicona^ deae^ cantusque movete. 
Qui bello exciti reges, quae quemque secutae 
Conplerint campos acies^ quibus Itala iam turn 
Floruerit terra alma viris, quibus arserit armis ; 
Et meministis enim^ divae, et memorare potestis ; 645 
Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur aura. 
Primus init bellum Tyrrhenis asper ab oris 

that a pair are to be yoked. The more gpreat historical period of Borne. ' Tantam' 
ordinary expression would be " snb inga was a reading before Pierius. 
cogit/' as in Moretnm 118. Stat. Theb. 7. 644.] Comp. G. 2. 167 foil, of the na- 
136 (quoted by Forb.) has " alienaque tions and families of Italy. ' Alma ' i. q. 
cognnt Ad iuga comipedes/' an imitation " parens." * Quibus arserit armis * expresses 
which shows that ' ad iuga ' here does not generally what is expressed more in de- 
go with 'frementis/ like "fremit ad caulas'' tail in the two previous lines, *arma* 
9. 60. " Auro trilicem Loricam :" see on being the Yirgilian accompaniment to 
3. 467. 'viri/ as in the first line of the Aeneid 

640.] " Fidum ensem " 6. 524. and elsewhere. * Arserit ' probably includes 

641 — 646.] ' Sing, Muses, of the Italian both martial enthusiasm and the flashing 

chiefs and their followers.' of armour. 

641.] This invocation is of course from 646.] 6fAus yitp Btai i<rrt, irdptffr4 t€, 

that in H. 2. 484 foil., preceding the cata- itrre re irdma II. 1. c. Virg. has chosen 

logue of the ships. It is generally briefer two verbs which suggest the connexion of 

than its prototype ; but the subject to be memory with the Muses : see on v. 45, E. 

narrated is indicated at greater length. 7. 19. 

The notion is that an account involving 646.] iifitTs Bh k\4os olou iuco^ofjL^y, oiS4 

much statistical detail requires the special rt IBfity II. 1. c. 

aid of the goddesses of memory and song. 647 — 654.] ' Mezentius and his son Lau- 

' Pandite Helicona ' like " panditur domus sus lead an army from Agyllae in Etru< 

Olympi *' 10. 1, as if the gates of Helicon ria.* 

held in song. Wagn. weU comp. Bacchy- 647.] ' Init bellum,' begins the war. 
lides, fr.l4Bergk,ov5i y^p P^<rroy ajip^rtav "Prima pares ineunt gravibus certamina 
iirtwv irifKas i^tvpuv. The notion is pro- remis ** 5. 114. ' Tyrrhenis ab oris :' 
bably a complex one, of free utterance and " oriundo Tuscus, non qui nunc de Tuscia 
of expounding things unknown. The venit, quem antea pulsum a civibus con- 
former is the image in Pind. O. 6. 45, stat " Serv. This is possible enough 
which Wagn. thinks inapplicable, xp^ (comp. G. 3. 2, " Pastor ab Amphryso ") : 
roivvv irlXas Sfivtoy kvawirvdfiey aureus: but even if the words are constructed with 
comp. the opening of Whytehead's Cam- <init,' they need not be pressed to mean 
bridge Installation Ode, " Fling the gates that Mezentius came direct irom Etruria. 
of music wide. Hold back no more the The name of Mezentius comes from the 
rush of song." * Movete ' like " moveo " early legends, though his part in the story 
v. 45, whether in any wav connected was dittierently represented by different 
with the preceding image is not clear, persons, some making him kill Aeneas in 
There is a plausible variant ' monete ' a battle subsequent to the Trojan settle- 
in fragm. Vat. and Gud., recognized also ment in Latium. See Heyne, Excursus 3 
by Serv.: comp. v. 41. Wagn. rightly on Book 8, Lewis 1, p. 338. So, 
rejects it, but is perhaps too scrupulous according to another account, Lausus 
when he questions its Latinity. Heins. was killed later by Ascanius (Diet. M. 
conj. " can tuque monete," which is actually s. v.). Serv. remarks on the whole cata- 
found in Canon. logue that Vii^. mentions some whom 

642.] * Exciti,' the long penult, as in 3. he does not name afterwards in his nar- 

676., 10. 38 : comp. v. 623 above. * Bello,' rative, while some who are named after- 

prob. dat., as in v. 482 &c. Comp. gene- wards are not mentioned here, which 

rally vv. 37 foil, above. he calls " poetae afibctatio, nam am- 

643.] ' lam tum,' even then, before the blysiam " (apparently some word con- 


Contemptor divom Mezentius agminaque armat. 

Filius huic iuxta Lausus^ quo pulchrior alter 

Non fiiit, excepto Laurentis corpore Tumi. - -^650 

Lausns^ equum domitor debellatorque ferarum^ 

Ducit Agyllina nequiquam ex urbe secutos 

Mille yiros^ dignus^ patriis qui laetior esset 

Inperiis^ et cui pater baud Mezentius esset. 

Post hos insignem palma per gramina currum 655 

Victoresque ostentat equos satus Hereule pulchro 
Pulcher Aventinus, clipeoque insigne patemum 

nected with kfifiKv^trceiy : Casaubon coi^. yalent qnam in filio obseqninm." It might 

" ablepsiam ") " nefas est dicere." also mean that Lansus was worthy to have 

648.] " Contemptorque denm Mezen- fought under a commander more accept- 
tius" 8. 7. ' Armat, ' arrays, much as able to the gods : comp. 11. 347 (of 
6up4i(ra€iv is used in Horn., U. 2. 11, 83., Tumus), ** Cuius ob auspicium infaustum 
16. 155. There was a legend that Me- . . . Liimina tot oecidisse ducum." 
zentius claimed for himself the first-fruits 654.] * Hand ' is used loosely for "non." 
due to the gods, Cato ap. Macrob. Sat. Hand, Turs. 3. p. 13, wishes to connect 
3. 5. * baud Mezentius,' as we might say *' a non- 
649.] 'Iuxta' adverbial. Med. (first Mezentius," which seems most unlikely, 
reading) and one or two others hare ' hunc Pal. reads 'Medientius,' which Ribbeck 
iuxta,' which is supported by an erasure in adopts, a form also found in Non. p. 272, 
Bom. " Quo iustior alter Nee pietate fuit where 10. 762 is quoted : but though the 
nee bello maior et armis " 1. 544. form is doubtless a legitimate one, ' di ' 

650.] ' Corpore Tumi,' periphrastic, but and ' z ' being frequently interchanged in 

intended to enforce the notion of personal pronunciation (see Corssen, Ueber Aus- 

beauty. Comp. 2. 18 note. It matters sprache &c. der Lateinischen Sprache, vol. 

little whether we make this and the pre- 1. pp. 77 foil.), it does not seem likely that 

ceding line a complete sentence, as is gene- Virg. should have used the two indif- 

rally done, or with Bibbeck carry on the ferently. The recurrence of 'esset' is 

sense to what follows. inartificial. 

651.] 'Equum domitor' v. 189 above. 655— 669.] 'Aventinus, son of Hercules, 

" Ferarum vastatorem " 9. 771. For the joins them with a force.' 

fondness of the Tyrrhenians for hunting 655.] Serv. speaks of an Aventinus, 

comp. 11. 686. Lausus is represented as king of the Aborigines, who was killed and 

trained for war by horse-breaking and buried on the Aventine. The name also 

hunting. Heyne comp. II. 6. 49 foil. appears, as he says, in the list of Alban 

652. j ' Agyllina ex urbe,' 8. 479. ' Se- kings. Virg. seems to have invented the 

cutos' seems to include the two notions account he gives of this person. Heyne 

of following to battle and following into remarks that the victorious chariot is 

exile. < Nequiquam,' because he was des- Homeric, and not altogether consistent 

tined to death, and they to defeat. with the lion's skin, which belongs to a 

653.] It may be doubted whether these difierent state of society. See on vv. 664, 

thousand menare the same as the "agmina" 666. 'Palma,' gained in some race like 

in V. 648, or whether the words there refer that in II. 23. ' Per gramina :' " tu cur- 

to other musters raised by Mezentius rum deserto in gramine versas" 12. 664. 

(comp. 8. 7). There seems nothing to de- 656.] Serv. explains ' pulchro ' by 

termine the precise sense of * patriis — " forti," which some inferior MSS. actually 

inperiis.' Serv. supposes it to be that give : but Heyne rightly remarks that the 

Lausus was worthy to have had as father a ancient representations of Hercules (e. g. 

monarch, not an exile, in other words, the Famese torso) bear out Vii'g.'s epi- 

worthy to have had a throne in prospect, thet. 

Heyne understands it simply " dignus qui 657.] "Clipei insigne decorum" 2. 392 : 

meliore patre gauderet," adding " ad comp. 10. 188. 
patrem dedarandum inperia non minus 



Centum anguia cinotamque gerit serpentibus Hydram ; 

CoUis Aventmi silva quern Rhea 8acerdo9 

Furtivum partu sub luminis edidit oras, 660 

Mixta deo mulier> postquam Laurentia victor 

Geryone exstincto Tirynthiua attigit arya> 

Tyrrhenoque boves in flumine lavit Hiberas, 

Pila manu saevosque g^runt in bella dolones^ 

Et tereti pugnant mucrone veruque Sabello. 665 

Ipse pedes^ tegumen torquens inmanQ leonis, 

658.] * Centam — Hydram/ ty Si& SwoTv, born at Tiryns, and by others to haTC 

rather awkwardly expressed, as it would lived there while he served Eurystheus 

seem at first sight that the ' angnes' and (Diet. M. s. v.), 

the 'serpentes' were different. Virg., as 663.] "Versus poetienm ornatiim habet 

Oerda and others have remarked, imitates commode ah eo petitom qiK)d in arment- 

Bur. Phoen. 1184 foil, i orum eura proprium est lavare g^egem, 

T«7s H^mSfAois "Mpacros iv ^^Kaiaiy «v, ^ * ^^ armenU ex Hispania "^"^^'l' 

»5p«f rx«K \aio7<ny iv fioaxLiy " ^T^i^V?' locorum longmqmtate. 

•Ap7€ioy ol^YitM*. ^^-3 VLeyT^ rightly remarks that the 

*^' ^ transition here is abrupt, as we should 

659.] The name Rhea of course ia bor- have expected to hear definitely thajk these 

rowed from the story of Romulus. The are the soldiers commanded by Aventinus. 

first inrllable is made short by other poets : We are not even told whence they came, 

but Virg. doubtless ibUowed the analogy unless we are to infer it, as Gossiau thinks, 

of the Qreek, where the goddess is called from the epithet ' Sabello.' Mount Aven- 

indififerently *Pcfa and 'P^a. This seems to tine, where Aventinus was bom, was with- 

show that'Niebuhr (Hist. vol. 1. p. 211 in Evander's territory, 8. 190 foU. Alto- 

Eng. Tr.) is wrong in laying the blame of gether the passage may be said to show 

the confosion between the goddess and the the want of the poet's filial revision, 

priestess on the editors of Latin texts, as <Rlum' (Diet. A. v. <Hasta'), the well- 

if the Romans invariably wrote the name known Roman javelin. ' Dolo ' is ex- 

of the priestess * Rea.' Here Qud. ori- plained by Serv. to mean dither a sword- 

g^nally had *Rea,' and the letter *h ' is stick or a polo with a short iron point, 

written in Rom. over an erasure. Nor The latter explanation he gives on the 

does it ^pear likely, as Niebuhr eoi^jec- authority of Varro; the former is sup* 

tures, that Virg.'s lUiea was the daughter ported by Hesych., HKwvti |i^t9ia ^i' I^Aocs 

of Evander, as Aventinus fights against kfOMKpviiit.iva ; by Alfenua Dig. 9. 2. 52, 

Evandep and the Trqjans. The name cited by Foro. ; and by the supposed ety- 

<* SUvia " may have suggested to Virg. mology of the word from 96Aos> Here at 

the birth of the child in the woods : comp. any rate we must suppose the latter 

6. 765. Other warriors however are bom to be meant. If the word is originallv 

or bred in woods, as Virbius, below y. 763, Latin, it would seem to be connected with 

and the son of Arcens, 9. 584. ** dolare." * In bella' may either go with 

660.] ' Furtivo,' the reading of some * saevos' or with ' gernnt :' comp, G. 3. 50. 

infisrior MSS., may have come from the 665.] * Tereti mucrone veruque Sabello ' 

original reading of Pal. 'Airtivom.' * Partu may be Iv 8«^ Bvciiy, as Heyne suggests. 

edidit' Mke <' partu dabit " 1.274 *Ln:- For the ' vera,' " verutum," or cra^yiov, see 

minis oras' G. 2. 47 note, Munro on Diet. A. ' Hasta.' It waa a Samnite wea- 

Lucr. 1. 22. pon, which is probably the meaning of the 

661.] ' Mixta deo mulier ' from 11. 16, epithet ' Sabello.' In 6. 2. 168 the Volsci 

176, yvyij Qt^ tbynid^'iffa, with a reference are called " veruti," so that the weapon 

to the Greekuseof fUT^yoi. For Hercules' may have been common to th^ early 

visit to Italy comp. 8. 201 folL, and see Italian nations. 

Lewis voL 1. pp. 288 foil. 666.] ' Torquens :' see on 8. 460. Here 

662.] ' Tirynthius ' of Hercules 8. 228. it is loosely if not cardessly followed by 

Hercules was said by some to have been 'indutus,' the meaning of the poet being 


Tembili inpexum Baeta^ cum dentibus albis 
Indutus capitis sic regia tecta subibat^ 
Horridus, Herculeoque humeros innexus amicta. 

Turn gemini fratres Tiburtia moenia liliquunt, 670 

Pratris Tiburti dictam cognomine gentem, 
Catillusque acerqae Coras, Argiva iuventus, 
Et primam ante aciem densa inter tela feru&tur : 
Ceu duo nubigenae cum vertice montis ab alto 
Descendunt Centauri, Homolen Othrymque nivalem 675 

that the lion's skin is swathed round the Heyne, Excurs. 8 to this !6ook. 

body, while the head forms a sort of cap. 671.] Med., Pal. corrected, and Gnd. 

This however is no reason for altering the originally hare * fratres,' which would b6 

text, y^iih Peerlkamp and Bibbeck. In a weak repetition. Bom. was said to read 

Bom. the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth *Tibumi' (comp. Hor. 1 Od. 7. 13), but 

letters of * torquens ' are written over an Bibbeck gives its reading as * Tiburthi.' 

erasnre. The form 'tegumen' or <tegi- Pal. has 'de nomine' as in 1. 538 &c. 

men ' has occurred already 3. 594. *Tegu- " Cognomine dicunt" 1. 530 &c. 'Gentem :* 

men leonis' like "tegmine lyncis" 1. in founding a city they had founded a 

d23. The mention of Aventinus as march- nation : comp. 1. 248. 

ing on foot, just after we have heard of him 672.] Catillus is the same as the Ca- 

as driving his chariot, is another mark of tilus of Hor. 1 Od. 18. 2. Stat. Silv. 1. 8. 

incompleteness, which cannot be paral- lOO (comp. by Forb.) has a ftirther va- 

leled, as Heyne thinks, by the passages in riety, CatUlus with the first vowel short, 

the Homeric narrative, where heroes are 'Inventus' is used somewhat boldly of 

represented as at one moment in their two persoml (in Aeseh. Ag. 109 the MSS. 

cars, at another fighting on foot. We can have *E\\d9os 9ifiay of the two Atridae, 

hardly suppose 'pedes' to mean 'dis- though the editors are doubtless right 

mounting from his car.' in reading ^fias from Aristoph.), unless 

667. J 'Inpexum' expresses the same as we suppose Virg. to include the followers 

'horridns' v. 669. Bom. has 'inplexu/ of the two brothers, who are not other- 

and one of Bibbeck's cursives (originally) wise mentioned. Argos was the city of 

and some inferior MSS. ' mplexum.' The Amphiaraus. 

sing. ' ^aeta,' where the pi. is meant, seems 673.] ' Primam ante aciem ' above y. 

nimsual, but perhaps follows the analogy 531 &c. ' Densa inter tela ' refers to the 

of " crinis," " capillus " &c. " Caput shower of darts (comp. 12. 408), not to 

ingens oris hiatus Efc make texere lupi ranks bristling with spears, 

cum dentibus albis" 11, 680, where see 674.] The comparison seems to be Yirg.'s 

note. own. Serv. rightly infers from it that the 

668.] " Induere aliquid alicui " is not two brothers are horsemen, comp. 11. 465. 

an uncommon construction (11. 76) ; so ' Nubigenae ' is used by other poets of the 

here, to the ordinary construction of ' in- Centaurs : see Pore. Heyne rationalizes 

datus ' with an ace. of the thing put the epithet by supposing that it was ori- 

01^ a dative is added of that on which the glnally applied to the Centaurs as dwelling 

thing is put. ' ^c ' refers to 'torquens' in cloudy mountains, whence the legend of 

and ' indutus :' comp. 1. 225. Ixion and tlS^e cloud. Such a notion may 

669.] This line expi'esses further the not impossibly have occurred to Virg. in 

accoutrement with which he entered the the present connexion. ^ptrXv hptcK^oi&i 

palace of Latinus. For ' innexus ' Pal; II. 1. 268 of the Centaurs. 

and Bom. have ' innixus :' see on 1. 448.> 675.] Homole (in Thessaly) is men- 

4. 217. "Crinem vittis innexa" 6. 281. tioned by Eur. Here. F. 371 in connexion 

670—677.] * Two brothers, Catillus and with the Centaurs. Othrys (also in Thes- 

Coras, come fit>m Tibur.' saly) was the head-quarters of the Titans 

670.] The story was that Catillus, son in their struggle with the gods, Hes. 

of Amphiaraus, settled in Italy, and that Theog. 632. Pimy 4. 8 (quoted by Cerda) 

his three sons, Tiburtus, Catillus the speaks of " Pindus et Othrys, Lapltharum 

younger, and Coras, founded Tibur. See sedes." 

F 2 


Linquentes cursu rapido ; dat euntibus ingens 
Silva locum, et magno cedunt virgulta fragore. 

Nee Praenestinae fiindator defiiit urbis, 
Voleano genitum peeora inter agrestia regem 
Inventumque focis omnis quern credidit aetas, 680 

Caeculus. Hunc legio late comitatur agrestis, 
Quique altum Praeneste viri, quique arva Gabinae 
lunonis gelidumque Anienem et roscida rivis 
Hemiea saxa colunt, quos dives Anagnia pascit, 

677.] *Silva' and 'virgulta* are cou- tioned in the preceding note. 'Omnis 

pled again 12. 522. They express the aetas/ as we say, all time. It is more 

same thing, the one collectively, the other commonly used in the sense of ' every 

"distributively. In * magno^fragore * Virg. age,* i. e. persons of every time of life : see 

may have thought of IL 13. 140, "IH^t Dictt. 

8* iofoiBp^ffKwv irirtrai, Krxnciu ^i ^ W 681.] ' Late * may either be used loosely 

avrov^tKri. to mean collected from far and wide, or 

678—690.] 'Caeculus, son of Vulcan, may be closely connected with ' comitatur,* 

leads troops from Praeneste and other follows in a large and spreading multitude, 

places.* Ribbeck reads ' late legio * from Med. and 

678.] ' Praenestina urbs * for " Prae- one of the inferior MSS., it is difficult to 

neste '* like " Agyllina urbs,** v. 652 see why. ' Legio * used vaguely as in 

above, for " Agylla.*' Rom. has ' de- 8. 605 &c. 
ficit.' 682.] 'Altum:* the town originally 

679.] The story, as told by Serv., is that stood on a steep hill, and the citadel was a 

there were two brothers known as "divi well-known stronghold (Diet. G. s. v.). 

Indigetes** of the spot where Praeneste 'Arva Gabinae lunonis,* the territory of 

was built ; that they had a sister, who, Gabii, Gabii itself not having been built, 

sitting near the lire, was struck by a as Serv. remarks. The worship of Juno 

spark, and conceived in consequence ; that under difierent names was very general 

she dropped her child, when bom, by the throughout that part of Italy (Diet. M. 

temple of Jupiter, and that it was there 'Juno*). 

found close to the hearth by maidens 688.] ' Anio * is the commoner form in 

going to a neighbouring spring for water, the nom. 'Anien' ('Anienis,' '-i,' '-em*) 

Mai's palimpsest Schol. gives this story in in the oblique cases (Diet. G. s. v.). 

a briefer form on the authority of Cato*s " 'Roscida rivis* quod ait, rivi essepossunt 

Origines, adding that the name Caeculus nulli praeterquam Trerus et Cosa, Cluverio 

was derived from the smallness of his eyes, quoque monente.** Heyne. 
"quam rem,*' observes Serv., "frequenter 684. J "Herna** or "hemae,** according 

efficit fumus.'* Serv. goes on to say that to Serv. and Festus, was the word for 

he was at first a brigand, but afterwards rocks in the Sabine or Marsian language, 

founded a city ; that he exhibited games, so that ' Hemiea saxa * is an expression 

to which the neighbouring people were like " novae Karthaginis ** 1. 298, and 

invited, when he proclaimed himself as the others mentioned there. For the features of 

son of Vulcan; and that after doubting the countiy, "well characterized by Virg. 

his pretensions, they were cJonvinced by in a single line,** see Diet. G. * Hemici.* 

the sudden appearance of fire all round ' Dives * apparently from its fertiH^ (SiL 

them, upon which they joined his com- 8. 392 foil., 12. 582 foil., quoted by Cferda), 

munity. The story seems a variety of that which would agree with 'pascit.* Bun- 

of Cacus. * Peeora inter agrestia,* which bury (Diet. G. s. v.) explains the epithet 

goes with ' genitum,* is not explained by by the importance of the city compared 

any detail in the account; but it may with its neighbours. Serv. has an odd 

mean little more than " in agris.** ' Re- notion that there is an allusion to Antony's 

gem' seems to be proleptic. 'Volcano,* having issued money with his name there 

abl."Fauno et Nymphae genitum Laurente after his union with Cleopatra. Heins. 

Marica,** v. 47 above. read ' pascis * from a few MSS. (none of 

680.] ' Inventum,* by the maidens men- Ribbeck*s) and so Heyne. See on 2. 56. 


Quos^ Amasene pater. Non illis omnibus arma^ 685 

Nee clipei cumisve sonant ; pars maxuma glandes 
Liventis plumbi spargit ; pars spieiila gestat 
Bina manu ; fulvosque lupi de pelle galeros 
Tegmen habent capiti ; vestigia nuda sinistri 
Instituere pedis ; crudus tegit altera pero. 690 

At Messapus, eqnum domitor, Neptunia proles, 

685.1 Amaseims 11. 547, said to be battle : but this is contrary to y. 686, un- 

the omy other place in ancient writers less we press the word * clipeus ' as indi- 

where it is mentioned, except a passage in eating only one sort of shield. The sim- 

Yibius Sequester. It rises above Privernum plest solution would seem to be this : the 

and flows through the Pontine marshes, unshod foot would have the disadvantage 

and is still called " Amaseno " (Diet. G.). of being unprotected, but it would have 

' Pater ' as a river : see on G. 4. 355. the advantage of being disencumbered. It 

686.] It matters little whether ' sonant ' is of this latter point that Virg. is think- 

goes with ' arma ' or not. Bom. has ing here, like Eur.andAristot., though with 

' currusque.' " I^umbea glans," of a leaden the Bomans generally (see Heyne, Excur- 

bullet, Lucr. 6. 178, 806. For the use of sus 8^ the former seems to have been the 

bullets in slings comp. 9. 588. promment consideration. But Yegetius 

687.] ' Liventis,' a perpetual epithet, 1. 20 (cited by Lersch §. 33) lays do\vn 

'livens' being defined in Fore, as "plumbei the rule that in discharging missiles the 

colons." 'Spargere' of frequently fling- left foot is to be advanced, in using the 

ing weapons 12. 51. • « pilum " and sword the right. In repre- 

688.] The ' galerus ' seems to have dif- senting then these slingers and darters as 

fered from the "galea" in being made of having their left foot naked, Virg. is not 

skin rather than metal, though skin was open to Aristot.'s censure, the left in their 

also used in the latter, as a probable ety- case being b riyo^ficvos. For 10. 587, which 

mology (ya\4Ti : comp. kvkct}) indicates, might be alleged to show that Virg. does 

See Lersch Antiqq. § 32. not recognize the distinction of Yegetius, 

689.] PbI. and originally Gud. have * teg- see note there. For the custom of leaving 

mina,' Med. corrected ' capitis/ So v. 742 unshod the foot which was meant to tread 

below, ** Tegmina quis capitum raptus de firmly, comp. Thuc. 3. 22, where Arnold 

subere cortex." Yirg. doubtless intention- refers to Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, 

ally consulted variety, which he has carried Canto 4, st. 18. In ' vestigia nuda ' the 

out by making a pi. there stand in appo- feet and foot-prints are confused : comp. 

sition to a sing., as here a sing, is in appo- 5. 566 note. 

sition to a pi. ' Nuda.' Much difficulty 690.1 ' Instituere ' seems to mean plant 

has been made about this passage, the or set down, so that the expression is not 

more ordinary custom being to have the to be compared (with Heyne) with Lucr. 

left foot protected with a greave, the right 1. 406, " Cum semel institerunt vestigia 

remaining bare. Macrob. Sat. 5. 19 tells certa viai." In Lucr. 4. 472, which was 

us that Euripides in his Meleager (fr. 534) supposed to be an exact parallel, the MS. 

represented the sons of Thestius,Meleager's reading "in statuit" seems right: see 

uncles, as having the right foot shod, &s Lachm. and Munro. The perf. is here 

iKa(l>plCoy ySvv "Zxoifv, hs $^ trourip Airw- aoristic. Mr. Long understands ' insti- 

\o7s ySfios, but that Aristotle in the 2nd tuere ' " have the custom of," and possibly 

book of his treatise Utpl ironiTuy stigma- Yirg. may have intended to include both 

tized the notion as absurd, $€t yhp oT/xac significations. ' Crudus,' made of raw 

rhy riyoiuficpou ^fx^iu 4\a(pp6v, iA\* ob rhv hide, like " crude caestu " 5. 69. * Pero :' 

ifxfievoyra, Macrob. suggests no explana- Diet. A. s. v. 

tion, merely commending Yirg. for his 691 — 705.] 'Messapus leads a contingent 

learning in transferring an Aetolian cus- from southern Etruria.' 
torn to the Hemici, who, according to 691.] Messapus was the eponymous 

Hyginus, were a Pelasgian colony. Serv.'s hero of Messapia or lapygia, and was 

solution, adopted by Heyne, is that these claimed by Ennius as his progenitor. Why 

Italians carried a shield ( " scutum " ) Yirg. connects him with a difierent part 

which would protect their left foot, which of Italy does not appear. * Equum domi- 

he supposes to be the one advanced in tor ' v. 189 above. 


Qaem neque fas igni cuiquam nee sternere ferro> 

lam pridem resides populos desuetaque bello 

Agmina in arma vocat subito^ ferrumque retractat. 

Hi Fescenninas acies Aequosque Faliscos^ 695 

Hi Soractis habent arces Maviniaqne arva^ 

Et Cimini cum monte lacum lucosque Capenos. 

Ibant aequati numero^ regemque canebant \y 

Ceu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cyeni 

692.] This property of invulnerability In Pal. 'Flavinia* is altered into * Fla- 

Virg. may have borrowed from the legend minia.' Here as elsewhere I have not 

of Cycnus, who was a son of Poseidon noticed the MS. varieties of the proper 

(Diet. M. ' Cycuns '). Incombustibility, names, which even in the best copies are 

as Serv. says, would naturally be ascribed apt to be grossly corrupted, 

to the offspring of the god of Ocean. 697.] Besdes the lake and mountain of 

Gossrau comp. 11. 787, where the wor- Ciminus, there was also a forest, which 

shippers of Apollo of Soracte are said to was regarded with special awe in the early 

walk through embers unhurt. * Sternere ' history of Bome, so that the Senate once 

then wUl be joined with ' ferro ' by zeugma, forbade a consul to lead his army through 

Forb. however interprets ' igni ' of missile it : he had however passed it in safety 

fire (8. 694 ^.). Some of Pi^rius' copies before the order reached him, Livy 9. 36 

had ' sistere.' foil. See Diet. G., where also the features 

698.] Partly taken from 1. 722^ " lam of the country are described. ' Lucos 

pridem resides animos desuetaque corda." Capenos' would naturally refer to Feronia, 

Comp. also 6. 813 foil., " Otia qui rumpet though that is mentioned by name in a 

patriae residesque movebit TuUus in arma different connexion v. 800 below, 

viros et iam desueta triumphis Agmina." 698.] 'Aequati numero' would naturally 

For this quiescence of the Italian popu- mean in bands of equal numbers (*' Con- 

lations comp. v. 46 above^ and see on v. positi numero in turmas '' 11. 599), as Serv. 

423. and most editors have taken it. Yet 

694.] * Betractat,' handles again after the context is strongly in favour of another 

disuse^ Emm. comp. Hor. 2 Od. 1. 38, interpretation mentioned, though rejected, 

"Ceaeretractesmuneraneniae." "Ferrum- by Heyne, marching in measured time; 

que retractant ** 10. 396. and a passage in SiL (3. 345 foil., also 

695.] 'Acies 'is connected with ^habent' referred to by Heyne) looks as if he may 

by a harsh zeugma, which may be a sign so have understood it. The words will 

that the passage is unfinished. There is then go closely with ' ibant,' which they 

no reason however for assuming a lacuna qualify like an adverb. Another writer 

with Ribbeck, still less for altering the might have written " aequato numero " or 

text and transposing this and the pre- "aequatum in numerum:" but Tirg. 

ceding lines with Ladewig. For the con- characteristically prefers the more arti- 

nexion between Fescennium and Faleril ficial expression. ' Regem :' Messapua' 

see Diet. G., ' Fescennium ' and ' Falerii,' indestructibility would doubtless make him 

as also the latter article for the different the theme of many heroic stories, so that 

views that have been held about the we need not wonder with Heyne that his 

* Aequi Falisci.' Serv. took ' aequos ' as an followers sing of their living chief rather 

ordinary adj., explaining it by the state- than of mere legendary worthies, 

ment that the Romans derived the " iura 699.] From II. 2. 459 foU., Apoll. 4. 

fecialia/' and other laws from the Faliscans: 1298 foil., though in the former passage 

others however, and Serv. himself on 10. the birds are not represented as singing. 

14, say that these were brought from the 'Quondam ' in comparisons like "saepe," G. 

Aequiculi. 4. 261 note. For * nubila ' Pal. and Gud. 

696.] ' Arces ' of mountain heights G. have ' flomina,' the latter with a variant 

2. 635 &c. ' Habent ' here = " habitant," * nubila,' and so Ribbeck : but 'nubila ' 

as in V. 131 above. ' Flavin ia arva ' from is more likely to have been altered into 

Flavina or Flavinium, a town only known ' flumina ' than vice versa, and the men- 

from the imitation of this passage in Sil. tion of the river in Horn, and Apoll. proves 

8. 490 and Serv.'s note here (Diet. G. s. v.). little, as Virg. may have purposely deferred 


Cum sese e pastu refenmt et longa canoros 700 

Dant per colla modos j sonat amnis et Asia longe 

Pulsa palus* / 

Nee qnisquam aeratas aeies ex. ag^mind tatito 

Misceri putet^ aeriam sed gurgite ab alto 

Urgueri volucram raacarum ad litora nubem. 705 

Ecee^ Sabinorum priseo de sanguioe magnum 
Agmen agens Clausus magnique ipse agminis in8tar> 
Claudia nunc a quo diffiinditur et tribus et gens 
Per Latium^ postquam in partem data Roma Sabinis. 
Una ingens Amitema cohors priscique Quirites^ 7iO 

it till Y. 701. ' Liquida inter nabila ' like There seems to be no notion of joining in 

"liquidis in nnlnbus'' 5. 525. battle, as Heyne and others have tbonffht. 

700.] <E pasta' Q. 1. 881., 4. 186. 'Aeriam/ flying through the air, like 

' Longa coUa ' is fh>m Horn. 1. c., k6kpwv ** aeriae fagere grnes ** G. 1. 375 note. 

^ovKtxoi^ipwv, Senr. says ** Secundum Virg. may have thought of the Homerie 

Flinium, qui lut in Naturali Historia cycnos ^ipicu II. 8. 7. *' Ad terram gurgite ab alto 

ideo suavins canere quia colla longa et Quam multae glomerantur aves " 6. 810. 
inflexa habent : et necesse est eluctantem 705.1 'TJrffueri' seems to be middle, 

▼ooem per longum et flexuosom varias press themselves, or each other, on. 'Rau- 

reddere modnlationes." The words are carum :' Virg. is not thinking, as some 

printed as Pliny's in the editions of Serv. ; have supposed, of swans, but of other 

but the copious Delphin and Variorum birds, such as cranes. ' Nubem,' of a troop 

Index to Pliny supplies no clue to them, of birds, as Q. 4. 60 of a swarm of bees. 
80 that it would seem that Serv. has merely 706 — 722.] ' Clausus leads an army from 

given Pliny's sense in the first clause, and the Sabine territorv.' 
that the words " et necesse est— modula- 706.] Heyne wished to take 'Sabinorum' 

iiones " are his own. The song^ of swans with 'agmen :' but it evidently goes with 

have already been mentioned 1. 898^ £. 8. ' priseo de sanguine,' which forms a de- 

55., 9. 29, 36. scription of Clausus. 

701.] 'Amnis:' Cayster, as ' Asia palus ' 707.] The name Clausus seems to be 

shows : comp. Horn. L c, G. 1. 383, taken from the later Wend of Attus or 

384. Atta Clausus, who short^ after the esta- 

702.1 ' Pulsa :' by the sound, £. 6. 84. blishment of the commonwealth migrated 

703.J From ApolL B. 4. 238 foil., odS^ to Bome from Regillum with a large 

K€ ^ris Tiffffov rnitrnv 9t6\ov l^fifitpot, number of followers, who were formed into 

iXX* outpuv 'IXMBbp itrw€roy i9wos iwi- the Claudian tribe, while he himself was 

fipofittiv wtXdyttnny. Virg. may also have known as App. Claudius Sabinus Regil- 

thought of II. 4. 429, 430, though the lensis (Diet. B. 'Claudius'). "Agmen 

resemblance is verbal only. The com- a^ens" below v. 804. ' Agminis instar :' 

parison here differs from that which has his strength and bravery made him worth 

just preceded : there the song of the troops an army— as we say, a host in himself, 
was compared to that of swans; here the 709.] "Vocamus in partem" 3. 223. 

troops are regarded from a distance, and The union with the Sabines under Tatius 

the confiised noise of the mass suggests must be meant, so that Virg. has ante- 

the parallel of a flight of birds from over dated the introduction of the Claudii by a 

the sea. Bibbeck places these lines after couple of centuries. 
▼. 697, without reason. 'Ex agmine 710.] Amitemum (Diet. G. s. v.), the 

tanto ' seems to go with ' misceri,' to be birthplace of Sallust, was assigned by 

made up, or massed, out of that great some to the Sabines, by some to the 

multitude : a poetical variety for " hoc Vestini. As Heyne remarks, Virg., writing 

agmen tantnm aeratas acies esse." Not about legendary times, gives a somewhat 

unlike is " adverse glomerati ex agmine wider range to the Sabine territory than 

Giaii," 2. 727. " Aeratas acies " 9. 463. belonged to it in the historical period. 

704.] * Misceri ' of thronging G. 4. 76. ' Quirites,' the people of Cures. 


Ereti manns omnis oliviferaeque Mutuscae ; 
Qui Nomentum urbem, qui Rosea rura Velini, 
Qui Tetricae horrentis rupes montemque Severum 
Casperiamque colunt Forulosque et flumen Himellae ; 
Qui Tiberim Fabarimque bibunt^ quos frigida misit 715 
Nursia^ et Hortinae classes populique Latini ; 
Quosque secans infaustum interluit Allia nomen : 
Quam multi Libyco volvuntur marmore fluetus, 
Saevus ubi Orion hibemis conditur undis ; 

711.] Eretam, though occasionally men- its inhabitants were punished by Octa- 

tioned in history, never seeus to have been vianas for their conduct daring the Pem- 

a place of importance (Diet. 6.). ' Mn- sian war (Diet. G.). There is a difficulty 

tuscae ' seems to be gen. sing. The Aill about * Hortinae classes/ as the town 

name was Trebula Mutusca. There are of Horta stood on the Etruscan side of 

still olives in the ndghbourhood (Diet. Q.). the Tiber, and the adj. would naturaUy be 

712.] Nomentum, already mentioned " Hortanus " (Diet. 0. ' Horta'). Possibly 

6. 773, where it is among the places there may be some confxision with the For- 

afterwards to be built and named by tineii, who are enumerated by Dionys. 5. 

Aeneas' posterity. It is disputed whether 61 among the cities of the Latin league, and 

it was a Latin or Sabine town. The pas- are identified by some with the Hortenses, 

sage in Book 6 &vours the former view, perhaps the people of Ortona, mentioned 

making it a colony from Alba. ' Rosea :' in Pliny's list (3. 5 &c.), of the extinct 

the cotmtry in the valley of the river communities of Latinm. Comp. *' fedus," 

Velinus, about Reate, was called "Rosei" "hedus," "fordus," "hordus" &c. This 

(or "Roseae") "Campi" (according to would agree with the mention of the 

Serv. " ager Rosulanus ") : see Diet. G. ' populi Latini ' here, and would not be in- 

' Reate.' For a story about its fertility consistent with the occurrence of Allia in 

see on G. 2. 201, 202. Pal. and Gud. have the next line. ' Populi Latini ' seems used 

* Roscia,' whence some inferior copies read very loosely, as we can hardly suppose that 

' roscida.' Virg. means to introduce at one sweep all 

713.] Tetrica or Tetricus seems to have the communities which partook in the 
been part of the central range of the sacrifices at the Alban mount, which is appa- 
Apennines, separating the Sabine terri- rently Serv.'s explanation. Heyne, £x- 
tory from Picenum. Severus, which no cursus 8, following Clnver, understands 
other author mentions, doubtless belongs the expression either of Latin cities which 
to the same range (Diet. G.). Cerda had fallen under the dominion of the 
notices that both names are used as ac^ec- Sabines or Latin colonies established in 
tives and applied as such to describe the the Sabine territory. It is possible, how- 
traits belonging to the Sabine character, ever, as has been suggested to me by Mr. 
Pal. and Gud. have ' amnemque severum ' Nettleship, that Virg. may be referring to 
(the latter with a variant ' montem ') from some community of which the memory has 
a recollection of 6. 874. ' Horrentis ' perished, as certain Latinienses follow the 
probably gen. sing. Hortenses in Pliny's list just referred to. 

714.] Casperia and Himella are scarcely ' Classes ' in its ancient sense, according 

named except by Virg. and Silius. Foruli to which the word was applied to military 

is somewhat better known, being men- as well as naval forces : see Dictt. 

tioned by Livy and Strabo (Diet. G. 717.] Allia is well known for the defeat 

B. vv.). of the Romans by the Gauls under Brennus, 

715.] Fabaris is identified by Serv. with on July 16, hence called " dies Alliensis," 

Farfarus, mentioned by Plautus and Ovid, and kept as an unlucky day. 

and still known as Faifa (Diet. G.). 718.] " Quam multa" in a comparison 

716.] Nursia, called 'frigida' from its G. 4. 478. 'Libyco marmore' perhaps 

situation in the midst of mountains, is like " Libyci aeqnoris " G. 2. 105, where 

mentioned several times both in early see note. The comparison is like the 

and later history. Shortly before the second of the two in G. 2. 1. c. 

time of the composition of the Aeneid 719.] From Apoll. R. 1. 1201, cSt€ 


Vel cum sole novo densae torrentur aristae^ 720 

Aut Hermi campo^ aut Lyciae flaventibus arvis. 
Scuta sonant, pulsuque pedum conterrita tellus. 
Hinc Agamemnonius, Troiani nominis hostis, 
Curru iungit Halaesus equos, Turnoque ferocis 
Mille rapit populos, vertunt felicia Baccho 725 

Massica qui rastris, et quos de collibus altis 
Aurunci misere patres Sidicinaque iuxta 


fidXitrra Xetfieplri oXooTo S^cis ir^A€t that Halaesos was variously represented as 

'tlpiwyos. For the storms ahont the setting the hastard son and as the companion of 

of Orion comp. Hor. 1 Od. 28. 21., 3. 27. Agamemnon. Virg. can hardly have con- 

17. sidered him the former, unless he is incon- 

720.] Strictly speaking the construction sistent with himself 10. 417 foil., where he 

is " aut quam multae aristae cum sole speaks of Halaesus' father in language 

novo densae torrentur," but as 'densae' that could not apply to Agamemnon, 

really does duty for ** multae," we may say The epithet may well be used loosely, just 

that Virg. expresses himself as if the com- as the Trojans are called " Aeneadae." 

parison in v. 718 had been introduced by Whether any extant author speaks of 

"ac veluti," "quales," or some similar form. Halaesus as Agamemnon's son is question- 

Heyne, after Faber and others, at one able. Ovid, who mentions him twice 

time conj. 'quam' for 'cum,' and so an (8 Amor. 18. 31 foil., F. 4. 73 foil.), is not 

ecUtion of 1495 : and one MS. (not one of more express than Virg., unless we read 

Bibbeck's number) has ' quot.' ' Solo " Atrides " with Heins. in the latter pas- 

novo' would naturally mean either the sage. Ov. makes him the founder of 

early morning (G. 1. 288) or the early Fderii (for the etymology see on v. 716 

warm weather (G. 2. 332) : but it is diffi- above), which is inconsistent with Virg. 

cult to see why either of these should be 'Troiani nominis' like "nomenLatinum." 

represented as baking the ears of com, as 724.] 'Curru iungit Halaesus equos' like 

we should rather have expected the " Armentarius Afer agit " G. 3. 344, an 

"maturi soles" (G. 1. 66) of summer, abnormal rhythm adopted for variety's 

Perhaps it may mean ' an Eastern sun,' sake (see Munro, Lucr. vol. 1. p. 823, 2nd 

like " sole recenti " Pers. 5. 54, the conn- ed.). Cerda, after Scaliger, fancifully 

tries being spoken of relatively to Italy. supposes that it is intended to express the 

721.] For the fertility of Lydia comp. time taken in harnessing a chariot. ' Tur- 

10. 141. Heyne doubts that of Lycia : no ' ' for Tumus.' " Populosque fero- 

butseeDict. G. 'Lycia' §2. cis," above v. 384., 1. 263, of Italian 

722.] ' Scuta ' is the only hint given us nations, 

of the arms of Clausus' forces. The rest 725.] " Mille rapit densos acie atque 

of the line is from II. 2. 784, rdv vwh jroaal horrentibus bastis " 10. 178. " Bacchi 

fiiya trrtvaxK^ro yaia. For 'conter- Massicus humor" G. 2. 143. 'Massica' 

rita' the Medicean of Pierius and another neut. pi. like "Ismara" G. 2. 37. 'Fe- 

of his MSS., with some inferior copies, licia Baccho ' more prob. dat. (E. 5. 65) 

read * tremit excita,' which is found in than abl. (6. 784). ' Vertere ' of breaking 

12. 445, where these words recur. In up the ground G. 1. 2. 

itself it might be an improvement, but the 726.] ' Rastris :' see G. 2. 355, 400, the 

authority is insufficient and the cause of "bidens" being a form of the "rastrum" 

the variation clear. The construction is (Diet. A. 'Raster'), 

doubtless ' scuta sonant tellusque (sonat) 727.] ' Patres ' used in its ordinary 

pulsu pedum conterrita,' as against Wagn. sense: comp. 2. 87. Med. (2nd reading) 

(large ed.) and others who make ' con- has * senes,' from v. 206 above. ' Aurunci ' 

territa ' a finite verb. Med. has ' cursu ' is used in its narrow historical sense for 

for ' pulsu.' the nation inhabiting Aurunca and after- 

723 — 732.] ' Halaesus brings troops wards Suessa (Diet. G. * Aurunci '). The 

from the Auruncan and Oscan territories.' Sidicini of Teanum and the people of 

723.] ' Hinc ' apparently means ' next,' Gales were their neighbours. The con- 

though Forb. understands it " ex hac (alia) struction of ' Sidicinaque iuxta aequora ' 

parte." * Agamemnonius :' Serv, says is not clear. Either we may bon-ow ' pa- 


Aequora^ quique Cales linquunt; amnisque vadosi 
Accola Voltumi, pariterque Saticulus asper 
Oscorumque manus. Teretes sunt aclydes illis 730 

Tela ; sed haec lento mos est aptare flagello. 
Laevas cetra tegit ; falcati comminns enses. 
Nee tu carminibus nostris indictus abibis^ 
Oebale, quern ^enerasse Telon Sebethide nympha 
Fertur, Teleboum Capreas cum regna teneret, 735 

lam senior ; patriis sed non et filius arvis 
Contentus late iam tum dicione premebat 
Sarrastis populos et quae rigat aequora Samus^ 
Quique Rufras Batulumque tenent atque arva Celemnae^ 

tres' from the preceding clause, so as to gala (Suet. Calig. 19, quoted by Lersch) 

make it ** quos misere patres iuxta Sidi- rode in state on a bridge built over the sea 

cina aequora (habitantes),'' or suppose that at Baiae, " insignis quemea corona et cetra 

Yirg. has written loosely, meaning "qui et gladio aureaque chlamyde/' 'Falcati 

iuxta Sidiciua aequora habitant,'' or lastly, enses,' &pirai (Serv.), a kind of scimitar, 

with Mr. Long, make 'Sidicina aequora' 733—743.] 'Oebalus leads forces from 

nom., ' iuxta ' being adv. Capreae and places in Campania.' 

728.] * Vadosi:' Ov. M. 15. 714 has 734.] This Oebalus is not otherwise 

** multamque trahens sub gurgite arenam known, Serv. merely repeating Virg.'s 

Voltumus." account. * Sebethide/ from the river Se- 

729.] 'Accola:' Virg. apparently for- 'bethus (Diet. G.). 

gets that the different nations he mentions 735.] The Teleboae were the inhabitants 

are constructed in app. to ' populos ' v. of the Taphian isles (Diet. G. ' Taphiae '), 

725. Wagn. comp. Aesch. Pers. 33 foil., mentioned in Horn. Od. as pirates, and 

where there is a similar change of con- also in connexion with their chief Mentes. 

struction. Comp. also v. 741 below, 10. Tac. A. 4. 67, speaking of Tiberius' retire- 

497. 'Saticulus' apparently for "Sati- ment to Capreae, says "Capreas Telebois 

culanus," the town being Saticuli. 'Asper' habitatas fama tradit." 

is explained by Serv. " asper moribus ;" by 737.] * Tenebat ' Med., Pal., Gud., the 

fieyne with reference to the probable posi- last with a variant 'premebat :' but ' tene- 

tion of the town under Mount Tifata. The bat ' could not stand with ' teneret ' so 

place gave some trouble to the Komans near, and the word obviously came from 

during the Samnite wars (Dict.G.), which 1. 622 (comp. ib.236)« " Dicione premat" 

may account for the epithet. 10. 53. 

730.] Serv. says 'aclydes' are- a species 738.] The Sarrastes are unknown to 

of weapon so ancient as not to be men- history : but Serv. refers to a work on 

tioned in military accounts : they are said Italy by Conon for the statement that 

however (be continues) to be clubs a cubit they were Pelasgian and other Greek emi- 

and a half long, studded with points, and grants who settled in Campania, and gave 

frimisbed with a thong, so that they can the river near which they took up their 

be recalled by the thrower. See further abode the name of Samus from a river in 

Lersch § 40. They are mentioned by Si- their own country. No Greek river is 

lius and Yal. Flaccus, the one msJcing mentioned as bearing the name : nor is it 

them a Spanish, the other an Oriental known when Conon livedo though there 

weapon, but neither describes them in any were two or three writers so called (Diet, 

way. ' Teretes ' seems to mean rounded. B. ' Conon '). For Sarnus see Diet. G., 

731.] * Flagello ' i. q. " loro." where it is said that the course of the 

732. J 'Cetra' is defined by Serv. and river is not now what it was, having 

Isidorus (18. 12. 5) as a shield made doubtless been changed by the erupti<m of 

wholly of leather. It seems to have been Vesuvius which overthrew Herculaneum 

used by Africans, Spaniards, Achaeans and Pompeii. 

and Britons : see passages in Lersch § 31. '739.] Bufrae seems to have been a Sam- 

4. Yates (Diet. A.) identifies it with the nite town on the borders of Campania, 

target of the Scotch Highlanders. Call- Batulum is only mentioned by Silius, and 


Et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae^ 740 

Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias ; 
Tegmina quis capitum raptus de subere oortex^ 
Aerataeque micant peltae^ micat aereus ensis. 

Et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae^ 
Ufens^ insignem fama et felicibus armis ; 745 

Horrida praecipue cni gens, adsuetaque multo 
Yenatu nemorum^ duris Aequicula glaebis. 
Armati terrain exereent, semperque recentis 
Conveetare iuvat praedas et vivere rapto. 

Quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdos, 750 

Fronde super galeam et feliei comptus oliva, 

Celemna (sacred to Juno, accordiag to mentions it as the weapon of an Oriental 

Serv.) not even by him. nomad tribe. 

740.] Almost all the MSS. have < Bellae,' 742.] " Bene * raptns ' [i. e. raptim snb- 

which Serv. says was written by Vii'g. latus], quia recens snberis contra in 

instead of Nolae' on account of his qnaiTcl qnamvis formam tota (nota?) flectifcur 

with the people of Kola, mentioned in Q. &cilitate/' Serv. Comp. the use of cork 

2. 225. Ribbeck adopted < Bellae/ be- for beehives G. 4. 33. 

lieving it to bethereadingof aUtheMSS., 743.] 'Micant/ co-ordinate with the 

bnt the discovery of ' Abellae ' in one copy verb subst. understood in the preceding 

seems to have led him to alter his mind line. 

(Prol^omena p. 353). Serv. says that 744 — 749.] ' Ufens commands the Ae- 

critics in his time read 'Abellae»' sup- qui.' 

posing it to be a case of synaloepha : and 744.] * Montosae :' the commoner prose 

the change is one which might safely form seems to be " montuosus." Nersae 

be made in the teeth of all external author is otherwise unknown, 

rity, the cause of corruption being of the 745.1 '* Non felicia tela" 11. 196. 

commonest, and proper names especially 746.] With the description of the nation 

liable to corruption. Abellae is five miles eomp. 9. 605 foil. 

ir.B. of Nola. It was known for a parti- 747.] * Yenatu ' may be either dat. or 

cular kind of nut, filbert or hazel, called abl. * Aequicula ' with * gens,* The people 

** nux Avellana.'' Sil. 8. 543 however were called Aequicuii or Aequi, though in 

speaks of it aa *' pauper sulci Cerealls.'^ later times the former name was restricted 

There are remains of the old town on a to the inhabitants of the Apennine val- 

hill, which accounts for ' despectant.' An leys. 

inscription was discovered there, one of 748.] 'Armati' seems to express at 

the most important remains of Oscan, once the character of the nation and the 

recording a treaty between Abella and quality of the soil. Comp. 9. 609, " Omne 

Nola (Diet. G. 'Abella'). aevum ferro tcritur, versaqne iuvencum 

741.] A change of construction like that Terga fatigamus basta." ' Semper — rapto ' 

in V. 729 above. The 'cateia,' according occurs again 9. 612, with the change of 

to Serv., was like the ' aclys ' (v. 730). * conveetare * into " comportare." 

Isidoma 18. 7. 7, quoted by Lersch § 40, 750 — 760.1 ' Umbro, a noted serpent« 

describes it similarly, except that he sup* charmer, leads the Marsians.' 

poses that it returned of itself to the 750.] Marruvium or Marrubium was 

thrower, like an Australian boomerang, the capital of the Marsi, though it is not 

Papias ap. Lersch makes it a Persian mentioned previous to their conquest by 

word : later writers consider it Celtic Rome (Diet. G.). 

(Diet. A. 'Cateia'), which would agree with 751.] So Stat. Theb. 4. 216 describes 

' Teutonico ritu,' the Celtae and Teutones Amphiaraus, " vatem cultu Pamasia mon- 

being often confounded. Various mediaeval strant Vellera, frondenti crinitur cassis 

writers mention it (see Lersch), but differ oliva, Albaque puniceas interplicat infula 

as to whether it was a club or a spear, cristas." 'Fronde et feliei oliva' tv 8i^ 

SiL 3. 277 calls it "panda." Val. F. 6. 83 8uoiv. 


Arcliippi regis missu, fortissimus Umbro, 

Vipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris 

Spargere qui somnos cantuque manuque solebat, 

Mulcebatque iras et morsus arte levabat. 755 

Sed non Dardaniae medieari cuspidis ictum 

Evaluit, neque eum iuvere in volnera cantus 

Somniferi et Marsis quaesitae montibus herbae. 

Te nemus Anguitiae, vitrea te Pucinus unda^ 

Te liquidi flevere lacus. 760 

Ibat et Hippolyti proles pulclierrima bello, 
Virbius^ insignem quern mater Aricia misit^ 

752.] Pliny 3. 12. 17 mentions a story Qnaerat." 

told by Geliianus of a town Archippa, 759.] The " lucns Angaitiae " or ** An- 

founded by Marsyas, and swallowed up by g^tiae" was said to be so called from a 

the waters of lake Fncinus. daughter of Aeetes, sister or niece of Circe 

753.] ' Graviter spirantibus ' seems to and sister of Medea, who taught the Mar- 

indicate both intolerable smell (see on 0. sians the use of drugs. Comp. the con- 

3. 415) and a poisonous breath (Hor. 2. 5. nexion of Circe with Italy y. 10 above. 

8.95). 761—782.] ' Virbius,sonof Hippolytus, 

754.] 'Spargere somnos' like ''quietem comes from Aricia to join the allies.' 

inrigat" 1. 692, where see note. This is 761.] The story of Hippolytus' reap- 

done here partly by incantation, partly pearance as ^rbius is told twice by Ovid, 

by manipulation. For the latter comp. M. 15. 497 foil., and more shortly F. 6. 

Pliny 7. 2. Forb. quotes Sil. 3. 300 (of 737 foil. Serv., who repeats it, shows 

the Marmaridae), " Ad quorum cantum some impatience towards the end at the in- 

serpens oblita veneni, Ad quorum tactum consistency of Hippolytus' celibate life with 

mites iacuere cerastae." Pliny (1. c.) and his being made the &ther of a son, " adeo 

Sil. 8. 496 foil, speak of the whole Marsian omnia ista fabulosa sunt," and concludes 

race as serpent-charmers. " revera Yirbius est numen coniunctum 

756.] From II. 2. 859 foil., &A\* ovk Dianae et matri deum Atys." It is doubt- 

oltovoitriy ipvatraro Krjpa fi4\atyay, *AAX* fill whether * hello ' is constructed as dat. 

iUdfiTi 6irh x*P^^ voB^Kfos AiaKlHao, also with* ibat' or as abl. with * pulcherrima,' 

imitated below 9. 328. ' Medieari ' with which would then mean glorious. Sil. 11. 

ace. is found also in Plautus and Pliny : 363 has " pulcherrimus irae," ennobled by 

see Dictt. " Volnus cuspidis Ausoniae " his wrath. 

11.41. 762.] Wagn.andPeerlkampfindadiffi- 

757.] " Quae pervincere voces Evaluere culty in father and son having the same 
sonum P" Hor. 2 Ep. 1. 201. Med. (1st name, the latter wishing to read * viribus,' 
reading). Bom., and originally one of Rib- which Gossrau approves. But the custom 
beck's cursives, have ' in volnere,' which of giving the son the name of his father 
Gossrau prefers, denying that ' in volnera' was known among the Greeks (e. g. De- 
can be satisfactorily explained. But it is mosthenes) ; and by making use of it here 
merely arbitrary to say that the words Vii^. has escaped the awkwardness of either 
quoted stand for "ad volnera infligenda," bringing Hippolytus himself into the field 
but cannot for "ad volnera sananda." or giving him a son with an unknown 
' Helped with a view to wounds' is the sense : name ; indeed he may be said to have dis- 
what kind of help is given depends on the tinguished between the Greek Hippolytus 
nature of the case. A correction in Med. and the Italian hero Tirbius. For ' in- 
gives * ad volnera.' signem ' we might have expected " in- 

758.] " Falcibus et messae ad Lunam signis," as in 9. 583 (a passage parallel in 

quaeruntur aenis Pubentes herbae" 4. other respects), "Insignis facie, genttor 

513. Med. corrected and one of Ribbeck's quem miserat Arcens :" but there is force 

cursives have 'in montibus,' which was in the ace, whether we take the word 

the reading before Heins. Wagn. comp. with Wagn. of the splendour of his arms 

Tibull. 1. 5. 53, " herbasque sepulcris and accoutrements, provided by his mother 


Eductum Egeriae lucis humentia circum 

Litora^ pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae. 

Namque ferunt fama Hippolytum, postquam arte novercae 

Occident patriasque explerit sanguine poenas 766 

Turbatis distractus equis^ ad sidera rursus 

Aetheria et superas caeli venisse sub auras^ 

Paeoniis revocatum herbis et amore Dianae. 

Turn Pater omnipotens, aliquem indignatus ab umbris 770 

Mortalem infernis ad lumina surgere vitae^ 

Ipse repertorem medicinae talis et artis 

Fulmine Phoebigenam Stygias detrusit ad undas. 

(coinp. 9. 547, " vetitisque ad Troiam mi- suppose an implied contrast with other 

serat armis"), or of his personal beauty, places like Tauri where human victims 

which would also be naturally associated were offered to Diana. The applicability 

with the mother. It seems better, on a of 'placabilis' to an altar (which Heyne 

comparison of the two passages just cited, questioned, wishing to omit 'et')is shown 

to make Aricia an eponymous nymph, by Qossrau, who oomp. Ov. M. 15. 574, 

mother of Virbius, than Virbius' native " Placat odoratis herbosas ig^ibus aras." 

place, in spite of " Populonia mater" 10. 765.] For the story of Hippolytus' 

172. See however on 9. 177, which is death see Euripides. 'Ferunt fama,' a 

itself doubtful, though on the whole the mixture of " ferunt " and " fama est." 

balance there seems to incline the other 766.] * Explerit poenas,' a mixture of 

way. " explere iram " (comp. 2. 586) and " sol- 

763.] * Eductum,' reared, like " edu- vere poenas." Comp. 9. 356, " poenarum 

catum:" see on 6. 765. 'Egeriae:' a exhaustum satis est," though there the 

grove near Aricia was sacred to Egeria, as receivers of satisfaction are spoken of. 

well as one near Rome. Ov. M. 15. 497 The subj. is accounted for by the oratio 

makes Egeria fly to Aricia for grief at the obliqua. ' Patrias poenas,' the penalty 

death of Numa, and there to be gently due to his father, as "patriae pietatis" 

rebuked by Hippolytus for disturbing the 9. 294 is dutifulness shown to a father, 

rites of Diana with her lamentations. See 767.] ' Turbatis equis,' 9. 124. ' Ad 

alsoOv. F.3. 261foll. (Diet. M. 'Aegeria'). sidera aetheria venisse' like "magnum 

Some however (as Forb.) make only one caeli ventura sub axem " 6. 790. For the 

grove of Egeria, that here spoken of. For restoration of Hippolytus to life by Aescu- 

' humentia ' Pal. and one of Ribbeck's lapius comp. Ov. M. 15. 583 foil., Id. F. 6. 

cursives, supported by Gud. and a third 746 toll. 

cursive, have ' Hymetia,' which (in the 769.] ' Paeoniis,' the Greek Uat^vios, 

form ' Hymettia') was the reading of many the adj. of naie&v, the god of healing. It 

old edd., and even Heins. and Burm. : but is doubtless to be pronounced by synizesis 

Heyne rightly ascribes it to a confusion here and 12. 401. ' Herbis et amore Dianae' 

between * humentia' and "Symaethia," forms a sort of tif hih hvo7v, as it was 

the word in the parallel 9. 584. The Diana's love that set Aesculapius upon the 

' humentia litora ' are those of the Lacus work. 

Nemorensis (Diet. G. 'Aricia'). 770.] "Quod Venus audaci Nymphae 

764.] The temple of Diana at Aricia indignata licere " 12. 786. 

was well known, being served by " the 771.1 " Lumina vitae " 6. 828. 

priest who slew the slayer and shall him- 772. J " Repertores doctrinarum atque 

self be slain," a custom which Caligula leporum" Lucr. 3. 1036. See on 12. 829. 

revived. Much difficulty has been made 778.] Serv. mentions another reading 

about 'placabilis,' as Sil. 4. 367., 8. 362 'Poenigenam,'actually found in Med., Rom. 

calls the place " inmitis." Vii^. however (virtually), Gud. corrected, and two other 

probably meant little more than 'pin- of Ribbeck's cursives, which he explains 

guis,' the temple being a wealthy one "matris poena genitum," Coronis, the 

(Diet. G. ' Aricia '), without reference to mother of Aesculapius, having been slain 

the nature of the rites by which the god- by Apollo, his father. It seems more likely 

dess was propitiated. Heyne and others that it should be a barbarous attempt at 


At Trivia Hippolytum secretis alma recondit 

Sedibus, et njrmphae Egeriae nemorique relegate 775 

Solus nbi in silvis Italis ignobilis aevum 

Exigeret, versoque ubi nomine Virbius esset. 

Unde etiam templo Triviae lucisque sacratis 

Comipedes arcentur equi^ quod litore currum 

Et iuvenem monstris pavidi efiudere marinis. 780 

Filius ardentis baud setius aequore campi 

Exercebat equos curruque in bella ruebat. 

Ipse inter primos praestanti corpore Turnus 
Vertitur anna tenens, et toto vertice supra est. 
Cui triplici crinita iuba galea alta Chimaeram 785 

Sustinet^ Aetnaeos efflantem faueibus ignis^ 

a patifonymie from '* Paean." * In undas/ 781.3 ' Hand setins/ in spite of his 

which was retained by Heyne, is found in Other's catastrophe. Some inferior MSS. 

none of Bibbeck's MSS. but Gud. cor- have 'segnius/ which probably comes fi*om 

rected and two other cursives. As Gossrau a gloss of Serv., ** non segnius patre." 

remarks, the meaning is not that he was 782.] " Exercete, viri, tauros " G. 1. 

plunged in Styx, but that he was thrown 210. Comp. above v. 163. " In bella 

down as low as Styx. '' Adigat me ful- ruebant " 9. 182. 

mine ad umbras " 4. 25. 783—802.] * Turnus himself, in oom- 

774.] " Sacrata sede reeondam ** 1. 681. plete armour, commands the Rutulians.' 

775.J " In sola relegant pascua " G. 3. 783.] ' Ipse inter primos,' 2. 479. 

212. The only other instance of the con- ' Praestanti corpore,' G. 4. 538. 

fltruetion with dat. which seems to be 784.] 'Vertitur' seems to be used on 

quoted is firom Cic. Tusc. 2. 8, "Non the analogy of ''versatur," tf^pc^creu, 

saeva terris gens relegata ultimis," from a being preferred by Virg. as less common 

translation of Hercules' speech in Soph, and as therefore bringing out the original 

Traeh. Thus 'Egeriae nemorique' are metaphor more sharply. " Celeriter se 

probably ty 9ih 9voiy. At any rate we movet et vegeto animo et corpore " Goss- 

may say that Virg. would hardly have rau. Comp. the use of "avertitur" G. 3. 

used ' £%eriae relegat ' alone. 499, where " aversatnr " would have been 

776.] So Venus proposes to remove As- more usual. " Arma tenens " 8. 299. 

canius to Paphos or Cythera, and says * Toto vertice supra est' seems to be from 

"positisingloriusarmisExigat hie aevum" the description of Ajax II. 3. 227, Hoxos 

10. 62, For the feeling comp. G. 2. 486., 'Afiytluv ic«4»aA.^ r« nal ^vpdas Afiovs. 

4. 564, and the language of Atys in Ca- 785.] For the triple plume Lersch § 32 

tullus' poem. eomp. Polyb. 6. 23. 12, of the Roman 

777.] 'Verso,' changed, though Serv. "hastati," M 5^ ireun rovrois irpotreri- 

tries to explain it " ex re facto," referring KixrfAodirrai irr€piy^ <rTe<^dy<^ koX irr€po7s 

to the supposed etymology " vir bis." PaL 4^iyiKlois fl fidXaaiy apBois rpuFlv, &s 

originally had 'viribus,' which might be in\x^oii r^ fi^tSos, &y ttpwrrtBmaw 

quoted for Peerlkamp's conj. v. 762. Karh Kopvtpip^ &fia rois &\\ois StAois 6 fihv 

778.] 'Etiam' might be taken in its iufiip 4>aly€T€u iirXdirios iam-ov Kork rh 

ordinary sense : but it more probably = fUytBos, v 8* 6^tf koA.^ ical KorawkriKTiKii 

"adhuc" (see on 2. 292). ''firiviae tem- rots ivayriois. 'Crinita' is used almost 

plo' was an old reading: but it is not cer- like a participle with 'iuba:' comp. 12. 

tain whether it rests on any authority. 413, " foliis et flore comantem." " Gor- 

779.] "Comipedum equorum" 6. 591. gonisospulcherrimnm,crinitnmanguibus" 

For 'litore — marinis' comp. the descrip- Cic. 2 Verr. 4. 56. Stat, actually uses a 

tion towards the end of Eur. Hipp. v«rb " crinio :" see quotation on v. 751. 

780.] " Effunduntque dueem rapiuntque 786.] 'Sustinet,' doubtless on the top 

ad litora currus " 10. 574. ' Currum et of the helmet, ' galea alta.' " In the oo- 

invenem efiudere ' is a zeugma. ' Monstria' lossal statue of Minerva in the PaHhenon 

with 'pavidi/ which = "pavefacti." at Athens she bore a sphinx on the top of 


Tarn magis ilia fremens et tristibas effera flammis^ 
Quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguine pugnae. 
At levem clipeam sublatis comibus lo 
Auro insignibat^ iam saetis obsita^ iam bos^ 790 

Argumentem ingens^ et custos virg^nis Argus^ 
Caelataque amnem fundens pater Inachus uma, 
Insequitur nimbus peditum^ clipeataque totis 
Agmina densentur campis^ Argivaque pubes 
Auruneaeque manus^ Rutuli veteresque Sicani 795 

her helmet and a griffin on each side, iam, diva, precor/' changed at last to 

Pans. 1. 24. 5 '' (Diet. A. < Galea '). ' Aet- kindness. 

naeos,' like those of Aetna. "Homferos 791.1 'Argmnentum' in the sense of 

eractans faucibus aestus'* Lucr. 3. 1012. the subject of a composition is as old as 

YiTff. thoaght of II. 6. 182, Sciv^y &iro- PUiatus, " Post argamentum huius cloquar 

vyciovo-a vvphs fUvos at$ofi4ifoio. tragoediae/' Amph. Prol. 51. It is fre- 

787.] 'lUa' is an anacoluthon, belong- qnently used as here in relation to works 

ing really to * Chimaeram ' (comp. 10. 4^ of art, e. g. ** Ex ebore diligentissime per- 

folL): or we may say that Virg. for fecta erant argumenta in valvis," Cic. 

Yariety's sake chooses to identify the hel- 2 Verr. 2. 4. 56, where a Qorgon's head 

met and the cognizance. A third way (see note on v. 785 above) is instanced, as 

would be with Wagn. to reg^ard the part, haying been removed from the doors by 

as standing for the finite verb, as G. 2. Verres. It seems in fact to have been a 

133, " folia baud nllis labentia ventis :" technical term for historical and legendary 

but this would destroy the idiomatic use subjects in art. Prop. 4. 9. 13, speaking of 

of "ille" in apposition, so common in Yirg. the different provinces of different artists, 

(1. 3., 5. 457 &c.). <Tam magis — quam says "Argumenta magis sunt Mentoris 

maffis' is noted by Quinct. 9. 3 as an addita formae, At Myos exiguum flectit 

archaism. Gossrau comp. Plant. Poen. acanthus iter" (this and the last quoted 

1. 2. 135, ** Quam magis aspecto, tarn passage from Cerda's note), where Paley 

magis est nimbata, et nugae merae." understands the word of groups as opposed 

788.] ' Crudescunt' 11. 833, Q. 3. 504 to single figures. 

note. Yirg. has turned the imagery of 792.] The representation of Inachus as 

Buch passages as U. 5. 4., 18. 225 foil, a river>god has nothing to do with any 

into an artistic representation. He can event in the story, but is simply intro- 

hardly mean more here than that the duced that he may be identified in the work 

figure of Chimaera appears more dreacUul of art. See notes on 8. 652, 653, 654. 

the more Tnmus himself inspires terror. ' Caelata :' Inachus is part of the " em- 

Ccanp. 9. 731 foil., where the 'pathetic blema." Bepresentations of river-gods re- 

fisiHaqy,' as Mr. Buskin would call it, is clining with water streaming out of pitchers 

the samte. at their sides are common enough. 

789.] ^SubUtis comibus' gives the 793.] A translation of II. 4. 274, y/^os 

picture : she was r^resented as completely cT-rcro irtC&y, where the simile which 

tninsformed, ' iam saetis obsita, iam bos.' follows shows that the cloud meant is a 

lo was chosen on account of Tumus' con- storm-cloud, * nimbus.' 'Clipeatus' is used 

nezion with Argos, as if he was the repre- in prose and verse both : see Dictt. Pacuv. 

sentative of Greece in Italy. Herm. fr. 21 has the verb " dipeo." 

790.] <Auro insignlbat:' the figure 794] £nn. A. 8. fir. 13 has " densantur 

seems to have been an "emblema," gold oampis horrentia tela virorum." For 

attached to some other metal. ''Clipei 'densentur' or 'densautur' see on G. 1. 

Insigne dec(»rum " 2. 392. ' Iam ' &c. 248. ' Argivaque pubes,' probably the in- 

Virg. has translated Mosch. 2. 44, as habitants of Ardea, *' Acrisonei colon!," 

Oeida remarks, *Ey /a^m hiv xp^^^'^o '''<- ^* '^10. 

rvyfi4ni *lyaxls *I^ "Biciri iripris iovati, 795.] ' Auruncae manus,' Auruncans 

^v^f 5* ohK tlx^ ywaliiy, * Iam,' already : on the nearer side of the Liris, as distin- 

the transformation was complete. Ck)mp. guished from those on the further side, 

12. 179, " Sa^urnia coniunx, Iam melior, above v. 727. * Rutuli ' followed by 


Et Saoranae acies et picti scuta Labici ; 
Qui saltuSj Tiberine, tuos, sacrumque Numici 
Litus arant, Rutulosque exercent vomere coUis, 
Circaeumque iugum, quis luppiter Anxurus arvis 
Praesidetj et viridi gaudens Feronia luco ; 800 

Qua Saturae iacet atra palus^ gelidusque per imas 
Quaerit iter vallis atque in mare conditur Ufens. 
Hos super advenit Volsca de gente Camilla, 

* Hutulos ' y. 798 is a little awkward, so gular (see on v. 727), the meaning being 

that Heyne wished to read * Siculi ' here, " qui habitant arva . . . qui habitant 

^m a quotation (erroneous, as he admits) qua iaoet." 

by Serv. on 1. 2. 'Veteresque Sicani:' 800.] "Geticis qui praesidet arvis" 3. 

" gentes venere Sicanae " 8. 328 note : see 35. Here the reference seems to be to the 

also 11. 317 foil. 'Veteres' points to position of the temple on a height. For the 

their early settlement in Italy, 8. 1. c. different views taken of the goddess Fe- 

796.] The Saerani, like the Sicani, are ronia see Diet. M. s. v. She appears 

a mythical people (Diet. G. s. v.). One again 8. 564 as the mother of a king 

etymological fancy made them a colony of Erulus. More than one grove was called 

Corybantes, another emigrants in conse- by her name : that meant here was three 

quence of a " ver sacrum." * Labici ' for miles from Tarracina (Hor. 1 S. 5. 24 foil.), 

"Labicani/' the name of the place being on the border of the Pontine marshes 

Labicum (Lavicum) or Labici (Diet. G.). (Diet. Q. s. v.). 

It was one of the cities of the Latin league, 801.] 'Saturae pains' is only known 

and seems to have fallen into decay after from this place and Sil. 8. 380, who imi- 

the Punic wars. One of the roads out of tates and tries to improve on Virg. : 

Rome was called Via Labicana. " Pictis « >-. a x v i i j. j. 

amis " of the Arcadians 8. 688.. 12. 281. <^ ^^"^ "'^"•"^ P*l°* restagnat, 

of the Amazons 11. 660. For the thing t -^ \^ rj *. vj 

see on 8 1 G Liventis caeno per squalida turbidus arva 

797.] Wa^. thinks this and the five ^f*' T^^ ^^«"'' "^"^ ^"^•=»* «^'«'~ 

following lines specify not new tribes, but ^^^' 

the localities inhabited by those already It was probabl}^ as is remarked Diet. G. 

mentioned. This b possible : but Virg. ' Pomptinae Paludes,' some part of the 

elsewhere in this catalogue mixes up the Pontine marshes. The marshes are formed 

two modes of designation (e. g. w. 710 chiefly by the stagnation of the waters of 

foil.), so that it would hardly be safe to the Ufens and Amaseuus (ib.). Serv. says 

assume that he intends any distinction others read 'Asturae,' the name of an 

here. For the words about the Tiber island and river near Ciroeii: but the 

comp. V. 29 above, 8. 92 foil. : for Nu- elision would be unheard of, and even if 

micus vv. 150, 242 above. we should adopt the other form of the 

798.] " Vomere duros exercent collis" word, 'Sturae,' there is no reason to sup- 

11. 318, also of the Rutulians. pose that there was any marsh of the name. 

799.] ' Circaeum iugum ' above v. 10. 802.] < Quaerit,' as if unable to find a 

The * iugum ' is the Circeian promontory way through the marshes. " Nee reperire 

(Diet. G. ' Mons Circeius '). The temple viam atque evolvere posset In mare se 

of Jupiter at Anxur is mentioned by Livy : Xanthus " 5. 807. The present channel of 

see Diet. G. * Tarracina.' Anxur or Axur the river is artificial, 

seems to have been a local god identified 803 — 817.] * Camilla, the swift-footed 

with Jupiter, as, according to Serv., Fe- huntress, leads a contingent of Volscian 

ronia was with Juno, and hence Virg. cavalry.' 

combines the names, making 'Anxurus' a 803.] 'Super,' besides: as we should 

title of Jupiter. Serv. has an etymological say colloquially, she comes on the top of 

figment explaining the word as &V6U (i/pas, them. Camilla is an invention of 'the 

the god being represented on coins as a poef s, modelled on the post-Homeric Pen- 

youth. Pal. and originally Gud. have thesilea. " Camilli " and " Camillae " 

' Anxuris.' The people are called Anxn- were young male and female attendants on 

rates by Livy. llie constmction is Irre- the priests, Macrob. Sat. 3.8. 


Agmen agens eqaitum et florentis aere catervas^ 

Bellatrix, non ilia colo calathisve Minervae 805 

Femineas adsueta manus, sed proelia virgo 

Dura pati cursuque pedum praevertere ventos. 

Ilia vel intactae segetis per summa volaret 

Gramina^ nee teneras eursu laesisset aristas ; 

Vel mare per medium fluctu suspensa tumenti 810 

Ferret iter, celeris nee tingueret aequore plantas. 

Illam omnis tectis agrisque effusa iuventus 

804.} * Agmen et catervas * ty 9iit Bvo7y, spoken of as a fact, not as a possibility. 

' Florentes aere ' on the analogy of Gossrau notices a characteristic exaggera- 

Lxp^*'^<>^^ ^y^os Theog^. 452, as Lucr/s tion by Stat. Theb. 6. 561, where a runner 

" florentia lumina flammis " (4. 450) is on is said to be able " emissum cursu depren- 

the analogy of the Homeric wvphs &y$os, dere telum." 'Intactae' does not mean 

The line occurs 11. 433. untouched by her feet, so that there is no 

805.] 'Bellatrix' placed as 1.493, where occasion for Wakef.'s otherwise question- 
it follows a line consisting of a participial able conj. ' infractae,' but untouched by 
clause. * Non ilia :' see on 6. 593. If there the sickle, standing com. Comp. its appli- 
is any contrast here, it is between Camilla cation to unfelled woods and untrodden 
and other maidens, implied also in * femi- glades G. 3. 41. So Ov. M. 10. 654, " Posse 
neas.' ' Colo calathisve Minervae :' Cerda putes illos sicco frcta radere passu f!t 
points out that thb is an imitation of segetis canae stantis percurrere aristas," 
Apoll. B. 1. 627 foil. : comp. by Heyne. Some early critics, men- 

rHei «^ fiovKoKioi t€ fio&y x^^Jcud t« tioned by Pier, and others, seem to have 

' iiy€ty rejected the four Imes on aesthetical 

ipoipas hmself somewhat less hyperboUcally. 

^,tT.pi;. x<£<™r... •A(h,.'«/,. Wac- rp7«v, ^^*.^P*>**"'*'."'',' 1^. «!, K .. 

'^ here however denoting not the blade but 

For the expression comp. Hor. 3 Od. 12. the full grown ear. Comp. its use of 

4 foil, "tibi qualum Cythereae puer ales, plants, 12. 415 &c. 'Cursu' may be either 

tibi telas operosaeque Minervae studium instr. or modal. ' Laesisset ' is wrongly 

aufert" &c. It matters little whether understood by Wagn. as i. q. "laesui*a 

* colo ' as well as * calathis * goes with esset," a notion to which such passages as 

' Minervae.' For ' calathis ' comp. Catull. 2. 94 lend no colour. Virg. has chosen the 

64 (66). 318 "ante pedes autem candentis pluperf. here for variety's sake, regarding 

moUia lanae Yellera virgati custodibaut the crushing of the ears as having taken 

calathisci." place while the action indicated by *vo- 

806.] 'Virgo' in strong contrast to laret ' was still going on ; as we might say 

' proelia dura pati :' comp. 1. 493 " audet- *' she might fly over standing com and not 

que viris concurrero virgo." From 11. leave the ears crushed behind her." 

584 foil, it would seem as if this were 810.] 'Suspensa' kept from touching 

Camilla's first experience of war ; so that the ground, as in the phrase " suspenso 

we must either suppose Virg. to be incon- gradu :" see E. 2. 66. " Equi Pelopis illi 

sistent with himssltj or understand ' proe- Neptunii, qui per undas cursus suspensos 

lia' of encounters with wild beasts, which rapuisse dicuntur" Cic. Tusc. 2. 27. 

is scarcely natural. 811.] * Ferret iter,' a mixture of " ferret 

807.] " Libeat dum proelia TumoNostra se" and "tenderet iter." The image 

pati " 12. 570. ' Cursuque ' &c., a suffi* ' celeris — plantas ' is from Apoll. R. 1. 183, 

ciently common image : see 5. 319 &c. oM Boohs fidirrty x^Sas, &AV Stroy &Kpois 

808.] The thought may have been sug- ''Ixvco't rtYy6fi€vos, which is a little less 

gested by wvpo<f>6povs i.po6pas in Apoll. B. bold. ' Plantas ' as elsewhere, the soles of 

cited on v. 805 : but the four lines are the feet. 

imitated from 11. 20. 226 foil., of the horses 812.] Perhaps from Od. 2. 13, rhy 

of ErichthoniuSy where the wonder is 8* &pa irdpr^s \ao\ iirtpx^fityoy Bri^vyro. 




Turbaque miratur matrum et prospectat euntem, 
Attonitis inhians animis, ut regius ostro 
Velet honos levis humeros, ut fibula crinem 
Auro intemectat, Lyciam ut gerat ipsa pharetram 
Et pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum. 


Yirg. may also have thought of H. 15. 

813.] * Prospectat/ follow her with their 
eyes, perhaps with a notion of stretching 
forward to look. 

814.] Pal. and Gad. have 'attonitis 
haesere animis,' from 5. 529, the latter 
with * inhians ' as a variant. The follow- 
ing lines, though grammatically dependent 
on 'prospectat' or 'inhians/ may be said 
to represent the talk of the people to each 
other : comp. 2. 121, 652. * Ostro ' with 
* velet.' 'Royal honour clothes her 
shoulders with purple' is equivalent to 
saying that the honour of royal purple 
clothes her shoulders. " Purpura regum " 
G. 2. 495. A scarf ("chlamys") is here 

815.] 'Honos' is used in connexion 
with a purple robe 11. 76, of funeral 
decoration. ' Levis humeros ' like " levia 
pectora" above v. 349. 'Fibula,' pro- 
bably not the " acus discriminalis," but an 
actual clasp, like the Athenian rtm^. 

816.] 'Auro' like 'ostro/ the clasp 
being of gold. Comp. 4. 138. For Lycian 
bows and arrows comp. 8. 166 &c, ' Ipsa,' 
distinguished from her shoulders and her 
hair : comp. G. 2. 297., 4. 274. The object 
of attraction is not the way in which she 
carries the quiver and the javelin, but the 
quiver and the javelin themselves. 

817.] It is not clear whether a pike of 
myrtle-wood was a pastoral weapon, or 
whether the meaning is that the pastoral 
staff (E. 8. 16 note) was pointed with iron 
for the occasion, to make it available for 
war. Stat. Theb. 4. 300 (quoted by Forb.), 
" hi Paphias myrtos a stirpe recurvant £t 
pastorali meditantur praelia trunco/' leaves 
the question open. Camilla has been 
train^ to the use of javelins, 11. 574, 
For the use of myrtle for spear-shafts see 
G. 2. 447, and comp. above 3. 23. Else- 
where ' praefixus ' is used of the shaft to 
which the head is attached, 5. 557., 10. 
479., 12. 489. 




The Trojans having become embroiled with the inhabitants of Latium, and a con- 
federacy having been made against them, it was natural that Virgil should wish to 
provide Aeneas with Italian allies. The legend of Evander offered itself opportunely 
to meet the want. He was supposed to have settled in Italy about sixty years before 
the Trojan war, so that it was possible that his old age should have coincided with the 
arrival of Aeneas : while the traditional character of the Arcadian prince, the mythical 
introducer of a foreign civilization, pointed him out as the friend rather than the 
enemy of the pious hero of Troy. It was reasonable too that Aeneas should be sent to 
visit Evander in his own home, that home being on the spot which was afterwards to 
be made illustrious by the foundation of the Eternal City. The narrative of Hercules 
and Cacus and the description of Roman topography follow as a matter of course. In 
giving Evander a son, Pallas, Yirgil appears to have followed one of the versions of 
the legend (see Servius' note on v. 51 of this Book), at the same time that he retains 
the name of the elder Pallas, the founder of the Arcadian Pallantium and the eponym 
of the town on the Palatine. The thought of making Pallas accompany Aeneas may 
have been suggested by Apollonius, who makes Lycus send his son Dascylus along with 
Jason : Ovid however, in telling the story of Evander in the First Book of the Fasti, 
connects Pallas with Aeneas, so that there may have been some legendary authority 
for the association. Mezentius is known to have figured in legend as an oppressor 
dreaded by his neighbours, who were delivered from him on one occasion by Aeneas or 
Ascanius : and this may have given the hint for Aeneas' alliance with the tyrant's 
revolted subjects. The request of Venus to Vulcan and the making of the shield are 
easily traceable to their Homeric sources : the details of the workmanship are doubtless 
the poet's own, though, as has been said in the General Introduction, a hint may have 
been taken from Jason's scarf in Apollonius ; and they accord well with the character 
and purpose of the great Koman epic. 

Ut belli signum Laurenti Tumus ab arce 

1—17.] 'The war begins : the Butulian num,' a flag, such as was displayed on the 

leaders ravage the country, and an em- Janiculum at the ''comitia centuriata," 

bassy is sent to Diomede to invoke his and over the general's tent before battle 

assistance against Aeneas.' (Dion Cass. 37. 28). Heyne inclines to 

1.] Latinus having renounced the con- exphun * signum ' by * comua,' comp. 7. 

duct of the war and shut himself up (7. 613 : but Wagn. rightly remarks that 

600), TumuB takes the lead. 'Belli sig- * extulit' would not agree with this. 

G 2 


Extulit, et rauco strepnerunt comua cantu, 

Utque acris concussit equos, utque inpulit arma^ 

Extemplo turbati animi, simul omne tumultu 

Coniurat trepido Latium, saevitque inventus 5 

EfFera. Ductores primi Messapus et Ufens 

Contemptorque deum Mezentius undique cognnt 

Auxilia, et latos vastant eultoribus. agros. 

Mittitur et magni Venulus Diomedis ad urbem. 

Qui petat auxilium^ et, Latio consistere Teucros, lo 

Advectum Aenean classi vietosque Penatis 

Inferre et fatis regem se dicere posei, 

Edoeeat, multasque viro se adiungere gentis 

2.] * Comua :' see on 7. 615, 637. Pal, ducendo cultores vastos et desertos effi- 

originally had * isonuerunt,' corrected into ciunt" Serv., rightly, as is shown by 

' strepnerunt/ '* Raucisonoque minantur parallel instances quoted in Fore, Hirt. ( ?) 

comua cantu " Lucr. 2. 619, comp. by B. G. 8. 24, " finis eius vastare civibus, 

W. Bibbeck. aedificiis, pecore," Stat. Theb. 3. 576, 

3.] ' Concussit,' roused them ; but pro- "agrosque virisannosaque vastant Oppida," 

bably there is also an allusion to the though in the former passage 'vastant' 

phrase " concutere habenas equis " 5. 147., has its more usual sense, meaning not only 

6. 101. * Inpulit arma ' clashed his arms to dispeople but to ravage. The construe- 

by way of exciting the ardour of his fol- tion is not altogether easy to analyze : 

lowers. Comp. 12. 332, " Sanguineus but it seems best to take it * dispeople 

Mavors clipeo increpat, atque fhrentis them in respect of their cultivators.' We 

Bella movens inmittit equos;" Sil. 12. may comp. the constructions of " viduo 

683 (comp. by Gossrau), "Bursus in and "vacuo," "viduus" and "vacuus 

arma vocat trepidos, clipeoque tremen- being more or less parallel to "vastus, 

dum Increpat, atque armis imitatur mur- * Vastare ' of simple dispeopling occurs 

mura caeli " (of Hannibal). Comp. also again Stat. Theb. 4. 297. 
Val. F. 6. 6, referred to by Cerda. 9.] *Et:* besides all the Latin forces. 

Whether this was an official act performed they send for foreign aid. Venulus is a 

by the general does not appear. Serv. Tiburtine (11. 742, 757), and as Tibur, 

thinks there is an allusion to a custom according to the legends, was an Ar^ve 

at Bome, according to which the general colony, he is a proper ambassador to 

("qui belli susceperat curam") entered Diomede. The city of Diomede was 

the temple of Mars and shook first the Argyripa (afterwards Arpi) in Apulia; 

ancilia and then the spear of the god, and the legend that Diomede had founded 

saying " Mars vigila." it after the Trojan war very likely arose 

4.] " Conversi animi " 2. 73. It is a from the similarity of the name Argyripa 

question whether * simul ' acts as a con- to Argos. " Magna Diomedis ab urbe " 11. 

necting particle between the two clauses 226, where there is another reading ' mag- 

(Heyne), or strengthens * omne ' and * con- ni.' 

iurat' (Wagn.) : but the latter seems 10.] Pal. (in an erasure) and Gud. have 

better. 'Tumultu' here expresses the 'considere,' as in 6.67: but ' consistere ' 

rising of Latium, the abl. being a modal is more appropriate here : see on 6. 807. 
one. * Coniurat ' denotes a general rising. 11.] * Advectum ' may be " advectum 

" De 8. C. certior factus ut omnes iuniores esse," but it seems better taken as a parti- 

Jtaliae coniurarent" Caes. B. G. 7. 1. ciple, ' que — et' coupling the two grounds 

6.] * Primi ' not with * ductores ' but of complaint against Aeneas. " Vietosque 

with * cogunt,' expressing the action taken Penatis " 1. 68. Here ' victos ' is meant 

at the beginning of the war. ' Messapus ' to tell upon Diomede. 
7.691. 'Ufens '7. 745. 12.] "Inferretque deos Latio" 1. 6. 

7.] " Contemptor divom Mezentius" 7. ' Fatis posci,* v. 477 below, 7. 272. 
648. 13.1 'Multasque viro se adiungere gentis' 

8.] ' Vastant cultoribus agros :' " ab- is a diplomatic exaggeration, even though 


Dardanio^ et late Latio increbrescere nomen : 

Quid struat his coeptis, quern, si Fortuna sequatur, 15 

Eventum pugnae eupiat, manifestius ipsi, 

Quam Tumo regi, aut regi adparere Latino. 

Talia per Latium. Quae Laomedontius heros 
Cuncta videns magno curarum fluctuat aestu ; 
Atque animum nunc hue celerem, nunc dividit illuc, 20 
In partisque rapit varias perque omnia versat j 
Sicut aquae tremulum labris ubi lumen aenis 
Sole repercussum aut radiantis imagine Lunae 

we shonldg^veVirg. the benefit of Evander cupying a whole line. Senr. says ad- 

and the Agyllines, who are not yet intro- miringly " * Gerebantor' subandis : et est 

dnced. It seems better with Donatus and formosa ellipsis." Peerlkamp removes the 

Thiel to suppose the misrepresentation to stop, so as to connect * talia * with ' quae 

be intentional than with Wagn. to attri- cuncta/ which is less likely. ' Laome- 

bute it to '* Virgilius aliquando dormitans." dontius,' 7. 105. 

Eibbeck comp. 7. 238, which may stand 19.] ** Magno fluctuat aestu " 4. 532. 

as a verbal parallel, as he probably" in- Cerda comp. Lucr. 6. 34, " Volvere cura- 

tends, but does not help to explain the rum tristis in pectore fluctus," CatuU. 62 

facb. (l^^)*' ^^' *' Prospicit et magnis curarum 

14.] * Yiro Dardanio * may give, as Serv. nuctuat undis.^' Serv. remarks that the 

thinks, the reason why Aeneas is repre- metaphor anticipates the following simile, 

sented as finding allies so soon, his heredi- 20, 21 are repeated iVom 4. 285, 286; 

tary connexion with Italy. where see note. Here there seems to be 

15.] 'Struat' 2. 60., 4. 235 &c. "For- no variety of reading, except that two 

tuna sequatur " 4. 109 note. inferior MSS. and the Schol. on Hor. 

16.] * Pugnae' for "belli:" comp. 7. 611 : 2 Od. 16. 11 have " celerem nunc hue." 

-so that the meaning is, what he hopes to get 22.] This simile is taken from ApoU. 

by the war. ' Ipsi ' is generally, and per- R. 3. 756 foil. In the original, the water 

haps rightly, taken of Diomede, the in- is fresh poured {rh h^ v4ov iik \4firiTt *H^ 

sinuation being that he is more likely to irov 4v yavX^ Kdxvrai), which accounts for 

be threatened as an old enemy of Troy its motion. Yirg. had also probably in 

than Tumus or Latinus. But ' ipsi ' may his mind Lucr. 4. 209 foil. It must be 

be Aeneas, as we should say "what he owned that the comparison is more pleasing 

means by this he knows best," without when applied, as it is by Apollonius, to 

meaning to imply that we were really the fluttering heart of Medea, than to the 

ignorant. Comp. 5. 788, " Caussas tanti fluctuating mind of Aeneas. ' Aquae ' 

sciat ilia fnroris." with * lumen,' like " splendor aqual " Lucr. 

17.] 'Reg^— regi' seems meant to be I.e. * Labris,' 12. 417, G. 2. 6. The 

in keeping with the formal tone of the abl. here seems to be local, 

communication to Diomede, which alto- 23.] ' Sole repercussum ' is another in- 

gether is more in the style of prose than stance of Yirg.'s recondite use of words, 

of verse. There seems to be the same The natural phrase would have been " sole 

formality in 9. 369, " Tumo regi responsa repercusso." Perhaps the notion of re- 

ferebant," 11. 294, "£t responsa simul ciprocal action between the sun and the 

quae sint, rex optume, regis Audisti." water may help to justify the variation^ 

18 — 35.] ' Meantime Aeneas, distracted the conception apparently being that the 

with care, lies down to sleep, when the light glances from the water to the sun 

god of the Tiber appears to him.' and is sent back. In the rest of the 

18.] 'Talia per Latium,' a brief ex- verse he changes the notion, making the 

pression suited to the later epic narrative, light sent back not by the moon but by 

hke "Vix ea" 12. 154, "Hoc tantum the reflection of the moon. Heyne at- 

Ascanins " 9. 636. So Pope has " thus tempts to harmonize the image by taking 

they " &c. Hom. is more explicit, gene- * imagine lunae * of the moon herself that 

rally expressing himself in fdll^ and oc- causes the reflection : but Yirg. evidently 


Omnia pervolitat late loca, iamque sub auras 

Erigitur summique ferit laquearia tecti, 25 

Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnis 

Alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat : 

Cum pater in ripa gelidique sub aetheris axe 

Aeneas, tristi turbatus pectora bello, 

Procubuit seramque dedit per membra quietem. 30 

Huie deus ipse loci fluvio Tiberinus amoeno 

Populeas inter senior se attoUere frondes 

Visus ; eum tenuis glauco velabat amictu 

Carbasus, et crinis umbrosa tegebat arundo ; 

Tum sic adfari et curas his demere dietis : 35 

O sate gente deum, Troianam ex hostibus urbem 
Qui revehis nobis aeternaque Pergama servas, 
Exspectate solo Laurenti arvisque Latinis, 
Hie tibi certa domus, certi, ne absiste, Penates ; 

cared as little for consistency of thought his waters : comp. v. 712 helow. Riyer- 

as for scientific truth. Mr. Long under- gods are represented in works of art with 

stands ' sole repercussum ' reflected by the a similar covering. For ' eum ' Bom. and 

image of the sun in the water. Verona fragm. have ' cum.' 

24, 25 correspond in the comparison to 34.] ' Carbasus ' was properly a very fine 

20, 21. ' Pervolitat ' is perhaps suggested kind of linen invented at Tarraco in Spain, 

by " pervolgat " Lucr. 1. c. * Sub auras according to Pliny 19. 1. A crown of 

erigitur,' 8. 422 : comp. ib. 574., 9. 240. reeds formed part of the conventional 

There is of course no real inconsistency representation of a water-god. See Veil, 

between * sub auras ' and ' laquearia tecti.' Paterc. 2. 83, quoted on 3. 432. 

26.] Comp. 3. 147., 9. 224, 6. The de- 35.] Repeated from 2. 775., 3. 153. 

scription in 4. 522 foil, is much more Nothing is said here of its having ever 

detailed. been omitted in any MS. The infinitives 

27.] * Alituum genus ' occurs repeatedly may be historical, or may depend on 

in Lucr., 5. 801, 1039, 1078., 6. 1216. * visus,* 'eum— arundo' being pai*enthe- 

28.] "Nudoque sub aetheris axe" 2. tical. 

512. 36-65.] 'The river-god assures him 

29.] ' Pectore ' is the first reading of that he has found a home, promises him 

Med. the appearance of a white sow by way of 

30.] ' Dedit,' suffered it to spread, a confirmation, advises him to apply at once 

sort of combination of such expressions as for help to a neighbouring colony fi*om 

" somnus diditur per membra," " dare se Arcadia under Evander, and enjoins him 

somno," and '* membris datcura quietem" to propitiate Juno.' 

(4.5). 36.] "Sate sangume divom" 6. 125. 

31.] 'Deus loci' like "Genium loci" 'Gente deum' is not as in 10. 228., 11. 

6. 95. " Fluvio Tiberinus amoeno " 7. 305, a race sprung from the gods, but a 

30 note. Forb. rightly understands 'ipse' race consisting of gods. 'Troianam 

as giving dignity, as against Wagn., who urbem :* comp. 1. 68, " Ilium in Italiam 

explains it " ut erat glauco velatus portans," and see on 2. 703., 3. 86. ' Re- 

amictu." vehis,' because Dardanus had come from 

32.] The god rises from among his own Italy : comp. 7. 240 &c. 

poplars. These poplars appear not to 37.] ' Aeterna ' with ' servas.' 

exist at the present day : see on 7. 29. 38.] For ' solo ' Med. originally had 

* Senior :' the male water-gods are gene- ' lo,' which a later hand has altered into 

rally represented as old : comp. 5. 823. ' loco.* " Solo Laurente " 12. 547. 

33.] The robe of the river-god represents 39.] * Absiste ' may either be rendered 


Neu belli terrere minis ; tumor omnis et irae 40 

Concessere deum* 

lamque tibi, ne vana putes haec fingere somnum, 

Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus, 

Triginta capitum fetus enixa^ iacebit. 

Alba, solo reeubans, albi eireum ubera nati : 45 

[Hie locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum] 

Ex quo ter denis urbem redeuntibus annis 

depart, or desist (from your enterprise), his cursives, as well as in Rom. Internal 

For the parenthetical clause comp. " ne evidence seems in favour of omitting it, 

finge" 4. 338. ''Certos Penatis" G. 4«^ as being really embarrassing to the con- 

155. text, not« as Ueyne and Wagn. think, in- 

40.] 'Tamor' here absolutely for the dispensable to it. It is one thing to 

commoner phrase *' tumor animi :" see interpret the omen as showing the place 

Pore. ** Tumida ex ira tum corda resi- where Lavinium is to be built, another to 

dunt " 6. 407. explain the white sow of Alba, the thirty 

41.] Some copyists, misunderstanding pigs of the thirty years. Helenus con- 

* concessere,' filled up the line with ** pro- tines himself to the fii-st : the Tiber, 
fugis nova moenia Teucris,'' which is found according to the common text, passes from 
in Canon, and some other MSS., and men- one to the other so as rather to confuse 
tioned with disapprobation by Serv. the two. It seems better to suppose that 
' Concessere ' have given way, doubtless he simply speaks from the latter point of 
to milder feelings. Comp. Soph. Ant. view, < ex quo' being explained as * ex quo 
718, itW* cTicc OvfjLov xid fitrdaraffiy prodigio' with Ribbeck. This is con- 
BlSou, firmed by Serv., who interprets ''ex qua ra- 

42.] ' lamque ' may either indicate a tiocinatione," and makes no remark on the 

transition (see Wag^. Q. Y. 24. 9) or may line before us. We may note that Aeneas 

have its ordinary sense of "just now " or takes no notice of the place on waking, 

** already," implying that what is pro- either in his address to the river or when 

phesied will take place immediately. The he sees the sow. The line then should at 

incompleteness of v. 41 makes the pre- least be bracketed, if not struck from the 

cise sense here uncertain. The omen here text. It is a further objection to the 

promised by the Tiber as a confirmation genuineness of this line that ' hie ' must 

of the vision had been promised already be taken with great latitude, Lavinium 

by Helenus 3. 388 foil., though with a being twelve Roman miles from the Tiber : 

different object : see on v. 46. Here and this, which would be nothing where 

the white sow is Alba ; the thirty young the country was the thing indicated, as in 

ones are the thirty years that were the prophecy of Helenus, seems harsh 

to elapse between the building of Lavi- when Aeneas has found the country, and 

nium and Alba (v. 47) ; an explana- the thing to be indicated is the particular 

tion of the legend as old as Varro, R. feite of his town. Kor is it likely perhaps 

K, 2. 4, L. L. 5.^ 144. For the that Virg. should have inserted the line 

various forms of the legend see Lewis so soon a^er v. 39, to which it bears some 

vol. 1. pp. 334, 354, 5. The symbolizing resemblance. Heyne suggests that the 

of the thirty years by the thirty pigs is passage may have run ' Concessere deum. 

like the symbolizing of the nine years of Nunc qua ratione quod iustat ' &c., all 

unsuccessful siege by the sparrow and her between being an interpolation, which is 

eight young ones in II. 2. 326 foil. For very unlikely, since there is no reference 

*ne* Rom. has 'nee.* The lines 43—45 to Helenus or the occurrence of the omen 

are repeated from 3. 390—392, where see vv. 81 foil., and it would hardly occur 

notes. without introduction or explanation. 

46.] This line is repeated from 3. 393 47.] The prophecy of the thirty years 

with only the substitution of *hic' for had already occurred, though without a 

* is.' It is wanting in Med. and Pal., and symbol, 1. 269, where however a period of 
in Grud. a m. p., and is omitted by Ribbeck, three years is interposed before the found- 
but it is apparently found in the rest of atiou oi' Lavinium, * Redeuntibus annis ' 


Ascanius clari condet cognomlnis Albam. 

Haud inceiia cano. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat, 

Expedias victor, paucis, adverte, docebo. 50 

Arcades his oris, genus a Pallante profectum, 

Qui regem Euandrum comites, qui signa secuti, 

Delegere locum et posuere in montibus urbem 

Pallantis proavi de nomine Pallanteum. 

Hi bellum adsidue ducunt cum gente Latina ; 65 

Hos castris adhibe socios, et foedera iunge. 

Ipse ego te ripis et recto flumine ducam, 

is from Lucr. 1.311, ''multis solis redenn- Wagn. is clearly right in understanding 

tibus annis/' and both perhaps from the ' secuti * as " secuti sunt." 
Homeric irtptirKofifyuy iviavrwv (Od. 1. 52.] 'Begem— signa secuti/ they fol- 

16). In Lucr. the present participle is lowed him as their king and general, 
used strictly, the action going on during 53.] • His oris * goes with * delegere 

the whole time designated : in Horn- the locum/ not with ' posuere in montibus 

action happens at some one point in the urbem/ the latter being appended, as 

time, which is also the case in such ex- Wagn. aptly remarks, to supply the place 

pressions as " volventibus annis ** 1. 234, of < urbi,' which we should have expected 

** lustris labentibus " ib. 283 : in the in the former clause. The plural * monti- 

present passage the action does not take bus ' may refer to the cluster of hills of 

place till the completion of the time, so which the Palatine was one, 
that the present part, is used impro- 54.] ' JProavi ' used vaguely, unless we 

perly. suppose the Arcadians to be designated 

48.] * Clari * seems rightly taken by as children of £vander. " De nomine " 1. 

Heyne to refer to * Alba ' by a play upon 367 &c. 

the word. The town was really named 55.] The Arcadians as Greeks would 

from the white rocks on which it stood, naturally be hostile to Aeneas, but a 

Ruhkopf compares the epithet of Camirus, common enmity makes them friends. 

af^iv6ui, II. 2. 656. So " elaram Khodon " * Ducunt ' i. q. "gerunt/* with a further 

Hor. 1 Od. 7. 1 is explained ' sunny.' notion of length. ' Ducere bellum ' is not 

' Cognominis ' descriptive gen. uncommon in Caesar for protracting a 

49.] ** Non iniussa cano " E. 6. 9, where war : see Freund. This long war between 

'non' goes with 'cano,' while Miaud' as the Latins and the Arcadians seems quite 

usual qualifies not the verb but the adj. inconsistent with the long peace spoken of 

* Nunc — docebo ' repeated from 4. 115, 6, 7. 46, unless we suppose * Latina ' to be 
with the change of " confieri possit " into used loosely for the Kutulians : comp. v. 

* expedias victor.' 146, and see on 7. 423. 

50.] 'Expedias' disentangle, 2. 633. 56.] Pal., Gud. and others have 'foe- 

Med. a m. s., Pal. corrected, and Gud. dere,' also mentioned as a variant by 

a m. p. have * expediam,' from a confusion Serv. ; but ' foedera ' is more harmonious, 

of thought blending with a recollection of and is supported by 4. 112., 7. 546, v. 641 

11. 315., 6. 759. below, 12. 822, better parallels than v. 

51.] For the fable of Evander see 169, 10. 105., 11. 356, which might be 

Lewis vol. 1. pp. 283 foil. Pallas, accord- adduced on the other side. The change 

ing to one story, was the son of Lycaon, was probably made by some one who 

grandfather of Evander, and the heroic wished to bring the two clauses under a 

founder of Pallantium. 'Profectus' of similar regimen. "Hunc cape consiliis 

origin is found in prose, " Zenoque et ii socium et coniunge volentem " 5. 712. 

qui ab eo essent profecti" Cic. De Div. 57.] 'Ripis et recto flumine' seems to 

1. 3. Some difficulty has been felt about be i. q. " recto alveo," straight along my 

the construction, Heyne supposing an channel, as " recto littore," straight along 

anacoluthon and supplying " habitant " the shore 6. 900, quoted by Wagn. The 

after ' oris,' while others have thought promise is fulfilled vv. 86 foil. 

* ducunt * Y» 55 the principal verb : but ' 



Adversum remis superes subvectus ut amnem. 

Surge age, nate dea, primisque cadentibus astris 

lunoni fer rite pieces, iramque minasque 60 

Supplicibus supera votis. Mihi victor honorem 

Persolves. Ego sum, pleno quern flumine cernis 

Stringentem ripas et pinguia culta secantem, 

Caeruleus Thybris, caelo gratissimus amnis. 

Hie mihi magna domus, celsis caput urbibus, exit. 65 

58.] 'Superes' is sufficiently explained "radentem." Forb. comp. Lucr. 5.256, 

by 'adversum:' the metaphor however "ripas radentiaflumina." 
seems to be from going up hill (" superate 64.] ' Caeruleus ' is the common epi- 

iugum " 6. 676). So in 1. 244, " fontem thet of sea and river gods, G. 4. 388. So 

superare Timavi" may mean that Antenor "glauco amictu" v. 33. The actual 

sailed up the stream. In v. 95 the notion colour of the Tiber is " flavus," 7. 81 &c. 
is rather that of rounding a projection, as 65.] This line has not yet been satis- 

in the passage from Lucilius quoted on 1. factorily explained. The common inter- 

243, from which Virg. may have taken pretation understands < magna domus ' of 

' remis superes ' here. ' Suhvehi ' is a Rome, the head over lofty cities, taking 

regular word for sailing or rowing against * exit ' to be a prophetic present. Gossrau, 

the stream. "Philippum lembis biremi- whom Wagn. now follows, supposes the 

bus cxx flumine adverso subvectum " meaning to be ' Here, at the mouth of the 

Livy 24. 40. river, is my home : my source emerges 

59.] ' Frimis cadentibus astris ' at break among lofty cities,' dividing the verse into 

of dawn. " Cadentia sidera " 2. 9. two clauses. Both views are given by 

60.] " lunoni cane vota libens, domi- Serv., though not very explicitly. Each 

namque potentem Supplicibus supera appears to be liable to strong objections : 

donis " 3. 438. ' Fer preces ' like " ferre on the one hand there is nothing to sug- 

sacra, dona " &c. Canon, has ' dominam- gest a future reference in ' exit ;' on the 

que potentem' here, and many MSS. other the structure of the verse is in 

(none of Ribbeck's) 'donis' in the next favour of taking 'caput' in apposition 

line. with ' domus,' and ' caput exit urbibus ' 

61.] It is not clear whether ' victor ' is would not be natural in the sense sup- 
used in reference to ' supera,' or whether posed. Perhaps we may combine the two 
it is to be taken in its ordinary sense, the views, taking ' magna domus ' with Wagn. 
Tiber bidding Aeneas wait till he is a and others of the Tiber's palace under the 
conqueror before paying dues to him- water (comp. G. 4. 363 &c. of the home of 
self, and thus prophesying him victory. Cyrene in the bed of the Peneus), which 

62.] Wagn. and Forb. contend that is said to rise or emerge by a blending of 

the construction is not ' ego sum Thybris,' the two notions of a house rising into the 

which they think would be weak, but air and a river rising from the ground, 

' ^o sum,' ' it is I that speak,' the rest and is spoken of as destined to be the head 

being added in apposition. But it is of lofty cities, the allusion being to Rome, 

difficult to see where the weakness would It seems probable from G. 4. 1. c. that the 

be shown, and the ordinary interpretation palace of the river-nymphs is supposed to 

seems the natural way in which a stranger extend to a considerable length under the 

would announce himself, though in 10. stream, and so Tiber here may speak of 

230 a comma is rightly placed after " nos his home as extending to the place where 

sumus," the meaning being * It is we, Rome was afterwards built. With ' caput 

your old friends.' 'Pleno flumine' is of urbibus' comp. "caput populis" 10*203. 

course an honourable attribute of a river, Tbe ambiguity is increased by our igno- 

like " pinguia culta secantem," with which ranee of the exact spot where Aeneas is 

last comp. the description of Eridanus supposed to see the Tiber, and by the fact 

G. 4. 372, and that of Tiber himself A. 2. that ' exit ' and perhaps ' caput ' are used 

781. in more senses than one in connexion 

63.] ' Stringentem,' a sort of inter- with rivers, denoting both the source and 

mediate word between " lambentem " and the mouth : see on G. 4. 319. 


Dixit, deinde lacu Fluvius se condidit alto, 
Ima petens ; nox Aenean somnusque reliquit. 
Surgit, et, aetherii spectans orientia Solis 
Lumina, rite cavis undam de flumine palmis 
Sustinet, ac talis effundit ad aethera voces : 70 

Nymphae, Laurentes Nymphae, genus amnibus unde est. 
Tuque, o Thybri tuo genitor cum flumine sancto, 
Accipite Aenean, et tandem arcete periclis. 
Quo te cum que lacus, miserantem incommoda nostra, 
Fonte tenet, quocumque solo pulcherrimus exis, 75 

Semper honore meo, semper celebrabere donis, 
Comiger Hesperidum Fluvius regnator aquarum. 

66—80.] 'Aeneas, awaking, prays to *'(}enii8 unde" 1. 6., 5. 123. 

tiie Tiber, promifiing to worship him con- 72.] ' Qenitor ' i. q. ** pater " as an epi- 

stantly in the event of sncoeaB. HJe then thet of reverence. Macrob. Sat. 6. 1, says 

prepares for his voyage.' the line is from Ennios (A. 1. fr. 37) 

66.] * Lacu alto,' the deep of the river ** Teque pater l^bcrine tuo cum flumine 

where he dwelt. We should naturally sancto." See on G. 2. 147. Aeneas' 

take it of the source (comp. v. 74 and see prayer strongly resembles that of Codes 

on G. 4. 364) : but this cannot be in- to the Tiber, Livy 2. 10, ** Tiberine pater, 

tended here, being obviously inconsistent te sancte precor haec arma et hunc mi- 

with the topography and with Aeneas' litem propitio flumine accipias." Serv. 

w^ords in vv. 74, 5, which show that he quotes a form of prayer, "Adesto, Ti- 

does not know where the Tiber rises. berine, cum tuis undis." 

67.] ' Ima petens :' comp. G. 4. 321, 73.] We may have either " arcere peri- 

" quae gur^tis huius Ima tenes." With culum ab aliquo," " arcere periculum ali- 

*nox — ^reliquit' comp. iyik 8i yXvKhs trrvos cui," or "arcere aliquem periculo." The 

kvriKtv II. 2. 71, r^¥ V Siryos &tia K\ayyp last construction is found in Cic. (see 

fi€$47iK€y ApolL B. 3. 632. The meaning Fore.) and in Hor. 1 Ep. 8. 10. A similar 

doubtless is that the dream, the night, and construction of ** prohibere " also occurs 

Aeneas' sleep, all came to an end together. Hor. 1 Od. 27. 4, 1 Ep. 1. 31. 

Bom. and some others have ' relinquit.' 74.] ' Lacus ' is illustrated by Pliny Ep. 

68.] "Aetherius sol" is common in 9. 8 (on the source of the Clitumnus): 

Lucr., 3. 1044., 5. 215 &c. " Lumina " Eluctatusque (fons) facit gurgitem, qui 

solis " Lucr. 1.5. lato gremio patescit purus et vitreus." 

70.] 'Sustinet* Med., Bom., Pal., Gud. Serv. says "Lacus est quoddam latentis 

a m. p. ' Sustulit,' the old reading, re- adhuc aquae receptaculum, et dictus lacus 

tained by Heyne, is found in Gud. a m. s. quasi lacuna : ex qua erumpens aqua facit 

and two other of Bibbeck's cursives, fontem: qui cum fluere coeperit alveum 

Heyne explains ' sustulit ' took it up to facit." ' Miserantem incommoda nostra ' 

wash his hands before the prayer. * Sus- gives the reason for Aeneas' prayer, serv- 

tinet ' Wagn. thinks must be interpreted ing also to remind the god of his promise : 

with reference to some custom, not men- 'pulcherrimus 'expresses Aeneas' gratitude, 

tioned elsew^here, of holding some water 75.] Bom. and fragm. Vat. have 'te- 

from the river in the hands when praying nent :' but, as Wagn. says, ' lacus ' in the 

to a river-god. * Undam de flumine ' he plural does not accord with ' fonte.' 

takes like " homo de plebe," but this seems " Flumine pulchro " of the Tiber 7. 430. 

unnecessary : * sustinet ' includes " haurit " 76.] * Honore,* i. q. " sacriflciis :" comp. 

or " tollit." 1. 632 &c. Some MSS. have ' venerabere,' 

71.] There is some doubt about the which, as Wagn. remarks, cannot be de- 
pointing, as in G. 4. 321 " Mater, Cyrene fended from 3. 460, as deponent verbs are 
mater :" but in each case the rhythm not equally elastic with their participles, 
seems in favour of making the pause after * Venero ' seems not to be used later than 
the first foot. ' Nymphae, genus amnibus Plautus. 
unde est * is i. q. " Nymphae fontium." 77.] For ' comiger ' sec on G. 4. 371 : 


Adsis o tantum et propius tua numina firmes. 
Sic memorat^ geminasque legit de classe biremis^ 
Kemigtoque aptat ; socios simul instruit armis. 80 

Ecce autem subitum atque oculis mirabile monstrum 
Candida per silvam cum fetu coneolor albo 
Procubuit viridique in Utore conspicitur sus : 
Quam pius Aeneas tibi enim^ tibi, maxuma luno^ 
Mactat^ sacra ferens^ et cum grege sistit ad aram. 85 

Thybris ea fluvium^ quam longa est^ nocte tumentem 

for ' Hesperidnm regnator nqnarum' comp. point after ' monstmm/ which msj ekher 

G. 1. 482 "Fluviorum rex Eridauas/' be independent or in apposition to 

The EridanuB deserves the epithet more ' bus/ 

for its physical, the Tiber tor its his- 82, 83.] The words are equivalent to 

torical greatness. Here again Virg. seems " Candida bos in littore procumbens per 

to have followed Ennius (A. 1. fr. 48), silvam conspicitur/' * Coneolor * is super- 

" Fostquam consistit flavins qui est om- fluous, but serves to impress the notion of 

nibu' princeps," quoted by Fronto Epist. the prodigy. Serv. comments on the ter- 

de Orat. p. 129 Niebuhr in connexion mination of v. 83, " Horatius : ei arnica 

with a saying of M. Aurelius, " Tiber luto sua (1 Ep. 2. 26). Sciendum tamen 

amnis et dominus et flnentium circa reg- hoc esse vitiosum, monosyllabo finiri ver- 

nator undarum.'' Germ. comp. Dionys. sum, nisi forte ipso monosyllabo minora 

Perieg. 351, S^fifipis iOpptlriis irorc^iiiy explicentur animalia. Ut (Uor. A. P. 139) 

/3aircAc<frarof &Wuy. *Fluviu8' may be ParturieiU monies, nascetur ridiculus 

nom. for voc.; but it is at least as pro- mua, Gratiosiores enim versus isti sunt 

bable that the line is to be taken closely secundum Lucilium." Comp. the pas- 

with ' celebrabere,' the Tiber being cele- sage from Quinctilian quoted on G. 1. 

brated as the king of rivers. 181. 

78.] * Propius,' i. q. " praesentius," as 84.] * Enim * here merely gives em- 

in 1. 526 : ' adsis ' contains the same idea phasis to ' ttbi,' uol 9^1, This appears to 

of the interposition or manifestation of have been its original force: comp. the 

the god by physical presence. Comp. 10. passages of Plautus quoted by Freund, and 

254. ' Numina,' revelation : comp. 4. 123. LIvy 22. 25, " Cum laeta civitate dictator 

The confirmation is g^ven just below vv. anus nihil nee famae nee Uteris crederet, 

81 foil. The parallel use of " numen " and tum M. Metilius tribunos plebis id enim 

'omen' has been mentioned on 7. 119. ferendum esse negat," a passage which 

" Omina flrma " occurs 2. 691, and Sil. 4. may suggest that here as there we have a Cerda has "Adsis ofirmesque sort of quotation of the words actually 

tuae, pater, alitis omen," doubtless inii- spoken. So in G. 2. 509 it appears to 

tating the present line. Meller ap. Cer- strengthen " geminatus," though its force 

dam couj. ' omina ' here. In another view there is by no means so clear. Wagn. 

we may comp. ** Di numine ilrment " 12. quotes an obvious imitation from Sil. 13, 

188. * Tandem ' for * tantum ' was read 136, " Mactat, diva, tibi, tibi enim haec 

before Heins., and is found in some infeiior gratissima sacra." 
MSS. 85.] 'Mactat, sacra ferens' is equivalent 

79.] See on 1. 182. ' Geminas ' merely to " sacrificat." ** Mactat et sisbit ad 

means two, as we should say a couple, as aram " is an obvious inversion ; bat the 

in 3. 305., 7.* 450. important words in the last clause are 

80.] See on 3. 471 « ' cum grege.' ' Sistit ad aram ' is the 

81 — 101.] * The white sow is seen and correlative of " stabit ad aram " G. 2. 395 

at once offered to Jano. They sail through note. 

the night on calm waters, and by midday 86.] ' Ea nocte, quam longa est, leniit ' 

reach Evander's city.' obviously differs from any mere case of an 

81.] Substantially repeated from 2.680. historic present, and even from cases 

The wonder would be felt rather by the where an historic present and a perfect 

Trojans than by Aeneas, who had learnt are joined by a conjunction as in 7. 169 

to expect it. It matters little how we &c. It is probably to be regarded simply 


Leniit^ et tacita refluens ita substitit iinda^ 

Mitis Tit in morem stagni placidaeque paludis 

Stenieret aequor aquis^ remo ut luctamen abesset. 

Ergo iter inceptum celerant rumore secundo. 90 

Labitur uncta vadis abies ; mirantur et undae^ 

Miratur nemus insuetum fulgentia longe 

Scuta virum fluvio pietasque innare carinas. 

Olli remig^o noctemque diemque fatigant^ 

Et longos superant flexus, variisque teguntur 95 

asan irregalarity, 'quamlongaest' being but even if Virg. were likely to have 
written as if the historic present "lenit" introduced the name, 'secundo* would 
was to follow, for which *leniit' is sub- contradict v, 58. Rom. and others, in- 
stituted. " Hiemem quam longa " 4. 193. eluding quotations in Non. and Macrob., 
Virg. seems to imply that the day was have 'peragunt' for 'celerant,' from 6. 
spent in preparation and the voyage begun 384, and Pierius' Medicean has ' cele- 
towards night. brant :' see on 4. 641., 5. 609. CanoD. 

87.] ' Refluens ' is to be taken in its ^ves * celebrant clamore.' 

proper sense with Serv., not with Forb. 91.] From Eun. A. 14. fr. 2 : " Labitur 

in that of " residens," or with Thiel in that uncta carina, volat super impetus undas :" 

of " fluens." It IB not meant that the Macrob. Sat. 6. 1. 

stream actually flows back to its source, 92.] Therepetitionof mirantur' serves 

which would be inconsistent with ' sub- instead of a repetition of ' et :' see on E. 

stitit,' but that its onward motion was 4. 6. 'Nemus insuetum' like "ignaros 

checked so as to make it all but stationary, montis " E. 6. 40. 

which would suggest the notion of flowing 93.] The shields appear to have been 

back. hung along the after pert of the galley : 

88.] ' Placidae paludis ' is a mere repe- comp. 1. 183, " celsis in puppibus arma 

tition of ' mitis stagni :' and ' placidae ' Caici." For ' pictas carinas ' see on 5. 663. 

and ' mitis ' are a part of the same meta- Heyne put a comma after ' virum ;' but 

phor with 'leniit.' the harsh collocation of 'que' with the 

89.] " Stemitur aequor aquis " 5. 821 second word in the clause is unknown to 

note. The second ' ut ' is not co-ordinate Virg. 

with the first, but dependent on it. ' Luc- 94.1 ' Remigio noctemque diemque fati- 

tamen,' struggle, though in connexion with gant, ^ve neither day nor night any 

'abesset' it acquires the notion of cause respite: in prose, spend day and night in 

of struggle or impediment. " In lento incessant rowing. Prop. 5. II. 81, " Sat 

luctantur marmore tonsae" 7. 28. tibi sint noctes qnas de me, PauUe, fa- 

90.] ' Rumore secundo' is rightly taken tiges." Heyne comp. also 10. 807, " diem 

by Cerda to mean the cheering of the exercere." " Conplexi inter se noctemque 

crews. Comp. 10. 266, " fugiuntque diemque morantur" 5. 766. 

(grues) notos clamore secundo," 5. 338 95.] ' Superant :* see on v. 58. * Variis 

" plausuque volat fremituque secundo," teguntur arboribus,' pass under the shade 

and a fragment from an old tragedy (inc. of various trees. Wagn. finds the clause 

inc. fr. 46 Ribbeck), " Solvere imperat otiose : but we may well fancy the atten- 

secundo rumore adversaque avi." " Se- tion of the Trojans attracted by the va- 

cundo rumore," "adverse rumore" are riety of the trees. In the next clause 

phrases used to signify general approba- pictorial efi*ect pleads strongly for Serv.'s 

tion and the contrary. See the com- interpretation, referring the words to sail- 

mentators on Hor. 1 Ep. 10. 9. Heyne, ing through the reflection of the trees on 

fancying with Donatns that ' rumor ' the water, though the thought may be too 

meant the noise of the waters, connected modem for Virg. Even if we take the 

' rumore secundo ' with what follows. An clause as a mere repetition of the pre- 

absurd reading ' Rumone ' (the old name ceding, we may still suppose that Virg. 

of the Tiber) is mentioned bv Serv. with intended us to think of the reflection, by 

approbation, and has found its way into the juxtaposition of the words ' viridis ' 

some MSS. and even into Med. a m. p. : and ' placido.' The whole passage is eml- 


Arboribus, viridisque secant placido aequore silvas. 
Sol medium ea^li conscenderat igneus orbem. 
Cum muros arcemque procul a<5 rara domorum 
Teeta vident ; quae nunc Bomana potentia eaelo 
Aequavit; tum res inopes Euandrus habebat. lOO 

Oeius advertunt proras, urbique propinquant. 

Forte die soUemnem illo rex Areas honorem 
Amphitryomadae magno divisque ferebat 
Ante urbem in luco. Pallas huic filius una^ 
Una omnes iuvenum primi pauperque senatus 103 

Tura dabantj tepidusque cruor fumabat ad aras. 
Ut eelsas videre rates, atque inter opacum 

nently characteristic of Virg., both in its Homeric detail, groups of nine sacrificiug 

graceful feeling and in its abstinent bre- nine bulls each, tasting the entrails, and 

vity. He is paying a tribute, we may burning the thighs, with Yirg.'s more 

remember, to the beauty of the river of general language. 

Bome. 103.] The structure of the line is nearly 

97.] '^H/Aos 8* ii€\iot fiiffov ovpaphv &/i0(- the same as 3. 19, " Sacra Dionaeae matri 

/Sc/S^Kct 11. 8. 68 &c. "Medium sol divisque ferebam Auspicibus coeptorum 

igneus orbem Hauserat " G. 4. 426 note, operum," where see note. We may ob- 

With this and the next line comp. gene- serve that the name ' Hercules ' is un- 

rally 3. 521 foil. manageable in a Latin hexameter except 

98.] The visit to Evander is well con- in the gen. and abl., and that Virg. in 

trived to bring Aeneas to the site of Bome. consequence has to resort to a variety of 

'* Baris habitata mapalia tectis " G. 3. 340. expedients for expressing it. 

< Domorum tecta,' 12. 132. The passage is 104.] «Ante urbem in luco" 3. 302. 

imitated by Ov. F. 5. 93, ** Hie, ubi nunc Cerda shows that it was customary in 

Boma est, orbis caput, arbor et herbae £t Greece to sacrifice to Hercules without 

paucae pecudes et casa rara fuit." the walls, comp. Dem. Fals. Leg. p. 868, 

100.] ' Turn,' which serves as a con- where Aeschines is reproached for having 

junction, couples clauses not strictly paral- induced the Athenians to break the rule 

lei. See on G. 2. 208. <Bes inopes' by sacrificing within the walls when they 

following ' quae ' may also remind us of had not war as an excuse, and Plutarch 

"has . . . stridentia limina" 7. 611. foil. Qnae8t.Bom.28,who inquires why youths 

With *res inopes' contrast "maxumarerum wishing to swear by Hercules went into 

Boma " 7. 602, if the gen. there is parti- the open air. The remark, he tells us, 

tive. 'Euandrus' is the form given in was first made by Scaliger Poet. 3. 26, 

all Bibbeck's MSS. * Euander,' the form referring to the present passage. ' Una ' 

before Heins., is supported by no good with dat. like " similis," " pariter." 

MS. here or elsewhere, except in 10. 615. 105.] * Senatus' (senes) opp. to *iu- 

101.] ' Advertunt proras ' 7. 35. venum,' as Serv. remarks. ' Iuvenum 

102—125.] *Thcy find Evander sacri- primi,' 9. 785. 

ficing to Hercules. Pallas, his son, comes 106.] Serv. says that 'tura dabant' is 

to meet them, and, being informed of from a regfular sacrificial phrase, "Da, 

their errand, bids them welcome.' quod debes, de manu dextra aris :'.' but 

102.] 'Honorem ferebat' i.q. "sacra the sacrificial use of "dare "hardly requires 

ferebat:" comp. vv. 61. 76 &c. 'Sollemnem illustration. "Dabimusque divis Tura 

honorem :' comp. 2. 202. The circum- benignis " Hor. 4 Od. 2. 51. ' Tepidus 

stances are evidently borrowed from Od. cruor,' 6. 248. 

3. 4 foil., where Telemachus landing at 107.] ' Videre ' is construed in the first 

I^losfindjB Nestor with his son Peisistratus clause with ace, in the second with inf. 

and his people sacrificing to Poseidon on In English we should vary the word ; 

the shore. Peisistratus rises first to greet ' when they espied the ships and saw them 

the strangers, as Pallas flies to meet them approach ' &c. Not unlike is the coupling 

here. It is worth while comparing the of a part, with an inf., as in 7. 421, 422. 


Adlabi nemus, et tacltis incumbere remis, 

Terrentur visu subito, cunctique relictis 

Consurgunt mensis. Audax quos rumpere Pallas no 

Sacra vetat, raptoque volat telo obvius ipse, 

Et procul e tumulo : luvenes, quae caussa subegit 

Ignotas temptare vias ? quo tenditis ? inquit. 

Qui genus ? unde domo ? pacemne hue fertis, an arma ? 

Turn pater Aeneas puppi sic fatur ab alta, 115 

Paciferaeque manu ramum praetendit olivae : 

Troiugenas ac tela vides inimiea Latinis, 

Some unseagoiiable lover of old Latin to a ])roverb« "Salva res est, saltat 
might suggest that 'celsas ' has its parti- senex/ 


cipial force here, comparing k4\Ku, "celer," 111/ 

* Ipse ' in person. 

*' celox :" but the thought is of course only 112.] He had apparently climbed a 

worth mentioning as a coincidence, and mound for the purpose of observation, 

perhaps as a warning against similar spe- * luvenes ' applies to all of a military age, 

culations. To understand ' atque — et ' as all warriors. So the Anglo-Saxon knight 

'que— que' would be unlike Virg. and child and the German held mean a 

108.] * Tacitos ' is the reading of Bom., youth. 

Med., Pal., and most of Ribbeck's MSS.; 113.] 'Ignotas temptare vias' merely 

it is also found in Canon. Gud., and expresses that he perceives them to be 

another of Bibbeck's cursives, both a m. s., strangers. 

have 'tacitis,' and so Serv., whose com- 114.] ris t69€v cfs aydpuu; ic6Bi roi 
ment is "'tacitis incumbere remis* pro tSKis ^5^ roKrja; Od. 1. 170. 'Qui 
ipsi taciti, i. e. sine celeusmate." The genus ' is variously corrupted by the in- 
editors generally have supposed * tacitos ' ferior MSS. into * quod ' or * quid genus,' 
to be an interpretation, and this on the ' quo genere.' The construction is perhaps 
whole seems most probable. If it were from the Greek, e.g. Od. 15. 267, ^( 
admitted, it would simplify the construe- 'IddKrjs yivos (ifiL Comp. 5. 285, "Cressa 
tion in v. 107, as ' adlabi ' as well as ' in- genus Pholoe." ' Unde domo ' is a phrase, 
cumbere ' might be referred to the crews, as in Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 52, " quaere et refer. 
But the complexity of the sentence, ' in- unde domo, quis. Cuius fortunae." So 
cumbere' being said of the ships when Plant. Cist. 4. 2. 6, "haec cistella num- 
really it refers to the rowers, is itself quam hinc a nobis domo est," comp. by 
Virgilian. Whichever reading we adopt, Forb., from which we see that the abl. 
the silence seems to mean not what Serv. means ' in respect of domicile.' For ' do- 
supposes, but the absence of an intimation mus ' of place of extraction comp. 10. 141, 
from the Trojans who they were, which " Maeonia generose domo," ib. 183, " Qui 
would itself alarm the Arcadians : probably Caerete domo." 

too we are meant to think of the calm of 115.] ' Puppi ab alta,' 5. 12. Aeneas 

the river. Strictly of course the oars stands there, as Heyne remarks, because 

cannot have been noiseless. " Incumbere they had reached the land and as usual 

remis " 5. 15. (6. 3) turned the prow to the sea, the 

110.] ' Mensis,' the sacrificial banquet, stem to the land. 

Comp. 7. 176. 'Audax' refers to his 116.] 'Praetenditque' instead of "prae- 

readiness to meet the possible danger, tendens." 'Pacifer' is quoted from no 

'Bumpere sacra:' the interruption of a author before Virg., but is frequently 

sacrifice or religious celebration was thought found in inscriptions as an epithet of the 

ill-omened by the Bomans : comp. 3. 407* gods : see Freund. Here it reminds us of 

Serv. tells a story that the games of the * pacem fertis ' v. 114. For the olive 

Circus were once interrupted by an alarm branch see on 7. 154. 

that Hannibal was at the gates, and that 117.1 Comp. v. 55. ' Troiugenas ' 8. 

on returning to the Circus the people 359. He reassures Pallas about the im- 

found an old man who had been dancing port of the weapons, as the Sibyl reassures 

without intermission, which gave occasion Charon 6. 400. 


Quos illi bello profugos egere superbo. 
Euandram petimus. Ferte haec, et dicite lectos 
Dardaniae venisse duces, socia arma rogantis. 120 

Obstipuit tanto perculsus nomine Pallas : 
Egredere o quicumque es, ait, eoramque parentem 
Adloquere, ac nostris suceede penatibus hospes. 
Exeepitque manu, dextramque amplexus inhaesit. 
Progressi subeunt luco, fluviumque relinquunt. 125 

Turn regem Aeneas dictis adfatur amieis : 
Optume Graiugenum, cui me Fortuna precari 
Et vitta comptos voluit praet^ndere ramos, 
Non equidera extimui, Danaum quod duetor et Areas 
Quodque a stirpe fores geminis coniunctus Atridis; 130 

118.] * Qnos * refers of course to * Troiu- 124.] * Excepit ' not of physically catch- 

genasy' 'illi' to 'Latinis/ though Virg. ing by the hand, but in its transferred 

has expressed himself rather ambiguously, sense of welcoming, like " gaza excipit *' 5. 

Aeneas speaks as if the Latins had con- 40 &c. It is a translation of x^P^^^ '^* 

sommated their intention of expelling the iiaxdCorro Od. 8. 35. The reading before 

Trojans. * Superbus ' and * superbia ' are Heins. was * accepit.' * Inhaesit :* Iv t* &pa 

nsed much in the sense of 0i3pi5, for out- ol ipv x«(p^ U' 6. 406. 

rage and tyranny, as well as pride ; e. g. 125.] For ' subeunt ' with dat. see on 

Tarquinius Superbus for Tarquin the 7. 161. 'Luco/ when the sacrifice was 

tyrant. So it is used of the tyranny of going on, v. 104. 

Mezentius y. 481, of that of Metnbus 11. 1^ — 151.] 'Aeneas explains to Evander 

539. The Latins had violated both the that though they are Trojans and the 

treaty and the rights of suppliants. Arcadians Qreeks, both are sprung from a 

119.] * Ferte,' i. q. " nuntiate." " As- common stock and threatened by a com- 

canio ferat haec " 1. 645. mon enemy, and asks for an alliance.' 

120.1 Some MSS. (including one of 126.] "Dlctisque ita fatur amieis" 2. 

Hibbeck's cursives) have 'viros,' appa- 147. 

rently becatise it was thought that * lectos* 127.] * Optume Graiugenum.* Serv. 
was superfluous with * duces :' but the has a curious note : " Quantum ad Aenean 
chiefs had not all come. Possibly there pertinet, Graeci neque boni neque meliores 
may be a connexion in usage between "le- sunt. Ergo ' optume Graiugenum' soper- 
gere" and "legare," as between "dicere" lativus est pro positivo: nam optumv* 
and"dicare." Wagn. thinks that *viros' malorum non possumus dicere: super- 
may have arisen from 7. 1C8. With ' ro- lativus enim suo tantum iun^tiu* generic 
gantisy' the pres. part., comp. 1. 519.* 2. Sic ergo dixit ut Homerus (11. 11. 832) 
114. " Socia arma" 11. 161. ^iKaiSraros Ktyra^puv pro BIkouos" *Pre- 

121.] 'Nomine' sc. "Dardaniae." 'Per- can' with dat., like " supplicare," in the 

culsus' Bom., 'percussus ' Med., Pal., sense of becoming a suppliant to a person. 

Gud. See on 1. 513. Elsewhere the dat. is used of the person 

122.] ' Etgredere ' or ' etgradere ' is the for whom good or bad is imprecated, 

reading of Pal. (originally), Med., and 128.] 'Comptos,' in the sense of "co- 

Kom., which seems to point to the form matos," for " coronatos :" comp. 7. 751, 

'ecgredere,' restored by Ribbeck. With "Fronde super galeam et felici comptus 

' quicumque es ' comp. the quasi- vocative oliva," Culex 217, " Tisiphone serpentibus 

"quaecumqne" 1. 330. Pallas had not undique compta." For the thing see on 7. 

heard Aeneas' name, as Serv. and Donatus 154. 

observe, though he had been informed of 129.] 'Extimui' is constructed with 

his nation. Some MSS. mentioned by 'quod — Atridis' as its object clause. 

Pierius have * parente,' a natural error. 130.] 'A stirpe ' Pal., Bom., Gud., * ab 

123.] "Tectissuccedite nostris "1.627. stirpe' Med. It seems simply a question 

For «ac' the first reading of Med. has 'et.* of external authority, so I have followed 


Sed mea me virtus et sancta oracula divom, 

Cognatique patres, tua terris didita fama, 

Coniunxere tibi, et fatis egere volentem. 

Dardanus^ Iliacae primus pater urbis et auctor, 

Electra, ut Graii perhibent, Atlantide cretus, 135 

Advehitur Teucros; Electram maxumus Atlas 

Edidit^ aetherios humero qui sustinet orbis. 

Vobis Mercurius pater est, quem Candida Maia 

Cyllenae gelido eonceptum vertiee fudit ; 

At Maiam, auditis si quicquam credimus. Atlas, 140 

Idem Atlas generat, caeli qui sidera toUit. 

Ribbeck in reading 'a.' ' Fores ' seems to Cic. de Div. 1. 2, *'haius urbis parens 

be used on the analogy of those cases Romulus/' Forb. Ov. M. 15. 862, " geni- 

where * quod ' with the subj. gives a reason torque Quirine Urbis." 

which the speaker denies to be the true 135.] "Ut perhibent" 4. 179. The ap- 

one (Madv. § 367 b), though what is denied peal to Grecian legend comes in strangely, 

here is not the reason but the fact which as Wagn. remarks. It may be meant as 

the reason might have justified. * Geminis an arffutnentum ad hominem to Evander, 

Atridis ' 2. 5W. but it looks rather as if Virg. were 

131.] This self-praise is quite consonant speaking in his own person, 

to the heroic age, II. 4. 505, Od. 9. 19. 136.] * Advehitur Teucros,* like " urbem 

Comp. also 1. 378, 9. * Oracula,' given by adferimur " 7. 217. The mention of Atlas 

the Tiber, and by the Sibyl 6. 96. ' Sed ' after * Atlantide ' is accounted for by 

is put as though "Atridis quidem con- Aeneas' natural wish to be explicit on a 

iunctus es" or something similar had pre- point which is the turning-point of his 

ceded. Virg. was thinking of Lucr. 1. genealogical statement : but we may still 

140, " Sed tua me virtus tamen et sperata wonder why Virg. should not have chosen 

voluptas" &c. some other epithet in v. 135. *' Maxumus 

132.1 The asyndeton in <tua terris didita Atlas " 1. 741. 

fama ' is rather harsh, so that we need 137.] ' Aetherios orbis ' of the heavenly 

not wonder that it should have been pro- bodies, like " astris aetheriis" 5. 514 &c. 

posed to transpose the latter halves of this 138.] * Candida,' fair, as in 5. 571 of 

and the preceding line, "Sed mea me virtus. Dido, not, as Serv. thinks, of Maia's 

tua terris didita fama, Cognatique patres brightness as a star, 

et sancta oracula divom," though the 139.] 'Conceptum fudit' seems i. q. 

change could not be allowed in a text so " concepit et fudit," both conception and 

well supported as Virg.'s. ' Didita ' 7. 144. birth being supposed to have taken place 

133.] The Homeric kKd»v atKovri yt on Mount Cyllene. It is not clear why 

6vfA^ is compared by Heyne : but there is Virg. has added ' gelido,' which to modem 

probably no such contrast between con- notions seems incongruous. 'Fudit' of 

sent and reluctance here. * Volentem ' is production G. 1. 13. Whether it was 

the emphatic word, and the sense is, * and commonly used of human births does not 

I have willingly obeyed the call of fate.' appear. In Cic. Pis. ad init., " Quae te 

The expression however is somewhat per- belluam ex utero non hominem flidit," it 

plexed, inasmuch as ' sancta oracula di- has something of contempt, as is remarked 

vom ' alone accords with ' fatis egere,' by Serv., who thinks the word is chosen 

while the rest gives the reason of 'vo- here to express easy parturition. Pal. 

lentera.' * Coniunxere ' is doubtless used originally had < fundi t,' which would ag^e 

to suggest the notion of rival claims to with 'generat.' 

those expressed by 'coniuuctus' v. 130. 140.] Rom. has 'cuiquam:' see on G. 

The fates are here made the instruments, 4. 447. Pal. and the first reading of Gud. 

as in 7. 239 the agents, agreeably to have 'creditis,' which may either be an 

Virg.'s habit of treating them sometimes accommodation to * vobis,' or a mere error 

as persons, sometimes as things. arising from ' auditis.' 

134.] 'Pater urbis:' Gossrau comp. 141.] Of the two presents 'generat' is 


Sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab uno. 

His fretus non legates neque prima per artem 

Temptamenta tui pepigi ; me, me ipse meumque 

Obieci caput et supplex ad limina veni. 145 

Gens eadem, quae te, crudeli Daunia bello 

Insequitur ; nos si pellant, nihil afore credunt 

Quin omnem Hesperiam penitus sua sub iuga mittant, 

Et mare, quod supra, teneant, quodque adluit infra. 

Accipe daque fidem. Sunt nobis fortia bello 150 

Pectora, sunt animi et rebus spectata inventus. 

Dixerat Aeneas. Ille os oculosque loquentis 

lamdudum et totum lustrabat lumine corpus. 

Turn sic pauca refert : Ut te, fortissime Teucrum, 

to be explained as a peculiar usage of 147.] * Afore :' see on 7. 498. The 

words connected with birth (see on E. 8. MSS. here present great variety, * afore ' 

45), * tollit * as virtually i. q. " subhita being found in no uncial but Pal , and 

gerit," which is nearly its force in 2. 635, there corrected into *adfoi*e,* while Med. 

" quein tollere in altos Optabam montis." has * atfore ' or * adfore,* Bom. * fore.* 

142.] The emphatic words are * san- This may perhaps wai*n us against trust- 

guine ab uno.' The two lines part, flow- ing even the best MSS. implicitly in 

ing from one fountain-head. ' Scindi ' is matters of orthography. Serv. seems to 

used of rivers, Ov. M. 16. 739, ** Scinditur have read * obfore.' Like his opponents 

in geminas partis circumfluus amnis." (vv. 13, 17), Aeneas seems to think it part 

143.] It is better to take 'legates — of diplomatic policy to exaggerate facts 

temptamenta— pepigi ' with Gossrau as a and attribute motives, 
zeugma, than to adopt the harsh expedient 148.] " Sub leges mitteret orbem " 4. 

of taking 'per' both with 'legates' and 231. 
« artem.' " Foedus," " pacem pangere " 149.1 G. 2. 158. 

is a common phrase ; and so 'pnngere' is 150.] From £nn. A. 1. fr. 30, quoted 

applied to the approaches or overtures by Macrob. Sat. 6. 1, " Accipe daque fi- 

('temptamenta') which were to lead to a dem, foedusque feri benefirmum." ''For- 

treaty ; so that * pepigi ' is not simply put tissima pectora " 2. 348, "fortissimo bello " 

for ** feci," but implies more formality. 10. 185, where as here * bello * seems to 

" Per artem " adverbial G. 1. 122. With be abl., in war. 

the general sense comp. Cic. Ph. 6. 1, 151.] It is perhaps most in accordance 

" quantum senatus auctoritas vesterque with the usage of Virg. to take ' rebus ' 

consensus apud Antonium valiturus esset generally, i. q. " fortuna," so as to include 

per legates experiremur." all the experience which the Trojans had 

144.1 ' Me ipse obieci,' i. q. " ego me undergone, as a school of both active and 

ipsum "obieci :" Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 4. 8, passive virtue. Comp. 1. 178, " fessi 

*' Non ita abundo ingenio, ut to consoler, rerum." But Serv. and the commentators 

cum ipse me nnn possim," the regular generally may be right in supposing the 

Latin usage, as Hofiinann, referred to by antithesis to be between words and deeds. 

Wagn., has explained. For this pleonasm Forb. comp. Ov. M. 14. 385, " Laesaque 

"me meumque caput" comp. Soph. O. C. quid faciat, quid amans, quid femiua, 

750, ael ire KriMovtra Koi rh <rhv Kdpa. disces Rebus, ait." 

' 145.] 2</>a5 7&f> vapOffxfyoi K€<pa\d5 152 — 174.] * Evander accepts the al- 

Od. 2. 237. "Caput obiectare periclis" 2. liance joyfully, remembers an early friend- 

751. ship with Anchises, and bids Aeneas and 
146.] This line is in favour of the sup- the Trojans take part in the sacrifice.' 

position that in v. 55 ' Latina ' is used 1^3.] " Lustrabat lumine " 2. 754. 

loosely for Rutulian. Probably we are 154.J The first ' ut ' goes with 'libens,' 

meant throughout more or less to identify the second with ' recorder.' With the 

the two nations. < Crudeli bello ' 11. 535» latter comp. 2. 283. 



Accipio adgnoscoque libens ! ut verba parentis 15^ 

Et vocem Anehisae magni voltumque recorder I 
Nam memini Hesionae visentem regna sororis 
Laomedontiaden Priamum^ Salamina petentem^ 
Protinus Arcadiae gelidos invisere finis. 
Turn mihi prima genas vestibat flore iuventas ; 160 

Mirabarque duces Teucros, mirabar et ipsum 
Laomedontiaden ; sed cunctis altior ibat 
Anchises. Mihi mens iuvenali ardebat amore 
Compellare virum, et dextrae coniungere dextram ; 
Accessi, et cupidus Phenei sub moenia duxi. 166 

lUe mihi insignem pharetram Lyciasque sagittas 
Discedens chlamjdemque auro dedit intertexto^ 

155.] ** Aocipio adgnoscoque deos ** 12. for * inyenili/ tbe old reading, supported by 

260. Here * adg^osco ' seems best ex> Gnd. a m.s. Comp. 2. 51 8., 5. 475. ' Amore ' 

plained by wbat follows, though it might as in 2. 10., 3. 298., 7. 57 &c., of eagerness, 

be taken in its transferred sense of sa- like Ipws. It matters little whether we 

luting. make the infinitives in the next line depen- 

156.] Virg. perhaps had in his mind dent on it or on ' ardebat.' 

Od. 4. 140 foil., where Telemachus is re« 164.] "Compellare virum" 2. 280., 

cognized by his likeness to his father. 3. 299. ** Dextrae iungere dextram " 1. 

157.] Virg., as Heyne remarks, has imi- 408. 

tated the reminiscences of the Homeric 165.] Ot ^4yf6y r* iytfiavro Koi 'Opxo* 

heroes, e. g. II. 3. 205 foil., where Antenor fAcvhv iro\6firi\oy II. 2. 605, of the Area* 

recollects having entertained Menelaus and dian contingent. As usual, the spelling 

Ulysses. Dido's recollection 1. 619 foil, is is greatly cenfused in the MSS., though, 

of the same kind. Anchises was connected when we find Med. giving * Phaenei,' we 

with Arcadia in legend, his tomb being should remember that the short ' e ' was 

shown at Mount Anchisia near Orcho- written ' ae ' as early as the first century 

menos, Pausanias 8. 12. Hesione was a.d. See Mr. Munro "On a Metrical 

mcirried to Telamon. 'Hesionae,' which Latin Inscription," p.26, in the Cambridge 

is virtually the reading of Pal., Rom., and Philosophical Transactions vol. 10, Part 2. 

Med., was restored by Heins. for ' Hesiones.' Serv. makes a difficulty about Pheneus, 

' Visentem ' on his way to see. Forb. which he supposes to be put by poetical 

comp. CatuU. 11. 9. foil., ** Sive trans altas licence (!) for Pallanteum : but Virg. need 

gradietur Alpes Caesaris visens monu< not have meant to confine Evander's sove- 

menta mngni." reignty to the latter city. Dionys. H. 1. 

159.] ' Protinus invisere,' came on to 34 (cited by Gossrau^ speaks of some of 

visit. * Gelidos :' comp. v. 139. the natives of Pheneus as forming part of 

160.] * Vestibat ' like " lenibant " 4. 528 the colony left by Heracles on the Capito- 

&c, * Iuventas ' is restored by Ribbeck line hill. 

from Med., Pal., Rom., and Gud. for ' iu- 166.] According to the heroic custom 

venta.' Virg. doubtless imitated Lucr. 5. of interchanging presents (rd ^4yia) so 

888, comp. by Cerda» " Tum demum puerili common in Hom., II. 6. 219 foil. &c. Both 

aevo florente iuventas OccifHt et molli bow and quiver are of course intended 

vestit lanugine malas," as well as Od. 11. to be Lycian. "Lyciam pharetram" 7. 

319, irpty cr^uiiy itrh Hpord^poto'ty loiXovs 816. 

*Aj^6n(rcu, TVKda'ai r« y4yvs thayOu Xd^i^y 167.] It is difficult to decide between 

which Germ, quotes. ' intertextnm ' Pal. (corrected), Med., and 

162.] Comp II. 3. 210 foil., where * intertexto ' Pal. (originally), Rom. Both 

Menelaus is taller standing, Ulysses sit- are mentioned by Serv, Perhaps the latter 

ting. is more likely to have been altered. For 

163.] ' Iuvenali ' was restored by Heins. the thing comp. 3. 483. 


Prenaque bina, meus quae nunc habet^ aurea^ Pallas. 
Ergo et^ quam petitis^ iuncta est mihi foedere dextra^ 
Et, lux cum primum terris se crastina reddet^ i7o 

Auxilio laetos dimittam^ opibusque iuvabo. 
Interea sacra haec^ quando hue venistis amici^ 
Annua^ quae differre nefas^ celebrate faventes 
Nobiscum^ et iam nunc sociorum adsuescite mensis. 

Haec ubi dicta^ dapes iubet et sublata reponi 175 

Pocula, gramineoque viros locat ipse sedili^ 
Praecipuumque toro et villosi pelle leonis 
Accipit Aenean, solioque invitat acerno. 
Turn lecti iuvenes certatim araeque sacerdos 

^ 168.] Gossrau states, bnt without citing more delay. " Votis iam nanc adsnesce 

his authority, that Anchises was honoured vocari " G. 1. 42. 
in Arcadia and elsewhere as the patron of 175—183.] * They sit down and eat.' 
horses. If ^ this is so, Virg. may have 175.] * Reponi ' does not refer to the 

alluded to it here, as perhaps in 3. 470, ** mensae secundae,*' but merely denotes a 

537. The separation of 'aurea' from renewal of the banquet after an interrup- 

« frena ' can hardly be ascribed to any other tion. See on G. 3. 527. 
cause than poetical variety and metrical 176, 177.] Macrob. Sat. 8. 6 notes the 

convenience, though there may be some propriety of the word • sedili,' as in sacri- 

force in the epithet in its present position ficial fea«ts to Hercules the worshippers 

as showing the store which Pallas set by did not recline but sit, and cites Cornelius 

the gift.^ Gossrau is wrong in saying that Balbus' 'E^rryririKd Book 18, to show that 

* frena bina aurea * would have been " non a lectistemium was not allowed at the 

satis Latinum :** but it is true nevertheless Ara Maxuma. This will Bgree with 

that the Augustan poets seem generally to * solio acerno * v. 178. * Toro et villosi 

avoid^ connecting an epithet with a sub- pelle leonis * will then probably be a 

stantive that has any other adjunct. See hendiadys, ' torus * being used improperly 

on G. 2. 147. for what is spread on the ' solium.' In 

169.] The ' dextra' is that of Evander, 5. 388, Virg. speaks of " toro conscderat," 

' mihi ' being dat. of agent with ' iuncta/ as if he did not distinguish the two pos- 

The perf. is used because Evander wishes tures. * Toro accipit ' like " solio accipit '* 

to say that their request of alliance is 7. 210 note. * Praecipuum,' as the most 

already granted, not, as Serv. thinks, with honoured guest. Cerda comp. Tac. H. 3. 

reference to the formation of the fViend- 38, " apud Caecinam Tuseum epulari mul- 

ship between Evander and Anchises. It tos, praecipuum honore lunium Blaesum 

is Evander's answer to the words " Accipe nuntiatur." 

daque fidem." 'Foedere' modal, like 178.] * Solio acerno' is prob. abl. : re- 

" hospitio " 3. 83. ceives or entertains him with or on a seat 

170.] ' Reddet se' = "redibit." Preund of maple. Freund cites Cic. Verr. 2 Act. 

quotes Livy 23. 9, " se ipse convivio red- 4. 11, " Ecquis est qui senatorem tecto ac 

didit." domo non invitet ?" Plant. Rud. 2. 3. 

171.] Repeated from 1 . 671, with the 32, ** Neptunus magnis poculis hac nocte 

change of 'laetos' for 'tutos.' Some eum invitavit," Sail. fr. Hist. Book 4 

MSS., as might be expected, repeat (quoted by Non. p. 321), "Cum se ibl 

'tutos' also. cibo vinoque laeti invitarent." The ori- 

172.] rov (tlofftiidwros) yh.p ical tuirris ginal sense of the word seems to be 

^m4\frar€ htvpo fio\6vr€i ()d. 3. 44. to entertain, the transferred one to in* 

Evander says, as you have come here as vite. 

friends, so far from disturbing our cele- 179.] Serv. notes the appropriateness of 

bration, yon can share it. ' Iccti,' as an attempt by Appius Claudius 

173.] 'Celebrate faventes:' comp. 1. to employ slaves in the service of the 

736, and see on 6. 71. Ara Maxuma was once terribly visited. 

174.] ' Iam nunc,' at once, without See on vv. 269, 270. 

H Z 


Viscera tosta ferunt taarorum, onerantque canistris 180 
Dona laboratae Cereris^ Bacchumque ministrant. 
Vescitur Aeneas simul et Troiana inventus 
Perpetui tergo bovis et lustralibus extis. 

Postquam exempta fames et amor compressus edendi^ 
Bex Euandrus ait : Non haec soUemnia nobis^ 185 

Has ex more dapes^ banc tanti numinis aram 
Vana snperstitio veterumque ignara deorum 
Inposuit : saevis, bospes Troiane, perielis 
Servati faeimus meritosque novamns honores. 
lam primum saxis suspensam bane aspice rupem^ 190 

180.] 'Viscera:* see on 1. 211. For 186.] 'Dapes/ the sacrificial feast, vv. 
'onerant canistris' comp. "cadis onera- 179 foil. '£x more 'is, in effect, an ad- 
rat" 1. 195. verb for an adjective. * Tanti numinis,' 

181.] * Laboratae Cereris * seems to attrib. gen., favoured with so great a pre- 

mean ground corn, though Tac. Germ. 45 sence, so holy : comp. 1. 447, " templum . . . 

Las " frumenta laborare " in the sense of donis opulentum et numine divae." Cerda 

cultivating. rather plausibly, but unnecessarily, conj. 

183.] * Perpetui tergo bovis * is the " tanti norainis," i. e. " maxuma." 

Homeric vSna ^i-qvfK%y II. 7. 321, Od. 14. 187.] * Vana snperstitio,' a vague empty 

437, where Ajax and Ulysses receive the feeling, which, having no root in old be- 

whole chine as a portion of honour. Heyne. lief, catches blindly at new. Virg. is 

For * perpetuus,' undivided and hence speaking not simply in the spirit of the 

whole, comp. 7. 176. ' Lustralibus ' can old Roman belief, but in that of his own 

scarcely mean more than sacrificial, as time, which repelled e. g. Oriental gods : 

there seems no notion of . purification comp. v. 698 below. ' Veternmve,' the 

here. The idea is probably taken from reading before Heins., is found in one of 

the ffTXdyxv^ trdtrapro of the Homeric Ribbeck's cursives. 'Ignara' probably 

sacrifices ; but there it appears to be a i. q. " oblita," as we say to ignore, 

ceremony of itself, quite separate from 188.] ' Inposuit ' has the notion of an 

the sacrificial banquet. institution, and also of a burden. Evander 

184 — 279.] ' Evander explains that the says, it is a sense of deliverance from a 

sacrifice commemorates their deliverance tangible danger, not a mere imaginary 

from the robber Cacus, the scourge of the feeling. We may almost fancy that Virg. 

neighbourhood, who, happening to extend is defending religion against Lucretius : 

his depredations to Hercules' oxen, was at any rate we may comp. the latter's as- 

killed by him. They make libations to sertion of Epicurus' claims to deification 

the hero accordingly.' at the beginning of Book 5, and in parti- 

184.] ' Amor edendi ' is fyov idrfrvos cular his depreciation of Hercules, 

in the Homeric ainiip ind ie6aios koX 189.] * Novamus ' is referred by Heyne 

iZnT^tos i^ ipov €vro. Virg. may have to the annual repetition. Wagn. rightly 

meant to distinguish hanger from pleasure explains it of the character of the rite, as 

in eating, but a tautology is quite in his newly introduced ; as * meritos ' and the 

manner. He was thinking also of Lucr. context show. Comp. 4. 260, " Aenean 

4. 869, " amorem obturet edendi," spoken fundantem arces ac tecta novantem." 

of the efi^ect of food in satisfying hunger. ' Faeimus ' has its sacrificed sense, as in 

** Postquam exempta fames " 1. 216. E. 3. 77. It is perhaps better taken abso- 

185.] Livy, 1. 7, says that this worship lutely than constructed with * honores.' 
of Hercules at the Ara Maxuma was the 190.] * lam primum :' he begins his 
only foreign worship adopted by Romulus ; story by calling attention to the spot which 
and this apology of Evander points to the attests it. ' Saxis suspensam rapem :' 
same feeling, the jealous dislike of strange what is shown is the remains of a cavern, 
gods. Livy's apology is that Romulus so that 'suspensam' must mean over- 
felt a prophetic sympathy for deified hanging, 'saxis' being either a modal 
virtue. or material abl. See note on G. 4. 874, 


Disiectae procul ut moles, desertaque mentis 

Stat domus, et scopuli ingentem traxere ruinam. 

Hie spejunca fuit, vasto submota recessu, 

Semihominis Caci facies quam dira tenebat, 

Solis inaceessam radiis; semperque reeenti 195 

Caede tepebat humus, foribusque adfixa superbis 

Ora virum tristi pendebant pallida tabo. 

Huie monstro Voleanus erat pater : illius atros 

Ore vomens ignis magna se mole ferebat. 

Attulit et nobis aliquando optantibus aetas 200 

"pendentia pumice tecta/' and comp. 1. have 'tegebat/ a reading of which it is 

166, " scopulis pendentibus antrum." difficult to see the propriety, though it 

191, 192.] It may be doubted whether may have been connected M'ith the mis- 
' at ' here means ' where ' or ' how/ There understanding of the passage. ' Semi- 
is no clear instance of the former in Virg. hominis ' i. q. " semiferi " v. 267. Lucr. 
(see on 5. 329) : the latter would more 2. 702 has " semiferas hominum species," 
naturally take the subj., as 'aspice' here which Virg. may have thought of. 
is more than a rhetorical pleonasm (see on 196.] For ' foribus superbis ' Forb. 
E. 4. 52). If we choose the ibrmer, we may quotes 2. 504, " Barbarico postes auro 
say that there is also a notion of the cave spoliisque superb!," and v. 721 below, 
appearing just as Hercules left it, 'ut' as "Dona recognoscit populorum aptatque 
in V. 236 below. " Hie ubi disiectas moles superbis Postibus." ' Superbis ' is thus an 
avolsaque saxis Saxa vides " 2. 608. Rom. epithet both of the gate and of its owner : 
has 'deiectae.' 'Deserta:' the remains of the 'fixed by him in triumph to his gate.' 
cave suggest the notion of a ruined house Heyne takes ' superbis ' as cruel. Comp. 
without inhabitants. ' Domus ' for a cavern : Manil. 4. 180, where the following lines af- 
comp. Hor. 1 Od. 7. 12, " domus Albuneae ford a grotesque illustration of this whole 
resonantis." ' Traxere ruinam ' 2. 631. passage, hunters who hang up skins and 

193.] 'Submota' i. e. from the light or butchers who hang up meat being classed 

from sight. We might have expected together as born under the sign of the Lion. 

' semota,' but no MS. appears to give it, and 197. ] Med. a m. p. (according to Heins., 

the word is not found elsewhere in Virg. though not according to the edition of 

194.] This story of Cacus and the origin Foggini) has ' squallida,' which was also 

of the Ara Maxuma is given substantially conjectured by Bentley on Lucan 2. 165. 

in the same form by Dionys. 1. 39, Livy Wagn. contends that the orthography in 

1.7, Prop.4. 9, Ov.F. 1.543 foil., the last of itself is fatal to the reading, as Virg., 

whom has clearly copied Virg. There were according to Med. itself, always writes 

two temples of Hercules at Rome, one of " squaleo," " squalor." We may connect 

Hercules Victor orTriumphalis intheForum * ora tristi tabo ' as in 3. 618, " domus 

Boarium,botween the Circus Maxumus and sanie dapibusque cruentis," but 'pallida' 

the river, before which was theAraMaxuma, apparently is meant to help -the construe- 

and the other near the Porta Trigemina. tion by its juxtaposition, though it has 

See Diet. Biograph. Hercules, at the end. no real connexion with the ablatives. 

Dionys. (I.e.) mentions a temple of Jupiter 198.] 'Atros' seems to combine the 

Inventor near the Porta Trigemina, which notions of mixed with smoke, and hor- 

he says was founded by Hercules. It is rible, deadly. Comp. 10. 77, " face Troia- 

impossible not to see that the position of nos atravimferreLatiuis,"4. 384,"sequar 

the Ara Maxuma in the Forum Boarium atris ignibus absens." 

must have helped to suggest the story. 199.] Comp. 5. 372, 373 note, which will 

The old pointing was after ' Caci :' Heyne, show that here * illius ' is emphatic : it 

following the Delphin editor and others, was as Vulcan's son that he carried his 

placed it after ' tenebat,' connecting * Caci giant bulk proudly. ** Vasta se mole mo- 

facies,' like "Tyndaridis facies" 2. 601, ventem" 3. 656. 

though the periphrasis is there meant to 200.] • Et nobis :' we too have our 

indicate beauty, here the reverse. Pal., story of divine deliverance to tell, as well 

Rom., Gad., and the first reading of Med. as others. But possibly it may be, as he 


Auxilium adventumque del. Nam maxumus ultor^ 

Tergemiui nece Geryonae spoliisque superbus, 

Alcides aderat, taurosque hac victor agebat 

Ingentisj vallemque boves amnemque tenebant. 

At furiis Caci mens effera^ ne quid inausum 205 

Aut intractatum scelerisve dolive fuisset, 

Quattuor a stabulis praestanti corpore tauros 

Avertit, totidem forma superante iuvencas. 

Atque bos, ne qua forent pedibus vestigia rectis, 

Cauda in speluneam tractos versisque viarum 210 

Indieiis raptos saxo oceultabat opaeo. 

was aided by Vulcan, we were helped by fuisset * for " ne quid intractatum esset." 

Hercules. * Optantibus/ praying for it : * Sceleris ' relates to the robbery of the 

comp. 9. 6, " quod optanti divom promit- oxen, * doU ' to the mode of concealing 

tere nemo Auderet, volvenda dies, en, them. The point of the sentence is that 

attulit ultro." * Aliquando ' may either the madness of crime led him to complete 

mean ' in our time/ like ' et nobis,' or it his guilt by robbing Hercules, 

may have nearly the force of " tandem," 207.] This and the next line are rc- 

as in Cic. ad Quint. 13. 43, " Sero, verum peated more or less from G. 4. 550, 551. 

aliquando tamen." For this latter sense Mr. ' Stabulis' here and v. 213 (see note there) 

Long refers to Cic. De Sen. 26, Sail. C. 52. seems to be used, as Heyne remarks, in a 

201.] 'Attulit auxilium adventumque wide sense, i. q. " pascuis," the cattle being 

dei,' a Yirgilian expression for "attulit supposed to pass the night where they 

auxilium del adventu.'' were grazing. In Ov. 1. c. this theft 

202.] 'Geryonae' was restored by Heins. seems to have been committed in the 

for ' Gkryonis,' which is found in inferior night, as Hercules discovered it on waking, 

copies, such as MS. Ball., and is the second 208.] ' Avertit,* carries off, 10. 78 : 

reading of Med. Kom. has • Geryoui.' comp. 1. 528. So Catull. 62 (64). 5, " Au- 

"Tripectora tergemini vis Geryonai" ratam optantes Colchis avertere pellem." 

Lucr. 5. 28. See on 6. 287 above. Geryon ' Superante :' this use of " superans " as 

has already been mentioned 6. 289., 7. 662. i. q. " praestuns " seems rare. The word is 

204.] .The Forum Boarium, in which found in Lucr. 5. 394 as an adj. in a 

the Ara Maxuma stood, is on the level slightly different sense, "Cum semel in- 

ground close to the Tiber. terea fuerit superantior ignis." 

205.] Serv. and many MSS., including 209.] This device is taken from Horn. 

Gud. a m. s. and another of Bibbeck's Hymn to Hermes, 75 foil., where Hermes 

cursives, have ' furls,' an epithet which as steals the oxen of the Gods. * Pedibus 

Heyne says, would scarcely be epic. Bom., rectis ' may be dat., as Serv. thinks, 

"Med., and Pal. concur in ' furiis,' which but it is perhaps better taken as abl., of 

means the madness that impels to crime, circumstance or attribute, the feet being 

&Tri : comp. 1. 41, " furias Aiacis Oilei." regarded as an attribute of the footsteps 

' Mens ' is a Homeric periphrasis, so that instead of vice versa. ' Bectis,' straight 

we need not wonder that Virg. should lose forward, 

sight of it before the end of the sentence. 210.] ' Viarum indieiis ' is a periphrasis 

206.] Med. (second reading) with some for '* vestigiis." Horn. 1. c. has txyt* &iro- 

other MSS. and the editions before Heins. ffrpty^at. 

have * intemptatum.' Bom., Pal., and Med. 211.] Peerlkamp is probably right in se- 

(first reading) concur in * intractatum.' parating * raptos ' from * versis viarum 

It seems equally vain to attempt to decide indieiis,' so as to make < raptos oceultabat ' 

between them on internal grounds and to i. q. " rapiebat et oceultabat." Bibbeck 

distinguish either from • inausum.* * Fu- adopts Wakef.'s plausible conj. ' raptor.' 

isset ' is to " fuerit" as " esset" is to " sit ;" There is force in the imperf. * oceultabat,* 

dnd as we might have " ne quid intracta- which fixes our attention on the act while 

tum frierit " for *' ne quid intractatum going on, and so makes us enter into Cacus' 

0t," so we have ' ne quid intractatum feelings, thus pointing the irony. 


Quaerenti nulla ad speluncam si^a ferebant. 

Interea^ cum iam stabulis saturata moveret 

Amphitrjoniades armenta abitumque pararet^ 

Discessu mugire boves, atque omne querelis 215 

Inpleri nemus; et coUes clamore relinqui. 

Reddidit una bourn vocem vastoque sub antro 

Mugiit et Caei spem custodita fefellit. 

Hie vero Alcidae furiis exarserat atro 

Felle dolor ; rapit arma manu nodisque gravatum 230 

Robur, et aerii cursu petit ardua montis. 

Turn primum nostri Cacum videre timentem 

Turbatumque oeulis j fugit ilicet ocior Euro 

212.] * Quaerenti ' (Med., Pal., Gud. a 218.] Rom. reads ' mngit ' and in v. 

m. p.) was restored by Heins. The old 227 ' emunit,' a fact which may tend to 

reading was " qnaerentem." Rom., Gad. a lessen its authority in such passages as 5. 

m. 8. and two other of Ribbeck's cursives, 27-1. See Excursus on G. 2. 81 (2nd 

have * quaerentis ' or * quaerentea.' 'Fere- edition). * Spem custodita fefellit '= 

bant ' is used elliptically, as in 6. 295 &c., " spem custodientis fefellit." Comp. 6. 

and ' quaerenti ' is added as a sort of dat. 538. 

eth. like " intranti," " descendenti.'' See 219.] Dorville wished to read * exarsit 

Madv. § 241 obs. 6. et ' for * exarserat :' but the two ablatives 

213.] The meaning apparently is that are constructed in different ways, as in 

Hercules was shifting the quarters of his G. 3. 439 &c., though it is not easy to 

cattle and leaving that part of the country, choose among possible constructions. Per- 

as they had eaten down the pasturage, haps ' atro felle ' is best taken as attribu- 

' stabulis moveret' being constructed like tive, ' furiis' being causal or modal. Comp. 

" portis moveri '* 7. 429. Virg. probably II. 1. 103 fidytos Bh iiiya ^pivts &/i^i/i^- 

thought of "stabulamovcre," constructing Xoi^ai Uii»,ic\avr\ * Exarserat' in past 

the phrase on the analogy of " castra mo- time answers to the instantaneous perf. in 

vere." This accords with the use of ' sta- present : comp. 2. 257. 

bulis ' V. 208. Otherwise it would be 220.] * Arma roburque ' may be %v tik 

possible to make ' stabulis ' dat., regarding Jivotv : Hercules however had a bow and 

'moveret' as i. q. "admoveret," and sup- arrows as well as a club. * Nodis grava- 

posing the sense to be that Cacus com- turn :' the knots are supposed to mid^e the 

mitted the theft during the day, and that club heavy. Comp. 7. 507. 

Hercules discovered it as he was driving 221.] ' Aetherii ' was introduced by 

the cattle home to their stalls at night. Burm. and retained by Heyne : but in the 

Comp. E. 7. 44, and the description G. 3. principal MSS. where it occurs (Med. a 

322 foil. m. p., Gud., and another of Ribbeck's 

215.] 'Discessu' like "abscessu" 10. cursives) 'et' is omitted, which shows 

445. ' Querelis ' G. 1. 378 note. Virg. the origin of the corruption. Wagn. also 

thonght of Lucr. 2. 358 " conpletque observes that Olympus alone is called 

querelis Frondiferum nemus," quoted by "aetherius," other mountains 'aerii.' 

Germ. Here, as Serv. remarks, if there is Either epithet is an exaggeration as ap- 

any notion of complaint, it is for leaving plied te the Aventine. * Cursu petit ' 2. 

their pasture, not for the loss of their 399 &c. 

mates. 223.] ' Turbatus ' is applied to different 

216.] 'Relinqui ' sc. "a bubus." 'Cla- emotions, and here te fear. For its com- 

more'for"cum clamore "1. 519, "tem- bination with 'oeulis' comp. Eur. Iph. 

plum clamore petebant " qnoted by Serv. A. 1127, tr^x^^^^ txom^s koI rapayfihu 

There would have been no difficulty if ifitidruv, where grief seems to be meant, 

Virg. had written " inplere — relinquere :" and for the eyes, as affected by fear. Soph, 

but for the sake of variety he has chosen Aj. 139, fAcycw ukvov tx" ^°^ Tt(p6^fAat 

to throw the expression into the pas- IItijk^j &s HfJ^a irtKtlas, and perhaps 

give. Aesch. Pers. 168, i^4>l 8* i^0a\fioh <p6$os. 


Spelancamque petit ; pedibus timor addidit alas. 

Ut sese inclusit, ruptisque inmane catenis 225 

Deiecit saxum^ ferro quod et arte patema 

Pendebat, fultosque emuniit obiiee postis, 

Ecce furens animis aderat Tirynthius, omnemque 

Accessum lustrans hue ora ferebat et illuc, 

Dentibus infrendens. Ter totum fervidus ira 230 

Lustrat Aventini montem ; ter saxea temptat 

Limina nequiquam ; ter fessus valle resedit. 

Stabat acuta silex^ praecisis undique saxis 

Speluncae dorso insurgens, altissima visu, 

Dirarum nidis domus opportuna volucrum. 233 

HanCj ut prona iugo laevum ineumbebat ad amnenij 

Dexter in adversum nitens coneussit, et imis 

Avolsam solvit radicibus ; inde repente 

It would be possible to construct ' oculis ' should be taken into account in estimating^ 

with * videre :' but the abl. would be weak, the probabilities of the reading in such 

Serv. mentions another reading * oculi/ passages as 4. 54. " Fervidus ira '* 9. 736. 

which is found in a few inferior MSS. and 231.] ' Aventini mons ' like " fons Ti- 

adopted by Gossrau : but Evander does mavl " 1. 244 &c. ' Saxea limina ' is the 

not elsewhere speak of himself as present ' saxum ' mentioned v. 226. 

at the scene. Gud. a m. p. has 'oculos/ 232.] *' Lassa resedit'' 2. 739. The 

which is approved by Heins. and Heyne. compound seems to express sitting down 

" Ooior Euro," 12. 733, Hor. 2 Od. 16. 24. after doing any thing, as here after exer- 

224.] * Pedibus — alas.' It does not ap- tion. 

pear what is the original source of this 233.] ' Saxis,' the sides of the ' silex ;' 

metaphor, which has since become so * praecisis ' abrupt, perpendicular, so that 

common. The image of wings in Greek it formed a peak, rising out of the hill 

is used rather to express raising from the above the roof of the cavern, 

ground than carrying along (comp. II. 19. 234.] 'Dorso insurgens' like "insurgere 

386, of Achilles, where perhaps the two canipis"9. 34. 'Altissima visu,' thf/i^XoTari; 

notions are combined) ; and so where IStiv, 

iLvairrtp6u is said of fear (Eur. Supp. 89) 236.] 'Dirarum volucrum' 3. 262. "Pe- 
lt expresses fluttering, not speed. cori opportuna " G. 4. 129. " Domos 

226.] • Ferro et arte patema pendebat ' avium " G. 2. 209. 

according to Virg.'s manner for "ferro 236.] The rock inclined to the river, 

per artem patemam pendebat" or "sus- which was on its left: Hercules pushed it 

pensum erat," ' ferro ' being explained by from the other side (' dexter '), and made 

< catenis' above. it fall into the river. ' Iugo' with 'prona.' 

227.] 'Postis' seems here used in its 'Ut' like "ut forte," as it happened to 

strict sense : the doorposts are pressed on incline. 

by the portcullis of rock, which completely 237.] 'In adversum nitens' like "in 

fills the doorway. For ' fultiis ' expressing medium niti" Lucr. 1. 1053. 'Adver- 

mere pressure see on E. 6. 53. sum ' might mean the side opposite to 

228.] " Furens animi " 5. 202. 'Animis' that which inclined towards the river, i. e. 

however is not i. q. "animi," but means the right side; but it seems better to 

* with wrath.' ' Tirynthius ' of Hercules 7. understand with reference to Hercules, 

662. wbo pushes flill against it. 

229.] Comp. generally 6. 441, 442. 'Ora 238.] 'Avolsam solvit' for "avellit et 

ferre ' like " oculos ferre " v. 310 below, solvit," or " aveliendo solvit," ' radicibus ' 

2. 570. going with both. ' Inde,' as Serv. says, 

230.] " Dentibus infrendens" 3. 664. may refer either to place or time : perhaps 

Bom. has ' frendens,' an aberration which the latter is better. 


Inpulit ; inpuku quo maxumus intonat aether, 

Dissultant ripae refluitque exterritus amnis. 240 

At specus et Caci deteeta adparuit ingens 

Regia, et umbrosae penitus patuere eavemae : 

Non seeus, ac si qua penitus vi terra dehiscens 

Infernas reseret sedes et regna recludat 

Pallida, dis invisa, superque inmane barathrum 245 

Cernatur, trepidentque inmisso lumine Manes. 

Ergo insperata deprensum luce repente 

Inelusumque cavo saxo atque insueta rudentem 

Desuper Aleides telis premit, omniaque arm a 

Advocat, et jramis vastisque molaribus instat. 250 

Ille autem, neque enim fuga iajm super ulla pericli, 

Faucibus ingentem fumum, mirabile dictu, 

Evomit involvitque domum caligine caeca, 

Prospectum eripiens oculis, glomeratque sub antro 

239.] 'Intonat' Med., Pal., Qiid., 'inso- as the asyndeton does not suit a depen- 

nat' Bom. and three of Ribbeek's cursives, dent sentence like this, though it is na- 

Comp. generally G. 1. 329, " quo maxuma tural in an ordinary comparison expressed 

motu Terra tremit." in the indicative. To make * trepident ' 

240.] ' Dissultant ripae,' from the mass the apodosis is not to be thought of. 

iSalling between them. • Refiuit :' as Serv. * Trepidentque ' is supported by Rom., * tre- 

remarks, the terror of the river is said to pidantque,' the ind. being evidently a mere 

have produced what was really inevitable error, just as v. 244 Rom., Pal., Gnd., and 

from the fall of the rock. the second reading of Med. have ' reserat.' 

241.] Comp. generally 2. 483 foil. 247.] Ribbeck seems right in omitting 

242.J * Regia,' *' quia ibi tyrannidem * in ' before * luce ' with Pal. and the ori- 

agitaret" Donatus. The repetition of ginal readings of Med. and Gud. The 

'penitus' in the next line has force, as meaning then will be that Cacus is sur- 

Wagn. observes, as pointing the comparison prised 6y, not in the light, 

of one wonder to another. 248.] * Rudentem * properly used of the 

243.] 'Si qua' may be taken as "si bellowing of an animal, here of " semi- 

quando," and referred to the class of usages hominis Caci" v. 194. 'Insueta' may 

noticed on 1. 181, E. 1. 54. But it may mean that his roars were now for the first 

equally well express the mysterious nature time those of terror (comp. v. 222) : but 

of the agency. Comp. 2. 479 "qua vi it seems rather to mean strange sounds 

maria alta tumescant." such as are not wont to come from one in 

244.] Imitated from II. 20. 61 foil, (of human form, though they may have been 

the earthquake caused by Poseidon) "EB- his usual utterances. So a'fjBrjs is used 

Stifftv 8* vrrtvepBey &vct^ iytpcoy 'AXBuytis* of things unpleasant. 

Atia-as 8* in Bp6vov Sato, koX Xaxty y^i oi 249.] ' Telis ' may be used generally, or 

Siripdty raiay iivaf^^tic HofftiBday 4yo- may refer to his arrows. 

aixBooy, OiKla 8^ ByirToiiri koX kBayiroiiTi 250.] For ' molaribus ' comp. B. 12. 161, 

<pcarfii^ lifxtpBa\^, cvpc^evra, rd re <rrvy4ov- K6pvdts fiaK\6fi(yai fivXiKftrai, The word, 

at Bfol T€p, which occurs again Ov. M. 3. 59, seems to 

245.] 'Pallida:' the epithet of the ghosts be poetical, the prose expression being 

is transferred to their abode, probably with " molaris lapis." ' Molaribus instat ' like 

the notion of the absence of glowing, rosy " instant verbere " G. 3. 106. 

light. ' Super ' for " desuper." 251.] ' Super' 7. 559. Pal., Gud., and two 

246.] External authority is in favour of other of Ribbeck's cursives have 'pericli 

the omission of 'que,' Med., Pal., Gud. est.' 

giving 'trepident.' Ribbeck adopts it: 254.] "Eripiuntsubitonubes caelumque 

but Wagn. seems right in retaining ' que,' diemque Teucrorum ex oculis " 1. 88. 


Fumiferam noctem commixtis igne tenebris. 255 

Non tulit Alcides animis^ seque ipse per ignem 
Praeeipiti ieeit saltu^ qua plurimus undam 
Futnus agit nebulaque ingens specus aestuat atra. 
Hie Caeum in tenebris incendia vana vomentem 
Corripit in nodum conplexus^ et angit inhaerens 260 

Elisos oculos et siccum sanguine guttur. 
Panditur extemplo foribus domus atra revolsis^ 
Abstraetaeque boves abiurataeque rapinae 
Caelo ostenduntur^ pedibusque informe cadaver 
Protrahitur. 'Nequeunt expleri corda tuendo 265 

Terribilis oculos, voltum villosaque saetis 
Pectora semiferi atque exstinctos faucibus ignis. 
Ex illo celebratus honos, laetique minores 

255.] < Nox' for darkness, G. 1.328. The sense G. 3. 4d7. As Serv. remarks, it is 

night is of coarse produced by the smoke, used less properly with ' oculos ' than with 

but it is siud to produce it, as fresh smoke ' guttur.' The notion of ' siccum sanguine 

seemed to be constantly arising from the guttur' seems to be that it was the stoppage 

dond. of blood rather than breath which caused 

256.] 'Non tulit' lost aU patience; in death. ' Siccum sanguine ' 9. 64. 

which sense it is naturally followed by 262.] For 'extemplo' Gud. has a yariant 

' que : ' comp. 9. 622. ' Animis,' in his * interea :' for * atra ' Pal. gives ' alta.' 

wrath. Both come from the recollection of parallel 

257.] 'lecit' Bom., Med., 'iniecit' Pal., passages, 10. 1 and G. 2. 461. Bom., and 
Gud. The former, which Wag^. restores, originally Pal. and one of Bibbeck's cur- 
seems better in combination with ' per sives, have ' exemplo.' 
ienem :' but ' iniecit ' would mean " inie- 263.] ' Abiuratae ' refers to a disclaimer 
cit antro," and the substitution of the of Cacus not mentioned, but easily under- 
simple verb for the compound may have stood, after Yirg.'s manner : comp. 3. 238. 
originally been accidental : see on v. 230 This feature again is probably from the 
above. Elsewhere when ' iniicere ' is used Hymn to Hermes, vv. 274 foil. " Abiurare 
in Virg. it is followed by a dat. (9. 553) pecuniam" occurs Plant. Bud. prol; 14, 
or ' in ' with ace. (2. 408). Serv. fancied that ' abiuratae ' could mean 

258.] ' Undam agit ' like " spumas unlawfully taken, and Freund s. v. ' ab- 

aget"G. 3. 203, and the phrase "agere iuro' strangely agrees with him. 

animam." 'Aestuat' carries on the meta- 265.] Heyne compares 11. 22. 870 foil. 

phor, referring not so much to the heat as where the Greeks gaze on the body of 

to the torrents of smoke. Hector. " Expleri mentem nequit ar- 

260.] ' la nodum conplexus,' twining descitque tuendo " 1. 713. 

his arms and legs round him. Ov. M. 9. 267.] It would perhaps be unjust to an 

58 (of wrestlers) " vix sqIyI duros a cor- expression like ' extinctos faucibus ignes ' 

pore nexus." It was thus, as Heyne ob- to say that it was for " fauces extinctis 

serves, that Hercules killed the Nemean ignibus " or " fauces ubi ignes extinct! 

lion and Antaeus. Pi-op. and Ov. make erant ;" for Virg.'s words give the idea of 

him use his club. the fires that had been there more vividly 

261.] ' Elidere ' is the proper word for than the common expression, 
strangling : see Bentley on Hor. 3 Od. 268.] Comp. generally 5. 596 foil. As 
27. 59; where however "laedere collum>" elsewhere in relating traditions (comp. v, 
not " elidere coUum," which Bentley con- 135 above), Virg. seems almost to confuse 
jectures, is the proper reading ; ' laedere ' the person speaking with the poet. Evan- 
being used in its primary sense of crush- der here talks like a man of a generation 
ing. * His strangled eyes ' of course means subsequent to the event commemorated, 
' his eyes starting out of his head from though we know from v. 363 that Virg. 
stranguUttion.' ' Angere ' in its strict agreed with those who make him a con- 


Servavere diem, primusque Potitius auctor 

Et domus Herculei custos Pinaria sacri. 270 

Hanc aram luco statuit, quae Maxuma semper 

Dicetur nobis^ et erit quae maxuma semper. 

Quare agite, o iuvenes, tantarum in munere laudum 

Cingite fronde comas et poeula porgite dextris 

Communemque vocate deum et date vina volentes. 276 

Dixerat : Hereulea bicolor cum populus umbra 

Velavitque comas foliisque innexa pependit. 

temporary. ' Ex illo ' " tempore :'' conip. 2. 252 ** Quae vobis, quae digna, viri, pro laa- 

169. ' Laeti :' see on 7. 480. dibus istis Praemia posse rear solvi ? " 1. 

269, 270 ] See Livy 1. 7., 9. 29. The 461 " sunt hie etiam sua praemia laudi." 
worship of Hercules at the Ara Maxuma ' In munere,' by way of acknowledgment or 
was originally a family worship of the gift, as in 6. 537 (note), 
gentes Potitia and Pinaria. Livy says 274.] * Cingite fronde comas:' comp. 
that on f;he first institution the Pinarii 5, 71., 7. 135 note. ' Porgite,' i. e. in 
came too late ; and that hence they never making the libation, as Heyne explains it ; 
after tasted of the entrails ; from which not, as Serv. thinks, of handing the wine 
we may infer that the Potitii acted as to each other. But the sacrificial and the 
priests and the Pinarii as attendants; convivial aspects of the celebration would 
Appius Claudius the Censor engaged hardly be diacriminated by Yirg. as we 
the Potitii to teach the rites to state should discriminate them, and the Ian- 
slaves, in order to make them public, guage bears some resemblance to Lucr. 
and in consequence of this profanation, it 8. 912 " ubi discubuere tenentque Poeula 
was said, the Potitii, though there were saepe homines et inumbnnt ora coro- 
twelve families of them, became utterly ex- nis." The abbreviated form 'porgite' is 
tinct within the year. Virg. is accurate said by Serv. on 1. 26 to be from En- 
then in making Potitius, the father of the nius. 

Potitia gens, the author of the rite, and 275.] * Communem,' on account of their 

giving the gens Pinaria a subordinate alliance. 'Date vina,' ofier the wine 

place under the honourable but vague comp. 6. 888 " manibus date lilia plenis. 

term * custos sacri.' * Primus ' distin* ' Volentes ' of alacrity in religious obser 

guishing an individual from others who yance like ** laeti " above y. 26iB, " libens 

have been mentioned generally 3. 58., 5. 8. 438 note. 
746. * Sacri,' the sacrifice or worship : 276.] Comp. E. 7. 61 " Populus Aleidae 

comp. Livy 1. 7 " ibi turn primum hove gratissima," G. 2. 66, " Herculeae arbos 

eximia capta de grege sacrum Herculi umbrosa coronae." Virg., for the sake of 

adhibitis ad ministerium dapemque Po- liveliness, has expressed himself as if the 

titiis ac Pinariis factum." It oc- result in the case of the garland and the 

curs nowhere else in Virg. in the cup had been brought about without 

sing. Evander's agency. ' Bicolor ' referring to 

271, 272.] Heyne thought these lines the leaves, white and dark g^een. Macrob. 

spurious : but they are natural enough Sat. 8. 12 and Serv. refer to Yarro's trea- 

in the mouth of Evander, and the repeti- tise ''Kerum Humanarum" for the state- 

tion lends emphasis and solemnity. The ment that the tree used for ehaplets at 

subject of ' statuit ' is doubtless Hercules, the Ara Maxuma was the bay, on which 

though Jahn supposes it to be Potitius they observe that Virg. speaks of what 

and the 'domus Pinaria,' removing the was done in Evander's time; a singular 

period after ' sacri.' Comp. v. 546 note, assumption of knowledge, as Gossrau re- 

Evander says, the altar shall always be marks. 

Ara Maxuma, both in name and in reality. 277.] ' Pependit :' the leaves seem to 

Comp. E. 1. 7 "Namque erit ille mihi have hung down in a kind of festoon, as 

semper deus." in the " vitta." * Innexa * fastened to the 

273.] Comp. f<w 'munere' 6. 637 "per- hair, 'foliis' being abl. like "quels in- 

iecto munere divae," and for ' laudum ' 9. nexa " 5. 511. 




Et sacer inplevit dextram scyphus. Ocius omnes 
In mensam laeti libant divosque precantur. 

Devexo interea propior fit Vesper Olympo : 280 ] 

lamque sacerdotes primusque Potitius ibant, 
Pellibus in morem cincti, fiammasque ferebant. 
Instaurant epulas^ et mensae grata secundae 
Dona ferunt^ cumulantque oneratis laneibus aras. 
Turn Salii ad cantus incensa altaria cireum 285 

Populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis, 

278.] Macrob. Sat. 5. 21 sajs that the 283.] ' Mensae grata secundae Dona 
•' scyphus * was proper to the rites of Her- ferunt/ if said of later times, would mean 
cules. Serv. has a story of a wooden 'they bring delicacies for the dessert' 
' scyphus ' of great size, brought to Italy (comp. G. 2. 101) : but, being said of 
by Hercules himself, and preserved in heroic times, it can scarcely be taken as 
pitch, with which the praetor made a any thing but another expression for ' in- 
libation (at the Ara Maxuma P) once a staurant epulas,' a renewal of the sacred 
year: and he thinks this accounts both banquet. For a similar uncertainty see 
for 'sacer' and 'inplevit.' Instances of on 7. 134. The Salii had a rich enter- 
allusion to the cup of Hercules are col- tainmeut ("dapes Saliares" Hor. 1 Od. 
lected by Cerda ; and it appears from 87. 2 foil.) at the temple of Mars after the 
Plutarch, Life of Alexander, 75, that o-ic^- Ceremony of the day. Heyne thinks this 
ipov 'HpcucKdovs iKiritiif v/BS a phrase, pro- and the following line spurious, one good 
bably for a huge draught. ** Manum pinu MS., the first Menagian, placing them 
inplet"9. 72. after v. 286. But Wagn. rightly 

279.] ' In mensam libant ' 1. 736. The remarks that there is nothing unnatural 

table would not be taken for the altar, as in a second sacrificial meal. They 

they were seated at ordinary banqueting were spending the whole day in sacrifice, 

tables, V. 109. ' Laeti ' v. 268. and so took their evening meal at the 

280 — 305.] 'As evening approaches, altar as they had taken their mid-day 

the sacrifice and feast are renewed, meal. 

ending with a hymn in celebration 284.] Comp. G. 2. 194, "Laneibus et 

of the exploits and labours of Her- pandis fumantia reddimus exta." ' Dona 

cules.' ferunt' seems to oscillate between the 

280.] ' Devexo Olympo ' may either be original meaning of offering in sacrifice 

explained of the revolution of the sky and the transferred one of serving up 

(comp. 2, 250., 11. 202), or of the down- dainties. 

ward slopes of heaven which the sun ap- 285.] Macrob. Sat. 3. 12 Inquires why 

proaches at evening, there being a con- the Salii, priests of Mars, are introduced 

fusion between " Sol " and ' Vesper.' *De- in connexion with Hercules*: a question 

vexus ' is found as a synonyme of "declivis " which ho answers by saying that the two 

Caes. B. G. 7. 88 &c., and a fragment of gods were identified by the pontiffs and by 

Cic. quoted by Macrob. Sat. 6. 4 has " Sol Varro in his Satura Menippea entitled 

paulum devexus a meridie." The adjec- &k\os oItos *HpaicA^s, appealing also to a 

tival use of ' devexus ' is at any rate more treatise " de sacris Saliaribus Tiburtium " 

usual, and it is in favour of the latter in- by Octavius Hersennius, and to a work on 

terprctation. the meaning of the word "festra" by 

282.] The passage is rendered obscure Antonins Gnipho, a learned man whose 

by our ignorance of the exact nature of lectures Cicero used to attend. ' Turn,' as 

the rites performed at the Ara Maxuma. Wagn. remarks, indicates a new point in a 

The language seems to indicate that description: see G. 2. 296. 'Ad cantus' 

this is a torch-bearing procession, not with 'adsunt:' we may comp. however 

simply that the priests applied the fire "servi ad remum/' "homines ad lecti- 

to the altars, which would hardly have cam," &c. 

been specified. Torch-light too agrees 286.] " Evincti tempora taenis," 5. 267, 

with the approach of evening. Kom. has which is actually found here in one MS., 

' flammam.' and as a variant in Gud. Rom. and others 


Hie iuvenum cliorus, ille senum ; qui cannine laudes 
Herculeas et facta ferunt : ut prima novercae 
Monstra manu geminosque premens eliserit anguis ; 
Ut bello egregias idem disiecerit urbes, 290 

Troiamque Oeehaliamque ; ut duros mille labores 
Rege sub Eurystheo, fatis lunonis iniquae, 
Pertulerit. Tu nubigenas, inviete, bimembris, 
Hylaeumque Pholumque, manu^ tu Cresia maetas 
Prodigia et vastum Nemea sub rape leonem. 295 

have * etvincti,' i. e. as Ribbeck says, 292.] See on 1. 668. ' Fatis * prob. means 

'ecvincti.' decree or will; but it may refer to the 

287.] We do not leam elsewhere that fatal power which Juno had over Her- 

there were two choruses of Salii, one o^ cules, to make him toil at the bidding of 

old men, the other of young; though Eurystheus, 'fata lunonis' being the 

there was the elder College of M8rs, and claim or advantage which fate gave to 

the younger College of Qniriuus (see Juno: comp. 7. 293, "fatis contraria' 

Diet. A. Salii) : possibly Virg. may, for a nostris Fata Phrygum." Perhaps both 

poetical purpose, have turned elder and meanings are included. "Fata lovis" 

younger in one sense into old and young and " fata deum " seem hardly parallel, 

in the other. There were Carmina Saliaria expressing as they do not the privilege of 

remaining, but unintelligible, in the time any one god but destiny as wielded by the 

of Horace : see 2 £p. 1. 86, and the gods in concert, or by Jupiter as their 

commentators there. Yirg.'s hymn is sovereign. Cerda comp. Uor. 2 Ep. 1. 

clearly an improved copy of the hymn to 11, of Hercules, " Notaque fatali portenta 

Apollo in ApoU. B. 2. 704. He perhaps labore subegit.'' 

thought also of the singing of the Paean in 293.] This admired turn irom the 

II. 1.472 toll. The contents of the hymn arc third person to the second is borrowed, 

the common Greek fables about Hercules; though with improvement, from Apoll. R. 

and therefore it seems rash to suppose, as 1. c. It is imitated by Milton, P. L. 4. 

some do, that they are taken from an old 724. ' Nubigenas ' 7. 674. Macrob. Sat. 

poem in Satumian verse. For Maudes' 6. 5 says that the poet Cornificius first 

see on v. 273, though here it may have its coined the word * bimembris.' 

ordinarv sense. 294.] The destruction of Hylaeus and 

288. J Heins. read ' ferant,' which is the Pliolus at the battle of the Lapithae and 

second reading of Med. Wagn. remarks the Centaurs has been alluded to G. 2. 

that the purpose is already expressed in 456,457. Other stories make Pholus killed 

'adcantus.' 'Prima* is in sense adver- by Theseus. * Cresia prodigia ' (i.q. "Cre- 

bial. 'Novercae' with 'monstra,' the sia monstra") the wild bull that devas- 

snakes having been sent by Juiio. tated Crete. In making Hercules kill the 

289.] 'Eliserit' v. 261 above. *Mon- bull ('maetas') Virg. departs from the 

stra geminosque anguis' tu 8<3b SvoTv, common fable, which was that he brought 

290.] Some MSS. (including one of it alive to Eurystheus. The present 

Bibbeck's cursives) have 'deiecerit;' but 'maetas' may be explained by saying 

' disiecerit ' signifies laid in ruins : comp. that Hercules' actions are supposed to be 

V. 355 below, Hor. 2 Od. 19. 15. 'Bello' ever continuing, as they are being ever 

prob. with.' disiecerit,' showing that an- made the subjects of song. So probably 

other class of his exploits is spoken of, Persius 4. 2 " sorbitio tollit quem dira 

those in war ; but there would be force in cicutae," kills in the Pbaedo. 

taking it with ' egregias,' and we have 295.] ' Nemea,' from Nc/i€os, is the 

already had the combination 1. 444. reading of Rom., Pal. (corrected), and 

291.] Perhaps the celebration of Her- Gud. ' Nemeae,' the reading before 

cules' victory over Troy is a little inoppor- Heyne, is the original reading of Pal., 

tune: but we may suppose that due and apparently acknowledged by Serv. 

honour was paid to the strength of the ' Nemaea,' the reading of Med., may point 

city. For ' ut ' Rom. and others have either way. * Sub rupe ' i. q. " in antro." 


Te Stygil tremuere lacus^ te ianitor Orci 

Ossa super recubans antro semiesa cmento ; 

Nee te ullae heies, non terruit ipse lyphoeus^ 

Arduus anna tenens ; non te rationis egentem 

Lemaeus turba eapitum circumstetit anguis. ^ 300 

Salve, vera lovis proles, decus addite divis, 

Et nos et tua dexter adi pede saora secundo. 

Talia carminibus celebrant ; super omnia Caci 

Speluncam adiieiunt, spirantemque ignibus ipsum. 

Consonat omne nemus strepitu, coUesque resultant. 305 

Exin se cuneti divinis rebus ad urbem 
Perfectis referunt, Ibat rex obsitus aevo. 

296.] *'Teliqaidi flevere lacus '' 7. 760. 322, and comp. 4. 12, 13. < Decus addite 

* Ianitor Orci' 6. 400. divis' like <*canibas date praeda" 9. 485. 

297.] For Wagn.'s orthography * semie- One MS. has " deus addite/' Cerda comp. 

8a ' see on 3. 244. " Adverso recubans Hor. 2 Od. 19. 13 " beatae coniugis addi- 

inmanis in antro" 6. 418, also of Cerberus, turn Stellis honwem," perhaps a further 

It does not appear on what flesh or bones evidence that Virg. had that ode in his 

Cerberus could have preyed, unless it were mind. 

of men who attempted to penetrate the 302.] ** Phrygibusque adsis pede, diva, 

lower world : but . the picture is natural secundo " 10. 255. Comp. Hor. 3 Od. 18. 

enough. Serv. derives Cerberus from 3 "lenis incedas,'' Aesch. Ag. 511 ^crd* 

Kp€ofi6pot, itydparios (Herm.'s conj. for ^A0«v). 

298.] The < facies ' are taken to be those 303.] * Talia ' may refer to ' facta :' but 

which Hercules saw in Tartarus, including ' carminibus celehrant ' virtually = ' ca- 

Typhoeus. But Typhoeus thrust down nunt,' or we may distinguish the celebra- 

to Tartarus or buried under Aetna can tion by hymns from the rest of the cere- 

hardly be called * arduus arma tenens.' mony, to which ' celebrare ' would be 

There must be an allusion to some conflict equally applied. ' Super omnia,' to crown 

between Hercules and Typhoeus not else- all. Comp. iirtfi4\wtiy of a concluding 

where mentioned, or a Afferent view of song Aesch. Theb. 869. 

the state of Typhoeus in Tartarus. Pos- 304.] 'Spirantem ignibus' a variety for 

sibly Virg. means to represent Hercules " spirantem ignis." ' Ipsum' distinguished 

as having taken part in the combat of the from his cave, as in 1. 40 &e, 

gods and the giants, though this does not 305.] ' CoUesque resultant ' 5. 150. 

agree with the general tenor of mythology. 306—336.] < Evander takes Aeneas 

He may have thought of Horace's hymn to to the city, and explains the vicissi* 

Bacchus, 2 Od. 19, where Bacchus' influ- tudes through which the country has 

ence over Cerberus is mentioned just after passed.' 

his prowess against the giants : comp. the 306.] ' Res divina ' or ' res divinae ' is 

word ''disiectae " quoted on v. 290. Serv. a common prose expression. ' Se referunt' 

accepts the reference to the combat with 2. 757. 

the giants, but, being perplexed by the 307.] ' Obsitus aevo ;' covered with the 

anachronism, interprets * terruit' as i. q. signs of old age, wrinkles &c. Comp. 

** terreret " or " terruisset." * Arduus ' is Ter. Eun. 2. 2. 5, " Video sentum, 

adverbial as in 5. 478. 10. 196 : and squalidum, aegrum, pannis annisqne obsi- 

Wagn. rightly removes the comma after tum." Plant. Menaechmi 5. 2. 4 has 

it, ''consitus sum senectute." One is half 

299.] Thou wast not panic-stricken when tempted to suspect that the similarity of 

the Hydra surrounded thee with its crowd form between these words and the noun 

of heads.. 'Rationis egentem:' comp. note "situs" (comp. with this passage 7. 440 

on 5. 363. The words are from Lucr. 4. " victa situ verique efteta senectus," and 

502. ^ with Ter. 1. c. 6. 462 "loca senta situ") 

301.] ' Vera lovis proles :' see on 6. may have influenced their usage, bringing 


Et comitem Aenean iuxta natumque tenebat 

Ingrediens^ varioque viam sermone levabat. 

Miratur facilisque oculos fcrt omnia circum 310 

Aeneas^ capiturque locis^ et singula laetus 

Exquiritque auditque virum monumenta prioram. 

Turn rex Euandrus Bomanae conditor arcis : 

Haec nemora indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tenebant^ 

Gensque virum truncis et duro robore nata^ 315 

Quis neque mos neque cultus erat^ nee iungere tauros^ 

Aut conponere opes norant^ aut parcere parte, 

Sed rami atque asper victu yenatus alebat. 

Primus ab aetherio venit Saturnus Olympo, 

about a similarity of sentse for which there nail j bom from stocks or stones is as old 

was no etymological warrant. as Od. 19. 163, where Penelope playfully 

308.] 'Tenebat' expresses the care of says to Ulysses, ov yhp iwh 9pv6s iaai 
the old man, and also his slow motion, vaKeut^drov, oh9* Air5 wdrpjis. Bo, accord- 
retarding his companions. ing to one interpretation, Hesiod, Works 

309.] ' Ingrediens' 6. 157 note. 145, speaking of the brazen age, iK /ucXtai' 

310.] 'Facilis,' though agreeing with 9€iv6y re koX ififipifiou. So the legend 

' ocuIqs,' qualifies the action of the of Deucalion 0. 1. 63, " Deucalion 

verb. Aeneas readily turns to each oh- vacuum lapides iactavit in orbem Undo 

ject mentioned. Manilius 1. 645 has homines nati durum genus." Serv. 

borrowed the phrase, *'Circumfer facilis rationalizes it into the sudden appearance 

oculos." Serv. quotes instances from of men from hollow trees or caves where 

Plautus and a work by Maecenas, the they had taken up their abode. The view 

Symposium, where it is used of the effect of primitive society which follows agrees 

of intoxication on the eyes. * Oculos feii; generally with the well-known descrip- 

omnia circum :* comp. 2. 570. tions of Aesch. Prom. 447 foil., Lucr. 5. 

311.] "Nee bene promeritis capitur" 925 foil., and with the notions formed by 

Lucr. 2. 651. So ** captus " is used fre- such writers as Sallust and Tacitus : comp. 

quently in Virg. Lewis 1. c. The idea of a golden age, 

312.] ' Monumenta,' traditions: comp. 3. which Virg. attempts to incorporate with 

102 ** veterum volvens monumenta viro- it, is really antagonistic to it. 

rum." 316.] * Mos,' rule of life : comp. Lucr. 

313.] * Komanae oonditor arcis/ of Pal- 5. 958, " neque uUis Moribus inter se 

lanteum on the Palatine, where Romulus scibant nee legibns uti," and see on G. 4. 

built his city and Augustus had a palace. 5. " Cnltas " is coupled with '* humanitas" 

Grossrau. Comp. G. 1. 499 " Bomana by Caes. B. G. 1. 1. Nee iungere tauros ' is 

Palatia," Hor. Carm. Sec. 65 *' Si Falati- again from Lucr. 5. 933, ** Nee robustus 

nas videt aequus arces." Pal., Gud. erat curvi moderator aratri Quisquam, nee 

(originally), and another of Ribbeck's scibat ferro molirier arva." 

cursives have * Evander.' 317.] Gossrau comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 12, 

314.] 'Indigenae' opposed to 'Saturnus' *'Condo et conpono quae mox depromere 

&c. V. 319. So Ennius attributes the possim." ' Parcere parte,' to practise eco- 

Saturnian verse to the Fauns as the imper- nomy. Med. has ' rapto,' though ' parte ' 

sonations of rustic barbarism, " Versibus seems to have been the original reading, 

qnos olim Fauni vate»que cauebant " (A. 7. and is restored by marks of transposition, 

fr. 1), which may have been in Virg.'s " Parte fruuntur " G. 1. 300. 

mind. In 7. 48 Faunus is the grandson 318.] ' Asper victu venatus,' the hunts- 

of Saturn. For other writers who have man's hard and scanty fare : ' asper victu ' 

spoken oftheAborigines see Lewis 1pp. 279 being opp. to "facilis victu," 1. 445. 

foil. Virg. recollected Lucr. 4. 580, " Haec * Rami :' comp. G. 2. 500. 

loca capripedes satyros Nymphasque tenere 319.] Virg. after the Roman fashion 

Finitimi fing^nt et Faunos esse loquuntur." identifies the Italian Saturnus with the 

315.] The conception of men as orig^- Greek Eronos, who was dethroned and 


Anna lovis fdgiens et regnis exsul ademptis. 320 

Is genus indocile ac dispersum montibus altis 

Conposnit, legesque dedit, Latiumque vocari 

Maluit^ his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris. 

Aurea, quae perhibent, illo sub rege fuere 

Saecula : sic placida populos in pace regebat ; 325 

Deterior donee paulatim ac decolor aetas 

Et belli rabies et amor successit habendi. 

Turn manus Ausonia et gentes venere Sicanae^ 

Saepius et nomen posuit Satumia tellus ; 

Turn reges asperque inmani corpore Thybris, 330 

expelled from heaven by Zeus, and has them, though Wagn. decides for <faere.' 

given the fiible a more Latin character, * Perhibeo ' is here construed like " voce." 

as well as g^tified his own love of anti- Virg. has taken from the Five Ages of 

quarian etymology, by deriving ' Latium ' He»iod (Works 90 foil.) just the idea of a 

from " lateo/' the hiding-place of Saturn, golden age and of one of a baser metal, 

Serv. says Varro gave the same etymolc^y, and blended this succession of ages with 

though for a different reason, " quod latet the succession of races in primitive Italy. 

Italia inter iuga Alpium et Appennini." Comp. 6. 792 foil., G. 2. 538. 

'Primus' may be taken in its obvious 325.]'Sic'i.q.*'adeo." **Nonlatuitscin- 

sense, ' primus venit ' being i. q. " primus tilla ingeni quae iam tum elucebat in puero : 

advena fuit" opp. to "indigenae:" or it sic erat in omni vel officio vel sermune 

may virtually = " tandem,'' as in £. 1. sollers" Cic. Rep. 2. 21, cited by Freund. 

44 &c. ' Aetherio Olympo ' 6. 579. " Longa placidos in pace regebat " 7. 46. 

320.] Cerda comp. the account given 326.] ' Color ' is used of the brightness 

by Lact. Div. Inst. 1. 14 from Ennius' of metal Hor. 2 Od. 2. 1 : so here ' de- 

Euhemerus, ** qui (Satumus) cum iactutus color ' will mean having lost its brightness, 

esset per omnis terras persequentibus siudof brass or iron as compared with gold, 

aimatis, quos ad eum comprehendendum 327.] ' Belli rabies ' like " insania belli " 

vel necandum luppiter miserat, vix in 7. 461 note. *' Edendi rabies " 9. 63. 

Italia locum in quo lateret invcnit." " Amor habendi " G. 4. 177. 

There is perhaps a touch of Eahemerism in 328.] For the various accounts of the 

Virg.'s account, as is natural where a mix- succession of these nations see Lewis 1. c. 

ture of mythology and history is attempted. Virg. identifies the Sicani with the Siculi : 

322.] The meaning of * conposuit ' pro- others made the Sicani a Htberian tribe 

bably embraces both ' indocile ' and ' dis- who took refuge in Sicily, where they 

persum :' ' he united them and reduced were living at the time of the immigration 

them to order,' ' made them a nation :' of the Siculi from Italy. Bom. has ' Auso- 

comp. 11. 599, *' conpositi numero in tur- niae,' which was the reading before Heius. 

mas," G. 3. 192, "conpositis gradibns," 329.] 'Nomen posuit,' laid down its 

G. 4. 417, " conpositis crinibus." The name, on receiving a new one. Elsewhere 

structure of the line may remind us of ' nomen ponere ' is used of the giver of a 

1. 62, " Inposuit regemque dedit" (observe name 7. 63. Virg. has told us 1. 530 foil. 

" mentis altos " immediately preceding), of three other names, Hesperia, Oenotria, 

323.] 'Maluit,' "quam Saturniam," and Italia, the first however being a 

says Forb. after Serv. : but the presump- Greek appellation. * Satumia tellus ' need 

tion that he would have called it Satumia not imply that the land was ever called 

can hardly be supplied. ' Maluit ' is pro- after Saturn, but merely that it was his 

bably i. q. " potissimum voluit," chose. land. He seems to be speaking of Italy 

324.] ' Aurea quae perhibent ' was re- generally, not merely of Latium. 

stored by Heins., in place of " aureaque ut 330.] * Tum ' denotes a point in ennme- 

perhibent," which is found in one of Rib- ration (v. 285 &c.), not necessarily a dif- 

beck's cursives, and from a correction in fereut point in time from v. 328. ' Beges 

another. * Fuere ' Med., Bom., * fuerunt * asperque Thybris ' like ** saccrdotes pri- 

Pal., Gud. There seems no choice between musque Potitius " above v. 281. " Asper 


A quo post Itali fluvium cognomine Thybrim 
Diximusj amisit verum vetus Albula nomen. 

Me pulsum patria pelagique extrema sequentem 
Portuna omnipotens et ineluctabile fatum 

His posuere locis, matrisque egere tremenda 335 
Carmentis Nymphae monita et deus auctor Apollo. 
Vix ea dicta : dehinc progressus monstrat et aram 
Et Carmentalem Romani nomine portam 

inmani corpore " Lucr. 5. 33, of the ser- Ov. P. 1. 481 seems to refer to this pas- 
pent in the garden of the Hcsperides. sage when he makes Evander's mother 
Serv. collects diflferent notices of this Thy- say " Sic erat in fatis : nee te tua culpa 
bris, the one most germane to Yirg.'s de- fUgavit, Sed dens/' though he is speaking 
flcription representing him as a robber- of the cause of Evander's leaving home, 
chief, and connecting his name with Sfipts, not of the cause of his reaching Italy, 
a word, as others have remarked, asso- But Virg. may include both : see the next 
ciated with violent floods by Aesch. Prom. line. 

717, Hdt. 1. 189. Livy 1. 8 makes Tibe- 335.] * Egere' probably refers to the 

rinus a king of Alba. entire voyage, * drove me to leave my 

331.] *A quo cognomine' may = **a home and settle here.' Comp. **acti fatis" 
cuius cognomine :" comp. 2. 171 Ac: or 1. 83. The 'tremenda monita' of Car- 
' cognomine' may be adj., as in 6. 383. A mentis are like the " iussa ingentia" of 
third way would be to separate ' quo ' fVom Apollo 7. 241, which is generally parallel. 
' cognomine,' taking the latter with ' dixi- Rom. has ' tremendae.' 
mus,' by way of surname, as in 12. 845 &c. 336.] For Carmentis or Carmenta, and 
Evander, as Serv. remarks, identifies him- for the other accounts of Evander's pa- 
self with the Italians, mentioning the rentage, see Lewis 1. c. 'Auctor Apollo ' 
name incidentally, a proof of the vague- 12. 405. 

ness of Virg.'s historicid notices. The 337 — 368.] * Evander shows Aeneas the 

general story seems to have been that various places which afterwards became 

Thybris or Tiberinus was drowned in the famous as parts of Bome, the Carmental 

Albula : the version however which made gate, the Asylum, the Capitol, and the 

him a robber-chief speaks of him simply as Forum. He welcomes him to his homely 

having lived on its banks. palace, and puts him to rest for the 

333.] The cause of Evander's exile was night.' 

variously given, some ascribing it to parri- 337.] * Vix ea dicta ' " sunt." * Dehinc * 

cide or matricide : Lewis, p. 284. Virg. dissyll., G. 3. 167. The altar of Caimeutis 

perhaps means to negative these stories, was shown in the time of Dionys. Hal. 

as Ovid does : see the next note. ' Pelagi (1, 32) close to the Carmental gate. Med. 

extrema sequentem,' as Heyne remarks, is (originally) and Bom. have ' arma.' 

said in the character of an ancient Greek 338.] Wagn. restored * Romani ' from 

speaking of the unknown west. Bouatus Med., Fal, Gud. &c. Bom. and two of 

made 'pelagi' locative, taking 'extrema Bibbeck's cursives have 'Bomano,' the 

sequentem ' of encountering dangers, not old reading, which may have arisen, as 

unlike "ferro extrema secutam" 6. 457. Wagn. thinks, from the two first letters 

' Sequi ' is similarly used 10. 193., 12. 893, of ' nomine.' The old editions used to 

seeking a distant though unmoving object point after 'portam,' constructing 'quam 

being regarded as tantamount to pursuing memorant' with 'honorem.' With the 

a flying one. Comp. 4. 361 note. present pointing either ' Bomani ' or ' Bo- 

334.] Serv. notes that Fortune and Fate mano' gives good sense. If the latter 

are not philosophically consistent. The seems the more poetical, we may urge that 

inconsistency is kept up by the epithets, the name was not strictly Roman, the very 

though they are apparently similar, ' omni- object of the context being to show that it 

potens ' referring Evander s landing to the came from Carmentis. The Carmental 

all-disposing power of chance, 'inelucta- gate was otherwise called the "porta scele- 

bile' to the destiny of his birth, which he rata," being that through which the Fabii 

could not escape. " Ineluctabile tempus " passed. 
2. 324, "inexorabile fiitum" G. 2. 491. 



Quam memorant^ Nymphae priscum Carmentis honorenn^ 

Yatis fatidicae^ cecinit quae prima futuro8 340 

Aeneadas magnos et nobile Pallanteum. 

Hinc lucum ingent^n^ quern Romulus acer Asylum 

Rettulit et gdida monstrat sub rupe Lupercal^ 

Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lyeaei. 

Nee non et sacri monstrat nemus Argileti, 345 

339.] In a Greek author 'hooorem' we take Gk)6STaa'8 view^ we may suppose 

would be interpreted as cogn. ace. after the meaning to be not so much revived it 

' memorant :' in Latin it is simpler to as an asylum as changed it into an asylum, 

'take it in apposition to ' portam :' see comparing the use of " reddere." This is 

however on G. 3. 41. In either case it is perhaps supported by Florus 1. 1, " Erat 

the poetical equivalent of the prosaic ex> in proxumo lucus : hunc asylum facit.'^ 

pression " in honorem." For the Bite of the Asylum comp. Livy 1. 

340.] ' Prima ' Is explained by Serv. 8, " locum, qui nunc saeptus descendenti- 

with reference to the later prophecy of bus inter duos lucos est, asylum aperit," 

the Sibyl. Comp. Livy 1. 7 (of Carmenta) and see Lewis, p. 419, and the authors there 

** quam fatiloquam ante Sibyllae in Italiam refeiTed to. 

adventum miratae eae gentes fuerant.'' 343.] The Lupercal was a cavern in 

It is a strange instance of Virg.'s habit the Palatine^ connected by some of the 

of introducing things incidentally, if ancients with the wolf that suckled Ho- 

indeed we are not rather to call it a mulus and Bemus, by others, as by Virg. 

proof that he had not thoroughly digested here, with Evander and the Arcadian wor- 

the materials of his story, as we should ship of Pan. See Lewis, pp. 238, 384. 

have expected that more stress would For the Lupercalia see Diet. A. s. v. * Sub 

be laid on a prediction like this. < Fu- rupe :' comp. v. 295 above, E. 10. 14, 15, 

<turos ' not to be taken with ' magnos ' the latter of which describes an Arcadian 

and ' nobile.' The two things which Car- mountain scene. 

mentis predicted as in the future were the 344.] * Called after the Parrhasian (Ar- 

mighty family of Aeneas and the glorious cadian) custom the place of Lycaean Pan,' 

Pallanteum. i. e. dedicated to Pan, the god of Arcadia, 

341. J ' Aeneadae ' includes the Romans, and called by his Lycaean name, * Luper- 

Lucr. 1. 1 ; indeed they must have been cal ' being supposed to be connected with 

the chief burden of the prophecy, as the "lupus " as 'Lycaeus' with Ai;iros. 'Panos' 

connexion of Troy with Pallanteum reaUy is the possesnve gen., and 'dictus' seems 

hegan with the foundation of Rome, to include the two notions of naming and 

* Nobile Pallanteum' probably refers not dedicating, for which see on 6. 138. 

only to the glories of the place under Schrader conj. 'monte,' which is actually 

Evander and his successors, but to those found in two inferior MSS., and supported 

of the Palatine in more historical times, by Ov. F. 2. 421, "Quid vetat Arcadio 

Bom. has 'nomine,' and 'nobine' is the dictos de monte Lupercos? Faunus in 

reading of Tel. and (originally) Gud. Arcadia templa Lycaeus habet." ' Panos,' 

342.J ' Quern Asylum rettulit ' has not the Greek gen., seems to be found in all 

been satisfactorily explained. The general the MSS. 'Parrhasius' is applied to 

sense is doubtless that given by Donatus, Evander 11. 31, the name of the town 

"qui postea a Romulo Asyli nomen ac- Parrhasia being put for the whole of 

cepit," but it does not appear how this is Arcadia. 

to be got out of the words. Serv. thinks 345.] The precise site of Aigiletum is 

the reference is to the Athenian Asylum, disputed. Cic. Att. 12. 32 mentions it as 

apparently taking ' rettulit ' to mean pro- a place where he owned some shops, and 

duced by imitation. Heyne and Wagn. there are similar allusions to it in Mart. 1. 

explain it " appellavit." Gossrau inter. 3. 1 &c. The name as usual was accounted 

prets it " restituit," comp. 5. 598. The for by various contradictory legends, some 

choice seems to lie between the two last making Arg^s the son of a haruspex, killed 

views, or some modification of them. No by his father for disclosing the meaning of 

authority is quoted for " referre " in the the human head found at the Capitol, 

sense of " appellare :" but we may j)erhaps others talking of a Roman Argillus, who 

comp. " renuntiare aliquem consulem." If was put to death in the time of the firs^ 


Testaturque locum, et letum docet hospitis Argi. 

Hinc ad Tarpeiaxn sedem et Capitolia ducit, 

Aurea nunc, olim silvestribus horrida dumis. 

lam tum religio pavidos terrebat agrestis 

Dira loci; iam tum sUvam saxumque tremebant. 350 

Hoc nemus, hunc, inquit, frondoso vertioe collem, 

Quis deus incertum est, habitat deus ; Arcades ipsum 

Credunt se vidisse lovem, cum saepe nigrontem 

Aegida concuteret dextra, nimbosque cieret. 

Haec duo praeterea disiectis oppida muris, 355 

Reliquias veterumque vides monumenta virorum. 

Hanc lanus pater, banc Satumus condidit arcem ; 

laniculum huic, illi fuerat Satumia nomen. 

or second Punic war, while another ety- shield itself (Diet. A. s. r.) : Virg. appa^ 

loology derired the word from '< argilla." rently follows later writers in regarding it 

Even those who made Argns the gaest of as a oreastplate : oomp. v. 437. Heyne, 

Evander represented his death differently, supposing it to be a sldeld, was puzzled to 

though they agreed in the fojct that he understand how it could be held in the 

was killed for conspiring against his host, right band, and so punctuated before 

See Serv., and comp. Varro L. L. 5 § 157. ' dextra ' (which is also the pointing of 

346.] 'Testaturque locum' calls the spot Serv.), thus introducing a collocation 

to witness what happened there, perhaps of ' que' unknown to Virg. except under 

including, as Serv. thinks, a protestation peculiar circumstances. Wagn. justly ob- 

of his own innocence as a host. Elsewhere serves that whether shield or not> it is 

the spot where a thing happened is said clearly not used for purposes of defence, so 

'testari' what happened there, as in Prop, that toere can be no reason why it should 

4. 7. 21, " Sunt Agamemnonias testantia not be held in the right hand. ' Nimbos 

litora curas. " But it may mean, as Mr. cieret ' is from the Homeric y€<p€K7iytp4ra. 

Long suggests, bears witness to the spot. 356.] The account given by Macrob. 

' Docet ' explains, 6. 891. Sat. 1. 7 is that Janus was established as 

347.] 'Tarpeiusmons' was the old name king of Italy in a city called Janiculnm, 

oftheCapitolinemount,VarroL.L. 6. §41. when Saturn came to the country, after 

' Sedem ' apparently refers to the temple which they reigned jointly, Saturn building 

of Jupiter, not as belonging to Evander's a town which was called Satumia. Varro 

time, but as built afterwards. L. L. 6. § 42 speaks of Satumia and 

3^] ' Aurea :' Pliny 38. 8 says even its supposed remains, Ovid F. 1. 241 foil, 

the bronze tiles of the Capitol were gilded of Janiculnm. " Disiectas moles " 2. 608. 

at the restoration of the edifice by Catulus. 356.] " Yeteram monumenta virorum" 

349.] "Religio fani,"«sacrarii,""8igni" 3. 102. Here 'veteram viroram' goes 

are found in Cic. : see Freund. with 'reliquias' as well as with 'monn- 

350.] Rom. has 'silvas.' Med. first menta.' Serv. rather gratuitously re* 

reading has 'tenebant,' Gud. originally marks on 'viroram'" hoc sermoneostendit 

' tremebat.' etiam Saturnum virum fuisse." 

351.] Gud. has a variant ' hoc . . . saxum.' 357.] Janus has already been associated 

353.] 'Cum saepe' 1. 148, note. 'Ni- with Saturn 7. 180. 'Pater,' the Latin 

grantem' from its connexion with the title of a God (see on G. 2. 4), is constantly 

storm, iptfiv^y alyiZa II. 4. 167. connected with Janus, Hor. 2 S. 6. 20, 1 Ep. 

364.1 Zeus is represented as shaking his 16. 59. 'Arcem ' Pal., Med. (first reading), 
aegis, II. 4. 167., 17. 593. In the latter ' urbem ' Rom., Med. (second reading), 
passage the effect is that Ida is covered The words are constantly confounded, and 
with clouds, and thunder and lightning the former is more appropriate to a 
follow. Thus alyls elsewhere is simply a mountain settlement, 
name for the whirlwind. Comp. 2. 616 358.] 'Huic,' 'illi' are rather care- 
note. In Horn, it seems to be a goatskin lessly introduced after 'hanc, banc.' Forb. 
used as a shield belt, and sometimes the rightly remarks that 'huic' is applied to 

I 2 


Talibus inter se dictis ad tecta subibant 

Pauperis Euandri^ passimque armenta videbant 360 

Romanoque foro et lautis mugire Carinis. 

XJt ventum ad sedes : Haec^ inquit, limina victor 

Aleides subiit, haec ilium regia cepit. 

Aude, hospes, contemnere opes, et te quoque dignum 

Pinge deo, rebusque veni non asper egenis. 365 

Dixit, et ang^sti subter fastigia tecti 

Ingentem Aenean duxit, stratisque locavit 

Effiiltum foliis et pelle Libystidis ursae. 

Nox ruit, et fuscis tellurem ampleetitur alis. 
At Venus baud animo nequiquam exterrita mater 370 

Laurentumque minis et duro mota tumultu 

Janiculum as being in thought nearer the like '* sapero audo " Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 40. So 

speaker and consequently first named in Aesch. Prom. 999, r6\firia'6y vorc npbs 

the preceding verse. See Madv. § 485 a. rhs -rofM^ffas mffiovhs 6p$&s ^povtiv. 

* Fuerat ' again comes in somewhat loosely 366.] ' Finge ' like 'aude' seems to ex- 
after *condidit, ' referring to the same time, press effort : comp. 6. 80, G. 2. 407. ** Nec^ 
See Madv. § 338. obs. 6. si miserum Fortuna Sinonem Finxit, 

359.] * Dictis' may be a participle, but vanumetiammendacemqueinprobafinget" 

on a comparison of 7. 2^, 2Si, it is 2. 80. ' Rebus egenis ' seems to be con« 

perhaps better to take it as a substantive, structed with both ' asper ' and * veni.' 

the abl. being one of circumstance. Serv. Dryden says of this and the foregoing line 

mentions the doubt. ' Ad tecta subibant ' (Dedication to Aeneid) " For my part, I 

approached the house ; without ' ad ' it am lost in the admiration of it : I contemn 

would have been entered : comp. w. 362, 3. the world when I think of it, and myself 

And so Donatus. when I translate it. " 

360.] 'Passim' dispersedly. " Laeta 366.] 'Fastigia tecti,' the sloping roof : 

boum passim campis armenta videmus " see on 2. 302. 
3.220. < Mugire videbant :' see on 4>. 490. 367.] "Ingentem Aenean" 6. 413, 

361.] For the site of the ' Carinae,' where there is a similar contrast, 
which is more or less disputed, see Diet. 368.1 Schrader ingeniously conj.'spoliis,' 

G. vol. 2, pp. 222, 223. Pompey had which is the reading of one MS., the third 

a house there, which afterwards be- Gothen.Forb. remarks thatthe couch was <^ 

came M. Antony's. Bom. has 'Cavemis.' leaves, with a bearskin over it. "Pelle Liby- 

For ' lautis ' Med. has * latis.' Drj'den ren- stidis ursae " 5. 37 note. V irg. seems to have 

ders the line ' Once oxen lowed where now imitated Od. 14. 48 foil., as Heyne remarks, 
the lawyers bawl.' 369 — 406.] ' That night Venus entreats 

362.] For ' victor ' one of Bibbeck's cur- Vulcan to make a suit of armour for Aeneas, 

sives reads ' nobis,' with * victor' as a variant, reminding him that she had asked no favour 

363.] Peerlkamp may be right in his in- while the Trojan war lasted. He chides her 

terpretation of ' subiit ' stooped to enter, for her hesitation, and readily consents.' 
comparing Ov.M. 5.282 "subiereminores 369.] "Nox ruit" 6. 539. The con- 

Saepe casas super!" (add Id. F. 4. 516., ception of night as winged is found Eur. 

5. 505); see however Id. M. 1. 121. Or. 177, Aristoph. Birds 695. We have al- 

The lengthening of the last syUable is suffi- ready had a hint of this image 2. 360, 6. 866. 
ciently accounted for by the caesura, espe- 370.] ' Hand nequiquam exterrita, ' with 

cially before the aspirate, without supposing no empty fear. Comp. Aesch. Ag. 1316 

with Lachm. (see Excursus on G. 2. 81, oihoi 9uiroi(a, Odfivou &s tpvis, ^6fi^ 

second edition) that it is really long in Virg. **A\\o9s, G. 4. 353 " O gemitu non frustra 

Bom. and Med. (first reading) have 'subit.' exterrita tanto. " There is force in the 

* Cepit' need merely be i. q. "accepit :" but position of ' mater. ' 

-there is force in Serv.'s remark " mire die- 371.] Schrader coi^. * diro, ' which Heyne 

tum ut alibi, (9. 644) ' nee te Troia capit.'" prefers ; but * durus ' is an ordinary epithet 

364.] < Aude ' of making a moral effort, of war, as in 10. 146» and it may be meant 



Volcanum adloqultur, thalamoque haec coniug^s aureo 

Incipit, et dictis divinum adspirat amorem : 

Dum bello Argolici vastabant Pergama reges 

Debita casurasque inimicis ignibus arces^ 375 

JNon ullum auxilmm misens, non arma rogavi = ^ ^ ' . , i . .^ , ' 

Artis opisque tuae; nee te, eanssime eoniunx, ^ 

Ineassumve tuos volui exereere labores, 

Quamvis et Priami deberem plurima natis, 

Et durum Aeneae flevissem saepe laborem. 380 

Nunc lovis inperiis Rutulorum constitit oris: 

Ergo eadem supplex venio, et sanctum mihi numen 

Arma rogo^ genetrix nato. Te filia Nerei, 

here to point a contrast with Venus' nature; weapons (resources) of thy art and power, 

comp. 7. 806. * Tumultu ' above v. 4. 377.] * Exereere ' of setting a person to 

372.] The meaning apparently is that work 1. 431. ' Te tuosve labores ' pleonasti- 

they hive retired for the night to their calLy like " me meumque caput/' v. 144. 

golden chamber, like the Homeric Gods, 378.] M^d. originally had' incassumque.' 

II. 1. 606 foil. *Haec incipit' 11. 705. 379.] ' Priami natis' is understood by 

373.] Imitated from Lucr. 1. 38 foil., Serv. as referring specially to Paris : but 
which Cerda comp. '* Hunc tu, diva, tuo Virg. may merely have thought of the 
recubantem corpore sancto Circumfiisa su- Homeric Upidfioto wouSts. Donatus oddly 
per suavis ex ore loquelas Funde, petens supposes Creusa to be meant. 
placidamBomanis,incluta,pacem."<I>ictis' 380.] The Codex Minoraug^ensis hap 
dat.; Venus breathes on her words the 'dolorem,' which is plausible: but Virg^ 
spirit of love. The request of Venus is occasionally repeats words at short inter- 
modelled on that of Thetis to Hephaestus, vals elsewhere, and we must recollect that 
IL 18. 369 foil., her blandishments on those the Aeneid is an unfinished poem, 
practised by Here on Zeus H. 14. 159 foil. 381.] Cod. Min. and some others have 

874.] * Vastabant' is used vaguely in Mnperio,* which was apparently read by 

reference to the whole course of the siege. Serv. " Inperio lovis hue venio " 5. 726. 

" Reges Pelasgi " 1. 624. " Consistere terra " 6. 807^ 

375.] *Debita* isexpUunedby 'vastabant' 382. J * Eadem ' merely = ljeverthele88, 

or 'hello,' due to destruction. Wagn. admittmg her change of condbct. See 

comp. 9. 107 ** tempora Parcae Debita Madv. § 488, who quotes from Cic. Off. (not 

conplerant," i. e. " conpleri debita," G. Lcgg.) 1. 24, ** Inventi multi sunt qui vi- 

1. 223, ''Debita quam sulcis committas tam pro patria profundere parati essent, 

semina," i. e.' ** committi debita " or "debita iidem gloriae lacturam ne minimam quidem 

sulcis." The word, like 'casuras,' gives facere vellent. " "Supplex venio" 11.365. 

the reason why she had not made the re- ' Sanctum mihi numen ' has caused some 

quest : andso^incassum," v. 378. 'Ignibus' difficulty, Schrader conjecturing " sanctum 

with ' casuras,' not, as has been thought, tibi nomen " in apposition with ' genetrix,' 

with 'vastabant.' while Bibbeck reads "sanctum mihi no- 

376.] ' Miseris,' the Trojans, implied in men " from Gud., and perhaps originally 
'Pergama' and 'arces.' Serv. remarks Pal., throwing the words into a parenthesis. 
** Atqui honestum est miseris subvenire ; But there is some force in the omission of 
sed hoc dicit. Cur te fatigarem pro horai- ' tuum,' which seems to denote a reveren- 
nibus ikti necessitate perituris? " We may tial distance, 'a deity I have ever re- 
say that ' miseris ' shows the strong in- vered.' Virg. was doubtless thinking of 
ducement Venus had to make a request Hephaestus' language, U. 18. 394 ^ pd vii 
which she nevertheless forbore. The sense yMi Scii^ re ical axlioiii Oebr tvhov. For 
of ' arma ' seems to be fixed by v. 383 ; ' numen rogo ' comp. " supplex tua numina 
but the connexion of the word in this posco " 1. 666. 

sense with the genitive ' artis opisque tuae' 383.] Virg.'s art has hardly succeeded 

is rather harsh, so that otherwise we might in concealing the indelicacy of Venus' 

h«,ve preferred to take it generally, the asking a favour for the. offspring of her 


Te potuit lacrimis Tithonia flectere coniunx. 

Aspice^ qui coeant populi^ quae moenia clausis 385 

Femim acuant portis in me exscidiumque meorum. 

Drxerat, et niveis hine atque hinc diva lacertis 

Cunctantem amplexu moUi fovet. Hie repente 

Accepit solitam flammam^ notusque medullas 

Intravit calor et labefacta per ossa eucurrit, 390 

Non secus atque olim tonitru cum rupta corusco 

Ignea rima micans percurrit lumine nimbos. 

Seusit laeta dolis et formae eonscia coniunx. 

Tum pater aetemo fatur devinctus amore : 

adultery. Probably be tbougbt of the as the cause of the explosion : but it may 

language of Zeus to Here, II. 14. 315 foU. be modal like ** vento " G. 1. 431. < Corusco * 

Thetis weeps in addressing Hephaestus, with ' lumine.' 
n. 18. 428. 392.] Tirg. conceives of the lightning as 

384.] * Tithonia coniunx ' like '* Aeneia a sudden rent made across the dark atmo- 

nutrix " 7. 1. The request of Eos for arms sphere of cloud. Comp. 1. 123 " rimis 

for her son Memnon doubtless formed part fatiscunt ** of rents in the sides of vessels, 

of the Aethiopis. The arms of Memnon The Lucretian account of the origin of 

have been glanced at 1. 489, 751. lightning (6. 96 foil.) constantly reiterates 

385.] ' Clausis portis,' a sign of war, as the notion of the bursting of the clouds 

Serv. remarks on 2. 27, quoting this pas- (see w. 138, 203, 283, &c.), and Yii^. 

sage. 'Moenia ferrum acuant 'like "urbes varies it by supposing the lightning to be 

tela novant " 7. 629, comp. by Serv. not the thing that issues through the rent 

386.] ' In me ' is the germ of the exag- but the rent itself. Perhaps Virg. was 

geration which appears fully developed in thinking specially of Lucr. 6. 282 foil. 

10. 29. "maturum tum quasi ftilmen Perscindit 

388.] ' Cunctantem :' he was not per- subito nubem, ferturque comscis Omnia 

snaded at first, though afterwards he luminibus lustrans loca percitus ardor.'' 
speaks as if he had had no hesitation. 393.] The object of ' sensit ' is to be 

' Lacertis ' is instrumental, ' amplexu ' supplied from ' dolis ' and ' formae :' she 

perhaps modal : or we may say that perceived the success of her blandishments 

' amplexu molli fovet ' has the force of and the effect of her beauty. Thus it is 

" moUiter amplectitur." The expression is not strictly parallel to 2. 377, though it 

like " linguis micat ore trisulcis " Q. 3. has something in common with it. Virg. 

439 (note).— Comp. generally the passage was thinking of ZoXo^poviovim H. 14.300, 

firom Lucr. quoted on v. 373. 329, as Cerda remarks. There is also 

390.] Bom. and others have ' calefacta.' some resemblance to 4. 128, ** dolis risit 

'Labefactus' is a Lucretian word, = Cytherearepertis," comp. by Heyne, though 

" solutus :" comp. the whole passage Lucr. there the stratagem is not her own,, but 

3. 592 — 602. Under other circumstances Juno's, which she has detected. 
Virg. might have thought it an unduly 394.] 'Devictus,' the reading before 

strong expression : here it reminds us of Heins., is the original reading of Gud., and 

the natural hardness of the bones. We the corrected one of Pal., and is supported 

have had it in a similar but slightly more by Lucr. 1. 34, which Virg. evidently had 

metaphorical sense 4. 395. in his mind, ** aetemo devictus volnere 

391.] The passion thrills through his amoris,'" devinctus 'there having nohigher 

being with the speed of lightning. Med. authority than a quotation in the Schol. on 

has ' hand secus.' ' Olim cum ' i. q. " si Statins : see Lachm. in loco. But Virg. 

quando :" see on G. 2. 403. ' Rupta ' seems may well have wished to change the me- 

to include the two notions of bursting taphor for variety's sake, just as he has 

forth, as in 7. 569, and being rent or pro- substituted * amore ' for " volnere amoris.'' 

duced by the act of rending, which agrees ' Aetemo ' shows that Vulcan is overcome 

with the conception of ' rima.' ' Tonitm ' by a power as mighty as himself, 
prob. instram., the thunder being regarded 


Quid caussas petis ex alto? fiducia cessit 39S 

Quo tibi, diva, mei ? Similis si cura fuisset. 

Turn quoque fas nobis Teucros armare fuisset ; 

Nee Pater omnipotens Troiam nee fata vetabant 

Stare decemque alios Priamum superesse per annos. 

Et nunc, si bellare paras atque haee tibi mens est, 400 

Quidquid in arte mea possum promittere curae. 

Quod fieri ferro liquidove potest electro, 

Quantum ignes animaeque valent, absiste precando 

Viribus indubitare tuis. Ea verba locutus 

Optatos dedit amplexus, placidumque petivit 405 

395.] *Ex alto petere' is a phrase for of Virg.'s multifiirions knowledge. 'Veta- 

going far back. Comp. Attias Arm. lad. bant ' is apparently used in its proper 

fr. 14, "Cor Vetera tarn ex alto appetissis sense: 'the fates did not forbid, if yon 

discidia, Agamemno ? ** So G. 4(. 286, had only known it.' Not unlike is Hor. 

** Altins omnem Expediam prima repetens 1 Od. 27. 19, "Quanta laborabas Cha- 

ab origine famam." *Fidncia cessit Quo rybdi,*' *yoa were struggling all this 

tibi •/ comp. 2. 595, "quonam nostri tibi while.' 

cura recessit?" G. 4. 324, " quo tibi nostri 399.] With 'decern alios ' we may per- 

Pulsos amor ? " and with the sentiment haps comp. 5. 378, ** Quaeritur huic alius," 

generally 5. 800. 'Fiducia mei' like and the phrases roiovros IBlXKos, rotovros 

"generis fiducia" 1. 132. trtpof, "alius" being nearly i. q. "alter." 

396.] ' Similis si cura fuisset,' had you 400.] He adopts Venus' identification 

fait the same anxiety, meaning, had you ofherself with Aeneas. 'Mens,' intention, 

made the same request. as in 10. 182., 12. 554. 

397.] Heins. objected to the repetition 401. ] ' In arte mea ' seems to mean 

of ' fuisset, ' wishing either to read ' subisset ' * within the range of my art.' 

in the previous line, as in 9. 757, or to ex- 402.] ' Quod' relative clause after v. 401. 

pnnge the present line altogether : Jahn For ' potest ' some MSS. including two 

however thinks with justice that the re- Cff Bibbeck's) and early editions give 

petition gives symmetry and point to ' potestur,' an archaic form introduced in 

the sentence. It may be said in fact to ignorance of the quantity of 'electro.' 

bring out the notion of the correspondence O^mp. 9. 9. * Electro ' G. 3. 522. Here it 

of the will of fate with that of Venus, is the metal, compounded of gold and 

which Vulcan wishes to express. So far silver. 

as any definite theological meaning is to 403.] ' Animae,' the air blowing the 

be attached to this and the two following bellows, v. 449. The Homeric Hephaestus 

lines, it seems to be that the fate of Troy has no assistants but his ipvaat, which 

might have been delayed, had Venus seem to act of themselves when he sets 

wished it, though not averted, a view them to work, II. 18. 468 foil. Instead of 

agreeing with the language of Virg. regularly completing the sentence, Virg. 

elsewhere, 1. 299., 7. 313 foil., 10. 624 has introduced a clause of equivalent 

foil. 'Teucros' seems to be put for meaning, ' absiste ' &c. " Absiste moveri" 

Aeneas alone, by a rhetorical exagger- 6. 399. 

ation. Pal. originally had ' Teucros 404.] ' Indubitare,' as Serv. remarks, 

nobis.' appears to occur in no earlier writer. 

398.] Jupiter is made co-or£nate with Stat. Silv. 3. 5. 110 has " ingratus qui 
fate, if not the disposer of it, as in 10. 632. plura adnecto tuisque Moribus indubito," 
Serv. says that, according to the Etruscan doubtless imitating Virg. The construe- 
books, the posl^nement of imminent evils tion, which seems peculiar, not to say irre- 
is to be sought from Jupiter in the first gular, may perhaps be compared with 
instance, from the fates in the second. " fetis incerta feror " 4. 110. " Dubitare 
He adds from the same or a similar source, in aliqua re " seems a possible con- 
that destiny was supposed to be capable of struction, though no instances of it are 
being delayed for ten years, a strange no- quoted, 
tion, but one which may have formed part 405.] ' Dedit amplexus ' 1. 687. 'Petivit 


Coniugis infusus gremio per membra soporem. 

Inde ubi prima quies medio iam noetis abactae 
Curriculo expulerat somnum^ cum femina primum, 
Cui tolerare colo vitam tenuique Minerva 
Inpositum^ cinerem et sopitos suseitat ignis^ 4io 

Noctem addens operi^ famulasque ad lumina longo 
Exercet penso, castum ut servare cubile 
Coniugis et possit parvos educere natos^ 
Hand seeus Ignipotens nee tempore segnior illo 

per membra soporem' like "dedit per victum praebente." Perhaps the first 

membra quietem " v. 80 above. interpretation may deserve reconsidera- 

. 406.] ' Infosum/ an old reading men- tion. 

tioned by Serv., is found in PaL (originally) 410.] *Inpositnm* was strangely mis- 

and in Rom. apparently from a correc- understood in Serv.'s time^ some taking 

tion. it with * cinerem ' and supplying " placet ** 

407 — 453.] 'Vulcan wakes early and to 'tolerare/ others connecting 'tenuique 

goes to the workshop in his island, where Minerva inpositum ' in apparent defiance 

he finds the Cyclops making thunder- of 'que.' 'Cinerem et sopitos suseitat 

bolts, and bids them prepare a suit of ignis ' 5. 743. 

armour for Aeneas, They begin imme- 411.] 'Noctem addens operi' is some- 

diately.' thing like " partem solido demere de die " 

407. J '^nde ubi prima fides" 3. 69. Hor. 1 Od. 1. 20, but bolder. * Ad lumina:' 
Best is said to drive out sleep, the meaning by the fire or torch-light, like " ad luminis 
being that the first sleep has come to an ignis" G. 1. 291, though it might con- 
end, and the sleeper waikes, indisposed to ceivably be ' till daylight,' which is one of 
sleep again. As in 2. 268, there is a the interpretations there also. Comp. ge- 
mixture of ' prima quies,' first sleep, nerally the description of a virtuous wo- 
and "ubi primum." 'Medio curriculo' man Prov. 31. 15, " She riseth while 
is a temporal or local abl., in the middle it is yet night." 

of the course. 'Abactae' nearly i. q. 412.] Med. has ' exercens.' "Noctuma 

" abeuntis," with a further notion of being carpentes pensa puellae " G. 1. 390. 

driven in a car, like " Nox horis acta " 3. * Castum servare cubile,' " ne cogatur 

512. propter paupertatem pudorem deserere " 

408.] Virg. seems to have taken Serv. Comp. the words of the epitaph 

hints for this simile from three other " domi mansit, lanam fecit." 

comparisons, one in Hom., II. 12. 433 413.1 ' Educere ' i. q. " educare :" see 

foil., the other two in ApoU. B., 3. on 6. 765. The sense is from II. 12. 

291 foil., 4. 1062 foil., though the 435, lya vcutrlv ktiKia fitoBhy Aprirai, 

point of the comparison here is dif- 414.] Virg., as Wagn. remarks, ori^nally 

ferent from that of any of its pre- intendeid simply to indicate the time ot 

decessors. Vulcan's rising, but, having dwelt on the 

409.]"ColocalathisveMinervae"7.805. circumstances of the housewife's rising 

' Tolerare vitam,' as we talk of sustaining to work, he ends by a comparison. ' Igni- 

or supporting life, like " perfacile angustis potens ' v. 423, &c. It may be questioned 

tolerarit finibus aevum" Lucr. 2. 1171. whether 'tempore illo' means 'at that 

So Plant. Trin. 2. 2. 57, "tolerare eius time,' 'segnior' referring to the comparison 

egestatem volo." The construction with with the woman, or ' than that time,' 

the abl., which again corresponds to our something like irAe/» rod ^weiuBovros 

idiom, is found in Caesar, Pliny, &c. XP^^''^*' -A^esch. Aff. 894, for tAc^w J) icar^ rJ^K 

' Minerva/ the goddess of spinning for the ^vyt^Boyra xpovov. We might have 

act of spinning, like Ceres, Bacchus, &c., expected ' ilia,' in which case ' tempore 

Ov. M. 4. 33 has " intempestiva turbantes segnior ' would have been taken ' more 

festa Minerva," probably in imitation of sluggish in respect of time ' (comp. 7. 383, 

Virg. On ' tenui ' Serv. says " non file G. 2. 275) ; but there seems to be no varia- 

tenui, id est, subtili artificio, sed parvo tion in the MSS. 
pretio lamficii, id est, tenuiter et exiliter 


Mollibus e stratis opera ad fabrilia surgit. 415 

Insula Sicanium iuxta latus Aeoliamque 
Erigitur Liparen^ fumantibus ardua saxis^ 
Quam subter specus et Cyclopum exesa caminis 
Antra Aetnaea tonant^ validique incudibus ictus 
Auditi referunt gemit^jn^ striduntque cavernis ; * -^ 420 
Stricturae Chalybum, et fornacibus ignis anhelat^ 
Volcani domus, et Volcania nomine tellus. 
Hoc tunc Ignipotens caelo descendit ab alto» 

415.1 The island intended by Virg. was bejnat the contrary, the metal as sepa- 

called Hiera, one of the Aeolian isles be- rated from the ore; but the reading of the 

tween Lipara and Sicily (Diet. G. " Aeoliae words appears to be in some doubt. This 

Insulae"). 'Sicanium latus' for ''Sicaniae latter sense of 'strictura' would agree 

latus,'* like " Hesperium Siculo latus ab- with Persius 2. 66, " stringere venas Fer- 

scidit " 3. 418. ventis massae crudo de pulvere inssit," 

. 417.] * Erigitur * i. q. *' se tollit," *' sur- where see Jahn. Non. twice defines the 

git." Bom. has ' Lipare,' which Markland word (pp. 21, 523, 524) as meaning the 

wished to read, as other authors make Li- sparks which are struek out from iron 

para Vulcan's island. ** Ardua saxis" 3. 271. when beaten on the anvil, '* quod aut stricte 

418.] ' Exesus ' is found elsewhere of a emittantur, id est, oeleriter, aut quod 

cavern, in the sense of hollowed out (comp. oculos sui fulgore perstringant :" it may be 

G. 4. 419 " specus exesi latere in montis," questioned, however, whether he does not 

where perhaps the reference is to the extract this interpretation from an in- 

effect of the sea): here the notion is that stance he quotes fromLucil. Sat.3"crebrao 

the fire, '* ignis edax," has caused the ut scintillae in stricturis, quod genus olim 

cavity. "Cyclopum caminis" 6. 630. Ferventi ferro," where either of the other 

419.] Yirg. supposes a submarine con- meanings would be equally applicable, 

nexion between Sicily and Hiera. Forb.con- The word occurs also in Pliny 34. 14 ; but 

demns this interpretation, without saying the text seems to be too uncertain to build 

why, and prefers to take ' Aetnaea ' " qualia any thing upon. If a decision must be made, 

sunt Aetnae." The difiiculty was recog- the probability would seem to be in favour 

nized by Serv., one of whose views is that of Serv.'s second interpretation. The 

the noise in Hiera is so great as to be Chalybes are the traditional workers in 

echoed by Aetna. iron, so the metal is called * stricturae 

420.1 * Gemitum ' of the sound of blows, Chalybum,' as mines are called "Chalybum 
as in Ov. M. 12. 487, comp. by Forb., metalla " 10. 174. So Aesch. Theb. 728 
" Plaga facit gemitus ceu corpore mar- Xd\vfios 2kv(^»i' Akoikos is a personification 
moris icti." Med., Pal., and Gud. have of iron. ' Ignis anhelat :' the fire is con- 
* gemitus,' which apparently arose fr^m ceived of as the breath that comes panting 
the first letter in the next word, ' gemitum' out from the frunace. * Anhelo ' is gene- 
having been written, as frequently in ab- rally used of the person panting : but it is 
breviations, without the final letter, applied to the breath by Auct. ad Herenn. 
Serv. however seems to have read the 4. 33, '* Anhelans ex imis pulmonibus prae 
plural. ' Strident ' (' trident ') is the first cura spiritus ducebatur." 
reading of Med. For 'strido ' comp. 4. 689. 422.] ' Domus ' and * tellus ' are in ap- 

421.] ' Strictura ' is a word used not position with * insula ' v. 416 ; they might 

unfrequently in connexion withmetallurgy: however betaken in a sort of general ap- 

but the ancients themselves seem not to position to the whole sentence preceding, 

have been agreed about its meaning. Serv. like "Nympharum domus" 1. 168. * Yol- 

explains it here as ** terra ferri in massam cania :' the Bomans called Hiera 'Volcani 

coacta," which apparently means the Insula," and its modem name is Volcano, 

metal in the ore. In his note on 10. 174, 423.] Pal. and Gud. a m. p. have ' hue ;' 

he refers to Varro as saying of Ilva " nasci but ' hoc ' is attested by Serv. The use of 

quidem illic ferrum, sed in stricturam *hoc' for 'hue' is archaic, and its not 

non posse cogi nisi transvectum in Popu- being found elsewhere in Virg. is perhaps, 

loniam, " where the sense would seem to as Gossrau thinks, an argument agiunst It 



^ Perrum exercebant vasto Cyclopes in antro^ 

Brontesque Steropesque et nudus membra Pyracmon. 425 

His informatum manibus iam parte polita 

Fulmen erat, toto Genitor quae plurima caelo 

Deiicit in terras, pars inperfecta manebat. 

Tris imbris torti radios, tris nubis aquosae 

Addiderant, rutili tris ignis et alitis Austri. 430 

Fulgoies nunc terrificos sonitumque metnmque 

Miscebant operi flammisque sequacibus iras. 

Parte alia Marti currumque rotasque volucris 

Instabant, quibus ille viros, quibus e^citat urbes ; 

here. It is found however in Plant. Amph. aquosam hiemem " seems merely to refer to 

1. 1. 11, and other places : see Hand the descent of the rain. Virg. apparently 

Tnrs. vol. 3. 95 foil. means to represent the thunderbolt as made 

425.] Brontes (fipom'fi) and Steropes out of the component parte of a storm. 

(trrc^oT^) are mentioned Hesiod Theog. The thunderbolt in the representations of 

140, where the third is called Arges. Py- Zeus appears as a sort of bundle of darts, 

racmon (irG^, AKfi»y) seems not to appear 430.J ' Rutili tris ignis et (tris) alitis 

elsewhere. Serv. explains his name " qui Austri ' is apparently intended, as there ifl 

nunquam a calenti incude discedit." There no reason why fire and wind should be 

is of course no intention of representing blended into one triad. Serv. has a long^ 

him as distinguished from the rest by being note fall of various fhncies, as if the four 

naked, but the epithet suits his name. The triads represented the four seasons, show 

Ghalybes are represented as naked G. 1. 58. ing that lightning falls in all alike, or were 

426.] *Informo' nearly i. q. "inchoo/* characteristic of four divinities, &c. Pal. 

with which it is coupled Cic. de Or. 2. 9 : corrected has traces of an uugrammatical 

comp. V. 447. The meaning seems to be reading, ' halitus Austri,' whidb. Gud. gives 

to sketch a thing, or, as we say, put into with ' alitis ' as a variant, 

shape. Here it seems best to refer it to 481.] Light and sound, and the terror 

the thunderbolt altogether, not to the part they inspire, and the wrath that inspires 

of it which was finished, separating it them, are treated, not very scientifically, 

from ' erat,' which is constructed with as if they were separate ingredients in the 

' parte polita,' and making * his manibus ' = composition of the bolt, thrown in after the 

'* horum manibus," like " hie nuntius " various rays or shafts have been combined. 

4. 237, &c, * Shaped by their hands, the ' Horrificos' Bom., which Heins. adopted, 

lightning was already polished in part, apparently mistaking the extent of the 

while part remained unfinished.' Serv. external evidence for it. 

makes ' manibus ' = " in manibus." ' Parte 432.] * Flammis' might be dat . like 'operi,' 

polita '= '* parte politum." The polish of hut it seems best to take it, with Serv. and 

course is meant to represent the bright- the commentators, as attributive abl. with 

ness of the bolt. ' iras.' There is something awkward in mix- 

427.] ' Quae plurima,' one of the many ing real and metaphorical fire : but Virg. 
which. Heyneoomp. Od. 5.422, Kfjros . . old perhaps means to identify the anger of Ju- 
re iro\A& Tp4^€t KXvrhs *Afi^trpir7f, 'Toto piter with the physical element. 'Seqnax' 
eaelo' carries out the notion of 'plurima.' is a natural epithet of ordinary flame : but 

429.] This and the preceding lines are it may apply as naturally to the penetrating 

imitated from Apoll. B. 1. 731 foil. Zvivl character of lightning. 

ic€paurhr Avmiert itovtvfUvoi, ti r6frov ^8?) 484.] ' Currum instabant :' " nova lo- 

Tla/i(l>aipu» ir^TVKTo, fu^ 8* Ifr* JeiJero cutio " Serv. It is found in Nbvius, Mil. 

fAOvroy *\Kr7yot. ' Imbris torti ' is rightly Pom. fr. 2, "instat mercaturam : spero, 

explained by Serv. of hail, " constricti et rem faciet ; frugi est homo." " Instaro 

coacti in grandinem :" otherwise it would viam," which occurs in Plautus, is scarcely 

be difficult to distinguish it fh)m 'nubis parallel. For the chariot of- Mars comp. 

aquosae.' The parallel which Wagn. quotes 12. 331 foil. He is supposed to drive it 

from 9. 761 foil, scarcely proves it, as through a battle-field or a city, inspiriting 

though hail is mentioned there, "torquet or terrifying those who see or hear him. 


Aegidaque horriferam, turbatae Palladis arma> 435 

Certatim squamis serpentum auroque polibant^ 
Connexosque anguis ipsamque m pectore divae 
Gorgona, desecto vertentem lumina coUo. 
ToUite cuncta, inquit, coeptosque auferte labores^ 
Aetnaei Cyclopes, et hue advertite mentem : 440 

Anna aeri faeienda viro. Nune viribus usus. 
Nunc manibus rapidis, omni nunc arte magistra. 
Praecipitate moras. Nee plura effatus ; at illi 
Oeius incubuere omnes pariterque laborem 
Sortiti. Fluit aes rivis aurique metallum^ 443 

Volnificusque chalybs vasta fornace liquescit. 
Ingentem clipeum informant, unum omnia contra 

435.3 For the ae^s see on v. 358. The two other explanations, tnmtng the eyes 

mention of scales here seems to point to a of the beholders to stone, or turning their 

breast-plate, and so •* in pectore.'* * Horri- eyes from herself in horror. * Desecto 

fer ' is an odd compound, occurring in Pa- collo,' the neck haying been severed, where 

CUV. Chryses fr. 4, Att. Philoct. fr. 20, and we should say the head. So Hom. uses 

three times in Lucr. 'Horrificam' is a ^^tporofieTv, Rom. has ' deiecto.' 

variant in Gud., found in a few other MSS. 440.] ' Aetnaei ' v. 419. ' Advertite 

The word seems intended to express mentem ' 6. 304. 

Scty^v, ^v itipi filv irdvTri <I>6Bos ^(rrc^ayw- 441.] " Arma citi properate viro " 12. 

rcu, II. 5. 739. 'Turbatae' here seems to 425. ' Usus ' occasion ; see on G. 2. 23. 

mean wrathful, the general notion being 442.] 'Arte magistra' 12. 427, the art 

that of agitation, of which the particular which you have learnt and which guides 

kind is indicated by the context : oomp. 4. your actions. 8il. 3. 387 has "inssis pa- 

353. ' Arma ' of a single piece of armour rere magistris." 

3.288. 449.] "Praecipitate moras" 12. 699. 

436.] ' Squamis serpentum auroque ' tt^ The notion seems to be that of driving ra- 

9 A 9vo7v, the serpent's scales not being real pidly before one. Burm. restored ' et iUi,' 

but represented in gold. " Duplici squama the first reading of Pal. ; but Wagn. re- 

lorica fidelis et atiro " 9. 707. It is difficult called ' at.' 

to say whether these scales are the same 444.] Wagn. Q. V. 34. 2 seems right in 

as those of the serpents mentioned in the connecting ' pariterque laborem sortiti ' 

next line, or not. Lersch § 30 refers to with ' omnes,' so that both qualify ' incu- 

MuUer and Oesterlei's Monumenta Artis buere,' instead of making * sortiti ' a fmite* 

Antiqnae 2. 2. Tab. 19. The ablatives are verb. ' Pariter,' on equal principles, so 

instrumental or modal, Virg. saying that that each should have his fair share, 

they polished the aegis with scales, because 445.] For ' sortitio ' in labour comp. 3. 

the scales when made bright would add to 510, 634. The meaning seems to be that 

the brightness of the whole. some throw the metals in the fire and 

437.] 'Connexos anguis' clustering to- attend to their melting, others frame the 

gether round the head of Medusa. 'In shield, others blow the bellows^ &c. In 

pectore ' agrees with the description of Hom. Hephaestus does all, with the help 

other authors, such as Paus. 1. 24 (de- of his im^^ements. ' Fluit ' &c. xo^k^v SVj^ 

scribing the Parthenon) KflU 01 (Pallas) icard irvpl Bd\\f¥ &Tcip^a Ha<nririp6v re Kal 

thar^pyoy rf icc^oA^ McSo^cttjt, Ov. M. 4. XP^^^" Tifi^i^a kaI Apyvpov II. 18. 474. 

803 " Pectore in adverse quos fecit sustinet ' Fluit rivis ' 5. 200. " Aeris metalla" G. 

anguis," Prop. 2. 2. 9 " Pallas . . Gorgonis 2. 165. 

anguiferae pectus opcrta comis." 446.] ' Volnificus ' is a sort of proleptic 

438.] She is made to roll her eyes, epithet, expressing the purpose for which 

though her head is severed. Wagn. comp. the steel is melted. " Yastis Aetnaeforna- 

the animated figures made by H^haestus cibus " Lucr. 6. 681. 

11.18. 417 foil. Serv. gives a choice of 447.] 'Informant:' see on v. 426. 


Tela Latinorum, septenosque orbibus orbis 

Inpediunt. Alii ventosis foUibiis auras 

Accipiunt redduntque ; alii stridentia tinguunt 450 

Aera lacu. Gremit inpositis incudibus antrum. 

Illi inter sese multa vi bracchia tollunt 

In numerum, versantque tenaci forcipe massam. 

Haec pater Aeoliis properat dum Lemnius oris, 
Euandrum ex humili teeto lux suseitat alma 455 

Et matutini volucrimi sub culmine cantus. 
Consurgit senior, tunicaque inducitur artus, 
Et Tjrrhena pedum circumdat vincula plantis ; 

*Unum omnia contra tela:' comp. "pro and goes to find Aeneas.' 

omnibus unum " 8. 435. 454.] ' Aeoliis oris :' see on v. 416. 

448.] ' Orbibus orbis inpediunt ' 5. 584. Lemnos is the place on which the Homeric 

The sense of ' orbis ' here seems to be fixed Hephaestus fell from heaven, H. 1. 593, 

by 12. 925, as referring not to the circles and to which he constantly resorted, Od. 

on the superficies of the shield, but to the 8. 283. * Properat ' active 6. 1. 260. 

layers or folds of metal overlying each 455.] Wakef. conj. ' lecto — alba,' and in 

other. So Serv. appears to have under- v. 456 ' matutinos.' ' Ex humili tecto sus- 

stood it, "velnti septem scuta facta in citat' seems to combine the two notions 

unitatem connectunt," though Donatus of rousing from his bed and prompting him 

speaks of fourteen (!) circles. We do not to leave the house and go about his busi- 

elsewhere hear of the shield as seven-fold, ness. ' Lux alma ' 3. 311, an epithet more 

but Tumus' shield is so called 12. 925. in the taste of antiquity than ' alba,' which 

The shield of Ajax had seven bull-hide folds, would simply express the physical cause of 

the brass on the outside forming an eighth, Evander's waking, while ' ahna ' suggests 

11. 7. 245. ' Inpediunt ' then will refer to the thought of the effect of morning on all 

placing one on the other, so that their creation. 

circumferences are connected and as it 456.] Heyne inclines to understand 

were entangled. Lersch §31 makes 'orbes' 'matutini volucmm cantus' not of 'the 

the circles on the shield, distributing the swallow twittering from the straw-built 

pictures into seven parts. shed ' but of ' the cock's shrill clarion,' de- 

449.] 'Alii:' this passage, to the end nying that small birds waken sleepers: 

of the paragraph, has already occurred, but Wagn. answers him both from the 

with the exception of two or three words, experience of country people and from the 

G. 4. 171 foil., where see notes. * Ventosis ;' Psendo-Anacreon 12. Serv. had already 

" taurinis " 6. 4. 1, c. given the choice between swallows and 

451.] 'Antrum:* "Aetna" G. 4. 1. c. cocks. Cerda comp. Soph. El. 17, &s 

'Inpositis 'may perhaps be meant to tell us ^fuy IjSri \ctfiitphy riXlov treXas *E^a Kiy^T 

indirectly, after Virg.'s manner, that some ^iyfiar* 6pyl0wv tro^, which is slightly in 

put down the anvil, that being one of the favour of Wakef.'s coi\j. : but the reading 

works performed by Hephaestus, airriip in the text is more natural as making 

fircira BrJKfy iv oKfioOer^ fi^yay iKftoya Evander the principal figure. The object 

11. 18. 475. of the lines is to show the rustic simplicity 

452.] 'Illi' may in<Ucate a further di- of Evander's life: he wakes as a shepherd 

vision of labour, as Hephaestus I. c. takes might wake. 

up the hammer and the tongs immedi. 457.] This passage is modelled on several 

ately after placing the anvil. Virg. how- in Hom. e. g. U. 2. 42 foil., 10. 21 folL, 

ever has chosen here to express principally Od. 2. 1 foil. ' Tunica inducitur artus,' 

the contrast between the groaning of the a variety for "tunicam inducit artubus." 

smithy on the one hand and the labours of 458.] The Tyrrhenian sandals are men- 

the workers on the other. tioned by Hesychius and by Pollux 7. 22 

453.] ' Massam :' " ferrum " G. 4. I.e.: (both quoted by Cerda), the latter of whom 

comp. lb. 170. Bom. has ' forfice.' speaks of them as wooden soles of four 

454 — 468.] ' Evander rises at daybreak, fingers' breadth with g^ded latchets, and 



Turn lateri atque humeris Tegeaeum subligat ensem^ 

Demissa ab laeva pantherae terga retorquens. 46o 

Nee non et gemini eustodes Umine ab alto 

Praeeedunt gressamque eanes comitantur herilem. 

Hospitis Aeneae sedem et secreta petebat^ 

Sermonum memor et promissi muneris^ heros. 

Nee minus Aeneas se matutinus agebat. 465 

Filius huic Pallas^ illi comes ibat Achates. 

Congress! iungunt dextras, mediisque residant 

Aedibus^ et licito tandem sermone fruuntur. 

says Phidias represented Athene as shod 462.] * Praeeedunt ' was restored by 

with them. Serv. identifies them with the Brunck and Heyne for 'procedunt/ which 

senatorial shoe. Yirg. probably thought is the first reading of Pal. Heins. thought 

rather of simplicity and antiquity than of ' praeeedunt ' inconsistent with ' comitan- 

splendour in choosing the epithet. ' Yin- tur/ but we may reconcile them by sup- 

cula ' of sandals 4. 518. It matters little posing either that the dogs sometimes 

whether we take ' pedum ' with ' vincula ' walk before their master, sometimes by his 

or with ' plantis.' The use of * pUmta,' the side, or that ' comitantur ' is used vaguely 

sole, agrees with the Homeric vir^ itotrtrlv of going along with a person. ' Gressum 

ii'^a'aro ircSiXa. henlem ' i. q. *' gressum heri," like *' men- 

459.] The Homeric heroes are said to sae herili '' 7. 490. 

throw their swords round their shoulders, 463.] ' Secreta,' the retirement, 6. 10, 

which means that the sword-belt passed G. 4. 403. He was anxious for a private 

over the right shoulder, while the sword conference, as the context shows, 

itself hung beside the left hip (Diet. A. 464.] ' Sermonum,' of what he had said 

Balteus). This explains the combination to Aeneas v. 170, so that it forms a sort of 

'lateri atque humeris' here. Evander as hendiadys with 'promissi muneris.' The 

an Arcadian has naturally a sword of position of ' heros ' is significant, like that 

Tegea^ but the commentators have not of "mater " v. 370. ' Mindful, hero that 

collected any other passages speaking of he was, of discourse held and bounty pro- 

Arcadian swords. mised.' 

460.] The panther's hide is flung round 465.] 'Se matutinus agebat' like "in- 

the left shoulder. 'Betorqnens' refers to the fert se saeptus nebula" 1. 439, &c. Rom. 

action of flinging and wearing it flung, like and Gud. have ' sese,' which is also found 

" torquens " 7. 6(86. ' Tergum ' of a hide from a correction in Med. and Pal., appa- 

1. 368, &c. Paris wears a leopard's skin, rently a proof that the knowledge of quan- 

irapBaK^ri, II. 3. 17. Lersch § 79 thinks . tity had died out when those copies were 

firom the position of the hide that it is written or corrected. ' Se agebat ' was 

worn as a toga ; but the words seem hardly moving, 6. 337., 9. 696. So we talk of 

express enough to support the supposition, being astir. With 'matutinus' Cerda 

and it might be identified with the ' laena' comp. dmjotoi Owptix^^vrts H. 8. 530, and 

(x^-cuva) or the ' chlamys.' Pal. and Gud. other Homeric acyectives of time applied 

have ' pantherea :' but there is no example to persons, e. g. x'^^C^h ktnripios, 

of such an adjective. 466.] ' Hie ' and * illi ' reversed, probably 

461.] So Telemachus is accompanied by because though Aeneas happens to have 

dogs Od. 2. 11. ' Limine ab alto' does not been last mentioned, Evander has been the 

strictly harmonize with "humili tecto" prominent subject of the paragraph. See 

above v. 455 : but the door might be called on v. 358. 

high in itself, not as compared with other 467.] ' Congressi ' of friendly meeting : 

doors, so that there is no need of Markland's comp. the su^t. "congressus 5. 733. 

conj. ' arto.' ' Custodes ' separated from ' Iungunt dextras ' 3. 83. ' Mediis aedibus' 

'canes' like "Delius" from "Apollo" 3. 2. 512, referring here as there to the 

162. 'Custodes' however may be meant "atrium" or " cavaedium." 

to go closely with 'praeeedunt,' like 468.] ' Licito ' seems rightly referred by 

" comes" with " admonuit " in the similar Wagn. (following an alternative of Serv.) to 

line 6. 538 note. the securing of privacy, which is also indi- 



Rex prior haec : 

Maxume Teucrorum ductor, quo sospite numquam 470 

Res equidem Troiae victas aut regna £atebor^ 

Nobis ad belli auxilium pro nomine tanto 

Exiguae vires : hine Tusco claudimur amni^ 

Hinc Butulus premit^ et murum cireumsonat armis^ 

Sed tibi ego ingentis populos opulentaque regnis 475 

lungere eastra paro^ quam fors inopina salutem 

Ostentat. Fatis hue te poseentibus adfers. 

Haud proeul hinc saxo ineolitur fiindata vetusto 

Urbis Agyllinae sedes, ubi Lydia quondam 

catod by * tandem/ Comp. the imitation in 474.] Heyne prefers " circumtonat,** the 

Stat. Theb. 2. 148 foil., quoted by Cerda : second reading of Med., which would be 

"Postquam mediis in secUbus aulae nfedlesdy strong in a comparatively sim- 

Congre8si,inquevicemdextra8iunxerelo- ple passage. For 'armis Rom. has 'ar- 

cumaue *^* Arcens and * Arruns * are also 

Quo serere arcanas aptum atque evolvere ^^^^^= ^<^^ however are nam^ of per- 

curas sonages connected with Troy, not with the 

t»«:j.,«4. » Butulians, so that probably there is ho- 

Insidunt. ., . .A • i.* u j. x_ •! » 

thing m the variations but a transcriber's 

469—509.] ' Svander tells Aeneas that error. In the original reading of Pal. the 

though he has but few soldiers of his own, last two letters and a half seem to be 

he can offer him the alliance of the Etrus- obliterated. 

cans, who are eager to be led against Tur- 475.] " 'Ingentis populos' nonsine canssa 

nus, on account of the shelter given by dixit : nam Tuscia duodecim Lucuraones 

him to their expelled tyrant Mezentius, habuit, i. e. reges, quibus unus praeerat^ 

but have been ordered by the Gods to put Serv. This may explain * opulentaque 

themselves under a foreign general. He regnis,' though there may be also a refer- 

adds that he will send with Aeneas his son ence, natural in the mouth of a Roman 

Pallas, and a small troop of his own.' poet, to the capacity of the Etruscans for 

470.] 'Quo sospite' like "te sospite" forming a great empire, as is remarked on 

Hor. 1 Od. 28. 27, comp. by Forb. the parallel passage '< gravidam inperiis 

471.1 Serv. says " Satis mature ' equi- belloque f)rementem Italiam " 4. 229. The 

dem ' dixit, 1. e. ego quidemTroiamte vivo kings of the Italian nations have been 

victam non arbitror, quantum est in opi- dwdt on already, 7. 37, 42, 642, as the 

nione mea." chief elements of the greatness of the 

472.] ' Pro nomine tanto ' is variously struggle. ' Regnis ' seems to mean * in 

explained, " pro tui nominis gloria," Serv., respect of kingdoms,' like " doms opulen- 

foUowed by Wagn. j " pro socii nomine, ad tum " 1. 447. 

quem tu supplex venias," Gossrau; "pro 476.] 'Paro' I propose: comp. 9. 248 
fama quae te ad nos adduxit," Heyne, fol- "non tamen omnino Teucros delere para- 
lowed by Forb. The last seems the most tis." ' Quam salutem ' like " quae mu- 
natural. The Arcadians had the name of nera"4. 262. With 'fors salutem osten- 
a great nation, but were only a small band tat ' comp. generally 2. 387. 
of settlers, and had difficulty in defending 477.] ' IVitis poseentibus ' 7. 272, &o, 
their own homes. Forb. comp. Aeneas' Serv. mentions a variant ' adfert,' and some 
compliment to E vander's fEime v. 132 abov^ copies have ' adfer.' 

"tuaterris didita fama." 'Pro nomine' 478.] 'Ineolitur' like "oolitur" 8. 73 

like " pro tempore " E. 7. 35. ' Belli ' note. ' Saxo fundata vetusto ' a poetical 

may be either an objective gen. or one of circumlocution for ' vetusta :' comp. 3. 83 

quality, i. q. "bellicum auxilium." note. 

473.] • Vires ad auxilium exiguae ' like 479.] For Agylla or Caere see 7. 652. 

"serae ad fortia vires" v. 509. 'Tusco * Urbis Agyllinae sedes ' like " sede Lavini " 

arani ' the Tiber. ' Claudimur :' comp. 10. 1. 270. For the supposed Lydian origin of 

377 " claudit nos obiice pontus." the Etruscans see Diet. G. " Etruria." 


Gens^ bello praeelara^ iugis insedit Etruscis. 480 

Hanc multos florentem annoe rex deinde superbo 

Inperio et saevis temiit Mezentias armis. 

Quid memorem infandas caedes^ quid facta t jranni 

Eifera? di capiti ipsius generiqne reservent ! 

Mortua quin etiam iung^bat eorpora vivis^ 485 

Conponens manibusque manus atque oribus ora, 

Tormenti genus^ et sanie taboque fluentis 

£lonplexu in misero longa sic morte neeabat. 

At fessi tandem cives infanda furentem 

Armati circumsistunt ipsumque domumque^ 490 

Obtruncant socios^ ignem ad fastigia iactant. 

nie inter caedem Butulorum elapsus in agros 

Confugere, et Turni defendier hospitis armis. 

Ergo omnis fiiriis surrexit Etruria iustis ; 

Regem ad supplicium praeaenti Marte reposcunt. 495 

His ego te^ Aenea^ ductorem millibus addam. 

480.] ' Ingis insedit Etmads :' Caere, dead to the living. It is natural to sop- 
like many other Italian towns (G. 2. 156), pose that tlie dead had died hy yiolenee : 
is built on a height. " Bello praedara *' but ' sanie ' is applied to the decomposition 
12. 347. arising from the bite of a serpent, Lucan 

481.] * Dande ' refers to * florentem,' as 9. 768, 781. 

if it had been " postqoam floruerat." < Su- 488.] * Sic ' as in 1. 225., 7. 668, collect- 

perbo ' V. 118 note. ing, as Forb. remarks, the sense of the an- 

482.] * Temiit armis' 9. 168. tecedent clause. 

484.] For similar imprecations comp. 2. 489.] ' Inianda furentem ' like " vana 

190., 6. 529. For * capiti ' Taubm. comp. tumentem " 11. 854, " acerba fremens " 12. 

the Aristophanic is Kc^to^^i^ trot. 398. Comp. "fnrere furorem" 12. 680. 

485.1 This trait seems to have been bor- 491.] They bum his palace. *' Flammas 
rowed oy Virg. from the historical bar- ad culmina iactant " 2. 478. 

barities of the Etruscan pirates, mentioned 492.] * Caedem ' Rom., Med. first read- 
in a fragment (83 ed. Nobbe) of Cicero's ing, ' caedes ' Pal., Med. second reading. 
Hortenuus, preserved by Augustin Contra God. unites tiie two. Wagn. seems right 
Pelagian. 4. 15 : " qui quondam cum in prae- in recalling the former, asXeing 1. q. " in- 
donum Etruscorum manus incidissent, cm- ter caedendum." 

delitate exoogitata necabautur : quorum 498.1 ' Defendier ' like " accingier " 4. 

corpora viva cum mortuis, adversa adversis 493, '< oominarier " 7. 70. 

adoommodata, quam aptissime (artissime ?) 494.] 'Funis' modal. 'Iustis' like 

oolligabantur." " iustus dolor " v. 500. 

486.2 * Conponens ' used as in Lucil. 8. 495.] ' Ad supplicium reposcunt ' like 
fr. 5 "Turn latu' componit lateri et cum ''adpoenam vocabit" 6. 821. "Poenas 
pectore pectus." 'Que' followed by 'at- reposcere ab aliquo" is found CatuU. 48 
que' G. 1. 182. (50). 20. See on 2. 139. Serv. seems right 
. 487.] 'Tormenti genus' is an ace. in in explaining 'praesenti Marte' "sineali- 
apposition to the sentence, what would be qua dilatione :" comp. "praesens poena" 
explained in Greek as a oogn. ace, like Cic. De Div. 2. 59, Juv. 1. 142. Otherwise 
" triste ministerium " 6. 223. Here it has we might make it local : they demand back 
the force of an exclamation, as if it had Mezentius by leading an army to Tumus' 
been " quale genus tormenti ! " ' Sanie gates. It is not clear whether ' reposcunt' 
taboque fluentis ' refers to the decomposi- js a historic present, or represents the 
liion, wfhich would seem to extend from the existing attitude of the Etruscans, 


Toto namque fremunt condensae litore puppes^ 
Signaque ferre iubent j retinet longaevus haruspex 
Fata canens : O Maeoniae delecta iuventus^ 
iPlos veterum virtusque virum, quos iustus in hostem 500 
Fert dolor et merita accendit Mezentius ira^ 
Nulli fas Italo tantam subiungere gentem : 
Externos optate duces. Turn Etrusca resedit 
Hoc acies campo^ monitis exterrita divom. 
Ipse oratores ad me regnique coronam 605 

Cum sceptro misit mandatque insignia Tarchon, 
Succedam castris^ Tyrrhenaque regna capessam. 
Sed mihi tarda gelu saeclisque effeta senectus 

497.] Comp. generally 4. 416 foil. The animals, as Emm. remarks : comp. E. 5. 29. 

feelings of those on board the ships are 503.] ^ Externos daces ' may be called 

transferred to the ships themselves. 'Con- an oracular plural, like "extemi generi'' 

densae ' 2. 517 note. 7. 98. " Optate,' choose, not wish or wait 

498'.] " Signa ferre " 7. 628 note. The for. Serv. gives both explanations, though 

reference here as there is to an engagement there seems some corruption or confusion 

by land, so that the eagerness of the na- in his text. 

tion is expressed by saying that the ships 504.] The army was drawn up ready 

cry out for a land engagement, the mean- for action, though it did not venture to 

-ing being that the army is eager to get to march. ' Hoc campo,' as if it were in 

shore. sight, being really at no great distance. 

499.] " Fata canens " 10. 417. * Maeo- CJomp. w. 603 foil. With * monitis exter- 

nia' seems to stand for Etruria Ov. M. 3. rita divom' comp. 4. 353 ''Admonet in 

581, and so it may be here, though it is somnis et turbida terret imago." 

equally natural to explain it of the old 505.] ' Oratores ' 7. 153 note. 'Begni' 

tx>untiy of the Etruscans, ** gens Lydia." seems to be a possessive genitive. 

< Delecta inventus' 4. 130., 9. 226. Here 506.]'<Mandarehonore8"«magistratum" 

it seems to refer to the whole army, spoken are found in Cic and Caes. : see Freund. 

-of as the prime of the nation. Comp. " de« Serv. says that the Etruscan kings had not 

lectus " of a levy. really crowns, meaning apparently crowns 

500.] ** ' Flos veterum ' Ennianum " of gold : so that as Gossrau remarks, we 

Serv. referring, as Ribbeck thinks, to A. 9. may suppose the word to be used loosely 

fr. 6, " Flos delibatus populi suadaeque for the tiara, fillet, or other royal oma- 

medulla." * Veterum virum ' is explained ment of the head. Dionys. Hal. 3. 61 

by Heyne ** populi qui antiquam originem mentions a golden crown, an ivory throne, 

habet," perhaps rightly, though ' veteres a sceptre surmounted by an eagle, together 

viri ' elsewhere (e. g. v. 356 above) refers with the ** tunica palmata " and " toga 

to an earlier generation. Perhaps we may picta," as the ensigns of Boman royalty ; 

say that Yirg. conceived of the youth of and Virg. may well have thought of this 

Etruria as of buds springing from an old rather than of the strict propriety of 

stock : or ' veterum ' may be said in the Etruscan costume. Comp. generally 11. 

spirit of the poet, not in that of the sooth- 334. Heyne read * Tarcho :' but the final 

sayer : comp. 3. 704 &c, * Virtus ' would < n ' is found in all Bibbeck's MSS. 

hardly have been used without ' flos :' 507.] ' Succedam— capessam ' an oratio 

comp. however 5. 754, "Exigui numero, sed obliqua, expressing the words of the charge, 

hello vivida virtus." We might distin- Comp. 1. 645., 2. 652., 4. 288 foil. "Suc- 

guish * hostem ' from ' Mezentius,' taking cedat pugnae " 11. 826. 

itof Tumus and the Butulians: but it 508.] 'Tarda gelu 'refers to the sluggish 

seems hardly worth while. flow of an old man's blood. " Gelidus 

501.] 'Dolor' of indignation v. 220. tardante senecta Sanguis hebet" 5. 395. 

502.J The prohibition is thrown into ' Saeculum ' is the period of human life, 

the form of a compliment to the nation, which some extended to a hundred, others 

' Subiungere ' is a metaphor from yoking cut down to thirty years (Diet. A. s. v.), so 


Invidet inperium seineqne ad fortia vires. 

Natum exhortarer, ni mixtus matre Sabella 510 

Hinc partem patriae traheret. Tu, cuius et annis 

Et generi fata indulgent^ quern numina poscunt, 

Ingredere, o Teucrum atque Italum fortissime ductor. 

Hunc tibi praeterea^ spes et solatia nostri, 

Pallanta adiungam ; sub te tolerare magistro 5i5 

Militiam et grave Martis opus, tua cemere facta 

Adsueseat, primis et te miretur ab annis. 

Arcadas huic equites bis centum, robora pubis 

Lecta, dabo, totidemque suo tibi nomine Pallas. 

Vix ea fatus erat : defixique ora tenebant 520 

that when an old man is said to have seen foil., where Lycus offers his son Dascylufl 

more 'saecula' than one we must either to accompany Jason. ' Tolerare/ &c.:comp. 

understand the expression hyperbolically or generally Hor. 3 Od. 2. 1 foil. Enn. A. 10 

interpret 'saecnlum ' in its narrower sense, fr. 4 has " hellnm tolerare potentes." 

Comp. the three generations of the Home- 516.] Virg. may have thought of fidya 

ric Nestor and the trouble they have given l^pyok "Aprios II. 11. 734, though there a 

to those who make history out of poetry : single action is spoken of, here a prolonged 

also Lucr. 1. 202 ** Multaque vivendo employment. 

vitalia vincere saecla." The structure of 517.] * Miretur * nearly = '* imitetur," 

the line recalls 7. 440. as Serv. remarks, comp. Lucan 9. 805, 

509.^ With the feeling contained in ** Magnanlmo iuveni miratorique Catonis.'* 

' invidet ' comp. 5. 415 ** aemula necdum 518^ " Lecti iuvenes, Argivae robora 

Temporibus geminis canebat sparsa senec- pubis' Catull. 62 (64). 4. 

tus.*' *Ad fortia' may go either with 519.] 'Nomine' Med., and so Scorv., 

'serae* or 'vires' (comp. v. 473 above): * munere ' Bom., Pal., Gud. Ribbeck 

perhaps we may say it belongs to both, adopts the latter, which Heins. had pre- 

Forb. comp. Sil. 3. 255, *' Consilio viridis ferred, remarking that Evander had not 

sed belli serus Uertes." said that he gave the cavalry to Aeneas 

510.] Wagn. has restored 'gnatum'Arom but to Pallas. But the inconsistency is 

Bom., though Med., Pal., and Ckid. have natural and Yirgilian enough : Evander 

'natum.' See on 6. 867. The subject- had really given the cavalry to Aeneas, 

matter of the encouragement is of course though, with a father's tenderness, he chose 

to be gathered from the context, especially to speak of them as a gift to his son, whom 

V. 507. ' Mixtus matre Sabella :' see on 6. he now allows to make a similar present in 

762, and comp. for the construction 7. 661. his own name. Ribbeck also reads ' sibi,* 

511.] Pallas' native land waspartly Area- which is found in Pal. from a correction, 

dian, partly Sabine. ' Hinc,' irom Italy. and was the original reading of Gud. The 

512.] ' Patum indulget,' the reading peculiarity of the construction (with which 

before Heins., is found in Rom. and origi- comp. " suo sibi hunc gladio iugulo " Ter. 

nally in Gud. ; it seems also to have been Adelph. 5. 8. 35 and other instances in 

originally intended by Pal., which has 'fatum Freund) may seem in its favour: but it is 

indulges ' altered into ' fata indulgent.' more probable that it arises from a tran* 

' Indulgent ' is contrasted with 'invidet.' scriber's confusion, just as Med. originally 

613.] ' Ingredere * enter on thy destiny, had ' tuo sibi nomine.' 

as in G. 1. 42. Evander salutes him by 520 — 540.] 'A sound and flash as of 

his new title. armour are heard and seen. Aeneas recog- 

514.] " 'Spes' quia multa sibi de eius nizes the sign as coming from Venus, and 

virtute promittebat pater, ' solatium ' quia is lifted up by the prospect of the war.' 

amissa coniuge unici filii utebatur solatio " 520.] Furb.,improvinguponWagn., seems 

Serv. The plural was doubtless adopted for to have set this passage in its true light, 

metrical reasons, but it has a force of its 'Vix ea fatus erat,' as he remarks, naturally 

own. introduces some unforeseen event (comp. 

516.] Germ. comp. Apoll. E. 2. 802 1. 686., 2^ 692., 3. 90), so that its real 

VOL, m, K 


Aeneas Anchisiades et fidus Achates ; 

Multaque dura suo tristi cum corde putabant, 

Ni signum caelo Cytherea dedisset aperto. 

Nainque inproviso vibratus ab aethere fulgor 

Cum sonitu venit, et ruere omnia visa repente, 525 

Tyrrhenusque tubae mugire_peii aethera clangor. 

Suspiciunt ; iterum atque iterum fragor increpat ingens. 

Arma inter nubem caeli in regione serena 

reference here must be to the portent through the sky. 

mentioned v. 523 ; Virg. however probably 624.] * Inproviso ' adverb, not connected 

thought that the effect of the interposition with ' aethere.' ' Fulgor * of the flash of 

would be greater if it came when Aeneas lightning Lucr. 6. 170 &c. " Yibrataque 

was despondent, and so throws in the fiilmiuaiactat" Ov. M. 2. 308. 
intervening lines, which leads him to 525.]"Cumsonitutrahif 2.466. "Tre* 

change the construction. ' Ora tenebant ' mere omnia visa repente " 3. 90. * Ruere' 

2. 1 note. expresses the effect of the crash, * fragor :' 

522.] They were brooding sorrowfully every thing shook as if on the point of 

over the perilous future, and would have falling. " Ruit arduus aether " G. 1. 324 

gone on brooding, had not Venus sent a is not the same thing, as the reference 

sign. Wagn. comp. 6. 358 " iam tuta there is to a downfall of rain. Lucr. 4. 403 

tenebam, Ni gens crudelis . . . invasisset." has " non supra sese mere omnia tecta 

" Suo tristi cum corde volutat " 6. 185. minari.'* 

Comp. also Enn. A. 24" Haudtemere 526.] ** Cum tuba depresso graviter sub 

est quod tu tristi cum corde gubernas." murmure mugit" Lucr. 4. 543. The 

With ' putabant * comp. " multa putans " 6. invention of the trumpet was ascribed to 

332. Serv. has anodd piece oflexicographi- the Tyrrhenians (Soph. Aj. 17 &c.); but 

cal explanation : " Unde et arbores putari the epithet here has special force, as it is 

dicuntur, quia diu deliberatur quid eis a TyiThene alliance that has been proposed 

adimi debeat, quid relinqui.^' to Aeneas. ** Clangor tubarum ** 2. 313. 

523.] * Caelo ' from heaven. * Aperto ' * Tyrrhenus tubae cfiingor* like "Nemeaeus 

1. 155. It was thunder in a cloudless hiatus leonis " Lucr. 5. 24 &c. 
sky that constituted the sign. It is scarcely 527.] The thunder is repeated thrice, as 

necessary to refer to Hor. 1 Od. 34. 5 foil. Qossrau remarks, comp. 7. 141. ' Intonat,' 

Cerda strangely explains * aperto ' " rupto the reading before Heins., is found in Serv., 

et hiant6 tonitribus, fulguribus, fragore,'' but in none of Ribbeck's MSS. In 12. 332 

referring to the language in the O.T. about the MSS. are more divided. Gud. has a 

shutting and opening the heaven. Mr. variant * sonus * for ' fragor.' ' Increpare ' 

Gladstone (Studies, vol. 3. p. 523) com- occurs Cic. de Or. 2. 5 apparently of the 

ments severely on this creation of a '* Cy- hurtling of the discus, and Enn. Thy. fi*. 

therea tonans :" but it is merely an 2 has " sed sonitus auris meas pedum . 

application of the belief that gods had pulsn increpat.'' 

besides their own special functions a 528.] ' Inter nubem ' may seem incon-. 

general divine power. Not to mention the sistent with ' regione serena ' and * per 

thunder wielded by Pallas 1. 42, which sudum:' but the cloud is evidently not 

seems to have been a special privilege, meant to be a rain or thunder doud (see 

we may compare the instances in Hom. however on v. 608) and probably only 

where they borrow things from each other, serves to form a sort of medium through 

Aphrodite borrowing the car of Ares, Here which the armour appears, like the mist in 

the cestus of Aphrodite. Besides, we are which the Homeric gods carry heroes away, 

not told here that Venus sent the thunder Comp. 7. 142, and note there. Yirg. was 

independently of Jupiter, so that we may probably thinking of Lucr. 6. 99 " Nee fit 

easily suppose him to have launched it at enim sonitus caeli de parte serena Yerum 

her request. Here too the thunder and ubicumquemagisdensosuntagminenubes," 

lightning only come in as the physical where the usiml phaenomena of thunder 

manifestation of the clashing and the are described. Ribbeck omits * in ' from 

glitter of the divine armour carried Med. a m. p. and a quotation in Nonius 


Per sudiim rutilare vident et pulsa tonare. 

Obstipuere animis alii ; sed Troius heros 530 

Adgnovit sonitum et divae promissa parentis. 

Turn memoiat : Ne vero, hospes^ ne quaere profecto. 

Quern casum portenta ferant : ego poscor Olympo. 

Hoc signum cecinit missuram diva ereatrix^ 

Si bellum ingrueret^ Yoleaniaque arma per auras 535 

Laturam auxilio. 

Heu quantae miseris caedes Laurentibus instant ! 

31. 15 : but this hardly seems anthority incidental narrative. Horn, makes Thetis 

enough. promise to Achilles, who is altogether 

629.] ' Sudnm ' subst. : see Freund. In withont arms, that she will procure armour 

G. 4. 77 it is an adjective. ' Vident ' of irom Hephaestus. Venus' good intentions 

hearing v. 360. Pal. and Bom. have towards Aeneas are more gratuitous, and 

' sonare.' For the sound of arms in the therefore we only hear of the promise indi- 

air a» a portent oomp. G. 1. 474, where it rectly. " IHva creatrix " 6. 367. For the 

is one of the phaenomena at the time of omission of "se" with 'missuram' see Madv. 

Caesar's death. § 401. ' Canere ' of prophetic utterance 

530.1 'Obstipuere animis :' 9ee on 2. 120. 7. 79 &c. 

< Alii' has nearly the force of "ceteri," as 535.] It is difficult to understand from 

in 5. 834. this cursory notice what were the exact 

531.] 'Adgnovit sonitum et divae pro- terms of Venus' promise. We do not 

missa parentis,' recognized in the sound know the time when the promise was 

the fulfilled promise. Comp. Aesch. Ag. given, and this ignorance must affect our 

123 i9dri \ayo9a(Tas TiofAito^s r* kpx^s, understanding of the condition ' si bellum 

Soph. O.T. 1054 ¥ous iKuyov %mi»* ipriwi ingrueret.' If we suppose Venus' promise 

MoAcTv i<l>i4fA€ff6a r6¥ 0* oinos Keyti ; to have been made shortly before Aeneas 

532.] ' Memorat :' see on 2.650. 'Ne started for Pallanteum, then <si bellum 

vero' 11. 278, /a^ drjra. The earnestness ingrueret' will be the thing about which 

seems partly to arise from Aeneas' elevation Venus was to give a sign, the sound and 

of mind, partly intended to allay Evander's flash of armour answering the double 

fears. * Profecto ' is virtually i. q. ' vero.' purpose of indicating that the armour 

533.] ' Ferant ' seems to combine the itself was being brought and that war was 

notions of announcing and actually bring* at hand, for which last object see G. 1. 474, 

ing. ' Ego ' emphatic. Serv. speaks of referred to on v. 529. But it seems more 

two punctuations, after ' poscor ' and after natural to believe that the promise was 

' Olympo.' The latter has been revived made while war was still a mere contin- 

by Peerlkamp, Ladewig, and Haupt : but gency, and that Venus undertook in the 

the rhythm is strongly against it. Aeneas event of trouble arising in Italy to bring 

might well say tluit he was called by armour from Vulcan, and to make it heard 

Olympus, after the sign of the divine will and seen as she brought it. This will 

just given. Oomp. "sonitus Olympi" account better for Aeneas' exaltation, as 

6. 586. There is a general resemblance his previous depression would then be 

between Aeneas' position here with regard owing to his seeing a doubtful war before 

to Evander and Oedipus' relation to Theseus him, without having received the promised 

when the thunder oomes announcing his sign of divine aid. Gossrau thinks the 

end. Perhaps we may comp. with this hemistich shows that Virg. could not work 

passage Soph. O. C. 1654^ where Theseus out the passage as he wished, and adds 

is described by the messenger after the " quod si talibus in locis quasi de opere 

death of Oedipus as y^v re irpo(rKwovv0* absolute iudicas, poetae facis iniuriam." 

ifUL Kal rhv $i&y ''OXvfirou iv tahr^ Kiytf, * Volcania arma' 12. 739. 

534.] Germ. comp. Soph. O. C. 94 537.] Comp. generally Latinus' fore- 

<ny/tAc?a 8* ¥i^fiv rSoM fiot wapTiYT^^ ^H bodings 7. 595 foil., and the prophecy 

a-tuTfihv fj fipomiiv riv* ^ At^s o-cAos. This of Nereus Hor. 1 Od. 15. 4, which Vii^, 

is another instance of Virg.'s fondness for may have had in his mind. 

K 2 


Quas poenas mihi^ Tume^ dabis ! quam multa sub undas 

Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volves, 

Thybri pater ! Poscant acies^ et foedera rampant ! 540 

Haec ubi dicta dedit^ solio se toUit ab alto ; 
Et primum Herculeis sopitas ignibus aras 
Excitat^ hesternumque Larem parvosque Penatis 
Laetus adit; mactat lectas de more bidentis 
Euandrus pariter, pariter Troiana iuventus. 545 

Post hinc ad navis graditur, sociosque revisit ; 

538.] For the latter half of this line thinks that there is another sacrifice at 

and for the next comp. 1. 100 note. Here the Ara Maxnma, as well as at home to the 

Bom. and one of Bibheck's cursives have household gods ; but the words are hardly 

< unda,' and one inferior copy ' undis.' such as would be used to express Aeneas' 

With the general anticipation comp. 6. 87. going to a more or less distant place, which 

Heyne remarks that there is no battle at the Ara Maxuma must have been. 'Ignibus' 

the Tiber like that at the Scamander : with ' excitat :* he rekindles the dead or 

Yirg. however has chosen to repeat the dying embers with fire. The epithet 

image 12. 35. ' Herculeis/ as explained above, belongs 

540.] ** Quasi, eant nunc et flagitent more properly to < aras :' but it is trans- 

bellum," Serv. The picture is that which ferred more Yergiliano. 
we have had 7. 572 foil. 543.] ' Suscitat ' Bom., doubtless from a 

541 — 553.] ' After sacrificing to Her- recollection of v. 410., 5. 743. ' Externum' 

cules, Aeneas sends part of his crew home Bom., which Heyne and Voss prefer, in- 

with news, and prepares to go himself with terpreting it i. q. i^utov : but the word could 

others on horseback to the Etruscan camp.' not well bear such a sense, and'hester- 

541.] * Solio ab alto ' 11. 301. The num ' is sufficiently defended by what has 

epithet here seems used a little loosely, as been said on v. 542. The Penates may be 

in V. 461. either Aeneas' own or Evander's or both. 

542.] For an act of worship immediately 544.] * Laetus' 8. 178: see on 7. 430 
following on the receipt of a supernatural &c. 'Adit' a special word of approaching 
communicationoomp.3. 176., 5.743.,7.135 in worship. Gtjssrau comp. Gc. Legg. 
foil. We do not hear of any sacrifice 2. 10 " Caste iubet lex adire ad deos," 
having been offered privately to Hercules Forb. Lucr. 5. 1229 " votis adit ac prece 
the night before by Aeneas or Evander, quaesit." Comp. the use of "accedere," 
after the concluding celebration at the "adhibere,""admovere." 'Mactant'Med., 
Ara Maxuma (v. 306); but such sacri- 'mactat'Pal., Bom., Gud. The sing.isper- 
fioes were doubtless common, if indeed the haps slightly more probable : comp. 1. 513 
merekindlingofthehearthin the "atrium" *' Obstipuit simul ipse simul perculsus 
would not be a religious act (comp. 1. 704), Achates." For the sense see on 4. 57, where 
so that there would be no need to mention the words have already occurred. Whether 
it. Hercules would naturally be one of this is part of the sacrifice to the household 
Evander's household gods, as they seem to deities, or a separate one performed else- 
have varied in the case of different persons, where, we cannot say. 
5. 63. This is one of Heyne's explanations, 545.] ' Pariter,' not equally with Aeneas 
and it seems sufficiently natural, being but equally with each other : comp. the 
confirmed moreover by the parallel 5. 743. double " simul " just quoted from 1. 513, 
The alternatives he offers are to suppose and the double " aequo " Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 25. 
that sacred fire had been taken from the 546.^ * Graditur :' Aeneas, who has been 
Ara Maxuma the evening before by Evander the main subject of the paragraph. Comp. 
and placed on his domestic altar, so that v. 271. Serv. says " unum vacat, aut 
• Herculeis ignibus ' would = " ignibus ex • post ' aut * hinc,' ut * Post hinc digrediens 
Herculis ara sumptis," which is Cerda's (digpressus) iubeo frondentia capris Arbuta 
view, and to read * Herceis ' (comp. note sufficere ' (G. 3. 300) :" but both here and 
on 2. 512), which, as he remarks, is there 'post' refers properly to time,' hinc' 
confirmed by Lucan 9. 977 " Herceas, to place. * Sociosque revisit ' 6. 899 : comp. 
monstrator ait, nonrespicis aras?" Wagn. 4. 396. 


Quorum de numero^ qui sese in bella sequantur^ ' 

Praestantis virtute legit ; pars cetera prona 

Fertur aqua^ segnisque seeundo defluit amni, 

Nuntia ventura Ascanio rerumque patrisque. 660 

Dantur equi Teucris Tyrrhena petentibus arva ; 

Dueunt exsortem Aeneae, quern fulva leonis 

Pellis obit totum, praefulgens unguibus aureis. 

Fama volat parvam subito volgata per urbem, 
Ocius ire equites Tyrrheni ad limina regis. 566 

547.] It matters little whether we con- already making for the place from the 

struct ' de numero ' with ' legit ' (comp. time when they were chosen to the service. 

Yarro B. B. 2. 8, *' de asinis qoam amplis- See on 1. 519 &c. 

simumformosissimnmquepossunteligunt'') 552.] 'Dacunt exsortem :' see on 5. 534. 

or with the suppressed antecedent to ' qui Here the primary reference of ' ducnnt ' is 

— seqnantur.' Yirg.has expressed himself of course to leading the horse along, like 

as if the service for which these men were "equum duci iubet" 10. 858, though Virg. 

chosen was one of peculiar danger, which may have glanced at ** ducere sdrtem.'* We 

was hardly the case, as Aeneas was going need not suppose that the other horses are 

to a presumably friendly power. We may actually disb*ibuted by lot, but merely that 

say that he would naturally wish to show this is set apart for Aeneas without any 

the £truscans that he had warriors of his question of choice. It is singular that the 

own : but this is hardly hinted at in the horse-cloth should be described rather than 

text. Perhaps the stress is rather on 'sese' the horse itself. Lersch § 34 need hardly 

than on ' bella.' have doubted whether * quem ' refers to 

. 548.] ' Prona ' G. 1. 203. the horse or to Aeneas, especially after the 

549.] ' Fertur aqua ' is explained by the conclusive parallel he has cited 11. 770 

next clause to mean are carried without about the horse of Chloreus. 

any exertion of their own: elsewhere it 553.] 'Unguibus aureis' 5. 352, also of a 

merely means navigation of any sort. So lion's skin. Pal: and Gud. (ori^nally) have 

."fertur equis" sometimes means riding 'obiit,' as in v. 544 'adiit:' see Exc. on 

generally (5. 574), sometimes being run G. 2. 81 (second edition), 

away with (1.476). "Missusque seeundo 554 — 584.] 'Evander makes a passionate 

defluit amni " G. 3. 447. ' Segnis,' without speech at the departure of Pallas, recalling 

need of rowing, a contrast to their former his own exploits at Praeneste, and praying 

journey, where, though Tiber made his that he may die at once if he is not to see 

stream smooth, "remigio noctemque diem- his son again.' 

que fatigant," v. 94. The epithet is 554.] * Fama volat ' followed by an inf. 

perhaps intended to hint a fiunt opposition clause 3. 121. 

between the ' praestantis virtute ' and their 555.] 'Litora' Med., Hom., Gud. (cor- 
inferiors, though it is difficult to justify rected), ' limina ' Pal., Gud. (originidly). 
such an opposition : see on v. 547. The same variety has met us 2. 321, though 
. 550.] *Berumque patrisque' may be there the auth6rity for *litora* is very 
taken as a hendiadys. ' Nuntia patris ' slight. Here it would seem to have the 
however is not unlike the Homeric irarphs support of the great majority of MSS., the 
&fcot;^v Od. 5. 19. 'Ascanio' may be con- only other authorities distinctly quoted 
structed either with 'nuntia' (comp. 9.228 for 'limina' being one of Bibbeck's cur- 
"quisve Aeneae iamnuntiusesset") or with sives, seven copies mentioned by Heins., 
' ventura.' Heyne remarks that we> are and one by Burm., while we can hardly 
not told of the arrival of this party, the treat Pal. and Gud. as independent wit- 
matter being of no consequence. Yet con- nesses. ' Litora ' however cannot be said 
sidering the straits to which the absence to be a natural reading. The Tyrrhenian 
of Aeneas reduced his followers, we might army may have been encamped near the 
have expected to hear something of the shore (comp. v. 497), but the shore of the 
effect produced by the appearance of mes- king is not the same as his seaside camp, 
sengers from him. and there is a disagreeable incongruity 

551.] ' Dantur,' by Evander. ' Peten- between ' equites ' and ' litora,' not justi- 

tibus' rather than " petituris," as they were fled as in the case of "^[Hippes signa ferre 


Vota metu diiplicant matres, propiusque periclo 

It timor^ et maior Martis iam adparet imago. 

Turn pater Euandrus dextram conplexus euntis 

Haeret, inexpletus lacrimans, ac talia fatur : 

O mihi praeteritos referat si luppiter annos, 5Co 

Qualis eram^ cum primam aciem Praeneste sub ipsa 

Stravi scutorumque incendi victor acervos, 

Et regem hac Erulum dextra sub Tartara misi, 

Nascenti cui tris animas Feronia mater — 

Horrendum dictu — dederat, tema arma movenda ; 565 

iubenfc *' v. 498 by any rhetorical propriety, the same time that it enables ns to account 

It seems best therefore to recall ' limina/ easily for the two other readings. See 

which was first displaced by Wagn. The also on 6. 3. 28. 

* limina ' is here the door of the general's 560.] Evander's yearning after the 

tent, bnt that does not make the expression glories of his youth is modelled on two 

less apposite, as the general notion is that speeches of Nestor's, II. 7. 132 foil., 11. 

of seeking the kii^ in his abode. Comp. 670 foil., though the Yirgilian hero is 

y. 145 above. Pal., Gud. (originally), much briefer than the Homeric. 

Canon., and others have ' Tyrrhena,' which 561.] ' Qualis eram ' in loose apposition 

is tempting (comp. v. 526), but would per- with * praeteritos annos.' ' Cum primam ' 

haps be more plausible if * litora ' were read, is generally taken as i. q. *' cum primum,'' 

556.] "Bene 'metu duplicant,' nam itself the reading of some copies, appa- 

inest semper in matribus votum" Serv. rently however of none of Ribbeck's, 

' Propius * &c., ' fear treads more closely though it has been attributed to Bom. 

on the heels of danger,' probably including But it may be questioned whether it does 

both the notion that as danger is nearer not mean the front rank, which would be 

fear is greater (Heyne), and the conception supported by II. 11. 675 6 9* ofivymw f<n 

of fear as coming nearer the danger by fiotatrtv ''EfiKrir* iy itp^ouriv ifirjs awh 

anticipating it (Wagn.). Cerda comp. x*^P^^ ixovri, Comp. 7. 531 note, 10. 125. 

Aristot. Bhet. 2. 5, rovro ydp iart xlvdwof, * IVaeneste ' fern, by syncsis, Madv. § 412. 

ipofiepov 'K\ria'uurfi6s. So " gelida Praeneste " Juv. 3. 190. ' Sub 

557.] 'The features of the war-god ipsa,' under its very walls, the enemy 

begin to loom larger.' They realize war probably being driven back there, 

more as their kinsmen are departing to it. 562.] As Serv. remarks, this burning of 

The conception is not quite the same as in the spmls was a Boman practice supposed 

2. 369, with which it is there compared, to have been introduced by Tarquinius 

as in the other passages quoted the mere Prisons, who, after a victory over the 

sight of a physical object seems to be Sabines, burned their shields in honour 

meant : here War is conceived of as a of Vulcan. For instances in later history 

spectre which haunts the imagination. Lersch § 48 cites Livy 8. 30., 23. 46., 45. 33 

558.] " Dextramque amplexus inhaesit" &c. The spoils of the Latins are burnt 11. 

V. 124. ' Euntis ' is explained by the con- 193, as a sort of compensation to the Trojan 

text and the word ' pater ' to mean Pallas, dead. In Horn, arms seem only to be burnt 

559.] There are three possible readings, in honour of the person who wore them. 

' inexpletum lacrimans ' Pal. (originally), 563.] ' Sub Tartara misi ' 11. 397., 12. 

' inexpletus lacrimans ' PaL (corrected), 14. The name and the story of this second 

Bom. (which has ' inpletus,' the original Oesyon seem to be otherwise unknown, 

reading of Gud.), and ' inexpletus lacrimis ' 564.] ' Feronia' 7. 800. 

Med. All three are mentioned by Serv., 565.] Emlus seems to have had three 

who prefers the first ; and this was the lives, not, like his prototype Geryon, three 

usual reading till Wagn., who introduced bodies, though it is difficult to distinguish 

the second. ' Inexpletus lacrimans ' is the conceptions, at least if Aesch. Ag. 869 

strongly supported by G. 4. 370, though foil, is rig^t in giving Gciyon a separate 

there is a question there between "saxosus" life for each body. If we take 'animas' 

and "saxosum," and by A. 3. 70 "lenis strictly, we must suppose 'tema arma 

crepitans," 5. 764 " creber adspirans," at movenda ' to be a ample consequence of 


Ter leto sternendus erat; cui turn tamen bmnis 

Abstulit haec animas dextra^ et totidem exuit armis : 

Non ego nunc dulci amplexu divellerer usquam^ 

Nate^ tuo ; neque finitimo Mezentias umqnam 

Huic capiti insultans tot ferro saeva dedisset 570 

Funera, tarn multis viduasset civibus urbem. 

At vos, o superi^ et divom tu maxume rector 

luppiter, Arcadii; quaeso^ miserescite regis, 

£t patrias audite preces : Si numina vestra 

Incolumem Pallanta mihi^ si fata reservant, 575 

Si visurus eum vivo et venturus in unom ; 

the three lives: having been killed, he could timo' is doubtless the true reading, being 

get up and fight again. Preller Bom. constructed not, as Burm. thought, with 

Myth. p. 693 comp. Uie story of the cen- ' ferro ' but with ' capiti/ which thus forms 

taar 'Maies, the first inhabitant of Auso- a periphrasis such as we see in Qreek 

nia, told by Aelian 9. 16. Serv. gives as a plays. * Usquam,' Pal., Rom., Qud., was 

choice " 'movenda' vel contra ipsum vel restored by Heins. ; but Wag^. rightly 

ab ipso/' and Peerlkamp and Ribbeck em* recalled ' umquam,' the reading of Med. 

brace the former alternative : but Forb. Gud. has also a variant * hostis.' 
remarks justly that 'totidem exuit armis' 570.] " Funera dare" G. 3. 246 note, 
is in fiivour of the latter, which is the 571.] Pierius' note on ' viduasset ' may 

ordinary view. amuse the reader : " Servius ait, proprie 

566.] 'Sternendus erat,' he required to 'viduasset' dictum a Vergilio, quia urbs 

be laid low. Comp. Plant. Bacch. 1. 1. 81 est generis feminini : abusive vero et satis 

" Ah nimium ferns es. Mihi sum. Mala- incongrue ab Horatio dictum ' viduus pha- 

dssandus es." It is doubtful whether, r^tra Risit Apollo.' Quia scilicet putat 

< leto ' is dat., as Wagn. thinks, or abl. ipse ' viduam ' quasi ' viro iduam ' dici. 

" Neque aversos dignatur stemere morti" Atqui sunt ex g^tunmaticis quorum aucto- 

12. 464 is in favour of the one, " Stemeret ritas minime contemnenda est qui 'viduam' 

at subita turbatam morte Oamillam " 11. a .' ve ' et ' duitate ' dictum velint, sicut 

796," Stemere caede viros " 10. 119, of the ' vesanus ' non sanus, atque ita non incon- 

latter. Comp. G. 4. 432. ' Tunc ' is here g^e dixerit Horatius ' viduus Apollo.' " 

found in all Ribbeck's MSS. except one Serv.'s supposed etymology is so far nearer < 

cnrdve. See on G. 2. 317 (2nd edition). ' the truth that '< viduus " has the same root 

567.] " Animam abstulit hosti " 9. 443. as"dividere" and " iduare." 'Yiduo ' occurs 

668.] It seems most natural, with Haupt Lucr. 5. 840, where it is constructed with 

and Ribbeck, to make this the apodosis a gen., as here with an abl. ' Urbem ' can 

of V. 560. Evander says that if he were hardly be Agylla, as Forb. thinks, as 

as he once was he should go to combat by unless we read ' finitimos,' there is nothing 

his son's side. Comp. II. 7. 157, 8. 'Usquam ' in the context to favour Serv.'s supposition 

nearly i.q. " umquam :" comp. 5. 853 (note) mentioned on v. 569 that Mezentius' treat" 

" nusquam amittebat." If there is any ment of his subjects would have concerned 

special force in the word here, it must mean Evander. Mezentius was an ally of Tur- 

neither at home nor on the battle-field. nus, and Tumus was an enemy of Evander, 

569.] "Nate, tua" opens a line similarly 6. so Uiat we may readily suppose that Me* 

689. ' Finitimo ' Med., Rom., Gud., * fini- zentius had been a scourge to his neighbours 

timos' Pal. originally, which Ribbeck of Pallantcum. Gossrau's solution, that- 

adopts, taking it apparently in apposition Mezentius had persisted in his tyranny in 

with ' funera.' The old reading, ' finitimus,' defiance of Evander's counsels, seems quite' 

which Heyne recalled, seems found only gratuitous. 

in one or two inferior MSS. Serv. inter- 573.] ' Miserescere,' in earlier Latin im- 

prets ' finitimo :' but his note is apparently personal, is personal here, as in 2. 145. 
confused with another which rather points 574] Comp. generally 4. 612. The gods 

to ' finitimosy' as he calls attention to and fate are made co-ordinate, as in v. 512. 
Evander's feeling towards his neighbours 576.] ' If, while I live, I live with the 

as showing heroic unselfishness. But 'finl'- certainty of seeing him again/ Rom. has 


Vitam oro ; patior quemvis durare laborem. 
Sin aliquem infandum casum^ Fortuna^ minaris : 
Nunc, o nunc liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam, 
Dum curae ambiguae, dum spes incerta futuri, 580 

Dum te, care puer, mea sola et sera voluptas, 
Conplexu teneo ; gravior neu nuntius auris 
Volneret. Haec genitor digressu dicta supremo 
Fundebat ; famuli conlapsum in tecta ferebant. 

lamque adeo exierat portis equitatus apertis, 585 

Aeneas inter primes et fidus Achates, 
Inde alii Troiae proceres ; ipse agmine Pallas 
In medio, chlamyde et pictis conspectus in armis : 
Qualis ubi Oceani perfusus Lucifer unda, 

* vivnm/ apparently not nndentanding the reading. Euphony is perhaps in favour of 
construction. * Yenturus in unum ' 2. 716, the former. With the ktter comp. 2. 490 
the Greek els t» fyx^ffOai. ** Amplexaeque tonent postis." * NeU ' 

• 677.] "Urhem orant : taedet pelag^ per- Pal. (originally), Med., Bom. was restored 
ferre lah<Mrem** 5. 617. 'Patior' Pal. by Wagn. for 'ne.' 'Nuntius* here as 

f originally). Bom., Med., * patiar ' Pal. elsewhere in Virg. may be either the mea- 

corrected), Gud. Evander speaks as one senger or the message : see on 4. 237. 

whose life is already a burden, as Serv. 583.] "Quos ferro tmcidari oportebat, 

reminds us, comparing Ter. Phorm. 4. 1.'9 eos nondum voce volnero*' Cic. 1 Cat. 4. The 

"Senectus ipsa est morbus.'' 'Durare' first reading of Med. is ' maesta supremo,' 

strictly to harden, transitively, hence a recollection of 3. 482. See on 6. 806 &c. 

harden one's self, hold out : hence, as we 584.] Comp. generally 4. 391, 2. The 

say, to endure, transitively. This last use imperfects are to be noticed, showing that 

is rare, and apparently not pre-Aug^ustan. the old man £uls and is carried away while 

'' Yix durare carinae Possunt inperiosius he is yet speaking. 

Aequor " Hor. 1 Od. 14. 7. 685—607.] < Tlie Trojans and Arcadians 

578.] ' Infandum casum :' " patris est march from the city towards Caere, and 

bolle memorare quod formidat " Serv. finally halt at a grove near the Tyrrhenian 

' 579.] It is difficult to decide between camp.' 

'nunc o nunc' Rom., and 'nunc nunc o' 585.] 'lamque adeo' 5.268. The company 

Med., Gud. P&l. has ' nunc nunc o,' ' o ' generally was mounted : see above v. 551. 

having been originally omitted. On the 687.1 " Post alii proceres " 1. 740. 

whole Bibbeck seems right in preferring 588.] ' Conspectus ' G. 3. 17, i. q. " con- 

the reading of Bom., which makes ' nunc,' spicuus." So "detestatus" &c. for "de- 

the paramount thought in Evander's mind; testabilis" or "detestandus." Wagn. 

more emphatic, though Gossrau thinks comp. Livy 21. 4 (of Hannibal) " Yestitus 

differently. " Crudelem abrumpere vitam " nihil inter aequalis excellens : anna et cqui 

9. 497 : comp. 4. 631. conspiciebantur." " Pictis armis " 12. 281, 

580.] ' Curae ambiguae ' is exphiined by also of the Arcadians, whom Serv. on 11. 

^ spes incerta ftituri.' ' Futuri ' doubtless 93 asserts to have borne shields with 

belongs to ' spes,' though it might be con- figures of gods on them, arguing from Bac- 

structed with 'incerta :' see Freund. chylides fr. 16 Bergk, UoirtiZdvtov &s May- 

681.] ' Sola et sera ' Med., Bom. (which riveis rpi6Zovra xo^i^oZaiZAXouriv 4v iunrlffi 

seems to have been read by Serv., though ipopevvrts, Heyne takes it of arms inliud 

on 9. 482 he quotes the other order), ' sera et with gold and silver (comp. Livy 9. 39, 40, 

sola' PaL There seems no means of de- who uses the word"picta"of theSamnite 

ciding between the two. Wagn. restored shields, having before spoken of their ar- 

the former, Bibbeck recalls the latter. mouras"caelata"); others (Forb. on 7.796) 

*' Senectae sera meae requies" 9. 482. distinguish between painting and chasing 

" Ea sola voluptas " 3. 660. or inlaying, and others again have supposed 

582.] ' Conplexu ' Pftl., Med. first read- here 'chlamyde et armis' to be a hendiadys. 

ing, Gud., 'conplexus' Bom., Med. second -589.] From H. 5. 5, ourrdp* ow»piyf i'ya* 


Quern Venus ante alios astrorum diligit ignis^ 590 

Extulit OS sacrum caelo tenebrasque resolvit. 

fitant pavidae in muris matres^ oculisque sequuntur ' 

Pulveream nubem et fulgentis aere catervas. 

OUi per dumos, qua proxuma meta viarum, 

Armati tendunt ; it clamor^, et agmine facto 595 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. 

Est ingens geUdum lucus prope Caeritis amnem, 

Keligione patrum late sacer ; undique coUes 

Inclusere cavi et nigra nemus abiete cingunt. 

Silvano fama est veteris sacrasse Pelasgos^ 600 

Arvorum pecorisque deo, lucumque diemque. 

Qui primi finis aliquando habuere Latinos. 


XiyKiov, HffTc fidKiffra Aafiirphy irafi^alirgiari, parentnm" 7. 172. "Beligione sacrae 

\€\ovfjL4yos 'CiKcavoTo, ib. 608. * Late ' may either mean that the 

590.] ttnr^pos, ts KdKXurros iv oifpav^i whole neighbourhood counts the place sa- 

Xcrarai curriip U* 22. 818. " Astrorum cred or that the sacredness extends over a 

ignes " 3. 585. Lucifer is the star of Venus, wide precinct. The former is Serv.'s view, 

note on 2. 802. 599.] The grove stands in a valley 

- 591.] Heyne comp. G. 4i. 232 " Taygete among hills. The hills are called ' cavi,' as 

simul OS terris ostendit honestum." ' Re- forming the valley, nearly as they are 

solvit ' contrasted with the density of dark- called '* curvi " 5. 287 note. ' Cingunt ' is 

ness. ' Extulit ' may either be used aoris- the reading of all Ribbeck's MSS., ' cingit ' 

tically of a thing which is wont to happen, being only found in inferior copies, and in 

or express sudden flashing on the sight, the MSS. of Macrob., who quotes the pas- 

In the latter case ' resolvit ' may be present, sage Sat. 3. 8. Heins. and Heyne thought 

Comp. other uses of ' extulit ' E. 1. 25 &c. ' nemus ' could be the subject of ' cingunt ' 

59^.] ' Oculis sequuntur ' like '* voce as a noun of multitude, which is quite un- 

secutus " 1. 406. Virgilian. * Cingit* is very tempting, as the 

593.] '' Florentis aere catervas " 7. 804. hills themselves would naturally be wood- 

**Pulveris exhalat nebulam nubesque vo- crowned (comp. 5. 287): but the want of au- 

lantis " Lucr. 5. 253, comp. by Cerda. thority must decide against it. Admitting 

594.] " Meta viarum ** 3. 714. Where * cingunt,' we may still doubt whether to 

the end of thejourney isnearest, as Wagn. re- construct * abiete ' with * nemus ' ( Jahu) or 

marks, means where the way is the shortest, with ' cingunt ' (Forb.) . The appearance of 

595.] ' Armati ' seems merely thrown in the passage is in favour of the latter, 

to give the picture. Wagn. * It clamor :' 600.] For accounts of the Pelasgians in 

when they have got out of the wooded Italy see Lewis vol. 1, pp. 272, 3, 281 foil, 

ground into the open country they raise a Caere was one of the towns on which they 

shout, form in line and gallop along. were supposed to have impressed their in- 

596.] This celebrated line is said by fluence most indelibly, Dionys. H. 1. 20., 

Macrob. Sat. 6. 1, 3 to be partly modelled 3. 58, referred to by Heyne. 

on several in Ennius, especially A. 8. fr. 7 601.] Silvanus E. 10. 24, G. 1. 20. 

** conseqnitur : summo sonitu quatit un- ' Arvorum pecorisque ' put generally for 

gula terram." * Quadrupedans ' occurs country matters as in G. 4. 559. ' Diem-* 

Plant. Capt. 4. 2. 34. Its combination with que :' beside the grove, they established 

' Bonitus ' reminds us of the boldness of an annual feast in his honour. 

Greek poetry. * Putrem ' suggests the no- 602.] ' Aliquando ' i. q. " quondam," 

tionofdust. *<olim:" see Freund, who quotes among 

597.] * Caeritis ' an irregular gen., as if other passages ** cum venissem in socrus 

from a nom." Caeres," which is really the meae villam Alsiensem, quae aliquando 

adj. of "Caere." The river runs near the Rufi Virginii fuit," Pliny Ep. 6. 10. 

town, and is now called Vacina. ' Primi ' need not be pressed, as it may 

598.] " Horrendum silvis et religione only mean in old days. 


Haud procul hinc Tarcho et Tyrrheni tuta tenebant 
Castra locis^ celsoque omnis de colle yideri 
lam poterat legio^ et latis tendebat in arvis. 605 

Hue pater Aeneas et bello leeta inventus 
Succedunt^ fessique et equos et corpora curant. 
At Venus aetherios inter dea Candida nimbos 
Dona ferens aderat ; natumque in valle reducta 
Ut procul et gelido secretum flumine vidit, 610 

Talibus adfata est dictis^ seque obtulit ultro : 
En perfecta mei promissa coniugis arte 
Munera^ ne mox aut Laurentis, nate^ superbos^ 
Aut acrem dubites in proelia poscere Tumum. 

603.] *Tuta' probably with 'locis,* lido ' however is read by Pal., Rom , Gud., 

sheltered in point of position, nearly i. q. and by Med. correeted. (Fragm. Vat., 

** tatis locis." Serr. asks how the camp which is quoted for it, is in this case ideu- 

can be called sheltered if it was commanded tical with Med., a leaf of Med. comprising 

by the hills, as appears from what follows, vv. 585 — 642 having been separated from 

Wagn. answers that it was protected by the it and placed in the Vat. MS.) Bibbeck 

river and (presumably) by the nature of the reads ' ecgelido :' comp. v. 286. ' Et ' is not 

country. Serv.'s own solution, that the 'lata weak, as Forb. thinks, but sufficiently Vir- 

arva' were a table land at the top of the gilian, the combination 'procul et secre- 

hill, is not very reconcilable with the con- turn ' resembling " extremus galeaque 

text. Mr. Long thinks ' tuta locis ' merely Ima '* 5. 498, ** longius ex altoque ** G. 3. 

designates the camp as a fortified place. 238 (wrongly explained in first edition). 

605.] ' Tendebat' 2. 29. Faber and others The classical sense of ' egelidus ' seems to 

have conj.'ut' for 'et/ but the connexion by be cool (comp. Catull. 41 (46). 1 "lam 

the copulative is more simple and poetical, ver egelidos refert tepores) i" Serv. how- 

606.] ' Bello,' for battle : see on v. 547. ever makes the prefix intensive, and so 

' Corpora curant ' G. 4. 187. Auson., Tetrastichs on the Caesars, 21. 1 

608 — 625.] ' Venus brings the Vulcan- " Inpiger egelido movet arma Severus ab 

ian armour, which Aeneas views with ad- Histro." The river has just been called 

miration, especially the shield.' ' gelidus,' v. 597. ' Secretum flumine,' in 

608.] The < nimbi' seem to be the same the retirement of the river: "secreti ad 

as the " nubes " mentioned v. 528, pro- fluminis undam " 3. 389. 
bably with a reference to the thunder, 611.] ' Adfata est— obtulit,' Scmpoy wp6' 

though in that case Virg. would have for- rtpoy, Serv. 'Obtulit ultro' 2. 59. Here 

gotten that it was thun&r from a cloudless ' ultro ' seems almost i. q. " inprovisa." 
iky. Perhaps we are meant to conceive 612.] ' Promissa,' promised by Venus to 

of the day as advanced towards evening, Aeneas, vv. 531, 535, though it might re- 

as the Trojans and Arcadians appear to fer to Vulcan's promise to Venus (oomp. 

have encamped for the night. In Hom. 7. 541 " Promissi dea facta potens.") The 

Thetis brings the arms at daybreak. A construction, as Wagn. remarks, is not 

contrast is clearly intended between the "en, perfecta sunt," but' en munera.' The 

dark clouds and the fair goddess, ' dea same is to be said of 7. 545 " En, perfecta 

Candida.' For ' aetherios nimbos ' comp. tibi bello discordia tristi :" comp. ib. 452 

5. 13 " ciuxerunt aethera nimbi." " En ego victa situ." 

609.] 'H (Thetis) 8' is yijas Uwf, 0€oy 613.] It is not easy in this and other 

wdpa hupa <p4pov<r<if II. 19. 3. Achilles is similar passages to say whether the clause 

found in the midst of his comrades : Aeneas introduced by ' ne ' is subjoined, ' that you 

is evidently apart from his. ' In valle re- may not,' or an independent imperative 

ducta' 6. 703. ' ' do not.' Perhaps it is best to decide each 

610.] The common reading is 'egelido,' case on its own merits. Here the former 

which is found in Med. (originally), and in seems the more idiomatic, 
two of Bibbeck's cursives (one of them 614.] "Me solum Teucri in certaminn 

corrected), and was read by Serv. ' Et ge- poscunt " 11. 434. 


Dixit et amplexus nati Cytherea petivit ; 6i5 

Arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercu. 
nie^ deae donis et tanto laetus honore^ 
Expleri nequit atque oculos per singula volvit, 
Miraturque interque manus et braechia versat 
Terribilem eristis galeam flammasque vomentem, 620 

Fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex acre rigentem, 
Sang^ineam^ ingentem^ qualis cum caerula nubes 
Solis inardeseit radiis longeque refulget ; 
Turn levis oereas electro auroque recocto^ 
Hastamque, et clipei non enarrabile textum. 625 

lUic res Italas Bomanorumque triumphos^ 
Haud vatum ignarus venturique inscius aevi, 

615*3 'Amplexus petere' correlative to see on 7. 142. It is from ApoU. R. 4. 125, 

** amplexus dare " 1. 687. where the golden fleece is said to be i^c- 

616.] 'Adversa,' opposite, where he <p4\ii imXlyKiov ^ r* ityloiTos *H€Kiov <f>\o- 

could see them at once. Karh, tcwxc' yepf,(nv ipt^Oerai hKrlvtfftnv. * Caerula,' 

%9tik€ Ilp6<r0ey 'AxtWrjos 11. 19. 12. dark, like Kvavij^v vtipikiiv Od. 12. 405. 

617.] 'Honore' is referred by Serv. to 624.] 'Levis oereas* 7. 634. 'Electro' 
the privilege of seeing his mother face to v. 402. ' Recocto,' smelted again and again, 
face, which is very unlikely. Heyne un- •* Saepe purgato, quia quanto plus coquitur 
derstands it much better of the gift (comp. melius fit " Serv. Forb. comp. Pliny 33. 3 
its use of rewards and of offeiiugs to the *' [aes] an satis recoctum sit splendore de- 
Gods) : but Wagn. is perhaps right in re- prehendente." The greaves seem to have 
ferring it to the beauty of the armour, been of electrum inlaid with gold. 
Comp. II. 19. 18, 19 ripir^o Z*iy xe^p€<r(rii' 625.] * Textum * of the shield regarded 
^X^^ ^^^^ &7Xa^ H&pa. PJtrhp iir^X <^p€<r\y as a composition of plates or pieces of me- 
f<ri rerApv^o JiaiHtiKa Kt^ffCMV. tal, perhaps referring also to the workman- 

618.] 'Expleri nequit' vv. 265, 559. ship on the surface. Lucr. 6. 1054 talks of 

" Oculos per cuncta ferenti " 2. 670. " ferrea texta," apparently meaning things 

619.] 'Inter manus' 2. 681. "Hue made of iron. Comp. also Id. 5. 94 *' tria ta- 

illuc vinclorum inmensa volumina versat " lia texta," of the fabric of earth, air, and sea. 

5. 408. 'Braechia* points to the size of 626—731.] 'On the shield was repre- 

the different parts of the armour, which sented the various scenes in the life of thQ 

fill the arms as he takes them up. Roman nation : Romulus and Remus with 

620.] ' Vomentem ' Med., Rom., Gud. the wolf, the rape of the Sabines with the 

corrected, with a variant 'moventem,' consequent war and treaty, the punish- 

* minantem * Pal., Gud. originally. Rib- ment of Mettus Fuffetius, Porsenna baffled 

beck adopts the latter, but the word rather by Codes and Cloelia, Manlius on the Ca- 

suggests the nodding of the crest than the pitol surprised by the Gauls, the religious 

flashing of the metal, though the hair of ceremonialsof the city, Catiline in Tartarus 

the crest may have been golden, as in II. and Cato in Elysium, the sea and the bat- 

19. 383. 'Vomentem' is supported by tie of Actium, the rout, and the triumph.* 

V. 681., 10. 271, and by Auson. Periocha 626.] For some remarks on the shield 

IL 5 " vomit aurea flammas Cassis et un- see Essay at the end of the volume, 

dantem clipeus defulgurat ignem," a trans- 627.] ' Vatum ignarus ' has created a 

lation of lcu4 oi ix K6pvd6s re Kal &(nrlBos good deal of difficulty, as it seems strange 

iucdfiarov irvp. to speak of a God as taught by prophets. 

621.] ' Fatiferum * deadly. " Fatifer But it is evident from other passages that 

arcus " 9. 631. ' Ex acre rigentem ' i. q. a God was not supposed necessarily to 

"ex acre rigenti." know the future : Venus in Book I. owes 

622.] 'Sanguineam' of the ruddy colour her information to Jupiter : in Book III. 

of the metal, as is explained by the follow- Jupiter delivers a prediction to Apollo, 

ing simile. * Ingentem ' is added perhaps who delivered it in turn to the Harpy Ce- 

a littje inartistically. For the comparison laeno. So in Aesch. Prom. 209, 873 Pro- 


Fecerat Ignipotens, illic genus omne futurae 

Stirpis ab Ascanio^ pugnataque in ordine bella. 

Fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis in antro 630 

Procubuisse lupam ; geminos huie ubera circum 

Ludere pendentis pueros, et lambere matrem 

Inpavidos ; illam tereti cerviee reflexa 

Mulcere altemos, et corpora fingere lingua. 

Nee procul hinc Bomam et raptas sine more Sabinas 635 

Consessu caveae, magnis Circensibus actis^ 

Addiderat, subitoque novum consurgere bellum 

methens is taught the future by his mother xnerus conveuiri apud inferos facit ab 

Themis. In Aesch. Eum. 1 foil, we have Ulixe." 

the regular succession of deities who in- 631.] ' Procubuisse :' she had already 

spired the Delphic Oracle, representing lain down at the time when the artist re- 

apparently the prophetic element under presented her. ' Ubera circum ' v. 45. 

the several divine dynasties, Gaia, Themis, 632.] " Pendent circum oscula nati '* 

Phoebe, and finally Phoebus. Vulcan G. 2. 523, where as here * pendere ' may 

inight naturally be conceived as learning of include embracing (1. 715) as well as actual 

one or more of these, who might properly contact of the lips. 

be called ' vates,' as the name is frequently 633.] ' Beflexa ' Bom., Pal., Gud., Med. 

given to Apollo. Gossrau takes * vatum corrected, * reflexam ' Med. originally. It 

ignarus ' as " vates ignarus/' like " sancte is difficult to decide, as though « cerviee 

deorum.'' Cunningham and Wakef. read reflexa ** occurs 10. 525 and Lucr. 1. 35 

' fatum,' an inadmissible crasis (see PUny has " tereti cerviee reposta," it is equally 

ap. Serv. on 2. 18), from a few inferior conceivable that Virg. may have wished to 

MSS., and others have preferred * fati,' vary the expression, meaning by * cerviee 

which, though plausible itself, is not reflexam ' bent back in respect of the neck, 

stronger in MS. authority. Serv. says Cic. Arat. has *' Obstipum caput et tereti 

" Quibusdam videtur hunc versum omitti cerviee reflexum." On the whole external 

potuisse,'' seemingly a mere critical opinion authority may decide us in adopting the 

on internal grounds. abl. with Bibbeck. 

628.] ' Ignipotens ' 10. 243. " Stirpem 634.] « Lingua * with * mulcere ' as well 

et genus omne futurum *' 4. 622. " Genus as with * fingere.' * Fingere,* as we say to 

stirpis'' G. 4. 282. lick into shape, as in Virg.'s own illustra- 

629.] There is the same doubt about tion from the habits of the bear with its 
* ab Ascanio * as about " a Belo" 1. 730. young, reported by Gell. 17. 10. See on G. 
Wagn. and Peerlkamp conj. 'pugnanda,' 2.407. The instances of this use of 'fingere' 
two inferior MSS. having ' pugnant,' and quoted from Ov. and Claud, seem to be imi- 
'pugnantia :' but it is natural that Virg. tations of Virg. Med. originally had 'tin- 
should regard the future as past when gere,' a word which Virg. may have meant 
speaking of it as it appears to the eye of pro- to suggest while purposely avoiding it. 
phecy. 'In ordine' £. 7. 20: elsewhere 635.] ' Sine more,' o& icar^ ^({(rjuoi' : see 
in Virg. we have " ordine " or " ex ordine." on 5. 694. 

630.] Heyne wished to connect 'fecerat' 636.] 'Consessu caveae' 5. 340. The 

with the preceding words : but Wagn. abl. here is local. ' Circensibus ' looks tike 

jnstly remarks that the word is not one a reminiscence of later times. According 

which would bear an emphatic reduptica- to Livy (1. 9) and others, the games on 

tion. ' Et ' is naturally used in a descrip- the occasion of which the rape of the Sa- 

tion of particulars following a general bines took place were the Consualia. The 

account, like kuL ' Antrum Mavortis,' the ' ludi Circenses ' were also caUed " ludi 

Lupercal, v. 343. The representation of roagui." For the combination of the two 

the wolf suckling the children is common comp. " magnos Penatis " 9. 258, which 

in works of art. ' Fetus ' here means after reminds us similarly of " magni di." ' Actis ' 

birth, as in G. 3. 176. 'Fecerat procubuisse,' is doubtless a case where the past part, 

had represented her as stretched. Gossrau pass, has to supply the want of a present, 

comp. Cic. N. D. 3. 16 "quem tamen Ho* 637.] 'Consurgere' is added loosely, the 


Bomulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque sevens. 

Post idem inter se posito eertamine reges 

Armati lovis ante aram paterasque tenentes 640 

Stabant et caesa iungebant foedera porca. 

Hand procul inde citae Mettum in diversa quadrigae 

Distulerant — at tu dietis, Albane, maneres ! — 

Raptabatque viri mendaeis viscera Tullus 

Per silvam, et sparsi rorabant sanguine vepres. 645 

Nee non Tarquinium eiectum Porsenna iubebat 

Aceipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat ; 

Aeneadae in ferrum pro libertat^ ruebant. 

inf. being really a noun. " Bella sur- 643.] ' Distulerant ' shows that the rend- 

gentia " 4. 43. ing asnnder had taken place before the re- 

638.] ' Bomulidis/ Bomulus and his na- presentation was made, and that the bodj" 

tion, ' Tatio Curibusque,' Tatius and his. was represented as already torn in pieces. 

<Bomulidae'Lucr.4.683,like" Aeneadae/' See on 1. 4.83. < Differre ' of tearing in 

-" Thesidae." ' Seni :' it does not appear pieces Hor. Epod. 5. 99, and so perhaps 

that Tatius was regarded as older than Tiia^ipuv Aesch. Cho. 68. ' Maneres ' seems 

Bomulus. He died first, but his death was to mean ." manere debebas," " utinam ma- 

a violent one. The word therefore seems neres :" see on 4. 678. The imperf. occurs 

to refer merely to his antiquity, as Lu- in a similar connexion 11. 162, 8. Here 

cilius is called " senex" by Hor. 2 S. 1. 34. it is apparently used because the act of 

Pacuvius and Attius Id. 2 Ep. 1. 56. * Cu- abiding is continuous, and is supposed to 

ribns seyeris :' for the primitive austerity have been capable of lasting even into the 

of the Sabines comp. 6. 811, 6. 2. 532 &c. time of the rending of the body. There 

639.] ' Inter se ' probably belongs both is a somewhat similar parenthesis Ov. M. 

to 'poeito eertamine' and to the verbs 2. 435 " Aspiceres utinam, Satumia, mitior 

' stabant et iungebant,' to the whole sen- esses," which might suggest another inter- 

tence in fact. ' Posito ' may either mean pretation, " [Si scires quid tibi eventurnm 

laid aside or composed: see on 1. 302. esset] maneres." "l^omissis maneas" 

640.] ' Armati paterasque tenentes ' 2. 160. 
gives the picture. Bom. has * aras,' Med. 644.1 ' Baptare ' of dragging 1. 483. 
* pateram.' 646. J Serv. says that the spelling ' Por- 

641.] llie custom of sacrificing a swine senna ' is adopted for the sake of the metre, 

in treaties was an ancient one : see Lersch The penult is supposed to be short Hor. 

§ 54, who refers to Livy 1. 24., 9. 5, Varro Epod. 16. 4, and is certainly used so by 

R. B. 2. 4. In these passages the swine is Martial and Silius : the analogy of other 

male. Quinct. 8. 3 says the female is Etruscan names however looks rather the 

substituted as more dignified in poetry other way. Niebuhr, vol. 1, note 1200, calls 

(see on G. 1. 470) : but Lersch 1. c. argues Martial's quantity a decided blunder, 
from Cic. Legg. 2. 22 and other passages 647.] " Obsidione cingi " 3. 52, *' te- 

that female swine were sacrificed as well neri " 9. 598. The homoeoteleuton in this 

as male. In 12. 169 foil. Aeneas and La- and the preceding line, partially extending 

tinus sacrifice " saetigerae fetum suis in- to the following line also, is doubtless 

tonsamque bidentem." 'Iungebant foe- intentional. 

dera' 4. 112 &c. Serv. says "foedera 648.] *In ferrum mere' O. 2. 503; 

dicta sunt a porca foede et crudeliter which seems to fix its sense to headlong 

ocdsa." daring, as we should say, rushing on a 

642.1 ' In diversa ' constructed with drawn sword : otherwise we might be dis- 
' citae, which has its original force as a posed to make it i. q. "currere ad anna." 
participle, i. q. ** citatus," as ' aptus ' is Serv. calls ' Aeneadae ' " satis longe peti- 
nsed i. q. " aptatus." So Hor. Epod. 9. tum epitheton :" but other readers will 
20 " Puppes sinistrorsum citae," and per- recognize the art with which we are mude 
haps ib. 17. 7 ** Citumque retro solve, to think of Aeneas as admiring the self- 
solve turbinem." abandoning valour of his descendants. 


Ilium indignanti similem slmilemque mindnti 

Aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles, 650 

Et fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis. 

In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis 

Stabat pro templo et Capitolia celsa tenebat^ 

Bomuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo. 

Atque hie auratis volitans argenteus anser 655 

649.] ''Anbelnntl similis" 5. 254, also ploughed land was represented in gold, 

of an artistic representation. < He had all Qossran observes rightly of the commen- 

thc marks of indignation and menace.' tators, ** Non animadverterunt non his- 

650.] ' Aspiceres' like "cemas" 4. 401. toriam narrari sed describi rem inenarra- 

' Auderet 'the subj. expressing Porsenna's bilem." < Recens ' refers to the freshness 

feeling. " Vellere vallum ** 9. 506. and sharpness of Vulcan's work ; but it 

. 651.] ' Fluvium innaret ' 6. 369. also alludes to the constant renovation 

652. j ' In summo ' is explained by Serv. of the *' casa Bomuli " in the historical 

of the top of the shield, comp. " in medio " times of Rome, attested by Dionys. 1. 79. 

v. 675. Heyne takes it with * Tarpeiae Vitruv. 2. 1 and other writers agree with 

arcis.' It is difficult to decide. \Vagn.'s Virg. in placing Romulus' hut on the 

objections to Heyne's interpretation, that Capitol : Dionys. 1. c. puts it on the Capi* 

' arcis ' is required for ' custos,' which would tol. For the different ways of reconciling 

not describe Manlius if it stood alone, and or getting rid of this discrepancy see Lewis 

that Manlius would not naturally stand on pp. 238 foil. His own explanation, that 

the top of the rock, seem futile: 'custos' there were two huts, is hardly supported 

is defined by 'arcis,' even if it is not by the parallel he urges of duplicate relics 

actually constructed with it (comp. G. 1. preserved in different places, as there 

273, a stronger case of double construe- rivalry comes in as a motive for multi- 

tion), and the question is not where plying memorials, which cannot have been 

Manlius would naturally have stood, but the case in Rome with its state religion : 

where he would have been represented as it is strange too that the fact of the exisr 

standing for pictorial effect. 'Tarpeiae' tence of two should not have been 

v. 347. mentioned by any ancient writer. ' Romu- 

653.] ' Stabat pro templo ' like " pro leo ' again points to the renovation, which 

turribus adstant " 9. 677. In both pas- kept the hut as it was in Romulus' days, 

sages the literal sense of ' standing before ' while at the same time we are meant to 

seems to be intended, there being of course think of " Romulea " or " Romuli regia," 

a further notion of protection. Serv. the hut being all that Romulus had for 

objects to the literal meaning that Man- his palace. 

lius actually stood within the temple : but 655.] Heyne thought ' auratis ' incon- 

thisis anerrorof the samekindasWagn.'s sistent with the previous line: Wagn. 

mentioned in the last note, proceeding on replies that the epithet merely refers to 

the supposition that Vlrg. represented the Vulcan's representation, not to the reality 

historical scene rather than its pictorial represented. As before, both objection 

symbol. ' Tenebat ' of the defender of a and answer seem to proceed on a wrong 

post 12. 705. Wakef. oo^j. 't^ebat,' as conception of Virg.'s notion. Virg. was 

' tenebant ' recurs v. 657 : but such repe- not bound to make Vulcan pi*eserve exact 

titions are common in Virg. historical perspective : he combines the 

654.] Heyne thinks this line spurious, thatched hut with the gilded temple of 
and Ribbeck, following the Parma edition, his own time as the best means of pro- 
inserts it after v. 641. But it is natural ducing the effect he desires and impressing 
that the Capitol should be represented the image of the Capitol upon his reader's 
with the accessories familiar to a Roman, mind. ' Auratis ' doubtless refers to 
whether they formed a part of the histori- Vulcan's mode of representation, like 
cal scene or not (see two last notes), and ' argenteus :' but as the latter represents 
Virg. doubtless meant to note Vulcan's the actual colour of the bird, the former 
art in giving the effect of the 'straw- must represent the actual appearance 
built shed' in gold, just as in H. 18. 548, 9 of the building : otherwise the use of the 
we are told that the blackness of the epithet would point not to the strength 


Porticlbus Gallos in limine adesse eanebat ; 

Oalli per dumos aderant^ arcemque tenebant^ 

Defensi tenebris et dono noetis opacae ; 

Aurea caesaries oUis^ atque aurea vestis ; 

Virgatis lucent sagulis ; turn laotea coUa 660 

Auro inneetuntur ; duo quisque Alpina coruscant 

Gaesa manu^ scutis protecti corpora longis. 

Hie exsultantis Salios^ nudosque Lupercos^ 

of Vulcan's art but to its weakness. For fact that they wore *' gansapa/' and the 
the gilding of the Capitol comp. v. 348. ''gaosapa" of Calignla*s captives, some of 
' Hie ' refers generally to the Capitol. The whom were Gaols, are said by Persius 1. c. 
geese were left in the precinct of the to be yellow : but I have not succeeded in 
temple of Juno in the Capitol. * Volitans ' verifying Casaubon's reference : not to men- 
^ves the picture of the fluttering wings tion that the meaning of" gausapa" in Per- 
of the startled bird, as ' canebat ' is doubt- sins is disputed precisely in the same way 
less meant to refer to its open mouth, as that of ' vestis ' here. Sil. 4. 155 has 
Serv. says that an image of a goose in " auro virgatae vestes " of the Celts, show- 
silver was actually kept in the Capitol in inghowhe understood the present passage, 
memory of the event. 660.] ' Sagula * are the short military 
656.1 ' In limine ' with ' adesse.' cloaks, apparently worn over the * vestes.' 
657 .J Bom. has 'oUi,' which Heyne These are' virgata,' striped, an effect proba- 
prefers ; but it doubtless came from a bly produced on the shield by inlaying, 
recollection of v. 5d4 : nor is it likely, as Serv. says that " virga " in the language of 
Wagn. observes, that Virg., who is gene- the Gauls means purple: it is used however 
rally so abstinent in his use of the arqhaie for a stripe by Ov. A. A. 3. 269, where by 
form, should have introduced it twice in the way the epithet happens to be " pur- 
three lines. For the thickets see v. 348. pureis," and ' virgatus * in this sense occurs 
' Arcem tenebant :' Livy says that one of several times in the later poets. In Catull. 
them was on the top when the alarm was 62 (64). 319 it has its natural meaning, 
given. Virg. doubtless intends us to con- made of osier. The Greek metaphor is 
ceive of some as on the top, some as the same, pa0Boyr6s (see Lidd. and Scott), 
approaching through the woods. It is not said here that the stripes were 
• 658.] ' Dono ' i. q. " beneficio,'' as in of gold, as Sil. 1. c. appears to think, 
2. 269. Night is doubtless the giver of though possibly they were so represented 
the boon, not the boon given. by Vulcan. The whole is a picture to the 
659.] *' Habitus Gallorum bene expressus, eye, wrought in metal: and so 'lucent.' 
etsi alieno fortasse loco " Heyne ; another 'Lactea :' the fairness of the skin of the 
instance of forgetting the distinction Gauls was a natural object for an artist to 
between narrative and picture. The ap- seize on. Probably it was represented by 
pearance and costume of the Gauls silver. - 

admitted of being expressed in metal, and 661.] 'Auro inneetuntur,' referring to 

Virg. takes advantage of the opportunity, the " torquis," which was a conspicuous part 

For the hair of the Gauls Wagn. comp. of the Gallic dress. The neck, as we should 

Niebuhr vol. 1 note 1169. ' Vestis ' has say, is fiistened with gold. See on v. 277 

been explained by Serv. and others of the above. The carrying two spears is common 

beard, a sense which does not seem to in Horn., and was usual among the ancient 

occur elsewhere (" inpubem molli pubescere nations (Diet. A. ' Hasta '). Comp. 1. 313. 

▼este " Lucr. 5. 672 is most naturally 662.] ' Gaesa ' Diet. A. ' Scutis longis :' 

taken as a metaphor) though it is sup* Lersch § 31 quotes Livy 38. 21 " Scuta 

ported by the use of *' investis," a post- longa, ceterum ad amplitudinem corporis 

classical word, but one which may have parum lata, male tegebant Gallos." 

been revived from earUer Latin (see Die- 663.] He passes from historical events 

tionaries). Whether there is authority for to institutions, by way of showing the 

saying that the €hiuls wore yellow g^- ordinary life of Rome, and chooses of 

ments (which would be naturally repre- course those that were best suited for 

sented by gold) is not certain : Casaubon external effect. For the Salii and Luperci 

on Persius 6. 46 refers to Varro for the see Diet. A. 


Lanigerosque apices^ et lapsa ancilia caelo 

■:(.iwi^ V t^ Extuderat ; castae ducebant sacra per urbem 665 

Pilentis matres in moUibus. Hinc procul addit 
Tartareas etiam sedes^ alta bstia Ditis^ 
Et scelerum poenas^ et te, Catilina, minaci 
Pendentem scopulo, Puriarumque ora trementem ; 

Secretosque pios ; his dantem iura Catonem. 670 

664.] The ' apex ' was a pointed piece of tern scopnlo ' is understood by Heyne and 

olive wo6d, surroanded by a lock of wool, later commentators as if Catiline were 

and attached to the head either by fillets or extended beneath a rock which threatened 

by a cap : see Diet. A. It is naturally coupled to fall on him, like the criminals iu 6. 602. 

with*ancilia/ the introduction of both being But this does not seem to suit 'pendentem.' 

ascribed to Numa. It was worn by the 'fla- It is surely more likely thathe is represented 

mines ' and also by the Salii, the latter of as on the verge of a precipice, wiUi a refer- 

whom had charge of the ' ancilia.' ' Lapsa ence doubtless to the Tarpeian rock, just in 

caelo ' can hardly point to any thing in the the agony of falling into the abyss. The 

picture, so we must take it simply as a Furies then are probably to be understood 

historical statement, accounting for the as pursuing and driving him over the brink, 

interest felt in these sacred relics. * Minaci' will be overhanging, and conse- 

665.] 'Extundere' Q. 1. 133., 4. 315: quently precipitous. Tumeb.V. L. 23. 3 ra- 

here apparently of making raised figures, ther strangely explains the words of Catiline 

' Ducebant sacra,' were moving in sacred lying unburied on the top of a lofty rock, 

procession, like *' ducere pompam." 670.] 'Secretos' separated from the 

6G6.2 'Klentis' Diet. A. 'Mollibus' bad. Comp. Hor. 2 Od. 13. 22. Cato 

seems to refer to the soft cushions of these must be the younger one, of Utica, as the 

cars, not, as Serv. thinks, to their movable- contrast with Catiline and the fdnctions 

ness. See on G. 2. 389. Niebuhr vol. assigned to the man seem to show. The 

1 note 977 adopts Serv.'s view. " Nee elder Cato was an exemplar of old Roman 

procul hinc " 1. 469. virtue ; but he is not celebrated as being, 

667.] Heyne, Peerlkamp, and Ribbeck like the younger, a pattern of purity and 

object to these lines as incongruous. At sanctity in a dissolute age. The objection 

first sight the introduction of the infernal that a compliment x>&id to him might have 

regions seems out of keeping with the rest been unacceptable to Augustus is suffi* 

of the portraiture. But we must consider ciently answered by the eulogies which 

that Virg.'s object here and elsewhere is Horace bestows on him 1 Od. 12. 35., 2. 1. 

to tell incidents pictorially : and it doubt- 24. Peerlkamp objects that as a suicide 

less seemed to him that he could not he ought not to have appeared in Elysium, 

better distribute praise and blame, with his place being in the Mourning Fields 

the materials at his command, among (6. 434 foil.) : Thiel thinks he may have 

national benefactors and national criminals earned a place among the " ob patriam 

than by representing their fortunes in the pugnando volnera passi," 6. 660. But the 

other world, which are as it were emble- fact is that Virg. did not aim at perfect 

matic of the judgment of history. Cati- consistency. It was enough for him that 

Une*s death in battle would not have told Cato was one who from his character in 

its own story, nor would any event in life might be justly conceived of as law- 

Cato's life have represented the position giver to the dead. His functions here 

which Virg. wishes to assign to him. So seem not to be those of Minos or Rhada- 

in G. 3. 37 foil., Virg., wishing to express manthus in Book 6, but rather those of the 

symbolically his reprobation of the enemies Homeric Minos (Od. IL 668 folL), who is 

of Caesar, places them in the infernal world, a judge below because he had been a law- 

" Taenarias etiam fiiuces, alta ostia Ditis " giver above, and apparently pronounces 

G. 4. 467. It is difficult to say whether not on the deserts of the dead when in life 

' alta ' there and here is high or deep. but on their disputes among themselves in 

668, 669.] '* Scelerum poenas " 11. 258. their ghostly state. * Iura dare ' seems to 

Heyne remarks that Catiline is chosen to have its ordinary sense in Virg. of giving 

be the arch-criminal as one whom all parties laws rather than administering justice: 

were agreed to give up. * Minaci penden- but the two would run into each other, as 


Haec inter tumidi late maris ibat imago^ 

Aurea^ sed fluctu spumabant caerula cano ; 

Et circum argento clari delphines in orbem 

Aequora verrebant caudis aestumque secabant. 

In medio elassis aeratas^ Actia bella^ 675 

Cemere erat ; totumque instructo Marte videres 

Fervere Leueaten, auroque effulgere fluctus. 

Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 

Cum Patribus Populoque, Penatibus et magnis Dis, 

has been remarked on 7. 246-8, and the IxBvdorrts, ffiixofi^yois XkcXor Hoiol 8* htfa^ 

Homeric BefAurrt^yra seems to contain ^va'i6«nfT€s ^Afty^ptoi 8cX^i>cs iOolrwif 

both notions. iwowas Ix^vs. It can hardlj be meant 

671.1 It is not clear whether 'haeo here that they are introdnoed in the sea- 

inter ' is meant to be taken strictly, as if piece that follows ; so we must suppose 

the sea were represented as winding among that the sea is represented as in Hom. 

the other scenes, or whether all that is as a natural object, part of it being occu< 

intended is that the sea came in along pied by the battle. Of * aestumque 

with the other representations. In D. 18. secabant ' Serv. says " Naturalem rem 

607, 608 the ocean river runs round the ostendit : nam semper mare turbatur cum 

shield as a kind of border, but no action delphini apparuerint." 

is represented as taking place there. 675.1 *' ' In medio :' utrum dipeo an 

' Late ' may go either with ' tumidi ' or mari ? ' Serv. Heyne and Wagn. maint 

with * ibat.' ' Ire ' of continuous extension tain the former, Forb. the latter. As in 

5. 558. V. 652, it is not easy to decide. The con- 

672.] 'Spumabant' Med., 'spumabat' text seems rather in favour of the latter t 

Pal., Bom., Gud. The latter would be but it must be admitted that the elabo- 

somewhat harsh, and would g^ve perhaps ration of the picture that follows well fits 

too g^reat prominence to * caerula.' Virg. it to be a centre piece. ' Aeratas ' is doubt- 

apparently means that though the sea was less meant not only as an ordinary epithet 

made of gold, the effect of white billows of ships, but to indicate the material of 

.was g^ven, just as Hom. says II. 18. 548 which Vulcan made them. The dolphins 

(already rererred to on v. 654) that the were of silver, the ships of bronze, the sea 

blackness of the furrows was represented of gold. 'Actia bella' in loose apposition 

in gold. Possibly silver may have been to * elassis,' like ** vina " to " vites " G. 

used to represent the whiteness: but 2.97. For the adj. 'Actia' comp. 8. 280. 

the Homeric parallel looks the other 676.1 ' Cemere erat ' 6. 596. 

way, and the wonder would of course be 677.1 Virg. may have thought of Lucr. 

enhanced if the effect could be produced 2. 44 "Fervere cum videas classem lateque 

by gold. ' Cano ' is emphatic, if not vag^," comp. by Forb. ' Leiicaten ' 3. 

* caerula.' £nn. A. fr. inc. 27 has " aequora 274. For < fervSre ' comp. G. 1. 456. No 

cana." Comp. also Lucr. 2. 767 " vertitur other instance of ' effiilgo ' is quoted : but 

in canos candenti marmore fluctus," where "^Igo" (6. 826) is occasionally found. The 

the whole context is about the changes in g^ld is not the golden ornaments of naval 

the colour of the sea. warfiure, as Wagn. thinks, but simply the 

673.] ' Argento clari' i.q. "ex argento material of the sea (v. 672), the blaze of 

claro," as " auro gravia " 3. 464 i. q. " ex light giving the effect of a fierce en- 

auro g^vi." ' In orbem :' comp. the com- counter, just as fire is metaphorically 

parison of the evolutions of the tilters attributed to war. It is strange that 

(" altemis orbibus orbis Inpediunt ") to Heyne should have thought the hemistich 

those of dolphins 5. 594. a weak one, as if its absence would have 

674.] The structure of this line resem- improved the passage, 

bles that of 7. 34, "Aethera mulcebant 678.] 'Hinc' opp. to 'hinc' v. 686» 

cantu lucoque volabant." The Intro- ' Italos ' contrasted with the barbaric na- 

duction of the dolphins is probably from tions on the other side. 'Agere' of leading 

Hesiod, Shield 209 foil. iroWol 7c fi^y &/i- to battle 7. 804. 

fi4<roif airrov AtX^nyts rp Koi rp Mv^ov 679.] Augustus was doubtless reiH*e- 



Stans celsa in puppi ; geminas cui tempora flammas 680 

Laeta vomunt, patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 

Parte alia ventis et dis Agrippa secundis 

Arduus agmen agens ; cui, belli insigne superbum, 

Tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona. 

Hinc ope barbarica variisque Antonius armis, 685 

Victor ab Aurorae populis et litore rubro, 

Aegyptum virisque Orientis et ultima secum 

Bactra vehit ; sequiturque, nefas ! Aegyptia coniunx. 

gented with all the emblems of the national Ussume that all are necessarily to be ex- 

cause about him, perhaps at the expense plained alike. ' Coroifli ' prob. with 

of strict military propriety. "Penatibos 'fulgent/ 'rostrata* being token sepa- 

et magnis dis" 8. 12: see note on 2. 298. rately. On the question whether the 

680.] "Stans celsa in puppi" 8. 527, 'navalis corona' was the same as the 

note, 10. 261. So the commanders are ' rostrata ' see Diet. A. " Corona," where 

represented 5. 132. Bom. has ' stat.' The it is pronounced that thcnr are different, 

flames apparently rise from the helmet, as Virg. at any rate can harcUy have wished 

in y. 620. They are identified with the to distinguish them, as he combines both 

light of the comet which appeared during words. There is a medal of Agrippa 

the games in honour of C. Caesar (see on where he appears with the " corona 

£. 9. 47) : perhaps too there may be an rostrata "(Diet. A.l. c.) : while the epithet 

aUnsion to the two-crested helmet of 'navalis' is applied to his CTOwn not only 

Bomulus 6. 780. Comp. also the light by Virg. here but by Sen. 1. c. 
over the head of lulus 2.688 note. For 685. J 'Ope barbarica' is from £nn. 

• cui' Pal. corrected has * hue,' Gud. * huic' Andromacha fr. 9 " Vidi te (Troy) astante 

681.] ' Laeta ' of brightness and beauty, ope barbarica Tectis caelatis lacuatis Auro 

like "laetos honores" 1. 591, comp. by ebore instructum regiflce." •Variis"ex- 

Forb. ' Aperitur ' dawns, 8. 206, 275., 7. presses the difierent accoutrements of the 

448. So Cowley, Davideis 4. 863 (imitated, heterogeneous assemblage, which were 

as Wakef. remarks, by Pope, II. 2. 570) : doubtless represented on the shield. 

«T»« i.i. • J.1- I- J. 11 •• Heins. ingeniously conj. "Phariis;" but 

Bright signs thro^hout your looks and ^his would anticiiite tfie enumeration in 

words arc spread, „„ 0^/7 o 

... • /^ J 1 W. Do/, O. 

A nsmg victory dawns around your ggg-j . Victor ab,' returning in triumph 

from. The allusion is to the victories ob- 

682.] 'Parte alia' disting^shesAg^ppa tained by Antonius' legato over the Par- 

from Augustus, though both of course are thians, which are dwelt on, as Senr. 

included under 'hinc' v. 678. 'Ventis remarks, to enhance the glory of his 

secundis :' the wind had been against them conqueror. < Aurora ' for the East Ov. 

for five days, but changed on the sixth. M. 1. 61 " Eurus ad Auroram Naba- 

683, 684.] 'Arduus ' probably i. q. " stans thaeaque regna recessit." Bom. strangely 

celsa in puppi." A prominent place would has " Europae." ' Litore rubro,' the shore 

naturally be g^ven to the commander in a of the Erythraean sea. Forb. comp. Hor. 

representation like this. 'Belli insigne 1 Od. 85. 80 "iuvenum recens Examen Eois 

saperbum :' Agrippa is said by Veil. 2. 81, timendum Partibus Oceanoque rubro." 

Sen. de Ben. 8. 82, to have been the only 687.] 'Viris Orientis' like "patriae 

person who ever obtained this honour, viris" 6. 838. 

which was conferred on him for his victory 688.] 'Nefas' parenthetical 7. 73. 

over Sex. Pompeius (see however Pliny 16.4) Wagn.'s suggestion to take it in apposition 

The construction of 'insigne' is not clear, to 'coniunx' (comp. 2. 685) would not 

In Greek it would be set down as a oogn. improve the passage. Gossrau refers to 

ace. : in Latin it seems best taken as a nom. Hor. 8 Od. 5. 5 ibU. to show the Roman 

in loose apposition to the sentence. There horror of marriage with a foreigner. For 

is a similar doubt about "tormenti genus" the special loathing with which they re- 

V. 487 above, " triste ministerium " 6. 228, garded Antonius' alliance with dteopatn. 

though in a writer like Viig. we need not comp. Hor. 1 Od. 87, Bpod. 9, Prop. 4. 11. 


Una omnes ruere, ac totum spnmare reductis 
Convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 690 

Alta petunt ; pelago credas innare revokas 
Cycladas, ant montis concurrere montibus altos : 
Tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant. 
Stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile femim 
Spargitur ; arva nova Neptunia caede rubeseunt. 695 

Begina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro : 

689.] In the following passage Virg. deck. Towers of some kind were used in 

seems almost to forget that he is not ships in Caesar's time, as Qossrau remarks, 

telling a story but describing a pictore. citingCaes. B. G.3.14:butSery.maymean 

We may suppose however that three scenes that Agrippa introduced an improvement, 

were represented, the battle (675—703), 694.] 'Stuppea flamma' (with which 

the rout (704 — ^713), and the triumph comp. "virgea flamma" 7. 463) refers to 

(714—728). * Una omnes ruere :' the two the " malleoli " (Diet. A. s. v.), which were 

fleets, distinguished from each other as thrown on houses and other buildings to 

above, were represented in the act of con- set fire to them. The latter part of the 

flict. 'Reducere' of drawing the oar verse has created considerable difficulty, 

back, like " adducere ** 5. 141. If darts are spoken of, there can be no 

690.] See on 5. 143, where the same distinction between *telis' and 'manu,' 

line occurs. Here Rom. and Gud. (second both the "malleoli " and the darts being 

reading) have " rostrisque stridentibus." really launched from the hand. Buhkopf 

691.] ' Alta petunt ' G. 1. 142. Here thinks slinging is intended, in which case 

it must denote the representation of for- ' telis ' would be the sling. Heyne and 

ward motion. The ships of Antony and Jahn prefer ' tell,' the old reading before 

Cleopatra were unusually large, Dion Cass. Heins., but it is nbt clear whether it has 

50. 23. In 5. 119 a ship is compared to a any authority, Bibbeck implicitly denying 

city. Here the comparison to islands or that it is found in Rom.; nor would 'teli' 

mountains seems to be suggested partly by for ' telorum ' be Virgilian. The choice 

a recollection of the irXa7KTa2 i/^o-oi or the seems to lie between taking 'telis' in 

Symplegades (referred to nearly in the close construction with ' volatile ferrum,' 

same words by Ov. M. 7. 62 '* nescio qui something like " pictas abiete puppis " 5. 

mediis concurrere in undis Dicuntur 663 note (a dat. it could hardly be), sup- 

montes "), partly by the * vast Typhoean posing ' telis ' to be some kind of engine, 

rage * with which the giants flung moun- a balista, as Heyne suggests, and crediting 

tains at the Gods. The violence of the Virg. with a merely verbal distinction, 

motion seems to be the point of comparison 'Volatile ferrnm' 4. 71. With the line 

as much as or more than the size. 'Pelago' comp. generally 12. 50 "Et nos tela, 

with ' innare.' pater, ferrumque baud debile dextra Spar- 

692.] Another reading ' altis,' found in gimus." 

some inferior MSS., is mentioned by Serv. 695.] For 'riovus' of a state of things 

693.] Heyne refers 'tanta mole' to the succeeding another comp. 2. 228, G. 4. 

ships, but the order is against this. It is 857. Here there seems a further notion 

I'ather to be taken with 'instant,' 'mole' of strangeness, the sea being, in Aeschy- 

being i. q. " molimine," as in 1.33. 'In- lean language, ^ kfiiavros, 'Neptunia 

stant' seems to combine the notions of arva' like "campos salis" 10. 214. 

standing upon and urging on. 'Turritis:' 696.] So Prop. 4. 11. 43 speaks of 

comp. Dion Cass. 1. c. koX 4ir* ahrh, ((TKdtpri) Cleopatra as " ansa . . Romanamque tu- 

ir{tpyovs re ^i^Xohs iirtKarcffKfvaarc, Koi bam crepitanti pellere sistro." It is pos- 

ir\rf0os hvBpisirtav iiraye^ifia<r(y, &<rr€ sible, as Heyne says, that the sistrum may 

KaBdwfp inrh r^x^^ ahrohs fidx^cBcu. have been used in war, though there is no 

This is said of Antony. Octavianus' ships, evidence for it : but it is more likely that 

though more numerous, were smaller and Virg. only thought of pictorial convenience 

lighter : Virg. has chosen to ignore the in equipping the queen with the instru- 

distinction. Serv. says Agrippa invented ment. She caused herself to be represented 

towen which could be put up suddenly on in the character of Isis, Dion Cass. 50. 5. 

L 2 


Necdum etiam geminos a tergo respicit anguis. 
Omnigenumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis 
Contra Neptunum et Venerem contraque Minervam 
Tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamine Mavors 700 

CaelatuB ferro, tristesque ex aethere Dirae ; 
Et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia pallfi; 
Quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello. 
Actius haec cemens arcum intendebat Apollo 

697.] She is not aware that there are doubtless from a recollection of 5. 514. 

two serpents behind her by which she is The introduction of Mars, who of 

doomed to perish. Vulcan adopted this course is merely combat personified, is 

way of signi^ing the manner of her death, scarcely consistent with an eng^agement 

The number ' two ' has caused some diffi- among gods themselves. In the Oeoftax^'^ 

culty to the commentators : but it is of II. 20. 47 foil. Ares is one of the com- 

merely the numerical precision of an em- batants, being opposed to Athene ; it is 

blematic picture. said however &fno 8* "E/xr ' Kpartp^, 

698.] The deities of the East are repre- XaM<Tff6o5y which is generally taken as a 

sented as fighting agunst the Roman gods personification : and so in 11. 4. 440 after 

like the giants against the gods in the being told that Ares inspired the Greeks, 

old mythology. Comp. Hor. 3 Od. 4. 63 Athene the Trojans, wc hear of AcTmos, 

foil., which resembles this passage. * Om- *6fios, and **Epis as common to both parties, 

uigenum ' is generally supposed to be for Comp. generally 10. 761 " Pallida 'Hsi- 

** omnigenorum :" ''omnigenus " however phone media inter millia saevit." 
is of very doubtful authority, having been 701.] ' Caelatus ferro,' cut in iron, 

removed by Lachm. from Lucr. 2. 759 Bom. and Med. (second reading) have 

and other passages where it had been in- * divae :' see on 4. 473. ' Ex aethere ' 

troduced against the bulk of MS. testi- describes their position in the picture : 

mony. Priscian p. 732 derives *omni- they are said however to sit in heaven 

genum' here from *'omnigena," which, ready for the call of Jove 12. 849 foil, 

though not found elsewhere, is perhaps Heyne thinks Virg. has imitated Hesiod 

more in accordance with analogy : but the Shield 248, where the Kijpts are represented 

word would mean ' all-begetting ' or ' all- as present at a battle, and contending for 

begotten,' not, as the sense seems to require, the possession of the fallen. Wagn. sug- 

** ex omui genere." On the whole it seems gests that Virg. has translated (mistrans* 

best to suppose that the word is " omni- lated ?) the Homeric iitpo^oiris *Epi^is lU 

genus," formed from the adverbial " omne 9. 571 &c. 

genus" or "omnigenus" (see Lachm. 702.-] 'IKscordia' is the Homeric 
on Lucr. 2. 759), as Appuleius forms *'Epis, II. 4. 440 &c. 'Scissa paUa' prob. 
** omniraodus " from " omnimodis." The with ' gaudens.' The rent robe is else- 
first reading of Med. is ' nigenum/ which where the sign of grief: here it seems to 
Lachm. on Lucr. 5. 440 — 445 thinks may express violence, and is perhaps also em- 
point to " Niligcnum :" and so Hofiinann blematic of division, 
conj. " amnigenum." But the old reading 703.] A scourge is attributed to Ares 
is more forcible, expressing a Boman's by Aesch. Ag. 642, where some commenta- 
contempt for the heterogeneous assemblies tors take ^iviav ^vvupiZa. of the yAtrrt^, 
of deities. 'Deum monstra' like "mon- 704.] The introduction of ApoUo as a 
stra ferarum" 6. 285, "monstrum combatant is in the Homeric spirit, and 
hominis," Ter. Eun. 4. 4. 29. We have perhaps actually suggested, as Heyne 
had the combination in another sense thinks, by II. 16. 700 foil., where however 
3. 58. ' Latrator' as having a dog^shead. Apollo has no weapon but a shield. Pro- 
Prop. 4. 11. 41 has "Ansa lovi nostro pertius in his poem on the battle of 
latrantem opponere Anubin." He had Actium (£1. 5. 6) makes Apollo the prin- 
seen the Aeneid before publication, as cipal figure, which is itself a compliment 
Heyne reminds us. to Augustus, who wished to be considered 

f 00.] Pal. corrected and Gud. originally the son of the god. It is needless to say 

have ' tenens,' which might conceivably be that such a deus ex machina is much more 

constructed with 'Mavors,' but came in place in a quasi -symbolical picture than 


Desuper : omnis eo terrore Aegyptos et Indi, 705 

Omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabaei. 

Ipsa videbatur ventis regina vocatis 

Vela dare, et laxos iam iamque inmittere funis. 

111am inter caedes pallentem morte futura 

Fecerat Ignipotens undis et lapyge ferri; 710 

Contra autem magno maerentem corpore Nilum, 

Pandentemque sinus et tota veste vocantem 

Caeruleum in gremium latebrosaque flumina vietos. 

At Caesar, triplici invectus Romana triumpho 

Moenia, dis Italis votum inmortale sacrabat, 715 

Maxuma ter centum totam delubra per Urbem. 

Laetitia ludisque viae plausuque fremebant; 

Omnibus in templis matrum chorus, omnibus arae ; 

Ante aras terram caesi stravere iuvenci. 

Ipse, sedens niveo candentis limine Phoebi, 720 

in a narrative poem : still, we may ques- 712.] The god would be represented 

tion the propriety of making Apollo at with a water-colonred robe (above, v. 33) 

once decide a battle where the other the bosom of which he would throw open. 

Olympian deities were already engaged on So ' tota veste :' he offers them all his 

the side of Rome. waters as a covert. 

705.] * Desuper,' either from the sky or 713.] * Caeruleum gremium latebrosa- 

from his temple on the promontory of que flumina' ty 9th duo7if. *Latebrosa' 

Actium. *Eo terrore' like "quo motu" seems simply to express the fact that by 

G. 1. 329. 'Aegyptos' Pal. (originally), sailing up the Nile they were able to take 

Kom. corrected, which it seems worth refuge in Egypt. 

while to adopt, for the sake of uniformity 714.] Augustus on his return to Rome 

with Q. 4. 210. had three days of triumph, for his sue- 

707.] ' Videbatur ' may either mean was cesses in Dalmatia, at Actium, and at 

seen, or seemed, the latter referring to the Alexandria, Suet. Oct. 22. Serv. reverses 

graphic power of the representation, the order of the two first. * Invectus 

* Ventis vocatis' 3. 253., 5. 211. Here it moenia' like " invectus undam" 7. 436. 
is probably abl., as there, though it might 715.] ' Dis Italis ' contrasted with "om- 

be constructed with < dare.' nigenum deum monstra " v. 698. ' In- 

708.] * Laxos ' with * inmittere.* * In- mortale ' because the temples vowed were 

mittere funis' is the same as "laxare intended to last for ever, 
rudentis" 3. 267 note (comp. "velis in- 716.] Virg. has apparently, as Heyne 

mitte rudentis" 10. 229). See also on observes, made Augustus consecrate at 

6. 1 " classique inmittit habenas." ' lam once all the '. temples consecrated in the 

iamque ' seems to show that the picture course of his reign, and has amplified their 

represented the beginning of the process. number poetically. Serv. wrongly takes 

709.] "Pallida morte futura" 4. 644 note, this line with what follows, and so Burm. 

710.] 'lapyge' Hor. 1 Od. 3. 4. 718.] A description of the "supplica- 

711.] The Nile is represented G. 3. 38 tio," which was said "fieri ad omnia 

on the doors of the temple which Virg. pulvinaria," all the temples being opened, 

speaks of erecting : there however the A. difficulty has been made about * omni- 

representation seems to be of the actual bus arae/ as if there were any novelty in 

river, like those wliich were carried in every temple having an altar; but the 

triumphal processions, here of the river meaning evidently is that in every temple 

god. 'Contra' facing Cleopatra in the there was a sacrifice going on. Comp. 

picture of the rout. * Magno corpore ' Lucr. 5. 1199 " omnis accedere ad aras." 
with • Nilum,' perhaps hardly with * mae- 720.] We can hardly suppose that more 

rentem.' than one stage of the triumph was por- 


Dona recognoscit populoiTim aptatque superbis 

Postibus j incedunt victae \ongo ordine gentes, 

Quanr variae Unguis, habitu tarn vestis et armis. 

Hie Nomadum genus et discinctos Mulciber Afros, 

Hie Lelegas Carasque sagittiferosque Gelonos 725 

Pinxerat; Euphrates ibat iam moUior undis; 

Extremique hominum Morini, Rhenusque bicomis ; 

Indomitique Dahae, et pontem indignatus Araxes. 

Talia per clipeum Volcani, dona parentis, 

Miratur, rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet, 730 

Attollens humero famamque et fata nepotum. 

trayed : so we must conclude that and some others read ' hinc/ 

Augustus is represented as in the present 725.] The Leleges and Carians (II. 10. 

line, sitting in the temple he dedicated on 428, 9) stand for the nations of Asia Minor, 

the Palatine. 'Invectus' then, v. 714, ' Gelonos' G. 2. 115., 3. 461, called "pha- 

will refer to what had already taken place, retratos " hy Hor. 3 Od. 4. 35. 

and * sacrahat * will be used generally, the 726.] Pictures of rivers were carried in 

act here described being the culmination triumph. Comp. G. 3. 28. ' MoUior un- 

of the whole. * Niveo ' refers to the dis * i. q. *' mollioribus undis." * MoUior ' 

marble of the temple, which was brought, opposed to swelling, ** undantem beUo 

as Serv. tells us, from the bay of Luna, magnumque fluentem,'' G. 3. 1. c. So 

So 'candentis,* though there is also a "moUior aestas" G. 1. 312 =: "mitior." 

reference to the dazzling brightness of the The image seems modelled on Hor. 2 Od. 

young sun -god, as in Hor. 1 Od. 2. 31, 9. 21 " Medumque flumen gentibus add!- 

comp. by Forb. turn Victis minores volvere vertices." 

721.] *Dona populorum' is generally 727.] The verb is supplied from* ibat.' 

explained of the golden crowns given by 'Morini' (Diet. G.). •Bicomis:' comp. 

conquered nations to their conquerors, v. 77, G. 4. 371 note. Here the reference 

before whom they were carried in a is supposed to be to the two mouths of the 

triumph. But it may be referred more river, Rhenus and Vahalis. 

widely to the spoils, which, being dedicated 728.] * Dahae * Diet. G. ' Pontem in- 

by the conqueror, may be said to be the dignatus ' symbolizes what is expressed 

g^fbs of the conquered to the gods. more directly by ' indomiti.' Accoiding to 

722.] Representatives of the conquered Serv., it was actually bridged over by 

nations formed part of the triumphal pro- Augustus, a bridge thrown over it in 

cession. Comp. the sculptures G. 3. 30 former days by Alexander having been 

foU. Serv. tells us that Augustus built a swept away. The erection of a bridge is 

portico adorned with images of all nations of course understood to be a sign of 

and entitled *'Ad nationes." Rom. has mastery, indicating human power and 

< incendunt ' for ' incedunt,' ' matres ' for tending to substitute civilization for pri- 

' gentes,' the latter doubtless from 2. 766. mitive wUdness. 

723.] * Variae Unguis' like "diversa 729.] 'Dona' poetically for "donum" 

locis" G. 4. 367. "Habitus armorum" 2. 36, 189. PeerUcamp conj. 'Volcania 

occurs Livy 9. 36. dona,' which is actuaUy found in MS. 

724.] 'Nomadum:' Bogfudes, king of BaUiol. 

Mauretania, was one of Antonius' aUies, 730.] It would be possible to take 

Dion Cass. 50. 6, 11. 'Discinctos' seems 'rerum' with 'ignarus:' ignorant as he 

to describe the national costume of the Car- is of the real events, he is charmed with 

thaginians, and probably other African their portraiture (which is Lessing's view, 

nations, who wore no girdles, as appears Laocoon c. 18, and perhaps that of Serv.) : 

from Plant. Poen. 5. 2. 48, Sil. 3. 235, but to connect it with ' imagine ' is more 

Livy 35. 11. Juv. 8. 120 seems to allude afber the manner of Virg. 

to this, though he chooses to ascribe the 731.] ' Famam et fata ' 7. 79, a sort of 

loss of the girdle to their Roman oppressors, hendiadys for a glorious destiny. The 

who stripped them of their purses. For line was attacked in Serv.'s time as super- 

' hie ' here and in the next line Pttl., Gud., fluous and modern in its tone, and later 


critics have complained of it as epigram- both the rhythm and the thought of the 

matic and Ovidian. But the only thing line are dignified and emphatic. ' Facta/ 

artificial about it, the substitution of the the reading of some MSS., including one 

subject of the shield for the shield itself, of Ribbeck's cursives, is very inferior, 
is paralleled by Heyne from 10. 497 : and 




The subject of this Book is the attack made by Tnriiiis and the Latian annj on the 
Trojan camp while Aeneas is away. Varioas incidents are interwoven with it 
with more or less of ingenuity. At the opening of the attack a portent occurs, the 
transformation of the Trojan ships into sea-nymphs, just at the moment when they 
are threatened with conflagration. This, as Sir 6. C. Lewis remarks, is evidently an 
echo of the story in the Fifth Book, the burning of the ships by the Trojan women. 
Virg^ was doubtless glad to put the legend to a double use, whether the form which 
it takes on this second occasion was invented by him or borrowed from tradition. In 
any case he was likely to regard the metamorphosis as part of the supernatural 
machinery which is an epic poet's property. Even in Servius' time however the 
incident provoked question as being without precedent : and modem criticism 
will be more disposed to account for it than to justify it. No defence is needed 
for the next incident, which is indeed one of the crowning instances of Virgil's 
power of appealing to human sensibility. The hint of the episode of Nisus and 
Euryalus is from Homer's Doloneia : but the effect produced is due entirely to the 
art of the younger poet. In the Homeric story we sympathize neither with Dolon 
nor with his captors : the former fails where he did not deserve to succeed : the success 
of the latter is too complete and too bloody to call forth much enthusiasm. Nisus and 
Euryalus succeed like Ulysses and Diomede, and fail like Dolon : and our feelings are 
stirred alike by their success and their fidlure. The remaining events are leas 
memorable, but serve to diversify the narrative. The killing of Numanus by Ascanias 
is Virgil's own, and is well contrived to keep up our interest in the beleaguered army. 
In the account of the daring of Pandarus and Bitias and the havoc made in the Trojan 
camp by Tumus Virgil has borrowed something from Homer, and is said to have 
borrowed something also from Ennius. The rashness of the Trojan champions excites 
little sympathy : but the single-handed bravery of Tumus justifies the place he is 
made to occupy in the poem, as the prominent figure in the absence of Aeneas. 

Heyne is so convinced of the propriety of the conduct of this part of the poem that 
he thinks no objection can be made to the attack on the camp in Aeneas' absence 
without the utmost injustice. Tet, if we consider for a moment, we shall perhaps 
see that such an objection would not be as unwarrantable as he supposes. If Aeneas 
had undertaken the journey to Evander of his own motion, we might not have won- 
dered that the step should have entailed a certain amount of disaster; but when we 
know that it was prompted by a deity, we naturally expect a less equivocal result. 


No doubt the balance of advantage was still on Aeneas' side : but in the case of an 
action sn^ested by supernatural advice we are scarcely prepared to find that a balance 
has to be struck. As it is, the consequences are sufficiently unfortunate to form the 
subject of debate among the gods in the following Book : Venus complains, Juno 
retorts that Aeneas brought the evil on himself, and Jupiter cautiously declines to 
pronounce whether fate or human error is in fiiult. No doubt the employment of 
supematHral machinery involves a poet in considerable difficulty. If it is used at all, 
it would seem natural that it should be used in all the important crises of the story. 
Nor is there any thing abstractedly repellent in the notion that an action prompted by 
a god should result in something short of absolute success, especially when we con- 
sider that each party has an array of gods ranged on its side. We can even conceive 
that Nisus may have been prompted, as Virgil himself intimates, to the enterprise 
which ended so gloriously and so fatally. Such however is not the way in which the 
andent poets generally make use of supernatural agency. The gods are employed to 
procure good for their favourites and avert evil from them : where they can do neither, 
they are commonly passive. The resolution which Hector takes, to encounter Achilles 
and meet his death, is a heroic one : but it is prompted not by his protector Apollo but 
by his enemy Pallas. Virgil has entangled himself in a complication which the greater 
simplicity of Homer's conceptions enables him to avoid ; and the readers of the Ninth 
Book only anticipate the dissatisfaction which the poet himself is compelled to express 
in the Tenth. 

Atque ea diversa penitus dum parte geruntur, 

Irim de caelo misit Saturnia luno 

Audacem ad Tumum. Lnco turn forte parentis 

Pilnmni Turnus saerata valle sedebat. 

Ad quern sic roseo Thaumantias ore locata est : 5 

Tume, quod optanti divom promittere nemo 

Auderet, volvenda dies, en, attulit ultro. 

Aeneas, urbe et soeiis et classe relicta, 

Sceptra Palatini sedemque petit Euandri. 

1 — 24.] 'Iris tells Turnus of Aeneas' IHlumnus being Turnus' great-grandfather, 

absence, and moves him to attack the 10. 619. 
Trojan camp.' 4.] ' Saerata,' for which one MS. gives 

1.] Oomp. 7. 540, which generally re- 'secreta,' is explained by 'luco.' *Sede- 

sembles this line. In commencing the bat:' Turnus is represented as at ease 

book with a particle which refers back to when Iris comes to rouse him. 
the preceding narrative Vii^. imitates 6.] 'Roseo ore' of a goddess 2. 593. 

Hom., e.g. II. 9. 1. Val. F. begins his 'Thaumantias:' Thaumas, son of Ocean 

4th book with 'atque.' 'Penitus' with and Earth, was father of Iris and the 

•diversa,' as with "divisos" E. 1. 67. The Harpies, Hes. Theog. 265 foil, 
mention of utter separation is in point, 6.] Cerda- comp. 5. 17, " Non si mihi 

as it is the entire removal of Aeneas from luppiter auctor Spondeat, hoc sperem 

the scene which makes his camp in danger. Italiam contingere caelo," for a similar 

The transactions referred to are all those hyperbole, 
at F^llanteum. 7.] 'Volvenda dies:' see on 1. 269. 

2.] Repeated from 5. 606, where as here 8.] ' Urbe,' the camp-settlement, as in 

< dum ' with the present is followed by a v. 48. 
past. See Madv. §. 336 obs. 2. 9.] ' Sceptra,' the sign of authority, for 

3.] Turnus is called " audax " v. 126 be- the place over which authority is exercised, 

low, 7. 409., 10. 276. ' Parentis ' is used ' Palatini ' is, as Serv. observes, a pro- 

loosely as in 3. 180, like "avus" 10. 76, lepsis; but it is also intended to remind 


Nee satis : extremas Corythi penetravit ad urbes, lo 

Lydorumque manum coUectos armat agrestis. 

Quid dubitas ? nune tempus equos, nunc poseere currus. 

Rumpe moras omnis et turbata arripe eastra. 

Dixit^ et in caelum paribus se sustulit alis^ 

Ingentemque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 15 

Adgnovit iuvenis^ djiplicisque ad sidera palmas 

Sustulit^ et tali fugientem est voce secutus : 

Iri^ decus caeli^ quis te mihi nubibus actam 

Detulit in terras ? unde haec tarn clara repente 

Tempestas ? medium video discedere caelum^ 20 

Q8 of Pallonteam, as if ' Palatium ' were a Peerlkamp, and Forb. think, the oopuhi is 

cognate form of Pallanteam. It is doubtful needed. The argument for the copula is 

whether'petit' is presentythehkstsyll. being that *Lydorum manum * naturally refers 

lengthened by caesura, or perf. contracted, to the town population (' urbes ' v. 10), 

The latter is the view of Lachm. on who are distinguished from the ' agrestes.' 

Lucr. 3. 1042, where several passages But this is to import a needless exactness 

are collected from Ov. and Lucan, in of expression into Virg., who need not 

which the syll. is similarly lengthened: have intended a sharp antithesis between 

in one of them however, Lucan 5. 522, it the town and country people, but may 

would perhaps be more natural to regard have brought in ' agrestis ' as an after- 

' petit ' as a present. The nearest parallel thought, perhaps to enforce the notion that 

to the lengthening of a short syll. in this Aeneas is seeking aid from all quarters, 

part of the verse is *'gravidus auctumno" 12.] 'Tempus poseere:' see on G. 1. 

G. 2. 5, as in 7. 398 the mitial letter of 213. 

''hymenaeos" may probably account for the 13.] Serv. gives a choice of interpreta- 
quantity of the last syll. of " canit." ' Pe- tions, " aut arripe et turba, aut turbata 
tivit * was early introduced as a metrical invade, per absentiam Aeneae inordinata." 
altemlicm by ignorant transcribers, being Forb. rightly prefers the former, the con- 
found in two or three of Sibbeck's cursives fusion being attributed to the surprise, 
and in Bom. from a correctioii. comparing 12. 556, " subita turbaret clade 

10.] 'Nee (id) satis (est),' a noticeable liatinos,'' ' Arripere' of r^pA. oooopatioB 

ellipse, as there is nothing in the structure 11. 531. There was an unmetrical reading 

of the sentence to suggest the pronoun, in the early editions, < turbataque arripe.' 

which has to be inferred from the context. 14, 15.] 5. 657, 658. 

We might resolve it into ' nee satis (fecit 16.1 1. 93. 

hoc faciendo),' but the difficulty would be 17.] 1. 406. ' Et' Med., Rcnn., restored 

the same. The meaning is that Aeneas by Heins. Wagn. prefers 'ac,' which 

has not only g^t the alliance of Evander seems to be found in the rest of Blbbeck's 

and the Arcadians, but of the Etruscans ; MSS. 

and this is expressed rhetorically, as if 18.] From II. 18. 182, "^Ipi Oca, rU ydp 

Aeneas went far to seek for the Etruscan re Oc»y ifiol Ayy^Xoy ^xey ; Tumus' ques- 

alliance instead of having it offered him. tion is less clearly expressed, and does not» 

'Corythi' 3. 170., 7. 209. "Penetravit like Achilles', meet with an answer. With 

ad urbes " 7. 207, where, as here, there is ' decus caeli ' Forb. comp. Hor. Carm. Sec. 

the noticm of difficulty and distance. 2. ' Nubibus actam ' 10. 38, driven along 

11.] 'Lydorum' 8. 479. The reading or from the sky: comp. 10. 73, ''demis- 

before Heins., 'collectosque,' is found, ac- 8ave.nabibus Iris." 

cording to Ribbeck« in Parrhas., a MS. 19.] * Detulit,' as if Iris Were conveyed 

known for its interpolations. Bom., Med., by the physical instrumentality of another, 

and Pal. omit the copula, the latter, with ** Liquidissima caeli tempestas " Lucr. 4. 

some other copies, reading ' manus.' One 168. The meaning apparently is. Why is 

of Blbbeck's cursives has 'manum et,' a there this sudden brightness in the sky? 

leading ef which there are traces in Gud. ; 20.] The image is apparently fi^^n S. 

and this would seem the best if> as Jahn, 8. .56^ oAfKU'^^cy 8* &/>* ^^ppiym AtriFeros 


Palantisque polo stellas. Sequor omina tanta^ 

Quisquis in arma vocas. Et sic effatus ad undam 
Processit, summoque hansit de gurgite lymphas^ 
Malta deos orans^ oneravitque aethera votis. 

lamque omnis campis exercitus ibat apertis^ 25 
Dives equum, dives pictai vestis et auri ; 

aiO^p, ni{yt« 8^ r* efSerai icrrpa, where but it is similarly used 6. 53.^ 10. 495 : 

however the conditions are different, as it oomp. also v. 52 below, 

is a night scene. Serv. refers to the 28.] Turnus takes up water in his hands 

books of the Augers for the expression to cleanse them before offering his prayer. 

" caelum discessisse/' as if the rent in the Comp. 8. 70, where however more may 

sky was a recognized portent, and Cic. De be meant. It was a Roman custom to 

Div. 1. 43 has ** Caelum discessisse visum make vows before a battle and to wash the 

est, atque in eo animadversi globi," a hands before making them, Turneb. V. L. 

parallel which may also illustrate ' pib- 25. 30. Serv. says that if a person after 

lantis Stellas.' But for this, it might be seeing an omen came to running water, 

suggested that Yirg.'s notion is that a be took up some in his hands and made 

flash of light, such as that which seems to vows, that the stream might not break 

have accompanied the appearance of Iris, the omen. Tlie notion is curiously like 

is really a parting of the clouds and a the belief that nrnning water dissolved a 

glimpse of the heaven beyond (comp. 8. magical spell, whioh the readers of the 

392 note), as if the stars and the abode of Lav of the Last Minstrel wifi remember : 

the gods were concealed by a veil of doud. it is not however likely that Virg., with 

For the expression comp. also G. 3. 24, all his love of antiquarian allusion, ean 

** scaena ut versis discedat ^ntibus." have referred to it, as Turnus is not met 

Two of Ribbeck's cursives have * discin- by the river, but goes to it deliberately* 

dere,' to which, or to another reading 24.] 'Oneravitque aethera votis' was 

' descendere,' a correction in Qud. points, thought superfluous by Heyne, but is de- 

In Rom. the second syll. of ' discedere ' is fended by Weichert as a piece of epic re- 

vrritten over an erasure. dundance. If any thing can be said against 

21.] " Bene * palantis,' quasi in alienum it, it is that it seems too artificial for a 

tempus errore venientis," Serv. The passage of ordinary description, though it 

spefdcer in fact transfers his own sense would suit an impassioned passage like 

of irregularity to that which he sees. II. 50. Some inferior copies omit 'que,' 

Lncr. 2. 1031 has " Quaeque in se cohibet a reading which the eariy critics tried to 

{caelum) palantia sidera passim," where render metrical either by lengthening the 

there seems a twofold reference, partly to last syU. of ' oneravit ' or by scanning 

the planets, partly to the supposed effect ' aethera ' as a quadrisyllable by diaeresis, 

of the sky in keeping in those who would 25—76.] ' The Rutulians advance to 

otherwise expatiate too widely. For * se> the attack : the Trojans refuse to come 

quor ' Med. and some others have ' sequar :' out : Turnus prepares to burn their fleet.' 

bat 'sequor' is confinned by the parallel 25.] The second reading of Med. is 

** Sequimur te, sancte deorum, Quisqms ' lamque adeo,' obviously from a reoollec- 

es " 4. 576. tion of 8. 585. 

22.] 'Quisqnis in arma vocas:' for the 26.] 'Dives' denotes abundance, not 

doubt expressed see on 4. 577. It must splendour. " Dives pecoris " E. 2. 20. 

be owned however that the present pas- ' Pictai :' see on 3. 354. The uncial MSS. 

sage would rather suggest that Turnus' are not dear about the word, Med. ori> 

doubt refers not to the identity of Iris but ginally and Bom. having ' picta,' while in 

to the god whose bidding she does (comp. Pal. the final 'i' is in an erasure; but it 

V. 18) : and so Serv. "vd luno vel lup- is attested by Probus, Diomedes, and other 

piter." Possibly in 4. 1. c. the doubt may grammarians. Cerda is perhaps riffht in 

be the same, referring not to Mercury but taking ' pictai vestis et auri ' as ly iik 

to the god who sent him, it being assumed Bvoiv, comp. Juv. 6. 482, " Aut latum 

that he would not have come of his own pictae vestis considerat aurum :" but 

motion : but there the context favours the ' auri ' might refer equally well to golden 

-explanation given in the note. ' £t ' has ornaments. 
been questioned by Heyne and Ribbeck, 


Messapus primas acies^ postrema coercent 

Tyrrhidae iuvenes ; medio dux agmine Turnus 

[ Vertitur arma tenens, et toto vertice supra est] . 

Ceu septem surgens sedatis amnibus alius 30 

Per taciturn Ganges, aut pingui flumine Nilus 

Cum refluit eampis et iam se condidit alveo. 

Hie subitam nigro glomerari pulvere nubem 

Prospiciunt Teueri, ac tenebras insurgere eampis. 

Primus ab adversa conclamat mole Caicus : 35 

Quis globus, o cives, caligine volvitur atra ? 

Ferte citi ferrum, date tela, ascendite muros. 

Hostis adest, heia ! Ingenti clamore per omnis 

Condunt se Teucri portas, et moenia conplent. 

Namque ita diseedens praeceperat optumus armis 40 

27.] 'Messapus' 7. 691. 'Coercent/ gui' like "fimo pingui" G. 1. 80, "sero 

rally and keep in line, like "agmina pingui'' ib. 3. 406, rich and fertilizing, 

cogunt Castigantque moras" 4. 406. Virg. probably did not separate the two 

' Postrema ' i. q. ** postremas acies." notions, and we need not do so. 

28.] "Tyrrhidae iuvenes" 7. 484. 32.] * Refluit eampis,' flows back from 

29.] This line is wanting in all Bib- the fields, like " referebat pectore voces'^ 

beck's MSS., and was doubtless introduced 5. 409. 

from 7. 784. It is only for the sake of 33.] ' Nubem ' caused partly by the 

convenience that I bracket rather than dust and partly by the body raising it. 

exclude it. Pal. and Gud. a m. p. have ' magno.' 

30.] The comparison, as Jahn and Wagn. 35.] *" Adversa,' castris opposita an 

remark, belongs to w. 25,26, the inter- venienti agmini?" Serv. Clearly the 

mediate lines being quasi-parenthetical, latter. * Cuicus ' 1. 183. 

The steady silent march of the army is 36.] 'Globus' is explained by 'glome- 

compared to the rising of the Gknges, or rari' v. 33. It matters little whether 

the subsidence of the Nile. ' Surgens ' ' caligine ' be taken as an attrib. abl. with 

can hardly refer to any thing but the 'globus' or an abl. of circumstance with 

rising of the river, which is supposed to 'volvitur.' It is really a variety for 

be slow and gradual. Whether Virg. " globus caliginis." 

had any authority for this notion of the 37.1 'Ascendite' Pal., Med., Gud., 'et 

periodical overflow of the Ganges, we do scandite ' Bom. and virtually fragm. Yat. 

not know. He may have confused it with Gud. as a variant has ' et ascandite,' and 

the Nile, as is further made probable by Med. has ' scandite ' (without ' et ') in 

the number seven, which belongs to the marg. This last was the reading of many 

Nile (see 6. 800), though Serv. refers for of the old editions, and was retained by 

the seven branches of the Ganges to a Heyne, who thought the others metrical 

passage of Mela, which is either misunder- corrections. But the lengthening of a 

stood or non-existent. To take ' surgens ' short syll. before ' sc ' is unknown to Virg. 

with recent commentators of the rise or Bibbeck, following Heins., thinks ' et 

fiource of the river would not agree well scandite' may point to 'ecscandite' or 

with 'amnibus,' and would have no point 'escendite.' This is possible : but it seems 

as a comparison. The alliteration, as well on every ground safest to retain ' ascen- 

as the spondaic movement of the line, dite.' The line closely resembles 4. 594. 

gives a notion of slowness and quiet. 39.] ' Condere ' implies motion, so that 

31.] 'Per tacitum' constructed with it is naturally constructed with' per portas.' 

' surgens,' i. q. " tacite," as in SiL 10. 353., 40.] With ' optumus armis ' Gossrau 

12. 554., 17. 215, cited by Forb., who also comp. "melior. armis" 10. 735. The epi- 

quotes Lucau 10. 251, " trahitur Ganges- thet justifies the command given by Ae* 

que Padusqne Per tacitum mundi," a neas, clearing the Trojans, as Serv. re- 

^rther extension of the expression. 'Pin- .marks, from any imputation of cowardice. 


Aeneas : bI qua interea fortuna fuisset^ 

Neu struere auderent aciem^ neu credere campo ; 

Castra modo et tutos servarent aggere muros. 

Ergo^ etsi conferre mannm pudor iraque monstrat, 

Obiiciunt portas tamen et praecepta facessunt^ 45 

Armatique cavis exspeetant turribus hostem. 

Turnus, ut ante volans tardum praecesserat agmen^ 

Viginti lectis equitum comitatus et urbi 

Inprovisus adest ; maculis quern Thracius albis 

Portat equus, eristaque tegit galea aurea rubra. so 

Ecquis erit, meeum, iuvenes, qui primus in hostem — ? 

En, ait. Et iaculum attorquens emittit in auras, 

Principium pugnae, et campo sese arduus infert. 

Clamore excipiunt socii, fremituque sequuntur 

41.] 'Fortuna,' emergency: comp. 7. consanguinitatepropinquum." *Urbi*v. 8. 

559. ' Fuisset :' see on 2. 94?. In the 49.] • Maculis— equus ' repeated, with a 

oratio recta it would be "fuerit." slight change of order, from 6. 565. 

42.^ 'Struere aciem ' i. q. " instrucre :" 50.] 'Crista rubra' 12. 89. The abl. 

see Dictt. Bom. and one of Ribbeck's cur- qualifies ' galea.' Serv. observes " Duo ab- 

sives have ' acies,' which was the reading lativi sunt et duo nominativi, quos metrica 

before Pier. ' Credere campo ' like " te ratione discernimus. Nam ' rubra crista ' 

mecum crede solo " 11. 707, of trying a longae sunt ultimae, quia ablativi sunt 

battle on level ground. Here however ' ere- casus. Sane huiusmodi versus pessimi 

dere ' is intrans. sunt." For the thing comp. prj^c 5* a<p* 

43.] 'Servarent* includes the notions of tirireioy \6tpoy avrov' iras 8i X'^M-^C^ Kdit- 

guarding and remaining in. Fragm. Vat. irco-ev iv Koyi-pffi viov ^oivini ^oteiv6s 11. 

originally had ' tuto,* with two other MSS. 15. 537, " purpurei cristis " v. 163 

* Tutos' with 'aggere,* giving the reason below, 

why they were to remain in the camp. 51.] ' Mecum * with the unfinished 

44.] " Furor iraque " occurs in the same sentence 'qui primus in hostem.' The 

place in the verse 2. 316. 'Monstrat' omission of the verb seems to be col- 

i. q. "iubet" 4. 636. For the construe- loquial (comp. E. 9. 1), and accounted for 

tion with the inf. comp. Hor. 2 S. 8. 52. by the eagerness of the speaker. Heyne 

Fragm. Vat. and others have ' monstrant.' broke up the line into two questions : but 

45.] ' Obiiciunt portas,' they present the then ' qui ' would have to be changed into 

gates as barriers, i.e. close them. Comp. 'quis,' the reading of some MSS., as Jahn 

"obex." Forthegatesofthe camp see below and Wagn. remark. 'O iuvenes,* the 

Y. 724. 'Praecepta facessuut ' 6. 4. 548. reading before Heins., is found in none of 

46.] 'Tundbus' local, not with *ar- Ribbeck's MSS. 

mati.* Med. has 'urbibus,' a natural 52.] The throwing of a spear was the 

error. ' Cavis ' not as Forb. says, " am- Roman mode of declaring war : see Diet, 

plis et vacuis," but surrounding them, A. ' Fetiales.' Med. has ' intorquens,' per- 

like "nube cava" 1. 516, "cava umbra" haps from 10. 323. 'Attorquens' is said 

2. 360. to occur nowhere else. Fore, does not give 

47.1 It matters little whether ' ante ' it. Heins. thinks " ad " i. q. " simul :" 
be taken with 'volans' or with 'praeces- Wagn. explains it by "valde." Is it not 
serat.' The older commentators are for rather ' hurling at ' ? 
the former, Forb. for the latter. Ribbeck 63.] * Principium pugnae ' is a sort of 
takes ' ut ante volans ' together in the sense cogn. ace, in apposition to the action of 
of " ut qui ante volaret," which does not the verb : comp. 6. 223. So " omen pug- 
seem likely. nae " 10. 311. * Campo— infert ' G. 2. 145. 

48.] ' Et ' couples * comitatus ' and * in- 64.] ' Clamore ' Rom., fragm. Vat., Gud. 

provisuSj^hongh the two are not properly corrected, ' clamorem ' Med., Pal., Gud. 

co-ordinate. See on 2. 86, "comitem et originally. Serv. mentions both. It is 


Horrisono : Teucrum mirantur inertia corda; 65 

Non aequo dare se campo, non obvia ferre 

Arma viros, sed ea^tra fovere. Hue turbidus atque hue 

Lustrat equo mutos^ aditumque per avia quaerit. 

Ac veluti pleno lupus insidiatus ovili 

Cum fremit ad caulas, ventos perpessus et imbris, 60 

Noete super media ; tuti sub matribus agni 

Balatum exercent ; ille asper et inprobus ira 

Saevit in absentis ; coUecta fatigat edendi 

Ex longo rabies^ et siccae sanguine fauces : 

Hand aliter Rutulo muros et castra tuenti 65 

Ignescunt irae ; duris dolor ossibus ardet. 

Qua temptet ratione aditus^ et quae via clausos 


difficult to judge, as Wagn. is wrong in cum, Kec gregibus noctumus obambulat. 

saying tbat Turnus* exclamation could not 60.] He has prowled about long : now 

be called ' clamor,' which might stand for the delay and the bad weather va&e him 

any violent exclamation, as in 2. 128. impatient, ' fremit.' ' Ventos perpessus et 

Perhaps however the parallels " Excipiunt imbris ' iifitvo? koi kiifitvos Od. I. c. 

plausu " 5. 575, " damore sequuntur " vv. 61.] ' Super ' is not i. q. "ultra," as Scrv. 

466, 636., 10. 799 may decide us for says, "plus quam media," but has the 

the abl. There is a fiirther question force of the Greek ^ir(, at or during. Fore, 

whether 'sequuntur' means 'follow,* as in who interprets it by "in," gives no other 

the second and fourth of these passages, instance of its use with an abl. of time, 

or * back up,' as in the third. Virg. may Com p. 7. 344, 358. It matters little 

have thought here and elsewhere of Od. whether we take 'sub matribus' with 

15. 162, oi 8* lt{oyr€s isiroyTo. * exercent ' or with * tuti.' 

65.] *Inei*tia'i.q."imbellia," "ignava," 62.] 'Balatum exercent' like "exercet 

V. 150, Hor. 3 Od. 5. 36. See on 10. 595. cantus " G. 1. 403. * Inprobus ' 2. 356, also 

56.] ' Dare ' &c. form a second object to of a wolf : see on ib. 80, G. 1. 119. Serv. 

* mirantur.' In prose it would have been says " Non * ira inprobus ' sed *ira saevit :' " 
" quod non dent," which would be gram- but the run of the verse is rather in favour 
matically reducible to the same thing, of the former connexion ; his anger makes 
' Aequo ' combines the two notions 'Of him desperate. 

'level' and 'fair.' 'Dare se' i. q, "ere- 63.] Heyne comp. an imitation in Val. 

dere," v. 41. " Dat sese fluvio " 11. 565. F. 3. 589 " Frangit et absentem vacuis 

57.] Observe the position of ' viros,* sub dentibus hostem." ' Edendi rabies,' 

which really, though not grammatically, a stronger expression than " amor edendi " 

qualifies 'ferre arma.* 'Castra fovere' 8. 184. Comp. 8. 327 note. 'Colligere 

like "fovit humum" G. 3. 420, "fovere rabiem* like "sitim collegerit " G. 3. 327. 

larem" G. 4. 43. 'Turbidus' in fury, * Fatigat * nearly i. q. " domat," 6. 79. 

12. 10. ' Hue ' because ' lustrat ' implies 64.] ' Ex longo ' with ' coUecta,' 

motion. gathered from a distance (of time). No 

58.] "Lustravere in equis" 5. 578. other instance of 'ex longo' is quoted. 

* Aditum quaerit ' V. 507 below. 'Siccae sanguine' 8. 261. "Faucibus 

59.] This simile, as Heyne says, is mo- siccis" 2. 358, of the wolf cubs, 

delled on Apoll. R. 1. 1243 foil. Virg. 65.] Tumus is called 'Rutulus' as 

may also have thought of II. 11. 547 foil, in 7. 409. 

(repeated 17. 657 foil.) where a lion at- 66.] ' Duris ossibus ' 6. 54. Pal. and 

tacking a fold is kept at bay all night by originally Gud. have ' durus.* ' Et,* 

men and dogs, as he doubtless did of a which was read before 'duris' by editors 

similar comparison Od. 6. 130 foil. ' Fleno ' before Heins., is found in none of Rib- 

gives the contrast with the single wolf, beck's MSS. 'Dolor' of indignation 5. 

and shows what a prize he is anxious to 172. 

secure. ' Insidiatus :' comp. G. 3. 537, 67.] ' Qua temptet ' &c. depend on the 

*'Nec lupus insidias explorat Ovilia cir- preceding words, which imply, though 


Excutiat Teucros vallo atque efiiindat in aequum. 
Claasem^ quae lateri castrorum adiuncta latebat^ 
Aggeribus saeptam circum et fluvialibus undis^ 70 

Invadit, sociosque incendia poscit ovantis, 
Atqne manum pinu flagranti fervidus inplet. 
Turn vero incumbunt; nrguet praesentia Tumi; 
Atque omnis facibus pubes accingitur atris. 
Diripuere focos ; piceum fert fumida lumen 75 

Taeda et commixtam Volcanus ad astra favillam. 

Quis deus, o Musae^ tarn saeva incendia Teucris 
Avertit ? tantos ratibus quis depulit ignis ? 
Dieite. Prisca fides facto, sed fama perennis. 

they do not express, a state of donbt. 73.] "Turn vero Tencri incumbunt" 

Bibbeck, following Peerlkamp, throws 4. 397, after Aeneas' arrival, which illus- 

this and the following line into the form trates " urguet praesentia Tumi." 

of a question, comparing w. 899 foil.; 74.] 'Accingitur,' used loosely: see on 

but this would not be so good. * Quae 6. 570. ' Face atra ' 10. 77. 

via ' Pal. originally, Rom., * qua via,' 75, 76.] 'ITiese two lines generally re- 

fragm. Vat., Med., Pal. corrected, Gud. semble 5. 660—666. 'Diripuere' of in- 

&c, Serv. has both. Heyne and Wagn. stantaneous action. A question is raised 

rightly prefer the former, which is really about the 'foci.' Serv. answers it best, 

a poetical variety for the abl. "qua "Quaeritur quid ibi faciant foci; sed in 

via." Those who introduced * qua ' may carminibus quaedam nee ad subtilitatem 

have mistaken the nom. for the abl., as nee ad veritatem exigenda sunt: aut 

Serv. finds it necessary to remark that certe focos quos ibi habere potuerunt," 

' via ' abl. would be unmetrical. Bibbeck Heyne perhaps worst, " focos a Butulis 

reads* qua vi' from his own conj., which exteraplo exstructos ^sse cogitandum 

would introduce a rhythm seldom employed est." It is plain that Virg. supposed 

by Virg., and without justification here, there to be dwellings near from which fire 

' Via ' of a method 12. 405. could be got. ' Fumida taeda ' and ' Vol- 

68.] 'Vallo' probably with 'excutiat.' canus' are rather inartificially coupled 

"Patria excussos" 7. 299. 'Aequum' together. Comp. generally 7. 76, 77. 

Pal. corrected, Med., Bom., iragm. Vat., Tlie blaze is from the torches, not from 

'aequor' Pal. originally, Gud., and two the ships, which are not set alight, 

other of Bibbeck's cursives. The sense ' Piceum lumen ' like " atro lumine fuman- 

is the same either way, the level plain tis taedas " 7. 456. Perhaps ' ad astra ' 

being opposed to the vantage-ground of refers to 'favillam' only: the blaze is 

the camp. spread, the soot is carried up to heaven. 

69.] He attempts to draw them out by 77 — 122.] * The fleet is saved by a 

setting fire to the fleet. 'Adiuncta' of divine interposition. When the ships 

close juxtaposition, like " affixus lateri " were building, Cybele entreated that they 

10. 161. might be for ever protected from wind 

70.] For 'saeptam'Bom.has'clausam,' and rain. Jupiter refused this, but pro- 

fiY>m a recollection of 1. 311, which is mised that such of them as reached Italy 

generally similar. The 'agger' of the should be turned into sea-nymphs. The 

camp protects the fleet on one side, the change accordingly takes place.' 

water on the other sides : the two together 77.] Here as elsewhere the invocation 

enclose it ' circum.' indicates that the poet is awaking a louder 

71.] Comp. II. 15. 716 foil., where strain. As Germ, remarks, the hint is 

Hector attempts to set fire to the Grecian from II. 16. 112, ecnrerc yvy fioi, Movaai 

fleet. *0\^fiiria S^fiar* $x^^^^^* '^Omrots hii 

72.] " Flagrantem fervida pinum Sus- irp&TOP irvp ^fitna-^ vrivfflv 'AxaiSf. 

tinet" 7. 397. After this line Bibbeck 79.] The grounds for believing the 

inserts w. 146, 7, reading ' Sic vos . . . event are old (' fides ' as in Ov. 1 ex Pont, 

qui scindere :' see note there. 5. 32) ; as we should say, the evidence is 


Tempore quo primum Phrygia formabat in Ida 80 

Aeneas classem^ et pelagi petere alta parabat^ 

Ipsa deum fertur genetrix Berecyntia magnum 

Vocibus his adfata lovem : Da, nate, petenti. 

Quod tua cara parens domito te poscit Olympo. 

Pinea silva mihi, multos dilecta per annos ; 85 

Lucus in aree fuit summa, quo sacra ferebant, 

Nigranti picea trabibusque obscurus aeemis : 

Hafi ego Dardanio iuveni, cum classis egeret, 

lost in the past, but tbe fame is perpetual, thing : on the other hand we cannot say 

" Prisca fides " in a different sense 6. that in its present state it is altogether 

878. coherent. Virg. would doubtless have 

80.] 'Phrygia Ida' 3. 6, where tbe altered it had be lived to complete his 

building of the fleet is mentioned. * Forma- poem: but we cannot point out the pre- 

bat,' was shaping, giving to the wood the else change which he would have made, 

shape of a ship. Meantime Wagn. appears right in his 

82.] Bom. has ' genetrix fertur.' ' Bere- view of the grammatical structure of the 

cyntia ' 6. 784 whole, breaking it up into two sentences, 

83.1 * Petenti' 4. 127. as there would be awkwardness in con- 

84. J 'Domito Olympo' refers to ser- structing 'pinea silva' in apposition to 

vices rendered by Cybele to Jupiter, en- ' lucus,' or in making one the predicate, 

abling him to become master of heaven, the other the subject. It is better, at the 

either, as Serv. thinks, in saving him risk of a little harshness, to understand 

from his father, who sought to devour ' est ' with ' mihi ' than to make 'dilecta' 

him, or, as Heyne suggests, in helping the verb, with Buhkopf. " Multos servata 

him against the Titans, or both. Heyne's per annos '7. 60. 

own interpretation, understanding 'domito 86.] 'In arce summa' would most 

Olympo' 'in that thou art the master naturally refer to the Trojan acropolis: 

of heaven, and as such able to do all I comp. 1. 441 "lucus in urbe fuit media," 

wish,' would be flat. He objects that the and the story of the bay-tree 7. 61 " in- 

help given by Cybele was of too old a date ventam primas cum conderet arces," as 

to be appealed to at the time of the taking also the story of the olive in the acropolis 

of Troy. But the whole history of the of Athens. Where the passage is assumed 

gods as g^s belongs to a 'divine foretime,' to be unfinished, we cannot argue from 

and the events affecting them after the the context : but it would be undoubtedly 

heroic age has begun are comparatively possible to understand 'aroe' of the moun* 

few, so that they naturally live as it were tain, and v. 92 may be pleaded for this, 

upon tbe past, and refer to things which It is a question of probabilities, and one 

happened long ago as if they were still that from the nature of the case must 

fresh. remain to some extent open. Virg, may 

85.] Bibbeck asterizes this line, sup- have intended to make Aeneas get his 

posing that Virg. intended it as an altema- timber from a sacred grove in the citadel, 

tive to w. 86, 87. Heyne had asterized which might possibly have been conceived 

vv. 86, 87 on similar grounds, thinking of as remaining unbumt, like the Athe- 

the mention of a grove in the citadel ab- nian olive, after the sack of the city : but 

surd, and inconsistent with the building of this is mere conjecture without data« 

tbe fleet on Ida. Wagn. defends all ' Quo ' refers to ' lucus.' 

three, making v. 85 an independent sen- 87.] ' Xrabibus acemb ' 2. 112. Here 

tence : 'I ha ve a pine-forest ; in this stood ' trabes ' may be used proleptically. ' Ob« 

a grove of pitch-trees and maples, which I scums ' partly from tMl colour, ' nigranti,' 

allowed Aeneas to use,' 'arce summa' partly from the number of the trees, 

being understood with Serv. of Gargarus, 88.] * Has ' refers to 'picea trabibus- 

the summit of Ida. As in 6. 743, 744, que.' ' luveni :' Aeneas would be ' iuve- 

the truth seems to lie between the two nis' in relation ttf the gods and his 

views. We could not get rid of any part ancestor Dardanus. ^ He and his friends are 

of the passage without sacrificing some- addressed as 'iuvenes' 1. 627., 8. 112 &Ci 

AENEID. LIB. IX. . I6l' 

Laeta dedi ; nunc sollicitam timor anxius angit. 

Solve metus, atque hoc precibus sine posse parentem, 90 

Neu cursu quassatae uUo neu turbine venti 

Vincantur ; prosit nostris in montibus ortas. 

Filius huic contra, torquet qui sidera mundi : 

O genetrix, quo fata vocas ? aut quid petis istis ? 

Mortaline manu factae inmortale carinae 95 

Fas habeant ?. certusque incerta pericula lustret 

Aeneas ? cui tanta deo permissa potestas ? 

Immo, ubi defunctae finem portusque tenebunt 

89.] 'Urguet' was the reading before nobis inmensa potestas Sit, vario mota 

Heins., but it has only the support of two quae Candida sidera verset.'^ 

MSS. of no authority. Heyne recalled it 94.] Ordinarily the fates are said to 

on internal grounds, regarding ' anxius call men, who have to follow their bidding : 

angit' as "inepta allitteratio." Wagn. oomp. 10. 472., 6. 709: here Cybele, in 

wcSl replies that the alliteration is inten- attempting to change destiny, is said to 

tional, expressingrhetoricallv the intensity call it to leave its path. Comp. G. 2. 52, 

of the anxiety, for which he comp. Cic. where ' vocare ' is used of an attempt to 

De Orat. 1. 1 "maxumas moles moles- cultivate trees. "'Istis' utrum precibus 

tiarum," and supported bv Lucr. 3. 993, an navibus ?" Serv. Most of the editors 

"exest anxius angor," while the archaic say the latter, Peerlkamp the former, 

turn of the expression suits the speech of With the former comp. '* his monuit nos " 

a primeval g^dess. He also quotes Cic. Juv. 11. 114, with the latter " his moenia 

Tusc. 4. 12 to show that ' anxius angit' is quaere" 2. 294. 

not a mere tautology : " Differt anxietas 95.] ' Inmortale fas ' seems to be i. q. 

ab angore : neque euim omnes anxii qui " id quod fas est inmortalibus," that which 

anguntur aliquando, nee qui anxil semper divine law allows to the immortals. So 

angnntur/' *mortalis' is used rather widely as an 

90.] ' Solve metus ' of freeing another epithet when the meaning is not that the 

from fear, not, as in 1. 463, 5iS2, one's thing is mortal but that it belongs to a 

self. 'Hoc posse' like "non omnia pos- mortal (comp. ^, 8. 35, G. 3. 319). 'Fas' 

sumus" E. 8. 63. may be spoken of as binding the gods, as 

91.] 'Neu cursu' Med., Rom., Gud. in 4. 113., 5. 800., 8. 397. 

corrected, ' ne cursu ' Pal., Gud. originally, 96.] ' Habeant ' is explained by ' petis :* 

and another of Ribbeck's cursives. There ' dost thou ask that they should have V 

seems no internal reason for choosing be- ' Certus :' Jupiter puts a second objection, 

tween them, though Heyne and Ribbeck also in the form of an allegation of incom- 

prefer ' ne.' ' Neu' is of course equivalent patibility. Dangers are uncertain ex vi 

to " ut neque," and as such may be used termini : and if Aeneas, being a man, has 

with the first as well as with a subsequent to encounter them, that he should be 

clause, as in v. 42 above. ' Quassatae ' is assured against them is a contradiction, 

constructed with ' vincantur/ but from its It may be said that this contradiction is 

position it has the effect of a second verb, incurred already, as Aeneas knows that he 

" Quassatam ventis classem " 1. 551. shall reach Italy : but whatever may be the 

' Cursu ' of a voyage 6. 338. worth of the knowledge, it does not prevent 

92.] "Navem . . vicit hiemps'' 1. 122. him from contemplating the possibility of 

" ' Prosit— ortas :' bona brevitate detraxit drowning, 1. 94 foil. ' Lustret,' traverse, 

et 'his' et 'esse:' nam plenum est 'prosit like "lustrandum' navibus aequor" 31 

his ortas esse in montibus nostris :' quod 385. 

fecit elocutionis caussa," Serv. 98.] ' Immo :' Jupiter as it were amends 

93.] ' Torquet ' of the revolutions of the the proposition, so that it is not, as Hand 

heaven and heavenly bodies, which Jupiter thinks, i. q. " at." ' Defunctae ' 6. 83. 

is supposed to guide : comp. 4. 269, 482. ' Finem ' is explained by the context, the 

" Sidera mundi" Lucr. 2. 328 &c. Comp. end of the voyage. 'Portus tenebunt' 1. 

generally Id. 6. 1209 " ne quae forte deum 400. 



Ausonios olim^ quaeeamque evaserit undis 

Dardaniumque ducem Laurentia vexerit arva^ loo 

Mortalem eripiam fonnam, magnique iubebo 

Aequoris esse deas^ qualis Nereia Doto 

Et Galatea secant spumantem pectore pontmn. 

Dixerat^ idque mtum Stjrgii per flumina fratris^ 

Fter pice torrentis atraque voragiike ripas 105 

Adnuit^ et totum nutu tremefeeit Olympuin. 

Ergo aderat pifomissa dies^ et tempora Farcae 
Debita conpleraut : cum Tumi ininria Matrem 
Admonuit ratibus sacris depellere taedas. 
Hie primum nova lux oculis offidsit, et ingens no 

Visus ab Aurora caelum transcurrere nimbus, 

d9.] 'Olim' b rightly connected by to'flnmina.' 

Wagn. with what precedes, not with what 106.] ' Torrens ' is applied to a violent 

follows. ' Undis :' Serv. mentions another xiver from the connexion of the notions of 

reading ' nndas/ which ia the more usual heat and vehement motion (comp. " aes* 

construction in Virg., and might be sup- tus "). Here advantage is taken of the 

ported by 5. 689 : but it is found only in double meaning of the word to apply it to 

one or two inferior copies. Comp. 11. 702 the infernal river, wluch is described in 

iiote. One ship was lost in the storm off language taken partly from Acheron (6. 

Africa (1. 584), four were burnt in Sicily 29^, which is a violent muddy stream^ 

(5. 699), so that Aeneas must have landed partly from Phlegethon (6. 550), which is 

with fifteen, the original number having a river of fire. Comp* Plato Phaedo 

been twenty (1. 381). Two of these had p. Ill, where the mixture of fire and mud 

gone with Aeneas to Pallanteum, 8. 79 ; is illustrated from the eruptions of Aetna, 

thirteen consequently remained. ^^0 M^7<>('' '* ^A^Xi|6y "OAvfitrov II. 1. 

100.] * Dardanium ducem,' 4. 224, also 530. Comp. CatuU. 62 (64). 204 foil, 

iu a speech of Jupiter. Bom. has ' et 107.] ' Ergo ' introduces an event as a 

Laurentia*' possibly an error for 'ad' consequence of what precedes, as in G. 4. 77. 

(see on 2. 139), which is itself found in 109.] ' Sacris ratibus,' the order before 

one MS. Heins., is found in none of Hibbeck's MSS. 

101.] ' Mortalem :' the ships were Diomedes p. 431 mentions a reading^ 

spoken of as "mortali manu factae" v. 95 : 'sacras,' which he explains ''abominandas." 

they are now called themselves mortaL With ' depellere ' comp. '* depulit " v. 78, 

* Magni aequoris deas ' like '* deus inmensi " dis depellentibus " Pers. 6. 167, L q. 

maris " G. 1. 29. " averruncis." 

102.] ' Doto ' and ' Galatea ' both come 110.] * Primum,' then and not till then, 

in the list of Nereids H. 18. 39 foil. The denoting as it were the expectation with 

reading before Picrius was * Clotho.' In which nature awaited the event. Comp. 

Bom. the first letter of ' Doto ' is in an E. 1. 45 " Hoc mihi responsum primus 

erasure. dedit ilia petenti " and see on A. 7. 118. 

103.] Bom.has'aut' for <et.' 'Pectore,' 'fiffulsit,' the reading before Heins., is 
as appearing with their breasts out of the found in two or three of Bibbeck's cur- 
water, '* nutricum tenns exstantes e gnx' sives : see v. 731 below. The phaenomenon 
gite cano," Catull. 62 (64). IS, quoted by intended seems to be an unexpected flash oi 
Gossrau. So 10. 212 of Triton, "spumea lightning and peal of thunder, the latter 
semifero sub pectore murmurat unda." being represented by the * Idaei chori,' the 

104.] Virg. has mixed up the nod which Corybantes, who are supposed to clash their 

pledges Jupiter (H. 1, 525) and the oath cymbals, and by the voice. Comp. 8. 524 

by the Styx which binds the gods (see foil., where the appearance seems to be 

passages r^erred to on 6. 324). ' Stygii per substantially the same, 

flumina iratris ' like " Corythi T^rrhena 111.] The storm-cloud sweeps over the 

ab sede " 7. 209, ' Stygii ' really belonging sky from east to west. 


Idaeique chori ; turn vox horr^ida per auras 
Excidit et Troam Butuloramque agmina conplet : 
Ne trepidate meas, Teucri^ defendere navis^ 
Neve annate manas; maria ante exurere Tamo^ 115 

Quam saeras dabitor pinus. Yos ite solatae> 
Ite deae pelagi; genetrix iabet. Et sua quaeque 
Continuo puppes abrnmpimt vincnla ripis, 
Delphinumque modo damersis aequora rostria 
Imapetunt. Hinc virgineae, mirabile monstrom, 120 
Beddunt se totidem faeies^ pantoque feruntor 
[Quot prius aeratae steterant ad litora prorae] . 
Obstipuere animis Butuli; eonterritos ipse 

113.] ' Excidit * (6. 686) gives the notion monstrom ** is parenthetical 10. 637» 

of utterance ; the voice passes through 121.] ' Beddunt se ' of emerging fW>in 

the sky, but it seems to come ftom the the water (comp. 5. 178 ''fando redditus 

]»resence in the doud. ' Agmina conplet ' imo est "), perhaps with a further notion 

like "Fama Euandmm replet" 11. 140: of corresponding to the number of the 

comp. also 4. 189. It is a bold variety for ships. * Totidem ' however is more likely 

*' auris oonplere " or ** loca conplere/' as to be nom. than ace, though it may be 

Heyne remarks. taken as qualifying *reddunt,' like "infert 

114.] "Trepidavit aetas Claudere lus- se saeptus nebida" 1. 440 &c. Some copies 

tmm " Hor. 2 Od. 4. 23. mentioned by Pierius have ' redduntur/ 

116.] 'Armare manus' 11. 682: comp. 122.] This Jine is omitted in all Rib- 

Hor. 4 Od. 4. 21 *' dextras obarmet.'' beck's MSS., including fragm. Vat., and is 

117.1 Wagn. rightly understands ' deae doubtless an interpolation from 10. 223. 

pelagi not as voc, but as nom. qualifying The MSS. which give it here are not 

■ite.' Serv. mentions a doubt whether agreed about its place, some of them 

' genetrix iubet ' was part of the speech, putting it before v. 121, while in one it 

or part of the subsequent narrative, comes after v. 142 ; the reading of the last 

Cybele callsherself 'genetrix' not merely word too varies, some having 'puppes,' 

as the mother of the gods, but as goddess others ' naves.' In itself it is unobjection- 

of Ida and so parent of the trees that grew able, except that perhaps ' prorae ' hardly 

there. 'Et' has the force of 'acc(H*d< agrees with 'puppes' v. 118, at least if we 

ingly.' suppose Virg. to mean that the prows are 

118.] ' Puppes,' as turned to the shore, listened ta the shore. Pierius thinks the 

■Vincula' 1. 168. order which reverses w. 121, 122 "longe 

119.] Virg. doubtless shrunk from el^^tior :" others may prefer the present^ 
making the transformation take place in both as a matter of taste, and as avoiding 
open view, and so he represents the ships the introduction of ' aeratae prorae * be- 
as sinking to reappear as sea-nymphs : but tween ' virgineae' and its substantive^ 
though we may commend his judgment in 123 — 158.] ' Tumus declares that the 
this, the comparison to dolphins and the portent is adverse to the Trojans as rob- 
detail 'demersis rostris' must strike a bing them of their ships and eutting off 
modem reader as grotesque* Ovid, who the means of escape, denies that the fates 
copies the incident with some variations are in their favour, and promises to take 
(M. 14. 630 f<^.), making it take place this new Troy not by stratagem but by 
after the failure dT the embassy to Dio- force of arms.' 

medes (see A. 11), and describing the con- 123.] 'Animis Butuli * fragm. Vat., 

flagration as actually begun when Cybele Bom., Gud. corrected, ' animi Butulis ' 

interposes, naturally dwells with minute- Med., Pal., Gud. originally, and so Serv. 

ness on the process of metamorphosis. Either is Vir^lian (comp. 2. 120., 6. 404 

120.1 ' Hinc ' hereupon. Bom. has withS. 530): rhetorically, either seems well 

* mirabile dictu,' from a recollection of adapted to the present passage : but per- 

other passages where the expression is haps 'animis Butuli' has a rhythmical 

used parenthetically. " Visu mirabile advantage. 

M 2 


Turbatis Messapas equis; cunctatuT et amnis 

Bauca sonans^ revocatque pedem Tiberinus ab alto. 125 

At non audaci Tumo fiducia cessit ; 

Ultro anipios tollit dictis, atque increpat ultro : 

Troianos haec monstra petunt ; his luppiter ipse 

Auxilium solitum eripuit;. non tela neque ignis 

Exspectant Rutulos. Ergo maria in via Teucris, 130 

Nee spes ulla fugae; rerum pars altera adempta est; 

Teira autem in nostris manibus ; tot milia^ gentes 

Anna ferunt Italae. Nil me fatalia terrent, 

Si qua Phryges prae se iactant, responsa deorum : 

Sat fatis Venerique datum est, tetigere quod arva 135 

124.] Kom. and originally Pal. have 'His' is doubtless the Trojans, as the 

'tnrbatus/ an obvious error. The frighten- position in the sentence shows, not, as 

ing of the horses and their driver is per- might be suggested, *' his monstris." 

haps from 11. 18. 223 foil. Hessapus is 129.] 'Solitum' contains a sneer, as 

repeatedly mentioned as "equum domitor," Donatus gives it, " quasi dicat, qui fu- 

7. 691 &c. "Turbatis equis" 7. 767. '£t gere semper soliti sunt." Wagn. restored 

amnis,' even the river. ' neque ' for ' nee,' which is found in Rom. 

126.] ' Bauca sonans ' closely with ' cunc- 130.] The subject of ' ezspectant ' may 

tatur,' the sound as well as the stopping be " naves," as Gossrau thinks : but it 

being a sign of alarm. Serv. says " Licet would suit the structure of the sentence 

antiquitas habuerit hie et haec amnis " (see better to make it ' Troiani,' the sense being 

Fore. ' amnis '), ** melius tamen est acci- really the same, " exspectant ad naves de- 

pere 'rauca sonans' pro 'rauce' quam lendas." Bibbeck and now Wagn. read 

' rauca amnis.' " ' Revocat pedem' like ' exspectans,' the original reading of Med.^ 

"revocare gradum" 6. 128. Feet are confirmed by an erasure in one of Ribbeck's 

attributed to running water by Lucr. 5. cursives : but this does not seem so good. 

272, Hor. Epod. 16. 48. This does not ' Tela ' is used vaguely, the main thing in 

agree with the conception of river- gods, the poet's mind being the weapons with 

who are separable from their waters : but which the ships would be destroyed, which 

it may be illustrated by Hom.'s notion of is explained by * ignis.' 

Xanthus, who appears in a human form to 131.] " Nee spes ulla fugae " 10. 121. 

speak to Achilles, but is himself identified ' Rerum ' of the world, 1. 278, 282. Rom. 

with the river (D. 21. 213, 356, where v. has ' dempta.' 

366 may be compared with the present 132.] 'In manibus nostris,' the order 

passage). ' Ab alto,' from the sea to which before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's 

he was hastening. MSS. Peerlkamp rightly argues against 

. 126.] ' Tumo fiducia cessit ' is the order Wagn. that either might stond. Med., 

of all Ribbeck's MSS. Heyne retained Rom., and others have ' gentis,' but ' gen- 

'< cessit fiducia Tumo." The words are tes,' in apposition with ' milia,' is better, 

repeat^ 10. 276. 'Audaci Tumo' above 'Tot' gives the reason for what precedes^ 

V. 3. " Fiducia cessit " 8. 396. as in 7. 447 &c. 

127.] Not only does Turnus not lose 133.] ' Fatalia responsa,' the responses 

heart at the portent, but beyond that that speak destiny. 

(' ultro :' see on 2. 145., 6. 55) he makes 135.] " Sat patriae Priamoque datum " 

it a means of encouraging his followers. 2. 291. Turnus speaks as if he were 

D. Heinsius put a comma before ' dictis,' aware of Venus' conversation with Nep- 

apparently supposing 'animos tollit' to tune, 6. 779 foil. With Jahn, I have 

mean ' raises his own spirits,' as in 10. 250, restored ' datum est ' from fi*ag. YatT, Pal., 

G. 2. 350. Serv. explains ' animos tollit Rom., Gud., and two other of Ribbeck's 

dictis' " magnitudinem suam comprobat cursives, supposing the omission of 'est' 

dictis." to have arisen from a recollection of 2. 291, 

128.] "Petunt,' id est, appetunt : hoc a common source of error in Med. 
est, ad Troianos pertinet damnum" Serv. 

AENEID. LIB. It. . 166 

Fertilis Ausoniae Troes. Sunt et mea contra 

Fata mihi^ ferro sceleratam exscindere gentem 

Coniuge praerepta ; nee solos tangit Atridas 

Iste dolor, solisqne licet capere arma Mycenis. 

Sed periisse semel satis est : peccare fiiisset 140 

Ante satis, penitus modo non genus omne perosos 

186.] If there is any force in ' fertilis/ read by some MSS., including Gad. oor- 

it probiably gives the reason for which the rected, for 'sed.' There is the same variety 

^Trojans looked forward to Italy, and points in Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 57, 58. * Fuisset ' = ** eaeh 

a sarcasm, as if they were to see the plenty debebat :" comp. 4. 678., 8. 648. For 

of the country, but not ei\joy it. Comp. ' peccare ' some copies have ' peccasse,' 

Creusa's promise 2. 781, "terram Hes- which may seem plausible: but 'peccare 

])erlam venies, ubi Lydius arva Inter ante * = ' peccasse.' The sense is rightly 

opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris." g^ven bv Heyne : " ita vero satis etiam 

137.] Serv. remarks that this assertion habere debebant, semel rapuisse feminam, 

of Tumus about his destiny is false, adding quippe qui ex raptu Heleuae ea mala 

however that the art of rhetoric admite expierti smt, ut modo non omne, h. e. to- 

the use of falsehood where it cannot be tum genus femineum perosi esse debeant : 

disproved, as in this case. He further tantum abest ut novum raptum, Laviniae, 

observes that it is Tumus' consciousness meditentur." The qualifying expression 

that he is telling a falsehood which makes * modo non ' reminds us of rhetoric rather 

him anxious to support his case by argu- than of poetry : but it must be set down 

ment, talking of the injustice of the to the general tone of the speech, which is 

Trojans. The fiilsehood however depends decidedly oratorical. Wagn. Lectt. Vergg. 

to some extent on the sense given to * fata,' pp. 352 foil, accounts for ' modo non ' on 

which Serv. understands of oracles, but the ground that but for such a qualification 

which seems rather to mean destiny, on a the Trojans would be condemned to hate 

comparison of 1. 257., 7. 293. In this not only those whom they might possibly 

sense Tumus might assert his belief in his marry but those whom they might not, 

own destiny, though it might not have such as mothers and sisters. He has now 

been expressly revved to him, founding however in his 8rd school edition changed 

it, as he seems to do here, on his conviction his opinion, and takes 'penitus— perosos ' as 

of the goodness of his cause, much as an indignant exclamation — ' to think that 

Hector II. 12. 243 says tts otuvhs Apivros they should now (* modo,' t^pri) not abhor 

&/ii^rc<r9ai trcpl itdrfrns. * Ferro exscindere :' the whole race of women ! ' But it seems 

see on 6. 553. " Exscindere gentem ** 4. doubtfbl whether he had fully grasped 

425. Heyne's meaning even when he supported 

138.1 'Coniuge praerepta Mike" ereptae it, as in Lectt. Vergg. I.e. he finds a 

ooniugis " 3. 830, as we talk of robbing a chronological incongruity between the two 

man of his bride, meaning that the depri- clauses ' peccare — satis ' and ' penitus — 

vation has prevented the marriage. 'Nee,' perosos,' not seeing that ' ante ' does not 

&c, : the taunt, as Macrob. Sat. 4. 4 (who g^ with ' Aiisset ' but with ' peccare.' 

reads ' an ' for ' nee '^ remarks, is from II. Peerlkamp and Ribbeck adopt ' modo 

9. 340, 1i fjLOuvoi ^iXiow^ ii\6xovs fitp^vv nunc,' a coi\j. of Markland's, found also 

ii»6p6ito»v *ATf>€78at; in the Venice edition of 1472, and perhaps 

139.1 'Iste' is apparently to be ex- supported by a reading mentioned by 

plained with reference to the Trojans, Pierius, ' modo nee' ' Fuisset ' then would 

'-that pain which ye are wont to inflict.' have its ordinary sense, 'modo perosos' 

It might however refer to an imaginarv being understood as " modo perosi essent ;" 

antagonist, ' that pain of which you tell ' it would have been enough for them to 

ns.' sin once, had they learnt to detest the 

- 140, 141.] He again supposes himself race of women now.' But it is difficult to 

to be arguing against the Trojans, who are see what advantage the new reading has 

made to plead that they have satisfied the over the old. For ' perosos ' there is a 

requirement of destiny or the malice of strange variant ' perosus,' found as a cor- 

fortune by having been ruined once, much rection in both Med. and fragm. Vat., and 

as Aeneas actually pleads 6. 62. < Si' is originally in Oiid., where it. is altered into 


Femineum. Quibus haec medii fiducia valli 

Fossarumque morae, leti discrimina parva, 

Dant animos. At non viderunt moenia Troiae 

Neptuni fabricata manu eonsidere in ignis ? 145 

Sed vos^ o lectin ferro quia scindere vallum 

Apparat et mecum invadit trepidantia castra ? 

Non armis mihi Volcani, non mille carinis 

Est opus in Teucros. Addant se protinus omnes 

* perosmn/ the reading of not a few inferior in direct interrogations. ' Qaiscindere/ 

copies, a change equally meaningless, but the reading of all Bibbeck's MSS., may 

• more easily accounted for. Whether stand for either. Bibbeck thinks this and 

'perosis' is found any where does not the next line out of place, as Tumus ends 

i^pear, as it seems a mistake to attribute with bidding his men retire for the night 

it to Gud. Rom. has *non mode' < Penitus w. 156 foU., and accordingly puts them 

perosos' like "dUectam penitus lovi" Hor. after v. 72, changing * sed ' into ' sic' and 

1 Od. 21. 4. retaining ' qtu.' But the speech in general 

142.] ' Quibus ' is connected loosely with is an exhortation to attack, in spite of its 

what goes before, the antecedent bdng conclusion, and the inconsistency is not 

got fh>m the context. 'Men who are much increased by the presence of the 

reassured by the narrow breadth of ram* lines here. Virg. throughout it has per- 

part and trench that keeps them from haps thought more of oratorical effect than 

death.' As Heyne says, "£x ira oratio of dramatic propriety. Serv. strangely 

durior.'' 'Medii' interposed between us connects 'lecti ferro, which he ex]^^ins 

and them, like "medius liquor" Hor. by "adferrum lecti" or "acie lecti" (can 

8 Od. 3. 46. ' Fiducia valli' like "generis he have been thinking of 4yx^M-^pos or 

fiducia " 1. 132, " fiducia mei " 8. 395. Ufiupos ?) " Bello lecta " occurs 8. 006. 

143.] 'Fossarum morae' like "loricae 147.] ''^PP8Lrat'10.453. 'Trepidantia:' 

moras" 10. 485, "clipei mora" 12. 541. they were hurrying to defend ^e ships. 

Bom. has ' mora et.' It is difficult to v. 114. 

decide between ' discrimine parvo ' Med., 148.] He disclaims the need of Achilles' 
fragm. Yat. originally, Gud., and 'dis- armour or of an overwhelming Greek 
crimina parva,' fragm. Vat. corrected and force. " Mille carinae " 2. 198, where the 
apparency two of Bibbeck's cursives, sup- meaning obviously is that the contents of 
ported also by Pal., which originally had a thousand ships had not prevailed against 
' discrimina parvas.' (Bom. has 'discrimina Troy. To say seriously that he does not 
parvo,' and so Pal. corrected.) The former want the contents of a thousand ships to 
IS the more difficult reading, but may have resist the contents of fifteen, together with, 
been introduced from 8. 685 : the latter is their Arcadian and Etruscan allies, would 
easy and simple. On the whole I have be absurd; so we must suppose that ha 
followed Heins. and most recent editors in simply means to magnify himself at the 
adopting the latter. With the sense Cerda expense of the Greeks, whom he insinuates 
comp. Juv. 12. 58 " digitis a morte re- to have owed their victory to the divine 
motus Quattuor aut septem si sit latissima armour, not to the valour of their g^reat 
taeda." Comp. also Aesch. Theb. 762 fiera^h warrior, and to their own numbers. Comp. 
S* iiKica 8i* 6\iyov rc^yci tripyos ir ct^pct. II. 2. 119 foil., where Agamenmon insists 
144.] "Dant animos" 7. 383. 'At on the great numeriod superiority of the 
non ' seems best understood as a question : Greeks to the Trojans apart frx)m the 
see on 7* 363. 'An non,' the reading allies. Serv. reminds us that Tumus had 
before Pterins, is mentioned by Serv., but a sword made by Vulcan, 12. 90. 
found in none of Bibbeck's MSS. 149.] 'Protions' of time, 2. 545 &c. 
145.] " Visum eonsidere in ignis Ilium Serv. says strangely " quidam ' protinus ' 
et ex imo verti Neptunia Troia" 2. 624. hie pro < licet ' accipiunt." Such a rais- 
in.] Macrob. Sat. 5. 9 comp. II. 12. take could only be possible in an age 
440, tf¥va(t, titfr6B«^iot Tp&ts, fiiiyyv<r$t 8^ where critical ability was low and the 
r€ixos *hpy^i»v, koI viffwriv iytere Bca-xiBats traditions of the language imperfectly 
irvp. Wagn. restores 'quis' for 'qui,' preserved, 
remarking that Virg. does not use 'qui' 


Etrasci socios. Tenebras et inertia furta 150 

Palladii^ caesis summae custodibus arcis^ 

Ne timeant; nee equi caeca condemur in alyo ; 

Luce, palam, certum est igui circumdare muios. 

Hand sibi cum Danais rem faxo et pube Pelasga 

Esse patent, decumum quos distulit Hector in annum. 155 

Nunc adeo, melior quoniam pars acta diei. 

Quod superest, laeti bene gestis corpora rebus 

160.] * Tenebras ' probably refers to the ' late ' or < latae ' for ' summae^' an almost 

secret passage by which, according to one meaningless variant, 

▼ernon of the story (see on 2. 165), Diomed 152.] ** Scandnnt mrsos eqnnm et nota 

and Ulysses reached the citadel to carry oonduntur in alvo" 2. 400. 

off the Palladium : though another version 158.] Cic. Off. 8. 24 has "luce palam 

may have stated that the thing was done in foro saltet.'^ ' Igni circnmdare mnros ' 

by night. *Inertiay' "imbellia:" see on like "moenia cingere flammis" 10. 119, 

V. 55. to beset and fire the walls. With the 

151.1 Kearly repeated from 2. 166. It passage generally Gosnran well oomp. Hor. 

is foond in all the MSS. ; bnt recent critics, 4 Od. 6. 18—20. 

from the time of Heyne and Bryant, have 154.1 ' Hand' with 'pntent.' 'Faxo' like 
been all bnt unanimous in condemning it. "insso 11. 467: see Madv. § 115 f. For the 
The reasons urged against it are that it is nse of * fuxob' " fiaim " in promises, threats^ 
tedious and even inappropriate, as there &c. see the Dictt. So *'efficiam"£.8.51. 
was no citadel or Palladium in the Trojan 155.1 ' Putent ' Med., Bom., and ap- 
camp settlement, and that the form parentiy most MSS., ' ferant ' fragm. Vat.* 
'Palladii' would not have been used by Pal., Qud. originally, and some others> 
Tm^ The first is partly answered by including Canon., ' putent ' in two of Bib- 
Forb. (himself a r^ecter of the line), who beck's cursives being written over an 
admits that the mention of the Palladium erasure. We may conclude that both 
is as appropriate as the mention of the readings are ancient, the concurrence of 
horse, Tumus' meaning being only that Med. and Rom. proving that * putent 'was 
he would not condescend to stratagems not introduced by the former. Intrin- 
like those of the Qreeks : while the charge sically, ' putent' seems the better word, as 
of tediousness may be met, if not rebutt^ there was not much opportunity for talk- 
by the consideration that Virg. is borrow- ing or boasting, which appears to be the 
ing from himself, and that he is not always sense of * ferant.' Ribbeck however adopts 
successful in such appropriations, any more the latter. It is possible that * putent,' 
than when he borrows from others. This as the commoner word, may be an early 
will account for the flatness of < caesis interpretation of ' ferant ' TServ. does not 
summae cust-odibus arcis,' which in Tumus' comment on either) t but tnis explanation 
mouth merely means, * I will have nothing will not account for all cases of similar 
to do with surprising and slaughtering varieties of reading, where to an ordinary 
sentinelB.' The other objection is dis- apprehension the rival words seem to be 
allowed by Lachm. on Lucr. 5. 1006, who nearly equally balanced. *Differre' of de- 
pronounces that the earlier poets generally laying or putting off is found with an ace. 
retained the **ii" in the gen. ^ proper of the person as well as of the thing: see 
names from the Greek, quoting " Brundisii " Fore. With the sense generally comp. 11. 
Enn. Hedyphagetica v. 4, « Dodecatomorii" 288 foil., Hor. 2 Od. 4. 10 foil. 
Manil. 2. 740, "Sunii" Ter.Eun. S. 8. 13. 156.1 Hevne comp. generally 11. 8. 502 
Those who would omit the verse apparently foil., 529 foil. 'Nunc adeo' 11. 814, 
understand * tenebras et frirta' of the where, as here, ' adeo ' seems to emphasize 
horse, taking 'frirta' of a stratagem, as *nunc,' the contrast there being with the 
in 10. 785., 11. 515. On the whole the past (comp. 11. 802 foil.), here with the 
balance of considerations seems decidedly future. See on 2. 567. ' Melior ' i. q. 
in fevour of retaining the verse, though "maior," as "bona pars" i.q. "magna," not 
some frirther doubt may be created by the referring to suitability for fighting. Med. 
ISuet that Rom., fragm. Vat. originally, a m. s., Rom., and two of Ribbeck*s cur- 
and some others, induding the original dves have ' diel est.' 
reading of one of Ribbeck's cursives, have 157.] *Quod superest/ 'diei/ as ex* 


Prbcurate, viri, et pugnam sperate parari. ■ 

Interea yigilum excubiis obsidere portas 

Cura datur Messapo et moenia cingere flammis. i6o 

Bis septem Rutuli^ muros qui milite servent^ 

Delecti ; ast illos centeni quemque sequuntar 

Purpurei cristis iuvenes auroque corusci. 

Discurrunt, yariantque vices, fusique per herbam 

Indulgent yino, et vertunt erateras aenos. 165 

Conlueent ignes; noctein custodia ducit 

Insonmem ludo. 

Haec super e vallo prospectant Troes, et armis 
Alta tenent ; nee non trepidi formidine portas 

plfuned by tbe preceding verse. ' Bene Heing. adopted and Heyne retained : but 

gestis rebus ' may either be abL abs., or tbe termination is marked for alteration 

constructed with < laeti/ in the MS. itself, and no other copies 

158.] * Procurate/ a variety for the countenance it. 

more usual ** curare corpora/' for which see 162.] Bom. and one of Bibbeck's cur- 

on Q. 4. 187* Burm. and Heyne read sives in an erasure have * secuta,' doubtless 

'* parati ' from one inferior MS. and most from a recollection of 5. 661. 

pf the copies of Macrob., who quotes this 163.] ' Purpurei ' is the reading of all 

and the preceding line twice. Sat. 5. 9., BibbecVsMSS. except a correction in Gud.; 

7. 1, paralleling it with II. 2. 381. * Parari ' which has * purpureis/ tbe reading of in- 

seems rightly explained by Serv. "a me ferior copies. Virg. doubtless wished to 

parari sperate, id est, pugnaturos vos sci- avoid the jingle. Cerda comp. *' qnibus ibat 

tote, licet hostes muris se teneant." For in armis Aureus ** v. 279 below. For tbe 

' parati' Taubm. quotes a phrase " pransus red crest comp. v. 60 above, which makes 

paratus " (see Gell. 15. 2 and Gronovius' it probable that * auro ' refers to the bel- 

note) to which Virg. might be supposed to met. 

refer, were the authority for the reading 164,1 * Discurrunt ' is explained by ' va- 

greater. riant vices,' they go backwards and for- 

159—175.] * The Butulians pass the wards to relieve each other, some watching 

night in watching and recreation, the while others are ei\joying themselves. 

Trojans in watching and anxiety/ ' Fusi per herbam ' 1. 214 note. The re* 

159.] ' Obsidere cura :' see on G. 1. 213. velry is from the description of the Trojans 

Here we should naturally resolve the inf. Jl. 8. 545 foil, 

into a gen. 165.] 'Vertunt erateras aenos ' is from 

160.] * Moenia cingere flammis' 10. 119, Enn., according to Serv. Heyne explains 

where, as Peerlkamp remarks, it has a it of tilting the craters into the cups : but 

different sense : see on v. 153 above. Here it seems more likely that the craters them- 

it refers to watch-fires, which they kindle selves were used as drinking cups, as in 

round the Trojan encampment, as the II. 8. 232 we have iclvovrts Kprirripas ^i- 

.Trojans1n.B. 8 ad fincm round the camp <rr€^4as ofyoio, unless this is to be under- 

of the Greeks. Fragm. Vat., Bom., and stood loosely, 

one of Bibbeck's cursives have ' flamma.' 166.] ' Conlueent ignes ' may remind us 

161.] The reference seems still to be of the famous simile in II. 8. 555 foil, 

to the troops posted round the Trojan ' Noctem ducit ludo :' see on G. 3. 379, 

camp, as there could be no occasion to 168.] *Haeo' probably with 'super,' 

protect the city of Latium : so we must though 'super' might be adverbial. Hiny 

suppose ' servent ' to be used in the sense Ep. 4. 22 has *' super coenam," and Fore, 

of *' observent." The passage, as Heyne gives other instances, though here he takes 

remarks, is imitated from II. 9. 85, where ' super ' as adv. ' Et tenent ' virtually = 

the Greeks appoint seven chiefs, each with ** dum tenent :" comp. note on 2« 692. 

a hundred men, to watch about their own Wakef. needlessly conj. * nt/ 
entrenchi^ents. Med. has ' Butulo,' which 

AENEID. LIB. IX. . 169 

Explorant, pontisque et propagnacula iungunt, 170 

Tela gemnt. Instant Mnestheus acerque Serestus, 
Quos pater Aeneas^ si quando adversa yocarent^ 
Rectores iuvenum et rerum dedit esse magistros. 
Omnis per muros legio, sortita periclum, 
Exeubat exercetque vices, quod cuique tuendum est. 175 

Nisus erat portae eustos, acerrimus armis, 
Hyrtacides, comitem Aeneae quern miserat Ida 
Venatrix, iaeulo celerem levibusque sagittis ; 
Et iuxta comes Euryalus, quo pulchrior alter 
Non fuit Aeneadum Troiana neque induit arma^ 180 

170.] * Ponds et propttgnacula iungimt ' 177.] ' Hyrtacides * 6. 492 note. * Co' 

is taken by Heyne of connecting towers, mitem miserat ' 2. 86. ' Ida ' is generally 

like that mentioned y. 530 below, with the taken as a nympb, the mother of Nisus, 

rampart by bridges. Hirt. (?) B. G. 8. 9, who sends him to share Aeneas' fortunes, 

however (pointed out to me by Mr. Long) Peerlkamp however remarks with some 

speaks of the bridges (planks, protected at force that Ida is not mentioned elsewhere 

the sides with hurdles) as connecting the as a nymph, and that there is something 

towers with each other. strange in representing Nisus as sent by 

171.] 'Tela gerunt' is taken by Heyne his mother, when it does not appear that 

of carrying weapons to a particular place ; he was unusually young. That a young 

but it seems better to give it its ordinary hero should be the son of a nymph is na« 

sense of wielding weapons, in spite of the tural enough (comp. the story of Flar- 

flatness of the clause so interpreted. Per- thenopaeus as told by Stat. Theb. 4. 

haps it = " tela gerentes :" see above 247 foil. &c.) : but we should have ex« 

▼. 168. Pal., Gud., and two other of Bib- pected to have had the fact mentioned 

be«k's cursives have ' instat.' more at length and less ambiguously. I 

172.] Wagn. rightly remarks that ' vo- incline then to take *Ida' of the moun- 

care ' is used elsewhere of imminent emer- tain, with Donatns and some critics men- 

gencies, as in 11. 476. tioned by Serv., who parallels * venatrix * 

173.] ' Bectores iuvenum ' is explained with " domitrix Epidaurus equorum ** G. 

by 'rerum magistros:' they were left in 3. 44, and two or three of the early editors, 

command: Another reading, 'inveni,' is Idaiscalled/iTrr^p^p&Kll. 14.283, Hymn 

found in Donatus and mentioned by Serv. ; to Aphrodite v. 68, as Taubm. remarks, and 

but Heyne observes that Ascanius is not it is natural to speak of Nisus as having 

elsewhere called ** iuvenis " but ** puer." been bom there, and as having learnt to 

'Dedit' sc. ** militibus." The construction use the bow and arrow from the place of 

is the same as in 5. 571 ** quem Candida his birth. 

Dido Esse sui dederat monumentum et 178.] *' Iaeulo levibusque sagittis" 5. 68. 

■pignus amoris." * Iaeulo celerem ' like '' pedibus celerem " 

174.] ' Legio ' of an entire foi'ce 8. 605. 4. 180, the swiftness being in respect of 

Bom. has 'est' between Megio' and 'sor- javelins and arrows, which he speeds 

tita.' * Sortita periclum :' they chose dif- swiftly to their mark, 

ferent posts of danger, not, like the enemy, 179.J ** Iuxta comes " 11. 479. " Quo 

alternating between service and recre- pulchnor alter Non fuit " 7. 649. Bibbeck 

ation. reads ' it iuxta ' from a single inferior MS.^ 

175.] *Quod cuique tuendum est' is which is not only unnecessary but less 

epexegetical of 'vices.' It would seem suited to the context, as they are not mov- 

from v. 221 that the watch was relieved, ing, but stationary, 

so that ' vices ' is to be taken strictly. 180.] Heyne is right in saying that 

176 — 223.] ' Nisus forms a resolution to ' Troiana neque induit arma ' merely means 

go to Pallanteum and summon Aeneas, that no Trojan warrior was more beautifri], 

Enryalus insists on accompanying him.' as against Forb., who, following Donatus, 

176.] For Nisus and Euryalus see 5. thinks the clause refers to the especial 

-294 folL They are introduced here as if beauty of Euryalus' appearance in arms^ 

they had not been named before. Serv. strangely explains it .."qui nondum 


Ora puer prima signans intonsa iuventa. 
His amor unus erat^ pariterque in bella ruebant ; 
Turn quoque commum portam statione tenebant. 
Nisus ait : Dine hunc ardorem mentibns addunt^ 
Eoryale^ an sua cniqiie deas fit dira oupido ? 185 

Aut pugnam^ aut aliquid iamdudum invadere magnum 
Mens agitat mihi^ neo placida contenta quiete est. 
Cemis^ quae Butulos habea4i fiducia rerum : 
Lumina rara micant; somno yinoque soluti 
Procubuere ; sil^it kte loca. Percipe porro, 190 

Quid dubitem^ et quae nunc animo sententia surgat. 
Aenean acciri omnes, populusque patresque^ 

belUoosa arma indoent . . • p«lcber qui- 2* 48. 

dem erat, sed nondum bellandi peritus." 187.] For ' agitat ' with inf. Fore. 

181.] Macrob. Sat. 6. 13 makes the line quotes Nepos in Hamilc. 1, " at statim 
a translation of Od. 10. 278, 279; but mente agitaret bellum renovare." The 
there is no particular resemblance* and the inf. is in fiict a noun, and the similar ^son- 
thought is common enough. Qossrau notes struction with "meditari" &c. would be 
the peculiarity by which fiuryalus is said a reason for hazarding the expression, 
to mark his own cheeks with the down of * Quiete ' is explained by Gossrau after 
YOuth, and comp. Ov. M. 13. 753. * Prima Senr. of remaming in station on the 
luventa' 8. 160 note. * luventa' here has watch : but it is merely the opp. of 'ag^- 
something of the force of ^firi, which is tat.' Pal. originally hiad ' quiesdt.' 
used of the down of youth. 188.] ' Fiducia rerum ' above v. 142, 

182.] 'Amor unus' seems to be a com- 'rerum' being fortune or circumstancefl* 

pound of " mens una " and ** amor reci- as in 1. 178. 

procus." ,«*Pariter ruebant" 10. 766, 189.] Cerda comp. Tac. A.1.65«Apud 

where it seems to mean falling together. Romanos invalidi ignes, interruptae vo- 

Here ' ruebant ' must refer to the rush of ces . . insomnes magis quam pervigiles," 

the onset (comp. 7. 782), 'pariter' mean- Stat. Theb. 8. 266 <* Incertaeqne fis^ea et 

ing that they accompanied each other and iam male pervig^ ignis." * Sepulti ' was 

fought by each other's side. read by Heins. from Serv. (who expliuns it 

183.] ' Turn quoque,' then as at other as from *' sine pulsu ") and some copies, 

times they were together. 'Tenebant 'of including one of Bibbeck's cursives : but 

holding a post, as in v. 169 above. Wagn. rightly attributes it to* a recoUec* 

184 185.] Heyne finds the germ o^ tion of 2. 265, and recalls 'soluti.' Sleep 

these two Uncs in Od. 4. 712, ovk oiS* cf ris is said from different points of view to bind 

/utf Ms 4!>poptv, ^^ «riil ainov Bv^bf 4^p- and to relax the limbs t see on 5. 857. 

/t^9i?!>t«y. The form into which the second 190.] "Percipe porro" Lucr. 6. 46, 

half of the alternative is put by Virg. sa- where as here it seems to mean continua- 

vours of the rhetorical age of Greek poetry, tion, ^ go on to learn.' 

Taubm. comp. Menander Qnom. Mon. 434, 191 J For 'dubitare aliquid,' to make 

6 wovs yitp TifjMW itrriy ip €«c(irr9» $w6s. the sul^ect of question or consideration, 

' Addunt ' i. q. " dant," as in Q. 4. 149 Fore. comp. Cic. pro Rose Am. 31, " restat 

"naturasapibusquasIuppiteripseAddidit." igitur ut hoc dubitemns, uter potius Sex. 

'Diracupido'6.373,Q. 1.37 notes. Here Eoscium Occident." The two clauses of 

there is not the same blame intended : but the line mean the same thing, as what he 

the notion is still that of intense yearning is meditating is the journey to Pallanteun^ 

overpowering the reason. but in the former it is spoken of as an un- 

186.] Varied from II. 10. 220 (comp. by certainty, in the latter as a notion floating 
Germ.), where Diomede says to Nestor, up to the surface, and temporarily at 
I/A* oTp6v€i KpaHiri Koi Ovfihs kyfivwp *Pi.v^pS>v least preferred. " Quae nunc animo sen- 
hwrtkwivp ivvai arparSv (comp. ib. 829). tentia surgit ? " 1. 582. 
'Invadere' i. q. " adgredi," 4. 265. 'Ali- 192.] In II. 10. 204 foil. Nestor pro- 
quid ' virtually = " aliud quid :" see on poses that some one should go to reo(m* 

AENEID. LIB. IX. ^ 171 

Exposcunt^ mittique yiros, tpi oerta reportent. 

Si tibi quae posco promittunt^^^'^-naiBL nilu facti 

Fama sat est, — ^tumulo videor reperire sub iBo 195 

Posse viam ad muros et moenia Pallantea. 

Obstipuit magno laudum percussus amore 

Euryalus ; simul his ardentem adfatur amicum : 

Mene igitur soeium summis adiungere rebus, 

Nise, fugis ? solum te in tanta perioula mittam ? 200 

Non ita me genitor, bellis adsuetus Opheltes^ 

Argolicum terrorem inter Troiaeque labores 

Sublatum erudiit; nee tecum talia gessi, 

Magnanimum Aenean et fata extrema secutus : 

Est hie, est animus lucis eontemptor, et istum 205 

noitre among the Trojans, and offers a denotes the complete possession taken of 

reward ; and so Hector ib. 808 foil. ** Po- him by the enthusiasm. " Amor landnm *' 

pnlnmqne patresque'' 4. 682. Sery. says G. 8. 112. Forb. comp. Lucr. 1. 928 "Per- 

*' Tnmsfert in Troianos Bomanam consne* cnssit thyrso laodis spes magna meum cor." 

tndinem, nt solet pleramqae. Fiios enim 199.] ' Snmmis rebns * of critical cir« 

inbebat aliqnid popolos, postea confirma* cnmstanoes t see on 2. 822. Here it may 

bat senatns." either be abl., * adiungere ' being taken 

193.] * Reportent»' from the camp to ** adiungere tibi/' or it may be constmc- 

Aeneas. ted with ' adiungere/ ' adiungere snmmis 

194.] Wagn. points after ' tibi/ so as to rebus ' being equiralent to ** adiungere 

connect it with ' posco :' but the sense is tibi periditanti." Comp. v. 278 below, 

really the same mther way, and the rhythm 200.] " Fuge credere" Lucr. 1. 1052. 

is in &Your of the more natural connexion. ' Mittam/ as if £uryalus' acquiescence 

' Facti fama :' Nestor and Hector both made him an agent in the matter, 

mention glory along with the reward as an 201.] Perhaps, as the commentators 

inducement to undertake the danger, 11. think, from 11. 7. 198, where Ajax says 

10. 212, 807. ^ircl odS* ifi^ wiitU y ofhws *'EXiro/ua( iy 

195.] ** * Tumulo sub illo,' quern manu HaKafAitu ywMat r« rpap4fi9y re : but 

monstrat Enryalo,'' GkMsrau. his spirit is suiBciently unlike Euryalus'. 

196.] '< Muros et moenia," 2. 284. The name < Opheltes ' occurs in the Theban 

"Moenia Pallantea" v. 241 below. For legend, where it is the original name of 

< PaUanteus ' as the a^. of " Pallantenm " the ill-fkted Archemorus. 

see on 4. 552. Here however we might 202.] *Troiae labores' 2. 11, 284., 4. 

say that as *< Pallanteum " is the town of 78. 

Plallas (8. 54), * Pallantea moenia ' are the 208.] 'ToUere' is used both of beget- 

walls or towers of PftUas. " Moenia La* ting and of bringing up (see Fore), either 

rissaea" ends a line similarly Catull. of which senses it may bear here; but 

62 (64). 86. perhaps it is rather more in Yirg.'s man- 

197.1 Fierius and Heins. restored 'per* ner to make it a synonyme of 'erudiit/ 

C118SU8 ibr * perculsus,' which is found in Nothing can be inferred from these words 

none of Bibbeck's MSS. The words are about the exact age of Euryalus : all that 

oonstantly confiised, and in other passages he says is that his early life was passed 

(see on 1. 518) 'perculsus ' seems to be the during the siege. ' Talia,' ** nt tu refiigere 

better word, going with ' obstipuit ' in the possis et nolle me soeium suscepti facti 

sense of astonishment. Here however the adiungere," Heyne. 

meaning seems to be not that Euryalus is 204.] He had performed exploits as a 

astonished at Nisus' love of glory, but that follower of the perilous fortunes of 

he is himself penetrated by the feeling, so a courageous leader. ** Magnanimum 

that 'percussus' appears to be the right Aenean" 1.260. "Fata secutus" 1. 882, 

word, as in G. 2. 476, where it is similarly in a diiferent sense, 

constructed with 'amore.' 'Obstipuit' 206.] SaU. lug. 64 says of Metellne 


Qui vita bene credat emi, quo tendis, honorem. 

Nisus ad haec : Equidem de te nil tale verebar. 

Nee fas ; non : ita me referat tibi magnus ovantem 

luppiter, aut quicumque oculis haec aspicit aequis. 

Sed si quis — quae multa vides discrimine tali — 210 

Si quis in adversum rapiat casusve deusve^ 

Te superesse velim ; tua vita dignior aetas. 

Sit, qui me raptum pugna pretiove redemptum 

Mandet humo solita, aut si qua id fortuna vetabit, 

••Inerat contemptor animus et snperbia, in Aesch. of divine regard. The mean- 
commune nobilitatis malum." *Hic,' as ing is, Jupiter, or whatever is the 
Serv. says, may be either pronoun or name of the supreme father. Pal. has 
adverb : but the former seems more likely : * aspicis.' 

see on 11. 510. ' Lux ' of life G. 4. 255. 210.] * Quae multa Mike "qualia multa" 

« Istum ' is explained by « quo tendis.' 7. 200 note. * Vides * nearly i. q. " scis,'* 

206.] 'Bene emere' opp. to "male 11.179. 
emere," which occurs Cic. ad Att. 2. 4, 211.] * Si quis ' repeated, like " si forte ** 

the goodness or badness of the bargain 2.756. ' In adversum ' is generally used 

being estimated in relation to the pur- in a physical sense, as in 8. 237 : so we 

chaser. See Drakenborch on Sil. 4, 756. may suppose that here there is a metaphor 

« Tendere ' of aiming 5. 489, 670. from a person being dragged or carried off 

207.1 For * ad haec * a correction in in an opposite direction to that in which 
Pal. gives * ait,' which may have arisen he was going. The agency of chance is 
from ' at,' the transcriber's way of spelling distinguished from that of an unfriendly 
« ad.' * Tale' in the mouth of Nisus, like deity, just as after Aeneas had told Venus 
"talia" in that of Euryalus v. 203, means 1. 377 that he had been driven on the 
5 like what you implv.' * De te ' seems to African coast by accidental stress of 
depend partly on * nil,' partly on * verebar.* weather, in speaking to Dido 3. 715 he 
The latter construction is found Cic. de ascribes the event to a god, meaning appa- 
Sen. 6 " De qua (Karthagine) non ante rently that he now sees it is friendly pro- 
vereri desinam quam illam excisam esse vidence, not accident. Comp. 3. 337. 
cognovero." So "de aliquo (aliqua re) 213.] 'Baptum pugna' is rightly ex- 
metuere " is used : see Fore. * metuo.' plained by Cferda, rescued from the fray, 
. 206.] "Nee fas essct de te tale quip- the two alternatives being to rescue a 
piam vereri." For *non ' repeated by it- friend's body or to ransom it. 
self after a negative by way of strengthen- 214.] Serv. says that there was a doubt 
ing it comp. Pseudo-Cic. de Harusp. Resp. in his time about the punctuation, some 
18 "Non ignovit, mihi crede, non." So connecting *solita' with what goes before, 
Aesch. Ag. 1299, oIk l^ffr* &\v^is, oi, l4voi, others with what follows. Subsequent 
Serv. remarks that Nisus, in the very act editors have generally adopted the former 
of assuring Euryalus that he is worthy to punctuation : Wagn., Gossrau, and Bib- 
be his companion, still contemplates him- beck prefer the latter. The objection to 
self as going alone : " Mire iusiurandum the former is the construction of the abl. 
compositum sic enumerat, quasi relicturus with 'mandet,' which is undeniably harsh 
eum, cum de virtutibus eius optume and unexampled. Tet it does not seem 
sentiat." ' Ovantem ' of victory 5. 331. unlike Virg. to combine such expressions 

209.] * luppiter aut quicumque :' see on as *mandere humo' (dat.) and 'condere 

4. 577. There is a similar doubt expressed, humo ' (abl.), while h6 may possibly be 

doubtless from reverential motives, by imitating some older phrase, in times 

Livy 1. 2, speaking of Aeneas " Situs est, when dat. and abl. were confused. * SoU- 

quemcumque eum dici ius iasque est, super ta,' about which also difficulties have 

Numicum fluvium ; lovem indigitem ap- been raised, simply means, as Heyne says, 

pellant." ' Oculis haec aspicit aequis,' " qua nos mortui condi et human sollenni 

nearly from 4. 372, where ' aequis ' seems more solemus." * Solita ' on the other 

to mean just, not, as here, favourable, hand goes awkwardly with 'si qua For- 

Comp. tlie fi*^nent use of ^iroirre^iv tuna,' though Bibbeck explains it,, "non/ 


Absent! ferat inferias^ decoretque sepulchro. 215 

Nea matri miserae tanti sim caussa doloris^ 

Quae te sola^ puer^ multis e matribus ausa 

Persequitur^ magni nee moenia curat Acestae. 

nie autem : Caussas nequiquam nectis inanis^ 

Nee mea iam mutata loco sententia cedit. 220 

Adceleremus^ ait. Yigiles simul exeitat. lUi 

Succedunt servantque vices; statione relicta 

Ipse comes Niso graditur, regemque requirunt. 

Cetera per ten-rini^ anLalia somno 
Laxabant curas et corda oblita laborum : 225 

Ductores Teucrum primi, delecta inventus, 

qaeritnr Fortttnae iniqnitatem sed ut v. 220.] 'Loco cedit' 7. 332. As Forb. 

210 multis idem accidere, ne singulare remarks, it is the opposite of " sedet (or 

fatum timere videatur, significat/' to "stat") sententia." 

which it may be answered that while 221.] *' Adceleremos, ait'' 6. 630. 

death in an expedition like that which 'Yigiles/ those who were appointed to 

Nisos contemplates is likely, it is not relieve them. 

usual that the body should not be re- 222.] * Servant' seems to combine the 

covered. D. Heinsius and Burm. read tactions of keeping up and guarding, 

' humo solida/ which Heyne rightly con- ' vices ' in the latter connexion being 

demns as only appropriate to the case of a something of a cognate ace. Serv. says 

shipwrecked man. some in his time connected ' statione 

215.] ' Ab^enti,' as cenotaphs were relicta ' with * vices,' as if it were a sort of 

raised and honours paid to those whose attributive abl. in place of a gen. 

bodies were elsewhere, 3. 304., 6. 505. 223.] ' Comes Niso graditur,Mike "cui 

' Inferias ' Q. 4. 545. ' Decoret sepul- fidus Achates It comes " 6. 158, walks by 

chro ' like " Nemo me lacrimis decoret," his side. * Begem ' of the prince Ascanius, 

Ennius* epitaph on himself. Here there like "regina" 6. 28 of the princess 

may be a notion that the honour is a mere Ariadne, 

honour, as the body is absent. 224—313.] 'They go to the generals, 

217.] Spence (Folymetis) finds a diffi- and Nisus proposes that he and Euryalus 

culty here, as in 11. 35 the Trojan women should go to seek Aeneas. Aletes ap- 

are mentioned as being in Italy. But plauds them, and Ascanius promises them 

Heyne rightly remarks that Virg. cannot rewards, and offers his friendship to £u« 

have meant the Trojans to have sailed ryalus in particular. Euryalus commends 

without their wives, but only that the his mother to the care of Ascanius, who 

aged women were left in Sicily. 'Ausa undertakes to be a son to her. The 

persequitur,' a variety for " ausa est perse- generals give them presents of armour, 

qui." Bom. has ' a matribus.' and they start.' 

218.] ' Prosequitur,' the reading before 224.] Comp. 8. 26. There is a general 

I^erius and Heins., is found in none of resembl^mce to II. 2. 1 foil., 10. 1 foil. 

Bibbeck's MSS. ' Moenia Acestae : ' see ' Somno ' abl. instr., though it might be 

5. 717, 750 foil. We might have expected ' in sleep.' Comp. 5. 836, " placida laxa- 

' magnae,' as Acesta was the name of the bant membra quiete," where there is the 

place, and so Trapp conjectured : but the same doubt, the probability rather in- 

MSS. have no variety, and v. 286 supports dining to the latter view, 

•magni.' 225.] See on 4. 528. 'Laxare curas' 

219.] ' Caussas nectis ' like " caussas like ** vincula, nodes, iugum laxare :" see 
innecte " 4. 51, where as here there seems Fore. Cerda comp. Lucr. 4. 908, " som- 
to be the double notion of multiplying nus . . auimi curas e pectore solvat." ' Ob- 
reasons and making them into a web for lita laborum ' with ' corda,' proleptically, 
entanglement, though in the note there as Forb. says. 

I have thrown doubt on the latter shade 226.] "Primi duces" 7. 107. The 

of meaning. reading before Heins. (whether found in 


Consilium summis tegpai de rebos habebant. 
Quid facerent^ quisve Aeneae iam nuntius esset. 
Stent longis adnixi hastis et scuta tenentes 
Castrorum et campi medio. Tum Nisus et una 230 

Euryalus confestim alacres admittier orant : 
fiemmaguam^pretiumquemocaefore. Primus Moa 
Accepit trepidos^. ac Nisum dieere iussitj 
Tum sic Hyrtacides : Audite o xnentibaB aequis, 
Aeneadae^ neve haec lumtnB spectentor ab annis^ 235 

Quae ferimuft» Botuli somno vinoque soluti 
Contieoere ; locum insidiis conspeximus ipsi^ 
Qui patet in bivio portae> quae proxuma ponto ; 

any MSS. is uncertain) was 'et delecta mittier' like "accingier" 4. 498, "domi- 

fuventus,' which Peerlkainp and Ribbeck narier " 7. 70. 

prefer, distingnishing the leaders, such as 282.] " Bern magnam esse qnani ad- 

Aletes v. 246, from the youth. Virg. ferant, et pretium fore morae, temporis 

however obviously imitated Lucr. 1. 86, sibi audien<&s dati " Forb. Serv. mentions 

« Ductores Danaum delecti, prima viro- another explanation, that the thing would 

rum," and used * inventus ' generally of not admit of delay, that delay might cost 

warriors. Comp. ''Argiva inventus" 7. them dear: but 'pretium morae' seems 

672, of the two leaders Catillus and Coras, to be modelled on " operae pretiom/' We 

'* Delecta inventus " 4. 130., 8. 499. may say if we like that ' magnam ' and 

227.] Serv. says this line is from Luci- * pretium morae ' are predicates : but it 
lius (Sat. 1 fr. 1 G«rlach)« "Consilium does not signify much, 
summis hominum de rebus habebant." 233.] 'Accepit,' welcomed, 8. 178. 
* Summis rebus ' (see on 2. 322), the same ' Dieere ' i. q. " loqui," as in the well- 
as " summa rerunu" known formula of the Consul calling on 

228.] 'Iam,' by this time, implying the senators to q>eak, "Die, M. Tulli" 

that there was no time to be lost. ' Nun- (Cic Att. 9. 15). 

tins esset :' one inferior MS. gives ' iret ' 234.] ' O ' out of place, as in 6. 509. 

as a variant. ' Mentibus aequis,' kindly, like the more 

229.] While in deliberation* they held common " aequo animo." 
themsdves in readiness for attack. The 235.] The more common expresnon is 
comparison with U. 8. 493, where Hector " spectare ex aliqua re>" as in Ter. Andr. 
leans on his spear in haranguing the 4.1.22 "Tuum animum ex animo spec- 
Trojans, is not quite in point, as he is tavi meo," Cic. Tusc. 5. 10 "Non ex 
advising them to disarm for the night, singulis vocibus philosophi spectandi sunt» 
Pal. originally had ' enscut. atq. entes,' sed ex perpetuitate atque constantia." 
from which meaningless jumble Ribbeck 236.1 See on v. 189. Here, besides the 
gratuitously extracts "in scuta tuentes." authority for 'sepulti' quoted there, it is 

230.1 ' Castrorum et campi medio ' is found as a variant in another of Bibbedc's 

f2:eneraUy understood, after S^v., to mean cursives. 

that the generals are met in a free space 237.] Pal., Gud., and another of Rib« 

answering to the Roman praetorium in beck's cursives have 'procubuere,' as in ▼• 

the middle of the encampment, and so 190, Ghid. however giving ' conticuere ' as 

Lersch § 44, though it would still be open a variant. In v. 190 however the fact of 

to question whether 'campus' is intended silence is mentioned immediately after- 

for that space or for the whole area covered wards. Virg. is fond of repeating himself 

by the 'castra.' Mr. Long however re* partially, and here he also thought of 

jects the interpretation altogether, and 2. 252, "fiisi per moenia Teucri Conti- 

thinks the meaning must be 'in a place cuere." Heins. retained 'procubuere.' 

between the camp and the plain.' In U. ' Insidiis ' with ' locum.' 

8. 491., 10. 199 the Trojans and Qreeks 238.] The meaning seems to be that by 

meet severally iv Ka$ap^, i0i 8j^ v^k^vp going wough the gate next the sea they 

5tc^a(vcro x<^P<>^* ^^^ ^ &^i6 to make their way stealthily 

231.] 'Alacres' with 'orant.' 'Ad- ('insidiis' of a stealthy expedition) to 


Interrupti ignes^ aterque ad sidera fuxaus 

Erigitur ; si fortuna permittitis uti^ 240 

Quaesitum Aenean et moenia Pallantea : 

Mox hie cum spoliis^ ingenti caede peracta^ 

Adfore cemetis. Nee nos via fiskilit euntis : 

Yidimus obscttris primam sub vaUibus urbem 

Yenatu adsiduo et totom cognovixaos amnem. 245 

Hie annis gravis atque animi matnrus Aletes : 

Di patrii^ quorum semper sub numiue Troia est, 

Non tamen omnino Teucros delere paratis^ 

Cum talis animos iuvenum et tam eerta tulistis 

Peetora. — Sie memorans, humeros dextrasque tenebat 250 

Pallanteum. The camp would have more motion (e. g. "fortuna usis ire"), or by 

gates than one, like a Roman camp« the wider considerations suggested by 

' Bivioportae' seems merely =:" porta,'' the Wagn., or by both. Serv. says that 

gate affording a passage out and in, so that some phiced the line after t. 243. 'Moenia 

there will be no special relevancy in it here. Fisllantea ' v. 196. 

239.] The sense seems to be that instead 243.] Med. has *&llet,' which wouldbepre- 

of a r^ular chain of fires, some have gone ferable, if there were more authority for it. 

out, and some are smouldering ; a contrast 244.] < Vidimus primam urbem,' we 

to IL 8. 509, KoUffity «vp^ iroWd, ff4\at have caught a glimpse of the city (Pal* 

8* els oifpwby txp, lanteum). So nearly Serv., " primam 

240.] «Sub auras Erigitur" 8. 26. partem urbis." Comp. "prima terra" 

< Fortuna uti,' to make use of the oppor> 1. 541. ' Sub vaUibus ' with ' vidimus,' not 

tunity, like " utere sorte tua " 12. 932. with'urb^n.' PaUanteum,a8Serv.ob6OTves, 

241.] The old reading was ' ad moenia»' was on a hill, and they would see it from the 

which is found in one of Bibbeck's cur- valley. Pal. corrected has 'moenibns;' and 

sives (see on 2, 139). Heyne, who, like so Qud. witih 'vallibns' as a variant, 

his predecessors, retained it, adopted in 245.] < Assidno' explains how they came 

his later editions a change in the pointing, to get within sight of Pallanteum. 

sugfgested by a " vir doctus," so as to con- 246.1 ** Gravis annis " Hor. 1 S. 1. 4. 

struct "quaesitum Aenean ad moenia *Animi matnrus' like "aevi matnrus" 

Pallantea" with 'adfore,' 'quaesitum' 5.78. Comp. also " animi dubius " G. 3. 

being understood as a participle. His 289, " victus animi " ib. 4. 491. ^ Bom. 

reasons for this were the harshness of has ' animis,' which would mean spirits or 

' quaesitum ' after ' uti,' and the impro- courage. *' Grandaevus Aletes " 1. 121. 

priety of Nisus talking about slaughter 247.] "Di patrii" 2. 702. "Vestro 

and spoils, when his object was to summon in numine Troia est " ib. 708. 

Aeneas. Wagn. restorod ' et ' and brought 248.] ' Tamen ' has the force of in spite 

back the usual pointing, defending the of all: comp. E. 10. 31. With the line 

construction of the supine after other than generally comp. 5. 687. ' Parare ' of 

verbs of motion by a fragment of SelL divine decree 2. 121. 

"neque vos ultum imurias hortor," and 249.] 'Cum tulistis:' Madv. § 358. 

arguing from v. 208 that Nisus had more obs. 2. With ' animos tulistis ' comp. 

than a simple errand to Aeneas in his mind 1. 605 " quae te tam laeta tulerunt 

from the first. No doubt Yirg.'s jndg- Saecula?" 'Certa peetora' like "oertus 

ment may be questioned in allowing Nisus homo" for a trustwOTthy man : see Fore, 

and Earyalus to waste th^ time in killing The old reading was "talis animos iuve* 

and plunder; but as he chose to make num, tam certa." Heyne says "'Et' e 

them do so, there is nothing strange in codd. intulit Heins. secundum Pierium : 

making them avow their intention unre- Scilicet si iam ante receptum offendisset, 

buked. He was thinking of course of the hoc egisset ut iterum toUeret," a very 

double object of Ulysses and Diomed II. unjust criticism, as if Heins. had reformed 


Amborum^ et voltum lacrimis atque ora rigabat. — 
Quae Yobis^ quae digna^ yiri^ pro laudibus istis 
Praemia posse rear solvi ? pulcherrima primum 
Di moresque dabunt vestri ; turn cetera reddet 
Aetutum pius Aeneas atque integer aevi 255 

Ascanius, meriti tanti non inmemor umquam. 
Immo ego vos^ cui sola salus genitore reducto^ 
Excipit Aseanius, per magnos^ Nise, Penatis 
Assaraeique Larem et canae penetralia Yestae 
Obtestor ; quaecumque mihi fortuna fidesque est^ 260 

In vestris pono gremiis : revocate parentem, 
Reddite eonspectum ; nihil illo triste recepto. 
Bina dabo argento perfecta atque aspera signis 
Pocula, devicta genitor quae cepit Arisba^ 

rentbetical, and is doubtless introdnced himself the Lar, as Gerda thinks, but is 

in this manner to show that Aletes' words doubtless mentioned merely as one of those 

were interrupted by his emotion. <<Sic ancestors by whom the Lar was worshipped* 

memorans, largo fletu simul ora rigabat " 260.] Ascanius says that he entrusts his 

6. 699. * Humeros dextrasque tenebat/ whole fortune and hope to them, meaning, 

he threw his arms round their necks and as the context shows, that his whole de- 

grasped their hands. pendence is on the return of his father, 

251.] ' Voltum atque ora ' 10. 821. which he relies on them to bring about. 

252.] *Pro talibus ausis,' the reading *Fides'="fiducia,"and8onearlyi.q."spes.'* 

before Heins., is found in Gud. as a second 261.] ' In vestris gremiis,' 6/Awy iv 

reading and in two other of Bibbeck's yoiveuri, which Germ. comp. 

cursives, in one of them in an erasure. 262.1 '* Oonspectum genitoris " 6. 108. 

It probably came from 2. 535 or 12. 351, 263. j ** Argento perfecta atque aspera 

though if the authority for 'pro laudibus ugnis'^ 5. 267 note, 

istis' were less, the latter might be traced in 264.] Arisbe was one of the places that 

its turn to 10. 825. Serv. read ' laudibus.' sent alUes to Troy, II. 2. 836, so that the 

'Laudibus' of praiseworthy deeds 8. 273. conquest by Aeneas, if it took place at all, 

. 254.] Comp. 1. 603 ** Di tibi . . . prae- must have happened before the Trojan 

mia digna ferant." ' Mores vestri :' war. Serv., who suggests this interpre- 

Serv. comp. Cic. 2. Phil. 44 " Satis in tation, mentions another, that the capture 

ipsa conscientia pulcherrimi facti fructus," was by Achilles (a circumstance not men- 

which he says is "tractum de pbiloso- tioned in Hom.), from whom the spoils 

phis." See note on 1. 604. passed to Pyrrhus, and eventually through 

255.] 'Aetutum' is a favourite word Helenus to Aeneas, "' quae cepit' pro 

with the comic writers, but occurs also in ' quae accepit,' " which is of course out 

Cic. and Livy : see Fore. " Integer aevi " of the question. Whether Virg. followed 

2. 638 : see on V. 246 above. Serv. says that any tradition at all may be doubted : he 

Ennius applied the expression to the gods, had called Nisus ' Hyrtacides,' probably 

The youth of Ascanius is mentioned, as borrowing the patronymic from II. 2. 837, 

I>onatus remarks, " ut diutumior res sit." "Atrios 'TproKliris, and now, wanting a 

257.] * Vos ' followed by * Nise,' as in v. town to specify, he would naturally borrow 

525 by "O Calliope." For 'reducto' the name of the place from which the 

Pierius' Medicean MS. and some others Homeric son of Hyrtacus came. We know 

give 'recepto,' doubtless from v. 262, that Virg. made a copious and indis- 

where two MSS. have ' reducto.' criminate use of Homeric materials ; and 

. 258.] ' Excipit ' 4. 114 note. The perhaps in our ignorance of the bidk of 

epithet 'magnos' may be an argument post-Homeric legends we may be led to 

for identifying the Penates with the imagine that he is borrowing from them 

*f magni Di :" see on 2. 293, 294. when he is really indebted only to the 

259.] See on 5. 744. Assaracus is not Iliad and his own ingenuity. Those who 


Et tripodas geminos^ auri duo magna talenta^ 265 

Cratera antiquum^ quern dat Sidonia Dido. 
Si vero capere Italiam sceptrisque potiri 
Contigerit victori, et praedae dicere sortem : 
Vidisti, quo Tumus equo, quibus ibat in armis 

Aureus ; ipsum ilium, clipeum cristasque rubentis 270 
Excipiam sorti, iam nunc tua praemia, Nise. 
Pra^terea bis sex genitor lectissima matrum 

think he is referring to an actual legendary quantity of presents ; or the g^ffcs may be 

event may appeal to a third suggestion intend^ for the two friends in common, 

of Serv., who says, that Abas was said to At the same time we need not shrink 

have related in his " Troica " that after from admitting that there are some things 

the abandonment of Troy by the Qreeks in this whole passage which Virg. might 

Astyanax was made king there, that have reconsidered. 

Antenor attacked him with the help of the 268.] Ascanius says 'victori' generally 
neighbouring cities, Arisbe among the rather than " mihi, doubtless from mo- 
number, and that Aeneas came to his desty. 'Dicere' Med., Pal., Qnd. origi> 
assistance and overcame the invaders, on nally, ' duoere ' Bom., Gud. corrected, and 
which occasion he may have taken Arisbe. three other of Kibbeck's cursives. Serv. 
K this story existed, it is possible that mentions both, along with a tertium quid, 
Virg. may have alluded to it without 'deicere' (comp. "deiectam sortem" 6. 
adopting it (see on 4. 427) : but the other 490). ' Dicere ' seems best, ' dicere sortem ' 
supposition seems simpler. being explained ** statuere," with Serv., like 

265.] * Tripodas ' 5. 110. * Magna ta- '* praemia dicit " 6. 486, ** multam dicere " 

lenta' 5. 248. The writer in Diet. A. (' Ta- &e. Heins. approved it, and Wagn. and 

lentum') says that the silver talent was most recent editors have adopted it. 

called ' magnum' in comparison of the gold, ' Praedae ' is probably dative, 

which was equal only to six Attic drach- 269.] Imitated from H. 10. 822, where 

mae, and that it is this small gold talent Dolon asks for the horses of Achilles, 

which is meant when the word occurs in Oossrau, who thinks Ascanius far too 

Horn. In that case Virg. must be charged forward and extravagant in his promises, 

either with ignorance or with great exag- complains of his undertaking here what is 

geration. Two talents of gold are among not in his power. But he obviously makes 

the prizes at the games II. 23. 269. For the engagement in his lather's name, in 

the asyndeton following the conjunction his character of "rex," v. 223. The con- 

comp. 8. 132. struction is ** vidisti equum quo ibat, arma 

266.] There seems to be no other ex- in quibus ibat :" see on G. 4. 150. < Ibat' re- 

planation of < dat ' than that it is substi- fers to Tumus' appearance the day before (v. 

tuted for " dedit" for metrical convenience, 49), which would naturally be in the mind 

as Pope in his Homer and other poets use of all. ' Ibat equo ' like *' navibus ibant " 

the present for the perf. for similar 10. 213. * Ibat in armis ' like ** stabat in 

reasons. Wagn. thinks ' quem dat Dido' armis" v. ^81. The proposition might 

= "quem possideo donatum a Didone," have been omitted : comp. 1. 751. 

a gift being a thing enduring. It would 270.] ' Aureus ' is explained by ' quibus 

be more reasonable to explain it *' quem in armis :' comp. v. 163 above. Perhaps 

acceptum referetis Didoni ;" but the notion we may comp. ' aureum ire ' of marching 

of any such obligation to Dido would be in golden armour with ** aureum stare " 

far-fetched. In 1. 79, which Gossrau on of having a golden statue. * Ipsum ilium ' 

4. 228 comp., the act of giving is really of the horse, * clipeum cristasque ' standing 

permanent, as the gift might be with- for the armour. 'Rubentis 'of a crest: 

drawn. For v. 360., 11. 172, see notes see above vv. 50, 163. Bom. has 'coman- 

there. Peerlkamp, who thinks the line tis ' from 3. 468. 

spurious, asks how the * crater ' could be 271.] * Excipiam sorti,' i^atp4rovs iroi^- 

divided between two. But though the erofiai. For the custom see on 5. 534. 

other gifts are in pairs, it does not follow * Sorti ' archaic abl. : see on G. 4. 165. 

that each pair was to be simply divided, as 272.] ' Matrum corpora ' G. 3. 51 : comp. 

there might be a partition of the whole A. 2. 18., 7. 650. Here the periphrasis 



Corpora captivosque dabit^ suaque omnibus arma ; 

Insuper his, campi quod rex habet ipse Latinus. 

Te vero, mea quern spatiis propioribus aeias 275 

Insequitur, venerande puer, iam pectore toto 

Accipio et comitem casus conplector in omnis. 

Nulla meis sine te quaeretur gloria rebus ; 

Seu paeem seu bella geram, tibi maxuma rerum 

Verborumque fides. Contra quern talia fatur 280 

is accounted for when we remember that We have the metaphor agun 10. 472. 

slaves are spoken of. * Matrum ' seems to Ascanius means that his own years are not 

mean females with children. It is not so far behind £urya.lus'. 

easy to say whether * bis sex * is meant to 276.] Cerda, in a copious note, explains 

cover the whole, * matrum corpora cap- * venerande ' of Euryalus* beauty : but it is 

tivosque,' as Heyne thinks, or whether it is doubtless meant to form a sort of contrast 

to be repeated with 'captives,' which is to <puer,' the deeds of Euryalus having 

the view of Serv. It would seem that entitled him to that veneration which 

these promises, like that in the previous properly attends advanced years. * Pectore 

verse, are made to Nisus alone, Euryalus accipio ' like ** toro accipit " 8. 178, as we 

being compensated with the offer of Asca- should say * I welcome you to my heart.' 

nius' friendship w. 276 foil. : but the case Comp. also 4. 530. With ' pectore toto ' 

is not dear. Serv. comp. Cic. Legg. 1. 18 ** Si non ipse 

273.] ' Omnibus ' belongs of course only amicus per se amatur toto pectore, nt 

to 'captives.' It is not constructed with dicitur :" Yirg.'s meaning however is some- 

* dabit,' as Forb. thinks, but goes with what more physical, and may be illustrated 
' sua,' as in " suo sibi gladio hunc iugulo" by " tota veste vocantem " 8. 712. 

Ter. Ad. 5. 8. 85 &c. 277.] ' Casus in omnis ' seems to be 

274.] For * insuper ' with abl. see Fore, constructed partly with * comitem,' partly 

Ascanius promises Nisus the domain (t^- with the sentence generally. For the first 

fituos) of Latinus. Qossrau complains comp. Lucan 8. 588''Antantum in fluctus 

that Latinus ought not to be mulcted, not pLtceo comes ? " for the second Sil. 1. 76^ 

being really the author of the war, and "Et se participem casus sociarat in om- 

that if the royal possession go to Nisus, nis," cited by Forb. and Gossrau. 

nothing will be left for Aeneas. But 278.] ' Meis rebus ' may stand for 

though Aeneas is more considerate of the "mihi"as the agent (comp. v. 301 below), 

rights of Latinus (12. 190 foil.), Ascanius or the construction may be * nulla gloria 

might naturally regard the king of Latium quaeretur (a me) meis rebus,' for my 

as the chief of the confederacy ; and it is fortunes, the dat. as perhaps in G. 4. 449. 

only in consonance with Yirg.'s habit 279.] It is difficult to say whether * sea 

elsewhere that he should regard the royal pacem seu bella geram ' should be coupled, 

domain in the light of later times, as as Jahn once thought, with what precedes, 

forming only a part of the royal revenue, or, as the editors g^enerally have done. 

The constructions < insuper his ' and with what follows : but perhaps the latter 

* campi quod ' have led to much confusion is better. It is not settled, as Wagn. 
intheMSS. Med. reads 'insuper is campi thinks, by the supposed correspondence 
quos,' Pal. corrected, Gud., and a cor- of 'verborum' to 'pacem,' * rerum' to 
rection in another of Bibbeck's cursives ' bella,' which is more than doubtful, the 
also have 'quos,' Rom. has 'his campis;' simpler view being that 'rerum verborum- 
there are also found ' id campi,' which was que ' is simply an exhaustive division of 
once common in the editions, 'hi campi life, actions and words. With 'pacem — 
quos,' and ' campos quos.' Ladewig adopts geram ' comp. 7. 444 " Bella viri pacem- 
' is ' from Med., understanding it of Aeneas, que gerent." ' Tibi maxuma rerum Yerbo- 
while Lachm. on Lucr. 4. 933 thinks it rumque fides ' seems to mean " tibi maxume 
may stand for ' iis,' which is monosyllabic credam et facta et verba," not, I will en- 
in the MSS. of Lucr. Serv. apparently trust you with things to be done and said» 
found ' his,' which he explains as dative. but I will communicate to you my words 

275.] The comparison of life to a race- and actions, a description of friendship, 

course is too common to need illustration. 280.] ' Contra quem,' in reply to whom. 


Euryalus : Me nulla dies tarn fortibus ausis 

Dissimilem arguerit ; tantum fortuna secunda 

Haud adversa cadat. Sed te super omnia dona 

Unum oro : genetrix Priami de gente vetusta 

Est mihij quam miseram tenuit non Ilia tellus 285 

Mecum exeedentem^ non moenia i*egis Acestae. 

Hanc ego nunc ignaram huius quodcumque pericli est 

Inque salutatam linquo (Nox et tua testis 

Dextera), quod nequeam lacrimas perferre parentis. 

as " quae contra" 6. 898 is in reply to which, she has undergone and may have to under- 

281.] ' I will never fall short of this act go, as Gossrau rightly gives it. " Ilia 

of courage.' We might have expected tellus'' 11. 245. 

* orsis/ which would be neater. 286.] * Mecum excedentem * in prose 

282.] The force of ' arguerit * seems to would be ** quin mecum excederet \" but 

be 'you shall never have cause to say that Yirgt has expressed himself as if Euryalus' 

time has proved.' See on 6. 89. With mother was actually departing while Troy 

' dies arguerit ' oomp. Catull. 62 (64). 322 and Acesta strove to keep her back. 

*' Carmine, perfidiae quod post nulla ar- ' Moenia Acestae ' v. 218. 

guet aetas." The difficulty of the follow- 287.] Pal., Bom., and originally one of 

ing words is well known. If we read Bibbeck's cursives omit 'est;' but this 

* Aut adversa ' v. 283, aa Serv. prefers to would create ambiguity, as * huius ' might 
do, with Qud. corrected and two other conceivably go with 'pericli.' For 'huius 
of Bibbeck's cursives, we must either take quodcumque pericli est' comp. 1. 78 note. 

* tantum ' by itself, " tantum de me poUi- Here the form of expression indicates 
ceri Rudeo," as Heyne gives it, which would uncertainty, 'this peril, be it great or small.' 
be very harsh and abrupt, and is not suf- 288.] In making Euryalus leave his 
ficiently supported by 2. 690 " hoc tantum," mother without bidding her farewell, Virg. 
or connect ' dissimilem tantum,' as in Hor. may have thought of Telemachus' de- 
2 S. 3. 313 (see Bentley's note), unlike to parture from Ithaca Od. 1. 873 foil., as 
that extent, where 'tantum,' separated Germ, remarks. For the tmesis Serv. 
j&om 'dissimilem' and put last in the comp. "inutilis inque ligatus" 10. 794, 
sentence, would be weak. It seems better which however is not quite the same, as 
then to read ' Haud adversa,' which is also there ' in ' has a meaning in its separate 
mentioned by Serv., and is found in Med., state, here it has none. Ennius, as is well 
Pal., and Bom., joining ' tantum ' with known, carried the practice further still, 
what follows : " Let but fortune be pros- breaking up non -compound words, as 
perous, not adverse;" a natural condition "saxo cere comminuit brum," a pardonable 
to throw in when he is making a promise act of violence in the first writer of Latin 
about his future life, yet does not know hexameters. For instances of tmesis in 
whether this very expedition may not bo Lucretius see Munro on Lucr. 1. 452. 
fatal to him. ' Haud adversa,' which Heyne With the oath that follows comp. 4. 492. 
thinks would be weak after ' secunda,' is 289.] ' Quod nequeam ' is generally 
sufficiently accounted for by Euryalus' ten- taken as dependent on ' testis :' but Madv. 
dency under such circumstances to con- Opusc. 2. 237 is right in connecting it with 
template the possibility of an unfavourable ' linquo ' and making ' Nox — dextera ' par- 
issue, enthetical. There is still a question about 

283.] 'Cadat' as in 2. 709, "Quo res the subj. 'nequeam,' as Euryalus is stating 

cumque cadent." ' Super ' seems to mean his own reason for his conduct, and so 

both beyond and above, ' super omnia would naturally employ the ind. : but 

unum' being like "pro omnibus unum" "possim" and "nequeam" are used else- 

3.435. where in cases where we should expect 

284.] " Unum oro " 6. 106. " Bhoeti " possum," " nequeo :" see Munro on Lucr. 

de gente vetusta "10. 388. 'Priami gens' 1.808. We might also explain the subj. 

is of course the £Eimily of Priam, not the here as conditional : " I leave her without 

race of Troy. greeting, because, if I were to say &rewell> 

285.] * Miseram * with reference to what I should be unable," &c. 

N 2 


At tu, oro, solare inopem, et succurre relictae. 290 

Hanc sine me spem ferre tui : audentior ibo 

In casus onmis. Pereussa mente dedernnt 

Dardanidae lacrimas ; ante omnis pulcher lulus^ 

Atque animnni patriae strinxit pietatis imsLgo. 

Tarn sic effator : 295 

Sponde digna tuis ingentibos omnia coeptis. 

Namque erit ista mihi genetrix^ nomenque Creosae 

Solum defuerit^ nee partum gratia talem 

Panra manet. Casus factum quicumque sequentur. 

Per caput hoc iuro, per quod pater ante solebat : 300 

Quae tibi polliceor reduci rebusque secundis^ 

290.] Some copies, inclnding one of Bib- ryalnstomaketbeprmnisetohisownmind. 

beck's carrives, read < banc ' for * at,' appa- Peerlkamp rigbtly points out tbat ' sponde ' 

rently from a confusion witb tbe next line, is supported by tne next line, as otherwise 

291.] ' Ferre,' to carry witb me on my ' namqne ' would introdnce not a reason for 

expedition. Tbe biatns is accounted for what bas been said, but simply a repetition 

by tbe pause, perbaps indicating tbat of it (see bowever on G. 2. 398). If ' spon- 

£uryalus' utterance was broken. deo' were read, it would bave to be pro- 

292.] ' Perculsa,' tbe reading before nounced as a dissyllable, as Virg. does not 

Serins and Heins., is found as a correction sborten the final ' o ' in verbs except in tbe 

in 6ud. ' Dare lacrimas ' 4. 370. Wagn. case of" scio " and " nescio," which are per- 

restores * dedere ' from Med., but bis rea- haps themselves instances of synizesis (see 

sons for tbe preference (Q. Y. 5) seem fan- on E. 8. 44). * Ingentibus coeptis ' 10. 461. 

cifnl, and 'dederunt' is found in Pal., Bom., 297.] "Namque erit ille mihi semper 

Gud., and apparently the bulk of MSS. deus " K, 1. 7. Here ' ista ' has its proper 

293.] "Ante omnis pulcher lulus" 5. 570, sense, that mother of yours. 'Nomen — de- 

where 'ante omnis' is constructed with fuerit,' she shall be Creusain all but tbe 

* pulcher ;' one of many proofs that parallel name : i. e. she shall be treated in all 

passages cannot be quoted witb confidence respects like my mother, 

in support of a particular construction. 298.] ' Defuerit ' is apparently to be ex- 

294.] Nearly repeated 10. 824. 'Imago' plained 'men shall say that' &c. : see on 
mav be merely the sight, as in 2. 369 ; bnt v. 282. ' Partum talem,' rh rtroK4yai vlhm 
it IS perbaps better to take it of tbe re- roiovrov, Forb. " Debet ab onmibus coli 
semblance. Ascanius was reminded of his quae talem crcavit " Serv. 
own affection for bis father. 'Strinxit,' 299.] 'Manet,' is in store for. "Si 
crossed, a metaphor from grazing a thing mode quod memoras factum fortuna se- 
ligbtly (5. 163), as we should say, flashed quatur " 4. 109. Here Pal. and one of Rib- 
across his mind (comp. Claudian Bnf. 2. beck's cursives have ' sequetur,' some other 
336 " lam summum radiis stringebat Lu- MSS. ' sequuntur,' which Heins. restored 
cifer Haemum"). No instance of this and Heyne retains: but Wagn. rigbtly 
metaphorical use of the word earlier than defends tbe future from 2. iSd., 12. 203. 
Yirg. is given by Fore. With the senti- 300.] Aeneas was wont to swear by tbe 
ment Heyne comp. H. 19. 339. head of Ascanius, and so Ascanius, in me- 

296.] ' Sponde,' which was restored by moiy of his father, swears by bis own. For 

Wagn., is the reading of all Ribbeck's tbe custom ofswearing by tbe head comp. 4. 

MSS. except two curnves, and is recog- 357. Forafatberswearingbyhis sonGoss- 

nized by Donatus : " Quidquid scis, ait, rau comp. Dem. in Conon. p. 1268, <Kurl 

convenire meritis tuis, quidquid arbitratns yhp ir<ipcurrriffdfi(voy rohs wciiSas avrhv 

fneris te dignam, ante ipsam petitionem Karii ro{n»v bfi^urBai, koX apds nvas Utiyks 

tu tibi spondere ne dubites, atque ita, ut Kcd xoAcirtbf iwapdtrfaOtu. Serv., among 

iam te accepisse confidas." Strictly sp^k- other fancies, mentions an interpretation 

ing of course it is Ascanius who makes of ' ante,' before be became chief pontiff, 

tbe promise : but Virg. for the sake of chief pontiffs only swearing by the gods, 

variety represents him as authorizing Eu- 301.] Comp. Oic. Phil. 13. 13, " Qui ex 


Haec eadem matrique tuae generique manebunt. 
Sic ait inlacrimans ; humero simul exuit ensem^ 
Auratum, mira quern fecerat arte Lycaon 
Gnosius atque habilem vagina aptarat eburna. 305 

Dat Niso Mnestheus pellem horrentisque leonis 
Exuvias ; galeam fidus permutat Aletes. 
Protinus armati incedunt ; quos omnis euntis 
Primorum manus ad portas, iuvenumque senumque, 
Prosequitur votis. Nee non et pulcher lulus, 3io 

Ante annos animumque gerens curamque virilem, 
Multa patri mandata dabat portanda. Sed aurae 
Omnia discerpunt, et nubibus inrita donant. 
Egressi superant fossas, noctisque per umbram 

iis quibus ilia [praemia] promissa sunt put on the anus g^ven them, but that they 

pro patria occiderunt, eornm parentibus, put on their arms, being comparatively 

liberis, coniugibus, fratribus eadem tribu- unarmed before : comp. II. 10. 254. 

enda ceuseo.'' " Quos omnis euntis " 5. 554. 

302.] *Manere' with dat. 10. 629, 309.] Ain4T'nu nh icar' avT6ei ndmas 

where however "rata'' is added. AsWagn. iiplffTovs 11.10. 273. Nothing is said of 

remarks, it differs from ' manere ' with prayers in Hom. ; but an omen is sent to 

aec, the latter meaning to await, the them on starting. " Primores Argivorum 

former to be continued to or belong to in viros " CatuU. 66 (68). 87. 'Iuvenumque 

perpetuum. senumque * apposition to ' primorum.' 

303.] *fly <l>dro Baxpux^oov H. 1. 357. 310.1 « Prosequitur dictis " 6. 898. 
Canon, and another MS. have ' Sic ait, et 311.J ' Ante annos :' Gossrau comp. Ov. 

lacrimans.' The gifts of armour to the A. A. 1. 184, " Caesaribus virtus contigit 

warriors at starting are from II. 10. 255 ante diem. Ingenium caeleste snis velo- 

foll., where perhaps the object is disguise cius annis Surgit." ' Animum gerens 

as well as compliment. For the con- virilem ' is from the lines quoted Cic. Off. 

nexion of the sword and the shoulder see 1. 18 " Yos etenim, iuvenes, animum 

on 8. 459. geritis muliebrem, Ilia virago viri," where, 

304.] 'Auratum' seems to refer to the as here, 'gcrere' may in<£cate that the 

decorations of the hilt. character is not natural : see on 1. 315. 

305.] Gnosian javelins are mentioned 6. * Curam gerere ' for " curare" occurs 12. 48. 
306 : comp. also the workmanship of Dae- 312.] 'Mandata dabat portanda' is the 

dalus, who was a Cretan. The ivory order in all Ribbeck's MSS. Heyne re- 

scabbArd is doubtless from Od. 8. 404, tained the old reading 'portanda dabat 

where another Euryalus gives a sword to mandata.' ' Mandata dabat ' occurs in 

Ulysses (comp. ib. 416 with " humero the same place in the line 6. 116. Here 

exuit," ib. 403, 406 with "auratum"). the imperf. seems to be used to denote 

'Habilem' apparently goes with 'ap- frequency, as if Ascanius had not done 

tarat>' fitted neatly or fitted for carry- when Nisus and Euryalus departed. Mr. 

ing. So perhaps 1. 318 " habilem sus- Nettleship suggests that it denotes incom- 

penderat arcum," in spite of the note pleteness, indicating that the message was 

there. never delivered. 

306.] ' Pellem exuviasque,' tv ^th Bvoitf, 313.] From Catull. 62 (64). 142 " Quae 

like " veste fulvique pelle leonis " 2. 722 cuncta aerii discerpunt inrita venti," as 

note. ' Horrentis ' probably ace. pi. Cerda remarks. Forb. comp. id. 28 (30). 

307.] In Hom. helmets are given both 9 " tua (Ucta omnia factaque Veutos inritiEt 

to Diomed and Ulysses. 'Permutat' ferre et nebulas aerias sinis." For 'inrita' 

with Nisus' helmet. Rom. has ' inlita.' 

308.] * Protinus * may either be of time 314—367.] 'They enter the camp of 

or place; but the former seems more likely, the enemy and kill many sleeping. At 

Hom. has fidy fi* Uyai II. 10. 273. ' Ar- last Nisus warns Euryalus that daybreak 

mati' may mean not merely that they is approaching, and they depart with 


Castra inimica petunt^ multls tamen ante faturi 315 

Exitio. Passim somno vinoque per herbam 

Corpora fiisa vident, arrectos litore currus. 

Inter lora rotasqae viros^ simul arma iacere^ 

Vina simul. Prior Hyrtaeides sic ore locutus : 

Euryale^ audendum dextra ; nunc ipsa vocat res. 320 

Hac iter est. Tu^ ne qua manus se attoUere nobis 

A tergo possit, custodi et consule longe ; 

Haec ego vasta dabo^ et lato te limite ducam. 

Sic memorat, vocemque premit ; simul ense superbum 

many spoils, including the helmet of vini" (Serv.) and "rclliqniae vini in 

Messapus.' pocnlis" (Taubm.) both being included. 

314.] " Superant montis " G. 3. 270. With Serv.'s interpretation Heyne comp. 

Pierius says that all the old copies have Yal. F. 3.609 "comprensatmhentcm Vina 

* umbras :' all Ribbeck's however give manu/' where Burm. quotes this passage. 

*umbrara.' Taubm.'s other suggestion, "vomitu re- 

315.] Much difficulty has been made g^rgitata vina/' is hardly to be enter- 
about ' tamcn/ which is really one of the tained. ' Sic ore locutus ' 1. 164 &c. 
most pathetic touches in Virg. It refers 820.] * Audendum dextra ' is from II. 
to a suppressed thought, as if he had said 10. 479, &A\* ft'/c 8^, irp6iptpe Kparephy 
"perituri quidem, multis tamen,'' &c. fi4vo5' oh^i ri at xph ^Eardficyai fi4\foy 
Some, as Heyne, have thought of emend- ahif redx^civ* With * ipsa vocat res ' 
ing the line ; others, as Peerlkamp and comp. Hor. 2 S. 1. 17 " cum res ipsa feret," 
Dietsch, of omitting the obnoxious words Enn. A. 13. fr. 3, " Quo res sapsa loco sese 
and combining w. 315, 316 into one : ostentatque iubetque.'' 
while those who defend the text us it 321.] ** Hac iter'' 6. 542. In II. 10. 
stands press, with Serv., the sense of 488 foil. Ulysses follows Diomede, not how- 
' inimica,' as if the meaning were that ever to protect him, but to drag the dead 
their plunder of the camp led to their bodies out of the way of the horses, 
ruin, a view which, though far more 322.] * Consule ' i. q. ** cura," take 
tolerable than the others which have been measures. Comp. such expressions as 
proposed, would still in its degree injure "male de aliquo consulere." Virg. may 
the passage. The words of Serv. however, have thought of II. 10. 481, fifXiiffovaip B* 
** cum dolore dictum est ' inimica,' " con- ifioX tmroi, though the resemblance does 
trast favourably with those of later critics, not extend beyond the verb. * Longe:' 
who talk of " inpedita sententia," or even comp. 7. 486 " late custodia credita campi." 
propose <'loco tabem eximere desectis 323.] 'Vasta dabo' i. q. *vastabo,' it- 
verbis." With the sense generally comp. self the reading of Gud. corrected, another 
10. 509 "Cum tamen ingentis Rutulo- of Ribbeck's cursives, and some others, 
rum linquis acervos." " Multis futuri So " defensum dabit " 12. 437. The ex- 
exitio " like ** Exitio est avidum mare pression is common in the comic writers, 
nautis" Hor. 1 Od. 28. 18. e. g. Ter. Heaut. 5. 1. 78, "si vivo, adeo 

316.] 'Somno vinoque fusa' like "somno exomatum dabo, Adeo depexum ut dum 

vinoque soluti" above v. 236. 'Passim' vivat meminerit semper mei." Comp. 

as in 2. 364, in its original sense, dis- Gk. riBivai, and see Munro on Lucr. 4. 41. 

persedly. *Vino somnoque,' the order 'Haec'isusedgenerallyof what Nisus sees 

before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's about him. ' Lato te limite ducam,' I will 

MSS. Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cur- give you a broad path to follow me iu. 

sives have * per umbram,' an obvious error. " Latum limitem agit ferro " 10. 613. 

317.] * Arrectos litore,' set up on Gud. originally had 'limine.* 

the shore, the pole being turned up, the 324.] * Vocem premere ' Ov. M. 9. 764s 

body of the car down, as Heyne explains Phaedrus 1. 11. 12, cited by Gossrau and 

it, comparing Stat. Theb. 3. 414. Virg. Cerda, of ceasing from utterance, like 

may have thought partly of II. 10. 473 "presso ore" 6. 165. Heyne and Forb. 

foil., partly of ib. 506. prefer Serv.'s other interpretation, making 

319.] * Vina,' cups or casks, " vasa * vocemque premit ' i. q. " submissa voce :" 


Bhamnetem adgreditar^ qui forte tapetibus altis 325 

Exstructus toto proflabat pectore somnum^ 

Bex idem^ et regi Tumo gratissimus augur ; 

Sed non augurio potuit depellere pestem. 

Tris iuxta famulos temere inter tela iacentis 

Armigerumque Bemi premit aurigamque sub ipsis 330 

Nactus equis, ferroque secat pendentia coUa ; 

Turn caput ipsi aufert domino, truncumque relinquit 

Sanguine singultantem ; atro tepefacta cruore 

Terra torique madent. Nee non Lamyrumque Lamumque 

Et iuvenem Serranum, ilia qui plurima nocte 335 

but the absence of authority seems against armonr-bearer of Rhamnes. But it is in 

this. We are intended to understand that accordance with Virg.'s love of variety to 

Nisns speaks briefly, and is silent as soon mention the armour-bearer first and then 

as he can be : comp. v. 353> " breviter cum the master ; nor is there any thing strange, 

talia Nisus." ' Superbum * is explained by asPeerlkamp thinks, in representing Bemns 

what follows in v. 325. and his servants as lying near Bhamnes. 

325.] * Bhamnes ' is chosen as a name Here it is doubtful whether the ' armiger ' 

connected with old Rome. ** Adgressi and 'auriga * are different persons, or, as 

ferro" 2. 463. * Tapetibus altis,' rugs they might be (comp. 2. 467., 6. 485), the 

heaped np by way of a couch, or perhaps same. In II. 10. 5()4 the arms of Rhesus 

spread on a high couch. Cerda comp. lie in his car. 'Premit' = "opprimit." 

Stat. Theb. 2. 91, ** Fuderat Assyriis ex- The sense is clear, though no parallel in- 

structa tapetibus alto Membra toro," ob- stance has been quoted : 2. 530., 8. 249 are 

viously an imitation of Yirg. different. ' Sub ipsis eqms ' again con- 

326.] "Inperatexstructosfrangerenona trasts with the arrangement in the camp 

toros," Martial 4. 8. 6. The participle is of Rhesus II. 10. 473 foil, 

here transferred, "notissima hypallage 331.1 'Nactus,' rvx^v-, comp. inixh- 

Yergiliana^" as Cerda says, from the couch avro II. 10. 494. " < Pendentia colla * 

to the man. ** * Toto proflabat pectore quasi ebriorum ; aut ita iacentium ut colla 

somnum ' periphrasis est, ne verbo humili penderent " Serv. ** Desecto collo " 8. 438. 

stertentem dicat," Serv. We may per- 332.] The master is killed after his at- 

haps comp. '' pectore noctem accipit " 4. tendants, like Rhesus E. 10. 494. ' Caput 

530, where there may be a notion of the aufert ' 10. 394. 

quiet breathing of sleep. Diomed kills 333.] The arteries of the neck spout 

Rhesus hrBiudvovra, II. 10. 496. blood with a gurgling sound. Comp. Od. 

327.] ''Rex idem hominum Phoebique 22. 18, Soph. Aj. 1390. Yirg. mav have 

sacerdos " 3. 80. Here the meaning seems thought of 11.10. 521, Ikvlipas r* hairaipovTas 

to be that though a prince himself, he iy iLpy<x\4p<rt ^v^triv, Serv. mentions a 

served Tumus in the capacity of augur, doubt whether 'atro' goes with 'san- 

* Regi Tumo ' below v. 369. guine ' or with * cruore :* but the epithet 

32i3.] From II. 2. 859, oltcvierii^ *AAX* would be weak at the end of a clause, and 

ovK oiavdkffiv ipinrcwro Kripa yUXouvaof, as 'cruor' is more naturally called *ater' 

Serv. remarks. Cerda comp. also ApoU. than ' sanguis.' ' Atro — madent ' firom II. 

R. 2. 816., 4. 1503. 'Depellere pestem' 10. 484, ipvealvero S* atfiari yaTa, 

is exactly \oiyhv hfjLvvai II. 1. 341. 334.] ' Terra torique ' is hardly a hen- 

329.] " lacentes sic temere " Hor. 2 Od. diadys, as Forb. thinks ; but to take ' tori * 

11. 14. For 'tela' Rom. has 'lora' from of an actual couch does not make it pro- 

V. 318, where some copies give ' tela.' The bable, as Gossrau contends after Pecrlkamp, 

soldiers of Rhesus on the contrary sleep that Rhamnes is spoken of, as Remus may 

with their arms regularly piled, eS Karh well have had a bed too. * Nee non ' sug- 

K6(rfiov, TpiffTotxif II. 10. 471 foil. gests a verb, to be supplied from the 

830.] Schrader conj. ' Remum,' which is context, 

found in one inferior MS. and approved by 335.] ' Sarranum,' which Heins. and 

Heyne, Remus being thus made the Heyne prefer, is found in none of Rib> 


Luserat^ insignis facie^ multoque iacebat 

Membra deo victus ; felix, si protinus ilium 

Aequasset nooti ludum in lucemque tulisset. 

Inpastus ceu plena leo per ovilia turbans — 

Suadet enim vesana fames — manditque trahitque 340 

MoUe pecus mutumque metu; fremit ore eruento. 

Nee minor Euryali caedes ; incensus et ipse 

Perfurit^ ac multam in medio sine nomine plebem^ 

Fadumque Herbesumque subit Rhoetumque Abarimque, 

Ignaros; Rhoetum, vigilantem et euneta videntem, 345 

Sed magnum metuens se post cratera tegebat : 

beck's MSS. To suppose with Heins. that II. 15. 324. 

Yirg. would avoid the use of an honoured 340.] ' Suadet enim vesana ikmes * is 

Boman name is as gratuitous as to fancy probably from KcXerai H k Bvfihs ayfiywp 

with Wagn. that he may have intended to II. 12. 300, KcAcrai 94 I ya<prfip Od. 6. 

glance at an Atilius whom he attacks in 133, both of them similes from lions, 

the 3rd and 4th of the Catalecta, if they It is repeated 10. 724. ' Trahere ' is 

are his. For the name see on 6. 844. coupled with " rapere " by Sallust and 

336.] ' Luserat t* comp. v. 167 above. Plautus in the sense of spoiling : see 
It seems to refer to some game, such as Fore. Here it expresses the action of the 
dice, rather than to banter : but it is diffi- lion, dragging the sheep along while he is 
cult to say. " In8igni& fecie " v. 583 devouring them. The alliteration ' man- 
below, dit — molle — mutum — metu' is ezpres- 

337.] "'Deo' vel vino, vel somno" sive. Yirg. probably imitated U. 16. 355, 

Serv. Modem commentators, after Do- ali^a ^lofnrdCovffty iifd\Ki9a Ovfihv ix^^^**^' 
natuSy prefer the former, Emm. the latter : 341.] "Muta metu" Lucr. 1. 92, comp. 

comp. Stat. Theb. 2. 76, " Serta inter by Cerda. The words occur 12. 718, also 

vacuosque mero crateras anhelum Pro- of cattle. ' Fremit ore eruento' 1. 296. 

flabant sub luce deum," evidently an imi- Rom., and originally Med. and Pal., have 

tation of this passage and v. 326. Looking ' multum,' a strange agreement in error, 

at Yirg. alone, we should decide for the Some in Serv.'s time actually connected 

former, as to mention sleep as a god here ' mutumque metu ' with ' fremit.' 
would be too ambitious. As might be 342.1 *Euryali caedes' like "Pyrrhi 

expected, two MSS. have ' vinctus,' which caede '' 2. 526. ' Et ipse,' as well as 

Wakef. prefers. Possibly it may suit Nisus, though his business was not to 

'membra' better: but 'victus' is more slaughter but to guard his friend, 
appropriate to 'deo.' 'Protinus' onward, as 343.] ' In medio,' lying in his way : as 

in E. 1. 13, here however referring to time. Serv. explains it, he did not go out of his 

Probably it should be constructed both way, like Nisus, to kill the leaders, but 

with ' aequasset ' and ' tulisset :' had he took the Butulians as he found them, 
gone on so as to make the game as loug 344.] The only parallel to this sense of 

as the night, &c. ' subire ' with ace. of stealthily attacking 

338.] With 'aequasset nocti ludum' a person given by Fore, is Quinct. 4. 5, 

Gossrau comp. Sil. 7. 340, " somno noctes " Interim fallendus est index et variis 

aequare," with ' in lucemque tulisset,' artibus subeundus." 
Hor. 3 Od. 8. 15, "Tigiles lucemas Perfer 345.] ' Ignaros,' unconscious because 

in lucem." 'In lucemque' like "in cae- asleep. If 'Rhoetum' is right, we must 

loque " Lucr. 5. 1188. suppose that Yii^., in his love of variety, 

339.] From D. 10. 485 foil. Here the chose first to mention Rhoetus among 

simile has no apodosis, unless we are to those who were killed in sleep and then to' 

extract one from the verb implied in v. correct himself. The MSS., though as 

334 : but the reference to Nisus is clear, usual spelling the name in a diversity of 

* Turbans ' intransitive, 6. 800 note. Serv. ways, present no really difierent reading, 
says " perturbans ovilia : nam tmesis est." 346.] ' Sed ' is rightly explained by 

The word may have been suggested by Wagn. as showing why Rhoetus was as 

K\Qv4wiTi, used (actively) in a similar simile easily slaughtered as if he had been asleep ; 


Pectore in adverso totum cui comminus ensem 
Condidit adsurgenti^ et multa morte recepit. 
Purpuream Yomit ille animam^ et cum sanguine mixta 
Vina refert moriens ; hie furto fervidus instat. 350 

lamque ad Messapi socios tendebat; ibi ignem 
Deficere extremum et religatos rite videbat 
Carpere gramen equos : breviter cum talia Nisus — 
Sensit enim nimia caede atque cupidine ferri — 
Absistamus^ ait ; nam lux inimica propinquat. 355 

Poenarum exbaustum satis est ; via facta per hostis. 

though awake, he was hiding iu terror, commentators, as i. q. ** noctumo praelio " 

Heyne makes a difficulty ahout the size of (see on y. 150). ' Furto ' with * instat/ 

the ' crater :' but we may suppose that not, as Serv. and Donatus perhaps thought, 

Bhoetus coiled himself up, and that after with ' fervidus.' 

all he was imperfectly hidden. The sen- 351.] So Diomed is doubting whether 

tence is inartificially constructed, like a to kill more of the Tbracians, when Pallas 

Homeric clause with the nom. changed, suggests that some of their Trojan allies 

e. g. II. 18. 33, 6 8* €<rrcyc KuScUi/uoy Krjp. may awake, II. 10. 503 folL ' lamque 

347.] '* Ferrum adverso sub pectore tendebat ' answers to ' breviter cum talia 

condit ^' 12. 950. Cerda comp. II. 16. 340, Nisus,' 4bi' &c, being parenthetical. 

Tov 8* tiffw ^8u (/^os. ' Ubi,' the reading before Wagn., is found 

348.] Bhoetus was rising when Euryalus only in one of Ribbeck's MSS., a cursive, 

was upon him. * Multa morte recepit ' is 352.] * £xtremum ' is explained by * de- 

rightly explained by Serv. "Eduxit gladium ficere :' the fire was burning low. Qossrau 

cum multo cruore," 'mors' being used comp. Ov. M. 2. 117, *'Cornuaque ex- 

nearly as Hom. talks of irop^ip^os 6d»aros. tremae velut evanescere Lunae." Eury- 

Cerda, following a hint of Serv., and fol- alus saw that the fire was going out, a 

lowed by Merrick on Tryphiodorus 378, proof that the watchers were asleep, and 

ingeniously but improbably understands that the horses were grazing, so that he 

' recepit ' of welcoming as if with a ban- was minded to carry them off, as Wagn. 

quet, Rhoetus being the object of the verb, rightly interprets the clause. The trait is 

and ' morte recepit ' constructed like of course from Hom., and ' religatos rite ' 

** urbe, tecto, mensa, lare reciperet " Livy may have been suggested by c2 nark 

26. 25, comparing H. 5. 238, r6y^€ 8* iyi>y xdafioy II. 10. 472, though there the 

iiri6vra 8€8J(ojua( o^il ^oupl, Soph. El. 96, horses are not mentioned till the next 

hy . , , ^olyios "hprtii oitK i^4yi<rty, Serv. clause. 

says Comutus read 'multa nocte,' and 354.] 'Caede atque cupidine,' %y 8ick 

doubted whether to take ' nocte ' literally 9uoiy. " Caedis cupido " occurs below, v. 

or as a synonyme for * morte.' 460. A former notion of Wag^.'s, re- 

349.] Serv. says that many in his time ferring ' cupidine ' to Euryalus' desire of 

read ' purpureum,' connecting it with the plunder, is not so good, 

preceding line ; and some later critics have 355.] From II. 10. 251, &AA* Xofny fid\a 

wished to do the same. ' Purpuream ani- ykp yii^ Hytraif #771^01 8* ii6s, comp. by 

mam ' however is a highly poetical Cerda, where however Ulysses is speaking 

expression, after the manner of the Ho- before they set out. *' ' Lux inimica/ 

meric irop^ipws dtivaros, just cited, and proditrix" Serv. Comp. "saevus Oriens'^ 

may possibly be translated from Hom. 6. 739. " Vis inimica propinquat " 12. 150. 

Hymn to Apollo, v; 361, AetTc tk Bvfihy 356.] " Cui nunquam exhausti satis est " 

ipoiyhp kwowytlovffci, though there it seems G. 2. 398. * Exhaurire ' is commonly used 

more natural to connect ^iv6v with in a metaphorical sense of endurance, as 

atrvKy^louira. " Mixtosque in sanguine in 4. 14 &c. ; here it is apparently applied 

dentes ' 5. 470. Comp. also 3. 632. to the person taking or receiving the 

350.] 'Refert,' kua^^pei, like "refere- satisfaction of vengeance, 'exhaurire' 

bat pectore voces " 5. 409. ' Furto ' might being regarded as a stronger synonyme of 

refer to taking spoils ; but it seems better " sumere " or " expetere." To interpret it 

understood, with Serv. and the rest of the of the sufferers would suit the ordinary 


Multa virum solido argento perfecta relinquunt 

Armaque craterasque simul pulchrosque tapetas. 

Euryalus phaleras Rhamnetis et aurea bullis 

Cingula, Tiburti Remulo ditissimus olim 360 

Quae mittit dona, hospitio cum iungeret absens, 

Caedicus ; ille suo moriens dat habere nepoti ; 

Post mortem bello Rutuli pugnaque potiti ; 

use of the word better, but seems less 363.] This line caused great trouble'to 

likely in this context. ' Via facta per the early critics, Serv. saying of it " Sane 

hostis :* comp. v. 323 above. sciendum locum hunc esse unum de XII. 

357.] * Virum * probably with * arma ' (al. XIII.) Vergili sive per naturam ob- 

alone. * Argento perfecta ' v. 263 above. scuris, sive insolabilibus, sive emendandis, 

358.] 'Simul' does not mean 'also/ sive sic relictis ut a nobis per historiae 

but shows that the military furniture was antiquae ignorantiam liquide non intel- 

mixed in confusion with that belonging to ligantur." The difficulties connected with 

revelry and sleep. Comp. v. 318. it are stated by Wagn. in his larger edi- 

359.] ' Phaleras ' are probably distinct tion. It is not clear whether ' post mor- 

from ' cingula/ as Rhamnes may well have tem ' is the death of Kemulus or of his 

had both, and ' phalerae ' in their proper grandson, ' moriens ' being in favour of the 

sense (see on 5. 310) were familiar to a former view, the general sense of the 

Roman. In what follows the belt alone latter: we are not told distinctly how 

seems to be spoken of: in v. 458 Virg., Rhamnes acquired the 'phalerae' and 

vnth his usual love of variety, ignores the belt, but are left to infer that he received 

belt and mentions the 'phalerae.' Heyne, them as his share of the spoil after a 

who thinks ' phaleras et cingula ' ty 9tcb battle in which the grandson of Remulus 

Svoiy, comp. Sil. 15. 255, where 'pha> was killed: 'bello pug^que' are a cum- 

lerae ' are borne by a warrior on his breast, brous mode of expression in a context 

"Fulserunt cingula bullis" 12. 942. which speaks only of the spoils of one man. 

'Aurea bullis' i.q. "aureis bullis," with On the other hand, if the line be omitted, 

golden bosses or studs. Here the ' cin- all is plain, the unnamed grandson of Re- 

gula' is probably the sword belt, as in 12. mulus being Rhamnes. This reasoning is 

I. c, not the girdle. Virg. may have strong, and would probably be conclusive 
thought, as Wagn. suggests, of Agamem- in the case of a writer whose text was less 
non's sword II. 11. 29, which was studded well established. As however the line is 
with gold and had a golden belt, iy 2c ot found in all the MSS. (Med. and another 
^Aoi Xp^ceioi vdfKpcuyoy . . . xpv(rcot(rt»' giving ' pugnamque,' Rom. and one or two 
iopr-fipeffa-iy ap7ip6s, others 'praedaque,' perhaps from v. 450) 

360.] This descent of the belt is studied and was read by Serv. and Donatus, it 

after Hom. : comp. II. 2. 102 foil. (Aga- seems best to retain it, adopting Serv.'s 

memnon's sceptre), ib. 10. 266 foil. (Me- suggestion that Virg. left it in the rough, 

riones' helmet). ' Post mortem ' seems most naturally to 

361.] *Afx<f>iSdfjias 5^ M^A^^ 8»ic€ ^tiy^iop refer to the death of Remulus, as Wagn. 

elyai II. 10. 269. Here the gift is sent in now takes it in his latest school edition, 

order to cement a friendship. Virg. ap- that of his grandson being implied in the 

parently uses * mittit ' rather than " misit " fact that his spoils were taken from him : 

because of ' dat ' in the next line. For the the name of the grandson, as Serv. says, 

present see on v. 267 above. In trans- would naturally l^ the same as that of 

lating the passage about the sceptre from the grandfather, and consequently is not 

II. 2 Pope similarly employs the historic given : ' bello pugnaque ' is a pleonasm 
present. For the imperf. subj. in con- like iro\4/A^ re t^dxp re, as Heyne re- 
nexion with the historic present see Madv. marks. Donatus ap. Serv. takes * post 
§. 382 obs. 3. " lungi hospitio" 7. 264. The mortem * of the death of Euryalus, which 
object of ' iungeret ' is of course Remulus. is also the view of Cunningham : and Rib- 

362.] ' Ille,' Remulus. ' Moriens dat ' beck supposes that to have been the mean- 

E. 2. 37. *ATp€h5 8^ OyfiffKcoy ^Xiirey iro- ing of the author of the verse, who added 

\{>apyi ©w^(rTj7 II. 2. 106. 'Dat habere' it to explain 'nequiquam' in the next 

5. 262. A&K^y $ vaiBl <^o/>^i/a( II. 10. 270. line. 


Haec rapit^ atque humeris nequiquam fortibus aptat. 
Turn galeam Messapi habilem cristisque decoram 365 

Induit. Excedunt castris^ et tuta capessunt. 

Interea praemissi equites ex urbe Latina^ 
Cetera dum leg^o campis instrueta moratur^ 
Ibant et Tumo regi responsa ferebant^ 
Ter centum, scutati om!ies, Volscente magistro. 370 

lamque propinquabant castris, muroque subibant, 
Cum procul hos laevo flectentis limite cemunt, 
Et galea Euryalum sublustri noctis in umbra 
Prodidit inmemorem radiisque adversa refulsit. 

364.1 'Haec' referring to 'dona' or answer from the authorities in the city 

' cingnUt.' Serv. decides for ' nequiquam charged with carrying on the war. 

aptat' as against 'nequiquam fortibus/ 370.] Three hundred was the ordinary 

and later commentators agree. 'Nequi- number of the cavalry of a Boman legion 

quam fortibus ' however is strongly sup* (Lersch, Antiqq. Vergg. § 26). Serv. finds 

ported by " fortissima frustra pectora " 2. a propriety in * scutati/ " nam clipei pedi- 

348, and b favoured by the order of the tum sunt, scuta equitum :" but this is not 

words. For * humeris fortibus ' see on 4. 11. borne out by the language of the Latin 

365.] ' Habilem/ tZ hpapvlav, Heyne. writers, who attribute the " scutum '* to the 

366.] * Tuta ' 6. 358., 11. 871. • Capes- infantry, it having superseded the "clipeus" 

tore ' of making for, 4. 346 note. (Livy 8. 8), so that Livy 28. 2 uses * scu* 

367 — 445.] 'They are surprised by a tati' to designate the infantry as dis* 

party from Latium. Eury^us is sur- tinguished from " equites/' Lersch § 31 

rounded: Nisus attempts to rescue him supposes that the 'scuta'' are mentioned 

and kills two of the enemy: their leader as an extraordinary thing, "quae enim 

kills Euryalus, and is himself killed by exinde oritur fortitude equitum atque 

Nisus, who fifklls covered with wounds on habilitas magnis illis tegumentis se tuen- 

his friend's body/ tium !" which seems a strange notion. The 

367.] ' Praemissi ' sent on or express, 1. words ' scutati omnes ' occur in the chapter 

644., 6. 38. For ' Latina ' Peerlkamp of Livy (8. 8) above referred to. 'Magistro ' 

wishes to read ' Latini,' as in 6. 891., 11. reminds us of the " magister equitum/' 

213., 12. 137 : here however the expression 371.] One of Ribbeck's cursives cor- 

would identify Latinus with the mission rected and some inferior MSS. have ' por- 

sent, contrary to what we know of his ti8/fTomll.621. 'Muro'Med., Rom.,'mu- 

refrisal to take any active part in the war ros ' Pal., Gud. The line is nearly repeated 

(7. 600, 618), an objection which does not from 7. 161, where the weight of autho- 

apply to the other passages. rity is in favour of ' muro,' so that it 

368.] The meaning apparently is that the seems better to read ' muro ' here, though 
Latin army generally is drawn up near the ' muros ' is perhaps supported by a doubt- 
city, and does not at once march in answer fnl notice in Serv. The ' murus ' is doubt- 
to a requisition which we gather from this less the " agger *' of the Rutulian camp, 
passage to have been sent by Tumus, a which must have been fortified, though wc 
detachment of three hundred horse being do not hear of the fact elsewhere, 
sent instead. 372.] ' Laevo :' the way to the right 

369.] The old reading was 'regis,' which would have led them to the Rutulian 

was apparently read by the Verona Schol., camp and to Laurentnm : that to the left 

and is said in a note, not very consistently led them inland. See Heyne on v. 195. 

worded, in the Paris MS. of Serv. to be ' Flectentis :' " clause transitu fluminis, ad 

found " in omnibus bonis/' All the MSS. Oceanum flectit " Livy 28. 16. 

however appear to give 'regi/ which Wagn. 373.] * Sublustri/ because the moon was 

and most later editors restore. ' Regis ' shining. 

would be objectionable for the reason men- 374.] ' Inmemorem * probably = " in- 

tioned on v. 367, and ' Tumo regi ' has prudentem/* as in 2. 244, but we may say 

occurred abeady above V. 327., 8. 17, where that he did not remember that he was 

see note. ' Responsa ' then will be the wearing what might attract attention. 


Haud temere est visum. Conclamat ab agmine Volscens : 

State, viri ; quae caussa viae ? quive estis in armis ? 376 

Quove tenetis iter ? Nihil illi tendere contra, 

Sed celerare fiigam in silvas et fidere nocti. 

Obiieiunt equites sese ad divortia nota 

Hine atque hinc, omnemque abitum eustode coronant. 380 

Silva fuit late dumis atque ilice nigra 

Horrida, quam densi conplerant undique sentes ; 

Bara per oceultos lucebat semita ealles. 

Euryalum tenebrae ramorum onerosaque praeda 

Euryalus* imprudence contrasts with Dio- is often written " deverticnlum." Tac. Agr. 

mede's prudence U. 10. 258 in taking a 19 has " divortia itinerum et longinquitas 

helmet without cone or crest^ as Heyne regionum indicebatur" where some have 

remarks. It matters little whether 'radiis' wished to read "devortia." Here we 

goes with ' refulsit * or * adversa.' ' Ad- should rather expect to hear of bye-paths 

versa' opposite to the moon. than of cross -paths: the MSS. however 

375.3 Ter. Eun. 2. 2. 60 has " non seem to present no variety of reading, and 

temere'* for "non de nihilo est" (comp. it niould be hazardous either to assume a 

Plant. Aul. 2. 2. 7), so that the construe- word " devortium " or to give * divortia,' 

tion maybe ''visum est haud temere esse/' without fiirther authority^ the sense of 

the hostile party saw it was no casual *' deverticula." 

thing. But it seems better to connect 380.] For 'abitum' Med. (second reading), 

'temere' with 'visum:' they did not ob- Pal., Bom., fragm. Verona, and originally 

serve it carelessly, but took note of it. So Gud. have ' at^tum,' which was the old 

Hor. 2 S. 2. 116 " non temere edi luce reading before Heins. Serv. however dis- 

profesta Quicquam," I did not eat any tinctly prefers ' abitum,' which is required 

thing thoughtlessly, or without good by the sense. ' Coronant ' i. q. " cingpint," 

cause. Some editors, recent as weU as as in Lucr. 2. 802 " pluma columbarum . . . 

early, make ' Haud temere est visum ' Quae sita cervices circum coUumque coro- 

part of Volscens' speech, which is hardly nat " and other instances quoted by Pore, 

so good. Pal. and originally Gud. have with a further reference to the use of 

' ab aggere,' which Heins. explained of a " corona" as a military term for besiegers 

raised way, as in 5. 273. surrounding a place (Fore, "corona "). 

376.] ' In armis ' i. q. « armati," as in 7. 381.] " Horrida dumis " 8. 348. * Ilice 

436 &c. nigra ' E. 6. 54, G. 3. 333. 

377.] "Quove tenetis iter" 1. 370. 382.] Med. has ' conplebant,* as in 5. 

" ' Xihil illi tendere contra,' hoc est, nihil 107: here however the pluperf. seems better, 

contra responderunt : nam tendo contra 383.] Serv. mentions another reading 

sermonem tuum est respondeo tibi, tendo ' ducebat,' which is the second reading of 

contra iter tuum est occurro tibi," Serv. Med., and is found in one or two of Rib- 

Comp. " tendebat lulum " 2. 674^, " munera beck's cursives : * lucebat ' however is much 

tende " G. 4. 534, and our phrase ' offer in more poetical, and is confirmed by Prop, 

reply.' ' Tendere contra' 5. 27 of making 3. 5. 17, " Ante pedes caecis lucebat semita 

head against a thing. nobis," quoted by Gossrau. Ruhkopf 

378.] 'Celerare fugam' 1. 357. Pal. comp. ApoU. R. 1281, ^iay\ai&<r<rov<n 5* 

and Gud. have ' silvis.' arapiroL ' Rara ' with ' lucebat.' The 

379.] 'Divortia' would naturally mean glimmering is that of the path as percep- 

a branching of two or more paths, as in tible through the brushwood, as Serv. and 

Livy 44. 2 (comp. by Cerda) " prope Peerlkamp take it, not of the path as ooca- 

divortium itinerum castra posituri erant," sionally illuminated by the moonlight, as 

a sense in which it is frequently applied to Heyne thinks. ' Per oceultos ealles ' seems 

a water-shed. So it is explained by Serv., to mean that there were several paths, all 

"viae in diversa tendentes, hoc est, ad more or less overgrown, and that the 

diverticula viae militaris." " Diverticulum" ' semita ' had to be found sometimes in one, 

however seems rather to mean a bye-path, sometimes in another, 

a turning from the regular road, and so it 384.] ' Tenebrae ramorum ' like " nemo- 


Inpediimt, fallitque timor regione viarum. 385 

Nisus abit ; iamque inprudens evaserat hostis 

Atque locos, qui post Albae de nomine dicti 

Albani, turn rex stabula alta Latinus habebat, 

Ut stetit, et frustra absentem respexit amieum. 

Euryale infelix, qua te regione reliqui ? 390 

Quave sequar, rursus perplexum iter omne revolvens 

Fallacis silvae ? Simul et vestigia retro 

Observata legit, dumisque silentibus errat. 

mm tenebris " 6. 288. The meaning ap- ' Stabula alta ' 6. 179. Tyrrliens is tho 

parently is that Euryalus was prevented royal he]*d8Dian 7. 485, so that the scene 

firom seeing his way, and also actually would seem to be the same as that of the 

entangled by the branches. battle between the Trojans and the Latin 

385.] 'Regione viarum' 2. 737 note, rustics. *Tum — habebat' is connected 

Here as in 7. 215, it is constructed some- loosely with what goes before, as in 8. 100 

-what irregularly with * fallit,' as a sort of note. 

abl. of respect, deceives him in respect of 389.] Wagn. rightly connects this line 

the line of road, much as if ' fallit' could be with what goes before, ' iamque ' being 

interchanged with " errare facit.*' Or we followed by * ut ' as by " cum *' elsewhere, 

might say that ' regione ' was abl. instrum., e. g. v. 372 above. ' Absentem respexit * 

deceives by the line of road, i. e. by igno- might have stood for 'looking back, found 

ranee of the line of road, like "ignota him absent,' like "amissum respexi" 2. 

captus regione viarum " Yal. F. 2. 43, 741, but Virg. has added ' frustra ' to make 

quoted by Forb. Med. a m. pr. had ' falli,' his meaning clearer, 

which Heins. approved, taking * falli timor * 390. Wagn. is right again in connecting 

as = " timor ne falleretur." ' infelix' with * Euryale,* as against Serv. 

386.] / Nisus abit ' 5. 318. There is also and Donatus. Taken with what follows, 

a reference to ' abitnm ' v. 380 : he extri- it would, as he remarks, give a false em- 

cated himself from the wood. 'Inprudens,' phasis. 

without thinking of Euryalus. The word 391.] Since the time of Serv. it has been 

seems at first sight so little in keeping doubted whether ' rursus — silvae ' was said 

with a successful escape that we can by Nisus or by the poet. The former view 

scarcely wonder that some in the time of seems clearly preferable : ' simul et ' would 

Serv. explained it as *' valde prudens." be meaningless, as coupling two things that 

387.] The common reading before Heins. are really the same, ' revolvens ' and 

was ' lacus,' which is supposed to be merely ' legit ' (contrast 6. 669) : and the feeling 

a conj. of Joannes Baptista Egnatius, a of the words 'perplexum— omne — fallacis' 

Venice editor of 1507. The Alban lake is is much more appropriate to Nisus, if in- 

well known, whereas no place is known to deed the clause is not necessary to explain 

have borne the name of ' Albani loci.* But * quave sequar.' * Revolvens ' is used of 

Nisus could not have got nearly as far as gathering up again on the spindle the 

the Alban lake: and Wagn. rightly re- thread already spun. Sen. Here. F. 183, 

marks against Heyne that however loose Stat. Theb. 7. 774, and so here it is applied 

Virg.'s geography may be elsewhere, in to retracing a tangled way. Med. (first 

speaking of the district about Rome he is reading) has * resolves,' i. e. * resolvens,* 

likely to be fairly accurate. Ladewigconj. the reading of two other MSS., to which 

* Ac lucos,' after a hint of Heyne's, as Cic. Wagn. once inclined, comparing 6. 29. 
Mil. 31 appeals to " Albani tumuli atque Gossrau would omit the whol& line, 
luci." Even these however would be too 392.] ' Simul :' even while complaining 
distant to have been reached by Nisus. It of his task as an impossibility, he sets 
remains then with Wagn. to suppose that about it. " Vestigia retro Observata se- 

* loci Albani ' was a name given to some quor" 2. 753. * Observata* = " obser- 
district in those parts, perhaps a territory vando :" he retraces his steps by scruti- 
appropriated by the Romans after the nizing and noting where he had been, 
taking of Alba. For the form 'locos* 1. 393.] The force of 'silentibus,' which has 
306, 365. * De nomine * 1. 277, 534 &c. been doubted, is to intimate that Nisus is lis- 

388.] Latinus kept his flocks there, tening, and so to prepare us for the next line. 


Audit equos^ audit strepitus et signa sequentum. 

Nee longum in medio tempus^ eum clamor ad auris 395 

Pervenit, ac videt Euryalum ; quem iam manus omnis^ 

Fraude loei et noctis^ subito turbante tumultu^ 

Oppressum rapit et conantem plurima frustra. 

Quid faeiat ? qua vi iuvenem^ quibus audeat armis 

Eripere ? an sese medios moriturus in enses 400 

Inferat^ et pulchram properet per volnera mortem ? 

Ocius adducto torquens hastile laeerto^ 

Suspiciens altam Lunam^ et sic voce precatur : 

Tu, dea, tu praesens nostro succurre labori, 

394.] ' Signa sequentam ' must here be 403.] The reading of this line is very 

footsteps and other sounds, though the uncertain. All the MSS. appear to give 

word is more ordinarily used of tokens per- * et sic,' Rom., Verona fragm., and some 

ceptible to the eye : comp. 5. 590, " signa others ' ad Lunam.' The enters generally 

sequendi.'' Comp. its use of a military omit ' et :' Wagn. restored it, though he 

signal, a sense which Serv. wishes to give now inclines to suspect that ' torquetque ' 

to it here. , should be read for < torquens.* The two 

395.] Germ, remarks that ' nee longum participles without a copulative are awk- 

in medio tempus ' is a phrase modelled on ward : the copulative with no finite verb 

the Greek, comparing among other pas- preceding is worse than awkward. It is 

sages Aesch. Supp. 735, firJKos 8* ol^^p true that some Greek writers use koI or re 

iv fi4ff(p Xp^vov. Fore, cites " medio tem- after a participle ; but the irregularities of 

pore'' i. q. *'interea" from Suet, and Horn., Aesch., and Thuc. cannot be adduced 

Justin. ' Nee longum tempus ' G. 2. 80. to defend an unexampled construction in 

For ' cum * Med. and originally Gud. have Virg. Wagn.'s plea that Nisus is excited 

<tum.* and disturbed seems scarcely true as a 

397.] The place and the night have done matter of fact : Nisus has been distracted, 

him wrong. ' Fraude ' abl. of cause, con- now he is resolved ; and the prayer that 

structed with the whole notion * oppressum follows is clear and even rhetorical. On 

rapit.' "Magno turbante tumultu" 6. 857, the other hand, it seems impossible to 

which refut^ a punctuation * noctis — tu- resist the consensus of the MSS., backed 

multu,' mentioned by Serv. as it is by Priscian 1034 P, who quotes 

398.] They have seized him and are the line as an instance of ' et ' out of its 

hurrying him away. 'Conari'with ace. place— 'suspiciens altam Lunam et' for 

10. 685. ' et suspiciens.' If we might conjecture, 

399.] Comp. 4. 283, G. 4. 504. Forb. it would be natural to suppose that the 

explains ' qua vi, quibus armis ' ** qui fieri original reading was * suspiciens altam ad 

possit ut vi et armis iuvenum eripiat," Lunam sic voce precatur' — that 'ad' 

like " quo numine laeso " 1. 8. This how- dropped out, and afterwards reappeared 

ever is hardly necessary, as Nisus might in the form of 'et' (see on 2. 139) in a 

reasonably ask what force of arms that he wrong place. Or we might propose to 

could command would enable him to pre- omit the whole line, supplying a verb of 

vail against such a host, as Orpheus in speech £rom the context, as Nisus' prayer 

G. 4. 1. c. is supposed to ask " Quo fletu would be more likely to be silent than 

Mams, qua Numina voce moveret ? " articulate, 'voce.' Meanwhile, retaining 

400.1 " Densos fertur moriturus in ' et,* we may follow the bulk of the MSS. 

hostis ' 2. 511, from which Med., Bom., in omitting ' ad,' as the elision neutralizes 

Verona fragm., and one of Kibbeck's cur- the jingle ' altam Lunam,' which would 

sives read ' hostis ' here. Serv. mentions otherwise be objectionable and un-Vir- 

both readings, hipiself apparently prefer- gUian. For ' voce ' a variant in Med. has 

ring * hostis.' * forte,' Gud. corrected, and another cur- 

&1.] " Pulchramque petunt per volnera sive ' ore :' see on 6. 186. 

mortem " G. 4. 218. 404.] For prayers before discharging a 

402.] " Adductis lacertis " 5. 141. weapon comp. II. 4. lOlfoll., Od. 24. 518 foil. 


Astrorum decus ct nemorum Latonia custos ; 405 

Si qua tuis umquam pro me pater Hyrtacus aris 
Dona tulit^ si qua ipse meis venatibus auxi^ 
Suspendive tholo^ aut sacra ad fastigia fixi ; 
Hunc sine me turbare globum^ et rege tela per auras. 
Dixerat, et toto connixus corpore ferrum 410 

Coniicit. Hasta volans noctis diverberat umbras^ 
Et venit aversi in tergum Sulmonis, ibique 
Frangitur^ ae fisso transit praeeordia ligno. 
Volvitur ille vomens calidum de pectore flumen 
Frigidus^ et longis singultibus ilia pulsat. 415 

Diversi circumspiciunt. Hoc acrior idem 
Ecce aliud summa telum librabat ab aure. 

405.] ' Astroram decus/ irp44r0i<rroy eluding MS. Ball. Serv. and the earlier 

&arpwy, Aesch. Theb. 390^ comp. by commentators, reading 'adversi/ under- 

Cerda, the moon being probably included stood ' tergum ' of the shield, with refer- 

among the *astra.' The line resembles the ence to which they also explained * fisso 

opening of Hor. Carm. Saec. " silvarumque ligno :' but though ' tergum ' might per- 

potens Diana, Lucidum caeli decus,'' as haps stand for a shield (see on 10. 718, 

Forb. remarks. Comp. also Hor. 3 Od. Serv. on 11. 619), ' tergum Sulmonis ' could 

22. 1 '^Montium custos nemorumque hardly mean the shield of Sulmo. 'Aver- 

Yirgo.'' sus ' and ' adversus ' are confused in MSS., 

406.] Comp. generally 11. 1. 39 foil., the which on a matter like this are not more 

prayer of Chryses. W. Bibbeck cites Od. authoritative than on a question of ortho- 

4. 763 foil. graphy. Serv. regards this as one of the 

407.] ' Si qua auxi * seems i. q. " si qua insoluble passages in Virg. (see on v. 364). 

addidi,'' the ace. being a kind of cognate. 413.] * Fixo,' the old reading before 

There may be also a notion of honouring Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. 

by sacrifice, for which Fore. comp. Plaut. The shaft of the spear is broken, but the 

Merc. 4. 1. 10 "aliquid cedo, Qui banc force of the throw drives it through the 

vicini nostri aram augeam.'' For Nisus' back to the heart, 

hunting see above w. 178, 245. 414.] 'Volvitur' v. 433. The latter 

408.] 'Tholo' the dome, internally, part of the line is from Lucr. 2. 354 

'fastigia' the summit, externally. For ''Sanguinis exspirans calidum de pectoro 

offerings hung from the dome, Cerda comp. flumen." 

Stat. Silv. 1. 4. 32, Theb. 2. 733. 415.] 'Frigidus' contrasted with 'call- 

409.] " * Sine,' lacrov, ut II. 8. 242, 243. dum,' perhaps rather unseasonably. " Ima* 

SoUemnius erat 96s fi€, da, fac me," Heyne. que longo Ilia singultu tendunt " G. 3. 507. 

If the word was suggested by any Uiing Kom. has ' pulsant,' the verb, as is often 

more than metrical convenience, we may the case in MSS., being accommodated to 

trace in it a feeling of pessimism, as in the noun preceding. 

G. 4. 7 (note), as if the gods were in the 416.] Macrob. Sat. 6. 1 quotes Pacuvius 

habit of preventing men from being as (Medus fr. 6), " Divorsi circnmspicimus, 

successful as they might otherwise be. horror percipit." ' Hoc acrior,' " quod 

* Turbare,' that Euryalus might escape in latuerat, et quod ei primus prospere 

the confusion, as Forb. remarks. 'Globum' cesserat iactus" Serv. Pal. (two correc- 

of a mass of men v. 515 &c. ' Rege ' i. q. tions), Med. (second reading), and Gud. 

" dirige," 6. 30. Germ. comp. II. 5. 290, (originally) have * acrius,' as in G. 4. 248. 

fi4\os 8* iSvpey *M'i\vTi, 417.] The hand is. raised over the 

410.] * Toto connixus corpore ' 10. 127. shoulder to a level with the ear. Cerda 

411.' * Diverberat umbras ' 6. 294. comp. Eur. Hipp. 220, irapA x^^"^^ ^avBhv 

412.J The great bulk of MSS. give pb^m 0€<r<ra\hv Hpfrouc*, Later poets have 

'adversi,* 'aversi* being apparently only imitated Virg., e.g. Ov. M. 2. 311, 624, 

found in two or three inferior copies, in- cited by Cerda and Gossrau. Cerda also 


Dum trepidant, iit hasta Tago per tempus utrumque, 
Stridens, traiectoque haesit tepefaeta cerebro. 
Saevit atrox Volscens, nee teli conspicit usquam 420 

Auctorem, nee quo se ardens inmittere possit. 
Tu tamen interea calido mihi sanguine poenas 
Persolves amborum, inquit ; simul ense recluso 
Ibat in Euryalum. Turn vero exterritus, amens, 
Conclamat Nisus : nee se celare tenebris 425 

Amplius, aut tantum potuit perferre dolorem : 
Me, me, adsum, qui feci, in me convertite ferrum, 
O Rutuli I mea fraus omnis ; nihil iste nee ausus. 
Nee potuit ; caelum hoc et conscia sidera testor ; 
Tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicum. 430 

quotes n. 23. 4)31, ^icKou Karafia^ioio, 426.] " Si potui fcantam sperare dolorem. 

Pal., Gad., and two others of Ribbeck's Et perferre, soror, potero " 4. 419. Here 

cursives have * telum summa.' Some MSS. * potuit * is used in two slightly di£ferent 

(none of Ribbeck's) have * vibrabat.' senses, meaning * brooked ' witn * celare,' 

418.] 71 S* kripoio hih Kpordtpoio v4pi)ff9v * was able ' with ' perferre.' 

AtxMi/ X<^icfh II. 4. 503. * lit ' Pal., ' it ' 427.] Tanbmann's note may save the 

Med. , Rom., and two of Ribbeck's cursives, trouble of commenting on a well-known 

Gud. is doubtful, Ribbeck having inserted line : '' Voces sunt perturbati, qui quod 

it in both lists. See Excursus on G. 2. 81. animo tenebat non potuit semel efiiindere. 

In the other passages in question the Ait ergo ' me,' ut cum deesset continuatio 

evidence is strongly for the uncontracted verborum sequentium, ait iterum ' me.' 

form, and if it is retained elsewhere, it Tertio, ati se paulatim colligere coepit, 

should certainly be retained here. One adiunxit ' adsum qui feci.' Quarto, ' in me 

MS. and Priscian in three places give convertite ferrum.' Certe magna subtili- 

'volat.* tate dispositum est." With 'qui feci' 

419.] * Stridens ' similarly forms the comp. the use of " fecit " in inscriptions, 

first foot of 4. 185. With 'tepefaeta' 428.] * Fraus ' of crime, like " fraudem 

Heyne comp. II. 16. 333, wap 8* ^eSepfidvOri capitalem admittere " Cic. Pro Rabir. 9. 

^i<f>os oXfiari, "Fixo ferrum in pulmone "Nullanec— nec"E.5. 25. Nisus seems to 

tepescit " v. 701, cited by Serv. mean that Euryalus had neither the courage 

420.] " Neque enim is teli nee volneris nor the strength to do the Rutulians any 

auctor V. 748 below. harm, doubtless thinking not of the two 

421.] " Furens antro se inmisit aperto " deaths just inflicted, in which it was mani- 

6. 262. * Quo ' virtually = " cui hosti." fest Euryalus could have had no share, but 

* Ardens ' is not, as Wagn. Q. V. 29 ex- of the slaughter in the camp as yet un- 
plains it, i<l>i4ficv65 irtp, but rather i. q. known to them. Appealing to their pity 
" ardentem :" comp. 1. 314, 439 &c. for his friend's youth and innocence, he is 

422.] "Nam mi calido das sanguine at no pains to guard his reputation for 

poenas " Enn. A. 1 fr. 58. * Calido * is courage. 

emphatic : your fresh life-blood. Comp. 429.] * Conscia,' which have seen the 

Soph. O. C. 622, Btpfihv atfia vUrat, events of the night. Comp. Juv. 8. 149 

* Poenas ' with gen. of the crime 11. 258. " Nocte quidem : sed luna videt, sed sidera 
No other instance of a gen. of the person testis Intendunt oculos." 

is quoted : but it may be regarded as an 430.] " Contra illud. Cur ei^ venit ? 

extension of the former, " amborum dicit, Tantum amicum dilexit ut cum nihil 

occisorum." Uoiyfi with gen. of the person posset tamen veniret," Serv., who must 

whose death is atoned for is common in not be supposed to have misunderstood 

Horn. * tantum ' because he uses it in a different 

423.] * Ense recluso ' 4. 646. sense. 

424.] « Imus in adversos" 11. 389. 


Talia dicta dabat ; sed viribus ensis adactus 
Transabiit costas et Candida pectora rumpit. 
Volvitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus 
It cruor, inque humeros cervix conlapsa recumbit : 
Purpureas veluti cum flos succisus aratro 435 

Languescit moriens^ lassove papavera coljo 
Demisere caput, pluvia cum forte gravantur. 
At Nisus ruit in medios, solumque per omnis 
Volscentem petit ; in solo Volscente moratur. 
Quem circum glomerati hostes hinc comminus atque bine 
Proturbant. Instat non setius, ac rotat ensem 441 

Fulmineum, donee Rutuli clamantis in ore 
Condidit adverse, et moriens animam abstulit hosti. 
Tum super exanimum sese proiecit amicum 
Confossus, placidaque ibi demum morte quievit, 445 

Fortunati ambo ! si quid mea carmina possunt, 

431.] 'Viribus* not quite i. q. «vi," read * laxo * or * lapso :' but all Ribbecfs 

-which would be more general, and would MSS. have 'lasso/ Wakef. needlessly 

not imply human power. Elsewhere some conj. *laeso.* Hie comparison is from II. 

epithet is mostly used, as "summis," 8. 806 foil. 

" *^]' "TWbUt ' Rom.. « tnmsadigit ' ''^X'' ** *''''~"* '^ ^"' ^' ^"^ 
Pal., Gud., Med. corrected (from ' trans- „„»_?^n!..(i«.,/™ ,.^u^f — .>.»...«^.- 
adibit'). The latter is found 12. 276, 608. T^*. Bpjoj^yr, '"J^tI" ,lapiyv<riy 

but could not stand after ' adactus.' Two ** *"'™'^ «'"'" "^ '^^'"" ^l""""- 
of Kibbeck's cursives have < transadiit.' See also Apoll. B. 3. 1398 foil. 
For the confusion between " ad " and " ab ** 439.] • Moratur ' implies that nothing 
comp. v. 380 above. 'Transabeo' occurs else stops him. For the construction with 
several times in the later poets : see Fore, 'in' and abl. comp. 7. 253. 
Bom. and one or two of Bibbeck's cursives 440.] ' Quem ' seems to be Nisus, con- 
have ' rupit :' but there is some force in structed with ' proturbant.' Had the 
the change of tense : while Nisus is yet meaning been that Yolscens' party gather 
speaking, the sw^ord has entered Euryalus' round to protect him (* quem * with ' cir- 
ribs, and is making its way through his cum ') we should have had " socii " rather 
breast. Bom. has also 'pectora can- than 'hostes.' 
dida.' 441.] 'Proturbant,' drive him off from 

433.] ' Volvitur ' above v. 414. * Leto * Volscens. With ' comminus ' contrast 

in death, abl., not, as Wagn. thinks, dat., " proturbantque eminus hostem Mis- 

to the death-god, which would be very silibus" 10. 801. 'Non segnius,' the 

harsh here, whatever we may think of it reading before Heins., is found in none 

in such passages as 8. 666, G. 3. 480 (note), of Bibbeck's MSS. "Botat ensem" 10. 577. 

Schrader rather ingeniously conj. ' sol- 442.] ''Ensem fulmineum " 4. 579 note, 

vitur,' which is apparently the original "Pharo . . . Intorquensiaculum clamant! 

reading of one of Bibbeck's cursives. sistit in ore " 10. 3^. 

434.] "Ad terramque fluit devexo pon- 443.] "Animam rapit" 10. 348. 

dere cervix " G. 3. 524. 444.] ' Exanimum ' Med., Gnd. cor- 

435.] €omp. 11. 68 foil. ' Flos succisu^ rected, ' exanin^enii ' Pal., Bom., Gud. 

aratro- is fr6m two passages in CatuU., ori^nally. There seems no ground for 

11. 22 foil., "prati Ultimi flos, praetereunte deciding between them, 

postquam Tactus aratro est," 60 (62). 40 445.] ' Demum,' after the short sharp 

ff flos . . nullo contusus aratro." struggle. 

436.] Some MSS. and early editions 446.] Comp. £. 6. 9 foil., where Yirg; 



Nulla dies umquam memoxi yos eximet a^evo^ 
Dum domus Aeneae Capitoli immabile saxum . 

Accolet^ inperiumqiibe: pater Bomanufi. habebit. f 

Victojes praeda Rutuli spoliisque potiti, 450 f 

yolseentem exanimum. llentes m castia ferebaut, f - 

Nee minor in castris luctus Bb;amnete reperto 
Exsangui et prioas una tot caede peremptis^ 
Serranoque Numaque. IngeijiB eoncursos ad ipsa 
Corpora seminecisque viros tepidaque recentem 453 

similarly promises a con^tional celebrity Boman family. This Roman f^eVmg has 

to Varus, though more modestly, as is doubtless ' much to do with Aeneas' 

natural in a yoi^^ poet. own title o^ ' pater/ which may ^ called 

447.] Comp; ftop. 4. 1. 63 "At non an indirect compliment to the en^ror. 

ingenioquaesitumnomenabaevoBixcidet*^': 450^ — 458.] 'The body of t^e Latin 

though there 'falling from, time' means leader is carried into the cam^ and the 

ceasing to live (as in fi. 24. 725, iir* alQyos carnage there discovered.' 

v4os &\€o, Babrins 12, 4 itoffOH iKw.eir^irra 450,] ' Rutuli' seems to. bansed conver- 

rrjs C*'^^)* ^61^ 'memori' is emphatic, as tibly with "Latini/' much asVirg. makes 

if it had been " memoria aevi." the name of any one of the Greek races 

448^] 'Domus Aeneae' 9u 97.. Heynet. stand for the whole army at Troy. The 
inquires whether it refers to the Julian expression here, ' Victores praeda spoli- 
family or to the Roman people. It really isque potiti ' is doubtless meant to behalf- 
includes both, the former as the crown ironical, as Tr^p remarks, 
^nd flower of the latter. ' tnmobile ' 451.] Pal., Rom., Gud., and another of 
suggests that the house and its empire Ribbeck's cursives have ' ezanimem.' See 
will be as permanent as thQ rock. * Saxum,' on v. 444. 

as Prop. 4. 10. 45 talks of "Tarpeio 463.] 'Primis' i. q. "priB^oribus,"a8 in 

saxo." 4:. 133 &c., where however a gen. follows. 

449.] It is.singular, as Gosarau remarks,^ 'Peremptis' is doubtless co-ordinate with 

that Serv. does, not comment on 'pater 'exsangui/ not with 'reperto.' Comp. 

Romanus.' Three explanations of it have Aesch. Ag. 1451> So/xeWor ^j^Kajcas 

been proposed : by Turnebus 22. 15, taking thtieycardrov icol ToXhit T\dy7o_s yvyeuKhs 

it of Augustus and his successors ; by Nie- hcd, 

bnhr, Rom. Hist. 1 noteSSl, who makes. 454.] 'Serrano' v. 335. 'Numa' has 

' pater ' = " civis^" a name derived from i^ot been mentioned before, so that Schra- 

thie old days when citizens and patricians der conj. ' Lamo ' from v. 3&4, Heyne 

were coextensive, improving on a view ' Remo' from v. 330, while Ribbeck thinks 

mentioned by Wagn., which understands that^ Virg. woul^ certainly have altered 

it of the senate ; and by Heyne, who the name had he lived to revise his wpr^ 

thinks Capitoline Jove is meant. The But the poet's love of variety leads him 

third seems unlikely, as even a Roman elsew^^^i^ to introduce people by name 

would hardlv have estimated the duration who- have not been particularized when 

of Jupiter by the duration of his con- ti].ey have previously appeared on the 

nexion with RomQ> though it might, stage (comp. 6. 334 " Leucaspim," who is 

perhaps receive some support from Hor. not specified in the description of the 

d, Od. 5» 8 " Incoluini love et urbe storm in A. 1) ; and it is at least as likely 

Roma." The first and second, t^ken to- that the introduction of Numa here is fi^>m 

gether, seem to represent the truth. The design as irom .carelessness. " Concursns 

emperor is doubtless intended, as the head ad amnem " 6. 318. ' Ipsa corpora ' seems 

of the Roman aristocracy, gathering up in to be distinguished from the report of the 

hiipself all the titles wmch had been held death, as we should say, to recognize the 

in honour in Rome, the head of the "patres" bodies. 

as " princeps senatus," and the represen- 455.] ' Seminecis viros ' distinguished 

tative of that principle of "patria po- fi^m 'corpora.' Serv. mentions another 

testas " which was characteristic of the reading, ' tepidumque recenti^' which has 


Caede locam et ple^os q>ainanti saaguiae rivo9. 
Adgnoscnnt spolia mter se galeamq^e nitentefia 
Messapi et multo phaleras gudore reeeptaek 

Et iam prima novo spargebat l^Emrine terras 
Tithoni crocenm Unqueiis Aurora ectbile : 46a 

lam sole infuso^ km rehus luce reteetk^ 
Tamus in arma viroS) armis eiieumdalus ipse^ 
Suscitat^ aeratasque aciee m proelia cog^t 
Quisque suas^ variisque aeuunt rumoribus iras. 
Quin ipsa arrectis — ^visu miserabile—- in hastis 465^ 

Praefigunt capita et multo elamore sequuntur 
Euryali et Nisi. 

& certain amount of MS. support, ' tepi- Ispot^ bewailing Bis fate and praying for 

dumque * being found in Rom., Pal., Med. death. Her Sends remove ber.' 

correlated, and Gud. origindly, 'recenti' 459, 460.] Repeated from 4. 584i,585. 

in Pftl. and Gud. originidly. Med. origi- 461.1 We need hardly connect this line 

nally had 'tepidamque recentem.' ^e with the preceding, so as to conceir^ of 

reading in the text really, according to Aurora as pouring the sun upon the earth. 

Yirg.'s habit, implies the other, whue it It is safer to say that as in the preceding 

is peculiarly likefy to have been altered, lines we have had the extreme of personifi- 

espectally by any one who remembered* cation, here we have the other extreme, 

8. 195j "recent! caede tepebat humus.'' the sun being regarded not as an agent 

Macrob. Sat. 6. 6 quotes a remark by Serv. but a» a thing. * Rebus luce retectis :' 

on the expression "recens caede.'' comp. 4f. 119 "radiisque retexerit orbem" 

456.] The MSS. again present a con- (note), 6. 272 "rebus nox abstuUt atra 

i\iuon of cases^ Med. and B&l. corrected' colorem." 

having 'pleno spumantis sanguine rivos,' 462.] "Tullus in arma viros" 6. 814w 

while ' spumantis ' is also found in Rom., *' Arma circumdat humeris " 2. 510. 

« Aeratas acies" 7- 708. 

<Snas' Med., *8uos' Ribbeck's 

and seems to have been read by Serv. 463. 
'Plenos spumanti' is found expressly in 4i64._ 

Gud. alone of the better MSS., though in other MSS. and Serv. Wagn. Q, Y. 16 

another of Ribbeck's cursives it appears remarks that 'sues 'would rather require 

from a correction. But the point is pre- * oogunt,' which does not appear to be read 

cisely one on wfai<^ MS. authority is value- by anv MS. K^Xeve 8^ oUnv ^ixacros 

less, as the initial letter of'spumanti'and *Hy€ fiavuv II. 4. 428. 'Rumoribus' are 

< sanguine ' will account for either reading doubtless stories of the events of the past 

(see on G. 2; 219 &c.) ; and if we look ixt night; Comp. Soph. Aj. 141 &5 Koi rijs 

internal considerations, though '* spuman- yvr ^tfi4pris yvKr}n MeydXoi 06fw0oi 

tern sanguine" is found 6. 87, 'pleno" xarcxpoo' rtfias k.t. A. Those who take 

would be a strange epithet of ' sanguine '' 'rumoribus' of the encouragements of the 

even in' a connexion like this. For the captains to their men may comp. 8. 90. 

image generally comp. v. d99. *'Magnisque aeuunt stridoribus iras" 12» 

457.] They Aow the spoils to each 590. 
other and so identify them. * Nitentem ' 469.] Med. originally and some othenr 

reminds us of that quality in the helmet have ' mirabile.' 
which made it fatal to Euryalus, v. 378. 466.] * Multo damore sequuntur ' seems 

458.] 'Fhaleras:' see on' v. 359. * Multo to be a parenthetical clause, as if it had 

sndore receptas' may be a reminiscence been'*multoclamoresecuti,"'capita'going 

of Enn. fr. inc. trag. 11 (Ribbeck) •• Sal- only with * praefigunt.' This, which is 

macida spolia sine sudore et sanguine." natural enough, has led to a suspicion 

459 — 502.] ' At daybreak the Latins of the integrity of the text, Heyne and 

set up the hea^ of Nisus and Euryalur others thinking the hemistich v. 467 

on spears opposite the Trojan camp. Eu- spurious. The names however are obviously 

ryalns' mother hears and rushes to the wanted. 

o 2 


Aeneadae duri murorum in parte sinistra 
Opposuere aciem, — nam dextera cingitur amni — 
Ing^ntisque tenent fossas, et turribus altis 470 

Stant maesti ; simul ora virum praefixa movebant, 
Nota nimis miseris atroque fluentia tabo. 

Interea pavidam volitans pennata per urbem 
Niintia Fama mit, matrisque adlabitur auris 
Euryali. At sabitus miserae calor ossa reliquit ; 475 

Exeussi manibus radii^ revolutaque pensa. ^ 
Evolat infelix, et femineo ululatu, 
Scissa comam^ muros amens atque agmina eursu 
Prima petit, non ilia virum, non ilia perieU 
Telorumque memor ; caelum dehine questibus inplet : 480 
Hunc ego te, Euryale, aspieio ? tune ille senectae 

468.] ' Duri ' of standing resistance, takes a dat., as 6. 2. 
Rom. omits * in.' 475.] " Calor ossa reliquit *' 3. 308. 

469.] Bom. and originally Med. and 476.] Imitated from Andromache's re- 

Gud. have * dextra,' but * dextera ' (pars) ception of the news of Hector's death II. 

is clearly right. Pal. has ** amnis." Serv. 22. ^iy r^r 8* ^XeXtx^ yvia, X^^M^^ ^^ o^ 

has a grammatical note : " ' Amne ' debuit ^Kirco-c KtpKls, her weaving having been 

dicere : nunquam enim bene in ' 1 ' exeunt, previously mentioned. Barnes on II. 1. c. 

nisi quae communis sunt generis, ut 'do- conj. 'resolutaque membra;' but this part 

cilis/ ' agilis :' sed ideo ausus est ita ponere of the Homeric description is expressed in 

ablativum, quia, ut supra diximus, apud the prececUng line. Virg. may also have 

maiores * hie ' et ' ha«c amnis ' dicebatur." thought of Apoll. B. 3. 255. * Bevoluta :' 

In some copies it is added " Verumtamen the threads which were passing round the 

quaeduas habent oonsonantes ante 'is' in shuttle are untwined when it falls to the 

'i'et'e' ablativum mittunt, ut 'ignis' ground. 

' igne ' vel * igni :' sic ' vectis' ' vecte' vel 477.] Comp. generally Anna rushing to 

* vecti :' Terentius in Eunucho " [4. 7. 4] Dido's ride 4. 672 foil. " Femineo ululatu " 

" ' Cum vecti Donax.' " 4.667. 

470.] ' Tenent,' they man the trenches. 478.] ' Scissa comam ' 4. 590. " Cnrsa 

"Miseri stant turribus altis" 10. 121. petere" 1. 157. 'Agmina,' as Mr. Long 

471.] They are ' maesti ' on account of remarks, is rather a singular word to use 

the absence of Aeneas and their own under the circumstances, 
danger, which accounts for ' simul.' Pal., 479.] ' Prima ' not, as Serv. and Burm., 

Gud., and another of Bibbeck's cursives nom. sing., but, as Heyne, ace. pi. She 

have ' videbant,' which was the reading stands among the soldiers at the edge of 

before Heins. ; but it seems to have origi- the rampart, that she may have a nearer 

nated from a misunderstanding of ' simul.' view of her son's head. ' Non ilia ' 6. 593. 

472.] "Ora virum tristi pendebant 'Pericli telorumque' li' 8(cb 8i;orv. 'Memor 

pallida tabo " 8. 197. virum ' apparently refers to the want, not 

473.] Comp. generally 4. 173, 298, 666. of sense of danger, but of the customary 

In ' pennata ' Serv. finds an allusion to the restraint of women before men. Forb. 

feather which, according to the Schol. on comp. Stat. Theb. 11. 318, a passage imi- 

Juv. 4. 149, was attached to despatches tatedfrom Virg., where Jocasta rushes upon 

containing alaiming news : but the image the scene " non sexus decorisve memor." 
of Fame as winged is common enough : see 480.] "Loca questibus implet" G. 4. 515. 
4. 180 foil., Hor. 2 Od. 2. 7 " Ilium aget 481.] * Is it thus that I behold you ? ' 

penna metuente solvi Fama superstes," the Comp. 3. 558, " Nimirum haec ilia Cba- 

latter comp. by Forb. ' Urbem ' the camp- ^bdis." For ' ille ' Bom. has 'illa»' which 

settlement, v. 8. Heins. restored and Heyne ret^ned ; but 

474.] ' Adlabi ' of a thing conceived as 'ille' is supported by 1. 664, "Nate, 

winged v. 578. Elsewhere in Virg. it meae vires^ mea magna potentia solus^" 


Sera meae requies^ potuisti linquere solam^ 

Crudelis ? nee te^ sub tanta perieula missum^ 

Adfari extremum miserae data eopia matri ? 

Heu^ terra ignota eanibus date praeda Latinis 485 

Alitibusque iaees I nee te tua funera mater 

Produxi, pressive oeulos^ aut volnera lavi, 

Yeste tegens^ tibi quam noetes festina diesque 

Urguebam et tela curas solabar ginilis. 

Quo sequar? aut quae nunc artus avolsaque membra 490 

and is mnch more likely to have been 'tna fanera' with 'prodaxi/ which the 

altered than ' ilia/ See on v. 485 below, order of the words absolutely repudiates. 

482.] "Mea sola et sera voluptas" 8. If the text is sound, it seems best with 

581. " Senectae tu requies miserae " 12. Ribbeck to follow Catron's interpretation, 

57. Comp. the Greek ynpofiSaKos, ynpo' making < tua ftmera ' epexegetical of 

Tp6*l>os. 'Sera' means belonging to my 'te,' Euryalus' mother correcting herself 

lat^t days. in her grief, * you — ^your corpse.' This 

483.] ' Crudelis ' is similarly placed 4. is not free firom objection, but perhaps it 

311. ' Sub ' gives the notion of entering may receive some support from 12. 935 

dangers. Comp. " subire perieula," " peri- " Et me, sen corpus spoliatum lumine 

cula insinuandum " Lucr. 5. 44. mavis, Bedde meis." There seems no 

484.] Med. and originally Pbl. have ' ex- probability in any of the conjectures pro* 

tremis,' a curious variety, which may be posed : the most popular of them, Bembo*s 

accounted for either by a confusion with * funere,' seems scarcely Virgilian, either 

the first syll. of 'miserae 'or by a reool- in the construction 'rt. introduces* or in the 

lection of the expression "in extremis." order ofthe words, and the insertion of et,' 

" Extremum fati quod te alloquor hoc est" ' ad,' or ' in,' before 'tua ' would be clumsy. 

6. 466. For ' copia adfari ' see on G. 1. 213. 487.] Lucan 2. 298 has ^ longum pro- 

" Coram data copia fandi" 1. 520. ducere funus," which confirms' ' funera' 

485.] This and the following line are here, Stat. 2 Silv. 1. 19 foil. " nigrae sol- 
imitated from Od. 24. 290 foil. (comp. 11. lennia pompae . . . et puerile ; feretrum 
22. 86 foil.). In the present line Virg. Produxi." But it is possible that the 
thought of n. 1. 4 ainohs 9k kX^pia rcGx* words here may mean * 1 laid out the 
icvv€ir(Ti» OUoifoiffl T€ wMTi, All Rlbbcck's corpse,' like iKJtlvuv. ..'R*essive oculos,' 
MSS. have 'data,' but it can scarcely be h(pBaXiiohs iea0cAoG(ra Od. 24. 296. Macrob. 
doubted that ' date ' is the true reading, Sat. 6. 2 comp. Enn. Cresph. fr. 8 " Neque 
though the oldest authority quoted for it terram iniicere neque cruenta convestire 
is the second Mentelian, and that 'data' corpora Mihi licuit, nee 'miserae lavere 
was introduced partly from the previous lacrimae salsum sanguinem."' ' 
line, partly as b^ing supposed to be the 488.] So Andromache 11. 22. 510 foil, 
more regular construction. The voc. is laments that Hector cannot be laid in the 
used where we should expect the nom., as robes which are in store in the palace, 
in 2. 283., 12. 947. r^rvyiiiva x^P^^ ywcuK&v. Here the gar- 

486.] ' Funera' has created great diffi- ment was doubtless prepared for Euryalus' 

culty. Serv. makes it a nom., saying that wearing when alive, audi his mother 

' funera ' or " funerea " was an ancient term laments that he cannot have the use of it 

for an unprofessional, as " praefica " for a even when dead. She was weaving when 

professional mourner : his note however the news reached her, v. 476. ' Festina,' 

leaves it in doubt whether he ever found to finish it before her death.' 

'funera' in that sense, though he may 489. J 'Vestem urgpuebam' like"urguet 

have found " funerea," and in the only other opus " Tibull. 1. 9. 8. *. Et solabar ' is used 

passage where it has been supposed to loosely after the relative clause: comp. 

occur, Ennius' epitaph on himself, v. 1 G. 2. 208 note. "Cantu solatalaborem" 

" Nemo me lacrimis decoret, nee ftinera G. 1. 293. . 

fletum Faxit," the MSS. of Cic, who twice 490.] She asks whither she is to follow 

quotes the passage, have ' fletu,' which is him, his limbs being doubtless dispersed, 

doubtless the right reading. Others have ' Avolsa ' torn from the trunk, like " avol- 

wished to take ' te ' with ' veste tegens,' sum humeris caput " 2. 558. . 


Et funus lacerom telliui habet ? Hoc mihi de te^ 
Nate^ refers ? hoc sum terraque marique seeuta ? 
Figite me^ si qua est pietas^ in me omnia tela 
Coniicite^ o Butuli^ me primam absnmite ferro ; 
Aut tu^ magne pater divom^ miserere^ tuoqae 495 

Invisnm hoc detrude caput sub Tartara telo^ 
Quando aliter nequeo crudelem abrumpere vitam. 
Hoc fletu concussi animi^ maestusque per omnis 
It gemitas ; torpent infractae ad proeHa Tires. 
Illam incendentem luctus Idaeus et Actor 500 

Uionei monitu et multum lacrimantis luli 
Corripiunt, interque manus sub tecta reponunt./ 
At tuba terribilem sonitum procul acre canoio 
Increpuit ; sequitur chimor^ caelumque remugit. 
Adcelerant acta pariter testudine Yolsci ; 505 

491.] 'Fnniis' of a corpse, bs in Prop. 2. 73. 

1. 17. 8 "Haeocine panra meom funus 499.] 'Adproelia'mightbe consiarneted 

arena teget ? " oomp. by Cerda. ** ' Hoc^ either with ' torpent inftactae ' or with 

€apat intuens aif Serr. 'vires i' but the ibrmer is more probable. 

482.] 'SeferSy' from your expedition. Oomp.8.509note. *< £xereituni taidatum 

'Hoc' still refers to the head, according adproelia" Tac. A. 1. 62. 

.to Heyne's first inteipretation. The alter- 600.] Extravagant sorrow is compared 

native which he proposes and Wagn. to a flame, from its effiset on ihe mourner 

prefers, "'hoc' pro 'eo,' < propterea,' " and on the bystanders. Oomp. 4. 360 

would be mudi less forcible. She says ** Desine meque tuis iscendere teque 

' secuta' rather than 'oomitata' to express querelis." Not unlike is lirar ohpawiaif 

that this is the issue and, as it were, goal ^\4y»y Soph. Aj. 196. 'Luctus' is her 

fif her wanderings. Some early editions own grief, not, as Heyne takes it, that of 

give 'quae' for 'hoc,' whether from any the army. Vixg. was thinking of OatulL 

HS. is uncertain. 62 (64). 226 " Nosfaros luctus nostraeque 

493.] " Si qua est caelo petas " 2. 586. incendia mentis." Cerda comp. XL 9. 488 

' If you have the feelings o( men.' Virg. Hditfw* i»airp4icws, Od. 20. 353 olfuvyii 

n»y have thought of Eur. Hec: 387, B49^t. Idaeus and Actor do not appear 

fccyrclrc, fi^ ^c(8c<r0^' 4yit Veicor ndptv, elsewhere, though there is a namesaJce of 

494.] Serv. remarks " Unusquisqne in the first 6. 485, Priam's herald and cfai- 

propriae salutis desperatione credit turn rioteer, of the second 12. 94. 

nniversa etiam posse consnmi, unde est 501.] Ilioaens takes the lead as in 

quod modo dixit, ' me primam,' quasi 1. 521., 7. 212. 

ttortuD Euryalo omnes Troiani perituri 502.] 'Inter manus' 2. 681., 11. 311. 

essent." The observation shows great Here it is constructed not with' reponunt' 

poetical fiseling, and may be illustrated bat as if with an implied puticiple» 

by Kent's quetation in the last scene of ^ inter manus })Ositam." Comp. II. 5. 344 

King Lear " Is this the promised end P " rhv fihf furi x^P^^ ip^aciro ^oifios 

Tet it seems ampler to say that she 'AWxawk. One of Bibbeck's cursives has 

merely bids them kill her at once before ' reportafit.' 

they use their wei^ns fiirther. PaL 503 — 524.] "The Italians attempt to 

originally had ' primum.' 'Absnmite ferro ' storm the camp in various ways.' 

4. 601. 503] Imitated from Enn. A. fr. inc. 8 

495.1 Comp. generally 5. 691 fblL " At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara 

4fi6. J ' Caput ' 4. 618. dixit." ' Sonitam '«ogn. ace. Prop. 1. 17. 6 

. 497. J ' Quando ' i. q. " quoniam," 4.315. has " saevas increpat aura mtnas." 

" Crudelem abrumpere vitam " 8. 579. 505.] In the following description Vn^. 

498.] " Quo gemitu cowreisi animi " had in view partly the attack on the Greek 

AENEID: LIB: IXr ., 199 

£t fossas inplere parant ac vellere valliim. 

Quaerunt pars aditamy et scalis aadendere muros^ 

Qua rara est acies interluoetque corona 

Non tarn spissa viris. Telomm effondere oonim 

Omne genus Teucri ac duris detrudere contis, 510 

Adsueti longo muros defendere bello. 

Saxa quoque infesto Tolvebant pondere^ si qua 

Fossent tectam aciem permmpere^ cum tamen omnis 

Ferre iuvat subter densa testudine casus. 

Nee iam sufficiunt. Nam qua globus imminet ingens^ 61 5 

Inmanem Teucri molem volvuntque ruuntquet. 

Quae stravit Rutulos late^ armorumque resolvit 

Tegmina. Nee curant caeco contendere Maite 

Amplius audaces Butali^ sed pellere Ytllo 

wall, II. 12. 378 foil., partly his own ac- (' aciem *), and Bibbeck actually reads 
count of the assault on Priam's palace 2. ' nam,' which is very un-Virg^lian. 
438 foil. 'Acta testudine' 2.441. <Pft- 514.;| Bom., Med. second reading (the 
riter ' apparently with < acta,' as the effect first bemg ' lubat '), and two of BilH)eck'8 
of the avrcurwifffUs would depend on the cursives have ' libet,' which was the read- 
similarity and uniformity of its construe- ihg before Cunningham and Heyne. 'Li« 
tion, as a serried column. 'Volsci' are bet' however seems to mean to take s 
doubtless put for the Italians generally : fiincy to do a thing, at any rate in Virg. 
comp. V. 617, where the same body of as- ^mp. 12. 570, E. 2. 28., 3. 36., 10. 59, 
sailants is called ' Butuli.' G. 3. 436), which would hardly suit the 

506.1 ' Yellere vallum ' like " rescindit present passage. * Iuvat ' or * iubat ' is 

vallum^' V. 524. Med. second reading has read by Pal. a m. s., fragm. Yat. in an 

" pellere vallo " from v. 519. Bom. has erasure, Qud., and another of Bibbeck's 

*' pellere vallum." cursives. Pal. a m. p. and others have 

507.] ' Quaerunt aditum ' v. 58 above. ' iubet :' see on 4. 498. Virg., by using the 

For the combination of the ace. and the word, transfers our sympathy for a moment 

object clause comp. G. 1. 26. to the besiegers, who are so confident in 

508.] With 'interlucet' comp. "luce- the strength of their defence that they re- 
bat " V. 383 above. " Bara muros cinxere gard the danger incurred as a pleasure t 
corona " 10. 122. comp. G. 2. 87, 437 &c. ' Casus ' may per- 

509.1 * Spissa viris ' thick in respect of haps be meant to be taken in its original 

men. So perhaps ''spissa ramislaurea" sense of a downfall. 

Hor. 2 Od. 15. 9. 515.] The nom. for 'sufficiunt' has tO 

610.] " Kec saxa nee ullum Telomm in- be supplied from 'aciem.' 'Globus' v. 

terea cessat genus " 2. 467. ' Conti ' may 409 above. " Muris inminet hostis" 10. 26. 

he either barge* poles used for want of With the sense generally comp. 2. 460 foU, 

better implements, or heavy pikes, a sense 617.] 'Butulos :' see on v. 606. ' Anno- 

which the word bears in post- Augustan mm tegmina,' as Serv. says, are the shields* 

writers, Tac. A. 6. 35 &c 518.] " Caeco Marte resistunt " 2. 335. 

511.] " Ut quos belli decennalis Troiani The reference here is to the fight carried 

calamitas fecerat doctiores " Taubm. on under the penthouse of shields, and the 

513.] The rhythm is broken, so as to point of the epithet seems to lie in the dis* 

reflect the sense. Heyne calls the con- advantage of that mode of combat to those 

nezion of the clauses by ' cum tamen ' who practise it, as they cannot see what 

" duriuscula :" it serves however to express is coming. Thus ' audaces ' may have a 

8 contrast, as in 10. 509, which is doubt- double force : they have no longer the 

less what Virg. intended, the resolution of courage to encounter unseen dangers, at 

the assailants beii^ set against that of the same time that, like ^ax in Hom.« 

the assailed. Scnrader cox\j. 'quam' they prefer to face peril in daylight. 


Missilibus certant. 520 

Parte alia horrendus visa quassabat Etruscam 
Pinum et fiimiferos infert Mezentius ignis ; 
At Messapus equum domitor, Neptunia proles, 
Rescindit vallum et scalas in moenia poscit. 

Vos, o Calliope, precor, adspirate canenti, 626 

Quas ibi turn ferro strages, quae funera Tumus 
Ediderit, quern quisque virum demiserit Oreo ; 
Et mecum ingentis oras evolvite belli. 
PEt meministis enim, divae, et memorare potestis.] 

Turris erat vasto suspectu et pontibus altis, 530 

Opportuna loco ; summis quam viribus omnes 
Expugnare Itali summaque evertere opum yi 
Certabant, Troes contra defendere saxis 
Perque cavas densi tela intorquere fenestras. 
Pnnceps ardentem conieeit lampada Tumus, 536 

522.] ' Pinmn ' is doubtless a torch, not, dimensions. * Unroll with me the mighty 

as has been thonght, Mezentius' spear length and breadth of the war.' 

(comp. 10. 762) : but the epithet ' Etnis- 529.] This line is fonnd in Bom. alone 

cam ' seems an idle one, as he is not likely of Bibbeck's MSS., so it seems best to en- 

to have brought a torch with him from his close it in brackets, as possibly repeated 

own country, and to call the torch Etrus- from 7. 645. 

can simply as carried by him is to exceed 630 — 589.] * A turret in which some of 

Virg.'s ordinary licence in the transference the Trojans are congregated is attacked 

of epithets. and set fire to by the Italians and even- 

523.1 Bepeated ftom 7. 691. tually overthrown. Those who are not 

524.J The incident is from II. 12. 397, killed by the fall are slain by the enemy, 

where Sarpedon wrenches down a battle- The fight continues, and many are slain, 

ment and makes a breach in the wall. Pal. on both sides.' 

(apparently in an erasure), Qud. originally, 530.] The Trojan ' turres ' had been 

and another of Bibbeck's cursives have mentioned above v. 46 : one of them is 

' ad moenia.' now more particularly described. < Sus- 

525 — 529.] ' Aid me; ye Muses, to sing pectu * virtually height, as in 6. 579, the 

of the deeds of Tumus and the rest.' opposite of ** despectus." The use of* vasto' 

525.] *Vos, o Calliope,' like "vestras, here is an answer to Wagn.'s doctrine, men- 

Eure, domes " 1. 140 note. ' For the in- tioned on 5. 821, that the word conveys a 

vocation comp. II. 14. 508. Calliope is notion of something dread-inspiring. The 

called by Hes. Theog. 79 rpoifxptirrdTri bridges seem to show that the tower did 

awdfffwy. Hot stand on the " agger " but before it^ 

526.] 'Quas ediderit '-after 'caiienti.' communicating with it by their means. 

** Funera stragemque dedere " G. 3. 247. See on V. 170 above. 

^*Stragesediderit''v; 785 below. "Ede- 532.] "Summa nituntur opum vi" 

bat funera " 10. 602. Comp. the use of Enn. A. 4. fir. 5., 16. tr, 10, words borrowed 

**edere" of games, shows, &c. Bom. has by Virg., 12. 552: 

' sibi ' for ' ibi.' 533.] "Certant defendere 6iris" 10. 130. 

527.1 ' Virum ' gen. pi., not ace. sing. 534.] * Intorquere,' at the foe. * Densi * 

528.] From Enn. A. 6. fr. 1, "Quis qualifies 'intorquere,' as it had' been 

potis ingentis oras evolvere belli?" The "densatela." 

meaning of *oras evolvite' is not quite 635.] 'I^mpada' 6. 587. Here it is 

clear: but we can scarcely be wrong in doubtless a "malleolus" (8. 694 note), 

supposing the reference to be to a volume which would account for its sticking to tho 

or roll which is spread -out ki its full side of the tower so as to kindle it. - * 


Et flammam adfixit lateri ; quae plurima vento 

Corripuit tabulas et postibus haesit adesis. 

Turbati trepidare intus^ frustraque malorum 

Yelle fugam. Dum se glomerant^ retroque residunt 

In partem^ quae peste carets turn pondere turns 540 

Procubuit Bubito^ et caelum tonat omne fragore. 

Semineces ad terrain^ inmani mole secuta^ 

Confixique suis telis et pectora duro 

Transfossi ligno veniunt. Yix unus Helenor 

Et Lycus elapsi ; quorum primaevus Helenor^ 545 

Maeonio regi quern serva Licymnia furtim 

Sustulerat vetitisque ad Troiam miserat armis^ 

Ense levis nudo parmaque inglorius alba. 

636.] It would be too much to couple 646.] ' Maeonio regi/ the king of Maeo* 

'plurimavento ' as i.q."glomerata vento/' nia or Lydia. In Horn, the Maeonians 

though Serv. so takes it : so we may say are led by Mesthles and Antiphus, sons of 

that 'plurima' qualifies 'corripuit/ 'vento' Talaemenes by Limne, II. 2. 864 foil, 

being constructed as in 1. d07> "vento 'Furtim' merely signifies that the birth 

accesserit oras." was illegitimate, like •* furtivum " 7. 660, 

537.] 'Postibus' seems to be a loose o-kStiov 94 i ytharo fi-finip 11. 6, Z4i. 

synonyme for "trabibus." Schrader in- 547.] 'Sustulerat' is constructed like 

geniouslyconj. 'pontibus.' Serv. says "non "educct" 6. 765 note : perhap it also in- 

iam adesis, sed quos edit adhaerendo, i. e. eludes the two notions of bearing and 

haesitans adedit vel adesos reddidit." Med. rearing, "tollere " being used in both senses 

corrected has 'adhaesis,' and so perhaps (comp. v. 203 above, and see Fore.). 'Ve- 

Kom. 'adhessis." titis' has been variously explained: by 

538.] 'Malorum fugam' like "fuga Donatus, very improbably, because Troy 

pericli " 8. 251. was not fated to destruction ; by Serv., be- 

539.] ' Retro residunt ' is not pleo- cause slaves were not allowed to serve in 

nastic ; they retire from the burning part the Roman army ; by Heyne, because 

and settle down. Forb. quotes from Helenor was too young for service; by 

Peerlkamp " Recedentes simul cum turre Peerlkamp, because Helenor's father for- 

residunt : melius quam quod Schrader. bade him to serve. This last view might 

coni. ' recedunt :' quia omnes stant in una be combined with Serv.'s, or we might say 

parte, turns inclinatur, et ipsi cum turre." that his father forbade him to serve from 

540.] ' Pestis ' of fire 5. 683. fear that he would be killed : comp. II. 2. 

541. J 'Subito' might go with 'pon- 832, oitHh ots waTBas %affKtv Srclxci'' ^s 

dere/ as it was the sudden accession of ir6\9fioy 4>$ioiivopar rit 94 ol oCri Ilf i04ir0riy, 

weight that overthrew the tower : but it is It is likely that Virg. should have copied 

simpler to take it as an adv. The tense Hom. ; it is as likely that he should have 

in 'procubuit' gives a further notion of alluded to a Roman custom; and there 

suddenness. "Caelum tonat omne tu- seem no further considerations to decide 

multu " 12. 757. the judgment either way. 

542.] They &11 against one part of the 548.1 Helenor is armed like a Roman 

tower, that behind them, but that before " veles, and hence called * levis.' Gossran 

them falls on them. comp. Livy 38. 21, " Hie (veles) miles 

543.] In the &11 they are pierced bv tripedalem parmam habet et in dextra 

their own weapons and by the broken wood, hastas, quibus eminus utitur : gladio His- 

545.1 Cerda supposes Helenor and Ly- paniensi est cinctus. Quod si pede collato 

cus to be brothers, Helenor the elder, but pugnandum est, translatis in laevam hastis, 

illegitimate. But this is a mistake of the stringit gladium." So when Camilla dis- 

meaning of 'primaevus,' and it is more mounts, 11. 711, she is "Ense pedes nudo 

natural to suppose that they are uncon- puraque interrita parma." The spears are 

nected with each other. not mentioned, doubtless having been laid 



Isque ubi se Tumi media inter milia vidit, 

Hinc acies atque hihc aoies adstare Latinaul : 5B0 

Ut fera^ quae^ deofia venantum sa^ta corona> 

Contra tela fiirit^ tjeseque baud neseia morti 

Iniicit et saltu supra venabula fertur^ 

Hand aliter iuvenis medics moriturus in faodiis 

Inruit^ et^ qua tela videt densissima^ tendit. 555 

At pedibas longe melior Lycus inter et hostis 

Inter et arma foga muros tenet^ altaque certat 

Prendere tecta manu sociumque attiz^re dexi^as. 

Quem Tumns^ pariter cursu teloque seeutus^ 

Increpat bis yietor : Nostrasne evadere^ demen&n^ 56o 

Sperasti te posse manus ? simul arripit ipstim 

Pendentem^ et magna mari cum parte revellit : 

Qualis ubi ant leporem aut candenti corpse cy'clium 

aside. For the ' parma,' which was lighter 555.] ' Dexudsama ' seems to he used 

than the " cUpens " or '* scutum/' comp. rather of darts hurled in a shower than of 

Lersoh j 31, who notes that it forms pi^ spears hristlihg. Comp. "densa tela" 7. 

of the "levia arma" (10. 800, 817) of 673, «^icula densa" 12. 409. For the 

Lansus, a young warrior like Helenor. other view we might quote ^'densos acie 

The absence of any cognizance on the atque horrentibus hastis " 10. 178. 

shield seems to be a mark of youth (comp. 556.1 'Pedibus melior' like *' lingua 

the case of Camilla) rather than of servile melior II. 338. The repetition ' inter et 

condition, as, if Serv.'s interpretation of hostis inter et arma ' gives a vivid picture 

* vetitis armis ' is well founded, Helenor as of him threading his way among the 

a slave should have had no arms at all, not enemy. So in Tibull. 2. 1. 67, oomp. by 

the arms of a slave. ' Inglorius ' seems to Forb., " Ipse interque greges mterque 

mean no more than undistinguished. In armentaCupidoNatuset indomitasdicitur 

the case of Amphiaraus (Aesch. Theb. 588, inter equas," the repetition impresses the 

Eur. Phoen. 1119), to which Heyne and notion of the connexion of Cupid with 

others refer, the bearing of a shield with- the country more strongly, 

out cognizance is noted as a special piece 558.] ' Tecta ' used loosely for ** moe- 

of modesty, as men generally have their nia." Two MSS. (none of Bibbeck^s) 

shields emblazoned. have 'saxa.' 'Socium ' 5. 174. He wished 

549.] As soon as he recovers his footing to be helped up the parapet. Bom. hajs 

after the fall, he finds ihe enemy surround- ' deztra.' 

ing him. 559.1 Tumus throws a dart after him 

550.] The repetition of ' acies ' as well and chases him also. *< Teloque sequi 

as ' hinc ' represents his hopeless condition (voluit) quem prendere cursu Non poterat ** 

more forcibly. Comp. 11. 766, " hos 12. 775 : comp. ib. 354. 

aditus^ iamque hos aditus." 560.1 ' His ' w. 198 above, 640 below. 

551.] Heyne oomp. H. 12. 41 foil., 20. 562.J < Pendentem,' clinging to the 

164 fdl. ; but the resemblance is not par- wall. * Magna muri cum parte,' is from 

ticularly close. " Densa corona" 12. 744. U. 12. 398, where Sai^iedon puDs away a 

552.] For 'furit' Pal. and originally battlement, ^ 8* ccrircro waaa hafiir€p4s. 

Qud. have ' ruit.' * Baud neseia ' like Here it shows Tumus' strength and Lycus' 

" ittgulo hand inscius accipit ensem " 10. convulsive energy. 

907. 563.] Vira^. has combined and varied 

553.1 The meanii^ is not that she leaps several similes in Hom., H. 15. 690 foil, 

over the spears, but that she leaps above (an eagle pouncing on swans), ib. 17. 

them and falls upon them. 674 foU., 22. 308 foil, (an eagle carrying 

554.] " Densos fertur moriturus in off a lamb or a hare). < Candenti corpore ' 

hostis" 2. 511. like " praestanti corpore" 1. 71. 

AENEED, MB. IX. 208 

Sostulit alta petens pedibns lovifi anni^;er imcis, 
Quaesitum aut matii multis balatibns agnum 565 

Martius a stabulis lapnit lupus. Undique datanx 
Tollitur ; inyadant et fossas aggere conpteat ; 
Ardentis taedas alii ad fasfcigia iactant* 
Ilioneus saxo atque ingemiibi firagmine montis 
Lucetiom^ portae subeontem ignisque ferentem, 570 

Emathiona Liger^ Coiynaenm fitemit Afiilas^ 
Hie iaculo bonus^ bic longe fallente sa^tta ; 
Ortygium Caeneus^ victorem Caenea Tumus, 
Tamns It7m Cloniumque^ Dioxippum Promolumqiie, 
Et Sagarim et summis stantem pro turribus Idan ; 575 
Frivemtim Capys. Hune primo levis basta l%einillae 
Stiinxerat : ille manum proieeto tegmine demetis 
Ad voliitis talit ; ergo alis adlapea sagitta 
Et laevo adfixa est lateri manus, abditaque intus 

564.] '' Alta petens" 5.508. The eagle Bibnf. Ipae est enim nostra lingua diea- 

fliea np to his ^rne. ''Pedibos lovis piter, i.e. did pater." 

jHinigernnci8"5.255. 571.] 'Liger' 10. 576. 'Agilas' not 

565.] Bom., Gad. oorreeted, and another the same as the one mentioned 10. 175» 

of Bibbeck's carsiyes have * matris.' who is a leader of the Etroscan contingent. 

666.] ' Martins,' sacred to Mars, because ' Cotrynaeum :' see on 6. 228. 

the wolf suckled Mars' diildren, Bomnlns 572.] " lacolo melior " 5. 68. The de* 

and Bemns. *' Martiales iupi" Hor. 1 Od. scriptive attributes indicate how the per- 

17. 9. " CSamorem tollunt " 11. 622, of sons mentioned in ▼. 571 are killed. The 

an engagement. first ' hie ' is doubtless Liger, the second 

667.] ' Invmdunt (Butuli).' They break Asilas. ** Imngnis iaculo «t longe fallente 

^own tbe <agger'andfill the trenches with sagitta" 10. 754. Val. F. 8. 182 (comp. 

it. Comp. V. 506 above, and see IL 15. by Cerda) uses " fidlere nerro " as a syno- 

•866 folL Mr. Long raises tiie question nyme for shooting with an arrow, 

how the assailants could break down the 575.] ' Sagarim ' 5. 263. " PM> turribus 

* agger' to fill the ditch which they had to adstant " v* 677 below. Idas stands on 

^eross in order to get at ihe 'agger,' and the wall in a defensive attitude. So " pro 

■Bggests that * ag^ger ' may be usol looselj portis " 12. 661, before the gates. 

df eartii such as might be emjdoyed in 576.] 'Gapys' 1. 183. 'Levis' seems 

naaking the 'agg^.' Surely however after to qualify ' strinxerat.' 

the foremost h^ forced their way across 577.] He threw down his shield and put 

the ditch, they might break down the his hand to the wound. " Amissam laevam 

' agger ' for the benefit of those who came cum tegmine " Lucr. 3. 649. 

mt&r them. 578.1 ' Ergo,' as if the coming of the 

568.] " Ignem ad fastig^ tactant " 8. arrow nad been the consequence of his 

491. unguarded state, the real meaning being 

569.] See on 10. 698, where the line is that it was that wlfich made the arrow 

nearly repeated. ''Saxum, baud partem deadly. " Alis adlapsa sagitta" 12. 819. 

«x]gaaxn moBtis" 10. 127. Comp. G. 8. 579.] 'Adfixa' Pal., Gud., 'infixa' 

239 note. Med., Bom., and two of Bibbeck's cur- 

570.] ** Anxilio snbeuntem et tela foren- sives. The former, which Heins. and 
tern" 2. 216. One of Bibbeck's cursives Heyne restored, is certainly the more 
has 'ignem.' On 'Luoetium' Serv. says natural exprestdon, and as the authority is 
^' Solum hoe nomen est quod dictum a snfiicient, it seems best to recall it. Those 
Veigilio in nuUo alio reperitur auctore. who prefer 'isfixa' must take it as a con- 
Sane ling^ Osca Lueetias est luppiter, densed exj)ree8ion for "infixa et adfixa la- 
dictos a luce qpiam ^raestare dicitur homi- teri," as there is np parallel between " sa- 


Spiramenta animae letali volnere rupit. 580 

Stabat in eg^egiis Arcentis filius armis^ 

Piotus acu cUamydem et ferrugine clarus Hibera^ 

Insignis facie^ genitor quern miserat Arcens^ 

Eductum matris luco Symaethia circum 

Mumina^ ping^ois ubi et plaeabilis ara Palici : 585 

Stridentem fundam positis Mezentius bastis 

Ipse ter adducta circum caput egit babena^ 

Et media adversi liquefaoto tempora plumbo 

gitta infigit mannm later! ** and ** natis Aesch. A difficulty has been made about 

infigunt oscula matres," which Wagn. the sing., for which 'Palicum' and <Pa- 

quotes from Sil. 12. 738. The nom. is licis' have been proposed, while Wagn. 

changed rather awkwardly, the subrject of at one time suggested that ' Palici ' was 

'rupit' being 'sagitta.' *Abdita/ 'sa« nom. pi. in apposition to <ara:' now he 

g^tta/ not, as wo^d be possible, * spira- quotes Ov. 2 £x Pont. 10. 25, " Hennaeos- 

menta.' For < abditaque ' Med. originally que lacus et olentia stagna Palici.'' 
had'atqueaddita.' 586.] For 'hastis' Bom., two of Rib- 

580.] ' Spiramenta animae/ the lungs, beck's cursives, and a variant in Gud. has 

Taubm. comp. Eur. Hec. 567, rtfivei * armis,' which may have come from a re- 

iri^ilptf wyf^fiaros Huif^odsy where however collection of such passages as 8. 482., 10. 

the windpipe is meant. "Tum latebras 52, 768, as Wagn. remarks. 'Hastis'may 

animae, pectus mucrone recludit " 10. 601. here be a dual, agreeably to the custom <^ 

Two of Kibbeck's cursives have 'rumpit,' carrying two spears (1. 813 &c.); but it 

which was read by Heins. and Heyne. may also be plural, comp. 10. 882 foil. 

581.] 'Stabat,' probably on the wall: 587.] 'Ter' with 'egit.' Cerda refers 

see on v. 589 below. " Stetit in armis " to Yeget. 2. 23, where it is enjoined that 

12. 938. The son of Arcens is evidently slingers should whirl the sling only once, 

one of Aeneas' Sicilian companions. The the reason for which is, as he rightly says, 

description of him, which is evidently in- not that the repetition of the movement 

troduced for the sake of variety, somewhat would not give force to the sling, but that 

resembles that of Yirbius 7. 761 foil. it would consume time, so that the sUi^er 

582.] " Pictus acu tunicas " 11. 777. should learn to put as much force as pos- 

" Peregrina ferrugine clarus et ostro " 11. sible into the single movement. ' Ad- 

772. " Ferrugine Hibera" CatuU. 62^64). ducta:' as Mr. Long remarks, the sling is 

227. For * ferrugine ' see on G. 1. 467. whirled round, and the centrifugal force 

583.] ' Insignis facie ' v. 836 above, would carry it away, if the centripetal, the 

Serv. strangely separates ' Arcens ' from string and the arm, did not draw it to the 

' miserat/ thinking that the name of the body. " Fundam tereti circum caput egit 

SQu ought to be mentioned as well as that habena " 11. 579. ' Ipse ' seems to mean 

of the father. with all his force. Mr. Long prefers to 

584.] Comp. 7. 768, 764, which these regard it as contrasted with 'positis has- 

lines nearly repeat. 'Matris' Gud., tis.' 

'Martis' Med., Pal., Rom., and one of 588.] 'Media' with 'diffidit.' The 

Bibbeck's cursives. Mars is not known to blow came right between the temples, 

have been connected with Sicily, and the " Mediam ferro gemina inter tempora 

g^ve of Mars at Colchis may have been frontem Dividit " v. 750 below. It was a 

thought of by transcribers. It is still common opinion that a leaden bullet 

open to question whether 'Matris' means melted in its passage through the air. 

Ceres, who was of course worshipped in Cerda comp. Aristot. De Caelo 2. 7, oTop 

Sicily, or some nymph who was mother koI M r&y ^€pofi4ywp fitXatr rcurra yitp 

of keens' son. Perhaps the latter is the aink iieirvpovrai ofhws Sirrc rfiKecBat rds 

more probable view. For the river Sy- fxoKvfiBlBas, Lucr. 6. 177 foU., "omnia 

maethus see Diet. G. The story of the motuPercalefactavidesardescerezplumbea 

Palici, who were Sicilian deities, was va- vero Glaus etiam longo cursu volvenda 

riously told : see Diet. M. They were men- liquescit" ("quiescit" MSS., "calescit" 

tioned in the Alrpcucu, a lost tragedy of Lachm.), Sen. N. Q. 2. 57, "Liquesdt 


Diffidit^ ac multa porrectum extendit arena. 

Turn primum bello celerem intendisse sagittam 590 

Dicitur, ante feras solitus terrere fugacis^ 
Ascanius^ fortemque manu fudisse Numanum ; 
Cui Remulo cognomen erat, Tumique minorem 
Germanam nnper thalamo sociatus habebat. 
Is primam ante aciem digna atque indigna relatu 595 

Vociferans tumidusque novo praecordia regno 
Ibat et ingentem sese clamore ferebat : 
Non pudet obsidione iterum valloque teneri. 
Bis capti Phryges, et morti praetendere muros ? 

excnssa glans fiinda, et attritn aeris velut habebat' a variety for ''germanam sociatam 

igne destillat." habebat :" comp. 1. 814 &c. Tumus' 

589.] " Fulva moHbandum extendit elder sister was latuma. 

arena" 5. 374. He falls, probably from 595.] "Primam ante aciem" 7. 531, 

the wall, Qpon the sandy plain below. 673. ' Digna atque indigna relatu,' as 

590 — 620.] 'Numanus, brother-in-law Scaliger observes, has the air of a pro- 
of Tumus, reviles the Trojans, boastfully verbial expression, like Prrrii /ca2 h^^mrd, 
contrasting thdr effeminacy with the mar- " dicenda tacenda," ** fanda nelanda," the 
tial and manly training of the Butnlians.' notion being that he is talking idly and 

590.] ' Bello ' is emphatic, as the next indiscriminately, so that we need not follow 

line shows. * Intendere,' elsewhere ap- Heyne in marking off the worthy from the 

plied to the bow, v. 665 below, 8. 704, is unworthy parts of his speech. So ** digna 

here used of the arrow. See on v. 623. indigna pati " 12. 811 = " quaecunque 

591.] * Dicitur :* the historic mode of acciderint pati." * Relatu,* like * dicitur ' 

expression is used to give pomp to the v. 591, indicates that the poet wishes to 

occasion. Comp. v. 79. *Fugacis' con- be thought to be writing history. But- 

tains an implied opposition to brave men. the word may refer to Numanus' own 

592.] *Manu' with 'fudisse.' 'Fun- utterance. 

dere ' of laying low 1. 193., 11. 665, where 596.] * Novo regno,' his alliance with 

however 'humi' is added. "Ingrato royalty. His wife, as a princess, would be 

Steropen quod ftiderat arcu " Val. F. 1. called " re^na :" comp. 6. 28. 

446. The name of this person seems to 597.] ' Ingenti,' the reading before 

have been Numanus, his surname Bemu- Heins., is found in none of Bibbeck's MSS. 

lus. Wagn., following a suggestion of ' Ingentem se ferebat ' like " imnani cor- 

Heyne's, thinks he may be called Nu- pore se ferebat " 5. 372, " magna se mole 

manus as king of Numana in the Picene ferebat " 8. 199, " portis sese extulit in- 

territory. But it seems more probable gens" 12. 441. At the same time, by 

that Yirg. has given him a name which may adding ' clamore,' Yirg. may have wished 

surest that heis the eponymous hero of the to indicate the other sense of 'ferebat,' 

town, like Privernus above v. 576, though " iactabat," as Serv. understands it. 

the assignment of two names to the same 598/] So Hector to Polydamas, II. 18. 

man is unusual, especially when one of 287, ^ olhru KtK6fyria'd€ itkfjLtpoi Modi 

them, Bemulus, is found elsewhere in con- ir&pycoy ; ' Pudet ' might conceivably be 

nexion with other persons, v. 360 above, 11. a translation of K€K6fyn(rB€ : comp. £. 7. 44 

636. note. "Obsidione tenentur" 10. 109. 

593.] "Cui nunc cognomen lulo Ad- "Vallis obsessa tenetur" ib. 120. 

ditur" 1.267. With the change of con- 599.] 'Bis capti,' like "gentis bis 

stmction in the second relative clause victae" 11. 402, probably referring to the 

comp. Hirt. Bell. Alex. 56, "ut quibuspecu- two captures of Troy by Hercules and by 

nias imperasset, neque contulissent se adi- the (rreeks, though Qossrau thinks the 

rent," quoted by Madv. Opusc. 2. p. 177. second conquest is by the Butulians, which 

594.] ' Nuper ' with ' sociatus,' not with Numanus professes to regard as already 

'habelmt.' ' Thalamo sociatus' like "urbe, complete. 'Morti' is the reading of all 

damp sodas" 1. 600. ' Germanam sociatus Bibbeck's MSS. ('morte ' Med. a m. p., as 

aOft p. VERQiri MAEONIS 

En, qui nostra eibi bello connubia poseimt { 600 

dais deus Italiam, quae voe dementia adegit ? 

Non hie Atridae, nee &ndi iSctor Ulixes. 

Durum a stirpe genus natos ad ftumina primmn 

Deferimus saevoque gelu duraijius et undis ; 

Venatu invigilant pueri, silvasque fatigant ; 60& 

Mectere ludus equos et spiisula tendere eomn. 

At patiens opemm parroque adsueta inventus 

Aut rastris terram domat, aut quatit oppida bello. 

Omne aevum ferro teritur, Tersaque iuvencum 

Terga fatigamuB hasta; nee tarda seneetos 61 a 

Debilitat viris animi mutatque vigorem : 

Canitiem galea premimus ; semperque reeentis 

Comportare iuvat praedasi et. vivere rapta. 

also ' protendere') and of Serv., and is more 605.] ' Yenatu invigilftnt ' like " viotu 

forcible tibmi 'Marti,' which Bonn, and iuvigilant" Q. 4« 1^ 'BUftaqas fktL- 

Heyne introduced from a few MSS. Serv. gant ' like " mare tt^raaqne caelumque 

well comp. ▼. 14S above, ** leti discrimina Migaf 1. 280^ ^aoctenique di^nque 

parva." fatigaut " 8. 94i. 

600.] 'Bello' emphatic; the Trcgans. 606.] Thdr ordinary pastime is breaking 

came wooing with tibe sword, and yeb they horses and shooting with the bow. ' Spienla 

dare not fight. 'Nostra. connubia»' not tendere ' like " intendisse sagittam " abore 

an alliance with ns, bat brides belonging v. 690. " Torquerecomu spicula" £1 10. 

to ns. One of Eibbeck's cnruyes origi? 59. 

nally had ' poacant.' 607.] Bepeated fVom G; 2. 472* wi<di 

601.] 'Dens' is coupled with 'de* the substitution, of 'at' for 'et' imd 

mentia/ as above y. 185 "deus" b idenr 'parva' for 'exiguc' 

tified with, "diracupido," the notion being 60B.] 'Bastaris' are probably specifiedl 

that of a, strong preternatural impulse* ae heavy, "iniquo poadere nAn" €K. I- 

Or it is possible that Nnmanns may mea& US4. 

to intimate that the oracles which led the 609.] ' Fetro teritur' virtaally =: " fenro 

Trojans to Italy are meuely a madman'si exercendo teritur." 'Teritur' aeems to 

delusion. combine the notions of spending^ and attii- 

602.] As in w. 148 fbIL above, re- tion. 'The spear is never out of our 

proaches addressed to the Trojans are made hands; we turn it and use the other end aft 

to glance off on their Greek conquerors, a goad.' ' Iuvencum ' for ' iuvencorum ' is 

who, it is intimated, are inferior to the also found Stat. Theb.44 409» cited by Fore* 

Butulians. With '^andi fictor' Heyne 610.] Serv. mentions a variant 'sera 

comp. MkKowos^ fideay II. 22. 281, the senectus,' which is found in one. MS* 

taunt of Hector to Achilles. " Tarda gelu senectus " 8. 508. 

603.] 'Genus' may be in apposition 611.] 'Mutat' changes for the worse; 

either to ' nos ' imjdied in ' deferimus^' or So perhaps " viris alias " 5. 466. 

to 'natos/ Perhaps the farmer is neater. 612, 618.] 'Fremimns' expresses both 

'A stirpe' with 'durum.' Hdns. read 'ab the weight of the helmet and its power 

stirpe ' from only one MS. ' Frimum ' is at confining the hair (4. 148>, 5. 566). 

ezpUined by what follows, w. 605, 607, 'Semper — ^rapto' seems to ref^r not to the 

609 &c. The first step is to inure the old spedally, but to the habits of the 

infant to cold : then follow other stages of nation in general. The words, are repeated 

endurance. from 7. 748, 749, with the change of 

604.] PaL, Gud., and another of Bib- 'convectare' into 'comportare.' 'Con- 
beck's cursives have ' duroque,' as if ' du- vectare ' was the reading here before 
rum— duramus ' were not enough already. Heins., but is found in none of Bibbeck's 
'Gelu et undis' ty 8t^ hvoiy, MSS. 'Beoentia praedas' is lesa iqipro- 


Yobis picta cix)OQ ei fulgenti miurice vestisi; 

Desidiae coidi; iuvat indulgere ehoreis; 61$^ 

£t tunicae mamicas, di habent redimicula mitrae. 

O vere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges, ite per alta 

Dindyma^ ubi adaietift bifovem dat tibia cantum. 

Tympana yob boxusque vocat Berecyntia Matris 

Idaeae : sinite arma yiiis, et eedite ferro. $w 

Talia iactantem dictis. ac diia canentem 

Non tulit Ascanius ; nervoque obvassus Aquino 

priate here, as in the month of Nnmanns Phrygia dextra nnnm foramen habet, 

it is a sort of boast of barbarism* sinistra duo, qnorom unam aootum sonnm 

614.] For these reproaches, which really habet, alteram gravem " (comp. Diet. A. 

belong to the Fhry^ans of post-Homeric ' Tibia '), so that the reibroice here would 

times, see on 4. 216, and comp. the whole be to a flute with two stops. Heyne comp. 

passage. Heyne however remarks that Hor. A. P. 202 " Tibia non, ut nunc, ori- 

Yirg. had in his mind Priam's reproaches chalco vinota tubaeque Aemula, sed tenuis 

to his sons D. 24. 261, \pwirrcd r^ opxno^cd simplexque ibramine pauoo.'' No earHer 

re, x'^P^^'^^'^^V^^^ HpiffToi, as well as Alci- authority is quoted for ' biforis ' in this or 

nous' characterofhis nation Od. 8. 248^ oicl in its literal sense. Probably Virg. was 

8* ^/iii' Bais re <^lKri KlSapis re X'^P^^ ^*> ^^ thinking of the diB^pofifios, which was 

/lard r' i^tifioifid, \oerpd re Beppik Koi, ehvaL originally performed to the flute (Diet. A. 

The embroidered chlamys was a Phrygian ' Chorus,' ed. 1), whether the etymology 

dress (3. 484). Here the reference seems be a correct one or no. 

to be to " pallia " interwoven with purple 619.] " Tympana tenta tenant palmis " 

or saffron, or both (see Diet. A. ' P^um ')« Lucr. 2. 618) of the worshippers of Cybele. 

though Heyne thinks that Virg. meana The ' buxus ' is again the flute. " Prima 

garments or purple or saffix>n embroidered terebrato per rara foramina buxo Ut 

with something else (gold thread ?). For daret efieci tibia longa sonos " Ov. F. 6, 

saffron garments oomp. 11. 775, and see 687: comp.Id.M. 4. 80., 12.168. ''Idaeam 

Diet. A. * Crocote,' where Appul^us (Met. vocitant Matrem '* Lucr. 2. 611. * Vocat,' 

8. 11) is cited, for their use hy the priests to the revel on the mountain : comp. 4. 803. 

of Oybele. *■ Vocant,' which Heins. restored and Heyne 

615.] ' Oordi * 7. 326., 10. 252w No retained, is found in two of Bibbeck's cur* 

other authority is quoted for the pi. 'de- sives. 

mdiae,' which doubtless follows the analogy 620.] For 'sinere' with ace, see on 

of <munditiae,'"'inimioitiae,""irae." The G. 4.7. Here we shall best understand 

condemnationof dandngis in the spiritof the construction by rendering it into 

Yii^.'s own time. '* Nemo fere saltat* Greek, 4are ^leXa, Mpduru * Cedite ferro ' 

sobrius nisi forte insanit " Cic. pro Mur. 6. like " cedere bonis," relinquish to others. 

616.1 Tunics with sleeves, called x<f- With the general sense of this and the 

p(8«rrot (Diet. A.'Chiridota'), were thought preceding lines oomp. 11. 735 foil, 

effeminate by the old Romans : see Gell. 621 — 663.] ' Ascanius invokes Jupiter, 

7. 12, Cic. 2 Cat. 10, referred to by and shoots Eemulus in the middle of his 

Taubm. and Serv. For the 'mitra'oomp. boasting. Apollo applauds the deed, but 

4. 216. The reproach was really not that bids Ascanius rest ccmtent and not attempt 

the mitre had strings, which were an more.' 

ordinary part of it, but that the mitre was 621.] " Talia iactabam " 2. 588. * Talia 

worn at all. <' Qui longa domi redimicula iactantem dictis' is a variety for "talia 

snmunt Frontibus " Juv. 2. 84. iaetontem dicta." *Dira canentem :' Bemu- 

617.] & wewoyes, xduc* i\4yxf\ 'AxaiUhf, lus' words were words of ill omen, and his 

ovK^r* 'Axaiol II. 2. 285. Here the re- speech might be called a denunciation, 

proach seems to be keener, as Serv. ' Canentem ' probably includes the notions 

remarks : " ipeos vituperaverat Pbryges : oi imprecation and measured utterance, 

nunc ad maiorem iniuriam Fhrygias, non Comp. 11. 399. 

Phryges dixit." 622.] * Non tulit ' 2, 407. ' Obversus :'^ 

618.] 'Dindyma' 10.252. 'Biforem:' Ascanius is said to have turned towards 

Serv. quotes a passage from Vano, '' Tibia- the string, the meaning being that he 


Contendit telum, diversaque bracchia ducens 
Constitit, ante lovem supplex per vota precatus : 
luppiter omnipotens^ audaeibus adnue coeptis. 625 

Ipse tibi ad tua templa feram soUemnia dona^ 
Et statuam ante aras aurata fronte iuvencum^ 
Candentem, pariterque caput cum matre ferentem, 
lam comu petat et pedibus qui spargat arenam. 
Audiit et caeli Genitor de parte serena. 630 

Intonuit laevum ; sonat una fatifer arcus. 
Effugit horrendum stridens adducta sagitta^ 
Perque caput Remuli venit et cava tempora ferro 
Transigit. I, verbis virtutem inlude superbis ! 

drew the string towards himself. But Quell, comp. Theocr. 8. 14, Iffofidropa 

* nervo * may he ahl. instr. with ' con- h.iiv6v. " Capita alta ferentis " 1. 189. 
tendit.' 'Nervo equino' is from Attins, 629.] Repeated from B. 3. 87, where 

Phil. fr. 9 " Beciproca tendens nervo see note. 

equino concita tela," as Serv. remarks. 630.] For thunder in a clear sky comp. 

It is douhted whether ' equino ' means of G. 1. 487 &c. 

horsehair (Cerda comp. Hesych., linruc^ 631.] " Intonuit laevum *' 2. 693, where 
rdais, 7) vtvph rod r6^ov, Bih rh 4^ tinrcfwv as here it is a good omen. ' Una :* the 
yiyveffSai rpix^v) or of the hide or intes- how twanged as the thunder rumhled. 
tines of the horse. The description is This and the next line are from IL 4. 125, 
elaborated after II. 4. 116 foil., the fulness Xfy^e fii6s, vevp^ 9h fiiy* taxfv, 5' 
of detail being justified, as Heyne remarks, iter 6s, Pal., Gud., and two other of Rib- 
by the importaiice of the occasion. beck's cursives have ' letifer,' the reading 

623.] * Contendit ' Med., Rom., * inten- before Heins., a recollection of 10. 169. 
dit' Pal., Gud. Heins. introduced the 632.] Pal., Rom., and Gud. corrected 

latter, and so Ribbeck : but the former, have ♦ et fugit,' which Ribbeck explains as 

which Wagn. prefers, has greater MS. 'ecfugit,' the original reading of one of 

support. Pal. and Gud. apparently belong- his cursives. Serv. notices both * et fhgit * 

ing to some extent to the same recension ; and ' efiugit,' preferring the latter. Heyne 

and 'intendit' may have been introduced inclined to 'et fugit,' taking 'et' with 

from V. 590 above. For * contendit ' see * una :' but this, as Wagn. remarks, is to 

on 6. 513. ' Diversa ' with ' ducens.' mistake the sense : see on the preceding 

Heyne comp. Apoll. R. 3. 283 afi<por4pjf<n line. ' Adducta ' expresses the condition 

iiaffx6fieyos waXdfiriiriv, of the arrow before its flight, and so 

624.] * Per votaprecatur' like " vocant implies rapid motion. Pal. and Gud. have 

per carmina laeta " G. 2. 388. * adlapsa,' probably from v. 578 above : and 

625.] "Audaeibus adnue coeptis" G. this seems to have led to 'elapsa,' the 

1. 40. reading before Heins., found in two of 

626.] ' Ipse/ as Wagn. remarks, has a Ribbeck's cursives. With ' horrendum 

sort of adversative force. * Do thou hear stridens ' Heyne comp. H. 1. 49 5cii^ 9h 

me : I will offer.' Serv. thinks the point KXaryyii yivtr* hpyvpioio fiioio, 
is that Ascanius will sacrifice for the first 633.] ' Cava tempora ' v. 808 below, 

time on his own account. " Ipse . . 10. 891. Here it implies that the brain 

dona feram " G. 3. 22. is pierced. 

627.] Perhaps a hendiadys with the 634.] The roading of the first word in 

preceding verse. The line may be an this line is doubtfril. * Traiicit,' the com- 

imitation of Od. 3. 382 foil., where <ro\ 5* mon reading, is found in Med., and sub- 

ad iy^. is parallel to 'ipse.' 'Statuam' stantially in Gud. corrected and three 

a sacrificial term like " constituam " 5. other of Ribbeck's cursives : Pal. has 

237 &c. For the sacrifice of bullocks with < transigit ' alterod into ' transiit,' which 

gilded horns comp. Od. 3. 432 foil. seems to have been the original word in 

628.] ' Pariter caput cum matre feren- Gud. ; Rom. has ' transadigit,' omittiYig 'i,' 

tem,' as tall as his mother^ i. e. full grown, which is left out in some other copies. 


Bis capti Pliiyges haec Rutulis responsa remittunt. 635 

Hoc tantum Ascanius ; Teucri clamore sequuntur 

Laetitiaque fremunt animosque ad sidera tollunt. 

Aetheria turn forte plaga crinitus Apollo 

Desuper Ausonias acies urbemque videbat^ 

Nube sedens^ atque his victorem adfatur lulum : 640 

Macte nova virtute, puer; sic itur ad astra^ 

Dis genite et geniture deos. lure omnia bella 

Grente sub Assaraci fato ventura resident ; 

Nee te Troia capit. Simul haec eifatus ab alto 

Aethere se mittit^ spirantis dimovet auras^ 645 

Ascaniumque petit. Formam turn vertitur oris 

Antiquum in Buten. Hie Dardanio Anchisae 

inclndmg Med. originally. On the whole patting down the wars that were to trouble 

* transigit ' seems to account best for the Aeneas (if we suppose Virg. to follow this 

dififerent varieties, so that Ribbeck is right form of the legend : see on 4f. 615) and 

in restoring it. This use of the word is reigning in peace : the secondary reference 

common in post-Augustan writers : see is to Augustus composing civil discord and 

Fore. 'I' followed by another impe- shutting the temple of Janus, 'Fato 

rative, with a sarcastic force 7. 425, 426. ventura ' perhaps with ' resident/ are 

Oomp. £. 1. 73 note. The jingle ' verbis destined to settle down : it may however 

— superbis ' is in the taste of the earlier be simply constructed with ' bella/ ' all 

Latin poetry, and was doubtless intended, the wars of the ftiture/ indicating among 

ElsewhereinVirg.'inludere' takes a dative, other things, as Cerda suggests, that the 

636.] " Clamore sequuntur " v. 466 civil wars were devised by fate, and are 

above, &c. Here the meaning is not that not to be charged on the Caesars. " Gente 

they follow Ascanius, but that they back sub Hectorea" 1. 273. " Domus Assaraci " 

up his success with a shout, ixtv^iifiria'ay, 1. 284. Some MSS. and perhaps originally 

as Forb. aptly renders it. Gud. have ' residunt/ 

637.] ' Animos tollere ' of encouraging 644.] ' Nee te Troia capit ' is again a pro- 
one's self 10. 250, G. 2. 350. For the phecy with more than one fulfilment, point- 
hyperbole Gossrau comp. 6. 783 " animos ing to the removal from Nova Troia to 
aeqnabit Olympo," 10. 548 " caelo animum Lavinium and from Lavinium to Alba, and 
ferebat." also to the necessary extension of the 

638.] ' Aetheria plaga ' 1. 394. ' Crini- Roman power over the world. There is 

tQS ' 1. 740. *' Intonsum Cynthium " Hor. doubtless an allusion too to Philip's speech 

1 Od. 21. 2. "Crinitus Apollo" occurs to Alexander, thus given by Plut. Alex. 

£nn. Alcumaeo ft. 4 Yalden. 6, & wa7, (iir^i (rtavr^ fiaffiXtlay 1a"nv 

639.] ' Urbem ' seems to be the camp- MouetBovia yip ct ov x^^pf^* 'Simul 'with 

settlement, which the ' Ausoniae acies ' are ' effatus,' &fia tlr(&tf, 

attacking. Comp. above v. 8 &c. 645.] " Caelo se protinus alto Misit " 

640.] " lunonem . . . ftilva pugnas de 10. 634. Pal. and originally Gud. have 

nube tuentem " 12. 792. 'misit' here. 'Spirantis dimovet auras' 

641.] For 'macte' see Excursus to this i. q. "ventos secat," as Forb. remarks. 

Book. In 4. 223 the winds are to help Mer- 

642, 643] 'Dis genite:' see on 6. 322. cury's flight. Gossrau comp. 6. 839 

'Geniture deos' points to the Caesars. "Aera dimovit tenebrosum et dispulit 

What follows is expressed with something umbras/' 

of oracular obscurity. The meaning seems 646.] 'Formam oris' like "imaginis 

to be that the house of Assaracus is quail- formam " £nn. Epig. 1. 

fied by merit as well as ordained by destiny 647.] * Butes ' is of course diflerent from 

to put an end to war : they are born to the one mentioned 5. 372. Possibly he 

conquer, and their enemies have to submit, may be the one who is killed 11. 690 foil. 

The primary reference is to Ascanius 'Dardanio Anchisae' 1.617. The appear- 



Armiger ante fait fidusque ad limina custos ; 

Turn comitem Ascanio pater addidit. Ibat Apollo 

Omnia longaevo similis, vocemque coloremque 650 

Et erinis albos et saeva sonoribus arma^ 

Atque his ardentera dictis adfatur lulum : 

Sit satis, Aenide, telis inpune Numanum 

Oppetiisse tuis ; primam banc tibi magnus Apollo 

Concedit laudem, et paribus non invidet armis ; 655 

Cetera parce, puer, bello. Sic orsus Apollo 

Mortalis medio aspectus sermone reliquit, 

Et proeul in tenuem ex oeulis evanuit auram. 

Adgnovere deum proeeres divinaque tela 

Dardanidae, pharetramque fuga sensere sonantem. 660 

Ergo avidum pugnae dictis ac numine Phoebi 

ance of Apollo in the form of Butes is from 654.] " Coniugis deztra oppetiit " 11. 

II. 17. 322 foil., where he appears to 268. * Primam laudem/ the glory of a 

Aeneas in the form of Periphas *}il'irvrihr\s, first success. "Magnus Apollo" E. 3. 104. 

his father's herald. We have already had 655.] " Mihi concede laborem" E. 10. 1. 

Epy tides 5. 546 foil., described as "custo- " Paribus armis'* 6. 826 &c. . Here the 

dem comitemque luli," so that it is strange word is emphatic : Apollo does not grudge 

that Virg. should here mention Butes you the comparison of himself as a success- 

instead, unless we suppose him to mean ful archer. Contrast Triton's jealousy of 

the same person by both, Butes, son of the rivalry of Misenus 6. 173, and comp. 

Epytus, which is scarcely likely. II. 23. 865 6pyi0os iikv &iiapre fiiynpe yip 

648.] " Qui Parrhasio Evandro Armiger ol r6y* 'AirSKXwy, 

ante fuit " 11. 31, of Acoetes, the * comes' 656.] * Cetera* adverbially 3. 594. 'Parce 

of PallaB. 'Ad limina custos' like "ad bello ' like "parce metu" 1. 255. noXefiovB* 

lecticam servus,** as Heyne remarks. The i.iroirai^o irdfiiray 11. 1. 422. ' Orsus * at 

V' ^ office intended seems to be that of the the end of a speech 12. 806, contrary to 

" atriensis,*' which is Roman, not heroic. what we should expect, as Serv. remarks. 

649.] "Comes additur" 6. 628. 657, 658.] Repeated from 4. 277, 278, 

650.] This and the next line are repeated with the change of " visus medio " into 

with alterations from 4. 568, 659. * medio aspectus.* Gud. has 'medio visus' 

651.] Rom. and some others have ' fia- here as a variant. Med., Pal, Rom., and 

vos,' an evident interpolation from 4. 559. Ghid. have ' aspectu,* a curious agreement 

'Saeva sonoribus* = "saeve sonantia." in error, though of course the mistake is 

We must suppose the old man to be a easily accounted for by the initial letter 

warrior still. Apollo in his own person of ' sermone ' and the proximity of 'medio.' 

would only have had bow and quiver. Donatus strangely takes ' mortalis ' as 

653.] ' Aeneade,' the old reading, is nom., " i. e. constitutus sub hominis 

supported by Rom. 'Aeneadae.' Ribbeck's forma." 

other MSS. (one of the cursives in an 659.] Apollo resumes his divinity as he 

erasure) have ' Aenide,' which is supported flies, like Venus 1. 402 foil.. Iris 5. 657 

by Priscian p. 583 and Serv., the latter foil. In U. 17. 333 Aeneas recognizes 

apparently reading ' Aeueide ' as a tri- Apollo by looking him in the fiice. 

syllable and comparing " Theseide." Wagn. 660.] ' Sonantem ' with the motion of 

supposes Virg. to have purposely avoided his flight. "EKXay^av ^ &p* oiarol in^ &fu»v 

the more usual form, just as he has chosen x^^M^''<'<o A^roO Ktvri$4inos D. 1. 46. 

to call his poem "Aeneis" rather than 661.] "Othryadae dictis et numine 

" AeneSs.*^ Whether there was ever a form divom '* 2. 336. Med. has * et numine/ 

"Aeneus,** or whether Virg, has only and *ac* in Rom. is apparently in an 

magined one for the moment, we cannot iBrasure. 


Ascanium prohibent ; ipsi in certamina rursus 
Succedunt^ animasque in aperta pericula mittunt. 
It clamor totis per propngnacula muris ; 
Intendunt acris arcns^ amentaque torquent. 665 

Stemitur omne solum telis ; tum scuta cavaeque 
Dant sonitum flictu galeae ; pugna aspera surgit : 
Quantus ab occasu veniens pluvialibus Haedis 
Verberat imber bumum ; quam multa grandine nimbi 
In vada praecipitant^ cum luppiter horridus austris 670 
Torquet aquosam biemem et caelo cava nubila rumpit. 

Pandarus et Bitias, Idaeo Alcanore creti, 
Quos lovis eduxit luco silvestris laera^ 
Abietibus iuvenes patriis et montibus aequos, 
Portam, quae ducis inperio commissa^ recludunt, 676 

662.] 'Barsus,' as if Ascanias' adventure expresses the formation of hail: oomp. 

had been an interlude, and so ' saccedunt.' 8. 429. For ' caelo ' one MS. has ' telo/ 

" Succedere in pugfnam," " in stationem " an ingenious variety, which Wakef. pre- 

&c. are found in Livy : see Fore. fers; but 'caelo' means from or in the 

663.] With ' animas in aperta pericula sky. Med. a m. p. has * cava lumina/ which 

mittunt' Cerda comp. II. 9. 322 olcl ifi^p perhaps some future editor will introduce 

r^vxh*' irapafia\\6fA€uos wo\€fil(tiv. into the text, in the sense of 'the windows 

664—690.] 'The Trojans become more of heaven' (see Fore, 'lumen') but the 

daring. Pandarus and Bitias, two gigantic expression would be quite un- Vlrgilian. 

brothers, throw open the gates, and the 672.] From U. 12. 127 foil., where two 

besieged prepare for a sally.' Lapithae, Pol3'poetes and Leonteus, keep 

664.] ' Totis per propngnacula muris,' the gate of the Greek rampart. Macrob. 

an amplification for "per muros," as Heyne Sat. 6. 2 says is modelled on a 

remarks. 9cene during the Histrian war in Enn. 

666.] "Acris tendunt arcus" 7. 164. Ann. 15. Pandarus has the same name as 

'Amenta' Diet. A. the Homeric hero. 'Bitias' 1.738 seems '^ >r 

666.] From U. 12. 156 foil., comp. by to be a Carthaginian. 

Heyne. 673.] ' lovis luco * the grove of Jove on 

667.] "'Flictu' pro adflictu aut in- Ida. ' Eduxit ' 6. 765 note. 'laera,' one 

flictu» i. e. ictu : nam detraxit more suo of the Nereids B. 18. 42, is here made a 

praepositionem. Et locutus est iuxta wood-nymph. 

antiquum morem. Pacuvius Teucro [fr. 674.] l^trrcuraif &s Jre re Hp^cs ofipeaiv 

15] 'flictus navium' " Serv. Rom. and i^iKJifnt^oi B. 12. 132, where however the 

M^. have ' adflictu ' or ' atiiictu.' " Pugna comparison rather regards firmness than 

aspera surgit " 11. 635. Virg. doubUess height, as the context shows. Bryant 

imitates 11. 15. 696, aZris Z\ Bpifiua fidxn plausibly conj. "in montibus :" but Virg. 

•r€p\ yrivffly irvxOTi. doubtless wished to vary the expression, 

668.] In II. 12. 1. c. the comparison is remembering the comparison of Poly- 

to a snow-storm. ' Pluvialibus Haedis ' phemus and the queen of the Laestrygons 

abl.of circumstance or time. For the Kids to mountain-peaks Od. 9. 191., 10. 113. 

see G. 1. 205. " Inpetus orientis Haedi" He also thought of B. 5. 560 ixdrrnriv 

Hor. 3 Od. 1. 28. ioiK^es ^ypTiX^ffiv, It matters little whether 

669.] "Quam multa grandine nimbi 'patriis' goes with 'abietibus' or with 

Culminibus crepitant " 5. 458. ' montibus.' Pal., Gud., and another of 

670.] " ' In vada' noli temptare : variat Bibbeck's cursives have ' patriis iuvenes.' 

rem : antecedent! membro ' humum' me- 675.] Serv. gives a choice of interpre- 

moraverat, nunc mare" Serv. "luppiter tations of ' commissa,' "credita" and 

uvidus austris" G. 1. 418. "clausa," preferring the latter, a fancy in 

671.] yiipca ^Kii^yra ^ov4i(ra5 II. 1. c. which modem commentators have not 

" Hiemis aquosae " E. 10. 66. * Torquet ' followed him. « Ducis ' is doubtless Aeneas, 

P 2 


Freti armis^ ultroque invitant moeDibus hostem. 

Ipsi intus dextra ac laeva pro turribus adstant^ 

Armati ferro et cristis capita alta conisci : 

Quales aeriae liquentia flumina circum^ 

Sive Padi ripis, Athesim seu propter amoenum, 680 

Consurgunt geminae quercus intonsaque caelo 

AttoUunt capita et sublimi vertice nutant. 

Inrumpunt, aditus Rutuli ut videre patentis. 

Continuo Quercens et pulcher Aquicolus armis 

Et praeceps animi Tmarus et Mavortius Haemon 685 

Agminibus totis aut versi terga dedere, 

Aut ipso portae posuere in limine vitam. 

Turn magis increscunt animis discordibus irae ; 

Et iam collecti Troes glomerantur eodem. 

We may suppose that they had the general thongh Serv. actually makes it a ground 

charge of the gate, others acting as sentries of objection to the common reading. For 

under them, tv. 176, 221. * liquentia ' see on 1. 432. ** Liquuntur 

676.] * Armis ' emphatic : trusting not rupibus amnes " G. 2. 187. 

to defences, but to the arms in their hands ; 680.] For similes with geographical 

so that we need not be tempted by Peerl- specifications comp. 7. 674 foil., 699 foil, 

kamp's * animis.' Possibly however it may * Athesim ' Diet. Geogr. " Fontem propter 

mean the arms of their comrades: comp. amoenum" Lucr. 4. 1024. 

U. 12. 153, Xaotffiv KaBwrtpBe ir€iroi66r€s 681.] "Caelo capita alta ferentis" 3. 

^5^ fil'j^<piv : but this is less likely. A third 678. 

view is conceivable, that it may come from 684.] Ribbeck removes the period after 

**armus:" comp. 4. 11., 11. 641, 644. * patentis,' joining * continuo — totis 'with 

*Moenibus' apparently = "in moenia," so *inrumpunt,' and reading in v. 686 'at 

that it is not parallel to " solio invitat" 8. versi.' But the common reading perhaps 

178. better expresses the instantaneous repulse 

677.] They stand on each side of the of the Butulians. The two names here 

gate before the ramparts, making room for have an Italian look, while those in the 

the Butulians to enter, but ready to fall on next line more resemble what we should 

them as soon as they are within. "Pro expect to see on the side of the Trojans; 

turribus," above v. 576, in spite of which but all are evidently Butulian. * Pulcher 

Heyne strangely understands it ayrl irip' armis ' i. q. " pulchris armis :" comp. 

ywv, "tanquam binae turres," after an "gravis ictu" 5. 274. 

alternative interpretation proposed by 685.1 'Praeceps animi' like "fidens 

Serv. animi '^ 2. 61, " infelix animi " 4. 629 note. 

678.] * Cristis corusci * may be intended 686.] The MSS. vary between * aut 

as a translation of KopvBaloKos, Med. has versi ' and ' aversi,' the latter being the 

* coruscant.' original reading of Pal. This gives some 

679.] An expansion of the comparison colour to Bibbeck's alteration, but does 

of V. 674 into a formal simile. Comp. not actually support it. 

3. 679 foil. Serv. has a variant * Liquetia,' 687.] 'Posuere vitam' like "animas 

the name of a river of Cisalpine Gaul ponunt " G. 4. 238. Kom. has ' ipsi.' 

flowing into the Adriatic (also called " Li- 688.] ' Animis discordibus ' seems i. q. 

quentia"); and this is found in one of "animis pugnantium:" comp. 10. 356 

Bibbeck's cursives, and in two others, in- " discordes venti Praelia ceu toUunt." 

eluding Gud., from a correction. 'Liquetia' 689.] 'Glomerantur eodem,' mass them - 

might possibly have an adj. " Liquetius :" selves on the same spot. Bom. has ' in 

comp."Lyaeus," "Lenaeus," "Sychaeus:" unum.' 'Eodem' seems to be explained 

but the transition from the general to the by ' glomerantur,' not, as Pier, g^ves it» 

specific, marked by * sive — seu,* is more in " ad eandem portam quam Pandams et 

Virg.'s manner (Heyne comp. 11. 68 foil.), Bitias recluserant." 



Et conferre manum et procurrere longiud audent. 690 

Ductori Tumo, diversa in parte furenti 
Turbantique viros, perfertur nuntius^ hostem 
Fervere caede nova, et portas praebere patentis. 
Deserit inceptum, atque inmani concitus ira 
Dardaniam ruit ad portam fratresque superbos. 695 

Et primum Antiphaten, is enim se primus agebat, 
Thebana de matre nothum Sarpedonis alti, 
Coniecto stemit iaeulo ; volat ItaJa comus 
Aera per tenerum, stomachoque infixa sub altum 
Pectus abit ; reddit specus atri volneris undam 700 

Spumantem, et fixo ferrum in pulmone tepescit. 
Turn Meropem atque Erymanta manu, turn stemit Aphidnum ; 
Turn Bitian ardentem oculis animisque frementem, 
Non iaeulo; neque enim iaeulo vitam ille ie^isset; 

690.] * Conferre manum :* comp. v. 44 greatness (** ingens Sarpedon " 1. 99), but 

above. 'Procurrere longius/ to advance this does not appear to be the whole 

beyond the gates. account of it. 

691—716.] * Tumus rushes to the scene 698.1 * Comus' of a cornel javelin 12. 267. 

and kills Bitias.' 699.] *' Aera per tenerum " Lucr. 2. 146. 

691.] * Furere ' of unrestrained slaughter * Tenuem/ the reading before Heins., is 

10. 545. in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ' Stomacho ' 

692.] 'Turbare' of throwing ranks into seems to mean the stomach in our sense, 

confusion above v. 409. It is doubtftil not the gullet, as in II. 17. 47. 

whether * perfertur' is i. q. "perfert se," 700.] • Abit ' like ** transabiit " above v. 

or whether we are to take ' nuntius ' of 432. ' Atri volneris ' clearly goes with 

tidings: see on 4. 237. The latter how- 'specus,' not, as Heyne and Forb. take it, 

ever is supported by passages in other with * undam,' though Stat.' Theb. 8. 748 

authors, e. g. Cic. Pro Lig. 3, **C. Pansa has "volneris unda." * Atri' combines the 

mihinuntium perferente," Id. Pro Balbo28 notions of the darkness of the cavity and 

*'Nolite hunc Uli acerbum nuntium velle the blackness of the blood. <Alti,' the 

perferri." - conj. of Price on Appul. M. p. 374, pre- 

693.] 'Nova,' following on the success ferred by Peerlkamp, would 6nly be less 

of A8(»niu8. ''Superbum Caede nova" poetical. 

10. 515. 701.] * Tepescit ' like " tepefacta" above 

694.] ' Deserit inceptum ' he breaks off v. 419. 

what he was employed on, his course of 702.] 'Manu' not of hand to hand 

carnage outside the wall. So Aeneas 12. 699 fighting opposed to darting, as Serv. 

"opera omnia rumpit" to confront Turnus. thinks, but generally, as in v. 592 above, 

695.] Perhaps Virg. may have thought as v. 704 seems to show that the javelin 

of CatuU. 62 (64). 85 " Magnanimum ad was used. 

Hinoa venit sedesque superbas." 703.1 ** Animisque frementem " 12. 371. 

696.] The name Antiphates is from 704.] Forb. comp. Justin 39. 4 *' spiri- 

Hom., where it is borne by the king of the tum non fato sed paricidip dedit," which 

Laestrygons. "Se matutinus agebat" 8. seems to show that 'iaeulo' is here abl., 

465 : see on 6. 337. not, as Wagn. takes it, dat. With the 

697.] 'Thebana,' from Thebe in Cilicia sense Cerda comp. II. 9. 545, ob fxhv ydp 

(II. 1. 366., 6. 415), as Tumebus rightly k* iBdixri va^poiffi fiporoTaiy, with the 

takes it. "Supposita de matre nothos" expression, 11. 568, "neque ipse manus 

7. 283. 'Nothum' with gen. on the feritate dedisset," where' as here the 

analogy of " filius." " Altus Orodes " 10. construction is elliptical, there " neque 

737, where as here it seems i.q."magnus." dedisset [si accepissent]," here 'neque 

It may include the notion of physical dedisset [si iaculum missum esset].' 


Sed magnum stridens contorta phalarica venit, 705 

Fulminis acta modo ; quam nee duo taurea terga. 

Nee duplici squama lorica fidelis et auro 

Sustinuit ; conlapsa ruunt inmania membra. 

Dat tellus gemitum, et clipeum super intonat ingens. 

Talis in Euboico Baiarum litore quondam 7io 

Saxea pila cadit^ magnis quam molibus ante 

Constructam ponto iaeiunt : sic ilia ruinam 

Prona trahit, penitusque vadis inlisa recumbit ; 

Miscent se maria, et nigrae attolluntur arenae ; 

Tum sonitu Procbyta alta tremit, durumque cubile 7i5 

Inarime lovis inperiis inposta Typhoeo. 

705.] " The *falarica' or* phalarica* was from the practice of his own time; not 

the spear of the Saguntines, and was im- a usual thing with him. For these erec- 

pelled by the aid of twisted ropes : it was tions at Baiae comp. Hor. 2 Od. 18. 20 

hu^e and ponderous, having ahead of iron foil., 1 Ep. 1. 83 foil. 'Quondam' in a 

a cubit in length and a ball of lead at its simile G. 4. 261 note, 

other end : it sometimes carried flaming 711.] ' Pila ' may have its ordinary sense 

pitch and tow" Diet. A. ' Hasta :' comp. of a pillar, in which case it is probably 

Livy 21. 8. The weapon here is evi- intended as the foundation of some build- 

dently thrown by the hand, which, as ing. Comp. Suet. Claud. 20 (speaking of 

Serv. says, enhances the notion of Tumus' the harbour at Ostia) '' congestis pilis 

strength. Non. p. 555 quotes along with superposuit altissimam turrim." " lactis 

this line one from Ennius (inc. fr. 72) in altum molibus'' Hor. 3 Od. 1. 34. 

"quae valide veniunt falarica missa," 'Ante,' as Wagn. remarks, shows the 

out of which the editors have made " quae labour that has been spent on the masonry, 

yalido veniunt contorta falarica missu ;" 712.] * Sic ' repeats * talis :' comp. Hor. 

but the conj. is a bold one, nor can it be 1 Od. 16. 7, 8 " non Liber aequo, non 

established that Virg. imitated the line, acuta Sic geminant Corybantes aera." 

Serv. and Non. derive the word from ' Kuinam trahit ' 2. 465 note, 

"falae," towers, as the weapon was used 714.] " Exsnltantque vada, atque aestu 

in sieges, which doubtless accounts for miscentur arenae" 3. 557. Virg. may 

Virg. introducing it here. have thought of Soph. Ant. 590, KvKlv^ei 

706.] ' Duo taurea terga,' a shield with fiv<r<r6B€v KtXaivhv fflva. Some MSS., 

two folds of bulls' hide. including originally one of Kibbeck's 

707.] * Duplici squama et auro ' hen- cursives, have * tolluntur.' 

diadys, the cuirass being "'bilix " (12. 375 : 715.] The neighbouring islands feel 

see on 3. 467), with double rows of gold the shock. Prochyta (Juv. 3. 5) may be 

chain or quilted work. "Squamisauroque" called ' alta ' as a rocky island (see on 3. 

8. 436. The ablatives seem to qualify 76), or 'alta' may go with 'tremit,' which 

* fidelis,' though they might be taken with seems more likely. 

* sustinuit ' or constructed as descriptive 716.] Vii^. has identified Pithecusa or 
abls. with 'lorica.' Aenaria with the Homeric "hpiiia (^p>|), 

709.] Non. p. 196 and Serv. seem right which he calls * Inarime,' apparently mis- 

in taking 'clipeum' as neuter (a form taking II. 2. 783, ciV *ApifioiSy S9i <l>acr\ 

for which see Fore), so as to express Tv<f><a€os^ Hfififvai tvyds. Homer's monn- 

the Homeric ipdfiria-e S^ Tci^x^* ^^* avr^. tains were variously identified, some placing 

Julius Sabinus and Burm. interpret " ipse them in Cilicia, some in Mysia or Lydia, 

ingens intonat super clipeum." some in Syria, while Strabo p. 626 C says 

710.] FaL, Gud., and three other of that others made them the same as Hthe- 

Bibbeck's cursives, have *qualis,' the cusa, referring perhaps to Virg. Pindar 

reading before Wagn., who remarks that Pyth. 1. 18 foil, had connected Typhoeus' 

* talis ' agrees better with * sic ' v. 712. or Typhon's punishment with Aetna, 

* Euboico Baiarum in litore ' like " Eu- Pherecydes, cited by Schol. on Apoll. 
boicis Cumarum oris " 6. 2 note, Baiae K. 2. 1210, with Pithecusa, so that the 
being near Cumae. Virg. draws a sijiiile transference of the Homeric name was 


Hie Mars armipotens animum virisque Latinis 
Addidit, et stimulos acris sub pectore vertit ; 
Inmisitque Fugam Teucris atrumque Timorem. 
Undique conveniunt, quoniam data copia pugnae^ • 720 
Bellatorque animo deus incidit. 
Pandarus^ ut fuso germanum corpore cernit, 
Et quo sit fortuna loco^ qui casus agat res, 
Portam vi multa converso cardine torquet, 
Obnixus latis bumeris, multosque suorum 725 

Moenibus exclusos duro in certamine linquit ; 
Ast alios secum includit recipitque ruentis, 
Demens ! qui Rutulum in medio non agmine regem 
Viderit inrumpentem, ultroque ineluserit urbi, 
Inmanem veluti pecora inter inertia tigrim. 730 

Continuo nova lux oeulis effulsit, et arma 

natural enough. For the identification a m. p. ; but Lachm. on Lucr. 4. ^68 ques- 

of Homeric localities with Italy and its tions the constr. with the ace, at least 

neighbourhood comp. 7. 10 note. Other .in good authors. The mention of the 

legends connected these islands specially war-god is awkward after vv. 717—7X9, 

with Aeneas, Prochyta being named from and perhaps not quite consistei^t with 

a kinswoman of his, Aenaria, the place them. It is one of those rare cases whe^e 

where his fleet landed. See Lewis vol. a hemistich does seem to point to an im- 

1 pp. 324, 325. The form * Inarime ' is perfection. 

used not only by the poets but by Pliny 722.] * Fuso corpore * an amplification 

3. 6. Cerda defends Virg. against the for "fusum" (v. 592). "Animam mori- 

charge of ignorance in employing it, con- bundo corpore ftidit " Lucr. 3. 1033. The 

tendmg that Hom. probably wrote EtVa- line seems to be modelled on II. 20. 419 

pifiois, and maintaining that in any case (comp. II. 11. 248 foil.). 

Virg. had a right to combine the words : 723.] "Quo res sumroa loco" 2.322. 

" quod ius poeticum, si hoc non est P " ' Agat ' wields or disposes. Pal., Bom., 

717 — 777.] * The Butulians take heart. Gud. originally, &c. have * quis :' but 

Pandarus shuts the gate, shutting in Tur- Charisius p. 70 supports < qui.' See on E. 

BUS, whom he encounters and is killed. 1. 18. 

Turnus makes a great slaughter within the 724.] ' Vi multa ' G. 4. 450. Med. has 

encampment.' < magna,' which Bibbeck adopts. 

717.] " Vim addere victis " 2. 462. Mars 725.] " Obuixae humeris " 4. 406, where 

is not the god of the Trojans, as mostly in however the construction is not certain, 

Hom., but simply the war-god, helping or '* connixi humeris " 5. 264. ** Latos hu- 

dispiriting each party indifferently. meros " 2. 721. 

718.] "Stimulos sub pectore vertit" 6. 726.] Serv. comp. Stat. Theb. 10. 518, 

106. "Par operis iactura lucro: quippe hoste 

719.] II. 9. 1, 2, ^Axaiobs &€<riF€(rlri ^x« retento Exclusere suos," a good instance of 

^6(a, <l>6fiov Kpv6^vros era/pi}. "Atrae the difference between Statins' manner 

Formidinis ora " 12. 335, dark and deadly, find Virg.'s. 

Pal. originally had * Furorem.' 727.] * Alios,' others of the Trojans, as 

720.] The meaning seems to be that . the context seems to show that Turnus was 

the two armies join battle, though one is the only one of the Butulians admitted, 

inspirited, the other disheartened. It is 728.] "Demens qui" 6. 590. *Butu- 

conceivable however that we may be meant lum ' ace. sing. * Medio agmine * of the 

to think of the Butulians alone, which Trojans. 

would agree better with the next line. 729.] *Ultro,* not only not kept him, 

* Data,' by the opening of the gates. "Data out, but shut him in. See on 2. 145. 

copia " above v. 484. 730.^ 

721.] Heins.restored'animos' from Med. 731. 

"Pecora inter inertia" 4. 158. 
" Continuo nova lux oeulis offul* 


Horrendum sonuere; tremunt in vertice cristae 

Sanguineae, clipeoque micantia fulmina mittit. 

Adgnoscunt faciem invisam atque inmania membra 

Turbati subito Aeneadae. Tum Pandarus ingens 735 

Emicat, et mortis fraternal fervidus ira 

Effatur : Non haec dotalis regia Amatae ; 

Nee murie eohibet patriis media Ardea Turnum. 

Castra inimica vides ; nulla hine exire potestas. 

OUi subridens sedato pectore Tumus : 740 

Incipe, si qua animo virtus, et consere dextram ; 

Hie etiam inventum Priam o narrabis Aehillen. 

Dixerat. Ille rudem nodis et eortice erudo 

Intorquet summis adnixus viribus hastam ; 

Exeepere aurae; volnus Saturnia luno 745 

Detorsit veniens, portaeque infigitur basta. 

At non hoc telum, mea quod vi dextera versat. 

Bit" above v. 110, whence Bom. bag tae virginis ira" 2. 413. 

* ofiulsit ' here, a reading restored by Heine, 737.] * Dotalis regia Amatae,' the royal 
and retained by Heyne, who however felt palace of Lanrentnm, which Amata is to 
it to be inappropriate. Tumus is made to give you as her daughter's dowry. Comp. 
look more terrible now that he is close 4. 104., G. 1. 31, in which latter place as 
upon the enemy: comp. 11. 5. 1 foil., 22. here the mother-in-law is said to give the 
131 foil. "Horrendumque intonat armis" dowry. 

12.700. 739.] 'Castra mimica' above v. 315. 

732.] 'Cristae sanguineae ' vv. 50, 270 * Exire potestas* 3. 670 : see on G. 1. 213. 
above. With this and the next line comp. 740.] '*011i subridens" 1.254. "Se- 
ll. 19. 375 foil. dato respondit corde " 12. 18. 

733.] The reading is not quite certain. 741.] Bom. and another have ' animi :' 

Med. luis * clipeo — mittit,' corrected from but * animo ' is confirmed by 1. 529, ** non 

' mittet,' Bom. ' clipeo — mittunt,' Pal. ea vis animo." ' Incipe ' invites Pandarus 

* clipei — mittunt,' which seems to have to throw first. " Proelia conserimus " 2. 
been the original reading of Gud. The last 397. For " conserere manum " see Fore, 
can hardly be right, as there could be no 742.] With the general form of expres- 
meaning in the plural. The second was sion comp. 2. 547. "Alius Latio iam 
read by Heins., 'mittunt' being under- partus Achilles " 6. 89. 

stood as " mittunt se," which would be 744.] « Summis adnixus viribus " 5. 226. 

harsh. Wagn. recalled the first, which is 745.] * Exeepere aurae' is meant to pre- 

Bupported by corrections in Gud. and by pare us for the spear being turned aside 

Bibbeck's other cursives. The subject of by the wind. The incident is from II. 20. 

' mittit ' then is Tumus, who is said to send 438 foil., Kalriy* (Hector's lance) *AO^yri 

forth lightnings ("mittes fulmina" of Ju- Jlyoirj *Ax(AA-^os irdAti' ^rpairc icvSaX/juoio, 

piter Hor. 1 Od. 12. 59) from or by means *Hico fid\a ylfi^atra. Perhaps Virg. may 

of his shield. Heyne wished to read have thought of Juno as the goddess of the 

'clipeus — mittit,* Pierson 'clipeum,' as in air. The pointing after 'aurae' is as old 

V. 709. * Fulgura,' the reading before as Serv. 

Heins., is found in some of Bibbeck's MSS. 746.] * Veniens ' with * volnus,' not, as 

" Fulminat Aeneas armis " 12. 654. some hiave thought, with ' luno.' " Ictum 

734.] 'Faciem invisam' 2.601. 'In- venientem a vertice velox Praevidit" 5. 

mania membra :' comp. 7. 784. 446. ' Portae :' Virg. may have thought 

735.] 'Adgnoscunt turbati' i.q. "ad- of Od. 22. 256 foil., 273 foil., where the 

gnoscunt et turbantur," Wagn^ weapons of the suitors are turned aside by 

736.] ' Emicat,' springs forth from the Athene, and some of them strike the door, 

ranks. 'Mortis fratemae ira' like "erep- 747.] Peerlkamp complains that Tumus 


Effugies ; neque enim is teli nee volneris auetor. 

Sic ait, et sublatum alte eonsurgit in ensem, 

Et mediam ferro gemina inter tempora frontem 750 

Dividit inpubisque inmani volnere malas. 

Fit sonus ; ingenti concussa est pondere tellus ; 

Conlapsos artus atque arma cruenta cerebro 

Stemit humi moriens, atque illi partibus aequis 

Hue caput atque illuc humero ex utroque pependit. 755 

Diffugiunt versi trepida formidine Troes. 

Et, si continuo victorem ea cura subisset, 

Bumpere claustra manu sociosque inmittere portis, 

Ultimus ille dies bello gentique fuisset. 

Sed furor ardentem caedisque insana cupido 760 

Egit in adversos. 

Principio Phalerim et succiso poplite Gygen 

Excipit j hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas 

In tergum ; luno viris animumque ministrat. 

Addit Halym comitem et confixa Phegea parma; 765 

is not specified as the speaker, as Pandarus Ille dies ** 2. 248. 

might be supposed to be drawing his 760.] Gud. has a variant 'inmensa/ 

sword : but the context explains it readily doubtless from 6. 823, and others, including 

enough. Pal., Gud., and another of Bib- one of Bibbeck's cursives, give ' infanda.' 

beck's cursives have 'librat/ seemingly Yirg. probably thought of n. 5. 676, 

from an interpretation, as Serv. says r^ pa Karii irXriOhy Avxiuy rpdirt Bvfxhv 

** * Versat,' librat, iactat : et est Ennianum 'A9^yri. 

* versat mucronem ' (inc. lib. 3)." * Librat ' 761.] For * adversos * we might have 

too would be less appropriate, applying expected ' aversos :' but the MSS. seem to 

equally to a spear, 10. 421, 773. have no variety. * Adversos ' is doubtless 

748.] ' Is ' is defined by the context : to be taken loosely, those on the opposite 
**non est is ut effug^as.'' PaL and Ghid. side, whether fighting or flying. 'In ad- 
have ' es.' " Teli auctorem " v. 421. versos ' occurs again 10. 412., 11. 389. 

749.] " Alte sublatum eonsurgit Tumus 762.] ' Succiso poplite ' expresses the 

in oisem " 12. 729 : comp. 10. 797, and way in which Tumus catches Gyges. 

perhaps 11. 284. 763.] ' Excipit * of catching in pursuit 

750.] ' Mediam ' with ' dividit :' comp. 11. 684, probably with a notion of doing it 

above v. 588. unexpectedly to the victim, lliis seems to 

753.1 Med., Pal. originally, and one of suit the context better than Heyne's " ex- 

BibbecVs cursives have ' conUpsus.' cipit in se irruentem." * Hinc,' from the 

754.] * Partibus ' modal abl. * In parti- b<>iies of Phalaris and Gyges : comp. Od. 

bus,' the reading before Heins., is found 22. 271* rot V Ap* itrtil^ca^, y^Kiup V i^ 

in none of Bibbeck's MSS. ^X^* «^ovto. So II. 13.260 foil., Mpara 

756.] ' Formidine ' may go either with . . . r& Krafiiyuy itvoaiyvfuu, '* Baptas 

' versi ' or with ' di£fUgiunt. fugientibus ingerit hastas '* 12. 330. 

757.] 'Subire' of entering the mind 2. 764.] 'In tergum' a sort of epexegesis 

660 foU., 575 &c. 'Victorem,' the con- of ' fugientibus.' Bom. and originallv Pal. 

queror of Pandarus. have ' tergus,' which Heins. restorea and 

758.] See on G. 1. 213. Here the in- Heyne and Bibbeck retain, and so Cha- 

finitives are probably nominatives in appo- risius read p. 54. " Animum virisque 

sition to ' ea cura.' addidit " above, v. 717. " Faces animum- 

759.] Probably from 11. 18. 454>, Koi que ministrat " 5. 640. 

p^ Kty abrri/iap ir6Kiy IhpoBoy cl fi^ 765.] 'Comitem 'to those already killed. 

*Air6^\My ic.r.X. "Quibus ultimus esset 'Confixa Phegea parma' like "succiso 


Ignaros deinde in muris Martemque cientis 
Alcandrumque Haliumqae Noemonaque Prytanimque. 
Lyncea tendentem contra sociosque vocantem 
Vibranti gladio connixus ab aggere dexter 
Occupat ; huic uno deiectum comminus ictu 770 

Cum galea longe iacuit caput. Inde ferarum 
Vastatorem Amycum, quo non felicior alter 
Unguere tela manu ferrumque armare veneno ; 
Et Clytium Aeoliden, et amicum Crethea Musis^ 
Crethea Musarum comitem^ cui carmina semper 775 

Et citharae cordi, numerosque intendere nervis ; 
Semper equos atque arma virum pugnasque canebat. 

Tandem ductores audita caede suorum 
Conveniunt Teueri, Mnestheus acerque Serestus ; 

poplite Gygen" v. 762. Pal. corrected. Pal. the first letter is in erasure. The 

Med. second reading, and Gnd. originally inferior MSS. present considerable variety, 

have ' conflxum.' Phegeus was probably whence Bentley wished to read " tingere." 

flying with his shield slung behind him, 11. For the anointing of arrows with poison 

619. comp. Od. 1. 261 foU., where it is men- 

766.] They were standing on the ram- tioned as a thing of doubtful morality, 

part and attacking those without, not It does not appear in the Iliad. 'Mann' 

knowing that Tumus was within. is pleonastic. '* Calamos armare veneno " 

767.] Verbally from H. 5. 678, where 10. 140. 

the persons are Lycians slain by Ulysses. 774.] *' Musis amicus '' Hor. 1 Od. 26. 

Ov. also reproduces the line M. 13. 258, 1. t^i^ ir4pi Movtra <f>i\ri<re Od. 8. 63. 

where Ulysses boasts of his exploits. There is tenderness in Yirg.'s repetition of 

768.1 • Tendentem contra ' v. 795 below, the name, 

as distmguished from the rest, who were 775.] Perhaps from Hom. Hymn 82. 

either flying or unconscious of his pre- (to the Moon) 18 foil., K\4a ^aorw 

senee. AltrofAai ^fudewy, wv KXeiovo^ ipyfiar* koiHoi 

769.] 'Ab aggere' with 'dexter.' Tur- yiowdotv OtpdTovrei &t^ <rrofidr(»v 4po4y- 

nus is standing with his right hand to the t«k. Comp. Aristoph. Birds 909. 

rampart, and he takes a sweep with his 776.] ' Cordi ' above v. 615. ' Numeros 

sword in that direction. '' Sublata dextra intendere nervis ' is one of Virg.'s usual 

connixa " 5. 642. Med. originally and one efibrts after variety. ' Intendere nervos ' 

of Bibbeck's cursives have * dextra ' here, would be the common expression for 

770.] Bibbeck reads ' desectum ' from stringing a lyre : so he chooses to repre- 

the original text of Gud., which would be sent the notes as strung on the chords, 

neater, especially as 'iacuit' follows: but 777.] 'Equos' probably of horses as 

the authority is hardly sufiicient. In used in war. Bace-horses are among the 

Bom. the second, third, and fourth letters stock subjects of lyric poetry (Hor. 4 Od. 

of the word seem to be obliterated. ' De- 2. 18, A. P. 84) ; but we must not gra- 

iectum ' too is confirmed by 11. 20. 482 tuitously charge Virg. with an ana- 

6 Bh ijxurydwi^ aux^ya Btiyas T^X* avr^ chronism. 'Anna virum' 1. 119. The 

iHiXriKi Kdpri fidkt : comp. ib. 14. 497. juxtaposition of the words is doubtle^ 

In Sil. 13. 246, which is an imitation of meant to remind us of Virg.'s own poem, 

the present passage, Heins. conj. " de- 778 — 818.] ' Mnestheus and Serestus 

sectum." rally the Trojans, who press upon Tumus. 

772.] The incident is from II. 5. 49 foil.. At last he leaps into the Tiber, swims to 

where Scamandrius, a skilful hunter, is shore, and rejoins his army.' 

killed by Menelaus. Gomp. 11. 678 foil. 778.] " Post multa tuorum funera " 

" Quo non praestantior alter " 6. 164. 2. 283. 

773.] 'Ungere' or 'unguere' is the 779.] "Mnestheus aoerque Serestus" 

reading of all Bibbeck's MSS„ though in above v. 171. ' Teucri ' a^*. 2. 747. 


Palantisque vident socios hostemque receptum. 780 

Et Mnestheus : Quo deinde fugam, quo tenditis ? inquit. 

Quos alios muros^ quae iam ultra moenia habetie ? 

Unus homo, et vestris, o cives, undique saeptus 

Aggeribus tantas strages inpune per urbem 

Ediderit ? iuvenum primos tot miserit Oreo ? 786 

Non infelicis patriae veterumque deorum 

Et magni Aeneae, segues, miseretque pudetque ? 

Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso 

Consistunt. Turnus paulatim excedere pugna 

Et fluvium petere ac partem, quae eingitur unda. 790 

Aerius boo Teucri clamore incumbere magno, 

Et glomerare manum : ceu saevum turba leonem 

Cum telis premit infeusis ; at territus ille, 

Asper, acerba tuens, retro redit ; et neque terga 

Ira dare aut virtus patitur, nee tendere contra, 795 

780.] * Beceptnm ' v. 727 above. in Jesus College Cambridge * parentum/ 

781.1 " Quo deinde mis ? quo proripis ? wbich is plausible but really inappropriate, 

inquit 5. 741 note. 'Tendere fugam' Med. second reading has 'nonne.' 

like " tendere iter " &c. 787.] 'Segues* is more probably voc. 

782.] Prom II. 15. 735 foil., where than ace. 

Ajax, who in other respects answers to 788.] * Talibus * 1. 370 &c. Virg. pro- 

Turnus here, reminds the Greeks that they bably imitated II. 6. 106, ol 8* iXtXix^Tiffw 

have nothing but the wall to trust to. xal ivavrloi Ktrrup *Axaf£v. ' Agmine 

If we are to distinguish between 'muros' denso' almost abl. abs., like "densis 

and ' moenia ' here (see on 2. 234), we armis " 2. 883, 409. 

may say that in 'muros' he is thinking 789.] "Excedere palma" 5. 380. Pal. 

of the defences, in 'moenia' of the camp- and Rom. have 'pugnae.' The following 

settlement as a city. Pal., Gud. originally, description is modelled on II. 11. 544 foil., 

and another of Ribbeck's cursives have where Ajax retreats. 

• quaeve ' for * quae iam,* and another MS., 790.] " Dextera eingitur amni," v. 469 
the " alter Moreti," has 'altera 'for 'ultra/ above. Some MSS., including two of 
an ingenious variation. Ribbeck's cursives, have ' amni ' here. 

783.] Observe the care taken by Yirg. Heins. restored it as more elegant : but 

to avoid lengthening the last syllable of Wagn. rightly replies that it is far from 

* homo.' ' Cives ' appeals to their interest elegant in combination with ' fluvio,'*even 
in their camp-city. if its authority were greater. 

784.] With this and the next line comp. 791.^ " "* • » - - 

▼V. 526, 527 above. " Per campos edebat 792.' 
funera" 10. 602. 793.; 

785.1 For * ediderit,' 'miserit ' see on 2. or con 

681. Here there is no fut. ind. coupled latter seems more likely. " Telis premit 

with the so-called ftiture perfect ; but the 8. 249. * Territus,' which Peerlkamp 

thought which it would have expressed questions, is supported by II. 11, 554, 

is conveyed by • inpune,' the words being rds t« Tp€? ifftr^fxcvSs irep, 
equivalent to "inpunitus erit qui edidit, 794.] "Asper, acerba tuens" Lucr. 5. 

misit." " Iuvenum primi " 8. 105. Virg. 33. No instance is quoted of * redeo ' in 

doubtless thought of II. 1. 4. the sense of retiring; but it is consistent 

786.] They are called upon to com- with the etymology of the word, and 

passionate their gods, who will fall into Yirg. doubtless thought that the addition 

the hands of the enemy if the city is of * retro ' would explain it sufficiently, 
taken. Gud. has an unmeaning variant 795.] 'Tendere contra' v. 768 above. 
' malorum/ doubtless from 11. 280, a MS. 

" Hoc aerius " G. 4. 248. 
" Glomerare manum " 2. 315. 
* Cum ' may be either preposition 
unction: but on the whole the 


lUe quidem hoc cupiens, potis est per tela virosque. 

Haud aliter retro dubius vestigia Tumus 

Inproperata refert^ et mens exaestuat ira. 

Quin etiam bis turn medios invaserat bostis^ 

Bis confiisa fiiga per muros agmina vertit ; 800 

Sed manus e castris propere coit omnis in unum. 

Nee contra viris audet Satumia luno 

Sufficere ; aeriam caelo nam luppiter Irim 

Demisit^ germanae baud moUia iussa ferentem^ 

Ni Tumus cedat Teucrorum moenibus altis. 805 

Ergo nee clipeo iuvenis subsistere tantum 

Nee dextra valet ; iniectis sic undique telis 

Obruitur. Strepit adsiduo cava tempera circum 

Tinnitu galea^ et saxis solida aera fatiscunt ; 

Discussaeque iubae capiti; nee sufficit umbo 810 

Ictibus ; ingeminant hastis et Trees et ipse 

Fulmineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor 

796.] ** lUe quidem hoc sperans " 10. trian war, preserved by Macrob. Sat. 6. 3 

385. All that can be said of ' ille ' is that (A. 18. fi*. 2) ; bnt there is nothing in his 

it adds emphasis, as we should say ' though lines which seems specially to hkve in- 

he would wish it.' See on 1. 3. *Per' fluenced Yirg.'s reproduction of Hom. 

probably includes both the ordinary sense ' Ergo/ " quia numinis est desertus aux- 

of * through ' and that of * by reason of.' ilio " Serv. * Subsistere * i. q. " resistere." 

798.] * Inproperata' aqj* not part. "Italiam vix Hannibal! atque eius armis 

** Mens exaestuat ira," reri7ifi4yos lirop II. subsistentem " Livy 27. 7. ' Nee clipeo 

11. 556. nee dextra/ neither by defence nor by 

799.] The pluperf. seems to show the attack. 'Tantum' like" tendere tantum" 

rapidity of the attack, as it clearly belongs 5. 21 note. 

to a time subsequent to his onset w. 760 807.1 *' Undique conveniunt velut imber 

foil, above. The tense is changed in * ver- tela tnbnno " Enn. 1. c. 

tit,' as the rout was in consequence of the 808.] 8cii^y 9k irepl Kpord^uri ^acu^ 

charge. ^V^V^ ficiWofA4yri Kca^ax^i^ ^X^ ^- 16. 1. c. 

800.] 'Per muros,' as he is pursuing 'Cava' with 'tempora' above v. 633. 

them round the enclosure. It matters The epithet here seems to denote the 

little whether ' fuga ' be taken with ' con- dizzying and stunning effect of the blows 

fusa ' or with ' vertit.' on the ringing metal. 

801.1 " Coit omnis in unum " 10.410. 809.] 'Solida aera' probably refers to 

802.] " Yiris sufficit " 2. 618. Comp. the helmet, as the context seems to show, 

v. 764 above. Comp. II. 12. 160 K6pv$es 8* &/i^* aiov 

804.] " Haud mollia iussa " G. 3. 41 : dt^rcvi^ Ba\\6fityeu /ivxiKfatri, 

comp. 11. 452, 728. With 'iussa, ni,' 810.1 With 'nee sufficit umbo' Cerda 

which implies a threat, Gossrau comp. comp. II. 13. 397, ovV 1lpK€ff€ 0<i/ny|. 

Hor. 1 Od. 10. 9 "Te boves olim nisi 811.] 'Ingeminant hastis' like "in- 

reddidisses . . . minaci Voce dum terret." geminant plausu " 1. 747. ' Ipse :' Tumus 

805.] Jupiter willed that Tumus should is attacked, not only by the Trojan force, 

retire, and threatens Juno should she but by their leader. 

prevent the Trojans from forcing him to 812.] Mnestheus is called 'fulmineus 'as 

do so. hurling darts like lightning. " Toto 

806.] This part of the description is manabAt corpore sudor" .3. 175. 'Cor- 

imitated from II. 16. 102 foil., also of pore liquitur' like "liquuntur rupibus" 

Ajax. Ennius had previously imitated it G. 2. 187. 
in a passage about a tribune in the His- 


Liquitur et piceum— nee respirare potest j 

Flumen agit ; fessos quatit aeger anhelitus artus. 

Tom demum praeeeps saltu sese omnibus armis 815 

In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo 

Accepit venientem ac mollibus extulit undis^ 

Et laetuim soeiis abluta caede remisit. 

813.] « Piceum 'is a strange and scarcely 8. 257. "Se iactu dedit" G. 4. 528. 

pleasing epithet, expressing, doubtless, the Virg. may have followed some description 

sweat as mingled with dust and gore, of Horatius Cocles. 'Omnibus armis,' 

There is nothing hke it in Hom. or Enn. irayoirXla. 

"Nee respirandi fit copia" Enn. 1. c, 816.] From Enn. A. 1. fr. 37, "Teque, 

both being closely trandated from Hom. pater Tiberine, tuo cum flumine sancto," 

ov8€ my tlx^v *Afiirytvaeu, which he had already more closely imi- 

814.] * Sudor flumen agit ' like " un- tated, 8. 72. P&L, Gud., and another of 

dam fiunus agit'* 8. 258. " Vastos quatit Bibbeck's cursives have * vasto,' Gud. with 

aeger anhelitus artus " 5. 432. Serv. men- * flavo ' as a variant, 
tions a variant 'acer anhelitus,' which 817.] 'Extulit,' raised him after his 

Heins. adopted and Heyne retained : but it plunge and bore him above its surface, 

is not known to be in any MS. Hom. I. c. * MoUibus/ buoyant, not unlike " moUia 

has euel 8* &pya\4tp tx^r* &aefjiaTi, colla" 11. 622. "Mollibus undis" Lu<ir. 

815.] "Praeeeps sese dedit" like "sese 2. 377, where, however, the shade of 

tulit obvia " 1. 314, &c. " Se iecit saltu " meaning is not quite the same. 


* Macte,' or according' to the more common form of the phrase, * macte esto,' is 
generally, and I believe rightly, supposed to be the vocative of ' mactus,' constructed 
with the imperative of the verb substantive in the sense of the nominative. Madvig 
disputes this, and regards * macte ' as an adverb, the last syllable being shortened as in 
* bene * and * male.' 

The facts of the case appear to be as follows : — 

< Macte ' or ' mactus ' was an old Latin word, especially used in connexion with 
sacrifices. Oato De Re Rustica, chaps. 134 (135), 132 (133) &c., gives various formulae 
for the invocation of the different gods : " luppiter, te hoc fercto obmovendo bonas 
preces precor, uti sies volens propitius mihi liberisque meis, domo familiaeque meae, 
mactus hoc fercto," " luppiter dapalis, macte istace dape poUucenda esto," " macte vino 
inferio esto." This agrees with the words of Servius on the present passage, " Et est 
sermo tractus a sacris. Quotiens enim aut tus aut vinum super victimam fundebatur, 
dicebant: Mactus est taurus vino vel ture, hoc est, cumulata est hostia et magis 
aucta." To the same effect Amobius 7. 31, " Operae pretium est etiam ipsa verba de- 
promere, quibus, cum vinum datur, uti ac supplicare consuetudo est : Mactus hoc vino 
inferio esto." There is also an apparent reference to this sacrificial use in a line from 
Lucilius Book 5, quoted by Nonius p. 341 and Servius on the present passage, 
"Macte, inquam, virtute simulque his versibus esto," though Lion's edition of Servius 
reads * viribus.' In the remaining passages where the word is used, with one or two 
exceptions, it seems, as in the present passage, to have the sense of approbation and en- 
couragement, being commonly found with ' virtute ' or some similar word *. There is 

1 This is probably its sense in Martial 4. 13. 2, " Claudia, Rufe, meo nubit peregrina 
Pudenti : Macte esto taedis, O Hymenaee, tuis," " a blessing on thy torches." 


no need to accumnlate instances, which may readUy he found in the Dictionaries, 
especially Mr. White's, to which I am indehted for almost all those already given. 
Cicero, Letters to Atticns 15. 29 ad flnem, has ' macte ' alone without a case, and 
Statins (Theh. 2. 495) and Martial (12. 6. 7) have each an instance of < macte animi.' 
In all these passages * macte ' is the form used, with or without ' esto,' as an impera- 
tive. There is one passage where it occurs with 'esse' in a sort of oratio obliqua, 
Livy 2. 12, "iuberem macte virtute esse, si pro mea patria ista virtus staret*." 
Three passages have been quoted for a plural form *macti,* with 'este* or 'estote,* 
Livy 7. 36, Pliny 2. 12, Curtius 4. 1. § 18 ; but in each of these there is more or less 
MS. authority for * macte.' In Lucretius 5. 1339 ' mactae ' occurs in quite a different 
connexion, '* boves Lucae ferro male mactae :" this however Mr. Munro believes to be 
quite a different word. Lastly, in Attius' Epigoni fe. 16 Bibbeck (cited by Konius p. 
342) ' macte ' seems to occur in connexion with ' exsilio :' but the reading of the whole 
passage is doubtful in a high degree. 

I cannot but think that these facts point decidedly to one conclusion. The passage 
from Cato and the note of Servius seem to prove that there was a word * mactus,' 
existing as a participle side by side with ' macto,' like 'aptus ' with ' apto.' Priscian 
p. 668 P. distinctly says "macte, id est, magis aucte, antiqui tamen et mactus 
dicebant," and Festus p, 93 has ''mactus, magis auctus," which he is hardly likely to have 
said if the only part of the word he knew was ' macte/ The testimony of Amobius is 
more doubtful, as the form he quotes is the same as that given by Oato with ' macte.' 
' Macfcus ' then, as applied to the gods, seems originally to have meant honoured, as 
' mactare ' meant to honour. This being the case, it seems to me the natural conclu- 
sion that where 'macte' is used, it is used as a participle or adjective, not as an 
adverb. We must remember that in all the passages where 'macte ' is used, except 
Livy 2. 12, it is found with the imperative mood : and Livy is evidently accommodating 
an obsolete expression, the grammatical rationale of which he perhaps did not himself 
understand, to the oratio obliqua. How then is the use of the vocative to be accounted 
for ? The question is one on which it would be imprudent to speak confidently : but 
I would suggest that we have here a trace of an old construction of the vocative with 
the imperative, perhaps even of a connexion between the two forms, the vocative of the 
noun and the imperative of the verb, each of which may be said to be analogous to the 
other. There is a curious expression in Homer which suggests a similar explanation, 
odKt re xal fxaKa xa<pe* ^*o\ B4 roi 6Kfiia 9o7iy (Od. 24. 402, Hymn Apollo 466, with 
the variation iji4ya for fidXa). Here oZ\t is commonly supposed to be the imperative of 
an unused o(/A.» =: 6yialva, on the strength of Strabo p. 635 : but it is evident that 
Strabo is merely making an etymological guess from this passage, in order to get a 
derivation for OCXios, the Milesian and Delian name of Apollo. I can hardly doubt 
that oSac is the vocative of odXos, which had come in some way to be used colloquially 
where we should expect an imperative ^. A vocative is occasionally found in Qreek 
constructed with the imperative of the verb substantive, as in the well-known instances 
yevov iro\vfiya(rrop Aesch. Supp. 535, 6\fit€ K&pt yivoio Theocr. 17. 66, which may be 
only instances of poetical licence, but may also be remnants of an old form of ex- 
pression. The instances in the Latin poets where the vocative is substituted for the 
nominative are generally of a different kind, and seem rather poetical than idiomatic *. 

^ In Florus 2. 18. 16, which Mr. White quotes, the reading seems uncertain. 

' This suggestion, with the parallel ' macte,' has already appeared in Mr. Hayman's 
edition of Homer's Odyssey, vol. i. Appendix A. 3, to which I communicated it. 
Perhaps the use of od\€ depends on its junction with x^P^> ^^ which case we may be 
reminded of such expressions as ' out and spake.' 

* Such e. g. are the instances given in Servius' note, Persius 3. 28, 29, and others. 


It is qaite possible that the omission of 'esto' after 'macte' (as in the present passage 
fiom Virgil and the three passages which the dictionaries adduce from Cicero) may 
have arisen from the gradual prevalence of a notion that 'macte' itself was an 
imperative. Nor does the question whether * macte ' or ' macti ' is the reading in the 
passages cited from Livy, Pliny, and Ourtius appear to be of much importance. In 
Ldvy's time the expression was doubtless an obsolete one, imperfectly understood, and 
those who employed it would be guided rather by a vague apprehension of usage than 
by any clear comprehension of its original force. What seems of more importance is 
the fact that in the vast majority of instances it is only found with the second person 
singular of the imperative. The ' male mactae ' in Lucretius I should myself explain 
not, as Mr. Munro does, by supposing that ' mactus ' comes from a supposed * macere ' 
found in *permicies' (which, according to him, is the true orthog^phy of ' pemicies'), 
but by a reference to such expressions as ' mactare malo,' ' infortunio,' &c. Lucretius 
was using a word which in his time was probably obsolescent, and he may well have 
wavered between a conception derived from the expressions just quoted, and one 
founded on the later use of ' mactare' in the sense of riaughtering a victim. 

Madvig's explanation has of course the advantage of avoiding the hypothesis of an 
otherwise unknown construction : but it appears to me unsupported by what is known 
of the usage of the word ' mactus,' and it fails to account for the fact of the virtual 
restriction of 'macte' to the second person of the imperative. I do not include the 
difficulty about the quantity of the final ' e,' which might doubtless be got over. The 
only support of Madvig's view that has occurred to me is the use of the adverb < salve ' 
in such phrases as ' satin salve,' which I have sometimes thought may have come to be 
niistaken for an imperative, so that ' salvete ' was used in the plural, and a verb 
' salveo ' assumed. But I am not aware that ' salve esse ' is ever founds though there 
seems no reason why it should not exist, as Plautus says 'bene sum' as well as 'bene 
est mihi.' 




FoLLOwnra- the example of Homer in the Fourth and Eighth Books of the Iliad, 
VirgU opens this Book with a council of the gods. It seems however to be introduced 
for its own sake rather than tp serve the needs of the poem. It ^ves occasion to two 
vigorous speeches, by Tenus and Juno : but Jupiter's final deliverance is a conclusion 
in which nothing is concluded ; he simply announces his determination to be passive 
and to let things take their course as destiny chooses. The gods are blamed for 
interfering, and yet not forbidden to interfere : in fact, it is the conduct of Latinus 
repeated on a larger scale. The catalogue of the Etruscan forces is obviously taken 
from that of the Trojans, which concludes the Second Book of the Iliad. The appear- 
ance of the transformed ships is the natural sequel of the story in the preceding Book, 
but it does not otherwise assist the narrative. Aeneas learns from Cymodoce only 
what he would have learned a very little later from his own observation ; nor does it 
appear that he is enabled to make any preparations which he would not have made 
otherwise. The story of the battle is open to objections which beset more or less 
all stories of battles, at least in heroic times : we feel them however more in reading 
Virgil than in reading Homer. We have a succession of exploits by different heroes, 
who are kept from coming into collision with each other till they have contributed 
their respective quotas to the series of events. In this Book we hear nothing of 
Turnus' being afraid of Aeneas, so that we should have expected them to meet as soon 
as possible after the latter has landed with his troops : but when the Trojan leader has 
slain a few of the enemy, we lose sight of him, and our attention is directed to Pallas. 
The poet seems sensible that Pallas and Lausus at any rate might have been expected to 
meet, and offers an apology for their not doing so. The rest of the narrative is better 
devised. That Pallas should fall by Tumus was necessary for the purposes of the 
story : and the incident is told so as to prepare us for sympathizing with the retribu« 
tion when it comes. Aeneas has a new motive for encountering Tumus : but Vir^ 
recognizes the emergency and obviates it by a divine intervention. Some may object 
to the character of Mezentius that we have to take his crimes as it were on credit, and 
that what we actually see of him is in the main favourable. But the question is, have 
we any difficulty in realizing the conception which the poet intended ? Is the affec- 
tion subsisting between him and his son incompatible with the tyranny which we are 
told that he practised towards his subjects and his alleged impiety ? If we pronounce 
that it is not, but that the character is a consistent one, we need not blame Virgil fo^ 
his forbearance in throwing its darker features into the shade. 

AENEID. LIB. X. 225 

Panditue interea domus omnipotentis Olympi, 
Conciliumque vocat divom pater atque hominum rex 
Sideream in sedem^ terras unde arduus omnis 
Castraque Dardanidum adspectat populosque Latinos. 
Congiiiunt tectis bipatentibus ; incipit ipse : 5 

1 — 15.] 'Jupiter calls a council of gods, note, 
and exhorts them to compose their quarrel 8.] 'A ^atvy&y ktrrifrnv oIk&v tBpas of 

until the arrival of the time appointed for Zeus, Euripides Cyd. 858 : oomp. itirrpwrohs 

the assault of Carthage upon Rome.' oUovs ib. H. F. 406. Yirg. may be 

1.] Yirg. probably meant, as Serv. thinking of the highest circle of heaven, the 

thought, to imply by this line the opening seat of the * sidera :' comp. " aethra side- 

of a new day : just as he expresses sunset rea" 3. 585 (recalling Eur. Ion 1078 Aihs 

by "clauso Olympo" 1. 374. 'Interea' &(rT«p«irbsai^f»),*aethra,' like the "aether 

seems to be used vaguely, as 11. 1 iguifer"ofLucr. 5. 498, being the highest 

" Ocean um interea surgens Aurora reliquit." and purest air. Jupiter " sideream mundi 

Vv. 118 — 146 must therefore contain a brief . . . temperat arcem '* Ov. Am. 3.10. 21. 

description of a whole day's battle, during 'Arduus' as 7. 624 "arduus altis equis :" 

which, or during part of which ('interea' 4p Kopv^^tri KaB4(*ro is Homer's simpler 

V. 118), the gods are sitting in council, expression (II. 8. 51). The passage from 

The conclusion of the battle is fixed by the Statins (Theb. 1. 201) quoted by Forb. 

pluperf. ' contulerant,' and its fortunes should rather be compared with 9. 53. 
tally sufficiently with Venus' anxiety, 4.] II. 8. 52 €lffop6wy Tptlittp re ir6\iy Ka\ 

Jnno's anger, and Jupiter's impartiality iffjas 'Axat&v, ' Terras omnis ' is followed 

in. the Olympic debate. We may there- by 'castraque Dardanidum populosque 

fore reject Heyne's supposition that the Ijitinos,' as in 3. 90 " tremere omnia visa 

council of the gods takes place on the repente " is followed by " liminaque lau- 

evening of the day which may be thought rusque dei." ' Dardanidum ' 2. 242. See 

to have closed with Book 9, and that the Madv. § 34, obs. 3. ' Adspectat ' has the 

night mentioned in vv. 147, 215, and 216 meaning of ' gazing at from far ' (as here) 

is the night following that evening. The 1. 120 (coUis) " adversas adspectat desnper 

description of the battle vv. 118 — 146 is arces :" comp. v. 251 below, 
short, but enough is included to occupy 5.] ' Bipatens ' seems to mean ' opening 

a day. The councils of the gods described in two ways or directions :' it is applied 

in II. 8 and Od. 5 take place at day-break, to folding doors by Yirg. (2. 330 note). 

With the thought of 'panditur domus and to a writing-tablet whose leaves open 

Olympi' comp. Homer's nvXal otpavov, either forwards or backwards ("bipatens 

and Ennius' "porta caeli" (Epig. 10), pugillar") by Ausonius Epig. 146. 8. 

adopted by Yirg. G. 3. 261. 'Omnipotens' 'Tectis bipatentibus' probably means 

recurs as an epithet of Olympus 12. 791. ' halls open at both ends.' To have a 

The line of Aeschylus (Prom. 397) ^ t^ door at each end was, according to 

y4oy OoKovvTi trayKparus tJipas may have Yitruvius (3. 1. 10), a peculiarity of the 

been in Yirg.'s mind, though the thought hypaethros, his seventh and largest variety 

there is not exactly parallel to that of of temple (" medium . . . sub divo est 

* omnipotisntis Olympi,' as irayKpartTs is sine tccto, aditusque valvarum ex utraque 

only relative to Zeus. A reading * omni- parte in pronao et postico." Comp. the 

patentis ' is mentioned by Pierius, and one plans given by Stieglitz, Archaologie der 

of the Hamburg MSS. (according to Baukunst, 2te Theil). The idea of a 

Burmann) has ' omniparentis ' (epithet of temple was originaUy that of a house for 

the earth 6. 595) as a correction : this the deity : the palace of Picus (7. 174 foil.) 

was approved by Heinsius. A line of serves as the abode both of the gods and 

Naevius (Osann conj. * Laevius') "Pan- of the king. Thus it is quite natural that 

ditur interea domus altitonantis Olympi " Yirg. should conceive the palace of his 

is quoted by Apuleius, de Orthographia gods according to the model of a great 

§ 15, who thinks that * Olympi ' may be temple, and the prominent epithet * bi- 

gen. of ' Olympius :' in any case that patentibus * may be meant to recall the 

Jupiter is meant. actual construction of the ' hypaethros.' 

2.] ' Conciliumque vocat ' 6. 433. The two doors probably stand for the east 

< Divom pater atque hominum rex ' 1. 69 and west, the gates through which the sun 



Caelicolae magni^ quianam sententia vobis 

Versa retro^ tantumque animis certatis iniquis? 

Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris. 

Quae contra vetitum discordia ? quis metus aut hos 

Aut hos anna sequi fermmque lacessere suasit ? 10 

Adveniet iustum pugnae, ne arcessite, tempus^ 

Cum fera Karthago Romanis arcibus olim 

Exitium magnum atque Alpes inmittet apertais : 

enters and departs (oomp. Macrob. Sat. be paralleled by Thac. 1. 77, Ify r< waph, 

1. 9, " lanum qaidam solem demonstrari rh firi oUadai XP^"^ • • • i^aaffuBwinf * if 

volunt, et ideo geminum quasi utriusque they are thwarted against their notiona 

ianuae caelettis potentem "), a conception of what is wrong :* their notions, that is, 

which recalls Ennins' " caeli palatum ** of what is right. ' Discordia ' as below 

(comp. the converse use of ovpca>6s for the (vr. 105, 106) includes the quarrels of the 

palate), and Lucretius' ''caeli hiatus.'' gods as well as of men, the two being 

" JBipatentibus est sermo Ennianus trac- closely connected. 'Quis metus' &c. 

tus ab ostiis quae ex utraque parte If ' hos ' refers not to the gods but to the 

aperiuntur," Serv. *Ipse' of Jupiter as men, 'metus' will mean mutual suspicion 

distinguished from the other deities : so or terror, an agency constantly attributed 

G. 4. 386 of Cyrene as distinguished from to supernatural causes : see especially 7. 

the other nymphs. Avrhs 94 o-^* ii,y6p€V€, 552, 578. Schrader ingeniously but un- 

Ocol S* &fia irdyrts (bcovot^ II. 8. 4. necessarily oonj. ' quis deus ' (comp. t. 

6.] " Quianam dictis nostris sententia 73 below). If ' hos ' are the gods, as is 

flexa est ? " (Enn. A. 7, fr. 18.) For 'quia- possible but not so likely, Jupiter speaking 

nam ' see on 5. 13. rhetorically of their interference as if it 

7. j ' Iniquis ' combines the ideas of dis- had been direct action, ' metus ' may be 

content and spite. comp. with " metu " 1. 280 note. ' Suasit ' 

8.] In consequence of the apparent governs the accus. and infin. 'hos sequi' 

contradiction between this line and 1. 263 as an object clause : ' who was the adviser 

"helium ingens geret Italia," Heyne of their following arms?' So Lucr. 1. 

numbers this among the passages which 143 foil. " Sed tua me virtus . . . quemvis 

Virg., had he lived long enough, would sufferre laborem Suadet :" so perhaps also 

have corrected. Yirg/s consistency may in the difficult passage ib. 3. 83-4 (timor, 

be saved, if it be worth saving, by the odium vitae) " banc vexare pudorem, 

consideration that what Jupiter says here hunc vincula amicitiai Bumpere et in 

that he had forbidden was the active summa pietatem evertere suadet," where 

opposition of the Italians to the Trojans: 'suadet' is altered by Lambinus into 

but this prohibition does not stand in the ' fundo,' and by Lachmann into ' fraude ' 

way of his foreknowledge that such op- (see Munro ad 1.). Comp. 12. 813. 

position would be offered, and result in a 10.] ' Arma sequi,' to follow after arms, 

general war (** helium ingens geret Italia i. e. discord. The phrase has a different 

populosque feroces Contundet "), and the shade of meaning 3. 54, 156., 6. 612 (note), 

just punishment of a perverse hostility, where ' arma ' has a specific epithet. With 

* Italiam ' for * Italos :' comp. Eur. Orest. ' ferrum lacessere ' oomp. 5. 429 " pug^m- 

1365, ndpitf ts Ayay 'EWdV 4s "Wiov. So que lacessunt," 11. 254 " ignota lacessere 

below V. 365 " Arcadas insuetos acies bella." So " inritare helium " Sail. Hist, 

inferre pedestres Ut vidit Pallas Latio dare i. 16 (Dietsch). 

terga sequaci," where as here the people 11.] With 'iustum pugnae tempus' 

and the country are mentioned together. comp. " iustos hymenaeos " G. 3. 60, which 

9. J 'Quae discordia '= "cur haec dis- may mean 'the fit time for marriage:' 

cordia?" See on 1. 237. 'Vetitum' a so Ov. M. 10. 36 "quum iustos matura 

prohibition, correlative to " iussum " a peregcrit annos," * Ne arcessite,' bring it 

command: "iussa ac vetita popnlorum" not on. 

Cic. Legg. 2. 4. 9. Here the prohibition 12.] 'Romanis arcibus' G. 2. 172 

stands alone as being the essence of the note, 

command : a figure of speech which may 13.] ' Exitium magnum ' 2. 190. ' Alpes 

AENEID, LIB. X. 227 

Turn certare odiis^ turn res rapniase licebit. 

Nunc sinite^ et placitum laeti conponite foedns. 15 

luppiter haec paucis ; at non Venus aurea contra 
Fauca refert : 

O Pater^ o hominum rerumque aetema potestas I 
Namque aliud quid sit^ quod iam inplorare queamos ? 
Cernis, ut insultent Rutuli, Turnusque feratur 20. 

* Per medios insignis equis tumidusque secundo 

apertas' almost forms a hendiadys with 'Hominum diromqae^' the old reading 

' exitium magnum/ as it is through the retained hy Heins. and Heyne, is found 

opened Alps that destruction comes, in three of Rihbeck's cursives. The use 

" Libyen Italas infudit in urbes," says Ma- of the abstract ' potestas ' in a concrete 

nilius 4. 662, imitating or rather parodying sense is natural in poetry, especially 

Yirg. (Peerlkamp). The phrase 'res rapere' as applied to a god: comp. Milton's 

was applied, according to Serv., not merely " Thrones, dominations, princedoms, 

(as correlative of "res reddere") to the" virtues, powers." Cicero however (Tusc. 

preliminary acts of violence which were 1. 80) has *'aut a mag^stratu aut a 

followed by the " darigatio " or ceremony legitima aliqua potestate evocatus " (a 

of demanding satisfaction, but also to the kind of transition to Yirg.'s use), and the 

reprisals which, supposing satisfaction were post- Augustan writers seem to employ 

refused, the injured party proceeded to 'potestas' directly in the sense of an 

make. " Nolentibus res raptas restituere officer or magistrate : Juv. 10. 100 " Fide- 

. . . iaciebat hastam . . . et iam licebat narum Gkbiorumque esse potestas " (where 

more belli res rapere." Thus ' res rapere ' see Mayor) : Suet. Claud. 23 " iurisdic- 

would be to a Boman an antique ex- tionem potestatibus per provincias deman- 

pression for the whole circumstances dare." So apx'h in Greek, 

attending a state of war.. Perhaps the 19.] 'Aliud . . . inplorare:' so 7. 811 

perfect tense may be pressed here : ' then " dubitem hand equidem inplorare quod 

it wUl be allowed them to have plundered usquam est." 

each other :' ' then a state of turmoil will 20.] For ' insultent ' a few MSS. (none 

be permitted.' For a full account of the of Ribbeck's) read ' insultant :' but such a 

" clarigatio " see Serv. here and on 9. 53, construction could not be supported by 

and comp. Livy 1. 32. such passages as E. 4. 52 (note). The 

15.] * Sinite ' absolutely : Wagn. comp. words ' feratur . . . tumidusque ' are in- 

among other instances Plant. Cas. 3. 2. serted in Med. by a later hand, the sentence 

14, " Yin' vocetn P CI. Sine : nolo, si being originally written ' Turnusque se- 

occnpata est." So iat' in Greek : U. 21. cun£>,' &c. Bibbeck accordingly puts them 

221, Soph. O. C. 593, Aesch. Prom. 332. in brackets, remarking that Turnus in 

' Laeti placidnm ' Med. ; ' placidum ' for Book 9 has fought on foot, not on horse - 

* placitum ' is also given by Gud. corrected, back or from a chariot. But Turnus had 

The concision is a Sequent one. ' Placitum' appeared on horseback in his first attack 

(confirmed here by Serv.) means 'deter- on the camp, 9. 49 (comp. 9. 269, which 

mined on by Jupiter, or the Fates, or shows that his appearance had made an 

both :' comp. " sic placitum " 1. 283. impression on the Trojans), so that a more 

'Conponite foedus' like 'pacem con- scrupulous narrator than Venus might 

ponere ' 7. 339., 12. 821, Livy 2. 13. have used the expression before us. The 

16—62.] 'Venus prays Jupiter that pi. 'equis,' however, would suggest a 

whatever may bo the fate of Aeneas, it chariot, such as Turnus has later, v. 440 

may be permitted her to take Ascanins to below, 12. 326, &c. But in any case 

herself, and that the Trojans, if they must Virg.'s want of memory or Venus' hflbit of 

give up Italy to Carthage, may be allowed exaggeration would account sufficiently for 

at least to settle once more in their ruined the words. The eye of a transcriber would 

fatherland.' easily pass from * Turnusque ' to ' tumi- 

16.] ' Venus aurea :' Hom.'s XP^^^""! dusque.' * Feratur per medios :' go 12. 477 

*A<ppoSirri (II. 3. 64. Od. 8. 337). "medios luturna per hostis Fertm* equis." 

18.] 'Hominum rerumque' 12. 829. 21.] 'Tumidus' as 9. 696, though pos- 



Marte ruat ? Non clausa tegunt iam moenia Teucros : 
Quin intra portas atque ipsis proelia miscent 
Aggeribus moerorum^ et inundant sanguipe fossas. 
Aeneas ignarus abest. Numquamne levari 25 

Obsidione sines ? muris iterum imminet hostis 
Nascentis Troiae, nee non exercitus alter; 
Atque iterum in Teucros Aetolis surgit ab Arpis 
Tydides. Equidem credo, mea volnera restant, • 

Et tua progenies mortalia demoror arma I 30 

Si sine pace tua atque invito numine Troes 

sibly here there may be a metaphor from a the next line. * Imminet ' as in Hor. 1 Od. 

river. * Secundo Marte ' like ** lanone 12. 63 " Parthos Latio imminentis." 

secunda,'' 4. 45, where, as here, there is 27.] * Nascentis * emphatic, implying 

probably an allusion to a fair gale speeding that this was the crnellest siege of all. 

motion. With the whole comp. II. 9. 237, The camp is called ' Troia' as below, v. 74, 

^Zicrefip ih fi4ya <r$4y€i fi\€fi€alyvy Maiytrai where Juno takes the phrase ' nascens 

ixirdyXcfis, irlo'vyos Ait. Troia * out of Venus' mouth. See Heyne, 

22.] In Med. 'clausa' is altered from Exc. 3 to Book 7. 

' claustra,' which Wakef. adopted and com- 28.] For the embassy to Diomede see 

bined with a reading of the Jesus MS. 8. 9. ' Aetoli ' of Arpi, as founded by the 

* non moenia/ thus producing * non claustra Actolian Diomede : comp. 11. 428. Med., 
tegunt, non moenia Teucros :' " non male," Gud., and another of Ribbeck's cursives 
says Ribbeck. But 'clausa' is really have 'surget:' conversely in 6. 762 Med. has 
emphatic ; * closed though they be.* Venus * surgit ' wrongly for * surget.' * Surgit,' 
conveniently ignores the fact that the like ' imminet,' * restant,' * demoror,' itself 
opening of the gates was the thing which expresses the requisite notion of futurity, 
hiad proved fatal to the Trojans. Comp. " bella Tyro surgentia," 4. 43. 

23.] 'Ipsis' as G. 4. 75 "circa regem 29.] 'Mea volnera,' II. 5. 336. 'Mea* 

atque ipsa ad praetoria :" comp. A. 2. 469. emphatic : ' my wounding, too, is not yet 

' Proelia miscent ' Lucr. 4. 1013, G. 2. done with.' * Resto ' here as often in the 

282. meaning of 'to remain behind for com- 

24.] * Agger moerorum,' as v. 144 and pletion :' comp. Ov. F. 2. 827 " restabant 
11. 382 (where this line is nearly repeated), ultima :" M. 10. 372 " ubi plaga novissima 
means * the pile of the wall :' ' agger ' restat :" ib. 14. 439 " saevi restare peri- 
having a general sense, as in 5. 273 (note) cula ponti :" Pers. 3. 97 ''jam pridem 
and 6. 830. For the special sense of the hunc sepeli : tu restas :" see also Lucr. 5. 
word see Diet. A. 'Murorum' is the 227. 
reading of the bulk of Ribbeck's MSS., 30.] * Mortalia arma ' 1. 592. Comp. 

* moerorum ' being only found in Pal. (ori- 12. 797 " mortalin' decuit violari volnere 
ginally) and in two cursives from correc- divom :" and G. 3. 319 note. Venus says 
tions : but Serv. attests ' moerorum/ and that she must keep the arms of mortals 
the archaic form is sufficiently likely to waiting for her : i. e. that the fighting will 
have been altered. 'Fossas' Pal. and not be over until she is wounded, almost as 
Gud., supported by Serv., 'fossae' Med., if she owed an apology for the delay. 
Rom. On the whole Ribbeck seems right * Demoror * cannot mean, as Serv. says, ' to 
in preferring the former, as the latter look for ' or ' to sustain,' but only * to keep 
would naturally be introduced from 11. waiting :' comp. 2. 648 " annos demoror," 
382, whereas Virg. is fond of repeating 3. 481 " demoror austros," 11. 175 " Teu- 
his lines with a change. But the ace. cros demoror armis." 

here may be due to a transcriber, who 31.] 'Pax' in the same sense as 3. 370 
wished to accommodate 'inundant' to " pacem divom :'* see Fore. 'Numine' in 

* miscent.' the sense of 'will,' as 1. 133., 2. 123, 777, 

25.] * Is Troy always to be besieged ?' &c. * Tuo ' probably to be supplied to 
26.] ' Hostis ' of the prominent figure ' numine ' from ' tua.' 
Tnmus, as contrasted with ' exercitus ' in 

AENEID. LIB. X. 229 

Italiam petiere : luant peccata^ neque illos 

luveris auxilio : sin tot responsa secuti. 

Quae Superi Manesqne dabant : cur nunc tua quisquam 

Vertere iussa potest ? aut cur nova condere fata ? 36 

Quid repetam exustas Erycino in litore classis ? 

Quid tempestatum regem, ventosque furentis 

Aeolia excitos ? aut actam nubibus Irim ? 

Nunc etiam Manis — haec intemptata manebat 

Sors rerum — ^movet, et superis inmissa repente 40 

Allecto^ medias Italum bacchata per urbes. 

Nil super inperio moveor ; speravimus ista, - 

Dum fortuna fuit ; vincant, quos vincere mavis. 

Si nulla est regio, Teucris quam det tua coniunx 

Dura, per eversae, genitor, fumantia Troiae 45 

Exscidia obtestor : liceat dimittere ab armis 

32.] 'Luant peccata' like <'lais com- a Boman magistrate obtaining his pro- 

missa'' G. 4. 454. See Fore. 'Neque vince by lot, and applying it to the three- 

iuveris ' like " nee respezeris " E. 8. fold division of the universe between the 

102. sons of Saturn (1. 139 note), to which he 

33.J ' luvare auxilio ' like " levare auxi- is alluding. Livy 22. 35., 30. 40 has " sors 

lio " 2. 452. ' Responsa/ G. 3. 491., 9. urbana " for * the city department :* comp. 

134. ' Secuti/ 3. 382 " data fata secutus.*' ib. 1. 35, where " sortem bonorum " means 

* Secuti' constructed with * Italiam petiere.* ' a share of property.* * Rerum ' as 9. 131 

34.]] For the commands of the gods see " rerum pars altera adempta est.** 'Movet* 

1. 205., 3. 183, 382., 4. 266, &c.; for those 7. 312. ' Superis* generally, those who 

of the Manes, that of Hector 2. 295, of live above, opposed to ' Manis :* comp. 6. 

Oreusa 2. 781, of Anchises 5. 729., 6. 757 568, and for the thought 7. 557, 571. 

folL 'Superis inmissa' like "inmissae silvis** 

35.] 'Vertere' as in 1. 237. One of G. 2. 312. It is better to supply 'est* 

Ribb^k's cursives has 'flectere,* and after 'inmissa* than after 'bacchata.' 

Rom. has ' iura* for 'iussa.* ' Condere,* ' Bacchata per urbes * 4. 300, 666. 

to put together or compose, as in the 42.] ' Super ' G. 4. 559. ' Inperio :* 

phrase " carmen condere ** (comp. £. 10. she reminds Jupiter of his promise in- 

50), Fate being regarded as a book. Here, directly, as directly in 1. 234 foil. * Spe- 

as in 1. 257, 262, Jupiter's commands are ravimus ista,' ' we hoped for this at your 

identified with those of the Fates. hand :* Wagn. Q. Y. 19. 2. 

36.] * Repetam ' 3. 436. * Exustas classis' 43.] " Dum Fortuna fuit *' 3. 16. About 

5. 606 foil. Only four ships were really ' Fortuna ' as the good fortune of a city or 

burnt (5. 699), but she exaggerates simi- race see note on G. 4. 209. 

larly 5. 794 " classe amissa.** * Erycino in 44.] ' Nulla regie :* Serv. comp. 1. 233 

litore ' 1. 570., 5. 759. *' quibus, tot funera passis, Totus ob Italiam 

37.] Aeolus is " tempestatum potens " 1. terrarum clauditur orbis." With ' det * 

84, as here he is ' tempestatum rex.' For comp. 5. 798 " si concessa peto, si dant ea 

the facts alluded to here see 1. 50 foil. moenia Parcae." 

38.] Iris was sent to cause the burning 45.] The present part. ' fumantia* gives 

of the fleet (5. 606 foil.), and to incite vividness: comp. Eur. Troades 8, v6k(i 

Tnrnus to attack the Trojan camp (9. 2 *H yvv Kairyovrai (Cerda), and ib. 585. 

foil.). 'Actam nubibus' 9. 18 note. See also 3. 3 note. 

39, 40, 41.] ' Manis ' 7. 324 foil. ' Haec 46.] ' Exscidia ' 2. 643. ' Dimittere 

sors rerum * seems to mean ' this portion incolumem ' like " tutos dimittam " 1. 

of the universe :' Virg. is probably thinking 571. 
of the phrase "sortiri provinciam** used of 


Incolumem Ascanitim^ liceat superesse nepotem. 

Aeneas sane ignotis iactetur in undis^ 

Et, quaecumque viam dederit Fortuna^ sequatur : 

Hunc tegere et dirae valeam subducere pugnae. 50 

Est Amathus^ est celsa mihi Paphus atque Cythera 

Idaliaeque domus : positis inglorius armis 

Exigat hie aevum. Magna dicione iubeto 

Karthago premat Ansoniam ; nihil urbibus inde 

Obstabit Tyriis. Quid pestem evadere belli 66 

luvit et Argolicos medium fugisse per ignis, 

Totque maris vastaeque exhausta perieula terrae, 

47.] 'Liceat superesse nepotem '=: which shows that the error may have 

"liceat mihi superesse nepotem." Hein- arisen from some one's recollection of 

sins wished to read 'nepoti/ the sense of 'alta Cythera' below, v. 86. Wagn. reads 

which would be different, and not so from the *expositus Palatinns oodex' of 

good. Pierius and Menag. prim, 'est celsa 

48.] * Sane ' concessive, as in Cic. Acad. Paphus atque alta Cy thera/ in which the 

Prior. 2. 32. 105 (Fore.) " haec si vobis non juxtaposition of 'celsa' with 'alta' would 

probamus sint falsa sane : invidiosa certe be weak. 

non sunt." For 'sane' Rom. and some 52.] The form in 1. 681 is 'Idalium.* 

others, including one of Ribbeck's cur- It is oetter to take ' Idaliae ' as the gen. 

sives, have ' procul \* ' sane ' has the autho- sing, from ' Idalia ' (1. 692 " altos Idaliae 

rity of Serv., and seems less likely to have lucos ") than as the nom. plur. from the 

been interpolated. For 'in undis' Pal. adj. 'Idalius' (5. 76 "Veneri Idaliae"), 

corrected, Gud., and some others have ' in since ' domus,' which can mean temple in 

oris,' which might stand : comp. 1. 331, the sing. (6. 53, 81), does not «>em to be 

" quibus orbis in oris lactemur." But used in this sense in the plur. ' Inglorius * 

'undis' was the original reading of Pal., 11. 693., 12. 397, G. 2. 486. "Positis 

and is found as a variant in Gud., and it bellis " 1. 291. 

seems more likely that * oris ' may have 63.] The Verona fragment has * exiget,* 

been introduced from 1. 1. c, and perhaps with some support from two of Ribbeck's 

G. 3. 225. She characteristically exagge- cursives. ' Exigat aevum ' Lucr. 4. 1235. 

rates Aeneas' journey up the Tiber into a Comp. 7. 776 " ignobilis aevum Elxiget." 

hazardous voyage, the issue of which is as With ' magna dicioue ' comp. " omni di- 

yet unknown. cione " 1. 236, which is still stronger. 

49.] Comp. 4. 653 "quem cursum de- ** Dicione premebat " 7. 737. 

derat Fortuna percgi," and also 5. 22, 23., 54.] ' Inde,' i. e. from Ascanius. Forb. 

11. 128. Pal. has 'quacumque,' which comp. 1. 21, "Progeniem sed enim Tro- 

might be supported from 2. 388. iano a sanguine duci Audierat . . . Sine 

50.] 'Tegere' 12. 148. Here it is ex- populum late regembelloquepotentem Yen- 
plained by what follows vv. 51 foil. ' Dirae turum." ' Urbibus Tyriis ' a more general, 
pugnae' like "dirum helium" 11. 217: sug- perhaps a contemptuous expression for 
gested, perhaps, by fidxn^ &vo BaKpuodfrffris, Carthage. 

II. 16. 436 : a passage generally similar to 55.] * Pestis ' (= \oiy6s II. 15. 736) as in 

this. Rom. has ' durae :' see 7. 807., 9. 726., 9. 328 " sed non augurio potuit depellere 

10. 146. ' Subducere ' = ^€K<p4p€iv : II. 5. pestem :" see also Livy 25. 19. 

818., 11. 163. 56.] With the expression of this and 

51.] Amathus in Cyprus, Hdt. 5. 104. the preceding line generally comp. 2. 664, 

The temple of Venus there is mentioned 665., 3. 282, 283. 

by Tac. A. 3. 62 (Forb.). For that in 57.] Comp. Livy 21. 30 " quid per octo 
Cy thera see Hdt. 1. 105. Comp. 1. 680. menses periculi, quid laboris, exhaustum 
Rom. and Gud. have ' celsa mihi Paphus esse ?" 33. 39 " Romanos per t6t annos 
(or Paphos) atque alta Cy thera,' ' alta ' terra marique tanta perieula ac labores ex- 
being marked in Gud. for omission, and hausisse." " Bella exhausta," 4. 14« 
Pal. has * alta ' added in the margin : " Perieula terrae," 6. 84 note. 

AENEID. LIB. X. 231 

Dum Latium Teucri recidivaque Pergama qaaerunt ? 

Non satius^ cineres patriae insedisse supremos 

Atque solum, quo Troia fiiit ? Xanthum et Simoenta 60 

Redde, oro, miseris, iterumque revolvere casus 

Da, pater, Iliacos Teucris. Tum regia luno 

Acta furore gravi : Quid me alta silentia cogis 

Rumpere et obductum verbis volgare dolorem ? 

Aenean hominum quisquam divomque subegit 65 

Bella sequi, aut hostem regi se inferre Latino ? 

ItaUam petiit fatis auctoribus : esto : 

58.] 'Recidiva' 4. 344, note. Rom. and Hor. Epod. 5. 85. With 'obductum 

bas * rediviva.' The present tense, ' quae- dolorem * comp. Cic. Leg. Agr. 3. 1, " ne 

runt/ follows the past 'exhausta' (=' quae refricare obductara iam reipublicae eica- 

exhauseruut '), as in E. 7. 6, G. 4. 560., tricem viderer" (Pore.). Ov. M. 12. 542, 

6. 171» where see notes. The search is *''quid me meminisse malorum Cogis, et 

supposed to be still going on. For the obductos annis rescindere luctus ?" where, 

thought comp. generally 5. 628. however, the precise image is somewhat 

59.] ' Satius ' E. 2. 14. The use of * in- different, though Serv. explains 'obductum ' 

sidere ' with the ace. does not seem to have here of a wound skinned over, 

been usual before the Augustan and post- 66.] Both ' sequi ' and ' se inferre ' are 

Augustan writers (see Fore). Rom. has chosen to express that the act is gra- 

* cineres patrios,' Pal. and Gud. 'patriae tuitous on the part of Aeneas. Lucr. 5. 

cineres,' a curious coincidence in violating 868 has " pacem sequi," to desire or follow 

the metre, which may teach us not to over- aiter peace. Comp. E. 2. 64 " cytisum 

rate the authority even of the best MSS. sequitur lasciva capella " for looking for. 

60.] * Quo Troia fuit * 3.11, "etcampos With 'hostem se inferre* comp. 11. 742 

ubi IVoia fuit." Xanthus and Simois are "Venulo adversum se turbidus infert," 

the objects of Trojan patriotism and the and see Livy 2. 30., 6. 12, where ' se in- 

symbols of Trojan fortune. Comp. 3. 497.) ferre ' is similarly used with the dat. 

5. 634., 6. 88. 67.] Med. (originally), Pal., Rom., and 

61.] * Revolvere ' here means 'to roll a the Verona fragm. have 'petit fatis ;* Gud., 

second time,' not as in 9. 391, ' to roll back Med. (corrected), and two of Ribbeck's 

or unweave.* Comp. 2. 101 "Sed quid cursives * petiit fatis.' * Fatis petiit,* from 

ego haec autem nequidquam ingrata re- 'libri nonnulli admodum vetusti* of 

Volvo?'* 'Volvere casus' has already Pierius, was adopted by Heinsius, who 

been used of the sufferings of Aeneas, 1. 9 was followed by Heyne and Wagn. in his 

(note). Forb. comp. Sil. 1. 115, " Rhae- large edition. It was naturally approved 

teaque ikta revolvam." by Lachmann (on Lucr. 3. 1042) as con- 

62 — 95.] 'Juno asks Venus why she will firming his doctrine about the quantity 

re-open an old quarrel to cast in the teeth of the final it in ' petiit ' and the perfects of 

of the gods the consequences of Aeneas' " eo " with its compounds. See Excursus 

mistakes and the crimes of the Trojans? on G. 2.81. Juno speaks of 'fata' as of a 

She claims the same right which Venus power opposed to her in 1. 39 : here, with 

had exercised, of doing something to aid her ' esto,' she first allows the case of her 

her favourites.' opponents, and then in the next line adds 

62, 63,] 'Regia luno' 1. 443. 'Acta her own comment on it, interpreting 

furore :' comp. 5. 659. With ' alta silentia,' * fatis ' as ' prophecies ' (1. 382), and the 

which well expresses Virg.'s conception of prophecies as the ravings of Cassandra. 

Juno's character, comp. 1. 26, " manet ' Auctor * here in the same sense as in the 

alta mente repostum ludicium Paridis,** phrase 'patres auctores fiunt.* Comp. 

and 12. 801 "Nee te tantus edat tacitam "deus auctor Apollo" 8. 335, and "auctor 

dolor." In Homer it is Athene, not Hera, ego audendi" 12. 159. The sense re- 

who smothers her anger in silence. 11. 4, quires a colon before and after * esto,' not 

22 foil., 8. 459 foil. (as Forb. punctuates) a comma. 

64.] 'Silentia rumpere* Lucr. 4. 683, 


Cassandrae inpulsus fiiriis : num linquere castra 
Hortati sumus^ aut vitam committere ventis ? 
Num puero summam belli, num credere muros ? 70 

lyrrhenamque fidem aut gentis agitare quietas ? 
Quis deus in fraudem, quae dura potentia nostra 
Egit ? ubi hie luno, demissave nubibus Iris ? 
Indignum est Italos Troiam circumdare flammis 
Nascentem, et patria Turnum consistere terra, 75 

Cui Pilumnus avus, cui diva Venilia mater : 

68.] *' Sola mihi talis casus Cassandra zeugma in the use of ' agitare.' Juno is, 

canebaf 3. 183. Comp. with * funis' of course, exaggerating and mis-stating, as 

" sponsae praecepta furentis " 2. 345. if Mezentius' subjects were loyal, and the 

* Linquere castra :' for the facts, see 9. 8 Arcadians at peace with their neighbours, 
foil. For * aut ' Rom. has * et.' 

69.] The plur. * hortati,* unless we are 72.] Comp. 9. 601, "Quis deus Italiam, 

to suppose that Virg. intends to imitate quae vos dementia adegit ?" The use of 

the Greek fashion of making women, in 'fraus' in the general sense of harm is 

the plur., speak of themselves in the masc. common in Latin (see Fore). With this 

gander (Jelf, Gr. Gr. § 390 c), includes passage comp. *<pellicere in iraudem," 

Juno and the gods on her side. Comp. Lucr. 5. 1006. 'Dura' refers to v. 45. 

1. 250, where Venus speaks of herself and Ribbeck has restored 'nostra,' the second 

Aeneas as " nos tua progenies." Comp. reading of Med., which has the authority 

below, V. 72. ' Vitam committere ventis ' of all the other chief MSS. Med.'s first 

is her rhetorical way of describing Aeneas' reading ' nostri ' (comp. 4. 337., 8. 514) was 

voyage, mentioned at the beginning of adopted by Heinsius, followed by Heyne 

Book 8 (see v. 48, note). With the ex- and Wagn. 

pression comp. 11. 560, " quae nunc dubiis 73.] 'Hie,' 'in all this:' comp. 6. 399 

committitur auris." Gud. has 'Teucris' 'nuUaiB hie insidiae tales.' Med. has'hinc/ 

as a variant, probably from an unseason- corrected into ' hie' ' Demissave nubibus 

able reminiscence of 12. 60. Iris,' v. 38. 

70.] Pal. and Gud. (originally) have 74.] ' Indignum,' unworthy or imfit in 

' non puero.' ' Summa belli ' is used in a the relation in which the Italians must 

concrete sense, and is further explained by stand to the infant Troy— a cause for indig- 

' muros,' the walls of the camp. Comp. nation. Comp. Livy2. 12, "Mucins . . • 

12. 572, where Aeneas, speaking of the cui indignum videbatur populum Ro- 

city of Latinus, says, " hoc caput, O cives, manum . . . ab . . . Etruscis obsideri quo- 

haeo belli summa nefandi," and Livy 28. 9, rum saepe exercitus fuderit." See also G. 

"iis . . . summa rerum et custodia urbis 1. 491. 'Igni circumdare muros' 9. 153. 

permissa :" ib. 44. 3, " omnis regio ad Rufinianus p. 270 R. quotes the present 

Dium et Philam . . . oculis subiicitur. passage with ' succendere.' ' Troiam nas- 

Quae res accendit militum animos, post- centem :' she quotes Venus' words (v. 27) 

quam summam belli et regias omnis copias as in v. 45 and 85. 

terramque hostilem tam e propinquo con- 75.] ' Consistere ' is used of the immi- 

spexerunt." Comp. note on 2. 322. grants taking their stand on Italian soil 

71.] 'Tyrrhenamve' Rom., the Verona 6. 807 (note). 8. 10. With the spirit of 

fragm., and one of Ribbeck's cursives, the line comp. that of 1. 541 "primaque 

while another has it in an erasure, and so vetant consistere terra." 

Gossrau. But ' que ' has more authority ; 76.] 'Pilumnus 'is "parens "of Tumus 

and, if there be any difference, suits the in 9. 4 (note), and his " quartus pater " in 

sense better, as Aeneas' hopes from the v. 619 below. Venilia was a sea-nymph 

Etruscans are the reason of his leaving the represented as wife sometimes of Neptune, 

walls. 'Tyrrhenam fidem agitare,' 'to sometimes of Janus. See Preller, Rdmische 

disturb the loyalty of the Tyrrhenes :' not, Mythologie, pp. 163, 503. The line is 

as Heyne says, ' to move for an alliance an expansion of the thought contained in 

with the Tyrrhenes ;' an interpretation ' patria,' v. 75. * Though he has the blood 

which would greatly strain the words of Italian gods in his veins.' 

• Tyrrhena fides,' and involve an awkward 

AENEID. LIB. X. 233 

Quid^ face Troianos atra vim ferre Latinis^ 
Arva aliena iugo premere atque avertere praedas ? 
Quid soceros legere et gremiis abducere pactas^ 
Pacem orare manu^ praefigere puppibus anna ? 80 

Tu potes Aenean manibus subducere Graium, 
Proque viro nebulam et ventos obtendere inanis^ 
Et potes in totidem classem convertere Nymphas : 
Nos aliquid Butulos contra iuvisse nefandum est ? 

77.] ' Quid/ answering to ' indignum/ terposita stipnlatio " or formal agreement, 

* what do you call it that/ &c. * FacQ which was not implied by " pacta :" 

atra/ 9. 74 "atque omnis facibus pubes Amobius 4. 20, Non. p. 440: but the 

accingitur atris/' The torch is the symbol distinction was not, probably, present to 

of war and its desolations. Comp. 4. 626. Vii*g.'s mind. " Abducere " 7. 362. 

Pal., and originally Gud., have •atram/ 80.] With 'pacem orare manu' comp. 

The clause is an exaggeration founded on 8. 116 ''paciferaeque manu ramam prae- 

the conflict of 7. 519 foil. With * vim ferre tendere olivae," and 11. 332 "pacisque 

Latinis' comp. G. 4. 830 "fer stabulis mana pi*aetendere ramos." Here the 

inimicum ignem/' In Livy 28. 8 some hand, which elsewhere is the symbol 

MSS. ^ve "ut Dardanis (?) helium of action as opposed to speech, is the 

ferret." Here, as might be expected, some token of pretence. Rom. has ' manu et.' 

inferior MSS. have * inferre.* * Praefigere puppibus arma ' probably, as 

78.] ' Arva,' though constantly used in Serv. suggests, refers to the scene described 

the general sense of * territory,' may here, in 8. 92, " miratur nemus insuetum ful- 

especially in connexion with 'avertere gentia longe Scuta virum fluvio." From 

praedas,' be meant to suggest the idea of 1. 183, joined with the present passage, we 

soil from which the invaders might reap may inter that arms were hung up on the 

profit. Comp. 3. 136, " connubiis arvisque stems of the vessels ; but we have no 

novis operata inventus." But to under- further clue to the custom. It would be 

stand ' the words ' iugo premere ' (as less natural to take the passage with 

Wagn. does) of ploughing, whether in a Wagn. as an allusion to the custom of 

general sense or with special reference to holding up a shield as the signal for 

7. 157, would be to strain them too far. battle (see below on v. 262). 

They imply no more than ' to oppress,* 81, 82.] ' Subducere,* v. 50, note. In 

which is Juno*s way of saying ' to occupy.* H. 5. 315, Aphrodite does not hide Aeneas 

Comp. 8. 143, "quin omnem Hesperium in a cloud, but throws the fold of her 

penitus sua sub iuga mittant." " Animum garment over him : Apollo rescues him in a 

iugo premit Cupido turpis/' Sen. Ag. cloud, ib. 344, and so does Poseidon, II. 

134 (Fore.). 'Avertere,' the regular 20. 321 foil. (Comp. A. 5. 810.) Virg. 

word for carrying off plunder : in Virg. may also have remembered II. 3. 380 foil, 

we have "avertere equos" (1. 472) and There is the same confusion 12. 52. 

**tauros'* 8. 208. Comp. also "vertere 'Ventos inanis,' 6. 740, note. "Auras 

praedas** 1. 528. inanis/' 7. 593. 

79.] 'Legere* used in its ordinary 83.] Ribbeck changes *et* into *tu* 

sense of ' to choose,' implying that the from a conj. by Markland on Stat. Silv. 3. 

choice was arbitrary and all on the side of 2. 81. For the fact alluded to see 9. 80 

Aeneas. Serv. would put upon it the foil. Tbe commentators notice that it 

meaning of " ftirari " (comparing " sacri- was Cybele, not Venus, who performed the 

l^ns "), which would be hardly in place miracle : a remarkable inadvertence on 

here. The plural 'soceros/ like 'gremiis' Virg.'s part. 'Classes' Med. and one of 

and * pactas,' is rhetorical : so " liberos," Bibbeck's cursives : a recollection of v. 36. 

Cic. De Imp. Cn. Pompeii 12. 33. Hoff- ' Totidem/ as if the distributive * naves ' 

maun conj. " socios." ' Pactas/ as in Livy had been used instead of the aggregate 

1. 2, "cui pacta Lavinia fuit:" "pactae 'classem.' The use of 'classem* enables 

coniugis," V. 722 below. There seems to Virg. to make the order of words more arti- 

have been a technical distinction between ficial. For the thought comp. 9. 121 foil, 

"pacta" and "sponsa:" "sponsa" im- 84.] 'Aliquid/ 1. 463 "feret haec ali- 

plying a woman betrothed by an " in- quam tibi fama salutem :" 2. 89 '.' et nos 


Aeneas ignarus'abest : ignarns et absit. 85 
Est Paphus, Idaliumque tibi, snnt alta Cytbera : 

Quid graridam beUis urbem et oorda aspera temptas ? 
Nosne tibi floxas Phrygiae res vertere fundo 

Conamur ? nos? an miseros qui Troas Achivis 

Obiecit ? Quae caussa fuit^ eonsurgere in arma 90 
Europamque Asiamque^ et foedera solvere furto ? 
Me duce Dardanius Spartam expugnavit adulter, 

aliquod nomenqne decusque Gessimtts." water dribbling away from a vessel partly 

** Attennat dicendo ' aliquid/ ** Serv. With overturned, which some one at last tilts 

the double acensative 'aliquid Rutulos over. 

iuvisse ' comp. 12. 872 " Quid nunc te tua, 89.] The continuous act expressed iu 

Tume, potest germana iuvare P" the present ' conamur ' is the result of the 

85.] * Aeneas iguarus abest,* above v. 25. perfect or completed act * obiecit.' * Mi- 

A full stop should be put at the end of the seros * from Venus' speech, v. 61. * Qui ' 

line, and a colon at ' Cythera :' not vice masc. because the meaning is general, 

versa, as Wagn. punctuates, mistaking the 90.] ' Obiecit ' of wanton exposure 4. 

connexion, which he supposes to be, * You 559., 8. 144. For 'causa' followed by 

need not claim pity for Ascanius, on ac- inf. see on G. 1. 213. With ' consui^re 

count of his father's absence, as you have in arma' comp. "eonsurgere ad helium" 

a refuge ready for him.* Juno runs over Livy 10. 13 (Forb.). 

the different points of Venus' speech, 91.] Comp. 7. 223 "quibus actus uterque 

dismissing each with a contemptuous Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrent 

retort. orbis," where see note on v. 224. The 

86, 87.] See above, w. 51, 52. 'Alta 'foedera' are doubtless the laws of hospi- 

Cythera * is coupled with ' Idalium ' 1. 681, tality, which Paris broke, II. 3. 854., 13. 

2. The connexion is, * You have places of 625 foil. That there was any formal 

your own, suited to love, and soft hearts to treaty between Greece and Troy does not 

practise on : why do you stray from your appear from Homer ; in fact, there could 

province to meddle with warlike lands and hardly have been one previous to the 

savage spirits ? ' Virg. is thinking of Dio- Greek confederacy, though a treaty is exe- 

mede's taunt to Aphrodite, II. 5. 348 foil, cuted in II. 3 : but ' foedus ' occurs re- 

Comp. ib. 428 foil. ' Gravidam bellis ' re- peatedly in Virg. of ties less definite, like 

calls "gravidam inperiis," 4. 229. With those of hospitality 8. 169, 540., 11. 164 

the thought comp. the rest of that line, (comp. 4. 339), at the same time that his 

" belloque frementem Italiam," and 1. 263. language may be influenced by post-Ho- 

'Corda temptas,' like "animumtemptare" meric conceptions, such as are mentioned 

4. 113, ' to endeavour to move :* " occulte 7. 224 cited above. Serv., as usual, has a 

temptando animum," Livy 27. 15. story about diplomatic relations arising out 

88.] * Nosne tibi,' ' Can you say it was of the capture of Troy by Hercules. In 

I?' For the use of 'tibi' comp. 2. 601 'foedera solvere furto' Virg. may have 

"non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa La- thought of Aesch. Ag. 401, ^o-xv^e |eWai^ 

caenae, Culpatusve Paris," and see Madvig, rpdv^^av KKoTcoutri yvyaiKds, 

§ 248. 'Res fluxae' occurs in Cic. Att. 92.] The words 'Spartam expugnavit 

4. 1. Comp. Sail. Jugurtha 104, Livy 27. adulter ' are to be taken literally, not with 

17. See also 2. 169 note. For the form Wagn. in the sense of " Spartanam pudici- 

'fluxas' see on 5. 332. Juno does not tiam expugnavit." Juno is exaggerating 

mean ' fluxas facere et vertere fundo/ but as in v. 68, 78 ; and as, by the wor£ 

says, like an enemy of Troy, that its ' foedera solvere,' she has talked as if pre- 

fortunes were fragile before they were vious treaties of peace existed between 

overturned : comp. ' miseros ' in the next Greece and Asia, so here she represents 

line. Thus she takes up and uses the Paris* voyage as an invasion ending in the 

ad misericordiam argument of Venus, v. sacking of Sparta, suggesting thereby that 

60 foil. ' Vertere fundo ' like " vertere the sacking of Troy was but a just retribu- 

ab imo " 2. 625., 5. 810 : "res Asiae ever- tion. Virg. has worked upon the words of 

tere " 3. 1. The metaphor may be from Hom. II. 3. 46 foil. : — - 

AENEID. LIB. X. 235 

Aut ego tela dedi, fovive Cupidine bella? 

Turn decuit metuissetuis: nunc sera querelis 

Haud iustis adsurgis^ et inrita iurgia iactas. 95 

Talibus orabat luno^ cunctique fremebant 
Caelieolae adsensu vario ; eeu flamina prima 

Cum deprensa fremant silvis^ et caeca volutant 

i^ Toi6<r9€ i^v, iy voyroTrSpourt y4«<r<rty " Cuncti simul ore fremebant *' 1. 559., 

ir6vTov iviirkdiffas, irdpovs iplripas aytlpas, 6. 385. For ' lano ' Pal. and Gad. have 

fux^els &AAo8airoi(ri, yvyaiK* €V€i8^ ayrjyts, * dictis ' from 6. 124, Gnd. giving ' luno ' 

K.T.X. as a variant. 

97.] 'Adsensu vario/ some agreeing 

Indeed, he may have understood fiix^cl* with Juno, some with Venus. Comp. 11. 

aKXoHawoiffi in the sense of ' having fought 296, " variusque per ora cucurrit Ansoni- 

with strangers,' and taken the iroyr6iropoi dura turbata fremor." * Flamina prima,* 

vijfs for a hostile fleet. The notion that the rising blasts : * prima ' is better taken 

Paris really stormed Sparta worked itself adjectivdly than adverbially with • fre- 

into the later Roman versions of the story munt.' 

of Troy, perhaps from a misunderstanding 98.] For * deprensa * one MS. known as 

of the rhetorical character of this passage : the Parrhasian has * depressa,' which is 

see Statins Achill. 1. 20, 65 ; Dictys Cre- partially supported by one of Ribbeck's 

tensis, 1 — 3, " expugnatam quippe domum cursives, and by the fact that the last four 

reg^s (Menelai) eversnmque reguum et alia letters of 'deprensa' are in an erasure in 

in talem modum singuli disserebant :" also Rom. The words are oflen confounded : 

Dares Phrygius 10, who elaborates II. 3. the same variation being found in G. 4. 

45 foil, into great detail. Comp. also Serv. 421, A. 5. 52, 273. ' Depressa ' is adopted 

here and on 1. 526. by Markland (on Stat. Silv. 1. 2. 45), who 

93.] Some inferior MSS. (but none of also needlessly alters ' fremunt ' into ' ge- 

Kibbeck's) have * fovique.' If * Cupidine * munt.' This passage no doubt suggested 

is taken as referring to the god, it is only to Milton the simile in Paradise Lost, bk, 

because the god represents the passion. 2. 284 foil. : — 

Such an expr^ion as "fovive Apolline „ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

bella could not have stood. ^^^ filled 

94.3 'Metuo' with dat. as G. 1. 186 ^^e aasembly, aa when hollow rocks 

"mopi metuens formica senectae. Per- retain 

haps the perf. may be pressed : 'to have r^he sound of blust'ring winds, which all 

feared for their own, and therefore ab- night lonjr 

Btainedfrona wickedness:' or we may say Had roused the sea, now with hoarse 

that it IS used to enforce still further the cadence lull 

notion of what should have been done in seafaring men overwatched" &c. 

the past. ' Sera fem. nom., not adverbial ° 

neut. pi. But his treatment of the thought is dif* 

95.] * Querelis adsurgis * is taken by ferent from Virg.'s, though each is ap- 

Heinrich and Wagn. to = * surgis ad que- propriate in its place : Virg. takes the 

relas iactandtis :' but the abl. is more first sounds of the rising storm, Milton its 

natural, and supported by v. 797 below, last meanings : for the one is describing 

'^ adsurgentis dextra:" G. 2. 160 '*flucti- the threatening tumult of rising passion 

hus et ^emitu adsurgens." Venus had, of among his gods, the other the murmuring 

course, risen to speak. applause of the wearied angels after a 

96 — 117.] 'The tumult which greets speech counselling them to rest. 'Fre- 

Juno's speech 'is hushed, and Jupiter munt' of winds struggling to be free, as 

begins, while heaven, and earth, and sea in 1. 56. ' Volutant ' as in 5. 149, " vo- 

are silent to listen. He will not interfere cemque inclusa volutant Littora :" pro- 

in the battle to save or to destroy : each bably of the sound rolled from side to side 

nation, each man, shall be left to his own of the enclosure : see on 1. 725. ' Caeca 

fortune or destiny.' murmura ' of sound confined among rocks, 

96.] ' Orare ' in the same sense 6. 849, as in 12. 591 " tum murmure caeco Intus 

though there the ace. is expressed, saxa sonant." 


Murmura, ventures nautis prodentia ventos. 

Turn Pater omnipotens^ rerum cui prima potestas^ lOO 

Infit ; eo dicente deum domus alta silescit^ 

Et tremefacta solo tellus; silet arduus aether; 

Turn Zephyri posuere ; premit plaeida aequora pontus. 

Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta. 

Quandoquidem Ausonios coniiingi foedere Teucris 105 

Haud lieitum, nee vestra capit discordia finem : 

Quae cuique est fortuna hodie^ quam quisque secat spem^ 

Tros Rutulusne fuat nuUo discrimine habebo, 

Seu fatis Italum castra obsidione tenentur, 

99, 100.] Bom. and Med. (first reading) cursives, was the reading before Heins. 

bave 'prima/ wbicb is also found as a 'Capit/ 'admits of:' Oy. Nux Elcg. 4, 

variant in Gud., and has been recalled by " publica cum lentam non capit ira 

Wagn. and late editors. 'Summa' Med. moram" (Fore). 

(second reading). Pal., Gud., and three of 107.] ' Hodie,' the day of the battle 

Bibbeck's cursives. The external antho- described v. 118 foil., confirming the in- 

rity is nearly balanced: but 'prima' is terpretation of "panditur domus" v. 1. 

more likely to have been altered into ' Secat spem ' is difficult to explain or to 

'summa' than vice versa. oSrc Kpdroi illustrate: neither "secare rem" in Hor. 

iarl fiiyioroy Od. 5. 4. ' Berum ' above 1 S. 10. 15, nor " spem resecare " ib. 1 Od. 

v. 18. 11. 7, are at all parallel. Serv. thinks that 

101.] 'Infit' 5. 708 note. With this both here and 6. 900 (" viam secat ") Vu-g, 

passage comp. the lines of Ennius (Sat. 10 uses 'seco' in the sense of 'sequor/ and 

foil.), "munduscaeli vastoconsti tit silentio, though this is not strictly the case, it is 

£t Neptunus saevus undis asperis pausam still not impossible that in a half-punning 

dedit : Sol equis iter repressit ungulis vo- way he would put the one where the other 

lantibus. Constitere amnes perennes, ar- would be more natural : the common 

bores vento vacant." aiyri<re 8* alQiip, crTya phrase " sectam sequi " (Cic. pro Sest. 45. 

8' f^KuiJMs vdirri ^v\K* cTxc &c. Eur. 97, Lucr. 5. 1115, &c.) may show that the 

Bacch. 1084. two roots were confounded in popular 

102.] 'Tremefacta' not for 'tremefacta opinion. So Yirg. seems to use'dictus' 

est,' but the epithet of ' tellus,' which for ' dicatus ' 6. 138 : and he puts ' cilno ' 

agrees with 'silescit/ ' Solum ' apparently and 'cano' together 10. 187, 418. The 

in its literal sense of 'foundation' (see meaning of 'seco' here may perhaps be 

Fore): Lucr. repeatedly has "solum the same as in "secto limite" G. 2. 278: 

terrae" = 'the ground:' a translation per- the idea being that of a line of hope 

haps of the 71)5 ircSov of the Greek tra- marked out clearly before the eye. 
gedians. ' Solo ' abl., ' in respect of its 108.] ' Butulusve ' Gud. and two other 

foundation.' " Contremuit templum mag- of Ribbeck's cursives, ' Rutulusne ' Med., 

num lovis altitonantis " Ennius A. Inc. Pal., and Bom., and so rightly Bibbeck. 

fragm. 70 : comp. CatuU. 62 (64). 204 ' Whatever any one's fortune or hope, I 

foil. ' Arduus aether' G. 1. 324. will hold him in no difierence, be he Trojan 

103.] ' Zephyri ' a general expression, as or Butulian.' ' Fuat ' an archaic form = 

in 4. 562, &c., not (as Gossrau says) " vel ' sit :' see Madv. § 108. 4. A number of 

placidissimi venti." ' Premit plaeida ' pro- instances of it may be found in the older 

leptic. Comp. " Quid premat obscurum Latin dramatists. " Tros Tyriusque mihi 

lunae . . . orbem" Hor. 1 Epist. 12. 18. nullo discrimine agetur'' 1. 574 note. 

104.] Bepeated from 3. 250. ' Habeo ' as in 2. 102 note, "si omnis uno 

105.J * Ausoniis ' Pal. corrected and ordine habetis Achivos." 
Gud. originally : * Teucros ' Pal. and origi- 109.] Bibbeck brackets this and the 

nally Gud. ' Ausonios ' 11. 253., 12. following line because they are cut out by 

834. Peerlkamp. It is better with Serv. to 

106.] * Licitum est * (comp. v. 344), join * Italum ' with * fatis ' than (as Heyne 

given by Bom. and one of Bibbeck's and Wagn. do) with 'obsidione.* 'Fatis 

AENEID. LIB. X. 237 

Sive errore malo Troiae monitisque sinistris. no 

Nee Rutulos solve. Sua cuique exorsa laborem 
Fortunamque ferent. Rex luppiter omnibus idem. 
Fata viam invenient. Stygii per flumina fratris. 
Per pice torrentis atraque vora^ne ripas 
Adnuit, et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum. ii5 

Hie finis fandi. Solio turn luppiter aureo 
Surgit^ caelicolae medium quem ad limina ducunt. 

Interea Rutuli portis circum omnibus instant 
Stemere caede viros^ et moenia cingere flammis. 
At legio Aeneadum vallis obsessa tenetur, 120 

Nee spes uUa fugae. Miseri stant turribus altis 
Nequiquam, et rara muros cinxere corona : 

Italnm * is opposed to ' errore malo that of an effort or struggle on man's part, 

Troiae/ and is like " tnorum fata " (1. 257) in which ' Fortuna ' or kindly chance lends 

and "fata Phrygnm" (7. 294) : the sense a helping hand. Here the sense seems to 

being " whether the siege be brought be * his own begiflnings shall allot to each 

about by a fate which fitvours the Italians, man (be to hiit»^the Ineasure of) his toil 

or by error on the part of the Trojans." and his success.' 

Jupiter carries his impartiality even into 113.] * Fata viam invenient' 3. 395. 

his language, declining to pronounce 'Invemant' Gud. originally. The whole 

whether what has happened is owing to passage from these words to ' Olympum ' 

fate or human error (the antithesis of Od. v. 115 is repeated from 9. 104 — 106. 

1. 32 foil.). ' Obsidione teneri ' 9. 598. 116.1 * Aureo ' a dissyUable, 1. 698, note. 

110.] 'Malus error' O. 8. 41. The 117. J In representing the gods as con- 
error of Troy consisted in Aeneas' leaving ducting Jupit^ to the threshold, Virg. is 
the camp at so critical a time : the ' mo- thinking of the Roman consul being after 
nita sinistra' are the warning conveyed by his election escorted, according to custom. 
Iris to Tumus 9. 1 foil. Aeneas acted from the senate-house to his home (Serv.). 
upon the advice of the god Tiber, but he Comp. Ov. ex Ponto 4. 4. 41 " Inde domum 
ran a risk in doing so, which the machina- repetes toto comitante Senatu " (Diet. A. 
tions of Juno had converted into a cer- * Consul '), and ib. M. 6. 72. 
tainty. Virg. is perhaps not quite con- 118 — 145.] 'The battle continues during 
sistent with himself in this : but such the whole of the day (see on v. 1). Con- 
inconsistency is natural where the gods spicuous among the Trojans is lulus, who 
are introduced as engaged on different (according to Apollo's command) takes no 
sides. ' Monitisve ' Pal., and originally part in the battle.' 

Gad., partially supported by another of 118.] 'Circum' adverbial, as in £. 

Bibbeck's cursives. 3. 45 (Forb.). ' Portis omnibus ' abl. 

111.] * Nee populos solvo ' Nonius 390. 'Instant' with 'sternere:' see 1, 423, 

83, and so Ribbeck, against all MSS. note. 

authority : understanding ' solvo ' to mean 119.] ' Moenia cingere flammis ' 9. 160 

' separate,' as in Prop. 5. 4. 49 " com- in a different sense : see on v. 396. Comp. 

missas acies ego possum solvere." But the " igni circumdare muros " 9. 153. 

meaning of ' solvo ' here is plainly ' to re- 120.] ' Legio ' in a general sense 8. 605. 

lease from an obligation,' as in the phrases ' Vallis,' within the stakes of their fortifica- 

*' solvere legibns " or " solvere religione." tions : comp. " vallo teneri " 9. 598. 

'Rutulos 'opposed to the Trojans implied in 121.] "Nee spes ulla fugae" 9. 131. 

' castra :' as they have the advantage, Jupi- "Turribus altis stant maesti" 9. 470. 

ter specially disclaims the idea of favouring 'Miseris' Rom. and one or two of Rib- 

them. 'Labor' is often put by Virg. side beck's cursives for 'miseri.' The pres. 

by side with ' fortuna :' see G. 3. 452, A. 1. ' stant ' gives the continued effect of the 

628., 7. 559., 11. 416 : the meaning of perf. • cinxere.' 

' labor ' in these passages being apparently 122.] ' Rara :' comp. 9. 508 " qua rara 


Asiug Imbrasidies Hicetaoniusque Thymoetes 

Assaracique duo et senior cum Castore Thymbris, 

Prima acies; hos germani Sarpedonis ambo^ 125 

Et Clarus et Themon^ Lycia comitantur ab alta. 

Pert ingens toto connixus corpore saxum^ 

Haud partem exiguam montis^ Lymesius Acmon^ 

Nee Clytio genitore minor, nee fratre Menestheo. 

Hi iaculis, illi certant defendere saxis, 130 

Molirique ignem, nervoque aptare sagittas. 

Ipse inter medios. Veneris iustissima cura, 

est acies interlacetque corona Non tarn bably stand behind the others as a second 

spissa viris." '* Muros varia cinxere rank. 

corona" 11.475. "Cingere vallum corona," 127.1 Comp. II. 12. 378 foil., where 

"circumdare oppidum corona" are used Ajaz kills one of the besieging party (a 

by Tac. H. 3. 27 and Livy 23. 44 of a comrade of Sarpedon) with a huge stone, 

besieging army surrounding a town. Rib- Perhaps the introduction of Sarpedon's 

beck takes away the colon at the end of name in this contest was suggested by tfae 

the line, making * miseri ' agree with the lines in Horn. ' Toto connixus corpore * 

names that follow; but these are obviously 9. 410. Comp. Livy 1. 33 "omnibus copiis 

mentioned as the flower of the army. connixus Ancus." The prep. ' con ' b^eirs 

123.] The names are from Homer, but out the idea of ' toto.' 
the persons must be different. Asius, son 128.] 'Haud partem exiguam monUs' 

of Hyrtacus, is in the besieging party II. is not a happy imitation, if it be an imita- 

12. 96, and is killed ib. 13. 387 foil. Thy- tion, of Homer's Kopvip^ tpeos fJL€yd\oio 

moetes and Hicetaon occur in two con- (Od. 9. 481), which is an appropriate 

secutive lines (II. 8. 146, 7), and Virg. weapon in the hands of the Cyclops. For 

makes one the son of the other. The the Virgilian expression see v. 69i8 below^ 

patronymic ** Hicetaonius " is like " Aga- 9. 569, and comp. G. 3. 239 '' neque ipso 

memnonius"4.471, and "Lycaonius" 10. Monte minor procumbit." Lymesus (IL 

749 (Forb.). 'Thymoetes' again 12. 364. 2. 690., 20. 92) was the home of Briseis, 

The Thymoetes of 2. 32, who urges the sacked by Achilles. 

admission of the wooden horse into Troy, 129, 130.] Clytins is mentioned with 

is doubtless the diifioydpwy of II. 3. 146 : Thymoetes and othera II. 8. 147. Virg. 

see on 2. 1. c. seems fond of the name : comp. 9. 774., 11. 

125, 126.] 'Primaacies'probably to be 666. 'Menestheus' son of Petens is the 

taken literally, not (with Serv.) metaphori- defender of a tower H. 12. 831. ' Hi ' and 

cally of the foremost warriors. *' Antaeum ' ilti ' of different men among the de- 

et Lucam, prima agmina Tumi" v. 561 fenders. 

below. The name of Clarus for a Lycian 131.] * Moliri ' may suggest the use of 

warrior may have been suggested to Virg. heavy weapons such as the ' phalarica ' 

by the association of the town of Clarus used in the siege of Saguntum, Livy 21. 8 

with the Lycian Apollo. So he makes (Gossr.). '*Molitur fulmina" G. 1. 329. 

'Anxnr' into the name of a person, 10. < Que ' virtually disjunctive as 6. 616 (noto) 

545. Bachofen,*Lykier' p. 37, notices that '*Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisque 

the Lycian warriors go in pairs in Horn, rotarum District! pendent :" see Wagn. 

and Virg. : besides the case of Glaucus and Q. V. 34. 1. ' Aptare ' with dat. as 9. 364. 
Sarpedon, see II. 16. 326 foil., and in Virg. 132.] '* Ipsi per medias acies" G. 4. 82 

A. 12. 343, 516. * Alta ' probably = * noble :' of the bee-kings. Gud. gives * primes ' for 

for Lycia in Homer is not lofty, but thptlri * medios ' as a variant in the margin : an. 

and 4pifi&\a^ (II. 6. 188., 17. 172 &c.). unseasonable reminiscence of 2. 479. 

Comp. " Sarpedonis aiti " 9. 697, " patria ' Veneris iustissima cura ' as the last hope 

alta" 10. 374., 11. 797, "nomina alta" of the race: so 1. 678 Venua calls him 

Jnv. 8. 131. 'Ab Ida' Pal. and Gud., "mea maxima cura." The mention of 

originally a reminiscence, perhaps, of 5. Venus and her love for him suggest his 

254., 12. 412. Clarus and Themon pro- beauty. 

AENEID, LIB. X. 289 

Dardaniug caput, ecce, puer detectus honestum, 

Qualis gemma, micat, fulvum quae dividit aurum, 

Aut collo deeus aut capiti : vel quale per artem 135 

Inclusum buxo aut Oricia terebintho 

Lueet ebur ; fuses cervix cui lactea crinis 

Accipit et moUi subnectit circulas auro. 

Te quoque magnanimae viderunt, Ismare, gentes 

Volnera dirigere, et calamos armare veneno, 140 

Maeonia generose dome, ubi pinguia culta 

Exercentque viri, Pactolusque inrigat auro. 

133.] 'Honestum' G. 2. 392., 4. 232. Thyio thalamo aut Oricia terebintho." 

'Caput detectus:' he was forbidden to 137, 138.] 'Cervix fusos' Pal., Gud., 

fight : see 9. 656. ' Detectus ' = ' nudus/ as and another of Ribbeck's cursives. * Fusus ' 

in Ov. F. 2. 301 (Fore.). as ▼. 838 below. ' Lactea colla' 8. 660. 

134.] Ascanius among the surrounding ' Mollis/ pliant, recurs y. 818 as an epithet 

Avarriors is compared to a gem set in gold, of ' aurum.' *MolIi auro' is the abl. of 

or ivory set in wood. The passage recalls- the material, and its construction here 

1. 592-8, where the divine grace shed may help to explain that of "tereti gemma" 

round Aeneas by his mother is compared in the similar line 5. 813 (note) " quam 

to gold in which silver or marble is set, or tereti subnectit fibula gemma." ' Cir- 

to the adornment put upon ivory by the cuius ' 5. 559 is a circlet for the neck : 

hand of an artist. The difference between here it seems to be a band which confines 

the two passages is that there it is the the hair ('ftisos crines'): which makes 

setting, here the thing set, which is made against its being (as Heyne thinks) the 

prominent. Consequently the gold there, same as the diadema which surrounded the 

being contrasted with the less precious brow. Comp. 4. 147 (note) "moUique 

marble or silver, is '* flatus :" a brighter fluentem Fronde premit crinem fingens 

colour than 'fulvus,' which is its proper atque inplicat auro" (of Apollo). II. 17. 

epithet here, where its brilliancy is sur- 52 (of Euphorbus) irXoxfioi & ol XP^^V '''• 

passed by that of the gem which it koL if>y6p<^ ia^Kuvro (£mm.). * Mollis 

surrounds. subnectit ' Med., probably a reminiscence 

135.] *Aut collo decus' &c. for a of 4. 139., 5. 313. 'Subnectit' was the 

necklace or a crown : comp. 1. 654 note, reading before Heins. 

'Decus collo' like "decus navi" Culex 139.] 'Magnanimae gentes' probably 

135. Comp. Homer's K6ffftos 6* Tirir^ refers to the Lydians following Ismarus : 

iXariipl re kv^os II. 4. 145. "Quasipsa 'your high-souled clans.' 'Magnanime' 

decus sibi dia Camilla Delegit" 11. 657. Med. first reading and Gud. The Maeo- 

' Per artem' G. 1. 122 &c. 'Bnxum'said nians are allies of the Trojans II. 2. 864 

to be good for carving G. 2. 449. Pliny foil. 

16. 84 mentions it with terebinth among 140.] ' Dirigere ' Med., Gud. corrected, 

the woods " quorum operimento vestiatur and two other of Ribbeck's cursives. See 

alia materies." Terebinth, having Accord- on 7. 497, and (on the other side) Munro 

ing to his description (13. 12) a wood of on Lucr. 6. 823. The phrase ' volnera 

a bright blaek colour, "materies (lenta dirigere' occurs Tac. H. 2. 85 (where one 

ac) nigri splendoris," would be well fitted MS. has * derigere '), and Sen. Here. Get. 

for setting ivory. Comp. Theoph. Hist. 160 (Gossr. and Forb.). Comp. "volnus 

Plant. 3. 15. * Corycia ' for ' Oricia ' detorsit " for " telura detorsit" 9. 745, and 

Gud. and Med. corrected. Oricum was see note on 2. 529. 'Calamos armare 

a town in the north of Epirus. The veneno ' like " ferrumque armare veneno " 

rhythm of this line, like that of E. 3. 9. 773. 

63 " munera sunt lauri et suave rubens . 141, 142.] For the hiatns comp. 5. 735 

hyacinthus," is thoroughly Greek with its " colo : hue casta Sibylla." ' Pinguia 

open vowels and final quadrisyllable: culta' 8. 63. 'Exercent' G. 1. 99, 220 

comp. Catullus 66. 11 "novo auctus hy- &c, 
menaeo." So Propertius 4. 7. 49 "sed 


Adfuit et Mnestheus^ quern pulsi pristina Tumi 

Aggere moerornm sublimem gloria tollit, 

Et Capys : hinc nomen Campanae ducitur urbi. 145 

Illi inter sese duri certamina belli 
Contulerant : media Aeneas freta nocte seeabat. 
Namque^ ut ab Euandro castris ingressus Etruscis^ 
Regem adit^ et regi memorat nomenque genusque ; 
Quidve petat, quidve ipse ferat; Mezentius anna 150 

Quae sibi coneiliet, violentaque pectora Tumi 
Edoeet ; humanis quae sit fidueia rebus^ 
Admonet^ inmiscetque preces ; baud fit mora ; Tarchon 
lungit opes, foedusque ferit ; tum libera fati 

143.] Mnesthens defeated Tnrnus 9. (mostly in an erasure) 'ant qaidve,' and 

779. For the participial construction so Gud., with 'ipse' written above as a 

'pulsi gloria Turni'=' the glory of having correction. Serv. says that in his time 

ppt Tumus to flight,' see Madv. § 426. many thought Virg. should have written 

Ho gives a parallel instance from Curtius *' quidque petat quidqne ipse ferat," and 

(4. 58), "sibi qnisque caesi regis ezpe- Jahn would correct the passage accord* 

tebat decus." Comp. "pulsae tropaeum ingly. No doubt 'que' is required in 

virginis" 11. 790. strictness of expression, as, though the 

144.] ' Agger moerorum ' 10. 25., 11. questions might be put disjunctively, they 

382. ' Sublimem tollit ' like " sublimem could not be so answered : but Virg., as 

feres ad sidera" 1. 259. Wagn. rightly remarks, is thinking of the 

145.] Virg. naturally adopts the legend questions as put by Tarchon. For the 

which attributed the name and foundation disjunctive in questions comp. 2. 75, 151, 

of Capua to one of the followers of Aeneas. G. 4. 446 &c. * Quid ferat,' ' what ofiBers 

Another story makes Capys a Samnite : he brings with him,' as 2. 75. 

and the name of Capua was, according to 151.1 Tumus is the only person to 

Serv. and Livy (4. 37), variously derived, whom Virg. applies the words ' violentos ' 

See Lewis, 1. p. 325 note, and Elausen, and 'violentia;' which is significant as 

Aeneas und die Peuaten, 1. p. 550. 'Urbe' determining his character: see 11. 354|, 

Med. originally. 376., 12. 9, 45. 

146—162.] 'During the night following 152.] 'What ground of confidence 

the day of the battle, Aeneas, who had sue- human fortunes can entertain :' not ' what 

ceeded in gaining the alliance of Tarchon, confidence can be placed in human for- 

was sailing back to the aid of his fol- tunes:' for 'fidueia' usually governs a 

lowers.' gen. of the object. Comp. 2. 75 " quae sit 

146, 147.] " Conferre manu certamina fidueia capto." The meaning is that Tar- 

pugnae" Lucr. 4. 844: "saevi certamina chon, if he failed to aid Aeneas, might one 

belli" ib. 1. 475 (Forb.). Comp. p^Tkos day want aid himself. For the quasi-per- 

wo\tfioio 11. 13. 271, ayii>v fidxns Soph, sonification of 'rebus' comp. "rebus 

Trach. 20. The plup. ' contulerant ' marks fessis " 11. 335 &c, and see 9. 278 note, 

that the battle was over : see on v. 1. 154.] ' Opes ' of military power : comp. 

148.1 The story is taken up from 8. 1. 571 (note) and 8. 171. 'Foedus ferire' 

607, wnere Aeneas is left with Tarchon. explained fully by Livy 1. 24. Pal. had 

It is better to make the apodosis of ' ut ' originally '^ert,' which one correction 

begin at v. 153, ' baud fit mora,' than at changes into ' effort,' another into ' ferit.' 

V. 149, which would involve the harshness ' Fatis ' the MSS. of Serv., and so the edd. 

of making ' ingressus ' = " ingressas est." before Heins. The construction 'libera fati' 

' Ingredior ' with dat. as in v. 763 below : is an imitation of the Greek use of iKe^pos 

a rare construction in this sense. with gen. : comp. Eur. Phoen. 999 ol /th^ 

149. J ' Adiit ' Pal. : see Excursus on G. $t<r<t>drMV 4\f^dfpot Kovk cis ivdyKtiP Scu- 

2. 81. ' Memorant ' Boul for ' memorat.' fi6ywv hjpiyfiiyoi (Taubm.). Horace has 

150] For 'quidve ipse' Pal. has " liber kborum " A. P. 212^ where OrelU 

AENEID. LIB. X. 241 

Classem conscendit iussis gens Lydia divom, 156 

Extemo commissa duel. Aeneia pnppis 

Prima tenet, rostro Phrygios subiuncta leones; 

Imminet Ida super, profugis gratissima Teucris. 

Hie magnus sedet Aeneas, secumque volutat 

Eventus belli varios ; Pallasque sinistro 160 

Adfixns lateri iam quaerit sidera, opacae 

Noetis iter, iam quae passus terraque manque. 

Pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantusque movete. 
Quae manus interea Tuscis eomitetur ab oris 
Aenean, armetque rates, pelagoque vehatur. 165 

Massieus aerata princeps secat aequora Tigri ; 

gives other instances of the constr. 'Liber' 105 ''scitari et qnaerere c&ns8a8:"6. 868 

is used with gen. in a different sense by *'ingentem Inctnm ne quaere tnomm.*' 

Flantus, Amph. prol. 105. " Noetis opacae " 8. 658. 

155, 156.] ' Gens Lydia ' 8. 479. " Ex- 162.] * iter * is pnt into loose apposition 

temos duces'' 8. 503. The hiatus is like with 'sidera' after 'quaerit/ because in 

that in 5. 735. questioning Aeneas about the stars Pallas' 

157.] 'Prima tenet '5. 194,338. 'Rostro object was to question him about the 

Phrygios subiuncta leones ' apparently course of the vessel. There is a somewhat 

means 'with lions joined to its beak under- similar apposition G. 3. 40, "silvas sal- 

neath:'the construction being like "del- tusque sequamur .... tua Maecenas 

plunum caudas utero commissa luporum " baud mollia iussa :" though there the con- 

3. 428, and Horace's "laevo suspensi struction is not to be resolved in quite the 

loculos tabulamque lacerto." The beak of same way. < Iter ' with gen. as 2. 359 

a ship was generally (though not always) " mediaeque tenemus Urhis iter :" comp. 

below the ornament or parasemon (Diet. 9. 391. ' Idem ' for " iter " Med. a m. p. 

A. ' Navis '), and this seems to be the case ' Quae passus ' = " quae passus est :" th^ 

here. The lions are joined to the beak verb substantive being omitted for metrical 

beneath them, and over them (' super ' v. convenience : comp. E. 8. 24, " Panaque 

158) rises the figtire or the painting of qui primus calamus non passus inertis:" 

Ida, the figpire-head consisting of the and see vv. 655, 827 below, 

whole group. Wagn.'s explanation "leones 163 — 184.] After an invocation of the 

rostro ita subiuncti ut ipsum rostrum in Muses begins a short catalogue of the 

leonum faciem abiret " puts an unnecessary Etruscan chiefs now sailing with Aeneas : 

strain on the words. ' Phrygii leones ' the Massieus, with a thousand men from 

lions of Cybele, the special guardian of the Clusium and Cosae ; Abas, with six hundred 

Trojan fleet. from Populonia and three hundred from 

158.] 'Super,' 'above the lions,' pre- Uva; the augur Asilas, with a thousand 

eludes Lersch's idea (Ant. Verg. p. 126) from Rsa ; and Astyr, with three hundred 

that the figure of Ida was in the stem, from Caere, Pyrgi, and Graviscae. 

'Ida' may be either a carved human 163.] 'Monete' Pal. and Gad. ori- 

fignre representing the mountain, or a ginally : see on 7. 641, whence this line is 

•painting of the mountain itself. The repeated. 

Trojans had built their fleet under the 164.1 ' Interea'= while they are sailing, 

shadow of Ida (3. 5, 6), and the form of It would have been more natural to place 

the mountain would remind them that the word above: 'let us meanwhile teU 

they were taking their home with them to who are the companions of Aeneas.' 

their new settlement. 165.] * Armet rates ' apparently = * mans 

159.1 " Caecosqne volutat Eventus animo the ships :' " armare classem " 4. 299 in the 

secum 6. 157. general sense of equipping a fleet. 

161.] 'Adfixus' implying closeness as in 166.] 'Massieus' a name taken from a 

•5. 852 "adfixus et haerens." 'Quaerit mountain, as "Sulmo," "Clarus," and 

«idera'="qnaerit de sideribus:*' comp. 2. "Anxur" from towns (9. 412., 10. 126, 



Sub quo mille manus iuvenum^ qui moenia Clusi^ 

Quique urbem liquere Cosas; quis tela sagittae 

Gorytique leves humeris ct letifer arcus. 

Una torvus Abas; huic totum insignibus armis 170 

Agmen et aurato fulgebat ApolUne puppis. 

Sexcentos illi dederat Populonia mater 

Expertos belli iuveues; ast Ilva trecentos^ 

Insula inexbaufitis Gbalybum generosa metallic. 

Tertius^ ille honunum divomque interpres Asilas^ 175 

Cui pecudum fibrae^ caeli cui sidera parent 

546), "Ufens" from a river 7. 746. The where Pal., Gud. &e. have "lefcifer.*' 
tiger is the porafiemon or figure-head at 170, 171.] 'Torvus' agreeing with bis 

the prow from which the ship received its character helow v. 428, where Virg. 

name: these parasema were often figures calls him '*pugnae nodumque moramqae." 

of animals and monsters : see 5. 116 — 128, There is an Ahas in Homer (II. 5. 148), 

where the ships that race for the prize are and one in A. 1. 121 : see also on 3. 286. 

called respectively Pristis, Cblmaera, Cen- ApoUo is the guardian god of the ship, and 

taur, and Seylla : and oomp. below w. 196, ' puppis ' must be taken literally of the 

209. Serv.'s note " solent naves vocabula stem : see on v. 166. 
accipere a pictura tutelarum " confuses the 172, 173.] ' Populonia mater' like ** Ari- 

"parasemon^and ''tutela:" which in Bo- cia mater" 7. 762. *£xpertus' does not 

man ships, if not in Greek (see Acts 28. 11), seem to be commonly used with the gen. 

appear to have been distinct. The * tutela * But Tac. Hist. 4. 76 has " expertum belli :" 

was a figure of the god that protected the and Livy (24. 22) " servitudinis indigni- 

ship, and was generally placed in the tatisque expertos " according to the MSS. : 

stem: see Ov. 1 Trist. 10. 1. Heroid. but this is altored in Madvig's edition. 

16. 112. Pers. 6. 80. On the whole sub- One inferior MS. has 'bello' here. Ilva 

ject see a paper by Enschede " De Tutelis and Populonia are mentioned together bj 

et insignibus navium " inserted in Buhn- Strabo ?5. p. 223), who says of the former 

ken's Opuscula, anno 1770. rovro $t 8^ irafHiBo^oy ri vrjcos ^x^h teal 

167.] About Clusium and its old alliance rh rit 6p{tyfMTa kuawXripQvadai vd\iy r^ 

with Rome see Livy 6. 35 (Heyne, Ex- XP^*'^ ''"^ fi€ra\\€v64vTa, 
cursus ad h. L). Serv. oddly enough 174.] < Inexhaustis ' inexhaustible, as 

places Clusium near Mount Massicus in *' inaccessos" (7. 11) — inaccessible: 'Cha- 

his zeal to account for the name of the lybes'0. 1. 58. 'Generosus 'here seems = 

leader v. 166. Another prince from "ferax," "multum generans:" see Fore. 
Clusium, Osinius, is mentioned v. 656 175.] * lUe ' explained by what follows 

below. w. 176-7. * Interpres divom ' of Helenus 

168.] * Qui —liquere* like "quique the seer 3. 359 (where the following lines 
Cales Unquunt " 7. 728 : comp. the ndx,- are parallel to the context hei-e) : so Cic. 
\ivoy and xpoKtv^v of ApoU. Rhodius' Phil. 13. 5 (Fore.) calls the augurs "inter- 
catalogue. Homer's formula is generally pretesetintemuntii"of Jupiter: oomp. ib. 
ot $' f^X^y or iyffwyro. Tac. A. 3. 39 Legg. 2. 8. 20^ Here the addition of 
and (according to Serv,) Sallust (Hist, 'hominum' brings out the true sense of 
1. 51 Dietsch) write * Cosa,' not ' Cosae.' the word, a medium between two parties. 
Pal. originally g^ves ' Cosam ' here : the rest See on 4. 608. 

'Cosas' or *Cossas.' Strabo 5. p. 226 176.] 'Fibrae' G. 1. 484 note. We 

mentions Cosae as a small city over the might he tempted to take' pareo' here with 

sea, overhanging the harbour of Hercules. Serv. as = ' adpareo,' a sense which it bears 

169.] The Greek word y<&pvTos in in Suet. Aug. 95 "immolanti omnium 

Homer (Od. 21. 54) means a bow -case : the victimarum iecinora replicata intrinsecus 

Latin poets generidly use it in the sense of ab ima fibra paruerunt " (Wngn.) : comp. 

a quiver. Ovid (6 Trist. 7. 15) speaks of Martial 12. 29. 18, Stat. 2 Silv. 2. 76, and 

'goryti' as worn by the Sarmatians and other instances given in the lexicons. 

Getae (C^rda). " Fatifer arcus " 9. 631^ But the ordinary meaning ' to obey ' suits 

AENEID. LIB. X. 248 

Et linguae volucrum et praesagi fulminis ignes^ 

Mille rapit densos acie atque horrentibus ha^tis. 

Hos parere iubent Alpheae ab origine Pisae^ 

TJrbs Etrusca solo. Seqnitnr pulcherrimus Astjnr, 180 

Astyr equo fidens et versicoloribus armis. 

Ter centum adiieiunt^ — mens omnibus una sequendi — 

Qui Caerete domo^ qui sunt Minionis in arvis^ 

Et Pyrgi veteres, intempestaeque Graviscae. 

Non ego te, Ligurum ductor fortissime bello, 185 

Transierim, Cinyra, et paucis comitate Cupavo, 

this passage better: the angar being re- Hya ^f>tal Bvfihp Kx^'^^^ ^* ^'- ^7* '^ 

gardeid as master of the stars that speak to thousand had already gone from Caere with 

him, as a musician might be of his instni- Lausus (7. 652). *'Mens omnibus una'* 

ment. G. 4. 212. 

177.] The Etruscan soothsayers were, 188.] The story of the "hospitium.'' 

as is well known, skilful in divination from between Rome and Caere is given in Livv 

lightning : oomp. Pliny 2. 54. ** Caelestem 5. 50. ' Caerete domo ' like " unde domo ** 

f^minis ignem" Lucr. 2. 384. 8. 114 (Cerda). The Minio (not the same 

178.] 'Rapit' 7. 724. 'Armis' Pal., as the "Caeritis amnis" 8. 597) is men- 

6ud. (with 'hastis' as a variant), and tioned by Rutilius 1. 279 "paulisper 

another of Ribbeck's cundves. fugimus Utus Minione vadosum." 

179.] 'Alphea ab origine' Med., sup- 184.] 'Pyrgi' and 'Graviscae * Strabo 6. 

ported by Pnscian 587 P., and Gud. cor- p. 225, &irS 8^ rw Kotrff&v ci\ 'aarrlay 

rected, and so Heins. ' Alpheae ab origine ' irapair\4ova't troXlxvid ivri TpavlorKoi koI 

Pal., Rom., and Ghid. originally, and so U^fyyot, He goes on to say that Pyrgi had 

rightly Heyne and the subsequent edd. a temple of Eilythuia built by the Pelasgi : 

'Alpheae ab origine Pisae' is like " Idaeae a tradition which may explain the epithet 

sacro de vertice pinus " below v. 230 note, ' veteres.' The place was in ancient times 

while there is also a contrast with ' Etrusca a noted stronghold of the Etruscan pirates 

solo.' Ribbeck leaving out the' ab' reads (Serv.). 'Intempestae' unhealthy: re- 

' Alpheae origine,' solely in deference to minding us of " intemperies :" but Foi*c. 

Lacbmann's rule about the elision of diph- gives no other instance of this use. The 

thongs after long vowels (Lucr. p. 160), name ' Graviscae ' was given to the place 

which has been discussed in the note on 6. " quod gravem aerem sustincnt " (Cato, 

505. Serv. gives no less than seven legends quoted by Serv.). Comp. Rutilius 1. 281. 
about the foundation of Pisa. Its sup- 185 — 214.] Next are described Cinyras, 

posed Elean origin was not improbably a leader of the Ligurians, and Cupavo : the 

fiction due to the similarity of names latter has a crest of swan's feathers as an 

(Heyne,£xcursusadh.l.). 'Pisae' plur. as emblem of his father's transformation, 

in KutUius De Red. Suo 1. 573 " Elide Then comes Ocnus the founder of Mantua, 

deductas suscepit Etruria Pisas." and Aulestes. 

180, 181.] ' Solo ' in its position. Comp. 185.] The legend of Fhaethon with 

the legal use of the word in Paul. Dig. 13. other Greek feibles had been localized in 

7. 21 (cited by Fore.) for the ground on Liguria : see Polybius 2. 16 (Heyne, Ex- 

which a building stands, " ius soli sequitur cursus 1 on Book 7 and ad h. 1.). Comp. 

aedifidum." The repetition of the name Ov. M. 2. 370 (of Cycnus) "nam Ligurum 

Astyr is like that of Aegle E. 6. 20, and populos et magnas rexerat urbes." The 

Lausus A. 7. 649. Virg. was probably Ligurians had been among the sturdiest 

thinking of the lines about Nireus II. 2. enemies of Rome : hence there may be 

671 : comp. those about Amphimachus ib. some force in ' ductor fortissime hello.* 
871. With 'versicoloribus armis' comp. 186.] 'Cinyrae* Med. 'Cinera' Pal. 

voiicUa re^fx^a II. 3. 327., 6. 504, ai6\a Rom. has ' Cumarre,' and Verona fragm., 

rc^X^'* I^« ^* ^^^* Gud., and three other of Ribbeck's cur- 

182.] 'Mens una' in antithesis to the sives 'Cinire^' ' Cinere,' or * Cinyre.' The 

number of places which send them. Udyrcs termination in 'e' is apparently snp- 

R 2 


Cuius olorinae surgunt de vertice pennae. 
Crimen amor vestrum, formaeque insigne patemae. 
Namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Fhaethontis amati^ 
Populeas inter frondes umbramque sarorum 190 

ported by Scrv. " [Cycne] Cunare: qnidam contain a separate assertion. In the first 

duci nomen datum tradunt a Cunaromonte case the meaning woald be, 'love and the 

qui in Piceno " (see Pliny 3. 13. Ill), cognizance of your father's shape are yonr 

Possibly therefore RibbecK is right in reproach/ 1. e. you labour under a two-fold 

reading "Cinyre;" but, if the view taken i*eproach, a criminal passion of your own, 

on V. 188 is correct, there would be a and one between your father and Phaethon, 

reason why the poei should choose a name which is represented by your family cogni- 

associated mythologically with unlaw^l zance. In the second case Virg. would 

passion. The objection to the elision, mean 'love is your reproach, and love is 

' Cinyra et,' derived from Lachmann, is the cognizance of your father's shape,' the 

very questionable. latter words being a condensed way of 

187.] ' Geminae stant vertice cristae ' 6. saying, love gave rise to the transformation 

779 (Taubm.). of which you wear the symbol as a cogni- 

' 188.] This line is the most obscure in zance. In the third case ' formaeque in- 

Virg., with the possible exception of 4. signe patemae* would mean *and your 

436 : but its meaning may perhaps be cognizance is that of your father's shape.' 

proximately ascertained. The context Kone of these interpretations can be called 

requires us ta understand 'vestrum' of really satisfactory : perhaps the truth lies 

Cinyras and Cupavo : and this being between the first and the second. Some 

granted, ' crimen amor vestrum ' can have supposed a corruption in the text ; but 

hardly refer to any thing but the existence it would be difficult to point out any word 

of a criminal passion between them. It which could be altered except for the 

will be no slight confirmation of this to worse. It is more likely that there is a 

one acquainted with Virg.'s peculiar man- reference to some fact which we do not 

ner, that Cupavo is described v. 186 as know, or that the nature of the subject led 

'paucis comitate,' words which regarded the poet to be intentionally obscure. Serv. 

by themselves seem to introduce an un- seems in some strange way to have taken 

meaning detail, but which are parallel to the line with what follows, as he mentions 

what Hom. says of Nireus II. 2. 675, &A.\* two interpretations, one applying * ves- 

oKavaSyhf ^riif, vavpos $4 oi ftirero \a6s, trum ' to Cycnus and Phaethon, the other 

Yirg. then means to indicate that Cupavo to Cycnus and Phaethon's sisters. He 

is the Nireus of the anti-Mezentian con- names also a third, taking 'vestrum' of 

federacy. From the word 'paternae' it Cycnus (Cinyras?) alone. Of modern 

would seem that Cinyras and Cupavo must interpreters, Sprengel makes ' Amor ' voc., 

be brothers, sons of Cycnus. Where the understanding 'vestrum' of Cupid and 

poet has not chosen to be explicit, there Venus like " vos o Calliope " 9. 525; Wagn. 

must necessarily be some uncertainty : and throws ' crimen amor vestrum ' into a 

here the uncertainty is increased by the parenthesis, and takes 'formaeque insigne 

fact that in what follows yii*g. says no- paternae ' as epexegetical of ' olorinae 

thing more of the story of Cuiyras and pennae :' but both those views seem ex- 

Cupavo, but tells inst^d the legend of eluded by the natural conditions of the 

Cycnus, and when he returns from the passage. 

digression, specifies only one person as son 189, 190.] The stories of Phaethon and 
of Cycnus and leader of part of the Italian Cycnus are told by Ovid in the 2nd book 
contingent. The probability is that this of the Metamorphoses. In E. 6. 62 the 
person is Cinyras, Cupavo, as the weaker sisters ofPhaethon are changed into alders, 
member of the pair, being dropped out of " Silvamque sororibus auctam " is Ovid's 
sight. ' Formaeque insigne patemae ' grotesque imitation of ' umbramque so- 
must form part of the same sentence as rorum ' (M. 2. 372). The latter is quaintly 
' crimen amor vestrum,' but it is not easy enough put by Serv. side by side with 
to say what the connexion is. Gram- "sinuatque altema volumina crurum" 
matically 'formae insigne patemae' may and "cum primum sulcos aequant sata 
be co-ordinate either with 'amor' or as"unumdehisquaehabetyergiliusinimi 
with ' crimen,' or again the words may tabilia et sua propria 


AENEID. LIB. X. 245 

Dum canit et maestum Musa soUtur amorem^ 

Canentem moUi pluma duxisse senectam^ 

Linquentem terras et sidera voce sequentem. 

Filius^ aequalis comitatus classe catervas^ 

Ingentem remis Centaurum promovet : ille 195 

Instat aquae saxumque undis ismane minatur 

Arduus^ et longa sulcat maria alta carina. 

Ille etiam patriis agmen eiet Ocnus ab oris^ 
Fatidicae Mantus et Tusci filius amnis^ 
Qui muros matrisque dedit tibi^ Mantua^ nomen^ 200 

Mantua^ dives avis ; sed non genus omnibus unum : 

191.] • Musa ' E. 1. 2. •* Cava solans rens freta " Ac. 

aegrom testudine amorem " Q. 4. 464. 198, 199.] ' Hie :' see on G. 4 457. 

192.] Heyne seems right in making ' ca- Serv. identifies Ocnns with Bianor E. 9. 
nentem 'agree with 'senectam/ and taking 60 (note). 'Mantus' the Qreek gen. of 
'duxisse' as="induxisse." Comp. "du- 'Mauto.' This Manto is identified hy 
cere colorem " of grapes, E. 9. 49 (note), Serv. with the daughter of Tiresias : an 
Pers. 5. 40, '< artificemque tuo ducit de idea traceable to the general tendency 
pollice vnltum." This is better than observable in these legends to mingle 
making ' canentem ' agree with ' Cycnum/ Greek with Italian associations. Others 
and construing ' duxisse senectam ' as = make Manto the daughter of Hercules, 
"duxisse aetatem." With * canentem molli 200.] Another legend made Tarcho the 
pluma' comp. Ovid's imitation (M. 2. 372) brother of Tyrrhenus founder of Mantua, 
"canaeque capillos Dissimulant plumae," and derived the name of the town from 
which explains it : iro\i6xpo95 k6kvos Eur. the Etruscan Mantus = Dis (MiiUer, 
Bacchae 1364. * Canit . . . canentem :' Etrusker 2. p. 61), to whom it was con- 
see on 4. 271. secrated. 

, 193.] With 'sidera sequentem' comp. 201—203.] These three lines must be 

12. 892, " opta ardua pennis Astra sequi." taken together as referring to Mantua : it 

For the use of ' sequi ' see on 8. 333. is unnatural with Heyne to apply 202 and 

'Voce sequi' as in 1. 406., 9. 17. 203 to the * agmen ^ of Ocnus. 'Dives 

194.] ' Aequali ' Med. originally. ' Fi- avis ' taken, as it must be, in connexion 

lius' probably Cinyras: ' aequalis catervas ' with ' sed non genus omnibus unum,' im- 

should rather mean ' the band of his equals plies number and diversity of race, as well 

in age,' " iuvenes militari aetate Tyrrheni," as quality and antiquity, in the founders 

as Peerlkamp rightly gives it, than ' the of Mantua : comp. with Heyne the imita- 

bands of his compatriots,' as Wagn. would tion of Stat. Theb. 1. 392 (of Adrastus), 

take it. Comp. "chorus aequalis Dryadum" " Dives avis et utroque lovem de sanguine 

G. 4. 460. Peerlkamp cites Yal. F. 6. 497., ducens." These founders consisted, ac- 

7. 181, where " aequalis caterva " is simi- cording to Serv., of Thebans, Tuscans, 

larly used. Gauls, and Yeneti : and Cluver (Italia 

195, 196.] The ship is called by the Antiqua p. 255) follows him so far, though 

name of its figure-head : see on v. 166. plausibly enough omitting the Thebans. 

"Ingens Centaurus" is Sergestus' ship 5. K. O. Muller (Etrusker 1. p. 137) thinks 

156. Comp. Prop. 5. 6. 49, " quodque that the third race was probably Umbrian. 

Yehunt prorae Centaurica saxa minantes " The relation of ' gens ' to ' populus ' is 

(Forb.). ' Saxum undis minatur,' threatens fixed by the usage of Livy 4. 49, " simul 

the waves with a rock. 'Minari' with Aequos triennio ante accepta clades pro- 

ace of thing and dat. of person as 11. hibuit Bolanis, suae gentis populo, prae- 

348. sidium ferre:" ib. 56, "caput rerum 

197.] "Arduus arma tenens" 8. 299. Antiates esse: eorum legatos utriusque 

''Et longa sulcat vada salsa carina" 5. gentis (Aequorum et Yolscorum) populos 

168. The Centaur is identified with the circumisse." 'Gens' is a race, 'populus' 

ship: comp. v. 209 below, "hunc vehit a city or people belonging to it: Strabo 

inmanis Triton et caerula concha Exter- (6. p. 263) apparently uses the words 


Grens iUi triplex^ populi sub gente quatemi; 

Ipsa caput populis ; Tusco de sanguine vires. 

Hine quoque quingentos in se Mezentius armat^ 

Quos patre Benaco yelatus arundine glauca 205 

Mineius infesta ducebat in aequora pinu. 

It gravis Aulestes^ centenaque arbore fluctum 

Yerberat adsurgens ; spumaut vada marmore verso. 

Hunc vehit inxnanis Triton et eaerula concha 

Exterrens &eta; cui laterum tenus hispida nanti 210 

Frons hominem praefert^ in pristim desinit alvus ; 

Spumea semifero sub pectore murmurat unda. 

llBvos and irSXis hs respective Greek equi- for 'populis.' 'Caput populis 'like'' celsis 
valents (see J. F. Oronovius on Livy 5. 34). caput urbibus " 8. 65. 
It would seem that Virg. intends to repre- 205, 206.] ' Patre Benaco . . Mineius' 
sent Mantua as possessing a territory (like "Eunaeum Clytio patre" 11. 666) be- 
peopled by three races, each of whom was cause the Mineius flows out of the lake Be* 
master of four cities j just as Strabo (1. c.) nacus (Lagodi Ghirda). The meaning must 
says that Sybaris had four llByfi and twenty- be that a figure of the river Mineius was at 
five t6\€is subject to her. The words the head of the ship : not, as was at one 
' ipsa caput populis' preclude either Serv.'s time supposed, that they were saihng 
confused explanation, that ' g^ntes ' = down the Mindus, which would have car- 
" tribus " and ' populi ' = " curiae," or that ried them down the Po into the Adriatic, 
of Niebuhr (Bom. Hist. 1. p. 296 note. Rivers were not uncommonly represented 
Eng. Tr.) that ' populi ' was equivalent to in human shape : see the description in 
the territorial 817/uoi of Greek cities. Virg. Ov. A. A. 1. 222, "hie est Euphrates, 
could never, in a condensed passage like praecinctus arundine frontem: Cui coma 
the present, merely mean the truism that dependet caemla, Tigris erit :' Pers. 6. 
Mantua was the head of her own 'curies' 47, "ingentisque locat Caesonia Rhenos" 
or of her own ' demes :' to say nothing of (where see Jahn's note). Comp. Virg.'s 
the difficulty of supposing that 'populi' aescription of the riyer-god ^berinus 
could ever mean any thing but communi- 8. 33. ' Pinu ' E. 4. 38. 
ties or townships. K. O. Muller (Etrusker 207.] ' Gravis,' half adverbial, as in 5. 
1. c.) seems to be right in supposing that 437, " stat gravis Entellus :" comp. Lucr. 
Virg. intended to magnify the legendary 5. 4d7, (limus) " Confiuxit gravis et sub- 
glory of his native city not only by con- sedit fiinditus ut faex." Livy 27. 4, " cui 
necting her with the southern Etruscan oedenti certamenque abnuenti gravis ipse 
states leagued with Aeneas, but also by instaret." 'Centena' the partitive for 
representing her as head of the ancient the simple number: comp. "temo con* 
northern group of twelve Tuscan cities snrgunt ordine remi " 6. 120, and v. 213 
spoken of by Livy 5. 33 as founded from below. 'Arbore' to suggest the bulk 
the original dodecapolis on the south of of the oars. 'Fluctus' Rom. and one of 
the Apennines. The power of the Etrus- Ribbeck's cursives. 

cans norih of the Po was broken up by 208, 209.] 'Adsurgens,' rising to the 

the invasion of the Gauls, and in the time stroke. ' Verso ' 5. 141 note. For a de- 

of the elder Pliny (H. N. 3. 23) Mantua scripiion of Triton somewhat similar to 

was the only Tuscan city left in those this comp. Apoll. R. 4. 1610 — 1616(Cerda). 

regions. (Comp. Mommsen, Rdmische Ge- ' Concha ' 6. 171 note, 

scfaichte, 1. pp. 122, 123.) This may have 210, 211.] 'Exterrens frata:' so in Or. 

been to Virg. only the greater reason for M. 1. 333 foil. Triton drives back the 

putting Mantua forward, and assigning waters of Deucalion's deluge to th&r 

her a position which according to Pliny places. The description of him here is not 

(H. N. 3. 20) properly belong to Bo- unlike that of Scylla 3. 426. "Atrum 

nonia. 'Tusco de sanguine vires' must Desinat in piscem mulier formosa supeme*' 

mean that the noblest and most powerful Hor. A. P. 3, 4. For 'pristis' see note on 

tribe at Mantua were Tuscans. Verona 3. 427. 

fragm. has 'iUis' for 'illi,' Rom. 'populi' 212.] "Pectora semiferi" of Cacus 8. 

AENEID. LIB. X. 347 

Tot lectl proceres ter denis navibus ibant 
Subsidio Troiae^ et campos salis aere secabant. 

lamque dies caelo concesserat^ almaque curra 215 

Noctivago Phoebe medium polsabat Olympum :