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Ll i***j-*s** 


mMT Jl 




Bg Oit Mame Edftor. 

HOBAOE— Teit onlj. Witfa Introduction. [Jn the 

.'■--■«. (CtaMlcai Taxta.) 

THZ ODSB AHD EPODEB. IntroductioD, Teit, uid 

nonuuanUry, complatt in oue voluuia, Fap. Bvo. 61. ICtualeaJ 

THE ODES — BOOU I. II. 113. ANS IV. BGparntely. 

W|tli Inlrodiiclloii and Nou*. Fcap. Bvo. k ntcli. (Clnuiml 

THE ODES— B00K3 I. □. III. AH» IV. «epulftte.r. 

l-.-nt S>o li. td. «ch. (Bnueourj Clulsl 


ntea. Pcap. 8vo. Si. 


vniOIL— Tttii 

uctinn, [7h f/n- Prw.] 

(Lluilsl Tn 

AENEID, BOoi» i.— 

rodnction, Text, and 

CommraUrr. *"■ "3u 


i, Notee, and Vocabu- 


rodaction, Notea, and 

AENEID, BOOKB I. II. III, kau VI. separa.loIy. With 

Ititroductlou, Notn. and Vooliulirlct. l'otl Bio. li. M, ficlL 

|W.mtnUry Clauic) 


;ing the Greelt Teit ai 


KipUnuorj Noua ul Mapil Pcnp. Sto. 8j. M. 
7/lf KJ/PuSJTOII.— "Mr Ps«*-| itnall voluroe -ill be fot 
rn-il valua rrol nnly !■■ P.I.....I !, l.iil ti. mucli mori idv 

■ Ofll of I kIioIH wllO koii-1 (llL. MllllC .jf ..lli..T Hj.Ti"» lnii.-.Uf 

ilj bolli with cliulcml ind bltillciJ etudT « 
hla 0-0 Jurlfn» nl ind ir«|ucntlr lo edduw 

itl llniji lo fortn hll o«Tj Juoinn-nt ind frequctttlj 
"cl with h| 

with hii cditlon of tloriet'1 Odaa , and llili pnlaa ta daaarvtd, 
— — wont and ipiUt to ItlmaaW lils n-n 

i irf il-iji vcr; br 

comldiriuon,' Mon 

ckvii r on« or Iwica imrcwtinin ol the rerj hlfhm ImporUnoa." 
TKE AOTB OP THE AP0STLE8. Tba Anthonied Vanion. 
Wllh JnlroducUoo, Notaa, lUd Hapa PiOl. K.A. ud 
Itov. A. ft W»ikhi,M.A. FC.P.8TO. b. M. 





Edittd wlth Introduction and Notat 


T. E. PAGE, M.A. 


UonSon : 



[Tlif llight of Tramlation it retcrved.] 

4. - A, t^ 

on 1B83. fteprintut 1886', wilh tlirtil alttra- 
IBg, with additiens and corralions 1890, i8gj, 
1893, ailh Iht Epalts addtd 1895. 

I harvabd university I 


I APR Q3| 384 


Thb present volume differa from the edition 
of 1883 in several respecta. In the firat ploce it 
aeemed no longer necessary to reprint the original 
'Introduction/ which referred chiefly to the principles 
on which the notes were written, and a brief ac- 
count of Horace has been inserted in its place 
together with some remarks on the Metres used in 
the Odes. Secondly an obvious deficiency has been 
supplied by the inclusion of the Epodes (with the 
ezoeption of three), and, lastly, throughout the notes 
corrections have been from time to time mado in 
accordance with suggestions which I have most 
gratefully received from many scholara, and also 
with the aid of much recent literature on the 
subject, among which the fourth edition of Orelli by 
Hirachfelder and the excellent work of Kiessling 
deserve especial note. 

T. E. PAGE. 

Sept. 1895. 

P. II. 


Imtboductton *ii 


Tbxt 1 

Notbs 181 

Indiceb . 508 


Q. Hobatius Flaccus was born on Dec. 8th B.a 
65, in the consulship of L. Aurelius Cotta and L 
Manlius Torquatus 1 , five years after Virgil and two 
years before 0. Octavius who subsequently became 
the emperor Augustus. The place of his birth was 
Venusia, a town in Apulia on the borders of Lucania 9 
close to Mount Vultur and the 'far-echoing AufidusV 
His father was a ( freedman' (libertintu) 4 , and had 
been a ' collector 1 »' probably of taxes, though others 
credit him with having been a 'dealer in salt-fishV 
Anyhow, when the young Horace was old enough to 
go to school, he had apparently saved a fair amount 

1 Od. 3. 21. 1 o nata mecum eontule Manlio; Epod. 13. 6. 
1 Hence he speaks of himself as Lueanut an Apulu» ancept, 
Sat. 2. 1. 34. 

1 Od. 4. 9. 2 longe tonantem natut ad Auftdum. 
« Sat. 1. 6. 45. 

* eoaetor Sat. 1. 6. 86; eoaetor exaetionum (or auetionum) 
Saet. Vit. 

* ut ereditum est, saltamentario. Saet. Vit. 

l o 


of money tb >h his son describes him as only ' the 
poor owner a lean f&rm 1 ,' and he waa certainly & 
mu wbo d rvea not to be forgotten. Freedman, 
ttx-oolleob nd perhape fiah-hawker, he none the 
leaa nw tl alent of hia son and resolved to giva 
htm » ohai a the world. Inatead of sending liim 
to the lr- achool, where 'the btg aona of big 

centurioi lung over their left 

MTOa 1 ' »& athly pence, he took 

him to Rome — im the best teachors, 

notably a> ce illus of Beneventnm 

— tho Ki se birch* and whoae 

leasons h ;ft an impresaioa on 

the pupil wli ls jri ed the master. Not. 

only did hia lather spend money freely on him but 
he devoted himself personally to watching over 
the growth of his morola and character, and to in- 
culcating on him auch shrewd and homely m»wim« 
aa hia own experience dictated. Of ths debt thua 
incurred the son waa aJwaya deeply eensible, and the 
pasaage (Sat. 1. 6. 68 leq.) in which he anawers the 
sneers of society on hia origin by a> full aoknowledg- 
ment of how much he owed to ' the beat of fathera ' 
ia, possibly not among the most rhetoricai, but oer- 

1 Sat. 1. Q. 71 maero pauper agello. 
' Sat. 1. 6. 73. 

* Ep. 3. I. 70plagotm Orbiliui. 

* He reallj naad tha ■ taw' and the 'feiule'; ri qvot Orbitiut 
fervla taitieaqyt eteidil, Buet. Vit. 


tainly among the most tonohing passagee in classical 

When his school days were over he went, after 
the fashion of the time, to complete his studies at 
what was practically the University of Athens, 
'searching for truth amid the groves of the Academy " 
or, in other words, reading philosophy. Here he 
made the aoqnaintanoe of M. Jnnius Brutus who 
alter the mnrder of Caesar (&o. 44) had been driven 
from Italy and visited Athens before taking up as 
proprator the government of Macedonia. Horaee 
seems to have gone with him to Asia Minor* and, 
when Brutus and Cassius raised a republican force 
with which to resist Octavian and Antony, he was 
appointed a military tribune and found hituself, as 
he puts it with intentional exaggeration, ( in com- 
mand of a Roman legionV He took part in the 
battle of Philippi (b.o. 42), which finally extinguished 
the hopes of the republican party, and, though his 
own description of himself as spirited away by 
Mercury the protector of poets and ' leaving his poor 
shield ingloriously behind him 4 ' must not be taken 
too literally, still we may well imagine that his ex- 
ploits on that fatal field were not very distinguished. 

1 Ep. 2. 2. 45 inter tilva» Academi quarere verum. 
a Sat. 1.7; Ep. 1. 11. 

1 Sat. 1. 6. 48 quod mihipareret legio Romana tribuno; the 
legion had six tribunes. 

4 Od. 2. 7. 10 relicta non bene parmula. 


At iiny rate his uiilitary mid republioan anlour bqoji 
cooled and, instesd of following his friends further 
amid the 'stormy seas'" of war, be took advantage 
of eiu amnesty offered by the conquerors nnd returned 
to Italy, where he found himself 'with his wings 
clipped and destitute of house and fann',' hia proporty 
near Venusia having probably been oonfiscated and 
assignod to a vetoran of the victorious anny. 

1 ly some means, however, he managed to procure 
a sort of clerkship in the treasury* oa whioh to live. 
Meantime some of his writings, possibly some of the 
eariier Satires (e.g. 1. 7), attracted the notice of 
Varius and Virgil, who in 39 b.o. procured for the 
timid and stammering clerk an introduction to 
C. Cilniua Mascenas, the peace niinister of Augustus 
and the great literary patron of the age. After a 
delay of nine months, during which Mtecenas seems 
to have satisaed hiniaelf aa to the talent and eharacter 
of Hor&ce, he welcomed him as an intimato member 
of that famous literary group which the great statee- 
man loved to collect around him in hia palaoe on the 
Esquiline. From this time until hia doath, which 
occurred on the 17th of December aa 8 a few weeks 
after that of Mncemu, the poet and hia patron lived 
on terms of extreme intimacy, and Horaoe takes a 

' Od. 3. 17. 16. 

' Bp. 3. 9. 60 dtctiit kumiitM ptnnti tuopemqut patenri | «1 
Larti ttfimdi. 

* teriptMWt jaswWritmi eomparavit Suet. Vit. i Sai. S. 8. 86. 


marked place as one of the notable figures in Roroan 

Of his life however there is little to relate. He 
was a man who infinitely preferred repose and com- 
fort to rank and distinction. Mecenas presented 
him with a small farm among the Sabine hills a 
little north-east of Tibur (Tivoli), and this Sabine 
farm was dear to him as the apple of his eye \ He is 
never weary of referring to its charms ; he loved to 
retire to it froro Rome, and he constantly contrasts 
the delights of his peaceful life there with the worry 
and turmoil and endless engagements of the capital. 
In Rome itself he contented hiroself with an extremely 
modest household", partly because his independent 
spirit made him unwilling to accept too much from 
his patron, partly because he had a genuine dislike 
to ostentation and the inconveniences which it en- 
tails. His ideal in life was a modest competence 
and the ability to do as you like. To lie in bed 
until ten, then to write or read, to play a game at 
ball, to bathe, to dine at ease, to stroll round the 
Cirous or the Forum in the evening listening to 
fortune-tellers and cheap-jacks' — these were delights 
in his judgment to which kings and courts could 
afford nothing equaL Even when pressed by Au- 
gustus to accept the distinguished position of his 

1 Od. 2. 18. 14 unicu Sabinit. 
9 Sat. 1. 6. 114. 
* Sat. 1. 6. 114 teq. 



private seoretary, lio refuaed to sacrifice his freedom, 
and the refusal was sccepted without irritation by 
the emperor, while Suetonius quotes a letter in wbich 
the master of the world good-humouredly contrasts 
the poet's haughty reserve with his own humble 
entroaties and oflers of friendship 1 , 

Throughout life he took a keen interest in pbilo- 
sophy and eapecially in Ethics, questions connected 
witii morals being continually discussed by him. His 
own taEtes and habits were naturally Epiourean, and 
/'a, sleek-skinned porker from the pen of Epieurus" 
' is his jesting description of himself, wliile sucb 
maxima as carpe diem and dona prtuerUU cape laUtu 
/tora abound in his writings and are illustruted in 
his life. On the other hand he is never tired of 
jibing at the cr&bbed and paradoxicai teaching of 
the Stoics, whose typical 'wise man' he delights to 
portray as a typicai fooL But in spite of this he 
everywhero exhibits a hearty admiration for that 
strong, sober, self-sacrificing ' manliness' (virtui) 
which had made a 'race of rustio soldiero" the 
conqnerors of the world, but which is oertainly 
j Stoicol rather than Epicure&n. The foct is that he 
>sete little store by logical consistency and writea 
according to the changing phasas of his own mood. 

1 ntgut enim, H tu ruperbut avtieitiam Hottram iprtvitti, 
ideo noi quoque arSvrip^pnroOutr, Suet. Vit. 

■ Ep. 1. 4 16 Epieuri de gregt porciun. 

■ Od. B. 6. 87. 


He denies ihe interferenoe of the gods in hnman 
anairs 1 , or calls such teaching the 'wisdom of fools 1 ' 
and piety the first of virtue» with amiable facility. 
He writes an Ode to Fyrrha or a winejar and then 
desoants on the advantages of hard fare and hard 
exerciae with apparently equal enthusiasm. Such 
inoonsistency is common and almost a part of human 
nature, and it is one of the charms of Horace that he 
does not endeavour to conoeal it. At the same time, 
because he does not play the Puritan or assume the 
solemn countenance* of a professed moralist, we havo 
no right, as some do, to describe him as a voluptuary. 
Those who choose may disouss with seriousness the 
exact contento of his cellar, or find in the Odes 
which he addresses to Lydia, Pyrrha and their kind 
a history of his own amours, but more caref ul critics 
will detect under the various disguises in which the 
poet masquerades a certain serious and sober earnest- 
ness as of a man not without noble conceptions of 
life and duty. This much at any rate is certain: 
the man who wrote of his father, as Horace did of 
his, was not a bad man ; the man who amid all the 
temptations of Rome could make a simple country 
life his ideal, as Horace did, was not a vicious man ; 
the man who kept his head in a position such as 
Horace occupied was not a vain man; the man whom 

1 Sat. 1. 5. 101 namque deot didiei iecurum agere ctvom. 

1 Od. 1. 84. 2 insanieru tapientia. 

* Sat. 1. 1. 24 ridentem dicere verum | quid vetat t 


i Augnstos : d to be his private secretary was not 
fooliah in.i uid tbere must have been something 
. very lo and very rem&rk&ble in one whom 

,HaMeni r an unbroken intimacy o! 30 jearti, 

loonld oi d It his master on his deathbed with 

jthe worcis loratii Flacci ut mei memor etto.' 

He >es himself when in his forty-fourth 

e, prematurely grey, 
iper and quickly ap- 
he was 'short and 
ugustus in which the 
«eipt of one of his 
airnid thnt his book 
„jt reminds him that 


ye*r m 

f ond of 

peaaedV Bu«i 

•tout * ' nnd quows 

eroperor nckn 

books, ta ■ ■ tht 

will be bigger tnnn n 

thougb not tall st.ill he hna a ' corporntton ' (corpue- 

ouium) and that if tho ' roll ' (volumen) were rounder 

it would be more like its AUthor. 

His writings fnll into two divisions ; 

(1) Lyric poems — the Epodes, the Odes, and tha 
Carmm Saoidan. 

(2) Thfl Satires, the Epistles, and the Art 

The Epodes and the S&tires both belong to the 
tirst half of hii career, his other poema to the second. 
Up to the battlfl of Actium (u.o. 31) ha perhaps still 
clung to the republioan dreams of his youth; at 

1 Bp. 1. 30. 34 corporu cxigui, 
iraici ccltrcm tamen ut ptaeabiUe etiem. 
' brevit et obtnu. 

tolibut aptum, | 


any rate up to that period his writinga are without 
political colour 1 , but after it he not only oeases to 
be neutral, but beoomea definitely a supporter of the 
new Monarchy and, espeoially in the Odes, deliberately 
plaoes his poetical powers at its disposaL 

The Satires consist of a number of poems in 
Hexameter verse in two Books the first of which 
waa published about ao. 35, the aecond about ac. 30. 
Whatever the origin of the word satura or satira', 
at any rate 'Satire,' as a form of poetry in our 
modern sense of the word, has the distinction of 
being the only branoh of Koman literature which 
was not formed on a Greek model*. Its inventor 
was Lucilius (148—103 b.o.) and it reached its per- 
fection in Juvenal (Jlor. a.d. 100). The Satires of 
Lucilius attack individuals with the unsparing free- 
dom of the old Qreek comedy ; those of Juvenal glow 
with the fire of a fierce indignation. The Satires of \ 
Horace on the other hand are f ree from vehemence ; ( 
they keep entirely olear of politics and deal chiefly 
with social topics, the writer finding in the faults ' 
and follies of mankind the occasion not for anger 

1 'During the time covered by the Satires (aboot b.o. 40 — 
80) Horace does not appear at all on terms of intimaey with 
Augustus.' Wilkins Int. to Epistles, p. iviii. 

9 Its mo8t probable derivation is from lanx tatura, a plate 
full of all sorts of frnits offered to the gods, so that it means 
•a medley,' ef. Juv. 1. 86 where he describes his book as a 
'hotch-potoh,' farrago. 

* Quint. 10. 1. 93 tatira quidem tota iiostra est. 


\ but for lauohter. At the same tiaie this langhter 
; mnst not bc tinterpreted ; it is i n no senso cynice.1 
or oontetDD ib but is used deliberately. Hor&ce 
knew thal vu not adaptcd for a preaoher or a * 

'prophet, b .0 was admirably qualified to make 
vioe appear iculous snd to shew the fool hia owu 
foolishne- . 

Tho E .- -.-* -* * — ^uoijg fjg g^at f 

whioh wbb 3 while the second 

oonsists of onij which tbe first is 

assigned to b.0. u» to b.0. 19'. They 

are aimilar in chs tirea but altogether 

superior to them yle but in matter. 

They contain the - npn i»u>u the poet's observa- 
tion of i!i.'it .'uul mannera"set before us with tbat 
apparently oegligent grace which is really the result 
of perfect akill, and which adds so much to the 
charm of good ' con versation' ' and good ' letters '.' 

1 Wilktns Int. p. iri. 
■ Wiliins Int. p. ui. 

* Hoiaoe iloes not ssem himtelf to have callod hii Batins 
bj that uame, but rather to hsve used the tsrm Strmtmei 
'oonversations.' Wfaen bowerer be seys of theee poem» that 
thsy 'oulydifferfiomordinary oonverastion in the faot of their 
icsnning' (Bat. 1. *. VI niii quod pede certo j tennoni iifitrl, 
itrmo mtnu) he must not be taksn too literally, for it is his 
objeot to dtsguise Ihe peint whioh have besn tsken with them. 

* Of oourse in snoieut tintes — and in modem timea up to 
tbe introduation of oheep peetage — letter-writing wsa often ' 
prsotiied as aa art, snd ooasequently many writers, when 


The Ar$ Poetiea is> as its name implies, a didaotio 
poem giving ralea for poetioal oomposition. 

The Bpodee 1 are Horaoe's first attempt at writing 
lyrio poetry. They are an imitation of the satirical 
iambics of Arohilochus*, and are thns to aome extent 
conneoted with the Satires whioh were written at 
the same period. The bitterness of Arohiloohos was, 
however, entirely alien from the easy temper of 
Horace, and the 'libellous iambics" in whioh he 
vents imaginary spleen on imaginary persons 4 are 
dull and unintereeting, but other Epodes, in which 
he breaks loose from Archiloohus in order to deal 
with happier thenies, already shew signs of his f uture 
greatneas as a lyric poet. 

It is on the four Books of Odes that the fame of 
Horace really rests. To what extent the Odes were 

desiring to treat a snbjeot somewhat informally, have pot their 
views forward in the shape of *Letter8. > 

1 The term Epode is not used by Horaoe, who calU these 
venet iambi, and is derived from the vernu iryMt a ahort verae 
or 'refrain,' nsoallj a Dimeter Iambio, whioh Arohiloohns aome- 
times alternated with the regnlar Trimeter Iambio and whioh 
ooenrs regularly in Epodes 1—10. Gf. Epod. 1. 1 ibit Li- 
bumii inter alta navium, | amice, propugnacula. 

1 He is aaid to have invented the metre eepeoially for his 
lampoons; A. P. 79 Archilochum proprio rabict armavit iambo. 

* criminosit iambU Od. 1. 16. 2, where he offers to bnrn 

4 He expressly states that these poems are wbolly nnreal, 
Ep. 1. 19. 24 numcroi animotquc tecutut | Archilochi non ret et 
agentia verba Lycamben. 


published and circulated separatety we oannot tell, 
but the division into books almost certainly dates 
from Korace's time and the arrangement of the Odes 
in them is probably his own. Tbe marks of careful 
arrangement are very clear. Thus in tho first Book 
the first three Odee are addressed to Mfecenas, 
Augustus, and Virgil, while the first nine Odes are 
each in a different metre, as though the poet wished 
to give the reader an early proof of his varied skill. 
That at the end of the Book the passion of the 
Cleopntra-Ode (l. 37) should be followed by an ex- 
tremely slight and cheerful drinking-song is in strict 
aocordance with Horace's characteristio dislike to 
end on a high-pitched note. The first ten Odes of 
the second Book are alternately Alcaics and Sapphics, 
wlule the stately Koman-Odes which coinmence tlie 
third Book are, with their noble exordium, mani- 
festly where thej were designed to be. Lastly tho 
concluding Ode of tbe third Book 

clearly presupposes a completo and final collection of 
the Odes to which it is appended. 

The date of the production of these three BooVs 
is generally considered to lie between 30 b.o. the 
date of the Cleopatra-Ode 1 and 23 b.c. the date of 
the death of Maroellus, who in 1. 12. 46 ia apoken 

■ to ths battle of 


of as alive : but though the latter date may be oox 
gidered certain it is impossible to say whether som 
Odes xnay not have been written— or partly writte 
— oonaiderably before aa 30. 

The foarth Book was published about B.O. 1 
being separated from the other three by a oonsidei 
able interval, as is shewn by internal evidence 1 an 
definitely stated by Suetonius — Scripta ejus usqv 
adeo probavit (Auguetue) mansuraque perpetuo op 
natus ett ut non modo sceculare earmen eomponendw 
injunxerity §ed et Vinddicam victoriam Tiberii Drus 
que privignorum suorum, eumque coegerit propter hc 
tribue earminum librie ex longo intervaUo quartui 

The Carmen Sasculare ifl a Sapphic Ode written t 
be sung publioly by a ohorus of youths and maider 
in the great * Secular Games ' exhibited by Augusti 
B.C. 17'. 

All Latin poetry (except Satire) is copied froi 
Greek models. Terence copiea Menander, Propertk 
Callimachus, Lucretius Empedocles, Yirgil Hesio 
and Homer: so Horace in the Odes copies th 
Greek lyric writers. The sportive lays of Anacreoi 

1 Cf. 4. 1. 1 intermista, Venut, diu | rurtut bella movet ; U 
▼ocabulary too is considerably altered and there U a marke 
differenoe in the prosody. 

' The foll desoription of these gamee is given in an inscri] 
tion, diacovered in 1890, printed in Lanoiani's Pagan axi 
Christian Bome. 


occasionally the dirges of Simonides, but above ali 
the pasaionate love-songs of Sappho and tbe patriotio 
odes of AJceus are the modela whicli he followa'. 
Sometimes he oopies his model very closely eapeci- 
ally at the beginning of an Ode (e.g. in Odea 9, 14 
and 37 of Book I.), but as a whole it may be aaid 
that the form and outline of liia Odes are eopied 
rather than the detaiia, 

The Odes may be roughly divided into two 
clas&es according as they are of a light or of a 
Berioua character. The former deal with love, wine, 
friendship; the latter are addreased to some eminent 
personage or are written 'by command' to celebrate 
some public event or advocate some publio policy. 
The one exhihit grace, poliab, elegance; the other 
aim at impoaing atatelineas and aonorous dignity. 
The two varieties are wholly different, and it would 
be as foolish to oompare the lyrics of Herrick or 
Sir John Suckling with, eay, Tennyaons Ode on the 
Denth of the Duke of Wellington as to compare snoh 
exquisite gems as 1, 6 (qvu nvulta...) or 3. 9 (donae 
gratut...) with the Koman-Odea at the commenoemont 
of the third Book, 

The oharacteristics of the Odes are (1) their 
j wonderful charm of rhythm, and (S) their perfect 
■ literary finish. With regard to the first point 

1 Pindu he msket no ittampt to oopj, tor h« knaw that tbe 
'Thsban eagls' aoered on piniom atronger tban hJs own. 


Horaoe was proudly oonscious 1 of the skill with 
which he had overoome the difficult task of adapting 
Greek metres to the requirements of the Latin 
tongue. To examine in detail how far he has suc- 
oeeded would require a treatise, but anyone who will 
oompare his Alcaics with those of AIccbus* will see 
that hia Alcaio stanza is, though a copy, at the same 
time almost a new creation, the stately third line 
especially, which beara the weight of the stanza, 
being 80 changed that its original trochaic movement 
(see quotation in note) is hardly recognizable. The 
lofty ring and rhythmic force of Horace's best Odes 
in this metre has never been approached. 

The literary finish of the Odes has been acknow- 
ledged in all ages. Their apparently happy ease is 
really the result of infinite pains J . Horace had no 
belief in geniuses who dash off verses. The poet 
must have natural power (ingenium) but technical 
skill (ars) 4 is also indispensable and above all pains : 
'correctV 'eraseV 'polish 7 / c pruneV is Horace's 

1 Od. 8. 80. 13—16. 

* e.g. of. Alo. 34 

xa/9/faXXe top x e (/ iWI ''> M /Up n$€ii 
rvp, h tt xlprait ohow d^xi&wi 
fxiXiXpow, avrap dp4>l KOpca 
fiaKOaKow dtufnTlditi yr6<paXkor. 

* curiosa fclicita* Horatii, Petronius. 

4 Cf. A. P. 408 *eq. » A. P. 438 corrigc, soda. 

* 8at. 1. 10. 72 ttilum vertat. 

f A. P. 201 limte labor. » Sat. 1. 10. 69 recidere. 

P. 11. 

; 'give back the verses to thB anvil 1 / 
'lock them up in your desk for nine years',' 'cut 
down and correct ten times until no criticiam can 
find a flaw*.' The reault of all this labour, in Horace'i 
ce>ac, is tliat his verses seem perfectly unlalxmred. 
Hence it U that they have for ages at once tempted 
and dened translatton : it seema perfectly oasy to 
reproduce them and it ia, in fact, oo hard that not 
one translation in a hundred ia inoro than readable. 
This is not the highest praise, for the noblest poetry 
does not depend on fonn, and translations of Job 
or of Iaaiah, of Homer or Lucretius may be not 
unworthy of ths original, bat it does shew that 
tho shape in which Horace presente his ideas is of 
unsurpassed excellence. Indecd the strength, terse- 
neas and lucidity of Lntin render it an unrivalled 
instruroent for the expression of simple truths with 
monumental dignity and force : add therefore to . 
coraplete mastery of such an instrument complete 
mastory of metrical effect, and it U clear how some 
of the Odes cling more readtly to the mentory than 
almost any poetry in the world. 

As however the technical skill of Horaoe U un- ' 
I doubted, so, on the other hand, he does not exhibit 
\ great powers of imagination. He U not a great 
'. creative poet ; there are few new ideas in the Odes, 

1 A. P. 441 incudi reddere vertut. 

' A. P. 388 nonumqut prematur in BBHM. 

* A. P. 29iferfeetus>deeiet...caitigav(taduittuem. 


Some critics in consequenoe deny him »11 real poetical 

talent and treat him only as a venifier; Goethe, for 

instance, speaks of him as possessing teohnical skill^ 

'side by nde with a frightful realism, without any 

genuine poetry eepedally in the OdesV But this 

criticism is overdone. In the Regulus-Ode (3. 5) 

there is real poetio power and the closing stanzas 

exhibit true oreative genius. In such a line as dulce 

et decorum est pro pairia mori (3. 2. 13) there is 

something more than mere mastery over words, while 

in such a stanza as 

quo pims ingem aXbaque popului 
umbram hotpitaUm contociar* amant 
ramist quid obUquo laborat 
lympha fugax trepidare rivo 9 

there is ^realism' no doubt but to call it c frightful 
realism' is absurd, and if the last sovon words are 
not poetry it would be hard to say what is. It is 
needless however to pursue the question. Horace's 
own prophecy Non omnis moriar has been splendidly 
fulfilled, and the praise of nineteen centuries makes 
rash criticism of the Odes recoil upon the critic. 
His may not be a master mind, but he has succeeded 
in saying some common things better perhaps than 
they will ever be said again. Those who only respect 
what they do not understand will not esteem him 

1 F. W. Biemer, Mittheilungen Uber Qoethe, n. 644, nebst 
einer furchtbaren Realitat, ohne alle eigentliohe Pocfie be- 
tonders in den Oden. 


highly, } >a of sense will atill continue to value 

hi» hep I epigrammatio plirases which enibody 

■O mucl little, and are 

It • mains to add tbat the Odes quickly 

•ofleret ithor moat dreaded 1 , 

and hao -book in the century 

•Jtter hii aei — . ued so to the present 

d»y. Nor in untn red at, for, though it 

needs * sch st&nd the Odes and 

bring out t h suggeative phraae 

while also tracing ttio oii* ery subtle' sequence 
of thought whicb tiuks stanza to Btanza, stili a large 
portion of the language is simplicity itself and it ii 
difficult to imagine what better niodel of Latiu could 
be put before a> boy. 

None of our extant MSS. are older thati the 9th 
oontury, though Oruquiua in his editioii (1578 a-d.) 
gives the readings of sorae MSS. now lost which 
may have beea earlier, The Scholia, or colleotioD 

» Ep. 1. ao. 17 

hoc ouogw t* manet «1 puercn tltwuMa doctnttm 
oeaiptt cxlrnui in vitit balba h*m(m. 
Cf. Sat. 1. 10. 7«. 
' JuT«tal7. S97. 

• Anjooa raading la Mtmoriam maj iea how in Ljtio 
poetry this ia often far frout wuijr. 


of oomments, which bear the names of Acron and 
Porphyrion often carry us back to evidence which is 
mnch earlier, and po&sibly goes back to the 2nd or 
3rd centnry 1 . On the whole the text ifl fairly satis- 
factory and, though aome few pas&ages are certainly 
corrupt or interpolated*, yet there ifl no ground for 
8U8pecting that wholesale alteration of the Odes, 
which some critics* assume whenever the meaning 
of a stanza or the connection of thought between 
two parts of an Ode is not immediately obvious to 

1 See Wiokham Inl 'The Soholiasta.' 
1 e.g. 8. 11. 16—20; 4. 8. 18. 
* Notably Lehra and Peerlkamp. 




Thb Alcaic metre is ao ealled from the Oreek poet 
Alcaeus of Lesboa, who is aaid to have invented it. 
It ifl eraployed by Horace more frequently than any 
other, and is especially uaed when a lofty and digni- 
fied tone ia asanmed. It occurs in the following 
Odea, whieh contain in all 317 stanzas : 

I. 9, 16, 17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37 

II. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20 

III. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29 

IV. 4, 9, 14, 15 

*=» — ^. — II — 



\j — 
\j \j 

\j \j — \j o 

\j \J — \J O 

— \j — O 
\j \j — \j — O 

* The original metre in Greek is a oombinaiion of trochees 
and daotyls, thus — 

1,2. «|-w ww_ww 

8, w|«.w-.w — w — w 

4. _ww«.ww_w_w 

Horace by lengthening the fifth syllable in eaoh of the first 
three lines has completely altered the oharaoter of the metre, 
and its troohaio movement almost disappeara, ospecially in the 
third line where he etudiously avoids troehees (see p. xxx), so 
that it ia hard to recognize in hia third lines the original tro- 
chaio line as it appears in Aloaens, e.g. fU\\ixpo» | afrrap \ &n<f>l | 
ichpea. The effeot of the alteration is to give weight and 
dignity. Tennyson in his English Alcaics recurs to the Greek 
fonn, e.g. * God|-gifted | 6rgan|-voice of | England.' 


The fin< llable in the firat tliree lines ie common 
but a iborl lable is vtry rarely uaed : 1 3 instance* 
oocur io 'ir*t Book, 5 in tlie Second, 7 in the 

Third m~ > in the Fourth. 

1.9,1- lC.l&itHtrt: 17. 7 «letitfi ; 37, lii&WTt; 33 

«U#-W S r; 31, S prlaiatit ; 17 Jrti ; 35, 16 fld orm-i ; 

87 -*» j «rrfl | SS, 1S rMf f)«f ; 33 ptri rt. 3. 7, » 

ctttoriai 1 *• 14. 6 omiet .< 17. Z Sbirt ; 19, 33 tflAari. 

8, 1, 9 ). ; 1. 78 rHi S uit ; 3, 34 

feirc,- «, Tli, , 11 «m-ftte. 

The laat lyllal " > is common : in the 

3rd and 4th !!:'■■<« »e ending in a short 

vowol u distui i ending not haviag 

■uffident weij !, 

In tha flnrt tii Od« of the Third Book whioh eonaiat of 84 
lUnni 4 lhori yowol occura at the end at tha third line 
E timei aod at the end o( the fonrth onlj once (S. 1, 40 atra 

Synaphaoa. prevails : that b to »ay a line ending 
inmon vowel (especially a short vowel) or diph-- 
thong is rarely foUowed by a line beginning with a 
vowel, the lines in each stanza bsing linked together. 

The following inrtanen owmr : 1. 0, 7 Sdbint | o ; B, U 
lucro | appont; 16, 37 amUS | opproorifi; 17, 17 nwa | «t ; U, 
S Golii6n'iu | armaOa; Sl, 14 J (Jantieum | imnuTw ; 85, 9 
Scy that | la-beiju* ; SB, 39 nooo [ f nciuk. 3. 6, 9 cupf li-inem 
inisrfli.; 1S, 7 eruorjf | fcM-pitii ; 18, 11 carfwnin | fn; 18.38 
au™| Jkau; 14, 8 MMMtM | a/«rd ; 19, 61 trtKnatrf | or*. 
S. 2, 17 tordfdaj | f nta-ninatu ; 4, 9 Apvto \ allrfeii; B, 10 
tooa* | oelihu; 6, 11 Vttlat \ incolumi ; fi, 18 dato | htUrq**, 


The oonneotion between the tbird and f onrth lines ia eipeoi- 
allyolose: thxisthereareeightiiutanoeeof «t elidedat theend 
ofthetUrdline(1.85,116arbaroruiii«l \purpurei;% 18, 28; 8. 
1, 80; 8, 71; 4, 69 j 6, 8; 39, 8; 99, 7) end 2. 85, 89 retutum 
in | Ma$$agetat t whereas only one sneh instanoe oooare in the 
first two lines 1. 9, 18 quaerere et | quem. In two inetanoes, 
for the eake of speeial effeot, the third line ie aotnally oon- 
neoted with the fourth, 2. 8, 27 $or$ exitura et noe in aetern\um 
exeilium; 8. 29, 85 cumpaee delabenHe Etruse\um tn mare. 

In the first two lines a break always occurs after the 
flfth syllable. Elision however often occurs especi- 
ally of a syllable ending in m, of which there are four- 
teen instances, while there are only five of a vowel so 
elided. They only end with a monosjllable once 
(4. 9, 1 ne/arte credas interUura quae). 

A eyllable ending in m is elided 1. 16, 6 $aeerdot\um ineola ; 
84, 18 in$ign\em attenuat; 86, 25; 2. 5, 21; 18, 6; 17. 10; 8. 
1, 6; 8, 41 ; 8, 49; 4, 4 con*il\ium et; 6, 1 ; 6, 6 pHncip\ium 
hue; 21, 18 ; 29, 17. A vowel 1. 84, 10 invis\i horrida; 2. 8, 
18 unguent\a et; 8. 2, 5 $ub div\o et; 4, 6 audir\e et; 6, 18 
inquinaver\e et. 

The following five linee are eiceptional: three of them 
ooonr in the First Book two being in the striking bnt irregnlar 
Gleopatra Ode ; the fourth U hardly an exoeption, while the 
fifth being found in the extremely formal and regnlar Odee of 
the Fonrth Book mnst be speoially intended to attract attention 
by ite exceptional shape. 

1. 16, 21 hottile aratrum ez\ereitu$ intolent 
1. 87, 5 antehac ne/at dejpromere Caeeubum 

1. 87, 14 mentemque lymph\atam Mareotieo 

2. 17, 21 utrumque nottrum in\eredibili modo 
4. 14, 17 tpeetandut in eert\amine Martio. 


The third line bear* the wetght oE tbe stanza uri 
is very earefully constructed. Theee are model lines : 

audita | Musarum \ tacerdoi 
matrona \ beltantii ] lyranni 
detcendat | in Campum | pelitor 
lortitur [ insignet j et imo* ; 
and these variations are freqnent : 

viiam \ pharetrato» | Gelonoi 
traetai \ et incedu | per ignet 
or tettatur \ auditumque | Medii 

or apponet | nnnoi ; | jom protervae 

It cannot end with a raoiiosyllftblo {the exception 
ia 2. 7, 19 depone mb lauru mea, nec) or a. qusdri- 
ayllable (the exceptions are t. 36, 11 barbarorutn; 
2. 7, 19 temperatam; 2. 19, 19 rtpertno) or with two 

Two disjllablee oeanr 3. 1, 11 ra> ordinaru, grandt ww; 
1S, 11 tantan ri«M otfne CnmeU- In 1. 89, 11 prcmot rtlabi 
jmwi rinoj i ipeaUl effect U simed *t The fire other in- 
■Unce* present ■ marked peonlUritj: the flnt dUjUabU U 
inunedUtalj lepeaied at the beginning of the fourth lina, tha 
tpeejal fT"p h f>«" given to the reptated word at onoe reetoring 
to tha third line iU tonoroni oharaoter. It should be noted 
however that the intUnoes are all ln the flnt two Books. 

1. 16, B ponet iawtbU tLnjlamma | ilfe... 

1. 90, 7 gaudu, apricoi ateMfioret | secte... 

1. 18, 97 Aleatt, pleetro dnra navit | dnra... 

3. 14, 11 twtviganda slT* rtgtt | tlve... 

3. 10, 6 lattatur ; euoe. paroe Liber | paroe... 


The fourth line oannot begin with two dactyU 
without oaeenra : nobUU \ omnia \ diaoii | iUe U not a 

In the seoond dactyl a weak caeaura U diatinctly 
avoided ai giving too rapid a movement to the 

The exeeptione are 1. 9, 8 o ThaUarehe | merum diota; 31, 16 
me eiehorea | leveeque malvae; 2. 3, 8 interiore nota Falerni ; 
4. 0, 8 8te$ichoriqu* \ gravee Camenae. In 1. 16, 12 Iuppiter 
ipee ruene tumultu the line ii intentionally rapld ; in 1. 26, 12 
teque tuasque deeet eororee the emphaiii on the repeated te 
tuas ontbalanoee the weak eeefura; for 2. 1, 86 quae earet ora 
eruore noetro aee notee. 

If howerer there ii a full atop after the fint dactyl the 
reaaon for thia rule vaniahea and it need not be ob 

1. 85, 86 Uquimue t unde manum juventue. 

2. 18, 8 hoepitie ; Ule venena Colcha. 

2. 17, 8 integerf ille diee utramque. 

It will be noted that the rule is abeolute iu the Third 

The first aix Odea of the Third Book aiford the 
beat model of Alcaics. The Odes in the Fourth Book 
exhibit only three variations from atrict metrioal 
rulea; thU U in exact accordance with their frigid 
and formal charaoter ; the long fourth Ode has abso- 
lutely no nietrical naw. 


Tha I e Stanra is bo called from Sappho the 

Gradc p ;i Leabos. It is used in theae Odea : 

L S, l 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 36 

contuining 55 atanaas 
JX 3, t, 10, 16 „ 40 „ 

m. 8 , 18, 20, 22, 27 „ 55 „ 

1T. S nnd Cor. &mc. „ 64 „ 


FSn -i ~--w-o 

Fonr i 

Synaph* xisc ia a Hne ending 

with a ihon vu»ei itt- i— r, -/ a vowel at the be- 
ginning ot the next line in the same stania. 

The MMptioni sre 1. 2, 11 /i.mrd | abi | 13, Jf.icmfl | 
intde; 13, 7 iiUMKte* | Orpfcta ; 13, 35 ZrfdVu | huu; 13, 81 
pasto | uixfa; 33, 1E bonUM | orida; 31, 18 myrfo | atidat; 
Bl, 6 NympKae | «I. 3. 3, 6 paUnd t | Ulum; 16, 5 Tfcwe*; | 
orium. S. 11, 39 «o Oroo. | inpiae; 11, 50 unmde | omiiu; 
37. 10 immfnfntuw | Mcfcum ; 87, 83 poUnUm \ oppidit. 4. 
none (9, 1 dnbiona). 

Tha olosa oonnaction between the liuei ii ahawn bj tbe 
w«j jn whioh «t oui end a line 3. 8, 1 micum et [ Cantoorum ; 
6, 3 noiJra *t | baroarni. 8. 8, 37 horas et | Huou«; 37, 13 
^uitrf 1 t | atqvorii ; 37, 39 Jtonm et \ aebitat. Bo too 8. 8, 
8 earoo i» | caaptU. i. 6, 11 eotlum fl» [ pulvert. 

In MVeial InatanoM the Udm ara aotnallj oonnected 3. 9, 
18 diifident ptebi namtro MOlOrhMt «Ml; 18, U tUri toUU 
himi!\um apta. t. 3, 91 moreifaue aureot ; 9, 38 nigro\tpit 
'widet; C. B. 48 prolem\que r.t dtem. The tbird liuo eipeoiallj 

U8ED IK THE ODE& xuiii 

is ao oIomIj oonaeoted with the fourth that in thxee i nstan c es 
a woid ii dividod between thtm : 

1. 2, 18 labitur ripa Jove non probanU ux\oriu$ amnit. 
1. 25, 11 Thracio bacchanU magU sub inUr\lunia vento. 
2. 16, 7 Orotphe, non gemmis ueque purpura ve\naU neque 

In the firat three lines a break usually oecura after 
the fiith syllable, but occasionally for the sake of 
variety — especially in long Odes — Horace admits such 
lines ai Mereuri fucumfy nepos AUantis. Siz in- 
stances occur in the Firat Book, one in the Seoond, 
none in the Third, twenty-two in tlie Fourth and 
nineteen in the 76 lines of the Carmen Saeculare. 
ThU seems to shew that Horace firat carelessly used 
this rhythm, then rejected it, and finally deliberately 
einployed it to relieve the monotony of the Sapphio 

Elision very oecasionally oocnrs after the fifth syllable : 1. 
12, 7 Umer\e ineeeutae; 2. 4, 10 victor\e et; 16, 26 curar\e et; 
8. 27, 10 divin\a avu. 

In the first three lines a single monosyllable (un- 
elided) only ends the line twice: 4. 6, 17 heu nefas, 
heu ; C. S. 9 diem qui, but two monosyllables occur 3. 
11, 5 nune est; 14, 1 o plebs ; 27, 37 mor$ est; 4. 2, 
46 o sol. 

The last syllable of thi ^urth lino is common but 
usually long and very rarely ends in a short vowel. 


The Asclepiad metres sxe said to be ao called 
after their inventor, of whom however nothing in 
known. Four varieties of line are used in them. 

a. The Glyconic — - v m — * 

6. The Pherecratean « 

c. Tlie Lesser Aaclepiad 

d. epiad 

These ' 1 to fonn the following 

Firat Aaclepii 1 ; 3. 30 ; 4. 8, 

i.— — f e oniy: 

Beoond Asclapiad, used ui I, 3, 13, 19, 3G; 3. 0, 15, 
19, 24, 26,26; 4. 1,3, 

conButs of coupleta in whioh a ia foUowod by t : 
___ ww _ w — 

•— uu-l-vu-vO 

Third Aeclepiad, uaed in 1. 6, 16, 24, 33; 2. 12; 3. 
10,16; 4.6,12, 

consista of atanzas in which after e three timea 

repeated a follows : 

First three linea -_ — ww -|- ww _ ww 

Fonrth line w w — w a 

Fourth Aadepiad, uaed in 1. 5, 14, 21, 23 ; 3. 7, 13 ; 


oansists of stansas in which c twioe is foUowed by 

b then a: 

First two lines wv/-|-ww-vs3 

Third line---ww — 
Fourth line, — — — w w — wo 

Fifth Asclepiad, used 1. 11, 18; 4. 10, 

oonsists entirely of d\ 

Exceptional metres are : 

1. 7, 28: an ordinary Hexameter (Hcxameter dactyli- 
cus caialeclicus) f ollowed by a DactyUo Tetrameter 
Cataleotio : 

— CE7 I — CE7 I — wv/ I — O 

4. 7: an ordinary Hexanieter followod by a versus 
ArchUochius mvnor — s/ w — \j \j o. 

1. 4 : a wrna Archilochiua mojor 

— CE7 | — TO | — OO | — wv* | — \j | — w» | — O 

followed by a Trimeter Iambic Catalectic. 

1. 18 : a Trochaio Dimeter Catalectic followed by an 
Iambic Trimeter Catalectic : 

— \J I — \J I — \J I — o 

o — | \j— | o- | w— | w- | o 
3. 12 : formed of the pes Ionicus a minore \j \j — — : 

\j \j — — I ww-- ||w-wv;-- 
w v/ — — j \j \j — — v/ v/ — v/ */ — — 
w v/ — — v/ v/ — -" 


Some niake the iirst line into two 80 that each 
■tanza consists of four lines. 

In all the Odes of Horaoe with the expeption of 4. 8, 
which is clearly unsound, the number of the lines is a 
multiple of four, but in some metres the division into 
8tanzas is not otherwise clearly markecL 

It may be noted that the first nine Odes of the 
First Book are all in different metres, ai though the 
poet wished to exhibit his varied skill ; in the Seoond 
Book the first ten are alternately Alcaics and Sap- 
phics; the Third Book commences with six long 
Alcaic Odes. 





Maecenas atavis edite regibus, 
o et praesidium et dulce decus uieum, 
sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicuin 
collegisse iuvat metaque fervidis 

evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 
terrarura dominos evehit ad deos ; 
hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium 
certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 

illum, si proprio condidit horreo, 
quidquid de Libycis verritur areis. 
gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
agros Attalicis condicionibus 

nunquam dimoveas, ut trabe Cypria 
Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare. 
luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 
mercator metuens otium et oppidi 

laudat rura sui; mox reticit rates 


quasaas, iadociliM paupunem pati. 
est qui nec veteris pocul» Masmci 
nec partem solido demere de die 

epernit, nuno viridi membra sub arbuto 
stratus, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacr&e. 
multos eastra iuvant et litao tubaa 
permixtus sonitus bellaque matribus 

detestata. manet sub Iove frigido 
venator tenerae coniugis immemor, 
seu visa est catulis cerva fidelibus, 
seu rupit teretes MarauB aper plagaa 

me doctarum hederae praemia frontium 
dis miscent superia, me gelidum nemus 
nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori 
secernunt populo, si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet nec Polyhymni» 
Lesboum refogit tendere barbiton. 
quodsi me lyriria vatibus inseren, 
sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 

Iam satis terris nivis atque diraa 
grandinia misit Pater et rubente 
deitera sacras iaculatus aroes ■ 

terruit TJrbem, 
terruit gentes, grave ne rediret 
aaeculum Pjrrhao nova monatn queatao, 
omne cum Proteus paciu sgit altoa 

viaere montes, 



pificium et lomma genus haerit ulmo, 
nota quae sedes fuerat oolumbia, to 

ot superieeto pavidae natarunt 
aequore damae. 

vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis 
litore Etrusco violenter undis 
ire deieotum monumenta regis i S 

templaque Veetae; 

IHae dum se nimium querenti 
iactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
labitur ripa Iove non probante u- 

xorius amnis. * 

audiet cives acuiase ferrum, 
quo graves Peraae melius perirent, 
audiet pugnas vitio parentum 
rara iuventus. 

quem vocet divum populus ruentis «3 

imperi rebus? prece qua fatigent 
virgines sanctae minus audientem 
carmina Veetam t 

cui dabit partes soelus expiandi 
Iuppiter? tandem venias precamur j» 

nube candentes umeros amictus 
augur Apollo; 

sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
quam Iocus circum volat et Cupido; 
aive neglectum genus et nepotes 35 

respicis auctor, 


hokatii ciBKremi 

heu : 

aimis longo satinte iudo, 


iuvat clnmor galeaeque leves, 


et Mauri peditis cruentuw 

voltus in hostem ; 


mutata iuvenem figura 


iii terris imitariB almae 


Maiae, patiens ^ocari 

Caeaaria ultor; 


in caelum redcaa diuqua 


i interais populo Quirini, 


te nostria vitiis iniquum 


. ; hic magnos potius triumphos, 

hic amea dici pater atquc princepa, 

neu ; 

■rinas Medos equitnre inultoa, 

te duce, Caesar. . 


Sic te diva potens Cypri, 
aic fratres Helenae, Incida ridera, 

ventorumque regat pater 
obstrictis aliis praeter lipyga, 

navia, quae tibi creditum. 
riebes Virgilium, finibns AUiais 

reddss inoolumem, preoor. 

illi robar et sus triplez 
drcs, peotas erat, qui fngilem truoi 


oommint pelago ratem 
primus neo timuit praeeipitem Africum 

deoertantem Aquilonibus 
neo tristes Hyadas neo rabiem Noti, 

quo non arhiter Hadriae 13 

maior, tollere seu ponere volt freta. 

quem Mortis timuit gradum, 
qui siocis oculia monatra natantia, 

qui vidit mare turgidum et 
infames acopulos Aorooerauniaf «> 

nequiquam deus abacidit 
prudens Ooeano diasoeiabili 

terras, ai tamen impiae 
non tangenda ratea tranailiunt vada. 

audax omnia perpeti «3 

gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas. 

audax Iapeti genus 
ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit. 

post ignem aetheria domo 
subductum macies et nova febrium y> 

terris incubuit oohors, 
semotique prius tarda necesaitas 

leti corripuit gradum. 
expertus vacuum Daedalus aSra 

pennis non homini datis; 35 

perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 

nil morta libus ardui est ; 
caelum ipsum petimus stultitia neque 

per nostrum patimur scelus 
iracunda Iovem ponere fulmina. 4° 



Solvitur Borii hiecips grata vico veria et Favoni, 
trahnntque siocsa machinae carinaa 

ac neque iam Btabulis gaudet pecuB aut arator igiii, 
nec prata cania albicant pruinis. 


Cytherea A— ■ <W 

it Vomis imminente Luna, 


iae decentee 

nio terram q 

um graves Cyclopum 

Volcanua araena 


c decet aut vin< 

ipnt impedire mjrto 

aut flore, t«r 

unt wlutae. 

c et in umbroai 

•oet immolare lucia. 

seu poscat agna av 

;e malit h&edo. 

p&llida More ae<juo_ jmLmt j>ede pauperum tabemaa 

regumque turrea. o beate Seati, 
vitae Bumma brevi» ipam noi vetat inchoare longam. , s 

iam te premet noz febulaeque Manca 
et domus exilia Plutonia : quo nmul moaria, 

neo regna vini ■ortiera talis 
neo tenertun Lycidan mirabera, quo calet iuventus 

nunc omnia et moz virgine» topebnnt, « 

t ^ r J OABMEN V. 

Qnis multa gnwUu te pner in rosa 
perfusui liquidis urget odoribua, 
grato, Pyrrha, «ub antrot 

Cui ftavam raligaa oomam. 


W< .*)HM«I<(<A> • 

gimplex monditiisl hea quoties fidem $ 

. " L matatoeqae deos flebit et aepera 

t^CTat.. .*».;»' nigris aequora ventds 
* «u^, fcTu-4- emirabitar insolens, 

^,tz* ^^snxd nane te fraitar credulus aurea; 
^, qai semper vacuara, semper amabilein » 

sperat neschiB aurae 

fallacia. miseri, quibua ^^ f .^ 0<«+*. 

intentata nites! me tabula aacer 
votiva paries indioat uvida 

suspendissa potenti »s 

vestimenta maris deo. 


Scriberis Vario fortia et hostiura 
victor Maeonii carminis alite, 
quam rem ounque ferox navibus aut equia 
miles te duoe gesserit: 

nos, Agrippa, neque haeo dicere, nec gravein 5 
Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii, 
nec cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei, 
neo saevam Pelopis domum 

oonamur tenues grandia, dum pudor 
imbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

laudes egregii Oaesaris et tuas 
culpa deterere ingenL 

,w» ■ 

*■** MO» "» ■» *•* ■, 


molli, Plance» mero, seu te fulgentia signis \ ^' J^T^l. 

castra tenent seu densa tenebit I *>' ~ 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teneer Balamina patremquo 

cum fugeret, tamen nda Lyaeo 
tempora populea fertur vinxisse oorona, 

nc tristes afiatus amiooa: 
quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente» 

ibimus, o socii oomitesque. 
nil desperandum Teucro duce et auapioe Teucro; 

certus enim promisit Apollo, 
ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 

o f ortes peioraque pasBi 
mecum aaepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas: 

cras ingen8 iterabimus aequor. 



Lydia, dic, per omnes 
te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 

perdere; cur apricum 
oderit Campuin, patiens pulveris atque nolist 

cur neque militaris 
intor aequales equitat, Gallica nec lupatis 

temperat ora frenisl 
cur timet flavum Tiberim tangerel cur oHvum 

Banguine viperino 
cautius vitat neque iam livida gestat armis 

brachia, Baepe disco, 
aaepe trans finem iaculo nobilia expcdito? 



quid, ut marinae 
filium dicunt Thotidia aub Ucrimoea. Troiae 

funera, ne virilia 
culius in caedero et Lycias proriperet catervost 


s candii 

Vldt o vuuiuiiiii , 

Soracte, &nt onmrWii- 

ailv— igue 

dissolve f*r foab v "^«, 

large re| -■ jeoigniui >.'. . 

,., -vdeprome q . S abiiia ,. 

o Thaliarche, djota.-"'-»- ' k 6 *. 
• t ^ertnitte dlvia aeter^ qoi suiuiL^Jl M 
- stravere TJBfa y aeqnore fervido V . u 
...*». '■■ deprQel ulBtoe. nso cupreeai ihj"* 
nec vfterels agi tintuf oJfeflV t> "* 
. " tjuid ait futurum bna, fnge qdaSN» et, 

/ quem Vora 'diordm.' cWgue dabit, luono 
"appone, nec duloea a 

, , aptttfe Duer neque tu choreaa? 

lonec ivirem^iamtiee^.abest £ . .; 

IBQpaik. nuno et campns et afoae 

leneaque sub nootem susurri » 

'iUt-i'-' comjfcmtit repetantur hora, 

a+%Bj.. V.v; 

LIR L CAR. X. 11 

; nuno et latenus pro&tor intimo ^*rrv 

j gratus pueLlae risus ab, angulo 
I ,;*J/C--pg m| *P I6; derepwuai lacertis' *<r ••*— : " ° ' 
, , aut digito male pertinacl 


o'* x 


Mercuri, faqunde nepoe Atlantis, 
qui terofc cultus ho.minum reoenfcum 
/v6ce foraasti catus^et decorae ' 

•" ' v more palaestrae, - « - -^ 

te canam, magni iQyis et deorum 
nuiifium ci ^va eotfe ljrae. parentelrit* v 
-callidum, quiSfquw pTacult,' i ocoso . , A ; 
v^condere furto.- tVjt • ■ _ -- ' 

te, bovee olim nisj reddidisses ^* 
^"^er^doium^amolia, ,puerum minaci ' 
^ v^Suin"tSi¥e^ vidu^ha^rV^^ 

:\ -. 

tu pias laetou animas repohis - /)» AV 
^«edijius virgftque leyem coSrces^ 
aurea f turbam, superiB deorum 

c ' • "^ gratu* et im^s. N1, ^ 1 


**-yw-' quin et ^das^dup^^tepeijgp^ ^ 
'*•"•- Dij dfv& Priamus r^TTf - •« 

Thessalosque ignes et jnjqua, Thaoe .3 



Tu ne quaesieria, acire neia», quem mihi, quem tibi 
finem di dederint, Leuconoe, nec Babylomoa 
tentaria numeroa ut melius, quidquid erit, pati ! 
seu plurea hiemea seu tribuit Iuppiter uitimam, 
quae nuno oppositis debilitat pumieibua mare j 

Tyrrhenum,»«_ vin» linnns, et spatio brevi 
sjjeiu longam >quimur, fugerit invida 

aetaa ; carpe c uiuni credula. poataro. 

Quem vin pra vel acri 

tibia sumL iutj, ot 

quem deum 1 cuius recmet iooosa 

aut ui umbroaia Heliconis oria g 

aut auper Findo gelidove in Haemol 
undo Tooaiem temere inaaautati 

Orphea ailvae, 
arte materna rapidoa morautem 
fluminum lapaus oelereaque ventoa, » 

blandum et auritaa fidibua canoria 

ducere qnercus. 
quid priua dicam aolitia parentia 
laudibus, qui rea homintim ao deonun, 
qui inare ac terraa variiaque mundum u 

temperat horial 

' Ji 


unde nil maius generatur ipeo, 

neo viget quidquam simile aut tecundum: 

proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. M 

proeliis audaz neque te ailebo 

Liber et saevis inimica Virgo 

beluis nec te metuende oerta 

Phoebe sagitta. 

dicam et Alcidem pueroaque Ledae, « s 

| huno equis, illum auperare pugnis 
Jnobilem; quorum aimul alba nautis 
stella refulsit, 

defluit aaxis agitatus umor, 
concidunt venti fugiuntque nubes, 30 

jet minax— quod fiic voluere— - ponto 
unda recumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius, an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem, an superbos 
Tarquini fasces, dubito» an Catonis 35 

nobile letum. 

Regulum et Scauros animaeque magnae 
prodigum Paullum superante Poeno 
gratus insigni ref eram Camena 

Fabriciumque. 40 

hunc ot incomptis Curium capillis 
utilom bello tulit et Camillum 
saova paupertas et avitus apto 
cum lare fundus. 

crcscit occulto velut arbor aevo 
faiua Marceili; micst inter ouuies 
lulium sidus velut inter ignes 

luna minores. 
gentis humanae pater atque custot 
orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 
Caesaria fatU data : tu secundo 

Caesare regnes. 
ille, seu Parthos Latio immineotee 
egerit iusto domitos triumpho, 
aive lubiectos Orientis orae 

Seraa et Indos, 
te minor latum reget aequus orbem; 
tu gravi curru quaties Oly tii pum, 
tu parura castis inimica mittes 

fulmina lucU. 


Ctun tu, Lydia, Telephi 
cervicem ruaeam, oerea Telephi 

laudas brachia, v*e meum 
fervens dimmli bile tumet iecur. 

tum neo mens mihi nec color 
certa sede manet, umor et in genas 

furtim labitur, arguera 
quam lentU penitus macerer ignibua. 

turparunt ume 

UB. L CAR. XIV. 15 

rixae, aive puer furens 
impresait memorem dente labris notam. 

non, ai me satis audias, 
aperes perpetuum, duloia barbare 
1 laedentem oscula, quae Vcnua t$ 

1 quinta parte sui nectaria imbuit. 
■**• felicea ter et amplius, 

quoe irrupta tenet oopula nec malis 

divolsus querimoniia 
auprema citius solvet amor die. ao 


Q. 9&Ykb referejit 1 ^inare te nov^ 
fluctus! o quid agist fortiter. occupa^» *. 

portum ! npnne vj/ies, u£ > 
nudum r^niigio_l^ttl« v 
et maluB oeleri nucTtft^Africo ''*>*»» . >»T.« « 
antdnnueque gemant, ac* sine funibus 
- tf * 1 • . vix durare *T»rinae '.' *) \ 

. possint imperiosius-V.' *''»'•''• . 
aequorf non tibi sunt integra lintea',*^ 
non m."quo8'iteruni pressa voces malo, 

quamvis Pontica pinua, * r * •' . 4 ! 
v v , i gilvae filia noiilis, 
iactes et gerius et nomen inutile ; 
nil PJpws timidus.navita puppuftfa 
vjliv, fidit- ta, nisi ventisV\ ^. # , xj 

; . c debe8 ludibrium, cave. 

» v j N 

. • ■ «•'-«* » -.»:tf ■ v. 


nupei^ spltycitum quae mihi UMium^"* 
isunc desiderium ouraque non levia, 
intej^usa nitente e ■ e 'in -., 

vitea i«|unn Cy dadaa. 

"nL. **■ 

r*Ricp.N xv. 

FUu ir freta navibun 

IdaeL b hospitam, 

ingrato >tio 

NereuH i ucis avi domum, 

quam muito repeves uraecia milite, 
coaiurata tuas rumpere nuptias 

et regnum Priami vetus, 
heu heu quantus equis, quantui adeat vit 
sudor! quanta movee funera Dardanae 
genti ! iam galeam Pallaa et aegida 

curruaque et rabiem parat. 
nequiquam Veneris praeaidio ferox 
pectes oaeaariem grataquo feminia 
imbeUi cithara caraina dividee; 

nequiquam thalamo grnvea 
hastas et calami spicula Cnoaii 
vitabia atrepitumque et oelerem eequi 
I adnlteros 
a pulvc 

LIB. I. CAR. XVI 17 

non Laftrtiaden, exitium tuae 
genti, non Pylium Nettora respicisf 
nrgent imparidi te Salaminius 
Tenoer te Sthenelua sdens 

pugnae, nve opus eit imperitare equia, «3 

non auriga piger; Merionen quoque 
nosces. eooe furit te reperire atrox 
Tydides melior patre, 

quem tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
visum parte lupum graminis immemor, y> 

sublimi fugies mollia anhelitu, 
non hoc pollicitus tuae. 

iracunda diem proferet Dio 
matronisque Phrygum classis Achillel; 
post certas hiemes uret Achaicus 35 

ignis Tliaca8 domos. " 


O matre pulchra filia pulchrior, 
quem criminosis cunque voles modum 
pones Tambis, aive flamma 
sive mari libet Hadriano. 

non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 
mentem sacerdotum incola Pythiua, 
uon Liber aeque, non acuta 

sic geminant Corybantes aera, 


tristes ut irae, quas neque Noricus 
deterret enais nec mare naufragmu 
nee smvub ignis nec tremendo 
luppiter ipse ruena tumultu, 
fertur Promethens, addrire principi 
iimo coactus partieulam undique 
desectam, et insani leonia 

vim stomacho apposuisse nostro. 
irae Thyeeten exitio gravi 
stravere et altia urbibus ultimu 
stetore causae, cur perirent 

funditus imprimeretque muria 
hosttte aratrum eatercitus insolens. 
compesce mentem: me quoque pectoria 
tentavit in dulci iuventa 
j fervor et in celeres lamboa 

mieit furentem; nuno ego mitibus 
mntare quaero tristia, dum mihi 

opprobriis animuraquo reddaa, 


Velox amoBnum aaepe Lucretilera 

lnntat Lycaeo Faunus ot igneam 

defendit aeetateni capellia 

uaque meis plnvioaque ver 

L *B- r. CAR tvtt. 
«"■•■»* iat^tTet T 1 * * P ° nt0B 

*. «tcnaqne d ^ r™j>*e lnpoe, 

* **» oo^e^ **"■ — 

du «* «ub mnb^ ^ 80 " 
"» CcoS ^**» 

.""!»*» Cyrun,; ^j "** P«>t«rv uin 
"^«nente. *&"* *»•»* 
et «cu^dat w ttaniw 

ent «nque ^fen,. 

s? «• •*» ™r.r„°*«r? swj. 







siceis qmnix iuraiidura deoB.propoBUit^ neque 
, j^jnordaces alfferMiflaglugr^fllicit udine ». " '* , 
,N, quM~poHt vina gra.Tem militiam aut pauperiem _»■ 

quis uon te poUus Baeche pater, tejqu e, deceMB Venua t 
^ at, _e quis cjfld^ 1 tr_3_iii_t mtdi&a^Liberi, . 
Centaurea monet.aum Lapithis nia super mero 
^ 4^_eUata,' m --t>»_3____i-_ jSg^iu,, , 

-smu-l'"* j_. 

<__oria vertioe m, 
arcanique Fidea proaiga, periucidior vitro. 


Matnr ___▼» Cupidinuui 
Thebanaeque iubet ma Seniele» puer 

et laaciva Lioentia 
finitis animnm roddore amoribna, 

urit me Glycerae nitor 
iplendentia Paxio marmora purius ; 

nrit grata protervitas 
et voltus niiniTim lubricua adspici 

in me tot» ruens Venus 
Cyprum deaeruit, neo patitur Sovtbw 

«t rerais animosum equis 
Partbum dicere neo quM nihil attinent. 


hio vivum mihi oaespitem, hic 
verbenas, pueri, ponite thuraque 

bimi oum patera meri: >s 

mactata veniet lenior hostia 


Vfle potabiB modioii Sabinum 
cantharis, Graeoa quod ego ipse testa 
conditum levi, datua in theatro 

oum tibi plausus, 
care Maecenas eques, ut paterni $ 

fluminis ripae simul et iocosa 
redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 

montis imago. 
Oaecubum et prelo domitam Caleno 
tum bibes uvam : mea neo Falemae 10 

tcmperant vites neque Formiani 

pocula colles. 


Dianam tenerae dicite virgines, 
intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium 
Latonamque supremo 
dilectam penitus IovL 
vo8 laetam fluviis et nemorum coma, s 

quaeounque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
nigris aut Erymanthi 
silvis aut viridis Cragi; 

voa Tcmpo totidem tollite l&udibus 
natalemque, mures, Delon ApoUinis, 
inaiguemque pharetr» 

fratern&que umeruir. lyra. 

hic bellum lacrimosum, liic miaenun fnmpm 

peetemque a populo et prindpe Caes&re iu 

Pcraos atque Britannoa 

. u — — 3* prece. 

* . t JCIL 

non ege. . i » jliaj neque arcu 

nec veneriatfs zravida. aatfktis, 

BW, mqto - - C^« ■ * 
sive per Syrteaiter oestuoBaa~.' ■*■ \ i- 
Bive facturua per iuhospitalfsm ' 

Caucasam vel quae loca fabu^osua 
^,A Jambit Hj^peaf' 
namqua me eilva lupui in ijabina, 
dum meam canto JjlMQn et ultr» 
tenninum curis vagor expeditU, 

fugit inermem. m*^ '- \, 
quale potteotunV neque mffijjua^ 
Dauruaa^ latia"liEt aeftculeti^ ^Wl 
nec Iubae («Jlus generat leonum 
! , vidtV natrix. ' 



mrbor *ejtix& remrair (SDL 
quod 7 latu8 mundi nebulae malusque 
• ^i* Iuppiter uraetjr tff* $ H * : m 

pone sub, curru niniTnm propinqui \jca* 
^ ( solisMn terra dbmi^^fegata •_ 1 . 

dulce ridentem Lalagen' amabo, kf 

dulce loquentem. 


Vitaa hinnuleo me similis, Chloe\ 
quaerenti pavidam montibus aviis 
matrem non sine vano 
aurarum et siluae metu. 
nano seu mobilibus veris inhorniit 5 

adventus foliis seu virides rubum 
dimovere lacertae, 

et corde et genibus tremit. 
atqui non ego te tigris ut aspera 
Gaetulusve leo frangere persequor: t* 

tandem desine matrem 
tempestiva sequi viro. 


Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
tam cari capitist praecipe lugubres 
cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam pater 
vocem cum cithara dedit. 


orgo Quiuctiliunj perpetuua sopor 
i urget ! cui Fodor et Iustitiae eoror, 
meorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritaa 

quando ullum inTeniet pareml 
multis ille bonis fiebilis occidit, 
nulli flabilior quam tibi, Virgili 
tu frurtra piua heu non ita credituni 

poacia ~ l 

quod ai i Orpheo 

auditam raou.j. rbonbus lidem, 

non van- i imagini, 

quam ida, 

non lenis pn, :oludere, 

nigro compulerit tniniu gregi. 
iiu: ijiu : aed levius Iit patientia, 

quidquid corrigere est nefas. 


Parcius jrif*''" quatiunt fenestra s j )_ 
iaftibus crefcris proteni,' ' .^ 
nec tibi aomnos adimunt, amatque 
i ,j ,ianua liman^T^iuj. W 
quae priua multum facilis movebat 
, cardinea ; audis minus et minus iam : 
"mo tno longu pereunte noctea, ,M H r 
Lydia, dormisl" 


invioem moeohos anus arrogantes 
nebis in solo levis angiportu, m 

Thraaio baochante magis sub intor- 
lania vento, 

oum tibi flagrans amor et libido, 
quae solet matres furiare eqnorum, 
saeviet eiroa iecur uloeroeum, 15 

non sine questu, 

laeta quod pubee hedera virente 
gaudeat pulla magis atque myrto, 
aridas frondes hiemis sodali 

dedioet Hebro. m 



Musis amicus tristitiam et metus 
tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
portare ventis, quis sub Arcto 
rex gelidae metuatur orae, 

quid Tiridaten terreat, unioe 
securus. o, quae fontibus integris 
gaudes, aprioos necte flores, 
necte meo Lamiae ooronam, 

Fimplea dulcis! nil sine te mei 
prosunt honores: huno fidibus novis, 
hunc Lesbio saorare plectro 
teque tuasque decet sorores. 


Natis iii usuro lnetitia* scyphis 
pugnare Thracum est: tollit* barbftrum 
morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
eanguineis prohibete rUia I 
vino et lucernia Medus acinaces 
immane quantum discrepat: impium 
lenito clamorem, aodaies, 
et cubito remanetfl presaot 
voltis aeveri me quoque sumere 
partem Falerni f dicat Opunt ice 
frater Megillae, quo beatus 
volnere, qua pereat aagitta. 
cessat voluntasl non alia bibam 
mercede. quae te cunque domat Venus, 
non erubescondis adarit 
fgnibos ingonuoque nmper 
amore peccas. quidquid habes, age, 
depone tutis auribua. ah miser, 
quanta labonbai Charrbdi, 
digne puer maliore flammal 
quae saga, quis te aolveru Thett&lia 
magus veuenis, quis poterit deual 
vix illigatum te triformi 
Fegasns ezpediet Chimaera. 

CABMEN XJtVjin/* 7 ' "' ( 
maria[et tfnWe riimeWmue oarentis haVenae ' 
mensorem cohijorait, AJchyta, \ 

& ■» ~u .^MSBl V AfcA xxviii. , ,.^,87 

pu]Veri^ exi^i propejyt^lgarva "Matinuip V",'. 

v percuyrigse p"dGm, mdHturoT- ■»,„ ■' oj '■ ■(. 
ocffdil/et PelOpia genite^ contiTa u aeorum, ,„,.„.,■, 
> .TithqW«jue:retn'otu8 inJauraH- '■•*.'■■■■ 

et ldvisj arci^nIa^MjjB_a fflml s-tig, Mbentque 

'' Tgrtara /Pan_b.<"i_en i4Un^OAoj\^ ^»^-*; .» 
dennisnm, qdlifcty^ cWi weifeiP*~<--li£ v fM, 

nervoslalque MpBD moiji conceseefsjt [ atrao, "*V 
<.. w. '■">. lodtcel te aon|Bor_i-u_ Jauct_r-i~-v^I7 i 
- nftu__e .vi|riq-g. Bed' omnoe luna maWei. nox 15 

, et Mk& & ^vSiigti^T; «^W^ 

dant _H<Jb 'Furiae Effio s^eQ^CTSH.Marti : 
■ • -i«e_iti'o est avfdttm m_re!__uti_^' T i «; ; ,, 
mi_t_ simum ac iuyenum denjaentur \ funer a, ' 


me q„cxj_e "i_^cJl rapidna , ct_-es' , Qnaai- 

• lllvjjjjjfl. TsotiH^pbruit u_,'<fta . 21 aA 

_t tu; ■ „--<- .'," va™£'h'e parceTWligiius lntrSi 

' ^ f. _* !35__ ~t k "-**""** -i. "* - ~K^~^ 
^cSL '__r_ r_p_f ^Se m___.__f_.y8 

plec^t_r^(™e''_i iSSpiteTl rpMqui ! mitnni , 
, : ~u_-e"pOte_£*fc-i defluatfa"*2upv™> ■»4 

attlovg -Teptunoque $*£□. custod. 
negligifl.imm^i nocibiram^ 




poatmodo|tel «U| fraiJjiaia TOii^uitWie J | ffira "1 

te ma&jLt i£mr3^^Afi |1^« 
t«que macula^nulla re^lveMK v^Z^wJ 

, qu&mquam : fi-stjiifla. naa eat morayong»; lifebit m 

gaoa, et acrem militiam paraa 
non ante de»ictia Sabaeae 
regibus, horribilique Medo 
nectia oatenaal quae tibi virginura j 

aponao necato barbara aerviotl 

puer quin ex aul» oajyllja '/ ■***/ ? "*'' 

ad uyathuin Btatuetur uuctiB, 
doctua Mgittaa tendera Sericu 
arcu paternol quia negot arduis •■ 

pronoa relabi poau rivoe 
montibna et Tiberim rererti, 
cum tu ooemptoa undiqne nobilii 
libros Paaaeti Socr&ticam et domum 

mutavre loricia Hiberis, ij 

pollicitus meliora, tendist 
O Venoa, regina Onidi Paphique, 
eperne dilectam Cvpron, et vocantis 
tbure te multo Glyoerae deooram 
1 aedem. 



fervidus teoum puer et solutia 5 

Gratiaesonis properentque Nymphao 
et parum eomis aine te Iuventas 


Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem 
vatest quid orat de patera novum 
fandens liquoremt non opimae 
8ardiniae segetes feraces, 

non aeBtuosae grata Galabriae 5 

armenta, non aurum aut ebur Indicuxn, 
non rura, quae Liria quieta 
mordet aqua taciturnus amnis. 

premant Calena falce quibua dedit 
fortuna vitem, dives et aureis io 

mercator exsiccet culullis 
vina Syra reparata merce, 

dis carus ipsis, quippe tcr et quater 
anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 

impune. me pascunt olivae, 13 

me dchorea levesque malvac. 

frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latog, dones ot, precor, integra 
cum mente, nec turpem senectam 

degere nec cithara carentem. *> 


%a 3™M D - l ji- n l b iumbra 

i~1dbuu— i-KuwT et hunc in ajumm 

i^Tivat < i, aga, dio Ijj^nuEQ, 

- LibeitunH et Musaa Venereu-r ; et illi"t»*jj. 

sewper haaBilftein pueru »--\, wuVm 

et Lycum nigrJB qgtyliB ' [ue *---\ 

Jjnwj- criM^dwMn-m^- ,-. _-l \) 

dulce l eniroen , mihi ounque salve \ 
« /rite vocanti. ^nWm^ U-viJl. 

c^men xkxm. 

Albi, ihj dolaat plua nimio memor 
immitis Glycerae, oeu miserabiJes 
dec&ntee elegoe, cur tibi iunior t 

laesa praeniteat fide, 
in-£gnem tenui fronte Lyoorida 
Cyri torret amor, CyruB in asperau- 
decl-uat PholoCn; aed priua Apulie 

iungentur capreae lupia, 


quam turpi Pholoe* peooet adultera 
no viflum Veneri, oui plaoet impares *© 

formas atque animos sub iuga aenea 
saevo mittere oum iooo. 

ipsum me, melior oum peteret Venus, 
grata detinuit oompede Myrtale 
libertina, fretb aorior Hadriae 15 

curvantis Calabros sinua. 


Parcus deorum cultor et infrequens, 
inaanientis dum sapientiae 
consultus erro, nuno retrorsum 
vela dare atque iterare cursus 

cogor relictos: namque Diespiter, s 

igni corufioo nubila dividens 
plerumque, per purum tonantes 
egit equos voluoremque currum, 

quo bruta tellus et vaga flumina, 
quo Styx et invisi horrida Taenari 10 

sedes Atlanteusque finis 

ooncutitur. valet ima summis 

mutare et insignem attenuat deus 
obscura promens; hino apicem rapax 

Fortuna cum stridore acuto 13 

sustulit, hio posuisse gaudet. 



U diva, gratum quae regis Antiuui, 
praeaena vel imo tollere de grada 
mortale oorpus vel superboa 
vftrtere funeribus triumphos, 
te pauper ambit aollicita prece 
ruria colonus, te dominam aequoris, 
quicunqae Bithyna laeessil 
C&rpathium pelagus carina. 
te Dacua asper, te profugi Scythae 
urbesque gentesque et Latiurn ferox 
regumque matres barb&rorum et 
purpurei metuunt tyranni, 
s pede proruas 

lumnam, neu popuius frequena 
ad arma cessantes, ad arma 
concitet imperiumque frangat. 
te semper anteit aaeva Neoeaaitaa, 
clavoa trabaloa et ouneoB nuuiu 
gestana aena, nec severus 

tllicaa abost liquiciuuiquu plumbum. 
te Spes et albo rara Fidea oolit 
velata panno neo oomitem abnegat, 
atcunque mutate potentee 
veate domos inimica linquia. 
at volgUB iniidum et meretrix retro 
periura oedit, diffugiunt cadis 
ouui faece aicoatia amid 
farre loguni paritur dnioai. 


serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 
orbie Britannoe et iuvenum reoens 
examen Eois timendum 
partibus Ooeanoque rubro. 
elieu cicatricum et sceleris pudet 
fratrumque. quid noe dura refugimus 
aetast quid intactum nefasti 
liquimuet unde manum iuventus 
metu deorum continuitt quibu» 
pepercit ariat o utinam nova 
incude diffingas retusum in 
MassagetaB Arabasque ferrum! 


Et thure et fidibua iuvat 

placare et vituli sanguine debito 
custodes Numidae deos, 

qui nunc Hesperia sospes ab ultima 
caris multa sodalibus, 

nulli plura tamen dividit oecula 
quam dulci Lamiae, memor 

actae non alio rege puertiae 
mutataeque simul togae. 

Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, 
neu promptae modus amphorae, 

neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum, 
neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vincat amystide, 

P. H. ^> 


neu desint epulia rosae, 

neu rivax apium, neu breve liliuin. 
onines in Dam&lin putrea 

deponent oculos, nec Danmlis novo 
divelletur adultero 

luscivis bederie arobitiosior. 

„,,. , * nsnuww XXXVII. 

Nunc inc pcae libero 

piilGftrI(J lolinrib uB 

oriii- s£f , . 


la/BodsJes. " 

»,ri» t 

mere" Caecubum 

cellis a< 

■*.'rl[ii! ilHo '.' i. 

iijuorbq virormn, quiaiibet^impoteiiB 

speraffi fojjunaqup dnjci 'lv, i .; v " 
i 1 j. , ■ebria. sod minuit furorem , ,., '' 

UlL . . . .. •' V 

vuc una soapes iiavia sb lgnibUB, , 

( lnentemque lyniphatam H&reoticOki y.^ 
i '*. -rcdegit in veros tiinores ("jy >,.'. . 

Caeear, ab Italia Tolanteni .'* , < 
■» reiida aduigenp, aoaipiter velut- "'"' *. 
molife^colufioB. &t lipbtem cituj ^ ^l ' 
tj^ Twato r in cuopu nivalis rt.^w 
Hftemoniaei, daret ut oatenii 



fat^ monBtrnm: quao generi>si^ *<-«-,' 
T : penre quatorerifrneo muliebriter 7 ^ r#Mp 

-ojajae ^ttf reDftravitTofas. 


cUyJausa w f ]aoeA$cm ( 

vpjta ■ ereno , fortia etaBperas «^^ 
^traotare ser^ntes, ut atrum ty^ v 
<*i ^^jflP ^ oombiberet venenum, 
deUbepw ifiorte' ierocior^\ t . ' t > y } 




agevj^ I^urnja «alicet JnvidenaO' 4 *! 
privata dednci superbo ..« •_. '.""J ^V^ 
non humilis mnlier triumpho. ^** 

» • 

■* J 

t i 

* , V 


1 ■ A( 



Persicos odi, puer, apparatus, 
di8pueent nexag- pnilyra coronae; 
^ i : • mitte se&an, rjoga quo locorum 
:;sera. moretur.- V * .. 

* simplici myrto nihil allabores-- J -V y* 
^tv^^sedulus curo: neque te nnnistruni 
dedecet myrtufl neqfae me sub arta 
v\te. bibentem. ' '" 


'" ^ \i 

* n*. 1 






Motum ex Metello oonaale civicum 
belliqae causaa et vitia et modoe 
ludumque Fortunae gravesque 
prinoipum amicitiaa et arma 

nondum expiatii uncta cruoribua, 
periouloeae plenum opua aleae, 
tractaa et inoedia per ignes 
guppoaitoa oineri doloao. 

paullum aeyerae Moaa tragoediaa 
deait tbeatria: mox ubi publicaa r < 

rea ordinaria, grande munua 
Ceoropio repetea cothurno, 

inaigr estii praeeidiuin reU 

4« ti, Pollio, curiae, 

v a aeteruoe honorea 

aoo peperit triumpho. 
ian. linaci murmure eorauum 

peral aures, iam litiii strepunt, 

Iia >r armorum fugaces 

le voltus. 
Midi dnces 

non uulMaro puirare sorC ios, 
et oaneta terrarum sub :ta 

pnetet atrocem auimum CatonU. 
Iuno et deorum quisquU amicior 
Afria innlta oesterat irapotena 
tellure victornm nepotes 
rettnlh inferias lugurthae. 
: qni> nou Latino sanguine pinguior 
campna aenulorui impia proelia 
testatur audittunque Media 
\ Heeperiae aonitum rainael 

; qui gurgea aut quae flumina Ingubria 
'igaara bellit quod mare Dauniae 
i non deeoloravero eaedeal 
I quae caret ora cruore noetrot 
sed ne relictU, Muaa procax, iocia 
Ceae retraotea munera neniae : 
mecum Dionaeo aub antro 
quaere modos leviore plectro. 




Nullua argento oolor est avaris 
abdito terria, inimioe lamnae 
Crispe 8alusti, niai temperato 
splendeat usu. 

vivet extento Proeuleius aevo, $ 

notua in fratrea animi paterni; 
illum aget penna metuente aolvi 
fama superstes. 

latiua regnea avidum domando 
spiritum, quam n Libyam remotia » 

Gadibua iungaa et uterque Poenus 
serviat unl 

creaeit indulgens aibi dirus hydrops, 
neo aitim pellit, nid oausa morbi 
fugerit venia et aquosus albo 15 

oorpore languor. 

reddirum Cyri solio Phraaten 
diafddens plebi numero beatorum 
eximit Virtus populumque falsu 

dedooet uti •© 

vocibus, regnum et diadema tutum 
deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
quiaquis ingentes oculo inretorto 
spectat acervos. 


cedes et e^aij flcfc in "ftltum* 
. . di vi tiia potietur^herea.- |wv 
vdiVeffiLe £fiS&rn*tuj* ab InwJio, "" 
nil ia tewt, ui paupor ot infima i v -f>r v '- 
' de gente rab divo mornrii, tawV^ 
nctiiu» nil minnSufin Orci. ' 

- j^r-»-^ v 


~JW.»A likd. oariv. 
r Wvu \ . 

Vomnea eodem oqgimur, ommum 

soni exituiV>et nos in aeternu m ; 
exsilfjam) impositura oumbag. ^ • 

^^5 Wt. "^'•••i 


Ne rit anoillae tibi amor pudori, 
Xanthia Phooeu, prius insolentem 
serva Briseis niveo colore 
movit Aohillem; 

movit Aiaoem Telamone natum 5 

forma captivae dominum Tecmessae; 
arait Atrides medio in triumpho 
virgine rapta, 

barbarae poetquam oecidere turmae 
Thessalo victore et ademptus Hector 10 

tradidit fessis leviora tolli 
Pergama Grais. 

nesdaa an te generum beati 
Phyllidia flavae decorent parentes : 
regium certe genus et penates 15 

maeret iniquos. 

crede non illam tibi de scelesta 
plebe dilectam, neque sic fidelem, 
8ic lucro avenam potuisse naaci 

matre pudenda. *> 

— 1 V. 

,„,. i«S°" ^ 1 * 
Sood»» * ' o» c0O>I«» 
cerrioe. 1 * roeoti" 

AW-«"* «rio. » l0 ~- 

««rri-* -"* t 

P S»«. v* ™* L&, hi* 

1 *» ^*"*" Son.0 «•*-" 
lar* too"- ^ 


quem n puellarum insereres choro, 
mire sagaoes falleret hospitee 
discrimen obsourum eolatit 
crinibas ambigaoqae voltu. 


Septimi, Gades aditare mecam et 
Cantabrum indootam iaga ferre nostra et 
barbaras Syrtes, abi Maura aemper 
aestaat unda, 

Tibar Argeo poeitam oolono 5 

sit meae aedee utinam senectae, 
ait modus laaeo maria et viarum 
militiaeque ! 

unde ai Parcae prohibent iniquae, 
duloe pellitia ovibus Galaeei m> 

fluroen et regnata petam Laooni 
rura Phalantho. 

ille terrarum mihi praeter omnee 
angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
mella decedunt viridique certat 15 

baca Venafro; 

rer ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
Iuppiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
fertili Bacoho minimum Falernis 

invidet uvis. «0 


m locua et beatae 
cea; ibi tu calentem 
ea lacrima, faTillam 

m ttltimutn 

dedi Lunto i ■ d i, 

' redoiwit Vun im 
H putriis Italoque caelo, 
1 Pompei meonim prime sodalinm, 
cnm quo mornntein saepe diem mero 
fregi coronatu» nitente* 

malobathro Svrio oapilloal 
tecum Philippoa et oelenm fugam 
sensi reliota noa bene pajmula, 
cum fracta Tirtua et minaeea 
turpe aolum tetigere mento. 
aed me par hoatea Hercurina celer 
denso paventem ■uatulit aere ; 
te nirsus in bellnm reaorbena 
undt, fretis tulit aeatnona. 
ergo obligatnm redde Iovi dnpem 
longaque feannm militia latus 
depone nib Innrn mea neo 
parce oadia tibi deatinatia. 


oblivioso levia Massioo 
ciboria exple; funde capaeibus 
ungaenta de oonchis. quifl udo 
deproperare apio ooronas 

curatve myrtol qnem Venu* arbitrum *$ 
dioet bibendil non ego sanius 
baochabor Edonis: reoepto 
duloe mihi furere est amico. 


UUa si inris tibi peierati 
poena, Barine, nooniBset unquam, 
dente si nigro fieree vel nno 
turpior ungui, 

crederem. sed tu, simul obligasti 5 

perfidom votia caput, enitescis 
pulchrior multo iuvenumque prodis 
publica cura. 

expedit matris oineres opertos 
fallere et toto taciturna noctis 10 

signa cum caelo gelidaque divos 
morte carentes. 

ridet hoc, inquam, Venus ipea, rident 
simplice8 Nymphae, ferus et Cupido 
semper ardentes acuens sagittas 15 

cote cruenta. 

>«- _«• <*»*■ ... »* 

C4 RW>«- 


*"£a°T.°>* w ' ! '" 

LIB. IL CAR. X. 47 

flevere eemper. denne mollium 
tandem querellarum, et potius nova 
omtemus Augusti tropaea 

Caesaris et rigidum Niphaten, *» 

Medumque flumen gentibus additum 
rictis minores volvere verticea, 
intraque praescriptum Gelonos 
exiguis equitare campis. 


Rectius vives» Licini, neque altum 
semper urgondo neque, dum prooellas 
cautus horrescis, nimium 'premendo 
litus iniquum. 

auream quisquis mediocritatem 5 

diligit tutus, caret obsoleti 
sordibu8 teeti, caret invidenda 
sobrius aula. 

soepius ventis agitatur ingens 
pinus et celsae graviore casu to 

decidunt turres feriuntque summos 
fulgura montes. 

sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
pectus. informes hiemes rsducit J5 

Iuppiter, idem 

«08* 11 i« iw» ' _ 

•»*■*. «8*»*" «t »<"** . 


potamua uncti! dissipat Euius 
curas edaoes. quia puer ocius 
reBtinguet ardentis Falerni 
pocula praetereunte lymphat ao 

quis devium scortum eliciet domo 
Lydenf eburna, dic age, cum lyra 
maturet in comptum Lacaenae 
inore comas religata nodura. 


Nolis longa ferae bella Kumantiae 
nec dirum Hannibalem nec Siculum mare 
Poeno purpureum aanguine mollibus 
aptari citharae modis, 

nec saevos Lapithas et nimium mero $ 

Hylaeum domitosque Herculea manu 
telluris iuvenes, unde periculum 
fulgens contremuit domus 

Saturni veteris; tuque pedestribus 
dices historiis proelia Oaesaris, 10 

Maecenas, meliiui duotaque per vias 
regum colla minacium. 

me dulces dominae Musa Licymniae 
cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 
fulgentes oculos et bene rautuis 13 

fidum pectus amoribus ; 

ph. 4 

qjusp .-ri-o pedem dedecuit ehori» 

) iooo nec dare brachi». 

tidia virginibu* sacro 

le celebrin die. 
a" se tenuit dives AdiuimenM 

W Phrygiae Mygdonias opee 

pi elis crine Licymniae, 

a aiit Arohiim domoat — ; 

dmn d cecula 

ccrvicera eut facili saeviti» negat, 
411*0 poscente magis gauc at eripi, 
interdura rapere occupet. 


->rilg. et inmtO te poauit SS, ly 
— quicunque primjum, _et aacrilegi niann 
. _. produxit, arboa^ in_ uepotunu. ^ c i4tt ,, 
, ,^ A -pernici^nf;. opprobrinnique pagjj '• r 
J illum et paxentiB eredidorim atti. s j lt( , t, 
j-fregiaae oeWI&ML at peuetrali».^ 

BparsisM dbcturao, cruore-^' :-, ( j'* '-tt», 

"bodpitis; ille vejieijj,*" C-oIcla, 

et quiaquid uequani odncipitur tMai'"-: 

_. tractavit, ajjro qui statuitrfnoo Ar ■.,., ■_.. 

te triste lignn m, tt^gt dngu» -. > i , | 

jpTd pinini eaput immerenti*. '' L '!.l. 

^■«Mailw^iiigSti* et celerem fugain- yi;, * 


Parthi, «-tfri* Partlma et Italum ^ 
i»A robur ;. acl MSBffl P NftT"! ■*•»! 

qkfgg^ &»» r^ftW 'P rjtaerpinae ' 

et iuSiiwt4ro HMI Aeacum 
■■■■■ 'sedeBqile <ljffirKtts |.ioru"in 'ef.~ ,v *- 

^eojjia 4jj1^i^ querentem- V.*"* 1 - ■— • 
Sapph o PQjjuJaribus, I ' 1*4 <\* j .» <>j 
et te_eo^^^^leMDj»r^^-™^ t \|i\ 

dnra fijgSSnftla, duta bellij.,, 
utruirtque gafcro diimff* wientio ' ' *' ■ ■ ., ■■■ 
-mirantur nmbne dioere; eed tiiagin._ t , r *. 
pugn» et «_t^fti* 7 | tyrani.0H 

deitofinV - itjHln*. 'frjff? *p" x olgue . ' 
"quid minifi-.; ubi il)i| canuioibufl ■tapetai 1 
detnittit atra* bSlttiftoentioepe ■. ., - '**' 
a nrea et ijjtftrir cap_lfi_i"- Y"'. ' ' *« 
Eui&eniif&tn »©VdtAfflr KBjge?! v 
quin et Proraetheu» et Pelopis parraa > 
duloi lftborun. ' decipit flf aono ; 
neo curat" Orion leocea .■.-/■- 

aut t imid oa agitare l ynca a. «. 






?<»»»"• „„,»» 

no». » : tor »» P 

W «w »Jo™° _»«■, 

s»«»r..M" ui » ,*? , *^*„, 

LIB. II. CAR. XV. ft3 

absumet heres Caecuba dignior a 3 

servata oentum clavibus et mero 
tinget pavimentum superbo, 
pontificum potiore oenis. 


Iam pauca aratro iugera regiae 
moles relinquent, undique latius 
extenta visentur Lucrino 

stagna lacu, platanusque caelebs 

evincet ulmos; tum violaria et a 

niyrtua et omnis oopia narium 
spargent olivetia odorem 
fertilibus domino priori; 

tum Bpiasa ramia laurea fervidos 
excludet ictus. non ita Romuli «* 

praeacriptum et intonai Catonia 
auspiciis veterumque norma. 

privatua illis oenBua erat brevis, 
commune magnum: nulla decompedis 

metata privatis opacam 13 

porticus excipiebat Arcton, 

noc fortuitum spernere caespitem 
leges sinebant, oppida publico 
sumptu iubentes et deorum 

templa novo deoorare saxa « 




otium po11 

0,30 \iot Eu«- 


laetus in praasens animus quod ultra est t$ 
oderit curare et amara lento 
temperet riiiu; nihil est ab omni 
parte beatum. 

abstulit clarum oita mora Achillem» 
longa Tithonum minuit senectus, 3» 

et mihi forsan, tibi quod negarit, 
porriget hora. 

te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
inugiunt vaccae, tibi tollit hinnitum 
apta quadrigis equa, te bis Afro )5 

murioe tinctae 

vestiunt lanae : mihi parva rura et 
spiritum Graiae tenuem Oamenae 
Parca non mendax dedit et maliguum 

spernere volgus. 40 


Cur me querellis ezanimas tuist 
nec dis amicum est uec mihi te prius 
obire, Maecenas, mearuin 

grande decus columenque rerum. 

ah te meae si partem auimae rapit 
maturior via, quid uioror altera, 
ncc carus aeque nec supcrstes 
iuteger? ille dies utrauique 

fO0ff t 






Non cbur neque aureum 

mea renidet in domo lacunar, 
non trabes Hymettiae 

premunt oolamnu altima redsas 

Africa, neque Attali s 

ignotus heres regiam occupavi, 
nec Laconicas mihi 

trahunt honestae purpuras clientae 

at fides et ingeni 

benigna vena est, pauperemque dives ie 
me petit; nihil supra 

deos lacesso neo potentem amicum 
largiora flagito, 

satis beatua unicis Sabinis. 
truditur dies die, 15 

novaeque pergunt interire lunae; 

tu Recanda marmora 

locas sub ipsum funus et sepulcri 
immemor struis domos 

marisque Baiis obstrepentis urges to 

summovere litora, 

parum locuples continente ripa. 
quid, quod usque prozimos 

reyellis agri terminos et ultra 


limit» elieritir 


italia avi 

I pellitur pateraos 

in sinu t 


et uzoi 

i-ir sordidosque natoe. 

uulla, ce 



fiue destinata 


her " ' equa tellua 

paupen re 

regumque pi , nec w» i Oroi 
callidum PromnuiDa 

re»exit auro captus. hic superbum 
Tantaiutn atque Tantoli 

genua coSrcet, hic levare functum 
panperem laboribus 

vocatuu atque non vocatus audit. 


Baoohum in retuotis carmina rupibui 
vidi docentem — eredite posteri — 
nymphasque disoentea et aures 
caprii>edum Ektyrorum acutaa. 
euoe, reoenti mena trepid&t metu 
plenoque Bacchi peotore turbidum 
laet&tur. euoe, paroe Liber, 
parce, gravi metuende tbyrto! 

LIB. n. CAR. XIX. 59 

fas pervicaoee est mihi Thyiadas 
vinique fontem, lactis et uberes «o 

cantare rivos atque truncis 
lapaa cavis iterare mella; 

fas et beatae coniugis additum 
stellii honorem tectaque Penthei 

dirieota non leni ruina, »s 

Thracis et exitium LyourgL 

tu flectia amnes, tu mare barbarum, 
tu separatis uvidus in iugis 
nodo cofirces viperino 

Bistonidum aine fraude crines: *> 

tu, oum parentis regna per arduum 
cohors Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhoetum retorsisti leoni* 
unguibus horribilique mala; 

quamquam choreis aptior et iocis t$ 

ludoque dictua non sat idoneus 
pugnae ferebaris: sed idem 
jiacis eras mediusque bellL 

te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
cornu decorum, leniter atterens 30 

caudaui, et recedentis trilingui 
ore pcdcs tetigitque crura. 




ec tenui ferar 


! per liquidum aethera 
.- in terris morabor 


nrbea ren 


Bnngni» p 

,n, non qi em vocu, 

iam iani reaid iribua asperae 

pellee, et album umtor in alitom 
superne, nucunturque leves 
per digitOB mnerosque plumae. 
iaui Daed&leo uotior Icaro 
viaam gementis litora Boapori 
ajrrteeque GaetuUe oanorua 
alea Hyperbcreosque oampos. 
me Colohna et qni dissimolst metum 
Mareae cohortis Dacw et ultimi 
nosoent Geloni, me peritne 
disoet Hiber Rhodanique potor. 
abeint inani funere neniae 
luctuaque turpes et qnerimoniae ; 
oompesce clamorem ac aepulcri 
mitto BUpervacuos honores. 





Odi profanum volgus et arceo; 
fevete linguie: carmina non priuB 
audita Musarum aaoerdon 
virginibus puorisque cauto. 

regum timendorum in proprios gregefi, s 

rege* in ipsoe imperium est lovia 
clari Qiganteo triumpho» 
cuncta Bupercilio moventis. 

eat, ut viro vir latius ordinet 
arbu8ta sulcis, hio generoeior 10 

descendat in Oampum petitor, 
moribuH hic raeliorque fama 

uontendat, illi turba clientium 
■t maior qua lege Necessitas 
•ortitn] ■;:,,-■, et imos; 

*x movet urna nomen. 

dertriot s cui super impia 

cerric , non Sicuke dapes 

dnl iiraKunt saporem, 

WDHuiu ^reBliura 

lenis virurut- — «■ uuu dc noi 
fastidit ' iil, 

ncn Zcjmi .^ ■ 1 pe. 

desiderantem quoa setis est neque 
tumultuonun Bollicitat marc, 
nec imtiii Arcturi cadentis 
impetui aut orientis Haedi, 
non verberatae grendine vineae 
fundusque mendax, arbore nuno aquas 
colpante, nunc torrentia agroe 
sidera, num: hiemes iniqnas. 
contracta piscea aeqaora sentiant 
iactis in altum molibua; huc frequeoa 
eaemenU demittit redemptor 
cum famulia dominusque terrae 
fastidiosus, sed Timor et Hinae 
scandunt eodem, quo dominua, neqne 
decedit aerata triremi et 

poet equitem sedot atra Cura. 

LIB. III. CAR. II. 03 

quod si dolentem nec Phrygius lapis 
neo purpurarum sidere clarior 
delenit uaus neo Falerna 

vitda Achaemeniumque oostum, 

cur invidendis postibus et novo «s 

Bublime ritu moliar atriumt 
cur valle permutom Sabina 
divitias operoeiorest 


Angustam amice pauperiem pati 
robustua acri militia puer 
condiscat et Partbos feroces 
vexet eques metuendus hasta 

vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat $ 

in rebus. illum ex moenibus hosticis 
matrona bellantis tyranni 
prospiciens et adulta virgo 

suspiret, eheu, ne rudis agminum 
sponsus lacessat regius asperum 10 

tactu leonem, quem cruenta 
per medias rapit ira caedes. 
dulce et decorum est pro patria mori: 
mors et fugaoem persequitur virum, 

nec parcit imbellis iuventae 13 

poplitibus timidoque tergo. 

virtus repulsae nescia Bordidw 
Lntaminatis fulget honoribus, 
nec rniDiit aut ponit securea 
arbitrio popularU aurae. 
virtus recludeua immeritia Diori 
caelum negata tentat iter via, 
coetusque volgures et udam 
spem iente |ienii 

est et fide o 

merces : vetabo, qui Cereris sacrui 
volgaiii arcanae, aub iadem 
sit trabibus fragilemve meoiui 
solvat pbaselon ; saepe Diespiter 
neglectuH incesto addidit integruiii 
raro antecedentem scetestum 
deseriiit pede Poena claudo. 


luBtum et teuHcem propoaiti virum 

nou civium ardor prava iubentium, 

non voltus inatantis tyranni 

mente quatit solida neque Auiter, 
dux inquieti torbidns Hadriae, 
nec fulminantis magna manus Iovii; 
td fractua illabatur orbis, 
impavidum ferient rumae. 

. + 


hao arte Pollux et vagus Heroulee 
eniaus eroes attigit igneea, w 

quos inter Augustus recumbens 
purpureo bibit ore neotar. 

hae te mexentem, Beoehe pater, tuae 
vexere tigree indooili iogam 
oollo trahentee; heo Quirinua *$ 

Mertu equis Aoheronta 1 ugit, 

gratum eloouta oonailiantibua 
Iunone divis: Hion, Uion 
fatalis inoestusque iudex 
et mulier peregrina rertit *> 

in pulverexn, ex quo deetituit deoe 
mereede paota Laomedon, mihi 
oastaeque damnatum Minervae 
eum populo et duoe fraudulento. 

iam neo Laoaenae splendet adulterae »j 

famoeue ho8pee neo Priami domua 
periura pugnaoee Aohivos 
Heotoreia opibua refringit, 

nostrisque duotum seditionibus 
bellum resedit. protinus et gravee jo 

irat et invisum nepotem, 

Troica quem peperit sacerdoe, 

Marti redonabo; illum ego lucidas 
inire sedee, ducere nectaris 

8UC08 et adacribi quietis 35 

ordinibus patiar deorum. 

p.u. .6 

dnm lonftis initer saeviat llion 



itus, qualibet eiBulea 


nanto beati ; 


ni Paridisque buato 


ttini et catuloa ferae 

oelen- . 

stet Capitolium 


ophatiaque poagit 





extet u. 


jua medtua Iiquor 

eecernit I 

>pen ab Afro, 



ua rigat irva Nilua, 

aurum irrepertum et sic melius situra, 
cum tcrra oelat, spernere fortior 
quam cogere bumanoa in ubus 
omne sacrum rapiente dextra. 
quicuuque mundo tenninu» obrtitit, 
hunc t&nget armia, viaere gestieii*, 
qna parta debaochentnr ignee, 
qua nebulae pluviiqne rorea. 
sed belliooaiB fata Quiritibna 
hac lege dico, ne niminm pii 
rubuaque fidentes avitae 
tecta velint reparare Troiae. 
Troiae renascena alit* lugubri 
fortuna triati olade iterabitnr, 
ducento vietricee oatervaa 
coniuge me lovia et aorore. 

LIB. nL GAS. IV. 67 

ter d resurgat murus ataeus 6$ 

auotore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
excisus Argivis, ter uxor 
capta virum puerosque ploret 

non lioo ioooeae oonveniet lyrae: 
qno, Musa, tendisf deaine pervicux ^» 

referre sermones deorum et 
magna modia tenuare parvis. 


Desoende caelo et dio age tibia 
regina longum Oalliope meloe, 
seu voce nunc mavis aouta, 
seu fidibus dtharaque Phoebi. 

auditis, an me ludit amabilis s 

insaniat audire et videor pios 
errare per lucos, amoenae 

quos et aquae subeunt et aurac. 

me fabulosae Volture in Apulo 
altrici8 extra limen Apuliae (0 

ludo fatigatumque somno 

fronde nova puerum palifmbes 

texere, uiirum quod foret ouinibus, 
quicunque celsae nidum Acherontiae 

saltusque Bantinos et arvum ti 

pingue tenent humilis Forenti, 


\\t tuto ab atris corpore viperis 


ibib, ut premerer aaoru 


Utaque myrto, 


din animosuB iufuns. 

" 5? 

veater, Ua 

le, veeter in arduos 

tollor Si 

eeu mihi frigidum 


iu Tibur Bupinum 

vostris am< „.1B 

non me PhilippU vorta acies retro, 
devota non exstinxit arbos, 
nec Sicula Psliuurus unda. 
utcunque mecum vcs eritU, Ubeni 
insanientem navita liosporum 
tentabo et urentes haienas 
litoris Aasyrit viator ; 
vissm Britannoa hoapitibu* fcros 
et laetum equino «angnine Oonctnnm, 
visam pharetratoa Gelonos 
et Scjthioum inviolatni amnem, 
voe O&eamrem altum, militia aimnl 
fessaa oohortos addidit oppidia, 
finire quaerentem laboree 
Pierio rocreatis antro. 
voa lene oonsilinm et tUtU et duto 
gftudetU alma». idnnu, ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmam 
fnlmine tuatulerit caduco, 


qui terram inertem, qui mare temperat «s 
ventosum, et urbes regnaque tristia 
divosque morteieique turbas 
imperio regit unus aequa 

magnum illa terrorem intulerat Iovi 
fidens iuTentus horrida brachiis, 50 

fratresque tendentes opaoo 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 

sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
aut quid minaoi Porphyrion statu, 

quid Rhoetus evolsisque truncis 55 

Enceladus iaoulator audax 

oontra sonantem Palladis aegida 
possent ruentesf hino avidus stotit 
Volcanus, hino matrona Iuno et 
nuuquain umetis positurus arcum, 60 

qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
crines solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apolla 

via consili expers mole ruit sua: 65 

vim temperatam di quoque provehunt 
in maius; idem odere vires 
omne nefas animo moventes. 

testis mearum centimanus Gyas 
sententiarum, notus et integrae 70 

tentator Orion Dianae, 
virginea domitus sagitta. 



iniaota moi 

■ Tem dolet suis 


,u« fulmine lnridum 


rcum ; nec peredit 




celer ignis Aetnam, 
eo Tityi iecur 


raliqnit p*. 

oquitia* odditus 


orem treoentae 



Oselo tonantem credidimus Iovem 


ragnue : praesens dh-ua habebitur 


adioctia Britannis 


gravibusque Persia. 

niileene Craaai ooniuge barbara 
turpia maritoa vixit et hoatium — 
pro curia inveraiquo mores! — 
oonaenuit ■oceroram in armis 
aub rege Medo Utnu et Apalua, 
andlionim et nomiuis et togae 
oblitus aaternaeque Veatae, 
inoolumi Iove et urbe BomaJ 
hoc caverat mena pnmda RogoJi 
dissentientis oondicionibns 
foedis et axemplo trahentig 
pemiciem veuiens in aevam, 

LIB. IIL CAR. V. 7i 

n non periret immiaerabilis 
captiva pubes. signa ego Punicis 
adfixa deluhris ei arma 
militibus aine oaede, dixit, *> 

derepta vidi; vidi ego civium 
rutorta tergo braehia libero 
portatque non olausaa et arva 
Marte ooli populata nostro. 

auro repensus scilket aerior >s 

miles redibit flagitio additis 
damuum: ncque amissos oolores 
lana refert medicata fuco, 

ueo vera virtiis, oum semel oxcidit, 
curat reponi deterioribus. y> 

si pugnat extricata densis 
cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

qiii perfidis se credidit hostibtis, 
et Marte Poenos proteret altero, 

qui lora restriotis laoertis 3$ 

sensit inera timuitque mortcm. 

liic, unde vitam sumeret inscius, 
(wcem duello miscuit o pudor ! 
o magna Karthago, probrosis 

altior Italiae ruinis! 40 

fertur pudicae ooniugis osculum 
parvosque natos ut capitis minor 
ab se removisse et virilem 
torvus humi posuisse voltum : 

donec lubtmtea consiiio patres 
tinuaret ■ I uuuquam alian dato, 

inta erentes amicos 

i'ts jroperaret exsul. 

nt.]iii siriec (aae sibi barb&rai 
lortor para ; non aliter taraen 
dimov bantOB propinquoe 

et pbj itos l ein, 

quaui si clii nga negotia 

diiudicata lito rennqueret, 
teudena Venafranos in agroa 
aut Lacedaemoniutn Tarentum. 


Delicta inaiornin immeritua luea, 
Romane, doneo templa refooeria 
aedeaque labeutea deorum et 
foeda ingro aimnlaora fumo. 
dis te minnrem quod geria, iraperaa: 
hinc omne prinoipium, Iiuc refer exituin. 
di multa negleoti dedernnt 
Heaperiae mala lnctuosaa. 
iam bia Monaeaea et Faoori manua 
non auspicatoa oontndit iropetua 
noatroa et aiiinniant praedam 
torquibua exignia renidet 


paene oooupatam seditionibus 
delovit Urbem Daeus et Aetbiops» 
bio classe formidatos, ille i$ 

missilibas melior sagittis. 
fecanda oalpae aaecala naptias 
primom inqoinavere et genua et domos; 
boc fonte derivata elades 

in patriam popolomqae fluxit ao 

motus dooeri gaudet Ionicos 
matura virgo et fingitur artibus; 
iam nuno et inoestoa amores 
de tenero meditatur ungui; 

mox iuniores quaerit adulteroa 15 

inter mariti vina, neque eligit 
cui donet impermiasa raptim 
gaudia luminibus remotis; 

sed iu8sa coram non aine oonscio 
suigit marito, seu vooat institor 30 

seu navis Hispanae magister, 
dedecorum pretiosus emptor. 

non bis iuventus orta parentibus 
infecit aequor sanguine Punico, 

Pyrrhumque et ingentem oecidit 33 

Antiocbum Hannibalemque dirum ; 

sed ru8ticorum mascula militum 
proles, Sabellis doota ligonibus 
versare glebas et severae 

matris ad arbitrium recisos «o 

jKirlare fustee, sol ubi moutiura 
mutaret u et iuga demeret 

bobuH itts, amicum 

t gens abeunte curru, 

damnosa t non imminait diesT 
aet&s pe a peior avia tulit 

uos ii «s, moz daturce 


Quid fles, Asterie, quem tibi candidi 
primo restiluent vere Favonii 

Tbjoa meree beatum, 

, cousumtis iuvenem tide, 
Uygenl ille Kotii aotus ad Orioum 
post inaana Caprae aidera frigidaa 

noctM non nn« multia 
inlfllnnil lacrimis agit 
atqui soUioitae nuatiu» hoepit*ti, 
su&pirare Cliloijn et miseram tuir 

dioans igniboa uri, 

tentat mille vafer modis. 
ut Proetum molier perfida credulum 
fnlaia impulerit oriminibuBt t»"»'? 

casto Bellerophonti 

inaturare ueoeni, refert. 


narrat paene datum Pelea Tartaro, 
Magnetm Hippolyten dnm fngit abstinena; 
et peooare dooentet 

fallax historias movet » 


frustra: nam eoopulis turdior Icari 
vooee aodit adhuo integer. — at tibi 
ne vicinus Enipeua 
plus iuato placeat, oave; 

quamvia non alina fleotere equum sciens »5 
aeque oonapioitnr gramine Martio, 
nec quiaquam oitus aeque 
Tuaco denatat alveo. 

prima noote domum claude neque in vias 
eub cantu qnerulae deepiee tibiae, y> 

et te aaepe vocanti 
duram difficilis mane. 


Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
quid velint flores et acerra thuris 
plena, miraris, poaituaque carbo in 
caespite vivo, 

docte sermones ntrinaque linguaet 
voveram dnlces epulas et album 
Libero caprum prope funeratus 
arboris ictu. 


hio diee i 

mno redeuDte featus 


rictuin pice dimovobit 



mm bibera institutae 
uie Tuilo. 


1:13, cyathos iimii.i 

■ocpitu c 

m et vigiles lucerstui 

ptrfor in 

■iii : prooul omnis esto 
t ira. 


mitte civ 

ocoidit Daa uounooii agmeo, 

Modat infcstuB sibi luotuosis 

disaidet armia, 


■orrit Hiipui&e vetus hoetis orao 


aem domitus catena, 

iam Scytlme laxo meditantur arcu 

cedere campis. 

noglegena, ne qua populua la.boret, 
paroo privatw nimiiim eaToro ; 
dona. pneeentU cape Uetua horae et 
linque aovera. 


Doneo gratua eram tibi 

nec quisquam potior brachia oandidae 
oervici iuvenis dabat, 

Persarum vigui rege beatior. 

LIB. IIL OAR. X. 77 

donao non alia magia 3 

arsiati neque erat Lydia post Chloen, 

multi Lydia nominis 
Romana vigui clarior Uia. 

me nuno Thressa Ohloe* regit, 

duloes doota modoe et oitharae sciens, 10 
pro qua non metnam mori, 

ai paroent animae fata superstiti. 

me torret faoe mutua 

Thurini Calafs filius Orayti, 
pro quo bia patiar mori, 15 

si paroent puero fata superstitL 

quid, ai priaoa redit Venus 

diduotoeque iugo oogit aeneo, 
ai flava excutitur OhloS 

reiectaeque patet ianua Lydiaef m 

quamquam aidere pulchrior 

ille est, tu levior oortioe et improbo 
iracundior Hadria, 

tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens. 


Extremum Tanain ai biberes, Lyce, 
saevo nupta viro, me tamen aaperas 
porrectum ante foree obiicere inoolia 
plorarea Aquilonibus. 


tiuilis. ono BliBfiitn imnia, quo nemus 


aatum tecta ramugiat 


tas ut glaeiet nives 


line Inppiterl 


eri poue superbiam, 

ne ou... 

ttro funis eat rota. 

non w 

ipen difficilem procis 

o quamvi ie munc «c preccs 

nec tinotut vioia pallor amantiura 
nec vir Pierii pelliee sancius 

curvat, supplioibuB tuis 
parcas, neo rtgidn mollior neaculo 
ncc Mauria animum mitior iingmmis. 
non hoc semper erit liminis aut aquse 

caeleetis patieni) latue. 


Mercuri, — nam te doailia msgistro 
movit Ampbion lapidee canendo, — 
tuque teetudo resonare eeptem 

callida nervis, 
neo loquax olim neqne grate, nuno et 
divitnm memua et aroica templia, 
dic modoe, Lyde qnibnt obstinataa 

applioet anrea, 

LIB. m. CAR XI. 79 

quae velut latis equa triina campis 
ludit exsultim metoitqne tangi, 10 

nuptiarum expers et adhuo protervo 
cruda marito. 

tu potcs tigres oomitesque nlvai 
ducere et rivos oeleree morari; 
cesait immania tibi blandienti 15 

ianitor aulae, 

Cerberus, quamvia furiale eentum 
muniant angues caput eius atque 
spiritus teter aanieaque manet 

ore trilingui. «> 

quin et Izion Titjoaque voltu 
riait invito» stetit urna paullum 
aicoa» dum grato Danai puellas 
carmine mulces. 

audiat Lyde scelus atque notas *$ 

virginum poenas et inane lymphae 
dolium fundo pereuntis imo, 
seraque fata, 

quae manent oulpas etiam sub Orco. 
impiae, — nam quid potuere maiust — y> 

impiae sponsos potuere duro 
perdere ferrol 

una de multis face nuptiali 
digna periurum fuit in parentem 
splendide mendax et in omne virgo 3$ 

nobilis aevum, 


surge. iiim dixit iuveni marito, 
BUrf! loogUB tibi somnu», unde 

iion a, detur; aocerum et Bcelettos 

1 1*3 BOrores, 
quae velut nsicUc vituloa leaenae 
tingulos ebeu laoerant : ego illis 
mollior eo te feriam nequo iutra 

austra teuebo. 
me pater aeret &>,~nis, 

quod viro ciemena miiero peperci; 
me vel extremos Numidarum in agroR 

classc releget. 
i, pedes quo te rapiunt et aurae, 
dum favet nox et Venus, i secundo 
omine et nostri memorem sepulcro 
scalpe querellam. 

\ ,.,„OABMBK XIL' ,» 

Miseramin, est neqvtn amori dare ludum neque djilci 

mala vinojavere, «Si'1aaniin«ivmotuoi»to« Kr -, : -.. t 

tibi .qujajunr Cythereae puer aloa, tibi tnilaa.- k<m 
Qpewj& eqne Minervw .slfflflfim' aufert, Neobule, * 
,', .',)" »,I4oaraei hftor Hgbri, ■^V« b *" , *'*' , i* > . 
i «imliT n^c^^flbSruiS omaroa, Iavft in uncEu, 
equei inao melior Bajlorophont e, netifue 1 - pugno 
neque segni pede vjctus ; " *j ,-. t ,, 
1 , oW7u 


. j-Ji . 


catus idein per apertum fugiep jflB agyj*jp 10 

^ *** r^i V 


O fons Banduaiae, splendidior vitro, 
duld digne mero non nne floribus, 
cras donaberia haedo, 
cui frons turgida cornibus 

primis et venerem et proelia deetinat; 9 

fruatra: nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
rubro sanguine rivoe 
lascivi suboles gregis. 

te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
nescit tangere, tu frigus amabile 10 

fessis vomere taurls 
praebes et peoori vaga 

fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
mo dicente cavis impositam ilioem 

saxis, unde loquaces n 

lymphae desiliunt tuae. 


Uerculis ritu modo dictus, o plebs, 
morte venalem petiisse laurum 
Caesar Hispana repetit Penates 
victor ab ora. 

p.n. 6 


unico gaudens mtilier marito 
prodeat iustis operata sacris, 
et Eioror clari ducis et decorno 

snpplice vitta 
virgioum matree iuvenumque nujier 
sospitum. vos, o pueri et puellae 
iam viruro expertae, male ominatis 

parcite verbis. 
hio diea vere mihi featua atru 
oximet curaa; ego nec tumultum 
ncc mori per vim metuam tenente 

C&esare terras. 
i, peto unguentum, puer, et corunas 
et cadum Marai ineinorem duelli, 
Spartacum ai qua potuit vagautem 

fallere terta, 
dio et argutae properet Neaerae 
murrheum nodo cohibere crinem ; 
■i per invisum mor» ianitorein 

fie t, abito, 
lenit albeacena animoe oapillua 
litintn et rixae oupidoa protervae; 
non ego hoc ferrem calidus iuveuta 

oouauto Planco, 

L1B. III. CAR. XV. XVL 83 


Uxor pauperis Ibyoi, 

tandem nequitiae fige modum tuae 
famoaiaque laboribus: 

maturo propior deaine funeri 

inter ludere virgines s 

et Btellis nebulam spargere candidis. 

non, n quid Pholotin satis, 

et te, Chlori, deoet: filia rectius 

expugnat iuvenum domos, 

pulso Thyias uti ooneita tympano. 10 

illaui oogit amor Nothi 

lascivae sirailem ludere capreae : 

te lanae prope nobilem 

tonsae Luceriam, non citharae deoent 
nec flos purpureus roaae 15 

neo poti vetulam faece tenus cadL 


Inolusam Danaen turris aenea 
robustaeque fores et vigilum canum 
tristes exoubiae munierant satis 
nocturnis ab adulteris, 

G— 2 

si non Acrisiuiu virginis abditao 
custodem dum Iupplter et Venua 

risissent ) eniiu tutum iter et pstens 

con in pretium deo. 

aurum pe jdioe ire satellites 
et pemimpere aniat snxa potentius 
ictu fulroineo : concidit auguris 

Argi ) 

deniarsa i diffidit n 

poriaa vir Macedo et «ubruit aemuloe 
isgwi muneribus; munera navium 

asevoa illaqueant ducea. 
crcsceatem sequitur oura pecuniam 
niaiorumque funes. itire perhorrui 
!ate conspicuum tollere verticem, 

Maecenas, equitum decus. 
quanto qnisquu sibi plura negaverit, 
ab dis plur» feret: nil cupieutium 
nudua cartra peto et transfug* divitum 

partes linquero geatio, 
contemptae dominns aplendidior rel, 
quam ai quidquid arat impiger Apulua 
occultsre meis dicerer horreis, 

magnas inter opea inops. 
purae rivus aquae silvaque iugerum 
pauoorum et segetis certa» fides meae 
fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae 

taJlit sorte beaiiur. 


quamquam neo Oalabrae mella ferunt apes 
neo Laeatrygonia Baoohus in amphora 
languesoit mihi neo pinguia Oallioin 35 

oreeount vellera poscuis, 

importuna tamen pauperies abest, 
nec, si plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
contraoto melius parva oupidine 

Teotigalia porrigam, 4 o 

quam si Mygdoniis regnuin Alyattei 
eampis oontinuem. multa petentibus 
desunt multa : bene est, oui deus obtulit 
parca, quod satb est, manu. 


Aeli vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, — 
quando et priores hino Lamias ferunt 
denominatos et nepotum 
per memores genus omne fastos; 

auctore ab illo ducis originem, $ 

qui Formianim moenia dicitur 
princeps et innantem Maricae 
litoribus tenuisse Lirim 

late tyrannus : — cras foliis nemus 
multis ot alga litus inutili ic 

demissa tempestas ab Euro 
sternet, aquae nisi fallit augur 

nnuosa ooruix. dum potU, ariduin 
conipone Lignuni ; craa Qenium mero 
curabia et porco bimestri 

oum famulis opornm solutifl. 


Faune, Nytnpharum fugientum amator, 
per meos finea et aprica rura 
lenis inceda» abeasque parvis 

aequus alumnia, 
si tener pleno cadit haedua anno, 
liirga nec desunt Veneria sodali 
vina craterae, vetus ara multo 

f uraat odore. 
ludit herboeo pecui omne campo, 
cnm tibi Nonae redeunt Deoembree; 
fettUB in pratia racat otdoao 

onnt bove pagus; 
inter audaoet lupus errat aguos; 
spargit agreetee tibi silva frondea; 
gaudet invinra pepulisM foesor 

ter pode temm. 





Quantnm distet ab Inacho 

Oodrog pro patria non timidus mori, 
narras et genus Aeaoi 

et pognata sacro bella eub Ilio: 

quo Ohinm pretio oadum $ 

meroemur, quis aqnam temperet ignibus 

quo praebente domum et qnota 
Paelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 

da lunae propere novae, 

da nocti8 mediae, da, puer, auguris 
Murenae: tribus aut novem 

miscentur cyathis pocula commodis. 

qui Muaas amat impares, 
ternos ter cyathoe attonitus petet 

vates; tres prohibet supra 

rixaruiti metuens tangere Gratia 

nudis iuncta sororibus. 

insanire iuvat: our Bereoyntiae 
ce&aant flamina tibiaet 

cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyrat 

parcentes ego dexteras 

odi: 8parge rosaa; audiat invidus 
dementem strepitum Lycus 

et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 


epiaaa te nitidum ooma, 

puro te ilera, Telephe, Veepero, 
teinpei ;it Rhode; 

rue 10 ilj-cerae torret imor meae. 

Non vides to movean ^.olo, 

Pynhe, Gaetuiae catuloa leaenael 
dura post paullo fugiea inaudax 

proelia raptor, 
cum per obatantee iuvenum catervns 
ibit mHignem repetens Ne&rchum, 
grande certamen, tibi praeda cedat 

maior an illi 
interim, dum tu oeleree eagittas 
promia, haeo dentea aeuit timendoa, 
arbiter pugnae prmiitim nndo 

sub pede palmam 
fertur et leni reoraare rento 
aparaum odoratis nmeram oapillia, 
qualis aut Nireus fuit aut aquosa 

raptua ab Ida. 



O nata meoum oonsule Manlio, 
seu ta querellas sive geris ioooe 
seu rixsm et insanos amores 
seu facilem, pia testa» lomnum, 

qaocunqae leotam nomine Massicum » 

servae, moveri digna bono die, 
desoende, Corvino iubente 
promere languidiora vina. 

non ille, quamqoam Socraticis madet 
sermonibus, te negleget horridus: k> 

narratur et prwci Oatonis 
saepe mero caluisse virtus. 

tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
plerumque duro; tu aapientium 

curas et arcanum iocoeo 15 

conailium retegia Lyaeo; 

tu spem reducis mentibua anxiis, 
viresque et addis cornua pauperi 
poet te neque iratoe trementi 

regum apices neque militum arma. *> 

te Iiber et, li laeta aderit, Venus 
segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae 
vivaeque producent lucernae, 

dom rediens fugat astra Phoebus. 



Btoe nemorumque, Virgo, 
tee utero puellas 
udis adimiaque leto. 

litaotia ictum 


OmIo aupiuaa si tuleris roanu* 
naacente Luiia., rustic* Phidyle, 
m thurts placftris «t honi* 
fruge Lares avidaque poroa, 
nec peatilentem aentiet Afriouni 
fecimd» vitis neo aterilem aegea 
robiginetn aut duloea aJumni 
pomifero grave tempu* aimo, 
nam quae nivali paacitur Algido 
devota, quercua mter et ilicet 
aut oreacit Albania in herbis 
victima ponti6cum aeourcs 



oerrioe tinget: te nihil attinet 
tentare multa caede bidentium 

parvoe ooronantem marino i$ 

rore deoe fragilique rayrto. 

immunis aram 11 tetigit manus 
non eumptuoea blandior hostia, 
mollivit avenoe Penates 
farre pio et saliente mica. * 


Intactis opulentior 

thesauris Arabum et divitia Indiae 
caementia lioet occupes 

terrenum omne tuis et mare publicum, 
si figit adamantinoe « 

summis verticibua dira Neceasitas 
clavos, non animum metu, 

non mortis laqueis expedies caput 

campestres melius Soythae, 

quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 10 
vivunt et rigidi Getae, 

immetata quibus iugera liberas 

fruges et Ccrerem ferunt 

nec cultura placet longior annua 

defunctumque laboribus 15 

aequali recreat sorte vicarius. 

illio matro carentibus 

privigni* mulier temperat innocena, 
XWC dot&t* regit virum 

coniur neo nitido fidit adultero. == 

dos est niagna parentium 

virtus et metuens alteriua viri 
oet-to foedere outitu; 

et pi it pretinm eat mori. 

o quisquia tmpiu ij 

caedea et rabiem tollere oivicam, 
*i quaeret Pater ubbium 

subscribi statuie, indoraitam audeat 
refrenare licentiam, 

clarus postgenitiH: quateoua — heu nefaa!— *> 
virtutem inoolumem odimus, 

sublatam ejt ooulis quaerimna invidi 
quid triates querimoniae, 

ai non supplicio eulpa reciditur, 
quid legea aine moribus » 

vanae proficiunt, ta neqne fervidia 
para inoluaa oaloribua 

mundi neo Boreae finitimum latui 
durataeque solo nives 

mercatorem abigunt, horrida callidi «, 

vincunt aequora navitae, 

magnum pauperiea opprobrinm iubet 
quidvie et faoere et patd 

virtutisque viam deaerit arduael 


vel noe in Oapitolium, 49 

quo elamor vooat et turba faventium, 
vel nos in maxe proximum 

gemmas et lapides, anrum et inutile, 
aummi materiem mali, 

mittamus, soelerum ai bene paenitet y 
cradenda eupidinis 

pravi aunt elementa et tenerae nimis 

mentea aaperioribua 

formandae studiia. neseit equo rudis 
haerere ingenuus puer 55 

venarique timet, ludere dootior, 

seu Graeoo iubeaa trooho 

seu malis vetita legibua alea, 
cum periura patris fides 

consortem socium fallat et hospitem 60 

indignoque pecuniam 

heredi properet scilicet improbae 
crcscunt divitiae; tamen 

curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 


Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

plenuml quae nemora aut quos agor in specus 
velox mente novat quibus 

untris egregii Caesaris audiar 

„AictttiB ore • 

r idoaeu» 



o quae beatam diya tenee Oyprum et 
Memphin oarentem Sithonia nive, i© 

regina, lublimi flagello 
tange Chloen aemel arrogantem. 


Impioa parrae reoinentia omen 
duoat ei praegnans oania aut ab agro 
rava deoarrena lupa Lanuvino, 
fetaque volpea. 

rumpat et serpeni iter institutum, * 

ai per obliquum eimilia aagittae 
terruit mannoa: ego oui timebo 
providua auspex, 

antequam stantea repetat paludea 
imbrium divina avis imminentum, » 

oacinem corvum preoe suscitabo 
aolia ab ortu. 

aia licet felix, ubiounque mavia, 
et memor noetri, Galatea, vivas, 
teque neo laevus vetet ire picua 13 

neo vaga oornix. 

aed vides, quanto trepidet tumultu 
pronua Orion. ego quid sit ater 
Hadriae novi ainua et quid albua 

pecoet Iapyx. 10 

hostium 'H puerique caecos 

senti i orientis Austri et 

aeqiiL fremitum et trementes 

orcdidit t&uro latus et ecntentoin 
beluia mediasque fr&udes 

nuper in itudiosa U-...i.,i ot 

debitae N/uijjuu opifex coronae 
nocte subhistri riibil iiatra praeter 

vidit et undas. 
quae aimul centtun tetigit poteutem 
oppidis Creten: pater, o relictum 
filiao immcn pietasque, dixit, 

victa furore! 
unde quo Tenit levis uns> mors est 
virginum cnlpae. vigilansne ploro 
turpe oonimiusnm, an vitiia csrantem 

ludit imago, 
vana quse ports fngiens ebnrns 
somniam ducitt meliasne fluctai 
ire per longos fuit, sn recentes 

csrpere florest 
ai quis infamera mihi nnnc invencum 
dedat iratae, lacerare ferro e t 
frangere enitar modo mnltum amati 

conraa monstri. 


impudens iiqni patrios Penates, 
impudens Oreum moror, o deomm 90 

■i quis haeo audis, utdnam inter errem 
nuda leonesl 

antequam tarpis maeies deoentes 
oooapet malas teneraeque saeus 
deflaat praedae, speeiosa quaero » 

pasoare tigres. 

Tilis Bnrope, pater orget absens : 
quid mori oesssst potes hao ab orno 
pendulum sona bene te seeuta 

laedere oolluxn. 6» 

siye te rupes et aouta leto 
saxa delectant, age te prooellae 
orede Yeloei, nisi herile mavis 

oarpere pensum, 

regius sanguis, dominaeqae tradi 65 

barbarae pellex. aderat querenti 
perfidum ridens Venus et remisso 

filius arou. 
mox, ubi losit satis: abstineto, 
dixit, irarum oalidaeque rixae, 70 

oum tibi invisus laoeranda reddet 

oornua taurus. 
uxor invicti Iovis esse nesois: 
mitte singultas» bene ferre magnam 
disce fortunaro; tua seotus orbis 75 

nomina dueet. 

p.h. 7 





s „*»»> i *"i.«*»»> ^perf 

parci» rt „i»»-- ^- 




• • 


iamdudum apud me est eripe te morae; i 
•] ne semper udum Tibur ei Aefulae 

) deolive oontempleris arvum ei 

Telegoni iuga perrioidae. 

fastidiosam deeere oopiam et 
'J molem propinquam nubibua arduis; 10 

omitte mixmri beetae 
fumum et opee strepitumque Romae. 

plerumque gratae divitibus Tioes 
mundaeque parvo eub lare pauperum 
oenae rine aulaeia et oetro ij 

eollioitam expliouere frontem. 

iam olarue oooultum Andromedae pater 
oetendit ignem, iam Prooyon furit 
et Btella Teaani Leonis, 
sole dies referente riooos: *> 

iam pastor umbraa oum grege languido 
rivumque feasus quaerit et borridi 
dumeta Silvani, oaretque 
ripa vagie taoiturna ventia. 

tu, oivitatem quia deoeat status, as 

ourae et TJrbi aollioituB tfrnes, 
quid Seres et regnata Ovro 

Baotra parent Tauaisque disoors. 
prudens futuri temporis exitum 
caliginosa noote premit deus jo 

ridetque, si mortalis ultra 
fas trepidat quod adest memento 




"V^;t«»°^. •.»««■»* 

cW»°" , „ au»-""* . ro 

»» „■ »°» ""2*> » M 

°» -o V* **tti»** 

1««-*. "^»» 1 » 4 ^»»"* 



UE nL OAB. XXX. 101 

addant araro drritias mari: 
tuno me hiremia praeeidio aoaphae 
tutum per Aegaeoe tumultua 
aura feret geminuaque Pollux. 


Exegi monumentum aere perenniue 
regtlique aitu pyramidum altiua, 
quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotena 
poeait diruere aut innumerabiliB 

annorum aeriee et fuga temporum. % 

non omnii moriar multaque part mei 
yitabit Iibitinam: uaque ego poatera 
oreacam laude reoena» dnm Oapitolium 

aoandet oum taoita virgine pontifex. 
diear, qua violens obatrepit Aufidna m> 

et qua panper aquae Daunua agreatium 
regnaTit populorum, ex humili potena 

prinoepa Aeolium oarmen ad Italoa 
deduxiaee modoa. aume auperbiam 
quaeflitam meritia et mihi Delphica i$ 

lauro oinge Tolena, Melpomene, oomam. 





Imtbkmusa, Venua, diu 

raraai bella moresf paroe, preoor, preoor. 
non lum qualis eram bonae 

snb regno Qinarae. deaine, dulcinm 

mater aaeva Gupidinum, 

eiroa lustra deoem fleotere mollibus 
iam dumm imperiia: abi, 

quo blandae iuTenum te reTooant preoes. 

tempestivius in domum 

Paulli, purpureis alea oloribus, 
oomissabere Maximi, 

ai torrere iecur quaeria idoneum: 


namque et nnbiHs et deceua 

et pro litii non tacitui reia 

et centi er artium 

late a eret militiae tuae, 

et, quana potentior 

largi muneribuB rieerit .aemuli, 
Albanos prope te lacus 

ponet marmoream aub _ citrea. 
illic plurima naribus 

duoee thura, Ijraeque et Berecyntiae 
delectabere tibiae 

miatia carminibuH non aine flstula; 
illic bi_ pueri die 

numnn cum teneria virginibua tuum 
laud&utea pede candido 

iii morem Salium ter quatient buroum. 
me nec feuiina neo puer 

Lun noc ipea auimi credula mutui, 
neo certare iuvat mero, 

nee vincire noria tempon floribua. 
aed cur heu, Ligurine, our 

maxuit rara meaa lacrima per genaat 
cur facunda parum decoro 

inter verba cadit lingua siltintio 1 
nocturaia ego aomniia 

iam captuin teneo, iam volucrem sequor 
te per gramina Murt.ii 

Carapi, te per aquaa, dure, voluhiles. 

Uflw IV. OAB. IL xos 



Findarum quiequia etudet aemulari, 
Iule, oeratii ope Daedalea 
*f* nititur pennie vitreo daturus 

nomina ponta 

mente deoarrem velut amnia, imbree 5 

quem super notu aluere ripes, 
fervet immensuique ruit profundo 
Pindarus ore, 

laurea donandus Apollinari, 

aeu per audaoei nova dithjramboe w 

Terba devolvit numeriaque fertur 

1 1 » • 

lAffA *Ai™i • 

aeu deoe regeeve canit, deorum 
sanguinem, per quoa oecidere iueta 
morte Oentauri, oeoidit tremendae t$ 

flamma Gnimaerae;' 

aive quoe Elea domum reduoit 
palma oaelestei pugilemve equumve 
dioit et oentum potiore aignis 

munere donat, m 

flebili sponsae iuvenemve raptum 
plorat et vires animumque moreeque 
r.T aureoe eduoit in aatra nigroque 

invidet Oroo. 


muiu ; 

Dircaeum levat aura. cyonum, 
li, quotiens in altoe 

us. ego api» Matinae 




ia thynia per laborom 
ut eirca nemus uvidique 
ripas operoaa parvus 

iore poeta pieotro 
Caesarem, quandoque trahet ferooea 
per aacrum clivum merita decoru» 

fronde Sygambroa, 
quo nibil maiue meliusve terris 
fata donavere bonique divi 
nec dabunt, quamvia redeant in aurua 

tempora priscum. 
concinei laetoequo diea ot Urbie 
poblicum lndnm auper impetrato 
fortis Auguati reditu forumque 

litibui orbum. 
tum nieae, ti qnid loquar audiendum, 
vocis acoedet bona uara, et, o aol 
pulckerl o laudandei conam, recepto 

Caee&re felix. 
tuqne dum procedia, io Triumphe, 
non semel dioemua, io Triumphe, 
civitaa omnis dabimuaque divia 

thur» beuignia. 




LIB. IV. OAR. IIL 107 

te deoem tauri totidemque vaocae, 
me tener solvet vitulus» reliota 
matre qui largis iuvenescit herbie $$ 

in mea vota, 

fronte enrvatoe imitatus ignee 
tertium lunae relerentie ortum, 
qua notam duxit, niveus 
eetera fulvus. 


Quem tu, Melpomene, eemel 
nasoantom plaoido lumine videris» 

illum non lebor Iethmius 

clarabit pugilem, non equui impiger 

ourru duoet Aohaioo s 

victorem, neque ree bellioa Deliie 

ornatum foliie duoem, 
quod regum tumidas oontuderit minas, 

oetendet Oapitolio: 

sed quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt to 
et spissae nemorum oomae 

fingent Aeolio carmine nobilem. 

Romae prinoipis urbium 

dignatur suboles inter amabiles 
vatum ponere me ohoroe, \% 

et iam dente minus mordeor invido. 

teefa LUrea* 

d >e atrepitum, Pieri, temperaa, 

ue piscibus 
Ou» pcni, »i libeat, aonuin, 

tum Ls hoc tui eat, 

quod tror digito praetereuntium 

giwu oeu lyree: 

quod placao, u pl lcco, tuum esl 


Qnalem miniitrum fulminis atitam, 
cui rax deorum regnum in avw vagi 
pcrmi- 1 1 eipertiu) fidelem 

Iuppiter in Ganymedo flavo 
olim iuventaa et patriui vigor 
nido Uborum proputit inscinm 
vernique iam nimbu remotu 
inaolitoa docuere niaui 
venti pHvcntem, mox in ovilU 
demiait hoatem vividua impetua, 
nunc in reluctantes draoonea 
egit smor dapis atque pugnae ; 
qualemvo laetil eapre* paaouia 
intenta fulvae matria ab ubere 
uun lncte depuuram leonem 
dente novo peritnra vidit; 

UB. IV. OAB. IV. 109 

Baetie bella eub Alpibua 
Drueum gerentem Vindelici;— quibua 
moe unde deduotae per omne 
tempue Amaaonia leoari m 

dextraa obaxmet, qoaerere dietuli, 
neo eoire fae ett omnia; — oed diu 
lateque yictrioei oetervae 
ooneiliia iuvenia reviotae 

eenaere, quid mena rite, quid indolea •$ 

nutrita laoatia aab penetrelibaa 
poeaet, quid Auguati paternus 
in pueroa animua Neronea. 

fortee creantur fortibua et bonia; 
eat in iuveneia, eat in equia patrum * 

virtua, neque imbellem ferooea 
progenerant aquilae oolumbam; 

dootrina aed vim promovet inaitain, 
rectique eultua peotora roborant; 
uteunque defeoere moree, S s 

indeoorant bene nata culpae. 

quid debeaa, o Boma, Neronibua, 
teatia Metaurum flumen et Haadrubal 
deviotua et puloher fugatia 
ille diea Latio tenebria, 40 

qui primua alma riait adorea, 
per urbea Af er ut Italaa 
oeu flamma per taedaa vel Eurua 
per Sioulae equitavit undaa. 


poat h™ i 

ndia usque Uboribus 
ib crevit, et tmpio 
inomui tuniultu 
i babuera rectos, 

cervi, ] 



em perfidus Hannibal: 

d praeda rapacium, 
Itro, quos opimus 



i tb Ilio 


duri* ut ilt 
nigne fenu.. 

„sque pntre* 
jiiuls *d urbea, 
usa bipennibu» 
.. .'Uiii? in Algido, 

per darana, per c&edes, ab ipso 
ducit opes animumquu ferro. 
non taydr* *eoto oorpore firmior 
vinci dolontem cretit in Herculem, 
monstrumve ■ubmiMre Colohi 
maius EohioniMTe Thohae. 
meraee profondo, pulchrior eveuit; 
luctere, mult* proruot integrnnt 
eum Uude ▼ictorem gerotque 
proelia coniugibus loquenda. 
Karthagini iam non ego nuntioa 
mittam ■uperboa: oooidit, ooeidit 
■pee omnis et f ortun* noatri 
nominu tlaadrubale interempto: 


• t 



UB. IV. GAB. Y. Ui 

nfl Olaucaae non pertioient manus, 
quas et benigno nnndne Inppiter 
defendit et ourae sagaoes 7S 

ezpedinnt per aeuta belH. 


Divii orte bonis, optime Romulae 
onttoe gentis» abes iam wimiwm din; 
matnmm reditnm polHoitns patrum 
sanoto ooncilio redi. 

lnoem redde tuae, duz bone, patriae: 
instar veris enim Toltns ubi tuns 
affulait populo, gratior it dies 
et soles melius nitent 

nt mater iuvenem, qnem Notus invido 
flatn Oarpathii trans maris aequora 
ounotantem spatio longius annno 
dulci distinet a domo, 

votis ominibnsque et preoibus vocat^ 
ourvo neo faoieoi litore dimovet: 
sio desideriis iota fidelibns 
quaerit patria Caesarem. 

tutus bos etenim rnra perambulat, 
nntrit rnra Oeres almaque Faustitas, 
pacatum volitant per mare navitae, 
culpari metuit Pides, 




m.illis ) ir casla domus atupris, 

moi laculoeuni edomuit nefos, 

lau lili prole puerperae, 

cuipa* ina premit comes. 

quis Pi i paveat, quia gelidum Scythei 

quis Oeruiiuiia quoa horrida parturit 
fetus, incol ni Caesarel quis feraa 

bclluui 01 
condit quisque diem iibus iu suis, 
et vitera viduas ducit ad arbores; 
hinc ad rina redit laetus et alteris 

te meuflia adhibet deum; 
te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
defuso pateria et Laribus tuum 
laiscet numen, uti Graecia Castoris 

et magni memor Heroulis. 
lougaa o utinam, dux bone, fariai 
praestea Hosperiae I dioimns integro 
aioci mane die, dioimus uvidi, 

cujn sol Oceano lubesL 


Dive, quem prolea Niobea i 
vindioem linguao 'rityoaque raptor 
seusit et Troiae prope viotor altae 
Phthius Achillea, 

LIR IV. OAB. VL 113 

oeteria maior, tibi milee impar, § 

filius quamvie Thetidii marinae 
Dardanaa tnrree quateret tremenda 
enapide pugnax. 

ille, mordaoi Telat iota ferro 
pinua aut impulea oupreaana Euro, » 

^ prooidit late poauitque oollnm in 

pnlvere Tencro: 

ille non inolnana eqno Minervae 
aaora mentito male feriatoa 
Troaa et laetam Priami dhoreia n 

falleret aulam; 

aed palam oaptia gravia, hen nefaa heu, 
neaoioa fari pneroa Aobivie 
ureret flammia, etiam latentem 

matria in alvo, «. 

ni tnia viotus Yeneriaqne gratae 
vocibus divom pater annninet 
rebna Aeneae potiore dnotoa 
aJite mnroe. 

dootor argatae fidioen Thaliae, «s 

Phoebe, qni Xantho lavis amne crinee, 
. Danniae defende deoua Oamenae, 
levia Agyieu. 

apiritum Phoebua mihi, Phoebni artem 
earminia nomenque dedit pottae: 9» 

q virginnm primae pneriqne clarU 

patribua orti, 

k.h. fe 


Deliae :>>la deae fugacea 

lyii corvos cobibeutis arcu, 

Lt servate pedom meique 

ii ictum, 
rite LaU lao pnerum canentes, 
rite mtern face Nootilucam,,-. . frugum celeremque proni 

nupta iam cee: ego dis 
saeculo fesU» refereiite luces, 
reddidi csrmen, dociiis luodorum 
vntis Horati. 


Diffugere nives, redeunt i*m grsmina eampi* 

arboribusque oomae; 
mutst tem vices et deorosoentia ripas 

flumina praotereunt; g" 

Gratia cum Nrmphis geminiaque sororibus sudet j 

duoere nuda choros : 
immortalia ne speres, monet annus et almum 

quae rspit hora diem. 
Erigoni initesount Zepbyria, wr proterit aestaa 

interitura, nimul n 

pouiifer Autumnus fruges effuderit, et mox 

Ururna rocurrit iners. 


damna tamen oeleret reparant oaelestia lunae: 

nos, ubi deoidimus, 
quo pater Aeneas, quo divee Tullus et Ancus, t* 

pulvis et umbra sumus. 

quis acit, an adiiciant hodiernae crastina summae 

tempora di superit 
euncta manus avidas fugient heredis, amioo 

quae dederis animo. to 

cum semel oooideris et de te splendida Minos 

feoerit arbitria, 
non» Torquate, genus, non te faoundia, non te 

restituet pietas; 

infernis neque enim tenebris Diana putlicum •* 

liberat Hippolytum, 
nec Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

vincula Pirithoa 


Donarem pateras grataque commodus, 

Oensorine, meis aera sodalibus; 

donarem tripodas, praemia fortium 

Graiorum, neque tu pessima munerum 

ferres, divite me scilioet artium, 

quas aut Parrhasius protulit aut Scopas, 

hic saxo, liquidis ille ooloribus 

sollers nunc hominem ponere, nuno deum. 

led m mihi via, noo tibi t&lium 

rw nimuB delicisxum egens. 

gai libua; curinina possumua 

doki~i- stium dicere muneri. 

noo >tis marmora pablicia, 

per -itiis et vita redit bouu 

p^ f j...;l..- --Jeres fugae 

reieob balis miuae, 

non inoand rth» piae 

eiua, qui donuw .:,.-,. ab Airica 
lucntus radiit, darius iudic nt 
lnudea qtuun Calabrae Pieri ee: neque, 
si chartae lileant quod ben feceria, 
mcrcedom tuleria. quid foret Ili&e 
Mnvortisque puer, si tociturnitas 
obetaret moritiH invids Romulil 
ereptum Stfgiis Suctibus Aeacum 
virtus et favnr et lingua, potentium 
vntum diritdbm ooanscrat insulia. 
dignum laude virum Muna vetat mori: 
canlo Muw» beat. sic Iovia intereat 
opUtia opnlie impiger Herculoa, 
clarum Tyndarid&e sidus ab infinria 
qu&asas eripiunt aequoribus, 
ornatns viridi tempora pampino 
Iiber votn bonos ducit «4 eiitun. 


. * 

» • 


Ne forte eredae interitura, quae 
longe eonantem natus ad Aufidum 
non ante volgatas per artes 
verba loqnor aooianda ehordis: 

non, si priores Maeoniua tenet s 

aedea Homerua, Pindaricae latent 
Oeaeque et Aloaei minaoea 
Steaiehorique gravea Oamenae; 

nee, ai quid olim luait Anacreon, 
delevit aetaa; apirat adhuo amor «• 

yiruntque oommiaai oalorea 
Aeoliae fidibua puellae. 

non aola oomptoa arait adulteri 
crines et aurum Testibua illitum 

mirata regalesque oultua 15 

et oomites Helene Lacaena, 

primusve Teuoer tela Oydonio 
direxit arcu; non semel Uios 
vexata; non pugnavit ingena 
Idomeneua Sthenelusve solus to 

dicenda Musia proelia; non ferox 
Heotor vel aoer Delphobua gravea 
exoepit ictus pro pudiois 
ooniugibus puerisque primus. 


vixera fortes ante Agamemnona 
iu mnes Ulacriniabiles 

rnotique longa 
u kreut quia vete aacro. 

paullvB ltae distat inertiac 

oelata non ogo le iueis 

ohau rnatotn ailebo, 


oblivion ,01 

rerut? _ .scundis 

tei jue rectus, 

vindeJt avarae irauais et abstinens 
ducentii ad se ouncta pecuniae, 
conaulque non unius anni, 

eed quoties boaus atque fidus 
iudni bonnHtom praetnlit utili, 
reiecit alto dona nooentium 
voltu, per obatantea catervaa 
expJiouit aua victor arma. 
oon poaridentem multa vooaveria 
recte beatum ; rcctius occupat 
uomen beati, qui deorum 
muneribua aapienter uti 
duramque callet pauperiem pati 
peiusque leto flagitium timet, 
non ilie pro carU amicia 
aut patria timidus perire. 

LIB. IV. GAB» X. XL 119 


crudeli» adhuo et Venerifl muneribufl potens, 
insperata tuae oum Teniet pluma fluperbiae 
et, quae nuno umeria inTolitant» deoiderint oomae, 
nuno et qui oolor ost punioeae flore prior roaae 
mutatus Ligurinum in faoiem Terterit hiflpidam, 
dioes, heu, quotiena te speoulo Tideria alterum: 
quae mena est hodie, our eadem non puero fuit, 
toI our hia animis inoolumea non redeunt genaef 


Est mihi nonum euperantu annum 
plenu» Albani oadus; eet in horto, 
Phylli, neotendifl apium ooronis; 
eat hederae tu 

multa, qua orinofl religata fulgea; 
ridet argento domus; ara castis 
vinota verbenis avet immolato 
spargier agno; 

ounota fefltinat manus, huo et illuo 
curaitant mixtae pueria puellae; 
flordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 
vertioe fumum. 


ut tamen 

noria quibua advoceria 


i tibi aunt ageudae, 


kaem Venfiri» raarinai 



iuw i 

li mihi aanotiorqiie 


proprio, quod ex hac 


_...*3 meua li itea 

Tele juen ccupavit 

non tuae aortis iovenem ella 
divee et lasciva tenetque ata 

eorapede vinctum. 
terret ambuatuB Phacthou uvaraa 
apes, et exemplum grave praebet alca 
Pegaaus terrenani equitem gr&vatus 

aemper ut te digna aequsxe et nltn 
quam lioet aperare neGu putando 
disptrem vitea. age iam, meorum 

finia amorum — 
non enim poathao alia oalebo 
femina — oondiaoe modoa, amanda 
voce quoa reddaa; minuentur atrae 

carmine ourae. 



■ 1 



LIB. IV. OAR. XIL 181 


Iam veria oomites, quae mare temperant» 
impellunt animae lintea Thraeiae; 
iam neo prata rigent neo fluvii strepunt 
hiberna nive turgidi. 

nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens» $ 

infelix avis et Oeeropiae domm 
aeternnm opprobrium, quod male barbarai 
regum est ulta libidines. 

dieunt in tenero gramine pinguium 
custodes ovium oarmina fistula <• 

deleotantque deum, oui peout et nigri 
ooUea Arcadiae plaoent 

adduxere sitim tempora, Virgili ; 
sed pressum Calibus duoere Liberum 
si gefitifl, iuvenum nobilium oliens, %$ 

nardo vina merebere. 

nardi parvus onyx elioiet oadum, 
qui nuno Sulpiciis aooubat horreis, 
spes donare novas largus amaraque 

curarum eluere effioax. «o 

ad quae si properas gaudia, oum tua 
velox meroe veni: non ego te meis 
immunem meditor tingere pooulis: 
plena dives ut in domo. 

vcrum pone moras et itndium lucri, 
ni memor, dum licet, ignium 

m am consiliu brevem: 

< t desipere in loco. 


Audivere, Lyce, di mea vota, di 
audivere, Lyce ; ns anus, et tamen 
vis formoaa videri 

ludisque et bibig impudena 
et cantu tremulo pota Cupidinem 
lentum aollicitaa. Ule vireutis et 
doctae psallere Chiae 

pulchris excubat in genie. 
importunua enim transvoiat aridas 
querous et refugit ta, qui» luridi 
dentes, te qui» rugae 
turpant et Oapitis nives. 
nec Ooae referunt iam tibi purpurw 
nec clari lapides tempora, quae semol 
notia onndita fastia 
«iclusit volucris diee. 
quo fugit venus, heu, quove oolorl deoens 
quo motust quid habes illius, Ulius, 
qua« apirabat amores, 
quae me surpuerat mihi, 






LIB. IV. OAR. XIV. 1*3 

felix poat Oinaram, notaque et artium 
gratarum fadeat aed Oinarae brerea 
annoe fata dederunt» 
eanratur* diu persm 

oornieia retulae temporibua Lyoen, *$ 

poeaent ut iurenee riaere ferridi 
multo non eine riau 
dilapaam in oinerea faoem. 


Quae oura patrum quaere Quiritium 
plenis honorum munaribua tuaa, 
Auguete, Tirtutea in aerum 
per tituloa memoreaque faatoe 

aeternet, o, qua aol habitabiles $ 

illuatrat oraa, maxime prindpumt 
quem legia expertea YAtinae 
Vindelioi didioere nuper, 

quid Marte poeeea. milite nam tuo 
Druaua Genaunoa, impladdum genua, u> 

Brennoaque Yelooes et aroea 
Alpibua impoaitaa tremendia 

ddedt aoer plua rice aimplid; 
maior Neronum mox grare proelium 

oommidt immaneaque Raetoe 15 

auapioiia pepulit aeoundia, 







^e» 1 



1 •" , ^loW'> ,, 






w »»»»° £*, f 



>>* , 


LIB. IV. OAB. XV. 1S5 

te, fontimn qui oelat origines, « 

Nilusque et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, 
te beluosus qni remotis 
obstrepit Ooeanus Britannis, 

te non paTentis funera Galliae 
duraeque tellna andit Hiberiae, *> 

te oaede gandentet Sygambri 
oompoaitis ▼enerantur armis. 


Fhoebns rolentem proelia me loqui 
▼iotas et nrbes inorepnit lyra, 
ne parra Tyrrhenum per aeqnor 
▼ela darem. tua, Oaesar, aetas 

fruges et agris rettnlit nberes 
et signa nostro restituit Iovi 
derepta Parthornm snperbis 
pottibns et ▼aouum dnellis 

Iannm Qnirini olansit et ordinem 
reotnm eraganti frena lioentiae 
iniecit emovitqne onlpas 
et ▼eteres revocarit srtes, 

per quas Latinnm nomen et Italae 
crevere vires famaque et imperi 
porreota maiestas ad ortus 
solis ab Hesperio oubili. 



^. W » 



, w .r» " 


Phoebe eihrarumque potena Diana, 
lueidum oaeli deoua, o oolendi 
aemper et culti, date, quae preoamnr 
tempore aaero, 

quo Sibyllini monnere veraua 
▼irginee leotaa pneroaque oaatoa 
die, quibna aeptem plaouere oollee, 
dioere oarmen. 

alme Sol, eurru nitido diem qui 
promia et oelaa aliuaque et idem 
naeoeria, poaaia nihil urbe Roma 
▼ieere maiua. 

rite maturoa aperire partua 
lenia, liithyia, tuere matrea, 
aive tu Luoina probaa ▼ooan 



cui per ardentem sine fraude Troiam 
castus Aeneas patriae snperstes 
libenun muniTit iter, daturus 
plnra relietia: 

di, probos morea doeili iuventae, 4S 

«#V di, aeneotuti placidae quietem, 

Homulae genti date remque prolemque 
et decus omne 1 

quaeque voe bobui veneratur albia 
clarua Anchisae Veneriaque aanguis, *• 

impetret, bellante prior, iacentem 
lenis in hoetem ! 

iam mari terraque manus potentea 
Medua Albanaaque timet aecures, 
iam Scythae reaponaa petunt, auperbi $* 

nuper, et Indi 

iam fides et pax et honos pudorque 
priacus et negleota redire virtus 
audet, apparetque beata pleno 

copia cornu. fo 

angur et fulgente deoorus arcu 
Phoebus acoeptusque novem Camenis, 
qui salutari levat arte fessos 
corporis artua, 



si Palatinaa videt aequus aroea, 65 

remque Romanam Latiumque felix 
alterum in lustrum meliuaque aemper 
proroget aevum. 

quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
quind^cim Diana preoea virorum 70 

curet et ▼otis pnerorum amicas 
applioet auree. 

haeo Iovem sentii*e deoeque ounctoa 
spem bonam oertamquc domum reporto» 
doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae 
dicere laudcs. 


« • 

• I 






Ib» Liburnis inter alta navium, 

amice, propugnacula, 
paratua omne Caesaris perioulum 

subire, Maecenas, tuo. 
quid noe, quibua te vita ai superstite 5 

iucunda, ai contra, gravisf 
utrumne iuasi persequemur otium, 

non duloe, ni teoum simul, 
an huno laborem, mente laturi decet 

qua ferre non mollea virosf » 

feremus, et te vel per Alpium iuga 

inhoepitalem et Caucasum 
vel Ooeidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 

forti sequemur pectore. 
roges, tuum labore quid iuvem meo, 1$ 

imbellis ac firmus parumf 



cumes minore sum futurus in metu, 

r absentes habet: 

ut impluuiibus pullis avis 

aerpi m allapsus timet 

magis •- as, non, ut adsit, auxili 

l»t»" iis praesentibus. 

liben' : et omce militabitur 

ba ^™ iae, 

nun Ut piu ribus 

sntn '!'■■::-. uibib 

pccusYO Calabris ante gidus fervidum 

Lcoana mutet paseuis, 
neque ul superni villa. candena Tusculi 

Circaea tangat mocuia. 
satis superque rae benignitas tun 

ditavit : haud paraveru, 
quod aut avarns ut Chremea terra prcmam, 

discinctus uut perdam nepoa. 


'Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis, 

ut prisca gens mortalium, 
paterna rura bobus exercet suis, 

solutus omni fenore, 
neque excitatur classico miles truci, 

neque horret iratum mare, 
forumque vitat et superbn civium 

potentiorum limina. 



ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

altaB maritat populos, 10 

aut in reduota valle mugientiuin 

prospeotat errantee greges, 
inutilesque falce ramos amputans 

f eliciores inserit, 
aut pre88a puris mella oondit amphoris, i 5 

aut tondet infirmas oves; 
vel oum deoorum mitibus pomis caput 

Autumnus agris extulit, 
ut gaudet insitiva deoerpens pira, 

oertantem et uvam purpurae, m 

qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
libet iaoere modo sub antiqua ilioe, 

modo in tenaoi gramine: 
labuntur altis interim ripis aquae, *$ 

queruntur in silvis aves, 
fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

somnos quod invitet leves. 
at cum tonantis annus hibernus Iovis 

imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

aut trudit acres hino et hino multa cane 

apros in obstantes plagas, 
aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

turdis edaoibus dolos, 
pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem 35 

iucunda captat praemia. 
quis non malarum quas amor curas habet 


haec inter obliviacitur 1 
qttodsi mulier in parteni iuvet 

don ue dulcea liberos, 

S&binft 4 ii ut perusta solibus 

pernici )r Apuli, 
sacrum i .is exstruat lignis focum 

lassi i tdventum viri, 
claudenaqc > oratibus Inetum pecua 

distenta . ubera, 

et horna auici vina promens dolio 

dnpes inemptae apparet: 
non me Lucrina iuverint conchylia 

magisve rhombus aut scari, 
gi quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

hiemps ad hoc vertat mare ; 
non Afra avis deacendat in ventrcm meurr 

non attagen Ionicus 
iucundior, quam lecta de pinguissimis 

oliva ramis arborum, 
aut herba lapathi prata amantis et gravi 

malvae s&Inbres oorpori, 
vel agna festis caesa Terminalibus 

vel haedus ereptus lupo. 
has inter epula* ut iuvat pastai oves 

videre properantes domum, 
videre feuoi vomorcm inveraum bovee 

collo trahentes languido, 
positosque vernas, ditin exaruen donius, 

circuin renidentee Laresl' 


haeo ubi looutus fenerator Alfius, 

iam iam futarus rusticus, 
omnem redegit Idibus peouniam, 

quaerit Kalendis ponere. 70 


ParentiB olim si quis impia manu 

senile guttur fregerit, 
edit oioutis alium nocentius. 

o dura messorum ilial 
quid hoo veneni saeTit in praeoordiisf 3 

num viperinus his oruor 
inooctus herbis me fefallitf an malas 

Canidia traotavit dapesf 
ut Argonautas praeter omnes oandidum 

Medea mirata est duoem, 10 

ignota tauri8 illigaturum iuga 

perunxit hoo Iasonem; 
hoo delibutia ulta donis peUioem 

8erpente fugit alite. 
nec tantus umquam siderum insedit vapor 15 

sitioulosae Apuliae, 
neo munus umeris efficaois Herculis 

inarsit aestuosius. 
at si quid unquam tale concupireris, 

iooose Maecenas, precor, «0 

manum puella savio opponat tuo» 

extrema et in sponda cubet, 


L iis quanta sortito obtigit, 

uo. i discordia est, 

Hibericis ^i-uste funibus latut 

et crura dura compede. 
licet superbus ainbules pecunia, 

fortutwi iion mutot genus. 
videsne, Sacram roetiente te viam 

cum bis triuni ulnarum toga, 
ut ora vertat huo et huc euntiuro 

liOerrima indignatiol 
'sectus flagellis hic triuniviralibus 

praeconis ad fastidium 
arat Faleini inille fundi iugem 

et Appiam roannis terit, 
aeitilibusque uiaguua iii priinia equea 

Othone oontcmpto sedet. 
quid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

roetrata duci pondere 
contra latrones atque sei-vilem manum 

hoc, hoc tribuno milituml' 


it o deorum quidquid in caelo regit 
terras et humanum genus, 
uid iste fert tumultusl et quid omniuui 

LIBER. CARM. V. 187» 

voltus in unum me truoest 
per liberos te, si vocata partubus s 

Lacina veris adfuit, 
per hoo inane purpurae deeus precor, 

per improbaturum haeo Iovem, 
quid ut noverca me intueris aut uti 

petita ferro beluaf' 10 

ut haeo trementi questus ore oonstitit 

inaignibus raptis puer, 
impube oorpus, quale posset impia 

mollire Thraoum pectora, 
Canidia, brevibus implicata viperis 13 

crines et inoomptum oaput, 
iubet 8epulcris caprifioos erutas, 

iul>et cupres8us funebres 
et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine 

plumamque nocturnae strigis to 

herbasque, quas Iolcos atque Hiberia 

mittit venenorum ferax, 
et ossa ab ore rapta ieiunae canis 

flammi8 aduri Colchicis. 
at expedita Sagana per totam domum t.« 

spargens Avernales aquas 
horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

echinus aut currens aper. 
abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

ligonibus duris humuni 30 

exhauriebat ingemens laboribus, 

quo posset infossus puer 


longo die bia tetque mutatae dspis 

ineu ctaculo, 

cum j et ore, quantum exatant aqua 

sust anto corpora ; 

exsect- edulla et aridutu iecur 

amoris e l poculum, 
inlerrainato liim semel Lixae cibo 

intabuissent pupulae. 
aon defuisse masculae libidinis 

Ariminensem Foliam 
et otiosa credidit Neapolis 

et omne vicinum oppidum, 
auae sidera excantata voce Thessala 

lunamque caelo deripit. 
liic irresectum saevn dente Hvido 

Uanidia rodena pollicem 
quid disit aut quid tacuitt 'o rebus meis 

non infideles arbitrae, 
Nox et Diana, quae ailentium regis, 

arcana eum fiunt sacra, 
nunc, nunc adcsto, nunc in hostilea domos 

iram atque numen vertite. 
fonnidolosis dom latent lilvia ferae 

dulci sopore languidae, 
senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

latrent Suburanae canes 
nardo peninctum, quale non perfectiui 

meae laborarint manus. — 
quid acciditl cur dira barbarao minoi 





LIBER. OABM. V. 188» 

venena Medeae valent, 
quiboi superbam fugit ulta pelH c em, 

magni Oreontis filiam, 
cum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam *s 

inoendio nuptam abstulitl 
atqui neo herba neo latent in atperii 

radix fef ellit me locia. 
indormit unctiB omnium cubilibus 

oblivione pellicum. 90 

a a, solutus ambulat veneficae 

aoientioria oarmine. 
non usitatis, Vare, potionibus, 

o multa fleturum caput, 
ad me reourres neo vooata mens tua 73 

Marsis redibit vocibus: 
maius parabo, maius infundam tibi 

fastidienti poculum, 
priusque caelum aidet inferius mari, 

tellure porrecta super, lo 

quam non amore sic meo flagres uti 

bitumen atris ignibus.' 
sub haec puer iam non ut ante mollibus 

lenire verbis impias, 
sed dubius unde rumperet silentium 85 

miflit Thye8teas preces. 
'venena magnum fas nefasque non valent 

convertere humanam vioem. 
diris agam vos; dira detestatio 

nulla expiatur victiraa, 90 


quin, ubi perire iussus exspiravero, 

occurram Furor 

pe itus unibra curvig unguibus, 

qu eorum est Manium, 

et in issidena praecordiis 

j soi.mos auferam. 

VOs . vicatim hinc et liinc saxts peteni 

post _ nienibra different lupi 

et Esquilinae alites, 
neque hoc parentes heu mihi auperstites 

etluyerit spectaculum.' 

Quid iiBUOMUtM iicjspites vexas cania 

i^wtvus advursum iuposl 
quin huc inanea, si potes, vortis minaa, 

et me remoraurum petisl 
nam qualis aut Molossus aut fulvus Locon, 

amica vis pastoribus, 
iigam per altas aure sublata nivea 

quaecumqtie praecedet fera, 
tu, cum timenda voce complesti nemua, 

proiectum odomris cibum. 
cave, cave: natuque in maloa Mperritnus 

parata tollo cornua, 
qualis Lycambae spretits ittfido gener 

aut acer liostis Bupnlo. 


an si quis atro dente me petiverit, Sf 

inultus ut flebo puert 


Quo, quo soelesti ruitis aut cur dexteria 
'«£{ aptantur enses conditif 

parumne campifl atque Neptuno super 

fusum est Latini sanguinis, 
non ut superbas invidae Karthaginis 5 

Romanus arces ureret, 
intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

Sacra catenatus via, 
sed ut 8ecundum vota Parthorum sua 

urbs haec periret dexteraf to 

neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus 

unquam nisi in dispar feris. 
furorne caecus an rapit vis acrior 

an culpaf responsum date! 
tacent, et albus ora pallor inficit rs 

mentesque perculsoe stupent 
sic est: acerba fata Romanos agunt 

scelusque fraternae necis, 
ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi 

sacer nepotibus cruor. » 


Quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes 
victore laetus Caesare 


tecum i Ita — sic Iovi gratum — doino, 

b cenai, bibam 

»0111 uni tibiis carmen lyro, 

ht- m, illis b&rbaruml 

nt r tus cum freto Neptunius 

i uatis nuvibus, 

miniLi li vincla, quae detraxurat 

Roiuau. bitis — 

emanc i aa 

fert vallura et um, miles et spadombus 

servire rugot_ poteet, 
anterque signa turpe militaria 

sol sdspicit conopium. 
at liuc frementes verterunt bis milie equos 

Galli canentes Caesarem, 
hostiliuraque navium portu latent 

puppea sinustrorsum citae. 
Io Triumphe, tu moraris aureos 

currus et intactas bovee! 
Io Triumphe, nec Iugurtbino parem 

bello reportasti ducem, 
neque Africanum, cui super Karthaginem 

virtus sepulcrum condidit. 
terra mnrique victus hostis punico 

lugubre mutavit sagum; 
aut ille centum nobilem Cretam urbibna, 

ventis iturus non suis, 
exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Noto, 

LIBER. CARM. X. 143* 

aut fertur inoerto mari 
capacioree affer huc, puer, eoyphos 

et Chia vina aut Leebia, 
vel quod fluentem nauaeam ooerceat 35 

metire nobia Caecubum: 
curam metumque Gaeaaria rerum iuvat 
. ' dulci Lyaeo aolvere. 


Mala aoluta navia exit alite, 

ferena olentem Maevium. 
ut horridifl utmmque verberea latus, 

Auater, memento fluctibua! 
niger rndentea Eurua inverao mari 5 

fraotoaque remoe differat, 
insurgat Aquilo, quantua altia montibua 

frangit trementea ilioea; 
nco siduB atra noote amioum appareat, 

qua triatis Orion cadit, » 

quietiore nec feratur aequore, 

quam Graia victorum manus, 
cum Pallaa usto vertit iram ab Ilio 

in impiam Aiacii ratem. 
o quantua inatat navitia sudor tuis 13 

tibique pallor luteus 
et illa non virilis eiulatio, 

preoea et aversum ad Iovem, 


Ionius udo cum remugiens sinua 

opi: iilsi praeda curvo litore 

po > mergos iuveris, 

libidiuv»-j immolabitur caper 
et agiu Tempestatibua. 


Honidn tempestas caelnm contraxit, et imliros 

nivesque deducunt Iovem; nunc mare, nunc silune 
ThreTcio Aquilone sonaiit : l-apiamus, itmici, 

oc---i- ,■.■: ■■'■■ de die, dumque virent genua 
et decet, obdticta solvutur fronte senectus. j 

tu vina Torqunto move consule press» ineo ; 
cetera mitte loqui : deus baec fort&ise benign* 

reducet in sedem vioe. nunc et Aobsemenio 
pet-fundi nardo iuvut et fide Cyllenea 

levare diria pectora sollicitudinibus ; » 

nobilis ut grandi cecinit CenUturus alurono s 

'invicte, mortalia dea nate, puer, Tlietide, 
te manet Assaraci tellua, quam frigida parvi 

findunt Scamandri flumina, lubricus et SimoTs, 
unde tibi reditum certo aubtemine Parcae ,j 

rupere, nec mater domum caerula te revehei 
ilHc (.iinne malum vino cantuque levato 

deformis aegrimoniae dulcibus alloquiis.' 




Mollis inertia cur tantam diffuderit imis 

oblivionem sensibus, 
pooula Lethaeos ut ai duoentia somnos 

arente fauce traxerim, 
eandide Maeoenas, occidis aaepe rogando: 5 

deus, deus nam me vetat 
inoeptoa, olim promiasum carmen, iambos 

ad umbilioum adduoere. 
non aliter Samio diount arsiase Bathyllo 

Anaoreonta Teram, 10 

qui persaepe oava testudine flevit amorem 

non elaboratum ad pedem. 
ureris ipse miser. quodsi non pulohrior ignis 

aocendit obsessam Ilion, 
gaude sorte tua: me libertina neque uno 15 

oontenta Phryne macerat 


Nox erat et caelo fulgebat luna sereno 

inter minora sidera, 
oum tu magnorum numen laesura deorum 

in verba iurabas mea, 
artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex, 5 

lentis adhaerens braoohiis: 
dum peoori lupus et nautis infestus Orion 

turbaret hibernum mare, 
P. H. 10 


intonwue agitaret Apollinia aura capillos, 

nc amorem mutuum, 
o , mea multum virtute Neaera I 

i quid in Flacco viri est, 

noi assiduaa potiori te dare noctes, 

et, ret iratus parem; 

nec semel offensae cedet constantia formae. 

n certus intrarit dolor. 
et tu, quicumque es felicior atque meo nunc 

superbus incedia malo, 
sis pecore et multa dives tellure licebit 

tibique Pactolus fluat, 
nec te Pythagorae fallant arcana renati, 

formaque vincaa Nirea, 
elieu translatos alio maerebis amores : 

asb ego l" 


Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetaa, 

auis et ipsa Boma viribus ruit: 
quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marai 

minacis aut Etruoca Foraenae manus, 
aemula nec virtua Capuae neo Spartacua acer 

novisquo rebua infidelis Allobrox, 
nec fera caerulea domuit Oermania pube, 

parentibuaque abominatns Hannibal, 
impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetaa, 


ferisque rursus oooupabitur solum. «o 

barbarus heu eineree insistet viotor et Urbem 

eques sonante verberabit ungula, 
quaeque oarent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini — 

nefas vuiere— aissipabit iTH O l ^n T, 
''. forte quid expediat oommuniter aut melior pars 15 

malis earere quaeritis laboribus: 
nulla sit hao potior sententia, Phooaeorum 

velut profugit ezseerata eivitas 
agros atque lares patrios, habitandaque fana 

apris reliquit et rapaeibus lupis, t© 

ire pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque per undas 

Notus vooabit aut protervus Afrieus. 
sio placet, an melius quis habet suaderet — lecunda 

ratem occupare quid moramur alitef 
sed iuremus in fcaeo : simul imis saxa renarint 15 

vadi8 levata, ne redire sit nefas; 
neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea, quando 

Padus Matina laverit oaoumina, 
in mare seu celsus procurrerit Appenninus, 

novaque monstra iunxerit libidine 30 

mirus amor, iuvet ut tigres subsidere cervis, 

adulteretur et oolumba miluo, 
credula neo ravos timeant armenta leones, 

ametque salsa levis hircus aequora. 
haec et quae poterunt reditus abscindere duloes, 35 

eamus omnis exsecrata civitas, 
aut pars indocili melior grege; mollis et exspes 

inominata perpriraat cubilia. 

# 10— 2 


vos, quibus t virtus, inuliebrem tollite luctui 

£tn eter et volate litora. 

m ■• m-, eanus circumvagus : arva, beata 

petar '» divites et insulas, 

ruddit ■ercra telluB inarata quotannis 

et imputat* floret usque vinea, 
germinat et numquam fallentis termes olivae, 

Euamque pulla ficus ornat arborem, 
mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 
illic iniussae veniunt aii mulctra capellao, 

refcrtque t«nta gre* amicus ubera ; 
nec vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, 

neque intumescit atta viperis humus. 
pluraque felices mirabimur : ut neque lurgis 

aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
pmgui» nec sicci* urantur semina giaebn, 

utrumque rege temperante caelitum. 
non huc Argoo contendit remige pinu*, 

neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 
non huc Sidonii torserunt coniua nautae 

laburiosa nec cohors Ulixei. 
nulla nocent pecori contagia, nnlliua astri 

gregeni oestucea torret impotentia. 
Iuppiter illa piae necrevit litora genti, 

ut inquinavit aere teropus aureum ; 
aere, dehim: ferro dnravit saeculs, quoraro 

piis secunda vate me datur fuga. 



Iam iam efficaci do manus scientiae, 

supplex et oro regna per Proeerpinae, 

per et Dianae non movenda numina, 

per atque libros carminum valentium 

refixa caelo devocare sidera, 5 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris 

citumque retro solve, solve turbinem. 

movit nepotem Telephus Nerelum, 

in quem superbus ordinarat agmina 

Mysorum et in quem tela acuta torserat. 10 

unxere matres Iliae addiotum feris 

alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectorem, 

postquam relictis moenibus rex procidit 

heu pervicacis ad pedes AchilleX. 

saetosa duris exuere pellibus 15 

laborioei remiges Ulixei' 

volente Circa membra: tum mens et sonus 

relapsus atque notus in voltus honor. 

dedi satis superque poenarum tibi, 

amata nautis multum et institoribus. » 

fugit iuventas et verecundus color 

reliquit oesa pelle amicta lurida; 

tuis capillus albus est odoribus; 

nullum a labore me reclinat otium; 

urget diem nox et dies noctem neque est t$ 

levare tenta spiritu praecordia. 

ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 


Sabella pectus increpare carmina 

cai rsa diaailire nenia. 

q vis 1 o mare et lerra, ardeo, 

qu ue atro delibutua Hercules 

Ni nec Sicaua fervida 

vii u. :iiii flamma; tu, doneo cinia 

ini ( lus ventia ferar, 

quae . >( U .j] Uh — -»<>t ntipendiumt 

effare , iu»» cum fide poenas lunm, 

paratus expiara, seu poposceris 

centum iuvencos, sive mendaci lyra 

voles sonari 'tu pudica, tu prol.ui' 

perambulabis astra aidus aureum. 

infamia Helenae Caator offensua vice 

fraterque magni Castoris, victi prece, 

adempta vati reddidere lumina. 

et tu, potea nam, aolve me dementia, 

o nec patemia obsolet* aordiboa 

neque in sepulcria pauperum prudens anus 

novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

tibi hoepitale pectus et purae manus, 

tuusque venter Pactumeius, et tuo 

cruore rubros obetetrix pannoa lavit, 

utcumque fortis exsilis puerpera. 

'quid obeeratis auribus fundia preceat 
non saxs. nudis surdiora navitis 
Neptunus alto tundit hibernus salo. 
inultus ut tu riseris Cotyttia 

LIBER. CAIttf. XVII. 151* 

volgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis, 

et Esquilini pontifex venefiei 

impune ut TJrbem nomine impleris meof 

quid proderat ditaase Paelignas anus, *• 

velociusve miscuisse toxioumt 

sed tardiora fata te votis manent: 

ingrata misero vita duoenda est in hoc, 

novis ut uaque suppetas laboribus. 

optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, $$ 

egena benignae Tantalus semper dapis, 

optat Prometheu8 obligatus aliti, 

optat 8upremo coUocare Sisyphus 

in monte saxum; sed vetant leges Iovis. 

voles modo altis deeilire turribus, 90 

modo ense peotus Norico recludere, 

frustraque vincla gutturi neotes tuo, 

fa8tidiosa tristis aegrimonia. 

vectabor umoris tuno ego inimicis eques, 

meaeque terra cedet insolentiae. yj 

an quae movere cereas imagines, 

ut ipae nosti curiosus, et polo 

deripere lunam vocibus possim raeis, 

poasim orematos exoitare mortuos 

desiderique temperare pocula, to 

plorem artis in te nil agentis exitusf' 



This Ode U introdnetory to tbo flrst three Books and thoald 
be oompared with the oonolnding Ode of Book iix. : in it Horaoe 
apologises at some length for attempting lyrio poetry and 
briefly dedieates hii eompositions to Maeeenas. 

Nanek anggesta with mnoh reason that the two flrst and two 
iast lines were not in the original Ode, but were added at a 
later period when the poet determined to dedioate his writings 
10 Maeoenas. When they are omitted the Ode is left perfeet as 
an introdnotory Ode, and the division of the stansas beoomes 
mnoh more olearly marked, the flrst siz beginning with the 
words ftMtf fuot, hunc, gaudenUw^ luctanUm, e$t qui, multot, 
shewing almost positively to anyone aoqnainted with Horaoe's 
tondness fdr plaoing gniding words in gniding positions tliat we 
hare here what were originally the first words of three pairs of 
oarefnlly balanoed stansas. 

'Many and varions are the pnrsnits and aims of men to 
whioh they oling tenaoionsly, glory, wealth, ease, war 9 sport: 
1, with the help of heaven, long to be a lyrio poet, and il you, 
M aeeenas, eonsider me one, I shall have attained the height of 
my atnbition.' 

133 HORACE, ODES L i. 

1. Maecenaal C. Cilniua Maecenaa, 'aprung from a royel 
Iinenge,' ' Etrorian origin, hia «necatora being Luou- 

mouoB or 111 at Arretinni : cf. 3. 29. 1, Turrhtna rtgum 

pmgeniet. u the patron and protector (pra«idium) not 

only of I bot of Virgil. who also addreeaoa him aa 

decut. v , i mentti pari maxima noitrat, Georg. 3. 40. 

His nnrne c< iilly reeura irt Horaoe, and ■ knowledge of tbo 

principal fftiin. hia life is csscnlial. 

atavia] The -rder is pater, avut, proatut, abavut, atacui, 

3. o et] For a> similar hiatus aftnr the interjoction o ef. 1. 
35. 38, ind 4. 6. ST. o utinam, Epod. 2. 25, o ego, Epiit. 1. 19. 
19, o imitatorei. 

S.i. sunt quoa...iuTat] Literally, 'there are (those) whom 
it delights,' i.e. 'aome take a> pleaeure iu...' Sunt qui mey be 
followed by either the aubjuncti ve or indicativo ; when it takea 
the snbj. it meani 'there are f auch a (oharacler) that '; 

wheu the indicatiTe, it ii i ore definite, and the tvo 

words almoat ooaleeoe into « .i pronoun = 'aome.' Cf. 
the Oreek use of larit ol, whieh i iclined all througb as if 
a aingle word. 

i. coUeglaie] Tbe pbraae 'to have eollected Olympio dost' 
needs no eiplanation wheu we consider the eloud of duat tbe 
ahariota wonld raise in tbe arena, and how thickly it would 
oover tbe oompetitore. The perfect ia uaed iutentionally : men 
delight not merely in doing, but iu having dont a feat. Cf. 
3 J. 61 and S. 18. 15. 

6. palma] A wreath of wild olite {(oVion) wu tha priae at 
Olyinpi», but a branoh of palm waa alto oarried bj Tiotcai in 
all the gamei. The Bomana introduoed the praotice in 389 m,c 
aud tbe uw of tlie word ia very oommon aa aynonymoo* with 
'victory.' In Chriitian timea the palro !■ ■ aign of thoM 
who have ™i tbe priie of martyrdom. 

6. terrarnm flomlnoa] Either agreoing witli itot, or aoo. 
aftcr evehit. In tbo former caae it ia diffioDlt to »ee why the 
godi are apecially ipoken of a« ' lorda of earth,' iri faot the 
woirdi aeem nnnaoeaaarj, the phraae evehit ad d*m befng 
complete withont them ; in the latter wo mey tranalate 'exalta 
to heavon (ae tbongh they had beoome, or at thlnMnj them- 
aeWes) lordi of tbe world,' or we mey take ttrrarvm dommat 
M — Tcgci and enppose thnt Horace ia referring to aotnal 'lorda 
of «arth, ' anob at Hiaro, who oontended at Olympia. 

NOTE& 183 

For tvthit ad d$$$ ef. 4. 9. 18, quot EUa domum r$- 
aueU | patma eatUtUt. Bvtho is eommon in the sonss of 
'earryins; np' or •on high,' et. Virg, Aen. 6. 180, pu$...ardmu 
$v$mU ad atthtra virtut. 

7, 9. hnne...mnm] Governed by a verb to be snpplied from 
thegeneral eenee of Juvat and $v$hU, e.g. il delighte, it mekee 

Of late years many seholars have advooated ea entirely 
4« freeh translation of thie difnonlt passage. Thev pleoe a fnu 
etop after nobUU, mako Ur rarum dominot the direot aoe. after 
tvthit, and hune and ilium in appoeition to it the oolleetive 
word dominot being thne iplit np into ite mdividnal eompo- 
nents. Ttrrarum aominot in thii oaee meana the Bomane in 
oppoeition to the Greeka already mentioned. Traaelate: 'The 
lordi of the world it exalts to heaven, one if...another if...' 
The awkward etop after nobiUt at the end of the first line of 
the eeeond etansa ia a great objeotion to thii view, and, if 
Nanek'i theory of the original arrangement of the etanaae be 
right* the objeotion to a full etop ei ter nobiUt is almoet fatal. 

8. tergeminla honoribne] 'triple maristraeiee,' Le. the 
enmle aedileahip, praetorehip and ooiisnlship, the three great 
ofiioes whieh were the objeot of Boman ambition. 

10. a Libydi] The oorn-land of Italy, whioh wae oontmnally 
deereasing owing to the inoreaie of parks, vineyards, olive- 
yarda, and paitnre-landi, wae yearly beooming more and more 
Inadequate to eupply the reqniremente of Bome, whioh de- 
pended largely for its eunplies on Libya, Egypt. and Siefly, 
mnoh ai Bngland now beeomeo yearly more dependent on 
Amerioa, Cf. 2. 15. 1 n. 

19. Attallels oondloionlbns] 'Terme sneh ae an Attalne 
oonld offer.' The wealth of theee kings of Pergamns wae pro- 
verbial; Pliny relatee that Attalns ILmade a bid of 100 talents 
for a ainglejpiotnre. ef. 9. 18. 5. The nse of eondieio is very 
elassioal The word shonld alwayi be spelt with a ei it is not 
from condo, ai dediHo ii from dedo, but from eum and die the 
root of dico, bUrv/u, 6o. We give to both eondieio and eon- 
ditio the eame lonnd 'oh,' and henoe the oonfniion of ipelling. 
The Bomam wonld have prononnoed the former with a k. the 
latter with a t eonnd. 

18. dlmoveas] Notioe the nie of the 2nd penon sing. in an 
indefinite senee— 'any one.' We shonld say here 'no onc 
wonld ever move...' 


Cyprla] Cyprui from its eituation held an iinportanl 
poiition in regaid to tlie trafiic of tbe Muditerranem. henoe 
'Cjpriau baiki" would bt well known. 

U — 16. OyprU— Hjrtonm— lcarili— iftUnd Noticcverj 
carefullj Horaoe'i singular fondneei for ipeciahiing general 
worde auoh ei "ship, 1 'm,' 'waveii,' 'wind.' bj giring to eaeh 
' m local habfta t ioo uid a name ' : the effect U to give definite- 
ntsa [iinl niili! y. Numeroai inBtftQcos occui iu slroost eveij 
Orlc. The lemmed vorne-niakcrs of Aleisndris had preriouslj 
carried the practice to excess. 

14. pavidui] Trembling eecaoee of hU inexperienoe, which 
would make him ez&ggerate the dangera. Orelli saji ' pavidvi, 
frt<iuetu Hautantm trtSrror' ; but tbia U not *0 : the epithet U 
not a mere itandard epithet for aailore, tbe point ia tbat tbe 
man ia atraid becanae he ia not a lailor but a landaman, of. 
Tac. Ann. 9. 23, milti pavidm tt e.atuum marii ignarut. The 
epithets of Horaoe are nover idle; no writer more carefullj 
attachea a dennite nse to each. It U nufflcient to point to the 
careful nse of ftrvidii, nobilit, niuoilium, proprio, patrioi in 
the ti n t few linei of thia Ode. 

18. lBdodlH patt] &ee 1. S. SS and note. 

pauperlemj 'humble oiicumatancea,' of. 1. 11. 43 n, and 
3. 16. 37 n. 

30. pirtem «olido demera de dle] Soltdui, connected witb 
lolui, JXsi, that whioh U whole, entire; henoe diit tolidut. 
tbat pait of the daj wbich sboold not be broken into. the 
working pait of the daj. Cf. Son. Ep. 88, hoditrnui diei 
lulidvn til, ntmo ex illo mihi quidquam eripuit. Tbe neil 
two linea shew that the refeience U to taking a long aieeta at 

33. stratni membm] ' hU limbi b tretohed.' 

Imi oapnt] ■ the gentle sonrce. ' The weter flows gen tlj and 
•oothea him to eleep. 

83. Iltno tnbu] The fu&a wma itraight a&d used bj the 
infantry, tha littiui enrred and ueed bj the oaTalrj. Lnoan 1, 
337, itridor lituvm clangorqut tuharum, 'the shnek of horns 
and braving of trumpets,' iflnstrate» theu aonnd, and thaj are 
dopioted in Bmith'a Diot Ant. 

36. dateetata] 'abhorred.' Tbough the Terb Udeponent 
ihe participle haa a paasive aenae. Thia U the ease with manj 
deponent vorbn, e.g. abtnainatat, modulatut, mtditatui. 


NOTES. 185 

eub Iore frigldol 'beneath the oold heaTen.' Jupftfear if the 
god of the bright eky, and tub Jove ii* tuo divo or tuo dto, 
8. 8. 6. Thii ia cfeer from the etanology, Jupiter being 
sDtapater, and Diu being from an Indo-European root dit 
(whenoe dfout , 4Ut\ Z«to, Atot or Aif ot, Ao.) whioh indieatee 
^brightneM. 1 Of. too DiespiUr, 1. 84. 6 and 8. 8. 89. 

88. teretee] See 8. 4. 81 n. The oorda are not looeely 
made but earefuuy and neetly twiated, •ehapely,' and therefbre 

88« mel Notioe the pronoun pnt firet to indioate the 
tranaition firom the pureuita of other men to that whieh 
Horaee makee the objeot of hia ambition. 

hederae] Irj waa aaored to Baoohua, and in ooneequenoe, 
he being the god of inepiration (aee 8. 19. 6 n.), the eymbol of 
poeta, ez. Virg. EoL 7. 25, hedera eretcentem omaU poetem. 

dootamm frontlum] 'poetio browa' — "thie ia the regular 
meaning of doetus in the Latin poete," EUie, Cat 85. 16 n. 

88. aeoernunt populo] Bo 8. 1. 1, Odi profamm vttigus 
et areeo. The poet by hia inenirationa ia aeparated from the 
▼ulgar thronff to whom the world of imagination ia nnknown, 
but he ia only ao when the Mneea are favourahle, *if neither 
doea Euterpe reatrain the pipea nor Polyhymnia ahrink from 
tuning the Leebian frre.' 

tlbUa] PluraL beoauae two pipes, one of a higher the 
other of a lower pitoh, were ueually employed; aee illuatration 
in Smith'a Diet. Ant. 

84. Leeboum] Leaboa waa the natfre plaoa of Terpander 

SO — 650 b.o.) and Aloaeua, and alao the ialand 'where burn- 
Sanpho loved and aung.' Henoe the lyre ia ealled Leabian 
after the birthplaoe of thoae 'lyrio bards' among whom Horaoe 
deairea to be ranked. For barbitot of. 1. 82. 4 n. 

86. funllml...] The triple reourrenoe of tbia idea in thia 
Ode here and linea 6 and 80 ia aomewhat awkward. Orelli 
endeavoura to diatinguiah between the three phraaee, bnt at 
any rate there ia a atnking reaemblanoe between them. 

ODE n. 

Thia Ode ia addreated to Auguatua aa the almoat dirine pro- 
teotor and guardian of the Boman state. It oommenoea with 
an aeoount of the portents whioh indicated the wrath of 

13« HORACE, ODES I. ii. 

the gods at the murder of Caesar (on tbe Ides of March 
s.c. 41) 1—30, allndee to the eivil war whwh foUowed 90— 
24, aake to what god the duty of eipiating the gnilt of 
Rome shall be assigned, and ilnalh give» tbe preferenoe to 
Mcrcury, who (lino 10) is suppoaed to Uke upon him the form 
of Angustns. The Ode eonclndae with a prayer that Augustns 
may long Hve to gnide end guard the atate. 

The mention of mtiirnoi triumphot in line 19 hei taggested 
the year 29 B.o. as the date of the oompoaition of tbe Ode. 
In that year Augnatus retumed to Rome aa aole meater of 
the Roiuac tvorld, and on the Tth and (ollowing dayi of Seitilia 
(thereafter oaUed Auguatus) celcbrated his triple tnumph over 
tbe DBlmatians, ovor Cleopatra st Aotium, and orer Ihe Alex- 
andriana. If howevor ao late a data be assigned to it, tbe 
year 28 in which he actually received the title of princepi 
(cf. 1. 50) wuuld auit better. H. T. Plusa argues strongly for 
an enrlier date. e.g. 36 immediately after tbe defeat of Sftx. 
Pompeius, when the portents which foUowed the dsath of 
Caeaar were paet bnt not forgotten, and when Ootavian first be- 
gan to be regarded aa the poaaible aaviour of tbe etate, cf. 1. 25. 

The whole Ode is to be compsred with tliu brilliant passage 
of VirgU, Georg. 1. 1S5 to the end, and the deaoription of the 
portents with Shskeapeare, Jnl. Caea. Aet 1, eo, S. 

1. Mtli terrt» Dlvli...gno(llnli mlslt] Nanoi rightly caUa 
attcntion to the olearly intontional repetition of tbo syllablo 
u : it would seern a« if Horace were endeavouring — somewhat 
tbeatricaUy — to imitate the wearisomo uthiitling of the wind 
in stoncy we&ther. Cf. i. 13. 2 n. 

Not employing rhyme as wa do, the Bonun poeta, eepeoiaUy 
the eariier onea, delighted in ' alliteration, aasonanoe, repatition 
of tha same 01 sirnilar words syUables and aonnda': aaa HBN 
IiOer. Indei s. 1. ' aUiteration '. 

2. nibenU] Bo MUton, Pnr. Loat, Bk S. 178, '«honld 
intermitted vengcance arm again Hia Ttd Hght hand to 
plagne na.' 

S. aacrms areea] An from arete fGk. ofwew, i\<d,), a plaoe 
ofdefenca. The uorthcm anmmitof the Capitoline waalechni- 
oally eslled tbe Arx, u having been traditionallj tho flrat hUl 
oooupied u • 'stronyhold.* On tha loutheni auminil vu tha 

NOTE& 187 

great temple of Jnpftter Oapitolinne, and the two ■mnmito would 
nitnil^be tennod mmtm ortef. The god oould hardly Indi- 
o»Uhbw»thmoieelearly thejibyitrildngwith hif thundor- 
bolt the very temple ereeted in hii honour. 

4. XTrbem]whenii»edbyiteelfi«alwaTea«city, Le.Bome: 
«rot end genUt inelude the whole world, et the weU-known 
motto urbi tt crbi, 

4, 5. termtt...terruit] Hoimoe ie oztremely fond of thii 
method of eonneoting etanaM or aontenoei hy the repetition of 
an omphatfo word. He alwave avoida if poeeible ooupling 
eentenoee together, eo to epeek, meohanioally, by the nee of 
fnoh worde m tt t nam, enim Ao. Of. U. 91, 98, audUt...audUt t 
1. 8. 38, ignem...poet ignem, 9. 4. 5, novit...movit t 9. 16. 88, 
U..MM...U, 4. 2. 18, cecidere...cecidit. In other oaeee tho 
emphatio word ie plaoed at tbe end of the firet oleoee and 
at tho oommeneement of the aeoond, 8. % 19, nori, mort, 
8. 8. 80, Trqja4 t Trojae, 8. 18. 15, muneribut, munera t 4. 8. 11, 
earmU^ut t carmtna, tho oonnection oi thonght being thne 
made very cloee. 

6. eaeonlnm...] «The grievoue dayi when Pyrrha bewafled 
etrange prodigiee. 9 Momtrummmontttrum, quod monet: that 
whioh wafne, a portent, prodigy. 

7. Proteue 1 ot Hom. Od. 4. 886, Virg. Qeorg. 4. 896, wm 
tho gnardian of Neptune'e herdi of leeli. 

7, 8. egit Tieere] Thie ue of the infinitive to e i p r eie a 
purpoee ie of the extremeet rarity : Dr Kennedy cella it 4 a poetie 
Graeeiem ooeaeionaUy need after verbe implying motion, pnr- 

Ke/ 01 Virg. Aen. 1. 627, populare penatee venimut, and 
ut. Oae. 8. 6. 48, ego huo mitta tum ludere. Horaoe ie 
^eingnlarly fond of employing tho inflnitive after verbe whioh do 
not ordinarily admit it, bnt I ean find no inetance etrictly 
parallel with thie. 

11. euperiecto] ee. UrrU: *tho aU-oovering flood. 9 

18. vidlmne] Notfoehowtheverb, byiUabruptandpromi. 
nent poeition, at onoe bringe the mind from the daya of tho 
flood to what had actually happened in the eight of living men. 

18 ff. vidlmne ] Moet editore take thie, *we have eeen 

tbe vellow Tiber, ite wavee hnrled violently baok from the ehore 
of the Tueoan eea, advance to deetroy. . . . ,' explaining it by 
referenoe to an old theory (mentioned by Herodotne, 9. 20, 

13H HOBACE, ODES 1. li. 

but lejecUd bj bim, and bj Seneca Nat. Quaest. S. 36) to 
the eflect tbat floods are duc to tha wind blowing riolentlj 
against the mouth of a rivei »Qcl prtveutiug the efflax of iU 
waters. Thia is objectiouable, fint. becaute it ii hsid to 
conoeive thet ao absnrd n thooiy vu widelj prsvelent; 
acconjlv, because even atsuining tbU theory end aeaumiug 
litui Etruimta to mean tbe eboie of the Tuscau spa, it is 
absolutelj impossible to conceive how the waves of the Tiber 
oould be said to be huiled back fiom it. How oan i> river be 
driven back, not by the aea. 01 the wind, but bj tbe lea-coaatT 
Let the Etudent take a inap of Rome acd obterre hov the 
Tibei flows in u nraight line past the Csmpua Martina until iu 
couree is cbecked bj tbe islsnd of tbe Tibei snd an ugly bend : 
let him tben noliee that on the Etiurian side (Injctim lifu») 
are the lofty alopaa of the Janiculan, and on the othei (linittra 
ripa) the iow-lyiog diitricW of llie Fonim Boarinin and the 
Velia. snd then let him conHider for himself tbe rendering, 'We 
bave teen (ae sny titiien of Bome oould have eeeu, without 
auj thcory aa to the cuuse of floodi) the yellow Tibci (yellower 
than ever witb tbe flood), ite waves hnrled bsck witb violence 
fiom the (Eteep) bankt on tbe Etrurisu aide (againit which tbe 
whole force of the itream would come), sdvance fss It natu- 
rally would wheu ohecked by tbe river.bend and the Uland) 

to destroy, ifcc Anj aitiien of London might aee the laiue 

eflect produced bj tbe Thame» being driven back frotn the 
lofty embii.kmeul of tiie Middleeex shore to flood tbe bumbler 
dwellings o( tbe SurTej aide. 

16.16. monuminta regli Umplaque Veitae] Num» Pompi- 
;iu§ bu il i a circular Umple of Veste aud a palace iRtgia) attaohed 
to it at tbe foot of tbe Palatine. Being aituated oloae to tbe 
low refioji called Velia (from veltiin, a iaii), tbej would lUnd 
immediauly in the waj of the inundation. 

17. nue] Ilia, or Bbea Silria, i« apoken of ai the wife of 
the river into wbicb ahe waa thrown, and il repieaented aa by 
tbe ' impoitunitj of her complainU ' (niiaiiupi qturau) uiging 
her bnsband to avenge the mnrder of hai gieat deaoendani, that 
Juliua whcae nama recalled her own. 

19. Iotb non probasta] JupiUr had deajred to wem 
Eome by the poitenU dssoribed 1 — 18, not rnthlasslj to 
destroy it. 

uiorini] Uacd of a huaband who ii too devotad to hii 

NOTE& 189 

wim, hffi ol tho Tiber-god, who is too wffling to listen to hii 

Tho thixd linoof * aapphio stftHM is so elooftly oonneeted 
withthefoorththettheyreftdftlmoetMone, ftnd oo rendar tho 
poonUsr pnsirirm nf ninrfm sflmlsiUilo, nf 1 96. 11 ftnd 1. 16. 8. 

%L etrvil vorr emphfttic, and 00 soggestmg tho fbll idaa 
•eitiftens ftgftinst cuiftens,' whioh is ftloo Imptied by tho ftnti- 
thosis fuo gravm Pcna* wuUm jMrirtni. Tho poot ihrinks 
fkom ozpreasing whftt ho snggests. 

The wholaliifttory cf tha lst oentnry beforo Ohriit is tho 
nistory of crril wars; thaaa wm dedmeted tho ohiof fftmflies 
ftt Bomo: *the rftaks of yonth woro thinnad by the orimos of 
theiralres.* Tho proscriptione of Mftrius end Bnllft, tho bftttles 
of Phftrsftlift (*.o. 48), Pnilippi (b.0. 42) ftnd Aotinm (ft.0. 81), 
woald bo fresn in erery memory. 

88. grftTftft Fersfte] ThePerftiftnempire,detiiigfromOyrns 
(B,a 569), wfts dostroyed by Alezftnder, oat the Komftn poeta 
naa tho worda Penee end Medi genorftUy with referenoa to ftny 
OrienUl people, bnt eapeoiftUy, m here, of tho Pftrthiftns who 
oeonpied whftt hftd been the Persiftn ampire. By dofsfttfng 
ftnd destroying Orftssns ftt GhftrrM (the Oharran of tho Aots) 
B.O. 68 and cftpturing the Romftn stftndards, thay hftd mftde 
ft deep impression on the imftginfttion of the ftomans. Their 
progresa wai stopped by two defeftta inflieted on them by 
ventidiua, tho legate of Antonr, b, a 89 ftnd 88, ftnd tho lost 
stftndftrds woro finally reeoTered by negotifttion, n, a 90. Ooins 
sre eztftnt with the legend, sioins pabxbxois bsgbptis, ftnd tho 
snbjeet is referred to by Horsoe ftnd other poeta with wearisome 
iterfttion. Of. Epist. 1. 12. 96, Ot. Fftst. 6. 698, Yirg. O. 4. 

96. quem...] 'Whst dirinity is the people to inroke for 
(Le. to ftid) the fortunes of onr falling power?' 

98. imperinm] Not 'empire' in the sense of ft oonntry 
rnled by an emperor, bnt in the sense of 'military sway,' the 
proper mesning of imperium. See howeTer 4. 16. 14 n. 

97. Tirgines sftnetMj The Testal Tirgins, m guarding tho 
etemftl fire of Vesta, which wm symbolical of the eternity of 
Bome, wonld be speciaUy bonnd to pray for the safety of the 
stftto, of whieh they were regarded m an integral ftnd essentisl 
nortion. Thns when Horaoe wishes to say 'while Bome shftll 
last,' ha nses the ezpression dum CapUoliim...$candet cum 
taeita virgine pontifex, 8. 80. 8. 

P. H. U 

140 HORACE, ODES I. ii. 

37, 38. mlnui andlentam csnnlna] Wiekbsm well traus- 
lates -iuruiDga de»f esr to their litanie».' Cif pj-WWW, 
from a. root m, mcsning to say) would be applioable to auy 
formula of word* ohsnted or reoited. 

29. perte*] 8o frequently in 
ii allotted to any one, ' tsnk'; of. I 
ul hoe iRinuu, luat parUi, and Hor. A. P. 194, Aeloris 
partet ehorut qficiumaut viriU | de/endat. 

31. nube...] fruia Hom. H. 5. 188, n«AgiM'»i •W»*l 
to Apollo the San-god the phreae ie espeoially applio&ble. The 
'oloadVUnOtftdark but a radinnt cloud ; of.Itev. 10. 1,'another 
mighty angel...c1othed with a oloud,' and the «^Xjj «vru^ at 
the Transfiguration. 

32. ainjur] i.o. as the god of Delphi and oracles. .(uijuris 
itrictly one who interpreti the cries of birda, trom atrit, nnd 
garrire, to ohalter, Ok. yijpilui. 

33. Erydn* rideni] 'Bweetly-emiling qaeen of Eryi." 
Mdeni = $t\o><iuieiri. M * Eryi wss oeielirated for its tempie of 
Aphrodite, probably bailt by the Phoenicieni to their goddess 
Aitarte (the Ashtoreth ot the Old Teatament), whom the Greelu 
identified with Aphrodile and the Bomane with Yenoa. 

35. iire iwglactuin...] *0r if thoa, our foander, doet 
regsrd tliy negleoted family «nd descendaute.' iucfor, u the 
sire of Itomulus. Augustns had built n. temple to ifan Ultor 
in aecordsnce with n, tow made before the battle of Philippi. 
Keipicit is used eiactly as our English 'rogard': it means 
to tnrn the head round to pay attention to snyone; e.g. to 
acknowledge the lalutation of a psaser-by, Jnv. S. 18S, ul te 
rtipieiat elauto Veienlti Iabello. 

87. ludo] In bitter irony: the god delighta in war, ■» 
8. 39. 60, Fortuna is deseribed ai fudaee intoltnttm ktdtr* jw- 
Unax. Cf. too the uie of ipeciacula tfarti in 1. 98. 17. 

88. litsi] Notice Uvit; it is tdeotiael with the G*. Xeu», 
(X..f «), while IfBii is ideuticel with JXavti. Bo UvU, 9. 7. 31, 
3. 11. 0, 4. 6. 98. 

89. KauH peditlal Boma would resd 'Mersi' on the gnxwd 
that the Moori and Nnmidisus were all horeemen, bnt thanJ 
is no reason to aatmme thai toot-aoldfen wore ne-rer employed 
by thoro. Orelli takes wditi» in the senie of 'unhcsrsed,' asd 
urgei that this sddi to the loree of the pioture and giTes ■ rea- 
ton tor tb* flereeneaa {aeer vultut) the Moor eihibits, but I oeu. 

NOTEft. 141 

not think thet enyone wonld natarefly giYo snoh * epeeiel 
neening to p$ditU in reading the itanu, 

41. srre mntaia...] «Or if thon, Owinffedeonof kindly 
Meia, dott ehango thy gniee end take npon tnos on eexth the 
fonn ol * yonth (i.e. Angnetne), enbmitting to bo eolled the 
avenger of Oaeear (Jnline).' 

lnreneni] Angnttns waa bom b.o. 68, bnt juv$nU inolndee 
the whok mflitary age between 17 end 45. Tirgil twiee (BeL 
1. 48; G. 1. 600) eelli him jwo$nUi the wotd eeeme epeeially 
.ehoeen to enggeet hope end expeotation. 

45. eleej beoanoo of the p$ta$n$ end lolarin» the winged 
eap end enklete he wore m the meeeenger of thegode. 

46. eeme...redeael «May it be long before thon doet 
retnrn.* Notioe the flettery of r$d$a$: Angnetne being an 
i n e e rn e t e deitj doee not merely go to heeTen, bnt r$mwn$ to 
it ee hie originel dwelling. 

00. pater] Le. pa:$r patria$ t the tikle of whioh Oioero wee 
eo prond (eee Meyor on Jut. 8, 844, Roma patrmn patriae 
Cie$nm$m Ub$ra HxU)\ it wee only fonnelr/ eonferred on 
Angnetne in B.a 9, bnt hed been long epplied to hhn bofore in 
eommon telk, ef. 8. 84. 87 n. 

prlnoepe] 8ee 4. 14. 6 n. 

5L Medoi] eee L 88 n. The Medien enpremaoT preeeded 
the PertUn, Ajtyettes the Uet Medien king nering been orer- 
thrown by 'Qyrne tne PersUn/ bnt eren Oreek writere nee the 
edJeetiTe es«PersUn (e.g. in Thno. r* M?3ic4«the PereUn 
war), end in Horeee itsPerthian. No donbt it ie not mere 
oexeleesnets whioh mekee the Bomen poete epeek of 'Medee' 
end 'PereUne' ineteed of 'PexthUne': by eo doinff they enggeet 
e oomna ri eon between the ezploite of Bome end the riotoriee of 
Selemle end Mexathon. 

eqnltext] The Perthien light horeemen emid their eendy 
deeerte were the dreed of the heeTy-ermed Bomen legionexiee, 
who were entirely inoepeble of reeieting their repid end de- 
enltory etteeks. Of. 8. 18. 18, end note on 1. 19. 1L The 
word equitare oonveys eleo e oolUteral notion of 'oexeering* ee 
if in eeorn, of. 4. 4. 44. 

58. Oeeeex] Emphetioalrj pleoed Ust. 

ODB m. 

'0 ehip thet oonTeyeet Yirgil to Greeoe, daly deliTer np the 
preoioas life entrasted to thy oere. Bold indeed wes the men 
who nrst trnsted himeelf to tho see, bat his wte ojuIj on* ol \h* 


whioh men, Bnoh as Promethen», 

rrculCB. have made to tranngreu the limit* 

ii providenca hu oppointRd: the coostant 

attempts prevents Jupitex from laying aside 

hii thut if wTftfh.' 

ltimacy with Hot«e see Sellar'i Virgil, pp. 
12 I and Varius &r5t Lntiodaced Horaoe to 

Miii!.. ... e ipeaki of them with sinijuiftr aSection in 

Sat, 1. amnjiic fu/jfcf n*ju* ciHiiiidiorn I (f rro rufil, 

lugiw jtr* inrfniiiw alter— 'loula th»n which never did 

earth pr w second m»n is more 

clasely k . 6. 6fi we h»ve optimui 

VirgUiw, i ...:,>,., um Daok. We only know of 

i-iin: visit ol . „_" ~ Athens, „.iiei"- <n B.c. 19, On the return 
from which lio died at Bmndisiam pt. 21. All the Odet of 
tlie first three Booku nre piobably mach earlier dste, »ml 
thcrefore thii Ode wonld see w to »n eariiar voyage, 

luch as mtiy well hava been ken by the poet of the 

Aeneid to the scene» he L. to immortalize. Some 

editore feet Ihe difficulty eo mn they either suppose tbe 

Virgil mentioned not to be tbe poet, or even alter the name to 
Qnintiliue. For my own part 1 prefer to aasume that Virgil 
visited Qreooe twioa rathei tban to aonihilftt* a link which 
eonnecti Virgil with Horace as ' the half of lifo.' 

1. slc...] The oouetruotion is navii, qtiae...debtt, reddai 
prieor.,., lic U.,.ngat pater: ■ O ihip that..,oweet, I pray thee 
dulv detiver him up.„, io miy heaven direot...' 

lieBio, i.e. on thitt condition, namely. tluil you duiy Jtlivtr 
him ap. Cf. our limilar use of 'io help you God' in ad- 
ministering oathi: tlie Lfttins, however, throw the clauses 
with tie forward, instcnd of keeping them to tbe end. Cf. 
Virg. E. 9. 30, Sie tua Curncai fugiant examina taxtn,..Tncipi, 
bnt 1. 2*. 25, ne parce.. .ile ptectantur, 

For a similir invoeation to ■ ihip of. Tennyson, In Mam. 
Canto 9 at seq., also Canto 17, 

*8o m»y whatever tempelt man 
Mid-Ocean ipare thee, sacrod bark,' 
dlva poteni Cypri] For tha oonstrnetion see 1. 8. 10 n. 
Venns ii appealed to beoanse having iprung bom the foam of 
the sea TAtfijwairjj, a^pAi|«he wu suppoied tohave an influenoe 
on tbe waves. 8o ihe u called Venui marina, 3. 26. 5 and *. 
11. lfi. 

NOTES. 143 

2. fxatres Helenae] Cf. Macaulay: 

* Sei e oomee the ihip to harbour 

Through billowi and through galee, 
If once the great Twin Bretkren 
Sit thinin§ on her seili.' 
Id thundery weather a pele-hlue flame may aometimea be 
playing at the tipe ol the maata of ehipa, due to the faet 
thet 'pointa' alwaya tend to produoe a diaeharge of eleetrioiry. 
The presenoe of thia flame waa held to indioate the preaenee of 
the Dioecuri and the safety of the abip. Italian marinera oall 
it the flre of 8t Elmo. On eoins, Ac. Gaator and Pollnz are 
repceaented with a atar on their fbreheada. 
For hacida tidera, of. 4. 8. 81. 

4. obatrlotla alUa praeter Iapyga] 'Xeeping all bnt Iapyz 
bound in nriaon.' For a description of the prieon-honse in 
whieh Aeolus guarda the nnemployed winda aee Virg. Aen. 
1. 69 et aeq. Iapyz ia to be let looae beoauae blowing from the 
Iapygian promontory in Apulia he wonld wait the traveUer 
from Brundisium to byrrachium, whenoe he wonld ooaat along 
peat Ooroyra and then down to the Onlf of Oorinth. From 
thenee he wonld paaa by land to Athena, ao that finibut AtticU 
ia not to be taken etrictly; or elae the ahip might be dragged 
aeroae the Iathmna of Oorinth Jpf. the word MoXxot) and ao 
aetoally enter the Peiraeus. The voyage to Oreeoe ronnd 
C Matapan wonld be very ezoeptional: the most eommon plan 
waa to prooeed from Dyrraohinm by land. 

alUa] 'othere/ wonld nanally be ceterie, 'the othera,' «the 

6. oredltom] Notioe the aame metaphor in debet, reddat 

9. robnr et aea triplex] 'oak and triple braaa/ ot 8. 16. 9 
n. For a aimilar metaphor, of. Aeach. Prom. 242, wi&npt+pw 
re arax wirpat elpyaff/iirot. 

10. fragllem trnoi] Notioe how juztapoaition inoreasee 
the foroa of the antitheais. Bo too pelago ratem, and of. 2. 4. 6 n. 

12. praedpltem] (vrae-caput, head foremoat) ooming down 
in andden eqnalla. CL St Loke 8. 23, tarifa \aTXaf t and the 
WOrd Karatyt[ttM. 

18. decertantem] The prepoaition aeema to gire to the 
rerb the additional foroe of fighting it out to the end. Horaoa 
aeema to have a ipecial fondnesa for these compounda, of. 1. 9. 

144 IIORACE, ODES I. iil 

11, depretliantei, 1. 18. B, debtUata, B. B. 55, dtbacchtntur, 
1.33. 3, decantt*. 

14. Hyadoi] Seren ilui in the heod of Tauru» whicb 
portonded nun or «tonn. The proie Homiii term for them 
wes Sncrilar, or tbe litter of little plgi, thui indieating > 
derivation from tt, Wi, ihi. The poet», aa w to be expeoted, 
rejeot eo natiiral and vulgar an etymology, auJ connect the 
word nrith !"'.!■ . to r»in. 

15. aiDlUi Hftdrlu] 'lord of the Adriatio.' 01. 3. 17. 1B, 
tyrarmui, aad 3. 9. 5, duc, both uacd of tho wiud'i 'mnitery' 
ovcrthe Ree. Arbit*r = ai-bitiT from ad *nd oito, en obaolete 
word meaning ' to go/ from the nm root m jialrw. An 
'erbiter' therefore = one wbo is preeaot (io in Milton 'the 
moon eiti erbitreu'), tben 'one who itaads by to witnes* 
and judge.* Here used of the wind, with wbom it restt to 
decido whethcr there aholi be Btorm or calm ut eea. 

16. toller* aeu ponare volt freta] The flrat im U omitted 
(or eonvenience. na often in poetry: cf. 1. 6. 18, 1. 93. 7, «nd 
«imilar ominiona of ,h, and otr, in Greek. Trannlate 'whcther 
he wiah to rouae or C*)m the »eB.' Thc winds are eaid to oalm 
the aea by a curioai idiom whioh npcakt of them ac oaoaing 
thut which thcir absenee causes. So Sophoole», Aj. 674, 
&,irvr a-,»a mviiATwr Uaiiuat | ar/torr* rbrrat. freta = frilli 
or firth. 

17. quem gTaduin] 'what approaoh ol doathfwhat form 
of death'i approachT' 

18. slccli oculli] i.e. without weeping. Othera proposc to 
alter liccii, m-ging that teara do not ordinarily aooompeny terror, 
but the ancicnta certainly in niany respecta had different mode* 
ofeipreaBing the emotionsto whatwehave. Wickham »ppo»itely 
qante» Hom. Od. 20. 349, oaipvoiptr vtprXarra, of tbe eyos of tho 

panio-itrioken ntrton, 

29. pruden*] l.e. pTovidetu, 'io bi» provideno*.' 

dlawwUlrUl] Host »djective« in -abiiii aro uaaaire, bnt not 

unfrequently tne poet* nse them actively, and so here diao- 

ciabilu = quat diuoeiat •dividing.' Cf. 2. 14. S, Maerimaoitem 

Plvtona, 'who doet not weep,' bnt 4. 9. 3fi, iilaerimalrilei 

unwept for.' So ftebilU 4. 3. Ml, 'weeping,' but 1. H. 9, 
Ubilior 'more wept for.' Tirg. Q. 1. 93, peiutrabiU frig**, 
piercing oold,' Lner. 1. 11, grnitabilii aura 'life-giring braoa,' 

NOTES. 145 

15. andax ptrpttt] Horaot ii fond of thit eptxtgttio or 
oompkmentary innnitive after adjectivef. It it vtry oommon 
iii Greek, e.g. etoet tKQhu. IU uat it to limit or deter- 
mino tht txaat lente of tht adjtetivt ; a man may bt bold in 
manv wayt, t.a. in flghting, taHong. &o., bnt when the infini- 
tbele added what wae dtfieitnt in the adjective ii oompltttd, a 
foil explanation (^ri^ti) ia given. Dr Ktnntdy prtftrt to 
ghre it the name of the Prolative Inf . btoantt it tmtend» tht nte 
of tht adi. to whioh it it attaohtd. Tht adjtetrfti aittr whieh 
il it oaed in tht Odtt art: $eien$ t ne$ciu$ t metuen$ t timidu$ t 
audax, doctu$ t indoctu$ t indocUU, dignut, ealUdut, eatu$ t $olUr$ t 
perUnax, effieax t prae$ent t eeUr t fortU, firmu$ t $$onU t dolo$u$ t 
bUmdu$ t ktrgue, UnU % unpoten$ t nobilie. 8ee Wiekham'i valn- 
aUt appendix. For itt ntt afttr verbt, ttt 1. 15. 97 n. 

37. laptti gtnnt] 'ton of Iapatnt,' i.e. Promethtnt, who 
ttolt flre from heaven, hid in tht tttm of tht rdpBm) otferula. 

frande malal Probably a rtminiteenot of tht Itgal 
phrate dolrn ma$u$ t wnioh ia uatd in tht tente of 'malioe pre- 
penat,' when a oriminal aot it eommitttd with fnll knowledge 
of itt oriminality, and of deliberate pnrpote. Othen take fraue 
mala a««a theft diaaitrom (in iti retulU), at tzplained in 
tht next linet. 

50. nova fttoinm...] 'a itrange (hitherto nnknown) troop 
of fevert hrooded over the earth.' Incubuit it nttd of thinoe 
pettilential, or abominabie, e.g. ill-omened birde, thiok dark- 
ntat, plaguea. Wiekham, following Orelli, givee Meem+e9 t • fell 
upon/.but ineubuit (from eubare t cumbo) hat a fnrthtr mtan- 
ing ©f re$Hng t or remaining over, to aa not to bt got rid ot 

53. temottque prlni...] 'and what wai befort the alow nt- 
ottaitj of dittant death hattened ite approaoh,' ie. mtn, thongh 
neoettariiy mortal, btfore tbii lived to a grtat agt, afterwardi 
only fbr a brief tpan. A belitf in tht longevity of primatval 
man teemt univertal. 

54. Datdalnt] (dcdda\ot t Le. varied, or cunningry wrought) 
it tht type of the over-ambitioui man of toienoe: 'over-flignty* 
in hii ideaa, we might aay: the meaning of hit namt oomptli 
ni to look for tnoh an aliegory in tht ltgend. 

55. ptrrnpit] Final lyliablt madt lomr by ictue. Notioa 
tht vigoront, rugged, iaborioni oharaoter of tnt line; aooommo- 
daiion of tonnd to tentt. For dmilar inatanett of a lyliablt 

146 HORACE, ODES I. iv. 

lengthaned whera there ii a atrong iotiu npoD it, of. 1. 13. 6, 
6, 3. 5. 17, 8. 16. 36, 8. 31. G. In ell thaee 

i longtheueil ii ths flnal syllable of the Srd 


vee place to tfae joyoui pcriod of spring: now 
n for featirity. Life is nhort, snd it ia well to 
aoon in any oase will the night of Death be 

OTL. „ 

rujftet* < bj .. -.- . - 

partiiar; of n ' _ 
miUttm undi atna 
origln of the imai 

n be was appointed eonml 

a ». i ha had been a vigorou» 

>d asrred aa a iribuniu 

thia may have beon the 

1. eolvltur ..] -Kccn 

iter rel« a hia grasp with welooma 

o apringtime s.m ta woat lind.' loiuitur.- bacauM 
wintar binds the cartli h, uanda ol jnow and ioe : of. 1. 10, 
solXoa. For vict of. 4. 7. 3. 

3. maohlna*] 'windJaMee' naed to draw down fc> tbe ae* 

itraAsrc) tbe barka whicb had been heuled np higb and dry 
tieau) for ths winter. 

S. CythereaJ From tfae ieland KiSypx oft tfae S.B. of La- 
oonia, near whioh tbe goddeae roae from the eea. The aeoond 
•jllable is shorlened for oonvenienoe in Latin, great liberty 
baing adlowed with regerd to tfae quanrjtj of proper names. 

7. dum gra,Te«...] 'While glowing Vulcan makea the 
toilaome amithj of the Cjclopea blaie.' Venus danoei aod 
Vnlout toils : evorjthing is alive. The bolts are forged reodj for 
Jupiter's use in the suuuncr wfaen thundor ia more freqnent. 

Botne oonsider tfaat tfae une of ardtni aod uril olose together 
ia objectionable becanae of their similaritj of tne&niog, and 
thera ia aome anthoritj for e reading riiit. Ihe word ortfeiu 
euggests not merely a picture of Vuloan aa the flre of the 
furueoe is refleoted on hia faoe, bnt also th» idea. of 'eagsrnesjs,' 
cf. Tlrg. Aon. 2. 539, ardetu iwtqvitar. 

Hotiee that ardere ia intrs.n«itive, ur;rs eotive. Ojolopea 
(KiicWnt), ooe-eyed monttera, aona of Earth and Hesmm, 
"o lorgod the thnnderboltt of Jove in Aetns, quite diatfnot la 

—■->"— from the Homerio Cjelopaa. 

MOTES. 147 

9. aittdum caput tmpcdire] *to entwine the gloeay head.' 

10« eolutae] Of . 1. 1. Inwinter froet bindeup the eoil: 
in epring Zephyro putrit ee gleba retolwit (Virg. Oeorg. 1. 44), 
the clod nnbindB iteelf and orumblea under the influenoe oi the 

11, 13. immolare agna] 'It is fittinff to aaerifioe toFaunna 
whether he aak (ua to aaonfiee) with a lamb or prefer (ut to 
aaarifioe) with a kibV We ahould eay, 'either with a lamb if 
he aak it or a kid if he prefer it.' 

The ahlative after Terba of aacrifloing, the Tictim being 
repreaented aa the inatrument with whioh the aaerifloe ii per- 
formed, ia aa eommon aa the direot aeo. : of. faeere vitula**to 
aaerifioe with a calf : vino libare, oYo. 

18, 14. pauperum tabemaa regumque turree] 'oottagea 
of tho poor and pelaoee of the greal' Obaenre the *rever- 
berating emphaaia' (Yerrall) otpallida puUat pede pauperum. 

pede] beoauee it waa euatomarT to kiek at a door eapeoiallj 
when the Tiaitor waa impatient, of. Plaut. Moat. 2. 2. 28. 

15. Titae aumma breTia.. .] * The total of our daya ia amall 
and forbida ua to oommenoe hope for a diatant future.' 

incho*re]«to oommenoe what will never be completed. 

16. fabulaeque Manee] "When a man ia dead he beeomea 
fabula** aubjeot of talk,' *a mere name,' and ao the ghoata are 
here ealled 'empty namea' : that thia ia the meaning of fabula 
here ia ahewn from the imitation of Peraiua (Sat 5. 152) einie et 
manet etfabulafUe. For the very bold appoaltion fabulae Manee 
of. Luoan 1. 818, MarceUutque loquax et nomina vana Catonet. 

17. exllii] i.e. exigilit (from emago), what ii drawn out, 
thin ; here — * ehadowy, * * unaubatantiaL , 

18. regna Tini aortiere talial At feaata a preaident waa 
ohoaen by lot (maguter, or arbiter bibendi, evuwocLapxoi, eWcrpt- 
jcXirot, St John 2. 9, 'maater of the feaet'). Teeterae, or «dioe,' 
were uaed for thia purpoee, or tali, 'knuekle-bonee': theae had 
four marked aidee, and the higheat throw waa when they all 
oame up differently; it waa oalled jactut Venerie (2. 7. 25), the 
loweat throw being canie. 


•Who ia thy lover now, Pyrrha? He little knowa that thou 
art fiokle aa the aea : all amilea to-day, to-morrow etorm. Poor 
inexperienced youthl I have gone through similar dangen 
and eacaped, thank heaven.' 

148 HORACE, ODES I. y. 

A alight Ode, but ninguiarly beautiful in eipreaaion : it it io 
Honcea bait manner u regarda «jla ; it U appanntlj perfeotij 
■impte beoauae it ie perfectlj finiahed; lumma an ctlavit 
artetn. Anj one who diaagree» would do well to attempt to 
omit or alter a single word, and iee Uie efleot. It ie a curioni 
fact thiit it ii tranileted bjMillou (Occasioriil Pooro*;): it iinot 
wetl tranalated.bnteven the heat tranelation oonld onlj eenre to 
bring ont bj eootrait the felioitj of eipreaeion in the original. 

I, 3. malta In roia urget] 'oourte thee amid marjj a roae.' 
8. Pyrrha] from »vA*)i = ' the anbnm-haired/ef./aoain, 

5. tlmplex rnunditili] *iimple in thv eleganee.' For the 
adi. muru/uj eee 9. 29. 14 n. Tho word munditiat applied to 
a Udy'i toilette indioatea the preeenoe of eleganoe and taate 
without oitentation or eitravaga-noe. munditiii eapitmtr eaja 
Ovid trulj A. A. 8. 138. MiIton'i 'plain in thj ncatneea' 
Eiivuiiri rather of tbe Puritan thsn tlie poet. 

6, T. aiper» aequora] ' the emooth aarfeoe ruffled. ' 

8. emlrabltnr Iniolem] tmirabitur ie onlj found here: 
it is a verj atrong forrn of mirabitar- ituolent •nnuied' i.e. to 
such floklenes*. Tbe line ihonld bo read over aloud once or 
twice piaeiog eome itreee on the initial epondeea: iti full force 
»111 be at onoe clear. 

9. credulu* aurae,] Notice the juitaposition. 'Who now 
too fond (or tmeting) enjoji the golden houra of thj lote.' 
Jureuj = golden, at ite beet. in perfeetion, cf, aurta attat 'the 
golden age.' Schiller haa 'der ersten Liebe gold'ne Zeifand 
Shnk. Cymbeline 4. 2. 'Golden lade and girle all muit | Like 

■ ouunneylweepen aome to duat,* 

II, 13. bmcIu uru fjJlaxla] The metaphor from the 
sea ie etill kept up. « Ignorant how treaoheroua ii tha breexe.' 
The breeie of oonrse ie her flckle favonr. Ct 3. 2. 30. popalaru 
aura m the breexe of popular favonr. 

18. Intantata nltee] To inexperienee her bright imilea 
are ae alluring aa the amilei of a lummer »ea. The brUliant 
phrese of Lucr. 2. S59,plaeidi ptllaeia nmti.ii a cloee parallel. 

ma tatrala] ' me the temple wall with votive piotnra deolares 
to have hung u; 

KOTE& 149 

wieture of ibe erent, though perhapt tabula onrj meant 
'tablet.' 8ee too 8. 26, Int. 

15. pottntt] with marit, ef . L 6. 10 n. 


•Your exploitf, Agrippe, wbnld be a worthy themo for 
Variui : hii poetrj it Homerie. I am not eapable of treeting a 
tubjeet iuoh m that of the Hiad or Odyttej: one of mj poor 
odee wonld bnt detraot from jonr fame. Lore and levitj alone 
beflt m j ineonitant mnae.' 

M. Vipsaniut Agrippa was the great minif ter of Angnetm in 
war, aa Maeoenat waa in peaoe: Horaee had probablj been 
nrged to addreat an ode to him, and finding the taak nnoon- 
genial anbttitntea thit dezterona apologj. 

1, 3. aerlberla Varlo...allte] 'Yon thall be written abont 
bjr Yarint at Taliant and Tiotoriont (bj Varius) a bird of 
Uomerie tong.' 

Thete linet preaent a dittinot eate of the nte o( the abl. of 
Uie pertonal agent without ab. Gf. 8. 8. 67, nei$ exeitut Araivit, 
Epitt. L 19. 3, quae tcribuntur aquae potoribut, 'whioh are 
written bj water-drinkera,' Virg. Aen. 1. 512, uno araditur 
eemitatui Aehate and Juv. 18. 124, eurentur dubii wudieit 
majoribut aegri. On the other hand Hor. Sat. 2. 1. 84, judiee 
laudatut Caetare, maj be ezplained (with Monro, tee Major, 
Jut. 1. 18 n.) t*=judicio Caetarit, and ao too Od. 8. 5. 24, 
Marte...populata, pretentt no difflculty, MarU \mn%»bel\o. 

OreUi and othert trj to aToid thia bj tajing that Vario 
aUte it an abL abtolnte: 'jou thall be written of, Variua being 
a bird of Homerio tong.' But. teeing that it ia oertain that 
Horaoe meant to tell Agrippa that he 4 thall be written abont 
by Variui, 1 it it inoredible that he ahould taj to him ' jon ahall 
be written about* — by whom Agrippa ia left to gnett — and then 
add parentheticallj 'Varint being a great poet,' and intert 
moreoTer into the middle of the parentheait a detoription 
of A^rippa at 'Ttiiant and Tiotoriout.' Suoh a ttvle of ex- 
pretiion it f to far aa I know, peouliar to Mr Jingle. Wickham, 
who adoptt thit view of tbe oonttruction, tranalatet : 'It rhall 
be told, bnt bj Variut, thj braTerr and vietoriet, for he 
it a bird of Biaeonian tong.' It will be obttrred however 

1B0 HORACE, ODES I. vi. 

thst nntwithntr' iing llie violcnce whicb he doesto the Engliih 
U iliRed efter *U lo i*j 'by Varioe. 1 

111. an obvioua oorreetion. wbioh odIj makee 
i Iliie dbo uf the dativt., though eommon with 
„, ve c.a. icripium rjf ittiht (the ei( of oooM* 

™^'ib,i.. j for it), ia otberwise wadmiaaible, 

1. i A peculiarlj Horatian use of ths rutura. 
• You it iit™ of,' i. e. if you will teke my «4tjo*. 80 
1. T. 1, 1- alii— otherashftll praUa, i.e.ifthej wish; 1. 
20. 1, 1 iii- jou ahall Jriult, i.e. if jou will aocept 
n>j invit 

Vail< , . roduetion) waa aa epio 

writer. aetr, ) uE nflw, Koritu 

ducit. i itiua Taoca baring been 

«osEuii Eb , u. . r a> .ut ieneid after the death of 


2. Maeonll] i.e. Homeric, M 4. fl. 5 n. 

3. quam rem cusque] Thia tmcria witb guicungue ia 
common witb Horaoe, e.g. 1. 37. 1*. Ses 1. 82, 16 d. 

nivtbui] e.g. the defeal of Bei. Pompeiua B.o. 36. 
5, 6. grarem Pslldaa itomachuin] 

Mjvu 1 tti&t tti, llij.WdiW 'A^iXioi 

hAo,i/.t,i. Hom. II. 1. 1. 

Bj randering /iijeit 'wrath' aa ttamachui 'bile,' and w6K6- 

Tporet aa dupUz 'cunning,' it ia elear that Horace intends 

bumorouelj to depreoiete the epio atjle which he rcfuBea to 


7. cursna doplHna Blirel] 

'Artpa itot bttwt tieuaa wAirpewe» Si ihEXb roXXjl 
w\dyx^. Hom. Od. 1. 1. 

Ulixel] Tbe gen. ia from the hvbrid fom Uliztiu, whioh U 
dsolined ea if it wero oi tbe 3nd deoleniion. Cf. (oo AekWi, 
1. 15. M, Penthtt, 3. 18, 11, AlyatUi, B. 10. 41. 

8. Falopla domum] The diaaater» of ths houie of Felopa 
wers tbe itock aubjeot for tragediet, nnmbera of whioh deelt 
with the erimea or iniafortunea of Pelopa, Atrana, ThjssUa, 
Againemnon, Aegiathus, Cljtemneetra, Oreetea, Elootra, eto. 

S. tenuee (franaia] 'too Taat a thema for onr ilander 
veree.' Tmua ia of oonrae in egreemant with the noan. to 
eotwaw, and orandw in eppoeition witb the MouetiTSa 

NOTES. 151 

ttomachum, eurtut and domum, but it is impossible exoept by a 
peraphrase to brinff out the foroe oi the two adjeetrtes m their 
strongly oontrasted and forcible position, see 2. 4. 6 n, 

ia lyrae potenij So 1. 8. 1, pottnt Cyvri, 1. 5. 15, 
potent marit t 8. 29. 41, potent tui, Carm. 8ae. 1, tUvarum poteut. 
Horaoe is extremelr fond of adjeotiTes with the genitive : ad- 
jeotiTes espeoially whieh indieate power or abundanee natnrally 
take it; e.g. 4. 8. 5, diviu artium; and cf. the oommon phraaee 
dk« veti eompot, mentU eompot. 

12. oulpa deterere ingenll 'to tarniih throngh defeot of 

Notiee that Horaoe and Virgil adopt the eontraeted formi 
ingtni (2. 18. 9), imperi (4. 15. 14), Orid the open one ingenii. 
Cf. too 1. 12. 84, Pompili, Tarquini; 4. 6. 44, HoratL 

18. tnnlca teetnm adamantlna] Gf. the Homerio expres- 
eions xaXjr«o$Jpa£ *&& YaXjroxirwr. Tunioa % the elose-fitting 
nnder-garment worn nnder the loose toga t is aptly applied to a 
eoat or shirt of maiL 

15. ope Palladis...] Diomedes, by the assis t anoe of Pallas, 
aotnally wounded (hence tuperit parem) Aphrodite and Ares. 
Hom. II. 5. 881. 

16. parem] = eqnally matohed with. 

17. nos] Cf. 1. 1. 29. The antithesis is at onoe made 
elear by tbe prominent position of the prononn, whioh is 
thereby contrasted with the writers already alluded to. 

proelia...] 'oombats of maidens fieroely attacking the Toung 
men {aerium injuvenet) with pared nails' (i.e. not wishing to 
hnrt). Others translate tectU, 'cut to a point' (so as to be 
dangerons). Wiokham aptly remarks 'who shall deoide?' 

19. Tacul] i.e. tive vaeui. Cf. 1. 8. 16. Translate: 
y 'whether faney-free, or fired by a spark of Ioto, easy as is 

my wont.' 

ODB vn. 

'Many fair and favourite places are there on earth, none 
that I love so fondly as Tibnr. Do yon Planons, wheUier as 
now in eamp or, as yon will be soon, we trnst, at Tibur, 
remember that it is oooasionally trne philosophy to forget eare 
in winef Think of the example of Tenoer in his trouhles.' 

152 HORACE, ODES I. rii. 

L.Murmiiu" MuuciiB (i.e. eplay-footed), oonsol b.c. *2 and 

toaa&i lunum (Lyone), an acoompliihed trimmer 

durini iirs, who however eeeme to have enjoyed oon- 

ridenb or influenoe ivith Oclaviui, who reoeived tha 

titla of mi hia propoaal b.c. 27. 

At ii ie aeemi to have beea taOVruig from melan, 

eholy toi > to quit Italy. 13 y hii uae of tenebit, in eon- 

traat to f, lina 30, Horaae reuliy addraaica an inriutiou ■ 

tO Flftnot :': tn Tihur. of whioh be has already naag the 

praliea. i iuch «treei od lenent ei- 

oept to : ! . i ji rery fond of thii uae 

of tha faiuii y not nse teaebil after 

unmu vrithi.r" i i,at he wiahei to luggest 

■noh a ie r _opo»e iL Moreorer thii 

■een» t ■ — .._.,, „e enTlier anJ latar portioni 

= 'other» shall praiae' (for »11 1 

2. blmirti] The two harboura of Corinth, Ceuobreu ou 
tha Sarouio Gulf, Lechaeum on tlit Coriutkian Gult, are well 

i Tempe] Notice Tetnpt, neuter plural, like tiIx». 

5. iunt, qulbui...] 'Sonie thera are whoie lole tuk it u 
to oelebrate in oonttnuoua aong tha city of the ever-virgin 
Pallai, uud to plaoe upon their brotr ui olive-wreath pluoked 
from every side.' For lunl quibui, eee 1. 1. 3 n. 

P-LUad-j ar-MmJ aoijnj, Anp-oi. iniacia:.:a/mnt. 

6. oarmlne perpetuo] The poem would itart with ths 
etrlieit period aud give the hiitory of Atbene 'in uobrokon 
Buooeelion' (the eiaot meening of ptrpetmu). 

7. nndlqu deoerptam] Orelli givea to thii the meanine, 
■plucked from every ipot of Attio eoil,' i.e. the poet adoroi hia 
poem with acoouuta of every famont plaoe in Attioa. Thii ie 
oorrect but not general anough: ' gathared from erery nda,' 
moem not only from erery pUoe in Attiea, but alao from 
evcrj famona ineident in Attic hiitoiy. 

NOTES. 163 

oUvam] Ii wm bjr prodooixig the olive that Athena be- 
eame the patron-goddeee of the city : henoe the poefs wreath 
ii eompoeed of oUve in thie oaee. 

9. aptum dlott equls Argoe] ' wiU tell of Argoe aa fit for 
horeee.' Iwwifkror, Hom. Argo§ ie neut eing. : the aoc and 
abl. plnral Argo$ and Argit are aleo verjr oommon. 

ditee] Of. Soph. BL 9: ^cutkhp Muc^iuf rdt woKvxfAeovt 

10. me] Prominent and emnhatio. 

patiene Laoedaemon] The adjeetive 'Spartan,' ae equiva- 
lent to 'enduring/ hae beoome Bnglieh. The Spartan disci- 
pline wae traditionaUj aeoribed to Lyourgna. opiwipi' 
fiSkat, JL2.SU. 

12, 18. Albuneae, Anlo, Tiburnil V. Class. Dict., or for a 
fuller deoeription Burn'o Bome ana the Campagna. A full 
knowledge of the hiatory and topographjr of Tibur ie eeeential 
fox nnderetanding the Odee. 

12. reeonantls] 're-eohoing,' i.e. to the roar of praeeept 

18, 14. nda mobUlbui pomarla rlvis] 'orcharde watered 
bj restleee rivulete.' Below the falle the main etream wonld 
eeem to have divided into a quantity of emaU rills. 

15. albua...l 'As the eouth wind ie often bright (or elear) 
and eweepe the olonde from the darkened sky, and doee not from 
ite womb bring forth uneeasingraine . . . .' Albut ie emphatio: 
the 8. wind ie ueuaUy blaok and oloudy; eometimee however it 
ie white, and drivee the oloude away. Cf. MUton'a aooonnt 
of the Deluge, Par. Loet, Bk. u. 788, 
'Meanwhile the eouth wind roee and with blaek wings,' <fco. 

17. aaplene] Le. 'if you are wise.' 

19. molll] UsoaUyandnaturaUytakenaeanadj.— *ineUow:' 
tjchfits however takes it ae Imperative from molUre. 

eeu te...] 'Whether the oamp gUttering with ensigns 
poseeee you, or (ae I hope wiU be tne oase) .... ahall poaeeee 

21. Teucer...] This bringing home of a general idea or 
remark by addueing a speoisJ inetance from mythology or 
hietory ie frequent in Horaoe. 

154 HORACE, ODES 1. rii. 

patrem] HU latker Telarnon refneed to reoeiw hira be- 
ceuee be broogbt not baok hU brother wilh him bom Troy. 
Cf. Soph. Ajax poMim. 

33. tum] i.e. notwithitanding hii tronWee. 

uda Lyaeo] ' moiet (i.e. heated, the word being ueed awk. 
werdly with Irwipora) wilh wine.' [7diu or uuittui, like madidui 
and iu Ok. ptpptyiiirai, il one of the many comentional phrises 
fuunii in »11 Unguagea to eipreaa the condition of intoiicatioa. 
It» oppoaite U liccut ('a tee-totaller'), 1. 18. 3 and 3. 19. 18. 

Jjtaetu, Avaui [\iu), i.e, the Releaeer, in Latin Libcr, aptly 
ao cftlled bere with reference to Teucer and hU tronblei. 

33. populeaj The poplar waa eaored to Hercolea, whoae 
many wanderinga would ooenr to Teuoer. 

35. quo noa] ' Wbitheraoever fortune. kinder than my 
aire, ahall guide ua, we wili go , . . .' 

leret fortuna) Firo ia the derivation of fortuna. 

37. duce et auiplce) An Imptrator alone bad Ihe right of 
taking the auipicea. Dnring the Repoblie an Imperator alwayi 
led the arniy into the riiflil uiid ao wes Dax atao. Under the 
Empire the ohiof of the ntate waa perpetual Imperator, aud 
the generaU wbo oonducted hia catnpaigna were merely Ducci. 
Duce et autpict il howevei used perfeotlj generally here, ai we 
might aay 'guide and guardian.' 

Teuero . , , . Ttucro .- tbe substittit.ion of the pereona! nauie 
for the pronoun indioatea proud lelf-conndenoe, and the re- 
petition of the name emphaaiEea this, Some editors boweter 
pnt a colon after auipice, rendering 'naugbt rieed ye deepair 
of wilh Teuoer for your guide, for to Teucer batb nnarring 
Apollo promUed...,' whiab entirely altere the empbasU of the 

39. amblgnam ...] 'Tii.-it tn e new Und ahall ariae a 
SelaroUofdoubtfnlname,' imoiBuam.becanaethareafterirheii 
Salemia m mentioned it would M 'doubtfhl' whether tho old 
or the new town wai refamd to, Cf. Boeton in Liaoolnehire 
and Boeton in Ainorioa. 

Tennyaon'a Ulraaea, 

1 SouU tbat lieve toil'd and wrought and thought with ii 

Tia not too late to teek a m 

NOTfca 164 



•8ay, Lydia, why you are 10 eeger that yoar love should be 
the rain of Syberis» by keeping him from all the manly exer- 
oieee ln whioh he naed to exoeL' 

I» SL per te deoe oro] mper dede U oro. The peculiar 
order ie idiomatio and neoaL Bo too-in Gk. Boph. PhiL 468, 
wp6t rOr rc rorpot . . . . UroQficu. 

8. Sytoexln] A fit name for iaoh a lore-eiek yoath. For 
the hietory of the lnxarioae and efleminate town whioh has 
provided ns with the word *eybarite' see Claaa. Diot 

properee] Some read prqpera$, thoa making thia a direct 

2nettion inatead of an incureot one, snbordinate to die: thia 
i. howeyer impoatible, owing to the oderit whioh followa, 
and whieh ean eoaroely be anything bnt the snbjjunctiYe. In 
1. 6 equitat is a direot queition, beoanae to eontinoe with in- 
direet ones wonld be wearisome. 

8, 4. aprlcom Oampnm] On snnny afternoons the broad 
ezpanse of the Campus Martiua wae the regnlar resort of all 
who deaired air andf exeroise. For Campta «xCampui Martina 
cf. 8. 1. 11 n. 

4. patiens] i.e. by nature. 

5. milltaria] 'as a goldier,' i.e. ln martial exeroises. Biding 
was especially conaidered sueh an exeroise, of. 8. 24. 54. 
atqudUt, *those of the same age/ oprjkucu. 

6. OaHlca...] *ndr gnide the month of a Oanliah steed with 
jagged bit' Oanlish horses were oelebrated. Lupatut ia an 
adjectiye, bnt the plural hipati or lupata is osed for a 'bit.' 
From the name which indicates an instrument furnished with 
teeth like those of a wolf, and onr knowledge of the Boman 
oharaoter, we may infer how they treated their horses. The 
word temperat wonld be euphemistio. 

8. Tiberlm] A plunge in the Tiber oonoluded the dafly 

oliYum] oil, used by the wrestlers. oliva =the olive-tree: 
et Ok. Acuor and iXala. 

10. neqne lam...] ' Why no longer haa he his arms blaok 
and blue with (the use of) weapona, winning fame by often 

P. H. n 


eending th» diievt uJ often the jivelin clear beyond the 
limit (*tt*ined bj hu rinli).' 

getttt] Fttiqoen tsti >e, from getv = to weu : we ounot um 
the expreuion in Engluh, »nd it is rue in Ltlin. 

11. The ditna (from Ju«> 'to fling') wu ■ Sat oiroolar 
■tone. Ths eUtne of the Dieoobotoe by Myron ia (unotu. 
Unlike the g*me of qnoiti, the objeat wm merely to hnri il 
uluu poesible, benoe Jinem is not tho m»rk, or thing »imed 
at. Ditco *nd jaevlo eipltin armi*. 

(e.g. 0». Met. 13. 1S2) Theti» i* said to hnvo hidden A 

Scyro», diagoued *» a m&id, to keep him from Troy, where he 
wu deetined to plory *M the prsve. Note that tho Greeki do 
not lepresent Achillei as & ghm utd griily wsrrior, bttt M of 
faii ati d ilniost femiuiae upect. 

11 mb licrtmoM ..] • When the teufol ful of Troj drew 
near.' Suo with tha aec. uuied of npproarti to a Ihing which i» 
«unincnf , o. g. fui noeten, towards Lughtfe.ll, of. neit Ode, L 19. 

13, 16. vliill» enltni] 'muuy attire." 

' 'Tit itonn ud wiater outeide : heap pp tbe flrt ftnd hrfng 
fbrth the wine. AU u in the hudf of the goda, who wlll ■OQD 
reetore fbie wemther. lt—ntime to m*ke the be«t of the pra- 

eent ii wueet, and for thow who ue young to enjoy the dayi 
of their youth.' 

1. Soiaote, 26 mile» north of Rome, il eeid to be puinly 
lieible fiom the oitj, tha Ode howerer lepreeanM the wlitar M 
in the oountrj, prohebly *t Tibor, from whaooe th* moontain 
would be a muob nearer *nd more impoeing objeet, «od 
netureily nfemd to m bj iti appeeianoe '"^ 1 "*^*^ Ihe 
piobable ittte of the weotlier. 

■Mt nlye outdldnm] -'«ttnd» oat aUtr with lU whit» 
m*Atl* of ■now.' Pox lubaroiua cf. 3. 9. 7 n. 

NOTEa 167 

4. oooto] (eeiu, aeer) 'sharp/ 'piereing.' 

6. reponens] Wiekhem givee 'piling ogein ond eyein.' 
Perhape re moy be ueed in the wj oommon oonoo of 'duly's 
it wee o duty to koop up o good fizo on sueh o dey. 

benlgnlns] Tho oomporotiTo indiootoo thatitis tobe'with 
mere thon ordinery liberelitr.' Benignue io tho oppooito ol 
maUgnu» 'gmdging' (L 88. 38). 

7. deprome] from the eeller, or bettor from the diota. 
qnndrlmnm] The poorer winee, oueh oo the Sebine, 

eould not be kept to o greot ege, oe the flner vintagee, sueh 
oe the Felerninn» eould. 

8. ThollOTOho] An invented name. Orelli eoyo OaXlapxee ■ 
rvpwociapxot, for which oee 1. 4. 18. But PMiss, who romorke 
that snon lnvented nomee ohonld oiwoye be in honnonr with 
thoir eetting, ie eleerly right in exploining it as»'one in the 
freoh bloom of yonth.' Horaoe throughont epeoko in o didootio 
tono oe on older to o younger znen. 

dloto] A jor with two eore (ftit odt), therefore Tnooning tho 
oome oe amphora [au+l +4p**) t o jer with two handlos. 

9. simul] =«imuiac. 'Ae eoon oe they hove loid to reot 
the winde now fighting to the deoth on the boiling ooeen.' Cf. 
Don. 7. 8, 'the four winds of hooTen stroTO upon the greot eea.' 

18. qnld elt rotnmm eroo...] Cf. 1. 11. 8. Both linee 
ore o oonciee epitome of one portion of tho Epioureen phi- 
loeophy, of which Horoce woe at ony rote o proiesoed dieoiple. 

14. qnem Fori...] 'Whetever eort of doy ohonoe eholl 
giTe, odd to the profit eooount.' luero appone^put down to 
tho oide of goin, add oe on item on the credit side. 

16. pner] while young, in youth. 

neqne tu] By a frequent Latin idiom, when a pereon ie 
deeeribed oe being told to do two things, the pronoun ie 
ineertedin the eeoond oaee witha view of enforoingtnepereonol 
emphoeis of the command. Epist 1. 2. 68, hunc frenie hune 
tu eompeaee eatenu. Hore in oonneetion with puer the pro- 
noun enforoes the oommand by recalling attention to the 
fitnees with which it is addresaed to ThaJiarohns — *you are 
yonng: of course you muet donoe.' 

17. Tlrenti] Touth is always spoken of os green. The 
metophor is of oourse from spring-time (ver=quod vtret). 

158 HORACE, ODES I. ix 

1-. nioroi»] .-- ' unibbed.' moroiiu is uiiu who ooaiulti oolj 
bil owa disposilion (moret) : ite opposito ii moriftr, OM whi 
oooiatts lh»t of othen. 

minc ..auno (1, 31): mirlc the cmphatio poijtian of tbee* 
two words: 'now' = 'ia th-j d«yi of thy yoath ' uid of. Ecotad- 
Mte« 12. l. 

•iiu] Lit. > oor, tbeu » browl open ipaoo in » 

20. oompoalM hor»] '«t thetry»ting-b.oui.' 

'-'!- nuno •*...] 'Now too the pleasent )»ugh from m 
iomoM ooroer, which betreyi ths loiking m&iden, end the 
token en&tched from her um or tinger th»t miiohieTouily 

24. male perUned] Orolli e»js 'not retieting,' bat thii 
uu of mali Momi aonnued to adjectivei whioh b»ye ■ diatinotly 
good eense, e. g. maU Jidiu = fkithless, mali gralui = ungrateful, 
laeh phrMfl* being ineiancei of oiymoron. I therefore muah 
prefer the n»tur»l »nd mucb more pointed readering ■ mi»- 
chif-voiulT re»i»ting, ' i.e. reaiiting to pkgue or teue the lover. 
See too 1. 17. 35 n. »nd 8«. 1. *. G6 rauct malr 'confoundedly 


An ode to Merourj, dotiiling hia Tarioua Bttribntea, of 
which N»uok yites the Qreek list, \Jytot, eVywrwi, tidetopti, 
/44tff4dj, nXiwnjt, iptavn&t, XfvabppStWHt ^«its^tAi. 

1. noande] L *. m being th* god of ipoeoh. Cf. Gk. <•*.*- 
hbw, <to mterpret.' Aeto 14. 13, 'And tbej e*Jl*d Btinnbu, 
Jupiter; and Paul, Iferoariru. beoeaee he m tbe ohief 
ipeaker.' At inoh he le »lio the peiron of poete, wtrt Mtr- 
eatialtt, 8. 17. 39, uid their proteotor, >■ 7. 1B. 

3. tew oulttu homlnum reoentum} 'the brati manneri 
of newlj-ereated men.' Notic* thet wm b*an «notly tne 
oppoeite meaning to that we ueoftltj Maign to 'reoent' 

8, A. Tooe «t mor*] 'bj th* gllt of 1 

NOTES. 159 

7, 8L ffin*«m condere] • ikilled in hiding/ epexegetio inf., 
and ef. 8. 1L 4, retonarc calUda. Condo^oum and do (the 
eame root m WAyu), to put together, etore np, hide. Qf.«6-do, 
de-do, eireum-do t wum-do, oYo. 

9« te...] • At you, onee npon a time, while in the *ery aet 
of terrirying you, young eoamp that you were, with threatening 

worde, unleee you ehonld have reetored , at you Apollo 

wae fein to laugh, rohbed of hie quiyer (in the wy midst ox hie 

nlal reddidlseee] eontain the vory threat of ApoUo in 
partialiy oblique narration. ApoUo'e worde wonld be niH 

11. dnsi texret]»whOe he «mm trying to frighten yon. 
Dum takee the present ind. even with referenoe to past aotione; 
of. 1. 92. 9, dum canto, 1. 84. 2, dum erro, 8. 7. 18, dum fugit, 
8. IX 98, dum mulces. 

18. quin et...] He ie the gnide of good men on earth 
and good eoule below. Cf. the Gk. epithete w6fiwtfiot and 
tvxowofiwbt ae applied to him. For quin et = * nay even,' of. 8. 

14. Prlamne] 'When he went to beg the body of Heotor 
froxn Aohillee, II. 94. 884. The dives ie not unmeaning, but 
enggeete the Tainahle preeente he took with him. 

17. reponie] Cf. laet Ode, 1. 6, «duly pladng.' 

18. Tlrga] The nfpfrciar, or caduccut, eo well known in 
ali repreeentatione of the god. 

ooareee] *keep together' (cum-arceo). The ghoete (Uvit 
turba) were prone to wandering. 


'Do not, Leuconoe, oonsult the aetrologeri. It ie better to 
enjoy the preeent and allow the future to take oare of iteelt' 

1. ne quaederie] The uee of the perfeot enbj. ie some- 
what more polite and lese imperative than that of the preeent. 

9, 8. Babylonioe tentarie nnmeroe] 'Make trial of Baby- 
lonian aetrology.' Amid the decay of real belief, superetition 
was at this period rife at Roine, and espeeially a beuef in the 

160 HORACE, ODES I. ri. 

reading of the «tare (of. 3. 17. 17—34). The atndj of aitro- 
nomy, and ite falee aUter astrology, wu eapeoiallj praotised 
bjthe ChaldaeanB: of. B. Hatt. 3. 1, 'Tbere eame wUe men 
from the east, 4o.' Jfumfri nru tbe eakulatiouo entered into in 
oaating horoscopea and the like: henee the name malhtTnatici. 
They were conlinualiy banUhed from Bome, but iu vain fj/eniM 
hominum .... ;uod et vetabitur itmper tl relintbituT, Tao. H, 
1. 33), t. Dict. Ant. s.t. Attrologia. 

6. opposltl» detillltat pnmlelbui mere] 'makes the iee> 
■pead ite ■treugth on the eonfronting rocks.' The roaki are 
eatled pumicet beoaoee Ihey were eeten into bole» like thoee ia 

6. uplu, &£.] 'Be wise, strain wine, and, tbe courae of 
life being short, cut down distnnt eipeotations.' Wine iu 
Btrained throngb linen or enow. ipatium donbtleBS refers to 
tbe old metaphor of life being s aort of raoe-oourse. rutco 
U to ont baok, pruna, reduoe to reasonable lirnita. 

7. ragerU] Tbe fot. perfect, to eiprem Buddenoes» of 
eompletion. Not 'it will be going,' but 'it will be gone.' 

lnvtda] 'grudging.' Cf. for the whole Itne tha imiution of 
it in PersiUB, Sat. 6. 153: 

irivt memor letil fagit kora, hoc, quod loquor, inde «t. 

of. 1. 11 int. and Epiat. 1. * . . 

omnen crede diem tibi diluxi*i/ luprnnum: 
'And li»e eaeh daj aa if thj laet.' 

ODE xn. 
Inipired hj sonie great national erent, perhaps the defeat 
of tha rebeUioua Sei. Pompefnj b.c. 36, the poefi feelings flnd 
Tfuitin »ong:— 'Wbom doat thon ohooae to tell of, Olio, in 
«traiu» tliat like thosa of Orpbena shaU h»e power even orer 
ituliborn netureT What man or hero or godr Snrelj of Him 
flret, who U the Blre of gods and men the great Lord of the 
Univerae, eren Jnpiter high above all bsjond all oomparUon. 
Then of thoee — goda oi heroea or men— who aahia raeaaU h»re 
wrought hia will in tbn world-old oonteat of oider ifiinit 


anarohy, gods by aiding him against the rebellions Titant 
(et the lisU of gods here and in 8. 4) or rabdning the raging 
ol the sea, men by performing eaoh his appointed task, in the 
fonnding and oo nflrmin g of that whiohli the oo nnto rpart of hia 
heavenly empire— the Boman state. And of theee the greateet 
and the laat is Oaetar, the greateat Jupiter bnt still thy 
tassaL Yea, thongh he eonqner Parthia or furthest India and 
extend his sway otot the wide world, yet he is thy snbjeot, for 
tktm eren thou art Lord of heaTen and earth (of. U L 57, tu 
L 68, tu l 59).' 

The above snmmary is digested from a long dissertation of 
orer 50 pages by H. T. Plttss on this Ode: he prores, I think, 
eonolnsitely that this is not a mere eonrtly Ode in whioh 
Angnstns on earth is oompared with Jnpiter in heaTen, bnt 
something mneh higher and nobler. 

1« qnem Tlrom...] Imitated from Pindar, OL 9. 1, 

rha 0te*, rir ^piaa^ rlva o* oVftpa KtXaSfaoptr; 

2. anmli oelebrare] Yerbe of wishing or reeolTing natn- 
rally take an infinitlfe. A alight and poetio extension of this 
tiberty silows tumtre (in the sense of «to ohooee') to do the 
saxne. 8ee 1. 15. 97 n. and cf. Bpist 1. 8. 7, tcribor* tumit. 

8, 4. looosa imaffo] 'laughter-loving,' or 'snortive eoho.' 
Cf. Vatieani montit imago, 1. 90. 7. Eoho is a phantom Toice 
(imago voeit). 

7. nnde Tocalem...] «Whenoe the woods in random haste 
followed the mnsio of Orpheue.' The finai syllable of Umtre ie 
aiways elided. 

9. materna] Le. of Calliope. KoXXtfany, the Mnse 'of the 
beantifnl voioe.' 

11. hlandnm et...] 'Persuasive too to draw after him 
with his tuneful ttrings the littening oaks.' ducert: epexegetie 
inl For Orphens of. Shakespeare, Henry 8, Aot 8, 8o. 1, 
'Orpheua with hit lnte made treet, 
And the monntain tops that freese, 
Bow themtelvet when he did ting ; 

162 HORACE, ODES I. iii 

To hii mBaio planU iui J Soweri 
Ever «prung ; m suq ud •howerl 
Thcre hid made ■ lasting spring.' 

■nrtta»] Lit. 'long-eared.' Here, I think. in the nnn 
of 'with eara prioked np.' Tho oiki are repreeented u with 
everj leaf priaked np to onttih each note. Most oommenUtora 
thiuk the word unnorthy of cuinment: it seeini to me dimcalt. 

13. MlltU] Two ineUncei will laffioe. Virg. Ecl 3. 60, 

A Jvrt jrrineipitim, and Aratus, J» flioi d^x^' 1 ^" 

rob yip tal ybot itrirfr {HBOXei by Sl Paul, AoU 17. 28). 

U. homlnnm u deoram) Cf. Virg. Aen. 1. 330, gui 
r« Aominuingiie dcumoue | actemu rrau impmi». 

It ii to be noticed that Jopiter is rortly spoken of *>■ on ■ 
letel with the othergodi: here the differenea u so great &a to 
be almoat one of kind, not mcrely of degree. In line 50 even 
Jupiter is made in tnrn partly subordinate to the Fttes. 

1S. Tirllique...] ' And regnletea the he»*en with cbanging 
FcasLiiia'; mare, Urrat. «lundiu 'icu, earth, and nky" togetber 
makd uji the noiverie; for thii scnno of smiuiiu cf. Virg. Ecl. 
6. 84; MunroLncr. 1. 73 n. 

17. unde] = o quo, from whom. So 3. 17. 3, hint = ■ from 
him,' and Virg. Aen. 1. 6, g/nui unde LutiHum — from whom 
tl le Latm racs. 

18, 19. ■aonndom — proxlmos] The poinl depends on the 
differenoe between theae two worde. Sccundut (from tequer) ii 
used of that wbich follotoe, and implie* that there is, if not ■ 
conneclion, at anj- rate no strongly marked gap between two 
things; proximui, on tbe otber band, merelj mekns 'next,' and 
would be compatible with the exintenoe of the widest possible 
gap between two thinga. So Virg., Aen. 5. 820, of ■ r&oe, aaya 
□f 'a bad aeoond,' Proiimui hnic, longa ttd proiimut inttr- 
vallo. lu Macanlay's famoun inBtance of 'Eclipse nnt and 
the reat nowhere,' the aeeond horse would be proxirmi4, bnt 
not iteundui. 

91. proeim audax] Bome pnt a foll itop after this artd 
m»ke it go witb Pailai, bot th» run of tho tmm iinmi againat 
tbii. For Baochnj, u a oonrageoui dirinitj, aee S. 19. 28: he 
u not only the god of wino, bnt the god of immortal yonth and 

33. Vlrjo] Tbe buntrci» Dian*. 

NOTES. 163 

26. huno equls...] Hom. H. 8. 287, Kdrropd 0' iTvdbapu» 
gtd wv* dya$6* Uakvdwf*. Hor. Bet. 2. 1. 96, Cattor gaudst 
squis, ovo prognatui todimpugnit. 

27. quorom...] Cf . 1. 8. 2 n. 

29. defluit Mudi agltatus umar] The wind hM driren 
the spray and targe high on to the rooks: now it drips from 
them sgain. 

81. tt mlnax...] 'And the threatening weTe, beoauee 
fneh if their pleMnre, sinks haok on the boeom of the deep.' 

88. qnletnm] 'peaeefal.' Nume Pompiline wm the legen- 
dary author of moet ciTil and religious, m Bomnlns wm of 
moet warlike obeerrences. 

84, 86. supertoos Tarquinl fUoee] *The prood eway of 
Tarqnin'«*the sway of Tarquin the Prondi a good instenoo of 
hrpallage; of. 8. 1. 42 n. Horace doee not wiah to mention 
Tarquinius Superbue m a hero; he mentions him indeed, bnt 
he ii thinking of the glorious deeds oonneoted with hie ex- 
pulsion. Tben the thonght of the great author of Boman 
freedom, Brutus, enggeete the name of him who refused to 
eurriTt the loee of that freedom, Oato. 

86. 86. Oatonii nobUe letnm] The fuidde of Oato at 
Utioa, after the battle of Thapene (b.o. 46), ii oontinually 
referred to with indiaoriminate praiee by the poeta and philo- 
eophere of the euoceeding oentury. For the frequency of 
■uicide under the empire, eee MeriTale, Hist. e. 64. 'Oato'e 
glorioue death' eerred m a ready exouee for nnmerons eowards, 
who found or faneied themselTes nnable to 'bear the slings and 
arrows of outrageons fortune.' 

87. Soanroe] The referenoe is to M. Aemilins Seaurus, 
eonenl b.c. 115 and 107, and oensor b.0. 109. His oharaoter 
wm none of the best (see Mommsen bk 4. o. 4) and he aeoepted 
bribes from Jugurtha in b.c. 111, bnt there is no need to disouss 
whether he deeerred the praise bestowed on him : hie name is 
merely nsed m a typical one for 4 a flne old Boman.' 

88. Paullum] Consnl with 0. Terentins Yarro; at the 
fatal battle of Oannae (b.c. 216) he refused to fly. 

89. inslgnl Oamena] ' the mnse that «ives renown.' Notice 
that in praise of theee national heroes, ne reoeires the aid of 
tfce national Camenae, not of the foreign and imported MoOfai. 

164 HORACE, ODES I. xii. 

Naeviai, who iu proud of tho senuine nation&l obaracter of 
hi« poetry, in writing hia own epiuph, uyi, 

mortalei inrnortalei Jlert 11 /or*l /oj 
Jtcrent divae Camenae Naevium pottatn. 

It is ■ ramukiblt defect in Roman poetry that it ii to no 
gre»t an extent nc imiution of Gveek models »nd not tha 
reaolt of nstive inspir&tion, 

41. lncornptli MplUU) Bsrbers wers introduoed at Bome 
b.o. SOO. Tbe eldei Ctto m ealled intoww, 2. 1B. 11. Theas 
bpnrded sncients srs * type of manly Tigonr. 

43. Iim pknpertu et...] 'Stern poverty »ud a farm 
handed down frora fntber to son, witli e modeit homestead.' 

The wordi avitui apto cum lart ftmdui give » tbtj fair 
definition of the oondition whiob the Itomnns eoald oall pauper- 
tat, It )■ here tliot of a stnsll veoman or ■■tatesrnan,' se thej 
■re termed iti tbe north of Englknd. See 3. Ifi. 87 d. 

15. cresdt .] A fnultlc-is line. Tbe oomparison expresaes 
tbe sure, eilent snd itMdj growth of the fame of the name 
Marcellua. cceullo aevo — 'by the silont lapse of time.' aeiiirH 
= aifw, frora rooti, indirntinij ' togo' = that which peeses away. 

46. MarcelU] Thii family traoed iu origin to thkt Mar- 
oellm who won ths nolia opima tot tlie 3rd and lint time n.c. 
222, and oonqaered Sjraeaie >.o. 313. For tbe hiitorj of the 
young Mkrcellas We Dict. He mnrcied Juliii, the daughter of 
Auguetus, a.c. 25. YirgiTi furaoiis lines, Aen. 8. S60— 880, 
muat be eompared. 

47. lallam ilduj] ' the It&r of the Julian line.' 

Tbe word ' itar ' u naed generaliy in tbe aense of ' fortune ' 
in referenee to tbe artrologioal idea of a rnling star, and 
speciallj witb reference to ths comet (Ju/mm ritftu) which 
appe&red aboat the period of Caeiar'e deatb, and indicated 
lus rooepuon into hMTsn. 

51. Oaaaarls] L e. Auguitui. 

M...1 'Beign thon, and may Caesar bs ssoond to tbea.' 
Reanee u not so mnob a prayer aa an eaoription of praias. 
The qm of renuuuw here siter what baa bsen tsid in 1L 1& 19 
i» dimcnlt Psrbapt Horaoe uieani to uy : " tbsrs ia indeod 
nonewho U 'sooond' to thee, hnt, if to aoj bdng that spitbrt 
can bs applied, m»y tt bs to Cassar." 

itreet ■ of Bome. 

64. sgerlt...] rafsrririg to tbe w«ll-samed i 
n wbjoh tbe mdUtm wonld be led throngh the 

NOTE& 165 

55. suueotos...] 4 The Seres and Indi who dweU elose 
beside the ooMts of tho riting sun.' thMoctme here taema 
merelj to indieate elose proximitj. The Beres lie oloee np 
to the extremeet east, whioh ii just abore or bejond them. 

57. te minor...] Le. to long m ho aoknowledgee thee m 
■npreme. Gf. 8. 6. 5, Dis U mUaorem quod gerie imperae, and 
8. 1. 6 n. 

59. parum oastlslsunholj. htci: for the use of •gro?es' 
for idolatrous worship and rites, of. the whole hietory of 
tbe ehildren of IsraeL Spote etrnek bj lightning were held 
to be aoourted. 

ODB m 

• Jealousj and rage oonsnme me, Lydia, when I hear you 
oontinnallj dwelling on the eharms of Telephus, and see on 
shonlde r or Up the trsoe of jonr fleree quarrels and frensied 
reoonoQiations. Beliere me 9 sneh passionate Ioto does not 
lMt. Happj thej whom a peaosfnl affeotion nnites tiU death.' 

1, 2. Telephl...Telephi] Lydia dwells with fond iteration 
on the beioved naxne. Cf. 2. 14. 1 n. 

2. roseam] •rosj' (Wiokham's 'lustrous' is wrong), so of 
Venus, Aen. 1. 402, roeea cerviee refuUit. 

oerea] smooth and white m wax. 

8. Taemeum] *Alai,mjhe*rt boilsand swellfwithengrj 

4. leeurl the seat of the affeotions and pessions. diJJlcM 
shard to deal with, irritahle, saTage. biU, ©f. Ok. *oX* 
and x^Xot, b°th meaning bile and anger, and the word **- 

6. manet] QoOreiM^B ithedi^on^eumantiquUHmoeodice 
Bemenei.* The reading manent is an ignorant oorreotion metri 
yrotid, see 1. 8. 86 n.: the plural after two disjunotiYe partiolee 
eannot stand. 

7. furtim] He tries to conoeal it, but in ▼ain : ef. roro, 
4. 1. 84 n. 

8. mloerer] The a is long, but m&cer: so «ojpio, tfoor, 
fldo, fldee, but on the oontrarj rigie, rigo. ^Bj what slow- 
oonsuming fires I am inwardlj wasting awaj.' 

9. uror] Beingput prominentlj forward, tbis wordsexTes 
\fi oonneot this and the U»t sentenoe, whjch ended wjth 

166 HOBACE, ODES I. xiii. 

imibut. ' Yea, I bmu whetber quarreU lenderod immoderate 
thxoBgh wine h»T« ecarred thoee enowy ehoulderm, or jour 
freniiedloTerhaalaftaDiemento with hie tooth upon your fipe.' 

13. non...] iwni» iiot put for ne. •Yoa would not, it jou 
were to luten enough to ine, hope tfcat he wili be joun 
for ever...' Ct. PerB. Sat. 1. C, non, ri gvid turbida Roma 
tltrtt, acctdai, where Prof. Couington eay» m*n = ne, but the 
niie tflke u cortected in an exoellent additioual note »t the end. 

11. duldk barbare] Note the antithetioal juiUpomilion. 
Tht-ir iweetneu aiakee the barbarity groeeer. C(. 2. i 6 n. 

16. qnint» parte iuI necurta] Some aay quinta ia merelj 
used Taguelj far » "oonaider»ble' part. Othere, wtth more 
reason, Uiat Horaoe U referriug to tbe Pjthagorean diriiion 
of all thinga iuto four elementa, earth, air, fire anii water, 
and a certain 'tiflh erUtenoe' (guinla titentia, «tjimj ovo-ia, 
quiiitenBenco), of » higiiei natuio which informed and aniuiated 
tbe reet, and that tberefore bere Horaoe meana 'the beat 
part of ber own eweetneas.' 

17. ter et unpllui] A eligbt variation from the ordtanry 
phraae ttrque quaterqut. 

20. iuprem» cltlu» dle] 'aooner th»n tbe d*y of death' 
ia put bj ■ uatural ioaccuraoy for 'aooner tlian on tbo d»j of 


'Takiheod, Oahip, lest jou drift out to tae, agsin, Obaerre 
how ehattend yoo alreadj ara bj atonna, a&d baaten — gerij 
into harbour and ataj there.' 

The ship ia the SUte, whioh la ipoken of aa ilnttwiul 
bj the Itorxni of civil war, and in danger of flllfttPB baok 
into the aame dangeroue waterm. Aa to date, tha Oda woold 
refer to an j of the earlj jear» of tbe aole rale of Aognatna, and 
it ia mere gueaework aaaigning to it ■ apeoial end defluite 
time of oompoei tion. 

Quhitilinn, 8. fl* 44, refara to tjbJM Ode ea »n inltlnfta of 
' JMyyepia quat aliud oerbit aliud inuu otttiuiU...muttm 
Horatiut pro Tt pubUca, Jtuclmm tempatatet pn btllit etrt- 
tibui, portum pro gac* ti concordia dicit. It ia obrioui 


however that the ailegory must not be preued too cloaely iu 
all ito detaile, or a definite eJlnsion looked for in suchwords 
as PontUa and Cycladas. 

For the oomparUon of the Stote to a ship,and of itoteimen 
to piloto, ef. Aeeoh. 8. & Theb. 1, and innumerable peesages 
of Oicero to be fonnd in Dict. nnder the word guberno. 

2,8. fortiter occupa portum] «By aBtrongeflort haiten 
to reaeh harbour (before it ifl too late).' For oceupo et Gk. 
oae of *%**>«» with a pertioiple, and 2. 12. 28, inUrdum 
raper* occupat-i* the firtt to enateh. 

8. nonne vides...] ' Mark yoa not how the side ii etripped 
of oars, and the mast damaged by the ewift Afrio wind, and 
how the yard-arme groan...? ' It ie better to onderetond tU 
after nudum, thtfn with Orelli to make latus, wuUus and 
antennae all nominatives to gemanL For the zeugma in vides 
ut...gemant of. 8. 10. 5 n. 

6. mn%*iuuL*antewMam&wretrephw. Itisfromwordssoch 
ae thie that we infer that the pres. part paesive in uerot wae 
oommon oririnally to both Latin end Greek. 01 Vertuwmus, 
aUmnus, and 8. 18. 4 n. 

fttnibm] Of. Aeto 27. 17, BowOelait Jxp&rro vwo^mrvrrtt 
re wXdcbr, * undergirding the ehip.' Bopee were paeeed round 
the hull and tightly eeoured on deok, to prevent the timbere 
frozn etarting eepeoially amidahipe where in anoient veesele with 
one large maat the itrain wat very great. The tochntoeJ 
English word ie 'frapping,' but the prooeai ie now antigueted. 

7. carlnae] The plural ia rare: it mav be that the poet ia 
thinking of the two aides of the keel whioh the ropee would 
hold together. Some M3S. eeem to read cavernae, whioh 
ie eeid to be 4 the ribe.' Of. Virg. Aen. 2. 19. 

8. Imperloelna] 'too tyrannous.' The very ehape and eise 
of the word is expreseive. 

10. di...] Of. Ov. Her. 16. 112, aeeipit et pietoe puppis 
adunea deoe. Bepreeentotione (etotuee or piotureef) of the gods 
were plaoed in the stern, for the aailore to invoke in eeaiona of 
danger or difficulty. 

11. Ponttea pinue] The foresto of Pontue afforded ample 
material for thip-building. The euggeetion that there is a 
referenoe to Seztus Pompeius the eon of the oonqueror of 
Mithradates of Pontut, it far-fetched and incredible. 

168 HORACE, ODES I. liv. 

13. nomen lnntile) The repO.te.tion of Pontis timber wonld 
be of no aTtil lo tbe ahip in itorm ; eo, tbe lepntation derired 
from earlj hietorj woold be of no to Boma amid tha 
billowi of oinl itrife. 

1G. tu ..] 'Do thon t&ke bc*d, nnlei* tlion art deetined 
to be the eport of tbe windi.' For debtrt hidibriim ■to owe a 
laogbing-stock,' ef. Gk. -yA_T« 6,p\io*dntr. 

17. nuper...] t.e. during the aotoal occurrenee of tbe oivil 

18. nnnc.) now that they ara over uid threaten to i»riT«, 
.(<'(iJmum = 'obJL'ct of mj jearmnK' or ' affeetion,' of. Cio. Fam. 
14, 2. 2, mia liu, mtum detiuVnun. 

19. nttenta»] Cf. 3. 28. 14, fulgeniei Cyeladat. The 
cpithat eliudei to the effeot produced bj tho 
on tbeii marble rooki. Cf. ByTon : 

' The iilea of Greeoe, the inles of Greece I 

Etorual Bomraer gildis tbeia jet, 
Bnt all, except their eun, is eet.' 
30. Cyclidu] Ftom midn», because tbey were ir 
roosd wu_ 

A mythioal Ode, in whioh Nereti» ie t t m e wn ted u p™- 
dioting the fill of Troj to Perii -hen oanring off Helu. 

1. peitor] 'the ihephord,' i.e. Pari_ Baa O uua. Dict. fbr 
hia eipoinre on Mt Ida, and baing brought np by * ihepbard. 

3. parftdna hoipttam] AiititheticaJ jnxtapoai—on, aaa 3, 
_ 6 n. : the faot that ihe wu hii hoeteai made tha perfldj 
«pociaUj perfidiou*. Bo too S. S. 36, bu U o— Ud fimmmTmf m , 
— nd af. Aeaoh. Ag. 401, iaxvrt {<*&» rpbntw ekenlri ywuucit. 

MOTSa 169 

tngrato ref ere to the indignation of the winda and aleo hintt 
«I the Texation oeueed to Paria by the delay : for He reference 

to the winde ot Virg. Aen. L «, IUi indi gn ante t of the 

imprieoned winde. 

4. caneret] Oontinually need of prophetio utteranoe, eee 
Dict. It indioetee etately, meeenred epeeking. Of. nee of 
carmina, 1. 2. 38, end Oer. Baeo. 86, ceeinUu. We mnet re- 
member too thet oreolee were oenaUy delirered in hexemeter 

5* Veroue] Of. Heeiod, Theog. 988; 

Vnp4a r* ctywMa cai aXefta yehtare Ilorrot. 

mala »t1] «EtU ere the omene with whioh thon oon- 

dneteet home e bride whom ' For a*i# »an omen ef. 

augur, autpex, end their deriration, end the Gk. toefajter **> 
o>ni>. eleo 8. 8. 61, aliU lugubri, 4. 6. 84, poHort aUU. 

For the eril forebodinge exoneed m Troy iteelf by the 
repe of Helen, eee en inoomperable paeeage Aeeoh. Ag. 406, 
begmning : dyovca d* arrtytpnv "Ddtf QBopa* 

7. oonlurata] 'Having bonnd themeelTee by an oath to...' 

9. adeet] The prophetio preeent: the bard 'rapt into 
rature time' eeee what ie deitined to take plaoe already taking 

10. quanta moTee ..] 'What grierone dieaaterB thon art 
aroneing for the raoe of Dardanua. ' quanta funera oan eoaroely 
be the eame aa quot funtra—how many deethe. Perhape the 
phraee ie a brief expreeaion for 'how many and how gneroua 

Derdanae] Wiokham hae a good note, that 'the poete, and 
eepeeially Horaoe, uee the namee of natione and tribee ee 
edjeotiTee inatead of the fuller derivative forme in -iue or -ioue.' 
Of. 3. 9. 1, Medum flumen, 3. 18. 8, venena Colcha, 8. 7. 8, 
Thyna merce, 4, 4. 88, Metaurum flumen, 4. 13. 18, Sulpicii* 
horreie, Virg. Aen. 6. 877, Romula tellue. 

11. aegii, alylt (from ateev to flaah, or at£ a goat). For 
a full deeoription of it eee II. 5. 785, <fec. See aleo Diot. Ant. 
a. t. for repreeentatione of Athena wearing it. 

13. ourrue et rablem] Notioe the oombination of the 
abetraot and the oonorete, 'preparee her ohariot and wrath.' 
Orelli remarka that thie ia a favourite uaage with Taoitus, 


'Hia tharioU of vrath the deep thunder-olouda form.' 

13. ".^.ii^.nin] ■Vsiijly coufident in Venui' guardian- 
ihip ahalt thoa oomb Ihy love-loek», and apportion on the 
unwarlike Inte the aoruj» ibat ladies lote.' 

Cf. Eom. H. S. M: 

ou« St tw xpafcMB «iS(«Mt ri rt Sup 'A^ponfnn, 
if Tf v&mi to Tf elooi, oV rfi* tayi^jai jjfycffrl- 

Venert» pr»e»ldlo] Becaube he had awsrded her the 
Kotden epple in the famou» judgmont of ParU. Cf. TeaDTeon'» 

11. pacte» caeeajlsm...] Notioe tbe feminine ioftnee» md 
beanty Horaee haa imparted to theae two linec. In »11 great 
poeU the language used U. perhap» uuconaciouslj. rnodified 
■o n» almoat in ita aound to correspond to the feetinga or event» 
they deecribe: a eomperiaon belween Hilton'» rugged power 
in deecribing Satsn nnd Hell, miit bia melodioua softneas iu 
portrsying Eve and Paradise. well illuatratea thia. 

15. ctrmln» dlTlde»] Oretli eiplaina thia, • divido the aong 
between the voioa and inatrament.' But when we think of 
the Latln nee of modi, numm, and tbe Engtiab ' rneamrti, ' 
there wonld aecm little doubt that the phraee meana *to eet 
eong» to n meaaurc, or, to mnaio,' The rendering, "will dmde 
Bonga to women,' i.e. aing one to one and anotber to ftnothier 
Udy, i» aimple but intolerable. 

1S. Uutfajno) Cf. H. S.361.of VenuaeavingParisfromtha 
figbt, (niXu^r i' ap' fiipt To\X]j I iai S" tlr Ir flaXa^i ntiiiti' 
tifJnm. TransUte, 'in your bridal ohamber.' 


19. tamenheuaenii...} 'ForaU that (i.e, though gnardeil 
bj Venue and thj oowardioe), though Uto, thoa ibilt in the 
duat deflle those idulteioni look».' 

30. crlnea] Some retd rultiu .- but ' adalterona look» ' U » 
foreible and bold phrmee for deacribing the eorled and gloiay 
locki of the adulterer Paria, aoon to ba dUordered and dabblea. 
with blood. 8o *. 9. 18, eomptot adiMeri criwj (alao of Paria). ' 

NOTES. 171 

21, 99. exitium gentt] «Ulyaaet, roin to thy raee's the 
datiTe oilor a noun \n raro, but in thia oooo tho nonn io pnt, 
with great addition to tho foroe, for tho adjeotiTe exitialis 
whioh would naturally have tho datfre. Lot the otndont iniort 
here, •ruin of thj raoe,' or 'ruinoua to thy raoe,' and obaerre 
how woak they aro eomparod with Horaoe'a phraee. 

99. non...reaplclt?] The andden qnestion giTea Tiyidnoat 
and reality» 4 Look ronndl do you not tee...?' 

94. Toncer te] 8o OrolU v a 4th odition with atrong H8S. 
authoritr. The ecornful foroe of tho reneated U ia oloar — 'thoo 
...thee the oowardl 1 Orelli'i old reading Teucir et makoo tho 
firtt foot a troohee : thio ia allowablo in thia motro in Qxook bnt 
in Latin is only fonnd L 86 ignU whore Tachmann oonaidoro 
that it io a proof that this ia one of Horace't oarlioat Odee. 

84, 35. aolena pngnao] Homor'a ft&xi* «• •***»• For tho 
gon. after adjootiTea expreasing knowlodgo, of. citharae $ci$nt, 
8. 9. 10, rudi» agminum, 8. 9. 9, repultae nescia, 8. 9. 16, imbrium 
divina % 8. 97. 10, dociU» modorum, 4. 6. 48. 

96. Merlonen] Chariotoer of Idomeneue. 

97. noaooa] 'Thou ahalt learn to know,' «Thou ahalt be- 
oome aoquainted with,' in a threatoning aenae. Notice dis- 
tinotion betwoen notco and novi. 

furit roporlro] 'rages (i.e. fnriontly longt) to diaooTer.' For 
tho Epexegetio Inf. aee 1. 8. 95 n., and for ita nao aftor Terbn 
Kennody Lat Pr. f 149. It oan be uted aitor all Terba which 
expreoa ability, doaire, dariog, fear, ondoaTonr, or negloot, and 
in poetry, aa here, aftor Terba whieh oontain any of theoe 
idea$. Inatanoea aro 9. 4. 98, trcpidavit claudere, 9. 19. 98, 
occupat rapcre, 9. 18. 91, urget tummovere, 8. 7. 29, fuge 
tuepicari, 4. 4. 69, dolen$ vinci t 1. 87. 80, invidcne deduci. Soo 
Wiokham'a Appondix. 

99. qnem tn...] 'From whom thon ahalt fly, aa tho atag, 
forgetfnl of the pasture, fliet from the wolf he haa toen on tho 
oppoaito aide of the valley, timid, with panting hoad nplifted.' 

81. anhlimi] Wickham refort to the Gk. /urfopof, and 
rwiOu* $x$tp arw, and tayt, *tho broath it stonped midway, 
can't get down, but ttayt at tho entranoe of tho lungs.' That 
tublimit anhelitut meant breath ttoppod at the top of tho 
larrnx, I cannot oonceive: the explanation may bo acholarly 
and teientifio, bnt it is ncither poetio nor eentiblo. Let any 

P. H. 13 


53. 34. trtottnda olaaaU Acnlllei] The anger whieh made 
AohUlei Mpante hia ihipi snd men frora Ihou ol tlie olher 
Oreeki. For the gen. cf. f/tini, 1. 6. 7 u., and for the 

hjpallage, 3. 1. 12 ii, 


'Fair lady, do whii yoa ohooee wlth 1117 ■aarrilou Ttnei: 
the/ ware written in ■ paaaion, aad pieaion ji angoTernahle. 
Prometbeiu iii mskiiig man ia eaid lo h&TB added, among 
otbar qaalitiea, a portiou of the wrath of the liou. Paaaion 
haa erer prored ruinona: I too wai urged by il to make mj 
Ubellom attaoka, which I am now enger to reoant.' 

Thii oda is a ra\ir V Sia or reeantntion, cf. Tteanlatit, 1. 37. 
The moat famoui palinode ii tlie ona referred to bj Horaoe 
Epod. 17. 43, 

infamii BtUnat Caitor offemtu viei 
fratergut magni Caitorit vieti prtet 
ad/mpta vati rtddidere luminn. 
It wm writtan bj BMaiohoroa when deprWed of hia aitht 
for iibelling Helan: it waa oertainly thorough enongh, for 
it begini by denying that Helen ever went to Troy (Plat. 
Phaedr. 313 *)• 

Whether tha eriwdnoii tambi are to be found in Uw ax- 
tant writingi of Hnraoa or not U a queation that can ntrar 
be «ettled, and will probabjy tharefore bo alwayi debated. 
Epodaa G and 17 aro moat frequentlj refarred to. 

S. ponaa] 3nd para. fnt. for • polit* imperatiTB. pontr* 
auAin = to put a limit to them, i.e. deatroy tham. Thare 
ia aJio ■ «nggeatton that the iainhioe had been withont ineaW, 
limlt, meaaaro, moderation. 

lainbU] Arohilooha» ii aaid to hare iiiranted th* iambio, 
■nd to haTB employed it in hii well-known lampoona. Of. 
Hor. A. P. 79, ArehUochum proprio rabiei arnavit iambo. 

NOTEa 173 

Henee iambios beeame muoh used in suoh sourrilons poetnr. 
Gatullus (86. 5) has trueet vibrare iambo$ t on whioh Elfis 

remarks 'wibrare aptly exn r essss the sharpness and speed of 
the iambus, whioh made it §o useral a weapon for launching 
(Urrtv) against an enemy.' 

8, 4. stre flamma stve] Orelli quotee with approval tozne 
observations of Laohmann to the effeot that tho third lineof an 
Aloaie atansa ought not to end with two dissyllables, but fails 
to note that thero ia a deflnite ezeoption to thia rule when, ai 
hore, the ftrst dissyllable ii repeated at the oommenoexnent 
of the fonrth line, in whioh oaee the peouliar emphaiii 
naturally thrown on the repeated word at onoe reatoree to 
the third line ite sonorous oharaoter. Of. 1. 26. 7, necU 
floret I necU, 2. 18. 37, dura navie \ dura, 2. 14. 11, $ive 
regee | $ive t 2. 19. 7, parce Liber | parce. 

6. Dindymene] The goddess who dwella by Monnt Din- 
dymus in Phrygis, i.e. Cybele. 

non adyUs ..] 'Nor does its Pythian inhabitant equally 
shako (or terrify) the mind of his priests in (or perhaps *by 
means of J his mmost shrine.' adytit goes in oonstrnotion 
parUy witn incola, partly with quaHt. 

The ctovror (unenterable plaoe) was a small cavern in 
whioh was a deep oleft in the rock, over whioh was plaoed the 
tripod on which the priestess sat, of. Munro's note on Luor. 
1. 788. For the effeots of inspiration on the priestess, of. Virg. 
Aen. 6. 47 et seq. 

The spelling with y shews that this is not a word of Latin 
derelopment, but a Greek word borrowed, and reproduced in 
Latin letters. The Latin had no symbol for the Greek sound 
v (which is intermediate between the Latin u, pronounoed as oo 
in 'boot,' and short f) t and therefore at a late period, as is 
shewn by its late position in the alphabet, introduoed the 
letter Y, the Greek T, which is therefore only found in Latin 
in pure Greek words, e.g. lyra, amyttide, Cybele, tyrammt, 
lyncat t fte. but lacruma or lacrima. 

7. aouta] •shriUy-sounding,' 'pieroing.' 

8. gemlnant] 'clash'; well illustrated by Lnor. 2. 685, 
where the Ctorybantes are said pultare aeribut aera, for whioh 
Horaoe nses the enrious phrase geminare aera, i.e. to strike 
oymbal against oymbaL 

0. trlstes ut lrae] The ut goes after aeque, the words 
non acuta tic geminant Corybantet aera coming in some- 

174 HORACE, ODES L xvi. 

what pareutheticallj and bj waj of illustratinu rather than 
forming part of the miin thonght and oonatruction. 

lrae] Ib plunl, 'oulbnrata o( painou.' 

tforlcm] Tha diitrict of Norioum («bout the TjtoI) iu 
oetebrated for iU iroo. 

11. 19. tremendo lupplter ] 'nor bMrai iteelf falling 
wilh dread ooufuaion.' 

Jupiter, the god of the ekj (aee u 
for the tkj itaalf, and ruai (ai in 
arduia atthtr) expreeeee that heaven iUelf aeema I 
ruahiag in thunder, and lightning, and rain, down upou the 

The peeuliar rhjthm Ivppitrr iptt rutn* (which would 
inake the 2nd half of an Ovidian penUraeter) ia rare in tha 
fourth line of aloaioa, doubtleee aa hurrjing the line too 
lauch along. Here it ia uaed effectivelj to expresa the qtriek 
deaceat of the deluge. 

13. fertur Frometheu»...] Thia Itanza muat be Uken 
either bj auppljing tut alter eoaetm, and joining coaclun tnt 
aud appotuitte bj et, or elae bj making eoaetut a participle 
aud tt — ttiam, 'along with' or 'among the reat.' 

Promethaui ia by no meana alwayi the rebelhona Titan of 
Aeschjlui, bnt he and hin brother Epimetheue ngure aa two 
allegorical flguree, Fore-thought and After-thought, in nianj 
atoriea. In the etorj here alludcd to AftiT-thought had used up 
all the quahtiea, with which living creaturea after being monided 
in claj {pnncipi limo) were to be endowed, before he caaie 
to man at «11, and then Pore-thougbt being called iu to remedj 
tliia wm compalled (coociiu) to Uke a amall portion of their 
qualitiea from eaoh animal, the reault of which ia that man 
posaeeeee a oompoeiU oharacter abewing tracea of tbe variona 
qualitiea whieh epeoiaUj belong to different animala. See 
Plat. Prot. anu i> et «eq. 

15. 11. prlttdpl limo] 'our original elay." Cf. Gen. 8. 7, 
' Aud the Lord Qod formed mau of the dnat of tha ijround.' 

16. itomaoho] Of. 1. 6. 8. 

17. Ira»] Notioe how the prominent npetiUoa of the 
■—-■ lUniaa. Cf. 1. 3. i u. 

NOTES. 175 

ultimae] 'furtheet back,' and therefore 'earlieit,' 'firit,' 
'primary.' $Uter$ would in prote be $xtiter$ bnt ii muoh more 
emphatio, mff«' w g not only 'haTe tnrned ont,' 'haTe prored,' 
bnt aleo inggeeting the ideaa of unoonquerable etrength and 
itability. Tha eixnple yerb $to ia alwaya Tery e m ph a tio and 
powerfnl: ite brevity gt?ea it foroe, of. the well-known Stat 
Vortuna D<mu$. 

altta...fundltaa perirent] of. Hom. IL 18. 772, wXcro r«Va 
$mr curpyt | IXiot cUthmjj. 

21. aratmm] The walla of a new city were marked ont 
with the pkragh, and ao the ntter deitruotion of a oitj ie 
lymboliaed by the plough being driven otot ite walli. 

inaoleni] 'arrogant/ The word indieatea that extraTaganoe 
of oondnot whioh marka thoee who find thomaelToa in a 
poaition to whieh they are 'nnaoonatomedV 

24, oeleree] 'headitrong.' 

26. fnrentem] Cf. Ep. 1. 2. 62, Ira fitror brevit ut— 
'Anger ii a ihort attaek of lnianity.' 

25, 26. mlttbua triitta] nitU ia often naed of amooth, 
meliow wine, and trUtU of that whieh ia rongh and bitter to the 
taite(of. Virg. O. 1. 75, trUU lupinum). Tranalate: 'change 
aonr for aweet.' 

26, 27. dnm flaa] dum with the subjunctive ia never 
temporal, but nearly alwayi «dummodo. Cf. 8. 8. 87, duvi... 

'Provided that, if I reoant my abnae, you beoome ' 

ODE xvn. 

•TyndariB, come and viait my farm. Even Fannna often 
quita hia native haunti to gnard thia ipot; here the goati 
browee in aafety while he playi hii pipe. Indeed all the godi 
loTe and gnard me : here yon will find rnral abnndance with 
full horn, repoee, mnaio and rerelry without riot.' 

The Babine farm here deaoribed waa preaented to Horace by 
Maeoenai abont b.c. 84. He freqnently referi to it with great 
affection, e.g. 2. 18. 14, unicU SabinU, and 3. 1. 47. 

HORACE, ODES I. ivii. 

a Ssbine moontain overhsnging Horace's 
rmj* doscribed u Ap*di-ryt (_ni hero Hortoe 
» tli. Latin Fauoui witb the Qreek P»a, 
he plaj» on thc Pan-pipe), aud hil native 
aonntains of Arcndia, pspccially Lycaeui. 

wepts in eichange ' : »o too 3. 13. 93, peram- 
iut«L Notiee tbe differenoe of ths coustroction 
in tho hut linei of Ihs preoeding Ode. 

■ward» nff,' from de and /tndo = io slrika 

4. njqb.j _, -oumuui ,' ia uied heie in almost 

6,0. Utcntei arbuto»] Le. icealed unid tlie other 
shrobs. For the fondneM of g< — the lwves of the arbutui 
eL Tirg. Ecl. 8. 82, Dvlce taH uir, dtpuUix arbutui hatdu. 

fl, 7. dsTlM...] 'tbs wande ladies ot ta onsaToury 

lord.' Ibe Mpresiion is verj iar even in Lattn, and 

worne in Engish. 

For ths tenns tusoru, mariti, spplied to animals, cf. Virg. 
«' and Theoo. 8. *9, w rpiyt rir 

MarOsle») A staadard epithet of wolves. It wm • 
sba-wolf thst luckled tbe famous oflsprinfl ol llan. 
haadillu] 'joungkid»,*tb.owordbeing.oi "* 

..... . _ mi__ — ^Jjng h»a 

„ ... "(!•>-. 

an nnknown pleoe neu Horaoe'» ferm infested witb 

10. ntounqn»]'whenever.' Cr. 1. 35. 38, 3. 17. 11, 8.4. W. 
Trnd__rt] A. purely flotitiou» name, u is Oyrvt, L 36. 
OitBli] Tbe Pmpipe. Virg. E. 3. 83, Pem primu calamot 

ecra eonjvnatrt plurti | Injtitint. 

11. UitJeMl D___B_nm; probablj a nl_r/. eituKi. 
'low-ljing': of. Theon. 18. tO, *aU'ii ir x^PV- 

1S. pletu) Datifal affoction, tha foelkig • soo ■hould 

like vorcilia from porcv*. The reading _uu tbe anthmtj of 
PorphTrion, uid oonfirml the oonjeotaro of Bentlej httduttmt. 
The old r eeding wu Eatdiiia* (gen.) whioh >u e«pleinert u 

NOTES. 177 

bear to hia father; henoe the etandins epithet piut applied to 
AfMji bflOftiMMi of hit deYotion to Anomioi 

18,14. dif ttt oonH] «it dear to the godV 

14. hlo ttbl oopla...] 'Here abundanoe with horn of 
plenty ehall flow for thee to the foll (ie. thall ponr forth her 
treaturee till you are eatiafied) rioh in all the gloriet of the 

16. mrlt honoruml would inolnde fruit, fiowera, and the 
like; the gen. it partly dependent on copia, partly on opulenta, 
of. 4. 8. 5, divet artium. 

For the legenda oonnected with the benignvm cornu (of. 
onr nte of oornuoopia) tee Glata. Diot. nnder the wordt 'Aehe- 
lont' and 'Amalthea/ 

18. flde TeXa] 'etringi of Teos,' i. e. tuoh aa were ttrnok by 
Anaoreon of Teoe, the poet of love and wine, and therefore 
aptly introdnoed here. 

19. laborantea in uno] 'lovesick for the tame man.' 
Laboro it like the Gk. rorcijr, to be in difficulties: in uno 
exprettet the faot that the eante of the troublet of both wat to 
be fbund in one man. 

90. Yitream] 'glassy-green': all sea-nymphs are repre- 
aented as of the colour of sea-water. So they are ealled eae- 
ruleae; the Gk. word ia Wupot. 

21. lnnooentia LethU] 'harmleat Lesbian.' The Bomant 
imported wine from Letboa and alao from Chiot , of. Epod. 9. 
34, Chia vina aut Letbia. Innoeent it nted in the aenae in 
which an Iriahman would aay of whiakey, 'There'i not a head- 
aohe in a hogshead.' 

• 22. dncet] 'quaff': the word indicatet to take a long 
deep draught {duco-l draw), and always impliet drinking 
witb gratifioation. Cf. «nror, f Ajrcu', and 8. 8. 84, 4. 12. 14. 

22, 23. Bemelelna Thyonentl Baoohut' mother waa called 
both Semele and Thyone, but the word Thyoneut ia here ob- 
▼iously used with referenoe to ita derivation {0{*w, Thyias)=the 
god of rage and revelry. 

25. autpecta] i.e. of infidelity, and therefore afraid of 
the jealous rage of headstrong Cyrua. 

HORACE, 01>ES 1. xvii. 

= ibtj badlj maWlied. vuilt with adjccli»e« 
HDM, iDlciiBiliei that bed ien»e. juet u witb 
■ pood senM it neutralUM it, Me 1. II, 94 

n[ You Lsvl' never deacrved «uoh treatmenl, 
re hei your poor irmocant dreia. Cf. um o( 


4 You .; II, 1 40 ptant a 

tittr ■ it L" > lin lifa full of aaro: on tbe 

otbcr lirinu. uibu» uuuoces wim ui of the dangeni of iutero- 
penace. Baoohio orgiei hate thoir riake: aelf-loie, aelf-glori- 
noatiou, ind h»d faitb too ofteu follow in their train.' 

1. noIUm mt*xU] For uae of perf. lubj. in poltte pro- 
hlbitiona cf. 1. 11. 1. 

Thc linc U oloeely imitated in metre uid aenae from 
Aleaeus, of vrhom «re poaieee the fragment 

fiTlStr iX\a ivrtiejp rpirtper HrSptor ii/rfXu. 

vere] Unknown. He m*T be tbe iame aa tbe Quinotiliui 
(Vfcrni) of 1. 34, q. t. 

2. Tlborll st moeula. OtUIl] For Til.ur Mf 1. 7. 18. 
Oatiii.n U Mid to have been tlie lou of Ampiiiaraui and to 
bave beoD tbe father of three eona, Tiburtua, Corae, and 
Catillus, who founded Tibur and cnlled it after tbe eldeat. 

Horaoe uaea the form CatUus for coureniettoe: Virg. Aen. 
7. 672 haa Cltillua. So we have both Poraena aod ForMnna. 

t Cf. AmoJi. Ag. 108, Bvropifivt W*,, 'oark- 
ing, lonl-ooninming eniietj.' Cf. the Homerio phrue Ir 9v>iir 
«arteW, ' eating hU heart,' and 9. 1L 18, euroi tdacu. 

•Jlter) 'bj anj other meana,' i.e. than by aToidlng *«TlHrTii- 
ing one of tbe ticH or total abatainen. 

5. graiem nmthUH erepat] 'keepe harpjiig on tba haid- 
ahipi of carapaigniOB.' ercpet m warmyti, Wo hh tha phraae, 
' to rattle ort about a thing.' 

NOTES. 179 

7. at, ne quls...] 'But leat any one transgrees that use 
of hia sifU whioh modeet Liber allowe, the combat .... warns 
us, and so doea . . . .' The word trantiliat suggeeU the idea 
of lightiy tranagreaaing, ef. ite uae 1. 8. 94« 'h^htly eroae.' 

For thia querrel at the marriage of Pirithous king oC the 
Lapithae with Hippodamia aee Olasa. Diot The struggle of 
the OenUurs and Lapithae ia frequently treated in Greak art,aa 
for inatanee in the seulptured metopes of the Parthenon deaigned 
bj Phidiae, and now in the Britieh Museuxn, and in one of the 
pedimenU of the temple of Zeua at Olympia. Of . 2. 19. 6. 

8. super merol «over the wine,' or perhape 'after': it ia 
very diffieult to find a parallel to tha uae of tuper hera. Othera 
aay *on aooount of/ and oompare 8. 18. 7, wptr urbe curat. 

9. non leyif ] i.e. Tery aerere. An initanoe of the well- 
known rhetorioal figure Litotee or Meioaia, by whioh a mild and 
negative f orm of expreaaion ia intentionally uaed inatead of a very 
atrong affirmative one. It ia very frequent in Thucydidee, e.g. 
odx ^royasvery muoh more, eAv 4r^tofaBd|ic#raro» and of. St 
Paul'a famoua 'Shall I praiae yon in thia? I prai$* younotS 
1 Oor. 11. 29. Of. 1. 24. 17, non Uvit, 1. 87. 82, non humili*, 
2. 7. 10, non bene, 2. 12. 17, nec dedecuit, 2. 19. 15, non leni, 

4. L 14, non tacttut. 

EWus, ie. the god to whom the cry cvoc is addreaaed. 
Sithoniit, i.e. Thracians, of. 1. 97. 2. 

10. onmraa...] 'Whenmenin their eagerneai (or naaaion) 
distinguiah right and wrong only by the narrow limit tnat luet 
determinea,' i.e. luat or paasion induoee men to neglect the 
broad dietinotion between right and wrong, and perauadeathem 
that there ia very little differenoe between tho two, in faot that 
in many oases they ehade abaolutely into one another. 

11. ditcerno=di*, apart, and cerno, tplma, I aeparate. 
candidel not ' in tho brightneaa of thy youth,' for Baoohua 

has been addreased as pater 1. 5, but ' open-hearted,' aa Schiits 
takea it, oomparing Epod. 11. 11, ingenium candidum. Epod. 14. 

5, candide Maecenat, Sat. 1. 10. 86, candide Furni, Ep. 1. 4. 1, 
candidejudez, Sat. 1. 5. 41, animae candidioret, 

Baasareu] from 0aovd>o, a fox-akin worn by BaochanU. 

19. quatiam] s'arouse' or 'disturb/ at the aame time 
the word haa referenoe to the brandithing of the thyrraa. 

neo varlia . . . ] 'nor reokleasly bring to light things eon- 
oealed beneath varied leaves.' For tub divum see 2. 8. 28 n. 

180 HOKACE, ODES 1. iviii. 

He relefB to ihtitain sacred chcats or nrks oonlaining the 
veeseli, 4c. for tho myiteriee, onlj prodnced on certain eolemn 
oocasions, &t otber timeB oovered witb. learcs. 

13. tene] = "check.' He euddenlj appea.le to Beoahna to 
restr&in the eidting Pbrjgian mueic, whiob he repreeente him- 
nelf ib ttctually hearing, and which too aoon leada to fienzy. 

Berecj-ntio] i.e. sneh us were used in tbe worthip of Cy- 
bi-le on Mt Berecyntus in Phrygia: in her orgiaatio rita*. whioh 
were well kuown at llome, the eiciting muiio of the pipe wm 
ospecially osed (cf. 8. 19. 18, B. Hbiae. snd i. 1. 23), but alao 
tiinbrels and homa. C£. Dindyment, 1. 16. 5. 

14. tympana] From tuftui, 'timbrels.' 

16. arca.nlq.ue Fidee...] 'Faitb prodigal of aecreU, more 
trauBpareut tban glssB." Tbere ie mucli power in deeoribing 
Fiiitb wbich ie nnfaithtnl bs Faith notwithstanding : the anti- 
thesia between what it ie end what it ought to have been ia 
made tcij rivid. 


"VennB ia determined that I sbould again be the victim of 
love; and it ia Olyoera wbo inflamea my pasiiou. Venna at- 
tacks me with all her power and forbida me to aing of ware or 
anything but wbat conoerus herielf. Quick, alavel, qoiekl an 
altar and a victim I let na endeavour to appease the imperious 
goddesa. ' 

1. bmtk] beoaoaa of the noted crualty aad it 


fiemalesj Orelli thinka the Gk. form of the genitive 

to be preferrad, though tbe M8S. grre Seawltt, a Isvtin 

7. frata protarTttu] 'ubarming recklassnea 

NOTES. 181 

8. lubricui adiplcl] Adtpici is the epexegetio infinitive, 
neoessary to explain the epithet lubricut aa applied to a faoe. 
Ae a road ia too elippary and glasey fbr the feet to etand on, 
eo her faoe it too daeiling and deoeptive f or the eyee to reet onu 

9. tota mene Venus] cf. Eur. Hipp. 448, Kowmt yip ov 
etyeroV, $r woXkij ^vj, 

11. Tertie anlmoeum equls] «oourageous with retreating 
steed.' The eodden oneet of the Parthian light oavalry, and 
tho ahowera of arrowe they had been trained to ponr into the 
enemy while riding away (tagittat et eelerem fuaam Partki, 
2. 18. 17) had been fatally experienoed by the heevy-anned 
Boman legionariee on the eandy plaina of Oharrae and never 

Cf. Virg. Oeorg. 8. 81, Fidentemque fuga Parthum vertit- 
qut tagittit. We use the expreeaion *a Parthian arrow' of a 
eaxeaam launched by a pereon jnet retiring and to whioh it ia 
therefore impoaaible to reply. 01 Shak. Cymb. 1. 5. 90, *or 
like fhe Parthian I ahall fiying fight.' 

12. quae nihil ettlnent] * thinge of no oonoern ' : the worde 
are hnmoroua: the lorer haa weightier mattere than ware and 
politioe to tbink about 

18. TiYum caeepitem] Fresh-cut, living tarf, to form an 
impromptn altar, cf. 8. 8. 1. 

14. Terbenaa] A teohnioal word of unoertain derivation, 
applied to all bougha or green thinga uaed in religioua rites. 
Servius on Virg. Aen. 12. 120 aaye verbenat vocamut cmnet 
frondet tacratat, ut ett laurut, oliva, vel myrtut. 

16. mactata] •She will oome withleasened violence when 
we have sacrifioed a victim.' 

macto ie an aotive verb from the root mag (cf. maait t major 
s*magior t uaxpot) and meane (1) to inorease or magnify, henoe 
mactare deot extit, to honour the gods with entraile, (2) to 
eacrifice, ae here, the word having beoome confined to the reli- 
gioua meaning of honouring by sacrifice. 


An invitation to Maeoenas to oome and aee him at hia 
Sabine farm. The wine he can offer will be poor, but had 
been spedally bottled by himself in honour of an interesting 
event in Maecenas' life. 

182 HORACE, ODES I. u. 

1. potabii] ' You will dri.nk if joh aocept my inviiation ' 
= Pleaae come end drink. For the fut. cf. 1. 7 Iut. 

Bablnuin] Wine giown in the immedUte neighbourbood, 
of ■ ljffht oharaoter auoh u *n invalid raffering from 4 ten- 
dencv to fever like Maeoenu oould drink, ef. Marquardl FnTat- 
lebeu der Roruer, 2nd ed. p. 419. 

-'. Qranca teata] For oee of Oreek winei of. 1. 17. 31. 
Tho jar would rotain loma of the arotna of the noblei Tinlage 
(',""■' ttwdl tit inbitta rtcent icrvabit odortm \tuta diu, Epiat. 
1. 3. 69) uid iuj [nii it to the Sabine wine. Ct the preotioe of 
koeping whnkj in old ilierrj ouka, 

lptej merka tbe care be bad beslowed on it. 

wai oheored on eutering the theotre after 
an illneii. Of. 2. 17. 25. 

3. equei] It hau been woll pointed ont that there Ii foroe 
in tbJB referenca lo the fact tliat Maecenu remained COQtented 
witb the oomparatiTelj bumbie poailion of ou tautt (iee S. 1S. 
20 n.), wben tbe poet ia inviting hitn to hil own hnmble rooL 
Dcutley's luggeetioo of ctare for cart epoili tbe whole friend- 
Uueae and pleaiantneii of tbe Ode, and ii on a par with manj 
of the «uggeetioni of that emineut and eccenlric uholar. 

pauralj Cf. 1. 1. 1 aud S. 7. 28. The Ttbor ii oalled 
iiucuj aivtuM. 

6, 8. iooou, Hmjto] 3ee note on 1. 12. 8. 

7, S. Vattoanl montU] Wickham'ji note U 'The theatre 
of Pompej, whioh wm the onlj one ■flniahil »t thii time, itood 
et thi 8. eud of the Campue Martiua, »o looking aoroea tba 
Tiber on tbe Janicuian and Yatioan hilla. 1 

9. CaecuUum, Ao.] For thoM winea M* anj Diot of Ant 
The CatcubvM ag/.r ii iu Lntium, ao i» Formiat. CaUtini tbe 
Faitmut agtr are in Campenia. 

domitam] ■ ' preaaed.' 

10. tun Wbu] Thii oertainlT eorreot reading U MMpiid 
In Orelli'i 4th edition on the authorit j of Forphyrion for tha 
hopeleu reailing of aU the MBS. tu bibtt. 'You thaJl fint 
hare aome Babine,' iay» Horaoe, '«peciallj bottUd in your 

NOTES. 183 

honoar, and then I will give you some Caeeuban and Calenian : 
I muit warn you however that if yon want PaJernUn or 
Formian you will be disappointed'; juet in the saxne way one 
might offer a distinffuishea friend eome LeoviUe or La Boee 
after dinner and modeetly apologise for the absenot of Latour 
or Lante of '68. 

With ttft bibe$ f fu is strongly oontrasted with mco, the 
luzury of Maeoenas' own palaoe with what he will flnd at 
Horaoe's farm. The fut. bibee is however inexplioable, for to 
ezplain it as oonoe»eive»'you shall/ or 'may on anotber 
oooasion elsewhere drink' is impoesible immediately after 
Horaoe has nsed potabit in the ezaotly opposite sense 'you 
shall drink on this oooasion at my honse.' 

11. temperant] Temverarg is the regular word for mizing 
or mingling anything in aue proportion, of. Epod. 17. 80 desi- 
dtrique Umperare poeula. Striotly speaking the person who 
mizee the wine with water temperat pocula 'mizes tne oup,' bnt 
here the vines are said to do so beoause they produoe the wine 
with whioh it is mized. 


An Ode in hononr of Apollo and Diana to be snng by a 
ehorus of youths and maidens. Orelli is probably right in 
oonsidering the Ode too slight to have been written for any 
great publio oooasion: the other oommentators amuse them- 
selves by guessing what the oooasion may have been, the best 
oonjeoture being that of Franke, who suggests the year 38 b. o. 
when the temple of Apollo on the Palatine was dedioated (see 
1. 81) and quinquennial games instituted in memory of the 
battle of Actium in honour of Apollo and Diana. For the 
whole Ode of. 4. 6 and the Carmen Saeculare. 

2. intonsuml In Homer ixtpatKbw. he is represented as 
eternally youthfhl His statueB are numerous : note especially 
the Apollo Belvedere. 

Cynthlum] Oynthus is a mountain in Delos. 

8. latonam] or Leto was the mother of both ApoUo and 
Artemis in the islnnd of Deloa, Zeus being their fatbor. 

84 HORACE, ODES I. ui. 

fi ™i-« nirjin», ia atrong oontraat with 1-01 1. 3 = 

,..] Beeitua ahe >u ■ hontrcii: her ftroar- 
noquentlT «peoitiod. 

■. Cf. Odju. 33. 195, Mmf* «W Krn- 
. o tomae, 4. 7. 3. 

6. i | moontain iu Latium uear Tunoulum »ud 

i, Erymanthui' in Ai- 

1L InitgTi lert—jd' Apollin/m, umerun being = ' M 

to hil "houlder. 

tatern»! 1 ierourj (cf. 1. 10) and given to 


II. hlc ..] I eonld not onl; hriiip jilaguee (el. llum. 

11. 1. 43—52) bu. »...; tbem; in O eek ungedj ha i» con- 
atantly invoked u Uaidr or the Heale.. Cf. Cinn, Saec. 63. 

Fo. ■■ ; • ■■ -', aee 4. 14. 6 n. 

15. Perua «Ique Brltannoa] i.e. the remotest barbiiriani 
of tba Eait and Weet. The Britotis wera »» jet only known 
from the uurried expedjtiona of Julini Cae*ar. 

18. atfitj ' ahatt dri»« away.' 

1 Tha jnit and innoceu t need no proteotion, Fuasua, through 
whntever dangen thair path leada them. At anj rate I know 
thn-t a monitroui wolf did not sttaak me while I wai wandariug 
in the wooda thinking of Lelage. In anj elimate I ahall laal 
aafe and oontentadlj «ing mj Udj'e oharme.' 

Of Ariitiu» Fneoui onr prinedpal knowl edge ii dori™d from 
Hoiaoe, Ep. 1. 10. 3, where he tayi, 

paent gtmtlli 
fraterni* animii, qvidquid lugat atltr tt oitff, 
ammiimtt parittr vetuli notique columbi. 

NOTES. 185 

He seems to bave been a znan of studious tastes, and dis- 
tinguished as a eritie {grammaticut). 

1. integer vitae] 'He who ia blamelese in (reepect to) hit 
life.' So Ovid Met, 9. 441, inUger aevi. Tbe grammarians 
eall it tbe gen. of respeot. For inUger cf. 2. 4. 29 n. 

soeleria] ia a simple partitive genitive, purut beingshaving 
no abare in. Cf. Eur. Hipp. 949, k*kww eunj/xxro*. 

2. Maurii] Merel y pietoriaL 

5. Byrtes aestuosasl Orelli prefera the rendering 'the 
aoorohing deaert that bordera the Svrtea' and oomparee atttuota 
Calabria, 1. 81. 5. It aeema aimpler to take Syrtee in ita 
ordinary aenae and tranalate, *the boiling or ttormy Syrtea/ 
and to eompare 2. 6. 8, Barbarat Syrtet ubi Mauta temper \ Aes- 

6. Inhoapitalem] Aeaoh. Prom. Vinot 20 eaila the Cau- 
eaaua ardrQpwToi wdyot. 

7. 8. fabulosua Hydaapes] Thia river (the Jelum) ia a tribu- 
tary of the Indus: it waB on ite banki that Alexander defeated 
Porue (b. c. 327). It is oalled fabulotut as being in the unex- 
plored East about whioh numberieas itories would be eurrent 

8. lambit] 'washes.' 

9. namquel He proves hii general statement by an in- 
atanoe that had oceurred to himaeif . He attributea the aame 
almoat aacred poetio oharaoter to himaelf, 8. 4. 9, where the 
birda oover him with leaves for proteotion. So too 2. 17, and 
ihedime tuentur of 1. 17. 13. 

10. et ultra...] 'And wandered beyond my boundariei in 
utter careleasness, a wolf fled from me though unarmed, a 
monater suoh as neither...' 

11. ourls expeditis] Oares harass and hamper us (impe- 
diunt), hence, curit expeditit, when the bonds of eare are un- 
loosened, a man is at eaae, oareless: it waa in auch a moment 
of perfeot freedom and poetio abstraotion that Horaoe ran into 
danger. Fox espedio aee alao 4. 4. 75 n. 

14. Daunlaa] That part of Apulia near Mt Oarganus; ao 
called from Daunus who there founded a kingdom. The word 
is formed on the model of Gk. adjeotives feminine. 

HORACE, ODES I. xxii. 

16, lubae tallua] i.e. Mauretania or riumidia. Jnba I., king 

' Viiir. imitted luicide aftor toe battle of Thapaua. 

,a king of Numidia bj Auguttua, n.o. 30, mti.i 

red Mioretinia inttead: the latter date i§ 

tbe dste of tbe Ode. Gaetulitn liana ara 

.--. u < referred to by tbs poete, but tbat doet nol 

rova tli \tiim ii bere = Gaetulia. 

16. i_ WlJ Otjmoron. 

17. ] mplt] 'lifeleaa pltina.' He rofera to the frigid 
Miea, I BMription of the live zonea, t«o frigid, t»o 
upentb 1.238—239. VatfigrU 

23. dulcs ridentem] dutct ii really * cognata aoo. Ab 31011 
oan aaj didc™ rirem ridert, joti ean aay niore brieflj duirt 
ritb-re. 80 3. 37. G7, ptrfiilnm ridere, 1. 12. U, Incidvm 1W- 
genui, 2. 19. 6, :■.■■!....:■■. fortatur, and Uom. D. 3. 370, tjSi 

'Yon uroid me like a timid fawn, Chloe, that ia friflhtecad 
at erery aound. Yet I am no tiger or lion, and jon m old 
enough to quit jour mother'a aide. ' 

5. 6. Teria adTentna] impliea the thongbt of tha gentle 
aephjr whlch aooorapaniea it. Cf. Luor. b 786 : 

tl vtr (I Ketuu at eeri» praemaitiui anU 
ptnnatut graditvr Zepttyrat. 

NOTES. 187 

Bentley and other editors object to these exquisite iines be- 
cause, they say, when ' spring arrives ' the trees are not yet in 
leaf. KeUer actually prints for vtri» adveiUu», vepris ad vtntot— 
a oorreotion the mechanical ingenuity of whioh Is as marvellous 
ai it ii misplaoed. 

6. inhorruit] beautifully expresses the ihivering and 
quivering of the leaves ai the breese rustles throngh them. 
Wiokham'8 translation U exoellent : * if throoffh the Ught-hung 
leaves hath run the shiver of spring's approaoh.' 

8. tremit] So. hinnuXexu. For the thooght of. Spenser, 

«Likeasa hind... 

Yet flies away of her own f eet affear'd ; 
And every leaf that shaketh with tlie least 
Murmur of wind, her terror hath enoreaB'd.' 

9. atqui] A verv favourite word of Horaoe in beginning a 
stanza, and expressing a strong objection, remonstranoe or 
antithesU, cf. 3. 5. 49, 3. 7. 9. 

tigris aspera] *enraged tigregs.' 

10. frangere] Epez. inf. after pemquor, implying desire, 
see 1. 15. 27 n. 

11. matrem...] 'To oling to your mother, already of age 
for a husband.' 


Probably addressed to Virgil by Horace on tbe unezpected 
death of their oommon friend Quinctilius Varus. VirgiTs grief 
seems to have been ezoessive. Horaoe's oonsolations partake 
of the nature of those oommonplaoes referred to by Tennyson, 
In Memoriam, oanto 6, but they are ezpressed in language of 
singular beauty. 

Of Quinctilius (probably Quinotilius Varus, cf. 1. 18. 1) our 
ehief knowledge U that he died in B.a 24, and was a native 
of Cremona, but his name U, like a fly in amber, enshrined 
in this Ode for immortality. 

1. desiderio...] In its strict sense, 'regret for loss.' 
l». H. 14 

iiORACE, ODES I. ni». 

_h„n_e, woderation,' almost equivalent to moiiiu. 

1*] ' no dear a life.' Tha Gk. iue of xipa in 
< fftor __()- ia bimilar. 

•] U»«»l!j themuaeof tr-gedj, buro of ilirge. . 
miralionii cam maerore conjunrtae txelamatio, 
the eleep tbat knowg no waking liee beavy 

For in.,.- ~ id for p. topor, of th* 

unbroken sleep . 5, 

tolei o. : ponvnt: 

nobit o iit brevii lux, 

nos tl doririenda. 

For nrget ef. 1 __ ad w th refcrcnce to the dead, 

■1. D. 27, Hlaerima^,^ , ao too premet noz, 1. 4. 18. 

I cordialiy agree with thoao who wieh that Horaoe had 
omitteil thc firs t KUn__, «ith it_ weak and afleoted invocalion 
of tlie musc, and beguo with thin bold, vigorous, and offeoliw. 
fiflh lino, whieh would have been »11 tho mora etteetive Lf plaoed 
at the beginning of the Ode. 

0. Pador] Aliut. The per.onificBtion of that nohlc »hame 
which make_ men senaitively shriiik from all that oould raiae 
a bluih upon tha eheeka of modeetj. 

6. 7. IocUUm loror, IUhJ Wiokham well remarka, 'in 
ca-ling Good-Fnith the nater of JnntJce, Horaea impliaa _b*t 
tbe two go together, and tberafore tliat both were jiiaawil in 
Quinctiliaa. ' 

7. i-tcomtpU] 'incorruptible.' Adjective» fonnad from 
the paaaiva partioiple ara frequentlj uaed in the aame •enaa 
aa the more awkwerd onea endlng in -bilii. 

8n Virg. G. S. G, iOaudafu -=deta_lablo. Uvj, % 1, iatiio- 
lalnm tempUm—VX inviolable tomple. inviettu _• more often 
>=invinoible, than onvanquiahed. 

8. quanHo nllum lnvanlat param] ' Whan ahall {ihe) ever 
flnd a peer. ' Cf. Milton'_ Lyeidaa B, 

'For Ljeidaa ii dead, dead ere hia pritne, 
Yoang Ljoidas, and hath not left his pttr.' 

NOTE& 189 

lnveniet] Notios ihe singular after several subjeots. 8ee 
2.18. 88 n. 

11. tu frustra...] •Vainly devout thou olaimest from 
the gods Quinetilius, entrustea to them on no ■uoh terms,' 
Le. you have frequently prayed the gods to keep Quinctiliui, 
but you did not mean that they should thus keep him whoily 
tnd for ever. 

For oredltam of. 1. 8. 5. Others take thif word m ss'lent,' 
i.e. to you by the gods, but suoh an idea seemt rather religious 
than Horatian. frustra seems to go with both pius and poseis. 

18 — 18. quod al non] • And yet if you were to rule a tore 

whieh eren the trees obey more persuaaivehr than Thraaan 
Orphens» the life-blood would not reviait the shadowy form.' 

Wiokham with the MSS. gives quid si wm... «'what 

think you, if you were to would the life-blood ?' This 

seems weaker and less foroible than the downright quodsi 
and the emphatio and direot non. Nauok, who so reads, 
punctnates better: Quidf Si... For Orpheus seo 1. 12. 11 n. 

16. Ylrga] See note on 1. 10. 18. 

17. non lenis. . .] * Not eaaily persuaded to open the barriers 
of fate/ of. Prop. 4. 11. 2, Panditur ad nullas Janua nigra yrt* 
ces. The gate of death only opens to admit, never to give 
egress. non Unis, litotes: recludete y epexegetio. 

18. nlgro oompulerit gregi] 'Has folded with the ehildren 
of darkness.' The dat. is perhaps of plaoe whither, of. Virg. 
Aen. 5. 451, it elamor caelo, and 1. 28. 10, Orco demissum. 

20. quldquld...] 'Whatever the laws of heaven forbid us 
to amendV ju#=human law, /««divine law. Therefore est 
fi*/o*sheaven forbids. 


A ooarsely expressed Ode addressed to Lydia, who Horace 
says will soon be an old woman without the charms, but re- 
taining the paasions of her youth, and destined to meet with 
the same haughty contempt she now employs towards her 
lovers. It has no merit, and may be omitted with advantage. 

2. lactibual So Orelli's 4th edition cum optimis codicibus: 

the reading is better than the old ictibus, for it is easier to 

'throw' something at a ohamber-window to attract attention 

than to 'strike* or 4 beat' it. 


190 HOBACE, ODES I. ixt. 

3, i. amat llrasn] 'koepa olose to the threahold.' Cl. 
Virg. Aen. 5. 1GS, lltiu ama = 'kecp close to, or hug tbe oouL' 

C. iudlamlnm el mlnuBlam] Aceommodationof «ound lo 
BenBe: the ivord» fenn * eort of diminuendo. 

7. me...J 'Thoagb I your lover am tortured Ihrough the 
long uighta, my Lydia, do yoa slecp?' 

9. lnvlesm...] 'In yonr turn you ahiill bawail the haaghti- 
neita ol incn u despiaed hag in a deaerted alloy.' 

11, 13. «ub lnterlunl»] 'towarda tbe ue* moon.' It bu 
always been ■□ artiole of popolar beliaf that cbanges of tl» 
moon are aoeompanied by ohangea of tha wcather. For thi 
division of irK/riunifl boc 1. 2. 19 u. 

15. leour nleeroeuni] 'yoor diseued beort.' 

17. laeta quod...] 'Beoauae joyona yooth revels rathcr in 
grecn ivy and duakjr myrtla, {but or nnd] dedioatea mthered 
leevcs to winter'e fncn.i the ilebrus': i.e. becautie youug girla 
are preferred to old womeii, aa frcsh foliage ia to faded. 
virente and pulla dcBCribe the foliage of the ivy and myrtl* 
wucn freib mjJ unfadcd. For thc metaphor cf. our phrase th* 
•sere and yellow leaf.' aod Aesch. Ag. 79, re f irtpyiipv* 
e>i>XXdeor ^St) naTatap4>opirii1. 

Notioe qtwii . . .nuudtal = 'bceanae (a* you will say regretfully 
to younielf). ..youth rejoicoa': it ia virtually oblique narration. 

dedictt Hebro, «pparcntly = 'liings away,' cf. neit Odc 1. 3, 
the Ilebnu being selected aa a river in a waste and wintry 
counlrr (cf. Thracto renlo above), nud a specisl river being 
named to givs local oolouring, eee 1. 1. 13 n. Still the phnue 
is very itnnge and tbe emendatioo £uro('the reading Htbro i* 
due to BBpiration of an original tlvro, ' Nauck) deservo» esrcful 
conBirlersuon and 18 adopied in Orelli'1 *th eoition. 

Notice what Prof. Major cnlla 'tho oo-ordination of eoo- 
traitod clautea' lo gaudtat and dt&ictt: in Engliah we ihould 
inaert 'but,' tho Romaos bojwevei lovo to set tbe oontraated 
elauaea side by sirle witbout anj adveraativ* r**"- 1 ? Ib* 
Grecki would 0M iUt and ii. 


•I am the friend of th* muMB, and therefore will throw 
•orrow aud aniiety to tbo winda, uttarly nntroublod br tha 
"Eaatern qaettioo." Molp me rather, UnM, to w*ave i 
chtplet o( vcrM fot Lamia, loi b.a U worthy. ' 

NOTES. 191 

Lamia it also mentioned 1« 86. 7; ho ii generally suppooed 
to be L. Ailini Lemia, who wh praefectut urbi a.d, 82, and 
must heve been very young when Horaoa wrote: from the 
Tery ilight and unimportant nature of the Ode it ii poesible 
hewtt to. 

The date it tpproxlmttely detennined by the politieti 
tllution. Wiekham in hit introdnotion tays: 'Phraatea IV. 
to whom Orodet 1. had retigned hit thront in b.o. 88, after 
tome yeart of tyranny, nrovoked hit tabjeott to the point of 
rebeliion. He wat expelled, tnd Tiridates, another member 
of the Araaeid houte, wat put on the throne in hit plaoe. After 
a ahort time Phraatet wat rettored (Juttinat addt by the 
intervention of the Scythiana), and Tiridatet fled to aeek tho 
proteotion of AuguttUB,' ef. 2. 2. 17, and 8. 8. 19. b.o. 80 it the 
probable date of thit event. 

2, 8. tradam ventis portare] 'I will give to the windt to 
earrv.' The infinitive teemi epexegetio or oomplementary, 
further deflninff the phrate tradam ventis. The gerundive oon- 
struction would be found in prote. Virgil it very fond of thit inf . 
after do t dono, ef. Aen. 1. 819, dederatque comam dijfunderi ventit; 
5. 248, dat ferre taUntum; 5. 262, donat habere; 5. 806, 888, 572. 

8. quls tub Aroto...] 'tupremely indifferent who it is that 
it feared at king of the cold region beneath the Bear, what it 
ifl that terrifles...' The referenee it to the king of the Daoiant, 
ef. 8. 8. 18, and for the dread of the Daoiant 3. 6. 14 ; Sat. 2. 
6. 58, numquid de DaeU audUtit; Virg. G. 2. 497, cc^jurato 
deictndens Dacut ab Ittro, 

Othert take quit as=gut'6u# (dat.) *who the Iring it feared 
by,' but tuch a ute of the dative it oonfined to the perf. pass. 
and the neuter of the gerundive, e. g. factum e$t mihi, ludendum 
ett mihit the ett of oourse smoothing the way for it: tee too 
1. 6. 1 n. Possibly however quibut metuatur might « * to whom 
he is an objeot of fear.' 

6. integrla] The haunts of the Muses are unpolluted by 
mortal presenoe: the poet alone may approaeh them. Cf. 
Luor. 1. 926, juvat integrot accedere fontet. 

7, 8. necte floret, necte] See note on 1. 16. 8. 

9. Plmplea] From rimple, a town or fountain in Pieria. 

9, 10. mel honorea] 'The honoura (of aong) which I ctn 

HOBACE, ODES I. xxri. 

ie» 1. 1, 84 a, taerart: becauM eatlo ,Vixju 

Ite' uud BO 'make iiumortal.' 

Jreek wcird, wAjtTpw— the itriking tliiug, ' 

ode xxvn. 

A playfuJ BteiiP nt ■ wine-party. 

'Come, my eo. ^i.. at table: tlist is harba- 

rous. Keep your pi«« and do not shout ho. Whatl would 
you have me moref Well, I will, if MegUlk'* brother 
will gWe »s a toast tbe liame of his sweetheort. Aro jou heei- 
tating? Surelj jou need not be ashamed: no donbt she U a 
lady. Alas, poor wretch, yon deserved a better fate: you haie 
falleu into tbe elutehes of a harpy.' 

1. taatl»...] 'Destined (as it were) by nature for purposes 
of pleasure.' 

2. ThraeninJ gen. plural. For Hic drinking habits of the 
Thracianscf. 1. 36. 14 and 1. 1& 3. One ol the metopes of tho 
Parthenon eontains b representation of a Centaur usinft a 
Inrge dioln aa a weapon of offenoe. It is given in Suiilh*» 
Class. Dict. as an ilhmtratinn to the word Centaar. The rasii- 
ner of Mr BardelTi deoawe ia «trietly olaasiaaL 

tollite] 'away witb.' 

3. verecundum] "who Iotbb moderation.' Cf. mo&ei 
Liheri, 1. 18. 7. It raay alao rafor to tha fresh, bloahlng faoe 
of the yonthfal dmuity. 

i. pronibete] 'keep apart from.' 

6. luoernls] The feast therefora was intended to be kept 
up late. Cf. 8. B. 14, vigilet laceraai perfer in l-tetm. 

adnaoes] A Feriian word for a short, straiglit aword, or 
dirk. Tlie Farsians Mem to havn worn these even at banqneti: 
at Hoinn it wai illegal to wear * weapon at all within the oity. 

NOTES. 193 

6. lmmane quantum dlscrepat] 'Is utterly at varianoe 
with.' For immane auantum cf. $avuurra9 oVcr, «i^faaw oVor. 
Tbe phraee ii strictly a sentenoe» 'it is enormous how mueh,' 
bnt is used at equivalent to a simple adverb, 'enormously.' 

II it nsed by Tadtus, wiirum quantum by Liyy, nimium 
quautum by Oioero. 

lmprom] as violating the respeet dne to the god Baoehns. 

8. onblto presso] At meals the Bomans reolined npon 
oonohes, resting on the left elbow, whioh sank deep (pretto) 
into the onsbions. 

9. TOltis] An imaginary qnestion snpposed to be addressed 
to the oompany, who are londly clamouring that he shonld 
drink his share {partem). 

sereri] «strong to the taste,' 'potent,' of. 2. 8. 8 n. 

10. 11. OpunUa tfegUla. A purely fietitions name. The 
town of Opns was the eapital of the Opnntian Loerians. 
Horaoe insists that he will only drink if a toast is given: it 
was enstomarv to drink a lady*s health in as many glasses 
(cyathi, ladles) as there were letters in the name. Of. Martial, 

Laevia ux cyathU, teptem Juttina bibatur, 
quHnque Lycae, Lyde quattuor, Ida tribut. 

11. qno beatus...] 'What is the wonnd, what the shaft of 
whioh he is the happy victim?' 

beatut goes with both pereat and volnere: notios the 
oxymoron in beatue volnere % and the double meaning of perire, 
to perish and to be in love, to be dying of love for. Vulnut 
applied to love is extremely oommon, cf. Lucr. 1. 85, aeterno 
devietut vulnere amorit. 

18. oessat voluntas ?] ' Are you nnwilling and relnetant? ' 
Horaoe snddenly turns to the/roter Megillae. 

14. qnaeteennque...1 'WhateverQneenofBeautyenslaves 
you, she . . . .' The whole is of course saroastic: it is hinted 
that he is in love with a slave, cf. 2. 4. 1, ingenuo there- 
fore is emphatio, 'it is no lowborn love tbat leads yon wrong.' 

15. embescendls] erubeteo is intransitive = ' t<> blnsh ' bnt 
can take an acc. in the secondary sense of 4 to blnsh for' 
(of. 2. 18. 26 n.), and can therefore have a gerundives^that 
is to be blushed for,' 'ashamed of.' 

194 HORACE, ODES I. ixvii. 

18. ah «imt,..] Hb ii euppoeed to have whieperod the 
) beuing i( eielaim» A h miirr . . . . in ■ tone 

1] WloUuxn well comparea t he uu of the Onek 
■a, aied when » peraon flnde out thet wh»t 
nll along to be the cseo ii really io, 'How 
idls w»i cauiing your itrugglee'; I «lwaji 
■-- -„-. . iuiiii anter had got hold of yon and now I fi nd it ii 
■0. Cf. 1. ST and Herod. 3. M, IXtytw ipa [of wh»l m oraole 
DHBtlt «11 - Soph. Phil. 978, 4o" ijr ipa \ i {uXXa^wr fu, 

'•0 it wm —- " -tl took me,' Hom. II. Ifl. 3S. 

11. 1 uian wii 1 were oelebrMed. 

38. riz II 1} >i)l PegMua diaentangle 

yoe from tbe t - ,' 

The Chimai H. fl. 181, 

w/> ', iitttfi ti x'(U»pa, 

Here — ..jia _ _— iur mnj mMi-deetrojiiig monrter, 
from which even more tlmn hnmin tid nnoh u th»t of BeUe- 
rophoo on Peguue oannot a&ord delivorance. 

ode xxvni. 

A m™t difricull Ode. It ia a dramatic frnjrment the elne 
to wbich U wanting, bocause we have no eiact knowledge (1) 
of the aoene Horaoe hn.l in hia mind'i eye, (3) whether it ia a 
monologue or ■ dlalogua, (3) if it is r dialogue, who are the 
■peiilccrs and whcrc ooe epeech endi and tbe other begine. 

I have judgod beat to append (1) ■ oloae literal tramlattoa, 
(9) an explanetion of alluiiona, tto. (S) ■ ahort atatement ol 
the ohief theoriei about tha ods. 

'Thae, Ajohytaa, who didat meunre the aea and eaith and 
inrmmerable aand the petty gift of ■ littla dnat by the Matina 
ihore oonflnee, nor doea it anght arail thee tO hara attemptad 
the dwellinga of the aky, and m thought to biva aped through 
the thbII of heaven, doomod after aJl to die. Pexfahed alao 
liu the aire ol Pelopi though he feaated with tha goda, and 
Tithonui translited to the iky, and Minoe thongh ■ilinlHml 
to th« aecret oouncili of Jnpiter, and Tartama poanaaii the 
eon of Pantboua once more eonligned to Oroua, elthough bjr 

NOTES. 195 

taUng down hia ehield (and 10) bearinff witneea to hia 11» at 
Troj he had (proved that he had) vielded oothing but sinews 
and aldn to gloom y death, in thj judgment no mean expounder 
ol nature and of truth. Bnt all ono night awaite, all mnat 
o*c$ tread the path of death. Some the Furies present aa a 
epeotaole to fieroe-ejed Mara, aailora (on the other hand) the 
greedj aea destrojs. Old and joong flook togather to the 
grave: eruel Proeerpine avoida no head. Me too the south 
wind, raging oomrade of the aetting Orion, o'erwhelmad with 
the Uhrrian warea. But thou, O aailor, do not grudginglr 
refuaa to battow a partiole of ahifting aand on mj bonee and 
unbnried head: ao, whaterer Bnrna ahall threaten againat the 
Italian wavet, maj the wooda of Venuaia be laahed and thou 
be aafe, and maj rioh gain, from whenoe it maj, stream down 
on thee from favouring Jupiter and Neptune, guardian of aaored 
Tarentum. Doet thou deexn it a light thing that thou art oom- 
mitting a orime whioh will hereafter bring iniurj upon thj 
innooent ohildrenf Nay, haply even on thraeli awaiteth the 
debt of justioe and diadain in relurn for disdain : I will not be 
left with mj ouraea unaven^ ed, and thee no expiatorj aaorifioea 
ahall free. However hurned thou art, 'tia but a brief delaj: 
oaat but three handfula of earth and then thou majeat haaten 
on thj journej.' 

2. ▲rohjtaa. A digtinguished mathematioian (memorem 
maris...) of Tarentum: lived about b.c. 400. He waa of the 
Pjthagorean aohool of pbiloaophj, of. linea 10—12. Some 
infer from thia Ode that ne waa drowned and unburied, othera 
that hia tomb waa a noted apot on the Matine ooaat, aee note 

8. pulverli...] There ia an obvioua oontraat between hia 
bouudleae genius and narrow tomb. Cf. Shakespeare, Henrj 
IV. Part 1, Aot 5, So. 4, 

'When that this bodj did oontain a spirit, 
A kingdom for it was too small a bound; 
But now two paoes of the vilest earth 
Ia room enough.' 

Katinum] Probablj the shore at the foot of Mt Garganua. 

4. munera] is teohnioaUj uaed of the due and dutiful 
bestowal of bnrial upon a oorpee, and seems to make the faot 
that Arohjtas is spoken of aa buried oertain. Those who 
make Arohytas the speaker in line 86, where he aaka for 

196 HORAOT, ODES L xrriii 

borial, are oompeUed ■> tranalase Hhete Hho gfcft oT a ttttk 
dnst/fto thoogh il meant ft the want of the flift of . • . / nd 
eoJUtea M-koep jo« here on the eoaot, itDoing tmpoodWo 
fbr joutoentorBljaiimiiintfl jon roootFO tho * too boWMo' 

of eerth. 


5. aerlM...]For tUo deeoription of AielutM' floaring 
genius of. tho bruhant ptnegjrio on Bpkarno in uner. X. TS, 

ergo vMda vi» cmimi mnvieU* of «etr» 
vroctnit Iorm /UmMjmmtfa noonlo onmmK 
ate** o»nM immtiuum pcragrmvU mtnU 

6. morltaxo] HotiMti*fdmtlife6>rivM!ram 
ol moriturt, 8. £ 4. 

7—8. Poloplfl genltor, Ttthonnfl, Mlnoo] 8oo OUofl. Diek 
ond fbr Tithonao Tennj»on'fl poom of that dibm. 

10. Panthoiden] 8oo Olaes. Dict. andor 'Pjthagorafl.' Bven 
he, notwithttanding hio theorj of /irrtfi^x^fftt or tho tranfl- 
migration of soulfl, and tho faot that he had onjojod oovoral 
livej, first m a peaeook, then m Buphorbus (aPanthoidefl) 
at Troy, then m Homer, then m Pythagoras, and ftnaUj 
m Q. Ennius (of. Pertius, Sat. 6. 10. 11), hM finaUj been 
compelled to suoonmb to the great law of mortalitj. Thero 
ifl eomething Baroastio in Horaoe's style here, and aome have 
been induoed to think that the whole Ode io intonded as a 
sooflf at the philoaophical sjstem of Pythagoras. For Oroosfa 
Orewn see 3. 28. 1, eaelo n. 

11. ellpeo refixo] Pythagoras had proved the identitj of his 
soul with that of Euphorbus, bj at ouce seleoting the shield of 
Euphorbus from a quantity of other armoor. 

13. nerrofl atque cuteml Contemptuous words to ezpress 
the mere mortal envelope of the more lasting and tranami- 
grating soul. 

14. iudlce te] Becanse Archytas wm a disoiple of Pytha- 
gora8. However the Ode is taken, I have little hesitation in 
saying that any rendering whioh makes U refer to anj one bnt 
Archytas is impossible. Sinoe U in line 1 no one elae has 
been mentioned; Archytas was a Pythagorean, and thereforo 
U in line 1 and U here must be identical. 

non flordidns] i.e. 'most distinguished,* of. St Panl's *no 
mean city,* Acts 21. 39. Litotes. 

NOTE& 197 

16. semel] onoe, and onoe for ell. 

17. spectacula] To Maxi war is an amusement (cl 1. 2. 87» 
ludo $atiaU longo) and slaughter a epectaculum. 

20. oaput] 01 Vixg. Aen. 4. 698, 

nondum UUJtavwn Proterpina vertiee erinem 
mbetuUrat, Stygioque eaput damnaverat Orco. 

Therefbre eaput doee not me^ely-•man, , 'life,' bnt refers 
to the legend that Proeerpine marks ont the victims of Death 
by symbolically entting a look from their heads, ae wae done 
with sacxinciafvictiin*. 

ngtl] The aoriftio nae of the perfeet, *ii not wont to 
aroid any head,' et 1. 84, 16, tuttulit. 

21. me quoquo] Theee words from their emphatle poaition 
are ciearly guiding words. It it moet natnral to oontrast them 
with the emphatio te of 1. 1. ' You, Arehytas, are dead .... 
and I too.' 

derezl Orionis] The setting of Orion earlj in November 
wae a period alwaya aooompanied bj storms. So 8. 27. 18, 
Pronut Orion. 

rapidus] Fromropio, 'sweeping, raving.' 

28. at tn, nauta...] Here of oonree tu refere to nauta, but 
that oannot ahew that te in line 14 doee ao too, 9 lines before 
nauta is mentioned. As to nauta see theories at end. 

mallgnus] 'grudging ' : the oppoeite of henignut, liberal. 

24. eapltl lnhumato] The hiatus, eepeoially where the 
vowels are the aame, is extremely harah. It is perhape an 
affectation of simplicity like VirgiPe ttant et juniperi et cat- 
taneae hirtutae, EcL 7. 58. Instanoee of hiatus with proper 
names, such as Threicio AquiUme, Epod. 18. 8, and Actaeo 
Aracyntho, Virg. Eol. 2. 24, are of oourse quite distinot, being 
a olear imitation of Greek models, see 2. 20. 18 n. 

26. parttonlam harenae] The three handfuls of earth, whioh 
oonstituted a legitimate burial and taved the dead soul from 
wandering on the ahoree of Styx, of. Virg. Aen. 6. 825. 

slo] See 1. 8. 1 . So = on oondi tion that you do this, may . . . 

27. pleotantnr] ' be laahed,' i.e. by storms. Of. Ok. wXteem. 

198 HORACE, ODES I. xxviii. 

28. unde] Orelli takes uruU=a quo, i.e. Jove. Othera, 
•from whaterer ouarttr it oan/ La. I oan do yoo no etrvioa, 
but may yon get gain from whtmtr il it poaMhlt. 

80. nagttgia...te oommittera] H. BchttaandNaockriamV 
W take te with ooMmftftrt aad nol with fMttf ; «dotft thon 

dttm it a light thing thaft thou trt inoorrinf V «tftyfe 

comwtitunt wouldmeen *Dottthou baaitata toinoorf' wmoh 
it tht exaet opposite of whaft it wanfted. 

81. fraudem] iytt, a dttd whieh poUiiftea, aad mtjtft bi 

83. dtbttainra] Tht dabt to jottiot whioh yon wfll faanr 
and have to disoharge. 

88. ta Iptnm] oontrattad with n*H». Tht penarry amy 
oomt not only on fthem, bnt on jonratlf even. 

86. ttrpnlTtrt] QL Soph. Ant 481, xoofrt rprvfal i#i 
ri> p4kw rripn. 

Ont grtat dimeulty with regard to tfait Oda ia tht ontttion 
whether Arohytaa ia to ba eonaidered aa haTing bean bnriad or 
not. Thoat who hold that ht wat not make tha oda a dia- 
logue, begnn br a tailor who findt the eorpee, and oonclnded 
by Archytaa who aakt for bnriaL Of theaa aoma aaaign only 
lines 1—6 to the aailor: in thia eaat tht U of lint 14 mnat 
refer to the aaUor. I h&ve already in the notet nrged reaaona 
against tbia, and it alao involvea the abtnrd aasumption ihat 
Arohytas addresses an nnknown sailor as a strenuous supporter 
of the Pythagorean philotophy! Can any aasumption be more 
groundlessf Others make Arehytas begin to speak at lina 17, 
others at lioe 21, the latter being much the more natural poti* 
tion for a break. Against all these theories there are tneee 
objeetions, (1) lines 8 and 4 which certainly on the faoe of 
them say that Arcbytat is buried, must not be taken as mean- 
ing that, for Archytas says, line 86, that he is not buried. 
Wickham says the sailor sees the oorpse over whioh the aand 
has been blown, and assumes that it has been buried, and tht 
sand has been duly placed there as a last dutiful rite (immttt) 
bestowed on the dead, a mistake of the sailor which Arohytaa 
afterwards oorreota. I oannot believe this. (2) What inatanoe 
is there of such a dialogue in any Ode of Horacef (8. 9 
is not in point.) (8) What authority is there for the faot tnat 
Arohytas was drownedf e&st ashore on the Matine beachf 

NOTES. 109 

and unburiedT (4) AMomlng that he wae, why ehould Ho- 
raee write thie eurioue Ode about a man he eared nothing 
about. who had died 400 yeara before, and, aoeording to ao- 
oepted theoriee (eee Virg. Aen. 6. 839), wonld eron if nnbmied 
heve eompleted hit 100 yeare of wandering on the banka of 
Styx 800 yeare before? (5) Ie it natnral to pnt the philoeo- 
phio refloctione of the opening linee in the month of a wan- 
dering sailor? 

The eimpleei explanation eeema to be, that there wae at 
any rate a eo-oelled tomb of Arohytae on that Matine ehore 
with whioh Horaoe from hie boyhood wonld be well aonnainted 
fcf. referenoe to Venneia 1. 16), and that he makee thie the 
oramatio eoene of hii ode, whioh ie a monologue, the epeaker 
beinff the epirit of eome traveller who had been ehipwreeked 
on the ooaet near Archy taa* tomb and been left nnboried. Ho- 
raoe may aotually have eeen enoh a eaee. In thie oaee the 
argnment would run thue. the opening refleotione being eug- 

feeted by tho proximity of the tomb. 'Yee, we mnet afl diel 
Jven for you, Arohvtae, eix feet of earth mnet euffioe. 8o it 
hae been even with the greateet: even your own highly ho- 
nonred tcacher ie dead. All end at the eame goal, though they 
reaoh it by different pathe, eome in war, othere by ahipwreok. 
I too have been drowned : Jthen enddenly breaking otf at the 
thought of the ead fate of the unburied,) but do thou, O eailor 
(any eailor who might be paeeing along the ehore, or on the 
eea oloee in), kindly perform for me the laet offices: they will 
not long delay you. 

Thie view t to whioh I had been eompeUed by a etudy of the 
toxt almoet in defiance of all the oommentatore I had eeen t ie f 
I have eince found, almost identical with that of Nauok, Sohuta 
and othere. 


'Are you really, Iccins, intending to join the expedition to 
Arabiaf What can you hope to gain? 8urely the world 
muet be upside down when the philoeophic Icoiue eelle hie 
carefully formed library to buy annour.' 

IooiuB ie aleo referred to Epist. 1. 12 ae the eteward of 
Agrippa'e Sicilian estates. The expedition referred to ie one 
made by Aeliue Gallus into Arabia Felix in b.o. 24. It wae 


lnsuocessfal, bo thmt non anle dtvici.ii snd caienat were rttber 

1. 3. bMtU skAm) 'rieh tremsttres.' The word ^ui U 
Permisn. Armbim Felii or Smbaem w oelebrmted for ite im uid 
precioui perfumei, cf. the vieit of tho Qneen of Sheb» to Solomon, 
1 Kings 10. 1. For ite 'tromsures' ef. mlso 2. 13. 2-1, piouu 
Arabton dmm, B, 34. 1, intartit opvlentior Iheiaurii Arab-un, 
Rnd Pi. 72. 16, ' anto hira ihall be given of ibe gold of Armbim.' 

To the KfiQnns the wbole Emst wms the Und of untold 
wemlth, m sort of Eldormdo sucb u the Spmniarde boped to flnd 
in Meiioo mud Peru: in both cuti the flrst eiplorer» were 
dusled bj the nit colleotions of aselese wcmlth whioh hmd 
bcen formed bj m few despotio potentmtee, while the inhmbit- 
uutB stmrved. Cf. Milton, Paradue Lott, 9. 8, 

'Or where the gorgeous Gut with ricbeet hand 
Sbowsre on ber kungs bmrbmrio pemri mnd gold.' 

4. reglbm] 'Emirs,' 'prinoea.' 

E. uactl« catenms) The whote of thii etmnzm ia in m tone 
of plmyful ironj; Horace eiaggerates the expecutjous of Iooius. 
He npemke of him mt forging fetters, mnd hoping to bring home 
the cmptivee of bis bow mnd spemr in hcroio fashion. 

qume ttbl . . . ] 'What bmrbmrimn mmid wili be your aUre 
when you hmva slmin her betrothedF' 

Cf. Judges S. S0, "Have tbej not spedf havo thej not 
divided the prey: to everj mmn m dmmssl or two...»' 

7. puer. .] 'What pmga from oourt with perfumed iooki 
will be set to bmnd jour onp?' 

For these Eastern oup-bearers cf. Nebemimh 2. 1, mnd 
Dsniel 1. 3. Thej were usumllj of noble birth mnd parsonm) 

For cmplllis of. Tennjson's 'long-hmired pmga' In the Lmdj 
of Shmlott. 

9. Berioms] Tbe Seres mre the remotest peoplaof theBmmt. 
Notioa how Hormce stmrtod with Armbim, moon got to Pmrtbim 
(Medo), mnd bms now mmda Iotiui ramoh Chinm. Ferbmp» the 
eimggermtion U intended. 

10. quli neg-et...] 'Wbo would denj thmt ftennnniliiig 
stremms cmn flow bmckwmrds up steep monntmini...f ' 

Wickham well snggeita thmt ordui» montibiu i» mti mblmtlve 
mbaolnteon themnmlogjof adveno fitadru 4o. It inmj poeaiblj 
bi thw dmtlr*. 

NOTES. 201 

The phrase is an ordinary one io express that the order 
ol nature is invcrted. Of. Enx. Med. 440, 

eV» tvt+p&v UpSm x«pe0t vayal, 
coi 9lea «ol warra wd\ur «r^eVfrac, 

tnd Gieero, ad Att. 15. 4. 1, merelj nees the words a>w rora- 
adr when he wiihee to express that ail ia topsy-turvy. 

Motiee the juxtapoeition of the antithetical worda arduit 
frmm, and the aeeommodation of sound to aenae in 1. 11 with 
lti heavy and nphill movement. 

18. tn] Emphatio: 'thou, tiie philosopher.' 

ooemptos nndiqne] He waa not merely an ordinary itndent 

of nhttoeonhy, bat a keen oolleetor of philosophioal works. 

For thep ln eoemptoe of. 2. 4. 10 n. 

14. Fanaetl] A oelebrated Stoio philosopher, the friend of 
Soipio and Laelina. Died about 111 b.o. 

loerattcam domnm] 'the Booratio sohool,' i.e. the works 
of the Socratio sohool. Tha phrase would inolnde all those 
philosophers who were inflnenoed by Soorates, and, ohief 
among tbem, Plato. Soorates never fonnded a 'sohool' 
nrooerly so oalled; his teaohing enoouraged the philosophio 
spint of enqniry generaUy, and did not establiih definite 
dogmas; henee among the followers of Soorates are to be 
fonnd philosophers of the most raried views, the Peripatetics, 
the Cynies, the Cyrenaios, and others. 

16. Hiberla] made of Spaniah steel. 


•Venus, qnit thy favonrite hannts and visit Qlyeera who 
prays thy presenoe, and bring with thee thy joyous troop of 

1. Onldns, in Caria: here was the famous statne of Venns 
by Praxiteles, of whioh the Medicean is said to be a oopy. 

3. sperne] Cf. 1. 19. 9. 

8, 4. deooram in aedem] Aedet in the singnlar usually= 
'a temple,' in the plural = 4 a house.' It mav be that Glycera is 
suppoeed to have fitted np a mimio shnne for Venua, and 


202 HORACE, ODES I. xxx. 

Horace wro'- ' i mimic ode ot inTOcaliou (iiua ikqriM&r) foi 
n' his Tiew ii Bnpported bj the word» thure 

niB to thiuk 'houas ' a safer rendering. 
I lonle] 'with looaenod girdlea.' For the 
l n Gratiac praperentque Nyrnphae tee 3. 19. 

7. e mii ..] 'Touth that withont tbee (i. e. Lovg) 

8. ■ i] aooompanies Venus as the god of «peech: 

■ilent WO «r-lv .nnwiufnl 

Iq b.c. 28 AuguBtuB, in <i f the viclory of Actium, 

dedicated a temple to Apoll L 'alntiue, aud al tbe Bnuie 

tima a librarj wbich ooate r.. only the worke but tbe 

busU of erainent Cireek and Boi in writere. Thi» latter 
ciroumatance naturallj cnused ood derable exeitement »nd 
cmuJfltinn in the litcrarj world, am. is continuallT referred to 
bj thera. Cf. Epist. 3. 1. 316, i. 3. 91. 1. 3. 17, bhJ Suet. 
Aug. 28. 

"What aball the poet praj for to his patron god Apollo on 
tliis great dajf Not for large eetatoa aud wealtb. Lct wealth 
■nd luiurions living be for pToapsronB merchsiits, who think 
themseWe» the ver; favouritcs of hciiveo because their sbijis 
have made manj succeesfnl Toyages. I am satiafied with eimple 
fare, and aak but for ft bealthj mind and healtby body, m 
old age frea Irom diehononr and onanned bj Jioe-rj.' 

1. dedic*.tum] = 'in hia new temple.' The Boman» oau 
aaj not mercly dedieart aedem, but dedicart deum; Wlokliam 
well saji, 'perhapa from tho imaga of tbe god whioh wai 
installed in his abrine.' In thla oaae wa know that there 
actuallj waa such an image, a itatoe by Soopai whioh Ang 
brougbt from Qreeoe (Plin. 86. 6. i). Propsrtia» tw awM 
(8. 23. 6), and a copy of it, the ' Apollo Citharoedoa,' is in tha 
Yatican, and i* repreaented ln Smith'B Hist. of Oreeoe, p. 661, 

3. noTnm] Cf. 1, 19. 16, bimimeri. Newwinawaaoaedin 

NOTES. «03 

4. Sardlniae] Both Sardinia and Sicily rappUed Bome 
with oorn. Cf. note on 1. 1. 10. 

segetes feraces) 'Fraitfal erops* or 'fruitful oorn-lands.' 
MfMsseiiher the land sown, or the orop. 

5. aeetuosae] 'sultry.' Cf. 

grata Galabrlae armenta] grata, ai being in good oon- 
dition, and pleasant to oontemplate. Nearly every one has 
ezperienoed the feeling of pleasure prodnoed by the skht of 
fine oontented eattle in a rioh pasture. The eattle in Oalabria 
were driven np to the hille in summer, and down to the 
valleys in winter. 

6. anmm aut ebur Xndionm] Oold and Wory are taken 
aa typioal of Oriental wealth and lnzury generally. 8o the 
nayy of Tharabiah (1 Kings 10. 22) brought to Solomon e?ery 
three yeare 'gold, and silver, and hrory.' 

7. quae Iiria...) *which Lirie eate awar with hia gentle 
watere, that ailent stream.' The beauty of the deeoription of a 
slowlv-fiowing river ia, in the Latin, inoomperable. quieta: o( 
the alow movement of the stream, tacUurnut of the eonsequent 
silenoe of ite waters, of. the oppoeite loquacet 8. 18. 16. 

9. premant] 'prune' : repress the luzuriant growth of. 

Calena] The epithet is transferred from the vine to the 
pruning-knife. The graxnmatieal term for this is 'hypallage' 
(cf. 8. 1. 42 n.). Cales is in Campania. 

10. dives et...] • And let the wealthy merehant drain from 

Solden goblets the wines aoquired in exohange for (rvperata) 
yrian merohandise.' CuluUi are said to be veasels used in 
saered rites by the pontiils and veetal virgina: this word and 
exeiecet (drain to the dregs) are purpoeely used to bring out 
the luzury and greed of the merohant-prinoe. 

12. gyra meree] So 8. 29. 60, Tyriae wureee. The phrase 
would include ali those produots of the East whioh oame 
throngh Syria, and especially through the great emporium 
of Tyre. 

18. dls earus ipsis) /car' elpuvelaw Orelli. The irony \m 
strongly brought out by quippe^ 'because forsooth.' 

ter et quater] *Three or four times': so in Gk. Sk *oi 


p. u. 15 


Tbu _ 

th* VHMBs . 

MM« tl' 

oomea, that > 
eojoyment of t 
of hulife. 

04 HORACE, ODES I. uii. 

II. 18- oUna, ciobore», milvaej i. e. tbc ordiniry products 
t I D. 

.«. to the digoation. 

Mayeat tboa grant me (for the preeent), 
[07 whet I hata both wilb aound hoalth, and, 

I lmimpaired, and (in the future) to paas an 

■ reodering: Horaoe hu twowiehea: (1) for 

II bolh of body uid mind jcf. Juv. 10. 356, 
nwiu liiiu in eorpore iuno), (3) when old ege 

, * - '- u -' — 1J ftocompenj it, and tbat 

1 , ed been tho happineee 

Wickheir..'- - —, He tranalatea, -Be thj 

" njoy the good the god» 

nd raind among thera) 

..' Thia ia eo harah 

.. -_— _■ it. though at toaj haTe 

1 We are eummoned. II ov.:t, my lyre, in lightei moroente 
I with thy aid haTe euug enjthing which may eurrWo, oome 
dow inapire me with a L&tin eong, euoh aa Aloaeua saiig of 
old, tha warrior-bard. O thou that art tha glory of Phoebua, 
the dalight of Jupiter, tha eolice of toii, osaist ma whanever 

1. poaolmur] Horaoe faad eridently been aakod lo write an 
Ods 01 Odm on oomo ■ubjeot of national intereat (Lei ram a- 
eorwt—.) 1 thii Ode io an appaal to hia lyre bj the iiutnory 
of tlieir paat anocoee in lightei aubjeota to ald him tn tm_ 
Whethar Auguatoa 01 MaonenM made tha requeet, and whether 
the nohlo national lyrioa at tha eoinmenoenwnt of Book 8 ara 
the anawer, ia mattar of oonjeeturo. Patcimur ainiiio lo 
imply that thoae wbo lommonod Horaoe had tho right oz 
ebum todo ao. 

Tbe reading potciim* (foilowed by a oomme and go— im- 
Ing qnodf it utterly weak, and the roading fot e iwntr io iTmitlj 
rapporUd by many paaaagaa in Orid, e.g. PontfMMr, AomUm, 
SWI, 4. 731. 

NOTES. 205 

■11 This oieofa elanse beginning with ti in appcals ii 
vcry frequent. Ot Garm. Saec 87, Roma H vet tnm oput ett... 
dot*..., and 8. 18. 5, Faune...ltnit ineedat...ti. 

1, 9. vaoni sub umbra lusimusl Notioe how saeh word 
hrings ont the idca of light iportive poetry. Sub umbra: 
grottoes or groves are of oourte the haunU of poets. LutU 
mut ii oommonly need of the oompoiition of playful vcrse, 
ct 4. 9. 9, H quid oUm huit Anaereon, and ot 9. 18. 96 n. 

9. quod §*...] Notioe that this eUuse does not rsfer to 
LaHnum earmen, but to ti quid. 

8. dio] 'ntter': the instrnment is ssid to speak. 

4. barbite] Masonline here as in late Greek. The word 
has the almost nniqne privilege of possessing thrse genders, 4 
fidpfkree and ro pdppre* bsing also found, an instonoc whioh 
shews how illogica l lt is to apply the masonline and feminine? 
gendsrs to things withont life slmost as ciearly as the fact • 
that the German wordi for a knife, spoon, and fork are of thrse 
different genders. 

5. Lesblo prlmum...] It is imnlied though not expressed 
that Horaoe hopes his ode will eqnsl those of Alcaeus. See too 
1. 1. 84, note. 

modulate] 8ee 1. 1. 95, note. 

dTl) is emphatio. Aleaeus (flor. 611 b.o.) took a most 
aotiTO part in politioal life. He wss driven into exile hy 
the popnlar party t he f onght both against the Athenians, and 
Fittaons the tyrant of Mitylene. Of. 9. 18. 98. 

6. qnl ferox...) 'Who. fieroe warrior though he was, yet 
amid the olash of arms or if he had moored ms storm-tossed 
bark on the dank beaoh . . . .' 

7. siye) is omitted before inter arma, of. 1. 8. 16. 

religo seems to have the foroe of 'binding so as to hold 
baok': so too re in retinaeulum 9 *a mooring-rope.' 

9, 10. illi haerentem] 'eiinging to her side/ cf. Tirg. 
Aen. 10. 780, haeeerat Evandro. 

11. nXgrli oenlis nlgroqne] When the Boman poeta repeat 
a word they are very fond of putting it in snoh a position that 
the iotus falls differently on it in the two positions. Nigrit 
of oonrse sliows the first syllable to be long or shart, bnt in 


HORACE, ODES I. ixiii. 

lii foudntwi lh« poet* often sbiolutelj sltet 
«ord whsn thnj repest it. The best imUnoas 

I, ti >jj «i\a IdXll Titfianai. Luot. 4. 1369, 

i, Hom. 'Af.<i "Ap"- Virg. paM i'dtt, And 
uics to thi* one Viig. Acn. 3. 663, ixilun ant* 

Tbere ia do othsr clesr insUnoe of the use of 
f. Aii the MSS, give it here. It teemi to 
cf time conUined in the parlicipls vocanti 

Voeanti curi.juc = ' to me esUing whensver,' 

»11, ' Nsaci bbvs thst it ie = ' WKQD (ei) «ueb 

i seems to hsve regsrded 

in thii Bow. .,„„„ UD ^. ..........u» *• two wordi, 6. 3, 7. 36, 

S. 14, 16, 3, 87. 14. 
mlhl ttlve : . " 


' Leat you grieve too much nt the thought of Qljcers'i 
craeltj, Tibullns, »nd ceaeeleeelj lsment being ouUhoae bj ■ 
rivsi, remember thst it ie ■ oommon caBe: Ljooris loves Cyrue, 
Cyrue lovei Pboloe, snd Fholoe thinke Cyrai detesUble. 
Tenui delighte in oruel «port to yoke togetber thoie vrbo will 
nevcr mske n psjr. The very esme thing ha* hsppened to 
jnyielf, si to you.' 

Por ths intimiey ol Horaoe snd Tibullui (for whom ese 
Clsss. Diot.) see csrefully Epiet. 1. 4, Albi, nottronan unwnni 
candidf juder, snd ths psnegyrio whioh follows, TibuUa*' 
poetry U fall of ths phuntivs lsmenU referrsd to in 1. 1. 

1. ne dolissjof. 2. 4. ln. pln* nlmio: cf. 1. 1B. lfi. The 
phrsie pnt bstwesn doltan and wumor guss psrtly with both. 

9, unailtb Olyosi*»] Notioe tba plsy of wordi: t— l ift i 
i-bitUr, sad yXjksM •>•**•«. Ot dulci loqu*** LsJuf* (X« 
Xbf), 1. 33. 84. Suoh plsys an wotd* ms espeoislly frsojBMt iu 
trsgedy, of. Ajsx 180. 

■ia? rii Ir rer iftt ift' eVuvefio* 
roiuor (urslatiF aVofta mki lnatt i««c<i; 

NOTES. 207 

And Shakespeare makes John of Gaunt on his deathbed ■peak 
of himaelf aa— 

'Old John of Gannt, and gannt in being oloV 

8. deeuites enrl * Bing to satiety (aaking) why her pledge 
ia violated and .... For decanUt of. 1. 8. 18 n. 

elegos] IIX/yffBory alaat 

5. inatgnem tenul fronte] Gf. Epist 1. 7. 26, ttigro* 
angutta fronte eapiUot, where Horaoe ie ipeaking of beeuty 
in a xnan. A small forehead, or at any rate a forehead that 
appeara small owing to the growth of the hair, is no donbt an 
addition to beauty. 

8. lnngentnr...] ' Booner will roei mate with wofres than 
Pholoe oommit herself with a lorer she holds vile.* 

9. turpl] does not assort that Qyrus is *Tile/ but that he 
is so in the opinion of Pholoe. 

10. sio Tlsum Venerl] 'Suoh is the pleasure of Yenus.' 
The phrase indioates that it is a oase where it is of no arail 
arguing or appealing, the matter having been settled by a high 
and arbitrary power: of. Ov..Met. 1. 886, tie visum tuperu, 
Virg. Aen. 2. 428, Du aliUr vitum, also 2. 17. 15, ticplacitum. 

10, 1L impares formas] The predileotion of tall men for 
short women and vict vtrtd is supposed to be an established 

Yenus delights to yoke together indisaolubly {Juga aenea — 
a yoke there is no breaking, of. 8. 9. 18, see too 8. 16. 2) those 
who though thus yoked to each other oan never make 'a pair ' 
(for that implies that they are well matohed| but must erer 
remain impartt. Saevo cumjoco *in oruel jest ; ot n. on ludo 
1. 2. 87. 

18. ipsomme...] 

'I myself, woo*d by one that was truly a jewel, 

In thraldom was held, whioh I oheerfully bore, 
By that oommon ehit, Mvrtale, though she was ornel 
As wavea that indent the Galabrian shore.' 


HORACE, ODES I. uxi». 

ODE XXXIV. ^^^M»^»_e»-i 

t llttla beiief in the godi »nd ra the dii«iple 
«irjdom ' faUelj' eo calied,' now am driran to 
I heard thnnder, wheo the skj waa olondleai, 
bske» the univerie »nd U iadeed Ihe Toioe of 
power U viaible io all thiaga, wbo "hatb pot 
from their eeal »nd hith eulted tha hnrnble 

1 » Ode. Hoi m wa* at ac t rate fairlj 

.6,3 to '»•"' ■ tbe pbiloaopbjr of Epi- 

'■•i 1 ■ een briHianllv deacribed 

l ol ,u poelry, the De Reruta 

■ - ■ ita _ al point» wai that ei ther 

j> •> tbat Uo.t liTtd whollj and eatirelj 

iii i ckrs {leevrum ageri ateum, Sat. 1. 

'The goda who hauut 
The tucid inter»p»c« of world and world, 
Where never oreepe a oloud or motea a wind 

Nor eoond of hnroan eortow matiate to mar 
Their «aored everlaiticR calm!' 

TixxTaos'* Looretiu». 
Tha Epicureans urged th»t mauy thing», whioh the rolgar 
beliered to declare the preaenee of Qod, were but the reaolta 
ol the or.linirr actioa of lnJcpendeot natural foroea, Among 
raany otiier argumenta ooe of the moat popular waa: if thundar 
ba tne Toice of Ood, whj doea it never thunder exoept wheo 
there arc clouda aboat aad it esn therefore be etpUined oa 
□atonl gronnda* Cf, Ariat. Nubee 870 — 130 and alao Lncr. 
Book 6, wbere the whole eubject ia disctiised »nd tha actual 
qneitioo put (6. 400), 

deniave eur mmqtuim eatlo jaeit touUftw poro 
Jtippiltr in ttrrai fuimtn loaitxtfue jrrqfluttt I 

NOTES. 800 

1. cultor] 'worshipper.' 

2. insanientis sapi o n t iae] A good instanoe of oxjmoron, 
■ee 8. 11. 86 n. 8apienHa u the regular word for wisdom, 
meanfag therebj philosophj; the philosophj here is of ooorte 
that of Epieurus. 

2,3. dumerro]««whileIstrayedV SeeLlO. 11 n. 

8. oonsnltns] Of. the oommon phrase Juris consultus; it 
indioates one who ie an 'adept' or 'professor.' 

6. Dios p itor] Of. note on 1. 1. 25. The word ie arohaio, 
and ite emplojment an affeotation, of. 4. 4. 41, adorea, 4. 15. 8, 
duellis, 4. 6. 88, Noctilucam, 4. 11. 8, tpargier. For the gen. 
dies of. pater/amilias. 

8. nnblla] ie emphatio as oppoeed to per purum. 'Who 
nsnally cleayes the cloudt with flashing flame latelj throngh a 
cloudUttBkj ....* 

9. bmta tellns, raga flnmlna] See B. 4. 45 n. 

10. Taenaril 'Cape Matapan' in Laoonia. Olose towas 
the entranoe to tne nnder worli Of. Virg. O. 4. 487, 

Taenarias etiam fauces, aUa ostia Ditis. 

11. Atlantensqne flnisl 'Atlas the bonndarr of theworld': 
of. Enr. Hipp. 8, ripiwrtt r 'ArXomxot. Bejond the Straite of 
Gibraltar was almost an nnknown region to the anoiente. 

12. ralet ima...] See Introdnotion to Ode. Orelli aleo 
eomparee Job 5. 11. Oonstrne 'He hath power to ohange the 
lowliest with the loftiest, and God maketh the great man weak, 
bringing to light things hidden in gloom.' 

14. apicem] Teohnicallj this was a eonioal oap worn bj 
the flamines. It is nsed however to express anjthing worn as 
a sign of imperial power, as eqnivalent to tiara or d i adema. 
Cf. 8. 21. 20, regum apices. The Bomans had no word 
for 'a crown'«a rojal crown, because haying abolished kings 
for erer thej abolished also the sjmbols of their power. 

15. stridore] i. e. alarum. Fortnne is represented as 
winged and swooping down unexpeotedlj and snatohing from 
one what she oarries to another. 

18. sustulit] The aoristio nse, of. 1. 28. 20. posuisu % 'to 
hare plaoed,' i. e. to plaoe and let it rest there. 

210 IIOIUCE, ODES I. x&xv. 

ODE XXXV. J ^^,,, 1MfJ _»mmmmi 

lutium, Ihou all-ponerfal goddesi Fortuae, 
i lupplicatei nad the uilor, thee the nitioni 
bdcl mothera of prinee» uid even kings in «11 

tueir giorr fet lest thou shouldest overthrow their proe- 
peritj. Before uee mmrchea Deatinj with all tho f jmboli 
of her taunuuble power: with thee are Hope and Oood Faiih, 
taithful, even when thou hast ceased to imile ind tho vulgar 
herd of flatterere haa deeerted t 'ortonetc. O do tbou 

guard thc Emperor in his attack ritain and oui airoiei 

m the E&ut: m»y thcae legitimata wa.s expiate our unhoij' 
civil contentiona, mej Roman iwordi no longer be whelted 
but against a foreign foe.' 

The Fortune of thi* Ode ii not • floUe and caprieioui 
goddess; uot aa 9. 29. 49, 

Furtuna taivr, laeta negotio el 
hidun iiualmfi:m ludm ptrtinax, 
but ijmbolizee tb*t onknown mysterioua power whioh regulatet 
at will the obuujeral phaaea of human life. At line 39 thnt 
gcneral couception U ipeoialized and the prajer ia addressed 
to tbat Fortuna populi Romani of whose power tha Romsus 
were stronglj reminded whenever thej recalled the history 
rjf the growth of their world-wide empire. 

Wiokham aptlj qnotes end happily rendera PliiUrch'i 
description of this Fortnne (de Fortuua Roujanomm, 0. 4), 
'even aa Aphrodite, when ihe orossed the EuroUs, laid aside 
her mirror and her omamenti and her osstoa, and took ipear 
and shield to adorn hereelf for Ljourgus' eyes, so wben, aftex 
BojaurTiing wjlh Pereians and AjMjriam, with Maoed.n' 

1. gre.tum] ao. tihi, M 1. 80. 3, dilectam Cyprim. 
AnUum] On the coatt, oapital of the Volaci. There ren 
two lUtnea of Fortune thara, whioh were coniulted bj a toethod 

NOTK& 211 

of drawing lots {per eorUe). 80 too at Praeneste: ct Stat 
Silv. 1. 8. 80, PraerutHnae tororet. 

3. prMmu] 'readj and able.' praetent implies noi merelj 
'preeenoe,' bat also to be present with the wish and abOitj 
to assist. Henee the inf. eiler it. vel— < even.' 

8. mortale oorpus] *frail mortala.' The phraae aeemi used 
inttead of 'men,' to ezpreai the weakneee and frailtj of hu- 

5. amWt] Literallj, 'to go round eanTaaiing ' (henoe ojh- 
bMo), then 4 to oourt,' •worehip.' 

6. domlnam aequoris] *as mistress of the ooean.' 

7. 8. Bithjna, Oarpathlnm] Pietorial. Cf. 1. 1. 18 n. 
Oarpatkium pelaou$ t between Bhodei and Crete. 

7. Uoaseit] 'ohallenges,' 'braves.' The word expresses the 
hardihood and effronterj of the aailor. Cf. Ov. Met. 1. 184, 
Fluctibut ignotit imultavere carinae, and Odes 1. 8. 21—26. 

11. regumque matrea] Anxiona for their eona who had 
gone to battle. Cf . the lament of Atoeaa the mother of Xerzes 
in the Peroae of Aeschjlus, and the anxietj of the mother 
of Sisera, Jndges 5. 28, 'The mother of Sisera looked out at 
a window, and oried through the lattioe, Whj is his ohariot 
so long in eomingf whj tarry the wheels of his ohariotsf ' 

12. purpurell Not an idle epithet It implies that kings 
even in their rojal apparel fear Fortune. 

Purple is of oourse the distinguishina mark of kinglj rank, 
e£ Yirg. G. 2. 495, purpura reaum, and the pecnliar epithet 
Top<f>vpcy4pmjrot applied to ehildren born to reigning emperors 
of the JBjzantine oourt. Purple-striped togas were the sign 
of rank at Bome during the republio. Subsequentlj garments 
whollj of purple (holoverae) were reserved to the Emperor 
alone. For the wnole historj of purple see Major's most 
learned note on Juv. 1. 27, ed. 2. 

18. iniurloso...] 'Lest with aggressive foot thou shouldest 
overthrow the standing pillar of the State, lest the thronging 
populaoe should rouse even the hesitating to arms, to arms, 
and break their soeptre.' 

iniurloao] vfipumn^. The word oombines the ideas of insult 
and injurj : the pede inoreases the idea of insult. cohtmna 
is merely used as an emblem of stabilitj and dignity. 


■]>thome mlflrat Joubtftil whether to joio ihe 

the mctunl 017 raieed, mnd it» repetition bj 
iphio reprasentmtioa of ita repetition bj the 
umpht repeated 4. 3. tS. 

the poet Ims . tpmemed on tho pninter'i mrt; m peinter por- 
trajmg De ;o ihcw who she wms bj 

■ynibuls, t wmj». Bome immgiae 

thmt Hor tetutUj eiimting picture 

01 reprmhmt»! ia noieat Etrujcmn mirror 

frijm Pertuim --,, tir. e rpm ( = Atropo>, or Deo- 

tiny) in I li ..aii y,... m hmmmer, »jmbo!iiing 

■n imm 0. For NcceuiUt peraonified— 

'Kviyrf, „.. ». . muthority i» .trong for itrva, but 

cmn Neceaeitj be Ibe , ol Chmnce' 

mntalt] ii mcmnned at * disylJablc, cf. antthae, I. 37. C. 

18. clmToi trmbmlei] Kaill such a« mre plmeed in bemmi. 
For tbe syinbolical nme cf. Cic. Ven. 6. 21, ut &k ttnffciua, 
jki «i.i.iKi.i jjim Jititur, ctavo trabalt figtret, S. U. G, odanan- 
linot eiaw. 

19, 20. meverni uncui ] 'itnhbom clmmp mnd molten 

lemd,' i.e. mmterimia fot boilding wiih gremtest fixitj. Tha 
method of ooiting etone» bj memns of iroa bmn fmetened in 
with lemd ii weLl known . 

31, 23. mlbo pinno] Tjpical of guilelems innoeenoe, 
Serriai on Virg. Aen. 1. 292, infonns u« thmt offeringe to 
Fmitb were mado with the hmnd wrapped tn m wbite oloth. 

22. nec ^i""<"tl »bneg«.t] so. u, • nor Bmfa m bar oom- 
pmnionmhip.' Tbim itmnim im withont doabt mwkwmrdlj ex- 
preeeed. Hormoe mm yi thmt ' Fmith mooompaniem Fortana when- 
arer in ohaoged attire (indicmtiTe of miifortnno) «he in homtiW 
mood quit» m (formerly)poworfnl manaion.' Nowtheuhraee 'to 
foUow, or mooompanj Fortnne ' alwmvi memm to tmj or onange 
ia oondnot meeording mt Fortona ohmngeai in faetm flnd m 
Ot. Pont. 2. 8. 7 the maroamtio remark, 

>t «m Fortmu itatqu* caditqut Fidei 

NOTES. 213 

and wo say in English, 'friends and fortune fly together'; 
bai Horaoe means the exaot opposite, he meane that fidet 
doet not Tary in oalamity. What he intendi to say is, 'when 
a man is nnfortanate he hae to quit hia great maniion taUng 
hie ill-fortune with hixn, bnt Faitn aooompanies his ill-fbrtune 
and remaina with him notwithetanding hia ill-fbrtunes' bnt 
he haa eaid it Tery obscurely and awkwardly. 

Schuta snpplies U with comitem; Faith follows Fortnne 
(now beoome miafbrtnne) and therefore alao the nnfortnnate 
when ahe and they qnit the great manaion : bnt thia ia equally 
awkward, and for comitem abnegat^comitemte abnegat of. Virg. 
Aen. 2. 591, confetta deam, Ot. A. A. 1. 127, 8i qua repug- 
narat nUtdum comiUmque negarat. 

26. dlffuglunt...] 'When easka are drained to the leee 
fritndi soatter, too treaoherone to bear their ahare of the yoke.' 
The Qreek proTerb, fu x*rpa fi ^cX/o, exoellently illuitratee the 

29. lturum] Angustus nerer Tiaited Britain, bnt propoaed 
to do eo in 34 b.o. and 27 b.o. The latter ia probahly the date 
of this Ode. 

29, 80. nlttmos Brltannos] So Yirg. EoL 1. 67, penitut toto 
divUot orbe Britannoe, and Taeitus' singular phraae, Agrio. 80, 
Britannot terrarwn ac UbertatU extremot. The poets seem rarely 
to mention Britain exoept as a type of remotest barbarism. 
Cf. 1. 21. 15, 8. 4. 83, B. hoepitibut ferot, 4. 14. 48, remotU 

30, 81. reoens ezamen] * reoently levied troop.' examen^ 
exagmen=exagimen (i^ay6fieror) 9 a foroe led out: a swarm of 
bees: the tongue of a balanoe (quod exigit, givee the exact 

82. Ooeano rvforo]** Brythraeum mare % the Indian Ooean, 
inoluding the Bed Sea and the Persian Gulf . 

38, 84. dcatricum fratrumque] Hendiadys, o£ 2. 7. 9 n. 
•the soars inflioted by brethren on brethren/ At the same 
thne I think that the Boman poet speaking of Boman disgraoe 
purposely uaee a phrase that rather suggests than ezpresses the 
faot, of. 1. 2. 21 n. 

For the civil wars see 1. 2. 21, note. 

JU, 85. dura aetaa] 'an age of iron.' 

14 HORACE, ODES I. uiv. 

85. ner»f'H Thta word ia iuuall; npplierl to daye when uu 

"■ H done, cf. 2. 13. I n. Bera it ii put for 

rable, impioue. Both worda have tba ume 

ieir meauiiiga got diflerentiated (of. queen, 

] bluuted, i.e. in civil alrifo. Bo oareful t 


An Ode wrillt'0 in bonoor of tba rctaro of Ploliua Nnmlda 
(rom Spain. Tbare ehall be aaorificoa and feativity iii bonour 
of tho evont: Damalia iha.ll attend tbe feaat, the oynoaure 
of every eye, but Damalis will whollj devote beraelf to Numidn 
Ibe bero of the bonr. 

•r harpera, who with 

2. dablto] 'due, 1 the calf bad been vowed in caae uf 
Nomida'a aafe return : now the vow had to be diaetiargod ; 
Horaee waa tiotf rtut. Cf. 2. 7. 17, obligalan reddt Jovi 

*. Heeperla]=--BpeiD, cf. 2. 1. 32 n. 

G. carta multa,...] ' Shares many a kis* with hii dear eom. 
radee, but fox none b»« a larger thare than.,.' 

Tbe modea of sxpreaains tha emoUona tbjt; 
do oot ki*« one another, bnt the practioe U oommon 
aioong manj nationi. 

8. actae non allo...] ' of boyhood paaeed with none othar 
for hia leader.' putrtia* la by avnoope (nryirei^, a atrfUng 
tonfltlier) for pueritiae, of. turputral for iurrijmtrat i. 18. 20. 


lamnat for laminae 2. 2. 9. For the oie otrtm bj bojs at plaja* 
•a leader' of. Epist. 1. 1. 59, pueri ludentet <r«* §ri$ f aiunt 
• tireete faciet* 

9. mutataeque ilmul togae] Boys about the age of 14 or 
15 oeeeed to wear the topa praetexta and asstimed the toga virilit. 
It wae done at the Liberalia in Maroh; friendi and relatives 
oelebrated the event together. For Lamia, see 16. 

10. Oreesa nota] a mark of white chalk. It ia aaid to. 
have been a Thraoian eustom to oount their happj daje with 
white, their unhappy with blaek pebbles, but the ijmboliam 
of •black and white' for 'bad and good' is too natural to 
need anj speoial origin. 

Oressa]= 'Cretan.' From Grete or the neighbouring ialand 
of Oimolas ohalk eame. For the phrase of. CatuU. 107. 6, 
lueem eandidiore nota. Bat. 2. 8. 246, ereta an earbone no- 

12. morem In Salium] For the Salii, the leaping or dano- 
ing prieste of Mars (a ealtu nomina ducta, Ov. Fast. 8. 88), 
who nad oharge of the Ancilia, see Diot. of Ant. Thev formed 
a oloee ffuild, and, like manj other guilda, ended bj being 
prinoipallj oelebrated for their feasts (see next Ode, L 8). 
The * Laperoi ' f ormed another guild of a ygtj similar oharaoter. 

18. neu multl...] 'Nor let Damalis the strong drinker 
aurpass Baaras in the Thraoian amjatia.' Damalia%fta)uAis, 
juvenca, of. 2. 5. 6. For ThreuHa of. 1. 27. 2. 

multl merl] ia the deseriptive genitive used in a aomewhat 
ourioua manner. Cf. Cio. ad Fam. 9. 26, hotpet non tnulti eibi 
eed multijoci, and 8. 9. 7, multi Lydia nominit. 

14. amystia (from a and /ifo, not to oloae the lips), *a 
drinking without taking breath.' Cf . Eur. Cjol. 417 : 

iMZar* iffraab r &fivoTw iXxvaat. 

Fpr a aimilar oonviviai praotioe, of. the lawa of ^aoonoing,' 
known to moat Oxford men. In Germanv I have frequenSj 
aeen a game plajed which oonaiate in drinking flagons of 
beer at a breath ; the winner is he who has his emptj flagon 
down on the table soonest. 

15, 16. rosae, apium, lillum] materials for garlands. For 
hreve of. 2. 8. 18 n. 

17. omnesin...] *AU onDamalis will flz their languishing 

210 HORACE, ODES I. ixivi 

"'•"«■ji. >— ' iilii will not ba icpajatfld from her new Iov« 

an the wanton ivv.' 

■Mtforut u*ed in itsprimarf »eq»e = juia«ti'l. 
ihoc of. Catullm' eiquisite linea, 61. 33, 
cnl/m amort revineUiu 
l ttnaz hedera hue et hva 
'boren implicat errant. 

ODE xsxvn. 

in Ode U ha amval at Home of the newi of Cleo- 

patn'1 deam, whion iu bronght in the autrjinu of n, 0. 30 bj 
M. Tuiliua Cioero, the son of the ontor. No inention is made 
of the death of M. Antonius, becauge the defeat of •> lioiann 
oitiien caroed no triamph, cf. 3. 8. 18 n. 

Tbe Ode eeemi to bear trace» of hsving been writton haatilj 
in & moment of enthusiunm. Iti vigour ond power nre un- 
deniable, bnt in hii more finiihed Ode* Honoe woold hardlj 
liavti admitted eaeh lines at 6 ud 14. 

For the bitter Bomen hatred of Cloopatr» eee Propertins 
4. 11 (Palej's edition); foi the battle of Actiuin Prupertiai 6. 6, 
and Hoi. Ep. S, and Virg. Aen. 8. 8TS. Theie paasage* ore 
«11 of the utmoet intereet but aro too lon g to qnote. 

1. uune eit tdbendum...] ThU oommenoement ii eopied 
froro Alcaeaa, r*> xph >"Ww*V *al «™ wpii Sfar 
Tirfy ireiH) cdr0BH HiptAot. 

The genenl "■— "'"g of thii «Uuin ii ' Now drinUnf, uow 
jttntJBg, dow pnblie thankagiving are fltting.' Horaoa ex> 
preaeea the idaa of fitneea ia the fint plaoa bj a gernnd, in 
the aaoond bj a gerundiTe, in tha thizd (probablj for mere 
varietj'» eake) bj tha idiomatio phraaa ''twere time' (Le. 'if 
we weie wi»e'or thelike). The flnrt mow goea with rMociufaM 
('now for a diinl'), the eeoond with puijaiuta, and tha third 

For tempia erat et. Oi. Tr. t. 8. M aud Martial't biting 
epignm, *. 38, 

Plraa laboratit kabeai eim eerinia ehartU, 

EmtttU quart, Soribiant, frfMJ/ 
•Edent herid/j' inqttii 'wo earnfiur..' Quandal 
Ttmput trat Jam U, Sotfbumt, Ugi. 

NOTES. 917 

whtfe in the fourth line jam olearlj goes with the int snd ie 
ftrOdngly omphatio, while tempu» erat is simplj equiTalent to 
*i» ie right' or 'fitting' — 'we ought to be readlng yon ncw. 9 

All eoitors join the first nune with eet f'now ii the time to 
drink') and are ooneeqnentlj obliged to join the third with 
tempu» erat, bnt nune erat thns following nune eet and bearing 
the same senee is extremelj nglj. Wiokham eompares the 
imperf. with the nse of *# &pa (see 1. 37. 19 n.) *now was (as 
we thought all along and now provea to be the case) the time': 
Orelli sajs that tempu» erat ia«*it was lons sinos time,' *how- 
erer soon we begin it eannot be too earlj r ; bnt this tekes no 
aoeonnt of nune. 

3. gallarlbns] See last Ode 1. 13. For the lnxnrj of 
priestlj feasts of. too 9. 14. 38, mero Pontificum poHore eeni». 

5. depromere] Some saj that the de indioates *down,' the 
apotheea or store-room for the wine being in the npper part 
of the honse, where the wine mellowed more quicklv, bnt de- 
promere is generallj used merelj in the sense of *to bnng forth* 
or *ont.' 

5, 6. Caecnbnm aTltis] The wine is ehoioe and old. 

6. Capitollo] The vearj sign and pledge of Bome*s great- 
ness, cf. 3. 8. 43, etet CapitoUum fulgene. Orelli qnotes Lnean 
10. 63, 

Terruit iUa euo t »i fa», OapitoUa eittro. 

6, 7. Capitollo regina] Notioe the juxtaposition of these 
words invidiae caued. The Romans abhorred the word rex> 
how mnoh more rcgina, and in oonneotion with their national 

7. dementes rnlnas] 'mad ruin,' i.e. the rnin she hoped 
for in her madness. Hjpallage, cf. 3. 1. 43 n. 

9. oontamlnato...] • With her filthj herd of men hideons 
with disease, mad enongh to hope for anjthing and intoxioated 
with good fortnne.' 

The reference is to her Oriental ennnoh slayes: thej are 
oalled viri in bitter ironj. Impoten» is the Gk. dxpariji, which 
is the opposite of tytcpaHp asone who has oommand over him- 
self . The word is well applied to an Bastern sovereign m whom 
the possession of nnoontrolled power had raised nnoontrollable 
and impossible desires. For the epexegetie inf. tperare, and 
also traetare 1. 37, and deduei 1. 81, cf. 1. 8. 35 n. 

218 HORACE, 0DE8 L xxxrii. 

18. ilx ot hm...] 01eonaJm^na« rottyfofrannwt 
thoi of Antony ooooittfng of 800 VMNb wat ohnoot wfaolr/ 

14. lymnnatom] «deliriont/ «abtnntfbi 9 fWo oorfaoo 
word it toid to bo o«rif»liPttO f io i o^ XM i»i» oj «B i i Q ftn gl il, 
tanpAa ond opt m no being identJoti, ond tfao nympno homnf 
the powor of otnomg modneta, 

15. woo] OppooBdtothoimoojnoryfoBaofomlrism. 

17. oAorgoni] OomYiano^not followOloopetmontfltho 
noxt yoar, but tho poot fbr dromotio efleot reprtttntt tho wholo 
teriei of aetiont ot abtolutely oontinuono. Fbr oo tfrltrr ..» 
cotumbat a£ IL 98. 189, #rt ^mi..,i^i twro rtj eswo ffvXetay. 

90l Hatfnonm>HThoatakr. oo oollod from Haomon. £akfaor 
of T hoMo l no» 

21. mtalo m o notonm l Horaot tpeaki of Gloopotro oo aot 
human, bnt o hidoons ana portontoni orootnro eent by dettmy 
(fataU) to oouM horror ana olftrm. 

Notioe mcnttrum quas. Tho oonttmotion it oollod wpet re 
arinairofupop. The writer thinkt rother of the tonM thon the 
grammar: it it a Yery nataral and oommon lioente. 

quae generotiui] 'Who anxiont for a nobler end neither 
ahnddered at the iword with womanly fear . . • •' Of. Bhoko- 
speare, Ant. and Oleopatra, Aot 6, te. 2, 

'Give me my robe, put on my orown: I hare 
Immortal longingt in me, <fcc ' 

and Tennyaon, Dream of Fair Women, 

'I died a Qneen.' 

23, 24. latentet orat] Oleopatra had at one time the idoa 
of transporting her fieet mto the Bed See, and ilying to tome 
dittant snore. 

24. reparaTlt] A very difflonlt word. Itt timplMt trantla- 
tion is 'to soquire (parare) in the plaoe of (re) t * of. rnaraU^ 1. 
31. 10. She did not endeavour to aoqnire with her fleet tomo 
hidden dittant realm in plaoe of Egypt whieh tho had loet 
Beware of the trantlation 'repaired to.' 

27. nt atmm...] 'That ahe might deeply drink {combibc) 
in her body the fatti poiton, more fleroely prond when (onoe) 
the had resolved to die, grndging, be snre, the fieroe Liburnians, 
the being oondueted, a qneen no longer, in intnlting trinmph, 
woman though ahe wes, not lowly enough for that.* 

NOTES. 910 

Thii fine stansa eannot be transUted: the leriee of nomi- 
natives in apposition eaeh with specUl force in itospecUlpUoe 
oannot be rendered into English without paraphrasing and 
taorifioing the foroible brevity of the Latin. 

38. Yenenum] ie. of the aip. For atnaR«'deadly' 8. 4. 
17» atrit viperis. 

80. LiburnU] The Liborni in their light ooasting Teeseli 
were of the greatest servioe at Aotium. 01 Epod. 1. 1. 

eeilloet] itcirt-lictt), «of oourse/ *no doubt.' Her purpose 
was so elearly shewn that we may assume that none would 
dare to question it. 

81, 89. superbo trlumpho] She is said frequently to have 
repeated to OoUvian *o0 epiafifitxwofuu.' 


The time is autumn (L 4); the soene represents Horaoe 
atone, about to sup, attended bj a single sUve, whoin he bids 
make the simplest preparations, for they will suffioe. 

1. Persloos apparatus] 'Persian pomp' or •luxury.' 
Notioe the assonanoe in apparatut here and aUaboret in a 
parallel position in stansa 2. The ad in both words suggesU 
the idea of exeees, of something * added ' to what was enough. 

2. philyra] <fn\vpa, the lime tree. IU inner bark was usai 
to sew flowers on for ehaplets, wbieh were thenoe called tutilet. 
Cf. Ov. Fast. 5. 835, 

tempora ttUilibut cinguntur tota eoronie. 

8. mitte eectari] 'Qive up anxiously seeking in what spot 
lingers the laat rose of summer.' 
mitte] aomftu. 

5. ninii] is peouliar; the negative part goes in sense with 
euro, and the noun part is the aee. after allaboret. Trans- 
Ute. *I oare not that you anxiously endeavour to add anything 
to sunpU myrtle.' 

For euro allaboret of. the oommon eonstruetion volofaeiat. 

5, 6. aUaboree sedulus ] Notioe that these words go toge- 

7. arta] ^oUee-leaved/ 'thiok.' 

P. H. 16 



' Pollio, yon art writing tht hiatorj of the reotnt ohfl nn, 
qnit therefore, for a wbile, jour otfaer purtuita, pottftttl 
oratorieel and mflitarj. The eubjett ii a ttiniBg ont; I aan 
almott pietoro to mjtelf jour TiTid rteomiptinn Iht dm tnd 
tomnlt of Pharaalia, Afriea exulting in the o ntp o uring of 
Bomtn blood, the whole worid witnett to oor fatal dietan- 
•ioni. But I mntt hretk off, the theme it too eeriout te mj 
iportire mute.' 

0. Atiniot Pollio (for whote life tee the totj good aeoouni 
in Smith'8 Diet) wtt like Mteeenat t libertl patron of Utera- 
ture, and the friend both of Virgil and Horaoe (8ai. 1. 10. 85): 
Horace takea the opportanitj of hia oommendng (r. noiet) 
a hutorj of tht dril wart to tend him thit oomphmentarj 
ode into whioh he Ttrj cleverlj introdnoet (1L 9—46) allntiont 
to Pollio't Tariont distinctiona. 

1. ex Metello oontult] •from the eontnlthip of Metellnt'1 
the nte of ex='from' or 'after' ia Tery oommon. Q. Ote- 
ciliufl Metellnt Oeler wtt eonsul b.o. 60, the jear in whieh 
Caeear Pompey and Graasnt formed the to-eaUed flrtt Trinm- 
Tirate, and rollio had eeleoted that date for oommeneing the 
history of that portion of the oiril wan whieh oulminated in 
the eetobii&hment of the Empire nnder Aujrafltna. 

NOTES. 221 

2. belll eansas] e. g. the disaster whioh befel Crassus at 
Oarrhae (b.o. 58), and the death of Julie the danffhter ol 
Oaesar and wife of Pompeiot, whioh broke the last Iink be- 
tween them (b. a 64). 

▼itia] either 'orimes,' L e. aotf of orueltv, or, whioh ia more 
probable, 'faults,' i. e. in the oarrying on of the war. 

modos] 'phases,' the various ways in whioh it wai oon- 

8. lndumFortonae] Fortnne 'makes ■port' of human life 
(c£ 8. 2tf. 60, ludum intoUntem Uidert pertinax), and had 
especially done ao in the tragio death of all three triumvirs. 
Vaihidut ct 1. 2. 87 n. 

graves prlndpum amidtlas] A poetioal phraae for the 
triunmrate. gravet = ' ruinoua, ' i. e. to Bome. 

5. nneta cruoribni] 'etained with ■treams of blood.' 
eruor (from earo) ie alwaye naed of blood from a wound. The 
plnral U very rare, but of. Virg. Aen. 4. 687, atrcm siccabat 
vette cruorei, 'ahe kept endeavouring to staunoh the atream of 
blood whioh kept bnnting ont airean,' where the foree of the 
plnral ia obvious: here it aeems naed with referenoe to the 
variona oooationi on whioh Boman blood had been ahed, e.g. 
ai Pharaalia, Thapena, PhilippL 

6. perlonloaae plennm opna aleae] oput ii in appoaition to 
the whole of the aoousatives whioh have gone before, ' a taak f oll 
of riak and danger.' Why Pollio'i taak was ao diffionlt Horace 
at onoe explains, for the words $t ineedit... are really an ex- 
planation. The historian of disasters whioh were so reoent is 
oompared to a man who after a conflagration inoantionaly 
advanoes among the debris the snrfaoe of whioh alone has 
oooled, at the riak of being himself bnrnt, or oanaing the flame 
to bnrst ont again. 

No doubt the expression ineedit...dolo$o is proverbial and 
general (cf. Oallim. Ep. 46. 2, tm vQp vt6 r§ «wodcj, and Propert. 
1. 6. 6. ignotos vettigia, ferre per ignet), and the explanation 
given above is adequate, but I have always been oonvinoed ihat in 
nsing it Horaoe had in mind one of the tpecial phenomena of 
his native land, and I have little hesitation in aaying that this 
is so sinoe finding the foUowing passage in Maoanfay, Hist. Bng. 
e. 6. 'When the historian of this tronbled reign (James n.J 
tnrns to Ireland, his task beoomes peonliarly diffioult ana 
delicate. His steps — to borrow the nne image used on a 
similar oooasion by a Boman poet — are on tht thin crutt o/ 
athet beneath wfnch the lava it ttill glowing. 9 



7. tractae] Notioe the preeentt Nuo*e wotk wao onr/ 

bcgun (eL 1L •— UJ» • yoa are tekmg in henby ▼. avfto oa 

9. penlmm] - te a ahort (time),' *te a wfaDe. 9 f e nfi iiei 
letheoooaoetiTe ef dnmtionfrom on obooleto idleethe ipmifmt, 
temput bemg imomwtood, bat it ie preotioelr/ oeedee eo 

tmfoedme] A Oreek woxd te e Oreek thina 
in Letin lettore, The Bomane imported 'tregedyM 
whem it wee e neirre derelopment, end ther eleo impuf m il 
ite neme (reeyytte) et the eeme time, ee wee eleo the coee wfth 

comedj (mpidUL, comoedia). The met thet the Bomene mpre- 
eented y by os, ie oneemongmeny eimiler tiielenem whHi ehew 
thet oor pronojMietkm of Letin end Oreek ie iuoouoot, te, 
whereee we prononnee *? qoite diiftrentlj from os, tft ie ohrloao 
thet the Romone ooneJdered thet the eoand of ee repro d n eed 
the eoand of y. The deriration of rpay^ma ie ewnemQy enp- 
poeed to be rpdyot end %ftf * «the eong of the goet,' bcoeaee e 
goet wee> the prise et the Beoohio feetiTele et whioh the nret 
rade 'tregedies' were eang or performed. 

Yirgil eleo (EoL 8. 10) alladee to Pollio'e tregedim oe 8ola 
Sophocleo tua carmina digna cothurno, 'thy poeme eione wor- 
thy of the baskin (i.c tregio dignity) of 8ophoolee.' 

1L oxdinaxis]- <>rdinat>mj, 'shell heTe eet in order,' Le. 
duly errenged in yoar history, cf. St Lake 1. 1, 'Foreemaeh 
ee meny hare taken in hend to tet forth in order (ar*rdtac4ai) 
e deelaretion of thoee tbinge....' 

grende...oothamo1 'thoa ehelt resaxae thy glorioae teek on 
the Ceoropien baskin/ i.e. you shell retome the writing of thoee 
tregedies which exe worthy of the dignity of the Athenian 
stage. Cecropio, beoaoee at Athens all the great Oreek trege- 
diee were prodaoed. cothurno: the tragio aotore wore high- 
heeled boskins, like modern ladies, to add to their height end 
dignity; comio aotors wore the low toccut or slipper. 

13. lnelgne pmeeldiam] in epposition to PoUiom'0 
thoa illastrioae defenoe.' maettie reie elladee to Pollio'e ekill 
in forensio eloqnence, or, ae we might say, *at the bar,' 
conttdenti curiae to hie saocess ee e speaker in the eenete, ee 
a parliamentarT orator — a Tery diflerent style of eloqoenoe. 
contulenti = 'deliberating' not 'consolting you/ as it woold 
be abtturd to speak of a great body consulting one of ite membem 
howerer distingaished. For curiae = ' the eenete ' cf. 3. 6. 7. 

NOTES. 888 

16. nfi™^*» trlumpho] In b.o. 89, he had obtained a 
triomph for defeating the Parthini, an Dlyrian people on the 
borden of Dalmatia. 

17. lamnuno...] HereHoraoeraddenlyrepreaentahimielf 
aa reading Pollio'i hiitory, in whioh he knowa beforehand 
erenta wilf be ao rividly and dramatically portrayed that the 
reader will imagine himielf to be actually eeeing and hearing 
that whioh ia deeoribed. 

oornuum...Utul] Both theee inetramente are illnetrated in 
8mith*e Diot. of Ant. q. t. litui ttrepunt-' the elariona bray.' 

ia peretrlngu anrea] A Tery diffionlt phraee of whioh 
I ean find no olear explanation. 8tringere oonneeted with 
rrpayytfa arid *etrangle') meane (1) to equeese tight, (8) to 

Sase or eorape the eorfaoe or edge of anythmg, the two nouoni 
ing perhaps oonneoted thni: when yon draw anything like a 
bongh through a narrow apertnre where it ia '•queeied tight/ 
the effeot ie to 'etrip' or ^eorape' it, of. ttringcn rmm m 
to etrip bonghi of their leavee and make them into oan, 
ttringere aladium -io draw a iword quiokly from iti tight- 
fitting eoabbard. vraeetringere aciem ii need of the efleot of a 
fiash of light whioh paatei quiokly over the lurfaoe of the eye 
and daaslei it 8o here pentringere aures eeemi ueed of a 
loud hanh eound whioh eorapei or gratei upon the ear dulling 
and deafening it« The word ii neglected m diotionariei, and 
thia paisage ii negleoted by the editori. 

19. lam fulgor...Toltui] *Now the flaih of armi aearei in 
(or into) flight the horses and the faoee of the horeemen' — a 
aingularly bold but effeotWe iketoh of a oavalry ront daahed off 
by a maiter hand in half a dosen words. 

fugaoee ii no doubt proleptio; the eudden fiaah of weapom 
in front of them frightens the horeei ao that they take to flight. 
Gf. Job 89. 88, 88, of the horse, 

«He mocketh at fear and ii not affrightod, 
Ndther turneth hi baek from the iword: 
The quiTer rattleth againet hinij 
The glittering ipear and the ahield.' 

80. equoe equltumque] Notioe the effeot of aiaonanee : ao 
in Englith *warrior and war-horse/ and Tennyson, Gharge of 
the Light Brigade, *While horte and hero fell.' 

equltnm Toltua. The oommentatori exnlain thia by refer- 
enoe to a story (Plut. Oaei. 45), that at the battle of Phanalia, 

224 HORACE, ODES 11. i. 

whioh Horaoe is thinking of, Caeiar ordered hU eoldien to 
strike at the faeti of the young Roman noble* who forroed tbe 
eavalry snd that they fearful for their beauty tarned and iled. 
The phraes needi no luah learned and annetorai eiplanation. 
Horaae buvs not 'boriemen,' but ' feees of hoteemen,' beoauie 
he wiihei to bring vividij befare oar mindi the one patnt 
whicrt remained rooit clearly stamped on hU recoileotion in 
the similar rout mt Fhilippi, ths p*le panie-itruok faees of men 
flying for their Uven il i» % briUiant dramatw toooh, not a 
reoondite aUasion to m obacure etory. 

21. aufllre magnoi...] auiiirt wbiob govenil hoth dltcu 
and ctincta tubac ta cao by iteelf mean either 'to heai' or to 
'hear of," with euncta itibacta it ca.t only mean the latter, and 
there i« cunaequcntly a. itrong preaumption th*t it U to be 
taken in the unu wey witb duta. 'I aeem to hear of mjghty 
generali begrimed witb tlie glorioui dust of battle and of a 
whole world eabdned Sta.' i.e. I leem in imagioetion already to 
hear the reading or reoitation of jour hiatorj of tbese events. 
Nowadaye we ahould expeot 'already I seem to be readiag 
your deacription..,,' but it is to be bome in mind that before 
the invention of printing public reading or recitation waa one 
of the best poesibla methodi of makiag known a new work {ef. 
the storj ol Thucvdidei hearing Herodotui recite hit historj at 
Olympia, and for the practioe of recitation, Juv. Sat. 1. 1, and 
Mayora uihauttivo note). Sordidoi U to be taken predicative- 
]j being thos strietly parallel to lubaxta. 

Orelli prefere to take audir< in two eenaee, and tranalatei 
•I eeem, so vivid ia jour writing, to hear great generaU,' Le. 
haranguing their troops or the Uke, but to mj tnind thiidouble 
me of aiutirt in two auch distinot BouBee ii abeolntelj impossi- 
ble, aad I know no persdlel case. Moreovar, if the grftmmatical 
difflculty be avoided, the addition of the phrasa non indtcoro 
puh-tre lardiaoi precludee Orelli'B interpretation as a matter of 
taste; it U quite correot to eay 'I seam to bearof great leadera 
liegrimed with the duit of battle,' bnt it U aa abaurd to mj 'I 
hesr great leaders bogrimed Ao.,' ai it would be to aaj 'I heard 
Mr GUdstone in evening dreaa.' 

2S. onnota terraram] 'aU thingi in tho warld' — a variatj 
of tba poaaaaaive genitive. The oonatruetion muit not be oaa- 
founded wtth oui inaocurate phraaa 'aU of,' or ' ths whole of,' 
in whieh a> partitive genitive U uaed even whare an eutiia thiog 
U roferred. to. Cf. a. 12. 12, amara curarum and Tm. RtatT£ 

NOTE& 825 

24. atroosm «■*■■«"■■ Gatonis] <Cato's stubborn soul/ 
e&l. 12.85 n. 

25. Inno...] The transition U natural and eeay from the 
deeth of Cato to the thouoht how amplj Caxthage and Jngnrtha 
had been avenged fbr all they had tnflered at the handi of 
Bome by the sight of Boman oarnage. Jnno wai the tutelary 
deity of Oerthage, of. Virg. Aan. 1. 15, 

quam (i.e. Carthage) Junofertur terrU magU omnibus unam 
posthabita eohtUse Samo; hie illius omo, 
kU currusfuU, 

The oonatrnotion ia Juno (let eubjeet) et dtortm quUquU...tsllure 
(pronominel elauae serving ai a 2nd subjeet) rettuUt (main 
Terb, in the eingular though there are two subjeets ef. 2. 13. 
88 n.), vietorum nepotes (direet objeet of rettuUt) inferias (in ap- 
poaiuon to nepotc$=SM an oflering at hii tomb) Jugurthae 
(dative of remoter objeot). 

26. eesserat] The gode were luppoeed to quit doomed 
dties. Cf. Yirg. Aen. 2. 851, Exceuere omnes adutU arUque 
relictU \ Di, and the aeoount of Josephue (Bell. Jud. 6. 5. 8) 
that immediately before the eapture of Jeruealem by Titui 
the gatee of the temple had burst open of themselves, and 
that a yoioe more than human had been heard ezolaiminfl 
«Let us go henoe' (/urafiaUta/m irreGdep), a story alao referred 
to by Tac Hist. 5. 18, audita major humana vox, Excedere Deoe. 

Carthage was saeked by P. Soipio Afrioanus Minor b.o. 146. 
impotens] in its simple maaning 'powerless,' Le. to seve. 

28. Iugurthae] Tery emphatio br its position. As Pluss 
remarks, Horaoe oould not better illustrate the 'moekery of 
fortune' than bv deseribing the great Bomana who fell at 
Thapsus as saerinoed to the manes of Jugurtha! 

29. pinguior] 'fatter,' i.e. more fertile than it was before. 
For the phrase of. Aeseh. Persae, 806, where the Peniians who 
fell at rlataea are spoken of as <pl\o* wlaaua (a fattening) 
Botwrwr x$erl, and Yirg. Georg. 1. 491, bU tanguine nottro j 
Emathiam et latos Haemi pingueeeere eampoe. 

80. aepulcris] with testatur, 'bears witness by its tombs,' 

lmpia proella] pius ezpresses the regard due by a ohild to 

a parent (cf. pius Aeneas), then that due from oae relative to 

another, from one oitizen to another. Henoe eivil wars were 

striotly impia, 'unhallowed,' a violation of the law of nature. 


31. Medli] i.6. P&rthians (of. 1. 2. 22 mij 1. 3. 61 n.), wb.0 
woold naturaUy rejoice to hear 'the diii of the downfall of 

Eeiperia»} 'Westero.' f.e. lUlUa, in contrast with the 
Eutera empire of the Pmthmnn joat referred to. So too 
3. 6. 8, wbere the Parthiana are mentioued tn the neit line, 
and 3, 6. 38, where it is contnwted with Grateia in 1. B5. On 
the other hnnd 1. 88. i Haptria = Spain, NtimiJa being 
deeoribed &• returning to Rome from 'the fnrtheat Weet.' Iu 
each caae the meauiag il clesr from the eonteit. 

34. "■""'■»] Dauaai wu ■ legeadarv king of Apalia, but 
the «djective U applied to the whole of Iulj, ct *. 6. 27. 

36. non . noitro] Notioe the assonanoe of theie lines end 
the poweTfal effect prodaced by the repetition of the vowel o, 
and the Oombination or. The pecaliar rhjthm of 1. 36 nddi 
to the eSect, Before breakiug off from hii wuUke tbeme 
Honiee seems to deeire to ihew by the very loncd and ehipe of 
hii vene, how diiaomposing »nd dangerona euah mbjecti were 
lUble to become to hifl goatle muee. 

37. ne retractci] I «omewhat prefer Wiokham'i method 
of malring thii dependent on quaere ( = 'leat yon reiurae') to 
tliat of OreUi, who rnakes it e direct prohihition and plaoei a 
colon after runiae. 

lod*] i.e. luch light theme* u e.g. 2. 4. 

38. Oeae niuner* neuiae} '» tsik wbich belongi to the 
Cean dirge.' Bimonide* the lyrio poet of Ceoa (568 — 167n.c.) 
wu eBpecinlly cclebrated for hii dirgee (tfp^roi) end epitapha; 
his epiUph on thoae who feU at ThermopyUe ie beet known. 

40. levlore plootro] 'with lighter qniU,' i.e. in a «tjle 
aad oa a inbject that ihitll be leie grave. The opposite phrase 
ii graviore plectro, Ovid Met. 10. 160, or majort pUctro, 4. 
2. 33; pUctrum [*X4ir«t>r) U 'the atriking thing' from T^i^anr. 

ODE n. 

'Oold, CriipaB, lacki lnatre nnleu it ba uaed wUelj and 
wall; ao uaed it oan oojifer evon Uating renown, u it flhall do 
on Proeoleiuii. To hotd the derJret in inbjeotion Ii to poaaeu 
a wldar empiro than if jon were lord of Afrioa and Knrope. 

NOTES. 227 

The very tendenoy to avarice must be eradioated, for, like 
dropsy, it grows by being indulged. True wiidom denies the 
name of happy to the greedy tyrant, and haili him alone a 
king who oatti not even a lingering look on pilet of gold.' 

The Ode it addreaaed to Oaine Salnitina Crispus, of whom 
a fuH aooonnt ie given in Tao. Ann. 8. 80. He was the grand- 
nephew of the historian Sallust, who adopted him, and was 
one of the intimate friende of Augustus, but, though poesessed 
of great abilities, studiously held aloof from all publio offiees, 
preferring, like Maocenas, the real though private influenoe of 
a friend to the titular distinotion of a magistraoy. He died 
a.d. 20. 

1. nullus] A somewhat awkward stanza. Horaoe wishes 
to say that as gold has no lustre when still in the mine, so 
Crispus oan see no oharm in wealth exeept it is used, bnt he 
has partially saorifioed elearness to brevity. 

aTaris] The earth guards its wealth like a miser. The 
epithet is added as leading up to the attaok on avarioe whioh 

2. lamnae] lamina is any thin pieoe of metal ; the word is 
here used contcmptuously for precious metal in a useless un- 
interesting shape, a mere pieoe of silver or gold. For the syu- 
oopated form of. 1. 86. 8 n. 

lnlmioe nisi] These words go together. Orammatieally 
they might go with nulliu eolor ett, but they wonld give no 

8. nisi...usu] This phrase has two meanings, one literal 
the other metaphorical : \l) n\\ metals beoome dull by disuse, 
and bright by use ; (2) wealth has no brillianoy unless employed. 

5. extento aevo] does not mean 'through long ages* but 
•his span of life being extended beyond the grave,' i.e. Pro- 
onleins by his noble deed shall win an immortality of fame, a 
iife beyond life, as is made olear in 11. 7, 8. Cf. too Yirg. Aen. 
10. 468, famam extendere faetit. 

Proonleius] 0. Proculeius Yarro Murena was a Boman 
knight who divided his property between his brothers who had 
lost their own in the civil wars. One brother waa the Licinius, 
to whom 2. 10 is addresaed. 

228 HORACE, ODES II. ii. 

6. notos ulml] OrcJli and Wickhsm unite in ssjing that 
thU U pot for noltu prepttr antmun, bat tbey svoid sll expUns- 
tion, »nd oalj oompare i, 1B. 21, whioh ii clearlj not to be eo 
tsJten, vid. loo. onimi M s timplc gen. o( quslity I ' Proculeiut 
thsll live in (imi (eiwl nalui) bejand the apsn of life, (Proou- 
leius) ol falheilj »11601100 for his brothers.' Possiblj Prop. 4. 7. 
Gl hittoriae ptttara notaiuat U an instsnoe of nolui with gen. 

T. mMaeBte saM] ' on pinions thst dresd to flsg,' oi. 
'droop ' For the constraction cf. Virg. 0. 1. 248, Aretat Oeeani 
meturnXti atqvart tingi, slso S. II. 10, mttuitqut tartgi, 4. 5. 
20, eulpari mttuit snd 1. 1G. 27 n. totei (like Xdtrfa») U need 
of thst relsiation of neiro teasion whioh U produaed bj any 
eaase snch u fntigue, aleep, oald, ic. Cf. Virg. Aen. 12. 961, 
»oIi>unIur/ripo« mtmbra. 

9. Istlus regne»...] Note the indeflnite aie of ths 2nd 
person singnlar, 'thou* meaning *sny one.' tpirirui U here 
used like tbe Ok. BvpAi from 0ow to breathe or blow ftercely (ef. 
•typhoon'1 for the fieroe paseionste part of otu natare. The 

fhrsse aptdui ipiritui repreient» ss oae eomplei qaslitj whnt 
Itito reeolved ratotwo etmple onei, tvp&t cai (ridu^a, 'paieion 
»od luit'; in the sabjugstion of tbete two to 'reseon (»oSi) he 
pltoed true wiedom or Virtue, Cf. Firtui below snd t. Phsedrus 

I csvnnot refrain from quoting in genersl iUustrstiou George 
Eliofi golden tiae* ■ 

1 Let thj ohief terror be of thine own toul ; 
There, 'mid the throng of hanying desiree 
That trsmpie o'er tne desd to seiie their spoil, 
Lurka veagennce, footless, irresutible 
Ai exlishttiou* ladett witb slow death, 
And o'st the faiieit troop of captured joj» 
Brottue» pallid peitilenoe.' 

Danitl Dtronda, ed in. 

10. qnun...nnll 'th»n if jou were to unite (undor jonr 
empire) Lib y» with dUtant Oade» snd oither Csrthsgiiuan wa» 
to soknowledge tout »ingleiw»y.' The seoond olsme iUu»tr»toa 
snd, unplifiet the flrst, jungat being explaioed bj itnrfel «nn, 
■nd utcrqvt Poenui repeating the idea of Libjm snd fliilei in s 
aew form, referring to the CsrthsginUn sottjementi oa elthei 
side of the itnitk, in Afrios snd SptJn. 

nmotdi] Cf. 2. 6. 1 n. 

NOTES. 229 

mast abstain as muoh ai poasible from all drink.' Bucban. 

15. aquosus...] •The watery faintness from the pale 
frame.' Faintneae and torpor aooompany dropsy, and tubut 
deeoribea the pale flabby appearanee of the patient. 

17. reddltum...Phraa,ten] see 1. 26, Int. The family of 
the Arsaeidae to whioh Phraatea belonged had no eonneotion 
with the Penian dynaaty or ite founder Cyrus, but for the 
oonfusion, see 1. 2. 22 n. 

18. dlMtdeni...] 'Viitue disagreeing with the mob sepa- 
rates from the ranks of the happy and teaohea the people not 
to nae words wrongly.' Virtut here standa for the opinion of 
all those who are wise and virtuous. In his use of beatut Horaoe 
haa in mind not only its striot sense of • happy ' but its popular 
nse ass •wealthy' (of. 4. 9. 45); ouriously enough the flnglish 
word 'wealth,' whioh originally meant 'general well-bemg,' (as 
in the Litany 'in all time of our wealth'), has been oonfined to 
the speoial sense of well-being as regards worldly goods and 

plebl populum] pUbi from pUo (of. complert, pletmt) origi- 
nally meant those who having no civio privileges merely senred 
to JUl up the state: populut on the otner hand oomprises all 
members of the state. Here there seemi little distinotion be- 
tween the words. 

19. mlsis Tocibus] To oall a rioh man beatut was a 
misuse of the word. It was a similar misuse when the Greeks 
ealled the rioher oitizens ol d>t^roc f 'the best.' Cf. Thuo. 8. 82. 

21. regnum...deferens unl...qulsquis] 'by oonierring em- 
pire on him and him alone whosoever...' 

dladema] 8uL&ruia, the blue band worked with white whioh 
went round the turban (rtdpa) of the Persian king, 'a diadem,' 
'orown,' cf. 1. 84. 14 n. 

22. propriaml Like tiatim = '8ure/ 'abiding.' propriut 
is muoh stronger than tuut and expresses that whioh is a per- 
manent possession and not merely hired, borrowed. or held for 
aseason. Horaoe wishes to ezpress that the reward of virtue is 
a orown * that fadeth not away.' 

He is very fond of this use of propriut, and Sat. 2. 2. 184 
and Ep. 2. 2. 170 — 176 should be eompared. 

28. quisquis...acervos] 'whosoever views huge heaps of 
treasure (and paases by) without one baokward glanoe.' 

830 HORACE, ODES II. iii. 


' Cultinta, Delliui. e ealm anil eqnable frams ol tnind, 
neither unduly elated in proiperity nor deprwied in adieriily. 
Enjoy the gifti of netore and of wealtb : enjoy thom. for «11 
njutt soon be lsft behind: rich and poor elike we are hastening 
towardi one oommon end, the bouro from whicb no tnweller 
retnrne (aeteraum exiiium).' 

All we koow of Delliu» U tlnt hs ™ nicknnmed Daultor 
bttlonm civilium from the frequencj with whieh he chenged 
eidee during the eivil wari, drsultur being m circal-rider who 
leaps from the beck of one hone to enother, while going «t full 

The Ode ie • poetical expreeiion of the Epicnrean doctrine 
'Livewhileyoulive,' deeply tuuehed with ite protoand aadnesi, 
ths key-note of the whole bcing atruck in the empbatio mori- 
hrre of L 4. Compare Ecol. 11. 7, 8, 'Tr-ily the light li eweet, 
niiii a pleaiant thing it ii for the ejee to behold the inn ; but 
if a msn live many years, and rejoioe in them all ; yet let bim 
romember the daya of darkneai ; for they eball be many. All 
that cometh i» vanity.' 

1. nlu a eitfulaj ' whsn lifa'i path ii ateep,' WleUuun. 

•}. non aeeu] 'end eqnellj eo.' 

8. Inaolentl] 'rtnuaual,' and ao 'eioeiiiTe,* 'eitraTegant'! 
the epitbet la eraphatic, ft ii not ell gaiety, bnt eitreTegant 
geiety, that i» to be ohaalened by the tbonght of death. 

4. moritnre] The adj. in this striking poaition give» the 
i for tbe advioe that haa been given. Cf. 1. 18. 6, 

B. m.,.nu...] Theee elaaeae go «rietly witb atoritun, 

'iinoe you mnat die all tba aame whether...or...' 

6. ln remoto gnmlna] 'on aorne retired lawn." 

8. lnUrior» nota Falernl] ' witb an inner brand of Fa- 

lornian.' interiore beeanae the oldeat wina wonld be in tb* 

fartbeit oornon of tbe oallar. nota becawe tha ampkorai were 

NOTES. 231 

branded with the name of the oonsuls of the year. Falernian, 
from the Falernut ager in Campania, was a notod vintage of a 
'heady,' •fiery' oharaoter, ef. 1. 27. 9, eeveri FaUmU % 11. IV, 
ardentU F. 9 and Jav. 4. 188, cum pulmo FaUmo anbrst, and 
kept for a long time, 2. 8. 8. 

9. quo...quld1 *To what pnrpoto else...why...r' i.e. if 
we are not to enjoy thexn, why it nature so laviah of her 

There is a well-supported reading avo for qtdd whioh 
would seem to have had lts origin in an idea that thii stanza 
waa grammatioally oonnected with the next, and that quo...qvo 
merely antioipated huc in L 18. *Bring hither, boy, to the 
plaoe where...where...* But aa Orelli olwervea this is very 
proeaio, and moreover the hiatui in quo obliquo and the thort- 
ening of quo would be a lioenae utterly without paraUel in 
Horaoe. For quo** *to what purpoae,' of. Epi»t 1. 5. 13, quo 
mihi fortunam $i non eoneeditur uti t 

piiua lngem albaque populua] Wiokham admirablv re- 
marks, *The double contrast between the alight poplarwhite in 
the wind and the gloom of the heavier pine is lndioated, after 
Horaoe'e manner, by one epithet with eaoh of the pair of aob- 

10. oonaoeiaro amant] 'love to intertwine a hospitable 
ahade.' For the epexegetio inf. here and in 1. 12 ot 1. 15. 
27 n. 

11. ohliquo] The channel winde and twists, and ao the 
water in ite eagerness to escape (fugax) has to hurry and bustle 
and struggle (laborat trepidare) to make its way at all. The 

aix words obliquo rivo are a perfect speoimen of Horaoe's 

power of ooncise, clear and aoourate word-painting. For 
trepido see n. on 2. 4. 24. 

18. nimium toreves . . . 1 ' The too short-lived flowers of the 
lovely rose.' For brevet cf. 1. 86. 16, breve lilium, and 2. 14. 24, 
brevem dominum. Notioe the pathos of the epithet thus intro- 
duoed in an ode on the ahort llfe of man. 

*Gather ye rose-buds while ye may, 

Old Time is stiil a flying; 
And this same flower that smiles to-day, 

To-morrow will be dying.' 

232 iiORACE, ODES II. iii 

16. mj 'ciicuniatancc*.' 'fortunc' I much prefer aome 
aach geaeral rentleriiig ki the tru.nel»Uun 'property'; the »ug- 
geation that he tnay oecome poor ww dij U wholly out of 

•ororum fllm) The fates are repreeeuted u three aiateri, 
Clotho (the ipinner), Lacheei» and Atropoi, who eit »nd tpin 
tbe thrMd of enoh haman lilo: wben thej sovei ths threed tho 
mnn diee. Cf. Milton, LjaidM 75. 

■Comee the blind fory witb the ebhorred ehean 
And ilite tbe thinspun life.' 

17. cedn coemptl» Mltisa*] 'Yon sdd fnrm to farm bul 
will nrdl them.' It is impoeeible to eipresi tiio (bree of coemptii 
eiccpt by paraphraae. taltui ara glades or ■trctebes of pteture 
fiuiTounded by woode snd hills auoh as oovered Cnlabri» ind 

domo] donuti ii uaed epecialiy of a town manaiou, villa of 
& eountry aaet. 

18. flavru] The etoclc epitbet for the Tiber, of. 1. 9. 13, 
jlaeam Tilerim. It wae «o oalled bccauao of ths qnantity of 

UTtt] Horace doei not ubc the form lavare io the Odea. 

31. dlveane...] Tbe conatmctioo ie nii inUrat divem 

{iii) mortrii — 'it niakes no differenoe whether jou are 

.'eeeing tliat you are a viotim o( the 
unpilyirig grave. 

I havo Inaertad the word» '•eetng that you are' betb» 'vie- 
tim' in tranalatioD for the aeke of olearnen, though to inaart 
oiplanatory word» ie ganerajly s «ign of murtranilation ; bnt m 
comtructjoni like thu one Latin «ufleri from not poneeaing 
a preaent partiajple of th« varb 'to be,' and ia oompellad to 
make olear tha way a wurd ii to be taken bj auigning it • Tary 
marked poeition, a» hexe: in Engliih it ia rmpoaidbu to do »o 
natnrally. In Greek after vietima wa (1100111 hare •> or d* 
i^n.ed. S. lB.BOand*. 1. fln. 

Inachru waa * mjthicel king of Argoa; be here tjplflea re- 
mote antiquity and loftj Uneage. 

38. aub fllTo] 'beneath the open iij' = »tio Joo«,l. 1. 36 u. 
So too 1. 18. 1S, *uo divtai, 'into the opan alr,' 'into th» light,' 
The phraaa ii arehaia. 

NOTES. 233 

morerls] commorari is the more nsual word £or ataying in 
a plaoe for a time, e.g. at an inn, but I think morari ia here 
osed in a eimiUr eeme: life ii repreeented aa a xnerely tenv 
porary aojonrn. 

25. eogtanur] cogo, from eoago~ # to drive together.' 
Horaoe haa probahly the tame idea in hia mind as !n 1. 24. 
18 (nigro eompulerU gregi) of the dead being oolleoted like a 
fiooiof iheep. 

26. Tenatnr eore ezltnra] The anoient method of draw- 
ing lote waa by writing the namea on nebblea, whioh were then 
oaat into an nrn whioh waa ahaken about (vereatur) nntil one 
lot leapt ont (esire). Henee in Gk. rdXot (a lot), from «tiXXw 
'toahaxe.' 8o 8. 1. 16, omne capax movet urna nomen. 

aertna ociua] «sooner or later.' 

28. onmbae] i.e. the well-known bark of Charon, de- 
aoribed in Yirg. Aen. 6. 410—416, and ot Prop. 8. 18. 24, $can- 
denda est torvi pubUea eumba eenie. 


'Leat yon be aahamed, Xanthiaa, of bcing in love with a 
•lAYe-girl, let me tell you many a great hero haa done the 
aame, — Aohillee, Ajax, Agamemnon. And then who knowa bnt 
your aubnrn-haired Phyllia may have been a princesa onoe? 
Be aure there waa nothing diarepntable about the mother of 

Buoh a paragon, auch a nay, you may let me praiae her 

without auspicion ; I am close on forty.' 

The Ode ia of courae satirical throughout, and the atyle 
mook-heroio: Xanthiaa Phooeus ia a nom-de-plume % and as he 
usually doea in such caaea, Horaoe aeleeta a Oreek name (*w- 
jcrvt sinhabitant of Phooia), cf. 2. 6. 20, Cnidiutve Qyges, and 
8. 12. 6, Liparaei nitor Hebri. 

1. ne alt] It ia more uaual when ne ia uaed in prohibitions to 
eraploy the perfect aubj. (of. 1. 11. 1, ne quae$ieri$) $ and it ia 
therefore better here to take it» «leet/ of. 1. 83. 1 ; 4. 9. 1. 

tlt titoi pudorl] pudori is * Dat of the Purpoae, wbioh ia 
naually found with a second Dat. of the Beoipient, ol odio ense 
alterit emolumento eue alicui, &o.' Pub. School Gram. § 129. 

234 HORACK, ODES II. iv. 

3. xanthia] Karfl*, voc lstDeoi. 
lnsolentem] *arrogant thoogh he wm.' Jor the 

0>SSW^&t&^B/^SS' SJ ^SJ &SWS^^^^ft^^^^^^WB) SI^^SS^B^^W «BW^W^^B^PS^ «B^PBBW Sj 

j*r» fu#«t *M «ftte, «iAU «»« *mf* 
For Achilles and BrJseis eee GUeft. Diet. 
i. movtt..jnovit] Cf.1. 2.4n. 

5. Telamo&e &at&m] Tho words sre sddftd to dbtlnf&iftli 
him from tht other Ajex, the »on of OUeoft, for whcm ot 1. 


6. c&pttv&e domlmim] Tho entithesis u m&de ole&rer by 
tho juxtapoaition of the aatithoticftl worda. In & non-fafUnBng 
language, ftnoh as BngHsh, tho order of the wordft in & ftftnlftnoe 
being of necessfyy more simple for the sake of olcsrnooi, it is 
oomparatively rarely th&t this pl&oing oontrastod wordft ftiao by 
ftide oftn be effeoted. Other in fttftj n oeft ftre 1. 6. 9, temm jiw m Vm , 
1. 13. 14, dulcia barbare, 1. 16. 2, perjidu» hoepitam, L 29. 10, 
arduit pronoe, 1. 87. 6, Capitolio rcgina, 8. 6. 9, Jfsdo JfftfVttf, 
4. 4. 31, imbellem feroce* | progenerant aquilae colmmbam* 

Tecmeftsae] Ti*/n?**a. * Before gm, gn, a vowel seems always 
to b&ve beoome long by nature, as tigmen, dgnue. In ge&uine 
Latin words not oomponnded the other motes do not preoede 
m, n. Thos the older writers, snoh as Plautus, wrote drocftsta 
(dpaxMiy),...cucfnuf {Kticvoi) r ...Tecume$4a. Tbe learned poets. 
oopying the Oreeks, did not objeot to eycmu % TScmesea, Ac 
Publio Sobool Lftt. Gram. § 218. 

7. axsit...vlrglne rapta] ' was fired with love for a oaptivo 
maiden,' i.e. Cassandra. For oonstraotion of virgine, cf. 8. 9. 

9. barbarao...] This stanza amplifies the idea of swdio in 
triumpho, and by dwelling on the details of Agamemnon'o 
viotory brings out more foreibly the oontrast with his own 
subjugation by one of his own prisoners. The woi&Bdpftafot 
was applied by tbe Oreeks to all foreigners: it is an tmitanve 
word signifying a person wbo jabber» or talks what is unin- 
telligible, and originally only signified 'not Oreek,' but subse- 
quently, as ths Oreeks began to suxpass their neigbbours in 
civilisation, the seoondary sense of 'unoivilised' whieh we 
attaoh to our word 'barbarous' began to aooompany it 

10. Thessalo victore] abi. abs. Tbe 'oonqneror' is Aobilles 
led the Myrmldonos from Thessaly. 

NOTES. 235 

ademptus Hector] 'the loss of Heotor.' The Latin idiom 
has a congiderable dislike to verbal nonns, and substitates for a 
verbal noan followed by a genitive (e.g. ademptto HeetorU), 
a eimple nonn and a pait partkiple passive in apposition 
(e. g. ademptui Hector). Of. the phrase ab Urbe condHta «from 
the fonndation of the citj/ cmu OhHttum natum, • before the 
Mrth of Christ,' and Livy 21. 1 1 4, angebant inaentU tpiritut 
virum 8icilia Sardiniaque emittae, 'the loss of StaUy and Sar- 
dinia.' For ademptas tradidlt ef. 8. 6. 44 n. 

In ademptut from adimo, the p is added between m and t as 
an 'auxiliary oonsonant* to make the word more easy of pro- 
nonoiation. It is almost impossible to prononnos adim-tut 
sereral times without slipping in a p sonnd. In this and 
similar words the spelling with p represents rather the aetoal 
pronunciation than the correct form of the words. Cf. eumo 
tum>p-tum,&n& 1. 29. 18, coemptot, 2. 5. 14, demptcrit, 2. 11. 28, 
comptum, 1. 4. 1, hiempt. 

11. fsssls] After a ten years' strnggle. 

lerlora tolli] Lit. *lighter to be destroyed,' L e. *an easier 
prey.' tolli is epexegetio, of. 1. 8. 25 n. 

12. Pergama Orals] ▼. note on L 6. TUpyatun in the 
sing. is feminine, in the plural Hipyajta nenter. Such nonns 
are called Heteroolite from haring a seoond form of deolension 
(tripa <cXi<rtf). 

18. nesdas an] is a poetioal variation of the oommon nse 
of netcio an in heaitating affirmation, e.g. netcio an hoe tit 
maximum= *I don't know whether this is not the biggest/ 

If Horace had written nctcit an... t it would mean, 'you 
don't know whether her parents are not an hononr to you.' 
He however puts this more indirectlv and hesitatingly. thereby 
making the irony more subtle and delioate : 'you could not be 
snre (were you to examine the question), Xanthias, whether the 
noble parents of your golden-haired Phyllis do not lend a lnstre 
to their son-in-law.' 

Bome supply ti before netciat and make U. 15, 16 the 
apodosis: *should you be ignorant...let me assure you her 
raoe is royal.' Suoh an omisaion of ti however needs justifi • 
eation, and morsover ti netdt would be needed. 

15. genns] nom. case, supply etL Wiokham savs, that it 
tB floverned by maeret, 'mourna her royal raoe and the cruelty 
nf ner household gods,' but it will be observed that tbis involves 
p. n. 17 


ponatei] tht gods of the ttoree [frrau) whioh wara n 
rally kept in tha tlimoat part ot tlie houee; of. the worde 
ptnelralia, prnitut, penttro. 

17. crede non fflam] Much stronger and more pointod 
than ne crtdt iilam. ' Be flure that ebe at nny rate haa not 
beeu wooed by yoa from «mong the bua rabble.' The non ia 
placcd imuicdiately belore iliam to ahew thst howevai poaaible 
ancb a supposition might h*Te been in an ordinary oaae, in 
ktr caae it is absoluteiy inadmiasible. Notice tho effect of 
itlaia aod tibi in j mtaposition. 

■celeata,] Doubtlea* TC»"'*ii«» belonged to the ranka of 
tbose gilded youtha who concisciy designnte «11 the rest of the 
worid (B[(ii = -lhoSB who merely £11 up') U *C*d»' (acfleiti). 
Hia own phrase i» irouieally turned npon himself. For the 
application ol opitheti implying roorol qualiliea to Ttrioua 
clasECB of aociety cf. aach words aa ol iparroi, optimalti, arit- 
tocracy, ol «SouXoi, ol «uoi, <*o. Gf. 2. 2. 19 and note. 

31. tereiesque turw] 'shapely anklei.' terei, from tere, Ok. 
Tpipw, ' to mb, poliah, finiab,' deuotes, saya Munro {Lnor. 1. 33), 
' that the thing to which it i> joined ie o( the proper shape,' 
e.g. eervis ttrn ; tumca Ctrti = » tunic of even fiueuess; omEto 
ttrti = a, atyie of «peaking that ia poliihod and finiBhed. 

22. lnteger] (rom tn and tongo (tiligi), indicatea that 
wbioh is free Irom all taint or blemish, or wliich ia oomplete 
and whole. 'I praise myBelf heart-whole...,' cf,8. 7.33. 

fug-e iujplc*ri] bo. eum: 'avoid auapeoting one whoae age 
bas been only too eager to eonclude ita eighth lustie.' For the 
uu. e.i. I. 16, 37 n, 

23. ocUtojh olandare Inatmm] Bomoe wu bom Deo, 8, 
" 0. 65, ol. 3. 31. 1, coniuU Manlio. Ixilnan [trotn hui), n 

the expi»tory aacrinoa parformod by the osnao» *t the ead of 
evory fifth yaai sfter taJring the oonaua ; henM luilritm ia pnt 
for 'a apaee ol Bt* yeai*.' Tha teohnical phrase condtrt 
whioh waa used of tho oenaora it judiaionjdy Tfcried by 
See too 4. 1. fi, eirea luitra eUcan. 

for 'a aptioa ol flre j 
luitnm whioh w ~ 

traplda.Tlt] A faTonrite word with Horaoe, need, 3. 8. 11, 
of » atieam hnirying down ita bad. It eipreaaea eager, u- 
cited, qaivering (of. trnw) motion, ot 4. 11. 11. Sac alao 
3. 11. 4n. For claudtrt, e.L 1. 1S. 27 n. Varbt t 

NOTE& 837 

©f eager deeire naturaUy take an inflnitive after them, cf. 
/ty«*'be eager to avoidV Gf. ioo 9. 11. 4. 

The ezact value of fhe two oonclnding lines in fizing tfae 
date of the Ode, of whieh the oommentators made mnoh, I 
leave the jndioiona reader to determine, bnt of. Diokens, Sketohee 
bj Bob, *Mr Angnetna Minne waa a baehelor of abont forly aa 
he said— -of about eight and forty aa hia friefi ds saioV 


'Lalage is too young yet for the trlals and troubles of love: 
her delight is etill in ©hildiih frolioe. Why eoret the nnripe 
grape? Wait awhile and ehe will aeek you of hereelf, and be 
dearer to yon than ever waa PholoB, or Chloris, or Gyges.' 

1. ferre lngnm ralet] The nom. to vaUt ie LaXage, or 
juvenca to be eztracted tromjwencae in L 6. The anplioation 
of the term juvenca to a yonng girl, thongh freanent In anoient 
poetry, is not in aooord with modern taste. The metaphor is 
kept np thronghont the first eight linee, and is repeated in 
U. 16, 16. Ct 06>aXif and r6prit in Gk. 

2. mnnla oomparia aeqnare] * match the labonrs of a mate 
or yoke-fellow/ i. e. draw even with one in the plongh. 

5. elroa est] lit. <is aronnd , *> < is ooonpied with.' This 
nse of eirca is very freanent in Qnintilian and some post- 
Angnstan writers, bnt otherwise rare. ctrcu repl n is very 
oommon in Gk. ««to be engaged abont anything.' 

6. nunc.nuno] *at one time at another.' 

8. salioto] from $aUx=*'i willow, or osier-bedV prae- 
gestientit ia a very strong word: geetire (from gettut) *to nse 
passionate gestures' is in itself a very emnnatio word for 
'desiring,' and prae in the sense of *exoeedin$ly' makes it 
more so. Horaoe wishes to ezpress how she is given np heart 
and soul to her gambols withont one thought of love or any- 

10. iam...oolore] 'soon shall yon see (tibi) autumn mark- 
ing the olusters with blue, (when she oomes) gaily-dressed in 
brilliant hues.' Uvidot is proleptio. purpureo may be either 
'brilliant' (of. 4. 1. 10 n), or 'purple,' though in oonneotion 



7 lim pl t ii 

Um! r iiiii 'ii-.i ordar — * roo*t iroport*nl point i 

* dab*U*bl( puug* ln th* Ode*. Otherwiw il U neetntrj 

I" Uk« r/iitinen*! colort together *nd rendw ' m*n j-eoluared 
tututnn ilirill nuuk th* dow |iale clunters with * purple hne-' 

13. enrrit . ,*rt**] "llnt lime of life, now «owild, hwtcn» 
•long.' ftmi kMpt up thc moUphor ol noiuhim nbacta e«r- 
vUti iha 1* 11111 too young to b* broken in, wili. anUroed. 

14. dampMttt, »ppon»t] Th* bodily fr»ine nitunillj in- 
urru** ln lUrniith np to * ■ •rUin *ge (mj fortjorfortj-fiTe in 

• hellthy 111*11), *fUr whioh «trength ind *ctmtj gr»du*Uj 
dccrnM. fteno* it i* T«rj oommon to «pesk of the yeirs up to 
thiiiperiod u 'g»ined' or '*dded' {appnneri), ud tOOM wbiob 
follow u -lo.i' of '■uuttMUd' (aVmere). Cf. A. P, 175. 

mulla /rrunt nrini vrnientei eoHinioda lecum 

mvlta ricetUnta adlmutit. 
Horaco mjk th*t ttio lo»r (who ia poasibly himself, *nd at *nj 
rrtle not JOunij) muit oouildisr that mcli Jear that paiee*, 
lliough * loii lo himielf, y*t lirings ntiiplo componstttion in thc 
*ddllioii»l ohnrm* it confen on Ltlage. For the p in dimpterit 
ot.i.t. 10 n. 

16. proUrr* ftonte] L»l»ge i* *g*in ipoken of u * 

17. dllaot»...] The eonslruotioii U KbdCl (a tt, tantim) 

f fugai idiltctn /uil), 'beloTed • 
ih Pbowe.' 

lr ooqn«ttUh 

u th* olondleM 

93. mlr*..,TOltn] ' Th* dirToranoe (i.«. betw«*n GjgMand 
* girl ) hard to deteot bj rtMon of hia flowing look* *nd half- 
giriiih f*oe would m*rrelloa*lj deoeiTe *T*n «hxewd stnngen.' 
ducri*wji-'that which m*kM * dUtination,' from dit *nd 
earno, 'to diitinguUh' (of. Qk. *pbw); heooe th* ward U fr*- 
qoentij owd for * ' oritical noroent' — * momont wtuoh makm 

NOTES. 889 


* Septimius, thou who wouldest go with me to the world's 
end, if I iive to old age, may Tibur be the dwelling oi my de- 
clining years. But if (or * aince *) the fatea cruelly forUd that, 
then I wM eeek genial Tarentum. That is an earthly Paradise, 
thither do I summon thee to my eide, there amid poelry and 
friendahip (ef. n. on vatii amiei) shall my life end, there ihall 
thy teart bedew my funeral urn.' 

H. T. Pltiss, who oalla attention to the depth of feeling 
whioh nnderlies the Ode, auggeste that it waa written either 
during severe illneas or under the strong expeotatioii of an 
early death. Could he, says Horaoe, look forward to old age 
($enecta L 6.) he would prefer no plaoe to Tibur, but if that 
may not be, as he hints it may not (H prokibent not prohibeant 
or prohibebunt), then he oalls upon Septimius to aooompany 
him to Tarentum, 

*For I will aee before I die 
The sunny temples of the South.' 

BeptimiuB is very possibly the same man to whom Horaoe 
gave a letter of introduotion to Tiberius, v. Epist 1. 9. 

1. Oades] For Cadii put for the extremity of the universe 
of. 2. 2. 11, remotii Qadibut. The pillars of Hercules were 
considered the end of the world, cf. 1. 84. 11, Atlanteus /init, 
and Eur. Hipp. 8, rip/umdt r 'ArXarrucol. 8o Pind. Nem. i. 69, 
TaMfxar re rpof ttyov od riparop, 'what lies beyond Oades 
towards the darknees cannot be traversed.' The AUantio was 
totally unexplored and unknown to the anoients, aa indeed it 
remained up to the time of Columbus. Of some islands off 
the W. ooast of Africa they did indeed know, but they were 
only known as the 'Islands of the Blessed/ * of the Hesperides,' 
or by other equally mythieal names. 

aditure] *Thou who wouldest go,' Le. should necessity 
arise. Cf. 4. 8. 20, donatura, si libeat and n. 

2. Oa&Ubmm...iuga] The CanUbri inhabited the N.W. 
portion of Spain; oocupying a mountainous and inaccesaible 
district they maintained that guerilla warfare for whioh Spain 
has always been celebratcd, and continually harassed the 

HOBACE, 0DE3 IL vi. 

lementa on the E. and 8. coaata. Augustua 
> peiaon in ».o. 37, and sUyed there unlil 
u.l aubjugation of the CsuUbri w»t eceoiu- 
«.r-niiDiat&r Agrippa. B.o. 19. Livr (37. 13) 
i wea the firat province en lcreJ bv the Homsn b 
iued, end the intorest Ulten in the *u i» 
■'■ Irequeiit alluaion* to it. C(. 8. 8. 33. 

mifut cattna, t. II. 11, Cantabtr non ante 

dtmabi o Tirgii, wiihing to Beleot n speoiel iuatanco 

of ttie ujuii robbera who coutiuually threateu the peaoeful 

fnnner. «■!« . — i Hiberi, Georg. 3. 408, oul impacalot a ttrgo 
horrtb\ x ' ii ni ' .ir i . hi.t the Ode mnat have 

been » e' time i — n Ang. waa iii Spain, or the 

nllunou __. «r mnatural nud ont of place. But of. n. 

onl. 7. 

lug-a ferre] A meUphor from breaking in oien. but whieh 
alao refen to the cUBtom of maltiug a oouquered euemy. •peaa 
under the yole' (mejujruiii nittcrt). 

3. barharu Byrtea] The epithet allndea partly to the bar- 
baroua charocter of the iuhabiUnte, pertly to the dangorou» 
cbaracter of the coast itself. Cf. 1. '22. S, Sijrtet atituoiai. 

5. Tltrar] Tirolii t. Claas. Diot., and for a fnll description 
Bnrn'a 'fiome and the Cainpugnn.' For the aame acntiment 
wilh regard to Tibnr, cf. 1. 7. 1—81. 

Argeo colono] Argio ia a represenUtion of ' Kpyti y i n Lstin 
letUra, loug 'e' auewering to '<■.' 'liburtus, »on of Catilua, ia 
eaid to have come with Evander from Qreeoe. colono is what 
Kcnnedy catla a 'Itecipieut Dative, insUad of an Ablative of 
the Agent,' but it ia ouly naed after the Past Fart. Pasa. or 
after gerundivea. Cf. below, Laconi Phalantho, and cf. 1. 6. 


7. Utmodua...] Martin givee the generel eenae : 
'0 may It ba tha finel bourn 
To> ona with war and travel worn.' 

The genitivea go both with n , 

Iwuiii, for whinh lntter of. Virg. Aea. 1 ... 

gen. •eeming to be dependent on the aenae of 'haTing'had 
enough of whioh the word conUina; it ia an exUnaion of the 
nae of the Partitive Genitive. 

The eommenUton arptain vianm of the maggh ig Eoraoe 
liad to ro throngb whnn he mi rnhtmnt militttm n. o. 43, and 

NOTES. 241 

militia of the eampaign he then served, and then prooeed to 
raiie a difflculty aa to how hia alluaion to that date can be 
reooneiled with his alinaion to b.o. 27 in line 2: fhe difficnlty 
ia however entirely oi their own oreating. Horaoe ia here 
tpeaking qaite generally of the ordinary laboort of life, posaihW, 
of oourse, thinking of hia own, but oertainlj not specially 
alinding to them. Anyhow the Ode oannot have been written 
any time near b. o. 42, for, puttin$ aaide the referenoa to the 
Cantabri, (1) all the other Odee m the Book were oertainly 
written xnuon later, (2) the whole tone of the Ode represents 
Horaoe aa no longer very yonng. 

10. pelliUa ovlbus Oalaeal] The Galaesuswasarivernear 
Tarentnm : ita rioh pastures tupported a ohoioe breed of aheep, 
whoae wool waa ao valuable that they were 'oovered with akins' 
(pellitae) to protect it from injnry. 

11. regnata Fhalantho] 'ruled over by Phalanthus.* reg- 
nor« =«to reign,' an intranaitive verb onght not to have a 
paative, bnt for oonvenienoe aake (and probably to avoid the 
ambiguous participle of rego, rectus) tbe past pari ia allowed 
to be naed paaaively. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6. 794, regnata 8aturno t 
and 8. 29. 27, regnata Cyro. For the foundation of Tarentnm 
circ. b. o. 700, tee Claas. Dict. s. v. Phalanthus. 

18. ille...ille (L 21) ...lbl (1. 22)] Kotioe carefully the gnid- 

14. angulus terrarum] 'oorner of the worlbV Urrarum 
is nsed in ezaotly the same manner aa in the phrase orbie 
terrarum. By the word angulue Horaoe does not so mnoh 
wiah to imply that Tarentum was in a 'corner of the world' as 
that it was a anug nook for retirement For the last syllable of 
ridet lengthened, cf. 1. 8. 88 n. ridet mihi, lit. *ixnilee to me' 
m takes my fanoy. 

non Eymetto mella deoedunt] 'the honey does not give 
way before that of Hymettus. Keither Latin nor Greek have 
a nse of the pronoun similar to the word ' that' in the above 
sentenoe: they are therefore obliged either to say 'the honey 
does not give way before the honev of Hymettus,' or to take a 
ahort out (compendium, whence tne nhrase comparatio compen- 
diaria applied to thia idiom) and avoid suoh roundabont method 
by saving 'the honey does not give way before Hrmettns.' 
8o below baea Venafro, and Hom. II. 17. 51, koooX iapirteaip 
QuoTat, 'locks like thote of the Giaces.' Cf. also 9. 14. 28, 

842 HORACE, ODES II. vi 

mera nunJi/icun poiiori cenit, uid ii. 6. (6, «Cdi pai-mtu» 

nied of ooe who qnitt the footpatb to m»k» 
nce = 'tc yield to.' Prob»bly howevsr here, 
i of th« word ctrtat innnedlately »fter, the 
> Tioquished oetnpetitor qnitting tb* »ren». 
— » . berry,' />a r ttetUence, i. e. the berry of Um 

18. Inpplt 

taiwu] fci 
generally ' win* 

AuJon) ■ «i { iw i , For f afarnu cf. 3. 


11. M mwmn] The two words ire iide bj iide, eren a* 
the two frienda wer» to t- 

Ui* loou*] i.'-. entum. The wordi 

(1 btatae arcei m the worda illt lociu, 

arcri referring lo i. _e diitriot and btatai 

to ita fertilitj. 

■-'2. calonteml i.e. wben the ashe» were beiog remOTed 
from tbe pyre to the nrn. It w»a cu»toniery to «prinkle them 
witb perfumee iud wine (of. Virg. Aen. 6. 338), tbe poet 
naturally prefor» ' the homage' o( m te&r. Notioe ru empb»tio. 

33. debltal not 'due bj coatom,' for anetom ordained the 
Bprinkling with perfnmec, bnl 'doe to onr friandehip,'— 'the 
tributarr te»r.' 

■21. T»U» amlcll I bive little donbt that in tba samrnary 
nt tbe begirming I bave not unduly presaed the meaning of 
theee two moit empbatia oonaluding wordu, whioh the oom- 
meutator» aeem entirely to neglect. Horaoe h»a ■ double 
cleim (cf. debila) on Septimin»' toare (1) tbeir long friendahip, 
(3) the f&ct that th»t friendehip had been hallowed by the 
preaence and favour of the Mueea. Theira had not only been ■ 
•fair oompanioojhip,' bnt they had aljo 'with einging cheered 
the wav.' (Xennyion, In Hem. o. 33.) 


'Pompein», with whom I onoe ww «»1710» nnder Brnttu, 
withwhom I have often joinedinrerelry, who ha» thua reetored 
yoa to yoor eiril righti? How I remember being iu the 



rout of Philippi with you, when I ran aw^ 
and Meroury ipirited me away safe home,% 
sucked back into the tempeet and tmnalt of tn^ 
offer a secrinoe to Juppiter for your return, and A 
hold a recklees revel beneath the Unrele here. On $ 
I thould eoorn to be eober.' 

1. saepe] L e. during the two years before the ? 

temnus ln ultimum deduete] 'Led down into utte 
peril when Brntue was onr leader.' There eeems a pb 
worda in deducte...duce. tempu» here meane *a specia^ 
'eritioal period of time,' the notion of 'periT attaohee toi^ 
from the adjeotive ultimum, whioh impliee danger. Of. Oie. 
Phil. 5. 17. & t temm6$ummoreipubUcae~ l *t*nGiXiemBCxiai» 
of the oommonweelth.' 

2. Bruto] M. Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, oommanded, 
along with Cassius, at Philippi (b. o. 42). 

8. redonavit Quiritem] 'piven thee baek a full eitisen.' 
After Philippi a large proportion of the repnblioan party were 
pardoned by Ootavian, Horaoe among them : Pompeius, how- 
ever, seems etill to have remained in arms with the relies of 
the beaten faotion; posaihly he joined his namesake, Sex. 
Ponroeius, whose piratioal eareer only ended in b.c. 85. Any- 
how he had only just been amnestied. 

Quiritet aignifies a Boman citizen in full possesaion of his civil 
rights, or, aocording to the legai phrase, capite non deminutue. 
Henee in publio doouments the phrase, populue Bomanu» Quiri- 
tium, and among the jurists, jut Quiritium. The word was only 
applied to Boman oitizens in a oivil oapaoity, never to soldiers; 
henoe the point of Gaesar*s beginninga speeeh to the mutinous 
lOth legion with the word Quiritee. The word deserves stndy in 
a good diotionary. 

5. sodalium] used of 'oomrades in enjoyment' in oonneo- 
tion with the lines whioh follow. 

6. morantem...fregi] *I have often with (the aid of) wine 
defeated a wearisome day.' 

Wiokham explains fregi of 'breaking the continuity of 
business hours,' oomparing 1. 1. 2, partem eolido demere de 
die % but the interpretation seems forcea and gives no sense to 
morantem. Orellf simply says fregi, breviorem reddidi, whioh 

ORACE, ODES 11. \n. 

^Frangtre, however, ia verj oommon in the 

.veV •defeet,' •breek tbe beok of,' and ao tekon 

jbto mbm i tbo daj tbreetened to be dull, nui. 

400% bot Honeo hed e remed> qeite etrony enoogk 

•e tbjeeta end mehe it mofo elong 107 aot end 

: SoVono^^tooooiton.* 

/onetoo...] lii. *garlanded 00 to my looho a^rtinmf 
-rian unguant,' Le. weering o gariand on my 100*0,60. 
tJbromUooorroptionof thalnoloaiiamotMophntfrom 

ungoent woo cxtracted. It ie ooDoi •Biyrien' 

v ond bought bjBomon mcrohanta m Qyrie. 00 thol oll 
«<£ moiohonaioB ie mdieffrnimetofr eelled •flyrfen.* Ot i, 
lr. 16, 4m yrioow* eardo. 

9. Phmppoo ol oolorom fogom] •PfcOipptfi herriod roaV 
A good instonoo of Hendiedje (a> «Vd hm>) or tho not of two 
wordi or phrooeo eimpto pat tido hj eide, inetced of o omglo 
oomplex phrooe in whlch tho worda qaelifj oooh othor. CL L 
86. 88, icicatricum fratntmamc, *woundi inflioted bj brcthreo,' 
8. 4. IJLdibut citharaquc^ 8. 4.42, TUamoi immancmquc 
Coee. B. 0. 4. tcUtudincm ct titoat. 

10. oenel] o feioarite ward ol Horooo, "^«^ng «to 
one*e coet,* ( to leol onjthing jpeinfaL' Of. 4. 4. 26, 4 
of tho oonqaorod tribee, •feeung to thoir ooot' tho pc 


powor of 
Bcme. 80 8. 97. ^tcnUant motut, of thoMOteee, 8.6.86, 
lora tcntit incrt, 

relicte non bono pormalo] Horoee olwojo epeoko of bie 
ehort militorj oareer aa of aometbing he eon look baek npon 
aa too curiooalj abaord to be taiked 01 gravely ; that he io half 
jeating is olear here, aa Wickham well obaervee,from the ironieal 
um of the diminutive parmula, •my poor ahieldV 000 bcnc ia 
alao nied in jeaWnot over bravely:' in aerioua writing 000 
benc would = *mo*t oUagnusefully,' bj Utotee, cf. 1. 18. 9 n. 

Horaoe ia probably induoed to tell thia tale againet bimaalf 
by the faot that he ia imiuting the example of AJcaoua, Arehi- 
lochus, and Anaereon (▼. Orelli ad loc). 

For the diagraee of throwing away the ahield of. tbo ooe of 

the word Macra and the Spartan mothert advioe to bor eoo, 
' Betorn either with jour ahield or upon it.* 

11. com...mento] The deaoription in theM Uom ia of 
eourfte aober earneat, all the more telling preeeded and foUowed 
aa it ia bj ironical jeating. 

NOTE& S45 

minaoee] 'tl^oM bat lete 10 threetening tonehed with theit 
ehin tfae dienaeefbl duaV The odhm ie oaUed tmye, beeauee 
when they 'bit tbe duet' they weie defeatod, and to e eeztein 
extent all defeet ie diegreoefuL 

OrelH prefere to take tetiger* nento ee if referrinff to the 
abject proetration of suppliante, with their fSeoee in tne due\ 
rather than ae an Horauan reproduetion of phraeee enoh ae 
66d£ Xafoloro yatar, Hom. IL 9. 418, and htmum eemel ort 
momordit, Virg. Aen. 10. 849. He quotee a paeea» of Appian 
to prore that oertain leeders did, after the battle, 'eome aa 
suppliants' (Uh-cuTpoe^feear) to Antonj: bnt thie ie reallj too 
reoondite and nnimportant What Horaee wiahee to do ie not 
to eomrnemorate the oowardlj behaviour of eome of hia fellow- 
eoldiere after the batUe— to do wbioh wonld be at onee un- 
poetioal and ungeneroue— bnt to tell ne in Ave thrilHng worde 
how in that fieroe fight thoee 'grim warriore bit the dneV 

18* eed me] Wiekham weU pointe ont the etronff oppo- 
aition to tecum. Kote too the emphatio poaition of tne two 
worde at the beginning of two etaniae. 

Mereuriue oeler] ae the epeoial patron of poete, ol 1. 10. 
1 n. 

deneo aere] *In a thiok oloudV 8o in Hom. iim voXXj. 
aer from being oonttantlj oppoeed to aether, the pure upper 
air (eo too in Greek Aijp and aWrip), wae frequentlj ueed ae 
-'oloudy 'xniet.' 

Horaoe ie here tatiriiinfl Homer, who repreeente hie divini- 
tiee ae reeooing a defeated nero bj thie eomewhat unfair devioe 
whenever convenient, e.g. II. 8. 880. Orelli'8 note 'mera eet 
farraffla* ia hardlj more neoeeearj than the 'Thie ie earoaem ' 
of Artemu8 Ward. 

15. reeorbene] 'tuoking baek.' The metaphor ie from 
a abipwreok: the breakers had oaet Horaoe safe npon the 
ehore; a baok eddj had encked hie friend baok amid 'the 
raging surf ' (freta aeetuosa), cf. arapoifiott, Hom. OcL 12. 106. 

17. ergo] L e. tinoe aiter eo manj dangere jon are eafe at 

obUgatam redde] 'dulj ofler the banquet aa jon are 

reddo ie frequently not *to give baek,* but *to give what ia 
due,' but in faot the two eeneet are but one : Pompeiut had 
doubtless bound himself bj a vow (voto $e obUgare) to offer a 

246 HORACE, ODES II. vii. 

feut to Jove, «nd 10 when be ' duly offered,' i'. h» wu bnt 
'giving back ' to the god what the god haii givcn bim. 

obtipiitam = lit. 'thlt il bound ou jon,' i.a, to which 700 
ere bouad: tho word ia m technical oae wilh regard to retigioui 
obligation», e.g. Cio. Leg. 8. 16. 11, voti tpomio quia obUgamur 
dto, cf. too tbe poasibla derivitioa ol rtligio from re ligart. 

31. oblMoio..,] HereHoraoe repreaenti the feut to whiah 
he invitei hii friend m actuall j reeliied , »nd himiclf u urgiag 
on the atteadanti to tbeir virioui datiu. 

otlioioio. 'that bringi forgetfulneu,' i. 0. of care, af. Libtr, 
Lynfu. It ii the olrar \aSunfita of Alcaeui. 

iBTi») Notioe the qaantitv of the 1, »nd cf. I. 2. 38 n. It 
i« tbe same «ord as the Qreek Xeioi 01 Xufm, «hereas llsu = 
Ugvit the Greek iXa-xfa. 

Haulco] From Sinnt Maiticvi in Cainpanie, 

23. etborU] Oupi made to imitate the pod of th« FJgyptian 
be»a ) of. Atheo. 11. M, ri A V"" aB-ifa. Biicbeler bril- 
liantly suggeets th»t Septiraiui hsd ifter Phitippi joined Autany 
in Egypt uud remained there itid th»t this Egyptian vvord for 
■ 'goblet' ii ased deaigaoJlr. 

23. conehli] Shells, or reueli m»de to imit»te ihell», irere 
nted to oontein augueute. So Marttel, 3. 83. 37, ipeeke of » 
murez aureui u uaed for thii purpose. 

quli.. myrto] ' Wboee t»sk 1» it speedily to Ikihioa garlindi 
with plianl naraley or witb mrrtleT' propero, 'to haeten," ii 
intransitire.bat ii freqaeatly n»ed traniitire'- i_ 
dar.v eeaee of • to roake hutilr,' of. 3. 13. 36 
has the addilional me»uiag of 'completing.' apium wa» used 
both hj the Greeke (e.g. in the g&rl&nd gireu b» a prize »t the 
Nemean gamci) md Bomana for ehapleti, ol Tlrg. E. 6. 68, 
F loribut aSqut apia criiut ornatvt amaro. For udo of. Theoex, 
7, 69, woXwyrajirrif rt tiUrif, *with eaailj bent paralej.' 

35. cnratr»] For poaition of vt aso 9. 19. 38 n. 

quam ..Mbendl] 'Whom ehall Vanui dealare brd ol the 
r-Hvel" ' At feanti a preaident wu ohoeen bj lot, »ee 1. 4. 18. 

37. Edonl»] The Edoni were a Thraeiaii people near th» 
Strjmon. The Thraotan» wera notorious for their orgiaatM 
worabip of Baoohua or DioDjiua. Ct L 27. 1, 

38. foiara] lit. 'to be nMd's'to hold faTtou revel.' Sa 
ton B. 19. 18, fuanire. 



An Ode io Barine, fair, fidUe and forsworn. This Ode haa 
the peouliar interest of being perhape fhe only Ode of Horaoe 
of whioh there ifl an adeqnate Engliah rendering— that by Sir 
Charlea Sedley (see Seleoted Translations, by 0. W. Oooper). 

1. ulla...unqnam] 'had any punishment, Barine, for 
faith forsworn ever marred your beauty.' The anoiente be- 
lieTed that the gods speeially punished perjury by the infliotion 
of some personal diafigurement : the faot that Zeus did not 
blast the perjured ^Mo^coi) with his thunder is naed aa an 
argument against his ezistenoe by the Soorates dt Aristophanes, 
t. Nub. 899. Orelli aptly quotes Ov. Am. 8. 8. 1, 

ette deot, i, erede; fidem Jurata fefeVUt: 
et faciet illi, quae fuit ante, manet. 

iurls pelerati] jut is never used by itself for 4 an oath,' 
but from the anafogy of its nse in the word jutjurandum, 
Horaoe has invented this phrase, whioh is at onoe so elear 
and effective that it is a ditinot addition to the Latin lan- 
guage. For the oxymoron, of. 8. 11. 85 n. 

8. nlgro uno] Both these adjeotives go with both dente 
and ungui; uno is emphatic, one tingle. 

5. crederem] Notioe the marked oontrast between the long 

Erotasis, and the emphatio monosyllabic apodosis. Had I, 
e means to say, one atom of hope that you might poasibly 
keep your word, then I would f spite of evcrything, then and 
there, unreasonably and unhesitatingly believe. 
tu] emphatio. 
obligasti] See note on 2. 7. 17. timul=timul ae, *as soon 

6. oaput] It was oustomary to 'swear by the head' (cf. St 
Matt. 5. 86), i. e. invoking a ourse on the head if the oath were 
broken: henoe Horaoe*8 seleotion of the word here. But he 
is not uninfluenoed by the reoolleotion how very oharming was 
that same *perjured headV 'wreathed' though it was 'with 
broken vows * (votit obligatum). 

enitesei8...cura] 'vou sbine forth in stili more radiant 
beauty, and advanoe the oynosure of sil our youtb.' 


,D<4 nrodit are idinirablY uaed of Barine'a eoft 
' u ihe appeara: tbey irt> wordi that might 
g moon u iha 'onTeUi her peerleu light,' 
loggett thu oompariion. 

r emphatio. Not o 
Intely 'eoiti yoa'l 

10. taUe i deoeive,' ot 'chea.i/ i.e. *to iT/ear filesly 

by.' Cf. Vii i. 6. 834, Di cujiu jurar« Hment *t /aiier» 

numrn. Cf. „ i oommon plirftso./idfin falltrt = ' to break ■ 

r.f weigftt illl J 

fiarine had i ■:■. ■ -. 

18. hoc] i.e. the feot of vour perjury, Notioe the alinui 
of tbought, not only does Barine not Buffer foi ber perjnry, but 
it abaoluteiy doei her good, nny tbe deitit t even emile approb». 

1S. irdenteij burning «jtowi were frequentlj naed in war; 
Cnpid'a aro to aeiled, beaatue where they hit they kindle ' the 
fire' of lore. Cnpid eWpcning his utowi is n (uvourits iub- 
ject on «.ntiqae gema. 

thin to roike jfarnw the Tooitire t 
adde, Por tb( phrmee ieo Diot. i. r. addo. 

pnbaa creuat, lerrttui creiolt J Notioe horr Horaoe br eimply 
putting theaa two itatamenta irde bj lida eipreuee the oom- 
Dletanau of Birine't empire: to taj *t»w joutha ire growing 
p/ ii identical with ujing ■ joo haTB naw ilirei growing np,' 
.« two phraiaa ixe intenihingeeble. 

31. W...1 Berine wu the dreid of three 'cleuea, timid 
mothan, thrtJtj fithen, end eniioui bridea. 

FOTjuveneit «•• Intr. to 3. 6. It U nwd hera half utirloallj 
where you migbt expeet anch a word u 'dirling.' 

38. tu iniml ' tbe breeth Of jonr Iotb,' or perhipa 'tfae 
«flnlgenoa of thy beauly/cf. enitetcit ind Virg, Aeo. 0. 20*, 
aitri ptr ranot avra refultit. 


NOTES. 249 


*Boin, storm, frost do not last for ever, but your griof» 
Valgius, for Mystes seems eternaL And yet, bethink you, 
eren Nestor oessed to lament hia son, nor did his sisters bewail 
Troilus for erer. Oease then these womanly tears, and let ns 
find relief for onr private sorrows in singing of the glorious 
exploits of Augustus.' 

The date of the Ode has been eonsidered doubtful, though 
it would seem suffioiently fixed by the aoourate langoage of fhe 
eonoluding stansas. Wiekham says, *it is impossible in these 
poetieal referenoes to Augustus' exploits to disentangLe antiei- 
pation from history, or the hyperbolieal dress of historieal 
faet v : but though this may be true as a general remark, it is 
totally inapplioable to sueh definite words as 'the triomphs 
Augustus Gaesar has just won otot Armenia and the Parthians,' 
espeoially when we know as a fact that Augustus went to the 
east, b.o. 91, and in b. o. 20 sent an expedition into Armenia 
under Tiberius and reooyered from the Parthians the standards 
lost by Orassus at Garrhae, reoeiTing the personal submission 
of Phraates (of. Bpist. 1. 12. 26). Horaoe when he wrote the 
last two stanzas obviouBly had in his mind the lines of Yirgil, 
G. 8. 80, 

addam urbet Atiae domitat, pulsumque Niphatem, 
JldenUmque fuga Parthum vertitaue tagittit 
et duo rapta manu diverto ex hotte tropaea, 

Now although Virgil wrote the Georgios b.o. 87 — 80, there 
is little doubt that he snbsequentiy revised them, and that these 
lines were added to them shortly before his death in b.o. 19. 
Nor need we wonder that Horace reproduoes almost the phra- 
seology of Virgil seeing that the Ode is addressed to one who 
was the oommon friend of both: let ns, he says, forget grief 
in following Virgirs example, and singing of 'Caeear' and 
'Niphates,' and *the Parthian' and 'trophies.' 

'. Valciui Hufos iu himaelf a. poet, but ii only lcnown to 
! oue o( the imall poatio circle that nnthered 

Cf. Sat, 1. 10. 88, 
i et Ma, ilaecenai Virgiliuiqut 
U tt probtt haee Oetaviu*. 

3. Cupmm, iroeBlla, auganl] Cf. 1. 1. 13. 

B. I wr 'uneveo,' "gusty,' or'thit muke nn- 

even'(oi :r aenae being supportad by Horaoe'1 

applicat- (EpUt. 1. 1. 9-1) to a bad baireutter, 

citrafu» (.— _piHoi. 

5, i "' n the rigidity of icc. Cf. 

1. 9. S, t ito. 

lner») irao rauml intri. Tbe 

eplthet U u.---u r— ■/ — Jrei™, to the general notion of 

torpor and abienoa of vit vhioh ie t!i»;i aiiccUted with 

eilreme oold, brjt eUo b. i froat itopa all nutdoor work. 

Cf. too 1. 33. 17, piori* caiapii of the Axotio legion*. 

7. laborant] 'itrain bene-th Ihe uorth vinda.' The word 
refers to the groaning and creaking of the tunbar M if in p-in. 
Cf. 1. 9. 3, lilvae la&orantei, of the enow-liden brancbes. 
Gftrganoa ie ■ mountain in Apulia. 

8. viduantur] 'are widowed of,'i 
Notio» how tbrongliout thete twi 

lected illuitrationi froro nat-re whioh admirably fali in with 
the idea of grief, 'rain,' 'dieorder,' 'itnrme,' 'lifoleeenaai,' 
'windi,' 'groeni 1 ' 'desoUtion.' 

9. tu] 'Bnt jod.' The adversitivo foroe is bronght ont 
in tho Latin by the prominent poeition of tba (-. 

urgas flaUIltai modut] 'pnrnu -nwesriedly with no-xn- 

urgtrt U * faTonrite word witb Horeoe. Cf. 9, 10. 8 and 

8. 18.30. Ith*r«mdioate«thitVi%iDiwiUnotletth»snbjec4 
afMrates' Iom go; be ii ' eontinnallj parsuing ' it 

NOTES. 251 

anagnottet or reader, whom Cioero lamenta, ad Att. 1. 12) ; tbe 
iiame is fonnd in inscriptions ftpplied to slaves. 

Vesperol From Vetperut the evening star personified, the 
usual term being Hetperut. Both words ftxe identie&l with the 
Oreek Irrtpof, what u the rongh breftthing in Greek ftppeftring 
in Lfttin fts either • h' or • v.' The ftftme star when it ftppeftrs 
in the morning ii e&Ued 'Lueifer' ftnd vw06>>f. Cf. Tennyson, 
In Mem. o. 120, 

'Sweet Hesper-Phosphor, double nftme 
For whftt is one.' 

12. rapiduxn] Here used not fts s> merely ornftte epithet, 
but in olose eonneotion with fugiente. Luoifer flies before the 
Bun when he oomes forth &s ft giant 'to run his oourse.' 

18. ter ftevo funotus] *who hftd pftssed through three 
generfttions.' The phrase must not be pressed too cloeely. 
aevum ftppeftrs to mean & spaoe of ftbout 80 vears, * ft generaiion.' 
Men may on the avenge be said to hftve ohildren at ftbout the 
ftge of 80 (one generation), grandohildren (the seoond generft- 
tion) ftt 60, ftnd great-grand-ohildren (the third generation) ftt 
90. Henoe ft man of 90 may be fairly said to have passed 
through three generations. Anyhow Horaoe is only eopying 
Homert oelebrated desoription of Nestor, II. 1. 250, 

ijdri 86o pip ytPtal fup&rw arBpunrww 
'BfOlaro pnrd 6i rptrkroiti* ejraafft*. 

14. Antllochum] slsin by Memnon. amabilem =*though 
so loveftble/ so below impuim ='though out off in the flower 

16. Troilon] slsin by Aehilles. Virg. Aen. 1. 475 speftks 
olhim fts 

infelix puer atque impar congreetue Achilli. 

Fhrygl&e sorores] i. e. Cass&ndrft, Polyzena, <fco. ' Phrygiftn * 
is put for ' Trojan.' The historicftl Phrygia would not inolude 

17. semperl Notioe the emphatio position. Horaoe has 
been dwelling all through not on the folly of sorrow but of eease- 
less sorrow. Cf. eemper, 1. 1; utque, 1. 4; mentee per omnee, 
1. 6; temper, l 9; omnet, 1. 14; eemper, L 17; tandem, 1. 18. 

deslne moUlum quereUarum] 'cease these womanly la- 
ments.' Detine is ftUowed to tftke a genitive on the analogy of 

P. ". 18 

252 HORACE, ODES II. ix. 

Greek worda, ineb u Xih"*. ™«flst, Ac. Kennedy calln U 
■skin to tbe psrtitiTo genitive' (Fnb. Bch. Qram. f 135). Ct. i. 
9. 36 n. 

TLo ruls for tbe epelling of wonlt like qitertUa ii, thn t if the 
sntepenultimste ifl «bort, theT is doubled; if long, left lingle ; 
eo loqutlla, but tuadtla, tutela, aee Munio, Lnei. 1. 39 n. 

19. tropses] See Introduction. Trvpatum = rpo*a?er, n 
meraorisl Bet up by the viclors nt tbe ipot wbere Ihe eneiuj * 
line waa broken or tumed b&ck (t^tu). 

rlgldun» Klpbaten] 'frozen NiphateB,' a monntsin of 
is. Lster writers epeak of it sl a river, probsbly 
ftom ite oonnoction here witb Mtdum Jlumen and the epithet 
ptiltiu spplied to il by Virgil. 

21. Medumiiuenumen. verticBi] Noticethechsngeof oon- 
struction to the aceuBstive and infinitive ; * aud that the Pcraisn 
Btreamfi.e. theEuphrstes),..rollsit»eddying wsve» less proodly 
and the Qelorti within liicd limits csreer over tbeir nuirowed 

For Mtdut referring to Ihe Parthisns seen. on 3. 1. 31. The 
uim cvent is alluded to by Virgil iu similar terms, Aen. B. 736, 
Buphratti ibat jam mollior urufu, snd G. 4. 560. Caciar dum 
mayma ad altum | fulminat F.uphrattn btllo. 

For the phraae miiwrti volvtrt vtriicti of. B. 0. Trench, 
The Alin.ii 

■ Alma, roll thy wateie proodly, 
Proudh/ roll them to tha ee*,' 

33. Oelonos) The Geloniwere s nomsd tribe of Bevthiani 
wko, like tbe modara CosBacks, rosmed over the wide tteppea 
(eompii) by tho Tanail or Don, snd donbtless made freqnent 
raids on horsebsck itquitare) into Bomsn territory. (X 8. 8, 


An Ode to Lioinlu» on the virtuo of moderstion, m tha tro* 
lesson to be darived fi-om pbjlosopbj snd experteno* (see n. on 
line 6). It ii too timple to need sn epitome. 

LioiniuB Murens, sflarwsrda eslled A. Terentias Vsrro 
Marens, wss the brother of the Proenleiui ot 1. 9, 16, and ot 

NOTES. 253 

Terentia, wife of Maecenas. Aooording to a statement of 
Dion Cassius 54. 3 (curpary xal Karaxopei rappypla rpot rarrof 
6uolt*t ixpyro, *he employed an intemperate and nauaeoue 
freedom of speeoh to ail without distinction'), he must have 
been singularly wanting in the virtue whioh Horaoe, perhapt 
designedly, here seleeted for praise. Anyhow he joined Fannius 
Oaepio in a oonspiracy against Auguatus b.o, 22, and was put 
to death. Cf . too 8. 19. 11. 

1. rectlus] The adj. rectut is used by the writers on moral 
philosophy as almost synonymous with honettut, to indicate 
•that wnich is in aooordanoe with the moral standard' (regula, 
from rego), 4 what is morally right.' Rectum is uaed as a noun 
in Latin as a translation of the Stoio word jcor6p0ayio= 4 a 
morally right aot performed with a knowledge that it is so*: 
for instances, see Dict. s. v. 

The whole Ode is a good instanoe of Horace'e happy power 
of eombining the lessons of philosophy with those of practioal 
oommon-sense and experienoe. For other philosophioal terms 
in it of. auream mediocritatem, tobriut, bent praeparatum 
pectut and tapietUer. 

altum urgendo] For urgere of. n. on 2. 9. 9: *by ever 
etrenuously making for the deep (i.e. open) sea.' 

8. nlmlnm . . .lnlquum] 'by too oloaely hugging the danger- 
ons shore.' To keep too close in shore involves risks from 
breakers, rocks, &c. The exoess of oaution or boldness is 
eqnally unwise. Cf . n. on next line. 

6. auream medioerltatem] 4 the golden mean.' The term 
'golden' is used exactly as we talk of 'a golden rule.' Of. too 
for this metaphorioal use the phrase aurea aetat t and 1. 6. 9, 
qui mmc te fruitur creduhu aurea. 

mediocritat is an attempt of Horaoe to reproduoe in Latin, 
nnadapted though it is for the expression of philosophio terms 
(ef. Lnor. 1. 186—139 and Munro, ad 1.), the Ok. r6 u4*ow, ri 

From observation of the advantages of moderation had 
sprung up suoh proverbial sayings as that whioh was inseribed 
over the temple of Delphi, Mrj&ir aya* t 'nothinff in excess'; 
but it was Aristotle who first embodied the general idea into a 
philosophio oonoeption, and made it the first prinoiple of a 
system of moral philosophy. He shewed exhaustively that all 



the virtiico. oopram (of. lUO» 1), t_U]p_r_ll_ _ (of. itanzii 3}, Ao., 

Ijing between two eitremea, which u« 
i erring on the ode of eicefli, the other of 
irage' ii the 'mcan' or vii 
oonrage, i.e. reck_ea_ne«i, 
ge, i.a. oowardice, od the other. T. Ariit. 
iij it. in Sir Aleiander Giant'i ed. 
■mt^ei . itiDed by Cio. de Off. 1. 36 ai illa mediocritat, 

quat tit intei mni.rn «1 jxirum. 

6. <Hllg_t tntn«] 'Eiiiirdi him.elf bj (' Orelli ir.d 
othere plice % < ne afler diligit, bnt Ninck pointe out that 
thenitnral div thii, and _!.<> thut il 

deitroja the ca .e of tho two olaaiee 

. Ariit. 



I lobrhit ania. 
euet...] 'avoida the equalor of a nble-down dwelling, 
ivoids tooin hi» temperaneetheenr"* a palace eioitei.' A< 
in atanza 1 Horace hai depioted oou -t a mean bstween two 
' as a mean eqnallj 
e_lr_i.iig_iic_. Tbe 
term tobriiu ia undonbtedl j uied wit- . . .'orencc to the Qreek 
auifipair, with whioh it ia probebly identical, and which U the 
term uned by Ariitotle to indicate the man who ia ' temperate 
in all things,' ai oppoeed to the man who indulgea hin__elf 
without reatraint (iiAoi-Tei) ; Arietotle adde thlt thia pur- 
ticular «irtne baa not two oppoeiles, 'sb men who are in- 
clined to take too little pleasure do not eiist,' — an obseriation 
which, had be lived to eee the development of tbe ■o-called 
virtuei of Btoioiem and Bscelioiam, he wonld hare been nble to 

Por' invid/Liulnu = 'that ii to be enried,' af. B. 1. 45, 
ittvidendit pottibw. For the ieii»e cf. Pitrr. 80. 8, 'gire me 
neither povertj nor riobet.' 

S. laiptui] 'more frequentlj,' i-e. tban nnallar pinea. 
Tha point of th« itania will be at onoe made olaar bj notuing 
tbat tbe emphitio wordi are ingnu, etltat and nimtnut, 

1H. lnfaatla, aaenndU] Dativ**. 'Hopea for adTenitj, 
fean for proeperitj, tb* oppoaite lot' ; cf. Sall. Oat. 40, 9, (, 
._ .—- j, n^ij, rptrarunt. SoNauok. Other* raak* 
«■: 'thingi being aoVfuta,' 'proaperona,' bnt 
an abl. ab_. oonitruotion contained in a aingl* word aaami vatj 
atnng*: retau anguttit, L 31 on the otber hand ii patnwtlj 

NOTES. 255 

metult] Used not of cowardly fear, but of a just and reason- 
able fear, which begets prudenoe, temperanoe, and the like. 

14. 1>enepr*4paratum]ie. by the preoepts oi philosophy. 
80 Seneca de vita Beata 8, tapient i* utrumque paratut artife* 
vitae. Horaee is here inculoating a virtue fbr whioh we have 
no epeoial name, but whioh U equally remoyed from fooliih 
OTer-oonfidenoe and unreaaonable aespondenoy. 

16. informet] So Virg., Georg. 8. 854, speaks of Scythia 
as aggeribut ttiveit informie, •ugly* or 'shapeleai with heape of 

16. Xuppiter] ef. 2. 6. 18 n. and for the thonght Theoo. 

BapceTr xph* ^Xc Bdrrt • r&tf atipiow fovef aVciyor. 

ikrlSet iw {woiffw, oVAriffroi M davbrrti. 

X«i) Zcto aXXo/ca pJkv riXet atBfnos, aXXoxa 6* vcc. 

ideml *but yet he also.' idem gets this adversatire sense, 
beoanse it heightens and intensifies the oontrast when you say 
that two opposite aotions are done by the eame person. Cf. 
L 92, and 2. 19. 28, 8. 4. 68. 

17. aimale nuno] ie. $i maU eet nunc; «urcTi e\ei. Gf. 
8. 16. 48, bene e$t. 

ollm] *some day,' see 4. 4. 6 n. 

18. qnondam] Bare in this sense of 'sometimes.' Of. 
Virg. Aen. 2. 867. 

elthara...mnsam1 'wakes with the lyre his (previously) 
silent muse.' For the metaphor in tutcita\ of. Gray, Progress 
of Poesy, 'Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake.' 

19. aronm tendit Apollol 'stretches his bow,' i.e. keens it 
strnng. Gf. 8. 4. 60—66. For Apollo as a destruotive deity 
(r oonneoted with ar6XKv/u) t see Glass. Dict. 

21. rebus angustls] 'in straitened oiroumstanoes.' AbL 

22. appare] 'shew thyself.' apvarere is here nsed not 
in the sense of * to appear,' as opposed to 'to be in realitv,' bnt 
as the Ok. ^oiwftu is often nsed - *to shew or display 
oneself ' in any charaoter. 

sapienter idem] 4 you will yet if you are wise.' tapient 
is the teohnicai word nsod by the Stoics for 'the idesi wise 

286 HORACE, ODES II. x. 

mah.' ■ tlie perfect pbilosopher,' hence lapient often » 'a philo- 

adoj 'too favoursble.' EiceeaiTe prosperitj 

' by the aucienU to be fraught wilo deager. 

kj>. .„, lot of Acsch. Agftmemnon, »nd the generel 

beUef in «*_ s, 1 nnd Mped»lly our own Litnny, 'in »11 time 

olcnr weelth.. >od Lord, deliver us.' 

leaaido (fr ,,„i; - ■ r.iUowing, 1 is iiecuratelj used of 
i wind right ei 


'Co&se, Hirpinus, from your cares about ware ind weelth: 
"we need but littte uflre below, nor necd that little lODg." 
Fading flowers and waning moons wam us ageinat the weari 
soirie ueelessnesa of endlcss culculations. Come and be bappy 
while jou maj.' 

For the whole tenor of the Ode, of. 

•Livs while jou lire,' tbe Epicure will eaj, 
'Aad give to pleasure evary Seeting daj'i 
'Li-re while jon liva,' tbe aaored Preaoher oriea, 
■And give to Ood each moment aa it fliee.' 
Lord, in mj life let both united be; 
I IWa to pleasnre wbile I live to Thee. 

I. 2, end for Scytha (Zwffet), 
3. Hirplne Qnintl] Nothing is known of him. 

Inld...oogtt«t] 'what he ploU,' Obliqne interrogation de- 
ent on ftuerere. 
Hadria dlTlatu otdeeto] These wordi are remerkable. Thej 
een bardtj be intended to aerign a nMson whjHirpinua ahonld 

NOTES. 257 

be leas anxioufl (as Wiokham with others takes them, 'the 
broad barrier of nadria is between ua') v for aa a matter of 
flaot the Soythians were separated from ltaly not onlj by the 
Adriatio but alao by an immepse traot of oountry by no meana 
eaaytotraverse. It ii poeeible therefbre that Horaoe purposely 
e xa ggeratee, or adopts Hirpinna' own exaggerated desoription of 
the situation. 'Though the Oantabri are eeger for war/ he 
eeys, 'and the Soythian hordea only aeparated from ua by the 
barrier of the Adnatio, yet why v even then, be ao anxioua?' 

8. remittaa] lit. *to unlooae or ilaoken anything that hae 
been in a etate of tenaion,' here uaed of relaxing the itrain on 
hia mind : 'ceeie ao anxiooaly to enquire.' 

4. trepldea...aeri] *worry thyaelf about the requirementa 
of life that needa but littie.' For tnpido of. 8. i. 24 n. and 
the nae of rrocirfai, of nervons, fluttering, exoeeaiTe anxietv. 
in denotea the aim and end to whioh that anxiety ia direoted, 
andforioui aevi of. Cio. Yerr. 9. 4. 6, utvm prcvincUu npphre, 
LiTT 26. 48, quae belli utus poteunt tuppeditare. 

For what Epiourua oonaidered neoeaaary, cf. hia aaying 
qnoted br Diog. 10. 11, *For mvself I oan be pleaaed with 
bread and water, yet aend me a little oheeae that when I want 

to be extravagant I may be' an admirablo aatire on our nae 

of the word 'epicure.' 

6. leris] 'beardleas,' •smooth-faoed.' Of. 1. 9. 88 n. and 
4. 6. 28, levit Agyieu 9 '0 erer-youthful Apollo.' 

arlda oanltle] 'wisenedhoary age.' 

9. non semper...] Cf. Hymns Anoient and Modern : 

'Yet birds and flowerets round us preaoh; 
All, all the present evil teach 
Sufficient for the day.' 

11. aetemis...fatlgas] eontiliit is governed both by t*i- 
norem &nd /atigat. 'Why do you weary with eternal aohemea 
your mind whioh is lesa than (i. e. incapable of dealing with) 

aeternit seems uaed in two aenses (l)='oeaseless' (2J« 
'that are oonoerned with an infinite future, ' aa if you were going 
to live for ever. 

18. platano] The plane was a favourite tree in pleasura- 

Srdens beoause of the shelter aflorded by its broad-spreading 
kves {TXdrarot, vXar^t), *the brosd-leaved tree'), of. Plat. 

.i.l 380 b. Ovid, Met. 10. : 

| 'wreleul; juet a* we ue.' Cf. Hom. IL 
ad PUto, Gorg. 606 r., eSru* itri- *ot the 
, Ful. 1. 131, lifut erat, ' jmt M *be 1 — ' 
'* i* Of doubtful quantity »nd *lw»y« «I 

■] ' »n (1 ou r gruy loaks crowned with H 

1S. *d»c#i) 'carking,' 'eonBuming.' Zt. 1. 1B. 4, * 

qul* puer...] See n. oil 3. 7. 33, Diirr = raii, '* ilave.' 
oclu*] ' wilh more th»n ordiaary ipeed.' 

19. re*tliiguet...F*lernl] For Falemi ef. 3. 3. B n. 
•flre' needed to be 'quenobed' with "water from tbe e 
Lanl by' {prattereitnU lympha). 

33. dlo *f*... maturtt] 'go, bid 

nied like an interjectfon iud om n 

maturtt ii dependent on die, it ii tlio (ubjanotiTS of Oblique 
Petitiou *fter ■ verb of oammanding or enti cating. 

38. in oompturu ..nodum] 'Her hair bonnd b»ok into »■ 
ncat knot aftor the faahion of a Laoonian maiden.' AnjOM 
who h*i ieen a Greek itatue wil) know the ilmple elemnoe 
witb wbiob th* Qreek women drcnod their h*ir, Honet 
probsbly *eleot* the Laeanian* becauae of their knowa rim- 

incomptum ii tbe reading of m«uy MSS. but give* no tatia- 
f»etory oonitruotion, aa it i* impoeaiblr *- "■'- ■ 
■atJTee conat and nadum, both aftei 

NOTES. 259 

eomtum nodum be taken with maturet the sense ia absurd, 4 go 
bid ber along with an ivory lyre quiokly fonn a knot M 

Bentley teeing the exoellent lense gWen by the adi. <*- 
eomptus in eonneotion with Horaos's haaty summons, Doldr/ 
propoees to read ineomptam...eomam religata nodo, a reading 
adopted by Sehfits and Keller. 


4 You would not, I am sure, Maeoenas, desire that I ahould 
attempt to tell of the wars of the Romans and the oontests of 
gods and heroes on the peaoeful lyre, and besides you yoursaif 
will reoount Caesar's triumphs better in a prose history. 'Tis 
my mors fitting task to desoribe the oharms of Lioymnia— 
Iieymnia one single ourl of whom you would not barter for 
the wealth of Arabia, so powerful are her kisses, her ooquetry, 
and her lore.' 

Doubtless Horaoe had been urged by Maeoenas to oompose 
an ode or odes on some national theme, some subjeot in whioh 
the deeds of Augustus might be introduoed as a olimax (for an 
instanoe see 9. 1. 6), and this Ode is his apology for refusing 
to do so — a refusal for whioh he atones by seleoting Lioymnia 
(i e. Terentia) as a perfeot Instanoe of a theme more befitting 

1. nolis...tuque...dloes] 4 you would be unwilling (i.e. on 
fleneral grounds of taste, inappropriateneas, and the like)...and 
(there is also a speoial reason, vis.) you will Tourself tell...' 

The faot that noU* oorresponds to tuque dicee renders it im- 
posnble to give it the imperatiTe sense 'Be unwilling' or 
*Do not desire,' as in that eaee tvque dieee would have to be 
altered into nam tu dieet, or ■ftmothing f the sort. 

longa ferae bella Numantlae] Both adjeotiTes are emphatio: 
'long' wars need an epio poem, 'savaffe' oombats do not suit 
the lyrs. Numantia was taken b. o. 188, bv P. Soipio Afrioanus 
the younger, after it had been besieged eigbt years. 

2. dirum Eannlbalem] The best MSS. read durum, but I 
eordially agree with Orelli'8 preferenoe for dirvm, the epithet 
applied to Hannibal, 8. 6. 86, and 4. 4. 42, and which is 

11 lii- t*° 

»i a o«t»^" „■ *«°" ,.,.o»" 

NOTE& 201 

is the direet aoe. after contremnit, whioh takes an ace. from the 
general eense of * fearing' eontained in it: it ii striotly intran- 
aitfre (ot 2. 18. 26 n.)»'to qnake or shake with fear,' and aa 
eijiieeiinu Uie physioal effeot of fear is admirahto applied to fhe 
heaTena. For a aimilar uee, ef. Paalm 104. 82, 'The earth 
ahall tremble at the look of him,' 114. 7, 'Tremble thou earth 
at the pree ene e of the LorbV 

fulfensl beeaoie the eky ii the abode of Ught and bright* 
nets, of. 8. 8. 88, lucidas *eaVt«'the halli of light,' i.e. 

9. tuque...] See n. on L h I entirelj dissent from OreUfs 
▼iew tbat tu here is indefinite, Le. that 'you'»'any one': 
his objeotion is based on the general grounds that we know 
nothing of any suoh purpose of Maeoeoaa, that it is in itself 
improbable, and that it is improbable that Horaoe would 
refer to it, but on the other hand, considering (1) that the Ode 
is addressed to Maeoenas, (2) that tu is from its position emi- 
nently emphatio, (8) that the Yoeathre Maecenas follows within 
six words, if tu does not refer to Maeoenas, language must oease 
to be an intelligible medium for the oonTeyanoe of thought To 
assume that Maeoenas had at tome time suoh intention is 
surely not imposeible; to aesume that 'you wiU desoribe, 
Maeoenaa/ means 'some one else wiU desoribe, Maeeenas,' is 
absolutely impossible. 

pedestrlbus historlls] pedestris is apparently used by 
Horaoe to represent the Ok. reftt Xeyot, or Ttfij X*yw; Prose 
keeps aiong tne ground, Poetry soars into the air. The English 
wora 'prose' (from prorsus) expresses that whioh 'goes right 
on,' as opposed to 'verse' [vertus verto). 

historils] Urropla, 'an enquiry/ then 'a history.' Of. 
Herod. 1. 1, IffToplris arbdet^tt jde 9 • tbis display of the results 
of my enquiry,' on the other hand Thue. 1. 1, Goi/gvMAp $wt» 
ypafe. In 8. 7. 20, historias «'stories,' 'legends.' 

11. per viaal espeoiaUy up the 'Saored Way' to the 
summit of the Oapitol. eolla is used with referenoe to the 
ohains on their neoks, of. Epod. 7. 7, intaetus aut Britannus 
ut descenderet \ saera eatenatus via. The aUusion is to the 
tripld triumph of Augustus on his return from theEast b.o. 29. 

18. me...] in strong contrast to tu. 

dominae...Licymnlae] 'The Queen of hearts Lioymnia.' 
It is not improbable that under the nom-de-plume of Licymnia 
Horaoe refers to Terentia the wife of Maeoenas. The fact that 

262 HORAUE, ODES II. iii. 

the two "omo. - - Q identical in icansion makes thia very proba- 
ld be aaot privately vrilh the real name, but t» 
ie fictitiovii one aubstitnted. So too Catollu» 
'todia, Tibullui Belia for Flania. Moreover 
mnia (1, 20) take» part in the leitival ol Diana 
muat bnve been a Boman lady. Domlna 
■ter of elavea') = 'ODe who holde heart» in 

H. li fulgentet] ■ brightly sperkling.' For htei- 

dum, cf. 1 n. 

15. bene fldum) ■ firmly fnithftil,' the adverb confirms the 
force of Adua, ae maU wonld oblitemte it {maU jidm = 'ntterlj 
onfaithful-), Cf. 1. 17. 35 n. 

17. quam neo dedecuit] 'In wbora it hai not faeen aahe- 

1 1 aru of ihp expreeeion « 
> the faet that f/rre ptdrm ehorit, and etrtart joeo, 
were not usually ooneidered 'aooompli«hments' in a Boman 
lady ; it needed Licymnia'» speoial tact and graoe to ezcuse 

ferre pedem ciori»] ' to move her feet in tbe danoe.' Cf. 
Virg. Qeorg. 1. 11, /ertt limui Faur.iqut ptdtm Dryadaqut 

18. dara brachla] i.e. b dancing. nitidu = -ln festal 

30. DUna* oalaMi] 'Diann trith her throog of wonlnp- 

31. quae tennlt..,] =«a, quat temttt, an adjeotiTal phnwi 
pnt for a noun, aod parallel to UygdonUu apa, both beiog 
govereed bj j>erntuiar« = hcro 'to take in eiohange,' m at 
3. 1. 17. 

Achaemenes] Tbe legendarj nnoestor of th« Peralans. 
Eastern potentatea heva alwaji been tbe aoosptad tjpea of 
vast wealth, cf. l.H.U 

M. ixabum] Ct 1. VI. 1 n. and Int. 

NOTES. 263 

plenas] *fall,' beeause hitherto anrifled by the Romane. 

86. dum] Thii stansa goes cloeely with the preeeding one: 
•he wonld not barter a loek of hair for tbe whole worid, 
whfle, Le. eo long m he was nnder the fasoination of her 

earesses' what he might do in oalmer momente Horaoe 

wieely does not say. 

26. aut faolli ooenpet] *or with yielding eternneie 

refnees the kisees whioh for all that even more than her 
sxiitor she lovcs to have stolen from her (and) sometimee is 
hereelf the first to snatoh.' 

faeili iaevitia is an instanoe of oxymoron. Some M8S. 
read oeeupat whioh wonld then be parallel to negat. occupo 
is nsed like the Greek <f>0d»u> followea by a partioiple— 'to an* 
tidpate aome one in doing something.' 

Orelli gfres for oeeuptt Qdiwoi o>, and therefore most trans. 
late «wonld rejoice...would be the first to snatoh,' whioh is to 
me nnintelligible. It gives exoellent sense to make the sub- 
itmotiTee dependent on quae—quamvis ea — *she refuses the 
Usses althoufjh she longs for tliem, although she is herself 
sometimee the first to snatch them.' 

ODE xni. 

An Ode suggested by one of his trees nearly falling on his 
head. 'Verily I oould believe the fellow guilty of any orime 
who first planted thee, aooursed log, that didst nearly ornah 
me to death! Crushed by a falling treel yes, take all the 
precautions we may, death ever oomes from a quarter we had 
nerer guarded against. Narrowly indeed have I eeoaped a 
voyage to the world beneath, and an introduetion to my lyrioal 
predeoessors, who amid the Elysian fields sing their songs of 
love and war to the listening throng of ghosts, and even oast a 
spell on Cerberus and teaoh the damned to forget their tor- 
turee.' The same event is also alluded to 2. 17. 29, 8. 4. 27, 
8. 8. 8. The subjeot is treated here with an attraotive blending 
of jest and earnest. 

1. Ule...produxit] The oonstruction is obvious if it be 
observed that quicunque primum (i.e. quieunque primum te 

264 HORACE, ODES II. liii 

pciuii) ii parenthetieal. Wiokham well remarks ihat illi ii 
omphatio and thst quicunqut primum hn inoreaaeJ forco irom 
ils pareri tLstical poaition ' that wretch (wbo he ™ and when 
it wa», I dou't Itnow, bnt thie I do know that he) both 

nefaato dle] The mennin^ of tufattvt dtti ia 
«inlainod bj Ovid, Fist. 1. 47: 

iUt ntfattu» trU ptr quem tria vtrba riUtttur; 
fattut ml ptr qu/m Ugt iiethit agi. 

He rightly tukea the derivatioD of the word lo be from nt 
■not,' anLi/iiri 'to apeai,' anJ eiplains it a» * day on whioh 
the magiattete did 'not utter' the thre« teehnieal words, do, 
dito, addieo, wbieh indioated th&t he *■■ prepared to ait for 
the «dminiatration of the lews; it thprefore indicateu a day 
ou which for eny reaaon law oould not be adminiaterod, but 
os inftiry of theae days were 'ill-omened daya' [e.g. the ermi- 
Taraary of Cannae) the term nefattut diet waa gmdimlly uaed 
for '» diy of evil omen,' » ua&ge whieh woald be eneonr- 
Bged by the u&tijr»! tendency to oonnect the word with ntfat 
rather than ru-fari. So of. 2. 1. 35, ne/ai(i = 'guilt,' anJ see 
Dtct. a. t. 

8. nepotum] indennitfl = 'poflterity.' 

S. illum] emphatio: cf. □. on I. 1, and et illt, L 8. Ki 

credldertml 'I oan weil belieTe.' The nprfeot eubjunctJTe 
of verliH auch bm thoae of 'believing' or 'afflnning,' U ele- 
gantly uaed to expreis a certain modeaty or diffideuoe in 
eipreaaing a beliet or meking an aflirmation. The Roman 
wnters felt that for fallible men such words na crtda, 
affirmo, dieo, were not to be osed lightly, end loved to modify 
them in such phrBaea aa crediderim. pact tuS diitrim, hoc pro 
ccrto affirmavtrim. It is perhap» s pity their eiample has not 
been more iargsly fbllowed. 

le guarJianihip of the Pniatei, or 'Godsof the iiiterior,' 
The horror of the aoens is inoreaaed by the additlon of tfais 

S. Tsnena Coloha] Bome MSS. read Cotckka, but It aeems 
belter to admit an open towcI at the end of one stonu before 


NOTES. 265 

a Towel at the oommenoement of the next (although tbia is 
objeotionable where there is no pause), rather than to admit 
tiie Tery harah elision whioh would be neosasary if Oolehiea be 
read. The adjeciiTe Oolehm ia analogoui in fbrm to anoh 
adjectiTes aa Medut, Maurut, Thynut, Dardanut, Romutut, 
of. 1. 15. lOn. Poiaons are oalled 'Colohian* beoaoae Medea 
oame from Oolchis. 

11. caducum] 'destined to falT: domini, •thr owner,' and 
therefore the tree muat have been on Horaoe'8 Sabine ferm. 

18. quid quisque. . .horasl • no man haa ever been suflflciently 
guarded, hour by hour, what ne peraonally ia to aToid.' oautum 
ttt ia used impersonally, *it haa been guarded by a man/ quid 
vitet U the direot question quid vitemt put aa a dependent 
olauae; quttque ia added becauae eaoh indrridual earefuUy ae- 
leota what he himaelf ahould aToid, though the reeult too often 
ia that while A oarefully avoida (7, and B, D, yet D turna out 
to be what A, and what B ahould have aToided, or aome un- 
regarded foxoe B ruina both alike. Of. U. 15—20. 

14. Boaporum] For the dangera of the Boeporua of. 8. 4. 
80« intanientem navita Bonorum [tentabo ; at ita entranoe 
were the ao-oalled Symplegadee or Olaahing Booka. What the 
• Oarthaginian aailor' ia doing in the Boaporua need not muoh 
trouble ua: Horaoe merely remembera that in the daya when 
Oarthage eziated ita aeamen were bold and Tentureaome, and 
he mentiona the Boaporua quite Taguely aa a type of anr 
dangerous strait; nor doea it aeem improbable that, althougn 
Poenut ia not equivalent to Tyrian or Phoenician, yet he is 
influenoed in his ohoioe of the word bv the knowledge of the 
early reputation for aeamanahip of thoae Phoeniciana from 
whom the Poeni or Oarthaffiniane were directlr deaoended. 

Thynut (of. S. 7. 8) haa been auggeated aa the eorreot 
reading : it givea exoellent aenae in oonneotion with the Boa* 
porus, but ia pure oonjeoture. 

16. caeca) 'hidden/ ^obsoure,' i.e. not obTious. 

timet] Notioe the laat syllable lengthened by iotua. Gf. 1. 
8. 86 n. aliunde : emphatio, of. improviia, L 19. 

17. milea] Obviously from the next olauae, *the Italian 

aagittaa...Parthl] The soldier feara *the arrowa and swift 
flight of the Parthian' because the flight was only a manceuvre 


dnngeun io tho Mamertiue prUon on the 
Serviui Tullius, knd called after bim Fui- 
rcquantlv apokeo ol simply *s Robtir, 'the 
--.. -^ ■ Tm. Ana. 4. 39, rubur tt loxum aut parri- 

ciddrura^i.t itari, Lucr. G. 1080, fvromi. earmrtMi, rvfrw, 

jri*. It «i for lUte prianner». is. g. Jugnrtha snd the 

Citilinariiii intara. Tbe connoclion with caifmu hen 

makc - it nnli • ■ •■ • f ■• ■ • njennjng tf '■tnngth,' 

linprovU») E 
o[ death Ihat en 

31. Proierpin»! . uc flrst syllabU U abort, bnt 1. 38. 30 it 
ia long, u it ■ in other writere. 

23. Aeacom) Aoscua, Minos and RhiidamanthnB, hnnnfl 
been just auii righteoos rulers iluring life, were «ppointed 
judge» of the dead. 

34. Aeollis] BecsuBG botli Sappho aud Aloaeni, thongh 
Leabians, naed the Aeoho diu.ect. So 4. 9. 13. Atolia putUa. 
Sappko ifl aoo. = Zar$u. 

36. foruuLtem.-dnn] 'ohaunting infuller tone with golden 

tonantim gotenu duru. Many intnnjftrn Tarba are allaw- 
ed in poetry to be used transitirelj in a seoondarj senaa : ao 
her« ionaM = 'todesoribe sonoronsly,' Iud*r»l. 83. 1 and 4. 9.9 
= 'to write sportiTelj,' deproptrart 9. 7. S4 = 'to maka haatfly,* 
rtmtrtmuit 3. 13. 7«'ehook with fear of," paUuit 8. ST. 18 
'palod for foar of,' lurft 4. 9. 9 'wrote •portiTely/ arsit 4. 9. lfl 
' waa hotly in lovo witb,' tiUbo 4. 9. 81 'paaa otw In illenoe.' 

pltniui, Le. in oomparison with Beppho'i plaintire faiuinine 
lamenta; Aleaens' itraini had a foller, manlier ring. 

37, plectro] s-Xjfrrpo» (from tXijdouiI 'the itriking thing,' 

don, n*»i» dnr».] Cf. 1. lfi. 8 n. 


38. fogae belli] 0& 1.89.5n,: 7tya*s'exuV 

99. Mcro digna allentlo] •thinge worthy of rererend ri- 
lenoe.' What Horaoe meani by a 'reverend silenoe' in oon- 
neetion with poetry he beet explaini himself , 8. 1. 3—4, 
FaveU tinguit: earmina nonpriut \audita Mutarum taetrdoe \ 
...canio, 'keep a religioni silenoe: I the Maee's prUtt ling 
hymni anheard before.' 

89. densam nmerli] 'thiek-paoked, ihoalder to shoalder.' 

htbit aare] 'drinki in with the ear,' ie. liitem eagerly to. 
01 Orid, Trist 8. 5. 4, auribut Uta bibi; Virg. Aen. 4. 859, 
auribut hauti. 

88. otrmlnlbui itapeni] 'dased by the itrains.' 

84. demittit aare*] The efleet prodaoed on Oerberai ii 
s> lort of itapor (ttupent); he doei not liiten, for to listen he 
woald •priek hii ean' (cf. auree acuUu 2. 19. 4), bnt heii lnlled 
into forgetfulness of hii daties ai a watoh-dog, *he leti hii 
dark ean droop.' 

oentloeps] Heaiod, Theog. 819, ipeaki of Gerbenu as «vro 
rtrr*KorraIcdf>tiror; Sophocles, Traoh. 1098, as rplKparor, and he 
ii generally ao represented. It ii a pore matter of poetie 
oaprioe or oonyenienee how many headi ne haa. 

86. Enmenldnm] E^ficWoVf, ( the kindly' or 'graeioai god- 
deises,' Le. the Fnries, so oalled eophemistioally from a desire 
to avoid ill-omened expressions. Cf. moh phraiei as vdrrot 
tH^t irot, twpport (=»night), <fcc. They are depioted with snaky 
trossofl, of. Virg. Georg. 4. 489, impltxae erinibut angutt 
Eumenidet. reoreantur » * find rest ' or ' relief.' 

87. qnin et...1 'nay even...,' ef. 8. 1L 91 n. 
Frometheoi] •Thia form of the legend, whieh makei Pro- 

metheos still andergo panishment in Tartaras (of. 9. 18. 86, 
Epod. 17. 67) is known to no other extant aathor.'— Wiokham. 
For the osaal aoooont see Olass. Diot. 

Pelopls parena] Tantalos. 

88. Uborom dedpitur] *are oheated of their tofli.' The 
genithre aeemi dependent on the sense of 'forgetralneii' or 
'freedom' oontained in deeipitur; withoat knowing it they 
beoome forgetfal of or free from their agoniei. Some good 
M88. give laborem, whioh woald be an aco. of respeet, but 
seems less eiegant. 

P. n. 19 

268 HORACE, ODES II. xiii. 

Prometheos et Ptlopli pajens...4eclr4torl The yerb U in 
tbe singolar in eeeordanee wtth Horaee's nwoorito ptmotioo 
of potSng a BJMOtivk ind aftor two n oio J n oM iiO L tf tho 
leeTono ee etafSor. Ot 1 1. 98, 1 U, 9 Cente^ stScytAsi 
ee**4 8. llT» IMo* nojoim 

$t ttir, 8. 8. 7 o mO j o o m ot ffrye tnipi r if , 4. f. 99 wm *t Um 
edomdt; Imt ooo •. 16. 7 n. 

89. Orlon] Tho grent hnntor otfll foUows tho ouno pnrenit 
in the nnder workL 

40. tlmldoelymoaa] Xs^, X*y cfc , inaoo. or ftm. 


•Alao, Postomot, lifti lo fast ettpping awayi from death 
neithor piety nor proyoro nor oootty heoatombs oon wht a 
respite; eren tho etrongett ond moot doring of tho oono of 
eorth tho riw of deoth imprisons, yee, the rifor we maol 
all eroet, rieh ond poor alike: thither, for eU onr ooro oad 
oaotion, we mnet oll wend oor wey, quitting oll thot we hold 
moet deor, leering to o reeUeoo heir tbo weolth of whioh we 
eaUed ooreehres the ownen.' 

For the whole tenoor of the Ode et 9. 8 and Introdnetion. 

1. Postnme, Poetome] Horaoe io Tery fond of tbis repeti- 
tion of a word : its ose is to give emphasis ('Bedaplioation io 
the earlie§t, oertainly the moet natoral method of expreeeing 
greater intensity of feeling,' Peile's Etymology, q. y.); the 
peeuliar emphaaia is, however, to be determined by the eon- 
tezt in eaeh caee. Here the objeot is to intensify the idea of 
sadness ; so too oceidit, occidit, 4. 4. 69. Of. also the effeot of 
snoh ezpressions as 'yanity of ysnities, saith the preaoher, oll 
is vanity/ and for the speeial effeet of the repetition of o 
proper name, St Biatt 28. 87, '0 Jernsalem, Jerosalem, thon 
that killest the prophets, Ac.,' St Luke 10. 41, * Martha, Martha.' 
Cf. too 8. 8. 18 Ilion, IUon. On the other hand of. 2. 17. 10 
ibimtu, ibimut (strong resolntion), 1. 18. 1 Ttlephi...Ttlephi 
(fondness), 1. 85. 16 ad arma, 4. 2. 49 io Triumphe... 
io Triumphe t 4. 18. 1 audivere JH...IH audivere (exultation), 4. 
18. 10 te quia...te quia (derision). 

NOTE& m 

2. labnntur] Thli ward, whioh ii frequently need either 
of the motion of a etream or of tbo hMTenly bodiM ttabentia 
tigna), ozpronof motion whioh, withont boing hurriea, ii un- 
oaaaing {pkne Hatt doek okne Ratt, Munro, Lnor. 1. % and |g 
eanataatjy and admirably applied to tho auent flight of time. 
Ot Ot. Faat. 6. 771» Tempora tobuntur taeititque tene teimm 
annU, and oee Diot e. T. 

5. non, al] no*, m. afferet* *No, not if with thzee heea- 
tombe of bnlle eeeh day that poMei yon ihonld OMey to appeMe 
tbe tearleti Pluto...» Many MS8. read trioenU, but thii from 
triginta wonld haTe the flrat ayllahle long. 

6. ffliffljmaMlein] *who nerer weepe,' Le. oan nerer be 
mored to pity. For the aotiTe ue of the adj. ef. 1. 8. 82 n. 

8. Oeryonenl A Spanish giant with thrM bodiee, whoM 
ozen were earried off by Heroulea. 

Tltyon] Ttnfer. Of. 8. 4. 77, incontinentU nee Titgi jeeur 
[reHouU aUt, and 4. 6. 2, Tityotque raptor, He wn a aon of 
Kartn, and inmlted Latona. Geryon and Tityoe are eeleoted 
m eymboli of enormone etrength enbdoed by death notwith* 

trletl oompMOit nnda] 'oonflnM with melanoholy etream.' 
Of. 2. 20. 8, nee Stygia cohibebor unda, With ite alow and 
weary windinge nine timee interpoeed it fbrmed the boundary 
of Tartarue. Of. Georg. 4. 478, tardaque pahtt inamabiUt 
unda I aUigat et noviee Stys interfuta eoercet. So too Aen. 6. 

9. Milioet] from teire Ueet^mmHj, 9 'doubtleM,' ia fre- 
qnently ueed, m here, where an inoontroTertible etatement ia 
repeated witn freah emphaaia and pertioularity; 'with melan- 
eholy atream, yea, the atream that all mnat traTerM...' Of. 1. 

10. qnlennqne...Teaeimnr] 'whoerer feed on the bounty 
of earth»' a reprodnetion of the Homerio phraM for men, IL 6. 
142, fiporQr el dpotiprji Kupwbr teovetr. 

11. alTe regea alTe] aee 1. 16. 8 n. 

12. oolonl] from eoh, 'hnabandmen.' r«ieis 'kinge,' or 
poaaibly •rieh men.' Of. 1. 4, 11. 

18. oarebimiia] 'we ahall keep free from.' 

14. fractU fluctlbua] 'the breakera.' 

1 «0— ~« 


dso* Atutrnm] Antnmn li tlie moit 

M jbu in Italy , owing partly to tha prevn- 
wiad (Amler), that tilowa from Afriea and 
,t, 3. 0. 18, p Ittmbew Aviter I JvetumnujftM 
uitiu aetrb&t, *the leaden South wind and 
t makei tte fortuno of underUier*.' 
,-idiu] i« goveroed partly by nocniion, partl; bj 

;eneral epithet of thinga infernaJ. Cf.o 

ffnm^» lin^ 

._ uied of Ihe Styx hy 

~\H\. 1. 0. Cjf, .^. - 

Por the rivera of 1 ~ - 

- Lort. 3. 676: 

'Abhorred S v -, th... uuu c 

.dlr hata; 

Sud Aoheron o( eorrow l 

id deep; 

Coojtua named of limtn» 

Heard on the rneful stream 

roe Phlegethon, 

Whoae wavea of torrent flre 

miltmo with raire. 

Fnr off from theae a ilow aed ailont atream 

Lethe, the river of oblivion, 


■ genitive of the 
charoE.', e.g. danmattu fiirti, which ie erplained hy some iach 
word m erimine being omitted; but hera longi laborii ii obvi- 
ously not ths aharge bnt the lentence, 'condemned to endless 
toil. Livy ha» ■ «JTnil«p phraae damnatai voli, ' oondemned to 
[i&y the thing vowed," and Wickhnui quotaa Cic. Verr. 3. S. 11, 
ibimnart oetupli, auggoiting that it i* probably a qenitive of 
cBtiiuntion or vaJuing. For lonoi. >ee n. oo 3. 10. 30. 

Sl. llnqnend».] Bj it» pomted poaition in itrong oontrut 
with viiendm at the coiniuenoemcot of the preoeding lUnu, 

plaoua] ■ perfect epithet. Hom. H. 8. »30, oMxev faaaaia. 

35. lnvuai cnpreaioe] ThaejpnMU called 'hatafnV not 
baeauae tha trae iUelf U nglj bnt beoauae lt vu taarad to 
Plato, ind U coniUntly aaeoaiated with dentli : it U called 
fanebrii, Epod. 5. 18, feralii, Virg. Aen. 6. 918. 

NOTES. 271 

•4. brevem dominum] •their short-lived iord.' For the 
ose oi brevis, of. 2. 8. 18, breve» fiore» roeae. For a timilar 
satire on the applioation of such termi m 'ownership' to men 
who are after all but tenants with ahort leases subject to sum- 
inary eviction at any moment ef. Epist. 2. 2. 170—180. 

The phrase brevi» dominu» U in faot a sort of oxymoron: 
legally tne dominu», or owner, is supposed to be the possessor 
in nerpetuity, as opposed to one who u only a tenant or holder 
nnoer a short lease; brevie dominu», *an owner for a ahort 
time,' is therefore strictly a oontradiotion in terms. 

25. Caecuba] se. vina, from a distriot in Latium near 

digniorl i.e. beeause he nses and enjoys it, the epithet 
being added with *a eertain bitterness,' as Wiekham remarks. 
Cf. Ecol. 2. 9, 'Bejoice, young man, in thy youth; and 

let thy heart cheer thee in the days of thy youth but 

know thou, that for all these things God will brmg thee into 

26. centum] any indefinite number. Cf. 2. 18. 84, belua 

27. tuperbo] Hypailage, of. 8. 1. 42 n.: the epithet is 
transferred from the drinker to the wine : *he will prondly' or 
*in his pride stain the pavement.' At the same time the 
epithet tuperbue may be applied to the wine itself, as we speak 
of a 'generous/ •noble' wine. The phrase tinget pavimentum 
implies that the banquet was riotous and reekless, muoh wine 

28. pontiflcum potiore cenis] 'superior to that of priestly 
banquets'; for the use of comparatio compendiaria, see n. on 
2. 6. 14. 

The wmtifice» (see Dict. of Ant) formed one of the collegia 
or 'guuds' at Rome, and, as such bodies frequently do, 
owed their principal reputation to the magnifieenoe of thcir 
banquets, ot 1. 87. 2, Saliaribu» dapibu». 


'Soon little land will be left for agriculture, and huge 
villas with their fishponds, shrubberies and gardens, will take 


-""trdi auii oUveysriU. Far diflersnt were tho 
anoeeton, of ltomulni snd rogged Cato: 
riduali wero poor, tbe oommonwealtb ricb, 
modeat, the pnblin dwellings and templee 

xne Ode '- ibsbly one ot tboee writteo for a poUtiesl 
purpoee »t U ineit of Auguetue, wbo ubout S9 eud 38 

s.c. having it«i -ed the fanotioas of tho oeneorship, made 
itrenuoui en 'iv ' ui legii ' 'ive enaotmenti to ro- 

itore the n] * of e ' Rome (t. Merivale, 

o. 33), nnd nsianui} - t ,-.i('a to Horace, uloi mrt of Poet 
Laareate, in the hopee that hii toi might eicite popular 
enlhasiasm on tbeir behslf. Iu t .irewnt oase bowevtr 
Uorace eoemi to hnvo fouud the tht,uo unpootio and anoon- 
genial, the Ode bearrog !n its itiffneai and oonitraint pverj 
mirk of being "raade to order' (invita itinerva). Od the 
other bsnd the flnt lix Odes ot Book 3 nre briUiant eiam- 
plei ol wbat Horaoe oould do under the aame circum- 

I. lam .rellnquent] Tbe deoline of tfcc numbor of small 
boldinge in Italy, and the almoit total eitinotion of the 
yeoman olass, whioh bad rormed tbe itrength of tha Roman 
legiom, was at thii time at Rome — as it almost muet be wlien- 
ever and wherever it ocoure — a moet diffieult and perpleiing 
political problem. Among the oaoses wbioh broagbt it aboat 
msy be reckoned (1) tbe destruetion of property, and deatb or 
tuin of thousand» of aninll proprietors during a contury of 
civil war, (2) thc Increuing rjnmber of wealthy oapitaliets al 
Rome who purohased large estates which thoy turned into 
parlu, preeerTee, pastures and the like, (3) the tss! increase in 
tbe ntunber of ilevei. acquired by foreign oonqnest, whiob 
msde it posiible for sacb gTeat estates to be kept np, (4) the 
fact tbat owing to largeimporteof agricoltural produce from aU 
quarten of the world, mach of tbe Innd in Italy oould not be 
eultivated eo ai to leave any margin ol profit 

reflaa moles] 'prineel* pilee.' molei- 'anything hugs.' 
Building ud land being onesp, thi Boman 'tUIm ' bbssd to 

NOTES. 273 

have covered an inoredible space of groond. Cf. Pliny'e ac« 
connt of hia own two, Ep. 2. 17, and 5. 6. Tac. knn. 8. 68, 
makes Tiberias speak of viUarum inftnita tpatia. 

8. Lucrlno lacu] The Luorine lake olose to Baiae ia 
selected as the best known inatanoe of a large iake. 

4. atagna] 'ponda/ i.e. fishponds, pit cinae. The Boman 
epioures made a special study of fiah; the iiteratore of the 
empire teems with allosiona to the subjeot; in Gioero'i time 
even men of talent and poaition aoch aa Crassos, Hortenaioa 
and Loeolloa devoted their retirement to the rearing of moilet, 
<fco. Cf. Cic. ad Att. 1. 19, and 2. 1. 

platanos caeleba] 'The onwedded plane.' For caelebt cf. 
4. 6. 8 n. The plane waa uaeleaa for training Tinea opon 
beoaoae of ita broad (cf. w\arvs) ahady leavea. 

5. evincet] *will drive oot»' et 4. 6. 33, tdomuiU 

violaria...narlum] Horace selecta the 'violet/ •myrtle,' Ac., 
beoaoae owing to their aoent and fragranoe they were naed 
at banqoeta; they are typical of lozory as oontrasted with 

The phrase copia narium, literally ' wealth of the nostrils,' 
is a bold invention of hia own to ezpress 'abundanoe of sweet 
soents,' or 'sweet-soented planta,' soch phrases most be jodged 
not by strict grammatioal rulea, but by their general olearness 
and ezpreaaivenesa. 

8. domlno priori] Ethic dative. 

9. laorea] laurea is the fem. adj. from laureut; arbor 
mo8t be aopplied. It U oalled tpiua ramit becaoae it can be 
cut into any ahape and when so out grows very thick and oom- 

10. ictua] 'darts,' i.e. of the sun'a rays; the particulai 
meaning to be given to the word ia determined by the addition 
of the epithet fervidot. 

nonita] 'notso'— 'fardifferently.' Litotes. 

11. praeacriptum] so. ett, 'waa it ordained.' 

lntonal Catonia anspleils] 'by the example of onshaven 
Cato.' It was the speeial duty of the leader or general of an 
expedition to take *uie aoapioes': the army waa aaid to follow 
'the leaderahip and aospioes' of their general; henoe here 
autpieia = Meading,' 'goidanoe,' 'ezample.' The Cato re- 
ferred to ia not the yoonger Cato (aa 1. 34), bot Cato the 
Censor (see Dict.), who died b.o. 149, aiter a long life apent 


to sLcm the LcndnilcieB of the agfl. Hfl ifl callod 
i bo outward fljgn of hie oontervativfl viewi 
ur » be»rd efter the old lloman faihion, 
4, 109, barboto regi, '» primitive moEiroh,' 
uuif, '*n anoient ocnsul,' »nd 16. 31 with 
bera were introdnoed at Rome i 

Itwu tha dntyof the oenson to 
tbe valua of eaob citi 
tion, partly that he n 
'olaei' for votlng in tbe 

U. oonuno) 

in uniUtioQ ol 

dflcampedU] ™* Ftrument used bj the 

agrimetuoret in leee herc the aiie of 

the rule U inti .■ of the portioo which 

required it, b li ewhat praclioel »nd 

ioelegant. Notico . .. very emph&tio, u in I. 19. 

16. exdplabtt] 'eaugbt.' ezcipio m diatingaiahed troza 
eapio, aigniflea 'to bs ready to reoeite'; it waa speoially aaed 
of huntara who rterived the geme aa it waa drivon oul of 
oover. Of. 9. 13. 11, allo latitanum /rutietto exeiptre apnim. 
Here tbe word aigoiflee that, whenerer there tu a breuth 
of oool air during thfl aultry aummer day, the colonnade waa 
waitiog rcady to catch and aecore it. 

Arctonl T>ir'AptTov, tbe oonstcUation ot Urto Major, thea 
the wind that blowe from that quarter, the north wind. 

17. fWttitnni...ouajplt«m] ' the ohaaoe torf,' Le. «nah aa 
a man migbt ccime aoroa* anjwhere. Horaoe ia probebiy re- 
forring to a eotteg* roofed with turf, aaoh u were donbtleaat 
common in oouutry dirtriot» in hi» own time, d. Virg. Bol. 1. 
58, pauperit et tuguri eongatum taetpiU cttlaun. 

What he ciactlj ineans bv laying ' the Uwi did not psnnit 
men to deapiafl ' it U impoaaible to aay, for tbe wbole atani» 
lacki realitj and einoerity; Horaoe would have baan the lut 
m«n in the woxld to deaire ■ reitoration of tha 'mud-oabin' 
en. or to wiih to ba Mtechlied u to the hiitorical m 
sacli • phrue m 'the lewi did not permit.' 

w cu t.' Otberi Uke it in the eenee of ■norei,' 

NOTES. 275 

and say that the 'novel stone'is 'marbie/referring to the well- 
known boast of Augustus, Suet. Ang. 28, urbem...marmoream 
te reUnquere quam laterieiam accepittet, but this s ee ms fbtosd 
and unnaturai. 

For the restoration of temples by Aogoitna whtn Oenaor 
B.a 88, ef. 8. 6, Ini 


'Repose is what all men pray for when in difficulty, bnt 
repose, Grosphus, neither gold nor purple oan purehase, for 
neither wealth nor poaition oan get rid of the cares and worries 
of tbe mind. Contentment U the great remedy; and indeed 
oonaidering the short span of life why ahonld we be ao ambi- 
tioue, ao bustling, so eager for ohangef Go where we will, do 
whatwewill.oareolingstons. Trythentobeoheerful.makethe 
best of things, and do not expect perfeot happiness: remember 
that though Aehilles' oareer was glorious it waj brief, Tithonns 
on the other hand was immortal bnt miserable: so too you 
abonnd in wealth, and I am poor, bnt as a oompensation I 
have my gift of song.' 

Pompeiua Grosphus is also mentioned Epist. 1. 12. 22 where 
he is reeommended to the friendahip of Iocius, 

uten Pompeio Orotpho et, ti quid petet, ultro 
defer; nil Orotphut niti verum orabit et tequum. 

1. otlum] No single word aconrately represents the various 
meanings to be assigned to this word here: its foroe mnst be 
inferred from the various ideas with whioh it is oontrasted, e.g. 
storm 1. 1, war 1. 5, anxiety of mind 1. 11, ambition 1. 17, <ko. 

patenti] Emphatio. The sailor is out of sight of land, a 
position which the ancients, unaided by the mariner's compass 
(ct L 4), always oonsidered dangeroua. 

2. prensus] «oaught,' i. e. by a storm. Cf. Virg. Georg. i. 
421, deprentie olim ttatio tutUtima nautit, where Senrius ex- 
plains deprentut as a nautioal term. 

slmul...oondidit] see 2. 8. 5n. 

276 HORACE, ODES II. ivi. 

S. nulil '-ith trnsty light,' i.e. onlv hii occasional vague 

f them, or elae 'with tbcir trusty light,' i.e. 

ligbl aailora trtut for guidance do not ahine 

7. 30, 'and when neither lun nor at&r) in 

Bd. and no ■nt&ll tewpeat laj on m (cf the 

prtiuui found in aome MSS.). el! hope that 

k — ■- IU then laken aaiv.' 

G. tmllo fnnoaa. Tnraea] So Tirg. Aen. 6. 13 c»Ui Tu. 

Mavortia UUui '''hratt = 8pj*if. 

aleal] Cf. . Sln. 

T. non * 12— 1S, 'It (wiedora) 

cannot be gott- . r er bo weigbed for tbe 

prioe tberooi.' t— *m. _i„™.,^u»ed': (or ita poiition 

cf. 1 . 2. l'J n. pvrjwra : "purple ' ■ olaaasd with 'getna' and 
'gold' bocauae of it* well.known eoetlineaa; In Aeeoh. ' 
L 94'J the adjootiTe ipyvpwrirai ia uaed of it, and in L 

10. lummOTet] This word ia teahnieaUj nied of the lioton 
who clearcd ■ wnj fbr the ooneul, or of the aame offiecn 
ni&king n dieorderly orowd 'move on.' Cf. Livy 3. 4M, i littor, 
■MM turban, aud eee Dict. 

tumultue] 'diklurbancei/a continuatiou of themetaphor of 

11. curia ..volintea] 'caree that flit (even) roond fretted 
roofa'; 'carea' are readily thonght of ae winged (cf. L 23, and 
Theogn. 729 ^pcrrtatt d-9pw*wr rXnx» rrtpa rtxulX tjttvnt), 
aini are tben «poken of ae bate or aimilax iU-omened 
(Wiokham aays 'harpiee,' which ia iuaredible) that haant evrn 
the dwellinge of the weeithy. laqutata ttcta (ot. 9. 18. 2) e» 
roofi mnuh oarved and paneUed, anuh aa are rnily frtund in tha 
dwellinga of the greet, the 'cieled hooeee' of Haggai 1. 4. The 
derivalion ia imnu = 'a hollow.' 

13. TlTitnr parro bene, oui] Ut- 'it U lived on Uttle wall 
to bim to whom («i, eui),' i.e. 'he livca weU on little, fac 

tiioera poroo in thia eenaa ii foond Bat 3. 9. 1. After 
vivifar parvo it ia eaiy to eupply trom the dat. cni, a dat. ti, Um 
conatruotion baing eieotlj perellel with S. 18. 48, bau ttt ewl 

deui obtulit, 'well it ia with him to whom (ri, eui).' parvo and 
btnt fonn a aort of oiymoron ; 'to llve well' ia not 'to lire 

NOTE& 877 

paternum...ea2inum] The 'iQw ealt-oellar' ii hii om 
pieoe of family plste: salt being a noooeeary aooompaniment of 
aU food, ealt and tho eait-eollar have alv/ave been regarded with 
epeoial reepeot. $pUnd*t-*\* spotleee/ Le. kept oerefully 
eleaned and poliahed. t«mii#»c'humble.' Cf . for the whole 
Pere. Sat. 8. 95, wri paUrno | iil tfW /ar modicum, parvum et 

15. levee] 'like infante' ilumbere pnre and UghtS 

onpido eordidusl 'ignoble greed.' cujrido ie alwavs maeo. in 
Horace. ttmor and cupido are oppoeea ae 'fear of loea' and 
'greed of gain.' 

17. teevi fortee] Antithetioal ; the ahortneee of life doee 
not oheok daring attempte. The eame antitheeie ooenre L 8. 
87, nil mortalibu$ ardui e$t, 'mortal thoogh we are we deem no 
Uek too difficult.' 

laofilamnr mnlta] 'do we aim at many things,' Le. form 
many ambitione projeete. For eome nobler linee on the eame 
theme, of . Milton'e Lyoidaa ' Were it not, &o.' 11. 67—84. 

18. quid terrae..jnntamns] 'why do we exohange (Le, 
take in exchange for onr own) oonntriee, &o...?' alio $ol$ ii 
ueed with a slight inaoouracya*another olimate.' 

90. fngit] Notioethatthiaie/*^: *hae{by beoomingan 
exile) eeoaped himeelf.' Cf. Epist. 1. 11. 27, caelum non anu 
mum mutant qui tran$ mare currunt, and Milton, Par. Loet, 

'The mind ie ite own plaoe and of iteelf 
Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven.' 

91. vitioea cura] 'morbid'— e mentU vitio orta, OrellL 

aerataa naTee] ' shipe with their brasen prowe ' ; the edjeotive 
ie added to ehew that oare is no reepeoter of persone ; no poei- 
tion however dignified, not even the pomp and pageentry of 
a great expedition, ean terrify il Horaoe repeate almoet the 
eame worde 8. 1. 89, ruqxu \ decidit aerata triremi et | vost 
equitem eedet atra Cura, where from the oontext it ie plain 
that he ia epeaking of a privaU veseeL a enmptnone pleeeure- 
yaeht, hut here the immediate conneotion with equitum turmae 
'equadrone of horee' oompele ne to take it diflerently, and the 
plnral naves pointe in the eame direetion. A oloee oompariaon 
of the two paeeagee will ehew eoneiderable diversity of idea 
nnderlying identity of expreesion. 

278 nOBACE, ODES II. ivi. 

99. Lnrnu «10110111] The knighti ue lelected becauae, 
tbe wealthier clas»es, care might bare beeo 
the proierbial geiety of expenaive cavslrj 
iavu »nd tquitei »re alao apecially choeen 
■ed, cf. neit line. 

are] 'let it (animui) scora to be eareful 

l>i~u . in jirawens antnu ia the nominatiTe to 

odVril, and itra al = id quod vltra ttt the ecoosativa 

■ftei airare. .. - neoeseary to render cisrart 'to be aarefnT 
becaiue of eura tove, bat the English phrase must be used 
with the same m ' 1 " "~ " " " II, 'Msriha, Marthe, 

thon arl •rart/ul . ■ things.' 

oderit must be 1 of ttnptrtt whiah 

followi : it takee an lu. a»c v-ipressing ■ anwilling. 

lento] 'qolet.' Itntui (froro root Un = stii\) whieh wben 
applied to thinga meaai 'elingiug,' 'iticky,' 'tongh,' 'ptiant,' 
iSc. when applied to peraoni or qoalitiei meana 'dnll,' 'phleg- 
metio,' 'eaay-going,' 'quiet'; it ie oppoeed to luch wordi es 
'nervoua,' 'excited,' 'eoergetio,' of. Virg. Ecl. 1. *, (n, Tityrt, 
ttntui in umora, Cic. da Oi. 3. 190, IsnK /<m, ' to tslce easUj,' 
see Kennedy, Virg. E. 1 . 4 a. 

39. ebetullt...] Thsie linos give oxamplei of the general 
trnth nihii beaum. 

Acbillei hed the choice of > brief bnt glorions cereer, or of 
oce that wai ingloriooa and long, ot Hom. II. 9. 113, The 
adjeotives claram aod cita aro therefore botb emphatic. 

80. long»] 'long' uied by * ihetoiieel artifioe for 'etemal'; 
inraferriiig to env well-known tale of horror tha efleet produowl 
raay be onhanoad bj a •tadied modoration la th* om of «V 
•oriptive termi; the iinaginativo faonltiee ere excitad, not 
crnahed and exhanited. When ■ modern preaoher apeeJti of 
a pnniihment Letting for 'billions of aeona' he is not, I think, 
even rhetorically m efleotiTe ai when Horaoe ipeaka of tht 

longu* tabor (S. U. 19) of Biayphtu, 01 il hsre of tha lonfm 
snuetlu of Tithonna. Cf. too 8. 1L 88, longm aostnus - ' tbe 
sloapof death,'4. 0. B7, Umaa noc« = 'aternal nlghf So too 
Ecel. 19. E, 'inan goeth to hli long home.' Cat 40. B; Loe. 

1. 4ET ; Aen. S. 716, lonea obttvla. 

Tlthonnm] Anrora who loved him askad foi him inuaor. 
tality, bnt failed to aik that it might be accompauied with 

NOTES. 279 

eternal youth, and therefore it wag hia lot to grow older and 
more waated (minuit) for ever, 'immortal age beeide immortal 
youth.' Tennyaon'a fine poem 'Tithonue' abonld be oompered. 

81. etmlhl...1 'And •o,toeometoourtelTea,yonarerich, 
I poor. bot I may have eomething given me you have not/ and 
then thia ia illuatreted in the nezt two etanzaa. 

83. hora] 'the hour,' i.e. time at aome partioular hour, 
aooner or later. 

88. tel governed by circun, It la put prominently forward, 
aa la tibi, (n emphatio oontraat to mihi. 

te...tfbl...te1 For Horaoe'i fondneaa for joining olaoaea by 
the repetition of emphatio wordi, ef. 1. 2. 4 n. 

84. muglunt] an inatanoe of aeugma, aa the word ean only 
refer to vaecae and not to gregct. 

Othera take greges Siculacquc vaceac aa an inatanoe of 
hendiadya, and for the uae of gregct (^armtnta) oompare 
Epod. 2. 11, mugicntium grcges, 

hlnnltum] The penultimate ayllable U long, and the final 
■vlleble elided before the vowel at the beginmng of the next 

85. apta quadrlgla equa] To keep auoh a atud aa to 
be able to oompete in the four-horse enariot raoea waa, aa it 
ia now to keep raoero, a aign of great wealth, and per- 
haps eztravaganoe. Cf. Aeaeh. Pro. 466, Iwwovt dyaXfia 
rijs vw€pv\ovTov xXcoS;*, Thue. 6. 15, and the phraae 0UI11 
Tt$fxTTorp6<t>os t 'a family that eould keep a four-in-hand, 
Herod. 6. 35. 

equa: the anoienta believed in the superior fleetneaa of 
marea (ef. Virg. Georg. 1. 59), but modern ezperienoe haa not 
justified their verdiet. 

bla Atro murloe tlnotae] The referenoe ia to the ttpa+a, 
or 'twioe-dyed purple robea,' ao renowned in antiquity. 'The 
dye waa obtained from two kinda of univalvea : (1 ) the amaller 
bveinum, muftx, "whelk," whioh waa pioked off the rooka; (2) 
«ttrpwro, rop^Jpo, eaught in the aea and thence oalled velagia. 
To produoe the true Tyrian dye (the oolour of elotted blood, 
but varying with the liflht in whicn it waa aeen) the wool waa 
dipped in two different bathe, firit ofpelagia, then of bucinum. 
Prof. Mayor, Juv. 1. 27 : an ezhaustive note. 

Afro, becauae the murcx waa found on that ooaat. 

280 HORACE, ODES II. ivi. 

38. iplritum] 'impiration,' Bo too ipiro ia naed 4. 3. 34, 
ouod ipiro tt plaeto, and 4. 6. 29, Jpinium Photbui nihi 
Fkoibui artem...itAU. 

aplrltum tenuant] 'aome poor impiration.' following ap 
tbe idea of paira rura, which makee it necc-ssnry to give tlui 
eenee to ttnuii here. Cf. too t. S. 9, eonamur trnuci aaudta. 

Orc.lli and WicUmm pr«fer = 'finiibed,' 'refined,' lefeiring 
to the apecial charaoteriBtica of Greek poetry, aud conipanng 
A. P. 46, m vcrbii ttiam ttimii cautuiqut itrtndii end Cio. Or. 
8. £3, oratio Urti et Irnuu. 'polialied and renned,' » uieiinlng 
vthich agreea well with the derivation of ttauit (the Enghah 
'thin,' lit. 'drawu Oul,' of. ttndo, reiru, ranef), but U out of 


Cameoae] Striolly the native goddeasea of Italian poetry 
" :a foreign Mewoi, but the word 

39. non mendaz] 'that never liee." Poieibly there ia a plny 
on words: Fate (Pareo) had been 'trulj thrifty' (parca) in her 
gift» to Horace (cf, parva, trnuon). 

miilignum apemera rolguij tptrntrt i* uaod aa aec. after 
dtdit, like tlie Gk. iuf. with the article; rulgui ie tha acc. tfter 
ipcrntrc, malignum- 'euvioue' of hia n&me and fame. 


'Why, Maeoenaa, do you take the iife out of me by yonr 
melancboly forebodings? Yon are the prop of my fortuoea, 
the very balf of my being; when you die I ahall die too; 1 
have awom it and will keop my oath. I will never quit your 
aide, evan on that laat dn»d jonmej, no not «ven if all tht 
monateri of hall ondeavour to pievent me. Suoh U the docrae 
o[ Fste, for whaterer the oonetellatiun that gorarni yoor 
caraer, Libra, the Soorpion, or Capricomm, at any rate it II 
wonderfolly in aooord with mine; remember how you bave 
been matched from deatb itaelf , whila I have had ■ eimilar 
minwnhnu eaoape; let tu then be thankful, and esoh dnly 
offer moh thank-oReringa aa bafit our poai tion. ' 

Maocenei wu a groet invalid bnt paaiionately a tt tofaed to 
Ufe. Pliuy, H. H. 7. Bl, •peakt of him m 

NOTES. 281 

perpetua febrit, and for the last three years of hii life never 
enjojing a momenfs natural ileep. See too Merivale, e. 86. 
Both he and Horaoe died in b. o. 8, the one surviving tbe other 
but a few days. 

1. querellis] for epelling see 2. 9. 18 n. 

2. amionm est] *is it pleasing.' 

8. obire] §0. diem tupremum, *to die.' 

4. grande deena oolumenque rerum] Cf. 1. 1. 2, Maecenat 
...o et praetidium et dulce decut meum, For the metaphor 
in columen cf. £nr. Iph. T. 57, rrOXoi yap ©fr«r tlel vcuto apetwti, 
and St Paul, GaL 2. 9, 'IdUredfet rei Kitfw *ol IwcW^f ei toxodrrtt 
rrGKm ilrcu, 'who eeemed to be pillara.' Cio. pro Sest. { 19» 
eolumen reipublicae, Tennyson, In Mem. o. 63, • the pillar of a 
peopie's hope.' 

6. partem] supply atteram from altera in the nezt line= 
«one of two parta/ le. «the half.' Cf. 1. 8. 8 where Horaee 
oalla Virgil animae dimidium. 

7. nec anperatei integer] •nor remaining a oomplete 
whole.' Without Maeoenae he wonld be but a pert, a fraction 
of himself. Cf. our uae of 'an integer,' and 2. 4. 22 n. 

8. utramque duoet rulnam] 'shall bring (with it) de- 
itruotion to us both.' I take ducet in its simnle sense, and fail 
to see the analogy between ducet ruinam here and VirgiTs 
trahit ruinam (Aen. 2. 46. quoted by Orelli), used of one 
portion of a wall falling ana dragging after it the rest. 

10. dizi sacramentuml The nhrase is a teohnioal one for 
taking the military oath of obedienoe. See Dict. of Ant. and 
ef. the meaning of our word ' Sacrament.' 

lblmus, lbimus] 'Horace speaks in the plural, keeping up 
the idea of soldiers swearing to their generaL' Wickham. 
The explanation is tempting, but oannot be right, for the 
plural is used simply because it is neoessarv. as Horaoe is 
speaking of himself and Maeoenas. *We wili go, whenever 
you shall lead the way, ready to take the last journey together.' 
For the repetition of ibimut cf. 2. 14. 1 n. tupremum iUr—rar» M», Soph. Ant. 807. 

12. carpere lter] For the use of carpert with such words 
as viam, mare % prata, see Dict. 


■ of th« n 
ef, Hes. Theog. 819, ij ti x^'t><" trurt 
* rOp, snd t 9. 18. 

i >] Thi* U soa_swh_t diffienlt: it eui hudly 

io ie up -g-io,' i.e. fiem tbe kibvb, m Bor-cc 

„ ___ _p u„ - ' himself u foroing hia wey at Maecenu' 

■ide through the urUli of desth. It mtut therefoie meui 
■ibould he riae tc Dnfront me' (ef. the -*e of re in rtfulgtiu, 
1. 33) ; and "•■ there il - qniet irouy in tbe introdnction 

of the hjpo .iJ hie biothei gianU 

ore elwsja as cuetully pegged 

down beuut... . 

Foi Qyat n », hnt the selection of 

one putieular h— —r 

15. ito. pl-cltum] 'snoh is the decrae of,' ef. 1. 33. lOn. 

17. een Llbi_ «ea m...] eee Dict. of Ant. a. v. ,4.frofoai-, 
It «u _ cnmmon belief thnl ccrtain atara wliieh were 'in the 
nscend-nt' at the bour of - pen»_'e rmtmly influenced bii 
career, -ccording h they were pluieU of - malignant or beoe- 
fieent chaiector. 

Borace wu not a beliSTer in Astrology [cf ■ L 11), end bere 
impliee tbat hs knows _nd carei little about it ; 'whatever tbe 
oh-racter of your horoBcope,' he •--•, 'or of mine, I neitber 
know nor care ; one thing only do 1 know, vii., that tbey ue 
bath «like.' For the whole snbject of. Guy Mannering, 
espeoi_!ly Introduotion snd Chsp. 3. 

18. p_rs TlolenUor «■■+■**■ hor_e] ' the MO—ndutt ra- 
flnenoe _t the honr of my nativity.' The ptm vioUntior in ■ 
horoscope wonld be tlw pluiet oi it_c whioh bj iti paettkm _i 
the aritic— 1 mom__ i wu flwmd to have mutered cr nMtt__ 
_U tneoth-ts. 

19. tjr__n_i ____•] 'lordof tho w_ve-,' of. 1. 8. 16 n. 

91. M..-1 The clue to this somewhst involved elsa» b 
fotuid by obserring thst iwpio Satvnm is to be Uken botli with 
rtfulgeni = ihlning brilliuitly from the opposite qnarter, Le, 
to oppoee tmpions Sstum, uid with eripuit = ' snatehed ther 
froni the powsc of .' 

NOTES. 283 

25. alaa] For the metaphor cf. Byron, Tbe Destruction of 
Sennacherib, 4 But the angel of death spread hia wing$ on tbe 

enm — sonum] 'when the thronging popnlaoe thrioe made 
their joyous applause eoho throngh the theatres.* Maeoenaa 
waa greeted with loud applanee on flrst entering the theatre 
after a eeriona illness. Of. 1. 20. 4. The theatre wonld be 
tbat of Pompej at the aonth end of the Campns Martiua. ter 
(which Wickham ezplaina aa naed 'indefinitely of aeveral 
ronnda of applause') ia naed with atriot aoouraoy, jnat aa when 
we aav ' three oheera.' erepo ia nsed intransitively of any dry 
sound, e.g. rnstling, rattling, clapping, and then in the poeta 
actively=to make auoh a aonnd, here by olapping of handa 
(cf. plautut, h 20. 4). For the oonatruction ot 2. 18. 26 n. 

28. suftulerat] *had carried me off.' By thia nae of the 
indicatiye in a hypotbetical aentenoe an event ia apoken of aa 
poritively certain U> have happened, but for aomething or other 
having prevented it. There ia the aame construction 8. 16. 8, 
munierat...$i non ruisicnt. For tbe event aee 2. 13. 

Faunue] Perhapa aa a woodland god and therefore having 
oontrol over trees, and alao aa the fhend of poeta who love the 
oonntry and the country*» goda. Wickham suggeata that 
.FaufttuaPan (cf. 1. 17. 1 n.), Pan being the aon of Meronry, 
and that this may explain the introduction of Mercurialium, 
but no explanation can palliate the awkwardnesa of auch 
an cxpreaaion aa 4 Fannua guardian of the men whom Mercury 

For the reasona wby Horaoe calla Mercury the patron of 
poeta see 1. 10. 1 — 8, where he ia called the 'giver of speeoh' 
(facunduty cf. ipfiffr* lf>M*ttu) and 'fatber of the lyre' (lyrae 
paren»), <fec. Cf. too 2. 7. 13. In no case, however, can the 
phraae viri Mercurialee be called a happy one, aa a periphraaia 
for 'poets.' 

80. reddere] *to duly pay.' A vow consisted in promising, 
if the gods did something for you, to give or pay (dare) some- 
thing in return (re) : wben the goda had done their part, you 
beeame voti reut t » 'a debtor of your vow,' wbioh it then was 
your duty to 'repuy,' *pay aa yon were bonnd to do* (reddere), 
cf. 2. 7. 17 n. 

p. n. 20 

_S_ HORACE, ODES II. lviii. 

odb xvm. 

' rdly palacea, BO princely fortnne, bot I bmra 

hone-ty, epntation, and above ill oonlentmant. Tou, 

cn the nd, m thoogh for you tima haltod oo iU 

courae, t> i, are otill eagor lo bnild new rillae enoroaoh- 

ing evon iea'i domain, yoa, and worae alill encroacliing 

on yonr ghbour'» ground driving him oat Crom heerth 

iisid bonw , ii wife and ragged ohildren. And yot mora 

snrely i i.ji.'! ni i jb- "91. ;■ grars await you. Wh». 

would you have? ' _ urth open to take b_ok 

her children, pooi — mae: no wealtb e_o bribe Death : 

in Death the rieb man _ J ,.n S an etemal priaon, tbe poor man 
eternal rcpose.' 

A flne Ode, oqnally intereating in matler and monner, and 
deacrving careful itudy. 

1. non «bur nequ» auraum lacunar] Theee -ords go 
closclj with one another = 'no panelled roof adoreod with 
ivorj and gold.' That tbar cannot be taken hy itaelf = 'ivory 
furniture' ia pluin froui the other thinge mentioned, vii. 
'» roof,' 'architraTea' and 'oolumna.' For kcunur, aee 3. 1S. 
11 a. 

tudinal blocki placed on the topa of the piilan. 

4. rectiaj] 'qnarried.' Nnmidian marble waa cela- 

G. neqo».. oconpaTl] i.e. nor have I _n_-p_Btedrv h_d ■ 
fortnne left ms. The we-lth of the Attalid Ungs of Pwgunoa 
waa proverbial, of. 1. 1. 13, _tt_Uc_ eondicirmilnu = ' on termi 
auch aa a Bothaohild ooald offer.' The pocnliar form of ex- 
reaaion ia partly dua to the fact that Attal-l IH. had(_.o. UB) 
aqueathed bii property to the Boman people. 


NOTES. 285 

7. LaconicM purpuras] Cf. Juv. 8. 101, Spartana chlamyt. 
The sheU-fish (see 2. 16. 85 n.) irom which the purple dye wm 
made were fonnd on the ooaat of Laoonia. In Aescn. Ag. 958, 
Clytemnestra speaks of the honse ol Agamemnon m denving a 
tieh revenne from this souroe. 

8. trahnnt] 'spin.' Theword ii nsedof drawingoutthe 
thread (filum) from the hall of material on the distaff {colut ), 
with a riew to winding it ronnd the spindle (futut). 

honestM] 'of gentle birth.' The epithet U added beoause 
it wonld only be the very wealthy br noble who wonld nnmber 
among their retainers peraone of gentle birth. 

9. lngenl benlgna vena] *a rich vein of talent.' inge- 
nium (from in and gigno), *that whioh is born in one,' 'natural 
abUifr.' Horace always nses the oontracted genitive of this 
and nmilar words, of. 1. 6. 12 n. 

vena is used in the aame sense A. P. 409, tine diviU vena t 
where from the epithet it ifl plain Horaoe derives the metaphor 
from a vein of ore. 

11. nlhil inpra dtoi laoeaio] •For nothing beyond do I 
assaU (or importnne) the gods.* lacttto takes a double aoc 
from the general sense of •Mlting* oontained in it. 

14. beatus] Af frequently, it ii very diifioult to decide 
between the two meanings •happy' and *wealthy'; the word 
involves both ideas. 

nnlcls Bablnls] 4 my one dear Sabine farm.' See 1. 17. Int 
It has been usual to take the nom. of Sabinis m Sabina, 
nnderstanding praedia, but it is diffioult to see why in that 
case we do not have Sdbinum, so. praedium, and, even then, 
to acoount for the omission of the noun. Prof. Mayor (Pliny, 
Ep. 3. 4, p. 67) however shews that it wm nsnal to deseribe a 
farm in any district by the name of the people of the distriot, 
and that therefore Sabinis is the abl. of Sabini. So in Pliny 
oontinually in Tuscos = 'to my Tnscan estate,' and cf. 8. 4. 22, 
in arduos tollor Sabinot «•to my Sabine farm on the hills,' 
Ov. Fast 4. 685, Pelignos, nataUa rura, petebam. 

15. trndltnr dles dle...] These words are the oonnecting 
link between what preoedes and what follows: 'I praotisa 
oontentment, beoanse I remember that life is short; you, 
althongh Ufe is short, stUl build/ Ac. 

16. novMque . . .lunw] * and new moons only wax to wane,' 

20— *Z 


■ and Plaulua alao uss ptrga witli nu in- 

B Ihe poailion of lu; he eacnti himaelf 
ling some sinijlo peison. locart is regu- 
acc. end gerund of pntting anything in 
itraotor for currying out. itcanda = *to be 

90. marlsqnt...] *and are eager h push forward tha 
ahore of tbe sea tlmt breuks 011 Usiae , it utiified «itb the 
poMS St ion at the unbroken line of coast. <*or wgti, aee 3. S. 0, 

andfor Baiat, B. 4. 21 n. 

forwazd.' Jtfaria 

itmmof-rre (Seneo. de Tranq. 81* are also ueed of the 

thing, the sea being represented m 'made to get oat of the 

OMtinenW rtp*] either (1) 'the oonfining shore,' tating 
contttwitt ai a participle, or (2) tho 'nnbrokon ihore.' takjng 
ctmtinenU &a nn adjective ne»r_T = rd.ifi.iiiiu (front eum and 
ttnto) 'holding together, ' tbo sense being tbat he is uot satisfied 
ontil his Tilla projecting into tbe sea haa broktn tbe hithcrto 
unbroken line of oout/ 

Orelli and Wiokham give eontinem ripa — 'tbo eoart of tha 
mainUnd, 1 bnt wlthout anj proof ezcept quoting U, 98, 
contintnti Uteri. 

For the pn_ot.ce of building TiUaa projecting into tha aaa, 
of. S. 1. 33. 

8S. qnlfl, quod.,,1 'AJwaysused to introduoeiomeitrongsr 

34. tarmlnoa] 'bonnd-ltOBsa,' set op at th 

of eaoh plot of ground; they were under the ipi ._.. 

of ths venerabls god Temiinni, and the citiien who mared 
waa deroted to tbe goda. See a reiy intereiting 

NOTES. 287 

Merivale, c 33, and of. Deut. 27. 17, 'Cursed be he that re- 
moveth his neighbour's landmark, and all the people ahall say, 

35. ollentlum] emphatio: the erime wai more heinoua 
beeause oommitted against those he wae bound to protect. 
The lawa of the Twelve Tablee oontained a speeial provieion on 
the subject, Patronut ti cUenH fraudem ftcerit t taeer etto. 

cUent^one who listens' or 'obeys.' Of. Gk. *X&#. 

26. aalls avarus] 'leap in the eagerness of greedV talit 
indioates his boldness and eagerness. 

peUitur...natos] The natural order of this sentenoe ifl oon- 
siderably altered, on purpose to get the emphatie verb peUitur 
first, 'forth is driven...' For the verh In the singnlar ef. 
2. 13. 38 n. 

For the whole seene, cl Quy Mannering, o. 8, and Meg 
Merrilies' eurse on EUangowan. 

29. nullA oertlor tamen] «And yet no hsil awaits its 
wealthv lord more surely than ihe appointed end of greedy 
Death/ i e. more oertainly than the hau you are building does 
the grave, the appointed end of aU men, await you. 

Nauck, I am glad to find, agrees with this the simple and 
obvious rendering of this passage, whioh is however despised by 
other editors who agree in separating fint from destinatd, and 
supplying auld with the latter; at this point however their 
agreement oeases, at least so far as I oan understand them. 

Orelli, who remarks that finit is only onoe feminine in 
Horaoe, apparently renders 'more surely than the haU 
marked out by the limits of Orous/ explaming that Orous 
has oertain fixed Umits within which we snaU have to oontent 
ourselves when we get there; a faot whioh may be true or not 
but is oertainly without point or meaning here. . 

Conington says that dettinata and rapacit sugnst a oom- 
parison between Death and the divet herut; 'Death more 
greedy than any enoroaohing proprietor has planned with his 
measuring line a mansion of a dinerent kind.' How this is got 
naturaUy ttomfine dettinata I simply faU to see. 

Bitter takes Orci fintmin finibu» Orci. Wiokham trans- 
lates *by the limit of OreuA t '« > by Orcus who sets a limit to 
aU things,' and suggests with a verv neosssary 'perhaps' Ahat 
Orci fine may somehow or another be got to mean *with the 
measuring rod of Death,' apparently following Conington. 

288 1I0RACE, ODES II. iviii, 

I- ••- -"<■ "—■ ™-i tveii if these viewi were more hannoniom 
thej u>, 1 eould nol eccept tham. For 
oonaecutiTe worda jin< uWrinata nula. the 
be seperated from thfl ablative diitinata, 
lt on it (en iblaiire caae being thua for- 
.. . iween «rtior and Ht own aMetive which 

. ,'rjllo» iloselv), Uld that befors aufa in the nonii- 

avid tr «blativp ii to be snpplied, scems to a« 

impossible, unl udeed the schoolboy tlieory be correct that 
» Latin senten i * sort of puzzle m which ell the wordi 
h»ve been bIisp up and jambled together in order thal he 
tntj eiercise lii„ iugeiiu»j •,, them ia some order 

whcre they will nuke sense. 

Bt. regum] Eithar actual ' kii or, U frequently in 

Borace, ' gresl men. ' 

satellei Orci] No doubt Hc--« •* •kiiic. of Cheron, bnt 
the peculiar fonn of tho ei; tendanl' or rslber 

'seittine! of Orcus' is to be n -ooghoat the palaoe 

laiiijj whicb the rich man is w^^, m compsred with tbe 
pUce (Oreut) tlial i* prepared for liim; be hai hii 'guarde' 
\ialtUittt), 'sttendants,' anJ so bas tbe grave, a grim and 
incomtptible ODe (»01111« Orci). 

35. calUdum Promethee] 'Notwitbitanding his ciumtng.' 
For UtU secoatit of Prometbetii, aee 3. 13. 37 n, 

3G. euxo captus] Cl 3. 16. 9, aurum p.r wudiot iri 
iattlUtci...amat, a passage whicb ehewi what force is to be 
i:iv,':i to lattUti bere. 

fclc] Botb OrelU and Wickhem aay 'not Charon but Or- 
'■us,' for, tbey nrge, the neit lines, and especiaUy the word 
eocuJu-. oannot refer to Cheron. But in the first plaoe, to 
tnake hic not refer to the maiu noniinative of the preoeding 
aentence, but to a raerely qualitelive word such aa Onci, 
eapedatly when tbe last words of tbe sentenoe are nuro captut 
in agieement with latellci, ii to violate the firat principlea of 
npeech. If a soboolboy were to ssj, "The Head-Master's buller 
wouldn't let tne out thongh well tipped. He is a beait,' 
according to tbi* theory the 'He' would refer to tbe Hesd- 
maater. Seoondly, those wbo say thst 1. 40 could not be uaed 
of Cbaron, forgot that Horaoe, though no doubt tbinking of 
Cbaron, bas only Bpoien of lattllei Orci, and aorely ll ia the 
pfcrt of a tatiUei wben «ummoned (iiKafu.i) to liearken (audir-, 

'gnard' or 'aenlJDel.' 

NOTES. 289 

87. Tantali gonus] i. e. men like Tantalus, and therefore 
sneh men as the rieh man of 11. 16—88. From the natnre of 
hii pnniahment it is olear that Tantalui was taken as a tjpe of 
greedy and grasping characters. 

88. hlo leTart...] 'He too when summoned— aye and 
nnrammoned — to relieve the poor man whoie toils are over, 
obeys.' Forfunctum of. 4. 15. 39 n. 

To thoae who will oompare the two I think there will 
appear an interestinff paraUeliam between thia Odo and the 
parable of Dives and Lazarus, StLuke, oh. 10. 


'I have had a viaion of Baeohus toaehing his aaored bymns 
to all his train : spare me, dreadful deity, and grant mo to tell 
of thy kingdom abonnding in wino and milk and honey, of thy 
glorified bride, thy viotory over thy foes, thy power over natnre 
and overthrow of the rebellioni Titans, yea, and oven the 
monsters * of the nndor-world reveronoing the symbol of thy 

This Ode is usually aooounted a mere imitation of a Greek 
dithyramb, but Pliiss, probably rightly, oonaiders it tho ex- 
pression of the poefs longing in a period of anarohy and 
disoord for an idoal and idyllio world: this he symbolises 
nnder the form of a viaion of the reign of Baoohus, the givor of 
happiness and abundanoe, the founder of oivilization, and the 
oonquoror of the rebel powers of darkness. 

1. Bacchum] Before beginning this Ode it is advisablo to 
read the article on Dionysus in the Claas. Dict. 

ln remotls ruplbns) his favourite haunts. Cf. Soph. 0. T. 
6 Bo*xeiot Otdt yaluv ir dxpup 6piw, 

carmlna] 'hymns ' connectod with his worship. 

4. aoutas] either 'peaked,' •sharp-pointed/ as thoy wore 
alwavs represented, or— whioh I prefer oonsidering the em- 
phatio position of the adjective, and the fact that it then 
matohes ducentet — * pricked up,' i. e. to listen. 


1 pectore] '107 bnrt fllled with (i.e. in- 
1H7.' The Oroek Dionjsui is reprasented 
:hp osnse □! »11 fonn* ol enthosium and 
*hipperi becorae ' into«ie»ted ' (not merely 
■ oiilv one fonn of 'Bncchip inloiication '); 
oia! pBtvoo snd protector of ths poet 'bu 
j rolling"; cf. 3. 25. 1, juo nu, Baccht, 
d S. 19. 14. atttmitia vatcl. 
eVof. L23. 33 n. 

T. pixo*] Whj „ id ipui, » expUined bj the wor 

praet mttutndi tliyrio, for tlio etroke of the thjrsns oaneed 
bwnij bordering on madneai. For the rhjthm of. 1. 1S. 3 n. 

9. Tbjiadai] tWJni (from Silu), the fcmate followera of 

10. Tinique fontem ... Thesc »re all tbe miraoulons gifts 
of the god. The description is probsbly inkea from the Beocliie 
of Enripides, 1. 704; 'wine,' "milk' md 'honej' sre *J1 weli- 
knowL tjpe» of pleotj »nd sbuoiljince, of. Biod. 3. 8, *■> good 
Und & Urge...» lind Bowing witb milk ud bonej." 

11 trunci* citI»] Bees often hiTe irj hollow Iree», of. 
Tirg. Oeorg. 2. 463 ; here howerer 1 mirsculons supply U 
spoken of. »nch sj in Tirg. Eol 4, 30 is destined to marV the 
golden ige, H dmt querctu tudadant mtciaa mtUa. 

13. ltenuw] not 'to tell of mora thsn once,' bat to*reprs- 
•ent' (i.e. nresent, or mike present onee more) In Ungaige 
wh«t hu been prerionslj seett with the ejee. 

1S. butM...]see Chus. Diot. ». t. Arisdne. esataas^dei- 
fled.' honorcm= • mirk' or 'token of dignitj,' i. s. the qaeenlj 
crown whloh wss giTsn her bj Dionjsni on their mirrUg* snd 
whioh beeame tbe uonstelUtion Corona, of. Tlrg. Qeorg. 1. 233. 

14. Psntboi) From the Greek n/rStui oomes ths r*tia 
Ptnthem which is then tres.ted u & trisylUbio word end mi 

15. non loni] Litotes, cf. 1. 18. 9 n. 

NOTES. 291 

16. Thracis] a Greek adj. Gpft, Qpajc6t « Thrax, Thracis. 
For Pentheus and Lyeurgue, aee Olaai. Dict. 

17. flectij amnes] During hia Indian traTeli Dionysus 
eroeaed the Orontee and Hvdaspes whioh aflorded a passage on 
dry gronnd when tonehed by hia thyrsus. The aame happened 
with regard to the Bed Sea (mare barbarum). flectit applied 
both to the rivers and the aea probably means •doet make 
yicld to thy sway.' barbarum^' foreign,' eee 2. 4. 9 n. 

18. uvidua] Le. •tipsy,' fitfipeyuhot. QL 1. 7. 22 n. 

19. nodo coeroei Ylperino] 'doet oonfine in a knot of 
eerpents,' i.e. Baoohue binde up their hair with eerpenta to 
amuae himaelf. 

20. Btetonldum] <The women of the Bietonee': it ia a 
Oreek feminine adjeotive. The Bietonee were a tribe in Thraoe. 

alne fraude= 4 without harm,' 'unharmed.' The oee of 
fraut in this sense is ohiefly found in legal dooumente (of. es 
VEAunn in the Twelve Tab.) and is aomewhat antiquated. 

A Baochante with enake-bound hair and thyreue ie repre- 
eented in Smith'e Clase. Diot. 

21. tu, cum...] Horaoe alao deeoribee the battle of the 
Oiante at length 8. 4. 48. For it eee Claae. Diot. a. v. 
Oigantes. parentU regna='ihe realme of the great Father,' 
i.e. heaven the abode of Juppiter. per arduum = 4 through the 
steep eky*: Virgil Oeorg. 1. 281 deeoribee how they attempted 
this by piling mountains upon one another, Horace purpoaely 
uees a vague phrase. 

23. Rhoetum] one of the giante. leonit becauae Baoohus 
aasumed this form during the fray; he had alao aasumed it 
when taken priaoner by Tyrrnenian pirates. 

25. quamquam...] The oonetruction is quamauam, cho- 
reit et jocit Uidoque aptior dictut, pugnae non tat idoneut fere- 
barit. non tat idoneut = * not suffioiently well suited,' i.e. 
'very ill-suited,' cf. non leni, 1. 15. 

27. eed idem] *but yet'; for idem used where oppoaite 
qualities are represented as existing in the same individual, eee 
2. 10. 16 n. Here the meaning is *but thou the aame peraon 
who ueedst to be considered good for nothing but fun, Ac.' 

28. pada erae medluaque belll] *thou didst take thy part 
in peace and war alike'; i.e. Dionysus notwithstanding what 
wae said of him shewed that though he enjoyed peace he waa 
equally ready for war. 


A| rci-iird^ ths poaition of gue here ftn.l 1. 33, Orelli well 

' v* phrsee, if eipresiad fnlly, would ba paeii 

iqve belli. but that, one meiiut being natu- 

revity , the phxue ii left u io the text. No 

ice u regarda aoaosioa h» e great in&uenoe 

«ition which i/ue ii sllowed to Minme. Cf. 

iptrentqve Nymphat, 8. i. 11, ludo fatigatum- 

,_ nn, 8aeo. 32, eunfiu referatqae tudot. For 

t <■ in a timi._ ition of, 3. T. 35, whioh ihouJd be if written 

fnllv, qvil ■— ' roperart apio eoronat (rcral), curatvt myrto. 

See too Je' Ntra, 107 n. The idiom ie natnrellY very 

common in e %tqvt domum. 

39. «ureo cornu neeon 
■jmbol of etrength, ligour, 

wine 'that Btrengthenl ra»o'i. __jt' ii repreeeated with lt 
Ovid, A. A. 1. 1. 339, tayi tbst under the inflnenca of 
pauper tornva,' ef. too 8. 31. 18. fu (i.e. Baecuui) ...aidU 
comua pauperi, snd slso for the uso of the word 'liorn' 
1 Samuel 3. 1, 'my hora i« exalted in the LoroV 

31. reeedentti) to be teken witli ptdet nnd crura = 'of jon 
relreating,' 'as you retresled.' The god had gone to Bsdes lo 
hring bsclc bis mother Semele. 

trillngnl ore] The eipreseion muet not be eismined too 
cloeely: ot triiingut ougbt to mean '■ rooath with thre» 
tougue»,' here it is = "tho taagne of each of hii three mouthi.' 


1 1, Msecenu, ihsll novar die but shsll be ehanged into ■ 
Bwan the masic of whose note aholl be hexrd throughoat tho 
world ; therefo» let none monra over mj oeaoUph.' 

The Ode is corapletelj conveationsl snd unustursl: Horsoe 
cancludee Book 3 with sn Ods which also eipressei hit hope of 
sn irmnortslity of fame, but whioh afforda an edmirablo oon- 
trsat to thia in force snd power. 

Wickhsra saya the Ode muy be deaoribed m sn smplules- 
tion of Eaniai' Epllsph on himself ; 

tiftno me tacTumb deeortt, nee funtta Jlctu 
faxit. tvrf volito vinu ptr ora virum. 

NOTES. 293 

No doubt the eame thought underliea both the epiUph and 

the Ode, bnt it woold be impossible to point ont more vividly, 

than fo done by bringing them together, the oontrast between 

what U gennine and what ii iantastio in poetry. 

Plttsi takea thii to be the aituationx the poet U dead; his 
oorpee U on the funeral pyre ; Maeoenas calU npon his friend 
(ef. quem voeai L 6) for the laat time; in aniwer the poefs 
ghoat or ahade proolaims iti tranaformation, Ao. 

1. non usitata...] *0n no ordinary or faltering piniona 
will I aweep a bard of double ahape throngh the bright upper 

ncn utitata : bo in the fint Ode of the next Book 1. 2 he 
■peaka of hU writings as earmina non prim audita, partly 
meaning that lyrio poetry had not been attempted in Latin by 
any befbre him, partly that the quality of hU poetry wai of no 
oommon itamp. 

2. liquldum aethera: the epithet liquidut U applied to 
either aer or aether, either with referenoe to ite being 
• tranalneent' like water, or •vielding' like all flnidt (ef. in thia 
eaae Milton'8 phraae 4 the bnxom air/ where •buxom/ the 
Oerman •beugsam/ means 'yielding'). 

4. invidlaque maior] *and soaring high above envy.' 

6. panpemm iang-nli parentnm] *the offepring of lowlv 
^«^^1.' The phraae U employed in cloae oonnection with 
the word invidia in 1. 4: Horaoe was the son of a freedman 
(Ubertinui), and the meanneaa of hii birth wai a favourite 
aubject for the eneera of thoae who were jealoue (invidi) of hU 
aooial and poetical luoceai (cf. Sat 1. 6. 46). He here adopts 
the very worde in which they had aneered at him in order to 
make the glory which he was deatined to attain greater, by 
oontrait with the poaition from which he had a tarted. 

For tanguii et 8. 27. 65, rtgiu» tanguit, and Carm. Saec. 
60, Anehitae Veneritque tanguit. 

6. quem vocas, dileote Maeoenaal These words are taken 
in two ways — (1) *Whom thou, Maeoenas, dost call Dear 
friend'; (2) 'Whorn thou, O dear Maeoenas, dost oall* or 
•summon.' The objeotion to the flrst method U the separation 
of the vooative dileete from the vooative Maeeenat, which 
U to my mind iinpossible, at any rate if the ordinary laws of 
Ungnage are to be respected. Moreover elsewhere Horaoe has 


Ul bin tfcat «t wnaat MMfe fa 

■ e&ef* JfaaccM*. Battta* ttfa • 

lid* Mild ra hj UmU bm 

mU eerminlj M mr" — "- 

b ii Mhnlu' * 

■ i ii, 


L*. tO thj honBt, MMfMT/, M UM Hfct, httt tfail MMM Ml MM 
tnrttar^factmthaverjmiddleof raoh a raaMody. TOjnanlll 
I sm rtronglj in nwu of iMng to ww a mneh widet nl 
larger aeriae.-^dorteummon/Le. to poetia the 
hope of glorr and fmmortantj. 80 taken it ghM « 
hdh, u d the behaTionr ol MMMMU it forauttj oot 
with that of HonuVi idiutan- '1, whom mur *r~ 

'Hot I, flom hnmble linengo ipmng, 
Hot I, deer Petron, whom thy tongno 
Snmmoni to fame, wiil feer to die 
Or bonnd bj Stji'i fettan lie.' 
If Plflt 1 ba right in bii opinion M to the Ode, then vocom 
would ba claarlj naad of 'calling on' Horaoe 07 nama at 
the fnnaral pjra and biddinghim 'hail and farewelT; of. Cat. 101 
fratcr, have oijw valt, andVlrg. Ao. 11.97, MtM atttnumtwdki, 
maxime Palla, | uWrnuntoiM valt. 
7. obibo] of. 3. 17. 8 n. 

9. l*m lam...] He here ipcaki u thongh he falt hi« 
metamorpboiU ilreadj beginning. 

MUnt enuilroi] 'aettlea down on my anklea.' ridoand 
iti componnds (aa diatinguiihed from itdio) alwaji eipreai a 
iltnc and aradual proceaa of noming lnlo a poeition of reak 
11, Iotm) Notioe tha quactitj. 

1S. Daedaleo notlor] 80 Orelli'* 4th edition, following 
the bert M8S. Orelli'» old reading ocior involved an hlatni 
withont paruUel in Horaoa: tnoreoTer thors ii no point in the 
poat aajuig that ha wonld flj 'mora iwiftlj' thau Ioarui; on 
tha othor liBnd he doea hope to beoomo ' more famona.' 
Bentlej'i eonjeetnra tutior haa been iargelj aooepted, bnt there 

NOTES. 295 

Ioarns (see Olas*. Dfot) ii rather an unfortunate type of 
aoaring humanity for Horaee to have seleoted, but indeed in 
oomidiring passages ol tbii natnre a too strict examination of 
all the alluaions ii only fooliah: the writer merely aoonmnlatoa 
a qnantitj of aonorona and aomewhat vague proper names, and 
trnsta that they will have pretty mnoh the aame effeot on the 
reader that an old lady onoe oonfessed to having experieneed 
from 'that blessed word Mesopotamia ' in an otherwise nnin- 
telligible sermon. 

Anyone who ezamines 11. 18 — 80 will at onoe see how 
pnrely meohanioal they are: any tolerable ▼erse-writer oonld 
mannfaotnre them, and similar ones are to be met with in all 

The whole Ode, like aeveral in this Book, olearly bears the 
stamp of havina been written oarelessly or before Horaoe's 
powers had reacned matnrity. 

16. oanoms ales] Le. a swan. Gf. 4. 8. 19, mutit quoque 
fUeibu» | donatura cycni, ti libcat, sonum. So Pindar, 4. 2. 25, 
is oalled Dircaeum cycnum, 

For an aooount of the song of the dying swan (about whioh 
naturalists are silent) see Tennyson'8 The Dying Swan, and ef. 
the well-known epigram : 

«Swans sing before they die, 'twere no bad thing 
Should oertain people die before they sing.' 

17. dlsstmulat] 'endeavonrs to hide.' 

19. noscent] 'shall learn.' notco i» an inoeptive verb like 
the Ok. yiyrwricu) ; henoe the perfeot novi (and in Qk. tywutta) 
= •1 havo learnt,' i.e. 'I know.' 

perltns] proleptio, not however as Orelli takes it, 'me the 
Spaniard shall study when he beoomes learned/ but, as its 
position between me and dUcet shews, 'by the study of my 
writings shall the Spaniard beoome karned.' 

Oonsidering however the faot that during the snooeeding 
oentury Spain produoed many writers of great eminenoe, e.g. 
the two Seneoas, Luoan, Maxtial, Oolumella and QuintUian, 
perhaps it is not quite impossible that at this time the 
Spaniards may have been noted for literary seal, and that 
Horaoe may be nsing the adjeotive with striot aoonraoy. 

20. Rhodaniqne potor] a periphrasis for 'dwellers by the 
Bhone.' Of. Hom. H. 2. 825, vlrorrtt v&vp uikaw Ainjroco, ot 
8. 10. 1, Tanain bibere, 4. 15. 21, qui Danubium bibunL 

296 UORACE, ODES II. u. 

91. lnul] to too luptTvucuoi 1, 34, beesuse Honoe *ill 
■ li.ll survive, i.e. his fuue will. How there could be » /unm 
*t «11 it is difliciiit to sae, u hit bodv b&d been ohenged into 
that of a bwui it the beginning cf the Ode: here howaver he 
eeems to speak u if hi« spirit only had taken flight. leaving its 
tenement of alay behind it, ovec whioh his friends, thinking it 
to be Horace, will porform faneral ritett, 'empty' ritee however, 
beoause the roal Horaoa vrill bc Mill aliva and immorlal. 

It ii idle to attempt to explain the discrepancj : oonven- 
tionsl poetry and conventional painting evade the ordinary 
mlee of aritioiim and lommon senu, sometimee with suooesa, 
usually withont. 



The first six Odes of this Book are remarkable for their 
sustained dignity of style and general unity of subjeot. They 
are all in the Aloaio metre and of eonsiderable length, and all 
dcal with subjccts of public and politioal interest Consider- 
ing the intimate relationship snbsisting between Horaoe and 
Augustus, there can be little doubt that their oomposition was 
at any rate suggested by the Emperor, whose object it was to 
appeal in support of his political system not merely to the 
interests but to the feelings of his subjeots (see espeoially 
Merivale, c. 41). Lines 1 — 4 of Ode 1 seem to be intended as 
a stately exordium to the whole six rather than 8% a particular 
introduction to the first Ode ; indeed, aa the introduction to a 
single Ode they would be exaggerated and unnatural. 

' 'Kings rule over their subjeots, but are in their turn the 
subjects of almighty Jupiter: one man may be wealthier, 
nobler, more famous than another, but all alike are the slaves 
of neoessity. Then oease to be anxious: where anxiety exists, 
not all the luxuries of wealth oan prooure that sound sleep the 
poor often enjoy. To want but little is the great secret : the 
owner of huge estates is harassed by a hundred anxieties about 
them, the builder of vast villas by the sea often vainly flies 
from care. If this be so, why should I wish to change my 
modest home for wealth which is only a burdenf 


1- odl..,azi»1 ' I abhor tba unhallowed throng and hold 
re the celebr»tioo of ths mveteriea 01 any 
iriests bad the uninitiatnd or nnholj to 
an. 6. 358, proctii, o proeul titt profani). ao 
he prieat ol the Huees, bidi »11 who h»vc 
i their 11111116 to depart, while he ehanU hi» 
tbeir hononr. 

^.vmuiIU, ™ de the »hrine.' u uaed of thoso who wera 

ii ■: 1 1 allowed to enter it. So m the lemple »t Jeruealem nona 
but Jewe were aliowed to paee beyouJ the outer oourt, 'Um 
oourt of the OentJleB 1 ; the Gentilea were profani. 

%. i»vete Ilngnll] Ab the ullr-r»iicr of ill-ometied «nli 
vitinled auy uared rite, it ni caetamaxy for tbe prieat bciom 
com j iioii cing to uk tho peoplo ' to lie tavourable witb their lipa ' 
(ort or tinguit favtrt), L e. to utter none bnt favourable worda, 
and as tbe eafest way of doing 80 waa to be eilent, the phrata 
often praoticailv meana 'be ailent.' The Ok. U «liipijiitiri. Ct 
Prop. 4. 6. l.iacrafaiit valti.iint ora favnttia lacrii, and Vlnj. 
Aen. 6. 71. ortfavctt onaui. Cf. too 9. II. 11. 
For non priiu avMta of. 2. 20. 1 n. 

3. Huaanun BMerdc*] poetB are the 'prieati of the Muie»' 
aa being their interpreter» to men, and apeeially ooneeorated to 
their aerviea. Cf. Theoc. 18. 29, !IWdur...lqM«i irt^riu, 
■ BMored interpretera ot the Mu»c«.' 

rglnlbu» puerl 

e to the influe 
tbeni tbat tboae who wkh to improvc tho oharacter of » 
mu»t ehieflj look. 

5. In proprloi gregee] Supply imptrium at from the 
neit line ; 'kinga have rnle over their own flooke.' For tha 
metaphor in grtaa ot tha Homerio phnae 'ahepherd of tha 

dndlj idea k 

in thia phraae, remarkiiig that, though it i 
c*ll » nng the 'ahepherd of the people,' it ia not the aam 
thing to oa.ll the people the 'sheep ot the kjrig.' Thia L 
eapeciallj ao when the epithet proprv» ia added, * verj atreng 
word wbioh imrdiea abaolute ownerahip (ef. 2. 3. 3S n.). WUm 
■olvee the diffloultj by obaarving that to a Itomkn re*-'u 
Oriental deapot/ «id thnt the aenae ia, 'the deapot to wboan 
hia aubjeeta are bnt H IienJ» of «lamisnoiietheleaahimaelf...' 

NOTES. 299 

In Engliah the harahness of the phraea doea not appear, 
owing to the strong Soriptural asaooiationi oonneoted with 
the worda 'flookV and 'sheep,' e.g. 'fear not, little flook,' 'feed 
my aheep.' 

6. nges In lpeoi...] For the antithesis in thia and the 
preoeding line of. the prayers for the Qaeen in the Prayer- 
Book, and espeoially gnoh phraaee aa 'thy ohosen servant 
Viotoria, our Queen and Qovernor, that ahe (knowing whoae 
minister ahe is)....' 

8. cuncta...] 'that moves the world with his frown.' The 
phrase ia derived from the well-known linea of Homer : 

3 koI Kvariynv br 6<ppwri rcfoc ILpovlw, 
aiifipofiat 6* dpa xairat tttpp&carro aVcurrot 
Kparbt aV aBararoio, pJyay 6* i\4\i£cv 'OXvutov. 

H. 1. 538. 

'He said, and nodded with hia shadowy brow; 
Waved on the immortal head the ambrosial looki, 
And all Olympua trembled at hia nod.' 

Lobd Dbibt. 

Cf. too VirR. Aen. 9. 106, nutu treme/ecit Olympum, and the 
oonneotion between nutus and numen. 

supercUium, from tuver and cilium (from celo) 'tha oon- 
oealing thing,* 'the eyelid,' ia 'that whioh ie over the eyelid/ 
i.e. the eyebrow. 

9. est ut] 'it U poesible that,» 'it may be that.' Of. Qk. 
tertr owwt. 

latlua] 'more widely,' i.e. over a wider extent of ground. 

oxdlnet arbuata lulela] 'arranges hia treea in rows in the 
furrows.' arbustum is the technioal word for a tree upon whioh 
vines were trained (Virg. Qeorg. 2. 416), and ordines was the 
regular word for the rows in whioh they were planted. Of. 
Virs. Qeorg. 2. 276, where an elaborate deaoription of the best 
metnod of planting is given. 

10. hlo...deaoendat] The oonatruotion all through is de- 
pendent on ett ut. Aic = 'another,' and, in 1. 12, 'a third.' 

ln Oampumj i. e. in Campum Martium, which, aa being the 
beat known 'Field' at Bome, waa oonstantly spoken of without 
any diatinotive adjeotive. 

desoendere is used partly beoauae most men of poaition 
Uved on the hills, and hence it was neeessary detcendere in 
P. n. 21 


Doliorque hni] Theae wardi ire oppoeed 
cwidiilalo lias high birth, anotlior high 
poaitioo of ju« c.(. 2. 13. 38 


i*. aequ pmtial 

eepecialiy ainc 
Mif tha godi. ii— mi. 

16. moTitJ ' i__l__i,- 01. V. 8. _6 _. 

17. deitrlctui anala]... For the slory ase Claai. 
a.T. Democlee. 

cul] = fi cui, or perheps <jiu ciijuj. 'for him, over whoae 

1B. Slcnlae dapea) The epithet ia ehoaeii partlj bccauac 
the feset of Damoolea took plaoe at Sjraeuae, partly beeauaa 
Sjracoien Iqxutj aeems to have beea noted. Plato, Bep. 
404 n. uaea _ upa«_jla rp&nfe as _u almoat proTerbial expree- 

19. laporem] 'iluvour'; the word i> ideatical with tbe 
Bngliah 'aavour.' iaprre oriRinallj raeana ' to have ta«te,' 
aod ia llien nsed mctapliorieally = ■ to haye jtidRraoul,' 'to bs 

'Mothooght I beard ■ toIob ory, "Bleep no morel 
Maobctb doea murder aleep."— Tha iunooent ileep, 
Slecp (hat knita up ihe revelTd aleere at oera ...' 

_C_ee_nm Tlrontm] The genitiTe goea eftor donof. 

23, U. non] w. /tutidii. Ttmpt ii nenL plnral, et. rrlx*. 

37. ia»Tua lmpetua] 'The fleroe onaet of Mtting Arotu- 
rni.' vVben Arotorai ('Apmv^t, the Ee_r Wtrd) «oti at tne 
end of Ootober, the aea ia tempaatnona (tuiBuiiuonu») end the 
merohant baraittil (loIUcMal) abont hia ahipa. 

38. orlentla Bnedl] i.e. e_rlj in Oetober. 

39. non] ae. JoUiWfimt deiideraMcM euod lalti at. fw. 

NOTES. 301 

80. mendaxl ' lying, ' because the orops whioh had promited 
well turn out badly* Cf. 8. 16. 80, ugetit eertafidet meae, and 
Bpiit. 1. 7. 87, tpem mentita leget. 

arbore...] Tha oonstruction is arbore culpante nune aquat 
mme tidera torrentia agroe nune hiemet iniquat. arbore t Le. 
the tree par excellence, the olive. aquat, 'rains.' 

82. sidera] especially the Dogstar. 

88. oontracU...] Cf. 8. 34. 8 and 2. 18. 20. Horaoe U 
referring to the praotioe of bnilding villaa projeoting into the 
aea : the expression is of ooune hyperbolioaL For tentiunt 
uf. 2. 7. 10 n. 

84. molibus] ' maases of stone ' for fonndations. 

rxequeni] both Orelli and Wiokham explain frequent 
redemptor a«= 'the oontractor with a large etafl of assistants,* 
Wiokham saying that referenoe is made (1) to the builder, (2) 
to hia men (freyuent), (8) to the servants of the owner (JamuU). 
I ean find no mstance of frequent used in this sense exoept 
with words indicating a place (e.g. theatrumfrequent, 'crowded*) 
or.singnlar nouns implying multitude (e.g. ttnatut, populut 
frequent): it would seem however that frequent redemptor eum 
famulit is put poetioally for redemptor frequent famulit % i.e. 
frequentia famulorum ttipatut (so Nauok)s*the oontraotor with 
orowds of workmen.' Without the addition of the words eum 
famulit the phrase frequent redemptor would oertainly mean 
'many a oontractor.' 

86. eaementa] from caedo t ohippings of stone, 'rnbble': 
it was flung in [demiUo) lo fill up the spaces between the solid 

86. terrae fastidlosns] 'sick and weary of the iandV 
fattidium expresses the feeling of dissatisfaction and disoon- 
tent that inevitably resnlts from indulgenoe in luxnry. Cf. 
8. 29. 9, fattidiotam copiam, 'abundanoe that brings with it 
disoontent. 1 

87. Minae] i.e. thrcatening forebodings of ooming harm. 

89. aerata trlreml] 'the brasen-beaked trireme.' The 
vessel is here clearly a private one (cf. priva triremit, Epist. 
1. 1. 98), used for pnrposes of pleasnre or oonvenienoe, not 
a war-veasel of any aort. 

The words triremi and equitem are selected not merely 
beoause 'yachte' and «horses' might be thought of us able to 



1 slaere claxlor uiuij 'The wesriiig of 

po.^.i. uiuiv >u- 11 ttun ths atsrs.' In itriot grsinmsr the 

adj, darior ought to agree with purpurarwn, bnt In poetry 
the trsnsferenoe ' astohange (hypsllrifje) of ths adj. from ooe 
snbstantiTe to i Jier in ■ oloeely eonnected expreasion U 
ttot nneommon. " uu. " ■" Tyrrkenuijw l-ubai 

clangor = Tyrrhe%^. clangor, Uu _ II. 327, fupcroo 

vtero tinpet = IMtki ■■» rino*L ses too 1. 1B. 84, Miperbai 
rar-ruini fatctt, 1. 1E. 33, i> «*. AehiUti, 1. 31. 9, 

fuicna foict, 1. ST. T, 8. 8. 61, Trojat 

renateent fortuna, 3. 21. 1! :<:«, 8. 30, 3, regatit 

(ilui pyramidam, 4. T. 21, 4 

Poiple is epolten of H n the true Tyrian 

dye poseessed s peeulittr h n eolour sooording 

to the light in whioh it ws. »uj, 5 n. Purpuros, aa 

2. 18. 7, 'pnrple robes.' 

44, Jtehs.emenlunia.tLe coitum] For A.ahsemenes u s type 
of wealth cf. 3. 12. 21n. The adjwtiTB here is nsed to convey 
the idea thst the perfiune wa* of tbo rarest snd most eostly, 
irad alto becsuae aU pcrfumea oame from the East. 

45. cur...Ktrlum} 'why sboold I rear » nal] with portala 
ihat srouee envy and towering high in modern faahion?' 

The atrium or *hiU ' wsj unoug the Iti-.iaii.ns — as iu msny 
old Englisb tusnsions — the most important room tn Ibehoase* 
in it were displsyed the inuiotnst, and it w&a uscd for the re- 
ception of olients snd Tisitore: it wss therefore nstura.1 to 
spend laige suma on its ueooruuon. 

For invidndU ef. 9. 10. T, inotdWa oulo. 

postlbus: so Virg. Q. 2. 168, in s pssssge whioh Horsos 
clesrly haa in mind, deecribes how the elients, as they pour 
forth from s grast man's leree, variot inkiant pulckra ttttudint 
potttt, 'gspe with wondsr st the door-posts inlsid with fsir 

nc.T0 rito soggests an sntithesis wlth the aimplicity of esirij 
Bome. CL 3. 16. 14—20. 

47. psnwtent] 'take in eichango.' 

48. diTitt** operosloresj 'tho gresteT hurdea of wesdth.' 

NOTES. 303 


On trae manliness. — Let the boy, who means to be a man, 
lead a aimple and hardy life as the beat training for a soldier's 
eareer ; in the field let the foeman fear hixn, and let his oourage 
be inspired by the thonght that death is glorious indeed when 
eneonntered in his oountry's canse: the trne man is in- 
dependent of the honoors the mob oan give or withhold, he 
treads a path of his own, heaven and immortality are his 
reward, for rewarded his nprightness and trne reverenoe shall 
snrely be, as oertainly as profanity and guilt shall be puniahed. 

1. amloe patl] *to endnre gladly.' This phrase means 
mnoh more than 'to bear oontentedly' {lente ferre, dyanrrwt 
64p*w); it is almost an instanoe of oxymoron, and is invented 
by Horaoe to ezpress that not only shonld the young Boman 
'endnre poverty,' but that suoh 'endurance' ahonld be 'welcome 
as a friend' to him, seeing that in it he will find the best 
training for life. 

Observe the emphatio alliteration in this line, so too in 
U. 18 and 16, and 1. 82. 

pauperiem] not 'poverty' bnt 'humble ciroumstanoes,' e.g. 
the oondition of a yeoman farmer, from whieh olass the best 
soldiers had always oome, cf. 1. 12. 42, and 8. 16. 87 n. 

2. robnstns aerl militta] 'hardened in war*s sharp schooL' 
puer] ef. virum 1. 14, juventa 1. 16, virtut 1. 17, virtm 1. 21. 

8. oondiscat] a stronger word than dUcat; so 1. 87. 28, 
comM6tfr«ts'drink deeply,' 4. 2. 82, concinet, stronger than 

5. sub dlvo] 'beneath the open aky,' of. 1. 1. 25 n. and 
2. 8. 28 n. 

trepldls in rebus] 'amiddeedsof hazard.' Livy twioe nsei 
this expression. 

6. illum. . .] This sentenoe is difficult to render, (1) beoanse 
of the prominent position of iUum, (2) beoanse althongh 
both matrona and virgo form the nominative to tutpiret 
(for the verb in the sing. of. 2. 18. 88 n.), yet the whole eunse 
from eheu to caedet ezpresses only the feehngs of the 'maiden' 
and not of the 'matron.' 


■ Him li. b, iuab ■ jouth ai 

wife of * wmrring emperor b 
■ighing, alatt for feur lett... 
i bow drnmiticnlly tbe interjeotion 1* intro- 
iftei itiipirr 1 , 

ipociu»] 'har betrothed unskilled in OOm- 
i i genitiTe u/tur it u intpljing ignoranoe, of. 

10. l»ce«i»t] Tliiu Terb ia con*ta,nUy nied of n 
proroting »n enoonnter with ■ dtcgerou» enemy, which might 
eaeilj h»Te been avoided. „ Jiu, 

arperum tactu] 'dangerout to tonob.' Tha aupint is 1 
nied more fullv to dufioe the meaning of t e ■djeabTe: Hor»ee 
more freqnenllj, &nJ the Oreek* ntajiy ilwajs, use the ep- 
exegetic infinitive tor Ibi* porpose. 

13. per medlu caade*] 'throogh tbe thickeat of tbe car- 

13. duice...] 

*How blee»'d is he wbo for hii oouutrj diee. 
Sinee death pnnuea the coward u he fliea; 
TIk- jon th in vtin wonld fly from fato'* attuck, 
Witb trembLing kneee and terror »t hii baok.' 


Thia stsnia ii oonnected with the prcvioua one &a aaaigning 
the reuon why ■ loldier ebonld be brave u ■ ' lion. ' 

mcri; rnon] For thii method of joining c1»ubcs, of. 1. 2. 

Por the lentiment in L 11, ef. Tjrtuu», 

Tttfitunu yip nUi M TpopAx a " ri wirimi 
"irlp iytMr, rtpt j} rarofti pupri/uror. 

17. Tlrtu] from trlr, 'intmlinew,' 'Tirtae,' it here clearjy 
dietinct from 'oourtge' whiah bu alreadj been deelt with 
1L 1 — 16: it i* th»t uiaulj independenoe rod dttarmtaaUoa of 
ehamcter whioh actt up to the principl* 

' Th»t, beoauu right u right, to follow right 
Were wiidom in tl 

Sooh ■ ahaiaeter maj well be deteribed m 'ignorani of dln- 
graoefn! defeat,' 'bright with mbibM rtigniti*»,' »nd inde- 
pendent of the ahilting 'breeieof popular mwtt'; M thennw 
time Horaoa it influenoed in hii deecription bj ■ reooUention of 

NOTES. 305 

the well-known Stoio paradox that the perfeotly virtuous man, 
however low hia poaition in life, U nevertheieas 'rioh,' 'noble,' 
and *king of kings.' Of. Sat 1. 8. 186, Epist 1. 1. 107. 8o 
4. 9. 89 ne tells LoUius that owing to his virtue he ia *not 
consul for one poor year' (contulque non uniut anni). 

repulsae sordldae] repulta ia the olassioal word for 'losing 
an eleotiou.' 

18. honoribus] honor is frequently nsed for *an offloe of 
dignity,' *a magistracy,' of. 1. 1. 8, tergemini honoret, and note. 

19. secures] See Dict. Ant s. t. fateet, and of. Carm. 
Saeo. 54 n. 

20. arbitrio] *at the dedsion,' i.e. in obedienoe to the de- 
oision. The expression popularit aura explains itself. Yirg. 
Aen. 6. 817 has gaudent popularibut aurit and Cio. pro Cln. 47, 
vtntut popularit, 

21. Tirtusl 'Virtue opening the gate of heaven for those 
who hsve not deserved to die essays her oourse along forbidden 

immtritis mori] i.e. those who liko Pollux, Heroules and 
(^uirinus (see next Ode, U. 9 — 15) have by the nobiUty of their 
hves deserved to escape the common doom of death, and have 
won for themselves an immortality of renown. 

22. caelum] Of. Virg. Aen. 6. 130, quot...ardent evexit ad 
aethera virtut. 

negata vla] Orelli seems clearly wrong in explaining this 
atperruma quaque : the meaning is that, although to mortals 
immortaUtv is forbidden, virtue does notwithstanding discover 
the way whioh leads to it. The expression recalls Job 28. 7* 
'There is a path which no fowl knoweth and whioh the 
vulture'8 eye hath not seen.' 

23. udam humum] Hhe damp gronnd,' i.e. apart from 
metaphor, the ordinary mean and unworthy objccts of human 

25. est et. . . ] The difficult connection between these stansas 
and the preceding ones I have endeavoured to make olear in 
the summary, foliowing the guidanoe of Pluss. Opposed to 
uprightness (virtut) and true reverenoe and respeot for the 
mysteries of Teligion( fidele tilentium) t txe profanity(cf. votyartt) 
and crime (ineetto t tcelettum): the reward of the one is as sure 
as the punishment of the other. 

300 HORACE, ODES III. ii. 

afi. v.tnhni '1 will forbid 0110 who lut» mado pablio the 
• to be beneath the ssine root-lreo or to 

See Diot Ant. i. ». Eltutinii. 
ideat on vitabo. Cf. moh oomtructions u 
, T, Pub. Sobool Primer, I 166. 
>h »uiti.| „ ~oJ ot uudoing the eable whioh fastened th* 
abjp to the ahore. For the d&oger ot embarlring with gniltj 
iTit.ii cf. Aeacb. 8. c. Theb. 603, 

lf -> n/i evwttcffit rXofs» «iVtiSili i"jp 
taL ; TQU[ BtpfiOil Kai warovpyta rtei 
6Xu\c* d*^pi.* ci!t BtowrticTtp -yirti. 
aiid ilno GeneeU 1S. 23—33, 'And Abrahun drew near end 
seid, "Wilt tbon aieo deatroj tbe righteoua with thewickedf - " 
Dieaplter] An anjhaio word Uaed lo giTe ao impreaaion ol 
solcmnity, ef. 1. 31. 6 n. For derivation of. 1. 1. 23 n. 

easpe ..raro] Notiae the emphatic poaition Uid anlithu- 
sis ot tlicse words. Tranelate ' rarely has Betribution witb her 
halting foot left Ihe track of thc guilty though far in tront.' 
Hetribntion i( repreacnted aa elowly but aurely dogging the 
heela of the guilty, eTen though, their crime hanog been oom- 
mitted loug before (cf. anltetdtntem), they might tbink they 
had eacsped. Bo too in Aeach. Ag. 59, Zei'f...i!<rr</>oiriHHv 
»*>w<i waaafiatrit 'EpirCr, 'Zeus eenda after transgresaors a late- 
avenging Fnry.' 

30. Integnun) For deriv. of. 1. *. 22 n. Here of one in 

wbom there is no flaw, 'a boly man,' cf. 1. 22. 1, inttgrr vitar. 

83. deeeruit ped* Poena, eUudo] Ara tbe eltiteration ar.d 

rhythm ot tbia Teree intended to tuggett tbe 'halting geiff 

Clntuto bj ite poaition Tery omphstio: 'tbough laine.' 


'The min wbo ia upright iu purpoee and atroug in will 
nothiug in hearen or earth siu ahake. Bj thoee qualitiae 
mortaJa h>TB beoome dirine, Follm, HercaUs, — yee., aad 
Augustus eUo — Bacchua, too, and especielly Bodm'i flrst 
toooder Quiriuua who waa nllowed to enter beaven, for Jdbo'i 

NOTES. 307 

worde were welcome to the gods when ihe declared that her 
wrath against Troy and Trojan gnilt had been appeaaed: ao 
long aa Troy remained in ruins a lair for the wild beasts, to 
the great deaoendante of the Trojans the path to glory and 
to world-wide empire was open : only let them beware of the 
greed of gain, and remember that if ever they aonght to rebnild 
the old Troy, if ever thoae walla roae again, again too wonld 
her aneient wrath ariae with rnin to the raoe.' 

Linee 1—16 are very aimilar in their thonght to Ode 3, and 
seexn like the whole of the first six Odes to have a didactio 
purpose, bnt at 1. 17 the poet breaks ofl into a dramatie de- 
soription of which it is diffionlt to see the pnrpose. Orelli 
oonsiders it dne to 'poeticae jxurnxala* plemu impetut,' while 
Wiokham speaks of the Ode as 'more in Pindart etyle than 
any that preeedes it.' No donbt lyrio poets when the snbjeet 
of their Ode is heavy or unoongenial eagerly embraoe the first 
opportnnity of introdnoing any poetio narrative illustrative of 
their subjeot, an admirable instanos of snch treatment being 
the introduotion of the aooount of Regulus in Ode 6. Here 
however it is diffioult to see olearly how Juno's speeoh in 
any way illnstrates the praise of justioe and firmness in the 
opening lines. Again it would perhaps be possible with Orelli 
to refer the lines to the •full rush of poetio fanoy,' and say 
that Horaoe had forgotten hU theme in the enthusiasm of his 
verse (a doubtful oompliment to a poet), but it is only too 
evident that the lines are not merely the outburst of fanoy but 
written with a definite purpose. The eztraordinary emphasis 
with whioh the prohibition to rebuild Troy is dwelt upon ean- 
not be acconnted for on merely poetioal grounds: it seems 
unealled for and mars any poetioal symmetry there may be in 
Juno*s speech. On the other hand we know of no adequate 
historical reason that oan be assigned for the introdnetion of so 
strong a warning; Suetonius (Caes. 79) does indoed tell us 
that there had existed a rumour that Julius Oaesar intended to 
remove the seat of empire to Alexandria or Hium, but it is 

308 HORACE, ODES III. iii. 

eitlier tbat such * rumour oould tnva becti 

i calm and philOBophic Auguitui or that he 

1 to luch a method cf refuting it ae theae 

_ , Leitly undor no circumstaneei i» it eaiy 

j uunt )n between the rebwlding of Troy and the 

opening line* oiue Ode. 

riuae «looe gives e reaaonable solution of theee diitlcultict : 
tbe clue to the Ode which he fttniishea ii — with some altera- 
tion— this: 

Uprightneis Biid strength of will have won for individnnla 
fame e>nd immortnlitj : by these virtues Romulae tlie founder 
of Rome reachcd heaven ; bv tbete Rome haa broken tbe bau 
tiint reited npon Trov, e>nd ihall attain to univereal empire, 
Only she muit(l)iuok upon ths-t empire m a responsibUlty 
and not a meani for lelf-enriohment, (2) sbe muit not imagine 
that ihecan restoro thftt whioh basbeen doomedto dcstrnction, 
i.t apart froni fljniboliani, she muat givo np tbe old RepubUe 
ond acccpt the new Monarohy u tbe diviucly appointed oon- 
dition of her ct 

n propoaltlj Mnny verbal adjectivee in ax take 
in objective genitive, s. g. tdax, rapux, capax. 

8. voltusj graphio, because anger is displayed in the faee. 
Cf. Ptalm M. 1«, 'the faet of tbe Lord ia againit them that 
do avil.' tmtantii= 'lowariiut.' 

4. msnte qoaut tolida] 'ibakee from hii rook-liko por- 
pose.' Wiokham is olearly right in rondering sofUe, 'mk< 
like,' especisUy in conneotion with tho mention of 'aea' and 
'storm-wind' immediatelr aftarwardi. 

For tbe wholc paaiage cf. Tennyion'i Will : 
*0 weU for bim whose will ii strong! 
He inffer» bnt ha will not tuffer long; 
Ha suffers, but ho oannot anffer wrong: 
For bim nor movoa the lond world'i random mook, 
Nor aU Calamity's hugest wavee oonfound, 
Who seemi a premtmtory of rock, 
That compMi'd ronnd with turbnlent sonnd, 
In middle ocean meeti the sorging ahoek, 
Tempeat-buiteted, oitadol-orown'd. ' 

NOTES. 30!) 

6. dux...Hadriae] C£. 1. 13. 15, arbiUr Hadriae, and 
note. The wind ruU$ the wavea, 

7. il fractus...] 'should the ihattered universe o*erwhelm 
hhn, tfae rnins will strike him untrembling.' 

■1. . .Ulabatur . . .ferlent. Note the irregnlar oonaeontion, the 
indio. expresaing the eeriainty, the enbj. the hypothetit. 

9. hac arte] *by tnch virtue,' Le. by the virtne deeoribed 
in 1. 1. Ct 4. 16. 12, veteret artet =»the virtues of anttanity.' 

For Pollux, Heroules, and Baeohus, see Dict. Ant. They are 
frequently seleoted as types of deined mortal», cf. 4. 6. 86, 
Eput. 2. 1. 6 and Tao. Ann. 4. 88. 

10. eniana. . .] * striving upwarda reaehed the ttarry heiffhts. ' 
enitut, whioh expressea foroing a way ont or npwards, ii 
clearly right here, though the beet MSS. give innitut. 

11. qnoa lnter...] The introduotion of the liTingAngnt- 
tue 'quaffinff neotar with ruddvlipe' in thit Boman valhalla 
for departed heroee ie oertainbr atartling. To tpeak of the 
Emperor as a 'god on earth,' as 'deetined to retnrn to 
heaven' (aee 1. 2. 40 — 52), ia only the language of extrava- 
gant flattery and the pureat Latin writere (e.g. virg. G. 1. 24), 
but to apeak of a person aotually living aa aotually 'drinking 
neotar in heaven' is to offend not only our moral but our 
intelleotual judgment, an offenoe of whioh the olaaiical writere 
are rarely guilty. Some MSS. give bibet whioh lookt like a 
eorreotion but perhaps improvee the paasage. The uae of the 
term Auguttut would seem to place the date of the Ode 
about b. o. 27, the year in whioh that title was oonferred on 
the Emperor. See Merivale, o. xxx. and Ovid, Fast. 1. 609. 

12. pnrpnreo ore, says Wiokham, 'impliee the halo of 
rosy light which surrounda the beatified Augustus'; the more 
prosaio rendering 'ruddv,' ie. with wine, seems deeidedly 
more natural, but should be perhaps rejeoted for that reason 
in a passage of this character. 

18. merentem] i.e. as having travelled through Asia 
teaohinff men the use of the vine, and introduoing oivUiaation 
(of which the tamed tigers are a type). 

16. Martls eqnls] 'on the ohariot of Mars,' his father. 
Ovid, Fast. 2. 498, desoribes the ascent of Bomulus to heaven: 

kine tonaty Jdne mittit abrumpitur ignibut aether; 
Jlt /uga ; rex patriit uttra petebat equit. 


. p».. I* intweit. M 3. 1*. 1 n. 

19. fatalls] 'i fomod,' i.e. bringing with him doiith and 
deatroction. juJt* refers to the famoui 'Judgment o! Faria' 
which broughl 00 hirn the wrath of Junci, ef. Virg. Aeu. 1. 36, 
mantt altd rrpottum 
jurlieium Pari „. iryund format. 

30. nnllar p*r««,i n. Jt ia to the mpe of 

Helen tbat ivceitui i " alao refara to hii 

dsaiaioo iu favoar of \c if Jnno or Uinerva 

(ef. comuu, I. 3S). 

ei quo.. Laomedon] 'Bince the dnj whpij Laomedon hsting 
6xed thc-ir reward failed the gods.' pollo ind Neptune 
helped Laomedon to build the welli o Troj, md he then 
refuaed them their wage». dtitituit = "leit in the larch.' ex 
i/iui = n guo tempore, nnd ii to be taken with damnattm; the 
oitj wu 'conderoned from the day wben, Ao." 

2S. iun...hospes] 

'The Spartan wanton'a ahameless gaest 
No longer fleunts in brave vnj,' Mabthi. 

Orelli rlghtly bbvb that it !l aimpler to take aduittrae aa 
the genitive aftar kotpet thtui ns the dstive after tptendtt, 
though ipltniitt aduttmu might e&aily mean 'decks himself 
for,' i.e. to pleaaa, hie miatreaa. Horaoe refera elsewhere to 
the briUiant tppaaianoa of Paria, t. 1. 16. 13—30, 4. 8. 
13—18, and of. Hom. H 8. 893, idttrf r* »rtt*W xal daw», 

36. Faria ta oalled /mmMbI honu, 'Um infamoaa guaat,' 
beoaaae hia violation of the lawi of hotpitality added donble 
infamy to bia erime. 

b to ths gods having taken diffarent aidea, and being there- 
e onable to decido what tha iaana ahonld be. 

NOTES. 311 

sedltlo=#«- d- itio, *a going apaxt' (of. te in tejungo), exactly 
repreeents the Greek *r*Vif ; it ia *a dividing into two factions' 
or 'parties.' 

80. protinusl 'forthwith,' immediately from now: from 
pro 9 and tenut, wnioh impliea unbroken suooession, that whioh 
*holdt on* (tenet) to a thing being that whioh oomea imme- 
diately aiter it Cf. continuus. 

81. nepotem] Mare the father of Bomnloa was the aon 
of Jnno. 

88. Troloa aaoerdoa] Bhea Sflvia, aee Ciaes. Diot. a. v. 

88. Martl redonabol redono ia only fonnd here and 2. 7. 
8 (where it meana *to give baok'): Wiokham and Orelli aay it 
iM»oondono t withont anthority. Nanok zightly ezplaina: 'I 
will give np to Hara who haa a elaim on him,' re being naed aa 
freqnentiy in reddo (ol 2. 7. 17 n.) f e.g. a poatman reddit 
evUtolam *handa it over to the peraon to whom it ia addreaaed,' 
•duly delivera it.' 

lHum ego] Notioe the jnztapoaition of theie emphatie pro- 

84. dnoere] *to drain,' 'qnafP,' cf. L 17. 22 n. 

85. adaorlbl...deornm] *to be enroUed among the peaoeful 
ranka of heaven.' The word adteribere (aee Diot.) ia a teoh- 
nioal one for *adding to the regiflter/ e.g. of oitixena. In hia 
uae of the word ordinet Horaoe is donbtlees thinking of the 
'rows ' or 'ranka' of aenatora in the Boman Curia. 

quietU] The adjeotive ia naed partly aa suggeating an 
antithesia to the oontinued struggle in whioh the raoe of Troy 
haa hitherto been engaged, partly in referenoe to the Epiourean 
belief that the goda enjoyed a 'aaored everiasting oalm,' un- 
marred by any oare for numan aorrow, of. 1. 34 Int 

87. dnm] •so long aa,' 'provided that/ of. 1. 16. 26 n. 

88. qualibet...beati] 'let the exiles reign and proeper in 
whatever qnarter of the world they wiU.' exuUi, i.e. the 
Bomans aa desoendants of the Trojana who had been driven 
into perpetual •exile* from Troy: the word ia employed how- 
ever with a oertain oontempt; with aU her magnanimity Juno 
ia not above the feminine weaknees of saying aomething 
nnpleaaant (of. the eneer implied in peperit eaeerdot, 1. 32, 
and obaerve the aame thing in Lydia, 3. 9. 21 and 22). 

312 HORACE, ODES III, iii. 

J2. iutl Knmbiitio both bv iteclf aad from iti position. 
ito i« uned in preferenoe to any of its 
i*B inunoveble fiiitv; the soiaJiBees of the 
. Cf. Yirg. 0. *. 208, ilct fortwu _om_i. 
»] The intransitive verb triumphari haa 
poel Ireqncntly nses tlie paat part. paaaiv* 
_ imphed over,' 'led in triumph.' The con- 

vi:_«r_OL -. uie i i i» i ts eicuse. pottit = ' he strong to. ' 

44. feroi] _jry,' 'warli-e,' in aniitheaie to iri_moh_ru. 
dare jura = 'to impoee lawa oa.' For ifedij = 'the PartWn»,' 
of. 1. 3. 51 q. 

16. qu» ..KLlui' ■ g iea divides Europe 

from the African, i ■ wm' ' 

Theae words e™ 1 - . _ orot 

cosit»' are tfa o. oi arda 

Egypt towerda 

4B. tnmldt ;»t _rv_] The refcrPiice ii to tbe ennual 
overflow of the cn which thu fertilitv of ERypt depenrts, ef. 
Virgil'a carcful u „,icriptian (O. 4. 392), tt virijjgm Atgyptum 
mgrii fteunaat harena. 

49. lumm.. . dextral a aomewhet awkward etanaa, in which 
a freah coudition ia imposed on Rome'» eiercise of empir», vis. 
that sbe sball be snpenor to the Inat of gold. 'Mors orave in 
ileapising gold left undiscQvered— *nd so better placed when 
eartb hides it— than in amaaaing it with handa that aeiie for 
hainan ends all holy thing».' Tho coustruction rpernere fortior 
quam cogtre is a harah extenaion of the uae of the epeiegetio 
infinitive; the parentheais tt...celat adds needleae oompleiity, 
and the neceseary acparation of eoijert froin humanot in -tm is 
nniiatisractorT. For the eenae of. Milton, Par. L. 1. 688, TitleJ 
tbe bowela ol their molher earth { for tieasure» better hid.' 

53. qnlonnqne...] 'whalever limit has bean M to tba 
□niverae thia shall sho reach with her inni, eager to aeo in 
what qaarter...' 

By j_icwur_i...o6ititi( Horace means nothing mona tban 
we do when we speak of ' the enda of the eaith.' 

53. qu*...ig_ee] i.e. the torrid sone. _«*_ce**-t_r- 
'ravel to the end,' ■ till they h_ve had enongh of it,' t! 
nothing to oontrol them. Hor_sa is fond of theae o> 
witb dt, et. 1. S. U a. 

66. qua. .rorei] Tbe frigid xone. 

NOTES. .313 

58. hac lege . . . ne] ' on this condiiion . . . that (they do) not.' 
pii] piut expresses the dutifol affeotion of a ehild for iU 

parents, here that of the Romans for their parent oitj (wrp6- 


59. rebus] 'fortunes.' 

60. Troiae. Troiae] Of. 1. 2. 4 n. «Of Troj, if it rite 
again with mournful omeni, the fortone ahall be repeated in 
grievons disaster.' 

61. renaacena] bj hjpallage (cf. 3. 1. 42 n.) in agreoment 
with fortuna instead of Trojae. For aliu of. 1. 16. 5 n. 

64. sorore] So Virg. Aen. 1. 46, 

att ego quae divom ineedo regina Jovitque 
et toror et eonjux. 

65. aeneua] i.e. strong aa bronze. Of. 8. 16. 1 and 1. 35. 
19, manu,..aena. 

66. auctora Phoebo] abl aba.s'bj Phoebua' aid'; he 
helped to bnild Troj (▼. n. on 1. 21, and of. Virg. Q. 8. 86, 
Trojae Cynthiut auctor). 

69. nen hoc...] A convenient deviee for abruptlj termina- 
ting a lengthj poem, whioh haa fonnd manj imitatora. Of. 
2. 1. 37—40. 

*8uch a strain will ill snit the sportive Ijre': pathetio 
deacriptions of war and diaaster are the subjects of epio and 
dramatic, not of ljric poetrj. 

72. magna ..parrls] 'to dwarf with pnnj veree a mightj 
thenie/ of. 1. 6. 9, conamur tenuet grandia, aud 4. 15. 3. 


'Inapire me, Oalliope. Naj methinks, je Musea, that I 
am alreadj liatening to jour voioe and wandcriug amid jonr 
haunta. You bj heaven's favour speoiallj guarded mj infant 
jears. Tonrs I shall be ever and everjwhere: jon thrios 
have saved mj life: with jou I will dare to go anjwhere. 
Your taak it ifl too, when all his wearj wars are over, to 
give rest and refreahment to great Oaesar, aud aid him with 

314 HORACE, ODES III. iv. 

your uver welcome oonnaeli of gentleneas and peooo. (He, 
Ib Ihe woild, and overthrow all impioui 
) wa know that Jupiter overthrew tlie 

iiom ikilful Ode, bb Orellf remarkB, in whioh, 

■etioa elling od hii own eareer m the ehild of 

_• wiuea, Hor k „ by an eaiy trnniition prooeedi to panegyrhe 
tlie government of Augnitai, ths gentlenen of which can only 
be dne to the nini fostoring cars, and flnally witb singular 
abruptneis but aingul uo . ■ dramatia aooonnt 

of the defeat of the gianu, wbien ai ; suggesta the thought 
how Jove'i great vicegeioiit on n>>u ohall in like manner 
be victorious over bii foes. 

1. descende caelo] Becnnse tlie Mubpb dwell in heaven. 
Cf. Hom. II. 2. 491. 'OX^nalfi iloOtt,. 

dlc ■««...] "eome brenthe upon the pipe a lengtby lay, or if 
thou now dost obooBe with clear.ringing voice, or with the 
itrings and harp of Pboebtis.' 

OreLli seyi that Calliope ia allowed tkrte ehoices [libia — 
tni voce actita — ica fidibu$ citltaraque), (1) to utler a laj on 
the pipe,' whicbprobanlymeani'alay acconipnniedby tbe pipe,' 
(3) a lay aung withont aocompaniment, (8) a lay aceonipajiial 
by tlte lyre. 

Wiekbam says that only laa choices are mentioned, snd 
tbat Horaoe, nfU-r nsking for a lay ncconipanied by the pipe, 
correcta bimself in I. 3 and leavea it to Clio whether ' it shall be 
voee atKta (and ao accompanied by Ihe pipe) or vocl gravi 
(and 10 acoompanied lv -i,- stringed instruinent).' 

Orelli'1 view leemi olearly eimpler, while that of Wiokham, 
ln addition to the awkwardnen of making rJoraoe oorreot 
and balf repent in 1. 8 what be had aaid in 1. 1, givea a verj 
foroed emphaaii and meaning to acutn, which ii merely eqnivs- 
lent to the Greek ilyita the itock opithet of thi Hnaaa (t. Plat 
Phaedr. 087 1). 

The reading eitkarave hai all tha MS. anthority, bu* 
only add* to the eonfuaion by auggeating to CalUou a famtk 
oboioe, 'the itringi' (i.e. of the lyn») or 'the aithara.' It 
would «eem moreover impomible that Horaoe ahoold hara 
writteii fidibvi citharuve, u the word fidibnt doae Dot in 
aoy waj iuggeat the 'Ijra' at oppoeed to tha 'cithara,' bart 

NOTES. 315 

u equally applioable to either. On the other hand the hendi- 
adys (ot 2. 7. 9 n.)JUUbus eitharaque ii simnle and naturai, ot 
Virg. Aen. 6. 120, Jretus cUhara Jidibusque eanoris. 

6. auditfi?] Horaee represents himeelf ai hearing the 
Toioe of Calliope in anawer to his appeal, but referring to hii 
eompanions to test the realitj of his impression. 

luditl 'xnocks.' amabiUs injanta=*a fond illoiion': the 
phraae u an inatanee of oxymoron, of. 3. 11. 85 n. The 
Greeka oonstantly speak of the state of poetio inspiration as 
MomaffftSt, and iuud* % v. Plat. Phaed. 246 ▲. 

6. plos] 'holy,' i.e. where only holy beings, hnman or 
divine, may enter. Oroves and rnnning streams are always 
spoken of as the favourite haunts of the Muses. 

9. me fabuloaae] Both words are emphatio by their 
position and juztaposition. 'Well may I hear their voice, for 
I have been from ohildhood speoially marked out by myaterious 
signs.' Gf. 1. 22. 9. 

fabulosae, in agreement with palumbet, 'storied,' e.g. as 
drawing the oar of Venus. The epithet in olose oonneetion 
with the emphatio me draws attention to the faet that the 
poefs early years were assooiated with legends and tales of 
mystery. Gf. the aneodote of a swarm of bees settling on the 
Ups of the infant Pindar. Note the position of the two pairs of 
oontrasted words, mefabulo»ae...puerumpalumbes. 

Volture ln...Apuliae] A very doubtful passage, whioh, as 
it stands, must mean *on Apulian Voltur just bevond the limit 
of my native Apulia,' i.e. on Mount Voltur which is in Apulia, 
and oalled Apulian, but on a part of it whioh stretches Just 
beyond the border of Apulia. The explanation given of this is 
that Horace was born at Venusia on the borders between 
Apulia and Lucania, and indeed elsewhere desoribes himself as 
'half Luoanian, half Apuiian' (Lucanue an Apuht» emcepe, 
Sat. 2. 1. 84). Such eztreme aoouraoy however of local 
description seems singularly out of plaoe in so imaginative 
a passage, and the remarkahly harsh variation in the quantity 

of ApUhu; and Apulia (whioh is 1 think without a real parallel) 
at* once suggests that the text is oorrupt. Of the various 
alterations however suoh as in arduo, in arido, Umina eedulae, 
limina PuUiae (assumed to be the name of his nurse), none 
carries oonviotion. The reading Volture in avio, whioh Keller 
adopts, is the most taking. 

r n. 22 

316 HORACE, ODES III. iv. 

• in tbe quautiiin of proper nuini Orelli 

Prlamiia, haltu itnlia. dtc., bal thew 

ty for Burh a liolent dauble change in two 

i wo h»ve here. Tho oeeM in whiah tbe 

Tery the iwml, »nd ea the quantity, 

ire referred to 1. 33. II n. 

11. >rn orst with pUj and |weighed down) with 

ileep «1« but perfectly lucid eipreaaiou, oopjsd 

from .. _ . 08, ttiiiT V i&diiKtrrti qtt «I vwr^. For 

poait . .. gur cf. _ 19. 38 n. 

13. mlrum quod foret omnlbui] ' »n iluit it {ijuod ii ei- 
pteined by u: . , .infa-ni) wu a marvel to ■11.' Fur quod = ul 

id. tm Pub. School Pnmer & 173, 173. 

14. nldum] BecaQae the town iu ■ituatod like a 'nrst' 
higb np unong the rock»; it 'neetled' among them. Aohe- 
rotili», Il«nli» and Forentum »re alt iid»U plaoea iu the netgb- 
bourhood of Horaee'» birthpleco. 

15. lUtui) tracta of bill and dnle thickly wooded and 
u»cd for pniture, 'glcna.' Iwmilii= 'low-lying.' 

17. ut ..donnlrem. nt...] Tbese clmucs eipUin mirwm 
qvod iii 1. 13, 'it wm ■ marrel hew...l «lept, hov....' A oUnM 
with ut il frequently cmployed to eiplain ■ neuter pronoun, 
■uch aa koe, iltuil, guod, Sie., but ui here ii »lso to •ome ii- 
tent dcpendent on minim. 

»tn.) 'deadly,' ef. 1. S7. 37 n. 

18. Mcn...myrto] The 'Uurel' kBcred to Apollo, aad 
tbe 'mjrtle' to Venn», ure aeleoted u •jmbolio of Jua futur» 
career ■< the poet who thoold eing the praisai of lon: Apollo 
and Venui are marked ont u hii tutelar daitie* (ot. non «tfM 

30. non ..tnfmna] 'not without uearen'* feTour a aon. 
rageoue child,' i.e. by heaTon'i epeoUl Utout, m ritu Di* 
being an initance of litota» (ot L 18. 9 n.J. 

All the editora give aitfmonu = 'eonregeou»,'but it tt hard 
to Me whftt partieuUr 'eourage' an infant ahewe who wandere 
into the woode and when tired out liea down and falU iilifi, 
or why Honoe ahonld allude to bia 'oonrage' hera at all. 

On tlis other band animiu (ot. eVeaM , attma and intfirm, 
affiart) wonld be oorreotlj naed of ' unpiration,' aa ln Virg. 
Aen. 6. 13, magnam euf aweUM animumqua | Dfliui uuMnl 

NOTES. 317 

vatet. As therefore animotut i» s'poesessingafii»tii«,'might 
not itf meanings vary with the meaning of animut, and might 
it not here s'poeeeesing inspiration,' , in*pired , r The eon- 
neotion with the next stanse ii thoe admirably meinteined: 
' inipired child. Tes, and as you inspired my ehildhood 
so will I be yours, Miises, <fcc' Seilar rightly givee "e 

21. ln arduos tollor Sabinos] 'I elimb the Sabine hille,' 
Le. to my Sabine farm among the hilla, cl 2. 18. 14 n. 

22. frigtdnm] Praeneste 20 milee S.E. of Bome was on a 
lofty hill and from its oonseqnent 'ooolness' was a favourite 
eubnrban resort of those who wished to avoid the excessive heat 
of Bome. 

28. Tlbur suplnum] 'the slopes of Tibur.' tupinum, lit. 
'upturned ' : the opposite of pronut. 

24. llqnidae Baiae] 'the clear' or 'bright air of Baiae'; 
for this use of liquidxu cf. Virg. Q. 4. 59 t peraettaUmliquidam, 
«'through the clear summer air.' Horaoe elsewhere alludes 
to the 'brightness of Baiae,' Epist. 1. 1. 83, mUlut in orbe tinut 
Baiit praelucet amoesiit. Baiae was the Brighton of Bome, 
and the whole ooast frozn Baiae to Puteoli was studded with 
▼illas. See Merivsle, o. 40. 

That Uquidae could mean *by the sea' I oannot believe, 
and the description of Baiae here as a 'watering-plaoe' would 
be curious. 

25. amleum] gives the reason for his preservation, ' beoause 
I was dear to.... 1 Jontibut, e.g. Castalia, Hippoorene. 

27. non...arbos] 'neither did an army routed at Philippi 
nor an aocursed tree destroy me.' Horaoe was a tribunut vtili- 
tum in the army of Brutus and Cassius whioh was defeated 
at Philippi, of. 2. 7. 0—16. For the 'accursed tree' ct 2. 13 

28. PallnurusJ a promontory on the W. of Luoania so 
oalled from the pilot of Aeneas who lost his life there (Virg. 
Aen. 8. 873). We know nothing of Horace having been nearly 

80. Bosporum] of. 2. 13. 14 n. 

33. Britannos hospitibus feros] cf. 1. 35. 29 n. Their 
repntation for cruelty was no doubt in great measure due to the 
reports of human sacrifices by the Druids, to whioh Taoitus 
(Ann. 14. 30) refers. 

22— Z 

318 HORACE, ODES III. ir. 

A tribe of the Cantabri, for whom et. 2. 
loni cf. 3. 9. 23 n. Virgil deecribee them aa 
ulated with horse'» blood' (rl lac concrttum 
tquino). Such itorie» must be taken at 

unnem) The Trdeub (Don), aee CIi 

37. Toe...anti ] 'Tmi too to exalted Caeaor, longing io end 
hia labonra uio i u he hu diapoaed among the town» "- 
war-wom aquadrn-''- "" — rannar. ~ - ** — Hn e»»e.' 

Notice the i ia thii with the j 

oeding atanzas. 

For addidit — „Wuu n.n.i rtdotdit. Orelli 

aupporta addid~ , 18. 81, colaruat 

Capua atqtit Nnt tnatat tunt, ud DO 

doubt the practice m « nenia of land at tbe 

cloee of a oampaign in _ uguuui if Tariou» towni wr _ 

auffloientiy eommon («* ■%. Ecl ■■■iil leenu 

aomewhat oiatter-of-Ittci nnd prcEj...- w ird. abdidit w e 
plaioed u luggeeting the idea of welJ nltrMunt, but thit 

idea is harshlT eipresaed bj «peaking .ip troops a« 'hidden 
in the towna.' reddfdif givea eiceUent eense, but aeema 
clearlj a eorreotion, for bad it been the original reading it i» 
diffkult to aee why it ihould haTo been altered to the more 
diffleolt nddidit or abdidit. 

41. - oe...almul 'jou gentle ooanfiele give, nud when thej 
Bre giTen rejaice with kindlj- eare.' 

iuo 'gentle oot-uaela,' whiiih the Ma» gire uid whion ths 
Tictoriona Auguitui foUowi, would »t ouee auggeet ■ oontrut to 
eTfliy Boman mind with the pronoription» of Ifarini, Snlla, 
and Antonj. 

dato] Horaoe clearij impUea bj hia uee of the periect 

Chera after tbe pruent dafu that not merelj do thej 
;« 'gWe' or 'proffor' oonnael, but that what they ao profEex 
beoomea a real gift, Le. ta not onlj proffand brtt acetpui, 

ahnat, from alo, =■ 'fostering,' 'nurturing'; tha Iftuaa 
treated Caeaar u their 'foater-child' { alawu au). 

Notioe that ctmriiium i» aoannad u a trhr/Uabla, tha 
eeeond i bniug prouonnoed almoat like «. Bo too pri ic ipl» »» 
6. 6, and in Virgil oblttt (Aen. 11. 687) u a daotjl. 

13. aoimtu...] For the oonneotion of thonght aee Bmn- 

NOTES. 319 

lmpios Titanas lmmanemque turmam] aoe. after tuttu- 
lerit to which the nom. ii {ilie) qtd in L 45. Ihe words are a 
good instanoe of hendiadya, eee 2. 7. 9 n. 

44. fnlmlne oaduoo] 'with down-ruahing bolt' Of. Prom. 
Vinot. 858, corcu/Sdnyt etpavwot. eaducut more usually signifies 
•ready to fail, ' e.g. 2. 13. 11. 

45. lnertem] The earth is eo called because of iti hnge 
and apparently motionleat bnlk, and alao to afford a eontrast 
to mare ventotum. Gf. 1. 84. 9, where bruta tetlut and vaga 
ftumina are oppoaed. 

46. urbes regnaqne triitia] 'oities (of the living) and 
realms of gloom/ Horaoe elsewhere (2. 20. 5, urbet relin- 
quam and 1. 86. 10, urbetque gentetque) uses urbet absolutely 
without any adjective as = • the world/ 4 the hauntf of men,' and 
ao here, doubtlesB for the aake of brevity and to avoid too 
numerous adjectives, he boldly plaoes it by iteelf in oontrast 
to the 'realxns of gloom.' In rendering into Engliah howerer 
it seems necessary to add some qualifying words for the sake of 

Notioe that et joins temperat with regit, and that regit 
governs all the accusatives from urbet. 

48. aequo] 'impartial/ Notioe the emphatio position. 

49. magnum Ula terrorem...] The lines from here to the 
end are olearly inoonsistent with 11. 42— -48. After reading 
how as sole ruler of the universe Jove had with his thunder 
annihilated the Titans, we are not prepared for the sudden 
statement that Jove had really quaked for fear t and would 
indeed but for the firm front displayed by some of his subordi- 
nate deities have fared badly. Horace seems to have been 
unable to forego the opportunity of introduoing the brilliant 
dramatio passage which follows. 

50. fidens...brachiisl No doubt Jldent governs brachiit, 
though, as Wiokham well says, 'Horaoe intends by the oollo- 
oation of horrida to give the foroe of fldent braehiit quibut hor- 
rebat. 9 The adj. horrida is used partly in its primary sense 
of 'bristling* in referenee to the innumerable arms with whioh 
each giant positively 'bristled' (cf. centimanut Gyat below) 
and to the appearanee of the 'forest' of arms so npraised (of. 
horridi 3. 29. 22), partly in ito derivative sense of 'fearfuT in 
referenoe to the effeot produced on Jove. Translate 'that band 
of youth confident in (the horror of) its upraised arms/ 

320 HORACE, ODES III. iv. 

61. UndtntM ImpoeoiiseJ ' itriving to h»ve piled.' The 
parfact ii ond b*MM it iu theix objeot not marelj 'topile' 
Pelion on Olyojpus but 'to keep it piled' theie ku» amploj 
itui means of scaling heaven. Cf. 1. 1. *, coliigiue iuval. 
Wicltham baa & very olcaj and rall note on tbie poiot. 

opaco = '6hady,' i.e. well-wooJcd. 

The brothere were Otui and Eptnaltea, and for the storj cf. 

virg. G. i. aao, 

«t eoniuratot catlum reicindere fratrei. 
ter iunt conoli impantre Pttio Ouam 
ttilictl, aiqii4 Onat frondoium imohere Olymjnm. 

Bi. minacl ststu) ' with threatening mien.' 

57. ccutra. .] 'But whnt [itdqmd 1. 53)...ooold theyevail 
rushing egeiust tbe eehoing ahield of Pallaaf ' 

eegl< = 0(7(1 (aee Lidd. and Scoltl: in works of art the m, . 
of Palla* is not ■ ahield hut a «ort 01 short cloak or breastplat* : 
in Smith'e ClaSB. Dict. several illustratione are giveu. 

60. nunquam ...] 'Iiu wiio from hie ahoulderi ihaJl nevir 
Uy asiJti the bow, who...' In tha subsequent lUuie Horsoe 
dwells opon tbe attributes of Apollo bs afTordiog in hie besuty 
sod dignity sn effeotive contrast to the mooitious Titane, 

For ApoUo with the bow cf. the weU-known Homerio epi- 
thets spplied to him, (■aritfJiNoi. iXvTeVofoi, and in Lstin Arci 
irntns: the famoua itatae of the Apollo Belvidere at Kome 
repreeeats him u the ideal of menlj beautj. 

Sl. Urlt] Cf. 2.3. 18 n.«=.'flowing.' 

ao not snow; pernspe 11 wu ane 10 s suppoaea ww 
tion between Ljcie and ius: the epithet X*t«« spplied to 
Apollo iu Greek i« varioualy eiplained m 'Lydan,' 'light- 
giving' 01 'a-olf-alajing,' v. Lidd. snd Soott, ■. v. 

Anyho» we know thet Apollo hsd s templa at Paten ao 
tbe eoMt of Lycia where he wed to deliver oreclee in win ter. 

03. natalem sUvamJ on Ht Cjnthus ln Delos. See CHim. 

NOTES. 32 1 

66. Yii oonslll...l 'Strength void of judgment falls by its 
own weight: strength eelf-eontrolled the gods also inoreaee 
more and more: bot they abhor the ■trong whoee thoughte are 

The 'maxiins' or 'opinions' ($ententiae L 70, yptyuu) here 
enunoiated expreet the morei lesson to be deduoed from the 
defeat of the giants and are aiso further iUostrated by the 
■tatement of their jpnniahment (11. 78 — 77) and by an appeal to 
the fate of Orion, Tityoe and Pirithous. 

Yis...Yim...Ylres: usnally vit s'violenoe,' virefs*atrength,' 
bnt here no eueh distinotion ia to be drawn. 

mole rult sua, cf. Epod. 16. 2, $ui$ el ip$a Roma viribxu 
ruit, the metaphor is from a building whieh is reared to such a 
sise that it falls in. 

67. Idem] - * but they also,' cf . 2. 10. 16 n. vire$, ' strength,' 
Le. the strong; cL animo in nezt line. 

68. omne nefks anlmo morentee] Nauok ealls attention 
to the marked assonance ian$tu,mo mo. 

70. notns et...] 'and Orion too notorious as the assailant 
of the spotless Diana.' 

73. inleota...] 'Piled on her own monsters Earth groans, 
and mourns her offspring hurled by the thunderbolt to pale 

The giants were the offspring of earth, henee called momtra 
$ ua. Gf. yiyavTH as if from 7oTa and ylywoncu, 

75. peredlt] Notice that this is a perfeot. The giants were 
pinned to the ground with a thunderbolt, and then had a 
mountain piled upon them : the Yolcanio nature of Etna and 
similar mountains was sunposed to be due to the fire thue 
planted at their baae, and their eruptions to the agoaized 
writhings of the giante. 

78. reUquit] 'has left/ i.e. from the time when it was 
plaoed there. For Tityo$ of. 2. 14. 8 n. 

nequitiae addltus custosl nequitiae is dative after addi- 
tus t the Yulture is 'assi^ned to his profligaoy,' i.e. assigned 
to him on aocount of his profligaoy, as a perpetual warder. 
PlauL Aul. 8. 6. 20, hae cuttodem addidit. 

79. amatorem] 'per \iT6njra pro $cele$to raptore* Orelli; 
and for the bad sense of amator, of. Epist. 1. 1. 88, Cic. Tusc. 
4. 12. 27, aliud est amatorem me, aliud amantem, 

treoentae] i.e. anv indefinite number: in this sense eexeenti 
is xnore common. Pirithous attcmptcd to carry off Proserpine. 


Jt hiu. h»n •uoogjted to me, atid I think with «001111 reason. 
oal iueUnoea eelectcd by Horaoe in tnete 
arc seleoted with a dcfinita purpoae: thej 
'( thoee wbom lait bu ruined— Unlalor 
Titfttt, amator PirMumi. Coturideriog to 
addteseed and wboee Tiotories ero boing 
1 be little doubt wbo tbe fallen fo* bitttod 
Antonj who had periahed in the raetho* of 
._. iiil-ir eloqueut otnisaioni o( hie name cl. 

. it.,s. S.H k, 


' Jove ii the king of heaven uul AuguBtus i» hii Tioegerenl 
on esrth, ts sball be ninnifett, when he hu added BriUin snd 
Ptrtbit to his empire. And yet (tbough flome's fortune tnd 
Bome't fntare tre thae sssured) ooald tbe soldiers o( Crassae 
condeseend to jHirdmac their livo» liy roptidiating their religion 
ainl ilicir race and nooeptinR tlia li(e ol barbariani! It waa 
auch a decnj of tbe tiitc apirit of nation»! hoaour that Begolu* 
foreaaw and feared when be refused assent to diahoDoorabl* 
tcruis, nn inTolving ■ preredent whicb wonld be faUl to agee 
yi. t UDborn. "No," be eaid, "let tboee who lorreuderod periah 
unpitied. Whj should you seek to recover euoh menf Oaoe 
eowarda thej will bo alwayt eo. Think bow thej heve given 
glory to Carthage »nd brought luty low evea to tbe doet." 
And tben wtthoat one kiia to wife or ohild &■ one disgraoed, 
witbout reiaiDg hii eyee tiom the gronod ontil he had con- 
finned the wa-erlng tenaM in their «tern reaolra, ba h — t ans d 
baok to exile, to torture and to deatb.' 

For tbe defeat ot Cnuwaa, *c. m 1. 3. 91 n. 

1. eaeXo] with ngnan in oppoaition towrasseiH .inu, 

8. tdlecUs] to be taken in oonneotlon with the fatnra 
hobetritvf as = not 'sinoe thoj bare been,' bnt 'wben thej 
ahall hiTB beeii addebV 

For the Britanai of. 1. 80. 39 D. Juliua Caaaax had mtde 
raida i oto Britain s.c. 69 and 64, but it m not reallj mbju- 
gkted nntil the reiRn of Cltudius, a.n. 48. 

NOTES. 323 

4. gravlbusque Persis] See note on 1. 2. 22, gravet 

Plttss rfchtly obsenres that these four linee give the 
groond for the indignant question whioh follows, eee Sammary. 

6. miletne...] A sndden oatbnret of indignation: 'Oould 
the eoldier of Orassus live in disgraoeful wedlock, his wife a 
barbarian?' It eeems simplest, with Wiekham, to take ecn- 
iuge barbara at an ablative abeolate, rather than at the ahla- 
tive after turpit — 'disgraeed by a barhario wife' : the eense is 
the same in both eases. 

6. hosttum sooeroram] Conington's 'earning his foemen- 
kintmen*M pay' avoids the awkward word 'fathera-in-law.' 

7. pro] ' ett demirantit eum indignatione ' Orelli ' shame 
fbr oor eenate and oharaoter overthrown.' curia, oris^nallj 
=the Oaria Hostilia where the eenate met frequenUy, is osed 
for the senate itself (of . 2. 1. 14, eontulenti curiae), whioh is here 
mentioned as a type of Boman institutions. 

9. Hedo Marsus] Notioe the antithetioal ooUooation. 
The Marsi were proverbial for their bravery. 01 2. 20. 18, 
and for the famous Marsio War, see 8. 14. 18 n. Horaoe with 
a reasonable partiaiity joins with them his native Apulians. 

10. ancllionim] See Dict. Ant. e. v. Salii. On the pre- 
servation of the ancile whioh fell from heaven the safety of 
Bome was said to depend. Horaoe seems to have koown a nom. 

togae] The distinctive Boman dress, of. VirgiPs famoos line 
Aen. 1. 282, 

Romanot rerum dominot gentemque togatam. 

11. aeternae] 'undying/ in referenoe to the famous nre 
which was kept ever burning on her altar. 

12. incoluml...] 'While Jove's temple stands oninjured 
and the city Bome, i.e. the soldier aots as thoogh these were 
in roins. Iove is put for 'the temple of Jove/ i.e. the 
Oapitol, the sign and symbol of Bome's dominion. Of. 8. 8. 42, 
ttet Capitolium. 

18. hoc] See Introduction to Ode. 

15. et exemplo...pubee] 'and making ruin eztend to the 
ages yet to oome from the precedent, if the captive youth were 
not allowed to perish unpitied.' 


The phnu ptrnicitm trahentii ia reroarkable : bot iin 
ira/u> «'to draw,' 'dng out,' 'eitend,' » pereon mtjba eaid 
' frooi * praoedeut to dng out or eitend ruin into the fatnra,* 
wbo detaribM ot for e*ee e rnin eo eiteoding from • praeedeot 
into the fatare. So Pliiu rendera coraiutiehtlich hintintruf. 

Nanok iraM dietntii. The emendstion trahcnli U tempting 

iut u a pantlel U> 

: Begulue objecti on two groundi, (1) he diiagreee 

t olearly wrong, tor irahtntii U i 

with the eotoal tanni u diigrocefal, {3} he foreseee that tbe 
preoedoot involved U ruinoui. 

17. H non...pnbei] Theae wordi eiplain cismplo: the pie- 
cedent would aiUe 'if, *o.' For the lengthening of tha nnal 
ayLlable in pn-iret, of. 1. 3. 3<i n. ptrirtnt U an obviou coneo- 
tion end doubtfa! giaiomei. 

Plttia argnM ationgly th»t the dootn of tha ■ ooptive jouth ' 
wu not dependeat ou the deouiion ot tho Romui Senate, but 
on tbat of the Carthaglnieni who migbt poMibly treat them u 
well u tbe Parthiani ■fterwarde did tbe troops of Ciuiui, end 
tkli-" that it U the fkte end oonduot of Regulus which &ie the 
nukio point oq whioh Horaoe ia dwelling. He therefora puta • 
fall *top efter periret, sml miikea immucrabilis taptiva yubti 
m indignant eiohunation, ' Unpitied (be) tbe coptne youth 1 ' 
the deioription of Boman diagraoe wbicb followi giving the 
reaeon why thera abould be no pity, The aense given ia eicel- 
lent ftod the riag of tbe venes mueh improved by thii punotua- 
tion, wbieh U very likely to be right. 
1B. stgna] i.e. Itomeu eagles. 

30. aine caeda] 'without bloodahed': notice tbe britlUnt 
antithesea militibui rint caedt, citnum re(orfo... Ii fcero, warriors 
who eurrendered without flgbting, free Itoroau» who had be- 
oome uaJtuagiaien ainvea. 

31. ego. ..vMi. Tldl agol Hotioe ttw emphula with whioh 
««■'with my owd eyea' U tepeated, and how in repeeting 
the two worde tgo vidi tbe ordoi U oarefally chenged, in 
«ooordanoe with the abnoat nnlveraal pnotioa of tha ttomu 
poeti, for ■ beeutifol example of whioh of. Ov. Her. S. 
S9— 48, and cf. 4. 13. 1, audivrrt Di...Di andiwri. 

3H. portuqua non clanau] Tho dgD of aeonrity ud 
peace. Cf. A. P. 199, fljwrtii oliaporri». 

at MTm,..noftni] «The fieldi beiog tiiled our wiurrion had 

NOTES. 325 

35. s&llcetl from tcire lictt 'one may know/ 'you may 
be sure,' 'doubtless,' ii frequently used ironioaliy. ocrior 
» 'keener for the fray.' 

27. damnum] Orelli says 'not the loss of the ransom' but 
the 'demaffe whioh would aoorue from sueh e preoedent.' I 
oertainly tnink that damnum doea refer to auro; Begului 
of oourae does not mean 'Think too of the money it will cost,' 
but he uses the worda in bitter irony, juat aa he had used the 
■triotly meroantile worda auro repentut ('handed baok orer 
the oounter for due weight of gold'): 'if,' he says, 'you eare 
not for the diagraoe (fiajfitium) of Buoh traffio, at any rate I 
xnajr urge you to buy eomething worth what you pay for it,' 
whioh he then ahewa (U. 27 — 86) theae aoldiera are not. So too 
Naoek takea it, oomparing Eur. Bhea. 102, aUxpa* yap lyur «oi 
vp&t alrxfirjl «curoV. 

amlssos colores] i.e. its pristine purity and whiteness. 
medicata fuco^ 'dressed wlth djre.' medicare, *to doetor,' is 
freouently used as= 4 to dye,' as is the Greek «ty/ftdV*eu>. 

29. semel] forttl, 'onoa/ 'onoe for alL* 

80. curat...] 'eares to be restored to the degraded.' dete- 
rioreefiunt ex bonte, peioret ex malit t says the SchoUast. 

81. extricata] from ex and tricae 'trifles' (said to be 
derived from Trioa a proverbially insi«nificant town in Apulia) 
and then 'petty annoyanoes,' 'perplexities.' 

88. perndls] in opposition to credidiL of. 8. 7. 18 perfida 
credulum and 8. 27. 25 doloto credidit, and also with a special 
referenoe to the 'perfidy' whioh without reason was always 
attributed by Boman writers to the Carthaginiana, e.g. Livy 
in desoribing the oharaoter of Uannibal attnbutes to hun per- 
fidia plut quam Punica. Cf. 4. 4. 49, perfidut HaimibaU 

85. restrictis laosrtis] * With arms bound behind his back.' 
Cf. 1. 22. 

86. sensit] as usual of feeiing anything painful, of. 2. 7. 

lnars» 4 gpiritlefts,' used of doll, sluggish oowardice, cf. 4. 9. 
29, inertia. 

87. hlo...] *He, ignorant whenoe to win life, eonfounded 
peace with war.' hic is rhetorioally used to produoe a ririd 
effect, as though Begulus picked and pointed out a single 
soldier: iutensity is gained by individualiaatiou. 


undn vttam iumeret puti iutooblique ui 

old be uiutt vitan lunum ■ The uuw 
'Bj theawori' 

n dutllo mitcuit conUin the gama 'mer- 

haa been referred to in tbe notee 011 11. 36, 

« 1 got that in war there ihonld be no 'malting 

• b« ining,' no anoh ptoceful methoda of eettte- 

:iS. dnello] li» old form of biUuta ia nffected bj Hon» 
here to give 1 1 ol arcbaic ditrnity to tbe p»ss»ge, cf. 1. 84. 
5 u. A aimilar I i«ilion of du into b is fonnd in bii = Jun. of. 
Jau, dupLtx. 80 ii 1 duo tomu. 

40. alttor nrJ 17 not ■] r tban tbe ruinp, ' 
bat 'toweriog bigl 'on the 1 of Ilome.' of. Loo. 

1. 480, rictoqut in. at m»t», Eur. L. tl .. 7*29, 1»' dij M 'rl 

roii <(ioii <a*«! | ifijX*» iEmu. 

41. fsrtttr] Htn Bagalua' apeeeh ei s, »nd tha narratiTe 
reoommencei 1 the iransition ie made oL _i bj placiug ftrtur 
n« firet word of Ihe aentence. 

42. ut capitil mlnorl Horaee »fl*r hu nmnner ilightlj 
altera to a more poetioaJ ibape the U *l tegal phrase capiu 
demimitui. The word capul wai a» ipresa the full bodj 
of righti poHeeeed bj a Hiimui b1L__i i is. thoae of libertj, 
filizensbip »nd fnniily {libtrialii, eivitatU, familia»): the loaa 
of anj of theae, e.g. of liberty u in the caae of Begului, in- 
volved deminuiio capitii. Being therefore no longer a fult 
citiien. Reguim oonsidered himsolf to hare forfeited atao tha 
polition of pater familiai, or 'head of the hooeehold.* 

eapitii u the ■o-oalled genitive of reepect, and ii to ba 
compared wilb aaoh phranea aa mtlirioe iinpi(ier, ittUgtr vitat, 
itri ttudionan, Ao. 

44. torTM] 'grimlj.' 

45. donao...] goea with ponttiit: h» flied hii gaxn grimty 
on the grooud 'untii hii weighty worda mighi oonflim tha 
wavering fathera with oonniel nieh ai never before waaei*ea': 
after thet he reoorered hii Boman oalmneaa aa deaoiibed ia 

NOTES. 327 

porter' of a proposal; but there often attaohes to it, as here, 
a oollateral notion that the peraon to whom it ia applied 
possesses auctoritat, that hii eharaeter lende weight to his 

Orelli says that the nse of contilio xs pointed; that 
whereas a senator had a right tententiam dicere 'to declare his 
judgment,' Begulns as being capitit minor was now only able 
consUium dare 4 to give advine,' and I suppose he mnst there- 
fore ezplain numquam aliat dato as ezpressing that Begnlus 
•had at no other time so given countcl,' thns again reesJling 
his degradation. Such an ezplanation seems too reeondite: 
the weight thrown on contilio is too great, and the meaning 
of this bold and powerfnl stansa is rendered obsonre to any 
but eritieal and learned readers, and lastly, the whole pnrport 
of the stanza seems to be to portray the dignity of Begulus 
rather than his degradation (see note on auctor). I translate 
therefore, *with eonnsel snoh as ne*er before was given/ and 
ezplain the words as referring to the nnpreoedented nobility of 
the oonnsel with which Begnlns oonnselled his own oertain 

48. egreglns ezsnl] Ozymoron. properaret, emphatio: 
he 'hastens ' lest he be reoallea. 

49. atqnl] Cf. 1. 28. 9 n. 

60. non allter] To be taken with quam ti t 1. 53. 

51. dimorlt] from dit and movere t 'to make to stand 
apart,' so as to form a lane down which one may paas. 

53. olientnm...rellnqneret] 'he were leaving the tedions 
bnsiness of his cliente, their snits decidod.' It was the dnty 
of the patronut to give advioe and assistanoe to his olients 
(cUentet, «X^orrer, 'those who listen'), especiaily on legal 
matters, the old Boman aristooraoy all possessing legal train- 
ing: this he would do at Bome, after wnioh he would be free 
to seek the repose of his eountry estates. 

55. Venairs3ios...Tarentnm] Looal oolouring to give reality 
and distinctnesa, see 1. 1. 18 n. See too 8. 7. 1 — 8, Favonii, 
Thyna, NoUt, Oricum, Caprde. As here, he freqnently seleots 
his names a good deal for their harmonious sonnd. Moreover 
the quiet ending of the Ode affords an artistie oontrast to the 
rhetorioal emphaais of the main portion, cf. 4. 2. 60 n., 4. 
14. 52 n. 

56. Laoedaemonlnm because founded by Phalanthns, for 
whom see Class. Diot. 


g fathcrB will be viaited npon the ehildren 

: templea of tho goda are reftored : to re»o- 

re owo the rise of our empire, to onr neglert 

n i ts rmn ; let the defeata we heve alreadj 

«u «■ »»iu,iib to Uh. Moreom immorahl.v, like a 

nooa, b» OTerspread tbe nation end aapped tbe foundetiona of 

tbat simple hotuehold lifs in whiob were reared the earlj * ' 

diere of Bome. Alaa, eo we more from ■ " lo worse.' 

The Ode oomxnernoretee two portiona . tbe domeetia poliej 
of Augustui, (1) The reetoration of manj decejed temple* 
(TirgU aaji 300, Aen. 6. 716, maxina Urtentatn u 
per urbrm) aa 4 vieible aign of hia deeire to reatore the old 
oualom* fird obsBrvanoea of Bome, ef. Ovid, Faet. 2. 83, wbere 
he addreseee bim a» lemplorum poiitor, ttmpUrrum tancte r, 
pojlor; (2) Tbe introduclion of sevcral measnrea intended lo 
check the continnnl decrense ia tbe number of regnler t 
riagei which m< dne partlj to tbe deoaj of reiigioas feeling 
Bnii n oonseqnent loosrncsa of morsla, pertlj to 
coftt of living biiJ the more Ininrioae babita of eooietj— 
whieh alweja rapidlj diminiab tbe number of martiagei in 
a commnnitT and which legielation faila to obviate. See Dict. 
Ant. Lae lulia Papia et Poppaea, and cf. S. M and i, 5. 
21 — 26, For the whole Bobjeet aee MorivaJe, o. SS. 

1, dellcta,...] OnlU qnotea In illnatration a fragment of 
Enripldea (ro w nWrrw .*d\*«r' <It r*k- iwyt** [m $tm 
reJrowi), which aeema to reprodnae the tbtj wordi of Bxod. 
30. 6, 'I, the Lord thj Ood, am a jaaJoua God, viaiting Um 
iuiqnitj of the fatbeii npon tbe children.' 

3. Somanal Bo too ths rin gnlttf ii fonnd In the fcMBM 
lina of Virgil, Aen. 6. BB3, Tu rtgert impirio popvlot, Aoaeae*, 

S. UbenUal 'monldering': labi, 'to alip,' 'glide,' 'mU 
»wB.j.' i* admirablj naed of the aure but allent jiiiu— of deoaj. 
Notiot the diflerent quantitj and meaning of tosaata 

NOTES. 329 

5. dls...lmperas] *the lord of mankind only beoause thou 
art the servant of the godV Merivale. Gf. 1. 12. 67, U minor 
latum reget aequue orbem, and see n. on 8. 1. 5. 

te mlnorem fferls» 'dost earry thyself (m) inferior,' 'behave 
thjtelf aa owing obedience to.' 

6. hlno] 'from this,' i.e. from shewing obedience. With 
principium supply ett. For the eeanaion of principium aee 4. 4. 
41 n. 

8. HeeperlaeJ «the land of the West,' i.e. Italy ; ef. 2. 1. 
81 n. luetuoeae xs explained by the next two stansas. 

9. lam bis Monaetes] Thete 'two* defeats have always 
been explained of the defeat of Crassns b.c. 68 and that of 
L. Deddius Saxa, the lientenant of Antony, b.c. 40 by Paoorns 
the son of Orodes king of Parthia. The general however who 
defeated Crassus U ealled Sarenas not Monaeses, and there 
seems to be no referenoe here to Craasns, so that in Orelifs 
fonrth edition Mommsen's explanation is aeoepted. He con- 
aiders that the first defeat is that of Deoidins Saxa and the 
seoond that in which two legions of Antony under Oppius 
Statianus were out to pieoes b.c. 86. We do not know who 
eommanded the Parthians on that ooeasion, but we know that 
in the next year a distinguished Parthian general oalled 
Monaeses deserted to Antony. 

10. non...impetus] 'have orushed our unblest assaults.' 
For the verb in sing. cf. 2. 18. 28 n. 

non anspioatos signifies that as the gods were negieoted 
they refused their favour to the arms of Bome, whioh are 
therefore spoken of as 'laoking good auspices,' 'unblest.' 
Thoee who eonsider that there is an allusion to Crassus refer 
to the evil oroeus whioh attended hU departure, e.g. the seiier 
of figs (eauneae) who, as the iegions were embarking, kept 
erying cauneas (=cave ne eas), Cio. de Div. 2. 40. 

11. adleeisse renidot] renidet takes an infinitive from the 
general sense of 'rejoioing' oontained in it; ol 1. 21, doeeri 
gaudet, It literally means 'beams baek' or 'beams again,' and 
Horaoe ahnost seems to have seleoted a word which should 
portray the grin of aatisfiaotion with whioh the fSaoe of a aavago 
positively 'beams again' when trioking himseif out in a new 
pieoe of nnery. 

18. seditionibusj See 8. 8. 29 n. The referenoe is to the 
civil wars, which smoe the days of Marius and Sylla had 

330 HORACE, ODES 111. vi. 

■«ciin.1 itii - (of. nrrupaiamj llome and made it their prey, bnt 
il ■trn^tjlf between Oetavian end Aatouy, 
d by M battle of Actium, B. 0. Sl. patn/ 

bem Dacu»] Notioe the effeetive jurta. 
«nd Dacw. dtltvit U the etrongeet word 
eelected, tbe word ueed by C»to the ceneor, 
tome'» greateel rival, dtltnda tit Kartkaao. 
i;«i«i tiu-uisuieivedmider AntoQjat Aclium. Atthiopt refen 
to the Egyptien troope who mauneu the floet of Cleopatn. 

17. feconda...] 'generation» prolifio in guilt fir»t d. 
wcdlock end the family end homee : froin thti eoUFM 
diaaster'e growing fiood o'eripreju' npr n.m »nd nation.' 

culpee U tbe gen. sfte impliee sbuniUnee. 

Cf. S. 11. 86, inaiu I \ptr aqwu, 1. 4. 68, 

ferax frondii, 4, 6, im, 4. 9. 5, divti 

18. prlmum fonm the : betweei tiis an.i the previon» 
atanza : 'the wjin of »11 «_, Je.' 

Inqulnavere] derived from in and ceenum (pronounced 
farfnum), 'nrad,' = 'tooover with mnd,' 'defile.' 

20. pattiam populcmque] found eiao io Ovid and Juvenel, 
tbe combination being obvioualy a favonrite one, owirjg lo ite 
■onoroue oheracter. 

31. motui lonlooa] 'daooe»,' encb aa would be io favour 
emong the luiuriou» inbabitanta of A»U Minor. With tbe 
Greek» snJ Sqmmi dancing waa an eocomplUhraent rarely 
practised eioept bv alave girla wbo exhibited their ikill for liire 
at banqnete and the lika. 

28. finfltur arttbue] 'U Initrnctcd in accompliahmente": 
ariet refera to the vanoDa artifitial attttudet and geetaroe, 
whieh one wbo laazna dWMiag muat atudy. Many M8S. have 

23. lam nnne] 'even now,' i.e. while ttQl unmarried, In 
oppoitition to mox, l 36. 'Even now too ah« dreama of tm- 
hatlowed amoura from the bottom of her eouL' 

34. deteneroum-nlfof. CicsdFein. 1. 8. 3, prtmtaWn-n, 
gui mini a tenerii, «t Oraeci diamt, ungvindii a cagrdlm) la 
a tranalation of the Qreek phraee H anX&> *r#x*». wbaah 

NOTES. 331 

■eemf to mean not 'from the time when the nailfl are tender,' 
i.e. 'from tendereat years,' but 'from the most aensitive part 
of the body,' or aa we say, 'from the heart' (jmhOiu, m edu U itut ) t 
the baae of the nail where it Joins the flesh being peculiariy 
aenaitiTe and eoaoeptible to feehng. 

29. non alne eonaelo] Litotes='with the foll privity of 
her husband.' 

80. lnstltorl Not a 'pedlar,' aa oanally explained, whioh ifl 
inoonsistent with 1. 32, but as Ulpian (Dig. 14. 8. 8) explains 
the word, qui alicui negotiatUmi quaettuariae praepomtur — 
•a broker,' 'a merchant.' 

82. dedeoomm...] 'who highly pays the prioe of shame.' 

88. nonhlfl...] 'not from snoh parents sprang the youth 
who dyed the aea....' 

84. aeqnor] For the victory referred to ol 2. 12. 2 n. 

85. ingentem Antiochum] ingent is a slight poetioal 
alteration of the ordinary title of Antioohus the Great. He 
was king of afaoedonia (B.a 228—187) and was defeated by 
L. Scipio at Magneaia b.c. 190. 

86. Hannlbalemqne dirum] For dirut the standard epithet 
o! Hannibai of. 2. 12. 2 n. His invasion lasted from B.a 
218 — 208 and he was finally defeated by Scipio at Zama b.c. 

87. rusticorom mllitum] 'yeomen soldiers.' Horaoe refers 
to those hardy faimers who m peace living on their own farma 
in war had furnished the commonwealth with its best aoldier», 
but whose rapidly declining nnmbers are under the empire 
eontinually deplored by both poets and politicians. 

88. Sabellla] The Sabines are seleoted as the tvpe of a 
sturdy simple mountain race. Cio. pro Lig. 11 oalls them 
florem Italiae et reipublicae robur. Cf. too Virg. G. 2. 581. 

89. et aeverae...] ( to shonlder the faggots bewn at a stern 
mother's bidding.' 

42. mntaretl 'when the sun thould shift the shadows'; 
the mother*» bidding at the time wonld be 'when the sun thall 
shift.' This diffioult subj. is rightly ezplained by B. A. 
Sonnesohein (Claas. Rev. Feb. 1898) who oalls it 'the prosnec. 
tive subj.' Tne shadows of oourae lengthen towards evemng. 
The quiet beauty of the stanza deserves attention. For iuga 
demeret of. povkvrMt Hom. II. 16. 779» 'towarda evening.' 
P. u. 23 


41. iKeni abeunte] Orymoron. (Jf. ademptu» trailidit, 

Aiter prescnling in the m»in portion of the 

inlike the pietures Hogarth hss painted — of 

orae, the poet bai in II. 33—43 painted a 

L-al half idyllio, of what life had brcn and 

t nnw his reaaon overpowera bia hopei I 

<■ ..m . ».n. .. j >wiu<i ) him nnd warna him that eooh viiiotis ol 

Ihe future are b drearas. Harohly tbxown forward at ths 

commencemenl < the etanra the word damnata, aa Fliis* 

remarki, ' klingt i t tin Stvfitr.' 

The penmmi«t - f i — ■'cRcnoration of tuB hi 
w«a embodied '■ «ie» «' « he four ages of gold, 

tdlvcr, iron. tu bc >ppily anuihilated bj 

Bcientifio stuoj ui <~ ■< „ ma 

10. MtM...] evity <>! ejprcasion, 

theao !»Bt three lil nliing tho downward 

proprcss of four gbuciaiiuu». 

pelor avla] 'woree than that of c jntndjjires.' Neithef 
Lntiii nor Greek can uae * pronoun _ Ihat' n uaed in tba 
ttbovc phrasc: tboy mtut thercfora eaj 'the age of onr fatherg 
worse than the ftge of our Hrendsiree,' or take a ehoirt cut 
{compendiiim, whence tbe phraEC eomparatio ttmptndiaria ep- 
plied lo the idiom) and eay 'worso thon our grandairea.' For 
tbe comparatio compendiaria cf. 3. 6. 11 D. 
47. daturoi] 'about to produoe.' 


' Why weep, Aiterie, for your abaent loverT He li feithfuL 
aud though compelled by atorma to winter at Orioum, will be 
back with epring'! earlieat Zephyr- K i* [or 7°" "« aigha all 
nigbt, and, thongh hia hoiteai esndi to tell bJm how alw 
adorea bim and how dangeroru it ii to «oorn aneh offari, ha 
payi no more haed thau a rook, nnmoTed to tbia boor. Only, 
Aatarie, be cexefnl jouraelf, and do not grow too iond of that 
paerleaa cavaliar Bnipena : when he ilngi hia doleful dHtiae 
benaath jour window don't look ont, and when be oalla jou 

NOTES. 333 

1. candidl] • bright,' 'cloudless.* Cf. 1. 7. 15, albut ut 
obtcuro deterget nubila eaelo | taepeNotut, where the •pithet 
*white' ie explained by the words whioh follow: it u 'white' 
beeaaae 'it sweeps away the clouds.' 

2. Favonil] Beeanse they are the harbinge» of spring. 
Of. Lucr. 1. 11 and 5. 786, It ver et Venm et verit praenuntiut 
ante | pennatut graditur Zephyrut, 

For Favonii, Tkyna, <fcc. see 1. 1. 18 n. 

8. Thyna] So 1. 85. 7, Bithyna earina of a merehant 
vessel trading to Bithynia. For the Tkyni see Class. Dici 
s. v. Bithyni. beatum^ 'enriched.' 

4. Ade] Note this form of the genitive. Virg. G. 1. 208 
has die. 

5. Oygent Ule] Notioe how by keeping the proper name 
till last and then beginning with the emphatio prononn Ule 
Horace passes with perfect ease and clearness from what 
Asterie is doing to what Gyges is doing. 

Orlenm] A port of Epirus at the entranoe of the Adriatic 

6. Oaprae] The goat Amalthaea which suckled the infant 
Jove was placed as a constellation among the stars. It rises at 
the end of September, and apparently after its rising stormy 
weather was oonsidered to hsve set in and navigation oeased 
for the winter. Cf. 4. 5. 11 n. 

insana] because of the violent storms which acoompanied 
it. Cf. 8. 29. 19, vetani Leonit = 'the Lion with its violent 

9. atqul] See 1. 28. 9. It U strongly adversative, = 'and 
yet. ' tollicitae = ' love-sict ' 

10. susplrare...] 'saying that Chloe sighs, and, poor 
lady, 18 consumed with a flame like thine.' Orelli says tuit 
ignibut^Gyge, quem tu ardenter amat, but it is to me incon- 
oeivable that whiat Horace says is this, 'and yet a messenger, 
reporting (i. e. to him, Gyges, the ille of 1. 5) that Chloe sighs, 
and, poor lady, is in love with the objeot of thy passion, tempts 
liim oraftilv....' The use of the pronouna in such a sentenoe is 
to me an msoluble problem, and cannot be explained by ad- 

, ducing such a sentenoe as that in Ovid (Am. 8. 9. 56), where a 
lady says, addressing her lover, dum tuut ignit eram* 'while I 
was thy flame,' whion is perfectly simple: moreover the nse of 
the plural ignet would need justification. On the other hand 



roold DM »omo iuloiiBO adjectiTi initead, 
: Ho»M in rtporting te Arterit what tbe 
iiiig liint no adjeetire conld to forciblj 
I • porsonal oue, sabatituto» tuis — 'Be- 
_,. 'Asterie, tLat Chloe'i meesengcr eajs sbe 
.__ — .-, h»t, _ pueion foi hlm — iike joun.' 

18. nt.lniji_.eilt] dependent on reftrt, to which the nom. 
i» nuntitu. perfida crtdulum : fbi the aame «ntitbesia cf. 8. 5. 
33 o. ; loi antithosi» intenei fied bj jnit»non>tion ct 2. *. 6 □. 

11. almli oaato] 'too ohute,' n realitj bnt u the 

tncuenger would pcrsu»de Gjge». 1 ic storj eee Clau 

Dict, s. t. Belleiopbon. 

17. a_t_n Felea Tartaio] 'Peleni elmost given otm lo 
death.' PeU.-IlqXM. For tlio storj sce Cleu. Diot. _t. 
Peleua oi Acutni. 

18. Magneiaajn] Mdyrm, fem. Mavi"'. "■ dwelkr at 
Magnesia in TbetMlj. dum fugit ■ilitiiuni = ' while he 
■obeil j ehnnned ' : foi d-um cf. L 10. 1 1 n. 

1!'. et peecare...] 'and onnningly biings farwiird itoiioe 
that guide to goilt.' 

20. __ton»»] 'Btoriet/cf. 2. 12. IOn. mcvet i* Moniatelj 
need of 'etiriing up' or 'bringing to light' nujtbing whieh «h 
forgotten oi im_oown, e.g. Virg. Aen. 1. 262, fatontn arearui 
movebo. nvm*l = 'reminJe tum of hu the prepondeimnce of 
_._. authonij. 

31. tt_D.]SM». 13.o. Icari _ eitlier tli* gen. of i_tr«_, 
ot, u Orelli takos it, the oontaaoted gen. of IcarUm — It m Hu m 
pelaguM. 'ITiu foimer seema mueh moie neturel, and 'rooki of 
Icarua' seein* _ totj obnoni wny of deeoribing 'rooki in the 

anj doabt of hi» oontinaing »o. 

Integvr expreuu that he wu 'ontonohed bj' or 'proot 
egeinit all H an A i «hirnmt» . ' OL 2. 4. 22 n. 

attlbl] Hotioe tbe emphaaU. 

23. Enlpen»] The Enipeu» ii a «Ter In Theeeelj, bot hm, 
u Neuok potnti ont, the wotd I» oonnected witb Mm, inwi, 
and «o= 'the repiOTer,' of. vncanti dvram below. 

NOTES. 335 

94. plus lusto plaoeat] •flnd more fayour than is fair.' 

38. oomploltiir] 'attraots the ga*V (it the oynoturt of 
erery eye): eontpieio is used whan the gase is eonosntrated on 
anythin* : it implies merit in the objeot. Henoe eontpieiendut 
frcVientiy^beautiful,' «dlstinguished.' Boe Diot. s. t. 

gramine Martlo] On fine afternoons the snnny tzpanse of 
the Oampus Martios (apricum Oampum 1. 8. 8) was the regolar 
resort of all who desired eiercise, whioh generally ended with 
•a swim down the Tnsoan stream.' Bee next line, and also 
8. 12. 7. 

80. snboantn1'soonasyonhear thestrain.' tub indioates 
olose tueeettion : sne looks ont directly after hearing. Cf . Oaes. 
B.0. 1. 27» ne tub ipta profectione milites oppidum irrumperent ; 
Ot. M. 1. 494, tub luce. 

Wickham however says tub = • at the sonnd of.' Cf. Soph. 
EL 711, xoAiriJt vral ad\nyyoi tf£ar. So too, irw auXou, Jnr6 
icfipvKos t <fco. 

ode vm. 

Horaoe represents himself as entertaining Maeoenas. • You 
ask me why I, a baohelor, keep festival on the kalends of March, 
for with all yonr lore, Maecenas, yon are at a loss on this point 
The faot is I made a yow to keep to-day as an annnal holiday, 
for it was on this day that I narrowly escaped being kOled. 
And so, Maecenas, drink a onp in hononr of my lafety and 
forget for a while the oares of gOTernment : well may yon do so 
for on all sides the politioal horison ia free from signs of 
danger and all onr foes are ▼anquished.' 

The date of the Ode is approzimately fixed by the aUnsions 
oontained in it as b.o. 80 or 29. See notes. 

1. qnld agam...quid velint] Obliqne interrogation de- 
pendent on mirarit 9 whioh is the main sentenoe. 

The Matronalia, a feetiral oelebrated by married women in 
hononr of Juno Lnoina, took plaoe on the nrst of Maroh, whioh 
therefore seemed a singnlar day for a baohelor to be obserring 


„„. -- Maeoenae, learned in tho lore of either 
i.e. {■ roar knowledge o! (ireek nnd Roman folk- 

K . any tale, or Btory, or legend whioh oould 

m™.. r ing to-day es a. feBtival. 

lennoneB = um »1m- Hsn.Ud down "hiefly bv word of 
moitth, in connet tr ma and holidaye. 

The word ia clearlj ». rOu, nae tad therefore 

tbe rendoring 'ieamed ,-»0 of » tongne' mnat be, 

wrong, apBrt frotn Ihe fact that it does u «. explain tbe plnral 
ieriit.iiu-s nnd ia nn unmeaDing oomplimont. 

utrtusque llngua»] io Cic. de Oflf. 1. 1. 1, uf par tit in 
utriuiqut orationii jitcultate : the Ronian» habitnally read and 
tiBed Ureek, but ignored other Innguages ; heuoo Hornoe'1 
meaning in perfectly olear wlien he apeaJLB of 'eithor toague.' 

6. aJbum Ubero eiprum] The 'gOM' waa sacriGced to 
Eoocbu» bccauao it doea great dnmage to vineyards. Black 
victima wcre offered to the goda bclow, white onea to tho goda 

Bacchua ia frcqnentlv repreaented u the apeoutl patron and 
protoctor of poota, of. 2. 1B. n. 

7. prope funeratus] see 2. 13 Int. funeratm ahonld 
moan 'buried,' bnt clearly hero means 'killed,' 'mado readj for 

10. cortioam.. .] 'ahall reniove the oork (aatened down wftli 
roain frmn a, jm Uut wu (flrat) taught to drink the amoka in 
Tullaa' consnlBhip.' 

Wine intended for keeping wu drawn oil from the doUum 
or caak into the amphora (aee Diet. Ant.), oorked and aealed 
[eortietm atUtrictum piet, of. eonditum Itvt, 1. 20. B), laballed 
with ita own name and that of the oonaula of the year, and 
then, if early rasturity waa deaired, plaoed in th» opotAeco 
{aTo8-il*Ti — whenoa our modem 'bodega'), an upper room whirJi 

NOTES. 337 

For the praotioe of fastening down oorks, <fec. of. Theoo. 7. 
147, rrrpdtvtt 6i wl$w oVfXfero kocltoi S\«fap t *he fii un- 
doing the four-year-old rorin from tue head oi tne jars.' 

11. amphorae] from dp+l and 0#>#, something with iwo 

blbere lnstltutM]a'taught to drink' leemB intended for a 
half-oomic expression, of. too funeratus above. 

13. Tullo] L. Volcatius Tullus wm oonsul b.o. 66, the year 
before Horaoe's birth, of. 8. 21. 1, o nata vucum eonsule 
Manlio...tetta, and 8. 14. 18, where he speaka of eadum Marsi 
memorem dueUi, the Maraio war having taken plaoe b.o. 88. 
Wine aeems to have been kept for great and even inoredible 
periods: Martial allndee to people in hij. day fflor. 90 a.d.) 
drinking Opimianum, Opimius having been oonsnl b.o. 121. 

18. eyathoa amici aospltia] *oups (in honour) of vour 
friend'i aafety.' eyathos (aee Diot. Ant) ia atriottv a Udle 
holding a eertain amount and uaed in mizing; it is here used 
generaUys* ( a oup.' For the oonstruotion of amiei sospitis see 
8. 19. 9 note. eentum U used indefinitely. 

14. et vlglles...] 'oarry on the sleepless lanterna to the 
dawn.* Of. 8. 21. 28. 

17. mitte...] ' lay aaide a statesman'8 anzieties for the dty.' 
Both Orelli and Wiokham ezplain eiviles as referring to 
•domestic,' 'internal,' as opposed to 'military,' 'external' 
government. By giving this speoial and oontrasted sense to 
eiviles they make it impossible to trace the oonneotion of 
thought between this and the nezt line. Orelli says supply 
% for* before occidit, but the sense of 'lay aside your anzieties 
about internal government for all our foreign foes have been 
vanquiflhed' is intolerable: Wiokham on the other hand aaya 
'civiles^domesticas, opposed to the foreign questions in the 
following Unes,' an ezplanation whioh severs all oonneotion of 
thought. No donbt it is true that Augustus had at this time 
entrusted the civil administration to Maeoenas and the military 
administration to Affrippa, but Horaoe ia not alluding to thia 
division: he nses the word eiviles in a wide and general 
senae: 'eease,' he says, 'from the anzieties a stateaman might 
reaaonably feel on behalf of the oity, and you may weU do ao 
aa with the oomplete viotory of Augustus' arma abroad you 
have little reaaon to fear those outbreaka of faetion to which 
his defeat might have given rise.' 

»8 HORACK, ODES IIL riii. 

For eiviUi et Bput L L 18, tMivor driiite wuib, «I 
phmge into tbe ae* of poUftioa.' 

18. Do^OotieoniB]TheI)aeiajiprii>eeCtotton^ 

hia assistanco to Antony, and wu deteted hy M. Oraaena a.& 

Notioo how throoghout tfaie peassge no reteenee io made to 
the dete* of Antony at Aetium: it ia of Ua detet tfaol the 
poet is thinkina whon ho faida lCaeeenas 'eeaee Uo amdety,' 
but tho lawe of poetry and propriety forbid tho m on t Jon of 
a Tictory whioh brought no trtamph in ita train. The eamo 
eloqucnt eilenee is preeerred, 1. 87. 

19. Medual «Our te tho lledo is enaaged in eiril sfatio 
ealamitous (only) to himaelt* For Jfetf»*a'Parthiaa* aao 
1. 2. 52 n. The Farthian monaroh TSridatee who had boon 
plaoed on the throno by Ananataa, wae being attaohod by 
rhraates who had been dopoaod te hia tyranny, cf. L 28 Int 

aibi goea botfa with htctuorit and dtttidtt: ita proximity 
to inftttut, with tho aenao of which it only interteoe, aaoma 

21. aerrlt Eiapanae...] StatOius Taurus defeated the 
Oantabri, b.c. 29, an evcnt which adequately ezplaina tho 
alluaion here. For the oondition of Spein of. 2. 8. 2 n. 

yetas] Lify, 28. 12, remarks that Spain waa the prorince 
whioh the Bomans entered first and oabdued laet. 

28. iam Bcythae] 'By now the Scythians with bow 
anstrong prepare to quit their plains.' 

24. eampla] See 2. 9. 28 n. 

25. neglegena...] 'Away with care, (for a few houra) a 
simple citiaen oeaee to be too anxious lest in any way tho 
nation suffer harm.' 

Orelli is elearly wrong in saying privatu$=cum tit priva- 
tut: it is indeed true that Maecenaa, wisely preferring the 
reality of power to the distinotions of offioe, remained through 
life a simple knight and was therefore alwavs technkauy 
vrivatut, an unofficial simple dtixen ; but on the other hand 
he was at this tery time aotually in oharge of the goyemment 
of Bome, and it would be more than abeurd for Horaoe to say 
to him 'oease, sinoe you hold no official rank, to perfoim 
your dutyl' Here as in his note on eiviUt Orelli displaya a 
tendency not uncommon among scholars : he prefers a tearned 

NOTES. 339 

to a natural explanation. What Horaoe savs ii what any one 
might eay asking a great itatesman to dinner, *Oome and 
forget for a time the oares of state in the enjoyment of private 

Schtiti agrees with Orelli saying that the offioe otpraefeetu» 
vrbi» was never ' ein wirklioher magiatratu» * ; Lehrs, Meineke 
and othera are so tronhled hy the difficulty that they resort to 
their usual remedy of rejecting the stanza. 


A dialogue hetween two lovers, the lst, 8rd, and 5th stanzas 
being spoken by the man (whom some editors amnse them- 
selvee by calling Horaoe), the others by the lady. The Ode 
is faultless in form and finish, aad has found hosts of trans- 
lators and imitators. It is oalled earmen amoebaeum irom 
dfidpwBcu, to oonverse in dialogne, of. Theoe. 8. 81, d/toipata 
doiid : this is the only speoimen in Horaoe, bnt for others see 
Virg. EoL 8 and Theoe. 8. The rnle is that the seoond speaker 
in the dialogoe shonld reply to the first in the same nnmber 
of verses, and on the same or a similar snbject, and also if 
possible shew snperior foroe and power of expresaion or, as we 
say, 'eap' what the first speaker had said. 

The Ode is best summarized by the well-known line of 
Terence And. 8. 8. 28, 

amantium irae amorU integratio est. 

3. potior] *a favoured rival.' cervici aabat ss'did fling 
around thy neok.' 

4. Persarum regel The 'Persian king' is taken as an 
accepted type of wealtn and well-being. Of. 2. 12. 21, qtiae 
tenuit divet Achaemene», 'the wealth of Achaemenes' (the 
legendary anoestor of the Persians). Mart. 2. 53. 10, liberior 
Partho vivere rege potet. 

5. non alia.. arsisti] lit. 'thou didst burn with (love for) 
no other woman,' i.e. your warmest love was for me. alia 
is the simple abl. of the instrument: in the conventional 
langnage of amatory poetry, the lover is said ardere 'to be on 
fire,' and the loved one is called flamma, igni» t 'his flame': 
hence just as you can say ardere igne = l io be warm with 


mv ardere Lydia = 'to be fircu with lovc for 
. 18, ud 8. 7. 11 n. So too 3. 4. 7, anit 
n alia eiifrt-rt /f «tinrj. 
ttil gen. at quality; - of high renown.' 

J$, fem. S/iforja or ©ptwoa. 

10. aocw uuv .ui] ' skilled in strriina." docca which ra tbe 
«ctivp talces two eocutntives, in the paasive governa an accuaa- 
tive ol the thing taught, cf. 3. 6. 21, motut doceri. 

clthane aclent] so teiau pugnae, 1. 1G. 34, q. v. 

12. snimae anparstltl] Wickhem rightly rcjects Orelli'» 
oiplanalion of anima* = 'her life.' which makes tnperttiti un- 
nocessejy, ia oot strictly parallel to ■ o tuptriliti 1. 10, 
gives a aomewhat doubtful sense to anin d would obBoliitolj 

rojuire some pronoun or other word U , nt out ahoie iile u 
to be spared. 

The lover apeaks of Chloe es 'his (anima) jnsl aa ahi 

ipenkB of him a* 'her darling' (puer), be Bttjs 'I vrill not 

fear to die if the fstes vvill gpnre m> ....« and let her live.' 
For the ubo of animo cf. 1. 8. 8. where Horace calls Virjril 
animae dimidium meae, also 3. 17. G; aud Plautui has animt 
mi, nti animulc^-my datling.' 

15. blsj For this intensification see Introduction to Ode. 

18. dlductoeqna...] 'and joios our rwrered loves with 
hrazen yeke.' eogo, from co and o.oo, 'I brimr togethor," is the 
cmct opposite of didueo, from dit ond duco, 'I lead apart.' 

lu£o aenao] Cf. 1. 3S. 11 n. 

19. a»va] 'golden,' 'golden-haired.' tretititw = 'ia cawt 

31. sJdere pulchrlor] Cf. S. 19. 36, pitra U liarilem, Tclephe, 
Vttpero, and io Eom. n. 6. 401 tbe young Astyanav. 1« trmktf 
«mi aa-tipi tdkif. 

32. tu] Notioa how Latin by simply bringing o 
words into prominenoe evoids the use of snch woids aa ied, 
tamen, eontra, see 8. 20. 9. 

lmprobo] This adjeotive in the Latin poets tnuat bo trane- 
lated in aooordanoe with the nonn it goea with: it ligriiflea 
generaJIj 'that whioh eieeeds ordinary and reaaonabla ltanita,' 
he» therolorc applied to the sea it isr='unruly,' 'violant,' but 

NOTES. 341 

Virg. G. 1. 146, labor improim* «'unwearied work,' G. 1. 119, 
improbus aruer =* the greedy goose,' and of. 8. 24. 62, improbae 

Notice fthat Lydia cannot forgive her lover without in- 
dulging in a little sarcasm, and oompare Juno's language, 
8. 8. 88. 


This Ode is the ■upposed utteranoe of a lorer who finds the 
door firmly fastened in hie faoe on a wintry night. 'A bar- 
barian, Lyee, wonld weep to expoee me to a night like this. 
Listen how the wind howls again, and see how keen and 
aharp the frost is. Venus loves not suoh diadain as yours: 
beware lest things change with you aoon: you were never 
born to play the part of Penelope, and, after all, thongh 
nothing oan move yon, neither your lover'g wan oheeks nor 
yonr husband'8 infidelity, thongh you are as nnbending aa 
an oak, as nnpitying as a eerpent, remember that my patienoe 
is not eternaL' 

For the sequel to this Ode aee 4. 18 Int. * 

1. Tanain «1 blberea] i.e. if yon were a dweller by the 
Tanaie, a Seythian. For the form of expresaion, of. 2. 20. 
20 n. Lyce, ol \vkos, = * the ornel one. ' 

2. saevo] *stem': the sternness of the Seythians with 
regard to immorality is dwelt on at length 8. 24. 

asperas] 'eruel,' as being the instruments of Lyoe's oruelty. 

5. audls, qno...] * Hear you how the door rattles, how the 
grove...moan8 again with the winds?' 

strepitus ifl used of any 'rattling,' 'olashing,' 'banging' 
noise, cf. Sat. 2. 6. 112, vatoarum ttrepitut, *a banging of 
doors': grammatically ttrepitu must be snpplied with the 
second quo, but there seems to be a slight zengma, as the 
word does not describe the effeot of wind among trees, whioh 
is aoonratelv expressed by remugiat. 

A clear mstance of 'zeugma' (a loose oonstrnotion in which 
a verb is 'joined' with two or more substantives or claoses, 


— ■■!> onlv «—■ "' whieh it U in hciis* atrifltly approprUU) 

r in the eoustruction aitdi*...ut glaciel I cf. 

i ut nudum...latw. anlennatque gemont. 

Uaually espUined of the ahraba pUated in 

leristylium (see Diet of Ant. ■. v. dcmuu), 

ing n manaion, EpUt. 1. 10. 2*2, »ay» ntmpe 

mm- "" "'Ifd eotumruu; bul apsrt from tbe fact 

that iocu muMj -ould only be poasifcle in Tery Urge mansions, 

it is hard to iroagino that euch a -grove' conld be apoken of 

u 'moaning again with the wind' if indeed the wind got to it 

»t »11. On tha olher hitnd it U eaay to imagino that there were 

treee among »nd around the honaea K.,are Lyco lived: tne 

queation aurfia...omiiil might be put with perfect aocuracy on 

windy nighta to m«ny Loniloiiora wbo eortamly do not poaBCSa 

a periatyle. 

7. et poattt*...] Und (»*e yoa) ho- Japiter with clond- 
lese divinity freexce the fallen sno™ ' >uro because frost ii 
koencat on cloudleaa njghta. For . cr = 'the god ol tbe 

tky,' cf. 1. 1. 25 n. 

10. neonrrente...]'LeBt the wheelrnn beck mid the rope 
go with it.' Evidently a proverbUl eipreasion uwd of those wno 
attempt too moch. Tbe metaphor U from a man hauling up 
a weight over s wheel or pulley; il he attempts to raiae a 
weight beyond bU strength, after he bas raiied it to a oerUin 
height, it orerpowere hjro, the rope runa from hU handa and 
the wheel revolvca rapidly in a direotion oppoaite to ita formei 
ons. Tbe neit linea give the application of the proverb; 
Lyoe'a birth U not bigh enough to admit uuch haughtineea. 

11. non te...j i.e. no Etruaoan ancesWa hlood mni in 
yonr vein» that you ahoold give jourself the tira ol a Penelope. 
For Tyrrheiuu ef. B. 39. 1, TyrrhcTia rtgvm proantUa; we 
talk of 'Norman hlood.' 

14. ttnctui vioU pallor] Either ■paleneaa of tbe violeVi 
hue,' eiplaining pioU aa referrtng to the pala yetlow violet 
(d Virg. Ecl. 3. 47, palUntM violai), or 'paloneu tingod witll 
ibuk,' eiplaining viola u referring to the duk violet and the 
wbolo pnraae u doacribing tha oontraat betweeu the loTer'* 
pale wan cheeka and tha dark linea (arowafeet) nnder hU °T"W l 

15. Tlr FlarU...] 'your hnabasd amitten with a FUrian 

NOTES. 343 

pellex (from pellicio) ifl always used with direct reference 
to ihe injured wife. Pima «Macedonian. 

16. suppUclbus tuls parcas] Note that this is the main 
sentence. The oonneotion of thought beiween parea» and 
the f oUowing words seems to be : • Pity us, for at prosent you 
are hard as oak and venomous as a viper, and that surely 
is not the eharaoter you would wish to have.' 

Some would plaoe a oomma after anguibue and explain 
pareas as dependent on eurvat: 'though nothing bends you to 
spare...yet I shaU not always be patient.' 

19. hoo] deiotic='this of mine.' Cf. 6fe o arhp^l. 
aquae eaeUstit = l iho rain of heaven.' latut is used because 
he had desoribed himself as lying {porreetum) at the door. 


'I eaU upon thee, Mercury, and upon the lyre thou didst 
invent, by the aid of whioh Amphion was enabled to move 
even stones, to teaoh me a strain to whioh the stony-hearted 
Lyde may lend her ears — Lyde who is now as timid and 
shy as a young unbroken colt. With thy aid however, lyre, 
I may move her, for thou eanst work wonders, thou canst 
make the damned forget for a while their torments: Tityos 
and Ixion smUe, the Danaids rest from their ooaseless task. 
For Lyde'B benent let me reoount that famous story; let 
her hear of the puniahment that has overtaken the guilty 
women who slew their husbands, and of the fame of Hyper- 
mnestra whose splendid falsehood saved her young husband'8 
Ufe at the risk of her own.' 

Observe how from L 25 Lyde, the nominal subjeot of the 
Ode, passes oompletely out of sight as the poet beoomes ab- 
sorbed in his brUliant reoital of the story of the Danaids, 

1. Mercuri, nam...] 1. 10. 6, Meroury is oaUed eurvae 
lytae parene. nam= 4 for,' i.e. I eaU on thee, for thou didst 
teach Amphion to move stones and a /ortiori canst teaoh me 
to move the stony Lyde. 

te dodlls maglstro='an apt pupU of thy teaching.' 

344 HORACE, ODES III. xi. 

2. lapidos] The stones of the walls of Tfaebes whieh 
oeme togetber at the soond ol impbJon't ryx*. 

8. tirtlDl 60 xAw m Qreeki tho iheQ formed the 
soondlr^boariL rseoisere eeMiemt tBmgtHi in£, et 1. 1. 

6. loqpyut] ojQaHj 'ehattering,* hore«'*oeaL' 

7. mol^ntter.' 018.4.1. 

8. appttoet] sobj. beeao*ef«a«f«tafetiit«{t. 

9. eqnatrtma] 80 8. 1*. 1«, HmiUe bedere eemreme, m> 

OL cwnm 

mWm-»whh leeps and boands/ •fHoUng.' 
-«with ramiint»' «harriedly/ tofeti» -«with lifting,* 'with 
high aetion' (of horses), tractit»-*with drewing or artewjBg,' 
'slowly.' Por metuit tangi, ef. 8. 9. 7 n. 

11. naptiamm...] «Ignorant of marrisge end ao yet too 
joong for en eoger hosbend.* 

expers (from e* end pars)«'witboat pert,' or 'ehere ftV 
cruda, 'annpe,' is the oppoeite of matura, 8. 6. 91. 

18. oomitee] to be Uken with <totrf-'to loed in thy 
trein.* Tu of ooaree refers to Ustudo, hore m playod hy 

15. ossslt Immanis...] 'before thy bewitehing soands tho 
gaardian of heU*s portals retiredV The referenoee throoghoat 
the stanza are to Orpheos who not only made natore ohey 
him (of. 1. 12. 7, unde voealem temere inteeutae Orpkea 
eilvae...) bnt relying on the power of his mosio went down to 
Tartarns to reoorer Eorydioe. 

Immanls (see 8. 4. 42 n.) might grammatieally be taken 
with janitor, bnt the sense demands that it shoald be taken 
with aulae whioh mnst have s dittingnishing adjeettae. 
Conington renders, 'The monttroot goard of Plnto*t hall,* 
thus hiding his mittranslation by interting the distinotive 
word 'PlutoV the omittion of whioh at onoe renders his 
translation unintelligible. Considering that immanie not only 
meant 'immeasurable,' but also 'awful,' 'horrible,* the de- 
scription of hell as immanit aula = 'the vast and dreadfal 
halT teemt tofficiently clear, whereas aula by itself could 
refer to nothing. 

18. eiut] Thit pronoun is only fonnd once eltewhere in 
the Odea (4. 8. 18, a very doubtful passage), and is extremely 

NOTES. 345 

rare in other poets, doubtless as being oonsidered a Bomewhat 
weak and unemphatio pronoun. In this paiaage moreover it ii 
apparently meaningless and xnight be oxnitted. Theie faets 
and the eonaideration that linea 17 — 30 seem to dwell aome- 
what tediously and unnecessarily on aome rather nnpoetdeal 
qualities of Cerberus have induoed many to oonaider the whole 
stansa an interpolation due to aome one, who eonaidered that 
the words immani$...aulae would not be olear withont the 
addition of the name •Cerberus,' and aoeordingly manufactured 
a stanza containing that name. 

I conrider (1) that linea 15 and 16 are perfectly clear 
withont linea 17 — 20, aee tranalation and note, (2) that, thongh 
certajnly not Horatian, it is impossible to aasert that the stansa 
is not Horace's. 

For a similar description of the power of musio over 
Cerberns and the ghosts, cf. 2. 18. 29—86. 

21. ejuln et] *nay even,' as 2. 18. 87. So too quin etiam: 
quin in these cascs introduces a freah and usually a more 
forcible or wonderful statement. For an amusing instanoe see 
Plaut. Aul. 2. 4. 20, 28, 88, where every fresh story told of his 
master by a romancing slave is introduoed by quin. 

voltu rlsit invlto] 'smiled against their will/ Le. through 
their anguiah. For Hsit in the singular of. 2. 18. 88 n. 

22. urna] 'the pitoher,' i.e. of each of the Danaids with 
which they endeavoured to fiil the dolium 1. 27. 

23. dum...mulces] 'while with the charm of song thou 
didtt soothe. ' For dum with the preaent referring to past time 
cf. 1. 10. 11 n. 

25. audlat...] *lot Lyde hear of.' 

26. et lnane...quae] 'and the jar (ever) empty of watcr 
that ran to waste through the bottom, and the fate which 
(though) late awaits...' 

lnane lymphae] Adjectives which eignify abundanee or 
the opposite take a genitive, cf. 8. 6. 17 n. 

27. dolium is a very large earthen jar, probably something 
like the jars in which olive oil is imported from Italy; see any 
illustrated oopy of • Ali Baba.' 

pereuntls] used in the sense of 'perishing,' but also with 
reference to its derivation per and «os^running through.' 
For the foroe of tera see 3. 2. 81, 82 and n. 


29. «ibOrml 'benaath Orcua,' a alightlj iii 

eneath.' N»uck »ji '=iui Oreo («utj, 
per60uified iu Horace.' 
otioe thc skill with whioh ihe poet noidi 
*aio methods of commonoing » narrativo bj 
ition of abhorrenoe. 

me who p»ja regard to »11 nafuro! datie* or 
»•■ pi a. u. i;. . npitu of BM who Tiolatea them. 
For nom &:c 1. ] n. 

potaere...pot"i' e] putatrt in 1. 80 BCcms usod in iti 
ejoipln een«e = *l " -■ - — ' i » eonjewhnt rarer 

oue='h»d the b oaa — farwhatwere 

they able more? Jt . ,j - to slaj.' 

3) . duro] pftrtlj iu ■ literal s ), hard,* partlj in a 
mctaphorieal aenae, ' unrclculiiig.' t L S. 

33. uni de...] 'One among them all worthy of the nuplial waa to hcr forawora siro nobly fatse uud (ehall be) a 
maidca reaowced to overy age." 

lace aaptlall] Thc bride «M eacorted from hor old to hcr 
aew hoiue ou the eve of the by torchlight. 

34. pertarum] because he bad solemoly betrothed hia 
daugbter» to the sone of Aegyplus. 

35. aplendlde mendol] Probably the beet known inalonoe 
in Latiu of oiymoron (i^i/iupa/, 'pointedly-foaliah'), tho 
favourito rhetorical figure by which worda of appareatly oppo- 
■ite force are broagbt togethcr. Cf. Soph. Ant. 7* Sirta waraip- 
yncata 'hnviug wrought a holy crima ' (said by Antigone of 
hereclf), nnd Touiiyaou (of Lancclot), 

'Hii hoaoor rooted in diahonour itood, 
And faith anfait hjul kept bim faUely trm.' 
So too Lucan 1. 95, concardia diicon. Othar inatHMH In 
tbe Odea ore 1. 37. 11, btatui vubure, 1. 33. 3, immttii Qhjetrat, 
1. 31. 3, inianientit lapientiat, 3. B. 1, JW ptjeratum, 8. 4. 5, 
awtabilii iruania, 8. B. 48, tarcaiui eruj, 8. Sl. 18, 1m 

87. itrral] Note th« patho» of thia odjectiwi. The hna- 
band wm Lynoeni. 

88, lonfu mnnn*] 'a buting (i.e. nerer-ending) ibep.' 
Cf. 3. 16. 80 n.; EccleaiMtiani 16. 19, 'bcfore hii long nleep.' 

NOTES. 347 

40. falle] 'deceive,' i.e. by eecaping. 

41. quae.. .laoerant] * who like the-liona that have pouneed 
upon bollooki are, horror, rending eaoh her victun.' Note 
the faimitablo brevitjy and alearneai of the Latin here. 

48. ego ilMe] Note the antithetieal juxtapoeition. 
44. olauetra] * a priaon ' (from claudo). 

46.] Note the emphaeie : •you ahall not be the 
vtatim : no, on me, even me let vengeanoe falL' 

47. me val...] 'me let him baniah with hia fleet even to 
the fnrtheat realme of the Numidians.' The Numidiani are 
aeleoted aa typical aavagea. Under the empire rtlegatio waa 
the technioal term for the mildeat form of baniahment. 

49. 1, anrae] 4 Oo whither your feet and the 
breeaea hurry you,' i.e. hurry away either by land or aea. 

60. 1 aecundo omlne] aa we ahould aay 'go and good apeed 

61. et...] 'and on my tomb engraTe a lament that ahall 
reoall my memory.' Ovid Her. 14. 188 (whieh ia well worth 
oomparing) makea Hypermneitra aotually anggeat the epitaph, 

exul Hypermne$tra t pretium pietatis iniqwtm, 
quam fratri mortem depuHt, ipea tulit. 


A aoliloquy in whioh Neobule a diasatiafied and love-siok 
maiden— • love-siok ail againat her wilT — laments her lot. The 
key-note ia atruok by the flrat word: 'Wretohed are women 
who oannot make love aa they like or even drown their aorrowa 
in wine without being leotured till they are frightened to death. 
And here are you, Neobule» qnite inoapable of doing wool-work 
or anything elee, ao enamoured are you with Hebrua that moat 
aeoompliehed eavalier.' 

1. amocl dare lndnm] • to give (free) play to love.' 
p. n. 


1»t»to] 'to *Mh ■wa.y aorrow wilh 
banieh oare BaochnB ie oonstaatlj 
f. 3. 31. 1S. For lavcri ef. 3. S. 18 d 
ouo they violate the reetriotiona in . 
ri (from 1 1 and nninw) =. ' W be rednced to 
yintinR oondition' — the well-tried refogr -' 

S. p»tra«e i ■twr» llngii»»] 'tbe laahe* ol »n nnela'a 
tongue.' Unolr em to hi« been proTerbuI for thtir power 
of ftdminiiterini '' S . «1 n< iii palruu miM); 

whj, I know na taila with regard 


4. Cythere»»] (I. L 1. 5 n. 

5. operaiM Mlnervie atndlv pnrnita of indo*- 
triou» Minerra,' e* the. wool-wo.. »_. wearing jnat n 
tioned. Mincrr» was the patroneas of sll «irts and trides, 

6. Upaiaal nltor Hebrl] 'the radisnt heeutj of Liparcan 
Hehnu.' For the names thronghout of. 3. 7. 33 n. Lipara, 
wa» the lnrgeat of t ho Ao.-li an ialaj-d» i the ooast of Sioil r -. 
the adjeotive i. choaen for iti sonorons israater. Tba word 
nitor ia io appoeition with puer alei 1. 4, ue winged «ttendant 
of Venns' who has Sred Neobale"» lon jeing now identified 
not with Copid bnt with Bebru» — a cluugo whioh ii aomewtu-t 

7- flmul...] expbtina nitor; hii beanty ia most radiant 
when he comea freah from the bath after exhibiting hia Bkill in 
the Tariooi gsmea aub»eqaent_j mentioned. Cf. tbrongliont S. 
1. 35—38 and notea, and 1. 8. For timu[ = rimu! oe of. S, ♦. 37. 

nnotoa umeroa] From Orid Triet S. 13. 31, 

Mwie «M perfuu eat olto labtttu imentm 

dtftUO» artui Virgine ttngui t oquo, 
we leun tluit tha bodj wm inointed after oxerdst befotw 
balhing. Oil ni aJao <ued (ef. 1.8.8) befora wreatling. 

8. Bel.eropfeante] who rode tbe wingod horae Pegaaa*. 
Notioe th»t tha finsl « ia loog, tlie fom being frora the Greek 

neuue pugno ..] ir.gni goee with pugno aa well a. 

' tiever Tanqniahed throngh alo» ' " 

eible aa » boier and ■ rnnner. 




NOTES. 349 

10. catut laoulari, celer exdpere] see 1. 8. 35 n. per 
aperttm= «over the open oountry.' 

• 11. alto...] «to reoeive tbe boar (which has been) lurking 
in the heart of the thioket.' For aUo many MSS. have orto, 
'denae.' For excipio oi. 2. 16. 16 n. 


To the fountain Bandusia. Aooording to authoritiea dating 
from the 12th oentury this fountain was six milea from Venuaia 
the birthplaoe of Horaee, aooording to otheri it was near 
Horaoe'B Sabine farm where a so-ealled 'Fontagna degli 
Oratini' is still shewn, whioh Wiokham says aniwen adequately 
to the desoription here. 

1. Titro] 'cryatal/ It may be doubted whether Boman 
'glass' was either very bright or tranaparent. 

2. mero...florlbus] Varro L. L. 6. 22 tella us of a festival 
ealled Fontanalia on whioh wreatha were thrown into brooka 
and plaoed round wella, Among all nationa seauestered foun- 
tsina seem to have been held in peouliar regard and reverenoe 
as the favourite haunts of some superhuman beinga, and 
among the Qreeks and Bomana eaoh stream or river was sup- 
poeed to have a deity of its own. Cf . Plat. Fhaedrus 280 b, 
where elose to a mry^i x a P it * T & T1 l i* N vp&aw ri runav xai 'AxeXyov 
Up6r 9 and 'every sohoolboy* will remember Maeaulay's lines: 

«0 Tiber, father Tiber, 

To whoxn the Bomans pray.' 

4. oul frons...] «for whioh its forehead juat swelling with 
young horns marks out a oareer of love and oombat.' 

6. frustra] so too 8. 7. 21. The nom. to inficiet is haedm 
understood, and with this nominative tuboles L 8 is in 

Between gelidot and rubro there is, as Wickham well 
points out, a double antithesia though only one adj. is plaoed 
with eaoh substantive. The oold elear water is opposed to the 
warm red blood. 

9. te flagrantls...] 'thee the fleroe season of the raging 


m s*nUmm..] «thoo too ohelt bo 

mnteino when I teU of tho ook thet 


tfmaoos] HsibUint*' Tho flffft ri tt of 


ur, whom bnt now wo epoke of oo ongifod in o ejb* 
haaardoot oampaign, U retarninf ftom Spem m tri- 
joc ms wi» go fbrth dnrj to meot him and mt eleter, 
U thowifoo ond mothomof Bomo oooompeaj them. 
o I wfll omploj tho peooo and ooounj Ooooor hoo 
s bjhatfng a smaU feettfel of mjown. Qnkk,slave, 
ments, flowore ond tho oldest wine. Go too invite 
nt if tho porter mokee mneh odo obont letfemg joq m,— 
i: I om gofetmg old ond not inelinod to pntmjsolfoat 

)do ii serereljcrittciied bjaU editors, ond eerteinlj 
ore tho throo flmt etonioo nttorij oommonpUoo, bot 
mot betwoen thoir formol ond offleiel frigidity ond the 
i rigoor of tho reet of tho Ode ii too homh to bo 

m wor with Spoin see 3. 6. 3 n. 

•reolis] Heroulee is ono of Homoo'e stoek types of 
t virtue ultimately deified, et 8. 8. 9. He was 
oonneeted with Spein ae having bronght awaj the 
frerjonee ond eet np the fsmoos •Pillars of Heroales.' 

| here neeriy=popuXitf, of. 2. 3. 18 n. 

Lorte] *to have eonght tho lanreli death alono ean 
ore preeieelj he ooght to have eaid 'the riak of death' 
f 'death.' 

Dioo...] *Let the wife whose pride ie in her fllnstrioas 
dvanoe having aaorifloed with due ritee.' 

T might be taken generally= 4 eny woman,' 'wivet/ 
i not for the speeial refarenee eontoined in eoror below, 
ikes it elear tnat mutersLivia. 

NOTES. 351 

Orelli explainB unico gaudens marito M=proprio gaudeiu 
marito, adding quae quidem virtus tum singuiaris erat, and 
alao aaya that Auguatua oould not firat be oallad «a pearleaa 
hueband,' and then two linea after, 'a olorioua leadar': for 
my part I eannot aee why Horaoe oould not eay 'let Livia 
proud of her illnatriona oonaort go forth, and with her the 
aiater of onr great general,' nor, however depraved the period, 
oan I think that a poet oonld oongratnlate an empreaa on not 
being immoraL Moreover, thongh anoh phraaea aa unicusftUus 
='a aingle aon' are common and oorreot, people frequently 
having more than 'a aingle aon ( ' and though a Mormon might 
gpeak of unica eoniux, 'a aingle wife,' I eannot imagine 'a 
aingle hnaband' being a phraae poaaible in any langnaae. On 
the other hand, uiitcia^pre-eininent' ia oommon with worda 
anoh aa dux t imperator, puer,fide$, UberaUtas, Ac 

6. lnatla operata aacrial operari ia naed not only in a 
general aenaea <to perform, ' bnt in a apeoial aenae • to perform 
what ia due to the goda,' i.e. to aaorifioe. divis= *to the soda ' 
ia fonnd in many MSS. for sacri». Probably Orelli ia right in 
taking prodeat operata not a8='let her oome forth aiter aaeri- 
fieing,' W= 'let her oome forth and eaerifiee.' 

7. aoror] Octayia, the widow of Antony. The originai 
name of AuguBtna waa G. Ootaviua, then, after hia adoption by 
Jnliua Caeaar, C. Juliua Caeaar Octavianus. 

8. aupplice vitta] The vitta (aee Diot. Ant.) waa ordi- 
narily worn by freeborn maida and matrona. Here however 
the referenoe ia to a speoial vitta of wool worn during the 
performance of religioua rites: in the ' Utr ifos (Supplianta, of. 
supplice) of Aeaohylus the ohoma oarry iptoartrrout kktoovt, 
'wool-wreathed branohea.' 

0. nnper aoapitnm] Theae words supply the reaaon for 
the mothera' thankagiving. 

10. et pnellae...] 'and young girls who have bnt lately 
had knowledge of wedlock, refraln from ill-omened worda.' 
For male ominaHs pareite verbis et 8. 1. 2 n. 

The hiatua between male and ominatis is vory Btriking, bnt 
the reading ia undoubtedly right, of. the equally atnking 
hiatus 8. 11. 50, secundo \ omine, and Pera. 8. 66, diseite 
o miseri. Many MSS. have male nominatis, bnt 'ill-named 
worda ' ia meaningless. The eaay oonjeoture male inominatis 
'very ill-omencd ' (male being intenaive, of. 1. 17. 25 n.) givea 
a harah and unnatural phrase. 

358 HORACE, ODES III. xir. 

17. puor] Tbe rogular wocd in afltliwMlng a abwo, io too 

18. oadum Manft mmmi duem] For tho keoping of 
wino ef . 8. 8. 18 n. The Marsian war (othorwiso oafiod Iho 
Italian or Boolal war) wm undertakon by tho prinoipol ftaMan 
nattans to asoert tbotr right to tbo Boman franflhiss: il wn 
ooUod Marsian beoause tbo Marsianawcro tbo bravest fet 8. f. 
9) and moot important of tho oonfcderatea. For tno farxn 
dutUi ol 8. 6. 88 n. 

19. fpartaeum...] *if bj any moano (evd) a Jar baa 
been ablo to oioape tno roaxning Spertaeus.* Spartaooe wao 
tbo leador in tho Servilo war, b,c 78—71: tfio iwddentel 
aUoeion sbewt tbe extent of tbe savagee he oommitted. 

81. dlo ot...] •Md too tfao cleer-Yoioed Noaora hasten.' 
Verbe of oominanding, begging, wishing, tako a subjunetivo, 
&g. fac eat, cura valeat, vetim faeiat, eYo. For orfwtae ol 4. 

88. murrheum] 'soented.' 

85. lenlt...] 'wbitening bain tame the paations (onoo) 
oager for...' Horaoe wae born b.o. 65. In Enist 1. 20. 84 ho 
slludeo to his baldness and temper, deseribing himself as 

eorporit exigtd, praeeanum, tolibut aptum, 
irssbi oelerem tamen ut placabilU ettem. 

37. ealldus ivventa] 'in the heat of youth.' L. Munatius 
Pianous was oonsul b.o. 43. 


To tbe elderiy Chloris who retains the eaprioss without 
the oharms of her youth. 

1. pauperls] gives an additional reason for her being staid 

2. nequitlae] see 8. 4. 78, 'profligacy.' famotU, in a bad 
sense, 'notorious.' 

4. maturo...] 'oease, daily nearer to a ripe death, to sport 
amid young girls.' The foroe of the oomparttive vropior 
seems to be to remind her that death is not only alreaay tuar 
but continually beooming nearer. maturum funut is the oppo» 
site of wbat we term a 'premature death.' 

NOTES. 353 

6. et stellls...] This line illustrates the preoeding one: 
an old woman among joong girls mars the eflect, as a mist 
yeils the pure luatre (eandidit) of the stars. 

7. non, ■!...] The oonstruotion is ti quid P. tatit (decet) t 
non et te Chlori (tatis) deceU 

9. expugnat]'storms.' 

10. pulso...] «Like a Thyiad maddened with elaahing 
timhrel.* For the Thyiads ot 2. 19. 9 n. 

12. capreae] 4 a young roe.' For the oompariaon of. 8. 

18. lanae] The spinning and weaving of wool (lanMcium) 
waa held to be the fitting employment of deoorona Boman 
matrons : Orelli on 8. 12. 5 quotes a oharming inaoription on 
a oertain Murdia, where it is ranked aide by side with the 
highest virtues; the list is onrious; *in goodness, modesty, 
obedienoe, wool-making (probitate, pudicitia, obseqmo t lan\fi- 
eio) t she was the equal of any of her sex.' 

Luceria is in Apulia: it is oalled nobUem on acoount of 

16. pnrpurens] 'bright,' or possibly 'purple.' The an* 
oient purvura had two oharaoteristios : (1) its deep oolonr, the 
oolour of olotted blood, (2) its peouliar aheen or brillianoy: 
the adj. purpureut is often used of anything of whatever 
colour whioh possessed a aimilar aheen to purple, ao 4. 1. 
10, purpurei ohret, 'brightly gleaming swans,' and Yirg. Aen. 
6. 641, lumine purpureo. 

16. neo poti...] 4 nor jars drained to the dregs, old hag 
that you are.' vetulam is in apposition with te. 


In praise of contentment. *Gold is all-powerful: it baffled 
Aori&iuB, it makes its way everywhere, it oaused the destruo- 
tion of Amphiaraus, it opened the gates of oities for Pbilip of 
Macedon. And yet increase of wealth means inorease of oare. 
I am right, Maecenas, in following your example and not seek- 
ing to tower above my fellows. I join the ranks of the 
contented and am more proud in the ownenhip of my oharm- 
ing Sabino farm than if I owned tho most valuable estates. 

164 HORACE, ODE8 UL xvi 

Pbr, thongh I am in hnmble, I am not in itiilttnnl 
etanote i and to wut little it the graateat wealth, tht 
boon HeaTtn ean b o tt o w .' 

I. Stnai. 8ee Glaaa. Diet e. t. Aeriaini. 

8. robuetMl ProbebirmeonDeotionwithMMo-'oekan,' 
fromroew«'oek-woooYet 1. 8. 9, rootr «t euf trfrlM. whera 
howtrtr both wordt are nttd metej&orioalry: 'omfc 9 and 
'braaa' «io typee of tll that U itrong and inoMtrnotible, henoe 
robustus xreqnently«'etiird> 9 and MMti»-'indeitrojetible,' 
0.0. 1. 88. 11, 8. 9. 18. 

8. nronierantl 'had pr o t e eted, 9 ie. 'woold oarteinry hsrt 
pxoteeted.' Por the indicative et 8. 17. 98 n. 

6. pftTldnml beoanaa an oraole had deolartd that DaaaWa 
aon ahonld elay him. 

7. rlataitnt : rort onhn...] 'langhod at Aariatnt, lor (they 
aaid to themaelTet) that the way would be aaio and opan when 
the god wae ehanged to goldV 

The trandtion to oratio obliqua at for§ marka oleariy m 
the Latin that what followa repreaentt the thooghta or worda 
of Jnpiter and Venne, it being the Latin idiom when paating 
to oratio obliqua not to ntt any introdnotory worda, tnoh aa 
'he aaid,' 'he thonght,' or the like, the ohange of oonstmotion 
indioating with tnffieient olearneea the introdnotion of rtpoxttd 

Inppiter et Venni rlaiaient] Oontrary to Horaee'i rnle 
(of. 2. 18. 88 n.) the verb ii in the plural, olearly, ai Nanok 
pointa ont, beoanie Jnpiter and Venni are aoting together— 
they are in a oonipiraoy. 

8. oonverao...deo] Horaoe givea a half hnmoroua, half 
rationaliatio interpretation of the legend of Jnpiter deaoending 
in a ahower of gofd. 

9. per medloa...] Le. it ean penetrate a palaoe; ao mt- 
rvmpere saxa of breaking into a fortreaa. 

10. anuit = 0iXe ?, ' lovea to, ' • it wont.' 

II. oonoidlt...] Polynioea bribed Eriphvle to indnee her 
hniband Ampbiaraui to aooompany the ezpedition of the Seren 
againat Thebet, in whioh he periahed. 

Notiee in 1L 9—16 how the oonneotion of thonght ia 
kept np by plaoing emphatio and gniding worda in promi- 

NOTES. 355 

nent positions, e.g. aurum, eoneidit, lucrum, d\ffUHt t subruit, 
muneribut, munera, all of wbioh either refer to 'gold' or 
the 'power of gold.' For the use of muneribut, munera see 
1.2. 4n. 

14. virMaoedo] Phifo IL, father of Alexander the Greet, 
reigned b.c. 859 — 886. He is reported to have eeid that no 
fortress was impregnable up to wnich an ass laden with gold 
eonld be driven (Oio. ad Att. 1. 16). HU bribery of Greek 
statesmen is the oonstant theme of the warninge and inveetives 
of Dexnoethenee. Juvenal 12. 47 oalla him calUdut emptor 

urbium y e.*;. Potidaea, Olynthus, Amphipolie; reget, e.g. 
Oersobleptes king of the Thraeians. eubruit = ' nnderminedV 

16. saeros...1 'the blnfl sea-eaptain' whom Horaoe has in 
mind ie aaid to be Menas, who was admiral of Sextus Pom- 
peius (b.o. 89—86) and twioe deeerted him. 

18. maiornmqne fames] 'and thehnnger for more'; dif- 
ferent from cura=anxiety about losing what we have. For 
famet of. Virg. Aen. 8. 57, auri eaera famet. 

iure...] 'rightly have I shrunk from «*it*«g myself before 
the world'sgase.' 

19. tollere vertioem is a favourite phrase with Horaoe to 
express ostentatious pride. Of. 1. 18. 15, tollent vaeuumplut 
nimio Oloria vertieem. eontpieuum is proleptio. 

20. equitum deous] Very emphatio. Maeeenas oonsistent- 
ly preferred the reality of influenoe at the oourt of Augustus 
to the possession of splendid and empty titles, and remained 
through life a simple equet. Horaoe therefore by adding 
these two words skilfully suggests that he is only imitating the 
wise example of his benefaotor. Cf. 1. 20. 5, eare, Maeeenat, 

22. nil eupientium...] Horaoe speaks of the oontented (nil 
eupientium) and the avarioious (divitum) as divided into two 
'oamps' or 'factions' (cattra, partet), and says he means to 
be 'a deserter' from tho one and go • empty-handed ' to the 
other. The metaphor must not be pressed too elosely : when 
Horace oalls himself 'a deserter froxn the rioh' he does not 
imply that he had ever been rich. 

356 HORACE, ODES III. xvi 

35. oontemptae...] 'more proud in tho ownerabip of a 
despised farm,' The wrm k aot of oooree dosjaeable in ak 
07» bot in taooe of flw vnxkkm awn 1» aojs jaat 1 

epwaoldior] exaotly meens flw oune 00 flw 
«keUng myealf » freeter swelL' Of. tyfosdtf, 8. 8. t6T 

M. avJdqmJAanft]<wae4em 
prodooo of hk ptoogh; tho oonetraotion Is oeemttare (iJ) owid- 
omid erat. The nmai syUable of ewit k iengthoned^ a efcong 
eooent fclling on it awtnoaUy, ot t, 8. 86 n. 

27. ooeultare dioenr] not inerely--oofl»ttaTeai 'aoardeeV 
bats^had the repntation of hoarding': be k ■r ■■"■§ aoft 
morelj of a wealthy man bnt of ono whoee wealth k amoh ao to 
be thoeobjoot of generai rnmour. There k aieo an antttfaoeie 
betwoen the zepntation of the man and hk troo oonditicm, 'a 
beggar in the midet of wealth.' 

88. iator opoi imopel epes to bo taken Uteralr/, e**s» 
metaphorioaUy, 'a beggar 1 as legarde the pomosoioa of taat 
oontentment whioh k alone troe riehes. Por tho o ajuMWUt i 
of. 8. 11. 86. 

80. ot eegetia...] •(theae) and a harveet that nerer fafle 
its promise are a happier lot anknown to the hrilliant lord of 
fertik Africa.' sorto] an ailneion to the attotmaU of prorinoes. 

nUllt] k, aooording to Horaoe'i praetioe, in tho afngolar 
after Jtdcs with whioh beaHor aleo agrees, tnough both worde 
apply eqoallj to pura4...paMeontm; faUit baaUor woold bo 
in Greek XoyddVti ofoa SKfiuirtpa, the nbn-exktenoe of a 
present part. of the rerb «to be' making Latin eomowhat leee 
clear in ench eaeee; the literal rendering k 'esoapes hk notioe 
(being) happier in its lot.' 

For tegetitjldee ct 8. 1. 80 n. Africa wae one of tho prinoi- 
pal dktricte on whioh Bome relied for ite enppliee of oorn. 

88. Oalabrae apee] Cf. 3. 6. 14, where Horaoe eaye that 
the honey prodnoed near Tarentnm rivak that of Hymettos 
(fion Hymetto mella deoedun t ). 

84. Laeetrygonial Lamns king of the Laeetrygonee k 
said to hare founded formiae. 8ee next Ode. 

86. langneeoit] 'grows mellow.' pingvla—^ikih, 9 'thkk.' 

87. importnna pauperiee] certainly not the ooXopcVv vtW» 
*baneful poyerty ' of Hesiod, whioh Orelli oomparee: it is con- 
trary to the whole spirit of the Ode to speak of 'banerml 

NOTES. 357 

poverty.' pauperiet (cf. 1. 12. 43 and note, where it is defined 
acourately) by itself doee not mean •poverty,' bot *humbie 
circumstances ' ; when howerer your oiroumstanoes get to be so 
humble that they are continually eanaing you annoyanoes and 
vexations, then you have importuna pauperiet *the wozry of not 
having enough,' whioh is ezaetly what H. aays he ia free from. 
He would have oalled himaelf 'poor' pauper, but with him 
pauperiet was not importuna, 

39. oontraoto...porrlgam] Notioe the rhetorioal effeet of 
the apparent opposites *by oontraoting...I ahall eztend.' For 
the aentiment of . the proverb magnum vecHgal e$t partimonia, 
and alao — noting the diflerenoe— 1 Tim. 6. 6, tart fti vopuru&i 
fdyat ^ iMptia ptrd avrapKtlas, 

40. Tectigalia] are atrictly tazea on things oarried (vecta), 
•import dutiee.' 

41. quam si...J 'than if I made the Mygdonian plains one 
unbroken estate with the kingdom of A.' continuare ia 'to 
make continuoue' or 'unbroken' (cofUtn«ta = 'holding on to 
each other') ; hence, when a peraon makea two adjaoent eatates 
into one, he is said conHnuare *to eztend the one with the 
other,' so here Horace speaks of 'eztending the kingdom of 
A. with, i.e. by adding to it, the M. fields.' Cf. Livy 84. 4, 
cupido agroe continuandi, 

Alyattee wae father of Croeeus. Horace forms the gen. as 
from Alyattgus. Mygdonia was a distriot of Asia Minor W. 
of Bithynia. 

48. bene est, cul]=tene e$t ei, cui 'well is it with him to 
whom Frovidenoe...' On the other hand male (ett) 2. 10. 17. 
In Gk. koXws tx«~ 

ODE xvn. 

'Aelius, thou desoendant of old Lamus (for your anoestors 
the Lamiae are said to have reoeived their name from that old 
king who founded Formiae), to-morrow the raven prediots we 
shall have a storm, so get in some dry wood at onoe and make 
ready for enjoying the day in the house.' 

L. Aelius. Lamia was praefectut urbi b.o. 82, and 1. 26 
is also addressed to him. No doubt the family laid olaim to a 

368 HORACE, ODES IIL xvii. 

Lamni raeu-tioned by Homer Od. 10. Sl, 

Ad/MV atrt' rnMiSpot | Ti)Xf rtAor Aaisrpv- 

at to oonnection wilh prehiatoris heroee 

he «lleged deaoont of tho jmi JuJia (rom 

_ ,. _■ i. fi. 117— 134, Tho LnmiM «e rpoien 

ui iii juveuil, v »54 (Aoc noeuit Lamianim eaidi nwdinti), in * 

»»;■ which ehews thtkt the fMnily ih coneidered ■ v/cry diatin- 

gniahed one: tha long parontheais therefore (U. 3—9) refemng 

to the Ijirti: iif I .... rft ^ pjppj.jn^iy jjj u 

Ode whioh ia o . itary, the reat of it 

mercly Bupplyin 8 >u iu-»t,.n*iy i» .jr addreasing Lamia 

at »11. Orelli aud Wickliani eee ■ moral purpoee io the Ode, 
as tlioa^li Lftmi» were a gloomy tnmi who needed nrging to 
cheorfulnesB; iBob ■ inppoBition BeemB however gretniton». 

3. hlnc] a Lama, 'from liim ': eo undc frei]tieotly = 'from 
wliora.' Cl. 1. 13. 17. 

et prioros . et nepotum] Orelli Beeme right in Baying that 
vriorei refer» to the prehiatoric L»miae whoee eiiatenoe woold 
Ujj-vi- to be inferred to Bll up the pap between Lunui and the 
firat of tbcir deecendaoti (nrpofum) wboie 

found iu hiatorio reeordi (menorti faitoi): priorti there- 
fore — 'the earlier.' Tbe word fatti would ipply either 
public or private reoordi anoh as genealogieB and tha like. 

G. dnda) Thii ia the reeding of all MSS. The ei 
dueit, tbe rtop after faitot being remoied and geniu beoom- 
ing the oom. before ducil, wonld raake the aentenoe much 
amoother, the «ndden change to direot peraonal addreaa in 
tiucu iit tbe middle of tbe parentbeai» being very harah, and 
the aenae, ' smoe yonr «noeetor» apmng from Lamoa, you are 
deeoended from the fonnder of Potmiae,' none of the beai 
Schtiti, following DaoUr, would «trikn oot 1L 3—5. 

du«(jz'darive': tho word li ■triotly naod of drewing ool 
■ tftrcod, here of drewing ont hi» Um of anoeatry. 

7, etinnantem...] '»ndk>h*vr.y«i>»e«*ed therirUwhereit 
float» amid theeoeurt» of Marioa, lorda of * broad domain.' Th» 
Iiria (Qarigliano) flowa Into the aea tlirough the ""*■ ef 
Ifintnmae; it i» to theae marahea tbat Horaoe refera u ttari- 
cac iittom, Harioa being a looal goddeai, »nd tha LlrU bejng 

NOTES. 359 

admirably described as 'floating amid them' beeause of ita 
alow lasy movement throogh the level marahy district Of. 
1. 81. 7, nee rura quae Lkie quieta | mordet aqua, taei tunm 

9. late tyrannua] An adverb may qualify a noun when 
the nonn haa, aa here, a atrong Terbal foroe= 'widely roling.' 
Cf. Virg. Aen. 1. 21, popuVum late regem=late regentem. 

follla nemua...sternet] 'will strew the grove with leaves.' 

10. lnuUli] Added to make elearer the oontraat between 
the oheerieasneea ont of doora and the good oheer within. 
viUor alga waa proverbial, ef. Sat. 2. 5. 8, Tirg. BoL 7. 42. 

12. angur] For derivation ef. 1. 2. 82. Here the raven 
ia ealled augur aa giving an 'augoiy' of bad weather, ef. 8. 27. 

18. annoaa] Aooording to a fragment of Heaiod, bn4* 
rot ttfoi 7cycdf \cuc4pvfa *op<£rif | arip&w jfi&rrw t cf. 4. 18. 26 f 
cornicis vetulae. 

dum potti] ao. est, «while it ia poaaible.' potis is an inde- 
elinable adieotive found in Virg. and Luor. : moat M8S. give 
pote*, but tne rarer word is more likely to be right, aa being 
leas probably a oopyisfs alteration. 

Qenium mero ourabial 'you ahall refresh (or 'oheer') your 
soul with wine.' Suoh phrases as $e t $e iptum t eorpu$ f cutem, 
peUieulam eurare are oommon, and always imply 'taJong oon- 
aiderable or special oare of ' the thing mentioned, espeoially in 
the wayof proouring enjoyment: Horaoe inventa the phraae 
genium eurare on the analogy of these. Oeniue (see Diot.) is 
a aort of spiritual alter ego whioh is born (of. gigno t genitu$\ 
and perishe8 along with each of us f and ahares all our joys ana 
sorrows : it is described at length Epist. 2. 2. 188. 

poroo blmestri] *a suoking-pig.' For the dish see Lamb, 
Essays of Elia. 

16. operum solutia] * taking holiday from work.' $olutu$ 
takes a gen. aa implying 'freedom' or •oesaation from.' cf. 2. 9. 
17 n. 

ode xvm. 

An Ode to Faunus as the god of the oountry, praying that 
he will proteet the poet who reverenoes him, and deacribing the 
oelebration of his festival. 

360 HORACE, ODES III. rviii. 

4. «JumnW 'noralinga,' ' the joung of the ooolu.' alun- 

tnt partimple pauive of alo, the termination 

ih appears in Ok. M 4nam. of. rertmar.iu, 

.. li. 6 o.). 

,. t >■ - the vear'» fulrUment ■ tender kid ie eaeri. 

ht rhe oee of «i ia oooimoo in inpplicstion; 

_r ii eked ij »oniething hu been done to deeerve 

», •> ,..-i.rv. , , revung no real donbt, but it rathrr beittf 

iwimnl that aoi bing hM been ao done, cf. 1. 33. 1 n. 

le year by yeaj cc 

n tho Nones of Deoerober, pute ■ dlesslj foreed m*»n- 
tg on pleno. Any yearly feltiv&l ■ 1 recnr plnio onno 
o matter it wLiat thne of the ;eu i> •,>», ef. 3. 31. G, ptr 

■t must bs repeated before both detunt ind tumau 

agreeraent with todufi, tho bowl 
>te.' The fornu cratrra, at, fsm. 
3 both fonnd, the Gk. beiog ijnrH*, 
rjnfrijpoi, fmni rrpiWiifu, = '» miiing bowl.' 

10. tlbl] 'in tbins hononr,' so too 1. H. 

13. lnter »ud»ce».. ] The introdnction of the minumloa» 
oletnent here into the aooount of thf viilage feetivttie» ■eenia to 
oe inbarmonioui, but perhape Horace ie reproduciun * belief or 
aaying ouirent among country people about the fentival. 

11. aparjjlt...) For the leaves MUnt in Dccember, cf. 
Epod. 3. S, Dectmb*r...ribHi honore* dtentlt. 

1E. pLUdet..,] ' the delver ilelighta to have thrloe itjunped 
on hi» foe the eartb.' Horaoo wiehe» to bring befcre n» the 
pictore of a ruitic who hu jntt luxmght down bl» foot af ter the 
exeention (of. tlis perfeot pejmliuc) o( a ptu-Mnt, and ttuiei 
einltiiig in hii perfornunoe: the epithet itmitam «nggert» that 
ba hu tlirown eitr» vigour ioto tho dince, beoauae it gtvM bim 
»n ouportnnitj of ptying off hi» old (cradge againat the eaitb, 
whlon givoe hun »o mucb tronble. 

For the ptrfeot ptvulitit sb* 3. 4. 61 n. Ttr beoanae tbtn 

wh ■ trlpl» bent tn fitt duioe. Of. 4. L JT 

trr qvatirnt kmm m. Notioo the ar 



An Ode written on Murena being eleeted an Augur. Horaee 
begins by reproaohing an imaginary friend, Telephus, with 
discussing (or, perhaps, writing about) tedioue and stale epio 
subjeets and not seying a word on the more genial and 
interesting topio of the arrangements for a feast. He then 
by a dramatio ohange plunges into a true lyrioal deseription of 
a banquet in honour of Murena's appointment. 'What hol 
slave, fill up to the health of the new augur. There are 
various rules for drinking; we may drink muoh or little. 
(To-night howeTer we know what we will do, for) we mean to 
have a rouse : strike up the musio, soatter roses, let the neigh- 
bours hear the riot, while Bhode is by your side, Telephus, 
Olyeera by mine.' 

For Muraena of. 2. 10 Int. 

1. Inaonoj Inaohus was the first king of Argos, Godrus 
was the last king of Athens and sacrifioed himself for his 

3. narras...taoes] Notioe the two oontrasted olauses put 
side by sido without any adversativo partiole suoh as ' but,' cf. 
1. 26. 17 n. 

genus Aead] «the family of Aeaous'; Zeus, Aeaeus, Feleus, 
Aohilles, Neoptolemus is the list. 

4. sacro nio] ThelXiot Ipfj of Homer. 

5. Ghiuml Of the Oreek wines imported bv the Bomans 
the Ohian and Lesbian were most oelebrated. Of. Bpod. 9. 84, 
et Chia vina aut Lubia. 

6. mereemur] *we are to buy': the direot question, which 
is represented by mtrcemur in indireot question, may have 
been either mercamurt or tnercemurt Bither would be eorrect, 
but the latter more usual. Of, eaream, L 8. 

Notioe that the verb is in the plural: the feast is to be a 
Miwww **6 wufkXm (see Indd. and Soott, s.v. avupo\ij) where 
every one eontnbuted nis portion, 'paid his shot' ; one would 
pejr for the wine, one would proviae baths, another lend his 
house, and so on. 

30'.? HORACE, ODES III. xix. 

qalt iiui...] 'who warma the bath': a hoi bath im 

7. «aota] m. **re\ «a* what hour': tiM oeoal hoor te 
dbmer waa the ninth. 

8. FaeUfnn frigorlbmi] «Pelignian oold, * U. Moh «s wm 
oommon in that moontainonf oonntry. 

taoMit parallfl to and oontratted witfa mttxu, L •* ani m 

the main eentenoe to whioh the indimet qoettione whioh hav* 
preeeded are tubordinate. The tingle word in eontraet to ftha 
•erenprtoedirigliimuieryefleotife: iti poettk» h e ighto nt ftha 

efEtot 'Abont all theee thingt— - aot a wordV 

9. XanM...poarj *FQ1 op, throt, to the moon.' I ttht 

Immm to be a flimpJe Tariety of the ordinary poMtMJwj tJtmV 
tiye, the word vimm bting nnderetood, 'poor oot wine of tht) 
new moon' meaning 'ponr ont wine to be drnnk in honoar of 
the new moon.' Oi. 8. 8. 18, $imu...cyatkot amiei tttplfit, teke 
cupe of yoor friend't ititty,' ■ 'teke onpt in hononr of your 
friend'i flafety/ ef. Theoo. 14. 18, irixiieOai ejcpertp m r mm 
jStK Uturrot, *to poor in wine of whoerer etoh withed,' Lo. 
'in hononr of whoerer....' 

10. aagaria] For derivttion tee 8. 17. 19, for an tooonnt 
of the eolUgUm or 'gnild' of tngnn, tee Claet. Diei 

11. trilmi ant norem...] «with three or nine kdtot are 
the onpe rninglod appropriateW ' — appropriatelj that ii to 
the nnmber of the Graoet or the Mutee, at it iminediately 
ezplained in the next linet, the poeition of cowmodis earefuUy 

It wat the duty of the *matter of the featt' (ttaeittfr or 
arbiter bibendi, ct 2. 7. 27 n.) to tettle ererything aboot the 
drinking, the oompany being bound to obey the nuM he laid 
down. For the benefit of thit pertonaoe Horaot here reeitae 
what it evidently a well-known adage. Now at twehre oymthi 
make a sextariui it hat been attnmed that the adage re- 
oommendi the mixing of 8 oyatbi of wine with 9 of water, or 9 
of wine to 8 of water: at any rate tnoh it the judgment of the 
editort, whote learning perhapt it tnperior to their tatte, te 
how wme whioh was palatable with the addition of tfatt ttttet 
itt own bnlk of water oonld be drinkable whtn mixed with a 
third of itt own bnlk of water, I oannot eonoem. Now in 
the Gk. proYerb whioh it always quoted with regard to drinking 

NOTES. 363 

(Plaut. Stich. 5. 4. 24, vids quot eyathos bibimus 1...eanHo est 
Oraeea : 4 vtor* vUs 4 tsV 4 pi rHrapa) there ii no mention 
of any proportion, bnt onlj of the mistoer ofeyathi to be dmnk 
apparently with eaoh bnmper (tpoculum), and certainly were it 
not far the word miscentur the aame ezplanation woold be 
given here, via. *three or nine eyathi make a good bnmper,' 
to drink. that is to eaoh of the toaste that have been just 
mentioned, the oyathi being of eonrae taken from the mizing- 
bowl (eraUr) whioh wonld be atanding by with the wine ready 
mized in it : moreover raoh a rendering gives a good meaning 
to cyathi, for theae tmall ladlea (eontaining aay a wine-glaai) 
wonld be naefnlin filling a aingle goblet, nselesB m compounding 
the large oommon erater; the aense too snits admirably with 
the nezt lines, the 'big bumper' being for the vates atUmitui, 
the small one for those who worshipped the Oraoea, whereas 
aooording to the eommon rendering the poor bard is oondemned 
to drink wine almost without anv water, a praetioe whioh the 
Romans and Oreeks oonsidered as barbarous as we should 
think it to drink dry brandy. For these reaaons I strongly 
prefer not to lay stress on the word mi$centur t and to explain 
not of the proportion of wine to water, but of the number of 
eyathi whioh are poured into (and so •mingled* in) eaeh 
bumper, the duty of the * master of the feast' being to fiz the 
tize not the etrength of the bumper. Marquardt adopts this 

12. oommodis is from its position elearly to be taken 
predicatively as I have done. Orelli ezplains it as=*full,' 
'containing good measure,' an ezplanation whioh with the 
usual method of taking the passage gives no sense. 

14. attonltus vates] <a frenzied bard/ For Baoohus in 
oonneetion with poetio inspiration, see 2. 19. 6 n. 

16. rlzarum metuens] of. 8. 24. 22, metuens alterius viri^ 
*fearful of.' This gen. is very eommon with pres. paxtieiples 
used adjectively, e.g. seiens (1. 16. 24 n.) v patiens (L 8. 4), 
amans 9 appetens. 

18. lnsanlre luvat] For the oonneotion of thought aee 
Introduetion ; *it is our pleasure to hold mad reveL* 

Berecyntlae tlblae] Bereoyntus was a mountain in Phrygia 
on whioh Oybele was worshipped ; in her orgiastio rites, whioh 
were well known at Bome, the «»^iting musie of the pipe was 
especially used, cf. 1. 18. 13 n. and 4. 1. 22. 

r. n. 25 

364 HORACE, ODES III. xix. 

ng»,' i.e. idie, oa iU peg. 
i_tio in oppontion to inof_- Lyem. 
et tbe ohnrl Lvoae beftr our mad nproer.' 
] 'end om fair ncighbour ill_tt*d for 
_ i)d eeem thet Ljcne had ■ wife or nuetreu 

t. , B *. protty. end who, Horace ■uggeitj, will b* 

■i ___ unnied rfith overheumg them ai Lyoos wfll be 

25. ipliaa....] 'Thee bright with eloateruig looks, the* 
Telephui beeutiinl as tbe pnre lU ling. 1 Notice thc 

repetition of Lycui.-.Lyco to expn ■_ mpi, aud of U...U 
to expreee adniiration. 

37. teinpestlv»] lit. 'leuumable,' i.o. enited to 700 br her 
youth. ( C f. ou the other hand tum habitu) and inferenti_lly 
bj her eharm». _ntu< = 'alow-oouauming,' cf. 1. 13. 8. 


To Pyrrhus who had cnrried off tbe beantiful Nearchui 
from hie iove. ' Pyrrhua, you Ue o_rrying off her cubi from 
_ lioneea. Soon will ihe oome in pnnuit and tbe comh»t over 
Lhe prey be fieroe. Meantime he, for whose aake you both 
tn_ke reedy to b-ttle, stfiuds c_raleaalj by indiflerent to 
everything bat bis awn beauty.' 

3. poit paullo] More oommonly y_u_opMi = '_fter by a 
little,' 'very eoon.' 

' She oomee to reoover Ne_ro__i (• oomiiur, whioh invclvee. 
identic— with) a mighty oombftt.' Cf. Tirg. Aon. 8. S9t, 
ingenti nihien ftritro, trittt minul— («■ 'eoine npportea _■ 
bier — e_L offloe.' The oomtraotion U well known _ Oreek _■ 

■the eoouiative in appoeition to the lentence,' o.g. 'Skir^r 
KriMoita, Mi«W v Xfar— ™p_, 'let ni kiU HeUn, (* ___| 
whioh will be) a hitter grief to MeneUni.' 

NOTES. 365 

grande*..] '• mighty oonteet whethex the priee fall to 
thee or rather to her.' lUnm is to be eupplied before tU4g 
it ie frequently omitted. eeder* with the detire hae Tery 
oommonly the eenee of *ooming into a pereon'e poeeeeeion,' 
'fallinff to hli ehare.' maior ie need eomewhat looeely, but 
perfectly oleerly ; the literal rendoring ♦whether more of the 
prise paeo to thee or her,' ii of eouree unpooaible. Orelli reede 
maior an iUam*ot ehe be euperior,' whioh makee the etenia 
end with a very weak and ewkwerd olauee end giTee e very 
nnneu&l eenee to maior, 

9. interim, dum...] Note cerefully fhat aum goee witfa both 
the eontreeted eleueee tu promis and hatc acuU, ftrtmr being 
the mein Terb. In Letin (ef. 1» 26. 19 n.) oontraeted e l e n eee 
being eimply pnt eide by eide often oanee dimoultr to begin- 
nere, thongh here the oontrest ie mede oomparatiTeiy oleer by 
the addition of the pronoune fu, haee ; in Greek it would be 
etiU elearer, for we ehould heTe <ro uh and fccfof W: in KngHeh 
we mnet ineert a word; 'meantime, while you teke out... 
(and) ehe wete her dreadful fango, the judge of the eombat ie 

Note aleo the ekill in word-paintmg with whioh Horaoe 
almoet bringe before our eree thii group of three nguree, the 
combatante on either eide m the foreground, Nearohue behind 
in the oentre. 

11. nudo] piotoriel. palmam, i.e. the prise of Tiotory, of. 
1. 1. 5 n. 

15. qualle] •euch ea,' i.e. 'beautiful ae.' For Nireue eee 
H. 2. 678, 

Riptfo, St «aXXiaroff eVnp faro "IXior tfk&cv 
rCfw tfXXw Aorowr firr afwaora Il^Xflura. 

aauoea] the Homerio woXinrtfal, Tennyeon'e 'many-foun- 

16. raptue] 'the youth oarried ofl,' ie. Oanymedee. 


An Ode euppoeed to be addreeeed to an amphora on the 
oooaeion of the poefe entertaining Corrinue. 'Come down, 
thou flagon, thei art of the eeme ege with myeelf ; to-day 


366 HORACE, ODES III. «i. 

tba vitit of Corvinna bida u prodnoe our mellowir Tintege». 
be b« he wili not deipiu tbee: eien 
nei» wanned n-ilh wiae. Thon dost ironw 
brisg to light hiddeu wisdom, thoo doat 
— liou» and itrenglh to tbe weak: with tlij 
__. „ii»l] lut till dawn.' 
M. «alerin» Meaaala Corvinus (see Clnss, Dict.) fongbt wjth 
BrLitus m d Cmsioj at Philipjii, s.o. 42, and f nbaeqaentlj joined 
Antony, bot about b.o. 36 went over to Augn»tna. Be wu 
di«tingul»hed u »n oretor aud »uthor. i_id wu, »Iong with 
Meeoenu »nd Pollio, one of the chicf patrone af Iiter»lure. 

1. o n*u...] For tbe metbod of msrking the age of wine 
aee 8. 8. 10 — 13 uotei. Borsce wm bom e.o. 65, the oon»al 
rofeired to being L. M&nliae Torqnatua, cf. Epod. 1S. 6, lu 
i'ind Torgoolo mme | eocuufa prtua meo. 

2. »eu...atv»,..aeu..,»en] Beforeh» produeoa the amphor», 
Horace musee lialf philoeophionllj, balf hamotouslj, over th« 
uodeGned potencj for good or eril that lork» witbin it. 

4. pU te«U] For piua eee 3. 11. 30 n. Observe carefuUj 
the poiition of the two worde between faeiiem and lomnuni, 
and ths enbtle bumour of the epithet at onee appeara: then 
and then onl j doea the wine-jar f uilil the natural dntj or law of 
ita being (thia beino tha eiact meaning ol pivj), when it bringa 
eujand peaceful uuxaber, 

Wickham remark» that the words pia tttta are 'ineerted 
in n place whare thej are intended to eiert tbeir influence on 
the whole Btnuza,' and eiplaina tbe stanu in accordanco witb 
that view: to ruy mind the poeition of the wordi poaitivelv 
limite the force of the epitbet pia to the worda between whicb 
it U w earefnllj plaoed, facilem and lomimM. 

qnotranqu»...] 'on whaterer aoooont tbou guarfaat 
noiee Maaaio." Tbeai 
tiea of 1L 9 

NOTES. 367 

eomewhat nnnenal eenee of *on whatever aoeount,' *fbr what- 

pnrpoee.' Aimi leogar tne name 01 ine pereon wnoee 
'aooonnr followa ii plaeed tl the head of eaoh page, nomen 
ie frequently need for 'an eoooant'; then it ie ueed more 
genereily ox the 'aooonnt' in whioh anything ie held, the 
•purpoee' or 'objeet' it ie ooneidered to eerre, eepeeially in the 
phraee eo nomine, e.g. Oie. ad DiT. 14. 8, eo nomine eum I>yr» 
rhaehU...ut audiam 'on pnrpoee that I maj hear'; and eee 

leotnms'ohoioe f ' ae freqnentlyt Orelli and Wiokham both 
giye 'gathered' {Ugo, 'to gather'), an epithet more applioable 
to grapee than wine, and oertainly withont meaning here, ae 
in no oaee do quocunque nomine and leetum go together, for 
Horaoe ie not epeaking of the pnrpoee for whioh the grapee 
were eathered, bot of that for whioh the jar gnarde ($erva$) 

7. deeoendel From the apotheea, eee 8. 8. 10 n. Poesibly 
too the nee of the word ie mook-heroic, of. 8. i. 1, deeeenae 
eaelo. For languidiora of. langueeeit, 8. 16. 85. 

8. promos'I bring forth,' eo, 'I take off,' eo-mo, 
I pnt together/ $u~tno t 'I pnt apart.' 

9. qnamqnam...] 'eteeped thongh he be in Sooratie lore.' 
madet ie need intentionally, madere and mad i du e being oon- 
etantly need of drnnkenneee. Socratici eermonee epeoieily 
refere to the dielognee of Plato, bnt aleo hae the general 
meaning of 'philoeophio argnmente' of the eort to whieh 
Sooratee gave the firet impetue, of. 1. 29. 14 n. 

10. horrldne] 'like a boor' or 'ohorr: the word eieo re- 
oalle the 'regged,' 'unkempt' appearanoe ostentatiouely affeeted 
by many phUoeophere then ae now. See Mayor, Juy. 14. 
12 n. 

11. prled] 'aneient, ' not eo mnoh beoanee of hie aotnal anti- 
qnity (he died b.o. 149) ae beoanee of hie life-long battle on 
behalf of aneient mannere, anoient onetome, in faot ererything 
that aided to form the anoient Boman 'manlineee' (eee virtus, 
1. 12). prieeue nearly alwaye hae the donble meaning 'anoient 
and Tenerable' : the pereon or tbing to wnioh it ie applied mnet 
belong to the *good old tunee/ ef. 4. 2. 40, and Epod. 2. 2, ut 
prieea gene mortalium. 

18. lene tormentnm] Oxymoron, 'thon doet gently apply 
the rack to dull wits.' 

«68 H0RA01\ ODE8 IIL xxi 

tormentum (rrom t§rptm) t «tfao twieting thing,' Mfe»r«eV 
thatwhlehmatethemiwflhj^epeek. f ■# ml— owfwm in, — 

HOJBek ObflOrTOO, tht OBOOt flMWfl i tf of flOOOwJflUt /flOill it i 

(Quint. 10. L 188). 

15. emi ot..J Wtekfaam rigfatly oaHo irlBflHnn to tho 
met tfaot Lyeeui J Aoote* X** toto) ii • H» god who grveo free- 
dom,' oad ooya that tfaerefore tho wfaolo oentonco fi-< 
eomiUm rtttftndo ewrat tobtit, expUinin* tfaot 'ae eare 
beevy wfaoa brooded over io tfaey ootm oabjeete lor nrirtfa 
diioaioed over wiae.' 

18. vfeeeq^e ot oddii...] ewt Joiao tfao two oloaoot, et 
tfao two noune wfret oad coroofl. Por tfao faoca oo tfao ayrabol 
of itroagth et 8. 19. 89 n. 

19. aeque tratoo...] *tremblinff aoilfaor ot tho flagry dfav 
demi of tiage.' Noto the favnaUage, et 8. 1. 48 a. Vor 
ojms vliora or rfiodmo oeo L 84. 14 a. 

21. te...l 'tbeeLiboread,if ahe lend a propitioue _ 
Venus, oad tne Orooeo looth to undo their bond, and lifiag 
Unterne ifaoll leod oa untfl....' 

oolToro io tfae epexegetio iaf. oiter tegnst, oee 1. 8. 
86 n. TheGrooei ore repreeented oo listen who noror eeparate. 
For vfoo* et vigiltt hictmat, 8, 8. 14. 

ODE xxn. 

A poetioal inoeription to be plaoed on a pine overhanging 
hii Sobine homeiteod whioh he dedieotei to Diano with tfao 
promiie of a yearly laerifioe. 

9. quae...] 'thou that thrioe lummoned doet hearkea to 
yoong wiTes {jnuUatS in their traTail and save from deatfa.' 

The invoeation of Diana CAmfut) oa the goddooi who oavee 
women in ehildbirth (v. Lidd. and Bcott, o.v. BAdfwa) io 
Qreek : tbe Romani ueually invoked Juno Luoina. 

4. dlva triformli] In heaven Luna, on oarth Diana, in 
hell Heoate. For Diana oee alao 1. 91 Int. 

5. tua] predioatiTOi 'let the pine be thine,' 

NOTES. 369 

6. quam. . .donem] ' so that I may present it,' in oonneotion 
with tua esto. 

ptr ezaotoi annos] Of. 8. 18. 5 n. 

7. obliquum medltantls lotum] 'practising its ddelong 
blow': the boar is a young one just trying iti powers. • wudi* 
tor=ue\er6.<a. Boari itrike with their tusks trom the eide. 
Cf. Hom. Boxtrit alff<To*r* % *ruahing sideways,' of two boars. 


'Pray on tbe new nioon, Phidyle, and offer your dmple 
to the Lares, and then all ahall be well with your 
farm. Oostly and numerous victima are for priestly rites : they 
have nothing to do with you and your humbie worship of the 

Phidyle (of. *ettc<r*cu) is taken as the type of a 'thrifty' 
oountry housewife. 

1. caelo...] ' if you shall have raised towards heaven up- 
turned hands.' For caelo** 'heavenwards* of. Virg. Aen. 5. 
641, it eaelo clamor and 1. 28. 10, Oreo devtissunu 

The most anoient, and perhaps most natoral, attitude of 
prayer was standing with handi uplifted and upturned to 
heaven. Of. H. 7. 177, Xooi b* -npnfrarro, $€ouri W x*lpa\ 
oWtrxor, Virg. Aen. 4. 205, lovetn manibus supplex oraue 
supinis, 1 Tim. 2. 8, 'I will therefore that men pray everywhere, 
U/ting up holy hands. 1 

2. nascente Luna] For the oelebration of the day of the new 
moon, yovunwla, of. 1 Sam. 20. 5, 1 Ohron. 28. 81. 

8. horna fruge] 'with this year's oorn'; hornusr~horinus % 
wpwoi : an offering of the firstfruits of the harvest is meant. 

6. pestilentem Africum] «the deadly African wind,' the 
Sirooco, cf. 2. 14. 15 n. 

For sentiet=< feel to its cost,' see 8. 5. 86 n. 

6. sterUem robiginem] 'the blighting mildew.' Orelli 
(4th edition) states that the spelling robigo not rubigo is found 
in ' the best MSS. of Horaoe, VirgU and others. ' The word is 
usually derived from ru5to='rust.' 

7. alumni] See 3. 18. 4 n. 


" ' the sickly seaaon when autamn jields her 

in Latiura. dtvota = ' doomed, 
eu i f 

13. eerrlc*] ' th blood fram ita neck.' 

14. WnUre] ' to besiege,' 'attaek,' as though tho tmanx of 
the gods wero oul y to be woa with effort and eipense. So too 
2. 19. 12, dtot lateuo. Translnle: 'Tou haie no need to 
besiege (heaven) with saeriflce of msny aheep, yoo who orown 
7001 tinj gods with rosemarj.' parvot dfoiiparva dtoram 
timulaera, ud though no doabt in stric ranunar the nords 

1«...] 'if giftleaa tlij hsnd ha» touahed the altar 

not made more peraueaive bj |the sacri8ce of ) & ooatlj rictim. 
thea it has -.ppeassd the angry Penate» with duteous meal 
and crackluig aalt,' i.e. llie act of supplieation 11 enough with- 
out anj vain oblations. 

Immtmii i» ernphatio and iti meaning ii the sarne aa in the 
two otber paeaagee wbere Eorace nees it (Od. 4. 13. 23, Epiat, 
1. 14. 33, immimem Cinarae placuiitt rapaci), where it ia 
clearly oaed with referenoe to ita atTmology = 'vnithout a gift.' 
I Jwpoi. Tho comparative blanditrr hae ita foll forca ; the 
snpplisnt doea not endeavour to add to her powere of persnaaion 
by a costly sacrifice, and blandui ia used with aome soorn (of. 
blandiri), Horace diatiactly deprecating snob endesvonrs to 
'eoai' or 'wheedle' tbe goda tnto ahewing favoor (ef, votU 
pacitei, 8. 39. 09 n.). The «podosii begina with molliwit, ud 
tha perfeot eipresses that tha aet of supplioation at oiwe affaeta 
""-- **- — a prohablj represents a well-known y^/iii, 

" -■•- ■ — ■■■ "'--a «*- fto-t mm 

the spirit of eaorifloe and availe withont anj ooatlj aaoriliea. 

Most editots plaoa a oomma aftar marau and make tha 
apodoaia begin at new lunptuoia. 'Thongh joui hand...hald 
no gift, it has appeased the Fenatea with meal aud oraokling 
aalt, and could plaaae no n 
/ulura) wiUl a coitly Tintim.' 

NOTES. 371 

The objeotion to this rendering is that, as non blandior 
moUiet can only«'i0ttf not be more pleaaing when ii shall 
appease,' and non blandior moUiret oan onlj^would not be 
more pleasing if it shoold appease,' ao non blandior moUivit 
oan onlj»*wa# not more pleasing when it appeaeed.' 80 in 
Oreek 4y& 06 rtlartfrrtpot rott \iyois iMkmo* rodt 'A. 4 ro ** 
tfyott eonld only mean 'I was not more persuasive when I 
taoght the Atheniana by mj worda than I was by my worka.' 

Some good MSS. here read moUibiU 

Orelli rendera immunis 'gniltless,'— * if a guiltleai hand 
has tonohed the altar, then it has...' The sentiment thus 
expressed ia lofty — perhaps too lofty for the oontext, and 
may be eompared with Fsalm 60. 18: *Will I eat the flesh of 
bulls, or drink the blood of goats? Offer nnto Qod thanks- 

SiTing, and pay thy tows nnto the most High,' The meaning 
owerer assigned to immunis is clearly unjustinable. Immunis 
(from in and tmmus) originallr meant 'withont a duty» or 
•burden/ «free from taxation,' •rree*: it then beoomes frequent 
in poetry with a gen. : e.g. immunis beUi t scelsris, eaediem* free 
froxn.' Immunis eeelerum laa* <guiltless,' immunis by itself has 
no snoh meaning. 

Bentley and Nanek take sumptuosa as a nom. 'Though 
the hand that tonohed the altar held no gift, yet not more 
persuasiTely has a eostlT viotim appeased the P. than thy 
duteous meal and oraokling salt/ The only objeetion is the 
short flnal syllable in sumptuosa. Aleaens admitted a short 
syllable in this position but Horaoe never does, exoept poesibly 
in the oase of the 8rd pers. sing. of verbs (see 1. 8. 86 n.). 

20. farre pio et atlienta mioa] i.e. the mola talsa, a 
mixtnre of meal and aalt either sprinkled on the head of the 
Tiotim or offered, as here, by itself on the altar. miea is a 
'grain* or 'ornmb' of anything, here of ealt, as every Boman 
wno had seen the mola salsa would at onoe nnderstand ; saliente 
= 'spnttering' or 'oraokling,' i.e. when thrown on the fire. 


'Wealth and palaees avail nothing; when onoe inevitable 
Fate dooms thee, thon oanst not esoape death. Far better (than 
onr lnxnry and lioense) the life of the wild nomads, simple it ia 

97! HORACO; 0DE8 m. 

troe bnt Tirtnont eiid pnre. WhoeTer woold omwj 
hero ihe eonrego lo enrb Hm Uoonae off iho dej end ao wJa 
fnmo for oitor eget, tinot in hit own ege eleo ho wfll netj te 
we hete merit. Nor will wordi erafl; itm aad etrong 10- 
proirion ii noodod now t when men oooar me wodd te weelm, 
whon porertj io gmt ditgreee to bo eToided hj enj mom*) 
oren bj gnilt lot nt dodieete to heeTtn or iing into fifco 
■eo onr gtmi ond jewele ond gold; lot nt root ont tho orJl» ond 
begin bjtreining tho rieing gtnorotkm moro roaghjj mem wo 
do now, whon iho noblo joath it moro ot homo wfth tho dftm- 
box thon on hombeek, ond fttbert ohtet eren e portner or * 
gnett in their heeto to meke e fartnne for their hoir. 8o 
weelth erer growe bnt nerer mtienei.' 

In itt generel pnrpoot ihe Odo mej be eompered wfth Oiei 
1—6 of thit Book, end eeptoienj Ode 6. 

1. inteottf...] Cf. 1. 29. 1 n. inUuXit, «nnrifledV U. bj 
the Bomeni. 

8. eeomentli...] 'althongh with bnilding meteriel jon 
■eixe on...' Cf. 8. 1. 88—88 end notet. 

4. terrennm..jnere pnbUonm] So Orelli't 4th edition 
rightly, inttetd of Tvrrhenum...ApuUcum. Tyrrenum or Iw*- 
renum it fonnd in ell M88. ; publieum het strong, Pontieum 
moderate, end ApuUeum tlight enthoritj; Porphjrion'1 oom- 
ment *non terram tentnm Ternm etiem merie oecnpantem' 
thewi that he did not reed Tyrrhenum, At Pontieum end 
Apulieum eannot ttand, for no Romen wonld bnild bie Tfllaa 
to at to enoroeoh on the Pontio or Apnlien lee, pubHcum mntt 
be right, and joined with Porphyrion'i eomment inTolTet 
the aooeptanoe of Laehmann'i oonjeotnre terrenum, The rieh 
man is not tatitfied with 'all the land' bnt mntt teiie elto on 
*the general tea' — the tea in which, it might haTO teemed, no 
one conld elaim propertj. 

6. ti flglt] • jet if dread Neoessity drives her odamantino 
nails into the topmoit roof, (then) thon ahalt neither fret thj 
tonl from feer nor thj life from the tnarei of death.' 

For figU tee 1. 8. 86 n. and for a piotnre of Neceuitae V 
85. 17 — 19, where clavot trabales aniwori to elavoe adamantinoe 
here, the 'nail' being clearly ijmbolical of that whieh ii fixed 

NOTES. 373 

and immutable. It wonld eeem plain therefore that when the 
rieh man haa Uid his foundations, and reared hia palaoe, 
Neoessity ia repreaented aa alighting on the roof and there 
planting a nail aa a aign and symbol that the rieh man and all 
his riohes are not exempt from the terror of her nniTeraal sway 
(ef. 8t Lnke 12. 16—21). 

Some wonld take verUx asa*head'(as 1. 1. 8G) and ezplain 
of 'the heads of thoae who tower above their neighbours,' and 
so Conington renders : 

'Let Neoessity bnt driye 
Her wedge of adamant into that proud head 9 

Vainlv battling will you strive 
To 'acape Death's noose, or rid yonr aonl from dreodV 

Trnly with *a wedge of adamant' in his head the poor wretch 
wonld have little need to eare whether he was hanged after- 
warda or not. 

8. morUs laquels] Cf. Ps. 18. 6, *the snares of death nre- 
vented me'; alao Prov. 14. 27. expedire^^io get the foot 
free,' 'to get free,' the opposite of impedire. 

9. campestres] See 8. 8. 24 n. 

10. qnornm] They lived in oaravans like modern gipsies. 
Cf. Aesch. Prom. 709, 

Sjrffar d a<pi$ti woudSat, ot rXcrrdf criyas 
wtbapatot ralove 4w tvx vxXoit 6%oit. 

rtte='after their enstom': rigidi ^'Btem,' opposed to 
'loose,' 'lioentious.' 

12. lmmetata iugera] 'unmeasured acr*a': aswith them 
there was no private property there wonld be no need of 
bonndary stones (termini) or land measnrementa of any kind; 
the Bomans on the other hand paid great attention to these 
things. Bee Dict. Ant. a.v. Agrimentorei, 

liberass^free,' because, a* the prodnoe belonged to the 
whoU tribe in oommon, none needed to pnrchase food. Oaesar 
B.G. 4. 1 tells ns that the Suevi, and Tacitus Oenn. 26 that the 
Oerman tribes, still retained this nndonbtedly primitive mode 
of cultivation. Gaesart words are: quotannit tingula milia 
armatorum beUandi eauta educunt. ReUqui qui domi manterunt 
te atque iUot alunt. Hi rurtut invieem anno pott in armit 

tunt/illi domi remanent neque longiut anno remanere uno in 

loco incolendi eauta Ueet. 

874 HORAGE, ODES m. rrfr. 

14. mo onltoa,..] Partiy reJerriag lo tha mat thea, I 
* nomadio pmli, tbey amr etayed beyond » yanr m 
tpot, parfly to tho praotioo pf rolioTing (reoroaQ thomwltthad 

dono tbt work ena jear (t >/l ii Mm I rt or flmj by 
(vfaartf) who had been meanwhile aoting ae 
who now had to take their mir tarn (tort oifaWi) of 
8eo qooi fcom Oaee. abore. 

16. TlouliiiltlhimWoM^^oiMwhoooinoomtiinit 94 » 
atitute'i -a •Tioox' wm originally e minieter eppointed lo de 
thowork of a reotory of whioh tho monki enjoyed tho mam 
rerennaa. 8oo Bhmt, Bef. in Bng. e. ir. 

18. priTignla] «the gniltiati wifo eneree (Lo. traate with 
kmdneee) hor mothorleoo atepehildren.' Cie. treq n e nt jy eeea 
temperart in thia etnee, 04. $ociis, t mp $ ratit taeJew*, amfilj 
tr»if*rar«. Tho oraolfr of atanmoihaw waa p r o Torb ial . 8ee 
Dict o.T. noveree, /utrfiuL 

19. dotata ragtl Tlrmm) Tha Boman poata freqoentiy 
oomplain that rioh wifoa ohon prorod troly 'better hahea.' 
Cf. oop. Flant. AnL 8. 5. 60, and llart. 8. 12, 

uxcrem quare locupletem dueert noJo, 
quaeritit t uxorx nubert nolo meae. 

21. dos] with magna. For metuent viri cf. 8. 19. 16 n. 
'Chaatity that ihrinke from anothert Ioto, the marriage-tie 

24. poooare] 'to tin,' i.e. agaimt chattity. o*t« <or,' 
that it, if the do ain, 'the wagei ii death.' Cf. the nae of aut 
8. 12. 2. 

25. lmplae] 'nnhallowed,' beoanae domeotio and ao Tio- 
lating tbe law of natnre. tollere= l to do away with.' For 
tbe •ciril madnefli' eee 8. 6. 18 n. 

27. al qnaeret] <if he ihall derJre to haTo "Father of 
the dtiea" inaoribed beneath hia atatneo.' The titie of •Father' 
[pater or parent) leema to haTe been not nnfreqnently beatowad 
on benefaotora by ttateo and eitiee; ao Oio. bidi bit brother 
deserre the title of partnt Atiat, and an aotnal inaoription ia 
extant referring to Angnstne aa parent eoloniae. 8ee too 1. 2. 
50 n. 

80. qnatenna] 'in aa far ae,' •tinoe,' explaining port- 
gtnitit; ( he mntt troit to poiterity for fame einoe...' 

NOTES. 375 

81. Ylrtutem...] 'sinoe in our jeelouay wt hate living 
worth (and) regret it when remored from our gase.' Note 
that invidi from ite poeition goee with both the oontrasted 


84. recidltur] *ie eut back/ «Druned,* like a fruit tree 
whieh hae been puttmg out rank useless growth. 

85. leges] See 8. 6, Introduotion. 

87. parsl Cf. 3. 8. 55 n. * The portion of the globe fenoed 
in with fiery heat.' 'ineluta, 9 says Wiokham, 'as if the heat 
were intended to bar it from human intruaion.' 

88. latus] So 1. 23. 19, quod latut mundi. 

40. horridal Supply ti from 1. 86, and also before magnum, 
L 42. Horaoe elsewhere (1. 8) speaks of the oommeroial enter- 
prise of sailors and abipowners as a flying in the faoe of 
Providenoe, who meant the sea for a means of separation not 

42. mafnum...] (if) 'poverty (being, or being oonsidered} 
a great disgraoe urges men to do and endure anything, and 
quite the steep path of virtuc.' 

48. quidvis] i.e. any aot of guilt, of. warovpyot, 'one 
who does anythmg,' 'a villain.' deterere, whieh is Benttev*s 
oonjeoture for deterit, would be simpler but less foroible: 
poverty not only bids men quit the path of virtue, but aotually 
quits it in the pursuit of wealth. Virtue is oalled ardua, «dwell- 
tag on high,' beeause diffioult of attainment. 

46. ln Oapitolium] as a votive offering. quo elamor... 
faventium, Le. aa in a triumphal prooeesion. 

48. lnutUe] Possibly not merely 'useless,' but, by litotes, 
«•deadly. 1 

49. summi...] 'the oause of crowning ffuilt.' materiet 
is the original stuff from whioh anvthing is subsequently 
fashioned (the Ok. uXif, et 'materials,' «matter'). then the 
'souroe,' 'oause,' of anything. 

50. al bene paenitet] 'if we are heartQy sorry.' 

61. eradenda...] Two prooeeses are mentioned, first a 
oleansing process, a getting rid of the old effeminate vioes, 
seoondly the substitution of vigorous virtues in their plaoe. 

876 HORACX, ODSB IIL nfw. 

53. t1tmftf>]-r— r^r * »• •JnbabtV iuUmww/ Iwft 
bogmninw.' Noto tho imtftfrtfH of Iwsrw and ewwiejwwr 
bothftdjtottos aw ffliiTlin*ii by wo onilihothiel fwwwi w. 
tho next linee, 

64. newtt...] •Untanghl the high-bora jowih 
» horw.. jnore leemed in plajing «w * Qxeek hoop, tf jwi 
bid him, or...' 

M. mdere doottor w*...] Ut 'mon leerned w pkjinf 
whether jou bid him (plaj) with...or.' 

67. Qraeoo trooho] Both words are wed eoonnlr/i we 
Oreeka in Bomo are oonstantlj reproeohed w the parwjow of 
aU tbat ii Uuoi io uo, vkiou and vn-Bowan. 8w wp. Jwr. 
8.68—186. tnwAo(«r^y)itd^ci«nodlTiia^ftGrotkword 

for a Qrwk thing, et Jnr. 8. 67, rwffew uU ww wwfl 
dipna, Qutrwf, fet ooromatioo /ert nketerla ooBo. 

68. lofibwl Tho partfonlar Uwe are unknown. w« 
'sinee,' Le. nor k il wonderful, 'sinoe.' 

60. oonwrlom eociumj 'hlo partner in bnsfasos.' mnm 
'oapitaT : eoiuort ono who jcins capital wilh onothor. 

61. pecunlam proporol] ef. 2. 18. 36 n. and 8. 7. 84, doro- 
pcrare coronat. 

62. ecllioet...] Smnming np the whole purport of Ihe Odo : 
•Yes truly ineatiate wealth erer growo; and jet ■™wrti<ig 
ifl oTer wanting to Ihe defectiTe fortune,' Le. the woallhieel 
men are nerer quite aalisfied, are nerer oontent, but alwaje 
ooneider Iheir fortune 'maimed,' 'mutiUted,' and <defeotiTe,' 
for want of a eomething or other, thej know nol what, 

For improbac eee 8. 9. 22 n. and for tciUcct 2. li. 9 n. 


An imitation of a Greek dithjramb. The poet r ep ro s cnts 
himeelf as inepired bj Baoohue, but also suggeeto that hia state 
of poetio exaltation is due lo dwelling on Caeaar's exploitt, 
whioh, he says, he ehaU ehorUj oelebrate wilh no mere morlal 
utteranoe ae be foUows in the train of tbe god. 

NOTES. 377 

I. Bacche] For Baoohus as the god of ' inspiration ' cf. 
2. 19. 6 n. 

8. Ttlox mente noTa] 'hurried on with new inipiration'i 

qulbus antris] Either looal abl.=*in what oaTes?' or, 
which seemi more pootioal, the dat.,«=*by what oaTos ahall I 

6. aetemum...] «essaying to set tfae glory of Oaeear for 
erer amid the stara and the oonnoil of Jupiter.' In mythology 
glorifled beings of all sorts are roprceontod as being rewarded 
with a plaoe among the stare; henoe the phrase ttellit 
interere. tnedUant=pt\*r&* is rreqnentlr used of noets 
'oonning oTer,' 'rehearsing,' 'praotising,' their oompoaitions: 
henoe meditant fa*eiCT«...s'rehearsing the plaeing...,' Le. 
rehearsinga poem on the deinoation of Caesar. Cf. Virg. Eol. 
1. 2, tenui Mutam meditarii avena, imitated by Milton, Lyc 
66, •and strictly medUate the thankleas Hnse.' 

7. dioam...] ' Sublime, new, unsung as yet by other lips 
shall be mr theme.' Notioe the Tigorous asvndeton (a-^w- 
W«) by which the three adjeotiTes are left withont any oon- 
nection. Orelli seems to take reeen» as a nom.— *fresh- 
inspixed,' thns depriving the line of all foroe. 

8. non secus...libet] He oomparee his feelings as he is 
hnrried along by stream and groTe to those of a Bacohanal 
who stands on a hill-top gasing OTer the Talley of the Hebrns 
and snow-olad Thraoe nght away to Rhodope in the distanoe : 
the eflect of the soene with both is to ezcite poetio feelinff. 

The oonstruction is probably non ucut...ut t though non 
teeut is usually followed by ae; but Horace has aeque...ut t 
1. 16. 7, instead of Others take ut...libet as an 
ezolamation, and oonsidering the dithyrambio character of the 
Ode this is not impossible. 

9. Buias] fem. adj. *=■ * a Bacohanal,' of. 2. 11. 17 n. 

II. pede barbazo lustratam] 'traTersed by barbarous 
feet, • i.e. by the feet of Thracian Baochanals. With the Oreeks 
pdpjiapoi (an imitative worda'a Jabberer') simply meant one 
who did not speak Oreek, a non-Oreek, and the fioman poets 
imitated this use, employing the word frequently, as here, with 
no tinge of oontempt, e.g. when Plautus wishes to say he has 
translated a Oreek play into Latin he says Plautue vortit 

878 HORACB, ODE8 JIL xxr. 

14. oMaladom potoaol * Lord of tho Ittfor ^y tmnW 
IMotkf -Noideft (»4« «to now/ nvm i 

16. Tortere] •te upturn/ •optoot. 9 Iv. Beoh. 

17. tammmodo] 'm lowly aobioo.' 

18. dnlot...] «ajoyoti» haaard it it, King of the TTmo» 
prcet, lo foUow the fod who gerlendo,...' 

For ptrimUmm ot B. 20. ULxiXirW M *el oWmOm 
f>«^yffif ond Judoee 18. «2, • And Moneeh eeid unto hfc wife, 
We ahall eorcly die, beoauot wo hoTt oton GodV 

Lenaeut — Ammm fromXovet, 'e 


•But lately I wm o tnooeoffal oombottni in tbo liete of 
loYe : now in tokon that my werfare if flnithcd I horo dediooto 
my ormi to Venut, with just one flnol preyer— thet tho goddoto 
will moke Chloe poy for hor oonoeit.' 

It woi onitomary on leoTing off ony oooupation to dediooto 
oome of the initromente oonneoted with it to an oppropriote 
divinity, e.g. a worrior dediootee hii ermi, o fading beonty her 
mirror (ef. 4. 10. 6 n.) t o nahermen hii nett, ond oo horo 
Horaoe dedioatet hit lyre, ond olto oerttin other imaginary 
paraphernalia of lore-making. To tnch dedieoted objeeta o 
thort poetieal intoription waa frequently appended (cf. tho 
many inatancet of dValiptarurd* in the Gk. Anthology), and tbit 
Ode is tnppoted to be written for that objeot. Notioe tho 
humoront inoontittenoy between the declaration at the be- 
ginning and the proyer at tho oonolntion. 

1. Ylxl] with nuper, idoneut with puellit. 

2. militorl] Cf. Ot. Am. 1. 9. 1, militat omnit amant, 
and ef. bella, 4. 1. 2, mWtiae, 4. 1. 16. 

8. defunctumqut...] ( ond my lyre whote wara ore endedV 
barbiton= pdpfiiToft cf. 1. 82. 4 n. 

NOTES. 379 

4. hic paries...] Beeause the lyre would be hung upon 
the wall (cf. ardAgpa). 

6. marinae] 'sea-born.' 'A+po&ni wm supposed to haTe 
■prung from the foam {a$p6t) of the sea. Veneri$= l {ot the 
temple) of Venus.' 

6. lueida runalia] torohes made froxn ropei dipped in tar. 
He itill keeps np the simile from war in hif desoription of theee 
instrnmente for a 'night assault.' What wonld be the use of 
•bows' to 'threaten oppoaing doors' it ia diifionlt to see, nor is 
it any explanation to say that they were for «threatening the 
doorkeepers.' It is not nnreasonable to snppose that dt arcut 
Horaoe mtends some militarr engine (suoh as the aratbaUista 
of later times) whioh was nsed in sieges and disoharged missiles 
by means of a hujge ' bow ' : it is to be remembered that the 
whole desoription is derignedly ezaggerated. 

9. beatam] 'blessed/perhaps 'as beingthyfaTouriteseat': 
oertainly the translation 'wealthy' will not now be admitted. 

10. Memphin...J Her. 2. 119 mentions a temple of Kcfaf 
'AfpodlTT) at Memphis. 

oarentem ttthonta niTe] i.e. enjoTing a warm olimate 
Sithonia was the oentral penmsuU in Cnaloidioe. 

11. sublimi] piotorial, 'with uplifted Ush.' 

12. tange semel] 'touoh' and 'onoe' by their studied 
moderation suggest more than is expressed. 


*May guilty travellers start with evil omens or be stopped 
by them ; for those I am anxious about I shall oarefully searoh 
out happy auguries. And may you especially, Golatea, hare 
good luck, and yet I dread from experienoe that stormy ohannel 
passage. Tou must be as bold aa Europe was, when she trusted 
herself to the bull: what a diiferenoe she found between 
flowery meadows and mid ooean! And when she reaohed 
Crete how she regretted her boldness, and praycd for death! 
Venus however at last consoled her.' 

r. H. 26 

■ *e«ni to BM tbe oooaaion of Oalatea'* jouro«j 
T pretexl tm mtro&Mttf the knf tjrleal nuntrro 
i, ~nto*oimitoMJr/%nottMtof Qo1*m»-* 
t ^ a wsoUmc taj prt of H ta owIlonJ* fc> 

fttrtoo...epi] Hotothe»nathi«oJ*orii»tM»MMta. 

, rednenti*] 'of tbe bootJng orrf"* nfnln,' nmm 
| refer ta the ropetttioa of tbe orj. 
aat] ' condoot,' Le. on theu joarnej. 
r.] o gnjfah-) 
rrnu) ne&r Um i 



j editor* fin.l difBanttj in theat Mntnto ttnen, Orelli 
■ nunpat^inHii— ■■! and Uwn ndd* ' MMM O > ita m% 
nM «celcrali no» *« rM^ ...i* l M|0« *ireM rt ,*lhojiaikini 
t leaUj meaa 'Mt H wnrn tham fn ™in to braak, 1 
it ean : ■- . j do. Bentkj nnd othon nad i'mmH, 
li h*i Uttle authorttr, ead nwko* tbo Hno» mont* oonttJB 
it m to wbat liuiiO omen on a JoBrnej, t thinf 
■ch eserj one knew. Tbe oonoo dmptji* 'Lat eVu onono 
■omponj the gniltj wban thej stait on Io bi boji nnd (that M, 
lother initanoe* : in BngUMl we naa 'or ) ]ot them han theb 
lrneji intermpwd bj thom.' 
7. manno*] ' t .rTiage-borte*,' n Oallia word; fiom tb* 
e laogaftge oome MMaW, ptiorrtium, rMdo, coe lam , whieh 
»11 aeed in Latia to eignifj 'a oarriage, ' mnd *eem to prore 
kt the Bomuu deiind the um of 'e*m*«e*' bom QaoL 
col] = ri tni, fi gotng with nueUabo, c*t with ImmIo, 

«aipex) froin »«U and lyicto, one who 'watchea birda,' 
piodaeei omeoi from thelr flight, 

9. itante*] 'rtagnaat.' 

10. lmbrlum. ..] 'the bird prophetio of UBpondJtta ; gtnrm*,' 
|ef. S. 17. II where tho nven i* oalled amgur afiue, and tbo 

e bird i* probablj HHUt here, cf. Virg. Oeorg. 1. 188, tna 
ix fitna pluviam ooeal improba «*«. 

NOTES. 381 

For imbrium divina cf. divina /uiuri A. P. 218, and Virg. 
Aen. 6. 66, praetcia venturi, and 1. 15. 24 n. 

11. oselnls] From ot and cano t a teohnioal term for birds 
that gave omens by their ntteranoe. toUt ab ortu, Le from 
the region of light and happy omena. 

18. tli lloet...l 'Mayest thon be hsppy, yee happy, where'er 
thy ohoioe, and hve../ licet—per me Uc$t t 'aa far as I am 
eonoerned you may,' i.e. thongh regretting yonr departnre, still 
I do noi wiah yon ill bnt well. Moet editors take tit aa depen- 
dent on Ucet, I prefer to make it parallel to vivat, licet being 
pnrely parenthetioal : the aenae ia tne aame in both eaaea. 

15. laernil olearlTs^iU-omened,' citatAt, The Boman 
angnrs faoed tne Sonth, the Oreek the North, when taking 
obeervations, and, aa the Boman poota are aometimea imitating 
a Greek phraae eometimes uaing a natWe one, when they epeak 
of an omen *on the left hand,' the oontext ia the only guide 
whether they mean from the Eaat or from the Weet, of good or 
evil omen. 

17. aed Yidea...] 'but vou aee with what nproar Orion 
haatena to hia aetting.' Onon aete early in November when 
the storma of winter begin. I prefer to take trepidet yronut 
together and not trepidet tumultu aa Orelli doea. 

18. ego...] Emphatio: Horaoe apeaks from aad peraonal 
experienoe. 'I know what the dark gulf of Hadria ia, and the 
orimes of the elear Sonth wind.' Wiokham takee aVbut peccet 
aa meaning 'is treaoheroua for all hia white 81368,' and explains 
*that though usually albut it is not alwaya ao.' There ia no 
need ao to take it: a 'clear,' 'bright' day is often very rongh, 
and a 'white,' 'oloudless' breeze may be a very attizT one. 
albut ia added to form a piotorial oontraat with ater; the 
aea ia 'dark,' • tempestuous,' above the sky is 'bright' and 

20. lapyx] ef. 1. 8. 4 n. 

21. oaecoB...] 'audden,' * unexpected.' For tentiant ef. 
2. 7. 9 n. 

25. alo...] 'ao too...,' i.e. with equal hardihood. For 
Europe (Ev/xfrnf) aee Claas. Dioi, and for doloto eredidU of. 8. 
5. 88, and 2. 4. 6 n. latut ia naed itriotly. 

26. 'et acatentem...] 'at sight of the sea teeraing with 
monsters and of dangers all around grew pale for all her bold- 



dax{ Oijmoron: ber own boldnen now 
■"or yallnit wilh kco. in •eoondary- hdm of 
Bn. meiiat fraudtt, lit. ' midmoit dan ger» ' .- 
' centre o( theru. For Kattnttm Uluii of. 


89. nuper -■ cte] M»rk the contrasted wordi pnt Arat u 
guidee. Boere lutri. ' bj nighfi dim radUnce': rablwtru 
(c(. rublucto, a*ti, Ao., iuos'sUghtly,' 'partUllj') de- 

■oribe* e con di „ „ .. which i* half obscurit j, h»lf Iight : in the 
present a» the itui (1. 31) IH ghinin-, »nd thoro U jtut 
sufficUnt light to make »11 mvsteriou» eiid terrible to Ear 

Martin gi»e* 'lo< i rj "* omj ' "' 

end tnftrriug * k " ' " 

■tndloul! ' AdjectiTM* 

ing deeiie en ier them, e.(. i 

eupidu», faitidm /. 

S3. s'.mal] = ac, '•» bood m,' cenlum, cf. Hom. H. 

S. 619, Kprrnir itarinwalur. 

84. piter .1 ' fether,' ihe cried, '0 uame of danghter 
abendoned. »nd duty vuiquUhed bj pataion.' Orelli r~ ' 
Wickhnm meke filia* d«t. after rtlietvm = '0 fether, ni 
bj thy daaghter ebandoned.' 

37. tutde q,uo] 'whenee (snd) whither.' 8o too the Gre-ki 
□m e doable interrogetion without eny oonnecting word, e.g. 
rfi ridtr jwt ; 

1»tU] predicative. una, aa alwajs, empbetic virfimtm, 
the plnril, beoeuM otheri have «inned ae »he )iu : tbe thought 
th»i othera hnve yielded to temptati on tu&kea her lin Mem 
mor* pardonable. 

3B. TlgiUmtB*...] 'Am I avaka bewailing a (oul crime, 
or am I guiltleai, aud doei a viaion mock me, n vi*ion that idlj 
fljing from the ivory gate bringi (only) » dream ? ' 

Orelli and WicOchem pnt a oorom» «fter vana inatead of after 
imago : the «tenie U thna left witb a very weak ending (» »erj 
rara thing in Bapphjea), »n □nnatural importance U ettached 
to vana, aud the aenae U eoareelj ■□ good, for what Eoropt 
mj> i«, 'Am I awalte, or !■ thia a Tiaion (t>i(rilani...inago}, 
and if ■ vinion. U it one of thoio idla onea that coma from tbe 
JTorj nte and bring onlj draama not foreehadowing» of thc 

Bomer, Od. 19. G3S, deaoribe» dreami u coming tnrougfc 
two gatM, tlie one of linrn, the other »f iTory. tbe one iot 

NOTES. 283 

being aooompli&hed, ihe other not, and aesignB a fanciful ety- 
mologioal reaaon for the diatinotion f Atyat, ivory, and 4Xc • 
eWp», to make light : icipat, horn, «pairtf, to aooompliah). 

45. ai quis...dedat] Horaoe makee the bull vaniah aa 
aoon ae he has oonveyed her to Orete. 

47. modo] «lately,' 'but late.' muttum, aee 1. 67 n. 

49. impndens...] • Shameleai am I to delaj Death,' i.e. 
to keep Death waiting. 

6*0. o deornm...] * O thou of all the goda whoever hearest 
thia, may I....' 

Notioe inter, aeparated from Uonee. nuda is perhaps, 
aa Nanok pointa out, not to be pressed, the expression *to 
wander naked among Hons' being proverbiala* to meet a vio- 
lent death/ at the eame time I think a piotorial oontraat ia 
anggested between her beauty and their lavageneaa. 

58. antequam...] 'ere yet hideona decay aeise on theae 
oomely oheeks, ere the yonng blood ebbs from the tender vio- 
tim, in my beauty I long to feed the beasts.' The foree of this 
diffionlt and almoet nntranalateable stanza is, I think, elear: 
her beauty that wae her pride has beoome her loathing, henoe 
the oynioal aoorn with which ahe speaks of it, and the nse of 
snoh terms as Unera and ntcus (jniee) with referenoe to it, 
terms which are applieable to bntoher'8 meat. Cf. patcere. 
The merit of the stanza is however doubtful, though Orelli 
sooffs at the modern * eentimental delicaoy • (tenHmentaU Zart- 
heit) whioh objects to it. 

57. pater nrget abseni] ' so my f ather f ar away assails me.' 

58. potes] Emphatic : you have the power, nae it. bene, 
ironically = ' happily, of . deUetant. laedere = ' break.' 

61. rnpe8 et aonta leto aaxa] ' preoipioes and rooks aharp 
for death.' The taxa are rocks and bouldera lying at the 
foot of the precipioes, rough and jagged, and therefore snre to 

62. age te...] 'qnick, trust thyself to the rushing wind.' 

63. herile pensum] ' a task done for a mistrees,' * a bond- 
maid's taak.' jxtuum, from pendo to weigh, is the portion ol 
wool toeighed ont an the work for a oertain period. earpere 


pcUtx tee 3. 10. 1G 11 

66. _j_«r_.t,.,J *™ r u — * ' "*-_ fi-un Europe'* epeeob 

to n&iTkUTe, ■__<_ i >f the verb, expraae 

tho tuiiiiennm of iddees, who »t II» 

ariticol moment L._ flect, *Lo! tt htr 

«ide thui wniling itoc ._ ig imile.' 

66. perfldnm : __,. -jed adTerb-illj, ef. 

1. 2_. 33 n. remit «1 i peooeful pnrpoae. 

69. latlt] i.e. unuied beraelf wttb lattghiog »t hor. For 
abitineto irarun >ee 2. 9. 17 n. 

71. cnm Ubl . ] 'wben tbe h»tefnl bnll ehall bring yoo 
back bi» Iiorm to teu.' Yenm raoekiQgly repe*te the Tery 
word (laeerart, 1. 46) tuod bj Earope. 

73. mar. ..eite ntMU] 'Thon knowest not bow to be the 
bride,' i.e. wh»t befite tha bride; tbii rendering hftnnoniiM 
wilb diicr below, ' jou are »« yet ignorant how to pl»y jour 
purt, learo to do eo.' 

Otbere tty tbet wxor ii put for uorra in imitatlon 
of the Gr.ek idiom (e.g. a_r»i Aff.i» Ifr/, 'he uid tbat be 
bimaelf had oome'), renderiog 'Thou knoweet not thet thoa 
ort tbe bride,' but the eonstruotion ia doabtfn! »nd the p__r_J- 
leliim between neieii end ditce ia loit. 

75. tu...]'bt_ft_Mglobaih-__-_J_eUir _■_-__•.' 

An tnTiUtio» to Lyde to join him in oelobratiiig tbt Kep- 
ti-aalim with drinhing and einging. Nothing is known of fcha 
faat-Tkl euept thi t tt wm on Jnl j SSrd. 

NOTES. 385 

1. festo...] The question is a retort to a supposed objeo- 
Uoq; 'What better oould I do? Produoe the wine.' Orelli 
eays that the order of the two sentenoes is inTerted, that 
prome... ought to oome ftret and feeto... afterwards,«'Pro- 
auee the wine, for what better oan I do?' I oannot beliere 
in suoh an inversion, and it ie needless, as to begin with an 
abrnpt qnestion or statement, whieh assnmes that tne reader is 
oonversant with all the eironmstanees and surroundingi, is 
Tery natural and indeed almost neoessary in a short Ode. Gf. 
the oommenoement of Odes 25, 20, 19 of Book 8. 

9. reoonditum] 'stored far backf old. So 2. 8. 8, inUrior 
nota, itrenua with prome, 'produoe and briiklv.' Horaoe 
humorously makes Lyde aet as butler. Nauok with Oerman 
gravity argues from these words that Lyde was Horaee's house- 
keeper: 'einejleiuige ernitgetirmU hauefUUteruche SchaJPnerin, 
und mut Zeit noch wenig der Liebe geneigt* I oannot reJrain 
from giving so oharaoteristio a note at length. 

i. munltaeque...] 'and assault the fortress of philoso- 
phy.' Philosophy is represented as nossessing a fortress inao- 
oessible and impregnable to temptation: cf. Luor. 2. 8, bene 
quam munita tenere | edita doctrina eapientum templa serena, 
Ariat. Nub. 1024, u KaXklTvpyo* co$La*...iTaaKu»> and Tenny- 
son'8 Palaoe of Art, stanzas ' 

6. lnclinare meridlem] 'that noon deolines,' i.e. that the 
sun has passed the senith. Of. LiT. 9. 32, meridie tol u incli- 
navit, meridiu-medidiet (midday), altered for the sake of 

6. stet = * stood still,' halted in its oourse : in strong oontrast 
with volucrit. 

7. parois deripere] 'you hesitate to hurry down.' For 
deripereei. 8. 21. 7, detcende, and 8. 8. 11 n. horreo^apotheca, 
'the store,' of. 4. 12. 18, Sulpieiit horreu. 

8. oessantem] The amphcra is personified and desoribed 
as 'fondly ltn^ering' in its old oorner. M. Oalpurnius Bibulus 
was oonsul with 0. Julius Oaesar in the famous year b.o. 69, 
but the name is obviougly seleoted in joke. 

9. nos oantabimus...] 'we will sing in turn, (I) of Nep- 
tune..., you shall in reply tell of Latona....' Horace begins 
the sentenos as if he were going to wvy 'we will sing in turn of 
Neptune...and Latona' (ie. I of Neptune, you of Latona), but 

386 HORACE, ODBS IIL xxriii 

in the seoond half ot the eentonoe m octe lo make il 

ctear who ii lo niidertoko Iho roply (rogwiai)ond einf of Looooo» 
hc ineerto tht worda fv recinit, whieh make the tonoo oloor 
but eomewhat inteifero with the etriet grammar. 

8omo teke «os f aw f s f '1 m my tam': no doobl aot 
io ofton put for cje, bot il eertainlyoaiuiotUootteedwlftere, 
oo here,*** *wo' natnroJrjr mnol meon 'I oad jron,' oad whero 
tho not of it» T mnol prodnoo oonfooiop. 

10. TMdet-^eee-green^aibefittodeee-irympbe. 

12. Oynthiae] Qjnthni woo a moontoin in Deloe: tyav 
tAte-Apollo, CyntkU-hb eietor, Diana. 

18. iommo oarminel oo. o o nfoMo io n . Horooo otorli by 
singing of Neptnne. I4700 roplioo with tho proioo of Taronoj 
and Diana, they both nnito in hononrinf Yennt ond night. 

qnoo lenolooofli fwo* Un$t, 'the qnoen of Onidoe.' Oni- 

doo ii in Caria. Cyetodo$ t ef. 1. 14. 19, 80 n. 

16. merita] ewJa mtumtibiu favtL nmU, nood of any 
plaintive, not neceeserilT melanoholy, harmony. Nole tho 
akUl with wbioh tho oonolnding worda of the Ode tuggett tho 
ideas of rest and repose. 


'A warm weleome awaits you, Maecenas, at my honso: 
come then at onee. Oease merely to gaae longingly on tho 
country, and leave Bome for a while and all ito magnifioenoe 
and eares. Bich men aometimes find the ohange to a hnmble 
houaehold a relief. The dog-days moreoTer are ooming on, 
and yet yon linger in town and worry yoarself abont politieal 
ccntingencies. What is the good? Proridenoe has oealed tho 
fnture and moeks onr efforts to read it. Calmly to deal with 
the pxesent is wisdom; for life io like a river and moToo aloog 
nncontroUed by ns oometimes peaeefully sometimes a raging 
torrent. He lives best who enjoys to-day: to-morrow Jnpiter 
may send trouble bnt he cannot undo the past. Fortnno ia 
erer fickle: I accept her favour and put np with her frowne. 

NOTES. 387 

In stormy weather I am not like a merch&nt fearful lest his 

ridh eazgo be lost : it ii enough for me if I weather the tempest 


The Ode ahoold be oompared with Ode 8. 

1. Tyrrhena...] «Scion of Btnxican kings.' Of. 1. 1. 1, 
Maecenat atavis ediU regibut. Horaoe ends (see next Odej 
his Odes as he had begnn them with the praise of his great 

2. non ante verso cado] «in a eask as yet unbroaoheoY 
lii. 'untilted.' The cadut or amphora would have to be tipped 
np to get at the wine. &n«=mellow t of. 3. 21. 8, languidiora 

8. flore rosarnm] 'ohoioest roses.' ^Mw ddrocf, Simo- 

4. balanui]=myro6aZa«iim, the fruit of a sort of palm 
from whioh a balsam was extraoted {preua). 

balamu=pd\aros t the Latin form of whioh is glant. 

5. lamdudnm est] *has long been,' lit. *i* now a oon- 
siderable time.' This use of jamdudum with a present is Tery 

6. udum Tlbur] For the enithet see 1. 7. 18 n. JSfulas 
is the right reading instead of tne old JEsulae whioh was un- 
known. JEfula is a Boman oolony on the hill-side between 
Tibur and Fraeneste, of. Liv. 26. 9. 9; 82. 9. 2, and see Orelli 

ne semper contemplerii] 'be not ever gazing wistfully at/ 
i.e. from Rome. With ne m prohibitions addressed to a par- 
tioular person the perf. subj. is usual, but would be olearly 
impossible here where the aot spoken of is oontinuous. Some 
put only a comma after morae, and render *oome quiokly so 
as not to be...,' but this is less simple. 

Tibur, 16 miles N^J. of Rome, and Tusculum {Telegoni 
iuga), 10 milea S.E., both on the sides of bills, were aoubtiess 
(see Hart. 4. 64) visible from Bome, and espeoially from Maeee- 
nas' lofty house, see 1L 9, 10. 

9. fastidlosam...] ( quit the plenty that but paUs.' For 
fattidiotue see 8. 1. 86 n. 

10. molem...] 'the palace thattowers to theclouds.' Of. 
The Tcmpcttt, Act 4. Sc. 1, *The cloud-capt towcrt, the 

388 HORACE, ODES, III. xxix. 

unrueon» Dttlttc 1 " ' Tho referenw U to thc so-oalled lurnj 
Eiquilinf, from which Nero »fterw»rd» 
g ot Kijnie, find whieb rnust haTe hsd ■ 
itbi Rome (see IL 11, 13) snd the ueigL- 

._rl... ' "hi« terse dcscription of a grett capitol u 

om K i point of vantago U ininuUhle ('uniibfr- 

trtfflieh charaktt litch,' Nauck). Tbe wealth, the nnoki-, 
the riobes, the M of London, as seen say from St Psul 1 *, 
migbt wel! is thi'-- oombined effeot niake ths beholder 'mar- 
»el' (aurari). i in UTina mirari lumum rapd rfxxtlo- 

ilaJt, nam 'mtr duwifujiil, entirely 

miiue* the p< A . , . 

M, mundae] Ti ie presenoe of tuU 

bnt ths abeence ■■-'' le definee mundu* 

(Sst. 3. 3. 65), u i» ■ uu», a.i - <ast mesn between 

luiuriou» eicese i 1 negleot, The word thui n 

not only 'sitnple ■ -jeot' U diflieult to U»neUte: per- 
hsps here 'simple' wmco, though it only eipresses hiif 

the word. tuhlart — . — lentb the roof.' 

15. rtns sulsels...] The aulata were 'hsngings' suspendsd 
on the walls like tapestry, not » csnopy hnng from the oeiiing 
over the lable u unuallv eipUined, see Marauaidt, Privstleben, 
ed. 9, p. 311. oitro refers to the purple cortriug of the oonches. 

16. soUldtJun...] 'biTe remoTed the wriukles from the 
brow of csre.' explieuert in the perfect, witb pUrwnque, 
= • hsTe often,' i.e. before now. For the phrftee cf. SaL 2. 3. 
185, txplicuit cino contractat teria/rontu. 

17. climi occultum) Tbe antithesU u somewbst foreed. 
cIarru = 'glowing'; occulium = ' hidden, ' i.e. previousl». Jnrfro- 
mtdat paltr = Cepaea*. All tbe star» mentioned riso in July, 

18. Prooyun] IlponSi»» (in Lstin Antecanit) a ths oonstsl- 
Ution which risea bt/ore tbe Dogitar. For the letter 'j' in 
words borrowed from Qreek af. 1. 16. 6 n. 

tarlt snd TtMnl both refer to the Serce he*t of the dog- 
d»y», cf. S. 7. 6, iiuana, of tempestuou» weather. 

dlea nlmtti slocos] 'bringing round tbs d*ji of 


j=when drink is »ccept*hlo. 

of the speoUl double ajWaJBjg suigued to it, (l)-wl 
' ;, (3) = whf- ^ 1 ' ■ .-•'- 

NOTES. 389 

22. horridl] * ahaggy.' A oountry oovered with wood (til 
vae) and thiokets (dumeta) is horridut (cf. 4. 5. 26. horrida 
Qermania), and thercfore tne saxne epithet ia appliea to 'the 
woodland god,' Sitoanut, who preaides over auch eountry. 
caretaue...** i &n& the slumbering bank (i.e. of the river 
mentxoned 1. 22) ia untroubled by the wandering winda,' 

25. tu...] ri 94. The poeition of the pronoun marka the 
antitheeifl between Maeoenas' aotrfity and the repose whioh the 
seaaon fluggeeta (11. 17 — 24). 

26. etUrbl...] 'and anxious for the citydread the plots 
(quid parent) of the Seree....' 

For the Seret ol 1. 12. 55: they fltand for any remote 
Eastem people. 

27. regnata Oyro Bactral 'Bactria where Cyrus ruled/ 
lit. * reigned over by Cyrus.' For oonetruotion of. 2. 6. 11 n. ; 
and for the kingdom of Cyrus 1. 2. 22 n. 

28. TanaltQue dlaooxa] The river ifl put for the dweUera by 
the river, i.e. the Soythae, aee 8. 8. 23 n. diecort = •rebellioua.' 

29. prudena]=j>rotrid«u f 'inhia proTidenoe.' caUginosa: 
note the aize of the word whioh ezpreaaea the utterly impe- 
netrable oharaoter of the darkneaa whioh ' ahuta in ' (premit) 
the future from human gaze ; ealigo ia 'a darkneaa that may be 

81. mortalla...] *if mortal man atrugglee beyond (i.e. to 
aee beyond) what heaven allowa.' 

mortalii ia uaed intentionally and emphatioally : cf. hia 
indignant nil mortalibut ardui ett t 1. 8. 87 : energy, vigour, 
puah, are all, aooording to the philoaophy of Horaoe, only foUy 
in thoae whoae life ia but a apan long ; the queation he oeaae- 
leaaly repeata ia quid brevi forUtjaeulamur aevo multat (2. 16. 
17) ; ho breathea the apirit of Ecoleaiaetea, but with him the 
* ooneluaion of the whole matter ' ia not 'Fear God' but 'Rejoiot 
in thy youth.' 

82. trepidat, whioh ia uaed (2. 18. 12) of the morement 
of water down a steep and atony bed, ezpreaaea reatleaa, nexroua, 
exceaaWe eagerneaa, of. 2. 11. 4 n. /oj=that whioh the lawa of 
the godfl, jut that whioh the lawa ox men permit. 

88. componere] lit. 'to arrange.' 'reduoe to order.' 'make 


and inde 

lo emd mdmt. both phxatnt are pnr> 

indeflnfto, thtco it a oontratt not onr/ bolaioa» 

nt' and tho 'fatoro,' bnt bo U oo u thino» oror whloh 
control, md thmgt whSoh aro wholrjr btyoojd ot 

irostv] •aie twept along.' insM...«j»ae«'at one 
another.' aetdio oegtioro k difnenlt bnt tetna to 
■e ltrol inrraoo (— gnor, ot tsaom) of tho ttroam at it 
wing botwosn («w4i«») itt banka. Mur/ M8a grto 
»dinff whioh ii Tery thnple bnt hardrjr aeooonta for 
loe ox tho diAonlt ocgnoro. 

■m paoo...] Tho final tyllable of Btnmcmm ontt off 
in the next line, the tbird and ftarth hnti in aa 
nsa being Terr olooely oonneoted, nt it thtwn br tht 
it Horaoe exhibiti to tho thixd lino ending with n 
d etpeeiaUy a thort Towel, when tht fbnxth Hne 
th a ToweL The liotntt ht here aDowt himtelf it 
ixeeptional, tht line, bj itt tlow and eren rnortrnent 
oal length, being intended to exprttt tht tlow, eren, 
nt moTement of the etream. Of. Epiat. 1. 2. 43, 
init) labitur et labetur in omne voUtbilit aevum. 

olTentit] narallel to delabentit. and in agreement 
inie: 'rolling down along with it' (ima). Orelli 
akes una =inter te permixta. 

lamore] 'eoho.' diluviet (dit-luo, *to waah away'), 

otent tnl...] *lord of bimtelf,' oi/rdpffyt, not the alaTe 
itanoe. Byron givea a Tery diJIerent foroe to the tame 
len he sayt 'Lord of himself— that heritage of woe.' 
m. cf. 1. 6. 10 n. 

eget, to. Umput, 'will past hit time.' 

>et...] 'who oan at eaoh day*i olote tay, "I have 
& to-day): to-morrow let....' vivere it frequently 
he eente of enjoying or uting life, and not mexely 
Of. Fr. viveurt and Martial, 1. 15. 11, 

von ett, erede mihi, tapientit dicere 'FteasV; 
tera nimit vita ett erattina: vive kodie. 

ton tamen...] *yet he thall not render Toid that 
>ehind ns, nor re-shape and make nndone that whioh 

NOTES. 391 

ihe hurrying honr has once oarried away.' Horaee if xnerely 
reoommencung the Epionrean preoept earpe dUm, but the re- 
fleotion whioh he appends as to the limite even of Omnipotenoe 
ia ourious; the aame eentiment ie however fonnd elsewhere, 
e.g. Agathon qooted by Ar. Eth. 6. 2, u6wov yap awroO koI fcot 
CTtplffKrrcu | &y4nfra rotw aW aV $ xewpayuha. 

49. rortnna...] admirably paraphraeed by Dryden, 

'Fortune that with malidone joy 

Does man, her alave, oppress, 
Prond of her offioe to destroy, 

Is seldom pleased to bleas; 
Still various and inoonstant still, 
Bnt with an inolination to be ill, 
Proraotee, degrades, delights in strife, 
And roakes a lottery of Ufe. 
I ean enjoy her while she's kind; 
But when she danoes in the wind, 
And shakes her wings and will not stay, 
I pufl the fiokle jade away: 

The little or the mnch she gaTe is qnietly resign'd, 
Content with povertv my soul I arm, 
And virtue, thongh in rags, will keep me warm.' 

60. ludum] so 2. 1. 8, ludumque Fortunae, q. v. 

64. resigno] 'Innseal,' 'eanoel.' Fortune has given her 
seeied bond, Horaoe breaks the seal and gives baek the bond. 

57. mn&iat] 'oreaks,' 'groans.' miterat — 'oraven.' de> 
currere — 'to betake myself,' nsnally, as here, in the sense of 
resorting to sometbing which is eontemptible. 

59. et votls...] 'and with vows to bargain that my wares 
add not (fresh) wealth....' A vow is made when a peraon 
promises that, in oase he reoeives a oertain favonr from the 
god, he will pay the god some definite honour in retnrn (ef. 2. 
17. 80 n.): this prooednre Horaoe soornfuUy, bnt justly, 
oharaeterises as 'bargaining.' For the gods in the stern ef. 1. 
14. 10 n. 

61. For dlvttias ef. Bich. III. Act 1, So. 4, 

'Wedges of gold, great anohors, heaps of pearl, 
Inestimable stones, nnvalned jeweli, 
AU scattered in the bottom of the sea.' 

aORACE, ODES III. xxix. 

the rieh merehant ia all anxiety for 
t efceH bm onlj myoolf lo look efter, and, 
Mb hfc «ooel eofeeonAdonoe, I know I ehell eome 

two-oerod ekinV 

lmneqne FoOox] * the twin Poilnx'; tho edditfton of 
enggoete tho pr ooo n oe of Oaetor too. For tho 



e finiahed en imporiehable monnment: I ehall not 

*, bat as long ae Bomo otendi my feme ehall Ixfe ond 

ltho tolo ahallatill bo told how beeide tho banke of 

mere roee from the ranke of tho pooplo the poet who 

rodnoed to Itely tho lajo of Greeoo. Bo prond, my 

or thon ort worthy, ond deok my browe with lanreL' 

i Odo ooneradoe the firet three booki of tho Odee; 

i oleorly etetee thot bie toek ae a lyxio poot k oom- 

. The fonrth book wae only writton after aninterral of 

jaro, ef. ite opening wordo, inUrmitta dtu, 4. 1. 1. 

. exatf] 'IheYebrooghttoanei^fiiiiahed.' Thonret 

i etrikee the keynote of the Ode. atre, not only beoaooo 

metal ie latting, bnt beoaoee braien tablete wore naed ae 

noriala, and etatnee of braee were ereoted Jn memory of 

at men. 

9. regaliqne eltn...] 'loftier than the pyramida reared by 

oge,' lit. *the royal plaoing of the pyremide': ritut ie not 

und elaewhere in thia aenae, bnt the word originally meant 

a piaoing,* from tino 'I lay down,'and the pert titut ia nted» 

bnilt,' * fonnded.' Nanok takee titut ae = * deoay,' * monldering/ 

wd rtgaiit titut ae an inetanoe of Oxymoron ■■'moaldering 

grandeor': they will perieh bnt the Odea will endnre. 

8. qnod non...poeelt] 'enoh ae neither...oan.' eeVuta 
'oorroding.' itnpotent^impotcnt tui (ot 1. 87. 10), axpe- 
ttJi, 'nneontroUeoV 

4. ant...] 'or eonntleae enooeeaion of yeare and flight ol 
agee.' teritt, from tero (whenoe alao tertum), 'I join together* 

NOTES. 393 

6. xion omnis] explained by the words whioh immediately 
follow, *a great part of me (i.e. my thoughts) shall esoape the 
goddeai of the grave.' For the thooght ot Milton'* Areo- 
pagitica : 'Many a man lives a horden to the earth, bnt a good 
book ia the preoions life-blood of a master spirit imhalmed and 
treasnred np on pnrpose to a life beyond life.' 

7. nsqne] with ereeeam: 'ever shall I grow still fresh in 
the praise of posterity,' Le. my fame shall flonrish rather than 

8. dnm] i.e. while Bome shall last; while her most re- 
nerable temple and her most venerable institntions remain. 
For Capitolium of. 8. 8. 42, and for virgine referring to the 
Vestal virgins 1. 2. 27 n. tacita probably refers generauy to the 
solemn silenoe ohserved by them when taking part in pro- 

10. dicar, qna..J Clearly not 'I shall he told of where 
the Aufidu «...,' for Horace does not wish to limit his fame to 
his native distriot, bnt that his native distriet shonld share in 
his own world-wide glory. 'I shall be told of (as one who) 
whare Anfidns roars m fnry...rising from low estate was the 
first to have oondnoted Aeolian song to Italian measnres' 
(of. 4. 9. 2). deduxiue goes with dicar, and ex humili potens 
agrees with the nnexpressed nominative to dicar, i.e. ego: 
Horace is so fiar from the folly of attempting to oonoeal his 
origin that he always dwells on it with pride as making the 
glory of his snooess greater (cf. 2. 20. 6). 

11. panper aqnae] Dannns is oalled 'poor in water/ 
heoause Apulia, the country he rnled over, was so. For gen. ef. 
8. 6. 17 n. 

12. regnavlt popnlomm] A Greek oonstrnetion : ofixtaf, 
npartiw, rvpcwytikw, all take a genitive. ex, ef. rve^Xet 4k 
dt6of»c6Tos, 'blind after having possessed sight,' Virg. Aen. 10. 
221, nympha» e navibut, Jnv. 5. 184, quantu$ ex nihilo. 

18. Aeolinm carmen] Lyrios snoh as those of Sappho and 
Aloaens, who nsed the Aeoho dialect, cf. 2. 18. 24, 4. 8. 12. 
ad Italoe modas: the words mnst not be pressed too olosely: 
the 'measnres' or 'metres' that Horaoe nses are not 'Italian* 
bnt Qreek, e.g. the Aloaio and Sapphtc ; what he means is that 


■■ qua.oiltim meritli] ' von ' or ' ftnined bj thj deserte. 
^^Ha, beottue the luurel wae uored to ApoUo (cf. 4. 2. y 
H^HjpofHnart), uiid ApoUo i» Donstontlj repreeented u tli 
H^H/>ne ti and playing on the Ijre. 

HH voleiu] 'o( thy grnoe,' Couington. 

itroduocd ■ new Ttrietj of italitn poetrj, copied from 

I deduilwo] 'the o»e of dtduccrt ieeme Pikin to thnt 


The Fourth Book of the Odes is separated from the pre- 
eeding three by a oonsiderable period of time. In the oon- 
cluding Ode of the Third Book Horaee distinotly speaks of his 
Ubonra ai a lyric poet ai oonoluded : the first word of the 
present book calls marked attention to the interval whioh has 
elapsed, and the Ode generally suggests that the poet resumes 
hie task somewhat againtt the grain. The reaaon for hig 
doing ao at all ia definitely assigned by Suetonius to the direet 
command of Augustus: Seripta ejut utque adeo probavit 
{Auguttui) manturaque perpetuo opinatue eet ut non modo eaeeulare 
earmen eomponendum injunxerit, ted et Vindelieam vietoriam 
Tiberii Drutique privignorum tuorum, eumque eoegerit propter 
hoe tribue earminum Ubrit ex tongo intervalto quartum addere. 
Indeed it is sufficiently clear even on a ouraory ezamination 
that the rest of the book is only published to afford a plausible 
pretezt for the publication of Odes 4, 5, 14 and 15: the other 
Odea, whioh are of a purely lyric charaoter, serye to maak the 
distinctly political purpose of these four, which bear throughout 
the stamp of the official utteranoe of a Poet-Laureate. 

Orelli (od. 4) calls attention to the remarkable number of 
almost entirely new words used by Horace in this book 
Fauttitat 5. 18; beluotut 14. 47; tauriformie 14. 35; domabilit 
14. 41; iUaerimabilit (sunwept for) 9. 26; inimicare 15. 90; 
adpreeari 15. 28; obarmare 4. 21; remiteere 15. 80; aeternare 
14. 5. There is also a marked differenoe in his prosody; the 
most notable point being his studied alteration of the rule 
that after the fifth syllable of a sapphie line there must be a 
caesura, see Notes on the Metres. 

p. II. 27 



uctory. •'Why eommon me, Venos, lo entor ogein 
>f lore? I am Terging on fity and nol tbo man I 
Itwoold be mom ooaeonahlo fbr thoo tb load thy 
tho hoooe of Paolos lCaximoa: ho hae a himdred 
irhieh will make him thy worthy ohtmnion, and in 
thy mTOon will dodioate lo thoo a temple. To mo 
gaiety h*To lost thoir eharma. And yet, eren ae I 
nd tho old omotionf zotoin their sway, I hotmj otery 

• pfofeeeoi tbat he roiomee hie pen mexely to 
again the powor of lore: he thoe endeaTOon to toQ 
arpoee, whioh hae been elreedy eiplained. 

tormlaea] The fint thne booke of the Odee eannot 
1 published Uter than b.c. 24: in the preeent book 
j oontinoel referenoei to the erente of the yeen 

tUa moYOS] *thon stirreet op war.' The oomperieon 
r to a warrior ii very eommon ; of . 3. 26. 2 n. and eee 


mae...] ( in the days of kincUy Cinarat sway.' For 
3. 9. 9, me nune Thressa ChU* rtgiU 

ilelom aaera] Note the antitheaie, and of. moUibui.. 
mediately afterwards. 

letore] Dependent on desine : * Ceaee to goide one who 
ose opon the fifties is by now too hard for thy gentle 
snt.' The metaphon are demed from the art of 
n old hard-mouthed hone is onfit for the light hand 

fardi the oonstroetion of circa hutra decem it shoold 
ed that Latin often eoffen from the want of a pres. 
the verb *to be'; the Greeks woold write in a aimilar 
wtfl trn ifhi Tcmpcorra. 

[oraoe's age and the word lustrum cf. 2. 4. 38 n. 

NOTES. 397 

8. revocant] Venus has left the joung men to attack 
Horace; revocant therefore ifl simpljs'call baok.' 

10. purpurels alss olorlbus] 'winmd with thy gleammg 
swant/ i.a. borne through the tir in * ohariot drawn bjr them: 
ef. 8. 28. 15, Junetis vitit oloribut. For pu rpun w oL S. 15. 
15 n. 

11. oomissabere] ThitworirepreeentesanearljMpossible 
in Latin letters the Gtreek Kt*iUZ*ur. Before the Romant tdded 
the letters x, y, and s to the end of their alphabet to repreeent 
€» v, i; thej habituallj represented thit fbj $t t e.g. in oodtoo, 
tarpettita; henoe wordt borrowed at an eerly period e.g. 
bj Plautus present this epelling, those borrowed later have i, 
e. g. tona. a has passea into i bj assimilation, i having a 
strong attraotion for dental spirants. The word is derived 
from Kw/tot *a prooession of revellers' and maj thereftwe take 
the oonstrootion of a vexb of motion, as here • tn dornurn,* 

Paollus Maximus cannot be adeqoatelj identified. 

12. sltorrere...] < ifthondost8eek to fire a oongenial heart.' 
'The fire of love' is a oommonplaoe with all poets, and phrasee 
derived from this metaphor are eontinuaUj reourring. The 
anoients plaoed the seat of the affeotions in the liver. Ben 
Jonson's rendering *lf a fit liver thoo dost seek to toast' is a 
curious morsel of 'olassical English.' 

14. non tadtus] «not silent,' Le. verj eloquent. An 
instanoe of litotes, see 1. 18. 9 n. 

15. centum puer artium] The gen. is descriptive. puer= 
'ayouth.' feret= 'willadvanoe.' 

17. et, quandoque...] 

' And when he shall with smiles behold 
His native oharms eolipse his rivaTs gold.' Mabt». 

The use of quandoque tMstquandocunque seems peouliar to 
Horaoe, of. 4. 2. 84. 

19. te ponet marmoream] *he shall plaos thj statue in 
marble,' i. e. in return for the viotory gained bj thj favour he shall 
dedicate a temple in thj honour. The practiee was eommon, 
e.g. Postumius dedioated a temple to Castor and PoUuz after 
the vietorj of Lake Begillus. 

For ponet marmoream cf. 4. 8. 8, and Sat 2. 8. 188, aeneut 



AJhaiim iirnne lacuij piobably mentioned beoan&e P&uilus 

beam,' Le. 'a roof.' Cf. 8. S. 38, tvb 

e»th the ume roof-tiee.' Citron wae ■ 
rutiiouablci wood. 

ai. lunoiu anc«*] ' thou ahalt inhale.' 

33. tlbue] See 3. 19. 18 n. There aa be no 

doobt th (ioiui- are ^enilivee aftar carmitulrui, • tboa 

■halt be u<Jigjj>» ■rith the mtngled strsins of tba lyre and 
Berecyntian pip"-' Or* 1 " *"" — -*** — ~ ' — Ue rtcti datkii, ut 
Epod. 9. fi. Sonaate yra ' ; but this u 

merely creatiug diffici td Itrrd and Bert- 

rj/nfi.i tibia, thu» ertum ». ie wiiich for their 

confuBion of mblatives ■ >oor jf ■_, id would di-credit 
■ iohoolboy. 

Candida refers not 
merely to thc whileness of the feet, but to ihe way in whieh 
thay llaati atid glajun in the movemeata of the dance. For the 
Salii see Diot Ant. nnd !. 36. 13 n.: tumcing accompanied 
by mnno is nnioiig the earliest for 
14, "Dsvid dsncod before ths Lo 
bim witb tbe timbnl ud danoe.' 

28. t*r] beestue tbere iu ■ triple beat in the dance, cf. 
3. 19. 16: iijd words tripudium uu tripuduirt were used from 
veiy ■ncient timss in oonneotion with theee religioui daneea, 
and, whatevar tboir real dcrivstion, they were no doubt 
populaily ecnneoted with trtt and pedti. 

39. m»] Notethepodtioninrwijit-dc«ntr--ttofUM...UIie 
■t the commenoament of the two previou» staniaa : Paullus wiU 
wonhip thee, I on the oontraiy hsvo no enthusiiem lafL 

SO. ipea anlml,,.] ' the fond hope of aheart to uuwar min*,' 

Widtham. -iiUihu » ' uitcrobanged ' ; animiu -nutinu - • heart 
that oommnnic- tee itl every feeling to me snd to whieh I in 
retom oommaniomte mine, The phrs-e ii be-t ilrastmted by 
the line af Catallnj (45. 30) mutuii animit amant amantur. 
91. oertare meroJ = 'to join the drinkiag bonL' 

NOTES. 399 

84. raral Notice the foroe of the adjective: he tries to 
oonoeal his feelingi but still every now and then *the rare tear 
triokles down hie oheek ' (ol 1. 18. 8, umor et in genae furtim 
labitur). So below he repreeents himielf ae trying to talk ai 
usnal but «even ae he talke his (nsnaUy) ready tongoe halts in 
nnseemly sUenoe.' 

85. deoorol Notioe that the Terse is hvpermetrio. Horaoe 
clearly designs it to express the effeot of a lover breaking ofl in 
the middle of a word. For this as a sign of emotion, cf. the 
oondnot of Dido, Yirg. Aen. 4. 76, Incipit ejfari mediaque in 
voce resietit. 

88. captum] 8o. te t Ligurine. 

40. aqnae] The afternoon's exereise in the Campns was 
regnlarly followed by a bathe in the Tiber, of. 8. 7. 26, 8. 

ODE n. 

'To attempt to rival Pindar is like the attempt of Icaros to 
fly. He is like a mountain-torrent swollen by the rain, rashing 
and roaring along with deep-moothed thnnder. He is the 
prince of poets whether he oomposes dithyrambs, paeans, 
hymns of viotory or dirges whioh make the fame of the dead 
nndying. He like a swan soars into the sky t I am but Uke a 
bee laboriously gathering a little honey. You, Iulns, are more 
fitted in statelier strains to sing of the return of Caesar from 
his triumphs over the Sygambri— Caesar the greatest blessing 
that heaven bas ever oonferred on earth. You shaU sing of 
the festivities that oelebrate his return, and then perhaps my 
voioe shall join in the chorns that sweUs his triumph, and, 
whUe you offer your noble offering I shaU perhaps dare to 
present my humble gift.' 

Inlus Antonius was the son of M. Antonins the triumvir 
and Fnlvia, and was bronght np by his etep-mother Ootavia 
the sister of Augustus, through whote infiuenoe he obtained the 

400 HORAGB, ODES IV. ii 

raTonr of the Bmporor ond ni mode praotor ba 1S 
ftftnffll BwOi 10. Ho it oaid eo horo wrJtoon on 0910 1 
the Diomodeia. 

Tht wholo Ode is a Ijrie apolofj te attamptmf tfaetookto 
whieh ho deTotes himeelf m Odoi 4, 5, 14 and 16, and os tt» 
oamo time aflbrdsbim theopportnnitiesof pojingaooinplhnont 
to Antonino ond indiraotij oalebratingthe Tietorj of 

L PlmdaznmaomnJarll otwMlorfwiththoooo^fanooiofom 
honeot ond noble riralrj, wtth the dative of mean ond ignoblo 

i. Inle] If this word ia oorreot tho nome mnot haTe 
gjren him to moih Ino oonnootion wHh tho groat Jnlino (JnHoe, 
a maano demitntm nomen Jolo, Virg. Aon. 1 . 286% tho motbor of 
M. Antonins havmg boen Julia, aieter of L. Oaosnr, eons. 
b. o. 64, bnt oonaidoring, (1) that Horaoe irtdresoos him in 
L 20 ae AnUmt, (2) the difflcuitv of either eliding tho initiol < 
or treating the word as a diasjilable, (3) the raet that the word 
seems elsewhere applied onlj to the son of Aeneaa, thero eeemo 
ffome probabilitj in favour of Peerlkamp's oonjeetnre ille. 

ooratla...] 'rests on winge joined with wax bj tho skfll of 
Daedalus, doomed to grve a name to the glaaej eea.' 

For the atorj eee Claas. Diet. s. t. Daedalus. Apart from 
metaphor the poet means that he who seeks to riral Pindar is 
attempting what natnre haa forbidden and will fail diaao- 
troualj: Horace has no sjmpaihj with human enterprise, 
and Daedalns (ftaiftoXof, cf. 1. 8. 84 n.) is his faTonrite tjpe of 
the vanitj of scientific ambition. 

ope] In the sing. this word indieates the effort, skill, 
abilitj, neoessarj to obtain anjthing ; in the plnral it represents 
that which is obtained, •wealth.* 

6. notaa] 'accustomed,' aluere 'swollen.' There is an old 
reading, quwn tuper noUu taliere 'when the rain-waters have 
leapt over,' which is not so absnrd as Orelli declares it to be. 

7. ferret...] *So Pindar boils and rnahes measnreles* 
with deep utterance.' 

lmmensns and mlt clearlj go together; cf. the Oreek idiom 
toXvi £e? and Sat. 1. 4. 11, eum Jiuertt lutulentut. The word 
immentut is used in two wajs/ in referenoe, (1) to Pindar*a 
copiousness of diction, (2) to the unconstrained liberty of hia 

NOTES. 401 

raetres and movement, in both of which respeets he resembles 
a Bwollen torrent. 

lnunensnsqnel Ususlly there is a marked eaesnra aiter ttie 
5th syllsble in a Sapphio line, and Horaoe rarely violates thii 
rule ui the first three booki: in thie Ode however he doee to 
twelve times, and aix tixnes in Ode 6. It wonld seem as if he 
had oome to be of the opinion that in long Odes the monotony 
of the Sapphio rhyihm reqoired much variation, see too 

9. lanrea...] Notiee carefully that the oonstraotion is, do> 
nandue, (1) 9eu...devotoit 9 (2) $eu...caniL{B) donat, 
(4) juvenemve . . .vlorat. Pindar is worthy of Apollo's bay in any 
of the four kinas of lyrio poetry mentioned. The tive in L 17 
onght to be answered by eive in 1. 21, instead of whioh we have 
only ve, and that appended to the third word instead of to the 
flrst. The obeonrity is inoreased by 1. 18 where it is to be 
earerally observed that the words pugiUmvc equumve merely 
explain quoe: tive introdnoee the third great division of 
Pindar's poetry, the words puailemve equumve indieate the 
two subordinate divisions into whioh it is ltself divided. 

10. per audaoes dlthyrambosl per denotes the ehannel 
throngh whioh the words fiow, and keeps up the metaphor of 
stansa 2, of. also devolvit and/erhir. For SWvpafifiot see Liddell 
and 8cott : as being snng at the altar of Dionysns it was often 
very eievated and indeed bombastio in style, and allowed the 
introduotion of unusual or extraordinary words {nova verba). 

11. nnmerisqne. . .] * and sweeps along in numbers freed from 
law.' As we do not possess any dithyrambio Odes of Pindar 
we oannot say how £ar this oritieism is jnst: his Epinieian 
Odes exhibit a most oareful systein of strophe, antistrophe, and 
epode, though of oourse as oompared with any metres nsed by 
Horaoe thev might seem ' lawless,' much as Syron oan speak 
of Sootfs 'lmmeasurable measnres.' 

13. sen deos. . .] The referenoe is to Paeans, ncuawf, hymns 
in hononr of gods and heroes, sueh as Theseus, who slew the 
Centaurs, and Bellerophon who slew the Ohimaera. 

14. oecldere...oeeidltl For this method of joining elanses 
see 1. 2. 4 n. Notioe also below eoneinee 1. 33, and eoneinee L 41. 

16. flamma Ghlmaerae] i.e. 'the fire-breathing Chimaera '; 
cf. Juv. 4. 107, Montani quoque venter adett, and such phrases 
in Oreek as IloXwffrovf (Ha= *the mighty PolyniceB.' 

For the Chimaera sce 1. 27. 23 n. 



rianoi...] ib»»aatbmelioaiM,tivtdicit(eot)qunt... 

■nL». Tbe i nf M MIl ■»>*>■ Iwwt— Mtrininphai 

7 portlan of Ptnwart wangi M mtmk, m 

■d l «. *a trjmni. ffataw. arjwak hk| m Bm, 
wild olixe Jrwt) ni & mdil prin |tf« h 

ttom wm infcreduead *i Bom* b.o. M, m4 

■ ■ inellj naad- ■ • priML 1 
bulMtw) bw,' 'iMUac ft—wj fMn,' «t 1. 

M *B*0t O* «oh * VM "" 

sl bome in • trfunnhal mbmw!» 

'• aqnumvB) Fm n Het of tho • 
t. OljmpU Pndnr twiM mmHmt j 
i, hnt of conrM *UUi of ahoraa'1 

n doiit] farthor o 

. gift preferable M n fti — ... 

> were aet up in tne Mend grort Altk «t Otjmpk, nnd 
□ their native tovnr, 

...1 Seel. Bn. >M bewaiuthajoiithBnaaahadfmm 
■wctping bride," i.e. in iSmia dban. MoMMjMWWf 

■- ng': on the othor hnnd, 1. M. 9, JlrtUu aaciwfl, <m 
uch wept for,' *nJ MB 1. B. H n. 
mereaque nijrroque] NotMa tbe two hj p aiin aw . li 

oi) 'golden,'L*. 'DObla'; of. «m u(m- tht aga 
H ben iui thioga were *t their bMt, md 4. 3. 17« UttMMM 

edudt ln ut».] 'exalta to tba rtnra and grndgM tho 

Jbloomy crave {iM prej).' Odor B and 9 dwell nt langth on tha 

■tmmoruiitj whioh the poot alona oan beatow. Tha MOOMtrne, 

rti, nnimum, moru, M gorerned not onlj bj tdueit, bnt bj 

irid*( i itn>i(J>o t&kea an aao. of the tbing begrudged, and * 

dnt. of tbe penon to whom, a. g. aoe lioi {nnides. 

6. mulu...] 'Strong U tha hrecM that ttfta....' Duw 
wm * fountnin near Thabm: tha epithet ia mo» poetionl than 
■ Theban ' wonld have bean, becuM awana in faet aad taa 
Miue* in Sclion love fonntaina. For the awan'a aong Mi 
9. 90. 15 n. 

NOTES. 403 

27. tractuil From traho, «to draw out'= 'expanse.' 
Matlnae] Mona Matinus is in Apulia. 

38. moremootaue] Merelyajialliterativephraae:'afterthe 
manner and method of.' So Oioero, Tim. 1, has Oameadeo 
more et modo ditputata. Bome editore say that mo$ refers to 
natural, modut to euttomary habits, but the distinetion, even 
if it oan be established, U unimportant here. 

99. carpentla] carpo, «to pluok,' 'grase on,' e.g. earpere 
herbam, uaed of animab, ie heres'to feed on.' 

por laborem] is naed adTerbially — 'laborionaly,' ot per vim, 
'violently/ per iram, per jocum, Aa If pUtrimum is to be 
taken witii laborem, as Orelli insists, the phrase seems yery 
prosaio, and the paose aftor vlurimum Tiolates the natnral 
moyement of the verse. BenUey and Naaek join phtrimum 
nemut, bat translate plurimum 'densest,' whioh is at onoe 
impossible and meaningless. I am strongly disposed to take 
plurimum nemus, as the ear almosi oompels them to be taken, 
together, and to give plurimum its oommon sense of *very 
many,' translating, 'lifce a bee laborionsly onlling ito swoets 
from tho thyme aroond fnll many a grove and the banks....' 

80. nvldi] So ealled beoanse of the falls of the Anio there, 
of. 1. 7. 18 n. 

81. operosa. . .1 Notiee the perfeotion of the comparison : the 
tiny bee laborionsly fashions lts honey-oell ; the hnmble poet 
frames his verse with eqnal toil. 

83. oondnes] 'Ton (Antonins just mentioned in L 26), a 
poet of nobler toueh, shsll oelebrate Oaesar when....' No doubt 
Horaoe designedly plaees the words majore pleetro in a position 
where they ean be taken either with eoneinet or poeta. 

For majore pleetro of. 2. 1. 40 n. 

35. per sacrum clivum] The Via Saera was the princinai 
street in Bome: it ran from between the Oaelian and Esquihne 
hills, slong the N. slope of the Palatine, under the Axeh of 
Titus, past the Forum ttomanum, up to tho OapitoL Wiokham 
says that tho term taeer elivut (only found here and Mart 1. 
71. 5) was applied to the part of it whioh slopes downwards 
(of. Bpod. 7. 7, Britannu t ut deteenderet taera eatenatut via). 
f rom the Aroh of Titns to the Forum. Along the Via Saera ali 
triumphal prooessions passed. 


tjgejnnne] ThfcGernnntrJboinanMndaeMtrietoa 
Bkf, noar Bonn; with othortrleM nny aal MtHiil a 
dofeet oa M. LoDne, a. c 16, but oaMnfaontr/ *n» 

mnd fhM AttguetM im oenlnoj ont aeanot than in 


rogarda epelling, f ie neually irand fn Latla onr/ ia 

tnaelittomted from the Gnek, e.g. e/ra, ihm il 

nta the eoundof *, whioh ie intornWdfatt between tha 

i (oo) and <•• hen of eouno OffommH mar repfeoent tha 

pronnnoiation of tho name, but TacitM (Ann. % 96)hae 
Sri, wbiii Btrabo hM Zorya^m. and Dio Z^rfK» 
o epellng muet bo unoerteJn. 

nnJL..] 'naught greater oc mon glorkrae'; eeaf om 
•in thoir goodneee.' 

o^unrla...] 'though tho agn nm haekwaid to thoir 
gold,' Le. though tho golden aen ehould return. 

prloeum] o£ 8, 91« 11 n. 

anpor...] 'in hononr of tho return of brata Anguetna 
ifed (to ourprayera).' Comaancxteiitwitatheiiieorip- 
P.Q JLV.8. (tota tuecepta) Pno & (eabtie) nBHD. AUG. 

fbruianue] goTernod by eoneinet. Tho Uw-eourtu wwre 
Fomm and were ciooed on oooaaiont of pnbiio lojoiong; 
Fwti, 4. 187, 

\c*na eonat, hudique votanJU SpeetaU 9 Qmrttm, 
e% fora MarU euo Utigioea vacenL 

ditora apaak of tbia as ajuttitium : it woold aaem how- 
it a juiHtium wm only proolaimed in eaaea of national 
y or danger. 

tum meM...] 'Then too I, ao but I apeak anght worth 
;, ihall join in with the best portion of my ntteranee.' 
emphatio in ita poaition: you shall take the ohief part, 
n even I ehfil ventnre to join in. 

tuque dnm prooadla...] 'and wbile thou doet take the 
Ho Triumphl" yea not onoe onW will we ery "Ho 
ih ! " eren ell the citixena, end offer inoenee to the boun- 

objeetiona to thie rendering ara two ; (1) tuque has but 
88. authoritT, (2) it ia urged that the worda dmmprocedit 
y apply to the triumphator or the triumphal 

NOTES. 405 

I am oertainly of opinion that they can refer to Antonios. 
Horaoe haa been referring to Antomui all through aa taking 
the Uad in the praiee ox Augustus : you, he saye, ahall aing 
Caesart fame, I will join in {acctdet). Surely then he ean 
speak of him as ' takmg the lead ' [procedo expreeaing hie 
'going in front' of Horaoe and the trein of eitisens in the 
prooession, and suggesting his 'taking the lead' in singing the 
trinmphal hymn) when Horaoe and the rest of the state join 
in oelebrating Caesar*s trinmph and aeeom p anying it to the 

The other reading ia teque, dmnprocedit {atprocedit, Orelli). 
where te is referred to Triumphe, Triumphut being personifiea 
(cf. Epod. 9. 31, Io Triumphe, tu morarit aureot currut), and pro- 
eedit referring to the advanoe of the prooession, or, itprocedit be 
read, to the general. I give Wiokham's rendering; 'Thy name 
will we pronounoe aa thy prooession posses by, Ho Triumph ! 
again and again Ho Triumphl' 

The fatal objeotion to tbis xendering is not the difficulty 
of extraoting the vocative Triumphe from the ory Io Triumphe 
in order to find something for te to refer to, but the im- 
posaibility of ref erring te to any one but Antoniua. Antonius 
nas been addressed in the seoond peraon in line 2, again in 
line 26, again in lines 88 and 41 : the te whioh ia plaoed 
with such marked prominenoe at the beginning of this stansa 
is followed by te in an ezaotly parallel position at the oom- 
mencement of the next stanza, and any one has read Horaoe to 
little purpoee who has not obserred that he is specially fond of 
making his meaning oiear by plaoing important and guiding 
words, especially pronouna, in emphatio positions : te in L 58 
would point back to te in 1. 49 as poaitiveiy as eoncinet in L 41 
does to concinet in 1. 88. Moreover, the whole of the latter 
part of the Ode is an elaborately worked-out antitheais between 
Antonius and Horace: ' Thou haat an important part,' Horaoe 
keeps repeating, 'I a humble one' ; and the whole symmetry 
and halanoe of thia is marred by the introduction of an 
emphatio 'Thou Triumphl' into the middle of it, and 
all in support of the theory that procedit can be used of 
nothing but the triumpliator or the triumph. 

My view is, I have sinoe found, supported for the same 
reaaons by H. Sohiitz : ao too Nauck. 

54. aolvet] ' shall aet free/ i. e. from my vow. In thin eaae 
Horaoe vitulum voverat pro reditu Augutti; Augustus having 
returned, he becomes voti reut, ' responsible for his vow ' ; tlu» 

406 HORACE, ODE8 IV. tt. 

onering of the oalf vomld <eet Um tm from hie iw. 1 OLS. 

Jll**Mlli,a^glOWl Hp.' 

66. tm aaea vwlej ' to pay mj tow/ 

67. froaUl^withitofowh^» whkhwithto: 
growing on itie mM to hnftato «tho moonTe otooeont ftro — 
bhngiiooJMlb«thiTdikiB6 t , Lo.UMthirdtilorUM 

69. o^]iotuadiztt]'whiroithMfo4(orMqoirtd)a 
mtvwoa videri] Xn*et Hetjr, e£ 1. S. 26 n. 

60. felvns] oontraated with whem; im Greek w» ibomld 
havo hmd *e> and 6* here. 

It haa been mrfsd thet tbare if oontidormblo bathoa in tfak 
Odo, whioh began witfa Pmdar mmd onda with tho )1nMl|itlmi of 
a calf , bot it mojt ho romemborod tfaat tho ponnlthmate atamm 
cerrieo on in an mooorihiglj natoral mannor tho oo mpari oon 
hotwoen Antonima* grcatneea and tho bnmbleneee ol fiotaoa, 
and the great ropoaa and eimplioity of tho laat atanza aro qnito 
in aooordanoe with the poet a praetioe of allowing a nauomo 
and brilliant Ode to aink into qniet and calxn at ita oonclneion. 

ODE m. 

•He, on whoae oradle the Mnae haa onoe axniled, ahaU 
neither win glorj in the gamea nor in the sterner oonteata 
of war. Streame and grovec ahall leave their impreaa on hia 
souL Thia ia the aonroe whenoe I draw the oharm that makee 
me rank among the loveeble band of poeU, tbia and thj favonr, 
O Muae, for mj inspiration and mj fame are thj gixV 

1. Melpomene] Striotlj the Mnae of Tragedj, bnt hato the 
Mnae of Poetrj generallj; of. 1. 24. 8, 8. 80. 16. 
eemel -sdvo^, * onoe,' ' onoe for all.' 
For the idea eontained in 1L 1. 2, of. Hes. The, 81, 

Svriva njqjwffi £uot tcodpai pry4\oio 

ytu>6fuv6v r Mkaei 

rf iUv M 7X10**9 ^Xwrc/njr x € * owro ' ooioVjr. 

8. labor Xathmlna] For theae games eee Diot Ant s.v. 

NOTES. 407 

5. Achaioo] *Grecian'; the adjeoiive points a contrast 
between the Greoian raoing obariot and the triumphal ear of 
the Boman oonaueror reierred to in the nezt lines. The word 
Aohaiahasacurioushistory: inHomeralltheGreeksareoalled 
Aycuof, in the olassical period the name ie oonfined to the in- 
habltants o! the intigninoant itrip of land on the N. ooaet of 
Peloponnesua, but after the formation of the Aohaean league 
b.o. 381 the name again rises into prominenoe, and after the 

'^. lubjugation of Greeoe b. o. 146 it ie applied to the Boman pro- 
vinoe whioh inoluded the whole southern portion of Greeoe; eo 
8t Paul (Acte 18. 27) proposee to paes from Ephesus, not into 
Greece but *into Aohaia/ 

6. neque res...] *nor shall warlike exploits display him to 
the Oapitol a leader deoked with Delian bay f or havmg erushed 
the swelling threats of prinoes.' 

Delils, because the laurel was saored to Apollo, who was born 

8. quod...oontuderit] The subj. is very diffioult, and is ne- 
gleeted by the editors: in most cases where quod takes the subj. 
it is virtually in oblique oonstruotion, e.g. faUo queritur de natura 

genus kumanum quod reaatur, 'because, at they *ay t they 

are ruled': here howerer this will not apply. ferhape the 
prindple is the same which makes non auod take a subj. * when 
the reason denied is oonoeptive, not real' (Kennedy): you deny 
that the man will ever go in a triumphal prooession, and there- 
fore the reason why he ahould go in one is purely oonceptive 

10. aquae] See 1. 7. 18 n. Horaoe seleots Tibur be- 
cause it was his own favourite spot, and also beoause he always 
prefers the tpecial to the general, 

12. flngent] ' shall shape ' or ' mould ' : his surroundings will 
leave their impression on his mind. nobilem, perhaps pro- 
leptic, *so that he beoomes renowned.' 

Aeolio] i.e. lyrio, of. 2. 13. 24 n. 

14. dignatur] 'isnotashamed,"deigns.' tubolee, from tub- 
oUeeo 'to grow up* or 'into the room of '='youth' — ' the rising 
generation ' as we say . 

16. et lam dente...] 'and by now I am less gnawed by the 
tooth of envy'; on the other hand, when he wrote 2. 20. 4 he 

408 HORACE, ODKS IV. iii. 

na etffl the merk of eewy, etill mnl «I m 
jertntia»; ef. too 8et 1. 6. 45, 

ffMMI fWfBfll OOMOt KetFoino JMfVO roInoi* 

The metophor ia dejit fctoidMt ie from a enopping, 

17. enreee] 8ee4. 3.88n. 

18. dnloem quee...l tlrepilMi boin* oimoil inwiobr/ 

of e •din/ 'noioe,' t,g>furi 9 Konee, oa fc e n aw, jown o t e tn ej tlm , 
thoie is e tendeney to teke rfwf o f ei nrolepttoelr/ here, nnd 
eonetrne 'thet doet modnlete into eweetneoo the ryreli eoanoV 
but, ee Ep. 1. 8. 81, erf tfrepitie» ciikart ejojeftrai deeere 
cttnm, the word ie oleerr/"» 'mueie,' it ie perhepe tftnplor to 
render here 'thet doet mle the eweet mueie/ 

Plertl Theeing. Pftritierere. PierUifl e perto/¥iotdorik 
the inheWtenU of whioh oeem toheve been oeiebreted te their 
love of poetrj. Pieri$ $ 4 e femele inhebitent of Pierie,' ie.the 

19. mutie] 8ofiehereoeIledfXX*ro,Hee.8a212,eVe*eei, 
Aeeoh. Pere. £78, AXof, 8oph. Aj. 1399. 

30. donature...] *thoa thet wouldcet give, were it thy 
pleesure, e ewen'e note.' For the 'ewen*e note' of . 2. 30. 15 n. 

21. totam...] 'thie ie wholly of thy bounty thet I em 
pointed ont ' 

33. monetror dlgito] is imiteted by Pere. 1. 38, a* puUknm 
ett digito monttrari et dieier kie ett; da«ru\o8ct«rci> (Deni. 
790) hee e bed eense, end eo 6a«ruXooci«rot f Aeooh, Ag. 1883. 

digitut ie from the geme root ee ftctoiou, end«'the 
pointing thing.' 

33. Romenae fldloen lyree] Ae having been the firet to in- 
trodaoe lyric poetry, cf. 8. 80. 13. 


'Like en eegle thet in hie netive ttrength qnite the neet, 
triee hie powen of flight, then twoope down npon the eheep- 
folde end even join» bettle with e eerpent, or liko e yonng lion 
ee he eppeere to the doomed hind— each hee Drneae eppeered 

NOTE& 409 

in battie to the Vindelici. Defeeted by hia youthful skffl they 
have learned to their oost what hereditary power happily 
developed oan effeot, what an Auguetua oan make onl of a 
Nero. Brave airea make brave aona: all natnre witn eai o i to 
thia truth, only at the lame time innate powera need training 
to prevent their deoline. Of the bravery of the Neroe let 
Metaurua' atream bear witneea and that glorious day of 
Uaadrnbal'a defeat, the day whioh at laat reatored the fortnnea 
of Eome and made Hannibal propheticaUy exolaim in hia 
deapair : •• We are like deer attaoking wolves. The great raoe, 
that undefeated by diaaater oame from Troy to Italy, etiU, like 
ita natrve oak, the more it ii lopped the more vigorouely it 
growa: Hydra-like it only becomes more formidable after each 
defeat Never again ahall I aend home the proud meaaagea of 
viotory. Fallen, fallen ail my hopea now Haadrubal ia dead. 
The Claudian raoe ahall ever be indomitable: heaven proteots 
them, and wiadom watchea over them.'" 

For a fuU aooount of Druaua aee Claas. Diot. He waa the 
son of Livia, the wife of Augustus, by her former husband, 
Tiberius Claudius Nero, and the youngcr brother of Tiberiua 
(afterwards Emperor), along with whom he defeated tho Bhaeti 
and YindeUci b.c. 15. He died when on an expediiion to 
Gerinany b.c. 9, being then oonsul. He was much more 
popular than Tiberius; ef. Tao. Ann. 1. 88, Druti magna apud 
populum mcmoria, credebaturque, ti rerum potitut foret, Uber- 
tatem redditurut. See also 4. 15, Int. 

For the history of the oomposition of the Ode eee Intro- 

duotion to this Book. It is a perfeot model of a Priae Ode, and 

haa long aerved as such. It exhibits Uttle real poetio power but 

great akiU in oompoaition, and is the work of invention rather 

than inspiration: the elaborate eompariaon in the first four 

stansas must have given Horace oonsiderable trouble, and very 

glad he must have been when he got through it 

1. qualem...] Notioe oarefuUy the oonstruction: auaUm 
alitem (then foUow four clauses of aU of which this is toe ob- 


410 HORACE, ODKS IV. ir. 


•vlMMfMOf 0BSJ»eS>»»»ieBWS^S»..W4^S* fMMSHBJ VNWV 

r UiUheL The fwafcm in L 1 is go w md by * 
j w omiKi , dooiert, dfMfrft, and ayii, tbe vniov 

the growth of the eajle beiiig oojexaQj bmW bj tht 

ottm and lem, mmj end mms» Ib tremmtfing foDow i 
outlinM m tiuec. 'Iin m the bird thtt gmuds the 
bolt, to whioh..., of old his jooth..., and prooentry..., tbom em 
the shecpfolds..., now at last...; or Uke the lion whioh a 
hind...hM eeen: eo eew tho TindeUoi Dmm wagmg wnr/ 

ml&istrmm foJmuls] Of . Virg. Asn. & 2W, Jeots «omjoi. 
An eaglc graspmg s thnndorbolt is cepeoiairj freqoent on tho 
ooins of the Ptolemice. 

2. roz deormm rognnm Im otos] Of.Aosoh.Ag. 11«, 
/M#iXf dt AeriXftVi vtuV, *the Ung of tho birds to tho tittge of 
the fleet.' mm tjmtjo fT cyi. 

S. ospcrtas fldelem in...] *having provod his fsith in (tho 
carrving off of) ffolden-haired Ganjmede,* whom tho eagle 
eamed off from Ida, 

quem praepee ab 14* 
tublimem pcdibui rapuit Iovit armiger uneit. 

The subject wm s favourite ooe for fresoo-peinting; e£ too 
Tennjaon's 'Psiaoe of Art,' 

* Or else floshed Ganjmede, his rosj thigh 
Half-buried in the Eagle'e down, 
Soft m a flying gtar shot through the skj 
Above the pulered town.' • 

Notioe the careful jaztapoeition of rex regnum, Iuppiter 

5. ollm] from iUe olle = *at that time,' 'not at this partioular 
time,' bears verj varioos eeneM aocording to the oonneotion in 
whioh it is Uied,=(l) at some past time, (2) at some ratore 
time, (8) some time or other. Clearly here in oonneotion with 
jarn, mox, nunc it is intended to throw the mind baok to that 
time past when the esgle's oareer oommenoed. 

patrloi vlgor] 4 native force,* cf. 1. 80, patrum virtut. The 
worde antioipate the remarke on hereditarj valonr which oomo 

7. vernique. . .] ' and vernal breezM when now the oloods are 
banished have taught him timoroas (at first) onwontod efitorts.' 

NOTES. 411 

Scaliger objected that eaglets are only hatehed late in the 
spring and oannot fly till autumn. He therefore pr o p o ac d to 
write verme, but eren br thns making the line intolerable he 
only gets to the heginning of summer, while ae it stands the 
line refera to Ute spring when eettled fine weather has begnn. 
Horaoe olearly knows nothing aboni the hatohing of young 
eagles: he eontiden that like young lambs and yonng birds 
generally they are among the phenomena of spring. 

•* 10. TlTldns lmpetns] *his eager swoop': in eonneotion with 

demieit we must oleariy so oonstme, otherwise the words 
might • ' living energy.' 

11. nnne in...l The word rebtetantee is untranslateable: it 
snggests at onoe the whole soene whioh Virgil, Aen. U. 751, 
has attempted to represent, 

utque volane aUe raptum eum fuha draconen 
fert aquila, impUeuitque pede$ atque unguibut kaetit; 
eaueiue at terpene einucea vohmUna vereat, 
arreetitque korret •quamit et tibilat ore, 
arauut ineurgene; illa haud minut urgutt obuneo 
luetantem rottro, 

The snake earried off in the eagle's talons wrestles (luetatur) 
with its oaptor and ooils itself up or back (re) in its endearours 
to sting him. Perhaps ' wrestling, writhing snakes' will do as 

12. amor dapls atque pngnae] *1otc of feast and fray ': the 
eagle at first satisfied with preying on a lamb is now not 
oontent without the additional ezeitement of a oontest. 

18. oaprea] 'a roebuck,' but eapra 'a sbe-goat.' laetU, 

14. fulTae...leonem] *a lion jnst weaned from histawny 
mother's ndder.' The awkwardness of the original does not 
appear in Encliah. Bither matrit ab ubere depuUut or laeU 
depuUue would be exeellent Latin, bot ihe ezpression matrie 
ab ubere laeU depuUut is eztremely harsh, and the harihnsss 
is not got rid of by saying that laeU deputeut is Tirtually one 
woT&xzaToyaXaKTteetrr*, 'weanedV 

There is mnoh to be said for Nanok's method of plaoing a 
eomma after ubere: the yonng roeboek fresh from its mothert 
side, as it seeks its food, suddeniy finds itself faee to «•— 
P. H. 

'•weaned Hon, as it seeks fts pwy: the oomparieon fc 

Tery complete. hdoae in this oaee refera to the 
what we might call 4 red deer.' 

Unte...] *eoon to periah beneaih ite (aa yet) nnfleahed 

Raetla] 'Baetian'; for proper nonna naed aa adjeothres 
. 10 n. and below Metaurum fhtmen* For Raetia or 
lee Claat. Dict. It ie the modern Tyrol Thereading 
s nearto all the MSS. authority, bnt the cipreeai on 
ndelxcivt intolerable. 

mdelldl inhabited a diatriet to the S. of the Danube 
le N. of the BaetL 

ta moa...] 'to whom whenee the oustom ia derired 
lrough all time arma their right hands with an 
an axe, I have deferred enquiring, nor indeed ii it 
Dle to know all things.* 

remarkable parentheais seems intended to gto looal 
; and an appearanee of reality to the Ode. The 
rodnoes an efleot almost as natnral as the introdnotion 
kborately painted insect into the foregronnd of a boldly 
indscape. The bathos of the oonolnsion nec tcire fae 
i transcends critioism. 

- critics cnt out all from quibut to ted\ and it oertainly 
table that sense and metre are thus left intaot. And 
mch lines as these, with their reoondite allusion to 
x)int of antiquarian lore and their parody of Horatian 
ty in 1. 22, are just suoh as a oopyist might have 
ted. Wiokham however defends them, beoanse ( the 
the verses are such as the poet is much more likely to 
n guilty of than an imitator' ! It oertainly needs a 
ppreciation of Horaoe's style to understand why the 
}f these lines seem peculiarly Horatian. 

aed] • but/ i. e. to resume, • however ■ : so in Greek, 8* ofr. 

ylctrloes. . .] 'eonquering hordes oonquered in their turn 
lans (i. e. strategy) of a youth.' 

tuvenls] He was 28 years old. 

aenaere] 'felt to their oost,' cf. 2. 7. 10 n. 
] 'mens ad virtutes inteiUgentiae, sagacitatem, pru- 
indoles ad animi virtutes, fortitudinem, clementiam, 
-tinet: Orelli. 

NOTES. 413 

rite] 10. nutrita, •what * xnind (duly nurtured), what * 
disposition duly nnrtored beneath an auapioious roof oonld 

riU, fauttU t and penetraUbue are all religiom worda de- 
aignedly naed to suggest the almoat aodlike qnalities of Angnatna. 

Some editora plaoe a oomma oefore instead of aftar riu, 
apoiling the rhythxn and not improving the aense. 

27. qnld Augnsti...] Theae worda tpecialize and ao ezplain 
the general langnage of the preoeding linea : * yea, what Angnatna 
conld do for the Neros.' 

29. fortee...] The mention of Augustus' oare and thegreat 
name ol the Nerones naturallv leada Horace to develop the two 
great ideaa of the Ode, (1) m linea 29 — 82, the neoessity of 
hereditary qnalitiea, (2) in linea 88—86 the neoeatity of good 
edocation to develop them: he then fllnatratea the former of 
theae at length in linea 87 — 72, and briefly eJlndes to the aeoond 
in the oonclnding linea. Thia disproportion in the length of 
treatment ia natnral : the advantagea of edneation afford little 
seope for a lyrie rhapaody ; while.the mention of greatanoeatora 
gives opportunitv for introdncing a brilliant hiatorioal fiotion. 

Snetonina (Tib. 1) tella na that the word Nero meana fortU 
ae ttrenuus, and it may poasihly therefore be the oase that 
Neronet in 1. 28 aotnally snggests fortee in L 29. 

fortlbna] ia the ablati ve of origin, * apring from * : • are ereated 
by ' wonld reqnire afortibut. 

81. ImbeUem feroces, aquilae colnmbam] Notioe the 
jnxtaposition of the oontrasted adjeetives and nonna. Cf. 2. 
4. 6n. 

88. vlm lnsltam] 'native foroe.' 

85. moresl Usnally thia word in the plnral « 'charaoter, ' ' be- 
haviour/ bnt here it obvional^ repreaents an aetive principle 
of the same aort aa doetrina ('edneationM, «laws of oonduot,* 
'preoepta' (roeta morum dUeipUna, Oreili). Gf. Virg. Aen. 
1. 264, moretque virit et moenia ponit. 

86. lndeoorant...] 4 fanlta mar what is by natnre noble.* 

87. Keronibus] See Claas. Diet. The emperor Nero, who 
haa branded the name with imperishable infamy, only beeame 
a Nero by adoption A.r. 60, when hia mother married the 
emperor Clandius. 



88. tNHi]M.«(. T<*ti»maj.MiUwnmwml.U.V&n. 
Iht afettarna to a rfwjr iii Umbri* Mtr whtoh the nmI a 
CBandiM Ntro dtmtttd HMdrnbtl *,o. 807 and ont off tbt 
wfrifafwifiifnti ho v b H *^ * 1 *^ tfr **** biothor HannJbojL 

pnkMr] 01 4. 8. 47, • brfflUnf tV« to to be takon 
litertllj of the dtj whn Httdrnhtl wm doflatfiltftMVtoaMfcv 
phorioallj of tho gloom whtoh had htmg otot Italj ainoi tht 
Atooitara of Tmhto» TrMimtM. and Ganmat 8m Am 4. 8. 
Sn. on faom. 

41. qni prlmu...] •whioh flrtt tmued with ohfwing ftotorj 
linoe tho dar whon hU) tho drtad Afttoan oeiMrtd thronfh.../ 

the ttjto: of. L 84. 5 u. 

The word to oikl to bo dorirtd from «4or-'grain,' betaMt 
i largeee of oorn wm d ia tri but ed to tho troopt tfttr t lietorj. 

tlma]»gMt oKf, •lottorinc t ,< onocmrtging v *hort 'nhotring' 

48. dimiAmr] dinm to tht tttndtid opithot of ffaimihal. 
oi.2.12. 2n. Porta»«dDoe thttlmewhen/ct Epod.7. 18, 
Cio. td Att 1. 16. 2, ut BrwuH$iovrcfectui es nuUae wdkl*b$U 
nmt reddita* UtUra*. Soph. 0. T. 115, rptt otror ofxtff ffctT 
&t drevr&X*. 

48. otn fltmmt por taadaa] *likt ilrt throogh pintt.' eowi- 
tavit to naed not to mnoh in tht tenta of 4 riding* m in tho 
eeoondtrj tentt of •otreering,' oombining tho idott of tptod 
tnd nnohecked power. Ct 1. 2. 51 n. 

45. ttennto...]'withererpro«peroMei^ 
of Bome wtxed etrong.* 

47. tnmnltn] The word to t very ttrong one, at it wu appltod 
in Hortoe't dt j only to t riting in Ittbr, or of the Qtnb im- 
medittelj on itt horderi (tee Cio. Phu. 8. 1): it wu t wtr 
whtoh threw eooiety into oonfnnon. 

48. rectoe] 'rettortd,* *aet npright/ Le. tfter being ovor- 
tnrned bj the 'impietj* of the Caithtginiana. 

49. pcrfldnel Tho tttndtrd Bomtn epithet for tho Ctrtht- 
ginitni. Thej might with more jnttiee htve tpplied it to thom- 
eelvee. Livy (2L4.9)attribnte«U)Htnm1)tl|)^>f<aphae^um 

50. lnporuml Cletrly in referenoe to the legendtrj tooonnt 
of the retring of Bomulna tnd Bemne. 

NOTE& 415 

51. lUtro] Tbi«word,ooimeotedwithi*ttm l iifr^nentiyxiaed 
o! actions which go beyond anything whioh might reesonably 
have been expeoted, whioh are neodless, uncaUed-fbr, and the like. 
The woxd here indieatea that for stags to attack wolyes was 
not only folly but needless, grstuitous foUy ; d Yirg. Aen. 2. 
145, kU lacrimis vitam damus et wdttrttcimut uUro, where the 
pity is apoken of as a needleaa superfl uity. 

opimus triumphusl 'rarest mnrnph.' The phrase is in- 
Tented by Hormoe on the analogy of tpoUa optma, spoils taken 
by a general in personal oombat with the general of the enemy, 
and aaid to have been only thrioe won, (1) by Bomolns, (2) by 
A. Oornelius Cossos, B.a 426, (8) by M. Claodins liaroeuns, 
B.a 222. 

52. faUere] 'to elnde.' 

58. oremato f ortls ab Hio] Thongh forti» in striot grammar 
goes with pertulit yet in sense it goes with the words between 
whieh it is plaeed: diaaster, as the nezt three stansas repeat 
at length, but inoreases the oourage of the Boman raoe: 
♦bravely quitting the ashes of Dium storm-tossed on Tusoan 
seas it safely oarried its saored treasnres.' 

54. saera] Le. the Penates. 

57. tonsa] 'lopped.' 

58. nigrae] 'on Algidus prolifio in dark (or 'shadowy') 
foliage.' Algidus is a mountain in Latium, near Tusoulum. 

fermei frondis] For the gen. after/srax, of. 8. 6. 17 n. 

59. per damna...] 'Its loss its glory makes, 

And from the very steel fresh strength and spirit takes.' 


dudt, ' draws/ ' derives, ' goes grammatioaUy with gent, as do 
the whole two lines, but the ikul of the oomparison is shewn 
in the fact that if ilex be taken as the nom. to dueit eaoh word 
is equaiiy appUcable. 

caedesl oan mean either 'a outting to pieoes of troops,' 'a 
miUtary dlsaster.' e.g. such as Cannae, or 'the entting off' of a 
bough: no Enghsh word wiU bear this double sense: perhaps 
' havoo' or ' ravages ' wiU do. 

The stansa is perhaps unrivaUed m a speoimen of Horaoe's 
unique power of terse and graphio ezpression. 

61. flrmior] must be taken both with tteto corport and 
erevit: 'not more strongly did the hydra (stronger) aiter every 


16 HORAGB, ODKS IV. ir. 

kralnmwloNriatHtimiliswhoahilidtob»MnM.* 800 
unoo. Diot. s. ▼. Horonko, 

61. wm^wmVfio^. 9 mh^m %WL $ 9mAmpham\^ 9 9 
.a. 'prodneed't tbowora io naod aooarntoly, m tboyanwap 
ram tho groand, ot teUme fotettttt jfarw, Loer. 1. 7. lortbe 
aaead om CBooa. DioL ■« ▼• Araoanatoo ood Qodown» 

66. OMneo...] •tfaik H In tho deop, it oomeo forfli 

koUo; wnatlo with it, oarfd groit applaoae il wiU o'arthrow 
bo aaioithod ▼iotor ond wifo... ' 

mtnmmrt mtrut, ti boiog oftoa oaiiktod ia poetry fior tho 
ako ol terooooeo, ot Bpiot. L 10. 94, aotara» «sotUftiJtaros 
aow» «joni roeomt, Tor. Ph. t> 1. 86, aaaai eognorit 

ovontl] oo oll good M8& Onlli'o old nodiof woo 
a to hoTO o fature pnrollol with wroruet ood afoJd tho 
aaof tvtnU ** 'oomoo fbrth,' hat thon io oo onthorifr for tbJo 
at. of 

66, mtognun^iototam] Le. oportfcom inetophor, Hormihal, 
rho hod oome nnoootbod from the ▼iotorieo of TrobU, Trooi- 
neno and Cannne, wos oTerthrown ot Zama, n.0. 902. 

68. eoninglbao loqaenda] •for their wiveo to tell e*V ot 4. 
). 21, dieenda Mutis proelia. 

69. nnnttoo onperboo] Lity 23. 12 reloteo how Hogo whoa 
■eporting the ▼iotoiy of Cannae poared ont, aa o tokoa of 
rictory, three bnahelo of gold ringo eoch token from o Bomon 

70. ooeidit, ooeldlt] For repetition to inteniify the idoo of 
lodnesa oee 2. 14. 1 n. ond of. Diyden, Alexander'o Fenat, 

«He onng Daxiaa great ond good 
By too eerere o fate 
Follen, fallen, follen, fallen, 
Fallen from hia high eotate.' 

78. nll...non] ovftJr ahmi ▼ery atrong 'eracything. 9 

75. caraeaafaoaaloleaxlythecareof Aagaotaa. exped&unt... 
■ 'lead aaiely throngn the danoero of war': empedio io tho 
ippoaite of impedio (from in and pet) *to get the foot into o 
mare,' ond meona 'to get aafely tnrough or ont of anareo,' ot 
7irg. Aen. 2. 682, fla m m a m inter et hoetet \ expedior. Whot 
me exoet fbroe ol per acuta belH ia ia not eleor : wiokhom aaya 
perhopa with referenee to a ahip thrcading ita way throogh 

NOTES. 417 

sharp rocks/ bot this hardly euits exptdior: 1 prafer io take ii 
with Orelli more generaUy»*dangers,' el Hom. IL 4. 861» J(e> 

Thii oonduding stania ii olearly * part of Hannibal'o pro- 
phetie speeoh. wickham says otherwise, aiginff thai Honoe 
•would hardly put into Hannibars month a dull propheey of 
the glories of the honie of Nero, ' Bnt why, we ask, should we 
put into the poet'e month this *dnll p^opheey , whioh Homoe 
did not think good enongh for HannibalT As a matter of (aot 
the ohange from Hanmbal to Horaoe at the end of a long 
■peeeh and that only for a ringle etansa ie eztremely harah; it 
lowers the last fonr lines to the lerel of the moral nsnally 
taoked on at the end of a versined fable. 


♦Beturn, great guardian of Bome, for thon hast been abeent 
too long: retnrn, for thy presenoe is as snnshine, and thy 
conntry longs for thee as anzionsly as a mother for her sailor 
lad's retnrn. Thy p re s en oe brings prosperity (17 — 21), pnrity 
(91 — 25) and peaoe (25 — 29) ; erery man lives nnder his own 
vine, and after his erening mesi hononrs thee with prayen and 
libations, ranking thee among his household gods. "Long 
mayest thou p io s er ve sneh joyons holiday time for Italy "— -eneh 
is our morning and evening ery.' 

Augustus after the defeat of Lollius by the Sygambri b.o. 16 
(see 4. 2. 86 n.) went himself to Gaul and remained there 
nntil b.c. 18. This Ode is written just before his retnrn. 
Orelli remarks with jnstioe on the wonderfnl tranquillity and 
sense of assured peaoe and repose whioh oharaoteriae it 

1. dlvls orte bonls] 'born by the favonr of heaven,' divis boni$ 
oeing abL ahs. t cf. Sat. 2. 8. 8, iratti ntUut dit. Others render 
'sprung from benignant gods.' Perhaps Horaoe pnrposely 
nses a phrase whieh snggests both ideas: Augustuiia at onoe a 
proof of heaven's favour and himself of heavenly raoe, 

For Romulae see 1. 15. 10 n. 

8. maturum...] 'having promised thy speedy retnrn to tbe 
angust assembly of the fathers, return.' 

HO&ACB, ODE8 IV. ▼. 

oltto] from 00» and the roo* «f awfttt* 
salkd tofetlief.' II k ontiioly diflennt te 
inck t ion from oaaj fff om 

«em] oipkined br &o ftdkminf lino, bnt ot 
whore Atoaaa, aunding lo tho tofani of Xerxea, 

ifuia fnh tfiwt i io a a ro » foot ,**>• 
enl Xmftr 4*o# mtot oit fkk ayjd^ m m, 

Aon. % 981, I- BwrJmJMt ako Bt Loko L 78, 
irftw from oo high hath ▼iaited ne, lo gtre lignt lo 
rft in darkneee.' 8tJohnl.7, 8.9Ae. 

towfceium...]<teli**eprJnf.' tei*rkam.indeeL 
a image,' bnt il froonontly doee dnty ahnoat te m 
n aehare, thoogh ttktebta etrieUy in loooo 
i to vottw or dMee. 800 Dioi a. ▼. 

atlor...] ' more gladly pooiBi tho day md fho onn hoo 
tor light,' $oUi k not imfrequenUy need poorioany 
ral«*appeeraneee of Iho enn, r 'daya.' 

tor iUTonom] iuvenen ia gorornod 07 oooot in h 18. 
nUthoUcal oollooation of worda of. 8. 4. 6 n. Trano- 

when her lad ia dotainod bj tbo aonth wind with ito 
reath... f hia mother eaHa him homo with ▼owe...' 

thia aenteno e tho baianee of tho flrat worda wuUer 
rith the laat worda patria Caeearewu 
drpathiummare ia B. of Crete. 

inetantem...1 With tho anoionta narigation entirely 
iring the winter montha: any ono thoroforo who 
the end of the yeax enoonntered nnfaYourable winda 
d himaelf nnablo to oomplete hia ▼oyage within tho 
irmvum, *tho apaoo yearly •▼ailable for narigaUon,' 

Suently hare to winter abroad. 
. 8. 7. 1—8. Thuc. 6. 84. 6, gwrrtMu rf 4pa *s 
and Aota 97. 19, when 8t Paul had enoountered 
reather, tho orow adriae to 'attain to Phenioa and 

»tu]aeo8.17.80n« o*t4»4oitf,Le.byooneultingoinena. 

ieldeTila...] 4 amiiten , or , piero8dwithloyal 
8. 880, deeiderio perjba, Aoaoh. Ag. 644, fcite rarX*. 
ieeiderium ia noWdecire' bnt 'regret for a thing the 
)f whioh we feel,' rttot, cf. 1. 24. 1. 

NOTE& 419 

17. rurap6rambiilAt,niitmrura]Notk)etheirr*ngemra^ 
the wordo, whioh ii a very favourite one in Latin: it ii oalled 
Ghiaimni *a maldng of (Greek) X' beoanse if the two flrot 
wordi are written orer the ■eoond two, and tho parallel wordi 
aio joined, the linoi foining thom oxooi one anothor and 
form X. Cf. Cio. de Fin. 8. 3, raiio contentit, repugnat oraHo. 
The devioe ii purehr rhetorieal aa ii alao tho repetition of rura. 

perambulat] The word ii graphio and inggesti the alo w and 
■atUfied movement of a woll-fod and oomfortable oow. 

18. alma]iee4.4.41n« Foa»tita«;on]yfoundhere,*Proa- 

19. paoatum] eipecially with roforonoo to tho aboenoe of 
piratee, who though ernihod by Pompeiui b. o. 67 had doubt- 
feoi reramod their operationi during tho oivil wan and eepe- 
oially dnring tho itruggle with Bex. Pompeiu*. 

Tolltant...] 'wing their way': tho word ii rathor applicable 
to ihipi than aailon. Yirg. Aen. 8. 123 hai pelago volamut. 

20. onlpari metuit] 'shrinki from being blamed/ i.o. takoi 
care to give no oceaiion for blame. For tho oomtruotion of. 
2. 2. 7 n. 

21. nnllii. . . ] The roferonoe ii to the lex Julia de adulUriU 
which had been Daned b. o. 17: cf. alio 3. 6 Int. Horaoe 
doubtleu regarded luoh enaotmenti with iittle lympathy and 
iittle confidence: the linoi in whioh ho refori to thom are 
alwayi dull t cold, and proaaic 

22. moi ot lex] nnwritten euitom and writtcn law. Cf. 8. 
24. 86, quid leget titte moribut \ vanae proficiuntl 

edomuit, *havo oonquered and driven out'; of. 2. 15. 5 evineei 
ulmot. For tho verb in the ringnlar of . 2. 18. 88 n. 
maeulotum nefat** 'guilty pollution/ 

28. laudantur...] 'matrom aro praiaed for offipring who 
resemble their sirei: puniihment dogi the heels o( guilt.' Cf. 
Heo. Worki and Dayi 236. 

25. Parthum] aoe Clau. Diot. gelidum Scythen 'the frosen 
Scythian': the Soythiani wero a nomad raoe living noar tho 
Tanaii (Don) and their horaemen mado frequent raidi into 
Boman territory, cf. 3. 8. 23, Carm. Saeo. 55. 

quli...] «who (would fear) the broodi that ahaggy Oermany 
evor bringi forth, if Caeear be bnt aafe?' 


rrida] rafcn obiefly to tt» 

f Otrmany: Tae, Garm» 6 taUa II ttttfa 

tot 4. W8, rfMf »m«M nm, YJn> Atm* t, Mt, 

11] Ifflton ttamt lo hm had ftfe » hfc mmd, Ftr. 

nnhitade, 10» whkh tht popnlomt Xorfh 
md nmr from htr froawn Jbtnt, lo ptM 
mt or tht Denaw.' 

cto Hlbertea] tee 2. 6. 2 n. 

Nrg. SeL 9. 81, enmMtV toftdert atJtJ, na Callim, 
w tV XmxV w n oveufttw, 

timilar pftotan of teourfty, ot 1 Cngi 4. tf t 'Aad 
1 Itrael dwtlt teiely erery inen andtr hit Tine tnd 
ng-tree/ tlto Zech. 8. 10. 

Tittm...] *tnd wtdt the Tine to tfat nmnerried treee.' 
rtM wtre onltiTtttd for growing tuim npon, ttpt- 
s: othtrt whioh wtre not to need ert ipohtn of 
Blori,' ef. 2. 15. 4, platanutque eoeUbt \ evineet 
ere viduae it nted of the elmt whioh txe only wtiting 
are grown np to be 'weddtd' to the Tine. Of. 
ire, Com. of Errort, 2. 2, 

me, I will faeten on thit eleeve of thine: 
on art an elm, my huiband, I a rine, 
ioM weakneM married to thy ttrongtr ttatt 
kea me with thy ttrength to oommnnfamte ' 

nc] i.e. from hia labonr. altcru menrit, 'hia ttoond 
f. Yirg. Geor. 2. 101, mentae tecumdae. 'Drinking,' 
ngton, 'did not begin till after tht firtt oonrte, and it 
aenoed by a libation'; the libation in thia oaae wonld 
uatui, ot L 88, te protequitur mero | defuto paterU. 

►roeequitur] lit. 'to aooompeny,' 'atttnd on/ then, at 
uently 'to honour.' So in proee benevoUntia, qfficiU, 
laudibut protequi. 

itIdui...] 'joins thy deity to(thAtof)theLaree.» Wick- 

n to Merirale e. 88 : 'Thii worahip of Anguttue, or 

rhaps of tht Lar of Augustua, aa a demigod or 

to be riistingniihtd from the later onlt of tht Oataara 

NOTES. 421 

m deities, whieh Augustus himself interdieted at kait in 
Bome.' It vu not unnatural, oonsidcring the peace whioh 
wm enjoyed under hii swav, for the Romans to honoux 
AnffUBtt» m one of the divinities who guarded their hearths 

86. OMtorls, Herculis] of. 8. 8. 9 n. Both genitivee are 
governed by memor. 

88. EeeperlM] «The Land of the Weat/ in contrast with 
Greeee just mentioned, of. 2. 1. 81 n. 

lntegro dle] *when the daj is still before u»,' lit. *un- 
touched,' * untreepMsed on.' 

89. slocl, v?idl] ' dry-lipped, nuehed with wine,' Martin. For 
uvidi, ct udu$, 1. 7. 22, and in Oreek fcPpcyfUwot. In all 
langnages there are a large number of oonventional worda to 
expreas the oondition of sobriety or intozieation. 

40. onm sol...] Note carefully the calm and repose of this 
oonoluding line. 


'O thon whose wrath the ohildren of Niobe have felt, and 
Tityos and even great Aohilles — Aohilles who but for thee 
would have utterly destroyed the raoe from whence the 
liomans were to spring — great Phoebus, be thou my proteotor. 
To thee, Phoebus, is due all my innpiration and my skill. 
Tberefore, youths and maidens, under my guidanoe chant 
the praises of Phoebus and his glorious sister. The day will 
come when you will look back on it m a great event in yonr 
life that on the ooca&ion of the Secnlar games you were one 
of the chorus that chanted the verses of the poet Horaoe.' 

It wm the constant endeavonr of Augustus to recall to life 
the old Boman spirit. Among other methods 61 aocomplishing 
this he re-instituted in b. c. 17 the so-called ludi $aeculare* (see 
Class. Dict. s. v.) f a solemn festival oelebrating the preservation 
of the state and supposed to be held only onoe in a taecubum or 
period of 100, or 110 years, the herald summoniug the people to 

4tt &ORAGE» 0DE8 IV. tL 

bthold AMDM *#IMf IMf fJMfMftff tWiffWMS fJM 

fMtt.' On tht ihird day an Oda m rang in tht tamplt ol 
ApoQo bj thm thnM nine bo jt and maidtnt whoto 
wora ttffl alivo [patriwd ae wmtriwd). HofMt kad btti 

npon towritt tMf Odt, whkh wo ttffl f tho 

Saecalart, to whkh tht prtttnt Odt it a tortof pratnfemvokinf 
tht Miittinot ol tho god in the oo m pot iU on of hit work and 
tht trtining of tht ohoroa. 

ApoUo and hit tJtttr, tfao mala and fbmak nprfMntatim 
of tht tamt powar, apptar in Latin nndor tnanjtjnonjma, a.g. 
Phoebnt, Phoebe, Jannt (Diannt), Diana, Apollo, Axtfmh, 
80I, Lona, Ae. 

1. qutm nroMt ...] WrfaMpowerMthaaYengKofaboef*» 
ral tongoa tht ofispring of Niobe felt.' For tht boati of 
Niobe, Mt Glata, Dict t*v. wutgnae linguae, ot jefya Xrytv» 
•to boMt,' iet LiddtU and Scott, t,v. rfyas. Tht aneitnti 
beliered that boMtfal wordi did in a special manner aronM 
divine vengeance, of. Soph. Aj. 127, 766, 776. 

For Tityos ef. 2. 14. 8 n. 

8. Minlt] see 2. 7. 10 n. Troiae altae: the 'IXJo» atwwnjt of 

PhtMut beoause the MyrmidonM, whom Aohilles led, eame 
from Phthia in TheMaly. Bj tlajing Heotor he had 'almost 
oonqnered' Troy. 

6. impar] *oneqaalljmatohed with.' 

6. Thettdit marlnae ] ' of the Ma-goddew Thetit.' At her 
gon Acliilles wh himtelf partly divine. 

7. DardanM] For adj. uaed m noon cf. 1. 16. 10 n. 
quateret='hQ shook,' i.e, metaphorioally with fear. 

His 'terrible spear' it descnbed in Homer IL 10. 887, 

ix 6* &pa rifHYf * vwrpwtor icwdaaf fyxot 

f}f*0i>i fUya, mpap69' rb ah oC fttfrar' SXXot 'Axcu&r 


9. ille...Ule] TheM two wordt, m Wiokham pointt ouL 
suggest a oontraft between two piotores, one • of what toat and 
the other of what wUght have been if Apollo had not interfered.' 

Notice the aooommodation of sound to sense in L 10. 

NOTES. 423 

11. proddlt latel lik 'feU forward (stretching) far and wida/ 
i.e. «feU prostrate with hage frame.' Gf. Hom. Od. 24. 89, «rro 
/Uyat fuyaXutnrl . 

18. Ule non...] The lenee ie : he woald not have reeorted to 
trickerj to take Troj; hie method of warfare wae more simple, 
to flght openlj, to ask no qnarter and to give none to man, 
woman, child or infant yet nnborn. Translate * He wonld not 
eaged in a horie ihat feigned an offering to Minenra deceire 
the Trojani amid their iU-timed rerelrj.' wmfaUeret wonld in 
proee be non fefeliiuet ; it ii more grapbie, it almost repreeents 
the writer as speaking of Aehfllea ae of a Uring aeqnaintanee 
whoee oondaot nnder oertain eontingenciee might be predieted 
— ' He woold never deceive.* 

eqno] the famous 'wooden horse,' the 

iovpdrtot rd> 'Ereiot iwolrjctp ei» 'kfHpy, 
oV wor* it okoowoKi» Mkp "ijyayt e?of 'OoVowfc, 
ardpwv iuwXqcat ollkiov i^aXdwa^aw, 

Hom. Od. 8. 498. 

14. saeramentltolef. Yirg. EeL 4.42 % variotdUeetmentiH 
lana coloret, • wool shall learn to eoonterfeit Yarions eolonrs.* 

17. palam captia] 'captfoes taken in fair fight.' gravU = 
'crueV 'remorseless.' 

18. nescioB nul]=tn/antej. 

19. ettam...] a jea even the babe jet unborn.' The sentiment 
is from Hom. II. 7. 57, 

uijrtt vwtKftyoi alwvr SktBpop 
Xtipat ff nutripaf uno* oVrcra yaaripi urrnjp 
KovpQ¥ ibrra QipQi, uifo* 6t o>uyoc. 

The same ferocioos spirit breathes throogh ail antiquitj, ef. 
1 Sam. 16. 2, '(fo and smite Amalek...slaj both man and 
woman, infant and tuckling,* 

22. annnlsset] ZensmHomeralwajssignifieshiswiUbjhis 
nod (of. nunen), henoe annuo—* to grant bj his nod.' 

23. rebns...] • to the fortnnes of Aeneas walls traeed with 
happier auguries. * 

414 HORACK, ODE8 IV. tL 

ime+re awjrot, •» tum tta Uat of tt» fntnrt waDe 
Mginfct' woold naturally MwaMhtd te m 

tfatt aolamn osremony; inoraoTwtbJareodtttaf ttaellB 

mttning io awMrn, Othara howtTtr mj 


For «#*?«•' aa omon' ot L 16. 5 n. 

25. doato?...] •Thoaw]*d*1*a*ieh 
opon Iht lute,' Ut 'lnM-nlajnr teeeber.' Xtfmtdft Vfcf. M, 
6. 1, hw an exoeUon» note on orynnit. 'Orjgmalr/ ttm ptr* 
paae. of «rfiio, to proTtu mtka oloar or dietinot; Maaaolmie 
Iargely need in Letu of things whioh oooTey t eleej^ ditwket 
ebjtrpntroeptkm to tho eya, tht ear, tht ameU or fha mtnit eml 
thus tt tatnmtt meny thtdtt of ma anin g f ntoa.' 'eeatr,' 
'minute,' *sharp,' 'ahrtwd,' 'meiodiona,' 'noity'), and ia fcsjnd 
tt tn tttributt to c ty rf , ocmJu*, / on an, nim» , Um, Jbtaie, 
Miwatf, Ac' 

88. owl Zantho...] Tht Hne eella atttntion to tht patMsal 
cheracteristics of tht god of pottry. Ot 8. 4. 61» ttrf rtr» 
niiro Cattaliae lavit I cHaei M&tot. Hia lona looka mark tht 
berd, bia beardleM onin {levu) denotM bia unaying youtb, 

Horaoe alwaya usm the form lavere in the Odes. Xanthua 
ia in Lycia. 

27. Dannlat dtena Camtnat] Le. me, Horaoe. For Dauniae 
«'Italian/ cf. 2. 1. 84 n. Camenae: notioe that Horaee htrt 
naea the native Italian word, not the foreign and borrowtd 
Mu$a (MoGra), cf. 1. 12. 89 n. 

28. ltrie] 'beardleM,' aa 2. 11. 6: for derivation of word 
aee 1. 2. 88 n. Agyieu, a Greek name for Apolio m god of 
streets, ayvud; Horace aeems to aelect the word merely m being 
adapted to conToy a vague feeUng of awe and mystery. 

29. eplrltum] 'inspiration' (cf. 2. 16. 88 n.), oppoaed to ort, 
'technicai skiU.' 

81. Tlrginnm primae] 'ye flower (lit 'first*) of maidena,' Mt 

88. tnttla] usually ' a taking oharge of,' 'guardianship,' bnt 
here=«'those taken eharge of/ in appoaition with virgimm 
primae puerique, 'ye who are nnder tht proteetion.' 

84. oohlbentla aren] 'who arrests with her bow tht swift- 


NOTES. 426 

86. Leabium pedom] Le. tha Sapphio matre, et 1. 1. 84 n., 
'mark the TtfttMft" measure.' 

mti pollldi lotnm] 'thebeatof my thumb,' Le. ae he marka 
tho time, probably by •trfldng the lyra. 

88. ereeoentem faeo] lit 'gxowing with hor toroh,' i.e. «with 
hor growing light.' 

NoctUnoam* a the night-ohining one/ is onrj foond horo ond 
in o peesage of Varro: lt ia iuet possible that lt ia an old name 
for the moon whioh waa atill rotained in religioua oeremonioo. 
Anyhow ito nao horo ia an affeotation of arohaio phraaoology 
(aee 1. 84. 6 n.). Such deaeriptife worda are natnral and com- 
monly found only in very early writera, e.g. Heaiod haa otytf- 
oucos «a anaiV avoVTcot *a outUe-nah,' l-rVro^ot 'the hand,' Ac 

89. proaperam frugnm] 'proliflo in cropa,' of. 8. 0. 17 n. 
coleremque. ..] ' and swift to roli the quiokly-moying montha.' 

For the inl cf. 1. 8. 25 n. 

41. nupta iam...] 'Soon when a hride you wiil eay.' di$ 
amicum with carmen. 

42. aaeoulo] aee Inl rtferenU, 'bringing round.' 

48. roddidi] 'perfonned/ yon are aaid reddere when yon at 
the proper time duly reproduce that which haa been taught yon. 

doeillB modorum] 'trained in the ineaaurea.' For the gen. 
cf. 1. 15. 24 n. Horati: cf. 1. 6. 12 n. 

ODB vn. 

' The snow haa melted and apring with all its brightnesa ia 
returning. Tho seaaona in their rapid succession oontinually 
remind ua of the shortness of life. Only whereas they roturn 
again, whereas the waning moon soon recovers her fulness, 
we when once we join the ranks of the departed are but dust 
and a shadow. Who knowa whether he will be ali ve to-morrow ? 
Enjoy yourself therefore; when once dead neither birth nor 
merit nor piety can bring you baok to life. Diana has not the 
power to set Hippolytus free from death nor Theseus Pirithous.' 

The Ode is remarkably simOar to 1. 4. 

Who Torquatus was is uneertain. He is probably the aame 
to whom Epist. 1. 5 is dedicated. 

486 HORACE, ODES IV. vii. 

2. comae^foliage,' ci L 21. 5. 

8. maUt..O < MrihohAQmharMaoni l 'L«.pMtwthroa«|i 
the mmodi one after another in ■nooeosion : vieet t '■nceoaaione,' 
here in oonnection with the peating of winter into Bfring 
impliee 'sn co assion of teatont t * cf. 1. 4. 1, totoitur aerie htemt 
grata viee verit, 

4. prMtereunt] <paas by,' Le. eeeee to OTerflow. 

6. Qratta]This wordhejrdlTooonreeleewhereintheeing.M 
a proper name, the reaeon being thai the Oraoee are alwajs 
re pr ee on ted ae inseparable, of. 8. 21. 22, ttgntt nodum tohere 
Oratiae: here Oratia eum aewdnit eororftiua^the three 
Oraoea.' Their namee were Aglaia, Euphrosyne and Thalia. 

7. annne] Probably of the eame deriration ae anutut or ae> 
nulut 'ariiig,' and thereforeoonYejing the idea of *the reTolTing 
jear.' et atmum... *and eaeh honr whioh hnrriee awaj the 
genial dav': note how ekilfnUj the various periodi of time 
are introdueed; not merelj the ohanging jear bnt eaoh daj, 
eaeh hnrrjing honr reminde ne of the shortneas of life. 

almut ie a nataral epithet of day aa oppoeed to darkneee, 
of. Car. Saeo. 9, alme Sol : it is apphed to anjthing that ie life- 
giving or invigorating (eee 4. 41 n.) : it ie added here to eogseet 
a reason for our regretting each paseing daj. Wickham renders 
•sunny' and makee it refer only to $ummer daje, bnt the linee 
applj to the whole jear and have no such limited meaning. 

9. ver proterlt...] 'summer tramples upon epring and will 
perish (in its tarn) as eoon ae...': proterit, whioh woald be 
accaratelj osed of a moonted soldier pursuing, overturning and 
trampling on an enemj (of. Yirg. Aen. 12. 330, proterit agmina 
curru), here expresses the victorioua epeed with which sommer 
follows on spring, and snggeats a fine oontrast with interitura. 

1 1 . effaderlt] ' poured forth ' as f rom a Gornuoopia or • horn 
of plenty.' 

1 2 . lners] ' lifeless, ' because in winter nothing grows and no 
work can be done. The epithet bj its poeition draws marked 
attention to the sixmlaritj between the end of the jear and the 
end of man's little round of ezistenoe. 

13. damna . .] * yet the moons speedily repair their loeses in 
the sky,' i. e. the moon wanes but soon becomes full again. lunae 
'moons* = 'the moon in the variouu months,' so tolet 4. 5. 7 
and (requently. 

NOTES. 427 

14. nos] 4 but we.* The position of the word In ths Latin 
shewB the eontrast without the ose of any adversetive pertiole, 
of. 8. 9. 22 n. 

For the thought ©t the inimitable linee of Catullus 5. 4, 

$oU$ occidere et redire poesunt: 
nobis, quum semel occidit brevie tux t 
nox est perpetua una dor mien da. 

15. qxu>...quo...]Bo.d«c<4«niiU , hAveffJlen, , of.Ep. 1.6.27, 
ire tamen restat Numa quo devenit et Ancus. For pater many 
M8S. give piut : it 1b diffionlt to deeide between them. bnt it ii 
more probable that the ordinary epithet piut would be anb- 
stituted by a oopyist for pater than vice verea. The adj. divee 
admits of no satisfaetotry explanation, and is de s or vedly 
BUBpected by many editort. 

*pulvis'in the nrn; umbra, in the nnder worldV Nanok. 
Cf. Soph. El. 1159, vto86w re tcal *«c«V aw^cX* 

17. qnla scit...] *who knows whether the gods above add 
to-morrow'B spaoe to the totai of to-day?' i.e. the total whioh 
to-day makeB np. For tummae cf. 1. 4. 15, vitae eu m ma 

Notioe the preeent adiiciant (add not 'will add*); the gode 
are already deoiding onr fntnre: we ahall learn their deeiaion 
by theevent. 

19. amlco. ..] * whioh yon ehall have bestowed on your own 
dear soul ': the expresflion ammo amico dare seems uaed Bomewhat 
oolloquially to express the aatisfaction of penonal gratifieation, 
of. Genio indulgerc, Genium curare, animo morem gerere and 
the like. See too Sim. 85, 

As resards the satisfaction whieh Horaoe evidently feels at the 
idea of eheating * the greedy heir/ it must be remembered tbat at 
thisperiod, with the number of marriages oontinually deereasing, 
the number of wealthy old baohelors and spinsters (orbi, orbae) 
was gradually beeoming large. The ways in whioh thoy were 
pursued by fortune-hunters [captatores), and the devioes by 
whioh they not nnfrequently baffled their pursuers, are con- 
tinually referred to. The 'sreedy heir' had beoome a well- 
known character in the oomedy of society. 

21. semel] £ro|, 'once,' 'once for aU.' 
splendldaj *stately,' in referenoe to the 'state' in whioh the 
P. ll. 29 

Ite. Minoe, Aeecus and Bhadamanthne wect the thiM 


neqne tnlm] *Fox neithar.' Horaoe, ae freqoently, oon- 
by ^diMJng mythologiotl instanoes to prore the general 
snt he haajuet made: Diana*t modiation oannot eat the 
Hippolytoj free nor Theeena' afleotkm (et caro) hreak 
idg of Pirithous. 

ipolytni helng devoted to eeHbaey and the ehaee wne 
ily nnder the proteotioa of the vfcttin hnntreae Dtana. 
ip-mother Phaedra oomnteood hia death on hia refoaal 
Jy her guiltj paation (ctLvudieuM). 
ioe tha parallel and ompnatio poaitiona of gmUoum and 
For Pirlthona ot 8. 4. 79 n. 

Letnaea vlncula] *the fettera of the tomb.' Letha 
forgetfumees) waa one of the rivers of Hell, et 2. 14. 17 n. 

ode vm. 

rould gladly present my friends with gobleta and hronsee, 
Lnus, and you should not have the poorest gift, that ia, 
•se, if I were the rich possessor of such works of art. 
ither do I possess, nor do you eare for sueh raritiee. 
re song and song I oan give, yes, and I know the valne 
gift. The Soipioe owe more to Ennius than to their 
lents and their exploits. Where would be the fame 
quIub and Aeacus if it were not oelebrated in versef 
use alone oonfers immortality: it is through her that 
es, the Diosouri, and Bacchus are enthroned fr m A"g the 

iiis and the next Ode it is probable that, though Horaoe 
ie8 CensorinuB and Lollius, his words are meant for 
;us. The Poet-Laureate hints pretty broadly to the 
or that he is well aware of the value of the favour he ia 
ing in writing this Book at his request. 
isorinu8 was consul b. c. 8, and VelL 2. 102 speaks 
as demerendit hominibut natum, * born to win men.' 

NOTES. 429 

1. donarem] It wm oustomarj for rioh peonle to send pre- 
tente (tWenae, itrennee) to their friends at oertain eeasons, e.g. 
on the Kalends of Mareh and at the Saturnalia. eommodut 
with donarem 'oourteously,' *obliging]y ' : *I ihoold be glad to 
gratify them by giving.' 

2. aera] hronies, eepeoiaUy Oorinthian bronzee, were mueh 
valued ae ornaments. 

8. trlpodaa...] See Lidd. and Soott e. t. rplwavt, and et 
Virg. Aen. 5. 110, 

in medio tacri tripodee viridetque ceronae 
et paUnae pretium victoribut. 

6. ferree] *would get/ i e. from me. divUe... -i«that ia if I 
were rioh in worke of art.' divite me,=ti divee ettem, forme 
the protaeie of the eentenee of whioh donarem and neque tu 
ferree are the apodoeia. For the gen. artium aee 8. 6. 17 n. 
Notioe ar» = 4 art,' 'akill,' ort«#— the objeots produoed byauoh 
akill, 'workf of art, 1 and of. 4. 2. 3 n. 

6. Farrhaaliia] of Epheeui, flouriahed 400 B.a, and wae 
eepeoially celebrated for hia paintinff of divine and heroio figuree. 
Soopae wae a aoulptor of raroe who flourished 895 — 850 b. o. 
and helped to deoorate the Maueoleum at Haliearnaesus with 
the bas-reliefs some of which are now in the British Museum. 

7. liquldis] The adj. is added to suggest a eontrast with 
the hard marble of the statuary. 

8. sollers ponere] •skilled to portray,' ie. in portraying. 
For the inf. see 1. 8. 25 n. 

For ponere of. 4. 1. 20, ponet marmoream, of a etatue, and 
Ov. A. £. 8. 401, H Venerem Coue nunquam potuiteet ApeUee, of 
a painting, also Juv. 1. 155, pone TigelUnum, of a portrait in 

9. hao Tis] i.e. abundanoe of these things, of. 4. 11. 4 
hederae vit. 

10. res] *fortunes.' Oensorinus was too well off to need 
presents. ammui, *tastes.' 

12. pretium...] * to assign a value to the gift.' No doubt as 
far as Censorinus and this particular Ode are oonoerned Horaoe 
intends that the lofty estimate of the value of his gift whioh 
oocupies the rest of the Ode should be taken only half serious- 
ly, for indeed the language used wouH otherwise be utterly out 



to th« «™io D . T « 11 mU mm_ t__» h* ; 

_j Ode »od inserted It _n *_k ■» M_M 
■ calling Augaatm' att*nt_B _ ■_-_■<* !•* 
inderUken »t hU t i — _f. Bm _ — > 

» fagM] The plnr_ im«_wbt_*or_i1; H_mft»1 
• deteated, »t tbe b*-_ </_____ _a -01, __V 

picK hU poeitioa in Iuly far II 7MH. 

rri.ct-.equ»..] Kutice ■■_____! M j dBk -tfwi 
tbe word» »eeal olewlj ta —■■*——• '— — *- *— -» 

that H_n_ib_Ti> threstaw 

|jm.' th* word»'»eenl _.e_rlj tojafiaa*» (Aoofh OnHt 

n InoandU,-] Bew it U P-_n -_t whw to <_—. 

i * oomipt teit or extretMJ OMkN vd—df. The 

m anj cua ii cleu: the pul f ' " """■ " 

d exploite of Atrieanu» h»ve si 

p the Tcise» of Enniui. The otijeetion» to tl 

(1) The buroiug of Cuth-ge tOok plWM _ 

,:r thedesthof tbo elder Soipio, ._. _. 

d therefore had nothing to do » tth «(— _r of tl . 

Some editoi. hava gnvely ntMd — — - t_t •baminf of 
Lhige' e-n refer to eome minor erent __h u '— * bontag 
_e c— np of Scyphu' (Liv. 30. 5), ot __t 'bm— __' b Mtt 
oetic_ly ' for 'duaater.' I only tnantion thu 
b> tuefal waming to the «.tadeiit and u auiing tc 
>t _moM dU_igenaoa_. ahifu commantaton wOfmuit, ■ 
e an nnreeeoning reverenco for thcdr anthor*! teit. 
Wicktum aukee ■ »aggeetioa whioh U »t uy nta i 

10' being merely » periphruU for — _t ni 
' Horaoe thea wke ' Wtut throwe _o»t glory on the nan 
—frican oi, Zeme end Cuthage, or Ennio»' poetrjf 
(3) The gcnitivea Karthaginii impiat foUowed ' 
by the genitive rim, which hae no ooanaet-On w 
gOM with laudri, ue very awk «■ ard. 

Uoreover thepronoon u, donbtleM u balng oonai-end— M_ 
»nd _nemph»_c, U slmost «twolutolj Ignonid by tba Boo__n 
poeU: VirgU very nrely naea it : in the Ode» it U onlj fonnd be« 

NOTES. 431 

and in 8. 11. 18, a paasage of extremely doubtful authentioity. 
In any ease it oould harcQy bear tbe strang emphaaia here 
placed upon it. 

(8) There is no Ode of Horaoe whioh does not admit of 
division into stansas. Ai at present oonstituted this Ode oon- 
sists of 84 linea and oannot be ao divided — a formai but, I 
think, fatal objeotion to the text 

Some editora mark a laouna of two linea aftex L 17, others 
omit U. 17 and 38 as spurious. That aome alteration ia needed 
there ean be no doubt; what it ought to be ia a matter of pure 

I tranalate the text: 4 nor doea the burninff of nnholy 
Carthage more brightly point ont the renown of him who re- 
tnrned having won a name from oonqnered Africa than do the 
Muses of Calabria...' 

18. qnl domita. . .] i. e. P. Oornelina Scipio Afrioanna Major. 
Cf. Sat. 2. 1« 65, duxit ab oppretta meritum Carihagine nomen. 
Liyy tells ua that he was tne nrat Boman imperator who re- 
ooived a name from the people he had oonquered: the praetioe 
snbsequently beoame freqaent, e.g. Atiaticut, Oermanieut, 
Macedonicut, and of. onr nae of snch titles aa Mapier of 
Magdala, Wolaeley of Cairo. 

20. Calaorae Flerldesl For Pieride* see 4. 8. 18 n. Al- 
thongh the word Pieridet had oome to be nothing more than a 
synonym for 'Muses,' yet the oombination of the two words is 
hardly happy. 

Q. Ennius, the father of Roznan poetry, waa born at Bndiae 
in Calabria b.o. 239: his most important work was an epie 
poem called Annales, the prindpal portion of whioh waa a 
deaoription of the aeoond Pnnio war. 

neqne...] *nor f if no poefa page tell of thy great deeds, 
shalt thon reap thy reward.* For $ilere=t 9 to paas over in 
silenoe'cf. 2. 13. 26 n. 

28. taclturnitaa inrida] «grudging silenoe,' of. 4. 9. 88, 
lividae oblivibnes. 

26. Tirtus et faTor et lingna] Clearly all with vatim : it 
is to the *mighty poets 1 wit andfavour and eloqnenoe' that 
Aeacus owes his salvation from the Stygian waves. 

27. dlTiUtms.. ] 'Plaoes a hallowed dweller in the ialands 
of the blest.' The divitee intulae are the fta*ap<a* rifffoc, 

HOmCBi OMB 17. wfiL 

• iafatat. 'tht Htan* Um* ■!•■■■■■ i 
tdw2tthtff> ~ 

..] 'ThtlfaMdowcawimadwtoaBj^thtatj.' 
mphatio, <to' tad onij eo, ta bj tht fcvov of tht 
oword anrtbtnMntalljinBBhvdbtlKO oathof tha 
Mding daoaai. 

«aram...] •aodo «knooiof Tyaoarai, a hdHaBrt 
bqb, enatoh tht otormtoaaod bark from tha " 

bt lVBitrWtt ot 1. 1. l n. 

700 daom that thttt tosft off arfaa will boI 8fo long 
r thai, thoogh Hooaar htt tht taoMUot ptata, jtt 
7 of Pindtr, B i nmihlo o ond othom ia aot 
00 it it whkh tlono eonfori iminortab>j;) Htltn 
irttof hcr atx who htt burned with a goflty 
r tn Hiam htt hoon btokaad, mtnj t bnwo man htt 
«0 Againemnon, but aH lit now fotgotten m tht grafa, 
tnd nnhonoarcd' boetntt 'tmtung.' I, Lolhat, wiH 
so taehmteit jourt: jour good dttdt thtU ntftr bo 
tf jetloaiforgetralneflc. Yoart it a tool Ihrtttiing tnd 
i to poniih grttd tnd goiU beoantt ittolf toptrior to 
v fit fbr tht highett potition in tht tttto. Snthni 
man, not woolthj bot knowing how to att tht gifto 
provide, fearing dithononr mort thta deeth, ratdj to 
lit lifo for hit fritndt or hit eonntrj.' 
Uint htd betn defeated bj tht Sygtmbri a.a 16, tto 
. Ht oorttinlj long pototottd tht itftH^ Angottaa, 
i him (m, a 9) tt tator with hm grtndton 0. Ottttr 
Bttt, whtrt ht died. Aaoordmg to TtD. S. 101 he 
hit own hand in oonteqaenoo of the rogaorj tnd 
he htd tlwajt eeerttlj prtotited being d it eofc t oi L 
tn intrintie improbtbititj in a ttorj wbieh 

NOTES. 433 

that so acute a judge as Augustas was bo long deeeived in the 

oharaeter of an intiinate friend, and it ia aaid thal Yelleius is 

partial to Tiberius who had a personal grudge against Lollins 

(Suei Tib. 12). Plinj aeoepts the story as true, possiblj 

beeanse it gives him a weloome opportunity for moraliaing 

about Lolttus' granddaughter Lollia Paulina, a great beauty, 

who was married either for her faoe or her fortnne by Oalignla, 

and who it seems wonld not unfrequently wear jewelry worth 

over £800,000— wherenpon Pliny very finely: Hie ett rapi- 

narum esitut, hoe fuit, quare M. Lolliut vnfamatut regum 

muneribue oriente toto, interdicta amieitia a Caio Caetare, 

Augueti fttio, venenum biberet, ut neptie eiue cpadringentie» 

H8. operta epeetaretur ad lueernae. That he left behind him 

so great a fortnne does not in any way prore Velleius' aooonnt 

of his life-long rasoality and dissimnlation : it was the praotioe 

of great Bomans to amass fortnnes by plnndering prorinoes. 

Moreover eren if Lollins did while thns engaged profcss and 

hold high philosophio views on the bleeiings of poverty— as 

Horaoe'8 lines perhaps snggest— we know from tha oase of 

Seneoa how easy snoh inoonsistenoy is. 

Bnt indeed it is searoely worth while enqniring what 

Lollius' real oharacter was, and whether Horaoe was deoeived 

in him (as Lnoretius was in Memmius) or no : the ooneluding 

lines of the Ode, though professing to deeoribe Lolliua, are 

really the description of an ideaL LoUius was the friend of 

Augustns and at that time oertainly held in high esteem: 

Horaoe had to send him an Ode and praise his virtues, and 

naturaUy finds it easier to pen a sketoh of perfeot virtue 

instead. Odes, Dedieations, Testimonials, and the like more 

often present to us the writer's idea of what a man should be, 

tfaan a deseription of what a partioular man is. 

1. ne...] The eonstruotion is ne...eredat...non (ei...eedet) 
Pindarieae latent...Camenae 9 see Summary. 

SL longesonantem...] •bornbesidef&r-echoingAufidus.' Cf, 
3. 80. 10—18 and notes. 

HOBA0* 0DE8 IV. fa. 

.1 ] 


Hobooo wm tae inl I» eamtv/ Iko wteeek 
e.g. the AkeJo oad Sspphie, ia LeJfa poetry, et 

**...] •! utter wordo fte be weddod fte tae iyro,' 

tonxue] Meeoninie ea old aorne of Ipfie: 

rfTeroelr/ edmitfted fto hm beoa ea Asietfo Oreek, 

eeren eitiee diepufted the giory of heTing ghrea him 

^#ewejU#ej^ ^^U*W4p2rWSM#W#Q e^rSBjewSWOWeWOPsj ASjSUjejeuWSSSSQ eWfS/WJUSUjQ eWAOjOUUUUUUaW#f 

orMf dt owtrie etrtet, IToeitre, tae. 

ie]Le.ofSaaonideo, ott. L 88n. 

«1 Le. woriike, boooaoo wxHton fto rouee 

tske Tengesnee oa the populer noftw bj whooo hooad 
Mon drivea infto ezflt, Ot L 18. 10, oad 1. It. • a. 

me] 'etnftely,' «digninedV Ct Quiaft. 10. 1. 88, 
elU §t dmrittimot ctdmit {Alemtm) daoot ot twiei oor- 
•o Irra tut tfmrft. 

o...] «nor hoo timo blottod oat whoftow Aneoreon's 

Kqm oomposed of old.' Tho poomo of Aneereon 

pxoioo of lore snd wino oro of smgnlor besuty: 

best known to Engliih reodozo through Moore's 

msny of them. 

I lusttl For luden—' to write sportiTely' gorerning 
l 2. 18. 96 n. and Virg. G. 4. 666, earmina fwi hui. 
kre 1 18 «fto be hotly ia lore with,' ond tOtre L 01. 

Lyuntque...] 'Still lives the pession entrnsted fto the 
f the Aeohon msiden,' Le. of Soppho 9 who, like 
sss o nstfre of MytQene sad wrote in the 

sel] Le. she msde her lyre the oonfidsnte, oo it 
ler seerets. Cf. Sot 2. 1. 00, UU veku fidi* m 
>Um | eredebot libru, of Lucilius snd hisbooks. 

msols...] For oonneotion see Summsry. ordtrt is one 
my oonTentionsl wordsv «to lore,' 'fsll m lore wish,' 
slesrly gorerns the sooosstiTes whioh foUow, but thoy 
extieily gorerned by mbrata. Trsnslste *Not slone 
dsn Helen been fired with lore for the ordored looks 
iterer ond his gold-betpongled robes, msrreUing st 
his regsl pomp snd retmne.' 

NOTES. 436 

Nauck, who says that wnit ii intransitive and all the 
aoousatives are dependent on mirata alone, deeerves to be 
auoted. 'Andere oonitrairen artft erine$ (eot stirata): eoll lie 
denn aber aueh ftir die Begleiter gebrannt habenr' 

oomptos] from eomo, eo-mo *to pnt together,' d ds-sio 
*to put ofl, * tu-mo «to pnt apart' (rin*). 

14. auruxn vestlbus Ulltum] Qold thread was worked in 
patterns into the tiflsue of oostly robes, ef. Virg. Aen. 8. 488, 
etpieturatat auri tubtemine vettet. 

16. Helene Lacaena]='EX6nj Aaxaira (fem. adj. from 

17. prlmusve...] The non of L 18 must still be oarried on ; 
•nor was Teuoer the firet....' Hoxner, D. 18. 818, sneaks of 
Teuoer as dpierot 'Axcuw* re£oawy. Oydon was a oity m Crete, 
and the Cretans were oelebrated arohers; Virg. EcL 10. 59 
has Cydonia tpicula. 

18. nonsemel...] Clearljnot •Hium has been more than 
onoe besieged,' but ' Not onoe only has an Ilium (Le. a city suoh as 
Ilium) been harassed in war.' Idomeneus was a Oretan leader, 
Sthenelus the oharioteer of Diomedes. 

21. dloenda...]gorernedbyjm^iiavit; l norhas...8thenelu§ 
alone waged oombats worthy to be sung by the Muses.' Cf. 
4. 4. 68. 

22. Delphobus] brother of Heotor. excipere is used 
here in its strict sense of receiving something you were looking 
out for, or whioh was meant for vou. Notioe the emphatie 
position otprimut: in translating the whole passage 1L 18 — 21 
special care must be taken to bring out the foroe of the 
emphatie words, viz. tola, primut t temel, tolut, primut; the 
persons mentioned were not the only or the firtt persons who 
have deserved renown. 

26. illacrlmabiles...] 'unwent and unknown lie bnried in 
endless night.' UlaerimabiUt is here nsed passively, bnt 2. 14. 
6 of Pluto='who never weeps.' uroentur suggests the idea of 
night lying on them c like a tomV (Wickham), ef. 1. 24. 
6, Quintilium perpetuut topor urget, and 1. 4. 16, jam te 

For loii^iWnnending' ef. 2. 16. 30 n. 

28. sacro] Partly as being nnder the special proteotion of 
heaven and tne heavenly Muses, but ohiefly as bestowing the 
divine gift of iminortality, cf. 1. 26. 11 n. 


t, rtellj amMm the ww*) MOMMt* w ftt the 

krinf 'Bnt Mfctti m tho fr»T0 it tho lliniui W 

m and ■ nFQoord o d brnvtrj,* Lt, in the m»m both 
[oallj Ibffotten. ftr e»*f^-'oowardiM'et t. C. 
inaetrre, '^mirMiatmf/ Mtd cf ■«"'— t who mommV 

tOtTO...] Oanjmf «ttMMfMMtOMlLIO 
rOl I ptHUt JOBJOM faffMfbJMM MJNf M ftaV 

nr mv eipWti.' 

i-ffreon/the ooloor 01 


ronmK*e nrndee*] 4 bo« 
mbmiU in aflaire'; wrw «tmImIm hbmni 
i ofttn oontraettd with MftMtta, whioh tnMMi * 
: nhflaoonbio. om! tometimM I h tfl iT i ti fl wiadom. GL fai 
oVonprit Hroi^o. For ttit fen. mo i. 15. M n. f« 


reotoal 'nprifht' in two atnMt, (1) immortd tnd firm, 

tMlnont...ripniiiingaU-oii^ooiixiflf(>ld.' Horaeeia 
.iliolng t flfmfiiTn tftnr tnj irnrfli irtilnh lnitintti'ntttini: 
keeping from,' 'boinf rree from,' tnd tho like, ©t 

7, dmiMqucrtUanim^vJ. 59, abrtkuto km nm, S. 17. 16, 
iMmtfe. 8m I*t Prim. 1 185. 

oontnlqne...] 'andaooiiiQlnotof 0M(brief) jttrboi 
t) m ofton at, a food and honoit jndge, it baa p tefe n o d 
;ht to the expedient, (m ofton m it) haa finnc baok with 
\j mien the bribee oz tho guilty, (jm, and) throogh op- 
; mobo haa tdTinood ito txmi Ttotoriooajj to tho frotttV 
19 roforo to the Stoio paradox that the perfeetlj Tirtnoni 
i nnder all oironmttanooo a 'king among mon.' 011.4. 
) and nott on L 17. 

nee teUt Lollioe, who had aetoalhr been oontnl n,o> 21, 
al mtknia of that offioe, hit oool proolaimt itt real dfe - 
nd nnonangmf rank whenerer it nromptt bim to aot liUi 


NOTES. 437 

Bentley quotee a quantity of phraeee whidh ehew that tha 
phraee anisnu» contul would not be ee novel to a Boman eex ee 
it ia to us, e.g. animus eamifem, eentor, dominus, rem, Uberator. 

I do not egree with thoee who eey thet, there being four 
linee between animus end contul\ the reader ehoold 'forget' the 
word animu» when he oomee to contul ind supply 'Lollius' 
insteed, for the whole point of what Horaoe eeye ie thet, though 
Lolliut himeelf ie no longer oonsul, yet hie nobility of oondnot 
makee him erer e oonenl in $ouL 

41. honeetmn utiUJ Theee two worde ere often nied in the 
nenter in eihioel treetuee elmoet ee subetantivee, like the 
Qreek rb KaXar end t6 ^v/ceVpoF. They expreee the two greet 
ende with referenoe to whioh morel oonduot may be regnlated, 
▼iz. right end expedienoy. We do e thing beeenee we think it 
either right (honettum) or expedient (utilt). 

46. reotel with vocaverit; beatum predicatfaely: 'you wiU 
not rightly call bleeeed.' There ie a play on the word beatum 
in the Latin: it haa two meaninge, (1) 'happy,' (2) a oonren- 
tional meaninga*well off/ 'wealthy.' Tne owner of large 
eetatee is popularly oalled beatus, but according to a more 
correot etandard (recte) he often doee not deeerre the name, 
of. 2. 2. 18 n. 

48. eeplenter] 'wisely': the word tavient is frequently pnt 
= «» philosopher,' <fH\6co<poi t but here tne adverb«<ro0<5t and 
indicatee the aotion of one who not only eots rightly, but eots 
eo ooneoiously and on prinoiple ee the true 'wiee man' ehonld. 

50. timet, non Ule...timiduel Mark the antithesis, whioh 
is ignored in all the tranelations I have eeen : 'end fears dis- 
hononr worse than death, he who feare not to die for friende or 
fatherland.' It is almost imposaible to reproduoe in English 
the force of the pleonastio ille; it ie ineerted to oall emphatio 
attention to the fact that he, who eo fears dishonour, ie he, the 
identically eame person, who feare nothing besidee. 


' Ah, Ligurinue, beantifnl and prond with flowing looke end 
rosy oheeka, when your mirror refleote a brietly ohin and a dif 
ferent face you will regret your beauty and yonr pride/ 


Venerta...] «a lord of all lore^ gifts,' 

pluma] 'down,' of the eerij beard. kupirmtm, Le. 

than U expeeted. 

muie e*...] 4 and the hue whieh noir soTposooa the 
roee'e bloom hee ohanged and altered Iigmmna into 
U yieege.' 

alterum] 'diflerent.' Cf. the oelebrated epigram in the 
3gy, ' Aralhifiaruca L 

i wofiapo* ytkdffaffa xatf *EXXd3os, 4 reV ipaarQm 

ifffio* M TpoBvpott Aaft fgowa *#mf, 
rj IlaeMv/ r6 Kdrorrpop, htm\ roiq pb 6p&*0ai 

obc 4$4\v, otri 6* ifw wdpot ov ovpafuu. 

inoolumee] 'in their freehneee.' 


ie prepered for keeping high feetiral, the wine, PhylHa, 
garland that so sets your beauty in relief, the altar and 
im ; the whole houeehold ie astir and the kitohen ohim- 
:>kes. To-day U the Ides of April, the month of Venus, 
▼e all it ii the birthday of my own Maeoenae. Oome 
id oeaee to long for Telephus who is far beyond your 
let the history of Phaethon and Bellerophon be a warn- 
inst suoh lofty ambition. Come, Phyllis, the laet — 
it— of my loYes, come and sing me one of my eongs : 
the antidote for care.' 

i U the only Ode in this Book in which mention is made 
>enas, to whom all the three first Books are addreeeed. 
be remembered that between the yeare 21 and 16 b.c, 
e finally withdrew from publio life, a ooolneee had 
np between the Emperor and the Minister, and that 
•e hU name oould hardly be mentioned frequently in a 
ritten speoially at Augustus' reqnest It U pleasing to 
n this single reference, couched as it U in the language 
ne affection. 

NOTES. 439 

2. iibanl]ThiflwinewMreokonedgeoondon]jtoFaleniiazi. 

8. neotendls apiuxn ooronls] 'parsley,' rAiror. ▲ parsley 
erown wm given to the viotors at the Nemean and Isthmian 
nmM, eee Mayor on Juv. 8. 236, and its nse for chapleta on 
festive occasions ie allnded to, 1. 86. 16, and Virg. Eol. 6. 68. 

nectendit coronit, 'for weaving chaplets': this nae of the 
dative of the gerundive to express a pnrpote if chiefly found in 
legal phrase8, e.g. Illviri agri$ dtvidendit, *a bodv of three land 
oonmiissioners,' Xviri Ugibut tcribendit, 'a body of ten men 
for drawing up laws. 9 Yirg. Georg. 1. 8 has cultut hdbendo 
pecori, and 2. 9, arboribut natura ereandit, 'method for rearing 

4. Yla mnlta] 'mnoh abundanoe.' 

6. Qua crineB.. J lit. 'with which thy hair drawn baok thou 
doet ■hine.' The Latin with inimitable teneneea ezpreetes 
ihat the hair was drawn back and faitened with a wreath of 
ivy, the effect of thif aimple ornament being to bring ont in fnll 
relief the brillianey (cf. fulgu) of Phyllis' beanty. Perhaps 
•which binding back thy hair eete off thy beaoty' may do as a 

I leave it to my readers' taste whether Phyllis wae a blonde 
or a brnnette; Martin spcakH of her 'dark glossy hair/ a lady 
translator of the ivy 'twining in her amber hair.' 

7. verbenis] see 1. 19. 14 n. 

avet lmmolato...] 'longs to be sprinkled with the sacri- 
fice of a lamb. 1 tpargier is an archaio form of the Inf. Passive 
only fonnd here in the Odes. 

9. manus] 'band, 1 i.e. of slaves, further defined in 1. 10 
as mixtat puerit puellae. The invitation is donbtless to 
Horaoe's Sabine farm, cf. in horto, L 2. 

11. sordldum flammae...] 'The flames quiver as they 
whirl the sooty smoke in eddies.' 

For trepido cf. 2. 4. 24 n. Sordidtm is graphio and 
snggests a contrast with the bright glimmer of the flames. 

18. noris]= noverit. 

14. Idus...] 'you are to keep the Ides, the day...' The 
Ides were on the 18th of every month ezoept Maroh, May, July 
and October, when they were on the 16th. 

410 HORACK, ODE8 17. iL 

16. ■Miiwi Twwh ■■Hmh] Thi mniifli bttnt wnnl to 
Venus adda a osrtain fltMn lo hia inriftatJon. OT^lMft.ttL, 
dtrires ^arOfi from 'Afriftlwi, beeeuae in thet monot Tenu» 

Mi Fmtrb m j mmi 0f*Ja nhmm 
«miMr: a jMOMt ttf lift dCete 

VWBM/Wtv ¥t V ^W ■J»VW^WW*^W W» Vl^MV WMM 

The imI dtriratiott i§ rrom mmKo 'tht month of tht otMBnf,' 

16. indrtl The anoiatttt ponnected lAit with tYtUa, or aa 
StraMtA word (m* of tbt mbm meanmg. 

18. natall] Tht woid ia uetd aa a tubet. wrJhoajl tho 
addition of dit. 

19. adflutarMt...] 'reekonstht on-dtidinf jm' t^ftntjw» 
admirahry dttoribM tht wer in whioh eaeh ■nnettdint jmt 
tilently gtidet on (fiuert) and it tddtd (od) to tht ta» of tfcot» 
tlretdy pett. orAit, lit 'plaees in t row,* U. etoh birthday 
tddt ont to tht row of flgurw whieh marka tht nnmbtr of mt 

21. ooenptTlt] 'has mtde her own.* 

33. non...] *a youth of fortunes other thtn yours': aortsa 
mtn's 'lot' or potition in life. 

33. grata oompedt] Oxymoron, ef. 8. 11. 86 n. 

36. aTarMtpM]'greedy'or'amMtiouihopet.' Thereis,aa 
Wiokham obterres, a 'htlf oomio irony' in tht mythcJogMal 
ingtanoet whioh Horaee seleots m a waming to PhyUis. 

36. tzemplum gzaTt] 'a weighty wtrning.' I think tht 
uee of gravatut in the next line has no referenoe to graot here 
but ii purely aoeidental. 

37. graTatut] gravaH 'to treat m a weight,' 'nardthip,' or 
'grieranoe ' ; henoe aoeurately uted of a hone which obieott to 
its burden tnd gete rid of it. Trantlate 'disdaining the ourden 
of an earth-born rider.' 

39. uiliftertxtwiplumpratbet, 'giveeawarningBothatyou 
ahould teek a fitting partner.' 

tt ultra...] Tbt oonBtruetion it «t ditpanm vits$ nefat 

nndo tptrart uttra quam Ueet: 'and thun an ""^"^ matoh 
„ linking it unholy to hope for more thtn it permitted.' 

NOTES. 441 

83. non alia ©alebo femina] 'no other woman shaU fire 
me with love.' For calere and the oonstruotion et 8. 9. 5 n. 

84. eondlioelftrongerthandweosUeamwea^or^thoioagh- 
ly.' reddat- •reproduoe,' ot 4. & 48, reddidL atrae, 'gloomy ' 

or 'black. 


1 Winter ie paiting away and apring returning, the swallow 
is bnilding her neet and the shepherda are piping on the graes. 
The warmer weather suggeste a drinking party, bnt if you, 
Virgiliuf , who have so many noble youths among yonr patrons, 
mean to drink my best wine, why then yon mnst ' pay yonr ehot' 
with a box of nard and then yon shall have the best that is to 
be proeured. Oome then and bring the nard : I eannot afford 
to feast yon wholly at my own oost : oome qniokly and forget 
money-maldng for a while: life is short, remember, and a little 
folly in its season is very pleasant.' 

Whoever the Yirgflius was to whom this Ode is addressed, it 
oertainly is not the poet, for (1) he died b.o. 19, before this 
Book was published, (2) the language here osed oould not 
possibly have been appUed to the poet. When we reooUeot the 
language used by Horaoe of him elsewhere, the animae di- 
midium meae of 1. 8. 6, the animae quale» neque candi- 
diores | terra tulit neque queit me tit devinctior alter of 
Sat 1. 5. 41, the optimut Virgiliut of Sat. 1. 6. 55, we shaU 
be able to appreoiate the taste of those who here oonsider that 
Horace, in a book published after his death, oan speak of him 
as the 'client of noble youths,' and sneeringly hint at his 
meanness and fondness for money-making ! Martin adopts 
this view whioh is worthy of his translation of the Ode. 

The BohoUasts make various guesses, eaUing YirgUius «m- 
Huentariut, medieut Neronum, negotiator, and the like. 

1. Terls oomites] These 'attendants of spring' are not 
tbe Zephyrs as in 4. 7. 9, but the 'northern breezes' mentioned 

HORAGE, ODE8 17. xfl. 
2. Tho a u^ o ujiT O r aT o rt o t M^norUiorn,' oonld goonofo 

hy * Gxoekwriter: probabfr Hnraoi k 
*BreWai 7*m Diot. e. t.), whioh hUw tadng Um 

ntre tuglfl] •■wolkn with winter 1 ! tnow,' Le. 
he melting of aSdo woold take plaos in Tery eerrj 
before tottlod warm weather oame in. 

Itya...]'the anheppy bird that erer moamfaUr 
* and (it) the ondylng diagraoa of tho hooae of Oeoropo 
it tho eroeUy aTenged...' 

roffum] TboplorolUgonorie: thoroforonoiktoTiroao 
bat the plarol taggettt thot taeh Tioioat toto woro 
on ojnons prinoee. For tho etory, tot Diot Ant t. t. 
i: oomo kgendt moko Ptoeno (tho twoUow) mothor of 
ithort Phflomela (tho nifttmanlo), Horo m oo im oo tio n 
tott^raflding aa a eign of tprmg tt it probehle that tho 
w it roftnod to, ot Virg. G. 4. 800, ontt J foiTwfijtwomm 
nidum nupendat Mrwndo» 'bofore tpring/and tho Qroofc 
b fda xcXiMr tap ov roui. On tho othor band Sappho, 
), maket the nightingalo the harbingtr of tpring, ^ot 
»f , lp*p6<punn>t di?£ur. 

r Ityn JUbilxter gemens, of. 8oph. EL 148, l Irvr, ath 
Xwpvprrcu \ Sptns dri/fo^ro, Atds &yyt\oi t of the twallow. 

dloont oizmina flstola] *play tanet with tho pipe.' 
hraee ia a periphratit for wplfrur whioh haa no Latin 
lent, tee Fntstohe, Theoer. 1. 8. FUtula it a Pan't-pipe 
f) and deum, ct*i... refert to Pan. 

nlgri] 'dark-wooded.' 

tod preatom...] 'bat if yoa are eager to qaaff wino 

r prestum Calibtu, cf. 1. 20. 9. 
Dtrt] of. 1. 17. 22 n. 

ferss*he who gives freedom from oare,' 'the wine-god,' 
uos from Xfo, 1. 17. 22 n. 

eliont] eee 8. 6. 58 n. Not knowing who Yirgilini 
e oannot toll tho exaet natore of the 'patronage' ho 
>d from tho 'yoang noblet ' of tho day. 

merebere] 'yoa wiU,' Le. 'xnait eern.' 

nardlperTna onyx]oityx, to etlled from itt rotemblanot 
nnger-nail (6Vv£), ii a kind of marble or alabaater: it 

NOTES. 443 

wts frequently used for making boxes for ointmenU or un- 

Kents, and henoe the word is frequently nsed*'an ointment 
x ' of whatever materiai, e. g. Prop. 8. 8. 22, murrhcui onyx. 
Of. the aooounts given of tbe anointing of Ohrist at 
Bethany: St Matthew (26. 7) speaks of aX&paffrpor frfpov 
fiapvHpov, 8t Mark (14. 8), with hii usual aeouraoy, hai a\. 
uvpov wapbov Turrunfi ToXurtXoCi, adding that she 'brake the 
dox* (wrrplrfmea), and that iti value wae hrdrw rptoKodm 
drpaplw; aleo St John 12. 2. «tteiet s'shall lnre forth.' 

18. Snlpiolls...] 'reposes in the Sulpioian stores.' For 
proper nonns nsed as adjeotives, see 1. 16. 10 n. The ' Snlpieian ' 
stores if not aotnally managed by the Snlpioii may have been 
ereoted by them or managed by slaves or freedmen of theirs. 

19. donare, elnere] Epexegetio, ef. 1. 8. 25 n. amara 
curarum, 4 the bitterness of eare.' 

22. non ego te] Notioe the antithetical prononns: I the 
poor poet, yon the rioh money-maker. 'I do not propose to 
steep yon in my onps for nothing.' 

38. lmmnnem] (froxn in and munus), 'without paying a 
oontribntion.' It was oommon among the Qreeks and Romans 
lo have feasts at whioh eaoh guest oontribnted his share, ef . 
8. 19. 6 n. 

26. nlgrorum ignluxn] 'blaok fiames,' i.e. the flames of 
the funeral pyre. 

27. oonslllis] 'plans,' i.e. for money-making. brevem 
itultitiam, 'an hours folly.' 

28. desipere] ' to oast off seriousness. ' in loco, iw *cup£ 


'The gods have heard my prayers: yon are beooming old 
and ngly, Lyoe, and yet yon still aot like a yonng girl, andseek 
to awaken love. Love prefers fair Ohloe's oheeks, and rndely 
wings his flight past wisened age, to whioh no omaments oan 
bring baok its former eharms, the oharms whioh onoe stole my 
heart from me, when yon snooeeded Cinara as the queen of my 
H. ii. 30 

HORACE, ODE3 IV. ziii 

ti. Alaa,poor Ciiiara,the£ateeeatkMon'mh«Tyottth, 

>u they piosor vc to a fabulous age that tho young man 

ff at the aahes of your beaaty.' 

lOth Ode of the 8rd Book deecribee the oraeHy and 

Lyoe in her yonth; thie Ode ie * eort of eequel to it 

MidlTtre...] The repetition (ef. 2. 14. 1 n.) expreases 
m, juet as we eay Hurrah, Hxxrrahl ef. 4. 2. 49. It ia 
j alao that the repetition of aoand in Jit and vis ia 
oal: he almoat hiuet the haxah trath into her ear. 
tto the inverted order au&ivtrt Di...Di audivtrt. ct 8. 

it oantu...] 'and with quavering notea when in yoor 
k to arooae aluggiah Cupid.' 

Ile] Emphatic : the god, you try in vain to awake, ia 
ake enough elaewhere. 

ltla] 'young,' 4 in the spring-time of life.' juaUere, 
' to touch,' or * twitch with the fingers,' then to play on 
), or sing to it, cf. 'paalm.' 

2hla, originally an adj. then a proper name, cf. Dtlia, 

polchria excubat ...] 'keeps watch on the faircheeka.' 
b a technical word used of sentinels on guard. For a 
metaphor cf. Bomeo and Juliet, Aot 5, 8c. 3, 

'beauty'B ensign yet 
18 crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, 
And death'8 pale flag is not advanced there.' 

irldaa quercua] 'sapless oaks.' Lyce is compared to 
mely old and gnarled oak. 

te quia ..te qula] Derisive repetition. 'Shrinks from 
ause your teeth are yellow, from you, becaute wrinklea 
Iness and the snow upon your head.' 

Coae parparae] Purple robes of eztremely fine silk 
stured at Cos, see Mayor on Juv. 8. 101. elari lapidtt, 
)g jewels'; other M8S. give cari t 'costly.' 

tempora...1 ' the years which onoe swift time haa ahnt 

ruarded in the publio registers.' 

1] aro£, ' onoe for all. 1 notis : thia is added to hint that 
use Lyoe endeavouring to deny her age; the publie 
bear testimony which cannot be denied or conoealed. 

NOTE& 445 

15. oondlta inclustt] Tbe idea oonveyed is that of Time 
itaring up and then locking in the past 10 ihat it oan neyer be 

17. venus] as often, 'oharms,' •beauty.' eotor, «hne,' 
' oomnlezion. ' 

18. quid habes...] • What have you (left) of her, ah me, of 
herwhobreathedpassion...?' JOle sthatperson,thepersonnot 
here bnt at a distanoe: therefore iUiut = l hei of long ago,' Le. 
the old Lyee, the Lyoe of former days. For the repetition of 
illiui aee 4. 4. 70 n. ; the effeet here is pathetio, but the pathoe 
is used to enhanoe the mockery. 

90. eurpnerat] By eynoope for turripuerat, of. 1. 86. 8 n. 

21. fellx] Le. in the poeeeseion of mv heart; it ii in agree- 
ment with Lyee; pott olearly of time, •arter Cinara's death.' 

notaqne...] (Qneen of my heart affter Ginara) * and (que) a 
beauty of repnte (nota) and winning wilee' (oratarum arthm). 
gratarum artium ie simply a gen. of quauty (cf. 4. 1. 15, 
eentum puer artium), and is pnt instead of an adjeotive, being 
strictly parallel to nota. faeiet refers to the whole personsl 
appearanee of Lyce. 

The above explanation is so simple that I oannot nnderstand 
why Orelli and Wiokham follow Bentley in making artium gra- 
tarum dependent on nota = , notedfor,' and et^etiam, *and a 
beanty noted also for her winning wiles.' That et after 
que oan ™<tiaw oertainly laoks nroof, and the oonstrnetion 
notut artium they only snpport by the anthority of 2. 2. 6, 
where see notes. 

The gratae artee are explained by Comm. Cruq., l arUum 
gratarum faeiet dicitur quae ocuUt, nutu tuperciUorum, eervieie 
volubilitate, eapitit gratia, totiut denique eerporit motuplacetS 

24. servatura...] •thouah they mean to preeerve Lyce to 
matoh ( parem is profeptic) the years of a poor old raven/ 

25. • vetulae] This adj. is nsed of old age when it is spoken 
of oontemptuoualy* For the age of the raven, cf. 8. 17. 18 n. 

28. faoem] •toreh,' here need of the blase of beauty whioh 
kindles the fire of love. 

For dilaptam (dit-laptam) 'that has fallen asnnder/ Le. 
graduaUy wasted away into aahes, some MSS. by a oommon 
error read delaptam in cineret whioh wonld mean 'that has 
fallen down into ashes.' 


446 HORAOK, ODE8 IV. ifr. 


Thieend the foDowiog Ode are oloeelj oonneetodi te» 
dweUo on Aognatoe' Tiotoriee in war, the other oo hit 

lO 00000. 

•How ehall eanete ind paoplo worthily immortattae tkj 
merite, Aogastoa? Bot latelj tha Vindelioi here baan 
tanght thj p ro w aa i in war, for it waa with thy troope aad 
nndar thj anapioM thai Dmene orerthraw the Genaani and tha 
Brenni, and that ailarwarda Tibarina joined batlla with tha 
Bhaeti. On him a?arj aja waa iiiad aa ha oaraarad irrooieriblo 
owthefieldofbetUe; like lo the Sooth wind whan ha swoops 
orar ooaan at tha egninox, or the beDowing Anfidna whan wHh 
awoUon torrant he th ra a t an i inandatiop, waa the onaat with 
wbioh ha broka the meiled ranka of barbariana and, Ua own 
troopa nninjnred, oarriad oarnago and oonqtieet far and wide— 
jee, beoanaB thon didst fornish the foroes, the forethonght and 
the favonr of the gode. For it waa fifteen jeara from tha daj 
when Alexandria jielded io tbee that proaperona fortone addad 
this orowning glorj to thj paat eampeigne. Now all the world 
owne thee ite maater at peaoe beneath thj swaj, whilelteJjand 
imperial Bome enjoj thj gojurdianahip and thj preeenee.' 

Tiberioa and Drnana were the aona of Tib. Olandina Naro 
and Livia, who Bubeeqnentlj married Angastne. The ^f^pi 
referred to took plaoe in b.o. 16: Wiokham saja that 'their ob- 
ject waa to obtain militarj oommand of the more eaatern paaaaa 
into the vallejs of the Bhine and the Inn whioh were still nn- 
aafe for Boman armiaa and from whioh the monntain tribea 
eren iasned from time to time to plnnder Italian soiL • Dmana 
foroed what ia now known aa tha Brenner pase, oierthrowing 
the Bhaeti near Tridentnm, now Trent. Meantime Tiberins 
waa despatohed from Angnstns* armj in Ganl, with the pnrpoaa 
of taking the enemj in the rear. Ha asoendad tha Bhina 
Talley to the laka of Oonstanoe, and thenoe penetrated the 
gorges of the TJpper Bhine and Inn in everj direotion, so that 

NOTES. 447 

at the oonclusion of a brilliant and rapid oampaign, the two 

brothers had effected the oomplete subjugation of the Grisons 

and tbe TyroL' 

Tiberius beoame emperor on the death of Augustus, a.d. 14, 

and died a.d. 87 ; Dnisiif died in Germanj b.o. 9« See also 

4. 4, Int 

L patrum...Qulrltlum] a poetioal variation of the ordinary 
phraae Senatut Populutque Romamtt, 8. P. Q. B. 

2. horiorum] 'maristraeies,' 'dignities,' of. 1. 1. 8 n. The 
word is need strietly : the Boman emperora oarefuUy retained the 
old formt of the Republio : the old magistracies were stQl aliowed 
to exist in name (eadem maaUtratuum vocabula, Tac Ann. 1. 8). 
The emperor was toohnioany only an ordinary oitisen, on whom 
tbe senate and people had from time to time oonferred Tariouj 
ordinary and extraordinary dignities. Thns Augustus was ap- 
pointed perpetuai Imperator, b.o. 29, and in the same year ao- 
oepted the 'oensorian power'; in b.o. 28 he beoame prineept 
unaim; he was oonsul for the 6th time B.a 28, and for the 7th 
time b.o. 27; in b.o. 28 he reoeiTed the 'tribunioian power/and 
in b.o. 12 he was made pontifex maximut: see Merivale, e, 8L 

8. Auguste] Ootavian assnmed this name b.o. 27 ; it really 
served as a titie : 'the name was intaot,' says Merivale, 4 it had 
never been borne by anv man before,' but the adjective was ap- 
plied to things holy and divine and suggested power and great- 
ness (of. augeot and see Ov. Fast. 1. 609). 

in aevum...aeternet] pleonastic. 'Is to immortalize for 
ever.' For in aevum of. the Oreek alwnot 'everlasting,' and tbe 
N.T. eit rovt oiwrat rwr a/wrwr. 

4. per tltnlos...] ' by (means of) insoriptions and rooording 
annah.' So 8. 17. 4, per memoree genus omne fastos. FatH 
tunt fatti diet, says Fcstus : fattut is originally an adj. from 
fari, andfatti {diet) are (1) days 'on which the magistrates may 
speak/ on whioh the law oourts are opeu (see Ovid, Fast. 1. 47), 
(2) a register or list of suoh davs, (3) as here, 'annals,' 'publio 
reoords.' Suoh records would be tne annalet suuruei kept by 
the pontifex maximut, 

5. qua...oras] Poetioal for the whole habitable globe; 4 

6. prlnelpum] The title of vrincevt tenatut was a porely 
honorary distinotion oonferred by the oensors on the most 


and worthy of the senatore. Ji wm the title br 
ugustus ohose bj preferenoe to be designated: ct 
1. 1. 1, cuncta...nomine principit tub iwtperium accepit. 
. 60, hic amet dici pater atque princept, The wbra 

doee not meen in Horaoe's time *e prinoe' or 
n,' and tberefore maxime principum mnat be taken 
me princept, and it ii olearly impoedble to xender 
rately in Engliah. 

aem...Vlndelicl dldloere...quld Marie poseee] lit. 
the V. have learnt what thon eonldett in war,' Le. 
owees in war the V. have learnt. Thia idiom by whkh 
make the nominative of the subordinate eentenoe ia 
lder the government of the main Yerb ia Greek rather 
in, e. g. otta* <re rlt et 

tea] from ex and part, 'witbout ahare in»' 'ignorant 
o be oonfonnded with experttu, 'skilled.' 

Qenaunos] Theee and the Brenni are two tribea of 
ti who inhabited the modern TyroL The name of the 
till survives in the Brenner paaa. 

et arcea...] 'and citadels that crown the awful Alps.' 
q arx, which the anciente derived *ab arcendo,' waa 
.ny 'place of defence' sitnated on an eminence. 

deledt] Verthrew': the word governs all the aceusa- 

ch precede, though, perhaps, more strictly applicable 


vlce slmplidl L e. plut quam vice timplici, snch an 

of quam not being rare, e. g. plut quingentot colaphot 
nihi Ter. Ad. 2. 1. 46. The words olearly mean ' with 

more than one-fold,' Le. avenging every loss he 
by inflicting a much greater. On the other hand 
ice is used of regnlar alternation, vicem reddere of 
ack as much as you get. Conington renders 'and 
n back their debt twioe told.' 

lmmanes] cf. 3. 4. 42 n. 

ansplclls secnndls] 'with' or 'nnder happy auspioes': 
ices were those of Augustus. As the imperator alone 
ike the auspices, and as Augustus was perpetual 
r, all victories were ingenioualy described a* won ' nnder 
)ioee' or indeed 'by him': the general who led the 
rO the field was no longer imperator but only dux, 

8pectandns...qnantls] I am strongly inolined to take 
r atigaret as an ordinary indirect question dependent on 

NOTES. 449 

tpectandut: "Twas a tight to see with what destruotion he 
hsraesod hearts dedioated to the death of freemen.' Wiokham 
however eonsiders it a Greek oonstruotion«0ai0ia0T6f...6Votf. 

18. devota. . Jiberae] Horaoe, witb trae Boman indifference, 
merelj mentions thii quility to enhanoe the glory of Tiberias. 

90. lndomitas] ' onoonqaermble' : the adj. eaggeets a oom- 
parison with the deecription of the Bhaeti in L 18. 

prope qualls...] The oonstrnction is prope qualit Autter 
exercet undat...(tali modo) imoiger vexare turwuu: 'almost as 
the South wind when he frets the waves...feven so) anwearied to 
haras8 the sqoadrons of the foe and dash nis snorting steed....' 

prope : the introdaotion of this modifjing word bef ore qualit 
is ▼ery remarkable. Metaphora, similes and the like are in their 
proper plaoe in Poetry, in Prose they are striotly speaking not : 
eonseqaenUy Prose-writers freqaently introduoe them witb 
apologies and qaalifieations, Poets rarely or never. A oom- 
parison in poetry that needs either qoalifloation or apology 
is self -oondemned. To eompare Tiberins to the Soath wind 
mav be either good or bad poetrv: bat for a poet to say 
4 Tiberius is almost like the Soatb wind' is positively to snggest 
to the reader that he is himself eonsoious his own oomparison 
is 'almost' what it should be, but not ouite. It is but fair 
however to Horaoe to remember that this Ode ifl written to 
order: any one who has written a 'Prize Poem' may appreoiate 
what agouies suoh oomparisons as this and the one in 4. 4 
must have cost him, indeed I am not quite sure that the prope 
is not inserted of malioe prepense. 

21. exereet] ' keeps at work,' then 'harasses,' 'annovs.' 
Pleiadum...] The Pleiades rise and set about the time of 
the equinoxes, and therefore of the equinootial gales. Horaoe 
speaks of them as 'oleaving the oloudV beoause ne is thinking 
of the cloudy stormy weather whioh aooompanied their rising 
and setting when they would be only seen fitfully and oooa- 
sionally through rentt in the cloudt. 

23. vexaxe] Epexegetic infinitive. 

24. medlos per ignes] Be oareful of rendering 'through 
the hottest of the fire.' By oomparing Epist. 1. 1. 43, per 
taoa, per ignet and Sat. 2. 8. 56, ignet per mediot Jtuviotque 
ruentit (of a madman), we see that the expression is prover- 
bially used of passing through any great danger, just as we 
talk of passing 'through flre and water.' Wiokham rightly 


j9 tbat the qm of sueh a metaphotioal phraee ie otrt of pUoa 
nre, but hia Tiew that there ie a referenos to the 'buniinf 
Uageo of the Bhaeti' is whoUj oonjeotaraL 

85. Uurifbrmla] The Oreeki alwaya repreeented rrfen 
id torrenU under the form of bulle, doubtieea with ief e r eao e 
• their violenoe and their roar; ao Homer IL 91. 887 deaoribea 
anthua as fu/unnk ^tfre raC/wt, and ot Bur. lon 1881, 4 
wp6pop+av oVyia Ky^urou Tarp&t. For the Aufidna ol 8. 80» 
>, 4. 9. 8. Horaoe with pardonable prejudioe aeleeto the rfrer 
! hia native plaoe. 

38. medfUtur] «plans. 9 Other M88. give wdnitatur. 

39. agmina fexraU diruit] « Daahed in pieoee the maflfld 

81. metendo] «by mowing down.' So in Engliah : 

4 Some men with awords maj reap the field, 
And plant freah laurels where tbey kilL' 

J. Shiblr. 

82. ttrayit humum] *strewed the ground,' i.e. with the 
Bad his sword had mowed down. tine clade victor, beoauae of 
le small loss of bis own men. Cf. Much Ado about Nothing, 
ot 1, Sc. 1, * A victory ia twioe itaelf when the aohiever bringa 
ome full numbers.' 

33. tuoa dlvos] The expedition waa undertaken under 
le 'auspiceB' of Augustus, see 1. 16 n. 

84. quo dle] i.e. when Augustus after the defeat of 
ntony and Cleopatra at Aotium b. a 31 pasaed on to the Eaat 
od entered Alexandria some time in the autumn of B. o. 80. 
he words quo die are probably not to be Uken too aoourately. 

36. vacuam] beoause Antony and Cleopatra had put an 
ad to their lives. See Shak. Ant. and Cleo. Aot 4, So. 15 and 

87. luatro] ct 2. 4. 38 n. 

40. arrogavlt] The dictionaries give this word aa mean- 
ig (1) to adopt a child, (3) to appropriato to oneeelf what is 
ot one's own. Neither aense suiU here. I think that Horaoe 
aa ooined the phrase he uses on the analogy of the well-known 

NOTES. 451 

prorogare imperium. Just aa the senate for a favourite or vio- 
torious general (prorogabai imperium) 'granted an exteniion 
(pro) of his oommand, so Fortune for her favourite Augustus 
'granted thii additional (ad) glory to hia past oomnland• , 
(decut peractu imperiis arrogavit). 

41. Gantaber] cf. 2. 6. 2 n. 

42. Medus] 'the Parthian,' of. 1. 2. 51 n. 

Indus, Bcythea] Suet. Oct. 21 relates a story that embassies 
from these two peoples oame to tolioit the friendahip of 

44. dominae] 'mistreas/ Le. of the world. 

45. te. . .Ifter] Wiekham riffhtlj pointa out that, though the 
adjectival olause fontium qui eelat originee applies primarily to 
the Nile, vet ' the position of the oopulatives seems to ahew that 
the Danuhe is inoluded.' This view, which the oonstruotion of 
the sentenoe supports, he further justifles by a quotation from 
Seneoa, Quaest. Nat. 4. 1, who eompares the Danube with the 
Nile, quod etfonU* ignoti et atttate quam hieme maior tit, 

47. beluosus] of. 8. 27. 26, eeatentem beluii pontum, 
The adj. is only xound here, and is perhaps imitated from the 
Homeno /tera/cijnp. Cf. too Ps. 104. 25, 'the great and wide 
sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both amall and 
great beasts.' 

remotis Britannis] of. 1. 35. 29 n. 

49. non paventls funera Oalliae] 'Gaul that dreads not 
death.' Horace seems to have in mind certain teaohing of the 
Druids, that death was only the passage to another life, to 
whioh Lucan 1. 459 definitcly refers their valour: 

felieet errore ruo, quot ille timorum 
vuiximus haud urget leti metut, inde ruendi 
in ferrum ment prona virit animaeque eapaeet 
mortit et ignavum rediturae pareere vitae. 

50. audit] 'obeya.' For the Sygambri, see 4. 2. 36 n. 

52. eompoaltla...] 'worship with weapons laid to rest.' 
Mark tbe peacefulness and repoae suggested by the sound and 
sonse of thifl concluding line. 



sn I thought to tell of wars and warlike oonquesta, 
etruck his lyre to wara me against venturing on eo 
aa. And indeed, Caesar, the most glorious triomph of 
is the establiahment of oniTenel peaoe. Peaoe hath 
oriee no lees than war, the oheoking of lioenoe, the 
lent of vioe and the rettoration of the old Tirtuee that 
e name of Italy famoos to the limits of the world. Safe 
thy guardianahip we fear war neither at home nor 
and therefore every day, when yonng and old meet at 
ly board, it shall be onr delight, after prayer to thegods, 
>f the glorious dead, to sing of Troy and Anchiaes, and 
he last and greatest of that heaven-desoended raoe.' 

*hoebns] as especially the god of song and musie. So 
as Hom. H. 1. 603 we have mention of tfptuyyot rcpc- 
r? (x* 'Air6XX(i>r. So also he restrained Virgil, thongh 
>re homely manner, Ecl. 6. 8, cum canercm reges et 
Cynthiut aurem \ vellit et admonuit. 

nerepnlt lyra] increpo means, (1) 'to make a noise,' 
iske a noise at,' 'rebuke loudly,' and is therefore used 
surately here = • sounded his lyre iu waming.' Ovid, 
493, describes ezactly the same thing: 

lec ego cum canerem, subito manifettut Apollo 
movit inauratae pollice fila lyrae. 

litoro take lyra with loqui, but the position of lyra 
ts separation from increpuit. No doubt, as Horace is a 
t, loqui is = loqui (lyra) »to tell of (in lyric poetry)/ but 
ot eipreseed, tnough perhaps suggested by the addition 
to increpuit: Apollo fitly employs the lyre to warn 
igainst tne misuse of that instrument. For the lyre as 
for warlike poetry cf. 2. 12. 3 n. 

>arva Tyrrlienum] Note the antithesis, of. 8. 8. 72, 
xodii tenuare parvit; aooording to his nniversal praotioe 
rring the snecial to the general, Horaoe seleots ttie 
e sea as an mstance of a wide or large sea. 

NOTE& 453 

4. vola darem] * spread my saila': for the same motophor, 
of. Virg. Georg. 2. 41, p^lagoqud vokmt da vela paUntL 

Caesarl Augustus was a 'Oaesar' m being the adopted 1011 
of Julius Gmut: it is plain that the name even in Horaoe's 
day ia gradnally beooming a title, aa it haa definitely beeome in 
so many modern languages, e.g. Keiaer, Osar, Shah. 

6. flrnges...] Le. by maUng it poaiible to agaln onltiTate 
the fields in safety. 

rettallt] ao always epelt rightly, aa bting *r$teluHt; ao 
ricido bnt reecidi, reperio bnt rtppcri.] 'both...and.' 

6. et algna...] of. 1. S. S2 n. 

noetro] becanae Jnppiter Capitolinne waa looked on aa in a 
pecuUar aenae th* god of Rome, ot Prop. 8. 11. 41, ama Jovi 
nostro latranUm opponere Anubim. 

8. Tacuum duellla]*free from wan.' The nee of dneQiiaifor 
beUnm ia an aflectation of arohaio phraeeology, aee 1. 54. 6 n. 
For the form cf. 0V10 and bie (mduie), and the old form of 
ooittif, duomu. 

9. Ianum Qulrlnl claualt] For a full aeoount oi Janna, eee 
Oy. Fast. 1. 62—146 and Diot s.v. The word ia olearly tbe 
maec. form of Diana (Janu$~Dyanu$) t and probably waa 
originally the title of the eun. In Italy, howerer, he U alwaya 
repreeented with two heada, and the patron of gatea (januae), 
inaamuoh as they look two waya, and the word Janut i» applied 
to any 'covered way' or 'areade' with two entranoee. The 
name Janut Quirini or Janut Quirinut was however spedally 
applied to one such aroade the doors of whioh were open in 
time of war and ahut in time of peaoe. It was said that, 
whereas they had only been twioe oloaed previously, vis. in the 
reign of Numa and after the first Pnnio war, they were oloaed 
three times in the reign of Augustus, vii. b.c. 29 and 24, and 
on one other oooaaion. Of. Suet Oot. 22, Janum Quirinum 
temel atque iterum a condita urbe clautum...terra marique pace 
parta ter clautit 

et ordlnem...]'and ourbed lioense that strayed outside the 
atraight path.' The phrase frena or frenot {njicere i* found 
even in prose— *to ourb,' or 'restrsin': on tbe other hand, dare 
frenam** to give the rein to,' 'give full soope to.' The metaphor 
in evaganti i» from a horse that in a raoe breaks away and 

454 HOBAOK, ODBS 17. xr. 

l»ni tho reatm ordo or • •traighittne' of tho ooonoi 
eror rw*» oroo bmw oloo «tho path of reotitade.' 

11. voloroiirtMlTh^^inaimiarti^irothaiiitQOiolc^ 
TUww^ nfk sqjbIi g§ ihrift, tompfEnaoo, aimpttoiij', aei whleli 
Horooo dwelle ot kngth in tho £wt dx' Odeaof Boak * oni 
whioh Aagusiaa ottom ptod lo galvaniae into Ilfo offJB lp 
numerona etatutee. 

For an in thia eenee, ot B. S. 9, *oe orts Mhio. 

14. tmporl] For tho eontraeted mb. oL 1. 6. 1S n. 
impmto», lit. «militarj owoy,» then Iho «otnto 
mflitazj awaj,' 'the Empire.' 

16. melostnel Thia word is toohmoolljiiaod to doosriho 
tho dignitj (1) of tbo goda, (2) of marfetroteo, (8) ono\ mool 
frequentlj, of tho Bomoa State, cg. in tho phraee aif/atfoi 

pofuUBomani: majettatemp. R. mimmt ot loedfreie *to 
mit high troaeon,' ond 'troaoon' io Jofao mo/oftof (ot Notmon- 
Freneh loae-nioiooti). Tho phxmao imperi majettat roproaento 
the State oa o Uving nnit, embodjing ond reprodnomg aH tho 
glories of Bomon hiotory, and, oa fucn, to be deemed reverond 
and inviolable. Cf. Cic. pro Bob. 1. 2, majettatit atque imptri: 
"the words form one notion 'the imperiol dignitj' of Bome." 

17. rernm] 'our fortnnea.' 

furor dvilia] 'civil madneea,' i.e. ehril wor, iaoh oe hod 
for a oentorj deToatoted Itolj, and made men indiiferont to the 
form of government ao long aa thej eonld enjoj that otium 
whioh was the greateat gift and greateat aafegnard of the 

For exiget = 'baniah,' aome MSS. read eximet=*take awaj.' 

20. inimicat] a word invented bj Horaoe. inimieut ia 
usuallj distingniahed from hottit aa a privaU from a pvbUe 
enemy; inimicut ia one who might be a friend, hotUt ia o 
atranger or foreigner: probably Horaoe therefore naea i nimie a t 
to bring ont more foroiblj the idea that the atrife be t woo n 
theae 'hapleaa oitiee' ia not *o war' bnt a 'familj, domeatio 

21. qul profundum...] i.e. dwellers bj the Dannbe, ot 2. 
20. 20 n. 

22. edioto Iulia] 'the Jnlian deerees.' The word edictum 
ia naed lootely here: atriotlj it ia the 'deolaration' made bj tho 

NOTES. 455 

nraetor on entering offioe of ihe principles by whioh he would 
be guided in administering justioe. Bee Diot. Ant. s. t. 

28. Seres] Put for anj remote Eastern nation, cf. 1. 12. 56. 

lnlldiPersae]i.e. asalways, the Paxthians. Of. Epist 2. 1. 
112, invenior ParthU mendacior, where the expreaaion aeema 
proverbial. 'Perfidy' howeTer waa a oharge whieh the Bomana 
— like other nations sinee— found it not inoonvenient to bring 
againat suooessful opponents, of. 4. 4. 49 n. 

25. nosque...] 'and we (for our part),' Le. they ahall keep 
peaoe and we will enjoy it. 'both...and.' 

profestla] i.e. days whioh were not diesfesti. 

26. lnter iocoal....] The oonolnsion of this Ode much 
resembles the olosing linea of Maeaulay's Horatiua, 

'When the oldest oask is opened 
And the largeat lamp ia lit, 

When yonng and old in circle 
Aronnd the flrebrands olose, 

With weeping and with laughter 

Still is the story told 
How well Horatins kept the bridge 

In the brave days of old.' 

29. virtute fanotoa ducesl lit. 'leaders who have fulnllod a 
man'8 part,' i.e. who have died after performing a man's part— 
•the heroio dead.' The partioiples funetus and defunetus as 
expressing a completed taak are continu&Uy applied to the 
dead, as being those who 'rest from their labonrs,' either with 
or without (though this is somewhat post-olassical) an ablative 
of the task oompleted. Cf. 2. 18. 88, functut laboribut. 

virtus from vir is *all that may beooxne a man* — 'manli- 
ness' and therefore frequently 'conraga' 

more patrum] with canemus. Cato the Censor is quotedby 
Cicero (Tnsc. 1. 2) as referring to this 'ancient onstom': est in 
Originibus solitos este in epulis eanere eonvivas ad Hbieinem de 
elarorvm hominum virtutibus. 

80. remixto] This very rare word seems to express the 
oontinnous alternation of song with mnsio. Cf. A.P. 151, 
veris falsa remitcet, * so intertwines fiaot with fiotion.' 

flORACE, ODES IV. xv. 

j probabhra oonTontional epithet bMMN the ntet 
hQMdinFhi7gU v e.g. in the wonhip of Oybele. The 
«tyle of muiio (9 AeeWri aajioFls Plat Bep. 898 n) ia 
sneeiaUj spdkenof M/iaX4un)«ei eiemruci by Pleio: 

igain deeeribe it m orgiaitio and wild m oppoo o d to the 

aiemnity of the 'Dorian moodV 

•Ibulo] 'nnrtnring' (quae alit), 'foetering/ •kindlT' — 
jnoos epithet of Venoe immortaiiied by Loeretras I. S, 
idum genetrix, hominum divumque voluptat, | alma Femw. 

2. progeniem Venerla] Not Aeneas, bnt hia great 
endant Angustos. 


'0 Fhoebus and Diana, grant our prayer at this solemn 
uuon when the SibyUine verses ordain that a ohorue of youths 
and maidena ihould ehant a hymn to the godi who love the 
seven hills (1 — 8). O life-giving Sun, ever do thon regard 
Bome with thy favour, and thon, goddeaa that bringeet 
ohildren to the light, proteot onr mothera (9—16), yea, and 
give good suooess to the new marriage lawa and inereaae to onr 
people, ao that again and again thronghont the ages they may 
in full numbero oelebrate thia holy fettival (17 — 24). And do 
you, ye Fatea, determine for us a destiny in the rature aa 
glorioua as in the past: may the earth yield her inoreaae and 
the heavena drop fatneea (25 — 82). Hoarken to na Apollo, 
hearken Queen of Night, and, if Bome be indeed yonr 
oreation, and if under your guardianahip the raoe of Troy has 
been guided to greater deetiniea, then grant righteouaneas to 
our youtha, peaoa to our eldera, proeperity, inoreaae and glory 
to our nation (88 — 48). Ghiefly fulfil hia prayera for him who 
ia the glorioua deaoendant of Venua and Anohiaea, the oon- 
queror meroiful aa he ia mighty. Hia away already the nationa 
own, already beneath hia oare our andent virtnea and anoient 
bleseings are returning (49 — 60). May Fhoebna, if he regard 
with favour the heighta of PalatinuB, grant another lnatre, 
another age of abiding and ever-inoreaaing happineas: may 
Diana from her temple lend her ear to the prayera of the Qnin- 
deoimviri and our vows (61—72). That thia U the will of the 
Immortals we oarry home a good and oertaJn hope, af ter duly 
chanting the praiaea of Phoebns and Diana.' 


he oooaaiow of thia Ode Me 4. 6, InkodnetioiL Its 
ion haa been severely orittaiaed, bnt it ie fsir to it> 
that Horaoe would not himself have oonsidered it a pore 
m. It U an Ode written for pnblio performanoe, and 
xre distinctly rhetorioel rether than poetioal; from thia 
riew it haa the oonaiderable merit of being aimple and 
i ita diotion, and if, aa in etani* 6, eren Horaoe halts, 
irell pity the genial bard who finds himaelf oompeUod 
e a poetioal blesaing on legialation wbioh hia taatee 
re led him to dislike, and hia oommfln aenae mnat have 
as visionary. 

ns editors give Tarions methods of dividing the Ode 
the ehoros of boys and that of giris. Thus mnoh is 
olear; that the first two stansas are snng by the joint 
the third by the boys, the fonrth by the girls; that 
ine is snng half by boya and half by girls; that stansae 
teexn to fall into peirs, and so snggest that they were 
arnately by boys and girls; that stanaa 19 is olearly 
all together. 

UYarom potens] • Qneen of the woods.' For the gen. 

aeli decns] 'glory of the sky,' in agreement with both 
avea Phoebe and Diana, cf. 4. 8. 31, clarutn Tyndaridae 

endl...] '0 ever reverend and (ever) revered.* semper 
i both adjectives. 

lbylllnl versus] 8ee Diot. Ant. SibyUini Libri. 
re in charge of the Quindecimviri (see 1. 70 n.); the 
a had been bumt in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 
but had been re-formed. They were written, like all 
in hexameter verse, and were no doubt frequentiy 
hen a oonvenient oraole was not found in the «»i«foig 

Irglnea...] see 4. 6 Int. 

[ulbus plaonere] *in whose sight (they) have found 
The perfect is acourate: Rome is not only now, but 
been the object of their regard. 

NOTES. 459 

9. alme] «life-giving/ soe 4. 16. 31 n. 

10. alius tt ldem] * snother and yet the iime. 1 

12. rlserel beoause the sun is eontinuallv spoken of m 
«viewing' eJl tnat goes on upon earth, ef. Aesoh. Prom. V. 91, 
koI tqw ToAmp kvkKop ijXiov «aXw, and Shelley's imitation : 

«I ask yon Heaven, the all-beholding Son, 
Has it not seen?' 

For maiuM of. Virg. Aen. 7. 602, maxima rerum Roma. 

18. rlte...1 'O thon, that aooording to thy office dost 
gently bring tne yonng to birth laperire partus) at the full 
time.' aperire t epexegetio inf. t of. 1. 8. 26 n. 

14. XUtnyla] ElkelOvi* (perhaps firom Ipxo/uu, ik^\v$u), the 
goddess who assists 'the ooming^ of ohildren, and therefore 
synonymous with Lucina 'she who brings to the light,' and 
Oenitalit 'she who brinffs to the birth.' Juno is also ealled 
Lurina, and GenitalU h not elsewhere found as a proper 

16. alTe...] cf. Sat. 2. 6. 20, Matutine pater t seu Jane 
libentiut audi». It was neoessary in addressing divinities to 
address them by the partioular title whioh was appronriate in 
the partioular oiroumstanoes, of. Aesoh. Ag. 166, where the 
ohorus being in doubt as to the partieular oharaoter in whioh 
they should appeal to Zeus, invoke him with the words Zcfe, 
fortt tot* i<TTlv % and apologise for not givinc him a more 
definite title. In oonsequenoe a suppliant xnight apply to a 
goddess all her various names, so ss to be sure of hitting on 
the right one. 

17. producas] 'rear,' Le. to manhood. 8o the epithet 
Kovporp6(pot is applied to various goddesses in Qreek. For 
subolem % cf. 4. 3. 14 n. patrum, i.e. the oonscript fathers, the 

18. super iugandls feminls] i.e. the lex Julia de mari- 
tandU ordinibus or de adulteriU, enacted b.o. 18, see Diot. of 
Ant., and 8. 6 Int 

19. prolis feraci] cf. 4. 4. 68 and 8. 6. 17 n. 
lege marita] 'marriage law.* 

22. orbis] 'oyole.' per, i.e. siter revolving 'throogh.' 
referatque] As regarda the position of que t cf. 2. 19. 28 n. 

P. ii. 31 


r] Three wm a eeered number with the eneiente, 
iG, utf «eio fer vmhnre, Soph. Anl 481, x»«2rt reieweV- 
the nnmber of the ohorus here oonsists of thrioe nine 
1 thrioe nine maidone 

eqnentee] Bmphatie: the prejer ie thet they mej 

iraoee oeditfeee] 'efer trothful in jowr oreelee': 
needolprophetiontterenoeot 1. 15. 4n. Theinlie 
, end the perfeet ie need eoeurattdj: the Pareae hare 
i truthful in their patt utterenoes, end thie ie the 
oonfidenoe in their promieee Ibr the ratnre. 

lod eemel...1 Wiokhem with moet reoent edltore le 
ht in prefemnff the leee eonunonpleee end eomewhet 
olt tervet, whiohheeetrong 1C8S. anthorir/, to 0relli*8 
fo Fatee, ee hee been onee appointed, end eo may 
g lendmerk ol onr fortanee piosoiTe it— link happy 
o a happy peet' Supply doniff withjMroetfe. 
nstrnotion of quod with dictum ett ie ite ordinary 
>n in perenthcses«id f*pd\ end ttabilisque is pnt 
quodqu* ttabilit... t the ldiom being thet eo freqnent- 
i. g. in snoh phreses es Ego t Patret ContcripH, quod 
um fortunatumque tit t ita centeo. 
nekes quod...tervat aoc. eiter cecinitse, bnt the eenee 
n having foretold what hee been onoe for ell deoreed 
(oonsequently) the abiding landmark of things pre- 
poor and pleonastio to the last degree. 
i remm termlnnsl In nsing the phreee • abiding land- 
our fortunes,' Horaee is olearlj referring to the 
gend that, when space was being made for a temple 
on the Capitol, the god Terzninns (eee Clase. Diot. 
s refused to make way, thus sjmbolizing the eternal 
f the Boman state. The Bomans regarded 'bound- 
ith pecoliar reyerence, of. 2. 18. 24 n.: the word 
i oonstantly nsed as a symbol of abiding fixity, cf. 
T8, alte terminut haerent, and Virg. Aen. 4. 614, 
u« haeret. 

rtUls frugnm] 'prolino in crops': ot 4. 6. 89, proe- 
rum, and 3. 6. 17 n. For the thought of. Ps. 144. 18, 
garners may be full...that our sheep may bring forth 
and ten thousands in our streets.' 

)icea...] It was oustomary at the featival of the 
a to crown the statue of Ccres with a chaplet of 

NOTEa 461 

wheat-ears, of. Tib. 1. L 15, fiava Oeret % Hbi Ht nottro de rure 
eorona | tpicea. 

81. aalubree, Iovis] Both words go equally, in thouffht, 
both with aquae and aurae. Jupiter is, m often, the god of 
ihe weather, of. 1. 1. 96 n. afua4«'rain,' and for apue JovU, 
of. IL 6. 91, Aiet 6/ifipot. 

88. oondito tclo] the exaot opposite of am m UndU Apoilo 
9. 10. 90, and ef. 8. 4. 60. Hii arrowa brought peatflenee and 
death, ©£ Hom. B. 1. 48—69. Observt tho oarerol oollooation 
of the adjeotives wdtU pUu i du tque between oondUo and Ulo. 

87. al] For this nee of H in appeals, not implying any 
doubt as to the faet bot assnnring it to be a faot, and fonnding 
the appeal on it, ot 1. 89. 1, H q%Ud...Uuimut t age die t 8. 18. 6, 
Faune...UvU incedat, H Hbi...eadit haedut t and below, L 66. 

TJlaeque] Emphatio: 'and if from Hium oama the eqoadrom 

Apollo had always favoored the Trojana, and oonsequentlv 
might be appealed to to favour tho Bomans aa their desoend- 
anta t cl 4. 6. 91—96. 

89. pars] in appoaition with turmae. 

41. oul] s&jMfti ; Hne /raude =■ * witboat harm,' * nnharm- 
ed/ ef. 9. 19. 90 n. The phraae olearly goes, as its position 
proves, with per ardenUm Trojam, •uninjured mid the fires of 

49. patrlaesuporstes] A pathetio touoh. 

48. muniYit iter] munire is the teohnical word nsed by 
the Bomans for 'makmg' those great militarv oauseways, one 
of which, for example, stretohed from the Golden Milestone in 
the Forum Bomanum to York, the dust from whieh I have my- 
self heard described by Lineolnshire rostios as 'rampar dust,* 
i. e. dust from the high road or ' rampart' (munitum iter). 

44. plura rellctls] •Bome instead of Troy/ Wiokham. 

47. Bomulae] For the adj. ef. 1. 16. 10 n. For the 
hypermetrio yerse, of. 4. 2. 99, and 4. 9. 7 n. 

49. veneraturl lit 'to worship,' then 'to ask as a wor- 
shipper,' and so allowed to take a double aecusative like other 
verbe 01 asking. Ct Sat. 9. 6. 8, H veneror ttultut nihil horuvi. 
There is a reading quique...imperet. 

M— 2 


bobua albis] *with (saerifios of) milk-whiie steere/ eneh ae 
'graaed along cUtumnus,' cf. Yirg. Georg. 2. 146» 

hinc oZW, CJtiinmu, fr«f <• et maxista tatmct 
victfjna, «aq* ttio perfuti Jlumint tacro 
Romanot ad templa deum duxere t rh tm pk o t . 

50. sanguls] 'offspring,' ct 2. 20. 5 n. 

51. bellante...] of. Virgtt's deeeription ol the Boman doty 
(Aen. 6. 868) parcere tubjectit et debeUare tuperbot. 

58. manus potentes] of. the ose of manut, 4. 4. 78. The 
hand aa gimsping the sword ia naturally naed aa a ajmbol of 

64. Medna] aee 1. 8. 51 n. 

Albanaa secnres] Alba Longa waa the mother eity of 
Eome: the adj. ii naed inatead of 'Boman' aa suggesting an 
antiquarian reminisoenoe. tecuret: borne among the fatctt 
before a Boman magistrate eum imperio, and ajmbolieal of 
his power of life and death, aee Dick Ant. a. t. Fatctt, and of. 
8. 8. 19, tumit autponit tecuret. 

66. Bcythae, Indl] For their embassy to Augustue, ot 4. 
14. 42 n. Here however retponta clearly suggests the idea of 
the 'response' of an oracle or divinity. 

57. pndor] Ai8«i : the feeling which prevents men from 
doing anything which might cause them to blush. 

58. Ylrtus] From vir, a personification of all the qualitiea 
that 'may become a man.' 

neglecta, apparetqne fulgente, aeoeptusqne] Mark the 
weak caesura, and also in U. 73, 74, and see 4. 2. 6 n. Nauck 
observes that all these stanzas ezpress the sense of tranquillity 
and peace, and that possibly the rhythm of the lines is intend- 
ed to represent this. 

59. pleno copia cornn] For Copia personified with her 
horn of plenty (our 'oornucopia,* benignum cornu, 1. 17. 16), 
see Class. Dict. s. v. Amalthea. 

62. acceptns] 'welcome,' 'dear.' Camenae here=simply 
'Muses,' but see 1. 12. 89 n. 

63. qul salntarl...] Ilatar, Uaitanot. 

65. Palatinaa arcesl With referenoe to the temple of Apollo 
on the Palatine, in wnich this hymn was sung, bnilt by 
Augustus b.c 28, in memory of the battle of Aotium, cf. 1. 31. 
1. Many MSS. have arat. aequut, 'with fsvourable eye.' 

NOTES. 1(53 

66. fellx] The nin of the ▼erse seems to point to this 
word going with Latium rsther thsn with luttrum, ss Orelli 

67. lmtrom] for iiatrum=«a spsoe of five yesrs,' of. 9. 4. 
38 n. The referenoe is doubtless to the fsot that Augustus, 
st the oonelnsion of the 10 yesrs for whioh he hsd originally 
aooepted the imperivm, wss ui b.o. 18 inTested with it for s 
further period of fire yesrs. 

68. prorogst, curet, spplloetl I so resd with hesitstion in 
preference to prorogat, curat, applicat. The M88. authority is 
nuotusting. The whole hymn hss hitherto been s mppli- 
cstion, snd the nse of ti in 1. 65 seems to point to s oontinued 
sppesl, of. its nse in 1. 87. On the other hsnd it is nrged thst 
*the time for nrgent prsjer snd expostnlstion is past: the 
ehorus hss now sssnmed the tone of eonfidenoe snd promise/ 
snd thst the sssertion in the lsst stsnss would be sbrnpt if the 
prsyer be oontinued to 1. 72. 

60. Algldum] Algidus is s mountsin in Lstium nesr 
Tusoulum. Disns is desoribed ss *rejoioing in it,' 1. 21. 6. 

70. qulndeolm Tlroruml so. $acrU faciendit. They form- 
ed s coUegium or 'guild' snd hsd ohsrge of the Sibylline books. 
They originslly numbered only two : Tso. (Ann. 11. 11) ststes 
thst they hsd ohsrge of these gsmes. 

71. puerorum] 'both boys snd girls, in sooordanoe with 
the old use of puer for either sex.' Wiokham. 

75. dootus] 'trsined,' i. e. by the poet, who would be x°P°- 
9MffKo\ot t cf. 4. 6. 48, docilit modorum | vatii Horati. dicere: 

!*=■■- — 


Xpote I— X eonaial of an ortinary Trlmikr Timmt (ianv 
Uem Ht m H m) lono^bytaU^eD im tlir ( Tw i Wciti 
nofiiif )^ wbJch emi tiltii mi tht «trtnt feyftif , from " 
monma namt ' BpodV fa dorifod. 

HV and XY oontitt of a TTiTinnmr foflowod by aa IamMa 

XVI eoaeieti of a HoTimttor followtd by a Trimectr 

XVII ia iil Trimetor Iambioa, 

Xm ooniiiU of a Hexameter foUowtd by a Mnw laml* 


' You, Meeoenaa, are aboot to riak your life for Ceeaar in 

a naval oombat Wbat aball I do, to whom life without yon ia 

a burden 1 I will follow yon to the world*i end, for, thongh I 

oan be of no eervioe, yet at yonr aide my anziety wUl be lese. 

Nor ia my devotion due to hope of reward; I am already rioh 

enongh by yonr bounty and have no detire for iplendoor or 


It is generaUy aatomed that Maecenas waa not preeent at 
Aetinm, on the authority of Dio (51. 8), who atatee that ho waa 
left in eharge of Italy ; but the author of an elegy on the deatfa 
of Maeoenae (whioh Bucheler holda to be oontemporary) de- 

NOTES. 465 

finitely states that he waa present (eumfreta Siliacae texerunt 
laeta earinae, \ /ortie erat circum, fortie et anU ducem), and 
this view ia oertainly in aooordanoe with the language of ibia 
and tbe ninth Bpode. 

I. Liburnis; propugnaoula] The fleet of Augustas oon- 
aifted ehiefly of the amall, iwift vessels known as Libornian 
(see Dict.), whioh are oontrasted with the huge, unwieldy gal- 
leons» with 6 to 9 banks of oars, whioh sopported Antonv. Of . 
tbe oontrast between the English and Spanish fleets in the oase 
of the Armada. 

5. ' to whom life, if ftia mine) while thou livest, is delight, 
if otherwise, a burden.' sl oontra=ti U mortuo, bnt euphem- 
istioally avoids the ill-omened phrase. 

7. inssl] 'at thy reouest.' Maeoenas had olearly urged 
Horaoe not to oome with bim. otium, not * idleness ' but 
• repoee,' whioh he oould employ in poetio pursuits, as opposed 
to aotive life or the • toils ' (laborem) of war. 

9. laborem] so. penequemur, * or shall we follow up this 
toil (of war), ready to bear it with sueh resolvo, as men not 
oowardly should bear it with?' In the answer feremue eorre- 
sponds to laturi and eequemur to pereequemur in inverted order 
(Ghiasmus). Some remove the oomma after laborem and 
narshly make laturi=*l. eumue. 

II. te] Note the emphatio position. inhospitalem 0., of. 
Od. 1. 22. 6 n. 

18. slnum] ' nook,' • reoess ' ; of. Virg. O. 2. 122 India... 
extremi tinue orbie. 

16. roges] 'shouldyouask.' 

19. ut...] 'as a bird brooding o'er her oallow young'; 
a$eidene t not actually ' sitting on,' as the next lines shew, but 
generally of the time when she is sitting. 

21. reliotis] dat. She ' fears more for them when left, 
though with them, they with her, she oould aid no more (than 
if far away) '; lit. ' not likely, though present, to afford tbem 
present more aid.' Bentley objeoting to the tautology of adsit 
and praeeentibue read non uti eit, ' not that she is likely to 
help <&c.,' but the repetition of the same idea emphasises it, of. 
Ter. Ad. 893 quia adee praseene; 668 hane eibi videbit praeeene 
praeeenti eripi; Virg. Aen. 2. 225 abeene abeentem audiu 



uBpem] • to further mj hopa/ Wiekhasa. 

16. aratra attaj^J «mj pJooghe mj aftrnenja'; 

ri^gif §19 poeftioBllj aaid io oo what ftho 0MB dni 

«* * nitnntur mttintl ri<A aftiww l^iid BtoBihBB 

aoihoritj fthen imo; ot II bele*...*wJt» 

17. pooasfe...] •er my nooka botoo ftfao dog-ttarti heat 
ehangt from a»L pettorte'; lit «ftake L. pMkma 
txeheogo for 0.,' eL OdL L17. 1 Sbotpworo ptoBJiiftmfcbo 
plaina of Celahria (Od. L SL t) or Apntte dorW wteaar, and 

drifen np to the hilis of Looania in sommor; oL Bp. t, t, 177. 

99. emperai] «lofly* Toooolnm/10 m. M. of Bome, woo 
on ftbo onmmit of > moantain t m. abofo ftbo m o d o i n JV wto itf t 
Cieoro bod o mfonrifto tiUa there. Mndow, <gleenttng,' bo- 
oantebailtofmarble. (Broaoa: beoeAseToBealamwaeBBidto 
hafo boon foundod bj lalagonoa, aon of Uljaioa and Oboa» 

M. band paxavoro...] U wiU noror otok fto baio aaaaaatd 
weelftb. eiftfaer, like miaary Oto amoa, t o bnrj it in oarftb or to 

l^^O Wt^VO^M^^PA tt WO VOS^^M^Mt^W «OWOB^WO ^WBBjB) WJBjBB^UBBP B^k^Bf^JBttt t W^Bt^BWtp W^BJ^BOV B/B) OW 

ootnmon namo of old mon in oomodj; boro probablj tomo old 
mitor in a plaj of Monander. diaelnotna : ftbe loott garb indi- 
eates tbe loooe ebaraetor. nopoa : Orolli talkt of grandaona 
boing pettod and ao beooming extrafagant, boft ftbo word baa 
no oonneotion with nepa 'a grandson* and ia derifod from 
ne and pouum fjf. impoUns Od. 1. 88. 10) indioating 'laok of 
aelf-oontrol,' of. Sai. 1. 4. 49 n*po$JUiu$ % • prodigal eooV Somo 
MS8. intert ut before nepot. 


'Bleeted it fthe rnttie wbo plooght his land in peaot romofto 
from townt, tending his fines and eattle, storing op bonej and 
froits (1—83). He ean lie on tbe grass lolled to sleep bj ftho 
mormur of a stream, or in winfter honft (28 — 86). Who, amid 
sooh joja, woold miss the gallantries of town? While,witha 
deoent homelj wife to pile np the flre and prepare Ihe dinner for 
her good man's return, I woold ask for no foreign daintioi m 
preferenoe to a simple meal enjojod wbile watohing ftbo oattia 
ooming home and fthe mrm-terfants ftaking their snpper ronnd 
the glowing hearth.' 8o said the ntorer Alfiut, and affter 

NOTES. 467 

getting in his xnoney on the Ides is now eager to put it out 
again on the Kalends. 

The praise of raral life is a oommonplaoe with poets. 
Horaoe gives a eatirioal tone to his treatment of it by the sur- 
prise (rapa wpoatoKla*) whieh awaits the reader in the flnal four 

1. negotlls] ' business,' just as we use the word. You majr 
work when * far from business,' ef. 1« 7 n. otium. 

2. prisca] ' anoient ' (of. Od. 8. 31. 11 n.) t living in an ideal 
age of virtue and happiness. 

8. exercet] 'works,' of. Virg. 0. 1. 09 exercetque frequent 

4. solutus. . .] * free from ail usury/ i.e. rid of ail monetary 
affairs. The full point otfenore is only betrayed at 1. 67. 

6. horret] * shudders at,' as a sailor. For the aoo. of. Od. 
2. 18. 26 n. 

8. superba] ' the haaghty thresholds ( = ' antechambers *) of 
more powerful citisens/ ie. the great from whom he seeks 

9. ergo...] 'and so (Le. beeaose free from sooh oares) he 
either weds the tall poplars with the full-grown offspring of the 
vine.' For the ' marnage ' of the vine to its supporting tree, 
of. Od. 4. 5. 80 n. adulta : Columella gives 8 years ss the age. 
Propago is the teohnical term for a ' layer/ whioh is obtained ov 
pegging (of. lH/ywvfu, propago) down a shoot in the ground nntil 
lt takes root and then cuttiiig it off from the parent plant 

11. mugientium] 'oxen'; so elsewhere in poetry balantee 
' sheep,' volantes ' birds,' natantet ' fishes.' 

14. felieiores inserlt] 'engrafts more fertile ones': both 
words are technical, cf. Virg. G. 2. 69, 81« 

16. pressal ct Virg. G. 4. 140 tpumantia eogere prettie 
| mella favit. The honey was flrst aUowed to drain of itself out 
of the combs and then the remainder was ' pressed ' out. 

16. inflrmas] not, of oourse, 'sickly/ but • unresisting ' ; 
ol Is. 58. 7. 

17. vel...] ' or when Autumn (personified as a deity) has 
raised among the fields hia hcad decked with ripe fruits.' 


19. g&udttdMtrpcns] 'delightgtoplock'or'mpiuoking'1 
^ocrat «pihrwr. lnHttra, cf. interit L 14» implies thetthey are 
ohoioe sorts. 

21. Prlapel His statue, holding a aioklo, wae tei mp in 
gardens to frighten birdi and thieves, ef. Set. L 8; Ylrg, G. 
4. 110. 

22. tutor flnlum] There seems no reaeon to suppose, ae 
mott do, that Silvanut waa especially (like Terminut) 'a guar- 
dian of bonndaries' : the words here only appeal to thie mral 
god ae • gnardian of the fsrm,' cf. the nse otjlntt Od. 8. 18. i» 

24. tenaol] ' elinginff,' probably as being strong and weH- 
rooted. Others 'matted'; Wickham *that makes a oonoh 
from whioh you do not slip.' 

25. lnterlmjstiiterea, Le. while yon lie. altts...rlpls: so 
most MSS., but ' the oldest Blandinian ' give* rivit, whieh mnst 
mean 'with deep streams' (Wickham, 'with brimming water- 
ooaraes).' Orelh and Kiessling read rifit, regarding altU as 
pictorial and the sense as 'between their high banks.' Quin- 
tilian, however (12. 2 ut vit amnium maior ett altit ripit 
multoque gurgitit traetu fiuentium quam tenuit aquae...), 
certainly uses the phrase of a full stream flowing hign np its 
banks so as to be nearly on a level with their top. In Lnor. 2. 
362 Jlumina. . .summis labentia ripit is clearly of a river brimful, 
but there the sense is clear, and tummut is not, like altut, 

27. obstrepuntl so. iacenti, • fountains with their flowing 
waters make meloay (for him as he lies) to woo....' Cf. 
Theocr. 8. 78 a8o de tw dipeot icap Wwp ftow alBptsxotrw. 

29. annns hibernns] ' the wintry season,' cf. Od. 8. 28. 8n. 

33. aut amljte 18 vi] not aut a|mlt8 lfivli, for a tribraeh 
cannot be divided af ter the second syllable witnout spoiling the 
beat of an iambic line; cf. 85, 57, 61; 8. 17; 5. 85. rara, 
' meshed'; like levi purely pictorial. 

34. dolos] merelv ' snares.' Nauok gives ' baits ' to tempt 
the ' gourmand thrushes ' (cf. Hom. Od. 12. 252 lyMvi roti 6\L- 
youri doXow icara etbara /SoAXwr), but if so the appoeition between 
retia and dolos is very harsh. 

35. Notioe the.short syllables in the line to ezpress the 
idea of rapid flight. For laquio in the 6th foot cf. 5. 79 inferiut, 
though there perhaps i is semi-consonantaL advenam : be- 
cause the crane oomes to Italy from the north in winter. 

NOTES. 469 

87. 8ee Summary. Amor is olearlj uscd in a bad aense 
= « gallantry ' m oppoied to simple domestie life. The oor- 
rection to Roma quat is easy and needlsam. For the noun 
(curat) attraeted into the relative eUnie of. 6, 8; 8at 1. 4. 
2 atft, quorum cowtoedia pritca virorum ett. 

39. ln partem] 'for (i.e. so aa to fulfil) her part.* iuvet, 
•were to help.' 

41. SaWna] cf . Od. 3. 6. 88 teq. 

43. pernieli A.] of. Od. 8. 16. 26. 

44. laatl...] 'ready for her weary hoaband's retnrn'; ef. 
Lucr. 3. 894; Gray's Elegy, 21 

' For them no more the blasing hearth shall burn, 
Or busy housewife ply her evening care.' 

45. textls cratlbus] Le. wattle hurdles. 

47. dolio] Common wine drunk the same year (horna) was 
not bottled (in amphorat diffundere), but drawn straight from 
the dolium or ' cask,* as we should say. 

49. conchvlla] 'oysters,' for whioh the Luorine lake near 
was celebrated, Jut. 4. 141. 

51. lntonata] from intonomquae intouuit. Some intransi- 
tive verbs have a part. as if they were deponents, e.g. plaeitue, 
concretut, iuratut, tuetut t cenatus, potut. Storms in the Bast 
are suppoeed to drive the rare nsh just mentioned into Boman 

53. Afraavls] Juv. 11. 141='guinea-fowl.' 
attagen] drrayat, 'heathcock.' 

55. iucundlor] predicatively, 'would go down into my 
stomach with more relish.' ptng-uisslmis : cf. Judges 9. 9 
•But the olive tree said...8hould I leave my/atnett.,.1* 

57. gravl...] 'mallows that bring health to the burdened 
body'; of. Celsus 2. 29 alvum movent...malva* t lapathum; Od. 
1. 81. 16 levet malvae, 

59. vel ayna...] His simple diet is only varied with meat 
on suoh oocasions as the saorifice of a lamb at the TerminaUa 
(a feast in honour of Terminut, ' god of boundary-stones, • held 
Feb. 23) or when a wolf happens to be caught carrying off a kid 
it had just killed. Sacrifioes in antiquity were usually acoom- 


bya feaet on aoeh portione of the vietim aa were not 
r ooneumed on the altar. In towae 
i tho meat of vfatimi wna aotd. aad 

rtionofthemeatforaale: honot tho iinportaneo 
,y abonl oitlng 4 meet offered to idohV m tho 

the enrrjr 

paawa]«frompeetore': lit 'having fadVfrom^ 
10 exnltant empbaaie of vidmr*„.*iim+ % • whnt joy to ooo 
j...!* AltoiwUtboehangefromrar^matowrhythmie 
tnt betwotn IL 61, o^anoTlL tt, 64. 

poattot] • oittins at aopper.' OreU4thed.ra*dtpoft»s 
m M8., atatingthat Hor. rejeett ■ntptettt in iambioe, 
rino exotptioatJ ot imit a tin g tp eod, whflo 5. 79 JmferUu 
i taken m a trieyllamo. examea: fl twarm,'aaof oete. 

-70. 8ee Summary. The Idoi and Kalenda (etpeciaily 
Ur when the monthly intorott mli dno; 8et £ t. 87) 
ttural dayt for money etttlementa. 


omio improoation againtt garlio, whieh llaeeenaa in jobe 

a fraudulently indueed Horace to eat in tome diah, and 
be oomparet to hemiock, adderti yenom, Canidia'a 
i, Medea*t unguente, the fiery heat of an Apolian mid- 
«r, and the Neetoa-ahirt whioh burned np Hereulea. 

ollm] *at any time,' •erer'; of. Od. 4. 4. 5 n. For 
ie as an example of blaokeet guilt, cf. Od. 2. 18. 6. 

>la] •unnaturaL' 

edit] an old form of eubj., found Virg. Aen. 12. 801, in 
t lettert, and often in Plautua. 

o dura...] the exelamation markt a tpatm of pain. For 
te of 'reapert' for garlio of. Virg. Ecl. 2. 10 

Tke$tylU et rapido fettit mettoribut ae$tm 
aiia terpyllumque herbat eontundit oleatef. 

quid hoo Tenenl...] 'what strange poiaon it thit that 
a my vitala?' lii. 'what aort of poiton doet thit rage?' 
ie graphic quid hoe veiuni et Ter. Heo, 4. 4. 2 quid 
1$ uxorem habett Plaut. Bud. 1. 2. 60 qydd iliue trf 


NOTES. 471 

8. «OrdidCanidiahandletheaooaneddiBh?' ForCanidla 
of. Epod. 5. tractavit: of. Od. 2. 18. 10. 

9. 'When beyond all the Argonauta Medea marvelled at 
their glorious chief, that he might fasten (lit. 'when about to 
fasten') on the bulls the unknown yoke, with thi$ did she 
anoint Jason.' See for the etory Class. Diot. a.v. ArgonauUu. 
candldum: in the glow of youth and beauty. taurif ii really 
governed by both the worda between whioh lt stands. ignota : 
because they had never bcon broken in. 

18. hoe] pioking up the preoeding hoe emphatieally — 'with 
thii she steeped her gifts takmg yengeanoe on a oonoubine and 
fled....' The potent antidote was also a potent poiaon. donla : 
a WrXot and golden orown, cf . Eur. Med. 949. peUloem : of. 
Od. 8. 10. 15 n. : ao Medea would eall Creuaa daughter 
of Creon (q.v. in Class. Diot.) whom Jaaon was about to wed, 
of. 5. 68. serpente, ' dragon.' 

15. slderum vapor] 'heat of the stars,' i.e. espeoially of 
the dog-star, of. 1. 27. 

17. munua] The garment steeped in the blood of the 
oentaur Nessus, whieh Deianira gave Hereules to aot aa a 
love-charm, but whioh olung to him and burned him to death; 
of. 18. 21. umerls : piotorial, suggesting his strength. tflemola : 
'laborious/ recalling his 12 labours. 


To an arrogant and upstart freedman. 'There is strife 
between us, you whipped slave. Pride does not alter breeding, 
and as you strut down the street men ory indignantly — "Thia 
aooundrel has estates, carriages, and a aeat in the theatre 
among the knighta. Why equip a fieet against briganda and 
slaves when he— yee, he— is a tribune of the soldiers? 1 " 

The soholiasts say that the person referred to ia Menaa or 
Menodorus, a freedman of 8ex. Pompeius and a oommander of 
hia fleet, who deserted to Ootavian in b.o. 88. Others name 
a oertain Vedius Bufus (ef. Cic. ad Att. 6. 1. 25). It ia safer, 
however, to aasume that we have merely a type of thoae 


freedmen of greet nohlee, wbo from the time of BaDm 
» figure eo prominentij in Botnen eoeiety. 

mpte...] The 'enmitj' between wolvee end leinbe ie 
iei, of. 16. 7; Hom. a ». 963 oW Xtfcw rt col a>ts 
t *v/rir rxotwi; Shek. Mereh. of Ven. 4. L 78. 

Lto] te. by the allotment, eppointment of fate ar 

Hiberiole] mede of tpartmm, *8penieh hroom,' *ee- 
reee/ l&rgely aeed now for meking peper. peraete: 
1 ': et Ep. 1. 16. 47 loris non urtrU. 

ejnbalee] 'etrnt along,' et & 71 ; OcL 4. & 17. In L 7. 
e deeeribee hie pompooe 'peeing' of the etreet. 

Saerem vlam] led throngh the Fomm to the Oepitol — 
tnable pleoe for lonngere, ef . Set 1. 9. 1. 

ble...] The oppoeite of the toga arta of the homble 
Ep. 1. 18. 30, or exigua of Cato, Ep. L 19. 18. trlnm 

rection of the MS. Ur. 

vertat] probably for avertat, 'tnrne away.' Othere 
Ivcrtat, bnt, if yon see a man and turn vonr faoe, it 
e turned atcay. huc et huc ( = kuc et illuc) ii moet 
ly taken with euntiun, though Nanck takee it with 
'turns away in every direction.' Uberrlma: 'mostfree' 
e8trained' = 'mo8t free-spoken.' The next linee give tho 
;e in which they indulge. 

trlumylrallbui] i.e. of the triumviri capitaUe, eee 
-nt. praeconie: apparently an officer who during the 
l publicly proclaim8 the nature of the offenee, punish- 
e. ; ol Plat Leg. 11. 917 d rjj u&myt rtnrWrto wXqyat 
vK<n...Krif>i>Za*r<n wr trtxa udWtt rvwrtaBai, 

Falernil nained because famous for ita vineyarda. 
l : named ae the moet famoue Boman road, oonatantly 
ad with traveilers, ct Ep. 1. 6. 36. mannle : of. Od. 3. 
like our 'in his carriage.' 

L. Boacius Otho, trib. pl. b.g. 67, oerried a lew that 
it fourteen rowe in the theatre (next to tbe orchettra 
lenators aat) ehonld be reeerved for the equiU», i.e. thoee 
«aeeeed the censu» equetter of 400,000 eeeteroee and 
ee citiaena. Thie upstart reliee on hie weeith end for- 

NOTES. 473 

geti the dtsquslification of his hirth. The struggle for these 
seats by parvenus is perpetually referred to; ef. Iuv. 8. 
158 uq. 

17. ora...] 'heaked prows of ships TMt in bulk'; for the 
rottra see iUustrationj in Dict. Ant. s.v. navU. 

19. latrones...] For Sex. Pompeius raanning his fieet in 
b.o. 88 with 'brigands and slaves/ cf. 9. 9. 


The witch Canidia prepares a cbarm with whioh to seenre 
the affections of the aged Varus, and with this objeot is about 
to kill a young boy. (1—10) He appeals for pity: (11 — 24) 
Canidia gets ready various ingredients, while Sagana, another 
hag, helps (25—28), and Veia (29—40) digs a pit in whioh the 
boy is to be buried up to the ohin and starved to death, a fourth 
witch, Folia, being also present (41—46): (47—82) Canidia 
prays the powers of evil to bring Varus to her doors, and then 
breaks off (61) to ask why her spells avail not. 'Can some 
more skilful sorceress have prevailed over her? Ncver ! A still 
more potent philtre shall fire his passion.' Then the boy, 
seeing prayers are idle, breaks out into a curse and threatens 
them with the vengeanoe of his ghost (88—102). 

The scholiasts say that Canidia (17. 50 ; Sat. 1. 8. 24) was 
really called Gratidia, and that she was an old flame of 
Horaoe's. Suoh gueases seem futile, and this Epode, at any 
rate, is hardly more than an immature attempt to depiot one 
of those scenes of magio, which were popular with anoient 
readers ; cf. Virgil's Pharmaceutria, Ecl. 8, and its original in 
Theocr. Id. 2. For the murder of the boy of. the well-known 
story of St Hugh of Lincoln. 

1. at] oommon in entreatiea, prayers and imprecations. 
It marks the sudden outburst of words that will no longer be 
oontroUed, of. 8. 19 ; Virg. Aen. 2. 585 ; Plaut. Most. 1. 1. 87 
at te di otnnes perdant; Catull. 8. 18 at vobti male sit — 'Nay, 
but, o all ye gods that (lit. 'whatever of gods') rule..., what 


that (iete, deiotic) uproer?' For rfeorw» quidqutd of. 

6. 1 tydorum quidquid...incohut; CatulL 5. 2 e* nii- 
t AonMtitm vtfmtf tiomai, where tbe phrese ie, m here, 
t a vocative. omnhnn, nnnm: artiatie oontraat. 

al Tocata...] *if ever at thy prajer Lociiia aided troe 


e words have two meanings: (1) *if ever (*'as eurely 

C. S. 37 n.) thou haat been a mother'; (9} thej oontain 
rnendo that ahe never haa had a ehild of her own, ot, 

For Lueina of . C. S. 14 n. adfult : oommonly of deitiea 
preeent to aid, cf. 1. 58. 

lnane] 'idle,' i.e. if it doea not eerve to aave him. 
rae deona: i.e. the toga praeUxta whkh marka the 
;y of youth; ef. Quink Decf. 840 $acrum praeUstarum... 
firmitatem pueritia* $acram facimus ; Juv. 14. 47. It waa 
until the taking of the toga viriU». It and a golden 
t (bulla) are the intignia pueritiae t oL L 12. impxo- 
im: litotes. 

noverca] The hatred of 'stepmothers' waa proverbial: 
j. Ann. 12. 2 novercalia odia; Sen. Contr. 4. 6 noverca- 
culis intueri; Virg. Ecl. 3. 33 iniutta noverca. 

trementi] 'quivering.' 

impube corpua] 'a ohildish shape.' 

Thracum] i.e. of the rudeet barbariana, ef. Od. 1. 

'Canidia, having her locks and di&hevelled head en- 
1 with tiny addcrs.' Note the excited short syllables. 
a is described as a Fury ; cf. furiale caput % Od. 3. 11. 17, 
snake-crowned head of Cerberus, and see head of Medusa 
iith'8 Dict. For brevlbus cf. Ov. Her. 2. 119 AUcto 
ut torquata colubrit ; A. A. 2. 376 nec brevit ignaro vipera 
Mde. The adj. seems merely to contrast them with other 
t which are of great length. 

caprlflcos] often found growing among torabs, of. Juv. 
5, Mayor. cupresaus: cf. Od. 2. 14. 28 n. 

'and eggs besmeared with a foul toad's blood and 
rs of....' The eggs are those of the Boreeeh-owl, but the 
>n of ova next to ranae is very awkward. Shakespere 
n his witches' cauldron 'toad,' 'toe of frog' and 'owlefs 
Macbetb, Act 4, Sc. 1. 

NOTES. 475 

21. Iolcos] in Thessaly. which was famous for witchcraft, 
of. Od. 1. 27. 21. Hibarla ts a diitrioi in Pontue the land of 
Medea, cf. Colckicit below and Od. 2. 13. 8. venenorum 
ferax: 'fruitful in poisons'; the gen. ia that of abundanoe, 
ef. Od. 8. 6. 17 n. 

25. ezpedlta] « tuecincta faeed in the eame eonneotion 
Sat. 1. 8. 28). ATernales a. : ie. water from lake Avernas, 
where was the reputed entranoe to hell; the opposite of 'holy 
water,' pura unda (Virg. Aen. 6. 229) used in purifieation; ot 
Virg. Aen. 4. 512. 

28. eurrena] balances expedita : the word suggesis a boar 
charging, when he naturally has his bristles up, of. Ov. Hal. 59 
actut apcr taetit iram denunciat hirtit, \ et ruit. Laurent, cer- 
tans, ruent are conjectures of editors who say that a boar does 
not set up hia bristles when he runs 1 

(of guilt).' 

82. ' That the boy buried there might die in oontemplation 
of....' The food was set before him and changed in order to 
inorease his anguish. inemorl, only found here, governa dai. 
exactly like ingement, 1. 81. 

85. eum...] 'while his head projected (above the ground), 
as much as bodies (of swimmers) suspended by the chin rise 
above the water.' ■uspenaa mento is pictorial; the ohin rests 
on the water and so the swimmer is described as h*wgfafl by it. 

87. exsecta] So the best MSS., not extucta ('drained 
out/ ' dried up '), which is not required, for aridum goes with 
both substantives — 'that cut out hia (parohed) marrow and 
parohed liver....' 

88. amorls pooulum] ' a love-philtre,' <f>CKrfww. 

89. ' When once his eyes had grown glazed (in death) fized 
on the forbidden food.' lntennlnato in a passive sense, aa the 
part. of many deponente, e.g. veneratut, dignatut, of. Od. 1. 
1. 25 n. 

40. pupulae] (dim. of pupa) - ro>eu t lit. ' dolls ' ; the reflected 
image of the observer seen in the eye, and so ' the eye ' or 
* pupil ' itselt 

r. n. 32 


otlosa H.] 'idle Nepies' is mentioued to gta a 

t>f reality (ao too A riminen s em) t and also aa a town 

rith its ohattering Greek population and renntation te 

» would be sure to po i sess the latest soandal with fthe 

Theosala] Gf. Od. 1. 17. 91; and for 'eharming the 
ut of heaven' 17.4; Virg. EeL 8. 69 earwUna «el cash 

dedmcere lunam; Plat. Qorg. 518 ▲ ret n)r wek+rn» 
*ot ret OcrraXitot. 

lrreeectum] • nntrimmed/ with long tharp naOs— as 
itohes, and beidams are represented in all agee; the op- 
tt the sectis unguibus • trim naili ' of the fair ladiee tn 

quld...] • what did ehe eay or leave uneaid ' ; a phraee 

Sthat ehe taid everything that was oonoeiYably poe- 
f. Ep. 1. 7. 79 dieenda taeenda Ufeuhu of a reeklees 
ir, andin Ok.^rd «U A/J^hrre^y^; of . Soph. Ant. 1108 
»ct | of r' Brret of r drorr«='one and aD.' 

armtrae] * witnesses,' et Od. 1. 8. 15 n. 

Dlanal More often called Trivia, Hecatc, Luna in 
ion with witoheraft. 

formidoloeU] 'awe-inspiring'; ef. Virg. Georg. 4. 468 
antem nigra formidine tucum. Many MS8. give/orsu- 

but the balanoe of the eentenoe makei it probable that 
ae an adj. like ferae and sopore. Wickham saye that 

wonld mean 'timorous,' 'awe-stricken,' but, thongh 
losus (' fearful,' ' full of fear *) is amhigaous, we want 
otion of something whioh inspires awe. For a traer 
of beasts of prey at night of. Ps. 104. 20—22. 

' May the hounds of the Subora bark, so that (lit. ' a 
t whioh ') all may laugh, at the adulterous old man be- 
i with unguents such that my hands never oompounded 
>re perfect.' The Subura was a street of bad repute 
l through the valley between the Esqoiline, Qoinnal, 
minaL Canidia imagines old Varus hurrving to her 
a it so perfumed that all the dogs sniff and bark at him. 
aguent is probably one she has sent him, and is sup- 
> exeroise a oharm over him, of. 1. 69. Some MSS. give 
imi, whioh is more deflnite and emphatio than the subj., 

1. 5. 41 animae, quales neque candidiores | terra tuliL 

NOTES. 477 

61. barbarae] = Colchieae (1. 24) : the word iuggesU some- 
thing • outlandiah ' and dreadfoL 

68. pellloem...1 Cf. 8. 18 n. Medea gave Creusa a robe 
oa her marriage, whioh bnrnt her to death when ahe put it on. 
supefbam, • proud/ beoause deeming herself viotorious. 

69. unctti...] 'a ooueh smeared with forgetfuiness (i.e. 
with drugs that bring forgetfnlness) of all (my) rivals.' 8he 
had eovered even his eouoh with magio unguents. 

71. * a !] An exoited cry as it strikes her why Varut has 
broken her bonds. ambulat s piotorial (of. 4. 6 n.) indicating 
his easj satisfied air. oarmlne, *by thespell.* 

78. The pictnre presented to her mind in 71, 72 rouses her 
rage and resoiution. ' No ordinary (litotes, of. Od. 1. 18. 9 n.) 
potions shall make thee hurry back to me, Varus, thou that 
art soon to smart severely for this, and not summoned by 
Marsian spells (of. 17. 29; Virg. Aen. 7. 768) shall thy heart 
return (to me): something more powerful will I prepare, a 
more powerful draught will I administer to thee in thy pride.' 
She means that giving up ordinary means she will kill the boy 
to prepare a draught; hence his outburst, 1. 88. Porphyrion 
takes nec vocata..., ' nor shall thy (sane) mind ever return to 
ttiee though recalled by Marsian spells,' but redibit ia olearly 
paraliel to recurree and so ad me must be suppiied with ifc. 
caput can be applied to a person in emotional language (e.g. of 
hate, affection, mirth), and so oommonly infandum, carum, fe$- 
tivum caput, and in Gk. w $l\ov, ffKX-qpbr xapa. fleturum : cf. 
Gk. use of tfXafw = • to your cost,' «Xai^ct, * you wili pay for it.' 

79. lnferius] For the anapaest in the fifth foot cf. 2. 85 n. 

83. sub haec] 4 thereupon': tub with scc. is sometimes 
* just after ' as well as ' just before.' 

84. lenire] historic inf. used dramaticaliy. 

85. sed...] 'but doubtful whence to break the silence (i.e. 
not knowing with what words to begin in his despair) he hurled 
forth a Thyestean curse,' i.e. one like that of Thyestes, when he 
oursed hU brother Atreus, for serving up to him at a meal the 
flesh of his sons, cf. Aesoh. Ag. 1560 teq. 

87. vensna...] (1) * magic rites (can ohange the) great (laws 
of) right and wrong (but) cannot ehange human retribution,' 
i.e. though they may be abie to murder hun and so confound the 



greet Uwg of right and wrong (c£ Soph. Ant. 766 ruw meydXmw 
$wfiw*: Virg. Georg. 1. 605 /es evrtMai atowt *«/•*), jet tfaey 
cannot render idU that humen vengeence (et Od. 1. 28. M 
vicn $uperbae) % whioh he immedUtelj pr o ooo d s to throa ton 
tbem with. So moet teke thie porpUnng peeoago, eapptjing 
convertere valent with the firet eUaee, ox. Oie. ad Att. 10. I 
Uturn, qui...mi$it, me Uaetumirinon oroitror, where Upatmm iri 
arbitror ie rapplied in tne firet eUaee. The oonttraetion, how- 
ever, U very rexe end doabtfal, whfle it ie eerteinlj hereh to 
epeek of megU ritee es ebU to preveil over cverUeting Uwe of 
nght end wrong, bat anebU to preveil over mere hamen ven- 
geance. (2) Teking kumanam vieem adverbiellj (eee vieem in 
Dict.) ' megic eennot eonfoand tfae Uwe of right end wrong ee 
if thej were hamen thinge.' Tbe wordtwhich folk>w,however, 
ehew thet vieem U here ' ^^^ ^ ^^0^' (81 Haupt't eonjeotare 
maga non U Urgelj edopted, 'megU aruge eennot chenge 
right end wrong, cennot ehange....' (4) If U poeeibU to meke 
magnumf, n. e perenthetieel exoUmation, ' megU ri t ee gi e et 
ere the (or ' greet *) Uwe of right end wrong— eennot chenge 
hamen retribation.' 

89. dlrU] Abl. of dirae, • earees.' agam, 'partae.' 

94. deoram Manlum] Cf. tbe reguler inecription on tomb- 
etonee DM.=dis Manibu$. Thej repreeent tbe 'spirit' or 
'ghost' of the deperted, end ee euch have 'power' (vi$) to 
haunt hU murderere. 8imilarlj Dido threetens to haont 
Aenees, ef. Virg. Aen. 4. 886 omnibus umbra locis adero: dabi$ t 
improbe, poenae. 

100. EequUlnae] The pert of the Eeqailine hill oatside the 
walls was ased as a common burving-ground for the pooreet of 
the poor, ef. 8at. 1. 8. The witcnee are to be flung out here 
unburied for carrion-birds to feed on, while the boj's parente 
gloat over the spectacle. For the hiatus in the final sylUble 
(probably with shortening) before alitee cf. 8at 1. 9. 38 $i 
amas; Virg. Aen. 8. 211 insulae Ionio. 


To a cowardlj libeller, called bj the scholiasts Ca$$iu$ 
Sevenu (cf. Tac Ann. 1. 72), which cannot be right ee he onlj 
died a.d. 82, aixty or eeventy jeers after this. ' Why, like a eor, 
worrj harmless strangers and shrink from a wolf t Whj not 

NOTES. 479 

attack me, for I can bite back? I, like a weH-bred hoiutd, 
follow up the quarry ; 7011 give tongue grandly and then begin 
■ro«iijn g ft t a bone. Beware, for I have horna to attaok •ooun- 
drels with aa vigorously aa ever Arohiloehus or Hipponax did. 
Or do you expeot me when attaoked to ait down and ery like a 

8. rertls] The 'oldeat Blandinian M8.' givee v$rU (and 
veU) whioh wonld inTolve altering the order to verU, tipotet, 
but the balanoe of the double qneation quid vtxa$ t ana quin 
vertU f if olearly marked, and, aa Wiokham pointa out, 'either 
oonetruetion ia lawful, ©f. Virg. Eol. 2. 71 quin...paratt Aen. 
4. 647 quin morere V 

5. M olossus ; Lacon] The doga of the Molosei in Bpiraa 
and of the 8partana were fatnous ; ef. 8oph. Aj. 8 «wof Aaxain?f 
m rtt iCpwot 5a>if ; Virg. Oeorg. 8. 405 vetocet Spartae catulot 
aeremque Molottum; Shaki. Mid. Nighfe Dream 4. 1. 194 'my 
hounda are bred out of the Spartan kind... .' amloa Tia, ' atout 
friends to ahepherda ' ; ef. Luor. 4. 681 permitta canum vit; 5. 
1222 Jlda e. 9.; Virg. Aen. 4. 182 odora e. v. t the phraae being 
eopied from Homer s U/H) ti TijXe/iAxoto, 1* M/ioio ic 

7. anblata] * prioked up.' For fera attraoted into the rela- 
tive olause, cf. 2. 87 n. 

12. eornua] The metaphor ia ehanged to that of a bull 
which gorea or tosses its enemy ; of . 8at. 1. 4. Mjoenum habet 
in cornu, ' he has hay on his horn (i.e. ifl marked dangerous),' 
said of a aatirioal poet. 

13. ' Like him whom faithless L. spurned aa hia son-in-law, 
or the foe fleroe againet (the dat. with aeer) Bupalua.' Lyoam- 
bes refused to give Arohiloehus the hand of his daughter 
Neobule as he had promised, whereupon Arohiloohus attaoked 
him with such bitter lampoona that he hung himaelf, of. Ep. 1. 
19. 25 — 80. Hipponax was an iambic poet of exoeptional ugli- 
nesji, and Bupalus a souiptor who produced a oarioature of 

15. an] often introduoes an abaurd or impoasible suggestion 
in the shape of a question, of. 17. 76. atro dente, * with veno- 
mous tooth ' : of. Bp. 1. 19. 80 vertibut atrU; Virg. Oeorg. 1. 129 
ille malum virut terpentibut addidit atri». 



WritWn prchebly ftbout 96 n. o. nnd rsisainf to tho 
geiiMt 8ox« Fompoins» bnt Fofphjiion oxplftJiM wtth 
noo lo Um Pormsine mtM.41 betweon Oomvma 
Lntonius. H is fatotifttinf aa oao of Hor>os's Sftriisftt 
o aoml wilh great orontft of nfttionoi importftaeo, ot Bpode lt. 
Why thisunholystriieT Hm nol blood enoagh boon ohoi by 
oo nnd knd, nollo win iriumphft over mos but thst 
sJght porioh by hor own hondf Bvon biftsts do nol m 
heirUnd. TeD nM, " Ajo ye n*d or whot ? • Ifesyhftveno 
aswer, bnl itond terror-ftrioken and dnsod. Assmwdly tko 
arse of o brothert hlood partooi Iho oMOondftnmof Bomnlnt." 

9 ftptantar] Pictoriol: theytrytbodisaocdswordstosoo 
rhothor thoy • flt • thoir grasp. 

9. ojunpftft] Of. Od. 9. 1. 99. Meptano: Od.9. t 94. 

7. intftetas]» • unoonquerebV Horace ignoroft Iho harried 
nvasion by Julius Caesar ; to him tho Britons ftre tho type of 
emote onfabdoed barbarians. doooonderot: for tho deeeemt of 
he via Saera ef. Od. 4. 2. 86 n. Juit beforo the triwapkator 
«gan the aaoentfrom the/onts» to the Gapitol theoaptives woro 
lismissed to the dangeon to be exeeuted, of. Oic. in Yerr. 5. 77 
um deforo in Capitolium eurrumfleetere incipiuut, iUoe duei im 
areerem iubent 

9. secundum...] *in ftecordsnee with the Parthians' 
nrayers,' i.e. to the joy of yoar foes, ef. Hom. H. 1. 255 j *cr 
rvjfaat llplafiot Ilptapot6 r* ratocf : 2 Sam. i. 20 * Tell it not in 
)ath...lest the daughtera of the Philiatines rejoice.' soa: ahL 
by its own right hand ' « by dvil war. 

11. 'Neither wolves nor lions have ever, with all thsir 
ieroeness, had saeh eastom save against another Idnd.' The 
tartling position of ferie is due to a desire to emphasise il — 
neither wolves norlions have ever done so, and they are fleree 
avage beasts, not men.' Many aeoept the obvious oonjecture 
mmquam t whioh makes the lines smoother bnt loss effeetivo— 
neither lions nor wolves have this habit, never neree esoepl 
gainst another kind.' dispar : neut. adj. nsed m subst^ as 
►ften with prepositions, e.g. in melius, in tutum. 

NOTES. 481 

18. fnrorne...] A difficult passage. Are there ihree alter- 
nativea or two ? Bentley gives three— ' madness,' * tome stronger 
power' (i.e. fate, heaven's will), and 'wilfnl erime,' and qnotei 
Digest 13. 7. 8 venit in hae actione dolut et culpa...vit maior 
(ateehniealtermslcoG/Ha 'the ect of Ood ') non venit, to illus- 
trate the diiferenoe between vi$ acrior and culpa. Bnt, if eo, 
tfae worde tie ett mnet eooept the teeond of the three elter- 
nativee f for Horaoe cleerly abaolvei the Bomane from uHlful 
gnilt), wnioh ii almoet impoeaible, for natnraUy it oonld only 
espreee aasent to the last. Henee it aeema that there are only 
two elternativee, the latter being introdnoed in two parallel 
qoeitione by an...on— 'Ie it (1) blind madneae, or (3) ie it a 
■tronger power, ii it gnilt that hnrriee yon elong? • Then tie 
ett aooepts the latter alternative : it ia vit aerior and culpa, the 
former in the reply beooming aeerbafata, and the latter teelut 
fratemae neeit, The 'crime of a brother's mnrder' bringe to 
the Bomans 'the bitter doom' of endleee civil war. 

19. nt] ' ever sinoe,* of. Od. 4. 4. 42 n. in terram : graphio ; 
cf. Oen. 4. 10 ' The voice of thy brother's blood orieth nnto me 
from the gronnd.' 


The dramatio seene is at sea on the evening of Sep. 2, 
b.o. 81, jnst after the battle of Aotinm, at which Haeoenas 
was present with Horaoe; ef. the graphio tinittrortum, 1. 20, 
fiuentevi nauteatn, 1. 35 and Epod. 1. Intr. The langnage is 
not that of a&sured trinmph, bnt indioatee that doubt and 
unoertainty still remain (of. 1. 1 quando, 21 morarit, 36 curam 
metumque) as to the final issne. 'When, Maeoenas, shall we 
oelebrate a triumphal feast in yonr palaoe at Bome, as we did 
lately after the defeat of that sea-captain who armed slaves 
to destroy Boman freedom ? Now Bomans sell themselves as 
slaves to the servico of ennnohs and an eaetern queen, although, 
ohafing at such disgraoe, even Oauls deserted to Caeaar, and 
her own fleet refuses to fight. Triumph-god, dost thon 
delay the triumphal prooession, though never hast thou 
eonduoted home so great a leader? Changing his pnrple 
robe for mourning the oonqnered foe is flying to lands afar. 


t loiger fobleto and etronfer wine «o ebeek 
ihao: in wiae wo wfil fanmt oar eaa 

aade] Tho word nf iihii bffaf i tt 8al 1. H 60 

mdetfo «• atpfciam fiieadofi» JMil...' ; Od. Lk 8. 
(bj ejaoope mr r«]Mtllii«)a*rii0MKIini t Od.t.M.Sa. 
ioiMB,aeboioewine,otOd.l.90.9; 87. * 

* olta...1 In his pmlaeo on «ho ttognflrno, «bo twrrft 
U, et Od. S. t9. lOa. ele lett fprmoami «oaeh io 
aeure,' La> Ihmt oomo dmj we obofddkold the feaet ia 


rhfle «ho Ijre mmhee melodj bkadod wttb the pipee, 

imm (lik 4« ooqndmf Dorimm amole^, thej ia amika 

For tbo Phrrgiaa muaio of Iho ptpo for pipee, mr 

i aeamUj doahle, ooo ffluetretkm ia Dfok Ant), ot 

18 a. | it U boro oontreeted witb «ho 
tho Dorima etjle of maoie (4 Atmerf) boiaf 
•, wboroM tbo Phrjgian (t wee y rn) woo bJah-pilohed 
ing. The two inttmmento woro oontinnalrj plmjed 
e.g. Hom. IL 18. 495 aoXol ^uyW* *• 0rifc* *X^. 

•ptaaiao dnx] Sex. Pompeiua, d ofo a t ed bj Agrippm 
leena *.c. 86, fled to Lesbot and Aaie, where ne 
n priwmer aud put to deatb bj Antonj. Ho wao 
iare oalied bimoelf 'eon of Neptune,' eee Sebtlta and 

inatue...) •threatening Bome with tho fettere bo had 
i perjured alaTee.' He manned bio fleot largelj with 
to deeerted (of . perfidit) to him. The eharaotor of hia 
ie emphaeised beeauoe it leada ap (tfrvit, 1. 10, 
l. 14) to tbe thonght whioh followo: Horaoo had 
1 one feaet for a vietorj over ilavee and hopeo to 

imanelpatual Tbe oppoeito of onr *emaneipatod' oad 
red.' made tne wumcipium ('ebattel') of eome ono; 
.. Baoehid. 90 mme, mulier, tibi m» emaneipo; tmu 
ftiiek rigbtlv plaeee a comma after arma to briug 
louble antitneeie of Komamu )( emaneipatu» feminae, 
i )( tpadonibut. 

rallam] From vallu» % 'a etake': tbeee oaftf wero 
'carried' bj Boman troope to eenre in making tbo 

NOTES. 483 

9oUum for the oamp, potest, 'ia able*: emphatio, thooffh 
■uch an aot seema impoesible for a Boman. aol adsplelt: the 
enn U mentioned aa the universal witness to all th&t happena 
npon earth, eapeeially to deeda of ahame and wrong; of. Aeeoh. 
Prom. 91 koI rbw wai6wrnp ^X(ov k6k\op koKQ; SheUey, Prom. 
•I aak yon Heaven, the all-beholding 8un, Hath it not eeen?' 
Soph. Aj. 845; 2 Sam. 12. 11 'in the aight of the san'; 
12 'before all Iarael and the ian. v oonoplam: kupvwuop 
(K&*f t 'a mosquito'), 'a mosquito-tent,' apoken of eontemp- 
tuously as a rign of effeminate luxuryj ef. Prop. 3. 11. 45 
foedaque Tarpeio conopia tendere taxo. 

17. at huc...] 'And yet two thonaand Geuls, ehanting 
Oaeeart name, turned their anorting steeda hither (i.e. deserted 
to na).' The Gauls who thua deeerted Antony were Galatiana 
(rdAarac, KArac, iee Liffhtfoot, Epistle to the Galatians) 
nnder king Deiotaroa. wiokham with many M8S. reada ad 
hune t and explaine JremenUt aa maso. nom. ='channg at suoh a 
aight,' hunc being amittftm tpadonibut tervientem, but such 
Latin ia dubious, and frementet must go with equot (ef. Hom. 
IL 4. 227 ftnrovt fwiowmrat), the very horaea being deaoribed aa 
' anorting ' with indignation. Orelli read at hoe and alao took 
frementet as maao. nom. direetly governing hoe ' indignant at 
aoeh a thing.' In any oaae the oonduot of theae barbariane ia 
oontraated with that of the Bomana in Antony'a aervioe. 
Notioe vertirunt as elaewhere in poetry tul&runt, ded&runt. 

19. The meaning of these linee eannot be determined 
aoeurately. They are oloeely oonneoted with the preoeding 
iines by que and ao must mark aome similar oonduot on the 
part of some vessels of the fleet, whioh are deaoribed as now 
•Iving hid in harbour' (i.e. the Ambraoian gulf) and not 
joming Antony and Cleopatra. But what is tinittrortum citae, 
and why the odd expreasion navium puppet ? The latter ia the 
opposite of navium ora t 4. 17, and ao would soggest retreat aa 
oppoaed to attack, so that perhaps, with Bentley, we may take 
eitae as a particinle and puppim ciere=dpaKpoO€<T$ai wp&u9*v t 
'back water,' wbile tinittroreum is a graphic word nataral 
enongh if we anppoae that the writer aotually aaw them ao 
baeking 'to the left' into the Ambracian gufif. Porphyrion 
explains of flight 'towards Egypt,' which would be to the left 
of a fleet faoing weat ; and so Orelli etei ad fugam tinittrortum 
vocantur, tamen Cleopatram dettituerunt portuque latent. The 
passage must remain obscnrc. 

. r 1VCJI ■ ■■" 


IoTrinmphe] OtOd.4.9.49. tntaetaa, U, thet hin 
x>rne the yoke; cf. Virg. Georg. 4. 540 ftiteefe cmvica 
u; Aen. 6. 88 freps <k fotoeto...sMetarv invtiieof. The 
ce is to the white bulls {bovet ie used fon. aeeordiag to 
i ooitom) bred by tho Clitumnus (Virg. Qeorg. 1. 148) 
ij f or saorifloe in a triumph. 

'neither in the Jugarthlne war didet thou bring home 
leader (as Caeaar), nor Africanus (tc reportatti varem 
, for whom valour reared hia monument otot Cartliage.' 
i led Jugurtha in triwnph, Jan. 1, 104 m.; Seipio 
red Carthage b.c. 146. Carthage ia deseribed aa the 
jhre' (i.e. everlasting monnment) whieh Soipio by hia 
reared for himself. PlUee objects that tepulckrum, iike 
he grave,' snggeite rather obliTion (of. Od. 4. 9. 99 
£ inerHae) than a memorial, but of. Stat. Sirt. 9. 71 et 
tuperba \ Pompeio dabit altius tepulchrum, where Lnean'e 
the Pharaalia ia deaoribed ae a 'ioftier memorial of 
y than the prond Pharoe'; Thuo. 9. 48 ro> dyip** 
> fk&ufiaror koJ, rbw r&Qo* iwtoyiuoraror, oOk h $ Kcumu 
, oXX' iw £ 4i oo£a ai/rdr vapakoiwerau Afrloano haa 
luthority, but 'a war for whioh (Boman) valour reared 
mlchre over (the ruins of) Carthage' is a startling phrase 
l of 'which Roman valour brought to an end by burning 
ge/ and not to be justified by such a uae of tepelire as 
quotes from Cio. pro L. Man. 11. 80 bellum adventu 
ii tublatum ac tepultum. 

punloo] The reference is to the purple paludamentum 
Dman geueral. It is sometimes called tagum purpureum 
inguish it from the tagum gregale of the oommon soldier, 
Antony here adopts as a sigu of mourning. mutavlt, 
iken in exchange,' of. Od. 1. 17. 2 n. 

centum...] Cf. Od. 3. 27. 33 and note. non suls: 
3 = very unfavourable ; cf. Ov. Triat. 3. 5. 4 nave mea 
'ortan eunte tuo, 

8yrtes] Cf. Od. 1. 32. 5. exerdtatas : ef. Od. 4. 15. 21. 
rtur..., 'or drifts over the unoertain sea,' i.e. is oarried 
sly wherever ohance of wind and wave takes him. Cf. 
7. 27 'driven up and down in Adria.' 

Chia] Cf. Od. 1. 17. 21 n. It and Lesbian were Ught 

whereas Caecuban was strong and tfor6uaxo*, so that 

e suggests it as a remedy to ' keep in cheok the rising bile.' 

s old ezplanation was that the party were beginning to 

NOTES. 485 

have drunk too much, but in the 4th editioo thia view ii rightly 
rejeoted in favour of Bneheler , i view that Horaoa repretente 
himself as reaUy at Nft and really uneasy, thongh the actual 
phyaioal uneaainesa U meant also to euggest the mentti un- 
eaainess whioh ii troubling him, ef. U. 86, 87. 

87. rerum] obj. gen. 'fear for Caeaar*e fortunee.' 

Lyaeo] from M<# (of. Od. 8. 21. 15 n.), ao that tolvett playt 
on the meaning of the word. 


A humoroui antitheaii to Od. 1. 8 and ao affording proof— 
if proof ia needed— that the Virgil there mentioued ia the poet 
Virgil. Horaoe prayi all the winds to fall upon the ahip whioh 
ia oonveying Maeviue (probably to Oreeoe) and to atir up auoh 
a atorm aa fell on the Oreek fleet when returning from Troy; 
he pieturea to himaelf how Maeviue wiU ahriek and pray, and 
vowa, if he ia only drowned, to offer suitable victims to the 
Tempeato. Maeviua waa a poetaster ehieily known from VirgiTi 
iine, EoL 8. 90 qui Bavium non odit, amet tua carmina, Matvi. 

1. mala...aUte] Cf. 16. 28 teeunda aliU; Od. 1. 15. 5 n. 
aoluta, 'unmoored/ 

4 Auater, 5 Burua, 7 Aquilo] Cf. Od. 1. 8. 4, where aU the 
winda, exeept Iapyz, whioh would waft the ahip to Dyrrhaohium, 
are kept imprisoned : here ail the winda wnich would hinder 
the voyage are to be let looae. 

7. quantus...] 'mighty at when on mountain heighto he 
anape the quivering oake.' 

9. aldui amieum] Beoauae without the ttari the aneiento 
eould not steer, and on the stormy night 'when baleful Orion 
aeto' they would be espeoiallv needed; of. Aeto 27. 20 'And 
when neither eun nor ■tars for manv days appeared, and no 
amaU tempest lay on us, sil hope that we should be saved 
was then taken away. v trlatla Orion: et 16. 7 and Od. 1. 
28. 21 n. 

18. eum...] Pallas was 'angry' with Troy beeause of the 
judgment of Paris, but when Ajax, son of Oileus, outraged 


hfr enger ewaj from fSom in aahea aanhiat the hnpftone hask 
of AJnx, • and oaneod a liolont atorm to frU upon tfce Gteek 
fleet doring whloh Ajas periehod; ot Virg. Aen. L 19 ojf.| 
Aeoeh. Ag. 660; Hom. Od. 4- 489. 

16. poJkrtattu] Tho' p a tan o m 'of an Italian oonm l orkm 
U *jellow' rather thos •white.» Honoo pollor io nood of fofti, 

of. Od. 8. 10. 4 n. 

17. Cf. Cie. Tnee. 8. 88. 66 fnpmiftcire no— nfnom wfrn 
eowcctmm etMdent rero; omf o mt nt omfftrf ff d m i. 

18. ndo] 'reinj.' romngtoni, 'roering baek to* or «ho- 
nmth tho oonth vind, • ot Od. 8. 10. 6. 

81. optma...] 'But if otrotohod o nohlo proy npon tho 
enrving ahore jon oholl feast tho gulls....' spfom protolo, on 
tho enalogj 01 $poUa opiwuu Forphjrion 0070. ejmeret ef 
pinpiem fui$$e t and thongh Sohflts sajs thfe ia 'eerteinly 
wrong/ tho joko it probably meant, espeoiallY 00 'fet' in Lotin 
io siso='stupidV For luverls tho M88. give fnvcHt, whioh 
many retain. 

SS. AlambwaareffuUrlyvowed to the Tempeste ta prajere 
for $afety ; ef. Virg. Aen. 6. 773 Tempf»tatibu$ aanam | eeedtrv 
deinde iubet: here it ia promiied comicallj in the oppoeito ooee. 
The l. caper is olearlj ijmbolical of olern Maevitu. Noto tho 
mock graudeur of the two lines. 


'Tis winter and storm without, and to v whflo we axe joung, 
lot us baniah gioom within doors. Bring out wine of tho jeor 
when I was born, and cease to talk of troublee, looking for 
happier days. Now, steeped in perfumes, we will lighten onr 
hearts with song, aocording to the sage advioa of Obiron to 
Achilles, "Thou dost go to Troj never to retura: remombor 
then while there to seek in wine and song the dear reUof of 
misshaped melancholy." A similar theme to Od. 1. 9. 

NOTES. 487 

1. caelum oontraxit] 'hae mado the iky lower,' Le. look 
grim and threatening ; cf. eontrahere fronUm, eupereilia Ao. 
At the aame thne the literal aenae of the elonda 'oontraeting' 
the open expanee o! heaven mnat not be excluded. 

2. deducunt Ioveml Graphies the 'rain and anow* oome 
down in anoh maaies that thcy eeem to bring down the skr 
itaelf with them, ot Od. 1. 16. 11 n. Orelli qnotea Lner. 1. 960, 
Virg. Bel. 7. 60 Ao., where • Jove' or 'Heaven' ii aaid to deaoend 
with ahowere into the lap of mother Barth bringing joy and 
fertility, but raoh allegorioal paaaagee entirely differ from this, 
where the whole idea ie of storm and desolation. Horaoe 
ia oopying Anacreon, Fr. 6 Alm r Ayfxoi xci/i^rcf Kar&yovew. 
allnae: of. 16. 82 milio; Od. 1. 28. 4 n. 

8. ThreiciG Aquilonel The hiatns is helped by the oaeenra 
and the proper names : Virgil ii fbnd of it in the 5th foot, e^. 
Aetaeo Aracyntho, Neptund Atgato. Bentley's amiee for amlot, 
thongh many aocept it, is qnite needlesa. Horaee hsre ad- 
dreases all his friends who are present : in 1. 6 he addresses 
one of tbem speoially, beoanse at a feaat some one peraon was 
made *lord of the revel' (arbiter bibendi, Od. 2. 7. 26). 

4. de dle] To be taken olosely with rapiamun the day 
offers *opportunity,' let ns eagerly aooept from it what it 
offers; of. Od. 1. 11. 8; 8. 8. 27. Porphyrion has *convivia 
de die 9 dieebantur a primo mane eoepta; of. Od. 1. 1. 20; 
Bpist 1. 14. 84 ; CatulL 47. 5 voe eonvivia lauta eumptuoee | 
de die faeitit, and nndonbtedly feasting, drinking, Ac *while 
it is still daylight* are often spoken of in eonnection with 
lnxury, intemperanoe, and the like: but here, where there 
is no Bueh referenoe, the simpler meaning of the words is far 
preferable. virent genna: cf. Theoor. 14. 70 *-ori)r ri Ul t at 
y6ru yXw/>6r=while yonng and strong. For virens of youth, 
cf. 0£ 1. 9. 17; 4. 18. 6, and the 'knees' are regnlarly naed as 
a symbol of strength; ef. the Homerio yovwar* fkvatw and Ps. 
109. 24 'my knees are weak'; Is. 85. 8 'eonfirm the feeble 

5. obdnota aolvaturl Antithetioal Jnxtapoaition — 'nnknit 
the frowninff brow of gloom'; of. Od. 8. 29. 16. senectns: 
metaphorieallyaB'moroaeness , ; ef. Bp. 1. 18. 47 inhumanae 
eenium depone Camenae. 

6. For this birthday wine ef. Od. 8. 81. 1 and note. move: 
cf. Od. 8. 81. 6. 


7. oetera) Cf. caxefully the podtion of thii word, Od. L 
9. 9, wbereitelsofollowsthementionof wine. Henoe, oleariy , 
•all elee' U •all that U not oonneeted with wine and mirth.* 
deni haee...: «perchance heeven will with kindly ohange (et 
Od. 1. 4. 1 grata viea) bring beok theee storms to eehn': 
*a^='theprceentcondltionof things/i.c.mthenrst i n et a n oo, 
the stormy weether outaide, and then, eecondarily, eil oor 
troubles— there will be 1011010110 elter etorm. 

8. ▲ohaemenio n.] Gf. Od. 8. 1. 44 n. Cyllenea: Le.eeered 
to Mercury its inventor (Od. 1. 10. 6), who wao born on Ms 
Cyllene in Areedia. The •pondeio ending to rive dignity . cf. 
16. 17 Phocaeorum; 18. 29 Appenmnut : eoVirgilendanneewith 
Anchueo, PaUanteum, Oritkvia. 

11. Oentanme] See CWrom in Cless. Diet grandi: «huge/ 
of heroio monld; gode end heroee eie elweye of greet eiie in 
the poeti; ct Yirg. Aen. 6. 418 ingentem Aenean. oooJnlt, 
of aracular utterenoe; cf. Od. 1. 15. 4 n. 

12. 'Invinoible youth, mortel offspring of divine Thetie.' 

18. manet] 'awaiU,' Le. by destiny, in epite of all thy 
mother's efforts to keep tbee from the land wbere thou must 
die; cf. Od. 1. 8. 13. parvl: but in Hom. H. 20. 73 fUyat 
vorafios paQvdlrTfi I 6* ^.ivQop KaKiovct $€ol or&pet & Ixdjiardpor. 
Perhaps Horace wishes to emphasize tbe idea of a lowly grave 
by a 'little' stream in oontrast with tbe glory and greatnees of 
Achilles. Of conjectures Jlavi whioh would give a Latin 
rendering of Za»Qoi=ZavQ6\, 'yellow,' is the best. lubricue, 
'swift-gliding'; Virg. Aen. 6. 261 rapidum Simoenta, 

15. certo subtemine] 'with sure web'; cf. Tib. 1. 7. 1 
Parcae fatalia nentet | ttamina. Tbe Fates weave into their 
web the thread of eacb buman life, and wben tbat thread has 
reached its appointed length they 'snap' (cf. rupere) or sever 
it ; cf. Milton, Lyc. 75 'Comes the blind Fury witb the abhorred 
shears, And slits the thin-spun life.' caerula: the reguUr 
epithet of oceau deities, whose hue is that of tbe sea itself ; of. 
Od. 1. 17. 20 n. 

18. alloquUs] Apparently a reproduction of some Gk word 
such as Taprry6priua : cf. the rule given A. P. 52 et novafictaqua 
nuper liabebunt verba Jidem ti \ Graeco jonte cadeni parce de~ 

NOTES. 489 

torta. Note the alliteration of the line and the ekill with whioh 
it if made np of f onr worda, the aim being to give a amooth and 
mnaieal finiih to the Epode. 


An apology to Maeoenaa f 6r not eompleting the book of 
Epodee. 'Yon haraai me to death with aaking me why I am 
ao idle and forgetf al to finiah my long-promieed iambiot. Iam 
fired with love fieree aa that of Anaereon, and yon onght to 
pity me, for yon are in love yonraelf , happy in a miitreaa fair 
aa Helen, while Phryne makea me lean with jealonay.' 

1. tantam...] 'haa ao iteeped my deepeit aenaw in ob- 
livion': for imit #. ot Virg. Eel. 3. 64 tentibut kaee imit— 
ret ett non parv a reponat, and onr phraae 'the bottom of the 

8. nt al...] 'aa thongh I have drained dranghte...'; trax- 
«rtm, like ^rdw, fXir* and eommonly duco. 

5. eandlde] Cf. Od. 1. 18. 11 n. dena, i.e. lore. 

7. ollm] 'long ago'; of. Od. 4. 4. 5 n. lamboa, i.e. the 
Epodea; of. Ep. 2. 2. 59. ad nmbUienm... : ef. Mart 4. 89. 1 
(the laet epigram of the book) ohs iam tatit ett, \ iam pervenimut 
utque ad umbiUcot. The umbiliei were the knobe at eaoh end 
of the atiok ronnd whioh the book waa rolled: as yon read 
(evolvere) a book when yon get to thia itiek yon have got to 

9. aralaae B.] * wae fired with love for ' ; f or the eonatrnotion 
of. Od. 8. 9. 5 n. 

12. non...] 'to no elaborate meainre'; ao of Pindar, Od. 
4. 2. 11 numeritque /ertur lege tolutit. The gennine fragmente 
of Anaereon hardly allow ne to fnlly teat Horaee'a eritioiim, 
bv which, however, he probably meana little more than 'in 
nmple itraini.' 

18. non pulchrior...] 'no fairer flame kindled beleagnered 
Hinm': ignit ia need lfterallya*flre t ' and metaphorieally« 
'objeet of love,' i.e. Helen. 

15. neqne...] 'and not aatiified with a aingle wooer.' 
maoerat: ef. Od. 1. 18. 8. 



To Neaera on her treachery (ef . Od. 2. 8). ' CHngiiig oloaarj 
to me you swore— ahl aoon to be fonworn — that yoo wonld 
always return my lore. Now, Neaera, yoa ahall learn to regrot 
my firmnees, for I will not brook yonr oonstant prefeieDoe of 
a ri? al. And you, prood sir, though wealthy, wiee and hand- 
some, ahall yet learn the pain oi being daacrted, and than il 
will be my turn to laogh.' 

8. magnonun...deonmi] The aaKmanoe givee a mook- 
heroie dignitv ; ef. the oonventional ■oene-painting in the first 
two linee which are surely to be taken as mimicnr and not real 
poetry. laesura, *aoon to outrage,' i.e. by breaking the oath 
■worn by them. in rerba iuxabas: cf. 18. 86; Ep. 1. 1. 14 
iurare in verba magUtri; the phrase desoribea swearing to a 
form of words recited by another; ao espeeiaUy of soldiera 
takiog the oath of allegianoe to their oommander, a.g. in verba 
P. Scipioni* iurare. 

5. artius atque] 'more closely th&n.' This uae of atque 
is a poetio extension of its regnlar use in oomparisons (after 
aequu$ y similis, idem &c.) to put two things cloaely side by 
side; cf. Virg. Aen. 3. 661 haud minut ae ituti faeiunt. hedera: 
cf. Od. 1. 36. 20. lentls, 'pliant/ 'dinging.' 

7. dum...mutuum] give the words of the oath in oblique 
narration — '(you swore) that while the wolf (was hottile) to 
the lamb (4. 1 n.) t while Orion (8. 10 n.), hostile to sailors, 
vexed.this love should be mutual,' ie. as long as the order 
of nature remained unchangcd. lntonsos : cf. Od. 1. 21. 8 n. 
mutuum : cf. Od. 4. 1. 30 n. For tuxbaret agltaret, Bentley, 
with some authority, read turbarit agitarit, which Nauck 
preferrt a* more diamatic — * (you swore, saying) that while the 
wolf shall be...this love ahall be'; cf. renarint 16. 26, following 
iuremu$ in haec. 

11. Tlrtute] 'manhood' (i.e. resolution); cf. viri in next 
line. The abl. is that of the instrument — you shall be made 
to mourn by my firmness. Neaera, from reopot. nam..., *for 
if there be anything manly...,' i.e. as surely as there is some- 
thing manly: for ti so used in asseverations and appeals of. 
Od. 1. 32. ln.; C. S. 37 n. 

NOTES. 491 

13. pottorl] 'a favoured ri?aT; ef. Od. 8. 9. 2 n. parem: 
'a true mate' or 'matoh.' 

15. 'nor ihall my determination yield before your beaaty 
when onoe it hai beoome hatefnl (to me) ' ; for effentut praetteally 
minwitut, et Cio. pro Glu. 168 etiam ei i$ invidiotut aut multie 
effeneut videatur; pro Bett. 185 cui not offenti inwitique; 
2 Verr. S. 62 invidiotum offentumque. Bentley aake quid 
rnirum, ti formae offentae et invitae non eederett ei non iUam 
deperirett quam turpem iam et deformem ette erederett aa 
thongh forma cffenta, * beauty that haa beeome hatefol,' meant 
' beaoty that haa beeome ugly ' I But Horaoe nerer dreams of 
Neaera aa ugly, No t it ia her Tery beautjr whioh will make 
her more haterol and loathaome to him, lf onoe the salling 
doobta of jealonay beoome oertainties (ef. eertut). Soholara 
ahonld leaye subjeots they do not nnderitand alone; yet 
L. Muller, Keller, Kieesling, and Sohuta aooept Bentley'! 
oonjeoture offenti. 

17. mto...] 'who now maroh triumphant in my miahap 
(lit. 'rendered proud by')': incedie auffgeata the haughty gait 
of a yiotor ; of. Virg. Aan. 5. 68, who also uees it of the stately 
gait of Juno, Venus, and Dido. 

19. Uoebrt] rare even in poetrr for licet, *although.' ttbl, 
i.e. for your proflt. fluat, i.e. 'rous down ito golden sand,' as 
we should say. 

21. For Pythafforas and his theory of souls 'being born 
again' in fresh bodies, see Class. Diot. and Od. L 28. 10 n. 
aroana: 'the iecret' or 'esoterio teaohing' only rerealed to the 
inner group of his disoiples. His doetrines were of an espeeially 
mystio oharaoter, and hia followers were dirided into oKovefM- 
rucot mere 'hearers/ and uaBnuarucot real *students l , Iambl. V. 
Pyth. 81. For Nirea of. Od. 8. 20. 15 n. 

28. eheu] Horaoe mimios his ri?al's ory. Biany M88. 
giye fou heu, 


Llke the serenth, an Epode in whieh Horaoe is tuning his 
lyre to loftier strains. It is nndoubtedly early (eee notea on 
U. 49, 55, 57 for its timilarity to Eologne 4) and usuallv 
P. H. 


igned to about s.c. 41, the date of the 'Pernsine wmr* 
ween L. Antonins and Ootavian, or it may be of the same 
easEpod.7. Theideaof setting saft f or the Happy Islands 
the nnknown west le aeexibed to Sertorini by Sallust 
agm. 1. 61) traditur fugam t» Oceani Umginqua agUama, 
ut duat intulat propinquat inUr te et datem wdUa ttadimm 
cul a Oadibut titat conttabat tuopte ingenio aUmenta morta- 
u gignere; Plnt. Sert. 9. 

1 A aeeond generation ie being worn awaj in dyil itrife, and 
me, whidh no foreign foe eonld ▼anqniih will be orerthrown 
itself (1—14). The onlj plan to be rid of onr tronbles is to 
, like the old Phocaeant, binding onrsetoes by an oath nerer 
return untQ the laws of natnre are all ehanged (15—34). 
thU the resolve of those among ns who have a good heart, 
d let ns set sail for that eirenmambient Ooean (41) in whieh 
i the Happy Isles, where toil and tronble and siokness are 
known — Isles t whieh as yet no bark has ever reached, bnt 
ich Jnpiter reserved for a righteous people in the day when 
turned the age of gold to brass and then to iron, and where 
i righteous, with me as their prophet-bard, may now find a 

1. alteral *a second': the first 'generation' wonld begin 
the time of Marius and Sulla, abont b.c. 88. 

2. snls...] 'and Rome falls by its own might,' i.e. is being 
stroyed by its own mighty men, who ruin its strength in 
,ernecine strife, cf. 7. 10. Most editors oompare Liv. Praet 
t...ut iam magnitndine laboret tua; Aug. de Civ. D. 18. 45 
rma...tamquam te ipta ferre non valent % tua te quodammodo 
ignitudine fregerat; Lucan 1. 72 nec te Roma ferent, and 
L 3. 4. 65 mole ruit tua: but in all these cases Bome is 
oken of as something which has beoome too big to bear its 
m weight and therefore falls necessarily, whereas in oon- 
ction with 'civil strife' the force of tuit and ipta mnst be 
express suicidal oonduot whioh destroys that whieh is other- 
se absolutely safe and stable. 

NOTES. 493 

8. MirH] In ihe Soeial war b.o. 91—88, ef. Od. 8. 14. 
18 n. Poraenae, bat Portenna in Virg., end eee Inir. io Maoaa- 
laj*! Hontini. 

6. aemula] Oapua revolted fromBome after Oannae and 
wae retaken B.a 211. It wae treated with ruihleee teverity, 
for Bome brooked no 'rivaT; ef. for the adj. 7. 5 invidae 
Karthaginit, Bpartacui : of. Od. 8. 14. 19 n. 

6. novltqoe. . .] • and the AUobrogee feithlett amid (or < to v 
or •byj reyolntion.' The embattadora of the Allobrogee (a 
people between the Bhone and tfae leere in the Intula AUobro- 
gum) were tampered with by Oatiline (b.o. 68), bat reveeled the 
eeoret of hia eonepiracy ; tfae Allobrogee however revolted almoet 
immediately afterwarda (Oio. da Fxov. Cont. 18. 83). novii 
rebui may be dat. 'faithleea to Catiline 1 (Wiokham), or abl. 
eaneal, 'by deeire for revolution' (Sohttti), or general abL of 
attendant eiroumttaneee. 

7. oaerulea] 'hlue-eyed'; Tae. Germ, 4 trueet et caeruUi 
oeuli. Oexmanla: the referenee ia to tfae defeat of the Gimbri 
and Tentonea by Mariut b.o. 109 and 101. abommatne p. : 
et Od. 1. 1. 25 n. 

9. devott aangnlnle] ' of a doomed breed,' beeanie eprnng 
from Bomnlaf , the alayer of hie brother, ef. 7. 20. 

11. dnereel of Bome. aonante: 'olattering,' 'eohoing,' 
in oontraet witn the tilenoe and deeolation around. Orelli 
well qnotee Eiekiel 26. 11 ungulit equorum tuorum conculcabit 
omnet plateai tuat. 

18. oarent ventte...] 'are eafe from wind and eun,' i.e. in 
the tomb. Of oonree thit ia ineoneietent witfa the oarrying off of 
Bomulut to heaven, Od. 8. 8. 15 ; bnt rhetorioiant and poete 
may defy oontitteney. Porphvrion quotee Varro ae referring to 
a * buriil plaoe of Bomulue behind the Boetra,' bni Horaoe'e 
phraee ia merely rhetorical«'tfae ashee of onr anoettore.' 
Orelli again well oomparee Jer. 8. 1 eiieient oeta regum Iuda 
et oeea principum eitue «I oeea tepulchrit euie et 
eapandent ea ad toltm tt tunam; Barneh 2. 24. 

15. fbrte...] 'perehanoe ye eeek, all alike or the nobler 
part (of yon, to learn) what aidi yon to be qnit of yonr nnhappy 

troablet: let no deoition prevail over thit, at , (to) to go 

(21) ' The eentenoe ii one of tfaoee oommon eonaitional 

eentenoee where tfae protaiii ii pnt vigorooily at a ttatement, 



instead of hypothetically with ei. Bentley, objecting that ftrtd 
expediat carere ean only mean ' what good it U tobe freeY read 
with one M8. quod exvediat m & parentheeisa'and maj il 
tnrn oni weil/ hut suoh a nie of expedire ii unknown, and 
Horaoe's marked fondnen for bold naes of the inf. fef. within a 
few lines hae (eententid) ire, *the resolve to go'; habet euadere; 
moramwr occupare) af ter adjeotiTes and Terbs quite justines the 
ordinary interpretation. Qtdd me impedit eequi 9 ia foond in 
proee: then why not quid (vee) expedit earere 9 

17. Fhoeaeorum...] The inhabitants of Fhooaea, being 
betieged by Harpagus b.c. 584, determined to abandoa their 
city and sunk * a lump of iron,' vowing noi to retnrn to Phooaea 
tdIf iJ tof p69po* rovrop djwtfrat (Her. 1. 165). snoorata, 
«having bonnd themaelves by a ourse'; froc^orro i#X"P** 
Kardpai Her. Lo. 

21. quocunque ... qnoennqne ...] Paaaionate repetition. 
pedea...per undaa, i.e. by land or eea, ef. Od. 8. 11. 49. 

28. alo plaoet ?] Beoalling tfae placetne t nted in taldng 
the jndgment of the Boman tenate, tne deoreei of whieh oflen 
began Placere tenatui or Senatui non placere. 

25. renarlnt] Apparently ' rise and float.' 

26. ne...] '(then only) let retnraing be not acrime.' 

27. qnando. . .aeqnora (34)], i.e. when all the laws of natnre 
are inverted. The Latin poets are fond of developing this idea, 
cf. Od. 1. 29. 10; Verg. Ecl. 1. 59 and many other instanoes in 
Orelli. Matlna, i.e. of Mons Matinos in Apulia, of. Od. 4. 2. 27. 

30. monatra iunxerit] ' shall nnite monsters/ i.e. animaln 
which by seeking snch unions will show themselves monstrons 
and nnnatnral. 

31. iuvet...] ' so that tigresses delight to mate with stags, 
and the dove finds a paramonr in the kite.' 

33. ravos] Of. Od. 3. 27. 3 lupa rava. Festus defines the 
colonr a8 between/ultnu and caeeiut ('bluish-gray,' the oolonr 
of a cafs eye ; of Minerva'8 eye, y\avtc6t). It is used by Varro 
of the eyes ; a good ram should have ravoe oculot, a good dog 
ocuhot nigrantet aut ravot. It seexns nsed here to renresent 
Xapordi (cf. Hom. Od. 11. 611 x a P° roi - X^orrci) which is nsed 
1) aB='bright-eyedV then (2) of oolour=*bini8h-gray,' see 
x. Many MSS. have ytovoi ; some saevos. 


NOTES. 496 

84. lerls] i.e. loeing its hsir and beooming 'smooth ' like 

87. moffls...] *let tfae deliomte and despairing oontinoe 
to preee their ill-omened oouohes'; Le. lie idly at home where 
they are doomed to perish. 

89. tomte] «swsy with !• of. Od. 2. 5. 9. Tirtos, mulle- 
nrem: sntitheticsl juxUposition. Btrusoa tttoca: not *the 
ooast of Btruris,* but 'the oossts of the Tnsosn ses' (siare 
Tyrrhenum or Tuscttm) snd sov'the shores of Italy,' wbioh 
tfaey sre to fly psst on their wsy westwsrd. 

41. clreumTsgus] The Homerio ides of tkcayet wss thst 
of s stresm flowing roand tfae world; Aesoh. Prom. 188. Por- 
phyrion resdsn. m. 0. eircum vaaue arva beata: arva... msking 
eireum govern arra, snd so Oreui (Ed. 4), bnt then the repe- 
tition of arva by itself slter atva beata is intolersbly flst 
dlTltee et InsnUs is explanstory of beata arva — 'let ns seek 
the fields, the blessed flelds of tnoee rioh isles where....' For 
dtvitee insulae of. Od. 4. 8. 97 n. ; Hom. Od. 4. 588 $eq. 

48. reddlt] 'duly besrs,' givee whst is looked for from 

45. n. nUlentlsl 'thst never deoeiTes' those who expeet 
fruit from it, of. Od. 8. 1. 80 n. pulla, 'dsrk,' i.e. ripe. susm, 
* ite own,' i.e. withont needing to be grsfted on snother stook ; 
of. Vira. Georg. 2. 82 miraturque novae frondee et non eua poma, 
ssid of the stook in whioh s grsit hss been plsoed. 

47. mella...l Cf. Od. 2. 19. 11 snd the Bibliosl phrsse * s 
lsnd flowing witn milk snd honer.' Abandsnoe of honey is a 
oonstsnt sign of felioity with the anoients, who, heving no 
sugar, made much more use of honey thsn we do. 

48. Notioe the rhythm of the line. 

49. illio...] So exsotly in the ssme oonneotion Yirg. Bol. 
4. 21 (written ebont b.c. 40) ipeae laeU domum referent dietenta 
eapellae | ubera t where ipeae^iniueeae here, snd dietenta u. 
= tenta u. sxnieos, ' loving/ snd so needing no oonstraint, bnt 
ooming ' nnbidden.' 

62. neque...] An srtifioisl phrsset • nor does the ground 
swell up snd heave with snskes,' oeingas * nor do snskes, whioh 
oorer the ground, swell (i.e. in snger) snd rsise themselvee (Le. 
to sttsek).' Otfaers take alta humue of ' deep soil ' ss opposed 
to the rooky, dry, ssndy spots whioh vipen love. 


pluraqae..J •and more things shell we marrel «I... 
ly)how....' For Mtror «t et Od. 8. 4. 7. radai, « sooors.' 

Note the earefnl helanos and order of tfais line— adj. 

. B, verb, noun A, noun B, and ef. U. 7, 88; Virg. EoL 4. 

na Cumaei venit iam carmimU aetat, 14 irrita perpetua 

tformidine Urrat, 88 ip#o tibi blandoe fundent cun a bule 

29 incultieque rubene pendebit eentibue uva. The ten- 

thus to balanoe adjeetives at the beginning of a line with 

at the end la marked throaghoot this Epode (of. U. 2, 4, 

46, 48, 67, 59, 68), aa it ia in the fourth Eologue, and 

indioates juvenile work, although some of the finest 

in Virgil owe much to the aame devioe, of. Oeorg. 1. 

npiaque aetemam timuerunt eaecula noctem, and 1L 496, 

08, 510. 

, ntrnmqne] Le, •eech' eztreme of wet and drooght 

. non huo...] i.e. they have never been oontaminatod bv 
' thoee retUeas adTentnrers (typified by Jaaon in pnrsmt 

§olden fleeoe} and merohants, for whom Horaoe has a 
islike, cf . Od. 1. 8 ; 8. 39. 56—61. SimOarly in EoL 4. 
mpting the sea in ships ' and the ' bnilding of the Argo ' 
arka of ' guile,' and in the golden age that is tfaere an- 
ed there will be no sailora and no merchants. 

. 81donll] The Phoenicians were the great traden of 
uty; of. Od. 3. 29. 60 Tyriaeque merces; Is. 28. 2 «the 
ants of Zidon'; 8 •Tyre...whose merohants are prinoes.' 
a, xlpara, the ends of the yards. 

. laborlosa o.] • much-enduring troop': iroX£r\ar, the 
rio epithet of Ulysses himself (cf. 17. 16), is transferred to 
ilowers. For thig and the gen. Ulixei cf. Od. 1. 15. 88 

\da classit AchilUi. 

. aatri] such as Sirius, the dog-star, to the * fiery fieroe- 
of which the malignant heat of sommer was attribnted 
27; Virg. Aen. 3. 141). For impottntia of • uncontroUed 
iess ' cf. note on impotens Od. 1. 37. 10. 

. aere...aere] Rhetorical repetition (drcupopd) nsed as a 
nient form of conneoting olauses; of. Od. 1. 2. 4 n. 

. duravit] *he made hard,' playing on tfae word 
, which can be nsed (1) literally of iron, (2) metaphorieaUy 
nduring tronble, (b) = hard, ornel. qnomm, * from which,' 

NOTES. 497 

BPODB xvn. 

▲ dialogue in whioh Horaoe (1—52) profeetei himielf oon- 
quered and aaroaatioally entreate Oanidia'e pity, while Oanidia 
(58—81) replioe that he pleade in vain. Hor. l l yield; be 
pitifal and oeaee thj epelle (1—7), e?en ai Aohiilee had pily on 
Telephne and Priam, and Oiree on the oomradee of Uiyieee (8 
— 18). I have iuffered, and etill iufler, tortnre enough, eo that 
I reeant mj denial of the power of witohoraft (19—29). I 
am oommmed with firee, that bnrn like the ehirt of Neeene or 
the flamee of Aetna. Ie there no expiation of my gniltf I am 
ready to hymn to heaven thy ehaetiiy and virtue, in a palinode 
eueh ae that by whioh Steeiohorue reoovered eight (80—44), and 
therefore eet me free, for, truly, upon thy lineage there ie no 
elur, thou haet never violated a tomb, Paotumeiui ie the off- 
spring of thy own womb, thine are the diitinotions of materniiy.' 
Can. 'Thou doet appeal to deaf ean. Art thou to be un- 
puniahed for revealing my myeteriea and making me the talk 
of the townf (58—89). Ie it for that I have siudied witoh- 
oraftf No: thou ehalt live to euffer endleee tormente like the 
tormente of the damned (60—69). Thou ehalt eeek to elay 
thyeelf, but in vain, while I ride in triumph on thy neek. 
Wbat ) ehall I, who oan work all wondere, lament that my ekill 
is ineffootive againet thee ? ' 

1. iam iam] Eager repetition, ef. $olve t $olvi, 1. 7. do 
manuia^yield/ 'acknowledge defeat,' 'eurrender'; eee Diot. 

8. Dlanae] of . 5. 51 n. non movenda, • inviolable, • ixUnjra ; 
both movere and Kwttr are eepeoially ueed of iaorilegioue dia- 
turbanoe of thinge saored. 

4. libroe...] Cf. Aoti 19. 19 *Many of them aleo whioh 
uaed ourioue arti brought their booke together and burned 
them before all men: and they oounted the prioe of them, and 
found it fffty thouaand pieoee of eiiver.' 

5. renxa...] Of. 5. 45 n. reflxa, ' unfized,' of. Od. 1. 28. 
11; Virg. Aen. 5. 527 rejixa tidera of shooting etara. Some 
MSS. give drfixa whioh looke iike a oorreetion. 


paroe...] * eeaee from thy awfal iptlli'; $acrit is pnr- 
ambiguonss 'holy ' or ' aocursed.' 

tnrtolnem] fatfiot, * a magic wheel,' used in Theocr. 2. 
with a wry-neck (rvy|) fastened on H to draw a lover to 
2M. The 'letting it go beok' destroyed the oharm. 

Telepnus] Achillen, mndeon of Nereus. m being the 
Thetif , wonnded Telephus king of the Mysians, and then 
him, aooording to the oraole 6 rpfoot «el JdVmu, with 
it of the spear whioh wonnded him. 

nnxere] 'anointed'; part of the tolemn rituei of bnrial 
18. 850 koI t6t€ fy Xofodr rt koJ, ^Actfo* XAr' Aotet; Virg. 
. 219 corputaue lavant fiigentit et unguunt) and eo in 

oontrast with addietum...canibut. He reoeived dne 
ilthough Aohillee had ' given him orer ' to the fowle of 

and to the dogs, ot II. 23. 182, 8"Brropar oCrt I Mr« 
hfp wvpl davrtfur dXXa «tfwo-ir; see too 1 8am. 17. 44 
L give thy flesh nnto tfae fowls of the air, and to tho 
of the fleld.' Some MS8. give luxere, 

The rhythm is most striking, and possibly is, as 

; and Meineke suggest, intended to oonvey a sense of 

homlddam H. : a very poor rendering of Hom. IL 

'Exropot di>dpo<p6roio. 

heul emphasizing the pitiable position of Priam at 
t of the slayer of his son. The famons story of Priam 
g back the body of Heotor is told in U. 24. pervtcads, 
late, ' but Btill yielding in the end. 

saetosa...] 'by Circe's favour put off (their swinish) 
bristly with hard hides.' The crew of Ulysses drank of 
, enchanted cup and were turned into swine, but retained 
ntelligence (Od. 10. 240 oisrdp rovt fj* tnwedot, wf r& 
rrp), which Horaoe, however, here supposes them to lose; 
n*, 1. 17. laboriosi: sense and rhythm make this go 
Uixei, but of. 16. CO. sonus, '(human) utteranoe.' 

lnsUtoribns] 'Pedlars' played a more important part 
iquity than they do now, and these travelling merohante 
heir costly wares (Sen. fr. de matr. 62 inttitortt gemma- 
Ticarumque vettium ri intromiterit, periculum ett) were 
*ou8 to womanly virtue, of. Od. 3. 6. 30. Of oonrse the 
i ' well-beloved by sailors and pedlars' is satirioaL 

NOTES. 499 

91. ▼«•Ottadnioolor] *th«hi»of modeity/ihefrMhoolour 
of blnahtagyouth. oaea»..: •my bonee now ooTered with yellow 
hidV; ef. Theoer. 9. 89 f/ytw 8' tf* «fttoXAt veVot r/rfx«» •*>* 
M Xotwa | eVri' tV ft col ttpta, where oVrta and 6t>pa exaotly 
oorreepond to ofta and peue here, and ofta ataiM ptZKt «tte, 
•to be a bag ol bonea,' is a proverbial expreeelon; of. Plaut 
Oapt. 1. 9. 96; AuL 8. 6. 98. Bentley and othon read ora 
with no authority, urging thet tho oolonr oonld not leave hie 
oonet, but, ai Wickham iaye, oeea peUe amieta ii really = 
petUm oeea amicientem—ih* roey hne of yooth hae left what ii 
now yollow hide enwrapping bones. 

95. uxget...] 'night treade on the heeli of day and day of 
night, and yct it ie not poeaible....' Notioe tfae inverted order 
of the oasee in diem nox et diee noctem. The repetition em- 
phasiBes the idea of ooaeeleai oontinuity, aa in onr phrasee 
•year by year,' ' day by day ' Ao. 

96. tenta spiritu] • atrained with aighing.' 

97. negatum...] 'I am driven to believe what I denied 
(namely), that....' lnorepare, of. Od. 4. 16. 9 n., aeems here 
s'moT6 (by tfae terror of their aonnd),' and ao almost=in- 
cantare. Sabella...Marsa...Paellfnas: witohea aeem to have 
aboanded among these old-fasbioned monntain tribes; of. 6. 
76; Sat. 1. 9. 99. dlaiUlra, <ie raoked with pain»; of. oar 
* splitting headaohe.' 

81. Heronlaa] Of. 8. 17. 

89. Slcana f crvtda] Note the qnantitiea. 

88. Tlrena] The use of t*reos'ain etrong,' •▼igoroos,' is 
well known (of. 18. 4), and so moet take the word here, oom- 
paring such phrases as s-vpot drfot (in Luor. flammai fiore 
coorto) and 0Xo£ 4pap&r$ii. Orelli gave 'green'=tulphurous; 
Peerlkamp ezplains ma^Julgent, of. Plaut. Men. 5. 9. 76 viden 
tu UU oeuloe virere; Kiessling atrangely derivee tfae word 
from vit riret, making tho i long, ef. vvreteo. The readinga of 
aome MSS. are olear oorreotions, Virent beooming Vrent and 

tn...] '(but) thoa doet glow t workshop with Oolohian 
poiaona until, burnt to aahea, I am aoattorod abroad by tho 
insulting winds.' The langnage is atrange, bnt not uneuited 
to the hlghly artincial and onnatoral oharaoter of the Epode. 


Canidia li ipoken of aa hereelf • a workahop aglow with paieona* 
or 'magio epelle,' beeauie ehe ie at work keeping the magie 
fire aglow, in whioh ahe burne various objeote, xn order that, ai 
thej oonsume awaj t eo Horaoe aleo maj oonanme awaj. Thia 
xnethod of affecting a peraon bj bnrning an image of him 
(of. 1. 76; Theoor. 2. 28), or eomething thaft belonged to him 
or •jmbolized him (cf. virg. Eol. 8. 82 Dapknit me malut urit, 
ego hane in Daphnide laurum; Theoor. 2. 28 — 26) waa regnlar 
in witohoraft. Wickham's phraee, *a laboratorj of magio 
druffs,' eaggetts a more mediae?al piotnre of an alohemiet al 
work. Canidia'8 fire ii not for nse in the aotual preparation 
of drogs Ota mott editore take it), but ii a magio flre, tne fieree 
glow of wnioh it bj magio meani {vtnenit) to oonsnme Horaoa» 
lninrloala: of. Od. 1. 85. 18. 

86. ftlpendlum] 'tribnte,' •penaltj, 1 ^?^o, and eo exaotlj 
—poenat in the next line. 

89. oentum luTenooe] i.e. aa an expiatorj aaorifioe, esa- 
Tonfir). ilye..., 'or whether thon ahalt ohooee to be hjmned 
bj mj untruthful lnte (then), "thon ohaste, thou ▼irtoous," 
8halt traverse the stars a golden constellation.' The langnage 
is mock-heroio and satirical in the extreme. mendael has two 
meamngs : (1) that lied when it reviled jou, (2) that will lie when 
it calls you chaste. aonari: of. Ov. Met. 10. 205 te earmina 
nottra tonabunt; Od. 2. 18. 26. tu pndloa, tu proba: a quo- 
tation from his suggeeted palinode ; the repetition of tu and 
the alliteration in pudica proba emphasiae the aarcaam. Moet 
makc the quotation exteiid to aureum t whioh is obvioualj 
wrong, for perambulabit ifl ' thou shalt (i.e. in mj palinode) be 
deschbed as traversing/ and the future would not ooour in the 
palinode, but is due to parallelism with luam here. For the 
highly comic perambulabla of. 4. 5 n. and Od. 4. 5. 17. Of 
course 'traversing the stars Ac.' is heroio language for 'being 

42. inXamli. . . ] • angry on acconnt of libelled Helen, Caator 
and the brother of mighty Castor yielding to prajer restored....' 
See Od. 1. 16, Intr. For vlce manj MSS. give vieem; both 
are good Latin, though the aco. is more usual. lnfaxnla, i.e. 
who was made infamous bj the account given of her bvStesi- 
chorus in his 'LKlov vipatt. Castor and Pollux were Helen'e 
brothers as being sons of Leda. For the phrase Oaator... 
fraterque magnl Caetorli, cf. Catull. 4. 27 gemelle Cattor et 
gemclle Cattorit. 

NOTES. 601 

46. p.OD001etaaortt1raa]'suIliedwithhere6^ 

e£ Od. 2. 10. 6; Gio. pro Sest. 60 tHrtu$...n$qu$ aUenU $ordibu$ 

47. pnio^..0'»h^ ikilladtoie*tt«r(torinlct 0<L 1. 
8. 35 n.) tho nowly buriod aahea.' Tho ninth day oitor doath 
witnooood tho final oomplotion of all faneral rites (ot Apul. 
Met 9. 81 nono dU compUtU apud tumulum $oUemnibu$) } or 

Srhape thore wao a finaf aaerifioe at tfao graTe on tho ninth 
y after burial {novendiaU dieitur ^acrificium, quod mortuo fU 
nona dU qua tepultut e$t t Porphyrion). Anyhow, by tfae 
phraoe, *ninth-day doat,' Horaoo olearly indieatea that Oanidia 
aiatnrbo the aahea the flret momont tho final ritea aro concluded, 
and aho oan aafely do ao withont foar of intorraption. 

60. tnua...tao] Emphatio: the eneer ia the aamo aa in 
5. 6. Paotumeiui: tho genuino namo of a Boman gena ; aoe 

62. fortli...] «thou leapeat up (from thy oouohj a aturdy 
mother.' The reoovery ia ao rapid aa to throw douota on the 
reality of the illneaa, whioh, it la hinted, ia only a deyioe to 
draw money from her lovera. 

64. narltli] Lo. to their lamentationi whon ahipwreokod 

56. lnultua...] 'ahalt thou unavenged have treated the 
revelation of Cotytto'e mysteries aa a jeet?' For the indignant 
question ut...rUerUt of. Sat. 2. 5. 18 utns Ufam $purco Damae 
latut f Cotytto ia tho name of aomo Thraoian goddeaa whoae 
mysteries were oelebrated in oonnection with lioentiouf (of. 
liberi) orgiet. 

58. ot Saquillnl...] Her «magio praotioea' amid tho gravea 
on tbe Eaquiline are fullv related by Horaoe in Sat. 1. 8. 
Canidia here impliea that ho waa able to tell ao muoh beoauae 
he waa himaelf tne ohief performer, • tho mgh prieat of magio,' 
on that oceasion, and not a more ohanoo witneai. 

60. quld proderat] «what profit wero it thon (i^. if you 
are to eacape) to me to havo enriohed Paelignian haga (i.e. by 
buying their aoorets) or to havo minglod swifter (Le. more 
than usually deadly) poiaona.' Many MSS. have proderit, 
* what profit will it be to me 1 ' Some, who adopt thia reading, 
ezplain the words as a taunting queation put to Horaoe, 'what 



1 it be to you to have studied these arte and to heve 
or yourself) swifteet poieonsr' to whioh the anewer 
none at ali, for I will not let 700 die quioklr.' Bnt 
r Wri after vroderit ie very hard. Moreover, where hae 
rinted that he is going to poieon himeelf *Tery ewiftly '? 
wiahee to emphaaise her power; ehe knowe how to 
id •very ewift poieone'; but, ae ahe immediately 
to etate, Horaee mnst not imagine that ahe ie going to 
i on him ; for him there waite *a more lingering doom' 
prays for. 

in hoc.ut] *to tbie end that thou mayeet ever be ready 

lnftdil For the 'treaohery' of Pelope to Myrtilufl, the 
jr of Oenomaue, by whoee aeeietanoe he won the hand 
odamia, eee Olaee. Dict. Some MS8. give iqfidu», 
onld refer to the 'treaohery' of Tantalne in betraying 
its of the gods. 

egene...] 'ever oraving for the bonnteoue feaeV whioh 
«fore bie eyee, but whioh he oan never touoh ; henoe 

enee Norico] of. Od. 1. 16. 9. 

faetldiota...] 'sad with loathing weariness (of life).' 

vectabor...] 'then I will rido mounted on thy hatcd 
d the earth ahall yield to my triumphant pride'; cf. 
^in. 4. 1. 109, where a slave mounts on his mafiter'8 
edet..., i.e. she will proudly spurn the ground on her 
eed, exactly like the victor insoUns in 16. 14. For 
ae, the conduct of ' a beggar on horseback,' of. Od. 

an...] *or (cf. 6. 15 n.) am I, though I have power 
*sim) to make waxen images feel..., to lament the issue 
iill that effects nothing against thee?' Waz imagea, 
ting the person who was to suffer enohantment, were 
burned, melted, and otherwise ill-treated in witohoraft; 
L. 8. 80; Virg. Eol. 3. 80. 

exoltare moxtuos] Cf. Sat. 1. 8. 86, 40, and the witoh 


deelderi pocula] flXrpa, of. 6. 38. 


(The referenoee throughout are to the notes.) 

ablative of agent without ab 

accutativt 6» appotition to 

tentenee 8, 20, 7 
adjectivet in -bilis 1, 8, 22 

formed from paat. 
Ui 1, 24, 7 
neuter = adverb 1, 

followed by the gen. 
when they lig- 
nify power 1, 6, 
10, knowledge 1, 
15, 24, abundance 
8, 0, 17, deeire 8, 
Terbal in -ax, with 
gen. 8, 8, 1 
adorea 4, 4, 41 
adaoribo 8, 8, 85 
adverb qualifying noun 8, 17, 9 
aegis 1, 15, 11. 8,4,57 
aemulari 4, 2, 1 
aeneus 1, 88, 11. 8, 8, 65 
aequalia 1, 8, 5 
aevum=a generation 2, 9, 18 
alcaie ttansa 8rd line 1, 16, 8 
4th Une rhythm 
of 1, 16, 12 

alea=an omen 1, 15, 5. Ep. 

aUegory 1, 14, Int. 
aUiUration 8, 2, 1. 8, 6, 20. 

4,2,28. Ep. 18, 18 
almua 8, 4, 41 
alomnns 8, 18, 4 
amoebaeie verte 8, 9, Int. 
ambnlo Ep. 4, 5 
antennae 1, 14, 6 
apex=a orown 1, 84, 14 
arbiter 1, 8, 15 
arbiter bibendi 1, 4, 18 
arbufltum 8, 1, 9 
arehaie wordt 1, 84, 5. 2, 19, 

20. 8, 5, 88 
ardem 1, 4, 7 
ardeovto be in love 2, 4, 7. 

8, 9, 5. 4, 9, 18 
argutui 4, 6, 25 
arrogare 4, 14, 40 
art=a virtue 8, 8, 9. arteas 

'worksof art'4, 8,5 
arx 1, 2, 82 
attonanee 1, 2, 1. 2, 1, 20. 

2,1,85. 8,4,69 
attrology 1, 11, 8. 2, 17, 17 
atyndeton 8, 25, 7 
atavni 1, 1, 1 
at in impreoationa Ep. 6, 1 


*dlj' 1. 87, 97. Ep. 

tar oompar»tr?e Ep. 


,8,9. 8,10,6. 4, 

. 18, 11 
mheattky 2, 14, 16 

omen 1, 15, 6 

2, 4, 9. 8, 25, 1L 




»f a lover 1, «7, 11 
b' 1, 29, 1 

onble meaning 2, 9, 18 
Aed' 8, 19, 18 
4, 14, 47 
1 1, 9, 6 

•ahort-lWed'2,8, 18 

4, 9, 18 
, of eea-goda Ep. 18, 

i 1, 18, 11. 4, 1, 97. 


16, 4. Ep. 18, 11 

ainor 8, 5, 42 

•ineome'2, 15, 18 

indefinite 9, 14, 96 
i 4, 5, 17 
agna Ep. 16, 41 
n 1, 9, 91. 9, 1, 1 

n 1, 86, 19 


tio compendiaria 9, 6, 

concilJnm 4, 5, 4 

OOBOMBO 1, 1, 19 

oondiaoo 8, 2, 8 
ooodo 1, 10. 8 
eonopinm Ep. 9, lt 

oonttnenat, 18,21 
oontinnare 8, 16, 41 


f, 18 

eorn, ftavpty o/ 1, 1, 10 
eoxfe*«eMiate' 8, 5, 7 

damnatne with m. 2, 14, 19 

<*•**« ofagent 1,6,1. 1,96, 

«■ 16, 6 

of parpooo 2, 4, 1. 4, 


do, ▼erbe oompounded with 1, 

de die Ep. 18, 4 
deoedere 2, 6, 16 
depontnt werbe with parU m 
pa$$. $en$e 1, 1, 25. Ep. 5, 

deeiderinm 1, 24, L 4, 6, 16 

di Manet Ep. 6, 94 

diadema 9, 9, 91 

digitoi 4, 8, 92 

dirna 2, 12, 2 

disorimen 2, 4, 22 

disone 1, 8, 11 

dithjrembne 4, 2, 10 

dina 1, 1, 95 

divites inanlae 4, 8, 97. Ep. 

doUnm Bp. 9, 47 
drinking, ruU$ of 8, 19, 11 
dnooB*todrink' 1,17,99 
dnellnm 8, 5, 88 
dnm with pree. indieatrte 1, 

10, 19,«=dnmmodo 1, 16, 26 



emancipatus Ep. 9. 12 
emotions, expression of 1, 8, 18 
epitheU, ears m u$e of 1, 1, 14 
equitare 1, 3, 61 
ergol, 34, 6 
est ut 8, 1, 9 
et«'or' 1, 81, 18 
examenl, 86, 80 
exeipere 9, 15, 16 
expedio 1, 33, 11. 8,34,8. 4, 

fasti 4, 14, 4 

faatidioeue 8, 1, 86 

favete lingnia 8, 1, 9 

feast, masUr of 1, 6, 1. 1, 16, 

8. 1,90,10 

contributory 8, 19, 6 
fithpondt 3, 15, 4 
nstula 1, 17, 10 
frangere diem 3, 7, 6 
frauflxt 'harm' 3, 19, 30, fraus 

mala 1, 8, 38 
freqnens 8, 1, 84 
fanetus 4, 15, 39 
future, speeial ute of 1, 6, 1. 

1, 16, 8. 1, 30, 10 

genitive of words in ium eoit" 

traeUd 1, 6, 12 
genitive after adj. of abundance 

8, 6, 17 
Oreek words used scornfuUy 

8, 34, 57 

hedera 1, 1, 29 
hendiadys 3, 7, 9 
heUroelite nouns 3, 4, 13 
hiatus 1, 1, 3. 1, 38, 34. 3, 

30, 18. 8, 14, 10. Ep. 

18 8 
historia=*'ahiatory' 3, 13, 10, 

•a story» 8, 7, 30 
honeetam 4, 9, 41 

honor«'magiftrmey* 1, 1, 8. 

8,3,18. 4,14,3 
horn, a sign of strsngth 3, 19, 

horrenm 8, 98, 7 
hOTTido8='brirtling' 9, 4, 50, 

'booriah' 8, S^lO/wooded» 

8, 39, 38 
horset, keeoktg of 3, 16, 86 
hypaUagt 8, 1, 43 
hypermetrieversesi.l^M. 8, 

39,86. 4,1,85. 4,3,33 

i pronoonoed aa y 8, 4, 41 

iambi 1, 16, 8 

idem, adTeraative 3, 10, 16 

idui 4, 11, 14 

imago 1, 13, 8 

immanit 8, 4, 43. 8, 11, 15 

immolare 1, 4, 11 

immunii 8, 38, 17. 4, 13, 33 

impar 4, 6, 6 

imperfect^Qk. imp. with &pa 
1,37,19. 1,87,4 

imperium 1, 3, 36 

impotens 1, 87, 9 

improbui 8, 9, 33 

inoedo Ep. 15, 17 

inohoare 1, 4, 15 

inorepo 4, 15, 3. Ep. 17, 37 

inonmbo 1, 8, 30 

indieative in hypothet.sentence 
3, 17, 38 

inera 8, 5, 86. 3, 9, 5. 8, 4, 
45. 4,7,13 

inertia 4, 9, 39 

inflnitive epexegetie 

after adj. 1, 8, 35 
after rerbs 1, 15, 37 
after verbe of ' wiahing ' 

1, 13, 3 
historie Ep. 6, 84 
ofpurpote 1, 3, 7 

inimioo 4, 15, 30 






ineolena 1, 16, 31. 8,8,3. 9, 

inatitor 9, 6, 80. Ep.17,90 
integer 1, 4, 99. 1,99,1. 1, 

96,6. 4,4,66 
intonatna Ep. 9, 51 
intonena 9, 16, 11 
intranHtivt vtrb$ nud tr*n$i- 

<{«Wy2, 18,36 
inutiUe 8, 94, 48 
invidendoe 9, 10, 6 
io Triumphe 4, 9, 40. Ep. 0, 

irony 1, 91, 18 
ifl, ejua 8, 11, 18 

jecurl, 18, 4. 4,1,19 
juvcnca=puella 9, 6, 1 

i'uvencu8=puer 9, 8, 91 
nvenit 1, 3, 41 

jaxtaposition to heightuu anti- 
thesia 3, 4, 6 

labi 3, 14, 3. 8, C, 8 

lacunar 3, 16, 11 

lavere 3, 8, 18 

Ungthening tyllabU by ictus 

1, 3, 86 
lentus 3, 16, 37 
levi* 1, 3, 38. 3, 11, 6 
liquidus 3, 30, 3. 8, 4, 34 
UtoUt 1, 18, 9 
lituus 1, 1, 38 
lividus 3, 5, 10. 4, 9, 33 
lonpus 3, 16, 80 
lot$ t viethod of draunng 3, 8, 

lodoa 1, 3, 87. 3, 1, & 8, 39, 

lustrum 3, 4, 34 

maoto 1, 19, 16 
magna lingua 4, 6, 1 
majeatas 4, 16, 15 

malel,9,34. 1,17,96 
malignoe 1, 98, 98 
mann n a 8, 97, 7 
materiee 8, 94, 49 
medioeritaa 9, 10,6 
meditor 9, 99, 7. 8,95,5 
meneae4, 5, 81 
wuUmptjftkotU 1, 38, 10 
metoo, with inf . 9, 9, 7 
mola ealaa 8, 98, 90 
moritoroa 1, 38, 6. 9, 8, 4 
moroaua 1, 9, 18 
monditiae 1, 6, 5 
mundua 8, 99, 14 
mnto 1, 17, 9 
motuoa 4, 1, 80 
mxtkological imimnem 1, 7, 91. 

navigation, tlm o/8,9, 6 
ne, in prohihitione 8, 99, 6 
nefastna 1, 85, 85. 9, 18, 1 
nepos, * a rake ' Ep. 1, 89 
neacio an 3, 4, 18 
notua, with gen. 9, 9, 6. 4, 

novendialia Ep. 17, 48 
noverea Ep. 5, 9 

obire 3, 17, 8 

oe=v3, 1,9 

olim 4, 4, 6. Ep. 8, L 14,7 

onyx 4, 13, 17 

operari 3, 14, 6 

opimua 4, 4, 51 

otium 3, 1G, 1. Ep. 1, 7 

oxymoron 3, 11, 85 

p inaerted for euphony 9, 4, 

palinode 1, 16, Int. 
pallor 8, 10, 4. Ep. 10, 16 
palma 1, 1, 5 
par 1, 6, 16. 1, 94, 8 



partes^duty' 1,2, 29 

patt part. ot deponente uted 
pauively 1, 1, 26 

pater patriae 8, 24, 27 

pauperies 8, 16, 87 

paupertas 1, 12, 48 

perfect inJMttoe 1, 1, 4. 8, 
4 61 
„ aoristie 1, 28, 20 
„ tubj. in affirmationt 
2, 18, 6 

perfidus 8, 6, 88 

perjury 2, 8, 1 

perpetuui 1, 7, 6. 1, 24, 6 

perstrinffo 2, 1, 18 

philosophical termt 2, 10, Int. 

pietas 1, 17, 18 

piue 2, 1, 80. 8, 8, 68 

platanus 2, 11, 18 

play on wordt 1, 88, 2. 2, 7, 

1. 8, 28, 8 
plebe 2, 2, 18 

pleotrum 1, 26, 11. 2, 1, 40 
plural rhetorical 4, 8, 16 
plus nimio 1, 18, 16 
poct, tacred 1, 22, 1. 2,13,29. 

poet-taureate 1, 2, Int. 
potis8,17, 13 
praeceps 1, 8, 12 
praesens 1, 86, 2 
prayer, attitude of 8, 28, 1 
pretent part of verb *to be* to 

be tupplied 2, 8, 21. 8, 16, 

80. 4,1,6 
pretent prophetie 1, 14, 9 
princeps 4, 14, 6 
prisous 8, 21, 11. Ep. 2, 2 
profanus 3, 1, 1 
proleptie ute of adj, 2, 1, 19. 

2, 6, 10 

pronoun in teeondof two elautet 

1, 9, 16 
pronount in prominent potition 

P. II. 

to mark antithetit 1, 1, 29. 

1,6,17. 2,7,18. 2,9,9. 

2,19,18. 2,16,88 
propego Sp. 2, 9 
proper namet at adjeetivet 1, 

proprius 2, 2, 22 
protinus 8, 8, 80 
prudenlia 4, 9, 86 
pudor 1, 24, 6 
punieus Ep. 9, 27 
pupula Ep. 6, 40 
purpureus 1, 86, 12. 2, 16, 86. 

2, 18, 7. 8, 16, 16. 4, 1, 


quando Ep. 9, 1 
quandoque 4, 1, 17 
quantity, vartation in 1, 82, 11. 

que, out of plaoe 2, 19, 28 
querella 2, 9, 17 
quid quod 2, 18, 28 
quin et 8, 11, 21 
quintettenee 1, 18, 1G 
quod, with subj. 4, 8, 8 

ravus Ep. 16, 83 

re-, in compounds='duly' 1, 

9, 6. 1, 10, 17 
reoonditU8 8, 28, 2 
rectus 2, 10, 1 
reddo 2, 7, 17. Ep. 16, 43 
redono 3, 8, 38 
refizus Ep. 17, 6 
refringo 3, 8, 28 
regna vini 1, 4, 18 
regnatus 2, 6, 11 
reluctans 4, 4, 11 
reparo 1, 81, 12. 1, 87, 24 
repeated word with differenl 

aceent 1, 32, 11 


mwd toc onn t ctclawstt 
1.2,4. Ep. 

tXpTtMS foadr 

ness 1,18,1 






tationl, 85, 

15. 4,3,49 

txprtu sad- 

fUM2, 14,1. 

txprtu indty- 
notum Ep. 
txprtu tagtr- 
ntu Ep. 17, 
txprtu dtri' 
iUm 4, 13, 
1, 2, 86 

apelling of 4, 15, 5 
b 3, 16, 2 

ivus 4, 2, 35 
a Ep. 4, 7 
i 2, 16, 13 
, 3. 17 

= , offspring , 2, 20. 5 
= ' a philosopher ' 1, 
2, 10, 22. 4, 9, 4S 
lims o/ 1, 2, 19 
,, caesura in 4, 2, 
7. C. S. 58 
s 2, 4, 17 

1, 37. 33. 2, 14, 9, 
:al 3, 5, 25 
l 1, 36, 14 

pers. sing. used inde- 
\y 1, 1, 13. 2, 2, 9 
is = 'next' 1, 12, 18, 
vourable ' 2, 10, 23 
ot*v 4, 4, 22 

aeditio 8, 8, 29 

sege» 1, 81, 4 

senectas Ep. 18. 5 

nntio 9, 7, 10 

smwones 8« 8, 5 

seo, omitted 1, 8, 16 

ai in appeels 1, 82, L C. a 

87. Omittad 4, 4, 65 
sie in appeals 1, 8, 1 
aie nmm 1, 88, 10 
aiccui 8, 29, 20 
simul=aimal m 1, 9, 9. 2, 

8, 5. 2, 16, 2. 8, 4, 87. 

singular vtrb a/Ur two nomi- 

nativts 2, 18, 88 
sobrius 2, 10, 6 
solee^'days'4, 5,7 
solidus diea 1, 1, 20, aolida 

mcna 3, 8, 4 
aolvo, of warmth 1, 4, 1; of 

vowb 4, 2, 54 
tuund, accommodation of % to 

sense 1, 2, 1. 1, 3, 36. 1, 

5, 8. 1, 15, 14. 1, 25, 6. 

1, 29, 11. 3, 27, 22. 3, 

29, 35. 4, 13, 1. Ep. 17, 

specialization 1, 1, 13. 2, 9, 2. 

3, 6, 55 
spiritUB = $vfi6t 2, 2, 9, ' inspi- 

ration' 2, 16,38 
88 = f4, 1, 11 
sto 1. 9, 1. 3, 3, 42 
storaachue 1, 6, 6 
strepitue 4, 3, 18 
sub, with aoc. 1, 8, 14. 2, 

18, 18. Ep. 5, 83. abl. 3, 

Bublustris 3, 27, 29 
submitto 4, 4, 63 
suboles 4, 3, 14 
suicide 1, 12, 35 
summoveo 2, 16, 10. 2, 18, 21 



sunt quoe 1, 1, 8 
twan mtuical 9, 20, 15 
tyUable lengthened by ictut 1, 

tyncope 1, 86, 8. Ep. 9, 1 
tynitetit 8, 7, 38 

taariformis 4, 14, 25 
tempero 1, 90, 11 
tenuis 9, 16, 88 
teres 9 4 21 

termini 9, 18, 94. C. 8. 96 
tibiae, plural 1, 1, 89 
tmttit 1, 6, 8. 1, 89, 15 
trabes 9, 18, 8. 4,1,90 
tragoedia 9, 1, 9 
trepido 9, 4, 94. 9,11,4 
tripadium 4, 1, 98 
trinmphatns 8, 8, 48 
triumviralis Bp. 4, 11 
tuba 1, 1, 98 
tumultus 4, 4, 47 

udus=«drunk , l, 7, 99 

nltro 4, 4, 51 

umerus 1, 9, 81 

unclet, cruelty of 8, 19, 8 

unde= 'from whom' 1, 12, 17. 

2, 12, 7 
nnicus 2, 18, 14. 8, 14, 5 
arbssRome 1, 2, 4 
argeo 1, 24, 6. 2, 9, 9 
ut='tinoe' 4, 4, 42. Ep. 7, 


utcanque 1, 17, 10 
ntile 4, 9, 41 

y, * ■emivowel 1, 98, 4 
Te, ont of plaoe 9, 7, 95 
▼erbenae 1, 19, 14 
verbt o/ tacrjfice % conttruetion 

verbt followed by gen. 9, 9, 17. 

2,18,38. 8,80,19 
vertioem tollere 8, 16, 19 
vioariui 6, 94, 16 
▼ioea 4, 7, 8. plnt vioe aim- 

pliei 4, 14, 18. ▼ioem Ep. 

5, 88. vioe 1, 4, 1. Ep. 

18,7. 17,49 
vine, training of 4, 5, 80 ' 
▼iola, oolonr of 8, 10, 14 
▼irensss 'young' 4, 18, 6. Ep. 

18.4. 17,88 

virtus 9, 9, 18. 8,9,17. Ep. 

vitrens 1, 17, 90 
vivere='to enjoy life' 8, 99, 

vowt 1, 86, 9. 9, 7, 17 

wine, methodt of keeping 1, 90, 
8. 3, 8, 10 

y, where ooourring in Latin 1, 

16.5. 4,9,86 

tengma 8, 10, 5 

^— ^ 


IMDM 9, 19, 9L 8, 1, 

Ep. 18, 8 
eoi 4, 8, 5 

m 1, 8, 18, gen. of 1, 18, 
Qharaotorof9,4,9. 4,6, 

ib 2, 18, 84. 8, 19, 8 
■ ' 2, 18, 84. 4, 9, 11, 
o 8, 80, 18 
is=*Sirooeo' 8, 28, 5 
pa 1, 6, Ini. 
[Oilei) 1, 15, 18. Ep. 10, 

son of Telamon 2, 4, 5 
wine 4, 11, 2 
08 1,32,5. 1,87,1 
ot 4, 4, 58 
roges Ep. 16, 6 
tes 3, 16, 41 
iiaraus 8, 16, 11 
eon 4, 9, 9. Ep. 14, 

chiu 3, 6, 85 
lius (Iulus) 4, 2, Int. 
liua, M. not mentioned 
7, Int. 3, 8, 18. 8, 4, 79 

0, healer 1, 21, 13, temple 

1. 31, Int., statue of 1, 
1, destroyer 2, 10, 19, 

areher 8. 4, 60, larmm 8, 
the rjro 4, 15, 1 

4, 6,1111 


Apolia, quantity of 3, 4, 9 

Arabes 1, 99, 1 

Arehytas 1, 98, 9 

Arotos 9, 15, 16 

Aroturus 8, 1, 97 

Argo Ep. 16, 57 

Argos 1, 7, 9 

Atlas, the limit of the world 
1, 84, 11 

Attalus 1, 1, 12 

Augustus, triple triumph 1, 9, 
Int., prinoeps senatus 1, 
9, 50. 1, 91, 14, defeato 
Cantabri 9, 6, 9, reforma 
morals 9, 15, Int, 8, 6, Int., 

4, 5, 21, restores templee 8, 
6, Int., 9, 15, 90, deified 1, 
9, 45. 8, 8, 11. 4, 5, 84, 
oalled Augustus 8, 8, 11. 4, 
14, 8, Gaeaar 4, 15, 4, ori- 
ginal name 8, 14, 7, pator 
patriae 8, 14, 97, in Gaul 4, 

5, Int., found* ludi saeou- 
lares 4, 6, Iut. 



Aulon 2, 6, 18 
AustersSiroooo 2, 14, 15 

Babylonian aetrologen 1, 11, 2 
BacohussDionysus 2, 19, Int, 

god of inspiration 2, 19, 

6. 8, 8, 6, deified hero 8, 

8 9 
Baiae 8, 4, 24 
Bandusia 8, 18, Int 
Baaiareua 1, 18, 11 
BeUerophontes 8, 12, 8 
Bereoyntus 1, 18, 18. 8, 19, 

Bistonides 2, 19, 20 
Brenni 4, 14, 10 
Britanni 1, 21, 15. 1,85,80. 

8,4,88. 3,5,8. 4,14,47. 

Bp. 7, 7 
Brutns, M. 2, 7, 2 
Bupalus Ep. 6, 14 

Caeeuban wine 1, 20, 9. 1, 

87, 5. 2, 14, 25. Ep. 9, 

Caesar, Jul. 1, 2, Int. 
Calabria, pastures of 1, 81, 5. 

Ep. 1, 87 
Cales, wine of 1, 20, 9. 1, 81, 

9. 4,12,14 
Camena 1, 12, 89. 2, 16, 88 
Campus Martius,used for exer- 

oise 1, 8, 8. 4, 1, 40 
Canidia Ep. 5, Intr. 
Cantaber 2, 6, 2 
Capitolium 1, 87, 6 
Capra 8, 7, 6 
Capua Ep. 16, 5 
Carthage, destroyed 2, 1, 26. 

4, 5, 17, perfidy of 8, 5, 88 
Carthage, new 2, 2, 10 
Castor, a rider 1, 12, 26, dei- 

fied hero 4, 5, 35. Ep. 17, 


Catilue 1, 18, 2 

Cato, suieide of 1, 12, 85 

Cato the Censor 2, 15, 11. 8, 

6,14. 8,21,11 
Cauoasus 1, 22, 6. Ep. 1, 

Ceoropius 2, 1, 12 
Censorinus 4, 8, Int. 
Centaurs 1, 18, 7. 1, 27, 2 
Cerberus 2, 18, 84. 8,11,15 

Chian wine 1, 17, 2L Ep. 9* 

Chimaera 1, 27, 24. 2,17,18. 

4, 2, 16 
Cleopatra 1, 87, Int 1, 87, 

Coanpurple 4, 18, 18 

Cocytue 2, 14, 17 
ColcManpoi*ons2,lS t &. Ep. 

5,24. 17,85 
Coneani 8, 4, 84 
Corinth, harbours of 1, 7, 2 
Corrinus 8, 21, Int. 
Cotiso 8, 8, 18 
Cotyttia Ep. 17, 56 
Crassus, defeat of 1, 2, 22. 2, 

Crete 8, 27, 88 
Crispus Sallustius 2, 2, Int. 
Cyolades 1, 14, 19 
Cyelopes 1, 4, 7 
CyUemeua Ep. 13, 8 
Cyprus 1, 1, 18 
Cytherea 1, 4, 5 

Daous 8, 8, 18 

Daedalus 1, 8, 34. 4, 2, 2 

Daunius 1, 22, 14. 2, 1, 34. 

Dellius 2, 3, Int. 
Delmatieus 2, 1, 16 
Diespiter 1, 84, 5. 8, 2, 29 
Dinaymene 1, 16, 5 




Dioseuri 1, 8, 9 
Direaeus oyenus 4, 9, 95 
Dorian muiie Ep. 9» 5 
Drnsos 4, 4, Int 4» 14, Int 

Enipeus, • rtar 8, 7, 96 
Ennins 4, 8, 90 
EpicureanpkUonpkii 1, 9, 18. 

9,8,Int 2, lLInt 
Epi€wrtanitm 9, 11, 4 
Eryein* 1, 9, 88 
Bsouiline Bp. 5, 100. 17,68 
Euias 8, 96, 9 
Enins 9, 11, 17 
Enmenides 9, 18, 86 
Eophorbns 1, 98, 11 

Falernian wine 9, 8, 8 
Faunalia 8, 18, 6 
Fannus=Pan 1, 17, 10. 9, 

17, 28, god of the oountry 

3, 18, Int. 
Fontanalia 8, 18, 9 
Formiae 8, 17, Int. 
Formian wine 1, 90, 9 
Fortona 1, 85, Int. 3, 90, 49 
Fuscus Aristius 1, 99, Int. 

Gades 2, 6, 1 

Galaesus 2, 6, 10 

Galli Ep. 9, 17 

Gallic hortfi 1, 8, 6, words 3, 

Gallus, Aelius 1, 29, Int. 
Ganymedes 3, 20, 1G. 4, 4, 3 
Geloni 2, 9, 23 
Genaoni 4, 14, 10 
Genius 3, 17, 13 
Geryones 2, 14, 8 
Glycera 1, 33, 2 
Gratia, in sing. 4, 7, 5 
Grosphus 2, 16, Int 

Hannibal, dirus 2, 12, 2. 3, 

6,86. 4, 4, 49, psrMos 4, 

4, 49, defca tsd 4, 8, 16 
HeleoeBp, 17,49 
Heronks. dsifled heto 8, 8, 9. 

8,14Tl. 4,6.88 
Hesperia 9, 1, 81 
Hiberi, taarning of 9, 90, 90 
Hippolytus 4, 7, 96 

AASjMUWSjm a SSWwlSVSiSB^BMSj 4pM ^p^ e^sa *TI W % 

Horaee, Urthplaee 4, % 9, 
•«•9.4,98. 111,1. 4» 
1, 6, fast Bocnan ryxfa posi 
1,96,10. 8,88,10. £1. 
28,atPhffippi9,7,9. 8,4, 
97, nearly kffied by • trt* 
8, 13, Int, pUloMBlgr 1, 
84, Int 9, 10, 1 aot a- 
shamed of his birth 9, 90, 

5, Tiews abont snsrgy 8,94, 
40. 8,99,81. 4,9,9,Poet- 
Lanreate 9, 15, Int Bk 4, 
Int 4, 8, Int , apolory for 
not writing national Odes 9, 

Horace, style of— rbndness fbr 
1,13. 1,35,7. 9,9,8. 8, 
5, 55. 4, 5, 9, for sing. terb 
after two nom. 9, 18, 88, 
for repeating words 2, 14, 
1, for oonneeting elsuses 
by repetition 1, 9, 4, for 
nse of gen. after •djeotrfe* 
1,6,10. 1,15,94. 8,8,1. 
3, 6, 17. 8, 97, 99, for eo- 
exegetio inflnitiTe afler ad- 
jeetiyes 1, 8, 95, and verbs 

I, 15, 97, for oxrmoron 8, 

II, 85, for ose of oronoun» 
in prominent poe i tioos to 
mark antithesis 1, 1, 99. 1, 
6,17. 9,7,18. 9,9,9. 9, 
12,18. 2, 16, 33, brerity 8, 



6, 46, quiet ending to Odes 

4,2,60. 4,14,62 
Hyades 1, 8, 14 
Hydaspes 1, 22, 7 
Hymettus, marble of 2, 18, 8 
Hypermneatra 8, 11, 51 

Iapyx 1,8,4. 8,27,18 

Hia 1, 2, 17 

Ilithvia C. S. 14 

Inachus 8, 19, 1 

Indi 1, 12, 85. 4» 14, 42, 

wealthy 1, 81, 6 
Iolooe Ep. 5, 21 

Janns Qnirini 4, 15, 9 

Juba 1, 22, 15 

Jugortha Ep. 9, 28 

Juno, of Cfarthage 2, 1, 25, 
wife and sister 8, 8, 64 

Jupiter=*god of atmosphere' 
1, 1, 26. 1, 16, 11. 2, 6, 
18. 2, 10, 16. Ep. 18, 2 

Laoedaemon 1, 7, 10 
Laoon Ep. 6, 5 
Lacoman purple 2, 18, 7 
Laestrygonius 8, 16, 84 
Lamia 1, 26, Int. 8, 17, Int. 
Laomedon 8, 8, 20 
Lapithae 1, 18, 7 
Latona 1, 21, 8 
Lenaeus 8, 25, 18 
Letbian wine 1, 17, 21. Ep. 

9 84 
Lesbiuss«Sapphio' 4, 6, 85, 

Myrie 1 1,1, 84. 1,26,11 
Lethe 4, 7, 27 

Libnrni 1, 87, 80. Ep. 1, 1. 
Libyan corn 1, 1, 10 
Lioinius Mnrena 2, 10, Int. 
Lioymnia 2, 12, 18 
Liris 1, 81, 7. 8, 17, 7 
Lollius 4, 9, Int. 

Luceria 8, 15, 18 
Lyaens 1, 7, 22. Ep. 9, 87 
Lyoambes Ep. 6, 18 
Lydae tibiae 4, 15, 80 

Maeoenas 1, 1, 1, remained 
an eque» 1, 20, 5, reoovery 
from illness 1, 20, 4. 2, 17, 
Int., wife of 2, 12, Int., an 
invalid 2, 17, Int., leaming 
of 8, 8, 5, praefectu» urbU / 
8, 8, 17. 8, 29, Int,honse 
of 8, 29, 10, retirement 4, 

Maeonius 4, 9, 6 

Maevins Ep. 10 Intr. 

Magnessa 8, 7, 18 

MaroeUus 1, 12, 46 

Mars Ultor 1, 2, 86 

Marsi 8, 5, 9, M. war 8, 14, 
18. Ep. 16, 8 

Mauie wine 2, 7, 21 

Matronalia 8, 8, 1 

Medea Ep. 8, 9 

Medi=Parthi 1, 2, 51 

Medum flumen = Euphrates 2, 

Melpomene 1, 24, 8. 4, 8, 1 

Menas 8, 16, 16 

Merourius, attributes of 1, 10 
Int., with Venui 1, 80, 8 

Merourius, god of poets 1, 10, 
1. 2,7,18 

Metaurus 4, 4, 88 

Metellus 2, 1, 1 

Milton, translation byl, 5,Int. 

Minerra 8, 12, 6 

Minos 4, 7, 21 

Molossus Ep. 6, 5 

Monaeses 8, 6, 9 

Mygdonius 2, 12, 22. 8,16,41 

Naiades 8, 25, 14 
Neapolis Ep. 5, 48 


is 1, 36, 17. 3, 24, 5 
lia 3, 28, Int. 



inyo/ 3, 8, 46 

i 2, 9, 20 

i, 20, 15. Ep. 15, 21 


ul 1, 16, 9 

ia 2, 12, 1 


letting of 1, 28, 21. 

),9, hunter2, 18, 39 

1 1, 12, 11 

. Roscius Ep. 4, 15 


18 3, 4, 28 

!p. 10, 18 

18 1, 29, 14 

i shepherd 1, 15, 1, 

rance of 3, 8, 25 

ius 4, 8, 6 

retreat of 1, 19, 11, 

tal troables 1, 26, Int. 

>mpared to Mercurius 


, L. Aemilius 1, 12, 38 
*, 7, 17 

l, 6, 8. Ep. 17, 65 
a 2, 4, 12 
= Parthi 1, 2, 22 

king, the 3, 9, 4 
hus 2, 6, 11 

3, 23, Int. 

>f Macedon 3, 16, 14 
Ep. 16, 17 

>8 1, 26, Int. 2, 2, 17 
n marble 3, 1, 41 
,3, 18,Pierides4,8, 20 
i 1, 26, 9 

4, 2, 1—26 

Pirithous 3, 4, 79 

Plancns, Munatius 1, 7, Int. 

Pleiadea 4, 14, 11 

Pollio 2, 1, Int 

PoUux, a boxer 1, 12, 96, dei- 

fied hero 3, 8, 9. 4,6.85 
Pompeios, theatre of 1, 20, 7 
Pontua, ship timber from 1, 

Poraena Ep. 16, 8 
Priamui 1, 10, 14 
Priapus Ep. 2, 21 
Proculeius 2, 2, 5 
Procyon 3, 29, 18 
Promethens 1, 8, 27,=Fore- 

thougbt 1, 16, 18, in hell 2, 

13,87. Ep. 17,67 
Proserpina, quantity of 2, 13, 

Proteot 1, 2, 7 
Pudor 1, 24, 6 
Pythagoras 1, 28, 10. Ep. 15, 


Quinotiliui Varus 1, 24, Int. 
Quirinus Ep. 16, 13 
Quirites 2, 7, 3 

Rhaeti 4, 4, Int. 4, 14, Int. 
Robur Tullianum 2, 13, 19 

Sdbine Farm 1, 17, Int. 3, 13, 

Sabine wine 1, 20, 1 
Sabini=estate in Samnium 

2, 18, 14 
Sabini, hardy 3, 6, 38. Ep. 2, 

Salamie ambigua 1, 7, 29 
Salii 1, 36, 22 
Sardinian corn 1, 81, 4 
Saturnalia, presents at 4, 1, 1 
Scaurus 1, 12, 37 
Scipio Afr. 4, 8, 18 



Scopui 4, 8, 6 
80701108,8,88. 4,5,25. 4, 

14, 43, ▼irtuee of 8, 24, 

Seret 1,12,55. 8,29,26 
Serious- «Eaitern 1 1, 29, 9 
Sibylline Book$ 0. 8. 5 
Sioulae dapes 8, 1, 18 
Silvanui 8, 29, 22. Ep. 2,22 
Simonides 2, 1, 88 
Sisyphus Ep. 17, 68 
Socratio philotophy 1, 29, 14. 

8, 21, 9 
Soraote 1, 9, 1 
Spartaoua 8, 14, 19. Ep. 16, 

5 * 
Steeichorus, palinode of 1, 16, 

Stoie paradoxet 8, 2, 17. 4, 

Stjx 2, 14, 8 
Subura Ep. 5, 57 
Sybaris 1, 8, 2 
Sygambri 4, 2, 86 
Syrian merchandite 1, 81, 12 
Syrtes 1, 22, 5. Ep. 9, 81 

Tantalua Ep. 17, 65 
Tarquiniua Sup. 1, 12, 84 
Teomessa, quantity of 2, 4, 6 
Telegoni juga 8, 29, 6 
Telephus Ep. 17, 8 
Tempe 1, 7, 4 
Terminalia Ep. 2, 59 
Thaliarohua 1, 9, 8 
Theualian witardt 1, 27, 21. 

Ep.-5, 45 
Thraeeal.27,2. 1,86,14. 2, 
. 19, 20. Ep. 5, 14 
Thraciae animae 4, 12, 1 
Thyiades 2, 19, 9 

Thyoneus 1, 17. 28 

Tiber, flooda 01 1, 2, 18, for 

bathing 1, 8, 8, yellow 2, 

8 18 
Tiberiua 4, 4, Int 4, 14, Int. 
Tibullus 1, 88, Int. 
Tibur 1, 7, Int. 1,18,2. 2,6, 

5. 8,29,6 
Tiridates 1, 26, Int. 
Titanes 8, 4, 42—54 
Tithonua 2, 16, 80 
Tityos 2, 14, 8. 4, 6, 1 
Torquatus Manlius 8, 21, 1 
Troy, rebuilding 0/ 8, 8, Int 
Tusoulum Ep. 1, 29 
Typhoeus 8, 4, 58 
Tyrrhenum 8, 24, 4 

Ulizeus, gen. of 1, 6, 7. Ep. 

Valfius 9, 9, In». 
Vanus, L. 1, 6, 1 
Venus,marina8, 26,5. 4,11. 

15='abeauty , l, 27, 14 
Venus drawn by swans 4, 1, 

10,-«beau^y*4, 18, 17 
Vertumnus 1, 14, 6 
Vesperus 2, 9, 10 
Vesta, temple of 1, 2, 15 
Vettal virgitu 1, 2, 27 
Vindelioi 4, 4, 18 
Virgilius, friend of Hor. 1, 8, 

Int., of Quinotilius 

1, 24, Int. 
imitated 2, 9, Inl, 

not the poet 4, 12, 

Voltur 8, 4, 9 

Xanthus Ep. 18, 18 



1 oo.-i 


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NOV */1 i984 


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