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londoit.Iorbury^JHenSc Co. September. 2832. 



«rti$toins of tfit iinao^ulmang of Jndta; 

roMrr.iMNc a 







(A Native of the Deccan) : 









Printed by J. L. COX and SON, Great Queen Street, 

LincoliVs-Inn Fields. 















The manners, customs, social habits, and reli- 
gious rites of nations, have ever been esteemed an 
object of rational and interesting inquiry ; hence, 
w^ith this view, travellers have explored the re- 
motest regions, and antiquaries pushed their re- 
searches into the farthest verge of recorded history. 
The toils of the journey, the uncongeniality of 
climate, the savage character of the inhabitants, 
have not been able to deter the progress of the 
former ; the labour of solitary study, the scantiness 
of materials, or the dark mists of antiquity, have 
failed to damp the ardour of the latter. The ad- 
venturous foot of man has penetrated the dark 
forests of America, crossed the burning deserts of 
Africa, and ascended the lofty snow-clad summits 
of the Himalaya ; his ships have swept the ocean 
and visited the most sequestered shores, from the 
dreary abodes of the torpid Esquimaux to the 
tepid isles of cheerful Otaheita and the inhospi- 
table coast of the cannibals of New Zealand : and 
though nature, inanimate and irrational, has not 



escaped his notice, yet his own species under 
every variety of form has chiefly attracted his 
attention and engrossed his reflections ; feeling, in 
the words of the poet, that 

" The proper study of mankind is man." 

If the manners and customs of other tribes of 
men be worthy of our study, certainly not less so 
are those of the Mohummudan natives of India. 
They are the immediate descendants of the race 
of conquerors who exercised supreme dominion 
over the greater part of that vast country for so 
many centuries, until it fell into British hands. 
As their successors in Indian rule, we must natu- 
rally feel a curiosity regarding the character and 
habits of our predecessors in power ; now, our sub- 
jects. And it is not a topic of philosophical spe- 
culation merely, but a matter of real practical 
utility, to understand thoroughly a people with 
whom we have constant transactions and daily 
intercourse, in the relations of public officers, sol- 
diers, and subjects, in administering the govern- 
ment of the country. 

The utility of a work directed to this object is 
so obvious, that it appears to me a matter of no 
small surprise something of the kind has not 
hitherto been undertaken. On the history, religion, 
manners, customs, &c. of the Hindoos, ample in- 
formation may be obtained from valuable works 


already before the public ; such as Mill's History 
of British India ; Moor's Hindoo Pantheon ; Ward's 
History, Literature, Mythology, Manners and Cus- 
toms of the Hindoos ; Coleman's Mythology ; 
the Abb^ Dubois on the Manners and Customs 
of the Hindoos, and others. But, as far as my 
knowledge extends, no similar work exists, giving 
a methodical account of the Mohummudan branch 
of the Indian population which embraces the 
various subjects comprehended in this, or which 
treats of them individually with sufficient precision 
and accuracy. From the comparative simplicity 
and rationality of the Mohummudan system of 
religion, its followers are less accessible to the 
influence of conversion, and may have therefore 
attracted less attention from Christian missionaries, 
(who are the closest observers of a people among 
whom they pursue their pious labours) ; while few 
other Europeans could have acquired the minute 
and curious information requisite for composing 
such a work ; and learned natives did not think of 
describing, to their own countrymen, matters which 
they knew from daily observation and practice. 

But whatever may have been the cause of the 
almost total neglect of this interesting field of in- 
quiry, I shall here proceed to explain the object 
of the following sheets. It is to give a detailed 
account of all the customs adopted and ob- 
. served in India, more particularly in the Duk'hun, 


(vulgarly written Deccan : i. e. the Peninsula or 
Southern part of India), by the followers of the 
Arabian Prophet, in addition to the duties incul- 
cated on them in the Qoran and Huddees.* Among 
the customs described, not a few will be disco- 
vered to have been borrowed from the Hindoos ; 
and although the work professes to treat on the 
customs of the Moosulmans, it will be found inter- 
spersed also with observations on their maimers. 

To guard against misconception on the part of 
those who have a partial knowledge of India, it 
may here be remarked, that many of the customs 
described in this work are peculiar to the Duk'hun; 
and some of them are only observed at certain 
places ; not throughout every part of that division 
of India ; far less in remote quarters of the country, 
such as Bombay, Bengal, and Upper Hindoostan ; 
yet, a very great general resemblance will be found 
in the manners and customs of the Mohummudan 
inhabitants in all parts of it. 

The following is the plan which the author has 
followed in describing his countrymen. He traces 
an individual from the period of birth (and even 
before it), through all the forms and ceremonies 
which religion, superstition, and custom, have im- 
posed on the Indian Moosulman. The account 
begins with the ceremonies observed at the seventh 

• The Huddccs comprises the traditional sayiiij^^s attributod to 


month of the mother's pregnancy ; details the va- 
rious rites performed by the parents during the 
several periods of the lives of their children as they 
grow up to maturity, and the almost endless cere- 
monies of matrimony. Then follow the fasts, 
festivals, &c. which occur in the different months 
of the year. These are succeeded by an account 
of vows, oblations, and many minor subjects, such 
as the pretended science of necromancy, exorcism 
or casting out devils, detecting thieves, determining 
the most auspicious times for undertaking journies 
or other enterprizes, all of which are matters of 
almost daily occurrence : and the whole concludes 
with an account of their sepulchral rites, and the 
visiting of the grave at stated periods during the 
first year after death. For a fuller view of the 
extent and variety of subjects discussed, and the 
order of arrangement, I must refer to the Table of 

The persons to whom I conceive the work will 
prove most acceptable and useful are, in the first 
place, gentlemen in the service of the Honourable 
East-India Company generally ; and in particular, 
all military officers serving in India, more espe- 
cially those on the Madras establishment. For 
example, how often during the year do we find 
the Moosulmans of a native regiment apply for 
" leave," or exemption from duty, to celebrate 
some feast or other, when the commandant to 


whom such request is submitted, being unac- 
quainted (as frequently happens) with either the 
nature of the feast or the necessity of attending it, 
cannot be certain that, in granting the application, 
he is doing justice to the service, or that in re- 
fusing it he would not infringe upon the religious 
feelings of his troops. If an officer be more en- 
dowed than others with a spirit of inquiry, he 
may ask after the nature of the feast for which the 
holiday is solicited. The only reply he obtains is 
some strange name, which, though to a native it 
may be very expressive and quite explicit, is to him, 
as a foreigner, altogether unintelligible. Should he 
inquire farther, his want of sufficient knowledge of 
the language prevents him from understanding the 
explanations offered ; and these are often rendered 
still more dark by the ignorance of the informers 
themselves, of whom few even know the origin and 
nature of the feast they are about to celebrate. 
This want of knowledge the present work is in- 
tended to supply ; and how far the author has suc- 
ceeded, I leave to the judgment of the reader. 

Having myself felt the want of such a work, 
ever since my arrival in India I set about collect- 
ing all the intelligence procurable relative to the 
various subjects comprised in these pages. To ac- 
complish this object, it must be admitted, was no 
easy task, in a country where the natives, as is well 
known, are very reluctant to impart information 


respecting their religious rites, ceremonies, &c. 
This arises, perhaps, from an unwillingness to 
expose themselves to the ridicule of persons of 
totally different national customs and religious 
faith ; or from a wish simply to keep Europeans 
in the dark, under a vague apprehension that 
frankness would ultimately prove to their own de- 
triment. I had succeeded, notwithstanding, in ac- 
cumulating a pretty extensive stock of the requisite 
materials, when I accidentally became acquainted 
with the liberal-minded author of these sheets. 
At my particular request he composed, in the 
Duk'hunee language, the treatise now presented to 
the public ; while I acted merely as a reviser, 
and occasionally suggested subjects which had 
escaped his memory. 

Though the enlightened English reader will 
smile at some of the notions gravely propounded 
by an Oriental writer, yet I must do my author 
the justice to say, that in all my intercourse with 
natives of India, I have seldom met with a man 
who had so much of the European mode of think- 
ing and acting, or who was so indefatigable in 
the pursuit of knowledge. He was penetrating 
and quick of comprehension ; and, according to 
my professional judgment, a skilful and scientific 
physician . 

I have made the translation as literal as the dif- 
ferent idioms of the two languages would admit of. 


bearing in mind, that though a free translation has 
often more ease and elegance, a close version is 
more characteristic of the original. And I consi- 
dered this the more important, as I have some in- 
tention of publishing, hereafter, the Oriental version 
of the work ; and conceive that the close correspon- 
dence between the two will be of great advantage 
to the young Oriental student. 

As my object has been to give a complete and 
precise idea of the things described, I have, by a 
full and minute description, avoided the obscurity 
which often arises from vagueness of language and 
brevity of expression. During the progress of the 
work and researches connected with it, a large 
quantity of useful miscellaneous information has 
come into my hands. Part of this I have com- 
prised in an Appendix, under the heads of Rela- 
tionship, Weights and Measures, Dresses of Men 
and Women, Female Ornaments, Mohummudan 
Cookery, Musical Instruments, Fireworks, Games 
and Children's Plays. 

I have followed the example of several eminent 
writers on India (such as Mr. Mill in his History, 
and Colonel Tod in his Annals of Rajast'han), 
in not attempting to preserve any theoretic system 
of writing Indian terms in Roman characters. In 
the spelling of the words, I have been guided by 
the ear ; and the following letters representing the 
sounds contained in the words, are given as exam- 



pies, respectively — a, as in **art ;" — ai (when me- 
dial) and ay (when final) as in " sail" and '* day ;" 
— aee, as the word "eye;" — e, as in "emery;" — 
ee, as in "bee;"— g-, as in *'good ;"— ^//z, as in 
''g'haut;"-^', as in "jest;" — o, as in "bold;"— o<?, 
as in "moon;" — ?/, as in "bust;" — y, as in "fly;" 

— kh (for ^ ) as ch in the Scotch word " Loch;" 

Roman g (for ^), like the Northumbrian provin- 
cial sound of R, — the French r. grassie ; — Q(for 
j) as in *' quoit." The krohic futha (or zubur) 
is generally represented by u, sometimes by «, 
when initial or final with a silent h {n). The 
kiisr (or zayr) by e or i when followed by two 
consonants ; and sometimes by «?/, which must 
not always be considered as long. The zumma (or 
paysfi) by o ox oo. 

For the sake of the European reader, and those 
unacquainted with the current native language of 
India, I have subjoined a copious Glossary of all 
the Oriental words occurring, and which have not 
been already explained in the body of the work, 
or in the Index, in which it was found more con- 
venient to insert the Oriental terms expressive of 
such subjects as are particularly treated of in the 
work. All the Oriental words are put in italics ; 
and this will serve an an intimation to the reader, 
that every word so distinguished will be found ex- 
plained in the Glossary or Index. 


Since this work was prepared for the press, I have 
had an opportunity of consulting two recent publications 
which throw considerable light on the subject ; vi:s. the 
correct and interesting " Observations on the Mussulmauns 
" of India," by Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, 1832 ; and the 
learned and curious " Memoires sur les Particularites de la 
" Religion Mussulmane dans Tlnde," (Paris 1831,) by that 
ingenious and profound Orientalist the professor of Hin- 
doostanee to the French Government, Monsieur Garcin de 

I have carefully compared their labours with the following 
sheets, and whenever I found anything of interest or impor- 
tance in them, which had been omitted, or otherwise stated 
by my author, I have supplied the omission, or mariced the 
difference in notes and a few Addenda, so as to render this 
work, as far as possible, complete. 

I may now therefore, I think, venture to say, that it em- 
braces an account of all the peculiarities of the Moosulmans, 
worthy of note in every part of India. 

I would remark, that any one at all conversant with the 
Mohummudans or their faith, will instantly perceive that 
the first work alluded to above embraces the opinions of a 
Sheeah, and that of my author the doctrines of a Soonnee 
(or orthodox Moosulman). The two works thus develope 
the conflicting opinions of the two great sects, who enter- 
tain the most inveterate hatred towards each other ; and 
combined, afford as complete an insight into the national 
character of that race as can be reasonably desired or ex- 


pected. Barring the difference of their religious notions, 
the general descriptions given of their manners, customs, &c. 
accord so entirely, that so far from one at all detracting 
from the merits of the other, the statements of the English 
Lady and the Indian Moosulman will be found to afford 
each other mutual support and illustration. 

G. A. H. 

1.9^ September 1832. 




Concerning, 1st. The rite Suiwasa, or "the seventh montli/" 
(?". e. of pregnancy). — 2d. The situation of the Juch-c7iee,or]y'\ug- 
in-\vonian, during the puerperal state, viz. for forty days after 
her confinement. — 3. The ceremonies observed on the birth of 
children. — 4th. The mode of naming children; the subject lead- 
ing to the consideration of, 1. The division of Mohumniudans 
into the four great classes of St/ed, Sheikh, Mogol, and Putfhnn ; 
2. The two principal sects of Soonnee and Sheeah ; and the sub- 
sects Nu-wa-ay-tay and G^?' Muhdee ; 3. The casting of the nati- 
vity; 4, The influences of the planets .. .. .. .. 1 


Concerning the ceremonies of Puttee, and Ch'hiitthee . . . . 23 


Concerning, 1st. Chilla, or the fortieth day {i. e. after child- 
birth). — 2d. Uqeeqa, or sacrifice.' — 3d Moondtm, or shaving.' — 
4th. Placing the infant in a Guhwara, (or swinging cradle) . . 27 


Concerning, 1st. Luddoo-handhna, (or the child's folding hands). 
2d. ChiMana, or the causing the infant to lick; {i.e. weaning). 
3d. Dant-neekulna, or teething. — 4th. Mootfhee-handhna, or crawl- 
ing on all fours.^ — 5th. Kan-cWhaydann, or boring the ears . . 33 


Concerning Dawut, or invitation ; comprising, 1st. The send- 
ing of Eelachee (or cardamoms), with verbal invitations. — 2d. 
The bringing or taking of Nay-oo-ta, alias Mimja (or presents 
carried in state), by the guests . . . . . . . . . . 35 


xviii CONTENTS. 



Concerning- the custom of forming the Sal-giruh, or Biirrus 
Gnuih (lit. annual knot) ; i. e. the observance of the Birth-day 
Anniversary . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . 38 


Concerning the custom of teaching the child BianiiUa (or pro- 
noHncing- the name of God), and the mode of doing it . . . . 39 


Concerning Khidna, alias Soontan (or circumcision) .. ..43 


Concerning the Huddeea (or conclusion of the child's reading) 
of the Qormi, and the making of presents to the tutor; including 
the subject of Eedee (or feast-gifts) . , , . , . . . 47 


Concerning the period of Virginity, and the Ceremonies ob- 
served on the occasion .. .. .. .. .. ..51 


Concerning the age of Puberty or Maturity in Males; and tlie 
observance of the religious duties required of them after reaching 
manhood . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 


Concerning^ the real foundation of jVIohummudanism ; com- 
prising five divine commands, viz.; 1st. Kiihna puma, or Con- 
fession of Faith; 2d. Numaz kiirna, or Prayer; 3d. Rozn 
ruk^hna, or Fasting during the month Riimzan ; 4th. Zuknt 
dayna, or alms-giving ; 5th. Mukkay ka hiij ko jana, or Pilgri- 
mage to Mecca • - . . . . . . . . . . . . o4 


Concerning Numaz, or Prayer; embracing, 1st. TVuzoo and 
ryammocjm (or Ablutions before Prayer); 2d. Azan, or Sum- 
mons to Prayer ; 3d. Forms of Prayer - . . . , . . . 72 




Concerning Marriage, which comprises eleven sections, viz. 
1st. Concerning the looking out for a suitable partner ; the ascer- 
taining by the science of astrology whether the match will prove 
a propitious one ; and the offering of proposals, and arranging 
matters for the ceremonies ; — 2d. Concerning Betrothment ; in- 
cluding, 1. Kliwray pan bar\tna, or the distributing of betel- 
leaves standing ; 2. Shookrnnn (prop. Shrikiir-ana), or the bring- 
ing of sugar; 3. il/rtn^«e^, or the asking (in marriage) ; 4. Poo- 
reenn, (or a kind of patties) ; .5. Whrnjleez klioovidlnnn (or treading 
the threshold) ; (5. Numnk chu-shee (or tasting the salt). — 3d. 
The application of Huldee (or turmeric), to the Bridegroom and 
Bride, alias Munja hythana (or sitting in state), and Puttee, 
Juhaz, and Mudai- ka chlianda, alias Bhimdara. — 4th. Concern- 
ing the carrying of Huldee and MaynJidee, from the Bridegroom's 
to the Bride's ; m-iA vice verad. — 5th. Paoon-minut, alias Paoon- 
mayz, or the measuring for the Bride and Bridegroom's wedding 
dresses. — 6th. Concerning the ceremonies observed on the Shub- 
gusht day ; viz. 1 . The custom of depositing the Kulus kay mat 
(or water-pots) under the shed ; 2. The method of painting the 
Tail-gliurray, (or oil-pots); 3. The fashion of making the 
Mtmdivay kay Beebeean, (or Ladies of the Shed); 4. The forms 
attending the conveyance of the Bridegroom's BuiTce (or m cd- 
ding gifts) to the Bride ; including a description of a Moosulnian 
^r^^^Yj/^/, or dinner-party ; 5. The mode of carrying the Bride's 
Jayhcz, (or bi'idal paraphernalia) to the Bridegroom's house; 
G. The ceremony of Jhol p'horana, (or breaking open the pots) ; 

7. The manner of beating the Pzit kay chaioul, (lit. virgin-rice); 

8. The observance of the rite Tail churhana, (or raising the oil- 
pots); 9. The performance of Shub-gusht, (or nocturnal peram- 
bulation). — 7th I. NeekaJi, (or i\\e solemnization of matrimony) ; 

2. Joolwa, or the first interview of the new married couple. — 
8th. Kunggun kliolna, or untying the kunggun (or wedding 
bracelets), from the wrists of the bride and bridegroom. — 9th. 
1. Hdt burtana (or the resumption of the use of the hands); 2. 
Joomagee, or the giving of entertainments on five successive 
Fridays (the Mohuinmudan Sabbath), during the honey-moon ; 

3. Kulus kay mat uot'lnuid, or removing the before-mentioned 
waterpots. — 10th. 1. The number of wives authorized; 2. Rela- 
tives whom it is unlawful to marry ; 3. The subject of divorce. ^ — 
11th. The postponing and expediting the performance of the ma- 
trimonial rites .... . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 





Concerning the Mohurrum, (or the first month) ; it comprises 
three subjects, viz. — 1st. The Mohurrum kee Fed, or Feast.' — 
2d. The cause of the Martyrdom of their Highnesses Eemdm 
Hzissun and Hosein, (may God reward them!). — 3d. The cere- 
monies observed during the Ashoora, or first ten days of the 
month Mohurrum ; including a description of the Ashoor-khanas, 
and Emambaras ; Allmvahs ; Ullums and Neezas ; Taboots or 
Tazeeas ; Shah-nusheens or Dad mahals ; Booraqs ; Mohurrum- 
Fuqeers ; Lunggur neekalna ; Mohurrum Nuzur-o-JVgaz, (vide 
p. 269) ; Shub-gusht or Shuhur-gusht ; Shuhadut ka roz ; Run 
ka dola, or Run ka taboot . . . . . . . . . . , . 148 


Concerning the Tayra Tayzee, (or the first thirteen evil days); 
and the Akhree Char Shoomba {kee Eed, or Feast) held on the 
last Wednesday of the second month Sufur . . . . . . 229 


Concerning Bara JFufat, or the Death of the Prophet on the 
\2i\v day oi the ilnrd nion{\i Rubbee-ool-awul .. .. .. 233 


Concerning his excellency Peer-e- Dustugeer SahWs Geear- 
?veen on the 11th day of the fourth month Rubbee-oos-Sanee, 
and the putting on of the Bayree (Fetters), Towq (Collar), or 
Buddhee (Belt) 237 


Concerning Zinda Shah Mudar''s Churagan (or lamps), and 
Buddhee, Dhummul koodana and Gaee lootana, observed on the 
17th day of the fifth month Jummadee-ool-Awul .. . • 241 


Concerning Qadir WuUee SahiVs Oors, observed on the 
11th day of the sixth month Jummadee-ool-Akhir . . . . 243 


Concemmgylst, Rujub Sala7-''s Kundoree ; 2d. Syed Jullal-ood- 
Deeii's (of Bokhara) Koondon ; 3d. His holiness Mohummud 
Moostuffa's (the peace and blessing of God be on him !) Mayraj 
(or Ascension), observed in the seventh month Rujub . . . . 249 





Concerning the Shaban feast; viz. SJmb-e-Burat, held on the 
14th, and its Arfa, on the 13th day of the eighth month 
Shaban 251 


Concerning 1st. The Rumzati ka Roza (i. e. the Bzimzajt Fast, 
or Lent) ; 2d. The Turaiveeh kee Numaz (or the Turaweeh 
Prayers); 3d. Aytaykaf hythna, (or constantly praying in the 
mosque) ; 4th. Lylut-ool-qudur' s Shub-bay-daree, (or the nocturnal 
vigils on the night of Power,) observed in the ninth month 
Rurtizan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 255 


Concerning Eed-ool-FitVy or Rumzan kee Eed (or breaking the 
Fast), held on the 1st day of the tenth month Shuival .. .. 261 


Concerning Bunday Nuivaz's Chwagan (or lamps, i. e. illumi- 
nations), observed on the 15th day of the eleventh month 
Zeeqaeda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • 265 


Concerning the Buqr-eed {qoorbanee, or sacrifice), alias Eed- 
ool-Zoha; its Arfa and Eed (or feast), held on the 9th day of 
the twelfth month Buqr-eed or Zeehuj . . . . . . . . 266 


Concerning iVMj2;?«'-o-iV^ff2r, or vows and oblations .. .. 269 


Concerning Tureequt, or the Path {i, e. to Heaven). It com- 
prises three sections ; viz. 1st. The becoming a Mooreed (disciple) ; 
2d. The manner of making a Fuqeer (Durwaysh, or devotee), and 
the investiture with the Kheelafat (deputyship) ; 3d. The austeri- 
ties requisite to be practised in order to become a IVullee (saint, 
dr a performer of miracles) . . . . . . . . . . 281 




Concerning: the science of Daivut (or exorcism),' comprehend- 
ing four sections : 1st. The rules necessary to be observed, and 
the articles required by the exorcist; 2d. The giving of Nissab, 
Zukat, &c. of tlie Isms, and the manner of reading the Daivut; 
3d. The commanding the presence of genii and demons; 4th. 
The casting out of devils . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 


Concerning the method of establishing friendship between 
two persons, and of captivating the hearts of members of assem- 
blies 341 


Concerning the causing of enmity between two individuals, 
and the effecting the death of one's enemy . . . . . . 345 


Concerning the science of Tukseer (or numbers), comprising 
the art of constructing Taiveez (amulets), and Puleeta (charms); 
the uses to which they are applied ; and in the name of the sick 
to consult horoscopes and predict future events . . . . . . 347 


Concerning the ascertaining of unknown things by the view- 
ing of Unjun (or lamp-black, alias the Magic Mirror), or by the 
viewing of Hazirat, (or the flame of a charm-wick) ; the giving 
of the Purree kay Tuhiq, (or Fairy-Tray); and the performing 
of iVaAo2<;?2, (or the Fairy- Bath). 375 


Concerning the art of detecting thieves . . , . , . 390 


Concerning travelling . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 


Concerning the hour and day of the month most propitious for 
undertaking any particular business . . . . . . . . 402 

CONTENTS. xxiii 



Concerning the measuring for, and wearing of new clothes; 
the preserving of tlie beard, mustachios, hair of the head, &c. ; 
the custom of bathing and shaving, and of eating and drink- 
ing, &c. 403 


Concerning the administering consolation to the dying, and 
the shrouding and burial of the dead .. .. .. •• 407 


Concerning the Teeja, alias Zeearut, or Pliool-churhana of 
the dead, or the visiting the grave on the third day after burial 421 


Concerning the Fateeha (or offerings to the dead) on the tenth, 
twentieth, thirtieth, and fortieth day after the demise ; and the 
quarterly, half-yearly, nine-monthly, and anrwxyX- Fateeha •• 4-,!. 

ADDENDA, including a Summary of the Moosulman Saints 
of India 428 

APPENDIX, comprising an account, 1st. of relationships ; 
2d. of weights and measures ; 3d. of dresses ; 4th. of female 
ornaments ; 5th. of Moosulman cookery; 6th. of games; 7th. of 
children's plays, and 8th. of fireworks . . . . . • • • ' 

GLOSSARY of Oriental Terms 1^ 

INDEX ciii 


Lord, Prosper r In the name of God, the Mer- "| and finish this 
Work with L eiful and Compassionate ! J thy blessing! 

Glory be to that God who has, out of a drop of fluid, 
created such a variety of creatures, rational and irrational ! 
Adored be that Creator, who has established such a variety 
of forms, statures, and vocal sounds among them, though 
their origin is the same pure, liquid, and genuine spirit ! 

In Praise of the Prophet {i. e. Mohummud). 

A thousand thousand salutations and benedictions are 
due to his sublime holiness Mohummud Moostufa* (the 
blessing and peace of God be with him!) through whose 
grace the sacred Qoran descended from the Most Higli ! 
How inadequate is man justly to praise and eulogize him ! 
Salutation and blessing, also, to his companions and 
posterity ! 

My object in composing the present work is this : I, 
Jaffur Shurreef, alias Lala Meeaw, son of Allee Shurreef 
(who has received mercy-j-), of the Qoreish tribe, born at 

• Moostufa, i. e. " the chosen." 

t " The late," or as we should say, " who is now in heaven.' 


Nagore (may God illuminate his tomb, pardon his iniqui- 
ties, and sanctify his soul !) a native of Ooppoo Elloor 
(Ellore), have for a considerable time been in attendance 
upon English gentlemen of high rank and noble mind (may 
their good fortune ever continue !), and vmder the shadow 
of their wings have nourished both my soul and body ; or, 
in other words, my office has been that of a teacher of 

Gentlemen of penetration used often to observe to me 
with the deepest interest, that if a concise work were 
written in a familiar style, and in the genuine Dukhunee 
language, containing a full account of all the necessary 
rites, customs, and usages observed by Moosulmans, Euro- 
peans would not only read it with pleasure, but would 
derive much useful information from its perusal. How- 
ever, hitherto, owing to want of leisure, this humble indi- 
vidual'^ has not been able to undertake any thing of the 
kind. But, in the present instance, at the earnest request 
of (a possessor of favour and kindness, a man of great 
learning and magnanimity, a mine of humanity, a fountain 
of generosity, a jvist appreciator of the worth of both high 
and low, well versed in the mysteries of philosophy, a 
Plato of the age, in medicine a second Galen, nay, the 
Hippocrates of the day), Dr. Herklots (a man of virtue, 
an ocean of liberality, may his good fortune ever continue 
and his age increase !)-f- I have endeavoured, to the extent 

• Literally " this know-nothing- ;"' one of the many expressions of 
humility which Oriental writers are accustomed to use in speaking- of 
themselves; such as " this sinner ;" " this beggar;" " this slave." 

+ At the very earnest solicitation of the author, the translator has 
been prevailed upon (very much against his own inclination) to allow 
the above hyperbolical culogiums to remain, thoug;h conscious of his 
being little entitled to them. He has been induced to accede to the 




of my poor abilities, to arrange this work under different 
heads, and entitled it " Qanoon-e-Islam,* i. e. The Cus- 
toms of the Moosulmans.'^'' 

Although various Hindoostanee authors have occasion- 
ally adverted to similar subjects, yet no work extant con- 
tains so full an account of them as has been given here. 

I have also included in it, local customs which have been 
superadded to the laws prescribed by the sacred Qoran and 
Htiddees, observed by Moosulmans, in order that the libe- 
ral-minded Englishman should not continue ignorant of, or 
remain in the dark as to any rite or ceremony observed by 

Although the author (who deems himself no wiser than 
a teacher of the ABC) be somewhat acquainted with the 
science of divinity («. e. the knowledge of the interpretation 
of the Qoran and the Htiddees, precepts of Mohummud), 
as well as with law and medicine, he has confined himself 
merely to a narration of the establislied and indispensable 
customs commonly observed by Moosulmans in the Duk- 
hun, and to an idiom of language calculated to be under- 
stood by even the most illiterate. 

Of him who can judge of the state of the pulse of the 
pen (i. e. estimate the beauty of composition), and is hke- 
wise erudite, I have this request to make, that should he 
observe any errors in it, he would kindly consign them to 
oblivion, by erasing them with his quill. 

author's wish, more particularly to shew the remarkable proneness of 
this class of people to flattcrj'. In their epistolary correspondence, as 
well as in their intercourse with each other, they are equally lavish of 
praise. A somewhat similar specimen will likewise be found at the 
conclusion of the work. 

• More strictly " rules (canons) of the Mohummudan religion." 


This work was completed Anno Hijrae* 1248, corres- 
ponding with Anno Domini 1832. 

• i.e. Sun-e-Hijreey or the year of the flight. It is generally, simply 
called the Hijra, or flight ; i. e. the flight of Mohummud from Mecca 
to Medina, which happened on the 16th of July, a.d. 622, whence the 
Mohummudan aera commences. 



Concerninsf, 1st. The rite Suin-asa, or " the seventh month," ?. e. of 
jjreanancy. — iJd. The situation of the Juch-chee, or Ij'ino^-in-woman, 
during the jHierperal state, or for forty days after confinement. — 
3d. The ceremonies observed on the birth of children. — 4th. The 
mode of naming children ; which leads to the consideration of, 
1. The division of JMohummudans into the four great classes of 
Sycd, Sheikh, Mogol, and Putthan ; — 2. The two principal sects of 
Soonnce and Sheenh, and the sub-sects Kuwa-ay-tny and V^yr 
Muhdee ; — 3. The casting of the nativity; — 4. The intluences of the 

Sect. 1. The rite sutwasa, observed when a uwrnan arrives 
at the e?id of the seventh month of her pregnancy. 

On this occasion, her parents invite her to their house, 
and regale her with all kinds of delicacies; and, should 
Providence have blessed them with the means, they put a 
new suit of clothes on her, perfume her with tittiir and sn7i- 
d?(l, adorn her with flowers, and amuse themselves the whole 
of that day and night with music, singing, and all kinds of 

At tliis ceremony they perform a certain experiment, 
from the result of which they predict the sex of the ex- 
pected offspring; that is, they press out a few drops of the 
woman's milk on a piece of yellow cloth ; and if, when dry, 


2 PREGNANCY. Chap. I. 

it leave a white stain, they conjecture that the child will be 
a girl ; but if a yellow mark, they suppose that it will be 
a boy. 

Again, on entering her ninth month, all the female rela- 
tives and neighbours assemble ; and as the pregnant woman 
was not allowed to wear fine clothes or jewels from the 
seventh to the ninth month, they now adorn her with them. 
In the course of the day they have sanuk fateeha (vide 
Glossary) performed by some learned man, in the name of 
her highness Beebee Fateema (the daughter of Mohummud), 
and fill the woman's lap with such fruits and vegetables as 
are in season. After this, they keep rutjugga, or nocturnal 
vigils, and make great rejoicings. 

Among the great this ceremony is observed at every 
lying-in ; while among the poor it is kept only on the first 

Sect. 2. The situation of the lyifig-in woman during the 
'puerperal state, or for forty days after confinement. 

Among the generality of the people, it is the custom for 
the first accouchement to take place at the house of the 
woman's parents ; but among the very poor and needy, she is 
confined at her husband's house. 

When the period of parturition approaches, the female 
relatives, friends, and neighbours assemble, and choose a 
warm apartment for the accouchement. The woman is 
then brought to bed by the assistance of the family Daee 
junnaee (or accoucheuse).* After she has been delivered, 
all the women, except her mother and sister, who still con- 
tinue to attend upon her, return home. 

* The prdfcssional fee of a midwife varies from hundreds (nay 
tliousands) of rupees, to a few pice, each one rewardinsf her according 
to his means. 

Sect. 2. THE LYING-IN. 3 

The moment that the woman is delivered, they cause her 
to swallow a dumree or rooa, or any small piece of copper, 
with the view of facilitating the expulsion of the placenta. 
As soon as that object is accomplished, they administer to 
her some assafoetida,* to prevent her catching cold. A 
handkerchief is then tied on her head and a fit roller round 
her abdomen, and she is laid in bed, or on a sheet spread 
on the ground, in a warm apartment, enclosed by curtains 
or screens; and by the side of her bed are deposited a 
lemon, some neem leaves, and a kuthar (or dirk), a knife, 
or any other weapon, to ward off the influence of misfor- 
tune and ajoparitions. They then give her a parcel of betel 
leaf, with the addition of hoi (myrrh) as a medicine, to chew. 
The drink she is allowed for forty days after her confine- 
ment is water boiled, in which a red-hot horse-shoe, or any 
other piece of iron, has been slaked, and allowed to cool. 

In some countries, the woman-in-the-straw gets nothing 
to eat or drink whatever for the first three days. 

Among some of the people, her food on the first day 
consists of a kind of caudle called uchwaneej- (i. e. a boiled 
preparation of sugar, a little coarse wheaten flour [ata], and 
ajwaeen,) made of a thin watery consistence ; on the next 
day, of hurreera.) i. e. a mixture of wheaten meal or flour 
{ata or myda), sugar and ghee boiled to a paste ; and on 
the third and some following days, wheaten r/iOo//ee,t i- e. 
a pudding or dumpling composed of kunkee,\ sugar, and 

But, among the generality of the people, for the first six 

* Assafoetida is considered by the natives a powerful stimulant; 
and as it is an antispasmodic, it proves likewise beneficial in relieving' 
after-pains. It is not unfrequently an ingredient in curries, to give 
them a flavour. 

t Vide Glossary. 

4 THE LYING-IN. Chap. I. 

days, they give the mother nothing to eat but caudle 
{uchwance) and suthwara* (vulgo suthoora) or only the 
former. After that, khooshka (or a dish of boiled rice), 
made of oohala chawul,^ or of old ravv^ rice (i. e. not boiled 
in the husk), with black-pepper chutnee. 

After the tenth or twelfth day, the woman resumes her 
accustomed diet of animal food, vegetables, &c., being 
regulated in the choice of them by what agrees best with 
her constitution. 

Among some of them, the woman does not oil, or 
comb her hair, for forty days after child-birth, but wears a 
handkerchief tied on her head; and some do not permit 
her to leave her bedroom, except for the purpose of batliing 
on the clihuttee (p. 24.), and chilla days (p. 27.), and that of 
counting the stars. (These ceremonies will be described 
hereafter.) During those days, whenever a stranger, male 
or female, comes into the room, they throw some ispund* 
on the fire, that no evil influence, which may have accom- 
panied the visitor, may hurt the mother or child ; and 
some place a kalik ka t'uwa,-f and a broom, in a corner, 
which remain there constantly, until the chilla-day, in order 
that no evil spirit may approach the house. Great care is 
taken that no dog or cat enter the room, in order to ward 
off the misfortunes which their presence might occasion ; 
and even the very name of a cat is not allowed to be men- 
tioned, as it is considered a witch. 

* Vide Glossary. 

t Kalik ka tmva, the iron or earthen plate on which vvheaten 
cakes are toasted or baked ; in this case used for collecting kalik. — 
Vide kalik, note p. 23. 

Skct. 3. THE BIRTH. 5 

Sect. 3. The Birth of the Child and the Ceremonies 
attending it. 
On the birth of the child,* the midwife demands some- 
thing shining, such as a fanam, a piece of silver, or a 
rupee; and having touched the navel-string with it, sh*e 
divides it, and appropriates the glittering substance, under 
the pretence that in the absence of the illuminating power 
of some such sparkhng object she could not possibly see to 
operate. She then puts the after-birth into a lota (a large) 
or hundee (a small earthen pot), together Avith a pice,t 
and a &e/e^leaf parcel, and buries it in a corner of the room 
or on one side of the compound, {i.e. the area or enclosure 
round the house), in a cool place, where pots of water are 
usually kept ; and the knife by which the umbilical cord had 
been divided is not used for any purpose, but left near the 
lying-in-woman until the chilla-da.y, when kajul (or lamp- 
black) is collected on it, and applied to the child's eyelids. 
Whenever the child is bathed, or taken out of the house, 
the knife is carried along with it; and when they are 
brought in again, the knife is deposited in its former place 
near the mother ; and on the chilla-day they must, with the 
self-same knife, sacrifice a sheep or a cock. 

After the infant is born, and after he has been properly 
washed with warm water and bound in swaddling-clothes. 

• " Tlie birth of a boy is greeted by the warmest demonstrations 
" of unaffected joy, in the houses both of the parents of the bride 
" and bridogroom. When a female child is born, there is much less 
" clamorous rejoicings."—" The birth of a son is innuediately an- 
" nounced by a discharge of artillery, where cannons are kept ; or 
" by musketry in the lower grades of the native population, even to 
" the meanest peasant, with whom a single matchlock proclaims the 
" honour as effectually as the volley of his superiors."— il//-5. Meer, 
vol, ii. p. 2, 3. 

t A copper coin in value equal to two farthings. 

Q THE BIRTH. Chap. I. 

he is carried by the midwife to the assembly of male rela- 
tives and friends met on the occasion. There the a:i:an 
(or summons to prayer) is uttered aloud in his right ear, 
and the tukheer (or Mohummudan creed) in his left.^ — This 
is done by the Khuteeb (or preacher), or any other person 
present, though more commonly by a boy, who is in- 
structed and desired to repeat the words Allah-ho-akhur {GoA 
is great), into the ears of the babe ; for which he is re- 
warded with a few jnce^ or a little sugar. 

It is customary among some people (more frequently 
among the litei-ati than the nobility or the poor), for a man 
of true piety and erudition, such as a Mushaekh (patriarch), 
or the Moorshud (religious instructor of the family), if 
present, to dip his finger in honey, or chew a little of the 
date-fruit, or the grape, and insert a small quantity of it, 
thus masticated, into the infant's mouth, before he is put 
to the breast, in order that the wisdom and learning of the 
sage may be imparted to him. 

This ceremony being ended, and fateeha (or prayers) 
offered, in the name of the Prophet, over some sugar and 
betel leaves, they are distributed to all the connexions and 
friends, both absent and present. 

As soon as the friends and relatives of a woman receive 
the intelligence of her having been brought to bed, they 
repair to her house in a body, carrying with them a blade, 
or a few blades tied together, of fresh or green grass. On 
reaching the place, the head of the party sticks the tuft of 
grass into the hair of the husband's head, and after they 
have all paid their congratulatory compliments on the 
joyful occasion, they demand of him the usual gote (or 
present), in order that they may celebrate the happy event. 
When they have received it, they give an entertainment in 
the house of one of the party, or in some neighbouring 

Sect. 3. THE NAMINCx 7 

garden, and cat, drink, and enjoy themselves with their 
own vocal and instrumental performances, while such as 
can afford it, hire dancing-girls for the purpose. The ob- 
servance of this custom is very common among the lower 
orders of the community. 

The infant is bathed mornings and evenings, and fumi- 
gated with the smoke of ispund and ood, and they tie round 
his neck or legs puchar leaves, or assafoetida, to prevent 
people's sight, or shadow, from falling upon him. When- 
ever the child is bathed, they take some red or yellow dye, 
made of choona (quick-lime) and turmeric, add to it a few 
pieces of charcoal, and the midwife having waved it three 
times over the child, it is thrown away : or she takes 
merely some water in a vessel (lota), waves it over the 
infant, and pours it on her own feet ; as much as to signify, 
*' May all the child's misfortunes be on me ;" and a com- 
mon mode of expression for this act is, " All the child's 
misfortunes have beset the midwife." 

Sect. 4. The Naming of Children. 

The naming of the child takes place, either on the day 
of its birth, or, as in some parts of the country, on that day- 
week ; for the most part, however, on the former : as, until 
the child is named, the woman is not even indulged with a 
draught of water, be she ever so thirsty ; much less are the 
usual luxuries of hetei^ myrrh, &c. allowed to be given to 
her, which they consider as forbidden till the ceremony of 
naming has been performed. 

Among the better ranks of society, after the name has 
been given, and the before-mentioned/a^eeAa performed over 
the betel and sugar, or hutasha (sugar-cakes), they are sent 
along with music, &c. to the absent relatives and friends. It 
is the province of the midwife to superintend these, and which 

8 THE NAMING. Chap. I. 

she accompanies with or without carrying a dish of sugar 
in her own hands. On delivering them, it is customary 
for her to receive a douceur of two or four pice, or a little 
unboiled rice, from each family. 

The offspring of Moosulmans invariably belong to their 
father's tribe,* consequently if the new-born be the son of 

* Mohummudans are divided into four great classes, distinguished 
by the ai:»pellatioiis Sj/ed, Sheikh, Mogol, and Puttlian. The Ptdtlians 
are sometimes also termed Afgans. The origin of these are as follows. 
It is said that originally they were all Sheikhs ; not even the prophet 
Mohummud MoostuiFa (the blessing and peace of God be on him !) 

According to one tradition, on a particular day, as his holiness 
Mohummud Moostuffa (the blessing and peace I &c.) was sitting in 
company with his son-in-law Allee, and his daughter Fateema, toge- 
ther with his grandsons Hussun and Hosein (the blessing and peace 
of God be on them !), the angel Jibbreel (Gabriel — peace be unto him !) 
descended from heaven with the divine Revelation, and holding a 
blanket or sheet (or rather an aba), as a curtain of honour o\er the 
heads of the punjatun (or the five) as they are called, exclaimed, " O 
" Mohummud ! the Almighty showers down upon thee the abun- 
" dance of his rich blessing, and declares, that ye who are at present 
" in the shade of this canopy, as Avell as the oifspring of the fourf 
" sitting with thee, and who believe in thee, shall henceforth be 
" Syeds.'' 

The meaning of Syed is a lord, a prince, a noble. Hence, it has 
become a title of honour. 

Another oral saying among some is, that his holiness INIohummud 
IMoostuifa (the blessing, &c.) on giving his daughter Beebee Fateema- 
tooz Zohura (may God reward her !) in marriage to Allee (may God 
i-eward him !), he supplicated of heaven that the descendants from the 
M'omb of Fateema and of the seed of Allee, (may God ! &c.) might be 

Allee's race by Fateema, i. e. Ilussun and Hosein (may God reward 
them!) and their descendants, are denominated Syed Hussnnee and 
Syed Hoseinee ; while his progeny by his other M'ives are termed 
Syed Allee IV ee. 


t Not including the future descendants of the Prophet, who, as we 
shall presently observe, continued to be Sheikhs, and therefore the 
Prophet is considered as belonging to both classes. 

Sect. i. THE NAMING. 9 

a Syed, the first word attached to his name is Sycd or 
Meer ; such as iSyed Alice or Meer A/umtd. But although, 

The Sheikhs are of three varieties: 

1st. Sheikh Qo}-ai/sJtee, of which class are, the pro])het ]Mohuuimud 
IMoostuffa (the blessing! &c.) and all his companions and descendants. 

2d. Sheikh Siddeeqee, also descendants of Aba Bidvur Siddeeq. 

3d. Sheikh Farooqee, of his highness Oomur. 

The word Sheikh, ?imong various other significations, means a chief. 

The prophet Ts'haq (Isaac) in blessing his son Ees (Esau), declared 
that all his race would be monarchs. Accordingly, they became of 
royal blood. Then those of his lineage formed a go/ (or society) 
among themselves, and would pay no respect or honour to any one ; 
they were designated as a people belonging to the gol ; which term 
some corrupted into mogol. In the course of time, the former became 
obsolete and the latter was confirmed. 

Moreover, on one occasion of obtaining a victory over the enemy, 
the Prophet (on AA'hom be the blessing of God I) in issuing his orders to 
Balbug (a. Mogol), addressed him with the title of Be</ ; since which 
j)criod his descendants hiive retained that surname, bey signifying a 

The Moyols (Moguls) are of two kinds, depending upon the country 
which gave them birth ; viz. 

1st. Eeranee, or Persian, M'ho are all Sheeahs ; and 

2d. Tooranee, or Turkish, who are all Soonnees. 

This brings me to the consideration of the two great sects, Sheeah 
and Soonnee, into \\hich all the four classes of INIohummudans are 
divided; the latter constituting by far the greater number. 

The Sheeahs are likewise termed Tu-Sheeah, MurJinhee, Eeranee 
and Teen-Eearce. 

The Soonnees are also called Soonnut-Jumma-iit, Tussunoon, and 

Between these two sects exists the most inveterate enmity. 

Tiie Sheeahs, out of hatred, call the Soonnees, Kharjee (i. e. schis- 
matics), because, as they opprobriously afiirm, they reject his high 
excellency Ameer-ool-Momeeneen-Allee, the son of Aboo-talib (may 
God reward him I).- So far is this from being the case, that all the 
Soo7inees iT\diC2 the utmost faith in his excellency Allee-oon-Moortooza. 
It is from pure motives of enmity and reproach that they assert such 
a thing. IMoreover they call them Kafirs (or infidels). 

Independently of the Tussunoons being unjustly denominated Khar- 
jees (or schismatics), there are sonue real ones of that description 
which may be classed under a third head, and unfortunately they are 
so from their mother's womb ; and thev utterly abhor his excellency 


10 THE NAMING. Chap. I. 

according to this rule, the child at its birth had received 
the name of Meer Golam Hyder, or Syed Sufdur Allee, it 

Allee-oon-]Moortooza. Tlierefore, to nickname Soonnees, Kharjees, 
clearly evinces a spirit of ill-will, and a wish to slander. 

The Soonnees, on the other hand, maliciously term the Sheeahs, 
Rnfzees (i. e. heretics, rejectors, or abusers); because thev reject the 
followinrr three companions of the Prophet; viz. 

1st. His highness Ameer-ool INIomeeneen Aboo Bukur Siddeeq, the 
son of Quhafa (may God reward him!), his highness the prophet's (the 
blessing- and peace of God, &c.) father-in-law, the father of Beebee 
A-ay-sha (may God reward her I). 

2d. His highness Ameer-ool Momeeneen Oomur, son of Khuttab 
(may God reward them !), also the prophet's (the blessing, &c.) father- 
in-law, and the father of Beebee Hufusa. 

3d. His highness Ameer-ool Momeeneen Oosman, the son of 
Afan (may God reward them !), his highness the prophet's (the 
blessing, &c.) son-in-law, and the husband of Beebee Rooqeea. On 
the demise of Rooqeea, the prophet gave him in marriage a second 
daughter named Oom-e-Koolsoom ; and owing to this circumstance, 
INIohummud Moostufl'a (the blessing, Sec.) named Oosman, Zin Noor- 
rain, signifying ' be thou master of two lights (?. e. lights of his eyes) 
alias daughters. 

The Sheeahs consider the three above-mentioned worthies, and 
many of the other companions of the prophet, as M^icked men, and 
hold them in the utmost contempt ; and in speaking of them, make use 
of such mean expressions as does not become me to mention. 

Some of them, in their arithmetical calculations, never utter the 
number four ; and others, instead of using a country cot (or bed) with 
four legs (called charpaee, Avhich means literally four-legged), have one 
with six, and name it cKhay-paee (or six-legged). 

Others again, should they ever have allowed the Avord four inad- 
vei'tently to escape their tongue, instantly go and gargle their throats ; 
or in meeting a Soonnee, should they have kissed his hands (which 
they do agreeably to their mode of saluting a friend), they perform 
umzoo (or ablutions, vide chap. xiii. sect. 1.) immediately after. 

In some countries they write the names of the three companions on 
a piece of paper and wear it on the soles of their feet, as the most 
marked token of disrespect and contempt that they can shew towards 

Real Rafzecs and Kharjees are guilty of many base acts. 

Among various others, it is customary with the former to celebrate 
in the month Buqur Fed, a feast called Gudcei- ; on which occasion 
they form three hollow images of dough composed of whcaten Hour, and 


Skcjt. 4. THE NAMING. H 

is not uncommon for them, as they grow up, to drop the 
surnames Meer and Syed, and merely to call themselves 

fill their cavities with honey ; then, using severe terms of abuse, they 
thrust a knife, first into the body of the one they have named .Iboo 
Bukur Siddeeq ; and, in like manner, they stab the second, called 
Oomur ; and lastly, poor Oosman suffers the same fate ; and while the 
honey flows from the wounded bodies of these dolls, the Sheenhs sip a 
little of it, as emblematic of drinking the blood of their enemies ; and 
eat a small bit of the paste, in allusion to the devouring their flesh in 

The fact is, the Sheeahs assert that his highness Mohummud 
Moostuffa (the blessing ! &c.) before his death bestowed the kheelafut 
(or sovereignty) on Allee ; but that immediately after his demise, the 
other three companions convened a meeting of the nobles and gran- 
dees, and M'ith the aid and assistance of men of talents and worth 
among the Arabs, assigned the right of succession, first, to Siddeeq-e 
Akbur ; then to Oomur-e Adil ; next to Oosman-e-C'unnee ; and lastly, 
to his highness Allee. Whereas, his highness Allee was the first 
legal successor to the royal dignity; and it is for this reason that the 
Tusheeahs hold the three usurpers (as they call them) in such ab- 

The Tussunoons, on the other hand, deem all this to be mere slander 
and falsehood; for if, say they, his high excellency Allee was really 
so brave, that God called him his " lion," how came he to lose his 
courage when he had to encounter opposition, and actually through 
fear of the above-mentioned people, to stand behind the priest,* and 
among the congregation, when his actions were said to bo governed by 
the divine will ? INIoreover, if his highness INIohummud ]\Ioosturfa 
(the peace, &c.) did, during his life, appoint him his successor, why 
did he not risk his life in the service of his God, and stand up for the 
defence of his religion, and take by force what was his right? He 
must have been perfectly well aware of the blessing pronounced upon 
those who engage in such a Avarfare ; for the text of the sacred Qoran 
saith, " He that dies fighting for his religion, though he be dead, yet 
" doth he live in the presence of God." 

Independently of this, numerous rewards and blessings promised to 
such, are to be found in the chapters of the Qoran relating to martyrs 
and heroes. 

Thus, by their own mouths they would seem to condemn Allee. 

May the Lord preserve us from such folks, and may the Almighty 


Or in other words, to act in the cHpacity of a clerk. 

12 THE NAMING. Cuap. I. 

by the names of Golam Hyder, or Sufdur Alice. It is, 
therefore, only by enquiring after their tribe, that it can 
be learned such a one is a Syed. 

protect every Moosulman from such evil and temptation, which it is 
highly dishonourable to assert of such respectable characters. 

To the writer of these pages (this humble teacher of the alphabet), 
the following seems to be the position of the argument worthy of be- 
lief ; viz. that, since the presentperiod is the termination of the 1 248th 
year of the Hijree (or flight) of his holiness Mohummud MoostuftU 
(the blessing ! &c.), and to this day no doctrine has been inculcated at 
Mecca or ISIedina, save that of the sacred Shurra (or precepts of Mo- 
hummud), and no religion professed, except that of the Sjonmit-e- 
Jurnmaut, we may justly infer that there will be no other. 

But to return from this digression. 

The Puti'han caste has descended from the prophet Ya<joob (or 
Jacob). Its origin is thus recorded in a work entitled Syer. It is 
there said, that the prophet jNIohummud Moostuifa (the blessing I &c.) 
in a particular battle, ordered ten officers of rank to take the field. 
After all these had been killed, he desired his people to choose a 
brave and skilful individual from among themselves, as their leader. 
Accordingly, they selected one from among the family of Khalid-bin- 
wuleed (a descendant of the prophet's), and prepared themselves for 
action. That intrepid warrior having gained the victory, returned 
with his forces to the prophet (the blessing ! &c.) ; and the latter, on 
seeing him, honoured him with the title of Fultlian (i.e. a victor or 
conqueror). In progress of time, the word Futt'hau became corrupted 
into PutClian. 

jMoreover, at a particular battle, the prophet (the blessing, &c.) 
addi-essed Khalid the son of Wuleed as Khan. Hence, the origin of 
that surname. Khan, as well as Beg, are honorary titles, signifyino- 
brave or valiant. The Pi<^/7ifi?2i', thereafter, became of various de- 
scriptions, according to their descent ; viz. 

1st. Ynsoof Zitee ; from Yusoof (or Joseph). 

2d. Locke ; fi-om Lodee (or Lot), and so on ; they are exceedingly 

Among all the four classes of INIoosulmans, there is to be found a 
fifth, denominated Nutod-ay-tay, which has had its origin after the 
days of the prophet (the blessing, &c.) ; and their history is as follows. 
In the holy (lit. illuminated) city Medina, the inhabitants of a part of 
the town having formed the project of conveying the illustrious corpse 
(i.e. of the prophet) to some distant country, to collect there the crowd 
who go to worship at his shrine, were employed in digging a mine 
under ground; and the subterranean passage was nearly completed, 


Sj;c,t. 1. THE XAMING. ]3 

If he be the son of a Sheikh, then at tlie beoinnins: or 
end of his name is added one of the following surnames, 

when the servants Avho had charge of the tomb, were warned by the 
prophet in a dream, that the people of such a district had excavated a 
gallery even to the foundation of the walls of the sacred mausoleum, 
and were further directed to apprehend and banish tliem out of the 
city. Early the next day, having caught tlie villains, they expelled 
them from the place. On their arrival at the next village, the inha- 
bitants, on hearing of the circumstance, likewise beat them and drove 
them out. Thus v/herever they went, they met with a similar reception. 
The ignorant part of the inhabitants used to ask of the others who 
the strangers were, and where they were going : from Avhom they 
invariably received the reply, that they were Nuicd A-ny-tliay (or 
new comers), and that thev were flogged and sent out. Thus, wherever 
they went, tiiey got the name of Nuwd A-cty-tliay, which term was 
afterwards corrupted into Nit-wd-ay-tay. 

Tippoo Sooltan, however, on one occasion, when several of his 
noblemen of this tribe were present, affirmed that this class M-as a 
most abominable one ; since they were the descendants of a woman to 
whom Now A-ay-thny (or nine came), and consequently on the birth 
of her child, each would have it named after himself, as being the 
father: but the court decreed, that since nine had her, the infant 
should receive the name of Now A-ay-thay (or nine came) ; which 
term has been changed into Ntcwu-ay-tay. 

He observed moreover, that the word nasJiood sJ^Xi or " should 
not be," should not exist under his government; meaning the four 
ti'ibes of which this word comprises the initial letters (though he 
afterwards eulogized that race, observing, they were in fact notwith- 
standing, a clever, sensible, and intelligent class of people, expert in 
all sorts of business), z'?2r. : — 

j^) or N. for Nu-iva-ay-tay. 

Afghan (or Puttlian). 

Sheeah (or Rnfzees). 

Daeerayivalay (or Gyr Muhdee), who are all 
Ptttt'hmis, but constitute merely one-tenth of that tribe, and are only 
to be met with in Hind'h (Hindoostan), there being no Gyr Muhdees 
in Cabul, Candahar, Persia, or Arabia. Their origin (according to 
Ferishta) is dated from Anno Hijrse 900. They differ a little in their 
forms of worship from the others: such as in the mode of burying 
their dead, in not raising up their hands in prayer (nuniaz), nor in 
making use of supplications {doa). 


\ or A. 


fj: or SJ2. 


J or D. 


14 THE NAMING. Chap. I. 

viz. Khoaja, Golcwi, Mohmnmud, Deen, Btikhs, Allee, 
Sheikh, Abd, or Allah (pronounced Oollah), e.g. Khoaja, 
Vusoof, Golam Nubee, Mohummud Hosein, Shums-ood- 
Deen, Hussun Bukhs, Ruxza Allee, Sheikh Mohummud, 
Abd-ool-Qadir, Fusseeh-Oollah. These names, however, 
do not invariably indicate the individual to be a Sheikh, 
since the generality of Syeds call themselves by these, 
leaving out their own surnames Meer and Syed; e. g. if 
you ask a Syed what his name is, he replies, Golam Nubee, 
or Mohummud Allee, whereby one is left in the dark as to 
whether the person is a Syed or Sheikh. Such being the 
case, it is solely by enquiring after their tribe, as we have 
said before, that one can ascertain whether he be a Syed 
or Sheikh. 

If he be the son of a Mogol, his name commences or 
terminates with the words 3Iirza, Beg, Aqa, or Aga ; for 
instance, Mirza Ahmud, Ismaeel Beg, Aqa or Aga JafTur. 
As Syeds and Sheikhs are in Persia frequenlly addressed 

Some among this sub-sect say, that there was an individual of the 
Qoreish tribe, whose name was Naet, lajlj and consequently his de- 
scendants inherited that appellation ; whom his majesty Haroon-oor- 
Rusheed banished from his dominions. 

A second report current among them is that it is a title, and means 
"chosen;" and consequently, in their correspondence they invariably 

write the Arabic word Naet lajli (and not Nuwaet i^- -tU't), which 
has that signitication. Whereas other Moosulmans saj', it means 
" driven away." 

However, they are Sheikhs, and in every respect adhere to the 
precepts of the prophet ; and in learning, in all arts and sciences, and 
in commercial pursuits, very much superior to the other classes of 
Moosulmans. Hence the latter esteem them as much as Hindoos 
do Brahmins. Thev are no soldiers. 

Independently of this class, there is among the Soonnees another, 
called Gyi' Muhdec. Between the Soonnees and them exists the 
most inveterate enmity, as will be particularly described when we 
treat of the Riimznn fast. 

Skct. 4. THE NAMING. |g 

by the names Aga, Aqa, and Mogol (words signifyino- 
lord or master), it is requisite to ask, in order to ascertain to 
what tribe a person belongs. 

It appears that the word Mirza was originally Meerza^ 
(i. e. born of a Meer), the name having been adopted from 
the circumstance of the mother being a Syed (the males of 
which class obtain the name of Meer), and the father a 
Mogol ; but that in the course of time it has been con- 
tracted into Mirza. 

If the son of a PuWhan, the word Khan invariably oc- 
curs at the end of his name ; thus Buhadoor Khan, Mudar 
Khan, Hosein Khan. 

We, however, frequently find Sheikhs and Syeds with 
the word Khan attached to' their names ; thus Golam 
Ahmud Khan, Meer Allee Nuqee Khan, Buhadoor Beg 
Khan ; but in these cases it is bestowed upon them by 
their masters as an honorary title. 

To the above rule the following are exceptions ; viz. 

Should the father be a Sheikh and the mother a Syed, 
the word Shurreef is usually added to the beginning or 
end of the chikFs name, e. g. JafFur Shurreef or Shurreef 
Jaffur. This appellation it is customary, with some 
people, to add to the names of all the members of the 
family ; as Jaffur Shurreef, the son of Allee Shurreef, the 
son of Shurreef Hummeed, the son of Moostuffa Shurreef. 

In most places, however, when the mother is a Syedanee 
and the father a Sheikh, they leave out the word Shurreef, 
name themselves Sheikh Nasir, or Sheik Mohummud, and 
call themselves of the Sheikh caste. In other countries, 
again, they add the word Khoaja to such a one's name, as 
Khoaja Buha-ood Deen, Khoaja Nusur Oollah, 

When the father is a Mogol and tlie mother a Syedanee, 
their offspring get the name of Khoaja-zadaii (i. e. of the 

16 THE NAMING. Chap. T. 

Khoaja tribe). In general, Syeds are also called Khooja^ 
as are also Peers and Moorshuds ; the term Khoaja signi- 
fying gentleman. Syeds are thus called solely out of re- 
spect, as they are in like manner termed AIeer:^a (an ab- 
breviation of Meer-zada, meaning the descendant of a 
Meer or chief). 

Others again, of all the four castes, are sometimes in the 
habit of subjoining the words Sahib, Meean, or Jan to 
the names ; as for example Daood Sahib, Lalla Meeaw, 
Amraoo Jan. This, however, is not an established prac- 
tice in any tribe, but parents are accustomed to call their 
children by these familiar names out of love and affection 
for them, so that as they grow up to manhood the names 
take such deep root, that the real ones are not unfrequently 
altofTcther for^otten- 

The following are the surnames given to females, added 
to the beginning or end of their names : 

Among the Syed women Begum, Beehee or Bee, Nissa, 
and Shah, e. g. Rooqeea Begum, Zynub Beebee, or Bee- 
bee Zynub, Sukeena Bee, Khyrool Nissa Begum, Fazilla 
Shah. To the names of Sheikh girls they only add the 
words Ma, Bee, or Beehee, viz. Shureefa Ma, Humeeda Bee, 
Jumeela Beebee ; except in the cases of children of noble- 
men, to whose names, as a mark of dignity, they add the 
word Begum, such as Koolsoom Begum. This is also the 
case with Mogols and Putt'hans. 

Among the females of the Mogol tribe, the word Khanum 
is commonly added to the end of their names, sucli as Izzut 

Among the Pnttlian women, to the end of their names is 
2iMedKhatoon,Khatoo,m'Bano; such as, FateemaKhatoon, 
Ruhmut Khatoo, Larlee Bano. Among the last-mentioned 
class the following is an exception, viz. that all illegitimate 

Sect. 4. THE NAMING. 17 

daughters invariably get the word Baee subjoined to their 
names, as Jumeela Baee, Humeeda Baee. It is customary 
with nobles and grandees to bring up other people's daugh- 
ters, have them taught dancing and singing, and such 
are called gaeeiiew (or singers), to the end of each of whose 
names they add the word Baee, such as Rutun Baee, Zay- 
bun Baee ; and when they make a favourite of one, they, 
from affection, honour her with the title of Khanum, and if 
they are devotedly attached to her, dignify her further with 
the appellation of Begum. Their slaves in like manner they 
call first Boohoo, and when they cohabit with such a one, 
honour her with the titles Baee, Khanum, or Begum. 

There are two kinds of Moosulman dancing girls, Ram- 
junnee and another;* the former have the words 5rtee and 
Koon-ur subjoined to their names, such as Ram Baee, 
Chunda Baee, Khoosh-hal Koow-ur, Raj-Koow-ur. The 
latter have the Avord Bukhs added to their names, e.g. Fyz 
Bukhs, Rahut Bukhs, &c. 

There are five different modes of naming children : 

1st. The infant obtains the name of some one of the 
family, as that of the parent's father, f grandfather, great- 
grandfather, or of the tutelary saint venerated in the 

2d. At an auspicious hour,| (eight or ten) learned men, 
assembled for the purpose, fix upon the first letter of the 
first line of any page of the sacred Qoran, opened at ran- 
dom, as the one with which to begin the name ; e. g. should 
it be an alif (or a) the first letter of the alphabet, a name 
applicable to the station in life of the individual is, after 

* The term, at present, not in the author's recollection, 
t It is not customary among- Moosulmans to give their ow^n names 
to their children. 

X To ascertain which, consult the horoscope, p. 20 an4-22. 


18 THE NAMING. Chap. I. 

clue consultation, selected from among the various ones that 
commence with «; as Ahmud (most praised), Asud (a lion), 
Amjud (most great), Arshud (most upright). 

3d. A few tickets, on which different names are inscribed, 
are rolled up, and deposited on a plate, or put into a cup, 
which is covered Avitb a handkerchief, and turned up and 
down, or shaken about in the hands, and scattered on the 
floor. Any little child present is then desired to take out or 
pick up one of them, and the name which the drawn ticket 
contains is the one adopted. 

4th. Among some people it is customary to choose a 
name from among those that begin with the same letter 
which is found at the commencement or termination of the 
name of the planet in whose hour the child is born.* For 
example, if born on Sunday morning, between six and seven 
o'clock, on reference to the table, we discover that it is the 
planet Shictns (the sun) who rules at that hour; conse- 
quently, the first letter being s/ieen (or sh), he obtains a 
name that begins with sh., such as Shums-ood-Deen, Shur- 
reef-allee, Shuja-ut-Beg, Shah-baz-Khan : the last letter of 

• In order to ascertain this, it is requisite to consult a horoscope of 
nativitj', of which the following- is a description : 

The planets, seven in number, viz. The Sun, Venus, Mercury, the 
Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, are supposed to preside over the 
twenty-four hours of the day and night ; thus,— 

From 6 to 7 A.M. on Sunday, is considered the hour of the Sun. 

7 „ 8 Venus. 

8 „ 9 Mercury. 

9 „ 10 the Moon. 

10 „ 11 Saturn. 

11 ,^ 12 Jupiter. 

And so on ; but as it would be tedious to enumerate them all in this 
wav, we shall arrange them in the form of a table, by reference to 
which the stars that reign during the several hours of each of the 
days of the week may be readilv ascertained. 


Sect. 4. 



shums being an s, with it begins Sirraj Soob-han Biikhs 
Soolayman Beg, Suleem Khan. In short, in this way, 

The form of the ffeneathliacal scheme is as follows : — 

Day of 

Saturday or 

Night of 

Day of 

Friday or 
Night of 

Day of 

Thursday or 
Night of 

Day of 


or Night of 


Day of 

Tuesday or 
Night of 

Day of 

Monday or 
Night of 

Day of 
Sunday or 
Night of 


a. 7)1. a. m. 

6 to 7 


a.m. a.m. 

6 — 7 


a.m. a.m. 
6 — 7 


a.m. a.m. 

6 — 7 


a.m. a.m. 

6 — 7 


a.m. a.m. 
6 — 7 


a.m. a.m. 

6 — 7 


7 — 8 


7 — 8 


7 — 8 


7 — 8 


7 — 8 


7 — 8 


7 — 8 

8 — 9 

8 — 9 

8 — 9 

8 — 9 

8 — 9 

8 — 9 

8 — 9 

9 — 10 

9 — 10 



9 — 10 

9 — 10 

9 — 10 

10 — u 

10— 11 


10 — 11 


10 — 11 

10 — 11 

11 — 12 

11 — 12 

11 — 12 

Sun. Saturn. | Venus. 
11 _ 12 U— 12 11 — 12 

11 — 12 

12— 1 

12— 1 



12 — 1 

12— j 

12— 1 

1 —2 

1 —2 

1 —2 

1 —2 


1 —2 

1 —2 

1 —2 

2 — 3 

Mercury. Mars. 
2—3 2—3 

2 — 3 

2 — 3 

Saturn. Venus. 
2—3 2—3 


3 — 4 


3 — 4 

3 — 4 

Jupiter. Mercury. 
3—4 3—4 


4 — 5 

4 — 5 



Mars. 1 Moon. 
4—5 4—5 


p.m. p.m. 
5 — 6 

Jupiter. Mercury. 

p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. 
— 6 1 5 — 6 



p.7n. p.m. 


p.m. p.m. 
5 — 6 

Sun. Saturn. 

p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. 

5 _ 6 1 5 — 6 

The use of the above table is threefold ; 

1st. It is used in the t^rivini.'- of names, as just described. 

c 2 


20 THE NAMING. Chap. I. 

according to the initials or terminals of the planets, the 
names are kept. 

2dly. It is had recourse to in ascertaininjr what day or hour is 
propitious, or otherwise, for the performance of any particular busi- 
ness : such as, for example, during the hour that Saturn governs, no 
good work is on any consideration to be undertaken ; viz. 

Saturn ... unpropitious, being the celestial Eunuch. 

Sun indifferent Cook. 

Venus . . . propitious Prostitute. 

Mercury . . propitious Moonshee (or Teacher). 

Moon .... indifferent Messenger. 

Mars .... unpropitious Executioner. 

Jupiter . . projjitious Judge. 

3dly. Having ascertained from this table under the reign of what 
particular planet a person is born, they cast liis nativity, and thereby 
predict his future destiny. For instance, should an individual be 
born on Sunday at half past twelve or a quarter to one (which 
according to the Mohummudans would be Sunday night, they cal- 
culating their days from six p.m. to six p.m. and nominally 
from sun-set to sun-set), the planet who is sovereign at that hour 
being Venus, her influences will be exerted on him, and he will be 
" fond of music and singing, of dress and perfumes," &c. For 
further particulars on the disposition of the planets read what 
follows : 

The seven planets are supposed by astrologers to exert many 
favourable and unfavourable influences on the human race; but as 
they are too numerous to be all inserted, I have selected here a few 
as specimens of them. 

1. The Dispositions of the Sun. He that is born during the reign of 
the Sun, whether male or female, will have the following good and 
evil qualities inherent in him. He will be wealthy, sensible, pas- 
sionate, easily irritated, generous ; he will acquire much property ; 
his word will be much respected ; partial to black and red clothes ; 
amorous ; addicted to drinking ; a scoffer ; little formed for pious 
works; annually indisposed; his birth will be auspicious to his 
parents, but he will outlive them both {i. e. live to a great age). 

2. The Dispositions of Venus. Fond of music and singing, and still 
more of dress and scents ; partial to sweet and savoury dishes ; amo- 
rous ; beautiful; accomplished; amiable ; delighting in always making 
himself appear neat and spruce ; constantly contriving to enrich him- 
self at the expense of others; not disposed to disclose his own secrets; 
never without perfumes ; voice harmonious; a great songster ; a plea- 
sant speaker ; of agreeable conversation ; eloquent ; numbers ol men 


Sect. 4. THE NAMING. 21 

The fifth mode is to give the child one of the names con- 
tained in the following list, vi^. 

and women will be charmed and enraptured witli his delightful con- 
verse; he M'ill maintain not onlj' his parents, but also his brothers 
and sisters. 

3. The Dispositions oi Mercury. A man of wisdom and learning; a 
transcriber; versed in several of the sciences ; an ingenious painter ; 
endowed with an admirable memory; nay, a Hafiz, or one who 
knows the ^^■hole Qo?'«?t by heart; a poet; wealthy; a perfect master 
of arts ; many Mill derive advantage by cultivating his society and 
friendship; he will never be solitary, but invariably surrounded by 
people who will ever be subservient to his will ; an arithmetician ; 
of uncommon penetration ; affectionate. If favourably disposed to- 
wards a person, he will exert his utmost to exalt him to the highest 
honours ; if, on the contrary, he be displeased with any one, he will 
avoid the very sight of him. 

4. The Dispositions of the Moon. A gambler; goodlooking ; a 
drunkard ; a great traveller ; addicted to falsehood ; a gabbler ; a 
man of reputation in the assemblies of the great; subject every half 
year to diseases arising from debility and cold ; having a natural dread 
of water; his life in danger in travelling; a blessing to his parents 
and friends. 

5. The Dispositions of Saturn. Of a swarthy or dark complexion ; 
long-lived; thin habit of body; black eyes; a flatterer; of a bilious 
temperament ; a loud voice ; courageous ; a brave warrior ; good- 
looking ; of a hastv disposition ; perverse ; tyrannical ; fond of chas- 
tising; unkind; liberal ; capricious ; will detest flattery ; mind pure ; 
without malice ; very forgetful. 

6. The Dispositions of Jupiter. His daily food ever abundant ; he 
will be goodlooking; a Hafiz ; a man of science; a judge; learned; 
a governor; a monarch ; a Nuwwab ; by some means or other he will 
distinguish himself in science and politics; he will have many ene- 
mies, but always overcome them ; none of them will ever be able to 
hurt him ; he will be of mild address ; of a sweet voice ; in handicraft, 
drawing, and writing an elegant hand, will stand unrivalled ; he will be 
sensible; a counsellor; charitable; firm in mind; of a delicate con- 
stitution; high-spirited; extremely persevering in all vmdertakings. 

7. The Dispositions of il^r/jv'f. Tyrannical; of ruddy complexion; 
a quick talker ; kind ; one easily irritated and vexed ; fond of white 
apparel and perfumes ; acquainted M'ith several of the ai'ts and 
sciences; earnestly desirous of acquiring general knowledge; much 
inclined to deprive his neighbour of his monev, and hoard it up for 
himself ; most ambitious. 



If on the day or night of Svnday a boy be born, he is 
named Ibraheem, Soolayman, Daood, Moosa, I-yoob, Ha- 
shim, or Imran; if a girl, she is named Huleema, Hubeeba, 
Zynub, or Khodayja, 

If on Monday, a boy is named Mohummud, Ahmud, 
Muhmood, Qasim, Qadir; a girl, Fatema, Ameena, Hu- 
meeda, Rafea, Rooqea, Zureena, Rabea. 

If on Tuesday, a boy is named Ismaeel, Is-haq, Aba 
Bukur, Eeleeas, Yasin ; a girl, Huneefa, A-ay-sha, Kool- 
soom, Shureefa, Sukeena. 

If on Wednesday, a boy is named Oosman, Allee, Ha- 
roon, Hussun, Hosein, Oomur, Salayh; a girl, Rabea, 
Azeeza, Jumeela, Fazila, Nujum, Khoorsheid, Sitara. 

If on Thursday, a boy is named Yusoof, Hummeed, 
Moostuffa, Moortooza, Sujjad, Baqur, Askurree, Ruzza, 
JafFur, Mohummud Gowz ; a girl, Maree-yum, Asea, 
Hajira, Zuleekha, SufFoora, Khyrun, Wajida, Wasila, 
Gufoor, Maroof. 

If on Friday, a boy is named Salayh, Eesa, Anwur, 
Noor, Hydur, Akurum, Adum, Sooltan, Hubbeeb-oollah, 
Hufeez-oollah, Kureem-oollah, Ruhmut-oollah, Aleem- 
oollah, Qoodrut-oollah, Abd-ooUah, Zeea-oollah ; a girl, 
Mayher, Mah, Zohura, Mahboobah, Ameera, Ruttun, 
Bano, Khatoon, Nissa, Huwa, Arefa, Mama. 

If on Saturday^ a boy is named Abd-ool-qadir, Abd- 
ool-kureem, Abd-oor-ruzaq, Abd-ool-wuhab, Abd-oos- 
Suttar, Abd-oos Shookoor, Abd-ool Lutteef, Shums-ood- 
Deen, Nizzam-ood Deen, Sirraj-ood Deen, Mookurum, 
Siddeeq ; a girl, Nazook, Mamoola, Luteefa, Bilqees. 



Concerning- the rites of Puttee and Ch'huttee. 

Puttee* is a custom observed on the third day-f- after the 
woman's confinement; when the females assemble, dress the 
mother and infant in red clothes, tie a red handkerchief on 
the head of the former, and, holding a red cloth as a canopy 
over their heads, apply kajul\ or kalik^ to their eyelids. 
After that, they fill first the mother's lap and then those of 
the other women with sonfana \\ and 'pan-sooparee || (betel). 
The guests after this, having applied a little huldee (or 
turmeric) to the mother's face, and having deposited their 
rukhtunee (i. e. some money, which becomes the midwife's 
perquisite), take their departure. 

From the birth of the child to the elChuttee^ they celebrate 
the days with as much festivities and rejoicings as their 
means will admit of. 

* Literally signifies the division of a woman's hair, which is combed 
towards the two sides and parted by a line in the middle. Why the 
term is applied to this ceremony I have not been able to learn. 

t According to Mrs. Meer, " on the fourth day after the birtli of a 
" son, the friends of both families are invited to share in the general 
*' joy, testified by a noisy assembly of singing-women, people chatter- 
" ing-, smell of savoury dishes, and constant bustle; which to any other 
" females in the world would be considered annoyances, but in their 
** estimation are agreeable additions to the happiness of the mother, 
" who is in most cases screened only by a curtain from the multitude 
" of noisy visitors assembled to rejoice on the important event." — 
Vol. ii. p. 5. 

X Knjul, or lampblack; procured by holding any metallic substancfe' 
(generally a knife) over the flame of a lamp. 

§ Kalik, the soot which collects under the bottom of earthen pots, 
or any vessel that has stood on the fire. 

II Vide Glossarv- 

^4 CH'HUTTEE. Chap. TI. 

CKhuttee should be observed on the sixth, but takes 
place more generally on the seventh or ninth day of the 
accouchement.* When frequent deaths occur among the 
chiklren in a family, in order to change the luck, they 
perform chliuttee on the tliird, instead of the sixth day ; 
but the proper ch'huttee-da.y is the sixth, whence the origin 
of the term, meaning the sixth. 

Early on the morning of the day fixed upon for the 
observance of the ceremony, the midwife washes and besmears 
the floor of the house with yellow or red earth, or cow- 
dung, and then goes home. 

At eight or nine (lit. eight or ten) o'clock of that day, 
the wotnen (men having no part in this ceremony) despatch 
the following articles to each of their female friends and 
relations, on a large platter carried on the head of the 
midwife, and eacii individual's portion parcelled out, viz. 

Sik-kay-kaee (mimosa abstergens, Roxb.), or reetha (sa- 
pindus emarginatus, Vahl.), with which they wash 
and clean the head. 

• By Mrs. IVf . H. All's account, this custom would appear in Upper 
Hlndoostan to be obsei-ved on the last-mentioned daj'. She observes : 
" on the ninth day the Infant Is bathed — I cannot call any of its pre- 
" vious ablutions a bath, — then its little head is well oiled, and the 
" fillet thrown aside, which is deemed necessary from the first to the 
" ninth day. The infant from its birth is laid in soft beaten cotton, 
" with but little clothings until it has been well bathed ; then a thin 
" muslin loose shirt, edged and bordered with silver ribands, and a 
" small skull-cap to correspond, comprises their dress. Blankets^ 
" robes, and sleeping dress are things unknown in the nursery of a 
*' zunana. 

" The infant's first nourishment is of a medicinal kind, composed 
" of anwltas (cassia fistula, Lin.) a vegetable aperient, with sugar and 
" distilled water of anniseed ; this is c?A\q^ gootlee, and the baby has 
" no other food for the first three davs, after which it receives the 
" nurse's aid. After the third day a small proportion of opium is 
" administered, which practice is continued dailv until the child is 
" three or four years old." — Vol. ii. p. 0. 

Skct 1. CirHUTTEE. 25 

Gmgilie oil (ol. sesain. oriental. Lin.), to rub over the 
body previous to the application of the chicksa (vide 

Chiksa powder, mixed with water, to apply to the body, 
and therewith perfume it, after the oil has nearly eva- 

Lamp-black, on a bit of stick, to apply to the eye-lids. 

Pansooparee, or betel (vide Glossary). 

Pun-jay-ree^ or caudle given to puerperal women (Glos). 

After the child has been washed, a koorta., made of any 
old article of dress that had been worn by some great per- 
sonage who had lived to a considerable age, is the first dress 
put on the child (hitherto having worn only a pinafore tied 
round the neck, and covering the chest and abdomen), in 
order that he may also attain to as great an age. Should 
the midwife be an old woman, she makes up a koorta of 
some of her old clothes, and brings and puts it on the child. 
Then all the female relatives in the house and neighbour- 
hood bathe themselves, and wear the fine clean dresses 
brought by the washerman for the mother and friends ; for it 
is the usual practice for him to lend for that day to poor 
people, on such an occasion, clothes which belong to his 
employers, for which he is suitably rewarded. Such suits 
of clothes are termed inirrud (or borrowed). 

This being done, they place the lying-in woman on an 
Indian cot, and bathe her with a decoction of aromatic 
herbs, viz. of a handful of neem (or margosa leaves*), and 
shumhalee (or leaves of the chaste tree-f-). At this time it 
is usual to give a present to the midwife of some ready 
money. On this day, the kuleejee, as it is called, of a 

• Melia azatlirachtii. Lin. 
t V^itex neg'undo. Lin. 

26 CH'HUTTEE. Chap. IT. 

sheep (viz. the heart, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys), are 
invariably dressed and served up with kliichree. A portion 
is likewise transmitted to all absent relatives, and the night 
is spent in singing, music, and all kinds of merry-making. 
These ceremonies are observed not only on the ch'huttee- 
day of the first-born, but also on that of every child. 
" In the evening, a plate of Whichree or polaoo, with two or 
three kinds of curries and other things, according as they 
can afford them, are kept over-night. This is in order that, 
when the child grows up, he may not eye and covet every 
article of food he sees. Should his parents not keep these 
thin OS, and he afterwards turn out a (joiirmand, people are 
apt to say that it is very probable his hlianda (as this dish 
is called) was not sufficiently filled witli many choice viands; 
and in the centre of this dish, a lamp, made of flour paste, 
havino- four wicks, is occasionally placed and lighted. The 
friends of the puerperal woman, on seeing this bright lumi- 
nary, drop into it something in the shape of money, accord- 
ing to each one s means, and it is kept burning all night ; 
but next morning the midwife carries it off. 

The dish of food is termed chlmttee ka b'handa, as also 
rzd-jugga, and by the vulgar clihuttee-mah (or sixth-day 
mother), because they suppose that CJihuttee (whom they 
consider an angel that writes people's fates) comes and 
writes the child's destiny upon it. 

The ceremony of chlmttee is commonly kept by the lower 
orders of society ; while the higher classes usually substi- 
tute the rite Uqeeqa (vide next chapter) in its stead. 



Concerning-, 1st. Chilln, or the fortieth day.' — 2d. Uqeeqn, or sacri- 
fice. — 3d. Moondun, or shaving-. — 4th. Placing- the chikl in the Giih- 
ivara, or swinging cradle. 

Sect. 1. Chilla, or the fortieth-day. 

Chilla is a rite observed by both rich and poor on 
the fortieth day after parturition, and is esteemed by 
them an important festival ; for, agreeably to the Shurra 
(or precepts of Mohummud), until that day the mother is 
not allowed to pray or fast, touch the sacred Qoran, or 
enter the Musjid. It was the custom* originally to refrain 
from these as long as the woman had any issue upon her ; 
but the foolish as well as the wise among the female sex 
have equally fixed upon the fortieth day as the boundary of 

On this day, as well as on that of ehlmttee (and also by 
the generality of people on the twelfth, twentieth, and 
thirtieth, called the monthly chilla, when they also cook 
kheer, Uhichree, hkajee, according to their means), the 
female relatives and neighbours assemble, and have the 
lying-in-woman and infant bathed and dressed out in fine 
clothes. Kheer and Whichree having been cooked, and 
fateeha off*ered in the name of his holiness Mohummud 
Moostuffa (the blessing ! &c.), are, in the forenoon, eaten 
and distributed, and sent to the males and females. 

Tlie female acquaintances are invited for the evening ; 
and when the period of assembling approaches, doolees are 
despatched for them. 

The guests, on coming to the feast, necessarily bring 


some nayoota (or present) always along with them, every 
one according to his ability ; such as a red cloth koorta, or 
a topee (cap) edged Avith lace, or of brocade ; a gold or 
silver huns-lee or kurray, for the baby,* and for the mother 
a saree, peshwaz, orhnee, cholee, and a set of hungrees, 
pan-sooparee, ^o\vers, sweetmeats, and smid id ; moreover, 
some also bring for the father a sayla, jmgree, or some other 
dress. These are either brought with them on some kind of 
tray, such as a hdmq, khoon, kishtee, soop, or in baskets, 
(just as they can afford it), or sent for afterwards. 

If any of the women are so poor as not to be able to 
afford any thing valuable, they content themselves, on be- 
holding the infant's countenance, with putting a rupee or 
two into its hands. 

On this occasion, it is customary for the child's maternal 
grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal aunt, and 
other relatives on tlie mother's side, to bring with them for 
the child a present (according to their means), of a gold, 
silver, or wooden cradle; some ready money, a pair of 
kurray, torray, a gold or silver htmslee, with k'hichree, 
sugar and other eatables, jewels, clothes, &c. : and this is 
called kliichree kee rtissum (or the kliichree ceremony.) 

The whole of that day is spent in amusements of various 
descriptions ; such as music, vocal and instrumental, &c. 

In most cities, on the cJihuttee and chilla days, they 
engage hijray (eunuchs) ; or these come of their own 
accord, to dance, sing, and play. It is customary for 

* Also " taweezes of gold and silver ; these are tablets on which 
" engraved verses from the Qoran are inscribed in Arabic charac- 
" ters ; they are strung on cords of gold thread, and suspended, when 
" the child is old enough to bear their weight, over one shoulder, 
" crossing the back and chest, and reaching below the hip on the 
" opposite side." — Mrs. Mecr H. AH, vol. ii. p. 9. 


eunuchs to go and search about the lanes, callino- out 
" where is a son born ?'" and when a boy is born any where, 
they dance at the house of the parents, and exact money 
from them, according to their means. If a girl be born, they 
do not get much — in fact, most people give nothino-, nor are 
they themselves at all importunate in their demands. On 
the birth of a son, should they not be sent for, they contrive 
to find him out, go to his house and dance. Should they 
be suitably rewarded agreeably to the rank of the individual, 
well and good ; if not, they raise a clamour and noise, and 
load him with curses. In short, they do not leave the 
house until they obtain something. 

Their mode of dancing is as follows : A good looking 
person among them is selected to dance, and the rest play 
on the dholuk and munjeeray and sing. Towards the 
conclusion of the dance, the dancer makes an artificial in- 
crease in the size of his abdomen, by inserting a cloth pad 
under his dress to represent a woman with child. After a 
little while, the dancer, as if in actual labour, screams and 
roars out lustily, and ultimately drops the pad as if bringing 
forth the infant. Then the pretended mother rocks it in 
a cradle, or dandles it in her arms. After dancing and 
singing awhile, they take some hetel and unboiled rice, and 

In the evening about six or seven o'clock, the male relatives 
and friends are likewise invited to a separate ^tertainment; 
when, after they have offered fateeha over polaoo in the 
name of all the prophets, or of his holiness Mohummud 
Moostuffa (the blessing ! &c.), it is served up to them. 

It is customary among some, on the chliuttee or chilla 
night, to take the mother out into the open air with the 
infant in her arms, and make her count a few stars. After 
this they shoot a couple of arrows into the air. 

30 1 HE SACRIFICE. Chap. III. 

Sect. 2. Uqeeqa, or Sacrifice. 

Among some people, either on the clihuttee or chilla, 
or any other convenient day, the rite iiqeeqa* is performed. 
It consists in a sacrifice to God, in the name of the child, of 
two he-goats, if the new-born be a boy ; and of one, if a 
girl. The he-goat requires to be above a year old, and 
suheeh-ool-aza (or perfect and without blemish); he must not 
be blind of one or both eyes, or lame, and is to be skinned so 
nicely that no flesh adhere to his skin, and his flesh so cut up 
that not a bone be broken. It being difficult to separate the 
flesh from the smaller bones, they are boiled and dressed 
with the flesh remaining ; while in eating, the people are 
enjoined to masticate and swallow the softer bones, and the 
meat is carefully taken off' the larger ones without injuring 
the bone The meat is well boiled, in order that it may be 
more easily separated from the bones. This is served up 
with mcmda, chupatee, or rotee.-f While they are off'erino 
it, an Arabic sentence is repeated ; the signification of which 
runs thus : " O Almighty God ! I offer in the stead of my 
" own offspring, life for life, blood for blood, head for head, 
"" bone for bone, hair for hair, and skin for skin. In the 
" name of God do I sacrifice this he-goat.'' It is meri- 
torious to distribute the food to all classes of people, save to 
the seven following individuals, viz. the person on whose 
account the offering is made, his parents, and his paternal 
and maternal grandfathers and grandmothers ; to whom it 
is nnUnvful to partake of it. 

* Uqceqa properly implies, both the ceremonies of the sacrifice 
and the shaving- of the child's head ; but to this latter operation, the 
people of this country liave given the name oi Moondnn. The former 
is a rite directed to be observed in the Huddees. 

t Dirtercnt kinds of Ijrcud. 

Sect. 2. THE SHAVING. 31 

The bones, boiled or unboiled, skin, feet, and head, are 
buried in the earth, and no one is allowed to eat them, 

Sect. 3. Moondun, or Shaving. 

Among the respectable and wealthy, Uqeeqa is first 
performed ; and Moonchm on any day afterwards. Though 
most people have the child's head shaved on the uqeeqa day, 
the lower classes of people only observe the latter ceremony ; 
and those who are very poor, moreover, to save expense do 
it on the same day with one of the preceding, viz. cKhuttee 
or chiJla, while the rich perform them all on different days. 

On this occasion, the child's head is shaved, and the 
ceremony is denominated Moondun; from moondna, to 
shave. Those who can afford it have it performed with a 
silver-mounted razor, and use a silver cup to contain the 
water; both of which, after the operation, are given in a 
present to the barber, together with one and a quarter seer 
of rice, some pan-sooparee, a couple of wreaths of flowers, a 
nosegay, and som.e cash. 

After the head is shaved, among the nobility a solution 
of saffron, and among the poor sundul embrocation is 
applied on it. The hair is then weighed, and its weight in 
silver being distributed among the religious mendicants, 
it is tied up in a piece of cloth, and either buried in the 
earth or thrown into the water. 

Those who can afford it have the hair taken to the water- 
side, and there, after they have assembled musicians and 
the women, and offered fateeha in the name of Khoaja 
Khizur* over the hair, on which they put flour, sugar, 
ghee^ and milk, the whole is placed on a raft or juhaz, (a 

* Khoaja Khizur. — k'ide chap, xxvii. 


ship,ch.xiv.sect.3.) illuminated by lamps, the musicians sing- 
ing and playing the whole time, they launch it on the water. 
Some people at the time of moondun leave choonfees (or 
tufts of hair unshaved) in the name of particular saints 
(vide chap, xxxii.), and take great care that nothing unclean 
contaminates them. A few, vowing in the name of any 
saint, do not perform moondun at all, but allow the hair 
to grow for one or even four or five years ; and, either at 
the expiration of the appointed season, or a little before or 
after, proceed to the durgah (or shrine) of that saint, and 
there have the hair shaved. Should it happen that they 
are in a distant country at the time, and have not 'the 
means of repairing to his shrine, they perform fateeha in 
his name, and have the hair shaved at the place where they 
may happen to be. Such hair is termed jumal choowtee^ 
or jumal hal. This ceremony is, by some men and women, 
performed with great faith in its efficacy. 

Sect. 4. Placing the infant in the Guhwara or Cradle. 

On the fortieth day, or usually on some previous day, the 
infant is placed in a, guhwara {i.e. a swinging-cradle). 

At the time of the ceremony of putting it in the swing 
(observed in the evening), the females having assembled, 
apply sundul to the four legs of the cradle, and ornament 
them with red thread. Then having placed four cocoa- 
nuts on the four corners within the cradle, and put some 
boiled chunna* (or Bengal horse-gram), together with ma- 
leeda and pan-sooparee on a platter, placed on the floor 
near the swing, or held in the hand, they lay the child 
down in the cradle, and sing some customary song for 
lulling babies asleep ; after which, for the sake of amuse- 
ment, they scramble for the eatables. 

• Cicer avieuatum. Lin. 


They sit up the whole night amusing themselves with 
singing, music, &c. Sometimes they perform the parts 
themselves, and play on the dliol and munjeera ; at other 
times employ hired domneean (professed female musicians) 
to play and sing to them. These ceremonies belong pecu- 
liarly to the female department. 


Concerning-, 1st. The child's Ltiddoo bandhna, or making Luddoo, 
(alias folding hands). — 2d. CluLttana, or causing the infant to lick, 
i.e. weaning.' — 3d. Dant nctkulna, or teething. — 4th. Mootfhee 
hnndkna, or crawling on all fours. — 5th. Kaoi cJi' hay da-na, or hor'in^ 
the ears. 

Sect. 1. — Luddoo bandhna. 
When the child is about four months old, in playing 
with his hands he frequently clasps them together ; this 
action is construed into the child's forming luddoos ; con- 
sequently luddoos (a kind of round sweetmeat) are imme- 
diately ordered for the occasion ; and after they have invited 
the nearer relatives, and offered fateeha on them in the 
name of the Prophet (the blessing, &c.), they are distributed 
to them, and after this they make merry. 

Sect. 2. — Chuttana. 
On the child's attaining the age of seven months, the 
nearer relatives, male and female, are invited to a feast ; on 
which occasion they cook polaoo and feernee or kheer, and 
having offered fateeha in the blessed name of his holiness 
Mohummud the Chosen, (on whom, &c.), they take a little 
of the feernee with the fore-finger, and apply it to the 


34 TEETHING, &c. Chap. IV. 

child's tongue (hence its name chuttana., i. e. causing to 
lick). This is repeated twice ; and may with greater pro- 
priety be termed weaning,* since previous to the performance 
of this ceremony the child tasted nothing but its mother''s 
milk ; but from this day he is allowed other kinds of food.-h 
On this occasion, as on all similar ones when females ai'e 
entertained, the d^hol and iminjeeray are necessarily present ; 
and they amuse themselves in singing and playing on them. 

Sect. 3. — Dax\t neekulna , 
Frequently termed dax\t ghoowgwee ; because on the first 
tooth making its appearance, they prepare ghoongneean of 
wheat or chunna (Bengal horse-gram), that is, boil them 
whole with sugar ; and having offered fateeha, distribute 
them among the relations, friends, and neighbours. Those 
who can afford it have an entertainment in the evening. 

Sect. 4. — Mootfhee handhna. 
Mootfhee baiidhna (or closing the fists), and rengnn (or 
crawling), are names given to the ceremony, when the child 
shuts his fists and begins to crawl on all fours. On this occa- 
sion they prepare woorwoor« (parched rice), mixed up with 
syrup oigoor^ and made in the form ofluddoos (or balls), dis- 
pense them among the invited relations and friends, and spend 
the night in amusing themselves with singing and music. 

Sect. 5. — Kan diJiaydana. 
When a girl attains to the age of one or two years, the 
lobes of her ears are bored. Having put into the lap of the 
operatrix two khopras (or dried half-kernels of the cocoa-nut) 

* The child does not discontinue sucking, frequently, till he is 
three or four years old. 

+ The first food they give consists of milk mixed with ff/iee (or 
clarified butter). 

Skct. 5. INV^ITATIONS. 35 

and pan-sooparee, and applied sundul to her neck, they 
employ her to make the holes. By degrees other holes are 
bored along the whole edge of the ear, and even m the centre 
part of it, till, when the child has reached the age of two or 
three years, slie has thirteen holes in the right ear and 
twelve in the left. Some have only a hole bored in each 
lobe of the ear, a second in the middle projecting part 
over the orifice of the ear, a third above, and a few others 
here and there. In the Deccan it is considered vulgar by 
most people to bore holes uniformly all round the edges of 
the ears, as that practice is mostly adopted by low-caste 
people, such as kunjiirs and butchers. 


Concerning Daivnt^ or invitation; comprising, 1st. The sending of 
Eelachee (or cartlamoms with verbal invitations). — 2d. The bringing 
or taking of Nny-oo-ta, alias Munja (presents carried in state), bj' 
the guests. 

Sect. 1. — Invitations. 

The custom of sending eelachee (or cardamoms) is a form 
of invitation in common use among the female sex. Men 
generally invite their friends by letter. 

When any affair of importance is about to take place in 
a person's house, such as a nuptial ceremony or an enter- 
tainment, and it is requisite to invite ladies on those joyful 
occasions, this is done by the transmission of cardamoms to 
each person, as follows : 

Any woman in the habit of going about the street, lane, 
or bazar,* is employed for this purpose ; and being superbly 

• Meaning, one not immured. 


decked out, is despatched on her errand, attended by 
musicians playing, and carrying in her hand a brass plate 
containing sundul, 'pan-sooparee ka beereean, (betel-leaf 
parcels), together with sugar-candy and cardamoms en- 
veloped in red paper, separately arranged in each one''s 

The woman sent with the cardamoms approaches the 
lady with the utmost respect, and having made her obei- 
sance,* delivers her message in these terms : " Such or such 
" a lady (naming the person) sends her best compliments 
" and embraces to you ; and says, that as to-morrow there 
" is a little gaiety about to take place in my house, and I 
" wish all my female friends by their presence to grace 
" and ornament with their feet the house of this poor in- 
" dividual, and thereby make it a garden of roses, you 
" must also positively come,-\ and by remaining a couple 
" of hours, honour my humble dwelling with your com- 
" pany." 

Should she accept of the invitation, the cardamon-bearer 
applies a little of the sundul to her neck, stomach, and 
back, and puts her share of sugar-candy and cardamoms 
into her mouth, or they are handed to her along with the 
betel-leaf parcel. 

Should the lady not be willing to go, sundul is only ap- 
plied, and a pan ka beera (without any of the cardamom 
and sugar-candy) handed to lier. 

Having, after this fashion, been at all the houses and 
returned the message (with compliments), of their intention 
of coming, next day a doolee, accompanied by a maid- 
servant, is despatched for them. But if the hostess be poor, 

• For the diflferent forms of salutation, depending- upon the rank of 
the individuals, vide Glossary. 

t A common mode of saying', do not decline doing so. 

Sect. 1. ^ MAKINCi PRESENTS. 37 

she sends her own women to escort them to tlic house a 
little before daybreak."^ 

On their arrival, the lady of the house advances to the 
gate to meet tliem, and embracing and welcoming them 
with smiles, takes them by the hand into the house, and 
seats them on the carpet. 

On many minor occasions women are similarly invited by 
the sending of such a messenger ; but she is unattended by 
music, and does not carry any cardamoms, simdul, &c. 

Sect. ^.—Presents made. 

The guests, in going to the house, must bring with them 
some nay-oo-ta alias munja (i. e. presents), and in so doing, 
tliey are guided by the consideration of the nature of the 
feast, as Avell as by a regard to their own means. 

The presents usually brought on the celebration of the 
ceremonies of Clihuttee and Chilla have already been men- 
tioned ; viz. a Mmslee, kurray, koorta, topee, saree, 
cholee, pan-sooparee, p'hool and sundul. 

On the occasion of the child's being taught bismilla, the 
presents consist of a small gold or silver plate of the weight 
of eight annas or one fola,-f suspended by a red thread, 
together with a piece of velvet sufficient to make a cholee, 
pati-sooparee, flowers, sundul, and sweetmeats. 

If the present be intended for a wedding-gift, it consists 
of a shawl, a piece of muslin, a saree, pugree, or cholee, 
with pan-sooparee, flowers, and sundul, or some delicious 
viand or muleeda, (a kind of cake), or sweetmeats, or 
merely betel, plantains, and cocoa-nuts. These are either 
brought along with them, or, as among the great, are after 

* Literally, when two <//iun'ce)i of the nif^-lit are &till wanting, 
t A tola (or rupee) weighs exactly three drams. 

38 BIRTH-DAYS. Chav. V. 

their arrival carried thither by the men in great pomp and 

It is expected that those in low circumstances should 
make a present of at least a velvet cholee,* with some sweet- 
meats, pan-sooparee, flowers, and sundul, according to their 

Should they not have brought any munja^ they are re- 
quired to put a rupee or two, or half a rupee, into the hands 
of either the child or the mistress of the ceremony. 


Concerning the custom of forming the Sal giruh alias Burrus ganth, 
or annual knot, i. e. the Observance of the Birth-day Anniversary. 

This custom is observed on the anniversary of the child's 
birth-day : it is commemorated with great rejoicings. Hav- 
ing cooked polaoo, and invited all the relatives and friends 
for the evening, they are entertained sumptuously. Along 
with the polaoo are deposited sometimes kViullee and sugar, 
and over them fateeha is offered, eitlier in the name of his 
holiness the Prophet, or Nooh (Noah, the peace of God be 
upon them ! ) This being ended, some old dame secretly or 
openly ties a knot on the red thread brought for the occasion. 
This is observed annually by way of record of the age of the 
individual. The women amuse themselves all night with 
singing, playing, eating, and drinking.-f* 

This is a custom very common among the nobility ; less 
30 among the lower classes of people. 

• Value about a rupee, or two shillings. 

+ Though in public they, as well as the men, drink only such beve- 
rages as water, shurbrit, milk, &c., it is not uncommon for them in 


Chap. VT. ADORATION. 39 

Some are in the habit of giving first tlie entertainment ; 
and after dinner is ended, the fateeha on the Uhullee and 
sugar, or sugar alone, with the above-mentioned red-thread, 
in the name of his holiness Noah (peace be unto him!) 

The reason y^hy fateeha is offered in the name of Noah 
(peace be unto him !) is, that since he lived to an incalcula- 
ble age (some say five hundred, others a thousand years), 
it is to be hoped that by imploring his blessing the child's 
age will likewise prove long.* 


Concerning the custom of teaehini"; the Child Bismilld, (or pronouncing; 
the name of God,^ and the mode of doing' it. 

The ceremony of hismiUa is observed when the boy or 
girl has attained the age of four years four months and four 

Two or three days previous to it, the child is decked out 
from head to foot in yellow clothes, has some chiksa applied 
by sohagin women, and is seated in a separate room appro- 
priated for the purpose ; has a cloth ceiling erected over his 

private to take strong drink, although it be prohibited in the Qoi-an ; 
excusing themselves by saying that there is no harm in the use of the 
juice of a fruit, (meaning the grape). 

' The girl's years are numbered by a silver loop or ring being added 
" yearly to the gurdonee, or silver neck-ring. These are the only 
" methods of registering the ages of JMussulmaun children. 

" The sal-giruh is a day of annual rejoicing through the whole 
" house, of which the boy is a member; music, fireworks, toys, and 
" whatever amusement suits his age and taste are liberally granted to 
" fill up the measure of his happiness." — Mrs. M. H. AH, vol. ii. p. 10. 

t If a daughter, the pulyoonffhun, (or plaiting of the little girl'? side 
Jocks,) is likewise first performed with the bi^milla. 


head, and coloured clotli curtains suspended from it all 
round, to represent a throne. Every morning and evening 
while they are rubbing the chiksa over his body, musicians 
continue singing and playing, and the child is not allowed 
to go about. This is denominated munja hythna (i. e. sit- 
ting in state). 

The day before that of the ceremony, the females are, 
as above related, invited by the sending of eelachee (or 
cardamons), and the male relatives and friends by letter, 
in the following form : 

" To (such a one) the obliger of friends, greeting, 

" At this poor individual's dwelling, his so'^ (or daughter, 
" as the case may be), is this evening to be taught bismilla- 
" khwanee (or to repeat the name of God), I beg you will, 
" by becoming one of the party, kindly grace and orna- 
" ment the assembly with your presence, and joyfully 
" partake of something; for by so doing, you will afford 
" me peculiar pleasure. 

" The letter of (so and so) a Moonshee or Mowluwee.'''' 

Among the illiterate poor, instead of a note, a verbal 
message is sent to the above effect, by a person usually 
employed on such errands. 

On the hismilla day, the females assemble among them- 
selves, and the men meet together at the appointed hour in 
the evening. 

The child having been bathed in the afternoon, and all 
the chiksa washed well off his body, they exchange his 
yellow garments for red or white ones of superior quality ; 
such as task,* badla,-f mushroo,l or kumkhwab,§ (accord- 

• Task, or cloth interwoven with gold or silver thread. 

t Badla, or brocade of silken stuff variegated. 

J Mushroo, or stuffs of silk and cotton. 

§ Kumkhwnb, silk interwoven with gold or silver flowers. 


ing to their means) ; then having suspended on the child's 
neck the gold or silver plates tied to a red thread, which 
some may have brought, they apply siindul to his neck, 
uttur and other scents to his clothes, throw a garland of 
flowers round his neck, put gujray (or flower-bracelets) on 
his wrists, and crown the whole with a sayhra (or wreath 
of flowers, or of gold-wire) over his forehead. In short, 
they adorn him in every way possible. 

Thus bedecked, he is seated in the presence of his family- 
teacher, or in front of some learned and respectable person, 
as a 7rmshaekh (or divine), &c. 

Near them are placed a couple of trays, containing lud- 
doos (two large ones being pasted over with gold or silver- 
leaf), together with flowers, a. nosegay, sundiil, a small gold 
or silver plate, a pen and inkstand (the two last also some- 
times of gold or silver), betel leaves, and cloth of some 
kind, for a present to the teacher. 

The tutor, after offering fateeha over the eatables in the 
name of his highness Mohummvid Moostuffa, ( the peace ! &c.) 
writes on the plate with the pen dipped in the sundul, or a 
solution of saffron in water, the words bismilla hirruhman- 
7ii7-ruheem,* and makes the child lick it off". He then puts the 
two ornamented luddoos into the hands of his pupil for the 
purpose of tempting him to go through his task with plea- 
sure. It is also customary to write the soora-e-alhumd (or the 
first chapter of the Qorati, which is a very short one), on red 
paper; and those who can afford it, on a gold or silver 
plate, and give it into the hands of the boy or girl, and 
desire him or her to repeat, first the words bismilla hir- 
ruhman-nirruheem^* then the soora-e- fateeha, (or the first 
chapter, called also by this name), afterwards, from the Iqra 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate. 

42 BISMILLA. Chap. VII. 

or soora-e-ulhiq, (96th chapter of the Qpran), the following 
verses or sentences,* the literal translation of which is as 
follows : " Read, in the name of thy God ; for He it is who 
" hath created all mankind out of a lump of coagulated 
" blood.-j- And He is likewise that Almighty Being, who 
" has blessed us with the voice of utterance, and taught us 
" the use of the pen." 

The above being the sentence of the sacred Qpnm, 
which was the very lirst that was revealed to Mohum- 
mud-the-chosen, (the blessing ! &c.), it is conceived to 
be one of great excellence, and consequently is taught to 

The repetition of the verse being concluded, a wreath of 
flowers is thrown round the neck of the tutor, the bouquet 
handed to him, srtndul applied to his neck, and the piece 
of cloth intended for him, together with the abovemen- 
tioned plate, pen, and inkstand, are presented to him. 

After this, the child rises from his seat and makes his 
obeisance to his master and the company ; the latter offer 
their congratulations to the parents, and some of the nearer 
relatives, when the child pays his respects to them, put a 
rupee or two, or a gold-mohicr into his hand. 

Then the luddoos over which fateeha was offered, are 
either by themselves, or afterwards with polaoo, various 
descriptions of curries, kuhahs, &c. placed on the diistur- 
khivan (or cloth spread on the floor), each one's share being- 
accompanied by a nosegay ; and the friends set down to the 
repast. Dinner being ended, betel-leaves, flowers and 
uttur, are offered to the company ; and a few minutes after, 
they retire. 

* Qoraii, chiip. xcvi. 1 — .5, called Iqrn. 
t Alludiiia to tlio I'a'tus in cnilnvo. 


Should dancing-girls, bhand^-bhugteeay,f or singers, 
be in waiting, they likewise amuse the company for half an 
hour or so with their performances. 

The females ai'e similarly entertained among themselves, 
and sit up all night — domneeans (or female musicians) 
singing and playing to them. 

Next day, the ladies are dispatched to their houses in 
doolees ; and, if the landlord be a man of property, he dis- 
misses them with presents of cholees and htmgrees. If not, 
on the occasion of any such joyful celebration at any 
one of their houses, he in return takes suitable presents to 

After this ceremony, the child is sent to school. 


Concerninc: Khutna alias Soontan (or circumcision). 

Circumcision among Moosulmans is directed to be per- 
formed between the age of seven and fourteen years; though 
occasionally, it is done either before or after that period. 

Should an adult of a different persuasion be desirous of 
embracing the Mohummudan religion, but at the same time 
dread undergoing the operation, it is not essentially neces 
sary that he should be circumcised. It is the divine com- 
mand, however, that he should be initiated into the tenets 
of their faith. 
. The ceremonies attending this rite are as follows : On the 

* Bhand, a mimic, an actor. 

t B/i?f(jiteeat/, a dancing-boy, dressed up as a dancing-girl. 


appointed day polaoo or muleeda is prepared, and fateeha 
being offered over it in the name of the prophet Mohummud 
Moostuffa (the peace ! &c.), it is distributed among the 
friends. Should Providence have blessed them with the 
means, they put on him a new suit of clothes ; and for a 
few days before, some people apply huldee and make him 
munja hythna (or sit in state), as described above. 

On the day appointed for the ceremony, they deck out the 
child in fine red or yellow clothes, or brocade, and having 
decorated him with abundance of flowers (denominated 
p'hool peenana^ or the adorning with flowers), and applied 
Tneesee to his teeth (the only occasion on which males use 
meesee), accompanied with people letting off fire-works, and 
carrying artificial flowers, trees, &c., (termed «rms^), as well 
as musicians, they perform shub-gusht (or nocturnal-peram- 
bulation) and bring him home to be operated upon. 

Others again, postponing the preliminary ceremonies of 
dinner, sitting in state, and perambulating the city, till after 
the operation is performed and the wound healed (whicli 
is generally about a week after), bathe the patient, let him 
sit in state for a few days, and then have the grand noc- 

On this occasion, likewise, the ladies and gentlemen are 
invited and entertained as before related. 

The mode of performing the ceremony of circumcision is 
as follows. — Tlie boy is seated on a large new earthen pot 
inverted (or on a chair) with a red handkerchief S2)read 

• " At Lucknow," Mrs. Meer observes, " we see, almost dailj-, 

" processions on their way to the Durgah (before described), wliere 

" the father conveys the young- ]Mussulniaun to return thanks and 

" public acknowledgments at the sainted shrine. The procession is 

" planned on a grand scale, and all the male friends that can be col- 

" lected attend in the cavalcade to do honour to so interesting an 

" occasion." Vol. ii. p. 12. 


over it, having swallowed, about a couple of hours before, 
some majoon, or sweetened bhung, or siibzee, which is admi- 
nistered with the double view of intoxicating him, so as to 
prevent his crying much, and of acting as an anodyne to 
mitigate his sufferings. 

At tlie time when the operation is to take place, a few 
friends and relatives are invited, and some of them hold the 
boy firmly, while the barber, (whose office it is,) with a sharp 
razor performs the operation. The moment it is over, the 
child is desired to vociferate aloud, three times, the word 
" deetit"" (religion) ; and, by way of coaxing the boy, they 
direct him to slap the operator for having put him to so 
much pain. Besides, they get one of the nearest and most 
respectable relations to chew some betel leaves (which 
colours the spittle red), and spit on the wound the instant 
it is made, in order to make the boy believe that the red fluid 
is spittle, and not blood ; and they endeavour to quiet him 
by assuring him that it is such a one who has merely spit 
upon him. After that, the boy, through shame, remains 
quiet ; or, if he be mischievous, he loads him with abuse. 

After the operation, the barber applies some suitable 
dressing to the wound, which heals in the course of a week. 
He then receives his professional fee of a rupee or two. 
While the ceremony is performing, some rice or ready 
money, together with a couple of chaplets of flowers, pan- 
sooparee and sundul, are placed near them. After all is 
over, the wreaths of flowers are thrown over the barber's 
head, some sundul is applied to his neck, the rice, the 
earthen pot, and red handkerchief are given to him in a 
present. Should, however, the boy have been seated on a 
chair, the latter is not given away. 

When a boy is circumcised, if his parents are poor, they 
give him nothing to eat save rotee or imdeeda, and sometimes 


hurreera; if rich, he is daily fed on chicken broth and 
roteerow-gundar (or wheaten cakes with plenty of ghee in 
it) until such time as the wound heals, in order to support 
strength ; and nothing besides. No such flatulent diet as 
dal, &c., is allowed ; for these retard the cure, by occasion- 
ing a superabundant suppuration. 

It is customary with some women, (for others have no faith 
in it,) never to have a child circumcised alone, but always 
along with another to make an even number ; consequently, 
when they have one or three of their own to undergo this 
rite, they get some poor woman's son to be circumcised with 
theirs. Should they not succeed in procuring one, they 
substitute an earthen budhna (or a' pot having a spout) ; in 
the mouth of which, they insert a pan ka beera (or betel- 
parcel), and place it near them : and, after circumcising the 
boy, they cut off the pan ka beera (or betel-parcel) ; which 
is to represent a second circumcision. They consider it 
favourable, if the boy, during the operation, or soon after, 
void urine ; as it prevents the blood from getting in and 
coagulating in the urethra. They guard the boy against 
the contact of dogs, cats, and other defilements — such as 
women who are unwell ; for it is supposed, that to see them 
or receive their shadow is unlucky ; and they are also afraid, 
lest the smell of blood should induce these animals to bite 
ofi^ the part. They likewise guard against ants — if poor, 
by putting ashes all round the child's bed ; if rich, by 
placing the legs of the bed in stone-basins containing water; 
which prevents ants from approaching the patient : for these 
insects are generally attracted by the smell of blood. They 
moreover tie a peacock's feather, a copper ch'hilla (or ring) 
by means of a blue thread, to the neck, wrist, or ankle of 
the child, and bum ispund. 



Concerning' the Hnddeea (or conclusion of the child's reading of the 
Qornn), and the making of presents to the Tutor,' — including the 
subject of Eedee. 

After the boy or girl has read the sacred Qoran com- 
pletely through, a propitious day is fixed upon {vide horos- 
cope, page 19), for the purpose of making presents to the 
teacher, as well as for the purpose of causing the child to 
exhibit in public, his proficiency in reading. 

The day before, the females are invited by the sending of 
eelachee (cardamoms), and the males by letter or a verbal 

In the evening, the Qo>'«w-reader, decked out in superb 
apparel, is seated in presence of his master in the male 
assembly, with the Qoran in his hands ; near them are 
deposited for the tutor, a robe of honour, and some money 
according to the person^s means, and betel, flowers, sundul 
and sweetmeats in trays ; a small cup with some ajwaeen 
(bishop's-weed seed), and a little salt. 

The master then desires the child, after reading the 
soora-e-fateeha, alias alhumd (the praise, or first chapter), and 
a few sentences of the soora-e-huqr, alias A. L. M. (second 
chapter), to read the two chapters of tlie sacred Qoran, 
named Ee-a-seen (chap. 36.), and B,uhman (chap. 55.), in 
which, in elegant and figurative language, the unity of the 
Deityjs beautifidly described. Accordingly, the child reads 
them in the assembly, with a distinct and audible voice. 

When concluded, the school-master having offered ^feeArt-. 
in the name of his highness Mohummud Moostuft'a (the 
blessing, &c.) over the eatables, desires his pupil to breatlie 

48 HUDDEEA. , Chap. IX. 

on the bishopsweed-seed and salt ; and, after blessing him, 
says, " I forgive all the trouble I have had in teaching 
" thee the knowledge of the sacred Qpran, and do now, in 
" the presence of this assembly, with my Avhole heart and 
" soul, freely bestow* on thee what I have taught thee."" 

The discerning scholar then, with the most profound 
reverence, makes his obeisance to his preceptor, and offers 
to him the contents of the trays, the dress, money, &c. 
intended for him, together with some of the bishop's-weed- 
seed and salt.-f- To every individual of the assembly, 
some of the sweetmeat, with a little of the bishopsweed- 
seed and salt, as sacred J relics, are distributed. In some 
cities it is not customary to bring the Qoran along Avith the 
boy to the assembly, but they make the boy repeat the 
punjaet (viz. lillahay mafis summawatay wallurzay, &c. 
to the end), and some other chapter. Indeed some people 
have nothing read ; and instead of bishop's- weed-seed and 
salt, they place d'han-kay-Kheeleea'Cit and butasha (swollen 
parched rice and spungy sweetmeat), and each member of 
the assemblies of males and females give to the boy a rupee 
or two according to their means, which becomes the tutor's 

The obligations, however, on the part of the school-boy 
towards his master, do not terminate with the giving of 
these presents; but invariably at every feast, marriage, 
dinner-party, &c. the teacher's dues are to be rendered. In 
short he should be honoured as one's own father, for people 
in the world are said to have four fathers, viz. 1. Their 
own father (properly so called;) 2. Their preceptor; 3. 

• i. e. the benefits of the knowledge of it. 
t An excellent remedy for <iripes. 

+ Rendered so by its li;n ing- Iiad the contents of the whole Qoran 
blown on it. 

Chap. IX. HUDDEEA. 49 

Tlieir father-in-law; and 4, Their moorshud (spiritual 

Besides, the Prophet has assured us, tliat if any person 
at his daily devotions repeats the doa-e-masoora (or sup- 
plication for the remission of sins), for his parents and 
teachers, the Almighty will undoubtedly hear and answer 
his prayers. 

For such children as go to school, the master usuall}^ 
writes eedce {i.e. a verse of something relating to the eed, or 
feast), or a blessing on the child, on coloured or xur-afshanee 
(illuminated) paper,* which he desires him to take and read 
to his parents. On witnessing the progress that their child- 
has made in reading, they send by his hands some rupees, 
or a few /?^ce, by way of a present to the mastei . 

There are four eeds (or feasts) in the year, on which 
occasions, by distributing these eedees among the scholars? 
the masters exact presents from their parents, viz. at the 
feasts Akhrce char shoomba (ch. xvi.), Shaaban (p. xxii), 
Rumzan (ch. xxiv.), and Buqur eed (ch. xxvi.) -f- 

In the sacred Qpran there are ihiviyjoozes (or sections) ; 
on the commencement of the perusal of each of which it is 
customary to observe hvddeea. Among these, there are four 
principal ones; ^J^^., at the conclusion of the reading of a 
quarter, of a half, of three-quarters, and of the whole 
of the sacred volume ; and of these, again, the last is the 
most important. 

• Zur-afshanee is paper sprinkled over with gold-dust. ^Vhereas, 
mozurriq is paper on which are pasted devices in gold leaf. 

t There are five eeds, or feasts, held annually. The two principal 
ones are the Rumzan (east or eedooljitr andthe Buq7--eed; which are 
Furz and Soonnut, (i.e, commanded to be observed both by God and 
the Prophet); the other three are, Mo/iurnrm, ^khrei' cl/rn- shoomba 
and Shub-c buraf, which are only soonnut, (or commanded, viz. by the 


50 IIUDDEEA. Chap, IX. 

Independently of these, whenever the scholar commences 
a new book, it is necessary to entertain the master in a 
similar manner, and to observe what is called huddeea: 
viz. sweetmeat, betel, siindul, choorivay (parched rice), and 
toasted chunnay (Bengal horse-gram), called poo^/jawee, with 
money, such as a rupee or two, according to each one's 
means, are sent by the parents, and placed before the 
teacher in the school-room, over which the latter having 
offered fateeha in the name of his holiness Mohummud 
Moostuffa, (the peace, &c.) and the author of the book, 
distributes the sweetmeats, poothanee, &c. among the school- 
boys. He applies sundul to the necks of all the scholars, 
and sometimes a little to his own, or he takes a little sun- 
dul in his hand, and smelling its fragrant odour, repeats the 
</Mrooc? (blessing), and having heard their lessons, and given 
them new ones, dismisses them for the other half of the 

If the number of scliolars be great, and too many holi- 
days would be the consequence, the master defers the 
fateeha till Thursday (the established day for the half- 
holiday), and then having performed it over two or three 
pupils' huddeeas, converts the two or more holidays into 

In short, they embrace every opportunity to compliment 
the tutor ; for a blessing from his auspicious mouth is equi- 
valent to perusing a hundred books ; since, while his curse 
rests upon any one, the study of a hundred volumes will 
profit little : nay, he should be esteemed equal to, if not 
greater than one's own father and mother ; inasmuch, as he 
makes one acquainted with the laws and writings of God 
and his messenger, and explains the doctrines of religion. 
While the natural parents nourish the body with tem- 
poral food, he provides it with spiritual. 

Chap. X. VIRGINITY. 51 


Concerning; the period of Virginity, and the Ceremonies observed on 
the occasion. 

When a ffirl has her menses for the first time, it is called 
balig hona (arriving at the age of puberty or discretion) ; 
pyhlee sir myla hona (the head becoming dirty for the first 
time) ; or burron tnen-milna(revn:hmg the age of womanhood; 
literally, mixing with the grown-up). 

At the lunar periods, the circumstance is denominated 
hyz-ana (the approach of the menses) ; nuhanee ana (the 
arrival of the season for bathing) ; sir myla hona (head be- 
coming filthy ; a handsome excuse for bathing); bay-numazee 
ana (become unfit for prayers); or napak hona (becoming 

Among Moosulman girls the period of virginity is from 
ten to fourteen, generally about twelve years of age.* 

At a girl's first menstruation, seven or nine married 
women of the house and neighbourhood meet in the after- 
noon, and each applies a little chiksa to her body, adorns 
her neck with a couple of garlands of flowers, anoints her 
head with phoolail ka tail (odoriferous oil), and confines her 
to a private apartment. The women having spent awhile 
in singing, music^ &c. depart to their own homes. 

For seven days the poor girl is shut up in the room, not 
allowed to go out, engage herself in any employment what- 
ever, or bathe ; and, during all that time, her diet consists 

• Mrs. Meer (vol. ii. p. 349.) observes, " Girls are considered to 
" have passed their prime when they number from sixteen to eighteen 
'' years ; even the poorest peasant would object to a wife of eighteen. ' 

52 VIRGINITY. Chap. X. 

solely of Jihichree, ghee, bread, and sugar : all fish, flesh, 
salt and acid food being prohibited. 

On the seventh day she is bathed. The above-mentioned 
women, having assembled in the morning, hold a red- 
coloured cloth over her head in the form of a canopy, take a 
small earthen hudhnee,* either plain or nicely painted over, 
and having fastened to its neck a 6efe/-leaf parcel by means 
of a red thread, and dropped into it four or five hurla'f and 
bhurla,l each woman pours warm water with it twice on 
her head. 

Befoi'e these women commence the superintendance of the 
ablutions, their laps are filled with muleeda^ and betely§ and 
sundul is applied to their necks. 

In the evening an entertainment is given to the relatives of 
both sexes ; when the girl, according to her means, is decked 
out in new and elegant attire, and adorned with hungrees, 
(glass bracelets,) &c. All that day and night they amuse 
themselves in eating, drinking, singing, and playing. 

If the girl be married, and has not already consummated 
the rites of wedlock (which is more than probable), the 
husband leads his wife home to enjoy her ; leaving the com- 
pany to amuse themselves. On the day when a girl has 
attained the age of virginity, her parents generally make their 
son-in-law a present of a new suit of clothes, according to 
their means ; and having seated their daughter and son-in- 
law together in one place, they adorn them with flowers. 
But to allow such an indecent occurrence to become 

* Budhnee, a kind of pot with a spout like an ewer, 
t Hilda, Chebulic myrobolan ; Terminalia chebula, Willd. 
X Blmrln, Belleric ditto ; Terminalia bilirica, Roxb. 
§ These they receive in their clothes, the fore-part of the saree which 
is tucked up on one side. 

Chap. XI. PUBERTY. 53 

public is only the custom among the lower classes of people; 
the higher and more polished ranks of society never expose 
such an indelicate circumstance when it takes place in the 


Concerning the age of Puberty or JNIaturity in Males; and the ob- 
servance of the religious duties required of them after reaching 

When a boy, on arriving at his twelfth, thirteenth, or 
fourteenth (some at the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, or 
eighteenth) year, experiences a pollutio nocturna, it becomes 
his indispensable duty thereafter to conform strictly to the 
fundamental principles of his religion, viz. confession of 
faith, prayer, fasting, alms-giving, and pilgrimage. This 
is equally applicable to girls. 

Previous to this period, i. e, during their childhood, all 
their good and evil deeds were laid to the charge of their 
parents ; but after this, they are themselves responsible for 
their own actions. 

When the youth is overtaken by a pollutio in somno, it 
becomes absolutely necessary for him to bathe on the morn- 
ing following; for, until he has purified himself by so 
doing, it is unlawful for him either to eat, pray, touch the 
Qpran, or go to the mosque. 

These rules extend likewise to other ablutions, directed 
to be observed by divine command. Of these there are four, 
termed gosool, or bathing, viz. 1st. after pollutio nocturna ; 
2d. after menses; 3d. after coitus ; 4th. after puerperium. 

The period to which the first and third bathing may be 


delayed, is nine or ten o'clock next morning. The second, 
from the seventh to the tenth day. The last cannot be 
resorted to, with propriety, until the discharge has ceased ; 
but a parcel of ignorant women have fixed the fortieth day 
of child-bed for it. 

The manner of bathing is as follows : After slightly 
Avetting the body, and reading some short prayers which 
are appointed for this purpose, he gargles his throat three 
times, then bathes ; thoroughly wetting his whole body, 
uttering the following sentence in Arabic : " I desire by 
"• this ablution to purify my body for prayer, and to re- 
" move all my inward filth and corruption." 

Some of the uneducated among the vuloar throw first 
three pots of water on the head, then three on the right 
shoulder, afterwards three on the left, and liaving taken a 
little water in the hand, either after reading durood 
(thanksgiving), or without it, they sprinkle it on the 
clothes, in order that they also may be purified. 


Concerning the real foundation of Mohummudanisra. 

Mohummudanism comprises five divine commands, viz. 

1st. Kubna purhna (or confession of faith). — 2d. Numaz 
kurna (or prayers). — 3d. Roza rukhna (or fasting). — 
4th. Zukat dayna (or almsgiving). — 5th. Mukkay ka huj 
kojana (or pilgrimage to Mecca.) 

Section I. Kulma pvrhna (or Confession of fait/i). 

That is ^ La-il-la-hah, Il-lul-la-ho Mohitmmud-oor, 
'• Jiussool Oollahay,'^' which signifies, " There is no other 

Sect. 1. PRAYER. 55 

" God except the one true God, and Mohummud is the 
" prophet (or messenger) sent by God." 

Section 2. Numaz kurna (or Prayer'). 

There are five seasons for prayer prescribed by the 
divine law, viz. 

1. Fujur kee numaz, or morning prayer, from five a.m., 
or dawn of day, to sun-rise. Should this hour unavoidably 
have passed by without prayer having been offered, the 
same prayers are to be repeated at any other convenient 
time ; and although the same blessing will not attend a 
prayer that has been omitted at the appointed period, it is 
nevertheless to be performed, and not to be altogether 

2. %ohur kee numaz, or mid-day prayer, between one and 
three p.m. 

3. Ussur kee numaz, or afternoon prayer, from four to 
half past five p.;\i., or till sun-set. 

4. Mugrib kee numaz, or sun-set prayer, at six p.m., i. e. 
immediately after svm-set : not to be delayed beyond that 
time ; for it is a very delicate season. 

5. Aysha kee numaz, or prayer on retiring to bed, be- 
tween eight p.m. and midnight. Should a person, however, 
by business or amusement be unavoidably kept awake be- 
yond the limits of this season, he may perform this devo- 
tion any time before daybreak. 

Independently of the above prayers denominated furz 
(of divine origin), there is a variety of others termed soon- 
nvt and nujil, in which the more religious and devout are 
engaged, as for instance, 

1. Numaz-e-ishraq, or prayer at half-past seven a.m. 

2. Numaz-e-chasht, or prayer at nine a.m., or if there be 

56 FASTING. Chap. XIL 

not leisure then, it may be performed at any time before 

3. Numaz-e-tuhujjood, or prayer at midnight, or at any 
time before daybreak. 

4. Numaz-e-turraweeh, or prayer offered daily at eight 

Section 3. JRoza rukhna^ or Fasting during the month 
Rumzan, {immediately after the Aysha prayers). 

Numerovis are the blessings promised to those who fast 
during the month Rumzan (the ninth month). 

Among others, the prophet Mohummud-the-chosen (the 
peace, &c.) has said, that those who fast shall be the only 
privileged persons who at the last day will have the honour 
of entering the celestial city by the portal termed Ryan 
(one of the eight gates of Heaven), and no other; and that 
the effluvia proceeding from the mouth of him that fasteth 
is more grateful to God than the odour of roses, ambergrise, 
or musk. 

During the fast, eating, drinking, and conjugal embraces 
are interdicted, as also chewing betel-leaves, smoking, and 
snuffing. If, how^ever, the observance of any of these rules 
be inadvertently neglected, the fast still holds good ; but 
if intentionally omitted, the individual so transgressing, 
must expiate his guilt by the manumission of one golam (or 
male slave) for every day that he broke fast; if he 
cannot afford that, he must feed sixty beggars ; and if that 
be likewise out of his power, he must, independently of 
fasting during the month Rumzan^ fast for sixty days to- 
gether any time after for every day that he has broken fast, 
and add one day more for the day itself on which he broke 
it, and then he will receive the reward of his fast. 

Those who observe this fast breakfast between the hours 

Sect. 3. FASTING. 57 

of two and four a. m. (this meal is denominated suhurgahee'^ 
and suhur^), and take food again in the evening, immedi- 
ately before evening prayer. 

During the period allowed for the suhiirgahee they play 
in the musjids on the nuqara, and in large cities the nowlut, 
in order that those who fast may, by lieai'ing it, speedily 
arise and eat. And some fuqeers^ during that time, by 
way of craving charity, proceed to the houses of Moosidmans^ 
repeat verses containing admonition and advice with a loud 
voice, that the sound of it may arouse them from sleep. 
On getting up, they sometimes give the fiiqeers somethino- 
to eat, and on the khootha-diSiy make them a present, accord- 
ing to their means, of a rupee or two, or some clothes. 

On the first day of the tenth month, Shuwal, the Rumzan 
kee eed (or Rumza?i feast, vide Chap, xxiv.) takes place ; 
when it is requisite for every one who fasts, to offer, previous 
to going to the eedgah to prayers, roza kajittra (or fast, 
offering), which consists in distributing among a hw fuqeers 
(religious mendicants) two and a half 5eer5*of wheat, barley, 
dates, grapes, jaree\ rice, or other grain commonly eaten; 
for until he has offered the above alms, or dispensed their 
equivalent in money among ihefuqeers, the Almighty will 
keep his fastings suspended between heaven and earth. 

Every one that fasts is obliged to bestow the above por- 
tion in alms, for himself as well as for every member of his 
family, if he has any (not even excepting slaves), but not 
for his wife or grown-up sons ; since the former is to give 
it out of her marriage-portion, and the latter out of their 
own earnings. 

* These terms signify dawn of day, or daybreak, 
t Two and a-half seers equal to five pounds. 
+ Or great millet (holcus saccharatus, Lin.). 


Sect. 4. Zukat dayna, or alms-giving. 

It is the divine command to give alms annually of five 
things : viz. of money, cattle, grain, fruit, and merchandise ; 
and that, provided they have been in one's posession a whole 
year, and exceed the annual expenses. 

1. Money. — If one is a sahib-e-7iissab, that is, has eighty 
rupees in his possession for a year, he must give alms annu- 
ally at the rate of one rupee in every forty, or 2^ per cent. 

2. Cattle. — Should one's property consist of sheep or goats, 
he is not obliged to give alms until they amount to forty. 

From 41 to 120 inclusive, he is to give 1 sheep or goat. 

121—200 2do. 

Above that, a sheep or goat for every 100. 

Alms for camels is as follows : 
For every 5 to 25 he is to give 1 sheep or goat. 

From 26 — 35 1 yearling female camel. 

36 — 45 1 two-year old do. 

46 — 60 1 three-year do. 

61 — 75 1 four-year do. 

76— 90 2 two-year do. 

91 — 120 2 three-year do. 

121 and upwards, either a two-year old female camel 
for every 40, or a three-year old female camel for every 50. 

Alms for property in cows or bulls : 
If 30 cows, a one-year old calf is to be given. 

40 do. a two-year do. do. ; and so on, a one-year old 
for every 10. 

Should one, however, possess a thousand cows (as these 
animals live in this country only to the age of fourteen 
or fifteen years), as many cows are to be given as will, by 
their combined ages, maice up one hundred years. 

Skc T. 4. ALMSGIVING. 59 

Alms for buffaloes, male or female, are the same as that 
for sheep. 

For horses, the rate is similar to that for camels ; or 
instead of it, as it is enacted in the sacred Huddees, a 
deena)'^ is to be given for every horse whose value exceeds 
100 rupees. 

For animals used in riding, and for beasts of burden, no 
alms are required to be given. 

3 and 4. For grain and fruits, watered by rain, a 
tenth is to be given ; if watered by drawing water from a 
tank or well, a twentieth part. 

5. For articles of merchandise, for the capital, as well 
as the profits, alms are to be annually rendered, at the 
above rate of one rupee in forty, provided he be a sahib-e- 
nissab (man of property to a certain amount.) 

For gold bullion, half a mishqalf for every 20 mish- 
qal \ weight : for silver bullion, at the rate of 2| per 
cent; provided it exceeds the weight of 50 tolas \ § — not 

For whatever is found in mines, if the value of it be 
upwards of 240 dirrums, || a fifth is to be given ; and if 
that money be laid out in traffic, alms are to be given on 
the profits. 

The following are the classes of people on whom it is 
lawful to bestow the legal alms, viz. 1st. Such pilgrims as 
have not the means of defraying the expenses of the pilgri- 
mage. 2dly. Fuqeers (i. e. religious mendicants) and beg- 

• A Persian coin, in Hindoostan considered equivalent in value to 
two and a-half rupees. 

t A 7nuishqal is = G75 grains. 

X Twenty do. := 7i tolas (or rupee weight) = 2 ounces 6 drams 
and 30 grains. 

§ A tola = 3 drams or 180 grains. 

II A dirrum = 52^ grains, and 240 dirhum = 21bs. 2 ozs. 2 drams. 

60 PILGRIMAGE. Chap. Xlt. 

gars. 3dly. Debtors who have not wherewith tJ discharge 
their debts. 4thly. Champions in the cause of God. 5thly. 
Travellers who are without food. 6thly. Proselytes to 

It is only the very poorest of these who are entitled to the 
zukat ; religious mendicants otherwise, conceiving it un- 
lawful to receive these, never accept of them. 

Alms are not to be given to Sj/eds* unless they parti- 
cularly desire them ; nor to the opulent, to near relations, 
or to slaves. 

Sect. 5. HuJ kojana, or going on Pilgrimage. 

It is the divine command for those men and women to 
undertake the journey once in their lives, who have suffi- 
cient to meet the exigencies of the road, and to maintain 
their families at home during their absence. Should a 
person be really desirous of going on the pilgrimage, and 
possess every thing necessary for the journey, but owing 
to indisposition, or through fear of an enemy, be unable to 
proceed, if he appoint a deputy, and furnishing him with 
all the requisites, request him to imdertake it for him in 
his name, and the latter putting on the pilgrim's habit, 
travel in his behalf, the former will obtain all the blessings 
attendant on the pilgi-image. Or, if a rich man or a prince, 
without any excuse, dispatch another person to perform 
the pilgrimage in his name, he earns the mei-it of it. 

Though the poor are not obliged to perform it, I have 
frequently observed whole families of them on their pilgri- 

• Because they are "of the Prophet's blood, and are not to be in- 
" eluded with the indigent, for whom these donations are generally 
" set apart. The S^/eds are likewise restricted from accepting many 
" other charitable offerings. Sudqa (,(\. \ .) for instance." — Mrs. Mcer. 
Vol. i. p. 252. 


mage, chiefly from Bengal and Islamabad, (or Chittagong,) 
Avhere ]\Ioosulmans are very numerous. Fortunately for 
these poor people, the charitably disposed and opulent 
natives at Tellicherry, Cananore, Bombay, and other sea- 
port towns have, for the sake of God, ships named Ji/z- 
e-hillah (^. e. God's grace, or bounty-ships), on which, after 
supplying each traveller with food and drink for the 
voyage, and a couple of pieces of cloth, (eacli five cubits 
long,) they have them transported thither, and brought 

The manner of performing the pilgrimage is as follows : 
On arriving near Mecca, or while still on board, it is neces- 
sary to put on the ehram (or pilgrim's habit). On the day 
on which the pilgrim intends adopting this new dress, lie 
bathes himself, reads two rukat prayers, * and puts on the 
two wrappers-without-seam, which constitute the sacred 
dress. One is wrap})ed round the waist ; the other thrown 
loosely over the shoulders and body, the head being kept 
uncovered. Khurranwan (or wooden pattens) may also 
be worn. These are not to be dispensed with until he has 
sacrificed the victim at Meena Bazar (p. 67), and shaved 
and bathed himself. Nor is he in the interim to commit 
any of the following acts : anoint his head with oil, ghee^ 
(or clarified butter,) perfume his clothes, shave any part of 
his body, pare his nails, put on clothes that are sewed, wear 
boots,f hunt, quarrel, speak or do evil, for by so doing, he 
makes himself liable to death ; and, as an atonement, must 
sacrifice a sheep, and distribute it among the poor; but 
on no account is he to eat any part of that meat himself. 

There are five noxious animals, however, which there is 

For the meaning of rukat, vid'^ note, p. 79. 
t Because they are sewed. 


no harm in killing, viz. a kite, a crow, a scorpion, a mouse, 
and a mad dog. 

Should a person, after putting on the pilgrim's habit, 
indulge himself in sexual intercourse, or even kiss his wife, 
the whole object of his pilgrimage will be frustrated. 

Some put on the sacred habit (by which is properly 
meant the interdicting themselves all worldly enjoyments) 
a month or fifteen days before they reach Mecca, while 
others defer it until the last day or two; each one according 
to his power of self-denial. 

There are five fixed places where, on arriving, if the 
pilgrims dare to advance a step farther without putting on 
the sacred habit, they become deserving of death and must 
sacrifice the above-mentioned victim (p. 61). The places are: 

1st. For the inhabitants of Yemen* and Hindoostan, if 
they journey by land, a village called Yelmullum ;-|- if they 
travel by water, a sea-port town, Ibraheem Murseeah.j 

2d. For those of Mudeenah (Medina), Zool.khuleefah.§ 

3d. For those of Sham (Syria), Huj fah. || 

4th. For those of Erraq (Babylonia or Chaldea), Zat- 

5th. For those of Nujud (Nedsjed), Qurrun. ^ 

On entering Mecca and visiting the Kaabah. 

Immediately on their arrival at Mecca, the pilgrims 
having performed wuzoo (or the ablutions), proceed to the 

• Yeriien, or Arabia P^elix. 
t Yelmullum, a small place near Mecca. 
X Ihi'oheem Murseeah, a small place near Mecca. 
§ Zool khulepfnli {Dliulhuleifa), the name of a place l)etMcen five 
and six miles from Medina. 

II Hujftth, a place between Mecca and Medina. 
1[ QwTun, the name of a village near Tayet. 


musjid ool huram (or tlie sacred mosque), * kiss the Hujr- 
ool-uswud-\ (or black stone), and encompass the Kaahah\ 
seven times ; commencing on the right, leaving the Kaabah 
on the left, they perform the circuit thrice with a quick 
step, and four times at a slow pace. They go then to the 
Qiidum-e-Ibraheem § (or Abraham's feet), repeat doganah 
(two rukat) prayers, and come and kiss the black stone again. 
Owing to the innumerable throng, they are sometimes 
obliged to content themselves with merely touching the 
stone, and then kissing the hand. 

After that, they go out of the temple by the gate lead- 
ing to Suffa, II Avhich they ascend ; then go up Murwa, || 

• " Within the confines of the holy house life is held so sacred, that 
" not the meanest livinf^ ci-eature is allowed to be destroyed ; and if 
'• even by accident the smallest insect is killed, the person who has 
" caused the death is obliged to offer in atonement, at the appointed 
" place for sacrificing to God, sheep or goats, according to his 
" means." — Mrs. Meer. Vol. i. p. 213. 

t i/?yV(3o/2M«'?fc?, signifies literally a black stone. Itwas originally 
white, but by the constant touching and kissing of it by the numerous 
pilgrims, its surface is become perfectly black ; and hence its name. 
It is set in silver and fixed in the wall of the KnabaJi. This stone is 
said to possess the singular property of floating on water. It is highly- 
venerated ; for whoever undertakes the pilgrimage and kisses this 
stone, obtains forgiveness of all his manifold transgressions :— yea, 
they fall off him like the withered leaves do off the trees in autumn. 

X The Kanbah is a square stone building situated in the centre of 
the Byt-ooUah (or house of God), another name for the sacred temple 
of Mecca. The rain-waterwhich falls on its terrace runs off through 
a golden spout on a stone near it, called Rookn-e-yemenee (or alabaster 
stone) : it is as white as snow, and stands over the grave of Ismaeel 
(the peace! &c.). 

§ Qndum-e- Ibrahecm. This is situated near the Kanbah, where 
was Abraham's (the friend of God) station for prayer. It is a stone 
on which is the impression of Abraham's feet ; hence its name. It is 
held sacred, and pilgrims are directed, on visiting the temple, to pray 
near it. 

II Siiffa and Muriva are two mountains near Mecca. 


running from the summit of the one hill to that of the other* 
seven times backwards and forwards. On reaching the top 
of each, they stand for a few minutes with open hands raised 
up to heaven, and supplicate the Almighty for whatever 
their hearts desire, for their prayers on this occasion will 
undoubtedly be heard and answered. 

The origin of the custom is as follows. When Bebee 
Hajrah (Hagar) brought forth Ismael (peace be unto him !) 
in the wilderness of Mecca, there being neither water nor 
habitation in the vicinity, she, in the utmost distress, left 
the babe, ran frantit from hill to hill in search of water, and 
returned frequently to her offspring, lest he should be de- 
voured by jackals, dogs, or foxes. While the mother was 
thus employed, the child, through the grace and blessing of 
divine Providence^ happened in the act of crying to strike 
his heels against the ground, which instantly occasioned a 
chasm in the sand, whence water gushed out. Hajrah per- 
ceiving this, began digging there, and formed the place into 
a sort of a well,-|- and purified herself and infant by bathing 

• In imitation of Hagar's running for water to give her son. 

t This M'ell (called also Hagar's well) is situated near the Qudum- 
e-IhraJieem. It is called in Arabic, Beer-e-zumzum ; in Persian, 
Chah-e-zumzii7n (and is so named from the murmuring of its wa- 
ters) ; pilgrims esteeming the water of it most holy, on their return 
from Mecca bring away some of it in leaden gtu/glets (or bottles), 
or in cotton dipped in it. On breaking fast in Lent they com- 
mence with first drinking a little of this waterj (by this time doubt- 
less highly concentrated by absorption) and drink it, that their sins 
may be forgiven, and apply a little also to the eyes to brighten vi- 
sion. They also drink it at other times, considering it a meritorious 
act ; and when they cannot procure much of it, they mix a small 
quantity of it with a large quantity of common water and drink 


X Or they dip the cotton into common water and squeeze out (as it 
were the very essence of) the holy water. 

Sect. 5. PILGRIMAGE. 65 

in it. This spring exists to this day within the walls of 

There is another reason also assigned for running between 
Suffa and Murwa: It is said that in former days, a man and a 
woman were converted into stone for committing fornication 
within the temple. The Qpreish tribe placed one of them on 
Mount Suffa, the other on Mount Murwa, and used to wor- 
ship them. The Prophet (on whom, &c.) not approving of 
the practice, prohibited them; but, finding his injunc- 
tions not attended to, he permitted them to visit these hills, 
in the hope that this example of God's vengeance would 
deter others from being guilty of a similar crime. 

On the eighth day of ZeehuJJa, (called Turweeah), the 
people assemble at Meena, where they read their prayers 
and spend the night. 

On the ninth day of the twelfth month Zeehujja (alias 
Buqr eed)i before they proceed to Mount Aarfat to read 
prayers with the Eemdm, they read two rukat prayers in 
the name of each of their relations (except their father*) and 
friends, dead or living, supplicating heaven to vouchsafe a 
blessing on them. 

Then, after the morning prayer, they rush impetuously 
towards Jubool Aarfat (Mount Aarfat), where, liaving read 
two rukat prayers with the Eemdm, and heard the khoothah, 
they remain on the Mount until sunset ; when they run 

it. It is likewise administered to sick people on the point of death, 
either by itself or made into lemonade. (Vide ch. xxxviii.) 

There are other virtues ascribed to this water. It is said that, if a 
person experience any difficulty in pronouncing the Arabic tongue, 
he has only to sip a little of this water, and it will immediately 
become easy. 

• The father is excluded on the p-ound that no one is certain who 
his real father is. 



quick towards Moozdu-lufah,^ where having read evening 
prayers, they stop all night. 

Next morning, (the tenth,) they start for the Mee7ia 
Bazar. On their arrival at Muzar-ool-hicramf (or the holy 
monument), they stop and offer up supplications to God. | 
Before sunrise, they proceed quickly by the way of Butun- 
e-Muhasurah (or the valley of Muhasurah) till they come to 
three places, marked by three pillars, called Jumra. At 
each of these, they pick up seven small stones or pebbles, 
and having read some particular prayer over each and 
blown upon it, they throw it at these marks, and repeat the 
same ritual with the rest. This ceremony is denominated 
rummee ooljummar (or the throwing of gravel). 

The origin of it is this : — As his highness the prophet 
Abraham (peace be unto him !) was taking his son Ismaeel§ 
to Mecca, to sacrifice him, Satan (curses be on him !) ap- 
peared to Ismaeel in a human form, and addressed him thus : 
" Boy, thy father is leading thee for the purpose of offer- 
" ing thee a sacrifice to idols ; do not consent to go." On 
IsmaeeFs immediately relating the circumstance to his 
father, he observed : " Oh ! my child, that individual is no 
" other than the cursed Devil himself, who comes to tempt 
" and deceive thee; do thou repeat lahowl\\ and throw 
" seven stones at him, and he will instantly be gone." 

• Or Miizdulifah, a place or oratory between Aarfat and Mina. 

t Muzar-ool-huram, the name of the mountain in the farthest 
part of Muzditke/ah, more properly called KuzaJi. 

X Agreeably to the Qornn, chap, ii.— (Vid. Sale, ed. 1825, p. 34.) 

§ The Mohummudans do not allow it to have been Isliaq (Isaac) 
the son of Sarah, whom Abraham was about to sacrifice ; but Ismaeel, 
the son of Hnjrah (Hagar). 

II La liowl o la gootv-tvut, &c. " There is no power or strength but 
" in God." The commencement of a Mohummudan invocation, like 
our Nisi Dominus frustra. 

Sect. o. PILGRIMAGE. 67 

After this fashion, Satan appeared to him at tln-ec dif- 
ferent places, and each time Ismaeel having repeated lahowl 
over seven stones, threw them at him. Ever since, this 
custom has been established ; and even to this day, pil- 
o-rims arriving at these places, in like manner repeat laJiowI, 
and throw seven stones. 

Having thrown pebbles at the three places, they repair 
to the Meena bazar to perform the qoorhanee (or sacri- 
fice), which those individuals who are obliged to give zukat 
(or the legal alms) are enjoined to do. They are required 
to offer a ram or he-goat for each member, old or young, 
of the family ; or for every seven persons, a female camel 
or cow. The flesh of such victim is divided into three 
portions : one is for the person's relations ; the second dis- 
tributed amox\^ fuqeers (devotees and beggars); and the 
third reserved for his own use. 

The above sacrifice derives its origin from the following 
circumstance. When Abraham (the peace of God be on 
him!) founded Mecca, the Lord desired him to prepare a 
feast for him. On Abraham's (the friend of God) request- 
ing to know what he would have on the occasion, the Lord 
replied, " Offer up thy son Ismaeel." Agreeably to Jeho- 
vah's command, he took Ismaeel to the Kaabah to sacrifice 
him, and having laid him down, he made several ineffectual 
strokes on his throat with the knife, on which Ismaeel ob- 
served, " Your eyes being uncovered, it is through pity 
" and compassion for me you allow the knife to miss : it 
" would be advisable to blindfold yourself with the end of 
" your turban, and then operate upon me." Abraham, 
greatly admiring the fortitude and wisdom of the youth, 
pronounced a blessing upon him with kindness and affec- 
tion, and acted agreeably to his advice. Having repeated 
the words bismillah allah ho akbur (in the name of God, who 


is great !) he drew the knife across his neck. In the mean- 
while, however, the archangel Gabriel snatching Ismaeel 
from underneath the blade, substituted a broad-tailed sheep 
in his stead. Abraham, on unfolding his eyes, observed to 
his surprise, the sheep slain, and his son standing behind 
him. Then he and his son joined in prayer, blessed God 
for this miraculous escape, and read two rukat prayers ; 
which prayers every one going to Mecca is commanded to 
read ; not even excepting Mohummud, and all his followers. 
After the sacrifice they get themselves shaved, their nails 
pared, and burying the hair and nails in the same place, 
bathe themselves. They then take off the pilgrim's habit, 
and consider the pilgrimage as finished. 

The act of shaving and bathing required to be performed 
in the Meena bazar is attended with much inconvenience, 
owing to the scarcity of water and barbers. However, 
many of the rich, who are likewise obliged to observe these 
customs, out of charity have the poor shaved and bathed at 
their own expence. Instead of a thorough shaving, one or 
two gentle strokes made with the razor, or a small quantity 
of hair clipped with a pair of scissors, answers all the 
purpose. In bathing also, if only a cup of water be thrown 
over the head, it is sufficient ; or if water cannot be got, 
tyammoom* (purification with sand or dust) may be sub- 

On this (the Meena) market-day very many hundred thou- 
sands lakhs of rupees' worth of merchandize are brought and 
sold there. I have understood from pilgrims that the mer- 
chants in the Meena market are so completely absorbed in 
their commercial pursuits, that they have no leisure to at- 
tend to their devotional exercises ; and that with the view 

* Tyammoom. Vide cli. xiii. sect. 1. 

Skct. 5. PILGRTMAGE. 69 

of protecting their goods, they remain in their shops, and 
wholly omit tJie pilgrimage. 

The day after the Ayyam-e-imhiir (or season of sacri- 
fice), the people remain at Meena, and therefore it is called 
the Ayyam-e-qur (or day of rest). 

Some of them halt there during the eleventh, twelfth, 
and thirteenth of the month, and these days are denomi- 
nated tmhreek (days of communion). 

On leaving it they revisit the Kaahah to take their final 
leave of it, throwing on their way thither pebbles at each 
Jwnra as they pass, and perform the farewell circuit as 
before described. 

After enconapassing the Kaabah, it is Recessary to pro- 
ceed to the illustrious Medina, and there pay a visit to 
the blessed tomb of his august highness IMohummud 
MoostuiFa (the peace, &c.). He that performs the encom- 
passing of the Kaabah and does not visit Medina, will 
defeat the object of his pilgrimage. 

I hear from my much esteemed friends the Mowluivees, 
Mushaekhs, and Hafizes, that the pilgrims from Hindoostan 
go to such extremities in their veneration of this holy tomb 
of the Prophet, as even on approaching it to perform 
sijdah-' (or prostration) to it, while a few of them make 
tusleem or koornish.f The Arabian Khadeenwn (servants 
who have charge of the tomb) become highly enraged at 
this, and strictly enjoin them not to do so, observing to 
them, that since the Prophet has not commanded sijdah to 
be offered to him, much less to any other, such homage 
being the sole prerogative of the Deity, a person doing it 
not only commits an unlawful act, but becomes highly 

• Vide p. 79. t Modes of salutation. Vide Glossary. 


Some silly people at the time of the Mohurrum^* by 
bending their bodies make sijdahs and tusleems even to 
taboots^ and ullums,^ as also to the tombs of apostles. 
Such only display their extreme ignorance and folly ; for 
it stands to reason, that when it is improper to pay such 
homage to the Prophet, it will be equally so to do it to his 
inferiors. It is the duty, however, of Mushaekhs to per- 
form what is called sijdah-tyh-iit to the Prophet ; of moor- 
shuds to their parents ; of slaves to their masters ; and of 
subjects to their king. The sijdah-tyh-ut consists in stoop- 
ing forwards (as in rooJwoyy while in a sitting posture with 
the knees touching the ground, and with hands resting 
closely fisted on the ground, and in that position the 
thumbs extended are to be kissed. 

Few of the Sheeahs ever perform the pilgrimage, for two 
reasons : First. Because on Mount Aarfat, after reading 
the khoothah and offering up adorations to God and eulo- 
giums on the Prophet, they praise the three companions ; viz, 
1st. Siddeeq-e-Akbur ; 2d. Oomur-e-adil ; 3d. Oosman-e- 
gxmnee (may God reward them !), and last of all, Allee-oon- 
Moortooza (may God, &c.). This circumstance displeases 
them to such a degree, as to induce them to dispense with 
the journey altogether : they would have it that Allee 
should be praised first. 

Besides these, there are six other companions, whose 
names are as follows : Tulhah, Saad, Saeed, Abee Obydah, 
Zoobayr, and Abdoor-ruhman-bin-aoof.| They cannot 

• Vide Mohurrum festival, ch. xv. sect. 3. f Vide Glossary. 

X These six, with the preceding four, formed the ten companions 
M'ho followed the Prophet's example, «hen, at the desire of tlie angel 
Gahriel, he turned his face in prayer from the north towards the west 
(or Mecca), and of whom the Prophet declared, that they had by that 
act secured heaven to themselves. 

Sect. 5. PILGRIMAGE. 71 

bear to utter the names of these last six companions, and 
should they do so, they would be obliged to offer/" teeha 
at their tombs. 

Secondly. Because on entering the Kaahah each one is 
interrogated as to what sect he belongs to previous to his 
admission into the temple, (the Soommt jummaut being the 
only ones allowed to enter the sanctuary). Some, however, 
concealing their own sect, and calling themselves Soonnees, 
contrive at times to gain admission ; but they never venture 
near the illuminated Medina, since there, near the tomb of 
his highness Mohummud Moostuffa (the blessing, &c.) are 
those of Aba-Bukur-e-Siddeeq and Oomur-e-farooqee (may 
fjrod reward them !)* 

Many live for years in the joyful anticipation of being 
one day able to perform the circuit of the Kaabah ; nay, 
very many never have the idea of it out of their minds. 

To this day much has been said on the numerous bless- 
ings attending the performance of the pilgrimage. Among 
others it is stated, that at every step a person takes Kaabah- 
wards, he has a sin blotted out, and that hereafter he will 
be highly exalted. Should any one happen to depart this 
life on his way to Mecca, he will obtain the rank of a 
martyr, (the reward of his pilgrimage being instantly re- 
corded in the divine book of remembrance), and in the day 
of judgment he will rise with the martyrs. 

Indeed there are various ways in which, if people die, 
they become martyrs ; for example, — 1. If a man expire in 
the act of reading the Qpran ; 2. if in the act of praying ; 
3. if in the act of fasting ; 4. if on the pilgrimage to Mecca; 

• The tomb of Oosman, as well as that of Beebee Fateeniah and 
Hussun, are at Buqeea (the suburbs of ]\Icdina). Hosein's tomb is 
where he was killed in action at Kurhulla (or the plain of Iraq — an- 
cient Babylonia or Chaldea). 


5. if on a Friday (tlie Mohummudan sabbath); 6. if in 
the defence of his religion ; 7. if tlirough religious medita- 
tion ; 8. if he be executed for speaking the truth ; 9- if he 
endure death by the hands of a tyrant or oppressor with 
patience and submission ; 10. if killed in defending his own 
property; 11. if a woman die in labour or child-bed; 12. 
if murdered by robbers ; 13. if devoured by tigers; 14. if 
killed by the kick of a horse ; 15. if struck dead by light- 
ning ; 16. if burnt to death ; 17. if buried under the ruins 
of a wall ; 18. if drowned ; 19. if killed by a fall from a 
precipice, or down a dry well or pit ; 20. if he meet death 
by apoplexy, or a stroke of the sun. 


Concerning- Numaz (or Prayers); embracing, 1st. /Fjizoo and Tyam- 
wioom (or Ablutions before Prayer); — 2d. Azan (or Summons to 
Prayer). — 3d. Forms of Prayer. 

Sect 1. JVuzoo mid Tyammoom, or Ahlutions before Prayer. 

Previous to engaging in prayer, if any of the before- 
mentioned four gosool (or legal washings, p. 53) are required, 
it is the divine command that those preliminary purifica- 
tions should be performed antecedent to prayer. Should 
they not be found necessary, it is indispensably requisite 
that before each season of prayer the person perform wuzoo 
(or the washing of the face, hands, and feet, after a certain 
manner) : for thus has God commanded. 

The manner of performing wuzoo is as follows. First, 
the teeth are to be thoroughly cleaned with munjun (denti- 
frice), or by means of a miswak ; then having washed both 

Skct. 1. FOR PRAYER. 73 

hands as far up as the wrists three times, and gargled three 
times, water is to be snuffed up each nostril thrice, and each 
time, by the introduction of the little finger of the left hand 
into them, the cavities are to be emptied of their contents. 
Then, having taken up water with both hands, the face is 
to be well washed three times, from the upper part of the 
forehead to the chin, including the beard, and from ear to 
ear. After that, the arms are to be washed, from the end 
of the fingers up to the elbows ; first the right, then the left. 
Then a little water is to be poured into the palms of the hands, 
and caused to flow along the fore-arms three times. It is 
to be borne in mind that every little operation in wuzoo is 
to be repeated three times, whereas in what is called musah 
only once. The latter is then performed thus : the right 
hand, slightly wetted in water, is drawn over a quarter, half, 
or the whole of the head ; then, if a man have a long beard 
and whiskers, he takes a little water separately, wets and 
combs them with the fingers of his right hand, moving them 
in the case of the beard with the palm facing forwards, 
from the inferior and posterior to the superior and anterior 
part of it ; then, putting the tips of the fore-fingers into each 
ear, twists the fingers round, when the thumbs are behind 
the ears, rubs them along the back part of the cartilages of 
the ear from below upwards, bringing them around the top. 
Then with the back of the fingers of both hands touching the 
neck, draws them from behind forwards; after that, the inside 
of the left hand and fingers are drawn along the outside of 
the right arm from the tips of the fingers to the elbows, and 
the same operation is gone through on the other arm with 
the hands reversed. Then the hands are clasped together, 
the palms necessarily touching each other. These constitute 
the rite of musah. 

After that, the feet and ankles are washed, first the right 


and then the left ; and this concludes wuxoo.^ Lastly, the 
water that remains is drunk with the face turned towards 
the Qibla, which is considered a meritorious act. These 
different ablutions are accompanied with a number of sup- 
plications detailed in the sacred Mishqat ; but, owing to 
their prolixity, they have been here omitted. 

The observance of ivuzoo is of great efficacy ; for the 
Prophet has declared, that the countenance, hands, and feet 
of him that purifies himself for prayer by these ablutions, 
will at the day of judgment be recognised among the 
crowd by their shining in all the bright effidgence of the 
full moon. 

It is not requisite to perform wu%oo each time that one 
goes to prayer, but merely when his body becomes defiled 
by the occurrence of any one of the following circum- 
stances ; viz. obeying a call of nature, expelling wind, having 
a discharge of matter or blood in any part of the body ; 
vomiting, sleeping, fainting, laughing loudly and immode- 
rately during prayers, or bringing the genital organs of the 
sexes into contact. Any of these is sufficient to contaminate 
a person, and wuzoo is rendered indispensable ; until the 
performance of which, it is not lawful for him to engage in 

Should any one be unavoidably prevented by indisposi- 
tion (fearing lest the application of water to his face and 
hands would, by increasing the malady, incapacitate him for 
prayers) from attending to the rite wuzoo or gosool, it is 
the divine command that he should perform tyammoom ; 
also, if water be at a distance, or if in a well and there be 
no means of getting at it, or if in attempting to procure it 

• Though the detail of those cercuionies is tediously lono-, the per- 
formance of tliem does not occupy above a very icw minutes. 


one's life is exposed to jeopardy, or if there be but very little 
water and either himself or a neighbour be dying of thirst, 
and he, instead of drinking or offering it to the other, perform 
wuzoo, his soul is in danger (i. e. of the divine wrath). 
All the circumstances above stated, which make a repetition 
of wuzoo necessary, are equally applicable to tyainmoom ; 
and the virtue of the latter ceases at the sight of water. 

The mode of performing tyammoon is as follows : The 
individual, at the commencement of the operation, vows by 
an Arabic sentence, the purport of which is this : " I vow 
" that by this act of tyammoom, which I substitute for 
" gosool (or imizoo, as the case may be), I purify myself 
" for prayer, by cleansing my body from all filth and cor- 
" ruption." Having repeated this, he performs the lustra- 
tions by clapping his open hands on fine sand or dust, shak- 
ing off the sand, drawing his hands over his face, then by a 
second clapping of his hands on the sand, drawing the left 
hand over the right up to the elbow, and then in like manner 
the right over the left. 

Sect. 2. Azdn, or Suymnons to Prayer. 

It is commanded by the Prophet at the five periods of 
prayer to proclaim the azim ; the object of which warnino- 
is to caution the people of the arrival of the period of 
prayer, thereby reminding them of the will of God, and 
exhorting them to flee for salvation. The sound of the 
azdn is to be listened to with the utmost reverence ; e. g. 
if a person be walking at the time, he should stand still ; 
if reclining, sit up ; and to the words of the Mowazun, 
(or crier) as directed in the sacred Huddees, he must reply 
in some appropriate ejaculation, such as lub-bek duwut ool 
hitq., («. e. Here I am, awaiting God's invitation). 

The origin of azdn is as follows. On one occasion, as 


the Prophet (the blessing,) &c. was sitting in company with 
his companions, (may God reward them !) he observed to 
them, that it would be advisable to adopt some sign by 
which the congregation could be assembled for prayers ; 
and they consulted together on the subject. One moved 
that it should be done by the beating of a drum, which the 
Prophet did not approve of, on account of its being too 
warlike a sound. Another proposed the ringing of a 
naqoos'^ (or bell); that was objected to by the Prophet, 
because it was a Jewish custom : while some said, " let a 
" fire be lighted," to which the Prophet remarked, " that 
" would indicate us to be worshippers of fire." While the 
Prophet was thus engaged, starting objections to every pro- 
posal advanced, as he was about to rise, (for thus it is re- 
lated in the Shwra-e-kurkhee), a youth named Abdoollah, 
son of Zeid Ansaree, approached the Prophet and thus 
addressed him : " Oh, thou messenger of God, I dreamed, 
" and behold I saw in my dream a man dressed in green 
" apparel ascending a wall, who stood on it, and with his 
" face towards the Qi6/«, proclaimed aloud, Allak-ho-akbur,'''' 
&c. (as it is in the azan, page 77). The Prophet being 
highly delighted with this, directed Abdoollah, the son of 
Zeid, to teach it to Billal, who possessed a powerful voice. 
At the same time Ameer-ool-momeeneen-Oomur (may God 
reward him !) was present, who got up and said, '• O Pro- 
" phet of God, I likewise saw the very same thing in my 
" dream, and was about to come and tell your holiness of 

• Or rather " a thin oblong piece of wood suspended by two strings, 
" used by the Eastern Christians to summon the congregation to 
" divine service." — Shakespear's Diet. The Moosulmans of Hiu- 
doostan consider naqoos to be (and call it so) tlie sunkli (or conch- 
shell), blown by Hindoos at divine worship, and which they believe 
the Jews use. 


" it, when I found that Abdoollah-ibn-e-Zeid had already 
" done so." 

The manner of proclaiming the azan is as follows. At 
the proper season of prayer, any one of the congregation 
who comes first to the Musjid (or mosque), or a man called 
a Mowazun (or crier), who is entertained for the purpose 
with a fixed monthly salary, standing on a cTiuhootra,'^ 
mayzunu,-\ or mimbur,^ with his face towards the Qibla (or 
Mecca), with the points of his forefingers introduced into 
his ears, and his hands clapped over them, calls out four 
times successively, Allah-ho-akbur (God is great) ; twice, 
Ush-hud-do-un La-il-la-ha Illul-la-ho (I bear witness 
tliere is no other god but God) ; twice, Wo-ush-hud-do- 
un Mohummudoor Russool-ooUahe (and I bear witness, 
that Mohummud is indeed the Prophet of God). Then 
turning to the right hand, he repeats twice, Hy-uV-us- 
sulwat (come enliven your prayers) ; then to the left, twice, 
Hy-uV-ul-fuUah (come for refuge to the asylum). Then 
turning towards the Qibla, again adds, in the morning 
prayer only, this sentence, twice, Us-sul-la-to Klieyr- 
roon-min-nun-nowm (prayer is preferable to sleep). Then 
finishes by repeating twice, AUah-ho-akbur (God is great) ; 
and lastly, once, La-illa-ka ItM-la-ho (there is no God 
but the true God). Then having read some supplication, 
he draws his hands over his face and concludes. 

There are four descriptions of people for whom it is 
unlawful to sound the azan, viz. an unclean person, a 
drunkard, a woman, and a madman. 

* Or an elevated seat, or platform, in front of the mosque, on which 
the crier stands and summons people to prayer, 
t ])o. but higher, with steps to mount up. 
X Or the minarets of a mosque. 


Sect. 3. The Forms of Prayer. 

There are established rukats* for all the five seasons or 
periods of prayer, which are these : 

The fujur kee numaz (or morning prayer) consists of 
four rnkats (or forms), vi%. two soonnut and two fur:^. 

The xoh?ir kee numax (or meridian prayer) comprises 
twelve riikats^ viz. four soonnut^ four fur%, two soonmdy 
and two mijil. 

The ussur kee numaz (or afternoon prayer) contains 
eight nikats, viz. four soonnut gyr wowukkeda, which are 
read by few, the generality only reading the four furz. 

The mugrib kee numaz (evening prayer or vespers) 
embraces seven rukats, viz. three furz, two soonnut, and 
two nufil. 

The aysha kee numaz (or night prayer) includes no less 
than seventeen rukats, viz. four soonnut gyr mowukkeda, 
omitted by most people, the generality repeating four furz, 
two soonnut, two nufil, three wajib-ool-wittw, and two tush- 

The method of performing prayers is as follows. Having 
spread a moosidla or jae-numaz, the individual stands on it 
with his face directed towards the Qihla; and having re- 
peated the istugfar (deprecation, or asking forgiveness), 
and repeated two morning soonnut rukat prayers, he makes 
a neeut (or vow) in Arabicf to this effect : " I desire to offer 
" up unto God this morning (or mid-day, Sec. as the period 
of devotion may be), with my face Q?7>/a-wards, two (or four, 
as it may happen) rukat prayers." Having repeated the 
words Allah-ho-akbur, with his thumbs touching the lobules 
of his ears, he places his right hand upon the left below his 

• Rukat ; vide note, p. 79. 

t Those unacquainted with Arabic, vow in their mother tongue. 

Sect. 3. FORMS OF PRAYER. 79 

navel. This being done, he is not to look about, but direct- 
ing his eyes to the spot which he is to touch with his head, 
in the posture ofsijdah, he is to stand with the most profound 
reverence and the utmost self-abasement, as if in the pre- 
sence of a mighty monarch. After that, he repeats the 
sitna, ttiooz, and tusmeeah ; then the soora-e-alhumd (or the 
first chapter of the Qprari), followed by any other, without 
repeating bismilla ; he then comes to the position of rookoo, 
repeats three (four) or five times the following rookoo-kee- 
tusbeeh, viz. " soohhdnu rubbee ool azeem^'' (praised be the 
great God our preserver)- Reassuming the erect posture, 
he repeats " sunCmd alla'ho laymun humUmayda riiBbiina 
lultulhumdr (Thou, Almighty God, art the hearer of my 
praises; Thou art my support). Then he comes to the position 
oi sijdah (or prostration), and in that situation repeats three 
or five times " soobhanu ndj'bee ool alldli''' (O thou holy and 
blessed preserver) ; sits up and rests himself for a few seconds, 
again performs sijdah, and repeats its tusbeeh as before. This 
constitutes the first rukat* prayer. 

It is to be remembered that the assumption of every new 
posture is to commence with the word allahho-akbur. 

From the sijdah (or prostrate position) he assumes that 
of the qeeani (or standing attitude) ; reads the first chapter of 
the Qpran with the bismilla, and then another without bis- 
milla; makes rookoo ; stands up again, and makes sijdah 
twice as before ; then sitting, repeats the whole of the attVr- 
hyat (or the concluding part of their prayers), finishing it 
with its accompanying part, the durood (or blessing) : then 
turning his face first to the right and next to the left, he 

• The combined performance of these different ceremonies and 
prayers constitutes what is denominated a rukat, and not simply 
" bending- the body in prayer," as Shakspear has defined the term 
in his dictionary. 


repeats each time the stilam (or sakitation thus, asullci moon 
alykoom ruhmut-oollahe (or the peace and mercy of God be 
with you all).* Then joining the two hands from the wrists, 
both hands spread open and held up in a hne with the 
shoulders, he asks moonajat (or supplication-f*), and draw- 
ing his hands over his face, concludes. Here ends the 
second rukat prayer. 

Should the performance of four rukats have been vowed, 
it is observed with the following trifling deviation. The 
two first are gone through as just described, with this dif- 
ference, that only half of the attuhyat is read in the second 
rukat, and after pausing awhile, instead of repeating after it 
the blessing and salutation, the worshipper begins the third 
rukat by rehearsing the first, but beginning with the tzis- 
meeah (omitting the sima and tuoox, &c. which is done in 
every rukat except the first). The third and fourth are 
repeated like the two first, but the whole attuhyat is this 
time read. The above four rukats comprehend what are 
called soonniit rukats. 

In the Xhreefurz rukats the two first are performed as 
those preceding, except that the chapter after the allmmd 
is omitted, and the whole of the attuhyat read in the third 
rukat, and they conclude with the sulam. 

• The Mohummudans do not, after the conclusion of prayers, repeat 
Ameen (Amen), but they invariably do so after reading the first 
chapter of the Qoran : and after moonajat (or supplication), the con- 
gregation say Ameen. 

t The manner of supplicating is as follows. Having raised the 
extended hands meeting at the wrist to a level with the shoulder (or 
rather the middle of the arm), Avith eyes half open, the individual is 
to confess his sins, ask pardon for them, hoping for mercy. He must 
dread the miseries of hell, and pray for protection from the crafts 
and subtleties of the devil ; and by making use of an appropriate 
sentence or verse of the Kulam-oollah (or word of God), or by some 
established prayer suitable to his case, or in his own words, in any 
language he pleases, he is to make known his requests. 

Skct. .3. FORMS OF PRAYER. 81 

In the four fiirz riikats there is this difference, that in 
the first and second rukats after the first chapter of the 
Qoran another is necessarily read, as in the preceding forms ; 
but not so in the third and fourth, where the latter chapter 
is omitted. And again, previous to the vow at the com- 
mencement, the tukheer (which differs very little from the 
a.zan) is to be repeated, viz. four times successively, 
Allah ho akhur ; twice, Ush-hud-do-un La-il-la-ha Il-lul- 
la-ho ; twice, Wo-ush-hud-do-un M ^hiimmud-oor Rus- 
sool-ool-lahay ; twice, Hy aVus sulwat ; twice, HyaUul- 
fiillah ; twice, Qud gamut sulwat (or sta \d up to prayers) ; 
twice, Allah-ho-akhur ; . and once, La-illa-ha Illul~la-ho. 
(Vide Tukheer, Glossary.) 

In the ay-sha (or night) prayer, in the third rukat of 
wajib ool wittur, after having read the alhumd, and another 
chapter, on assuming the rookoo posture, the person is to 
call out, touching the lobes of his ears with the points of 
the thumbs, allah-ho-akhur : then placing his hands on his 
navel, he is to repeat a prayer termed the doa-e-qoonoot (or 
prayer of adoration) ; then resuming the position of rookoo^ 
and proceeding with the sijdahs, attuhyat, &c. he is to 
finish as before. 

It is the divine command, that after an individual, male 
or female, has attained to the age of discretion and reached 
maturity, he is to observe the five appointed seasons of 
prayer; and the moment it is prayer-time, to spread the 
jor-e-numaz on a clean spot to the west of him, and engage 
in devotion. Should a street happen to be before him, or 
a large concourse of people passing and re-passing present 
an obstacle, he is to place a suttra (or mark of defence), 
such as a stick two feet long, or a sword, or any thing else 
stuck into the ground, or placed in front of the carpet. 
Prayer should, on no account, be neglected. If a sick 



person Ccannot stand up to say his prayers, he must do it 
sitting; if he cannot sit up, he must repeat them lying 
down ; and if so unwell as not to be able to say them aloud, 
he must pray in his mind. However, it is only the pious 
and devout that observe these rules. Where do we find 
every one possessed with the ability to do it! 

If a person be pressed for want of time, such as when 
required to obey the imperious orders of a commander, the 
prayer may be deferred until a more convenient season; 
but it is never to be wholly omitted. 

A traveller may likewise curtail the four rukat fur% 
(but not the four soonnut) by reading only two ; but a 
two or three rukat prayer is in no wise to be diminished ; 
and he alone is deemed a traveller who has been on his 
journey three days and three nights. 

After the moonajat (or supplication), some read the 
tusbeeh, which is nwostuhub (or desirable) ; i. e. the ob- 
servance of it is beneficial, though the neglect of it is not a 


To read with the use of a tusheeh (or rosary) is meri- 
torious ; but it is an innovation, since it was not enjoined 
by the Prophet (the blessing, &:c.) or his companions, but 
established by certain Mushaekhs (or divines). 

They use the chaplet in repeating the kulma (confession 
of faith) or durood (blessing), one, two, or more hundred 

Skct. 1. MARRIAGE. 83 


Concernino^ Marriage, which comprises eleven Sections. 

Section 1 . Concerning the lookmg out for a suitable 
Partner; the ascertaifiing by the Science of Astrology 
whether the match will prove a propitious one; and the 
offering of jJrojwsals, and arranging matters for the 

1. When a man is desirous of entering upon the happy 
state of matrimony,* he sends for three or four female 
go-betweens by (profession called Mudawutneean), to 
whom he declares his intentions, requesting them to endea- 
vour to ascertain whether any one has a daughter mar- 
riageable, who is beautiful, eligible, clever, accomplished, 
rich, and whose manners, pedigree, and religion are good ; 
and in the event of their meeting with such a one, they are 
speedily to bring him word. He does not despatch them, 
however, without giving them ample assurances (which, 
alas ! too frequently turn out to be but empty promises) of a 
very handsome reward awaiting them, incase success should 
attend their zealous efforts. In a few instances, however, 
and among honourable men, the engagement is strictly 

• " Tlie first marriag:e is usually solemnized when the youth is 
" eighteen, and the young lady thirteen or foui-teen at the most. 
" Many are married at an earlier age, when, in the opinion of the 
" parents, an eligible match is to be secured. And in some cases, 
" where the parents on both sides have the union of their children at 
" heart, they contract them at six or seven years old, which marriage 
" they solemnly bind themselves to fulfil when the children have 
" reached a proper age. Under these circumstances, the children are 
" allowed to live in the same house, and often form an attachment for 
" each other, which renders their union a life of real happiness." — 
Mrs. M. H. All's "Observations on Mussulmans of India," vol. i. 
p. 346. 

G 2 

84 MARRIAGE. Chap.. XIV. 

adhered to ; and either during some part of the nuptial 
ceremony, or on the completion of the marriage, they offer 
the reward agreeably to promise. 

Tlic female go-betweens* being in the constant habit of 
going about, selling articles of female dress, ornaments, 
&c. at the different houses, sitting and gossiping there, be- 
come acquainted with every thing relating to their families, 
connexions, opulence, or poverty ; and should circumstances 
turn out favourably, they settle matters in some degree, and 
convey the joyful intelligence to the intended bridegroom 
and his friends. Should they approve of the choice, the match 
is made up, otherwise the internuncios are desired to look 
out in some other quarter. Should the girl be at the house 
of a friend or acquaintance, the parents, or maternal grand- 
mother, &c. go themselves^ without requiring the assistance of 
go-betweens, and concert with the girl's parents respecting the 
marriage; there being no need of internuncios among friends. 
2. When the family connexions, pedigree, religion, and 
customs of both families are found to correspond, and the 
two parties consent to the union, seers are consulted to 
ascertain the future destinies, good or bad, that await the 
new couple ; for which purpose a few persons, in company 
with astrologers and moollas (or men of understanding in 
the times), assemble, cast their horoscope, and prognosticate 
their future destiny. For example, if a person's name 
begin with any of the following seven letters of the Arabic 
alphabet, the element of Iiis temperament will be 

1st. Earth : lu'^. bay, waoo, yay, swad, tay, zwad, noon, 
— 2d. Water : if zal, hy, lam, ain, ray, khay, gaeen. — 
3d. Air : ifjeem, zay, kaf, sheen, qaf, say, %oee. — 4th. Fire: 
if alif, hay, toee, meem, seen, dal. 

• Or " Mrs Gad-abouts," as Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali calls them, are 
well described by her in vol. i. p. 351. 

Sect. 1. 



Other astrologers again refer to a table, of which the 
following is a sketch, to ascertain by the initial of the in- 
dividuaPs name his constitutional elements : 





1 The Four 

In Arabic. 

In Hindoos- 



of the Arabic 

1 Elements. 










lam, aeen, 




















Qaf, Kaf. 







the Moon. 


Hy, Hay. 







the Sun, 





boola, or 

















Ray, Tay, 










ZaI, zoee, 

noon, zay, 







ree, or 




















Male, say,' seen, 





Rleenum. ree, or 

Female. Dal. 


86 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

In order to find out the future fate of the new couple, 
the following plan is adopted ; in the first place it is to be 
discovered, by reference to the preceding scheme, to which 
of the elements of fire, air, earth, and water, the initials of 
the parties belong; and, if their constitutional elements 
correspond, it is to be concluded that they will harmonize : 
e.g. If the man's name be Jaffur, his initial being a J. 
and his temperament earth; and the woman's name be 
Bano Beebee, her initial being B. and the temperament 
also earth, these agreeing, it is held that they will live most 
happily together.* 

• Should the connexion be found desirable, there is sometimes an 
omen consulted by the father before nejjociations are commenced. 
It is related by Mrs. Meer in these words : " Several slips of paper 
" are cut up ; on half the number is written to be, on the other half 
" not to he. These papers are mixed together and placed under the 
" prayer-carpet. When the good Mussulmaun is preparing for his 
" evening numaz, he fails not in his devotions, to ask for help and 
" guidance in an affair of so much importance to the father as the 
" happiness and well-being of his son. At the portion of the service 
" when he bows down his head to God, he beseeches with much 
" humility, calling on the great power and goodness of God to in- 
«' struct and guide him for the best interest of his child ; and then he 
•' repeats a short prayer expressive of his reliance on the wisdom of 
" God, and his perfect submission to whatever may be His wise 
" decree in this important business. The prayer concluded, he seats 
" himself with solemn gravity on the prayer-carpet, again and again 
" imploring Divine guidance, without which he is sure nothing good 
" can accrue. He then draws one slip from under his carpet; lito be 
" is produced, he places it by his left side ; — a second slip is drawn 
" out : should that also bear the words to be, the business is so far 
" decided. He then offers thanks and praises to God, congratulates 
" his wife on the successful issue of the omen, and discusses those 
" plans which appear most likely to further the prospects of their 
" dearly loved son. But, should the second and third papers say 
" not to be, he is assured in his heart it was so decided by ' that wisdom 
" which cannot err;' to whom he gives praise and glory for all 
" mercies received at His hands ; after this no overture or negociation 
" would be listened to by the pious father, from the same quarter." — 
Vol. i. p. 352. 

Sect. I. MARRIAGE. 87 

Here follows a more particular description of the 

system : 

If the temperament of both be Earth, — they will for the 
most part agree, though not always. 

If it be Water, — they will agree for a time ; but their af- 
fections will soon decline. 

If it be Air, — they will be ready to quarrel with each 
other ; but as ready to make up the matter. 

If it be Fire, — though brawlings and bickerings will occur 
between them, these will not prove of long duration ; for 
a mutual reconciliation will soon take place. 

If the temperament of the Man be Earth, and of the 
Woman, Water, — they will agree remarkably well toge- 
ther, and maintain a reputable character; the woman 
being subject to her lord and master. 

If the man's be Water, and the Woman^'s Earth, — they will 
agree as above ; but the wife will wear the breeches. 

If the man's be Earth, and the Woman's Air, — they will 
constantly be quarrelling, and as frequently be settling 
their differences ; but the woman will be under sub- 
jection to her husband. 

If the Man's be Air, and the Woman's Earth, — love as well 
as discord will exist between them : the wife will rule the 

If the Man's be Earth, and the Woman's Fire, — they will 
cherish but little affection towards each other, and in 
nothing will they agree, or please one another. The 
wife will govern the husband. 

If the man's be Fire, and the woman's Earth, — the same as 
the preceding ; with this difference, that the husband 
will rule the wife. 

If the man's be Water, and the Woman's Air, — in general 
they will not be affectionate ; however should they be so, 

88 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

their happiness ^vill be very great. The husband will be 

under petticoat government. 
If the Man's be Air, and the Woman's Water, — the same 

as the preceding ; except that the husband will govern 

the wife. 
If the Man's be Water, and the Woman's Fire, — they will 

find it a very difficult matter to agree together. The 

husband will rule the wife. 
If the Man's be Fire, and the Woman's Water, — the same 

as the last ; but the wife Avill rule the husband. 
If the Man's be Air, and the Woman's Fire, — their affec- 
tion for each other will increase gradually ; the man will 

submit to his wife's control. 
If the man's be Fire, and the Woman's Air, — the utmost 

degree of love and happiness will reign betwixt them : the 

woman will submit to her husband, who Avill treat her 

with great kindness and affection. 

1. When their future destinies have thus been calcu- 
lated, and they bid fair to agree together, a few of the 
bridegroom's female relations repair to the bride's house, 
and among various pleasantries facetiously observe, that 
they are come from such a one's house to partake of some 
meetha polaoo (or sweet polaoo), or shiikw' hhat (sugar and 
rice). The opposite party good-humouredly return the 
jokes or not, as they feel favourably or unfavouraby dis- 
posed towards the match. 

The women do not arrange the business at this first in- 
terview, but after the interchange of a few visits matters 
are adjusted : that is, the day is fixed upon by the bride's 
relatives for the ceremony of J^hurray-parii shookrana, or 
mangnee. These three customs are not all observed to- 
gether, but any one of tliem is chosen according to the 
pleasure of the parties. In some families the one is 

Skct. 1. MARRIAGE. 89 

usually practised ; in others, either of the rest. The first 
is most common, and being least expensive, is preferred by 
the lower classes of people : the second is general among 
the middling ranks of society. The last being the most 
expensive, as the giving of valuable presents is an indis- 
pensable accompaniment to it, is only adopted by those 
who can afford it. 

The object of these ceremonies is, that should any neces- 
sity exist for postponing the celebration, whether for some 
days or for years, the parties by this stipulation solemnly 
bind themselves to marry no other person in the interim, 
and this engafjement is considered inviolable. 

It is customary not to offer in either house any thing in 
the way of food or drink, such as betel-leaves, tobacco, 
&c. or even water, to persons of the opposite party, until 
they have tasted something sweet in the house, which they 
do on the shookrana day, or afterwards, at an entertain- 
ment given on purpose. 

Sect. 2. Concerning Betrothment, viz. 

1. JThurray pan banfna, or the distributing of betel- 
leaves standing. 2. Shookrana (properly S/mkitr-ana, 
or the bringing of sugar). 3. Mangnee, or asking in mar- 
riage. 4. Pooreean, or a kind of patties or cakes. 5. Dhay- 
lee.^ kliooncUana, or treading the threshold. 6. Niimuck 
chushee^ or tasting the salt. 

1. IThurraypan hantnah a. ceremony Bs, ioWows. Four 
or five men and as many women on the bridegroom's side, 
go with some pan-sooparee to the house of the bride, and 
distribute a pankabeera (or betel-leaf parcel) to each of her 
relatives, they all receiving also one in return from them, 
the females observing the same among themselves. This 
mutual interchange of betel-leaves by the two parties con- 

90^ MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

stitutes the sum total of the ceremony. On the occasion of 
this rite, no churawa, that is, jewels and dresses, are neces- 
sary. From the circmnstance of women always denomi- 
nating this custom pan oothana (or the taking up of hetel- 
leaf), and khurray pan bantna, men have employed the 
same terms. 

By the way, an extraordinary coincidence just occurs to 
my recollection ; viz. If, on any account, a person be required 
to be sworn in, he is desired to take up a betel-lea^ parcel, 
which is considered equivalent to swearing by the Qoran. 
This custom is held most sacred by the vulgar among the 
Moosiilmans, who use it in every case where it is requisite 
to render a contract binding. For instance, a pan-ka-heera 
is given to the person, and he is desired to say, " From 
" such or such a thing, I shall on no account ever retract 
" as long as I live." But this mode of taking an oath is 
neither prescribed by any divine nor human law; it is an in- 
novation introduced by the Moosulmans of Hindoostan. 
However, they consider it of such importance, that should 
a person, after so consenting to a marriage, swerve from his 
word, much brawling and bickering is the consequence. 
Agreeably to the Mohummudan law, after the performance 
of any of the three ceremonies above mentioned, should 
any thing objectionable be discovered in the pedigree or 
character of either of the couple, the Qazee (judge), or any 
man of repute may pronounce such oath as that of the beteL 
leaf to be null and void : that is, in the event of some gross 
misconduct being proved against one or other of the parties. 

The common people are usually made to swear in this 
way ; and the same form is not unfrequently employed in 
the field in swearing seepahees (Indian soldiers), who after 
thus taking up the 6e/e/-leaf, never swerve from the word 
or action to which they become pledged. 

Sect. 2. MARRIAGE. , 9|-. 

2. Shookrana is the name given to the undermentioned 
ceremony : 

From the bridegroom''s house are sent to the bride tlie 
following articles, mx. some jewels ; a pair of ungooshtan 
(alias, huddeearoo), or rings of gold or silver ; a green or 
red cholee of tafta (a kind of silk) ; a set of chooreeaa or 
green hungreean ; abundance of pansooparee ; sugar, 
Whopra, flowers, odoriferous oils, red thread for the 
choontee, a comb and sundul. These are carried on two 
or three platters, accompanied with haja hujuntur (or 
music), and attended by a retinue of people, including the 
relations and friends (with the exception of the bridegroom), 
and conveyed to the bride's. The ladies repair thither in 
doolees, either before or after the procession, and on their 
arrival withdraw to the female assembly. 

To the relative of the bride who first makes his appear- 
ance in the male assembly, whether a brother or any other 
near connexion, they hand the qowLheera (or contract-par- 
cel), which consisting of seven or nine 6e/eZ-leaves, and as 
many areca-nuts tied up in a small red handkerchief, folded 
in the form of a betel-leaf parcel, they make him promise, 
saying, " Mirza Boolund Bukht, the son of Mirza nujum ood 
" Deen, is betrothed to Khoorsheid Bee,* the daughter of 
** Anwur Beg : Declare, in the presence of this assembly, 
" whether you do or do not consent to their marriage." 
His answer is, "I do."" After having put the question at 
full length three times, and received the same reply, they 
offer neeut kheyr ka fateeha, that is, they read the soora-e 
alhumd (or first chapter of the Qoran) once, and the Soora 
e Eezcijd (or 110th chapter of the Qoran) once. 

These ceremonies of the fateeha and the giving the qowl 

* Bee, an abbreviation for the surname Beebee. 

92 MARRIAGE. Chap. XTV. 

beer a are performed by a Qazee, Khuteeb, Naeb-e-qazee, 
Mushaekh, Mowluwee, Moonshee, MooUa^ or any learned 
man ; in short, by any intelligent and respectable individual 

In some countries the ceremony of the qowl-beera is dis- 
pensed with ; the person who offers fateeha^ naming the 
couple, says, " I hereby betroth them," and performs the 

On the conclusion of the fateeha, having distributed 
among the men some of the sugar and pan-sooparee (which 
among the great they give in charge to their servants, but 
the poor themselves tie up in their handerchiefs), the bride's 
company carries all the articles sent by the bridegroom to 
his intended. When the flowers, sundul, jewels, &c. 
together with the remainder of the sugar and paTi-sooparee, 
have been brought to the female assembly, one of the bride"'s 
female relatives brings her to them on her lap, where she 
sits modestly, with her head bent towards the ground, eyes 
closed, and face covered. Then the women from the bride- 
groom's side, having made the bride sit before them, anoint 
her head with the sweet-scented oil, tie up her hair with the 
red twist, put on her the cholee, biingree, and flowers, apply 
sundul to her neck, and adorn her with the jewels they have 
brought. Then some old woman on the bride's side, placing 
one hand at the back of her neck and the other under her 
chin, holds up her face to the view of the party. Then 
each of the ladies of the bridegroom's suite, taking a peep 
at the bride's face, offer her a present of a ring or some 
ready cash (two or four rupees or a goldmohur), and take, 
the bullaeean* as they call it, (literally, evils) from her face. 

• Bidlnccan lena, or taking all another's evils on one's-self, is a 
certain form of blessing-. This ceremony is performed by drawing 


Skct 2. MARRIAGE. 93 

Independently of the bridegroom"'s mother and sister, the 
father, brothers, near relatives, &c. likewise, on beholding 
the bride''s countenance, make her a present of some jewels 
or money, and pronounce a blessing on her. 

This ceremony of shookrana is also called shukur khoree 
(or eating of sugar), nishut or mangnee (or the asking) 
shurhut khoree (or the drinking shurbut), and hurree hayl 
(or the green creeper) ; but in some parts of the country 
they have restricted the term mangnee to the same when 
performed with great splendour and magnificence, and 
where the giving of valuable churawa (presents) to the 
bride, &c. are necessary accompaniments. 

3. Mangnee is as follows. Should the bridegroom be 
present in the town, he goes to the house of the bride on 
horseback, accompanied with hdjd-hiijuntur, kunchneedn 
kay ndch, tdsd-murfa, thuptee, toortooree; if at night, 
along with fireworks and flambeaux (if not, without the 
latter) ; and with him are carried the following articles and 
fruits, in large covered trays, viz. One or two kinds of jewels, 
uttur, odoriferous oil, a cholee, a pair of bungreean, a comb, 
a pair of ungooshtan, a red twist, a damnee or eezar or a 
saloo in trays ; and in earthen pots, dried dates, almonds, 
raisins, poppy-seeds, dried cocoa-nuts, sweetmeats, soft 
sugar, sugar-candy, ^oor (treacle), sugar-cane, pan-sooparee, 
flowers, &c. according to his means. He is accompanied by 
his father, brother, and their relatives, friends, and atten- 
dants. The procession generally starts in the afternoon, and 
halting at every ten or twelve paces, discontinue the music 
and cause the dancing-girls to dance and sing, to whom the 

the hands over the head of the person blessed, and cracking her 
fingers on her own temples, in token of taking all the other's misfor- 
tunes upon herself: only practised by women. 

94 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

attendants on this occasion make some present. Passing in 
this way throughout the hazm\ they reach the bride's 
house about eight o'clock in the evening. While they move 
along, the bands of music continue playing. If poor, they 
arrive at the bride's before dusk, the women proceeding to 
the assembly of females either a little before or after the 
rest. Should the bridegroom not be in town, the articles 
above-mentioned are despatched without him, witli the same 
pomp and state. 

When the men have assembled and sat for a while, 
the custom of qowl heera (if it be the one fixed upon by the 
party) is then performed ; and neeiit kheyr kay fateeha 
having been offered over the above-mentioned articles, after 
a public exhibition of them to the bride's friends, they are 
sent into her room. The trays being all removed, the rela- 
tives as well as the friends present are entertained by the 
bride's people with a dinner, consisting of sweet jmlaoo, or 
rice and sugar, as their means will allow. In some parts of 
India they give them on this occasion shiirhut to drink; 
hence the name shurhut-khoree (the drinking of shurhuf) 
is also given to this ceremony. Some, while drinking it, are 
in the habit of putting into the salver one or two gold mohurs, 
rupees, an eight or four anna-piece, according to their means. 
On dismissing the company, they are offered uttur, pan- 
sooparee and flowers, the usual signal to retire. If they be 
poor, betelr-leaf alone serves the purpose of giving the hint. 

Should the bridegroom himself be at the feast, it is cus- 
tomary for him to receive from the bride's side a pair of 
shoes, a shawl, or a doputta, a red cotton,* or ^a/3fa-(silk) 
hankerchief, or rings of gold or silver. Should he be absent. 

• Yellow, red, and green, are the only colours used on marriage 
ceremonies; black is emblematic of mourning-, white of gTave clothes. 

Sect. 2. MARRIAGE. 95 

these are handed over to his parents, in order that they may 
be despatched to him wherever he may be. 

The women are likewise sumptuously and ceremoniously 

4. Pooreecm, i. e. ten or fifteen days after mangnee, the 
bride's people prepare various kinds of jMoreean, and having 
filled the trays and earthen pots (in which were brought from 
the bridegroom's house the mangnee articles) witli them, 
they despatch them in pomp and state, attended with music, 
to the bridegroom ; whose company again convey part of 
them, accompanied with music, to their several relatives 
and friends in the town. 

5. U'hayleez Whoondlana (or treading the threshhold), 
is a ceremony observed as follows. If after mangnee it 
should appear requisite to postpone the marriage for six 
months or a year, or longer, they perform the ceremony of 
dhayleez Whoondlana, prepare meetha polaoo, khara ^jo- 
laoo, a variety of salnmj (or curries), and having invited the 
bridegroom, their relations, friends, &c., despatch dancing- 
girls and music to escort them, to the house. 

On this day the bridegroom likewise receives sula- 
mee ; that is, on his making a sulam (salutation) to his 
saas (mother-in-law), she presents him with a handkerchief, 
a gold ring, and some money on a tray. The reason of this 
ceremony is this : It is not customary for the bi'idegroom 
either to go to the house of the bride, or eat any of her 
victuals, until the marriage is consummated ; but after this 

• While our author cursorily passes over all that occurs in the 
female apartments on this occasion, Mrs. Meer furnishes us with a 
minute account of what took place when she herself performed the 
part of " oiiiciating friend ;" She decorated the young lady with the 
sweet-jessamine ornaments and the gold tissue dress, and fed her with 
seven pieces (the lucky number) of sugar-candy with her own hand, 
&c.— Vol. i. p. 362. 

96 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

ceremony is performed, he may go there and eat of any dish 
seasoned with salt, at any feast or occasion whatsoever. 

5. Numuck-chushee. In some places, a day or two 
after the ceremony of mangnee or nisbut, the bridegroom's 
people send in trays polaoo, birreeanee, s;urda, moozafur, 
together with feernee, nan, &c. more or less, according to 
their means, as also a pandan (the 6e^e/-box) to the bride's 
people, who eat and distribute them among their relatives 
and friends. A day or two afterwards, the bride's people 
send victuals, in like manner, to the bridegroom's. This 
ceremony is termed nmmick chushee ; after which, dis- 
pensing with the rule of partaking only of sweet things at 
the bride's house, as heretofore, he may eat of food that is 
seasoned with salt or acid. 

The bridegroom, on repairing to the house of his in- 
tended, carries along with him sweetmeats, flowers, and 
6e/e/-leaves on trays, and his relatives also take something 
nice and acceptable to the bride's people. After mcmgnee, 
if their means will allow of it, the bridegroom sends to the 
bride, and vice versa, at every feast eedee (or holyday 
o-ift). For instance, at the Mohurntm festival, anteean 
abeer, a handkerchief, a small purse filled with betel-nuis, 
coffee, sook'hmookVi, cardamoms, &c. and some money ; at 
the Akhree-char-shoomba feast, pooreean, goolgoolay, &c. ; 
at the Shaban, various kinds of eatables and fireworks ; at 
the Rumxan festival, sayweean, sugar, kliopra, dry dates, 
almonds, ghee, &c. and money. At the Eed-e-qoorbunee, a 
sheep, some cash, &c. At the Riimxan feast, they are 
usually conveyed attended with music. Independently of 
these, the food over which fateeha is offered in the name of 
saints, dressed on the occasion of fulfilling vows, is also 

Sect. 3. MARRIAGE. 97 

Sect. 3. Concerning the applicatimi of Huldee (or Tur- 
meric) to the Bridegroom a7id Bride, alias Mnnja 
bithana {or sitting in state), and Puttee, Jiiha.^, and 
Mndar ka chlianda. 

A day or two, or even a week, before the application of 
huldee to the bridegroom, they fill the bride's lap with 
muelleda and pan-sooparee, and apply huldee to her. This 
preliminary ceremony, which they term chor^ huldee, is 
performed solely by the ladies of the house, and is a mere 
excuse for having her body perfumed by rubbing it with 
chiksa, which they do morning and evemng. 

After the bridegroom has had huldee applied to him, 
either on the evening of the same day, or the next, they 
apply what is called saoof huldee to the bride. On that 
day they entertain their female relatives, friends, and neigh- 
bours in the morning with a meal, consisting of dul and 
rice, or khichree, and in the evening with a dinner com- 
posed of meetha polaoo or khara polaoo. After that, hav- 
ing put some mulleeda and pan-sooparee into the laps of 
the ladies, and seated the bride on a chair with a red cloth 
canopy held over her, they spread a red handkerchief^ 
before her on a red carpet, and singing, at the same time, 
perform choivk hhurna thereon, i. e. they place a quantity 
of unboiled rice on it in the form of a hollow square, 
forming various devices with the rice within it. They 

• Chor (lit. a thief) here signifies clandestinely, from the circumstance 
of its being done quietly, without inviting any one, or having a 
dinner, &c. 

t Saoo means revealed, in contradistinction to cho?- (private), be- 
cause it is done in a public manner. 

X Dyed red with saftlower, not white, because that resembles grave- 
clothes; not black, because that is a mourning-dress, and bears some 
analogy to the devil; not green, because that is the dress oi fuqccrs 
(or devotees). 


98 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

place a log of sa7idtil-wood, wound round with red thread, 
near the stool for the bride or bridegroom to place their 
feet on, as it is considered unpropitious to tread on the chowk 
(or square). The bride's younger sister, standing behind 
her, with a red daoonee, takes hold of her ears. They 
take two Whopray^ fill them with dry dates and poppy seed, 
roll them up in red cloth along with a log of sandal wood. 
The bundle so formed, which is called gode (lap) they 
place in the bride's lap. Then each of the sohogin (or mar- 
ried) ladies, applies a little huldee to the bride's face, body, 
or apparel. While this operation is going on, bnja and 
domneean (musical instruments and musicians) continue 
playing and singing; they likewise do so at the time of 
applying huldee every morning and evening from that day 
till the day of joohva, both in the house of the bride and 
of the bridegroom. 

From that day, should Providence have blessed them 
with the means, they invite their relatives daily, morning 
and evening, to dinner, and entertain them with the per- 
formances of dancing-girls, while outside the door, baja, 
tasa, or nowhut (musical instruments) continue playing. 

After having applied the huldee to the bride, they make 
her sit in a separate apartment, and do not allow her to en- 
gage, as usual, in any sort of employment whatever ; and 
as food, she is permitted to have nothing save khichree, 
rotee, ood,* and sugar. The frankincense is administered 
to impart a sweet smell to the body, and the ladies of the 
house rub her body with chiksa (vide Glossary) every 
morning and evening until the joolwa day, repeating the 
operation without washing off the preceding application, 

• Ood, or benjamin. In this case, it is prepared by putting a 
quantity of it between two wheaten cakes, closed all round and fried 
in ff/iee. 

Sect. 3. MARRIAGE. 99 

with the view of improving the lustre of her skin, and per- 
fuming her body. 

The ceremonies attending the application of huldee to 
the bridegroom are, in every respect, similar to those of the 
bride, except that the chiksa is rubbed over him by the 
barber, if he be present, every morning and evening. 

Besides, it is customary with some to observe puttee, 
juhaz, and mudar ka cKhanda, either one, two, or all three 
of them. 

With many, it is the custom to float puttee ; that is, the 
evening before that of huldee, they take a branch of the 
pomegranate tree, and having decked it out in a piece of 
red cloth, and having bent it, or made it to bend after the 
modest manner of the bride, they ornament it with garlands 
of flowers, putting on sometimes even a silver hunslee (or 
neck-ring), they stick it up into one and a quarter seer of 
unboiled rice, put into an earthern pot, having a wide mouth 
like a washhand-basin, and place around it for the night 
kViara polaoo, meetha polaoo, and various kinds of fruits ; 
and arbanees, or diiff a.m\ s?/rorf-players, sit up all night in 
presence of this puttee, and playing and singing, recount 
the history of Salar Musuood Gazee, even to the very 
conclusion of his battle and martyrdom. Some have sus- 
pended against the wall a curtain on which are painted re- 
presentations of his martyrdom, battles, &c. Next morning 
the puttee is carried in the basin on the shoulder of the 
bridegroom, accompanied by the above musical /wgeers ; 
and burning frankincense as they go along, they proceed 
to the water edge, where, having off'ered fateeha in the 
name of Salar Musuood, they set it adrift on the water. 

In the evening of that day, about eight or nine o'clock, 
having launched the J7j«rt.^ (or ship), the ladies apply hul- 
dee to the bridegroom after the same manner as was done to 

100 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

the bride. The jiihaz is a wooden frame-work in the shape 
of a stool, to the four legs of which are fastened as many 
earthern pots or pumkins ; or it is made of straw and bam- 
boos in the shape of a boat, so as to prevent its sinking, and 
it is variously ornamented. To it are suspended flowers 
and fruits, such as lemons, oranges, plantains, guavas, 
{vide Glossary) pomegranates, nariel, khopra, (cocoa-nuts 
and its dried kernels), &c. and having placed on it hnlwa 
pooreean, sugar, and betel leaves, and covered it over with 
a red koossoom (safflower) coloured cloth, and lighted a 
lamp made of wheat flour with ghee in it, they cause it to 
be carried on the bridegroom's, or some other person's 
head, and along with it inalleeda sheer-birrinj, alias klieer,* 
milk, dulleea, meethee rote,-f kc. accompanied by baja 
tasa, and with torch-lights, they proceed to the banks of the 
river, sea, or tank, and having there off*ered fateeha in the 
name of Khoaja Khizur+ (the peace of God be on him !) 
over the eatables, the shipwright takes them off" and dis- 
tributes some among the assembled throng of poor who 
have come to witness the fun, as well as among those who 
attended the procession, then replacing the lamp on it, they 
set it adrift on the water. 

Should any one by special invitation have been asked to 

• There are three varieties of dishes, of rice and milk, with sugar, 
distincruished by their consistence: 1.' dulleea, thinnest; 2. kheer, 
somewhat thicker; and 3.fitnee, of a still firmer consisteuce. 

t Sweetened, flat round cakes. 

X The name of a Prophet, who, according to Oriental tradition, was 
prime minister and general to an ancient king of Persia, called Alex- 
ander, or to Caicobad (not Alexander of Macedon). They say that 
he discovered and drank of, the Fountain of Life, and that in conse- 
quence he will not die till the last trumpet. He is by some confounded 
with the Prophet Elias. For further particulars of Khoaja Khizur 
(Neptune?) vide chap, xxvii. 

Sect. 3. MARRIAGE. 101 

accompany the ship, they are taken home, treated to shcer- 
hirrinj, polaoo, &c. and dismissed with jjan-sooparee. All 
this being done, they apply the huldee. 

Mudar ka cJihanda* alias hhundara, i. e. They take a 
cow and some wheat flour, and desire some of ihe fuqeers of 
the Mudar tribe to prepare chukoleean (alias sootreean), 
and to dress it with the meat. Then having ofiered fateeha 
in the name of Zinda Shah Mvidar, they scramble for it. 
The history of Shah Mudar will be more particularly 
noticed hereafter in the feast held in the month Jummadee- 
ool-awul, {Vide chap, xix.) 

Those whose means will allow, have the bridegroom on 
this occasion decked out in a pink pugree and jama (the 
poor in yellow ones), a yellow s/««/, a gold 7nala (necklace), 
a ijudduck and chundunhar. 

The bridegroom does not, as usual, go about shopping, 
but his friends go in his stead ; if he be poor, how ever, he 
is, of course, obliged to go himself. 

From the day that the huldee has been ayjplied to the 
bridegroom, until the day of shuhgusht^ breakfast is daily 
sent, by such as can afford it, from the bride's house, for the 
bridegroom, consisting of choha, shurbut, meetha polaoo, 
or khichree milk, muleeda, with a tumbaloo, having a red 
thread tied round its neck, and being bespattered all over 
with sundul, containing shurbut, or plain (lit. sweet) water, 
wherewith to rinse the mouth, and a thin twig of a branch 
of the pomegranate tree, with red thread wound round it 
for making scmiswak or tooth brush (Gloss.) and pan-soo- 
paree, cloves, cardatnoms, with, or without gold or silver 
leaf pasted over them, with the breakfast, accompanied 
with music. 

• Clihanda means a sluiro. 

102 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

The first day, however, whether rich or poor, they neces- 
sarily send meetha (sweet) polaoo, in order that after having 
partaken of this sweet dish, the bride and bridegroom may 
live lovingly together, and enjoy the sweets of life. 

The women who accompany the breakfast from the 
bride's party, see the bridegroom wash his face in their 
presence, take his breakfast, and chew parisooparee, before 
they take their departure. Sometimes they only deliver 
them and go away. 

Sect. 4. Concerning the carrying of Huldee and Maynlh- 
- dee from the Bridegrooiris to the Bride, and vice versa. 

Among the rich they construct a frame-work, somewhat 
in the shape of a taboot, with red, green, yellow, or white 
paper, ornamented with mica and tinsel, and this they term 
maynh-dee;^ within this they place a couple of plates, one 
containing huldeef to apply to the body. The other vmtynh- 
deeX for the hands and feet, and accompanied by a large 
concourse of people, relatives, and sumdeean (or the fathers 
and mother-in-law) as attendants, they proceed with music, 
such as baja, tasa (instruments of music), and knnch- 
neean kay nach (or the dance of dancing-girls), and with 
lighted torches, and fireworks, to the house of the bride. 
They also convey along with the above, on separate trays, 
mulleeda flowers, betel leaves, sundul, and two or four § 
phials of a red dye, made of shuhab (or safilower) to sprinkle 

* It is esteemed a highly unpropitious circumstance, if any call this 
fkbric by the name of taboot, which in fact it is, since that term is 
solely applicable to a bier. 

t i. e. Huldee (turmeric), triturated with water. 

} Maynh-dee, i.e. the leaves of the Maynh-dee-tree (Lawsonia spi- 
nosa, Lin. or Eastern privet), together with a little catechu, areca-nut 
and the stalks of betel-leaves : triturated with rice gruel, or water. 

§ Not three, as that is an unpropitious number. 

Sect. 4. MARRIAGE. 103 

on the body, and over these they hold a red mundup 
(or canopy), that is, a square piece of cloth fastened by its 
corners to four poles carried by men. SJiould they have a 
shahmeeana (or canopy) of velvet, broad-cloth, or chintz, 
they carry the phials, &c. under them. On their arrival at the 
bride''s, the women proceed, as they are wont, to the female 
assembly, while the men remain in company with the men. 

Among female, as well as male sumdeea7is, a number of 
tricks are frequently played at dinner; such as, for in- 
stance, a dish full of bones, witli a little polaoo over them, 
is set before a person, who unthinkingly dips his fingers 
into what he conceives to be polaoo; when, behold, he 
finds it to be a plate of bones ; upon which the bride's party 
facetiously observe to him, " Why, what a glutton you 
" must be, to have finished already, and to have filled 
" your plate with bones, while the rest of the company 
" have scarcely begun.'" 

Previous to sitting down to dinner, the men and women 
have some choha and shtcrbiit, served up to them. The 
choba^ is a dish of meetha polaoo, with tlie dried kernel of 
the cocoa-nut, dates, and almonds cut into thin slices, 
mixed together, and covering it over : it is brought on a plate 
and handed round; and after giving the guests a draught 
of shurbut, they taste a little of the choba. On this occa- 
sion, one of the bride's relations also winds a long piece of 
tliread round the point of his fore-finger, and dippino- it 
into the choba, begs of one of the sumdeeans to allow him 
to feed him. On swallowing the morsel, the end of the 
thread goes along with it, when the feeder withdrawing 
his finger, and displaying to the company the ridiculous 

The term choba, in this case, is applied (o the mixture, but is 
properly the name of any of the three fruits cut into thin slices. 

104 MARRIAGE. Chap XIV. 

sight as of a fish hooked, calls out, " Look here, gentle- 
" men, this man's intestines are all coming out !'' which, of 
course, excites a vast deal of laughter among them; and in 
this way they play off many such jokes, merely for the 
sake of amusement. 

After dinner the men retire to their houses, while the 
women call the bride to them, and with their own hands 
apply the maynh-dee to her hands and feet (i. e. to the 
inside of the hands and nails of the fingers, and to the 
soles of the feet and nails of the toes), and the hiildee to 
her body. Sometimes they rub her body also with chiksa 
(Glossary). The ingredients are pounded, mixed with a 
little water, and rubbed in the same manner as Moosul- 
mans are wont to rub themselves in bathing. On every 
occasion where chiksa is used, it is employed in the above 
way. There are women who go about vending chiksa, 
ready pounded and prepared, folded up in paper; while 
druggists, or shopkeepers, have the different articles for it 
in their natural state for sale. 

If the people be poor, they carry the mulleeda flowers, 
betel, &c. in trays, ^the two phials of red dye, and the 
saucers containing the huldee^ and 'maynh-dee,^s'\ih a canopy 
held over them, without the 7nayn]i-dee (or taboot), accom- 
panied, as above-mentioned, with men and women, music, 
dancing-girls, lighted torches, &c. 

The next day, in the same manner as the huldee and 
maynh-dee came from the bridegroom's to the bride's, it is 
carried from her house to his When the bride's-women 
come to apply maynh-dee to the bridegroom, the bride- 
groom"'s salee (sister-in-law), or, in her absence, any near 
relative, comes with them. If a younger sister-in-law, she 
stands before the bridegroom without the intervention of a 
skrecn, and makes all sorts of fun with him. If an elder 

Sect. 4. MARRIAGE. 105 

sister-in-law, she stands before him with a curtain held 
between them, and having applied the maynh-dee she 
catches hold of his finger; then the bridegroom's mother, 
sister, &c., by putting into the salees lap a nuqday ka jora, 
a cholee, or daoonee, get her to liberate his finger. It is 
necessary on that day to give to the salee a suit of clothes 
conformable to the means of the parties. 

Sect. 5. Concerning Paoon Minut or Paoon Mayz, or the 

measuring for the Bride and Bridegroom's Wedding 


The wedding garments of the bride are provided by the 
bridegroom's parents, and his by her's, each according to 
their means. 

For the purpose of taking the measure for them, they 
send from the house of the one to that of the other, a tailor 
accompanied by an old woman, a red thread, some pan-soo- 
paree and sugar carried in trays, attended with music. 
While the tailor stands without, the old dame goes in, and 
with the red thread measures the bride for a cholee, koorta, 
peshwaz (alias tilluck), soorwal, a pair of shoes, &c. and 
having given the measure to the tailor, they both return 
with the music to the bridegroom's house. The tailor him- 
self takes the measure of the clothes for the bridegroom, 
consisting of a jama, neema, paee jama, &c. In some 
countries the tailor does not go to the bride's house, but 
Avomen go and bring the measure to him. 

At the time of taking the measure they apply sundul to 
the tailor's neck, throw garlands of flowers over his head, 
and give him (independently of the established hire, which 
he receives afterwards) one seer and a quarter of unboiled 
rice, some dal (a kind of pulse) and goor (or jaggree), to- 
gether with a few (lit. two or four) pice ; in order that 

106 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

he may bless them for their liberality, and being pleased, 
be induced to execute his commission to the entire satisfaction 
of the parties. 

The bridegroom's clothes are sewed at the bride's house, 
and vice versa. The clothes at the bridegroom's house, 
when ready, are despatched with the burree* to the bride; 
and those at that of the bride's, with the jay hex f to the 

Sect. 6. Concerning the Ceremonies observed on the Shub- 
gusht Day, viz. 1. The custom of depositing the Kulus 
kay Mat {water-pot) under the shed. — 2. The method of 
painting the Tail ghurray {oil-pots). — 3. The fashion of 
making the Mundway kay Beebeean (ladies of the shed). 
4. The forms attending the conveyance of the bride- 
groom's Burree {wedding gifts) to the bride. — 5. Th£ 
mode of carrying the bride''s Jayhez (h'idal parapher- 
nalia) to the bridegroom'^s house. — 6. The ceremony of 
Jhol phorana (breaking open the pots). — 7. The manner 
of beating the Putkay chawul (virgin rice). — 8. Tie obser- 
vance of the rite Tail churhana (raising the oil-pots). 
9. The Shub-gusht (nocturnal perambulation). 

1. Kulus kay mat. Previous to the commencement of 
the marriage ceremonies, a mundiva (or pandaul, alias a 
shed) is erected in the houses of both the bride and bride- 
groom ; under which, on the burree-day, it is customary, 
about six or seven o'clock in the morning, to place a couple 
of red kulus kay mat or water-pots.J These are filled with 
water, besmeared with sundul, and placed on the sand in 
the shed, at the right-hand side of the house. Thev also 

• Vide p. 109. t Vide p. 116. 

t And are removed, Vide, chap. xiv. sect. 9. 

Skct. 6. MARRIAGE. 107 

scatter on the sand four or five kinds of grain, in order that 
these may germinate, as emblematic of their good wishes 
that the newly-married couple may in like manner be 
flourishing and productive. The kulus kay mat is in some 
countries called jhol kay ghurray; into these, instead of 
water, is put duhee (curdled milk) and large sohaleean 
(cakes), and having covered their mouths with red cloth, 
they reserve them for future use. 

2. The custom of painting the tail ghurray (oil-pots). 
Previous to the fateeha of the mu7idway kay heeheean, at 
about eight or nine o''clock in the forenoon, five sohaginan 
women commence besmearing small red tail ghurray (or oil- 
pots), seven in the bridegroom's and nine in the bride's 
house, with sundul. This being done, they tie a red thread 
round the necks of the vessels, put into each of them some 
chiksa powder and some buri'a (cakes) and close their mouths 
with sohaleean (thin wheaten cakes) fastened on by means of 
red thread. These pots are also placed with tlie rest of the 
things to be used at the oblation to take place at the ensuing 

3. It is the custom to make, both at the houses of the 
bride and bridegroom, what they call mimdway* kay bee- 
beean (lit. ladies of the pandaul or shed). The particulars 
of the ceremony are as follow. On the burree-day, about 
ten o"'clock in the forenoon, they take some dal, boiled rice, 
duhee, ghee, poorean, mat kee bhajee, sugar, and shurbut 
(among the poor, together with the wedding dresses and 
ornaments intended for the opposite party), and having 
oS&ceA fateeha over these, in the name, first, of his highness 
and all the other prophets, then of their deceased ancestors, 

♦ So named because the cere inony is observed under the laundwdy 
<or shed). 

108 IMARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

and those married women of the house who are defunct 
and their husbands left widowers, they distribute them 
among the men. Some of this food is dispatched from the 
house of the bridegroom to the bride, and vice versa, accom- 
panied with music, and is termed juti-bhat, mundway kay 
heeheean kay khana, and sheesh kay hasnn. 

They further take five or seven plates of the above food, 
and having separately offered fateeha over them, in the 
name of Beebee-Fateematooz-Zohura (Fatima the beautiful, 
the daughter of the prophet Mohummud Moostaffa) distri- 
bute it among women of high rank and noble birth ; honour- 
able women, who have been faithful to their husbands ; and 
these are called Beehee ka basun (or Samik) khanay walay 
(i. e. partakers of the lady's, Beebee Fateema's, dish). It is 
on no account allowed to be indiscriminately dispensed 
among women : others being supplied with the food which 
remains, vi'iihout fateeha having been offered over it. 

Moreover, it is customary among some women to place 
along with the oKher fateeha things, a red earthen cup con- 
taining some slaked lime. All these are arranged on one or 
two new mats edged with red tape. The fateeha being 
concluded, the above-mentioned ladies, who have fasted all 
that day, each one having first dipped either once or twice 
the tip of the fore-finger of her right hand into the lime and 
licked it, proceeds to partake of the oth«r eatables. On the 
day of making the mu7idivay kay beebeeati, either before or 
after fateeha is offered, they spread a red cloth on the carpet, 
and having tied red thread round the neck and handle of a 
chukkee (a handmill), and marked it with szindttlall round, 
they place it on the carpet, and seven sohagin women in the 
bridegropm''s, and nine in the bride's mundwa, sing chukkee- 
namu {i. e. some song which they are in the habit of 
singing at weddings, when grinding with the hand-mill) 

Sect. 6. MARRIAGE. IO9 

and pound chiksa. When ready, they tie up some of the 
chiksa in a corner of the daoonee, of each sohagin woman, 
put a Httle of it into the tail ghurray, and apply it to the 
bride and bridegroom The bride's party put some of it into 
boxes or paper parcels, and keep it in their singardan, 
which is given with the jayhez paraphernalia. The cere- 
mony is termed chukkee tiowree.'^ 

4. The btirree-f apparatus, in addition to the wedding- 
dress (already alluded to), together with some jewels (more 
or less,| according as the husband or his parents can afford 
them), consists of the imdermentioned eatables placed on 
brass dishes or wooden platters, viz. sugar-candy, soft- 
sugar, almonds, dates, pistachio-nuts, filberts, walnuts, 
raisins, poppy-seed, nariel, khopra, plenty of pmi-sooparee^ 
sweetmeats, sugar-cane, and sohogpoora {i. e. a piece of red 
paper folded up containing a bit of nutmeg, mace, a clove 
or two, some catechu and poppyseed and a rupee, having 
externally a piece of mica conforming to the size of the 
parcel fastened on to it with red thread) ; also lutkun 
muhbun^ or a silk twist with two or four silk tassels sus- 
pended to it for the bride's choontee (head-ornament), like- 
wise flowers, and a flower chonda (for the hair braided on 
the top of the head) ; and lastly a kunggun (bracelet). At 
about fotir or five in the afternoon they carry these, accom- 
panied by a number of people, including all the relatives 

* Women esteem these customs most sacred ; nay, even more so 
than the Qoraii and Huddees. It is owing to the ignorance and 
foolishness of these people, that they have been established in Hin- 
doostan ; in Arabia, Persia and other countries, they are entirely un- 
knoAvn, According to the Qoran and Huddees, they are innovations 
and consequently unlawful. 

t The Burree ceremony, seems in some part of the country, to be 
denominated Sachuq. Vide Mrs. Meer, vol. i. p. 371. 

J Any selected from among those contained in the list of them. 
Vide Appendix. 

110 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

and friends (except the bridegroom and his parents) as 
marriage attendants, with bands of music consisting of 
haja hajuntur, tasa murfa, (musical instruments), &;c. 
playing, halting every now and then to look at the per- 
formance of the dancing-girls, and thus they proceed to the 
bride's house, the women in carriages, meeanas (a kind of 
palankeen), either preceding or following the procession. 

If the people are wealthy, the above fruits &c. (except 
the sugar-cane,) instead of being carried on trays, are put 
into innumerable earthen pots fancifully painted with va- 
rious devices on them in different colours (by Moochee-men), 
and are called sachuq hay mutkeean.'^' Nay, some have 
them conveyed on elephants, camels, bullocks, or carts. 

On the arrival of the different articles, they are, in the 
first place, exhibited one after the other to some of the 
bride''s relatives, and then delivered over. 

After that a very grand and sumptuous entertainment is 
given to all the people ; i. e. according to their means. 
Some dismiss the marriage attendants by merely offering 
them shurbut, pan, and flowers. 

Some people performing burree, jayhe.z, and shub-gusht 
all in one day, give only one entertainment in the evening, 
called the shub-gusht-di\xmev ; and the same evening they 
also perform on both bride and bridegroom, the ceremonies 
of tail churhana and also that oi put ke chawiil cJihurana. 

The description of a Moosulman dinner party, whether 
among the rich or poor, is as follows : 

Having spread in the dewan-khana-f or in the house a 
carpet more or less rich, or simply a cloth, on the floor, 
the company take off their shoes outside of the door, and 

• Or, the Maynhdee pots, so called because the latter accompany 
the former. t A public room detached from the house. 


as they enter, call out Us-sulam-oon~ally-koom or (" peace be 
unto you.") It is not customary, and it is even disrespectful, 
to go in with their shoes ; and moreover it is a sin to eat with 
shoes on. The landlord, or any other present, replies, wo ally 
koom-oos sulam (" and unto you be peace") ; and if they be 
particular friends or men of rank, enquires after their welfare: 
they then take their seat* next the wall, close to one another. 
After this, two servants in attendance, one with a basin in 
his hand, the other with an ewer of water, serve the quests 
with it to wash their hands ;t commencing Avith the seniors, 
they all wash either one or both hands as they please. This 
office concluded, the servants proceed to lay a dusterkhwan 
of white cloth or chintz, in front of the guests, on the 
carpet; leaving the latter uncovered in its centre; after 
which they arrange the dinner on it ; viz. plates containing 
polaoo, feerneBi and roteean (unleavened bread), cups with 
curries, saucers with chutnee and kuhab, placing each one's 
share (or tora, as it is termed) before him. This being done, 
the landlord, or the senior present, calls out bismilla (as 
much as to say, " commence") ; " eat," for Moosulmans 
never partake of a morsel without first uttering the word 
bismilla (lit. in the name of God), meaning to say, " I 
commence in the name of God." After this they commence 
eating, and that with the right hand, without the use of 
spoons or knives and forks. They loath eating with the 
left hand, as that hand is employed by them for ablution 
after visiting tlie temple of Cloacina. During the repast. 

* Of course on the ground, with their leg's crossed ; as is customary 
for natives to sit. 

t An act of cleanliness indispensable, where the hands are used 
instead of spoons or knives and forks. In eating, men of rank have 
a sen'ant standing on each side of them to wipe their hands each time 
that they take a mouthful. 

112 MARRIAGE. Chap XIV. 

two or three of the relatives act as szirburans (or stewards), 
and supply what is wanted, while some are in waiting with 
gugglets* (goblets) and cups-f- to help any one that chooses 
to water. These stand in the centre of the dining room. 
Dinner being finished, and the plates removed,;]: the basin 
and ewer are again brought, and the guests wash their 
hands as before ; but, using baysu7i,§ instead of soap, which 
is an excellent substance for removing the grease from the 
hands ; if this cannot be got, they wash in pure water. But 
previous to washing the hands, it is the command of the 
prophet to lick the fingers : however, very few adhere to 
this precept. The nobility generally have two dewati- 
khanas ; (one in which the company is received), the other 
in which the dinner is laid out ; and when ready, the land- 
lord respectfully says to the company, " let us withdraw" 
(i. e. to the dinner room). If there be a numerous party, 
first, part of them wash their hands and sit down to dinner ; 
when these have done, the others follow the same practice. 
When dinner is over, they who please retire to the dewari- 
khana^ where they first assembled. Here they spend the 
time in conversation, reciting pieces of Hindoostanee or 
Persian poetry, puzzling each other with riddles, composing 
acrostics, &c. 

Of the latter I shall present a few specimens. 

• Vulgo gogglets. 

t Several drink out of the same cup, which is washed out a little, 
after every time that one has drunk. 

t They repeat aloud, or whisper or say silently in their hearts, the 
words Alkumd-o-lillah, " Praise be to God," or Shookr-e-khodUy 
" thanks" or " gratitude to God," or some other jjrayer, by way of 
grace after meat. 

§ Baysun, powder oichunna (or Bengal horse-gram), oimoong ke dal 
(green gram, phaseolusradiatus, Lin.) oi toozvur kee dal (pigeon-bean, 
citysus cajan, Lin.) or of maash (black ulandoo, phaseolus max willd). 

Sect. 6. MARRIAGE. 113 


A well that won't admit a haii", 
And yet all animals drink there : 
Not those, indeed, that fly in air, 
But elephant, camel, man, and mare. 

Ansiver. " The nipple." 
What is it that's round and runs about. 
With two livinji^ names though life without; 
He's an ass (khur) who does not find it out, 
Nay, even a goat (booz*) his wit would scout. 

Answe7: " A musk-melon {khur-hooz.)"' 

A pair of pigeons, black and wliite. 
Asunder always in their flight; 
And tliough they range around the sky. 
Yet from their cage they never fly. 

Ansiver. " Day and Night." 
There is a place I know full well. 
Where lifeless persons only dwell, 
In war 'tis peopled ev'ry rood, 
In peace a desert solitude. 
Ansiver. " A Chess-board, with its men, elephants, camels," &c. 

I saw two husbands with one wife 
'Twixt whom was no discord or strife ! 
But both the men from her were sprung-, 
'Tis therefore fit they should be one. 
Ansiver. " A Quilt, consisting of two folds of cotton cloth stitched 
together, with raw cotton betwixt them ; the two first being formed 
of the same material as the latter, they are therefore all of one caste." 

W ise king, thy gracious countenance I claim, 


N ow, if you take a letter from each line, 
E re long, my heart's desire you will divine. 

Answer. " Wine." 

• In Persian khur means an ass, and booz a goat, which together 
make kkur-booz, a musk-melon. 

114 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

Double Entendbes. 

What is it? It is abundant in creation, 
And I've seen it. An elephant mounted on a horse. 

Answer. " A Rubber for a horse, termed Hathee.*" 

Paper which is straight, they term Tno ; (crooked). 
To a poor sing-er who sings well, they say Gao (a cow). 
The moon is single, yet they call it Chund (many). 
To a boat which is coming, they call out Nu Ao (don't come).t 

That they cook a fowl (jhar pui'X) on a tree, is known to all in 

the town ; 
Tell me friend, what is it that has two legs upon its head? (Sir pur 

do pa' on ?)§ 
The teeth of the mountains were set on edge by the eating of betel, 
Which caused the sea to smile on the beard of the firmament.H 

Dancing girls are also frequently in attendance to entertain 
the guests with their performances, while the hooqqa (Indian 
pipe), and cheroots (segars) are presented to regale them ; 

* HatJiee means both an elephant and a hair-cloth glove, used in 
rubbing down a horse. 

t Tao, also signifies " a sheet (of paper)." Gao, is the Persian 
for " a cow ;" but in Hindoostanee means " sing." In Hindoostanee, 
chand signifies " the moon," and in Persian, chund " many." 

X Jhar signifies "having plucked," as well as " a tree," andjO?<r> 
means "the feathers" as well as " o?i." 

§ Sir, a head ; jmr, featliers ; and do paon, two legs. 

II The lal (or redness) («) of a sweetheart's teeth was so bright, that 
when compared to the lal (or ruby) produced on mountains, the latter 
looked dim. The sea smiled on the beard (that is, the rays) of the 
sun, and observed to him, that its "water" produced a brighter red (5) 
than his "heat."(c) 

(«) Occasioned by the chewing oi pan, or betel-leaves. 

{b) Alluding to the betel-leaf being nourished by water. 

((■) Which they conceive to be the cause of the production of rubies. 

skct.g. marriage. 115 

and in the mean time pan-sooparee, tobacco, flowers, and 
uttur are handed round, and rose-water sprinkled over 
them. After sitting for an hour or two (lit. two or four 
ghurrees), they go home. On retiring, the senior guest, 
addressing the host, says, " Be pleased to (or will you) 
" give us leave, (or permission to depart) ?" adding, " may 
" God bless and prosper you ! I have made a hearty 
" meal, or dined heartily (orig. eaten a bellyful)." To 
which the other replies : " It is the will of God and Mo- 
hummud," (i. e. not mine ;)" or, " very well :"" " certainly." 
Then the whole company rise, calling out, " Us sulamoon 
ally koom /" (Peace be unto you) and take their departure. 

Should any one, through indisposition, or unavoidable 
accident, be obliged to leave the party, he gets up, makes 
his apology to the host, takes leave as above, and with- 

As the men are entertained in the male assembly, so the 
women, who come from the bridegroom, are treated, in like 
manner, in the female party ; with this exception, that there 
are no dancing-girls, and no smoking, or use of tobacco 
takes place. 

When the female guests, whether of the bride's or bride- 
groom's party, enter, and leave tlie house, a lady stands at 
the door of the room, and puts into the mouth of each, as 
she passes her, a bit of sugar-candy, and applies a little 
siindul to her neck, while two others hold a red cloth as a 
canopy over her head, a white or red chandnee (cloth) 
being previously spread on the ground for her to walk on, 
extending from the door of the house to the place where 
they sit. This is likewise sometimes done, though very 
rarely, among men. 

At the time of washing the hands of the near relatives 
of the bride and bridegroom, male or female, the servants 

T 9 

116 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

supply them with shurhut, instead of pure water; and 
while washing, they drop a rupee, an eight or four anna 
piece, or a ring into the basin, for the attendants. 

Women of the lower class, on entering the female assem- 
bly, must not say, " sulam ;"" if the hostess be a lady of 
rank, they perform qudumbosee (the ceremony of kissing the 
feet *) to her, and merely make sulam to the rest. When 
going away, they request permission in the same Avay as the 
men, and then take their departure. The men of the better 
ranks of society, however, when coming in and going away, 
say, " sulam hundugee, tusleemat,-f according to the rank 
of the lady of the house. I may remark here, that the 
sulam made by females, is not like that of the males, touch- 
ing the forehead with the right hand, but it consists in 
touching the puttee (or hair above the right temple). 

In the evening of the hurree-dsiy , abundance of pro- 
vision, consisting of polaoo, curries, &c., accompanied with 
music, is sent from the bride's people for the bridegroom, 
and the food is termed rnnghurree ka kliana. 

5. The next day they carry the jayhexX (or bridal para- 
phernalia), from the bride's house to that of the bride- 

If the carrying of the jayhe% take place on the day 

• Or rather, touch her feet with the riglit hand, and then kiss the 
latter or, more generally, make sulam with it; while her ladyship, 
scarce allowing- it to be done, out of politeness and condescension 
withdraws her foot, and, taking hold of her hands, says, "nay, don't 
do that ;" or, " enough ;" " long may you live ;"' " come, be seated." 
Or, if she be married, "may God render your sohag durable" {i.e. 
may God preserve your husband). If he be dead, " may God cause 
your end to be happy." 

+ i. e. My " blessing" " service" or " salutation to you." 
t BlaynJtdcc would seem to be the term applied in some parts of 
Hindoostan, to the jayhez paraphernalia. Vide Mrs. Meer's Obs. 
vol. i. 377- 

Skct. g. marriage. 117 

following that of the hurree, it is on the jayhe.z-day that, 
in the bride's house, they perform the ceremonies of placing 
the water-pots, painting the oil-pots, and making the mund- 
way ladies, as before described ; and some of the food of 
the mtmdway ladies, accompanied with music, is also sent 
to the bridegroom for his dinner. On the jayhez-Aay, her 
qoran (if she have one), is first forwarded, accompanied with 
music ; then, about four o'clock in the afternoon, the fol- 
lowing bridal paraphernalia, viz. 

A sayhra of iHoqei6h,* and one of flowers,-j- or only one of 
flowers, (i.e. a garland tied round the head, and hanging 
down to the knees). 
The bridegroom's wedding dress; consisting of a red pugree, 
or turban ; a red mundeel, a cord of silk and gold, or 
only of gold thread, rolled over the turban ; a red jama, 
a very loose garment worn over the neenia ; a red neema, 
or a garment, half as loose as the jama ; a red shal, or 
shawl; a red doputta, (lit. two breadths). It is like the 
next article, but of double the breadth, and is thrown over 
the shoulder ; a red putka., a cloth worn round the 
waist; a xedromal, or handkerchief; a red eezar, or 
long drawers, with its nara or band ; a red jootee ka 
jora, or pair of shoes ; a red kunggiin, an ornament con- 
sisting of a red thread tied round the wrists of the bride 
and bridegroom; a red pVioohoojignee, any sweet-scented 
flower enclosed in a piece of cloth for the bride to smell ; 
and two red (or koossoom, safflower coloured) romal, or 
handkerchiefs to wave over the bridegroom. 
A quantity of the bride's clothes which have been worn. 

• Moqeish, (gold or silver thread). 

t If XhQ jayhez and slmlgusht take place on diflerent days, l>oth 
snyltrns arc sent on the latter day, as otherwise tlic flowers \\()iild fade. 

118 MARRIAGE. Chap. X[V^ 

A Sohogpoora. (vide Glossary). 

Jewels ; if among the rich, a considerable number ; if among 
the poor, in value according to their means. For the 
nose, a nuth, a large ring worn on the left nostril, of 
gold ; and a hoolaq, a ring worn on the centre cartilage 
of the nose, of gold. For the neck, a hichcha, a necklace 
worn tight round the neck, of gold and glass beads, and 
a neembolee (alias JmllaJi), one ditto hanging down. For 
the wrists, a hungreean ha jora, a set of bracelets of 
coloured glass. For the fingers, an iinggothee, or ring, 
of gold or silver. For the thumb, an ungooshtmi (thumb- 
ring) of the same metal. For the toes, an anwut, a ring 
furnished with little bells, worn on the great toe, of silver, 
and a bich/nvay, one without bells for the other toes, of 

A Singardan (reticule or toilet-bag, if I may so call it) of 
chintz, velvet, &c. containing, a. pandcm^ a box of gold, 
silver, copper, or brass, for holding betel and its appen- 
dages ; a choiv-ghiirray, a small box of gold or silver, 
with four partitions for holding spices, vix. cloves, carda- 
moms, nutmegs, mace, &c. ; an aeetia, or looking-glass ; 
a kwiggy, or comb of wood ; a meesee-dan, a box of gold, 
silver, copper, or brass, for holding meesee (or powder 
made of vitriol) ; a soorma-dan, a similar box for holding 
soorma,* generally considered to be antimony, but what 
is used in India is an ore of lead ; a kajuldan (alias kujlo- 
tee), a box for holding kajiil (or lampblack), of gold or 
silver, with its sulaee (or probe) of gold or silver ; an 
utturdan, a vial for containing uUilt (or otto of roses), 
lit. uttur-box, a receptacle for uttur ; a golabpash, a bottle 
of glass, gold, or silver, out of which rose-water is 

• i. e. Collyriura for staining the eye, to give it a brilliant ap- 
pearance. — (vide Glossary). 

Skct. n, MARRIAGE. II9 

sprinkled ; a jeeh ch'hihiee, or tongue-scraper, of gold or 

An Asmangeeree, oftafta, chheet, or k'^hariva ; or a chandnee 
of white cloth (a canopy or cloth fastened to the ceiling) ; 
a deewargeeree, tapestry or cloth to adorn a wall ; apurda, 
or curtain ; a jae-tiumaz, a cloth, &c. on which they per- 
form their devotions; a shutrunjee {aWas Jamkhatia or a 
large carpet) ; a dusturkhwan, a substitute for a table- 
cloth, which is spread on the ground ; a khwan-jiosh 
(or tora-posh), a cloth for covering a tray, a tray-lid, a 
cloth covering for dishes; a sur-posh, a lid for any 
vessel, as a cup, dish, &c. ; a hoqcha, a cloth for wrapping 
others in. 

Furnitures, vis;, a Pullung, bedstead or cot, with its appen- 
dages, vi%. a toshick, or mattress ; a tukeea, or pillow ; 
agirday (alias ^?// tukeeci), a small round pillow laid under 
the cheek; a pullutig-posli {corrixp. palampore), a cover- 
let, a counterpane ; a ruzaee, a quilt ; a sayjbund, silk 
cords, with gold or silver tassels to them, for fastening 
the mattress to the bedstead ; a galeecha, a small carpet 
spread near the bed ; agadee, a thin mattress, or any thing 
stuffed, spread on the galeecha, to sit or lie on ; a chowkee, 
or stool ; a snndooq, a chest or trunk of wood ; a sun- 
dooqcha, a box of the same ; a payfara, a large rattan close 
basket ; a jjaytaree, a small one ; a jamdanee, a sort of 
leathern portmanteau ; a haylun, a rolling-pin ; a putra, 
board on which dough is kneaded and moulded ; a sundnl 
ka k'hor, a piece of the heart (core) of sandal-wood ; a 
sundlasa,* a flat circular stone on which the sandal-wood 
is triturated or ground down ; a sayweean ka tukhta, a 
board for making sayweean (or vermicelli) on. 

• The stone being too insignificant an article, is not sent with the 
rest ; but fiirnislied afterwards. 

120 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

Utensils, viz. a Dayg, a copper caldron ; a doygcha, a sn.all 
one of the same metal; a kufgeer, an iron skimmer per- 
forated with holes, like a colander ; a tambtikhs, a large 
copper spoon, to serve out rice with ; a sheen, a copper 
cover for pots; a lunggree, a large shallow „pan, used for 
kneading dough, and at meals for serving rice, &c. ; 
a luggnn, a large flat, hollow, copper utensil, in the form 
of a basin ; a thnlay, a small flat copper dish ; a tubiiq, a 
large brass one ; raykaheean, copper saucers ; a hadeea, 
copper bowls; salun kay kntoray, copper curry- cups; 
tushtureean, small copper-plates ; a chumcka, a copper 
spoon; a tiimhaloo (alias lota), a copper or brass pot for 
holding water ; a chillumchee (alias sylabchee) a copper or 
brass wash-hand basin ; an aftaha, or ewer of the same 
metal ; a sorahee, or goblet (gugglet or goglei) of kala- 
just (blende) ; a panee ka kutora, or drinking-cup, of 
copper or kala just; ak'/iopni cJihilnay kee chowkee or 
an instrument of iron for rasping the kernel of the cocoa- 
nut ; SLpooreean kay choontee, or a pair of pincers for or- 
namenting pooreeans (a kind of cakes); a peekdan or 
oogaldan, a spittoon of gold, silver, copper, brass, or 
vidry ; a shuma, or a lamp of brass or kussund ; an ood 
huttee ka ek-a, a receptacle for pastils, of brass or kus~ 
sutid ; a pa/A;ee, or palankeen ; a. bandee, or female slave; 
a golam, or male slave ; a horse, cow, buffalo, goat, 
sheep, &c. 
They tie a red thread to each of the above articles, with 

the exception of the animals, and mark it with sundul, 

putting into each utensil a pan ka beera (or mouthful of 

betel), prepared for mastication. 

Each person gives a greater or smaller number of the 

articles contained in the above list, as his means will allow. 
As was done with respect to the burree apparatus, so 

Sect. 6. MARRIAGE. 121 

these articles are in like manner carried with a similar train, 
accompanied with music, &c., and attended by all the rela- 
tives (save the bride herself and her parents), and friends, 
(as marriage attendants) are taken to and delivered at the 
bridegroom's house, where both men and women are simip- 
tuously entertained, as has been minutely detailed on the 
burree occasion. 

As on the burree evening, jiolaoo, &c. were sent from 
the bride's house to the bridegroom's, so likewise on the 
jayhex evening, polaoo and curries, &c. are despatched from 
the bridegroom to the bride. The latter, as well as the 
former, is termed o'ungbitrree ka Whana. 

The jayhez (or the above paraphernalia), remains the 
bride's property as long as she lives. In the event of her 
dying childless, her nearest of kin may claim it. But if 
she have children, it becomes their property. 

6. Jholphorna, i. e. about three o'clock in the afternoon 
of the shubgusht-day, having decked out the bridegroom's 
sister in a new suit of clothes, they get her to perform jAoZ 
phorana ; which consists in her forcibly pressing on the 
cloth tied over the mouth of the jhol kay ghurray (or 
pots) before-mentioned (mrfe p. 107.),Avhich being rent, and 
her hand getting into the contents of the pot, she tastes a 
little of the duhee (curdled milk), herself, and then dis- 
tributes the rest amongst the people. The same ceremony 
is performed by the bride's sister in the bride's house. The 
pots are left where they were unwashed. 

The shubgusht invitations being issued, and the guests 
assembled at the bridegroom's house, the men are enter- 
tained with kliara pohtoo from three in the afternoon till 
dusk ; and the women in the female apartment in the 
evening. After dinner, the latter go to the bride's house, 
and perform on her the ceremony of 

122 MARRTAGE. Chap. XIV. 

7. Put hay chawul chhurana (or winnowing the rice of 
chastity, or virgin-rice). 

They put a seer and a quarter of unboiled rice into a red 
handkerchief, and with a moosul (or long heavy wooden 
pestle, in use in clearing rice from the husk), to which a betel- 
leaf parcel, tied with a red thread, nara* is attached, all the 
women, together with the bride, go through the sham ope- 
ration of beating it; at the same time singing some song 
usually sung on such occasions. 

8. Afterwards, the ceremony of tail churhana is per- 
formed : that is, they put the seven empty tail ghiirray 
(oil-pots) painted by the ladies, together with an arrow 
having a jmn kee heeree and a sohalee fastened to it with red 
thread, into a basket ; also a small piece of sugar-candy 
wrapped up in a betel leaf, and a little meesee tied up in 
paper, and some sweet oil, or scented oil, in cups. But pre- 
vious to transporting these to the bride's place, the ladies rub 
a little meesee on the bridegroom''s teeth, and give him the 
sugar-candy mentioned above, to hold between his teeth for 
a few minutes, apply a little of the oil to his forehead, and 
then placing the cups on trays with the above meesee and 
sugar-candy, carry them, accompanied by music, to the 
bride's house. On their arrival there, having brought the 
bride out under the shed, and seated her on a stool, they 
hold a red handkerchief over her head in the form of a 
canopy ; and first of all any old so/? a^iw- woman takes up, 
with the tip of her fore-finger, two or three times, some of 
the meesee^ and applies it to the bride's teeth, and then 
makes her rinse her mouth : the reason of which is, that the 

• By Mrs. Meer's account, it appears that it is the office of the elder 
of the house to tie the nai'a (which is a cord of many threads, dyed 
red and yellow) to the moosul on this occasion. (Vol. i. p. 391.) 'I'he 
custom, Mrs. M. remarks, is altogether of Hindoo origin. 

Skct. r». MARRIAGE. I03 

bride may become as old a sohagm-woman as herself: and 
all the other women in rotation take hold of the arrow with 
both hands, dip the end of it into the oil, and then apply it 
three times to her knees, shoulders, puttee (or hair over 
the temple), and forehead. They then place the oil-pots, 
four on the right side, and three on the left of the bride. 
A woman, standing on the right side, hands the four pots 
over the bride''s head to a woman on the left; and the latter, 
in like manner, hands over the three on the left side to the 
former. This operation is repeated three times. 

During the performance of all this, there are certain 
songs current among women which they sing. The bride 
holds between her teeth, during the ceremony of tail chur- 
hana, the piece of sugar-candy which the bridegroom had 
in his mouth (page 122) ; and after the ceremony is over 
she gives it to any child present. 

This rite being concluded, the bridegrooom's female 
friends go home, and the bride"'s proceed in the same manner 
to the bridegroom's, with the nine oil-pots painted by the 
sohagin-w omen at her house, together with the meesee, 
some of which they had applied to her teeth, and a bit of 
sugar-candy which she had held in her mouth, lift the 
oil-pots (as just described) apply the meesee, and make him 
hold the bride''s sugar-candy in his mouth. In short, they 
perform the same ceremonies to him as they did to the 

It is a general custom not to use meesee imtil a person, 
male or female, is married; it is therefore thought very im- 
proper to do so. Men, however, on being circumcised, 
necessarily apply it once (p. 44), on the day that they are 
adorned with flowers ; but females never use it before their 
wedding-day : and it is by the black mark in the crevices 
between the teeth, occasioned by the application of the meesee. 

124 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

that people generally distinguish whether a woman be mar- 
ried or not ; which circumstance as to men is not so easily 
discovered, since they never apply meesee to their teeth, 
except at their marriages;* (and at circumcision). 

At the houses of both the bride and bridegroom, the 
empty oil-pots, after one or two of the Fridays of the honey- 
moon, are given away to the aforesaid sohagin-womeu who 
painted them. 

In some countries, in order to perfonn tlie above ceremo- 
nies with the oil-pots, the latter are conveyed with the hurree 
and jayhez respectively. 

Among women of some of the castes, the two above cus- 
toms of put kay chaiviil cJihurana and tail churhana are 
considered of such consequence, that no marriage is thought 
to have been properly celebrated, and no woman is esteemed 
fit to move in genteel society, at whose wedding either of 
them has been omitted. 

Should the shuhgusht take place on a different day from 
that of hurree and jayhez^ after the ceremony of tail chtir- 
hana^ the flower and moqeish sayhra, mentioned in ihe jay- 
hex, and a flower pakliur-f for the horse, are despatclied 
with music to the bridegroom. 

9. The bridegroom''s shuhgusht, alias shuhurgusht alias 
suhurgusht (i.e. nocturnal, city, or dawn-of-day, perambu- 
lation) : — 

• Consequently their teeth are always clean. It is only hy enquiry 
that the circumstance can be ascertained. AVomen conceiving meesee 
to be a sig-n of being a sohag invariably use it, and a few men do the 
same. At the time of the cevevciOT\y oi tail chttrhana, at the bride's 
and bridegroom's, they also perform vhoivk lj/ui7'na, as described under 
the head of Imldee (p. 97). They never obser\e the former rite 
without the latter. 

t Pahlmr, literally an iron armour for the defence of a horse or 
elephant; but here alluding to an ornamental one made of flowers and 
thrown over the body of the bridegroom's horse. 

Skct. G. marriage. 125 

The night on which this takes place, justly deserves to be 
esteemed a grand one ; since the principal part of the nuptial 
ceremony then takes place. 

After the tail churhana, the bridegroom has himself 
shaved and bathes ; and if he wear long hair on his head, 
he has it fumigated with the smoke of ood {benjamin). 
After this, in tying on the turban, should any venerable 
old man of the family, whose wife is still living, be pre- 
sent, he makes two or three turnings with the end of it on 
his own head,* then removes and places it on that of the 
bridegroom, who finishes the winding of it on. Having 
then decked himself out with the rest of the wedding 
dress provided by the bride"'s friends, and having applied 
soorma to his eyes, meesee to his teeth, chewed betel, 
pasted afshan-f on his cheeks, put garlands of flowers 
round the neck, tied the golden and flower sayhra on the 
head, and thrown over the whole the 7nuqna\ (or veil), 
he is mounted on a horse, or seated in an ambareei^ and 
commences his tour after midnight, accompanied by a 
numerous throng of spectators, relatives, and friends. These 
carrying with him various descriptions of artificial trees, 
made of different kinds of coloured paper, bhe7id\\ and wax, 

• With this idea, that since he and his wife have lived for many 
years happily together, the new-married couple may do the same. 

t Shreds of moqeish or cloth woven with gold or silver thread, 
chipped very fine, or slips of gold or silver leaf pasted on with gum. 
This is properly a female ornament in use among the lower orders, 
but men are sometimes foolish enough to adopt it. 

X Among the great, one woven with golden thread ; among the 
poor, of red coarse muslin. 

§ Ambarce, a seat with a canopy placed on an elephant, in which 
they ride. 

II Bhend or Shola, netty shrub or pith (aeschynomene paludosa, 
Roxb.) the light, spungy, white, corky-looking wood of a handsome 
shrub, used in making artificial birds, flowers, toys, hats, turbans, &c., 
and to float nets. 

126 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

and ornamented with mica and xurwuruq (gold-leaf or 
tinsel), letting off fireworks of all sorts at intervals, proceed 
with flambeaux and lights placed in earthen cups fixed on 
ladders,* attended by dancing-girls, some on foot, others 
dancing in tukht-e-rowan (travelling thrones erected on 
platforms carried on men's shoulders), tasa miirfa, baja 
hujuntur, nuqara nowbut (bands of music of different 
descriptions), innumerable flags, sepoys, a great retinue 
with much pomp and state, like the splendid procession of a 
monarch, halting every now and then to witness the per- 
formance of the dancing-girls. He thus proceeds to the 
musjid (mosque), whence, having performed two rukat pray- 
ers and shookreea, he repairs to the bride's house, while a 
flower or paper umbrella, beautifully constructed, painted, 
and ornamented with mica, is whirled round over his head. 
On arriving at the bride's house, a general scramble for 
the araish (artificial trees, &c.) takes place among the 
persons who have accompanied him. Sometimes the person 
to whom they belong, prevents this frolic, and on the kung- 
gun-day carries them along with the bridegroom ; but on 
that day, they must be given up to be scrambled for; 
unless they be borrowed, in which case, of course, this 
does not happen. During the scramble, there is much 
bustle and confusion, shoving and pushing : some have their 
clothes torn, and others are thrown down as I myself have 
witnessed. After that, the bridegroom's ««/«, or some one 
of the bride's party if he be not present, holds a bamboo 
across the gate, for the purpose of obtaining the cThingana 
(vulgo dheegana or forfeit), and with the assistance of 
others, stands to oppose his entrance. In general they 
take with them a small earthen mutkee, either fancifully 

* Carried horizontallx'. 

Sect. 6. MARRIAGE. . 1«7 

painted or plain, (to receive the expected present) and 
demand the dliingana ; on which the bridegroom's party 
call out, " Pray who are you that dare thus obstruct the 
" king's cavalcade ?" To which the others reply, " Why, 
" at night so many thieves rove about, that it is very pos- 
" sible you are some of them." In short, in this way they 
hold a long jocular conversation together. Nay, at times, 
out of frolic, there is such pushing and shoving, that 
frequently many a one falls down and is hurt. At last they 
give them ten or twenty rupees (or two or four, in short 
something or other), according to their means, either drop- 
ping them into the above cThingana budhnee, or putting 
them into their hands, and thus gain admittance. In enter- 
ing the compound, one of the bridegroom's people takes 
him off his horse, and carries him in on his back. The slaves 
of both sexes of the bride's party again demanding a pre- 
sent, obstruct his passage in the area, and make a great deal 
of sport with the burden-carrier, to his no small annoyance. 
The bridegroom, out of pity toward the unfortunate fellow 
who bears him, consents to give something, and proceeds in. 
On entering the house, tlie bridegroom alone is borne by 
the man, who carries him to the door of the dwelling, or to 
the court-yard around it, where he stops. The women then 
holding up a curtain between, and one of them having 
brought the bride in her arms* to the other side of it, they 
put into her hands flowers, sugars, and unboiled rice, and 
direct her to throw them three times over the skreen, on the 
head of the bridegroom, who does the same to her. This 
ceremony being concluded, the bridegroom withdraws to 
the male dewankhana. 

• Or rather, the bride is seated astride on the woman's hip, with 
the arms of the latter around her waist, as is the general manner 
of nursing- amongst all classes of the natives of India. 

128 MARRIAGE. Chap. XI V^ 

Sect. 7. Concerning 1. Neekah,^ or the solemnization of 
Matrimony. 2, Joolwa, or the Jirst Interview of the 
new-married Couple. 

1. Neekah.'f Should the hour at which the bridegroom 
reaches the bride's house, after the preceding perambulation, 
be a propitious one, the neekah is immediately performed ; 
otherwise it is deferred to the fourth, or any other auspici- 
ous hour afterwards. In the latter case, the people all 
retire to their own homes, and are summoned at the ap- 
pointed time. At this juncture, should any thing in the 
bride appear objectionable to the bridegroom, the match 
may be dissolved. 

The qazee^ or his deputy, is generally present on these 
occasions ; if not, they send for either of them. Previous 
to commencing the reading of the neekah., the bricle''s people 
send a palkee (palanquin) accompanied by baja hvjunttir 
(musicians), for the bridegroom's mother ; or, in her absence, 
for his elder sister, maternal avmt, &c. and until their arri- 
val the solemnization of neekah does not take place. They 
then commence the business of neekah, cUscontinuing the 
music, dancing, &c. 

The qazee appoints two bearded individuals as witnesses 
on the side of the bridegroom, and desires them to go to the 
bride's party, and request them to issue orders regarding 

* Neekah and Shadee are often used synonymously; though in 
Bengal the former is only applied to a secondary kind of marriage, 
called half-marriage. By the ignorant, it is esteemed unlawful and 
disreputable, equivalent to keeping a mistress. Whereas, in reality, it 
is the foundation of matrimony, .?7i«c?ee signifying, and being merely the 
" rejoicings" on the occasion. 

t This ceremony of neekah would appear, by Mrs. Meer's statement, 
to be called, in that part of the country where she resided, hurat (as- 
signment). Because on that night the dowry is fixed, and generally the 
bridegroom takes his wife to his own home. Vol. i. p. 383. 

Sect. 7- MARRIAGE. 129 

the 7ieekah, and to state the nature of the nfiarriage portion. 
When these have carried the message, an absolute ivukeel 
(agent) appointed on the side of the bride, accompanies 
them back, to arrange the matter. On their return from 
the bride with the wukeel, her people dismiss them with a 
pankaheera (mouthful of betel) ; but, for the sake of diver- 
sion, they inclose the leaves of some tree or other in a betel- 
leaf, and fold it up in the form of a betel-parcel, and give 
it to them. Occasionally, at the time of so doing, the hus- 
band's brother-in-law with a leathern strap gives the wit- 
nesses two or three gentle stripes, observing to them that 
tliis is the punishment they deserve for giviiig false evidence. 
The qazee then repeats the same thing over to the wiikeel, 
who, either of his own accord, or as it is suggested to him 
by some clever old dame at the bride's house, says many 
witty things: e.g. that " the child's dowry is something 
" so considerable, that it is beyond the power of the bride- 
" groom to bestow it. But first deliver to me, as earnest- 
" money, the following articles, viz. twelve ships laden with 
" silk,tencamel-loads of needles, a couple of vessels freighted 
" with garlic and onion husks, fifty white elephants, and ten 
" lak'hs of gold mohurs : I shall then acquaint you with the 
" extent of the marriage-portion."" The qazee, on hearing 
this, enquires of the witnesses whether the statement of the 
wukeel be correct, or whether he has been bribed to speak 
thus in the bride's favour. The witnesses, though present 
at the conference, carry on the joke by saying, " He went 
" in behind the skreen, and had a private consultation ; so 
" that we carmot say but he may have been bribed." The 
qazee also, in return, sends back a jocular reply : such as, 
" Had I previously been avs^are of the circumstance, I 
" should have forwarded these articles with the burree 
" apparatus ; but since you have only now taken a fancy 



" to them, I shall forthwith dispatch paper dolls to procure 
" them, and the instant they arrive they shall be duly 
" weighed in a balance, having heaven and earth for its 
" scales and the wind for its weights, and safely delivered 
" over. In the mean time, however, it is necessary that 
" you inform us what the settlement is to be." 

After contesting the point in this way for awhile, a mar- 
riage-portion similar to that which the bride's mother or 
her father's sister may have had, being fixed upon, the 
qazee states the same to the bridegroom, and inquires whe- 
ther he be satisfied with it ; to which he replies, " Perfectly 
so." Some settle a larger, some a smaller dowry than this, 
just as the bridegroom may stipidate. Then the qa.^ee, 
having taken the muqna and sayhra (veils) off the face of 
the bridegroom, and thrown them over his head, before 
which period they were not allowed to be removed, makes 
him gargle his throat three times with water, and seating him 
with his face turned towards the (/i?>/a, requests him to repeat 
after him in Arabic : 1st. the usttig far (deprecation); 2d. 
the four qools (chapters of the Qoran commencing with the 
word qool, i.e. "say," y?"^. the 109th, 112th, 113th, and 
1 14th chapters); 3d. the five kulmay {creeds) ; 4th. the 
sift-e-eeman (articles of belief), vi%. belief, 1. in God ; 2. in 
his angels ; 3. in his scriptures ; 4. in his prophets ; 5. in 
the resurrection and day of judgment; and 6. in his abso- 
lute decree and predestination of good and evil. 5th. The 
doa-e-qoonoot (prayer of praise); and if he be illiterate, 
explains to him the meaning of these in Hindoostanee. 

Then, having made him repeat the neekah ka seegah ^ 
(also in Arabic, and illustrated its signification), he desires 
the wukeel and bridegroom to join hands together, and 

* Neekah ka see^a/i, or the marriage contract. 

SKf T. 7. MARRIAGE. 131 

directs the former to say to the latter, " Such a one's 
" daughter, such a one, by the agency of the wukeel and 
" the testimony of two witnesses, has, in your marriage with 
" her, liad such a jointure settled upon her : do you con- 
" sent to it ?" The bridegroom replies, " With my whole 
" heart and soul, to my marriage with this lady, as well as 
" to the above-mentioned settlement made upon her, do I 
" consent, consent, consent ! ! !"' 

During the performance of the above ceremony of neekah, 
a tray is placed before the Qaxee, containing some sugar- 
candy, dried dates, almonds, and betel-leaves. In some 
places a seer or a seer and a quarter of unboiled rice, some 
sundul in a cup, with a pote ka luchchha (necklace of two 
strings of black glass beads) in it, and in the tray also the 
Qazee's gifts (alias fee), viz. two and a quarter rupees, to- 
gether with such other presents as they may choose to give 
him, consisting usually of a suit of clothes together with a 
shawl, according to their means. 

It may here be remarked, lipwever, that the Qazee has 
no right to expect a fee ; for when a Moosulman wishes to 
enter into so lawful an engagement, sanctioned by the pre- 
cepts of Mohummud, it is not only highly improper and 
unbecoming, but unlawful, in a Qazee to take a fine from 
him in this way ; and, for this reason, that Qazees have 
had grants of land in eenam (gift) or jageer,^ or daily 
pay, or monthly salaries bestowed on them by former kings, 
which the Honourable East-India Company (may its good 
fortune be perpetual!) has continued to them, solely for 
the following purposes, viz. : To bury and inter the helpless 
poor when they die ; to solemnize their neekah (marriage) ; 

* Jageer ; land given by government as a reward for services, or as 
a fee ; a pension in land. 

K 2 

132 MARRIAGE. C.iap. XIV. 

to impart spiritual knowledge to their offspring ; to act as 
eemam (priest), and read prayers daily at the five seasons 
in the mosque; to appoint a mootuwulee or superinten- 
dent of the mosque ; a khuteeh (preacher) to deliver the 
khootha (sermon) on feast days and Fridays (their sab- 
baths) ; a mowa%un (crier) for sounding the axan (sum- 
mons to prayer), and a khidmuttee, to sv/eep the mosque 
and bring water wherewith the congregation may perform 
their ablutions, all of Avhom he pays out of his own purse. 

If these neglect their duties in tlie least degree, the ruler 
may very justly remove and dismiss the Qazee from his 
situation, and appoint another in his stead; for the object 
of it is to afford ease to God's servants, which is completely 
frustrated when a poor seepahee (soldier) who wishes to get 
married is obliged to pay two and a quarter rupees for 
nothing. But, in most places, the servants of mosques, 
above enumerated, are appointed by kings and rulers, and 
receive pay from them, and are not in the Qazee s employ, 
therefore the latter (the Qaxee) will not perform the neekah 
unless he receive tlie usual fee. 

Governors have appointed Qaxees solely for the advan- 
tage of the ignorant and uneducated ; men of science, who 
can exercise their own judginent, have no occasion for 
them. Being masters in their own families, they can solem- 
nize matrimony and perform the funeral obsequies, &c. 
themselves, against which there is no prohibition, either by 
God or the Prophet. 

After neekah the Qazee offers up a supplication to 
heaven on their behalf, saying, " O great God ! grant that 
" mutual love may reign between this couple, as it existed 
" between Adum (Adam) and Huwa (Eve), Ibraheem 
" (Abraham) and Sara (Sarah), and affection as was between 
" Yoosoof (Joseph) and Zuleekha (Potiphar's wife), Moosa 

Sect. 7- MARRIAGE. 133 

*' (Moses) and Sufoora (Moses's wife Zipporali),his higlniess 
" Mohummud Moostuffa and A-aysha, his highness Ally-ool 
" Moortooza and Fateemat-ooz-Zohura." Then having 
helped himself to the contents of the tray, and blown (?'. e. 
the supplication) on the sugar-candy, he inserts a small bit 
of the latter into the bridegroom's mouth, and delivers the 
pote (or glass beads) and a little sugar-candy to the bride- 
groom's mother, or any other near relative, and desires him 
to convey them to the bride ; and tolls her, that from this 
day she must consider herself married to such a person, the 
son of such a one, and that such is the jointure settled 
upon her ; that she is to wear the necklace as emblematic 
of it, and chew the sugar-candy.* On hearing tliis the 
bride weeps ; or rather, as many do, pretends to weep. 

In the assembly of the men the bridegroom falls on their 
necks (embraces) and kisses their hands, and is loaded with 
congratulations from all quarters. Were the bridegroom 
even a slave, he would, on an occasion of this kind, be 
allowed to embrace all the gentlemen present. 

Should dancing-girls be present, as a token of participa- 
tion in the bridegroom's joy, they continue dancing to the 
sound of the music; in the meantime, the bridegroom's 
party are entertained with a dinner of meetha polaoo. 

Along with the bridegroom two or four of his near rela- 
latives go as sumdeeans (near relatives), to whom the op- 
posite party offer sutidul hafh ; that is, a red cloth is 
spread on the floor near the carpet to walk on, while a red 
cloth canopy is held over their heads, and as they enter, 
they have *MWc?w/ applied to their hafh (hands). In so doing, 
many out of frolic besmear also their mouths with some 
of it, and enjoy a hearty laugh at their expense. Having 

* A? cnibleuKilic of the sweols of inatriinoiix'. 

134 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

handed them a pankabeera, they take and seat tliem on the 
carpet. By placing under the carpet leather or fragments 
of earthern vessels, they contrive to play them a number of 
tricks; after which they bring the washhand-basin and 
ewer, and holding a red cloth over them and a red curtain 
all round, first pour a little shurbut on their hands and 
then give them water to wash. They put pan kay heeray 
on a tray and shurbut into a bowl or bottle, and with a 
small cup help each of them to some of it, and hand them 
a pankabeera. On partaking of the beverage, each sumdee 
drops a rupee or afajiam into the cup ; some, also, into 
the washhand-basin while they are washing. They fre- 
quently, out of fun, substitute a decoction of horsegram 
for shurbut. The instant any one has drunk the shiirbuf, 
a wag, who is a near relative, in jest, rubs his mouth so 
excessively hard with a well-starched towel, handkerchief, 
or brocade, as sometimes to make his lips bleed. 

After that, they hand a pankabeera to each of the guests, 
spread the dusturkhwan and serve up choba. Having 
mixed plenty of ghee with the meethapolaoo, and put it on 
the plates, they cover it over with the bund (or slices^ viz. 
the choba), and set it before the sumdeeans. The bride- 
groom also joins the sumdeeans at dinner, when his hands 
are washed by his brother-in-law, who puts four or five 
handfuls of the above food into his mouth. At every 
mouthful he makes some witty remark, in the manner de- 
tailed under the head of huldee maynhdee (page 117), 
after which the bridegroom eats with his own hand.^ If 
the brother-in-law be not present, any one else feeds him. 
The money that is dropped into the cup or washhand-basin 

• No spoons, knives, or forks, are at any time used by natives ; the 
fingers serve as a substitute. 

Sect. 7- MARRIAGE. Igg 

in the act of drinking sliurhut and washing liands, becomes 
the perquisite of the servants; but, in some places, the 
landlord takes it himself. 

Tliis being concluded, betel-leaf, flowers, uttur, &c. are 
handed round ; after which, the marriage attendants retire, 
while the bridegroom's nearer relatives remain in company 
with him. 

Neekah^ agreeably to the sacred Qormi and the Huddees- 
i-Nuhuwee (prophetical traditions), depends on three 
things : 1st. The consent of the man and woman ; 2dly. 
The evidence of two witnesses ; 3dly. The settling a mar- 
riage portion on the wife. Should any one of these be 
wanting, the marriage is unlawful. 

Men of property usually pay the whole, or sometimes a 
third of the dowry at the time of the marriage, while the 
poor pay it by instalments. It being the divine command 
to give it, they must, partly by jev.^els, partly by valuable 
dresses, or in short somehow or other, satisfy the women to a 
certain extent, and get the bride to remit the remainder. 
Should the husband not have obtained an immunity or 
cancelled the debt, his guilt becomes great. On his death, 
his father or his son is obliged to discharge it. Should the 
wife die, it becomes her parents' due ; and if not paid, they 
can demand it by force of law. In this there are certain 
provisos ; that is to say, if the woman of her own accord 
leave her husband, slie forfeits the dowry ; if the husband 
turn her out of doors, he is first obliged to pay her the mar- 
riage portion. 

2. The mode of performing joolwa (the first meeting of 
the bride and bridegroom in presence of the relations) is as 
follows : 

Previous to the bridegroom withdrawing from the male 

136 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

to the female assembly, the women, having bathed the bride, 
prepare her for his reception, by decking her out in all sorts 
of finery, with ornaments, &c., adorning her agreeably to 
the wonted fashion on these occasions. 

After the neekah is over, the bride's sayhra, accompa- 
nied with music, arrives from the bridegroom's. The 
women are entertained with meetha polaoo, in the same way 
as the men. 

At the time oi joolwa^ the bridegroom's mother, sister, 
and other relatives, &c. are all present at the bride's house. 

About five or six o'clock in the afternoon of the neekah- 
day, the mooshata (female jester) having fastened the sayhra 
on the bride's head, brings her on her lap and seats her on 
the cot. Then, having seated the bridegroom opposite to 
her, with their faces turned towards each other and havinn- 
a piece of red cloth held up as a curtain between them, she, 
holding one end of a long piece of red thread, puts tlie lat- 
ter, along with some unboiled rice, into the bride's hand, 
and taking hold of it makes her throw it over the curtain 
on the bridegroom's head. The sister of the latter, tying a 
gold or silver ring to the extremity of the thread, and also 
putting some unboiled rice along with it into the hand of 
her brother, takes hold of it, and makes him throw them 
to the bride. When they have thus thrown it (the ring) 
backwards and forwards three times, all the while sinfrincr 
some current epithalamium (called hujooloha\ the mooshata 
desires the bridegroom to remove the curtain. After placing 
the bride and bridegroom on the bed, the female jester 
exercises her ingenuity in saying many witty things. On the 
bridegroom's mother or his sister requesting her to show the 
bride's face to the bridegroom, she observes, " The bride 
" eclipses the moon in beauty ; and were I to indulge him 

Sect. 7- MARRIACiE. 137 

" with a single glance, the poor fellow would go mad and 
" become distracted." 

After two or three (lit. four) ghurrees passed in this way, 
she places a bit of sugar-candy on the bride's head, and 
desires the bridegroom to pick it up with his moutli. That 
being done, she puts the same on her shoulders, knees, and 
feet ; but, instead of removing it in the latter case with his 
mouth, he offers to do it with his left hand (a thing totally 
inadmissible among them), which, of course, the rnooshata 
does not sanction; and at this juncture amuses the bride- 
groom's mother and sister not a little by insisting upon the 
performance, observing that it is but right, since he has 
taken up the rest with his mouth, that he should do so in 
this case. After a few minutes, he is allowed to take it up 
with his right hand. 

Then the mooshata^ singing, takes hold of the bride's 
head, moves it backwards and forwards two or three (lit. 
four) times, and does the same to the bridegroom ; after 
which, holding a looking-glass between them, she (directs 
them to look at each other in it. The bridegroom takes a 
peep, and obtains a faint glimpse of his fair one (imme- 
diately after which the Qpran is exhibited to his view), 
while the modest virgin does not so much as venture to 
open her eyes.* 

They then give the bridegroom some milk in a cup to 
drink, and touch the bride's mouth with his leavings (hoping 
thereby to create a mutual affection between them). 

Having assembled all the bridegroom's female relatives, 
and such of the near male ones as are privileged to see her, 

• All this is pretended modesty ; since, before the match was con- 
certed, the couple have repeatedly been in each other's company, and 
become sufficiently well acquainted with one another. 

138 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

and displayed her to them, the latter, on being gratified 
with a sight of the Beauty [not unfrequently she is ugly 
enough], put a ring, a rupee, or some jewel, into her hands, 
and pronounce a blessing upon her, saying, " Long may 
" you live and prosper." 

The bride's and bridegroom's mothers, fathers, sisters, 
brothers, and other relatives, being assembled, the bride''s 
mother takes hold of her right hand, and placing it into 
that of the bridegroom's father, says, " Hitherto has this 
" girl's modesty, honour, reputation, and character been in 
" our hands, and we now resign them over to you." The 
opposite party, on the other hand, by numerous consolatory 
assurances, give her to understand that she need labour 
under no apprehensions on that subject, that her daughter 
will be well taken care of. 

After that tlie bridegroom stands up to make his sulamee 
(obeisance), and addressing each individual male and female 
relative of the bride by name, makes his tusJeem (salutation) 
to them. The ladies in return, offer him a present of a 
handkerchief, ring, rupee, half-rupee, doputta^ or sliawl ; 
and if any one of his brothers be present, they also offer a 
handkerchief or a ring. 

After that, in tlie same style as the bridegroom came the 
preceding night to the bride's house, he now proceeds liome 
on horseback, and she along with him in a meeana (a 
palankeen) with doors shut, attended by music, dancing- 
girls, and accompanied by all the relatives, &c. On reach- 
ing his house, the attendants, musicians, &c. are dismissed 
with betel. 

Then the bridegroom, on taking the bride out of the 
palankeen, and carrying her in his arms into the house, 
meets with a little opposition from his sister, who insists 
upon his promising to let her have his first daughter ; to 

Sect. 7- MARRIAGE. 139 

which he facetiously replies. " You shall most undoubtedly 
have the first daughter of my bond-maid, or of my cat." 
After a little sham altercation, he promises his daughter, 
and takes in the bride. 

After this a fowl or sheep is sacrificed in the name of 
the cou])le, and distributed in charity. Then having placed 
the bride's and bridegroom's arms round each other's neck, 
with their faces turned towards the Qibla (temple of Mecca), 
they cause them to make two sijdahs (prostrations). After 
which the bride first washes the bridegroom's feet in a mix- 
ture of sundul and water, and then he her's. 

That being done, the couple retire to their bed-room to 
enjoy themselves as they think proper, disburdening them- 
selves of all the fatigues of the preceding night; but that is 
among the better ranks of society. The lower orders con- 
sider the ceremony of the kunggun of such moment, that 
they never think of consummating the rites of wedlock, 
until this be performed ; for which see the following 

Sect. 8. Concerning Kunggun klwlna, or untying the 
Kunggmi {}Vedding Bracelets) from the icrists of the 
Bride mid Bridegroom. 

On the third or fourth day after shubgusht it is custo- 
mary to untie the kunggun. If the ceremony take place 
on the former day, it is termed hhoora ; if on the latter, 

The kunggun consists of a few pearls, some grains of 
unboiled rice, one or two flowers, and a quarter rupee piece 
tied up in a bit of red cloth in the form of a bundle, and 
fastened on by means of red thread to the right wrist of the 
bride and bridegroom on the shubgusht night. 

On the kunggun day, in order to fetch the bride and 

140 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV- 

bridegroom, the Jjride'^s parents despatch a horse, a doolee, 
some klieer and kliichree for their breakfast, and chicksa 
to rub on tlieir bodies, accompanied with music, dancing- 
girls, &c. On tliis occasion, the bridegroom's sala (brother- 
in-law) is mounted on horseback, and the bride's salee 
(sister-in-law) rides in a palkee, in coming to call on the 
bride and bridegroom. On the arrival of the sala at the 
door of the house, the bridegroom's people having gone out 
to meet him, offer him a doputta, or a printed handker- 
chief, and assist him in dismounting from his horse. In 
the same manner the females go and welcome the salee, 
offer her a daoonee, cholee, and bitnggree, or merely a 
cholee, or a pair of hunggrees. Until these are given they 
never quit their conveyances ; for it is indispensable on this 
day to give them these presents. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon, the bride and bridc- 
o-room proceed with the same splendour and pomp as at the 
shiihg7is]it, without flambeaux, accompanied by all the 
marriage attendants, to the bride's house. The females of 
the bridegroom's house go thither in carriages or doolees. 

Among some classes of people, they drink tares, saijnd- 
hee, &:c., and women as well as men continue intoxicated 
with delight, mirth, and jollity. 

All that day the people of both houses, men as well as 
women, remain soaked in red and yellow dye,* with which, 
taking it out of a pitcher, they bespatter one another, by 
squirting it through syringes, or pelting one another with 
eggshells or balls made of sealing wax, formed very thin, 

• The yelltnv-dye is made by infusing in water pnlafi ka pliool 
(butea frondosa, koenig.), the tree on which the /flc-insect feeds, add- 
ing turmeric to it and boiling. Red-dje is made of safflower. Vide 
koossooin in the Glossary. 

Shct. K marriage. ^^^ 

filled with it, or merely throv/ing it with the hands. This 
is called rung-klielna (or the jJaying Avith colours). 

In the evening, at the bride's house, an entertainment 
v/ith k''hara polnoo is given to all. 

After dinner, the men having retired home, the bride 
and bridegroom are seated on a carpet under the shed. 
Into a large seeti (alias tJiulee or brass dish) they put 
some water, greens, sundul, befcl-lea\cs and lemons. The 
Mooshata then taking the kunggun off their wrists, and 
throwing them into the dish placed between them, calls 
out, " Let us see which of you will be the first to take 
" them out.'"" The bride modestly sitting with her eyes 
shut, and head hanging down, the mooshata, or some one 
of her relatives, or one of the ladies near her, takes hold of 
her hands, and dipping them into the dish takes them out. 
Should the bridegroom be the first to seize them, he is in 
a trice attacked from all quarters. The bride's sister and 
near relatives, such as are adroit in sporting and playing 
tricks, strike him with flov/er clihureeans (wands), pelt 
him with sweetmeats, such as mangoes, figs, butasha and 
luddoo, and with guavas, pooreean, garlic, or onions ; and 
one of the bride's sisters, with others, rubs the poor fellow's 
cheeks and ears well. In short, they have a great deal of 
fun and merriment on the occasion. 

When the bridegroom gets the kungguois, he makes the 
bride beg for them in tlie most humiliating manner, say- 
ing, " I am your wife and slave." She, in return, causes 
him to do the same, should she succeed in obtaining them. 
Having thus taken the kiingguns out three times, they 
resign them to the dish. 

After that they braid the bride's tneehree (side-locks) 
and plait her cue behind ; and then make the bridegroom 
unravel one of the side-locks with one hand. The instant 

142 MARRIAGE. Chap. XIV. 

he calls in the aid of the other, he is assailed by the bride's 
sister, and handled in the same rough manner as at the 
untying of the kuoiggun ]\xs,t mentioned. 

Subsequent to this ceremony from the bride''s, according 
to their means, presents of khilauts or suits of clothes are 
offered to the bridegroom's mother, father, sister, brother, 
&c. It is not customary to offer money on this occasion, 
nor would it be accepted, if it were so. 

Then taking their departure thence, all accompany 
the bride and bridegroom home. In fact, it is that night 
only that the husband experiences the delights of ^\ff(if 
(or " leading a wife home"). 

Sect. 9- 1. Hdfh hurtana, or the resumption of the use 
of the Hands ; 2. Joomagee^ or the giving of Enter- 
tainments on jive successive Fridays {the Mohummudan 
Sabbath) during the hojiey-moon ; 3. Kulus kay mafh 
oofhana, or removing the before-mentioned Water-pots. 

1. Hdfh burtana (or the resumption of the use of the 
hands) takes place three or four days after the taking off 
of the kimggun ; nay, sometimes it is deferred till the last 
joomagee (or the fifth Friday of the honey-moon); and 
until the ceremony is observed, the newly-married pair are 
not permitted to engage in any sort of employment what- 

On the day appointed, the new-married pair and all rela- 
tives, friends, &c. are invited by the sending of cardamoms, 
and in other forms, to an entertainment at the bridegroom''s 

The bride's mother, sister, &c. on coming to the party, 
bring with them a large quantity of wheat flour, sugar, 
ghee, almonds, dates, raisins, betel-leaves, flowers, a hand- 
kerchief, and a ring. Then, for form's sake, they get the 

Sect. 9.. iAfARRTAGE. I43 

bride and bridegroom to make and fry two or three pooreean 
(cakes), and afterwards make them perform some other light 
work ; such as lifting a pot of water, swinging a chheenka* 
(sling), stirring about the polaoo with the skimmer, dipping 
the hand into the vessel containing gram, picking vegetables, 
or causing the bridegroom to unlock a trunk and therein put 
ten or twelve (lit. ten or fifteen) rupees, and getting the 
bride to lock it again. But before making them fry poo- 
reean, they cause them to sit down in one place, and get 
them to break kanchee, that is, they fill a plate with wheat 
thoollee, place on the latter ten or twelve (fifteen) kungooray 
(or small triangular lumps made of tJiooUee), a little apart 
from one another, and deposit a piece of thread in a parti- 
cular winding direction around them, with the two ends of 
it so artfully concealed that it is almost impossible to dis- 
cover them, and place one or two of these before the bride- 
groom, whom they desire to find out tlie extremities of the 
thread and disentangle them. Should the bridegroom be a 
shrewd lad he is not long of unravelling it ; if the reverse, 
he continues a good while groping about. In the latter 
case, the sala or salee pelts him, as has been detailed under 
the head of kunggun (p. 141). Ultimately the bride- 
groom's mother or sister shows it to him. After that, they 
get the bride and bridegroom to break the Mingooray, and 
make them eat a little of it out of each other's hands, and 
distribute some to all the ladies. This ceremony is deno- 
minated kanchee. 

Having entertained the men and women, and the bride- 
groom's party having made presents of suits of clothes or 

• A network made of string-s or cords, to place any thing on ; the 
cords of a bangy. 


khilauts"^ to the bride's father, mother, and sister, the party 
break up. 

2. There are five joomagee, or successive Fridays of the 
honey-moon, on which entertainments are given : on the first, 
at the bride's house ; on the three following, either at the same 
place, or at the house of any one of the near relatives; and 
on the fifth at that of the bridegroom. On these occasions, 
musicians, &c. are despatched to escort the bride and bride- 
groom, together with their relatives, to the feast. In the 
forenoon they are entertained with a dinner, consisting 
principally of Kheer and k'hichree; and, in the evening, of 
polaoo. Then having offered the bridegroom a present of 
a ring and a handkerchief, and bestowed on him their bless- 
ing, they dismiss them. 

It is necessary that both the bride and bridegroom be 
bathed on that day. 

3. On the fifth joomagee (or last Friday) the water-pots, 
called kulus kay mdi'li, are removed, and thus conclude the 
ceremonies of marriage. 

Sect. 10. Concerning \st. the number of Wives authorized; 

2d, Relatives whom it is unlawfid to marry ; and 3d, the 

subject of Divorce. 

1. Agreeably to the precept of the Prophet (the peace, 
&c.) Moosulmans are allowed, both by the Qpran and 
Shurra, to \\di\efour wives. The generality, however, have 
only one ; a few, two or three ; scarcely any four : tliough 
some, contrary to the Shurra, have them without number : 

* KJiilaut signifies nothing' more or less than a suit of clothes, the 
same as libns or jura ; the former being- the court language, the 
latter used by the common people, independently of the value in either 

Sect. 10. DIVORCE. 145 

such as, for instance, Tippoo Sooltan (now in Paradise), wlio 
actually married no less than nine hundred women.* 

2. It is unlawful for a man to unite himself in wedlock 
with the following fourteen of his relations, viz. 1. His 
«2a, mother ; 2. my dur ma, step-mother ; 3. baytee, daughter ; 
4. ruheeba baytee, step-daughter ; 5. biihun, sister ; 6. phoop- 
hee, paternal aunt ; 7. khala, maternal aunt ; 8. bhuteejee, 
brother's daughter; 9- bhanjee, sister's daughter: nieces; 
10. daee doodh-pillaee, or doodk ma, wet nurse, or foster- 
mother ; 11. doodh buhun, foster sister ; 12. saas or khoosh- 
damun, wife's mother (mother-in-law); 13. buhoo, daughter- 
in-law ; 14, salee, sister-in-laW;, which last he may marry, 
however, after his wife's death. 

On this head there is a certain limitation in the case of 
foster children. 

If a child, previous to his completing the age of two years 
and a half, drink the milk of another mother, her suckling 
becomes as his brother or sister, and the mother stands in 
the same relation to him as to her own child ; and tlie same 
relations whom one is prohibited marrying of his own, he is 
also prohibited marrying of his foster-brother's. After the 
age of two years and a half, if he suck another mother's 
breasts it is of no consequence. 

3. There are three forms of tulaq or repudiation: 1st. 
Tulaq-e-byn, which consists in the husband only once say- 
ing to his wife, " I have divorced you." 2d. Tulaq-e-rujaee, 
in repeating the same twice. 3d. Tulaq-e-mootuluqqa, in 
three similar repetitions. 

If a man divorce his wife by the tulaq-e-byn, he may 

• These, according to Mrs. I\Ieer, arc called doolee wives ; of wlioni 
she has likewise heard of some sovereign princes in Hindoostan pos- 
sessing seven or eitrht hundred. 

146 MARRIAGE. Chap. XTV. 

within three menstrual periods take her back, but not after- 

If he have given her the tulaq-e-ritjaee, he may, if both 
agree, either maintain her within-doors, or giving her the 
dowry send her away. In the former case, should the 
woman be unwilling to remain, she may, by resigning half 
or a quarter of the dowry, depart with the rest. Such a 
woman' it is unlawful for him to take back, vmless he marry 
her over again. 

With a woman divorced by the Tiilaq-e-mootuluqqa., 
it is unlawful for the husband to cohabit until she has mar- 
ried another man and been divorced by him. 

If a woman wish for a divorce, and tiie husband be dis- 
posed to grant it, he has recourse to the stratagem of ex- 
pressing to her his disinclination ; adding, that if she 
insists upon it, he Avill indulge her, but then she must con- 
sent to give up her claim to the marriage portion. The 
Avoman having no alternative, resigns her dowry and accedes 
to the divorce. Had he not adopted the above scheme, he 
would have been obliged to have given her the dowry be- 
fore repudiating her. 

With a slave girl, it is unlawful for her master to cohabit 
after the Tnlaq-e-nijaee (as in the case of a free woman 
after the third divorce), and she need wait only two men- 
strual periods, instead of three, before she marry again. 

In repudiating a wife, the husband is to wait till post- 
mensem, and then, without touching her, divorce her. 
Should she be with child, he is to wait until she be delivered ; 
and then, taking possession of the child, dismiss her ; and, 
if he please, the mother is obliged to suckle the infant two 

After once settling the dowry (that is after neekah^, but 
previous to consummating the hymeneal rites, if a man 

Skct 10. IsrARRIAGE. 147 

wish to divorce his wife, he is obliged to give her half the 
dowry ; if he give the whole, it is so much the more com- 

It is directed in the sacred Qoran, that a woman may, 
four months and ten days after her husband's demise, marry 
again. But in Hindoostan, some women conceiving it 
more honourable not to marry after the death of one hus- 
band, never do so ; and when it is done, only neekah is 
performed, not shadee (rejoicings), the woman being a 
widow and no virgin. 

Sect. 11. Concerning postponing and expediting the per- 
formance of the matrimonial rites. 

Most princes and nobles at their nuptials continue the 
huldee for six months, during which period they have music 
and entertainments daily ; and performing the other cere- 
monies every fortnight, month, or so, complete the marriage 
in the course of a year. 

Such as can afford it occupy two or three months in per- 
forminsf the various matrimonial rites. 

Among the respectable and middling classes of society 
marriage is usually finished in eleven days, or less : e. g. 

The first three days, huldee (or sitting in state) ; on the 
fourth, the sending of maynhdee from the bridegroom to 
the bride, and on the fifth, vice versa ; on the sixth, the 
bride's paoon minut (measuring for her wedding dress) ; 
and on the seventh, the bridegroom's ; on tlie eighth, the 
ceremonies of kuluskaymafh, tail-ghnrray, heeheean and 
burree ; on the ninth, jayhez ; on the tenth, jholpliorna, 
put kay chanwul, tail churhana, and shubgusht ; on the 
eleventh, neekah and joolwa. After two or four days is per- 
formed kungun kliolna and hafh burtana any time within 
the honeymoon, usually on the fifth Joomagee or Friday. 

148 THE MOHURRUM. Chap. XV. 

Among the poor of the lower classes of people, all the 
above ceremonies are performed in three days. The first 
day, the ceremonies of huldee maynhdee and jjaoon minut ; 
the second, hurree, ^~c. jayhex, and shuhgusht ; the third 
neekah and joolwa. 

If they be much pressed for time, all these take place in 
one day ; a ceremony every hour or so. 


Concerning the Mo1mrrum,OY first month. It comprises three subjects, 
viz. 1st. The Molnnrtim hee eed, or feast.^ — 2d. The cause of the 
martjTdom of their highnesses Eemam Hussun and Hosein (may 
God reward them !). — 3d. The ceremonies observed during the 
Ashoora, or first ten days of the month Mohurrum. 

Sect. 1. The Mohurrum kee Eed, or Feast. 

The Mohurrum feast was in existence in the days of his 
highness Mohummud Moostuffa (God bless him !), it having 
been observed as such by prophets before his time ; but the 
prophet Mohummud, the messenger of God, enjoined on 
his followers the observance of ten additional customs 
during the Ashoora, viz. 1. Bathing; 2. Wearing finer 
apparel than usual ; 3. Applying soorma to the eyes ; 4. 
Fasting ; 5. Prayers ; 6. Cooking more victuals than 
usual ; 7. Making peace with one's enemies, or establish- 
ing it among others ; 8. Associating with pious and learned 
divines; 9. Taking compassion on orphans and giving 
them alms ; and 10. Bestowing alms in charity. 

Nay, in certain traditional and historical works it is 
stated, that it was on the tenth day of the month Mohurrum 
that the following events took place : 1st. The first fall of 

Sect. 1. FEAST. J4g 

rain ; 2d. Adam and Eve's descent on earth, and the esta- 
blishment of the propagation of the species ; 3d. Divine 
mission granted to the souls of ten thousand prophets. 4th. 
The creation of Ursh, the ninth heaven, or the empyrean 
throne of the divine glory and majesty ; 5th. Of Koorsee, 
the eighth, or crystalline heaven, supposed to be the judg- 
ment seat of God ; 6th. Blhisht,* or the seven heavens ; 
7th. Dozukh,-f or hell ; 8th. Loivh, or the tablet on which 
the decrees of the Deity are inscribed ; 9th. Quhim, the 
pen wherewith they are written ; 10th. Tuqdeer, fate, or 
destiny ; 11th. Hi/at, or life ; and 12th. Micmat, or death. 
These did the Almighty in his infinite wisdom create. 

* The Mohummudans, exclusive of the eighth and ninth, which 
they do not term bi/nsht, reckon seven heavens, viz. 1st. Dar-oul-jullal 
(meaning- the mansion of glory), composed of pearls. — 2d. Dar oos 
sulam, (the mansion of rest), of ruby and garnet. — 3d. Junnut ool 
mmva (the garden of mirrors), of yellow pewter. — 4th. Junnut ool 
khoold (the garden of eternity), of yellow coral.— 5th. Junnut oon 
Nueem (the garden of delights), of white diamond. — 6th. Jummt-ool 
Firdoos (the garden of paradise), of red gold.— 7th. Dar ool qurar 
(everlasting abode), of pure musk.' — 8th. Junnut- ool-udun (the garden 
of Eden),(r?) of red pearls. 

t Of hell, also seven, viz. — 1st. Julmnnum (meanjng a deep pit), 
destined for such of the worshippers of the true God, as are guilty. — 
2d. Luzza (a blazing flame), for the Christians. — 3d. Huttuma (an 
intense fire), for the Jews. — 4th. Sueer (a flaming fire), for the Sabians. 
5th. Suqur (a scorching heat), for the INIagi or 6^uburs (or fire wor- 
shippers). — 6th. Juheeni. (a huge hot fire), for the Pagans and ido- 
lators. — 7th. Haioeea (a dark bottomless pit), for the hypocrites. 

I may add here, that the Mohuramudans also consider the earth and 
sky to be each divided into seven parts, wear. The 1st. earth is composed 
of ashes ; 2d. of crjstal ; 3d. of gold ; 4th. of pewter ; 5th. of emerald ; 
6th. of iron ; 7th. of pearl. — 1st. Firmament (Adam's residence), com- 
posed of pure vii-gin silver; 2d. (Enoch's and John the Baptist's), of 
gold ; 3d. (Joseph's), of pearls ; 4th. (Jesus's), of pure white gold ; 
5th. (Aaron's), of pure silver ; 6th. (Moses's), of ruby and garnet ; 
7th. (Abraham's), of crystal. 

(ff) This is the name of the terrestrial paradise, and probably refers 
to it, leaving seven heavens, as before noticed. 


Sect. 2. — The cause of the Martyrdom of their high- 
nesses Eemdm Hussun and Hosein {may God reward 
them '.). 

There are various versions of the history of the death 
of their highnesses Eemam Hussun and Hosein (may God, 
&c.) ; but all concur in one circumstance, viz. that it was 
occasioned by the instigation of Ayzeed, who, wretched 
from all eternity, was the ring-leader. It was pre-ordained 
that he alone should be the author of their martyrdom : 
how is it otherwise possible for one to be deprived of life 
by the mere enmity, tyranny, or command of another ? But 
thus it is, that whatever the eternal Moonshee (or Re- 
oistrar") has recorded as a man's destiny, must unquestion- 
ably come to pass; as a proverb justly observes, " diver- 
" sified are the modes of dying, and equally so are the 
" means of living -^ that is, though the hand of the 
Almio-hty does not appear visible in either, yet he is the 
author of both. 

His highness Oosman (the peace ! &c.), during his reign 
granted the government of Syria to his relative Maweea, 
and to his son, as successor. 

Now it so happened, that when Ayzeed, the son of 
Maweea, succeeded to the monarchy of Syria, his highness 
Eemam Hussun was on the throne at the illustrious Mu- 
deena (Medina), having succeeded the four companions* 
to the kheelafut (or sovereignty) of Arabia. 

Ayzeed's subjects excited enmity between him and his 
hiohness Hussun, by representing the latter to him as a 
mere boy, the son of afuqeer (religious mendicant), a poor 
miserable wretch and without any military force ; express- 

Aboo Bukur, Oomur, Oosman, and Ally. 

Skct. 2. HUSSUN AND HOSEIN. 151 

ing their surprise that he, who was a mighty monarch, had 
an inexhaustible treasury at his disposal, and a numerous 
army at command, could for a moment submit to be ruled 
by a Medinite. 

Ayzeed (e-pulleed,* or the polluted), thus worked upon, 
became highly elated with pride and demanded homage 
from Hussun. He wrote to him thus : " Come and be 
" subject to my sway, and I will, of my own accord, not 
" only make you king over Medina and Mecca, but will 
" bestow on you great possessions and wealth." 

Hussun replied, " This is passing strange ! Pray, whose 
" duty is it to pay homage ? Whence did the constitution of 
" this subjection and sovereignty originate ? Take a retro- 
" spective view of it for a moment, and consider the sub- 
" ject with impartiality. Do not pique yourself thus on 
" worldly wealth and possessions : to-morrow you may 
" have to answer for it unto God." Ayzeed, on hearing 
this, became still more jealous. 

After this, another affair took place. Ayzeed was led 
to understand that Abdoollah Zoobayr, an inhabitant of 
Medina in his service, had a most beautiful wife ; and 
being himself a debauched and dissipated character, contem- 
plated, by some means or other, gaining possession of her. 

On one occasion he addressed Zoobayr, saying, "you 
" are a Medinite, and I have amongst my relatives a virgin 
" sister, a quick, sensible, and interesting damsel : if you 
" clioose, I will give her to you in marriage." Poor Zoo- 
bayr, unaware of his stratagem, answered, " O king of the 
" whole earth ! I do with all my heart and soul consent." 
He then took Zoobayr to the palace and requested him to 

* This particular nickname they gave him on account of its rhvming- 
with his name, a common practice in the East. 


be seated. After the expiration of an hour he came out 
to him and said : " The girl observes, that you are already 
*' a married man, and unless you divorce your present wife 
" she will not agree to be yours." The moment he heard 
this he gave his wife the tulaq e mootuluqqa (p. 145-6). 
Ayzeed again retired, and after several hours had elapsed, 
returned, and said, "The girl has certainly consented to 
" have you, but requests that the amount of the marriage 
" portion may be first paid, for until it be delivered into 
" her hands she will on no account consent to the union." 
Zoobayr said, " I am a poor man, and probably the dowry 
" is something considerable ; in which case, whence can I 
" procure it?"" Then Ayzeed satisfied him by granting him 
the government of a distant province, and sent him thither. 
In the meantime he wrote off to his predecessor, apprising 
him of Zoobayr's appointment to succeed him, and direct- 
ing him, by some means or other, to put him to death ; 
which was accordingly done. 

Then Ayzeed despatched Moosa Ushuree as his ambas- 
sador to Zoobayr's wife, with this message: "Behold, your 
" husband has, without the least cause or reason whatever, 
" through sheer worldly covetousness, divorced you ; and, 
" you see, God has consequently not prospered him : and 
" now, if you will consent to be mine, you may be the wife 
" of a king." 

On the arrival of the ambassador at Medina, his highness 
Hussun observing him, enquired whence he came and 
whither he was going. The ambassador replied, " I am 
" sent by the Syrian monarch to this city to Zoobayr's 
" wife, whose husband is dead, with a message, offering 
" marriage." Hussun, on hearing this, said : " O Moosa 
" Ushuree, should she not consent to Ayzeed's proposals, 
" deliver you the same message in my name also." 

Skct. 2, HUSSUN AND HOSEIN, 153 

When the ambassador had related to Zoobayr''s wife all 
that Ayzeed had commissioned him to do, and eulogized 
his wealth and grandeur, she said, " Well ! what next ?" 
He continued, " Eemam Hussun, the khuleefa of this town, 
" the son of Allee and of the daughter of Mohummud 
" (the blessing ! &c.), has also offered you proposals." She 
inquired, '' Any thing else ?" " Why," says he, " if you 
" look after manliness or beauty, here am I present." 

Then she taking a peep at him from behind the screen, 
and discovering him to be an old and infirm man, said : 
" O Ushuree, you are old enough to be my father ; and as 
"■ to your beauty, it certainly cannot exceed mine. Re- 
" specting Ayzeed, who can place any confidence in his 
" wealth and possessions ? which are only of two days' 
" duration, and may be compared to the noontide shade, 
" which inclines to one side or the other, and never remains 
" stationary. It is preferable, therefore, to accept of 
" Hussun, whose wealth will last to the day of judgment, 
" and whose grandeur and dignity are in the very presence 
" of the Deity." 

The ambassador informed Hussun of her having decided 
in his favour, adding, that he might now marry her, and 
bring her home.* Then Ushuree, accompanying Hussun to 
her house, performed the ceremony, and Hussun brought 
her home. 

After that, Ushuree went and related minutely all the 
circumstances which had occurred to Ayzeed ; who finding 
all his well-concerted schemes entirely frustrated, was highly 
indignant at Ushuree, and from that time became the mortal 
enemy of Hussun. 

• Among Moosulmans the marriage rites are always solemnized at 
the house of the bride, even though her rank be much inferior to that 
of the bridegroom. 


To lengthen out this narrative will avail nothing ; suffice 
it to say, that through Ayzeed's contrivance Hussun was 
made to drink poisoned water, and became a martyr. Pre- 
vious to this, it is said that poisons, &c. were administered 
to him in various ways at different times ; but these accounts 
are so contradictory that I have omitted them. However, 
this one circumstance is undoubtedly true, that Hussun was 
ordered to be poisoned by having poisoned water given him 
to drink. 

Hussun, as I have observed above, now became Ayzeed's 
most inveterate enemy, both in a religious and moral point 
of view. Ayzeed used to write to him hundreds of letters 
in the form of royal mandates. He likewise addressed de- 
ceitful letters to the inliabitants of Koofee (Cufa), urging 
them to contrive some means to entice Hussun into their 
town and slay him, promising the situation of wuzeer (or 
minister) to the man who should kill him. 

The Koofeeans were in the habit of continually writing to 
Hussun, setting forth bitter complaints and accusations 
against Ayzeed's bad conduct toward them, and stating 
their utter dislike to him and their having renounced his 
sway ; adding, that if his highness should come amongst 
them, they were prepared to join him in battle against 
Ayzeed. Hussun placing confidence in the friendly dis- 
position expressed in their letters, took his departure for 
Koofee. When he did this, Ayzeed despatched his minister 
Murwan to Medina. On the road, about two or three 
marches from Koofee, his highness Hussun, finding the cli- 
mate of a town called Mousul highly salubrious, took up 
his abode there, and resided in the house of another. The 
landlord of the house gave him poison along with his food; 
but it had no effect. He gave it a second time, mixed up 
Avith something else and Hussun became very ill. 

Sect. 2. HUSSUN AND liOSEIN. I55 

He then wrote off to Ayzeed, apprising him of his having 
twice administered poison to him, and that although not 
dead, he was seriously indisposed in consequence. Ayzeed 
wrote again, requesting him to endeavour somehow or other 
to put an end to Hussun's life, and that he would reward 
him with a ^^^<.yeer-ship. This letter, by some means, 
fell into Hussun''s hand; who, on its perusal, maintained 
a profound silence, and said nothing about it ; since it is un- 
becoming for one while living in another man''s house to hurt 
his feelings; but it appeared evident to Hussun that his 
residence there was no lono-er advisable. 

One day an inhabitant of that town, pretending to be 
blind, and supporting himself by a spear inverted, the point 
of which he had previously poisoned, came to pay his 
respects to Hussun, and addressed him thus : " I am a 
" blind man, and am desirous of rubbing my eyes on your 
" august feet; peradventure, by so doing, they may be- 
come whole."" So saying, he gradually approached Hussun, 
supported by the spear, and struck his thigh with it. Hus- 
sun began to experience excruciating pain and torture, and 
the wound bled profusely. The people were about to slay 
the man, when Hussun observed, " Why so ? From the 
" beginning it was ordained blood for blood; but, you see, 
" I am still alive ; therefore why kill the man without cause.? 
" God himself will punish him, by making his pretended 
" blindness real." In short, they applied ointments and 
pledgets to the wound, and it healed ; but not for a con- 
siderable time, in consequence of its being a poisoned one. 

Then his highness Hussun, disgusted with the place, 
returned to Medina ; where at that time was residing Mur- 
wan, Ayzeed's minister, to whom Ayzeed wrote, saying, " If 
" you will any how procure the death of Hussun, you shall 
" be exalted to high dignity.'" 


Murwan sent for a woman named Joada, and, handing her 
some virulent poison folded up in a piece of paper, said, 
" If you can throw this into Hussun's gugglet, he, on 
" drinking a mouthful or two of the water, will instantly 
*' bring up his liver piecemeal ;" at the same time loading 
her with a variety of presents, and further tempting her by 
fair promises of receiving greater afterwards. 

That wretch of obscenity, through his contrivance and 
her love of gold, repaired in the dead of the night to Hus- 
sun's chamber, and there found a gugglet standing near the 
head of his bedstead, having its mouth covered with a piece 
of white muslin : through this she sifted the poison which 
she had brought with her. Hussun being unwell, asked 
his sister Koolsoom for a draught of water during the night, 
and she handed to him the gugglet. The instant he swal- 
lowed a little of it he began to eject pieces of his liver (or 
rather stomach), and continued from time to time vomiting 
blood: he became extremely restless, and was affected 
with violent cramps in the liver* and a difficulty of breathing. 
Having then called his younger brother to him, he gave him 
numerous precepts and admonitions, and delivered his son 
Qasim into his charge. The families and relatives of the 
Hoosnein-|- made a doleful wailing at the sad catastrophe 
of his highness Hussun (the peace and mercy of God be 
on him !) resigning his soul to God. Alas ! alas ! Avhat 
language can express, what tongue utter, the sum of their 
lamentations ? (Couplet) 

Pen ink and paper! vain the wnriter's art, 
To tell a tale so piercing to the heart IJ 

• Properly stomach. 

t The word Hoosnein includes both Hussun and Hosein. 
I Subjoined is a literal ti-anslation of the author's own words. After 


Skct. 2. HUSSUN AND HOSEIN. 157 

Murwan, on hearing this joyful inteUigence, was highly 
delio-hted ; and giving Joada a khillaut, and various other 
presents, sent her off to Syria. (A verse). 

At hearing this sad tale of Hussun's fate 

His friends roU'd in the dust and prostrate lay ; 

While his malignant foes, in guilt elate, 
To Syria exulting took their way. 

His highness Hussun was buried in the burying ground 
at Medina, called Junnut-ool-Buqqeea. 

Then Hosein being left alone, became very pensive ; and 
said, " O thou protector ! all are become the enemies of 
" my house ; whither shall I flee, or from whom seek pro- 
" tection but from thee .^" 

Again the Koofeeans apologized to Hosein for their con- 
duct, and earnestly besought forgiveness by writing to him 
various letters containing declarations of their future fide- 
lity, saying : " We, the undersigned, swear by God, that 
" if you come amongst us this time, we shall all join, and 
" fight to our last breath for our religion with you against 
" Ayzeed." Hosein placing confidence in their loyalty 
and goodwill, despatched his uncle's son, his highness 
Mooslim, to Koofee. Mooslim, on his departure, took 
his two motherless children along with him. On his 
highness Mooslim's arrival at Koofee, thirty thousand men 
came and paid him homage, and were day and night sub- 
ject and obedient to him. His highness Mooslim, delighted 
with the behaviour of the Koofeeans, wrote off to Hosein, 

adverting to the incapacity of man's ability to describe the acuteness 
of grief exhibited by the spectators, he breaks forth thus to himself, 
" Destroy the pen, burn the paper, throw away the ink, and be 
" silent ; for how is it possible, O Lalla ! for paper to contain so melan- 
" choly a narrative !" 


informing him that the Koofeeans were at present all of one 
mind, and were in his favour, and that, if he came there 
now, they might revenge themselves on the polluted Ay- 
zeed. Hosein, with all his own and his brother's house- 
hold, set off for Koofee. 

Ayzeed wrote off to the Koofeeans, saying, " Behold, 
" beware ! If I find it true that any of you have paid 
" homage to Mooslim, as it is reported some of you have, 
" I shall dismiss you and all your household from my 
" service, and not permit you to reside at Koofee."" 

When his highness Mooslim ascertained from the Koo- 
feeans the purport of this epistle, he inquired of them 
what their intentions were ? They replied, " My Lord, we 
" are poor defenceless creatures, and he is a mighty prince 
" who thus commands and threatens us. Besides, he has 
" despatched both horse and foot from Syria, urging his 
" people somehow or other, by intimidating us with his 
" vengeance, to alienate our affections from you towards 
" himself, and desiring them to make a martyr of you at 
" some fit opportunity." The Koofeeans further said to 
him, in a friendly way, that his residence among them was 
no longer advisable, because, should they publicly profess 
their attachment to him, the despicable Ayzeed would 
be highly enraged at them ; and to see him dishonoured 
would, agieeably to their religion, be their ruin;* since 
every Moosulman is obliged to fight in the defence of his 

His highness Mooslim concealed himself in the house of 
an honest inhabitant of the town, named Hanee. The 

* That is, they would be obliged to defend his (the just) cause, and 
would all lose their lives. 


governor, Abdoollali, on his arrival from Syria, hearing- of 
the circumstance, said to Hanee, " I have been positively 
" informed that Mooslim is concealed under your roof: 
"• therefore deliver him up immediately, or I shall cause 
" you to be beheaded, and your house, and all your pro- 
" perty to be burnt." Hanee replied, " As long as I live 
" will I not betray him." Then Abdoollali, the governor, 
burning with rage, at the head of the assembly directed 
Hanee to be instantly whipped to death, and he forthwith 
attained the rank of a martyr. 

Immediately after, his highness Mooslim was likewise 
translated by martyrdom. 

The two orphans, six and seven years of age, were taken 
and confined in prison. The gaoler was a good man and 
a descendant of tlie prophet, and liberating the boys, ad- 
vised them to make their escape. They went and hid them- 
selves in the house of a Qazee named Shurra. 

Abdoollali issued a proclamation through the town, di- 
recting the man who might have concealed Mooslim's sons 
to deliver them up speedily, otherwise when he should get 
accurate information respecting the person thus guilty, he 
would make him suffer. The Qazee, Shurra, becoming 
alarmed, in the morning before daybreak said to his son, 
take these lads and let them join the karwan (caravan) 
bound for Medina, which is encamped in the vicinity. Then 
the Qaxee's son, agreeably to his father's desire, said to the 
children, " Look, yonder goes the qafeela (or body of tra- 
" vellers), run and accompany them." The two boys, partly 
with good^vill, and partly with reluctance, ran crying. It 
being still somewhat dark they lost the road, and seeing a 
date forest went into it. (Couplet). 

While anxious here I meditate, 
There on me smiles impending fate. 


The boys went and hid themselves in the hollow of a 
date-tree, which was situated near a well, into which their 
shadows fell. Haris''s bondwoman, in the act of drawing 
water, discovering them by the reflection of their image in 
the water, inquired who they were ? They, through fear, 
began to cry. She asked, " Are ye Mooslim's sons?" 
They, on the bare mention of their father's name, cried 
still louder. The slave-girl brought them home, and said 
to her mistress, " I have brought Mooslim's sons with me." 
That excellent lady acted towards them as if she had been 
their own mother. Embracing them, she wept bitterly ; 
and having washed their hands and feet, and given them 
food to eat, she put them to sleep. Oh ! how wonderful are 
the ways of Providence ! While this good woman's husband, 
Haris, is from morning till night in search of the lads to 
apprehend them, here is she at home nourishing them. In 
short, in the evening Haris came home quite fatigued, and 
called out to his wife, " Bring dinner quickly ; for both I 
" and my horse are completely exhausted to-day by a 
" fruitless search after Mooslim's two sons, whom, if I 
" could but apprehend, I might, by delivering them to 
" Abdoollah, obtain a handsome reward from Ayzeed." 
The wife said, " What, art thou deranged ? What cause 
" have we to harbour any malice against the Prophet's and 
" Allee's offspring and descendants ? What sort of a Moos- 
" sulman art thou, and how readest thou thy creed in their 
" maternal grandfather's (Mohummud's) name! Be ashamed 
" of thyself." Thou seemest to take such pains in ob- 
" taining worldly riches ; what will it profit thee after 
" all .f*" That wretch, after loading his wife with curses 
and reproaches partook of his meal without the least relish 
and went to bed. 

The two lads sleeping in the next room dreamed that his 

Sect. 2. HUSSUN AND HOSEIN. |^1 

highness the Prophet (the peace, &c.) inquired of Mooslim 
how it was that he came and had left his two sons amongst 
his enemies ? To whicli he repHed, " They will doubtless 
" be here to-morrow." As the boys' own father had 
appeared to them in their dream, they were naturally 
crying while relating this to one another. Haris awoke 
at the noise, and inquired what children these were crying 
in the house ? So saying, he went to them, and discovering 
them to be Mooslim's sons, exclaimed, " Well done, you ! 
" — While I have been fatiguing myself in searching after 
" you all over the jungles (or forests), here you are snugly 
" asleep !"" Having tied the side-locks of the two boys 
together, he set off with them early in the morning. His 
bond-man, bond-woman, son and wife, all interceded in 
behalf of the lads as he started with them ; but he, after 
wounding some, and killing others, proceeded on his 

On his way meeting with a river, he made martyrs of 
both ; and tlirowing their bodies into the water, carried 
their heads, and laying them before Abdoollah, said, 
" Through your goodness and bounty I am in expectation 
" of the promised reward." The members of the assembly, 
on seeing the heads of the poor orphans, all wept bitterly 
at their having been put to death at so early an age. Even 
Abdoollah could not help being grieved, and in a violent 
rage asked Haris how he dared murder these children 
without orders ? For his command was, that whoever appre- 
hended the youths should, on bringing them to him, receive 
a reward. He further demanded of him where he had slain 
them ? On being told, in reply, " Near the bank of such 
" a river," he desired this tyrant and oppressor to be forth- 
with carried thither and beheaded ; and directed the heads 
of the children to be thrown into the same river. Ac- 


cordingly they took Haris there, and despatched him to 
hell with great torture and pain. In the Rowzut-oos Shohudcty 
it is stated, that after the heads had been thrown into the 
river, the two headless corpses rose from the bottom to the 
surface, and having united with their respective heads, 
sunk again. 

Meanwhile Eemam Hosein arrived at Koofee ; and on 
hearing of the martyrdom of Mooslim and his sons, was 
extremely dejected. A few days after, two of the villainous 
Ayzeed''s wuxeers (ministers) arrived from Syria to meet 
Hosein, to wage w^ar with him, and wrote to him to the fol- 
lowing effect : " Hosein, if your life be dear to you, come 
" and pay homage to king Ayzeed ; otherwise, you shall 
" not depart hence alive." His highness Hosein felt greatly 
incensed at this, and replied : " Ye, of our race, accom- 
'' plices of Ayzeed, have ye no wisdom or discernment ? 
" Do ye call yourselves Moosulmans and pious men ! 
" Pray, whose, in truth, is the Khilafut (successorship of 
" Mohummud)? In whose family did it orignate ? Whose 
" father or grandfather established tlie religion of Islam ? 
" Whether is it just that I should pay obeisance to Ayzeed, 
" or he to me ? Notwithstanding this, Ayzeed has, with- 
•■' out cause, butchered my nearest relatives, my innocent 
" brothers. If ye desire to make juhad fee-suheel-iUah 
" (or holy war) with me, I am ready to offer up my head 
" in the service of my God."" 

Having transmitted Hosein"'s letter to Syria, they ob- 
tained the order for battle ; which was to this effect : that 
they should cut off Hosein by any means in their power. 
In short, they ultimately fixed on the expediency of going 
to Avar. Ayzeed's army encamped near the banks of the 
river Foorat (Euphrates), and Hosein^s on the other side 
of an intervening jungle (or plain) called Mareea. It is 

Skct. 2. HUSSUN AND HOSEIN. 1(53 

the same that Is also denominated Dusht-bulla Kurb-bulla 
(vulgo Kurbula). 

On Hosein's arrival at the jungle he addressed his people, 
saying, " Ye Islamites ! as ye must now stand up to fight, 
" if there be any among you who cherish regard for their 
" wives and familes, I do with my whole heart and soul 
" grant them leave to return ; for I see plainly, that this is 
" the spot destined for my martyrdom. And why should 
" you unnecessarily suffer trouble and distress ?" On 
hearing this, some took their departure for Medina, others 
for Mecca or Cufa, 

On that day Hosein's forces, including himself, consisted 
of seventy-two men. Afterwards, however, a few of 
Ayzeed's people under Oomur and Abdoollah, came over to 
him : the first of whom was Hoor (e-Shuheed, or the mar- 
tyr). He joined his highness Eeman Hosein, and fought 
most bravely against the Ayzeed-eeans, killing many 
hundreds of them. The enemy"'s forces amounted to thirty 
thousand men, while on the other side were only seventy- 

A more minute detail of the circumstances of the war 
may be found in a Persian work entitled Rowxut-oosh 
Shohiida* of which there is both an enlarged and an 
abridged edition, in prose, by Moolla Hosein Kashufee, 
the author of the Tufseer-e-Hoseinee. In Hindee, the 
Rowxut-ool-Athar and the Rowzut-oosh-Shohuda, in verse, 
are well known. 

Among the martyrs the following are those who suffered 
and distinguished themselves most ; viz. 1. Hoor (e-Shu- 
heed, or the martyr) ; 2. Abdoollah ; 3. Aown ; 4 

Book (praises, &c.) of the martyrs. 
M 2 


Huntulla ; 5. Haylal ; 6. Abbas (e-UUumdar, or the 
standard-bearer) ; 7. Akbur ; 8. Qasim. 

When each one's turn for attaining the dignity of 
martyr had arrived, save that of Hosein, his highness 
Zein-ool-Abaydeen, who was confined by a severe fever, 
and much afflicted at seeing his father the sole survivor, 
expressed his wish to join the fight and encounter martyr- 
dom. Hosein comforting and consoling him, said, " Long 
" may you live and prosper, light of mine eyes ! By you 
" will the Almighty continue my progeny ; you shall not be 
" killed ; therefore do not, without cause, go and harass 
" yourself. Come, and I will impart to you many hidden 
" mysteries of godliness, as they have been revealed to me 
" by my father, paternal grandfather, and brother, word 
" for word,* in order that the right of succession may be 
" known in all the earth, even to the end of the world."" 

Having therefore, according to the established custom 
among Peers and Mooreeds, given Zein-ool-Abaydeen such 
admonition and advice, praise and blessing, as he thought 
proper, he mounted his steed Zool-junna,-|- repaired to the 
field of battle, and thus addressed the enemy: " O ye tribe 
" of the followers of the Faith ! Be it known unto you that 
" I am the grandson of the Prophet, and the son of Allee, 
" he, whose grandfather's creed (There is no God but the 
"one true God, and Mohummud is his messenger !) ye 
" repeat night and day. Behold, consider who it is of 
" whom Mohummud is the friend. j If ye have any fear 
" of God or his messenger before your eyes, or expect the 

• In the original, " hand in hand, from ear to ear;" an expression 
in use, from the circumstance of the two persons holding each other's 
hands, while the secret is whispered into the ear. 

t Meaning a winged wolf. 

t They call Mohummud the friend of God. 

Sect. 2. IIOSEIN. 165 

" intercession of my grandfather at the day of judgment, 
" then fear and tremble. Ye have already exalted many 
" of my relatives, friends, and companions to the dignity 
" of martyrs ! Be it so. I have only one request to make; 
" and that is, allow me and my household to quit Arabia 
" and proceed to Ujjum* (Persia). If not, for God's sake 
" give us a little water to drink. Your cattle, elephants, 
" horses, and camels have plenty to drink, but my family 
" is exceedingly distressed and crying out for water. 
" Among what tribe do ye find it thus.'' The children's 
" throats are parched with thirst, and for want of water 
" the milk is dried up in the mother's breast."" 

Many, on hearing Hosein's sweet voice and sound argu- 
ment, were confounded and withdrew from his presence. 
Immediately the tuhhul (or drum) of peace sounded. 

Hosein, from concomitant circumstances, was led to con- 
ceive the probability of the Almighty having softened the 
hearts of his enemies ; and wishing to see the result, whether 
it would prove a message of peace or otherwise, returned 
to his tent. Here, amongst his family, nothing was to be 
heard but lamentable calls of " Thirst ! thirst !" 

The author would observe, that however great the dis- 
crepancy in the details of the events here narrated, one 
thing is certain, that they suffered dreadful distress from 
the want of water, even to such a degree as none of Adam 
born ever before endured. 

The next day the tuhhul (or alarm) of war beat again. 
Hosein then strictly enjoined his family, on no account to 
make any noise or clamour after his martyrdom, by beating 
upon their breasts, or crying and bewailing Avith dishevelled 
hair ; observing, that such customs and usages only became 

• i.e. Any country not Arabian. 


the ignorant ; but to be sorrowful and bear it with quiet- 
ness and patience: for that such was the conduct that 
God and his messenger delighted in. 

After giving them further admonition, his highness 
Hosein displayed great intrepidity and bravery, driving 
the enemy twice back as far as the Euphrates. On one of 
these occasions he was prevented from quenching his thirst 
through the artifices of the enemy ; on the other he avoided 
it, by bringing to his recollection the deplorable situation 
of his family.* His highness Hosein being faint from the 
loss of blood, dismounted and let his charger loose " on the 
road to God.""-|- Then Oomur and Abdoollah Zeead said to 
their horsemen and footmen, " Now is the time, Avhile 
" Hosein is sitting exhausted : whoever brings his head 
" shall be handsomely rewarded by Ayzeed." 

It is stated in the Kun% oal gurraeh, by Abil Hoonnooq, 
that the moment his highness Hosein dismounted from his 
horse, a man appeared to him having a human countenance, 
but the arms, legs, and body of a horse. The figure, after 
making its obeisance, thus addressed Hosein : " If you will 
" allow me, I shall instantly vanquish all your foes."" 
Hosein inquired, " Who art thou, that at this season of 
" distress hast in pity come to my succour .?" He replied, 
*' I am Jaffur the son of Tyar, king of the Fairies. I am 
" vmder infinite obligations to you ; for your father ren- 
" dered mine an essential service at the battle of Beer-ool- 
*' ullum. When the whole race of Genii were overruled 
" and made Moosulmans, he appointed my father king 
" over them." Hosein observed, " Thou wilt be invisible 
" to them, though they be visible to thee : such treacherous 

• Meaning, why should he indulge himself with a draught of water 
when his poor family were dying of thirst ? 

•t That is, in pity, that the poor animal might not also be slain. 

Skct. 2. IIOSEIN. 167 

" warfare is not pleasing unto God, nor will I sanction it." 
Jaffur entreated him a second time, saying, " I beseech 
" you, Hosein, for your own sake, to allow me for a couple 
" of ghurrees* to assume a human form and stand up in 
" thy defence,"" Hosein again replied with his blessed 
tongue, " What use is there now in fighting ? I am only 
" a momentary sojourner in this transitory world (lit. a 
" guest of one breath): my relatives and companions are 
" all gone, and what Avill it profit me to remain behind.'' 
" 1 long for nothing now, save my martyrdom ; therefore 
" depart thou, and may the Lord recompense and bless 
" thee.*" JafFur then departed, much grieved, and weeping. 

As each of Ayzeed's party approached Hosein to cut off 
his head, they shrunk back at the very sight of him ; for 
who would, without cause, willingly bring upon his head-f* 
the blood of Hosein .'' 

At last came Seenan the son of Arwa, together with 
Shoomur-Zil-Jowshun, who had previously offered a stipu- 
lation to Oomur and Abdoollah, that they would bring 
them Hosein's head, provided these would promise to recom- 
mend that each should receive Sijageer as his reward. The 
point rested with them ; they both consented. Seenan 
stood behind Hosein, while Shoomur with a veil over his 
face stood before him. Hosein addressed the latter, saying, 
" What is thy name .^ Take off thy veil." When he un- 
covered his face, behold, he had a couple of boar's tusks, 
and on his chest was a black mark. This, however, is not 
a well-attested fact, both signs being doubtful. Hosein 
said to him, " Wait a moment : this is Friday (the Mohum- 
" mudan sabbath), the tenth day of the month Mohurrum, 

* Two and a.-\\&\i ghurrees are equal to about one Iioui-. 
+ Lit. " Upon his neck." 


" and it is the season for the %ohur (or afternoon) prayer ; 
" grant me a reprieve while I offer up two fiirx-rukat 
" prayers " Shoomur stept to one side, and after the first 
sijda (prostration), as he was in the act of making the 
second, Shoomur severed his blessed head from his body. 
Alas ! alas ! and woe 's me a hundred times ! for it was an 
awful catastrophe which no man can describe. 

After Hosein's martyrdom, Oomur and Abdoollah had 
all their own dead collected ; and having had the numa%-e- 
junaza (or funeral service) read over them, caused them to 
be buried. 

On the third day, having mounted Hosein's family on 
camels, and distributed all the heads of the martyrs, includ- 
ing that of Hosein (the mercy and peace, &c.) among part 
of the soldiery, horse and foot, to each a few enclosed in 
boxes, and delivered Hosein's to the particular charge of an 
officer named Khoolee, a relation of Shoomur, he directed 
them to be conveyed to Ayzeed in Syria. On passing 
through each town the head of Hosein was displayed on 
the point of a lance. (Vide p. 180). 

As Hosein's holy family were about to proceed to Syria, 
the soldiers conducted them along the road over the field of 
blood where the headless bodies of their relatives still lay, 
Shuhur-bano, the wife of his highness Eemam Hosein, and 
Zynub and Koolsoom his two sisters, perceiving the corpses 
of the martyrs, began to shriek and bewail, beating their 
breasts, and crying, " Oh grandfather ! ohAhmud!* Yon- 
" der lies Hosein, thy daughter's son, whose neck-|- was 
" the spot where thou was wont to kiss; and lo, now it 
" bears the mark of the bloody weapon (the dagger) ; and 

* A name of Mohummud. 

t Literally, "whose t\\rQ&t was t\\\ bosii-gnh ;^' perhaps meaning, 
on whose neck he used to hang in kissing (him). 

Skct. 2. HOSEIN. jgg 

" these are of thy family and household, now without house 
" or home, deserted and forlorn," Thus distressed and 
lamenting, they were led captive to Syria. In witnessing 
how deeply Zynub and Koolsoom were affected and agitated, 
not only their friends, but even their enemies shed tears. 

At every stage on the road some miracle or other used to 
be manifested from Hosein-s head. It is stated by Eemam 
Ismaeel, on the authority of Abil Hoonnooq, that on the 
arrival of the heads in the city of Mousel, they were all, 
including Hosein's, deposited in a temple, and locked up 
during the night. One of the mounted sentinels, in the 
dead of the night observed, through an orifice in one of the 
doors, the figure of a man with a white beard and of immense 
stature, who took Ilosein's head out of the box, and kissed 
and wept over it. By and by a whole assembly of ancestors 
arrived, and in like manner kissed and wept over it. Con- 
ceiving that these people might probably walk off with the 
head, he instantly unlocked the door and went in ; wlien 
some one gave him a violent slap on the face, and inter- 
rupted him by saying, " The prophets are come hither on 
" a morning visit to the head of the deceased. Whither art 
" thou venturing thus disrespectfully .?" The slap left a 
black mark on his cheek. In the morning he related the 
circumstance to the commanding officer, and showed him 
his cheek. 

On the heads being brought to Ayzeed, they first brought 
Hosein's, and displaying it to the grandees, observed, " Be- 
" hold, ye nobles of Syria, the head of him whose object 
" was the destruction of the race of Abee Soofeean and 
" Oomeea,^ and whose ambition was to become the khuleefa 

* Oouieea begat Abee-soofeeaii, Abee-sool'eeaiibegat Maweea, Ma- 
weea begat Ayzeed. 


" (caliph) of Arabia ^nd Ujjum (Persia). God has pu- 
" nished him according to his deserts, without permitting 
" him to execute his project." This speech was considered 
highly improper by Zein ool Abaydeen, who said, " Ye 
" Ayzeedeeans, avaricious noblemen, residents of Syria ! 
" Do ye read the creed of Abee Soofeean, or of my grand- 
" father Hosein ? Keep the fear of God before your eyes."*' 
Ayzeed, in a rage, ordered the boy to be beheaded ; ob- 
serving, that he was extremely impertinent. Many peti- 
tioned and interceded on his behalf, saying, " He is yet a 
" lad, and the death of his father is still fresh in his me- 
*' mory; and, besides, he is an orphan."" Ayzeed then 
desired Zein ool Abaydeen to state without reserve what 
his wishes were.'' he replied, " Three things, viz. 1st. 
" Deliver up to me my father"'s executioner ; 2dly. De- 
" spatch me, giving me the heads and families, to Medina ; 
" 3dly. To-morrow being Friday, let me read the khootha 
" (sermon or service)."" 

Ayzeed consented to his requests, but privately desired 
his own Syrian khuteeh (priest) to read the khootha, and to 
offer up praises and eulogiums in the names of the de- 
scendants of Abee Soofeean and Oomeea. Accordingly, on 
Friday the Syrian khuteeh read the khootha, and praised 
the race of Abee Soofeean and Oomeea, and spoke with con- 
tempt of the descendants of the Prophet, the offspring 
of Allee, and of the paternal grandfather and grandmother 
of both the Eemams.* Zein ool Abaydeen was mucli hurt 
at this ; and observed, " If thou be a monarch, act not 
" contrary to thy promise. Didst thou not assure me that 
" I should read the khootha ?" 

All present petitioned the king, saying, " He is a Me- 

* i. e. Hussun and Hosoiii. 

Sect. 2. HOSEIN. I7I 

" dinite, and one who is in the habit of performing the 
" pilgrimage;* we also are particularly desirous of putting 
*' the skill and eloquence of this boy to the test, and ascer- 
" taining their extent." Then Zein ool Abaydeen read the 
khootba ; and, after praising and eulogizing the descendants 
of the Prophet and of Allee, the Almighty put words with 
such effect into his mouth, that the devout Syrians on 
hearing them wept ; which Ayzeed observing, quickly 
directed the Mowazun to read the qamut,-f lest symptoms 
of war should appear, for the hearts of the congregation 
had melted away. 

After prayers, all the heads, with expenses for the road, 
clothes, &c. having been given to Zein ool Abaydeen, 
they were sent off to Medina. Some say that the execu- 
tioner was also delivered up to him, while others contradict 
it. At all events, they were despatched ; forty days after, 
they brought them back to Kurbulla, and buried the heads 
separately, each with its own body, and departed to Medina. 
Here they wept over the tombs of Mohummud MoostufFa 
(the peace, &c.) and Hussun ; and all Medina become 
subject to Zein ool Abaydeen. 

Hosein's martyrdom happened in the forty-sixth year of 
the Hijree, now 1202 years ago ; since which, the rejoicings 
at the eed (or festival), have been abolished, and mournings 
and lamentations established in lieu thereof. 

* These are generally very eloquent. 

t Qaniut (or creed) ; meaning, to proceed with the service. 


Sect. 3. The Ceremonies observed during the Ashoora, or 
Jirst ten days of the Month Mohurrum. 

The Mohurrum* or Mohurrum festival, commences 
on the evening the new moon becomes visible, which is 
called the first Whun, or day of the moon ; but the first 
day of the month Mohurrum is dated from the morning-}- 

The Mohurrum, including the Zeearut,X may be said to 
last till the twelfth of the month {i. e. the thirteenth K''hun) ; 
but the feast itself continues during the first ten days of the 
month, which period is called Ashoora. 

Houses are appropriated for the purpose, in which they 
set up ullums, taboots, shah-nusheens, booraqs, &c. ; and 
sometimes, for the sake of ornament, they set up tutteeans 
(screens, vide page 185.) around them, made of mica, &c. 
These places are called Ashoor-khana (ten-day-house); 
Taxeea-khana (the house of mourning) ; and Astana (a 
threshold, or fuqeer''s residence). Strangers are not per- 
mitted to go near them, as the threshold is required to be 
kept pure and undefiled for the purposes of reading the 
fateeha and durood. 

Five or six days previous to the Mohurrum, they pre- 
pare the Ashoor-khana, by plastering, white- washing, erect- 
ing a shed in front, &c., and wait in expectation of the new 

* This feast is in commemoration of the martyrdom of Hussun and 
Hosein : the latter of whom was killed on the tenth day of the month 
after a desperate battle of twenty days ; the former was poisoned a 
short time before, as has been related in the preceding section. 

t The Mohummudans calculate their days from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., 
and night vice-vcrsn ; and consider the night preceding the day, as the 
one belonging to it. 

J Or visiting; the relatives of the deceased visiting the grave on the 
tliird day of one's demise. Vide Chap, xxxix. 


moon. The moment that they see the Mohurrum new 
moon, they perform kodalee mama. That is, after having 
offered /a^eeAa over some sugar in the name of the Hoos- 
nein, attended by music, at the spot where they intend 
digging the allawa^ they strike the kodalee (spade) two or 
three times into the earth, and two or three days afterwards 
dig the hole. 

In front of each ashoor-khana is dug a circular pit, from 
one cubit and a half to eight cubits in diameter, and the 
same in depth ; occasionally, with a small wall round it. 
This is called an allaiva (bonfire). These are dug annu- 
ally on the same spot. Commencing from that day inclu- 
sive, they kindle fires in these pits every evening during 
the festival ; and the ignorant, old as well as young, 
amuse themselves in fencing across them with sticks or 
swords ; or only in running and playing round them, 
calling out, YaAllee! Ya Allee ! (Oh Allee! OhAllee!); 
Shah Hussun ! Shaft Hussun ! (noble Hussun ! noble 
Hussun!); Shah Hosein! Shah Hosein ! (noble Hosein ! 
noble Hosein !) ; Doolha ! doolha ! (bridegroom ! bride- 
groom !) ; Haee dost ! haee dost ! (alas, friend ! alas, 
friend!); Ruheeo ! ruheeo! (stay! stay!) Every two of 
these words are repeated probably a hundred times over, as 
loud as they can bawl out. 

Of those who have vowed, some leap into the still-burn- 
ing embers, and out again ; others, leap through the flame, 
and some scatter about handfuls of fire. 

Women likewise, without an ashoor-khana, dig an allawa, 
and repeating murseea* beat upon their breasts. 

In general it is customary to play round the allawa at 
night ; seldom in the day. 

* A funeral eulogium, particularly one sung during the mohurrum 
in commemoration of the descendants of Allee. 


Women, in addition to the above-mentioned exclama- 
tions, call out aloud, while violently beating their breasts,* 
hundreds of times over, the following words : Haee ! haee! 
(alas ! alas !) ; Shah juwan ! Shah juwan ! (excellent 
youths ! excellent youths !) ; Teetio ! teeno ! (all three ! 
all three!); Luhoomen ! Luhoomen ! (in blood ! in blood !); 
Doobay! doobay ! (drowned! drowned!); Giray ! giray ! 
(fallen! fallen!); Muray ! muray ! (dead! dead!); P«- 
ray ! pur ay! (prostrate I prostrate!); Ya Allee! (Oh 
Allee !) 

Having called out Ya Allee, (pronouncing it only once 
and very long,) as a sign of conclusion, and taking breath 
awhile, should they know any murseea (dirge), or recollect 
a line or couplet of one, they repeat it, with mournful lamen- 
tations ; and beating upon their breasts, again reiterate the 
exclamations above mentioned. 

Some women substitute in the place of an allawa, a lamp 
placed on a wooden mortar, or an inverted earthen pot, 
over which they make their lamentations. 

On the first, third, or fourth klmn, they deck out the 
ashoor-Jchanaf with carpets, ceilings, tapestry, transpa- 

• Women who thus beat upon their breasts are called Secna-ziinnee 
(breast-beaters), and are all of the Sheeah persuasion ; Soonnees con- 
sider it unlawful to do so. 

t " The opulent people of Mussulman society (particularly in 

" upper Hindoostan), have, instead of an ashoorkana, wliat they call 

" an emambar a, \v\\\ch. is a sacred place erected for the express pur- 

" pose of commemorating Mohurrum. The founder not unfrequently 

" intends this also as the mausoleum for himself and family. It is a 

" square building, generally erected with a cupola top, the dimensions 

" guided by the circumstances of the founder. The floor is matted 

" with date-leaf mats, in common use in India, on which is a shut- 

" runjee (cotton carpet), and over this a clean white calico covering, 

" on which the assembled party are seated, during the several periods 

" of collecting together to remember their leaders. These meetings 

" are termed mujlis. 

" The 


rencies, hanging-lamps, lustres, chundoo, floor-lamps, wax- 
candles, benzoin-pastile stands, fishes formed of paper or 
tinsel, ostrich eggs, artificial flowers of paper, fountains, &c. 

" The tazcea is placed against the wall on the side facing Mecca 
" under a canopy of rich embroidery A reading-desk or pulpit 
" (mimbur) is placed in a convenient situation for the reader to face 
" Mecca, and his voice to be heard by the whole assembly of people ; 
" it is constructed of silver, ivory, ebony, &c. to correspond with the 
" tazeea, if possible : the steps are covered sometimes with gold cloth, 
" or broadcloth of black or green if a Syed's property, being the 
" colour worn by that race for mourning. The shape of a mimbur 
" is a flight of steps with a flat top, without any railing or enclosed 
" place ; the reader, in his recitings, occasionally sitting on the steps 
" or standing, as may be most convenient to himself. 

" On the walls of the emmnbara, mirrors and looking-glasses are 
" fixed, in suitable situations, to give eifect to the brilliant display of 
" light from the magnificent chandeliers suspended from the cupola 
" and cornices. The nobles and the wealthy are excited with a desire 
" to emulate each other in the splendour of their display on these 
" occasions. All the mirrors, glass lustres, chandeliers, &c. are 
" brought together to this place from their several stations in the 
" mansion ; and it is due to them, to admit the effect to be often im- 
" posingly grand, and the olaze of light splendid. 

" On each side the tazeea, the whole length of the wall, banners 
" are arranged, in great variety of colour and fabric ; some of them 
" are costly and splendid. I have seen many constructed of the richest 
*' embroidery, on silk grounds, of gold and silver, with massy gold 
" fringes, cords, and tassels ; the staff is cased with gold or silver, 
" worked into figures of birds and other animals in every variety ; the 
" the top of which has a crest, in some a spread hand, in others a sort 
" of plume, and not unfrequently a crest resembling a grenade, 
" formed of the precious metals, and set with stones of great value. 

" On the base of the tazeea, the several articles are placed con- 
" ceived likely to have been used by Hosein at Kurbulla : a turban of 
'' gold or silver tissue, a splendid sword and belt, the handle and hilt 
" set with precious stones, a shield, the Arabian bow and arrow. 
" Wax-lights, red and green, are also placed in great numbers about 
" its base, in silver or gold candlesticks ; and censers of gold and 
" silver, burning incense perpetually during mohurrum. INIany 
" other minor tributes to the emams are discovered near the tazeea, 
" as choice fruits and garlands of sweet-scented flowers, the offerings 
" of ladies of the family to their relative's tazeea.'" — Mrs. M. H. All's 
Obs. on Mussulman's of India, vol. i. p. 33 


The idlums are also called shudday^ punjay, eemam- 
%aday, peeran, sahiban, and eemamein ; and all sucli as 
come out previous to the tenth k''hun, are further termed 
suwaree (mounted) tdlums, and distinguished by having 
two or three lemons suspended to them. 

An ullum is a representation of a standard. Among all 
royal forces* there are standards called mahee and moo- 
ratih. Mahee (fish) derives its name from the circumstance 
of the figure of the head of a fish, made of silver or gold, 
being fixed on the top of a long pole, which is decorated 
with a task or moqeish doputta from top to bottom ; and 
mooratib is any one of the ullums (crests) similarly fastened 
to a bamboo, and decorated with task and badla, moqeish 
and zurbiift, shawl, tafta^ or white cloth. These, mounted 
on elephants, are carried at the head of the regiment, and are 
meant for colours. 

In like manner, at the Mohurrum they form ullums 
intended to be fac-similes of Hosein's banner, and to these 
the people of Hindoostan have given the names of parti- 
cular martyrs. Thus they have the punja-e-Hydur, alias 
Hyduree punja (Hydur'sf palm i. e. of the hand) ; punja- 
e-moortooza Allee (the palm, or fist, of Alice the chosen-f*); 
punja-sher-e-khoda (the palm of the lion of Godf) ; punja- 
e-mu%hurool ajaeb (the palm of the displayer of wonders-f-) ; 
punja'e-mooshkil koosha (the palm of the disperser of dif- 
ficulties-j-) ; Beebee ka ullum, or ullum-e-Beebee Fateema 
(Lady Fatima's standard) ; Hoseinee ullum, or Hoseinee 
surwur (the Hoseinee standard or leader); ullum-e- Abbas, 
or Ahbas-e-ullumdar (Abbas, the standard-bearer) ; ullum- 
e-qasim, ullum-e-Allee-akbur, and ullum-e-usgur (these are 
likewise called Eemamr-zaday, priest-born) ; ullum-e-doa%da 

i. e. Of Indian princes. f Different names of Allee. 

Sect. 3. ULLUMS. ITT 

Eemam, (the twelve Eemams, or chief-priests) ; ullum~e- 
Eemam zamin ; d'hnl sahib; hurzukhee or qoodruttee 
ullum; zoolfuqqar (or double-bladed sword of xlllce, ori- 
ginally Mohummud's) ; nal sahib. 

These ulhcms are generally made of copper, brass, or 
steel, occasionally of gold or silver, and even set with pre- 
cious stones ; and 7ial sahib, besides, of paper or wood. 

Those made of metal, whether new ones, or old ones 
given to be cleaned and burnished, are brought in pomp 
and state on trays, accompanied with music, from the gold- 
smith's house to the ashoor-khanas, in each of which, four, 
five, six, or seven are set up. They are fixed on sticks or 
staff's, which are occasionally of silver, though generally of 
wood, and decked out in clothes ;* and on the first, fourth, 
or fifth evening of the moon, stuck up in holes made in the 
floor, or are fastened on stools, and in front of them are 
placed lights, moorch''huls,f oodsoz,^ toys, &c. ; and some- 
times on one side is a representation of the foot of the 
Messenger, called Qudum-e-russool (vide page 234.). At 
the time of setting up the ullums, while burning incense, 
they off'er fateeha in the name of the martyrs, over sugar 
or shurbut, and then distribute them to both rich and poor. 
In like manner, every evening they make fateeha and 
khutum-e-qordn.§ and adorn the punjay Avith flowers. Fu- 

* " These are in the shape of a long scarf of usually white muslin, 
" but sometimes of rich silk of bright florid colours, forming an agree- 
" able variety, some being blue, purple, green, yellow, &c. embroidered 
" very deep at the ends, which are furnished with gold and silver 
" bullion fringes. It is caught together near the middle and tied 
" with rich gold and silver cords and tassels to the top of the staff, 
" just under the head or crest."— Mrs. Meer H. Ali. These dresses 
of the Ullums are called dhidtees. 

+ Fans for driving away flies. 

X Utensils for burning ood, as a perfume. 

§ Khutuw,, a reading through of the entire Qoran. For the method 
of doing it, vide chap, xxxix. 


qeers of various descriptions are in attendance. In the 
morning they only read the Qorcm, and sit up all night 
reading the Roivxut oosh Shohuda (Book of Martyrs), or 
reciting murseea noivh (mournful dirges), and make lamen- 
tations, beating their breasts. Should Providence have 
blessed them with the means, then either in the morning or 
in the evening, or at both periods, they have kliichree 
cooked without meat, and shurhut prepared ; and having 
o^exeCi fateeha over these in the name of Eemam Hoosnein, 
they partake of these themselves, as well as distribute them 
among the poor. 

Every night murseea khwanee (the recitation of funeral 
eulogiums) takes place in the ashoor-khana of some one or 
other. They train up for the purpose, boys possessing 
musical voices, invite their friends, fuqeers, and numerous 
spectators to hear them ; and hold shuh-haydaree (nocturnal 
vigils). Tlie day is spent at each ashoor-khana in reading 
the Qoran. From the first to the seventh kliun, with the 
exception of the above-mentioned /a^eeAa, dwroocZ, khutum- 
e-Qoran, Murseea, preparing victuals, shurhut, &c. nothing 
takes place.* 

On the seventh k''hun (and by the ignorant on the seventh 
day of the month), the ullwm-e-qasini-e-shuheed, distin- 
guished by having a little silver or gold umbrella fixed on 

* By I\[rs. ]M. II. All's account, (vol. i. p. 57.) it Mould appear that 
at Lucknovv the banners are taken out of the ashoorkhanas or emavn- 
baras on the fifth day, and conveyed in solemn procession to a parti- 
cular diirgah situated in the suburbs of that city, for the purpose of 
being consecrated, which is done by touching^ with them the original 
crest of Hosein's banner, deposited there. The order of procession 
of one of the Ullums, and that of a rich man, she describes with great 
minuteness and accuracy; justly adding, that some are more splendid 
than others, and that the \eiy poor people parade their banneis with 
perhaps no other accompaniment than a single drum and fife, and the 
owner supporting his own banner. 

Skct. 3. ULLUMS. 179 

his head, makes his debut out of doors in the afternoon.* 
He is borne by a man on horseback, accompanied with 
music, &c. ; but instead of the dancing-girls who are pre- 
sent, singing songs, they repeat murseea notvh (funeral eulo- 
giums) ; and making lamentations, beating upon their 
breasts, proceed to the places desired. If they cannot 
afford a horse for the iiUum, a man on foot carries it, 
running every now and then, reeling to and fro like a 
drunken man, pretending to be distracted with grief; while 
many run after him like so many madmen, all exclaiming 
aloud doolha ! doolha ! (i. e. bridegroom ! bridegroom !), 
on account of Qasim's recent marriage before martyrdom. 

When the ulhim-e-qasim meets with any allawas on the 
road, he goes to their ashoor-khanas, and having made his 
obeisance to the ullums there, and offered faieeha over the 
smoke of Benjamin, takes his leave. 

After having thus gone round his visiting excumon, 
with a moorchliul waving over him and frankincense burn- 
ing, he is conveyed home to his own ashoor-khana, where 
they lay him down on a stool. Considering him just to 
have suffered martyrdom, they cover him vip with any 
description of cloth, and treat him as a real corpse ; and as, 
on the death of any one, they are wont to strike their 
heads and beat their breasts, so, in like manner, they weep 
sometimes for the deceased and lament his loss. After 
having off'ered fateeha over two or three earthen pots of 
shurbut, termed run ka shurhut (the war-lemonade), they 

* " Tliis night is called the night of Maynhdee in some parts of the 
" country, where tliey have a public display, intending to represent 
" the marriage ceremony, so called, for Qasim, who was married to 
" the favourite daughter of Hosein on the morning of the celebrated 
" battle. On this night they have the same showy parade which dis- 
" tinguishes the Maynhdee procession of a real wedding ceremony." 
airs. M. H. Ali, vol. i. p. 74. 



distribute it among such attendants and spectators as par- 
take of Moosulman food and drink. They then go away, 
and the landlord sets up the ullum again in its place. 

On the seventh Whun, in the forenoon or afternoon, they 
also take out the neeza (spear) on its peregrination. The 
nee%a is a lance or spear, which they dress up with clothes, 
leaving two shumlay* waving in the air, and fix a lime on 
the top of it, emblematic of Hosein's head, which was 
thus carried by Ayzeed's order through different cities on 
the point of a javelin (vide p. 168). Some substitute a 
thin bamboo for the spear, on which they wind a turban- 
cloth, and near the top of it, below the lime, fasten a split 
bamboo bow across, to the two extremities of which they 
sometimes suspend a couple of swords ; and above the bow 
they generally wind, for the sake of ornament, red and 
white, or black and white cloth, in a spiral form. Accom- 
pariied with music, fuqeers, &c. they walk about witli it 
from house to house, begging. The people of the house 
first throw one or two pots of water on the neeza-hesLYer\ 
feet, and then make him a present of a rupee, fanam, or 
pice, or a little grain. The nioojawir (attendant of the 
ashoor-khana) with his own hands takes some eebodee, or 
the ashes of the ood-dan, and gives it to him : he receives it 
with great devotion, and applies it to his own eyes as well 
as to those of his children ; and sometimes even eats a 
little, and makes them eat of it. After that they bring it 
home and stick it up in front of the ashoor-khana ; and 
when the taboots and ullums are taken out, the nee%a is 
carried in front of them. There is one of these at each 

• Shumlay, the worked or embroidered end of a turban or ktimmur- 
bund, sometimes tucked into the folds and sometimes left flying loose. 

Sect. 3. NEEZA— NAL-SAHIB. 181 

In the evening of that day they take out the Beehee ka 
iillum, Hoseinee tiUum, nal-sahib, and xoolfiiqqar, accom- 
panied with flambeaux, as before, repeating murseea-nowh, 
making lamentations after the same fashion as has been de- 
tailed in the case of ullum-e-qasim, but without the horse. 

Nal-sahih (vulgo vialsab ; literally Mr. Horse-shoe) is 
made of gold, silver, steel, copper, brass, or other metals ; 
or, what is more common, of wood or paper besmeared with 
sundul, of a somewhat larger size- than a common horse- 
shoe. With this (as an emblem of Hosein's swift horse), they 
run most furiously, frequently upsetting infirm men, women, 
and children, to the infinite diversion of the by-standers, 
who quiz them (the sufferers) into the bargain. Some, 
through ignorance, construct with cloth something of a 
human shape, and substitute the shoe for its head. Many 
people take a long thin bamboo, like a fishing-rod, wind 
round it any two kinds of paper, pasting them over its 
whole length, and on the upper end of it fix an aftah-geeree 
(parasol), consisting of a fan in the shape of a peepul-\ea,f, 
to ward off the rays of the sun. The fan is made of coloured 
paper, tinsel, or mica, with a fringe all round, prettily con- 
structed with one or three moorchliuh tied to the point of it; 
and they fasten a rope or two which reaches to the ground 
close to the aftah-geeree. Resting the lower end of the 
bamboo on the kummurhund, they support it Avith one hand 
while they balance it by means of the rope with the other, 
and thus run with Nal-sahih''s cavalcade. When it is too 
heavy for one, other two men assist him in balancing it, by 
means of two ropes acting like the stay of a ship's mast. 
Whenever he halts, they lower the aftah-geerees and shake 
them over his head ; and in their eagerness to do so, they very 

Sometimes « foot lont 


often strike them against one another, by which they are 
broken. Many do this, after their wishes have been accom- 
plished, to fulfil vows (vide Nii%ur-o-nya%, chap, xxvii.) 
which they may have made. 

Sometimes a woman makes a vow to Nalsahib^ saying, 
" Should I, through your favour, be blessed with offspring, 
" I shall make it run with your equipage." Should it so 
happen that she afterwards brings forth a child, she accord- 
ingly puts an uftah-geeree into its hand when it attains the 
seventh or eighth year of its age, and causes it to run along 
with the cavalcade. The rich make their children run only 
a short distance, and then let servants run for them ; 
whereas the poor are wont to run themselves ; and some with 
swords and shields, or only with sticks, run round and round 
the procession. A greater crowd accompanies it than any 

In short, in this way, on the evening of the eighth Whun, 
they take out the hurzukhee, alias qoodriittee ullum ; and 
on the following night (the ninth) the Abbas ka ullum and 
Hoseinee ullum. 

The day for taking out the various ullums differs in a 
trifling degree in different countries. If two ullums on 
their mounted excursions meet one another on the road, 
they mutually embrace (or rather the men cause them to 
touch), and having offered fateeha., after burning incense 
they pass on. 

On the tenth kliun all the ullums and tahoots (except 
the ullum-e-qasim) carried on men's shoulders, attended by 
fuqeers of every description, perform shubgusht (nocturnal 
perambulation) in great pomp and state ; the lower orders 
in the evening, and the higher at midnight. On that night 
the streets are illuminated, and every kind of sport takes 
place. Among others is an exhibition of the phantasmagoria 

Skct.3. TABOOT or TAZEEA. 183 

or magic-lantern kind, in which the shadows of the figures 
fall on a white cloth skreen, representing battles, &c., 
which attracts crowds of people to the spot. In short, the 
whole town is awake that night, and presents one general 
scene of noise, bustle, tumult, and confusion. 

The tahoot alias taxeea (or bier) is a frame-work of 
bamboo in the shape of a mausoleum, (intended to represent 
the one at the plain of Kurbulla erected over the remains 
of Hosein,) made with a sort of net-work of paper nicely 
clipped (sometimes with plates of mica on the back,) and 
pasted to it. It is further ornamented with different kinds 
of coloured paper, formed into various devices, tinsel 
fringes, &c., with a dome, which is sometimes so contrived 
as to move round at the slightest breath of air. When the 
whole is lighted up within and without, it has a beautiful 
appearance. It is a square edifice, its sides varying from two 
to fourteen cubits, and the proportion of its height is half 
as much again as that of one of its sides (vide Plate I. fig. 1). 
Within it are placed ullums, or a couple of little artificial 
tombs, intended to represent those of Hussun and Hosein. 
Some, instead of the net- work paper about the tahoot., con- 
struct it by tying hunggreean to one another, and over 
the places where they touch, fasten various kinds of flowers 
made of white paper; and behind the hunggrees they tie 
red (A;oos.900?/i-coloured) cloth, or paste red paper. When 
lighted up, it has a very pretty appearance. This is termed 

Others again, instead of using the paper net-work, make 
it of flowers and leaves formed of wax of various colours, 
so admirably executed as to resemble natural roses and 
tuberoses ; ^ which the people view with astonishment. 

* Polyanthus tubcrosa. — Lin, 


When it is carried about on the shuh-gusht night, they 
squirt water on it by means of syringes, to prevent its 
melting by the heat of the torches and blue-lights. With 
the beautiful effect produced by the reflection of the torches 
and blue-lights, it is not unlike a chumum (parterre) with 
flowery shrubs in full bloom. This is called mom ka tahoot 
(or wax tahoot). 

Some construct a tazeea, consisting of a representation 
of the Mudeena nuqsha (Medina picture), which is a fac- 
simile of the Prophet's mausoleum there. This they orna- 
ment variously with gilding and enamelling, and so beauti- 
fully, that by candle-light it has a very splendid appearance- 
It is so elegantly formed that the spectators never tire of 
viewing it. 

The generality of people conceiving it to be an exact 
resemblance of the Prophet's tomb, proceed eagerly to the 
spot to obtain a glimpse of it. Instead of the net-work on 
the taboots, some people substitute cloth, and by dabbing 
it over with earth get surson (mustard-seed) to vegetate 
on it, which makes the tahoot look by candle-light as if 
it were entirely formed of emerald. In the same way, they 
sometimes construct and erect a camel, punjay, and ullums 
with surson, and some make an artificial cimmhaylee kay 
mundwa, uncommonly well executed, in imitation of the 
chumhaylee (jasmine) creeper on a mundwa (shed) ; and 
as they carry this about on the skuhadiit-day, people throw 
gujray on it as it passes along the streets.'^ 

* In short, the tazecn is fonued, as Mrs. Meer observes, " of every 
" variety of materials, from the purest silver down to bamboo and 
" paper. Some have them of ivory, ebony, sandal-wood, cedar, &c." 
and she has seen some beautifully wrought in silver filigree. The 
handsomest, to her taste, is in the possession of his Majesty the king 
of Oude, composed of green glass with brass mouldings, manufactured 
in Enjrland. 

Sect. 3. SHAH-NUSHEEN. 18^ 

Some, instead of a taboot, erect a shaJi-misheen (royal 
seat), alias dad-muhal (palace of justice). This, like the 
taboot, is constructed of bamboos, paper, tinsel, &c., and in 
shape somewhat resembling a palace. It is placed against 
the wall, and ullums are set up therein. It has sometimes 
in each corner a transparency in the form of a table-shade, 
whirled round with the least breath of air, and hence its 
name, churkhee fanoos (revolving-shade).* These shades 
are at times made apart and placed in front of the shall- 
7iusheen. Some also construct around the tahoots and 
ullums^ or set up separately in the ashoor-khanas, what they 
call t7itteean,-f made of ubruk (mica) and mercury, which 
glitter and shine with great splendour by the reflection of 
the light. When blue-lights are burnt before them they 
present such an elegant appearance that it baffles descrip- 
tion : it can only be credited on ocular demonstration. 
Many hundreds of thousands of rupees are annually ex- 
pended in the construction of these tuttees : in the city of 
Hydrabad they are particularly in vogue. Some erect in the 
ashoor-khanas artificial mango, pine-apple, custard-apple, 
and other trees, so beautifully formed that they appear like 
real trees laden with blossoms and fruits ; and on these they 
have likewise representations of different species of birds 
and s(piirrels, in the act of eating the fruits. Crowds of 
people assemble to see them, and view them with astonish- 
ment ; for they resemble real trees, birds, and animals. 
Sometimes they set up human figures of different kinds, 
of various colours and shapes. Some, for instance, are 

* Also termed, fnnoos-e-kheeal ; a lantern which revolves by the 
smoke of the candle within, and has on the sides of it figures of va- 
rious aninaals, &c. For these see Plate I. fig. 2 and 2, 

t TuUeean. Frameworks containing- S(juare pieces of mica made 
into looking glasses. 


represented as in the act of praying, or of going through the 
different forms of sitting, standing, and prostration ; one, in 
the character of a sepoy^ appears as sentinel, with his mus- 
ket on his shoulder, walking up and down, keeping watch ; 
one sitting, moves his head backwards and forwards;* 
another saluting (i. e. making sularn). Near to these, 
again, they also place artificial birds and animals; such as 
hiiglay (paddy-birds), myna (martins), parroquets ; also 
snakes, ducks, cats, dogs, &c. ; and, by some ingenious 
contrivance, an artificial dove comes every now and then out 
of its cage, and after cooing awhile like a real dove, he 
walks into it again. In some aUawas,-f on a raised chu- 
bootra, they set up a large doll or female figure, made of 
cloth or wood, dressed up as a female, and place a chukkee 
(hand-mill) before her : she taking hold of the handle of it 
with one hand, and putting wheat or rice into it with the 
other, goes through the operation of grinding. As the 
flour accumulates round the mill the proprietor removes it. 

Sometimes they take a cucumber, a water-melon, or a 
green plantain," and having pierced it through near its 
centre with a couple of sharp knives, with their cutting 
edges inclined from one another, pointing upwards and 
downwards, they suspend the one by its two ends to a beam' 
or rafter, whilst they attach a stone weighing ten or twelve 
seers (twenty or twenty-four pounds) to the other ; and 
strange as it may seem, the knives do not divide this very 
succulent vegetable. 

On the night of the 7th of the month Mohurrum, the 
hooruq, made of wood, about two or three feet high, beau- 
tifully painted and decorated, with such neck, arm, nose, 

* As IMoosulmans are wont to do in the act of reading. 
t >4*//oor-Mrt«f«, in common conversation, are called «//««' ffi ; ^^• 
cause the latter are in front of them. 

Sect. 3. BOORAQ. 187 

and ear-jewels and head ornaments as are usually worn by 
Moosulmans, is brought from the painter's house, accom- 
panied by lighted torches, murseea-iiowh-reciters, &c. to 
the ashoor-kha7ia, where it is placed before the iillums 
facing forwards. This is intended to be a fac-siraile of the 
boordq, or horse,* which the Almighty sent from heaven by 
the angel Jibreel (Gabriel), to convey to him his highness 
Mohummud Moostuffa (the peace, &c.) on a visit. The 
description of this animal is as follows: — He had the 
head and face of a man ; ears long ; forehead broad, and 
shining like the moon ; eyes black, like those of a deer, 
and brilliant as the stars; neck and breast of a swan; loins 
of a lion ; tail and two wings of a peacock ; stature of a 
sooreea-gaee or of a mule ; speed of hurq (lightning) : 
hence the derivation of its name, hooraq. 

Many of the Hindoos have such faith in these tahoots, 
ullunis, booraqs, &c. that they even erect them and like- 
wise become fuqeers. And if any fighting and bloodshed 
take place between the two castes-^ during the Mohurrum, 
the Hindoos who have turned Mohummudan fuqeers take 
the part of the Moosulmans and fight against the people of 
their own caste ; nor do they, during that period, partake 
of any animal food that has not been regularly made zubuh, 
or sacrificed according to the Moosulman rites (vide zuhuh. 

• Or an ass, according to some authorities. Plate I. fig. 4. 

t As was the case at Cuddapah in 1821 ; when owing to the greatest 
feast of each of the two castes, viz. the Mohurrum of the INIohum- 
mudans, and the Dusserali or Churruck Pooja of the Hindoos, oc- 
curring on the same day, neither would give way and many were 
killed. It may here be remarked, that agreeably to Moosulman 
custom, their feast can not be deferred ; whereas that of the Hindoos 
may, and they may be bribed to postpone their's to a more convenient 


During the thirteen days of the Mohurrum festival, 
Moosulmans keep their dwellings and garments remarkably 
neat and clean, and their bodies pure and undefiled. They 
even refrain from conjugal embraces ; and what is also ex- 
traordinary, some from the first, others from the fourth, 
fifth, sixth, or seventh day of the moon till the ninth, pro- 
hibit themselves even the use of meat and fish, betel-leaf, and 
sleeping on a bed. Should they sleep on a cot, it is turned 
topsy turvy; and for this reason, that it would be disre- 
spectful in them to sleep on an elevation, when their Eemams 
(priests) are standing on the ground. On the tenth some 
partake of these enjoyments ; but others abstain from the 
tenth to the thirteenth day. 

From the fifth k'kmi, at every nshoor-khana, the nobility 
in front of their dew an-kh anas, merchants at their gates, 
and shopkeepers before their shops, have ahdar-khatias 
(places where water is kept for drinking), nicely decorated 
with a cloth ceiling, and other ornamental contrivances. 
There they dispense milk, shurbiit, water cooled and 
scented, to all the people ; and at night have illuminations, 
&c. at these places. 

On tlie fifth kymn, almost all people, men and women, 
old and young, put on a sylee^ or gujra, especially unmar- 
ried people, who are particularly fond of it : the married 
seldom wear them. Married women are not allowed to 
show their faces to their husbands during the ten days of 
the first Mohurrum after marriage, at which time they are 

• Si^lee is emblematic of the dress of the real Bnnwa-fuqeers who 
are said to have \x\xn^^ fuqeers through grief for Hussun and Hosein. 
They have it made of hair ; w hereas, on this occasion, it is made of 
thread, green or red, the former to represent the green colour of 
Hussun's body, rendered so, soon after his death, by the effects of the 
poison ; the latter the blood with which Hosein's body was imbued 
when slain in the tield of battle. 


kept apart from one another. They observe the same custom 
during the tayra tayxee (first thirteen days of the month 
Sufiir) as also during the days of the hara wufat^ from the 
first until the oor5*-day (in the month Ruhbee-oos-sanee) ; 
for these days are esteemed evil, and no pleasure or enjoy^ 
ment should take place during them. The learned con- 
sider such things unlawful and never wear them. 

It is undoubtedly unlawful and contrary to the Mohum- 
mudan law ; but so it is, that in Hindoostan they attend 
more to these customs than to the (fiirz) divine commands. 
I mean, such as applying tibeer to the faces of children, 
putting on them green dresses, such as jamas, ungurkhas, 
or koortas, and wearing these themselves. The nobility, 
as well as the respectable among the middling classes of 
people, content themselves with merely tying a sylee or 
gujra round their wrists. 

Description of the Mohnrrum Fuqeers. 

Of these there are many varieties, most of whom attire 
themselves in their new garb on the fifth kliun ; a few on 
the second ; and still fewer on the sixth or seventh. These 
I shall separately notice ; and 

1st. The Sylee wala (vulgo Suhaylee wakt), or those 
who wear a sylee (a necklace of coloured-f- thread worn by 

Atfaraxi (perfumers) and putway (makers of fringe and 
tape) manufacture for the occasion red and green sylee, 
alias antee (a necklace of a skein of thread), as well as brace- 
lets, termed soomurun and gujra, beautifully ornamented 
with gold and silver thread, which are purchased; but 

• Vide Oors, Glossary. 

t Sylees of flowers are worn on other occasions. 


previous to putting them on, they place together with them 
on a tray, some sweetmeat, and tnaywa (^vix. choorway, 
sugar, and phootaiiay), and a churagee ; and having offered 
fateeha over them, they first put a small axitee around the 
shuddays neck, and then, either there or after going home, 
wear them round their necks and wrists. If the giijra be 
worn only on one hand, it is invariably on the right ; the 
soomunm is always on the right only. Their dress is the 
usual one. The moojatvir after the fateeha helps himself 
to the churagee and some of the fruits, and returns the rest* 
In addition to the above, some old and young people tie 
a piece of green cloth on both the upper arms. 

Some of these ficqeers apply iiheer to their faces ; and 
holding an ood buttee (benjamin pastile) lighted in their 
hands, go out abegging. 

2. Banuiva (prop, hay nuwa^ i. e. indigent,) fuqeeran. 
They are distinguished by the following dress. They wear 
on the head a topee {fuqeeis taj or cap), a sylee, a shawl, 
or a gold imindeel ; on the neck, a kufnee or an aJfa, red, 
green, or Avhite, and a sylee, tiisheeh (see Glossary), and 
kuntlut ; on the wrists, a soomunm or gujra ; round the 
waist, a loong^ dhotee, or lunggote ; and round the right 
ankle, a dal or a silver tora, or nothing at all. They apply 
tibeer to the face, and carry in the hand a fan or cJiliurree 
(a switch), a sword, or sang (a javelin wholly composed of 

The fuqeers of this class have a distinct guroh (band) 
amono- themselves, with different ranks and denominations, 
thus : 1. a moorshud or sur-guroh (chief of the troop), whom 
they all agree to obey. Under him there is, 2. a khuleefa, 
who stands in the same relation to him as a minister to a 
kino- ; 3. a b'hundaree shah, a house-steward who has charge 
of the storehouse, or distributer ; 4. an iznee shah, to call and 


assemble tlic people and convey orders (an aide-de-camp ?) ; 
5. an adalut shah, to direct the order of movements ; 6. a 
kotwal, to keep order and discipline; 7. a dost, the friend; 
8. an al hookm-e-lillah (literally, God is the judge); 9- an 
al-umr-e-lillah) commander; 10. a nuqeeb-ool-foqra, whose 
business it is to proceed in front of the troop, and proclaim 
the praises and attributes of the Deity, as an injunction to 
the o\\\er fuqeers. 

On arriving at an ashoor-khana, the troop of fuqeers, 
drawing themselves up in two or three lines in front of it, 
the dost calls out his own name " dostC the kotwal answers 
" hur-chay-ruza-ay-ostr* Then the al-hookm-e-Ullah'\' from 
the right flank calls out his own name twice, and from the 
left al-umr-e-lillah re-echoes his name twice. After, the 
adalut shah repeats the /afeeha kay durja\ alone with a loud 
voice, and at the conclusion calls out the Avord ''^ fateeha f 
when all the fuqeers repeat the soora-e-alhu7nd§ once, and 
the qool-hoo-allah\\ three times, and read the durood, and 
finish by drawing their hands over their faces. Then the 
adalut shah (lawgiver) repeats sentences or couplets which 
have reference to the excellence of his OAvn profession — the 
law, — and then bawls out the following exclamations : " Hk- 
nara-e-hyduree f ^ y\\\e\\ the rest resound " Ya-hooT*'^ 
Again, the former calls out ^' ek nara-e-punjutun T •\-\- tliey 
all exclaim " ?/« hoo T " e^ nara-e-char-yar-e-basvffar\\ 

• " Wliat pleases Him," i.e. the Almighty. 

t Which, like Al-umr-e-lillah, signifies, "the command is from 
God." X Or introductory part of ihefateeha. 

§ Chap. i. Qoran. || Chap. cxii. Qoran. 

If An exclamation to Hydur. ** O He\ (?. ^. God). 

tt A call to the five, /. e. Mohummud, Allee, Fateema, Hussun, and 

\X A call to the four virtuous friends, viz> Aboo Bukur, Oomur, 
Oosman, and Alice. 


the rest call out " ya hoo /" " ek nara-e'Shuheeclan-dusht-e- 
kurhullar'^ they reply "?/« hooV' After that the adalut 
shah, having repeated the following hemistich, remains 
silent, viz. ^'ya hoo ya mun hoo la-U-la-ha il-hcl-la-ho T f 
the band oi fuqeers reply, " wuh do-hoo la shureeku Hi hoo 
o ushhud'doun'na Mohum'mudoon uhdu-hoo oomdu-hod' o 
russool-lu-hoo^ X Then the adalut shah repeats this line, 
" arzoo darum hay khakayan gudum.'''§ The band answer, 
'■'■foo-tee-d-ay, chiism-e-sazum, dum-bu-dumy\\ 

As tliey proceed, the nuqeeh oolfoqra calls out '^'•Iwsh 
bur-dum; nuzur bur (.udum ; siiffur dur wutun; khilwut 
dur anjomun. Bu-fuzule punjidun. Ya allee mudud.''''^ 

If this band of fuqeers sit at any ashoor-khatm, the })rc- 
prietor of it treats them with a hooqqa^ tumhakoo (tobacco), 
shurbid, cloves, and cardamoms ; and if he can afford it, 
entertains them with Khichree. 

Those dus-masee, or ten-month -fuqeers (so called because 
for ten days) speak and converse in the same style as the 
real fuqeers or devotees, who are termed bara-masee, or 
twelve-month^w<7eers, because they continue so from one 

• An exclamation to the martyrs of the plain of Kurbulla. 

t " O God, thou art the only true God, and there is none else." 

J " He is One and there is not another with him, and I give true 
" witness that the man jNIohummud is his faithful servant sent by him." 

§ Grant me the dust, beneath that foot which lies, 

II As a collyrium to adorn mine eyes. 

H Literally " guard your breath ;" i. e. have always God's name on 
your lips. " Keep your eyes on your feet ;" i. e. whilst walking, con- 
stantly repeat the kulma. (a) " Travel sitting at home ;" i. e. let your 
mind contemplate God and his works. "In assemblies converse with 
your beloved;" ?. e. in all places, even in a crowd, have sweet commu- 
nion with God. "By the grace of the Punjutun. O Alleel Assist." 

(«) This consists in four words which the pious invariably repeat 
over and over when walking, and revolve in their minds one word at 
every step they take. The words are, 1st. Lah, 2d. U-lah-hah, 3d. 
Il-lny, 4th. Lah. 


end of the year to the other. Among themselves they call 
one another by the name of "eea hadee allah f "eea moorshud 
allah;" " eea hosein,'" " eea eemam ;" and if they call one, or 
address him, they say, ''bawaT or ''dataV or '' dooneea- 
dar /" " What ! will you not give thefuqeers some kowra- 
kowree* (money) to purchase 50om6oo/ (arsenic — their food)?" 
Fuqeers technically denominate rupees kowra-kowree. If 
any one does not give them something, they repeat the 
following couplet : 

Data thay so mur gy-ay, ruh-yy-ay mukkliee cJioos ; 
Dayna-layna Jcooch nu-heen, lurnay ko mowjood. 

The gen'rous all are dead and gone, 
And niggard churls remain alone ; 
Of charity we hear no more, 
But struggling each to swell his store.f 

When they are about to depart from any place, the 
nuqeeb-ool-foqra repeats the following couplet : 

Ugur gaytee, sur-a-sur, badgeerud, 
Churag-e-Muoqbillan hurgiz numeerud. 

Were this vast universe one blast of rushing air. 
The lamp of God's elect would burn undying there. | 

and after, calls out "^shakir ko shukur, moonkir ko " tukkiir.'^§ 
Then the band reply, ''rah e-mowla deen-e-pygumhur.'"\\ 

• Kowra literally means a large shell ; kowree a small one. 

t Literally, 

" The generous are all dead, misers are only left; 

" There is no giving or taking, but they are e'er ready to fight."' 

\ Lit. " Were the whole universe filled with wind, it could not 
" possibly extinguish the light (?. e. the offspring) of the Elect." 

§ Literally, " sugar to the believing (^e. grateful worshipper), and a 
•' thump to the unbelieving ;" i. e. may the benevolent be rewarded, 
and those who deny us be punished ; or, blessings be to the charitable 
and curses to those who refuse us. 

II " We are on the road to heaven, and our religion is that of the 
" Prophet." 


These fuqeers go about repeating and acting as above 

3. Mi/Jnoon.''^' The dress is as follows: on the head, a 
foors-cap, or a long sugar-loaf paper cap, having a queu 
behind, made of slips of paper, trailing along the ground, 
beautifully ornamented with gold-leaf, &c. Sometimes the 
cap is made with panes of glass all round, in the form of a 
lantern, having suspended on the outside of it shreds of 
baygur (tinfoil) or tinsel, or white and red net-worked 
paper. They put a lighted wax-candle inside of it, and 
wearing it at night, walk about : it has a pretty ap})earance. 
Instead of a cap they sometimes wear a shawl or red doputta^ 
or any other cloth ; others again have ripe lemons threaded 
dangling all round the head. Round the neck, a red, yellow, 
black, or white doputta is twisted, and w^orn in the form of 
a huddliee or heemael, or a shawl or handkerchief passed 
through rings. The body is besmeared with smtdul or 
Klmrree (pipe-clay). On each arm two or three handker- 
chiefs are tied, with their ends dangling, and sometimes a 
bazoo-bund over one of them. Round the Avaist is a goorgee 
(breeches) or loonggee. In their hands they carry a korla 
(prop, kora) cat-o-one (thick) tail, a kuChar or dagger, a 
sword, a bicJihwa (sort of dagger), a maroo, or two antelope- 
horns joined at their base, a sang (a javelin all of iron), a 
qumchee (whip), or a chlmrree (switch). On the legs is a 
g''hoongroo or glidntee. Some also having fixed limes to the 
points of a couple of bicKhway, fasten one on each arm. 

Thus equipped, they proceed to each ashoor-khana and 
dance in a circle (which dance is termed ghoomna^ or whirl- 
ing), and keep step to the music of the duff. (Append. Mus. 

* Literally, " Frantic," the name of a famous lover, whose mistress 
was Lyla (p. 195) : the Abelard and Heloise of the East. 


Instr.) The figure of the dance consists in four motions, 
to which they keep time by repeating the following words 
protracted in the utterance "alleef allee! allee! Vhum P* 

4. Lyia, the wife of (the preceding) Mujnoow. Among 
the Mujnoon set of fuqeers there is one to represent Lyla, 
whose dress is as follows : He has the whole surface of 
his body, from head to foot, glued over with cotton ; even 
the cloth which he wears in the form of a lunggote around his 
Vaist (the only dress he has) undergoes the same operation. 
In his hands he holds a cup, sometimes full of sundul or 
shurbut, or a man's skull-cup, a cocoa-nut shell, or a turtle 
chippa (calipash) and a fan or paper nosegay. On the 
head he wears a three-cornered paper cap. 

5. Bliurvung. This man's whole body is besmeared with 
lal gayroo (red ochre) mixed with water. He ties a shawl, 
handkerchief, or any coloured cloth on the head with a 
small flag fixed on the top; and like the mujnoows he 
wears heemaels (shoulder-belts) of doputtas. On his loins 
or legs are glioong-roo, ghanteean, or %ung and goorgee 
(breeches). He girds his loins well, and in dancing, kicks 
his posteriors with his heels, calling out " Allee I Allee ! 
" Allee! zung T 

6. Mullung. Their head-dress consists of a knob or knot 
on one side made with the hair or cloth, passed through 
a chukkur,f around which they twist red thread, kin- 
naree,l or gofha.^ On each wrist are two or four kurray 

• Blmm, or Bhoom, a corruption oi ylioom {i. e. go round). 

t Chukkiir, a weapon (resembling a quoit in size and shape), used 
principally by the seeks (sikhs) consisting of an iron ring, which they 
throw with great dexterity. They carry it about them on the head 
placed on the top of their turbans, 

X Kinnnree, broad gold or silver lace. 

§ Got'lia, narrow gold or silver lace. 


(metallic bracelets"^). The edge of a handkerchief [gooloo- 
hund) is passed under one arm and the two upper ends 
fastened over the opposite shoulder, and a sylee, kunfha, 
mala^ and hisheeh are put round the neck. A kummur- 
hund of any kind of cloth encircles the waist ; a lungota is 
passed round the loins, and on the right ankle is a dal or 

These men likewise roam about, visit the ashoor-khana^ 
and moving their hands, rattle the kurray ; and so doing 
call out " Kiirk shah mudar T-f or " Kurk hoo T^ Then 
one of the mullungs repeats the following couplet : 

Hnrchu daree, surfkoon diir rah-e hoOf 
Lun tunaloo'l hum liuta tunfiiqoo ; 

Let all your wealth to pious works be given, 
What's sown in charity is reaped in Heaven.§ 

then all the rest sing out in reply, " Kurk deen r \\ 

7. Anggayf hee shah (or king Chafing-dish). His garb 
is as follows, viz. : the head bare, or a sylee wound round 
it ; a lunggotee round the loins, and an iron chain for a 
waist-belt. The body is rubbed over with kliurree (pipe- 
clay) or bhuhhooi (cow-dung ashes) ; and he carries in one 
hand a dust-pu7ina (or pair of tongs). 

He walks about with an anggaythee or chafing-dish ; i. e. 
a fragment of an earthen vessel held on the palm of his 
hand, kindling and blazing a fire, in which he heats one 
end of an iron chain, while the other end, with a rope 
fastened to it, hangs outside. Thus he visits tlie ashoor- 
khanas ; and there holding up the chain by the rope with 

• Of iron, brass, or copper. 

t A call to our saint, Shah Mudar ! % A call to Him ! 

§ Lit. Whatever you have, spend it on the road of Him (in the ser- 
vice of God) : they will never obtain any g-ood until they bestow it. 
II A call to religion ! 


one hand, dips the other into oil, and draws it along the 
red-hot part ; when instantly an immense and sudden blaze 
is produced, to the great consternation and surprise of the 
bystanders, who are equally astonished that his hand does 
not bum by carrying in it so much fire on a thin earthen 
vessel. The latter, however, he contrives to do, by filling 
the bottom of the chafing-dish with a mixture of the pulp 
of aloes and cow-dung, and placing over it ashes, which 
remain moist under a kindled fire twenty-four hours, and 
prevent the vessel getting hot. 

8. Siddee (prop, syedee), or African. Ten or twelve 
men blacken their bodies with lamp-black and oil, to re- 
semble so many negroes. Their dress is as follows. For 
the head, an ill-shaped cap, made of sheep or goatskin, with 
the wool or hair on, or of blanket or mat. Round the waist, 
over a small lunggotee, they wear deer or sheepskins with 
the hair or wool on, blankets, sackcloth, or mats. In the 
left hand they carry a bow made of bamboo, and in the 
right a small stick fastened to a cocoanut- shell, containing 
some gravel covered with white cloth, and sometimes hav- 
ing ghoongroos (small bells) also attached to it. 

Thus equipped they visit the ashoor-khcmas, and dance 
to the rattling of their cocoanut-shells, with the handle of 
which they strike their bows. 

In place of the bow and cocoanut-shell, they sometimes 
have a moosul in the left hand, on which they strike with a 
stick in the right. 

By contorting their mouths, they mimic the talk of ne- 
groes, to which the imitation bears a strong resemblance, 
and they appear to people like real Africans. 

Sometimes among their troops one assumes the character 
of the gentler sex. Her complexion and head-dress is the 
same as that of the men, but she has a blanket wrapped 


round her waist, hanging down to the feet, and wears a 
cholee (bodice), and is more particularly distinguished by 
having an artificial breast dangling down to her knees. She 
is employed in beating the ground with a tnoosul (or long 
wooden pestle), while the men, dancing round her, laugh 
and joke with her. 

9. Bu-go-lay or hug-lay (paddy birds). Ten or twelve 
men, all of one height, rub the whole of their bodies over 
with cow-dung ashes, and wear on their heads white paper 
caps, all of one pattern, and a lunggota round the loins. 

They go about, holding one another by the waist, imi- 
tating the sound of paddy-birds. One of them assumes 
the character of a hhyree shah (king hawk), and every now 
and then suddenly darts upon the paddy-birds ; who in- 
stantly crouch or disperse, and conceal themselves behind 
the people. If they surround any one out of fun, they 
keep whirling round him and do not allow him to escape. 
In short they sport like real falcons and herons. 

10. Kutvway shah (king crow). They besmear their 
whole bodies with pipe-clay, wear a jama made of a blanket 
and sylees on their heads and around their necks; and 
saying a variety of ludicrous things, walk about each with 
a cage in his hand, containing a crow, (sometimes also 
a frog) or carrying a branch of a tree, with a crow fastened 
to it by the legs. 

11. Hafh kutoray-walay (carriers of jugs in their hands). 
They wear a shawl, sylee, or doputta on the head, and a 
gooloohund and kufnee^ or heemael, all red, green, or yel- 
low, round the neck. The body or face is besmeared with 
su7idul, and they have gujray on their wrists ; handker- 
chiefs on their arms ; a loong round their loins, and a silver 
toray or dal round the right ankle. 

With a cup in the hand, they go about recounting the 

Sect. 3. MOHURRUlNf FUQEERS. 199 

sorrows of the Mohurrum before-mentioned, narrating 

celebrated battles, or reciting eulogiums on individuals. 

The people, on being pleased with these, drop some money 

into the cup. These go about in pairs, and moving their cups 

from side to side, sometimes sing to tlie following effect : 

Pysa day na ray Bahoo ; 
Pysa day na ree Maee : 
Pysa day na ray Allah ; 
Hdtli kutora doodhka. 

O God ! gi'ant some money ; 
Good master ! some money ; 
Sweet mistress ! some money ; 
For the milk-jug, my honey !* 


Drirreea men juhazan chulana ; 
Deen ka boivta churhana ; 
Baygee Bungala layna ; 
Syr kurro Room o Sham ka. 

Our ships must sail across the ocean, 
Our sacred flag be put in motion. 
To seize Bengala's plains combine, 
Then march through Rome and Palestine. t 

Concluding with the chorus " Hdth-kutora doodh ka,''"' 
(or the milk hand-jug). 

12. Jullaleean or khakeean. These have no particular 
dress, but wear fancifid caps of every description, and im- 
mense turbans of straw, leather, or mat. On the neck they 
have rosaries and necklaces made of all sorts of frviits. 
Some have their faces half blackened. Their bodies are 
covered all over with pipe-clay ; they wear thousands of 
kinds of garlands around their necks ; and sometimes have 
dried pumpkins hanging suspended from all parts of them. 

One of the band carries in his hand a female doll of a 

• Lit, I say, master, give pice ! I say, mistress, give pice ! O God, 
grant some pice ! To the carrier of the milk-jug. 

+ Or rather through Syria and Turkey or the Eastern cmpiie. 


hideous form, with which he taunts people by telling them 
that it is their grandmother ; while each of the rest has 
some leather rolled up in the form of a club, with which 
they strike every poor man or woman on the head that 
comes in their way. Thus they go about sporting. 

13. Nuqsha-hundee (a particular class of fuqeers so 
called). Very few assume this character. Their dress is 
similar to that of t\\Q Banuw a fuqeers hdove mentioned, 
with two things additional, a koorta and an alfa ; but their 
characteristic mark is a lamp burning in the hand, and their 
making their appearance only at night. The lamp is 
formed into two compartments, the upper one (in the 
centre) contains the oil ; the other is empty, to receive the 
pice or cowries, or such presents as the charitable are dis- 
posed to give. They walk about the lanes and bazars, re- 
peating excellent verses in praise of the Deity, and on the 
anguish of the grave: also rehearsing the innumerable 
advantages of a light ; thus : 

LdkhUln kiiror khurch ka, 
Bdndliay uggur muliul, 
Klidlee purra ruhayga 
Dumree ka nuheen churag. 

If on one palace millions you expend, 
Without a lamp of half a farthing's cost, 

Your edifice is void from end to end. 

Its colours blank, its gorgeous beauties lost. 

He is generally accompanied by a great number of spec- 
tators, men, women, and children. When any one brings 
a child to him, he applies a little of the burnt wick of his 
lamp to its forehead or cheek, in order that the child may 
not cry much and be obstinate. 

14. Hajee Ahmuq and Hajee Bay-wuqoof (Pilgrim 
Fool and Pilgrim Idiot). They Avear uncommonly long 
caps on the head ; alfa, or a large joobba and mala 


round the neck ; and each one carries in the hand an 
enormous sized rosary, a wooden platter, large or small, 
and an immense long walking-stick. They have a beard 
reaching- down to the navel, mustachios, the hair of the 
head formed of flax, and enormous artificial paunches; 
which, visiting the ashoor-khanas, they strike against one 
another ; and standing back to back, say their prayers, and 
stooping, also strike their posteriors together. They hold 
such comical conversations, and have such ogling with one 
another, that a person who has not smiled for a dozen years, 
or is absorbed in religious reverie, will at the very sight of 
these buffoons, and on hearing their arguments, scarcely be 
able to refrain from laughing. 

15. Booddha, Booddhee (an old man and an old woman). 
A couple of men representing these, sit on a high scaffold- 
ing. The old man exhibiting a male countenance painted 
on cloth fastened to his face, with a long white beard, and a 
wooden sword in his hand, threatens the spectators below, 
if any one utter aught against the old woman, his wife. 
He sits in a state of taciturnity shaking his head ; the two 
every now and then kissing each other. The old woman, 
also wearing a female mask painted on cloth with a large 
nuth (or ring) suspended to her nose, and imitating the 
shrill voice of an old woman, keeps chattering a number of 
such ridiculous things as no one ever heard before. As to 
the volubility of Hajee Ahmuq, &c. they may be said to be 
children or infants compared to this old woman whose gift 
of the gab exceeds anything of the kind to be met with 
among old women in real life, and can only be conceived 
by hearing her. 

16. Bdgh (or tiger). They make an artificial figure of 
a tiger with split bamboos and cover it with cloth painted 
like its skin, arming his nails with sharp iron claws like 


those of that animal. The man entering his cell runs 
crawling on all fours, playing about in the baxar. Or they 
paint their own bodies in imitation of a tiger, wear a cholna 
and kach'ha about the waist, and a chain or rope tied to 
the loins, with a long bamboo tail supported by two or 
three men ; and walking and running about with a piece of 
flesh in their mouths, frighten the people. The children 
run away at the sight of them. If, to witness sport, any 
person gives one of them a sheep, he throws it down on the 
o-round, and like a real tiger, catches it by the throat with 
his teeth and sucks its blood ; and tearing open its abdomen, 
he takes out its entrails and even eats a little of its flesh : 
the people who attend him walking off" with the rest. Some 
make a hollow tiger's head with wood, and insert the head 
into it, and wear a shurraee and angurklia painted over 
like the skin of a tiger. 

17. Mutkee Shah. Four or five of the jullalee ftcqeers 
carry each a mutkee (small earthen pot) in their hands, 
containing chimnay (Bengal horse-gram), ratthng them as 
they go along. Every now and then they take a handful 
of the gram and offer it to the people ; but the moment any 
one stretches out his hand to receive it, they put it into 
their ovm mouth and point to the heavens. 

First one of them repeats some ludicrous verse or other 
by himself; then the rest join him and repeat the same in 

18. Chutnee Shah. His dress is like that of the jallalee, 
but he has a small mortar tied to his loins and a pestle in 
his hand. Having put into the mortar a little green ginger, 
garlic, tamarind, chillies, sweetmeats, majoon, hhwig, in 
short any thing eatable, he pounds them, singing, " I am 
" making qazee's chutnee r " I am making kotwaVs 
" chutnee P' '^ I am making soobuhdar's chutnee T "Most 


" delicious chutnee r " Bravo, chutnee C and as he some- 
times distributes some of it among children, there is gene- 
rally a great number surrounding him. Occasionally both 
men and women among the spectators beg some of it and 
eat it ; for being composed of a variety of eatables, it has 
at the time a very agreeable taste ; but when mujoon or 
hhung is mixed with it, the young and old people, not 
accustomed to the use of inebriating substances, are so 
much affected by it, that some lie insensible for hours, 
while others become incoherent in their speech. 

19- Hukeem (or physician). His dress is like that of the 
banuwa. He assumes the character of an old sage, and 
having procured a lean miserable looking tattoo,* places on 
his back upwards of two hundred little bags, with all sorts 
of seeds, leaves, fruits, flowers, &c. and either takes his seat 
on the animal or walks alongside of him. Wherever he 
rests he takes the drugs off the horse; and repeating their 
names, jocularly descants on the peculiar and excellent 
virtues of each. For example, holding up a parcel to the 
spectators, he observes: " This contains an excellent powder 
" which is a capital laxative ; if given to one whose bowels 
" are regular and who does not require it, it gently opens 
" them, procuring certainly not more than a hundred 
" evacuations, and each motion reducing the patient to his 
" last extremity. By the use of it, not the slightest vestige 
" of impurity or corruption will remain ; nay, the very 
" intestines themselves will be purged out : but, that is a 
" matter of not the least consequence. To remedy the 
" looseness, I shall administer such a bolus, that the dis- 
" charge will continue even after death." Again : " I 
" have a pill of such virtue in my possession, given to me 

• A very inferior species of horse, bred in the country, value from 
seven to twenty rupees, i. c. from about fourteen to forty shillings. 


" by my father on his death-bed, called jummal akhta, that 
" if it be exhibited to a ba-wuqoof (sensible man), he will in 
" a very few minntes be transformed into a, fakhta, alias 
" a bo y-w II qo of {or {ooV).'''' And "Here is an unjun made of a 
" seed which his highness my preceptor, Zad oolla hoo 
" Oomumhoo, first of all taught me, named jummal gota :* 
" a capital application, and an excellent remedy for diseases 
" of the eye. If you apply the jummal gota to one eye, 
" instantly both become lota (blind). In short, I have 
" such excellent remedies, that whoever makes use of them 
" dies even before his appointed time." 

In this way he talks ironically, merely for the sake of 
being listened to. He adds : " The Almighty has endowed 
" me, to such a wonderful degree, with the knowledge and 
" skill of the healing art, that into whatsoever house I 
" enter, my footsteps seem to it like the welcome approach 
*' of the angel of death." Should any one say to him, 
" Doctor Sahib, feel my pulse ;" or sliould the doctor him- 
self offer to do so, he applies some of the down found on 
the pod of the cowitch-|- to the end of his fingers, and rubs it 
on the wrist while in the act of feeling the pulse. The 
instant it touches the patient's skin, it occasions such an 
intolerable degree of itching, that by unavoidable scratching 
swellings are produced. The patient, in distress, inquires 
of his physician what he has done to him. To Avhich the 
other replies, " Nothing at all, my child ; Almighty God 
" has blessed me with such powers of working miracles and 
" cures, that the mere touch of my finger has developed 
" your malady. Do not be alarmed. I am now about to 
" apply such a capital embrocation to it, that it will make 

* Croton nut. Croton tiglium, Willd. 

t Cow-itch or cow-age. Stizolobiuni pruriens, P. S. 


" the artery burst, and cause the blood to flow so freely, 
" that the moment life becomes extinct tlie itching will 
" cease." So saying, he is about to apply something, when 
the patient alarmed and in a great rage, loads him with 
abuse and walks off. 

20. Moosafir Shah (or his majesty the traveller). His 
dress, &c. is like that of the hanuwa fuqeers. He cari'ies a 
large bag, with a great number of smaller ones in it, con- 
taining eatable materials and cooking utensils, together 
with a mortar and pestle, sieve, furnace, &c. on his back, 
in imitation of a traveller, visits every ashoor-khana, and 
there makes a display of them. He is so well provided 
with all the requisites of a traveller that he does not require 
to go elsewhere for anything. Sometimes going to one of the 
principal ashoor-khanas, i.e. where there is a surguroh, he 
puts down his load, lights a fire and prepares rotee or salun, 
and takes and deposits it in presence of the surgiwoh, eating 
a little of it himself, and distributing some by small por- 
tions among the other fuqeers ; for it is a technical phrase 
among them 

AVhere'er their bed, there is their seat, 
And where they sleep, they cook and eat. 

21. Mogol (Mogul). His dress is like that of Hajee 
Ahmuq, but he carries in his hand only a rosary and a stick. 
He has four or five attendants about him, dressed like him- 
self. The names of all of them terminate in beg: thus, 
Gajur Beg,* Shvdgum Beg,-f- Mirchee Beg,| By gun Beg,§ 
with whom he jocundly converses in a jargon of Persian and 

22. Bayaj-khora (usurer). Their dress is like that of 
the jullalee ; only that some have their faces half blackened, 

• Lord Carrot, t Lord Turnip. J Lord Cliilly, (kyan pepper). 
§ Lord Brinzal, or egg plant; solanum melongena, Lin. 


others wholly so ; and they observe, " I am such a fair 
" beauty, that I shall be the first individual whom the 
" Almighty will summon at the day of resurrection ; for I 
" shall be speedily recognized by every one, who will 
" observe, ' Ah ! this is one of God's elect." As to the 
" profession of gaining my livelihood by usury, it has 
" descended to me from my forefathers, and therefore, 
" should even my own father owe me interest, were it 
" merely a cowree, * I would not permit his corpse to be 
*' buried until the said interest was paid ; and if any one 
" wishes to borrow money from me, let him first pay me the 
" interest of the same for the period he is desirous of having 
" the loan of it, and when that time is expired as much 
" interest again ; for God has enjoined in the Qoran, that 
" the face of every man who receives usury shall be turned 
" black at the day of resurrection, — mine excepted."" 

He moreover carries a paper in his hand, and looking 
into it says to every one he meets, " I have a small account 
" to adjust with you. Look here: on such a day you 
" borrowed money from me, and have not discharged the 
" debt ; I may remit the principal, but I shall, on no 
" account, give up the interest." 

23. Moorda furosh (carriers of the dead). Ten or twelve 
jullaleeans lay an artificial human figure, shrouded, on a 
country (Indian) cot, with a shoe and a slipper under the 
head for a pillow; and waving over him a broom for a 
moorchhul, they put some fire on a large piece of a broken 
chatty (earthen pot), or on a plate, and instead of burning 
incense they burn dried cow or horse-dung, near its head. 
Weeping and saying many amusing things, they walk about 

• A coivree, from eighty to one hundred of which go to a pice (or 


with it through the baxars, calUng out, " This individual 
" died without any owner; pray bestow something for its 
" burial." The people of every house to which they go, 
anxious to get rid of so disagreeable and inauspicious a 
sio-ht, instantly give them something as an inducement to 
depart. Should they not give any thing, but begin to dis- 
pute the point, they throw red chillies, hair, and all sorts 
of offensive materials, into the fire on the plate, and placing 
it before them observe, " This is scent which will refresh 
" your spirits : smell it well ; for it is the odour destined 
" for you after death." They get vexed at this, and in 
order to get rid of such an additional annoyance, they 
hasten to give them a trifle ; and these, on the other hand, 
never depart until they get something. 

24. Jliar shah (king tree). His dress is that of the 
jullalee. He takes a small tree, suspends various kinds of 
fruits on its branches, ties a crow to it by the legs, and 
carries it about, calling out, " Take care ! crouch down ! 
" for a black owl has made its appearance and devoured 
" the prince of fruits !" concluding with " Hat, hat hhu- 
" gorayf^ 

25. Jogeean (Hindoo mendicants). Four or five men 
having rigged themselves out in the garb of Yimdoo jogees 
(mendicants), go and remain at the ashoor-khanas ; and 
playing upon seetar, duff, dholkee, and khunjeeree, sing- 
songs, elegies, mournful ditties, and funeral poems, in a 
beautiful manner. 

26. Buqqal (a Hindoo shop-keeper). He is dressed like 
one of that caste, viz. on his head a turban ; on his forehead 
streaks of cow-dung ashes, with a spot in the centre, made 
with a mixture of turmeric and quicklime, or sundul and 

• An exclamation for driving away birds, &c. 


turmeric; to his ears, pogool (alias kootidjil) or large 
Hindoo ear-rings ; suspended from his neck, a zoonar (Brah- 
minical thread) ; on his wrists, kurray (bangles) ; on his 
fingers, gold or silver rings ; round his waist, a kurdora, 
and round his loins, a white punchee. He carries in his 
hand an iron style and a bundle of palmyra leaves whereon 
to write his accounts. 

One accompanies him in the uniform of a sepoy, who, 
ever and anon, beats and threatens him, saying, " Look 
" here, you fool, you have considerably overcharged me." 
He, on the other hand, not understanding a word the sepoy 
says, returns him, in joke, plenty of abuse in his own 
peculiar phraseology. 

27. Showhala (or boy). They select an uncommonly 
pretty boy, deck him out in female apparel of gold or silver 
tissue, and adorn him with a superfluity of ornaments and 
jewels, and seat him on a small eminence. While he as- 
sumes a very sedate countenance, jesters and buffoons 
stand below, and say a variety of obscene and ludicrous 
things, endeavouring to make him laugh, but in vain. 
Should he, however, betray the slightest symptom of a 
smile, they instantly drop a curtain to prevent its being 
perceived by the spectators, and a few minutes afterwards 
raise it again. 

28. Sur-e-hay-tun, tun-e-haysur (head bodiless; body 
headless). In some ashoor-kJumas, one man, by some con- 
trivance, conceals his head under ground or under a country- 
cot, and only displays his body ; while another buries his 
body, and makes his head appear above ground, to repre- 
sent a decapitated corpse. Between these they place a 
bloody sword, and sprinkle the spot with a red dye to imi- 
tate blood. Sometimes two persons, resembling robbers, 
are seen there ; and a man, acting in the character of a 


woman, sits crying and saying, " Robbers have murdered 
" my brother (or husband); bestow something that I may 
" go and bury him." 

29. Nuqiee shah (king Story-teller). His dress is that 
of the jnUalee. He keeps about him a dog, a cat, a rat, a 
crow, and an ass, and relates a number of most amusing 
anecdotes. A large concourse of people always surround 

30. Kummul shah (king Blanket). Two or three people 
take each a country-blanket, and having made a hole in it, 
put their heads through. Advancing forwards, and step- 
ping backwards, they repeat verses replete with ludicrous 
allusions, such as 

Upon my wedding day a good fat cock Avas slain, 
And with two pounds of rice we fed ten thousand men. 
A penny was provided for a treat so grand, 
And when the bills were paid three farthings left in hand.* 
Chorus. Say, how how how ? Say how how how? Say how how how ? 
Why ! so so so ! why ! so so so ! why ! so so so ! 

Again : 

INIy doating mother reared me with tenderness In stores ; 
She decked me in a blanket, and turned me out of doors. 

31. Khogeer shah (king Saddle). One in the dress of a 
jullalee wears a khogeer (a native saddle) round his neck and 
a red sytee wound round his head ; and promising a horse to 
a parcel of boys, calls out, " I am going to get a horse given 
" you ! I am going to get a horse given you I" Six or seven 
lads, dressed in blankets, or like jiilla lees, call out, following 
him, " Now he has proved himself a liar ! Now he has 
" proved himself a confounded liar !" He only answers as 

* Lit At my marriage was slaughtered one cock : 
Half a seer of rice distributed to lak'hs! 
At my wedding was said to be expended one pice ! 
But on settling accounts remained three quarters. 


he goes along, " Ha7i ! haw ! (yes, yes), I am going to get a 
" horse given you !" 

Sometimes he repeats verses somewhat to this effect: 

In every lane, in every street, 

The heaps of sweetmeats rise ; 
Nose-jewell'd damsels, not less sweet, 

View them with longing eyes.* 

32. Shurahee (a drunkard). He is dressed as ajidlalec 
or hanuwa^ having a black alif (or letter A thus 1,) marked 
on his forehead, with a grog-bottle filled with shurhut or 
water in his hand, repeating verses and sentences of the 
Qoran in praise of wine, and imbibing it at the same time 
in liberal potations. Many of the Mohurrum fuqeers sit 
with him for two or four days together in the same spot, 
contending and disputing on the subject with much argu- 
ment and controversy ; as in the Qoran God has pronounced 
both drinking wine and eating pork to be unlawful ; yet 
he, declaiming eloquently on the lawfulness of his beverage, 
helps himself to it. He sometimes wears a leathern zoon- 
nar (or Brahminical thread) around his neck. 

33. Qa.^eef-e-Lneen and Qa%ee-e-Bay deen (the cursed 
priest and the irreligious priest — that is, the devil's chap- 
lains). They wear a large alfci, a leathern cap, and flaxen 
beard and mustachios, and counting chaplets which they 
carry in their hands, they disseminate their religious prin- 
ciples and doctrines among the people ; but all ironically. 
Thus : " He that prays, fasts, or gives alms, will be ex- 
" alted to the seventh hell ; he that gets drunk, gambles, 

* In every lane I traversed, I beheld heaps oi goolgooleean 

And a nuf k-(or Boolaq-) lady casting at them longing looks, 
t Qazee signifies a judge or magistrate, civil or ecclesiastical ; here 
the latter only, or rather a priest. 


" commits adultery, accepts of usury or bribe, will be 
" doomed to the seventh heaven."" 

34. Nicwivah (nabob). This man has his whole body 
wound round with straw, wears an enormous cap or turban 
of the same material, long flaxen beard and mustacbios. 

He is mounted on horseback, and has four or five people 
attached to his train, one of whom carries a chair, another 
a hooqqa (consisting of an earthen vessel with a bamboo 
fixed to it), and like other great folks, he talks big, and in a 
peremptory tone delivers his commands to his dependents, 
Avhile in mounting his horse he frequently tumbles over on 
the opposite side. 

35. Maykh Shah (king Tent-peg). He is dressed like one 
of the jallalee, but has a few cords tied round his waist, to 
the end of one of which a parcel of tent-pins are fastened, 
trailing along the ground. He carries a tent-peg in one 
hand and a mallet in the other, and says to every one whom 
he meets : " If you dare speak, I'll hammer you ; — if you 
" dare stir, — if you dare say 'yes,' — if you dare say 
" ' humph !', — if you dare look at me, — if you dare remain 
" silent, — I'll hammer you." 

36. Kliodon-garon (dig and bury). He wears on his 
head a straw cap or turban encircled with I'opes ; on his 
body, a mat with a hole in the middle through which the 
head is thrust ; his waist is entwined with ropes ; he carries 
on his shoulder a spade, and on his back a tuttee (or frame). 

Thus attired he goes about, saying, " whomsoever I 
" please, I take hold of, throw down (kliodon-garox\^, dig 
" and bury (or k'hoda (/ara), have dug and buried ; and 
" should he speak, I throw a few additional tuttees (or 
" frames) of earth over him. For digging a small grave I 
" charge a hundred rupees, for a large one, five rupees."" 

At times he stands still, eulogizing the beauty of his suit 

p 2 


of clothes, saying : " I am decked out in a turban, a mim- 
" deel. Si. jama and a shdl, and armed with a pickaxe;" as 
well as a variety of other pleasantries ; and through mis- 
chief, when he sees a villager, he quickly digs a small 
hole, and catching hold of him lays him down in it, and 
throws a few spadefuls of earth on him. Then one observes 
to him, " Arise, thou dead, and eat some klieer f and he, 
nearly suffocated, gets up as quickly as he can, and runs 
oif ; while the others enjoy a hearty laugh at his expence. 
37. Hoon7ioor Hosein kay fiiqeeran (fiiqeers of St. 
Hoonnoor Hosein). One or two, dressed like the banuwa, 
save that their alfa is dyed with red ochre, and that they 
have over their ears ringlets of natural or artificial hair, 
carry in one hand a small tray, or a soopfee, with a couple 
of cakes of dried cow-dung on it, covered with ten or 
twelve beautiful gold and silver-tissue handkerchiefs, and 
adorned with flowers ; in the other a moorchliul waving 
over it, declaiming in praise of it thus : " The remains of 
" a personage of no small consequence are concealed here : 
" he performed wonderful miracles. Whoever will undertake 
" a visit to his tomb and make the circuit (tuwaf) of it, shall 
<« never experience the torments of hell-fire ; therefore pe- 
<« tition him, and make your requests known unto him." 

When any express great anxiety to see the gentleman, he 
removes the handkerchiefs one by one, with great dilato- 
riness, and at last displays the contents of the tray ; on 
beholding which, those who asked him for a sight of it, 
feel quite ashamed. 

38. Namik shah, alias Natiuk pimthee (a follower of 
Nanuk^. Four or five men assume this character. They 
wind round their heads two or three coloured sylees, or 
wear white caps ; in the centre of their foreheads is a teeka 
(or spot) of lamp-black ; their faces are besmeared with 
sundul ; on their necks are a gooloobund, heemaeel, and a 


necklace of white beads ;* round their waists two coloured 
doputtas are twisted; and they carry in their hands a 
couple of clubs. 

They visit every ashoor-khana, and to the music of their 
clubs struck together, they sing verses in honour of Hosein. 

39- Gliuggree walay.\ Their dress is either white or 
red. Their faces and bodies are rubbed over with cowdung 
ashes; they wear on their heads a doputta witli a sylee^ 
or a quantity of fringe, tape, thread, or either broad or 
narrow gold or silver lace wound over it, or only sylee, with 
gold or silver tassels dangling from it ; on their ears they 
have gold or silver toorra (or feather cockades) ; round 
each arm three handkerchiefs are tied a la Mujnooan, and 
round the upper arm ha%oo-bunds or bhooj-bunds (armlets) ; 
a lungotee or loong rovmd their loins, and on their right 
ankles a tovray. 

One of them precedes the rest with a lamp in his hand, 
and two standard-bearers carry the colours, which are white, 
green, or red. All of them, with the exception of the 
adalut shah, wear on the right thumb a couple of g''hiig- 
grees ; and while repeating the versified narrative and eulo- 
logies of Hosein, they keep time by rattling them. 

In front of the band of fuqeers, a couple of boys, or 
rumnay walay, each having a painted earthen-pot with 
some gravel in it, or with a chown-ur^ in their hands, dance 
or rather move their legs backwards and forwards ; and at 
the conclusion of each verse, by stooping or sitting, and 
getting up quickly, they mark time. 

• Such as Rajpoots wear, made of sunk'h, or a species of larg;c 

t ¥vom. gliuggree, which are hollow 1)rass rings worn on the tliunib, 
containing a few brass shots which tingle on being shaken. 

J Chown-ur, or chownrce, an instrument for driving away flies. 


Two or four adalut shahs (p. 191-) stand on each flank, 
or walk up and down in front, with drawn swords in their 
hands; and two men act as sang burdar (spearsmen), i.e. 
they carry a spear, or a long thin bamboo in the shape of a 
spear, rolled over with two or three kinds of coloured paper, 
in their hands, and go before the guroh. When the latter 
halts any where, they tie the sangs in the middle like a 
pair of scissars, and stand with them in front at a short 
distance, to prevent other gurohs approaching them, and 
continue reciting verses in praise of \he\x javelins. 

These have Wkewhe a, sur guroh (chief of the troop), and 
in many respects resemble the hanuwas. 

40. Ga-rro-ree shah. His dress is like that of ihejuUa- 
lee, but he wears a toorra or feather on his turban, and 
carries a poo7iggee* in his hand. Ten or twelve form 
this band, and perform at every place many jugglers' tricks. 

41. Chindurr shah (or king Ragamuffin). Aman encircles 
his head with a quantity of rags, which he also suspends all 
round his neck, hanging down to his feet, and thus he 
quietly walks about the lanes and baxars, without uttering 
a single word to any one. 

42. A'hitid-ur shah (Tatterdemalion, or king Clout). 
Eight'or ten men wear rags on their heads, or only kldnd- 
rray\- round their necks, and cholnay; have k"" hind-ray 
handkerchiefs in their hands, and going in front of each 
ashoor-khana, first flog one another with them, and then 
come to kicks and blows, and falling down roll and tumble 
themselves about on the ground. 

43. Gculeex shah (king Filth). He is marked with a black 
teeka or spot on the forehead, and wears a raw leather 

• Poonggee: Vide list of musical instruments, Appendix, 
t Several folds of old cloth, chintz, rags, &c. sewed together in the 
form of a thick quilt. 


gooloohund and a lunggotee. He has his whole body an- 
ointed with honey, to attract flies, and walks about, sinfr- 
ing satirical and ludicrous verses ; and invariably makes 
it a rule to go into the midst of a crowd. 

44. Reechli shah (king Bear). A man dresses him- 
self out in a black goafs skin with the hair upon it, and 
two or three fellows dressed in blankets run after him, all 
imitating the growling of the bear. They go about in every 
lane and hazar frightening women and children. 

45. Boorr-boo-rrook shah (king Double-drum). Two or 
four men representing this character, of a class of Hindoo 
devotees of that name, wear their garb. They wear 
an enormous turban, made up of two or three different 
colours, a jama and eezar, with a doptitta tied round the 
waist, and carry in their hands a hoorboorka. * 

Whenever he sees a person approaching him, he says, " I 
*' saw a good omen to-day : you will become a very wealthy 
" man, and receive a palkee, an elephant, and a horse, in a 
" present."" Thus saying, he goes about sounding his boor- 
boorka, and blessing people. 

46. Marwaree. Their dress is like that of the Mar- 
waree.-f They stick a long pen in one of their ears with a 
book of accounts in the hand, and one or two bags full of 
small broken pieces of earthen-ware, the mouths tied up and 
sealed, placed on the shoulders of one or two men ; they 
have them carried along with them to represent bags of 
rupees or gold-mohurs ; and walking about, they say in the 
Marwaree tongue, to every one they meet, " So long we 
" have had dealings with one another, let us now settle our 
" accounts; for I am about to proceed to my native country. 

• A small double-drum. 

t Marwm'ee, the inhabitants of Marwar, a division of the Ajmecr 
province, to the west oi Jyc-Nuggur. 


" My wife, after an absence of twelve years, has Avritten to 
" me that she has been brought to bed." When any en- 
quire, saying, " Mr. Merchant, why you have been here 
" for the last twelve years, how could your wife bear you 
" a child ? It is probably some other person's f he replies, 
" No, sir; I had a meeting with her in my dream, and she 
" conceived ; and such is the case with women of our caste, 
" that they bring forth children without the union of the 
" sexes, and on the birth of the child send word* to the 
" husband wherever he may happen to be, and he on hear- 
" ing of it becomes so delighted, that he prepares luddoos 
" and distributes them.'" Those of the Marwaree caste, on 
hearing this, feel very much ashamed and angry ; while the 
spectators enjoy a laugh at their expence. This fuqeer 
says so many ludicrous things, that people eagerly crowd 
round him to listen. 

47. Oont shah (his majesty king Camel). They con- 
struct a small camel with bamboos, cover it over with paper 
or cloth, and paint it over with a colour resembling that of 
the camel. A hole is left from the back to the belly of the 
figure, and the man entering it stands on the ground, with 
his head and chest above the earners back, to represent a 
man mounted on it, while his body and legs down to the 
calf, are concealed within its body. The camel is fastened, 
with its legs above ground, to the waist of the man, who, 
thus equipped, goes dancing with it round every allawa. 
It is so well formed, that were it not for the legs of the 
man being visible and its low stature, it would with diffi- 
culty be distinguished from a real one. 

• The natives are likewise in the habit of transmittinof money to 
their relatives and friends at a distance by the hands generally of 
friends, sometimes of a mere acquaintance ; and it is surprising that 
they are not oftener robbed of such remittances. 

Sect. 3. LUNGGUIl NRKKALN^. 017 

Lunggur Neekalna (or the taking out the anchor), is as 
follows : 

Men as well as women sometimes make vows, that if a 
son or daughter be born to them, they will take out a 
lunggur (anchor) annually, for three years, or for twelve, 
or as long as the child lives. In the event of the death of 
the parents, the individual for whom the vow was made 
fulfils it himself, by carrying out his own lunggur. 

Those who have thus vow-ed, perform the ceremony in 
general on the fifth Uhun {i. e. the fourth day of the month 
Mohurrwn); sometimes not until the sixtli. In short, it 
may be done on any day between the fourth and tenth. 

They fasten to the waist of the boy or girl a string of 
flowers, or of the leaves of subzay, with or without an iron 
chain,* both long enough to trail along the ground. They 
put into one hand of the child an ood huttee kayjhar (ben- 
jamin-pastile tree) ; into the other, a silver ullum of two or 
four annas' worth, or a golden one of ten or fifteen rupees'* ; 
and holding a canopy over him, he is accompanied on both 
sides by a crowd of boys, each carrying, for shew, a cocoa- 
nut leaf, or a little flag. In ten or twelve red earthen jars 
they put shurbut, and covering them with earthen saucers, 
place a small pot on the top of each. To the necks of the 
jars they fasten garlands of flowers and subis ay-leaves with 
red thread, coat them outside with sundul, and carry them 
in bhungeean (hangies) or on Coolies'' heads ; in trays 
they have sugar or goor ; in a couple of dishes polaoo or 
kViichree, some ready money, benjamin, flowers, a bundle 
of wood, accompanied with music, fuqeers of the banuwa, 
ghuggree^ &c. kind. If it be at night, they are accompanied 
with flambeaux and fire- works; and loudly vociferating 

* This is intended to represent the anchor. 


" Shah Hosein /" " Eea Eemam r " Eea Allee /" and 
burning benjamin they proceed to the ashoor-khana. On 
reaching it, having walked round the allawa three times, 
and thrown the bundle of wood into it, and oWered. fateeha 
in presence of the ullums, the moojawir (or proprietor) 
puts the, flowers which were brought, on the punjay; takes 
the lunggtir from off the loins of the child, and gives the 
benjamin tree back to the party ; keeps the plate oikliichree 
or polaoo and a couple of jars of shurbut, together Avith the 
ready-money offered to the ullum. Then having, after 
fateeha^ poured one or two g'hurray of shurbut into the 
allawa, and with the retinue returned home in the same 
manner as they went, the attendants are entertained with 
kViichree, shurbut, duhee, chutneeax\, sabiay, turkareean, 
without animal food or fish. 

In some countries the poor and indigent, Hindoos as well 
as Moosulmans, make a vow for the child, or merely as an 
offering, that in the event of success attending their wishes, 
they will take or send to the shudday, one or two small 
silver ulltims, and three or four pots of goor-shurbut, toge- 
ther with some kliichree, one and a quarter or one and a 
half pice as a churagee, and some benjamin and flowers 
for the ulhims. 

The nobility and the wealthy also take out lunggur, 
whether it be to fulfil a vow or not. This they do in great 
pomp and state, e.g. First proceed the standards carried 
on elephants ; then follow rocket-men, drummers, Sic. suc- 
ceeded by a line of infantry ; in the rear of them nuqar- 
chee in howdas, playing ; then again come the khashurdars 
(matchlock-men), a number of respectable people, some on 
elephants, others on foot ; men firing off muskets (or match- 
locks), horses richly caparisoned, musicians followed by 
porters, carrying branches of lime and orange-trees, and 


abundance of cocoanut-leaves. After that a shameeana 
(canopy) embroidered, or of plain white cloth, under which 
goes the individual in whose name the vow was made, with 
the wreath of flowers, and a silver chain fastened on to his 
loins, holding in his hands ten or twelve small silver ul- 
Imns, and four, five, or six benzoin-pastile trees. Sometimes 
dancing-girls accompany them, repeating murseea ; and all 
round about him call out, " Eea Allee I Eea Allee ! Eea 
Hussun ! Eea Hussun ! Eea Hoseinl Eea Hosein! 
Doolhal Doolhar 

When they send the hmggur merely for the sake of their 
own welfare, or as an offering (and not to fulfil a vow), it is 
carried by a servant under a shameeana^ accompanied by . 
two or three caldrons of k''hichree, one or two pukVialsj 
and hundreds of earthern pots of shurhut prepared with 
sugar-candy, soft sugar, &c. having cloths tied over their 
mouths; and one or two bundles of wood, also covered 
with red cloth. If the person vowed for pleases, he rides 
in an ambaree^ or hoivdaf. Last of all come the nuqaray, 
beating, on an elephant or camel ; and thus they proceed 
to the particular ulkim to which they had vowed to go. 

I shall now describe some of the 3Iohurrum Nuzur-o- 
Nyaz (or Mohurrum vows and oblations) as practised by 

They voav thus : " If such or such a thing which I wish 
" come to pass, I shall, fasting, sweep the ground around 
" such an ashoor-khana''s allawa with my Avet locks." Or, 
" I shall bathe my head in fire." In which latter case she sits, 
having her head covered with a sheet, and the moojawir (or 
proprietor) throws some fire on her head, with a kufgeer 

• Ambaree, a hoivda with a canopy or cover. 

t Hoivdn, an open litter fastened on an elephant, and used in the 
east, in which the nobility travel. 


(skimmer), three times, and as readily brushes it off again 
with a moorcKhul.* Or, " I shall break fast with no other 
" food than what is procured by begging." Or " at such 
" an ashoor-khana I shall burn a ghee lamp and have 
" fateeha offered over sugar.'"' Or, " I shall suspend to 
" (lit. mount on) such an idlwn a flower gejid guhwara or 
" a silver roteJ''' Or, " I shall go and tie on to such an 
," ullum an unripe or a silver lime, over which I have had 
^^ fateeha offered." 

When their particular desires are accomplished they 
fulfil their vows most rigorously. Or they go and beg at 
ten or twelve houses, and to what they may collect add some 
money of their own ; and having had a gold door or baoolee 
(ear-rings) made on the Shuhadid ka roz (Ik. day of martyr- 
dom ; i. e. the tenth of the month Mohurrum), they have it 
inserted into the ears of their boys by the goldsmith, under 
the tahoot borne on men's shoulders. If the offspring be a 
girl, a 600/07 is put into her nose. The goldsmith at the 
same time receives a present of some dal, chawul, goor, and 
a few pice ; or merely a few pice. 

On the night of the tenth k''hun takes place the Mohur- 
rum kay Shuh-gusht (or the Mohurrum nocturnal peram- 

On that night an innumerable throng of men and women, 
Hindoos and Moosulmans, in short the people of the neigh- 
bouring villages from the distance of eight or ten miles, 
assemble, and the shopkeepers also decorate their shops on 
the occasion. 

All the ullums, (large and small), taboots, hooraqs, &c. 

Moorch'hul, a fan for drivinc; away flies, especially made of pea- 
cock's feathers, held over great men as a token of royalty, &c. 
Also used at ceremonies with the same view ; such as over ullums, 
&c., at the mohurruw, and on other occasions. 


after fateeha has been offered over sheerhirrinj, polaoo^ 
sJnirhiit, kliichree, &c. in the name of the Hoosnein, are 
taken out ; by the lower classes of people during the first 
watch of the niglit, and by the great at about midnight, 
accompanied with flambeaux, fireworks, haja hujuntur, 
tasa mw'fa, the various troops of fuqeers (called mayla), 
and dancing girls reciting murseea ; or sometimes Avithout 
any music, &c. Having performed with them the circuit 
of their respective allawas thrice, they traverse every haxar 
and lane, burning incense and Benjamin-pastiles, making 
lamentations, and repeating murseea nowh. Having done 
this with great noise and bustle, they return home with the 
Alliums, tahoots, he. to their respective ashoor-khanas at 
daybreak, or somewhat earlier, next morning ; and having 
laid the ullums down to sleep, betake themselves also to 

Some people, after offering the above-mentioned /a^ee/i«, 
instead of taking the ullums, &c. on their peregrinations, 
merely perform the circuit of their allawas three times, 
bring them in, and lay them aside {thunda kurtay ; lit. cool 

The next day (tenth of Mohurrum or eleventh kliun) 
is the Shnhadut-ka-roz (day of martyrdom). 

On it, from nine a.m. to three p.m., generally about nine 
or ten o'clock in the forenoon, all the ullums, &c. from 
every ashoor-khana are carried with the same pomp and 
state as on the preceding night, save without lights, to 
the Kurhulla ka mydan (or plain of Kurbulla), i. e. a 
plain near the sea or any river or tank, whither they are 
annually in the habit of carrying them. 

On taking out the ullums, &c. from the different 
ashoor-khanas, they first kindle the fire in their respective 
allawas, go round them three times, and with the ullums 


facing the Qibla perform fateeha. After that they put 
into a little earthern pot a half or a whole pice, with some 
milk and shurbut, and having adapted a cover to it, place 
it at the bottom of the allawa, and fill it up with earth, 
forming a little mound over it, and having stuck up a 
branch of the pomegranate tree on it proceed to the plain 
of Kurbulla.* The following year, when the same spot is 
dug, the pot formerly buried is found ; and the women, by 
giving something to the moojaunr (proprietor) of the 
ashoor-khana, obtain the pice which was put into it. Hav- 
ing bored a hole or attached a ring to it, they suspend one 
of these coins to the necks of each of their children, with 
the view of warding off evil spirits. 

Some people, after the allaiva is closed, pour a pot of 
shurbut over it, and place on it the vessel wliich contained 
it, inverted. 

Some burn a light on it every night, for three or for 
forty days.-f 

Some, chiefly shopkeepers, to fulfil vows wliich they have 
made, throw at the iillums, &c., as they pass their shops, or 
on the plain of KurbuUa, handfuls of nuqol, rayooreeaw, 
or cowries ; and women, esteeming such cowries or shells 
sacred, eagerly pick them up, and threading each one sepa- 
rately, suspend one round the necks of their children, in 
order that they may be preserved from the attacks of the 

In the progress of the ullums, &c. towards the plain, 
whenever they meet with an ashoor-khana, they offer fateeha 
at it, and proceed. 

• For further particulars of this imposing spectacle, vide ]\Irs. ]\I. 
H. Ali's description, vol. i. p. 81. 

fin imitation of visiting the grave of the deceased on tliose days 
after death. Vide chapter 39 and 40, 

Skct.3. plain of KURBULLA. 223 

Some vow that should they recover from any particular 
disease with which they may be afflicted, they will, in front 
of the ullumox tahoot, go rolling on the ground, all (or part 
of) the Avay to the plain of Kurbulla. Should such wishes 
be accomplished, they tie on a loong which covers the pelvis, 
the rest of the body being naked, and roll themselves on 
the ground. Women perceiving them thus rolling,* throw 
water on them to cool them ; while their friends precede, 
clearing the way through the crowd, and removing any 
stone, bone, thorn, or other obstacle on the road, to prevent 
tlieir sustaining any injury. 

At the plain of Kurbulla an immense concourse of people 
assemble ; rich and poor, great and small, of all classes and 
denominations. The crowd is so great, that it is difficult 
to pass through it. In some parts, shopkeepers of every 
description erect booths; and turn which way you will, 
you see nothing but shops full of fruits, sweatmeats, pan- 
sooparee, coffee, sook''hmook''h, all sorts of play-things, majoon, 
bhung, &c. ; and here and there are to be seen tumblers, 
jugglers, wrestlers, bear and monkey-dancers, &c., whirli- 
gigs and swings (in which their owners allow people to 
swing, on paying some jjice) ; and spectators sitting under 
awnings, or in tents and raootees, enjoy the sight. There 
are also abdar-khanas, where water and shurbut, are dis- 
pensed ; and water-carriers going about with leathern bags 
full of water, ringing their cups ; and either by taking a 
few cowries or gratis (in which case they call out sibbel, 
sibbel, i.e. gratis, gratis) they give the people water to drink. 

Having placed the taboots, ullums, &c. near the water- 
edge, and given fateeha in the name of the Hoosnein and 

* Probably in the middle of a sultry day, under a burning sun, on 
a heated, dusty, or sandy road ! 


the martyrs over rote,^ shtirhut^f choo7iggay,\ boottee, 
k''hichree,\\ polaoo sweetmeats, they distribute part of it 
on the spot and bring the rest home as a sacred thing. 
Those who can procure even the snmllest morsel of this 
food, consider themselves very fortunate ; and partake of 
it with great satisfaction. 

After the fateeha, having taken off all the tinsel about 
the taboot and removed the ullums out from the interior, 
they take the two models of the tombs that were in it, and 
dip them in the water. Some bring home the taboot un- 
injured, wliile others throw them into the water. In which 
latter case, shovdd one express a wish to liave any part of 
the paper net-work, &c. no objection is made. ^ 

The taboots that are brought home unmutilated are set 
up as they were before, for the three days** following. 
After that, having offered fateeha, they take off the net- 
work paper, &c. and keep it for future use. 

From the ulhims they also take off the dhuttee, flowers, 
ornaments, &c., which they put into puttaras, dip them 
naked in the water two or three times, and wash them. 
Men and boys, Hindoos as well as Moosulmans, eagerly run 

• Rote, sweetened wheaten cakes besmeared with siindul. 

t Shurbut, made of goor (raw sugar) and water, and prepared in a 
new red pot. 

J Choonggay, or fried cakes made of wheat flour, sugar (or gooi-) 
and ghee. 

§ Boottee, or a mixture oi tijar (curdled milk) and rice. 

II K'^hiehree, that variety prepared with meat. 

^ During the first ten days, it is supposed to be alive (or to contain 
the real bodies of the martyrs) ; when no European is allowed to 
touch it; but now the corpses being removed and this bier of no 
further use, may be kicked about and any thing done with it. 

*• Mohummudans reckon part of a day for the whole ; thus, what 
they mean by three days, is, the day on which it is brought home 
and the two following.; i. e. the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth 

Sect. 3. PLAIN OF KURBULLA. 225 

into the water after them, and catch the drops of water as 
they fall; and conceiving it good (possessed of peculiar 
■virtue), drink it, and apply it to their eyes. After washing 
them, they lay them in puttaray, (i.e. rattan boxes), or on 
trays; and having covered them up and offered fateeha* 
over some of the before-mentioned food, distribute it, carry- 
ing a small portion home. 

The booraqs and nal-sahihs do not undergo the operation 
of ducking. They are taken home and laid aside; the 
former is painted afresh, and the latter annually besmeared 
with sundul. 

Waving moorcWhuls on all, burning incense, repeating 
murseea and alweeda, they return to their respective ashoor- 
khanas ; and there having set them down and made lamen- 
tations over them, they offer fateeha, eat, and distribute 
the victuals brought home. After which the different 
people retire to their own houses. 

The booraqs and tahoots have only a thin cloth curtain 
thrown over them, and are brought home as the ullums to 
their ashoor-khanas, and placed near the latter. 

The ullums^ &c. which were not taken to the plain of 
Kurbulla are this forenoon taken out, and made to perform 
the circuit of their allawas three times, bathed, fateeha 
offered, and the food distributed. 

Those who have become fuqeers^ either at the plain of 
Kurbulla, or having come home, bathe themselves, and lay 
aside their mendicant's garb, &c. ; and those who had worn 
sylee and gujra^ either throw them away into the water, or 
wet them and bring them home. And every band of fu~ 
qeers^ previous to taking off their fuqeei^s dress, have 

• T\\e fateeha is offered either before or after the bathing of the 


fateeha offered in the name of the Hoosnein over sweet- 
meats, send some of it to each sur-guroh, and distribute the 
rest among themselves. Sometimes all the fuqeers sit in 
the market-place at the plain of Kurbulla, conversing toge- 
ther for a short while, and reciting funeral eulogiums. 
Some do not change \\\q\x fuqeer's habit till after tlie third- 

On that day (the s1mhudut-ka-roz)^ in every house they 
must cook palaoo or kViichree, curries, meat, &c. and having 
uttered /rt^ee^rt over them in the name of Mowla Allee and 
the Hoosnein, they eat, distribute among their friends, and 
give them away in charity. 

From that day (the 11th k'him), the generality of people 
commence eating meat, though some not until the twelfth or 

Some people on the shiihadut-Jca-roz, in the afternoon, 
take out what is called run ka taboof, or rzm ka dola,* 
which consists in little square frame-works made of thin 
pieces of bamboo, somewhat in the shape of tahoots, and 
covered with white cloth. These are carried, with the 
same pomp and state as the tahoots were, to the plain of 
Kurbulla ; and on returning thence they run with them, 
calling out, " Deen ! Deen .'", and every now and then 
halting and repeating murseea, beat vehemently on their 
breasts ; and having brought them home, set them up as 
they were before, till the third day after, when they are 
taken to pieces, and reserved for future use. 

The xeearut f of the ullums, or the third-day teeja^f fol- 

♦ They are intended to represent the boxes in which the heads of 
the seventy-two martyrs were carried (vide page 168), and sometimes 
are composed of that number, as in Beng-al. 

t Zeearut (or the visiting); that is, of the grave of deceased persons 
on the third day after their demise; which is also called Teeja, 


Sect. 3. ZEEARUT OF ULLUMS. 007 

lows. On the 12th kliun, they again sit up all night reciting 
murseea^ reading the Qoran and Mudh-e-Hosein.'^ Early 
next morning (the 13th kliun), they prepare polaoo or 
Tc'hichree, with meat, or Whichra, and shurbiit, &c., and 
having offered /a^eeAa in the name of the Hoosnein^ they 
eat and distribute them in charity. That night they place 
near the ullums all kinds of fruits, flowers, urgujja, uttur, 
betel-leaves, &c. ; and after the fateeJia, distribute these 

They take down the sheds that were erected in front of 
the ashoor-khanas, and lay by the ullums in boxes. 

Should they have borrowed the dhuttee clothes from any 
one, they go and return the same to them ; but if they be 
tukhtee (i. e. covered with gold and silver-leaf ornaments), 
bought in the baisar, they reserve them for future use. If 
any one at that time desire to have part of them, they grant 
it, receiving something by way of a nuxur in return ; or 
give those away, which people had brought and mounted 
on them, to fulfil vows. Women generally take these and 
tie them round the necks, or upper arms of their children, 
to prevent the shadows (evil influence) of Genii and Fairies 
from falling upon them. 

Some likewise observe the tenth, twelfth, and fortieth f 
day of mourning, &c., nay, some even the intermediate 
days, when they cook various kinds of food, have fateeha 
offered over them, and eat and distribute them. 

meaning " the third day," when oblations are offered. For further 
particulars, vide chap, xxxix. 

• Mudh-e- Hosein, or eulogiums on Hosein. 

t Chiefly on the fortieth day, which happens on the twentieth of the 
following month Sufiir, and in some part of tlie country is held as a 
festival called siir tun, or head and body, in commemoration of the 
junction of the head and body of Hosein. 

Q 2 


Some perform the fortieth clay teeja (vide note p. 227 
and chap, xl.), and on that day assemble a great crowd to 
repeat murseea ; and if they please, invite the assembly by 
letter. Whether the crowd meet during the day or night, 
they come in parties in succession, sit in the assembly for a 
short time, and recite murseea. The auditors, on hearing 
the melancholy narrative, make grievous bewailings. 

The dimgul-kurnayivala, i. e. assembler of the crowd, 
offers to the inurseea-reciters coffee, betel-nuts, sook''hniook''h, 
or sweetmeats ; and those who can afford it entertain them 
with dinner. 

From that day till the following year there is an end of 
the mohurrum mourning. 

During the thirteen festival days Moosulmans never do 
any Avork, perform no conjugal duty, and neither drink 
intoxicating liquors, nor marry, &c. Should any one hap- 
pen to die, they are, of course, obliged to perform the 
funeral rites ; but, with this exception, they do no w ork of 
any description whatever. 



Concerning the Tayra tayzee, or the first thirteen evil days; and the 
Akhree Char SJioomba Jcae Eed, or feast, held on the last Wednes- 
day of the second month, Suffiir. 

The Tayra tayzee (or the first tliirteen days) of the aus- 
picious* month Sivffur are considered extremely unlucky, 
on account of the Prophefs (the blessing ! &c.) having been 
seriously indisposed during those days, and it was on the 
thirteenth day that some change for the better showed itself 
in his malady. 

Should a marriage take place about this time, the bride 
and bridegroom are on no account allowed to see one 
another, nor is any good work undertaken on those days. 

On the 13th tayxee-\ (i.e. the 12th day of the month), and 
some on the 13th day of the month, all bathe. They take 
some maash, unboiled rice, wheat, and til, mix them together, 
and put them on a tray, and deposit a small cup containing 
oil, in the centre of the dish of corn : sometimes, in addition, 
eggs and a pice or two. They then look at their faces in 
the oil three different times, and each time taking up a few 
grains of corn drop them into it. After this, these articles 

* Several, not all of the months, have some such luiiiorary title 
affixed to them; thus, 1st. Molmrrum ool Huram, or the sacred 
month Moliurrutn ; 2d. Suffur ool Moozufir, or the victorious month 
Saiffur ; 7th. Rvj'iib ool- Moo)-iijilj, or the honoured month Rvjuh ; 8th. 
Shahan ool-Moajin, or the revered month Sliaban ; 9th. Rumznn ool- 
Moobarik, orthehlessed month Rumzan ; 10th. Shuival ool-Mookur- 
I'um, or the noble month Shuival. 

t Calculated from the evening, on which the moon becomes A'isible ; 
whence called Tayzee (the day of the moon), similar to what klmn was 
in the month Mohurrum. The first day of Suffur not beginning till 
six A.M. the dav following. 


are given away in alms to beggars and hulalkho7's.^ In- 
stead of the above, some prepare thirteen small rotes and 
dispense them in charity. 

On this day they prepare and eat k''hichree, sheep's kul- 
leejee and head, and despatch some to their relatives and 

Others make a decoction of chunna and wheat, and add 
to it sugar, sliced k'^hopra, and poppy-seed; and having 
offered fateeha in the name of the Prophet (the blessing ! 
&c.), they throw a small quantity on the top of the house, 
and eat and distribute the rest. 

There is no proper reason for observing the bathing, &c. 
on this day : it is entirely a new custom, introduced by the 
female sex. 

The last Wednesday of this month is termed akhree char 
shoomba, i.e. the last Wednesday. It was on this day that 
the Prophet, experiencing some degree of mitigation in the 
violence of his distemper, bathed, but never after ; having, 
on the 12th day of the following month (vide p. 233), re- 
signed his soul to God. It is on this account customary 
with every Moosulman, early on the morning of that day, 
to write, or cause to be written, the seven sulams, with 
saffron-water, ink, or rose-water, on a mango, peepul, or 
plantain leaf, or on a piece of paper, viz. 1st. Sulamoon 
qowlun min ribbir ruheem ; Peace shall be the word spoken 
unto the righteous by a merciful Lord {Qpran, chap, xxxvi. 
Sale,f p. 306). 2d. Sulamoon alia Noohin jil alumeen; 
Peace be on Noah among all creatures (chap, xxxvii. p. 312). 
3d. Sulamoon alia Ibraheem ; Peace be on Abraham (ib. 

* Outcasts, or at least the lowest caste of people, generally sweepers 
or employed in the meanest or dirtiest employments ; so called, be- 
cause by them all sorts of food are considered lawful. 

t Sale's Koran, edition of 1825. 


p. 314). 4th. Sulamoon alia Moosa ivo Haroon ; Peace 
be on Moses and Aaron (ib.). 5th. Sulamoon alia Eelee- 
aseen ; Peace be on Elias (ib.). 6th. Sulamoon allykoom 
tibtoom fiCudkhoolooha khalideen; Peace be on you! ye 
have been good ; wherefore, enter ye into Paradise ; remain 
therein for ever (chap, xxxix, p. 333). 7th. Sulamoon lieea 
hutta mutla il fujr ; It is peace — vnitil the rising- of the 
morn (chap, xcvii. p. 497). They tlien wash off the writing 
with water,* and drink the liquid that they may be pre- 
served from afflictions and enjoy peace and happiness. 

• This would at first sight seem strange, tliat the writing could be 
so easily eifaced ; but Mrs. Ali has the following remark (vol. ii. p. 69). 
" The ink of the natives is not durable ; with a wet spunge may be 
" erased the labour of a man's life." And again : " out of reverence 
" for God's holy name," (always expressed in their letters and every 
other species of writing by a character at the top of the first page, 
which is an ^, or i for AllaJi, an abreviation for Bu Ism Allah ; 
contr. Bismillay i. e. in the name of God), " wi'itten paper to be 
" destroyed is first torn, and then washed in water before the \vhole 
" is scattered abroad. They would think it a sinful act to burn a piece 
" of paper on which that holy name has been inscribed " 

As even Mrs. Meer confesses her ignorance of the compositio.n of 
Indian ink, by observing that she has that "yet to learn," I hope I 
shall be excused for inserting here an excellent receipt for preparing 
the same : — Take of lamp-black twelve pice weight (six ounces) ; gum 
arable five pice weight (two and a-half ounces) ; Heera knshish 
(green vitriol), and Mahphxil {gdWxmis), of each a half pice weight (two 
drams) ; and Bol-e-cliinia (socotorine aloes), a-third of a pice weight 
(eighty grains). Boil a handful of Neem-\e^,\es (]\Ielia azadirachta, 
Lin.) in any quantity (say, one seer) of water. When boiling, throw 
into it the lamp-black (Icajul) tied up in a bit of cloth. After a little 
while, the oil which the lamp-black may have contained will be found 
floating on the surface; then take it out and throw away the water. 
Pound and sift well the other four ingredients, put them into a copper 
vessel or cup, with the lamp-black, and with a pestle made of the wood 
of the iVt'CTH-tree, mounted at the end to about an inch with copper, 
mix them all together. Make an infusion of Becjaymr (Dukh.), and 
Ekseekurra or Soween-kurra (Tel.) four pice weight (two ounces). 
Infuse for two days in boiling water, two pounds. Triturate the pow- 
ders with a sufficient quantity of the infusion every day for forty days ; 



The writing of such amulets is the province of Moiolu- 
weean and preceptors, who from regard to God write them 

On the above account, it is highly proper on this day to 
bathe, wear new clothes, use uttur, prepare goolgoolay, 
offer fateeha over them in the name of the Prophet, eat and 
distribute them, to enjoy walks in gardens, and say prayers. 
Some of the lower orders of the people have, for their 
pleasure and amusement, either in gardens or their own 
houses, dancing-girls to dance and sing to them, and a 
numerous throng regale themselves on such occasions with 
snynd''hee and other intoxicating beverages. 

On this day, also, tutors grant eedees (p. 49) to the 
scholars ; i. e. they write a verse on illuminated or coloured 
paper, and insert at the bottom of it tlie name of the pupil; 
and giving it to the child, desire the latter to take and read 
the same to its parents. The child accordingly does so, not 
only to the parents but other relatives, who on hearing it 
give the scholar a rupee or two, according to their means, 
to carry to the schoolmaster. 

(or five or six days ; the longer however, the better ;) till all is dis- 
solved. Then form lozenges, drj' them in the sun, and preserve for use. 

A more common process and simpler method for preparing it, is 
thus detailed in Ainslie's " Materia Medica of Hindoostan:" — "Take 
" of lamp-black and gum-arabic, equal quantities, and pound them 
" together into a very fine powder. Moisten it with the juice of the 
" pulp of the kuttalay (small aloe), and rub well at intervals for two 
" days together ; after which, form it into little cakes, put them on 
" plantain-leaves and dry in the sun.'' When required for use, dis- 
solve in water. 

A late publication gives another receipt for what it states to be the 
Persian mode of making ink, and that " the finest and most durable 
" in the world." It is as follows: — " Take of lamp-black and (green) 
" vitriol, equal parts : the weight of both of fine galls ; the weight of 
" all three of pure gum-arabic : pulverise and triturate them on a 
" marble slab for five or six minutes, mixing water till it be of a 
" proper consistency to write with.'" 



Concerning Bam IFufat, or the Death of the Prophet on the twelfth 
day of the third month Rulbee-ool-aivul. 

The Ruhhee-ooUawul month is likewise denominated hara- 
wiifdt^* because on tlie twelfth day of the month his high 
excellency the Prophet, Mohummud MoostufFa (on whom 
be ! &c.) departed this life. 

On this account, on that day, the following fateeha is 
observed by all Moosulmans in every country, whether 
Arabian or foreign. It is a duty incumbent on all of them 
to perform, for its virtues are superior to that of the mohur- 
rum and all other fateehas. It is therefore but right that 
sipahees should have leave on this occasion for a couple of 
days, to enable them to celebrate the sundul on the 11th, 
and the oors on the 12th. 

Where there are learned and scientific men, they, either 
in musjids or in their own houses, constantly rehearse, 
during the first twelve days of the month, the praises, 
eulogies, and excellencies of Mohummud MoostufFa (the 
peace ! &c.) as contained in the sacred Huddees, in Arabic 
or Persian, and explain it in Hindee to the vulgar. 

Some assemble daily in the morning or evening, either 
at their own houses or in the mosques, and read the sacred 
Qoran ; and having cooked polaoo or kliichree, with nan 
and quleea or sheerbirrinj, and arranged every one's por- 
tion separately on the dusturkhwan, burning benjamin, 
they offer fateeha before and after dinner in the name 

* From bara, twelve ; and wufat, death. 


of the Prophet (the peace ! &c.), and transfer the beneficial 
influences of the sacred Qoran to their souls.* 

Some people keep a qudiim-e-russool-\- (Footstep of the 
Prophet), or the impression of a foot on stone in their 
houses, placed in a box and covered with a mahtahee or 
tugtee covering ; and this, they say, is the impression of 
the foot of the Prophet (the peace ! &c.). 

On this day such places are elegantly decorated. Having 
covered the chest with moqeish and zurbaft, tliey place the 
qudum-e-mooharik (blessed foot) on it, or deposit it in a 
taboot, and place all round it beautiful moorcJi'huls or 
chow7i-urs ; and as at the Mohurrum festival, so now, they 
illuminate the house, have music, burn frankinsense, wave 
moorcKhuls over it. Five or six persons, in the manner of 
a song or murseea, repeat the mowlood, durood, Qpran, his 
mowjeezay (or miracles), and wufat 7iama (or the history 
of his death) ; the latter in Hindoostanee, in order that the 
populace may comprehend it, and feel for him sympathy 
and sorrow. 

• Moosulmans conceive men to have three souls or spirits ; one the 
Rooh-e-SiJlcc (lower) alias Rooh-e-Jarce (the travelling- spirit), Avhose 
seat during life and death is the brain or head ; 2d. Rooh-e-moqeen (the 
resident spirit), which inhabits the grave after death ; and 3d. Rooh- 
c-oohvee (the lofty spirit), which dwells aloft in the heavens. 

t The history of the blessed foot is said to be as follows. As the 
Prophet (the peace ! &c.) after the battle of Ohud (one of the forty or 
fifty battles in which the Prophet had been personally engaged) was 
one day ascending a hill, in a rage, by the heat of his passion the 
mountain softened into the consistence of wax, and retained, some say 
eighteen, others forty impressions of his feet. When the angel Gabriel 
(peace be unto him I) brought the divine revelation that it did not 
become him to get angry, the Pi-ophet (the peace ! &c.) inquired 
what was the cause of this rebuke ? Gabriel replied, " Look behind 
" you for a moment and behold." His excellency, when he per- 
ceived the impressions of his feet on the stones, became greatly asto- 
nished, and his wrath immediately ceased. Some people have these 
very impressions, while others make artificial ones to imitate them. 
— Note of the Authoi-. 


In short, on the eleventh and twelfth, splendid processions 
take place, similar to the Mohurrutn shubgusht {vide 
p. 220). 

On the eleventh, in the evening, some people a little 
before sun-set, perform the Prophet's (the peace ! &c.) 
sundul ; i. e. they place one or more cups containing 
urgiijja (Gloss.) on one or two booraqs, or on a tray, or 
in a tahoot^ called maynhdee or niusjid (p. 102), and cover 
it with a p'hool kay chuddur (or flower-sheet). Along with 
this they carry ten or twelve trays of mulleeda with a 
canopy held over them, accompanied by huja^ tdsd, &c. 
fireworks, flambeaux, repeating durood and mowlood in 
Hindoostanee or Persian, and burning frankincense pro- 
ceed from some celebrated place to the house where the 
qudum is. On their arrival there, having offered ya^ee/ia, 
each one dips his finger into the sundul or urgujja^ and 
applies a little of it to the foot : they then spread the 
flower-sheet on the qudum and distribute the mulleeda 
amongst all present. 

The reason why they carry the sundul on a booraq is, 
that it was the Prophefs steed. The booraq should not be 
taken out at the Mohurrum as is usually done; it would be 
more proper to take him out on this occasion, that the com- 
mon people may know that it was on such an animal Mohum- 
mud Moostuffa (the peace ! &c.) ascended into heaven ; but 
agreeably to the Shurra, doing such things, and keeping 
such models, as well as keeping other pictures in the 
house, are unlawful. The booraq is left near the qudum 
until the morning of the thirteenth. In general, the land- 
lord of the qudum likewise makes a booraq and carries out 
sundul on it, and all vowers also have them made and 
bring them as offerings to the qudum. 

On the twelfth, or day of Ours, they have grand illumi- 


nations, and sit up all night reading mowlood, durood, 
Huddees, Qpran khwanee ; ana having prepared polaoo, &c. 
distribute them to all. 

The women, each agreeably to her means, carry some 
ghee, sugar, goor, sweetmeats, ood, and a cJmrragee to the 
qudumi and burning frankincense, have fateeha offered 
there, give a little of the sweets to the landlord, pour the 
ghee into the lamp,* and bring the rest home. 

At the place where the foot is, they burn benjamin and 
benjamin-pastiles daily, for the first twelve days of the 


For the Prophet's (the peace ! &c.) fateeha they usually 
prepare sheerhhrinj, as he was particularly fond of that dish, 
and at times called it syed-ool-taam (the prince of foods). 

Some people, during the first twelve days or any day in 
the month, fill two or more koondon (large earthern pots) 
with sheerbirrinj and pooreean, which ceremony is called 

poor (full). 

Some keep by them an asar-e-shurreef (i. e. the sacred 
emblem), alias asar-e-moobarik (the blessed token), which 
they say is a hair either of the Prophet's beard or mus- 
tachios. This is preserved in a silver tube, imbedded in 
nheer, and its dignity is supposed to be even greater than 
that of the sacred foot. 

At the place where the hair is they likewise offer fateeha, 
repeat durood, have illuminations, music, &c. Most of 
these hairs, however, are impositions and counterfeits. 

• Which is a large one ; and when full, after the donors have taken 
their departure, it is in a great measure emptied into a vessel, for the 
reception of a fresh supply, and the decanted (/hee is reserved for 
culinary purposes. 



Concerning his excellency, Peei' e Dustugeer Sahib's Geeariveen* on 
the eleventh day of the fourth month Ruhbee-oos-Saneey and the 
putting on of the Bnyree, Toivq, or Buddhee. 

His high excellency Peer-e-Dustugeer (may God sanc- 
tify his beloved sepulchre !) has no less than ninety-nine 
names ; but the principal, and those best known, are the 
following : Peeran-e-Peer ; Gotvs-ool-Axutn ; Gows-oos- 
Sumdanee; Miihhooh-e-Soohhanee ; Meeran Mo-hy-ood- 
Deen ; Syed ahd-ool-qadir-Jeelanee Hussunee-ool-Ho- 

He is esteemed the chief among wullees, and is a great 
performer of miracles. The disciples and followers of his 
household are very numerous. To them at various times 
he appears whilst they are asleep, and gives lessons. The 
author speaks from personal experience ; for to him at 
times of need, when he was oppressed in mind concerning 
things which he desired, he used constantly to repeat his 
ninety-nine names, and vow before the Holy God, implor- 
ing his assistance by the soul of Peer-e-Dustugeer ; and 
through the mercy of the Almighty, his excellency Gows- 
ool-Azum presented himself to him in his sleep, relieved 
him of the perplexities which distressed him, and vouch- 
safed his behests. Let those of my persuasion not conceive 
these assertions absurd or false, or that I affirm them with 
a view to raise the dignity of my peer, or to aggrandize 
myself; for should it prove true, may God's curses descend 
upon those who disbelieve it, and may their religion and 
livelihood be annihilated ! 

* Geeanveen, or the eleventh. 


The soonnees consider Peer-e-Dustugeer, a great perso- 
nage, and in their hearts believe in him ; whereas some of 
the sheehas, through ignorance, slander him, by asserting, 
that in the days of king Haroon-oor-Rusheed, this peer, 
Mahboob-e-Soobhanee (may God! &c.) occasioned the death 
of his excellency Eemam Jaffur Sadiq (may God! &c.) by 
causing him to swallow melted lead. This proceeds from 
pure malice, and is impossible ; for the space of time which 
had elapsed between the days of his excellency Eemam Jaffur 
Sadiq and that of his excellency Muhboob-e-Soobhanee, 
was no less a period than two hundred and fifty years. 

The sacred tomb of Peeran-e-Peer (the saint of saints) 
is at Bagdad. 

On the tenth of this month they perform his sufidul, on 
the eleventh his churagan (lamps) alias oors (oblations). 
That is, on the evening of the tenth, they carry out a large 
green flag, having impressions of the hand made on it with 
sunduly and with it they carry sundul, muleeda, sugar, 
flowers, benjamin, accompanied with numerous flambeaux 
and music, and having perambulated the town in great 
pomp and state, proceed to the place appointed, and there 
set it up. Then, having offered /a/eeAa in the name of Peer- 
e-Dustugeer, they apply the flowers and sundul to the 
flag, and distribute the muleeda, &c. to the people. 

On the eleventh day they cook polaoo, &c., read Mow- 
lood, Durood, and Khutum-e-Qoran,* offer fateeha, and 
distribute the victuals, and sit up all night, having illu- 
mination, and reading the Mowlood, Durood, Qoran, and 
repeating the ninety-nine names of his excellency Peer-e- 

When the cholera or any plague is raging, they take out 

• Klmtum-e-Qoran, or the finishing the reading of the whole Qoran. 
It is done in two ways. Vide chap, xxxix. 


in the above-mentioned manner, in the name of his holiness 
Peeran-e-Peer, a fhunda (flag) and walk about with it 
through every street and lane, halting every now and then, 
when the azan is proclaimed. At this time Hindoos as 
well as Moosulmans, according to their means, make them 
presents of something or other, which they deposit on the 
ood-dan. Sometimes they also offer fateeha over sweet- 
meats or sugar. After perambulating the city they bring 
it back and set it up in its original place. In this way 
they walk about with it, either one, or three, or five suc- 
cessive Thursdays in the month. Many make small 
fhundas in the name of his holiness, and having offered 
fateeha over them in his name, set them up in their houses 
or over the doors of their houses, and that with the view of 
obtaining security from misfortunes. In general, by having 
recourse to this means, through the blessing of his holiness, 
the virulence of such plague is arrested. 

Some people vow to this saint, that should they be bles- 
sed with a son or daughter, they will make him or her his 
slave ; and should their wishes be accomplished, on the tenth 
or the eleventh of this month they take a large silver hulqa 
(ring), alias Bayree (lit. a fetter, but here meant for a ring 
worn round the ankle), on which they annually pass a small 
ring. They dress some malleeda, place on it eleven small 
lamps made of flour-paste, and light them with ghee and red 
cotton wicks; and burning wood-aloes or benjamin, offer 
fateeha and put them on ; if a bayree^ on the right ankle ; 
if a towq (collar), around the neck of the child. Some, 
instead of these, have a silver or leathern Buddhee (belt) 
made, and put on, The generality only prepare a small 
quantity of polaoo merely for the fateeha ; while a few 
have abundance of polaoo cooked, invite their relatives and 
friends, and entertain them (as also feedfuqeers) with it. 


The fateeha is termed geearween (or the 11th) on 
account of its being the day that Gows-ool-Azum departed 
this life. Some, however, say that he died (lit. marched, 
i.e. to the other world) on the 17th of that month. But as 
for eleven days in every month, he was himself in the habit 
of offering /f/^ee/ia in the name of the Prophet (the peace ! 
&c.), and usually abstained from eleven things, the former 
day has been preferred as the one on which to offer fateeha 
in his name. 

Some people on any day during the month, others on the 
11th of every month, have fateeha offered in the name of 
his excellency Peeran-e-Peer over polaoo, or merely over 
some (more or less) sweets. 

Some have a maywhdee in the shape of a tahoot (vide p. 
102), made with green paper, or of wood painted green, 
with some silver about it ; and on the oors-day, or on any 
day of that month, suspend to it flowers, sayhras, and fruits 
moist and dry, light lamps, and set it up. 

Many have the maynhdee carried about in pomp and 
state, accompanied with music, &c., and after having peram- 
bulated the town, bring it home again and set it up. Some 
people collect, in the name of Peeran-e-Peer, what is called 
gulla;* that is, they take a tumbaloo or mutkee^ besmear it 
outside with sundul, tie up its movith with a piece of cloth, 
in the centre of which they make a small rent, place it in 
some clean spot, and deposit into it, through the opening in 
the cloth, a pice or two daily, or a handful of cowries or 
pice daily, or four or eight annas, or one or two rupees, 
every week, fortnight, or month, according to their means; 
and that from one end of the year to the other. And on 
the oo?'s-day, or on any day in that month, they take out 

* Literally, grain or corn, but here signifying money. 


all the Qulla and sum up the amount, and with it perform 
his holiness's geearween. Some, adding more money to 
what has been collected, give sumptuous entertainments. 

His excellency ""s hhanja (sister"'s son) was Syed Ahmud 
Kubeer Rufaee; from whom has descended the class of 
religious mendicants called fuqeer-e-rufaee or goorzmar : 
for an account of whom vide Chap, xxviii, which treats of 
the different classes o^fuqeers. 


Concerning- Zinda Shah 3Iuda?''s Chiiragan, and Buddhee ; Dlnimmul 
koodana, and Gacc lootana, observed on the seventeenth day of the 
fifth month, Jummadee-ool-Aivul. 

His excellency Shah Buddee-ood-Deen, alias Zinda Shah 
Mudar of Syria (may the holy God sanctify his sepidchre !) 
was a great wullee (saint) and a performer of miracles. He 
lived to a great age; nay, some consider him ever alive, 
though apparently dead, wherefore he is called Zinda (i.e. 
the living) Shah Mudar. He was partial to black clothes, 
and neither married nor ever had sexual intercourse. He 
travelled through various countries ; and on reaching Hin- 
doostan admired the situation of Muk-k'hunpoor,* and took 
up his abode there, where his blessed tomb now is.-p 

• A town about forty miles from Cawnpore. 

t His shrine is visited annually by nearly a million of people, men, 
women, and children. A riiayla (fair) is the consequence of this an- 
nual pilgrimage, which continues seventeen days in succession, and 
brings together, from many miles distant, the men of business, the 
weak-minded, and the faithful devotees of every class in the upper 
provinces. " \A'omen can never, with safety to themselves, enter the 

11 " mausoleum 


As in the preceding case of Peer-e-Dustugeer, so in this, 
they vow ; and making flower or leathern gold and silver 
huddhees, put them round the necks of their children. 

It was on the 17th of this month that he died. Some 
on that day, others on the 16th, prepare sootreean, polaoo, 
or mulleeda, and having placed thereon seventeen lamps, 
offer fateeha over them, and put the huddhee on the 

Some perform d''hummul koodana ; that is, they kindle a 
laro-e heap of charcoal, and having sent for the tuhqatee or 
Shah Mudarfuqeers (ch. xxviii. sec. 2.), offer them a present. 
The latter perform /a^ee/iff, sprinkle szmrf?// on the fire, and 
the chief of the band first jumps into it, calling out "d?,<m 
Mudar f'^ when the rest of them follow him, and calling 
out ^' dum Miidar ! dum Mudar T tread out the fire. After 
that, they have the feet of these fnqeers washed with milk 
and simdul, and on the examination of the (probable) injury 
find that not a hair has been singed, and that they are all 
as they were at first. They then throw garlands of flowers 
arounfl their necks, offer them shurhut to drink, and having 
o-iven to each some polaoo or sootreean alias chukoleean 
and mnleeda, with some ready money, a handkerchief or. 
Ioo72g, grant them their leave, i.e. to depart. 

Gaee lootana- Some having vowed a black cow, a few 
on the 17th, either at their own houses or at any of the 
astanas (p. 172), make a zooha (sacrifice) of it in the name 

" mausoleum containing his ashes ; they are immediately seized with 
" violent pains, as if their whole body was immersed in flames of fire." 
Vide Mrs. Meer's Observations, vol. ii. p. 321. 

• Dum Mudar, or " by the breath of Mudar," having the same su- 
perstitious faith in this charm as the Persians, who believe it to secure 
them against the bite of snakes, and the sting of scorpions ; and the 
courage with which those M'ho are supposed to possess it encounter 
those reptiles, is remarkable. 

XX. 17th day of the 5th MONTH. 043 

of Shah Buddee-ood-Deen, and distribute it in charity 
among fiiqeers. 

In some places they set up an ullum in the name of Zinda 
Shah Mudar, and the place is called Mudar ka astana. 
Here they generally erect a black flag (fhunda), and on 
the 17th perform his oors ; on the 16th (the day preceding, 
agreeably to custom) his sundul ; and in a similar manner 
they carry this flag, with the same pomp and state as they 
did that of Peer-e-Dustugeer. Both nights they sit up 
reading and recounting his mudah (eulogiums), moonaqih 
(virtues), celebrate his praises. At the oors, as at all oorses, 
they have splendid illuminations and perform nocturnal 
vigils. The above ullum is left all the year round in its 
original situation, and never removed as those of the mo- 
hurrum are. 


Concerning Qadir TFullee Sahib's Oors, observed on the 11th day of 
the sixth month Jummadee-ool-Akhir (or Akhir Muheena). 

The sacred shrine of Qadir WuUee Sahib «" is at Nagoor 
near Nagputun (Negapatam) ; the Mohummudan inhabi- 
tants of which place are chiefly of the shafaee^ sect, such 

• It Avould seem by an account given by Monsieur Garcin de Tassy 
on the authority of Jawan, in his work entitled " Bnra Masa,'' that 
this saint is likewise named Khwaja Moyeen ood deen Chishtee ; and 
hence the month itself is sometimes called by that name. " Memoires 
sur des particularites de la religion Musulmane dans Vlnde^'' p. 63. 

t There are four principal qowm (sects) of the Mohummudan 
faith, called after their respective founders ; viz. 

j^ 2 1- tlii^iJifie 


as luhhays,'^ mapullays (Moplaysf) &c. ; and these people 
highly revere this great personage. 

At that place is held on the ninth, his sunfJul ; and on 
the tenth liis oors ; both, in the manner above described 
(p. 238). Such as preparing maleeda, cooking polaoo, 
reading moivtood, &c., sitting up all night, making illumi- 
nations ; and that in a splendid style. Probably upwards 
of ten thousand rupees are expended on this occasion. 

On the eleventh they break the klieer kee liundee (the 
rice-and-milk pot) ; that is, on seeing the new moon, or on the 
second or fourth day of it, a sir-gurroh of any of the silsillas, 
or else a fuqeer, generally one of the Mullmig tribe, sits 
on a bedding:}: spread on the ground in a closet ; and, without 
either eating, drinking, sleeping, or obeying the calls of 
nature, he engages himself the whole time in the con- 
templation of the Deity. He does not go out of it, nor 
speak to any one, until the 11th, when the moojawirs cook 
kVieer in a large pot, and placing it on the head of one 
among them, convey it in great pomp and state, attended 

1 . Hiimifee ^ic.^' or Hanijites, from their founder, Aboo Huneefa, 

ehiefly found in Turkey and Usbec Tartary ; but comprising- persons 
from among all the four sects, Syed, Sheikh, Mogol, and Putthan. 

2. Shafaee juUi or Shafeites, from their founder, Aboo Abdoollah 

Shafeeut, met with principally at Nagore (Coromandel Coast) ; com- 
prising the Nuwa-aytays and Lubbays (both Sheikhs). 

3. Malukee j3to or Malekites, from their founder, Malek Ebn 
Ans, most prevalent in Barbary and other parts of Africa. 

4. Humbulee .LiJ>- or Hanbalites, from their founder Ebn Hanbal, 

chiefly found at Bagdad, in Arabia; generally very devout. 

Of the two last of these, none are to be met with in Hindoostan ; 
but they are numerous in Arabia. 

• A class of people who go about selling beads, precious stones, &c. 

t This class of people are chiefly to be met with on the Malabar 
coast. + i' C' A mattrass or quilt. 


by Baja Bujunticr, to the above-mentioned faqeer. The 
latter offers fateeha over it and tastes a little of it ; then 
getting up, leaves his closet and goes and joins his own 
class of fuqeers ; while the moojawirs take the F/teer-pot, 
with the same pomp and state as before to the sea-beach, 
the spot where they are annually wont to carry it, and thei'e 
dash it to pieces. Then all the people, falling one upon 
another, scramble for some of the Jiheer : nay, many regard 
even a piece of the broken pot, as v/ell as the sand of the 
spot, sacred relics. In the act of scrambling they take up 
so much sand, as to leave an excavation of a cubit or a cubit 
and a-half in depth ; but, strange as it may appear, amidst 
all this bustle and confusion not an individual is ever hurt. 

A few days previous to the oors^ various tribes oi fuqeers 
from a distance as well as from the vicinity, resort to the 
place and sit in assembly together {choivk byt'h-tay*)^ but 
the different bands apart from one anothei'. In each there 
is a sir-gurroh or leader. If any one of the fuqeers have 
been guilty of an improper act unworthy of his calling, he 
is punished on this occasicrn agreeably to the decision of the 
sir-gurroh, by being loaded with numerous beddings pro- 
cured from all the fuqeers present, or in some other way ; 
he is further made to express contrition for his fault, to beg 
for mercy, and to give a written bond to that effect. He is 
then restored to his former tribe ; or, in presence of the 
jumma-oollah, his tusma is cut into two, and he is excom- 
municated from their gurroh. In the latter case, he is 
considered unworthy thereafter to sit in the assembly of 

They act also in this way at other noted oorses ; such as 

• Choivk bytli-na is the technical term applied to the assembly of 
fuqeers, and it signities sitting together in a circle, though the terra 
chowk literally means a square. 


that of Tuhur-e-Alum, Baiva-hoodun (^aXias Hyat-Qtihin- 
dur) and Bawa-Fuqur-ood-Deen, &c. 

When afuqeer, or one of their peers has never been to 
an oors, he is esteemed imperfect. 

At some ooi'ses, fuqeers accept of money from moojawirs 
by way of present (^nuzmirs), and, distributing it amongst 
them, take their departure home. 

Moosulman ship-captains and sailors are in the habit of 
making vows and oblations in the name of his excellency 
Qadir WuUee Sahib ; e. g. when they meet with any misfor- 
tune at sea, they vow, that should the vessel reach the de- 
sired haven in peace and safety with their property and 
cargo, they will spend a certain sum of money in offering 
fateeha to him. 

On first beholding the new moon of that month, they 
erect a flag (or gom*, as it is called) in his name, about five 
or six cubits long. 

In other parts of the country also, as at Nagore, those 
Moosulmans who venerate this saint set up a gom, and 
annually offer fateeha in his name ; or some (each accord- 
ing to his means,) merely offer fateeha in his name over a 
little maleeda. 

As to his miracles, they are innumerable ; suffice it to 
relate two or three noted ones as specimens. 

1st. A certain person's ship sprang a-leak at sea, and the 
vessel was nigh sinking, when the nakhodaf (captain) 
vowed with a sincere heart, that should Qadir Wullee Sahib 
vouchsafe to stop the leak, he would offx^r up, in his excel- 
lency's name, the profits of the cargo, and likewise a couple 

• G07-11 or centipeded flag, because made somewhat in the shape of 
a centipede. 

t Nakhoda, from nuo, vessel, and khoda, god ; the lord or master 
of the vessel. 

XX. 11th day of the 6th jNIONTH. 047 

of small models of vessels formed of gold and silver. At 
that moment the saint was engaged with the barber, in the 
operation of shaving, and instantly became acquainted with 
the predicament in which the captain stood. Out of kind- 
ness he threw away the looking-glass he held in his hand,* 
which by some wise dispensation of Providence flew off* to 
the vessel, and adhering to the aperture of the ship stopped 
the leak. On the vessel's reaching its destination in safety, 
the commander, agreeably to promise, brought his offering 
of gold and two little vessels, one of gold, the other of 
silver, and presented them to him. The saint directed the 
captain to restore to the barber his looking-glass ; on which 
the skipper, in astonishment, inquired what looking-glass he 
meant; and received in answer, that it was the one adhering 
to the aperture at the bottom of his ship where the water 
had entered. On inspection, it was found firmly attached 
to the vessel ; and was accordingly removed and produced. 
2d. On one occasion, as he was washing his face near the 
edge of a tank, having at the time a small boil on one of 
his liands, he observed a woman with unusually large 
breasts. He imagined they were large boils (or abscesses-j*) ; 
and feeling compassion for her, said to himself, if the pain 
that I experience from so small a boil be so intolerable, 
what excruciating agony must that poor womaii not en- 
dure ! He supplicated heaven, saying : " Grant, O God ! 
" that this woman's boils may be far removed from lier ;" 
and, it is said, her breasts instantly withered away. The 

• It is customary witli natives, while the harber shaves, for the 
individual A'sho undergoes the operation to look at himself in a small 
looking-glass which he holds before him. 

t This saint is said to have passed his life in deserts, and never seen 
a woman before ; whereas, at Nagore, the women go about with the 
upper half of their bodies completely exposed. 


woman, in consequence, became sadly grieved, and related to 
her neighbours that afuqeer had seen her, and by mum- 
bling something to himself had caused her breasts to dry 
up. They repaired to his holiness, and stated, that at his 
desire the woman^s breasts had disappeared ; to which he 
replied, that he had supposed them to be immense boils, 
and hoped that since they were breasts, the Almighty 
would restore them to their original condition. On his 
saying this, her breasts re-appeared. 

3d. Near the sacred tomb of this saint is a grove of 
cocoanut-trees. The custom-house officer observed to the 
owner, that the revenue which it yielded was considerable, 
and that therefore it was but just that he should pay a tax 
for it. The proprietor replied, that the garden belonged to 
a great wullee and had never been taxed before, and why 
should it now .'' The other said, it did not signify to whom 
it belonged ; the duty must be paid : adding, that cocoanuts 
had no horns that he should be afraid of them. No sooner 
had he uttered these words, than horns sprouted out of a 
couple of them ! From this circumstance the duty on these 
trees has been dispensed with To this day are the two- 
horned cocoanuts suspended near the head of his blessed 

God knows whether these things be true or not. I have 
only stated what I have heard. The lie be on the neck 
(head) of the inventor of it ! 

Sect. 1. RUJUB'S KUNDOREE : 7th MONTH. 049 


Ooncernin^ 1. Rtijub Sdldrs Kundoree ; 2. Syed Julldl-ood-Deen''s 
(of Bokhara) Koondon ; 3. His holiness Mohummnd Moostuffa's 
(the peace ! &c.) Miraj (or Ascension), observed in the seventh 
month Rujub. 

Sect. 1. — Rujuh Solar's Kundoree. 

This takes place on any Thursday or Friday in the 
month Rujub, agreeably to a vow previously made, in the 
name of Rujub-Salar, alias Salar-Musuood Gazee, whose 
miracles are well known, and whom people esteem a great 
wullee. His sepulchre is at Bhuranch.* 

The ceremony of kundoree is performed as follows. First 
of all a hole which was dug at the first kundoree, either 
within doors or out, for the purpose of washing the hands 
over it, and of throwing therein any refuse, such as bones, 
rinds and stones of fi'uits, the parts of vegetables not 
eaten, &c., and that has been covered up, is opened after 
offering the kundoree ka fateeha ; and the vow being con- 
cluded, it is closed, after this fateeha has been again of- 
fered. This hole is termed an allawa: — which many people 
dispense with altogether. It is the superstitious part of the 
female sex alone, who, supposing it inauspicious for the sky 
to behold any part of this food, dig allawas, and bury the 
refuse in them. 

With the exception of fish and eggs, they prepare all 
sorts of rice, bread, curries, vegetables, also wheat-flour 
horses boiled in syrup, and take fruits, radishes, onions, 
leeks, mint, chutnee, cheese, vinegar, &c., and arrange 
them on plates and in cups on the dusturkhwan, each one's 

* A town about thirty miles north-east of Lucknow 


portion separately by itself. Then burning incense, they 
offer fateeha, eat, and distribute them. 

Some make little horses of wheat-flour and boil them in 
syrup made of soft sugar or goor (Jaggree), sometimes add- 
ing milk, and a plate or two of chunnag kay dal, soaked in 
syrup of goor, as if intended for the horses ; and having 
offered fateeha, eat and distribute them within doors ; the 
generality of people partaking first of a little of the cimnna, 
and then of the other victuals. 

Some occasionally prepare what they call k' hoolay-g'^horay 
(loose horses), so called because the eating of them is not 
confined within doors as the former ; but fateeha having 
been offered, they are distributed and sent abroad. 

The reason for observing this fateeha is as follows. Sick 
people, especially those affected with disorders of the legs, 
vow that should they, through the favour of his excellency 
Salar Musuood Gaxee, recover, they will prepare k'hoolay- 
g'lioray^ have fateeha offered in his name, and distribute 

Sect. 2. — Syed Jnllai-ood-Deen's Koondon. 

Some people, on any Thursday or Friday of that month, 
place either in conjunction with the above-mentioned kun- 
doree, or separately, two or four (or more) large or small 
koondon,* containing meetha-polaoo, or kliara-polaoo, or 
sheerhh'rinj, almonds, dates, &c. The generality of people 
fill them brimful, nay, as high as possible, with duhee, 
sugar, and boiled rice; and having offered fateeha in the 
name of Syed Jullal-ood-Deen (of Bokhara), some eat 
them out of the koondon,^ while others serve them up in 
plates, eat, and distribute them. 

* Koondon, or earthen pots used for kneading dough in. 
t Eight or ten dipping their hands in at the same time. 


Some people, especially sheeahs, perform koondon in the 
name of Mowla Allee. 

The observance of such rites is not enjoined in books ; 
they are only current in Hindoostan.* 

Sect. 3. — Mohummud's Miraj (or Ascension). 

On the 15th or 16th (most of the learned say on the 
27th) of Rujub, the angel Gabriel conveyed his holi- 
ness the Prophet Mohummud Moostuffa (the peace ! 
&c.) mounted on the booraq (vide p. 186) to the Al- 
mighty. People regarding that as an important night, 
commemorate it by sitting up all night, reading the nume- 
rous narratives written concerning it, and next day (the 
27th) keep fast. I may, however, remark, that the custom 
is peculiar to the learned, pious, and devout ; the vulgar 
neither observe nor know any thing about it. 

The account of it is contained in the huddees (or tra- 
ditions regarding Mohummud). The particulars may be 
learnt by consulting a work entitled 3Iarijin-nubooa, as 
well as others well known. 


Concerning the Shnhan feast ; viz. Shub-e-Burat, held on the 14th ; 
and its arfa, on the 13th day of the eighth month, Shaban. 

The word burat, agreeably to the interpretation in the 
Qoran and dictionaries, signifies a register. It is the book 
of record, in which are registered annually all the actions of 

• The above ceremony would appear to be also called Hazaret) 
according to professor Garcin de Tassy, on the authority of the Bara 
Masa, by Jawan, page 59. 


men, which they are to perform during the ensuing year ; 
and it is said to be on the fifteenth night of this month, that 
the true and holy God annually records them in the book. 
Owing to this circumstance, the feast in commemoration of 
the event has obtained the name of Shuh-e-Burat, or the 
night of the record. 

In the Khuzana-Juwahir-Jullaleea, by Mowlana Fuz- 
zul-Oollah, son of Zeea-ool-Abasee, the hurat is thus 
noticed, viz. That Almighty God has in the Qoran given 
four names to this night. He has called it — 1st. Btirat, or 
the night of record; 2d. Lylut-ool-moobarik, or the blessed 
night ; 3d. Ruhmut, or the night of mercy ; 4th. Farayqa, 
or the night of discernment. 

The ceremony of its arfa^ is observed by some, and is 
as follows. On the 13th of the month, either during 
the day, or in the evening,-}- they prepare in the name of 
deceased ancestors^ and relatives, polaoo, and curries, or 
hulwa and bread, or only some meetha polaoo ; and putting 
some of it on separate plates in each one's name, they offer 
fateeha, first in the name of the Prophet over one dish, then 
over the others in the names of the respective individuals. 
That being done, they put the rice, &c. on a large platter, 
and having offered fateeha over it in the name of all those 
collectively to whom they are under obligations, or from 
whom they hope for favours, they dispatch a portion of the 
food to the houses of all their relatives and friends. 

• The arfa of feasts are always observed on the day previous to 
the feast itself. The following two only have them, viz. the Shabati 
feast, alias Shuh-e-Burat, and the Buqr-Eed. 

t Which is the evening of the 14th of the month according to the 

J i. e. of as many as they can remember ; for they keep no written 
register of them. 

XXII. 14th day OF THE 8tii MONTH. 253 

The 14th is the feast clay. Those who have not obsei'ved 
the arfa prepare, either during the day or at night,* certain 
delicious viands, and offer fateeha over them in the name 
of the Prophet (the peace ! &c.) and their deceased an- 
cestors, and amuse themselves in letting off' fire-works. 

Boys generally, for two or three days previous to the 
feast, go about playing on small tumkeean and tasay. 

Those who have performed ai'fa prepare on this day sheer- 
birrinj or meetha polaoo, and o^ev fateeha over it in the name 
of his holiness Moh urn mud Moostuffa (the peace! &c.)."f* 

Some, in the name of their children, when they have a 
family, make, if they be boys, elephants, if girls, paootees,X 
of clay, ornamented or plain, either large or small, and 
light lamps on them. In front of these on trays they place 
choorway, k'hopray, dates, almonds sliced, and sugar, with 
all kinds of fruits, and offer fateeha over them in the name 
of the Prophet (the peace ! &c.). 

Some also offer fateeha over the elephants in the name of 
Moortooza Allee, and over the paootees in the name of 
Beebee Fateema. This last is also a species of vow. 

In front of the elephants and paootees they erect a scaf- 
folding with sugar-cane or wood, and make illuminations 
by lighting lamps on them : they have also fire-works, such 
as blue-lights, matches, and flower-pots, &c. 

The female relatives, after the conclusion of the fateeha, 
drop into the lamp a rupee or half-rupee piece. The fol- 
lowing morning the choorway, fruits, &c. are sent from the 
person who performed the vow, by the hands of the boys 
and girls, to the near relatives; who, on receiving them, 

• i. e. the nig-ht of the 15th of the Mohummudan month. 
t Learned men never ofi'er fateeha over food ; probably because the 
Propliet never did. 

X Paootee, a kind of lamp. 


put into their hands a rupee, a half, or a quarter rupee 
piece, as a present. With this money, as well as with that 
put into the lamps the preceding night, they prepare chuko- 
leean (alias sootreean)^ and distribute them among their 
friends ; after which they place the elephants and paootees 
over the doors of their houses or on the walls of their com- 

The sitting up all that night, repeating one hundred 
rukat prayers, reading tlie sacred Qoran and durood, fast- 
ing next day, are all commands of the Prophet. The arfa 
is hidaiit-e-hoosna ; * but all the otlier ceremonies are inno- 
vations, and are superfluous and extravagant. 

On the night of the 15th many spend large sums of 
money in all kinds of fire- work s,f and frequently have 
sham battles, by standing opposed to each other, and letting 
off fire-work s one upon another. This sport generally ter- 
minates seriously ; for the clothes of many catch fire, some 
even lose their lives on these occasions, and numbers are 

At this feast, likewise, schoolmasters, by distributing 
eedeean (p. 49) among their scholars, exact presents of 
money from the childrens' parents, in the manner de- 
scribed under the head of akhree char shoomha (p. 232). 

• That is, it may either be observed or not. Its observance is not 
meritorious, and vice versd. 

t There are more fire-works let off at this feast than at any other, 
and presents to one another on this day invariably consist of fire-works. 
Vide p. 37. 

Sect. 1. RUMZAN FAST: Dth MONTH. 255 


Concerning 1st. The Rumznn ka Eoza (or Fust) ; 2d. The Turawceh 
Prayers; 3d. ^y-tai/-kafhyehna; Aih.. Lylut-ool-qudur''s Shuh-hay- 
daree, observed in the ninth month, Rumzan. 

Sect. 1. — The Ruinzan Fast.'^ 
The appointed time for breaking fast (suhur or suhur- 
gahee, as this meal is termed during the Mohummudan 
Lent) is from 2 to 4 a. m., beginning with the morning 
that succeeds the evening when the Rumxan new moon 
becomes visible. From the above period until sun-set it is 
unlawful to eat, drink, or have connubial intercourse.f 

In this manner they fast every day during this month, 
and continue day and night engaged in the contemplation 
of the Deity .:^ 

Tl!e blessings attendant on the observance of this fast, 
with further particulars respecting it, will be found in 
Chap. xii. sect. 3. p. 5Q. 

* It was in the sacred month, Rumzan, that the sacred Qoo'an 
descended from heaven. It is the divine command, that both the 
commencing and the breaking of fast daily should be preceded by tlie 
performance of neeut, or vowing to that effect. 

t In the evening, before the Mup-ib (page 55) prayer season they 
breakfast ; this meal is termed Iftar. 

X " There are some few who are exempt from the actual necessity 
" of fasting during Rumzmi ; the sick, the aged, women giving nou- 
" rishment to infants, and those in expectation of adding to the mem- 
" bers of the family, and very young children : these are all com- 
" manded not to fast. There is a latitude granted to travellers also ; 
" but many a weary pilgrim, whose heart is bent heavenward, will be 
" found taking his rank among the Rozadars of the time, without 
" deeming he has any merit in refraining from the privileges his code 
" has conferred upon him. Such men will fast whilst their strength 
" permits them to pursue their way."— Mrs. Meer's Observations, 
vol. i. page 190, 


Sect. 2. — The Turaweeh Prayers. 

These consist of twenty rukat prayers, which it is the 
Prophet's command (to his followers) to read aloud in the 
company of others, with the eemam, after the time of the 
aysha (p. 55) prayer, and when three rukats of the wajih- 
ool-wittur prayers (p. 78) are still unrepeated. After the 
former being concluded, the latter are to be read. 

For the purpose of reading the turaweeh prayers it is 
necessary to employ an eeman or hajiz, as they finish them 
in a few days. When the whole Qoran has been read 
through, the turaweeh prayers are discontinued. The 
hafiz, or he who has officiated in reading the turaweeh, is, 
after the conclusion of the Qoran, rewarded with money 
or clothes, as may have been previously settled. 

Some, after the Qoran has been once read through, con- 
tinue repeating the turaweeh prayers and reading the chap- 
ters of the Qorati, commencing from the one entitled 
Alum-e-turkyf or Feel (Elephant, i. e. chap. 105.), or from 
any succeeding chapter to the end of the book, over and 
over, until the day before the last of the month. 

If there be no hajiz, it is necessary to repeat the tura- 
weeh for thirty days. At the end of every fourth rukat, 
the eemam with uplifted hands offers supplications to 
heaven, and all the congregation respond Amen ! and 
Amen ! 

The sheeas do not read these prayers, nor even enter the 
mosque ; and for this reason : that after every four rukats 
the congregation, as well as the priest, repeat eulogiums in 
the name of the four companions, which they cannot bear 
to hear. 

Every Friday* the congregation assemble in the mosque, 

* The Mohummudan sabbath. 

Skct. 2, 3. 9tii MONTH RUMZ AN. 257 

and the qaxee, khutecb, or even the motva%un, stands in 
front of them. When the mowazun is present, he first of 
all sounds the azax\ (or summons to prayer, p. 75) they 
then repeat any thing that they may remember or are in 
the habit of doing ; after which, the khuteeh (priest) reads 
the khootba (sermon), which contains praises and eulogiums, 
admonition, and advice; but on the last Friday of the 
month, they give such a solemn and pathetic discourse on 
the Rumxan separation called ulweeda, and on the excel- 
lencies of the night, first in Arabic, and then expound it 
in Hindee or Persian, that many of the respectable and 
learned are seriously affected by it, even to tears. 

The generality of Sheeas observe the night of his ex- 
cellency Allee; (may God reward him!), and that in a 
grand style, either on the 21st or 20th of this month. 
They form a zureeh (tomb) in the shape of a tahoot, 
and take it out. Beating upon their breasts, they 
perambulate the streets and bring it home ; and having 
cooked various kinds of food, they offer fateeha in the name 
of his excellency Allee, and eat and distribute them. The 
reason for observing it on these particular days is, that his 
excellency Allee departed this life on one of them (which 
is uncertain). 

The Soonnees likewise, without taking out the zureeh, 
according to their means, cook victuals and offer fateeha 
over them. 

Sect. S. — Jy-tay-kaf byfhna (or to be engaged in constant 
prayer in the mosque). 

Most people during the whole month, some for fifteen 
days, while others merely on the last day or during three 
days and three nights, remain in a corner of the mosque 
enclosed by a curtain or skreen, never go out except to 
obey the calls of nature, or for the legal purifications 


nms:oo and gosool. They never converse with any one on 
worldly matters, and never cease reading the Qoran or 
praising the Almighty. It is highly meritorious to read it 
in a loud and audible voice. By such actions many have 
become men of excellence and penetration, and whose 
words are powerful as a sharp sword.* In the case of 
those professional men whose pressing avocations afford 
no leisure, the observance of Ay-tay-kaf for a day and a 
night is sufficient. 

The rite of ay-tay-kaf hyl^hna hfurx-keefaeeu^ by which 
term, in fact, many denominate it ; that is, if one indi- 
vidual of a town perform it for the whole population, or a 
single person out of an assembly, this is equivalent to all 
having observed it. In the same way as at rumzan, when 
one man out of a town sits gosha nusheen {i. e. in a corner 
or retired place, engaged in the contemplation of the Deity), 
it is the same as if all the inhabitants did so ; e. g. if, 
when one makes a sulam to an assembly, any member of 
the company rise and return it, every one's "neck" is 
thereby equally relieved from the obligation. 

Sect. 4. — The Lylut-ool-qudur {night of power). 

This has been decided by learned men, both in Arabia 
and UJjitm, to be, agreeably to the Qoran, the twenty- 
seventh night of the month Rumzan. 

On this date they sit up all night, burning frankincense- 
pastiles, repeating miflen,f reciting the praises of the Al- 
mighty, reading the Qoran, and proclaiming the azanl 
(vide p. 77). 

On those who remain awake all that night, the angels 

• Whose blessings or curses take effect. 

t PI. of 7iujil — particular prayers. Vide p. 7S, and Glossary. 
I They proclaim the azan (or summons to prayer), every now and 
then during the night. 

Sect. 4. 9th IVfONTH RUMZAN. 359 

from heaven continue showering clown every hour the peace 
and blessing of God, even until sunrise next morning. 
The excellencies of that night are innumerable.* 

Among the people of the faith (Moosulmans) there are 
two things, which are not known to any but prophets ; viz. 
1st. Lylut-ool-qudur, a night on which the whole vegetable 
creation bow in humble adoration to the Almighty, and the 
waters of the ocean become sweet ; and that, all in an instant 
of time. 2d. Ism-e-axzitn (the great attribute). It is an 
attribute possessed of such virtues, that a person endowed 
with a knowledge of it can effect whatever he pleases. He 
can kill the living and raise the dead to life; and he can 
instantly transport himself wherever he pleases. 

The Gyr Muhdee (p. 14) erect, each in his own district 
of the town, a Jummaut-khana (meeting-house), where on 
the night of Lylut-ool-qudiir they assemble, read dogana 
(two rukat) prayers in the name of Muhdee, after which 
they call out three times these words : " Allah-illah-unna 
Mohummud Nuheena a I Qpran wul Muhdee amunna wo 
sidqunna ,•" i. e. " God is almighty, Mohummud is our pro- 
phet, and the Qoraw and Muhdee are just and true;"" and 
conclude by saying, " Eemam Muhdee has come and is 
gone ; whoever disbelieves this is an infidel." On hearing 
which the soonnees become so enraged, that they first get 
boys to pelt them with stones as if in sport, and then attack 
them with swords. The adversaries, on the other hand, 
considering it martyrdom to die on such a night, stand up 
in self-defence at the risk of their lives. For the above 

* What is included in this section under the head of Lyhit-ool 
qudur^s Shuh-baydaree, would seem to have been confounded by Mrs. 
Meer with Shub-e-Burat, treated of in the preceding- chapter, and 
observed in the preceding month. — Vide Mrs. M. H. All's Obs. 
vol. i. p. 303. 


reason this inveterate hatred continues to exist between 
these two classes of people to this very clay, and numbers 
of lives are in consequence annually sacrificed. The author 
has himself been present at two or three of these bloody 
battles, but has never seen the Gyr Muhdees come off 
conquerors. He has also remarked, in confirmation of a 
common report, that their dead invariably fall on their 
faces. When people bring this circumstance to their notice, 
saying, that their falling in that position arises from their 
unbelief, they reply, " Not so : our corpses are in the act 
" of sijdah (or prostration in devotion)," The real origin 
of their enmity is this : The Soonnees and Sheeas expect 
the coming of Eemam IVIuhdee,* while the Gyr Muhdees 
consider Syed Mohummud of Jeoo72pooree ( Jeypoor ?) to 
have been Muhdee, and assert that he has been on earth, 
and is departed, and will never return ; and they venerate 
Muhdee as highly as they do the Prophet (the peace ! &c.), 
and say, whoever denies him is undoubtedly destined for 
hell. On that account they are called by others Gyr 
Muhdee (without 3Iuhdee), while they name themselves 
real Muhdee-walay, or Daeeray-walay ,--f- and denominate 
others by the appellations kafir (infidel) or Dustugeer- 
walay : by the latter, because they themselves place no 
faith in Peer-e-Dustugeer (p 237). The generality of 
Gyr Muhdees (Note, p. 14), are of the Putfhan tribe ; 
but their number is so small in comparison to the Soo- 
nees and Sheeas, that this adage is quite applicable to 
them : " as salt in wheat flour." j 

• Eemam Muhdee, the twelfth and last Eemam, INlolmmmud sur- 
named Muhdee; i.e. the director and leader, whom the Persians be- 
lieve to be still alive, and who, according to their belief, will appear 
again with Elias the prophet on the second coming of Jesus Christ. 

t The name of the circular wall which they erect on this occasion. 

X Alluding to the small quantity of salt which is mixed with a large 




Concerning- Eed-ool-Jitr, or Rumzan kee Ecd, held on the 1st day of 
the tenth month, SJmwal. 

The Eed-ool-Jitr (or feasts of alms), called also the feast 
of Rum%an, is observed on the first day of the month 
Shuwal.^ This month is likewise termed Doodh-ka-3Iu- 
heena, Khalee Muheena^ and Eed-kay-Muheena, or the 
feast month. It is called Doodh-ka-Muheena (the milk 
month) by the lower orders, from the circumstance of their 
preparing sayweean (vermicelli) boiled in milk on this occa- 
sion ; and Khalee Muheena (or the vacant month) for this 
reason, that it is the only month in which no feast takes 
place. -f- 

On this day, before the feast-prayers, all Moosulmans, of 
both sexes and all ages, bathe, apply soorma to their eyes, 
wear new clothes, and perfume themselves. But previous 
to going to the eed-gah\ to prayers, it is first necessary to 
distribute the sudqa^ alias Jih' (p. 57) in alms amongst 
fuqeers or the poor. It consists of two seers and a half of 
wheat, dates, grapes, or any grain commonly used for food 

proportion of flour in preparing the vvheaten cakes, whit-h constitutes 
the chief food of the Putfltans. 

* This feast forms the conclusion of the fast kept during- the pre- 
ceding month. 

t The one just detailed being- considered as belonging to the pre- 
ceding month Rumzan, hence denominated the Rumzan kee eed or the 
Rumzan feast, it being the breaking up of the Mohummudan Lent, 
and consequently attached to it. 

+ Eed-gah, a place of feast; or Niimaz-gah, a place of prayer; 
from Eed, feast ; numaz, prayer ; and gah, a place. 

§ 'S'mc?5'«, alms, propitiatory offerings. Vide Glossary. 

262 RUMZAN FEAST. Chap. 

in the country, or the value in coin : they may then go to 

In general the people conduct the qa%ee from his house 
to the numaz-gah^ and bring him back again in great 
pomp and state, accompanied by haja hujimtur ; and the 
people of every quarter of the town also assemble and pro- 
ceed thither, and return home in the same manner. On 
their return, their mothers, sisters, &c. take some water 
coloured red or yellow, and while still outside of the door 
wave it over their heads and throw it away ; in order that, 
should any malignant eye have fallen upon them, or should 
they have trampled upon any thing unpropitious, the effect 
may be averted. This ceremony, however, many dispense 
with. While proceeding from their houses to the eed-goh, 
they repeat, or should repeat, softly all the way the tukbeer 
(or creed) viz. allah-ho-akbur, allah-ho-akbur, la-illah-ha 
Illaylah, allah-ho-akbur, allah-ho-akbur, wid lillahhoo ul 
humd; (p. 81) i. e. " God is great, God is great, there is 
" no other God save the one true God ; God is great, God 
" is great, and praise be to God."" 

Should those who keep the fast neglect to give the Jittra, 
their fast, turaiceeh, ay-tay-kaf, and prayers, will be kept 
suspended in the air midway between earth and heaven. 

The khuteeb (priest), after repeating two rukat prayers, 
alias shookreea, ascends to the second or middle step* of the 

• The Soonnees have three, the Sheeas four steps to their mimbur or 
pulpit, in the centre of the wall which constitutes the Eed-gah, or a 
place of assembly. It is said, that the Prophet used to stand on the 
uppermost step; his successor, Aba Bukur, on the second; and Oomr, 
his successor, on the third or lowermost; but Oosman his successor, 
remarking that at this rate they would reach the bottom of the earth, 
discontinued the practice of descending one step at each succession, 
and fixed upon the second, or middle step, as the established one for 
standing upon, in reading the khootba or sermon. 

XXIV. 10th month SIIUVVAL. 0(J3 

mimbur, and the congregation being seated, lie reads the 
khootha ; i. e. offers glory to God, praises the Prophets, 
and passes eulogiums on his companions. He then descends 
to the lowermost step, recounts the many virtues of the 
king, and offers up supplications on behalf of him. Tlie 
king is he whose coin is current in the realm, and in whose 
name prayers are offered up after the khootha is read at 
the mosques and at feasts.* 

Should a nuW'Wah (nabob), as the king's representative, 
be present, he makes the khuteeh, at the time of reading the 
khootha, a present of a khilaut ; or some opulent native of 
the town, or the liberal-minded among soobah-dais-f and 
jtimadarsl spread a piece of muslin over him as a present. 
Some throw gold and silver flowers over the qazee's head, 
and which his servants or relatives pick up for him. 

After that, the khuteeh again ascends to the middle step 
and offers moonajat ; i.e. supplicates heaven for the pros- 
perity of their religion and for the remission of the sins of 
all Moosulmans, for the safety of pilgrims and travellers, 
for the recovery of the sick, for increase of rain, for abun- 
dance of corn, for preservation from misfortunes, for free- 
dom from debt. He then descends from the pulpit, sits on 
a jae-numaz (p. 78, 119), and offers up supplications in 
behalf of all people ; the congregation at the end of each 
sentence (or prayer) say ameen (amen). On the conclusion 
of the moonajat, the whole congregation rising up, call out 
the word " deen'''' (religion), and fire off' guns and muskets. 

• At pi-esent (1832) it is in the name of the king- of Dehli ; but in 
the author's opinion erroneously, as it should be in the name of the 
Honourable East-India Company. 

t SoobaJi-dar (holder of provinces ;) but now applied to the first 
rank in the native army of the Honourable East-India Company. 

X Jumadar (properly Zumcendar or land-holder), to the second 

264 RUMZAN FEAST. Chap. 

Then friends mutually embracing, and strangers shaking 
hands, congratulate one another by wishing each other 
" good health" on the occasion of the feast ; and, repeating 
the durood (or blessing), they perform dustbosee, or shake 
(lit. kiss) hands with the qazee. 

At such times there is a large concourse of fuqeers and 
beggars assembled, who crave charity ; when, those who can 
afford it, dispense among them cowries, pice, or'quarter, half, 
or rupee pieces. Should people at that time not have had 
an opportunity of meeting with any of their relatives or 
friends, or with any men of rank, they proceed to their 
houses, to pay them visits, when the latter offer the visitors 
pan-sooparee, and sometimes also apply sundul to their 
necks and uttur to their clothes, and even entertain them 
with something in the way of food. 

The same ceremonies are observed at the buqr-eed (vide 
p. 266). 

The above prayers are to be read between 7 or 8 a. m. 
and noon, and not to be deferred till after that time. 

On this day, previous to going to hear the khootba read, 
they prepare sayweeaw, antl cook it with ghee, milk, sugar, 
almonds, dates, dried cocoa-nuts sliced, poppy-seed, chee- 
rowiijee and moonuqa ; and having offered fateeha over it 
in the name of the Prophet (the peace ! &c.), they, either 
then, or after their return from hearing the khootba, send off 
a portion of it to all their friends, distribute some among 
the poor, and partake of it themselves. 

Some people send to their relatives and friends more or 
less, according to their means, of the different ingredients 
of which it is composed, uncooked. 

At this feast, also, schoolmasters (as related before, p. 49) 
distribute eedeean (holiday gifts) among their scholars on 
the day preceding, and receive presents. 



Concerning' Btmda Nrnvaz's Churagnn (or lamps, i. e. illuminations), 
observed on the 1 6th day of the eleventh mouth, Zecqaeda ; also 
called Bunda-nuwaz'^ month. 

His holiness Bunda Nuwaz, surnamed Gaysoo duraz, or 
" the long-ringletted," (may God sanctify his sepulchre !) 
was a great wullee. He observed in one of his religious 
reveries, that in the event of people being unable, for sub- 
stantial reasons, to undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca, 
their visiting his mausoleum, once in their lives, would be 
attended with the same benefit as performing the pilgrimage. 
His blessed shrine is at Gool-burgah* (Calburgah). There, 
on the 16th of the month, in the day-time, they perform his 
sundul, and on the night following the 17th day {i.e. the 
18th night of the Mohummudans), they observe his oors 
with the same splendour and state as that of his excellency 
Qachr Wullee is observed at Nagore-Nagputtun (p. 24^) ; 
nay, if any thing, with greater splendour. 

In other countries, however, it is on the 15th and 
16th that they have illuminations in his name, cook 
maleeda or polaoo, offer fateeha over them, send some to 
their relatives, partake themselves of it, and distribute to 

On the night of the 16th, {i. e. the 17th night of 
the Moosulmans,) some people pour ghee into sixteen 
lamps previously prepared of silver or paste, and having 
therein lighted wicks, place them on maleeda and offer 
fateeha over them, as described at p. 238. 

• Gool-burgah, or a place of roses; i'rom goolburg, rose-petals, and 
fffik, a place. 



Concerning' the Buqr-eed (qoorbanee, or sacrifice) ; alias Ecd-ool-zoha ; 
its Arfa and Eed (or feast), held on the 9th day of the twelfth 
month, Buqr-eed. 

On the day or evening of the 9th of the month Zil- 
Imjja or Buqr-eed, they cook polaoo, hiilwa, and chitpa- 
teean, and perform arfa, in the same way as the shaban, 
alias shuh-e-hurat arfa, was observed and described at 
p. 252 ; such as offering fateeha in the names of de- 
ceased ancestors ; and on that day some even keeping fast ; 
a fast called nuhur, which continues for one and a quarter 
watch (i e. till within a quarter of ten a.m.). 

On the morning of the 10th they proceed to the eed-gah 
to prayers, repeating the tukbeer aloud all the way from 
their houses to the eed-gah, in the same manner as they 
did at the Eed-e-Rumzan (or Eed-ool-Jitr, p. 261).* 

Among the opulent, each person, after prayers, sacrifices 
a sheep-}- (carried thither on purpose) in the name of God ; 
or seven individuals, men women and children conjointly, 
sacrifice a cow or a camel,! (p. 67) for those who offer 
such sacrifices will be carried by tliese animals as quickly as 

• Kings, princes, or Nmv-wahs proceed to the Eedgah in great pomp 
and state. A very interesting and accurate account of processions on 
these occasions is given by Mrs. M. H. AH, vol. i. p. 263. 

t This feast is held in commemoration of Abraham's intending to 
sacrifice his son Ismaeel, agreeably to the Mohummudans, and not 
Is-haq (Isaac). 

X The reason for sacrificing the camel, &c. (according to Mrs. 
Meer), is that such animals will be in readiness to assist those who 
offer them, on their passage over the Pookirat, to eternity. Vol. i. 
p. 140. 

XX\n. 9th day of the 12Tn MONTH. 267 

a horse goes, or as lightning, over the Pool-sirat.* This 
does not include poor people, because they are not Sahib-e- 
nissab (p. 58). 

Other particulars relative to the sacrifice, having already 
been detailed under the head of Pilgrimage (p. 60), Tttr- 
weea (p. 65), and Qoorbanee (p. 67), I have here treated 
the subject concisely. 

Moreover, after e\ery fur z prayer, from the morning of 
Arfa (the 9th) until the season of the iissiir (or afternoon- 
prayer, p. 55) on the 13th of the month, they are to repeat 
once the iukbeerf-e-tushreek (p. 69). 

After prayers they prepare kubab of the meat sacrificed 
as above, and rotee ; and each one at his own house having 
had fateeha offered over them, in the name of his holiness 
Ibraheem and Ismaeel, and having distributed them to 
people, they breakfast. 

Some fast till after the khootba, when having prepared 
seekli-rotee,\ they oifer fateeha over it, and eat. 

Many cook various delicious dainties on the occasion and 
distribute them. 

Some, who possess the means, send to each relative or 
friend, according to their rank, one, two, or more sheep ; 
while others again send one or two fore or hind quarters, or 
distribute only some portions of it. 

The flesh of the animal so sacrificed is divided into three 
portions ; one is for the use of the sacrificer himself; a 
second is given in alms to the poor and indigent ; the third 
is bestowed among relatives and friends (p. 67). 

As at the Eed-e-Rumzan (p. 264), so at this, school- 

• Pool-sirat, the bridge over the eternal fire, across which the Moo- 
sulmans believe they must pass into j)aradise. t Page 262. 

X Seekli properly means a skewer ; but here signifies meat trussed 
on skewers broiled, and served up with roteo or bread. 


masters distribute eedeeau (p. 49) among their scholars, 
and procure in return eedeeana (holiday presents). 

Among Moosulmans, the eed-ool-fitr and eed-ool-Zoha 
(or Buqr-eed) are two grand eeds (festivals). On these 
occasions, both the learned and illiterate resort to the eed- 
gah, considering them real feasts. Independently of these, 
however, there are others ; such as the Ashoora, Akhree- 
char-shoomba, Shub-e-burat, &c. which properly are not 
feasts, but are observed as such ; consequently, with the 
exception of the two former, all that has been related, as 
occurring in the other months of the year, are nothing more 
than fateeha offered in the names of eminent saints, and 
cannot be comprehended under the denomination of eeds 
or feasts. 

In many towns and villages there are the shrines {chillas 
or astanas, as they are called) of celebrated saints ; where 
the inhabitants of the place, annually, in different months 
of the year, perform, according to their convenience, sundul, 
oors, and fateeha, in their names. For example, at Hydra- 
bad, in the name of his holiness Mowla Allee, they perform 
his sundul on the 16th, and his churagan (or oors) on the 
17th of the month Ritjub, and that on a hill named after 
him, about five miles to the north-east of the cantonment 
of Secunderabad and about three or four coss (six or eight 
miles) from the city of Hydrabad. The noise and bustle, 
which take place there on that occasion, can only be con- 
ceived by an eye-witness. It continues during the above 
two days in all its grandeur, but people are busily occupied 
about it,* a day or two before and after. Nay, there is 

• Erecting booths wliere all sorts of things, eatables, drinkables, 
&c. are sold, decorating houses (some of the latter with European 
articles of furniture), from the terraces, windows, and verandahs of 
which, a line view is obtained on the festival days, of the scene below, 



more fun and sport going on at this than even at the 

On the 18th clay of this month another feast is cele- 
brated, and that solely by the Sheeahs or Emameinsy 
called Gudeer jl^i^ (alluded to at p. 10). It is described 
in the Bara Masa as being a great solemnity, which tlie 
soul rejoices to reflect upon, the happy mention of which, is 
listened to with delight. All use but one language (the 
author observes) in extolling the excellencies of this feast, 
which is in commemoration of the express declaration, made 
on that day by Mohummud, agreeably to the command of 
God, that AUee, the commander of the faithful and the 
king of saints, was to be his successor. This message was 
delivered at a place called Gudeer Khoom^ a halting station 
for karwans (caravans), where there are a number of con- 
stantly running streams, situated half-way between Mecca 
and Medina. It is from the name of this place, that the 
feast has derived its appellation. It is moreover said, that 
whoever observes this feast will be entitled to place his 
foot in the kingdom of heaven. 


Concerning- Nuzur-o-Nynz, or Vows and Oblations. 

There are various kinds and descriptions of vows and 
oblations, or dedications. 

Men and women, Sheeahs and Soonnees, to the extent 

where an innumerable crowd of men, women, children, elephants 
beautifully caparisoned, horses, &c. passing and repassing, present a 
motley appearance. • i.e. Mohurrum, q. v. p. 172. 

270 NUZUR-O-NYAZ; Chap. 

of each one's belief in these tilings, vow, that when what 
they desire shall come to pass, they will, in the name of 
God, the Prophet, his companions, or some ivullee, present 
offerings and oblations. For instance, if any should recover 
from sickness, or find a lost sheep, or obtain employment 
(service), or be blessed with offspring, or if his foe be ruined 
or killed, or if his master be pleased with him, or if he 
obtain promotion, then in the name of each of these, there 
are certain forms observed, and particular victuals cooked. 
Of this I shall select a few examples. 

Nu%ur-Oollah (an offering unto God). This consists in 
preparing polaoo, qoorma, and rotee, and distributing them 
among friends and the poor, and giving any sort of grain, a 
sacrificed sheep, clothes, or ready-money in alms to the 

Some women prepare dood'h-payrayf or pindeean, with 
sugar, milk, and rice, or wheat flour ; others also mulleeda 
and goolgoollay, offer fateeha over them, and distribute 

them to all. 

It is not essentially necessary that fateeha should be 
offered in the name of God ; it is sufficient to say, at the 
time of making the vow, that the oblation is in the name of 
God. It is merely the vulgar who have such faitli in it, 
that they never dispense with the custom, or eat the food, 
without first having offered fateeha over it. The above 
pindeean are called oollah-ruhum kay pindeeax), or only 

Some fry flour in ghee, add to it sugar, fruits, kViopra, 
dates, sliced almonds, and chironjee,f and offer fateeha 
over them. This is called asan (easy). 

* i. e. The merciful God's Pindeean ; or " the merciful." 
t Nut of the chironjia sapida, Roxb. also called Pyal. 


Many women prepare ruhum (vide above) goolgoollay, 
mulleeda, and observe rutjugga (nocturnal vigils), sitting 
vip all night, playing on the d'hol and singing. 

Some women, at weddings, or at any other time, after 
their wishes have been realized, prepare pindeean, in the 
name of Peer Shittab. The manner of doing this is as 
follows. A sohagin (married) woman, or a widow, is 
bathed, dressed neatly, and supplied with red twisted 
thread, on which are formed nine, eleven, or nineteen knots. 
She is then dispatched to all their relatives and friends for 
the purpose of begging. On her arrival at the doors of the 
different houses, she calls out, " I am come to untie the 
" knots of Peer Shittab." Then the people of the house 
throw into her lap half a seer or a seer of unboiled rice ; 
whereupon she unravels one of the knots. When all the 
knots have been thus undone, and she has begged at the 
several houses corresponding to the number of knots, and 
returned home, the mistress of the house, with the rice thus 
obtained, prepares pindeean, and transmits one to every 
house where the woman had begged. 

Or, in the name of Peer-millaoo, they prepare rotee of 
wheat, or dress maat-kay-hhajee,* and place along with 
them ^oor, sugar, ghee, or til (gingilie) oil,-f- offer fateeha 
over them, eat, and distribute them within doors, but never 
carry them abroad. Some dig an allawa (p. 173), in a 
corner of the room, over which they wash their hands ; | 
and having thrown the food, together with the remnants of 
the meal, into it, they fill it up with earth. 

• Amaranthus tristis, Lin. 

t Ol. Sesam. orientale, Lin. 

X The Indian mode of washing hands differs from the European : 
they do not dip their hands into the water, but, while an attendant 
pours water out of an ewer, wash the hands over the basin. 

272 NUZUR-0-x\YAZ ; Chap. 

Or, they fill Peer Deedar's koonday,* with duhee and 
boiled rice. 

Or, in the name of Kat Bmva Sahib, they prepare a 
curry of a cock and rotee, offer fateeha over them, and 

Some women preserve choontees -|- (p. 32), from one to 
five in number, on their children's heads, and consecrate 
them in the name of some celebrated wullee, saying, " I 
" dedicate this to so and so ; and when the child has at- 
" tained such an age (specifying it), I shall prepare polaoo, 
" &c., offer fateeha, and have the choontees shaved by the 
" barber.'' 

Again, some in the Dukk'hin (or south, erroneously 
written Deccan), after their wishes have been fulfilled, 
float juhaz (mimic ships), as has already been described 
under the head of huldee, in the third section of the chapter 
treating on " Marriage." 

Or, they merely take one, two, or three lamps made of 
paste or earth, light them with thread-wicks in ghee, put 
them on an earthen or brass plate, with cowries in them, 
more or less according to their means, and carry them to 
the sea-beach, or to the margin of any river, spring, or 
well, offer fateeha over them, and leave them there. In 
carrying them thither, shopkeepers as well as travellers put 
cowries and pice into them. After the fateeha, children 
scramble for the cowries and pice ; but the brazen dish is 
brought home by the owner. 

There are some people who, every Thursday in the year, 
put a few flowers and some sugar in a dona,X and launch it 

* An earthen vessel, somewhat in the shape of a flower-pot. 
t Choontee, the plait or tie of hair behind the head. 
X Dona, a leaf folded up so as to hold a parcel of 6fYt'/- leaves, 
flowers, food, or any other thing. 


on the water, in the name of Khoaja-khizur, and at times 
throw a number of kowries into the water. 

I understand that, in Bengal, it is usual, on any Thurs- 
day (but among the rich generally on the last one) of the 
Beng^alee month Bhadon, for both men and women to fast 
all day in the name of Khoaja-khizur ; and that having 
made one or tyvo jiihax, alias hayra, or mohur-pnnk''hec, or 
luchka, of split bamboo frame-work, covered witli coloured 
paper, ornamented with tinsel, beautifully formed, and ele- 
gantly lighted up with kiiwn tviil* and decorated with 
flowers, they burn incense, and carry sheerhirrinj or duleea^ 
and 7'oteean, or fowl-curries with 7'oteeau, or sweetmeats, 
sometimes to the amount of twenty rupees' worth ; and 
playing on tasa-murfa, baja-bujunfur, mcqaray, letting off 
fire-works in great pomp and state, accompanied by friends 
and relatives, convey them on men''s shoulders, as they 
do tnhoots (p. 182), to the brink of the river, where they fix 
them on floating rafts, made by trussing the trunks of 
plantain-trees on bamboo skewers. They also take a couple 
of plates, one containing the food of oblation, the other the 
paste or silver lamps, lit up -wiXhghee and thread (as a wick), 
and having had fateeha offered over them by the moolla in 
the name of Khoaja-khizur, they give to the moolla his fee 
of a rupee or two for performing the fateeha ,• and having 
put the above two plates, with some cash, as an offering, 
into it they set it adrift on the water. Afterwards, grown-up 
persons as well as boys jump into the water, swim for, and 
plunder it. 

Some take the hayras to the middle of the river, and 

* Kmvn-uml,\\i. the lotus, but here referring to a sort of a shade 
made v.'ith mica and coloured paper, intended to represent the lotus, 
within M-liich they burn wax candles. 


274 NUZUR-O-NYAZ, Chap. 

there set them adrift ; but, previously to so doing, set afloat 
on the stream hundreds of earthen-plates, one after another, 
containing lamps. A few of the more wealthy construct 
the above rafts on a scale sufficiently large to allow hundreds 
of people to stand on one of them ; and fixing numbers of 
mohur-'punkliees^ &c. on it, with a great deal of illumina- 
tion, letting off fire-works, burning blue-lights, and firing 
off" matchlocks, they float down with the tide in the middle 
of the river. The whole presents a fine spectacle, and the 
crowd of spectators enjoy its splendour in a most agreeable 
manner from the shores. After which, the vowers bring 
the food home, entertain their friends and relatives with it, 
and distribute some of it among the people of the house. 

The poor place on two earthen plates, U\o goochee^ betel- 
leaves, with ^\e soopareef in each, a little 7>ee^fl/ee sheertiee^ 
folded up in plantain § leaves, and two lamps with c/hee, 
together with five, nine, or twenty-one kotvries, or as many 
gundas\\ of them, and take along with these an empty Iota, 
and proceed in the evening to the banks of the river ; and 
there, having lighted up the lamps, they get the fateeha 
offered in the name of Khoaja-khizur by the moolla (to 
whom they give the koivries), and float the plates on the 
water, which the children immediately plunder. People 
behold the fun, enjoy a laugh, and are dehghted. At last 
the person who has made the vow fills the lota with water 
and brine-s it home, and with a mouthful of that water 
breaks fast, takes his meal, and goes to sleep. 

After the same fashion they perform other vows: such as, 

• A goocliee is a bundle, of a hundred betel-leaves. 

t Sooparee, areca-nuts, or betel-nuts. 

J Peetalee sheernee. cakes aijaggree or raw sugar. 

§ Musa paradisiaca, T.iu || Four of any thing- is ^ gunda.. 


Lunggiir, detailed under the head of Mohurrum, p. 217 

Gendgiihwara 220 

Door, Baoolee, Bolaq do. 

Bmjree 239 

Buddliee 242 

Kundoree 249 

Glioray 250 

Koonday • do. 

And in the same manner, in the name of renowned indi- 
viduals, they put on their children nu^h-nees, htmslees, 
tozvqs, ssunjeers, and torras. 

It is a general custom that when about to undertake a 
journey, or when a misfortune befalls a person, they tie up 
a jiice, a quarter, half or one rupee piece, or a cKhuUa,^ in 
a bit of cloth dyed yellow with turmeric, in the name of 
Emam Zamin, and wear it tied on to the left upper arm. 
On reaching their destination in safety, or in getting rid of 
their affliction, they take it off; and with its value, or 
adding something to it, they purchase sheernee, or prepare 
maleeda or some sort of polaoo, and offer fateeha in the 
name of his holiness.^j* 

Learned men, exclusive of the nuxur-oollah, nyn%-e-rus~ 
sool^ fateeha e hu%rut-shah\ and peer-e-dustugeer, perform 

* Ch^hulla, a thin wii-y metallic ring:. 

-|- " When any one is going' on a journey, the friends send bands of 
" silk or riband, in the folds of which are secured silver or gold coins. 
" These are to bo tied on the arm of the person projecting the journey, 
" and such offerings are called Emam zaminee, or the Emaiyi's pro- 
" tection. Should the traveller be distressed on his journey, he ma}', 
" without blame, make use of any such deposits tied on his arm, but 
" only in emergencies. None such occurring, he is expected, when 
" his journey is accomplished in safety, to divide all these offerings of 
" his friends amongst righteous people. The Sycds may accept these 
" gifts, such being considered holy, (paak).'''' — Mrs. Meer, vol. i. 
p. 253. X Huzriit Ska//, a name of Mowla AUee. 

T 2 

276 NUZUR-0-NYAZ, Chap. 

two or four other vows and oblations; such as tosha,'^ in 
the name of Shah-Ahmud-Abd-ool-Huq of Rad'holee. They 
prepare hulwa with equal weights oi ghee, sugar, and flour ; 
the more devout preparing and eating it themselves, on no 
account ever giving any of it to smokers or to women. 

In the name of Su-munnee, alias Shah Shurf Boo Allee 
Qulundur, and Shah Shurf ood Deen Yeh-eea Moonayree, 
and Ahmud Khan, and Moobariz Khan, they prepare a 
dish of food, of one maund\ of qoorma made of meat, one 
maimdofdiihee, one maund of wheaten mimday or rootecan 
(i. e. leavened or unleavened bread), oWer fa teeha over them, 
and distribute them among men and women. 

They also perform the tosha of the ashah-e-kuhuf ;\ 
dressing: meat or rofeeon with duhee. Seven brothers, 
called Aleekha, Muksulimta, Tub-yu-nus, Kushfootut, 
Udurqut, Yunus, and Yuanus, were very cordial friends 
together, and the most virtuous among the children of 
Israel ; and they had also an affectionate dog, named Qut- 
meera. In the name of these seven, diey take out seven 
plates full of the above food, offer fateelia over, then eat, 
and distribute them. They have likewise a separate dish 
for the dog, which is not placed with the others, but given 
to some dog to eat. 

The Sheeahs prepare hazree (breakfast) in the name of 
his holiness 'Abbas Allee Ullum-burdar, Hosein's step-bro- 

• Tosha, provision, particularly, of a traveller, or that which is 
carried with the funeral of a deceased person, to support him duriii<> 
his journey to the other world. Jlaticnm. 

t A imui or maund, equal to forty seers or eighty lbs. 

X Ashnh-e kuhitf, or the companions of the cave; i.e. the seven 
sleepers. This is founded on u legend of seven young- Christians of 
Ephesus, who fled, as they say, from the persecution of the emperor 
Decius, and slept in a cave, accompanied only by their do<j, for three 
hundred and nine years. Mohummud has adopted this stoiy in the 
eighteenth chapter of the Quran. 


ther ; i. e. they cook polaoo, rotee, curries, &c. and distri- 
bute them ; but among none save Sheeahs. In fact, after 
the fateeha, they even revile the companions before they 
partake of the food. 

The generality of their women vow and make poorun in 
the name of Eemam Jaffur Sadiq (may God be pleased 
with him !). That is, they dress pooreean, offer fateeha^ 
eat, and distribute it to all. 

Some women make the kundoree of her ladyship, Beebee 
Fateemat-ooz Zohura. That is, they prepare various kinds 
of food in a private* place, of which respectable and vir- 
tuous ladies are alone entitled to partake : no one else is 
allowed a share. Men are not even permitted to look at it, 
and the fateeha is offered over it, under cover of a curtain. 

Sometimes they prepare beehee ka sanuk, alias beebee ka 
basun, (p. 108). 

Some women prepare, in the name of Shah Dawul, roteean 
with Juwar,f bajray,\ or any other kind of grain, maleeda, 
maat kay bhajee, and place goor along with them, and offer 
fateeha. Some prepare them with their own money, with 
more or less grain procured by begging. The man or 
woman who is sent to beg, goes to the houses either of their 
relatives or of strangers, and calls out shah-dawul. The 
landlord, on hearing the sound, gives him a seer or half a 
seer of any kind of grain. Some sacrifice a sheep in his 
name, cook polaoo and quleea, eat and distribute. 

Some, when any difficulty or misfortune befalls them, set 
out on their travels with their wives and families, all dressed 
in blue; and subsist (lit. fill their bellies) by begging. 

• In secret, because being her ladyship's food, it is not proper that 
every one, especially men, should see it. 

t Juivar, or L;reat iiiillct (Molcus saccliaratus. Lin.). 

X Bujray, (liolcus spicatius, Lin. Panicuni spinatuni, Roxi).). 

278 NUZUR-O-NYAZ, Chap. 

When their difficulties have been removed they return 
home, and make vows according to their means. 

Some irreligious women prepare kurrahee* (or goolgool- 
lay), in the name of Sheikh Suddoo, and by artifice, (for if 
known that it is Sheikh Suddoo' s fateeha, no one would 
perform it) contrive to get the person who offers fateehas to 
do it over this food. This ceremony is denominated meean 
kee (or Sheikh Suddoof kee) kurrohee. 

Moreover, some impious women fix ujjon a day, and 
dressing themselves in men's clothes, have a meeting at 
night, which is called bythiik. In this assembly they have 
flowers, pan, uttur, sundul, and sheernee. Domneeans or 
other women play on the 'puk''hawnj or dlioluk, and sing. 
Then this wicked woman, on whose head Sheikh Suddoo is, 
becoming as if intoxicated, continues whu'ling her head 
round ; and foolish women who wish any particular thing 
to happen, apply to her, to direct them how to suc- 
ceed in accomplishing it. For instance, a woman says 
" Meean, I go sudqeeX (or I offer my life for you ;) that I 
" may have a child." Then the revolving woman, if she 
pleases, gives her a beera,§ some of her own oogal,\\ or some 
sheernee, which she, with profound faith, actually eats. 
However, God is Lord of all, and it depends upon his will 
and pleasure whether the woman shall be with child or not. 
But if perchance she should bring forth a child, the belief 
of these unfortunate creatures in these things is wonderfully 
confirmed, and they turn real infidels. Should she not have 
a child, she concludes Meeaw is angry with her, and re- 

• Kurrahee, or irying-pan. t Vide Plate. 

X Siidqee jana, to become a sacrifice for the welfare, &c. of another. 

§ Beera. Vide Glossary, ^mm Ay? it't">'«. 

II Oogal, that which is spit out after chewiiig bcklAQ'di. 


peats the ceremony with redoubled credulity. The case is 
similar in other affairs. 

Sensible and learned people have no faith in Sheikh S'ud- 
doo, but consider him in the light of a devil. His tomb, or 
rather the spot marked out where he disappeared, is at 
Amrohee, where there is always a great deal of noise and 

Besides these there are other objects of superstition ; such 
as malignant spirits, fairies, Ntirseea,f Mata,f &c. in which 
many believe. May God blacken the faces]: of such people. 

Some, to obtain the accomplishment of their wishes, peti- 
tion his majesty Seekundur (Alexander tlie Great), vowing 
that should their desire be gratified they will offer up 
horses in his name. Accordingly, when their wishes are 
realized, tliey cause small burnt earthen-horses with riders 
on them to be made, and having had fateeha offered in his 
highness's name, they convey them in great pomp and state 
to the spot fixed on for his astana, and place them there ; 
and at such places hundreds of such horses lie in heaps. 

Some, after making small horses, place them in front of 
their houses, or set them up over their doors. 

Many, among Hindoos as well as Moosulmans, have 

♦ " The ignorant part of the population of Hindoostaii," Mrs. M. 
H. Ali observes, "hold a superstitious belief in the occasional visi- 
" tations of the spirit of Sheikh Suddoo. It is very common to hear 
" the vulgar people say, if any one of their friends is afflicted with 
" melancholy, hypochondria, &c. : ' Ay, it is the spirit of Sheikh 
" Suddoo has possessed him.' In such cases the spirit is dislodged 
" from the afflicted person by sweetmeats, to be distributed among 
" the poor ; to which is added, if possible, the sacrifice of a black 
" goat." For further particulars of the history of Sheikh Suddoo, 
vide Mrs. M. II. All's " Observations on the Mussulmans of India," 
vol. ii. p. 324. 

t Hindoo deities. 

X That is, send them to hell ; for the moment thev get tliere, their 
faces are supposed to get black by being scorched iu the iirc. 

280 NUZUR-O-NYAZ. Chap. 

great veneration for the above celebrated character ; and I 
have observed, in some places, Hindoos offer horses in the 
above way in the name of some of their deities ; consequently 
it cannot be discovered without enquiry whether such places 
are astanas or idol temples. 

Independently of these, there are innumerable other saints, 
at whose shrines oblations are offered ; and that usually at 
their oorses ; at many of them by Hindoos as well as Moosul- 
mans. I shall name a few of those most generally known, e.g. 

Sooltan Sarwar, at Baloutch, four coss from IVfoultan. 

Shah Shums-ood-Deen-Dariai, at Depaldal in Lahore. 

Qoottoob Sahib, or Qoottoob-ood-Deen, near Dehli. 

Sheikh Buha-ood-Deen, Zakaria (or Zukhmee; vide 
Mooltan Ham. Gaz.) at Cotcaror in Moultan. 

Furreed-ood-Deen (surnamed Shukurgunj), at Ghana- 
wal near Moultan. 

Shah Nizzam-ood-Deen Owleea, at Dehli. 

Kubeer punthee, or Nanuk punthee, at Ruttunpore in 

Baba Lai, at Dhianpoor in Lahore. 

Shah Dola, at Sealkote in Lahore. 

Syed Shah Zouhour, at Allahabad. 

Sheikh Mohummud Ali Hazin Gillanee, at Benares in 

Hosein Abdaul, or Baba Wullee, in a valley called Ho- 
sein Abdaul, in Lahore. 

Peer Julal, near Lucknow, in Oude. 

Syed Zein ool Abay Deen, at Rowza, in Aurangabad. 

Shah Arzanee, at Patna, in Bahar. 

Shah Lohaunee, at Monghir, in Bahar. 

Nekmundun, at Bhowanipoor, in Bengal. 

Asoph-ood-Dowlah, at Lucknow, in Oude. 

Shah Selim Chishtee, at Futtipoor Sikra, in Agra. 


Hafiz, at Shiraz, in Persia. 
Mowluwee Meer Askaree, at Juanpoor. 
Zain Shah, &c. 

In the Duk'hun: 
Huzrut Baba Fuqr-ood-Deen Gunj-ool-Israr, at Pil- 

goonda, in Mysore. 
Chundur Buddun, and Mohy Yeear, at Cuddry Caticul, 

in Canara. 
Tubur-e-Allum, or Nuthur Wullee, at Trichinopoly. 
Syed Abd-ool-Qadir, at Oodgeer. 
Hajee Ruhmut Oollah, at llumtabad. 
Baba Boodun, or Hyat-ool-Buhur, on Baba Boodun's 

Mountains, (S.E. of Nuggur or Bednore), in Beejapoor. 
Malik Ryhan Sahib, at (Burra) Serah, in Mysore. 
Sheikh Furreed, at Gooty in the ceded districts. 
Seekundur Padshah, at Madura, in S. Carnatic. 
Karwa Owleea at Tripetty in the Carnatic. 
Hydur Wullee, at Muroodga. 
Tippoo Padshah, at Arcot, in the Carnatic, &c. &c. 


Concerning' Tureequt, or the Path {i. e. to Heaven). It comprises 
three sections ; viz. 1st. The hecoming a Moorecd (disciple) ; -d. 
The manner of makinf^f a Fuqccr (devotee), and the investiture of 
the Kheelajut (deputyship) ; 3d. The austerities requisite to be 
practised in order to become a JVnllee (saint). 

Sect. 1. The becoming a Mooreed, or Disciple. 

The custom of making Mooreeds had its origin with our 
ancestors. The becoming one is also termed TuUjeen or 
Byat. For this purpose, there are sages or Mushaekhs, 


who are great votaries, virtuous, sensible and learned, and 
whose office it is to do it. 

When a man or woman wishes to become a Mooreed, he 
goes to one of the sages belonging to the household of the 
particular peer (saint), in whose silsilla (family descent) 
he himself has established his belief, or invites him and 
other friends and I'elations to his own house, and there, 
should Providence have blessed him with the means, he 
entertains them with jjolaoo, &c. 

Either before or after dinner, in the presence of the 
assembly, or in a closet, the Moorshud, after performing 
wuzoo, with his face turned towards the East, seats the can- 
didate for the moor eedship before him, with his face tov.ards 
him,* or, as with some, facing any way. Then he takes 
hold of the right hand of the Mooreed with his (their 
thumbs touching one another, some\that after the manner 
of shaking hands), and keeps them together. If it be a 
female, and one in the habit of going about openly, she 
takes hold of one extremity of a handkerchief or piitka^ 
and he the other, while he is making her a moreed ; but if 
she be one who is veiled from public observation, she sits 
concealed behind a skreen or curtain (and that because the 
peer is one of the excluded, that is not a relative, although 
he be a Moorshud^, and she thus lays hold of the hand- 
kerchief or putka as above, and becomes a disciple. They 
deposit near them, for the Moorshud, according to their 
means, a suit of clothes, a khiluut, some ready-money, 
d''han-kay klieeleeaw, butasha, sheernee, sundiil, ornaments 
or garlands made of flowers, and lighted benjamin-pastiles. 

First of all he directs the discij^le to repeat the Usiugfar 
(or deprecation), and the five kulmay (or creeds), besides 

* So that the disciple may look towards the \\*est or the qibla. 


some other supplications ; after which the 3Iooreed says to 
his peer, " Whatever sins I have intentionally, or unin- 
" tentionally committed, I do now, this instant, repent of, 
" and I promise sincerely, before my peer, and in the 
" presence of God and his Messenger, never to commit 
" them again." Then the Moorshud sums up to him the 
names of all his peers contained in the SJmjra,* which goes 
back as far as the time of the Prophet (the peace ! &c.); 
and enquires, " Do you consent to acknowledge these 
" peers f 

Some 'peers, naming merely their own Moorshud, ask, 
" As I have accepted him, do you accept me as your 
" moorshud f The disciple replies, in either case, " I 
" do."" When he has repeated all their names, he lets go 
the disciple's hand, takes a cup of shurhut, offers certain 
supplications over it, and, having blown upon it, and taken 
two or three mouthfuls of it himself, hands it to his dis- 
ciple, who instantly rises from his seat, and drinks the 
whole off" with the utmost reverence. Some Moorshuds 
make them also read two rukat prayers of Shoohreea 
(thanksgiving). After this, such money, &c. as was in- 
tended for the Moorshud is presented to him. The can- 
didate, after having been made a Mooreed, makes qudum- 
boseef to the 31oorshud and sulam to all present, who 
return the sulam, adding, " Be thou blessed." 

Next day or the day after, the Moorshud furnishes his 
disciple with a copy of the Shujra, in order that he may 
remember them. 

Some foolish and ignorant people consider these Shujras 
as most sacred, and even venerate them more than the Qoran: 

• Shujra (vulgo. Shijra). A list of saints or holy predecessors, in 
the form of a genealogical ti'ee given to disciples, 
t Vide Sulam, Gloss. 


nay, tliey make amulets of tliem, and wear them round 
their arms and necks ; and when they die are buried with 
these placed on their breasts. 

The Moorshud then reveals to the disciple, in a whisper, 
(lit. breast to breast, hand in hand, and ear to ear), all the 
secret mysteries of godliness. 

They esteem moorshiids as their own fathers, and people 
in the world are said to have four fathers : as stated before, 
when treating of the Qoran kee Huddeea, p. 48. 

Sect. 2. The manner of making a Fuqeer {Devotee^ ; 
the consideration of the four Peers (Saints,) and four- 
teen khan-waday {Households), from which Fuqcers in 
general have descended; together with other varieties of 
Fuqeei's, as also of Mushaekhs ; and the investiture 
with the Kheelafut {Deputyship). 

When a moorshud is about to make any one a fuqeer, 
either in his own silsilla (race) or in any other in which he 
has the authority so to do, the candidate, according to his 
means, prepares polaoo, birreeanee, or qnleea, and 7idn, 
and gives a mayla."^ On this occasion about forty or fifty 
fuqeers, more or less, of various tribes, together Avith their 
friends and beggars, are assembled by invitation, and the 
fuqeer whose office it is to bear the messages of invitation is 
named Iznee. At the time of making one a fuqeer they 
have flowers, sundul, sheernee, ganja, hhung, sooklia, goo- 
rakoo, all })rcsent. The moorshud first of all gets the can- 
didate's four ahroos, viz. the hair of his beard, of his mus- 
tachios, of his eyebrows, and of the rest of the body, re- 
moved ; or instead of shaving these, tliey clip a few (lit. 

* Mayla, literally sigiiilies u fair, but is a term also applied to enter- 
tainments given iofuqecrs. 

Sect. 2. OR DEVOTEE. 285 

five or seven) hairs off each part witli a pair of scissors. 
During the operation of shaving off the hair and paring tlie 
nails, &c. there are certain sentences of the Qoran, or sup- 
plications in Arahic Avhich the moorshud repeats. Then, 
after having had i\\e fiiqeer bathed, he makes him stand or 
sit before him, and repeat the dxeJinlma y-eShiireeuf ; vi^. 
1st. Kulma-e-ty-ub ; 2d Knlma-e-shnhadut ; 3d. Kulma- 
e-tiimjeed', 4th. Kiilma-e-toic-heed ; 5th. Kulma-e-rud-e- 
koofoor ; and the common tistugfar, as well as ten other 
kulmay (creeds) current amowg^ fuqeers. 

Having then imparted to him such admonition and advice 
as he deems necessary, he repeats again the names of all 
his moorshuds to him ; and asks, " Have you consented to 
" acknowledge me and all these T'' The other replies, " I 
" have.'' When he has made him repeat this three times, 
he, either with his own hands places a taj (cap) on his 
head, or gets another to do it ; he then ties a small cloth 
tui'ban of eight or ten cubits'' length around it, puts a kufnee 
or alfa, tusbeeh-an, kiintha, and sylee round his neck, a 
leather tusma, a limgote, or loong^ and kummurhund about 
his waist, suspends a small circular piece of white mother- 
of-pearl called da/ to his foot, and hands to him a clihurree- 
romal* and a kuch-kole, alias kishtee,f &c. He then gives 
him some of his own jhoofha (contaminated) shurbut to 
drink. On putting on each article, he repeats certain sen- 
tences of the Q&ran or some Arabic supplications. When 
the fuqeer is completely decked out in his new garb, the 
2)eer gives him a new name ; such as Bismilla-shah, Umr- 

• Chlmrree-ro7nnl, i.e a chliurrce or twif? of a tree, (p. 295) with a 
romal or handkerchief wound round the upper end of it. 

t A beggar's wallet, which consists generally of the shell of tlic 
double sea cocoa-nut, (cocos maldivica, Willd; Lodoicea scchellaruni, 


oollali-shah, Hussun-oollah-shah, Lutteef-shah, or Goolzar- 
sliah, &c. In short, in every instance they have the word 
shah (king) affixed to their names ; as much as to signify, 
that he is lord over his own will and has renounced the 
world. Then all the fuqeers call out, "he is made ! he is 
" made !"" and the man ever after goes under his new name. 
Then the moorshud makes him direct his face towards the 
qibla and perform sijdah (prostration) to God. After which, 
instead of uttering the usual salutation zis sulci m-oon-aly- 
koojn, he, adopting the fuqeers'' technical mode of expres- 
sion, says to the moorshud and all the members of the 
assembly, " Eshq-Allah, wo Moorshud-Allah,''''* or, " Eshq- 
" Allah jumma fooqra Allah ;"f to which the moorshud 
and others, instead of replying " wo-ally-Jwomoos-sulam,^' 
as other people would do, answer, " sudara eshq, jummal 
" Allah!'''X These various ceremonies observed hy fuqeers, 
such as reading certain sentences of the Qoran, wearing 
alfa, kunfha, &c., are not consonant either to the shurra, 
the word of God, or the traditional sayings of the Prophet. 
They have notwithstanding gained ground, like many other 
customs which have been corrupted, in Hindoostan. 

At the conclusion of this the moorshud gives to the 
fuqeer the following precepts ; vix. 1st. what stands, do not 
touch ; what lies down, do not move ; (meaning, do not 
steal). 2d. Let your tongue observe truth ; (or, do not lie). 
3d. Keep your limggotee on tight; {i.e. commit no adultery). 
4th. Treasure these vip in your mind, child. Beware. 
Exert yourself ; gain your livelihood by begging or work- 
ing, it matters not which ; but eat things lawful. 

* To the elect of God, and the spiritual guide to God. 
t To the favourites of God, to all \.\\^ fuqeers of God. 
X Be always beloved, thou beauty of God. 

Sect 2. OR DEVOTEE. gg? 

Then they distribute food among the fuqeers, giving 
each such share as he is entitled to.^' 

When all this is done, the above individual is constituted 
a real fuqeer ; and no one reproaches him thereafter, for 
associating with fuqeers. 

It is a rule with fuqeers, whether tliey do or do not per- 
form prayers at the appointed seasons, that tliey must repeat 
something or other on their beds, and make sijdah to the 
deity. This, in their phraseology, is called histurray hay 
asknan ruh-na {i. e. being friends with one's bed). When 
they have occasion to sulam to any one, they say, " Allah 
" Allah hy hurray, haboo ! khoosh ru-Jio f^ or " saeea 
" Allee ivo niibbee ha nihay."\ In like manner, Avhen 
people of the world salute a /wgeer, they say, '•'' bundngee 
" hy shah sahib,'''' or " suUmi hy shah sahib,'''' (i. e. I salute 
you master sire !); because, in hecommg fuqeers, they rise 
in dignity. 

All fuqeers have originated from char jjeer (or four spi- 
ritual guides) ; and chowda khan-waday (or fourteen house- 
holds); and the following is the connexion. The 1st. jieer 
was Huzrut Moortooza Allee; he invested with the kheelafut 
(deputy ship) the 2d. peer Khoaja Hussun Busree ; he con- 
stituted his deputies, the 3d. peer Khoaja Hubeeb Ajmee, 
and the 4th. peer Abd-ool- Wahid bin Zyd Koofee. 

From the third peer have descended nine households, vi%. 
1st. Hubeebeeaw, from Hubeeb Ajmee; 2d. Tyfooreea^i, 
from Baeezeed Bostaniee, surnamed Tyfoor ; 3d. Kur- 

• Alluding- to the custom among them of giving- a double portion to 
moorshuds, khulee/as and Mukandar (or who are resident; i.e. not, as 
most are, \.Ydi\e\\\r\^) fuqeers ; and to all the rest, one. 

t Or " God, God is great, squire. Be happy." 

X May the fa\our (lit. the shadow) of Allee and of the Proi)het be 
upon you. 


kheeaw, from Sheikh Maroof Kurkhee ; 4th. Joneitleea??, 
from Joneid Bugdaclee. To these the Tuhqatee fuqeers 
trace their origin. — 5th. Suqteea?i, from Sirree Suqtee ; 6th. 
Gazrooneeaw, from Abo-ooUah-Huqeeqee, alias Himeef 
Gazroonee ; 7th. Turtooseeaw, from Abdool fiirrah Tur- 
toosee. The Qadiree fuqeers descend from these. 8tli. 
Firdoseeaw, from Nujum-ood-Deen Kubrec Firdosee ; 9th. 
Sohurwurdccaw, from Sheikli Zeca-ood-Decn Aboo Niijeeb 
Sohurwurdee. From these have sprung the Sohiirwurdee 

From the fourth peer liave sprung five lineages, viz. 
10th. Zydeea7i, from Abd-ool- Wahid bin Zyd ; 11th. 
Aeeazecaw, from Foozyl bin Aeeaz ; 12th. Adhumeea??, 
from Eebraheem Adhum Bulkhee; 13th. Hoobyreea?^ 
from Ameen-ood-Deen Hoobyrut-ool-Busrec; 14th. Chish- 
teeaw, from Sheikh Aboo Is'haq Chishtee. From these 
have descended the Chishfeean fiqeers. 

Besides these there are a few other families among 
fuqeers ; but these fourteen are the principal ones, from 
which the rest have branched off. 

The origin of most of them may be traced to his holiness 
Allee-ool-Moortooza, and of one or two to Aboo liukur 
Siddeeq, and from them to his holiness Mohummud Moo.s- 
tuffa (the peace ! &c.) 

The following are a few oi \)ciQ fuqeers^ descendants of 
the above, whom we meet with in this country (Hin- 

1st. Qadlreea, alias Baiiuwa, sprung from Syed Abd- 
ool-Qadir Jillanee, surnamcd Peer-e-Dustugeer (p. S37), 
and his disciples assuming his name call tiiemselves Qadi- 
reea. Tlieir dress is white, green, or coloiu'ed v^itli red 

2d. Chishteea, followers of Khoaja Bunda Nuwaz (the 

Sect. 2. IN IIINDOOSTAN. 289 

long-ringletted, p. 2G5). These fitqcers are extremely par- 
tial to vocal music, as was their jjeer, Khoaja, who in one 
of his fits of religious reverie observed, that singing was 
the food and support of the soul, it is tlierefore proper that 
we should both sing and listen to singing. They dress as 
they please. 

Sheeahs generally become fuqeers of this description. 
They tie the dChuttee (clothes, p. 177, 227) which had been 
fastened to the eemamein(idlums)io their necks, upper arms, 
or cKhuttee (p. 295) with great faith, and preserve kakools 
on their heads ; i. e. shave half the head and leave long 
hair on the other half; and they constantly repeat Allee's 
name, and esteem him equal to God and the Prophet. 

3d. Shootareea, descendants of Shah Abd-ooUah Shootar- 
e-Nak ; their garb is similar to that of the Qadlreea. 

The Qadiree, Chishiee, and Shootaree fuqeers are also 
called Bay-nuwa. Moreover, those who have had their 
four abroos (vide p. 284) shaved, are denominated Moolhid- 
7iooma (resembling infidels*) ; while those who do not 
shave them, except over the right temple, from which the 
moorshud at the time of making the fuqeer has clipped a 
few hairs, are termed Russool-nooma (displaying the Mes- 
senger, i. e. the Prophet). 

4th. Tubqateea or 3Iudareea.f These are followers of 
Zindu Shah Mudar (p. 241). They generally Avear a 
pugree^ jama, doputta, all black ; also a loo7ig, and a black 
neckcloth ; and having fastened one end of a chain to one 

• The term is not used as one of reproach, but merely from the 
circumstance of its not being- conformable to the precepts of the Slnirra. 
Consequently, they who act contrary to it are considered in the light 
of infidels. 

t This class of wandering/zi^eer^, according to Mrs. M. H. Ali, arc 
also called dvffalees, from the small hand-drum they carry with them. 



of their ankles, they stand in front of the shops, and con- 
tinue throwing out and drawing towards them the other 
end. Or they go about the baxars quarrelling and fight- 
ing with the shopkeepers for alms ; and if their demands 
be not complied with, they abuse people most obscenely, 
imtil they prevail on them to grant something. 

Some among them rear tigers, bears, or monkeys, and 
contrive by some means or other to tame them, and to teach 
the two latter species of animals to dance and perform all 
sorts of antics; tying strings to their necks, they walk 
about the bazars and houses with them, displaying their 
tricks to the people, who on seeing them reward the owners 
according to their means. 

Some among them are also jugglers. For instance, they 
cvit a figure of a man or an animal out of a piece of paper, 
and make it dance without any visible mechanical means. 
Again, placing an earthern chafFmg dish, without a bottom 
to it, on the head, they kindle a fire in it, and, placing an 
iron kurrahee on it, cook jiooreean ; and that without their 
hair being at all singed by the fire. Thus they perform 
various juggling tricks of legerdemain, to the no small 
astonishment of the spectators. 

5th. Mullung fuqeers are descendants of his highness 
Jummun Juttee, a follower of Zindu Shah Mudar (p. 241). 
Their dress is the same as that of the Mohurrimi Mullung 
fuqeers (p. 195), except that they wear the hair of the head 
very full, or it is matted and formed into a knot behind. 
Sometimes they wind some sort of cloth round the knob. 
Some of them tie round their waists a chain or thick rope 
as a substitute for a kordulla,^ and wear a lunggotee so 

* Kordulla, a strings tied round the waist, into which apiece of cloth 
is tucked in before and behind, constituting a dress c^Wf^^ -a lunggotee. 

Skct. 2. IN HTNDOOSTAN. 291 

slender that it conceals but a small portion of what it is 
intended to cover. They resemble much the gosaeen,* 
and usually wander in deserts and on mountains, and visit 
the shrines of all reputed saints. Wherever tliey happen 
to sit down they burn cVhonee^f and sometimes rub its 
ashes over their bodies. 

6th. Rufaee or Goorx-mar. They originate from Syed 
Ahmud Kubeer, whose fuqeers strike the point of the 
goorz against their breasts, or into their eyes, level blows 
at their backs with the sword, thrust a spit through tlieir 
sides, or into their eyes both of which they take out and 
put in again ; or cut out their tongues, which on being 
replaced in the mouth, re-unite. Nay, they even sever the 
head from the body, and glue them together again with 
saliva, and the body becomes re-animated, and stands up, 
and what is strange, no hemorrage attends all this cutting 
and slicing ; or should there be any it is very trifling ; and 
in that case, the operator is considered inexpert. The 
wound is healed by the application of a little spittle; for at 
the time of becoming fuqeers^ the moorsJmd takes a small 
quantity of his own spittle, and applying it to their 
tongues, says, " Wield without apprehension the goorx 
" upon yourself ; and if cut, apply a little of your spittle 
" to the wound and it will quickly heal, by the influence 
" of Syed Ahmud Kubeer." They obey the injunction 

Sometimes they sear their tongues with a I'ed-hot iron, 
put a living scorpion into their mouths, make a chain red- 

• A particular class of Hindoo mendicants, who go about almost 
stark naked. 

i A fire lighted hy fuqeers, over which they sit inhaling the smoke, 
either by way of penance or for the purpose of extorting compliance 
with their demands. 



hot, and pouring oil over it they draw their hands along it, 
when a sudden blaze is produced. I have heard it said, 
that they even cut a living human being into two, and unite 
the parts by means of spittle. They also eat arsenic, glass, 
and poisons, and stand rattling the ^oor^ at the shopkeepers' 
doors. Should the latter not give something corresponding 
to their means, or make any delay in bestowing it, they 
beo-in to brandish the goorz. Sometimes these fuqeevs. 
even throw away the 'pice they thus receive, it being un- 
lawful to take money by extortion.* 

* This order of devotees are called by Mrs. Meer (vol. ii. 315.) 
chilluhdars. She observes, that "the presumed powers of their 
" founder are said to have been chiefly instrumental in curing- the 
" sick or in removing temporal afflictions; but his eff'ectual prayers 
" in behalf of people in difficulty, they say, surpassed those of any 
" other of the whole tribes of devotees that have at any age existed. 

" They all practise one plan, whenever called upon to remove the 
" difficulties of any person who places sufficient confidence in their 
" ability. On such occasions, a young heifer, two years old, is sup- 
" plied by the person having a request to make, after which a fire of 
" charcoal is made in an open space of ground, and the animal sacri- 
" ficed according to Mussulman form. The tender pieces of meat are 
" selected, spitted, and roasted over the fire, of which, when cooked, 
" all present are requested to partake. ^Miilst the meat is roasting, 
" the cJiillubdars beat time with a small tambourine to a song or 
" dir"-e expressive of their love and respect to the memory of. the 
" departed saint, their founder and patron, and a hj-mn of praise to 
" the Creator. 

" The feast concluded, while the fire of charcoal retains a lively 
" heat these devotees commence dancing, still beating their tam- 
" bourines and calling out with an audible voice, ' There is but one 
" God! Mahumud is the Prophet of God!' Then they sing in praise 
" of Ali, the descendants of the Prophet, and lastly, of Syaad Ahmud 
" Kaabeer, their beloved saint. Each then puts his naked foot into 
" the fire : some even throw themselves upon it, their associates 
<' takino- care to catch them before they are well down ; others jump 
" into the fire and out again instantly; lastly, the whole assembly 
" trample and kick the remaining embers about, whilst a spark 
" remains to be quenched by this means. These efforts, it is pre- 
" tended, are sufficient to remove the difficulties of the persons sup- 
" plying the heifei- and the charcoal. 

" These 

Sect. 2. IN HINDOOSTAN. 393 

7th. JjiUaleea, i. e. followers of Syed Jullal-ood-Deen 
Bokharee (p. 250). Their dress generally consists of a 
sylee of (^pushmee, or) wool, or of thread of various colours, 
on the head; a gooloobuud, loong, or lunggotee; in the hand 
they carry a sonta (club) ; on the right upper arm they 
have a sear made by the application of actual cautery; for 
it is customary among the household of this tribe, at the 
time of making them fiiqeers, to form a match of cloth, 
light it, and mark them on the arm with it. These fuqeers 
likewise go about the baxars begging, and if their demands 
are not speedily complied with, some cauterize themselves 
with a cloth-match ; others, dispensing with that, raise a 
noise and uproar. 

8th. S'ohageea, descended from Moosa Sohag, whose 
name they bear. They are distinguished by being dressed 
like women, but generally wear a cap, together Avith c/wo- 
reean and other female ornaments on the wrists ; and they 
accept of money from kunchneean (dancing girls) and Imn- 
gurharon {bitngree-makevs) , as nuzurs. When any refuse 
them alms, they break their burigreans (glass bracelets) to 
pieces, masticate, and swallow them. 

These J'uqeers generally play upon the tumboora, seetai; 
sarung, been, &c. sing and even dance, in presence of their 
moorshud and jumma allah.* Moreover, should other 

" These religious mendicants live on public favour and contri- 
*' bution ; they wear clothes, are deemed harmless, never ask alms, 
" but are always willing to accept them ; and have no laws of celibacy, 
" as is the case with some wandering beggars in India, who are naked 
" except the \\Tapper. Sometimes they settle, making fresh con- 
" verts; but many wander from city to city, always finding people 
" disposed to administer to their necessities. They are distinguished 
" from other sects, by each individual carrying a small tambourine, 
*' and wearing clothing of a deep buff colour." 

• In all assemblies oi fuqeers there is one moot'xhud, and tlic icst 
ai"e all called Jitmma Allah (God's assembly). 


people wish to hear thein sing, they perform before them ; 
and they sometimes sit singing of their own accord. These 
fuqeers are generally great musicians. Nay, they say, 
that their music hath such charms, as to cause the rain to 
fall out of season, to soften rocks into the consistence of 
wax ; nay more, the very wild beasts in jungles become so 
enamoured of their music, that they come, surround them, 
and listen.* 

9th. Nuqsh-himdeea are followers of Khoaja Buha-ood, 
Deen Nuqsh-bund. They are characterized by carrying- 
each a lighted shiima (lamp) in their hands, and going 
about at night, singing verses containing expressions of 
honour to their moorsknds, glory to God, and eulogiums on 
the Prophet. Shopkeepers, &c. drop jj'ice or coivries into 
their lamps. 

Fuqeers of this household are generally eminent j)rac- 
titioners in the science of dawut, reeaxut, ivird, ivuxaet, 
and xikkir ; and it is a highly respectable tribe. 

People in general who are desirous of having their wishes 
accomplished unite themselves to this silsilla, as they obtain 
their object more successfully in this than in any other. 

10th. Bawa peearay kay fuqeeran. Their garb consists 
of a Avhite tahbund or loonggee. The body dress is a quilt 
made of hhugwee (cloth died with red-ochre), on which are 
sewed, at the distance of three or four fingers from each 
other, triangular or square pieces of white cloth : it reaches 
down to the feet in the form of a joohba. On their heads 

• From this it will be seen that the natives of India, though accord- 
ing to our ideas so utterly deficient in musical science and taste, are 
not at all behind in extravagant admiration of its effects. The above 
passage will remind the reader of the fable respecting the strains of 
Orpheus, and the famous lines of Shakespear. 

INIusic hath charms to sooth the savage breast. 
To soften rocks and rend the knotted oak. 

Sect. 2. IN IlINDOOSTAN. 295 

they wear a long taj^ and over it a pliayta (small turban). 
They carry two thin sticks as clubs in their hands. When 
they go begging, they first call out " Allah-Jw-gunnee f'^ 
then offer up some supplication, and crave alms. They are 
generally found in parties of two and three. Sometimes 
they first offer people some fruit, and then receive a 

In this country, with the exception of the above varie- 
ties oifuqeers, we meet with few. 

Fuqeers never carry about with them any other instru- 
ments save some of the following; viz. a cKhuttee, alias 
cKhurree,-\ (a s^vitch, wand, or delicate twig of the brancii of 
any tree,) sometimes painted; a sonto,or asa (club of wood); 
a zufur-tukeea, % called a byraga, § of iron ; a posht-khar, 
that is, a little artificial hand with a handle to it, made of 
copper, brass, gold, or silver, with whicli to scratch the body; 
a heemacha, or bag made of the skin of a lamb ; a kuchkole 
or kishtee (vide p. 285) ; a mirwaha^ alias hadkush, termed 
punKha, or fan ; a goruk dhunda, || of iron. Some carry in 
their hands a burcKhee (spear or lance, with a wooden 
stock) ; a sang (spear or javelin all of iron) ; a tulwar (sword) ; 
a paysh-qubz (a particular kind of dagger) ; a kutar (dirk 
or dagger) ; a cKhooree (knife) ; and a maroo (a couple of 
antelope's horns joined at their bases, whicli overlap each 
other in contrary directions). 

When they go to visit any one, they carry one or two 

* Allah ho gimnee, " God is independent" 

t Chlmrree romal ; vide note, p. 285. 

X Lit. the pillow of victory. 

§ A small crooked stick or piece of iron, which the hyragce (devotee) 
places under his armpit to lean upon as he sits. 

II Resembling- a Chinese puzzle, consisting' of a number of pins 
put through holes in a board, the pins ha\ ing knobs at one end, and 
at the other, rings, through which a long compressed ring is passed. 

.296 OF FUQEERS. Chap. XXVIH. 

fruits of some kind or other, or some sweet-scented flower or 
leaf, and offering them recite the following hemistich : 
" The y^reen leaf is the de?'vi6''s delight." 

Fuqeers are of two classes : one termed hay-shurra * (with- 
out law) ; the other class ba-shurraf (with law). 

The generality of them are bay-shurra., and great de- 
bauchees. They indulge in the use of ganja,\ bhung,X 
afeeoon (or opium), shurab (or wine), boza,\ mudud,l churs,\ 
sayndhee,^ taree,\\ narlellee,^ &c. all intoxicating, and con- 
ceive them lawful. They do not fast, pray, or govern their 
passions, agreeably to the precepts of Mohummud. 

Tlie other, or ba-shurra, pray and fast ; in short observe 
all the precepts inculcated in the Shwra of Mohummud. 

Among the above-mentioned Fitqeers or Durwayshes** 
(for these terms are synonymous), there are certain varie- 
ties. For instance, the 

1st. class of Durivayshes is denominated Salik.'W 

• /. e. They do not act up to the a/iurrn, or precepts of IMohuminud, 
but are a kind of latitudinarians. 

t The reverse of the former, acting according to the aJiurra, or 

+ For these inebriating substances, vide Glossary. 

§ The juice (or toddy) of the wild date tree. Elate Sylvestris.— 

II The juice of the tar, or palmyra tree. Borassus flabelliformis. 
— Lin. 

TF The juice of the nariel, or cocoa-nut tree. Cocos nucifera. — Lin. 

** Whom INIrs. M. H. Ali denominates soofees (or mystics of the 
east) ; and observes, " that there are two classes of the professed de- 
" vout soofees, viz. the saalik, and the majoob,''^ vol. ii. p. 248. In 
another part (p. 272), she remarks, " ^c/o/ewm, it appears, is a mys- 
" tery ; the secret of which can only be imparted by the professor to 
" such persons as have been prepared for its reception by a course of 
" religious instruction." And again, at p. 273, she says, " Many 
" are devout dnriveishes, who are, nevertheless, unacquainted with the 
*' mystery of soofeism ; to use their own words (by which the natives 
" distinguish them), every real soofee is undoubtedly a diwiveish, 
" but all durweishcs are not soofees.''' 

tt Salik, literally, a tra\ cllcr or pilgrim, but here signifying a devotee. 

Sect. 2. OF DURWAYSHES. 397 

They are Ba-shurva ; have their wives and families, employ 
themselves in horticultural, agricultural, or commercial pur- 
suits, or live by begging. 

2d, set of Duriv ay shes are called Mttjzoob.^ They are 
Bay-shurra, and have no wives, families, or possessions : in 
fact, baisars and lanes are their homes. Their dress con- 
sists solely of a lunggotee, and tlieir hair is dishevelled. 
If any offer them food, they accept of and eat it ; if not, 
they fast. They rarely beg. Sometimes they speak, at 
other times remain mute. They are so totally absorbed in 
religious reverie, that they do not discern between things 
lawful and unlawful, and regard no sect or religion. Some- 
times they go about in a state of nudity, and lie down 
wherever it may chance to be, regardless of every kind of 
dirt and filth. 

Some among these become such powerful workers of 
miracles, that, whenever they choose, they can instantly 
effect what they please ; and what is strange, though some 
of them lie in one spot for months and years together, and 
there obey every call of nature, there is not the least offen- 
sive smell about them. They are, moreover, neitlier afraid 
of fire or of water ; for when they please, they stand on 
hot embers, or sit in a large frying-pan, or a boiling cal- 
dron, for hours together : and they dive and remain under 
water for two or three hours. 

3d. Azad.-\ — These are likewise Bay-shurra. They shave 
their beards, whiskers, mustachios, eyebi'ows, and eyelashes, 
in short, the hair in every part of the body, and lead lives 
of celibacy. They have no inclination for reading prayers 
daily. If they get any thing to eat or drink, be it good or 

• Mujzoob, signifies " abstracted. 
+ Azad, solitary, lonely. 

S98 OF FUQEERS. Chap. XXVlll. 

bad, they partake of it. They have no fixed place of 
abode ; the generality of them travel and subsist on alms. 

4th. Qulundur. Among these, some have wives, others 
not ; some are Ba-shurra, others Bay-shurra. They erect 
solitary straw huts out of towns, or select a suitable (re- 
tired) spot within the city, where they beguile their days in 
solitude, trusting to Providence ; people of the world pro- 
viding such with food and drink. Such residencies of 
Fuqeers are termed (not houses, but) tukeea.* 

5th. Russool Shahee. These shave their mustachios, 
beards, and eyebrows, wear topees and lunggotees to con- 
ceal their nakedness, and a sheet to cover them in cold, wet, 
or hot weather. They sacrifice liberally to Bacchus, do 
not marry, and gain their livelihood by begging. 

6th. Eemam Shahee. They shave their mustachios, beards, 
and eyebrows, and wear alfas^ tahbunds, and sijlees ; but 
their distinguishing mark is a black narrow perpendicular 
line, extending from the tip of the nose to the top of the 
forehead. These, likewise, lead lives of celibacy, and main- 
tain themselves by what they obtain in charity. 

Nay, among them, some possess the power of working 
miracles ; it is, therefore, advisable to court their blessing 
and avoid their cui'se. Apropos, a very pert couplet has 
just come to my remembrance, vix. 

" View not with scorn the humble sons of eaith,t 
Beneath the clod a flower may have birth." 

In short, to understand all regarding Durwayshes, to 
acquire a knowledge of their xikkivs (reminiscences), and 

• Tukeea, lit. signifies a pillow, but is the technical term for a 
fuqeefs siiiTiA; for not having a house, wherever he lays liis head, 
that constitutes his pillow or home. 

+ Alluding to the bodies oi fuqeers being besmeared with cow-dung 

SiccT. 2. OF MUSHAEKHS. 099 

to learn how to obtain the accomplishment of oner's wishes, 
are things which can only be attained by unwearied perse- 
verance, by associating with holy men, and by the study of 
the science of tusuwwoof.* 

Of Musliaekhs^ alias Peers, or 3foorshucls. 1'hey ai'e of 
two kinds ; the one, Jiiddee, the other, Khoolfaee. 

1st. The Juddee Miishaekhs are those in whose families 
the custom of hyat (p. 281), or that of peers making moo- 
reeds, has continued current, either from their grand- 
father's or grandmother's side ; or it must have descended 
from two or three generations back. 

2d. The Khoolfaee 3Iushaekhs are those whose fathers 
and grandfathers were of different trades and professions 
from themselves, or were sages, and in whose families such 
relationship had no existence ; but some Moorshud-e-juddee 
or Khoolfaee, first established the custom among them. 

The dress of both these classes of Mushaekhs consists in 
a taj, arnmama, pyruhim or qumees, koorta, doputta, 
shal, doshala, romal, Eeisar, loong, &c., out of which they 
select which they please. Some wear around their necks a tus- 
heeh, or sylee ; around their waists, tusma; on their wrists, 
soomurun; and carry in their hands a chliurree, or any of 
the weapons mentioned under the head Fuqeers (p. 295). 
They are Ba-shurra and family-people. They subsist upon 
the servicesf (as it is called) of their mooreeds, or on what 

* Theology of the soofees, or mystics of the east. 

t The technical phrase among these people for alms in charity, is 
" service." Thus a moorshud advises his mooreerf* to " do service 
to 7noorshuds ;" observing, " it is a virtue so to do." They never ask 
for money. The mooreed (disciple) according to his means, once, or 
oftener, in the year, proceeds to the house of his peer, and offers him 
some present; sometimes depositing it, during conversation, under 
the mat or bed on which he happens to sit, without saying a word 
about it ; at others, while handing it to him, begs his acceptance of 
the trifle, apologizing for not having the means of offering more. 


other people choose to give them as an offering to God, or 
the Zukat which a Sahih-e-Nissah (p. 58) pleases to offer 
to them, being resigned to the will of God : or, they receive 
from kings, nobles, or nuwwabs, a daily, monthly, or 
annual allowance, in the way of ajageer, or eenarn^ to live 

Some of them, independently of making mooreeds, gain 
additional subsistence by fortune-telling, composing amulets 
and charms, practising medicine, pronouncing blessings, or 
exercising incantations. 

Sometimes, after the lapse of a year or two, they proceed 
on their circuits to their mooreeds, by way of going on a 
pleasure or shooting excursion ; and should they be offered 
any money by their disciples, they accept of it. Should 
they meet with any new candidates for the »iooreerf-ship, 
they appoint them. 

The method of investing 07ie with the kheelafut (deputy- 
ship) is as follows : 

The peer seats the individual who is to be invested with 
the kheelafut before him, as they do in the case of making 
one a mooreed (p. 282) ; and having repeated certain suppli- 
cations, he grants to the new candidate such shujray, sunnud, 
and zikkirs belonging to this subject, as have descended to 
him from his moorshuds ; and says, " I have now consti- 
" luted thee my khuleefa (deputy or successor, by Eu- 
" ropeans vulgarly written caliph^, and given thee autho- 
" rity in such and such a silsilla ; in which thou mayest 
" hereafter make mooreeds, fuqeers, or khuleefas, as thou 
*' plcasest." He then, with his own hands, dresses him out 
in his own j'oobba, dustar, loong, and doputta, either a suit 
which he has worn before or a new one, and reads to him 
the shujra-e-khtdeefut. 

Peers grant khuleefuts " for the sake of God" (i. e. gratis) ; 

Sect. 3. WULLEE, OR SAINT. 301 

but should khuleefas, conceiving it a meritorious act, offer 
them presents of money or clothes, there can be no objection 
to their accepting of them. 

Should the khuleefa be a man of property, he, on the 
occasion of this installation with the kheelafut^ invites several 
mushaekhs, fuqeers, all his relations, &c. in the town, and 
having \\sn\fateeha offered over sheernee or j^olaoo, distri- 
butes it among them, and in their presence gets himself 
installed. After which the newly-created khuleefa may, in 
like manner, invest others with the same privileges. 

Fuqeers who are mushaekhs have necessarily, at the com- 
mencement, or in the middle of their names, the word shah ; 
and at the termination of them, the words qadiree, chishtee, 
tuhqatee, ox shootaree: thus. Shah Abd-oollah qadir qadiree, 
Hummeed Oollah Shah Chishtee. Tubqatee and Shootaree 
occur but rarely. 

Sect. 3. Penances requisite to endure^ in order to become a 
wullee {or saint). 

Next to the dignity of a prophet is that of a wullee, for it 
will continue till the day of judgment. Though prophecy 
has ceased the office of wullees continues. 

In order to attain the rank of a wullee the grace of God 
is indispensable. Verily, as the eternal registrar has de- 
creed, so it must happen in this world. In short, there are 
certain acts and austerities current among mushaekhs, which 
it is necessary to know and practise. To publish in books 
the manner of performing them, or to reveal it to every 
body, is forbidden by moorshuds. It is to be disclosed only 
to those mooreeds who become talibs (enquirers), and who 
are of the Moosulraan persuasion, and mean to make it 
their study. 

Suffice it at present merely to name them ; and should 


any wish to study them, i. e. the shuguls, zikkirs, kussubs, 
&c. they must apply to mushaekhs or moorshuds^ for a know- 
ledge of the reeazuts (penances), aoorads (repetitions), deeds 
(viewings or belioldings), and zikkirs (i*eminisccnces). The 
two principal precepts to be particularly observed are, to 
eat tilings lawful, and always to speak the truth. 

Some mushaekhs and durwayshes have likewise enjoined 
the imprisonment within one's self, of the following five 
wowzeean (or noxious things, alias vices) : 

The 1st mowzee is the snake (technically, the ears), wlio 
on hearing anything, without sufficient investigation, imme- 
diately takes revenge. The 2d mowzee is the kite (eagle ? 
a technical term for the eye), Avho covets Avhatever he sees. 
The 3d mowzee is the bhoivn-ra (or a large black bee), 
Avhose habitation is the nostrils, and who envies every thing 
that smells sweet. The 4th mowzee is the dog, whose seat 
is the tongue, who delights in nice and savoury articles. 
The 5th mowzee is the scorpion, concealed in the penis, and 
necessarily inclined to sting in the unlawful spot {viz. the 
vulva). These it is necessary to restrain. 

In order to derive benefit from these zikkirs, it is requi- 
site zealously to practise such as are good ; to remove from 
one's heart envy and covetousness ; to keep the mind pure 
and undefiled ; to depend on, reflect on, and think of, God 
alone ; to be every instant immersed in his contemplation ; 
to cherish no love for relatives or the world, but consider 
all (comprehended in) HIM ; to take no delight in trou- 
bling and annoying people, but to perform, with zeal and 
perseverance, such occupation as his moorshud has desired 
to be attended to ; and then will the Almighty elevate the 
performer to the rank and dignity of a wullee. 

There are many things which require to be repeated 
aloud and to be said : and it is easy enough to do so with 


the mouth ; but to endure the hardships attending the per- 
formance of them is a most difficult task. 


Concerning the science oi daivut, or exorcism. 

Recourse is had to this science for the following pur- 
poses, viz. 1st. To command the presence of genii and 
demons, who, when it is required of them, cause any thing 
to take place. 2d. To establish friendship or enmity be- 
tween two persons. 3d. To cause the death of one's enemy. 
4th. To cause the increase of one's subsistence or salary. 
5th. To obtain victory in the field of battle. 6th. To call 
for and obtain an income gratuitously or mysteriously. 7th. 
To secure the accomplishment of one's Avishes, both tempo- 
ral and spiritual. 

We shall divide the subject into four sections, and con- 

1st. The rules necessary to be observed, and the articles 
required by the exorcist. 

2d. The giving of nissab, zukat, &c. of the Isms, and the 
manner of reading the dawut. 

3d. The commanding the presence of genii and demons. 

4th. The casting out of devils. 

Sect. 1. Rules tiecessary to he observed, and the articles 
required by the Exorcist. 

The exorcist is first of all to acquire a thorough know- 
ledge of the science of exorcism from some learned imorshud 
(guide to salvation). He only is considered an erudite 

304 DAWUT, Chap. XXIX. 

moorshud,who is acquainted with thediWerentusma^e-oozzam 
(great m«5*) of the Deity, and to whom demons have im- 
parted information concerning tilings great and small, and 
in whose bosom is treasured up a knowledge of all truths. 
A man of this description, however, should never cherish a 
haughty spirit on account of his being endowed with reve- 
lation, i- d possessing the power of performing miracles; 
nor should he be over-anxious to make a display of his 
abilities before the world. When an individual is found 
possessing the above qualifications, he may well be honoured 
with the title of a perfect moorshiid. 

Some musliaekhs (divines), without possessing a practical 
knowledge of the science, pretend to teach it to others ; but, 
in such cases, the tutor having been experimentally un- 
acquainted with its beneficial influences, no real advantage 
can be expected to accrue from the practice of it to the 
student. Verily, it is unprofitable to learn or teach the 
science in such wise. Moreover, he exposes his life to 
danger ; for by such reading many have injured themselves, 
and becoming mad, have mixed up human ofFal and rubbed 
themselves with it, and wandered about in deserts and upon 
mountains : whereas, when the tutor is learned, there is no 
danger of apprehending such consequences. If, however, 
through any defect on the part of the reader, any of the 
above circumstances should occur, it is in the power of an 
erudite teacher immediately to remedy it, as if nothing had 

• Ism., literally signifies a name. It is in this sense also used in 
this chapter, and applied to the attributes of the Deity : but the great 
isms are short supplications made use of in this science. Accord- 
ingly they are of two kinds ; the former is termed usma-e-oozzam (or 
the mighty attributes) ; the latter usma-e-hoosna (or the glorious attri- 
butes). These m>?5 are of two kinds ; 1. Jidlalee isms, (?. e. fiery), or 
the terrible attributes ; 2. Jumalee isms, (i. e. watery, airy and earthy) ; 
or the amiable attributes. 

Sect. I. OR EXORCISM. 305 

happened. Without recourse to such means, madness or 
deatli will be inevitable. 

This teacher-of-the-alphabet* has for a long time che- 
rished the greatest curiosity to dive into this mysterious 
science, and has, consequently, associated much with divines 
and devotees, exorcists and travellers from Arabia and 
Ujjum,-f- by which he has acquired some knowledge of it; 
but all the advantage he has derived therefrom may be 
summed up in a well-known proverb, " Koh kundiin ; 
moosh girruftuny 

" To dig a mountain up, and find a mouse I''t 

Should any wish for further information than what I am 
about to give on this subject, there is not a better or more 
valuable work that I can refer him to, than the Juwaliir-e- 
hlmmsa ; in which the author, his excellency Mohummud 
Gows Gow-layree (the mercy of God be on him !) has 
treated on it most minutely. 

When one enters upon the study of this science, the first 
thing he does is to pay the utmost regard to cleanliness. 
No dog, cat, or stranger is allowed admittance into his 
closet; and, it is usual to burn sweet-scented perfumes, 
such as wood-aloes, benjamin-pastiles, &c. When he has 
occasion to obey the calls of nature, he wears, on his exit out 
of doors, a separate taj and loong (garments appropriated to 
the express purpose), leaving the other suit behind, and on 
his return assumes his former habit, depositing the conta- 
minated clothes on an algmiee ;§ or merely performs wuxoo 
(or ablution) and re-enters his closet. The object of using 
a couple of suits is, that no flies may be attracted towards 

• i. e. " The author of this work," an epithet of humility. 

t Every country in the world, save Arabia. 

J " Montes parturiunt ; nascitur ridiculus mus." 

§ Algunnee is a line or rope for hanging clothes on. 


30g DAWUT, Chap. XXIX. 

it, and by alighting on it cause the body of the exorcist to 
be defiled. Moreover, should he experience a nocturnal 
pollution, whether it be in the day or night, he bathes in- 
stantly, and on no account for a moment delays it. 

As long as he endures chilla {i.e. for forty days) he 
sleeps on a mat, &c. spread on the ground, not on a cot. 
Some keep a fast during those days, and bathe once or twice 
daily. They converse but little and scarcely sleep ; nay, 
some even go so far as to remain within doors, and have the 
entrances to their apartments built up for the time. 

Generally, in order to endure chilla^ they repair to some 
house or other out of town ; or to a mountain, cavern, or 
Avell, or any place where water is near at hand ; for the 
noise and bustle of cities are apt to distract the attention 
from the object, and render the reading defective ; for it is 
pecessary in this affair to engage one's mind with such 
energy as to be entirely absorbed in it ; since, when the 
train of thought is diverted into a different channel, his 
wishes are less effectually accomplished. On the contrary, 
out of town there is no fear of such hindrances, and the 
object is more easily attained. 

Their diet depends upon the kind of isms they are to 
read; e. ff. If it be the /i^ZZaZee ones, they refrain from the 
use of meat, fish, eggs, honey, musk, choona (quicklime), 
and oysters, and from sexual intercourse. If the jumalee 
ones, from ghee, curds, vinegar, salt, and ambergrise. 

With readers of both kinds of isms, the following are 
accounted abominations, vix;. garlic, onions, and assafoetida, 
as well as blood-letting and killing lice. 

If one fail to adhere to the observance of any of the 
above-mentioned conditions, he exposes his life to imminent 

Besides these there are two other general rules to be 

Sect. ]. OR EXORCISM. 307 

observed, and those the most important of all, vi.^., to cat 
things lawful, and always to speak the truth. 

If the exorcist has to read the jullahe isms, or if their 
number predominate, he is to commence on the first day of 
the week (Saturday) ; if the jumalee, on a Monday ; if 
both together, i. e. if an equal number of each, on a Sunday. 

If these be read to establish friendship, or undertaken 
for any good work, he is to begin them after the new moon ; 
if for enmity or for any evil purpose, after the full moon.* 
In both cases his face is to be turned towards the residence 
of the individual who is the object of the undertaking. 

In every case he is to fast the three preceding days, and 
commence upon the reading of the isms on the morning of 
the fourth. 

If his victuals are cooked by a servant, he also must 
observe the same system of abstinence as his master. Should 
he be unable to submit to such privations, the master must 
dress his own food. 

Previously to commencing the reading of isms in the 
name of a particular person, it is reqinsite to ascertain the 
initials of his or her name ; and that, in the hooroof-e-tuhifjee 
(or Arabic alphabet),-]- which consists of tAventy-eight let- 
ters ; and these are considered by exorcists to be coimected 
with the twelve booroojan (signs of the Zodiac), the seven 

• This rule is liliewise observed in effecting other good or bad 

t As there are seven letters in other (eastern) languages which have 
no corresponding ones in the Arabic, an equal number of the latter 
are substituted in their place ; thus, 

Not Arabic. P-ay. T-ay. Ch-eem. D-al. Rr-ay. Zh-ay. G-af, 

V "^ ^ ^ j' J '^ 

Arabic. B-ay. T-av. J-eeni. Dal. R-ay. Z-ay. K-af. 

X 2 




Chap. XXIX, 

seetaray (planets), and the four ansiirs (elements). The 
relation of these towards each other Avill be better com- 
prehended by a reference to the annexed table ; in which, 
for convenience, I have inserted, in a column additional 
to what is usually met with, each planet's hookhoor (or per- 
fume) which is directed to be burnt. To render the sketch 
still more perfect, I have likewise included the qualities of 
the planets, together with the numbers which the twenty- 
eight letters of the Arabic alphabet represent,* 




with their 


The Planets' 














Benzoin and 
Coriander Seed. 







Benzoin and Sugar, 






Benzoin and Wood 






Benzoin and Cin- 






Benzoin and White 






Benzoin and Red 


i. e. Logwood. 






Benzoin and Cam- 










• These form eight words; viz. \. Jbjud, 2. Huiouz, 3. Hoottee, 
4. Kulaymun, 5. Suafus, 6. Quruslmt, 7- Sukhiz, 8. Zzizig ; and the 
Arabian mode of calculating by these is denominated the reckoning 
by Ahjud. Vide Jbjnd, Oloss. 

Sect. 1. 



By way of further illustration of the above table, we 
shall o-ive an example. For instance, a man named Ahmud 
has in view the establishment of an intimacy with a woman 
of the name of Rabaya, which he must accomplish by the 
reading of some of the dawut-isms, as presently to be de- 
tailed; but, in the first place, it is requisite to know whe- 
ther their elements, planets, and zodiacal signs be amicably 
or inimically disposed towards each other, and this is done 
by reference to the above table. Should amity exist be- 
tween all these, then, doubtless, aiFection will reign between 
the couple; should any one of them differ in the least, 
there will be some degree of friendship and some of enmity 
between the two; but should no friendship exist at all 
among the three elements, &c. no love will or can take 
place between the couple. 

For example, the initial 

of Khmud is Alif (or A) ... 
his element is Fire 

— planet is Saturn; 

r Ram, 

— sign of Zodiac I Lion, 

[ Archer. 

of Uahaija, is Ray (or R.) 
her element Water ; 

— planet Venus ; 

r Crab, 

— sign of Zodiac I Scorpion, 

[ Fish. 

From this we learn, first, that their elements are very 
contrary and opposed to one another ; for water is by no 
means friendly to fire. Secondly, astrologists have deter- 
mined the relative dispositions of the planets to be as 
follows : 



































J (or mixed). 












Chap. XXIX. 

Consequently, Ahmud having Saturn for his planet, and 
B.abaya Venus, and these entertaining friendship towards 
one another, it would appear by this criterion that they 
would live happy together. 

Thirdly, with regard to the signs of the zodiac, they 
stand as follows : 













Between males and females exists friendship ; between 
males and hermaphrodites, sometimes friendship, some- 
times enmity ; between females and hermaphrodites, the 
most inveterate enmity. 

In this instance, part of one corresponding with the 
other, it is so far favourable. 

From these several considerations it is to be concluded 
that some degree of harmony and some of discord may be 
expected to be the natural result of the union. 

Sect. 2. The giving of Nissab, Zukat, SfC. to each ism ; 
and the manner of reading the Dawut. 

There are what are called nissab, %ukat, ushur, qoofool, 
dowr and mooduwir, buzul, khutum, and siirreeool-eejabut, 
appointed for each ism. 

In the jiiwahir-e-khitmsa there are in all forty-one isms;* 

• i. e. Of the first variety, termed usma-e-oozzam, or the mighty 
attributes (p. 304). 

Sect. 2. 



the first of which runs thus : soobh-anuka^ la illaha illa- 
unta, eea rubba koollu shyn o ivarusuhoo^ o ra%uquhoo, 
o rahaymuhoo ; i.e. " Glory be to Thee! There is no 
*' God save Thee, the Lord of all, the Preserver, the Sup- 
" porter, the Merciful !" 

By way of example, we shall offer the nissab,* &c. of 
the above istn. 

• To find out the nissab, &c. of this ism,the number of letters com- 
posing the is7?i, which is 45, as noted below,t is to be considered as 
so many hundreds; Mliich makes 

1. Its 










. S-een (p. 308) stands for 



















A-lif 1/ omitted(rt) 


B-ay "I doubled 

B-ayJ with tHt<lideed .. 


L-am 1 „ f 

. \ Do \ 

L-am J I 

tushdeed C 
doubles } 

the letter ; 1 



















25. Sh-een 

26. Ee-ay 

over it add 

27. Huniza, which stands l 

for an Alif i 

2S. W-aoo 

29. W-aoo 

30. A-lif 

31. Ray 

32. S-ay 

33. Hay 

34. W-aoo 

35. R-ay 

36. A-lif 

37. Z-ay 

.38. Q-af 

39. Hay 

40. W-aoo 

41. R-ay 

42. A-lif 

43. H-y 

44. M-eem 

45. H-ay 



. 200 
. 500 

. 6 
. 200 


■ 7 
. 100 
. 5 

, 200 

. 8 
. 40 
. 5 


(«) In all other isms the ccays are to be left out, and fiis/i deeds mid 
humzas added. 

312 DAVVUT, CiiAi-. XXIX. 

Its A'^ma6(or alms) consistsin tlie repeatingof it 4,500 times. 

Zukat (the prescribed offerings) 6,750 

f7«/mr (or tithes) 7,875 

Qoofool (literally "lock,"" i.e. for resolving 

mysteries) 563 

Dowr and Mooduwir (or circle implying 

repetition) 16,876 

Buzul (gift or present to avert calamities) 7,000 

JTAm^z^to (the seal, or conclusion) 1,200 

Surreeool-Eejabut(Bi speedy answer) 12,000 

Total 56,764 

The giving of nissah, xukat, &c. to isms^ is considered 
in no other light than as alms or charitable offerings, essen- 
tially requisite to be given for the purpose of ensuring the 
success of the individual's undertaking, and that his labours 
may not return unto him void. 

The above-mentioned chief ism has for its demons Hoom- 
raeel and Humwakeel, and for its genius Shutkheesa. 

1 . Its nissab 4,500 

Half of that number {viz. 2,250) added to it, gives 

2. Its zukat 6,750 

Half of the above half (1,125) added to its zukat, forms 

3. Its iishur 7)^7-5 

Half of the above half (1,125) 

4. Its qoofool 563 

Add its qoofool 563 
to its ushiir 7,875 

will give 8,438 
double that 8,438 

will give 16,876, which is 

'5. Its dow?- and mooduivir 16,87t3 

There is no rule required for the following, they being 
always the same for every ism ; viz. 

6. Its buzul 7,000 

7. Its khutum 1 ,200 

8. Its surreeool-cejabut ] 2,000 

SKt,.r. 2. OR EXORCISM. 313 

In commencing the reading of the isms, their demons are 
addressed first by prefixing to their names the word eea (O !) 
and to that of genii the words huhnq, 7iidda, mudud or 
koomuk (meaning "by the aid of"). As a specimen, I 
shall state how these are used, by adding them to the above- 
named ism, viz. Eea Hoomraeel, eea Humwakeel, buhuq- 
e-Shutkheesa, Soohhanuka la illaha, &c. (p. 311). 

Thus, whether it be this ism or any one of the forty-one 
alluded to above, or any other which a person may have 
received in the form of a simnd (grant) from his tutor (for 
there are innumerable others current), it is necessary that its 
nissab, &c. be given, in order to command the presence of 
genii. Previous to reading the is7n, he is each time to 
address its demon and genius by name. Should the ism 
have no genius, the demon alone is to be invoked ; and after 
that the ism read : e. g. if an ism is to be repeated a hun- 
dred times, he is to name the demon and genius as often. 

Amongst the forty-one great isms, some have two demons 
and one genius, and vice versa. Eacli istn has a separate 
o-enius ; but the same demons are common to several isms 
(vide p. 315). 

After having given the nissab, zukat, &c., the exorcist, 
in order to familiarize himself to it, or to cause the presence 
of the genius, is, within the space of forty days, to repeat 
the ism 137,613* times (having previously divided the 

• The total number of letters forming the above ism, is 45 (p. 311). 

This number is to be considered as so many thousands 45,000 

which sum is to be multiplied by 3 

and will give 135,000 
add to this the combined number which the letters of the ism 

stand for (vide p. 311.) viz • 2,G13 

and we have 137,613 
This sum is called in Persian daivufy and in Hindee aojna. 

314 DAWUT, Chap. XXIX. 

number as nearly in equal parts as possible for each day's 
reading) ; for by this rehearsal of it, his mind will become 
enlightened, and he will at times become quite transported, 
and fancy himself, whether awake or asleep, carried and 
accompanied by demons and genii to distant realms, to the 
highest heavens, or down into the bowels of the earth. 
There, they not only reveal to him all hidden mysteries, and 
render tlie whole human race subject and obedient to his 
will, but cause all his desires, temporal as well as spiritual, 
to be accomplished. 

Most exorcists have, by experience, proved the validity 
of these isms ; and whoever has strictly followed the rules 
laid down has invariably obtained his soul's desire. 

The uses and beneficial effects of this ism alone, are 
numerous ; but as they are to be noticed hereafter in the 
third Section, we shall at present pass them over. 

I shall now describe the second variety of ism, termed 
Usma-e-Hoosna (or the glorious attributes of the Deity, 
p. 304), as connected with the twenty-eight letters of the 
Arabic alphabet (the knowledge of which my late Father 
bestowed on me as a sacred relic) ; and shall exhibit them, 
together with the demons attached to each, in the form of 
a table. 

Skgt. 2. 







Eea Allah-o. 
O God! 

Eea Ruhman-o. 
thou Merciful! 

Eea Ruheem-o. 

thou Compas- 

Eea Malik 0. 
O thou Lord! 









Eea Qooddoos-o. 

Eea Sulam-o. 

Eea Momeen-o. 

3ea Mohimmin-o. 

O thou Holy One ! 

O thou giver of 
Health ! 

thou Protector ! 

thou Defender ! 









Eea Azeez 0. 

Eea Buseer-o. 

Eea Jubbar-o. 


O thou Beloved! 

O thou All-seeing ! 

t/iou Great One ! 

Othou Lofty One! 









Eea Khaliq-o. 
thou Creator ! 

Eea Baree-o. 


Eea GuflFar-o. 

O thou glorious 

Othou who fash- 
ioned us ! 

thou Forgive)- of 
Sitis ! 









Eea Quhhar-o. 
O thou Avenger ! 

Eea Wuhab-o. 

O thou Bestower 

of Benefits! 

Eea Ruzzaq-o. 
thou Sustainer ! 

Eea Futtah-o. 
thou Conqueror ! 









Eea Aleem-o. 
thou Omniscient 

Eea Qabiz-o. 

thou Scizer (of 
' Souls) ! 

Eea Basit-o. 

Eea Hafiz-o. 
O Guardian! 









Eea Ilufeeu-o. 

Eea Mowz-o. 

Eea Moozzil-o. 

Eea Summeeu-o. 

O thou ivho exidt- 

O thou who ho- 
nouresl ! 

thou who abas- 

O thou that hear- 





316 DAWUT, Chap. XXIX. 

If a man wish the accomplishment of his desires, he 
may either read one of the above-mentioned usma-e-oozzam 
(p. 304.) or one of the usma-e-hoosna, both which will 
equally answer the purpose ; but the beneficial effects of 
the former are greater, though they are seldom had recourse 
to, owing to the trouble and inconvenience attending the 
reading of them. 

The manner of reading the dawut is as follows. For 
instance, a talib (i. e. a seeker), is desirous of making 
another subject and obedient to his will. In this case, 
suppose the mutloob (the object or thing wished) to be a 
man named Boorhan, which name is composed of five letters, 
viz. B R H A and N. After the exorcist has ascer- 
tained, by reference to the above table, the different attri- 
butes of the Deity attached to each letter, together with the 
names of their corresponding demons, by first repeating 
the names of the demons and then those of the Deity, as 
detailed before in the case of the first of the isms contained 
in the Jutvahir-e-khumsa, a certain number of times (as 
will presently be more particularly stated), the object will 
become subject and obedient to his will. 

Whether the wisher reads them himself or employs ano- 
ther to do so for him, it is necessary that the substance of 
the following, in any language, be read daily four times ; 
i. e. twice at the commencement of the Durood* and twice 
at the end of each day''s task, viz. " O Lord, grant that 
*' the object. Sheikh Boorhan, may so deeply be distracted 
" in love with such a one (the seeker), as to be day and 
" night entirely forgetful of his natural wants."" 

• The durood is as follows : " AUahoomma Sullay-allah Mokum- 
" mudin, iva- Allah Allay Mohummudin wo barik ivo sullim.''^ i e. "O 
" God ! grant blessing, prosperity, and peace to Mohummud and his 
" posterity." 

Skct. 2. OR EXORCISM. 317 

I may here premise what is essential to be known in order 
to be able to read the ^sw, that tlie reckoning by Abjud is 
divided into four parts, viz. units, tens, hundreds, thou- 
sands. If the numeral representing the letters fall on the 
Units, it is to be considered as so many hundreds ; 

Tens thousands; 

Hundreds tens of thousands; 

Thousands hundredsof thousands. 

By this rule the following are the letters of Boorhan, viz. 
B-ay, in the Table (p. 308.)... 2 is equal to 200 

R-ay 200 ... 20,000 

H-ay 5 ... 500 

A-lif 1 ... 100 

N-oon 50 ... 5,000 

Total 25,800 

The exorcist having previously divided the sum-total 
into any number of equal parts, and fixed upon the number 
of days in which to finish the reading of it, such as a week 
or two, he must conclude it within the appointed time ; or, 
his labour will be vain. Burning benjamin, or any other 
sweet perfume, with his face turned towards the house of, 
or directly at the object, he is to read it tlius : 

Umwakeel-o — Eea Ruhman-o ! 

Surhumakeel-o — Eea Futtah-o ! 

Ittraeel-o — Eea Qooddoos-o ! 

Kulkaeel-o — Eea Allah-o ! 

Jihhraeel-o — Eea Baree-o ! 

Previously to repeating these five isms 25,800 times in 

the way I have exhibited here once, it is necessary to give 

their nissah, zukat^ he ; but in reading this species of 

ism, instead of repeating it for the nissah., &c., the number 

318 DAWUT, Chap. XXIX. 

of times as laid clown for the other isms (p. 312), if it 
be repeated in the above way one thousand times for each 
is77i with its demon, it is enough ; and equivalent to its 
nissab, &c., even to the end of khutum ; there being no 
occasion to read its Surree-ool-eejabui. 

Sect. 3. Of commanding the presetice of Genii and 

When an exorcist has once commanded the presence of 
genii and demons, he may, through their means, cause what- 
ever he pleases to be effected. He can obtain things mys- 
teriously, such as his daily food, or ready cash equal to his 
real expenses, by demanding it of them ; and I have gene- 
rally heard it said that they never ask for more than what 
they absolutely require.* 

Previous to commanding the presence of genii and 
demons, it is requisite to confine one's-self in a closet, and 
the apartment is to be besmeared with red ochre ; and, 
having spread a moosulla (which if also red, so much the 
better), he is to sit on it, and observing the utmost clean- 
liness, is to discharge its nissab, &c. in the course of a 
week. The sooner the better. 

After that, in order to cause the presence of these beings, 
he is again to shut himself up for forty days, and repeat 
the ism 137,613 times, having previously divided the num- 
ber into forty parts, a part being read each day. 

For such chilla (or a forty days'" abstinence), the place 
most congenial is a secluded spot ; somewhere in the vici- 
nity of the sea, in a rocky cavern, in a garden, or out of 
town, where no noise or bustle is likely to disturb the mind 
of the exorcist. 

• For a very good reason I because it would not be granted bv 
those aerial spirits. 

Sect. 3. OR EXORCISM. 319 

After he has commenced the reading of the ism, every 
night, or week, or every now and then, some new and fresh 
phenomena will present themselves ; and on the last week 
the demons and genii, attended by all their legions, will 
appear before him ; and two or three from among the latter, 
or one of the demons or genii himself, will advance, and 
respectfully addressing him, say, "Well, Mr. Exorcist, 
*' wherefore hast thou demanded our presence .'' Here we 
" are, with our assembled forces.""^ At this critical juncture 
it behoves the exorcist to muster up his courage, and not to 
speak to them all at once, but by a motion of the finger or 
hand beckon to them to be seated. Having concluded his 
daily task, he is to inquire after their names, demand of 
them a siffn or token, and ascertain how often it will be 
necessary for him to repeat the ism to cause their presence. 
They will then inform him on these points, and he is strictly 
to attend to their injunctions. Should he speak to them 
before concluding his daily task, they will cause some mis- 
fortune to befall him ; nay, he will be in danger of his life ; 
or they will all disappear of a sudden, and render the pains 
he has taken of no avail. 

Then having adjured the genii and demons by a solemn 
oath, in the name of Almighty God, and of Solomon the 
son of David, (peace be ! &c.) he is to dismiss them. He 
is, on no account, to say a word about the interview to any 

He is never to command their presence when his body is 
at all filthy or unclean, and he is never to delay bathing 
himself after coition or nocturnal pollution. During his 
whole life he must abstain from adultery : in short, he is to 
do nothino; but what is lawful. 

It is advisable for the tyro in the art not to undertake it 
for the first two or three times, unless his tutor be present ; 

320 DAWUT, Chap. XXTX, 

for otherwise he may forfeit his life. Many, from want of 
due regard to this, have grown and daily do grow mad and 
insane. Much rather abstain from it altoo-ether. 

For the information of Europeans (may their wealth ever 
increase !) I shall now relate some of the well-known and 
celebrated virtues of the first ism recorded in the Juwahir- 

1st. When any one wishes to go into the presence of a 
monarch, a noble, or a grandee, or that of his gracious 
master, without requiring to give the nissah, zukat, &c. 
and daiciit (i. e. the familiarizing one's self with it, vide 
p. 313), if he merely repeat the chief ism seventeen times 
with open hands upheld to heaven, and having blown on 
them draws them over his face once, the instant the person 
beholds him he will become so fond of and attached to him, 
that however great his anger might have previously been 
against him, he will now be pleased with him. 

2d. Should any one repeat the above-mentioned ism, after 
every morning and evening prayer, as they are in the habit 
of repeating other things, forty or seventy times, his mind 
will become vivid and enlightened, and he will cherish in 
his bosom nothing but supreme love to God. No worldly 
concern will he allow to disturb his peace of mind ; events 
about to come to pass will be revealed to him in dreams. 

3d. When a person wishes any particular circumstance, 
temporal or spiritual, to happen, if he repeat the ism twenty- 
four times on a Sunday morning, before sun-rise, through 
the grace and blessing of God, that very same day, his 
wishes shall no doubt, be realized. 

4th. If a person be anxious to make another subject and 
obedient to his will, he is on a Wednesday, after bathing, 
to put on clean clothes ; and burning sweet-scented odours, 
repeat the ism a hundred and twenty-one times, over some 

Skct. 3. 



food or drink, and liaving blown on it, cause the person 
acted upon to partake of it, and he or she will immediately 
become his or her talib (wisher). 

5th. If an individual has a number of enemies, who pro- 
fess friendship towards him outwardly, but in their bosoms 
harbour enmity, who slander him behind his back and by 
their haughty looks keep him at a distance, he is, after the 
usual devotions have been performed, to read that greatest 
of all isms forty-one times, morning or evening, for forty 
days successively ; and by so doing, all his ill-wishers will 
become his intimate friends. 

6th. Should any one desire to make princes or gran- 
dees subject and obedient to his will, he must have a silver 
ring made with a small square silver tablet fixed upon it, 
on which is to be engraved the number that the letters 
composing the ism represent ; which, in this case, is 2,613 
(p. 311). This number by itself, or added to that of its 
two demons, 286 and 112, and its genius, 1,811, amounting 
in all to 4,822,* (agreeably to the rules laid down in the 

The number of the ism (p. 311) is 2,613 

Hay (p. 308) 5 

Mee7n 40 

Ray 200 

< Alif 1 

Eeay 10 

Lam 30 

o o) 



o -^ 


c S 

O 3 

( Hay 5 

Meem 40 

If^aoo 6 

AHf 1 

Kaf 20 

Eeay 10 

Lam . . - 30 




Carried forward. 

3,0] I 

322 DAWUT, Chap. XXIX. 

32(1 chapter, M-hich trecats on the subject of the pcience of 
tiikseer,) formed into a magic square of the solasee or 
rohaee kind, and engraved. When the ring is tlms finished, 
he is for a week to place it before him, and daily, in the 
morning or evening, to repeat the iswj five thousand times, 
and blow on it. When the whole is concluded, he is to 
wear the ring on the little-finger (lit. ear-finger*) of his 
right hand. 

In short, it is no easy matter to command the presence 
of genii and demons ; and, in the present day, should these 
race of beings be near any one, so as to obey his calls, 
such a one wovdd, no doubt, instantly be set down as a 
widlee (saint), or one endowed with the gift of miracles. 

The author of the present sheets (lit. this teacher of the 
alphabet) has endeavoured to prove the effects of the 
reading of two or three of these isms ; but' he found it a 
most difficult task to finish them ; for he met with such 
strano-e sights and frightful objects as completely deterred 
him from concluding any one of them. Moreover, con- 
ceivino- it labour lost, he relincniished the design alto- 

Independently of these mighty isms^ there are a great 
number of the attributes of the Deity, and verses of the 
Qoran, which one may read without much trouble, and 

Brought forward 3,01 1 

r Sheen 300 

^ \Tay -100 

g I 1 Khay 600 

^^ < Eeay I'^ 

e I \ Say 500 

tc AUf 1 

l^ ■ , 1,811 

* So called, because made use of to clean flie ear. 

Sect. 3. OR EXORCISM. 323 

their effects are well established ; but a knowledge of them 
can only be obtained by the most humble supplications to 
the great, or adepts in the art : and these folks again, com- 
municate them privately (lit. breast to breast, hand in 
hand, ear to ear). 

If they do describe them in books, it is never with suffi- 
cient minuteness for comprehension. 

To this teacher of the A, B, C, through the grace of 
God and the favour and kindness of his tutors, a great 
variety of powerful isms and select sentences of the Qoran 
have descended ; but as they have been imparted to him as 
profound secrets, it would be improper for him to disclose 

However one verse is so well known, that I may as well 
mention it ; and that is, the Jet-e-footooh, which literally 
signifies a verse for receiving an income gratuitously ; such 
as, obtaining one's daily subsistence by some means or 
other, or getting service somewhere, or having one's income 
abundantly increased. If a person make constant use of 
that verse, for a time, God will undoubtedly, within forty 
days, grant his behests and prosper him. The ancients 
have repeatedly tried the effects of it by experiment. The 
Aet-e-footooh, which is to be repeated forty times after the 
five appointed seasons of prayer, is as follows : 

" With Him are the keys of the secret things, none 
" knoweth them besides himself. He knows that which is 
" on the dry land and in the sea: there falleth no leaf 
" but He knoweth it ; neither is there a single grain in the 
" dark parts of the earth, neither a green thing nor a dry 
" thing, but it is written in the perspicuous book." (Sale's 
Qoran, chap. vi. p. 150, new edit. 1825.) 

For the purpose of obtaining an increase to one's sub- 
sistence or wealth, a person should, after the morning and 

Y 2 

324< DAWUT. Chap. XXIX. 

evening prayers, repeat one thousand times the following 
two attributes of the Deity. Should he derive any benefit 
from its repetition within two or three months, he may 
continue the rehearsal one thousand or five hundred times, 
for as long a period as he chooses to benefit by it. 
Eea gunnee ! (O thou independent !) 
Eea mo-gunnee ! (O thou causer of independence !) 

Sect. 4. Concerning the casting out of Devils. 

In the Shurra-e-Bokharee^ Aboo Hoorayree* (may God! 
&c.) observes, that the Prophet Mohummud MoostufFa (the 
blessing ! &c.) has stated, that Adam was created of teen 
(clay), that is, of two of the elements, water and earth ; 
and genii of marij (or flame without smoke), i. e. of air and 

Genii are spirits, and constantly reside in the lowest or first 
firmament.f They possess the power of rendering them- 
selves visible to human beings in any form they please. Some 
sages assert that genii have bodies ; but from the circum- 
stance of their being invisible to us, the term jin (or inter- 
nal, that which is not seen) has been applied to them. The 
extent of their knowledge is likewise hid from us ; on which 
account a madman is frequently nicknamed in Arabic Mti~ 
jin-oo and Jin-noonee (derived from jin), because the con- 
dition of his intellectual functions is concealed from others. 

As Adam and Eve were the parents of mankind, so Jan 
and Marija were the parents of the race of genii. 

Genii differ from man in three particulars ; viz. in their 
spirits, their form, and their speech. 

* This last word signifies " the father of cats." He was so nick- 
named by the prophet, on account of his partiality to those animals, of 
which he had always a great number about him as pets. 

t Mohummudans reckon seven firmaments. Vide p. 149. 


Those among them who perform good actions have the 
appellation Jin (or Genius) given them ; those who per- 
petrate evil deeds, Shytan (Satan or Devil). When the 
former do perform bad actions, such as causing the death 
of any one, or affecting a separation between two persons, 
it is not that it is according to their nature so to do, but 
they execute it through the means used by the exorcist, 
and by the influence of the isms of the Deity. 

The food of such of them as are poor and indigent con- 
sists chiefly of bones and air. 

The name of the genius who was most beloved of God 
was Hoorras. 

In the Tufseer-e-hyzawee (Commentary on the Qoran), 
and the Tuwareekh-e-rowxut-oos-sujfa, it is observed, 
that Satan was originally an off'spring of genii, and that 
God, of his infinite mercy, honoured him with the title of 
Azazeel (a fallen angel), their names having all a similar 
termination, such as Jibbraeel, Meekaeel, Israfeel, Izraeel, 
&c. Eeman-zahid has recorded, that it was owing to his 
disobedience he received the title of Ib-lees (or one who 
despairs of God's mercy), because he refused to prostrate 
himself before Adam ; and when, through obstinacy and 
malignity, he tempted Adam and Eve to eat wheat, and 
caused their separation,* the name of Shytan (Satan) was 
given him ; and, by so doing, he not only ruined himself, 
but also all Adam's race. He was the son of Hooleeanoos, 
who was the son of Tarnoos, who was the son of Soomas, 
who was the son of Jan. 

Satan has four khuleefay (caliphs or deputies); viz. 
1. Muleeqa, the son of Aleeqa; 2. Hamoos, the son of 

• Adam, they say, was driven from Paradise to Ceylon, where a 
mountain exists at which they go to worship, and Eve to some coun- 
try near Mecca. 

326 EXORCISM. Chap. XXIX. 

Janoos ; 3. Mubloot, the son of Bullabut ; 4. Yoosuf, the 
son of Yasif. 

As, among the offspring of Adam, Cain was the vilest 
character; so, among the race of genii, was he, who is 
called Satan. 

As the name of the wife of Adam (the peace of God ! 
&c.) was Hu-wa (Eve), so Satan'^s wife name was Aw-wa. 

As Adam's surname was Abool-bushur, so Satan's was 

As Adam had three sons, viz. Habeel (Abel), Kabeel 
(Cain), and Shees (Seth) ; so Satan had nine, viz. 1. Zul- 
baysoon, who with his host inhabits bazars; and all the 
wickedness committed therein is accordingly attributed to 
his agency. 2. Wuseen, the ruler over grief and anxiety. 
3. Awan, the companion of kings. 4. Huffan, the patron 
of wine-bibbers. 5. Murra, the superintendent of music 
and dancing. 6. Laqees, the lord of the worshippers of 
fire. 7. Musboot, the master of news, who directs people 
to circulate malicious and false reports. 8. Dasim, lord of 
mansions. When people come home from journies, he pre- 
vents their calling upon God to return thanks for their safe 
return, and frustrates their good designs by causing wars 
and contentions to take place. Some say he is lord of the 
dustur-khwan (table-cloth), and does not allow people to 
say hismilla (grace) on sitting down to meals ; and after it 
is over, he causes them to forget to return shookoor or ehsan 
(thanks) for it. (Vide p. Ill, 112.) 9. Dullian, he whose 
abode is places appropriated to devotional ablutions and 
prayers, where he defeats the objects of the pious, by throw- 
ing difficulties into the way of their performance of their 

These nine sons of the undaunted, the infernal Satan, are 
the mortal enemies of Adam's race. They never allow 


them to do a good action, but exert all their influence in 
causinsr them to sin. He has nine children added to his 
family for every one born among men. 

In the Sliurra e-bokharee, Jabir, son of Abd-oollah 
Ansaree (may God ! &c.) observes, that God Almighty 
formed all created beings into four gradations or ranks : 1st. 
angels; 2d. devils; 3d. genii; and 4th. mankind. 

But Abbee-durda, a companion of the Prophet (may 
God ! &c.) has differently construed these divisions, assign- 
ing to the 1st rank snakes and scorpions ; to the 2d, insects; 
to the 3d, spirits; to the 4)th, Adam's progeny, and all 
quadrupeds, birds, &c. 

Mulik Cutshan is king of all the genii, and inhabits 
Mount Qaf* To the eastward he possesses 300,000 
domestics. To the westward reigns Abd-ool-lluhraan, 
his son-in-law, who has 33,000 dependants. To both 
of them his holiness Mohunmuid MoostufFa himself (the 
peace ! &c.) during his life-time gave the above Moosulman 

Kings of Moosulman-genii have their names terminating 
in noos; as Tarnoos, Ilooleeanoos, Dukheeanoos, &c. Kings 
of Tursa (worshippers of fire) genii, in doos ; as Seedoos, 
&c. Kings of Jewish genii, in nas ; as Juttoonas, &c. 
Kings of Hindoo genii, in tiis ; as Nuqtus, &c. 

The last-mentioned genius (Nuqtus), when he entered 
the service of his excellency the Prophet Shees (peace be 
unto him !), was converted to the Mohummudan faith. 

Amono; Moosulman-o^enii there is a sect of eemams : 
(leaders or priests). Such were Aboo-furda, Musoor, Dur- 
bag, Qulees, and Aboo-malik. 

In the Tufseer-e-knheer it is stated that genii are of four 

QnJ\ A fabulous niouiilaiu. Vide Glossary. 


kinds, vi%. 1st. the Fulkeeu, or those who inhabit the firma- 
ment ; 2d. the Qpotheeu, who reside about the North Pole ; 
3d. the Wuhmeeu, who haunt the human imagination ; and 
4th. the Firdooseeti, who dwell in Paradise. 

In the Tufseer-e-neeabeeu it is said that genii are divided 
into twelve bands or troops : six inhabiting the countries of 
Room (the Turkish empire), Furhung (Europe), Yoonan 
(Greece), Roos (Russia), Babel (Babylon), and Suhbutan; 
the other six, the regions of Gog (country of the Calmucs), 
Magog (country of the Esclavonians), Nowba (Nubia), 
Zungubar (Ethiopia), Hindh (Hindoostan), Sindh (Sind 
or Western India). Among these, three legions are Islam- 
ites or Moosulmans, and their king is Buklitanoos. 

As to the real nature of genii, they are nine-tenths spirits 
and one-tenth flesh. 

In short, we have now considered the origin, birth, and 
nature of genii and devils. Although this narrative should 
have had a place in the second section of this chapter, yet, 
as it was in a great measure connected with our present 
subject, I have preferred inserting it here. 

I have long been desirous of describing the manner in 
which the devil is cast out, and have tlierefore been more 
particular in mentioning his family connexions, names, pe- 
digree, &c. This I have done in as concise a form as the 
extent of my poor abilities would permit. 

I have always been accustomed, (having from my youth 
up had a great taste for it), to practise the reading of the 
dawut (exorcism), write amulets and charms, and by con- 
sulting horoscopes, prognosticate future events. 

Many a time have persons possessed of the devil applied 
to this teacher of the A, B, C, for assistance, and whether 
owing to my reading doa (supplications), tying on an amu- 
let, or burning a charm, or, to the force of their belief, or 


to some wise contrivance of my own, which I put in prac- 
tice, they have been cured. 

I used to entertain great doubt and suspicion in my own 
mind as to the effects produced ; and frequently said to 
myself, " O God ! What relation or connexion can pos- 
" sibly exist between genii and man, that the former 
" should possess such powerful influence over the latter, or 
" that by our merely reading incantations they should be 
" cast out ?" With these doubts in my mind, I was con- 
stantly employed in the search and investigation of the 
subject, by consulting very learned men and divines, and 
reading noted works on the subject, such as the Tufseer 
(commentary on the Qormi), Huddees (traditional sayings 
of the Prophet), and others, in order that I might acquire 
some knowledge concerning these matters. Whatever I 
have seen, heard, and read, I have related. 

When individuals labour under demoniacal possessions, 
the symptoms are as follows. Some are struck dumb; 
others shake their heads ; others grow mad and walk about 
naked ; they feel no inclination to pursue their usual avo- 
cations, but lie down and are inactive. In such cases, if it 
be required to make the demoniac speak, or to cast the 
devil out, there are a variety of contrivances resorted to, 
and which I shall now endeavour to describe. 

Magic circles, squares, and figures, are sketched on the 
ground, or on a plank, with various coloured powders, 
bhuhhoot (cowdung ashes), charcoal, or sundul\ and the 
demoniac being seated in the centre of it, the afsoon (incan- 
tation) is read. Around these diagrams are placed various 
kinds of fruits, flowers, pan-sooparee, sheernee, sometimes 
sayndhee, taree, iiariellee^* daroo,-\- &c. Some sacrifice a 

• Intoxicating liquors ; vide Glossary, 
t Ardent spirits. 

330 EXORCISM. Chap. XXIX. 

sheep in front of the circle, &c. sprinkle the blood round it, 
set up the head in front, placing a lamp upon it, lighted up 
with a inileeta (charm-wick) ; or they merely slay a fowl, 
and sprinkle its blood around. Some give a rupee or two, 
according to tlieir means, into the hands of the person pos- 
sessed by the devil, to deposit therein. These things are 
denominated the apparatus of worship {vide jjlates).* 

The following Arabic incantation {yicle p. 331) is to be 
read over some bhuhhoot (cowdung ashes), or over a few 
(lit. five) different kinds of grain, seven times, and each 
time the exorcist is to blow-}- upon the object, and throw it 
at the head and shoulders of the demoniac ; or he is to 
breathe on flowers and throw them at him ; and burning 
some ubeer, ood, dhumieea, vggur^ or simdul, near the 
demoniac, he is, during the process, to read the spell over 
them twenty-one times, desiring the patient to sit with 
his eyes shut and smell well the fumes exhaled, while he 
repeats the supplication. During the reading of the incan- 
tation, shovdd any motion of the body be perceptible, the 
exorcist is to say, " If thou be a male devil, bow thine 
head to the right ; if a female, to the left ; and if a herma- 
phrodite, forward." Some demons shake the head and body 
of the demoniac most violently. When the reading of the 
supplication has been concluded, the exorcist is to inquire 
of his patient whether he feels any degree of intoxication or 
lassitude, or sense of weight in the head, or whether he 
experience the emotion of fear in his mind ; or whether he 
be aware of a sensation like that of some one behind him 
shaking his head ? If any of these symptoms be felt, the 

• The object of the following diagrams being to inspire terror, they 
cannot be made too frightful. 

+ The word used in the original {jnioonkna) means "to blow xvilli 
" the breath," therefore the verb " to blow"' does not exactly ex- 
press it. 

.'/ e^- A^Mu: 6iu/e. 

. ^"7. Cio ra^ ^aae J30j 

_BtL present 

•lir -Or iir 






^^y7l/za{.^ .^^^^^■. 

JV°Z. (^f<u:^T<u,e ^"i^Cr ) 



A'^S. ftt> rkcf Faye'3-30.J 

■^ -/X-%p^ipy^ r>p 

/V"4-. (6?ra^eJiu,^d30.) 

( orn^ 

O Jfee/tMeei . 

O J-iidraeel / 

^iyc^yM^/^ c^^^^'ef-^'. 


/V« S . f ^/ace /ii(,( 330 . ) 


case may be considered as that of a demoniac ; otherwise 
not. The circumstance of the devil catching a person, is 
in reality, nothing ; its seat is merely in the fancy and 
imagination of the vulo-ar. 

The Arabic afsoon (incantation), above alluded to, is as 
follows : — " Azumto Alykoom, Fiithoonu Futhoonu, Huh- 
" heehayka Hubbeebayka , Almeen Almeen, Suqqeeka Suq- 
*' qeeka, Akaysiin Akaysii7i, Bulleesun Bulleesu7i, Tulee- 
" sun Tuleesun, Soorudun Soorudun, Kuhulun Kuhu- 
" lun, Muhulun Muhiilu7i, Sukheeun Sukheeun, Sudee- 
" dun Sudeedun^ Nuheeun Nubeeun, Bayhuq-e-Kkatee- 
" may Soolayman bin-Daood (^Al/y hhn-moosSulam) Oh- 
*' zayroo, min Janaybil Musharayqay wul Mugaraybay 
" wo min janaybil, i-mu7itiay wul I-sur-7'ay.''''*' Having read 
this, the exorcist is to add, " Whatever it be that has 
" taken possession of the body of such a one, come out of 
" him ! come out of him !" 

Incantations for causing the devil to enter a person's body, 
in Arabic, Persian and Hindoostanee, are very numerous ; 
but, owing to their prolixity, I have omitted them. Should 
any one, however, wish to acquire a knowledge of them, he 
may easily do so by applying to those who practise the art. 

Some devils, when they seize a person, do not let him go 
for two or four weeks together ; nay, for as many months ; 
and the demoniac then never speaks, and though the devil 
be present in him, he does not move nor walk. 

To prevent certain devils from escaping, they tie a knot 
in the hair of the demoniac, after having read the following 
verse of the Qoran in Arabic three times, and blown upon 
it, vix. — '■^Innuma amruhoo, eeza aradu shyin un eeuqoollu 

* I. e. I adjure you Futhoonu, &c. (various names of demons, end- 
ing with "Nubceun") by the seal of Solomon, the son of David, eome 
from the East and from the West, from the right and from the left. 

332 EXORCISM. Chap. XXIX. 

" luhoo koonfu-ee ay-koona fu soohhanulluzee hay eud- 
" dayhil muUukooto koollu shyin wu illyhay toorjaoona.'''' 
i. e. " His command, when he willeth a thing, is only 
" that he saith unto it, ' Be,' and it is : wherefore praise be 
" unto him, in whose hand is the kingdom of all things, 
" and unto whom ye shall return at the last day." (Sale's 
Qoran, chap, xxxvi., p. 308., edit. 1825.) 

Some read the following verse eleven times over any kind 
of odoriferous oil and blow it into the ear* of the demo- 
niac : — Wuluqud futtunna soolaymana wu ulkyna Alia 
Koorsee ye-ay-hoo jussudun soomma annah. " We have 
" tried Solomon, and placed on his throne a counterfeit 
" body. Afterwards he turned unto God." — Sale's Qorati, 
chap, xxxviii., p. 321., edit. 1825.) 

Sometimes they repeat the following invocation of the Most 
High God nine times, and blow it into one or both ears : 

%-..^;-^^ \ (.lisX/K-.- «-^k-J ^ *_-*««JU «_^*->jb Lll-^-^wJ" f--*'*-^ b 

Eea summee-0 tussummata bis summay, wus summay fee 
summay sumuka eea summee-o. " O Hearer ! thou hearest 
" with ears ; thine ears are within hearing, O Hearer !" 

After the demoniac is well filled with the devil, he some- 
times screeching takes a kakra (large wick), continues 
lighting and extinguishing it by putting the lighted end 
into his mouth; (some, biting the neck of a fowl, suck 
its blood) ; and when he begins to speak somewhat ration- 
ally, the exorcist inquires after the demon's name ; his 
sign ; whence he came, and whither he is bound ; when he 
intends taking his departure ; and what he was doing and 
causing to be done, while in the body of the demoniac ? If 

• A common technical expression, meaning that after reading- the 
verse, they blow upon it and thereby transfer it (/. e. the virtues of the 
sentence) to the patient. 


he reply to these queries, well and good; if not, the exor- 
cist reads some incantation or other over a rattan, and flogs 
the demoniac well, which has the effect of making him relate 
every thing. For some devils are so wicked that they will 
not reveal their names, nor state when they mean to depart. 
What is strange, all this flagellation leaves no marks on 
the body of the demoniac. After this, the exorcist asks 
what his desire is at present, and what articles or eatables 
he would wish to have ? Whatever he names he is to be 
supplied with ; such as any of the following articles : a seer 
or half a seer of juwar or dlian kay klieeleean (fried great- 
millet or paddy) or moofkoolay,* curdled-milk, boiled rice, 
curries of flesh, fish, or fowl, eggs, a sheep, sayndhee 
taree, shurab, sheernee, various kinds of fruits and flowers, 
(jr/?ee-lamps made of flour, two images, male and female, 
made of flour, and besides these, many others which the 
devil may ask for. These are arranged on a large piece of 
a broken earthen pot, or on a winnowing or common basket, 
which the exorcist waves three times from the head to the 
feet of the demoniac, first in front, then behind. He after- 
wards distributes its contents among beggars, or places the 
whole under a tree or on the bank of a river. The day of 
his departure is the one on which these are to be given him. 

At the period of his going away, the exorcist is to inquire 
of him the particular place at which he means to throw 
down the patient when making his exit, and what he intends 
taking away with him. To which he replies, " on this 
" very spot ;" or, " out of doors ;" or, " under such a tree:" 
and " I shall take with me meat, kuleejee, &c. ;" or, 
" nothing at all." 

Should this not meet with the approbation of the exor- 

♦ Balls of paste boiled (dumplings). 


cist, he is to say to him, " Nay ; but thou must throw him 
'* down here, or in the area, and take up a shoe or a sandal 
" with thy mouth, or bear a sil* on thy head." When he 
accordingly does so, he runs with such speed, and makes 
such a noise, that the people all, through fear, flee before 
him. The demoniac frequently runs away with stones so 
large that two or three persons could scarcely lift them. 
Sometimes, he merely runs without carrying away any 
thing. The operator is then to continue holding on by his 
hair, either at the back or on one side of tlie head, and 
wherever he may fall down, there he must let him lie ; and 
having read the incantation, or the aet-ooI-koorsee,-f over an 
iron nail or wooden peg, he is to strike it into the ground. 
The moment the demoniac falls down, the exorcist instantly 
plucks out one or two hairs from among tliose which he 
holds in his hand, and reading some established spell over 
them, puts them into a bottle and corks it up ; whereupon 
the patient's devil is supposed to be imprisoned therein. 
Then he either buries the bottle under-ground or burns it ; 
after which tlie devil never returns. 

Some Seeanas (p. 372) make a small wax doll, fasten 
one extremity of a hair to the crown of its head, and the 
other to tlie bottom of a cork, fill the bottle with smoke, 
put the doll into it, and cork it up. They put in smoke to 
prevent people"'s distinguishing the doll, wliich remains sus- 
pended in the middle of the bottle. The Seeano, the 
moment the demoniac falls on the ground, pulls out a hair 
or two as above-stated, and contrives to insert them into 
the bottle ; which, holding up to public view, he exclaims, 
" Behold ! I have cast the devil out of the demoniac and 

• Sil, a stone on which spices, &c. are ground. 
t Vide Sale's Qoran, chap. ii. p. 44., from " God! there is no God," 
&c. to "they shall remain therein for ever,'* p. 45, ed. 182.5. 


" confined him in this bottle. There he is, standing in the 
" middle of it, longing to come out. Now, if you give me 
" so much money, well and good ; if not, I will let him 
" loose again." Those foolish people, on beholding tlie 
doll in the bottle, actually believe it to be the devil himself, 
and out of fear give him any sum of money he asks, and get 
it buried or burnt. 

The instant the devil leaves the demoniac he i-egains the 
use of his faculties, and in utter amazement, staring round, 
inquires, " Where am I ? who brought me here ? and why 
" has all this crowd assembled arovuid me 'f 

After that, the following svipplication is to be read over 
a handful of water and dashed at the face of the patient ; a 
form wliich is repeated three times, viz. Atmiikh Atmukh, 
Tnmmakh Tummakh, Turmeehim, kill qiissussay kmmhoo 
jummal-latin, suffrin oJiriq oliriq. And afterwards this 
supplication: Lahoivl ivo laqooiv-wuta ilia billa hil Allee 
ool azeem (or. There is no refuge or power but in God the 
high and mighty), is to be read over water, which is then 
breathed upon, and the patient is made to drink it. 

Having brought him home from the place where he fell, 
they wash his face, hands, and feet ; and either on that day 
or the following, a taivee% (amulet) of a particular kind 
which is used for the piu-pose is fastened to iiis neck or arm, 
in order that the devil may not seize upon him again. 

Wlien a person has for a considerable time been afflicted 
with any particular distemper and does not recover, in order 
to ascertain whether it be the .devil or enchantment that has 
attacked him, they mark out the following sketch on the 
ground or on a plank. Some flowers being put into the 
hands of the sick person, he is to be desired to grasp them 
firmly in his hands and place his fists near the diagram. 
While he does so, the exorcist is to take some more flowers. 



Chap. XXIX. 

and having read the undermentioned incantation over each 
flower and blown upon it, he is to dash it against his 
patienfs hands. In a few minutes the hands will begin to 
move into one of the squares. 

Here follows the sketch, with the incantation after it : 






" Innuhoo Minnns Soolayman, o Innuhoo Bismiila 
Hirruhma Nirruheem unta taloo Ala atoonee Mnoslay- 
meena.* — Ribtun rihtun Buhuq-e-Kaf^ Hay, Eeay, 
Aeen, Sivad, wo Hy, Meem, Jeen, Seen, Qaf.f — Jullee- 
ooshi/i Murhooshin Hyoosin tuffa-ay-lin murqoodiishin 
sulmooshin murtooshin Myloomashin Duddumun, zur- 
hun, qooroo eeun Aheeoon,^ bay burkut-e-Soolayman bin 
Daood. — Akhbirnee Akhbirnee, o eeumshay, o izhubba 
eeudanay, bay ummur Illahay ta-ala, illu soo in nuq- 

And he is to continue saying every now and then, " In 
these five compartments are inserted the names of the 
five afflictions. God grant that the hands of the patient 

• As far as this, to he found in the Qoran ; viz. " It is from Solo- 
" mon, and this is the tenor thereof. In the name of the most merciful 
" God, rise not up against me, but come and surrender yourselves unto 
" me." (Sale's Qoran, chap, xxvii. p. 231. edit. 1825.) 

t " Binding- him, binding him by the aid of the letters K, H, E, A, S, 
(Vide Sale's Qoran, chap xix. at the beginning); and byH, M, A, 
S, Q, (ditto chap, xlii)." 

X This sentence of the incantation has no meaning. 

§ " By the blessing of Solomon the son of David warn me, warn 
" me. May both his hands go, and by the command of God Almighty 
" reach this diagram." 

Skct.4. CASTIN(i OUT DEVILS. 357 

" may enter the sqviare containing tlie name of the malady 
" he is affected with." 

Some devils generally attack people in their sleep, and 
harass them not a little. 

Some do not enter the body so soon as their presence is 
required. In this case, the demoniac is to be made to sleep, 
and continue sitting night and day in one of the circles, &c, 
before described (p. 330) etched on the ground, and at night, 
either for the purpose of commanding the presence of, or for 
casting out the demons, a puleeta-*^ is to be lighted in three 
kinds of oil or one of balsam, for three, five, or seven nights 
successively. Within these periods, should a puleeia have 
been employed to command his presence, he makes his 
appearance ; if for his departure, he makes his exit. 

The modes of lighting puleetas are various ; however, 1 
shall give one only as an example. 

Take a red or black earthen pot, fill it with all kinds of 
fruits, some cash, such as a rupee or half a rupee, as the 
operator's fee, and adapt a cover to it of the same colour, 
the exterior surface of both being marked with suti- 
dul. Having besmeared the place where the patient sleeps 
with cowdung or red earth, stroke the demoniac from head 
to foot with a piece of blank paper, and write the puleeta 
on it ; roll it up obliquely, round, or flat, to make it burn 
well, and to prevent its unfolding itself wind a piece of thin 
muslin, or a flock of cotton, or thread round it ; then light it 
with three kinds of oil, i. e. ghee, gingilie oil, and either 
castor oil, kurrunj kay tail,-f or linseed oil, in the cover of 

• Puleeta, a wick composed of paper, inscribed with mystic cha- 
racters; by inhaling the smoke of which, demons are said to be ex- 
pelled from those possessed. 

t Oil of the kurrunj-ivQQy or tree dalbergia; dalbergia arborca, 

338 EXORCISM. Chap. XXIX. 

the earthen pot. On lighting the lamp in the evening, per- 
fumes are to be burnt, and the patient is to be desired to 
sit near the lamp and stare at it. After he falls asleep the 
lamp is to be continued burning. 

On lighting the jyuleeta (charm-wick) two or three dis- 
tinct flames of various hues, such as black, green, or 
yellow, will become visible both to the patient and to by- 
standers. Some demoniacs cannot bear to sleep in a light 
of this description ; they either get up and walk about, or 
do not feel at all sleepy : while others, though they do not 
disrelish looking at it, seem evidently excited. At all 
events, by the burning of this puleeta the devil is cast out. 
Should he be present, they converse with him as above 
detailed (p. 332), and cause him to depart, which by the 
influence of the chaim he no doubt will do ; and should the 
patient be labouring under any corporeal affection, it will 
be removed. (Vide Plates.) 

If devils throw stones, and occasion annoyance in any 
one's house, from among the stones thus thrown the opera- 
tor takes one, paints it over with turmeric and quicklime, 
reads some spell over it, and throws it in the direction 
whence the stones came. If it be really the devil, he re- 
turns the self-same painted stone ; by which means they 
know, to a certainty, that it is he ; otherwise, they con- 
elude that it is an enemy who has done it, and have 
recourse to other means for remedying the evil. 

Sometimes seeanas (conjurors, p. 373) have recourse to 
various tricks to obtain money. Thus, when they find out 
a rich man who is subject to fear, they either themselves 
throw an immense number of stones or bones on his house, 
or cause them to be thrown, either during the night or 
day, in such a way as not to be discovered. The land- 

1 . 2^7° 6 '. (^//> fcur Taye 338 . ) 

('^ ATnt/ (?t^ Genii . c^^cA'Ar /' ' r^ - ^ ctful C^ A }ri<'- 

fin/J ^Az l^i rr i ' . Be ye presenl~ «^7^ t/aur a^sem = 
Med {e(/zx'?tJ I'/i f/it / ei/^iA/s BeA^/i/^' o/^ the 
(y/Ue'^/ei : etnf^ u/uttever Devrl, Disease .Be^/ifTv.FaiTy. 
&?. ft^>e t/ial" A<iS pc'/S6/}ed- hz^n , ^'n/Tt X' recT^uce 

/le/<>^A/ce'Afe/ , rend'(y^<l^e/^AAu/ , /:>ixrn. . (zn^ 





lAeSen of 

David , 

{ Fea£<; ie 

unZo Tu^n .) 



5- •. "x 

Si ^ ■x- 

1 ■i 'V 

s ^ <>; 

^y° 7 . / ^^' >-'trf /h^fi^s) 











y s 


.:?■ 4 


,-r J 










■ y°3- f h rcu^ Paae^38.) 

7 ^a97i/f - ( Vuiz 






6£ p/rsen^ . and ^'icm (tnd con^ufTz^^ ft lip asA^s lAzs insihar'J , 

cy^/^^/^ / c-t ^<^y7nA t A^i^t^?? , ) 

^ <r<7^/~ rt^^ M^ 


y° lO ( & raz-el'a^e J3<S.) 

y n Ai^ei/er^ ^e <z-re ^ J)f/m^ns . 

















^ ^ A<^u-7- . in tAi,s Aoej^t/ . £i7u^ ^e durrtl a^if/ redi^/xci^ ti? 

^ C A^^^CtzZCsA : i^A^ OAa.>t of' a f/ r>f?2zz7L u/A^ cif/id iz^Aile p7e^7tftnf~. 

<r - c <i.yu^ce€^. , (<Tt 

-^h <^<<?'.cS'^fe»^ 

J<ri //i/i - t/ui 

jV'/I. (&> /h^ Fa^e So^.) 

6^ A7nc/><jf(?enu,<^yti^-<Ptr/^^a/^^t / fPTiaiei/er 
if ^€ . fh^ltr is in fAr 3cWy <^/^ tAis ui^in^zta/ , | 
cawje ilr in^liZ7jfi>/ ||f <^ &e pre-serit,: anW 
i>icm a fid relieve nk, it t<p ci^tAes , 3j/ 
tA^ ifiriumcf- iS^lcl^iS^'i or^ iAf wcrd 


lord, wishing to ascertain the cause, and becoming alarmed, 
sends for one of tlie seeanas, and desires him to cast his 
horoscope. The latter frightens him still further, by assur- 
ing him it is the devil, describing him as a most hideous 
monster who inhabits the atmosphere, residing between 
heaven and earth, having four heads; one, of an elephant; 
a second, of a male buffaloe ; a third, of a hog ; a fourth, 
of a horse ; and adding that he is desirous of devouring 
his kuleeja* which is the reason of his pelting stones at 
him from the sky, and that he will no doubt kill him un- 
awares by strangling him. So saying, he shews him a 
sketch of the monster. On hearing and seeing all this, he 
gets alarmed to such a degree, that his very kuleejaf melts 
away into water. Meantime the other continues, that he 
will verify his assertion. So saying, he takes up a stone or 
bone, paints it as above stated, and pelts it. The stone (as 
he takes care that it shall be) is thrown back. This 
frightens his dupe still more, and he offers the seeana as 
mucli money as he wants, in order to get rid of so unwel- 
come a guest. The seeana performs some spell or other 
and walks away with his booty. This is a thing of which 
I myself have been an eye-witness. 

Should genii reside in any one's house, and decamp with 
eatables and frighten people, so that the inhabitants of the 
dwelling are constantly disturbed and troubled, and scarcely 
ever exempt from sickness, nay, find life burdensome, the 
undermentioned verse is to be read for three days twenty- 
one times, mornings and evenings, over some fresh water ; 
which, having been blown upon, is then to be sprinkled over 
the floor. Or the verse having been read twenty-one times 

• Lit. "his liver," but here his whole inside, or perhaps pluck, 
(vide Johnson). 

t Here doubtless refers to the heart. 


over four iron nails or wooden pegs, and blown upon, the 
latter are to be struck into the four corners of the house, 
by which means the devils or genii will be removed. The 
verse is as follows : 

" Innuhoom ekkeedona kydun o akeedo kyda fummu- 
" haylil kafayreena umhilhoom, roowayda.'''' 

" Verily, the infidels are laying a plot to frustrate my 
" designs ; but I will lay a plot for their ruin. Wherefore, 
" O Prophet, bear with the unbelievers : let them alone 
" awhile." — (Sale''s Qoran, chap. Ixxxvi. last verse.) 

Some write the names of the seven Ashah-e-kuhuf (vide 
p. 276), together with that of their dog, as stated below, 
on paper, and paste them on the walls of their houses. 
Their names are Aleekha, Muksulimta, Tub-yunus, Kush- 
footut, Udurqut, Yunus, Yuanus ; and that of their dog, 

The following three are smoke-charms, and are employed 
in removing tertian fevers, demons, fairies, fears, and false 
imaginations. They are thrown into the fire, and the patient 
being covered with a sheet, is fumigated with the smoke 
arising: from them. These are in much more general use 
than the preceding larger ones. (JSee Plate.^ 

Besides these, there is a great variety of other spells and 
charms for raising devils and for expelling and burning 
them : but on account of the length of the description, I 
have abridged and limited it at this point. 

V / 


/Yri2. ^ &, /i<-^ J>a^, 

':^Mm!^r^jX,^^,^^^^^^„jf^^^,/^^^^^^^^^ ^///^^^j 

^ Jucfv a. one- . 



Concerning the method of establishing Friendship between two per- 
sons, and of captivating the liearts of the members of assemblies. 

It is customary with Moosulman women, when their 
husbands or paramours are tyrannical, brutal, or jealous, 
or take a fancy to other women and neglect them, to pro- 
cure something eatable or drinkable, or some embrocation 
or other, from a practitioner who is skilful and learned in 
the art ; and having had some supplication read over it, 
cause them to swallow it, or apply it to their bodies. By 
such contrivances. Almighty God, who is able to turn the 
hearts of men, does certainly cause their husbands or lovers 
to be enamoured of them. 

Some debased females, and prostitutes, in order to render 
men (strangers) obedient to their will, and thereby possess 
themselves of their wealth and property, as well as with a 
desire to rule them, have recourse to the most filthy means, 
as will presently be hinted at. God Almighty grant that 
none of Adam born may ever hear of, eat, or practise them. 

By way of specimens, I shall select a few of the sub- 
stances used for this purpose ; but, for God's sake, don't 
in disgust, conceive my assertions false. 

Ex. gr, Panniculus fluore menstruo foedatus, et in cineres, 
siccatus, redigitur : hi autem cineres, calce viva (quae vulgo 
cum foliis piper betle, Lin. [Vernac. betel-leof,] aliave 
esca comeditur) mixti, viro comedendi prasbentur ; aut quo- 
cunque modo insidioso efficiunt, ut partem quandam ex 
sanguine suo menstruo, in viri caput perfricent. Aliquando 
quidem, propriam urinam cum caryophyllo, cardamomo, 
nuce moschata, et macide, miscent ; vel, in eadem, Areca 


Catechu, Lin. [Anglice, hetel-nut^'\ macerant, et foetore 
quocunque modo expulso, efficiunt ut vir ex ea aliquid 

For the above reason, when a man is cordially submissive 
to any woman and overlooks her bad conduct, the common 
saying among the vulgar is, that " the woman must have 
" fed him with betel-nuts." 

Many women of bad caste make the men eat the flesh of 
the chameleon, and various kinds of wild roots and herbs. 
Many, by the use of these, not unfrequently get sick, and 
even die. 

They likewise procure some of the ashes of the dead from 
the place where the Hindoos are wont to burn theirs ; and 
having read some incantation over it, sprinkle it at night on 
his bed, or on himself, when asleep. Or they apply to their 
own foreheads or eyebrows a well-known kind of philter, 
termed mohnee ka kojul,* and thus come into the presence 
of their husbands, in order, that by beholding them they 
may fall in love with and be kind to them. 

Sometimes they apply a small quantity, about the size of 
a mustard-seed, of the above lamp-black to the hair or soles 
of the feet of the man. 

It is a very common custom with unchaste women, cour- 
tezans, and dancing-girls, with the view of causing men to 
be submissive and obedient to their will, to practise these 
things and cause them to be practised. It therefore behoves 
every man of sense, to be on his guard against the craftiness 
and subtlety of these people. 

To the writer of these pages it would appear that if a 
married woman, to prevent her husband acting improperly 
or committing adultery and fornication, instead of having 

Lit. the philter lamp-black. 


recourse to such vile practices has the same object effected 
by the reading of something out of the sacred Qpran, it is 
highly proper, for no harm is done on either side ; because, 
writing on, or reading a supplication from the Qoran over 
any thing, and afterwards drinking or eating it, is peculiarly 
meritorious; besides, the not permitting her husband to 
act improperly is greatly to her advantage. 

Many people, when they wish a man or woman to be 
subject to, or in love with them, effect it by repeating some 
of the verses of the Qoran, as detailed before under the 
head of Dawut (p. 307), which it is therefore unnecessary 
for me to recapitulate. 

If a man meet with a beautiful woman and cannot ob- 
tain possession of her, or if she be opulent and disregard 
him, and he wishes her to become enamoured of him and be 
subject to his will, in such cases it is with men as with 
women, they have recourse to the basest means. Ex. gr. 
Quibusdam insidiis efficiunt ut sordes inter scrotum et 
femora, necnon in axilla acervatas, et pilos quosdam ex 
pubere, etiamque aliquid seminis, et unguinum praesegmina 
cum urina triturata, et in pilulas facta, faeminae conglu- 
tiant. Praeterea, cum generis asinini mas et faemina coeunt, 
siquid semhiis externe decidat, idem summa cum cura 
coUigunt ex eodemque parte quadam cum pi'oprio semine 
mixta, et his, quodam cum cibo commixtis, efficiunt ut 
faeminae hac ex mixtura aliquid comedant : whereupon they 
become enamoured of their admirer, and are rendered 
obedient to his will. 

To captivate the Hearts of Members of Assemblies. 

There is a variety of means; but I shall content myself 
with alluding to a few, by way of example. 

Some have a tablet, with a particular taweex (magic 


square) or ism (attribute of the Deity), which is employed 
for the purpose, engraved on it, set in a ring or kurra, 
and wear it on the finger, wrist, or upper arm. 

Others have amulets engraved on plates of copper, silver, 
or gold ; or writing them on paper, fold them up in any of 
the above metals ; or enclose them in a bit of kumkhwah, 
mushroo, &c. sew them up, and wear them either on the 
hair of the head, or on the turban, arm, wrist, or neck. 

Again, some use for this purpose various kinds of roots, 
leaves, creepers, &c., the gathering of which is performed 
with great ceremony. For instance, on the day before, 
they go and invite the tree, saying, " We intend to come 
" to-morrow morning or evening, or at such or such a time, 
" and take you away for such and such a purpose." These 
roots, leaves, creepers, &c. are only known to a few, who, 
when they go to fetch them, take with them such things as 
fruits, &c. fowls, and liquor, and depositing them near 
the tree, apply some of the blood of the fowl to the tree 
and bring away what they require, and give the things 
gathered to the talibs (agents), in order that they, for the 
purpose of establishing friendship and subjection, may ad- 
minister and apply them to their objects. It is by reading 
supplications, or by some such conti'ivances as these, which 
may be learnt from practitioners in the art and from sun- 
neeasees, that they effect their purpose. 



Concerning the causing of Enmity between two individuals, and tlie 
effecting the death of one's enemy. 

When a person is desirous of causing enmity between 
two people, the Soora-e-ulluni-turkyf is a well-tried chap- 
ter, which one bareheaded is to read at noon, or at any 
other period, forty-one times over some earth taken out of 
a grave, and throw it on them, or on their road, or house. 

Or, if taking forty corns of black pepper, he, for a week, 
morning and evening, read the above-mentioned chapter 
once on each pepper-corn in the name of the two indivi- 
duals, or if for forty days, each time using forty pepper- 
corns, he read the chapter once on each, and then burn 
them, enmity will be established between the persons. 

Or he is to repeat the undermentioned verse of the Qoran 
or the ism bareheaded, in the burying-ground or mosque, 
with his face turned towards the enemy's dwelling at noon, 
forty-one times, for forty-one days, and enmity will take 
place between them ; viz. 


o % ^ o 

" Wul-qy-sa, by-na-hoo-mool, adawutta, wul hugza-a 
ilia eeowmil, qya-mutayy i. e. " We have raised up enmity 
and hatred among them till the day of resurrection."" 
(Sale's Qoran, ch. v. p. 120, ed. 1825.) 
The ism is, Eea Quhar-o, Eea Jtibbar-o, Eea Izra-eel-o. 
" O Avenger ! O Great One ! O Izracel !" 

To cause the death of an enemy. 
If a person have an enemy on whom he has not the power 


to be revenged, though he is constantly distressed and ha- 
rassed by him, the following is what people, in the habit of 
doing these things, perform, either for themselves or for 
others, for a reward. However, it is not every one that 
succeeds in performing these ; and practitioners only under- 
take them for those actually in need of relief: and the 
Almighty again, on his part, will only hear the supplica^ 
tions of those who are really distressed. 

He is to read the tubut-maqoos,^ or the chayhul qaf (lit. 
forty Q.) morning and evening daily, for twenty-one days, 
at each period forty-one times. 

Or, with some earth taken out of a grave, or the earth of 
the Hindoo musan,-\ he is to make a doll about a span long, 
more or less ; and repeating the soora-e-ullum-turkyf, with 
the name of its accompanying demon, or the tuhut reversed, 
or the chayhul go/" over twenty-one small thin wooden pegs, 
and repeating it three times over each peg, he is to strike 
them into different parts of the body of the image ; such as 
one into the crown of the head, one into the forehead, two 
into the two eyes, two into the two upper arms, two into the 
two arm-pits, two into the two palms of the hands, two into 
the two nipples, two into the two sides of the body, one 
into the navel, two into the two thighs, two into the two 
knees, and two into the two soles of the feet. The image 
is then to be shrouded in the manner of a human corpse, 
conveyed to the cemetery, and buried in the nanie» of the 
enemy, who (it is believed) will positively die after it. 

What the tuhut-makoos and the chayhul qaf axe, may be 
ascertained by inquiring of adepts in the art 

* Or, the chapter tuhut read makoos (backwards) ; /. e. every word 
spelt backwards. 

+ The place where Hindoos burn their dead. 


A different method. 

A human figure is to be sketched on the ground, or on 
an unburnt brick, or an image formed with earth; and 
havinsT read over it the undermentioned incantation five 
hundred times daily, at noon, for a week, he is to give it a 
cut with a sword, or strike it with an arrow from a bow. 

Tlie following is a well-established spell or incantation : 

" Eea qahir-o^ zulbut ish shudeed-e-untoollu%eey la- 
" e-taq-o, inteqamuhoo,''^ 

i. e. O Punisher ! full of wrath, thou art terrible ; whose 
vengeance no one can endure. 


Concerning- the science of tukseei' (or numbers) ; comprising' the art 
of constructing- tawecz (amulets) ; and puleeta (charms) ; the uses 
to which they are applied ; and in the name of the sick to consult 
horoscopes and predict future events. 

Amulets are of various descriptions ; and the magic 
squares extend to a hundred houses in a line : but, I shall 
explain the subject by delineating them as far as a ten- 
house square. The science resembles arithmetic ; and in 
whichever way the numbers are added together, the sums 
total invariably correspond. 

These magic squares embrace the following varieties ; 
viz. 1. dopaee, 2. solasee, 3. rohaee, 4. moorubba, 5. khoma- 
see, 6. moosuddus, 7. moostibba, 8. moosummum, 9. moos- 
tussa, and 10. moashur, i. e. two-footed, ternary, quater- 
nary, &c. 

1. In filling up a Dopaee (or two-legged) magic square, 




nothing is to be subtracted ; but the number is to be divided 
by 12, and with the quotient the squares are to be filled up, 
increasing one in every square as you proceed ; in manner 
followinoj : 

3 8 I 


2 4 6 

7 5 

Should any thing remain, it is to be added to the number 
in the sixth or kussur kay ghur (fractional house). For 
example, the numerical quantity of the word hismilla, 786, 
divided by 12 gives Q5 ; and 6 over. With tliis fill up, 
adding (^5 in each house and 6 more in the 6th compartment ; 









2. The mode of forming a Solasee magic square, is this. 
From a given number subtract 12 ; and with one-third of 
the remainder, fill up the divisions of the square as follows : 














The above is the magic square of Huwa (Eve), whose 
number is 15. Deduct 12, there remain 3, a third of which 
being one, with this unit fill up the square, adding one in 
each division, until the whole be filled up ; and whatever 
way the numbers are added together, they will form the 
same amount. 

In thus subtracting and dividing, should 1 remain over 
and above, it is to be added (in addition to the other num- 
ber), in the 7th house, if 2, in the 4th square ; and then, 
the sums will correspond. 

In forming solasee magic-squares, the house with whicli 
to commence is likewise varied, according to their elements, 
whether it be earth, water, air, or fire ; thus — 








































3. To form a Rohaec magic-square, deduct 30 from the 
given number ; divide the remainder by 4 ; and with a 
quarter fill up 16 squares ; thus. 




















This magic-square is that of the word ujjul (death) ; its 
number 34. Deduct 30, remain 4 ; divide by 4, remains 1 ; 
with the latter fill up. 

Should 1 remain over, add 1 to the 13th square ; if 2, 
add 1 to the 9th ; if 3, 1 to the 5th. 

Besides this mode^ there is another, by which robaee 
squares are formed ; viz. subtract 21 from a given number, 
begin the remainder from the 13th house, and fill up to the 
16th square; having previously filled up from 1 to 12 as 
above directed, fill up the other four : e. g. Mureeurri's 
(Mary's) name is 290; deduct 21, remain 269 ; with it fill 
up thus : 

















4. Mooruhha magic-squares are also, like the solasee, of 
4 kinds ; depending upon their elements ; thus : 





































































5. Khomasee magic-squares are formed by subtracting 
60 from any given number, dividing the remainder by 5, 
and with one-fifth filling up 25 squares, by increasing one in 
each house ; thus : 






20 21 




















If, in making the division for forming this square, 
1 remain, one is to be added in the 21st square ; 

2 IGth do. 

3 11th do. 

4 6th do. 

6. To form a Moosuddus magic-square, deduct 105 from 
any given number, divide by 6, and with one-sixth fill it 
up ; thus. 



30 19 7 1 

13 26 






5 9 























In foi-ming the above square, should 

1 remain, add one in the 31st compartment. 

2 25th. do. 

3 19th. do. 

4 13th. do. 

5 7th. do. 

7. To make a Moosuhha magic square, you must de- 
duct 160, divide by 7, and with one seventh fill up, as 
follows : 




In forming the above, if from 1 to 6 remain, add one in 
the 43d house. 

8. To make a 3Ioosummun magic- square, subtract 252, 
divide by 8, and with the quotient fill up tlie square, thus: 


























47 57 







46 8 































2 A 




In forming this square, if from 1 to 7 remain, add one 
to the number in the 75th house. 

9. If a Moostussa magic-square be required to be made, 
subtract 360 from the given number, divide by 9 ; and 
with one-ninth fill up as follows : 



















40 18 











77 46 








57 45 








47 25 





















42 21 










If in this from 1 to 8 remain, add one in the 73d square. 

10. Moashur magic-squares are formed by subtracting 
495 from any given number, dividing the remainder by 10, 
and with one-tenth filling it up thus : 




28 60 1 42 


61 39 






33 4 26 


74 76 



24 21 


69 83 






12 18 



79 14 








71 96 85 








66 19 8 











52 47 






37 23 






88 78 


63 80 






77 97 


100 41 59 








In this, if from 1 to 9 remain, add one in the 91st house. 

Such magic-squares are vised for establishing friendship 
and creating enmity, to shut one's mouth in regard to 
another ; to prevent dreaming, to cast out devils, &c. &c. 

For cementing friendship they are written about the new 
moon,* and the days best adapted for the purpose are 
Fridays, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays ; and the 
hours most propitious on tliose days are those of Jupiter, 
Mercury, and Venus (vide p. 20). In this way exor- 
cists have likewise fixed the hours and days for causing 
enmity, &c., particulars of which may be learnt by study- 
ing the science of tukseer (p. 347). 

* That is, from the 1st to the 15th of the month. 

2 A 2 


These magic-squares are, for all purposes, written on a 
white porcelain plate, or on paper, the inscription is then 
washed off with water and the latter drank ; or they are 
worn about the person ; or they are burnt, and tlie indivi- 
dual is smoked with their fumes ; or they are kept suspended 
in tlie air; or having been made into charms by being enve- 
loped in cotton, they are dipped in odoriferous oils and burnt 
in a lamp ; or they are engraved on rings and worn on the 
fingers. Some persons write the taweez or ism on hhooj- 
putur,* or have it engraved on a thin plate of silver, gold, 
&c., roll it up or fold and form it into a taweez ox puleeta, 
cover it with wax, and sew some superior kind of cloth or 
brocade over it ; or they insert it into a square hollow case 
or tube of gold or silver, seal it hermetically, and wear it 
suspended to the neck, or tie it to their upper arms or loins, 
or stick it into their turbans, or tie it up in a corner of their 
handkerchiefs and carry it about their person. People 
very generally have empty taweezes made, and suspend 
them to the necks of their children, together with a nadulee\ 
in the centre, as well as some haghnuk (tigers'* nails) set in 
silver, &c. ; and when they obtain a taiveez from any re- 
nowned mushaekh or inoolla, or can procure a little of any 
sacred relic offered on shrines, such as flowei"s, sioidul, &c., 
they put these into them. 

Some by witchcraft familiarize themselves with, and bring 
under their command various species of creepers and roots 
of trees,J part of which they dig up, and putting them into 
tubes of iron or brass, &c., wear them on their upper arms; 

* The epidermis of the betula bhojpatra. — Wall. 

t A stone, having generally a verse of the Qoran engraved on it. 

\ Or rather they bring under subjection the devils or genii who are 
supposed to preside over these, so that by the use of them they obtain 
their wishes. 


or twist some white or two or three-coloured thread round 
them, and wear them in the form of a taweez. 

Some few kill a double-headed snake on an amows^ 
Sunday, or on any Sunday or amows-dsiy ; and having read 
some incantation over it, put it into an earthen pot and 
bury it under ground. After its flesh has undergone the 
process of putrefaction, they take the bones, thread them, 
and wear them around the neck as a cure for scrofula. 
Sometimes they also suspend them to the necks of their 

Independently of these taweexes., &c., they tie on the 
feathers, hairs, bones, &c. of various kinds of birds and 
quadrupeds, for the purpose of warding off apparitions, 
genii or devils, misfortunes, &c. 

At the time of forming these taweexes, the face of the 
talib (seeker) is to be directed towards the house of the 

In constructing taweexes or jntleetas with the sentences 
of the Qpran or other supplications, the numerical value of 
the letters (p. 308) are added together, and with the sum 
total the squares are filled up. 

Some people make magic-squares with the number of any 
one of the ninety-nine names of the Most High God. 

In the sacred Huddees the Prophet (the blessing ! &c.) 
has said, that if any one keep in mind tlie ninety-nine 
names of God the Most Glorious, and constantly repeat 
them, God will preserve him from the torments of hell and 
the anguish of the grave. 

The ninety-nine names or attributes of the Deity, with 
the numerical value of their letters, are as follow : 

* ylmow.s, the day on which the conjunction of the sun and moon 
takes place. 


1 Allah-o! G6. God, or worthy and fit to be 

worshipped. Use. For all pur- 

2. Ruhman-o! ... S98. The Bestower (the clement, the 

beneficent). Use. For the en- 
lightenino; of one's mind. 

3. Ruheem-o! 258. The Merciful, and the giver of 

daily food of v arious kinds. Use. 
for increase of rank. 

^. Malik-o! 91. The Lord, entitled to govern the 

whole universe. Use. For ob- 
taining wealth. 

5. Qooddoos-o! ... 170. The Holy, and pure from all 

blemish. Use. For fear. 

6. Sulam-ol 131. The Securer from all evils (Sa- 

viour). Use. For health. 

7. Momin-o! 136. The giver of security at the day 

of judgment. L^se. For security 
against enemies. 

8. Mohymin-o! ... 145. The acquainted with men's ac- 

tions, secret or revealed. Use. 
For one's protection and defence. 

9. Azee%-o! 94. The excellent and incomparable 

(august). Use. For increase 
of honour and dignity. 

10. Jubbar-o! 206. The Almighty supreme. Use. 

For being independent of princes. 

11. Mootukubbir-o ! QQ'^. The lofty doer. Use. For in- 

crease of wealth and dignity. 

12. Khalik-ol 731. The creator. Use. For obtain- 

ing an easy labour. 

13. Moosuwwir-o ! 336. The sculptor or fashioner. Use. 

For the cancelling of debts. 


14. Gujar-o ! 1,281. The pardoner of sins. Use. For 

pardon of sins. 

15. Quhar-o ! 306. The ruiner of the arrogant. Use, 

Use. For preservation from ty- 

16. Wuhah-o! 14. The discoverer. Use. For find- 

ing things lost. 

17. Ruzaq-o! 308. The giver of daily food to man- 

kind. Use. For increase of sub- 

18. Futtali'O! 4S9. The accomplisher of affairs. Use. 

For victory. 

19. Aleem-o! 150. The omniscient. Use. For ac- 

quiring science. 

20. Qahiz-o! 903. The punisher of tyrants, (the 

hard grasper). Use. For ruin- 
ing enemies. 

21. Basit-o! 72. The maker abundant of daily 

bread, of whose he will. Use. 
For the increase of one's daily 

22. Khqfix-o ! ... 1,481. The subduer of whom he wills- 

■ Use. To cause the distress of 
one's enemies. 

23. Rafmj-ol ...... 351. The exalter of whom he wills. 

Use. For the raising of one's 

24. Moiz-o! 117. The giver of greatness in the 

world to whom he wills. Use. 
For honour. 

25. Mozil-o! 770. The ruiner of whom he wills. 

Use. For the ruining of one's 


26. Sumeeu-o ! ... 180. The hearer without ears. Use. 

For ear-ache and deafness. 

27. Busseer-o! 302. The see-er without eyes. Use, 

For knowing the secrets of the 

28. Hukum-o ! 68. The commander. Use. For 


29. Adul-o! 104, The just. Use. For justice and 


30. Luteef-o! 129. The conferrer of favours upon 

mankind. Use. For obtaininff 
good fortune. 

31. Khuheer-o! ... 812. The communicator of informa- 

tion. Use. For ascertaining 

82. Huleem-o! 88. The lonff-suffering; towards sin- 

ners. Use. For the relief of 

pains and afflictions. 
33. Azeem-o ! ... 1,020. The great. Use. For greatness. 
34 Gvffooi'-ol ... 1,286. The pardoner of sins. Use. For 

the pardon of sins. 

35. Shookoor-o ! ... 526. The re warder of true worship- 

pers. Use. For the removal of 

36. Alee-o! 110. The Most High. Use. For 


37. Kubeer-o! 232. The lord of greatness. Use. 

For having one's wishes granted. 

38. Htifeez-ol 998 The guardian. Use. For fear. 

39. Moqeet-o ! 550. The giver of strength. Use. 

For establishing an affair firmly. 

40. Huseeh-o! 80. The taker of accounts of his 

servants on the day of resurrec- 


tion. Use. For liberty from 

41. Juleel-o! 73. The glorious. Use. For gene- 

rating fear in the mind of an 

42. Kureem-o! 270. The munificent. Use. For the 

accomplishment of one"'s affairs, 
spiritual as well as temporal. 

43. Ruqeeh-o ! 312. The guardian of mankind. Use. 

For liberation. 

44. Moojeeh-o I 55. The answerer of prayer. Use. 

For one's prayers being heard. 

45. Wasay-o! 137. The He whose gifts are various. 

Use. For the opening {i. e, the 
prosperity) of one's shop. 

40. Hukeem-o ! 78. The performer of, not by art 

alone. Use. For a knowledge 
of God. 

47. Wudood-o ! 20. The friend of the devout. Use. 

For affection. 

48. Mujeed-o! 57. The lord of glory. Use. For 

recovery from serious indisposi- 

49- Baees-o! 573. The raiser of the dead from their 

graves. Use. For the anguish 
of the grave. 

50. Shuheed-o ! ... 319. The knower of things, visible 

and invisible. Use. For the 
removal of disobedience in chil- 

51. Huq-o! ......... 108. He whose nature is unchange- 

able. Use. For the acquisition 
of art. 


52. Wukeel-o ! 66. The protector of human affairs. 

Use. For protection from light- 
ning and fire. 

53. Quwee-o t 116. The giver of strength. Use. 

For overcoming an enemy. 
54'. Muteen-o! 500. He whose strength is all power- 
ful. Use. For the increase of 
woman's milk and of water. 

55. Wiilee-o! ..,,,,,,» 46. The bestower of friendship. Use. 

For making one's master sub- 
servient to his will. 

56. Humeed-o ! 62. The praised. Use. For the re- 

moval of the habit of evil 

57. Mohsee-o! 148. The wise. Use. For curing for- 


58. Moobdee-o ! ... 56. The creator (^vithout materials) 

of mankind. Use. Employed 
by women for facilitating la- 

59. Moeed-o! 124. The raiser of mankind after 

death. Use. For the know- 
ledge of hidden things. 

60. Mohee-o ! 58. The burner of corpses. Use. 

To ward off devils and fairies. 

61. Moomeet-o ! ... 490. The destroyer of the living. 

Use. For the death of an enemy. 

62. Hyee-o! 18. The living one who never dies. 

Use. For the riddance of in- 
sects that infest fruit on trees. 

63. Qyceoom-o ! ... 156. He who exists from everlasting 

to everlasting. Use. For long 


64. Wajid-o ! 14. The finder out, whose rank is 

exalted. Use. For finding- 
things lost. 

65. Majid-o! 48. He, whose dignity is high and 

lofty. Use. For the attainment 
of wealth. 

6Q. Wahid-o! 19. The one, who has no equal in 

nature and attribute. Use. For 

67. Sumad-ol 134. The independent. Use. For 

preventing indigence. 

68. Qadir-o! 305. Tlie Lord of power. Use. For 

removing distress and distrac- 

69. Mooqtudir-o!.., 744. The all-powerful. Use. For ob- 

taining dignity and wealth. 

70. Moqiiddim-ol 184. The bringing forward good and 

bad. Use. For warding off dis- 

71. Mowukhlr-o!,.. 846. He who puts whomever he wills 

last. Use. For the fulfilment 
of one's desires. 

72. UwwuUo! 37. The first, or from eternity. 

Use. For conquering one's ene- 
my in battle. 

73. Akhir-o! 801. The last or to eternity. Use. 

For preservation from fear of 
every kind. 

74. Zahir-o ! 1,106. He whose existence is clear. Use. 

For preservation from blindness. 

75. Batin-o! 62. He whose secrets are hidden. 

Use. For becoming the friend 
of mankind. 


76. Walee-o! 47. The king from beginning to end. 

Use. For preservation from all 
domestic misfortunes. 

77. Moota-Alee-o! 551. The most sublime. Use. For 

obtaining the accomplishment of 
one''s wishes. 

78. Bur-o ! 202. The doer of good. Use. For re- 

moving evil. 

79. Tuwob-o! 409. The hearer of those who repent. 

Use. For the pardon of sins 
and admission into the pre- 
sence of the deity. 

80. Moontuqeem-o ! 630. The taker of revenge on sinners. 

Use. For the enlightenment of 
the grave. 

81. Afw-ic-o ! 156. The eraser of sins. Use. For the 

pardon of sins. 

82. Ruoof-o! 286. The merciful. Use. For causing 

the liberation of the oppressed 
from the hands of the oppressor. 

83. Malik-ool-'] J" The distributor (in the world), or 
Moolk-o !...}'" "^ t Providence, fse. For wealth. 

84. ZooI-jullaWy [ The lord of greatness and glory, 
wul-ikram-o.'j ' I Use. For the answering of 


85. Moqsit-o! 209- Thejust or equitable. Use.Yov 

keeping off evil imagination. 

86. Jamay-o! 114. The assembler of mankind on 

the day of judgment. Use. For 
uniting with those from whom 
one has separated, 

87. Gunnee-o! ... 1,060. The opulent. Use. for wealth. 

88. Mogunnee-o! 1,100. The maker of independence. 


Use. For becoming independent 
of mankind. 

89. Mooatee-o! ... 129- The giver to whom he wills. 

Use. For preservation from ig- 

90. Manay-o! 161. The protector from misfortunes. 

Use. For preservation from an 
enemy''s power. 

91. Zarr-o ! 1,001. The spoiler of whom he wills. 

Use. For warding off the devil. 

92. Nafay-o! 201. Thebestowerof gain. Use. For 

profits in agriculture and trade. 

93. Noor-o! 256. The giver of light. Use. For 

the illumination of one''s mind. 

94. Hadee-e! 20. The director or guide. Use. For 

the accumulation of possessions. 

95. Budee-o! 86. The creator of new things. Use. 

For the comprehension of things 

96. Baqee-o! 113. The Eternal Exister. Use. For 

the approval of one's actions. 

97. Wa7-is-o! 707. The He who will remain when 

creation is no more. Use. For 

98. Rusheed-o! ... 514. The all-wise director. Use. For 

one's important desires to be 

99. Suboor-o! 298. The most patient or long-suffer- 

ing towards sinners. Use. For 
the silencing of an enemy.* 

• The above ninety-nine names, as given by different authors, vary 
in some trifling degree. Our author has inserted them in this work 
according to that which he considered the most correct. 




Besides the preceding, there are other descriptions of 
amulets, charms, &c., used for various purposes, a few of 
which I shall offer as examples ; for instance. 

If a person void urine involuntarily in his sleep, the fol- 
lowing amulet is to be written and suspended to his neck. 

^- V 1 1 1 

Mur-Moosullah 111. 

5. Moosullah 5111. 

11. S. 30. 

'^ ^ c c c 

D. h. H. H. H. 

d. n. A. a. 111. 

Yem-mur. 115. 

By keeping the following talisman near one, demons, 
fairies, and enchanters will not attack them. 


1490 1493 














If one be afflicted with naf-tulna (lit. shifting of the 
navel),* a few of the following talismans are to be written, 
the writing washed off with water, and the latter drank ; 

• Or the umbilical vein ; (perhaps the aorta or cceliac artery, as it 
is said to pulsate :) which is supposed by the Indian physicians to be 
occasionally shifting- from its place, and thus to occasion various 
morbid symptoms. 




and one of them is to be tied on with thread over the 


his purposes 


is Lord 

Wo Allah-o 
for God 

the generality 

Wulakin ] Amreehee 
but j his purposes 


is Lord 

of men 

the generality 


his purposes 



do not 

of men 

the generality 


his pwposes 



do not 

of men 

the generality 


The following is a cure for the itch. Two or three such 
are to be written ; and every now and then, one is to be 
washed in water, and the fluid drank. 

* The charm is to be read from right to left, horizontally, and then 
downwards, or vice versd ; when it will run thus : " for God is Lord 
" over his purposes ; but the generality of men do not understand." — 
{^Sale's Qoran 1825, chap. xii. page 60.) 









w. r. 2 

3 J 

W. V. 

vv. d. a. 

A a 








5 a. 




The following ism is to be repeated over water ; and tlicn 
having blown your breath upon it, the patient is to drink it 
off, and the piles will be cured. 

" Departest thou ? Depart ! depart ! Running water, 
" dry up ! Such is the speech of Juhaneea S'ahib, the 
" Lord of mortals, who has travelled all round the world. 
" Quickly, begone !" 

This robaee magic-square, if written and tied on to the 
neck, will render an attack of the small pox mild ; viz. 




















The under-written do/)«ee-magic-square, formed out of 
the number of the sacred volume, (i.e. the Qflrmi), answers 
for all purposes. 









When a house is haunted by genii and devils, the follow- 
ing amulet is to be written and put up over the door, and 
they will vanish. 

^r^/ O Mohuramud ! ^7^ 




Fa Innuka | Fa Innuka ' Wo Futtah |Unmizur-o-fee 
vefily ! verily victorg I he regards 

^I^i°rfJ^^' '^"••eeb LeeUslah Fa innuka 

I I 

The best of ; elect the best for us , verilt/ 

Helpers \ j 


J 'laavuzi 

Wul BushurK) Asbureen 
towards r,ien.*f"'l^^f^ P"- 

of helpers 


The best 

i laajvHsj 




The following diagram is to be written and put up against 
a wall facing the individual beset with the devil, in order 
that the patient's sight may daily fall upon it. By so 
doing the devil will be removed. 



s S 



« C u 

^ Co 



e o 


^ ^ o 
o c c 

« i s 

e " 3 



the C 


~ c 

i "^ 




« C 1^ 

5 E g 
e o u 

1 S3 


-3 o 



~ C 










S rs 




~^ c 






g c« 


i ^ 

J E -" 
g ® c 


•2 "^ 


S i 
-S .2 

c -2 




is . 

1 SIS 





4 = 

S o 



a o 

1 s .. 

g o c 
^O .2 


2 c 



i~ o " 


S c 




►s s -s 


•HfiKOO -10 73av)iaaiv[ 


To consult horoscopes in the name of the sick. 

The manner is as follows. Having learnt the name of 
the patient and that of his mother, the numerical value of 
them are to be ascertained by means of the abjud kay hissah 
(vide Glossary) ; the numbers added together and divided 
by 12. Should 1 remain, the patient's destiny is consi- 
dered to be in the sign of the zodiac Hiimmul, or the Ram ; 
if 2, Sowr, or the Bull ; if 3, Jow:za, or the Twins ; if 4, 
Surtan, or the Crab ; if 5, Ussud, or the Lion ; if 6, Soom- 
hoolla, or the Virgin ; if 7, Meexan, or the Scales ; if 8, 
Aqruh, or the Scorpion ; if 9, Qpivs, or the Archer ; if 10, 
Juddee, or the He-goat ; if 11, Dullo, or the Watering-pot; 
and if 12, Hoot, or the Fishes. 

When his sign of the zodiac has been thus ascertained by 
reference to the table at p. 85, we ascertain what his planet 
is ; and by further consulting the dispositions of planets at 
p. 20, we are informed of what his qualities are. But our 
present object is solely to state the years in which he or she 
(man or woman) stands in danger of forfeiting their lives ; 
which fatal period if they can survive, they will attain the 
full period of life, vi%. one hundred and twenty years. Tlie 
same has been exhibited collectively in the annexed table, 
where the particular years in question, of males and females 
are set down under their respective signs of the zodiac. 
The cure is to be effected {i.e. death warded off) by having 
recourse to amulets, charms, &c. 

2 B 2 







<^ g 8 § 

Dullo or 





!> lO 


Aqrub Qows 

or or 

Scorpion. Archer. 



<* (M CO 

SoombooUa ' Meezan 
or 1 or 
Virgin. Scales. 




2 8 S 



=^ 2 8 § S 


Jowza Surtan 

or i or 
Twins, j Crab. 


•^ 2 i 



QQ 'J' O lO 



2 g 

"^ 9. 




^ 2 S 

- ^ 8 S 

Signs op 






In the name of the sicJc, to predict future events. 

When a person requires the future destiny of a sick per- 
son to be foretold, it is necessary to ascertain, first, the time 
when the individual was taken ill. Having ascertained the 
day, by consulting the statement given below for every day 
in the week, his lot is to be foretold. Should the day have 
been forgotten, the number of the name of the patient and 
that of his mother are to be added together and divided by 
7. Should 1 remain, he must have been taken ill on a 
Saturday ; should 2 remain, on a Sunday ; should 3 remain, 
on a Monday ; should 4 remain, on a Tuesday ; should 5 
remain, on a Wednesday ; should 6 remain, on a Thursday ; 
and should 7 (i. e. 0) remain, on a Friday. 

Having thus determined the day, the event is to be prog- 
nosticated as follows : 

Saturday is Saturn's day. If one be taken ill on that day, 
the cause may be attributed to grief, or heat of blood, or to 
a malignant eye. The symptoms are, headache, palpitation 
of the heart, urgent thirst, restlessness, want of sleep, bleed- 
ing from the no«e or bowels. Prognosis. His disease will 
be of seven days' duration, but will remain at its height one 
day and three hours, and he will ultimately recover. Cure. 
For such a patient they must give sudqa ;* and have re- 
course to such remedies as amulets, charms, &c. 

• Sudf/n, alms or propitiary offerings. That is, rupees, pice, any 
animal, clothes, grain, eatables, &c. are waved over the patient, or 
only shewn to him, or solely in his name given away in alms to 
fuqeers: or they are merely placed near the foot of a tree, or near 
some water-edge, or on the spot where four roads meet, &c. Moollas 
and seennas, however, establish sudqas of various kinds. The follow- 
ing is a specimen of one of them. They form an image of m^sJi- 
flower, about a span and a half or two spans long, in the shape of a 
man, or ih^t oi hunnomdn (the Hindoo-monkey-god). They place a 
stick about a span long, having rags wound round its two ends, into 



Sunday is the sun's day, on which if any one be taken ill, 
the case is as follows : — Cause. The disease is occasioned 
by the malignant eye of a green-complex ioned woman, in 
whose presence he has partaken of some rich and savoury 
dish. Symptoms. First, the patient complains of lassitude, 
succeeded by universal rigours, followed by heat, headache, 
soreness in all the bones of the body, eyes suffused with 
blood, countenance yellow, no rest or ease all night. Prog- 
nosis. The disease will be of fourteen days' duration, when 
it will cease. Treatment. The usual remedies for such 
symptoms are to be employed. 

Monday is the moon's day, on which, if one be taken ill, 
the cause is, catching cold after bathing or over exertion. 
Symptoms. Pain in the loins and calves of the legs, palpi- 
tation in the liver, retching, giddiness, great drowsiness. 
Prognosis. The disease will continue forty days, after which 
the patient will be restored to health. Treatment. The 
exhibition of the usual remedies. 

the doll's mouth, and light the two ends, as well as the lamps formed 
of paste on the head and hands of the image ; and on its forehead 
they form namuni (the mark which Hindoos make on their foreheads). 
Nay, they even pierce its body all over with nails, and thus set it up in 
a large koonday (or iheekray, a broken piece of an earthen pot). In 
front of it they place balls formed of boiled rice, coloured black, 
yellow, and red, egg-s also of those colours, and a kideeja, which they 
pierce or not, with the thorns of the kara-tree {ivebera tetrandra, 
Willd. ; the thorny caray), sheep's blood, two or three undressed 
fishes, and scatter tiowers, hhajee (greens), &c. all round it. They then 
light a jotee (or large lamp made of flour paste), having four M'icks, 
formed of clothes which had been worn by the patient, in four or five 
kinds of oil, and place \kie jotee on the blood. When all the lamps are 
thus lighted, the doll presents so hideous a figure, as to resemble the 
devil himself. Having waved the thechray over the patient, they de- 
posit it in some place or other, as above stated ; after which, they 
wash the patient's face and hands, and tie on to his neck such taweez 
or yunda, as may be required. 


Tuesday is Mars' day, on which if one be taken ill, the 
cause is, the patient is attacked by demons and fairies. 
Symptoms. Pain in the chest, abdomen, and especially 
around the navel ; shiverings, want of sleep and appetite, 
great thirst, incoherence of speech, eyes bloody. Prognosis. 
The disease will continue seven days, after which the pa- 
tient will recover. Treatment. The administration of the 
usual remedies. 

Wednesday is Mercury's day, on which if one be taken 
ill, the cause is, the having made a vow for the dead and 
not fulfilled it ; or, being over sorrowful for any thing lost, 
or labouring under dread of an enemy. Symptoms. Pain 
in the head, neck, wrists, or feet. Prognosis. The disease 
will last nine days; but at its acme, a day and a watch (15 
hours) : ultimately the patient will recover. Treatment. 
The usual one. 

Thursday is Jupiter's day, on which if one be taken ill, 
the cause is being beset with the shadow of a fairy. Symp- 
toms. Pain about the neck and umbilicus, startings in 
sleep, disrelish for food and drink, laying quiet with eyes 
shut. Prognosis. The disease will continue ten days, after 
which the patient will experience a recovery. Treatment. 
The usual remedies are to be had recourse to. 

Friday is Venus' day, on which if one be taken ill, the 
cause is, some corporeal affection. Symptoms. Great drow- 
siness and lassitude. Prognosis. The malady will continue 
twelve days, and the height of the exacerbation two days, 
after which the patient will recover. Treatment. As usual. 



Concerning 1st the ascertaining of unknown things by the viewing of 
Unjun, or lamp-black, alias the Magic Mirror. 2d. Viewing of 
Hazirat, or the flame of a charm-wick. 3d. The giving of the Pur- 
ree hay Tiibuq, or Fairy-Tray ; and the performing of Nahoivn, or 
the Fairy-Bath. 

Sect. 1. Viewing of Unjun {lamp-black), or the Magic 

For the purpose of ascertaining where stolen goods are 
concealed, or the condition of the sici< who are possessed by 
the devil, or where treasure has been buried, they apply 
unjun to the palms of the hand of a child or an adult, and 
desire him to stare well at it. 

I have generally heard it said, that Jogees and Sun- 
neeasees are accustomed to practise these arts, and that 
they have often in this manner made themselves masters of 
treasure hid in the earth. 

Some of the ignorant and foolish among the vulgar say, 
that treasure concealed, lies scattered about at niaht like 
sparks of fire, and sometimes rolls about like a ball of fire 
at the place where it is deposited ; and that it is either by 
this circumstance, or by the application of unjuns, that its 
situation is ascertained. 

The person to the palm of wliose hand the uttjun is 
applied occasionally mutters a great deal of ridiculous 
nonsense. For example, that " at such and such a place 
there is a lota, degcha, or kiirrahee, full of rupees, pago- 
das, or gold mohurs buried." Or if it be to learn something 
regarding the condition of the sick, that " the malady is a 
corporeal one, or that it is produced by conjuration, or that 
the demon of such and such a place wishes for certain 

Sect. 1. OR THE MAGIC MIRROR. 377 

eatables." Thus he continues talking and describing all the 
particulars relative to these things. 

Unjuns are of five kinds, vix. — 1st. Urth imjun, used 
for discovering stolen property. — 2d. Bhoot mijun, for 
ascertaining what regards devils, evil spirits, and the con- 
dition of tlie sick. — 3d. Dhnnna mijiin, for finding out 
where treasure is concealed. — 4th. Surwa imjun, appli- 
cable to all purposes. — 5th. Alope unjun, which, if applied 
to the eyes or forehead of a person, renders him, wherever 
he be, invisible to others while they may remain visible to 

I myself place no faith in such unjims and haxirats. 
Although born in this very country (Hindoostan), bred 
and educated among this (the Moosulman) race of people, 
through the blessing of God and the friendship of the 
great, by the studying of good books and the hearing of 
good counsel, the credibility of the existence of any such 
thing has been entirely effaced from my breast. Let no 
one imagine I assert this to flatter Europeans (may their 
good fortune ever continue !) God preserve me from any 
false assertion. 

1st and 2d. Urth and Rlioot unjun. — For both these 
they take agara kee jur'^ and sttffeid goomchee kee jur,-f 
or merely si(ffeidhis-k''hopray keejur^X triturate it well with 
water, rub it on the inside of a piece of a new earthen pot, 
and place it inverted over a lamp lighted with castor-oil 
and collect the lamp-black. The latter is then mixed with 
oil and applied to the hand of a footling child, who parti- 
cularly details every thing regarding it : such as concern- 

* Root of the achyranthes aspera, Lin. The i-ough achyranthes. 
t Root of the white abrus precatorius, Lin Jamaica wikl-li- 

X Root of the trianthema decandra, Willd., the trailing- trianthema. 


ing property stolen, the condition of the sick, whether the 
patient has only a corporeal affection or is beset with the 
devil, &c. 

3d. Uhun unjun. — They take a piece of white cloth, 
and soak it in the blood of any of the following animals, 
viz., a cat, kolsa (king-Grow) j^/iOogrAoo (owl), or a chogod (a 
particular large species of owl), and having rolled up their 
eyes, liver, and gall-bladder in it, use it as a wick in a 
castor-oil lamp. The lamp-black procured from it being 
mixed with castor-oil and applied to the hand, the trea- 
sure, &c. will become visible. 

4th. Surwa unjun. — A handful of hullayr kay dana,* 
is burnt in a new earthen lota, so as to prevent its smoke 
escaping, is reduced to charcoal, pounded, and well lavi- 
gated with castor-oil. This is applied to the palm of the 
hand of any one, and he is desired to stare well at it. 
After two or three glmrrees he will say something to this 
effect : " First, I observed the Fufash-f coming ; he swept 
" the ground and departed. Then came the water-carrier, 
*' sprinkled water on the floor and went away. The Furash 
" re-appeared and spread the carpet. Next came a whole 
" army of genii, demons, fairies, &c. ; to whom succeeded 
"- their commander, who was seated on a throne." Thus 
he relates the different circumstances as they present them- 
selves to his view. Then, whatever the affair may be for 
which they have caused the officer's presence, it is stated to 
him, and he never fails to grant what is required of him. 

Surwa unjun is one which any person by applying to 
the hand may behold ; whereas the other kinds of unjun 
require to be viewed by a child, whether boy or girl, born 

* Seed of the dolichos lablal>. V'ar. 

t Furasti. A man whose business it is to sweep the ground and 
spread carpets. 

Sect. 2. VIEWING HAZIRAT. 379 

foot-foremost (or a footling case), with cats"'-(i. e. grey) 
eyes, and a first-born ; one that has not been bitten by a 
dog, or that has no large scar of a burn on him. To such 
a one the unjun and hazirat will certainly appear ; to 
others, most probably not. 

5th. Alope unjun, — For its use, mde p. 377. 

Sect. 2. The viewing of Haxirat^ or Charm-wick. 

There are certain well-known and established imleetas 
which are solely used for this purpose. When they wish to 
light one of the hazirat-puleetas^ they take, at the place 
appointed for the hazirat, a new earthen pot and an earthen 
cover, wash them well with water, apply a few patches of 
sundiil on the pot, tie some wreaths of flowers around its 
neck, and deposit near it all sorts of fruits and sweetmeats, 
and biu'n benjamin-pastiles. Then placing the cover on 
the pot, they put some odoriferous or sweet-oil into the lid, 
and having lighted the puleeta which constitutes the wick, 
read some established spell over it in Arabic. The boy or 
girl having been bathed, decked out in clean clothes, and 
adorned with flowers, is desired to stare at the flame, and to 
relate what he observes in it ; and, as detailed under the 
head of unjun, he will describe every thing respecting 
property stolen, diseases, &c. 

Some people write the following taweez : 



Chap. XXXIII. 

Alls eeing ! 












and paste it on the back of a looking-glass, and desire the 
child to look into the glass. 

Some write the following magic square 










on a porcelain or copper plate, fill it with water, and desire 
the child to look into it. 

Some people, while performing any of the preceding three 
things, write the undermentioned on the child's forehead, 
viz. Fu-kiishufna iinka gitta-aka, fu-husurokul ee-ow-rna 
juddeed uhzur-ool-ginnay jaffnr bin tyar ; i. e. " We 
" have removed the veil from off thee, and thy sight is 
" become new this day. Con;c, Genius, Jaffier son of 
" Tyar." 

Sect. 3. 



Other Haxirat-msigic squares are as follows, which are 
to be written, together with the intention for which they 
are used, on the puleeta. 

































The following is a specimen of an Arabic incantation : 
Bismilla hir-ruhman nir-ruheem. — Ushteetun, Shuteetun^ 
Kiihooshin, Shaleesha, Sheesin, Qoorbutashhi, Miirmoonin, 
Mymoonin. * 

Sect. 3. The giving of the Purree kay Tuhuq (or Fairy 
Trays), and the performing ofNahown\ (or Fairy Bath). 

It is had recourse to by both men and women under the 
following circumstances : vi%. When a person is subject to 
constant sickness, or has the misfortune not to succeed in 
obtaining a wife; or, if married, have no progeny for three 
or four years ; or if a girl at the age of thirteen or fourteen, 
not having been unwell, become pregnant, or being pos- 
sessed with fairies, devils, enchantments, &c. be, in a few 

* After the commencement, which is, " In the name of God, the 
" merciful and compassionate," it comprises merely the names of genii. 

f Nahown, (lit. bathing) signifies in its more extended sense, and 
as usually made use of to express, the bathing a person with water, ac- 
companied by the reading of something, and the observance of certain 
forms and ceremonies. 


days or months, seized with uterine hemorrhage followed 
by abortion , or if a child be born, and die either imme- 
diately or in a few days after birth, or remain puny and weak ; 
or if man and wife do not agree ; or a man cannot obtain 
employment ; or, if in service, it prove unprofitable to him. 
When such misfortune befals any one (male or female), 
it becomes necessary for him or her to have the ceremony 
of Nahown performed, or to give the fairy tubuq, with a 
view of causing such circumstances to take a favourable 

The viewing of Unjun and Hazirat are used to ascer- 
tain things unknown ; whereas Nahown is employed for re- 
moving known evils, such as devils, &c. 

Nahown is practised by Seeanas, (conjurors), alias 
Moollas* and Purree-walees (fairy- women). 

The method of performing it by the former is as follows : 

They take water from seven or nine different places, such 
as wells, rivers, seas, &c. put it into a new earthen pot, to- 
gether with a few of the leaves of seven or nine of the follow- 
ing different trees and plants, viz. of the pomegranate, 
guava,-f- lime, orange, moogra,\ chtimhai/lee,§ subza,\\ 
mai/nhdee,^ downa,** murwa,\-\ goolcheenee,X\ gaynd,^§ 
read once over it, if intended for the removal of the devil, 

• Lit. a learned man, a doctor. 

t Psidium pyriferum, Lin. 

{ Jasminum undulatum, Lin. ; the wavy-leafed jessamine. 

§ Vitex trifolia, vel vitex negundo, Lin. ; the three leafed or five 
leafed chaste tree. 

II Ocimum basilicum, Lin.; the basilic basil. 

^ Lawsonia spinosa, Lin. ; the prickly lawsonia, Ivenie, Eastern 
privet, or Henna. 

•• Artemisia austriaca, Lin. ; Southernwood, Old man, or Lad's love. 

tt Origanum marjorana, Lin.; sweet marjoram. 

It Chrysanthemum indicum, Lin. ; Christmas flower. 

§§ Tagetes erecta, Lin. ; Indian or African marigold. 

Sect. 3. THE FAIRY BATH. 383 

enchantment, &c. the Soora-e-Eeaseen (chap, xxxvi.), or the 
Mbzummil (chap. Ixxiii.) ; and if for hukht Wholna (chang- 
ing one''s bad luck), the Soora-e-Itinafut-hima (chap, 
xlviii.) blow upon the water, and set it aside. They then 
place in front of the patient a human figure (vide note, p. 
373), or that of Hunnoman,* in length between a span and 
a cubit, made of maash kay ata ,-f- tie to its neck one end of 
a cord formed of three kinds of coloured thread, and the 
other to the patient's waist or neck, before whom they de- 
posit the kuleeja of a sheep, cocoa-nuts, two or three kinds 
of flowers, some k''heeleean, bungreean, a piece of yellow 
cloth, a sheep, or a fowl ; and taking nine limes, they repeat 
the aet-ool-koorsee over each, and divide them into two, 
placed on the head, shoulders, loins, back, knees, and feet 
of the patient, respectively ; then bathe him with the above- 
mentioned pot of water. In bathing, they necessarily dig 
the place a little, to allow of the water being absorbed into 
the earth ; for should any other person happen to put his 
foot on the water, the same misfortune would befal him as 
did the patient : for this reason, they usually perform the 
ceremony near the water-edge or in a garden. 

Nahown is performed on the three first Saturdays, Sun- 
days, Mondays, Tuesdays, or Thursdays in the month. On 
the last of which they pour three new ^o^a-fuls of water on 
the patient; one on his head, the second on his right shoulder, 
the third on his left, and dash the lota to pieces on the 
ground in front of him. 

Immediately after the bath, they tie to the neck, upper 
arm, or waist of the patient, the particular magic-square for 

* One of the Hindoo deities, having the form of a man but the head 
of a monkey. 

t Flour of maash, Phaseolus max, Lin. or black-gram. 


casting out the devil, or removing the misfortune which 
besets him. 

The purree (fairy) nahoimi is well known among women, 
and is performed by purree-walee (fairy-women),* who are 
few in number. 

The akliara (fairy assembly )-f- of each of them usually 
meets on Thursdays or Fridays; either during the day, or 
at night. It takes place as follows : 

They suspend a chandnee (canopy) to the ceiling of the 
apartment, and spread a beautiful fursh (carpet) on the 
floor. The purree-walee-woman puts on a clean suit of 
some superb dress, red or white, applies siindul to her neck, 
and maynhdee to her hands, (which latter is washed off after 
her hands have become red), adorns herself with flowers, and 
applies uttur to her clothes, hajul or soorma to her eyes, 
and meesee to her lips and teeth. The necessitous, and 
those women possessed of demons, &c., and spectators (fe- 
males), having bathed and dressed themseJves in good 
clothes, assemble at her house ; while domneeans plaving 
sing fairy-songs. Then the fairy woman causes the asayh- 
walee (or possessed) woman to be seated in front of her on 
either kind of tubuq. 

Purree hay tubuq (or fairy-trays), I may observe, are 
of two kinds : the one called phool ka tubuq (or the flower- 
tray), consisting of a square white cloth spread on the 
ground, on which are arranged in a circle, flowers, sundul, 
ood, abeer, pan-sooparee, and fruits of all kinds ; in the 
centre of which the fairy woman sits : the other, may way ka 
tubuq (or the fruit-tray), hereafter to be described, p. 387. 

* i. e. Women who have fairies under their control, 
t They believe that, on this occasion, all the hosts of fairies are 
present, though invisible. 


After she has sat there awhile the fairies descend upon 
her. She then becomes distracted, and on hearing the 
sound and harmony of music, becoming intoxicated with 
delight, she dishevels her hair, and sitting on her knees or 
cross-legged,* moves and whirls her head round and round; 
and taking hold of her own long locks, brushes the patient 
with it two or three times. The latter then becomes affected 
with the contagion, and revolves her head in a similar manner. 
At this juncture, either she or the fairy-womanf appoints 
the number of nahowns or tuhuqs that the patient requires, 
the places where, the day of the month when, and whether 
in the day or evening, morning or midnight, they are to 
take place; and accordingly the same takes place at the 
hour so fixed. After which they either sit mute, or lay 
themselves down for a short time and then get up again. 
This they continue to do, singing and playing for two or 
three watches of, or all the night. The moment a fairy 
besets the fairy-woman, she commences whirling her head 
round ; and when it leaves her, she rests herself a little by 
laying down. 

There are altogether fourteen purreean kay aUharay 
(fairy assemblies) ; and the fairy-woman acts according to 
the particular kind of fairy that has possessed her. For 
instance, if the shadow of a fairy belonging to Rajah Indra's 
Ak'hara falls upon her, she ties g'hoongroos to her ankles 
and begins dancing ; if that of Gend Badshah, or Seekundur 
Badshah or others, she puts on a suit of men's clothes, such 
as a puggree^ a jama, or an ungurliha, a doputta, &c. 
which were previously deposited on the tuhuq, and taking a 

* Literally, sitting on two or four knees ; as do-zanoo, is kneeling 
on two knees and sitting upon the feet behind ; char-zanoo, or sitting 
on four knees, signifies, sitting cross-legged. 

t Or rather, as they conceive, the fairies inhabiting her body. 

2 c 


kutar (dagger) in her liand, she, as if stroking and twisting 
her whiskers, pretends to be angry, and with a loud voice 
addresses the woman after the manner following : " I say, 
" thou fool of a woman, thou coquette, hast thou forgotten 
" me and created another T'' To which the other replies, in 
a humiliating tone : " J/eean," (or, my friend) " I am your 
" self-same devoted old slave ; and have repeatedly made 
" known my situation to your wife, probably she has forgot- 
" ten to mention it to you."" She then says: "No one has 
" informed me of it ; but, since such is the case as you state, 
" I forgive you." 'J'hen laughing heartily, she pelts the 
woman with some kind of flower, fruit, or her oogal, which 
the latter with great faith takes up, and either eats or retains 
by her. Thus they continue whirling round their heads 
and burning incense ; and during the ceremony, those who 
desire any thing, state their wishes : such as, inquire whe- 
ther their friends at such or such a place are in good health 
or not, and when they intend returning ; or, whether they 
are unwell ; and if so, whether their disease is that of the 
shadow of a demon having fallen upon them, or is a corpo- 
real affection. According to the advice of the fairy- woman, 
the inquirers employ the remedies prescribed, with a firm 
belief in their efficacy. Some of the females who venerate 
these fairy-women, at the time of their whirling their heads 
wave a moorclihul or a handkerchief over them, or cool 
them by fanning. Sometimes the fairy-women being gra- 
tified, give a little of the refuse, &c. to their believers to 
eat ; who, on partaking of it, likewise perchance become 
intoxicated, and commence swinging their heads for a while 
and lay themselves down ; after a few minutes, they awake 
and sit up. The object of the fairy-women in moving their 
heads about, is merely to exhibit before other females, 
their powers of working miracles, in order to strengtlien 


their faith in them. They never perform it in presence 
of men. 

Sensible and respectable women not only do not sanction 
such ceremonies being performed, but consider it im- 
proper even to witness them. 

Sometimes, women who desire something, or those pos- 
sessed of devils, instead of going to the fairy-woman's 
akliara, send for her to their own houses, and give her the 
flower-tray {vide p. 384), when she sits on it and whirls 
herself, as well as causes the woman beset with the demon 
to whirl, as before described, and replies to the questions 
put to her by those who desire to know any thing, and 
make arrangements regarding the mayway kay tuhuqs or 

The mayway ka tubuq (fruit-tray) is as follows. They 
place on afursh all kinds of fruits fresh and dried, sixteen 
dishes of meetha polaoo, sixteen small earthen jugs oi goor- 
shiirbut, seventeen earthen plates ofklieer, seventeen earthen 
pots of milk, shii7'but, pooi'eeaw, two large platters of til 
and rice soaked in syrup made oi goor (or coarse sugar), into 
which they put kViopra, almonds and dates sliced, and 
poppy-seed, flowers, sundul, pan-sooparee ; a mushroo, or 
soosee eexao', or a luhtiga, and a red damnee, a cholee, a 
nuqday ka jora^ or green hungreeans, and a pair of shoes, 
together with some rupees, and sit up all night singing and 
playing, the fairy-woman moving her head as before de- 
tailed, p. 386. 

Early on the morning following, the fairy-woman, after 
repeating the names of all the fairies,* performs sijdah 

• By way of specimens of the names of fairies, and to exhibit the 
foolishness of these women, this teacher of A. B. C. will here insert 
the names of a few of them ; e.g. red fairy, green fairy, yellow fairy, 
earthy fairy, fiery fairy, tiger fairy, hoor (a virgin of Paradise) fairy, 
emerald fairy, diamond fairy, and so forth. 

2c 2 


(prostration), and takes a few of the above fruits, and a 
little of all the other articles, with all the green bungreeans, 
puts them on a large platter, covers them over with a koos- 
soom (red or saffron-coloured) handkerchief, and takes them 
to the bank of some river or tank, &c. ; and there deposits 
them as the share of the fairies. After which she distri- 
butes, by way of a sacred relic, a little of every thing to all 
present, and walks off home with the remainder, together 
with the suit of clothes. 

The fairy- woman's nahown is as follows. They take 
seven new earthen pots, fill them with the water of seven or 
nine wells, put into them a few of the leaves of seven or 
nine species of trees, and having spread a red (koossoom) 
coloured handkerchief over each, set them aside. They 
then seat the woman beset with the fairy on a stool, and 
while four women hold a A;oos50om-coloured handkerchief by 
way of a canopy over the patient's head, the fairy-woman 
with her own hands pours the water contained in the pots 
through the canopy on her ; she also divides the limes as 
before described, p. 383. 

That done, she takes her to the brink of some tank, 
river, &c., and there bathes her. During the performance 
of this ceremony some one of the fairies descends on the 
fairy-woman, who, becoming in consequence beset by her, 
commences swinging in a standing position ; and, while 
women, in rapid succession fill smaller earthen pots with 
water out of the larger ones and hand to her, she pouring 
it on the affected individual, calls out to herself, " Catch 
" hold of the polluted shadow that is upon her, bind it, 
" and banish it to Mount Qaf *, and imprison it there and 
** burn it to ashes." At such a critical juncture, should 

• Mount Qaf. A fabulous mountain. Vide Glossary. 

Skct. 3. THE FAIRY BATH. 389 

the women be tardy in handing her the water, she stares 
them in the face, and in a peremptory tone remarks, " O 
" ye unfortunates,* (or wretches), what evils have come 
" upon you ? I shall entirely annihilate you. Give water 
" quickly. I shall beat immediately with shoes the pol- 
" luted wretch that is upon her, and exterminate it " At 
such language these women become dreadfully terrified, 
and hand to her the water as fast as they can; when she, 
having poured water sufficiently, according to her wishes, 
repeats the names of some of the demons, fairies, &c., blows 
upon her, and putting a dry suit of clothes on her, waves a 
black cock or hen, &c. over her, and gives it away as a 
sacrifice for her welfare. The fairy-woman then takes 
three different coloured silk or cotton thread, either plain 
or twisted, and forms gunda, that is, she forms twenty- 
one or twenty-two knots on it. The Moollas or Seeanas in 
makins: each knot, read some incantation or other over it, 
and blow upon it ; and when finished, it is fastened to the 
neck or upper arm of the patient ; but these fairy-women 
are an illiterate class of people ; many of them do not so 
much as know the name of God. Having merely made the 
knots on the thread, they tie them on, and depart with the 
money, &c. 

During the performance of the various ceremonies above- 
mentioned, the fairy-woman holds a cane in her hand ; either 
one that is ornamented by having slips of silver-leaf, &c. 
wound round it, or plain. On the tubuq-day she places it 
before her, and every now and then fumigates it with the 
smoke of benjamin, occasionally observing to the bystanders 
that the cane appertains to the fairies. 

Of late years, young men have also commenced this prac- 

A term used reproachfully. 


tice, pretending that fairies beset them likewise, and whir- 
ling their heads as above-mentioned, contrive to make 
money. Nay, I have heard, that they even, by various 
stratagems under this assumed practice, defile other men's 
wives. They are a disreputable set. 


Concerning the art of detecting thieves. 

There are a few excellent contrivances for this purpose, 
by having recourse to which thieves are induced through 
fear to deliver up stolen property. 

When a person"'s property is stolen he sends for a thief- 
catcher ; and should he suspect any particular individual, 
he assembles together a few of his neighbours along with 
that person. Then the thief-catcher having besmeared the 
floor of an apartment with yellow or red ochre or cow-dung, 
and sketched thereon a hideous figure of prodigious size, 
selecting any one from among those employed in the cast- 
ing out of devils (p. 329), giving it four frightful faces 
(p. 330, pi. no. 3), he places a handmill in the centre of it, 
having previously rubbed some assafcEtida about the centre 
betwixt the two stones. The upper stone of the mill is placed 
obliquely, resting on the pin in the centre of the lower one, 
or some cloth or flax is wound round the pin, about the 
distance of a finger or two from the top, and on this the 
upper stone rests, so that it appears as if suspended in the 
air and not resting on any thing. He places near the mill 
a few fruits, &c. burns frankincense, and places thereon a 
lighted lamp, made by burning oil in a lumian skull-cap. 


He then desires the men and women to go one by one into 
tlie room, touch the centre of the mill, and return to him ; 
adding, that should none among them be the thief, they 
need not hesitate in so doing ; observing, " Behold, by the 
" power of my science the stone is suspended. Whoever is 
" the thief, his hand will be caught between the stones, and 
" it will be no easy matter for him to extricate it. Nay, 
" the chances are, the upper stone will fall and crush his 
" hand to atoms." While they do this, the thief-catcher 
sits in a place by himself ; and as each individual comes to 
him, he smells his hand, to ascertain whether it have the 
odour of assafoetida, and then sends him away to a separate 
apartment, that they may have no communication with 
each other. He who is the guilty person, through fear of 
being detected, will not on any account touch it ; conse- 
quently his hand will not smell of assafoetida, and he must 
be set down for the thief. The operator then takes him 
aside, and tells him privately, " I swear that I will not 
" expose you, provided you deliver up the article to me, 
" and your honour will remain wholly unimpeached." In 
consequence of which, should it be a reputable man, he 
will immediately confess it and deliver up the stolen goods ; 
if the reverse, he will deny having taken it and not give 
it up. 

A second contrivance is as follows : The thief-catcher 
having besmeared an apartment as above stated, places 
therein a couple of human skulls, one filled with milk, 
the other with shurbut, makes an image with flour paste 
and places a lamp upon its head, and deposits a few species 
of fruits and flowers in front of it, and thrusts as many 
small sticks as there are persons present into the body of 
the doll ; then calling the people into the room, he sits 
moving his lips as if in the act of profound devotion ; and 




asking each his name, hands to him a stick pulled out of 
the body, saying, " Whoever is the thief, his stick will 
" undoubtedly grow in length."" He then directs them to 
go out and stand apart from one another, and after a little 
while to return to him. On their return he measures each 
one's stick with one of the standard length in his own pos- 
session, and finds that the person who is the thief, through 
fear of its increasing in length, has broken off a piece of 
his, in which case he may unquestionably be considered the 

But the most effectual way of catching theives is as fol- 
lows : In the two left hand squares of the subjoined magic- 
square write the name of the persons present, with those 
of their fathers ; thus : 

Such a one. 



the son of 
such a one. 



each one's on a separate piece of paper ; fold them up and 
enclose them in bolusses made of wheat flour. Put fresh 
water into a lota, and throw all the boluses at once into it. 
The ticket of the thief will come up and float on the sur- 
face of the water. 

Or, if the following diagram be sketched on an egg and 
buried in a grave, the abdomen of the individual who has 
stolen will swell, and remain so, until the egg is taken out 
of the earth. In the square is to be written, " May the 
" belly of him who is the thief, through the influence of this 
" diagram, swell." 





j^ Eternal 

O Booddooh ! grant that the abdomen 
of him who has stolen the property may 
swell by the influence of this diagram. 

g 8 8 SI t t 

The following verse of the Qoran, if written on a green 
lime and burnt in the fire or buried in the earth, will cause 
the ruin of the thief. Rather than that he should meet 
with so great a calamity, he will deliver up the stolen pro- 
perty. The verse translated, signifies, " Afterwards he 
" causeth him to die, and layeth him in the grave ; here- 
" after, when it shall please him, he shall raise him to 
" life. Assuredly. He hath not hitherto fully performed 
" what God hath commanded him. Let man consider his 
" food, in what manner it is provided. We pour down 
" water by showers; afterwards we cleave the earth in 
*' clefts, and we cause corn to spring forth therein." — 
Sale's Qoran, Edit. 1825, chap. Ixxx. vol. ii. p. 476. 

Again, if the same verse, on his delivering up the pro- 
perty, be read over some water, the latter breathed upon 
and given to the thief to drink, all his aflliction and misery 
will vanish. 

Or, two persons are to support a goglet, by the points of 
their right fore-fingers applied to the projecting ring at the 
bottom of its neck, on which is to be previously written the 
names of the persons one by one, and the Soora-c-Eeaseen 


read once over it, from the commencement to the part where 
it saith, " and he said, that my people knew how merciful 
" God hath been unto me, for he hath highly honoured 
" me.'^ — (Sale's Qoran, chap, xxxvi. p. 302 to bottom of 
p. 304. Ed. 1825.) 

When the name of the individual who is the thief happens 
to be on it, it will undoubtedly vibrate from side to side. 

A certain method, which I have seen with my own eyes, 
is this. They apply some of any kind of lamp-black to the 
bottom of a kusund ka kutora ,-* and having assembled a 
parcel of boys, direct them to place their hands, one by one, 
upon it. Whatever boy it may be, on the placing of whose 
hands the cup begins to move, the thief-catcher keeps his 
hands upon those of the boy, and says, " May the cup 
" move towards him who is the thief; or, may it go to the 
" place where the property is concealed ^^ and there is no 
doubt, but it will happen as he wishes. 

To try the experiment, this teacher of the alphabet had 
it performed at his own house, when a girl had taken his 
sister's nuth\ hid it in a jam (drinking cup), and covered it 
with a khwancha (a small tray). On his sister's mentioning 
to him the circumstance of her niitJi liaving been stolen, 
and requesting him to endeavour to find out the thief, he 
assembled a few boys, and having applied a little lamp-black 
to the bottom of a cup, he got them to place their hands on 
it. On one of them so doing the cup began to move, when 
he desired it to go in the direction of the thief, and imme- 
diately it proceeded to the water-closet, where they foiuid 
the girl hid. He then desired it to proceed to the spot 
where the nutK was concealed, and it went straight to the 
cup in which the nutK was hidden, and there remained 

• A bcll-nit'tul cup ; from ktHiUnd, bell-UK'tal, and kutora, a cup. 


stationary. Many will doubtless not credit this ; but the 
author can only say, that he has stated just what he had 
performed at his own house and been an eye-witness to. 
People may either believe it or not, as they please. 


Concerning travelling.* 

They say, that on the day of starting on a journey, the 
Rijal-ool-gybf should not be in front of the traveller, nor 
on his right, but either behind or to his left. In the for- 
mer case the traveller will meet with much distress, have 
to endure many hardships and privations, and have his 
property stolen. 

Rijal-ool-gyb is also named Murdan-ool-gyb. These are 
a class of people who are mounted on clouds, and remain 
together each day in a different part of the hemisphere. 

Some astrologers say, that there is a planet named 
Skookoor-e-Vildoo:^, which is a very bad one, and that if 
a traveller has him either in front or to the right of him, 
he will suffer distress, as above stated. 

The Rijal-ool-gyb takes up his abode in different places 
on difl'erent days of the month ; to ascertain which, tables, 
couplets, and hemistiches are made use of. From among 
these I have selected and described below three tables, a cou- 
plet, and a hemistich, that it may the more readily be com- 
prehended. The first table is the one in most general use. 

• Note. T'^ide page 275. 

t Rijal-ool-^yb, is an invisible being which moves in a circular 
orbit round the world. On different days his station is in different 
places. His influence on each day is especially exerted during nine 
ghurrees (or three hours and thirty-six minutes), at the close of that 
tith, or lunar day; and, in that interval, it is unfortunate to begin a 
journey. — Shak. Hindmt. Did. 















<^ =: 2 s 




>. g K s; «> 






















There is also a couplet made use of to retain the above 
in one's recollection, mz. 

East, on Saturday and Monday ; on Friday and Sunday, West ; 
On Tuesday and Wednesday, North; on Thursday, South addrest. 




•3iqK;yoja -g 

•ajqB^yojdufj^ 'g 




•Suiqjo^ •§( 

•snoipax 'S 




•3[q«^yo.Klufi -g 




•aDuaisisqng *g 






N . Good. 











i«AV 'S 


N. Good 








To ascertain the station of the Rijal-ool-gyb, some have 
recourse to a mist a (hemistich). The letters which com- 
pose it, stand for the different quarters of the globe. They 
are, KNJG BAMsh, KNJG BMsh, repeated twice, 
so as to form words which are pronounced 

Kimujgin hamshhi, hiimijgin bimitsh, 
Kunujgin hamshm, knni(jgin bimiish. 

The 1st letter K stands for S.E. 

2d N S.W. 

^d J South. 

4th G West. 

5th B N.W. 

6th A ,.... N.E. 

7th M East. 

8th sh ^ North. 

9th K S.E. 

10th N S.W. 


The 11th letter J stands for...; South. 

12th G West. 

13th B N.W. 

14th M N.E. 

15th sh East. 

16th K North. 

17th N S.E. 

18th J S.W. 

19th ...... G South. 

20th B West. 

21st A N.W. 

22d M N.E. 

23d sh East. 

24th K North. 

25th N S.E. 

26th J S.W. 

27th G South. 

28th B West. 

29th M N.W. 

30th sh N.E. 

If a person wish to proceed on a journey on a Saturday, 
he is to eat fish previous to starting; for his wishes in that 
case will soon be accomplished. If on a Sunday, should 
he eat betel-leaf before his departure^ all his undertakings 
will prosper. If on a Monday, should he look into a 
mirror, he will speedily obtain wealth. If on a Tuesday., 
should he eat coriander seed, every thing will happen 
agreeably to his wishes. If on a Wednesday, should he eat 
duhee (curdled milk), he will return home in good health and 
with a large fortune. If on a Thursday, should he eat goor 
{jaggj'ee, or raw sugar), he will return with plenty of goods 
and chattels. If on a Friday, should he eat dressed meat, he 
will return with abundance of pearls and precious stones. 





The hour and day of the month most propitious for the undertaking- 
of any particular business. 

In every month there are seven evil days, on whicli no 
good work is on any consideration to be commenced. 

/ In every Month \ 

/ there are Seven Evil \ 

Days, on which no 

good work is to be 





1 6th 




Others say that in every month in the year there are two 
e\'il days. Vide the annexed table. 







































































Some, dispensing Avith the above tables, count the days 
of the month on their fingers, beginning with the little 
finger, considering it as 1, the ring finger 2, the middle 3, 
the fore-finger 4, the thumb 5 ; the little, again, as 6, and 
so forth. The dates that happen to fall on the middle 
finger are considered evil. There are altogether six which 
fall on it, viz. 







Of the days of the week, Monday, Wednesday, Thurs- 
day, and Friday, are esteemed good and auspicious; the 
others evil. 

As to the qualities of the hours of the day and night, they 
have already been detailed in a table contained in the 
chapter treating of the birth and naming of children, (p. 
18. and 20.) 


Concerning the measuring for, and wearing of new clothes ; the keep- 
ing of the beard, mustacliios, hair of the head, &c. ; the custom of 
bathing and shaving ; and of eating and drinking, &c. 

If a person have his measure taken for new clothes on a 
Sunday, he will be sorrowful and crying. If on a Monday, 
he will have ample food and provisions. If on a Tuesday, 
his clothes will be burnt. If on a Wednesday, he will enjoy 

2d 2 


happiness and tranquillity. If on a Thursday, it will be 
good and propitious. If on a Friday, it will be well. If 
on a Saturday, he will experience numerous troubles and 

If one put on a suit of new clothes on a Sunday, he will 
experience happiness and ease. If on a Monday, his clothes 
will tear. If on a Tuesday, even if he stand in water his 
clothes will catch fire. If on a Wednesday, he will readily 
obtain a new suit. If on a Thursday, his dress will appear 
neat and elegant. If on a Friday, as long as die suit re- 
mains new he will remain happy and delighted. If on a 
Saturday, he will be taken ill. 

If a person put on a suit of new clothes in the morning, 
he will become wealthy and fortunate. If at noon, it will 
appear elegant. If at about sunset, he will become wretched. 
If in the evening, he will continue ill. 

The eexar should not extend in length below the ankle- 
joint. The jama should reach down to a little above the 
bottom of the eezar. The pugree should be tied, and the 
two shiimlas, (or ends), left waving behind. Some, how^ever, 
have the latter dangling on the right or left side. The 
beard should be preserved at least to the extent of a fist in 
length. The mustachios should either be cropped or shaved 
off clean. 

In the huddees it is stated that, should a person not pre- 
serve his beard, he will rise at the day of judgment with a 
black face like that of a hog ; and if a person keep mus- 
tachios of such length that in the act of drinking he wet 
them, the water of the hoivze-kowsur* will be denied him, 
and the hairs of them will on the last day become like so 
many spits ; so that, if he attempt to make sijdah, they 

* Hoivz-e-Kowsur, a fountain in Paradise. 


will prevent him ; and should he, notwithstanding, bend his 
head, his forehead will not reach the ground. It is advisable, 
therefore, to prune the hair over the lips. To remove the 
hair in the armpits and under the navel, to circumcise, 
and to pare the nails, are five things enjoined by Ibraheem 
(may God reward him !), but which our Prophet has not 
insisted upon. To preserve the hair over the whole body 
is soonnut ; but to do so on a quarter or half the head is 

Of Gosool, or Batlmig ,• i. e. simply Washing ; not in- 
cluding the four Gosools {Baths or Purifications, p. 53.) 
which are of divine command. 

If a person bathe on a Sunday, he will experience af- 
fliction. If on a Monday, his property will increase. If 
on a Tuesday, he will labour under anxiety of mind. If 
on a Wednesday, he will increase in beauty. If on a 
Thursday, his property will increase. If on a Friday, all 
his sins will be forgiven him. If on a Saturday, all his 
ailments will be removed. 

For Shaving, four days of the week are preferable to the 
rest, vix. Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays ; 
the other three are evil and inauspicious. 

The Jlesh of certain animals is lawful, whilst that of 
others unlawful ior food. 

In the Kunz-ool-duqaeq and Shurra way-qaeea it is 
written, that among Quadrupeds: 1. The flesh of those 
that are cloven-footed, that chew the cud and are not beasts 
of prey, is laivful food ; such as the flesh of the sheep, goat, 
deer, antelope, hare, rabbit, cow, bull, female or male 
buffalo, &c. 2. Those which are neither cloven-footed nor 
chew the cud are unlawful ; for example, the jackass, &c. 
3. Others, which though cloven-footed do not chew the cud, 
having canine teeth (or tusks), or those which merely have 

406 OF EATING. Chap. 

canine teeth, are unlawful ; for instance, the hog, wolf, 
jackal, tiger, bear, hyaena, and the like. 

Although Eemam-Azum (lit. the great Eemam or 
priest), named Aboo Huneefa* of Coofee, has pronounced 
the flesh of the horse unlawful, his disciples have decided it 
to be the reverse ; therefore some, conceiving it tnnkroo,\ 
partake of it ; while the generality of people esteeming it 
unlawful, do not eat it. 

Of Birds, all those that seize their prey with the claws, 
or wound them with their bills, are unlawful: e.g. tlie 
shikra (hawk) ; hhyree (a species of hawk); hax (falcon) ; 
the kite, crow, vulture, bat, king-crow, owl, &c. Such as 
do not seize their prey with the claws, but pick up their 
food with the bill, are lawful ; such as, the hugla (paddy- 
bird), duck, peacock, partridge, quail, goose, snipe, dove, 
pigeon, &c. Locusts are proper for eating. 

With respect to creeping things, all are unlawful ; as 
scorpions, snakes, earth-worms, &c. 

Of those that live in water, all are unlawful, with the 
following exceptions ; vix. fish that have scales, and a few 
without scales (such as ham, tumhoo, kutfhurna, &c. which 
are mukroo), and which do not weigh less than a dirrum, 
nor more than a mun X and a-half. The rest (not answering 
these conditions) are unlawful ; such as aUigators, turtles, 
frogs, crabs, &c. Shrimps however are only tnnkroo, and 
may be eaten. 

Fish found dead in the water is unlawful ; but, if it be 

• The founder of the principal of the four sects of Moosulmans called 
the Huiiefites. Vide page 244. 

t Mukroo, lit. abominable ; but it refers here to anything which the 
Prophet abstained from himself, yet did not inteixlict to others. 

X T)\Q nmn or maiind here alluded to is equal to forty seers or eighty 


taken out alive and die afterwards, the act of taking it out 
is equivalent to its %oohuh. (Vide Gloss.) 

Drink. To drink shurah (wine), ganja, bhung, taree, 
afeem (opium), mudud^ churs, boza (or fermented liquors), 
majoon,* and many other such intoxicating liquors, is un- 

If hog's-lard, however, or any other of the prohibited 
articles be used as medicine in diseases, and prescribed by a 
physician, when in his opinion the patient cannot survive 
without them, it is then lawful to have recourse to them ; 
but not otherwise. 

Water should not be drank in a standing position, except 
in three cases: viz. the water of zuni-zum (p. 61.), sibbel-i" 
water (p. 223.), and the water used for wuzoo. (p. 74.) 


Concerning the aifording consolation to the sick on his death-bed, and 
the shrouding and burial of the dead. 

Four or five days previous to a sick man's approaching 
his dissolution, he makes out a wuseeqa (i. e. a bond or 
written agreement), or a wuseeut-nama (or will), in favour 
of his son or any other person, in presence of two or more 
witnesses, and either delivers it to others or retains it by 
him. In it he likewise appoints his executor.^ 

W^hen about to expire, any learned reader of the Qoraii 

* f^ide Glossary for the particulai's of these. 

t Water offered at any time, gratis (p. 223) to any person, dispensed 
" in the name of God." 

J Moosulmans only require one executor. 


is to be sent for, and requested to repeat with a loud voice 
the Soora-e-yaseen, in order that the spirit of the man, by 
the hearing of its sound, may experience an easy concen- 
tration.* It is said, that when the spirit was commanded 
to enter the body of his hoHness Adam (the peace of God be 
with him !), the soul having looked into it once, observed, 
" this is a bad and dark place and unworthy of me ; it is 
" impossible I can inhabit it." Then the just and most 
holy God illuminated the body of Adam with "lamps of 
" light,"" and commanded the spirit to re-enter. It went in 
a second time, beheld the light, and saw the whole dwelling; 
and said : " There is no pleasing sound here for me to listen 
" to."" It is generally understood from the best works of 
the mystics of the East, that it was owing to this circum- 
stance that the Almighty created music. The holy spirit 
on hearing the sound of this music became so delighted, 
that it entered Adam's body. Commentators on the Qpran, 
expositors of the Huddees, and divines have written, that 
that sound resembled that produced by the repeating of the 
Soora-e-yaseen ; it is therefore advisable to read at the 
hour of death the Soora-e-yaseen, for the purpose of tran- 
quillizing the soul. 

The Kubna-e-fyeeb, as well as the Kulma-eshuhadut, 
are also read with an audible voice by those present. They 
do not require the patient to read them himself, as at such 
a time he is in a distressing situation, and not in a fit state 
of mind to repeat the kulma. Most people lie insensible 
and cannot even speak, but the pious retain their mental 
faculties and converse till the very last. 

The following is a most serious religious rule (lit. deci- 

• Or death; for they conceive that the living principles of the 
whole system become concentrated and shut up in the head ; when 
death is the consequence. 


sion), amongst us ; viz. that if a person desire tlie patient to 
repeat the kulma, and the sick man expire without being 
able to do so, his faith is considered dubious ; whilst the 
man who directed him so to do, thereby incurs guilt. It is 
therefore best, that the sitters-by read it, in anticipation of 
the hope that the sick man, by hearing the sound of it, may 
bring it to his recollection, and repeat it either aloud or in 
his own mind. 

In general, when a person is on the point of death, they 
pour shurhut made of sugar, &c. down his throat, to faci- 
litate the exit of the vital spark ; and some among the great 
substitute, though rarely, the water of the zumzum (vide 
note p. 61). 

I'he moment the spirit has fled the mouth is closed ; 
because, if left open, it would present a disagreeable spec- 
tacle. The two great toes are brought in contact and fast- 
ened together with a thin slip of cloth, to prevent the legs 
remaining apart. They burn ood or ood-huttee near the 
corpse. Should the individual have died in the evening, 
the shrouding and burial takes place before midnight : if 
he die at a later hour, or should the articles required not be 
procurable at that late hour, he is buried early on the fol- 
lowing morning. The sooner the sepulchral rites are per- 
formed the better ; for it is not proper to keep a corpse 
long in the house, and for this reason, that if he was a good 
man, the sooner he is buried the more quickly will he reach 
heaven ; if a bad man, he should be speedily buried, in 
order that his unhappy lot may not fall upon others in the 
house ; as also that the relatives of the deceased may not, 
by beholding the corpse, weep too much or go without food. 

There are male and female gussalan or moorda-sho^* 

* Lit. Bathers, or corpse-washers. 


whose province it is to wash and shroud the corpse for pay- 
ment. Sometimes, however, the relatives do it themselves. 
In undertaking the operation of washing, they dig a hole 
in the earth to receive the water used in the process, and 
prevent its spreading over a large surface, as some men and 
women consider it bad to tread on such water. Then they 
place the corpse on a bed, country-cot, plank, or straw. 
Some women, who are particular in these matters, are afraid 
even to venture near the place where tlie body has been 
washed. Having stripped the corpse and laid it on its 
back, with its head to the East and feet to the West,* they 
cover it with a cloth reaching, if it be a man, from the navel 
to the calves of the legs ; if a woman, extending from the 
chest to the feet ; and wash it with warm or with cold water. 
They raise the body gently and rub the abdomen four or 
five times, then pour plenty of water and wash off all the 
dirt and filth with soap, seekoykaee^ or reefha, by means 
of flocks of cotton or cloth ; after which, laying the body 
on the sides, they wash them ; then the back, and the rest 
of the body; hut gently, because life having but just de- 
parted, the body is still warm and not insensible to pain. 
After this they wash and clean it well, so that no offensive 
smell may remain. They never throw water into the nostrils 
or mouth, but clean them with wet wicks of cloth or cotton. 
After that they perform wuzoo (p. 72.) for him ; i. e. they 
wash his mouth, the two upper extremities up to the elbows, 
make musah (p. 73.) on his head and throw water on his 
feet ; these latter constituting the four parts of the wuzoo 
ceremony ordered by God. They then put some camphor 
and bayr-kay pdi,^ with water into a new large earthen 

* Towards the Kanba. 

t Lea\es of the bayr, or Indian plum tree. (Zizyphus jujuba, Lin.) 


pot, and with a new earthen hudhnee they take out water 
and pour it three times, first from the head to the feet, 
then from the right shoulder to the feet, lastly from the 
left shoulder to the feet. Every time that a budhna of 
water is poured, the kulma-e-shuhadut is repeated, either 
by the person washing or by another. The Kulma-e-shit- 
hadut is as follows ; Ush-hud-do-unna la il-laha illaylaha 
wuhduhoo la shureequ-luhoo wo ush-huddo-imna Mohum- 
mudun abduhoo ivo russoolluhoo : that is, " I bear wit- 
" ness that there is no God save God, who is the One and 
" has no co-equal ; and I bear witness that Mohummud 
" is his servant, and is sent from him." 

These ceremonies conjoined are called gosool or bathing.* 
Having bathed the body and wiped it dry with a new piece 
of cloth, they put on the shroud. The kiiffun, or shroud, 
consists of three pieces of cloth if for a man, and five if for 
a woman. Those for men comprise 1st. a loong or ee%ar^\ 

• It is thus described by Mrs. M. H. AH, vol. i. p. 130. " The 
" dead body of a Mussulman, in about six hours after life is extinct, 
" is placed in a coffin and conveyed to the place of burial, with parade 
" suited to the rank he held in life. A tent or kaanaut (screen) is 
" pitched in a convenient place where water is available near the 
" tomb, for the purpose of washing- and preparing the dead body for 
" interment. They take the body out of the coffin and thoroughly 
" bathe it. When dry, they rub pounded camphor on the hands, feet, 
" knees, and forehead, these parts having, in the method of prostrat- 
" ing at praj'er, daily touched the ground. The body is then wrapped 
" neatly in a winding-sheet of neat calico, on which has been written 
" particular chapters of the Klioraun, The religious man generally 
" prepares his own winding-sheet, keeping it always ready, and occa- 
" sionally taking out the monitor to add another verse or chapter, as 
" the train of thought may have urged at the time." 

t A piece of cloth extending from the navel to the ankles, and which 
is torn in the middle up to the extent of two-thirds. The two divi- 
sions cover the legs and are tucked under them on each side ; the 
upper part left entire, covers the forepart of tlie pelvis. The sides 
are tucked under on each side, and the corners tied behind. 


reaching from the navel down to the knees or ankle-joints. 
2d, Called a qumees, koorta, alfa, or pynihun ;'^ its 
length is from the neck to the knees or ankles. 3d. A 
liiffcifa, or sheet, from above the head to below the feet. 
Women have two additional pieces of cloth ; one a seena- 
hund (lit. breast-band), extending from the arm-pits to 
above the ankle-joints ; the other a dmmiee, which encircles 
the head once and has its two ends dangling on each side. 

The manner of shrouding is as follows : Having placed 
the shrouds on a new mat and fumigated them with the 
smoke of benjamin, and applied to them aheer, uttur, or 
gool-ab (rose-water), the Inffafa is spread first on tlie mat, 
over it the loong or eezar, and above that the qumees ; and 
on the latter the seena-hund. If it be a woman, the damnee 
is kept separate and tied on afterwards. The corpse must 
be carefully brought by itself from the place where it was 
bathed, and laid on the shrouds. Soorma is to be applied 
to the eyes with a tent made of paper rolled up, with a 
cWhulla (ring), or with a pice, and camphor, to seven 
places ; viz. on the forehead including the nose, on the 
palms of the hands, on the knees and great toes ; after 
which the different shrouds are to be properly put on one 
after another as they lay. The colour of the shroud is to 
be white ; no other is admissible. It is of no consequence, 
however, if a coloured cloth is spread over the bier or su7i- 
dooq'f (i. e. coffin ; lit. trunk), for that, after the funeral, 
or after the fortieth /a^ee/ia, is given away to the fuqeer 

* It consists of a piece of cloth with a slit made in the middle, 
through which the head is passed, and drawn down before and 

t It is a square box, of the length of the corpse and a yard in 
breadth. This is not buried with the corpse. The latter is taken out 
and buried, and the box brought home. 


who resides in the burying-ground, or to any other person, 
in charity. 

Previous to shrouding the body, they tear shreds from 
the cloths for the purpose of tying them on ; and after 
shrouding the body, they tie one band above the head, a 
second below the feet, and a third about the chest ; leaving 
about six or seven fingers' breadth of cloth above the head 
and below the feet, to admit of the ends being fastened. 
Should the relict of the deceased be present, they undo the 
cloth of the head and shew her his face, and get her, in 
presence of two witnesses, to remit the dowry which he 
had settled upon her ; but it is preferable that she remit it 
while he is still alive. Should the wife, owing to journey- 
ing, be at a distance from him, she is to remit it on receiv- 
ing the intelligence of his demise. Should his mother be 
present, she likewise says, " the milk with which I suckled 
" thee I freely bestow on thee :"* but this is merely a cus- 
tom in this country ; it is neither enjoined in books nor by 
the Shurra. Then they place on the corpse a phool-kay 
chuddur (flower-sheet), or merely wreaths of flowers and 
some afceer, and offer fateeha ; after which they read the 
Soora-e-fateeha once, and the Qpol-hoo- Allah three times, 
with the view of bestowing on the corpse the rewards 
attached to them. That done, they take up the body along 
with the mat, and place it on a bed or country-cot, and 
covering it with split bamboos, form it somewhat into the 
shape of a dola (bier) ; and if they can afford it, put it 
into a box. Four from among the near relations, every 
now and then relieved by an equal number, carry it on 
their shoulders, some touching it with the hands, and all 

• A person who has sucked a woman's milk is considered to be 
under great obligations to her, as without it he could not have lived; 
which debt she now remits. 


repeating the Kulma ty-eeb, i. e. La illahah illay lah Mo- 
hummudoor russool oollah ; or the Kulma shuhadut 
(p. 411), or the Durood, Mowlood. They proceed to the 
musjid (mosque) burying-ground, or an open plain, where 
the owner of the corpse, or if he be not present or is un- 
learned, any other person, at the request of the relatives, 
reads the funeral service. The qasaee (priest) or his 7iaeb 
(deputy) are people appointed to read the funeral service 
for such of the poor as are friendless. The form of the 
service is as follows : First, any person calls out, as they 
do in summoning to daily prayers, three times Ussulat-e- 
junaxa^ i. e. Here begins the prayers of the funeral ser- 
vice. On hearing the sound of this, many within heai'ing 
repair to the spot. Then they all stand up in three rows, and 
the eemam in front of them, opposite the head if the body 
be that of a male, and in a line with the abdomen if of a 
female. The funeral service contains four tukheers 
(creeds), and the doa (blessing) ; all which, owing to their 
prolixity, are here omitted. T shall merely describe the 
forms observed in the reading of them. The first tukheer. 
The eemam having made the neeut (p. 78) for the funeral 
service, applies his thumbs to the lobes of his ears (p. 78), 
and calls out Allah-ho-akhur ! then places the right hand 
over the left a little below the navel (as in the act of 
" standing at ease"), and the congregation do the same. 
Then, again, the eemam having read the doa, which is 
always read without removing his hands, reads the second 
tukheer, and in like manner the third and fourth; after 
which he calls out again the words Allah-ho-akhur, the last 
time adding Ussidam-o-allykoom-wo ruhmut oollahay ; 
and turning his face over the right shoulder, sufficiently 
round for the congregation to see his face or mouth, and 
then over the left shoulder in the same manner, repeats the 


same words and concludes. The congregation repeat the 
tukbeer and sulam along with the eemam. After that the 
owner of the corpse calls out Rookhsut-e-am, " permission 
to all" (i. e. to depart) ; meaning, those who are inclined to 
remain to see the body put under ground may do so, the 
others may go away. Again, having o^'eved fateeha in the 
name of the deceased, they take the bier near the grave, 
and one or two persons, relatives or others, descend into 
the grave to lay the body down ; while two others take the 
sheet that covered the body, twist it round, and lifting up 
the body put it under the waist ; then standing one on each 
side of the grave hold on by the two ends, and by the 
assistance of two or three at the head, with as many at the 
feet, hand the body to the men who had descended into the 
grave. They then lay the body on its back, with the head 
to the north and feet to the south, turning its face towards 
the Qihla (or Mecca, i. e. west) ; and after reading some 
sentence in Arabic, each person takes up a little earth or a 
clod, and having repeated over it, either in his own mind 
or in a whisper, the whole of the soora entitled QpoUhoo- 
Allah (Qoran, chap, cxii), or this aet (verse) Minha khu- 
luknakoom wufeeha noo-eedokoom o minha oiookhray- 
jokoojn tarutun ohkhra ; i. e. "We created you of earth and 
" we return you to earth, and we shall raise you out of the 
" earth on the day of resurrection,"" puts the earth gently 
into the grave, or hands it to one of the persons who had 
descended into it to deposit it round the body. After that,, 
having previously to burial had a small brick or mud wall 
built on each side within the grave, about a cubit and a half 
high, leaving room sufficient for laying the body, they 
place planks, or slabs of stone or wood, or large earthern 
pots resting on the wall within the grave, cover them with 
earth, and smooth the surface over with water, forming it 


into the shape of a tomb. Some, after the body has been 
deposited in the grave, place wood obliquely over it, one 
end resting on the east edge of the grave, the other at the 
bottom of the west side ; on them they put mats, &c. to 
prevent the earth from falling on the body, and putting 
earth over it form it into a tomb. Some, to prevent the 
pressure of the earth upon the corpse, form what they call 
a bug-lee (or hollow, lit. arm-pit) grave, which consists in 
a sort of a cave or hollow of the length of the body, made 
on the east side on a level with the bottom of the grave, into 
which they deposit the remains, and placing mats or wood 
at the mouth of it, fill the grave up with earth. 

Some among the opulent, during their lives, select a suit- 
able spot somewhere or other, and have a grave dug lined 
with brick and mortar ; others have a moqhirra (mauso- 
leum) built over it, or merely a square wall all round it, 
and fill the grave up with sand or some kind of grain, ge- 
nerally wheat or paddy. In the latter case, they annually 
distribute the old grain in charity and supply its place with 
new. When the owner dies they bury him in it, and form 
a taweez with square stones over it. Poor people, who 
cannot afford the above materials, throw the earth on the 
body and smooth it over with clay. The object of placing 
wood, &c. over the corpse, is to prevent the pressure of the 
earth upon it ; and great men have established this custom, 
to prevent the friends of the deceased from fancying, which 
they are apt to do, that the pressure of the earth was un- 
comfortable to the body. 

In Hindoostan they make the tombs of earth, broad at 
one end and narrow at the other, in the shape of a cow's 
tail or the back of a fish ; and pour water on it with a hudhna 
in three longitudinal lines, so that it leaves an impression 
something in this form : 


In pouring the water they begin at the feet and terminate 
at the head, where they place the vessel inverted, and stick 
a twig of the suhza, or pomegranate-tree, near it into the 
earth. In Arabia and other countries it is not customary 
to pour water on the grave ; but if it blow a hurricane, or 
should there be much wind, they sprinkle some water on it 
to prevent the dust from blowing about. 

After the burial they offer fateeha in the name of the 
defunct. Then, as they return home, when about forty 
paces from the grave, they o^qy fateeha in the name of all 
the dead in the burying-ground conjointly, which is called 
daeeray kee fateeha (or the cemetery fateeha). At this 
juncture, it is said, two angels, viz. Moonkir and Nukeer, 
examine the dead. Making him sit up, they inquire of 
him who his God and prophet are, and what his religion is. 
If he has been a good man, he replies to these queries ; if a 
bad one, he becomes bewildered and sits mute, or mumbles 
out something or other. In the latter case, the angels se- 
verely torment him, and harass him by means of the goorz. 
(p. 291.) 

After that, every one according to his means, distributes 
wheat, rice, mussoor,* salt, roteean, pice., or cowries, in cha- 
rity to beggars and fuqeers (religious mendicants), in the 
name of the dead. 

The people that have remained, accompany the friends of 
the deceased home, where they offer neeut kheyr kee fateeha 
in the name, and for the welfare of the family, and console 
the master of the house, recommending to him patience and 
comfort, and then take their departure. Or, they are offered 

* A kind of pulse, Ervum lens, Lin. 
'2 E 


some liquid food, such as duhee, cKhaach, or any other food 
or drink in common use in the country, before they go 
home. Or some of the relations, &c. send them the above- 
mentioned eatables from their houses, or bring them them- 
selves for those persons to partake of. 

The rule for digging a grave is, that if it be for a woman, 
the depth should be to the height of a man's chest ; if for 
a man, to the height of the waist. In general, the grave- 
diggers dig the grave without measuring the length of the 
corpse, allowing four or four cubits and a-half for its length 
and one cubit and a-half for its breadth. If it be intended 
for a particularly tall person, or for children, they then 
measure the body. If they afterwards, Avhen laying the 
body into it, discover that the grave is a little too short in 
length or breadth, the illiterate consider the deceased to 
have been a great sinner, and esteem the circumstance very 
unlucky. They give the grave-digger from eight annas to 
five rupees, according to their means ; and the wealthy, by 
way of a present, a great deal more. It is customary for 
the grave-digger, without receiving any additional remune- 
ration, to plaster and smooth the surface of the mound pro- 
perly over the grave, which he does the day previous to the 
third-day-^ee arw^. The burying-ground-man,* (with the 
exception of those corpses that have no owner), never allows 
a grave to be dug without taking money, vi%. from one 
rupee to a hundred and more, from and according to the 
means, of the parties : nay, he obtains his livelihood by this 
means. The cloth which was spread on the bier becomes 
his perquisite. This, however, he spreads on the grave on 
every zeeanit-da,y until the fortieth, when he keeps it to 
himself. Some persons, independently of the above cloth, 
have coloured cloths constantly spread on the grave. 

• i. e. i\iQfuqem' who resides there, of whom there is one at each 


Poor people pay the gussalans (or those who wasli the 
corpse) the sum of four annas, while the opulent pay as far 
as from fifty to a hundred rupees. The clothes which are 
upon the body of the deceased when he dies, are also taken 
by the gussalans ; and I have even seen them obtain, in 
this way, a pair of shawls, brocades, &c. It is frequently 
the ardent desire of these people, that some great nobleman 
of wealth and fortune may die, that they may receive plenty 
of money and clothes. Most of the ignorant among the 
wealthy have a very great horror of a corpse, and do not 
relish even touching; the clothes and furniture which had 
been used by the deceased before his death, and therefore 
give them away, by way of charity, to the gussalans or fu- 
qeers, who are in the habit of disposing of them in the bazars. 

The generality of people have tombs made of mud and 
stone, or brick and mortar, or only of a single stone hewn 
out in the shape of a tomb, forming first three square ta- 
weeses or platforms, one or one and a-half cubits in height, 
or somewhat less. Above that, if for a man, they form a 
taweex about a cubit (more or less) in height, and a yard 
or somewhat less in length, resembling the hump on a camel's 
back or the back of a fish, in breadth one span or one and 
a-half. If for a woman, its length and breadth are the 
same as those of men, but in height it is less, being from 
four fingers breadth to a span, and flat in shape. The 
taweez of a boy is of the same description as that of a man, 
and that of a girl like that of a woman, only smaller in 
size. Some people make various kinds of churagdan (niches 
for lamps) near the head of the grave. 

The Sheeas make their tombs for men of the same shape 
as the Soonnees make those for females ; and for women 
like those of the Soonnees for men, but with a hollow or 
basin in the centre of the upper part. 



Some cause a stone to be inscribed with the name of the 
deceased, either alone or in conjunction with that of his 
father, together with the year, day of the month and week 
on which he died, and set it up at the north side on the 
grave. Besides this, some have the same written in prose 
or verse on all the four walls. 

A few have the name, &c. of the deceased engraved on a 
square stone tablet, and have it fixed into the wall over the 
outside of the entrance-door of the mausoleum, or they write 
it with ink over the door. 

It is highly meritorious to accompany a bier ; and that 
on foot, following behind it : for this reason, that there 
are five furz kufaeea* incumbent on Moosulmans to ob- 
serve. 1st. To return a salutation. 2d. To visit the sick 
and inquire after their welfare. 3d. To follow a bier, on 
foot, to the grave. 4th. To accept of an invitation. 5th. 
To reply to a sneeze ; e. g. if a person sneeze, and say in- 
stantly after Alhiimd-o-Lillah (God be praised), the answer 
must be Yur-hiimuk- Allah (God have mercy upon you). 

In the Mishkaf-ool-Mussuheeh it is stated, that when a 
bier passes an individual, whether it be that of a Moosul- 
man, Jew, or any other sect, the person is to stand up, and 
accompany it at least forty paces. No one is to walk in 
front of the corpse, as that space is to be left free for the 
Angels, who on such occasions are said to proceed before. 

To build tombs with mortar, stones, or burnt bricks, to 
sit upon them or touch them with the feet, to write a verse 
of the Qormii or God's name on them, and the like, are all 
forbidden. But so it is, that the generality of people do 
not attend to these rules. 

• Kufaeea, or sufficient ; i. e if among eight or ten persons stand- 
ing or living together, one observe the furz (command or religious 
duty) it is sufficient; it is equivalent to all having performed it. 



Concerning the teeja, alias zeearut, or fhool-churhann of the dead ; 
or the visiting the grave on the third day after burial. 

On the third day after the burial of the dead they per- 
form what is called teeja^ zeearut ,ov 'p'hool-churhana : That 
is, they take all sorts of fruits, choorway, and pan-sooparee 
with its accompaniments, some nan, huhva, others merely 
miqol and pan-sooparee^ together with a sheet made of 
flowers, urgujja, ood, and ood-butteean, and place them, 
the day previous to the xeearut, on the s])ot where the in- 
dividual died. On the zeearut-mormug, at dawn of day, 
the male relatives alone of the deceased, and moollas, &c. 
accompany the above articles to the grave, and there make 
Khutum-e-Qoran ;'^ i. e. have the Avholeof the Qoran read 
over by the moollas, once, twice, or oftener. Tliis is done 
by distributing four or five joox (sections, of which there 
are thirty) to each of the readers, Avho get through them 
very rapidly. Among the rich fifty or one hundred moollas 
sit down, and reading it through bestow its benefits on the 
deceased. Some have the greater part read the night before, 
and get it only concluded at the grave on the morning fol- 
lowing. This done, they spread on the tomb a white, red, 
or any other coloured cover, lay over it the pliool-kee-chud- 
dur (sheet formed of flowers), and burning benjamin or 
aloes- wood pastiles, they o^ev fateeha, and each one throws 
a few flowers into the urgujja, and offering supplications for 
the remission of his sins, applies some of the above urgujja 
together with the flowers to the grave, nearly over the posi- 

• Or the transferring the benefits of the reading of the Qoran to the 
person deceased. 


tion of the head or chest. Fateeha being offered, they 
distribute the eatables among the hq/izans, moollas, poor, 
fuqeers, &c. and to all others. Or men merely take the 
above articles to the grave, offer fateeha, and distribute 
them there ; and as at the funeral, so now, they give away in 
charity wheat, rice, salt, and pice (coppers), or only a few 
pice. Then having offered the daeera kee fateeha, they 

These ceremonies are not agreeably to the laws of Mo- 
hummud ; but merely customs current in Hindoostan. 


Concerning the /atcefi a, or offerings to the dead, on the tenth, twen- 
tieth, thirtieth, and fortieth day after the demise; and the quar- 
terly, half-yearly, nine-monthly, and annual fatcehn. 

The tenth-day zeearut. For nine days after the deatii 
of a person, most people neither go to eat or drink any 
thing in the house of the family of the deceased, nor invite 
anv of its members to any entertainment at their's. More- 
over, none of the family eat flesh or fish for nine days ; nay, 
they refrain from all food which is seasoned. This is like- 
wise not agreeably to books, but merely a custom in Hindh 

On the ninth, at noon, they prepare nan and hidwa, or 
hulwa and chupateean, and having delivered fateeha over 
them in the name of the deceased, all the members of the 
household partake of them and distribute a little to the 
neiiihbours around. 

In the evening they dress pofooo and curries ; and having 
invited their relatives, friends, and neighbours, beggars and 
fuqeers, to partake of them, they eat and distribute, and 


send to the hurying-ground-fuqeer his portion. It is how- 
ever customary among the vulgar, never to eat any food 
cooked at their own houses after having partaken of the 
above tenth-day food, and when they receive such shares of 
the food, they never allow it to be brought within doors ; 
but go and eat it outside in the area in front of the house. 
Some foolish people conceiving the tenth-day food bad, do 
not partake of it at all ; believing, that by so doing they 
would be deprived of the very useful faculty of speech. 
All this is nothing but mere fancy and imagination. 

On the morning of the tenth they perform the zeearut, 
as detailed for the third day in the preceding chapter. 

On the nineteenth they prepare nan, chiipateean, and 
hulwa ; oWev faleeha over them in the name of the deceased, 
and distribute them. At the time of the fateeha, such 
flower-sheet, sundul, &c. as were deposited near the food, 
they convey to the grave, and spread the former on, and 
apply the latter to it. But there is no zeearut on the morn- 
ing of the twentieth day. 

A few also dress some food on the thirtieth, o^ev fateeha, 
eat and distribute. 

On the thirty-ninth, during the day, they cook polaoo, 
as on the tenth, but at night they prepare plenty of curries, 
tulun (or fried food), polaooy &c. (i. e. such dishes as the 
deceased was in the habit of eating during his life), arrange 
them on plates, together with urgujja, soorma, kajul^ ubeer, 
pan-sooparee, some of the clothes and jewels of the deceased, 
which they deposit on the spot where the individual gave 
up the ghost, and over them suspend to the ceiling a flower- 
garland. This ceremony is denominated luhud hhurna, 
or filling the grave. 

Some foolish women believe that on the fortieth day the 
soul of the dead leaves the house, if it has not done so pre- 
viously ; and if it has, it returns to it on that day, takes a 


survey of the above articles, partakes of such as he takes a 
fancy to, swings by the flower-wreath, takes a srnell of the 
.siindul, and departs. These nonsensical sayings and doings, 
however, are all innovations, and consequently unlawful. 

They sit up all that night, and if there be any Qoran or 
mow lood-r eciters present, they continue repeating them. 

The following is another custom ; viz. that for forty days 
they place daily, on the spot where the man departed this 
life, a new ab-khora (earthen tuvnbler) filled with water, 
with or without a rotee (wheaten cake). The w^ater is left 
there all night, and next morning poured on any green tree, 
and the bread and ah-khora are given away to some fuqeer 
or other. 

They generally light a lamp on the spot where the person 
died, where the body was washed, and some also on the 
tomb for three, ten, or forty nights, and until the fortieth 
day. Tliey send every evening to the musjid a new ab-khora 
of water, a rotee with ghee spread on it, or without ^Aeebut 
sugared, or dnhee, boiled rice, &c. And any one there 
offers fateeha over them in the name of the defunct, and 
eats them. 

On the morning of the fortieth they perform xeearuty as 
before detailed. 

On the third, sixth, ninth, and twelfth month after the 
death of a person (women generally observing these cere- 
monies a few days before the expiration of the above pe- 
riods) they in like manner prepare polaoo, &c. and having 
had fateeha offered over them, eat, and distribute. 

They whom God has blessed with the means, give away 
in charity on the above-mentioned days, for the sake of the 
deceased, clothes and money; and on the evening of the 
above fateeha day, they spread mphool-kee-ehuddar (flower- 
sheet) on the grave. 

Many women go without fail to the grave on the fortieth 


day and annual zeearuts. On the other days they are pro- 
liibited from repairing thither, and it is moreover not cus- 
tomary for them to do so. 

It is meritoriovis for men to go and offer fafeeha on the 
grave every Friday ; but the generality of people do it on 

After the first year the deceased is numbered with de- 
ceased ancestors, and fateeha offered in their names con- 
jointly, by some at the fateeha of Shuh-e-Burdt (p. 252), 
and by others at the arfaoi the buqr-eed-f east (p. ^G6). 

Those who can afford it dress victuals, of some kind or 
other, more or less, on the anniversary day of the indivi- 
dual's death, and have fateeha offered in his name. 

In conclusion, I may here insert the number of days re- 
quired for the performance of different ceremonies, and the 
celebration of the various festivals, &c. detailed in this work, 
and for which leave is generally granted to Seepahees. 

For the rites of cKhuttee^ chilla, uqeeqa, moondun, sal- 
geera, bismilla, khutna^ Qordn ka huddeea, halig hona, 
juhaz kee nuxm; mooreed hona, or for any other like cere- 
mony, more than one day and a-half is not required. 

Shadee (or marriage;) ten days. If pressed for time, five 
or seven is sufficient ; but vide p. 147. 

Joomagee, one day. 

On the death of a relative, three days ; i. e. until the third 

Mohurrum, thirteen days ; if pressed for time ten days. 

Akhree char-shoomba, one day and a-half. 

Barorwufat, one day and a-half. 

Dustugecr kay Geearween, one day. 

Zinda Shah Mudar kay oors, one day and a-half. 
Qadir kay oors, one day and a-half ; but only one day to 


those at a distance from his shrine, who merely perform 
chura^an in his name, 

MowlaAllee kay oors, one day and a-half. 

Shaban kay eed, two days and a-half. 

Rumssan-iasX requires no leave. 

Rum%an kay eed, (in shuwal) one day. 

Bunda Nuwaz kee churagan, one day. 

Buqr-eed, two days. 

By the grace and blessing of God, the Qdnoon-e- Islam has 
been completed, with great diligence and perseverance, and 
at the particular request of a just appreciator of the merits 
of the worthy, a man of rank, of great liberality and muni- 
ficence, Dr. Herklots (may his good fortune, age, and 
wealth ever increase. Amen and Amen !) for the benefit of 
the honourable English gentlemen (may their empire be 
exalted !) 

Nothing relative to the customs of Moosulmans in Hin- 
doostan will be found to have been concealed. 

The only thing I have now to hope for from my readers 
is, that they will wish the author and translator well, for 
which they will receive blessings from God and thanks 
from mankind. 

This is iny hope from ev'ry liberal mind, 
That all my faults indulgence meet may find : 
Those who through spite or envy criticise, 
Are witless wights, and the reverse of wise. 



There are three feasts mentioned by Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali 
in her very accurate " Observations on the Mussulmauns of 
India,"" which seem to have been overlooked by our author. 
Probably they are more particularly observed in Bengal 
and the upper provinces, where the authoress resided, than 
in the Deccan (the birth-place of the writer of this work), 
I shall therefore take the liberty of quoting the lady's own 

1. " Now-ro% j^jy> (new year's day) is a festival or eed 
of no mean importance in the estimation of Mussulman 
society. The exact period of commencing the Mussulman 
new year, is the very moment of the sun's entering the sign 
Aries. This is calculated by those practical astronomers 
who are in the service of most great men in native cities. 
I should tell you, they have not the benefit of published 
almanacks as in England ; and according to the hour of the 
day or night when the sun passes into that particular sign, 
so are they directed in the choice of a colour to be worn in 
their garments on this eed. If at midnight, the colour 
would be dark puce, almost a black ; if at mid-day, the 
colour would be the brightest crimson. Thus to the inter- 
mediate hours are given a shade of either colour, applicable 
to the time of the night or the day when the sun enters the 
sign Aries ; and whatever be the colour to suit the hour of 
now-roz, all classes wear the same livery, from the king to 
the meanest subject in the city. The king on his throne 
sits in state to receive congratulations and nuzzurs from his 
nobles, courtiers and dependents. ' Moubarik Notv-roz 


(may the new year be fortunate IJ are the terms of salu- 
tation exchanged by all classes of society, the king himself 
setting the example. The day is devoted to amusements, 
a public breakfast at the palace, sending presents, exchang- 
ing visits, &c. 

" The trays of presents prepared by the ladies for their 
friends are tastefully set out, and the work of many days' 
previous arrangement. Eggs are boiled hard, some of these 
are stained in colours resembling our mottled papers ; others 
are neatly painted in figures and devices ; many are orna- 
mented with gilding ; every lady evincing her own peculiar 
taste in the prepared eggs for iiow-rox. All kinds of dried 
fruits and nuts, confectionary and cakes, are numbered 
amongst the necessary articles for this day''s offering. They 
are set out in small earthen plates, lacquered over to re- 
semble silver, on which is placed coloured paper, cut out in 
curious devices (an excellent substitute for vine-leaves), 
laid on the plate to receive the several articles forming 
now-Toz presents. 

" Amongst the young people these trays are looked for- 
ward to with child-like anxiety. The ladies rival each 
other in their display of novelty and good taste, both in the 
eatables and the manner of setting them off with effect. 

" The religious community have prayers read in their 
family, and by them it is considered both a necessary duty 
and a propitious commencement to bring in the new year 
by ' prayer and praises/ 

" When it is known that the now-roz will occur by day- 
light, the ladies have a custom of watching for the moment 
the year shall commence by a fresh rose, which being 
plucked from the stalk is thrown into a basin of water, the 
eye downwards. They say, this rose turns over of itself 
towards the sun at the very moment of that luminary pass- 

AI3DENDA. 429 

ing into the sign Aries. I have often found them thus en- 
gaged, but I never coidd say I witnessed the actual accom- 
plishment of their prediction. 

" The now-roz teems with friendly tokens between the 
two families of a bride and bridegroom elect, whose inter- 
change of presents are also strictly observed. The children 
receive gifts from their elders ; their nurses reap a harvest 
from the day ; the tutor writes an ode in praise of his pupil, 
and receives gifts from the child's parents ; the servants and 
slaves are regaled with dainties and with presents from the 
superiors of the establishment ; the poor are remembered 
with clothes, money, and food ; the ladies make and receive 
visits; and the domnees attend to play and sing in the 
zunana. In short, the whole day is passed in cheerful 
amusements, suited to the retirement of a zunana and the 
habits of the people."— Mrs. Meer, vol. i. p. 283—287. 

This day is likewise celebrated, by the liberation of pri- 
soners, &c. 

2. " There is a festival observed at Lucknow, called 
bussunt 1.;:.-^^— J (spring). I should remark here, that al- 
most all the trees of India have perpetual foliage. As tlie 
season approaches for the new leaves to sprout, the young- 
buds force oif the old leaves, and when the trees are thus 
clothed in their first delicate foliage, there is a yellow tinge 
in the colour, which is denominated bussunt. A day is 
appointed to be kept under this title, and then every one 
wears the bussunt colour : no one would be admitted at 
court without this badge of the day. The elephants, horses, 
and camels of the king, or of his nobles, are all ornamented 
with the same colour on their trappings. 

" The king holds a court, gives a public breakfast, and 


exhibits sports with ferocious animals. — The amusements of 
this day are chiefly confined to the court. I have not ob- 
served much notice taken of it in private life." — Mrs. Meer, 
vol. i. p. 287. 

3. " The last month of the periodical rains is called 
Shahan. There is a custom observed by the Mussulman 
population, the origin of which has never been clearly ex- 
plained to me. Some say, it is in remembrance of the pro- 
phet Elisha or Elijah, and commences the first Friday of 
Shaban, and is followed up every succeeding Friday 
through this concluding month of the rainy season.* 

" The learned men call it a zunana, or children's custom ; 
but it is common to see children of all ages amongst the 
males partake of and enjoy the festival with as much glee 
as the females, or their juniors. 

'' A bamboo frame is formed to the shape of a Chinese 
boat ; this frame- work is hidden by a covering of gold and 

• I presume Mrs. Meer must allude to a custom adopted by Moosul- 
mans in fulfilling vows, particularly noticed under the head of " vows 
and oblations" in this work (p. 273). About Lucknow, it may pro- 
bably be observed on the different Fridays of the month, but in Bengal 
it is performed on the Thursdays, and that in the Bengalee month 
Bhadoon (perhaps in the last month of the periodical rains). It 
could not invariably fall in the month Shaban, as the Moosulman 
months are lunar, and therefore moveable as regards the seasons of 
the year. At all events, being merely the accomplishment of a vow, 
the observance of it on Fridays in one part of the country, and on 
Thursday in another, may easily be accounted for. 

Shakespear in his Dictionary, in explanation of khwaja kldztir, has 
the following words : The name of a projjhet skilled in divination, and 
who is said to have discovered the water of life; hence he is consi- 
dered the saint of waters. The Muhammadans offer oblations to him 
of lamps, flowers, &c. placed on little rafts and launched on the river, 
particularly on Thursday evening in the month of Bhadon ; and it is 
in his honour that the feast of hera is held. 


silver tissue, silk, or coloured muslin, bordered and neatly 
ornamented with silver paper. In this light bark many 
lamps are secreted, of common earthenware. A procession 
is formed to convey the tribute called " Elias ke kishtee^'' 
to the river. The servants of the family, soldiers, and a 
band of native music attend in due order of march. The 
crowd attracted by this childish play is immense, increasing 
as they advance through the several streets on the way to 
the river, by all the idlers of the place. 

" The kishtee (boat) is launched amidst a flourish of 
trumpets and drums, and the sliouts of the populace ; the 
small vessel, being first well lighted by means of the secreted 
lamps, moves down gently with the stream. When at a 
little distance, on a broad river, in the stillness of evening, 
any one who did not previously know how these little moving 
bodies of light were produced, might fancy such fairy scenes 
as are to be met with in the well-told fables of children''s 
books in happy England. 

" This custom, though strongly partaking of the super- 
stitious, is not so blameable as that which I have known 
practised by some men of esteemed good understanding, 
who having a particular object in view, which they cannot 
attain by any human stratagem or contrivance, write peti- 
tions to the Emam Muhdee on Fridays, and by their own 
hands commit the paper to the river, with as much reve- 
rence as if they thought him present in the water to receive 
it. The petition is always written in the same respectful 
terms as inferiors here well know how to address their supe- 
riors ; and every succeeding Friday the petition is repeated 
until the object is accomplished, or the petitioner has no 
further inducement to offer one." — Mrs. Meer, vol. i. p. 288. 

In Uke manner, Professor Garcin de Tassy (on the au- 


thority of the Baramasa, p. 64, the only book in which he 
finds it made mention of), furnishes us with an additional 
feast, called 

GoGA OR Zahir Peer ; 
after the name of the saint ; to whom Mussulmans are greatly 
attached, devoting themselves to him with all their heart and 
soul and undergoing various acts of humility and penance. 
In celebrating this festival, which happens in the Bengalee 
month Bhado7i, they go about the streets armed with lances, 
playing on different musical instruments, chaunting his 
praises. These processions continue a whole month. At 
the end of which period they assemble and fix their lances 
in one spot, where a fair is held noted for all kinds of 
amusements and curious spectacles. I understand that the 
shrine of this saint is in the Dooab, and that this feast is 
observed every where. 


surnamed Gows-ool-Azum (p. 237), the great contempla- 
tive, born at Jal, near Bagdad, ah. 471 (a.d. 1078-79). 
He was endowed with great virtue and with the gift of 
miracles, had many disciples, and is still much revered. He 
is called Sheikh, but was a Syed, i. e. of the race of Hosein, 
and died in a. h. 571 (a.d. 1175), aged ninety-seven 
years. Where he died or was buried does not appear. 


at Balooch, four coss from Mooltan. He was distinguished 
for piety and purity of manners, and died as a martyr with 
his brother, fighting against a troop of idolators, and was 


buried with his wife (who died of grief) and his son, in the 
same tomb. Several miracles are related as having hap- 
pened at his tomb. A earners leg, when broken, was forth- 
with made whole ; the blind, the leprous, the impotent w^re 
cured. (Araesh-e-Muhfil.) 

Shah Shums odd Deen Dariai, 
at Depaldal in Lahore. He is stated to have had even a 
pious Hindoo among his disciples. The latter having ex- 
pressed a wish to go and bathe in the Ganges, the saint 
directed him to shut his eyes, when lo ! the Hindoo found 
himself among his relations and friends on tliat sacred 
stream, in which (as he supposed) he bathed with them. On 
opening his eyes again, he straightway found himself beside 
his spiritual guide in Lahore. His tomb is guarded by 
Hindoos, who will not resign their posts to the Moosulmans. 
It is also related that some carpenters having proceeded to 
cut down a tree which grew near his tomb, split it into 
many pieces for use. Suddenly a dreadful voice was heard ; 
the earth shook, and the trunk of the tree arose of itself; 
the workmen fled terrified, and the tree did not fail to 
resume its flourishing condition. 

QooTooB Sahib, or Qoottoob ood Deen, 
near Dehli. He lies buried at Qootoob, a town near Dehli 
named after him, in which the late Shah Alum and many 
members of the royal family of Dehli are buried. His 
tomb is much frequented by pilgrims, he being one of the 
most renowned and venerated of the Moosulman saints. 

^2 F 


Sheikh Buha ood Deen Zakauia, 
Born at Cotcaror in Mooltan. He was a great traveller, 
having it is said, overrun Persia and Turkey, and a disciple 
for some time of Shihab ood Deen Sohurwurdee at Bag- 
dad. He died on the 7th Sufur, a.h. 665 (7th Sept. 
A.D. 1266), and was buried at Mooltan. 

Born at Ghanawal near Mooltan. He was so holy, that 
by his look clods of earth were converted into lumps of 
sugar. He was therefore surnamed Shukur-gunj, which 
means in Persian the treasurv of sugar. 

Sheikh Shureef boo Ali Qulunduk, 
Born at Panniput, a town thirty coss north-west of Dehli, 
to wliich capital he came at forty years of age, and became 
a disciple of Qoottoob ood Deen. He devoted himself for 
twenty years to external sciences ; after which he threw all 
his books into the Jumna, and began to travel for religious 
instruction. In Asia Minor he profited greatly by the 
society of Shums Tubreez and Mowluwee Room. He then 
returned home, lived retired and worked miracles, and is 
said to have died a.h. 724 (a.d. 1323-24). 

Shah Nizzam ood Dee>j Owleea, 
By some supposed to have been born at Gazna, a.h. 630 
(a.d. 1622-3), and by others in a.h. 634 (a.d. 1.236) at 
Badaam, a town in the province of Delhi where he lived. 
He died a.h. 725 (a.d. 1325), and was buried near Delhi, 
hard by the tomb of Qoottoob ood Deen. Through his 

ADDENDA. • 435 

great piety he was considered one of the most eminent saints 
of Hindoostan. 


A celebrated Hindoo Unitarian, equally revered by Hin- 
doos and Moosulmans, founder of the sect called Kubeer 
Punthee or Nanuk Punthee, from which Nanuk, founder 
of the Sikhs, borrowed the religious notions which he pro- 
pagated with the greatest success. 

Baba Lal. 
A Durwaysh (and likewise a Hindoo), who dwelt at 
Dhianpoor in the province of Lahore, the founder of a sect 
called Baba Lalees. He held frequent conversations on the 
subject of religion with Dara Shifroh, eldest son of Shah 
Juhan, and brother of Aurungzebe, which have been pub- 
lished in a Persian work by Chundurbhan Shah Juhanee. 

Shah Dola, 
Died in the seventeenth year of the reign of Alumgeer, at 
first a slave of Kumayandar Sialkoti in Lahore. But he 
seems afterwards to have attained great affluence as well as 
fame ; for having settled at Ch^hotee Goojrat (little Guze- 
rat), he built tanks, dug wells, founded mosques, and 
bridges, and embellished the city. And no wonder ; for 
though his contemporaries came to visit him from far and near, 
and made him presents of gold, money, and other objects, 
he returned to each three or four-fold more than he re- 
ceived. His generosity was such, that had he been con- 
temporary with Hatim Tai, no one would have mentioned 
the name of that hero. 

436 ADDENt)A. 

Syed Shah Zoohoor, 
Distinguished by his wisdom, piety, and austerity of 
life. He built a small monastery of earth at Allahabad, 
which still remains. He was celebrated for his miracles, 
and by his prayers the most frightful chronic complaints 
were immediately removed, of which an instance is given 
in respect to the case of the governor of Allahabad, Nuw- 
wab Oomdut ool Moolk Ameer Khan. This saint (Zoo- 
hoor) boasted of having lived three hundred years. 

Sheikh Mohummud Ali Hazin Gillanee. 
His tomb is at Buxar, where he died in a.h. 1180 
(a.d. 1766-7), distinguished for his science, learning, and 
literary talents. He wrote in both prose and verse with 
equal skill. 



As the Moll urn mud a lis have a great variety of terms where- 
by to express the different degrees of affinity, it may I hope 
not be deemed altogether irrelevant to offer them here in a 
tabular form. 

A maris 

Ozelad Sl^. , or Paternal Offspring. 


Father's brother (elder) 
Father's brother (younger) 

Father's sister. 

Father's father, 
Father's mother. 
Father's father's father, 
Father's father's mother, i_fLi^Jj 

CA-^ SrV. 


\j\j his .' son, 


fwife, t-i^^"?" 

U-f" his' son, <-?V^ l,-^"^ 

[daughter, ^^j^^ ^j^^ 

r husband , ^Jj^^ - \rJ)-^^^ 

[daughter, ^.J LSjt\^^, 

y// Jl , or Maternal Progeny. 

A man's 

Mother's brother, 


his ^ son. 



^>^^ y>*-"' 

laughter, ^^ ^j^y 



- J)\:>- her \ son, 



Mother's sister, 




' ^:r^.^A^ 

Mother's father. 


Mother's mother. 


Mother's father's 



Mother's father's 



A man's 

his \ son, 







her i son, 







his \ son, 





her \ son, 


J3^^ - jUj 







Vide above. Son's son and dausrhter, and 

Granddaughter, J daughter's son and daughter. 
Great grandson, VV.z' " ^^.j^ 

Great granddaughter, i_iy^ r> - '-^^iji 

A man's 

Wife, ijyr ^^^ \ brother, jSLj his ^ son. 

father, .-««j or u—j 

mother, ^^l^ or ^^^Jwiy>- 

wife, ^j^J 

v^sister, |c11-j her 

son, ^^^V^ 

daughter, .^rsT'l^ 




_w«N-: or 1..-.-J 
(_^Lj or ^.c'A«ij*:>- 

his wife, (^.-v*' 

J father, 
brother, elder, 
■ J brother, vouno^er, .»JJ ., 

sister, Jjl3 her husband.* 


For the easy reference of Europeans, it may not be amiss 
to arrange the preceding here alphabetically. 

Blip c__jl.' father. 
Bnyia IILj son. 
Baytee ^A^ daughter. 

Bhaee i_5^/J brother. 

Bhanja ^^^J sister's son (or wife's sister's son). 

Bhanjee ^j:srV.j sister's daughter (or wife's sister's daughter). 

Bhawuj 7f jW^ brother's wife (or wife's brother's wife). 

Bhow-naee lS^^^^ sister's husband. 

Bhuteeja ^^.^^ brother's son (or wite's brother's son). 

Bhuteejee ,^s^.^XJ^_ brother's daughter (or wife's brother's 

Buhoo^^ son's wife. 
Buhun ij^^ sister. 

Chu-cha ^T' father's younger brother. 
Chu-chanee (Jts.^ father's younger brother's wife. 
Chucliayra bhace ^\j^\jj^^ father's younger brother's son. 
Chuchuyree buhun ^^^ ^5^^•=" father's younger brother's 



Dada i^JlJ paternal grandfather. 
Dadee ^jJw paternal grandmother. 

Damad or Juwanee ti'V^ V. '^^ '^ mother's daughter's hus- 

* For this and other degrees of affinity not enumerated above, no peculiar 
epithets are known. 

b 2 



Dayzour )ti-'i:i Davzcura]^, ^ti or \^ , ,, , .1 

^ -^^" . ^'"' fhusband s younger brother. 

Dayiomha ^^j^l^ J 

Dayiiouranee jj,\ iV*^ husband's younger brother's wife. 

Juyili' ~JL^ husband's elder brother. 

Jay^hdnee (jL^iLs- husband's elder brother's wife. 

Joroo ^j^ wife. 

Juwanee i^^^ or Dainad JLcW daughter's husband. 

Khiila j5l>. mother's sister. 

Khdloo .!U> or^ • , 1 , 1 

s.\\ . niother s sister s husband. 
Khulaee ^Jis- J 

Khooshddmun ^^\sJ^^»- wife's or husband's mother. 

Khulayra bhaee o^J ' j~^ mother's sister's son. 

Khulayree buhun ^^^ ^jir^ mother's sister's daughter. 

Md to or Mdn j^U mother. 

Mdmoo ^j'Xo mother's brother. 

Momdnee (JU^ mother's brother's wife. 

Mowlayra bhaee ^\jJ ^j^y mother's brother's son. 

Mowlayree buhun ^^i ^j^^"* mother's brother's daughtir. 

Ndnd Uu maternal grandfather. 

Ndnec (J,\j maternal grandmother. 

Ndnud Julj husband's sister. 

Ndtee (JU or ~| , , , , , 

daughter s daughter. 
Nutnee ^j^ J 

Nutodsa \^\y daughter's son. 

Nuzodsee (^-^W daughter's daughter. 

P'hoojya or Pliooplia ^^^J^ - V,>V^ ^'"1 f'lther's sister's husband 

P'hoopoo or Flioop^hoo j-^^^_y\^ '^:'^i (°'' ""^l'^)* 

P'hoopee or P^hoop^hee ^^^j^i^- j^^i^J father's sister. 

Plioopayra bhaee (_>L^L»J^j father's sister's son. 
P'hoopayree buhun i^.LJjf:^y^. father's sister's daughter. 
Pota \jiji or") 
Potrd \p^^ J 

Sson s son. 

Potee (3*^ or"] 

■■^'' [^ son's daughter. 
Potree ^jZ^^i 



Pur daila iJlJ J palernal great grandfather. * 
Pur dadee ^J'^^'^J^ paternal great grandmother. 
Pur nana UU ..> maternal great grandfather. 
Pur nanee l^ y maternal great grandmother. 

Pur pota ujJ ji or~l 

1 ' great grandson. 
Pur potra \j'JjJ y ] 

Pur potce (-iy y orl 

r. -^/^v great granddaughter. 

Pur potrcc lSP^ y J 

Sas (j>«U) wife's (or husband's) mother. 

Sala^\^ wife's brother. 

Sdlee (Jl-J wife's sister. 

Suroo ^j\^ wife's sister's husband. 

6'oosz/r J-—J or 1 ,, ,. ■ 

-r >> Vwife's or husband s tather- 
Soosra 1 -«*«j J 

Trtee ^Ij father's elder brother's wife. 

Taeea bb' father's elder brother. 

Taeera bhaee ,^\jJi\ji\j father's elder brother's son. 

Taeeree buhun ^.J t-^ji^ father's elder brother's daughter. 

II. WEIGHTS. (Apothecary's.) 

From the Ulfaz-Udzmych ^j"^^ 1jU!1 . 
N, B. (a) signifies Arabic, (p) Persian, (h) Hindoostanee. 
.^s>- Ilubba (a) equal to 1 juw %:>- or com. barleycorn. 
j~J Tussoo (a) ----- - 2 do. 

Ll-J Qeerat (a) or Carat - - - 4 do. 

^r^^ G'/joo«g^c/jce(h)l 

^^«j Soorkh (h) or ... 8 do. 
J, Rutty (h) J 

^to Mush a (li) 8 Rutties. 

Jy To/a (h) 12 Mashas. 

(^\j Tang (h) 4 do. 

^\^ Dang (h) or ^ 4^ «,^«,V.. 

^Jit3 Dunuq (li) j 



/» il) Dirriim (p) or"! ----- 4 Mashu and 

^l) Dirhiim (a) J 1 Rutty. 

JliLC^; Mishqal (a) ----.. 4 Mashas and 

35 Rutties. 
jC^\ Is tar (a) or - - - - - -II5 To/«s and 

i^iilw^ Seer shahee (h) or Royal Seer -J 2 Mashas. 

~>J«^ Owqeea fa) or! 

"r: ,,^ ^ ' - - - - 7i Mishqals. 

~J!j H uqeea (a) J 

^-»r ^^ Mun-e-tibbee (a) - - - - 40 Istars. 

From the Miijmooaee Akburree ; selected from the Hud- 
dees, Seeha-o-Sitiahj Logut-i-Kainoos, and Logtit-e- 

~^ 1 Ilubba . - - 

ft-J 1 Tussoo - - - 

l^l^jj 1 Qeerat - - - 

t,^^'iJ 1 Dang _ . - 
*j^ic> 1 Dirhum - - - 

Jliii*^ 1 Mishqal - - 

)U-:1 1 ils^«/' or tecliiii- j 

cally ^ssar j 

-Jij] 1 Oicqeea 

J^j 1 i?«««^ - - - 

J^ 1 Mud - - - 

, ^ fl Ruttul-e- Buordadee = 90 Mishqals. 

= 1 


= 2 


= 4 


= 8 


= 48 


= 68 


=: Ah 


= 71 

do. and 9 Ruttuls. 

-_ 2 


= 6 



1 do. MeccaorMedina — 

somewhat more. 

-It ^^ 1 Mun-e-tibbee 
aA>'-^ 1 Dirhum - • 

= 2 Ruttuls. 
= 6 DauiTS. 


<^S^\^ 1 Dang " - - _ = 2 Hubbas. 

-*i>- 1 //Miiaorbarley-l _ 

\ 6 Mustard seeds, 

corn - _ J 

Avoirdupois Weight according to the Shurra (or Law of 

1 Dirhiim - - - =10 Dirrums zz 7 Mishqals. 

1 Mishqul - - - = if do. 

200 Dirrums - - - =180 Mishqals. 

1 Mishqal as at presenti . 

> = 2 Dirrums. 
in use J 

1 Saah - - - =314 Mishqals. 

1 do. as at presenti ^ 1 ^, 

}= 40 Dams = l4 luecr. 
in use J 


1 A!^«7e (an Arabian measure). 

1 Mukkook = 3 Kiles :r: 2 Saahs. 

\ Sa ah =4 Mmc/s = 2 Ruttuls = 1 Mm«. 

Apothecary's Weight, from a respectable Moosulman 

oz. dr. gi-. 

1 Massa or Masha = 8 Ghoonghchee - - 15 

1 Tola - - - = 12 Mashas - - - 3 

1 Tan^" - - - = 4 do. - - - 1 

1 Wdsikh - - = 4 Goomchee (Dukh.) 71. 

1 Diriim or Dirhum = 3|^ Mashas ..-00 52i 

1 Mishqal . - = 41, do. . - - 67 

1 Astar-o-clam - =18 do. - - - 4 30 

1 Udkeeah 1 

,, f- - = 7 Mishqals ... 7 52 
Owqeea (?) J ^ 



1 Ruttiil-e-tibbee "] 
or Mukkee ( 



Dtrhums - 



dr. gr. 

1 Rutlul Bugda 







2 15 

1 Miin-e-tibbee 




Dams - 



1 Ziirra 






1 Karusli'ma 





1 Khirdul 





1 Surshuf 





1 Gundooms 





1 Soorkh 





1 D«//« - - 




Mas has 



1 Dang - - 




R utiles 



1 Mils ha 




{Ruttecs or 



1 To^a - - 







1 Chin7ia - 







1 Soorkh - - 

1 Soorkh 

1 iloee A:a r/flwa 
Mustard seed, or 

1 F«/ - - - 

1 Futteela 

1 Nuqeer 

1 Qetmeer 

1 Zurra ... 

1 llubba 

= 4 

f D^aw Av/^ f/awa (orl 
"I Paddy corn) or 8 | 1 1 

ffrs. of rice 


[ Jbze? or barleycorn :1 
3|j generally consi- , 1^ 
I dered asr:2 grs. j 

= 12 Fuls. 

= 6 Fuiteelas. 

= 6 Nuqeers. 

= 8 Qctmecrs. 

=■ 12 Zurras. 

— 6 Ilubba 

= 5 IVahh. 


III. A LIST of DRESSES worn hy Moosulman Men 
and Women. 

I. Male Dresses. 

1. Head Dress. 

Taj or Topee ^J^ - r-u — a cap, generally conical. 

Goshbund or Gosh-romiil ^J^JJ C/~>^ " '^u^^ — ^ handker- 
chief tied over the lower edge of the Taj, which covers 
the ears also ; hence its name. 

Pugree (Dukh.) or Dustar (Pers.) Jc^ii - i_?^ — the com- 
mon people conceive these names different ; but they 
are synonymous terms for a turban, which consists of a 
piece of cloth of from forty to seventy cubits long, and 
from twelve to eighteen inches broad. The following 
are varieties of them, viz. 1. Khirkeedar, such as are 
used among Chowkeedars (watchmen), and Chobdars 
(macebearers) ; 2. Ntistuleekh, by kings, nobles, &c. 
3. Arabee, by Arabs; 4. Piitnaoo, as used in Bengal; 
5. Jooraydar^ a turban tied on, as women tie their 
hair behind in a knot; 6. Chukkreedar, i. e. circular ; 
7. Goondee, globular ; 8. Teenkonee, three-cornered, 
as Tippoo Sultan used to wear; 9. Moottheedar ; 10. 
Lutputtec, irregular, or twisted, as worn by Rachay- 
wars (a warlike race inhabiting Bobilee, &c. in the 
Northern Circars) ; 11. Qudum e Russool, Allum e 
Russoolj Cheera, or Phaynta, worn by kings, princes, 
&c. ; 12. Seepayree Allee, very broad, like a shield ; 
13. Bankee, crooked; 14. Mushaekhee, as worn by 
Mushaekhs ; 15. Luttoodar ; 16. Ek-paycha ; 17. 

Ammama ^U-c — ten to twenty-five cubits long, worn on the 
head like a turban. 

Mundeel JjJ>^« — a band ten or twelve cubits long, woven 
either partly with thread or silk and partly with gold, or 


wholly with gold thread, and applied over the turban ; 
worn by all classes of people that can afford it. 

Surpaych i-~^J j^ — a band two or two and a half cubits long", 
which only encircles the turban two or three times. It 
consists of square pieces of gold plates, threaded to- 
gether, each plate being set with precious stones; chief- 
ly worn by kings, princes, the nobility, &c. 

Gosh-puych or Gush-wara Kj\^ji \)^^\j)^^ — a band of silk, 

two or two and a half cubits long and four fingers 
broad, worn over the turban. 

Zeega or Jeega l^^*5f- u jcj — a band about six inches long 
and two broad, consisting of a piece of velvet beauti- 
fully embroidered, and a gold plate set with precious 
stones sewed on it. It is worn obliquely in front of the 
head on the turban, and tied behind by means of silk 
thread, which is fastened to each end of the band. Only 
worn by kings, princes, and nobles. 

Kulgee ,J^ — a hooinma or phcenix-feather (Gloss.) fixed into 
the turban, having generally a pearl fastened to the end 
of it. Worn only by kings and the great. 

Toorru ijo — worn as the preceding, and made of gold, or 
gold and precious stones. 

2. Dress AvoRN round the Neck. 

Gooloobund >^y^ — or neckcloth, is a kerchief worn round 
the neck. 

3. Body Dresses. 

Mirzace i^^jr^ — a cotton or muslin jacket (or banian) with 
long loose sleeves and open cufTs ; worn under the quba. 

Kufcha -s." — as the preceding, but sleeves tight. 

Dugla ATj — a quilted mirzaee. 

Koorta or Koortunee ij^J/ V. -"Ir — '^ ^'"^ of shirt. It is called 
in Arabic Qumees ; whence the Hindoostanee term 
kumees for our shirts. It is long, reaching down to the 


ankles, and is put on by being thrown over the head. 
Instead of always having the slit or opening in the centre 
of the front, it has it not unfrequently on one side of the 
chest. It has no strings, but a button at its upper end, 
which in Bengal is on the right side, in the Deccan on 
the left. 

Joobba «-.=>- — as mirzace, but reaching down to the ankles, 
without plaits, having two triangular pieces or flaps on 
each side the skirt ; body and sleeves very loose. 

Qiiba -«J — a long gown with flaps in the skirt ; the skirt and 
breast open, and sometimes slits in the armpits. 

Aba Lc — a cloak or habit, very loose, and open in front all the 
way down the centre, not unlike a boat-cloak. 

Chupkunov Bulabur jih\i^ ^^^^ — as the quba^ but breast 

A nga or Anguj^k' ha \^^\\j^S-j\ — as the quba, without open 
flaps ; breast and armpits covered. (Also termed choga, 
mogolaee, buhadooree, bundij^ or kulleedar.) In the 
Deccan, the angurk^has have plaits on each side. 

P;tj7^uhun or Alkhciliq ^Is-i l> \^)^jlp., — ^^ ^^^ quba, but having 
buttons instead of strings, and that in three places; at 
the neck, navel, and between the two. 

JTi/na>- — a long gown, as the preceding, but having an im- 
mense quantity of cloth (from eleven to thirty breadths) 
in the skirt, which at the upper part is folded into in- 
numerable plaits; the body part is tied in two places on 
each side, being double-breasted. The upper one of 
the right side is generally made into a knob with a 
number of strings. The Mohummudans tie their Jamas 
on the right side ; the Hindoos on the left. 

Neeina -/«.-J — ^as the preceding, but with only from five to 
seven breadths of cloth formino- the skirt. 


Neema yisteen ^^^c^\ .^ — a sort of a ba/iian, worn over 
either of the two preceding, and never by itself. It 


reaches to below the knee, is single-breasted, and fasten- 
ed above by one button in the centre of the chest ; has 
short sleeves. It is a very expensive dress. 

Kumurbund or Putka Ixij l> <^j^ — a girdle. A long piece 
of cloth, girt round the loins. 

Doputta Jb^J — lit. two-breadths. A cloth thrown loosely 
over the shoulders. It should properly have a seam in 
the centre, to indicate its being formed of two breadths, 
whence its name; but vulgarly the name is applied to 
any cloth thus worn. 

Doshala jl-i)jJ — or a pair of shawls, worn as the preceding. 
A single shawl is never worn ; the wearer would be 
laughed at if he did. 

Sayla J-«-s — a piece of muslin worn as a doputta, 

Doo-laee iji^j>^ or Ek-ldee ^J^^^^ — generally made of silk 
(scarcely ever of cloth), edged with a border of silk or 
task («'. e. silver or gold woven with silk) of a different 
colour. When it consists of one breadth, it is called 
ek-laee ; of two, doo-laee. It may be worn in different 
ways. If the individual choose to indulge his fancy by 
twisting it round his head, it forms a turban; if thrown 
over the shoulders, it may be called a doputta ; if worn 
round the loins, a kumurbuud. 

Chuddur or Chadur jc\s>- -jS^- or Dohur Jb^i — a large piece 
of cloth or sheet, of one and a half or two breadths, 
thrown over the head, so as to cover the whole body. 
Men usually sleep rolled up in it. 

Loong or LooTiggee .-xJ u (.^J Tahbund or Tuhmut Auj J" 
tj:,,^j.j u — a piece of cloth, which should, according to 
Moosulman rule, be merely wrapped round the body, 
or rather pelvis, and its ends tucked in, after the custom 
of the Moplat/s ; and not, as is generally done, in 
imitation of the Hindoo mode of wearing it, by passing 
the end between the thighs and tucking it in behind. 
Loonggee is the name given to coloured cloth worn 

Lunggotee ^g-V^ — a bit of cloth about two feet long and 


thus. Dhootce, a similar cloth with a coloured border, 
is seldom worn by Moosulmans, because a Hindoo 
Tusma vK«J or Duwalee (J^j<^ — the former a leathern strap, 

the latter of thread or string, tied round the loins, to 
which the following (lunggo(ee) is fastened fore and 
aft. Worn only by fuqeers. 

six or eight inches broad, passed between the legs, and 
the ends tucked in before and behind to the preceding 
tusma or duwalee. 

4. Hands. 

Romal (j^^j — or handkerchief. 

Dustana jl:i-:ti — or gloves of leather, cloth, &c. Among 
the nobility sometimes of shawl. These are of the 
form used in England for children, having a receptacle 
for the thumb, but the fingers are all contained in the 
same bag or cyst. 

5. Leg Dresses. 

Pdee-jama ^U-j^jIi or Tumban ^^J^ — long drawers, or 
loose trowsers, remarkably wide in the legs, i. e. from 
one to three cubits in circumference. 

Shuraee ^j^U*' or Shilwar ^V-^ Soorzoal J'j r-J or Eezar 
j\j\ — long drawers, as the preceding, but not so wide ; 
not being wider than a foot, if so much. 

Goorgee ^Sy — Breeches or short drawers. They reach be- 
low the knees, and fit tight. 

Cholna UU>- or Churna ^Jf- or Jangeca wjI:>- — still 
shorter breeches than the preceding, reaching only 
half way down the thighs. 

Chuddee i_sSs>- — shorter still than cholna.^ having scarcely any 
legs at all. 

Moond iXiyo — a cloth three cubits long, wound round the 
pelvis, worn by Moplays. 


Paeetaba -jIj'c^Ij — stockings or a sliort kind of socks, worn 
by the opulent during the cold season, called Joorab 
^-r']/^ , made of cotton or silk, or both intermixed, and 
of various colours. Those which are remarkably thick 
rarely reach above the ankles. Persons of the first 
rank have ihe'xrjoorabs, as also their d'ustunas or gloves, 
made of shawl. 

6. Foot Dresses. 

Jootee cJjr>- — or shoes, which are of different forms ; such as 
1. Nowkdur j\^CJy) , the toe part is terminated by a 
long pointed strip, usually of leather lined with cloth, 
that curls inwards over the toes; without this the shoes 
would be considered both unfinished and vulgar; 2. 
Appashaee {J^^^\ ', 3. Chanddoree i^^jJuU- ; 4. 
ChuppjjlJ^; 5. Zaj/rpdee ^\jjij ; 6. Kufnh i^^ ; 
7. Ghetlee ^^^J:^^ ; 8. Faj/shazcuree lSj^^, '. 9' Nali/n 
jjJ-*3 ; 10. Churhuwan (^,l^'"i>- . Some of these shoes 
are made of a very thick and rich stuff, embroidered 
in a splendid manner with silver and gold, and beset 
with spangles. 

Moza Hjyc — or boots, made of different sorts of coloured 

If. Female Dresses. 
1. Head Dresses. 
Taj -.\j — the same as that worn by men. 

Assa «ic or Kussazoa \jLJ — a handkerchief tied round the 
head on going to bed. 

Muqna j_lJU or Ghoongut CLSj^^ — a handkerchief of fine 
muslin thrown over the head, which covers the face 
after the manner of a veil. 

Moobaf u^\^ — a slip of red cloth, a skein of thread, or a 
fillet of brocade tied to the end of the chooiitec^ to pre- 
vent its unravelling. 


2. Body Dresses. 

Bazooj\\i Koortunee ij^S Koorta Jo or Koortee <^J> — 
a kind of short shirt, reaching down to the hips, with 
very short (if any) sleeves; sometimes open at the upper 
part of the chest in front. 

Choice iJj-=*- — a sort of a bodice or spencer, which fits close, 
and only extends downwards to cover the breasts, but 
completely shows their form. It has tight sleeves, 
which reach half way (or less) down between the 
shoulder to the elbow ;* and a narrow border of em- 
broidery, or silk, &c. of a different colour sewed on 
round all its edges. It is put on as a spencer, and the 
two ends tied together in front. 

Ungeea L>j1 or Muhrum (»jS^ — in regard to the sleeves and 
length of bodice as the preceding, but instead of being 
tied in front and only at the bottom, it is put on as a 
straight jacket, and fastened behind above and below, 
leaving about four fingers breadth of the back bare. 

Pishwaz j\yLJ or Tilluk ulisij — not unlike the male jama, 
but only reaching to below the knees, and is of coloured 
muslin ; it is double-breasted, and the two flaps fastened 
in two places on each side. 

3. Leg Dresses. 

Shurraee i^y^ or Shilwar y^L^ — long drawers, the same 

as that of the men, except that women generally wear 

them tisrhter. 
L'hunga oo^^ or Tobund J^iy — a kind of petticoat, or a mere 

skirt, which is tied round the loins, and extends to the 

feet or ground. 
Saree l-^Lj — a dress consisting of an entire piece of cloth 

(white or coloured), wrapped several times round the 

* Never longer, as that would approximate too much to the Hindoo 
manner of having it entirely down to the elbows. The latter avoid shorter 
ones, for a contrary reason. 


loins; and falling down over the legs to the ankle, serves 
as a petticoat. The other end is passed over the head, 
and hangs down on one side. 
Orhnce ^^J^Jy Ddmnee f^'^^i^ or Diioonee ii»\d — a wide 
piece of muslin, generally coloured and of superior 
quality, thrown over the left shoulder, which passino- 
under the right arm is crossed under the middle, and 
being tucked into the I'hiniga, hangs down to the feet. 
One end of it is sometimes spread over the head, and 
serves for a veil. 

Kuppur-p'hool J^, j-^ — a silk cloth, worked with gold and 
silver flowers, worn as a sarce. 

G'hansee ^^^\^ — a piece of gauze, worn as an orhnee over 
a Vhimga. 

Chudur jS:>- corrupt, of Chadur jS^ — a sheet, thrown over 
the head, which covers the whole body, and reaches 
down to the ground. Women generally wrap them- 
selves in it on going out into the streets, taking especial 
care to conceal with it their faces; which, if they be 
old and ugly, they are more particular in doing. They 
also sleep wrapped up in it. 

lioorqa ^_J^ — a white sheet thrown over the head, which 
conceals the whole body. It has a net-worked space 
opposite the eyes through which they see, while the 
face is effectually hid from view. This is used by mo- 
dest women, who cannot afford to go in doolees or pa- 
lankeens, but are obliged to walk. It is not unusual 
to see such a figure mounted on a bullock, which to a 
stranger and at a distance does not look unlike a ghost. 
4. Foot Dresses. 

Jooiee t-ij^ — or shoes, or rather slippers (which, as soon as 
they return home from walking to their seat on the carpet 
are thrown aside) ; named according to their form, 
koicsh (jL^ , without heels, the back part being flat- 


tened clown under the foot. Chinauh Jvi*^ , without 
any back piece, the quarters terminating under the 
ankles on each .side, with raised heels perhaps an inch 
high.* Payshawuree cJ;^^ •> Ghayilee ^^J^^ » oi" 
Chandoree ^5J•l^3l^>~ . 
N. B. Children, in addition to wearing any of the preced- 
ing clothes, wear in their infancy what is called u 
shulooka l^^jLij , which consists of a couple of pinafores, 
one worn on the breast, the other on the back, and 
fastened above and below the shoulders. 


l;»^^r .:kxj ) worn hy Moosulman Worn en A 

Ornaments worn on the Head. 

Soorij ff^jy^ or Sisj^houl J»y^_^p^ — a large circular beauti- 
fully embossed golden ornament, worn on the back part 
(nearly on the crown) of the head. 

Raktee ^J^\j — (usually worn by Hindoo women) the same as 
the preceding. When worn by Moosulman women it 

* Men usually wear only embroidered shoes ; but women have an abun- 
dance of various coloured foils, principally purple or green, or the wings of 
green beetles, fastened down to the body of the vamp (which is of some 
bright coloured broad-cloth), and serving by the manner in which they are 
disposed to fill up the pattern of the embroidery. This is either of gold or 
silver thread, or very small bugles, not dissimilar to seed pearls. Those 
who cannot afford such decorations, are content with silken ornaments. 

f All ornaments worn on the head, ears, nostrils, neck, arms, wrists, and 
hands, by the respectable classes of people are made of gold ; by the lower 
classes of people, the ear ornament called dundeean, and the neck ring 
called hunslee, together with all worn on the arms, wrists, and fingers, are 
of silver. Butchers (be they ever so rich, and able to afford to liave them of 
gold), durst not make them but of silver. The other ornaments, viz. of the 
loins, ankles, feet, and toes, are by the lower and middling classes of people 
of silver; but among the nobility of gold. It is inconceivable what some 
women undergo for the sake of displaying their riches in this way. 

j^^iii APPENDIX. 

is made a quarter of the size, and worn between the pre- 
ceding and the following one. 
Chand jjU- — a semi-lunar golden ornament worn under two 

others on the head. 
Choontee ^y>- — false hair braided together, having a large 
golden knob or cup above and several smaller ones be- 
low, this is plaited with the natural hair of the head. 
The chooniee sometimes consists of silk or cotton thread, 
with which the hair is tied. 
Mirza-bay-purwa \j,jJ ^y, \}j^ — three small delicate golden 
chains, worn as the teeka^ fixed to the hair by small 
hooks ; the lower hanging ends being either set or not 
with precious stones. 
Mang {±tj[^ or Mangputiee ^5j i^JjVo — a golden ornament 
worn over the line on the top of the head where the hair 
is parted, reaching to the back part of the head. 
Teeka l^ or Mang-ieeka IL!) t^U — any golden ornament 
worn on the forehead, whether it be a single round one set 
with precious stones fixed on or glued to the centre of the 
forehead, or one hanging from the parting of the hair to 
the spot between the eyes. This frontal ornament has 
usually a star or radiated centre, of about two inches in 
diameter, set in gold, and richly ornamented with small 
pearls, of which various chains are attached, aiding to 
support it in its position on the centre of the forehead. 
A triple or quadruple row of pearls passes up the centre 
of the mang^ or the part where the hair is parted ; the 
hair being divided and kept down very flat. ' The centre 
piece (and occasionally each end piece also) is com- 
posed of precious stones, such as topaz, emerald, ruby, 
amethyst, &c. Sometimes the centre is of one colour 
and all the rays of some other; or the latter are alter- 
nate. Thus the mang-ieeka is not a very light orna- 
ment, but it is extremely splendid, and being generally 


set in gold often very valuable. One of a very ordinary 
description will cost full twelve or fifteen guineas, 
though composed of coloured glass or crystal, or foils. 
When made of precious stones, the price may reach to 
any extent. 

Surra-surree i^j^Sj.^ — (a Hindoo ornament). An elegant 
and delicate golden ornament, which forms two semi- 
circles, bordering the edge of the hair parted in a simi- 
lar manner to each side. 

1. Ornaments worn on the Ears. 

European ladies are content with one appendage at each 

ear, while the females of Hindoostan think it impossible to 

have too many. 

Kurrunplwol (^^j ^ji — a gold ornament, having a star or 
radiated centre of about an inch and a half in diameter, 
sometimes richly ornamented with precious stones. It 
is fixed into the lobe of the ear both by the usual mode 
of piercing, and by a chain (sunkulee) of gold passing 
over the ear, so as to bear the weight of the kurrun- 
p'hool and jhoomka^ which would else cause the lobe 
to be greatly extended downwards. It is however to 
be remarked, that most of the inferior women have 
large holes in that part of the ear, wide enough to pass a 
finger through (and the Arwee [Malabar] women on the 
Coromandel coast, especially at Madras, large enough to 
pass a ring an inch and a half in diameter). Even the 
higher orders consider an aperture, such as would admit 
a pea, rather honourable than otherwise, from its in- 
dicating the great weight and consequent value of their 

Jhoomka \^j^ — is always of solid gold, and consists of a 
hollow hemisphere or bell, curiously fillagreed, and 
about an inch in diameter. The edges suspend small 
rods or pendants of gold, each furnished with one or 
more small pearls, garnets, &c., sometimes a dozen or 
c 2 


two pendants being attached to the circumference of 
each jhoomka, sometimes suspending a hundred pearls. 
In the upper part is a small perforated stud, sometimes 
ornamented, through which a ring about the thickness 
of a fine knitting needle, and not less than half an inch 
in diameter, is inserted, it previously passing through 
the ear in the part usually pierced. This ring, like 
every other fastening made to pass through the ears 
or nose, is of the purest gold. It is so pliant, that the 
little hook made at one end, by bending the wire to fix 
it into a minute loop or eye formed at the other end 
by twisting it, may be straightened at pleasure by 
means of the nail only. In general however the jhoom- 
ka is fixed to the lower edge of the kurrunp^hool. 

Sunkulee Jili«: — or gold chains (sometimes ornamented with 
pearls) which support the ears and its appendages. 

Kullus \j^ ' 

Boogray ^'€S — (a Hindoo ornament). 

Patan ,.,\j"b — lit. leaves, because resembling them, worn in 
any part of the ear except in the lobe and the little ear. 

B'hadooreean ^Vj^^ ^"^ HunAeean (^V.^*^ — ^'i^se which 
comprehend a number of small rings of pure gold, or 
in case of poverty of silver, or even of tin, are affixed, all 
alono- the border of the ear, which is pierced for that 
purpose. The number worn is from four to eleven, ge- 
nerally the latter : that is to say in one ear, the left 
having invariaby one less. 

Moorkeean ^J^j^ — or a small jhoomka, worn in the litde 

Morneean ij^jy« — the same as haysur (nose orn.) worn on 
the top of the ear. 

Alloluq (Jiyi\ . 

Ooddraj J\j'^\ — stone ear-rings. 


Hulqa JjJj*- or Doorj^ — a ring worn on the little ear. 

Kflti Baoolee |<JjV U ' 

Long i^SJy • 

Punklia I^Gj . 

Much-cWhee ^^^^s^ - 

2. Ornaments worn on the Nose. 

The nose has its share in the decoration of the Hindoostanee 

ladies, and bears several ornaments. 

NuVh ^ — an ornament passed through the left nostril, con- 
sists of a piece of gold wire as thick as a small knitting 
needle, with the usual hook and eye, and furnished at 
the centre, or nearly so, with several garnets, pearls, 
&c., perhaps to the number of seven or more, separated 
by a thin plate of gold, having generally serrated or 
scolloped edges, and being fixed transversely upon 
the wire, which passes through their centres, as well as 
through the garnets, pearls, &c. The common dia- 
meter of the circle of a nuVh is from one inch and a 
half to two and a half. On the coast of Coromandel a 
somewhat similar ornament is worn in each ear by men 
of respectability (called /jogoo/. Vide Index). 
Boolaq J^ — of these there are two varieties, viz. boolaq and 
chand kay boolaq. The boolaq is a nasal trinket, flat, 
in form not unlike that article of furniture called a foot- 
man, and has at its narrowest part a couple of eyes. 
It is appended to the middle septum or centre cartilage 
of the nose, by means of a gold screw passed through 
an orifice in it. The ornament lays flat upon the upper 
lip, having its broad end furnished with pendants of 
pearls, and its surface set with precious stones. 
Baysur j^^ or Mornee ^jjyo — worn on the right nostril. 
Those who wear this ornament and the next are nick- 
named baysur-wdlee and p''hoollee-wdlee. 
P'hooUee ^^,J — this ornament, like the baysur, is invariably 
worn on the right wing of the nose. 


NuVhnee ^ji^ — a small ring worn on the left nostril by 


3. Ornaments worn round the Neck. 

The neck is not forgotten among those lavish decorations, 

of which the native ladies are so fond. It is furnished with 

various kinds of necklaces. 

Luch-ch'ha * \^' — a necklace worn tight round the neck, 
formed of gold beads (called munka Ki^), and pute 
Cl.^^ (or glass beads). 

Hulla Jj6 or Neembolee ^)^^ — the same as the preceding, 
but longer and hanging down. 

Chowkree [^^y>- — a» ornament worn tight round the neck, 
formed of stars of gold, strung on three black silk or 
wire threads, with kalee-pote + or black glass beads 
filling up the interstices. 

Jignee ^J-^, a small semilunar ornament worn in the cen- 
tre of a string of beads, &c. 

Pudduck C^^l . 

Joio-un Mala iUc ^^ • 

Chunduti'har j\si ^X>j>' or Nozcsur-harj\St>j^y . 

Mohun-mald j\^ ^i>ye . 

GuUayrec \^j-^ • 

Chowsayree i^j^»s>~ —not unlike the bazoo-bund, but worn 
tight round the neck and hooked behind. 

Chumpa-kullee ^ Li^ — this is made of separate rays, each 
intended to represent the unblown flowers of the chum- 
pa (Michelia champaca, Lin.), to the number of from 
forty to eighty or more, strung together. This orna- 

* The hch-ch'ha, gulsayree, nufh, and hunggree, are four ornaments quite 
essential to matrimony. Even the poorest cannot enter the connubial state 
without having them. 

t Pole or glass beads. Of these three varieties are in use, viz. kdke-pote 
or black glass beads, most generally used ; hurree pote or green glass beads; 
and Id pote or /a/ t/eeuK red glass beads; the former cast into a round shape, 
the latter cut. 

APPENDIX. xxiii 

ment is usually worn rather loose, that it may reach 
half way down the bosom. The mounting is gold or 
silver, according to the means of the wearer, and the 
rays or flower-buds are in imitation of the mdng-teeka ; 
either crystals set in foils, chiefly white, or precious 
stones of one colour, throughout the ornament ; or, it is 
wholly composed of gold. 
Dooluree ^J)Ci — lit. two strings. Two rows of small round 
gold beads {munkay) threaded on silk. When the or- 
nament consists of three rows, it is called tee-luree ; of 
four, chaoo-luree ; of five, puch-luree or p (Inch- luree. 
Toolsee ^-J-J" — nearly the same as the doo-luree, except that 
instead of the gold beads being round they are of an 
octagonal shape. 
Poorneed kay Gulsayree ^Jj^ ^ V^, • 
Towq jy H«ns jj-jltt) or Hum-lee ^L-iis — is a solid collar 
of gold or silver, weighing from four ounces to nearly 
a pound. The latter must be highly oppressive to the 
wearer, especially as they are only used on high days 
and holidays; the general standard may be computed 
at about six or seven ounces. Being made of pure 
metal, they are easily bent, so as to be put on and off". 
They are commonly square in front under the chin 
for several inches, and taper off* gradually to not more 
than half their greatest diameter, terminating at each 
end with a small knob, cut into a polygonal form. This 
ornament is sometimes carved in the oriental style, either 
through the whole length, or only on the front. 
Mwikeean ka Imr j\&> ^ JJ^ or Har j\^—or necklace, of 
pearls, large gold beads (munkay), corals, garnets, &c. 
Puiid b — . 

Tdweezji,^^ — most of the Hindoostanee women wear round 
their necks, strung upon black silk thread, tdweezes, 
which are silver cases enclosing either quotations from 


the Qoran, some mystical writings, or some animal or 
vegetable substance. Whatever may be the contents, 
great reliance is placed on their efficacy in repelling 
disease and averting the influence of witchcraft (jddoo), 
of which the people of India, of every sect, entertain the 
greatest apprehension. Hence it is not uncommon to 
see half a dozen or more of these charms strung upon 
the same thread ; sometimes with the addition ofbiighna 
U^, or the teeth and nails of a tiger, which are hung 
round the neck of a child. Vide p. 356. 

4. Ornaments worn on the Upper Arm, or Armlets. 

Bhooj-bund SUJ) ^. or B'dzoo-bimd >^^j\i — a trinket adorned 

with semicircular ornaments made hollow, but filled up 
with melted rosin. The ends are furnished with loops 
of the same metal, generally silver, and secured by 
silken skeins. 
Dholnai/ ^J^JbS . 

Baoola |<JjV — on ornamented gold ring. 

5. Ornaments worn round the Wrist, or Bracelets. 
The wrists are always profusely decorated. 

KuYvci IP — a ring worn on the wrist, ankle, &c. a massive 
ring of solid silver, weighing from three to four ounces. 
These rings are commonly hexagonal or octagonal, of 
an equal thickness throughout, and terminated by a 
knob at ench end, the same as in the hunslee. This 
ornament being of pure metal, may be opened sufficient- 
ly to be put on or off at pleasure ; the ends being brought 
together by an easy pressure of the other hand. 

Kunggun ^S^ — Ek-hara, k. and Do-hara, k. 

Pozunchcedn j^L^i^ — Ag kay p"" hool hay P. and Luhsun 
kay phank kay P.; a bracelet formed of small pointed 
prisms of solid silver, or hollow of gold filled with 
melted rosin, each about the size of a very large barley 
corn, and having a ring soldered to its bottom. These 


prisms are strung upon black silk as close as their point- 
ed or perhaps rounded ends will admit, in three or 
four parallel rows, and then fastened. 

Puiiree i^^ — gilt brass rings, a quarter of an inch broad: 
from one to four are worn on each wrist. Should they 
wear bunggrees, only a couple of these are worn, one on 
each side of the bimggrees. 

Choor j^^- — an ornament consisting of several puiirees joined 

Munggultee ic^x..^ . 


To-rray LJjyi 

Butiggreean i^J^,?^, — they consist of thin rings made of dif- 
ferent coloured glass, and worn on the wrists. They are 
universally worn by the women in the Deccan, and their 
fitting closely to the wrist is considered as a mark of de- 
licacy and beauty; for they must of course be passed 
over the hand. In doin<r this the fino-ers are cracked 
and the hand well squeezed, to soften and mould it into 
a smaller compass ; and a girl seldom escapes without 
drawing blood and rubbing part of the skin from her 
hand. Every well dressed woman has a number of 
these rings on each arm. The usual number is from 
ten to sixteen. If they wear other golden ornaments 
along with them they are fewer, if not, a greater num- 
ber, agreeably to fancy; but invariably one more on 
one wrist than the other. 

Chooreean f^y>- — bangles or rings made of sealing-wax 
(lac), and ornamented with various coloured tinsel. Also 
called Nuqdajf kajora. 

Hirnbalay — worn along with bunggrees, singly, and next to 
the body. 

Astiir — worn singly, and next to the hand. 

6. Ornaments worn on the Fingers, or Rings. 

Unggoihee t^^Jy^' or Chliap c— ?l(j»>- — rings of various sorts 


and sizes worn on any finger, generally of gold, those 
of silver being considered mean. 

Arsee ^^j\ or A eena >:'^i\ — or looking-glass. The thumb of 
each hand has a ring which fits close, having a small 
mirror about the size of a halfpenny fixed upon it by 
the centre, so as to accord with the back of the thumb. 
The deena should be of gold ; but on account of the 
quantity of gold required wherein to set the glass, many 
content themselves with silver mounting. That a small 
looking-glass may at times be commodiously situated at 
the back of the thumb, will not be disputed ; but what 
shall be said of that preposterous custom which Eu- 
ropeans have witnessed, of wearing a similar ornament 
on each great toe. 

Unggooshtdn ^^\:iJL>j\ or Huddeedroo jj\i^Sib — a particular 
kind of ring, an inch broad, worn on the thumbs, only 
during the wedding days, or for six or twelve months 
after, when it is melted down and converted into any 
thing else. 

Ch^hullay tX\^ Kungnee ke Cli'hullay^ Kunkree ke beej 
ke Cli'hullay^ Sdday CK'hullay — usually about the fifth 
of an inch broad, very thin, and for the most part with 
bended edges. 

7. Ornaments worn round the Waist or Loins. 
Kummur-putid lib -^ or Sdda-puHee ^Jlj HiA^ — i. e. plain, or 

a simple flat ring, one inch and a half broad, which en- 
circles the waist, being carved at the ends where they 
are hooked. 

Kummiir-sdl JLj^ or Koorsdn ka puiiee — consisting of 
small square tablets two inches broad, which are carved 
and fixed by hinges, worn as the preceding. 

%ur-kummur j^^jj . 

8. Ornaments worn round the Ankles (Ankj.ets) and 

Lool f\y . 


To-rruy iJ%'J — an ornament like a chain. 

Pyn-jun l^t^^V — little bells fastened round the feet of children. 

Pdel J.;Ij . 

Paezeb ^— ^. J lJ^ — consists of heavy rings of silver resembling' 
a horse's cub chain, set with a fringe of small spherical 
bells, all of which tinkle at every motion of the limb. 

Maynhdee ^^^X^i-^ . 

Ghoonggroo ^f^->^' — are of two kinds, viz. 1. Atnmeejieean 
i^\^--o\ ; 2. Ch'huglee Ghoonggroo ^^^^f ^^x^ . 

Ku-xvci Vji — rings of silver, made very substantial, not weigh- 
ing less than half a pound each. 

9. Ornaments worn on the Toes. 

Anwui iJ!jyi\ — a ring furnished with little bells, and worn on 
the great toe. 

Bich'hway ^^j^^ or Kooireean ^,,y..y — rings worn round 
the toes, and attached along each side of the foot to the 

Chiikeean (juijb>- . 

Cli'hullay ^X--^ — is like the one of the same name worn on 
the thumb. This is worn on the great toe. 

Muttay ^Ji'O — a Hindoo ornament. 

Besides the preceding, there is an ornament which covers 

the pudendum in young girls, made generally in the shape of 

a vine leaf, and suspended to a string tied round the waist. 


(including the various Dishes alluded to in this Work), 

1, PoLAoos X . 

Polaoo Yekhnee, vulgo, Ak'hnee Pillaoo jh ^^^^ or K'hara 
Polaoo — the common kind is prepared with rice, meat, 
ghee, duhee (or curdled milk), and spices; such as 
shah zeeree (a variety of the cummin seed), cardamo- 
mums, cloves, cinnamon, dhunneea (or coriander seed). 

xxviii APPENDIX. 

and kolmeer (or the leaves of the coriander plant), black 
pepper, green ginger, onions, garlic, and salt. A good 
receipt for it is as follows : Take half a seer of mutton, 
four or five onions (whole), one piece of green ginger, 
two dried cassia leaves (tai/j-pat), eight corns of black 
pepper, six seers (or twelve pounds) of water ; boil these 
together in an earthen vessel, until one and a half or 
two seers of fluid remain ; take the pot off the fire, 
mash the meat, &c. with the liquor, and strain it through 
a towel. Set aside this i/ekhnee (or broth). Take rice 
one poa (eight ounces), wash it well and dry it by 
squeezing it firmly in a towel. Put one poa ghee (or 
butter) into a saucepan or tinned copper vessel and melt 
it ; fry in it a handful of onions sliced longitudinally, 
and when they have acquired a red colour, take them 
out and lay them aside. In the ghee which remains, 
fry slightly a fowl which has previously been boiled in 
a half or one seer of water, then take out the fowl, and 
in the same ghee add the dried rice, and fry it a little. 
As the ghee evaporates add the above broth to it, and 
boil the rice in it. Then put into it ten or twelve cloves, 
ten or twelve peppercorns, four pieces of mace, ten or 
twelve lesser cardamoms, all whole : one dessert spoon- 
ful of salt, one piece of green ginger cut into fanciful 
slices, and two tayjpat or dried cassia leaves. When 
the rice is sufficiently boiled, remove all, except a very 
little fire from underneath and place it on the top of the 
brass cover. If the rice be at all hard, add a very little 
water to it and stir it about, and put the fowl also now 
in to imbibe a flavour. On serving it up, place the fowl 
on a dish and cover it over with the rice, garnishing 
the latter with two or four hard boiled eg'w's cut into 
two, and the fried onions. 
Qoorma PolaooVh K^j^s — as the preceding, except that the 
meat is cut into very thin slices. 


Meetha Polaoo Jh V^^-^ — made of rice, sugar, ghee, aro- 
matics ; and instead of ginger, aniseed. 

Moozafur Polaoo yj j^j-< or Shushrunga Polaoo uj.,l-i 
•ib — as Moozafur Shola, but not so watery. 

Tdree Polaoo %j i^j^ — rice, meat, turmeric, and ghee. 

Sooee Polaoo .w lJ^ — prepared with the addition of sooee 
or dill seed. 

Much-cK'hee or Mdhee Polaoo jL ic^^ V. 15V?"'* — sa'i^e as 
yekhnee, but substituting fish for the meat. 

Umlee Polaoo^ iS^^ — asyekhnee, with the addition of ta- 

Dumpokht Polaoo Aj i ^ , ^ .g^ /» J — asyekhnee, but when nearly 
ready adding the ghee and giving dum, (i. e. leaving it 
closed up with hot embers put both below and above it, 
till the moisture be evaporated). 

Zurda Polaoo i^ !(Jjj — as the preceding, with the addition 
of saffron. 

Kookoo Polaoo ^^j ^^ . 

Moala Polaoo^ AJ^-* • 

Dogosha Polaoo VL) Jiiji^d — rice, meat, ghee, and spices ; 
making it excessively hot with the spices. 

Polaoo-e-Mugzeeat CUv\k^ yj — to meetha polaoo add ker- 
nels of fruits (such as almonds, pistachio nuts, &c.). 

Moozdfurshola Ji-l^L* — made with rice, saffron, milk, rose->. 
water, and sugar, of a thin consistence : it is very cooling. 

Birreednee i3^t> — as qoorma polaoo, with marrow and plenty 
of spices, and the addition of limes, cream, and milk; 
or take raw meat one seer (two pounds), cover it with 
duhee, ginger, garlic, and salt, and set it aside for 
three hours in a covered vessel. Fry four pice weight 
(two ounces) of onions sliced, in one and a half pow 
(twelve ounces) o^ ghee in an earthen pot; take out the 
fried onions and three quarters of the ghee, fry half the 
meat in the ghee, and take it off the fire ; boil one seer 


(two pounds) of rice in water. On the fried meat 
scatter half the boiled rice, sprinkle some spices and 
onions over, and pour a little of the ghee into it ; repeat 
the layers of meat, rice, spices, onions, and ghee as 
before. Afterwards pour a little milk over the whole, 
sufficient to soften the rice ; make the earthen pot air- 
tight with flour,* and cook it on a charcoal fire. 

Mootunjun Polaoo3j ^sx^^ — rice, meat, sugar, ghee. Some- 
times adding pine-apples or nuts. 

Kush or Huleem Polaoo yj *-is^ l> ^^ Boont Polaoo c!,^^j 
i^ — or Chunnay kay Dal (or Bengal horse gram) 
kay Polaoo^ made of wheat, meat, and spices. 

Lubnee Polaoo yj ^J.^ — prepared in a silver dish; cream, 

kernels, sugarcandy, ghee, rice, spices, particularly 
Jamun Polaoo jju ^j^ls*- . 

Teetur Polaoo yjjxJ — nsyckhnee, but with the meat of the 

partridge, (Tetrao cinerea, Lin.) 
Butayr Polaoo jJu^Jb — as the preceding, but with quails, 

(Tetrao coturnis. Buck.) 
Kofta Polaoo jh zi^ . 

K'hareeThoollee ^Jy^J 'rfj\ — meat with sooiee or moong dal. 
K^hdree Chukoleean (^U^^ i^J^ — meat, vermicelli, and 

green (kuchcha) dal. 

2. K'nicHREE ^ — commonly made thus: Take one poa 
(four ounces) sona or hurree 7noong kay dfil, (Pha- 
seolus aureus, Roxb. Phaseolus radiatus, Lin,') green 
gram or rayed kidney-bean ; fry it a little with a small 
quantity of ghee or butter in an earthen vessel to im- 
part a nice smell to it, this is called bug'harna, or to 
season; then moisten it, by sprinkling a little water on it 

* The flour best adapted for this purpose is mask ka ata, Phaseolus max, 
WiUd. or black gram. 


while on the fire; after, boil it in one and a half jjow 
(twelve ounces) of water in a tinned copper vessel. When 
pretty soft (though not quite so), take it off the fire. 
Put two Mhuttucks (four ounces) of ghee or butter into 
another tinned copper vessel, and when melted, throw 
into it a handful of onions peeled and sliced lengthways ; 
continue frying them until they acquire a fine red co- 
lour: then take them out and lay aside. To the re- 
maining ghee put one poa (eight ounces) of rice pro- 
perly washed and fry it a little ; then add the dal with 
the water in which it was boiled, and two pieces of green 
ginger cut into slices. When the water has nearly 
evaporated, remove part of the fire from below and 
place it on the brass cover taking the pot occasionally 
off the fire and shaking it, which is called dum dayna: 
but before so doing add to the rice ten or twelve cloves, 
one or two large pieces of mace, ten or twelve pepper 
corns, two dried cassia leaves, a dessert spoonful of salt, 
and cover it up. This is what is termed suffeid, or white 
Whichree. When required of a fine yellow colour, add 
a little pounded turmeric about the quantity of the size 
of a pea to it, at the time that the dal is added. When 
served up, ornament it with four hard boiled eggs, and 
the above fried onions, as in the case o? \\\epolaoo. 

Oohalee K^hichvee lSj-^t' (JM — rice and dal, gurrur?i, and 
all thunda mussala, Gloss, (except chillies, or kyan- 
pepper) and salt. 

Kush K'hichree lSj^^ (j^ — as the preceding, with the ad- 
dition of meat. 

Bhoonee K'hichree ,^yf^ ^^. — ^^ ^^^^ following, but with 
more ghee. 

Bugharee K'hichree kjj^^ 'rfj^c'^- ^^ Quboolee K^hichree 

^j^ ^J«-j — as Oobala K. but with ghee, 

K^hichra ^j^ — rice, wheat, and as many kinds of (/«/ as are 

xxxii - APPENDIX. 

procurable ; such as toowur, chtinnayf nioong^ lohay^ 

buller, mussoor, &c. 
Shola !^yt> — k^hichree with meat. 
Shoortdwa \^j^ — k^hichree without meat, but made thin. 

3. Chawul JjIs*- or Rice (Raw). 
Khooshka SsLS^ or Bhdt CI-JLj — boiled rice. 

Oohdlay Chawul Jjl>- ^^M — i. e. paddy (or rice in the husk) 
parboiled and dried in the sun, afterwards winnowed 
and boiled for use. It is much used by the natives, who 
prefer it to the other kinds, as it has a richer flavour. 

Toorand \}\ji (Panto-bhaf, Beng.) or Bdsee K'hdnd ^^\:> 
w\^ — boiled rice kept in cold water over night, and used 
next morning, when it will have acquired an acid taste. 
Much in use among the poorer classes. 

Chuldoo or Bughdrd Khooshka SJl^ bW^ V. J^''^^ • 

Gooluhtee ^^^^ — or rice boiled to a pap, with the addition 
of ghee; recommended to patients labouring under 
bowel complaints, being considered easy of digestion. 

Jdwd IjU- Owgrd \j£.^ or Gunjee i/^ — rice gruel ; com- 
monly called by Europeans conjee. 

4. RoTEE ^<jj)J OR Breads. 
a. Leavened : 

Nan jjU or Rotee Mda-tulun ^b' jt< is'JJ — ^^ leavened 
bread, baked in an oven, but using leaven instead of 

Bdqurkhdnee Nan ^U ti^yV — differing from the preced- 
ing merely in shape. 

Gdoodeeda *JJ Jjli — of a round shape. 

Gdoozubdn j^uj^o — of a long shape, resembling neat's tongue. 

Sheermdl Jl.<^ — a sweet bread. 

Girda *J^or Nun Ddkhilu 1i>.!j ^Ij — of a large and round 

Qoors fjoji — likewise round. 

P^hoolkay ^_5^^ Khumeer P'hoolkay ^Jl^ rr^^ or Nan 
Pdooj[} i^\j — small and flat. 

APPENDIX. xxxiii 

Khumeeree Rofee ^jj c^'*>^ — the bread, used by Eu- 
ropeans, made with yeast. 

b. Unleavened : 

Rotee ^%j — wheaten cakes toasted on an earthen or iron 
dish or plate. The term is generally, but improperly, 
applied to leavened as w^ell as unleavened bread. 

Chupdteedn j^LjLs*- — thin vv^heaten cakes; the same as rotee^ 
but considerably thinner. 

Sumosay ^«;»/«.-j — three-cornered rotee. 

Meethay Pooreedn (^V.JJ:' ^-^r^ ' 

P^heekay Pooreedti ^\ijj^ is^^i * 

Poorun kay Pooreean \^ij*i, ^S uj^ • 

K'hujoordn ^j^j^js^r — sweet bread : wheat flour, poppy seed, 
sugar, and k^hoprd, mixed up with water, cut into small 
pieces and fried. 

Sutpoortee Rotee ^jj ^jJ^^j:^^ — made of layers of chupd- 
teedn one upon another, with every alternate one be- 
smeared v.'ith ghee and sprinkled with sugar, united at 
the edges and fried in ghee, or toasted on an earthen or 
iron dish. 

P'hayneedn ^jW^v — ^^ ^^^ preceding, but smaller in size and 
without sugar. 

PdrdUty ^J^J^ — like chupdteedn, but somewhat thicker. 

Mootkoolay ^^J^ — wheat flour paste, sweetened and formed 
into a long shape by pressing with the closed fist, boiled 
in steam, i. e. placed on straw in a pot with water, 
(boiled dumplings). 

Bulddrj\i:)Jj — wheaten cakes with ghee in separate layers, 
like our pastry. 

Sohdlee ^J V" — wheat flour kneaded with water, made into 
very thin cakes and fried in ghee. 

Pooreedn J^j^i — a kind of cakes fried in ghee ; three va- 
rieties, viz. fruit, meat, and rff// patties. 
Loong Chin-ay uTf^ (.^yi or Baysim-kee Rotee ^^J-^ 

^^^ly APPENDIX, 

jL . — a kind of cake made of powdered Bengal horse- 
gram, either fried or not. 
Bhayjeeay ^-^^ — f>'>ed cakes. 

Muihee Rotec J^j ^^I:-< or Qowaymaq jUjy — made of 
flour, white of eggs, and onions, fried in ghee. 
Other varieties are : 
Chulpuck lLx^'>- • 
Cheela iLs>- • 

Khard or MeeUici Roice J»j \X-c b bk'^ ' 
Undon kee Rotee ^^j ^ ^j^'^^ • 
Goolgoollay ^fii^« • 

Duhce Burraii ^_^y. ^^"^ o>* Matish Dithee ^J» ^U . 
Row-gundar j\>:iCs.^j — with plenty o? ghee in it. 
Seekh Rotee J^j ^.«: — (vide p. 267.) 
5. KuBAB I ■)\Ji Kabobs — Cut meat into thin long pieces, dry 

them in the sun, and roast them by placing them on live 

coals, or fry them in ghee. 
Kooftay kay Kubab i^\J ^ ^'/ — '"^^^ hashed. Add all 

the warm and cold spices (Gloss.) except tamarind, and 

pound them well in a wooden mortar, then form tliem 

into flat cakes, and fry them in ghee. 
Tikkay kay Kiibab C-jU^ ^ |^'— lumps of nieat, with spices 

and without tamarind, as in the preceding, fried in 

plenty of ghee. 




Hoseinee Kubab l-AJ, ^^^J-rr'^- — pieces of meat with salt and 
lime juice toasted over a fire. 

Shumee Kubab c_->U^ ^_^\-i — chopped meat, with all the aro- 
matics, and all thunda (Gloss.) spices (except chillies 
and tamarind) green ginger and lime juice, made of 
a particular shape a finger thick, fried in ghee. 

Kulleejay ka Kubiib c->U^ ^ ^j^l^— liver, heart, and kid- 


neys, cut into small pieces, trussed on skewers, with salt, 
and roasted. 

Luddou Kubab c_->U^ jl! — chopped meat, with all giirm 
and thundd mussiila (Gloss.) or aromatics and spices, 
^reen ginger and lemon juice, formed into balls and 
roasted on the fire. To be surrounded with thread, to 
prevent their falling asunder. 

Seekh Kubab l-AS '^j^ — like luddoo k. but with more kyan 
pepper, cut into thin long pieces like dried dates, fried 
in ghee. 

Putthur kay Kubab c_>L^ ^^^ ^AJ — used on a journey : they 
light a fire on a stone and remove it when the latter is 
well heated, and then roast slices of meat on it. 

Much-ch'hec kay Kubab t^\S ^ ;^-f-'* — or fish kabob. 

Quleeu --Ji — broiled flesh or meat dressed with any thing, 
usually eaten with polaoo. 

6. Salun ^ILj or Salna LU«j — curries. Put any meat, pro- 
perly washed in water, into an earthen or metallic vessel, 
and either let it boil in its own juice (which will be suf- 
ficient if the meat be tender), or add a little water; then 
add ghee and spices, and stir it well.* 

* The following is a more general recipe for making good curries : Take 
oi ghee or butter, 2 ch'huttaks (or 4 ounces ; or half that quantity if the meat 
be fat, or the curry wanted dry) ; onions, 1 clihuttak (2 ounces); garlic, 2 or 
3 cloves ; turmeric, cummin seed, coriander seed, of each 1 tola (.3 drams) ; 
red chillies (cayenne pepper), 3 in number ; black pepper, 4 or 5 corns ; green 
ginger, | cKlmttak (^ ounce) ; salt, a tea-spoonful. The spices are all to be 
separately ground on a ail (a stone in use for the purpose, resembling an oil- 
man's grinder and muller, but rough), adding a little water when the substance 
is dry ; the coriander seed to be previously toasted a little to impart to it an 
agreeable smell. Put the ghee into an earthen pot, or a tinned copper sauce- 
pan, and fry half the quantity of the onions, sliced lengthways, in it, and 
when they have acquired a yellow-brown colour take them off and set them 
aside. Then add to the remaining ghee the meat mixed up with all the spices, 
and cover it up. Occasionally uncover it, and (before the meat is sufficiently 
done) as the <//iee evaporates, sprinkle a table -spoonful of water on it; if 
much gravy be required, a proportionate quantity of water is to be added, 
but the drier a curry is the nicer it tastes. Do-peeaza-, and others, have no 

d 2 

xxxvi APPENDIX. 

Sulun of Qoormu tc;^ — use chopped meat, add some water, 
all gurm and thunda mussalas, (Gloss.) tamarind and 
Do. of Do'peeaza isj^,*^ — "^eat cut into pieces ; in other re- 
spects as the preceding. 
Do. of Nio'gis ^j^y • 
Do. of Budamee ^^'tJu . 
Do. of Shuhdayg (.^Jo Ju^ . 
Do. ofDalcha >s.Mj — meat, dul {cliunna or iiioong), with or 

without brinjal. 
Do. of A'//t ka Sfilun ^\JSCL^ — decoction of Madras-horse- 
gram (kooltee ka ktii) : boil it until it be a good deal 
evaporated ; if still too thin add some pounded rice, and 
all the aromatics and spices. Fry onions m ghee seven or 
twelve times, and add them successively to the decoc- 
tion. This among the great is boiled till it becomes 
sufficiently consolidated to form balls, vvhich keep good 
six months or a year; and when required for use, a 
ball is placed on hot polcwo or rice, which causes it to 
melt and run over the rice. It is very rich, but de- 
K'hutta ^ Klicira \j\^ or Meeihee Mach-chliec ka salun 
JLj l^ ^,^'* ^^,iwo — put all the different aromatics 
and spices into tamarind water, add the fish to it, and 
cook as other curries. A second method is to add the 
ghee after instead of before. 
Kooluia ■/♦.li . 

Chcela ^-5"- — omelet, with all the spices (no tamarind). 
Bay sun kee Birreean J^JJ ^ ^^—-J — toozcur, moong^ hur- 

gravy at all. The addition of the following articles is sometimes had recourse 
to to increase the flavour, viz. dried cassia leaves (tejpai), dried kernel of the 
cocoa-nut, or tlie essence of the cocoa-nut, procured by rubbing rasped cocoa- 
nut with water through a coarse towel, tamarind water, green or dried man- 
goes and other fruits, lemon-grass, fenugreek {matyhee) seed, the leaves of 
which likewise, if added, improve a curry amazingly. 

APPENDIX. xxxvii 

hurra (or chunna), or lobai/'Sag, add to thciii (no aro- 
iiiatics, but) all tlie sjjices (no tamarind), onions and its 
leaves chopped ; put into a mortar and pound them, 
form balls and dry them. When required make curry 
of them. 

Sirra or Kiillay or Nuharce ka Salun li u?; V V. 15^ V. j/** 
JUc — sheep's head, made as do-pceciza. 

Kulccjay ka Salun ^JLj l^ [5^^ — sheep's head, along with 
the liver of the sheep. 

Mcethay Gosht ka Salun iS^ -Jj b j^'Lj li ^j:^^^ ^^j^^ 
— as du-pt-eaaz but without tamarind, ^^Jb JSO lJj^J' V. 
or with the addition of vegetables. 

Buicc ka or Antree ka Salun ^^Lj l^ i^j^^ V. ^ \^): — '"^^ *''^ 
preceding, using tripes and the mesentery, &c. instead 
of the flesh. 

Mecihce Ddl Jb ^^jytt" — '^^"^ boiled soft, with the addition 
principally of cinnamon and cardamoms as well as the 
other aromatics and spices (without tamarind), bugar 
as other curries. 

K'huttee Dal Jb ^^ — as the preceding, but vvitli tamarind. 

Khageena or Khariz jj\^ b -^^^ — moii ghee in a pot, add 
all tlie varieties of aromatics and spices, plenty of onions, 
and breaking- eggs one by one add them to it, stirring 
them well together. 

Burru \'v — all kinds of dal^ and flour, with aromatics and 
spices (not tamarind), made into balls and fried in ghee. 

Chumkooree kee birreean ^\y, ^ ^jy^f" ' 

Qeemu .*»mJ . 

Jhingay ka Salun ^^IL l^ ^^^^x^.>- — orshrimj) curry. 

Kurzcay K'heeree, or Kupuray ka Salun lJj^ ^ ^j^ ^ir 

Tullay MuchclChee ^^-^ ^ — <^'" i''if<^l fish. 
Salun ^\-^ ^ i^j^jj — curries made of turkdrer or esculent ve- 
getables ; such as garden slutls, large legumes, small 



pulses, &c., and a number of pot vegetables but little 
known to Europeans ; and of bhajee ^^^\-^ or sag 
i^ fl^ greens. First fry the onions in ghee, then add 
the vegetables or greens and spices. N. B. If there be 
too much salt, tamarind, or chillies, they do not keep 
good long ; as for other spices being more or less, it 
does not signify- 
Salun of Bygun ^us l^ l0^r^^ V. ij^ — °'' brinzal. Solanum 
melongena, Lin. or eg^ plant. 
Do. of Toraee ^L: l^ tJ/ or ^\)^ — cucumis acutangulus, 

Lin. or acute-angled cucumber. 
Do. of Chichoonday JL- l^ ^^AJ^^ or ^JJysas^ b Viu^^ 
or Pottol (Beng.), Pulzsul (Hind.) — trichosanthes an- 
guina, Lin. (trichosanthes dioica, Roxb.) or common 
snake gourd. 
Do. of Kuraylay JLj 1^ i_^,f — momordica charantia, Lin. 

or hairy momordica ; three varieties in use. 
Do. of Goicnzsar or Mutkee Jcay P'hulleean ^^^j3^\i^J\y.^ 

^!Lj l^ ^«^^ iJ — dolichos sabaeformis, Lin. 
Do. of Say in kee P'hulleeun JL l^ J-^ ^J: ^ — dolichos 
lablab, Lin. or black-seeded dolichos; several varieties 
Do. of Bhayndec j^JLj l^ ^i'^^r^ — hibiscus esculentus, Lin. 

eatable hibiscus, or bandak}'. 
Do. o( Aloo M — solanum tuberosum, ^F27^rf. or potatoe. 
Do. of Rut Aloo ^Lj ^ ^\jj — dioscorea sativa, Li7i. or 

common yam. 
Do. o^ Pend Aloo ^\^^ ^\ S.'*i — convolvulus batatas, tu- 
berous bind-weed, country or sweet potatoe ; skirrets 
of Peru, or Spanish potatoe. 
Do. of Mai kee Bhajee ^^J>\(i, ^ t3Ui — amaranthus tristis, 
Lin. roundheaded amaranth, (amaranthus oleraceus, 
Hey tie), or eatable amaranth. 
Do. o? Ambdree kee Bhajee ^jf-^^, i^^.jV'^ — hibiscus can- 

APPENJ)IX. xxxix 

nabiiius, Lin. or ozeille greens, (hibiscus subdarifFa, 
JVilld.) tndiaii hibiscus or red sorrel. 
Sulun of Maythee kee Bhajce ^_c7-V lT l^'V^'* — trigonella 
fcenum graecum, Lin. or fenugreek greens. 
Do. of Sooec Choukajj kee Bhajee ^^J>'\^. ^_5^Jf^ lJ^-^ — 

anetliurn graveolens, Lin. or dill greens. 

Do. of Ghul or Khoorfa kee Bhajee ^f-^^ ^^ -J^^ V. U)\^ 

— porlulaca oleracea, Lin. purple, garden or small 


Do. o?Kurriim kee Bhajee ,j^\a ^ ^} — or cabbage curry. 

Do. o'i Arwee iJ^^t-/jj^ — caladiuni esculentuni, Ventenat. 

or esculent caladiuin. 
Do, o? Ihrrcca Kuddoo JiL:^ *J>^ bys — cucurbita lagena- 

ria, Lin. green pumpkin, or bottle gourd. 
Do. of Meeihee Kuddoo ^^L li jw\^ ^.^^-^ — cucurbita his- 
pida, Thunb. (cucurbita melopepo, Willd.) red pump- 
kin, or squash gourd. 
Do. of Shidgum ^IL l^ J>^ — or turnip. 
Do. of Peeaz ^L ^ J^ — or onion. 
Do. of 3Iirch ^\^^ ^yc — capsicum frutesceus, IVilld. or 

Do. of Chiggur ^l«s ^ y-^ • 
Do. of Choiolaee ,^\a^, ^ ^h^ — a'"^*"anthus polygamus, 

Lin. or hermaphrodite amaranth. 
Do. of Ambotee ^J>\i ^ sJ^^ — oxalis corniculata, Lin. 

procumbent oxalis, or yellow wood sorrel. 
Do. ofPoklay ^_fr\i. ^ i^^i • 

Do. of Kahoo Lj=r^-? l/^^^ — lactuta sativa, Lin. or lettuce. 
Do. of Kasnec ,^^^J ^_/ \J^^ — chichorium endivia, Lin. 

or endive. 
Do. of Jninkooroy ec^^v^ ^ ^J!r^^ ' 
Do. of Ldl Sag i^\^ Ji — aniaranthus gangeticus, Ruxb. 
Do. of Pa Ink ka Siig ^\^ ^ uJ3b— or a species of spinage. 


Salun of Chundun Butway i^>\r>, ^S lS}^. (o'^^^»^>- • 
Do. of K^huttee Chun-wul i^>-^J ^J J***" ls^^ • 
Do. of Kuchchoo ^^wj o yi^ — arum colocasia, Roxb. or 
Eg-yptian arum ; and innumerable others. 
The following is an excellent receipt for curry powder : 
Take of powdered huldee or turmeric twenty tea-spoon- 
fuls, red dried chillies or Cayenne pepper eight tea- 
spoonfuls, dhunneea or coriander seed, zccra or cummin 
seed, tayjpat ov dried cassia leaves, of each twelve tea 
spoonfuls, and mix them together. 

7. SiiEERNEF i3j*i> Sweets. 

Meeiha Pooreean (jV.J^ ^-r^ — between two thin wheaten 

cakes insert pounded soAc/eea/i, khopra, goor, khush- 

khtishj and kernels, and fried in ghee. 
Khara Pooreean i^.jy> ^j^-\f — meat chopped with gurm and 

ihunda mussala between two cakes as above, and fried 

in ghee. 
N. B. If one cake be folded double it is called kunola ^yS , 

and noi jjooree i^j^ • 
Fcernee iSj^ — soojee, sugar, mi\k, ghee^ cardamoms, cloves, 

aniseed, boiled in syrup made of the milk and sugar (or 

goor), and fried in the ghee. 
SheerbirrinJ orK'heerj^S V. ffjijlf^ — rice parboiled in water, 

is again boiled in milk, adding sugar, spices, and kernels. 
Mulaee (^J^-* or K'howd \^ — cream or milk inspissated by 

Hulwa \y^s>- — soojee, one seer fried in ghee (q. s.) half seer, 

add syrup two or three seers, k^hopra three tolas, and 

spices (not quite one tola), viz. cinnamon one stick, ten 

cloves, ten cardamoms, and a little aniseed, and mix 

over a fire. 
Falooda iJjllJ — same as hulwa, except that the soojee is 

boiled in milk, and when still somewhat soft, poured 


into a dish. As it cools and hardens, it is cut into square 

Punbhuita ^^^ ^ — a kind of drink made from rice. 

Moorubba b,/« or Goor-amba ^\S — cut mangoes into thin 
slices and boil in syrup (adding water if required) ; 
when soft put them into melted ghee. 

Afshoru or Abshoru ^j^tS\ u SjLi\ commonly called Ab^ 
shola — lemonade, or a species of negus without the 
wine, made with the juice extracted from pomegranates, 
quinces, lemons, oranges, and other fruits or plants. 
Batasha is sometimes substituted for the sugar. Some 
dissolve in it perfumed cakes made of the best Damask 
fruit, containing also an infusion of some drops of rose- 
water. Another kind is made of violets, honey, juice of 
raisins, &c. It is well calculated for assuaging thirst, 
as the acidity is agreeably blended with sweetness. It 
resembles, indeed, those fruits which we find so grateful 
when one is thirsty. 

Shurbut l:l^J^ — sugar and water, or eau sucre, with some- 
times the addition of aniseed and cardamoms. 

Sheera ^j^ — or syrup, made of sugar, with sometimes the 
addition of wheat flour, milk, ghee^ and dried cocoaimts, 
resembling thick treacle, and is eaten with bread dipped 
into it. 

Seekunjebeen ^--osl^ — oxymel of vinegar and honey ; or 
lime juice, or other acid, mixed with sugar and honey. 

Goolgoollay ^S^ — wheat flour, sugar (and tjjar or duhec), 
with anise and cardamom seeds made into dumplings, 
and fried in ghee. 

Muleeda or Make da ifjJU b i^JuLo — pounded rotee, or wheat- 
en cakes, with ghee, sugar, aniseed, and cardamoms, 
all well mixed up. 

JIurrceru ^jlj^ soojee, sugar, milk, and water, aniseed, 

and cardamoms, boiled to a thin consistence. 


Meethee Thoollee jJj^-J isifV* — ^'^^ huhsa, but with the addi- 
tion of milk, and of a thinner consistency. 

Surrolay ^Jj r^ — wheat flour, ghee, sugar, poppyseed, dates, 
and almonds, made into a paste and formed into httle 
pieces between the fingers, and boiled in milk. 

Say wee an i^Ij»-«j — or vermicelli boiled in milk,&c. Vi?.sitrrulay. 

8. Meetiiaee t^^'« or Sweetmeats. 

jLz<ddoo jwV] — a kind of sweetmeat made chiefly of sugar, with 
the addition of cocoanut kernel rasped and cream, and 
formed into the shape of large boluses or grape shot. 

Doodh payra V^-J i^tijJ — a sweetmeat made of sugar, milk (or 
cream), and rice or wheat flour. 

Julaybee ^c^T • 

Bntusha Lwl:;j — a kind of sweetmeat or sugar cakes of a spongy 
texture (or filled with iiir, as the word implies). 

Khajd ^^^-^^ — a sweetmeat like piecrust. 

Eeldchee Dana Ijl J , ^js-^I 


Rayooreedn ^„j^lj • 
Burfee ^^J . 
Nookteemi ^jU^ or 

Nuqol Jii) or Nuqoldana. 

Imrutee ci^' • 
Huhoa-e-Sohun .&>^^\^^j>- . 
Pup-vee i^jti • 
Undursci Lj^jJi . 

Pui\.ec , ,2j 

Bondeean ^^bi^J^J 
Meethay Sayoo ^^ isY"^ 
Shukur-pdray ^j\j ^^ . 
Sdboonee ij,^ya . 
9. TooRSHEE (C^y Acids. 
Achdr j\s>-\ or pickles, Adm^ kd AchdrJ^] ^ ^\ or mango 

Goordhance (jlibJ^ . 
Gond wVjjS . 

* Or, rather Ambuli, as in the following couplet: 

^i l^*^ Uj-- 

^lli^J -J I Ambuh firristad Hussun Khanhiimun 


. ~ ^ Ij'L^J \ n , •j.^l AmhutuhooUah Nuhatun Hassun. 

■A play upon words, of which the following version will convey an idea ; 
A viaii-go Mr. Fair did send to nie, 
Go-mm, thank Him who made soyai;- a tree. 

APPENDIX. xliii 

pickle — mangoes (green) about three hundred, divide 
into two, take out the stones and dry in the sun for 
three days. Take turmeric nine pice weight (four ounces 
and a half), garlic nine tolas (three ounces and three 
drams), salt three pukka seer (six pounds), mustard 
seed three pice weight (one oitnce and a half), co- 
riander seed, toasted, three jrice weight (one ounce and 
a half); mix the spices together, and lay the mixture in 
alternate layers with the mangoes, and add gingilie oil 
twenty-four tolas weight (nine ounces), or as much as 
will cover them. 

Duhee fc^^ — curds, or curdled milk. Warm milk on a slow 
fire (so as not to boil) till the cream which collects on 
the surface acquires a reddish hue, then take it off the 
fire, and while still lukewarm add a little stale duhee 
(or tyar), tamarind, or lime juice. 

Meethee Chutnee ij^'^ l5'V^*^ — *"^ ^ condiment made of 
green chillies,^ salt, garlic, kotmeer (or the leaves of 
the coriander plant), and green ginger. The following 
are most excellent receipts for preparing two varieties 
of it. 
1. Dehli, or celestial Chutnee : Take of green mangoes one 
seer^ raisins one seer^ mustard seed one seer, green 
ginger one seer^ garlic one seer, onions (none) or half 
a seer, dried red chillies half to one seer, moist or soft 
sugar one to two seers, salt one seer, white wine vi- 
negar four seers (or bottles). The ginger, garlic, and 
onions are to be peeled, and together with the chillies 
are to be cut into thin slices previously to being pounded; 
the mustard seed to be washed and dried, then gently 
bruised and winnowed ; the raisins to be washed and 
freed from the stones ; the sugar to be made into a 
thick syrup ; the mangoes to be picked of their rinds, 
cut into thin slices (some boil them in three bottles of the 
vinegar, adding the fourth when mixing tliem up with 


the oilier ingredients) and pounded ; tlie remainino- ar- 
ticles are to be separately pounded, and then the whole 
is to be incorporated, put into a stone jar, well closed, 
and placed in the sun for a month or two. If put into a 
glass bottle, it is occasionally to be put out in the sun. It 
will keep good for years. 
2. Love-apple Chutnee : Take of love-apple (solanum lyco- 
persicuni, Lin,) a large platefull, the rinds and seeds to 
be rejected, and only the pnlp used ; dried salt-fish cut 
very fine (as if rasped), a piece about two inches square; 
six onions cut into thin longitudinal slices; eighteen green 
chillies chopped fine, dried tamarind two pice weight 
(or one ounce), mashed up in about three or four ounces 
of water (stones and fibres to be rejected); salt a tea- 
spoonful, g/tec or butter fivep/ce weight (or two ounces 
and a half). First put the ghee into a tinned copper 
vessel placed on the fire, when it is melted add the 
onions, and as the latter begin to assume a reddish hue 
add the chillies, stirring them well for five minutes; 
then add the salt fish, and continue stirring the whole: 
when the ghee has nearly evaporated add the love- 
apples, and stir it about for a good while; lastly, add 
the tamarind water and salt, and mix the composition 
well until it acquires a pretty dry consistence (like that 
o? brinzal-chutnee or sainbul). This chutnee is only 
for immediate use, and will not keep above a day or two. 

K^huttee Chutnee ^j^"^^ l_s'€^ — ^""y c/«?7//es, salt, tamarind, 
onions, garlic, and kutineer. 

Boorcinee ij^j^ — a kind of food consisting of the fruit of the 
egg plant {byn-gun) fried in sour milk. 

Ch^hach kee Kurree li'ii , o ^Urs- — soak rice in water, pound 
it, mix it with tyar ; add cold spices, and slir about till 
it acquires a thick consistence. 

K''hiUt(iy Chlidch kee Kurree ^ji ^ ttWt" if"^ — '^'^^^ ^^' 
marind to melted ghee, one or two kinds of ddl flour. 


as tliat of chunna or toowur^ and the cold spices as in 
the preceding. 

Buysnn kee Kurree i_irp ^ ^J^ — »iix three or four kinds 
of <^/a/ flour with water, add tamarind and spices, &c. 
as in the preceding. 

Undaj/ kee Kurree ^^ ^^ '^■^^ — ^^ khiiiUiij kurree, vvtih 
the addition of eggs previously fried in ghee. 

Noor Quleea .Si jy or Kurug (,tf^ ■ 

Raecta \:j\j — boil pumpkin in water; take duhee, break it up 
a little, mix with all the varieties of (cold) spices and 
mustard f.eed, and add the pumpkin. This is what is 
called kuch-cha rueetd ; if bugur be given it becomes 
pukka raceta. 

Chiir j\:>- — or moloogoo-tunrij/ Tarn., lit. pepper-water (cor- 
rupted into mullikatazDDi)'). 


1. NUTWAY KA TaeFA Jjlb Ikj^L' . 

This tacfa or band consists of male performers, commonly 
employed by great men, as kings, princes, and the nobility, 
to attend them when they promenade or take an airing. It 
consists of the following instruments : 
Seelar jC^ — or a sort of guitar made of wood, without any 

holes on the board, and mounted with from five to seven 

steel wires, all of which are used in playing, and that 

with both hands. (Vide Sarungee). 
Moor-chung v,2>^^r" ;-« — o'' Jew's harp. 
Duff I. JJ — which consists of a wooden dish or plate, covered 

with leather, and is about a foot (or somewhat less) in 

Theekree ^S^jJ — consists of two pieces of wood, one held 

between the fore and middle finger, the other between 

the middle and ring finger of the left hand; while \vi(h 


the thumb and middle finger of the right hand the ends 
of the sticks on the outside of the hand are made to strike 
against each other, producing the same sound as 

2. KUNCIINEE KA TaeFA .SJ% l^ i^J"^ ' 

This band is employed by princes and the nobility on feast 

days, &c. All the instruments are played upon by men, except 

the fifth, which are worn by women, who dance and sing ; and 

their number is never less than three, nor more than five. 

The instruments are as follows: 

Poonggce i^^y — or drone, consisting of a dried pumpkin 
(cucurbita lagenaria, JVilkL), with a single or double 
bamboo tube attached to it, having eight holes, and 
played upon as a flageolet. The tone is altered to a 
higher or lower pitch by stopping the holes with wax, 
or by means of the fingers ; in the former case occa- 
sioning a momentary pause. 

Meerdung (^J^d.^ or Nurga — a kind of long drum, differing 
from the common d'hol (or drum) in being much 
longer, and broader in the centre than at either end. 

Jhanjh ^irsrl^^ ^^ Mitnjeera \j^^'< — consists of two small 
brass cups tied together with a string, and played upon 
by striking one against the other. 

Ghugree ^5^^^,i^— resembling the rings used by tapped or 
dazck-men and bearers on their sticks. They are fitted 
on the right thumb, are made thick and hollow, con- 
taining shots, which by shaking produce a rattling 
sound. If large, only one is used ; if small, two. 

Ghoongroo ^^^ — consists of numerous small brass jingling 
bells or hollow balls fastened to a string, which is twisted 
round both the ankles of female dancers. 

Sarung t^^jL: or Scirungee j<^j^ , also called Tumhoora 
\jt.*ui — much resembling the sectar^ with this dif- 
ference, that although it has seven strings only one is 

APPENDIX. xlvii 

played upon, and that with the right liand, the left not 
being used at all ; and there are holes on the board. 
3. Baja ka Taefa -bli? l^ U-b . 

This band, commonly called haja-bitjnntur^ is an indis- 
pensable one at weddings : no marriage can take place 
without it; the poorest are obliged to engage it. It consists 
of the following instruments: 
D'hol Jys>3 — or drum, one foot two inches long, and eight 

inches in diameter. 
Shuhnaee ^'^^ — two of different kinds are invariably used 
together; the first, without finger holes, two feet long 
and half an inch in diameter at the upper part of the 
tube, and four inches below, producing one tone, and 
serving as a bass ; while the other, afoot and a half 
long, three-quarters of an inch in diameter above, and 
four inches and a half below, with holes, is played upon 
like a clarionet. 
Banka Kjb — a kind of trumpet made of brass. 
Qiirna \iji — a kind of French horn, made of brass. 
Jhdnjh ,^is:rV>^^ or Munjeer a K-^-^ — as beforementioned. 

The preceding are the principal tueefas (or bands), but 
there are others which have different appellations, though the 
performers make use of some of the abovementioned instru- 
ments ; such as 

Bhan*\ ka Taefa ^^\^ 3>.'j\^i — or mimic's band, which con- 
sistsof men dancing (in women's clothes), clapping their 
hands, and several making an uniform sound as a bass, 
while others sing. The only instrument they use is a 
dhuhik uj3y&3 or small drum, sometimes adding the 
Bhugteeon ka Taefa -sjIL> \ijy^:S^ — as used by bhagufe (or 
stage actors). They use the meerdung or nurga, the 
sarungee or tuiiiboora, and the miinjeera. 
Quwdl (^\^ — a set of male musicians, who sit, sing, and play 
on the sarungee ov iumboora or dhnluk. 

xlviii APPENDIX. 

DoHineean jjlwcjJ or Meerashneean j^Li-5jl^-< — females who 
only sing in presence of women, and play, f?itting, upon 
the dholuk and mitnjeera. They only use one dholuk, 
while the munjeera may be increased to four in number. 
They receive a rupee a piece for their performances. 
They are of a particular caste, and follow that profes- 
sion from generation to generation. This band is like- 
wise termed muoshata ka tuefa Joys li J^ll^ . 

IJijron ka Taefa -ijli? lC«j|.s^ — or band of eunuchs. A set of 
eunuchs dance and sing, playing on the dholuk and 

Zunnana ka Taefa ijH? l^ jUj — or seraglio-band. Men per- 
sonifying women dance and sing, playing on the nieer- 
dung, or dholuk and f)iunjeeru. 

Lownc]o7i ka Taefa -ajlL \^Sj<^ — handsome boys (some- 
times of respectable people) dressed up in women's 
clothes, whom they personate, and from whom they are 
with difficulty distinguis-hed, dance and sing, while male 
performers play on the mecrdung, nurga or dholuk., 
and surungee, tumhoora and munjeera. 

Arbanee (JW= — or men who sing and play on the duff and 
surode, or on the rubub and duff or daira. 

A List of Musical Instruments from the Keetab-e- 

MOOSUQEE (cA-s^ C-ils^. 

Wind Instruments. 

Zufeeree ^ji^j • 

Vuttee ^^^ — a leaf of the cholum (holcus saccharalus, Lin.) 

held between the lips and sounded. 
Moorchung i^S^j.-c — or Jew's harp. 
Shuhnaee LJ^'i^ — a kind of clarionet, a cubit long, and having 

a leaf mouth-piece, vulgarly called soorndee lJ^j^ 
Soorj^ — a bass or drone to the shuhnaee. 


Algoza ^j ^'tJ^ — a small flageolet, a span long. 

Nagaysur j-^^ • 

Poonggee ^^^ — of this there are two varieties, one made 

of leather, and sometimes accompanies the kunchnee ka 

taefa; the other of pumpkin, usually played upon by 

jugglers and snake dancers, &c. 
Qurnd \jjs — a straight or curved horn, twelve feet long. (Vide 

bajd katdeefa). 

Tnorree ^^jJ or Toortooree tiV/ — commonly denominated 
by Europeans colleryhorn^ consists of three pieces fixed 
into one another, of a semicircular shape. 

Bankd \x)b — as the preceding one, but the upper piece turned 
from the performer, forming it into the shape of the 
letter S. 

Bdns-lee ^L-Ju — or flute. 

Sunkh .jSj^ — or conchshell. It is frequently used by de- 
votees; also as an accompaniment to the tumkee. Some- 
times they play trios and quartettos on the shells alone. 

Nursingd lxx-j^3 — a sort of horn. 

Drums, Guitars, Cymbals, Castanets, &c. &c. 

Chiikee ^S^s>- — or snapping the fingers. 

Talee jjlj" — or clapping the hands. 

Khunjuree ^jS:\:>- — a sort of small tambourin, played upon 
with the fingers. 

Duff (^ti or Duffrd\ji(^ — or tambour de basque ; tympa- 
num," according to Gentius, Sadi Rosat\ Pulit. p. 
303. A sort of bass tambourin played upon with a 

Daee7 u\jiw — the largest variety of tambourin, being from a 
foot and a half to two feet in diameter, played upon with 
a stick. 

T)hdl J^jiiJ — a larger drum than the following, both sides 
covered with leather, and played upon with the hands. 


D^holuk u^yfeJ or Dholkee ^JSt^bJi — smaller than the pre- 
ceding', and only one side covered with leather. 

Meerdung (.^>Jt>^ — the kind of drum which is an accom- 
paniment to the kuncheean ka taefa^ q. v. 

Pukhazouj ^y^^ — a kind of drum, a timbrel. 

Tubla Jul? — a couple of drums, played upon at the same time, 
one with each hand. 

Nurgii lc;J . 

Nuqara sjiju — or a kettledrum. 

Ghurreeal ^J\iy^ — a plate of brass for beating time. 

Tukkoray ijSjy^ or Zayrbiim (i^Aj — or small ketdedrums; 
one is called zai/r, the other bum. 

Dunka IxJJ — or a bass kettle drum, middle size, between 
the nuqara and tukkoray. 

Tasa «-sll? or Tasha Murfa li^o -lu? — a drum of a semicir- 
cular shape, played upon with two sticks, and invariably 
accompanied by the next (i7iurfd). 

Murfa lir< — a drum like a (Vhol, covered at both ends with 
leather, but played upon only on one side with a stick. 

Tubul JLJ — an enormously large variety of drum, used in the 
field of battle. 

Tumkee iX*j — a small circular brass plate, played on by 
striking it with a piece of wood, having a knob at 
the end. 

Dhubboos (^y*^J — consists of a rod of iron about a foot long, 
with a knob at one end and a sharp point at the other, 
having from fifty to a hundred hollow rings, which when 
shook rattle against one another : used hyfuqeers^ who 
wield it about, striking their abdomen of a sudden with 
the sharp point. 

G^hurrd\y^^ — or empty earthen vessels, or water-pots, played 
upon with the hand. 

(l:;-^' or lek Tara\Jv CS^, — when with one steel wire, 
called by the latter name : sometimes it has nine or 


eleven steel wires; but generally three, whence its name, 
from -^ three, andjU string-. 
Tumboora ^jyy^ — a sort of seetar (gnitar), having catgut 

strinffs instead of wire. 
Sarung t^^J^Lo or Sdrungee ^jjLs — a musical instrument 

like a fiddle, played upon with a bow. 
Rubab ^-'u^ — a kind of violin, a rebeck. 
Been ^^ or Vina — a sort of seeiar, but having two dried 

hollow pumpkins (cucurbita melopepo, IVilld.') fixed to 

the end of it, with five or seven steel strings; described 

by Sir Wm. Jones in the Asiat. Res. 
Keenggree i^y^ — as the preceding, but having three or 

four pumpkins, and only two steel strings; generally used 

by Hindoos. 
Qanoon — a species of dulcimer, or harp. 
Urgunoon jjj^^i — a kind of organ. 
Ragindla ^to t^ji . 
Chukard \j\Ls>- — a kind of violin. 
Thdlee ^^J" — a flat earthen dish, on which they rub and 

rattle a stick with both hands. 
Theekree uS^f^ — two bits of sticks or fragments of earthen 

vessels used as castanets. 
Doroo jjjt^ — a small double-headed hand drum. 
Surocl iijj^ — a kind of guitar (or seetar), having catgut or 

silk strinsfs. 
Dupprd \j3 . 
Munjeera ];r^=s:U or Jhdnjh .fsrl^? a kind of small cymbals 

in the shape of cups, struck against each other, and 

accompanying most bands. 
Tdl JIj — cymbals used by devotees, and frequently an ac- 
companiment to the taefus. 
Ghugree ^jj^l^jS— one or two hollow rings with pebbles in 

them, worn on one or both thumbs, and rattled. 
Ghoonghroo ^j4^ — little bells fastened to a siring, which is 

e 2 


Saz\\^ . 

wound round the wrists and ankles, and which jingle at 
every motion of the limbs. 

Seekhan (^Isn.-; — a piece of iron about a cubit long-, with 
whichjuqeers pierce their necks and cheeks. 
An Arab musical instrument, used by the Arabians who 
frequent the Malabar coast. 


1. Shut7'unj le^jtJ^ — or chess. 

2. Chowsurj^^ or Tiikhta-e-Nm'd ^J) zsT — as pucheesce, 

but using pasa (or dice) instead of cowries. The dice 
are four or six-sided, four inches long and half an inch 
thick on every side, and are thrown by the hand, not 
from boxes, and fall lengthways. 

3. Chowjmr y ^ — as the preceding, differing merely in the 

form of the game. 

4. Geean-chowsur j>^y>- ^J^ . 

5. Gunjccfa .irsb or Tas — or cards. 

6. Puchecsce ^.«.<-*s < ; — This game is the most popular and 

celebrated in India (next to chess).* 

* It is thus played ; the board consists of four rectangles, with" their nar- 
row sides so placed as to form a square in the centre (as shewn in plate vii. 
fig. 2.) Each rectangle is divided into twenty four small squares, consisting 
of three rows of eight squares each. It is usually played by four persons, 
each of whom is furnished with four ivory or wooden cones (called got orgotee) 
of a peculiar colour for distinction, and takes his station opposite one of the 
rectangles. His pieces (or gotee) start one by one from the middle row of his 
own rectangle, beginning at the division next to the large central space. They 
thence proceed all round the outside rows of the board, passing, of course, 
through those of the adversaries' rectangles, travelling from riglit to left (i. e. 
contrary to the sun) until they get back to the central row from which they 
started. Any piece is liable, however, to be taken up and thrown back to 
the beginning, as in backgammon, hy any of the adversaries' pieces happening 
to fall upon its square; except in the case of the twelve privileged squares, 
which are marked with a cross (see plate) ; in that case the overtaking piece 
cannot move from its position. Their motion is determined by the throwing 
of six or seven cowries (i. e. shells) as dice, which count according as the 
apertures fall uppermost or not; one aperture up, counts 10 ; two, 2; three, 
3; four,'!; five, 25; six, 30; seven, 12; and if none be turned up, it counts 
6. A throw of 25 or 30 gives an additional move of I . At the last step the 


7. Atha Chumuk CS^^tc^- \^\ . 

8. Taq-jooft ui^a;^ Jjll? — or the game of odd or even. 

9. Nukk^ha-fnooVh ■^yo ^^^J or Bliur-mooVh <V^< j^, — 

somewhat like odd or even. 

10. Chitpiii ci^^^Ci-o*- — or wrestling. 

11. Lyay ^J^ 

12. Chow-gdn (^^*-s*- — a game resembling cricket (or tennis), 

but played on horseback. 

13. Mudrunggum iS'ijXo — like fnogol putthan (four tigers 

and sixteen sheep). 

14. Pdsay ^^^ — or dice of a square and oblong shape, 

numbered much in the same way as the European dice. 

15. Mogol PuiVhan ^jl-^J J.^^) — ^played like the game of 

draughts on a diagram sketched on the ground, or on a 
board or paper, using sixteen cowries or gravel, peb- 
bles, &c. on each side for men. 

16. Mogdur j<i^ — they frequently make use of violent ex- 

ercise within doors, with dumb-bells or heavy pieces of 
wood, not unlike the club of Hercules, weighing from 
eight to twenty pounds, which they whirl about the 
head so as to open the chest and strengthen the arms, 
which may account for their being excellent swords- 
men. They stretch themselves at full length upon their 
hands and feet, kissing the ground hundreds of times, and 
and nearly touching it with the chest, but without suf- 

throw must amount exactly to one more than the number of squares left to 
enable the piece to go into the central space ; that is, as we would say, off 
the board. It' it happen to stop on the last square, therefore, it cannot get 
off until you throw a 25 or 30. The players throw in turns, and each goes 
on until he throws a 2, 3, or 4, when he loses the lead. If the same number 
be thrown thrice successively, it does not count. The game is generally 
played with six cowries, making the highest throw 25 (the six apertures up 
then counting 12), hence it is termed ^?/c/ieesee (from puchees, 25) ; and the 
board used is a carpet, ornamented and marked with different colours of 
clotli sewed on it. It is sometimes played by two persons, each taking the 
two opposite rectangles with eight pieces, a:id i)laying them all from the 
rectangle next to him : the game continues till three of the players get out. 
They never play for money. 


fenng the body to come in contact with it; which occa- 
sions a great exertion to the whole frame. This is called 
Amono" the respectable classes, N OS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 11, and 16 
above are much played ; among the vulgar, Nos. 8, 9, 
10, and 13 ; among the children of the former, Nos. 12, 
13, and 14 ; and among the children of the latter, Nos. 
6, 7, 9, and 15. 


Ank'h'moochanee iJ^-"* -v^i — or blindman's buff. 
Talum-tola iJjj /Jll . 

Bagh-bukree csS^, -^V ht. Tiger and sheep ; Second var. 3 
baghs (tigers), and 13 bukrees (sheep). 

Cheel jhupia ^^--y^ iSfrf" — ^^^ unlike our rules of contrary." 
If a person raise his hands at the call of the word Gudda 
p'hurpur (when he should not do so), he is most immo- 
derately tickled by all the party. 

Undhla badshah ^U»jb hbSJ\ — lit. the blind king. 

Gillee dundoo ^Sjj ^J^ — the game of tip-cat. Gillee is the 
short stick, which is struck by the longer one called dunda. 

Jhar bandra \ji^\iy^^ {lit. the tree-monkey ; so called from 

the circumstance of one being mounted on a tree.) or 
'Dab-dubolee ^^^.^ <-->U. 

Bhooroo cK'hub-ja l>-c-^^^,^ jj^ or Ek tard or Do tard 
Sjij »ti b \Xi clX» — something like blindman's buff. 

Gulgul kooppay ^^S ^JsL or Kooppay-mdee t^\< ,^S . 

Ageel-jhup t_,v;^ J^^ — or marbles ; a second var. called 
Ekpurree subsurree consists of chucking a number of 
marbles into a hole. 

Goleedn ^J^S — or marbles, played into two holes, the player 


wiiitiing a pice or two each time his ball strikes another 
l)all or enters the hole. 

Ekkul khwajay ic^V^ ij^^ — 'j'^o played with marbles and 
two holes, the player counting" one each time his ball 
strikes another ball or goes into a hole ; and whoever 
first counts ten is the winner. The loser is punished in 
various ways. 

Sut k'hooAAee lS^^-^ t::.-^«J . 

Lon-pat ciL^b jj^ . 

Iloordoo or Kubnddec ^S^ .*L>j^ Tora or P'^wZ/a iL^J-'jl^' 
— a game among boys, who divide tliemselves into two 
parties, one of which takes its station on one side of a 
line or ridge called pala ju made on the ground, and 
the other on the other. One boy, shouting Kubiiddee 
kubuddce," passes this line, and endeavours to touch one 
of those on the opposite side. If he be able to do this, 
and to return to his own party, the boy that was so 
touched is supposed to be slain ; that is, he retires from 
the game. But if the boy who made the assault be 
seized and unable to return, he dies, or retires in the 
same manner. The assault is thus made from the two 
sides alternately, and that party is victorious of which 
some remain after all their opponents are slain. 

Thikkree-marX< ljJ^ — throwing a thikkree (or a fragment 
of an earthen vessel) so as to glide along the surface of 
the water. 

Boojha-boojhee ^^.^p-^ Vt^ — one's eyes are bound up, and 
he is desired to guess who it was that touched him, and 
is not unbound till he does guess. 

'Yookkhay ^^j^ . 

Ghvom ^yf — a stick buried in the earth to which a string is 
previously fastened, and by holding which they run in a 
: , '—' circle. - 


Boontee or Chundoo jX»j>' . ^^y. — 2 var. 1st. Ooran Chun- 
doojX^ f^\j\ — a cap is thrown up, and whoever gets 
it pelts the others with it, and they run away. 2d. 
Bumd Chundoo ^S:>s>' Uj — a stone is set up against a 
wall, at which a chundoo (or cap) is aimed by each 
three times; whoever succeeds in throwing it down 
takes it up and pelts it at the others. 

Luiioo ^ — or tops. 

Chukkree or Chukkee ^Sf' - «-^)^^ — ^ bandalore ; a small 
reel with a cord fixed to its centre, which winds and un- 
winds itself alternately by the motion of the hand. 

Qazee moolla )L) ^e>a\s . 

Kan chittee or Suwaree ,^j\y^ . ^»'^\^ — or holding by the 
ears, while the adversary strikes a piece of wood sup- 
ported on two stones and attempts to throw it down. 

P^hissid-bunda ]Xj J— ^ — sliding down the smooth banks of 
a tank or river, a sloping stone, or hill. 

Ooree murna u^Ui tjsj^ — jumping from a height into a tank, 
well, or river. 

Puttung Ooranu\)\\\ i^J^ — lit. Flying kites; which latter 
comprise three varieties. 1. Kun-kozoa \S ^^ in raising 
which they use silk line. Mrs. M. H. Ali justly observes, 
vol. ii., p. 14, they fly kites at all ages. I have seen 
men in years, even, engaged in this amusement, alike 
unconscious that they are wasting time, or employing it 
in pursuits fitted only for children. They are flown from 
the flat roofs of the houses," (by the lower orders more 
frequently from a plain or common, or, in fact, from any 
place) where it is common with the men to take their 
seat at sunset. They are much amused by a contest 
with kites, which is carried on in the following manner. 
The neighbouring gentlemen, having provided them- 
selves with (silk) lines previously rubbed with paste and 


covered with pounded glass" (mixed up with any gluti- 
nous substance, generally the juice of the pulp of the 
small aloe plant, aloe perfoliata,Ferfl.X««.) raise their 
kites, which, when brought in contact with each other 
by a current of air, the topmost string cuts through the 
under one" (usually the reverse in the hands of an adept 
in the art, as I know from personal experience), when 
down falls the kite, to the evident amusement of the idlers 
in the streets or roadways, who with shouts and hurrahs 
seek to gain possession of the toy, with as much avidity 
as if it were a prize of the greatest value : however, 
from the numerous competitors, and their great zeal to 
obtain possession of it, it is usually torn to pieces. Much 
skill is shewn in the endeavours of each party to keep his 
string uppermost, by which he is enabled to cut that of 
his adversary's kite." 2. Tookkul ^J^ — is raised by 
means of a thin string, and resembles (except in shape) 
the European kite. 3. Puttung or chung (^,^X5>-Ij i^S^ 
is a large square kite, four feet by five, bent back by 
thin rattan stays, which produce pleasing sounds, not 
unlike that of the iEolian harp; it can only be flown in 
very windy weather, when it sometimes requires more 
than one person to hold it. It is raised by means of a 
thin rope instead of twine, and sometimes flown at night, 
with a lantern fastened to its long tail. 

Gop^hin ij^-^jj — or sling. 

G^hirka ^j^ — a little pole fixed in the ground with another 
across resting on a pivot; a boy sitting at each end, with 
his feet touching the ground, whirls round, whereon it 
makes a creaking noise. 

Guddha guddhee (J^J^ U&Jc> — lit. jack and jenny-ass. 


These intheEast are superb. They are of various forms, re- 


presenting animate and inanimate things; such as trees, tigers, 
elephants, men, sea-fights, eclipses of the sun and moon, &c. 
Putakhd \s>-\2j — or crackers. 

Ch' hooch' hoondree ^jJjy^"V^ — a sort of squib held in the 

Mahtab c-jIh^ — or blue lights. 2d. var. Nuktec Mahtab 

Goolrayz \lj^ or 'Kurrayla\iJ> — or matches, with or with- 
out stars. 

Ahunee Nulla\i , <:J&^ or Bhooeen Nulla% ^j-.^-^. — or Roman 
candle, made of iron, bufTalo-horri, or bamboo, placed 
on the ground. 2d. var. Dum Nulla ^/»t) — -ditto, but 
with occasional globes of bright light bursting up. 

HutK' -nulla ilj -^ — ditto, but small, held in the hand. 2d. 

Phool-jhurree or Phukna l^^^ V. <^ji^J\'^ — ditto, with 

Tara Mundul /Jj^ \yJ — like the Dumnulla, but ever and 
anon stars burst up of a sudden. 

Huwaee (_>U>- or Ban jjU — the common rocket. 

Holuqqay (JiJ>>- — or rockets with stars. 

Hinggun i^X^ — a rocket with a small staffs 

Nurree ^y — rockets without staffs, which run on the ground. 

Chukkur-ban jjV.^;^ ^' As mane e Ch : ^Jo ^^k>- tJU.*;! — a 
piece of bamboo placed horizontally on another fixed in 
the ground, or held in the hand and whirls round on a 
pivot. 2d. var. Bhooeen Ch: tj^^^^ U--JV — '^ placed 
on the ground, and whirls round first to the right and 
then to the left alternately. 

Gotta-khorj^ )o^ — or diver; so called, because, being 
lighted, it is thrown into water (river or tank) when it 
dives, and every now and then shows itself above water. 

Undd \^\ — lit. an egg; so called because the composition of 
the following is put into an egg-shell. 

Andr J<)\ — lit. a pomegranate ; or Toobrcc ijjiy flower-pots. 


Tola ujj — or a straight squib. 2d. Jungce Tota vy iJ^i>- 
or a bent (serpentine) squib. 

Gujga Ixsr or Mayndhul JjbJCwo — a fruit (Guilandina bon- 
duccella, Lin.) so called, filled with composition; when 
lighted it is thrown amidst the crowd. It bursts with 
an explosion. 

Ndriel fjj^j\j — lit. cocoa-nut; or Kuweet tJL^^^ — /<7. wood- 
apple; so called from the shells of these fruits being filled 
with the powder. They burst with the report of a gun. 

Bich-cK'hoo ys-^^ — lit. Scorpion. 

Kantd li)u — a large hollow species of thorn filled with powder 
and exploded. 2d. var. Ilathee Kanid liDl^^^^'lfe — a 
larger thorn. If a stick be fastened to it it ascends in 
the air: otherwise it remains on the ground. 

Sowkujid kee joree i^j^ ls^ ^'*' — ^^^' ""'^^^ wives. Two 
tubes like those of rockets fastened together, which strike 
each other alternately on the ground. 

Dhdn (^u^t> — or rice husks filled with powder, with a small 
staff attached to them. 

Erundee i^^Jj^ — or the shell of castor-oil seed, filled with the 

Ungoor ka mttndwd ijJLa: o jyvii — in imitation of clusters of 

grapes hanging from a shed. 
Shoala XxJjt . 

Asman kay Kuweet CJi-^«i ^^ ^j\a^] . 
Bhoeen champa w*>- i^-y^. ' 

Besides these there are many others such as those already 
alluded to, formed in imitation of natural objects, of which it has 
not been thought necessary to give any particular description. 



Aba Uc — a cloak or habit worn by dervises, &c., very loose 
and open in front, not unlike a boat-cloak. 

Abeer j^ — a grateful perfumed powder. The simplest, and 
what is most generally used, is composed of rice flour, 
or the powder of the bark of the mango tree (mangi- 
fera indica, Lin.) or of the deoodar (uvaria lon- 
gifolia, Roxb.) camphor, and aniseed. A superior 
kind is prepared with powered sandalwood or uggiir 
(wood aloes), kuchoor (curcuma zerumbet, Roxb.) or 
ambi huldee (curcuma zedoaria, Willd.)^ rose flowers, 
camphor, and civet cat perfume, pounded, sifted, and 
mixed. The dry powder is rubbed on the face or body, 
and sprinkled on clothes to scent them. Beejapore is 
famed for its randa or abeer. 

Abjud Sss:^\ — the name of an arithmetical verse, the letters of 
which have different powers, from one to one thousand, 
as follows : 


j^^^fli-x— J 





rf^ w to •— 

© o o o 
o © o o 

tC CX5 •<> CD 

© o © o 

O' *>. to K) 

© o © o 

© o oo 
o © o 
© © © 

© 5C OC 

• . * 

•^1 OS C" 
© o © 

© © © 

•^ Oi en 

i*k W U) ^ 

Ajwaeenec (ci^Wf-^ vulgo uchwanee — is prepared of the fol- 
lowing ingredients, viz. kalee mirch, piper nigrum, 
Lin. (or black pepper) ; pipplee, piper longum, Lin. 
(or long pepper) ; piplamore, rad. piper long. Lin. 
piper dichotomum, Rottl. (root of the long pepper 


plant) ; huldee, curcuma longa, Liti. (or turmeric) ; 
sont, amomum zingiber, Lin. (or dry ginger) ; luh- 
sun, allium sativum, Lin. (or garlic) ; khoolinjan, or 
kooleejun, alpinia galanga major, Rottl. (or greater 
galangal) ; baee-burrung (a kind of medicinal seed) ; 
long^ eugenia caryophyllata, Lin. (or cloves) ; ghor- 
butch or attivussa (or a kind of medicinal root) ; kho- 
rasanee ajwaeen, hyosciamus niger, Lin. (or black 
henbane) ; chooree ajwaeen, cleome viscosa, Lin. (or 
viscid cleome), of each an equal v/eight; ajioaeen, 
sison ammi, Lin. (or Bishop's weed seed), a weight 
equal to all the above put together. These, reduced to 
a fine powder, is given mixed with warm water. 
Amal-namu ^\j JW — from amal actions, and namu history, 
(God's) book of remembrance, in which all the good 
and evil deeds of men are written by the recording 
angels, Keeramun and Katebeen : the former, sitting on 
the right hand of Jehovah, notes down all the good 
actions ; the latter, on the left hand, records the evil 
Arfat oU-c — a mountain near Mecca, from which, among 
other ceremonies, the pilgrims make a procession to the 
holy monument situated on another mountain at a little 
distance. It was on mount Arafat where the Moha- 
metans imagine Adam, conducted by the angel G abriel, 
met Eve, after a separation of two hundred years, in 
consequence of their disobedience and banishment from 
Paradise, whence he carried her afterwards to Ceylon. 
Eastern writers make Adam of a prodigious size ; the 
most moderate giving him the height of a tall palm- 
tree, whilst others say that his foot was seventy cubits 
long, and the rest of his body in proportion. 
Ata \jT — pounded wheat. When sifted it affords myda the 
finer part or wheaten flour, and soojee the coarser, q. v. 
Azan ^j\ — or summons to prayer, proclaimed by the mo' 


wazin (or crier) from the minarets or towers of the 
mosques. It is the same as the tukbeer^ q. v. except 
omitting the sentence qud gamut sulat. 

Beera or Beeree (pan kay) ci^ V. ^ji:i iS u^ — ^ parcel 
made up of betel leaf, &c. called pansooparee, q. v. 

Bhung i^S^ — the name of an inebriating preparation, made 
with the leaves of the ganja or bhung (cannabis sativa, 
Willd. or hemp). It is in a liquid form, and chiefly 
drank by the Mohummudans and Mahrattas. The fol- 
lowing is a recipe for the same. 
I^SlVq o? siddhee (hemp) leaves, washed in water, one tola 
(three drams), black pepper four annas weight (or 
forty-five grains), cloves, nutmeg, and mace, of each one 
anna (or eleven and one-fifth grains) weight : triturate 
the leaves and other ingredients with one pao (eight 
ounces) of water, milk, or the juice of water-melon 
seed, or cucumber seed, strain and drink the liquor. 
It is usually employed without the spices; the latter 
rendering it highly inebriating. It is a very intoxicat- 
insT draught. 

Bismilla m\ *— j — or In the name of God;" an ejaculation 
frequently used by Mohummudans, especially when 
going to commence any thing. At the beginning of 
the chapters of the Qoran, and indeed prefixed to al- 
most every Arabic, Persian, or Turkish book, is the 
following line : 

Bismillah hirruhman nirruheem, In the name of God, 
the merciful, the compassionate," generally extending, 
either for ornament or mystery, the connecting stroke 
between * and (_^ to an uncommon length. 
Boza or Boja l:>-v V. \)^ — '^ ^^® name of a fermented liquor 


ohtained from a grain called ragee ^S^j j alias muti- 
ruzoee ^^jji^ (cynosurus corocanus, Lin.), or juwar, 
alias jaree (holciis saccharatus, Lin.) great millet, fer- 
mented with nee?n kay c/t'Aa/ (barkof the margosa tree 
(melia azadirachta, Lin.), and further made intoxicat- 
ing by the addition of bichnag i.^uasT' or poison root- 
It somewhat resembles country beer, and is chiefly used 
in the higher provinces of India. 

Bundugce ^>^ — a mode of salutation. Vide Sulam, in Gloss. 


Chiksa ~-X>- — a perfumed powder, composed of a variety of 
odoriferous substances. The foUowingf is an elesrant 
recipe for the same: 
Take o[' surson kay beej ^j ^Sjy^j^ or sinapis dichotoma, 
Roxb. a kind of mustard seed ; or kown-ar kay beej 
,-jA-J -iji^ii aloe perfoliata, Lin. or aloe plant seed ; or 
bunnolay, or kitpas kay beej .^ ^ 4j»«>U^ Ij . Jv«J 
gossypium herbaceum, Lin. or cotton seed ; of any one 
of these a quarter of a seer or eight ounces: o? gay ho on 
kay aUi \j\ ^^xjj^triticum Lin. or wheat flour; or 
chunnay ka aUt U| l^-:*^ cicer arienatum, Lin. or 
powdered Bengal horse gram, of either a quarter of a 
seer or eight ounces : maythee i<.$V* trigoiiella foenum 
graecum, Lin. or fenugreek seed; and gheoonla or gew la 
jljj-^, of each a quarter of a seer or eight ounces: 
ambee-huldee ^^jla ^<*Ji curcuma zedoaria, Roxb. or 
turmeric-coloured zedoary, one-eighth of a seer or four 
ounces: nagur-tnotha l^ye^U cyperus juncifolius, or 
cyperus pertenuis, Roxb. or rush-leaved cyperus, four 
tolas or one ounce and a half: khush-khush (As* 
papaver somniferum, Lin. or poppy seed; sundul A 
santalum album, Lin. or sandal wood; sundul ka putta 
CJ IxJAx-s folium santal. alb. Lin. or sandal wood leaves, 
of each two tolas or six drams : kuchoor j^ curcuma 


zerumbet, Roxb, or zerumbet zedoary ; putchapan 
j^,L:^; bawuncheean j^Li^jb ; balay kee jur jXJ^ 
j5>- andropodon muricatum, Kcenig. or cusscuss root; 
ubruk tiXji or mica (erroneously called talc) ; bag- 
nuk or nuckholay i}^4^ V. t-l>^ Ij ; puVhur kay 
phool, cy^, (^ j^. lichen rotundatus, Lin. or rock 
lichen, of each one io/« or three drams: kafoor j<^ 
laurus camphora, liin. or camphor, quarter of a tola 
or forty-five grains : son/w-aJj«jpimpinellaanisum, Liin. 
or aniseed, half a tola or one dram and a half: oorf, 
L>j£ styrax benzoin or benzoin (vulgo benjamin) ; eela- 
chce ^5^*1 amomum cardamomum, Lin. or carda- 
moms; long tJ^J^y eugenia caryophylla, Lin. or cloves; 
darcheenee ^J«,.>-^'j laurus cinnamomum, Lin. or cin- 
namon, of each a quarter of a tola, or forty-five grains ; 
jap''hul jj^us- myristica moschata, IVood. or nutmeg: 
jowtree i.J/^ myristica moschata, Wood, or mace, of 
each two maslia., or thirty grains. The maythee is first to 
be toasted with any of the first three kinds of seed, then 
well dried, pounded and sifted, and mixed with the other 
ingredients, which are likewise to be previously reduced 
to a fine powder and sifted. In using this powder it is 
generally mixed up with phool-ail ka tail (or sweet 
scented oil), instead of water. The poorer classes of 
people, when many of the above substances are not 
procurable, prepare the chiksa with only a few of them. 

ChooTioay ^^jS=- — paddy, (/. e. rice in the husk), well soaked 
in water, is dried in the sun ; then toasted in an earthen 
pot till one or two begin to burst open, after which it is 
pounded in a wooden mortar and winnowed. 

Chitkku?^ S,s>- — ^a weapon, resembling a quoit in size and shape, 
used principally by the Sikhs, consisting of an iron ring 
with a sharp edge, which they throw with great dexte- 
rity, and usually carry several of them on the head, 
fastened to the hair. 


Chukoleean alias Sootreean ^,J^ V. c^V^^ — ^ ^'^^ ^°"" 
sisting of wheat flour made into paste, formed into small 
cakes, and boiled in water together with meat, gurm 
and Vhimda mussala^^ and salt. 

Chums u^jf- — the exudation of the flowers of hemp collected 
with the dew, and prepared for use as an intoxicating 
drug. A man covers himself with a blanket and runs 
through a field of hemp early in the morning ; the dew 
and gum of the plant naturally adhering to it, these are 
first scraped off", and the blanket afterwards washed and 
wrung. Both products are boiled together, and an 
electuary formed. The quantity of five grains, placed 
above the goorakoo (q. v.) and smoked, proves speedily 

Circumcision — The operation, as practised by natives in India, 
is performed in the following manner : a bit of stick is 
used as a probe, and carried round and round between 
the glans and prepuce, to ascertain that no unnatural 
adhesions exist, and to ascertain the exact extent of the 
frcenum ; then the foreskin is drawn forwards, and a 
pair of forceps, consisting of a couple of pieces of split 
bamboos (five or six inches long and a quarter of an 
inch thick), tied firmly together at one end with a string 
to the extent of an inch, applied from above in an 
oblique direction, so as to exclude about one inch and a 
half of the prepuce above and three-quarters of un inch 
below : the forceps severely grasping it, occasions a 
considerable degree of pain ; but this state of suff*ering 
does not continue long, since the next thing to be done 

* Gurm mussala JLj^ * / or warm spices, includes pepper, cloves, 
mace, cinnamon, cardamoms, shah zeera (cuminum cyminum, Var.}, and 
cuhcb cheenee, cubebs; Thunda mwssaZaJ U^^JO^— or cold spices, com- 
prises chillies, onions, garlic, ginger, turmeric, coriander and cummin seed, 
tamarind, &c. 



is the removal, which is executed by one stroke of the 
razor (drawn directly downwards). The haemorrhage 
which follows is inconsiderable, and readily stopped by 
the application of burnt rags or ashes; over this is put 
a pledget, with an ointment prepared of dammer (or 
country rosin) and gingilie oil. (01. Sesam. Oriental.) 
I have seen adults undergoing this operation for phy- 
mosis, who were required by the native practitioners to 
confine themselves to their beds for ten or fifteen days. 
The applications to the wounds in these cases were 
various. The most common practice was to fumigate 
the wound daily with the smoke of benjamin, and apply 
the ashes of burnt rags, which were sometimes kept on 
for three days. I found the wound heal much more 
kindly and rapidly by our common dressings of white 
ointment or Turner's cerate. 
Daer ^Ij — there are four kinds of Daees^ viz. 1. Baeejiin- 
naee^ a midwife; commonly called simply Daee. 2. 
Daee doodh-pillaee, a wet-nurse; commonly denominated 
by the familiar term A7jna. 3. Daee k'hillnee, a dry 
nurse, or a nursery maid; commonly called Ch'ho-ch'ho. 
4. Daee asseel, a maid servant, or a lady's maid; com- 
monly called merely Assecl or Mama. A midwife gene- 
rally receives as her fee for attending upon a woman at 
her lying-ill, from the nobility, jewels to the value of 
twenty or twenty-five rupees; a suit of clothes, consisting 
of a lungga, a saree, and a cliolee^ or an eezar, a pesh- 
teaz, an unggeean, a koorfee, a dopuita, and about ten or 
twelve rupees in money : from the middling classes, 
a saree, a cholee, and five or ten rupees : and from the 
poorer classes, one and a quarter to two and a half ru- 
pees, and sometimes a cholee in addition ; or, in addition 
to a rupee, her lap is filled wilh pausooparee, as a tri- 
fling recompense in return for, and emblematic of, her 


having filled the mother's lap with the infant. Another 
statement, more especially applicable to a particular 
part of the country (Hydrabad). 1. Nobility : — A suit 
of clothes, value from twenty-five to one hundred rupees; 
cash, fifty to one hundred rupees; jewels, one to one 
hundred rupees worth, with sometimes a pension often 
or twelve rupees per mensem for life. Her salary, during 
the period of suckling-, is from four to ten rupees per 
month, exclusive of food, which among the great is very 
sumptuous, that is, so long as the infant enjoys good 
health ; the moment, however, it becomes ill, they get 
displeased with her, and make her live as low, compara- 
tively, as she lived high before ; a change which is very 
little relished. They are very particular in the choice 
of a wet nurse : they take none but a respectable wo- 
man of their own caste, and one who is married ; for 
they suppose the child to acquire the temper and dispo- 
sition of the nurse. She has three meals a day, which, 
though constituting part of the dinner cooked for the 
family, costs from seven to ten rupees per month extra. 
She moreover receives presents at different feasts, such as 
at the two great ones, viz. Eed-ool-Jitr and Buqr-eed ; 
and at the minor ones of Akhree char shoomba and 
Shub-e-hurat^ as well as at the anniversary of the child's 
birth, and at his marriage. The present consists of 
four or five rupees, with or without victuals, a saree 
and a cholee, to the value of four or five rupees. 2. 
Middling class: — Salary, six or seven rupees per men- 
sem ; plenty of the daily food of the family. On dismis- 
sing her, a suit of clothes of from ten to twenty rupees, 
and in cash eight or ten rupees ; no ornaments. 3. 
Poorer orders, have also nurses from among people of the 
lowest caste. Moosulman children are generally suckled 
till they are two years and a half old, which, agree- 
ably to the Shiirra, is the period within which the wet 

Ixviii c;los>;ary. 

nurse is considered as the child's foster-mother. (Vide 
p. 145.) If a child suck another woman during- that 
time, she is not his foster mother. It is not unusual to see 
children of three and four years hanging about their 
mother's breasts. The females among the nobility scarce- 
ly' ever suckle their own offspring, but employ a nurse, 
for they consider it weakening-, and detrimental to the 
beauty of their form. The diet which is considered 
wholesome for the wet-nurse consists in the following : 
polaoo^ birreeanee, fish, khoorfai/ ka bhajee (portulaca 
oleracea, Lin. or purslane), umbotee kay bhajee (oxa- 
lis corniculata, hiii. or yellow wood sorrel), paluk 
kay bhajee (or spinage), chookay kee bhajee (rumex 
vesicarius, Lin. or country sorrel), and cabbage. Those 
which are considered unwholesome, and to be refrained 
from, are the following : bygun (solanum melong-ena, 
Lin. brinjal or eg-g- plant), ambaree kee bhajee (hi- 
biscus cannabinus, Lin, or ozeille, erroneously called in 
Bengal sorrel), inaai kay bhajee^ or sada noteea 
(amaranthus Iristis, Lin.)., kurayla (momordica cha- 
rantia, Lin.)^ maythee kee bhajee (trigonella foenum 
grsBCum, Lin. or fenugreek greens). None of the 
dais (or peas) are good except moong (phaseolus ra- 
diatus, Lin. phaseolus aureus, Roxb. green gram, or 
rayed kidney bean), and cooling articles, such ascucum- 
bers, carrots, turnips, and potatoes. 

Dal J'j — a round flat ornament, of the size and shape of a 
crown piece, made of stone, bone, or mother-of-pearl, 
worn by fuqeers round the right ankle, suspended by 
means of silk thread, which is passed through a couple 
of holes. The ornament itself hangs immediately below 
the outer ankle-bone. 

Doiiincean j^Li.«tt> — ihe females of a low caste of Moosul- 
inans called dom (*j<-J, who sing and play in the company 
of females only. The instruments they play on are the 


dJwl (or a kind of drum), and immjeeray (or a kind of 
Dozanoo bjjihnu U^^ vljj'^ — '^^* sitting on two knees, or 
kneeling-; it is different, liowever, from the European 
mode of kneeling : they rest the body, or sit upon tlie 
left foot placed horizontally with the sole turned up- 
wards, while the right foot is placed perpendicularly, 
with the great toe touching the ground and heel up, 
the hands resting on the thighs. In repeating prayers 
in this position, the eyes are directed to the region of 
the heart. I may observe, that the right foot is never 
moved from its original j)osition, while the left is altered 
to the vertical in the act of making sijdah (or touching 
the ground with the forehead), and placed again in its 
horizontal posture, when the person praying sits on the 
sole of it. 
Dumree j^'UJ — a small copper coin current in the Carnatic, 

four of which go to a pice. 
Dur-gah ilT^J — a tomb or shrine. There are two noted ones 
of this kind near and at Mangalore. The fir.-it is situated 
at the village of Cuddry (two miles off), and called 
Sheikh Furreed ka Diirgah. It consists of a hole in 
the centre of the side of a perpendicular rock composed 
oflaterite, which is said to lead to a considerable dis- 
tance (they say all the way to Ilydrabad, 450 miles). 
The openino- is square, about six feet above the ground, 
ascended by a Hight of stone steps rudely constructed, 
and just large enough to allow of a person to crawl in. 
The cavern is very dark, and no one knows the exact 
size of it, as none dare venture in. Adjoining is a chasm 
in the rock, and of inconsiderable size, which at its en- 
trance has been built up Avitli stone, and an opening left 
for people to creep in by as in the other ; but this is found 
open within (or exposed to the air) after it is once (mi- 
tered. Tradition states that, about one hundred ytars 


ago (this being A. D. 1832), there was a peer named 
Sheikh Furreed,who\\kew\se made another similar cAiV/a 
(e. e. neither speaking, eating, nor drinking for forty 
days, but worshipping God and living retired from the 
world) in Hindoostan. He resided at Cuddry for twelve 
years, during which time he used to observe chillas^ 
remaining for forty days together in the cavern, seeing 
and speaking to nobody, eating and drinking nothing; 
after the forty days were over, he was wont to con)e out 
for four or five days, but partake of no other food but 
the leaves of a plant (since named after \\\m)^furreed- 
bootee (the latter word signifying a medicinal herb), a 
sort of shrub which grows wild in the surrounding 
jungles, and has a sweetish taste : he drank water, spoke 
during these days, said prayers in an adjoining stone 
building, and then retired again to this cavern to per- 
form another forty days chilla, and so on. At the end 
of twelve years he disappeared, and it is said, this be- 
ing the road to Mecca, that he set out for that town 
by this subterraneous route, and has never been heard 
of since. Moosulmans resort hither occasionally, and 
on Fridays (their sabbath) cook victuals, and having 
offered fateeha over them while burning incense in his 
name, distribute them among ihefuqeers resident there, 
as well as those who have accompanied them. If a 
durgah be situated in a place where no food can be 
dressed (from want of materials or otherwise), they take 
sweetmeats with them, which they substitute in its stead. 
This durgah is in the charge of a fuqeer, who receives 
(or rather helps himself to) the offerings that are made 
by visitors, and which are placed at the entrance of the 
cave. When he dies (the office not being hereditary) 
another is appointed, the one best qualified from his 
known piety and zeal. The committee for electing a 
successor consists of the four principal mukkanwalay 


(peers), residing at the four principal mukkuns (or 
houses of peers), spiritual guides (so called) at Man- 
galore, and six or ten of their mooreeds (or disciples). 
On such occasions numerow^fuqeers are likewise present. 
The four peers having come to an unanimous conclu- 
sion, appoint either one of their disciples, or the son of 
the deceased, if he be found duly qualified. In the 
days of the Sooltan (Tippoo), the individual in charge 
of this durgah used to receive (by order of the Sooltan) 
rupees corresponding to the number of masts of the 
vessels that entered the roads or harbour; for every 
ship three rupees, pattamars^ &c. two rupees, munjee^ 
&c. one rupee : this rule has been abolished since the 
place has fallen into the hands of the British. Here 
is likewise a pagoda (or Hindoo place of worship) 
where a grand annual festival takes place, on which 
occasion an immense concourse of people assemble. 
The second durgah is situated at Mangalore, on the 
banks of the river, and consists of a large long tomb 
with minarets at each extremity. Loio hiingur Shah 
(afuqeer) is buried here, whose name it bears. Lamps 
are burned here every night, and it is chiefly visited by 
Malabars (a Hindoo caste), but also by Moosulmans 
and other Hindoos. Most Hindoos, however, frequent 
Sheikh Furreed's durgah. These durgahs are re- 
sorted to when people are desirous of being freed from 
any distemper, misfortune, &c. If the individual who 
is enshrined in the durgah have been wealthy, large 
dinners are provided, /«^ee/?a offered, and the food dis- 
tributed to any who choose to partake of it; there be- 
ing sometimes kunchnee ka taefu (bands of dancing 
girls) to entertain the ofuests. A mono- the arreat this 
takes place on every night of the year (and is never 
observed in the day time) ; but among the poorer 
classes of people, every Monday and Thursday, or 
once a week or month. 



Eed-gah or Numaz-gah ^Ifjlr - i^Juc — Hi. a place of festival 
or of prayer: a building generally situated without the 
walls of a town (often amidst gardens), erected on a 
platform or a pediment three or four feet above the 
level of the ground, and on an eminence, consisting of a 
square wall with two or more minarets, and havino- in 
the centre, on a level with the ground, three steps, 
which forms the mimbur j^ (or pulpit), from which 
the khootba Jjas- (or sermon) is read on particular 
occasions, or on particular feast days, such as those of 
buqr-eed and rumzan kee eed, which occupies from an 
hour and a half to two hours. It is said that the Prophet, 
in addressing the congregation, stood on the uppermost 
step; Abu Bukur {h'\9 successor) on the second; Oonmr 
on the third or lowest; but Oosmun^ observing that at this 
rate we might descend to the bowels of the earth, fixed 
upon the middle as the one from which to deliver the 
sermon; since then it has continued so. This building 
is merely intended as a signal post for people to as- 
semble at to hear the khootba read. A bamboo, or 
any other post, might answer the same purpose, but a 
brick building is usually preferred, as being more 
durable, and affording individuals an opportunity of 
handing down their names to posterity, by being at 
the expence of erecting them. It is by no means a 
sacred edifice. 

Ehrofn (♦]/S*-i — putting on the pilgrim's habit when at a cer- 
tain distance from Mecca. While they wear this mean 
habit they interdict themselves all worldly enjoy- 
ments, &c. 


Fanam — a small silver Madras coin, value about twopence. 

Fateeha jsr\i — the offering up of prayers to the Almighty 
for the remission of the sins and the acceptance into 
Heaveii of the individual in whose name it is desired, 


be he a saint or sinner, rich or poor, old or young'. 


It consists in saying, For such or such a one I offer 


this prayer;" then repeating' the first chapter of the 
Qoran, which comprises the following short prayer: 
Praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures, the most 
merciful, the King of the day of judgment. Thee do 
we worship, and of Thee do we beg assistance. 
Direct us in the right way, in the way of those to 
whom thou hast been gracious; not of those against 
whom thou art incensed, nor of those who go astray." 
It is called also theya^ee/i« chapter, followed, when pray- 
ing for the souls of the dead, by the hundred and eleventh 
chapter, termed Qoolhoo-oollah ; which latter, if read 
thrice over, is considered equivalent to having read the 
whole Qoran ; for all the blessings will be derived from 
the one as from the other. Sometimes merely these 
prayers are offered, at other times oblations are also 
made at the same time. Reading or perforniingyir/^ccAa 
over any kind of food previous to distribution, which is 
so commonly done, is not enjoined in the Qoran ; con- 
sequently an innovation. Fatechas are of various 
kinds. (Vide Index.) 
FateehOj Neeut khyr kee .c^\i ^S vfP^ "--^ — from neeut in- 
tention, and khyr good ; i. e.fateeha offered in the name 
of the living, in contradistinction to otherya^eeAas, which 
are performed for the dead. 
Fateeha, Suhtiuk, vulgo Sanuk ,'sc\i uUnXs?* — sanuk is the 
name of a small earthen pot, seven of which are used 
at this offering. They are filled with boiled rice, which 
is completely covered with duhee (or curds), sugar, and 
ghee (or clarified butter), and sweetened (not acidi- 
fied), 7noong (phaseohxs radiatus, Lin.) or chunnay kay 
ilal (cicer arienatum, Lin.) and fateeha being offered 
over them in Beebee Fateemci's name, they are distri- 
buted to the seven respectable women invited lo partake 


of them, for it is not every woman that is allowed the 
honour of eating of so sacred a dish. (Vide p. 108.) 

Fitr or Iftar jlkil -J^ — the breaking of fast, which takes 
place every evening during the Mohummudan Lent; or 
on the last day of the month Rumza?i, called eed-ool- 
Jittur,Jhsi\s^ , or the festival of breaking up Lent. 

Fitraxjai — alms given upon the eed-ool-Jittur abovementioned. 

Flowers or P^hool fjy^_ — whenever flowers are mentioned as 
being sent or used on any occasion, it is invariably meant 
to allude to garlands, nosegays, &c., not to single loose 
flowers. The different forms into which they are ma- 
nufactured are thus distinguished : \. Sayhra u^^ tied 
on the forehead, covering the eyes as a veil, worn by 
men as well as women ; 2. Jalcc moeebund SU) ^ya l\s>- 
representing a network tied to the forehead and cover- 
ing the forepart of the head, worn only by women ; 
3. Siirpai/nch ^\^Jj>^ a string of flowers wound round 
the head in the form of a turban by women; 4. Har 
j\jb or a wreath of flowers, worn as a necklace, and 
hanging down on the breast ; 5. Buddhee (c^'^ ov 
wreaths of flowers, crossing each other on the breast 

and back like a soldier's belt; 6. Toorru ijs a nosegay 
or bouquet; 7. Pak^hur j^\i an ornament of flowers 
(intended to represent an armour) thrown over the 

horse's head and body ; 8. Gujra \j^ flower bracelets; 
9. Gend Guhwara\j\^^ ^X^ or flowers formed like 
the scale of a balance tied on to images. Vide Mohur- 
rum. 10. Chuddur^ P^hool kayjSs>- ^S J^V or flowers 
worked in the form of a sheet, spread on graves. 
Furz ijo^ — the word signifies God's commands, and those of 
two kinds : 1. Furz {^^ or injunctions, which, in deli- 
vering them, he has repeated thrice ; 2. Wajib i__-o»-|. or 
injunctions, which, in delivering them, he has repeated 



Ganja \ss:^\i — the leaves or young leaf-buds of the hemp 
plant (cannabis sativa, Willcl.), which are frequently 
rubbed between the hands, added to tobacco and 
smoked, to increase its intoxicating powers, or smoked 
by itself. Vide Bluing. 

Ghurra \j.S — a large earthen pot, a waterpot, a pitcher. 

Gold-???o/iMr or Ashrufee ci/i>\ — a gold coin, equal, in 
Bengal, to sixteen sicca rupees ; in Madras, to fifteen 
Arcot rupees ; and in Bombay, to fourteen sonant 

Gool-ab L_->'jJi — or rose-water ; it is contained in a goolab- 
pash ^bu-Jili or a kind of long-necked silver bottle, 
perforated with holes at the mouth in the form of a 
muffineer, out of which the rose-water is sprinkled on 
the guests. 

Goorakoo y\Si -V'3^ prop. Goodakoo — from the Sanscrit 
word good (Hindoostanee goor) raw sugar, and the 
Teloogoo word akoo, leaf. It is the name given in the 
Deccan to the tobacco for the hooqqa* (called in Bengal 
tamhakoo jiUiJ), in the preparation of which these 
enter as chief ingredients. The following are two 
very valuable formulas for this composition : 
1. Take of tobacco leaves four seers ; common treacle four 
seers, preserved apples, or as a substitute either pre- 
served pine-apple or 63/er j-J , zizyphus jujuba, Lin. 
jujubes or Indian plum, half a seer ; raisins, half a seer j 
gool-qund JoJJjjTor conserve of roses half a seer: these 
are to be well pounded together in a large wooden 
mortar, put into an earthen pot, the mouth of which is 
to be made air-tight, and buried underground for three 

* Hooqqa Ja>~ — the pipe and its apparatus used in the East- Indies for 
smoking tobacco through water. 


months previous to being used. If it be desired to have 
the tobacco spiced, add Pegu cardamoms one chliut- 
tack ; cubab chectiee ^_5^■=- '-r'^f^ piper cubeba, Lin. 
or cubebs, one chluittack ; sandal wood one cWhuttack., 
putchapaut or pas ka pun, two ck'hidtacks ; aiincck 
or juttamasee |^-^Ul!b>- cyperus stoloniferus, Kcenig. 
Valeriana jatamamsi, Roxb. or spikenard, and mix 
them all well together before you proceed to the 
burial ceremony. 

N. B. The tobacco without the spices is reckoned by far 
the most wholesome, and if it has been allowed the 
prescribed time of fermentation under ground, will be 
found very mellow and agreeable. If the smoker can- 
not bear strong tobacco, the leaves must be washed in 
cold water from one to five times, and as often dried in 
the sun, then pounded. 

2. Recipe (of Mooiieer ool Moolk). Take of good tobacco 

leaves twenty seers (forty pounds) ; tar ka goor '•l^\^ '''[j 
or raw sugar of the palmyra tree (borassus fiabelli- 
formis,Zr«n.) twenty seers ; sad-koofee ij,*^ ^k^ (Arab.) 
nagurmolha (Hind.) J^,-b^\j (cyperus juncifolius) 
or root of the rush-leaved cyperus, two tolas (six 
drams) ; kayla J-j or rijie plantains (musa paradisiaca, 
Lin.) twenty in number; kazceet (JL^jl^ (feronia ele- 
phantum, Roxb.) or wood-apple, ten in number; cloves 
two tolas (six drams). Pound all separately except the 
two first, then mix them with two seers of each of the 
two first; make eight divisions of the remaining tobacco 
and sugar, triturate one at a time well with the mass; 
then add them all together, and knead them again well 
with the hands; afterwards biiiy them (as above) for a 
month in a dunghill. 
Gurm miissala, see note p. Ixv. 



Ifooma t*i> (or ^uJ!>) — a fabulous bird. The phcenix of the 

Ilifddees tJ-UtXe* — properly a saying-, but generally applied 
to the sayings which tradition has attributed to Mohum- 
mud. These are divided into two classes ; the first is 
called Huddees-c-niibuicec i^^^ ci^JJe>-or the sayings 
of the Prophet ; the other Huddees-e-qoodsee. l1^Ss>~ 
i^«jfcXJI or the holy sayings, which they believe the angel 
Gabriel brought from heaven. 

///(/ ^^^ — the pilgrimage, to Mecca. Anieer-c-h)/j\ the chief 
or commander of the pilgrims (an officer of great digni- 
ty during the splendour of the Khaliphat, and generally 
filled by the son or declared successor of the reigning 

JTinidee (_cAx!i) — a small earthen pot. 


Ispnnd Jc-w-jI — the seeds of the Maynhdee (q. v.), which is 
burnt at marriages to drive away evil spirits. It is also 
burnt as a charm for the like purpose during the forty 
days of the puerperal state ; particularly at the door, 
whenever a visitor retires, as well as when the infant is 
taken out of the room to be bathed, and brought in 
again. It is generally thrown into the fire along' with 
some benzoin (or benjamin), or with mustard seed and 
putchar kaputta. 


Ja-e-numctz j\>^ i_S^*^ vulgo. Janeemaz or Moosulla iLiK — or 
a place of prayer. The term is applied to the carpet, 
mat, or cloth on which they stand while praying-. 

Jlbbreel ^Jj -k>- — or the angel Gabriel. The Mohummudans 
reckon four great angels, viz. 1. Jibraeel, Jibreel, or 
Jubra-ueel ^js-j^ . ^}lj*s>- - JjL*^ ■ — the archangel 
Gabriel, who is God's messenger. The protector of 
the Mohummudans. 2. Meekaeel J-jl^* (Michael) — 

Ixxviii GLOSSARY. 

the angel who presides over water (rain), whom the 
Moosuhnans acknowledge to be the protector of the 
Jews. 3. Israfeel jj-ii-oi — or the angel who presides 
over the wind, and will sound the last trumpet at the 
resurrection. 4. Izra-eel ij-^}jj^ — or the angel of death. 
The Mohummudans affirm, that when a dead person is 
buried two evil spirits, named Moo?i/cirS^u^ and Nukeei^ 
jSj , of a frightful aspect and black colour, make the 
dead sit upright in the grave and arraign him : if he be 
found innocent, they suffer him to lie down again and 
rest in quiet; if not, they give him several blows with a 
hammer between the two ears, which occasions incre- 
dible pain, and makes him cry out terribly. Vide Sale's 
Qorafi, Prel. Diss., sect. 4. 
K'hana \i\jS — food or meals. Moosulmans use three meals a 
day : 1st. Nashta or Ilazree ^jj\s- . \:^\j or break- 
fast ; at nine or ten A.M., which consists, among the 
great, of rice, kliichree, or wheaten cakes with curries, 
fried fish, preserves, pickles, omelet, eggs broken up 
into lumps while frying, duhce (or tj/ar), buttermilk, 
chutnee (shubdcg), carrots, haleem made of meat, 
wheat flour and ghee^ monsumf7iiwi, fried fowl in g/jt'f, 
milk, and sugar, with sat/zaeean, dal^ char (or mooloo- 
goo tunny ^ literally pepper water), goorday ka pooray 
(sheep's testes). Among the middling orders, of rice, 
k^hichree, or wheaten cakes, eggs, pickles, chutnees, 
duhee, dal, char, and fried or boiled fish. Among the 
poorer classes, of basee k^hana, or stale rice which has 
been kept overnight in water and acquires a slightly 
acid taste, with kyan pepper, chutnee, or dal and rice, 
with char or fish. 2d. Khana \j\jif or dinner, which 
they partake of at three or four P.M., the lower orders 
o-enerally at 1 P.M.; it consists, among the nobility, 
of rice, occasionally polaoos, curries, moosummun, chut- 


nees, shurbiit, kubabs, and occasionally fruits : among 
the middle ranks, of rice, occasionally polaoos, wheaten 
cakes, with curries, fruits, and water : among the poor, 
of rice and dal, or fish, with chutnee', occasionally meat. 
In most places they eat ragce (or munruwee, cynosurus 
coracanus, Lin.) cakes, instead of any of the foregoing. 
3d. Rat lea kliana ul^p ooi^ or supper ; at seven or eight 
P.M.; this consists, among the nobility, of milk, mullee- 
da, and fried sweetmeats ; sometimes polaoo, with a va- 
riety of fruits, wines, and coffee ; among the middling 
classes, of milk with rotee, rice, curry, and sweetmeats: 
among the poor, of the same as dinner or breakfast. 

K'hich-ree ^_$ys.ii — a dish made of rice and a species of pea 
called dill, together with ghee and spices. (Vide Ap- 
pend., p. XXX.) 

Khootba ~Ji:>- — an oration or sermon delivered every Friday 
after the forenoon service in the principal mosque (in 
which they praise God, bless Mohumaiud and his 
descendants, and pray for the king or reigning mo- 
narch,)* with exhortations. This was generally pro- 
nounced in former times by the reigning Khuleefa, or 
the heir apparent. 

K'hopra V^ — is the kernel of the nariel (or fresh cocoa-nut), 
when fully ripe, taken out, divided in the middle, and 
dried. This is very generally eaten by the natives, 
and is esteemed not only superior in flavour to the na- 
riel, but more wholesome, being considered more diges- 
tible, and less apt to create flatulence or generate 
worms. Its price is double that of the other. It is 
frequently used as an ingredient in curries and in medi- 

* This, in the author's opinion, should at present be the Honourable East- 
India Company, but that is not done ; they pray for the king of Delhi, he 
being the titular sovereign of the Indian empire. 


Khuleefa «i-i^ — (Caliph) a title given to Moliuimnudan so- 
vereigns or successors of the Prophet ; to which was 
annexed the most absolute authority both in religious 
and civil government. 

K^hiillee ^X^ — oil cakes; the dregs of the seeds which re- 
main after the oil is expressed. 

Koossoom M-S — cartliamus tinclorius, Lin. or safflower. The 
beautiful red dye called kuossuom ka rung, so much in 
use on all occasions, and so frequently referred to in this 
woi*k, is prepared as follows : Take of koossoom ka 
p'hool (or the dried flowers of safflower) one seer (two 
pounds), put them into a towel suspended by its four 
corners to sticks fixed in the ground, pour cold water 
on them, rubbing at the same time the flowers well 
with the water, and continuing the washing" as lonar as 
the strained water remains yellow. When it begins to 
acquire a red colour, squeeze the water out of the 
flowers and spread them out; then having sprinkled 
fourp/ce Aveight (two ounces) of soojeekhar j[p ^si^ ^ 
or an impure carbonate of soda, mix them well together. 
Tut the flowers again on the suspended cloth, and pour 
on them three gugglets of cold water, and keep the 
strained liquid of each gugglet separate ; add to these 
the juice of as many lemons (about twenty or twenty- 
five) as will the change the colour of the fluid into a 
most beautiful hue. In dyeing cloth, it is first soaked in 
the faintest coloured liquid, then in the darker, and 
lastly in the darkest, leaving it in each for a few seconds 
or minutes. 

Kufnee (c^ Alfa or Alfuh -il! - liJl — it consists of a piece of 
cloth about fifteen feet long, and about a yard wide* 
In the centre of its breadth a slit is made through which 
the head is passed, where a collar is sewed on; one- 
third of the cloth hangs behind, reaching down to the 

GLOSSARY. jxxxi 

calf of the leg, and two-thirds before ; the superfluous 
quantity in front is tucked up by means of the kummur- 
bundy which at the same time forms a sort of hag to 
receive the contributions of the charitable. 
Kulrna ^^Jj — the two members of the Mohummudan confes- 
sion of faith, i. e. Jj! ^1 <u!^ la illaha illaylah^ There 

is no God but God;" ii\ J^-j^\j;X*.sr«j wo Mohum- 
mudoor russool Oollah, And Mohummud is the mes- 
senger of God." 
Kunchneecm kay nach --u ^ |^L:jsr6 — or dancing girls. 
These dancing women and their musicians form a se- 
parate kind of caste, and a certain number of them are 
attached to every Hindoo temple of any consequence. 
The allowance which the musicians receive for their 
public duty is very small, yet morning and evening 
they are bound to attend at the temple to perform be- 
fore the image ; they must also receive every person 
travelling on account of the government, meet him at 
a distance from the town, and conduct him to his quar- 
ters with music and dancing. All the handsome girls 
are instructed to dance and sing, and are all prostitutes, 
at least to the Brahmuns. In ordinary sets they are 
quite common; but under the Company's Government, 
those attached to temples of extraordinary sanctity are 
reserved entirely for the use of the native officers of the 
temple, who are all Brahmuns, and who would turn 
from the set any girl that profaned herself by communi- 
cation with persons of low caste, or of no caste at all, 
such as Christians or Moosulmans. Indeed almost 
every one of these girls, that is tolerably handsome, is 
taken by some native officer of revenue for his own 
special use, and is seldom permitted to go to the temple 
except in his presence. Most of these officers have 
more than one wife, and the women of the Brahmuns 


Ixxxii . GLOSSARY. 

are very beautiful : the dancing girls are sought after 
by all natives with great avidity. The Moosulman 
officers in particular were exceedingly attached to this 
kind of company, and lavished on these women a great 
part of their incomes. The women very much regret 
their loss, as the Moosulmans paid liberally, and the 
Brahmuns durst not presume to hinder any one who 
chose from amusing an asoph, or any of his friends. 
The Brahmuns are not nearly so liberal of their money, 
especially where it is secured by the Company's Go- 
vernment, but trust to their authority for obtaining the 
favours of the dancers. When a Moosulman called 
for a set of dancers, it procured from twenty to two 
hundred fanams^^ according to the number and libe- 
rality of his friends who were present ; for in this coun- 
try it is customary for every spectator to give something. 
They are now seldom called upon to perform in private, 
except at marriages, where a set does not get more 
than ten fanams. The girls belonging to this caste 
who are ugly, or who cannot learn to sing, are married 
by the musicians. The nutzoa^ or person who performs 
on two small cymbals, is the chief of the troop, and not 
only brings up the boys to be musicians, and instructs 
all the good looking girls born in it to sing and dance, 
but will purchase handsome girls of any caste whatever 
v/hich he can procure. When a dancing girl grows 
old, she is turned out from the temple without any pro- 
vision, and becomes very destitute, unless she have a 
handsome daughter to succeed her. If she have this, 
the daughters are in general extremely attentive and 
kind to their aged parents. In the opinion of some 
Europeans nothing can be more silly and unanimated 
than the dancing of the women, nor more harsh and 

* A Madras small silver coin, value about twopence. 

GLOSSARY. Ixxxiii 

barbarous than their music; while others perhaps, from 
long habit, have acquired a relish for the latter, and 
have even been captivated by the women. — F. Bu- 
chanan's Journey through Mysore, Canara, and Ma- 
labar, Vol. TI. p. 267. 

Kuntha l^iio — a necklace of large beads made of the basilar 
process, or button of the conch-shell, worn round the 
necks of all the Bengal sepoys. 

La-howl ov hahowUo-la qoowuta ilia bil lahil alli-il azeem^ 
i.e. ' There is no power or strength but in God, who is 
great and mighty ;" or, in other words, they mean there 
is no strivinjr aoainst fate. Nisi Dominus frustra. 

Z/Otrt l!u! — a small metallic pot, generally made of brass or 
tinned iron. 

Luddoo t^ — a kind of sweetmeat, made chiefly of sugar, with 
the addition of rasped cocoa-nut and cream, and formed 
in the shape of large boluses. 

Majoon (j^-s*^ — this electuary is much used by the Mohum- 
mudans, particularly the more dissolute, who take it 
internally to intoxicate and ease pain, and not unfre- 
quently, from an over-dose of it, produce a temporary 
mental derangement. The chief ingredients employed 
in making it are ganja (or hemp) leaves, milk, ghee, 
poppy seeds, flowers of the thorn apple, the powder of 
the nux vomica, and sugar: or, take of milk four seers 
(eight lbs.), put into it a seer of gan/a leaves, and boil 
until three seers remain; take out the leaves and coagu- 
late the milk by putting into it a little duhee : next day 
churn it and separate the butter, to which add junglee 
long, nutmegs, cloves, mace, saffron, of each one tola 
pounded, and sugar-candy five tolas, and boil to an elec- 
tuary. Or simply the leaves of the hemp are fried in 


^hce (or clarified butter) and strained, and to the liquor 
some suo-ar is added, and the beverage drank ; or the 
liquor is boiled with the sugar until is acquires a con- 
sistence sufficiently thick to form cakes on cooling. 

Maleeda or Muleedu if JuLc - i^JulU — wheaten cakes, dried, 
pounded, and mixed up with ghee and sugar. 

Maynh'dee ^Sf>^ — (La^fvsonia spinosa, Lin., Lawsonia iner- 
mis, Heyne, Ligustrum indiciim) prickly Lawsonia, 
Ivenie, or Eastern Privet. The leaf, triturated with 
rice o-ruel or water, is much used by the Mohummudan 
women in staining the nails, palms of the hands, and soles 
of the feet, of a red colour. The plant forms a fine 
hedo-e, and perfumes the air with a delicious fragrance. 
Few shrubs are more esteemed throughout India, Per- 
sia, and Arabia than this. Its seeds, called ispund (q. v.), 
are likewise used on various occasions. 

Meesee <.~«^ — a powder (made of vitriol) with which the 
teeth are tinged of a black colour. The following is a 
good recipe for preparing the same : Take of ?«a- 
phiil J^vto or majoophul J^^^s^U (quercus robur, 
Lin.) or gall-nuts two ounces; neelatoota -jy J-J or 
neela thotha \^^ ^ or iooteea Ljy (sulphas cupri), or 
blue vitriol two drams; beer j^ or steel filings one 

ounce; hulla, vulgo hurla ^y&lj ^(terminalia chebula, 
Willd.) or chebulic myrobolan, half an ounce ; keekur 
kee phullee ^^^^ ^ J^ (acacia Arabica, Lin.) pod of 
the Indian gum Arabic tree half an ounce ; lime juice, 
q. s.; pound and sift the vitriol, mix it with the steel 
filings, add the lime juice to them, and put them in the 
sun to dry, i. c. until the mixture becomes black, which 
colour it will have acquired in about a couple of hours ; 
then pound this as well as the two other ingredients, 
sift, and preserve the powder for use. 
Miswak CJ\^''^ — a twig of a tree, of which several kinds 
are in use, as that of the neem *-J (melia azadirachta, 


Lin.) or the margosa tree ; the a£^ar« 5;lsT(achyranthes 
aspera, Lin.) or the rough achyranthes; the pceloo ^^^ 
(salvadora persica, Vahl. careya arborea, Roxb.) or the 
toothpick tree ; the kalamahmud d.^^^ "i^ (phyllanthus 
multiflorus, ^/em.) or the many-flowered phyllanthus; 
and the khujoorj^ (phcenix dactilyfera, Lin.) or the 
date tree; or the mulsayree alias bokool. It is used 
as a substitute for a toothbrush. It is about a span long, 
split at one end and chewed to render it softer. In 
using it it is held in a particular way ; the end not to be 
used, is to be held between the ring and little finger, the 
three great fingers are to grasp the middle, and the nail 
of the thumb to press against the other extremity. 
Muocheeimlay ^\_j^^y>—3Ioocheemen, a class of people of a 
particular caste, whose profession on the peninsula of 
India (Deccan) is painting, bookbinding, making sad- 
dles, palankeen bedding, caps, &c. and not shoemakers, 
who have this appellation in Bengal. 
Moosulla "L^^ — vide Jae-numaz. 

MwrfMf/ JJ^^— betel leaf q. s. (previously toasted a little in a 
brass or iron cup) is chopped and mixed with forty- 
five grains of opium, made of a proper consistence to 
form pills of the size of a pepper-corn, and smoked, one 
at a time, in a broken kulkee : in a few minutes the pill 
bursts and evaporates. 
Muhdee ^/J^<— orthe director and leader, is the surname of 
the last or twelfth Imam, whom the Persians believe to 
be still alive ; and that he will appear again with Elias 
the prophet on the second coming of Jesus Christ. 
(Vide p. 14 and 259.) 
Munja U:l.<— same as nayoota, q. v. Also the rubbing the 
body over with turmeric, &c. on particular occasions; 
such as circumcision, bismilla, virginity, and marriage. 
Munjun ^^'■'— or dentrifice. Tooth-powder is frequently 


made of burnt almond shells, or gool^* i.e. burnt goodakf 
(the residuum of a chillum^ or the tobacco o( a. hooqqa 
burnt to cinders) with black pepper and salt ; but what 
is used by the generality of people is merely common 
charcoal, which in my opinion is the best dentrifice in 
existence. It is not unusually made by burning hulla ilte 
(terminalia chebula, IVilld. or chebulic myrobolan), 
or soopeearee ^j^Lj^-: (areca catechu, Lifi. or betel 
nut) into cinders, and pounding it fine; which probably 
is the next best. 

Murseea J^>j^ — properly any funeral eulogium, but applied 
particularly to those sung during the Mohurrunif in com- 
memoration of Hussun and Hosein (the sons o^ Allee). 

Musjid Jcsr-^ — a mosque, or Mohummudan place of worship. 
All mosques are square, and generally built with good 
stones. Before the chief gate there is a square court 
paved with white marble, and low galleries round, the 
roof of which is supported by marble pillars. In these 
they wash themselves before they go into the mosques. 
The walls are all white, excepting some few places, on 
which the name of God is written in large Arabic cha- 
racters. In each mosque there is a great number of 

* A recipe for making the best gools (or fireballs) for the hoogqa : take of 

Seers. Chh. 
Charcoal of the Tamarind tree (tamarindus indica, Lin.) 6 12 

Ditto Peepul ,Jvk-J (ficus religiosa, Lin.) 2 4 

Ditto common Rice (coryza sativa, Lin. ) 2 'I 

Gnva oi the Buhoolot Keeker A ^ \} <1^ (acacia arabica,itox6.)l 2 

Goor 'p Molasses or raw Sugar 2 4- 

Rice gruel or Conjee ^sc^l^ 2 

16 10 

The charcoals should be thoroughly burned, reduced to a fine powder, and 
sifted. The gum and molasses to be dissolved in the conjee, mixed with the 
former, and well beat up in a large wooden mortar, then formed into balls and 
dried in the sun. The more they are beat up the better. 

GLOSSARY. Ixxxvii 

lamps, and between the lamps hang many crystal rings, 
ostrich's eggs, and other curiosities from foreign 
countries, which make a fine shew when the lamps are 
lighted. About each mosque there are six (generally 
two or four) high towers, each having three little open 
galleries, one above another. These towers, as well as 
the mosques, are covered with lead, and adorned with 
gilding and other ornaments: they are called minarets^ 
and from them, instead of a bell, the people are called 
to prayers by certain officers appointed for that purpose, 
whom they call mowazins. Most of the mosques have a 
kind of hospital belonging to them, in which travellers, of 
what religion soever, are entertained during three days. 
Each mosque has also a spot which is the burying-place 
of its founder ; within it is a tomb of six or seven feet 
long, covered with velvet or green satin : at each end 
are two wax tapers, and round it several seats for those 
who read the Qoran, and pray for the souls of the de- 
ceased. It was not lawful to enter the mosques wearing 
shoes or stockings, for which reason the pavements are 
covered with pieces of stuff sewed together in broad 
stripes, each wide enough to hold a row of men kneeling, 
sitting, or prostrate. Women are forbidden in the 
Qoran to go into the public mosques ; therefore the 
great and wealthy have frequently a mosque in their 
own compound (or area), where females perform their 
devotions. Some of the women are taught Arabic, and 
are able to read the Qoran. The different officers 
attached to mosques are the following : viz. 1st. a qazee 
(or ecclesiastical judge) ; 2d. a khuteeb (or priest) ; 3d. 
a moolla (or schoolmaster) ; 4th. two naibs (or his de- 
puties) ; 5th. afurash (or sweeper, called -dho mo ojazcir, 
i. e. devoutly employed) ; 6th. a giissal (or one whose 
business it is to wash the bodies of the dead) ; 7th. tv/o 
(lowruhuburdar (guides or messengers). In inferior 

Ixxxviii GLOSSARY. 

mosques we merely find a nioolla and a mozsazin ; and 
tlie latter has no pay, but lives upon what he can earn 
by carrying messages of invitation, or acting as a servant 
at marriage ceremonies. 

Miissala, gzirm^ and thuncla, see note p. Ixv. 

Mussuh ^s-**^ — drawing the hand over any part, or over the 
surface of any liquid. 

Myda as^ — vide Aia. 


Nadulee ^^^ — a stone having generally a verse or certain 
sentences of the Qorati exquisitely engraved on it, and 
worn, suspended to a string, round the necks of chil- 

Nayoota b'^i — lit. presents which are sent along with invita- 
tions to the individual invited ; also erroneously applied 
to the invitation itself. Nayoota ka chittee, a letter of 

Nuftl JiJ — a voluntary act of devotion, which may be omitted 
innocently as not being prescribed, framed by the Pro- 
phet's companions, other theologians, and the four 

Numazj'UJ — prayers; i. e. those only offered to the Almighty ; 
and especially those prescribed by law, said five times 
a day. 

Nuzur-o-nyaz j\fj j tp — vide Oars. 


Ood (dukh.) J^ — Styrax Benzoin, Benzoin, or Benjamin. 
This is the substance intended when the term ood is 
used, and not lignum aloe or wood aloes, which the 
Persians term ood; the latter being denominated 
liggur, q. V. 

Ood-buitee ^^ Jy: — more properly uggur kay buttee, q. v. 
Oors i^^jS. — oblations. Offerings to a saint. 


Oors, i.e. oblations or fateeha offered, 1. in the name 
of the Prophet, as bara wiifat (p. 233) : 2. in the name 
of the Peers, or spiritual guides,* as peeran-e-peer (or 
saint of saints, i.e. dustugeer, called geearween), ob- 
served in all places (p. 237) ; shah mudar ka oors, ob- 
served in all places (p. 241) ; qadir wullce sahib, ob- 
served at Nagore (near Negapatam) (p. 243) ; rujub 
salar, observed in all places (p. 249) ; khwaja bunday 
nuwaz, observed at Bhuraich (p. 265) ; mowla allee, 
observed near Hydrabad (p. 268) : 3. in the name of 
all JVulleeSj or saints,* as bawa shm^f ood deen, ob- 
served at Shaban, four or five miles S. of Hydrabad ; 
s7/ed shahjummal buhar, observed at Bhowangeer, two 
marches from Hydrabad. 
Nuzur-O'Nyaz, or vows and oblations, 1. in the name 
of God ; 2. in the name of the Prophet ; 3. in the name 
of his companions; 4. in the name of the saints. These 
are not observed on any fixed day, but each performs 
them according to the vow he has made. (Vide Chap. 
XXVII.) The offerings used on the above occasions 
consist of fruits, flowers, and boiled rice. 
Palkee ^-^u — -palankeen or palanquin, litters or sedans. 
These are of four kinds, viz. 1. Palkee |<^U or palan- 
keen, is carried on the shoulders by four men, who sup- 
port it by a pole at each end ; double or treble sets of 
bearers generally attend it, to render the burden as 
light as possible, and they are relieved every five or 
ten minutes by fresh relays. 2. Chowtha -\^y>- i^ a 
kind of palankeen of frame work covered with canvas, 
and is carried by four men, commonly used in the 

* An ordinance (not enjoined eitlier by God or the Prophet) but ob- 
served by ahnost all Moosulmans, and fixed on particular days. The ob- 
servance is optional. 


army. 3. Meeana -iU-x; used on marriag'e occasions, 
and solely by natives. 4. Boolee ^J^J the most com- 
mon kind, generally used by the lower classes of people 
in Bengal. 

Pansoopeearee t^W.^c'V, — ahhr. pansoojyciree (from pan 
betel leaf, and soopeearee areca nut) ; the term, how- 
ever, comprehends all the other ingredients, some or 
all of which are eaten in combination with them : it in- 
cludes betel leaves, areca or betel nut, catechu, quick- 
lime, aniseed, bishop's weed seed (fi/ajflee«), coriander 
seed, cardamoms, and cloves. These folded up in the 
leaf or leaves, and made up into a parcel, are termed ^;are 
ka beera (q. v.), and it is in this form that it is gene- 
rally employed on occasions of ceremony, consequently 
it is in this sense that it is to be understood, when merely 
pan sooparee or betel is mentioned. 

Phool-el-ka tail Jji l^ i>}^J\'^ — or odoriferous oil, obtained 
from sweet-scented flowers, prepared thus : Take off 
the husks of til Jj or gingiiie oil seed, place alternate 
layers of any fragrant flowers Avith it in a covered ves- 
sel, let it stand for a week; throw away the flowers, and 
put fresh ones in their place, and repeat this operation 
from three to five times ; then express the oil from the 
seeds, which will have acquired a delightful odour. 

Pice or Pi/sa L*-j — a copper coin, value about two farthings. 

Puol-siirrata\j^ J.J — a bridge, finer than a hair and sharper 
than the edge of a sword, situated between heaven and 
hell, on which all mankind will have to go on the resur- 
rection day. The righteous will pass over it with ease, 
and with the swiftness of a horse or of lightning ; while 
the wicked will miss their footing, and fall headlong 
into hell, whose flaming jaws will be gaping wide be- 
neath them. 

Ptinjuyree i^jfJSX^ — or a caudle, given to puerperal women, is 
prepared thus : Take of ajioaccn^^ |^! sison ammi,Lz«. 


or bishop's- weed seedjeight/^ice weight (or four ounces) ; 
suojee (vide Ata)^ one pukka seer (or two pounds) ; 
country gum arabic, one-eighth of a seer (or four 
ounces) ; raisins, eight pice weight (or four ounces) ; 
poppy seed, sixteen pice weight (or eight ounces) ; co- 
coanut sliced, sixteen jnce weight (or eight ounces) ; 
blanched almonds, eight pice weight (or four ounces) ; 
dates, eight p/ce weight (or four ounces) ; sugar (soft), 
one /)MA:A:a seer (or two pounds). With the exception 
of the sugar, fry all the ingredients in ghee (or clarified 
butter), and lastly add the sugar. 


Qrt/<— Jb — mount, a fabulous mountain supposed to surround 
the world and bound the horizon. It rests on the stone 
sakhratf an entire emerald, which imparts the azure 
hue to the sky. 

Qeetim /•IJ — or the standing position in prayer, when the per- 
son stands with his feet parallel to each other, and either 
four or eight fingers apart. The shecahs place them a 
foot and more distant from one another, the hands rest- 
ing upon one another over the navel. 

Rooa ]}j — a small copper coin, more of a globular form than 
flat, three of which are equal to a pice ; current in the 
Mysore country. 

Rookoo c ^j — in prayer, consists in bending the body forwards 
and resting the palms of the hands on the knees, with 
back and neck horizontal, and eyes fixed on the great 

Rookoo kee tusbeeh ^,-*-.J ^^ <^<fj — viz. Soobha?ia, RuWhee- 
ooV Azeem^ i.e. Praised be the great God, our pre- 
server. Vide Tusbeeh. 

Rozu Hj^j — fasting, fast ; Lent. Rozu k^hoPna, to break fast. 

Rukat ^,^'y. f ij — readhig a certain number of prayers and 


chapters of the Qoran in conjunction with a certain 

nunrber of inclinations of the head, or of bendings of 

the body, or of genuflexions (as prescribed in the 

Qoran) ^ constitute arukat. 
- ^ 

Rukat Soonnut L::-^i-J <^:.^j — are prayers established by the 
Prophet, of which there are two varieties : 1. Soonnut 
mowukkeeda^ or prayers which he offered himself, and 
has enjoined others positively to observe, consequently, 
the neglect of which is sin : 2. Sonnut gi/r-mowukkeeduj 
or prayers which, though he performed himself, he has 
not insisted upon others performing; the observance of 
these, however, is a meritorious deed, though the 
omission of them is not regarded as sinful. 

Rupee ^tj or \^>ij — a silver coin, varying in value in dif- 
ferent parts of Hindoostan, from one shilling and eight- 
pence to two shillings and sixpence. 

Sheeah .**-i — a sect of Mohummudans who believe Allee to 
have been the successor of Mohumraud. They reject 
Aba Bukur, Oojnr, and Oosman ; and hence, the Soon- 
nees call them rafzee ^^^^^j or heretics. 

Shola Jj-i or Bhe?id jli-^J — aeschynomene aspera, Lin., aeschy- 
nomene paludosa, Roxb., commonly caWed j)ith In India 
by Europeans. The root of this plant is white coloured, 
and very light and spongy, with which a variety of 
toys, artificial flowers, birds, &c. are made, and gar- 
lands, which latter are used in marriage ceremonies. 
Fishermen use it to float their nets and lines with. A 
bundle of it held under each arm is used to learn to swim 
with, and to cross rivers. The turbans of the servants 
of Europeans are made of it. When charred it answers 
the purpose of tinder. I have no doubt but what is cal- 
led rice-paper is nothing more than this pithy substance, 
cut in circular folds with a very sharp instrument. 

GLOSSARY. xciii 

Shurbiiti^::^J» — in the Deccan, is merely a solution of sugar in 
water (or sugar-candy in rose-water, substituted by the 
great), without the addition of lime-juice ; the latter (or 
lemonade) being termed abshola ; Gilchrist, ubshoru ; 
probably both a corruption of abshorah Sjy^L-j] water 
cooled with saltpetre : but in Bengal, as well as Persia, 
they give to lemonade the term of shurbut, where the 
celebrated Eastern mode of preparing this beverage is 
by dissolving perfumed cakes, made of the best Damas- 
cus fruit, in water, lemon or orange juice, and sugar ; 
adding also a few drops of rose-water. A different 
variety is made of violets, honey, juice of raisins, &c. 
It is well calculated for assuaging thirst, as the acidity 
is agreeably blended with sweetness: it resembles, in- 
deed, those fruits which we find so grateful when 
Shurra ^jL — law. The precepts of Mohummud. 

Sijdah HSjs^ — or prostration. A position in prayer, consisting 
in stooping forwards while in the sitting (the Mohum- 
mudan kneeling) posture, and touching the ground with 
the forehead ; the eyes at the same time directed to the 
tip of the nose. 
Sijdah tyhet ij:-'^ ^'^^ — nearly similar to the preceding; 
the only difference is, that instead of touching the ground 
with the forehead, he is to kiss his own thumbs, the two 
fists being in contact, with the thumbs directed upwards, 
and placed on the ground. 
Sohagin ^^If-s — women whose husbands are living ; so called 
from their wearing their sohag t^ln^ , (ornaments 
which are dispensed with when they become widows), viz. 
the nuth, boolaq, bai/sur, pote, giilsayree, and bung- 
grec. Widows, moreover, never wear red clothes. 
Sohogpoora Vjyc^f V*» — some nutmeg, mace, cloves, catechu, 
poppy seed, and one or a half rupee piece, enclosed in 


a piece of red paper folded up, with a bit of mica tied 
on the outside of the parcel with red thread. 
Sontana JUJ««j — is composed of pounded sohaleean j^UL^ 
or thin wheaten cakes fried in ghee, tilleea gond Jj»i LoJ 
a species of gum, sugar, khopva \ji^^ (or the dried 
kernel of the cocoa-nut), and ghee ^^or clarified 

Sook^hmook^h -gCo-^x-; — Vide Index. 

Soonnee jA-j — orthodox Mohummudans, so called because 

they believe in the Soonnut, q. v. They revere equally 

the four successors of Mohummud, viz. Aba Bukur^ 

Oomr^ Oosman^ and Allee. These are nicknamed by 

the Sheeahs (whose mortal enemies they are) Kharjee 

^,-^U- or outcasts, because they say the latter do not 

allow Allee to have been the legal successor of the 

Prophet ; which is however erroneous, for they really 

do consider all four as legal successors, in the order in 

which they stand. 
_ f 
Soonnut ui-^Jm-j — the traditions of Mohummud, which by the 

orthodox Moosulmans (thence called Soonnees) are 

considered as a supplement to the Qoran, and of nearly 

equal authority. These are however rejected as an 

apocryphal book by the Sheeaites (or secio^ Allee). 

Soomiut rukat, vide Rukat. 

Soorma ^j^ — liL antimony. It is applied in a very subtile 
powder to the eye, or on the inside of the eyelids, which 
answers the same purpose, to improve the brilliancy of 
that organ, and not to the eyelashes and eyelids as some 
state it to be, which latter application is kajul or lamp- 
black. That usually sold in the bazars in Hindoostan is 
not the real grey ore of antimony, but a galena or sul- 
phuret of lead. The origin of the use of antimony to the 
eye is thus stated : when God commanded Moses to as- 


cend Koh-e-toor (Mount Sinai) to shew him his counte- 
nance, he exhibited it through an opening of the size of 
a needle's eye, at the sight of which Moses fell into a 
trance. After a couple of hours, on coming to himself, 
he discovered the mountain in a blaze, when he, and 
the people who accompanied him descended imme- 
diately. The mountain then addressed the Almighty 
thus : " What ! hast thou set me, who am the least 
among all mountains, on fire ! " Then the Lord com- 
manded Moses, saying, ' Henceforth shalt thou and thy 
posterity grind the earth of this mountain, and apply it 
to your eyes." Since then this custom has prevailed ; 
and some of the earth or rock (or rather mineral) 
brought from Mount Sinai, (which at least it should be, 
and is intended to represent, though frequently an ore 
of antimony or lead is substituted) is to be had in most 
bazars under the name ofsoornia, which is brought from 
Arabia to this country (Hindoostan) by the Arab mer- 
Subzee c^U-j vulgo Subja Is^-j — an intoxicating liquor, pre- 
pared from ganja or hemp leaves, and chiefly used in 
the higher provinces. The following is a recipe for 
making it: Take of dried siddhee leaves {ganja or 
hemp) iwo tolas; black pepper, ten or twelve corns ; 
cardamoms, two or three; post he dana JlJ ^ ''-^^^ 
i. e. khushkhush ^jLsr''-^ or poppy-seed one tea-spoon- 
ful ; kukree i^%^ cucumis utissimus, Roxb. cucumis 
sativus, Lm. or a kind of cucumber-seed, one tea-spoon- 
ful. All the ingredients are to be well rubbed down in a 
mortar with a wooden pestle, and then gradually pour a 
quart of milk or water, as you like best, upon it: you 
may also put an ice-cream into it if you please, and 
having stirred the whole well together, serve it up in 
tumblers. This makes a fine beverage, and exhilirates 
whilst it has not the bad effects of liquor and wines. 


You may sweeten it to your palate, but then it is in- 
toxicating- in the extreme. 

Sudqa iJ^ — or propitiary offerings; had recourse to in or- 
der to get rid of any distemper, &c. There are several 
ways of doing it : 1. They take four or five kinds of 
o-rain, peas, or seeds, such as kooltee i^^ glycine to- 
mentosa, Lin. or Madras horse gram; moong (^S->yo 
phaseolus radiatus, Lin. phaseolus aureus, Roxb. green 
gram, or rayed kidney bean; oorood tVjl phaseolus 
mungo, Lin. or black gram ; til JJ sesamum orien- 
tale, Lin. or gingilie oil seed, &c. put into separate 
baskets, and place on the contents of one of them a cup 
filled with oil, into which having looked (as into a mir- 
ror) they drop into it afanam or two, or more, accord- 
ino- to their means, and distribute them to the poor. 
2. or they pour two or three bags of chawul (unboiled 
rice) over the head of the patient, and distribute it to 
the poor, having used the oil also as in the preceding 
case. 3. or they give away some cloths of the length 
of the body (i. e. four cubits long) in charity to the 
poor, not omitting to use the cup of oil, as above : to 
constitute this a complete sudqa forty pieces of cloth 
should be distributed, but in this particular they are 
generally guided by their means. 4. or they also give 
animals, such as cows, elephants, &c. Among the great 
they have artificial ones of these, made of gold or silver; 
for instance, llyder Allee (Tippoo's father) presented to 
the Brahmuns a calf made of silver, weighing about 
two or two and a half maunds (one hundred and sixty 
or two hundred pounds). 

Suhnuk and suhnuk, vulgo Sanuk fatceha — \ide fateeha. 

Sulam ^Lj — or salutation ; sulam kiirna ; to salute. These 
are of diflferent kinds, viz. 1. sulam *)Lj consists in 
merely touching the forehead with the right hand. It 
is considered highly disrespectful to use the left hand on 

GLOSSARY. xcvii 

this occasion, (or in fact on any other) that hand being^ 
employed for a particular ablution. 2. Bundugee ^J^ 
as above, but meeting the motion of the hand with a gentle 
inclination of the head forwards. 3. Koornish ^j;f as 
the preceding, but bending the body also. 4. Tusleem or 
tusleemat CL^U-LJ consists in touching the ground with 
the fino-ers and then making sulam / sometimes re- 
peated thrice.* Kunch-nees (or dancing girls) invaria- 
bly use the two latter modes when they enter into the 
presence of those who hire them to dance, at the same 
time saying " bandee koornish buja latee^'' or bandee 
tusleem kurtec ;"" i. e. your slave makes her obeisance. 
5. Qudum-bosee ^y^d^ or Zumeen-bosee ^^^ ^'<j 
which consists in kissing the foot, or touching it with the 
hand, or touching the edge of the carpet on which the 
person sits, and either kissing the latter or making a 
sulam. Done only to parents and great people. 6. 
Ushtang i^k^\ (vulgo sashtung c^i:.iL) consists in 
prostrating themselves on the ground, with the arms 
stretched out, and the palms of the hands joined to- 
gether. Only done by Hindoos, never by Moosulmans. 
7. Gullai/-mihia \uLo ^'^ or manuqa m\^ — a mode of 
salutation performed by embracing each other, throw- 
ing the arms across each other's necks, and in that po- 
sition inclining the head three times, first on one shoul- 
der and then on the other, alternately. 
Suna Lj — praise. 


* In the Qanoon-e-Adah\t is somewhat differently stated, viz. that which 
is here described as bundugee is called tusleem, and what here stands for tu- 
sleem is koornish. 

xcviii GLOSSARY. 

i. e. Soob-ha^naijka, Al'lahooni^nuif bay-hiini'-day-kaj 
o tub(i'rukis 7?wka, o fa' alia juiVdoka, o la-illa'ha, 
gyr'okn : or, I thank and praise thee, O Cod, 
and bless thy name, and extol thy glory ; for there is no 
other God but thee !" 

Sundul ij<^'^*^ — lit. sandal wood. Whenever this word occurs 
throughout the work, it does not allude to sandal wood 
itself (which it literally means) but to a perfumed em- 
brocation obtained by rubbing a piece of sundul wood 
with water on a stone called a sundlasa — j^JOwcj (p, 119). 
Again, in using it, a particular mode is observed; it is 
applied with the right hand, and invariably to the right 
side of the neck first, drawing the fingers (which are 
apart) from behind forwards, so as to leave four distinct 
streaks; then the same to the left: afterwards the ab- 
domen is merely touched with it with the forefinger 
(meaning to signify, may your offspring enjoy good 
health) !) : lastly, the back in like manner is touched 
with it (as much as to say, may all your relations con- 
tinue well !). 

Sufzcara ^\u\go SuXhoova )J«^!L)- 'J'ilX-j — is a preparation made 
of gayhoon ka ata lln li j^^^-i or wheat fiour, sonih -^^ 
or dried ginger, shukur ^J^ or soft sugar, and ghee 
^^ or clarified butter, mixed together over a fire : par- 
ticularly given to puerperal women. 

Tukbeer ji^Sj — repealing the Mohummudan creed (or only 
saying Allaho akbur, God is great," on particular oc- 
casions), viz. repeating four txincs, A llah-ho akburjS\ ij, 

God is great;" twice, UsW-huddo-iin'.) lah'-illah-hah 

iVlaylali' JJ\ f< J! jJ ^^Jl^^^ I bear witness" (addressing 
himself to the recording- angels) that there is no other 
God but Ilim, the (one) God :" twice, IVo usli'-hud-do- 

%in''na Mo-hum^ -mudo or Riissool ool'lah Sas:^ ^^^Jlj^W 


lit J*-jJl and I further bear witness that verily Mohum- 
tnud is the messenger of God:" then turning to the right 
«ide (as if addressing the people), twice, Jfz/'-a^' Ins 

5M/zt?a<'iW-<tf Ji(J-c^r>- come, enliven your prayers ; " 

to the left, twice, H^^-a-hdfuPlah -lal^ l5^i^^" ^'O'"^ 
for refuge to the asylum ;" twice, Qud-qamut-sulwat 

(Ju\yJ!i\ \j:„y^^ si stand up to prayers;" tveice, Allah- 
ho ak''burjS\ JJl God is great;" lastly, once, Lah^- 
illah'-hah^ iPlaylah% Mohuni'mudoor^ Russool oollah 

JJl ^}y^)\ Ju^-* il V\ Jt y " there is no God but the 
(one) God, and Mohummud is his messenger." 

Tu-ooz jytj — having recourse to God against evil. IS lb J^\ 

ff^}\ JolW''rM^i? ^-00-20 billahay minnush-shytan nir- 

rnjeem^ i. e. I solicit the protection of God against Sa- 
tan the accursed. 
Tusbeeh ,^:fr^ — the Moosulman tusbeeh (i.e. rosary or chap- 
let) contains one hundred beads, and are made of the 
followino" different materials, viz. 1. K'hujoor ke beej 
^j S jj^ or date stones ; 2. Mahee dundan ^JbVo 
(^^ Jo J or fish-bones; 3. f/gee^jrjhjiic or cornelians ; 4. 
Uqeeq-ool-buhur j:s^\ (J^ or Mocha stones; 5. Motee 

<J».<i or pearls ; 6. Goo^/ee ^1^ or corals ; 7. Uqqul-bar 
jb Jj\ (vulgo Uqqul buhur) canna indica, Lin. or the 
seeds of the shot plant ; 8. Zytoon ^y->j or olive stones ; 
9. Sudduf i^Xa or mother-of-pearl ; 10. Solaymanee 
iJUJi-j or onyx ; 11. Peer puttaree ^jjcj^j^^ or agate; 
12. Abnoos (j^y^} or ebony; 13. Ryhan ^^Wj beads 
made of the wood of the ocimum pilosum, Lin., or the 
basilic basil; 14. Biijjur buitoo ybj^^ or seeds of the 
corypha umbraculifera, Lm., or umbrella bearing palm ; 
15. Khdk-e-ahujfa U-i lI/U- lit. the curative dust 
h 2 


(meaning the earth of Km bulla, p. 171, or field where 
Hosein suffered martyrdom), and greatly venerated; 
16. Lyl-o-nuhar J^ ^ J-1 lit. day and night. A kind 
of red wood spotted with black ; 17. Sundiil Jjo^ or 
sandalwood; 18. Hurfa-leooree (dukh.) j_^jJliy2> or 
the stones of the cicca disticha, Lin. or chilimillie; cal- 
led also the country-gooseberry, and churmayla. Hind. 

Tiisbeeli .ff:^ — the act of praising God, e. g. ^^ m\ ^_^*»-j 

.v^'g.Mi '' (\ Ixtj i Jkxi^s- Suni'mee alla'ho lay'mun huni'meda 
rub'' buna luk'iilhumd, or the great God hears what- 
ever praises I offer to him. Oh my Protector, I thank 
thee ! " 

Tushfee-ool ■witturJs^\^^JJLj — forms of prayer instituted by 
Beebee Aaysha (the wife of (he Prophet Mohummud.) 

Tusmeeii ,.*>*^ — //^ nomination, appellation, giving a name. 

The following is so termed : (•-i>y ' ij^^j^ ijij«-~J 
Bismillah hirruhman nirruheem, i. e. In the name of 
the compassionate and merciful Jehovah. 

Tuwafim-i\yi — turning or encompassing; making the circuit 
of any holy place, such as that of the kaaba (vide p. 
63), &c. 

Tyammoom ^v^ — purifying, or rubbing the hands, face, and 
other parts of the body, with sand or dust (agreeably to 
the Moosulman law) where water cannot be got, pre- 
vious to performing religious duties, in the same manner 
as if they were dipped in water. 
■,./.,., U. 

Vbeer j**s- — vide Abeer. 

Uggur /i \ — lignum aloes, wood-aloes, or aloe wood ; a spe- 
cies of wood which, on being thrown into the fire, 
smokes, and emits a delightful odour. 

Uggur-kee-buttee ^J^^ ^J J^ \ — wood aloes, or aloe-wood 
pastils, erron^qjjsl^., called oodbultee ; thety . a,rp com- 


posed of uggur ^\ or wood aloes, sundul Jj^-^ or 
sandal wood, ood d^z benzoin or benjamin, chliureela 
L«^^ or a kind of rock lichen (lichen rotundatus, 
nottl), piichapat Cl^\>\=f, , sillarus ^j^Ji^ or sullajef 
Lii^s^Lo a beautiful crystallized foliated gypsum, ta- 
lisputtree lSJ^^.u-^'^^ » fragrant smelling plant, roomee 
miistukee ^J^^^^i^ ^jj or gum mastich, sugar candy, 
oro-um; these are pounded fine, mixed up with rose- 
water, and formed into pastils. The best come from 
Beejapoor, in the Mahratta country. 
Urgujja \^j\ — name of a perfume of a yellowi'^h colour, and 
compounded of several scented ingredients. The com- 
mon kind is a mixture of sandal wood, wood-aloes, and 
some odoriferous oil. The following is a superior recipe 
for its composition : Triturate sandal wood and wood- 
aloes with rose-water, then add choa \^f' or the oil of 
aloes-wood, suntooka Syxu^ , zoobad d\i j or civet-cat 
perfume, of each two mashas ; otter of roses, or chum- 
buylee-oW ^^i-rrt^ o'' *^^ "'' ^^ jessamine, of each a 
quarter of a tola ; mix all well together, and rub the 
body over with this delightful perfume. 
Uttur or Utur (prop. Itr J^)— or otter, of roses, &c. This, 
on ceremonial occasions, is invariably offered to the 
o-uests on a little cotton, twisted at the end of a bit of 
stick four or five inches long. 
Wajib-ool-mttur )s)\ ^^?-|^— prayers enjoined in the Qoran 
and Huddees, but of the authenticity of which there is 

some doubt. 


Zoobuh^ii—a sacrifice, slaughter; zoobuh kurna, to sa- 
crifice, to kill (animals for food, agreeably to the Mo- 
hummudan law), to slaughter. Any individual (Hindoo 
or Christian) may perform the zoobuh, which consists in 


repeating' the words hismillah Alia ho akbiir^ in 
the name of the great God," while drawing the knife 
and cutting across three particular parts, which are es- 
sential to the operation, viz. the windpipe, the carotid 
arteries, and the gullet (or the rug called mirree)^ on 
which such slaughtered animal becomes lawful food to 
Mohummudans. If only two of these be divided, it is 
Zukat Cjl^j —or alms; the Mohummudan law recommend- 
ing it to every person to give to the poor, or for other 
religious uses, a certain portion of their possessions, by 
way of purifying or giving a blessing to the rest. This 
is called by some writers a tenth, but erroneously, as it 
varies according to the description of a man's estate, to 
its value, and to the piety of the donor ; some giving 
one-fifth, one-fourth, one-third, and even a half of all 
they have to the poor. Hussun (the son of ^//ee, and 
grandson to the Prophet) gave away his whole property 
twice during his life, for the relief of the indigent. 

,80S ,0£S ,eS2 



A List of the Subjects treated of, and general Definitions of numerous 

Oriental Terms occurring, and some of them more particularly 

explained, in the foregoing Wo)-lc. 

Aba. Append, p. xi. 

Abbas Alk'o Ullum-burdar (Hoscin's 

step-brotlier), 27f>. 
Abdar-khana, tlie place where water is 
' kept for drinking, 187, 2'2;5. 
Abd-ool-qadir, a saint venerated, 433. 
Abeer, a perfume. Gloss. 
Abee Soofeean, a proper name, \6d. 
Abii Hoonnooq, the name of an author, 

166, 16*). 
Abjud ka liissab. Gloss. 30i-!. 
Abkhora, a water or drinking cup, 424. 
Abnoos, ebony. Vide Tusbeeh, Gloss. 
Abroo, char ; eyebrows, moustaciies, 

beard, and hair of the armpits, 284, 

Adalut Shah, a Mohurrura fuqeer, 191. 
Adum ( Adam), his origin, &c., 132, 325. 
Aeeam e nuhur, the season of sacrifice. 

Vide Ayyam, 69. 
e qur, the day of rest. Vide 

Ayyam, 69. 
Aet e Footooh, a verse of the Qoran used 

in exorcism, 323. 

ool Koorsee, ditto, 334, 383. 

A*^;an, or Putthan, one of (he four Mo- 

hummudan tribes, 8. 
Afshan, or Zur-afshan, paper sprinkled 

over with gold-leaf-powder, 125. 
Afsoon, incantation, 329. 
Aftabgeeree, a kind of parasol or um- 
brella used over the ullums at the Mo- 

hurrum. Vide pi. ii. fig. 8, 181. 
Agara kee jur, root of the achyrantlies 

aspera, Lin, 377. 
Ahmud Khan, vows made to him, 276. 
Ahud, or Ohud, q.v. where a noted battle 

was fought, 234. 
Ajwaeen Sison Ammi, Lin. bishop's- 

weed seed, 3. 
Ajwaeenee, vulgo Uchwance, Gloss. 3. 
Akhara, the fairy assembly, 384, 387. 
Akhir niuhcena, the sixth month, 243. 
Akhree char shoomba, a feast, 49, 96. 
229, 230, 268, 425. 

Alfa, or Kufnec, a fiiqeer's dress. Gloss. 

190, 285, 298, 412. 
Algunnee, a line or rope for hanging 

clothes on, 305. 
Al-hookm e Lillah, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 

Allavva, a pit dug in front of the Ashoor- 

khanas, 173, 186,222. A hole dug 

within doors or out, over which they 

wash their hands and throw refuse in, 

Allee, son-in-law of Mohummud, 10, 

Alms, on whom to be bestowed, 59. 
Al-oomr-e-Lillah, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 

Alope Unjun. Vide Unjun, 377, 378. 
Alweeda, or Ulweeda, q v., a discourse 

on the Ilurozan separation, 225, 257. 
Amal-nama. Gloss. 
Ambaree, a howda with a canopy or um- 
brella cover, 125, 219. 
Amcen, amen, 80, 263. 
Ammama. Append, p. ix. 299. 
Amows, the day on which the conjunc- 
tion of the sun and moon lakes place, 

Ang-gaythee, a chafing dish, 196, 
Shah, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 

Anjun. Vide Unjun, 376. 
Anna, an Indian silver coin equal to two 

pence, 37, 94, 116. 
AnsiMs, the four elements, 308. 
Antee, or Sylce, q. v., a necklace made 

of coloured threads worn by fuqeers, 

96, 189. 
Anwut, a toe ornament. Append, p. 

xxvii, 118. 
Aoorad, repetitions (plur. of Wird), 294, 

Araish, artificial flowers, 44, 126. 
Arbanec, a kind of musicians, 99. 
Aria, a feast, accompanied with oblations 

oH'ered to saints, 251, 252, 266. 



Arfat, or Jiil)bool Ait'at. Vide Gloss. 

Asa, or So/jta, a club carried by devotees. 

Asan (lit. easy), a fateelia, so called, 270. 
Asar-e-mootiarik, or the blessed token, 

alias Asar-e-shiirreef, oi' the sacred 

emblem, viz. a hair of the Prophet's 

beard or moustaches, 236. 
Asayb-walee, a demoniac, 384. 
As'hab e-kuhuf. i. e. the companions of 

the cave, or the seven sleepers, 27(>, 

Ashoora, the ten first days oP the month 

Mohurium, 148, 172,209. 
Ashoor-khana, or Astana, the ten-day 

house, 172, 18G. 
Asman, the seven firmaments, 149. 
Asmaugeeree, a cloth fastened to the 

ceiling of a room, 119. 
Asoph ood Dowlab, oblations offered at 

his shrine, 280. 
Astana, the same as Ashoor-khana, 172, 

268, 279. 

Mudar ka, 243, 

Astrological Tables, 19, 85. 

Ata, pounded wheat. Gloss. 

Attaran, perfumers, 189. 

Attributes of the Deity, 358. 

Attu-hyat, 79. 

Atush-bazee, fireworks. Append. IX. 

p. Ivii, 44, 254. 
Aysha, night. Vide Numaz, 55, 7H. 
Aytaykaf bythna, the being engaged in 

constant pravers at the mosque, 255, 

257, 262, 
Ayyam-e-nuhur, season of sacrifice, 69. 

■ — e-qur, day of rest, 69. 

Ayzeed, he who caused Hussun to be 

poisoned, 150. 
Azad (solitary, or free), a class of de- 
votees, 297. 
Azan, the summons to prayer, 75, 239, 

257, 258. 

Baba-Boodun, alias Hyat Qulundur, or 

Hyat-ool- Buhur, 246, 281. 
Lai, oblations offered at his shrine, 

Badeea, bowls, generally made of brass 

or bell metal, 120, 
Badkush, or Mirvvaha, a fuqeer's fan, 

Badla, brocade, or variegated silken stuff, 

40, 176. 
Bagh, or Tiger, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 

nuk, or Tiger's nails, used as 

charms, 356. Ayijiend. sxiv. 
Uaja-bujuntur, Mus. Instr, Append, p. 


Bajra, liolcus spicatus, Lin. panicuin 

spicatum Roxb., 277. 
Bandee, a female slave, 120. 
Banuwa, or Banwa, prop. Bay-nuwa, 

q. v., 190, 288. 
Baoolee, ear ornament. Append, p. xxi, 

220, 275. 
Bara-masa, real fuqeers so called. Vide 

Fuqeers, 192. 
Bfira-wufat, a feast so called, 189, 233, 

Ba-shurra (lit. with law), a class of fu- 
qeers, 296. 
Bawa, a mode of address among fuqeers, 

1 93. 
Boodun, alias Hyat Qulundur, 

246, 231. 
fuqur ood Deen, a venerated 

saint, 246, 281. 
"= peearay kay fuqeeran, a class of 

devotees, 294, 
Bay-aj khora, an usurer, a Mohurrum 

fuqeer, 205. 
Baygur, tinsel or tinfoil, 194. 
Baylun, a rolling-pin, 119. 
Bay-nuwa, a class of fuqeers, 190, 288, 

Bayra, a raft or float, a feast so called. 

Vide Juhaz, 273, 430. 
Bayree (lit. fetters), a ring worn round 

ihe ankle, 237, 239, 275. 
Bayr ka pat, leaves of the Indian plum- 
tree, zizyphus jujuha, Lin., 410. 
Bay-shurra (lit. without the law), a class 

of fuqeers, 296. 
Baysun, powdered chunna, q. v., 112. 
Bciz, the falcon, 406. 
Bazoobund, a kind of armlet. Vide 

Append, p. xxiv. 
Beebee Fateema, the daughter of Mo- 

hummud married to Allee, 2, 108,253. 

ka basun, a ceremony, 108, 277. 

ka Sanuk, ditto, 108, 277. 

kee kundoree, ditto, 277. 

Beebeean, a ceremony so called, 147. 
Been, or Vina. Mus. Instr. Append. 

p. li, 293. 
Beera, or Beeree. Gloss, 278. 
Beer-e-zumznm. Vide Zumznm, 64. 
Beg, an honorary title signifying brave 

or valiant, 9. 
Begum, the wife of a Syed, 16. 
Bhajee, greens. Append, p. xxxvii, 27^ 

374. V, 

Bhanrf, a mimic, an actor, 43. 
Bhant/a, or Ch'hunhee ka, a dish of food 

so called, 6, 26. 
Bhenr/, or Shola, q. v. in Gloss., a kind 

of pith, 125. 
Bhoojbunr/, an armlet. Append, p. 




Blioqjputur, Epidermis of the Betula Boottec, a mixture of duhee (tyar) and 

Bliojpatra, Wall., 356. rice, 224. 

Bhoora, a ceremony on the third day after Boqcha, a cloth for wrapping up clothes 

Shubgusht. Vide Chowthee, 139 

Bhoot-unjun. Vide Uiijun, 377, 378. 

Bhou7(ra, a species of large black bee, 

said to be enamoured of the lotus, 302. 
Bhubhoot, cow-dung ashes, 196, 329, 
Bhugna, corr. Baghnuk, q. v. 
Bliugteea, a dancing boy dressed up as a 

dancing girl, 43. 
Bhngwee, cloth dyed with red ochre, 

used by fuqeers, 294. 
Bhunrfara, or Mudar ka ch'banda, q. v., 


in, 119. 

Bosu-gah, lit. the place for kissing on ; 
viz. the neck, 168. 

Boza, or Boja, a kind of beer. Gloss 
296, 407. 

Buddhee, or Heemad, q. v. See Flow- 
ers, Gloss.; made also of gold, silver 
leather, &c., 237, 239, 242, 275. 

Budhna, or Budhnee, a kind of pot 
with a spout to it, 46, 411, 416. 

Bugla, or Bu^'ola, paddy birds ; also, a 
Mohurrum fuqeer, 186, 198, 406. 

Bhundaree Shah, a Mohurrum fuqeer, Buglee-qubur, a particular kind of grave, 


Bhung, an intoxicating drink. Gloss. 45. 
Bhungee, or Bangy, a stick with ropes 

hanging from each end for slinging 

baggage to, which is carried on the 

shoulder, 217. 

Bujjuibuttoo, corypha umbraculifera, 

Lin., or umbrella bearing palm. Vide 

Tusbeeli, Gloss. 
Bukht-kholna, or changing one's bad 

luck, 383. 

Bhuranch, name of a town or village Bullaeea7i layna, faking another's evils 
about thirty miles north-east of Luck- on one's-self, 92. 

now, 249. 
Bhurla, or Bulla, terminalia bilirica, 

Roxb., or belleric rayrobolan, 52. 
Bhurrung, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 195. 
Bhyree, a hawk, 406. 

Shah, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 198. 

Bich'hway, a toe ornament. Append. 

p. xxvii. 
Bichnag, poison root. Vide Boza, Gloss. 
Bidaut-e-hoosna, 254. 
Bihisht, or Heaven, the seven heavens, 

Birreeanee. Vide Cookery, Append. 

p. xxix, 96. 
Bisk'liopray kee jur, trianthema decan- 

dra, Willd., or trianthema pantandra, 

Bismilla. Gloss. 111,326,425. 

Bullayr kay dana, dolichos lablab, Var. 

Bunrfaree Shah. Vide Bhundaree Shah, 

Bunda Nuwaz kay churagan, a feast, 

265, 426. 
kee muheena, the eleventh 

month so called, 265. 
Bundugee. Vide Sulam, Gloss. 
Bunggree, glass bracelets. Vide Ap- 
pend, p. xxv, 118. 
Bungurharon, manufacturers of buno-- 

grees, 293. 
Buqal, a shopkeeper, 207. 
Buqi-eed, the twelfth month, 49, 252, 

264, 266. 
qoorbanee, the sacrifice, a 

feast, 266, 425. 

or Bismilla-khwanee, the ce- Burat, the night of record, 251, 252. 

remony of teaching children to repeat , assignment, 128. 

the name of God, 39, 40. 
Boolaq, a nose orjiament. Append, p. 

xxi, 118, 220, 275. 
IBooddha, Booddbee, Mohurrum fuqeers, 

Boojputthur. Vide B'hoojputur. 

Burchee, a spear or lance with a wooden 
stock carried by fuqeers, 295. 

Burra, a kind of cakes made of ground 
pulse. Append, p. xxxvii, 107. 

Burree, wedding gifts, 106, 109. 

Burus ga«th, birthday anniversary, 38. 

Bookhoor, perfumes burnt in exorcising, Bussunt, lit. spring, a festival, 429. 


Booraq, the animal on which Mohum- 
mud is said to have passed from Jeru- 
salem to heaven. Vide PI. I, fig. 4, 
172, 186, 2,35, 251. 

Boorboorook (prop. Boorboorqa), a small 
double hand-drum, 215. 

Shah, a Mohurrum fuqeer, 


Booroojan, the signs of the zodiac, 307. 

Butasha. Vide Sweetmeats, Append, 
p. xlii, 50, 167, 333. 

Butun-e-Muhasurah, a valley so called, 

Buzul, a gift or present to avert cala- 
mity, 310, 312. 

Byat, the becoming a mooreed or dis- 
ciple, 281, 299. 

Byraga, or Zufur.tukeea, a small crooked 
stick or piece of iron which the by. 



ratjee or devotee places iiiulcr his arm- 
pit to lean upon as lie sits. Vide pi. 
IV, fig. 3. 

Byiliuk, a particular nocturnal assembly 
of women, 278. 

13yt-oollali, the house of God, the temple 
of Mecca, 63. 

Chadur P'hool kay, a flower-sheet spread 
on graves, 23.5, 413, 420. 

Chah-e-Zumzum. Vide Zurazum, 64. 

Chandiiee, a canopy, 115, 119. 

Char-paee, four legs, an Indian or coun- 
try cot, 10. 

Char Peer-chowda khwanwaday, four 
spiritual guides and fourteen house- 
holds, 287. 

Char-yar, the four friends, 191. 

Char-yaree, the soonnees, so called, 9. 

abroo, the beard, moustaches, eye- 
brows, and hair on other parts of the 
body, 284, 289. 

Char-zanoo, lit, on four knees, i. e. sit- 
ting cross-legged, 385. 

Chawul. Vide Rice. 

Cheerownjee, or Chironjee, nut of the 
chironjia sapida, Roxb., 264, 270. 

Cheroot, or Choo/ia, a segar, 114. 

Ch'hach'h, butter-milk, 418. 

Ch'hay-paet', six-legged, a country cot 
made with as many legs, 10. 

Ch'hee?ika, a network made of strings or 
cords, to place any thing on the cords 
of abhungee. q. v. PI. IV, fig. 7. 

Ch'heet, chintz, 119. 

Ch'hulla (vulg. Chulla), a thin wiry me- 
tallic ring, 46, 275, 412. 

Ch'hurree, or Ch'huttee, q. v., 141, 285, 

Ch'hurree-romal, a twig of a tree with a 
handkerchief wound round the upper 
end of it, 285, 295. 

Ch'huttee, alias Churrec, q. v., a switch 
or wand, 141, 265, 295. 

Ch'hutthee, a ceremony, 4, 23, 24, 425. 

Ch'hutthee ka Bhawda, a kind of dish, (i. 

Ch'hutthce-mah, a particular dish of food 
so called, 6. 

Chiksa. Vide Glossary, 97, 104. 

Children's Plays. Append. VIII, p. 

Chilla, or Astana, a fuqeer's residence, 

— the shrines of reputed saints, the 

period of forty days after childbirth, 
4, 27. 

a forty-day abstinence, 306, 318, 


Chillubdars, a class of devotees, 292. 

Chillumchee, or Sylabchee, a waahhand- 
basin, 120. 

Chindur-Shali, a Moliurrum fuqeer, 21 1. 
Chippa ; Tambeel ka, a calipadi carried 

by devotees, 195. 
Chironjee. Vide Cheerownjee, 270. 
Chistee, a subjunction to names of fu- 

qeers, 301. 
Chishteea, a class of fuqeers or devotees, 

288, 289. 
Choba, a dish of polaoo mixed with slices 

of cocoa-nuts, dates, and almonds, 

103, 134. 
Chogod, a large species of owl, 378i 
Choice. Dress, Append, p. xv. 
Cholera ( JFuba, lit. plague), 238. 
Cholna, alias Kach'ha, q. v., 202, 214. 
Chon(/a, hair braided on the top of the 

head, 109. 
Choona, vulg. Choonam, quicklime, 

Choonggay, fried cakes, made of wheat 

flour, sugar, and ghee, 224. 
Choon/ee, or Ciiootec, the plait or tie of 

hair behind, cue, 91, 109. 
Chooraeel, the ghost of a woman who 

died while pregnant. Vide Puleeta 

lamp charm, No. 10, 338. 
Chooreean, a female ornament (Append. 

p. XXV.) worn by fuqeers, 91, 293. 
Choorway, a dish prepared from parched 

rice. Gloss., 253. 
Chooiee, or Choontec, q.v., tufts of hair 

left on children's heads unshaved, de- 
dicated to saints, 32, 272. 
Pooreean kee, pincers for orna- 
menting poorean, q. v.^ 120. 
Chor-huldee, a ceremony so called, Qf* 
Chow-ghurray, a small box with four 

partitions for holding spices, &c., 118. 
Chowk-bhurna, a ceremony, 97, 12-1. 
bydina, to sit in a circle, a tech- 
nical phrase among fuqeers, 245. 
Chowkee, a stool, 119. . I'j 
Chown-ur, or Chovvn-ree, an instrument 

for driving away flies. Vide PI. HI, 

fig. 4, 213. 
Chowtlm. Vide Palkee, Glossary. 
Chowtliee, the ceremony of untying the 

kunggun on the fourth day after the 

Shubgusht, so called. Vide lihoora, 

Chubootra, an elevated seat or platform. 

Vide Mayzunna, 77, 186. 
Chuddur, corrupt, of Chadur, q. v. 
P'hool kay. Vide Flowers, 

Glo.s., 235,41.3, 420. 
Chukkec, a hand mill, 108, 186. . 
nania, a song sung wjjile 

grinding at the mill, at weddings, 

nowrcc, a ceremony &o called, 




Cliiikkur, a weapon. Gloss., lys. 
Chukoleean, or Sootreean. Gloss,, 254. 
Chulla, prop. Ch'liiilla, q. v. 
Chumbaylee, jasminum grandiflora, Lin. 

jessamine, 382. 

■ kay mundway, 184. 

Chundoo, a kind of hanging lamp made 

of bamboo frame. work covered with 

mica, 175. 
Chundun SufFeid, sandal-wood, 308. 
■ • bar, a necklace, neck ornament. 

Append, p. xxii, 101, 

lal, logwood, 303. 

Chundur Buddun and IMohy Yeear, ob- 
lations offered at their shrines, 281. 

Chunna, Bengal horsegram, cicer ariena- 
tum, Lin., 112, 202. 

Chupa/eean, very thin wheaten cakes. 
Append, p. xxxiii. 

Churagan, lit. lamps, oors or illumination, 

Chura^'dan, niches for lamps on tombs, 

Churagee, a present made t