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7 <~> r 



1866 1891. 








LOB. (Frontispiece.) 

ANGELL, L. L. D., 5 


TO 1867. ( Facing page 41.) 



TO 1874. (Facing page 103.) 



1874 TO 1883. (Facing page 129.) 



1883 TO 1889. (Facing page 159.) 

F. H. SNOW. 



Address delivered in University Hall June gth, 1891, 

BY .1. IJ. AN(iELL, 

THIS day makes a landmark in the history of 
this University. Her sons and her daughters 
have gathered from far and from near to cele- 
brate the twenty-fifth anniversary of her birth. 
A quarter of a century has elapsed since she 
first opened her hospitable doors and invited the 
youth from all parts of this broad State to enter 
and receive a college education almost without 
money and without price. The marvel is that 
so early in the hard and troubled life of this 
State the institution was prepared to make this 
generous offer. Kansas had been born into 
statehood five years before, only after throes of 
violence which shook the whole nation to its 

At its very birth, the storms of the great Civil 
War broke upon its head, and deluged all thisbor- 

G Development of State Universities. 

der, including this fair town itself, with blood. 


But in the very midst of the war, more than a 
year before the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, 
the Legislature, by the act of March 1, 1864, 
laid the foundations of this University. They 
thus showed at once their interest in sound learn- 
ing and their faith in the future of the State and 
of the nation. What a flash of light is thrown 
back on the days in which this institution sprang 
into life by those significant words of the stat- 
ute, providing that free admission to its privi- 
leges should be granted to "the orphans of 
deceased soldiers and those made so by the 
Quantrell raid." This University was thus in 
its very cradle baptized into the spirit of patri- 
otism and devotion to the Union. 

It was by no mere accident that, in spite of 
the dreadful contests which ravaged this region 
from 1855, vigorous efforts were from early days 
repeatedly made to provide for common schools 
and for schools of collegiate rank. For a large 
proportion of the settlers had come from States 
where the common school flourished. Not a 
few of them had received academic or even col- 
legiate training. The best blood of New En- 
gland coursed in the veins of many of them. 
Come peace or come war, they were determined 

Development of State Universities. 7 

that, their children should be educated. If their 
zeal for education at times outran their wisdom, 
as would seem to be indicated by the statement 
of the historian that eighteen universities and 
ten colleges were incorporated in the Territory 
between 1855 and 1800, yet this fact enables us 
to understand how the conception of the plan 
of this University was possible even in the very 
agonies of war. There is something pathetic 
in this eager desire for the planting of colleges 
and universities, even when, fortunately as we 
must believe, circumstances made it impossible 
for more than three of the twenty-eight which 
were planted to secure existence. 

Compared with the present, the days of the 
founding of this institution were the days of 
small things. This new, prosperous and beau- 
tiful city had then only about 4,000 inhabitants. 
A large portion of the territory of this State was 
entirely unsettled. In 1865 the population of 
the State was only 135,807. By the census of 
1890, it is reported to be 1,427,000. In 18G6 
the taxable property of the State was $50,000,- 
000. Now it is more than $348,000,000. 

The heavy burden of establishing all the char- 
itable, penal and educational institutions, which 
an American State with its broad ideas of civiliza- 

8 Development of State Universities. 

tion deems essential, was resting on the citizens, 
many of whom had hardly built for themselves 
comfortable homes. Not a few were yet living 
in huts of sods. 

But, while thus engaged in the hard struggles 
which have always come to those who have the 
glory of founding and building new States, they 
bated not one jot of hope for the future. With 
an enthusiasm which was contagious and inspir- 
ing, they fired every newcomer with their own 
unquenchable faith in the coming glory of Kan- 
sas. They sounded its praises from the Kaw to 
the Atlantic. The fact that the Territory after 
a fearful contest had been won as the prize of 
freedom drew to this soil the high-spirited, brave- 
hearted men and women in whose souls the Civil 
War had kindled a passion for freedom. They 
flocked hither by thousands, feeling that here 
they stood on holy ground, consecrated by the 
blood of those who had fallen as martyrs in the 
cause of liberty. 

When we consider what sort of men were liv- 
ing here twenty-five years ago, we are not sur- 
prised that they gladly availed themselves of the 
aid proffered them by the Government of the 
United States in seventy-two sections of land to- 
wards building a university. They were men 

Development of State Universities. 9 

of high intelligence and character. They longed 
for the advantages of the best education for their 
children. They were firm believers in the neces- 
sity of education to the prosperity of the State. 
But they had not the means of endowing col- 
leges. They could not afford to send their 
children to the remote institutions in the East. 
Unless the State with the aid of the national 
endowment should build up a college or univer- 
sity, a generation or two might be deprived of 
the blessings of such an education as many of 
these settlers had received in the East. But the 
State, by imposing so slight a burden upon the 
taxpayers as scarcely to be felt, might make pro- 
vision for imparting to their children an educa- 
tion comparable to that in the colleges in the 
older States. 

So, in spite of all the turmoil and excitement 
of those early years in the life of the State, the 
foundations of the University were securely laid. 
The generosity of the General Government, 
which, acting in accordance with the spirit of 
the great Ordinance of 1787, had set aside two 
townships of land as a university endowment, 
and the generosity of the State, which out of its 
poverty undertook to do what it could for the 
nascent institution, were most liberally supple- 

10 Development of State Universities. 

niented by the generosity of this city, which has 
repeatedly shown its deep interest in the Uni- 
versity by its large contributions for ground and 

Like every similar institution, this University 
met with its share of delays and difficulties and 
disappointments. But under the leadership of 
courageous and energetic men it has pushed its 
way to the point where it has become the pride 
of the State, and where its future, we trust, is 
secure. When the commencement exercises of 
to-morrow are ended, it will have graduated in 
its twenty-five years of existence about 300 from 
its collegiate department, and about 600 from 
all departments. More than 1,600 others who 
could not remain to graduate have pursued liberal 
studies here for some years. What a reinforce- 
ment are these hundreds of men and women, 
who are occupying various positions of useful- 
ness and honor, to the intellectual and moral 
strength of the State. The University has now 
an income of $84, 000 a year. It has more than 
thirty teachers, and among them are men of na- 
tional reputation, whom some of the older and 
larger universities would be very glad to bor- 
row from you. It has a large outfit of the ap- 
pliances for teaching the sciences according to 

Development of State Universities. 11 

the modern methods. In a word, it is furnishing 
excellent instruction in that variety of work now 
expected of good classical and scientific colleges, 
schools of pharmacy and schools of law. Nor 
is there any good reason why you may not easily 
add a school of medicine and, perhaps, a school 
of dentistry. I applaud your courage and your 
wisdom in relegating to your high schools the 
preparatory work. Your new arrangement will 
prove better for you and better for the schools, 
provided you and they keep in close touch with 
each other. It is no exaggeration to say, that 
in its twenty-five years of existence this Univer- 
sity has made more progress than Harvard Col- 
lege made in two centuries from its foundation. 
Rather than be impatient that the development 
of this youthful institution has not been more 
rapid, you should give thanks that it has gone 
forward at so swift a pace. No doubt you can 
see where mistakes have been made in the con- 
duct of its affairs. But after all you have very 
much to be grateful for in what has been accom- 
plished, and you are looking forward with well- 
grounded hopes to larger successes in the future. 
It is with peculiar pleasure that I come to 
bring you the salutation of a sister university, 
and to assure you that she most heartily rejoices 

12 Development of State Universities. 

with you in all your rejoicing over what has been 
achieved, and in all your bright hopes of triumph 
in the future. There is so much that is similar 
in the history and the situation of all the state 
universities, that each is profoundly concerned in 
the prosperity of all the rest. The failure of any 
one weakens, the success of any one strengthens, 
all the others. I have come to you from afar 
rather to testify by my presence on this your 
festal day to this deep interest, which we in 
Michigan feel in your welfare, than from the ex- 
pectation that any words of mine can add much 
to your knowledge or inspiration. 

As we assemble here to-day for this significant 
celebration, we must reflect with gratitude upon 
this fact, that state universities have so much 
stronger a hold upon public regard than they had 
when this University was established. There is 
perhaps no more conspicuous feature in the his- 
tory of American education of late years than 
the rapid and brilliant development of state uni- 
versities. From Ohio to the Pacific, from North 
Dakota to Texas, nearly every State has estab- 
lished or is preparing to establish a university on 
the foundation of the United States land grants 
of two townships to each State. During the last 
quarter of a century some of these have grown 

Development of State Universities. 13 

with extraordinary rapidity in resources, number 
of teachers, and attendance of students, and in 
excellence and variety of instruction. A few of 
them need fear no comparison with the strongest 
and oldest and most richly endowed universities 
in the East. They are so firmly established in 
public favor, the advantages of maintaining them 
have become so obvious to the taxpayers, that 
while they may not always secure so large legis- 
lative appropriations as they desire, the question 
of giving them what is deemed a fair support is 
in few or no States longer open to discussion. 
Indeed, when we remember how many educa- 
tional, charitable and penal institutions a new 
State must provide, how much the construction 
of roads and drains must cost, how much toil 
the earning of a dollar in ready money in a new 
region involves, and how many of the taxpayers 
never see the state university, and have no very 
accurate conception of its life and work, the won- 
der is, not that the appropriations for the state 
universities have been so moderate, but that they 
have been so large. Five or six States follow 
the wise plan of providing by statute for levying 
a tax of a mill or some fraction of a mill upon 
all the taxable property of the state for the aid 
of the university. Michigan thus raises a tax 

14 Development of State Universities. 

of one-twentieth of a mill, Wisconsin of nine- 
fortieths, Colorado of one-fifth, Nebraska of 
three-eighths, California the generous sum of 
one mill, and Ohio, which has some forty or more 
colleges, most of them older than her state uni- 
versity, has just passed an act providing for a 
tax of one-twentieth of a mill upon the property 
of that wealthy State, yielding the sum of about 
$88,500 annually, for the support of the state 
university. When we consider these facts, when 
we remember how large a material plant each 
State now has in the buildings, libraries, appara- 
tus and grounds of its university, when we 
observe that the States, without exception, ap- 
parently assume in all their action that the uni- 
versities are to be cared for as certainly as their 
asylums and prisons and normal schools and 
agricultural colleges, we must accept it as settled 
that henceforth they have an assured future, and 
are to form an important part of the educational 
system of the country. 

It is worthy of note that the development of 
the state universities has been natural, not arti- 
ficial, and that because this is still true we may 
expect their continuous growth. They were 
founded because they met a real and serious 
need. It was clearly seen by wise and thought- 

Development of State Universities. 15 

ful men that in the new States, still struggling 
with poverty, private endowments adequate to 
build strong colleges could not be obtained until 
they and their children were dead and gone. 
They also saw clearly that if a State ever needed 
men and women of high intelligence and char- 
acter, it was in its plastic and formative years, 
when it was giving shape to its permanent insti- 
tutions. Why not, then, they asked, seize upon 
the lands which by the munificence of the Na- 
tional Governerment we have received for the 
purpose, and secure to this generation, to our 
own children, the blessings of higher education? 
Objections enough were indeed raised. Colleges 
had in this country generally been founded and 
conducted by religious denominations. Would 
not the life in the state university be unfriendly 
to the development of religious character in the 
students, it was asked ? Would not the institution 
be wrecked in political controversies? Would 
legislatures not fatally meddle with it? Would 
the people bear taxation for its aid ? These and 
other questions were proposed sometimes by 
those who seriously doubted whether a state 
university could be successfully administered, 
and sometimes by those who in their devotion 
to other colleges earnestly hoped that it could 

16 Development of State Universities. 

not long survive. Mismanagement occurred too 
often in the administration of the affairs of these 
state universities. The lands were sold at a 
sacrifice. Buildings were unwisely planned. 
Mistakes were inevitable. Still, in spite of all 
these discouragements, the universities continued 
to live, and in most cases to grow, because they 
did with more or less success meet a real want 
of the people. Very early in their history they 
began to show a broader and more liberal spirit 
in the arrangement of their curricula of study 
than the colleges which were modeled on the 
New England type. They made ample provis- 
ions for instruction in science and in the appli- 
cation of science to the arts. They established, 
in addition to the traditional classical course, 
other courses of which scientific studies formed 
a large part, and they conferred suitable degrees 
on those who completed such courses. They 
founded schools of engineering, pharmacy, med- 
icine, dentistry and law. They opened their 
doors at an early day to both sexes. Students 
flocked to their halls, in some cases in such 
numbers as to be somewhat embarrassing. The 
attendance on the university in each of several 
States soon exceeded that at any other institution 
in the State. The very attacks on these univer- 

Development of State Universities. 17 

sities seemed to advertise them rather than harm 
them. They have in large degree grown with 
the growth and strengthened with the strength 
of their respective States, and have attained a 
development almost unprecedented in the history 
of colleges and universities. 

And now as we contemplate the blessings they 
have already conferred upon the West, and look 
forward to the yet greater usefulness which they 
promise for the future, must we not say with 
grateful hearts, that the wisdom of the founders 
has been fully demonstrated? 

From a pecuniary point of view what a saving 
has the establishment of its university been to 
each State! At a cost so small as to be hardly 
worth mentioning, education of a high grade has 
been brought within reach of the young men and 
young women who could have procured it, if at 
all, only by expending large sums in repairing to 
remote colleges. Probably not until many years 
hence would private endowments have sufficed 
to build up here a university with so large an 
outfit as this now possesses. And who in the 
State has felt the burden of taxation for the sup- 
port of the University to be burdensome in the 
least? The average annual appropriation by 

18 Development of State Universities. 

your Legislature from 1866 to 1890 lias been 
less than $27. 000. The sum total of legislative 
gifts to you from the beginning until now is 
$6^1,000. The property in your possession, 
exclusive of the national endowment, your build- 
ings, grounds, apparatus and library, are esti- 
mated by the Regents in their last report at 
$519,000. That leaves the total cost of the 
University to the State, not represented by the 
property on hand, $122,000, or less than $5,000 
a year for its twenty-five years of existence. 
Surely that is not a very heavy load for this 
great State. 

What a blessing the state universities have 
conferred by spreading educated men and women 
throughout these new commonwealths, when in- 
telligence was so needed in wisely laying the 
foundations of the States and in shaping public 
opinion! Nothing can be further from the truth 
than the belief cherished by some, that those 
who have received the blessing of higher educa- 
tion do or can wholly appropriate to themselves 
the fruits of that education. On the contrary, 
they share these fruits with all around them. 
Indeed others often reap more advantage from 
them than they themselves. The teacher who 

Development of State Universities. 19 

imparts of his learning to the generations of 
children that pass under his influence gives to 
them more of the benefits of his learning than 
he can retain for himself. Does the faithful 
physician, who willingly robs himself of his sleep 
that he may drive miles in the stormy night to 
reach your bedside and bring you relief, bless 
himself or bless you more by his learning and 
skill ? To whom has the ethical and religious 
training of the faithful pastor been most service- 
able, to himself or to the parish or town which 
has for years been lifted by his stirring appeals 
to the highest levels of truthful, honorable and 
devout living? The university is, through its 
students, diffusing its blessings through every 
hamlet and town in the State. If our republi- 
can institutions are to stand, it will be because 
there are found in every part of the land, in the 
smallest village and on the farms as well as in 
the great centers of population, men and women 
of sufficient intelligence and education to make 
the triumph of charlatans in medicine and in 
theology and of demagogues in politics impos- 
sible. This diffusion of intelligence is possible 
only where higher education is brought within 
the reach of a large number of the young men 
and young women who are to find their homes 

20 Development of State Universities. 

in every part of a State like this. The state 
university with its ample public endowments 
does thus make learning accessible to almost 
any one who has sufficient intelligence and force 
of character to make it worth while to attempt 
to furnish him an advanced education, and these 
graduates share the benefits of their learning 
with all the citizens of the State. 

The State which proffers education at a nomi- 
nal cost to its promising children, whether they 
are rich or poor, renders a most important ser- 
vice in the harmonizing and consolidating of so- 
ciety. It is of comparatively little consequence 
to the children of the rich whether you have a 
state university, or any university here in Kan- 
sas. Their parents can send them to the East, 
or to Europe, if need be, to receive their educa- 
tion. But what would become of the children 
of the poor? And in these days when there are 
so many conflicts between the rich and the poor, 
when the contests between them seem at times 
to shake the very foundations of society, who 
can contemplate without a shudder the awful 
consequence of widening the gulf between the 
rich and the poor by giving the power of higher 
education to the former and denying it to the 
latter? Think of dividing our population into 

Development of State Universities. 21 

two classes, the one rich and educated, the other 
poor and ignorant ! Who can imagine the dread- 
ful collisions between them? Who would cher- 
ish any hope of the continuance of our regulated, 
democratic institutions? 

A careful enumeration made in two of the 
state universities shows that a much larger pro- 
portion of students come from the homes of 
farmers and mechanics than from those of any 
other class. In the University of Michigan, 
fifty -six per cent, of the students were found to 
be the children of men who earn their living by 
manual labor. I think it probable that the pro- 
portion in this University is higher still. Noth- 
ing is more erroneous than the impression which 
some have received, that the university students 
come mainly from cities and from rich families. 
The great mass of them, especially in the West, 
are poor. In order to obtain an education, 
many of them have for years practiced self- 
denial and suffered privations, the description 
of which would stir your hearts with admiration 
and fill your eyes with tears of sympathy. 

There is really no more democratic institution 
in our country than the college or university. 
All distinctions of family and of wealth disap- 
pear here more than anywhere else in the world. 

22 Development of State Universities. 

The son of the hod-carrier and the son of the 
millionaire there sit side by side on the same 
hard bench. Whichever of them has the brains 
and the character is there the king. And it is 
quite as often the son of the hod-carrier as the 
son of the millionaire who wins the regal honor 
in the friendly competitions of the class room. 
It is an experience of untold value to this Na- 
tion, that in the colleges and universities thou- 
sands of our young men and young women are 
living in a community in which, beyond all other 
communities on the face of the earth, every one 
of them is judged by his intrinsic worth and tal- 
ent, regardless of the accidents of birth arid for- 
tune. That is a great object lesson in the purest 
democracy, and can never be forgotten by one 
who has learned it by four years of companion- 
ship in the student world. 

The state university has more than justified 
the expectations of the fathers in the service it 
has rendered to the public schools. In spite of 
all the criticisms to which our school system has 
lately been exposed in some parts of the West, 
I believe that if there is anything in our demo- 
cratic system which we shall never let go it is 
the common school. So long as anything stands 
in the Republic, that will stand. Now what I 

Development of State Universities. 23 

affirm is, that the state university has been of 
the greatest aid to the public schools, and is to 
be of still greater assistance to them in the fu- 
ture. You are well aware that historically it has 
been true in all lands that the universities and 
colleges have sprung up before the common 
schools, and have helped kindle them into life. 
Though any college may be helpful to the com. 
inon schools, yet the state university by its 
very organization comes into the most natural 
and most helpful relations to them. Even if 
the constitution or laws of the State establish 
no formal connection between them, yet it has 
been found that they soon tend to form a quasi- 
organic connection. Not limiting themselves 
to the old classical curriculum of the New Eng- 
land type of college, they establish collegiate 
courses which easily link themselves to the dif- 
ferent courses that the high schools desire to 
carry on. They not only furnish a large force 
of competent teachers for the high schools, but, 
by cultivating intimate relations with those 
schools, they exert a lifting power upon them, 
and attract a large number of students from 
them. The elevating influence of this Univer- 
sity, I venture to say, is already felt running 
down through the high schools to the grammar 

24 Development of State Universities. 

and primary schools, so that in all of them bright 
boys and girls are already looking forward to a 
course in the University, and are by that vision 
inspired day by day to nobler and better work. 
Happy the State in which every child plodding 
over the mysteries of the multiplication table in 
the rudest and most secluded country school 
house sees the path open clear and wide before 
him through the district school and the high 
school straight up to and through the university, 
and is stimulated and thrilled day by day with 
the bright hopes of treading that path to the 
end, and of enriching his mind with all the 
scholarly training needed for the best work in 
life. Wise is the State which by timely gener- 
osity to its university has touched with such an 
uplifting power the mind and heart of every 
child within its borders. Rich with a wealth 
transcending that of forests and mines, of flocks 
and herds, is a State filled with noble men and 
noble women thoroughly furnished by a sound 
and generous education for all the demands and 
opportunities of our Christian civilization of the 
nineteenth century. 

I trust that my commendation of the work of 
the state university will not be construed as 
evincing any lack of appreciation on my part of 

Development of State Universities. 25 

the good work which the colleges under control 
of various religious denominations have accom- 
plished. Even in the West, where the state 
universities are most flourishing, a limited num- 
ber of them may and do discharge a useful 
function. They can reach some students whom 
the universities would not reach. They can 
draw into the service of education money which 
would not be given to the university. They and 
the universities ought with the generous temper 
of the goodly fellowship of scholars to cultivate 
friendly relations. A great danger to them and 
to the cause of sound learning lies in the tend- 
ency to multiply them unnecessarily, either 
through a denominational zeal which is not ac- 
cording to knowledge, or through the less praise- 
worthy zeal of real estate speculators who found 
a so-called college in order to make a sale for 
corner lots. My own conviction is that it would 
be better for higher education if not another col- 
lege were established east of the Rocky Mount- 
ains for at least a generation to come. Let no 
weakling be started, but let all benefactions 
available for colleges be employed in strength- 
ening and developing those which are already 
well started, and which deserve to exist. It 
would doubtless be a distinct gain, if several of 

26 Development of State Universities. 

those already begun should consent to become 
good preparatory academies. 

I think our friends who conduct the denom- 
inational colleges in the West must be ready to 
admit that the state universities, by their vigor- 
ous development, have stimulated those colleges 
to attempt higher and better work than they 
would have essayed but for this incitement. The 
universities have not only lifted the schools but 
have also lifted all the colleges throughout the 
Western States. 

If now it is apparent that the founders of the 
state universities acted wisely in establishing 
them, if the results thus far attained under diffi- 
culties which cannot continue give abundant 
promise of larger usefulness in the future, we 
may well inquire: What are some of the most 
important conditions of their success? What 
can readily be done to make them most pros- 
perous and efficient? 

The state university needs wise and vigor- 
ous administration by its regents and its faculties. 
It is a much more complicated organization than 
the old-fashioned New England college. Its 
wants are more varied; its relations to the peo- 
ple and to the legislature are at once more close 
and more delicate. In most eastern colleges 

Development of State Universities. 27 

the duties of the trustees are to a considerable 
extent nominal, and the discharge of them is 
often perfunctory. The number of trustees is 
usually large. Many of them live far away from 
the college. They rarely meet more than once 
or twice a year. A few of them, residing near 
the college, generally prepare the business and 
the others readily assent to their suggestions. 
Matters go on from year to year by such routine 
methods that perhaps that kind of administration 
does fairly well for them. But it will not answer 
at all for our state universities. The number of 
regents is usually small. A heavy responsibility 
rests on each. They should make a careful study 
of the problems which are submitted to them. 
They should have meetings with frequency. 
They may wisely leave the details of internal 
administration largely to the president and fac- 
ulties. But they should be so familiar with the 
grounds of the general policy of their univer- 
sity, and especially with its financial condition, 
as to be able to vindicate them everywhere. 
They should not allow political or partisan con- 
siderations to have weight in determining ap- 
pointments. They should strive to cherish the 
broadest and most generous views of the func- 
tions of the university and large plans for its 

28 Development of State Universities. 

future development. They should remember 
that these institutions, which are playing so large 
a part in our western life, are yet but in their 
infancy, as indeed are these Western States which 
are almost rivalling European kingdoms in mag- 
nitude and importance. 

The president and the faculties should also 
have the same large conception of the nature 
and work of the state universities. They should 
not confine their sympathies, their thoughts and 
their activities to the walls of their class rooms. 

There indeed their chief energy is to be ex- 
pended in bringing the fruits of the largest and 
finest scholarship to the aid of their pupils, in 
firing them with the highest enthusiasm for cul- 
ture of mind and of character. But they should 
remember that their field, their legitimate do- 
main, is not bounded by the limits of the campus 
or even by the boundaries of the State. 

It is of the first importance that the life and 
work of the university should so far as possible 
be understood and appreciated by the people of 
the State, who are called to support it, and who 
are invited to profit by it. It is not so easy a 
task as might be thought to make the university 
thoroughly known even to its own State. So 
many have no accurate conception of what a 

Development of State Universities. 29 

university is, from the extent of territory in a 
western State so many never even look upon 
the walls of the university, that it requires much 
effort to enable the great mass of people to com- 
prehend exactly what it is doing and how it per- 
forms its work. There should be therefore the 
utmost publicity in its life. The details of its 
work, and especially the details of its financial 
management, should be made public year by 
year. Inspection and manly criticism of its 
methods should be invited. It should live with 
open doors. The professors should do what 
they can to maintain close relations with the 
schools and the teachers of the State. So far 
as is compatible with fidelity to their immediate 
duties, they should embrace opportunities to ad- 
dress the public on educational theories or upon 
any topics appropriate for them to discuss. They 
should make it clear that the university authori- 
ties desire to identify themselves with the people 
of the State and to contribute to their good in 
any proper manner. They should strive to con- 
vince the citizens that the university is their uni- 
versity, that it is sustained for the benefit of 
their children, and through their children for the 
benefit of the state and of the nation. They 
may thus do much to awaken through the State 

30 Development of State Universities. 

a feeling of pride in the university, which will 
conduce greatly to its strength. 

Nor should the students of the university for- 
get that they can often do as much as regents 
and faculties to make the institution known and 
appreciated. They are as much a part, in some 
respects quite as important a part, of the univer- 
sity as the board of regents and the faculties. 
Perhaps they do not need to be told this. They 
are generally aware of it. But they do not al- 
ways reflect that this fact confers on them a 
privilege and lays on them a duty the privilege 
and the duty of making a good name for the 
university, and of promoting its growth. Not 
that they are deliberately neglectful in this re- 
gard. If at times the exuberance of their youth- 
ful spirits convinces us that matriculation in a 
university does not in every case insure the ob- 
servance of all the proprieties of life, or if with 
the ripening of the down on the cheek there is 
occasionally developed a sharper perception of 
what they deem the deficiencies than of the 
merits of us, their teachers, yet with few excep- 
tions they are loyal to their college, and in the 
long run give us teachers quite as much praise 
as we deserve, especially if we are criticised by 
any other college. But they may not fully real- 

Development of State Universities. 31 

ize that, numbered as they are by hundreds, and 
going sooner or later into every part of the 
State, and meeting men in every pursuit and 
condition, they can perhaps do more than regents 
and faculties combined to commend the univer- 
sity to all. No wealth of endowment is so val- 
uable to a university as the devotioa of her 
children. If the graduates who have gone from 
these halls and those who are to go in the years 
to come will stand by their Alma Mater, will 
make known to the communities in which they 
dwell the nature and scope of the training given 
here, the free, generous, democratic, elevating 
spirit of the life of the University, the ennobling 
and inspiring influence which it is already wield- 
ing, and which in yet larger measure it is destined 
to wield, upon this rapidly developing State, they 
can win for the University the hearty and sym- 
pathetic support of the public, and pay in part 
the debt they owe to the dear mother of them 

I think it is especially desirable that the re- 
ligious men and women of the State cherish a 
warm interest in the university. Not unfre- 
quently many of them have held themselves 
aloof from the state university, under the im- 
pression that life in such institutions is riot con- 

32 Development of State Universities. 

ducive to the growth of religious character in 
the students, perhaps that it is injurious to such 
character. I believe that this impression, if it 
still exists, is not justified by the present condi- 
tion of the state universities. The regents do, 
in fact, generally represent fairly the moral and 
religious sentiment of the people, and know very 
well that our citizens, with almost no exception, 
desire that the conditions of college life should 
be helpful, rather than harmful, to the religious 
development of their children. The faculties 
are made up of men who, with almost no excep- 
tion, are earnest, reverent, God-fearing men. 
Persons with different views and different spirit 
do not, as a rule, take up the profession of col- 
lege teaching. So in our university towns you 
do, as a matter of fact, find the professors tak- 
ing an active part in the work of the churches 
and in religious societies organized among the 
students. There is not a single one of the state 
universities in which there is not a Christian so- 
ciety of students. I know of none in which 
Christian teachers are not at liberty in proper 
and becoming methods to exert, and in which 
they are not exerting, a positive religious influ- 
ence over students. I may say in passing, that 
the state university with which I am most fa- 

Development of State Universities. 33 

miliar has sent out about twenty-five missionaries 
to the foreign field, and that about thirty of the 
students now within her walls have announced 
their willingness to enter on such service, if 
Providence opens the way. The real danger, 
if there is any, to the religious life in the state 
universities, is in the failure of Christian men to 
take an interest in them and to use their legiti- 
mate influence as citizens in shaping their policy. 
If such men take no interest in these institu- 
tions, it is possible under our system of govern- 
ment that they may fall into bad hands. Now 
that it is settled that these universities are here 
to stay, for good or for ill, it is not only the 
privilege, it is the Christian duty, of every good 
man to use his lawful power to make them the 
best possible for developing not only the largest 
intelligence, but the highest type of character in 
the students. 

Again, if the University is to prosper, it must 
have the financial help needed for its proper de- 
velopment. The mere growth of the population 
of this State, which goes on at so extraordinary 
a pace, is going to make larger and larger de- 
mands upon this institution. The day is close 
at hand when you will have a thousand students 

34 Development of State Universities. 

to provide for. But besides this, there must be 
a constant enlargement of facilities for teaching 
and a constant improvement of methods of in- 
struction. New apparatus, new laboratories, and 
especially new books, must be furnished. The 
modern and approved modes of teaching science 
are very expensive. You desire, I am sure, to 
keep abreast of the best universities in the grade 
and quality of your training. You should here 
and now bravely face the fact that an endow- 
ment sufficient for to-day is not going to suffice 
for to-morrow. You can never say with com- 
placency, "There, the provision for the Univer- 
sity is now complete; we are never to go any 
further in enlarging its income." The Univer- 
sity is never to be finished. If it has any gen- 
uine life, that life is a growth. It must continue 
to go forward. The moment the University 
stops growing, I do not say in number of stu- 
dents, but in intellectual development, that mo- 
ment it has begun to die. If it stands still, it 
is retrograding, not alone relatively to other 
universities, but absolutely. You cannot expect 
scholars of energy and aspiration to remain long 
in the faculty of a university which is forbidden 
to grow and to improve. If the authorities are 
to administer such an institution wisely and effi- 

Development of State Universities. 35 

ciently, they must have some such assurance of 
support for the future as will enable them to 
lay plans with forecast. They should not be 
compelled to tear down to-day what they builded 
yesterday. A university is not developed by 
cataclysms. It must have a certain steadiness 
of life. Legislatures may fairly be asked to be 
mindful of this. Such salaries should be pro- 
vided for the teachers as will enable them, if 
reasonable, to work with a fair degree of con- 
tentment. The value of their work is greatly 
impaired, if they are compelled to give much 
thought to outside work in order to gain a decent 
livelihood, or if they are constrained to be scan- 
ning the horizon all the while in quest of a 
position which promises decent remuneration. 
Their terms of office should be such as to save 
them from disquietude, if they are really meri- 
torious instructors. It should not be forgotten 
that it is not bricks and mortar, even if moulded 
into the finest architecture, but the men in the 
teachers' chairs, that above all make a univer- 
sity. Gather the great teachers here, and students 
will flock to receive their instructions, even 
though the lectures are given in huts of sods or 
on the open prairie. Especially is it fortunate 
when gifted instructors are so devoted to a school 

36 Development of State Universities. 

that, in spite of calls to more remunerative 
chairs elsewhere, they toil on year after year to 
carry the school through its period of poverty 
and trial and make their lives a part of its life. 
No gift of money can furnish so rich an endow- 
ment as such self-sacrificing devotion. Nearly 
every college has such heroic men in its faculty. 
I congratulate you that you have more than one 
such, and especially that you have at the head 
of this University one who was present at its 
birth, and who has, with a devotion unsurpassed in 
the history of such institutions, literally builded 
his life into its life. When you are fortunate 
enough to secure such men, of tried ability and 
of unswerving loyalty to the University, let them 
know that they are appreciated; leave them their 
intellectual independence; let no whirlwind of 
excitement begotten of sectarian prejudices in 
religion or in politics be allowed to imperil their 
position or even to disturb their serenity. 

There is ample room in this State, and in each 
of the Western States, for one large and pros- 
perous university. Germany has one for each 
two millions of inhabitants. At the close of 
this decade, if the prosperity of this State is not 
checked, you will have about that population 
within the borders of Kansas. The area of 

Development of State Universities. 37 

your State exceeds by four thousand square miles 
that of England and Wales combined, is more 
than four times larger than the kingdom of 
Greece, more than five times larger than Swit- 
zerland, nearly six times larger than Denmark, 
and nearly seven times larger than Holland. 
You can lay down seven kingdoms of the size 
of Belgium within the boundaries of Kansas 
and still have more than four thousand square 
miles unoccupied. This State, imperial in size 
and imperial in resources, should plan for a 
great and proud future. The heroic struggles 
of her early life drew hither men of the noblest 
strain of blood from all the States between here 
and the Atlantic. Others like them, seeking 
congenial companionship, have followed them. 
Of such a stock something more than a mere 
commonplace career must be expected. Here 
you are in the very heart of the continent, with 
an abounding wealth of agricultural resources 
which you cannot yet measure, with most com- 
plete railway communication east, west, north, 
and south, to all the markets of this country, and 
to all the ports of exportation upon the Atlantic 
coast from Galveston to Montreal. But one 
thing is absolutely indispensable even to this 
people of so noble lineage and high character 

38 Development of State Universities. 

and undaunted enterprise, with all the magnifi- 
cent resources of Kansas in their hands, if they 
are to gain and retain for the State that conspicu- 
ous position which you are hoping and predict- 
ing for her; that one thing is a sufficient number 
of men trained by the best education which can 
be furnished to fit them for leadership in all de- 
partments of human activity, for eminence in all 
branches of industrial, of professional, and of 
civic life. In the fierce competitions of these 
days, those communities and those States which 
produce the largest intelligence, the most ener- 
getic and noble character, will push to the front. 
It is generally conceded that the West, with its 
rapidly-increasing population and its illimitable 
resources, is to have the decisive word in guid- 
ing the destinies of this nation. But she does 
not deserve to wield such a power, and she ought 
not to desire to wield such a power, unless she 
can rear generations of broad-minded, large- 
souled men, fitted not only to develop the re- 
sources of the West, but to bring a virile energy 
and consummate wisdom and ripe statesmanship 
to the administration of our national affairs. If 
this great State aspires to do her part in secur- 
ing for the West the high trust of leadership, 
she must see to it that the best training of the 

Development of State Universities. 39 

age is secured for her children. Let no penny- 
wise economy rob them of the facilities for mak- 
ing themselves the peers of the children of any 
of the sister States. May all the educational 
institutions of this State be generously sup- 
ported. May this University be a perpetual 
fountain of intellectual life, whose streams, in- 
creasing year by year in volume and in strength, 
shall make glad this proud commonwealth and 
diffuse its blessings throughout the nation and 
over the wide world. 







THE people who settled Lawrence were very 
far from being firmly established in their new 
homes when they began to turn their attention to 
the question of education. They had no means 
for the support of schools and no laws governing 
educational matters. Under these circumstances 
they naturally had recourse to their friends and 
supporters in the East. The peculiar circum- 
stances attending the settlement of Lawrence 
gave the people a special claim to the friendship 
and generosity of a Boston gentleman of cul- 
ture and means, Amos A. Lawrence, one of the 
founders of the New England Emigrant Aid 
Company, and a personal acquaintance and 
friend of many of the first settlers of the city 


42 History of the University. 

which boars his name. He became interested 
very early in the question of good schools for 
Kansas Territory, and particularly for Lawrence, 
and gave substantial expression of his interest 
by setting in operation a plan for the founding 
of a preparatory school in the city. 

As early as 1856, he requested Chas. Robin- 
son to spend some money for him in laying the 
foundation of a school building on the northern 
part of Mt. Oread, at the site of North College. 
Work on this building was actually begun, but 
as the title to the land was imperfect, the work 
was soon suspended. In a private letter to the 
Rev. E. Nute, of Lawrence, dated Dec. 16, 1856, 
Mr. Lawrence explains his plans and desires on 
this subject. He says: 

"You shall have a college which shall be a school of 
learning and at the same time a monument to perpetuate 
the memory of those martyrs of liberty who fell during the 
recent struggles. Beneath it their dust shall rest. In it 
shall burn the light of liberty, which shall never be extin- 
guished until it illumines the whole continent. It shall be 
called the 'Free-State College,' and all the friends of free- 
dom shall be invited to lend it a helping hand. ... I 
cannot furnish cash for building, but I can give what will 
be as good for paying expenses after it is up. For instance, 
having advanced ten thousand dollars to the university at 
Appleton, Wisconsin, last year, I hold their notes on interest. 
This is a good institution and it owes little or nothing except 
this. They have about two hundred thousand dollars' worth 

History of the University. 43 

of property, and four hundred and fifty students on their 
catalogue. I wish I had money, but I fear the time is far 
distant when I shall have more than enough to carry on my 
plans begun long ago." 

He was evidently deeply interested in this 
matter, for in another letter to the llev. Mr. 
Nute, written only five days later than the pre- 
ceding, he says: 

"I am very desirous not to lead in this matter of the 
college, but only to be one of many subscribers to the fund, 
which ought to be as much as one hundred thousand dollars 
at starting. They are now raising a sum of money in Con- 
necticut (a dollar for every Fremont vote), they say forty- 
three thousand dollars, for relief. This would be the best 
relief they can give, to employ labor next spring, at the same 
time creating a permanent benefit and perpetuating the 
memory of a struggle which must exercise a vast influence 
on this continent. Pardon my troubling you, but the more 
I consider this matter of a 'Free-State College,' the more I 
like it, and hope God will put it into the hearts of the people 
to carry it out. The clergy could do it if they would not be 
jealous of each other's influence." 

Naturally the majority of the settlers in their 
struggle with untamed nature, as it appeared in 
the unbroken prairie and the border ruffian, had 
little thought for this subject, but the friends of 
the enterprise here found time" to discuss and 
investigate the questions of means and location 
for the proposed college. Some advocated the 
location of the site at a point more remote from 

44 History of the University. 

the town. This question was also submitted to 
Mr. Lawrence, and his reply doubtless had much 
weight in determining the location not only of 
North College, but also of the later University 
buildings. In another letter to Rev. Mr. Nute, 
dated Feb. llth, 1857, he says: 

"I should suppose [the proposed site] is not comparable 
with the high lands above the town. Trade will not go up 
the hills except to get prospect of a good bargain, and there 
is no risk in locating a college or a church on a hill, even in 
a large city. The Romanists have understood this, and we 
see in Europe their institutions on the pinnacles over the 
cities, unless occupied by a fortress, always. It insures a 
good view and seclusion. The spot originally selected in 
Lawrence is the right one." 

In accordance with his previous suggestion, 
he forwarded to the local trustees of the New Eng- 
land Emigrant Aid Company the notes against 
Lawrence University, Wisconsin, and his letter 
of directions to the trustees regarding the dis- 
posal of the income is worthy of quotation in 
full, both as more fully revealing his plans and 
as giving an insight into the political creed and 
the character of the man. 

" BOSTON, Feb. 14, 1857. 
' ' To Messrs. Charles Robinson and S. C. Pomeroy, Trustees 

"GENTLEMEN : Enclosed with this are two notes of five 
thousand dollars each, of the Lawrence University, of Wis- 
consin, which, with the interest added, amount to eleven 
thousand six hundred and ninety-six and - 1 \ j - | dollars, as of 

History of the University. 45 

to-day; also a certificate of stock in the New England Emi- 
grant Aid Company (par 32,000), worth one thousand dollars 
or more at the present time; in all twelve thousand six hun- 
dred and ninety-six dollars and fourteen cents, which has 
been transferred to yourselves to be held by you in trust, and 
the income to be used for the advancement of the religious 
and intellectual education of the young in Kansas Territory. 
Until I shall give directions to the contrary, I wish one-half 
of the income to be applied to the establishment of the best 
system of common schools, by organizing in every settlement 
those who shall be in favor of its adoption, as soon as the 
school funds shall be received from the United States (Gov- 
ernment; also by giving aid to a school in Lawrence which 
shall serve as a model to others. The other half of the in- 
come to be used for the establishment of Sunday schools and 
furnishing them with the books of the Sunday School Union, 
of Philadelphia. In the event of my decease without giving 
any other directions than the above, I wish the fund to be 
used in the manner designated by ine in a letter written to 
Rev. E. Nute, Dec. 16, 1856. 

"The state of your laws prevents me from making a 
formal instrument of trust at this time, and I have only to 
say that by accepting the office of trustees you will confer a 
favor on me, while you will be serving the interest of the 
Territory in which we all have taken so much interest, and 
for which you have endured and risked so much. 1 rely im- 
plicitly on your honor to retain the property in your safe 
keeping, and to carry out the plan herein specified. In the 
event of your resignation of the office of trustee at any time 
or your removal from the Territory, I wish for the privilege 
of appointing your successors. Hereafter, I may give my 
vic\v< more in detail. You can draw on the treasurer of the 
Lawrence University at anytime for a year's interest, in any 
one year. I have refrained from drawing because they have 
required all their funds for their new building. Recently 

46 History oj the University. 

one building lias been burnt, and on this account, as well as 
from my desire to prevent all embarrassment to the institu- 
tion, I wish that the payment of the principal sum may not 
be urged, so long as the interest is received. If Kansas 
should not become a 'Free State' as soon as admitted to the 
Union, 1 wish the property returned to me or my heirs. 
"Your obedient servant, 


The poverty of the West and the unusual 
financial depression in the East prevented rapid 
additions to this generous gift, and the plans for 
the "Free-State College" could not be carried 
into execution at once. However, this magnifi- 
cent sum, as it was then regarded, was supposed 
by many to be immediately available for any 
respectable proposition for the establishment of 
a college, and the following year saw the initia- 
tory steps taken for the establishment of a school 
of high grade, to be under the immediate con- 
trol of the Presbyterian Church of the United 
States of America. The active agent of this 
enterprise was a physician of Lawrence named 
Chas. E. Miner, a member of the Presbyterian 
Church and an energetic and aggressive business 
man. The directors were: Kev. Wm. Wilson, 
Rev. Richard Cord ley, Hon. Chas. Robinson, 
John M. Coe, Chas. E. Miner, Rev. G. w! 
Hutchinson, James A. Finley, C. L. Edwards, 
all of Lawrence; Rev. F. P. Montfort, of Browns- 

History of the University. 47 

ville; T. E. Thomas, D. D., of New Albany, 
Ind.; K L. Kice, D. D., of Chicago; C. Van 
Renssalaer, D. D., of Philadelphia; R. J. Breck- 
en ridge, D. D. , of Kentucky, Rev. H. I. Coe, 
of St. Louis; and M. W. Jacobs, D. D., of Al- 
legheny City, Pa. Appropriate committees were 
appointed, and plans were made for the erection 
of a building forthwith, to be thirty-six by sixty 
feet, two stories high. This building* was de- 
signed only as a wing of the main buildings, 
which were expected to cost not less than $50,- 

A committee was appointed to solicit contri- 
butions in the Territory in money and lands. 
The hope was expressed that the citizens of 
Lawrence and vicinity would not allow them- 
selves to be surpassed by other portions of the 
Territory in their subscriptions for an enterprise 
that would add so much to the attractions and 
advantages of Lawrence. This project is scarcely 
to be compared with the "real-estate colleges" 
of more recent times, but its agents did not fail 
to note that "in a pecuniary point of view, 
holders of real estate in this vicinity will greatly 
enhance the value of their own property by up- 
building such an institution in our midst." It 

*Tbe dimensions were afterwards changed to fifty feet square. 

48 History of the University. 

was also announced that a lady of boundless en- 
ergy, Mrs. Emily P. Burke, was already at work 
in the East raising funds for the cause, and her 
reports of successful operations gave great en- 
couragement to the local committees. Several 
gentlemen of influence and means in the East 
were also actively interested.* Assurances were 
given that the Amos Lawrence fnnd would be 
available, provided the enterprise could be placed 
on a safe and permanent financial basis. 

In Territorial days charters were granted only 
by legislative enactment. A bill was introduced 
and passed in the Legislature of 1859 which gave 
legal sanction to Lawrence University, with the 
following board of trustees: C. E. Miner, Wm. 
Bishop, G. W. Hutchinson, J. M. Coe, A. W. 
Pitzer, E. Nute, Chas. Robinson, S. C. Pomeroy, 
C. H. Branscomb, "Wm. Wilson, J. A. Finley, C. 
L. Edwards, T. D. Thacher, Charles Reynolds, 
Robert Morrow, Jas. Blood, R. S. Symington, 
Josiah Miller, Lyman Allen, Thos. Ewing, F. P. 
Montfort. By a supplemental act the name of 
William Brindle was added to this list, f 

Under this law, the trustees met on Jan. 22, 
1859, and proceeded to the organization of Law- 

* Lawrence Republican, July 8, 1858. 
t Private Laws, 1859, pp- 81-86. 

History of the University. 49 

rence University. Their meeting was held at 
the Eldridge House, and a temporary organiza- 
tion was made by the election of Gov. Medary 
as chairman, and T. Dwight Thacher as secre- 
tary. After a prayer by the Rev. Win. Bishop, 
a committee was appointed to nominate perma- 
nent officers of the board of trustees. All the 
persons named in their report were duly elected 
by ballot, as follows: For president, Chas. E. 
Miner; vice president, Lyman Allen; recording 
secretary, C. L. Edwards; corresponding secre- 
tary, Wm. Bishop; treasurer, James Blood; ex- 
ecutive committee, Chas. E. Miner, T. Dwight 
Thacher, Wm. Bishop, Chas. Reynolds, G. W. 
Hntchinson, C. H. Branscomb, James Blood and 
Robert Morrow. 

"The following chairs were then established: 
Biblical literature and moral philosophy, Greek 
language and literature, Latin language and lit- 
erature, English literature, natural sciences, 
mathematics, modern languages, principal of 
preparatory department, principal of female de- 
partment. Dr. C. E. Miner was appointed the 
agent of the board to obtain donations at the 
East for the University." 

"A committee duly appointed nominated the 


50 History of the University. 

following candidates for the several chairs, who 
were all elected by ballot: Professor of biblical 
literature and moral philosophy, Rev. Thos. E. 
Thomas, of Dayton, O. ; professor of Greek 
language and literature, Rev. William Bishop, 
formerly of Hanover College, Ind. ; professor 
of English literature, Rev. Chas. Reynolds, for- 
merly of Columbus, O. ; principal of prepara- 
tory department, Chas. L. Edwards, present 
principal of Quincy High School, of this city; 
principal of female department, Mrs. Emily P. 
Burke, [of Chestnut Level, Pa.] 

"A medical department was then established, 
consisting of the following chairs, and the fol- 
lowing incumbents elected: Surgery and surgi- 
cal anatomy, (unfilled); theory and practice and 
clinical medicine, C. E. Miner, M. D. ; physi- 
ology and pathology, A. M. Clarke, M. D., of 
New York city; materia medica and medical 
botany, J. P. Root, M. D., of Wyandotte; ob- 
stetrics and diseases of women and children, 
Alonzo Fuller, M. D. ; chemistry and medical 
jurisprudence, John M. Coe, Esq., of Law- 

- Committees on by-laws and curriculum were 
appointed, and another committee was empow- 
ered to confer with the Legislature in regard to 

History of the University. 51 

the establishment of a normal school in connec- 
tion with the university. The bond of the treas- 
urer was fixed at ten thousand dollars. Chas. E. 
Miner was also placed on two more committees 
whose functions were to attend to the erection 
of the proposed building and to procure a seal for 
the university, and then the meeting adjourned 
to meet again in five days.* 

During the month of January, 1859, the trus- 
tees of the city of Lawrence gave to the trustees 
of Lawrence University a "quitclaim deed with 
bond for the execution of further deed whenever 
patent shall issue for town site of Lawrence" to 
the present North College campus, "on condi- 
tion that said university is permanently located 
at Lawrence, Kansas Territory, that a brick build- 
ing not less than thirty-six feet in width and sixty 
feet in length, two stories high, be erected and 
completed within one year from this date, and 
that a school be commenced within six months 
from this date, and that, failing to comply with 
the above conditions, said Lawrence University 
shall forfeit all right to said lot of ground, and 
it shall again become the property of the city of 
Lawrence." f 

* Lawrence Republican, Jan. 27, IKTi'.t. 

tR-port of committee on city property. (See council record of 
March IBI, 1603.) 

52 History of the University. 

In accordance with the terms of this quitclaim 
deed, an attempt was made to open a preparatory 
school. The trustees were unable to comply 
with the letter of the agreement, but they hit 
upon a plan for fulfilling its spirit. The "six 
months" specified in the agreement had elapsed, 
and no school was in operation. Mr. C. L. Ed- 
wards, who had conducted the Quincy High 
School and other schools in Lawrence, had ad- 
vertised the opening of an institute* in Septem- 
ber of 1859. Almost all the pupils of suitable 
age and attainments in the vicinity were pledged 
to attend his institute. The management of 
Lawrence University, accordingly, proposed to 
make his institute the "Preparatory Department 
of Lawrence University." With a very slight 
change of program this was accomplished. The 
place of the school was the basement of the 
Unitarian Church, which had been already secured 
for the institute. The fees were to remain the 
same. Two more members of the university 
faculty were added to the teaching force. Rev. 
Win. Bishop, professor-elect of Greek literature, 
came each morning and opened the school with 
devotional exercises and conducted a beginners' 
class in Latin; Rev. Chas. Reynolds, professor- 

* Lawrence Republican, Sept. 1, 1859. 

History of the University. 53 

elect of English literature, came each day and 
heard a class in reading. The rest of the teach- 
ing and management was done by Mr. Edwards, 
who also received all the fees. This preparatory 
department was opened September 19th, 1859, 
and continued about three months, when its pat- 
ronage ceased and it ceased.* 

The difficulty of securing funds for the insti- 
tution somewhat retarded the progress of the 
work of building, but, about the middle of the 
summer of 1859, Dr. Chester, of Philadelphia, 
and others, representing the Presbyterian Educa- 
tional Board, visited Lawrence f and examined 
the situation. They were satisfied with the out- 
look, and accordingly the Board gave pledges of 
sufficient money to erect a building suitable for 
the purpose, on condition that an endowment 
could be secured from other parties.;}: The trus- 
tees voted to name their new building "Chester 
Hall," in honor of Dr. Chester, and set about 
the work with great earnestness and enthusiasm. 

A similar enterprise was set on foot about this 

* Statement of O L. Edwards. Compare erroneous statements in 
various State Un.vert-ity catalogues, Kant>as " Herd Book." and oilier 
places, with true date of opening, as shown by/ r .<7(r<rAV/W'//<Yj.Sept. 
23, 18511. 

t l.nivrence Republican, Aug. 11, 1859. 

\ History of Lawrence Presbyterian Church, by Dr. Osmond, lf-88, 
p. 11. 

54 History of the University. 

time by the Congregational Church of Kansas. 
The "Association of Congregational Ministers 
of Kansas" at an early day* determined upon 
the establishment of a college in Kansas Ter- 
ritory. Topeka made the first proposition to 
secure the location of their college but evidently 
promised more by way of inducement than she 
could fulfill. Accordingly, at a meeting held at 
Lawrence in June, 1859, a proposition was made 
to secure for Lawrence the establishment of an 
educational institution to be called "Monumental 
College, 11 ! designed to commemorate the tri- 
umph of liberty over slavery in Kansas, and to 
serve as a memorial of those who assisted in 
achieving that victory. The trustees of the 
Amos Lawrence fund, with the consent of Mr. 
Lawrence, signified their willingness to make 
over that fund to "Monumental College, 1 ' ^ on 
condition that the Congregationalists should 
have control of the institution. By a subscrip- 
tion the incorporators had obtained donations 
of a large amount of land, numerous town lots 
and money pledges, all together estimated vari- 
ously at from $40,000 to $70,000. "The 
interest of the people of Lawrence in this move- 

*Minutes of meeting, April 25-27, 1857. 
t Congregational Record, p. 45. 
% Congregational Record, p. 46. 

History of the University. 55 

ment may be seen from the fact that this whole 
sum was secured in a little over three days. 
The paper on which the names of the donors 
are signed makes a roll some eight feet long." 

The Association almost unanimously accepted 
the proposition of the incorporators, and Mr. S. 
N. Simpson, of Lawrence, went to Massachu- 
setts, where he presented the cause to prominent 
men of the denomination. The undertaking re- 
ceived the attention of many prominent men of 
the Congregational f and other churches. But 
in spite of these fair promises, the drought of 
1860 and the consequent hard times prostrated 
the enterprise, and nothing substantial was ac- 
complished. The association of ministers again 
took up the question in 1863 and located their 
college at Topeka, \ and Washburn College is the 
result of their efforts. 

The claim of the Congregationalists that they 
were likely to secure the Amos Lawrence fund 
for their proposed college caused uneasiness 
among the Presbyterians, but the latter had the 
lead, and pushed forward the work of building 

* Lawrence Republican, June 2, 1859. 

tSce Springfield ( Mass ) Rf publican and Roston Journal, as quoted 
in iMwrence Republican and Congregational Record. 
} Congregational Record, Vol. V, p. 79. 
8 Congregational Record, p. 40. 

56 History of the University. 

as rapidly as possible. Large quantities of brick, 
stone and lumber were hauled to the hill and 
masons were employed in laying a foundation 
for the building. On the eighteenth of October, 
1859, the Free Masons, then in session in the 
city, publicly laid the corner stone, and Solon O. 
Thacher and others delivered speeches appro- 
priate to the occasion.* Work was pushed on 
until cold weather compelled the workmen to 
cease. Meanwhile denominational jealousy was 
doing its work, f and there was a general feeling 
of dissatisfaction with the financial management 
of Dr. Miner, \ who had gone to Boston, where 
he had made an unfavorable impression on 
Amos Lawrence. Work could not be resumed 
the following spring because of difficulty in se- 
curing cash to pay expenses. The workmen and 
contractors had been paid but little, and the 
Educational Board was unwilling to sink money 
in a failing cause. The hard times consequent 
upon the drought of 1860 decided the fate of 
the cause. It could not be carried to comple- 
tion. Dr. Miner, however, insisted on the ful- 
fillment of the pledge of the Educational Board, 

* Lawrence Republican, Oct. 20, 1859. 

t Letter of Rev. Wm. Bishop, Salina, Kas. 

i Statements of Sam. Reynolds, C. Robinson and others. 

fc Statement of C. Robinson. 

History of the University. 57 

bat finally made a compromise proposition, 
which, on motion of Dr. Chester,* was adopted, 
whereby the board paid the sum of $1,523.50 
to the trustees of Lawrence University, and the 
parties mutually released "each other from all 
obligation that they may have been under or that 
they may have been considered to be under." 
This payment was made in the fall of 1860. A 
previous payment of one hundred dollars had 
been made in January, 1859, and this sum of 
$1,623.50 represents substantially the amount 
actually invested by the Presbyterians in Law- 
rence University. They had, however, a con- 
siderable amount of material on the ground and 
debts of about equal amount. Liens aggregating 
$3,000 or $4,000 were made by sub-contractors 
upon the property. The general feeling was 
that the project had failed, f 

Many, however, were unwilling to see the plan 
of a college for Lawrence given up. A new board 
of trustees was, therefore, formed and a new 
institution chartered by the Territorial Legisla- 
ture of 1861, under the auspices of the Episcopal 
Church. The name of the new organization was 
"Lawrence University of Kansas." The trus- 

* Record of Educational Board, supplied by Dr. D. W. Poor, Phila- 

tStntriMciits of R. <;. Elliott mid others. 

58 History of the University. 

tees named in the charter were: Chas. Reynolds, 
Chas. Robinson, Chas. E. Miner, H. J. Canniff, 
C. W. Babcock, Geo.W. Deitzler, Win. H. Hick- 
cox, Geo. W. Smith, J. M. Bodine, Caleb S. 
Pratt, Samuel Reynolds, Geo. Ford, Jas. Blood, 
N. O. Preston, John Foreman, R. G. Elliott, L. 
Bullene and S. A. Riggs.* 

Rev. Chas. Reynolds, rector of the Episcopal 
Church, of Lawrence, was the principal agent of 
the enterprise. Contributions were again sought 
in the East, and liberal responses were received. 
Among the most liberal contributors were John 
David Woolfe, of New York, and Amos A. Law- 
rence, of Boston, f 

By arrangement with the Presbyterians, a 
board of appraisers^: was chosen and the founda- 
tion and materials collected on Mt. Oread were 
appraised. Liens to the amount of $3,000 or 
$4,000 were held against this property by mechan- 
ics and sub-contractors. The value of the prop- 
erty as determined by the appraisers was about 
equal to the sum of such claims, and on condition 
that the Episcopalian board would satisfy these 
creditors the Presbyterians surrendered their 

'Private Laws, 1861. 

1 Letter from Rev R. W. Oliver, March 30, 1891. 
JFor a different and erroneous statement of this matter, see " His- 
torical Sketch of First Presbyterian Church, of Lawrence, Kas., 1888," 

P 12. 

History of the University. 59 

claims. By further arrangement with the cred- 
itors, their claims were all paid on the basis of 
sixty -five cents on the dollar.* 

In consequence of some adverse criticism of 
the management of Chas. Reynolds, the Amer- 
ican Church Missionary Society, through whose 
agency support for the undertaking was secured, 
withdrew its support. 

Mr. Reynolds afterwards resigned, and en- 
tered the United States army as a chaplain. 
Rev. R. W. Oliver, who was sent out as his suc- 
cessor, was commissioned by the society to in- 
vestigate the charges of mismanagement and 
decide as to the advisability of continuing the 
work. lie found the charges groundless, but 
decided that it was not best to continue the work 
immediately, f The war interfered, and practi- 
cally nothing more was done. 

About two years later the proposition to build 
a city school on Mt. Oread was revived. On 
the 12th of August, 1863, the city council ap- 
pointed a committee "to enter upon and take 
posession of the city property on Oread Hill, 
and the foundation erected there for college pur- 

* Statement of It. G. Elliott, who paid the money in settlement of 
these claims 

t Letter from R. W. Oliver, who adds: " He (Rev. Chas. Reynolds) 
had paid the Presbyterians in full for all their claims, and I got their 
receipt in full for all demands." 

60 History of the University. 

poses, the several societies to whom it had been 
leased having failed to comply with the lease or 
contract entered into with the city, thereby 
forfeiting said property."* furthermore, a mo- 
tion was made to issue bonds to the amount of 
$10,000 "for the purpose of completing the 
school building on Mt. Oread." On August 
19th, the mayor reported that formal possession 
of the property had been taken in the name of 
the city. Quantrell\i raid, which occurred two 
days after this report, decided the fate of this 
movement for the time; but a year later the city 
again asserted its claim to Mt. Oread. Rev. R. 
W. Oliver protested against the city's action, as 
the following significant letter of remonstrance 
will show : f 

"To the lion. Mayor Ludington and City Council of Law- 

" GENTS : Your reply to my last communication is before 
me. It' the affair stood respecting the property on college 
hill as you honestly suppose, your proposal to lay hold upon 
the building for city property without remuneration would 
not in my judgment be generous. But when, on the express 
authority of Rev. Mr. Reynolds, I am justified in believing 
that a consideration for the aforementioned woi-k was pro- 
posed and accepted by a former mayor of your city, I am 
justified in asking you to reconsider your judgment. I have 
no mind to stand in the way of public improvements, and 

* Council proceedings, Aug. 12th, 1863. 

t Quoted from council proceedings, Sept. 7, 1864. 

History of the (Tfriversity. 61 

more especially when the improvements look towards the 
education of the rising generation. Had your judgments 
been of a friendly and contrary character, 1 would now be 
pushing forward, on a small but efficient scale, a public im- 
provement for educational purposes. 

"I lay no claim to any lands or lots; but simply as in 
my judgment neither a former mayor of Lawrence nor Rev. 
Mr. Reynolds had the individual right to convey away the 
rights of others without their expressly having authorized 
them so to do, that the case presents itself to your honest in- 
stincts and judgments for such action in the case as will 
place all parties right before a just public sentiment. Hon. 
Judge G. W. Smith is officially appointed to enter into any 
arrangement with you on the part of the vestry of Trinity 

"I am, gents, yours faithfully, 

"R. W. OLIVEB." 

A few months later Mr. Oliver was elected 
Chancellor of the State University and secured 
the donation of the claims of the Episcopal 
Church to the State.* 


The first constitution of Kansas Territory, 
adopted at Topeka in December, 1855, in the 
third section of its seventh article provided that 
"The General Assembly may take measures for 
the establishment of a university, with such 
branches as the public convenience may hereaf- 
ter demand, for the promotion of literature, the 

* Regents' record, p. 13. 

62 History of the University. 

arts, sciences, medical and agricultural instruc- 
tion." A year and a half later the Free-State 
Legislature which met at Topeka, June 9, 1857, 
enacted five laws, one of which was "For estab- 
lishing a State University, at Lawrence."* 

The framers of the Lecompton constitution, 
in September, 1857, although possibly outdone 
by their Free-State brethren in zeal for the 
founding of a university, nevertheless in the 
fourth section of the ordinance appended to the 
constitution enacted 

"That seventy-two sections, or two entire townships, 
shall be designated by the President of the United States, 
which shall be reserved for the use of a seminary of learn- 
ing, and appropriated by the Legislature of said State solely 
to the use of said seminary." 

Again, the Leavenworth constitution, adopted 
by the Free-State men in April. 1858, in the 
seventh section of its seventh article provides 

"As the means of the State will admit, educational insti- 
tutions of a higher grade shall be established by law, so as 
to form a complete system of public instruction, embracing 
the primary, normal, preparatory, collegiate and university 

And, finally, the Wyandotte constitution, 
adopted in July, 1859, provided in the seventh 
section of the sixth article that 

* Wikler's Annals of Kansas, p. 169. 

History of the University. 63 

"Provision shall be made by law for the establishment, 
at some eligible and central point, of a state university, for 
the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences, in- 
cluding a normal and agricultural department. All funds 
arising from the sale or rents of lauds granted by the United 
States to the State for the support of a state university, and 
all other grants, donations or bequests, either by the State 
or by individuals, for such purposes, shall remain a perpetual 
fund, to be called- the ' university fund,' the interest of which 
shall be appropriated to the support of a state university. 

"Sec. 8. No religious sect or sects shall ever control any 
part of the common school or university funds of the State." 

By the act of the admission of Kansas into 
the Union, approved by President Buchanan 
January 29, 1861, the Wyandotte constitution 
became the constitution of the State of Kansas, 
and, therefore, the last sections above quoted 
form the constitutional provision for a State 
University of Kansas. By an act of Congress, 
approved on the day of the admission of Kan- 
sas to statehood, it was ordered 

"That seventy-two sections of land shall be set apart 
and reserved for the use and support of a state university, 
to be selected by the Governor of said State, subject to the 
approval of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
and to be appropriated and applied in such manner as the 
Legislature of said State may prescribe, for the purposes 
aforesaid, but for no other purpose." 

The city of Lawrence had long been regarded 
as the literary metropolis of Kansas, by her own 

64 History of the University. 

citizens, at least, and when the question of loca- 
tion of state institutions came up for considera- 
tion, the people of Lawrence preferred to secure 
the State University to any other institution, even 
the capital. They based their preference on the 
belief that Lawrence was too far east to be able 
to hold the capital; that the State University 
would be a greater attraction to population, and 
that, even if greater numbers should not be at- 
tracted by it, the literary influence of the Uni- 
versity would at any rate compensate for the 
difference in material advantage. In the loca- 
tion of the capital, therefore, the people of To- 
peka had their desire, and it is claimed that, by 
tacit understanding, at least, Lawrence was to 
have the University. * But as enterprising towns 
were more numerous than desirable state institu- 
tions, the Lawrence people were given to under- 
stand that the University, with its grant of 
seventy-two sections of land, would not be yielded 
to them without a struggle. However, as the 
various denominational enterprises for the found- 
ing of a college at Lawrence had failed, the 
"Amos Lawrence fund" was still intact, and, at 
the request of the trustees of the fund, Mr. Law- 
rence had expressed a willingness that it should 

* Statements of Richard Cordley, J. G. Haskell and others. 

History of the University. 65 

be employed as an endowment fund for a State 
University, if its location could be secured for 
the city of Lawrence. Interest on the original 
notes had been accruing for some time, and the 
fund now amounted to about $15,000, which 
was still in the hands of Lawrence University, 

The first attempt to locate the State Univer- 
sity under the constitution was a proposition 
made in 1861 in favor of Manhattan, where the 
Methodists already had a school in operation, 
under the name of Bluemont College. The bill 
for this location passed both houses of the 
Legislature, but was promptly vetoed by Gov- 
ernor Robinson,* who thought the movement 
premature. The question did not come up 
again until 1863. In the meantime Congress 
had made a magnificent grant of land for an 
agricultural college. Manhattan waived her 
claims to the University and without a contest f 
secured the location of the Agricultural College. 

To secure the University, the city of Law- 
rence offered an endowment of $15,000, and 
forty acres of ground adjoining .the city for a 
campus. At that time the city of Emporia 

*Fet article of Prof. Walters, In The Industrialist, April 18th, 1891. 
House 8iid Senate Journals. isc,:j 


66 History of the University. 

was the chief competitor in the race, and her 
representative, C. V. Eskridge, came forward 
with that city's proposition to give eighty acres 
of ground adjoining Emporia as a site. Em- 
poria's representative had come to the Leg- 
islature bound by a promise to secure for his 
constituents the State University.* He evidently 
had the odds against him. A fair majority of 
the legislators were, doubtless, in favor of Law- 
rence at the opening of the session, f but by 
the diligence and ready promises of Emporia' s 
representative many were inclined to support 
Emporia. Mr. Eskridge introduced House 
Bill No. 122, "To establish the State Univer- 
sity at Emporia," which finally became the law, 
but not until its text had been radically changed 
and its title shorn of the fond words "at Em- 
poria." The fight was one of the most earnest 
and memorable ever fought in a Kansas Legis- 
lature, % and was watched with interest by the 
whole State. The Topeka correspondent of the 
Leavenworth Conservative, Feb. 6, 1863, says: 
"To-day, in the discussion in the House upon the bills 
for locating the University, Mr. Eskridge made a pointed and 
telling speech in support of Emporia. 

* Statement of J. S. Emery. 

t Statement of Edward Russell 

% Letter of C. V. Eskridge, Mar. 30, 189J. 

History of the University. 67 

" There have been a host of lobby members here from 
Lawrence, working to secure the supremacy of that place in 
this contest. To-day Judge Miller, the postmaster, and Mr. 
U. S. Assessor Legate, and Messrs. Blood, Hortou and others, 
were around the halls and hotels, anxious and diligent." 

The correspondent of the same paper again 
writes, Feb. 11: 

"The result of the great university contest is already 
known to you. The discussion was conducted in the feudal 
manner, by champions. The first tilt occurred on Friday, 
the 6th, when Mr. Eskridge, of Emporia, met the speech of 
Mr. Emery, of Lawrence, at all points, and bore away the 
palm of victory and the plaudits of the assembly. Again 
the battle joined, on Monday, the 9th, and at evening neither 
foe was unhorsed nor out of breath. Till late in the night 
the contest raged, here and there a follower of the chiefs 
getting involved, and one of the clan Douglas, one Foster by 
name, was so buffeted, splashed and rudely upset in attempt- 
ing a side attack on Eskridge, that he was taken off the field 
well nigh deatl. 

"The decision finally came. A vote was taken it was 
a tie. Mr. [Ed.] Russell, of Doniphau, being in the chair, 
and an ally of Lawrence, the result was in favor of the city 
known as the literary metropolis not the hub, but as one 
may say, the linch-pin of Kansas., 

"Upon this question, with which it was supposed rail- 
road interests had become involved, through the diligent log 
rolling of the entire session, the Henderson amendment men 
and the entire Douglas tier of counties, including the neigh- 
boring county of Jefferson, north of the Kansas, were early 
combined. This made twenty-live votes for Lawrence. The 
jealousy, which is ancient, and in the nature of tilings ine- 
radicable, between the first and second tiers of counties would 

68 History of the University. 

ordinarily prevent any combination of their forces in a ques- 
tion upon which depends the great north and south railroad 
line. Yet, strange to say, by some enchantment every mem- 
ber for Johnson, Miami and Linn counties (except Mr. Chris- 
tie, who lies dangerously ill, and Mr. Campbell ) was induced 
tj support Lawrence. Besides whom four of the Leaven- 
worth delegation, animated solely by conscientious consider- 
ations, according to the declarations of Mr. Brown, went on 
this side, the other four passing by on that. Thus were 
secured thirty-eight votes; and so far as the House is con- 
cerned, thus was located the University, near the commercial 
center, the military depot, denominated Lawrence." 

In the Conservative of March 3d, the same 
correspondent speaks of one Jefferson county 
member "who stood nobly aloof from the Plen- 
derson- amendment -Lawrence- University -Osa- 
watomie-Insane-Asylum coalition. The sad fact 
remains to be confessed that two members from 
that county were drawn into the vortex of that 
engulfing maelstrom, and were carried away by 
the undertow." There was probably much less 
of a combination in favor of Lawrence than this 
account alleges,* and reference is made to it 
chiefly to show the fervor of local feeling in the 
contest. The bill came up for decision in the 
Senate on Feb. llth,f and passed without a 
contest, arid received the approval of Gov. Car- 
ney Feb. 20th, and so became a law. 

* Statement of Ed. Kussell. M.eavenworth Conservative, Feb. 83. 

History of the University. . 69 

The bill provided for the appointment by the 
Governor of three commissioners, whose duty 
it should be to locate the State University. The 
specific duty of the commission was to examine 
proposed sites, make proper selection, require a 
good and sufficient title for the location without 
cost to the State, and make a full and impartial 
report to the Governor on or before the first day 
of May, 1863.* In -case of .the failure of Law- 
rence to secure a site of forty acres adjacent to 
the city and to deposit an endowment fund of 
$15,000 with the State Treasurer within six 
months after location by the commissioners, the 
provisions of the act should be null and void. 
And in that event, the proposition of Emporia 
to grant an eligible site within or adjacent to 
that city should be accepted by the State as the 
location of the University, and the Governor 
should issue his proclamation accordingly. 

The commissioners appointed were S. M. 
Thorp, Josiah Miller arid I. T. Goodnow, who 
met at Lawrence in March, and spent some days 
in examining grounds adjacent to the city,f and 
adjourned to hold a final meeting at Lawrence 
on April 25th, when the city council met in 

'General \.-.\\\~ 1803, p. 115. 
t Commissioners 1 report, 1803. 

70 History of the University. 

special session to consider a proposition to pur- 
chase a tract of land for the University site. 
The commissioners were present and "made 
some very interesting remarks in reference to 
the location of the same."* Chas. Robinson 
came forward with a proposition to furnish the 
required forty acres from his land above the 
city, on condition that the council would deed 
to him a half block of land lying south of the 
school foundation, on Mt. Oread. 

A committee of the council was appointed to 
confer with Robinson and report two days later. 
In their report they recommended the accept- 
ance of the proposition, provided Robinson 
would give bond to allow the city the privilege 
of redeeming the half block within six months 
for the sum of $1,000. The mayor was, ac- 
cordingly, ordered to sign a deed of conveyance, 
and Robinson secured to the State the transfer 
of the University campus, f 

Greater difficulties were encountered in secur- 
ing the endowment fund of $15,000. It had 
been supposed that the notes, with the accrued 
interest, against Lawrence University, Wiscon- 

* Council proceedings, p. 402. 

t About half the campus was the property of Mrs. Robinson, who 
received for her share something over <<>i)0 from the citizens of Law- 
rence. (Statements of C. Robinson and Pred. Read. ) 

History of the University. 71 

sin, could be collected without difficulty. Amos 
A. Lawrence generously offered to assist in the 
collection* and conferred with that institution 
in regard to settlement of the claim. The offi- 
cers expressed a willingness to do all in their 
power, but were unable to pay the principal. 
They offered, however, to pay the interest, 
which then amounted to $4,400. Thereupon, 
Mr. Lawrence, with the same spirit of generos- 
ity which had prompted his original gift, agreed, 
upon surrender of the notes by the trustees, to 
give the State $10,000 in cash. It was ex- 
pected to make up the required fifteen thousand 
by the collection of the interest above alluded 
to and a note held by Chas. Robinson against 
the Congregational Society, of Lawrence, for 
$000, which was unappropriated interest belong- 
ing to the fund. It finally proved impossible 
to collect either of these sums in time to meet 
the requirements of the legislative act, and the 
citizens of Lawrence were obliged to bestir 
themselves to make up the sum from their own 
resources. They had no ready money, but 
many men in business had credit. They, there- 
fore, gave a personal note amply signed and 

* Correspondence with Chas. Robinson. 

72 History of the University. 

amply secured for the sum of $5,000.' x ' In the 
meantime the city of Lawrence was laid in ruins, 
August 21st, by Quantrell's raid, and the re- 
sources of the people were gone. All interests 
for the time were prostrated, but the friends of 
the University did not fail to rally in time to 
save the institution for Lawrence. One of these 
friends, Gov. Carney, of Leavenworth, came to 
the rescue, and cashed the citizens' note of $5,- 
000. The city was thus enabled to deposit the 
necessary sum with the State Treasurer f on 
October 29th. The Governor's proclamation 
declaring the institution permanently located at 
Lawrence was made November 2d, 1863.^: 

Gov. Carney's message to the Legislature, in 
January, 1864, contained the following reference 
to this matter: 

"I submit the report (with accompanying papers) of the 
commissioners appointed to locate the State University. 
This institution is located at Lawrence. I obeyed the act 
of the Legislature, approved Feb. 20th, and made proc- 
lamation of the fact on Monday, the 3d day of Novem- 
ber, 1863. The requirements of the act were all complied 
with. A generous and earnest friend of education and 
Kansas, Amos Lawrence, of Boston, Mass., gave $10,000 
to it; the citizens of Lawrence advanced $5,000, making 

* Statement of Chas. Robinson. 
t Treasurer's Report, 1863, p. 8. 
i Public Documents, 1863, report of commissioners. 

History of the University. 73 

the amount required, which sum has been deposited with 
the Treasurer of State. I am loth to recommend the ex- 
penditure of money devoted by law to specific objects; but 
I think this case so clearly exceptional that I do not hesitate 
to urge the Legislature to return to the citizens of Lawrence 
the amount contributed by them. Their gift we know was 
a generous one; it was noble as well as generous. In a fell 
hour they lost, as it were, their all. Rebel assassins did 
the fatal work. Where, then, the patriot heart in the State 
that would not say promptly, 'Return to those public- 
spirited men the generous gift which when wealthy they 
promised, and which promise when poor they fulfilled?' 
Where the legislator, knowing these facts so honorable to 
them and to humanity itself, who would hesitate in meeting 
this wish of the people, and of doing a duty which the State 
owes to herself ? " 

In accordance with this suggestion, an act was 
passed by the Legislature refunding the money 
nominally to the mayor of the city of Lawrence,* 
and thus was accomplished the first unconsti- 
tutional measure relating to the funds of the 
University; for the act locating the University 
required an endowment of $15,000, and the con- 
stitutional provision relating to a university pro- 
vides "that all funds arising from the sale or 
rents of land granted by the United States to the 
State for the support of a state university, and 
all other grants, donations or bequests, either by 
the State or by individuals, for such purpose, 

'General Laws 1864, p. 194. 

74 History of the University. 

shall remain a perpetual fund." Not content 
witli diminishing the university endowment by 
$5,000, the Legislature took away from the 
$10,000 contributed by Amos Lawrence the 
sum of $167 to pay the interest on the loan of 
Gov. Carney.* The remaining $9,833 were in- 
vested by the State Treasurer in State bonds to 
the amount of $10,300, f which then constituted 
the University fund. 

The Legislature of 1864 passed a law to or- 
ganize the University. Two young ladies of 
Lawrence, the Misses Chapin, who had a private 
school, particularly urged the matter of organi- 
zation of the University at that time. \ During 
the Legislative session Chas. Chadwick, of Law- 
rence, visited Topeka to urge the matter with 
the representatives from Lawrence, and was by 
them instructed to draft a suitable bill for the 
organization. He withdrew to a library, found 
a copy of the charter of the State University of 
Michigan, and, with this as his model, drafted a 
bill which, with slight modifications, became the 
charter of the University of Kansas. 

* General Laws 1864, p. 194. 

t Treasurer's Report, 1864, p. 6. 

\ Statements of R. G. Elliott and Chas. Chadwick. 

Statement of Chas. Chadwick. 

History of the University. 75 

The charter declares the object of the State 
University to be, "To provide the inhabitants 
of this State witli the means of acquiring a 
thorough knowledge of the various branches of 
literature, science and the arts." The govern- 
ment of the University was vested in a Board of 
Regents, to consist of a president and twelve 
members, to be appointed by the Governor, 
with the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion and the Secretary of State as ex officlo 
members of the board. 

The University was declared to consist of 
six departments, as follows: The department of 
science, literature and the arts; the department 
of law; the department of medicine; the depart- 
ment of theory and practice of elementary in- 
struction; the department of agriculture, and the 
normal department. 

The fee of admission to the University must 
never exceed $10, and to residents of the State 
the tuition for one year in the departments of 
science, literature and the arts, and elementary 
instruction, must never exceed $30; and all tui- 
tion in these departments was to be free to resi- 
dents of the State as soon as the increase of the 
University fund would permit. 

The Regents were given the ordinary powers 

76 History of the University. 

usually belonging to such bodies. The Uni- 
versity was declared to consist of two branches, 
a male and a female branch. "The female 
branch may be taught exclusively by women, 
and buildings for that branch shall be entirely 
separate from the buildings of the male branch. 
And to establish and maintain the said female 
branch, the Regents shall annually appropriate 
a sufficient amount out of the funds of the Uni- 
versity. ' ' * 

The last provision was not a part of the orig- 
inal draft by Chas. Chadwick. At the suggestion 
of many citizens of progressive ideas, he had in- 
serted a provision for equal educational privi- 
leges of both sexes in the University, but this 
radical proposition was on the point of defeat- 
ing the bill, whereupon the concession was made 
to the conservative element in the Legislature, 
and the provision for the two branches became 
the law. However, this provision has been per- 
sistently and constantly overridden from the 
opening of the institution, and the day of the 
possible enforcement of this dead letter has long 
since passed away. 

The act of organization was approved March 
1st, 1864, and on the next day the following 

* General Laws 1864, pp. 195-8. 

History of the University. 77 

gentlemen were appointed Regents: Chas. Rob- 
inson, J. D. Liggett, E. J. Mitchell, Geo. A.Craw- 
ford, J. S. Emery, A. H. Horton, C. B. Lines, 
S. O. Thacher, Geo. A. Moore, John H. Watson, 
Samuel A. Kingman and John A. Steele. * The 
Board as thus constituted never held a meeting. 
There is no record of futile atttempts to hold 
meetings, but the following resolution passed at 
the first meeting is significant: 

"Resolved, That, in the opinion of the Regents present, 
in filling vacancies in the Board of Regents, the State execu- 
tive should have reference to the appointment of such per- 
sons as will attend the meetings of the Board." f 

The first meeting was held in the city council 
rooms of Lawrence, March 21st, 1865. By res- 
ignations of several members and the decease 
of John A. Steele, the personnel of the Board 
was materially changed by this time. The Board 
then consisted of Chas. Robinson, J. D. Liggett, 
E. M. Bartholow, Theo. C. Sears, J. S. Emery, 
C. K. Holliday, C. B. Lines, S. O. Thacher, G. 
W. Paddock, W. A. Starrett, D. P. Mitchell, J. S. 
Wever, with Isaac T. Goodnow, Superintendent 

* List furnished from records of the Secretary of State, Topeka. 
By amendment to the University charter in 1H73, the number of .Regents 
was reduced from twelve to ix, exclusive of the Chancellor, and the 
Secretary of Stale and Superintendent of Public Instruction were no 
longer included as ex officio members. 

tltest'iits' record. 

78 History of the University. 

of Public Instruction, and R. A. Barker, Secre- 
tary of State, as ex officio members of the Board.* 
Only seven of the fourteen were present, but 
they declared themselves a majority, and after 
an informal discussion a permanent organization 
was effected by the election of Rev.R.W. Oliver, 
rector of the Protestant Episcopal Church, of 
Lawrence, as Chancellor and ex officio President 
of the Board of Regents; Rev. G. W. Paddock, 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as Secretary; 
Gen. G. W. Deitzler, as Treasurer, and J. S. Em- 
ery, as Librarian, f 

On motion of State Superintendent Good- 
now, it was decided to open a preparatory 
department as soon as the citizens of Lawrence 
should provide suitable rooms free of expense 
to the State. It was deemed impracticable to 
attempt to erect a building on the ground al- 
ready belonging to the University. The founda- 
tion erected by the Presbyterians was still 
standing in good condition on North College 
hill. The grounds and building had reverted to 
the city. Some of the citizens were in favor of 
the erection upon this foundation of a city high 
school building, but the altitude of the hill led 

* Hirst catalogue, 
t Regents' record 

History of the University. 79 

the authorities to decide against it.* The Re- 
gents, accordingly, thought it desirable to secure 
the ground for a preparatory school building, 
and expressed themselves as ready to accept a 
title to the ground whenever the city would put 
the foundation in such shape that $5,000 to 
be supplied by the Regents would complete the 
building. The resources of the Regents then 
consisted of the Congregational note f of $600, 
before alluded to; over $1,000 interest on Uni- 
versity endowment fund, and $4,720;}: in cash, 
which Chas. Robinson had finally collected as 
interest from Lawrence University, Wisconsin. 
This sum was not sufficient to erect a building, 
so it was proposed to secure possession of a cer- 
tain fund originally intended for another pur- 

Soon after Quantrell's raid, in 1863, the 
Union Merchants' Exchange, of St. Louis, sent 
a relief fund to the citizens of Lawrence to ena- 
ble them to rebuild their dwellings and business 
houses. This fund, amounting to about $9,500, 
passed into the hands of James B. Laing, Ben 

* Interview with G Grovenor. 

tThis note was not paid until 1K72. (Treasurer s report. ) 
This sum, as well as the $10,000 previously given to the endow- 
ment fund, should be credite.l to Amos Lawrence An undetermimd 
portion of the Boston Lawrence relief fund was also his fjift. 

80 History of the University. 

jamiii L. Baldridge and Wesley H. Duncan,* 
trustees, by whom it was loaned in sums of not 
more than five hundred dollars to some of the 
leading business men of the city. The notes, 
secured by real estate, were to run five years, 
with interest at six per cent., and when paid the 
money was to be used to found and maintain a 
home for the orphans of the victims of the raid. 
Long before the maturity of these notes the 
necessity of an orphans' home for the persons 
intended by the donors had ceased to exist; 
besides, the sum was regarded as wholly inade- 
quate to the object, f There was, however, a 
considerable number of the orphans of the raid 
who would gladly be recipients of a free educa- 
tion. Therefore, the Regents proposed to the 
city council of Lawrence the transfer of this 
fund to them for the erection of a University 
building, on condition that the University should 
furnish a free education to all the orphans of the 
raid who were willing to avail themselves of the 
opportunity. The council was willing on its 
part to accept the proposition, but felt some re- 
luctance on account of the desire of the donors 
of the fund. Chancellor Oliver was, therefore, 

*Cily council minutes, June 35, 1865. 
t Regents' record. 

History of the University. 81 

appointed on behalf of the city council and the 
Ilegents of the University to represent the mat- 
ter to the Union Merchants' Exchange, from 
whom he received the following communication:* 

BARTON ABLB. President. I 
GKO. 11. MOKGAN, Secretary, f 


ST. Louis, Mo., Aug. 28, 1865. 

R. W. Oliver, Esq., Lawrence, Kansas I enclose here- 
with the consent of the Union Merchants' Exchange, 
through Barton Able, president, for the proposed use of the 
Lawrence relief funds. Yours truly, 

GEO. II. MORGAN, Secretary. 

The notes were, accordingly, turned over to 
the Regents, and by discounting them, some 
fifteen and others twenty per cent., about $9,- 
000 was realized. 

A similar fund had been collected in Boston 
to relieve the Quantrell raid sufferers by Amos 
A. Lawrence f and others. This fund originally 
amounted to about $5,000, of which $2,500 had 
been distributed immediately after the raid. 
The remaining $2,500 had been loaned in sums 
of $500 each to business men. Kev. J. S. 
Brown was trustee of this fund, and negotiations 
were entered into by Chancellor Oliver which 
led to the donation of this Boston Lawrence re- 

* Regents' record. t State-incut of J. 8. Urowu. 

82 History of the University. 

lief fund to the building fund of the Regents. 
Immediate payment of these notes was secured 
by discounting some twenty and some twenty- 
five per cent. * 

Still another relief fund, of which Gov. Car- 
ney was trustee, amounting to $1,000, f was 
applied to the building fund, after a discount of 
ten per cent, to secure immediate payment. 

Thus a sufficient sum was secured to erect a 
building of suitable dimensions and appoint- 

On the 6th of September, 1865, Chancellor 
Oliver made formal application to the city coun- 
cil for a transfer of the ground on Mt. Oread. 
The request was granted on condition that the 
Regents have a building completed and a school 
in operation by the 1st of January, 1867. The 
conditions were accepted, and work was imme- 
diately begun to enclose a building before the 
setting in of winter, if possible. It was neces- 
sary, however, to suspend work on account of 
cold weather when the building was about half 
erected. \ Work was resumed again in the 
spring and pushed rapidly forward, and North 

* Regents' record, pp. 40, 41. 
t Regents' record, p. 40. 
\ Regents' record, 

History of the University. 83 

College, practically as it stands now, was com- 
pleted by the middle of September, 1860, at an 
expense of somewhat less than twenty thousand 

The north campus was riot yet in satisfactory 
form. Gen. James II. Lane owned two and 
three-fourths acres necessary to complete the 
square of ten acres, and the good offices of 
Chancellor Oliver were again called into requi- 
sition. He conferred with Gen. Lane and se- 
cured bond for title by giving his personal note 
for $100. Gen. Lane, however, was afterwards 
pleased to return the note and donate the land 
to the State, f 

The several funds supplied by outside parties 
were exhausted in building, and in order to open 
the University the State was called upon for 
aid. The first appropriation asked for by the 
Regents was secured without opposition. The 
Legislature of 1866 appropriated $4,000 to be 
employed as compensation of teachers, and 
$3,000 for the purchase of scientific and philo- 
sophical apparatus, library and furniture. ^ 

On the 19th of July, 1866, the Regents elected 

*It will be observed that no part of this expense was paid by the 
State, nor by the city of Lawrence, directly. 

t Chancellor Oliver's report, in Regents' record. 
J Regents' record, p. 10. 

84 History of the University. 

the first faculty of the University. In order to 
keep the control of the institution out of the 
hands of any one denomination, it was under- 
stood that two professors should not be chosen 
from the same denomination until all the leading 
denominations should have at least one repre- 
sentative in the faculty.* It is to be observed 
that the Chancellor was not at first regarded a 
member of the faculty, but as an officer of the 
Board of Regents, f It was decided to elect 
three professors: A professor of belles lettres 
and mental and moral science; a professor of 
languages, and a professor of mathematics and 
natural science. 

For the first position three candidates were 
named: Dr. Alden, F. H. Snow and E. J. Rice. 
The last-named gentleman, a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, was elected. For 
the second position, D. H. Robinson, of the Bap- 
tist Church, and (tradition says) F. H. Snow were 
nominated. D. H. Robinson received a major- 
ity of the votes, and was elected. For the third 
and last position, F. H. Snow, of the Congrega- 
tional Church, received a majority of the votes 
cast, and was declared elected.:}: In considera- 

* Letter of R. W.Oliver. 
t Regents' record, p. 38. 
% Regents 1 record, p. 87. 

History of the University. 85 

tion of the greater experience of Prof. Rice in 
educational work, he was chosen Acting Presi- 
dent of the Faculty. 

The first session opened at North College, 
which was just on the point of completion, on 
the twelfth of September, 18(56. Twenty-six 
young ladies and twenty-nine young gentlemen 
applied and were admitted to the preparatory 
department during the first term.* 

At the close of the year $1,200 had been 
drawn from the state treasury to pay teachers f 
and |1,G69.16 to supply the institution with ap- 
paratus, furniture and books. It is not difficult 
to understand why so little of the $4, 000 pre- 
viously appropriated by the Legislature to pay 
teachers was unexpended, but that more than 
$1,300 that might have been employed in the 
purchase of books or apparatus should have been 
allowed to revert to the State is inexplicable. 

The Legislature of 1867 granted an appropri- 
ation of $13,094.94, and of this amount again 
$3,666.67 reverted to the State.J 

During the summer of 1867, E. J. Rice re- 
signed his position as Professor of Belles Lettres, 

t First catalogue. 

*The fiscal year then coincided wi'.h the calendar year. 

\ Keirents' reiiort for 1KIW. p. 7. Here niny be observed one of many 
discrepancies of thin period between the University Treasurer's repi.rt 
aud the State Auditor's books. 

86 History of the University. 

Mental and Moral Science, and Acting President 
of the Faculty, and to perform his duties as in- 
structor John W. Homer, formerly of Baker 
University, was chosen. The faculty was, more- 
over, increased by the election of Mrs. Cynthia 
A. Smith as Professor of French, T. J. Cook as 
Professor of Music, and Albert Newman"- as 
Lecturer upon Hygiene. Dr. Newman had vol- 
unteered his services the previous year without 
pay, and was not the first year considered a 
member of the faculty, f 

The attendance the second year was almost 
100 per cent, greater than that of the first year, 
the names of 125 students appearing in the cat- 
alogue, of whom two were in the collegiate de- 

The faculty had expressed the hope in the 
first catalogue that the preparatory department 
might be dispensed with at the end of the second 
year, \ but the high schools of the State had not 
increased in numbers and efficiency as they had 
hoped, and the realization of their hope was in- 
definitely postponed. The preparatory depart- 
ment was more thoroughly organized, a third 

* Second catalogue, p. 5. 

t Regents' recoid, p. 27. 

tin view of the fact that the last work of the preparatory depart- 
ment closed with this quarter-centennial year, this hope appears pre- 
posterous and amusing. 

History of the University. 87 

year was added to it, and it became the settled 
purpose of the University to maintain this de- 
partment, only so long, however, as the want of 
suitable preparatory schools should make its 
maintenance necessary. 

Near the close of the year 1867, Chancellor 
Oliver resigned his position and removed from 
Lawrence to Kearney, Nebraska, to take charge 
of the divinity chair in the diocese of Nebraska.* 
His services had been given from the first with- 
out remuneration, and in order to retain him in 
the position of Chancellor the Regents voted 
him a salary of $500 for the ensuing year, but 
his resignation was made before he received any 
part of it. His relation to the University had 
been of a business nature and he had nothing 
to do with instruction. His duties had been 
specified by the Regents as follows: First, to act 
as general financial agent for the University; 
second, to preside at all the meetings of the Re- 
gents; third, to preside at all the meetings of 
the executive committee, when present, f Al- 
though his services were wholly gratuitous, lie 
rendered very valuable aid to the institution, as 
his success in raising funds for the erection of 

*TbU position lie still holds, a loyal friend of the University for 
which he labored so well. 

t Regents' record, pp. 38, 39. 

88 History of the University. 

North College amply testifies. He bad also 
been commissioned by the Regents to visit east- 
ern colleges to find and recommend suitable per- 
sons for the offices of military instructor and 
permanent President. In his report for the lat- 
ter position, he recommended the following gen- 
tlemen: Rev. Dr. Tappan, late president of the 
University of Michican; Rev. Dr. Bonans, presi- 
dent of the university at Northfield, Vt. ; Ed- 
ward P. Evans, Ph. D., professor of modern 
languages and literature, University of Michi- 
gan; Rev. Jas. R. Boise, A. M. , professor of 
Greek language and literature in the University 
of Michigan; Henry S. Frieze, A. M., professor 
of Latin language and literature in the Univer- 
sity of Michigan.* 

The dual headship of the institution was re- 
garded as unsatisfactory, and as both Chan- 
cellor and President of the Faculty had resigned, 
the Board of Regents resolved "that it is the 
judgment of the Board that under the law the 
Chancellor of the University is the President of 
the Faculty."! 

After much discussion and serious considera- 
tion of the qualifications of various educators 

* Regents' record, p. 47. 
t Regents' record, p. 52. 

History of the University. 89 

for the position, a vote was taken at the annual 
meeting held Dec. -ith, 1867, by which Gen. 
John Fraser,* president of the Agricultural 
College of Pennsylvania, was elected Chancellor 
and President of the Faculty. Gen. Fraser 
entered upon his official duties in the University 
on the 17th day of June, 1868. f The academic 
year 1867-8 had been successfully passed under 
the combined management of the senior mem- 
bers of the faculty, Professors Robinson and 
Snow. The catalogue of this year stated that 
"by the munificence of the State, tuition in 
the University has been made free in all depart- 
ments. No charges are made, except an an- 
nual contingent fee of ten dollars, " which was 
collected from all students except orphans of 
the victims of Quantrell's raid and honorably 
discharged Union soldiers. The resources of 
the institution for many years consisted of these 
contingent fees, the interest on the endowment 
fund, which was then generally referred to as 
the Amos Lawrence fund, and the annual ap- 
propriations made by the Legislature. 

At the opening in September, 1868, the 
faculty had been considerably changed. Pro- 

* Regents' record, p 59. 
t Regents' report for 1WV.I. 

00 History of the University. 

fcssors Homer and Cook had resigned. Chan- 
cellor Fraser became Professor of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy and Belles Lettres, and S. M. 
Newhall was elected instructor in vocal music, 
W. H. Saunders instructor in chemistry, and 
John Folkrnann, Ph. D., instructor in the Ger- 
man language and literature and drawing. Dr. 
Newman's title was changed from "Lecturer 
upon Hygiene" to "Instructor in Human Anat- 
omy and Physiology and Hygiene." 

The unusually large proportion of instructors 
in the faculty was principally due to the inability 
of the Regents to pay full professors' salaries 
to more than the three senior members of the 
faculty. The first difficulty in securing sufficient 
appropriations was experienced with the Legis- 
lature of 1868. The Regents' estimate of neces- 
sary appropriations was $13, 800. This included 
the item of $3,000 for a Chancellor and President 
of the Faculty, which had been appropriated by 
the two preceding Legislatures but had remained 
undrawn in the State treasury. This item was 
now refused and the sum asked for was otherwise 
reduced to $7,500. The Regents felt that they 
must keep their contracts with the instructors, 
so no reduction of salaries was made, but at the 
close of the year 1868 an indebtedness of nearly 

History of the University. 91 

82,000 had been contracted.* Yet, strange to 
say, again an undrawn balance of $533. 3i was 
left in the State treasury, f 

The attendance of the year 1868-9 was 122, 
of which number six young ladies were in colle- 
giate classes.^: 

The year 186970 is memorable in the history 
of the institution both because of important in- 
ternal changes affecting instruction and because 
of the origin of a movement to provide a new 
and more ample domicile for the school. 

Prof. Snow had already shown a predilection 
for scientific studies and work, and, when an 
opportunity came to increase the faculty, he 
asked to be relieved of mathematics and to be 
allowed to devote himself to work in natural 
science. | A division of his work was made in 
accordance with his desires, and F. W. Bardwell 
was elected Professor of Mathematics and As- 
tronomy. Upon the resignation of Mrs. C. A. 
Smith and John Folkman, Ellen P. Leonard was 
made Professor of Modern Languages, Drawing 
and Painting. 

The North College building, which was at first 

* Regents' report, 1869. 

t See report of Commissioners on Public Institutions for 1874, p 32. 

t Catalogue of 1808-9. 

1 Regents' record, pp. 62 and 65. 

92 History of the University. 

regarded as very commodious, and sufficient for 
years, was full to overflowing. The attendance 
was now 152, with seventeen in the collegiate 
classes. In his annual report to the Regents, 
December 1st, 1869, Chancellor Fraser brought 
forward the question of new buildings, and it 
was voted by the Regents that the executive com- 
mittee should confer with the authorities of the 
city of Lawrence to procure the issuance of bonds 
to erect additional buildings.* 

A ready response was given to their appeal 
and an election ordered. A vigorous canvass was 
made, in which resident Regents and Chancellor 
Fraser took an active part. On the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, 1870, the citizens of Lawrence with great 
unanimity voted bonds to the amount of $100, 000 
to erect a new University building, f 

Chas. Robinson, Chancellor Fraser and G. 
Grovenor, mayor of Lawrence, were chosen a 
building committee. :}; Plans and specifications 
of buildings were immediately asked for, and at 
a special Regents' meeting, held June 14, plans 
offered by J. G. Haskell, architect, were unani- 
mously adopted. 

* Regents' record pp. 62 and 65. 

\La-wrencc Repabl can, and Regents' report for 1870. After the city 
had paid interest on these bonds to the amount of about $90.000, the 
State assumed the debt. Tbe legislation on the matter of these bonds 
foims an interesting chapter. 

J Regents' record, p. 71. 

History of the University. 93 

According to the plans adopted, the building 
was made 246 feet in length, ninety-eight feet 
in width of widest part, and ninety-five feet in 
height, containing fifty-four rooms, all to be de- 
voted to the work of instruction. "For every 
branch of instruction that requires special fix- 
tures and apparatus, a suitable room or suite of 
rooms is provided, so that everything belonging 
to that branch may be kept in its place, free 
from the vexations and hurtful disturbances 
which are unavoidable when one room is used 
for various branches."* Work was begun al- 
most immediately, and in about one year the 
building was enclosed. It was the intention 
of the Regents from the outset to use the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of the city bonds in enclosing 
a building, and to ask the Legislature for a suffi- 
cient amount to carry the work to completion, f 
Ninety thousand five hundred dollars were real- 
ized from the bonds, and the State was requested 
in 1871 to appropriate $50,000. This legislative 
appropriation was made in 1872, and with it the 
work was continued until, December 2, 1872, 
the building was occupied by University classes. 
And this did not come a day too soon, for the 

* Re-gents' record, p. OS. 
t Kri_'eiitw' record, jj 70. 

94 History of the University. 

North College building was no longer sufficient 
to accommodate the numerous classes. For 
some time the basement of the Unitarian Church 
had been rented, and occupied by classes which 
could not find room in North College, and in 
inclement weather much discomfort and incon- 
venience was experienced in going to and from 

In pushing the work of building, a debt of 
nearly $8,000 had been incurred.* However 
the new building still lacked a good deal of 
completion. With two hundred and twenty -six 
windows which had no interior casings, and 
twenty-two windows which were covered with 
slats, it is easy to believe the statement of Chan- 
cellor Fraser, that "the cold air of winter finds 
free ingress into the building." Most of the 
rooms were insufficiently equipped with furniture 
and apparatus, yet the authorities found reasons 
for congratulating themselves on the improve- 
ment of the surroundings. 

In the meantime the increase in the numbers 
and efficiency of the faculty, in the number of 
students and in the amount of appropriations 
for current expenses, was very gratifying. In 
1870 the faculty was increased by the election 

*Eegeuts' report, 1873, pp. 11 and 13. 

History of the University. 95 

of D. O. Kellogg as Professor of History and 
English and J. E. Bartlett as instructor in music; 
the attendance was 227, of whom nineteen were 
in the collegiate work; the amount of State aid 
was nearly $15,000. In 1871 the faculty was 
further increased by the addition of Fred. E. 
Stimpson as Professor of Chemistry and Phys- 
ics, and of A. J. S. Molinard as Professor of 
Engineering and Drawing; the attendance was 
265, twenty-nine in collegiate work, and the ap- 
propriations were nearly $18,000, of which sum 
$750 remained in the State treasury undrawn.* 

In 1872 S. W. Y. Schimonsky had taken the 
place of Prof. Molinard, and Byron C. Smith 
was elected Professor of Greek Language and 
Literature; the attendance was 272, with seventy- 
three in the collegiate classes, and the appropria- 
tions, exclusive of the $50,000 for building 
already mentioned, were $18,290. 

The years 1873 and 1874 were years of un- 
usual trials and discouraging circumstances. 
The Regents estimated the amount necessary to 
finish the new building at $35,000, and respect- 
fully asked the Legislature for that sum. Not 
only did they entirely fail to get this appropria- 

* Auditor's report, an quoted in report on public institutions, 1874, 
P 32, 

96 History of the University. 

tion, but even of the 36,000 asked to pay 
running expenses and make good a deficit of 
over $7,000 incurred in building they received 
only 824,660 in 1873. The impoverished con- 
dition of the State, and the uncertainty of getting 
an appropriation to cover deficits, made it neces- 
sary for the Regents to reorganize the faculty 
on a lower scale of expenditure than before. In 
the reorganization, which took place in 1874, the 
number of instructors was only reduced from 
eleven to ten, but the number of regular pro- 
fessors was reduced from nine to six, and three 
assistants were employed at a lower rate of com- 
pensation. Professors Stimpson, Kellogg, Leon- 
ard, Schirnonsky and Bartlett resigned their 
places, and Geo.E. Patrick, Wm.T. Gage, Frances 
Schlegel and E. Miller were chosen to take charge 
of chemistry and physics, history and English, 
modern languages and drawing, and mathemat- 
ics, respectively. Professor Bardwell took charge 
of the work in civil engineering left by Professor 
Schimonsky, and, in the retrenchment which was 
carried into the following year, he even became 
superintendent of grounds and buildings. Tliis 
sweeping change was to some extent the result 
of internal strife among members of the faculty, 
occasioned chiefly by a feeling of dissatisfaction 

History of the University. 97 

with the administration of Chancellor Fraser. 
His work of six years as head of the University 
had shown that he possessed executive ability 
in no mean degree, but lie lacked the power of 
controlling men and harmonizing discordant 
interests, lie accordingly resigned the chan- 
cellorship on the 15th of April, 1874, and his 
resignation was accepted on condition that he 
remain in charge until the appointment of his 

On the 15th of July, 1874, S. H. Carpenter, 
professor of logic in the University of Wisconsin, 
was elected Chancellor. It is reported that he 
came to the city, but withdrew without visiting 
any one officially connected with the University, 
and sent word to the llegents that he could not 
accept the position.* 

On the 19th of November, 1874, James Mar- 
vin, of Meadville, Pa., was elected Chancellor. 
lie accepted the position and assumed control 
early in the winter. Under his administration 
the institution made very considerable progress, 
notwithstanding adverse conditions. During 
his first year the salaries of regular professors 
and the Chancellor himself were considerably 

* Recent*' record, p. 183. Sec; report of coimninsioniTH on public 
institution* for 1h74, p 31, for different statement of tbe case. 


98 History of the University. 

reduced because of insufficient appropriations 
by the Legislature to maintain them. 

The institution was managed on a purely eco- 
nomical basis, and, with the return of prosperous 
financial conditions in the State, the University 
won the confidence of all classes. The $35,- 
000 asked for to complete the new building 
was not received in a lump sum, but by the 
strictest economy and careful use of small ap- 
propriations made from time to time for the 
purpose the building was completed. 

In October, 1878, the Law School was opened, 
with a class of thirteen students, under the 
charge of J. W. Green.* 

During this period the seventy-two sections 
of land granted by Congress as an endowment 
were sold and a sum of considerably over $100,- 
000 was realized. 

The faculty was increased from ten to nine- 
teen and the attendance of students advanced 
from 272 at the close of the former administra- 
tion to 582 at the close of Dr. Marvin's adminis- 

The chemistry building was erected, at a cost 

*In view of the fact that the records are much fuller, and informa- 
tion much more accessible, as well as in consideration of the class of 
readers for whom this account is intended, this sketch is made much 
briefer from the accession of Dr Marvin. 

History of the University. 99 

of $12,000. The University grounds were 
changed from a rough and treeless common to 
a well-graded enclosure covered with young 
ornamental and shade trees. On the scholas- 
tic side a proportionate progress was attained. 
Plans looking to the early discontinuance of the 
preparatory department were inaugurated, by 
the recognition of the best high schools of the 
State as schools preparatory to the University. 
By legislative requirement of 1876, a normal 
department was opened and maintained for sev- 
eral years with success. When Chancellor Fra- 
ser retired, in 1874, seven collegiate students had 
graduated, and at the close of Chancellor Mar- 
vin's administration the aggregate of collegiate, 
normal and law graduates was 139. Chancellor 
Marvin resigned his office in 1883, and the effort 
was immediately made to secure a well-known 
educator from the East to succeed him. At the 
solicitation of the Regents, Prof. C. K. Adams, 
of Michigan University, visited Lawrence, but 
declined further consideration of the question 
of accepting the chancellorship. Later in the 
summer Joshua Allan Lippincott, professor of 
mathematics in Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., 
accepted the office, and entered upon his duties 
in September of the same year. 

100 History of the University. 

Under the new administration larger appro- 
priations were demanded and received from the 
State, and several new enterprises were conse- 
quently carried out successfully. The most im- 
portant of these was the building of Snow Hall, 
at a cost of over $50,000, which sum was ap- 
propriated for the purpose by the Legislature of 
1885. This building is 110 feet in length, 100 
feet wide, three stories high, exclusive of an at- 
tic twelve feet high, and is wholly devoted to 
the Department of Natural History. A new en- 
gine house was also built by means of an appro- 
priation of $16,000. By legislative enactment 
in 1885, the Regents were directed to open a 
School of Pharmacy. This was done in the au- 
tumn of the same year, and Lucius E. Sayre, of 
Philadelphia, was placed in charge. The de- 
partments of Music and Art were more com- 
pletely organized, and material advancement was 
made in all lines of collegiate and departmental 

The number of recognized preparatory high 
schools was greatly increased and their relations 
to the University were more fully and satisfac- 
torily determined. The Normal Department and 
one year of the preparatory work were discon- 
tinued. This occasioned some diminution of the 

History of the University. 101 

aggregate attendance, but this loss was more 
than compensated by the relief of the force of 
instruction from the necessity of doing a low 
grade of teaching, and the Consequent elevation 
of the standard of scholarship. 

The annual appropriations for current ex- 
penses during this period increased from some- 
thing over $30,000 to $75,000.* The faculty 
at the close of the administration numbered over 
thirty, against nineteen at the beginning, and 
the number of graduates in all departments now 
amounted to 461. 

Chancellor Lippincott resigned in 1889, and 
an interim of one year followed, in which Re- 
gent W. C. Spangler was Acting Chancellor and 
Professor Snow was President of the Faculty. 

In the spring of 1890, Clias. F. Thwing, of 
Minneapolis, Minn., visited the University at the 
solicitation of the Regents, and was elected 
to the chancellorship. After considering the 
matter for some time, he declined to accept the 
office. A short time afterwards Professor Snow 
accepted the headship of the institution, to whose 
interests his life has been devoted, and a new 
administration and a new era were opened for 
the University. 

"The Moody Mil, passed by the Legislature of 18S!), provides for the 
levy of a State tax for the University sufficient to raise the sum of $75,- 
OOU annually. 




A UNIVERSITY and its library are closely allied. 
The present methods of conducting university 
work make the library a very essential part of a 
university. These methods which have obtained 
acceptance throughout the land may perhaps be 
best designated as German methods, since the 
impetus came from the German universities. 
The professor recommends his students to rely 
upon the library; to ascertain the original sources 
of materials used; to search for all authorities 
and opinions upon matters under discussion, and 
to verify statements made in the class room. 
The library thus gives vitality to the university. 
It has therefore become a truism that the growth 
of an institution is measured largely by its li- 
brary. A very natural question to ask when 
judging of the strength of a university is, "How 
strong is its library ? ' ' 


104: History of the Library. 

The University of Kansas has now been es- 
tablished twenty-five years. Let us, then, take a 
glance backwards and see whence the library 
came, that we may know the history of its strug- 
gles, trials and successes. 

It is with gratification that we find that the 
library was a part of the original plan of the 
University of Kansas. On March 21, 1865, the 
first Board of Regents elected one of its mem- 
bers, J. S. Emery, librarian. He was reelected 
on December 6,1865, and again on July 18,1866. 
These elections, as a matter of fact, occurred be- 
fore the opening of the University, as the first 
faculty and students did not meet for work until 
September 12, 1866. J. S. Emery was librarian 
until 1868. Another Regent, W. 0. Tenney, re- 
ceived the appointment from 1868 to 1869. The 
charge of the library then passed from the Re- 
gents to the Faculty. Frank H. Snow, Professor 
of Natural History, was elected librarian De- 
cember 1, 1869, and reelected December 7, 1870. 
He resigned September 3, 1 873. Byron C. Smith, 
Professor of Greek, was made librarian for the 
next year. January 1, 1875, E. Miller, Profes- 
sor of Mathematics, accepted the position, and 
discharged the duties for twelve years. He re- 
signed April 1, 1887. Inasmuch as the libra- 

History of the Library. 105 

rians up to this date were professsors in the 
University, the amount of time they could devote 
to library work was of necessity limited, but, 
with the resignation of Prof. Miller, a new state 
of affairs was inaugurated. Carrie M. Watson 
was then elected to devote her whole time and 
attention to the work. It seems the natural 
order of things, when writing the history of this 
library, to give the history of the librarians first, 
because the library had librarians before it had 

The library may be said to have started from 
nothing but a hope a hope that an appropria- 
tion for books would be made, or that some 
fund might be set aside for library purposes, or 
that some generous friend would endow or be- 
queath a library; but the early historical facts 
show us that it was for some time a forlorn hope. 
A definite idea of the condition of the library 
at the opening of the University may be found 
by an extract from a letter. The day after the 
formal opening of the University, Prof. Snow, 
in describing the building, wrote to a friend in 
the East as follows: 

"The southwest and southeast rooms on the second floor 
arc intended for a library and museum. They are now 
empty, save a few Congressional books in the library room 

106 History of the Library. 

and three or four geological specimens of my own in the 
cabinet room." 

The United States Government was the first 
liberal donor. We find in the minutes of the 
Regents, December 5, 1866, the adoption of the 
following resolution: 

"That our Senators and Representatives in Congress be 
requested to furnish for the library of the State University, 
from the departments at Washington and other sources, as 
many books as possible, and that the Secretary be requested 
to furnish them a copy of this resolution." 

The duties of the librarians, until 1873, were 
little more than to represent the department and 
to be custodians of public documents and private 
gifts. The growth of the library, for the first 
seven years of its nominal existence, was so slow 
as to be almost imperceptible. This fact is clearly 
demonstrated by the following quotation, which 
appeared regularly in the annual university cata- 
logues for six years, from 1867 to 1873: "The 
nucleus of a library has been secured, to which 
additions will be made. At present the students 
are permitted to avail themselves of the private 
libraries of the Faculty." It is somewhat diffi- 
cult to understand why this condition existed so 
long, but it was probably due to a combination 
of circumstances chiefly to the fact that the in- 
stitution did not start with a heavy endowment, 

History of the Library. 107 

but with small annual appropriations from the 
State Legislature of a comparatively new West- 
ern State. At first the funds were necessarily 
used to provide buildings and instruction. Thus, 
year by year, these demands exhausted the 
money to be expended, and as a result there 
could be no books purchased. There is one 
strange bit of history connected with the early 
struggles of the library that puzzles one, when 
reading the annals of the University. The li- 
brary was mentioned in the first appropriation 
along with scientific and philosophic apparatus, 
for all of which $3, 000 was appropriated by the 
Legislature of 1866, but over $1,300 of the 
$3,000 reverted to the State treasury. Why 
$1,300 was not used to establish the library is 
the mystery. 

August 7, 1867, Chancellor Oliver recom- 
mended, in his annual report: 

"The collection of a library demands some attention. 
The large and well-assorted library of President Tappan is 
left with the trustees at Ann Arbor to be disposed of. It 
affords a rare opportunity for purchasing at a low rate one 
of the best assorted libraries in the land. The catalogue of 
his library is herewith submitted." 

Nothing was ever done with this recommenda- 
tion. We learn from the minutes of the Board 
of Regents for August 23, 1871, that the com- 

108 History of the Library. 

mittee reported the purchase from John Speer, 
of Lawrence, of thirteen volumes of the United 
States Pacific Survey. These volumes cost $50. 
This was the first addition to the library by pur- 
chase. In 1873, the expenditures were $220.30 
for books of reference. 

Such deliberation did not produce a library. 
The inconvenience to the members of the fac- 
ulty from the lack of library facilities is vividly 
represented in Chancellor Eraser's report of the 
Department of Mental and Moral Philosophy, 
dated 1873. He says: 


"The books needed by the students are at present fur- 
nished out of my private library. Other professors in the 
institution likewise give to their students the use of books 
which are not to be found in the very limited and defective 
library belonging to the University. Without an adequate 
supply of good books, bearing on the subjects of text books, 
the student cannot be trained to habits and methods of crit- 
ical literary and philosophical research. Narrowness, su- 
perficiality and dogmatism are almost sure to be results of 
the method of instruction that limits the student's knowl- 
edge of a subject to the contents of a single book. In com- 
mon with the other members of the Faculty, 1 feel that my 
instructions are narrowed in their range and impaired in 
their usefulness from lack of books by the best authors on 
the subjects taught in my department. A library is as es- 
sential to thorough instruction in literature and philosophy 
as apparatus is to the laboratory work in chemistry and 

Chancellor Snow, in his inaugural address, 

History of the Library. 109 

characterized this period, the first six years in 
the history of the University, as the "high school 
period, with some premonitions of an approach- 
ing collegiate character." But this high school 
was not as well supplied with a library as are at 
present many of the high schools throughout 
Kansas. It was a discouraging state of affairs, 
but perseverance and untiring efforts were finally 
successful. Those who were interested in the 
welfare of the University saw their hopes and 
plans begin to take material shape. In 1873, 
the Faculty and Regents asked for S3, 000 for 
books. The Legislature, while not granting the 
request, made what was for the time a large ap- 
propriation. One thousand and five hundred 
dollars was to be devoted exclusively to the pur- 
chase of books. This is an important epoch in 
the history of the library, for it was the first de- 
cided effort made towards the accumulation of 
books otherwise than by gift. 

Prof. Byron C. Smith reported as librarian 
in 1874 that there were less than one thousand 
volumes. But from that time the growth of the 
library was more apparent. Sums of money, 
though small, were regularly expended, so that 
the long-derided nucleus was enabled to develop. 
From 1875 to 1889, with the exception of four 


History of the Library. 

years, $1,000 was annually spent for new books; 
for these four years but 1500 was granted. In 
1876, it was entirely withheld. For the year 
1889-90, $5,000 was appropriated for additions 
to the library; for 1890-91, $2,500; $3,500 has 
been set aside for books for 1891-92. The fol- 
lowing table shows the money appropriated and 
the number of volumes in the library from year 
to year: 






13 volumes of U S. Pacific Survey 

$50 00 


220 30 


Hooks of reference 

79 70 


1,500 00 

less than 


21 90 



Additions to library 

1,030 69 





Additions to library 

500 00 



Additions to library 

500 00 


187SI .. 

Additions to library 

1,000 00 



Additions to library 

1,000 00 



Additions to library 

1,000 00 



Additions to library 

1,000 00 


1883 .. . 

Additions to library 

500 00 



Additions to library 

500 00 


1885 .. 

Additions to library 

1,000 00 



Additions to library 

1,000 00 


1887 .. 

Additions to library 

1,000 00 



Additions to library 

1,000 00 


1889 .. 

Additions to library 

5,000 00 

1 1.05(i 


Additions to library 

2,500 oo 



Additions to library 


To be sure these figures do not always tell 
the story one expects; as, for instance, in 1889, 
when the amount expended was five times the 

History of the Library. Ill 

amount of any other year, it did not secure five 
times the number of books. The reason for 
this will be evident, when it is known that many 
of the complete sets of magazines, treatises and 
works of reference which were procured were 
out of print and expensive. It was deemed ad- 
visable to purchase these books as soon as pos- 
sible, as each year they are becoming rarer and 
more difficult to obtain. Then, too, the increase 
in the number of volumes does not always show 
in the corresponding year of the appropriation. 
The volumes are not counted until placed on the 
shelves, and there are often delays in ordering 
and receiving books, especially those out of 
print and those that have to be imported. 

We have just traced the origin of the library 
and the efforts made to procure books for it. 
Now let us follow it in its different locations, 
and notice the use made of it. 

As has before been stated, the library had its 
location at the outset in the first building, on the 
second floor in the southwest room. It was a 
small room and made but a slight impression on 
the students. One of the alumni, who was then 
a student in the advanced classes, remembers 
using some of the few books in the library, but 
more especially books placed there by Chancel- 

112 History of the Library. 

lor Eraser for the use of students. The ad- 
vanced students and faculty knew of this small 
collection of books, but the nucleus of a library 
was a myth to the majority of the students. 

When the removal of the entire University 
from the old building to the new one took place, 
in 1872, the mythical nucleus was arranged on 
shelves in room No. 4, which is now the uni- 
versity reception room. The use of this room 
was given to the senior classes. Further than 
adding to their pride, the members of the class 
gained little else from the advantage. The li- 
brary experience of the students of this time was 
mostly confined to the city library and the libra- 
ries of the professors. 

It was not until September, 1877, that the books 
were transferred to a room which had been fitted 
up with alcoves for the books and tables for the 
readers. The library was now for the first time 
thrown open to all the students. Here the li- 
brary started out in a library fashion, although 
upon a ludicrously small scale. It was in the west 
room of the south wing, on the first floor, No. 14 
the room now used by the English Department. 
There were then 2,519 volumes. The room 
was open from 9 A. M. to 1 p. M. The librarian 
was occupied with his classes, so the first year 

History of the Library. 118 

the room was under the care of four monitors, 
one student for each hour. But the next year 
it was found desirable to have one person to take 
charge of the room, to keep order, and to issue 
books. Carrie M. Watson was selected to assist 
Prof. Miller in this matter. Students could use 
this room as a reading room. They had access 
to the shelves, and they were permitted to draw 
one volume at a time for home use. The book 
could not be kept longer than three weeks with- 
out renewal. This was the beginning of the 
present practice. 

The library remained in this one room until 
there were 8, 035 volumes. It became so crowded 
that it was necessary to move to the north end 
of the main building, where more rooms and 
better facilities could be obtained. One room, 
at the extreme north end of the main building, 
on the first floor, was filled with alcoves to hold 
the library proper. Part of the corridor was 
cloned off and shelved for the better arrange- 
ment of the public documents. A third room, 
No. 9, which seemed adapted for the purpose in 
its direct light from the east and its cheerfulness, 
was set aside for the general reading room. It 
was connected with the book room, but the de- 

114 History of the Library. 

livery desk was placed at the doorway between 
the rooms. Only members of the senior and jun- 
ior classes were allowed to enter the room where 
the books were kept. Library permits were is- 
sued to them. The other students were handed 
the books upon request. In the fall of 1889 a 
great need was felt for another book room, so a 
compromise was made with the Law Department 
by which room No. 8 was procured. Alcoves 
to hold the general library books were placed in 
this room on these conditions: That part of the 
alcoves should be reserved for the law books, 
the law books cared for, and the law students 
granted library permits. This arrangement lasted 
only one year, for in 1890 the Law Department 
was moved to the North College. The law library 
in its new location is very conveniently situated 
for work. There are three rooms, not very large, 
but well arranged. The University now owns 
789 law books, to which J. W. Green, Dean of 
the Law Department, has added his own law 
library, 1,000 volumes, for the use of students. 
Some one from the general library examines the 
books with the shelf list two or three times a 
year. W. H. Starkey, a law student, has charge 
of the books. 

History of the Library. 115 

At present the general library occupies all of 
the rooms on the first floor of the north wing of 
the main building and one room in the base- 
ment. It includes the reading room, with the 
librarian's office adjoining it, and the two book 
rooms, besides the hall way between these rooms, 
which makes a separate room for the public docu- 
ments. The basement room is used for stor- 
age, for unpacking new books and for packing 
books for binding. 

All students have good library facilities for 
work in the reading room. This room is supplied 
with 140 American and foreign periodicals, and 
sixty State newspapers. There is a good collec- 
tion of cyclopedias, books of reference and dic- 
tionaries. When the lower classes are studying 
special topics, certain volumes may be placed 
upon reserve shelves for class use. These vol- 
umes are in no case to be removed from the 
reading room, as they are for the entire class. 
These students find what they want from the 
card catalogue, and are referred to books by the 
professors. Indeed, we use whatever means we 
can to create a taste for reading among those 
who have never enjoyed the use of a library and 
to extend the taste for reading among those who 
already have the habit, so that when they reach 

116 History of the Library. 

the junior and senior years they will understand 
better the nature of their privilege of free access 
to the shelves. Under no circumstances should 
any one be allowed access to a library shelf who 
has not learned by personal experience what 
books are. 

In the two book rooms the books are placed 
in alcoves arranged by subjects. Small tables are 
placed in the vacant spaces in these rooms, where 
the advanced students can work conveniently. 

The library is available more hours than here- 
tofore. It was open from 9 A. M. to 1 p. M. , from 
1877 to 1885. Two hours in the afternoon were 
added in 1885. Then, in 1887, the hours were 
extended from 8 A. M. until chapel time, and from 
9 A. M. to 6 P. M., except on Saturdays, when it 
was open only from nine until twelve o'clock. 
It was decided, in 1888, to open the library Fri- 
day evenings from half past seven until ten 
o'clock. The desire on the part of a number of 
students for the past three years to work in the 
library during vacations which occur in the 
school year has made it seem advisable not to 
close the library at such times, but to give the 
opportunity for working mornings, except on 
legal holidays. Even during the Christmas re- 
cess many of the students do good work in the 

History of the Library. 117 

library. This habit of research, which is devel- 
oping among the students, cannot fail to be con- 
sidered a good sign. 

The library administration has developed grad- 
ually in the same manner that has characterized 
the growth of the library. 

To trace the details of the growth would only 
interest librarians and be extremely prosaic to 
the general reader. Suffice it to say, that the 
result of this growth has produced or caused to 
be adopted methods which are practical and sys- 
tematic, the strongest emphasis being laid upon 
accuracy and simplicity. 

So, rather than show the development of the 
machinery by which the library runs, we will de- 
scribe the methods as we find them in use at 

The annual appropriations for new books are 
divided among the professors at the head of 
the several departments. In this way the books 
are chosen directly in the lines of work pursued. 

The Board of Regents has made the following 
distribution of the book fund available for the 
coming year (July 1st is the beginning of our 
fiscal year): 

Law $500 00 

American history and civics 235 00 

118 History of the Library. 

Philosophy $175 00 

German 175 00 

French 175 00 

Mathematics and astronomy 125 00 

Chemistry 125 00 

Pharmacy 125 00 

Music 50 00 

Physics and electrical engineering 100 00 

English 400 00 

History and sociology 225 00 

Latin 175 00 

Greek 175 00 

Botany, entomology and meteorology 125 00 

Civil engineering 125 00 

Zoology, anatomy and physiology 125 00 

Geology and paleontology 125 00 

Miscellaneous , 250 00 

The professors are furnished with printed or- 
der slips upon which are written the author's 
name, title, edition, place, publisher, date, number 
of volumes, size and price of the book wanted. 
We use the form of the Harvard order slip. 
After these blanks are filled ont they are handed 
to the librarian. Care is then given to the pur- 
chase of the books. When in due time the new 
books arrive they are entered in the accession 
book, recorded in the shelf list, classified accord- 
ing to Dewey's "System of Decimal Classifi- 
cation," and catalogued according to Cutter's 
"Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue." They 
are then placed upon exhibition shelves in the 

History of the Library. 119 

reading room until the lower classes become fa- 
miliar with the latest additions. 

The accession book was begun in 1885. Pre- 
viously the records of the bpoks were kept quite 
crudely. The accession book prepared by the 
Library Bureau is the most approved method of 
keeping library records. The history of each 
book is accurately kept. Its classification, num- 
ber, author, title, publisher, place, date, number 
of pages, size, binding, of whom purchased or 
donated and price are recorded. 

A shelf list for each department has been 
made. These shelf lists are invaluable in many 
ways. They are lists of the books made in the 
exact order in which the books stand upon the 
shelf when each book is in its place. They are 
especially useful when taking an inventory of 
the library. 

The scheme for issuing books was planned by 
L. I. Blake, Professor of Physics. It is arranged 
so as to answer quite readily three questions: 
Who has a certain book ? What book a certain 
person lias? When a certain book is due? The 
students have the privilege of taking books home, 
although the privilege is much restricted. A 
university library is more useful as a reference 
library than as a circulating one, especially in 

120 History of the Library. 

certain departments and at different times of the 
year when classes are studying certain subjects. 
Therefore the professor has the right to reserve 
books for his class work. When students, as in 
our library, do a large part of their work where 
the books are, it is to their advantage to find a 
book in the building rather than have to seek it 
at some student's home. Experience has taught 
us that, otherwise, when the professor refers the 
class to a chapter in a certain volume, one stu- 
dent will take the book home and the rest of the 
class will have to do without it, while, if reserved, 
the whole class will have an opportunity to read 
it some time during the day. 

The first list of books was made in 1874, in 
manuscript form, by Charles S. Gleed, now a Re- 
gent of the University, but at that time a student. 
He made it for Prof. Byron C. Smith, who was 
the librarian. It is indeed an interesting relic. 
In 1880 the first printed list of books was issued, 
by Prof. E. Miller, librarian. It was called a 
' ' Catalogue of Books in the State University of 
Kansas, January 1, 1880," and there were ap- 
pended the additions from January 1, 1880, to 
January 1, 1882. It was in pamphlet form, and 
consisted of the short titles of 5,303 volumes. 
A Library Bulletin No. 1 was published July, 

History of the Library. 121 

1890. It contained the accessions to the Uni- 
versity library from July 1, 1889, to June 30, 
1890. It gave the full titles of the volumes, and 
they were arranged alphabetically by the author, 
under the ten main subject classes of the Dewey 

The assistant librarians have always been 
students of the University. Carrie M. Watson, 
from 1878 to 1887, was a graduate; W. H. John- 
son, 1884-85, H. F. Graham, 1885-86, W. S. 
Allen, 1886-88, E. G. Allen, 1888-91, were stu- 
dents carrying their regular collegiate work, and 
Helen B. Sutliff, 1890-91, was a post-graduate 

The library has received two loan libraries. The 
first one was placed in the library in 1878 by 
Prof. F. E. Stimpson. .It contains 113 volumes. 
It is known as the "Stimpson Loan Library." 
The second is the "Haskell Loan Library." In 
1887, Mrs. D. C. Haskell placed 142 volumes in 
the library for the use of the students. 

The library has been fortunate in having many 
generous friends. While we have not as yet re- 
ceived the gift of a library from any scientific 
or literary scholar, we have received a few choice 
volumes from a large number of persons. The 
largest private gift has come from L)r. L. Chase, 

122 History of the Library. 

of Irving, Kansas. He has given 230 volumes 
of valuable miscellaneous books. The present 
has been made at several different times; in fact, 
it was only recently that we had the pleasure of 
opening one box which contained forty volumes. 
Among them was a set of Reclus 1 Nouvelle Ge- 
ographie Universelle, in nine handsome octavo 
volumes, and Farrow's Military Encyclopaedia, 
in three volumes, which were particularly valua- 
ble to us. The first most noteworthy gift the 
library ever received was from Hon. W. A. Phil- 
lips, of Salina. It is one of our oldest books 
in two ways. It is among the first books of the 
library, and of publication, 1518, makes 
it the oldest book we have. A portion of the 
title page is as follows: "C. Plynii Secvndi 
Natvrae Historiarvm Libri XXXVII. E Casti- 
gationibvs Hermolai Barbari, Quam Emendatis- 
sime Editi;" and the colophon reads, "Excusum, 
Hagenoae, typis ac formulis Thomae Anshelmi 
Badensis, Ductu & auspicio, Prouidiviri Lvcae 
Alantseae Viennensis incolae. Anno a Christi 
natali M. D. XVIII. Mense Nouembri. Cae- 
sare Maxaemiliano habenas moderante. 1 ' It is 
a folio bound in vellum. It is exceedingly inter- 
esting from an antiquarian point of view. Two 
graduate students each gave useful books to the 

History of the Library. 123 

library: Miss Ethel B. Allen, thirty-eight vol- 
umes of periodical literature, and Mr. Ellis B. 
Noyes, nineteen volumes of Humboldt's works. 
Rev. C. G. Howland has given ninety volumes 
of periodicals. He has completed our sets of 
The Nation and Tlie Century, and now gives at 
the end of each year his two volumes of each 
of these two periodicals for us to bind, as our 
current numbers are worn out by use in the read- 
ing room. Mr. Frank R. Cordley, Boston, Mass., 
presented a set of the Harleian Miscellany. In 
1888 Hon. P. B. Plumb, Hon. Geo. R. Peck and 
Hon. T. Dwight Thacher gave a set of the Early 
English Text Society publications as far as pub- 
lished, lion. Geo. R. Peck, of Topeka, has 
since given us the "Works of Jonathan Swift; 
with notes, and a life of the author by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott," limited American Edition of 1883, 
in nineteen volumes, and the "Works of Pope; 
with introductions and notes by Elwin and 
Courthope," London, 1871-86, in ten volumes. 
Col. Win. H. Rossington, of Topeka, in 1889, 
gave the new edition of Dryden, revised by 
George Saintsbury, and published at Edinburgh. 
When completed it will consist of eighteen vol- 
umes. And a few days ago he kindly informed 
us that he would give us all the books, which 

History of the Library. 

we did not already possess, in the standard and 
classical libraries of the Bohn Series. Judge 
D. M. Valentine, of Topeka, has been extremely 
generous to the library for the Law Department. 
A few months ago he gave sixty volumes of 
valuable law periodicals. Mrs. C. W. Babcock 
has just donated 157 law books, which is a fine 
acquisition to the Law Department. Last year 
Mr. D. J. Bossier, of Philadelphia, and Mr. C. 
L. Becker, of Ottawa, each gave a collection of 
pharmaceutical journals, which will be valuable 
to the Pharmaceutical Department. Members 
of the faculty have been very liberal to the li- 
brary. They have given both books and current 

The endeavor of the University of Kansas has 
been to secure a useful collection of books 
books which serve a purpose in the prosecution 
of investigation rather than those books which 
serve merely an ornamental and an aesthetic pur- 
pose. We readily allow the value of such books, 
but they have little place in academic training, 
and such books should be secured last. Knowl- 
edge in these days has become so divided that 
a university library is judged by its ability to 
furnish the best, most comprehensive and in 
some cases the rarest works upon the subjects 

History of the Library. 125 

under discussion or investigation rare not in 
the bibliographical sense of the word, for such 
books possess interest merely to the book col- 
lector, but rare from the fact that many valuable 
and exceedingly useful books have been allowed 
to go out of print. No pains or expense should 
be counted in procuring such books for students. 
The books have been purchased with great 
care, but it is difficult to give a good idea of the 
collection in a short space. We are glad to 
possess a complete set of the Congressional Rec- 
ord and its predecessors, as far back as the Con- 
tinental Congress: 

1. Journal of Congress, September, 1774, to 

November, 1788 18 volumes. 

2. Debates and Proceedings in the Congress 

of the United States, 1789-1824 42 " 

3. Register of Debates in Congress, 1821-1837, 29 " 

4. Congressional Globe 109 " 

5. Congressional Record 98 " 

Another set that we were fortunate enough to 
be able to buy is a complete set of the Niles' 
Weekly Register, in 76 volumes. 

The following list will show something of the 
character of the books purchased; they are sim- 
ply chosen at random from the books bought 
within the last two years: 

Du Cange, C., Glossarium Mediae et Infiime 

126 History of the Library. 

Latinitatis, 7 vols. ; Godefroy, F., Dictionnaire 
de 1'Ancienne Langue Fran<?aise et de tous ses 
Dialects, du IXe an XVe Siecle, 6 vols. ; Jamie- 
son, J., Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish 
Language, 5 vols. 

Complete sets of the following philological 
journals: Anglia, 12 vols. ; Archiv, 84 vols. ; En- 
glische Studien, 14 vols. ; Germania, 33 vols. ; 
Journal of Philology (London), 17 vols.; and 
Romania, 19 vols. 

Lagrange, J. L. , Oeuvres, 13 vols. ; Marie, Max- 
imilien, Histoire des Sciences Mathematiques et 
Physiques, 12 vols. ; Bentham, G., et Hooker, J. 
D., Genera Plantarum, 3 vols.; Heurck, Henri 
van, Synopsis des Diatomies deBelgique, 3 vols. ; 
Lamarck, J. de, Histoire Naturelle des Animanx 
sans Yertebres, 11 vols. 

Chaucer Society publications, 50 vols. ; Shake- 
speare Society publications, 32 vols. 

Ternaux-Compans, H. , Voyages, 10 volumes; 
Goethe, J. W. von, Werke, Weimar, 27 vols. ; 
Tieck, L. , Schriften, 28 vols. ; Herder, J. G. von, 
Werke, 24 vols.; Gautier, T., 28 vols.; Sainte- 
Beuve, C. , 31 vols.; Societe des Anciens Textes 
Fran^ais, 45 vols.; Penrose, F. C. , Principles of 
Athenian Architecture. 

It is evident from reading the sketch of this 

History of the Library. 127 

library that its past has been a struggle. In 
fact, the library's history for the last two or three 
years is all that deserves mention from the stand- 
point of actual growth. We have every reason 
to expect that henceforth its strength and size 
will increase rapidly. 

As members of the University, we look upon 
its present success with pride, for we know with 
what it has had to contend. In the report for 
the year ending January 5, 1891, of the New- 
berry Library, in Chicago, we find that this li- 
brary, which is only three and one-half years 
old, has added an average of 17,315 volumes 
each year more in one year than we have in 
twenty-five years. This thought fills us with a 
longing desire to be able to furnish the young 
people of Kansas with more of the rich literary 
treasures of the past and present, that they may 
not be deprived of intellectual stimulus. They 
now have the use of about 15,000 volumes. 
While this collection makes only a beginning 
and is much smaller than we wish, what may 
we not expect in the future, since we have ac- 
complished good results in the pioneer years? 
Our ambition is mainly directed towards making 
a strong and useful support for each department 
in the University, especially to the optional 

128 History of the Library. 

courses. Ezra Cornell defined a university as 
"an institution where any person can find in- 
struction in any study." It therefore becomes 
the business of a university library to supply any 
person with the literature of any study. We 
have proved the importance of the library by a 
practical demonstration by the good it is doing 
every day; we have won the confidence and 
aroused the pride of many interested friends. 
With the united efforts of these friends, and the 
available resources of the State, grand improve- 
ments may be expected before the next twenty- 
fifth milestone is reached. May we not have a 
high ideal, and -hope to make this library the 
literary center of this portion of the country? 
Let us fulfill a mission. Let us supply the want 
to which the weakness of the western writers 
was attributed by Mr. B. W. Woodward; he said, 
in his address before the Kansas Academy of 
Language and Literature, April 9, 1891: 

"Who shall deny that our eastern writers, like those of 
Europe, succeed largely because they enjoy advantages denied 
to us the access to great libraries, the association with men 
of high culture, the constant inbreathing of an atmosphere 
of literary thinking and doing? Of all this the western 
writer has been in a measure deprived, and especially has it 
been forbidden to the dwellers upon these Kansas prairies, 
remote from literary centers." 




STUDENT life at each of onr older colleges and 
universities has a certain character of its own. 
It is made up of a large body of forms and cer- 
emonies consecrated by long observance, and 
rests upon a mass of traditions that have hard- 
ened through long years about the institution. 
The history of student life at the University of 
Kansas during the first quarter century of its 
existence must be, like the history of the Univer- 
sity itself, a story of beginnings. Twenty-five 
years do not create such a body of peculiar forms 
and ceremonies and such a mass of traditions as 
are necessary to give its student life a very dis- 
tinct individuality. Nor have the conditions 
surrounding student life been favorable to the 
rapid growth of such an individuality. For years 
the numbers in the regular collegiate classes 
were very small, and they have never been large 

9 (129) 

130 Student Life. 

proportionately to the size of the community in 
in which they have lived. The life of the stu- 
dents has never dominated that of the town, as 
it has often done when institutions are located 
in little country villages. Furthermore, the stu- 
dents have never been separated from the larger 
community, as in colleges where the dormitory 
system prevails. They have not lived by them- 
selves apart, but have been scattered and swal- 
lowed up in the homes of the city. The student 
body, therefore, has never felt itself to be a 
wholly separate world, quite outside of the op- 
eration of the civil and social laws that govern 
people, and free to evolve laws and forms of 
life of its own. Its life, political, social, literary, 
moral and religious, has been largely that of the 
city and the State. 

But although the growth of a distinct college 
community, with its peculiar organs and life, 
has been slow, it has nevertheless gone steadily 
forward. Certain general features of this com- 
munity declared themselves early, and were the 
necessary result of the constitution of the Uni- 
versity or of circumstances of the time. Fore- 
most among these is the presence of women on 
a perfect equality with men, and their associa- 
tion with them in all college relations. This is 

Student Life. 131 

the key to most, perhaps, of the differences that 
distinguish college life here from that in the older 
eastern institutions. The far larger devotion 
to the claims of "society," the large measure 
of freedom from certain boisterous sorts of fun 
making, the more uncertain hold of athletic 
sports, are some of the more obvious results of 
the co-educational constitution of the University. 
Among the circumstances of the time that 
shaped college life I am inclined to put first the 
poverty, maturity and earnestness of the greater 
number of collegiate students in the early classes. 
They seem to have set a serious and self-reliant 
tone to college life which has been an influence 
ever since and has done more than any official 
watchfulness or discipline could have done to 
keep the history of the institution free from 
scandal and disorders. During the first ten 
years of its life, while the students were almost 
all in the preparatory classes, there appear in 
its catalogue under the head of discipline several 
specific rules for their government. They must 
not, for instance, leave town without the con- 
sent of the Chancellor. But after 1873 the 
single requirement of "unexceptional deport- 
ment" has stood unchanged. There have been 
of course from time to time those pranks that 

132 Student Life. 

boys, and especially college boys, will play upon 
each other, upon the faculty or upon the towns- 
people. Once or twice they have overstepped 
the bounds of good judgment and right feeling. 
But in all the twenty-five years the student 
body has been exceptionally free from any- 
thing that has brought real disgrace upon any 
of its members. 

Hazing has been practically unknown. That 
is a natural result of the absence of class spirit, 
which is the almost necessary consequence of 
the very mixed class relations of most students 
in the earlier years and of the diversity of 
courses and wide range of electives in later 
times. The tie of class, such a strong one in 
all of the older colleges, has seldom been 
strong here, and has often failed to be consciously 
felt at all. The fraternity tie, strengthened by 
the intensity of fraternity rivalries, has cut 
across the class feeling and tended further to 
lessen it. Class relations have been compara- 
tively little felt in society. No well recognized 
social event, I think, has grown out of the class 
organization or follows class lines. The ex- 
ercises of class day are the only ones for which 
a class is held responsible by college tradition 
so far as it is at present established. A formal 

Student Life. 133 

class organization has usually been kept up by 
classes, though the great irregularity of students 
has often made it impossible to draw the lines 
of membership sharply. Usually also some 
further attempt is made during the course to de- 
velop the class consciousness, either by a class 
supper, or a class party, or by some distinction 
of dress. Thus the class of '84, in their Sopho- 
more year adopted the mortar board as the class 
hat. Within the last few years class hats have 
been adopted by several classes, usually in their 
Senior year, but also sometimes in the Sopho- 
more year. Class parties have hardly ever been 
given before the Junior year, though the ladies 
of '84 entertained the gentlemen of the class 
during their Sophomore year, and '88 had a 
party when they were still Freshmen. But 
these seem to be only sporadic exhibitions of 
class consciousness. Only in the class of '81 
does the class tie seem to have been much more 
than nominal and to have outlived the chilling 
contact of the world. Still there have been in- 
dications in the past three years that Seniors, 
as the day of their separation approaches, ap- 
preciate the value of the class relation more than 
used to be the case ; and the greater regularity 
of the students in their courses and the increased 

134 Student Life. 

number of those who can pursue their course to 
the end without interruption give a basis for class 
spirit which has hitherto been absent. 

It is the fraternity which has been by far the 
most important unit within the University, both 
in society and in politics. Almost all those so- 
cial events which have a well marked university 
character have been due to some one or other of 
the fraternities. The receptions and parties that 
belong specifically to the student world and are 
regularly recurring features of the social year 
are fraternity parties and receptions. There 
have been nine fraternities in the University, 
six belonging to the young men and three to 
the young women. About 100 of the 221 colle- 
giate undergraduates at the present time are 
members of fraternities. This proportion has 
been quite constant for a number of years. 

The first of the fraternities to enter the Uni- 
versity was Beta Theta Pi. It was founded 
through the efforts of Major W. 0. Ransom on 
the 9th of January, 1873. The University at 
this time contained less than fifty students in the 
regular college classes. Its charter members 
were: F. C. Bassett, Jas. A. Wickersham, L. D. 
L. Tosh, E. B. Noyes, E. H. Bancroft, Ralph 
Collins, Frank MacLennan and J. D. Lambert. 

Student Life. 135 

Many if not all of these were members of the 
" Degree of Oread Society, 1 ' ti sort of secret so- 
ciety existing within the Oread Literary Society, 
and containing also a number of young ladies. 
Some of these young ladies had already been in 
conference with representatives of the I. C. So- 
rosis in the spring and summer of 1872, and 
when they were sure that the Chapter of Beta 
Theta Pi had been founded they secured a char- 
ter for the Kappa Chapter of I. C., and the I. 
C. V pins appeared at the University almost as 
soon as the Betas'. Their charter was granted 
April 1st, 1873; the charter members were: 
Hannah Oliver, May Richardson, Lizzie Yeag- 
ley, Flora Richardson, A. Gertrude Boughton, 
Alma Richardson and Vina Lambert. The num- 
ber of regular collegiate undergraduates then 
was thirty-nine, twenty-two of whom were in the 
Freshman class, and of this number the two 
young fraternities took in sixteen. An Alumni 
Chapter was established by the I. C. 's in Law- 
rence in 1882. In 1888 the fraternity elected 
to be called by its Greek letter name, Pi Beta 

By 1876 the number of collegiate students 
had grown to between seventy and eighty, and 
in the beginning of that year a charter was 

136 Student Life. 

granted for the Kansas Alpha Chapter of Phi 
Kappa Psi. The Chapter was established Feb- 
ruary 19th, the charter members being: F. O. 
Marvin, through whose efforts largely the charter 
was secured, Charles S. Gleed, G. W. Hapgood, 
II. H. Jenkins, Valorous F. Brown, Harry W. 
Berks, J. W. Gleed, H. D.Crandall, G. T. Nichol- 
son. The Phi Psis became at once the stubborn 
rivals of the Betas, and both have continued to 
play a prominent part in University society and 
politics ever since. 

Kappa Alpha Theta was the fourth fraternity 
to found a Chapter here. In the beginning of 
1881 it granted a charter to M. Lizzie Wilder, 
Julia M. Watson, Maggie R. Eidemiller, Alice 
E. Bartell, Grace Iloughtelin, Cora E. Pierson, 
Kate L. Kidenour, Lizzie V. Caldwell, Carrie E. 
Heyward, Jo Brown, Roberta Neisley, Clara 
Gillham and Ida E. Bay, and on the 17th of 
March they were initiated and the Chapter estab- 

During the summer of the same year a charter 
was secured from Phi Gamma Delta, and on the 
17th of December the Pi Deuteron Chapter of 
that fraternity was established here with the fol- 
lowing as charter members: Glen L. Miller, J. 
T. Harlow, Samuel Seaton, John D. McLaren, 

Student Life. 137 

W. C. Stevens. In this year, out of an enroll- 
ment of 132 in collegiate classes the five frater- 
nities contained 5-i. 

The members of Phi Gamma Delta began at 
once to mingle prominently in the affairs of the 
college world. They especially antagonized Phi 
Kappa Psi, and had a considerable share in the 
revival of the Courier in 1882 as a rival of the 
Review, which was then controlled by Phi Kappa 
Psi. They have continued to maintain their 
connection with the Courier ever since, but the 
fortunes of college politics have changed their 
old antagonists in journalism into their allies. 

The following year added Phi Delta Theta to 
the fraternities already established. The Chap- 
ter was founded Oct. 20th, 1882, having the fol- 
lowing charter members: E. F. Cal dwell, W. 
T. Findley, B. T. Chase, T. Jack Schall, S. A. 
Detwiler, J. A. Fowler, Justin P. Jacke and 
Stanley Williams. The Chapter ran sub rosa 
for several months; the pins were first publicly 
donned March 20th, 1883. 

As early as March, 1882, there were rumors 
afloat in the University that a Chapter of 
Kappa Kappa Gamma was about to be 
founded here, due perhaps to the fact that 
a member of that fraternity had become a 

138 Student Life. 

student here. The rumor continued to be 
revived from time to time during the next 
two years, but it was not till the fall of 1883 
that the Chapter was really established, Evelyn 
Smith, Laura Leach, Rose Wagner, Mabel 
Gore, Mabel Wemple, Bertha Starr, Sallie Love- 
land and Eva Howe being the charter members. 
The first public appearance of the fraternity was 
on Monday, February 4th, 1884. 

The spring of 1884 saw also the advent of 
Sigma Chi, which had also been heralded by ru- 
mor the previous November. The Alpha Chi 
Chapter of that fraternity was established May 
16th of that year, and the charter members were 
B. C. Preston, C. L. Smith, C. S. Metcalfe, R. 
L. McAlpine, Guy Schultz, Will Schultz, D. C. 
Kennedy, H. F. Albert and Geo. Metcalfe. 

The latest comer among the Greek letter socie- 
ties is Sigma Nu. The date of its establishment 
was June, 1884, and its charter members were 
J. T. Howard, H. B. Martin, P. R. Bennett, G. 
W. Harrington, F. A. Marshall, A. C. Markley. 
Several of these charter members had been 
prominent in University politics, often in com- 
binations against the fraternities, and the new 
fraternity met at first with some opposition from 
the other Greeks. 

Student Life. 139 

All of these fraternities continue to exist in a 
flourishing condition, except Sigma Chi, which 
suffered in 1889-90 from internal discords which 
it barely weathered, and lost its standing in the 
first part of the present year with the withdrawal 
of its best men. 

The social life of the University cannot well 
be considered apart from the fraternities, for it 
has centered in them. The intensity of this so- 
cial life has varied from year to year and from 
fraternity to fraternity. As a rule each fra- 
ternity has planned to have two considerable 
social events during the year. These have 
usually taken the form of evening parties, with 
dancing and refreshments. More rarely have 
these events taken the shape of formal dinners 
or suppers with toasts and perhaps some musical 
or literary features. Unusual activity in social 
life is indicated by the frequency of informal 
hops or other parties. Only rarely and among 
a small circle of students has this social activity 
amounted to dissipation or invaded the precincts 
of the University building. There were times 
in 1884 and 1885, however, when Oread Hall 
was invaded by some light-headed and light- 
footed devotees of society for whom the even- 
ings were not enough. 

140 Student Life. 

During the years when Beta Theta Pi and Phi 
Kappa Psi were the sole fraternities among the 
young men, the keenness of the rivalry between 
them seems to have drawn the fraternity lines 
pretty tight, and I have found little reference 
during those years to interchanges of social 
courtesies between the two. But in 1881 an 
era of good feeling seems to have been inaugu- 
rated by a banquet given by Beta Theta Pi to 
its rival. From that time to the end of 1885 
parties given by one fraternity to another were 
a favorite form of social life. Since then it has 
been more customary for a fraternity to choose 
its guests from all the other fraternities. Once 
the male fraternities have put aside their rival- 
ries and united in a celebration of their common 
aims, in the Pan-Hellenic, March 8th, 1889.* 
The Sigma Nus however did not participate. 
On the same evening the three fraternities of the 
young ladies also united in a celebration. The 
faculty lias done little to influence or direct the 
social life of the students. It has often been 
represented at the social gatherings of the stu- 
dents, but has not often brought students to- 
gether in the homes of its members. An attempt 

* About two years before this, and perhaps still earlier, there had 
been a more informal meeting of several fraternities. 

Student Life. 

to bring the whole University together socially 
was made in what used to be called the faculty 
reception. This was a reception given at the 
University shortly after' the opening of the 
college year to all students, with the desire of in- 
troducing the new students to the old, making 
them feel more at home, and strengthening the 
feeling of solidarity among all students. These 
receptions were inaugurated in 1877 and were 
continued until 1885. The custom was revived 
by Chancellor Snow in the reception to the Uni- 
versity at large given at the beginning of last 
December. The University ball, as an occasion 
to unite all members of the University without 
reference to fraternity or other distinctions, has 
never established itself as a regular social event 
of the year. University balls have been given 
in 1881, 1882, 1883, 1890, and in the first half 
of the present year. 

The literary life of the students has had two 
main channels of expression, the literary society 
and the college journals. Both have revealed 
a considerable activity, and both have been 
closely connected with college politics and often 
not to their advantage. The life of the various 
literary societies and of the numerous journals 
that have been founded here has been marked by 

142 Student Life. 

the struggle between rival factions for the con- 
trol of those societies and journals; and these 
factions have usually been separated on frater- 
nity lines. No combination between different 
fraternities has been stable for a long term of 
years, and they have generally shifted from year 
to year. Every fraternity has had its turn in a 
winning alliance. 

The first paper* published by undergraduates 
of the University was the Observer of Nature. 
This was the organ of the Natural History Soci- 
ety, and was edited by William Osburn, ' 77. The 
first number appeared with the date of the 1st 
of April, 1874. ..Four numbers came out before 
commencement, and made up the first volume. 
The second volume was published at irregular 
intervals during the second half of the next year, 
and consisted of five numbers. 

The next year a new paper, called the Kansas 
Collegiate, appeared. This was really an expan- 
sion of the Observer of Nature, for both papers 
were issued to the same subscribers and under 
the same management; the Observer limited itself 
to scientific articles, and the Collegiate devoted 

Student Life. 143 

itself to literary articles, editorials and news. 
Charles S. Gleed, who had assisted in the second 
volume of the Observer, edited the Collegiate and 
William Osburn the Observer. 

After the spring of 1876, the Observer ceased 
to appear. The Collegiate continued to hold the 
field alone until 1878. In that year two rivals 
appeared, the University Courier and the Univer- 
sity Pastime. The Courier seems to have been 
a revolt against an alleged exclusiveness in the 
management of the Review. The Pastime was 
a private venture, devoted particularly to news 
and inclined to sensation, and was published 
fortnightly. It lived only till April 16th, 1879. 

The Courier issued but eight numbers of its 
first volume, but began its second volume regu- 
larly in September, 1879. It did not survive 
the year, however. An effort to consolidate it 
with the Collegiate failed, but led to the secession 
of a part of its supporters, and it ceased publi- 
cation for lack of support in the beginning of 
1880. Those who had withdrawn from the 
Courier went over to the Collegiate, and were 
given representation on it, and under the new 
control it appeared in November, 1879, as the 
Kansas Review. 

For two years, 1880-81 and 1881-82, the Re- 

144 Student Life. 

view had no rival. But in the fall of 1882 the 
Courier was revived, again as a revolt against 
the exclusiveness of the management of the Re- 
view, and continued to appear every fortnight 
till commencement, 1884, when there was again 
a dissension in its ranks. Its directors voted to 
consolidate with the Review under the name of 
the University Review, but a party refused to 
accept the conclusion, and began in the fall of 
1884 to continue the publication of the Courier 
as a weekly. Since that time the Review has 
remained the only monthly published by the 

The Courier continued to have a checkered 
career. At first the Review opposed it with a 
weekly of its own called the News, but the 
Courier proved to have the most vitality, and the 
News soon suspended. In the following year a 
quarrel in the Courier company led to a split 
and the publication for a considerable portion 
of the year of two Couriers, one controlled by 
the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and the other 
principally by Mr. John Sullivan. About the 
middle of the year Mr. Sullivan sold out his 
Courier to his rival and left it in possession of 
the field. Its possession was undisputed for the 
next two years, but in 1888 -the fraternities 

Student Life. 145 

which were unrepresented on the Courier, with 
the aid of non-fraternity students, founded the 
Times. It was published as a weekly rival of 
the Courier throughout the year, but did not 
reach a second volume. But it had a successor 
in the University Kansan, which was the Cou- 
rier'' s rival through the year 1889-90. At the 
beginning of the present year the two companies 
came to an agreement, and but one weekly pa- 
per has been published, still under the name of 
the Courier. 

Besides these monthlies and weeklies five an- 
nuals have been issued from the University. 
The first was in the year 1873, and was called 
the Ilierophitntes. The next was in the year 
!_', and was tiie Kikkabe. It was intended 
that the Kikka.1n- should be issued every year, and 
for the two following years annuals were regu- 
larly published, though each year under a differ- 
ent name. In '83 it was the Cyclone, and in '84r 
the Cicala. Since then but one annual has been 
published, in '81), under the name of the lleli- 
aidhux. These annuals, like similar publica- 
tions at other colleges, contain a very full 
account of the various student organizations, 
and much valuable matter which does not find 
its way into other publications of the University. 

Student Life. 

The first literary society founded at the Uni- 
versity was called the "Acropolis Society." Its 
objects were the ordinary ones of college debat- 
ing societies, and its exercises were of the usual 
kind. Founded in 1866, it was successful at 
first, and then afterwards languished, so that in 
1870 a new departure was taken; the name was 
changed to Orophilian, and the young women 
were excluded, or at least discouraged from at- 
tending. This, with other elements of disaffec- 
tion, led to a secession from the society and the 
foundation of a new one, to which the name 
Oread was given. The existence of a rival seems 
to have contributed to the vigor and prosperity 
of both societies, and for many years they con- 
tinued in active and fruitful operation. Some 
time about 1875 they began to give public exhi- 
bitions on evenings of commencement week, or 
those just preceding. In 1880 an annual con- 
test between the two societies was inaugurated. 
These contests were held during the month of 
December and were among the great events of 
the year. The first contest was won by Oread, 
who also won in '83 and '84. Orophilian won 
in '81, '82, '85, '86. In 1884 the commence- 
ment exhibitions of the two societies were 
changed to a joint exhibition. By this time, 

Student Life. 147 

however, the prime of the societies was passed. 
Oread was the first to cease to hold meetings, in 
the fall of 1886. Her place and hall were taken 
by a new society, the Athenaeum, which had de- 
veloped out of an offshoot of Orophilian. Oro- 
philian, too, was living a precarious sort of life. 
Several of its members had formed an independ- 
ent and smaller debating club that met in Oro- 
philian hall on Saturday afternoons. This club 
later took the name of "Moot Senate,," and 
after Oread ceased to meet, it transferred its 
sessions to her hall and became the Athenaeum 
Literary Society, March 18, 1887. But that these 
societies were no longer satisfying the wants of 
the students in the direction of practice in debate 
is shown by the formation in this same year, 
1886-7, of two other debating clubs the Dick- 
son Debating Club and the Lime Kiln Debating 
Club. But Orophilian and Athenaeum contin- 
ued to exist down to 1889. Athenaeum then dis- 
appeared from sight. Orophilian made several 
attempts to get back her old energies, but in 
vain. Athenaeum's place had been taken by 
a purely non-fraternity society, the Adelphic, 
which seemed to be doing good work. The 
fragments of Orophilian made a last effort to 
live, and formed themselves into the "Univer- 

148 Student Life. 

sity Literary Club," and an arrangement was 
made whereby, under certain conditions, the 
work done in the club should be credited on the 
English work of the student in class. But the 
club lasted only to the end of the year, and 
failed to show itself at the beginning of 1890-91. 
Adelphic remains the only general literary so- 
ciety among the students. 

There are two reasons for this decay of the 
literary societies. On6 is to be found in the in- 
jurious entrance of politics into them in the at- 
tempts to control the election of the contest and 
June programs. These elections came to be 
very stormy affairs and the spirit often ran very 
high. The real aims of the society were buried 
beneath struggle for honors and place; voting 
and getting elected became of more importance 
than literary work and practice in debate. The 
other reason is to be found in the change that 
has been coming over the whole University, 
and not over this university alone but over 
many others. I mean the change in the meth- 
ods and range of study and the growing speciali- 
zation of students, and their larger interest in 
investigation. As this change has gone on the 
special club or society has taken the place of the 
general literary society. The first movement in 

Student Life. 

this direction here was an outgrowth of the in- 
terest in natural history. A Natural History 
Society was formed in 1873 and continued to 
exist until 1877. During the same time little 
clubs with no special organization were formed 
among their students by the professors of Greek, 
History and Modern Languages. It is in part 
an expression of the same tendency that the 
normal students formed in 1881 a separate Nor- 
mal Society which continued until the abandon- 
ment of the Normal Department, and that the 
preparatory students in 1882 also banded them- 
selves together in a separate organization. The 
law students organized Nov. 29th, 1880, a Kent 
Club for the holding of moot courts and for 
practice in debating. Nov. 24th, 1882, the stu- 
dents of civil engineering founded an Engi- 
neering Society. On September 15th, 1882, a 
Social Science Club was formed, to hold its 
meetings every Friday, but this club had but a 
short life, having ceased to be by the new year. 
February 8th, 188-t, a medical society was formed 
under the name of the latrikos. This was consoli- 
dated in January of the following year with the 
Civil Engineering Society to form the Science 
Club, which has had a healthy life ever since, and 
still continues to hold fortnightly meetings. In 

150 Student Life. 

1883 a German Club was formed, which through 
various changes of form has continued to exist, 
and took on during the past year the form of a 
Modern Language Club, holding weekly meet- 
ings alternately in French and German. A 
Pharmacy Association was established in Janu- 
ary, 1887; it met at first every Thursday, but 
now holds its meetings every other Friday even- 
ing. In the fall of 1886 a Philological Club 
was added to the others, and now holds its meet- 
ings every other Friday evening, alternating with 
the Science Club. The Seminary of Historical 
and Political Science, under the direction of the 
professors of History and Political Economy, 
was founded in 1887, and holds meetings on al- 
ternate Friday afternoons. It has just begun 
the publication of its papers or abstracts of them, 
under the title of "Seminary Notes." 

Another organization which has a close con- 
nection with the literary life of the students is 
the Oratorical Association, whose business is to 
arrange for the contest in oratory, by which the 
orator is chosen who is to represent the Univer- 
sity in the annual inter-collegiate contest. The 
Inter-Collegiate Association was first suggested 
by the University in 1881. The suggestion was 
repeated in the following year, and in 1883 a 

Student Life. 151 

committee was appointed to draft a constitution 
and work up the movement in the other colleges 
of the State. The efforts of this committee were 
successful ; the other colleges gave their ap- 
proval, and the first contest was held February 
22d, 188i. The first State contest was held at 
Lawrence April 18th, and resulted in a victory 
for the representative from the Normal School, 
at Emporia. He was, however, convicted of 
plagiarism and thrown out and a new contest 
ordered at Baldwin, at which our representative, 
Mr. L. H. Leach, was the winner. In the 
series of State contests thus far the University 
has won first place three times. 

The part which music has played in the col- 
lege life of our University is very small. The 
Department of Music has done much for mu- 
sical education, but it has apparently made lit- 
tle impression upon collegiate students. The 
lack of college singing has been a fruitful topic 
of lamentation in the college press ever since 
its beginning. Various means have been sug- 
gested and tried to stimulate the production of 
university songs, but the one or two that have 
been produced have never had the experience 
of being sung by a chorus of the whole student 
body. And there have been few musical or- 

152 Student Life. 

ganizations among the students. Of those that 
have existed the Arion quartette was by far the 
most famous. The members were C. F. Scott, 
J. W. Gleed, G. C. Smith and Scott Hopkins. 
There was a University Musical Union in 1880 
working under the direction of Prof. F. O. 
Marvin at choruses. It died in the following 
year, but was revived again in 1883 and lived 
for two years longer. The only orchestra of 
which there is record is the Phi Kappa Psi Or- 
chestra of 1885. The past year has seen the 
organization of a Glee Club and a Mandolin 

In another field which in most colleges absorbs 
a goodly share of the free activities of the stu- 
dent body, that of athletic sports, the University 
has also comparatively little to offer. Not that 
there has ever been a time when they have been 
totally neglected, for even from the first years 
of its history there is the record of the visit of 
a nine from the University to Topeka, and their 
defeat by a Topeka nine by the close score of 
ninety-six to fifty-seven. But the number of 
those feeling a keen interest in these sports has 
always been few, there has been no regular ri- 
valry between the University and other colleges, 
and contests with other colleges have been few 

Student Life. 153 

and far between. This apathy in athletics has 
been remarked very frequently in the University 

The first organized effort in connection with 
athletics was the formation of a company of 
cadets in 1878. In May the roll of the company 
numbered seventy-five men, with Scott Hopkins 
as captain. A band was in practice under the 
leadership of Stuart O. Henry. Enthusiasm was 
great, and it was expected that a regular army 
officer would be detailed to instruct them the 
next year. The next fall they began the college 
year by ordering uniforms of light and dark 
blue, much like the uniforms of the regular 
army, but the paper of February 28th, 1879, 
contains the obituary notice of this short-lived 
company. In 1885 the papers agitated the re- 
vival of the military company, but without effect. 

One athletic feature of the older college life 
that disappeared long ago is the annual rope 
pull between the Freshmen and Sophomores. 
When this was instituted I do not know. In 
1879 it was already an old institution. It oc- 
curred sometime during the fall term, and en- 
gaged the whole of the two lower classes. It . 
occurred for the hist time in 1880. 

Naturally all our contests with other colleges 

154 Student Life, 

have been in base ball, until last fall, but I do 
not find a record of any contest at all before 
1880. That year seems to have seen a revival 
of interest in base ball. The faculty is reported 
to have given the nine its approval, and the Can- 
field silver ball was given as a prize to stimulate 
effort. Washburn was challenged and a series 
of three games played. The first, played at To- 
peka, was lost, but the other two were won. 
The next time the University played Washburn 
was in 1885, when Washburn was victorious. 
She was again victorious in 1886, and in two 
games in the spring of 1887. In 1888 Washburn 
was twice defeated. The University met Baker 
twice in 1886, one game being drawn and the 
other being won by the University. In 1888 we 
met Baker once and won, and in 1889 Baker 
was defeated by us again. 

Foot ball as a scientific game was never in- 
troduced in the University till last fall, when it 
created a great deal of enthusiasm and did much 
to stimulate a general interest in out-door sports. 

Tennis was introduced at the University as 
early as 1884, but was never played much until 
1887-88. In the spring of 1888 the University 
played two matches with Washburn, winning the 
doubles and drawing the singles. 

Student Life. 155 

The management and control of athletic sports 
have been for the most part in temporary and 
shifting organizations. This has entailed great 
loss of coherence and concentration upon their 
management. Various attempts have been made 
to give the different athletic interests a united 
and consistent direction through one organiza- 
tion. The most elaborate was in 1884, when an 
Athletic Association was formed with carefully 
drawn constitution and by-laws. But it did not 
last out a year, and the unnatural activity which 
it created was followed by a greater apathy than 
had existed before. Another attempt was made 
in December, 1889, and the association then 
formed is still in existence. Besides supplying 
a central management for the various sports, it 
set itself to the task of raising money to procure 
and fit up suitable grounds for an athletic field. 
The need of such a field entirely under the con- 
trol of the University has long been felt by the 
students and frequently been pointed out by the 
college papers. A subscription was begun among 
the students and faculty, and about $200 raised. 
Colonel McCook, of New York, interested him- 
self in the plans of the association and gave 
(1,500 towards its object, with the promise of 
doubling whatever it should raise up to $10,000. 

156 Student Life. 

The association has prosecuted its work daring 
the present year and raised about $800, and has 
received a further gift from Col. McCook of 
$1,000, so that there is available for its purpose 
about $3, 500. 

A gymnasium has also long been called for by 
the students and urged by the officers of the 
University. Chancellor Fraser recommended 
in his day the erection of an inexpensive building 
to serve the temporary needs of the students, 
but met with no response. In the absence of 
all provision for a building, the students have 
set about helping themselves as best they 
could. In the winter of 1882 the authori- 
ties granted the use of one of the rooms in 
the basement of the main building, and a 
gymnasium association was formed to equip 
it with the simplest and most necessary ap- 
paratus. This association went to pieces in 
the course of a year, and the apparatus, not 
being carefully handled, was broken or lost. 
The present Athletic Association revived the 
gymnasium movement and purchased sufficient 
machinery to equip one of the large rooms in 
the dome of the main building. 

Soon after the formation of the State Ora- 
torical Association the college papers agitated the 

Student Life. 157 

formation of a State Athletic Association. 
Nothing came of it, although the suggestion was 
repeated from time to time. The past year, 
however, has seen the formation of a triangular 
league between Washburn. Baker and the Uni- 
versity; and this has been mainly due to the ef- 
forts of the students of the University. 

Various voices have lamented in the past the 
lack among the students of the University of 
that enthusiasm for their institution which is 
known as college spirit. There seem to have 
been few vigorous demonstrations of it in the 
early years of the college; and that is not 
strange considering the few occasions on which 
this enthusiasm was sharpened by competition 
with rival colleges. The oratorical contests 
proved that it was not wanting by giving it 
a chance for expression, and greatly stimu- 
lated it. The athletic contests do the same thing. 
No one can well doubt the vigorous loyalty of 
the student body to the University when he 
hears the thunder of the college yell sent up 
from the foot-ball or base-ball field. The ex- 
istence of the yell itself is a proof of that spirit; 
one common sentiment of love and pride and 
exultation seeks expression in one common 
form of words "llock Chalk, Jay Hawk, 
K. U." 





TWENTY-FIVE years ago I was elected to a pro- 
fessorship in the University of Kansas. In no 
other State would a similar election have pleased 
me as well; for I thought then, and hold the 
same opinion still, that the superior intelligence 
and moral purpose of the early settlers must 
soon show itself in better schools and brighter 
pupils than are found in other western States, 
and eventually equal the best to be found in the 
older parts of the country. 

Soon after my appointment I received a let- 
ter from Chancellor Rev. R. W. Oliver, D. D., 
asking me to make out a course of study for the 
new University. This I proceeded to do, 
modeling it after the classical course in an 
eastern college thirty years ago, with no pro- 
vision for work below the Freshman class. All 


160 Reminiscences. 

preparatory work was left to the high schools, 
for it seemed to me a fair presumption, that 
since the State University would fall heir to the 
pupils of the "Lawrence University," and the 
public schools had already been in successful 
operation for several years, there were, prob- 
ably, a few college students and a great many 
graduates of the high schools eagerly waiting 
an opportunity to secure that higher education 
which the State was in duty bound to give them, 
and which it could only offer in the University. 
To meet this clamorous demand the University 
was now about to be opened. 

Coining to Lawrence early in September of 
1866, I first met my colleagues, Professors 
Frank Huntington Snow and Elial J. Rice. 
Professor Snow and I were young men but re- 
cently out of college, and therefore with very lit- 
tle experience as educators; while our colleague 
was a gray-haired man of much experience, 
having been principal, and perhaps superin- 
tendent of schools, of some town in Indiana. 
In deference to his gray hair, I presume, and 
wider experience, the Regents wisely made him 
the "Acting President "of the new University. 

Having established ourselves in an excellent 
boarding house on Kentucky street, conveniently 

Reminiscences. 161 

near the University, Professor Snow and I started 
out to call upon our worthy Chancellor. We 
desired from the official head of the University 
definite instructions in relation to opening the 
institution the coining week. Greeting us very 
kindly the Chancellor invited us to his study. 
The air was thick with tobacco smoke. Regent 
Starrett was present, smoking a pipe with a stem 
about six feet long. Six or eight similar pipes 
and a large pouch of tobacco were lying on the 
table. The men were evidently "hail fellows 
well met," and were having the jolliest kind of 
a time. Our coming had broken off one of Star- 
rett 1 s best stories and he could tell good ones. 
Politely declining to join in the smoking, farther 
than was absolutely necessary, we tried to state 
our business. But no; that interrupted story 
must first be finished. It was a good story, and 
so well told that we had to have another to 
match it. The fun then grew fast, if not furious, 
one story provoking another in rapid succession, 
and the air all the time growing thicker and 
bluer, until we, poor fellows, half sick, finally in- 
sisted that we could stay no longer, and asked 
what preparations we should make for the open- 
ing of the University. I think we expected, in 

102 Reminiscences. 

rather a vague way, some general instructions 
about the reception of students from high schools 
upon examination, and from other institutions 
upon certificates. Our genial Chancellor, after 
considering a moment, kindly gave us our in- 
structions the most unique, I presume, ever 
given by the head of a great institution to his 
colleagues. Speaking with a strong Scotch ac- 
cent, which I shall not try to indicate, he said: 
"I would advise you, young gentlemen, to go 
to Mr. Jaedicke's gun shop and hire some guns, 
and to Mr. O' Conner's livery stable and hire 
some saddle horses, and go away back on the hills 
and hunt prairie chickens. You may be gone two 
or three days. This will be as good preparation 
for your work next week as you can make." 
Saying this he dismissed us. We were some- 
what surprised, to say the least. This advice, 
though somewhat congenial to our inclinations, 
seemed, however, scarcely to fit the question. 
We were not yet sufficiently experienced in Uni- 
versity work to see the relation between hunting 
prairie chickens arid preparing questions for en- 
trance examinations. Bowing to our Chancel- 
lor's wider experience we took our departure, 
none the wiser. 

Reminiscences. 168 

After talking the matter over we concluded 
to defer the hunt for a few days, and consult 
with our "Acting President." This consulta- 
tion, however, did not result in any very definite 
line of action. We found our President's mind 
preoccupied with a poem he was preparing, and 
which he hoped to be invited to read at the 
formal dedication of the University the day be- 
fore we opened for students. As the poem was 
yet unfinished, and its reading might soon be 
called for, we could not think of interrupting its 
laborious construction with less important busi- 
ness, and therefore proposed to withdraw at 
once. But no; we must sit down and he would 
read it to us. It concerned the University, and 
he wanted our opinion of its merits. So we sat 
down and he read as far as he had written. Its 
general subject seemed to be the progress of 
education, with particular reference to the found- 
ing of the University of Kansas, and Quantrell's 
raid. I do not remember what opinion we ex- 
pressed of its merits, but it made quite an im- 
pression upon us, and we often talked about it 
afterwards. It seemed to us quite a unique pro- 
duction. And yet, strange as it may appear, 
only one of all those linked couplets still lingers 


in ray memory. Speaking of the murderous 
raid, the poet said, 

"Then ran the streets with patriots' blood, 
Not drop by drop, but in a flood." 

This gem I shall always cherish as a fitting 
memento of our "Acting President." As the 
program for the dedication was already full, the 
poem was not read, and hence, I fear, has not 
been preserved. 

At last the expected morning came, Sept. 12th, 
1866. The faculty were all present early. No 
one else, however, came for some time, except 
two or three noisy carpenters, who were at work 
on the stairs. Soon a few boys and girls from 
town came straggling in, and after a while a few 
more. Later still came those from greater dis- 
tances from Grant, Wakarusa, Kanwaka, and 
some, I think, from far-off Palmyra ! After the 
devotional exercises, which were led that morn- 
ing by Chancellor Oliver, the students were sent 
around to the several professors for examination. 
Then began our search for those college classes. 
Seniors and Juniors were given up at the first 
glance. If any were present, they were surely 
in deep disguise. For the student look, which 
comes only from years of work over books, was 

Reminiscences. 165 

not there. We might possibly have a few Soph- 
omores and Freshmen, but appearances were 
against even this. I began my examination. 
None had studied Greek. Six, however, wished 
to begin. So that subject was soon disposed of. 
In Latin I fared somewhat better. Six or eight 
had a slight knowledge of the Latin grammar 
and reader, and were indifferently prepared to 
begin the study of Caesar. Fifteen or twenty 
wished to begin Latin. The examinations in 
other branches showed similar lack of knowl- 
edge. We had examined, in all, forty students. 
As the net result, instead of the expected college 
classes, we had a few candidates for the lower 
forms of a rather indifferent high school. What 
a fall from our high expectations ! Still some 
of the material seemed fairly good, and we hoped 
for better results in the future. We now saw 
the wisdom, the true inwardness, as it were, of 
our Chancellor's advice about hunting. It was 
now clear that he knew the kind of university 
we were about to open far better than we, and 
that hunting chickens was quite as useful a prep- 
aration for it as making long lists of examination 
questions which would not be needed for years. 


Work began promptly and ran on smoothly 
until near the end of the year, when a strange 

1G6 Reminiscences. 

and, to us, unaccountable dropping off of stu- 
dents began. They gradually disappeared, one 
after another, without sign or warning, until by 
the middle of April more than half of our entire 
number was gone. Becoming alarmed lest they 
should all leave us, and we be reduced to the 
shameful necessity of closing the school before 
the end of the year, Professor Snow and I began 
to investigate the cause of this strange hegira. 
We found that, spring work having opened, most 
of our brawny students had gone home to assist on 
the farms, and that several in the city, suffering 
from the unusual strain of head-work, were down 
with the "spring-fever," almost hopeless cases. 

It was evident that something must be done 
or the University would be disgraced. A con- 
sultation was held, the result of which was that, 
by much visiting and earnest missionary work 
among our patrons, and strong personal appeals 
to our pupils, we finally averted the threatened 
disgrace of abandonment, and closed our first 
year triumphantly with twenty-two students ! 

Had our University yell been then invented, I 
have no doubt that Professor Snow and I would 
have shouted loud and long "Kock Chalk, Jay 
Hawk, K. U.!" 

Reminiscences, 1G7 


From our first year's experience we were pre- 
pared, and, indeed, rather expected, to hear peo- 
ple say that the University was only a "Law- 
rence high school," but this, of course, we 
stoutly denied. To the superficial observer, it 
might, indeed, appear so ; but not to the man 
who was accustomed to look beneath the sur- 
face of things. To see the real University, with 
its many departments, of literature, science and 
the arts, its extensive cabinets, museums, labora- 
tories, libraries and work shops, its hundreds of 
professors and thousands of students, one must 
take a deep esoteric view. It seemed complete 
in all its parts, but in somewhat embryonic form. 
As the most perfect forms of animate life now 
in existence doubtless once lay dormant in the 
rudest germs, so to us the University then lay 
dormant in the creative act of the Legislature, 
scarcely yet in the first stage of its endless de- 
velopment. Closing our eyes to the meager 
present, and looking far down the glorious future, 
we had a dim vision of the real University, with 
a few of its many possibilities partially unfolded. 
Thus seen it was a great institution, just as the 
few patent office reports then on our shelves 

168 Reminiscences. 

were the "nucleus of a large and valuable li- 
brary. ' ' 

Thus did we easily prove, to ourselves at least, 
the existence of the University; but it was not 
so easy to prove this to our enemies, who refused 
to look at the matter from our point of view. 
Even our high courses of study did not convince 
them. At these they only laughed, and said 
that they knew a high school when they saw 
one, and we had nothing more. Convinced that 
we were right, we should not have cared much 
for the opinions of these men had not some of 
them soon turned up as members of the Legis- 
lature. Here they soon became very annoying. 
This was especially true for the first seven or 
eight years. Every winter some economic Solon, 
raised to influence by brief office only, used to 
assail and sometimes even endanger our meager 
appropriation by calling the University a "little 
Lawrence high school." Such attacks were 
numerous, and of varying degrees of virulence. 
The most outrageous of all, however, was prob- 
ably the one made by a member from Johnson 
county, who wound up a long and abusive tirade 
against the needless expense of maintaining so 
useless an institution by the astounding assertion 
that it had eight or ten times as many professors 

Reminiscences. 1 69 

as were necessary, and that he knew "one man, 
a friend of his, who, with the aid of his wife, 
would undertake to teach everything now taught 
there, and do it better than at present, for the 
small sum of five hundred dollars a year!" 
This was cheap enough, surely, but, strange as 
it may appear, the offer was not accepted. Per- 
haps the rest of the members thought it too cheap. 
But even this man afterwards repented, and did 
us valiant service in succeeding Legislatures. 

In the same Legislature, I think, another 
member, in a similar spirit of economy, but in a 
somewhat more jocular vein, declared that the 
University, with its large corps of professors and 
small body of college students, reminded him of 
a "six-mule team hitched to a buggy." 

During the third winter, in a spasm of great 
economy, the Legislature threatened to reduce 
greatly, or even to cut off our appropriations 
altogether. Disaster, on this occasion, was only 
averted by inviting the entire Legislature to visit 
us in a body, and tendering them a generous 
feed at the Eldridge House. This was managed 
by the citizens of Lawrence. Many of the mem- 
bers came, inspected the University, ate our 
supper, returned mollified, and gave us what we 

170 Reminiscences. 

On another occasion of financial stress, the 
Legislature closed all the normal schools of the 
State, three in number, but, for some reason, 
spared the University. This, if I remember, was 
in the winter of 1874-75, the year of the great 
grasshopper invasion. The University was prob- 
ably then spared only because it had already be- 
gun in large measure to prove its usefulness. 
Since then it has generally been very kindly 
treated. The people, as a whole, appear to take 
an increasing interest in the institution, and seem 
disposed cheerfully to grant all needed facilities 
for the better education of their children. 


At the end of the first year the University 
lost its official head by the resignation of our 
"Acting President." Professor John W. Hor- 
ner was appointed to the vacant chair, but not 
to the official position of the retiring officer. 

The University was quite as active in its 
acephalous condition as it had been before, for, 
aided by our worthy Chancellor, who had now 
given up his long pipes, but not his funny stories, 
the several professors, each feeling a deeper 
sense of responsibility, worked harder for the 
success of the institution. Thus we ran on 

Reminiscences. 171 

smoothly without a head to the middle of the 
academic year; but this condition was not nor- 
mal. The Regents began to realize it, and, 
uniting the offices of Chancellor and President, 
resolved to give the University a real, substan- 
tial head perhaps a big head. After much 
careful canvassing, General John Fraser, A. M. , 
was selected for this responsible position. The 
wisdom of this selection was fully justified by 
the results. 

General Fraser was a man of unusual ability 
and force of character. Educated in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, he naturally brought with 
him the methods of teaching which he had seen 
so successfully practiced there. But the condi- 
tions here were so entirely different from those 
to which he had been accustomed that his suc- 
cess as a teacher in the University of Kansas 
was very small. Yet this made very little differ- 
ence, for he was not expected to do much teach- 
ing. In fact, he was not employed for this. His 
great strength lay in planning, organizing and 
building. To conceive the purpose, organize 
the plan, and persuade a little city like ours to 
vote $100,000 for a University building, and. 
carry all through to a successful conclusion, show 
wisdom, courage and energy of the very highest 

172 Reminiscences. 

order. In this work he was most successful, 
and our Main Building is his fitting monument. 
All honor to the noble work of General John 
Fraser, the first Chancellor and President of 
Kansas University ! 


Discipline, during our high school days, was 
maintained with a vigorous hand. Knowing 
that eternal vigilance prevents a multitude of 
sins, we resolved that the sly student should 
never catch us napping, nor the remiss and lazy 
find us over indulgent. We guarded our weak 
points, therefore, with great strictness. For in- 
stance, having been nearly disgraced the first 
year by the sudden withdrawal of our students, 
we cunningly guarded that point for the future 
by placing in our catalogue the following severe 
enactment: ' ' Students must be prompt in attend- 
ance at the opening of the term, and continue to 
tJie end of the same, and must not absent them- 
selves from town without permission from the 
President." Having once secured them, we 
fenced them in by law, and did not propose to 
let them even get out of town without express 
permission. We should thus be able to keep a 
few in sight, at least, until the end of the year. 

Reminiscences. 173 

And the event seemed to justify the rule, for we 
never thereafter had any trouble about keeping 
a part of our students to the end of the second 

Again, see how the following rule puts to 
shame all our modern legislation on the same 
subject: "Students must present satisfactory 
excuses for ever} 7 absence from any class or duty, 
before they will be permitted to resume their 
places in the college." There is strictness for 
you ! A student was sent out of college for a 
single absence, and a professor might keep him 
out forever by not accepting his excuse ! Per- 
haps, however, this was intended to be understoop 
in a somewhat Pickwickian sense, inasmuch as 
we added another rule just below, stating that 
"any student having ten unexcused absences 
ceased to be a member of the University." Just 
what peculiar construction we placed upon these 
rules, that both should seem necessary in the 
same catalogue, I do not now remember. For 
if a student was out of college for one absence 
and "not permitted to return," it is difficult to 
see how ten absences could do more. Or would 
they put him out ten times as far? But I give 
it up, and leave the explanation to some old 
student on whom it was tried. Who will answer? 


These are samples of our rules. There were 
several others of similar strictness. One illus- 
tration of the vigor with which they were applied 
to practice will probably be sufficient. 

One morning at chapel, after Professsr Snow 
had called the roll, which required every student 
to be present every morning and respond to the 
call the professors were then always present 
Professor Homer read off the names of the delin- 
quents who had failed to hand in their essays at 
the appointed date, and commanded each delin- 
quent, as his name was read, to leave the chapel 
and go down to a certain room and there wait 
to be sentenced. Several names had been 
read, and the culprits had gone, but pretty soon 
one was called who refused to obey. The pro- 
fessor looked stern, turned red in the face, rose 
up and shouted, "Leave the room." The 
young man looked defiant, and sat still. Down 
from the platform rushed the irate professor, 
seized the refractory youth by the collar, jerked 
him from his seat, and pushing with hands 
and knees, was forcibly ejecting him from the 
room, when Professor Snow, starting up, called 
out sharply, "Stop, Professor Homer! That is 
not the way to administer discipline!" The 
professor desisted, we returned to our places, 

Reminiscences. 175 

and quiet was soon restored. Devotional ex- 
ercises now being ended, we retired to our class 

Such was discipline in the early days. We 
have nothing now to compare with it. Now, 
thirty to .forty professors will often deliberate 
weeks over some worthless fellow and probably 
not do as much in all that time as one man then 
would do in five minutes. 

Is not some of that masculine vigor desir- 


From time immemorial college students every- 
where have occasionally been inclined to practi- 
cal jokes. Our University has had its share ; 
but of the many that might be told, I have space 
for but few. 

Jokes in which skeletons are made to play a 
prominent part have always been great favorites 
with students. The best one of this kind ever 
tried here was furbished up for use on the oc- 
casion of our first commencement, at the close 
of General Fraser's administration. This was 
in the summer of 1873. We had moved over 
into our new building the previous autumn. 
The south wing and main hall were yet unfin- 
ished. The hall was a great barn-like place, 

176 Reminiscences. 

with roughly plastered walls, windows mostly 
closed with old boards, floor level and unseated, 
and a round hole about eight feet across in the 
center of the ceiling. It was a very unattract- 
ive place, and yet the best we had in which to 
hold commencement exercises. A temporary 
platform was erected on the south side of the 
hall, and gaily decorated with flags, flowers and 
evergreens. The place was crowded with peo- 
ple, and even standing room was at a premium. 
In the midst of the exercises, just after some 
very impressive performance, while the full band 
was playing, there slowly descended from the 
dark hole in the ceiling a ghastly, grinning skele- 
ton, shaking his clattering bones, and executing 
a sort of ghost dance just over the heads of the 
people, wearing on his big toe a paper inscribed 
with the legend "Prex" only this and nothing 
more ! Then for a time there was great commo- 
tion, and a rush was made by several of the pro- 
fessors to discover the perpetrators of the joke. 
But no one was caught. The only clew ever 
found was a rope hanging in an air shaft, and a 
blue necktie at the foot of the shaft. The tie 
was kept a long time in the office waiting for an 
owner, but no one ever came to claim it; and so, 
whether it belonged to some student, or whether 

Reminiscences, 177 

the skeleton lost it while climbing the rope, will 
probably always remain a mystery unless, in- 
deed, a certain student now living in Kansas City 
shall consent to give us further information. As 
soon as quiet was partially restored, the Presi- 
dent's young wife, turning to her husband, asked, 
"What does 'Prex' mean?" "The faculty," 
he quickly answered. 

Thus was played with us the skeleton act, 
which, with some slight variation perhaps, is still 
traveling on its dreary round. 

Other jokes equally gray have also often 
shaken our students' sides with laughter. Toss- 
ing victims in blankets, and breaking their bones 
by the fall; sliding them down inclined planes 
into water tanks; suspending them from win- 
dows, sending them on snipe hunts at night, 
pelting them with eggs, ripe and unripe, and 
then washing them clean under the pump; 
these, and many other practical jokes equally 
hoary, still furnish material for many an initia- 
tion, mock or real, from year to year. 

Some jokes, however, were quite local in 
many of their features, and, for this reason, may 
perhaps be worth the telling. This, I think, is 
true of the following: 

178 Reminiscences. 

Soon after the first Greek letter society was 
established here, and the boys were flourishing 
their new badges quite conspicuously, suddenly 
another society seemed to "break out" with 
much larger and more conspicuous badges, con- 
sisting of the mysterious device, "T. C. ," 
wrought out of bright new tin. These letters 
were about two inches long. There was much 
speculation as to the meaning of this strange 
device. Some thought it was intended only to 
ridicule the Greeks; others thought the letters 
concealed mysteries of dark and fearful import. 

But of the real meaning of the device, when 
or where the society met, or what was done at 
the meetings, no one, for a long time, seemed 
to have the least conception. Curiosity being 
deeply aroused, a close watch was kept upon the 
movements of the members. It was at last as- 
certained that the society had no regular time 
nor place for meeting, but assembled usually on 
dark nights at no inconvenient distance from 
some nice turkey roost. Feathers, broken bot- 
tles, paper bags, scattered arcund a few fire 
brands, sometimes gave a slight clue to the na- 
ture of the festivities. Turkeys were missed in 
various localities, but no one seemed to know 
where they had gone. Thus the matter ran on, 

Reminiscences. 179 

until, in an unlucky hour, the boys raided the 
poultry yard of Judge Nelson Stephens. But 
the judge was no man to be trifled with. Pos- 
sessing a rare knowledge of human nature, and 
great skill in detecting the wily ways of crooked 
men, lie soon found out who the rogues were, 
and resolved to punish them in his own peculiar 

Without mentioning his discovery to any one 
but the members of his own family, he politely 
invited all the "T. C.'s" to supper. 

They were delighted at the invitation. The 
judge received them with unusual kindness, if 
that were possible, and kept them in a roar with 
funny stories until supper was announced. The 
boys had never had so good a time before in all 
their lives. Still shaking with laughter they 
were shown into the dining room, and assigned 
their places. On the plate of each "T. C." was 
a huge turkey. Asking his guests to help them- 
selves, the judge went on with his funny stories, 
as if he was always accustomed to give each 
guest a whole turkey. The boys could neither 
eat nor listen. They were in torture. But the 
judge, too polite to notice their embarrassment, 
simply urged them to eat, now and then, and kept 
on with his stories. Thus did he roast those boys 

180 Reminiscences. 

as thoroughly as ever they had roasted his tur- 
keys. At list, when he thought the roasting 
done, he politely dismissed them, the most dis- 
consolate set of fellows that ever raided a turkey 
roost. This broke up the society, and the "Tur- 
key Catchers" disbanded, and their badges were 
seen no more. 

By this little experience the boys had been 
severely scorched, but their love for practical 
joking had by no means been eradicated. A 
new temptation for them came as follows: 

The women's temperance crusade was being 
prosecuted in the city with great vigor. The 
crusaders held all-day meetings in nearly every 
drinking place in the city. The saloons were 
literally l 'sat down upon," and their owners 
urged and implored to give up their nefarious 
business and sign the pledge. The University 
was also invaded, and the pledge passed around. 
Many signed as requested, and among others 
several professors. One of these professors hap- 
pened to have in his cellar at the time a few 
bottles of home-made wine, for use in sickness. 
This fact became known, in some manner, to 
these practical jokers. Their old ardor seized 
them at once, and they fairly burned to get hold 
of those bottles. It would be the best joke of 

Reminiscences. 181 

their lives. Thus thinking, they formed their 

A few evenings later two of them called at 
the professor's house. They seemed in espe- 
cially happy mood, telling stories, joking, and 
laughing almost immoderately. Finally one of 
them, producing some music, offered to play it. 
With a big crash, he began, and such playing ! 
He ran, and galloped, and cantered, and jumped 
up and down the keyboard until the old house 
fairly rattled from chimney top to cellar espe- 
cially the cellar. Then college songs were roared 
with equal force and energy. This went on an 
hour or two, when the guests withdrew, with 
many expressions of pleasure at the delightful 
evening they had passed, promising to call soon 
again. The professor and his wife were a little 
surprised at the call of these young men, who 
had never called before, and especially at their 
rather long stay and boisterous conduct. But 
still they were glad to have received the visit, 
and retired greatly pleased to think that these 
"T. C.'s," lately so wild, were now disposed to 
give up their disreputable practices, and culti- 
vate the graces and amenities of social life. 

In the morning, on opening the house, many 
evidences of burglary were plainly visible in 

182 Reminiscences. 

fact, too plainly visible. The hoe and ax and 
pieces of candles were left near the cellar win- 
dows, in plain sight, as if courting an investiga- 
tion. It was soon found that the cellar had 
been entered, the wine taken, and the following 
note left in its place: 

"Dtar Professor Inasmuch as yon have signed the 
pledge, and therefore can neither drink this wine yourself, 
nor sell it, nor give it away, as that would be abetting the 
great evil, we have concluded to take it, and thus relieve you 
from all temptation. Yours truly, CKUSADEKS." 

The professor, for obvious reasons, never men- 
tioned his loss, but the boys thought it too good 
a joke to keep, and so, whispering it around 
among their friends, it soon became a well-known 



If any of the participants in this joke still 
feel sensitive over it, I shall beg their pardon in 
advance, and then go on with my story. For a 
sketch of University jokes with this one omitted 
would be like "Hamlet" with Hamlet left out. 

One morning, about ten years ago, when Dr. 
Marvin was on his way to the University, a mes- 
senger boy gave him a telegram containing the 
startling information that Regent F. T. Ingalls, 
of Atchison, had suddenly died the day before, 
of heart disease, and would be buried on the 

Reminiscences. , 183 

following day. The dispatch purported to be 
sent by John A. Martin. Greatly shocked, the 
doctor hurried to the University, and told the 
sad news to the faculty. All were equally 
shocked. After prayers the doctor, in a few 
very feeling words, communicated our sad loss 
to the assembled students, and informed them 
that ceremonies appropriate to the occasion 
would be held in chapel on the following morn- 
ing. Two members of the faculty, who had 
been in college with the departed Regent, were 
selected to deliver memorial addresses. Further 
information by letter or telegram was expected 
that day, confirming or denying the report, but 
as nothing came it was accepted as true, and 
the professors appointed spent a large part of 
the night preparing for the ceremonies of the 

In the meantime Dr. Marvin and Regents B. 
W. Woodward and Rev. A. Beatty, impelled by 
a deep sense of duty, and with saddened hearts, 
had gone to Atchison to attend the funeral, 
which was to be conducted next morning. Ar- 
riving in town, they began to inquire the par- 
ticulars concerning the sad event. As bad luck 
would have it, they chanced upon the one man 
of all others best calculated to deceive them 

184 Reminiscences, 

the fellow found in nearly every town who will 
never admit that there is anything which he 
does not know ! He knew everything they 
asked, of course. 

"The death of Ingalls? Oh, yes; it was very 
sudden. The Senator was " "But we don't 
mean the Senator; we mean his brother, F. T. 
Ingalls, " said they. "Of course," said he, "a 
very fine man, too, and one who will be greatly 
missed; died suddenly in .the street, of heart 
disease; funeral to-morrow at 11 o'clock, under 
direction of John A. Martin. You'll find Mar- 
tin at his office. Go and see him; he'll tell 
all about it." So they went to see Mr. Martin. 
Feeling sure now that he will understand them, 
they inquire at once what arrangements have 
been made for the funeral. "Funeral!" said 
he, "what funeral? There is nobody dead, as 
far as I know. What are you talking about?" 
"Rev. F. T. Ingalls' funeral," they replied; 
"did you not send us a telegram this morning 
announcing his sudden death yesterday? We 
have come to attend his funeral." "No," he 
replied; "I sent no such telegram; somebody 
lias fooled you. Ingalls is as well as ever, and 
is at a church social now." 

Greatly surprised, and scarcely knowing what 

Reminiscences. 185 

to do next, they finally concluded to send a tele- 
gram to the University immediately, in order to 
prevent the delivery of those memorial addresses 
in the morning, and return home as quietly as 
possible on the first freight train. They sent the 
telegram, and then sat down to wait for the train. 
Though sent at nine o'clock in the evening, this 
telegram, through some strange mishap, was not 
delivered until after nine o'clock the next morn- 
ing. It was then too late. The chapel door 
was closed and the addresses were being deliv- 
s ered. A solemn silence pervaded the room, 
broken only by the eloquent pathos of the speak- 
ers, as they portrayed in glowing language the 
noble life and character of the departed. 

At last, when all was over, and we were slowly 
leaving the hall, the belated telegram was handed 
us, announcing that the whole matter had been 
a hoax from beginning to end. What a sudden 
revulsion of feeling ! How quick the change 
from grief to indignation at finding ourselves 
the victims of so cruel a hoax. It was immedi- 
ately decided that the perpetrators must not be 
allowed to go unpunished. They were soon 
sought out and punished with suspension for the 
remainder of the year. One of these young 
men returned to the University and finished his 

186 Reminiscences. 

course. The other never returned. Both are 
now successful lawyers, one in Kansas City, the 
other in New York. 


The second catalogue of the University gives 
evidence of considerable growth. We had two 
college classes that year, Henrietta P. Beach, 
of Olathe, constituting the Junior class, and 
Lucie A. Carruth, of Lawrence, the Freshman 
class. Having gained these two classes, we felt 
so elated that we informed the public of our 
purpose "not to make the preparatory course 
a permanent feature of the University!" Yet 
one of the professors, having, after all, but little 
confidence in the rapid increase of high-class 
scholars, thought it wise policy to attach this 
junior class as firmly to the institution as possible, 
at least until she became a senior. This was 
finally done, and the junior class of 1867-8 is 
still strongly attached to the University, and 
slowly becoming a senior. 

By the addition of several new instructors 
we were now prepared not only to offer French 
in our course, but also to teach it. The first 
year, instead of teaching this language, we starred 
Greek, calling attention to the following foot 

Reminiscences. 187 

note: ' ' Young ladies who desire can take French 
instead of Greek, although it is earnestly recom- 
mended that all should pursue the Greek." This 
was our first French course. German was only 
offered in advanced courses in which we knew 
there would be no students. No course in mu- 
sic was offered or organized. The instructor 
was simply endorsed by the Regents as compe- 
tent, and given permission to teach such students 
as desired and would pay for his services. He 
was always a sort of free lance, doing about as 
he pleased, and making whatever he could. And 
yet he was expected, and sometimes required, to 
grade the work of his pupils, and hand in reports 
to the Secretary for permanent record. Profes- 
sor J. E. Bartlett once handed in his report, with 
the following explanation: "I grade on the basis 
of 100. You will observe that two pupils are 
each marked 125. They were so very good that 
I had to give them that high grade ! ' ' This will 
indicate the "happy-go-lucky" character of the 
Music Department before the appointment of 
Professor Wm. MacDonald. It was organized 
by this professor, and placed somewhat in touch 
with the rest of the institution. 

188 Reminiscences. 


Our learned Professor of Natural History, 
who has now achieved more than a national rep- 
utation in his special lines of work, came to the 
University with the expressed desire of teaching 
the Greek language and literature. To this end, 
more perhaps than to any other, had tended all 
his previous training. A severe classical course 
in college, with special attention to Greek, and 
a three years 1 course in Andover Theological Sem- 
inary, with critical study of Greek and Hebrew, 
had given him especial fondness and capacity for 

linguistic studies. 

. , * 

His knowledge of the natural sciences, on the 

other hand, was mostly negative on4y the 
smattering that was then taught in the New 
England classical college just enough to make 
the "darkness visible." He brought to the 
duties of his professorship, therefore, no special 
training in science, but only the natural endow- 
ments of a sound, vigorous mind, sharpened by 
classical studies, keen powers of observation, a 
passion for knowledge, untiring energy, and 
boundless capacity for hard work. 

Thus equipped he was elected professor, and 

Reminiscences. 189 

spread over the already broad, and constantly 
widening chair of ''Mathematics and the Natural 
Sciences" a place now occupied by seventeen 
instructors, and which will soon require several 
more. No wonder Professor Snow is a very 
broad man. The necessity of trying to cover 
an ever-expanding chair like that would be apt 
to broaden even a less elastic man. 

Soon after his appointment the professor pre- 
pared for the catalogue and future students a full 
scientific course. This was to be, as far as pos- 
sible, a practical course, to be wrought out 
rather -in the field and laboratory, than from 
books. The statements of authors were to be 
proved, wherever practicable, by experimental 
observations. It was also hoped that, by this 
practical work in so fresh a field, a few addi- 
tions, at least, might be made to the knowledge 
of natural history. Having thus laid out his 
plans, he set about their realization with charac- 
teristic energy. 

The first scientific excursion ever undertaken 
by the University of Kansas was made on Fri- 
day afternoon, September 14, 1866. The entire 
faculty went in a body on horseback not on 
one horse up the river to Cameron's bluff, to 
see some petrified turtles which somebody had 

190 Reminiscences. 

told us were to be found there ! I do not re- 
member whether Professor Snow brought back 
any of those turtles or not; but I do remember 
that he and I rode so hard, and acted so much 
like boys, that we quite shocked our venerable 
President, who never thereafter could be in- 
duced to ride with us. 

This excursion is a fair indication of the con- 
dition of science in the institution at that period. 

Peculiar accidents sometimes occurred to 
mar the most perfect success. Once, after the 
professor had crawled a long distance over a 
muddy sand-bar, and had come within easy 
range of some fine specimens, taking deliberate 
aim, he fired and blew off the end of his gun 
barrel. He had filled it with sand while stalk- 
ing his game. 

On another occasion, while walking along the 
river bank with some farmer friends, and famil- 
iarly discussing the destructive habits of Calopte- 
nus spretus, Blissus faicopterus, and Cecidomyia 
destructor, wholly absorbed in these interesting 
topics, he casually noticed a big bunch of 
feathers washed up on the shore, and stepped 
up to tip it over with his gun. All at once the 
bunch became animated, and, much to his sur- 
prise, a long desired specimen of Anser Cana- 

Reminiscences. 191 

dens is slowly withdrew his sleepy head from 
under his wing, and, winking his left eye lazily 
at the professor, deliberately flew away, cheered 
by a parting salute from all the astonished com- 
pany ! 

Again, one cold day in the early springtime, 
while apparently absorbed in schemes to de- 
stroy the chinch bug, or possibly in thoughts of 
"Bonny Jean," he rode his pony into a swollen 
ford of the Wakarusa, and, almost before he 
knew it, was floating down the stream. Aroused 
from his reverie by the cold bath, he quickly 
turned his pony around, and by good luck and 
the strength of his animal, finally gained the 
ford, and made his way to the bank. 

Having secured a great many specimens by 
these excursions in the field, much labor was ex- 
pended upon them in the study and laboratory. 
Of course I only helped in the field, but we both 
worked hard and long. The lamps in our room 
in North College were almost the last in the 
city to be extinguished. 

One very dark, rainy night about twelve 
o'clock, we started down to our boarding place 
on Kentucky street, near the Central School build- 
ing. Guided by an occasional flash of lightning, 
we had safely made our way down to Tennessee 

192 Reminiscences. 

street, straying, however, on account of the dark- 
ness, considerably from our usual course. Ten- 
nessee street was at this time impassible for 
teams, being gullied in places to the depth of 
seven or eight feet by recent rains. Just as we 
were about to cross the street it began to rain 
hard, and we started to run, when, lighted by a 
flash, I saw my comrade disappear in one of the 
deepest gullies. Stopping short on the brink, 
I waited developments. Hearing nothing, I 
called. No answer. Then came a sort of muf- 
fled, splashing, spluttering noise, followed by a 
call for help. Reaching down as far as I could, 
and catching hold of a muddy hand, I drew out 
the most forlorn, woe-begone, bedraggled-ap- 
pearing professor ever seen in Lawrence. By 
making a long detour around the gullies, we 
reached our boarding place without further mis- 
hap, but firmly resolved to call the attention of 
the street commissioner to some needed repairs 
on Tennessee street. 

In the course of three or four years nearly all 
departments of natural history represented in 
the field around the city had been pretty thor- 
oughly examined, and it became necessary to 
try newer fields. Western Kansas and Colorado 
were repeatedly visited, and many valuable speci- 

Reminiscences. 198 

meris obtained, some of which were quite unique. 
For instance, the professor found, among other 
rare specimens, several skeletons of the Mcgalo- 
saurus, and the only piece of fossilized shark skin 
ever discovered. He also "got a corner," as it 
were, on a sort of double -jointed, back-action 
beetle, familiarly known as Amblychila cylindrl- 
fornds, rated among naturalists at $15 to $20 
each. The few obtained by early naturalists had 
died early, without issue, and no one knew where 
to find any more. Hence their high price. Pro- 
fessor Snow, with characteristic skill and energy, 
soon learning their habits and habitat, secured 
enough in a few days to "-bear" all the bug 
markets of the* world ! One of the professor's 
pupils then took np the business, and, in less 
than a year, ran the price down to half a dollar 
a bug, with no takers at that, and plenty of bugs 
left over ! The price has never recovered, and 
the once silver-mounted AmUychila cylindri- 
formis is now but a drug (or bug) in the market. 
One day, while collecting in the western part 
of the State, the professor found a beautiful 
specimen a fine young rattlesnake. Wishing 
to preserve him without bruising, he grasped the 
reptile firmly but gently around the neck close 



to the head, and tenderly carried him to camp. 
Having no chloroform or other anaesthetic at 
hand with which to put him to sleep, he brought 
out a bottle of alcohol in which to let him die in 
a drunken stupor. Bat when the professor, for- 
getting the proverbial wisdom of the serpent, 
attempted to make him drink by thrusting his 
tail in the liquor, the intelligent creature resented 
the indignity by a sharp reminder of the end 
with which he was accustomed to take his drinks. 
The professor took the hint, and after cording 
his finger and sucking out the poison, put him 
in right end first, and Crotulm horridus was 


After our naturalist had thoroughly searched 
the rich fields of Kansas and Colorado with bug 
net, pick, and hammer, he began to make long 
summer excursions into the wild, Apache-haunted 
regions of New Mexico. 

One summer, taking with him his little boy, 
Professor H. S. S. Smith and several student as- 
sistants, he located his camp twenty-five miles 
from Socorro, in Water-gap Canon, a very 
picturesque place and abounding in specimens. 
All were happy, and the work was progress- 

Reminiscences. 195 

ing finely, when, one afternoon, two cowboys 
came riding furiously into camp on foaming 
horses, and announced that the Apaches were 
on the war path and had killed several teamsters 
between the camp and Socorro. Tanned faces 
blanched with fear, and the cold perspiration 
started. The collectors and neighboring miners 
were called in, and a council held. It was de- 
cided to guard the camp and wait for assistance. 
For three days the camp was in a state of siege, 
expecting an attack at any moment. All were 
constantly on the alert, with guns always ready. 
Even the cooking is said to have been done with 
a skillet in one hand and a rifle in the other. 
At last, worn out with watching and waiting for 
help, they resolved to start for town the next 
morning. This was a fearful tiling to do, for 
the road was lined with fit places for ambus- 
cades; but they must go. The best possible 
preparation was made, and they moved out of 
camp. The line of march placed those with 
guns in front. Professor Snow leading. Those 
with baggage brought up the rear, under com- 
mand of Professor Smith. Thus they made 
their fearful march, passing broken wagons and. 
murdered drivers, and at last arrived safe in 

106 Rern in iscen ces. 

Socorro, the most thoroughly frightened bug 
hunters ever seen in the mountains. 

By means of these and many other excur- 
sions, the professor had long ago not only 
mastered many departments of natural history, 
but also discovered a number of new species, 
and become a recognized authority on ento- 
mology. Long may he flourish, and never may 
his shadow grow less ! 


The appointment of Professor F. W. Bard- 
well at the end of the third, year to the chair of 
Mathematics and Engineering was a great relief 
to Professor Snow, and also a great gain to the 
University. Professor Bard well was a man of 
superior ability, a hard student, a successful 
teacher, and popular with his pupils. 

He was also of quite an inventive turn of 
mind. On several inventions he obtained pat- 
ents. His last was a water wheel, by means of 
which he was sure that ships could cross the 
ocean in from one to two days less time than is 
now required. This invention he died without 

He also published an arithmetic, which is said 

Reminiscences. 197 

to have had considerable merit, but owing to 
his death soon after, it was never revised nor 
pushed into notice. 

His last work for the University was a sum- 
mer trip to Colorado in 1878, to take obser- 
vations on the total solar eclipse that year. 
Professor Frank O. Marvin and I went as his 
assistants. He was in ill health before starting, 
but in that bracing atmosphere expected soon to 
recover. Leaving him at Manitou we made a 
ten days' trip in the mountains. On our return, 
instead of finding him better, as we expected, 
we found that, growing rapidly worse, he had 
packed up his instruments and gone home sev- 
eral days before our arrival. A few clays later 
he died. In his death the University lost an 
able professor and a most excellent man. 


Byron C. Smith, the first Professor of Greek, 
began work in the University in the fall of 1872. 
He was undoubtedly one of the brightest men 
ever connected with this institution. To a quick, 
clear, strong intellect were joined an enthusias- 
tic temperament, a sound judgment, and broad 
scholarship, unusually mature in one so young. 
While he took especial delight in the work of his 

1 08 Reminiscences. 

own department, he found great pleasure also in 
gleaning from many other fields. For instance, 
he used to read geometry as a recreation, mem- 
orize Latin poems as a pleasure, and fairly revel 
in the works of German metaphysicians. I have 
known him to memorize thirty lines of Ovid in 
twenty-five minutes, and be able to repeat them 
weeks afterwards. Often in camp, though tired 
and hungry, I have known him almost forget to 
eat, in his eagerness to prove some proposition 
in mental philosophy. His enthusiasm was con- 
tagious. His scholars all caught it, and were 
ready to do anything that he suggested. 

On one occasion he planned a picnic to cele- 
brate the birthday of Plato. Each pupil taking 
part was to assume the name and character of 
some friend of the philosopher, and respond to 
an appropriate toast with a fitting sentiment. 
Owing to the sickness of the professor, the picnic 
never came off. I am very sorry it failed, for it 
must have been a long time since Plato's birth- 
day was celebrated, and I should like to have 
had the last celebration made by the students of 
the University of Kansas. 



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