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Full text of "Q. Septimi Florentis Tertulliani De baptismo"

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^TERTULLIAN 
DE BAPTISMO 




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^amtrilige iPatristic ^exts. 

General Editor— A. J. MASON, D.D., 

MASTER OF PEMBROKB COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



Q. SEPTIMI FLORENTIS 
TERTULLIANI 

DE BAPTISMO 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

C. F. CLAY, Manager. 

l4in^on: FETTER LANE, E.C. 

Olasflotu: 50, WELLINGTON STREET. 




Etip^is: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

I^dv 18orfc: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS. 

l3omb«a sttll (mmtUi: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 



[AiJ Rights reserved,] 



"* Q. SEPTIMI FLORENTIS 
TERTULLIANI 

DE BAPTISMO 

EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 



BV 

J. M. LUPTON,, M.A., 

FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF ETON AND KING*S COLLEGES ; 
ASSISTANT MASTER AND LIBRARIAN IN MARLBOROUGH COLLEGB. 



CAMBRIDGE : 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1908 









^<y>v 



/^^ 



D£G IS 1908 ) 




O^^tr^-^ -ljjcamI-^ 



Cambritige: 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRKSS. 



PARENTIBVS 

VXORI 

ETONAE 

CARISSVMIS 



PREFACE. 

T T is to be hoped that a scholar possessed of the 
^ requisite ability and leisure may some day produce 
an edition of Tertullian's works worthy of the author. 

The editor of the present Treatise can claim no such 
qualifications. He only hopes that this Httle edition 
may be of some use to students, until something better 
is available. 

It would be ungrateful to let it go forth without 
acknowledging the constant and ready help which has 
been given in the preparation of it by two scholars, 
to whom most grateful thanks are due — the General 
Editor of the Series, and the Rev. A. Wright, D.D., 
Vice-president of Queens' College, Cambridge. 

J. M. L. 

Marlborough, 

Fedruary, 1908. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION 

§ I. Date and Occasion 

§ 2. Analysis of the de Baptismo 

§ 3. Doctrine of Baptism in TertuUian 

§ 4. Infiuence upon subsequent writers 

§ 5. Latinity and Style 

§ 6. Biblical Quotations 

§ 7. Text and Editions 

§ 8. Bibliography 

Note on the Apparatus Criiicus 

COMMENTARY 

INDICES 



XI — XV 

xvi — xviii 
xviii — xxiii 
xxiii — XXV 

XXV — XXX 

XXX — xxxiv 

xxxiv — xxxvii 

xxxvii — xlii 

xliv 

1—57 

59-78 



INTRODUCTION, 



§ I. Date and Occasion qf the de Baptbmo, 

This treatise is the earliest extant work upon the 
subject with which it deals, and is therefora of the 
utmost value both to the historian of Christian doctrine 
and to the student of Christian antiquities. 

The rite of Baptism, as it is presented to us in 
the New Testament^, was of great simpHcity. No 
special minister, as a rule, is mentioned, except that the 
Laying on of Hands which followed was on the only 
recorded occasions performed by an Apostle ; it was 
administered immediately on conversion, with little 
or no previous instructiou or discipline ; and there is 
no mention of any other ceremony, beyond simple 
water-bapttsm and imposition of hands. 

Passing on over the intervening century and a half, 
we find only scattered references till the appearance of 
Tertunian's work. A passage in the Didache^ directs 
Baptism to be performed where possible in running 
water, and in the name of the Trinity, Previous in- 
struction is assumed, but no definite time is assigned for 
the preparation, and fasting is required, before the rite, 
from the bapttzer® and the bapttzed, *and from any 
others who can*' 

* Acts ii ^S, 41 \ viii 11, 36, l%\ x 47 ; %y\ 15, 3^ ; xviii 8 ; xix 5. 
' f 7. We need not here discuss the daie of the Didncht. 
^ It bas bc^n inferred» perhaps withoul sulBcieTit reason, from the 
expressLon h ^aTrri^iiiv that the idea of a special mmister is excluded. 




seu 



INTRODUCTION 



About half a century before Tertullian wrote the 
de Bapiismo, Justin Martyr addressed to the Emperor 
Antoninus Pius his First Apology. Justin describes the 
admission of converts, mentioning Baptism in the name 
of the Trinity with fasting and prayer, and prayers 
before the brethren assembled with their head, which 
may have been some form of Confirmation. TertuUian 
may have seen the Apology, but there is nothing in this 
treatisei or in his writings generally, which suggests a 
knowledge of the earlier work. We cannot but be 
struck with the power and originality of his book, They 
are great in any case, doubly great if he wrote in 
ignorance of what had been written before on the subject 
of Baptism^ 

There is, indeed, one work known to us by name, 
for which it can be argued with some show of probability 
that it came before Tertullian^s treatise in the direct line 
of descent, and that is the frept Aoi/r^^jy of Metito of 
Sardes^ Melito wrote about the middle of the second 
century, and his work, if it had been preserved to us, 
would have been very valuable. But astudy of thescanty 
fragments that are preserved leads me to the belief that 
Tertullian did not use it in writing the de Bapttsfm\ 



i 



1 Tertullian was, however, so confirmed a borrower that one or more 
works now lost may untJerlie the d^ Bapiisma, and Hamack hohJs that he 
had *carcfully read ^ Jtistin*s A^hgy^ Ttxieu. UtUirmck. i 133, 

« Eus, MisL EccL iv 16. 

3 The arguments on ihe other side may be summarized as follows ; 
(1) Tertullia.n knew him as an author^ and says of him * elegans et decla- 
matorium mgenmm ' ; (2) both were Chiliasts ; (3) their views onife and of 
history are not dissimilat (cf. ApcL 5 nnd Melito Fr. iii) ; (4) their 
Christology is the same ; (5) ihe passage about martyrdom in de B. xvi has 
been coropared with the following passage in Melito : Mo yap ffwiim/} ri 
^ip€iTiv AtiapTT^ttdTwy wapcx^^^^^i Trdfloj 5ii XpitrThif *ai pAimfffM. I admtt 
their sitnilarity of style^ but I see nothing in TertuUian to resemble tbe 
poatical, turgid, and declamatory way in which Mclito compEres Baptism 



INTRODUCriOiV 



xni 



If we may place the date of TertulHan*s birth at 
150 — 155, we should suppose him to have been a young 
man of 25 or 30 when the first persecution in Africa 
broke otit under the Proconsul Saturninus. He \vas 
converted in middle Ufe, about 190 — 195, and soon after 
wrote the (lost) ad Amicum Philosopktmu He was 
probably ordained priest soon after, and wrote the ad 
Martyres about the beginning of 197^ the ad Nationes i 
and 2 about the summer of that year, and the Apalogy 
and the de Testimofiio Animae at the close of it. 
Between 198 and 203 comes a quinquennium of great 
Hterary activity. To it are assigned no fewer than 
thirteen works, on very various subjects^ many of great 
importance. Arranged in tabular form, for convenience 
of presentation, they are : 



K 



de Speciacuiis Lat. and Gk, 

de Cultu K 

de Baptismo Gk. and Lat. 

di Paeuitentia, 

de Patientia. 

de Cnitu 2, 

de Oratione, 



ad Uxarem i and 2. 
de Idololatria. 
de Pramriptioni 
Haereticorum. 
adu, Marcionem i and 2* 
adu. Hermogenem, 
adu, ludaeos^. 



to ihe pluiiging uF molten meta.1 into waler, titl It cotnes out purged of dross. 
See Olio, Cifrpus Apohgi!t.\^ 4^%\ Hamack and Gebhardt, T. u. Uu(. 
i p. 2f r j C. Thomas, MditG %mi Sardes^ esp. p. 53, 

* 1 bave followed Harnack^s classificatioiiT Gtsck. d. oltthr, LUi\ II ii, 
§ lO, p. 768. Bardenhewer, Gestk* d, alUhr. Liit, JI p, 366» cC p. 347 sq., 
datea the d^ B. 200 — 106, 50 MonceaiiXj Hist, Lii. dc fAfriqu€ chrit* 
1901, p. rg3 and d'AIes, La Thioi^ de Tert, p, xiii» NoldecheHj D. Ab-^ 
fassmfgszeit d. Schr. T^.V, Leipz< 1888, p. 154, dates it 194. Bonwetsch, 
D, Sehr, Zlr, esp. p* 30, note 10, and Gexfh, d, M^ntanismiis pas^im, 
does not date the work, but considers ii early and CathoHc, and to be 
classed wilh de Oraiione and dc Piunit. EensooT Cyprian^ pp> 538, 348, 
considers il to be of the years 214 or 215^ fourteen or fifteen yearEj after T» 
bccanie a Mootaiiist. From what he hotds about the date^ no less than 
from wbat he says of its * singulatilies and frivoliUes,* I entirely dissent. 




XIV 



INmODUCTION' 




Although the contrary opinion has been maintained, 
I consider the de Baptismo to be an early and pre- 
Montanist work. Further than that I should hesitate 
to go, except that I think it possible that Tertullian 
wrote an early (Greek) treatise on the Baptism of 
Heretics, and that our pr^ent work is an adaptation 
of it, worked over and added to, to suit the circum- 
stancGS in which it was vvritten. What those circum- 
stances were, we must now inquire, 

The necessity of Baptism with water was denied, 
among other Catholic beliefs, by a Gnostic prophetess 
whose namc is now lost She enjoycd the temporar>^ 
appellation of Quintilla, owing: to the prevalence of a 
false reading in ch. i ; but, with the restoration of 
what is probably the true text, the proper name has 
disappeared from the passage She belonged to what 
Tertullian called the Caina (or Gaiana) haeresis^ which 
he mentions again in thc de Praescr. HaereL 33 as 
representative in his day of the 'Nicolaitans/ Jerome, 
if the spelling of Dom Martianay is to be trusted, calls 
it Caifia haeresis. With an unmistakeable reference 
to a passage of TertuUian^s de Baptisnw he writes to 
Oceanus {Ep. Ixxxii), * En consurgit mihi CaTna haeresis; 
atque olim emortua uipera contritum caput leuat, quae 
non ex parte, ut ante consueuerat, sed totum Christi 
subruit sacramentum.' He accuses Vigilantius of re- 
viving it : * Scribit aduersum haeresim tuam/ he writes 
'TertulUanus uir eruditissimus insigne uolumen, quod 
Scorpiacum uocat rectissimo nomine ; quia arcuato 
uulnere in ecclesiae corpus uenena diffundit, quae olim 
appellabatur Caina haeresis' {adu. Vig. p. 285). It will 
be observed that the language of Jerome, like that of 
Tertullian himself» would be specially appropriate if the 
heresy whtch he has in view was connectcd with that of 




INTRODUCTION 



XV 



the Serpent-worshippers or Ophites, as was the case 
with those who were called Cainites. Assuming that 
Ithis heresy which Tertullian wrote to combat was a 
branch of— or the same as— that of the Catnites^ we 
may represent their particular form of Gnostic teaching 
to have been that there were two chief Powers, %o^ia 
the higher, and ^Ta-repa (= utertis) the lowen Eve bore 
Abel to the "To-ripa and to the 2o<^ia Cain, hence their 
name : they honoured Cain as the Instrument of Wisdom, 
a!so Ham, Esaii, the Sodomites, Korah, and Judas Iscariot 
— the latter, either because by betraying our Lord he 
defeated His intention of destroying the Truth ; or 
because, by compelling the rulers to put Christ to death 
against their will, he brought about the salvation of 
mankind, These heretics, holding, no doubt, in common 
with many Oriental schools, the inherent impurity of 
matter, denied (as it seems) the necessity of sacraments. 
TertuUian had, therefore, to support two positions; 
(i) the dignity and appropriateness of water, in itself ; 
(2) that its use in Baptism is not only defensible, 
but necessary, 

It is well to bear carefuUy \i\ mind what the occasion 
of this treatise was, or the reader may be disappointed 
at not finding something in it which he had expected 
to be there. Let us see, in the next place, how he 
maintains his theses. 

* See an flrticle (by Dr Salmon) on *Cainites,* D.C^S. i p. 380 ; where 
references are pven for the very puzzUng variatlous of the name. Pfe 
di&cusses (and rejects) the theoryj inaintamed e.g. by Dr narnack, that 
there was a here«iarch Cjiiu?i, jind identifies the ^Gaiana haeresls' with ihe 
Cainites, in which view I have foUowetl hlin. They seem to have belonged 
to ihe group of Gnostics called from tbeir worsbip of ihe serpent Ophiks^ 
for which see Haroack, Z. Qiuikttkritik d, Gmstkismusi p. 58 ; Hilgenfeld, 
<i. K(t2^frgeirh. tl Urchn^ pp, 1 50, 263» 551 ; Gruier, Ophiten^ % i^ p* 1591 
Kur^T Ch, Hist.^ p. 111, E»T** The identiBcation rests on Clem. Alei, 
\Strom. vt[ xvii 108. A prayer of Iheirs is quoted by Iren» e. Hiur£i. i 31, 




xvi 



INTRODUCTION 



§ 2. Analysis of ike Treatise^ 

The treatise may conveniently be divided into three 
parts, (i) chs. I — 9: (2) chs, 10 — 16\ (3) chs. 17 — end, 
The first part is doctrinal and general ; the second 
deals with some particular questions which were under 
debate in his day ; and the third deals with practical 
matters connected with the administration of the Sacra- 
ment. 

L chs. r — 9. General and dactrinal, 

(i) He beg:ins hy asserting the necessity of writiog, owing to 
the dangerous nature of Ihe erroneous doctrine, and the risk that 
it may sprend. Moreover, such teaching as he has to glve will be 
of service, not only to catechumens, but to simple and unreflecting 
persons who are content vvith traditional beliefs, (2) The heresy 
about water rests on tbe fallacious assumption that God vtould not 
etfect so marveUous a resuh by means so simple. This is really 
the reverse of the truth. Simplicity is characterisiic of Divine 
operations : it is the worship of false gods which has to rely for its 
effect upon extemal magnificence. (3) The age and dignity of , 
water should be considered. Water existed in a rude form at the 
beginmngt was the chariot of the Holy Spirit, brotight forth the 
lirst living creatures, was indispensable in thc creation of man. 
(4) The same Holy Spint who rested upon water at the Creation 
is present also at the waters of Baptism^ and ever since water— all 
watefi in general— has received through Him the power to sanctify. 
The use of water to cleanse the body is a type of its spiritual use 
lo cleanse the soul from sin. (5) The use of water in heathen 
rites, though void of efficacy, is analogous, and shows how the 
Devil tries to give his votaries a colourable imitation of Christian 
Sacraments. It affords, indeed, an argument afortiori : "^lf water 
is beheved to be efficacious by the worshippers of idols, how 
rcasonable it is that the worshippers of the true God should credit 
it with Divine efficacy!^ Further, if the angel at the pool of 
Bethsaida could heal the body of one man once a year, may not 
the angel of Baptism heal the souls of all nations at any time ? 
Thus man is restored lo the Uikeness of GodJ (6) Watcr is 



FNTRODUCTlOHt 



XVII 



necessar)^, therefore, to Baptism, cleansing from sin, and preparing 
us to recdve the Holy Spirit. (7) Unctiorv follows next, whereof 
the O.T. is noC without types. It anoints us to the priesthoodj 
being a bodily actioii, but of spintual efficacy, (8) Then the 
Imposiiion of Hands, wherebyj through the blessing, the Holy 
Spirit is invited to descend, compktcs the rite. The Holy Spirit 
readily descends upon the consecrated waters, His ancient restinj^- 
place, as He did in the form of a dove at the Baptism of Christ, 
Tfie mention of a dove suggests the Flood, and the lessons to be 
learnt from it» The Church is like the ark. Those who sinned 
after the Flood are reserved unto Hre, which shouid be a warning 
to those who sin after Baptism. (9) Some further instances are 
given from both Testaments of the use of water in God's deahngs 
with man, showing that^ from the crossing of the Red Sea by the 
Israehtes to the water which flowed from Christ's side upon the 
Cross, water has been ordained to rehgious use in the Divine 
economy, 

H. chs. 10—16. Particuiar. 

Having thus, as he says, * spoken in general of the things which 
lay the foundation of Baptism/ Tertullian proceeds to discuss 
vanous particular questions connected with it, about which specu- 
lation was rife in hjs time : — what was conferred by the Baptism 
of John ■ whether our Lord Himself baptized : whether the 
Apostles were baptized : whether faith is not enough^ without 
Baptism : whether heretical Baptism is valid ; and what is implied 
m 'The Baptism of Blood/ (10, 11) John's Baptism, he teaches, 
was preparatory : it could not give remission of sins or confer the 
Holy Spirit ^ and^ thongh we read that our Lord Himself did not 
baptize, He did so by His agents. (12) The Apostles had 
probably only rcceived the Baptism of John : their nearness to our 
Lord uiade Baptism by Him superfluous. (13, 14) Arguments 
from the case of Abraham and from the language of St Paul are 
not insuperable : the former was under the Old Covenant, and ihe 
latter did baptize^ if rarcly. (15) Heretical Baptism is invalid, or 
*One^ Baptism has no meaning. (16) *The Baptism of Blood' 
(i.c, martyrdom) was prefigured by the water and blood which 
flowed from our Lord*s side : it gives Baptism to those who have 
never had it^ and restores it to those wbo have lost it. 




XVUl 



mrmnucTroN 

IIL chs. 17— end. FracticaL 



The concliiding chapiers deal (f 7, 18) with the proper niinistei 
of the Sacrament, and the age at which it is best to receive it \ 
(19) the canonical seasons for administenng it ; and (20) the 
proper preparation of tbe candidates. 

I 3. Holy Bapiism as it appears in TirtulliatL 

We shouJd have had abundant cause to be grateful 
to this writer if the treatise just analysed had been 
his sole contribution to our knowledge of Baptismal 
doctrine and practice at the close of the second century. 
But there are scattered references to the Sacrament 
in various parts of his writings, and three longer passages 
which, for the convenience of the reader, are here given 
in full, The first occurs in the tk Corona^ a work written 
probably in 20 1, a Httle later than the de Baptismo. 
In ch. 3 we read as follows : ' In Baptism, when we are 
about to coiTie to the water, in the same place, but at 
a somewhat earlier time, we do in the Church teatify, 
under the hand of a chief minister, that we renounce 
the Devil and his pomp and his angels. Then we are 
thrice dipped, answering somewhat niore fully than the 
Lord hath prescribed in the GospeP ; then, some under- 
taking the charge of us^ we first taste a mixture of 
honey and milk, and from that day we abstain for a 
whole week from our daily washingV 

* By which perliaps he means that the answers to the interrogiations on 
our faiih go a litile beyond the baptismal formula- 

'■• Oti belng takea up out of the water* 

* Denique, ut a baptbmate mgrediart aquam aditun ibidem, swl et 
aliqu^to priuSj in e<:clesi^ sub aittistitis manut contest&mur nos reountiare 
diabolo et pompae et angelis eius* Dchinc ter mergitamuri amphus altquid 
[amplius non aliquit!, al.} respondentes quiim dominus in euangelio deter- 
minauit' Inde suscepti lactis et melhs concordiam praegustamus, exque ea 
die lauacro quotidiano per tot^im hehdomatJem abstinemus. 



INTRQDUCTION^ 



XIX 



I 



The next passage, written just before the author left 
the Church, occurs in the dePraescr. Haeret 36, I borrovv 
Dr Mason's translation^: *Thence {vis, from the Holy 
Scriptures) she quaflfs her faith ; she seals it with the 
water, she clothes it with the Holy Spirit, she feeds it 
with the Eucharist, she exhorts it to endure even 
martyrdom itself, and she does not receive any in 
opposition to this doctrinel* 

The third, also quoted by Dr Mason, is in the 
de Res. Carti. 8, a work composed after TertulUan had 
become a Montanist * The flesh is washed, that the 
soul may be rid of its stains; the flesh is anointed, that 
the soul may be consecrated ; the flesh is sealed (signed 
with the Cross), that the soul also may be protected; 
the flesh is overshadowed by the Imposition of the 
Hand, that the soul also may be illuminated by the 
Spirit ; the flesh is fcd vvith the Body and Blood of 
Christ, that the soul also may be made fat from GodV 

Combinin^, thereforc, the various notices of the 
Sacrament to be met with in his works, we may represent 
the baptismal rite of Tertullian^s day to have been as 
foilows : 

The candidates were assumed to have received some 
previous instruction^, and required to prepare for their 
Baptism by fasting^ prayer, and vigil"— probably, though 



^ Rclaiii^H cf Conjirtnatioii h BapHsfn^^ p. 62. 

'^ Tnde potat fidem, eand aqua sLgtiat, Bancto spintu uestit, eucharistta 
pascit^ mariyrium exhortaturp et ita aduersua hanc institutionem neminem 
recipit* 

^ Caro ablu i t ur, u t an ima em aculetu r ; caro ungi tur^ ut auima consec ret u r ; 
caro signatur^ ut et anima muniatur ; caro mauys impositione [Impressionc G] 
adumbratur, ut et anima Spiritu UJutninetur; caro corpore et sanguine 
Christi uesciluri ut et anima cle Ueo saginetur. 

^ Qui cum maxime formantur, tk B. 1, ueuiaot dum dlscunt, xv^Iii, 

^ iL XX. 



XX 



INTRODUCTION 



the time is not stated, during the period which answered 
to our Lent: they are to confess their sins^ — ^perhaps in 
public ; but^ owing to a difference of reading^, the point 
is uncertain. Before Baptism there takes place the 
renunciation of the DeviP, in the Church, and before 
the antisies — the Bishopj presumably. Sponsors were 
present^ : the convert was immersed thrice^ in the name 
of the Blessed Tnnity^ reciting some form of Creed^ 
but we are not given its exact wording. No forms of 
exorcism or of consecration of the water^ are to be found. 
Immediately on leaving the water came the Unction^; 
sealing with the sign of the Cross^^ and Imposition of 
the Hand". The exact position of the Mactis et meUis 
gustatio'^' is uncertain, but probably it followed the Im- 
posjtion, Nothing is satd about the wearing or laying 
aside of any special vesture, e.g, white garments, — and 
It is doubtful whether reception of the Eucharist was 
part of the Baptismal ceremony or not^^ TertuHian was 
inclined to recommend fasting after the reception of 
the Sacrament, but does not press the point^^ and 
mentions that abstinence from ordinary bathing was 
practised for a week^^ 

1 ib, and ad Mart. 3. ^ fW7t or num^ de J^. xx. ^ de Cm\ 3» 

* d£ B. vij 3cvHi, * de Cor* 3 ■ adu. Prax, 26 ; de B* iii 

* odn. Brojr. 26* 

^ de Cor. 3 ; de Vcland. l^irg. i ; de Fraescr. Hmret. 1 3. 

^ SanctiBcatfo s. munda.Uo aquac : bene<iicuo fontis : exorciiinms aquae 
fontis* Cf. Cypn Ep. Ixx i^ * Oportet uero mundari et sanciificari aquani 
prius a sacerdote, ut posstt baptisttio sua peccata hominis qui baptizatiir 
aUuere/and Epx Ixxiv 5. Aiso Clem. Alex* Proiripi. S£ 99, Ad^ere O&tp 
^n^^iKbv^ if this is wbat is meant. 

■* d& B. vii ; adu. Marc. iv 34. 

^^ de Res. Cam. S, see Ma^n, <?/, cil, p» 63, note 1 . 

*i de B,iim\ de Pracscr^ Haerei. ^G. ^^ de Cor, 3. 

^' de Res. Carn. 8 ; adu. Marc. \ 14, leem to imply ihat it was : d£ 
Fraescr, 36 15 ambigtious : d^ C^r^ 3 seems definitely to separate them. 
' 1* d£ B. XX, 1* dt Cor. 3. 



INTKODUCTION 



XXI 



We are not told whether Baptism was usually 
administered in the open^ or in a baptistery or font 
I incline to think, from the mention of in €cdesia> and 
4}rdinandis laHacns^, that some kind of bapti^tery is 
indicated, but the language in ch* iv shows that any 
water was recognised as equally valid 

The proper minister was the Bishop ; faiiing himj 
a priest or deacon might baptize, with the Bishop^s 
permission. Lay Baptism was not to be resorted to, 
except in case of necessity, and women were not to 
presume to baptize at alP, Baptism was rather to be 
deferred, than administered early, because of the danger 
of post-baptismal sin, especially in the case of unmarried 
persons*, 

The proper seasons for administering the Sacrament 
were Easter and Pentecost — but any time is good^ 

It may next be properly inquired what TertuUian 
considered to be the gift conveyed in the Sacrament. 
It conferred remission of sins^ and cleansed thesoul from 
the stain of sin^ : man was re-created in water, and life 
given to him^ : water, after bJessing, sanctifies, cleanses, 
receives power to heal, saves all nations, does away with 
guilt and punishment, abolishes death ; it restores man 
to the likeness of God, and gives him again the Spirit 
of God, which was breathed ixpon him at the Creationj 
but was lost through sin", Baptism, i,e. the rite as a 
whole, confers upon us the Holy Spirit^"; it is not to be 
repeated**, and to refuse it in case of need may be to 
' destroy ' a man^^, Lastly, martyrdom raay take its place, 

1 de Cor. 3. ^ de B* xix- 

^ de B, xvii. This last restriction seems peculiar to TertulHaiK 

^ df B' x^'!!, cfp viii adj^rir ^ de B. xx j ApoL 3, 

^ adu. Matc \ 18 ; dt Pacn, 6 \ de id^L \i. 

^ dt Pttdti* €^\de B. { and \^\ de Faenit. 6. * a'^ ^. iii. 

* ch. V, *** ch* viii. *i ch. XV. ^^ ch. xvii- 



XXll 



INTRODUCTION 



if it has not been received, or restore it, if it has been 
lost^. 

The reader will have observed that Baptism m the 
second century was a composite rite, and inchided what 
is now called Confirmation. Many of the expressions 
which TertuUian uses are doubtless to be applied to 
the Sacrament as a whole, but nevertheless he dis- 
tinguishes clearly the effect of the separate parts of which 
it was composed. Baptism itself 'cleansed' and conveyed 
* remission of sins/ but not of itself the gift of the Holy 
Spirit : that is definitely associated with the Imposition 
of Hands. There remains the Unction. If Tertuilian^s 
language in ch, vii is precise, it consecrated to the 
Christian priesthood^, 

Perhaps TertuUian might have readjusted some of his 
statements, if the question of the relation of Confirmation 
to Baptism had been definitely before his mind. But 
it was plainly all one rite in his conception, and there 
is no sign that he even knew that the parts of the 
Sacrament could be administered at separate times. 
Even so, his language about it is remarkabiy clear^ 
I have purposely omitted all reference to the word 
Regeneration^ which is the point on which a modern 
reader is likely to consult his language. Probably, 
if the question had been put to him, whether the 
believer is born again in Baptism, and at what moment 
of the composite transaction, he would have expressed 
himself not doubtfully ; but it was not in his mind 
when he wrote, and it is not fair to draw inferences 
from a writer's language w^hen he is not, as it \\^ere, 
on his guard, I have given as carefully as I could 

^ ch- xvi, 

^ Not, of course, to the presbyteral order. 

8 Mason, ap^ ciL p. 64. See also d'Ales, pp. dL p- 317, note i * 



INTmDUCTION^ 



xxui 



» 

N 



i 



the actual expressions in which he states his doctrine 
of the grace of Baptism, and the reader may draw 
his own conclusions. 

If, at first, this seems a disappointing admission 
to have to make about the evidence of the first great 
Christian writer on Christian Baptism, in respect of 
one of the most important controversies to which that 
Sacrament has given risej 1 would plead that we ought 
rather to recognise with thankfulness the fulness 
of the doctrine wMch his work contains. When 
we consider how little we know of Baptism in the 
age preceding TertuUian, and contrast it with the 
fulness with which he has treated it, we cannot but 
admire the genius of the writer from whom, in the 
providence of God, we have learnt so much, Human 
elenients there were, no doubt, in the progress which 
Christian thought is seen to have made by his time. 
Greek philosophy and heathen mysteries had contributed 
their share, though TertulHan may disclaim all use of 
the one in writing of religion, and speak but slightingly 
of the othen The natural abihty and force of the man, 
his training as a rhetorician^ his muhifarious neading, 
and the practice in the courts which gave sharpness 
and precision to his language, were no mean factors in 
producing the result that we have seen. But, when 
allowance has been made for all these, we still feel that 
*dat Deus incrementum/ 



§ 4, Influiuce of ihe de Baptismo upou 
stibsequmt writers. 

To discuss fully the influence of this treatise on 
subsequent writers is perhaps unnecessary. I shall 
attempt to do Httle more here than to put a few clues 



wmmm^ 



XXIV 



rNTRODUCTION' 



into the reader's hands, which he may follow up or not 
as he sees fit, 

It is natural to begin with Cyprian, of whom Jerome 
tells m that he was accostomed to call TertuUian his 
' master^' His views with regard to Baptism may 
conveniently be studied in the work of Dr Mason to 
which reference has already been made, pp. 64 — y6, 

For Jerome himself see, in addition to pp. 164—177 
of the work just mentioned^ the following references : 
Ep, Ixix ad Ocean, 6 and 7, Comnu in EzecL xxviii, 
Something may also be gleaned from O, Zockler, 
Hi€ro7iymus, sein Leben und Wirken^ Gotha, 1865, esp. 
p. 440, and Collombet, Histoire de S. Jirdme, Paris, 1844% 

Isidore of Seville embodied large quantities of matter 
from TertuUian in his Origines, 1 have noted the 
passages from the de Baptismo as they occur, but the 
folJowing list may perhaps be useful : 

de Baptismo^ hi—Origines I vi 19. 49 
„ vi , ,, 46 

„ vii ,, Si and 52. 

n vii 2. 2, 

viii ,, vi 19, 54. 

„ vii 3. 22'. 

It is interesting to observe that in the age succeeding 
Isidore, the work of TcrtuUian was read and utilised 
by a group of scholars. Leidrad, Bishop of Lyons, 
Magnus, Bishop of Sens, Rabanus, Bishop of Mainz, 

* d$ Vir~ Int. liiu See Cyprian Epp. Ixiii 8; Ixiv 3 ; Ixix ti} 13, 14, 
15 ; lx)t ^, 3 j Ixxii r ; Ixxiii 6, g^ 21 ; Ixxiv 5, ati D&tmt iii 4, 

^ From the point of view of tbis inquiry a disappointing work. 

' See esp. Klu&smann, Excerpta Teriuli, tx hidi^ro. I have aUo read 
throtigh Don Jose Flaquer y Frai-s^eT So-n Isidoro^ su Infiutncia tn Itt 
FiiQSofia de /a fdad ntedm^ Madrid, 1S58. It 13 writlen in an iuflated 
style, and, among the list of nuthors given on p. 15 to whom Isidore was 
indebted, TertulHan is not eveti oametU 



INTRODUCTION 



XXV 



* 



all use expressions vvhich are evidently drawn from 
this treatise. See Mason, pp. 215 foll. 

After these Western writers, it remains to mention 
one whose works betray a ver>^ intimate acquaintance 
with the de Bapiisnw of Tertullian in a quarter where 
it was hardly to be expected— Didymus, the bh"nd 
scholar of Alexandria. As there is Httle reason to 
suppose that Didymus was a Latin scholar, we must 
conclude that TertulUan^s treatise was still accessible 
in its Greek form in tlje fourth centurj^ See Mason, 
pp. 290 — 297, and Joh. Leipold Didymits der BHnde von 
Aiexandrien in Texte und Untersuckungeii 1903, xiv 3, 
whichj though interesting in itself, is disappointing from 
this point of view, 

See also Harnack in Sitzungsber. d. KmigL preuss, 
Ak d. Wissensck. Berlin, 1895, pp. 561—579, and d*Ales 
TkM, de Tert, Appendice * Tertnllien devant les Peres^ 
p, 499j where full references, and, in some cases, quota* 
tions are given* 



§ 5, Latiniiy and Style^ 

A fuU account of Tertullian^s Latinity and style 
would carry us beyond the appropriate limit of space, 
A list of authorities on the subject will be found in the 
Bibliography at the end of this Introduction, I propose 
to deal here with three points only, and with those but 
briefly ^ (i) *African' Latin : (2) features peculiar to 
Tertullian : (3) points of interest in the de Baptisfm. 

(i) The problem of those who are engaged in the 
study of * African ' Latin is mainly this : elements which 
may fairly be called ' African ' have to be separated oflf 
from those which were merely late, or not peculiar to 
Africaj and dueallowancehas to be made for the native 



XXVI 



mmonucTioN 



idiom — ^Berber, or whatever it may have been— and its 
influence on the vocabulary; syntax, and idioms of those 
to whom it was their native tong^iie, and who only 
learnt to write or speak Latin laten 

The first of these objects of study demands good 
critical editions of the ^urviving Uterature, well indexed ; 
and these are only gradually being produced. When a 
complete coUection has been made^ we may hope to say 
with greater certainty that particular words or idioms 
are * African,* 'Gallic/ 'Spanish/ ' Itahan/ or the h'ke* 
At present such decisions are tentative and provisional, 
Mr Watson, in the article on Cyprian referred to below, 
thinks that the information to be derived from a study 
of the formal treatises on Rhetoric will prove valuable 
in this connexion. 

The second of these questions requires acquaintance 
with a field of study at present Httle cultivated. The 
evidence available for a study of the native idiom of 
N. Africa— whatcver it may have been— is scanty, 
and we have to faU back upon a vague category of 
* Semitisms/ about which we may hope in time to 
know something more definite. 1 have noted a few 
below, but I feel no certainty that they came to 
Tertullian from his native tongue, and not rather from 
the Hebrew Scriptures, either directly, or through Greek 
or Latin Versions. 



(2) The difficulty of estimating aU this is in- 
creased in the case of TertuHian by his strongly 
marked individuaUty, He was a trained lawyer who 
had received a thorough rhetorical education. The 
number of authors whom he quotes, and the variety 
of subjects with vvhich he deals, prove him to have 
been a widely-read man, of muhifarious leaming, 




INTRODUCTION 



XXVI l 



and good memorj^ In the course of his life he was 
a Stoic materialist, an orthodox Churchman, and a 
Montanist, and none of the three elements is without 
its effect upon his writfngs. He was a master of irony 
and invective, and possessed a certaiu biting wit, which 
is eflTective enoutrh in its way. Suavity and gentleness 
are not conspicuous among hls qualities, and yet an 
appeal like that vvith which this treatise ends goes far 
to soften the impression which his hard hitting and 
caustic irony would otherwise ieave on the reader's mind. 
His style may attract or repel, but at least \t is the style 
of a man of powerful and original mind, who was deeply 
in eamest,and meant what he said. Like Luther, whom 
he resembles in other respects than those of style, he 
was often earnest at the expense of proportion, and his 
obscurity is, like Luther's, that of a man who tries to 
make language bear more than it will carry, and not 
that of a man who, having Httle to say, lacks skill to 
say it clearly. 

This is a question of more than merely literary 
interest No one writer, except perhaps Augustine, has 
so powerfully influenced for good or evil the vocabulary 
and thought of the Christian Church in the West And 
when so careful a writer as Dr Westcott can speak of 
*Augustines lamentable AfricantsmV it is plain that the 
natural bias, so to speak, of a writer like TertuUian, is a 
factor of importance. For example ; much of the usual 
conception of the doctrine of the Atonement, and much 
of the language in which it is commonly expressed, come 
in the first instance from him, He viewed the relation 
between God and man in the light of a legal transaction, 
and expressed it in terms of Roman law ; and from the 
mingled clearness, hardness, and narrowness of such a 




xxvni 



INTRODUCTION 



conception Christians have found it hard to set them- 
selves free. Not only, therefore, must such words as 
sacramentiim, satisfacere, and the Hke, be first dlvested of 
associations which have g^athered round them since, but 
the student miist try to estimate how far, in general^ the 
clear-cut and precise phraseology of such a man as 
Tertullian is capable of expressing the many-sidedness 
of Christian truth. ' Life/ in Shelley s splendid image, 
Mike a dome of many-coloured glass^ Stains the white 
radiance of Eternity ' ; and, in Hke manner, we may feel 
that of the many colours through which we of the 
Westera Church have learnt to look at Divine Truth^ 
that of the first great Father of the African Church is 
not the least vivid 

(3) Passing now to the de Baptisnw^ we may note 
the foUo^ving : — 

1, Semitisms, 

Subs. ami Gen. for adj. and subst. [Due to lack of adjectives 
in Semitic languages. Esp. common in Minucius Felix,] 
Animal simplicitatis et mnocentiae. viii. 

2. Graecisms, 
I. Capit used like fVSf;^frct, with infin. 

Capit numerari. xv» 

Habere with abstract noun like ^x^tv in the sense of to 
* give rise to,' 
lam tunc habiiit quaestionem. x. 
With infin. = *to be bound to/ 
Habes homo uenerari. iii. 

3, Praeuenio with infin. like ^Bavii>. 
Praeaenerat descendere. v. 

4 Sub like v?rOj of the agent (duk), 
Emundati sub angelo. vi. 

Per like fita, causal. 

Per imperitiam (h' diraih(v<rlas). u 



INTRODUCTION XXIX 

5. Utpote with partic. like arc^ 

Utpote non intellegentes. x. 

6. Sine like x^^P*^» * ^ut for.' 

Sine resurrectione eius. xi. 

7. Nullius...nisi like ovh^vo^ el firj, xiii {dub,), 

8. Quid custodiendum sit=Tt 0vXaicT6oi/. xv. 

{dub* Perh. a survival of a former ^quae c. s.'). 

9. Tunc = 6 TOT£. 

Pro condicione tunc temporis. xiv. 

10. Teloneum=T£Xo)i/€toi/. xii. 

3. Legal Elemmts, 

Characteristic words are ago — ampliatio — arbiter — competo — 
defendo — extraneus — patrocinium — praescriptio — praetexo — prae - 
rogatiua — praesumo — procuro— repromitto — restauro — titulus. 

The following references will repay examination — pp. 10. 14, 
19. 1/32. 5, 34. 2, 38. 4, 48. 4, 51. 9, where the writer clinches or 
supports an argument by a sentence of the law. 

4. Philosophy, 

Not much in evidence in this treatise. See, however, pp. 4. 15, 
9. 6, 13. 

5. General, 

1. Affinities with the language of Comedy. 

exhibeo, p. 30. 1 1, perhaps also deputare (very common) 
and cum causal with indic. xii. 

2. Loose use of pronouns. 

iste=hic. i, v, xv. 

quisque=quisquis. v. • 

eiusmodi used as a substantive. xii. 

^ Perhaps this should not be included, cf. 

Populus numerabilis utpote paruus. Hor. A. P, 206. 
which is much the same use. 

L. T. C 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

3. Well-known tendencies of silver Latin are shown in such 

forms as 
uectaculum. iii. 
probabilis. i. 
habilis. xix. 

4. Pleonasm of conjunctions, 

quamquam etsi. xiv. 

5. Epexegetic infinitive, extended use of, 

^ii^Yfacilis. iv. 
after concipio, iv. 

6. Present participle, extended use of, 

discentes. xvii. 
aduersantes wiih gen. xii. 
credentes. xiii. 

7. Prepositions. 

de instrumental, xix. 

sub instrumental. vi, but see 2. 4 above, Graecisms. 

penes«*apud. {passim,) 

circa=*in the matter of.' xviii. 
Many words are used in a somewhat peculiar sense — e.g. 
atquin, utique, reuoluo, uena, denique, adeo, omnino, quatenus, for 
which the student should consult the Index. 

Reference shouldbe made, finally, to ihe pithiness and terseness 
of the style, due largely to its unperiodic nature, of which ch. ivyf;/. 
and V init. are good examples. To it are due such epigrammatic 
phrases as Ubi tres ibi Ecclesia ; Episcopatus aemulatio schismatum 
mater est ; Dei dignatio suas praemittit praerogatiuas ; Exempto 
reatu eximitur et poena ; Spiritus dominatur, caro famulatur ; and 
the like. 

§ 6. Biblical Qiwtations, 

The de Baptismoy Wkt other treatises of Tertullian, 
is full of quotations from the Bible ; and their character 
is such as to lead the reader to consider from what 
source they vvere derived. 

The history of the pre-Hieronymian Latin texts is 
not yet satisfactorily cleared up. As the evidence to 




mmoDucTiox 



XXXI 



be derived from Tertullian ts both important and 
exceptionally puzzJing, it may be vvell to state here 
some of the factors iii the problem. 

It is practically certain, in the first place, that by 

' the time of Cyprian (c. 250) there was in circulation 

^tat Carthage a recognised Latin Version whose charac- 

Wteristics we are able to determine. 

H If, now, \ve examine the evidence of Tertullian, 

Bwe are confronted by two difficylties — the uncertain 

state of the text, and his method of quoting- The 

first of these difficulties is in process of removaU 

, An example will be givcn shortly of the way in which 

Hit affects inferences from his quotations, 

H As regards his method of quoting, we have in each 

Bcase to decide {a) whether we have before us a direct 

citation; {b) whether it is a quotation from memory, 

inaccurately retained ; or {c) whether it is a free allusion 

or adaptation of some passage of Scripture, 

^p A glance at Ronsch {Das N. T, Tirttiilians) will 

~ show that Tertullian quotes the same text in different 

^^forms in different treatises, sometimes even in the same 

^Ptreatise. The first inference from this is that TertuUian 

did not quote from any recognised text, but translated 

^»for himself from the Greek— possibly from the Hebrew. 

^P VVe may^ I think, dismiss the idea that he used a 

Hebrew Testament To take one example : in de BapL 

viii hc says (speaking of the crossing of Jacob's hands 

when he blessed Ephraim and Manasseh) *transuersim 

obliquatis in se/ which shows that he understood h^ as 

the LXX did (e7re^aXei/...emXXaf). It is more likely 

that he either translated from the LXX, or foHowed a 

Latin text made from the LXx, than that he inde* 

pendently hit upon the same Interpretation^ 

^ Cf. also his treatment of Jer. xxxi 8 111 de Bapi. xix. 



XXXll 



INTRODUCTION 



Can we, now, go a stage further, and decide whether 
he made his own translation from the Greek, or whether 
he had some Latin Version before him ? It seems 
probabje that the latter was the case. For instance : in 
d£ Pudic, 13 iniL he has occa.sion to quote 2 Cor. ii 7, 
and his quotation presents ut c. infin, for ^crre c. infifL 
So able a writer of Latin would hardly, we may feel 
sure^ have adhered so slavishly to the Greek idiom, 
unless he had been quoting from some verston whose 
authority he to some extent recognised, 

Similarly, in the adn, Prax. he quotes the words o 
Tioyoi; aap^ iyevero several times, and always in the forna 
• Sermo caro factus est/ although in ch, 5 he states his 
personal preference for ' Ratio' 

It must be admitted that the force of this latter 
illustration is weakencd by the fact that in quoting 
the same words in the de Carm Christi he uses with 
equal consistency ^Verbum caro factum est/ Corssen^ 
would go further than this, and maintain not only 
that TertulHan was faithful to ' a received Latin Version/ 
but that it presented a text already ' mixed,* and had 
therefore been long enough in existence to have become 
subject to Mevelling' tendencies. 

I doubt whether this can, as yetj be regarded as 
proved. To take one instance, 2 Cor. iv ij is quoted 
twice, Smrp. 13 and de Res. Carn. 40. Corssen argues 
that, because both quotations give ad pracsens and 
temporale as a rendering of to irapavTUa, therefore the 
text must be mixed. But in Scorp, 13 the Vienna 
editors have removed ad praesens from the quotation, 
and I do not think it is impossible to do so^ though 



I 



^ Zwd mm Fra^mmtf tkr IVeingarimK Pr&phHeH-IIdschr.^ Berfm, 
1899, p. 48* 



INTRODUCTION XXXlll 

it is certainly less easy, in de Res, Carn, 40, where 
Kroymann still reads it 

Enough has perhaps been said to show the nature 
of the questions upon which the evidence of Tertullian 
may be examined, and the pecuh'ar difficulty of dealing 
with it. It may be useful to the student if I collect 
here the O.T. quotations which occur in the de Baptismo, 
referring to Ronsch for those from the N.T. 

0,T, Quotations, 

Gen. i I, 2. \n primordio /ecit Deus caelum et terram. Terra 
autem erat inuisibilis et incomposita^ et tenebrae erant super 
abyssum et spiritus Domini super aquas ferebatur. iii. 

{inuisibilis also Iren. i 18. i : Lxx ao^axo^, Qu. !)nh falsely 
derived from n^lD T) 

6 — 10. Referred to, but not quoted, iii. 

Gen. i 26, 27, ii 7, Wisd. ii 23. Ita restituetur homo ad simili- 
tudinem eius, qui retro ad imaginem Dei fuerat. 

Gen. viii 11. Referred to, but not quoted, viii. 

Gen. xlviii 14. Intermutatis manibus. viii. [See also above, 
p. xxxi.] 

Ex. xiv 28. Referred to, but not quoted, ix. 

Ex. XV 25. Freely adapted, ix. 

Ex. xl 13. Referred to, but not quoted, vii. 

Ps. cxxxii 2. Referred to, but not quoted, vii. 

{Note, Ps. ii i is quoted in ch. vii from Acts iv 27, and is 
therefore not included here.) 

Is. vii 9. Non intellegentes^ quia non credentes. x. 

LXX cav \Li\ iriarevaTjTef olSe firj avvrjre (no variant). 

Vulg. Si non credideritis, non permanebitis, 

(Vulg. right : LXX evidently did not understand the paro- 
nomasia.) 

Is. xl 3. Adapted or referred to, vi. 

Jer. xxxi 8. Et congregabo illos ab extremis terrae in diefesto 
(agrees with LXX B against Q»oMg- and Vulg. See note in loc. 
ch. xix). 

Mal. iii i. Praeparabit uiam meam. vi. 

Wisd. ii 23. Cf. quotation from Gen. i 26 above. 



XXXIV 



mTRODUCTWN' 



N.T, Qttoiatwns. 

For the N.T. quotations reference may be made to Ronscb* 
The most interestmg are 

Joh. V 4, where Bethsaidam is read, ch. v ; 

Acts ix I r, where Simm hospes is read, by a curious raistake, 
ch. xviii- 



§ 7, Tcxt and Editions, 

The de Baptismo is one of those treatises of^ 
Tertullian of which no MS is now known to exist, 
The text depends, therefore, upon the earliest printed 
editions and the labours of subsequent scholars. The 
de Bapiismo rests primarily on the three following: 

(i) Martin Mesnart^ Faris, 1545, 

* Haec uero sequeiitia opuscula nunc primum eduntur 
in luceni beneficio Joannis Gangneii^ Parisini theolQgi 
et Christianissimi Gaiharum Regis primi eleemosynarii, 
ex uetustissimo codice* desumpta/ 

( 2 ) Sigism u nd Gelen ius^ B & ] e, 1550. 

In the preparation of this edition, Gelcnius says that 
he had the advantage of a * liber longe incorruptissimus, 
ex coenobio ultimae Britaiiniae Masburensi petitus/ 
which was lent to him by John Leland the antiquary 
(see below). 



1 Joh. Gagny» or Gainy, Almoner of Francis T and Ch£incellor of ihe 
University of Paris, dted m 1549. The name of Martin Mesnftrt is con* 
taitied in an acro^Lich. 

* * Wie die genaue Vergleichung leliit, war wahrscheitilich eine der voo 
dem Herausfieber benut^ten HSlen zwar mit dtm Agohardm Vfnmndt^ 
aber nkht mit ihm idfHtisih.^ Harnack, Gesch. tt. alickr. LiiL i p* 677, 
The Codtx A^ohardimts^ the olilest and best MS of Tertullian, on vellum, 
of ihe ixth cent. at Paris {no* 16^?), is so called from its first poissessor, 
Agobard, Bp of Lyons* 



INTRODUCTION 



XXXV 



(3) J(tcobus Pamdms, Paris, 1579. 

Iinportant from the use made of a MS belonging to 
John Clement, which has since disappeared. It does 
not, however, seem to have contained the de Baptismo, 

In preparing this edition I have in the main followed 
the text of the Vienna Corpus Scriptontm Ecci. Laiimrum, 
in which series Pt 1 of Tertullian appeared in 1880 
under the editorship of A. Reifferscheid and G. Wisso%va, 
and I have recorded in the commentary thesuggestions of 
W. von Hartel, Klussmann, Kroymann, Gompertz, and 
J. van der VUet, besides making a few suggestions of 
my own. Pt III of the Vienna edition appeared in 1906, 
wjth Kroyniann as editor. His Introduction is valuable. 

Oehler's work, of which I have used the edition in 
3 vols, Leipzig, 1853, is indispensable to the student, and 
I gladly acknowledge my indebtedness to it It is not 
entirely satisfactory. The Index is defective, and many 
of the references are wrong, and it not seldom happens 
that more information is found in a note upon which 
one has Ht by accident, than by turning up all the 
examples referred to in the Index. 

Dodgson^s^ translation, pubHshed in the Library of 
tlie Fatkers, Oxford, 1S54, is deserving of praise. If 
I have mentioned it sometimes only to differ, I would 
here record my gratitude to it, and not least for its 
valuable notes. 

If any reader of TertulHan can discover the ms 
which John Leland lent to Gelenius, he wiH render a 
service to students of our authon It is not certain to 
what •coenobium Masburense ex ultima Britannia' 
refers. Prebendary Wordsworth has suggested to me 



^ He waJ4 Rector ofCroft, and father of C. Lutwidge Doclgson, familiar 
t0 us iinder the pseudonym of * Lewis Carroll.^ 



xxxvi 



mTRODUCTION 



that it mig^ht possibly be Mexborough^ near R.otherham, 
in Yorkshire (but there is not known to have been a 
wmobiiim there), or Meux Abbey, near Eeverley (for 
virhich, however, the iisual Latln is MeUa), I have long 
wondered whether it might not be our Wiltshire 
Malmesbury, which, however, Leland generaliy calls 
Meldunum. This had a large and ancient library, and 
such a book as Tertullian de Baptismo may well have 
beeii in it. Dr M* R. James, the Frovost of King's, tells 
me that I may consider this conjecturepractieallycertajn. 
He has been kind enough to look into the matter, and 
his reasons for thinking so may be thus summarized : 
(i) Leland visited Malmesbury, and has left^ a list 
of the books which he savv there : the last but one is 
Tertuliianus, (2) Tertulhan was an author rarely found 
in EngJand. (3) William of Malmesbury had read the 
Apology, and furthcr research may show that he knew 
the de Baptismo also. As regards the form of the name, 
Dr James thinks that Leland, w^hen writing to a foreigner, 
may have substituted for the Meldunum of his elegant 
style a form nearer the English — coenobium Maimes- 
buriense. Gelenius, not being famiHar vvith our English 
place names^ may have got this into Mamsburiaise 
and then Mdsbur{i)ense, Whether Leland had any 
business to lend such a treasure to the scholar at Bale\ 
whether Gelenius ever returned it^, whether it may still be 



^ aL Masbryhe, j. MereTtbrught j. Masbrugh, s. Masbrough, s. 
Mexburgh. 

* Cifiiecttjnea\ 1770, iv p. 157. 

* Dr limiack says {G. d. alUhr^ Litt. i p. Gf,^) this MS caine from 
*^1S1q^\£X Masburjie' \ bu! I think this must be an oversight. 

* Gebnius, the frieud of Erasmusj though bom at Prag^ lived, marriedj 
and died at B^Ie (t 155!), He stiperkised Froben's press thereT and 
comected proofs for hjm. 

^ Lelaiid died m&aue two yeari aftec the B41e editioo of Gelenius was ^rst 



INTRODUCTION XXXVll 

found among the collections of that pleasant town which 
has rendered so many services to the cause of learning, 
or whether it has suffered at the hands of the butterman 
the fate of so many other MSS, are questions on vvhich at 
present I can throw no light. 

§ 8. Bibliography, 

In drawing up the following list, which does not 
pretend to be exhaustive, I have purposely omitted what 
may perhaps be called obvious sources of information, 
and have selected rather those which are more likely 
to be overlooked. A few of the most important are 
marked with an asterisk, and in some cases I have 
added a word of comment, which may be useful as 
a guide. The date is in many instances an indication 
of work which has now been superseded. Most of the 
books named have been examined by me at one time 
or another. As many of them were not in the Cambridge 
University Librar)', nor in the British Museum, I availed 
myself when last at Bonn of a courteous permission 
given me by the University Librarian to examine them 
in the library there. I have added the British Museum 
press-mark to several for ease of reference. 

I. GeneraL 

*d'Al^s, A., La ThMogie de Tertullien, Paris, 1905. 8«. 

[B.M. 3624. b. 15.] 
Benson, E. W., Cyprian^ his life^ times^ and worL London, 

1897. 8«. 
Bethune-Baker, J. F., Introduction to the early History of 

Chr. Doctrine. London, 1903. 8^ 

published. The editor in his preface laments the ill health of the English 
antlquary, so that it is not improbable that the MS of Tertullian never 
returned from Bile to its native country. 



xxxvm 



mTNOBUCTION' 



Cigheri, A. M., S. Calh. Ecd, doj(matum...ventas d^ntonstraia^ 

9 vols., 1791. 4*^. [B.M. 699, i. 5.] 
{d£ B. is Pt 2 of vol. ix. Contains a few varloritm notes.) 
Freppel, Monsiifn,, Cours d^dlaquince sacree fait A ia Sorbonm. 

Paris, 1887. %\ 
*Harnack, A., Dogmen^esckickte, F. i, B. 1 886. [ Valuable : 

needs caution in use.] 
Mission u. Ausbreiiung d. Chrisieniums. 
Hauschild^ Cm, R., leriulliaus Psyckoiogie u. Erkennimstheorie^ 

Progr, No. 328. F. a. M. 1880. 
Hesselberg, TeriuUians Lekre. Dorpat, 1848. [Dates and 

contents.] 
Holberg, J., Verf Cuit. n. Discip. d. CJir. Kircke m d. Schr. Ts. 

Braunsberg, 1886. 8". 
Hort, F. J. A.j Six Lectures on the ante-Nicem Faikers. London, 

1895- 
Hurter, H. von, SS. Fatrum opuscuia seiecta, 1874. \^K 

[B.M. 3622. a.] 
{de B. is voL vii pp* 141 — 18S, Short explanations of difficult 

words and passnges.) 
March, F. A. (ed.), Dougiass Series of Citr. Gk and Lai. writers^ 

6 vols, N. Y. 1874. 8* 
{de B,\s in a separaie vol. not numbered. B.M, 3622* aa. 9. 

Interesting, as far as it goes : chiefly linguistic and 

literary : no special doctrinal standpoint^) 
Mayor, J. B., A Puriian and a Broad Ciiurckman in tite 2nd 

Century^ two articles in Xh^Ex-^ositorfoT^nne, — July 1902. 

(Contrast between Tertullian and Clcment of Alejcandria.) 
♦Neander, j. A, VV., ^/^//^K^fj^/iTWJ, Berhn, 1849. 8^ 
Schneider, Rev, G* A., Leeiures on EecL Hisiory» Nisbet : London^ 
1 896, pp. 183—254. (Two popular, bul well-wntten lectures 

on T,'s life and works delivered in Norwich Cathedral.) 
Schwane, Dogmengesckichtiy vol. ii. 



2. Baptism, 

♦Bardenhewer, O., Patroiogie. F. i. B. 1894 p. 182 sq. (Very 

good 1 from the R,C. standpoint.) 
Boyd, Archbpj Baptism aud Bapiismai Regeneration^ London» 

1865. S^ [B.M. 4325. aa.] 



INTRODUCTION XXXIX 

♦Caspari, Quellen z, Gesch. d, Taufsymbols, 

*Hahn, d. Lehre v, den Sacramenten, Breslau, 1864. 

♦Hofling, J. W. F., d, Sacram, d, Taufe^ 2 vols. Erlangen, 1846. 

(Very useful.) 
*Mason, A. J., Relation of Confirtnation to BaptismK London, 

1891. 8«. 
Mohler, Patrologie, Regensb. 1840, pp. 713, 737. 
Mozley, J. B., Review of the Baptismal Contro^tersy, London, 

1862. 8«. 
Primitive Doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration, London, 1856. 8^ 
Steitz, article * Taufe* in Herzog-Plitt, Realenc, 
Wall, Dr W., History oflnfant Baptism. London, 1877, 8«. 
Waterland, D., Sermons, London, 1776. 8^ 

3. Chronology, 

♦Bardenhewer, O., see above, § 2. 

♦Bonwetsch, G. N., d, Schriften Ts n, d, Zeit ihr, Abf, 

untersucht, Bonn, 1878. 8<>. [B.M. 3627. bb. 2]. Esp. 

p. 30, n. 10. 
Gesch, d, Montanismus—passim^ esp, adfin. 
*Hamack, A., Gesch, d, altch, Litt, bis EusebiuSy ii p. 268, and 

authorities refen*ed to in n. i, p. 256. 
♦Neander, Antignosticus^ see above, § i. 

4, Textual Criticism, 

Gompertz, E., Tertullianea, 

*Hartel, W. von, Patristische Studien in vol. 120 of Sitzungsber, 

d, kais, Ac. d, Wissensch,^ Vienna, 1890, etc. [B.M. Ac. 

810. 6, vols. cxxi, cxxii^] 
Klussmann, Max., Excerpta Tertull, ex Isidoro, Hamb., 1892. 4<». 

[B.M. II 31 2. ee. 3 (4).] 
Curarum Tertull, Particulae Tres, Halle, 1881, Gotha, 1887. 

(Nothing on de B, but an excellent account of Cod, 

Agobard.) 

1 I had hardly written this, when I read in The Times of his death. 
Not Austria alone will moum so accomplished a scholar and so charming 
a man. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

♦Kroymann, E., Quaestiones Tertull. Criticae. Oenip. 1894. [B.M. 

3623. aa. 43.] (Thinks the Vienna editors have been 

unduly influenced by the views of Reifferscheid.) 
*Kritische Vorarbeiten f. d, ^ten u. \ten Bd, d, neuen T Ausg, 

in vol. 143 of the series referred to above under Hartel. 
Vliet, J. van der, Studia Ecclesiastica^ pt i, Leiden, 1891. 

(Elegant and appreciative : not much on de B.) 

5. Language, Latinity, and Style. 

Condamin, J. P., g. S. F. Tertull. chr. linguae artifex. Leiden, 

1877. 
♦Dirksen, Manuale. 
*Ebert, Ts Verhdltnis z. Min. Felix in Abh. d. kon. Sdcks. 

Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. Leipzig, 1868. 
Ehrlich, J., Beitr. 'z. Lat. d, Vulgata. 1895. 
Engelhardt, Ts schriftstellerischer Character in Hist.-theoL Ztschr. 

1852, ii. (Useless.) 
YdibncmSi Bibliotheca Latina. Hamb., 1708. 
Hauschild, G. B., d. Grundsdtze u. Mittel d. Wortbild, bei T. 

Leip2. and Fkft, 1876—81. 
Hoppe, H., De Sermone Tertull. 

Syntax u. Stil d. Tertult. [B.M. 11312. g. 10.] 
Kellner, Ueb. sprachl. Eigentiimlichk. T, in Tiib. Quartalschr, 

vol. 58, p. 237. 
♦Koffmane, G., Gesch. d. Kirchenlateins^ i i and ii. Breslau, 

1878— 81 1. 
Langen, P., De usu praeposit, ap. Tertull. Miinster, 1868. 

(Very poor.) 
Leimbach, Tert. als Quelte f d, chr, Archaeol. in Ztschr, f. hist. 

Theol. 1871, p. iio. (I have not seen this, but it is well 

reported of.) 
Paucker, Zeitschr.f ost, Gesch. 1881, p. 484. (Neologisms.) 
Renan, E., Marc Aurlle^ p. 456. 
R^ville, Alb., Du sens du mot sacramentum dans lert, Paris, 

1889. 
Ronsch, H., see next §. 

^ Incomplete. The publishers wrote at my request to Dr K. to ask if 
there was any prospect that he would complete the work, but he is too busy. 



INTRODUCTION xli 

Schaff, P., article Tertullian in Herzog-Plitt Realenc,^ p. 344 sq. 

(Soon to be superseded in Hauck's reissue.) 
Schmidt, Jos., CommenL de nominum verbalium in -tor et -trix 

ap. Tert. cofiia ac vi. Erlangen, 1878. 
De Latinitate Tert. Erl., 1870. (Not much good.) 
*von Schuhe, Dr F. J., Gesch. d. Quellen u. Litt. d. kanon. 

Rechts, Bonn. (Good on the legal side.) 
Gedanken Ub. Aufg. u. Ref. d.jurist. Studiums. Bonn, 1881. 
Sittl, K., d. lokalen Verschiedenh. d. lat. Spr. mit bes. Beriick- 

sichtigungd. afrikan. Lateins. Erlangen, 1882. (Good in 

general : not much special \o de B.) 
Watson, E. W., Style and Language of S. Cyprian in Studia 

Biblica IV v p. 189 sq., esp. p. 197, § 4. (Very good : deals 

only incidentally with Tertullian.) 
Wolfflin, Archiv f lat. Lexicographie. Leipzig. 

6. Biblical Quotations, 

Bebb, Ll. J. M., Evidence of..,Patristic Quot. on Text of.,N.T. 

in Studia Biblica ii, p. 195, 1890. 
Article * Versions^ in Hastings' D.B. 
Berger, S., Hist. de la Vulgate. Paris, 1893. (Does not deal 

much with pre-Hieron. Vns.) 
Burgon, Dean, Indices. (Brit. Mus. MSS.) 

The Revision Revised. 1883. 
Burkitt, F. C, O.L. and Itala^ in Texts and Studies, vol. iv no. 3, 

pp. 18 sq., 76. 
Corssen, P., Zwei neue Fragm. d. Weingartn. Prophetenhdschr. 

Berlin, 1899(^^.45,47). 
Kaulen, Hdbuch z. Vulgata. Mainz, 1870 (pp. 83, 130, 189 sq.). 
Kennedy, H. A. A., article Latin Vns, the Old in Hastings' D.B.y 

iii p. 5S. 
Kenyon, F. G., Handb. to Textual Criticism of N.T. (pp. 215, 216}. 
Nestle, Dr Eb., article BibelUbersetzungen {lateiti) in Hauck,. 

Realenc. 
*Ott, J. N., article in Fleckeisen's /rt^r^//^^ for 1874 (p. 856 sq.). 
*R6nsch, H/, d. fieue Testament Ts. Leipz., 1871. 

Itala u. Vulgata» 
Sabatier, D. P., Bibliorum Sacrr. Latinorum Versiones. Rheims,. 

1743— 9> Paris, 1751 (under revision by Prof. E. Wolfflin 

for the Munich Academy). 



xlii INTRODUCTION 

Sanday, Dr W., 0,L, Biblical Texts, ii § 14, 1886. 
Note in Studia Biblica, vol. ii, p. 309 sq., iS^a 
Scrivener, Introduction to the.^Criticism of NT,\ revised by 

Miller, 1894 (ii p. 851 b). 
♦Swete, Dr H. B., Introduction to the O.T. in Greek (pp. 103, 

351 n. I, 465 sq.), Bibliogr. p. 104. 
Tischendorff, E., Mon. Sacr, Ined, (prolegg. p. xxvii). 
Vercellone, Var, Lect, Vulgatae^ ii (p. 8 sq.). 
Westcott and Hort, The N.T in Greek^ ii (pp. 78, 83). 
White, H. J., article Vulgate in Hastings' D.B. 
Wordsworth and White, Vulgate (in progress). [They consider 

T.'s quott. too abnormal to be included.] 
♦Ziegler, L., d. lat, Bibeliibersetzungen, Munich, 1879 (PP* 54» 

57, 60 n. 2, 90—100, 123— 131). 

7. Montanism. 

♦Bonwetsch, G. N. (see above, § 3. Very good and clear). 
Cunningham, Rev. W., The Churches of Asia, Macm. 1880. 8^ 
de Soyres, J., Montanism and the primitive Church^ Hulsean 
Prize Essay, Bell, 1878. 8«. 

For other heresies mentioned in Tertullian the following works, 
among others, will be found usefuL 

Bethune-Baker (see under § i above), pp. 85, 86. 
Gruber, d. Ophiten. Wiirzb., 1864. 
Harnack, A., Quellen-Kritik d, Gnostic. 1873. 
Heinrici, d. Valentin. Gnosis. 1871. 
Hilgenfeld, Ketzergesch. d. Urchr. 1884. 
Lipsius, Quellen-Kritik d. Epiphanius. 1865. 

Quellen d. dlt. Ketzergesch. 1875. 
Volkmar, Quellen d. Ketzergesch. 1855. 



Note on the Apparatns Criticus. 

Except where otherwise noted, the text is that of 
Reifferscheid and Wissowa, Vienna 1890. Where their 
text differs from that of Oehler, Leipzig, 1853, the 
difference is indicated. 

It will be seen that I have returned to Oehler^s 
notation of A for Mesnart, B for Gelenius &c. The 
Vienna editors, having used A to denote Codex Agobar' 
dinuSy in the Treatises where it is available, were not at 
liberty to use it for Mesnart here. I hope that the 
possibility of confusion will be outweighed by the con- 
venience of using A for the earliest edition and B, a, b, 
for those next in order. In the textual notes 

A denotes the edi tio princeps, MdLrtin Mesnart, commonly 

attributed to Gangneius, Paris, 1545. 
B „ the edition of Sigismund. Gelenius, Bale, 15 50. 
a „ „ „ lac. Pamelius, Antwerp, 1579^ 

b „ „ „ Nic. Rigaltius, Paris, 1634. 

„ „ „ Fr. Oehler, Leipzig, 1853, 3 vols. 
R „ „ „ Reifferscheid and Wissowa, 

Vienna, 1890. 

1 „ suggestions made by Franciscus Junius. 
K „ „ „ Kroymann. 

L „ „ „ Latinus Latinius. 

S „ „ „ Josephusjustus Scaliger. 

U „ „ „ Fulvius Ursinus. 

^ In one place (p. 41. 4) I have used Pam, for this, to avoid possibility 
of confusion. 




I. Felix sacramentum aquae nostrae, quia ablutis delictis 
pristinae caecitatis m uitam aeternam liberamur ! non erit 
otiosum digestum istud, instruens tam eos qui cum maxime 
formantur, quam et illos qui simpliciter credidisse contenti 



Tli^ +siduersos QuintiUam Uber &. 



I qua abluti Ub^ 



L Ths value qfa Trmihe on tke 
Sacrament of Bapthnt—occasi&n qJ 
the pre^mt laork^ ike Caina haeresis 
— crudty of th&se wko wmtid ckny 
water to Ckiistian ^fiskes.^ 

i. fellx s&cr. ftquae] QL a 
soTjiewhat simikr senteTicc, p. 43. 4^ 
belowj with someihing of the effect 
of a refrain, atid see note there. 

iL aacmmeiitnm] There is a 
convenient sketch of ihe tneaning of 
this word in Bethiine-Baker Eariy 
Hist. qf Chr. Doctrim pp. 376^ 
377, and note 2. It was used in 
the O.L. Bible as the equivalent of 
pLVfTT^fiLOif ; hence, to its original 
sense of ' oathj' *sacred obligation," 
was added the new sense of * mys- 
terious or holy ordinatice, or thing.' 
It was used of various thinga con- 
nected with God and Kevelation, 
and of vaxious acls symboHcal of 
them^ as being at once holy and 
* mysterious/ i.e. fuU of meaning to 
the initiatett. This eatplains its use, 
e*g*t iii speaking of the O/I. Scrip- 
lures. Cf. Hamack I/ist. of Do€tr. 
11 3» p. 1381 note Ji E-T-t and d*AJ^s 
La TUoL dt Tert. p. 32 1 . ( Probst Sa- 
crij^ntnta nrid Sacramentalia^ 
takes a somcwhat different vie 



3. dlgeitumj usual word in Ter- 
tullian for ' treatise,' c£ p. 4?. jo, 
below. Many ejiamples are givcn 
in Oehler on ad Nait. ii i^ aud adu. 
Marc. iv 5, 

ib. iBtud] Isie is common in 
Latin of ihis period for hic rnid 
sometimes (7/^ (Koffmane GesckichU 
d, JCirchenlaidm I n, p. 137), cf» 
p. 14. 5, below. So in the Te Deum 
26, * Dignare, domine, die isto sine 
peccato uos custodire * : and Augus- 
titie prayed, as he approached 
Canterbury in procession, that God 
would be pleased ^auertere iram a 
ciuitaLe ista* (Bede H.E, i -ii). 

4. formantur] Dodgson (Trans- 
latjon of TertQlUan=^, Oxford, 1854) 
iranslates 'who are most perfectly 
Informed.' Perhaps *who are spe- 
cially under instruction* would be 
better, liecause, whatever the exact 
shade of meaning ^l formari may 
be, the words and the tense imply a 
contimious progiess, as opposed to 
the * sxmpliciter credidisse ' with 
which they are contrasted- 

ib, uredidlBfl^i absolute, of the 
Christian bclief (Koffm. ^p, dt, i i 





TERTULLIANUS 

non exploratis rarionibus traditionum interapt^tam probabilem 
fidem per imperitiam portant. atque adeo nuper conuersata 
istic quaedam de Caina haeresi uipera uenenatissima doctrina 
sua plerosque rapuit, inprimis bapttsmum destruens. plane 
5 secundum naturam, nam fere uiperae et aspides ipsique 
reguli serpentes arida et inaquosa sectantun sed nos piscicuN 
secundum Ix^vv nostrum lesum Christum in aqua nascinmr 
nec aHter quam in aqua permanendo salui sumus. itaque illa 
monstrosissima, cui nec integre quidem docendi ius erat, 
lo optime norat pisciculos necare de aqua auferens. 

I intentatum b* 3 Caiana ab Migne, Gaiana OR* 5 ferae 

AB, fere Lab. 7 nascSLmur AB, nascitnur a- 8 itaque illa A, ita 

Quintilla Bab» 9 integrae IR, inlegre c€tt* 



i. iiit«mi)t£Ltam] Rigalt would 
read ^in temptatuni,' which he ren- 
ders * carry with tliem into tempta.- 
tion/ i.e. ihe tetnptalion to which 
a faith resting on such insecure 
foundations would tje expo&ed. It 
improves ihe conatruciion of/i?ffii«/, 
but is not othenvise convincing. 

it, probaTjllem fldem] 'a right 
and proper faith ': perhaps, however, 
the word * probabilem ' is a gloss. 

2. nui^r (^nuerBata Istlc] 
* lately dwelling in ihese parts/ 
Dodgson» It is^ I think, a fair 
inference from tbis expression and 
the twrai of 1. 10 that the mpera 
had left bcfore Tert. \wote. Other- 
wise^ tmmrsaia might have meant, 
like KtLTi^Ki^ff^v^ * has come to so- 
joumn.' For istie see note on p* i^ 5, 
above. 

3. de Oaina liaerBal] See In- 
trod. p* xW. 

ib, uipeta ueuenatisBtma] Our 
author had considerable powers of 
abcEse 2 cf. 1- 8, and p. 48. 8^ below» 

6^ regtdl serpenteB] ' ba.siH£ks.' 
So called ■ ut quqdam diademate in- 
signes/ Pliny H. N. viii 1 1 , Hence, 
perhapSr »/j* *even* — as kingfs of 
serpents* 

id. axlda] Cf. Cypr. £p. 76, fftt 
Mfign* * Scorpii et serpeiitcs, qui 
in sicco praeualentr in aquam prae* 



cipitati , . , ' etc » and Ep, 69- 1$. Isid. 
Orig. xii 4 * Reguli autem, sictit 
scorpionesT arentia quaeque sectan- 
ttir, et, postquam ad aquas uenerint 
ibique aliquem momorderint, hdpa- 
^yb^Qv^ et iymphaiicos Taciunt.* 

ib, piBCicoIi] An allusion to 
'IXeT'X Cf. de Res. Carn. 52 *pis- 
cium quibus aqua baptismi sufficit. ■ 

7. ix^ifv] The woni k fc^rmed by 
the initial letters of *Ii^<fot3s Xf^i^rb^ 
B^Qv Tlot ^wT-fip^ as explained by 
Optatus iii 1 and Augustine dd CtH. 
Dei xviii 13* See d'Al^s 0^. tit. 
p. 324, note 3. 

8. ita<ltl« Ula] This was the 
reading of tbe editieprimeps^ Gele- 
nius in his edition altered tne reading 
to lia Quintilia. VVhether this was 
his owTi conjecture, ot derived from 
the lost cffdfje A/asbiir^^nsis (Introd. 

£xxxv), or a suggestiou of John 
eland, who lent him the ms» can- 
not now be determined. A pro- 
phetess of tbis name (or Pnsciila, 
Epiphanius did not feel certain 
wnich) h mentioned by Epiphaii. 
Haeres. 49 as the originator of a 
heretical sect loiown as Quintilliani, 
PriscilUani, Pepuziani, or Arto- 
tyritae. 

9. lntegre] K.mfm^nTi (Qmtst. 
TeriuiL p. 73) prefers Ihls to Ihe 
iniegrat of Fr. Junius^ which he 



4 




H] 



im BAPrrsMO 



II. Sed enim quanta uis est peruersitatis ad fidem labe- 
factandani uel \n totum non recipiendam, ut ex his eam 
impugnet, ex quibus constat ! nihil adeo est quod obduret 
mentes hominum quam simplicitas diuinorum opemm quae 
in actu uidetur et magnificentia quae in eifectu repromit- 5 
titur : ut hic quoque, quoniam tanta simplicitate, sine pompa, 
sine apparatu nouo ahquo, denique sine sumptu, honio in 
aquam demissus et inter pauca uerba tinctus non multo uel 
nihilo mundior resurgit, eo incredibilis cxistimetur consecutio 
aeternitatis. mentior, si non e contrario idolorum sollemnia 10 

3 quod obdurel ABa.0, quod tam Ub» qtio obduret l. 5 uideot(tr 

ABaO, uldetur Ub, 6 hmc AQj hic Bab. 8 aquam 1, aqua cdi* 



csdls ^pessima couiecmra/ Women 
were not allowed to teach at all, •ue 
integre quidem, i.e* recte : nedum 
penjerae, CL ad Uxor. u i ' Quod 
si integre ^api^.' 

i6. doceniji] r Tira. ii 11. Cf. 
p, 4S. 1 1, bebw. 

II. Un^^iieiters r^t£t Bapthm 
for tht very rtason for wkich (hey 
^migkt la aceept if^-^ecau^e they ihink 
ii imreiiibU that G^i shifttld ifftci sa 
mtuk hy such simpk mtam, No- 
thing^ in reaiity^ is so ekaractfrisHc 
cf Divifu operniiom, The ntore in- 
ndequaie the meam^ tht more signai 
ike ptrwer tkai morks ikrough tkefn. 
Jdai-wotshipi m tiie cotttrary^ reiies 
mttch PH mtward ^picndour mtd 
ni^gnifcmte. 

5. a4eo eat qa<Hl obdiust] 
Hartel {Patristiscke Siudien xy^ p. 6) 
reiecis the propoml to inseri ittm^ 
and ^m thepropa^l to read estquad 
adeo^ on the ground ihat they are 
obviously dictated by a desire to 
soften tbe nigj^efiiiess of tlie LaTiiiity. 

ib. obAuret] neuter in clas^ical 
Latm, Tbe active aense (i.q. indu- 
rare) is later. 

5. repromittltiir] meatis, in 
I^al La.tin^ to ^ive a present pledge 
or guarantec for the ftiture fulfiluient 
cf a promi^. So here Ihe * sim- 
kticitas quae in actu uidetur^ is ao 




eamest of the * magtiificentia ' to 
come. See^ for the eccl. use oi the 
wordj KoflTm. op. cit. 1 i, p. 58, 

6. Me quoquej a speciai case 
of the general principle just enunti- 
ated, 

8. lntat- pauoit, uerba UitotiiBj 
Tingiio is one of the words (Jike 
simiiitttdQ (oTpanMa, d^ne nufriitire 
for eimtigciimre) which were being 
introduced to replace ioan words 
from the Gk— much a^ ^Fahrkarte* 
and *Zuf[fiihrer' are being used tiow 
for *Biliet* and *Conductedr' in 
modern German (Koffm. op. cit, i i, 
p, 2 r), It would be ititeresting if 
we could recover the *pauca uerba,* 
but this eannot be done with cer- 
tainty. The baptuimal fartnula was 
considered too sacred to be com- 
mitted to writing {Cyprian TesHm. 
iii 50 : Pet, ChrysoL Serm. 59 : Aug. 
Serm. ^ji; Jerome cotiir. han. 
Hitros, Migne xxiii 58©; Rufin. 1« 
Symt* Aposi. %%). VVith this passage 
^hould be compared de Cor. 3 * De- 
nique ut a baptismate ingrediar, 
aquam adituri ibidemf sed ei aU- 
quanto prius in ecclesia sub anti- 
tlstHis manu^contestamur nos renun- 
tiare diaholo et pompae et angelis 
eius. dehinc ter mergitamur am- 
pbus aliquid respondentes quam 
domtnvis in euangehD determinauit/ 



TERTULLIANUS 






uel arcana de suggestu et apparatu deque sumptu fidem et^ 
auctoritatem sibi extniunt, pro misera incredulitas, quae de- 
negas deo proprietates suas, simplicitatem et poteslatem ! quid 
ergo? nonne mirandum et lauacro dilui mortem? atquin eo 
5 magis credendum, si, quia mirandum est, idcirco non creditun 
qualia enim decet esse opera diuina, nisi super omnem admi- 
rationem? nos quoque ipsi miramur, sed quia credimus, 
ceterum incredulitas miratur, non credit. miratur enim sim- 
plicia quasi uana^ magnifica quasi impossibilia. et stt plane 

lo ut putas, satis ad utrumque diuina pronuntiatio praecucurriL 
stulta mundi elegit deus, ut confundat sapientiam eius, et 
praedifficilia penes homines facilia penes deum, nam si deus 
et sapiens et potens, quod etiam praetereuntes eum non 
negant, merito \w aduersariis sapientiae potentiaequcj id est in 

15 stultitia et inpossibilitate, materias operationis suae instituit; 

I d£ quo A^ deque B, 4 atquin eo magis CNfdeTidum 'si A, ^B 

credendum, si Bab* 5 creditur- Atquin eo magis credendum est ^ 

qualia A, creditur. Qualia ^€€tL 15 m posstbilitate Aj impoasi- 

bilitate B| inpossibilitate R. ^H 



1, d©] instriimental. Seelntrod. 

p. XXX ^ 

ih. su^geBtu] ^equipment,^ ' a.- 
dornment/ ' splendour,* as often in 
Tertulliati, e.g. ds Cor. 13 * In the 
Revelation of John we are vvithheld 
even from dweiling in this Babyloni 
much more from her pomp {nednni 
a suggestti')'' Fnrther examples may 
be found in Oehler'5 note there. 

1. eztrutUit] Stnm is commoner 
in this sense^ and struuttt may be 
the right readijig hereT ix being 
parasitic* Tbe efiect of the parasitic 
e m tbe Romance langnages is well 
known (KoflTm. &p. lit. i Ji p. 109); 
but cf. de Spati. 10 ' Cum illam 
arcem omnium turpitndinumextmx- 
isset ' (* had built up tbai strong- 
hold of every vice/ i.e* Pompejrs 
theatre), and Cicdfe Fm* V xxiv 71. 

4. et] * read estt* Gompcrts 
Situi. Tertuii. p. 42* .SureJy r/ has 
more force* 

ii}. atf^uin] See for the use of 



this woid in Tertullian Oehlec oti^ 
di i^ugu in Persec, 6, and Woodham 
on Apol^ 3, p. 6j note 5, 

5. idclreo nou croflitiir] Cf. the 
famou!> ^certum est, quia Inipossibite 
est/ dd Carn. Chr. 5. 

%, IncTQllulltas] Kolfm. op, dL 
I Ji P- 53» § ^ I ■ "T^s word has nardly 
any exi^tence ouLside Christiiin IJte- 
rature. 

jo. praecucurrlt} Cf* p. 14. 2, 
below. 

ji. Bttilta.,.eliis] t Con \ 17. 
Note the variation of sapietHiam 
from Tovt ffOi^qiis (Vulg. sapientea). 
No MS reads rd ff&^d for tol^s ijo^oij^i 
the masc. standing alone in marked 
contiast to the rest of the verse. 

13. pra«<limcllia] £i. Lk, xviii 
27. 

14. aduin^BarilflaApieiLtlae] 'tlie 
opposites of wii^tlom-* I do nol 
know aoy exampk quiie like this, 

15. mal«rfaa] deBned hy Cie. d^ 
Inu. J V /5 * Materiam artis eam 



II, 111] 



DE BAPTISMO 



quoniam uirtus omnis ex his causam accipit, a quibus 
prouocatun 

III. Huius memores pronuntiationis tamquam praescrip- 
tioniSj nihilominus quam stultum et impossibile slt aqua 
reformari tractamus, quid utique ista materia tantae digna- 5 
tionis meruerit officium ? ut opinor, auctoritas liquidi elementi 
exigenda est, atquin plurima suppetit et quldem a primordio. 

3 praenuntiationis Amg* scriptionis A» prae^criplLonis Kmg Bab» 

4 'qaam noxifrri.^ R. a qua A, aqua B. 5 tracEan^ius AB, 

tracteTnus b- et ante A, anle Amg, tautae Bab. 6 alimenli A, 

elenienti B, 



dkimu^ in qua otnnis arSj, et facultas 
quae conficitur ejt artCi uersatur. ' 

I. tiirtaB...prouocaturJ has the 
ring of a common-place of the 
Schools, bui I have not been able 
to trace ii further back. * Every 
excellence la due to the cau^es which 
caU it forlh*' Harnack sees in this 
remark an evidence of ihat Hellenic 
philosophy of rehgtoti which, in his 
opinionj so powerfully aflfected ihe 
early developement ofChristianity: 
HisL of Dcctr. ii p. 14^ noEe %* 

1 1 L This ch . deab furiher wiik 
iki objtctwn aiready in piirt discusted 
hy setting forih ihe antiquity atid 
dignity of ^uater—hmu ii was the 
seat of G<f<^i Spirit at the CrsattCH^ 
hiTzV the division of th^ ^vaters 
ieparated Htaven frcm Eariht h&it; 
itHtter ^rffughi forih ihe first living 
ereatures, hifitf impi^rtantwas thepart 
which ^mitr piaycd in thefQrmation 
of man : sa ihat, in fad, t& pursue 
ihe suhfectwouid be io colleci togeiker 
praises cf water rathtr than argu- 
mettts for Bapiism. 

3. pfa«Bcrlptioiilfl] 'as otie pre- 
ciuding funher question ^ Dodgson, 
The word| which is a great favourite 
with TertM has seveml technical 
meanings^ of which ' a judicial ruling 
tyr pTonouncement ' easily pas^es 
into ihe Bense required here : see 
the repeated use of it in ch. Kii 
below. 



4. qiuun ... traotamuB] ^ we 
nevertheless di^cus^ hoflr (i.e» how 
far) it can be *■ foolish " and " im- 
possible" that^./ Rigalt read the 
subjunctive ' let us discuss,^ without 
— as it seems to me — sufTicient 
reason» Hartel rejectsReifferseheid^s 
quam mn^ comparit^g acl Natt. 1 10 
^Recognoscite igiturquam derisores 
inueniammi numinuni uestrorum'j 
ad NaH. ii 4 ' Denique, quam ita sit 
probatio suppelit ' \ de Anim. 45 
*Deoique et oblectamur et contris- 
tamur et conterremur in somniis 
quam affecte et anxie et passibili- 
ter/ &c.; Lucifer CaL p. 195, 12 
* Quam inimicus nostei- extiteris 
potest couici»' In the riext clause 
Harlel puis a comma at &ffidum* 

5. refonnui] * be born agarn, 
re-created/ Cf. p- 14. 10, Iwlow, 
and note {yw fQrmantur i 4 above,. 

/A. utlque] one of Tertulliati*s 
favourite words» * Anyhow* or *id 
est' or * of course/ are among its 
meanings ; but it takes its exact 
shade very much from the context* 

6. auctofltaa] The dan^er of 
exalting the element used m the 
sacrament was that it led ultimately 
to a view of it analogous to tran- 
substantiation. Hence such ex- 
pressions as ri irdp^ra rh ^Ju^ Troifr, 
Pii*-Clem, Hom. ii 24 (Hofling d. 
Sacram, d. Taufi i p- 473, % 86), 



L 



iM 



■1 



m 



TEETULLIANUS 



m 



nam unum ex his est quae ante omnem mundi suggestum 
impolita adhuc specie penes deum quiescebant. in primordio^ 
inquit, fecit deus caelum et terram. terra autem eiat inuisibilis 
et incomposita et tenebrae erant super abyssum et spiritus 
5 domini super aquas ferebatur. habes, homo, inprimis aetatem 
uenerari aquarum, quod antiqua substantia ; dehinc dignationem, 
quod diuini spiritus sedes, gratior scilicet ceteris tunc elementis, 
nam et tenebrae totae adhuc sine cultu siderum informes et 
tristis abyssus et terra inparata et caelum rude; solus liquor, 
10 semper materia perfecta, laeta, simplex, de sno puraj dignum 
uectaculum deo subiciebat, quid quod exinde dispositio 

2 quiescebat A, quiescebant B. 5 uisibilis Semkr. 5 doTnini AB, 
dei ab, it * uectabuluiii ain sed msa^ qui^ O, ih. a subiciebat 

uique ctd aquis deo utidms inciusii A. 



I. Bnggefltum] *before the world 
was fumisbed witb anyihiiig\ Dodg- 
son. See note on p. +. 1, above. 
It is tempting to take il Uterally of 
the ' piling together ' of ihe world 
in creatioti ; but Lhe impoiita speck 
seems decisive in favonr of its 
regi^lar meamng of ' omament} 
equipment, show.' 

3. In prlmordio] Gcn. i t, i. 

3. luuiBlbUiB et iiicompOAlt&J 
TertulUan plainly got this from LXX 
d^parat k^I dKt^Taffn^^v^irTo^i either 
immediately, or through an 0,L. 
version* The question arises — Why 
did LXX select dKaTa^Ke^ffrttf for 
^rijl, and what did they mean by 
it? (1) Perhaps they were uncertain 
of tbe exact meanjng of ^nilt and 
chose a word something like dbparos 
for ^Tin to keepup the paroiiomasiai 
or (3) they may bave meant ' unfur- 
nished* by dKitt&fFK,^ which is not a 
bad rendering of the Heb, word, 
which means *emptiness.' In the 
Gk fragments of Enoch xxi i im 
TT^f dKuraffKtvA^ov h uiied to repte- 
sent xviii 13 t6wo$ ipijfi/af xal '^^ep^$* 
(3) dd/jarof for \T\P\ is also puzzling* 
Perhaps the translators made a 
guess at the meaning from Kai ffKirrot 
iTrdvu T. djS, below» Another sug- 



gestion that has been made to me is 
that the LXX were paraphrasing 
here^ and introducing their own 
philosophical notions, rather Ihan 
translating, 

5. lULbftB ... ueneraii] 'you arc 
bound to revere. ' For haltee c, infin, 
in this sense (a Graecism) see Oehier's 
note i oti d<^ Fuga in Persec, 17« 

6. pal)flta]itl&] always concrete 
in Tertullian— *a substance.' In 
de Atiim. 32 he explains carefuUy 
that stihstafUia means, e.g,, Mapia' 
or Vferrum/ and distinguishes it froin 
naiura subsiantia£ (Hamack Hisf, 
qfDodr* ii 5 p. 257, note 1, E.T.)* 

8. CUltuJ 'ornameni,^ rather 
an unusual sense. Quintilian x, ed* 
Peterson, Introd. p. xliVj uses it for 
* ornaraents of style ' (&rfiattts m 
Cic). 

la. de Euo pura,] cf* Sen. Q^ -M 
VJI i 6 *Non de sno clara/ 

1 1 . ueotaculum] The termination 
-£idum was a favounte in Latin of 
this period (Koffm. &p. eii. i 11, 
p* joi ; Ronsch N, 7\ Ttrt, p, 37). 
Jerome in Ep, 73 has an expressioii 
whJch might almost he a paraphrase 
of this, * Spititus dei m aurigoi 
modum super a^uas ferebatur." The 
word occurs again de Amm. 53. 



4 



4 




ini 



DE BAPTTSMO 



\ 



mundi modulatridbus quodaminodo aquis deo constitit ? nam 
ut firmamentum caeleste suspenderet in medietate, distincds 
aquis fecit; ut terram aridam suspenderet, segregatis aquis 
expediit. ordinato dehinc per elenienta mundo cum incolae 
darentur, primis aquis praeceptum est animas proferre, primus 5 
liquor quod uiueret edidit, ne niirum sit va baptismo, si aquae 
animare nouerunt. non enim ipsius quoque hominis figurandi 
opus sociantibus aquis absoiutum est ? de terra materia con* 
uenit, non tamen habili nisi umecta et sucida, quam scilicet 
ante quartum diem segregatae aquae in stationem suam super- 10 
stite uniore limo temperarant, si exinde uniuersa uel plura 
ffosequar, quae de elementi istius auctoritate commemorem, 



5 ut A, et ut Bab. suspenderet — dispesceret I, et segregatis A. 
7 non enim A, nam Bab. 8 conuenit *a/. dccst^ Kmg. e?w. Ba, 

^ habili Aa, babiHfi B. u temperarent Lab, temperant ABO. 



r I . deo eonEtitLt] ' took shape for 
God,* by the help of water. 

iL GetY, i 6— to. The point of 
thc pa^age 15 the part piayed in 
Creation by water. By tbe dividing 
of the waters the firmament was 
hung in mid space \ and by the 
gaihering logether into seas of the 
lower waters the earth was made to 
appear. 

a. mfidletate] The wqrd is used 
again adu, VakuL 13 and 31 fortbe 
dwelling of Acbamoth beiween Ihe 
Pleroma and thc realnj of the De- 
miurge. 

4. pardlementa] Thepreposition 
^ems lo have a diistribntive sense, 
as it has e^g. m £x. xii 57 *per 
ttirmas suas.^ 

8. ooaudiilt] apparently inserted 
conjecturally by the e<iilor oF tbe 
1545 editioR. KroyTnann {QuaesL 
TfTi. p. 73 sq.) liokib that the words 
guam S€iiicei...ufHi>rf do not &quare 
with fim tamm.^.sundii whjch pre- 
cedei becauiie they explain why the 
ierra vas ujttecia £i lucitiitt atid not 
— which is the sense required — wby 
it was adapteij to tbe creation of 



man. Moreover, be objects ihat 
ierra in tbis reading is made to bcar 
two different senses ; (i) in quam 
scilkd... it means the earth, as % 
whole \ and (-a) in mn iamen.>. li 
means tbe dayj of which man M^as 
made. I lence he would deJete hcLbiiij 
for wbich he thinks Gelenius con- 
jectured koHiis from a perception of 
the difficulty jiList mentioned (unle^s 
be found it in bis ms). So he wonld 
read and punctuate, ' De terra 
iD at eria ( Haec suni adtiersatii), Non 
tamen nisi umecta et sucida (sCi 
maieriajfquzm scilicet/ &C. Furlher, 
in what follows, he considers eithei 
su^rstiie umcre or limc to be a gloss 
— preferably the latter» which he 
would expnnge* Gompertz agiees 
in rejectinj;^ cmumii : otherwise he 
approves of the text {Siud. Teriuil 
p, 43). Conuenii must, I tbinkt be 
acce pted* The const nict io n of iim&^ 
if it is not a glo!^, is difEcuU. Could 
Tert. havespoken of *waieriemper- 
ing earth with mud^? Or could it 
be dative, in the sense of in limum ' } 
1 2. auctoritate] ' weight ^ or ' im- 
portance/ i.q. 'uis* cr 'pondus.* 



8 



TERTULLIANt 



[rn.iv 



quanta uis eius aut gratiai quot ingenia, quot officia, quantuni 
inslrumentum mundo ferat, uereor, ne laudes aquae potius 
quam baptismi rationes uidear congregasse: licet eo plenius 
docerem non esse dubitandum, si materiam, quam in omnibus 
5 rebus et operibus suis deus disposuit, etiam in sacramentis 
propriis parere fecit ; si quae uitam terrenam gubernat, et in 
caelesti procurat. 

IV. Sed ea satis erit praecerpsisse in quibus et ratio 

6 tertenam Ub, aeternara ABa, 



I . ingenia] *- ingenious contri- 
vances,' il5 e.g* the hydraulic organ^ 
TOentioned in ch, viii. See for many 
exaraples Oehler*s note ^ on £& 
C&r. 8j and xi{. p, i\. 4, 

^. lnBtramentuiii] ' what a use- 
ful agentT cr^ power for good/ 

6. pareie] *obey Him/ '^aerve 
His purpo&e.* 

7 . procurat] ' acts as H is agen t ^ * 
a legfll termi whence our ' proctor. * 
Itis used like curo with gerundive p. 
^T, 8, below, In Lk. iii I (Vulg.) the 
pres. part. means * being procursLtor ' ; 
so Ap(^L 24. Tertullian generally 
uses it ([) with acc. and dat.^ to 
providc something for somebodyj or 
(^) withdat. only, to minister to, or 
serve. In legal Latin ic had the 
further meaning of 'to take care of ' 
a persq 11 or thing* Wi th Tertull ian 's 
praises of water may be compared 
a somewhat similar passage in Ckm. 
Rifo^, vi § S. 

IV, Tiicfcut ihat Ihe Hdy ^pirti 
mm!^d €U ihe Crmii<m upon thtfctce 
ofthe iifat£rs sh&wi eitker that water 
is hi>iy of itself mr ihat it then 
b&rrowed hcltness frcm that whkk 
iay upon it* Thh pamer of sanctifi- 
caiiattf iherefare^ has deK^ftded t^ 
waters of evcry kind since then, 
fr^m tke fact thai water was so 
distinguisked in ihe beginning. 
Furfhrr, ths earnal washing cf the 
body in the imitr is a ^gure af ihe 
mysticai cieansing of ihe s&ui in 
fhe tame. 

Didymus, de Trin. ii i^ sq,. 



seems lo have worked over the 
whoie of tbis and the next two 
chapters, 

8. bM ea] In addition to the 
various readiogs recorded in the 
critical note, the following proposals 
of Kroymann (Quaisi. Tert. p. 74) 
must be considered : p* g» i prima 
iiia quae* 1 praenQtabaniHr with 
colon at figuram, 3 in tincto 
remoraiurum. 5 aut. To di^uss 
all possible ways of reading and 
translatiug this passage wouTd oc- 
cupy an inordinate amount of spaee. 
The reading adopted may be thought 
unduly coniiervative, but it affords 
a tolerable sense ; * But it will be 
sufificient (for my purpose) lo have 
cuUed at the outset ihese instances, 
in which aniong other things that 
first principle of Baptism is recog- 
nisedj whereby even then by ihe 
very posture an indication w-as given 
aforetime in symboHsm of Baptism 
that the Spirit of God, which from 
the beginning rode over the waters, 
vvould remain upon the watcrs as 
baptizer.* 

ib. praeeerptilase] A rare word. 
As 1 have not come across it else- 
where in TerL I do not feel sure of 
its exact meaning* In classical Latin 
it means (r) Uo pluck fruit before 
it is ripe/ (2) *to make extracts 
fromn' 

ib^ ratio baptlsml] I.e. these 
tnstances of the ^-^^ in which water 
was used at the first prepare one 
to understand its use in Baptkrii' 



4 



• 
4 




IV] 



DE BAPTISMO 



baptismi recognoscittir prima illa, qua iam tunc etiam ipso 
habitu praenotabatur ad baptismi figuram dei spiritum, qui ab 
initio superuectabatur super aquas, super aquas intinctorem 
moraturum. sanctum autem utique super sanctum ferebatur 
aut ab eo, quod superferebatur, id quod ferebat sancritatem 5 
mutuabatur, quoniam subiecta quaeque materia eius, quae de- 
super imminet, qualitatem rapiat necesse est, maxime corporalis 
spiritalem et penetrare et insidere facilem per substantiae suae 
subtilitatem. ita de sancto sanctificata natura aquarum et ipsa 
sanctificare concepit- nemo dicat: numquid ipsis enim aquis 10 
tinguimur, quae tunc in primordio fuerunt ? non utique ipsis, 
nisi ex ea parte qua genus quidem unum, species uero com- 
plures. quod autem generi adtributum est, etiam in speciem 
redundat ideoque nulla distinctio est, mari quis an stagno, 

V prirumn R* prinm f^//* qtiae ABabO, qua UR. 2 praenotabatur 

ABabi praenotabant R. 3 super aquas bis R. intinctorem oratuium A» 
intinctorem moratnrum k:m§\5^ inttticlos reformaturum Ba, intinctomm 
moraturum bOR, in tiucto remoraturum K* 5 aut ABabO, et IR* 

to [numquid] A. 11 tunc Ab, nuiic Ba, ipsi A, ipsi-j Bab- 

12 specie AB, species abOR* 



t, ipio Mbitu] As water lay 
at the Creatioii beneath the Spiril 
of God which brooded upon it, so 
\l was suiicd to bear tbe Spirit 
resting upon it tn Baplism, 

1. praeitotattatur] Cf. de Re^. 
Carn. 22 *r)iem ultimum...nec uUi 
pmeter patri tiotum^ et lanten signis 
atque poTtentis. . . praenotatum, ' 

3. lntiilCtortm] The propo&al, 
noted abovfir Lo read ' in tincto re- 
morutunim* is open to ibe objec- 
tion ihat it reruoves the Spirit*s 
presence furiher frotn the water, 
whieh is the main point here. 

8- iRlidflre] froiti iitsidc^ not 
imideo, For the infin* nfieT/a^iHy 
ct Roby Laf. Cram. n | 1^61. 

ib. per aubataiitia,e &uati fiub^ 
tmtatem] Perhaps a Stoic idea, 
^eet/fi- A?iim. lo. 

fo. qflncepit) *conceived, or 
rcceived, tbe power to sanctify'; 



cf. *uim saoctificandi combibunt/ 
p. 10. S, below* 

12. «X e& paxte qna] 'except 
in so far as/ an extension of sucb 
uses as ex alitpia park^ ex minima 
park. 

13. speotem] Dodgson, reading 
specie which he justifies by a ref. to 
Cic. Balb, XXV, translates ' appeareth 
again in the species also.' 1 prefer 
' runnetb over into the species,' Cf. 
deSpect, 7 'Nam et riuulus tenuis ex 
suo fonte et surculus modicus ex sua 
fronde qualitatem originis continet/ 

14. nulla dlatinctlo ©ftt] There 
is abundant evkience, both in litera- 
ture and art, ihat open.air baptism 
— esp. in running water— persisted 
till a comparatively laie period (see 
much mterestinginformation inC. F. 
Rogers * Baplism and Archaeology * 
in Sindia BiMiat v, ch. 4, p» 305 
sq.). Cf. e,g. Didache% 7 *But if thou 



1 



10 



TERTULUANUS 



[IV 



flumine an fonte, lacu an alueo diluatur, nec quicquam refert 
inter eos quos lohaunes in lordane et quos Petrus in Tiberi 
linxit. nisi et ille spado, quem Fhilippus inter uias fortuita 
aqua tinxit, plus salutis aut minus retulit, igitur omnes aquae 
5 de pristina originis praeroga.tiua sacramenlum sanctificationis 
consequuntur inuocato deo. superuenit enim statim spiritus 
de caelis et aquis superest sanctificaos eas de semetipso, et 
ita sanctificatae uim sanctificandi combibunt quamquam ad 
simplicem actum competat similitudo, ut, quoniam uice sor- 
10 dium delictis inquinamur, aquis abluamur. sed delicta sicut 
non in carne comparent, quia nemo super cutem portat 
maculam idololatriae aut stupri aut fraudis, ita eiusmodi in 
spiritu sordent^ qui est auctor delicti. spiritus enim dominaturj 
caro famulatur. tamen utrumque inter se communicant 

1 jnter lordanem A, in lordane Bab. 6 [deo] A- 8 com- 

bibuBt, uice sordium aquis abluantur. Quanquam AU, a uice mi^iif ad 
abluantur om. B. combibUDt, ut et delicta uice sordi^m aquis abluantur. 



1 

I 



QuamquaTn ex cmu Wouwerii a ei b, 

hast not ninmng waterj baptize into 
other water ; and if thou canst noL 
in cold, then iu warni, ' 

i. lacu] *cistern*; alueo 'tub,* 
1. lotLanneB] Here TertullLan 
seems to consider Johti^s baptism to 
be the same as Christian baptism. 
But see belovvj ch. x, 

ib. FetmE In Tiberlj The mar- 
tyrdom of St Peter at Rome is men- 
tioned in de Prsis^r. Ilaer. 36 and 
adu, Marc. iv 5* 

4. Igltur] This passa^ is used, 
largely vefhaiim^ by Isid, Etym. V[ 
xix 49 (Klussmarvn &p. ciL p. 12). 

5. praercif&tiiia] is kte in the 
sens^ of * privilege** cf. p* 51. 9, 
belowj aud ada. VaUni. 4 * ex mar- 
tyrii /^/ * ex seminia prJ* de Anim. 
39. It often means in Tertullian 
*a |jrior claim tOp' with genitive, 
e.g. d£ Res, Carn. 35 *primae re- 
surrectionis /rJ ' ihe rigbt to rise 
first from the dead.' In ndv, A/art\ 
iv 31 * ostensis prius cum tUo Moyse 
et Elia in clantatls fir/ ll seems to 
inean *■ exceUcnt brightnesa.' Z?^ 



combibunt» Quamquam OR* 

S/^eci. 10 is more difficult : ' this 
precedent of even a human rtile of 
duty' is prol>ably the meaning there. 

i^^ Bacramfiditimi] Uhe mysterj 
of sanctification.' See on i t above. 

7, aatds BUiK&nsBt] A use of 
the verb to which I know tlo 
paralleL 

9. Gompet&t] 'issuitable to/ as 
in adu. Alan:. l i6t where it come- 
sponds to * congruit/ Contrast 

P- 33- 3- 

uke] For htiie* in this sense cf. 
ApoL 27 *«* rebelLantium * ; 34 * Dei 
?/.' ; de JdoL 13 ^ u. pestis'; and 

* uict pecudum occidi,' Lact. \ lo. 6, 

£ 3. eiuflmadij and huiusmmii are 
used not only adverbially, but also 
substantivally— even with a preposi- 
tion ; cf. p. 34« 5 1 beloWf ^audiui eius^ 
modi.' Eitarnples aregiven in Oehler 
at the latter place. (See also Sittl 
&p. dL, s,v.J Dodgson translates 

* persons of this sort * : perhaps 

* things of Ihis sort ^ would be 
better* 

14. faMUl&turJ In classical Latin 



I 



I 



I 



I 



i 



IV. V] 



DE SAPTISMO 



II 



^ 
^ 



reatum, spiritys ob imperium, caro ob mimsterium. igitur 
medicatis quodammodo aquis per angeii interuentum et spiritus 
m aquis corporaliter diluitur et caro in eisdem spiritaliter 
mundatur, 

V. Sed enim nadones extraneae ab omni intellectu 5 
Epiritalium potestatem eadem efficacia idoHs suis stibministrant. 

3 delQitur I, «/ infr. p- 13* 3. 6 potestatum AbO, potestatam BaR, 
eadem efficacia < a{|iias=>- coni. 0, potestatum eandem efificaciam ^mu. 
HartfL &ubmiDistrauit A, subministrant Bab. 



¥ 



the active is not found, and the de- 
ponent is rare. Tertullian uses tbe 
active in the sense of ^DuXiw^ cf. 
ApoL % i ^ cum elementa ipha famu- 
laret/ where Cyprian's more sen&j- 
tive taste caused him to substitute 
*cogeTet sibi eleTnenta famulari/ tk 
Idat^ Van. 3* For the thought cf. 
de J^ts. Carn, 16 and di Afiim* 40. 

1 . reatum] • jjuil t, ' So of i en i n 
Tert. Properly, the condition of 
one rms^ iiwaiting judgmetit. 

2. medicatiB] Cf^p. ;i^ T^ibelow. 
Used of reonet de Carn. Chr, 10 j 
of embalming ih. 17* Cf. * occulte 
mfi/kans,' Virg. Aen. vii 418. 

iL peroii^eli intementam] see 
on vi '2, below. 

i&. «pirltiw . , . caro ] H ofl ing 
{ap* dt. p, 47) thinks the analogy 
must not be pressed too far, otber- 
wise it would foliow tbat, the more 
tboroughly the body was wasbed in 
tbe baptismal water, the more efifeC' 
tually would the soul be cleanited, 
There is justice in ihis ol>servstion, 
but it is only one more instanee of 
the tnith that no analogy must be 
pres^d too fan For the thought cf» 
the pasaage in d^ Res. Carn. 8 ' Caro 
ahluitur^ ut anima emaculetur,* etc. 
of whicb a iranslation bas already 
been given in the Iniradmtion (p. 
xix. j). 

V» Bapiism is practised in 
keafh^n riies as a aremmy q/ initia- 
Ai?»^ lustraii&n and pnrificiiti&H ; 
hffUf muck marf liifty, ikertforey tkat 
it wiil be ^fficaiimts iu thi w&rskip 
&/ CW. Tht Paot 0/ Bfiksaida 



pri^vides an iliajtrafisn. Man is 
r^si^red in B^tpiism ta the image qf 
Gifd ivhiik hi iifst througk sin. 

5. uationefl] Many of the fatbers 
held that tbe heatben mysteries were 
a mockery or parody of Christian 
rites, operated by devils or demonsi 
to lead Christians aslray. Tbis be- 
lief was held by TertuUian, as may 
be seei^ hf referring to Ap&i. 21 
and d£ Pra^scr. Haer. 40 'Qui 
(sc. diabolus) ipsas quoque res 
sacramentorum dminomm idolorum 
m y steri is aemul atur , . , expiation em 
deUctorum de laimcro repromittit.,* 
celebrat et panis oblationem/ Cf- 
also Just. Miirt. Ap^i^ i 66 QW^p 

Trap45t»}Kis>v yiyv§a&aL ^t/uijird^fj^cL cl 
TTotnFfpol 5aifmv£i^ Justin beld that 
false teaching was ihe work of 
demons, who were the frult of inter- 
cour^ between angels and women 
{id. ib. ii 5. 13 ; Gen, vi 1) ; that 
demons were the aulhors of heresies 
(idn ib. i 15) i that demons had 
overbeard the prophets foretelling 
Cbrist, and used the know^kdge for 
their own purposes {id, i&u i 54)* 
The besi discnssions of the subject 
I know are to be found in Hatch 
/fi^mnce (/ Greek Idtas upan ike 
Chr. Ch. (Hibbert Lectures)| Lec- 
ture Xj p. 283 sq, J * The Intluence 
of ihe Mysleries upon Christian 
nsages ' ; Inge Ckristian Aiyiticisniy 
Appendix B ; Hamack Hist. 0/ 
Dactr. jv 4 p. 16S, E.T, ; Missim 
it. Aus&reiiuttj^f rooa, p. 181. 

6. poteflt«.t«m] Hartel, in the 



12 



TERTULUANUS 




[V 



sed uiduis aquis sibi mentiuntur. nam et sacris quibusdam 
per kuacrum initiantur, Isidis alicuius aut Mithrae; ipsosetiam 
deos suos lauationibus efferunt ceterum uillasj domos, templa 
totasque orbes aspergine circumlatae aquae expiant passim. 
5 certe ludis ApolUnaribus et Eleusiniis tinguuntur idque se in 
regenerationem et impunitatem periuriorum suorum agere prae- 
sumunL item penes ueteres quisque se homicidio infeceratt 
purgatrices aquas explorabat. igitur si de sola natura aquae, 
quod propria materia sit abluendi, in auspicia emundationis 
lO blandiunturj quanto id uerius aquae praestabunt per dei 
auctoritatem, a quo omnis natura earum constituta est? si 
religione aquam medicari putant, quae potior rehgio quani dei 
uiui? quo agnito hic quoque studium diaboli recognoscimus 

5 Pelusiis ABa* Eleusimis Ub. 7 quisque A* qmsquis BO. 

8 purgatrices aquas explorabat A» purgatrice aqvia expiabaLur A mg^ pur- 
gatrice aqua se eKpiabat Bab, iK aquae A, aqua Ba, aquis Ub. 9 abiueiidiT 
in auspicia emUQdationis Ub, adloquendi iii avispicii emundationis A, 
adlegendi auspicii emundatioms A mg Ba* 

baptism,ond sacred mear (Harnack 
Hist* 0/ JJoctr^ i p. 1 1 81 note 1 , 
E*T,, and Hatch, as refeiTed to 
above). For the word -lk Koffmane 
cp, cit. 1 ij p* 7a 

7. penefl] jn the sense of apud^ 
as often in TertuUian. See Oehler^s 
fndejc, s.v. and Kofiinane lii, p* 141, 

ib, quisque] for tpdsqtiis tir 
quicum^ue, The indefimte pro- 
nouns were losing their sharpness 
of definitioii (Koffmane I (i, p. rjS^» 
Here and in ^u. /Uii. 7 Oehler 
accepts the emendation quisquis% in 
ihe iatter passage against tbe MSS. 

8. eiplorabatj 'searehed for.* 

9. in auBplcia ... blBndlimtiir] 
* make much ofj as givlng hopje of 
i n ward c lea nsin g. ' Emnmiaiji) (again 
adu. Marc. iv 9) is laie. In Vujg, 
(e,g. Levit. xv 13} it represents 
«^70^1 wbich the LXX translates by 
ifafltt^d-/iaf or tbe like* 

f ^ . medicarl] Cf . m^dimtis p . 1 1 . 
2, above* 



articlein FairistiMheStudim already 
veferred lo, would read pci^statitm 
and eatidem efftcaciaffiy referring in 
support to d^ ieiuiu 7 ' Uti reuol- 
uamus utiiitatis effieacia potestates 
istius officil*' He also gives a refer- 
ence to de Orai. 33, but I thinlv the 
reference tnust be wrong. 

I ^ . subinlnistrant ] ' a t tribute. ' 
It is used iii Apol. 39 of lending 
to a frlend. In de Frctescr. Haer. 2 
*Dum mirantur, in scandalum sub- 
ministranturr' it is explained by 
Oehler as ^prolabuntur' 

I . uiduiB] ' me re sol i tary * Dodg - 
son, Bettert ' powerless, devoid of 
efEcacy. ' 

3» eff(^untj *they exak, extol.' 
Examples of the practice referred 
to have been collected by Oehler 
in his note. To these may be added 
Fassio S, TheodQti Ancyrani xiv (ifi 
Ruinarl*s Acta Sincera). 

6. r«g«iiemtlotiem] 'The wor^ 
sbip of Mithras has its redeemer, 
its mcdiator, its bierarchy, sacrifice, 



I 

* 








DE BAPTISMO 



res dei aemulantisi cum et ipse baptismum in suis exercet, 
quid simile? immundus emundatj perditor liberat, damnatus 
absoluit. suam uidelicet operam destruet diluens delicta, quae 
inspirat ipsep haec quidem in testimonium posita sunt repel- 
lentibus fidem, si minime credant rebus dei, quarum adfecta- 5 
tionibus apud aemulum dei credunt* annon et alias sine ullo 
sacramento immundi spiritus aquis incubant adfectantes illam 
in primordio diuini spiritus gestationem ? scinnt opaci quique 
fontes et auii quique riui et in balneis piscinae et euripi in 
domibus uel cisternae et putei, qui rapere dicuntur, scilicet ro 
per uim spiritus nocentis. nam et tesietos et lymphaticos 
et hydrophobos uocantj quos aquae necauerunt aut amentia 
uel formidine exercuerunt. quorsum ista retulimus ? ne quis 
durius credat angelum dei sanctuni aquis in salutem hominis 
temperandis adesse, cum angelus malus profanum commer- 15 
cium eiusdem elementi in perniciem hominis frequentat. 

3 deluens I, ut mpr* p» n. 3. 7 [aquLs] A, 11 nam et t esbtos 
AR : n. e. enectos Ba : n, e, apopnictos Ub* Nynipboleptoa O, nara ^^fimy- 
K^cts ml n. drois ictos €om. R. lymphaticos A, lynaphatos Bab, 
12 bydrophobas A, bydropbobos B* 13 execuerunt A, exercuerunt 

A mg Bab. 1 5 angelis malis A, angelus malus B* profaaus ABa, 

profanum Ub. 16 frequentat ABa, frequentet Ulb. 



3, an^m , . . oper&m de«true t ] Mt . 
xii i6. 

4. repeHentlbiia] Tbe present 
participle was steatiily ncquiring a 
substantival use (Koffinane I i, p. 
^^y note) ; but, apart from this, the 
phrase has a Greek ring, and may 
be a reminiscence of a passage of 
tbe earlier Greek treatise alluded to 
p. 42. 9, below, e.g. rctirr^i U ds 

ftCpTTyipiOK (TCtTCU T(M5 TT}^ rUTtV 

d^fToCsrtP* 

^. adfectatlonllraa] 'misguided 
imitation^ in silver Latin. 

8. geBtatioiiem] ipopA \ genemlly 
of beirg carried in a litter (like 
the Pope^s ♦sella gestatoria ')- It 
probably refers to the iireipiptTO of 
Gen. 1 i^ LXX* 

t(5. sclunt] Cf. p. 28, 5, below. 

g» eurlpij ^conduits, canals.* 



10. qul rapsra dlcustur] as 
Hyks was carried off by the nyrnphs. 

ir. teiietOB] Amx?iikilL Of 
ReiRerscheid*s two suggestions I 
prefer aTats i^ias, but am not con- 
T^inced tbat the rtght soluiion has 
been found, As * lymphaticos * cor- 
responda to *amentiaj and *bydro- 
phobos' to 'formidine.' some word 
seems io be required which would 
cortespond to 'necauenintJ The 
passage reminds one of a remark in 
tbe de Amm* i 'Legimus quideni 
pleraque aquamm genera tniranda/ 
There is another t^rux in de Pudi^, 6, 
Mactaesortes.' 

14. a3i£elimiilol...t«mpe(raiidls] 
Cf. ^medicatis...perangeii interuen- 
tum aquis,' p. n. 1, above. 

15. coimiierclxim...f^iientat] 
For this phmse cf. ^exigis ut hoc 



La 



M 



TERTULLIANUS 




angelum aquis intemenire si nouum uidetur, exeraplum futuri 
praecucurrit piscinam Bethsaidam angelus interueniens com- 
mouebat. obseruabant qui ualetudinem querebantur. nam si 
quis praeuenerat descendere illuc, queri post lauacrum desi- 
5 nebat. figura ista medicinae corporalis spiritalem medicinatn 
canebat, ea forma qua semper camalia in figuram spiritalium 
antecedunt, proficiente itaque in hominibus gratia dei plus 
aquis et angelo accessit. qui uitia corporis remediabant, nunc 
spiritum medentor; qui temporalem operabantur saluteni, 
lo nunc aeternam reformant ; qui unum semel anno Hberabant, 
nunc quotidie populos conseruant deleta morte per ablutionem - 



5 figuram R {err&re^ tti miklnr). 6 figuram R^ figura trdi^ 
qui nominibus A^ itaque In hominibus Ba, ffw. in b. 



7 tia 



epistularam f. frequentemus, ' Sen. 
£/^. xxxviii I* Kroymann(^ira£'jA 
TertuiL p. 7s) rejects pr&fanum as 
being meaningless when applied to 
cmttn^rcmm^ He suggests — acutelyj 
but in my opinion unconvincingly— 
*angelus mali profsinus,* because (:) 
it forms a tieat antithesis to angdum 
dd sandum \ and (2) he maiutains 
that maius ts Terlulllan*a word foT 
the Devil. But this is not invari- 
ablyso j and the passage (k Testlm. 
Amm. 2j to which he refers in 
snpport, does not bear ont his con- 
tentiori. 

1. praecucnrtit] Cf. p. 4. 1O9 
above* 

ib. Betiheatilam] W.H. marg. 
from B. They read Biy^^a^d in the 
text^ with t4 ■ Bij&ea^^d is read by 
A and C. (For fuller mformation 
see their Gk Tfst, ii p. 76,) It is 
noteworthy that the interpolated 
verse (Joh. v 4) must have been in 
TertiiUian's N.T, or knqwn to him* 
He is the earliest writer who refers 
to it^ with Chrysostomj Didymus, 
and Cyril of Alexandria, Theglosses 
in this verse and verse 3 seem, for 
whatever reason^ to have been con- 
fined for a time to North Africa 
(Westcott Gospel acc. ta Si y&kn, 
in i&c* and p. 94)^ 



4. praenjenArat deBcendere] 
sounds likea reminiscence ot ^/p&a^e 
Kara^7}vai^ rather ihan of 6 TrpQroi 
ifi^d.^. Perhaps Tertullian had a 
different reading in his Gk text ; or 
this may represent ihe OX. reuder- 
ing of a different Gk reading — and 
we know hovv slavish the OX. 
rendetings sometimes were (Introd* 
p. 6, g xxxii). Oehler refers for tbe 
construction to ApcL 59 (iiote u). 

5. iBta.] See on i 3^ above, 

0. ea foTmM.] i Cor. xv 46 sq. 
1 have not found an exact parallel 
to the eicpression *ea forma qua,' 
but * Ex forma...omnium mysterio- 
riiini ' ad iVati, i 7 is not unlike k, 
only ibe text there is uncertain. It 
means ' ea lege/ or * ea condicione, 
qua. ^ 

7. homlmlbtie] Hartel suggests 
in omnibm- 

S. remediabantj Cf. p. 27« 3, 
below. The word is not uncommon 
in Tertullifl.n. 

10. refoimajit] See p. 5, 5, 
above. 

iK Bomel anao] TertuUian 
evidently read K^rk Katp6vi and 
interpreted it *once a year/ as did 
Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, 
and Ambrose (Dodgson Transia- 
tim, note in iac). 



4 



4 
4 



DE BAPTISMO 



n 



¥ 



delictorum. exempto scilicet reatu eximitur et poena- ita 
restituetur horao deo ad similitudinem eius, qui retro ad 



I. it& rfiBtltuetiuJ ^Thusman 
will be restored to God after His 
likenessj who once had beea after 
God*s image» Tbe image belongs 
to the temporal presenlmeiitt the 
likeness to the eternal realltyJ So 
Mason {Rthit&n qf Cunjirmatim (q 
Bsptism^ p. 59 sq.) referring eius 
to dii^ and fui to homo. It is 
possible, hovvever, that dus qui... 
/utrat means Adam. The choice 
of the future tensej if that ia the 
correct rreading, is interesiing, and 
not altogether easy to explajn. It 
b suggested that Tertullian meajis 
that the restoration is otily begiiii 
feere, to be perfected in eternitj' 
(Noiek, p* 363 of Dodgson's Tmm- 
iatim)* 

1. ad BliDiUtiidiii6m] Gen, i 26, 
^7. Wisd. ii 33. 

The end of this ch. raises two 
points upon which it ttiay be well to 
s^y a few words, (t) ihe distinction 
between *image' and *likeness/ 
and (1) the identification of Ihe gift 
of the Spirit in Christianiiy with the 
*breatb of life* in Genesjs. 

( j ) The words * i mago ' and ^ sira i- 
littido^ go back ultimaiely in this 

connexion to Gen. i 36, ^J^7V3 
^jn-lDlSJ LXX ffar* dK^va ^fj^^ripi^p 
Kal KaB^ ^^oiiiifriv ^ The at t emp t m ad e 
fey some Greek and Latin Fathers to 
distinguish between the two, refer- 

ring p^Y ^^ *^^ physical or inbom 
side of the Divine image, and nijDl 
to the ethical or receptive side 
(German *Ebenbild'), Is probably 
misplace<l, for the following reasons; 
(s) there is no 1 between the words, 
LXX mi having no textnal justifica- 
tion; {i)m verse 37 and in \% 6 only 

D7V oceurs, and in v i TSMT^ done, 
fl.llhoi]gh the conteitt shows tbat the 
pa&sages are practically ideutical, 
Probably, therefore, the words are 



synonymous, thesecond beingadded 
to emphasi^e the first. 

Philo nseji botb woids, but uses 
them interchan^eabJy. In the 
Clementine Homilies x 4 the follow- 
jng distinction is drawn: ^iK^if BeoO 
6 av0piJTraj, ri}v $i 6fA&.6rrjTa. oiLtK^Tt 

icaBtip^t Pod^. 

Irenaeus enlarges the conception, 
and maker^ it more definite; but he 
is not aiways consistent. Thus he 
says that man was made at the first 
after both the image and likeness of 
God (v 28. 4) ; that both the image 
and the likeness were lost at the 
Fall (iii iS. i); ai^aint that both the 
image a.nd the likeness were absent 
from man when first creaied, but 
were io be attaincd snbsequently 
(iv 3S. 3. 4). Elsewhere, tbat man 
was created after the Divine imagi^j 
that the liken^ss was separately 
received from the Spirit, and the 
iikeness alone lost through sin (v 
t6, i). 

Possibly the inconsistency is more 
a rnatter of word than of thoughl : 
(so E. Klebba, Die Antkn^poi&git 
d. Ai. /rmsb^is, Mtinsler, 1894)» 
Hamack however sees in it a fusion 
of two lines of teaching which raeet 
in Irenaeus {Hist^ of Dottr. ii 
p. im, E.T.), (1) Irenaeus held, after 
Theophilns of Antioch, that man 
was originajly created imperfect, 
and that the 'image' and the *like- 
ness ' are, therefore, both stjU to be 
attained. {1) FolJowing St Paurs 
teaching about cU^a/cf ^aAoikicrif ( Eph. 
i 10) he argues that human nature 
must originally have been perfect, 
e,g, *Qnod perdideramus in Adam, 
id est, secundum ima^nem et simili- 
tudinem esse Dei| hoc in Christo 
lesu recipiraus/ iii iS. i ; cf, v 16. 
3 ; V 1 » 1 ; V 2 . 1 . 

Clement of Alexandria taught 
that man was not created perfect, 



i6 



TB^TULLIANUS 



imaginem dei fuerat, imago in effigie, similitudo in 
censetyn recipit enim illum dei spirttum, quem tunc 
eius acceperat, sed post amiserat per delictum. 



but wos adaptecl to the attamment 
of perfection (Sirifm. v t r Jin, 1 7) ; 
aBd that tnaii received stmightway 
on hLS creation whai is according lo 
the image, but will only receive on 
his> perfection what is according to 
the likeness {i&. ii 23). 

Didymus, a writer whose in- 
debtedocss to Tertullian hais been 
brought out by Dr Mason {Re- 
laiim oj Cmtfirffmtim (0 Baf- 
iism^ p. 395 ; cf. also MingarelH in 
lcc.)y supplies a close parallel to the 
knguage we are oonsidering* He 
writeEi : Koi riiif yeypafjLfLii^^if €tK6tu 
Kai D/imikJcro' tov 6t<tV dTroKafi^dvofttif 
'iiy idf^afi^da 5td rou &ukoG ^m^i^^^- 
^aros, xal av<itX4<rQ.p^fif ^id tov a.fiap- 
T^^^aros' ical atfSi* evfntfK^n^Ba oloi 
■Tfp iTrl Tod irpaTOTrXdffTOV iyiVT^ri- 
fifv dvattdpniTQi ml a(jTe^o&tnot {ck 
Trin. ii i^). So, too, TaliaTi, Kal 
b ^tv KaT^ fik6^a tqv 0€&u ^c^oFttj, 
Xi^pti^diPTot dtr' avToO t^C* wvt^piaTQi 
Tov SvtfaTtirripov^ 6vifp-6i yiverah vii 
p* 249 1 cf. xiii p» ij^^ and xv 
p* 256, To nnuch the ^ame eflfect, 
lastJy, thougb their lanpiage is 
Jess cxpliciti are the expressions of 
Cyprian (^fe Boit. PiUimL p* 14,8) ; 
aud, at a considerably later date, 
of the Ecctedasiical Iiier<^rchyy iii 
2, p* 2<j6, attributed to Dionysius 
Ihe Areopagite, probabjy writteu 
in ibe sixth century. See Lupton, 
Dean C^Ut &n ih€ Hiimrchies o/ 
I>ionysiuSy Introd. p» xxxviii. 

{1) Secondly^ we are to consider 
the idcntification of the W*\^ DO0, 
LXX ircoi^»' |w^5, Philo wviifp^a fwi^s, 
wnth ihe Christian gift of the Splrit- 
In the first place it is to be noied 
that *soul of life^ is predica.ied of 
aniraals also (n*ri Z%1 Gen. i 20), 
and the only thing which is said of 
man, and noi of tbem, ia tbe action 
of 'breathing^ {^11^) performed by 



aetemitate 1 
: de adflatu 1 



Ibe Creator. Further, tbe words 
of St Paul, I Cor. xv 45, d iirxa- 
TOJ 'ASd^ {iyivtro) ttt irvtupLa ^&- 
TTOKiifv^ seem to draw a distinction» 
which the expressions in Genesis 
taken alone would hardly have 
suggested, between primitive man 
and Christian man. When we rc- 
member that the same word ^i^e- 
4i6<7^fT€¥ is used Joh. xx ?2> and 
jreniember who it was of whom tbat 
is said, we may perhaps conclude 
that it is justifiabje to say (ij that 
tbe 'Sptrit* given in both cases 
was identical, bui ihat {^) it was 
present at the Creation in a rudi- 
menlary formj and subsequentiy 
raised by the Word of God to a 
bigber power — ^if the expre^ion 
may be allowed- 

TertuIHan seems 10 bave beld the 
two to be identical, as appears from 
the passage before us compared 
with other places, e»g. de Anim. 1 1 
and II ; and the same is plainly 
the view of Didymus, xal h 3tcf7r6njj 
3^ irap* ^l&icb'!''^ ^Joh. xx ■21) aira^' 
hoiis 'hp^y t6 «7iOJ^ Ttvevfm ^ diroX^- 
iravTts ^fi^v 5id ttj^ dpx<^f^^ TO/ja^ciijfr» 
iir^fpi^f^7}<rtv . . . K . T . A, [i/i Trin. 117*6). 

Of raodern writers I will niention 
only two, Bp BuHt Siafe of Man ^ 
bef&rt the Ffiii^ Discoursev, pp* i^- 
156 of Burton^s edn, vol. ii, 
wbo discusses the question m reply ' 
to an opponent in what be call:& *a 
very large ans\ver/ and Tennant 
Tke Tuit and Originai Sin p, 1 53 sq, 

ik retpo] Conimon in tbe 
sense o( (Jiim ; cf. xiii Si 9i P* 55* 8i 
and Oehler on de Spfcias. 9, p. 34, 
note a, 

I. mermt] Hartel prefers Ihis ta 
either of Reifferscheid^s suggestion.% ' 
facias fuera t ox fuerat fQrtnains . 

%. censetar] 'is considered to 
be, springs from/ a common use in 
Tertullian- Oebler has coUected 



VI] 



DE BAPTISMO 



J7 



h 



VI, Non quod in aquis spiritum sanctum consequamur, 
sed in aqua emundati sub angelo spiritul sancto praeparamur. 
hic quoque figura praecessit ; sic enim lohannes antepraecursor 
domini fuit, praeparans uias eius, ita et angelus baptismi 
arbiter superuenturo spiritui sancto uias dirigit ablutione 
delictorum, quam fides impetrat obsignata in Patre et Filio et 



a spixilu AU, spiritui Af«^BaK 
praecursor abO. 



exatnples on ApoL 15 and de C&}\ 
13; e.g* *de comeniptu uiique cen- 
5entur/ 'such absurdkies kave thHr 
aiigin in the coniempt with which/ 
Tt aJso means *to be esteemed for' ; 
see Woodham on Ap&L 12, 

VI. Tkff gifi 0/ ikt Holy SpirU 
is n0t €&n/errttl in the •watcri tvkick 
Oitfyy ttnda^ the Ang^i^ prepares us 
for His recepti&n^ as John prtpareti 
Ihe way for Chrisi. The c^riainty 
of mr kope of salvation is pledgtd to 
m in tke thrcefQid Name* 

T. conflequaniiiri subjunctive 
^ter nffn qumi of an unfulfilled 
assuniption, Roby ii §§ 17441 1747» 

1. BUb aner^lo] Sitti takes sub 
iQ the sense of caram, as in Apol 9; 
de Res. Carfi^ 9 % adu. Frax. 2 7 ; rtV 
Tisi, Anim, 1 ; and p* 1 S. 4* below. 
Soalso Ronsch, N. T. Terinil ^-587, 
where mai&y exampLes are quoted> 
Perhaps il is ratber *under the 
directioti of ' the angeb For the be- 
lief see p. m. i^ abovei and Didymus 
de Trin. n 14 Kai ai^6s U 477^- 
Xoj t6 Mttfp Tapdtftruf irp65po^s 
^» TflO kyitiv nTEii/iaToS" o^Tipfof ^yyi- 

3, aic!] Kroymanti (Qua^si. Teri, 
P' 75) would read sietii^ with 
commas at futi and eiits. He 
quotcs two passages to supix>rt his 
view ; but in one» p. ^3, below, 
there is no itai and in the olhar, 
iie ihtdic. 15» sicuhi seems to be the 
origin^l rcading. 

ii^. antepr&ecure^^T] MaU lii 1 ; 
Matt. iii i—ix cf. Is, xl 3. The 



3 antepraecursor AB» ante 



word, which ReifTerscheid reads 
again p, 32. 13^ is not found to the 
best ofmy knowledgeelsewhere. It 
is perhaps, as Oehler suggests, a 
confLation of antecursor and prae* 
cursor^ Thelalteroccurs \\\ Vulgate 
of Ex. xxxiii i^ 1 Kings viil i \, and 
HebT. VI ^o. 

4. ajigelufl...arliiter] Cf. p. 18. 
2, belowp ' arbitros fidei/ Tertullian 
uses arbiier in the two senses oF 
(i) *witne^,' and (2) ^one who pre- 
sides over.' For (i) cf, adu. Marr. 
iv 22 * Tres de discentibus arbitros 
futurae uisionis et uocls assumit^t 
so lie liiun. 5 and adu. Marc, ii 
^7. For(2)cf. dePali, % Mordanis 
amnis finium arbtter/ The latter 
is pr obabl ytbemeaning her e* Som e 
bave takenit of the (human) *tninis- 
ter of baptism,' like the irot/ATji', 
d77e\os TTjt /icTOi^otas in Shepkerd 
of Hermas V v 7 and elsewhere. 

5. fluponiezLtuFo] The force of 
tbe preposilion is nol clear- *about 
to oome upon us' or *who comes 
after^ can both be defended* In 
the O. L. version of the N.T. it 
translates ^wdpx'^^^^^ (except in Jas- 
V 1), which is a strong argument in 
favour of the former translation. 
The word commonly means Uo be 
added to' in Tertulhan, 

6< obdgimtfl.] which in legal 
Latin means simply 'to seal/ bas in 
TeituHian ihe additional meanings 
of (i) to shut up, or, close, (2) to 
ratify. For the simpie verb in con* 
nexion with BaptLsm see de Fraescr. 
Ha^. 26, de Ris. Carn. 8. 



U 1\ 



i8 



mLLlANUS 



[vr 



Spiritti Sancto. nam si in tribus testibus stabit omne uerbum, 
quanto magis, dum habemus per benedictionem eosdem arbi- 
tros fidei quos et sponsores salutis, sufficit ad fiduciam spei 
nostrae etiatn numerus nominum diuinorum ? cum autem sub 
5 tribus et testatio iidei et sponsio salutis pignerentur, necessarii 

\ uerbum del A, mu dei Bab» 
dutti h. per b. Bab. 



1 donum hnbemus benedictioDem 



1. lHtelMi] Deut. xiK 15, 1 Cor. 
xiii 1. Cr Isid. Elym, vi J9* 
46 *Sicut enim in tribus tc&tibus 
siai OTtine uerbum,,..]ta boc sacra.- 
men l q, ni cotifi rmal le niari u s nu merus 
nominum diuinorum.' (Klussmanti 
Ex^cr^i. TeriulL ex Md, p, 1:2,) 

2. per beuedictloiieizi] QL ch^ 
viii 5, below. 

4, cum autem iub trltme etc.] 
This difhcuJ!; passage admits of more 
than oiie interpreiaii(jn. Are tbe 
persons indicated in tbe words ' sub 
tribus* tbe Three Djvine Persons, 
whom we have &s both * arbiiros 
'fidei' and ^sponsores salutis'; or 
are they the human witnesses, in 
whose presence our faith is attested 
-and our saivation promised? Is the 
formuU in which * mention of ihe 
Church is necefiiiarily added ' the 
same as the * benediciion * in which 
* the Divine names' occur (Le. the 
baptismal formula) ; or is it anotber 
form of wordSj contrasted wiLh the 
first, and consUtiog of the (inierro- 
gative) baptismal creed ? What is 
ihe conncxion belwten the Iwo 
lienteticcs? Is tbe 'autem' adver- 
sative, or is it merely connective? 
The answers 10 tbese <^uestions may 
be combined in a variety of ways. 

If we take firsjt the cjuestion of the 
form or fortns of words, it seems 
certain that there was never any 
explicit mention of ihe Church in 
the actual formnla of Baptism. If 
therefore Tertullian m ine second 
sentence is still speaking of the act 
of Baptism iLself, the * mentio eccle- 
siae' must be a tacit mentioni tieces^ 
sarily impbed in the mention of the 



Trinity, This would be quite in 
accordance with TerlulHan's views : 
compare tbe passage from de Orat. 
quoted in Ihe next note. The word 
*necessario' is itself somewbat io 
favour of this view, On ihe other 
hand the phrase * adicitur ecclesiae 
meinio' would most naturally be 
taken to mean an esplicit mention ; 
in which case tbe form of words 
referred lo must be somethin ^ other 
than the baptismat fonnuLa, and 
can 011 ly be the baptismal creed. 
Against this view it may be said 
that Tertullian*3 creed is generally 
supposed not to have contained a 
mention of ihe Church {see ihe 
passages in Hahn*s Bihlwthek der 
SymbifU^ p. 1 foli ). But the evi- 
dence, which is purely negative, is 
hardly conclusive- Certainly by 
tbe tinie of Cyprian the baptismal 
interrogiation in Africa included 
mention of the Church (Cypr- Ep^ 
Ixx 2). 

If tbe latter view is correct^ Ter- 
tuilian conlrasts the creed with the 
bapti^mal formula. In tbe bap- 
tisn^al formula, it is enoiigh to name 
tbe three Divine names* They are 
sufficient to guarantee the hope of 
the baptized. The three heavenly 
Witne?ises of our faitb (wbicb is 
shown by out being baptized into 
the threefold name) mnke Thcm* 
seives personaby reH|ionsible for our 
salvation. It is otherwise wiih the 
creed. This we recite in order to 
saiisfy the Churcb, and its represen- 
Lative witnesseSt of our faith; and 
therefore — ^necessario' is. in tbis in* 
terpretation a somewhat exaggerated 






VI, VIIJ 



DE BAPTISMO 



19 



adicitur ecclesiae mentio, quoniam ubi tres, id est Pater et 
Filius et Spiritus Sanctus, ibi ecclesia, quae trium corpus est. 
VII. E-xinde egressi de lauacro perungimur benedicta 



word — it u RatuTal to express our 
belief in the part perfonned by the 
Church in our salvation. 

For the *sub* in *sub tribus^ ep. 
aboveT ^sub angelo/ 

I. ecolealaj qoae triimi oorpii& 
eet] There are again two ways of 
taking this senlence, accortiiiig*as 
*COrpus trium * is interpreted lo 
mean *a body of three/ i.e. tbree 
menT or ' the body of the Three ' 
above naraed, i.e, the Petsons of 
the Trinity. If it means ' the 
Church, which is a body of three/ 
it musi be vemembered that three 
was the legal minimum of a Roman 
cdUgium tMarcell, in Di^. i i5. 85)- 
TertulHan will then be insisting that 
a congregation of three is aufhcient 
to form a 'Cburch,' in accordance 
with the promise in Mt. xviii ^7,^0. 
Cf» d£ Fuga E4 *sit tibi et in tribus 
ecdesia^; de Pud, 11 ^ Illam eccle- 
siam congregat (Spiritus) quam 
Dominus in tribus posuit.' See also 
^ Exhort. Cait. 7. These three 
books were written afler TertulHan 
became a Montantst; but the thought 
was doubtless familiar to him bcfore 
(cf, di Pam, 10 'in uno et altero 
«cclesia est/ where however ihe 
meaning may besomewhat (LlifTerent)» 
But there is not much point here in 
bringing in such a reference ; and 
In spite of the stiangeness of the 
eitpression, it may well be that 
Teriunian intends to say that the 
Church is the ' corpns ' of the 
Trinity* It would be but an ex- 

_ tension of the Isnguage which he 
ses elsewhere in his Catholic 

Kwritings. Thus the passage of dt 
Pam. above quoted goes on to say : 
* ecclesia uero Chrislus. ergo cum 
te ad fratrum genua protendis^ 
Christum contrectast Chrisium ex- 
^ras/ Cf* df Omt, a * Item in 
patre £Hus muocatur. ego enim, 



inquit, et pater unum sumus. ne 
mater quidem ecclesia praeteritur. 
siquidem in filio et patre mater 
recoguoscitur^ de qua constat et 
patris et ftlii nomen.' Tn his Mon- 
tanistic days Tertullian freely identi- 
fies the Church, as he then under- 
stood itt with the Spirit {d^ Pud. 21 
* nam et ipsa ecciesia proprie et 
principabter ipse est Spiritus % It 
is an extreme way of emphasi^ing 
the belief that alL the acrions of the 
Chnrch performed in God's name 
are God's actions- The latest writer 
on TertuHian's conception of the 
ChuTch saysj * The Church appeared 
..,to be nothing else than the exhi- 
bition of Divine etiergy, tbe great 
revelation of tbe Spirit-' He adds 
that the word fffrpus ^iu Tertullian'a 
phrase^ilogy denotes not the pbysical 
organism, in coniradistiuction to the 
imniaterial woul, but ralher the sub- 
stantive reaHty, as against the merely 
mentai cont;eplion or the empty 
word ' (Adam Kirchenbegriff Ter* 
tuiliam, p. 9^)» Ii^ support of this 
last assertion Adam refers to adu, 
Prax* 7 — the famous passage wbere 
TertuUian maintains tbat God, and 
spirits in general, have a c&rpus. 

VII» The^Un^tiony ivkick anaints 
us to tht Priesthmd* The Umiion^ 
iike the Baptism^ is a b^ly act, htt 
qfspirituai tffitacy. 

3. eziiide egreEBl] Many phrases 
from this passa^^e are reproduced in 
Isid. Ety?n, vi 19. 51 and 5^ ; vii 
%. ^ and 5 (Kiussmann ^/. cit, p. 15)» 
It is noijceable that Isidore prefers, 
as a rule^ the simple vcrb where 
TertuHian has a compound j e*g. he 
reads mnmiata p, li. 9, and quiescit 
ib- 10, foT emundata and €mquitsHi 
(Hartel PiUrisHs^hc Studim m p, 9)» 
Perhaps ibis was a piece of Hteraiy 
purism, fashionabie in his time. 




20 



mWi 



n 



unctione de pristina disciplina, qua ungi oleo de cornu in 
sacerdotio solebant; ex quo Aaron a Moyse unctus est, unde 
christus dicitur a chrismate, quod est unctio, quae domino 
nomen accommodauit, facta spiritalis, quia spiritu unctus est a 
5 deo patrcs sicut in Actis: collecti sunt enim uere in isla ciuitate 
aduersus sanctum filium tuum, quem unxisti, sic et in nobis 
camaliter currit unctio, sed spiritaliter proficit; quomodo et 



3 sacerdotio AB^ sacerdoLmnL ab- 
5 emm uero A, enjni uere B. 

i5. penmgtnnir] Nole the force 
of the preposilion t a copious an* 
ointing on the head, not on the 
forebead oxi]y ; or possibly an an- 
oiiiting *all over/ in various parts, 
such as was customary elsewhere 
(Slason f?Jf. i^iL p. 63 note). Cf* 
p. 34, 10 *Dicens Petro perfundi 
uolenti,' 

ilf. beaedlctaimctione] Theun- 
guent in the Ronian Omrch h a 
nuxture of olive oil an<J Vjalsam ; in the 
Greek Church other fra^rant ingre- 
dients are added, An early practice 
was to consecrate it on Maundy 
ThuFsday, the right of consecratton 
bemg reserved lo Bishops, The cus- 
lom is referred to in the foUowing 
passAge of Cyprian, £p. Ixx p. [73 
* Un0 quoque necesse est eiim qni 
baptizatus est, nt acceplo chrii^mate, 
id est unctiune^ es^e unctus dei, et 
hal>ere in se gratiam ChrUti po^^it, 
porro aulem Eucharistia est unde 
Daptizati utiguntur oleum m altari 
sanctjficaium ^ (with a vsriant * oleo 
. . .saoctificato ' ) * At te m pt^ ha ve 
been made, e.g. by Scudamore s.v. 
' Qnction' in Smith /?. C/tr. Anttg.^ 
to distinguishan Unction m Baptism 
from that in Confinnation. As far 
as the evidence of TertuUian goes, 
there is nothing to support such a 
theory. ' The later Unction was a 
special application of the same 
chrism in tbe moment of the Laying 
on of Hands, not someihing essenti- 
alJy different' (Mason op. nL p. 
65, and Bingham AHiiq. xii 1.) 



4 spiritus A, spirttu Bab* 



r, priBtina disdplina] the O.T. 
dispensation. So * census istius dis- 
dplinae' {Apsi. 7) means the origin 
of Christianityj and ' Cbristiana 
disciplina' {de PuMc. 1 1) means ihe 
Christian dispensation. The refer- 
ence is to Kx. xxix 7, etc It will 
be observed that Tert. claims no 
command of Christ for ihis use of 
unction. It is laken directiy from 
the O/r. 

iL de oomu] The horn is not 
mentioned in the O.T, in connexion 
\vith priesthood, It comes from 
1 Sam. xvj Ti v^; 1 K.ings i 39. 

it, iB Bacerdatlo] Isidore, in 
the passage referred to above, reads 
in sa^irr^iium, aj» Pamelius read 
here, and adds ^/ in regnum^ for 
which cf Lactant. Diu. /ristif. iv 7. 
It may be doubted whether * in 
sacerdotio ' is intended to mean *in 
the case of the priesthood/ or 
whether it represents eis tepaTdav 
in the same loose way as ds rd ^vo^ 
rs translated ' in nomine.^ 

•j- chrlBtiis ,,, a chriflina,te] 
' whence he ( Aaron) was called ihe 
anointed»' The reference h to Lev. 

5. collectl iimt...mimm] Acts 
iv 17. The passage h quoted agaln 
af/u. Frax. tS with 'conuenerunt* 
for *collecti sunt,* and * uniuersi ' 
inserted after * enim.' 

7. cmrlt] perhapsliterally *run* 
neth over us/ perhaps little more 
than *takes piace/ Cf. aiiu. Marc^ 



■ 

I 




vrr, vni] 



DE BAPTISMO 



2t 



ipsius baptismi carnalis actus, quod in aqua mergimur, spiritalis 

effectus, quod delictis liberamur. 

VI IL Dehinc manus imponitur per benedictionem ad- 

uocans et inuitans spiritum sanctum. sane humano ingenio 

licebit spiritum in aquam arcessere et concorporationem eorura 5 

I ipsius"] spiritus ipsius A, 5 eorum, aerum S- 

IT 16 *ceieria bona per quae opus 
bonum cumt bonae seueriialis/ In 
de hiun, 1 1 *- eidem deo currant ' it 
seems to mean *suit.* lu adu^ Afarc. 
iii^ Teri^uses 'allegorice cucurrisse/ 
for *happened aUegorically/ Pos- 
sibly the allileration uith famaliUr 
influenccd Tertullian in choosing the 
word. 

ipoluB bapttflml] I.e. Bap- 



tism^ as distinguished from iis 
accompanymg rites^ 

1. i^uod dflllctls Uberamur] Dr 
Mason (op. rii, p. 63) points out 
how clearly 'l'ertullian distinguishes 
the effect of the respective acts io 
the series, jmniersion cleansmg from 
sin, uoction cooFs^ecrating to the 
pricslhood, laying on of hands con- 
ierring the Holy Spirit. But sec 
Hamack H. q/ D. \\ 5 p. 141, E.T. 

V 1 1 L Tki^ ImposiHmi ofike Hiinds 
i£f/iji'/i €onfors ike Holy Spirit — 
anaiogy nfan hydrau/kiwgan — -Jaes/i 
blesnjig Mpkraitu attti Mattasseh 
/aid /ns hands uAon thdr hmd — 
sigmfi((inct of t/ieir crQss-wise posi- 
iion — 7vhy ihe Haly Sptrit di^scfnded 
up0n ihi waiers in t/ie f9rm of a 
I}m.fC — tithyihe C/inrch rfsemMes ihe 
jirk — ihe 'worid^ sitmittg a seccnd 
iime^ j-fstrved iofire. 

^. maaiii inipoiiitiir] Note that 
it Ls to this part of ibe rite titat 
Tertullian dennilely assigus the gift 
of the Holy Spitit. The value of 
his evidence on this point has 
perhaps not been given its due 
weigbt by Dr Hatch in what he 
says about the origin and efficacy of 
*Imposjtioii of Hauds' {Bnmpi&u 
I^tiurcs^, i888, v p* i$^). 

ih . ti6T banedlct 1 onem] C f. p . 1 8 . 
1, above. 



4. lnifeiiio] possibly tnean.^ *an 
engine.* Many examples of this 
Kense wiU lie found m Oehler^s Index 
s,v. In this ca-^ae it will l>e abl. not 
dative^ and answer to Mn suo 
ofgano* below. Cf p. 8. i. 

5. ipliittim arcesaere] The refer- 
etice 15 to an hydraulic organ — f^ee 
the deiached note at the end of the 
ch* As the muiiician animaLes the 
compound of water and air witb 
another breaih of so clear a character 
— ^so God, by meaus of consecrated 
hands, evokes from His instrument 
(man) the lofty strains of the Spirit. 
The paraHel is perhaps not entirely 
f ree from con fu ston of i h ough t . The 
^'arious members respectively corre* 
spond to one another thus — ihe or- 
gan to the candidate for Baptism ; 
the playerto God t ihe fingers ofthe 
player to the hands of ihe giver of 
the blesHing : the ' mixtuie of water 
and air* to Baptism with *Con(inna- 
tioti ' : the tune evoked frotn the 
organ to the spiritual grandeur 
which kconferred. Attention should 
!>e given to two points (i) the effect 
upoti the comparison of the fact that 
spiriius corresponds in Latin to 
[a) the actual air of the bellows, 
(^) the tuneful brealh issuing from 
the pipeSf [c) the Holy Spirit ; and 
{1) \x> tbe beariog of the phrase eon- 
corporaiio t&rutn upou the relation 
of Confirmalion to Baptism, 

ib, coiiGQriKiratioiLem] Thisand 
iftcotp. were ihe Latin renderings of 
iv^vBpthTryiai^ (Koffmane &p. cii. i 1 
p. 41 ; see also Sanday aud Head- 
lam on Rom. vi 5, ts^fLfnfroi^ aud cf. 
Tenayson'3 *grow incarporaie unto 
thee'). The word Is late and eccle 
siastical. The noun occurs ad$t* 




ra^ 



[V 

accommodatis desypcr manibus alio spiritu tantae ckritatis 
animare, deo autetn in suo organo non licebit ptr manus 
sancLis sublimitatem modulari spiritalem ? sed est hoc quoque 
de ueteri sacramento, quo nepotes suos ex losephT Ephrem et 
5 Manassem, lacob capitibus impositis et intermutatis manibus 
benedixerit, et quidem ita transuersim obliquatis in se,ut 
Christum deformantes iam tunc portenderent benedicdonem 
in Christum futuram. tunc ille sanctissimus spiritus super 
emundata et benedicta corpora libens a patre descendit, super 
ro baptismi aquas tamquam pristinam sedeni recognoscens con- 

4 Efrem ABa, Ephmim Ub. 7 Chreston S* deforoaantis A» 

defonnaiites B. 9 l^bens S. et super I, 



^ 



Alarc, iv + * concorporatio [egis et 
prophetanim.' For the vero cf, 
ik Pitdk^ 5, where it is explalned 
by ihe syiionyms tm^ungimH*., ail- 
nimmur. The adj. is fonnd io the 
Vulgate of Eph. iii 6 ' Getites esse 
cohaeredes et concorporales.. .' (criJff* 
cruMa). It refers here to the 'union' 
of mnd and water in the hydraulic 
organ» 

4. de iieteri Mcraiaeiito] For 
the use of j. for the Old Dispensation 
see on i 1* The reference is toGen* 
xlviii 14. Once more TerC. make^ 
no claiin to a direct institution of 
Chrisl. 

6« ablii|iiatlB ta se] 'cros,Hed the 
one over the other.^ So St Francis 
of Assisi is said to have crossed his 
arins when hlejising EUas and Bcr- 
nard de Quintavallej bringing his 
righi haiid over the head nf Berrjard, 
whose humihty had made him 
choose the inferior position on the 
left. 

7, C&rl9tuin deforma.mtefl] 'rc- 
presenting Christ in a ligrire,^ i.e, 
either the Cross, or ihe iiiitial letter 
X (c^ Novatia.n d€ Tntt^ xxvii ^ft. ; 
Aug. Cmf* K § 52). Oehler follows 
RigalL in preferring the fonner, on 
the ground that naiionii, to whom 
X was not alphabetically the first 
letter of Christus» might yet under- 
stand thereby Christ on the Cross. 



On the other hand TertulHan migbt 
as well have said * cmcem def. ' ; and 
tn all ihe context he is dwelling on 
anoindng with tbe Spirit, and here 
particularly on the hlessing that 
was to come on Christ (note 'in 
Christrf//i'), not, in the first instance, 
iliroiigh Cbrist. Dtfarmart means, 
as van d» Vliet explains it, * primam 
materiae fingendae debneationetn 
imponere^ ; and is m used ApoL 11 
* Qnod simulacrum non prius argilla 
deformat cruciet stipiti superstrucla/ 
and iuiu, I/ermftg. 36, if the reading 
is sound. 

It is posjjible that Tertuliian's 
language is infloenced by i Pet, 
] u. 

g. Utieiis] mustj l think, be 
right. it recurs in Isidore's repro- 
duciion of the passage, and is 
supported hy Leidrad di Sinr* 
Bupi. vii *The laying on of the 
Hand is use<I ,.. Thereupon that 
Comforter*..willingly descends from 
the Fatber/ And Rabanus dt 
CUric. Instii. xxx ^Tbe HolyGhost 
Himself*..willingly descends froni 
the Father lo sanctify and enligbten 
by Hts visitation His own vessel,' 
Msmon Gp, cii. pp. 2tSi ijj* 
Scaligers Iti&ms is neat, bul rather 
pleonaslic* Klussmjinn approves of 
Jtmius' ei super, 

10. pristinam Bedem] Isidore» 



I 



jy 



vnii 



DE BAFTISMO 



23 



quiescit, colQmbae figura delapsus in dominum, ut natura 
spiritus sancti declararetur per aniraal simplicitatis e£ inno- 
centiaej quod etiam corporaliter ipso felle careat columba. 
ideoquej estote, inquit, simplices sicut columbae; ne hoc 
quidem sine argumento praecedentis figurae, quemadmodum 5 
enim post aquas diluuii, quibus iniquitas antiqua purgata est, 
post baptismum, ut ita dixerira, mundi pacem caelestis irae 
praeco columba terris adnuntiauit dimissa ex arca et cum olea 
reuersa, quod signum etiam apud nationes paci praetenditurj 
eadem dispositione spiritalis efTectus tcrrae, id estcami nostrae, 10 
emergenti de lauacro pcst uetera delicta columba sancti spiritus 



¥ 



g apud etiam A, etiam aptid B. 

mistaking the constmction, prefixes 
sttptr. The reference is to Gen . i j , 
cf, ch* iii above. 

1. columbae fig^ura.] Mt. iii 16, 
Mk i lOj Lk, iii 22, Jn i ^Ih 

2. anlmal iimplicltatls et ta- 
nocenHae] The genidve ^viih a 
subsiantive in place of an adjettive 
(e.gp cupiditates libidinuui) \& sald to 
be a Semitism, due to the paucity of 
adjectives in ttiat groupof langnages. 
Tt is oue of the points alleged by 
ihose Tvho see iu TertuUian^fi l^ti- 
nity a Pnnlc groundwork overlaid 
vvith Latin, SiUl (cf. note on 
vi 3)^ who classes Jt under Tttmor 
Afrkanus (^ Punic Redundancy^), 
notes that it is freqiient in Minu- 
cms Felix^ bnt adds * TertuUian, 
wie es scheint, freiJ Ferhaps this 
passnge escaped hini^ 

3. felle ca£«at] The dove was 
believed by the ancients to hnve 
no gaJI iu its body ; cf. Cyprian 
de Unii. EaL ix * animal nou feUe 
anjanim^' and Rnbn. in /V. ixvii 
* Sancta ecclesia merito dicitur 
coLumba^ quia fel amariEudinis nou 
habetT et quia. uirtute simplicitatis 
poUet.* See furtber io Suicer s.v, 
TfpiffTfpdj and Pliny H,N^ xi 74. 
Tertulban mentions the 'simpliciLas* 
of Ihe dove again, iis hanulessuess, 
and tts chastity, itt de Mm^g^ 9 (cf. 



ji emergendi A, eniergenti B* 

Fliny H.N. x 34 ^ and Isid. Eiym. 
vii 3. zi). Tertul]ian's notions of 
natural hislory ^'ere in no way in 
advance of his time. He believed 
that ihe byaena changt?d its sex an- 
nuaLly [di Pitii. 5), that the ' castor ^ 
wassocaUed as *castratorcarnis' {adu, 
Mar€, i 1 ), that the adder borrowed 
poison from Ihe viper {adu. Marc. 
iii 8 mjV.), and tlie usual legend 
about the phenix {d^ AVj. Carn. 13)^ 
Mayor on Juv. xii 34 has a rich coU 
lection of refereticeia to this subject. 

4. e&tot^] Matt» X 16. 

5. ar^mmento] Uoken' or Mu- 
dication.' 

6. poflt a^iuafl dllaiili] GcH' viii 

8. pra«co columM] Oehler re- 
fers for this in his Indcx to adti* 
Hermog. 35. Cp. adn* FaUni, 1 
ad Jin^y ' Illa et a primordio diuinae 
pacis praeco*' 

9. jpneitexLdltiir] ' is beld forth 
as. ' CommonLy in Tertullian the 
verb means ' to Lie on guard»' e.g. 
in de Pmfk. 1 7 he says of St PauFs 
Epistles * omnes pro pudicitia, pro 
castitate, pro sanctitate praeten- 
dunt/ where see a full note of 
Oehler. 

10» terrae] qucried by Hofling 
i&J^. di. p. 488 % 91) ; withom, I 
think, sufBcient reason. 



I 



24 



TERTULLIANUS 



[VIII 



aduolat pacem dei adferens, emissa de caelis, ubi ecclesia est 
arca figurata. sed mundus nirsus deliquit; quo male com- 
paratur baptismus diluuio, itaque igni desttnatur, sicut et 
homo qui post baptismum delicta restaurat, ut hoc quoque 
5 in signum admonitionis nostrae debeat accipi- 

comparetur ABab, 



t sed] Sj 
comparatur L 



ct 



I, daliquit ABa, delinquit Ub. 
3 Diluuio itaque ignis I* 



K d6 caelis, ubi ecddstar est 
OTca flgurata] Tertnllian's concep- 
tion of the Chnrch shifted somewbat 
wilh his progress from orthodoxy 
to Montanism, and was at no time 
consistent, because of his power of 
combining an ideal conception of 
what might be with aii accurate 
perception of what was. In bis 
earlier writings he seems to have 
thought of the Church .somewhat as 
foUows : The Chufth is an assembly 
of belJeverSi realized only in Heaven, 
whose existence is inseparably con- 
nected with ihe Ascended Christ and 
Ihe Holy Spiritj the Church on 
earth is an image of ihat above^ and 
Cbristians are as exiles in a foreign 
land, their real cnmmonwealth is in 
Heaven ; from its very nature it 
cannot be realized here below, 

But, if this was one side of 
Tertyllian's conccplion, there was 
aaother and le&s ideal bide, whiclt 
may be .studied in the following 
passages, arranged roughly in order 
of time : de PamiL lo, de Orat. 



1. 2% ApoL 39^ de E^h&ri. Cast 7, 
iie Mo7wg, 7. r^, di Pudic. 2J* See 
fiirther in Harnackt Hist* of D&tir, 
i p, 152 and li p, 73 E.T.; d'Alfcs, 
La ThhL de Teri, p, 215; and 
Adam D^ Kirchenbegrtff l^^rttd- 
iians p. 88 foU, 

2. arca] Dodgson translates this 
as nnminative ' Wherdn is. the 
Church, the prefigured Ark/ Better, 
T think, ablative, *prefigured by the 
Ark.' Cf. de Idol. 34 and Jer* in 
Lucif, p* 195, * Arca Noe ecclesiae 
typus fuit. ' 

ib. male comparatur] Because 
afier Ihe Deluge the world retumed 
to sin. 

3« Igui ddHtlnatur] 2 Pet. iii 7, 

4. restaurat] For thi^ insiaurot 
would tie uscd in classical I>atin. 
The verb had in legal Latin the 
sense of * to make good wbat has 
been destroyed," and is used of jne- 
building a wall in the Vulgate of 
I Macc. X 44. 

5. iu Bignimi] Cf^ \ Cor, x i t. 



1 

I 
I 
I 



I 



DETACHED NOTE ON THE HYDRAULIC ORGAN. 



The general meaning of Ter- 
tullian^s words is plain enQugh^ but 
doabt arises about some of the 
details from Ihe obscurity which 
hangs ovcr Ihe working of these 
early instmments. The snbject may 
conveniently be f^tudied in Dr E* J. 
Kimbault ' Hislorical Summary ' 



prefixed to Dr E. F. Hopkins Tkt 
Qrgan^, Lond* 1S77, a.ndauthorities 
there mentioned ; Kmus, articlc 
* Orgd ' hi Haiick's ReatencycL ; R» 
Lnnn, article * Organ ' in Smttb and 
Cheetham /J.C/I. ; von Jan, article 
^ FidtCiV in \^^wm^'vh\^i^^ Denkmaler* 
Our main anthority is a dcscription ia 



DE BAPTISMO 



25 



Vitruvius (de Architect, x 11, with 
PeiTauU's notes). The passage may 
be found at length in Rimbault- 
Hopkins, with Newton's translation. 
(Reference may further be made to 
Kircher Musurgia ix p. 332 ; Isaac 
Vossius De Poem. cantu et viribus 
Rhythmi p. 100 ; Dr Bumey Hist, 
of Music i 491 ; Bennet Woodcroft 
The ^neumatics of Hero of Alexan- 
dria^ 4*", 185 1, with drawing). 

The general idea of the hydraulic 
organ was as follows : The early 
beTlows were small, and exerted an 
irregular pressure of wind. That 
difficulty is now surmounted by the 
device of the wind-chest ; but, 
before wind-chests were invented, 
an attempt was made to regulate 



the flow of air by water pressure. 
The way in which that was managed 
was this : (i) A piston, sliding in 
a cylinder and operated by a rocking- 
beam, pumped air into an invertwi 
hemisphere contained in a receptacle 
of water. (2) The pressure of the 
water kept the hemisphere down 
at the bottom, unless air enter- 
ing from the cylinder forced it 
up. (3) When the pressure was 
released, the water in the receptacle 
would depress the hemisphere, and 
the air impiisoned within it would 
escape through a valve at the top to 
the organ-pipes with some steadi- 
ness of supply. Perhaps the foUow- 
ing diagram will help to explain the 
operation : 




Pivot 



A. Cylinder for forcing air into the large receptacle. 

B. Piston with valve, operated by 

C. Rocking-lever. 

D. Hemisphere, rising and falling in the water, and allowing 

air to escape at E, 



Some differences will be dis- 
covered between my diagram and 
those given elsewhere, but, as I do 
not claim any degree of certainty 
for mine, only higher probability, 
I will not discuss them. 

Let us, now, examine Tertullian's 
statements in the light of what has 
been said. Tertullian says that the 
player, ^ accommodatis desuper ma- 



nibus (adjusting his hands from 
above) summons breath into the 
waler, and animates the union [con- 
corporatio) of the two with another 
breath . . . ' &c. Accommodatis desuper 
manibus suggests the position of the 
hands over a modem key-board. 
But, as these are not known to have 
been used till the great organ was 
built at Magdeburg at the end of 



26 



TERTULUANUS 




IX, Quot igitur patrocinia naturaCj quot priuilegia gratiaey 
quot sollemnia disciplinae, figurae, praestructiones, precationes, 
religtonero aquae ordinauerunt ? primo quidem cum populus 
de Aegypto liber et expeditus uim regis Aegypti per aquam 
S transgressus euadit, ipsum regem cum totis copiis aqua 
extinxit quae figura manifestior in baptismi sacramento? 
liberantur de saeculo nationes per aquam scilicet et diabolum 
dominatorem pristinum in aqua oppressum derelinquunt. item 
I, 1 quod Ur A, quot B. 4 Hbere expeditus ABaO, liber U {delJ^ 

ejtped.)i mn^ libere K 8 derelinquit A, dereUnquunt H, 

In thiii respect he is in good cotn- 
pany^ as; Augustine betrays a Uke 
ignorance {in Fs. d). The Fathers 
were impressed by the marvels of 
organ-constraction, but not familiar 
wiih the details (Bp Wordsworth 
Minisiry of Grace p» 199) ; and, if 
TertulHan had read the deaciiptions 
of Vitruvius and Hero rcfen-ed lo 
above — a^^ he may have done — we 
can hardly blame him if he found 
them puzzling. 



4 



the xLth cent., it is safer to explam 
it of opening ihe pipes hy means of 
slidesT caUetl ' linguae ' — or some 
process of the kind. 

A cut on p* 577 of Grove's Dic- 
ticHiXfy ^ Miisic^ vol, iir shows a 
player of an early organ in position, 
That TertuUian did nol dearly im- 
derstand the mechaniijm of the m- 
strument is plain not only from ihis 
pass.age, hut from thc nncritical 
wonder wlth which he writes of 
the organ ebewhere {ik Anlm. 14). 



I X . Varimis msiames from Scrip-- 
inr^ cifihe benefictnt work of water: 
thi Egy^ians drmmed in ihe Red 
StQ^M0^€s eured tkt biiter waters^ 
io Christ moiie -naier it^kolesBme for 
Baptistn—tke ^- Roik^ that folkwed 
ihe Israeiiies — Christ baptized in 
Witter — ivfi>iighi His first miraeie 
iviih wattr — sat doWH by ihe ^tveti— 
waiked upOH the sca — water flot^d 
from His strtckeH side. 

t, patrodiila] ^helps of rvature.^ 
The word mecins the kind of support 
whicb a 'patronus* would ^ve a 
* cl i ens. ' Ix^ad A^afi* i i 6 * hu m a nae 
docliinae palrocinia ' means ^ pre- 
tensions of human leaming.* In de 
Auim, ij *mastership' or ^owner- 
$;h]p^ seems to be the meaningt as 
in de Paiieni. 16, and in adu. Valtnt. 
I ^ptestige/ 

1. BolleiiLnt&] Dodgson joinsthis 
to disiiifiithtt' *rites of reUgious 
discipline/ 



ib. iMraeatrucUoneB] * prepara- 
tjon ' or * laymg of a foundation.' 
Cf, adii. Alar€. iv 14 *In euangeiii 
sui praestrucHonem,' and de Res* 
Carn. t S * Hucnsque praestnTClioni' 
bus egerim^* and compare the use of 
the adverb in 'Multadiceudum fuit, 
ut ad hominem piaestiuctim perue- 
niretui* {ds Paii. 3), and of the verb, 
as in Oehler* 

5. rallgloiLem aqaae] Cf. x 3 
belowj * baptismi religionem.' 

it. onHiiauerunt] See on p. 54«, | 
5, belovv* 

4. Uher et] a i^ood emendaiioa | 
of the Vienna ediLors for iibere. 

6* aacrametito] See ou i i, 
«bove. 

7, naMoiLOB] Cf* V 5 above. It ' 
was an attempt to replsice i&vii by s, 
Latin word. Ethmci was common; 
gentes commoner stUl. 

ih. dlabolnin] See p. 11. t^^ 
above. 



m 



DE BAPTlSAfO 



n 



aqua de amaritudmis uitio in usum commodum suauitatis Mosei 
ligno remediatur. lignum iUud erat Christus uenenatae et 
araarae retro naturae uenas in saluberrimas aquas baptisrai 
scilicet ex sese remedians, haec est aqua, quae de comite 
petra populo defluebat. si enim petra Christus, stne dubio 5 
aqua in Christo baptismum uidemus benedici. quanta aquae 
gratia penes deum et Christum eius est ad baptismi confir- 
mationem ! numquam sine aqua Christus : siquidem et ipse 
aqua tinguitur^ prima rudimenta potestatis suae uocatus ad 
nuptias aqua auspicatur; cum sermonem facit, sitientes ad lo 
aquam suam inuitat sempiternam ; cum de agape docet, aquae 

I suum ABa, usum Ulx commodae R, j iuEialuberrimfls 

AEISbj m 5. a. 6 aqua in ABa, aqme in Ub. ' praedici/or^/ R. 



I 



I. eommodmm] Ho its profitable 
use of sweetness/ The aUemtlon of 
tKe Vieuna editors to ^coTnmodae* 
seems unnecessary* 

ih. MQoei] This form of the 
genitive may be compared with 
'Achilld.' 

!2. temedlatiir] Sec p. (4* S, 
above. 

ib. Ugnum Ulud erat €hriBtiii] 
The form of the sentence h sug- 
gested by tbe coming quotalion from 
I Cofp X 4* It is perhaps noticcabLe 
Ihat Tert. does noi» Hke Tustin, 
DiaL B6, refer tbe qignum^ direcily 
10 the Ctoss» 

3. r«tro] * formeriy * : see note 
on p. l6| above* 

ih. ueaaa] ' strcam?;,' 

4. de comite petraj t Cor. x 4* 
6, aquA] If Lhi^ be retatned^ 

tr^nslate * VVe see baptism in Christ 
blessed(i.e,peTformed to the blessing 
of the recipieni) with waler.* If 
a^^uctif be accepte<l, it may be taken 
wilb hopiismus bke T^ %o\fT{s^ tol' 
ifSeirDf iti Eph* v 36* If the text is 
to be altered, ' aquam in Cbrisii 
baptismum * or ^ aquam in Christo 
in baptismum beneilici/ may be 
suggested. The in migbt easily 
have been passed over ihe second 



time. ClassTcal author^ wrote h^ne 
dico as two words, and used it with 
a dative* In eccl. I^tin benedicit is 
one word, and commonly transitive 
{Koflfmane op. fii. i i p» 73 ; ii 
p, 117). 

7. piiies] See on p. ti. 7, above- 
S. ipae &qua tlJigultur] Matt^ 
iii 13, Mk i 9, Lk* iii ii, Joh. i 31. 

9. prima nidimenta. auspica- 
tur] Joh. ii 3* kitximmium Is pro- 
perly the siaie of being a recruit 
(cf* 'Rudimentum adulescentiae po- 
neye/ Livy xxxi 4), Translate * He 
inaugurates wilh water tbe first steps 
of His power.* Cf. adu^ Hermog. 18 
and dn AVj. Cnrti. 7. 

10. ftitlenttifi inuitat] Jnh. \v 
14. 

u. agnpe] According lo KqHV 
mane {cp. di. i t p. 9) the technical 
raeaning of agape Move-feast' in 
eccL Latin was earber tban the 
general sense of * love ^ or * charity.* 
Spelt in Latin letters it occurs as the 
name of an aeon adit. Valinf* 8 and 
de /einn. 1 7, and in Greek it is read 
(cioubtfully) Apoi. 39 * ^Cena noslra^ 
uocatur quod dilectio penes Grae- 
cos,* whete some Mss read * uocatur 
d^dirij id quod dilectio/ etc* The 
reference is to Mt. x 4». 



^ 



28 



TEHTULLIANUS 



[IX, X 



calicem pauperi oblatum inter opera dilectionis probat ; apud 
puteum uires resumit, super aquam incedit, libenter transfretat, 
aquam discentibus ministrat, perseuerat testimontum baptisfnl 
usque ad passionem: cum deditur in crucemj aqua interuenit; 
5 sciunt Pilati manus: cum uulneratur, aqua de latere prorumpit; 
scit lancea militis. 

X, Diximus, quantum mediocritatx nostrae licuit, de 

uniuersls quae baptismi religionem struunt; nunc ad reltquum 

statum eius aeque ut potero progrediar de quaestiunculis qui- 

10 busdam. baptismus ab lohanne denuntiatus iam tunc habuit 

t pxitri AB, fmtri a, pauperi Ub» 



1 , apu<l putflum} Joh. iv i, 
1. auper aquam lncetMt] Mt. 
jiiv 55, Mk vi 4«, Joh. vi 19. 

ik teansflretat] Mt. xiv 34. 
A posl Aiig. word. It occiirs Lk. 
viii 12 (Vg.)* It is used in de Paenii. 
I * Vkae tomiersationem «line guber- 
naculo nttionis [rausfretaintes/ Tlie 
adj* irauf:fretanus occurs Apol, i^. 

3. aq'uam,..mUUatrat] Joh. xiii 

ih, dlBcentlbus] The present 
partidpleis used in thissubsianuval 
way in classical Latin : cf. * Verbis 
praecipiens discentibus unde quo 
quamque lineam scriijerent ' ^Cic, 
Tusr^ Disp^Y 3g, n^Jtbut its use was 
widely extended later (KofTmaiie 
1 I pp. 53, 7^). It is TeTtulliati's 
regular word for ol pLa&ijTal (e.g. 
p^ 32. 15, p. 47. 4), though (iisdpttli 
was already in use, ^-g p- 3'- '5 (^ 
quot. from Joh. iv 1) and p. ^l. 13, 

ib. perfloujerat] tx>th tratis* and 
intrans. In Apol. g the reading 
varies: in de Paii^ni* 5 'patientiam 
perseuerasset Ms an emendation of 
Salmasius for * perseruasset ' : m de 
Pall. i there U a vJ. in wbich it has 
an accus. after it* Here it is pro- 
bahly intransuive, * The tesiimony 
coutinues/ 

4. aqua lutira«itli] Mt. xxvii 

5. sclimt,..sdt] Cf. p- 15* 8, 
above* 



ib. a(iTia...pronimplt] Joh. xix 

54- 

X. The foundaiiQns of Baftiism 
hjavingnmi^ hten discu^sed^ the auikor 
ireats cf csriain parikular p&ints ; 
andfirsi ofjokn^s Bapiism. li was 
of Divine appnintmeni, hui (f enly 
hnman efficacy, for^ ihm^h ii 
mimsiereri to ihai ^t^hick tms 
htavenly^ ii eenld tf itself hesi&w no 
hmveniy gift, This is proved both 
frmti 0tir Lord^s mt*ti siaiemerttSf 
ondfr&m ihe et^idence of the Acis^ 
ihe HGty Spirit of praphecy leftjuhu 
before kis deaih^ and he himself 
testificd ihat his Bapttsm was for the 
remission of sins oniy^ and prepara-^ 
iory io a greatfr Baptism io come. 
Hence a preimdid and weak faiih is 
baptized imihfire unto jud^emenl* 

7. m&dloafltatl] For similar 
instances of self-depreciation see 
ch. 3tx adfin.y ad JVaii. ii 7, ^tf Cutt. 
penr ii 7t and de Patient* r, In 
btjth of the latter Tert* calU him* 
sti( miserrimuSf and in the la^t he 
modestly protests that he 15 of all 
men least gifted with the quality 
about wbich he is going to write. 

8- baptlflml religlDneiii] Cf. 
*reUgiooem ^quae ordinaumml/ ix 
3, above> 

10. baptlamua ... denuntfatiia] 
Acts X ■■J7- 

id. habult quaettlAtiem] ^gave 
rise to' — ^a rare sense of habea. Cf» 



DE BAFTISMO 



29 



quaesrioneni, ab ipso quideni domino propositam Pharisaeis^ 
cadestisne is baptismus esset an uero terrenus? de quo illi 
non ualueruni constanter respondere, utpote non intellegentes, 
quia nec credentes. nos porro quantula fide sumus, tantulo 
et intellectu possumus aestimare diuinum quidem eum baptis- 5 
mum fuisse, mandatu tamen, non et potestate, quod et 
lohannem a domino missum legimus in hoc munus^ ceterum 
humanum condicione. nihil enim caeleste praestabat, sed 
caelestibus praeministrabat paenitentiae scilicet praepositus, 
quae est in hominis potestate- denique legis doctores et lo 
Pharisaei^ qui credere nolueruiit, nec paenitentiam egere. quod 

6 mandatum A, itiandatu B. 11 agerc AB, egere Lab Ifarrisius, 

Dcnique — eget^/orf^ ddendn c^isei Harnack, 



I 



however, *• latrocioLa nuUam habeiLt 
infamiam/ Caes. B. G^ vi -25. 6. It 
is ^ commrm enough meanmg of 
IX"^^* ^ '" ^^ passage of Thuc. i^ 
whicb must bave been in Caesar^s 
niind wben be wrott: tbe ivi>rds 
quoteil (so too d^awbfrTjcrti' and ^aTa* 
pj^p.^\u iX^iv Thuc. ii 4O ; and Ter- 
Itdlian may have had ^Tij<riF elxft 
or sometbing of the sortj froui his 
earlier Greek treaiise, before him 
when he wrote these words. 

2, ca«ieetlBne] ^lt. xxi ^5, Mk 
xi 30. 

3. constaiLteT] ^ Fearle^tsly/ 
*wuhout hesitation/ QL dc Spe^i* 
16 'constanter...iDquit ^ ; and de 
FaiidHi, 3, 

ib. "utiMrte] Cf* p> 31- 16, below, 
Quite classical wHh a participle. 
Tbere is a v.l. in de Carn. Chr. 6 
^uLputa/ whicb is also cia^sicali but 
rare. 

ilt. non iutallegeiLtet qula. nee 
credimteB] Is. vii 9. TertuLlia.n's 
reading here is one of the cases 
wbere he haa eitber translate<l direct 
from LXX, or used aji 0*L. Version 
made from LXX* The Hebr. is 

*/fy€ helin^e «i?^(bave not firm con- 
fidenee) ye wiii mi be e&nfirmed.* 
Cf* for ihe pironomasia 2 Chr, xx 




10, Tbe LXX, misunderstanding^ 
rendered : i^v fijf irnTT€V<r7iTtf dHiS^ 
ttT^ (Tvvip-£, but Vg. correctly * SJ 
non crediderius, non pennanebitis/ 
Angustine records the variation in 
a welUknown passage : * Item illud 
eiusdem rsaiae prophetae, jVtsi ck 
ftan intelk^dis^ akus interpretatus 
est, Nisi cr. non peimanibitis^^ de^ 
Doti, Cltrisi. ii § 17, It is the 
source of ihe fiunous Crtdt ut 
iiitellegas. 

4. porro] The word in Tert. 
has an adversalive force : see Oebler 
on de C&r. 7^ 

8. tmmanum] perhaps agrees 
with eutfi. baptitmum L 5^ aiid cor- 
responds to diuinum qnidem. In 
accordance witb tbis view I have 
put a comma afier muniis. The 
ttihii enim caeiesi^ praesiabat of 
1, 8 is a strong argument for takingit 
so* Cf* also humanum loh* bapiis- 
mum p. 34. 8. below, Reifferscheid 
seems to imply by hls punctuation 
thal he refers it to lahannem, !♦ 7 ; 
for which view iamen \% a strong 
argumeuL 

9. praanilnlfltraMt] The prat 
i& eniphatic* Cf. adu. Marc, v 6 
* Medio spatio sacculorum in figuris 
et aenigmatibus et allegoriis ptae- 
minisirayit/ Contra^st p. 31, 6. 

[f. aec] for *ne...quidem,* *did 



30 



TEIiTULLlANUS 



[X 



st paenitentia humanum est, et baptismus ipsius eiusdem con- 
dicionis fuerit necesse est, aut daret et spiritum sanctum et 
remissionem delictorum, si caelestis fuisset. sed neque pecca- 
tum dimitlit neque spirituin indulget nisi deus solus. etiam 
5 ipse dominus, nisi ipse prius ascenderet ad patrem, aliter 
negauit spiritum descensurum. id quod dominus nondum 
conferebat, seruus utique praestare non potuisset adeo postea 
in Actis Apostolorum inuenimus, quoniam, qui lohannis bap- 
tlsmum habebant, non accepissent spiritum sanctum, quem ne 
lo auditu quidem nouerant. ergo non erat caeleste, quod cae- 
lestia non exhibebat, cum ipsura» quod caeleste in lohanne 
fuerat, spiritus prophetiae, post totius spiritus in doniinura 
translationem usque adeo defecerit, ut quem praedicauerat, 



7 praestare noxi posset ABa, praestare posset? b, potuisset R. 
pTopbetiae A, s. prophetUe B* 



12 s* et 



not,..either^ (Koffmane {>p. cii. i 2 

ik paenlt«(ntl&m egere] This 
Wfls one of the phrases adopted to 
avoid the dumsiness of the iTn- 
personal pijemidr Others are 
J>aeftiieref paeniitri \dt Pae^tit* 4^ in 
a qyotation), paenitudinem or paeni- 
leniiam g&rEve^ and pamitmiiam 
inirt (Koffmane i i p. 70; ii p. 107)« 
* Paenitentiatn agiie is not an exact 
translalion of ^eTapoftre^ but the 
common translaiion * Do penatice ^ 
does nol fairly represent the original 
raeaning of ^ PaeniLeniiam agite.' 
For rhe * fanjous difficulty ' which 
this caused lo Luther see Burkitt 
The O.L^ and the liaia p. 4. If 
^g£r^ be read, uolucruni must be 
nnderslood from twittenfnt. 

T, sl paenltentla. bumajmm 
««t] Tertullian in ihe treatise dc 
Faenii. never once betrays any oon- 
sciousness ihat the will to repent 
must come from God, A later 
writer wouJd have expressed him- 
self mare guardedly, or he woultl 
have expo5ed himself to a charge of 
Pelagianism* 



%, sp. eanctum, rttm. deiic- 
toromj the characteristic gifts of 
Baptism (and Confirmation). 

5, Mei Ipae prltifi] Joh. xvi 7. 

7. utique] See on iii f , above, 
Uk potulsset] A\\ easy, but not 

iudispen&able, correction. 

8. AetlflJ A^ttis is the tjsual 
form of the nominative in mss of 
the Vuigate and in the FatberSt and 
Aiiuutti^ Actihus of the genitive 
and dalive* Atta however \^ found 
fairly often. The Thesaurus gfves 
six other references to Terl, besidcs 
this one. 

ib . tiuoiilam . . . nou accaplstent] 
*that ihey had not received.' 

ib, loZiaimia baptlsmiam] Acts 
xix 2. 

11. Bp. prophetlae . . . def eoerlt] 
This ^latement l^ repeated in de 
Ptvescr. f/tUT^t. to, adn. A/anr, iv 
18. I do not know whence Ter- 
tuLlian derived it : it appears to be 
pecutiar to him, and the conirar)' is 
afBinied b) a number of Father.s, as 
tnay be seen tn note e of Dodgson's 
2rand. p, 76S* 



r 
I 



X, XI 



T 



DE BAPT/SMO 



31 



I 



quem aduenientem designaueratj postmodum an tpse esset 
miserit sciscltatum. agebatur itaqut; baptismus paenitentiae 
quasi candidatus remissionis et sanctificationis in Christo 
subsecuturae. nam quod praedicabat baptismum paenitentiae 
in remlssionem delictorum, in futuram remissionem enuntiatum 5 
est: siquidem paenitentia antecedit, remissio subsequitur, et 
hoc est uiam praeparare; qui autem praeparat, non idem ipse 
perficit, sed alii perficiendum procurat. ipse profitetur sua non 
esse caelestiaj sed Christi, dicendo: qui de terra est, de terra 
loquitur; quide supernLs uenit, super omnes est: item in sola se ro 
paenitentia tinguere, uenturum mox qui tingueret in spiritu et 
igni* scilicet quia uera et stabilis fides aqua tinguitur in 
salutem, simulata autem et infirma igni tinguitur in iudicium. 
XL Sed ecce^ inquiunt, uenit dominus et non tinxit. 
legimus enim: et tamen is non tinguebat^ uerum discipuH eius. 15 

8 perfecit A, pcrficit Bab. lo in sola Ub, sola se ££it, 11 sta- 

bilis aquae fidcs qua ABab, statjHis fides aqua OR *? c&ni. Mig. 



i\ pOflimodom] A rare variant 

2. mlierlt 8clBctta.t!un] Mt- 

3ti 3. 

3. candldAtns] ' an appUcant 
for remissioo/like * candidatus tiino- 
ris/ in ad Ux0f\ 11 7, Cf. ' nos 
angelorumt si meruimus, candidati,' 
Jg Orat. 3. In flfe C0r~ 7 Tert* uses 
* candidati diaboli ' of the devil's 
suitors. 

8. procurat] See on p. 8. 7, 
above, 

Q. qui d« terra eat] Joh. iii ^t, 
It is natural to take ihese words as 
being part of the speech ascribed to 
the Baptist ; bnt see Weitcott ifi 

1 1 . pEumltentia] The sense seems 
to require *in solam se paeniteii- 
dam,' or 'sola se aqua in paeniten- 
liam,' U the ablative be read, it 
mustj I think, be witb Mn/ At the 
same time tbe vatue of tbe preposi» 
tions was deeaying both in Greek 
and Latin, a fact which tnasl be re- 
membered in a case like thb (see 



an article by the Dean of West- 
minster in Joumai of Theohgicai 
SiudieSf Jan* 1905» p* 189, note 2). 

iS. u&ntnmmj Mt. iii 11. 

i^. aqua] This emendation of 
Rigalt yeenis reqaired for the ne- 
cessar)' antithesis to i^iu 

1 3. Igal] The coinmentaries will 
show that this * fire ' is variously 
eKplained. Of the interpretations 
proposed I prefer that wliich takes 
it of the *liery trials ' which await 
the convertsj cf. Mk x 58, 39; Lk* 
xii 50, 

XI. ms ch. iiisctissis tht quej* 
tion ixikHher or tio sur Lord Hintself 
haptised. Terttttiiafi dtddes thcU 
Ht onty did so m ihe p-inciple of 
' Qui facit per aiium fadt pcr se^ 
and thai tke ^jcpressimis in which ii 
is assfried af the Lord are iiteraiiy 
trtii^ ottiy cf tite discipies, Their 
Baptism musi hava bem^ Hke that of 
J(^hn, p-eparatory ; as iht rite 
couid mt be fnade ejfeciuai iiii after 
tke Resurreciion. 

15. ettojneji] Joh. iv t. 



32 



TERTUIUANUS 



IX^^ 



quasi reuera ipsum suis manibus tincturum lohannes praedt- 
casset, non utique sic intelkgendum est, sed simpliciter dictum 
more communi, sicut est uerbi gratta : imperator proposuit 
edictum aut praefectus fustibus cecidit; numquid ipse proponit 
5 aut numquid ipse caedit? semper is dicitur facere^ cui prae- 
ministratun ita eiit accipiendumj ipse uos tinguet, pro eo 
quod est, per ipsum tinguemini uel in ipsum. sed ne moueat 
quosdam quod non ipse tinguebat. in quem enim tingueret? 
in paenitentiam ? quo ergo illi praecursor? in peccatorunij 

10 remissionem, quam uerbo dabat? in semetipsum, quem humi- 
litate celabat? in spiritum sanctum, qui nondum ad patrem 
ascenderat? iii ecclesiam, quara nondum apostoli struxerant? 
itaque tinguebant discipuli eius ut ministri, ut lohannes ante- 
praecursor, eodem baptismo lohannis, ne qui aho putet, quia 

15 nec exstat aUus nisi postea Christij qui tunc utique a discentibus 
dari non poteratj utpote nondum adimpleta gloria domini, nec 
instructa efficacia lauacri per passionem et resurrectionem, quia 

I qua^ AI, quia Babp ^ caecidit A^ caedit E- praetninistratur A» 1 

fit Kmg. 9 praecursorem cdt, \ 1 spirltusaiicto A, spiritain 

&anciuni B. wi p. a^enderat A* a p. desc. A^f^BabO, 13 ante prae- 

Cursor A 13 abO, antepr, R, 



2. utl<iue] See on iii 5, above- 

3. u6rbl gratia] 'for example^* 
as jn Cic de Fim v 11» 30, Cf. de 

5, praeiuinlatiraturj A slightly 
dijferent force of the preposition 
from that in p. ^g. g^ above. There 
it referred to the preparaiory work 
of the Baptist* Here it has the com- 
moner force of 'on bchalf of/ 

9- 4uo...praecursor] llie ac- 
cusative bere is difficult to explain, 
atid \ read ibe nominativcT and 
explain the 'em as due to the com- 
bined infinence of (1) llie many 
accusalivea in tbe pa^ssage, and {2) 
the in whjch follows. The accu* 
sative^ if retaincdj might be Ll]u«i- 
trated by Horace's *Quo mihi for- 
tunam, si nun concedJtur utj?' £p* 

I Y 12, 



ii. rtru3E«raiit] See p. ^^.%^^^ 
above. 

13. antepraecuTfiOiJ ^ce on 
17» 3, above. 

J4. eodem bapttsmo lohauiiifl} 
iree for this Westcott ad i&€.^ MasoQ 
Ketatim of Confirmatim to Baptiin^ 
p' 466 \ and Moberly us there 
referred to. 

16* utpate] See on p. 39* 3, above. 

ih, adlmpleta] meaas 'fulliBed/ 
of a promise or prophecy (so Dig. 
XX vj* 7, 43), and is used somewhat 
as in Clcm. Recop%. \ 69 * Duo& 
enim eius pra.edictos ebse docuit 
ady^entus ; unum humilitatis, quem 
adimpleuit ; abum gloriae^n/ &c. 

r^. laiuuirl] Sec on p. 54. 5,beJow. 

ih, reBurrecMQnein] For the 
connexion of Baptjsm with the 
Resurrection of Cbrist cf. Rom. 



xr, xirj 




nec raors iiostra dissolui posset fiisi domini passiotie nec uita 
restitui sine resurrectione ipsius, 

XII. Cum uero praescribitur nemini sioe baptismo com- 
petere salutemj ex illa maxime pronunttatione domini qui ait : 
nisi natus esL aqua quis erit, non habet uitam, euboriuntur 5 
scrupulosi, immo temerarii retractatus qiiorundam, quomodo 
ex ista praescriptione apostolis salus competat, quos tinctos non 



3 surrectiotie ABa^ res, Ib, 
i7fli. pf^estruct, AmgB^b. 

4; CoL ii ii ; i PeLiiiii^ SeeWesi- 
cott on Joh. iv 2, \\ 12 sq. ; Sandtw 
and ile^dlam Homans pp. 1 16^ 
161» Dotlg>oii refers to Leo Ep, 
xvi 3, and fer» adtt, Lticif. vu- 

1. reBurrfictione] an almost cer^ 
tain emendation of Fr- Junius for 
the suri*t€tmu of B, >vhlch is 
pia.ctically a air- ^lp. (eJse^vh* otily 
Aratu.s ) 3T4 ; cf. Koffmane op^ a't, 
i j p. iSjS.v.^anaijtasU'). Kroymanu 
{Qtta^isL T^rtulL p* 76) proposes to 
alter sine to wiW, to agree \vith the 
nhi above* The ni- might easily 
have dropped out afier restitw^ 

Xir. * Exctpi a man be bont qf 
watt't\ h€ imfh not life ' — ttvr^, thtns 
ih^ Apcst/es baptiud'^ This is ?«? 
captioiis i^uestioii^ it has bait pra- 
poittiii^d iif virw o/ di^mitiis u^iixch 
have btcn aciuaiiyfeU. They "wotUd 
itaV€ ticeived John^s Baptism atid 
pfrhaps^ in the sptcicd circtitnstatice 
of their pccuiiar marncss to Ciirist^ 
this tnay itavc hten cttough. In any 
casc, our Lord promised saivation 
and thc for^^ivtmss of sins t& cnc 
u.'ito hndfaith, thoiigh not baptized ; 
and (hc Aposttes had certaitity faiih,. 
Snc/t sprini^iinq-s or dippingt in 
wai^ as itappncd to tiu Apostics hy 
aciidcnt canttot fairiy be c&nsiiicred 
to iniz>t tahcn the p/ace of Baptistn. 

The question whether the Aposlles 
were Lapti^ed ot not, s.nd, ifsOi by 
whom, is one to which various an* 
swer^ have been given, Chrys. 
Hqih, f in Act. V agrees with Ter- 
tullian that ihey were biiptized with 



7 prsieacriptionet praestmctbne A, 



water by John : Aug. Ep, cdscv 5, 
on the other hand* thinks that they 
were bapti^ed by our Lord \^ith 
water^ not with the Holy Ghost. 

5. qompeter©] * belong/ cf, for 
this sense IHg, xix u 15 * Mihi 
aduersus te actio competit'; Eum. 
Pan. Const. iv * Hereditas com- 
petit alicui'; Just. Ittst. i 5. i 
' Libertas seruo competefe potest ' 
{other ejcamples m Dirksen s.v»). 
For a somewhat differenl sense aee 
on p. 10. 9, above. 

4. prommtLationt] CL ^dtuina 
prommtiatio prnecucurrit,^ p» 4. JO, 
above. 

5. nM natni] Joh. iii 5. The 
quotation appears to be influenced 
by Joh. vj 55. 

ib. suborliULturJ a rare verb, 
used thre^ times tn Lucr., where 
it means * to arise from below.' 
E>odgson's * L^p come scrupulous 
que^tion^ * is spinted, and may 
very likely be right ; but^ consider- 
ing the force of the prepogition jn 
suhosiensa p. f 4» 7^ below, I do not 
feel sure that ' are suggested ^ or 
* hinted at ' x^ not the true meaning. 

6. ratrftctfttut] ' questions, dl^- 
putings, doubts, ' a rare word» * Re- 
tractatio' i-i commoner» 

7. prae«crtpttoiLe] if right, 
seeuis to mean *rule/ cf, above, 
iii 3, It was a technical term of 
Roman Law !ike *exceptior- tbe 
Gk tra/ja^pa^ijf a means of stayin^ 
the direct trial of a suit by entering 
a demurrer. Tertullian used it in 



34 

jlffH fMfn ufc iB ^rtrttfytrt pfagtcr PMlHfll ] 

iolaf ex IDit biptfMimro Clmtt indoeTit, 
e»e de cmaorwm poictalo qo] careaDt 2ic|iia Oaia^ nt poe^ 
ioiptia nltta m^ sat resciiMli piraescnpdoiiera, si etiuB noa 
I tiiKt» taJm smmsk €s^ andiui, dociitno tcsiev msmo£^ mc 
quw ine Um petditm» €iiilii»a, ut idtfo ejccogjteQi libkiiDe 
nitip qttae aliis scmpolum incutiaiit et mmc illis, ut pocenv 
fCS^mitbOi qui aegant apcmolos tiiicto& iiam si hninamnn 



lobantiis baptismtim ioierant^ et domlmcum desiderabantt qna- 

lo tcnus uoum baptismum defiiueTat ipse dominus dicens Petro 

perfuodi uolenti: qui semel lauit^ non habet necesse rm^um, 

quod utiqye non tincto non omnino dixisset ; et baec est 

5 lincuu Ar tuictis B, in e)tismo<y At in £&/* B* 6 et uliro cx* 

C4igilcC (ibidtneni A, et u, ex^^tert libidinem BI, at u. cxagttem tibidftiem 
La, ti. u. exa{ritt:m libidine Ub^ u. UiCxagjtet libldiDe ifWzo,, e^cogitem O, 
7 tncutiant Ab, incuLml Ba. lo de^niebat U. 1 1 nolenti ABabO, 

uoknti 1 R« 



ihi» 8eni»e fts the titlc of onc o( hh 
lr«atiu^i^, bult haviiig eKamincd over 
fifiy cxamplcs in his writmgs^ 1 am 
Cijnvinccd that * rule ' is its ordinary 
meaning iii his works* 

i, In domino] Mn Chriato' in 
more mnviaI. 

3« pr«,fludleatiuneit«] dcpends, 
l>r(^*iitnably, m ihe sense oF saying 
Ciintaincd in * rctractatua/ The 
*cin*;roinm' in the next biie |sro- 
biihly inclndcH ulbers besides llie 
Apo**tleM who verc uubapiiietl up 
lo thc tinie whcn Tert, wrote ; heucc 
iHl* pretjcm letise» ^careantni' Thc 
obleclorM wbh, by a rtditciia ad 
nhHrdHmi lo shtjw thai the * prae- 
Hciiplio' l!4 iinl •vbtiolute. 

jk. «liismodll Sec on p. lo. u* 
ai>ove, 

6. Ubldlti« «tUi] Cf. Ap<}l 48 
' Si viclinuiM eiit liuni: pnrlem laKCiuire. ' 
t)uc woivden* wiUi svhai TertuHian 
Imd iM?en cli«r)»cd, nst except in the 
4t i\gUi^\ he »eems lo be idways in 
fftrne*«t, cveu when (perbaps» chieliy 
vbcn) hc ij. mosi bitterly irtmicnl 



8. mm. b1] 1 do not think ihe 
paiijsage \?» righl %^ \i stands, and 
^uggest ifui for ^' and the insertiani 
of «P>/ hicfore f/, Thc mcaning 
vvould then be ' For thoiie who had 
undergonc the huu^n Bapti^m of 
John did nol require that of tbe 
Lord al^o.^ The readiag in the 
XtTfX means» *IT they hiid received 
John^s l>apiism, ihey desired also 
the Lord^s'— a desire ivhkb, ac- 
cordiug to Tertullian* Ihe Lord re. 
proved. Or ^num ' might be read^ 
instead of ' nam»* Or * tjuatenus ' 
might be taken interrogatively % ' For 
if iney had upproached Jobn^s liap- 
tii^m (of water), and were feeliug 
thai they needed our Lord's bap- 
tism also, how comes it that our 
I^rd declared one baptLbm oidy 
to be permis.sible?' In any casc, 
uttHttiy L 10« i^ predicatef 

ik tniTiiAnmn] Cf. 011 p. 29. 8, 

abovCf 

lauitl Joh. xiii 6 — jo* In- 



Irauijitive agiin p. ^j, j , ticlow* 



* 




XII] 



DE BAPTISMO 



3S 



probatio exerta aduersus illos qiii adimunt apostoHs etiam 
lohannis bapusmum, ut destruant aquae sacramentum, an 
credibile uideri potest in his personis uiam tunc domini non 
pTaeparatam, id est baptismum lohannis, quae ad uiam domini 
per totum orbem aperiendam destinabantur? ipse dominus 5 
nullius paenitentiae debitor tinctus est: peccatoribus non fuit 
necesse? quod ergo alii tincti non sunt, non tamen comites 
Christi, sed aemuli fideij legis doctores et Pharisaei, unde et 
suggeritur, cum aduersantes domini tingui noluerint, eos qui 
domimim seqiiebantur tinctos fuisse nec cum aemulis suis lo 
sapuisse, maxime quando dominus, cui adhaerebantj testimonio 
lohannem extulisset^ nemo, dicensj maior inter natos feminarum 
lohanne baptimtore. alii plane satis coacte iniciunt tunc 
apostolos baptismi uicem impiesse, cum in nauicula fluctibus 







5 destinabatur ipse clonnnus At deslinalmnhir ? Ipiie B. 7 Quod 

ergo aJn tincti non snnt ABI, Quid ergo? alu tmcti non siint abU (sint U). 
8 fide AB| fidei a. Pharisaei ? R, Pbflrisaei, cttt. 9 et avni A, cum B. 
10 tie A, nec E* 1 1 si ctii A, cui Bflb, 31 qui Hartd, 



* QuodcQmqvie non licet in impera- 
torem^ U\ iiec in queinfjuam ; quod 
in neminem, eo forsitfln magis t\ec 
iu ipsutn.,/ Apoit, 36, and *Si 
eninn paucnlos tunc ludaeos im- 
piorum conciluim uocauit, quanlum 
magii> t^ntum eunuentum ethnici 
popuM?' d^ S/fcL ^. 

9. aduerflaateB] for ' aduerKarit/ 
Ifite, 

10. nec cam ftMmollB soIb 
«ftpHlBse] *were not of !be same 
min d w i th ' ( Dod gs« i n ) , * Sapu 1 sse * 
may perhaps repre.scnt a tppw^ai 
in tlre (jreek original 

11. aemo] Mt^ \i n. 

13* coaote] "drop a him, surely 
sufticieiitly forcetl* (Dodgiyon)» For 
CiJairU cf, * Multo coactius Seneca,*. 
ait,* de Anim. 43, 

14. naulealk] Att. viit 24. It 
and Q/>erii both occur in Vg. of this 
pas-sage. The ^liminulive probably 
couies from Mk iv 36» 



i . f xertft ] * pu t for ih j ' spec ial )y 
Lwith veri>al nouns, e.g. wett/w, 
Marc^ v a, digmUto p. ^D. 6, 
below, s^nfetstiaf (ui Ujtor. ii 2, and 
dsewbere. Djrkjven gives examples 
Jof its use with sjufiilar mmns, e.g. 
yanfiorita^i infmtio^ smt^niia. In 
Ap&L 37 * hofttes exertos ' means 
*open,* or^ ^avowed enemies/ but 
^_ there is a vj, ^exsortes/ 
^H 3> pertonis] ^persons/ late. 
^H 4p Id .. tohamilB] possibly a 
^^Hg1o<is. Note thc curious identifica* 
^B tion of the * uia domini' witb Jobn's 
^^ Baptijsm. 

7. ^iuod] Hartel {Patristis^he 
S/tiditn) has, I tbirik, greatly im* 
proved the seuse here ny pulliiig 
a full ^top at /'harisaei^ anti under» 
stambng tincti mn smii after t^on 
tamm fomiifS Christi. * T f, t here fo re , 
others remained unl^aptl^ed, it was 
ihe enemies of the Faith wbo 
remamed so, not tbe Apostles.' He 
^ompnres for thc construction ; 



TERTULLMNUS 



par 



adspersi operti sunt ; ipsum quoque Petriini per mare ingre- 
dientem satis mersum. ut opinor autem, aliud adspergi uel 
intercipi uiolentia marisj aliud tingui discipUna religionis. 
ceterMm nauicula illa figuram ecclesiae praeferebat, quod in 
5 mari, id est saeculo, fluctibuSj id est persecutionibus et tempta- 
tionibus, inquletaturj domino per patientiam uelut dormiente, 
donec orationibus sanctorum in ultimis suscitatus compescat 
saeculum et tTanquillitatem suis reddat, nunc siue tincti quoquo 
modo fuerunt siue illod perseuerauenint, ut et illud dictum 
lo domini de uno lauacro sub Petri persona ad nos tantummodo 
spectet, de salute tamen apostolorum satis temerarium est 
aestimare, quia illis uel primae adlectionis et exinde indiuiduae 

1 'domiiium opperitiyiJ/'/.' R, operti aspersi HaruL r? quae A, 

quk B. 



3. tatflrqlpl] The woid has 
sometimts iti TertuUian a stronger 
meaning than ihrtt of ^caughL hy\ 
overtaken by,' which it bears here, 
Cf. nid Nati* ii 6 * Neque minui, 
neque intercipi, neque eominipi/ 
de Res, Carfi. 42 ^Deuuratum non 
aliud existimas quam Lnterceptum» 
qunm aboHtum.* 

ib. dlSGlpUna rellg^onifi] Cf, 

* diiiciplina uerecundke ' p, 47» G, 
below. 

6. per patieEtlam] Thereseems 
to be a reference to Lk* xviii 7 where 
Ktd fiaf(po&v^7 ifr' a^utoifs becomes 
in Vulg. * et paiientiam habebit in 
illis.' Tertullian's Bible may have 
read *habet.' The same idea is 
expresiied 111 Roui. iii 26 by ir fj 
Afox^ Tov deov. lu Kom* ii 4 di^ox^ 
and ^KpQ&vpJa are coupled to^ether* 
The Lord seems to sleep while evil 
is being wrought, but He will avenge 
Epeedily at last. 

7. in UltimlaJ iw' efrxartav, 
Oehler* Rigah fancifully thinks 
that i^'atimih4s refers to the jxjtition 

* adueniat regnun^ tuum.* 

8. saeculuia] and ^ mundns* are 
used for *tbe worW in opposition 
to God (Koffmane <^p. Ht* \ i | 19 
p. 46). 



io. ad noa tamummodo apeotet] 
On the asisumption that tbe Apostles 
had not received Bapti^m, our Lord*s 
vvords 0ob. xiii 6) would be directed 
*only' (tantummodo) lo those who 
had^ though spoken directly to St 
Peten 

11. afiBtinmre] For examples 
of this verb in the sense of *opinari' 
see Oehler's note f on Apiti. 16. 

ib, adleotioniB] tedmically mcatit 
promotion 10 a higher ofHcet before 
the ttuties of the lower had bcen ful* 
fiUecl. So here it may meau * a call 
to something higher.' Tertulliaii is \ 
fond of using it in connexiori with | 
soroething like * ordination ' ; e»g. 
* An ordo aliquts seorsum debebit 
institui mooogamorum, de quo 1 
adlectio fiat in cleruui?' de Mona^^^ I 
I?, and * Uhi metus in deum.,.ibi 1 
ndlectio explorata/ * Wbere fear of 
God is, there is a clear case for 
advancement to the pnesthood^' dk 
Praescr. BcurtL 4*2. So, too, the 
verb is used in tU Es^hm^t. Cast 7. 

ih. lnitliddiuu] *inseparab1e/ or, 
•■cloirt!* — a late meaning» Id cIjlss. 
Latio it is used of atoms^ and the 
Uke, and means literally * indi- 
visible.* 




w 



xiii 



T 



DE BAPTISMO 



17 



» 



I 



faniiliantatis pmerqgatiuacoinpendium baptismi conferre posset, 
cum iOi, opioorj sequebantur illum qui credenti cuique salutem 
poUicebatur, fides tua te, aiebatj saluum fecit, et, remittentur 
tibi peccata, credenti utique nec tamen tincto. id si apostoHs 
defuit, nescio quorum fide uno uerbo domini suscitatus telo- \ 
neum dereliquit, patrem et nauem et artein qua uitam susten- 
tabat deseruir, patris exsequias despexit, sunimum illiug domini 
praeceptumj qui patrem aut matrem mihi praetulerit, non est 
me dignuSj ante perfecit quam audiuit. 

I famUmritatis/n cum illo I. s cum illa ABa, cum UJi Ub| cumulo 
S, cum ilico HarkL % remittentur A, remittuntur Bab. 5 quoruui 

ficles ABahU, quorHum Mens S, quorum fide O. suscUaius ABa, auscitata 
Ub, 7 qui patris ABa, em. qui b» illius ABa^ illud UbOR. 

ihe article already inentioned) sub- 
sequently rejected histirst suggestiorv 
of cnm ilk&^ and proposed * cutn 
iUunt, opinor, sequebanturj illum 
qui.,/ For the tautology cf, de 
Idai. II *Quo ore^.-quo ore,' and 
d^ Fiidk. II * 1 1 1 iu s , . . e ius/ Bu t the 
reading of thetext makesgoodsense* 

3. fldes tuaj Mk x 52. 
ii*. remittentiir] ilt* ix 1. 

Gelenius' remiitimtur is fouod in 
Vulg. The Greek in the different 
Gospels varies between d^wvrcu 
and Oki^Uvrau 

4. IdJ must refer back loosely 
lojidesy or else to credcre, 

5. quQirum ilila] * floc est, 
quibus rebus fidensi* Oehler ; but 
it iji unnaiuraL \i Jides be read, 
with a full stop after itj we get| * I 
know not to whom faith (belong- 
eth)/ «) Dodgson in his translation. 
Anotber suggestion \s to put a full 
stop at ^nescio.^ For ' -^i ' m this 
3en.se, Hke *utmm,* cf. ApcL 6 
*respondeant ueLim...si a nulLo de- 
scinerunt*' Or *Nescio quorum 
fides . . . suscitata * might Lae sug- 
gestetL 

ib. tilozieiim] Tf\c^i'«ia>'j ' the 
custom houfic.' In %k idoL \% three 
words recur, tdmmm^ m&cHaiur^ 
and derdinqttunt, 

8. qul iMitrem] Mt, x 37, 



j . praerogatiua] See on p. i o, 5, 
above- 

ih, compendiiim t»apM4ml] an 
inieresting expression. Dodj^on 
transiates \\ *aiL the benefit of.' 
Beantig iii mind ihat it aLso means 
*a saving,* or, 'a short cut lo,* I 
think we may say ihat it implies 
that tbe ApostLes received ihe bene- 
6ls of Baptlsm wiihout undergoing 
tbe wholeofthe nonnal rite. (Hortel 
translates it *ein Surrogat derTaufet' 
which stTikes me as happy, thougb 
it introduces a different metaphor.) 
Cf. mitt. Mitn. V 12: in conira.st 
Tiiith the dead, who ^ViX receive 
again iheir bodies at the last day, 
those who are ihen Living ^compen- 
diuni njortis comiequentur,* i.e. Svill 
effect a saving of death,' 'will be 
spared the necesiiity of it,* by being 
dotbctl upon with the heaveidy 
body without putting off the eartbly 
qne. *f€/j3a/iff tP and lucrijiuert are 
u*ed in the -iame way. 

a, Ctim 1111] Scaliger proposed 
cttmtilo, This In fonti is close to 
the earlier reading ettttt iiia^ It 
wtjuld go vvith cotiferr^ petat * a^ a 
bonus/ The ohjections lo this are 
<i) it wonhl make tbe Ijeginning of 
the folLowing sentence rather abmpt, 
and {%\ this Usc c*f cttmido is bardly 
10 be paralleLed* Hartel (p. \i of 



iones. IJ 
i satis ^j 

iientia ^" 



TERTaLLIAN^m 

XI IL Hic ergo scelestissimi illi proQocant quaestiones* 
adeo dicunt: baptismus non est necessarius quibus fides satis 
est; nam et Abraham nLillius aquae nisi fidei sacramento deo 
pkcuit, sed in omnibus posteriom condudunt et sequentia 
5 antecedentibus praeualent fuerit salus retro per fidem nudam 
ante domini passionem et resurrectionem ; at ubi fides aucta 
est credendi in natiuitatem, passioneni, resurrectionemque eius, 
addita est ampliatio sacramento, obsignatio baptismi, uesti- 
mentum quodaramodo fidei, quae retro erat nuda, nec potest 



7 *credenflo/wV/ R. S sacraraenti /^«rfjflr^. 

AbU, potentiam habuit Aw^Ba. 



g pDtest LaLnl 



XtlL Same mm, taking iZiivtin- 
iag^ Qf this pjincipkj arguf that 
Baptism is unneccssary ufhe^rfaiih 
is pr^sait^ and quoie the ease of 
Ahraham, The aiis-iiw is that 
thinqs are tt^ changed^ Aforemfsr^ 
wt' hapif mir L&r£s expr^ss ct^mmand 
to baptize all^ and His warningtkati 
uniess 'horn ofmater andthe Spirit^ 
a man autnifi mter ihc Amgdom of 
Hi-a^cn. 

f, pranocajit] Generally iii Ter* 
tuUiaii tke word meanis * Lo call 
upon someone,* either with .simple 
accus. ! with infiniiive : or with ad 
and Ihe genindive. I have not found 
any instance quiie sirailar lo this, 
tliough adii, Afan\ v i i^ soineihing 
llke it. 

3. jLUlUus..,34cram€nto] Kroy- 
mami {Qttatst. 7drtJt/L p. 76) 
propo^s to remuve either aqitae or 
nisi^dei—ih^ latter for choice, If 
the lext be relained, *iiisi^ may be 
explained aij Uied in TenulUan*s 
ti;anner in a correcLive NVa)^ like 
rXiJi^ or €i ^^ jn the N. T* Thui^ adti' 
A/arc. iv 7 *cujn nihil tale ^cripttira 
bignificeL, ni^i ('but rather on the 
contrary') mm^ermonls admiraliani 
fuisse.* 

4 . poateiiora condudtmt] jjound:» 
like a maxim of the courts : Mater 
in^tanceg i>ettle a que^tioni and tliat 
which happens afier oveiTJdei pre- 
cedenU^ 



5, retro] ' formcrly ' : see on, 
jj. 15. 1^5 abo\-e. 

7, creaeniU] may Ijc right» an< 
h in TerttiUian'ii m,anner : *falth 
which consisls in a belief»* Reiffer- 
scheid'a credend& bupports a conjec- 
lure of my own, 

ib. in XLartiaitateinJ Kor the in 
cf. Kvi 7, below, and Koffmane ^/. 
fijf. i t g 2 1 p. 52. 

8. aiQpliatio] *an enW^gement-' 
In adtt, luticnt. 8 ^ampliatnii' is used 
in oonnexion with ^gloHo^uiip fortu- 
natus*; and in dc Orat, 6 *qui pro- 
uenientibus fructibus amphaiioneui. 
horreomm * etc., it has a &imilar 
meanin^ to that in the presentl 
pas.*skge. 

ib, Bacrajnanto] The suggesCioi 
of Harnack Lo read *.sacramenLi 
has 1^1 uch to recommend k : it is 
in Tertullian's manner^ and is sup- 
poned by ^im^mtio (faptismi im- 
mediately follo^^in^. If *isacra- 
menLo* be read» it seems to t>e 
used as ^fidei ^cramento' Une 3 
ahovc 
iif. obiignatioj See on vi 6- 
\)^ potast lamj may perhaps be 
ri^htj cf. adti. Mare. iv 24 *Si com- 
minatio pote^t [al, non pote^i} siiie 
executione ' {* If Ihcre couJd be 
threatening without fulfdment^) j de 
Jies. Cartt, 4^ *magis iJlud prius est 
siiie quo priora non po^sunt^' 



m 



4 



XIII, XTV] 



DE EAFTFSMO 



39 



iam sine sua lege. lex enim tmgtiendi imposita est et forma 
praescripta. ite, inquit^ docete nationes tingaentes eas in 
nomen Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. huic legi collata 
definitio illa, nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et spiritu, non 
intrabit in regnum caelorum, obstrinxit fidem ad baptismi 5 
necessitatem> itaque omnes exinde credentes tinguebantur. 
tunc et PaulusT ubr credidit, tinctus est* et hoc est quod 
et dominus in illa plaga orbationis praeceperat, exsurge, 
dicens, et introi Damascum, illic tibi demonstrabitur, quid 
debeas agere, scilicet tingui, quod solum ei deerat. alioquin ro 
satis didicerat atque crediderat Nazarenum esse dominum dei 
filium* 

XIV* Sed de ipso apostolo reuoluunt, quod dixerit, non 
I enim me ad tinguendum Christus misit. quasi hoc argumento 
baptismus adimatun cur enira tinxit Gaium et Crispum et 15 
I Stephanae domum ? quamquam etsi non eum mtserat Christus 

8 et dominus A, dominus Babj ei dominus U. 



1. ite, tnqnlt] Mt. xicriii 19. 
Iti atiu, Prax. 16 fin.^ Tertullian 
uses ihe temarkable ejtpreission 

* mandans lU tinguerent in patrem, 
et ftliami et spiritum sanclum, non 
in unum' (where ^nomen' is omitted 
altogether)* This *eccentncity ' is 
discussefl by Ihe Dean oF Weat- 
minstert Jottrnai qf TAeoi. Sindifs^ 
Jan* 1906, p. 200. See also his 
artide on * Baptism ' m Ihe Encjfd. 
Bibika. 

4. deflziitlo] Seems to mean 

* eKpIanation ' of a law previously 
given, or * limitation * of a principle 
ttlready expoimded. Cf * Dure de- 
finitis loftviendi)/ Apei. 4 {* lay down 
ihelaw'}, and 'Ipse Doniinus sen- 
tentialiteret definttiue pronuntiauit,' 
de Cani. Cin% i8. 

iin nlsl qulflj Joh. iii 5» 

8. dtbationl*] rare and kte iti 

this sense of Milindness,* Cf. Sen. 

Ep. Uxxvii 35* 

iit. «XBUrge] Actsxxii to- 

i o. alioquia ] ^ 01 h envi se, * anot her 

form of ' alioqui/ So p. 47. 1, helow. 



XtV. Discmnmi 0/ St PaHTs 
eas£^ ffe says * Christ seni nti twt 
i^ haptiu ' ; buf he atsa says ' / 
dapfized Gaius and Crisptis ajtd the 
housekoid o/ Stepiianas.^ He eer- 
tainlf says hepreached, amtf thmjfit 
prm^hingeomes be/bte i'aptizitt_^, otte 
wh^ did thtfirst cmdd c€rtmnly itave 
dmt& ike secatrd aiso. 

[3, reuolutmt] The word has the 
following meanings in Tertullian \ 
(t) ' to reAd * : e.g* ' Ex recordatione 
scripturarum^ quas retro reuohumt/ 
adtt. Matr. v 14; {^) 'to raise an 
ohjectton * as here: e.g- *Quid re' 
uoluis ? Deus praecipit/ de Paetiif, 
4 ; and (3) ' to prove, exajnine" : e*g:. 
* U ti reuoluamuK utititati^ efiicacia 
potestates illius ofliciii,^ de leinn. 7 
JMhat we nray examine hy the lest 
of expedtency.-/)* 

Hk nou onim] r Cor, i r^. 

15. tinxlt Gaiuni] i Cor. i 14. 

16. (luamquamfitalJThisredun- 
dancy is characteristicof the popular 
speech in many modem languages: 
it was creeping hito Hterary Latin» 



40 



TERTULLIANUS 



[Xiv. H 
unguefflH 



ad tinguenduirij tamen aliis apostolis praeceperat nngui 
uenitn haec pro condidone tunc temporis ad Corinthios scnpia 
sunt, quoniam schismata et dissensiones inter illos mouebantnr, 
diim aljus Paulo deputatj alius Apollo. propter quod pacificus 
5 apostolus, ne sibi omnia defendere uideretur, non ad tinguen- 
dum ait se missum, sed ad praedicandum. nam et prius est 
praedrcarej posterius tinguere : et prius praedicatiim. puto 
autem, licuit et tinguere, cui licuit praedicare. 

XV* Nescio si quid amplius ad controuersiam baptismi 



4 ApoUmi Namack. 7 et] Sed A, 

ihough not specially couimoii in 
Terlullkn (Koffmsiie op* fii^ i % 

%. timc teinporlB] ror iuttc 
used like Gk r^re wjth the anide^ 
cL Aiig. Cmf. VHI §3 'patrem.-* 
tunc episcopi Amhrosii*' 

3. icMflmata et dlseenBiaims] 
i Cor» i lo- Sc/fisma U one of ihe 
Grcek words which were holding 
their own a^ainst ihe purisL tendency 
(Koffmanei ip. 2j\ H^i€}Art'kw. 
/ /a/. I^xiL in 1 pp. ij, 53; 
Sitil i?/i ^ii, pop 96, ii7* 4J. Tert. 
uit^ Lhc wom somctiine^ alone, as 
iff Frafscr. Haerd, 43; sonietimes 
in conibination with a s^onym, as 
in di Prais€r. Maerti. 16. 

4« aliuB Faulo depntat] t Cor, 
i ij. J iloubt whethcr the reading 
is soumL TerLuilian iises two dk- 
linct verbs nf thc same form ; (1 ) * to 
prunc * trees ; e*g, Apc^l, 19; (2) 
Ho impute ^oniethmg lOBomehody/ 
in M^hich ^eQse it is very common in 
his writingST butotherwjse it is ante- 
clasw, and cimiic (esp. Terence). As 
OehW hfis dealt wiih it at some 
length on ifd IdaL 4, there iji no 
need for a long discussion bere. He 
construes it here with itmnia fiom 
ihe next i*entenoe. Perhaps dfpuia- 
tur or altHs j(f or FuhU Sf" tkpuiat 
should be read, 

5. d«f8iid«rt] n^ed here in Lhe 
scnjse of ttiiuiicartj ' to cli^im * ; com- 
mon in Tert. in this sense : see p. 48, 
la» and exumplej; in Oehler's Index 



Si Aw/irBa, Sed sit Ub, Sic O, et R» 

s- V. and his noLe on d^ Plrg. Feland, 
6, van d, Vlict SinJ. £i\L pp* 33 and 
61, and Ronsch AT. 7". 7hi, p. 64, 
I Lliink Oehler is wrong in referring 
lo df Speciac 19. IL only means 
there * 10 defend, stand up for/ as, 
of cour^e, ofien. 

7, praedicare] Sce for this word 
Koffmane (J/. Ht. i 1 p* Sf . 

8. Ung^«rB] See on ii 8 above. 
XV, A l^rief mtniian of s^r^e 

p&iuis cmilUd. * Ba/tism — our 
Ba/iism--is att^,' IVhai^ tkm^ is 
tG ii£ ifelitved af heriticai Bapti^m ? 
li is na Baptism, Ihreiics are iti' 
tapatie of having it ^r giving it, 
In u*hai ume we sfeak of *^/«* 
Baptism. 

To lake Lhe latLer point first, the 
conteiit of Eph* iv 4 shows that 
the writer of that Epistle meant by 
* one BapLism ' primarily * the same 
for all/ his point being the unity 
in Christ of Jewish and Gentile 
Churchcs, ' Not to be rej>eated,' 
the sensc in which TerLuUian uses 
tbe wordsj is an important and tme 
jiense» but noi the one originally 
inLended. The interpreLation isnot, 
bovvever, j:>eculiar to him. 

In regartl to the Baptisni of here- 
tics^ it wEis some Lime before the 
question was finally «^etlled — jf k 
can be said to be s^ettleil now. Ter- 
lullian*s view long prevailed in the 
African Church. In the lime of 
Cyprian that Church found iiftelf SLt 
variance wjih Ronie in the mattefi 



3tV] 



DE BAPTISMQ 



41 



^ 



uentilatur. sane retexam quod supra omisi, ne Immmentes 
sensus uidear intercidere. unus omnino baptismus est uobisj 
tam ex domini euangelio quam ex apostoli litteris, quoniam 
unus deus et unum baptisma et una ecclesia in caelis. sed 

3 tamen A, tam B. 4 unus et AE, unus dominus et Pam. L Harris,^ 
tmus deus et Ub» baptUmum ABai bapiisma Ub. 



N 
% 



A^ca treated all heretical or schis- 
matieat BapiUms as absolutely nuU 
and void, while Rome— with her 
usual practit^l wisdoni- — made a 
compromise : ihe actual chri.stening 
was recognised as valid, bu! tbe 
baptized was reqiaired to recetve ihe 
Imposilioii of Hands, By the time 
of Augustiiie, a change had been 
brougbt about in Africa, The view 
which Tertullian sanciions wa!> stili 
held by ihe Donaiists 5 bui Augustine 
took Ihe line that heretical Baptism 
conferred no grace indeed, no re- 
missioti of ains, no new birth, no 
sonship to God, that tbe lloly 
Spirit is not present m it, tbat the 
character which it impressej^ upon 
the soul serves only lo niark it for 
punishment— and yet thai it 'vi valid 
and not to be repeatetL 

Finallyi almost the last words of 
tbe African Church, which was ex- 
terminared in the vith ceniury, 
sound like an echo of these earlier 
words; * Prescrvethereforeihegrace 
of tbat Baptism v^hicb is but one, 
yuartling the llnction of the Chrismi 
Let none, after the water, go back 
lo the water, when once born again 
uf ih e water. ' ( Euge niu s a/nd G reg. 
Tufon. hisi. Fi\ ii .^7 quoted in 
Mason (tp. iii* p. 109. I have 
horrowed freely from tbis work, esp. 
from pp. 66-1 10. Cf. a^iio Benson's 
Cypriani Kurz €h. Nisi, I ^ ^15. 
5 p. 10 1 E,T*, Hofling 0/*, ^ff. 
p, 63( and d'Ales, op. cit. p. 529, 
note 4.) 

1« uentil&tiir] Ht. Uo fcin/ or 
*wiunow,' hence *diticeptaret trac- 
lare' (Dirksen, who quotea 'Ilia 
etiani <]uaestio uentiliila est apud 
plerf>^ue '). The various meanings 



of the word in TertulHan may be 
arranged thus : {i) * to make some- 
thing pass through anotber like a 
current of air/ e.g. *Ne principale 
istud per totum corpus uentiLari 
putes' {conresponding to ' extrinse- 
cusagitari*) t^e Amm. 15; 'Udora- 
tum in naribus uentilauit/ ik Cor. 5» 
* breathed smeU into the nostrils,' 
perhaps a rjjmini^scence of Gen* ii 7 

(D^»n nDp> i^pN^i n^?! lxx h^^* 

'inspirauit in faciem eius'). (3) ' to 
admit a current of air,' e,g» *Venti- 
iante serico,' de PaH. 4, {^) *to alr ' 
or *shake in the air/ e*g. *Incutiat 
adhuc scorpius homicittam dernn 
uentilans/ Storp, 7. Cf, Juv. i 2S1 
'uentilat aestiuura digilis sudantibus 
aurum.' (4) *to talk much of, prate 
about/ e.g. * Quo nunc facit ad 
infuscandam originem camis nonien 
terrae uentilarci de Pvs. Carn. 6. 

j7i. ret«3cam] properiy Uo undo 
what has been woven, ' Then * to 
pick up dropped tbreads* and 50 
*go over again.^ So herc : * l will 
go through aod seewhai I may have 
passed over.* Sometimes Tert, uses 
u for 'to repeat'^ e.g. *Cur non 
credalis talia retexentibus de deis 
uestris? ' Oihi. Nttii. ii 7 ; * Igiturj 
ut relexam^' ^A" Res, Carn. y, «here 
I venture to differ from Oehler; 
^Retexens promissionem/ de Cam^ 
Chr. 12: aml someiimes for Mo go 
over again': *Louginn cst relexere 
Curtios ei Regidos/ dt^ TesHm^ 
Anim. 4. 

t^, immineuteB aensuB] ' ihe 
train of thoughts immedjately press- 
jng/ Dodgson, 

4, imimi bfi,ptiflina] Eph> iv 4. 



42 



TERTULUAMUS 



pcv 



circa haereticos sane quid custodiendiim stt, digne qtiis 
rctractet ad qds aiim editiim est- haereiici autem nollum 
habent consortium Dostrae discipiinae, quos extraneos utique 
testatar ipsa ademptia commonicationis. non debeo in illis 
5 cognoscere quod mihi est praeceptum, quia non idem deus est 
nobis et illis^ nec untis ChrisUis, id est idem, ideoque nec 
baptismns unus, quia non idem ; quem cum rite non habeant, 
sine dubio non habent, nec captt numerari quod non habetur; 
ita n^ possunt accipere, quia non habent sed de isto plenius 
lo iam nohis in Graeco digestum est, semel ergo lauacrum inimus. 



I qrjae ABOt qukl abR* 

I . auid crastodicnditm lit} ' what 
is lo be observed * rlw^ 4AfKatrria»^ 
Oehter,whoreads^»4i^- Se€, forTer- 
tulltan's vEews, di Pr<uscr, Hnerei, 
4j (heretic ivoitien presume to Imp» 
tiKe)» and tk Pttiir. [9 *haereucus 
per baptisma ueritatis liiroque no- 
niine purgatusi admittitat/ 

3, retract«t] *One roay well 
ir^quire what oughl to he maJntained 
fthout...' The verb means (1) 'to 
difjcussf conskler, treatof* like *trac- 
tare' (a) virith accn!^, (Apoi. 3, ad 
Naiiv ii r» adu. Marc- m 4, aJu. 
Marc. iv 7, adu. Marc, v 4, adu. 
Hermo^* 37j ApoL \^ ndu. P^iicJii. ;;, 
ad Uxm\ ii ^) j (if) with iU {ad Miff, 
11 S,d£ Ciirn. Citr. i^ adu. Marc^ v 
19, adu, HermQg. 4, dt Fi^unt, 4^ 
£ pHdk. j. i8), [2] 'to object' 
(inbiioL) .SVi?r/- 7, de Cartt. Chr, i* 
Afol* 39t or, wilh dc^ * to carp at ♦ 
cavil at * adtt. Mtirc. v 5. For ?v- 
inulains see on xii 6» above. 

/7\ Bd nOB enlm] i.e, to CathoHc!^ 
and not to heretics» 

5 . mon Idem deue ] I n 1 n i t ig^ t io u 
of the harfihness nf Ihis sentence 
it must lie Tememl:iercd that the 
*heretics* of TcrtulHan*s time were 
fnr the t\\m\ part Cno^tics* of whom 
the stateuHmt wcis literally true. 

7» (luem ciun rlte] If they had 
not Ba|>tiHm proiierl)% ihey had it 
nol at nll. 

Hi neo caplt] oiU fvW^j^frat, a 



Graecism not uncomTnon in Tertul- 
lian ; cf, Ap<»i. 1 7, f^ Fug, Persecnt, 
I, de Hah. MMi, 1, de Pudk, i, and 
many other places (Sittl €>p. rit,, 
Ronsch H, T, T^n. p. 613, /A tt. 
fW^. p- 3?t). TertuUian's sta!e- 
ments (i) that 'heretical baptism 
cannot be counted, smce it is not 
there,* and ( i) ' similarly they cannot 
receive it either {iiit...mc)i liecanse 
they have it not (10 gtve) * niay be 
illustrated from Cyprian ; * If [here- 
ticsaad ^hismaticsj have [the Spirit]^ 
why are those who have been bap- 
tized among them to suhmit> on 
coTning over to us» to the Impositian 
of the Hand for the receiving of ihe 
Spirit, wben they must have receivefl 
Him alreadyj for where He was, 
there He could be glven? If, on 
the oiher hand, those without, here- 
ties and schi?iniatics alike, areunable 
to give the Holy Spirit, and on that 
account the Imposition ofthe Hand 
is used amonc us, that here they 
may receive what neither exiistii nor 
can be given there* it is manifest 
that neither can remission of sins be 
givcu by means of those who are 
acknowledged not to have the Holy 
Cihost * {^pist. Ixix [] quoted in 
JTason op.^ cii* p. 69)» 

10. ln Graeco] 'lu Greek,' Dodg' 
son , Pe rhaps t his wo ul cl rat her ha ve 
been Gra^ce; better * in my Greek 
(treatise)/ sc. dl^!^ti\ or some such 



1 

4 



4 



4 



PE BAPTtSMO 



43 



^ 
¥ 



seniel delLCta diluuntur, quia ea iterari non oportet. ceterum 
Israel ludaeus quotidie lauat, quia quotidie inquinatur. quod 
ne in nobis quoque factilaretur, propterea de uno lauacro 
definitum est, felix aqua, quae semel abluit, quae ludibrio 
peccatoribus non est, quae non adsiduitate sordium iiifecta 5 
rursus quos diluit inquinat. 

2 Iudaeus dUlmdmn ctmet Harnack. 



\ 



Mord. Cr di Cqt. 6 * Sed et huic 
materiae , , .G raeco quoque sitilo satls- 
ftjcimus * ( there 15 a V. I* ' pmecoquo \ 
wher^ also the earlier form of Lhe 
treatise tieem- io have been in Greek. 

ih. digeatum eet] See on i 3 
above, "^ tligeT^ium istud.* 

ib. aemel ergo] It is plain from 
lliia how eniirely invalid Tcrlullian 
held herelical Baplisra to be, or he 
could not possibly have incurred Ihe 
danger m blasphemy by insisting 
that those vvho had received heretical 
Bapiirim should lie rebaptized. The 
Knman Church has carefulH' avoiderl 
this danger ever sincc ihe Council of 
Arles, and her presenl rule 15 as 
follows : * Heretics condng to the 
CathoHc Church, in whose Baptism 
Ihe due *' form" or ^^matter^' has not 
been relained, are to be duly bap- 
tized : Vmt where the ciue **form" 
and *'maUer** have been retained, 
let only those lbiu|;s be suppHed 
wbicb were omilted, unlesii for a 
reasonable causc it seeni otherwise 
to the Bijihop^ (Kubric tm Oaplisui 
of ^duUs in Koman Ritual). The 
Greek view is morc complicated ; 
tt ^ccept^ schisiiiaiical, but rejects 
hereticRl, BapLisnu 

I . ISTMl luAaeuB] i . e . the Jewish 
Istael as opt>Oi»ed to the true 
(Christiaji) Israel. There seems no 
&ut1icient rejLson lo ouiit Ittdatus^ as 
Harnack pruposes* 

ih. quotidifr lau&t] A reference 
to the sect of Hemerobaplisls. Cf 
' Cetennn satis mmulae sunt manu.s 
juas cum toto corpore in Christo 
semel Iauimu.s, ouiuibus hcet mem- 
bfis lauet quotidie Israel, nuniquam 



liimen muudu-i est,' de OraL 13. 

4* fBlii aqua] The recvirrence 
of these word^ (cf. i ij above) g^ives 
the effect of a sort of refrain, mirking 
the dose of a seclion» Ch. %v\ b 
parenthetical, and the remainder of 
the Treatise is devoted to practical, 
lather than theoretical, matterf?. 

iV^ luOilnio] IfBaptismneedeilto 
be repeated, it would be a 'mockery ' 
to those who trusted in it, It is 
nat^iral to expect tbe influence of 
bis * master ' upon Cyprian to have 
been evident in his treatment of 
Baptism, as in other waySj and many 
expressions in these cbapters can be 
illustrated from Cyprian, thougb he 
nowhere refers to the de Bfspiinno 
by name, He quotes e.g. the test 
Joh. iii 5 in the same conneition 
{Episi, kxii i); states that * water 
alotui cannot wash away Hius, l>ut 
only wheu accompanied by the lioly 
Spirit * (.^/ijA Jxxiii n); mentions 
the isame rites of hnposition of 
Ilands and Unction with the Con- 
secratetl Oil^ and endorses Ter- 
lullian^s view of tbe invalid nature 
of heretical Baptisin (Epist. W\ i^ 
Ixix i\). The siern vievv of post- 
baptismal sin which appcan! in 
this passage— a vi^w wbich pre* 
vailed at the time, and was con- 
sonant willi TettuHian^s own cast of 
tho^irht — gave rise to the habit ftf 
postponing Haptlsm till Lite in Ufcp 
which Tertullian recommends v\\ 
ch. xviii. TJiere is no reference to 
the st:atnd(J tiii^uia (renauce}^ and 
in the d^ Paenit. 6 he coutemplates 
rei>entance onlyas a preparation for 
Baptism yet lo come> 



44 



TERTULLIAmiS 



\K\ 



XVT. Est quidem nobis etiam secundum lauacrum, unum 
et ipsum, sanguinis scilicet, de quo dominus, habeo, inquitj 
baptlsmo tinguf, cum iam tinctus fuisset* uenerat enira per| 
aquam et sanguinemj sicut lohannes scripsit, ut aqua unguere- 
5 tur, sanguine glorificareturj perinde nos faceret aqua uocatos, 
sanguine electos, hos duos baplismos de uulnere perfossij 
lateris emisit, quatenus qui in sanguinera eius crederent, aqua 

5 proinde nos facere ABO, proinde ut nos faceret aLU^ proinde, nas 
faceret b, perJDde nm faceret K. ; omisit L. iL pr& quatenus hakni 

quia AELS. 



XVL The 'Bapihm a/ Bioi^iV 
{sc. MarfynUm) is a/so Cff^, nnd 
'ivas n/s4> tmdergofie by mtr Lotd. 
In tk^ case of tkos^ who kave mt 
bem bapiitied by wattr^ it iak^s its 
plac4 j aitJ t& thos£ •jahi} kave hst itj 
ihis restores ii. 

TertuUmn alludes to this * Baptis^m 
of Blood * elstfwhere : e.g, ' Fro- 
spexerat deu-S eti5.m post lanacratn 
periclitatunim fidem- posuit igitur 
dimicationem martyrii et lauacrtim 
sanguinis exinde secuturam * (v,h 
* secumm ^) Sc&rp. 6, and * Omnia 
enim huic operi (sc, compensationi 
s,aDguinis) doiiaiitur,M/V?/* 50, where 
se<; Oehlers note x. Again ^Marty- 
rium aliud erit Ixiptisma/ d^ Pndie. 
22 i cf* iii: Nes. Carn. 43 and de 
Aiiim.. 58» The anonymoui* authar 
of the treatis^; de fitbnptismate says 
that the Baptism of water is nnt a 
necei^sity for catechumeos who are 
pnt to a martyr^s death before they 
liave an opportunity of receiving it, 
The double outflow from the side of 
Christ i^ he says, a figure of the 
Baptism of water and that of blood, 
which are not to be r^arded as two 
distinct thingi^r hut as divers forms of 
one and ihe same Baptism. Hilary, 
quoting Lk. xii 50 as TertuUian 
does here» talks of a further cleaiis- 
ing that will wash us * by the s<;lf- 
devotetl sufiering and faithful blood 
of martyrtlom * Trijff. in Ps. ixviiit 
iitt, 3 ^5. Mnch later Gennadiu?i 
draws a parallel l>etween tbe Bap- 



tism of blood and that of water, in 
whicb he uses the expression, '[The 
ordinary candidatii for Baptism], 
afterh is coofession 1, js e i tber spri nkled 
with watcr, or plunged in it ; the 
marty r is either sprinkl&l with blood» 
or bathed in fire/ dc Ecci* D<fgm. 
§ 74* A great nnmber of refereoces 
to other passages in the Fathers 
will be fouud in note ^ on p. 106 
of Dodgsotf s translalion* See also 
a valuaEle discussbn in d'Ales, op. 
dt. p. ^530, note 2» 

t. halKo] Lk. xii 50* 

3. per aqttam et' ianguiiiein] ' 
I Joh* V 6; cf. Joh. \\\ 34. The 
* water ' \*'£ls Christ^s Bapti^ini, and 
tbe *blood' His deatb on tbe Cross; 
but ihe Fathers saw tn ihem a type 
of the Christian Saciaments, as is 
showu e.g, by Westcott in bis addi- 
tional note 10 John xix, pp. 2B4, iS6, 

5. peiiiLde zlob fkceret] This 
reading greatly improvcii the balance 
and poiiit of the senienceH 

ib, UQcatoa . . , electoa] a refer- 
ence, perbapSj to Romn viii 30 j tbe 
Baptism of blood siets the fioal seal 
of glory on those already ' called * 
in the Baptism of water, as Christ^s 
death upon the Cross coDipJetcd the j 
work of consecraiion begvm in flisl 
Baptism, 

6. perfosBi] I*erhaps a reminis- 
cence of Ps, xsi (xxii) 17. In 
Job* xix 34 ibe word u^ed in tbej 
Vulgate is ^aperuil.* 

7. quAteQUH] was used 1>oth < 



w 



DE BAPTISMO 



45 



lauarentur, qui aqua lauissent, etiam sanguinem portarent. 
hic est baptismus qui lauacram et non acceptum repraesentat 
et pcrditum reddit* 

r portarent A, pdtarent BabO* 'sangnine potiitularent/ffrA* R. 



I 



a tempomt conjunction in the sens^ 
of *cnm/ and as a caq.^al in the aense 
of *quia' (Koflraane ^p, dt, i 3 § 37 
pp. 131, 131). lleie it seems to 
have the force of ut. 

] . Bangiiliiem portaretit J There 
\% someLhing to Ije said i<^T pDfar^nt^ 
the reading of Gelenius, Panielius, 
Rigaltt and Oehler, Reifferscheid's 
conjectnire sanguine ppstnlarent 
* mighl deniand it also by thcir 
blood ' is iiigenious, but unnece&snrj% 
PQrto is used in an odd way wilh 
^dtm p, 2* 1. It might refer here to 
the way in which those upon whom 
was sprinkled ihe blood of sacrifices 
*bore* it upon iheir persons. 

ib. laulflsent] See p. 34* u. 

1. reprfttflentat] * lakes the 
plnce of.' 

XVIL Tkit ch. dismsses the 
fjntsihn * IVho have the righi t& 
bapti^V Teriuliian assig^is it to 
( 1 ) BiskQps; {1 ) Friests attd Deaeom^ 
with ihe permissim &f the Bishop; 
(3) iaymettj in case of nieesnty. He 
refuses it i^ immeti^ nnder any eir* 
fitmstantes, and rg^cts ihc auihm*ity 
€f ' Tke Acts of Paid atid Thecla,' 
to which the advmttfs (fthe right &f 
nt&men to hapttze had ref&rred. 

In studying thk ch* it must be 
remembeTtfd tbat Baptism in Ter^ 
tuihan^s day* and for several centuries 
after, was adniinistered aa one rite, 
and tbe various parts (lidniersion, 
Unction, Laying on of Hands), of 
which it was composed» were not as 
yet separated. We hnve, iherefore, 
as it were the germ of that which 
was afterw ards more fully developed* 
Perhaps a brief histt*rical survey iivill 
msike this ctear. 

In Africa the lesitmony Ls con- 
sistent throughout thai a Bishop was 
regarfted as tbe noTmol roinister of 



BaptismT and thoi^e wbo had been 
baptl^etl by one of lovver degree 
^ere requiretl to have their Baptisni 
supplemented by a Bishop. In Spain 
from tbe Council of Elvira in 305— 
306 to St Hildefonsus of Toledu^ 
three centuries and a balf later, ihe 
same testhnony exisls » the former 
ref|Liires * perfectiTig * by a Bishop 
after Baptism by a deacon or lay- 
man ; the latter speaks of Ihe 

* sax^erdos ' as the due minister of 
the Sacrament. So in Gaul (Hilary 
of Poitiers), Britain (Bede and Al- 
cuin), Gemiany(Rabanus, Haymo), 
ibe evidence sbows plainly that 
either the whole rite was adminis- 
tered by a Bishop, or that Jmmer- 
sion and Unction on Ihe Breas-t 
might be performed by one of lower 
order, but that Unction on the Fore- 
head and Imposition of Hands were 
reserved for the Bishop, and some- 
times administered at a later tinie, 

In the East, the practice is for 
the presbyter to baptijce, and to 

* seal * with Chrism consecrated by 
a Eishop. 

The Roman use, as found in 
Zeno of Verona, Ambrose of Milan, 
Rufinus of Aquileia, Gaudentius of 
Brescia, may be summed up m these 
words of Jeromei * Neither the 
presbyter nor the deacort have the 
right to bapLize, without the Chrism 
and the command of the Bisbop. 
Persons otherwise baptixed are noi 
reckoned to have the Holy Gbost 
without being brought to the Bishop 
toreceive Imposition of Hands ' (orfw. 
Lt4df voL ivr p. 295)* Innocent I 
(afler 401) lays down that ihe 
Chrism raust be first consecrated by 
a Bishop^ and regards the rite as 
finished by Unction and Ihe l^aying 
on of Hands» Similarly Leo the 




46 



TERTULLIANUS 



[xvir 



XVn* Superest ad concludendam maieriolam de obser- 
uatione quoqtie dandi et accipiendi baptismi commonefacere* 
dandi quidem habet ius summus sacerdo.% qui est episcopusj 
dehinc presbyteri et diaconi, non tamen sine episcopi auctori- 

2 l)a]>tismi A, haptisinum Bab, 



Great, Iialf a cenlury later. By llie 
vth, vith and early part of the viith 
century, as dioceses hecnme lar^er 
and populations more numerous, a 
difificuliy orose \ * confirination ' or 
Sealing^ was pnLCtised by presby- 
ters in country districts, aiid various 
Decrees were passed by CoundJs at 
the time to forbid ihe growing 
custom, Gregory the (]reatj in two 
leUers to Januariusi Biiihop of Cagll- 
ari, tried to rcstrict presbyters to the 
nse of Chrism previouslyconsecrated 
by a Bishop, and spoke of Sicili^in 
Bishops iravelling about their dio* 
cesesto complete the baptismal rite, 
The final separation of ' Confirma- 
lion • from Baplism foHowed soon 
after [Rit, Rom, p. vii aiid Cattch, 
Rom, dk Bapt. c. v, Hooker E, P. 
V 66, Blimt Anmtiit€ii P, B.p, 404, 
KircheHGvdnung Chur/. Priedr, 
Heidelb. 1563 p. 3» Hofling i g 9 p» 
I4). A somewhat dJfferent vit-w of 
the history of the rites is given by 
Bp Wordsworth, Ministfy q/ Gnue 
PP' 59j So sq, 

r. auiwreBt] Siorp. 9 beglns 
fiimilarly. 

iL materiolajnj TertulHan, like 
many another fiery spirit, had his 
moments of gemiiiie humiiity; cf, 
*ut potero respondebo/ p. 34, 7^ 
* quantum meaiocriiaii nostrae li- 
cuit/ 3t 7, * ctiius hoc opusculum e^t,* 
iie Virg. Velmtd. and iie ExAcrt, 
Ctist, ad fin» — if the reading is 
soundj and the touching ret^uest to 
be mindful in prayer * etiam Tertul- 
liani peccatoris/ with which this 
Treatise concludes* The word used 
here seems to be aw* dp, 

iL obaematlone dandi] 'that 
which is to be observed with regard 
to giving' — a curiou^ expressiou. 



5. BacerdosJ Tertulllan uses this 
(t)^i the heathen {Starp. 7 , ad Uxor, 
i 6), (2) of the Jews {adu. Marc. iv 
9), {3) generally {ad Natt, iii 70, ffe 
feiun. 16), (4) of Christ \adu. /ud. 
14 [vj, -uerus summus J, (5) of 
Christians [de Sped. 16). Except as 
a V. b in itdu. htd. r^ ihe eKpressiou 
mmmus s. does not recur in his 
writings* It represents %ffx.upivi in 
the Vulgaie. The use of the expres* 
sion summns siicerdi?s by Tertnllian 
(it is not known to have heen used 
earlier) had important resiUts, 
Cyprian took it over from his 
' master,' and bnilt on it— and on 
the use of f/m— his doctrine of the 
ministry, separaung the Episcopate 
from the Presbyterate, and the clergy 
from the laity* * The Bishop as the 
central authority in a sacrificial wor* 
shjp offered by ihe whole prie.^ily 
race, became inevitably ihe apxt^p€i*s 
or sacerdos^ terms which came into 
use aboui the first quarter of Lhe 
third century and were accepted 
generally from the middle of the 
same period ' (Bp Wordiiworth Afifi* 
istry t/ Grace pp. 134, i,:^^). 

Other expressions were smnmus 
pffitttfix, /ontifix f/taximt4S (a 
* sneer '— according to Haroack Hisi. 
qf Dadr. 11 iii p. 130, note 3^ E. T. 
1 douht ihisi but the tone of the 
passage, and the use ofsciiicct, lend 
colour to the imputationj, mid potifi- 
/ex maximus cpist&pus episrapifrHm 
(Koffmane &p. a/. i i § n pp. 24, 
25 and g 14 p. 66). 

4. uontajnenj See introductory 
note to this ch., Dodgson transb n. 
c, p. 276, and cf Ignat, ad Smyrn^ 
viii ovK 4^611 iari ^u^f rod ^wKftc^* 



■ 



- 



XVII] 



DE EAPTISMQ 



A7 



tate, propter ecciesiae honorem, qtio saluo salua pax est 
aliotjuin etiam laicis ius est. quod enim ex aequo accipitur, ex 
aequo dari potest, nisi episcopi ram aut presbyteri aut diaconi 
uocantur discentes. domini serrao non debet abscondi ab ullo* 
perinde et baptismusj aeque dei census, ab omnibus exerceri S 
potest, sed quanto magis laicis disciplina uerecundiae et 
modestiae incumbit, cum ea maioribus competant, ne sibi 
adsumant dicatum episcopis officium ? episcopatus aemulatio 

4 uocajilur cHcentcs AEa, uocantur discetites b^ uocareniur discentcj^ L. 
5 perinde R» proinde cetU 7 competat ABa, conipetant b, 8 epi* 

scopi ABaO, episcopis USb* tb. officium eplscopatus, Aemulatio ABab, 
ofificium i Epi^c. Oj ofiicium? Episc- !■ 



^ 



T. 4U0 saluoj Cf. Ignati as above, 

1, aJloqmii] See on p, 39. jo. 

ik etlam laicla] So Jerome 
{adii. Luci/. g g)j addiiig *ut enim 
accipit qnis, ita et dare potest.' Cf, 
* etiam laicos solere dare sacra- 
menium quod accepemnti solenius 
audire/ Ep^ ad Farttituitj. c, i3T, 
Augustine (Ejf, ad Parm^n. ii 13) 
was more guarded ; * It is either no 
fanlt, or venial.* 

3. nlflt,..dliceiiteB3 'unless the 
term *^disciples '* is to be confined to 
bishopsj priesls, or tkacons^j Chris- 
lian knowledge and Chrisuaii bap- 
tism are both equaUy the possession 
of clergy and laity; iherefore they 
may etjually impart them botb* It 
is, however, suppo>ed by some that 
the word *discentea' means* deacons 
licensed to teacb/ i.e. deacons with 
niore than the usual eccksiasiical 
powers of deacons— for which see 
Chettham, Article * Deacons,' in 
jC*. C. pJ* p^p» 530, 531 i Bethune-Baker 
£arly Hist, qf Ckr. Do€tH?i£ p« 380, 

5» ded cdiBTia] ■ wbich is equally 
derived from God,* a characteristic 
meaning of ctnsusanA cmseo in Ter- 
tuUian Xsee p» 1 5. 1 above, Riinsch 
M T. Terf. p. 535). 

6. ^Uaclpllna uerecimdlfte] See 
pp. 36. 3 and 42. 3, above. 



■^, compataiLt] See on xii 3, 
above» Kroymann {Quaesi, TeriulL 
p. 76) mainlains that in the reading 
ni the text (t) the apodosis m ubi 
asstimant does not correspond to tbe 
protasis qimntc magis\ {i) m is un- 
intelljgible, becaiise it cannot refer 
either to bapiismm or disdplina. 
H e proposes : ' Q uan to . . . in cu m bit ! 
cum maioribus competat, ne sibi as- 
sumant dic. ep. oflfj The subject of 
his cmnpetat is, of course, offidrtm, 

8. epiacopatua aemulatioj 'Ri- 
valry a^ainst a bishop.' The im- 
portance of the episcopate in pre- 
serving nnity in tbe faith is brought 
out by Bp Wordsworth in his Mi- 
nistry oj Grac^ p, 122, He refers 
to Hilary the Deacon in Tiium \ 5 
for tbe dnty of bishops ' to rooi out 
the tbickels of heresies,' In de 
Praestr, Haeret. 42 Tertulban says 
sarcasticaily of herelics * schisma est 
unitas ipsis,' but in his Moutanist 
writings he speaka bitterly of tbe 
episcopal oifice as a tyranny ; cf. de 
Ftig, in Perst€. 13» j^ Ejchort. Cast. 
7, de Mmog* 7 and t^. Hooker 
{£. P, VJl xiii 5) beld that schi-ini 
was permjtted by Diviiie Providence 
to prove the necessiiy of Bishops* 
and readers of the Epistles of 
Ciement and of Tgnatius will re- 
cognise the thought* 




TERTULlMNm 



txvit 



$cbbmattjni mater esL omtiia licefe dixit saiMiU^niiis x^o^ 
tolus, sed non onmia expedlre. sufficiat sdlicet m neccisi- 
tatibus ut utsris, sicubi aut loci aut tecnporis iut peisofue 
condicto compellit tunc enim constantia sacctifrentis exd- 
5 pitur, cum urget circumstantia periclitaDtiSr quoniam rcus erit 
perditi hominis, si supersederit praestare quod libere potuit. 
petulantia autem mulieris, quae usurpauii docere, otique non 
etiam tinguendi ius sibi pariet, ntsi si quae noua bestia euenerit 
similis pristinae, ut, quemadmodum illa baptismum auferebat, 
ro ita aliqua per se eum conferat ciuodsi quae PauH perperam 
inscripta sunt exemplum Theclae ad licentiam mulienim do-^ 
cendi tinguendique defendunt, sciant in Asia presbyterum, qi 

3 ut utaris ABa, em. ut b. 7 Petulantia auteoi muUer At tnulierum 
Ba, muUeris UbR, Petulaniiae autem muUer O, 8 uenerii L 

jo Qucx! si tjuae Pauli perperam scriptasuiiti scriplum Th, ad iiceutiajn A, 
exemplum Th, A,mg^ Qucwlsi quae Pauli p, scripLa legunt, exemplum Tli. 
ad 1. Bst Quod si quae Paulo p. adscripta sunt, ad t* bt Quod si quae 
Paulo p, adsicripta sunt, scriptum Teclae ad l. Ut inscripta K. 11 tin- 

gendi ^uae A, tingendiqwe B. 



N 



I . omiiia UceTO] i Cor. vi i ^^ x 33. 

3, Ut&rls] sc, * the permission to 
liaptize/ 

4, conBtantia. . .excipitiir] ' hold- 
nessis pennlssible jn one who helps/ 
The dxacL force of the yerh is *js 
allowed a^ an exception/ 

5, cUrciuiiftaiilia] u^ed here m 
its modem setise. Elsewhere in Ter- 
tuUia.tv it nieai^ *a hiiidrance, or 
obstacle,* e,g. de Id&i. 9, de Otat, 10. 

7, petuMntla ... (^iiae] Gom- 
pertz {iWtidliattea p. 43) prefers 
^ua^ and tnk^ii fthtMtf/ia as ablative 
of the insLnimeut, reading mtUkr. 
The sense of the pnssELge would re- 
main practicaily unaLtered. 

Uk docer«] I Cor. xiv 34* * Tim. 
n 11, j Pet» iii ^- 

ib^ tttlque] See on p . 5 1 1 . 5 ^ alio v e. 

8» noua bestla] Seeonp. 2^3, 
above. 

9. prlitliiae] The woman men- 
tionifd in ch. i. 

10. Fauli perpir^aia iutCTlptal 
An iiigenious emendation of Reifirer- 



scheid foF the old Panii scripia. See 
Dr Gwynne's article * Thedi^'' in 
Smilh D,C.B. iv p. 885. Jerome 
refers to Thecla «5* Vir, IhL vii^ in 
a way which led Zabn and others 
to infer Ihat be was quotjng from 
the Greek form of the de BapL 
Harnack (6^. d, aitckr. Lii* ii t § 9 
pp, 495 — ^505) has shown in a very 
interesting passage that they sire 
wrong, If the date of ihis apocry- 
phal ivriting is about rfio — 170, it 
could not long liave been m circuia» 
tion vvhen Tettulllan wrote, and one 
cannot but recognise tbe criticaj 
acumen whjcb led him so dedsively 
to pronounce it a fot^ery, See fur- 
iher ii^ Bardenhewer G^scA^d. aitckr. 
Littsratiiv i p. 424 sq.; Ramsayi 
Ckurek jH the Kmnmi Empire^ p. 
375 sq.: Couybeare, MonumetUs of 
Eariy CkristimHiy^ p. ^^foti. Per- 
haps *Acta' has dropped out afler 
* iu&cripta.* 

i^. deftnduiLt] *clalm the ex- 
araple of#^ See on p. 40. 5» al jove 



% 



XVII. xvni] 



DE BAPTISMO 



49 



eam scripturam construxitj qiiasi titulo Pauli de suo cumulans, 
conuictuni atque confessum id se amore Paali fecisse, loco 
decessisse. quam enim fidei proximum uideretur, ut is docendi . 
et tinguendi daret feminae potestatem, qui ne discere quidem 
constanter mulieri permisit ? taceant, inquit, et domi maritos 5 
&UOS consulant* 

XVI IL Cetenim baptismiim non temere credendum esse 



1 * liiVklxim fori: R, titulos HarUL 
4 docere A, discere Bab, doceri MarhL 



1 conuictum + apud loanncm I. 



N 



] * a^i^ ^ ' ^ cnTnnlanFt] * heaping 
up, os ii were, from his own store 
«nto the name of Paur (Doclgson). 
tl^tel (ff/. city p* 13) wouJd read 
titulos ana translatc : ^ Tbe Presbyter 
raeaivt by this forgery to add from hi:^ 
owti sture to the niimber of Paul's 
writings.' He supports this sense 
of iituim hy reference to de Pudic» 
20, dtAmm. 3 and 20, d^ R^s. Cartt. 
»♦ I ihink Hartei is probably right 
heret and in ihe ftrst passage referred 
to. I n iie Anir/i. 3 I am niore doubt- 
ftil, aiid in the last two iiiu/tiJ ineans, 
I think, rather 'heading»' Ramsay 
{Ck. in thc Rom* Emp^ p. 414) 
translates it * additlons made by the 
presbyter from his own store to a 
document, the result being that he 
augmented il wiih the love of Paul/ 
a version which draws from Har* 
nack the sarcastic ccninientj *The 
joy of Ramsay the Antiquartan has 
blinded ibe eyes of Ramsay ihe 
Criiic/ Perhaps a simpler way is 
to tr^n£la.te 'tituLo^ a& 'ttie honour^ 
or *distinction,' 

1. conolctmEi %%q^^ confeaamn] 
sc, before John. So /erome^ a?5 re- 
ferred to above. Dr M. R, James, 
however, tells rne that he is con- 
vjnced that a^ptsdloha n Nem i n Jerome 
is impossibk for chronolo^cal rea* 
&ons, and that afiid Ic0mmH la pro- 
b&bly the right reailin^P 

it, loco iI«cesfilsBe] Le. ' was 
degraded from the presbyterate-' 

3. ftdei pro^Lmum] CU Hor. 
A*P* 33S * Ficta uoluptatis causa 



sunt proxima ueris. ' Bnt here therc 
secms to be no superlative force. 

4. dlBoere] is surely wrong, as 
Hartel (who suggesits dihcndi for 
discetidi in ndu. Afarf. v 8) insiBts* 
St Paul forbade women to teacA^ but 
expresily advised them to karn of 
tbeir own husliands at home : and 
p, 48. 7 above seemsdeeisive* Ttach- 
iHg and iiaptizing are the two thing^s 
which Tertullian will not allow to 
women. In support of 'discercp* 
liowever, it may be uiged Ihat 
nothing else uould make such a 
natural antithesis to 'docemli et tin- 
guendi^ abovcj and that Tertuiliian 
means that St Piiul would not allow 
women to learn in a wrong way* 

5. «Qutsutsr] 'boidly. So^j^/a-^ 
sta/tfiit p, 48. 4 above. I take it with 
the intinitive. 

i^, tao«ant] j Cor. xiv 34, 35* 
. XVHI. Biipiism is mt t& h$ 
iigktty tmtjerrtdi twlwithstiuifUng 
th€ €m€ 0/ Pkiiip and tke Ettnuck^ 
attd tkat cf Si PauL Dui considera^ 
ti&n is /tf he kad tj a^ Oitd iftker 
circumstanctSt cspeciaiiy in tke casi 
qf ht/ants, l^^rgins and IVidims 
aiso Mi i& te precipitate, 

A catena of authorities on tbe 
subject of this ch, may be found in 
H ofli ng cp^ cit, p. 9 S sq . This passage, 
and iren» ii %%. 4^ arc the earliest 
certain evidence for Infant Baptiam 
(Harnack Hist. 0/ D&cir. 1 p. 356)* 
It h plain that Tertiillian h nrging 
his own private scniples againsl 
what was tncn a prevalent practice^ 



50 



TMRTULLIANUS 






sciunt quorum officmm est ^omni petend te dato'suum liabet 
tkuluni perinde ad ej^emosynam pertinentera, immo illod 
potius perspidendum : nolite dare sanctum canibus et porcis 
proicere margaritam uestram, et, manus ne facile imposueris, 
ne participes aliena delicta. si Philippus tam facile tinxtt 
eunuchum, recogitemtis manifestam et exertam dignationem 
domini intercessisse- spiritus Philippo praeceperat in eam 
uiam pertenderej spado et ipse inuentus est non otiosus, nec 



1 perii^de ABa, proiiide Ub* 
tiestms a, margarita ttestra Ub^ 

and that this ch. cannol be qtioted 
as early testiniony against the use. 
It is difTicult to reconcile ihe views 
here expressed tiith what we read 
elsewhere in Tert.'s writings* 1 hus 
m di Amm^ 39 anil 40 be expressly 
affirtns ihe ^Adantic/ uncleanT sin- 
ful condition of every sonl that is 
not yet * enroUed in Christ.' He 
leaves ns in 00 doubt {d^ Testim, 
Amm. 5, adu, Marc. \ 22, de Aiiim. 
11) that he bebeved all maiikind to 
have inherited sinj or a sinful nature 
— tbough his lanjjuage is nu doubl 
Jess precise thari it would have been 
after the Pelagian controversy arose 
(Bp Kaye <?/. n'L p. 30^ sq.). 

\Ve irray, perhaps^ Jet the con- 
tradiclion stand. * It i.s Ihe property 
of warni men,' says one who knew 
^Wall HisL cf /nfaift Bap^thm), 
'wbeti they are speaking earnestJy 
on one subject, and urging ihat» to 
overlash so as ihat when they are 
speaking on another with Jike 
eamestness, ihey fall into contradic- 
tion of wbat they said before. * And 
TertuUian had not a judicial^ com- 
prehensWe mimi. He saw one 
aspect cjf a thing at a time, and saw 
it exclusively. Perhaps, (00, as 
TertuJlian hecame more Montaoiat, 
he lost some of his bebef in the 
sinles&ness of the ^innocens actas' 
(Neander O* Ht^t. \x 347 Bohn). 
See further on p- 52* 6, below- 

For paedobaptisin as a practice 



4 margarltani uestrom ABi naai]garitas^ 
8 praetendere ABa, pertendere Ub* 

of a slightJy later date see, inter 
alios, Cyprian £f. Ux, Origen Hem^ 
viii in LeviL ; Ihm. xiv /« LtH, 
£tfafi^.; Kpist, ad Roman. v 6. 

I. omnl peteatij Mt. v 42, Lk, 
vi 30. 

7. tltuliUD.] Eitlier in the sense 
of ^head' or *justification ' : it is 
hard to detennitie w hich, See on 
p, 49' t P above, 

ik p^Tind^l 'm truth,* Often 
confused in TertuUjaii as ehewhere 
with//v?>-r^" ; cf. p- 47, 5, above, The 
nearest parallels I know are Siiet. 
Ti^ lii * Ilaqne ne TnortuQ quidem 
perinde affectus est/ id, Ga3. xiii 
'Quare atiuenluii eius non perinde 
gratus est/ 

id. eleemosynajn] One of the 
Greek words which still beld its 
own in the Christian vocabulary, 
Koffmane i 1 § 13 p. 30. So Meto- 
neum/ '^cbisma/ *agape,' *diaboti 
^ecclesia/ ^episcopus/ &c. 

3. nolite dare] Mt, vii 6. 

4, maniis 11« fMlle] 1 Tim. v 
31, Tertullian appears to thitjk 
that St Panl refcrii to the Layiug 
on of Ilands which fornied a part 
of Baptism. 

£. FMUppus] Acts viii 17. 

6* exertam] See on p, 551. i^ 
above, wbere tbe verb is again used 
with a verbai noun in -ia. 

ib, dlgn&tioiiLem] 'sanctloii,^ as 
in Ph 5t. g below» In its otdinary 
sense it occurs ctdu, Iud, i. 



eio- 

,1 



xvriri 



3E BAPTISMO 



51 



qui subito tingui concupisceret, sed ad templuni orandt gratia 
profectus, scripturae diuinae impressus. sic oportebat deprendi, 
cui iikro deus apostolum niiserat, quem rursus spiritus ut se 
curriculo eunuchi adiungeret iussit, scriptura ipsius fidei 
occurrit in tenipore, exhartatus adsumilur, dominus ostenditur, 5 
fides non moratur, aqua non expectatur, apostoius perfecto 
negotio eripitur, sed et Paulus reuera cito tinctus est, cito 
enim cognouerat Simon hospes uas eum esse electionis con- 
stitutum, dei dignatio suas praemittit praerogatiuas. omnis 
petitio et decipere et decipi potest. itaque pro cuiusqiie 10 
personae condicione ac dispositione, etiam aetate, cunctatio 
baptismi utilioT est, praecipue tamen circa paruulos. quid 
enim necesse, si non tam necesse est^ sponsores etiam periculo 

1 depTcndi ABa, deprehendi b, 7 unctus AB, tinctus ab. 8 Simon 
ABb, Tudss a^ Anajiias L 11 a A^ ac B. 13 necesae, si non tam 

necesse cst, sponsores A, necesse esi, sponspres Bb, necesse eslp sii non tam 
\ esi, sponsores aU. 

&4ff£Lit quoted by Oehler. 

10. IWtiMo] takes the reader 
back to * peLenti * at the beginniiig 
of the chapter. 

11, olTca] Beside^ local and 
temporal meaningSj Tertullian uscs 
this word in the sense of *concem- 
ing ' : he does not use the furm 
circufH^ except in composition. 

13. apo&BOTes] There does not 
setm to lie any reference to them 
before ihis. They were known by 
vadous nnmes for a time, for which 
see Hofling ^/* cii^ ii § ro6 p. 4. 
They were *guarantees^ that ihe 
candidates would be properly taught 
— ^in the ciise of adults, that they 
had been properly taught— and that 
they woufd fulfil their vows. In 
the absence of direct early evidence 
it is impossible to say how ihe insii- 
tution arose* flofling^s suggestions 
are ittteresting, but rest on a prioH 
reasoning* The subseiqnent history 
may be read in works of reference. 
For Tertullian see also the pa^sage 



3, i^potttolnm] Tertullian seems 
to bave forgoiten what Philip ihis 
was. 

4. currlemloj AcLs viii «g. 

viii 31. 

8. SlnLQii hospea] A curious 
mistake for Ananias. It was not 
Simon, but JudaSj who wasSt Paurs 
■hospes' (Acts ix it). It seem** to 
l>e a mere slip, due to a qnotsition 
mode from memory» There is no 
known variant, Gk or Lat.^ which 
could have suggested it, nor in the 
^apituia either, where O.L. tradi» 
lions sometimes survive (1 owe this 
information to the kindness of Rev. 
H. J. C- Knight). The name of 
Simon comes from Acts iic 43. 

g^ dlguatdo] See on p. 50. 6, 
above. 

ib. praemlttit] 'God's good 
pleasure ushereih itself in by its 
own special claims' (Dodgson). 
Cf' Greg. Nazianz. Orat. xviii oUt 
yhp ir6ppiit&ev KtiTa^XkEirBajL Tuiv 



de Cor, 5, referred to in ibe Inlro- 
duction, p» jtviii. 

4— t 



■« 



52 



TERTULLJANUS 



[XVIII 



ingerl, qui et ipsi per mortalitatem destituere promissiones 
suas possunt et prouentu malae indolis falli? ait quidem 
dominus: nolite illos prohibere ad me uenire. ueniant ergo, 
dum adulescunt; ueniant, dum discunt, dum quo ueniaot 
S docentur; fiant Christiani, cum Chrislum nosse potueriiiL 
quid festinat innocens aetas ad remissionem peccatorum? 
cautius agetur in saecularibusj ut, cui substantia terrena 
non creditur, diuina credatur? nonnt petere salutem, ut 
I lategri, quid A, ingeri, qui Ba, ingeri ? quia Ub, 2 prouetiium A| 



proaentti B. 6 quod A, quid B* 

datur? Hartd.y credatur. ccU. 

i. infttl] *why should spoti* 
sors also be exposed to danger, if it 
(sc. Infant Baptism) is iiot so vcry 
necessary?' TertiiUian uaes ingtro 
rather oddly, but I havc nol beeo 
able to find a parallel to this ex- 
pression. Its commonest meaning 
with him is Uo ntter,* esp. a wam- 
JTig; e*g, adu* Marc. iv 31 'Et 
adhuc ingeritr '' Et emisi ad uos 
otnnes...*^* ib, 27; dt Cam, Chr, 5 
(synonyTuous with stainii and inad- 
canif)t d^ N6S. Cam, 47^ d^ Pttdi^. 
i2t where the reading is doubtful. 
Once it seems to Tneati Meach' or 
* proclaim,' de Afomg. iniL ^ liaere- 
tici nuptias aufeTunt^ psychici in- 
gerunt. 

2- pT0ueEtii] here seems to Tnean 
*growing up/ a meaning to which 
I h^ve not fonnd a parallel- Dirksen 
Manuale s-v. gives 'quidquid nas- 
citur e re ^ as one of its senses. 
lo classkal Ljitin it means ^hainre&t* 
or *result^ — esp. a happy resuU. 

5. 11011 te] Mt, xix i4r Mk X 1+, 
5^ ciim...potiie(rliit] Cf. Gr^. 

Naz, Ontt, xl p* 658 irfpi B^ r^v 
dfXXuv Sifof/u yifxh^ijv TT}f r/Jteriaj* 
mafJi€ivtLm-aSt -jj ^iKpov iprh toi'Tov 
^ i-w4p TodTo, ^viKo. xal dKodaai rt 
fAVtrTiKOP Kal dwoKpiv€^$ai SvvaTdv,, ., 
o^Totf ayid^etv. 

6. i^iLOcetui] For the discrepancy 
between ihis atid Tertullian^s l^ti- 
guage elsewhere see the introduc- 
tory remarks to this ch. Dodg^n ^s 



7 /rt? ul ^nec/cT/*' R. S cre- 



note here is worth consuhing. He 
compares mfw. Mar€. iv 2j^ wjiere 
the words * innocens aetas ' occur 
^ain. Tertullian is there comparing 
innocent babes, who knew not right 
from wrong, with the ^pueri* who 
mocked at Elisha^s baidness, when 
they were old enough to know 
betler* It is possible to reconcile 
Tertullian^s statemetits by suppos- 
ing that he would define the *nn- 
cleanne55* from which infants are 
washed in BaptisTn ^s not sinfulne&s 
to which guilt attaches. Cf. Har- 
nack Hist. cf £h€tr* \\ «74^ Loofe 
Lsit/adeH f, seim Fbrl^j/m^^n iib. 
DQgmcngesch.j and Tunnel in Rev* 
d^Hiit. €t de Lit. reiig, \'\ p, 19, 
Origen recognised the necessity of 
Infant BaptLSm> and held that it 
wa^hed away ^sordes peccati/ but 
whether tbc expressjon refers 10 his 
theory of prenaial corrupiion, or to 
bodily denletncnt contracted in the 
process of birth, or to a sinful laitit 
transmitted from Adam, it Is hard 
now to determine. 

7. capHtlofl] There is a similar 
passage ad Ux&r. i 1 'Si tahbus ta- 
bulas ordinamus. . ,/ Hartelf op, dt^ 
p. 135, is responsible for the note of 
interrogation* He translates ^Sha]l 
greater care \^ exercised in worldly 
matters (sc* than in heavenly)^ so 
that a heavenly boon shonld be 
entrustcd to one, to whom one 
would not entmst aneanhly boon?* 



xvin, XIX] 



DE BAPTISMO 



S3 



petenti dedisse uidearis, non minore de causa innupti quo- 

que procrastinandi, in quibus temptatio praeparata ast tam 
uirginibus per maturitatem quam uiduis per uacationem, 
donec aut nubant aut continentiae corroborentur, si qui 
pondus intellegant baptismi, magis timebunt consecutionem 5 
quam dilationem ; fides integra secura est de salute, 

XIX. Diem baptismo sollemniorem Pascha praestat, cum 
et passio domini in qua tinguimur adimpleta est- nec incon- 

3 ti^gationem ABa, uacatbtiem Ub* 
8 quam Ub, iTicongnienter aut A, 



I petendi A, petenti Bab. 
4 'aeLate corroborenturyijr// R, 
i. ad Baj i. quis ad Ub, 

r* petenti] Mt. vii ;, Eph. iv 

%. uaefttloiifim] This readiug h 
due lo a coujecture of Ursiniusr who 
preiuinably meant it for * widow- 
h ood .* Tert.certainlyu.ses*uacans' 
10 Lbe seose of Mmmarried/ axtd 
Facciolati gives several examples 
from elsewhere. If, however, as 
seemtj probable, TertuHian had in 
his mind 1 Tim, v 13 ap7af.wirep*f/j- 
Xh^t^^i^ forwhich Vulg. has 'otiosae 
discunt circuire domos/ perhaps 
either * itagationetn ' should be re- 
stored, or *iiacatioriem' should be 
translatetl Mdleness.' 

4. caxLtlnentlafr eorrotooreiLtiir] 
Reifferscheid is doubtless right in 
seeing that an ablative h required^ 
but atta/£f though it makes excel- 
lent sen&e, is wide of the Lalin* 
Might not iToti/iwnfm be rigbt? 

5. jionditfl] It is perhaps f^nci* 
ful to see in thii^, as BouweLsch 
^Ces^Ji. d. Afmimmsmus p. 178) 
does^ the *pack' or *knapsack* 
which a Cbristian *^oLdier' bad to 
carry- The soldier^s bfe fumished 
mtLn.y metaphors as *discipiina,' 
•staLio,' 4iro/ * rebellist' ^disicingere^ 
(not ^frametttumi Koflm. op. di, 
i t p, 60 f i^), buL Ihis is too litlle 
techuical to be tncluded in ihe ]ist> 

ih. cHm89cutiQiieTn] Cf. * non 
perttneniia ad condidonis compara- 
tionem, sicul nec ad resurrecLionis 
consecutionem/ de AVj- Carn, 51. 

6i ftdei ialeirr&] Cf. 'Prima 



audieutis iutinctio metus integer,' 
de Pamit. 6. This is meant to 
reassure tbose who feared that, if 
they followed Tertullian's couusel 
to defer Baptism, death msght over- 
take them. It pkinly conflicts with 
what he says elsewberej e.g. his 
argument in ch. xiii- Hence the 
woids have been explained of a 
life after Eaptism free from sin* 
The context, bowever, is agamst 
ihis, to my thinking* See d^Al^s, 
op. iiL p. ,131, note j. 

XIX. Raster ami Pentet&sl are 
the apprifpriate stasons for admims- 
itrtng Baptism, ht4t all titnes anJ 
sea^ms are aliMi lawJiiL 

Tbe Bp of Salisbury* Ministry ^ 
Gr^tce p. ^$^1 states that Paschu 
here, and adu. lud. Kntd^n.t meaits 
Good Friday^ extended by irr4p$e<rtf 
(or, * superposition '} over Easter Eve* 
This was its regular meanitig in the 
6rst tbree centurie-Sf and often lu 
the fourth. The use of Pascha for 
EaMer Day {Ttmrxa dtratrrafftfioy as 
contrasted wiLb ir. (rTa.vpttt<rL^ov) is 
of later introduction. Cf, Feltoe, 
Di&iiysiitb &f Aiex. p. 94. 

7. BOlIemnioTem] ' the more 
usual, regvTlar, proper* season. So 
* exinde ' L 4 helow means * next in 
order* (nf *sollemniLas ■). 

8. In QtiA t.] Cf. Kom^ vi ^ 
'quicumqtie baptiMti sumus in 
Christo lesu, In morte ipsius bap- 
tkaii sumus-' 

th. adlmplAta] See on p. 31^ 16. 



54 



TERTULUANUS 



[XIX 



gruenter ad figuratn interpretabitur, quod cum ultimum Pascha 
dominus esset acturuSj missis discipulis ad praeparandum, 
conuenietis, inquitj hominem aquam baiulaniem, Paschae 
celebrandae locum de signo aquae ostendit, exinde Pente- 
5 coste ordinandis lauacris laetissimum spaiium estj quo et 
domini resurrectio inter discipulos frequentata est, et gratia 
spiritus sancti dedicata, et spes aduentus domini subostensa, 
quod tunc in caelos recuperato eo angeli ad apostolos dixerunt 
sic uenturum, quemadmodum et in caelos conscendit, udque 

5 laetisstinum A, ktissiinum 



3 conuenieiis ABp muenietis ab. 
Aw^Bab* quod A, quo E- 

3. FmscMe] Note the fem. geni- 
tive : the 'uUimum ' in 1. i ahows that 
the nominative was neuter. The 
form * Paschatis' was also used^ bnt 
I have not found it in TertuUian, 

4. de Blgno] For the instrumen- 
tal use ui dt' see IntrocU p* xxx. 

ib^ PentecOBte] Koffmane has 
investigated ihe flexion of this word, 
i I g 9 p. 18. 

5. D(rdliia.ndifl lanacrtB] The 
meaning of ihe verb varies with that 
which we attach to the noun : * for 
the solemu administration of Bap- 
tisms/ or *for the consecration of 
fonts-* The fonner is probably 
right, because (i) Tertuilian uses 
santtiji^nr^ for the consecration of 
the waler by ihe Holy Spirit (see 
cb. iv above) ; (-3) hemduer€ was 
the prevailing word (Hofling cp. ctt, 
§88 p. 48O; (3) Baptisms at ihi^ 
time were usuaily performed in 
runninij water^ or natural sources, 
not arliticial 'fonts' (Rogers lii 
Stttd. Bilfika viij aiready referred 
to). 

ib. laetisBimimL] It ia difhcult 
to decide betwecn this and lath^i- 
mum. If ' PentecoBte ' includedi as 
some authorities hold, from Good 
Friday lo Whitsundayj *vety ample' 
makes good sensc; on the other 
hand * very propitious * goes well 
with what follows» In favour of 
' laetissiiTnum * jt may lie observed 
thai the Jength of lime was less in 



Tertullian's mind than the a<»socia^ 
tions of the two canonicaL scosonS' 

6, &eqmeiitata] ' was frequently 
manifested* (Dodgson). The word 
is commonly used in TeriuJlian with 
rtwmoriit ' to keep alive' the memory 
of (de Testim, Atiim. 4, ad Uxor* i 8 
if the reading is sound). One curious 
passage is Mn usum maledicti fre- 
quentat/ *IIe constantly uses them 
(sc. daemonsi) for cursing,* Ap^L \y, 

7. dedicata] T^rtuUian fre- 
quently uses this verb in the ^ense 
of * institute * or * begin/ e.g, * omnes 
simul ibidem dedicans sensus/ de 
Anim, 19* of au infaut, Oehler has 
collected many instances in his nole 
/ on Scorp. 1 . 

ib. sut)06leiua] * suggested.' See 

P- 35- 5' 

9, elc] Acts 111, 

ib. utiqiie lii Penteceata] Thts 
must mean ' duriuu the season of 
Pentecostj* and not *on Wliitsun- 
day' itself, on which dny Christ did 
not ascend, nor hold intercourse 
with His disdples. Bp Wordsworlh, 
Qp, cit. p. 356 (reading * latiiisimum 
spatium ^), adopts Ihe view referred 
lo in the note on * laetissimum ' 
abovct and mentions an expression 
of Origen, c^ntr, Ccls^ viii 77^ thal 
one wbo can tndy say *we are risen 
with Christ' walks continuaJly in 
the days of Pentecost. See also 
P- 3^5 <>f the same work. 



f 



XIX, XXI 



BE BAPTISMO 



55 



I 



k 



in Pentecoste. sed enim Hieremias cum dicit: et congregabo 
iUos ab extremis terrae in die festo, Paschae diem significat et 
Pentecostes, qui est proprie dies festus, ceterum omnis dies 
domini est, omnis hora, omne tenipus habile baptismo: si de 
soUemnitate interest, de gratia nihil refert. 5 

XX. Ingressuros baptismum orationibus crebris, ieiuniis et 
geniculationibus et peruigiliis orare oportet et cum confessione 
omniuni retro delictorura, iit exponant etiam baptismum 
lohannis : tinguebantur, inquit, confitentes delicla sua. nobis 
gratulandum est, si nunc publlce confitemur iniquitates aat jo 

5 solemnitate A. 10 si non piiblice AUalj, si i:;unc p, I, &m. non 

Desid. Ntraldi4s ad Arnob. adu. Nati. ii p. 86. 



t. et con^resabo] Jer, xxxi 8. 
For in di^ Jl-ffo A.V. has "■ and 
with them ihe tilind and ihe lame,' 
So Vulg. * inter quos enint caecus et 
daudus.* This is one of ihe cases 
where TertulHan either transLiled 
direct from LXX ox used an OX* 
version made from it, for LXX has 
iv iopT^ tfideriie. The mistake tnay 
perhaps l>e explained as follows ; 
the LXX translator confused 0^3 

* latne ' with nDg * passover,^ and 
then guessed at the sense of "l-]tl? 
' blind * (ffoi T^KyowoiiffTi]^ See 
Swete Inirod. to the O, T. in Gk^ 
p, 159, and Streane Doutle Texl of 
feremiahy as there referred to, 

XX. Fasting^ prayer^ and wai^h- 
ings are the righi preparaiian for 
Baptism; mtd evm afier Baplism, 
jvheu tcmptatiQiis may assaii us^ 
fasiing is mf oai of plnie, except tkat 
me <fUght thm t^ be in thafikpd 
mfHyd.^ * Pray^ then^ ye n^vty Sap- 
tizfd, a/td in ymtrprayersjbrgi^t not 
Terttillian the stntter,^ 

Fastimj^ is ofteii mentioned in 
conjunction with Prayer in N*T. 
even If we ehminate the passages 
where theword appears to bave been 
hrought in, It is twice (Acts xiii 1 j 
xiv 23} mentiofied in connexion with 
Ordination, hut not in connexion 
wilh Eaptism — though it may vcry 



naturally have been practised then 
also, The patristic evidcnce is 
abundant, and references will be 
found in Dodgson (note i, p. 280), 
Hofling {t>pn at. p* 57,^), and else- 
where. Confes&ion of sins is men- 
tioned in connexion with theBapEism 
of John <Mt. iii 6, Mk i 5). £Ise- 
where in TertuHian renimciation (of 
the Devilj his pomps, and angels) 
is mentioned (de Idsl. 6* <^ Spe<t- 4, 
de CttU. Fem. i 1, de C&r. 3), but 
this is passed over here, 

8. baptlsmum loliaanld] Mt. 
iii 6^ Mark i 5. The argnment is 
a fortiori*. *If they confessed their 
sins before John's Baplism, how 
mnch more ought they to do so 
before Christian Baptism.^ The 
sense of * ui e^ponant * is * that they 
may set forth ihe baptism of John * ; 
Christian Baptism includes what- 
ever was valuable in that of John. 

iQ^ nimo] is prohably right* 
TertulJian ^ipeaks very severely in 
de Pa^nit. 6 and ro of ihose who 
^hrink from confesssing their sias 
pubhcly, and the whole scnse of 
this pasaage is against mit pt^btice* 
On the other hand, it niay be arged 
that 'aut* would corae morc natu* 
rally after a negative* DVAleSt La 
Thiol. de Tert. p* 331 note i, arguea 
strongly for a retum to the readiT)£^ 



56 



TERTULL/ANUS 



pcx 



ttiTpiluclmes nostras. simul enim et de pristinis sausfaciiiius 
conflictatione carnis et spiritus et subsecuturis lemptationibus 
munimenta praestruiinus, uigilate et orate, inquit, ne incidatis 
in temptaiionem. et ideo, credo, temptati sunt, quoniam 
5 obdormierunt, ut adprehensum dominum destituerint, et qui 
cum eo perstiterit et gladio sit usus» ter etiam negauerit; nam 
et praecesserat dictum, neminem intemptatum regna caelestia 
consecuturum» ipsum dominum posl lauacrum statim tempta- 
tiones circumsteterunt quadraginta diebus ieiuniis functum, 

jo ergo et nos, dicet aliquis, a lauacro potius ieiunare oportet 
et quis enim probibet, nisi necessitas gaudii et gratulatio 
salutis? sed dominus, quantulum aestimd, de figura Israelis 
exprobrationem in ipsum retorsit, namque populus mare 
transgressus et in solitudinem translatus per quadraginta annos 

15 iUic cum dtuinis copiis aleretur, nihilominus uentris et gulae 
meminerat quam dei. deinde dominus post aquam segregatus 
in deserta quadraginta dierum ieiunia emensus ostendit non 
pane uiuere hominem dei, sed dei uerbo temptationesque 
plenitudini et immoderantiae uentris appositas abstinentia elidi. 

20 igitur benedicti, quos gratia dei expectat, cum de iUo sanc- 

3 monutnenta A, mtjniiiienta Bab. 5 adpraeheixsym A* 6 prae- 
stitit A| perstiterit Bab, 10 protinus S. 11* Ecquis maiim ' O. 

12 tjuantulum aestimo ABa, quantum ejtistimo Ub. 14 est A, et Ba, 

om.h. solUudinem IRj solitudine ff//. 16 Proinde L. 17 deserta 
ABa, deserto Ub. 



t. BatlsCaclinus] It is a ques- 
tion whether ihis word as yet mesint 
more tban * express contrltion for, or^ 
tt>/ Later, of course, it came to 
mean ^ to make satisfaetion to the 
Divine Justlce,' and thjs legal view 
of the relation oi the sinner to God 
has not been without serious draw- 
backs. 

5. uigilata] Mt* jcxvi 41* 

4. ld«o] is answered by tbe 
'iit' in the next hne. tt was be. 
cause they slept that they were 
tempted» 

d» gladlo] Mt* %%y\ ^i, M^rk 
xiv 47, Lk. xxii 49, Joh, xviii 10. 



7, nemlBem] A free rendering 
of Lk^ Kxii i^^t ^Q- 

jo. a lauacro] Mmmediately 
after baptism»^ 

1 1, qnantulum aesttmo] See on 
jKvii I. The self-depreciation is in 
Tertullian^s manner, and is an argu- 
ment for ihe reading in the text* 

13. retoTBlt] ^cast upon him' 
(Dod^on) seemi to nnh^ the forc^ of 
the preposition. 'iranslate * tumed 
the teproach back on his ovy-n head/ 
and cf. reuoiumtt p, 3^. 1 5. 

15. nentiiB et ^ulae] Ct Numb. 
xt 4 sq. 

17. uoii paxte] Lk. iv 4* 



XX] 



DE BAPTISMO 



57 



tissimo lauacro noui natalis ascenditis et primas manus apud 
matrem cum fratribus aperitis, petite de patre, petite de 
domino, peculia gratiae, distributiones charismatum subiacere. 
petite, et accipietis, inquit. quaesistis enim et inuenistis; 
pulsastis et apertum est uobis. tantum oro, ut, cum petitis, 5 
etiam Tertulliani peccatoris memineritis. 

3 domino+* petite de spiritu sanctoy&r/.* R. peculia gratia A, peculia, 
gratias Bab, peculia gratiae O. subiacere A, subiacente B, subiciiente ab, 
distributiones charismatum subiacere ut glossam delmd, censet Ifama^k. 



I. lanacro nmii natallB] Tit. 

iiiS- 

ib, primas maniu] The im- 
portance of the first prayers after 
Baptism is emphasized inthe Passion 
of Perpetua § 3 * et mihi spiritus 
dictauit non aliud petendum ab aqua 
nisi sufferentiam camis.* 

9. matrem] sc. the Church. 

ib. apwitlB] ^Orabant manibus 
expansis, ' Rigalt. So ApoL 30, adu, 
lud. 10, and often in the Fathers. 

3. pecnlia] So *peculia natu- 
ralia,' sc. animae, de Anim, 36. 

ib. chaxiBmatimi] i Cor. xii 4. 
Purists instead of this word used 
donumy donatio, gratiae (Koffmane 
op* cit, i I p. 16). 

ib, snliiacere] *askthat...maybe 



forthcoming ' : agloss, in Harnack's 
opinion. Certainly the grammar is 
unusual — *subiacere* for *ut sub- 
iaceant.* Subiciente^ of Pamelius, 
would mean *the Lord who sup- 
plieth * the * distributiones charisma- 
tum.* 

4. potite] Mt. vii 7, 8. 

6. etiam Tertulliani pecca- 
toris] With this should be com- 
pared the endings to de Virg. 
Veland. and de Exhort. Cast. — if 
the reading of the latter is correct. 
There are some features in Ter- 
tuUian that repel, but our verdict 
on his character would be unjust, if 
it failed to take into account such 
utterances as these. 



I. INDEX VERBORUM. 



(Reference is to page and line of this edition. Where a word occurs 
in a quotation, it is placed within inverted commas.) 



A lauacro 5<5, lo ; ab initio 9, 2 
Aaron 20, 2 

abluamur aquis 10, 10 ; abluendi 
12, 9; abluit semel 43, 4; ablutis 
I, I 
ablutionem, per 14, ii; ablutione 

delictorum 17, 5 
Abraham 38, 3 
abscondi 47, 4 

absoluit 13) 3 ; absolutum est 7, 8 
abstinentia 56, 10 

abyssus 6, 9 ; * abyssum^ super * 6, 4 
accessit 14, 8 

accipere 42, 9 &c.; accipi 24, 5; 
accipiendum erit 32, 6 ; accipiendi 
baptismi 46, 2; *accipietis' 57» 4; 
accipit causam 5, i ; acceperat 16, 
3; accepissent 30, 9; acceptum 
lauacrum 45, 2 
accommodauit 20, 4 ; accommodatis 

manibus 22, i 
Actis, in 20, 5; Actis, in Aposto- 

lorum 30, 8 
actus 21, I ; actu, in 3, 5; actum, ad 

simplicem 10, 9 
addita est 38, 8 
ademptio 42, 4 
adeo 38, 2; atque adeo 2, 2; nihil 

adeo 3, 3 
adfectantes 13, 7 
adfectationibus 13, 5 
adferens 24, i 
adflatu, de 16, 2 
adhaerebant 35, 1 1 
adhuc 6, 2 
adicitur 19, i 
adimunt 35, i ; adimatur 39, 15 



adimpleta gloria Domini 32, 16; 

adimpleta passio 53, 8 
*adiungeret' 51, 4 
adlectionis 36, 12 
admirationem, super 4, 6 
admoDitionis 24, 5 
adnuntiauit 23, 8 
adprehensum 56, 5 
adsiduitate 43, 5 
adesse 13, 15 

adspergi 36, 2 ; adspersi 36, i 
adspergine aquae 12,4 
adtributum est 9, 13 
aduenientem 31, i 
aduentus Domini 54, 7 
aduersantes Domini 35, 9 
aduersariis, in {c. gen.) 4, 14 
* aduersus ' 20, 6 : 35, i * 

adulescunt 52, 4 
aduocans2i, 3 
aduolat 24, i 

Aegypti 26, 4 ; Aegypto 26, 4 
aemulantis (diaboli) 13, i 
aemulatio (episcopatus) 47, 8 
aemulum Dei 13, 6; aemuli ftdei 

35, 8; aemulis fidei 35, to 
aeque 47, 5 ; aeque ut 28, 9 
aequo, ex 47, 2, 3 
aestimare 29, 5 ; aestimo, quantulum 

56, 12 
aetas innocens 52, 6; aetatem 

aquarum 6, 5; aetate 51, 11 
aeternam i, 2 ; aetemam, salutem 

14, 10 
aetemitatis 3, 10; aetemitate, in 

16, I 
agape 27, 11 



L mDMX VEMBORUM 



agnito Ti^ 13 

.agere 29^ r 1 v.L ; egere paenitentiani 

19, n ; actums esset 54^^; a^e- 

batur 31 r 3 &c. ; agetur^ cauttus 

51* 7 
^il 53r 4 ; (introd. BibL quot.) 5«, t ; 

aiebat 37, 3 
aleretur 56, 15 
aliaa {advb) 13, 6 
* alieTia * 50^ 5 
alioquin 39, lo: 47, 2 
aliquis 56» 10 ; alicuius {depnciaiofy} 

alueo 10, I 

amarae ^7» 3 

amaritudinis, de uitio 37, i 

amentia 13, 12 

amisemt |6, 3 

ampliatio 38, S 

amplius 40, 9 

an {wiihout utrum) to, 1 

angelus malus 13, 15; baptisnii 
arbiter 17, 4; angelum Bd 
sanctum 13^ 14; angeli inter- 
uentum 11, 2; angelo, plus ac- 
cessit 14, 8; sub 17^ 1; {piuraf) 
54^8 

animal %iy 2 

animare it, 1 

animas proferre 7, 5 

anno 14, 10 j annos per quadraginta 

annon 13, 6 

ante.H.quam 3^, 9 

ante quarlum diem 7^ ro 

antecedit paenitentia 313 6; atite- 
cedunt 14^ 7 ; antecedentibus 
58, 5 

antepraecursor 17, 3^ 31, 13 

antiqua substantia 703, 6 

apentis manus 57, 1 ; apertum e^t 
57, 5 ; aperiendam 35, 5 

Apollinaribus ludis i^i 5 

Apollo (r^X ApolJini) 40» 4 

apostolus 51 1 6; padficus 40^ 5; 
^anctissimus 48 ^ t ; apostolum 
5if 3; apo^toli 32| ii; ex litteriri 
41,3; apostoio 39^ 1 3 ; apo^tolos 
34^ 8 &:c. ; apo^tolonim 36, 1 1 ; 
apostolis 35, r &c> 

apparatu 3, 7 : 4, 1 

appot^itas 56, 19 

apud matrem 57, a; naliones 53, 9 

aqua 37,4 &c. ; fetiic 431 4 ; fortuita 



10, 4 ; aquamt ad suam 17, ro ; 
arcessere in 11, 5; *baiulantem' 
54, 3 ; ministrat 18, 3; per 26, 4, 
7 : 44, 3 ; post $6,16; super iS, 1 ; 
aquae 7, 6; aspergine ti| 4; 
calicem 371 11 ; gratia 37, d; 
laudes 8, 2; natura ii^ 8; re- 
ligionem 26, 3; sacramentum r, i : 
35, 3 ; sacramento 38, 2\ de 
signo 54, 4; aqut 37, 8. 10; 
careaut 34, 3 ; in -26, 8 ; lauaren- 
tur, lauisscnt 44, 7 : 4^1 H mergi- 
mur in ^i, i ; ^natus cx' 331 5 ; 
reformari 5, 4 ; * renaius ex' 39*4 ; 
sine 17, 8 ; tingueretur 44, 4 ; 
tinguitur 171 9; uocatos 44» 5; 
aquae omnes 10, 4; segregatae 
7, 10; aquas in saluberrimas 17, 
3 ; post diluuii 2^,6; purgatrices 

12, 8; *super' 6, 5; super bap- 
tismi 12 1 to; aquarum aetatem6, 
e;; natura 9^ 9; aquis abLuamiir 
1O5 fo; accessit plusHi 8; adesse 

13, I4; distinctis 7, 3; iti ii, 3: 
17, I ; incubant 13, 7; medicatia 
11,1; modulatHcibus7, i; primis 
7i 5 ; segregatis 7, 3 ; sociantibus 
7, 8; superest to, 7; tinguitur 
31 1 T^; tinguimur 9, 10; uiduis 

12, I 

arbiterj angelus baptismi 

arbitros fidei t8, a 
arca 13» 8 ; 14, 1 
arcana idolorum 4, i 
arcessere la aquam 2 ii <i 
argumento, sine 13, 5 
anda 2, 6 ; aridam terram 7, 
artem 37, 6 
ascenditis 57^ i ; a.scenderat 3I1 il 
Asia, in 48, 11 
aspides t, 5 
atque adeo ), 2 
atquin 4, 4t •;, 7 
aucta est 38, 6 
auctor delictl lo, 13 
a uct r i tas exigenda est 516; auctori'^ 

tatem ejttruere 4, 1 ; per Dei 11 

1 [ ; auctuntaie 7^ 11; sine episr 

copi 46, 4 
audiui 34, 5 ; audiult 37» 9 ; auditu 

auferebat Iraptismum 48, 9 ; auferens 

2j 10 
auii 13, 9 



^^^^^^^^^I^NDEX 


VERBORU^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


auspicatur 17, lo 


calicem, aquae 28, i ^^| 


auspidat m 12^ 9 


candidatus 31,3 ^H 




canebat 14» 6 ^H 


* Eai\ilantem ' 54i 3 


'canibus' 50, 3 ^H 


baloeis, ia 13, 9 


capit {^lvMxirtii) 41^ 8 _^^^H 


baptisma^ unum 4] , 4 


capitibus 22, 5 ^^^^| 


baptisiDUs 19, ^ : 3S, 2 : 45i 2 ■ 47» 


careat 23, 3 ^^^H 


5; a lohanne dennntiatus 28, lo| 


camalia 141 6 ; carnalis 21} i ^^^H 


caelestis, terrenus 39, %i com- 


carnaliter 20, 7 ^^^H 


paratur diluuio 24, 3 ; unus 42, 7 ; 


caro lOj 14: II, I, 3; camis coti^ ^^^H 


unus paenitentiae 31, 2^ 4; bap- 


fiictatione ^6, 2 ; cami 23^ 10 ; ^^^H 


tismum destruens 1,4; auferebat 


came^ ^^^^H 


4&, 9 ; diuinum 29, £ ; CKercet 


causam accipit 5, r ; causa, minore ^^^^| 


13, I ; induerit 34, 1 ; ingressuros 


I ^^H 


55, 6; lobannjs 30, S: 34, 9; 


cautius agetur 52, 7 ^^^^H 


35i ^: 55» S; "<>" teraere creden- 


ceLabat 32, 1 1 ^^^^| 


dum 49, 7J post 23, 7: 14, 3; 


celebrandae Faschae 54, 4 ^^^^| 


uidemus benedici 57, 6\ unum 


censetur 16, 2 ^^^^B 


54,10; baptismi accipiendi 461 


census, Dei 47, 5 ^^^H 


3; actQsii,i; ad confirmationem 


certe 12, ^^^H 


37, 7; ad Ji^mm 9, 2 ; ad 


ceterum {cmj\) 29, 7 8lc.\ ceteris. ^^^^1 


neceasitatem 39, 5 : angelus aibi- 


^B 


1 ter 17, 4; consecutionem 53, 5; 


charismatum distributiones 57, 3 ^^^M 


^L cunctatio 5r, ir; diktionem 53, 


chrismate, a 20^ 3 ^^^^H 


^P 5 ; in aquas 27^ 3 ; in sacramento 


Christiani 52, ^^^^^H 


r^ 16, 6 ; obsignatio 38, 8 ; ratio 9^ 


Christus 20, 3, 27 {ier), 39 (tis)^ ^^^H 


I ; mtioncs S, 3 ; religionem 28, S; 


42t 6 ; Chrtstum 2, 7 : 27, 7 ; ^^^^H 


super aquas 73, ro; testimonium 


deformantes 23« 7; in ^3^ 8; ^^^^H 


aSj 3 ; uicem 35, 14 ; bapusmo. 


nos£e52, 5; Christi 31^ 9 ; aqua ^^^^| 
34, 3; baptismum34, 2; Christo^ ^^^H 


diem 53» ;; eodem 32, 14; in 


7, 6; onfine tempus habile ^^^ 


27,6: 31,3 ^^H 


4; sme 33, 3; Uingui^ 44, 3; 


circa (-v^pi) 43, 1; 5], 11 ^^^H 


baptismos» hos duos 44, 6 


circumlatae aquae 12, 4 ^^^^H 


■ baptizatorcT lohaiine' 35, t 3 


circum^tantia 48^ 5 ; steterunt 56, ^ ^^^H 


bencdictionem ^2, 7 ; per 18, 21 


cistemae 10 ^^^^H 


^'^ 3 ^ . ^ 


cito iMs) 51,7 ^^^H 


benedixerit 23, 6; benediei ^7* 0; 


'ciuiiate' lo, 5 ^^^^H 


benedictl 56, 20 ; beuedicta unc- 


ctaritatis ^^^^H 


tione 19, 3: 22, 9 


coacte, satis 35i '3 ^^^^H 


bestia, noua 48, 8 


cognoscere 4^» 5 ; cognouerat 51, ft ^^^H 
*■ collecti sunt ^ 20^ 5 ^^^^H 


Bethsaldsun ( = Beibesda) 14, 1 


blandiuntur t2, 10 


columba 23,8 {/£r) ; columbae 13, 1 ; ^^^^H 




combibunt uim lo^ 8 ^^^^H 


Caecitalis r, 1 


caedit 32, 5; cecidit 31, 4 


comite petra populo 27, 4 ; comLte& ^^^^^ 


caelestis baptismus 19, 3 : 30, 3 ; 


Cbrisu 35, 7 <^^^H 


caeleste 7, 1 : 39» 8 : 30, 10, 11; 


commemorem 7, i z ^^^^H 


caelestis irae 33, 7 ; caelesti, in 


Commercium r^^ 15 ^^^^H 


8, 7; caelestia 30, lO: 31, 9; 


commodum 27, 1 ^^^^^H 


regna 56, 7 j caelestibus 29, 9 


commoueracere 46, 3 ^^^^H 


*caelum' 6, 9; caelos, in 54, 9; 


commonebat r^, 3 ^^^^H 


' caelorQm iu reguum ' 39, 5 ^ caelis, 


communi more 32^ 3 ^^^^H 


de 10, 71 24, i; in4ir 4 


communicantreatum lOt 14 ^^^^^^H 


Caina (vM Gaiaua) haeresis a, 3 


communicationis ademptio 42, 4 ^^^^^^H 



^^H 62 ^^^^^T mDEX 


VERBORUM ^^^^^^H 


^^^^H coniparent to> i r ; compamttiT 34,2 


corroborentur 53, 4 ^^^^H 


^^^^H compellit 4B, 4 


crebris orationi^bus 55, 6 ^^^^H 


^^^^H compendium bapdgmi 57, i 


credibile 35, 3 ^^^^^ 


^^^H comp^cat 36, 7 


credo 56, 4; credit 4, 3 i credimus 


^^^^H competat 53, 7; competant 47, 7; 


4t 71 credunt 13, 6; credidit 39, 


^^^H competere 33, 3 


7j credi<Jerat 39, ii; credat 13» 


^^^^H complures 9« t 


14; credant 13, 5 ; credere 29, 


^^^^H cpQcepit t\ injin. 9^ 10 


11; credidi&se 1, 4; credentes 


^^^^H concludiint 38, 4.; concludendam 


ig» 4 : 39. 6 ; creclenti 37, 3, 4 ; 


^^^^H matenolam, ad 46, i 


credendum 4, 5 : 49, 7 ; credendi 


^^^^H concorporatioDem af, 5 


38, 7; ctediiur 4, 5: 5^i 8; ' 


^^^^H concupisceret 5 rt i 


credatur 57, 8 ^^J 


^^^^H condicio, personae 48^4; cond ici onis 


Crispum 39, i£ ^H 


^^^^B 30, 1 ; condicione, pro 40, ^ : 51, 


cnicem» in 28, 4 ^^^^B 


^^^^H 


cultu, sine 6» 8 ^^^^H 


^^^^H conferat 48^ to; confcrre 37, i; con- 


cumulans 49, i ^^^^H 


^^^^H ferebat 30, 7 ; coUataT lex 39, 3 


^^^^H 


^^^^^1 confesi>ione, delictorum cum ^^^ 7 


^i, 4 ^^^^^H 


^^^^H confi rmatloneni , ad ba p t is m i 27, 7 


^^^^H 


^^^^H *conFitentes' 55, 9; contitemur 55, 


custodiendum 42 , r ^^^^H 


^^^^H K3,l confessum 49, 7 


^^1 


^^^^F conRictatione 56, 1 


Dabat 3^, 10 j daret 30, 1\ 49, 4t ' 


^^^^L ' confundat ' 4, 1 1 


'dato' 50, i j *dare' 50^ 3; de- 


^^^^H 'congtegabo^ 5^^, i; congrega$$e 


disse 53, I ; darentur 7^5; dari 


^^^^1 laudes 8, 3 


47, 3J dandi baptismi 46, 3, 3 


^^^^H conquiescit 22, lo 


* Damascum ' 39, 9 ^^J 


^^^^H coBscendii 54, 9 


damnatus 13, 1 ^^| 


^^^^H consecutio 3^ 9 


de iiuo 6t 10 ^^H 


^^^^H consequuntur 10, 6; consequamur 


debeo 42, 4 ; debet 47, 4 ; * debeas * \ 


^^^H i?] 1 i cons^cuturum ^6, 8 , 


3^, ro ; debeat 24, 5 J 


^^^^H conseruant 14, ii 


debitor 35, 6 ^H 


^^^^H consortium habere 42 ^ 3 


decessisse« loco 49, 3 ^H 


^^^H constanter 29, 3 : 49« 5 


decet 4, 6 ^H 


^^^^H constantia 48, 4 


deciperesi, 10; decipi f 1, 10 ^H 


^^^^H constat ex 3i 3 ; constitit 7, i 


declararetur 23^ 3 ^H 


^^^^H constituta estf ii^ ii} constitutum 


dedicatur, gratia Sp« Scti 54, 7 ^H 


^^H 


dediturt in crucem 18, 4 ^H 


^^^^B coustruxit 49» i 


defecerit 30, 13 ^H 


^^^^H * consulant ' 49, 6 


defendere f^uindicare) 40^ ^^ } de^^H 


^^^^H 1} 4 


fendunt 48, 11 ^^| 


^^^^H continentiae 53, 4 


de^nitio 39, 4 ^^H 


^^^^1 contrarioj e 3, 10 


de^mtum est 43^ 4 ^^^H 


^^^^H controuersiam baptismi 40^ 9 


defluebat 27^ 5' ^H 


^^^^H conuenit^ 7, 8; ' conuenietis' 54, 3 


deformantes^ Cbristum 22*7 ^^| 


^^^^1 comiersata 1 


dehinc^T^: 7, 4: 21, 3: 46, 4 ^H 


^^^^H conuictmn 49, 1 


deinde 56^ 16 ^H 


^^^^H copiis, cum totis 26, 5 ; dimnis 56, 


detapsus 13, i ^^| 


^^^H 


deleta, morte 14, ir ^H 


^^^^H Corinthios 4O, 2 


delictumi per 16, 3; delicti 10, 13;^™ 


^^^^H comu -zOt r 


delicta 10, lo: t3, 3; delicta di- 


^^^^^ corporalis 9, 1 : 14, ^ 


luuntur 43, i; * participare^* 50, 


^^^H corporaJiter rr, 3; 13, 3 


51 post uetera 23, ii; r&itaurat 


^^^^H «orpus 19, 3; corporis uitia [4, ^; 


14,4; delictorum perablutionem . 


^^^^H corpora 33, 9 


15, 1 ; ablutlone J7, 6; cum con-^H 




r, ZNDEX VERBORUM 



63 



fessione gg, %\ reraissionem 30, 
%i 3^ i\ delictis i, i : la, 10; 

31, 1 

deliquit 141 3 

demissus in 3, S 

*demonstrabitur' 39^ 9 

dencgas 4, s 

denique 3, 7 r zg, 10 

denuDtiatus 18, 10 

deprendi 51, 2 

deputat 40, 4 

derelinquunt 26, S 

descendit 23, 9; deiscenderei prae- 
uenemt 14» 4; descensurum 30, 6 

deserta. in 56, 17 

deseruit 37, 7 

designauerat 51, i 

desinebat i^j 4 

despexit 37, 7 

destinatur 14, 3 

destituere 5^i 1 1 56, 5 

destruet r3> 31 destniant 35, 2; 
destruens «t 4 

deerat 39, 10 

desuper 9, 6: 22, i 

deus 4, II, 11; 8, 5: 4t, 5: 51, 3; 
unus 41, 41 deum i^j 7 ; 'penes' 
4, la; dei ^tjQi 56, 18; angelum 
13, 1:4; udim:3iginem 16, 1 ; aemu- 
lum 13, 6 ; auctoritatem 12, lO ; 
census 47, 5; dignatio 51, 9; 

»gratia 14, 7: 56 j 30 j pacem 24^ 
1; religio 12, 12; res 13, i, 5; 
spintumi6, 1; uerbo 56, 18; deo 
4, 3: 6, 11: i5, 2; 22, 2; 3&, 3; 
a patre 20, 5 ; inuocato 10, 6 

diaboJum dominiitorem a6, 7 ; 
diaboli 12, 13 

diacont 4^r 4 = 47i S 

dicatum 47, a 

dicit 55, I ; dicntit 38, 1 ; diximus 
28, 7; dixerunt 54, 8j dicat g, 
to ; dixerim, ut ita 23, 7 ; dixerit 
39, 13; dioens 34, 10; 35, 12 r 
39, 9; dieitur 20. 3; dicuntnr \^^ 
10; dicendoji, 9; dictum 32, 2: 
36, 9; {ntbs.) 56, 7 

dies domini 55, 4 ; festus 55, 3 ; 
diem, ante quajtum 7, 10; sol- 
lemniorem 53, 7; 'die, in festo* 
55, 2 ; dimim quadragiuta 56, 

17 

dlgestum I, 3; est 42, 10 
dignatio Dei 51, 9; dignattonem 



6, 6; Domini 50, 6; dignationis 

&« 5 
*d]gnus' 37, 9; dignum 6, 10 
digne 42, I 
dilationem 53, 5 
dilectionis opem ^8, i 
dikiit 43 j 6; diluens 13, 3; diluitur 

ti* 3; diluumur, delicla 43, i; 

diluatur lo, t; dilui, mortem 

+» 4 

dlluuii, post aquas ^3, 6; diluuio 

comjmratur 24, 3 
dimittit peccata 30, 4 * dimtssa, 

columba 23^ 8 
dirigit uias r7, 5 
disciplinae consortium 42^3; soHem- 

nia 261 1 \ disciplina., de pristina 

20t I \ religionis 36» 3 ; uere- 

cundiae 47, 6 
discipuH 31, 15 ; discipulos intei 

54, 6 ; discipulis 54, 2 
discuDt 52, 4 ; didicerat 39, 1 1 ; 

discere 49, 4 ; discentes 47, 4; 

discentibps 32^ 15 
disposuit 8, 5 
dispositio, mundi 6, 1 1 ; dispositione 

5'i n 

dissensiones 40, 3 

dissolui 33, I 

distinctio 9, 14 

distinctis aquis 7^ 2 

distribntiones charismatnm 27, 3 

diuina 4. 6, to: 52, S; diuinum 
baptismum 29, 5 ; diuinae scrip 
turae ^i^ 2 ; diuini spiritus 6j 7 ; 
13, 8; diuinorum 3, 4; nominum 
18, 4 ; diuinis copiis 56^ 15 

docet 27, 1 1 ; docerera 8| 4 ; ^doceie^ 
39, 2; docere, usurpauit ^S, 7; 
docentur 52, s; docendi a, 9; 
licentiam 48, 11; potestatem 49, 4 

doctores legis 35, 8 

doctrina 2, 3 

dominatorem 26, S 

dominatur lo^ 13 

dominicum 34, 9 

domii^us 3r, 14 H sa£p.\ jpse 30, 5 
et saep.\ dominum 35, 10 r 39, 
it; io 23, i: 30, [2; domini 
aduentus 54, 7 \ antepraecursor 
17» 4; dignationem 50, 7; euan- 
gelio» ex 41, 3; gloria 32, 16; 
passio adimpleta est 53, 8 ; 
^issione 33, t : 38, 6 ; prunun^ 



64 



/, mDMX VERBORUM 



tktione 33, 4; resurreclio 54, 6; 

semio 47, 4; 'spiritus' 6» 5; 

tlomino ^o, 3; 29, i, jr 36, 6; 

in 34, 1; peiile de {Ms) 57, 1; 

teste 34, 5 
Momum Stephanae' 39, 16 j domos 

12, 3; domibus 13, 10 
donec 36, 7 
dormiente 36, 6 
dubio, sine 27^ 5; 42, JS 
dubitandum 8| 4 
durius 13, 14 

E contrario 3, 10 
^ecce' 3r, 14 

ecclesk 19, 1: 34, t ; eccJesiam, m 
31, 12; ecclesiae 36, 4 ; honorem 

47. 1 
edictum 32, 4 

edidit 7, 6; editum est 42, 2 
effectus 31» 2: 23, 10; effectu 31 5 
efferunt 12, 3; extulisset 35, I3 
cfficacia, eadem u, 6; lauacri 31, 

'7 

effigiej in 16, i 

epressi 19» 3 

emsmodi {subsJ) JO, 1 3 r 34, 5 

electionis, uas 51 » 8 

eleemosynam 50^ 2 

dementa, per 7, 4; elementi liquidi 
5, 6; auctoritate ", 12; elemen- 
tis 6, 7; commercium i3i 16 

Elensimis m^ 5 

elidi, temptationes 56, 19 

* elegit ' 4i T I ; electos^ sanguine 

44. ^ ^ 
emensus 50, 17 
emergemi 33, 11 
cmisit 44, 7 1 etni&sa 24, 1 
emundationis r2t 9 
emundat 73, 2; cmundata 2?^ 9; 

emundali 17, 2 
enirot et quis 56» 11 ; sed 11,5 
enuntiatum est 31 1 5 
Epbrem 22, 4 
episcopatus aemulatio 47, 8 
episcopus46t 3 \ episcopi auctoritate 

46, 41 episcopis 47, S 
ergo 30, 10: 31, 9: 56. 10 
fesietos 13, 11 
etsi, quamquam 3$} 16 
euangelio, Domini 4], 3 
euadit 26, 5 
euenerit 48, S 




eunuchum «o, 6; eunuchi 51, 4 

euripi 13, 9 

excipiiur 48» 4 

eiicogitem 34^ 6 

exemplum futuri 14, 1; Theclae 46 

11 
exercei baptismum 13, r; e^er- 

cuerunt 13, 13; cxerceri 471 5 
exerta probatio 35, i ; exertam 

dignationem 50, 6 
exhibebat caelestia 30, II 
exhortatus 51, 5 
exigenda, auctoritas 5, 7 
exlmitur, poena 15» ij exempt(3 

reatB 15, i I 

exinde 6t 11 : 7, 11 ; 19, 2; 36, iiJ 

39, 6: 54, 4 
existimet 34^ 6; esEistimetur 3, 9 
expectat 56, 1Q\ expectatur 51,6 
expediit 7, 4; 'expedire' 48 j 2| 

peditus 26, 4 
expiant 12, 4 
exploratis i* t 
exponant 55, 8 
exprobrarionem 56, 13 
exsequias 37, 7 
esstat 32/15 
'exsurge' 39, 8 
extinxjt 26» 6 
extraneae ab 11, 5 ; 
*extremis terrae^ ah^ 55^ a 
extruunt auctoritatem 41 1 



extraneos 42, 



Facile {adzib) 50, i» 4; facilem (r* 
infiti.) g^ 8; *facilia* 4, 12 

facit, sermonem 27, 10; ^fecit, 
saluum* 37, 3; (— *created*) 
'S» 3" 7» 3J (^* '«/«^) 8| 6; fa^ 
ceret 44, 5 ; facere 32, 5 ; facta 

^Ot 4 
factitaretur 43, 3 
falli 51, ? 
famiiiaritatis 37^ 11 

famulatar, caro 10, 14 

felixi aqua 43, 4 ; sacramentum 1, ] 

felle 23, 3 

*feminarum' 35, 12 

fere a* 5 

ferebat 9» j; ferat 8, a; ferebatu 

61 5 
festinat 5I1 6 
festns dies 55i 3 ; festo^ in die 55^ t 
fidcs 17, 6; 37^ 3; 381 2; 51, 6; 

aucta eG( 38^ 6 ; inlegra 53, 6 ; 



I 






fidem extruuut 4, 1 ; labeFactare 3, 

j \ nudam 38, 5 ; obstrinKit 39, 5 ; 

portant a, % ; repellentibus 13« 4 ; 

ftdei BemuJi 35, 3; arbitros :8, 3; 

sacramento 38, 3; testaib 18, 5; 

uestimentum 38»' 9 ; (o^ij^/ztt") 51,4; 

fide 37, 5; qnanlula sumus ag, 4 
liduciam, ad rS, 3 
figura f4, 5: i&t 6; liguraLm, ad 

baptismi g^t; ad 54» i; in 14,6; 

ecclesiae 36, 4J medicinae 14, 5; 

figiirae 33, 5: ^6, t; figiira 

colnmbae 23, i; de 56, i'Z 
fi^randi hominis 7,7; figurata 34, 3 
Filius 19» ^; Fiiium 10, 6; * Filii ' 

39, ^; Filio» in 17, 6 
fianl 51, 5 

firmamentum caeleste 7, 2 
fluGtibiis 35, 14: 36, 5 
flumine 10, i 
fonie 10, I ; foTites J3, g 
forma 39^ i j forma, ea 14, 6 
formidine 13, 13 
formantur r, 4 
rortuita aqna JO, 3 
fratribus, cum (^Mhe Brethren*) 

fraudis io, 12 

frequenial 13, 16; frequentata est 

fustibus 3^T 4 

futuram -22,8; in remissionem 31^5; 
futuri exempium [4, [ 



Gaiana^ s^^ Calna 

^Gaium' 39, 15 

gaudii necessitas 56, n 

geniculationibus ^^^ 7 

genus 9t ja; generi 9, (3 

gestationem 13, 8 

gladio 561 6 

glorificaretur sanguine 44, 5 

Graeco, in 4^, to 

gratia S^ r; dei [4^ 7; 56, 10; 
Spiritus Sancti 54, 6 ; uerbi 31, 3 ; 
gratiae peculia 57» 3 ■ gratia, uihil 
refert de 55» 5; orandi 51, i 

gi"atior 6, 7 

gratulatio ^lutii^ 56, i l 
I gratulandum est 55 » ^o 

I gttbemat, uiiam k^ 6 

i *Habeo> 



^llabeOf tingui' 441 2; habes, 



L. T, 



uenerari 6» 51 habet^ ius 46, 3; 

necesse 34, 11 
habile baptismo tempus *,;,t 4 ; 

habili, materia 7, 9 
habilu 9, 2 
haeresis, Caina t^ 3 
haeretici 41»«; haereticos 43, i 
hic {adiii^) 3, 6r ta, 13 
Hieremiai 55, 1 
homicidio 11, 7 
homo 3, 7: 6j 5; hominis 7, 7: 

^29, 10; hominumj, 4; *homines, 

peues' 4t it 
honorem, propter ecclesiae 47, i 
hora, omnis 55, 4 
hospes, Simon 5I1 8 
humanum 19, 8; 30, i: 34, 8; 

humano zi^ 4 
bumilitate 32^ 10 
hydrophobos 13, 11 

lacob 12, 5 

iam tuac 9, I 

ibi rg» 1 

id est 23, ro: 36, j 

idcirco 4, 5 

idem 31, 7; baptismus 43, 



o 9i 
tlolat 



5^*9 



i<io]olatriae 10, 12 

idolorum 3, 10; idolis 11, 5 

ieiunia 561 17 ; ieiuniis 55* 6 : 

ieiunare 56, lo 

lesum Christum 2, 7 

igitur 16 f 1 ; {firii ^ord) 10, 4- 

igni 31» 13 ; destinatur 34, 3 ; 

^tingueret in,' 31» ti 
iliic 5», J5 
illuc 14, 4 
ilLoti 36} 9 

imago i6t 1 1 imaginem, ad id, t 
imminet 9. 7 ; imminentes sensus 

4ti [ 
immo 34, I : 50, ^ 
jmmoderantiae 56» 19 
immundus 13^ "3 ; immundi spidtus 

imperator 31» 3 

imperJtiam, per 3^ 3 

tmperium ii^ ( 

tmpetrat 17, 6 

impiesse 35, 14 

impolita 6, 2 

impomtur uianuii ^j, 3; imposita 

5 



^m 66 /. INDEX 


VERBOmi!^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^H esile3t39, t ; *ioaposuem, manus' 


intellect^i tr, 5 ^^H 


^H 5O) 4; impositis manibus 22^ 5 


intellegant 53, 4; intellegentes ^g, ^H 


^H iinpdssibLle 5,4; impossibilia 4, 9 


3 ; intellegendum est 32, 2 ^H 


^H impressus {€. dat^ 51, 1 


intemptatam, fidem 2, \ \ intennpta- ^H 


^H impugnet 3, 3 


tum 56, 7 ^^1 


^H impunitatem, in 12, 6 


inter pauca uerba 3, S ^^^ 


^^H in sacerdplio (? = 1« miirdaiinm') 


intercessissc 50, 7 ^^^^B 


^H io, i; cf, 31, ro(7/.A)i 53, 8 


intercidere 41, 1 ^^^^H 


^H in totum 3, 2 


intercipi 36, 3 ^^^^H 


^H incedil 28, 2 


intermutatis 22, 5 ^^^^^H 


interpretabitur 54, i ^^^^H 


^H MucidatiE, nc in' 56, 3 


interest de 55, 5 ^^^^B 


^H inccilae 7, 4 


intemenit 28, 41 intenienire 14, i ; ^^| 


^H 'incomposita' 6, 4 


interueniens 14, 2 ^H 


^H incou^euter 55, 8 


interuentum, angeli if, 1 ^^H 


^H incredibilb 3, 9 


intinctonim f^^.A) 9, 3 ^^H 


^H increduHtas 4« S 


^intrabit' 39, 5 ^H 


^H incubant aquis 13» 7 


^introi' 39, 9 ^H 


^H incumbit 47, 7 


inuenimus 50^ 8 : 34, 1 ; inuenistis ^^| 


^H incutiant, scmpulum 34, 7 


57, 4; inuentus est 50, 8 ^H 


^H indiuiduae fan(]ilia.ritatis 36, 12 


' inuisibijis ' 6, 3 ^^| 


^H indolis, malae 52, 2 


inuitat 27« 11; inuitnns ^t» 4 ^^| 


^H induerit 34, 2 


inuocato Deo to> 6 ^^H 


^H indulget 30, 4 


lohannes 10^ 2: 17, 3: 32, i, 13: ^H 


^H inimus lauacmm 42, 10; mierant 


44, 5 ; lohannem 29, 7 : 35, la j ^H 


^H 34^ 9 


lobannis 32, 14; 35» 4 * 55t 9i ^| 


^H infccerat 12, 7; infecta 43, 5 


lohamie 35, 13; lohanne, ab 28, ^H 


^H infirma fides 31, 15 


10; in 30, n ^H 


^H informcs 6, 8 


lordane to^ 2 ^^H 


^H ingenia 8, ( \ ingenio humano 21,4 


loseph 3 2, 4 ^^^^H 


^H ingeri. pencido 52, i 


irae, caelestis praeco ^3» 7 ^^^^H 


^H ingredienlem 3^^ 1 ; iujrressuros 


H^^H 


^H baptismum 55^ 6 


Israel, ludaeus 43, 2; Israelis de^^H 


^H iniquitas 13, h\ iniquitates 5^^, 10 


%nira 56, 12 ^H 


^H mitiantur 12, 2 


igta T3, T3: 14, 5T 20, 5; istud ^H 


^H iuitio, ab 9, 3 


^ (=H '^ 3 ^ ■ 


^H innocens, aet^ fi^] 6 


istic { — kk^ advb) 2, 3 ^^1 


^H innocentiae 23, 2 


Mte' 59. ^ ^H 


^H inniiptl 53, I 


item 12, 7: 26, g; 31, 10 ^^^^H 


^H inparata, terra 6, g 


iterari 43, i ^^^^1 


^H inpossibilitate 4, x^ 


iu^it 51. 4 ^^^^1 


^H inprimis 2, 4; 61 5 


iudicium 31, 13 ^^^B 


^H inquit 23, 4 &c. ; inquiunt 51, 14 


ius docendi 2, 9; tinguendi 46, \i ^H 


^H inquietatur 36, 6 


47, 2 : 48, 8 ^H 


^H inquinat 43^6; inquinamur delictis 


^^H 


^H 10} 10; inquiniLtur 43, 2 


I^befactandami ad fidem 3, i ^^| 


^H inscripta sunt 48, ft 


lacu iOt I ^^1 


^H in&idere, facilem 9, 8 


laetn 6, 10 ^ laetissimam spatinm ^H 


^H inspirat 13, 4 


{vJ.) 54^ 5. ■ 


^H instituit, materias 4, 15 


laicis 47t 2, 6 ^H 


^H instructa efBcacia kuacn 52, 17; 


lancea 28, 6 ^H 


^H instruens i^ 3 


Literet de 28, 5 ; latetis 44, 7 ^H 


^H inslmineiitum B| 2 


latissimnm spaiium (fi./,) 54, 5 ^H 


^H integra, fides 53, 6 \ integre (»,/.) 2, 9 


lauacrum, acceptum 45^ 2; inimus 1 




A 



4it io;per ra, ^ ; perdUum 45, 
1 ; post 14, 4: 56^ fl; secundum 
44, I ; kuacn, efBcacia ^a, 1 7 j 
k^acro 4, 4 ; a 56, 10 ; de 19» 3 ; 
33, III de uno 36, 10: 43, 1 ; 
dt illo sanctkBimo 5^1 i ; diltii 
mortem 4, 4 

lauationibus 12, 3 

laodes, congregasse 8^ a 

lauat quotidie 43, a ; * lauit * 54, i r ; 
lauarentur 45, i ; lauissent 45^ 1 

legimas tg, 7: 31, 15 

lex 39, I ; legis doctores 39, jo ^ 

35» 8? legi 39» 3; J^e 39» 1 
liber a6r 4 
libere 48, 6 
liberat 13, 3; liberabant 14, 10; 

liberamur i, i: 3r, 1; liberaoiur 

a6, 7 
]ibetis 21, 9 
Hbenter «S* 4 
libidine stili 34, 6 
Hcentiam^ mulierum 4^ ii 
licet (ffl«/) 8, 3; licebit ai, 3 ; ui, 

3 ; licuit 38, 7 ; * licere ^ 4&, 1 
lignum 37, 2 ; ligno 27, 'i 
limo 7, 11 
licjuidi elementi 5, 6 
liquor 6, g : 7, 6 
litteriSj ex apostoU ^r, 3 
locum 54i 4 ; loci condicio 48» 3 ; 

loco decessisse 49 » 3 
MoQuitur' 31, 10 
ludiDrio 43, 4 
ludis r2, 5 
lyniphaticos 13, ir 

Maculam lo, 11 

magis 53, 5 » eo 4. 5 ; qn^tito 18, 1 

magniJica 4, 9 

magnilicentia 3» 5 

*maior^ 35, 12; maioribus 47, 7 

malus, angelds r^^ 15 ; malae irv- 
dolis 52, 2; male 34, 3 

Maiuissem 22^ 5 

nnaiidtttu «g* 5 

manife&tam 50, 6 

manLfestlor 26, 6 

mAous 28, s ; imponitur 3 r , 3 ; 
* manus ne imposueris ^ 50» 4 ; 
per soBctas 22^ 1 ; primas aperitis 
57i r ; manibus accommodatts 
iii t ; intermutati& 22, £ ; suis 
tineueTC ^^t I 



mare 36» i ; transeressus 56^ 14; 
maris 36, 3 ; mari 9, r^: 36» 5 
* mai^aritam ' ^Ot 4 
'mariEOE* 49, 5 
'matrem, apud* ( = *The Churcb') 

57» » 
materia g^ 6 ; abluendi 1^,9; con- 

uenit 7, 8; perrecta 6, 10; tantae 

dignitatis 5,5; matcriam 8, 4 ; 

materias operationis 4, 15 
materiolam ^6^ t 
maturitatem 53, 3 
maxime 9, 7 ^ 33i 4 J cum i, 3 
medentur 14, 9 
medicari n, 12; medicatis aquis 

II» 1 
medicinam r^, 5 ; medicinae 14, 5 
medictate, in 7, 2 
roediocritati 38, 7 
raeminerat 56, 16 ; memineritis 

57* 6 
memojres «;, 3 
mentes obduret 3, 3 
mentio, ecclesiae r^, r 
mentior, si 3, 10; mentiunturf sibi 

12, 1 
mergimiir, in aqua si, i ; raersum 

36, 2 
merilo 4i 14 
meruerit 5, 6 
mititis 28, 6 
minime 13, 5 
miuisterium, ob 1 1, i 
ministrat, aquam 2S, 3 
ministri 32, 13 
rainore de causa 53, i ; minus 

10, 4 
miratur 4, S ; miraraur 4» 7 ; mi- 

randum 4, 4, 5 
mirum 7f 6 

misera increduUtas 4, 2 
miserat ^9, 16: 51, 3; missura 29, 

7 : 4O} 6 ; missis 54^ 2 
Mithrae 12, 2 
modestiae djsciplina 47^ 7 
modoi quoquo 36} 9 
modulari 22, 5 
raodulatricibus aquis 7, i 
monstrosissiroa ilia 1, 9 
moratur 51, 6; moraturum {v.l} 

^' ^ 
raors nostra 33, i ; mortem dilui 

lauacro 4, 4 ; morte deleta t^, 1 r 

raortalitatem, per 51, 1 



^m 6S A WDEX 


VERBOmfl^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^H more coiiitnuni 31, 3 


non { = nonne) 34» 11 ; omnino 341 ^^H 


^^m Mosei -27, I 


12; utique 33i 3 ^H 


^^H mouebantur 40^ 3 ^ moueat, ne 


nondum 30, 6 &c ^H 


^H 7 


nouerunt 7» 7 ; nouerant 30^ lo ; ^H 


^^B nmlieri pennisit 49, 5; mtilierum 


norat 3, to ; norint 5^j 8; nosse ^H 


^^H licentiaui 48, it 


5 ^l 


^^M mundmr tti 4 


nostrae iS, 4 ^H 


^^B mundior 3, 9 


noua bestia ^S^ 8; nouum 14, i; ^H 


^H mimdus 74^ 3 ; tDundl finte ^ug- 


noui nataljs 57, 1 ; nouo 3^ 7 ^H 


^^H gestum 6,1; dispositio 6, 11; 


nubant 53, 4 ^H 


^H pacem 13, 7; *stulta' 4^ iij 


nnda 38, 9 ; nudam per Bdem 3S1 5 ^H 


^H mundo 8, 1; ordinato 7, 4 


numerari capit 41^ 7 ^^| 


^^H munimenta praestruitnus 56, 3 


numerus iS, 4 ^^| 


^^H munns 19, 7 


numquam '27, 8 ^^^^H 


^^1 mutuabatuT 9« tJ 


numquid 31, 4, 5 ^^^H 


^^H 


nuper ? ^^^^H 


^H Namque 56, 13 


nuptias, ad 37, 10 ^^^B 


^^1 tia^cimur, in aqua 2, 7 ; ^ ttatus ' 


^H 


^H 33r 5t 'natos' 35, 11 


Ob imperium u, 1 ; ministerium ^H 


^^1 natalis noui 57, i 


i ^H 


^H naliones, ^6, 7 ; 39, ^ ; apud 13, 9 


obdornuerunt 56, 5 ^H 


^^H natiuitatem} credere in 38^ 7 


obduret mentes 3, 3 ^^| 


^^^^^ naturaj aquarum 9, 9 ; earum 12, 
^^^^K Ei ; Spliitusi Sancii 13, i ; nati^- 


obliquatis manibus ?i, fi ^^^^H 


obseniabant 14, 3 ^^^^H 


^^^^H t^m^ secundum ^^ 5; naturae 


obseruatLone 46, i ^^^^H 


^^^^^ amarae ^7i 3 J patrocima ^6^ 1 ; 


obsignata, €des 17, 6 ^^^^H 


^^m natura, aquae de 1%^ % 


obsignatio baptismi 3S, S ^^^^^| 


^H nauictila (nom.) 36, 4 ; (abL) 35, 


obstrinxit, fidem 39, 5 ^^^^H 


^H 


occurrit ^^^^H 


^^1 nauem 37, 6 


oblatum 2S, t n^^^^| 


^^1 Na^arenum 39, 11 


offidum 47, 8 : 50, t ; oflScta B, r ^^| 


^^1 necessarios 38* t 

^H necesse (*wj 51, 13; est 9, 7; 


olea 23, 8 ^H 


oleo 20t I ^^H 


^H 'habet' 34, ii 


omiM 41 r 1 ^^B 


^^1 necessitas gaudii 56, i 1 ; necessi- 


omnino ^r, 2; non 34, 13 ^^^^^^ 


^^1 tatem baptismi 39^ 6 ; necessitati- 


opaci fontes 13» 8 ^^^^^| 


^^M bns 4$, 2 


operationis materias 4^ 15 ^^^^H 


^^H necare a, to; necauerunt 13, 12 


operabantur 14^ 9 ^^^^^| 


^H negant 4t 14 = 34^^; negauit 30, 6 ; 


operti suut 36, t ^^^^H 


^^M negauerit 56, 6 


opinor 37, 2 ; ut 5, 6 : 36, i ^^^H 


^H negotio 51, 7 


oportet 43, i; 55, 7? 56, 10; ^H 


^H nemo to» ti- 35, t% ; dicat, 9, to ; 


oportebat 51, 2 ^^H 


^^H neminem 56« 7 ; nemini 35^ 3 


oppressum ibx 8 ^^H 


^^M nepotes 2^1 4 


optimc norat 2, 10 ^^| 


^H ^^^^ ^i> £ ^ 40' 9 


opus 7, 8 ; opera, inter $8» i ; ^H 


^H nitid adeo 3, 3 


operum diuinorum 3^4; operibu^, ^H 


^H nihilo 3, g 


in 8, ^ ^H 


^^1 nihtlominus 5^ 4; 56, 15 


orare 55, 7; *orate' g^J, 3; orandi ^H 


^^M nisi (jar£r^//ir) tp, 3 


' ^H 


^^1 nocentis spiritus 13, ti 


omtioniLius 36, 7 : 55t 6 ^^H 


^^B 'nolite* 50, 3: p^r 3 ; nolnerunt 
^H ^9' ^ ^ > noluennt 35, ^ 


orbationis ploga 39, 8 ^^| 
ordinauerunt 26^ 3 ; ordinato, muado ^H 


^^^^^ nomen 2<>, 4 ; * tinguere m ' 39, 3 ; 


7,4; ordinajidi^ lauactis 54^ 5 ^^| 


^^^^^L nominnm diuinomm e8, 4 


orgauo 12, 2 ^^H 



/- INDEX rERBOFmf 



nriginis, de praerogatiaa lo, =, 
ostendit 54, 4: 56, 17 ; o&tenditur 

It^ 5 
otiosus 50, S; olLOSimi i, 3 

Pacificus, apostolvis 40, 4 

paenitentla 30, 1: 31, 6^ 11; 
paeiiiteiitia.fii egere 1% %i\ in 
3t, 9 ^ paetijtentiae baptismus 
31, 1; baptismum 31, 4; debitor 
55, 6 ; praepositus 19 j 9 

*panei non uiuere * 56, 18 

parere 8, 6 

paiiel 48, 8 

parte, ex ea 9, ti 

•partidpes, ne' 50, 5 

p^alos ^M, 12 

Pascha 55, 71 54, t ; Paschae 

passim 1^2, 4 

passid 53, 8 ; passioneiP, ad 38» 4 ; 
per 32, 17 ; passione Domini 

33» I : 38. 6. 7 
Paier 19, 1 ; ' patrem 37, 6, 8 ; 

atl 33, 1 1 ; * Patris, in nomen ' 

39, 3^ ^Patre, in ' 17, 6 
patientiam, per 36, 6 
patrocinia naturae 26^ 1 
pauca, inler uerba 3, 8 
Paulus 39, 7 ; 51*71 Paulum 34, t ; 

Fauli 48, toi 49, r, 1 ; ' Paulo 

dcputat' 40, 9 
pauperi 28, i 
pax 47, I ; paccm dei 24, i ; 

caelestis irae 23, 7 ; paci prae- 

tendiiur 23, 9 
peccatoris Tertulliani 57, 6 ; pecca- 

toribus 35, 6: 43, 5 
peccatum tHmittit 30, 3 ; peccatorum 

ad reraissionem 52, 6 ; Jn remis- 

sionem 3^» 9 
pecnlia graiiae 57, 3 
penes deum 4, 1 2 : 27^ 7 ; * homines' 

4, II ; ueteres 12, 7 
penetrare, facilem g» 8 
Pentecoste 54, 4 ; Pentecostes 5£» 3 ; 

Pentecoste, in 55^ % 
perdltor 131 2 
perditum 34, 6 ; baptismum 45, 3 ; 

perditi homints 48, 6 
perficit 31,8; perfecit 37, g\ per- 

fecta materia 6, 10; perfeclo 51, 

6; perficiendum 31, 8 
perfossi lateris 44^ 6 



pcrfundi 34, it 

periclltantis 48, 5 

periculo 34, 3: 51, 13 

Ijerinde 44, 5 : 47, 5 ; ^o, 

periunonira 12, 6 

permanendo in aqua 2, 8 

perraisit 49, 5 

pernidem, in 13, iS 

perperam 48, lo 

persecutionibus 36, 5 

perseuerat 28, 3; perseuerauerunt 

3<S, 9 
personae condicio 48, 3 ; condicione» 

pro ^Jt 111 persona, sub Petri 

36, 10; personis 35, 3 
perspiciendum jio, 3 
perstitent 56, 6 
pertendere 50, 8 
pertinentem ad 50, 2 
peruersitatis uis 3, i 
perulgiliis 55, 7 
perungimur 19, 3 
petitio 51, 10 
petitis 57, 5; peiite (Ur) 57, 2; 

petere 52, 8 ; petenti 50^ i : 52, 8 
petra, Christus 27, 5; petra, de 

comite 27, 5 
Petrns, t^piizat lo^ 3 ; Petrum 36 j 

I ; Petri sub persona 36, 10 ; 

Petro 34, 10 
petulantia 48, 7 
Fharisaei 29, 11: 

29, t 
Fhilippus 10, 3: 

50* 7 
ptgnereniur 18, 5 
Piiati manus 28, 5 
pLsciculi, nos 2^ 6; pisciculos 2, 10 
piscinam Bethsaidara 1 4, 2 ; piscinae 

placuit 38» 4 
plaga orbatioms 39, 8 
plane 2, 4: 35, 13 
plenitudtt^i uentris 56, 19 
plenius S, 3 : 42 * 9 
pLerosque 2j 4 
poena eximttur 15, 
poUicebatur 37, 3 
pompnj sine j^ 6 
pondus baptismi 53, 
posita sunt in 13^ 4 
populus [ = i^aei) j6, 3; 

populos 14, II 
*porcb' 50, 3 



^^^^^T^^^^^^^^^^S^ 


HII^^H 


^H porro 19, 4 


praerogatiua familiariiRtis 37, ^^^^1 


^^m portenderent 3^, 7 


de pristina lo^ 5; praerogatiius J 


^^H porUt ni^culam 10, ii ; portant 


^'^ 9 .^J 


^^1 fidem 3» 2; pQrtarent (^./. pota- 


praescribitur 33, 3 ; praescnpta ^^H 


^^M rent) sanguinem 45, i 


^9' ^ ^l 


^H potest 35, 3 et saep, ; possumus 39, 


praescriptio 34, 3 ; praescnptionem 1 


^H 5 } potero, ^eque ut ^8, 9 ; ut ^4, 


34, 4; praescriptionis 5, 3; prae- J 


^H 7 ; potuerlnt 52, 5 


scriptione 33, 7 ^H 


^H post (ffd^) iG, 3; aqueun 56, 16; 


praestat 53* 7 i praestabat 29, 8; ^H 


^H lauacrum 56, S 


praestabunt 12, lo; praest^re 30. ^H 


^H postea ao, 7: 52» 15 


7 : 4Sr 6 H 


^^B posteriora 38, 4 ; posterius 40, 7 


praestnictiones 26 j 2 ^^H 


^^H pofitmodum ^tt i 


praestruimus munimetita 56, 3 ^^H 


^^1 potentiae 4, T4 


praesumunt 12, 6 ^^H 


^^H potens 4r 13 


praetenditurj siguum 23, 9 ^^| 


^^l^ polestatem 4, 3 ; n, 6; docendi 


praeter 34, r ^H 


^^^^H et tinguendi 49^ 4; potestatis 


praetereuntes { = *i^ore') 4» 13 ^H 


^^^^H rudimenta 17, 9; potestate 19^ 


praeualent 38, 5 ^H 


^^^^B^ 10 


praeuenerat (^. (?^^??.) 141 4 ^^ 


^^K potior 1^1 12 


precationes 26» 2 | 


^H potius 50. 3: 56, 10; quam 8, ^ 


presbfterum 48, 12; presbyteri ^J 


^^1 potarentt sadguinem {vJ. portarent) 


A^^ 4 : 4T> 3 ^l 


^l I 


primordio, a 5, 7; ' in g, ri : ^H 


^H praecessit 1 7» 3 ; praecesserai 56, 7 ; 


■ 


^^1 praecedentis figurae ^3, 5 


pnmo (fu^J) 26, 3 ^H 


^^B praeceptum 37, % 


primus 7, 5 ; prima, ratb 9t i ; ^H 


^^B praecerpsisse 8, 8 


primas manus aperitis 57, 11; ^H 


^^m praeceperat 39^ 8 ■ 40, i ; c* infin. 


primis 7, 5 ^H 


^H 5O1 7 ; praeceptam est 7, 5 : 


pnmum {advh) {v.L 9^ 11} ^H 


^H 


pristinum dominatorem 26, B ; pris- ^H 


^H pmecipue 51, 12 


tmam sedem 22, 10 j pristinae ^ 


^^1 praeco columba 23^ 3 


tjestiae 48, 9; caecitatis i, a ; J 


^^1 praecucurrit 4» 10: 14, 2 


pristina de disciptina 20, i ; ^^1 


^^1 praecursor 32, 9 


praerogatiua lo^ 5 ; pristinis, de ^H 


^^H praedicabat 31^ 4 ; praedicauerat 


p6t 1 ^H 


^H 30, 13; praedicasset 32, 1 ; prae- 


priuilegia gratiae ^6^ i ^^H 


^^B dicare 40» 8 ; praedicatum 40, 7 ; 


prius, nisi 30, 5 &c. ^^^H 


^^B ^praedicandum, ad * 40, 6 


pro {mletyicA 4, 2 ^^^^H 
probabliem hdem 2, r ^^^^^| 


^^1 praedifRcilia 4^ 12 


^H praefe^tus 3^, 4 


probatio 55, ^^^^H 


^^1 praefcrebat 36, 4 ; praetulerit 37, 8 


probat I ^^^^H 


^^m praeiudicatum 34, 2 


procrastinandi 53, i ^^^^H 


^^H praeministrabat 29^ 9; praemims- 


procurat S, 7 : 31, 3 ^^1 


^^1 tratiir 32, 5 


profanum commercium 13, 15 ^^^^H 


^^1 praemittit 51, 9 


profectus 31, 2 ^^^^H 


^^B praenotabatur 9, 2 


proferre 7, ^^^H 


^H praeparat 31, 7 1 praepimmur 17, 


proficit 20, 7i proficiente 14^ 7 ^^1 


^^l 2 ; pr^eparare 31» 7 ; pmeparans 


proiitetur 31, S ^^| 


^^^H t7i 4t pmeparata est 53, 2; 


progrediar ^8» 9 ^^| 


^^^^H praeparatam 35, 4 ; praeparan- 


prohibet 56, 1 1 ; ' probibere, nolite ' ^^| 


^^^^r dum, ad 54, 2 


3 ^H 


^^K pr^eponit 32, 4; pmeposuit 32, 3; 


'proicere margaritam * 5o> 4 ^^H 


^^^^^ praepositus paenitentiae 29, 9; 


promissiones 52^ i ^^H 


^^^^L praepo$itam 29, i 


pronantiatio, diuina 4, lo; pro- ^^| 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^nSmx 


rERBORUM ft ^H 


^^^^^ nnntitttionb 5, 3 ; pronuntialiaiie 


quoniam 5, i : g, j et foe/f. j ^H 


^B 




inuenimus quoniam 30, S ^^H 


^H prophetiae, spiritus 30^ 12 




quoque 7, 7 &c, ^^H 


^H proprifi materia 12, 9 ; propriis, 


quoquo modo 36, S ^^H 


^^1 in &acraiiient[^ 8* 6 




quorsum 13, 13 ^^| 


^l proprie 55, 3 




quot {dts} Sr I ^^1 


^M proprietates 4, 5 




quotidie 14, ri : 43, 2 \ lauat 43, 1 ^H 


r propler 40, 4 




^^1 


L propterea 43, 3 




Rapiat» qualitatem 9, 7 ; rapuit ^^M 


^H prorumpit aqua 2S> 5 




plerosque 2, 4; rapere {ahffL) ^H 


^H prosequar 7^ il 




10 ^H 


^H prouentu 53, 2 




ratio, baptismi 8, 8 ; rationes imp- ^^M 


^H prouocant, quaestiones 58, 1 


; pro' 


tismi 8, 3; rationibus nou ex- ^^| 


^H uocatur 5^ ? 




ploratU -2, I ^^1 


^H proximum Hdei 49» 3 




reatum, communicant 11, i ; reatu, ^^M 


^H publlce 55, to 




exempto 15, 1 ^^M 


^H pulsastis 57« 5 




redpit 16. 2 ; reciptendam fidem ^H 


^H pursi aqua de fiuo 61 10 




■ 


^^ purgatar iniquitas 13, 6 




recogitemus 50, 6 ^^M 


r purgatrice^ aquas 12, 8 




recogtioscimus 11, 13; recognoscitur ^^H 


^_ putant 13, 11 




9t r ; recogTioscens 71, 10 ^^^^H 


^H puteum, apud 18, 3 ; putei 


i3i 10 


recuperato eo 54, 8 ^^^^H 
red^at 36, 8 ^^^^H 


^H Quadrajrinta v^6j g ; dierum 


ieiunia 


rednndat in speciem 9^ 14 ^^H 


^H ^6j 17; per annos 56, 14 




refert, de 55. 5 ; inter 10, i ; re> ^^M 


^H quaesistis 57, 4 




tuiit plus salutis 10, 4 ; retulimus ^^M 


^H quaestionem habuit IQ, i ; 


qnaes- 


^H 


^H tiones prouocant 38, i 




reformant 14* 10; reformari^ aqua ^^M 


^H quae^tLunculis ^8, g 




^H 


^H qualitAtevn 9, 7 




regenerattonem, in 1?» 6 ^^M 


^H quafu^ potius 8^ 3 




* regnum caelorum * 39, 5 ; regna ^H 


^H qimmquiLm etsi 39, 16 




caelestia e>6, 7 ^^1 


^H quando (^. ntfyW 35, 11 




reguli serpentes 2, 6 ^^M 


^H quanto 12, 10 i magi^ 18^ 3 


: 47. <5 


religio 12, 12 ; religionem aquae ^^H 


^^m quantula fide sumus ^9« 4 ; 


qvmn- 


26, 3 ; baptismi 78,8; religionts ^^M 


^H iul\xm aestimo 56, it 




disciplina 36, 3 ; religkme 11, i'a ^^| 


^H quarttim 7, ro 




remediabant 14,8; remediatur tj, ^^M 


^^M qua^i [c&ntemptmus) 39^ 14 


; 49. ' 


1; remedians 171 4 ^H 


^H quatenus 44,' 7 




remissio 31, 6; remissiotiem de* ^^| 


^H quemadmodum ^3« 5 : 48, 9 


■ 54*9 


lictoTum 30, 3 : 31.5; ad pecca* ^H 


^^1 querebantur 14* 3 ; queri 1. 


4t 4 


lorum 52, 6 i in peccatorum 33^ ^^H 


^H quibusdam {dipredatary) 


1^1 1 ; 


10; candidatus 31 » 3 ^^^^H 


^H quoiadam (depnciatin-y) , 


3^» 8; 


* remittentur ' 37, 3 ^^^^H 


^H quorundam {dgpt£cmt0ry) 


53.6 


renatus ' 39. 4 ^^^^B 


^H quid quod 6, 1 1 ; ^imile 


13. ^; 


repelleniibus, fidem r^, 4 ^^^^^H 


^H utique 5, 5 




repraesentat 4^;, 1 ^^^^H 


^H quidem, et 5^ 7 




repromittitur 3» 5 ^^H 


^H quiescebant 6, 1 

^H Quintilb O/j. kst,) 2, S 




ie& dei 13*1; rebus 8, 5 ; dei 13, 5 ^H 




rescindi 34, 4 ^H 


^H quique 13, 9 




respondebo 34, 8 ; respondere 39, 3 ^H 


^H quisque {—t/ttisipth) u, 7 




restaurat de ictn ^4, 4 ^^H 


^H quodammodo ]ii 3: 38^ 9 




restiiuetur {vJ. -ilur) 15, 1 ; restitui» ^^H 


^^H quodd 48^ 10 




uita 33, 2 ^^H 


^H quomodo 10^ 7 ' 33. ^ 




resurgitj homo ex nqtm 3^ 9 ^^^^H 





72 



L INDEX VERBORUM 



rcijui-rectio Domini 54^ d; resur- 
rectionem.atiie 381 6 ; per 31, 17 j 
resurrectione, sine 33, 2 

relexaon 4T, 1 

retorsil exprobrationeiu 56, 13 

retractatus 33, 6 

retractet 41, 2 

retro {=dbn) 15, 1 : 27, 3: 38, 5 ; 
{as adj. = ' former ') 55, S 

reuera 32, i : 51, 7 

reuersa columba 23, 9 

reus {c* ^T«.) 48, 5 

reuoluunt 39, 13 

regis 16, 4 

rite habere 43, 7 

rtm auii 13, 9 

nide, c^eluni 6^ 9 

rudimenta 27, 9 

*rursum' 34, rr 

rursu!» 24, 2: 43, 6: 51, 3 

Sacerdos summus 46» 3 
sacerdutio, in 20, 2; cf, 21, 1 : 31, 

sacris (j«^j.) 13, i 

sacramentum, aquae i, j ; 35, 2 : 
38, 3; sftnctificationis 10, 5; 
sacrameuto ampUatio addjta est 
38, S ; de ueteri ^2, 4 ; 111 bap- 
tismi 26, (5; sine ullo 13, 6; 
sacramentis, in propriis 8, 5 

j>aecularibus, in 52, 7 

saeculum 36, 8 ; sacculo, de 26, 7 j 

iii 3*5p_ 5 

salulierrimas in aquas 2^, 3 

salus 34, 5 : 38, S i competit 33, 
4, 7; salutem 37, 2 ; in 13, 14 : 
3r, 12 ; operari 14» 9 ; petere 52. 
8 ; polJiceri 37, 2 ; salutis^ pliis 
10, 4 : gratulatio 56, 12 ; sponsio 
18, 5 ; sponsores 18, 3 ; salutej 
de 36, 11: 53, 6 

salua 34, 4 : 47,1; * saluum fecit ' 
37, 3i saluo 47^ 1 ; salui sumus 
2, 8 

&anciificationis sacramemum 10, 5 : 

sanctificandi uim lo^ 8 ; sanctmcare 
concepit pi 10 ; sanctiticans 10, 7 1 
sanctiticata^, 9; sanctificatae lo^S 

sanctttatem 9, 5 

sanctum angelum Dei 13, 14; 
' filiun; tuum ' 20, 6 ; {nom. neiti.) 
9, 4 {bis) ; {acc.) 50, 3 J sancto, 




snnctificata de 
per manus %7.^ 

3^. 7 
Sanctus Spiritus 19, 2; {£Lcc.) 21,4: 

30, 3, 9; {gm.) 23, 2, ri : 39, 3; 

{dat,) 17, 2, 5; (u^/.) iS, I 
sanctissimus 22, 8 ; apostolus 48, i \ 

sanctisfiimo de lauacro 56, 20 
sane 21, 4: 41, i : 42, i 
sanguinem portare (v.i. potare) 45, 

1 ; credere in 44, 7 ; per 44, 3 ; 

sanguinis lauacrum 44* 2; san- 

guine glorificaretur 44, 5 i eleclos 

44,6 
sapiens 4, 13 

sapientiam 4, 11 ; &apientiae 4^ r^ 
sapuisse 35, 1 1 
satis 4, 10, ei saep, 
satisfacimus de 56, r 
scelestissimi 38, 1 
schismata 40, 3 ; schismatum 48^ i 
scilicet 6, 7, €t sa^p. 
scil 28, 6; sciunt 13, 8: 28, 5: 

50, I l sciant 48, 12 
sciscitatum 31, 2 

scripsit 44, 4 ; scripta sunt 40, 2 
scriptura 51, 4; scripturam 49, t ; 

scripturae diuinae impressus 51^5 
scnipuiosi 33 1 6 
scrupulum 34, 7 
sectantur inaquosa 2^ 6 
secundum lauacmm 44, t ; {ptfp^) 

Ix^i^p 2» 7 ; naturam 2* 5 
secur^T fides de salute 53« 6 
sed enim 1 1, 5 
sedes 6» 7 ; sedem 31, 10 
segregaius in deserta 56^ i6; se^e- 

gatae aquae 7, iq; segregatis 

aquis 7, 3 
semel 14, 10: 34, ir : 42, 10: 43, 

semetipsnm, in 32, 10 1 semetlpso, 

de 10, 7 
semper 6^ IQ &c. 
sempitemam, ad aquam 27, 1 1 
sensusx imminentes 41» 2 
sequebantur ^^^t lo- 37» 2 S sequentia 

47, 4 ; sermonem 



sermo Domini 
facit 37, 10 
serpentes reguli 
seruus 30, 7 
si 7, II &c, 
sicubi 48, 3 



^. 6 



Jo, lo i 4o, 5 

44i 4 ^ 
siclemin 6, S 
Significat 55, ^ 
signum 23, 9 ; signo, de 54, 4 ; 

in admpDitionis ^4, 5 
similis 49, 9; simile, quid? 13, 2 
similiLudo competat 101 19 ; cetisetnr 

163 r ; similitudinem, ad 15^ 2 
Simon hospes £i, 8 
simple?c 6« ro ; simplicem ad actum 

lOr 9; 'simplices' 12, 4; sim- 

plicia 4, 8 
simplicitas diuinoriim operum 3» 4 ; 

simplicitatem 4, 3 j eimplicitatis, 

animal 23, 2 ; simplicitate tanta 

. ^%? 
.sjmplicitcr credidisse [,4; dictura 

32r 2 
simul ^6t I 
simulata, 31, 15 
sine 5, 7 &c.; aqm 27, 8; dubto 

n. 5 : 4^t 8 
siquiflem 27, S : 3It 6 
sitientes 27, 10 
siue 36, 8 

sociantibus aqais ?, 8 
solebant 10, 2 
solitudmem, iu 56, 14 
^onemnia disciplinae 25, a; idolo- 

nim 3j to 
sollemniorem diem 53, 7 
soUemDitateT de 55, 5 
aoliis 6, 9 : 30t 4 ; 34^ 5 ; sola de 

natura 12, 8; solum 39^ to 
sordent lo» 13 
sordium a.dsiduit^te 43, 5 ; uice 

10, 9 
spado lOj 3: 50, 8 
spatium ]a.(e)tissimiuii 54, 5 
speciemj in 9, 13; specie 6, 1; 

apecies (Jfhtr.) 9, 12 
spectet 36, i 1 
spfs 54> 7 I spei jH, 3 
spiritalis 20, 4: 21^ 1; efTectiis 

25, 10 ; spiritalem 9^ 8 : 22» 3 ; 

medicinam 14, 5 ; spiritalinm 

lo, 6 : T4i 6 
spiritaliter n » 3 : 20» 7 
spiritus 10, 6 : ri^ r, 3 : 22, 3 ; 

50, 3 : 51*3; dominalur 10, i^ ; 

* domini ^ 6, 4 ; prophetiae 30» 



r6, 2; recipit i5, 2 ; medentur 
14, 9 ; spiritm conflictatione 56, 
2 ; diuini 6, 7 : 13, 8 ; immundi 
13, 7 ; noceniis 13^ i%\ transla- 
tionem 30, (3; spiritu 20t 4: 
2r, i; ^ex' 39, 4; in 10, 13: 
31* n 
Spiritus Sanctus 19,2; sanctissimu$ 

22, 8; {acc.) 21, 4: 30, gSi 9 ; 
consequi 17^ i ; in 32, 11 ; (^«,) 

23, 2, 11 ; 39, 3; gratia 54, 7; 
(dat.) 17, 2, 5; (aU.) 18, I 

sponsio salutls jS, 5 

sponsores 51, 15 ; salutis 18, 3 

stabilis fides 31, 12 

sta^no 9t [4 

statim 10, 6 : 56, 8 

statiouem in auara J, 10 

statum, ad reliquum 28, 9 

statuta est 34, 5 

'Stephanae domum' 39, 16 

stiii, libidine 34, 7 

*stabit' 18, 1 

struunt baptismi religionem 28^ 8 ; 

struxerauE eccksiam 32, 12 
studium dialjoii 12, 15 
stultiuaT in 4, 13 
stultum 5,4;' stulta mundi ' 4, 
stupri 10 1 13 
suauitaiis 27, i 
sub (of the agetit) iS, 4 
subiacere 57, 3 

subiciebat 6, ii ; bubiecta 9^ l 
subito 51 1 I 
sublimitatem 22, 3 
subministrant ro, 6 
stiboriuntnr 33, 5 
Subostensa 54 , 7 
subsequitur 31, 6 ; subsecuturae 31, 

4 1 subsecuturis 56, 2 
substantia 53, 7 ; atitiqua 6, 

sulistantiae subtilitatem 9^ 8 
subtiiitatem 9, 9 
siiccurrentis 481 4 
sucida 7, 9 

sunicit iS, 3 ; sufEciat 48^ 2 
suggeritur 3*;, 9 
suEgesium^ ante mundi 6, i 

geslu 4t I 
summus sacerdos 461 3 ; summura 

( = '/fljr) 37, 7 
sumptUf de 4, i ; sine 3, 7 



I 



I 



6; 



sug- 



2ip suo^ de 6, 10 : 40, i 



it; spintum 14,9: 17^ t 

£' ^Oy 3f 6; spintum dei 9» 2 ^ 'super abyssum^ fJi 4^ 9» 4; super 



t 



74 



/. INBEX VERBORUM 



aquas 9, 3 (liu) ; cutem 10, j 15 
Ditinem adniimtionem 4, 6 

superferebatur 9, 5 

^supeniis, uenlt de' 31, 10 

snpersederit {c, tnfin.) 48, 6 

supersiite umore 7, 11 

superest 46, i ; aquis ro, 7 

superuectabatur g^ 3 

superuenit 10, 6 ; supemeiituro 17^5 

suppetit 4, ; 

snpra 41^ T 

suscitatus 36, 7: 37, 5 

suspenderet 7, 1t 3 

sustentabat 37, 6 

'Taceant* 49, 5 

tam...qmm r, 3 ; 4^3= 53» ^ 

tamen 36, ii &c. 

tamquam 5, ^ : 22, 10 

tantulo intellecta 29, 4 

tantummodo 36, 10 

tantae digtiatJDnis 5, 5 ; tanta sim- 

plicitate 3, 6 ; tantum qio tit 57, 5 
teloneum 37, 5 

temerarium 36, 1 1 ; temerarii 53» € 
temere 49* 7 
tempeiarant 71 11; temperandia 

aquis 13^ 15 
templum 51, i ; templa fi, 3 
temporaleEa 14^ 9 
temptatio 53, 2 ; * temptataonemi 

in ' 56, 4 ; temptatioues 561 S 1 

eLidi 56, 17 ; tempiadonibus 

36, 5 ; 56, % 
temptati sunt 56, 4 
tempus, omne 55, 4 ; temporis con- 

dicio 48^ 3 ; lempore, in 5 r » 5 
* tenebrae ' 6, 4 ; totae 6* S 
ter 56, 6 
terra 6, 3, 9 ; * terram * 6, ^ : 7» 2 ; 

tetrae 23, 10 ; *ab eKtremis' 55, 2; 

terraj de 7, 3: 3(, 9; terris 33, 8 
terreDUs 29, 2 ; terrenam uitam 8, 6 
TertulUani 57, 6 
testalio fidei iS, 5 
te^tiinomum, in 13, 4; baptismi 

2S, 3; testimonio 35, 11 
teste Deo 34, 5 ; testibus in tribus 

iB, I 
testatur 4^1 4 
Tlieclae 48, [i 
Tiberi 10, 2 
limebunt 53^ 5 
tinguet 3^, 6; tmguebat 31, 15: 




32, 8; tinguebant 33» 15; tinxir 
10» 3» 4' 39* '5 : 50, 5 ; tingueret 
35, 8; linguere 32, 8: 40, i ; 7, 
8 ; tincturum 32, i ; tinguitur 
27,9^ 31, 12, 13; tinguimur 9, 
I [ : 53* 8 j tinguuntur 12, 5 ; 
tiuguemini 32* 7 ; tinguebontur 
39' 5- 5S* 9 ; tingueretur 44, 4; 
linctus est 35, 6; 39, 7 : 51, 7; 
tincti sunt 35, 7 ; tmgui 35^ 9 ^ 3*5^ 
3: 39, 10: 44,3; 51, 1; tinctus 
3, 8 ; fnig&et 44, 3 ; tincto 34* r? ; 
37, 4 ; tincti 36, 8 ; tinctcis 33» 
7 ; 34r 8 ^ 35t i«> ► ttnctis 34, 5 ; 
* tinguentes * 39» 2 ; * tinguendum, 
ad ' 39, 14; 40, ii 6 ; tinguendi 
exemplum 48, 12 ; ius 48^ 8 ; 
lex 39, I ; Ucemiam 4S, 12 ; 
patestaiecn 49» 4 
tkulum suum habet 50« 1 ; tilulo 

49- ' 
tolum, in 3, 1 ; per 35, 4 ; totae 

6, S; toias 17, 4 
tradiiionum rationes 2^ i 
tranquiihtatem 36, 8 
transrretat 28, 2 
transgressus 26^ 5- 561 14 
translationem 30, I3 
translatus f6, 14 
tres i9> I ; trium 19, 2 ; tribus j 

testibus j8t I ; sub iS, 5 
tristis abyssus 6, 9 
tunc, iam 2 ij 7 ; ( = o rirf) 40, 
turpitudines 56, l 

Uacationem {v.L uagattonem) f^i 3 

ualetudinem 141, 3 

uana 4, 9 

*uas electtonis^ 51 1 8 

ubi 19, i ; [temp&rai) 36, 6 Sic* 

uectaculum 6, 1 1 

uelut dormiente 36, 6 

nenasi in 27, 3 

uencuatae 27, 2 ; uenenatissinm 

uipera 2, 3 
uenerari, liabes 6| 6 
ueuit 3tt tOy 14; uenerat 44. 31 

ueniant ^^t 4 (^^fr); 'ueuire' 

52, 3; uenturum 31, n 
uentris 56^ 15, ig 
uentilatur 41, 1 
* uerbum '18,1; uerbi gratia 32^ 3 ; 

nerbo 32, 10; *dei uiuere' 56, 18; 

uerbat inter pauca tinctus 3, 8 



/. INDBX VERBORUM 



75 



uerecundiae disciplina 47, 6 
uereor 8, 3 

uerum { = *dur) 31, 15: 40, 2; 
*uere' 20, 5; uerius 12, 10; uero 

«9» «• 33» 3 
uera fides 31, 12 
uestimentum 38, 8 
ueteri, de sacramento 22, 4 ; ueteres, 

penes 12, 7 ; uetera, post delicta 

23i II 

uiam domini praeparare 31, 7; 

praeparatam 35, 3; in 50, 9; 

uias, inter 10, 3; praeparans 17, 5 
uicem 35, 14 ; uice 10, 9 
uidelicet 13, 3 
uidemus 27, 6 ; uidetur 3, 5 : 14, i ; 

uidear 8, 3 : 41,2; uidearis 53, i ; 

uideretur 40, 5 : 49, 3 ; uideri 

35. 3 
uiduis aquis 12, i ; (suds.) 53. 3 
♦uigilate' 56, 3 
uillas 12, 3 
uiolentia maris 36, 3 
uipera uenenatissima 2, 3; uiperae 

2, S 
uirginibus 53, 2 
uirtus 5, I 
uis 8, I ; peruersitatis 3, i ; ' uim 

26, 2 ; uim dei, per 13, i ; sanc- 

tificandi 10, 8; uires 28, 2 
uita 33, I ; *uitam* 33, 5 ; aeter- 

nam 1« 2 ; terrenam 8, 6; sus- 

tentabat 37, 6 



uitio, de 27, i ; uitia corporis 14, 8 

uiueret 7, 6; *uiuere* i^, 18 

ultimum 54, i ; ultimis, in 36, 7 

ultro 34. o: 51, 3 

umecta 7, 9 

umore 7» 11 

unctio 20, 3, 7 ; unctione benedicta 

20, I 
unde 20, 2 
*unxisti' 20, 6 ; unctus est 20, 2, 4 ; 

ungi 20, I 
uniuersa 7, 11 ; uniuersis, de 28, 8 
unus baptismus 42, 7 ; Christus 42, 

6; deus 41« 4 ; una ecclesia in 

caelis 41, 4; unum 14, 10; 

baptisma 41, 4; baptismum 34, 

10 ; lauacrum 44, i ; ex his 6, i ; 

uno lauacro, de 43, 3 ; uerbo 

37. 5 
uocant 13, 12; uocantur 47, 4; 

uocatus 27, 9; uocatos 44, 5 
uolenti 34, 11 
urget 48, 5 
usque adeo 30, 13 
usurpauit {c, infin,) 48, 7 
usum, in 27, i 
utilior 51, 12 

utrumque 10, 14; ad 4, 10 
utique 5, 5, ^/ saep,; non utique 

9, II 
utaris, ut 48, 3; usus sit 56, 6 
utpote 29, 3: 32, 16 
uulneratur 28, 5 



II. INDEX LOCORUM. 



(The references are to page and line of this edition. Where a quotation 

appears in more than one Gospel, reference is made to St Matthew.) 

A. Passages quoted directly, 

Gen. i. I, 2 6,3 Mk xiv. 13 54» 3 

Ps. ii. i=:Actsiy. 37 20,5 Lk. xii. 50 44,3 

Jer. xxxi. 8 55,1 xviii. 27 4,12 

Mt. iii. 6 55, 8 Joh. iii. 5 33, 5 

V. 42 50,1 31 3'» 9 

vu. 6 50, 1 iv. 2 31, 15 

7» 8 57, 4 xiii. fo 34, II 

IX. 2 37, 3 Acts iv. 27 20, 5 

x. 16 23, 4 I Cor. i. 27 4, II 

X. 37 37, 8 xiv. 34, 35 49, 5 

xxvi. 51 56,6 I Tim. V. 22 50,4 

Mk X. 52 37, 3 

B. Passages quoted indirectly. 

Deut. viii. 3 = Lk. iv. 4 56, 17 Lk. iv. 4=Deut. viii. 3 56, 17 

Is. vii. 9 29, 3 xxii. 28, 29 56, 7 

Mt. iii. II 31, II Acts i. 11 54,9 

xxi. 25 29, 2 I Cor. vi. 12, cf. x. 23 48, i 

C. Phrases, passages, or incidents referred to. 

Gen. i. 6, 20 7,1 Mt. xxvii. 24 28,4 

26,27 15,2 xxviii. 19 r 17,6 

xlviii. 14 22,4 Mk ii. 7 30,4 

Ex, XV, 25 27, 2 Joh. ii. 2 27, 9 

xxix. 7 20, I iii. 5 39,4 

Deut. xix. 15 = 2 Cor. xiii. i 18, i iv. 2 32, 17 

Is. xl. 3 17,3 14 27,10 

Mal. iii. 1 17,3 v. 4 14,2 

Wisd. ii. 23 15, 2 vii. 37 27, 11 

Mt. iii. 3 17,3 xiii. 5 28,3 

16 23,1 xvi. 7 30,5 

H 35,14 xix. 34 28,5 

xi. 3 31, 2 Actsviii. 17 50, 5 

xiv. 25, 34 28, 2 26 51, 4 

xviii. 7, 20 19, I Jx. 6 39, 8 



//. SCRIPTURAL INDEX 77 

Actsix. [5 51, 8 2 Cor. xiii. i = Deut. ix. 15 18, i 

18 34,1 Gal. iii. 27 34,2 

27 10,3 Eph. iv. 4 40,9 

X. 37 28, 10 Phil. iv. 7 (cf. Col. iii. 15)... 24, i 

xix. 2 30, 8 i Tim. ii. 12 2, 9; 48, 7 

Rom.vi. 3(?) 53,8 V. 13 53,3 

4 32» 17 «2 50,4 

I Cor. i. 3, 4, 17 39, 15 Tit. iii. 5 57, i 

X. 4 «7» 2» 4 2 Pet. lu. 7 24, 3 

X. II 24, 5 I Joh. V. 6, cf. Joh. xiii. 31, 

xii. 4 57» 3 3^ ; xix. 34 44, 3 

XV. 46 14,6 Rev. xi. 15 (cf. xii. 10) ^7» 7 



III. INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



(The references are to chapters.) 



Abraham xiii 

angel at Bethsaida v ; in Baptism iv 

Apollo, games of v 

apostles, whether baptized xii 

Baptism, any sort of water suitable 
to iv; of blood xvi; described 
ii, vi, vii ; heretical xv ; minister 
of xvii ; necessity of i, xii, xiii ; 
one XV ; preparation for xx ; time 
of xix 

Bethsaida, pool of v 

blood, baptism of xvi 

Caina haeresis i 

children, baptism of, to be deferred 

xviii 
Christ vii 

Church, ihe vi, xi, xii 
confession xx 
creation, the iii 

Devil, imitates Divine ordinances v 

Easter xix 
Eleusis, games of v 

Fasting xx 
fishes i 

Greek, earlier version of the treatise 
in XV 

Hand, imposition of viii 
Hemerobaptists xv 
heretics i, xv 
hydraulic organ viii 

Idols ii ; worship of v 
image and likeness of God v 
imposition of hand viii 
Isis V 



Jacob viii 

Jesus, did not baptize xi 

John, baptism of iv, vi, x, xi, xii 

Martyrdom xvi 
Matthew xii 
Mithra v 
mjTSteries, the ii 

Organ, hydraulic viii 

Paul, baptized xii, xiii ; baptized 

Gaius xiv; and Thecla xvii 
Pentecost xix 

Peter xii ; baptized in the Tiber iv 
Pharisees xii 
Philip xviii 

Quintilla (fcUs, lect,) i 

Salvation, necessity of Baptism to 

xir, xiii 
ship, type of the Church xii 
Spirit, Holy iii — vi, xi 
sponsors vi, xviii 

Tertullian xx 

Thecla, Acts of Paul and xvii 

Tiber, Peter baptized in iv 

Unction vii 
unmarried persons xviii 

Virgins xviii 

Water, any sort of, suitable to Bap- 
tism iv ; at the Creation iii ; m 
idol-worship v 

widows xviii 

women forbidden to baptize i, xvii 



Cambrttige: 

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



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