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Full text of "Quarter century edition of The paradise of childhood. A practical guide to kindergartners"

**S3 







Wheelock College Library 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



OF THE 



Paradise of Childhood 



A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO KINDERGARTNERS, 



KDWARD WIEBE. 



EDITED BY MILTON BRADLEY. 



INCLUDING A 



LIFE OF FRIEDRICH FROEBEL, 



by 



HENRY W. BLAKE, A. XL. 



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED, 



SPRINGFIELD, MASS.: 

MILTON BRADLEY COMPANY 

1896. 



Stack Collection 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the )-ear 1896, 

BY 

Milton Bradley Company, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

All rights reserved. 



Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England. 
All rights reserved. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year [869, 
BY 

Milton Bradley & Company, 
In the Clerk's ( H'fice of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



■ 



Contents. 



Editor's Preface, . 
[introduction to the Life of Froebel, 
Map of Central Germany, 
The Life of Froebel, . 

In His Father's House. 
With His Guardian, 
The Forester's Apprentice. 
A Student at Jena, 
Becomes a Teacher, 
Relations with Pestalozzi, 
Final University Studies, 
A Soldier of the Legion. 
( urator a1 Berlin, 
Principal at Keilhau, 
In Switzerland, 
Blankenburg, 

Wanderings About Germany, 
Marienthal, 
Since Froebel' s Death, 
The Paradise op Childhood, 
Author's Preface, 
Kindergarten Culture, 
Establishment of a Kindergarten, 
Means and Ways of Occupation, 

The First Gift, .... 

Editor's Notes: General Impression — Color- -Form — Mot 
The Second Gift, 

Editor's Notes : The Sphere- The < !ub< — Tin 
The Third Gift, . 

The Presentation of the Third Gift— Pi 
Form- of Life — Forms of Knowledge— Form 

The Fourth < lift 

Preparation for Constructing Forms Forms of Lifi — For 
Formsof Beauty Editor's Notes: Furniture Sequence 
House Building and Furnishing Sequence. 



Cvlin 



t ion 

j of 1 



ir < '< 
i hi \ 



istru 
Ed 



ins <>l 
Bab 



ting Forms 
or's Notes. 

Knowledge 
i- Sequence 



Pagi . 
5 

9 
L2 

l;; -63 
L3 
17 
19 
21 
23 
26 
28 
29 
31 
33 
38 
•in 
42 
46 
,") .") 

65-274 

67 
69 

i i 

78 

79-85 

86-93 

! L06 



K>7 lis 



4 CONTENTS. 

The Fifth Gift, 119-135 

Cube, Twice Divided in Each Direction — Forms of Life — Forms of Knowl- 
edge — Forms of Beauty. Editor's Notes : First Sequence — Second Sequence — 
Third Sequence. 

The Fifth Gift B, 136-138 

Forms of Life — Forms of Symmetry. 

The Sixth Gift, 139-148 

Large Cube, Consisting of Double Divided Oblong Blocks — Forms of Life — 
Forms of Knowledge — Forms of Beauty. Editor's Notes : A Life Sequence — 
A Beauty Sequence. 

The Seventh Gift, 149-168 

Square and Triangular Tablets for Laying of Figures — The Quadrangular Lay- 
ing Tablets (Squares). Right- Angled Triangles — Forms of Life — Forms of 
Knowledge — Forms of Beauty. The Equilateral Triangle — Forms of Knowl- 
edge — Forms of Beauty. The Obtuse-Angled Triangle with Two Sides Alike — 
The Light-Angled Triangle with No Equal Sides. Editor's Notes. 

The Eighth Gift, ir,<.i-176 

Sticks for Laying of Figures. Editor's Notes. 

The Ninth (lift 177-1*2 

Whole and Half Lings for Laying Figure-. Editor's Notes. 

The Tenth Gift, 183-211 

Material for Drawing — The Vertical Line — The Horizontal Line — Combina- 
tion of Vertical and Horizontal Line- — Oblique Lines — The Curved Line. 
Editor's Notes. 

The Eleventh and Twelfth Gifts, 212-224 

Material for Perforating and Embroidering. Editor's Notes: Elementary Color 
Teaching. 

The Thirteenth Gift -' 225-234 

Material for Cutting Papers and Mounting Pieces to Produce Figures and 
Forms — Mounting the Figures. Editor'- Notes. 

The Fourteenth Gift 235-241 

Material for Braiding or Weaving. Editor'- Note-. 

The Fifteenth (lift, 242-246 

The Interlacing Slat-. 

The Sixteenth Gift, 247-253 

The Slat with Many Link-. 

The Seventeenth Gift, 254-25(5 

Material for Intertwining. Editor's Notes. 

The Eighteenth Gift, 257-263 

Material for Paper Folding. Editor's Notes. 

The Nineteenth Gift 264-267 

Material for Peas-Work. Editor's Notes. 
The Twentieth Gift, 268-274 

Material for Modeling. Editor's Notes. The Kindergarten Games. 



EDITORS PREFACE. 

— ■♦— - 

In the year 1868 the editor of the present edition was persuaded to publish "The Para- 
dise of Childhood," by one of his neighbors, Mr. Edward Wiebe, and also to begin the man- 
ufaeture of kindergarten material for use in America. Mr. Weibe, who came to Springfield a 
few years prior to that time, was a very intelligent and well educated man and was then en- 
gaged in teaching music, but had gained a knowledge of the kindergarten system through his 
association with the widow of Froebel before leaving Germany. He was anxious to introduce 
it in this country, and as soon as he became acquainted with the editor, who was at the head 
of a factory for making children's games and home amusements, began to urge his co-opera- 
tion, both from an educational and a commercial standpoint. The editor knew nothing 
about the kindergarten and did not take any interest in it so long as Mr. Wiebe was its only 
advocate. Not many months later, however, he attended an exposition of kindergarten prin- 
ciples and aims by Miss Elizabeth P. Peabody, who had recently returned from a careful study 
of them in Germany and undertaken to convert America to the cause. To that single even- 
ing talk, given in a school-house near his home, the editor attributes whatever he has done in 
the name of the kindergarten during the last twenty-five years, and as an immediate result he 
yielded to Mr. Wiebe's entreaties to publish the manuscript of "The Paradise of Childhood," 
which had been prepared for a long time, and also began making the kindergarten material. 

In those days all the kindergarten literature that had been published in this country was 
confined to a few newspaper and magazine articles. The first edition of "The Paradise of 
Childhood" contained what is here inserted as the Author's Preface, but was then called the in- 
troduction, a few preliminary explanations about establishing a kindergarten and the author's 
text on the twenty gifts and occupations. The illustrations were reprints from " Goldam- 
mer's Kindergarten," being lithographed on separate plates, in the back part of the book. 

In subsequent editions the paper entitled "Kindergarten Culture," was added, and in 1878 
the plates of "The Paradise of Childhood " were prefaced with a brief text and published in 
separate form as " A Haud-Book for the Kindergarten," the contents of which were after- 
wards incorporated with the "Paradise" during many editions. For a quarter of a century 
this work has been accepted as the only single book furnishing in brief an outline of both 
the theory and practice of the kindergarten. In 1876 it received honorable mention at the. 
Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition as being the first illustrated guide to the kindergarten ever 
published in the English language. 

At the end of twenty-five years the editor felt that the time had come to prepare an edition 
of the book which should in some respects differ radically from any yet published. It was, 
therefore, resolved to print again Mr. Wiebe's original text, with the paper on "Kindergarten 
Culture" as an introduction, putting the illustrations in the body of the book, instead of group- 
ing them at the end, and adding such notes as the kindergarten knowledge of to-day would 
naturally approve. These notes include some suggestions regarding the use of color in the 
kindergarten, a matter to which the editor has given much special study, and a brief paper at 
the end of the book about the games. As a proper prelude to the study of the kindergarten 



(J EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

system a Life of Froebel has been made a part of this hook, with a concluding chapter 
ahout the movement since his death, which will, it is hoped, prove helpful to such students as 
have not had the benefit of other biographical works relating to the founder of the kinder- 
garten. This life is illustrated with pictures taken in Germany for that purpose and also a 
map of the section where Froebel lived and labored. The editor is. of course, aware that some 
leading kindergarten training teachers object to the use of all '"guide books" by either the pu- 
pils or teachers of the system. He believes, however, that they still have their place in the 
educational world, although they may not be as essential as they were twenty-five years ago. 
When the first edition of " Paradise" was published, argument was in order to convince the 
public not only that the kindergarten was necessary but that it was possible. It now is 
usually acknowledged to be a good thing, but it is thought by some of those who manage the 
affairs of nations, states, cities and school districts, to be too expensive. Doubtless good 
things are usually more costly than those which are inferior, but it is not by any means cer- 
tain that they are always most expensive in the long run, either to individuals or communities. 
The experimental stages of the kindergarten are now passed so far as the proof is necessary 
to determine the value to the world of the general truths first set forth by Froebel. It 
now remains for the friends of the work to devise the best means for fully carrying those 
principles to the masses. They must put forth every effort to rightly direct those who are to 
determine the nature of the education which is to be provided for the children of the 
coming generation. 

While it is readily admitted that no single book nor even a library can furnish the instruc- 
tion necessary to equip a kindergartner in the best sense, and that only personal contact with 
experienced kindergartners and practical experience with children can make a kindergartner, 
it is still maintained that there is a demand for the publication of a fairly full but concise 
statement of the theory and practice of the system of education which was evolved by the 
labors of Froebel, for the benefit of a large class in the community. For instance, those pri- 
mary teachers who are to receive pupils from the kindergarten should have instruction in the 
details of the kindergarten system sufficient at least to enable them to go on with the instruc- 
tion in such lines as to connect logically with the education already received. For this 
purpose there must come a connecting school between the kindergarten system and the primary 
school in which the teacher shall be fully informed as to the kindergarten course from which 
the child has graduated, and hence able to gradually and without friction induct him into the 
school system. If a child of average ability spends the years from four to six in a kinder- 
garten, and then one year in a connecting school, he should afterwards require practically no 
more of the concrete than is always necessary in all education which relates to the more prac- 
tical matters of life. It is evident that in all scientific and mathematical education the concrete 
illustrations must be continued in the form of experiments, and the kindergarten education 
enables the pupil to make the best use of them as they are required, but under the condi- 
tions named all the counting of blocks, folding of papers, cutting and [tasting of mathematical 
and artistic forms will have merely prepared the way for clear mathematical thinking and 
artistic designing and drawing. Under such a condition of things each primary school teacher 
should at least have as much familiarity with the kindergarten methods as can be gained 
by a very careful study of this book, and such knowledge is fully as desirable on the part of 
every mother with young children. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 7 

At this point the editor desires a word of explanation regarding the paper which has so 
long been published under the name of "Kindergarten Culture." This resume of the kinder- 
garten system was originally prepared by Mr. Wiebe to be used as an address before some 
educational meetings in this country previous to the publication of " The Paradise of Child- 
hood," and was at a much later date first printed as a pamphlet for advancing the kinder- 
garten cause in America, with the title " Kindergarten Culture," and still later, long after 
Mr. Wiebe had left this country, was made a part of "The Paradise of Childhood," without 
any knowledge by the publishers of the source from which it was originally prepared, or any 
assertion by Mr. Wiebe that it was or was not original. Since its publication in connection 
with'* The Paradise of Childhood." it has been criticised as being a translation of an article 
by Baroness von Marenholtz-Bulow, with the added inference that in presenting " The Para- 
dise of Childhood" to the American public. Mr. Wiebe was guilty of plagarism or deceit. In 
the light of subsequent research " Kindergarten Culture" proves to have been a paraphrase 
or a very free translation of an article written by the Baroness but which had never at that 
time been translated into English. 

When the work on this new edition was begun the hope was entertained that it might be 
completed within twenty-live years of the first appearance of the book, but certain unavoidable 
delays have made the task a longer one than was at first anticipated. Doubtless some critics 
will feel that in the attempt to remodel the book too much has been done, while others will 
regret that too little is undertaken. The editor can but hope, however, that this edition, taken 
as a whole, will prove a help to many earnest students of Froebel and the kindergarten system. 
In conclusion he desires to return sincere thanks to all his co-laborers in the kindergarten 
held who by counsel and suggestions have done so much to help him in his work. 

Springfield, Muss.. January 7. 1896. 



Wheelock College Library 



INTRODUCTION TO THE LIFE OF FROEBEL. 



One of the principal objects of studying any 

subject is to gain the power of thinking ana- 
lytically about it. To do this it may be nec- 
essary to acquire many facts pertaining to that 
subject, but after all this preliminary work 
has been done the knowledge of those facts 
will ] trove of but comparatively little conse- 
quence unless we understand and appreciate 
their co-relation. Consequently the argument 
for a careful study of FvoebeFs life as essen- 
tial to the understanding of the kindergarten 
system, both in its theory and practice, is 
based on the broad proposition that whoever 
aspires to understand any system of philoso- 
phy, ethics or education must be able to 
think analytically about it. While all earnest 
students of Froebel's system realize the more 
thoroughly they pursue it that they have a 
life work in hand, there are unquestionably 
certain methods of study that will become 
especially helpful when applied to this subject, 
just as there are in all lines of mental inves- 
tigation. And now we come to the general 
principle that one cannot understand the 
philosophy of any man Avho is really great 
without becoming familiar with his career, 
with the procession of events which, taken 
together, have made up his life. 

The author once had the pleasure of listening 
to an address by a distinguished judge regard- 
ing the aims and methods of Bible study in 
which he maintained that primary investigation 
of historical facts is essential to the successful 
comprehension of any principles, doctrines, or 
theories which pertain to those facts. If we 
wish to put ourselves in touch with the teach- 
ings of Christ so that they shall become a lamp 
to our feet and a guide to our path, we must 
make ourselves familiar with His life, so that, 
as far as is possible, we may live as He lived, 
and feel as He felt. And the same may be said 
of other great men for whom no claim of di- 
vinity has ever been made, but who have been 
pioneers in the fields of spiritual, mental or 
material activity. 



It would seem, however, that this principle 
of facts before theories has not been the prev- 
alent one on the part of students and teachers. 
The judge just quoted admitted that it took 
him many years in his private study of the 
Bible to discover that this method is the nat- 
ural one, and there is reason to fear that the 
average teacher is very apt to give his pupils 
principles and theories without being careful 
to present to them the biographical facts which 
so often lie behind those principles and theo- 
ries. In other words, we are encouraged and 
compelled to read Caesar's commentaries, re- 
gardless of our previous acquaintance with 
Caesar. Coming to the particular application 
of the argument, are we not forced to admit 
that the accurate acquaintance with the events 
of FrcebePs life among students of the kinder- 
garten system has been left somewhat to acci- 
dent, such study being taken up at any time in 
the course when it was most convenient for 
the teacher, and not always with the system- 
atic application which alone insures the best 
results ? 

Friedrich Froebel lived a peculiar life and 
inaugurated u peculiar educational system, and 
it is pre-eminently true that we must study 
that life in order to comprehend that system, 
to say nothing of acquiring the ability to teach 
it. If we admit the truth of this statement, 
it follows that the study of Froebel's life should 
begin at the opening of the kindergarten 
course. 

If we are to undertake such study, the 
question arises, Into what periods does the 
life of Froebel naturally divide itself? Speak- 
ing in a general way, the answer is : Into three 
periods, Froebel as a Student, as a Teacher, 
as a Kindergartner. Of course these periods 
overlap each other in various ways. He was 
always a student, from the earliest hours of 
his conscious existence in the lonely parson- 
age of Oberweisbach to his dying (lays at 
Marienthal. He became a teacher long before 
his professional studies ended and continued 



10 



(QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



teaching till his latesl breath. The germ of 
the kindergarten idea came to him with the 
prattling speech of babyhood and to perfect it 
was the loving labor of the rest of his days. 
But for purposes of classification we may re- 
gard him as a student from his birth in 1782 
to 1816; a teacher from 1816 to 1837; and a 
kindergartner from 1837 to 1852, a span which 
completes the seventy years of his life. 

If the division named above is correct it 
gives ns our point of view from which to study 
Froebel. We are to consider him as a stu- 
dent, as a teacher, as a kindergartner. We 
are to ask ourselves what his life in these dif- 
ferent capacities contributed to the kindergar- 
ten, and the object of such an investigation is 
not to satisfy idle curiosity, but to put our- 
selves in a position where we can understand 
his educational system, otherwise we cannot 
make any just claim to comprehending it. 

In compiling this work the author has con- 
sulted the common authorities within reach of 
the American student and also some that art' 
out of the usual course. The translation of 
Froebel's autobiographical letterto the Duke of 
Meiningen by Miss Lucy Wheelock of Boston, 
as published iu Dr. Barnard's "Kindergarten 
and Child Culture Papers." has been relied on 
to furnish the thread of the narrative from 
1 7.S2 till 1815. The other translation of this 
letter by Emilie Michaelis and II. Keatley 
Moore, which forms a part of their "Autobio- 
graphy of Friedrich Froebel," published by C. 
W. Bardeen of Syracuse, N. Y., has been 
found valuable in throwing light on this same 
period, particularly through the foot notes. 
This book also contains a long extract from 
another letter of Froebel, written to Friedrich 
Krause, the eminent philosopher, which is a 
review of his life from infancy down to the year 
1828, so that by consulting these two letters we 
get an account in Froebel's own words of his 
career for forty-six years, or nearly till the 
time when he relinquished his principalship at 
Keilhau. 

For what happened in Switzerland we are 
dependent on Barop's article on "Critical Mo- 
ments in the Life of Froebel," a different trans- 
lation of which appears in each of the books al- 
ready named. Then for the intervening pe- 
riod between the establishment of the first 
kindergarten at Blankenburg and the residence 
at Liebenstein we depend largely on "Froebel's 



Letters," edited by Arnold II. Heinemann and 
published by Lee & Shepard of Boston, and 
k 'The Story of My Life" by Georg Ebers. trans- 
lated by Mary .1. Safford and published by D. 
Appleton & Co. of New York. These books 
do not give the coutinuous stoiy of Froebel's 
wanderings and the gradual development of 
the one idea of his life from 1837 to 1S4'.», but 
they do contain suggestions and pen-picturts 
by which it is possible to piece out the narra- 
tive so that it can be readily understood and 
appreciated. 

There are other articles to be considered, 
most of them being translations from Dr. 
Wichard Lange's "For the Understanding of 
Froebel," reproduced in the Barnard book. 
From 1.S49 to the time of Froebel's death the 
world for the most part relies on " Reminis- 
cences of Friedrich Froebel" by Baroness Von 
Marenholtz-Bulow, translated by Mrs. Horace 
Mann and published by Lee & Shepard, Bos- 
ton. A little pamphlet " Reminiscences of 
Friedrich Froebel," by Frau Froebel, published 
by the Chicago Kindergarten College, is also 
very helpful in supplementing the account of the 
Baroness, and for an account of the last days of 
the great apostle of the new education we are 
indebted to the translation of a pamphlet pub- 
lished by Middendorf immediately after the 
death of his friend. "Froebel and Education by 
Self- Activity," by II. C. Bowen, published by 
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, adds some- 
what to the story, and so does "Friedrich Froe- 
bel, How He Became an Educator," by Frau 
Elsie Yon Calcar. This book was originally 
written in Dutch and then translated into Ger- 
man, although no English translation has ever 
been published. In compiling the concluding 
pages regarding the progress of the kindergar- 
ten movement since Froebel's death the author 
is indebted to "The Pratt Institute Monthly," 
"The Kindergarten News" and "The Kinder- 
garten Magazine" for data. To all authors and 
publishers who have helped him in any way he 
desires to make grateful acknowledgement. 

The pictures illustrating the narrative were 
made expressly for this book. The portrait of 
Froebel is copied from a picture taken from 
the oil painting which hangs in the school- 
house at Oberweisbach by II. Enders, a mem- 
ber of the Ro3 T al Academy at Dresden, who 
painted it from an engraving on steel. The 
copy of the portrait is known as the "jubilee 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



11 



picture," having been selected by a committee 
of gentlemen appointed to choose a picture to 
be published at the time of the celebration of 
Frcebel's one hundredth birthday, in 1882. It 
is regarded as an excellent likeness by those 
people in Germany most competent to judge. 
The picture of Frcebel's birthplace, of the vil- 
lage as seen from the top of the Memorial 
Tower, in which the church is such a promi- 
nent feature, and the view of the tower itself 
were taken by special representatives of the 
publishers of this book for reproduction here, 
and they give a clear and adequate idea of the 
surroundings of his early days. 

The pictures of the house at Marienthal, 
where Froebel died, of the monument in the lit- 
tle wood adjoining that house and of the tomb- 
stone over the grave at Schweina were also 
taken for exclusive use here. In regard to 
the tombstone picture it is proper to say that 
because the photographs and woodcuts which 
have previously been brought from Europe by 
kindergartners and other tourists have shown 
such unmistakable proofs that they were made 
from drawings, and not from the tombstone and 
its natural surroundings, the publishers for- 
warded one of them to their agent in Germany 
with an inquiry about its authenticity. As a re- 
sult the picture was returned without comment, 
except the word "fantasm," penciled on the 
back. Concerning the picture here presented it 
is proper to say that owing to the crowded con- 
dition of the burying ground a photograph of 
the monument which is entirely satisfactory 
cannot be secured, and that in this direct front 
view the symbolical cylinder and cube neces- 
sarity appear like one shaft or two similar forms 
of the same size. This picture is doubtless as 
good as could be secured under the circum- 
stances, and bears evidence that it is from an 
original photograph and not the copy of an 



imaginative drawing. The portrait of Frau 
Froebel is from a photograph taken about a 
dozen years ago, while she was still in active 
service as a training teacher at Hamburg. It 
was presented to Miss Louise M. Steinweg, 
now of Pittsburg, Pa., when she graduated 
from the training class, and was loaned by her 
to the publishers. The map used to illustrate 
the theater of Frcebel's life has been redrawn 
to fit the limits of this book from German 
maps, which can lie relied on for their accuracy. 

So far as the author is aware this is the 
first biography of Froebel undertaking to cover 
his whole life, single newspaper articles ex- 
cepted, which has been published from the 
pen of an American. It is the outcome of a 
course of lectures delivered in the winter and 
spring of 1895, to the kindergarten depart- 
ments of the Springfield (Mass). Industrial 
Institute and the State Normal School at 
New Britain, Conn. The author has aimed 
to tell the story as clearly as possible, so that 
the student can get a distinct idea of what 
Froebel was doing during each year of his life, 
without any attempt to explain or inculcate the 
philosophy of the kindergarten. In putting to- 
gether the record free use has been made of 
every authority within reach that could throw 
any possible light on the story as a whole, or in 
its details. Now that the work is supposed to 
be done no one has a keener sense of its defects 
than the author, nor can any other person ap- 
preciate how much better it could be accom- 
plished were it to be done over again. 

Doubtless the comprehensive, erudite, and 
enlightening biography of Froebel for Ameri- 
can readers, which they can thoroughly under- 
stand and delight in, is yet to be written. 
When it is published the world will have a 
story of absorbing interest and convincing 
power. 



12 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



Magdeburg; 



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COMPILED FOR 

PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD 

Milfon Bradley Go., 



Nuremberg' 



THE LIFE OF FROEBEL. 

17S2-1792-IN HIS FATHER'S HOUSE. 



The story of Friedrich Frcebel's life begins 
at the village of Oberweisbach in Central Ger- 
many, where he was horn. April 21, 17*2. 
It is located in what is commonly called the 
Thuringian Forest, a section of country which 
is triangular in shape, nearly one hundred 
miles on its longest side and from twenty-five 
to eighty in breadth. This region is not 
wholly a forest, as the name implies, but is a 
mountainous district within the borders of 
which there are many charming and romantic 
places ; so lovely that the tourist is fully re- 
paid for the trouble it takes to reach them. 
One such visitor tells us that the forest, al- 
though penetrated at various points by rail- 
roads, is for the most part accessible only 
by carriage roads and footpaths. The 
places are still picturesque, the ruins primitive 
and the life of the people simple and unspoiled. 
Within the -'Forest" are mountains, some 
bare or tilled in patches, others covered with 
trees which form deep forests in which are 
found deer, wild boar and many other kinds 
of game. Again there are valleys large and 
small, villages and towns, castles and ruins, 
and all sorts and conditions of men. Within 
the limits of this territory Froebel spent most 
of his seventy years. 

Oberweisbach is located in the southern 
part of this district, three thousand feet above 
The sea level, ten miles north of Lauscha, 
the nearest railroad station on the main line 
running through the Forest to Schwartzburg. 
It is a delightful place for a summer sojourn. 
but the winter weather is exceedingly cold 
and the neighboring mountain roads are often 
blockaded for weeks by snow. It has a popu- 
lation of nineteen hundred, and the history 
of the settlement runs back to 1540. 

The house where Froebel was born is situ- 
ated on the main street of the village, next to 
the "Golden Anchor," which is the principal 
hotel, and nearly opposite the church. It is of 



generous proportions, both the main structure 
and the L being two stories high, while the 
former is surmounted with a high gambrel 
roof containing a double row of dormer win- 
dows. Over the front door is a tablet giving 
the date of Fra'bel's birth and death. The 
house is still occupied by the village pastor, 
as it was a hundred years ago. who is presi- 
dent of the local Froebel society and who takes 
pleasure in showing to American visitors the 
room where the great educator was born. 
together with various Froebel relics. 

To our minds the photograph of this house 
shows a substantial, cheerful home, with the 
gardens, village guide-board, watering-trough, 
telegraph poles, and lamp-post in the fore- 
ground. But Frcebel's remembrance of it was 
very different. He describes it as being close- 
ly surrounded by other buildings, walls, 
hedges and fences, and also enclosed by a 
courtyard and by grass and vegetable gar- 
dens, his entrance to which was severely 
punished. The dwelling had no other outlook 
than right and left on houses, in front on a 
large church, and behind on the grassy base of 
a high mountain. Another writer describes 
Frcebel's youthful environment in this way : 
"•There was nothing in the dark lower part of 
the house, surrounded with buildings and walls, 
to captivate a child, and outside there was quite 
as little. There was no free prospect, which 
is so salutary for a child. In close proximity 
before the house stood the church, and behind 
the house the view over the little kitchen 
garden was obstructed by the steep rocky wall 
of a high hill. Only beyond the hill was a 
free outlook, and the boy did not fail to fre- 
quently raise his eyes to the blue heavens. 
which in the mountain regions are so clear and 
serene : and this sight and the rushing wind 
from the hills through the little high-walled 
garden sometimes caused in him a kind of 
ecstasy which he remembered through life." 



14 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Froebel's father was the village pastor, a 
learned, resolute, preoccupied, Lutheran 
clergyman. His mother, judging from the 
little that we can learn of her by inference, 
possessed a very mild . and lovely character, 
rare insight, and sound, liberal views of life. 
He believed that he inherited from her his 
imaginative and artistic spirit. To these 
parents were born live sons, the eldest 
dying in infancy and the others growing- 
toman's estate. Friedrich was the youngest, 
and after nursing him for nine months his 
invalid mother died. Writing of that event 
long after, the son says: "In that moment, 
when my dying mother kissed her highest 
benediction on brow and lips, the world took 
my tender being, so easily accessible to all 
influences, to lend me into the warfare of life, 
with all its misery, its corruption and its 
deformity; but the blessing of my dying 
mother remained with me, and the protecting 
angel who heard her last prayer walked by 
and with me." 

It is a pathetic story of those infantile 
years, which Froebel tells himself, almost as 
much so as the early chapters of David Copper- 
field, in which Dickens is supposed to recount 
the tale of his early life. Shut up in the 
gloomy parsonage most of the time and lefl 
to the care of the single housemaid and his 
own devices, he seems to have lacked not 
only playfellows but also play-things. Thus 
was his life in its beginning set to the strains 
of a minor key, and the refrain of its after 
years contained but few livelier notes. But 
the solitude and want of companionship 
which fell to his lot during the time that he 
lived in his father's house developed and con- 
firmed in him a habit of self-inspection and a 
yearning after better things which subsequently 
bore wonderful fruit. He tells us that at one 
time during this period of his life he became 
greatly interested in watching some workmen 
who were repairing the neighboring church, and 
that a strong desire took hold of him to 
undertake the building of a church, and that 
he began to collect sticks and stones as heavy 
as he could carry for such a structure. His 
impulse was to use such pieces of furniture or 
other objects as he could secure with which to 
imitate the real builders. But his efforts 
ended in utter failure, and in giving an account 
of his experiment he says he remembers very 



well that even at that early age he thought 
that children ought to have suitable material 
and somebody to show them how to go to work 
with it, so that they might attain better results. 
In relating this anecdote Madam Kriege adds : 
"Who can fail to see that in this incident, 
which made such a deep impression on the 
boy's mind, lay the germ of his endeavor, 
later in life, to devise the gifts and occupa- 
tions of the kindergarten?" 

In reviewing this condition of domestic 
affairs at the Froebel parsonage we must not 
blame the father too severely. His people 
numbered from three to five-thousand souls, 
located in half a dozen groups and scattered 
over an area of several miles ; they had many 
pressing wants and the religious services which 
the pastor was called to attend were frequent 
and engrossing. It also happened that during 
Froebel's early childhood the associate charge 
of a large new church was given him in addi- 
tion to his previous duties, so that he was 
necessarily away from home much of the time. 
But the chief trouble that cast a cloud over 
the first twenty years of Froebel's life lay in 
the fact that father and son were so differently 
constituted that the former never understood 
the latter. On this point Froebel says : "Al- 
though my father was a stirring, active man, 
seldom surpassed in his relations as country 
pastor, in education, learning and experience, 
yet I remained a stranger to him through his 
entire life, owing to these separations caused 
by early circumstances." 

And yet Dr.Lange says that Froebel's father 
was "a man rich in insight, and truly re- 
ligious, and that be turned his attention 
with the greatest solicitude to the early edu- 
cation of this youngest son of his beloved, 
departed wife. He understood how to unfold 
his heart and mind in the promising boy by 
a judicious training." While it is not for 
us to decide regarding the relative justice 
of the two quotations, we can easily see that 
the two essential elements which were lacking 
in the first decade of Froebel's life were mother 
love and helpful play, just those elements of 
child life which he afterwards strove so hard 
to develop and perpetuate in the kindergarten 
system. We are often told that in this im- 
perfect world there is no glory except it is 
wrought out through suffering, and it is proba- 
ble that if Friedrich Froebel had been born 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



15 



into a happy home he could never have felt the 
need of the kindergarten, and would therefore 
never have worked out the educational system 
which is the fruitage of a life tilled with pri- 
vation and self-sacrificing experiment. 

Froebel's own testimony on this point, out- 
lined in a speech which he made to the ladies 
of Hamburg, many years after, is worthy of 
note. In that speech he said : "Fate showed 
me the importance of an education conforma- 
ble to nature by giving me bitter experiences 
and privations, while the early loss of my 
mother threw me upon self-education. What 
one has been obliged to contend with bitterly 
he wishes to soften to his fellow men. Thus 
the necessity of self-education led me to the 
education of my fellow men." 

When Froebel was four years old a new ele- 
ment entered into the family life, that of the 
step-mother. Of this woman we are compelled 
to say that she fully lived up to the traditions 
of herposition, proving herself the typical step- 
mother as that person is portrayed in books 
of fiction and brought out on the stage. What 
made matters worse than usual, however, was 
the apparent sincerity and love with which she 
treated the boy during the first few months af- 
ter her marriage, only to repel him as soon as 
she had a son of her own, when she at once be- 
gan to call him by an appelation commonly ad- 
dressed to a servant. While he basked in the 
sunlight of her brief smile Ave are told that the 
household were surprised at the astonishing 
change that took place in the silent, taciturn 
child, who gained visibly every day in health, 
strength aud activity. But scarcely had the 
young mother begun to fondle her own baby 
than it seemed to little Friedrich that she had 
become quite another person. His caresses 
were tiresome, his presence disagreeable. He 
must always go away, and if he remained she 
had neither ears nor eyes for him ; she saw only 
her nursling and had no heart, no interest for 
the boy who still so greatly needed the tender- 
ness of a cherishing mother. 

The result was that Friedrich became what 
is usually called a bad boy. Nobody, says 
one writer, seemed to understand him or cared 
to understand him. Motives for his actions 
were attributed to him which he never had, 
and unfortunately all this distrust and want 
of harmony had finally the effect of altering 
his naturally good disposition. He often 



concealed facts aud even told untruths, because 
he knew that he would be punished for things 
that were not wrong in themselves. As the 
years passed matters seemed to get from bad 
to worse, so that his father came to regard 
him as a very bad boy. 

But the picture of his home life was not 
altogether a sad one. As soon as he was able 
to do anything he began to help his father in 
gardening and received in this way many last- 
ing impressions. His observation was directed 
to what was near to him in nature, and the 
plant world became to him, so far as he could 
see and touch it, an object of his thoughtful 
contemplation. His habit of nature study clung 
to him through life, and was made an essential 
part of the kindergarten system when it came 
to be established. The parsonage household 
was a bustling, energetic one. We are told by 
Froebel himself that both husband and wife dis- 
played great activity, loved order and sought 
in all imaginable ways to beautify their sur- 
roundings. The father believed in keeping up 
with the times, and for that purpose he took 
the latest publications and carefully considered 
all that was offered to him in them. This plan 
contributed not a little to the general Christian 
life that reigned in the household. All the 
members of it were assembled for devotions 
morning and evening each day of the week, and 
at such times the works of Zallikafer, Hermes, 
Marezoll, Sturm and others were read aloud 
for the inspiration, unfolding and elevation of 
the spiritual life of the family. "Thus," writes 
Froebel, "my life was early influenced by na- 
ture, by work and by religious perceptions, or 
as I prefer to say, the natural and primitive 
tendencies of every human being were nurtured 
in the germ." 

All these things had their influence on the 
boy, and he tells us that he was often deeply 
stirred with the resolve to be truly noble and 
good. But he also adds: "As I hear from 
others, this firm resolution often contrasted 
with my outer life. I was full of youthful 
spirits and the joy of life, and did not always 
know how to moderate my activity, and through 
carelessness got into critical situations of all 
kinds, and in my thoughtlessness destroyed 
everything around me that I wished to in- 
investigate." 

The father made some attempt to begin 
the boy's elementary education, but the re- 



16 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



suits were not satisfactory and so he decided 
to send him to school. There were two schools 
in the village, one for the boys and the other 
for the girls. Doth were connected with the 
church, and as its pastor the father could choose 
either for his son. He selected the girls' school. 
because he was not satisfied with the way the 
boys' teacher discharged his duties. 

Probably the best idea of FroebeFs first day 
at school can be given by quoting his own 
words in a letter written some sixty years 
later to Col. Von Arnswald : — 

"It was a Monday when my father took 
me to school himself. I was placed on the 
seat of honor by the side of the teacher, for 
the reason, I suppose, that I was the sou of 
the pastor, or, it may be, because I was reputed 
a mischievious boy that ought not to sit with 
thi' girls. The smallest girls on the first form 
were seated just in front of me. A verse 
from the Kiltie, treated in the sermon on the 
Sunday preceding, was spoken aloud by one 
of the older girls and repeated by all the 
small girls in front. On this first day of my 
attendance they repeated the words of the 
Lord : "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and 
his righteousness, and all these things shall be 
added unto you.' The verse was explained to 
the older girls and also to me. But the little 
girls were not required to know it perfectly 
before Sunday. Meanwhile the verse was re- 
peated in parts again and again, in the high 
pitch of their childish voices, iu chorus, and in 
the old chanting manner of village schools. I 
heard this verse repeated for a long time every 
morning of the six days of the week, until the 
sounds, the words and the sense had produced 
so strong an impression upon me as to make 
this verse the motto of my life in the truest 
sense of the word ; for it has resounded like 
the chant of a chorus of uuns in my ears all 
the days of my life. The older I grew the more 
thoroughly was I led to recognize the full im- 
portance and efficacy and the profound living- 
truth of the maxim. It became the basis and 
the regulator of numerous understandings of 
mine, and proved its entire truthfulness." In 
his school Froebel read in the Bible with the 
older pupils and he also learned with them the 
sacred songs which were snug on Sundays in 
the church. Among these hymns he says there 
were two which shone on the clouded (lawn of 
his early childhood like bright morning stars. 



"They became," he adds, "to me as my life 
songs, because in them I saw mirrored my 
own little life, and their meaning touched my 
heart so deeply that in later years I have many 
a time been strengthened and refreshed by what 
they imparted to my soul." These songs were. 
"Rise my heart and soul," and "It costethmuch 
to be a Christ." He mentions iu this connec- 
tion that he followed his father's Sunday ser- 
mons with great attention, sitting apart from 
the rest of the congregation, in tin 1 vestry. 

During these years the problems of life sat 
heavily on those young shoulders and bewil- 
dered that youthful brain. For the most part 
he was kept closely at home, although he some- 
times rode about the parish with his father 
while the latter was making pastoral calls. It 
was his delight to mount the high hill back of 
the house that he might enlarge his actual hori- 
zon and relieve his spirit from the depressing 
conlines of the narrow valley. Tradition says 
that on the spot where the Memorial Tower 
now stands he spent many hours in watching 
the sunset and in boyish musing. Year by 
year he became enamoured of all the different 
phases of nature which came within his ob- 
servation, and more fond of studying their 
development. 

As he grew into boyhood we are told that his 
mind was moved most deeply not by the many 
admonitions and the pious instructions which 
he received, but by the many interviews be- 
tween his father and members of the pastor's 
Hock to which he listened. One writer states 
the case in this way : "A boy of between eight 
and eleven years, small and slight in stature, 
apparently busied with a book, or some kind 
of writing, seemed to the visitors at the par- 
sonage no hindrance. They had come to open 
their hearts to the highly honored and spiritual 
teacher and to ask his counsel in their distressed 
circumstances. But the child listened with all 
the sharp attention of an inquisitive, penetrat- 
ing mind, to which the world and all its com- 
plications was wholly strange. Each person 
served as a rent in the curtain which concealed 
life from him, a telescope through which he 
could study the world. 

But it was the dark side of life that was thus 
revealed to him. It was the complaint of the 
sorely-tried mother over the ungrateful son, the 
acknowledgment of a hidden sin, a melancholy 
fall, it was the sting of conscience, fear, repent- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



17 



ance, despair, which alternately had the word, 

while the earnest, yes, severe teacher, now 
through the inexorable precepts of the divine 
law, then with the consolations of mercy, strove 
to work on the dejected minds. These conver- 
sations and other influences of that time re- 
vealed to him the inner life of men, with its 
hidden springs and its concealed strife and 
pain, and he perceived more and more the con- 
nection between things and words and aims. 
without being able to discover in himself and 
around him anything satisfying, anything aton- 
ing, and although this fair soul had already felt 
an indefinable need of unity and harmony, yet 
he could no more unite them than he could the 
most incongruous opposites. the most irrecon- 
cilable enmities." 

The boy was ten years old when his eldest 
brother, Christoph, a theological student at 
the University of Jena, came home for a visit, 
and great was his joy in seeing him. Together 
the brothers roamed the fields, the elder ap- 
pearing to the younger an angel of consolation 
who understood him and was ready to protect 
him from unjust treatment, because he saw 
through all the youthful faults the glimmer of 
the beautiful side of his misapprehended and 
suppressed character. To him he unfolded 
some of his mental troubles, asking him why 
it was that God did not make all the people 



men or all women, so that there should be no 
quarreling, his idea being that most of the con- 
tention in the world arises from the difference 
which exists in the sexes. To direct his mind 
from the problem of human discord his brother 
showed him the processes of vegetation — the 
compensating nature of imperfections in male 
and female flowers, and how through the prin- 
ciple of growth harmonies of beauty and use 
are born out of the connection of opposites. 

As the plants and flowers of the parsonage 
garden had until now been Friedrich's dearest 
playfellows, so the new revelation of the vege- 
table world which his brother disclosed to him 
in their talks attracted his interest and he be- 
sieged Christoph with all manner of questions. 

.lust then the beautiful purple threads of 
the blossoming hazel claimed a considerable 
share of their attention and threw the boy into 
raptures. His brother gave him careful in- 
struction regarding the flowers and his visit 
proved a great and lasting benefit in calming 
the perturbed spirit of the child. But when 
he was gone the father's house seemed more 
desolate than ever to the little motherless boy 
wdio had a home there only in name, and a burn- 
ing desire took possession of his soul to get 
away, as his brothers had done, to find some 
other abiding place with a more desirable en- 
vironment and better means for helpful growth. 



1792— 1797— WITH HIS GUARDIAN. 



A visitor came to the parsonage at Ober- 
weisbach in the autumn of 17i>2 who took a 
deep interest in Friedrich Froebel. It was 
Herr Hoffman, his mother's brother, who was 
pastor at Stadt Ilm, a market town north of 
Froebel's home. This uncle resembled his 
sister in many ways and had never ceased to 
mourn her loss. He could not help not icing- 
how unhappy and ill-suited to his surroundings 
Froebel appeared, marking the contrast be- 
tween the step-mother and her predecessor. 
The uncle and nephew were mutually drawn 
together, and we are told that when at a cer- 
tain time during the visit Froebel fixed upon 
Herr Hoffman his soft and melancholy eyes, 
as if with longing, it suddenly seemed to him 
as if he saw the mother in the face of the child ; 



as if the soul of the loved sister had directed 
a prayer to him, through this glance, and he 
decided in his heart to give it a hearing. As 
a consequence, soon after returning home he 
made the father a proposition for the care 
and education of the boy, which was gladly 
and quickly accepted. In this way the uncle 
became Friedrich's guardian and he was also 
the custodian of certain funds left to Friedrich 
by his mother. 

Life at Stadt Ilm was very different from 
what it had been at Oberwiesbach. The little 
city lies in a broad valley, by a clear but nar- 
row stream. Herr Hoffman had lost his wife 
and child years before and his family consisted 
of himself and his aged mother-in-law. The 
parsonage was a spacious, airy house. There 



18 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



was a garden adjoining it where the boy spent 
many happy hours, and he was allowed to roam 
at will through the whole region, provided he 
never failed to be at home at the appointed 
time. Concerning these days he writes : — 

"As austerity reigned in my father's house, 
s<> here kindness and benevolence. I saw there, 
in respect to myself, distrust ; here, confidence ; 
there I felt constraint, here, freedom. While 
there I had been hardly at all among boys of 
my own age; here I found certainly as many 
as forty fellow-pupils, for I entered the higher 
class in the town school." This last-mentioned 
fact would seem to indicate that Froebel had 
made considerable progress in the school at 
Oberweisbach, although some of his biogra- 
phers would have us think that the training re- 
ceived there was of little benefit to him. He 
says, in his autobiography, that in the new 
school reading, writing and arithmetic were 
well taught, and that the religious instruction 
was excellent. And he adds. ".Mathematics lay 
near my nature. When I received private in- 
struction in this branch my advance steps were 
so marked that they bordered on the height of 
knowledge and ability possessed by my teacher, 
which was by no means slight." 

Our pupil also informs us that Latin was mis- 
erably taught and still more sparingly learned, 
but that the time which he spent on it was not 
entirely lost, because he learned to understand 
that a course of instruction so carried on can 
bring forth no fruit in the pupils. The recita- 
tions in geography were parrot-like, the boys 
being allowed to use many words without re- 
ceiving any adequate knowledge of the subject 
or of its relations to the life of the world, al- 
though they could correctly name all the colored 
market towns and little boroughs on the local 
map. Froebel was given private geographical 
lessons in regard to England, but as he could 
get no clear idea of its connection with his own 
country this special instruction did him but lit- 
tle good. There was also teaching in writing 
and spelling, and training in singing and piano- 
playing, but Froebel's verdict, rendered many 
years later, was that they amounted to but very 
little. He says that the element of generaliza- 
tion was entirely lacking, and while he praises 
the arithmetical instruction he immediately adds 
that notwithstanding the training which he re- 
ceived he was very much surprised and morti- 
fied to find, when he was ten years older, that 



he could not solve the problems given out to 
the boys in Pestalozzi's school. What a pity 
it was that those instructors of Froebel did 
not teach him how to write clearly, the art and 
habit of expressing himself with pen and speech 
so that the world, or at least the educational 
part of it, might understand his language with- 
out profound study and the intervention of 
many interpreters ! 

Nevertheless, the boy gained freedom of 
mind and bodily strength day by day, and 
"drank fresh courage in long draughts." He 
explains that in his efforts to put himself on 
common ground with the other boys the fre- 
quent reaction after play was often grievous, 
because his strength and activity were not 
developed according to his age. and his bold 
daring could never supply the quiet, vigorous 
strength and the knowledge of its limit which 
his companions enjoyed. He was regarded by 
them as being very peculiar and the more he 
exerted himself to win them to him, so much 
the more striking his awkwardness appeared to 
them. He was very anxious to do everything 
they did, but his movements were so stiff and his 
demeanor so wooden, says one of his biogra- 
phers, that he would have been rejected by 
the band, had not one of the boys recognized 
his good qualities and resolved to give him aid 
and protection. For a time he could take no 
part in the games of the other boys, no matter 
how hard he tried, because the robust strength 
and activity of his companions, who had grown 
up in freedom, quickly overcame his despairing 
efforts. But eventually his perseverance con- 
quered, and the air, the active movements, the 
better care and the joyousness assisted not a 
little to improve his elasticity and health, and 
after a hard probation he received permission 
of the boys to play with them. 

He was much effected by the religious in- 
struction given in the school and its represen- 
tation of the character and the life of Christ. 
With all these occupations and diversions some 
four years and a half passed, the chief advan- 
tage being "that he became a child again in a 
youthful world whose joys could warm and 
cheer his soul so that his heart could resume 
its natural elasticity." He was a different boy 
even when he went back to the parsonage at 
Oberweisbach, where he spent his vacations, 
entering heartily into all the activities of the 
household and taking special pleasure in study- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



19 



ing the books and engravings in his father's 
library. Before leaving Stadt Ilm he was 
confirmed and admitted to the church by his 
uncle. Of this time he writes : "The earnest 
days of preparation and the holy solemnity 
might pass away, but deep and lasting were 
the impressions of those beautiful hours in 
which all the threads of my life were compre- 
hended in a glorious center of peace and unity." 
Thus ended the second period of his career. 
AVhile it afforded him many advantages it did 
not secure for him the preparation for practical 
life which is so much to be desired in every 
boy who has his way to make in the world. 
His uncle lived in a kind of an ideal life and 
in all his generous efforts for FroebePs develop- 
ment it never for a moment occurred to him 
how little he was forming las pupil to become 
a useful citizen. On this point let us quote 
once more from FroebePs autobiography. "I 



was really as though placed in a garden where 
I could freely move about and where the glad 
sun shone on me and warmed me, but where 
there were fruits that were hard to reach, 
which hung on trees that, considering my un- 
developed strength, were very hard to climb. 
In this meager way I was left to gather strength 
without leader or guide for an independent 
life — for work — for action. As my mind was 
satisfied only with the relative, the analogous, 
1 received a very one-sided direction. I cre- 
ated a world for myself, which was very 
little like the world, and was comprehensible 
or intelligible only to me. I knew and under- 
stood very much for myself, but it was a 
heightened self-consciousness which had no 
value for others. I knew and comprehended 
absolutely nothing of the world, nothing of 
the social life for wdiich I was destined." 



1797— 1799— THE FORESTER'S APPRENTICE. 



In the spring- of 1797, at the age of fifteen, 
we find Froebel back again in his father's 
house, with a great question confronting him 
and the rest of the family, the choice of an 
occupation for life. It had seemed to him 
that he would like to be a preacher, but he 
dared not let his thoughts dwell on such a 
thing, because, according to his step-mother 
it had been "distinctly understood" for years 
that he must not go to the University for the 
reason that his two brothers, Christoph and 
Traugott, were already there, and the other 
brother, Christian, was expecting to follow 
them. This woman said that to undertake to 
send the fourth son would certainly impover- 
ish the family finances to an extent which would 
be unbearable, and, moreover, that Friedrich 
was too stupid to have anymore time or money 
wasted on his education. It is said, however, 
that her scruples about spending more money 
at the University faded out of sight when her 
first-born son came to be old enough to enter it. 

But it was determined that for Friedrich 
something commercial should be sought, and 
his father applied to a neighboring revenue 
officer for a clerkship, but without success. 
There was also some talk of his enterino- into 



the service of a wealthy family named Von 
Halzhausen, the same one in which he subse- 
quently became a tutor, but he was very much 
opposed to this plan and tells in his subsequent 
writings "that he never felt in his heart such 
violent feelings of horror against anything as 
he did in the thought of having a position 
where he must brush clothes and shoes and 
serve at the table." 

Then the father consulted the boy's wishes 
and he expressed a desire for an outdoor life, 
because of his love of nature. About this 
time the elder Froebel became acquainted with 
a surveyor and assessor living at Neuhaus, a 
place lying south of Oberweisbach, who had a 
special reputation for his knowledge of geome- 
try. Of him one record says that he was "a 
noble and earnest man, in ecclesiastical matters 
a congenial spirit." But it was a record that 
fell far short of the mark in the case of Froebel, 
who was apprenticed to him for two years, to 
learn geometry, surveying, the method of 
assessing taxes and the care of forests. The 
master was well versed in the duties of his 
profession, but he did not understand the art 
of teaching and could therefore impart very 
little instruction to others. Neither did he 



20 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



have the time to do what he had promised for 
his apprentice, so engrossing were the demands 
of the practical work connected with his daily 
business. Moreover, he was often away from 
home for long periods, when the pupil was 
left entirely to himself with ample time to 
study the library of hooks belonging to the 
house. Froebel was not slow to improve this 
opportunity, giving much attention to works 
on geometry and forest affairs and the collect- 
ing and drying of plants, as well as the drawing 
of maps of the district. He also made the 
acquaintance of a physician in the neighbor- 
ing market town who loaned him additional 
books on botany. 

During these years we are told that he lived 
in peace and quiet, protected from evil, in an 
ideal world which he himself had created and 
that he obtained a closer knowledge of field, 
meadow and forest, for he saw nothing else but 
field, meadow and forest, through which he 
wandered by day and night. "He felt that in 
nature there must be a higher interest than to 
supply us with certain material advantages and 
facilities, and he beganalso to perceive that in 
order to represent the ideal farmer something 
else W'as necessary than merely the proper 
management of the various objectsof husband- 
ry. How greatly he wished that all men who 
thus lived from, with and in nature could look 
on her with other eyes, and not make her tribu- 
tary as their slave — but accept her also as their 
friend, in a pure, beautiful and elevated, God- 
glorifying life." AVe are further told that in 
those days he was always dressed in green, the 
color of the fields, with yellow top-boots and a 
feather in his hat, and that no one who saw him 
wandering about the country could possibly 
have suspected the depth and earnestness of 
soul, thirsting for light and truth, which dwelt 
in this fantastic boy. 

During the latter part of his stay at Neuhaus 
a company of strolling actors gave a series of 
plays in a neighboring castle. Froebel at- 
tended their iirst presentation and was so much 
moved by it that he came again and again to 
see and hear them. These dramas seemed to 
offer to his fancy the long deprived element of 
poetry, and touched his susceptible mind all 
the more deeply because he recalled and lived 
over again the scenes of each play during the 
long walk home, beneath the starry heavens, 
which followed every performance. He vividly 



remembered, in later years, the enthusiasm 
which was awakened in his breast by the 
rendering of such plays as "The Huntsmen" 
by Iffland. He invested all he saw and heard 
on that rural stage with lofty thoughts and 
purposes, and believed those actors happy 
who could, according to his view, work so 
powerfully for the improvement of mankind. 
He imagined that the profession of the stage 
was a noble calling,- and one that he would like 
well to follow. He wrote home to his father 
about his new aspirations and the latter re- 
plied by upbraiding him in good set terms. 
This letter was a matter of genuine grief to him, 
because he tells us that he had come to regard 
his patronage of the theater a matter to he as 
much commended as lushest church attendance. 

He even went so far, before receiving his 
father's letter, as to introduce himself to one 
of the actors that he might disclose his wish to 
join such a desirable profession. The biogra- 
pher tells us that the peculiar interview ended 
in this way : "The actor listened earnestly to 
Friedrich, but a melancholy smile played around 
his mouth as lie took his hand and answered 
him: 'You deceive yourself, young friend; 
our society is nothing of all that which you 
dream. AVe hold together only through hunger. 
Would to God that I had never trod the boards 
and could labor with my hands.' He then went 
on to depict all the misery of the life behind 
the curtain, particularly for one, who like himself 
belonged to a cultured family and had taken it 
up through necessity." This ended FrcebeFs 
theatrical aspirations, but in order to mollify 
his father's anger he wrote to his brother Chris- 
toph the whole story andbeggedhis intercession 
with their father. 

The apprenticeship with the surveyor or for- 
ester, as he is commonly called, came to an end 
in the summer of 17 ( J!), and Froebel and his 
master parted unpleasantly. He had proved 
himself valuable to this man, who on that ac- 
count wanted to keep him another year. But 
the hoy felt that he must have time to follow 
out his studies more systematically than he 
could possibly do by remaining, and therefore 
started for home on foot as soon as his time 
had expired. This action so enraged the sur- 
veyor that he sent a letter to Froebel's father 
complaining that the young man had been un- 
faithful in many ways and deserved censure. 

On his way home Froebel stopped at the vil- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



21 



lage where his brother Christoph had located as 
a pastor and while the brothers were visiting' 
together the forester's letter was forwarded to 
them from Oberweisbach. As a result Fried- 
rich related to Christoph all that had happened 
during his stay at Neuhaus, naming the books 
he had studied, showing the maps he had drawn 
and his collections of botanical specimens. 
As a result Christoph stood perfectly amazed 
while he heard of such inexcusable neglect on 
the part of the forester, and at once began to 
reproach Friedrich because he had not informed 
his father of the great waste of time which had 
beengoing on during such an important appren- 
ticeship. But in reply the younger brother re- 
minded him of the sentence pronounced on him 
1 >y the father when he went to Neuhaus : ' 'We 
will not hear any complaints. Ave shall always 
consider you in the wrong." Christoph well 
knew the father's severity and was silent, but 
he took on himself at once the duty of pointing 
out to him the gross neglect of the forester and 
that Friedrich, considering the meager means 
at his command, had improved his time and 



made real progress in map drawing, mathe- 
matics and botany. 

Nevertheless, his reception at home was little 
calculated to inspire a young man with courage 
and hope for the future. The step-mother 
had lent a willing ear to the forester's letter and 
was prepared to estimate it at face value, and 
she saw in the rich and excellent collection of 
plants, dried with the utmost care, nothing but 
foolery. The world looked particularly dark 
to Froebel just then, the question what to do 
next being more perplexing than ever. What 
the result would have been had not an accident 
helped shape his future course in life no one 
can predict. His brother Traugott, who was 
studying medicine at Jena, wrote home for 
money, and as the matter was urgent and as 
Friedrich had nothing to do it was decided to 
make him the messenger to take it there. And 
so to Jena he went in the summer of 17'.> ( .>, 
and being once there remained as a student. 
thereby fulfilling his highest ambition and 
accomplishing the day dreams of all his con- 
scious years. 



1799— 1801— A STUDENT AT JENA. 



When Froebel reached the University town 
he persuaded his brother to write home that his 
time could be profitably employed there for 
the eight remaining weeks of the term in the 
study of topographical and local drawing. The 
request was granted, the reason being, in all 
probability, that the step-mother had very little 
idea of what she could do with the boy if he 
came home. The brothers returned to Ober- 
weisbach in September and Friedrich began at 
once to plead with his father for leave to be- 
come a regular student at Jena. The father said 
that he would gladly favor such a project, but 
that he did not see how the money could be 
provided for both Christian and Friedrich to 
take a prescribed course at the University, and 
that it would involve a good deal of sacrifice 
to carry Christian, who was two years the 
elder, through the studies which he had al- 
ready begun. But he told Friedrich to talk the 
matter over with his brothers and his guar- 
dian, which lie did. As a result his darling- 
wish was secured by an act of generous self- 
renunciation on the pait of Christian. 



This brother was a young man of noble 
character; he loved Friedrich sincerely and 
understood how much harder it would be for 
him to give up the life and subsequent career 
of a student than it would be if he himself 
should choose some vocation in what we are ac- 
customed to call practical life. It was evident 
that only one of the brothers could go to college 
and Christian resigned all his prospects in a 
professional way and decided to devote him- 
self to manufacturing interests. In this new 
departure he was successful, securing in time 
a competency which he freely placed at the dis- 
posal of Friedrich in aid of educational schemes 
to which he also gave his personal service and 
that of his family for many years. 

It was therefore decided that Christian's offer 
should be accepted and that Friedrich should 
take his brother's place at Jena, the uncle as 
guardian having consented to apply to the cost 
of his education then- the money held in trust 
as a legacy from his mother. Consequently 
we find him back at Jena in the last months of 
17'.»'.», registered as a student of philosophy. 



22 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



This labeling was evidently the work of Frce- 
bel's father, rather than by the direction of 
the pupil himself, for he says that it appeared 
to him very strange, because he had only 
thought of practical knowledge as the object of 
his study. The lectures which he attended per- 
tained to mathematics, arithmetic, algebra, 
geometry, mineralogy, botany, natural history, 
physics, chemistry, the science of finance, care 
of forest trees, architecture, building and sur- 
veying. He also continued topographical 
drawing, but we are told that he learned noth- 
ing of philosophy, except what was imparted 
to him through the conversation of his friends. 
But the fact that he had been registered in the 
department of philosophy, he tells us, made 
on his dreamy, easily-moved and susceptible 
life a very great impression, and gave his 
studies an unexpected, higher meaning. Con- 
cerning the mathematical lectures he says: 
"The lectures of my excellent teacher had not 
the same value that they might and would have 
had, if I had seen in the sequence of the in- 
struction and in the progress of the same, more 
inner necessity and less arbitrariness." 

He found more satisfaction in the teaching 
which he received in botany, zoology and natu- 
ral history. In the handling of mineralogy, 
which he greatly loved, he discovered how little 
his eyes were opened and how feebly he had 
learned to see. He says that in the natural his- 
tory branches he had a sensible, loving and 
benevolent teacher and that through him his in- 
sight into nature was essentially quickened and 
his love for observing it made more active. 

It was this experience which led him in after 
life to give little children suitable directions 
and encouragement in acquiring habits of close 
observation. 

Our young student lived very economically 
and in a secluded way at Jena, seldom appeal- 
ing in public places and visiting few other stu- 
dents except his brother. But we are told that 
he did attract the attention of several natural- 
ists because of his eagerness to advance in 
their line of study, and that he accepted their 
invitation to join two societies which they 
were forming at that time. 

But here in Jena, being well started in his 
studies, he soon began to meet with fresh 
trouble, an element which was destined to en- 
ter into every period of his life. He had 1 in night 
enough money with him to last for a consider- 



able time but after awhile, at the request of 
his brother, he loaned him the greater part of 
his little store, on a promise that it would be 
repaid so that no inconvenience should result 
to him from the loan. This promise Avas not 
fulfilled, and some accounts say that Traugott, 
who was in his last year at the University, 
even departed from the city leaving the boy 
without support for the future or means to pay 
bills which were already over-due. At all events 
Friedrich found himself toward the end of his 
third half year, in the summer of 1801, in debt 
thirty thalers, a little less than $25, to a res- 
taurant keeper, and having nothing to pay was 
thrown into the University prison wiiere he 
languished for nine weeks. 

There are some things about this narrative 
which seem incredible. Previous to his im- 
prisonment the creditor had for a long time 
threatened to resort to extreme measures and 
had made a demand on the father, which the 
latter had met with a very positive denial. The 
reason for this refusal is said to be that the el- 
der Froebel allowed himself to be wholly domi- 
nated in the matter by his wife. After his con- 
finement had begun Fiiedrich wrote again to his 
father for help and also to his guardian, who 
still held a, part of his money. But he received 
no aid from either quarter, the uncle declin- 
ing succor because of some section of the city 
ordinances which prevented him from interfer- 
ing in such an affair. It is supposed that he took 
this ground because he felt that the money he 
had already advanced had been misapplied and 
that, under the circumstances, it was the fath- 
er's duty to take action and that by withholding 
help he could ultimately force his- brother-in-law 
to meet the obligation and release his ward. 

Meanwhile Froebel spent the nine weeks of 
his prison life in the study of Latin, in which 
he felt himself to be deficient. He was finally 
released by deciding to give a note of hand for 
the amount involved, as his father's heir. This 
note his father cashed, on condition that he re- 
nounce all further claim to the parental estate. 
Being at liberty, he went home at once, thus 
giving up his course after a residence at Jena 
of about eighteen months. It was in the spring- 
time when he was just nineteen that he came 
back to the parsonage at Oberweisbach and he 
writes as follows: "Naturally I entered the 
house with a heavy heart, a troubled mind and 
an oppressed spirit." He now began to apply 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



23 



himself to literature and wished to make a close 
review of all that he bad learned and treasured. 
Happy in this occupation he shut himself up in 
his little chamber day after day, with his books. 
The step-mother suggested to the father that it 
would be well to surprise him at his work, be- 
ing suspicious that something was going on that 
ought to be stopped. And so the father en- 
tered the rqom suddenly one day, to find Fried- 
rich writing at a table, with a pile of papers be- 
fore him. He looked through several sheets 
and then angrily exclaimed: "Now what non- 
sense is this? What an aimless destruction of 
paper!" And the record adds: "No doubt all 
his papers would have been thrown into the lire 
and he banished from the place had not his 
brother Christoph been present and moderated 
the father's displeasure. A little later Friedrich 
went to an estate in Hildburg owned by a rela- 
tive of his father, to become the steward's as- 
sistant, where he remained some months. 

The weeks which he had spent at home had 
revealed to him in a stronger light than ever 
before his father's excellent qualities, and he 



deeply regretted the estrangement between 
them. Days and nights he tells us that he was 
busy in his mind planning how to write to his 
father in the warmest words what was passing 
within his heart, but when he sat down for that 
purpose his courage sank and the fear of arous- 
ing new and greater misapprehensions made 
him lay his pen aside. 

A little later the father was taken sick and 
sent for Friedrich to help in regulating his affairs 
and correspondence. The old man died in Feb- 
ruary, 1802, and in writing of this event the 
son says : "My father carried his anxiety for 
my future in his heart till his last hour. May 
his glorified spirit, while I write this, look down 
on me with pleasure and benediction, and now 
be contented with the son who loved him so 
deeply." It was at Easter 1802, that the 
young man left the parsonage at < )berweisbach, 
once more to seek his future in the wide world, 
ami there is no record that he ever returned 
there for any permanent stay. Henceforth he 
was the master of his own actions. 



1802—1S08— BECOMES A TEACHER. 



From Oberweisbach Froebel went first to the 
forest court near Bamberg, to take the place of 
court actuary or clerk. According to one 
translation this position was that of treasurer 
of the episcopal department of finance. He 
remained there for nearly a year and then went 
to Bamberg, which had meanwhile been ceded 
to Bavaria. He made the change because he 
thought that the projected land survey under 
the new government would give him employ- 
ment. This change resulted in his doing some 
map drawing and surveying, but he did not get 
the government appointment for which he had 
hoped. Therefore he advertised in one of the 
papers for a position, at the same time sending 
tlir editor someof his architectural a na geomet- 
rical work for use as illustrations. This ad- 
vertisement brought him the offer of a private 
secretaryship to the president of Dewitz in 
Mecklenberg, who lived at Oross Milchow, 
which he accepted in February, 1804. His most 
important work there was to reduce to order, 
according to a plan laid out by the owner, some 
accounts that were badly tangled. 



But this occupation became distasteful after 
a little and the young man resolved to supple- 
ment his mathematical attainments by study- 
ing architecture, so as to make it his life work, 
provided the means could be secured. He had 
a friend who was a private tutor at Frankfort, 
and he determined to join him there for the 
purpose just named. Consequently he wrote 
to his eldest brother asking for assistance. In 
due time the answer came, but Froebel carried 
it around with him for hours without unsealing 
it, and for days he did not read it, because he 
felt, as he says, that there was little probability 
that his brother could help him in accomplish- 
ing the wish of his soul, and so feared to find in 
the letter the destruction of his life. And he 
adds : "When aftersome days of alternation 
between hope and doubt I finally opened the 
letter I was not a little astonished that in the 
beginning of it the most heartfelt sympathy 
was expressed. The further contents moved 
me deeply. It contained the news of my uncle's 
death and the announcement that a legacy had 
fallen to me." 



24 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



As a result he established himself at Frank- 
fort in the summer of 1805, expecting to devote 
allhis energies to architecture. But this choice 
was notalasting one. The student began to 
ask himself, "How can you work through archi- 
tecture for the culture and ennobling of man?" 
In a few weeks he met the principal of a model 
or normal school which had lately been opened 
in the city. This man's name was dinner and 
he urged Froebel very strongly to give up the 
idea of being an architect and to at once be- 
come a teacher in his school, a proposition 
made on the first evening of their acquaintance, 
because Froebel spoke so earnestly about the 
necessity of each person getting into the place in 
this world for which he is best fitted. We are 
told that in the midst of his spirited talk he fell 
the touch of a hand on his shoulder and that Dr. 
Gruner said : "My friend, you should not be 
an architect, you should be a schoolmaster. 
There is a place open in our school ; if you agree 
to it the place is yours.'' 

Froebel accepted this summons as a call of 
Providence; in August, 1805,hewent to Yver- 
dun in .Switzerland to see and hear Pestalozzi, 
who was then the great educational light of the 
day, the fountain-head of all new educational 
ideas. He tarried there as an observer for two 
weeks. He attended the recitations and wrote 
out the account of what he saw, so that he might 
report it on his return to Frankfort, which oc- 
curred in October. Then he began teaching in 
good earnest, according to the new plans, his 
branches being arithmetic, drawing, geometry 
and the German language. There were two hun- 
dred children in the school, with four regularly- 
appointed and nine private teachers. His first 
venture, he being then in his twenty-fourth 
year, was with a class of thirty or forty boys, 
between the ages of nine and eleven. 

An extract from a letter written to his brother 
Christoph at this time shows conclusively the 
spirit with Avhich he entered into the work : ••! 
must tell you candidly that my duties in the 
school are prodigiously exacting. Even in the 
first, hour they did not seem strange tome. It 
appeared to me as if I had already been a 
teacher and was born to it. I cannot sketch my 
strange observations in all their fullness. Jt 
is plain to me now that I was really lifted for 
no other calling, and yet I must tell you that 
never in my life had I thought to become a 
teacher. In the hours of instruction I feel my- 



self as truly in my element as the fish in the 
water or the bird in the air. You cannot think 
how pleasantly the time passes. I love the 
children so heartily that I am continually long- 
ing to see them again. You should see me 
sometimes when I am busy; you would truly 
rejoice over my happiness. I have certainly 
this pure enjoyment of the consciousness of 
the high aims of my work, the cultivation of 
the human soul to thank, as well as the hearty 
love ( if the children with which they reward me." 

At another time, speaking of those days, he 
said: k, I was inexpressibly happy — from the 
first moment I felt complete consecration. What 
many-sided efforts ! What abundant activity ! 
I nmstgive advice, explanation, interpretation, 
decision over so many things on which it had 
never been necessary for me to think definitely. 
I was alone in a strange city. I sought my an- 
swer therefore where I had so often found it, in 
niy r own mind, in life and in nature. And from 
them came voices which revealed to me how ex- 
cellent for my own culture had been my toil- 
some development, for I received from out the 
depths of the mind, of life and of nature, answers 
which were not only satisfactory, but which 
also, through their simplicity and undoubted 
accuracy, possessed a youthful newness and 
vigor which produced a quickening and ani- 
mating effect." While entertaining such ideas 
how could Froebel torment his pupils with the 
system of teaching which had so vexed and 
tortured him when a boy? He was forced for 
himself and for them to break a new road, to 
create a new system of instruction. He was 
now in a position not only to make his experi- 
ments freely, but was under obligation to map 
out original pedagogical work. 

Oue of his first suggestions to his fellow 
teachers along this line of new educational en- 
deavor was that they should undertake weekly 
walks with the pupils, as a direct aid in pur- 
suing the particular study which was under 
consideration at the time. One teacher should 
take his class out with reference to botany, 
another for the investigation of zoology and a 
third as a help in acquiring knowledge of geog- 
raphy or for gaining new lessons in horticul- 
ture. In many respects he adopted the plans 
already proposed by Pestalozzi, lint with im- 
portant variations. Pestalozzi held, for in- 
stance, that the study of geography need not in 
the least be associated with the child's observa- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



25 



lions, but should have for its starting-point the 
bottom of the sea. ButFroebel first talked with 
his pupils about the house in -which they found 
themselves, advancing from the house to the 
street and the city in general, and then out into 
the world at large. Regarding this method, he 
says: "I took everything according to nature 
and drew the picture immediately, diminished 
in size, on an even surface of ground or sand 
chosen for the purpose." Do we in these words 
catch the first suggestion of the sand modeling 
which forms such an important part of the 
geographical instruction of our day? By way 
of further explanation, Froebeladds : "When 
the picture was firmly grasped and imprinted 
we drew it in school on a horizontal blackboard. 
It was first sketched by the teacher and pupil, 
then made an exercise for every scholar. Our 
representation of the earth's surface had at 
first a spherical form like the apparent horizon." 
His method won the approbation of the teach- 
ers associated with him and also of the chil- 
dren's parents, owing to the excellent results 
shown at the first public examination of the 
school. 

In addition to his school duties he gave in- 
struction for'two hours to three children in a 
private family named Von Holzhausen, who 
lived on the plains near Frankfort, spending 
a good deal of his time with his pupils in the 
open air and in getting acquainted with the 
plant world. 

In July, 1807, he left the school to become 
the regular teacher of the three boys just men- 
tioned, under the contract which stipulated 
that he need never be obliged to live with his 
pupils in the city, and also that they should be 
committed to his care without reservation. Of 
this peri< >d he writes : "My life at first with my 
pupils was very circumscribed. It consisted 
of living and walking in the open air. Cut off 
from the influence of a city education, I did 
not yet venture to introduce the simple life 
of nature into the sphere of education. My 
younger pupils themselves taught me and guided 
me to that. In the following year this life with 
my pupils was especially roused and animated, 
when the father assigned them a piece of field 
for a garden, which Ave cultivated in common. 
Their highest joy was to give their parents and 
me fruits from their garden. Oh, how their eyes 
glistened when they could do it ! Beautiful 
plants and little shrubs from the field, the great 



garden of God, were planted and cared for in 
the little gardens of the children." 

"After that time my youthful life, as I mental- 
ly reviewed it, did not appear to me so entirely 
useless. I learned what a very different thing 
is the care of a plant, whether one has seen 
and watched its natural life at the different 
epochs of its unfolding or if he has always 
stood far from nature. A little child that freely 
and voluntarily seeks flowers and cherishes and 
cares for them in order to wind them into a 
bouquet for parents or teachers cannot be a bad 
child or become a bad man. Such a child can 
easily be led to the love and to a knowledge of 
his father, God, who gives him such gifts." 

The above passage is worthy of a second read- 
ing, because it illustrates the fact that although 
Frcebel was at times very obscure in his attempts 
to give expression to his ideas he was, never- 
theless, able on occasions to clothe his thought 
with a clearness and beauty which challenges 
admiration. 

In those days which Frcebel spent with his 
pupils in the little country house that had been 
fitted up for them he sought always to combine 
labor with instruction and when the boys were 
busy with hatchet and spade, with oar or fishing 
tackle, he made every occupation serviceable to 
awaken their desire for knowledge. Andwe 
are told that the regular and moderate method 
of living which they followed banished all the 
indolence and helpless dependence of the chil- 
dren, so that in a short time they improved 
wonderfully in health and strength and the 
keenness with which they enjoyed life was 
greatly increased. 

When, however, autumn approached, with its 
dark days, long evenings and bad weather, con- 
siderable time was given to the practice of 
music and drawing. But there were still un- 
occupied hours which in summer had been de- 
voted to rural occupations. How could they 
be spent pleasantly and profitably ? Referring 
to his experience at this time, Froebel says : 
w • When my pupils came to me with some new de- 
mand I asked myself, 'What did you do when 
a boy? What happened to you to quicken 
your impulse for activity and representation? 
By what means was this impulse at that age 
most fitly satisfied?' Then out of my earliest 
boyhood something came to me which gave to 
me at that moment all that I needed. It was 
the simple art of imprinting, on smooth paper, 



26 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



signs and forms by regular lines." He also re- 
membered how lie had tried to keep himself 
busy with all kinds of braided work from paper 
and binding twine, and he resolved to try this 
occupati< hi with the boys. 

In carrying out this plan he was brought at 
once to a realizing sense of the crudeness with 
which the unpraetieed hand does its work, how 
poorly the will is master of the finger-ends un- 
der such circumstances, and how inaccurately 
the eve observes. Consequently he designed 
a few preparatory exercises for training the 
hand and eye, so that the boys could under- 
take their pasteboard work. He began with 
the folding and the separating and pasting of 
papers. He also let them work with twine, till 
they became experts in making nets and game 
bags. In these occupations they had to bring 
into practice what they had learned in draw- 
ing, arithmetic and geometry. Later in the 
season they did some work in wood. 



Thus early in his career we catch the genu 
of the kindergarten thought which dominated 
Froebel's life in after years. AVe are also told 
that the little house where he and his young 
people worked is still preserved as a token of 
remembrance and contains a room in which 
everything is left just as it appeared in those 
days. The mother of the three boys preserved 
every memorial of Froebel with religions venera- 
tion during his lifetime, while he in turn held 
her in high esteem, so that for a long period 
a correspondence was kept up between them. 
After a year of this special work as a private 
tutor Froebel became anxious to secure a wider 
development for himself and his pupils than 
country life afforded, and so, in the summer of 
L 808, he took them to Pestalozzi's school at 
Yverdau, where he remained with them for two 
years, acting meanwhile as pupil and teacher, 
being resolute in his determination to secure a 
pedagogical education. 



180S—1810— RELATIONS WITH PESTALOZZI. 



The records of Froebel's life at Yverdun are 
meager, much being left to the reader's imagi- 
nation. We know that he tried on his arrival 
to secure quarters for himself andhis pupils in 
the main school building, or castle as it was 
sometimes called. Failing in this, the qua rtette 
obtained lodgings in an adjoining dwelling, tak- 
ing their meals with the other students and 
sharing in their instruction. Froebel tells us 
that during this periodhewas both teacher and 
scholar, educator and pupil. He made it his 
business to talk with Pestalozzi regarding every 
subject that came up from its first point of 
connection, so that he might understand it from 
the foundation. And he adds : "I soon felt the 
need of unity of endeavor in means and end. 
Therefore I sought to gain the highest insight 
into everything. I was pupil in all subjects, 
numbers, form, singing, reading, drawing, lan- 
guage, geography, natural science, dead lan- 
guages, etc. In what was ottered for youthful 
life, for comprehensive teaching, for higher 
instinct ion I. missed that satisfying of the 
human being, the essence of the subject. Pes- 
talozzi's views were very universal, and, as ex- 
perience taught, only awakening to those al- 
ready grounded in the right. In connection 
with the subjects taught, the instruction in 



language struck me first in its great imperfec- 
tion, arbitrariness and lifelessness. During 
the time spent at Yverdun the discovery of a 
satisfying method of teaching the mother 
tongue occupied me especially. 

I proceeded from the following considera- 
tions : Language is the image, the representa- 
tion of a world, and is related to the outer 
world through articulately formed tones ; if I 
wish properly to represent a thing I must know 
the original according to its character. The 
outer world has objects; I must also have a 
decided form, a decided word for the object. 
The objects, however, show qualities ; lan- 
guage must, therefore, have quality words in 
its construction. These qualities are neces- 
sarily bound up with the objects ; qualities of 
being, having and becoming." 

Containing the story of his life at Yverdun. 
Froebel says that he learned there to recognize 
boyish play in the free air, in its power, devel- 
oping ami strengthening spirit, disposition and 
body. In the plays which were there carried 
on and with what was connected with them, he 
discovered the chief source of the moral 
strength of the young people in the institution. 
He says that at that time the higher symbolical 
meaning of play had not yet been opened to 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



27 



him, so that lie could only regard it as a moral 
power for body and mind. The walks which 
the students took had an equally good influence 
with the plays, particularly those taken in the 
company of Pestalozzi. In summing up the 
results secured by his stay at Yverdun Frcebel 
writes : "There is no question that Pfistalozzi's 
public and especially his evening reflections, 
in which he liked to exert himself to awaken 
and unfold the ideal of n< >1 >le manhood and t rue 
human love, contributed most essentially to the 
development of the inner life. On the Avhole, 
I spent in Yverdun an inspiring, grand, and 
for my life, decisive time." 

From another account of this period we get. 
first a clear idea of what Frcebel hoped and ex- 
pected to find in Pestalozzi's teachings, and 
then the particulars wherein he was disap- 
pointed. "If I comprehend what I sought 
and expected there." writes Frcebel, referring 
to Yverdun, "it was a robust inner life, which 
should find utterance in many ways in creative 
acts; a healthy and strong life of child ami 
youth that should answer all the requirements 
for the development of body and soul. I 
thought that Pestalozzi must be the arteries 
and central point of all this vitality and effort, 
and out from this focus in all directions the life 
of the youth, as of the teacher, must be pene- 
trated. With such high-strung expectations I 
arrived at Yverdun, and I doubted not that 
I should find there the solution of all my 
questions." 

In a certain sense, this same narrative adds, 
Froebelwas not deceived in his expectations. 
Pestalozzi did indeed form the shining center 
of his circle and from his warm heart radiated 
light and life. But after a little Frcebel, who 
had nothing to do but observe, investigate and 
examine what was being done, began to dis- 
cover more and more weakness in the methods 
which were practical, methods that produced 
desirable results only through the inspiring 
mind of Pestalozzi, results that could have 
been reached by other means quite as well, and 
perhaps better. Meanwhile the strength of his 
love and self-sacrificing benevolence replaced 
in many respects the want of the clearness, 
discretion and firmness which he lacked. 

As Frcebel lingered at Yverdun month after 
month his aims became plainer to him and he 
gained a deeper insight of the early require- 
ments and laws of the child's development than 



Pestalozzi possessed. This fact, however, did 
not prevent him from esteeming the country 
fortunate where such a man as Pestalozzi lived 
and worked, and he felt anxious to render him 
all the honor which was his due and also to 
sound his praise in public. But he became 
thoroughly convinced that the foundations of 
popular education for real life must be fixed on 
some basis more natural, more anthropological 
than any which Pestalozzi could offer. 

When Frcebel and his pupils left the sehool 
the management had reached a crisis, so that 
everything fell into disorder, and he was obliged 
to accept the conviction that the esteemed and 
amiable Pestalozzi was surrounded by false 
friends and badly supported, and that his work 
however excellent in itself , lacked a sufficient- 
ly healthful vitality to set forth and prove itself 
a permanent reform in popular education. 

In dwelling on this part of Frcebel' s life we 
have taken pains to record as fully as possible 
his impressions of Pestalozzi which were gained 
through two years of daily intercourse with him, 
because many people of the presentday, some 
of whom are regarded as eminent educators, 
persistently maintain that in publishing to the 
world the kindergarten system of infantile 
education Fnebel really originated very little, 
and that all the ideas which he put forth that 
have since proved of any value were derived 
from Pestalozzi. While there is neither room 
nor disposition for us to argue this question 
here, we advise all students of the kindergarten 
system to undertake to settle it for themselves. 
Let them study, as they have opportunity, the 
philosophy of both men, as it is outlined in 
their writings, and trace out the results as they 
appear in the educational held to-day. Then 
each one will be competent to decide whether 
through native ability and the practical train- 
ing of experience it was possible for Pestalozzi 
to transmit to Frcebel anything on which he 
could evolve what the world calls in our day 
the kindergarten system. 

The reader of these lines is asked always to 
bear in mind that the purpose of the present 
narrative is to give the well-accepted facts of 
Frcebel's life in the order in which they oc- 
curred, with as little embellishment as possible. 
But if at this particular point we may lie al- 
lowed an opinion as to what constitutes the 
radical ami essential difference between the 
philosophy of Frcebel and thai of Pestalozzi, 



28 



Ql ARTER CENTURY EDITION 



it is the difference between self-activity and imi- 
tation. The latter is always preaching what we 
may term the gospel of imitation, always teach- 
ing the child to imitate what the teacher has 
done ; on the other hand the kindergarten sys- 
tem inculcates the gospel of originality by pre- 
senting certain basal principles which must be 
followed, but which when mastered by the pupil 
are sure to stimulate him to original work. 
Pestalozzi was helpful to Froebel at a time when 



he most needed pedagogical enlightenment, 
but to assert that Froebel is merely the inter- 
preter of Pestalozzi is to make a claim which 
is not to be lightly accepted without analytical 
and conclusive proof. 

Returning to Frankfort in 1810 Froebel con- 
tinued his engagement as private tutor in the 
Yon Holzhausen family for a year longer, and 
then resumed his University studies with much 
satisfaction to himself. 



ii — 1 8 1 3 — FINAL 



UNIVERSITY STUDIES. 



Ix the summer of 1811, being twenty-nine 
3 T ears old, Froebel entered the University at- 
Gottingen, more than ten years after lie had re- 
linquished student life at Jena. At Gottingen 
he at once devoted himself to the study of lan- 
guages, beginning with Hebrew and Arabic, 
with a view of also paying some attention to 
the Indian and Persian. He also devoted a 
certain amount of time to Greek and dipped 
into the old favorites, physics, chemistry, min- 
eralogy and natural history in general with re- 
newed ardor, and also astronomy. He enjoyed 
himself greatly in the pursuit of knowledge un- 
der these new conditions and lived alone that 
nothing might interfere with his chosen work. 
It was his habit to walk about the beautiful sub- 
urbs of the city during the latter part of the af- 
ternoon, "in order to be greeted by the friendly 
rays of the sinking sun," and these rambles 
were sometimes extended till near midnight. 

He had been at Gottingen but a few weeks, 
however, when his chronic lack of funds lie- 
came once more a serious matter and he made 
up his miud that he must turn his attention to 
literary work as a help in his support. His 
apprehensions were relieved, however, by the 
receipt of a legacy from his mother's sister 
which made it possible for him to continue his 
studies without interruption. He was particu- 
larly interested in the lectures on mineralogy, 
which gave him an insight into the fundamental 
forms of crystals and other minerals. For us 
to trace the fruits of this study in the kinder- 
garten system as Froebel has handed it down 
to us is not difficult. 

What he learned at Gottingen stimulated his 
ambition to go to Berlin and continue his in- 
vestigations of mineralogy, geology, crystallog- 



raphy and their laws, at the college of Prof. 
Weiss, who was a famous instructor in those 
branches. He also resolved to make the change 
because he hoped that Berlin would afford 1 let- 
ter opportunities for securing a place as tutor, 
as the legacy just mentioned would not support 
him formany months. Consequently he went 
to Berlin in October, 1812, at once devoting 
himself with undiminished enthusiasm to the 
subjects which he loved and at the same time 
becoming instructor in a distinguished private 
school. 

The months of fall and winter passed quickly 
and in the early spring the throb of the war 
drum cut short, almost in the twinkling of an 
eye, his University course, as it has done that 
of many noble men in other lands and times. 

Right here, if we stop for a moment to re- 
view the years which Froebel spent within col- 
lege walls we must admit that he acquired a 
good education, although it was gained under 
difficulties. Eighteen months at Jena, a year 
at Gottingen, six months at Berlin, three Uni- 
versity years in all, spread over a period of 
fourteen, this was his peculiar college course, 
supplemented with a good many months of 
professional study. As a result he was thorough- 
ly grounded in mathematics, had an expert 
knowledge of natural history and a training in 
languages which was respectable, lie seems 
to have been a faithful student, although there 
is little evidence that ho was a brilliant scholar. 
In addition to the learning of the schools he 
also secured the practical experience of a drafts- 
man and surveyor, and taken together, the 
circumstances of his life, as thus far recorded, 
particularly fitted him to be the founder of the 
kindergarten svstem . 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 

1813— 1814— A SOLDIER OF THE LEGION. 



29 



In the spring of 1813, Freidrich Froebel, a 
student of the natural sciences in the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, aged thirty-one ,n enlisted at 
Dresden as a private in the Lutzow corps of the 
German army, under a call of the king for the 
nation to take up arms against Napoleon. In 
writing of that time Georg Ebers, the novelist, 
says, "The snow drops which bloomed during 
the March days of 1813 ushered in the long- 
desired day of freedom, and the call 'to arms' 
found the loudest echo in the hearts of the 
students." 

At this point in the narrative we may, per- 
haps, be pardoned for remarking that the critics 
of Froebel have always delighted to embellish 
certain allegations against him with such met- 
aphors of ridicule and invective as they could 
command. One of the principal charges is that 
of effeminacy, which, it must be confessed, 
is somewhat 1 >orne out by several of his pictures 
which are on the market and certain charac- 
teristics of dress which he affected. "While 
his admirers might be glad to eliminate these 
matters from his private history, if they could, 
it is nevertheless true that the world will for- 
give a man for parting his hair in the middle, 
if his thoughts and acts are such as to render 
him immortal. 

That Froebel had a realizing sense of wo- 
man's wonderful possibilities in the training of 
young children, which amounted to an inspira- 
tion, is not to be denied. That he delighted in 
gathering the mothers about him in constant 
attempts to give them some inkling of those 
possibilities and that he spent the strength of 
his last years informing what we now call kin- 
dergarten training classes is well-known to all 
who are familiar with his history. That the little 
children loved him and hung about him all his 
days is always admitted. But these things do 
not make a man effeminate. Some of them 
were characteristics of the Son of Man who 
dwelt in Palestine nearly two thousand years 
ago. There was no charge of effeminacy filed 
against Private Friedrich Froebel while lie wore 
the uniform of the Lutzow Jagers or lay in the 
trenches and coolly calculated the velocity of 
the bullets whizzing over his head from * the 
armies of Napoleon, as to how much faster 



those which came from the muskets were flying 
than those discharged from the flintlocks. 

He put aside every ambition , took every risk 
of life and limb, health and happiness, for the 
honor of the flag which represented to him the 
head and front of civilization, the one country 
which was worth living or dying for, as destiny 
might decide. As to his motives in entering 
the army, he says : "It was the feeling and con- 
sciousness of the ideal Germany that I re- 
spected as something high and holy in my 
spirit. Moreover, the firmness with which I held 
to my educational career decided me. Although 
J could not really say that I had a fatherland, 
as I am not a Prussian, it must happen that 
every boy, that every child who should later 
be instructed by me would have a fatherland 
and that fatherland now demanded protection 
when the child himself could not defend it. I 
could not possibly think how a young man, 
capable of bearing arms, could become the 
teacher of children whose country he had not 
defended with his life blood. The summons to 
war appeared to me a sign of the common need 
of man, of the country, of the time in which I 
lived, and I felt that it would be unworthy and 
unmanly not to struggle for the common neces- 
sity of the people among whom one lives, not 
to bear a part toward repelling a common 
danger. Every consideration was secondary 
to these considerations, even that which grew 
out of my bodily constitution, too feeble for 
such a life." Truly sentiments like these 
have been regarded in all ages as belonging to 
"the stuff that heroes are made of." 

Froebel joined the infantry division of the 
Lutzow corps, "Lutzow's Wild, Bold Troop," 
commonly known as the "Lutzow Jagers," and 
marched from Dresden, April 11, 1813. This 
volunteer organization had been formed dur- 
ing the previous month by Baron Yon Lutzow, 
his instructions being "to harass the enemy by 
constant skirmishes and to encourage the 
smaller German states to rise against the ty- 
rant Napoleon. The corps became celebrated 
for swift, dashing exploits in small bodies. 
Froebel seems to have been in the main body 
and to have seen but little of the more active 
duties of the regiment." 



30 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITK )X 



Owing to the seclusion of his life in the 
University his comrades were in the beginning 
of the campaign all strangers to him, although 
many of them were Berlin students. At the 
end of the first morning's march the sergeant 
introduced him to a divinity student named 
Heinrich Langethal, horn at Erfurt, Septem- 
ber 3, 17D2. A little later Langethal in turn 
presented his friend, Wilhelm Middendorf, 
also a divinity student, and a life-long inti- 
macy began between the three, then and there. 
Middendorf was a Thuringian, having been 
born in Westphalia, September 20,171)3. Aside 
from his connection with Froebel his history 
was not eventful. Of him Dr. Ebers writes : — 

"The source of Middendorf's greatness in 
the sphere where life and his own choice had 
placed him may even be imputed to him as a 
fault. He, the most enthusiastic of all Froebel' s 
disciples, remained to his life's end a lovable 
child, in whom the powers of a rich poetic soul 
surpassed those of the thoughtful, well- trained 
man. He would have been ill-adapted to any 
practical position, but no one could be better 
suited to enter into the soul-life of young hu- 
man beings and to cherish and ennoble them." 

Langethal finished his grammar school 
studies at Erfurt and then entered the Uni- 
versity at Berlin, where he proved himself a 
scholar of unusual talent. Midway in his ca- 
reer there the elevation of the Prussian nation 
led him into the war. He was advised that lie 
must not write home to his father of his in- 
tention, because if the letter should be inter- 
cepted his act would be regarded as high 
treason by the French authorities Avho held sway 
at Erfurt. When asked how he would procure 
the uniform of the black Jagers,he answered : 
"The cape of my coat will supply the trousers. 
I can have a red collar put on my cloak, my 
coat can be dyed black and turned into a uni- 
form, and I have a hanger." He had a daunt- 
less spirit that knew no such word as failure. 

The first halt of the corps came at Meissen, 
at the close of a beautiful spring day, when the 
students who were in the command gathered 
together about a long table in an open space 
on the banks of the river Elbe, where they 
greeted and pledged each other with old 
Meissen wine. The three young men just 
named lingered at the table till midnight, lay- 
ing the foundation of a friendship that has 
since become immortal, and the next morning 



they went together to examine the city's beau- 
tiful cathedral. To this circle Bauer, later 
an instructor in a Berlin grammar school, was 
subsequently admitted, and to those three men 
Froebel limited all intimate association during 
the campaign. 

In the fragmentary autobiography which 
Froebel some years later prepared for the Duke 
of Meiningen he speaks of these days as fol- 
lows : "My principal care was to improve my- 
self in my present calling, and so one of my 
endeavors was to make clear to myself the 
inner necessity and the connection of demands 
of service and drill ; it came to me very soon 
and easily from the mathematical, physical 
side, and strengthened me against many little 
reprimands which easily befell others when 
they thought this or that command could lie 
omitted, as too trifling." Another writer 
puts the same idea in these words : "The 
peculiarly regular and orderly inclination of his 
mind made him so accurate in all points of his 
service that he never gave cause for the little 
unpleasantness which befell most raw recruits." 

These extracts become of importance when 
considered in the light of some modern criti- 
cism which confidently asserts that Froebel 
could not have made a good soldier because he 
had no natural aptitude for such service. It 
is evident that he tried to adapt himself to the 
needs of the hour and his surroundings, no 
matter how great the personal inconvenience. 
That he was a good soldier, as a matter of fact, 
was fully attested by his promotion to be an 
officer iu 1815, although he was not allowed 
the opportunity to act in such a capacity. 

When the corps reached Havelburg there was 
a long halt, occasioned by an armistice, lasting 
from June 4 to August 10, during which the 
four friends sought to be together as much as 
possible. The life of the camp was especially 
pleasant to Froebel, he says, because it made 
many facts of history clear to him. He lived 
in nature as much as he could, and we are told 
that "on the march, under the hottest July sun, 
when most of the men were trying to get rid 
of everything which they could do without, so 
as to make their knapsacks lighter, Froebel col- 
lected all kinds of stones, plants and mosses 
for his study of nature and filled his knapsack 
with them. At the bivouac fire he brought out 
his treasures to serve as the subject of con- 
versation on natural history." 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



31 



There has always 1 teen some discussion as to 
how far Froebel shared in the hostilities of this 
campaign. Bowen in his biography says that 
of actual fighting his regiment saw nothing, 
a statement that is evidently without founda- 
tion. Froebel modestly speaks of the "few 
1 mttles in which we took part." There can be 
no question, however, that Froebel found time 
for the active cultivation of the practical study 
of natural history and the cementing of a 
friendship with Middendorf, Langethal and 
Bauer. At times the four friends indulged in 
pedagogical and philosophical discussions 
which were greatly to their mutual edification. 
"In this way," writes Froebel, "we passed, at 
least I did, our war life as a dream. Now and 
then, at Leipzig, at Dalenburg, at Bremen, at 
Berlin, Ave seemed to wake up ; but soon sank 
back into feeble dreaminess again." 

The Lutzow corps marched thi'ough that 
section of Germany known as the Mark of 
Brandenburg, of which Berlin is a part, going 



in the latter part of August, 1813, through 
Priegnitz, Macklenburg, the districts of Bre- 
men, Hamburg andHolstein, and coming to the 
Rhine in the last days of the year. Napoleon 
abdicated in the spring of 1814, went to Elba 
as an exile April 20, and the peace of Paris 
A\as proclaimed May 30. Meanwhile Froebel's 
regiment was stationed in the Netherlands till 
July, when all the volunteers who did not care 
to serve longer were honorably discharged. 

Doubtless Froebel was a better man and a bet- 
ter ldndergart ner because of his military service. 
In later years he brought into the kindergarten 
the spirit of patriotism which will always be 
one of its prominent characteristics, wherever 
it is established. He also brought into it the 
stirring marches and lively music which the 
military camp suggests. And although the kin- 
dergarten must always be regarded as a mighty 
bulwark of the kingdom of peace, we may well 
ask what would it be worth with these things 
taken out of it ? 



1814—1816— CURATOR AT BERLIN. 



When Froebel entered the army he received 
the promise of a position under the Prussian 
government at the close of the war, that of 
assistant in the mineralogical museum at Ber- 
lin under Prof. Weiss, who had been his in- 
structor, a post that was offered him through 
the influence of friends. Consequently his 
first thought on quitting the army was to secure 
for himself this coveted place, and so he set 
his face toward Berlin, arriving there early in 
August, having stopped on the way at Lunen, 
Mainz, Frankfort and Rudolstadt, moved by 
a desire to visit once more the region of his 
birth. 

He began his duties as curator in the mu- 
seum at once. He was occupied most of each 
day in the care and arrangement of minerals 
in a room which was perfectly quiet and which 
he kept locked against all intruders. The in- 
vestigation and explanation of crystals also 
formed a part of his duties. Regarding this 
period of his life, he writes : "While engaged 
in this work I continually proved to be true 
what had long been a presentiment with me 
that even in these so-called lifeless stones and 
fragments of rock, torn from their original 
bed, there lay germs of transforming, develop- 



ing energy and activity. Amidst the diversity 
of forms around me, I recognized under all 
kinds of various modifications one law of de- 
velopment. Therefore my rocks and crystals 
served me as a mirror wherein I might descry 
mankind, and man's development and history. 
Geology and crystallography not only opened 
up for me a higher circle of knowledge and in- 
sight, but also showed me a higher good for 
my inquiry. my speculation and my endeavor." 
These discoveries made Froebel think for a 
time that he would like to lit himself to teach in 
some University, but he soon gave up the idea, 
believing that he was "generally deficient in 
the preparatory studies necessary for the higher 
branches of natural science." Another reason 
why he relinquished the desire for such a career 
resulted from his reflection that the amount of 
interest shown in their work by the University 
students of his day was too little to attract h im 
to a professorship. On this theme he remarks : 
"The opportunities I had of observing the 
natural history students of that time, their 
very slight knowledge of their subject, their 
deficiency of perceptive power, their still 
greater want of the true scientific spirit, warned 
me back from such a plan." 



32 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



During his service as a curator he continued 
attending lectures on mineralogy, crystallo- 
graphy, and geology and also on the history 
of ancient philosophy. Those were months 
of marked development for the young man, who 
still had the work of life before him. They 
made up the one brief period of his career 
when he was prosperous and at peace with the 
world, unless we except a few months passed 
at Marienthal, thirty-five years later. They 
served to so perfect his studies of natural his- 
tory that those studies bore excellent fruit when 
lie came to present to the world the kinder- 
garten system of education. No one who had 
not first 'made the forms of crystallography 
a profound study could have brought them into 
that system as an integral part of it in the way 
that Froebel did. 

During the last months of his term as a sol- 
dier Froebel became separated from his friends, 
Langethal, Middendorf and Bauer, so that 
when he left the army he did not know where 
they were. All three of them, however, soon 
returned to Berlin, to resume their theological 
studies. Meanwhile Napoleon had ended his 
exile at Elba, resumed his former place as em- 
peror of France and for a few short weeks men- 
ac sd Europe as of old. A new war cloud hung 
over Germany in the spring of 1815, and the 
four friends re-enlisted. "On account of our 
previous service" says Froebel, "and by royal 
favor, we were at once promoted to officer's 
rank and each one was appointed to a regi- 
ment. There was such a throng of volunteers, 
however, that it was not necessary for any 
state officials to leave their posts or for stu- 
dents to interrupt their studies, and we there- 
fore received counter orders commanding us 
t<> stay at home." 

Middendorf came to room with Froebel, pend- 
ing liis expected departure for the war, and in 
this way the two were brought into close com- 
panionship for several months. About this 
time both Langethal and Middendorf became 
tutors in private families, to secure means for 
continuing their studies, and they appealed to 
Froebel to instruct them for two hours a week 
in the best methods of teaching arithmetic, 
which he gladly did. 

It was during his curatorship at Berlin that 
Froebel first met Henrietta Wilhelmine Hoff- 
meister, whom he subsequently married. She 
was the daughter of an official of the Prussian 



war department, was born at Berlin, Septem- 
ber 20, 1780, had been a pupil of Schleier- 
macher and Fichte and was highly cultured. 
She had previously married an official connected 
with the war office named Klepper, but had 
separated from him because of his misconduct. 
She came to the museum on one occasion and 
we are told that Froebel "was wonderfully 
struck by her, especially because of the readi- 
ness with which she entered intohis educational 
ideas." Langethal and Middendorf were well 
acquainted with the family and had often 
spoken to him about her. 

Froebel remained at Berlin till October, 181 6, 
when he left suddenly and without giving his 
friends any definite idea of his future plans. 
He had, in 1815, declined the offer of a valuable 
post as mineralogist at Stockholm and he se- 
cured his discharge from the museum againsl 
the earnest remonstrance of Prof. Weiss. 

The reason for his action soon became ap- 
parent, however. Christoph Froebel, his well- 
beloved elder brother, who has been so often 
mentioned in these pages, died of typhus fever 
in 1813, while nursing French soldiers in the 
hospitals. He was settled as a clergyman at 
Oriesheim and left a widow and three sons. 
The mother wrote to Friedrich Froebel in 1816, 
expressing her anxiety regarding the proper 
education of the boys and appealing to him 
for advice. It was this letter that caused him 
to make the sudden resolve to give up his place 
in the museum. We are told that he had 
hardly finished reading it when his latent in- 
terest in the education of man suddenly mani- 
fested itself in all power and energy and pushed 
him irresistably forward to take up again his 
natural vocation and be a teacher. He deter- 
mined to devote himself to the education of 
his nephews, and as a preliminary step he trav- 
eled from Berlin to Osterode, where his brother 
Christian had become a spinner and. dyer of 
linen thread. There the brothers held a consul- 
tation and it was decided that Friedrich should 
open a school at Griesheim, the primary object 
being the training of Christoph's children, and 
that Christian should also send his two eons to 
this school. Friedrich took the latter with him, 
the, elder being eight and his brother six years 
old, and began his teaching November 16,1816, 
calling himself and the five pupils "The Univer- 
sal German Educational Institute," although 
they were housed in a peasant's cottage. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 
1817—1831— PRINCIPAL AT KEILHAU. 



33 



Frcebel tarried at Griesheim but a few 
months. In the summer of 1817 his sister-in- 
law, owing to the death of her tut her, decided, 
to move her family to Keilb.au, where she 
bought a small farm. The school went with 
her and was re-opened June 24. The hamlet 
of Keilhau lies on the mountain side about five 
miles south-west of Rudolstadt, guarded by 
nature on three sides with protecting walls, 
whichkeep the wind from entering the village. 

It is one of the most attractive spots in the 
Thnringian Forest, which is not a region of 
great height, but famous for its beautiful val- 
leys, offering a great variety of the most beau- 
tiful scenery to be found anywhere. 

The primitive condition of the village of Keil- 
hau, as late as 1815, seems strange enough 
to us. "Although not poor," says one writer, 
"the peasants had remained in the condition 
of the Middle Ages. Three houses retained 
the old form of Thnringian architecture and 
the date of L532 was to be seen over the door 
of one of them. The church with its pretty 
tower was nevertheless more like a cellar than 
the house of God. In the midst of the vil- 
lage a water course marked the street and five 
springs kept the road wet all the time. There 
were only about one hundred inhabitants and 
the living of the peasants was very simple. 
As had been done live hundred years before, 
the mayor still counted off on a notched stick 
the number of measures of wheat which each 
man was bound to pay as corn tax or tithe. 
He also gave orally to the peasants any new 
regulations of the government, and in order to 
keep up a military appearance a day watch- 
man paraded the village with a broad halbred 
over his shoulder. The dress of the old man 
was what he had worn in his youth, and that 
of the women descended from the mother to 
daughter." 

The beginnings of the school at Keilhau were 
very humble. The teachers, Frcebel and Mid- 
dendorf, dining the summer of 18] 7, lived in a 
wretched little hut with neither door, flooring 
or stove, while Froebel was building a school- 
house. The quarters assigned him had for- 
merly served as a place for keeping hens. In 
duly Langethal graduated from the Univer- 



sity at Berlin with the highest honors and in 
September he visited Keilhau to see his old 
comrades and take his brother to Selesia, where 
he had an engagement as tutor to the young- 
nobility. Frcebel received him with the ut- 
most cordiality and the sight of the robust, 
merry boys who were lying on the floor that 
evening building forts and castles with the 
wooden blocks which Frcebel had made for 
them, according to his own plan, excited the 
keenest interest. He had come to take his 
brother away ; but when he saw him among 
other happy companions of his own age com- 
plete the finest structure of all, a Gothic Ca- 
thedral, it seemed almost wrong to tear the 
child from this circle. The result of this visit 
was that Langethal decided to stay at Keilhau 
with his brother, so that there might be a trio of 
teachers, and a great gain he was to the insti- 
tution, where his life work was done. More 
pupils arrived when he did and the new build- 
ing was completed in November. 

When Frcebel first came to <Triesheim he 
told his sister-in-law that he wished to be a 
father to her orphaned children, a statement 
which she interpreted to suggest an ultimate 
marriage between him and herself. He, how- 
ever, had never intended it in that sense, and 
after reaching Keilhau he ottered himself by 
letter to Henrietta Hoffmeister of Berlin, ask- 
ing that she would give her life to the advance- 
ment of those educational ideas in which she 
had shown so deep an interest during their 
interview in the museum. She received his 
proposal favorably, but her father made ob- 
jection and refused to give her any dowry. 
The record says that "she had lived all her life 
in comfortably, almost affluent circumstances. 
But she relinquished everything, even the home 
of which she was the light and joy, a dear 
mother and greatly beloved father who adored 
her, to devote her whole life and being to the 
apostle of a new education, whose ideas and 
schemes had elevated her soul as with the light 
of divine inspiration." When the widow of 
Christolph Frcebel learned of the engagement 
she made over her property to Friedrich, and 
went to live at Valkstadt in dune, 1818. 

The wedding occurred September 20, the 



34 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



bride being thirty-eight that day, and the 
groom two years younger. She brought with 
her to Keilhau an adopted daughter, Ernestine 
Chrispine. "Never," says one writer, "has 
man found a better helpmate than this woman 
was to Froebel. She devoted herself to the as- 
sistance of the Keilhau teachers and their edu- 
cational mission with her w r hole being ; made 
willingly any necessary sacrifice ; submitted 
willingly to every privation ; lived through 
days of most painful struggles with poverty 
and want, and did this all with a courage and 
devotion that was a shining example to all the 
women who have since devoted their lives to 
the realization of Frcebel's ideas." 

In order to do exact justice to Frau Froebel, 
who is so often and so deservedly praised, it 
may be necessary to add this quotation: 
"Frcebel's wife was revered and beloved in the 
highest degree by the whole pedagogical group 
and by Froebel was ever treated with deepest 
tenderness and esteem. Eyewitnesses assert, 
however, that although a very capable woman 
she was not perfectly qualified to guide' the 
helm of so large and composite a household 
with sufficient circumspection and tact, and 
that in the idea of 'unity of life' which Froe- 
bel wished to realize there was at times some- 
thing wanting, in spite of the poetic. yes idyllic 
character of the lives of these amiable and 
noble-minded idealists, who were ready to be- 
come martyrs to their philanthropic and pure 
principles." 

What the privations endured during those 
years really were we can hardly conceive. Froe- 
bel says : "We had now a severe struggle for 
existence for the whole time, up to 1820. With 
all our efforts we never could get the school- 
house enlarged ; other still more necessary 
buildings had to be erected first." As an illus- 
tration of the straits to which Froebel was sub- 
jected, it is stated by an associate, who had 
the incident from his own lips, that at one time 
dining his early struggles to put the school on 
its feet he had to live for a week on two large 
loaves of bread, on which he first measured 
the daily portions with chalk marks, so that 
he should not cut off more than the allotted 
part. We are told, moreover, that he was not 
afraid of long journeys on foot for the benefit 
of the cause, from which he often returned 
with bleeding feet, and that many a night he 
slept in the open air to save traveling expenses 



and then gave the money to some poor child 
to support him in the school. 

Shortly after Frcebel's marriage the father 
of Middendorf died, and he, without any hesi- 
tation, devoted the whole of his inheritance to 
the institution. Early in the year 1820 Chris- 
tian Froebel decided to give up his manufac- 
turing business at Osterode and join the com- 
munity with his wife and three daughters, the 
two sons being already members of the school. 
He also invested all his property in the ven- 
ture. The completion of the schoolhouse was 
now pushed with zeal, a work that ended in 
1822. The following year Johannas Arnold 
Barop, born at Dortmand in 1802, a nephew 
of Middendorf and a divinity student at Halle, 
visited Keilhau and decided to remain as a, 
teacher, much to the disgust of his family. He 
eventually became the mainstay of the whole 
enterprise. 

At this time the Keilhau family began to 
enjoy greater comforts in life. It was found 
that "the wonderful enthusiasm of the teach- 
ers and the wisdom of the educational methods 
employed, had, in a few years, made the aver- 
age pupil of the Keilhau school so greatly su- 
perior to the average pupil of all other educa- 
tional establishments of the country, that the 
number of pupils increased rapidly and money 
began to flow more freely into the households 
of all the teachers." 

It was in the summer of 1826 that both 
Middendorf and Langethal were married, the 
former choosing for his wife Albertine,the eld- 
est daughter of Christian Froebel, and his com- 
rade taking Ernestine Chrispine, the adopted 
daughter of Friedrich Froebel' s wife. Barop 
married Emilie, Christian Frcebel's second 
daughter, in 1828, and the third one in due 
season wedded another of the teachers. 

It will hardly be possible within the limits 
of this brief narrative to give the full history 
of Frcebel's career as principal of the Keilhau 
school. But in order to get a glimpse of the 
institution during its most prosperous days un- 
der the leadership of its founder we must quote 
from the reminiscences of Col. Hermann Von 
Arnswald, who was a pupil there for three 
years about 1824-26, as found in the intro- 
duction of "Frcebel's Letters." He says that 
when he reached the school Froebel took him 
immediately to the boys, with whom he was 
soon at home, so thoroughly, in fact, that it 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



35 



made his mother feel quite sad to see how 
cheerful her boy was at parting, when tears 
filled her own eyes. 

The account goes on to explain that in the 
domestic life of the institution strict order had 
to be observed, and great care was taken to 
promote personal cleanliness, new comers be- 
ing examined every morning before breakfast 
to see that there was no lack in this respect. 
And woe to the boy who was reckoned defi- 
cient, because his allowance of milk for break- 
fast was cut off, and he had to be content with 
only a piece of bread. This reduction of ra- 
tions was almost the sole punishment that was 
deemed necessary. Whoever deserved correc- 
tion was sure to find at dinner or supper a 
piece of bread on his plate, which indicated 
that he must pass by all other dishes without 
tasting them. On one occasion Yon Arnswald 
yielded to the temptation of eating a straw- 
berry, taken from the supper table before the 
meal was quite ready. Froebel saw the act 
and as a consequence the ominous piece of 
bread was put on his plate. The boy who did 
any damage at Keilhau must see to its being- 
repaired personally, and the colonel remembers 
one luckless fellow who having carelessly or 
misehieviously broken a \n indow had to take 
the frame on his back for five miles before he 
could get it mended. 

During the three years of Col. Yon Arns- 
wald's stay at the school no doctor ever set foot 
there. The small injuries that occurred occa- 
sionally in the gymnasium were always cured 
by the boys' mutual helpfulness. One day 
when he was at the top of the climbing rope 
his strength gave out and he slid so fast to the 
bottom that his hands were badly blistered and 
lie could not dress without help for a month. 
During that time his chum cared for the 
wounded members, but nobody else noticed the 
mishap. Another peculiarity of this school 
was the absence of all vacations. No pupil 
ever went home for a while and then returned. 
But a tramp through the woods extending over 
several days was repeatedly made during the 
summer season. On such occasions coffee and 
cakes were served, and the birthdays of the 
teachers joyfully remembered. Ordinarily the 
pupils drank nothing but milk and water. 

The anniversary of the ) tattle of Leipzig, 
the loss of which forced Napoleon to withdraw 
his armies from Germany, was always cele- 



brated on the 18th of October, the national 
sentiment being powerfully developed. A big 
fire was lighted on the mountain top that even- 
ing, "and when the flames raised their golden 
tongues skyward, popular and patriotic songs 
were sung, and we listened to the inspiring- 
words of our teachers, every one of whom had 
fought through the wars of deliverance as a 
volunteer, all having been faithful comrades 
in the service of the great fatherland." 

When winter came it brought frequent 
sleigh rides on the ice, and the boys were some- 
times called out of bed for this pastime. On 
Christmas eve they were treated to poppy soup, 
which made them sleep soundly till five o'clock 
in the morning, when they were summoned to 
a short religious service, gifts were distributed 
and they were taken to church. Col. Von 
Arnswald sums up his story with these signifi- 
cant words : "I lived at Keilhau for three years. 
At the end of that time I went home to the 
house of my parents healthy in soul and body. 
After a life so natural and so completely se- 
cluded from all the injurious impressions of the 
outside world there could not have been any 
other result than perfect health."' 

For fourteen years Froebel was at the head 
of the Keilhau school. The highest num- 
ber of pupils during that time seems to have 
been about sixty, and in 1S2'.» it dwindled to 
five. As an educational experiment it was in 
great measure a real success, though it did not 
reach Froebel's ideal. All mental requirements 
were richly provided for, and his own views 
of education carried out as far as time would 
allow, considering the imperative necessity of 
preparing the boys for the University ; but the 
material wants were met with great difficulty 
and in the poorest fashion. "None of the no- 
ble men connected with the school had in the 
remotest degree," says one writer, "imagined 
what great sums were required for the found- 
ing and continuing of so extensive an institu- 
tion as they had in view r , and were expending 
little by little. It was very nearly true that 
they shared with each other, lovingly and trust- 
ingly, all they possessed, for it could be affirmed 
of them as of the first Christians 'No one said 
that anything was his own.' " 

The account goes on to relate, "It was in 
vain that every item of income w r as devoted 
to the common use and that each one joyfully 
brought to the sacrifice all his goods and chat- 



36 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



tels, his inheritance and earnings." Froebel 
was too much of a philanthropist to derive 
very much gain from the pupils. He could 
not turn away an orphan or the child of a 
widow merely because only half could be paid 
to him, so that the school, well tilled, though 
it was, yielded too little profit to enable it to 
sustain itself." Moreover, as Emily Shirreff 
points out in her biographical sketch, Froebel 
was by nature a man in whose hands material 
interests could not prosper. He had no prac- 
tical ability of any kind ; and being engrossed 
with the interest of carrying into effect the 
cherished views which had become a part of 
his very life, he was probably less fitted than 
ever to calculate and dwell upon prudential 
and economical considerations. 

Barop had constantly hoped for support from 
his well-to-do family, but they had never ap- 
proved of his connection with the school and 
finally withdrew from him altogether. Little 
by little all sources of help were exhausted, 
while the needs of the school continually grew. 
The credit of the managers began to sink, so 
that "■malevolence followed in their track and 
suspicion stalked around them in all kinds of 
deformity." 

Some of their troubles arose from political 
causes. Among the patriots who had fought 
in the war and the generation of University 
students which came after them there was 
much enthusiasm for German unity and liberty, 
and here and there not a little wild socialistic- 
talk. The Keilhau community had adopted the 
German dress, and both teachers and pupils 
allowed their hair to grow long, and for these 
reasons the Prussian government became sus- 
picious of the school and in September, I<s24, 
induced the local prince to appoint Superin- 
tendent Zeh to investigate the institute and 
make a report regarding it. 

This official came to the school November 
23, and again March 1st, 1825, and the very 
favorable report which he made in detail is 
still preserved, and a part of it is worth 
quoting. "I found here," said the inspector, 
"what is never and nowhere shown in real life, 
a timely and closely united family of some sixty 
members, living in quiet harmony, all showing 
that they gladly perform the duties of their 
various positions ; a family in which, because 
it is held together by the strong hand of mutual 
confidence, and because every member seeks 



the good of the whole, everything, as of itself, 
thrives in happiness and love." 

"With respect and hearty affection all turn to 
the principal; the little five years' old children 
cling to his knees, while his friends and col- 
leagues hear and honor his advice with the con- 
fidence which his insight and experience and his 
indefatigable zeal for the good of the whole 
deserve ; while he has bound himself to his 
fellow-workers, as the supports and pillars of 
his life work, which to him is truly a 'holy 
work.' 

Self activity of mind is the first law of the 
institution ; therefore the kind of- instruction 
given there does not make the young mind a 
strong box into which as early as possible 
all kinds of coin of the most different values 
and coinage, such as are now current in the 
world, are stuffed ; but slowly, continuously, 
gradually and always inwardly, that is accord- 
ing to a connection founded upon the nature 
of the human mind, the instruction steadily 
goes on, without any tricks, from the simple to 
the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, 
so well-adapted to the child and his needs that 
he goes as readily to his learning as to his play." 

This report was made to the local prince of 
Schwarzburg-Kudolstadt, and of course he 
could make no move against the school after 
such a report, had he wished to do so, therefore 
he directed the community to dress like other 
people and cut their hair, a very Solomon's 
judgment, says Bowen, for there was nothing- 
else the matter with them. 

But the agitation which led to this report 
caused nearly all the patrons of the school to 
take their boys away from it. Moreover, for 
years trouble had been fermenting from within 
as well as without. One of the teachers, named 
Herzog, set himself in stubborn opposition to 
the principal and drew Froebel's sister-in-law 
and her sons to his side of the controversy ; 
the three nephews quarreled with their uncle 
and left in 1824 ; Herzog soon followed and 
industriously libelled the institute for some 
time. 

All of these causes placed the school under 
a temporary cloud. In writing on the "Critical 
Moments of Froebel's Life" Barop describes 
the situation with a graphic pen. "The num- 
ber of our pupils, he remarks, "had diminished 
to five or six, and consequently the vanish- 
ing little revenue increased the burden of 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



37 



•debts to a height that made us dizzy. From 
all sides creditors rushed in, urged on by attor- 
neys, who washed their hands in our misery. 
Froebej vanished through the back door to the 
mountain when the duns appeared and it was 
left to Middendorf to quiet most of them in 
a degree which only he can believe possible 
who has been acquainted with Middendorf s 
influence over man." 

For a time relief from all these troubles was 
promised because of the expected help of the 
duke of Meiningen. Several influential friends 
of the Keilhau work called his attention to it 
and as a result he sent for Frcebel to explain 
a scheme for an educational institute to in- 
clude with the ordinary "literary" branches in- 
struction in carpentery, weaving, bookbind- 
ing and tilling the ground. Half the school 
hours were to be devoted to study and the other 
half were to be occupied by some sort of handi- 
work. This plan was the work of all the Keil- 
hau teachers and the duke was much pleased 
with it. He proposed to place the estate of 
Ilelba, with thirty acres of land and a yearly 
grant of some five hundred dollars, at FroebeFs 
disposal, as an aid in carrying out the scheme. 
These negotiations began in 1827, and it was 
then thatFroebel wrote out the story of his life 
previous to 1816, for the information of the 
duke. This record breaks off abruptly and 
probably was never presented to the duke. 
Secret iniiueuces were set at work to change 
the duke's, purpose regarding the new educa- 
tional plans and his right-hand man in such 
matters, fearing lest Frcebel's influence should 
supplant his own, did all that he could to pre- 
vent the establishment of the industrial school. 
Consequently the duke proposed, in 1831, as 
a compromise, that Frcebel begin with an ex- 
perimental establishment of twenty-five pupils. 
Frcebel felt that he had been betrayed and re- 
fused to except such an offer or to have any- 
thing more to do with the duke. 

Meanwhile Froebel had formed a close friend- 
ship with the celebrated philosopher Carl 
Krause, under peculiar circumstances. In 
1822 two articles by Frcebel describing his 
work at Keilhau, which had been previously 
printed in another form, appeared in The 'Tsis," 
a noted scientific journal edited and published 
by Lorenz Oken. During the following year 
Krause contributed an article to the same pe- 
riodical criticising in some particulars what 



Frcebel had written. The latter w as too much 
occupied with his regular work to give the 
matter much attention at the time, but five years 
later, under date of March -24, 1828, he wrote 
Krause a long letter in reply, which was fol- 
io wnl by a trip to Gottingen by Frcebel and 
Middendorf in the fall of that year that they 
might become personally acquainted with 
Krause. Long discussions on education took 
place divring this celebrated meeting and Krause 
made Frcebel familiar with the works of Co- 
menius, "and introduced him to the whole 
learned society of Gottingen, where he made a 
great and somewhat peculiar impression." 
There can be no doubt but that his relations 
with Krause at this time had considerable to 
do in shaping Frcebel's future course in re- 
spect to the kindergarten. 

As soon as Frcebel decided that he could no 
longer depend on the duke for any substantial 
help he went to Frankfort to discuss his diffi- 
culties with friends in that city and this step 
resulted in his practically relinquishing the 
control of affairs at Keilhau, although he spent 
many months of his subsequent life there. 

A brief review of Frcebel's writings while he 
was principal at Keilhau should naturally be 
included in the account of this period. His 
first published essay appeared in 1822, the title 
being, "On the Universal German Educational 
institute of Rudolstadt," which was followed 
in 1823, by a "Continuation of the Account of 
the Universal ^German Educational Institute at 
Keilhau." The next year he printed a paper 
on "Christmas at Keilhau ;" "A Christmas Gift 
to the Parents of the Pupils at Keilhau, to the 
Friends and Members of the Institute." In 
1826 "The Education of Man " was brought 
out, the full title being as follows : "The Edu- 
cation of Man, The Art of Education, In- 
struction and Training Aimed At in the Edu- 
cational Institute at Keilhau," written by its 
principal, F. W. A. Frcebel, Volume I; "To 
the Beginning of Boyhood, Keilhau, 1826." 
Published by the Institute. Sold in commission 
at Leipzig by C. F.Da , rffiing, 497 pages. That 
same year Frcebel undertook to edit and pub- 
lish, at Leipzig and Keilhau, "The Family 
Weekly Journal of Education." In speaking 
of these writings one editor of Frcebel's biogra- 
phy, Emilie Michaelis.says : "Frcebel in his 
unbusinesslike way, published all these produc- 
tions privately. They came out, of course, un- 



38 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



der every disadvantage, and could only reach 
the hands of learned persons, and those to 
whom they were really of interest by merely 
a chance. Further, Froebel, as has already 
abundantly appeared, was but a poor, author. 
His stiff, turgid style makes his works in many 
places most difficult to understand, as the pre- 
sent translators have found to their cost, and 
he was therefore pratically unreadable to the 
general public. In his usual self-absorbed 
fashion he did not perceive these deficiences 
of his, nor could he be made to see the folly of 
private publication. Indeed, on the contrary, 
he dreamed of fabulous sums which one day he 
was to realize from the sale of his works. It 



is needless to add that the event proved very 
much the reverse." 

Thus closes an important period of fourteen 
years in Froebel's life, a formative, educating 
period, like all those which had gone before. 
For him to found the Keilhau school, an insti- 
tution which has to this day maintained an il- 
lustrious reputation, was indeed an honor. But 
Keilhau did more for him than he did for Keil- 
hau, it disciplined him for the immortal work 
of later years. Had he been successful as its 
principal he would have been content with 
the place for the rest of his days, and conse- 
quently the world would never have heard of 
the kindergarten. 



1831— 1837— IN SWITZERLAND. 



It was in the month of May, 1831, that Froe- 
bel went to Frankfort, and there he chanced to 
meet the noted musician and naturalist Zavier 
Schnyder of Wartensee, in the canton of Lu- 
cerne. He told this new acquaintance of what 
he had tried to do at Keilhau and how the work 
had resulted. He enlisted his sympathy and 
'•exercised upon him that overpowering influ- 
ence which is the peculiar property of creative 
minds." Schnyder appreciated the man and 
his efforts and we are told that he fairly begged 
Froebel to open a school in his castle at War- 
tensee. The offer was accepted without del late 
and Froebel at once departed for Switzerland, 
taking Ferdinand Froebel, the oldest son of his 
brother Christian, with him, Middendorf as- 
suming the helm at Keilhau for the time being. 
The uncle and nephew located themselves in 
the castle so kindly placed at their disposal, 
with its splendid library, abundance of silver 
plate and elegant furniture, and began their 
school with a few peasant children from, the 
immediate neighborhood. 

But obstacles sprang up before these en- 
thusiasts had really secured a foothold in their 
new quarters. The opposition of the local 
clergy against the "heretics" and foreigners 
was from the first pronounced and aggressive. 
It prevented pupils coming to them from any 
distance and from families who were well-to-do, 
and so limited their income by the narrowest 
bounds. It also caused the people about them 
to harbor the continual suspicion that they 
were ready to do something which would in- 
jure the community. Added to the hate of the 



priests, according to some writers, was the 
malevolence of Herzoa;,a native of that section, 
who had been deposed from his place as teacher 
at Keilhau some years previous, because he had 
shown himself to be a promoter of strife. 
Moreover, the teachers found their rooms in the 
castle very inconvenient for school purposes, 
but the owner would not consent to addition 
or alteration on any account. 

Such was their condition at the end of a 
few months, when Barop joined them, having 
tramped there from Keilhau, where their friends 
had become concerned about them and ap- 
pointed him a messenger to report how they 
were faring. He remained in Switzerland more 
than a } T ear. Soon after his arrival the three 
friends were sitting in a hotel near Wartensee, 
talking about their difficulties with some strang- 
ers who happened to be there, and the con- 
versation was overheard by some business men 
from the neighboring town of Willisau, who 
became much interested in what was said. 
They went home and reported what Froebel 
and his associates were trying to do in the 
interest' of education, and soon an invitation 
came from twenty families in Willisau to re- 
move the school to that place. An associa- 
tion was formed to support it and a building 
which resembled a castle was secured for it, 
by consent of the authorities of the canton. 
Some forty pupils entered the school as soon 
as it was relocated and for a time prosperity 
seemed assured. 

But the fury of the priests blazed out afresh 
and the teachers went about in fear of their 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



39 



lives. On one occasion during a church fes- 
tival a fanatical Capuchin monk made such 
a fierce speech against them that everybody 
present expected that a riot must result. While 
the tirade was going on Froebel stood in the 
crowd directly facing the monk, without mov- 
ing a muscle or changing a feature, and his 
two associates appeared equally oblivious to 
their danger. Strange to relate, no hand was 
raised against the heretics, and after the monk 
had disappeared they passed quietly through 
the threatening mob. 

Barop resolved to procure protection if it 
could be obtained, and laid the matter before 
the mayor, who advised that a public exami- 
nation of the pupils be held, as a means of 
winning popular esteem. It occurred on a beau- 
tiful autumnal day, being attended by a great 
crowd from different cantons, and a number 
of officials. It began at seven in the morn- 
ing and continued till seven in the evening, 
closing with games and gymnastic exercises 
by the whole school. It was a great success 
in every way, and as a result glowing speeches 
about the school were made in the council of 
the canton and that body voted to let the castle 
to Froebel and his associates at a low rate and 
to expel from the canton the monk who had 
attacked them. A little later, in 1833, Barop 
returned to Keilhau and became its principal. 
Gradually he raised the financial standing of 
the school, continuing there till his death, 
many years later, and handing it down to his 
son, the present principal. 

Just before Barop decided to return to Keil- 
hau a deputation of citizens came from Berne 
to invite Froebel to organize an orphanage at 
Burgdorf, in addition to his work at Willisau, 
and he accepted the task on condition that other 
pupils should be admitted besides 'orphans. 
Middendorf came from Keilhau to take the 
place of Barop, locating at Willisau with Ferdi- 
nand Froebel, while Friedrich Froebel and his 
wife took up the new enterprise at Burgdorf. 
In connection with the regular instruction given 
at the orphanage Froebel was required to con- 
duct what was called a Repetitive Course for the 
teachers of the canton. They were given three 
months' leave of absence from their regular 
duties once in two years, during which time 
they were gathered at Burgdorf for special 
study. Concerning this period in Fnebel's life 
Barop writes as follows : kt Fr<ebel had to pre- 



side over the debates and to conduct the studies 
which were pursued in common. His own ob- 
servations and the remarks of the teachers 
brought to him a new conviction that all 
school education was as yet without a proper 
foundation, and, that until the education of the 
nursery was reformed, nothing solid and worthy 
could be attained. The necessity of training 
gifted, capable mothers occupied his soul, and 
the importance of the education of childhood's 
earliest years became more evident to him than 
ever. He determined to set forth fully his 
ideas on education, which the tyranny of a 
thousand opposing circumstances had always 
prevented him from working out in their com- 
pleteness ; or at all events to do this as regards 
the earliest years of man, and then to win over 
the world of women to the actual accomplish- 
ment of his plans." 

After a stay of three years at Burgdorf the 
health of Fran Froebel broke down and the doc- 
tors ordered her to seek another climate. In 
June, 1836;, she and her husband went to Ber- 
lin, the immediate cause of the journey being 
the death of her mother and the necessity of 
adjusting some matters pertaining to her inheri- 
tance. While he tarried at Berlin the funda- 
mental thought of all his educational efforts 
made a deeper impress than ever before on 
Froebel's mind. There it was that his hours of 
musing were occupied with the plan which was 
taking shape for the early education of little 
children. It was now clear to him that the 
earliest childhood is the most important time 
for human development, and that in the child's 
behalf play as his first activity, must be spirit- 
ualized and systematically treated. 

He naturally felt that his native Germany 
was the country in which to work out these 
ideas and he never returned to Switzerland. 
Langethal went from Keilhau to take Froebel's 
place, and for a time he and Ferdinand Froe- 
bel were directors of the Burgdorf school. 
Then Langethal left it to take charge of a girls' 
school at Berne, and not long after Ferdinand 
Froebel died, being sincerely mourned by the 
whole community. The Willisau institute was 
given up also, Middendorf returning to his 
family at Keilhau, and thus it happened that the 
educational experiment in Switzerland lasted 
only a few years and met with but limited 
success, compared with the mental and physi- 
cal effort that it cost. 



40 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 
1837— 1844— BLANKENBURG. 



After a few mouths, in 1*.">7. Froebel and 
his wife came to Keilhau once more, and 
there the idea of the kindergarten hurst upon 
him. He wrote at once to Berlin for his first 
materials for the plays and occupations, and 
selected, with the help of his friend Barop, who 
was the principal of the Keilhau school, the 
neighboring village of Blankenburg, a little 
south-west of Keilhau, for the launching of his 
new enterprise, a place which he felt, on ac- 
count of its healthy location, would make the 
best home for his invalid wife. 

In giving an account of these days Barop 
writes as follows: "When Froebel came back 
from Berlin the idea of an institution for little 
children was fully formed in him. 1 rented 
him a locality in the neighboring Blankenburg. 
For a long time he could find no name for his 
cause. Middenclorf and I were one day walk- 
ing to Blankenburg with him over the Steiger 
l'ass. He kept on repeating, "Oh, if I could 
only find a name for my youngest child." 
Blankenburg lay at our feet and he walked 
moodily toward it. Suddenly he stood still as 
if riveted to the spot, and his eyes grew won- 
derfully bright. Then he shouted to the moun- 
tain so that it echoed to the four winds. 'Eu- 
reka, Kindergarten shall the institution be 
called.' " This was literally a "mountain mo- 
rn* nt" in his life, a brief period of inspiration 
which counted for more than months of every- 
day existence. After finding the right name 
Froebel determined to make an effort to put the 
whole establishment at Blankenburg on a satis- 
factory financial basis and include in it a train- 
ing college in which women teachers should be 
shown how to deal with little children up to the 
age of seven. 

The house where Froebel lived and labored 
at Blankenburg remains to-day as it appeared 
then, a large, unattractive, three-story structure 
on the hillside. It is still used for school pur- 
poses and bears on the front a tablet of black 
and gold with these words : "Friedrieh Fnebel 
Established His First Kindergarten Here on 
the 28th of June, 1840." This date is chosen 
because it was a festival day in all that region, 
commemorating the four hundredth anniversary 
of the discovery of printing, which was cele- 



brated in common by the schools of Blanken- 
burg and Keilhau, Froebel being the orator of 
the day. As. a matter of fact, however, he be- 
gan the kindergarten work soon after loeatino- 
at Blankenburg. 

To Col. Von Arnswald we are indebted for 
a glimpse of the Blankenburg kindergarten as 
it appeared in 1839. "Arriving at the place," 
he writes, "I found my Middendorf seated by 
the pump in the market-place, surrounded by 
a crowd of little children. Going near them I 
saw that he was engaged in mending the jacket 
of a boy. By his side sat a little girl busy 
with thread and needle upon another piece of 
clothing; one boy had his feet in a bucket of 
water washing them carefully ; other girls and 
hoys were standing around attentively looking 
upon the strange pictures of real life before 
them, and waiting for something to turn up to 
interest them personally. Our meeting was of 
the most cordial kind, but Middendorf did not 
interrupt the business in which he was engaged. 
'Come, children,' he cried, 'let us go into the 
garden !' and with loud cries of joy the crowd 
of little men followed the splendid looking, tall 
man with willing feet, running all around him." 
. "The garden was not a garden. however, but 
a barn with a small room and an entrance hall. 
In the entrance Middendorf welcomed the chil- 
dren and played with them an all-round game, 
ending in the flight of the little ones into the 
room where every one of them sat down in his 
place on the bench and took hold of his gift 
box. Then for half an hour they were all very 
busy with their blocks, and then the summons 
came, 'C<>me, children, let us spring and 
spring,' and when the game was finished they 
went away full of joy and life, every one pass- 
ing by his dear friend and teacher and giving 
him his little hand for a grateful goodbye." And 
then the colonel adds: "I shall never forget 
this image of the first kindergarten, so lovable 
and cheerful. I preserved it all in my memory 
and used it all as a pattern, when in time i 
had occasion to establish an educational gar- 
den in my own home." 

Nevertheless, Froebel and Middendorf had 
The greatest difficulty in persuading the Blank- 
enburg people to merely allow them to have any 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



41 



intercourse with the little children, because the 
parents thought that the teaching a child to 
play would help to make him a sluggard and a 
loafer. But the two earnest pioneers persisted 
in their labor of love and succeeded in over- 
coming the local prejudice to a certain extent. 
Froebel had begun the publication of a Sunday 
paper the year before which he called "Seeds, 
Buds and Fruits out of Life, for the Educa- 
tion of United Families." It bore the motto, 
"Come, let us live with our children." But he 
did not confine his work to Blahkenburg or the 
immediate neighborhood. In January, 1839, 
we find him giving a kindergarten address at 
Dresden, where the Queen of Saxony was pres- 
ent, and a month later he gave another at Leip- 
sig. Soon after he was called to Dresden to 
further explain the system and Middendorf and 
Adolf Frankenberg went with him. The visit 
evidently lasted some time and resulted in the 
establishment of a kindergarten in that city, 
which was taught by Fran Frankenberg, who 
thus became the first woman kindergartener, so 
far as we can learn. 

While Frcebel was at Dresden his wife died. 
May 13, 1839. She was one of those rare 
women who served an idea at the greatest pos- 
sible sacrifice, that of her life. Although 
mourning her loss sincerely he did not pause 
in his work, but soon after, at Hamburg, re- 
peated what he had said at Dresden. Month 
by month the idea of the kindergarten grew 
clearer in Froebel' s mind, so that in 1840, at the 
Guttenburg festival, which the schools of 
Blackenburg and Keilhau celebrated in com- 
mon, he was able to present a new and more 
comprehensive plan than any which he had pre- 
viously entertained, one which he hoped to cany 
out with the help of his fellow countrymen. 
On the first day of May he issued, an appeal to 
the public to help him to establish a kinder- 
garten training school, the special feature of 
his scheme being the proposition that each 
person interested in the enterprise should take 
one or more shares in it, each share having the 
value of ten dollars. His address at the fes- 
tival of June 28th was largely devoted to ad- 
vocating the plan and was directed chiefly to 
the ladies who were present on that occasion. 

Some idea of this speech can be gained by 
the closing words: "Therefore, I dare," said 
he, "confidently to invite you who are here pre- 
sent, honorable, noble and discreet matrons 



and maidens, and through you and with you all 
women, young and old of our fatherland, to 
assist in your subscription in the founding of an 
educational system for the nurtureof little chil- 
dren, which shall be named Kindergarten, on 
account of its inner life and aim, and German 
Kindergarten on account of its spirit. Do not 
lie alarmed at the apparent cost of the shares ; 
for if in your housekeeping or by your industry 
you can spare only five pennies daily, from the 
presumptive time of the first payment until the 
end, the ten dollars is paid at the last pay- 
ment. Do not let j'ourself be kept from the 
actual claims of the plan by the comtemptible 
objection 'Of what use to us is it all?' 

Already the idea of furthering the proper 
education of the child through appropriate fos- 
tering of the instinct of activity, acts like light 
and warmth, imperceptibly and beneficently, 
on the well-being of families and citizens ; for 
good is not like a heavy stone which only acts 
and is perceived when it is pressed; no, it is 
like water, air and light, which invisibly fiows 
from one place to another, awakening, water- 
ing, fertilizing, nourishing what is concealed 
from the searching eye of man — even slumbers 
in our own breasts, unsuspected by ourselves. 
Good is like a spark which shines far and points 
out the way. Therefore, let us all, each in his 
own way. advance what our hearts recognize 
as good, the care of young children. 

Do you ask for the profits of your invest- 
ment, the dividends on your shares ? Open your 
eyes impartially, your hearts also ; there is more 
in it than Ave have represented in the plan of the 
undertaking. Oh, is the beautiful any the less 
a gift and a real value in our life because it 
passes away easily ? Is the true any the less 
a gift because it is unseen and only the spirit 
observes it? And shall we count for nothing 
t he reaction on the family and the happiness 
of the children in joy of heart and peace of 
mind ? You can enjoy these great gifts in full 
measure ; forthey are the fruit of your co-opera- 
tion, the fruits of the garden which you estab- 
lish and care for, the fruits of your property. 
Besides, is it not almost more than this to take 
the lead and stand as models for a whole coun- 
try, to advance the happiness of childhood and 
the well-being of families, of the whole nation ?" 
We are told that as a result of this speech Froe- 
bel's hearers were greatly moved" and that 
they did not separate without pledging a goodly 



42 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



sum to advance the spread of the German 
Kindergarten. 

This success was only temporary, for while 
Froebel and Middendorf were able to overcome 
in a measure the local prejudice against their 
system of education for young children the 
parents kept insisting that they were doing the 
educators ;i great favor in allowing them to 
spend their time on the children, and were 
far from thinking that kindergartners ought 
to he paid for the services rendered. Froebel 
was able to get the municipality to grant him 
the free use of a place in which to do work. 
But it soon became evident to him that he must 
seek a broader field and take up the task of 
educating the public sentiment in favor of the 
new educational system. Consequently the 
institution at Blankenburg was given up in 
1*44 and Froebel determined to travel about 
Germany and expound his views, taking with 
him his faithful and eloquent friend Midden- 
dorf. In order to kindle the sparks of appre- 
ciation glimmering here and there into a clear 



flame by the breath of his own never- f ailing- 
enthusiasm, he proposed to visit all the large 
cities. But before setting out on this pil- 
grimage, in 1843, he published the "Mutter 
Und Kose-Lieder," a book which was destined 
to become the most popular of all his works, 
the song and picture book for mothers and 
little children. "Traveling through the coun- 
try, "says Elizabeth Harrison, "Froebel listened 
to the cradle songs and stories which the Ger- 
man housewives told to their children. He 
noticed how the little children are constantly 
in motion, how they delight in movement, how 
they use their senses, how quickly they observe 
and how they invent and contrive. And he 
said to himself, 'I can convert the children's 
activities, energies, amusements, occupations, 
all that goes by the name of play, instrumental 
for my purpose, and transfer play into work. 
This work will be education in the true sense 
of the term. The conception I have gained 
from the children themselves ; the}' have taught 
me how I am to teach them.' ' : 



1844— 1849— WANDERINGS ABOUT GERMANY. 



In the summer of 1844 Froebel and Midden- 
dorf started out on their missionary tours for 
the propagation of the kindergarten, which were 
destined to continue a number of years and ex- 
tend over a considerable area. They visited 
in succession Frankfort, Heidleberg, Darm- 
stadt, Cologne, Carlsruhe, and Stuttgart. Dur- 
ing the following year Froebel became acquain- 
ted with Louise Levin, who subsequently be- 
came his second wife. The history of this 
woman is an interesting story to all who are 
in any way attracted to the kindergarten or its 
literature. Louise Levin was born at Marien- 
vorstadt, a suburb of Osterode, in the Harz 
mountains, April 15, 1815. Her father was a 
tanner and across the street from his house 
lived Christian Froebel, brother of Friedrich, 
a spinner and dyer of linen thread and the owner 
of a factory. His children were the first play- 
mates of little Louise, outside of her own 
household. 

In her later years Frau Froebel has written a 
pamphlet entitled "Reminiscences of Friedrich 
Froebel," which includes au outline of the story 
of her early life. She says that Christian Froe- 
bel was a Busy man in those days, but that he 
found time for mental culture as well as an 



earnest and loving discharge of his duties as 
husband and father. Also that he had suf- 
fered from the want of a thorough education 
and that it was his great desire to procure 
more for his children in that respect than he 
himself had enjoyed. Friedrich always had 
great influence in his brother's family, and the 
narrative relates that his nephews and nieces, 
as well as the older brothers and sisters of 
Louise, looked forward to his visits as a treat. 
It was at the house of his brother, in 1816, 
when she was eighteen months old, that Froebel 
first met her. He had recently resigned his 
position as assistant superintendent of the min- 
eralogical museum at Berlin, and resolved to 
open a school at Griesheim. But he wanted 
more pupils than this one family afforded and 
so visited his brother at Osterode, to persuade 
him to let his two sons join their cousins at 
Griesheim. A little later the school was moved 
to Keilhau, and in 1820 Christian Froebel and 
his family went there to live. 

Concerning this change Frau Froebel writes : 
"I was five years old when our dear, faithful 
friends removed from our neighborhood. YVel 1 
do I remember my brothers' and sisters' sorrow 
at departing ; my grief was more speedily as 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



43 



sauged by a legacy of all the toys left in the 
forsaken nursery over the way." She soon be- 
gan to exchange letters with Elsie Froebel, who 
was two years older, although at first her baby 
hand had to be guided by that of a more ma- 
ture sister. We are told that they sent flowers 
to each other, exchanged garden seeds, and in 
similar ways kept alive the friendship of former 
years. In due time the boys of the Froebel 
family paid a visit to the Levins, and Louise 
was much attracted to them, as they appeared 
greatly to be preferred to her ordinary boy 
playmates. Then her brothers were allowed an 
outing at Keilhau, and on their return they 
were constantly talking about the happy life of 
the boys who were at school there, and of the 
kindness of "Uncle Froebel/' meaning Fried- 
rich, to them. They also brought back with 
them many things winch the pupils there had 
given them as samples of their own handiwork, 
models of toys, furniture and machines, cut out 
from wood or cardboard and pasted together. 

Louise Levin endured many hardships in her 
early da} T s. Her father died when she was 
thirteen, her two brothers were left widowers 
with children to care for within a few years 
after they were married, and her eldest sister 
lost her husband in the prime of life. All of 
these families looked to her for help in the 
midst of their troubles, and it was not till she 
was thirty years old that she was at liberty, 
to leave the home circle. As for her educa- 
tion, she tells us that it was "neither better 
nor worse than that of most girls at that time, 
the chief female accomplishment of that day 
being skill in various domestic arts." 

Finding herself no longer indispensable to 
her relatives Louise Levin felt that she must 
make herself indispensable to some one, to fill 
a breach and have an object in life. Fran 
Middendorf had lately been visiting her and 
invited her to come to Keilhau. With the 
words of invitation ringing in her ears she 
wrote a letter offering her services to the com- 
munity and received an immediate answer urg- 
ing her to lose no time, but to at once become 
a working member of the household. This was 
in June, 1845, and when Louise joined the 
family it included three daughters of Christian 
Froebel, Frau Middendorf, Frau Barop and 
Fraulein Elsie Froebel, her former correspond- 
ent. Froebel himself was then living in the 
neighborhood, but did not make his home in the 



school building. But he called to see Louise 
soon after her arrival, and gave her much 
friendly counsel, which she remembered well 
and rendered useful in her relations and duties 
to those around her. 

In 1*4 (! Froebel and Middendorf made a 
journey similar to the one undertaken the pre- 
vious year, but it was apparently barren of re- 
sults, just as the former trip had been. Dis- 
couraged with the reception he met with from 
men and professional teachers in general, Froe- 
bel henceforth more than ever addressed him- 
self to women, mothers and teachers, with in- 
creasing enthusiasm. In the summer of 1847 
he gave an exhibition of games at a meeting 
at Qnetz near Halle. As a result of this meet- 
ing one of his converts decided to add a kin- 
dergarten to her high school for girls at Ham- 
lung and to employ Middendorf 's daughter Al- 
vine as the kindergartner. But before this 
plan could be carried out it was deemed best 
for her to take a course with Froebel, and Louise 
Levin determined to join his training class at 
the same time. Consequently both of them lie- 
came his pupils during the winter of 1847-1848. 

About this time Froebel drew up the pro- 
spectus of an institution which he proposed to 
form for the training of the masses and the 
educators of children. In this prospectus he 
says : "It is very desirable that young maidens 
entering the institution should have a good 
school education. They ought to be more than 
fifteen years old and healthy and full grown. 
The age from seventeen to twenty odd years 
seems best for this training. More important 
than school education, however, is the girlish 
love of childhood, an ability to occupy herself 
with children, as well as a serene and joyful 
view of life in general. There ought also to be 
a love of play and occupation, a love and ca- 
pacity for singing. It goes without saying 
that purity of intentions and a lovely, womanly 
disposition are essential requisites. The fuller 
the educational accomplishments of a lady all 
the more rapid and satisfactory will be her 
progress in the science." 

"The means at the disposal of those willing 
to take the course are generally so limited as 
to compel a curtailment of the time of study to 
six months. Nothing but inexorable necessity 
could have enforced such a reduction of time, 
rendering next to impossible the acquisition of 
even such knowledge as is absolutely inlis- 



44 



(^DARTER CENTURY EDITION 



pensable. Every part of the course must be 
shortened too much in order to render it pos- 
sible to reach the end at all. The entire scheme 
is made up with a consciousness that the pupils 
themselves must fill the gaps in their develop- 
ment and by incessant industry and sponta- 
neous labor work out and perfect the ideas aud 
principles mentioned in the course. There 
is no possibility of reaching the goal desired in 
so short a time unless a pupil will give her whole 
mind, and give it determinedly and persever- 
ing' \\ to study. 

But this is not sufficient unless the pupil has 
also learned to observe and study the phenom- 
ena of her own lite and activity, and thereby 
learned to observe and guide the life and ac- 
tivity of children. In this direction the study 
of the kindergarten ought to he continuous. 
A complete education for bringing up and edu- 
cating children ought to make the pupil theo- 
retically and practically conversant with all the 
requirements of the child concerning its bodily 
(dietetic) and mental (pedagogic) needs from 
the cradle to school age. But this is not enough. 
The normal school pupil ought also to he en- 
abled to impart a good preparation for the Brs1 
grade of the elementary classes in the public 
schools. It is not possible, however, to in- 
clude this branch in a short course of only six 
months. A second course is necessary to give 
time enough for that kind of teaching. In 
either case, however, success cannot lie com- 
pleted, unless the pupil on entering the normal 
school is sufficiently prepared as regards her 
school education, her maturity of character and 
good judgment. Such efficient preliminary 
preparation will alone enable the pupil to avail 
herself of all the suggestions offered during the 
course, and, after leaving the school, to con- 
tinue the study, reflect and labor for the pur- 
pose of finishing her own education." 

The idea of Froebel suggesting the possibility 
of taking the kindergarten course in six months 
will doubtless seem an absurdity to many kin- 
dergarteners to-day. But their adverse judg- 
ment will be somewhat modified when we come 
to review the proposed daily schedule given in 
the prospectus of his training school, which 
laid out work for the whole day. from seven in tin- 
morning until bedtime. First came the morning 
service and a religious lesson which attempted 
to trace the evolution of religious ideas in 
the child and thereby to indicate a method of 



awakening truly religious sentiments in the little 
ones. At nine o'clock the regular school day 
opened. The hour from nine to ten o'clock was 
spent in teaching "the science of the phenom- 
ena and laws of the evolution of the child ; of 
the essential nature of the child and the re- 
quirements of his nursing and his education." 
During the two hours from ten to twelve o'clock 
the principles which had been taught theoreti- 
cally the preceding hour were practically de- 
monstrated. These demonstrations were sup- 
posed to embrace practical exercises in personal 
intercourse, appropriate language in talking 
with the children, accompanying the singing 
with the appropriate practice of the sense and 
limbs." The specific relations between these 
exercises and the unfolding of the soul life of 
the child as an individual and as a member of 
the social whole were successfully pointed out . 
The Mutter End Kose-Lieder served as a text 
book in these lessons. 

The afternoon lesson began at two o'clock. 
Till four o'clock the gifts and occupations were 
handled. Seven small text books were used. 
and it was Frcebel's intention to make clear at 
every point the manifold relations between the 
occupations and his gifts and the labors of man 
in contact with the circumstances of nature and 
events in life. The hour from six until seven 
was spent in practicing the occupations and 
games that had been taken up during the day 
with the children who came to the school for 
that purpose. After supper the pupils gave 
further attention to any of the day's exercises 
which they felt they had not mastered, being 
helped by Frcebel and his assistants. 

Such was the prospectus for the normal kin- 
dergarten, as laid out on paper in 1*47. The 
criticisms which its announcement caused re- 
sulted iii some modifications, but in many re- 
spects it was the scheme actually carried out 
a little later. During the six months of the 
course Frcebel devoted his whole time and en- 
ergy to his pupils, from seven o'clock in the 
morning until bedtime, never wearying of ex- 
plaining, lecturing, laboring and playing with 
them. And what. the reader naturally asks, was 
the compensation required for all this trial? 
Half a thaler each week, that is, about, thirty- 
seven cents for each pupil. 

During all these years Frcebel's schemes 
were many, one being to found an institution 
for the support and education of orphans, with 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



45 



a model kindergarten and a normal institute for 
children's nurses and kindergartners. Mean- 
while he kept up his travels, with head-quarters 
at Keilhau. Wherever a festival could be ar- 
ranged iu commemoration of Christmas or s< »me 
dt her event, there was Froebel to plan and lead 
the kindergarten games as a special attraction. 

We may not find it out of place right here 
to ask ourselves, How did Froebel look at this 
time in his life ? The most definite description 
yet published occurs in the "Story of My Life" 
by Georg Ebers, the eminent novelist, as trans- 
lated by Marv J . Safford. Dr. Ebers was eleven 
years old when he entered the Keilhau school, 
in the spring of 1848, and he gives this pen 
picture of Froebel : "When I came to Keilhau 
he was already sixty-six years old, a man of 
lofty stature, with a face that seemed to be 
carved with a dull knife, out of brown wood. 
His long nose, strong chin, and large ears, be- 
hind which the long locks parted in the middle, 
were smoothly brushed, and would have ren- 
dered him positively ugly had not his, Come let 
us live with our children, beamed so invitingly 
from his clear eyes. 

People did not think whether he was hand- 
some or not ; his features bore the impress of his 
intellectural power so distinctly, that the first 
glance revealed the presence of a remarkable 
man. Yet 1 must confess — and his portrait 
agrees with my memory — that his face by no 
means suggested the idealist and man of feeling ; 
it seemed rather expressive of shrewdness, and 
to have been lined and worn by several con- 
flicts concerning the most diverse interests. 
But his voice and his glance were generally win- 
ning and his power over the heart of the child 
was limitless. A few words were sufficient to 
win the shyest boy whom he desired to attract ; 
and thus it happened that even when lie had 
been with us only a few weeks he was never 
seen crossing the courtyard without having a 
group of the younger pupils hanging to his coat 
tails and clasping his hands and arms. Usually 
they were persuading him to tell stories and 
when he consented to do so the older pupils 
were sine to Hock around him, and what fire, 
what animation the old man had retained !" 

This whole story is everywhere dotted with 
dark spots indicating privation on the part of 
Froebel. At one time he sold all of his house- 
hold furniture at public auction at Rudolstadt 
to help him in the cause to which he was so 



thoroughly devoted. "When he was in these 
difficulties," writes Frau Froebel, "he seemed to 
shrink within himself, he was so silent ; he no 
doubt felt the hardship of being without a 
settled home after all these years of toil." At 
Keilhau he lived in the most modest style : he 
endured physical discomfort with absolute in- 
difference, absorbed in one object. "New 
Year's eve" Frau Froebel continues, "was al- 
ways kept as a beautiful traditional festival at 
Keilhau. During the early part of the evening 
old and young joined in all kinds of games and 
home amusements and then a simple prayer was 
offered, with a retrospect of the year, followed 
by a general shaking of hands and mutual good 
wishes for the New Year, as the bells rang out 
from the village church. At this moment, in 
the year 1848, Froebel appeared on the scene, 
and great was the joy of the assembled house- 
hold that he had kept his promise. A table 
covered with Christinas gifts was quickly ar- 
ranged for him in the blue room, and I reinem- 
ber him chatting pleasantly about his recent 
wanderings ; telling those in Keilhau about the 
increased support his kindergarten cause was 
receiving iu different places in Thuringia, de- 
scribing new acquaintances he had made, until 
he at length withdrew in the early hours of th* 
first morning of the New Year. Retiring tc 
his own rooms he sat up until breakfast time 
inditing a letter 'To Womanhood,' as he after- 
wards told us." 

During the winter of 1848 Froebel went to 
Sehalkau, in company with Louise Levin, who 
helped him in the direction of the games. He 
lived at the sehoolhouse and she was hospitably 
entertained by a neighbor. The afternoons 
were occupied with rehearsals and in the even- 
ing the schoolmasters of that section used to 
gather around Froebel to hear more about his 
educational views and talk over the arrange- 
ments for the festival which it was proposed 
to hold, some months later, but which was, how- 
ever, forbidden by the authorities. A similar 
visit was made to Brunn, where the two kinder- 
garten missionaries were guests of the vicar. 

In the summer of 1S4.S Middendorf published 
his book entitled "The Kindergarten" and dedi- 
cated it to the German parliament, which had 
just assembled at Frankfort, hoping to secure 
their earnest attention to the system. Froebel 
helped him in correcting the proof sheets of 
this book and meanwhile busied himself in pre- 



46 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



paring for a public gathering at Rudolstadt, 

issuing invitations to many schoolmasters and 
other prominent people from all parts of Ger- 
many. Places of entertainment had to be 
provided for those, who came from a distance 
and I he children of the neighborhood were prac- 
ticed in the games and taught paper folding, 
I in per cutting and the lath interlacing by Frau- 
lein Levin, at the little Eichfeld schoolhouse. 
Meantime Froebel attended a meeting at Os- 
chatz, where a resolution was unanimously 
passed "That the governments of Saxony and 
Meiningen be respectfully urged to make the 
support of kindergartens obligatory in every 
parish within their dominions, as the best pos- 
sible foundation upon which to rear any sys- 
tem of public instruction." 

The Rudolstadt meeting came in June and 
lasted three days. Several members of the 
national legislature were present, having been 
sent there to inquire into Froebel's methods, as 
well as representatives of reigning families in 
the Thuringian states. Many distinguished 
men took part in the debates, which waxed 
warm. There was a strong element of oppo- 
sition in the assembly and Froebel and his 
friends were often challenged. But they were 
able to defend their position with energy and 
skill, and on the whole their cause was greatly 
benefited. In speaking of this meeting Hauseh- 
mann says : ' 'Although some people might have 
retained intellectual doubts about some de- 
tails of his method, no one went away from 
that meeting without warmly sympathizing with 



his work as a whole. No one could wring from 
him the undoubted honor of having brought to 
light some neglected truths respecting child- 
nature and of giving fresh means for its de- 
velopment." 

After the Rudolstadt meeting Froebel's cor- 
respondence increased greatly and expressions 
of sympathy flowed in upon him from every 
quarter and greatly encouraged him in the be- 
lief that a better day was about to dawn. He 
spent the following winter at Dresden, giving 
a course of lectures for kindergartners and us- 
ing the kindergarten of Adolph Frankenberg 
and his wife as practice ground. He also gave 
a second course to ladies and gentlemen inter- 
ested in his system, being guaranteed an ade- 
quate salary for his work. Meanwhile Frau- 
lein Levin had accepted a position as governess 
in a family at Reudsburg and they met at 
Bergedorf during the Christmas holidays, 1 s4<s, 
where they and Alvine Middendorf happened 
to be visiting. 

About this time Froebel became attracted to 
the village of Liebenstein as a promising loca- 
tion for a permanent training school and dur- 
ing the Easter vacation he went there from 
Dresden to look for a house. Liebenstein is a 
summer resort for strangers who come from 
all parts of the country to drink the waters and 
he felt that it would be a good place from 
which to extend his cause. He returned there 
in May, "with a view, "says Frau Froebel, "to 
obtaining a lease of the country house, 'Marien- 
thal' from the Duke of Meiningen." 



1849— 1852— MARIENTHAL. 



Fi;<ebel secured rooms in a Liebenstein farm- 
house through the kindness of Frau Midler, 
and he began to live there with his pupils and 
his grand-niece, Henrietta Breymann, (Frau 
Schrader) as housekeeper. She also helped 
teach some of the children who were beyond 
the kindergarten age. We come now to the 
period in Froebel's life when he ceased to fight 
his educational battles single-handed and in 
obscurity and was thereafter seconded in some 
measure by the rich and the powerful. But 
for the aid of Baroness B. Von Marenholtz- 
Bulow and her friends it is doubtful if the 
name of Friedrich Froebel would have come 
down to this generation as being of any im- 
portance. All of the reforms in this world are 



brought about by visible means, and most of 
them have to make use of help from the in- 
fluential and the wealthy before lasting success 
is secured. How could Columbus have carried 
out his darling scheme and thereby changed the 
world's history if Isabel had not pledged her 
jewels in his favor? Andhow r could Washing- 
ton, notwithstanding the valor and self sacri- 
fice of his countrymen, have brought the Amer- 
can Revolution to a triumphant issue in the way 
that he did if the standard of France had not 
been joined with the flag of our infant republic ? 
In this case it was not altogether because the 
Baroness secured for Froebel and his training 
school a delightful home at Marienthal for the 
rest of his life and furthered his plans in every 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



47 



possible way among the nobility and scientific 
men of the day, or even because she gave her 
life with rare devotion and lack of selfishness 
to advancing the kindergarten cause in differ- 
ent European nations that her alliance proved 
of such great importance to him. There was 
another service which she did for Frcebel, she 
became his interpreter. By reading her "Remi- 
niscences" one gets a clear and minute account 
of the last three years of his life, which serves 
as a key to the whole. Her account covers 
what in many respects is the most interesting 
part of his career. 

It was at the end of May, 1849, that the 
Baroness reached the village, where she had 
sojourned during previous summers. After 
the usual salutations and her question as to 
what was happening in the place that season 
she was told by her landlady that a few weeks 
before a man had settled down on a small farm 
near the springs and danced and played with 
the children and for that reason was called 
"the old fool." Going out to walk some days 
later she met him and she described his ap- 
pearance on that occasion as follows : "A tall, 
spare man with long gra}' hair, was leading a 
group of children between the ages of thi'ee 
and eight, most of them barefooted and scantily 
clothed, who marched two and two up a hill, 
where having marshalled them for play, he 
practiced with them a song belonging to it. 
The loving patience and abandon with which 
he did this, the whole bearing of the man while 
the children played various games under his 
direction were so moving that tears came into 
my companions ej'es as well as my own." 

An acquaintance followed which soon ripened 
into friendship, and through the intercession of 
the Baroness, Frcebel obtained a lease of the 
castle of Marienthal as a seminaiy for his nor- 
mal classes. How this arrangement came to lie 
made the Baroness explains as follows : "On 
a walk which I once took with him, we came to 
the neighborhood of Liebenstein, charmingly 
elevated among the green fields. Froebel stood 
still and said : 'Look around you, Fran Maren- 
holtz. This would be a beautiful place for our 
institution, and even the name would suit it so 
well, Marienthal, the vale of the Marys, whom 
he wished to bring up as the mothers of hu- 
manity, as the first Mary brought up the 
Saviour of the world.' I remarked that he 
might petition the duke to grant him the build- 



ing, which was standing unused, and that 1 
would try to help him through the Duchess Ida. 
By means of the continued promptings of her 
brother on the part of the duchess this end was 
reached at the end of some months. And I 
had the pleasure of surprising Frcebel with the 
official permission after he had almost given up 
all hope." 

In the month of July Diesterwcg, a dis- 
tinguished German educator, came to Lieben- 
steiu aud was introduced to Froebel by the 
Baroness. He became much interested in the 
principles which lie at the foundation of Frce- 
bel's system and with the Baroness devoted 
considerable time during the summer to study- 
ing them. It was also in July, that Fraulein 
Levin secured a release from her engagement 
at Reudsburg and came to Liebenstein, where 
for a short time she shared with Fraulein Brey- 
mann the duties of housekeeping and instruct- 
ing the pupils, but the latter soon went to her 
home, being in delicate health. When Louise 
Levin arrived, to use Froebel's words to the 
Baroness, "she gave to his institution the 
stamp of family life." which in his view was of 
the highest importance to an enterprise of that 
kind. During the month of September Mid- 
dendorf came from Keilhau to visit his friend, 
ami while he was at Liebenstein a sufficient 
sum was raised, chiefly from among the no- 
bility, to establish a local kindergarten. A 
little later he was invited, through the influ- 
ence of the Baroness to deliver two lectures 
before the court at Weimar, which materially 
advanced the kindergarten cause. In October 
Froebel went to Hamburg for the winter, and 
Fraulein Levin remained at Liebenstein to con- 
tinue training the pupils and to receive new 
ones, also taking charge of the kindergarten 
as a practice field for the pupils. 

"Froebel passed a busy winter in Hamburg, 
by the invitation of the AVomen's Union, 
where society was much divided on the sub- 
ject of the 'higher education of women,'" says 
Frau Froebel, "and where he undoubtedly 
overtaxed his strength. On the other hand, 
he felt strengthened and upheld by the sym- 
pathy and interest his views met with during 
his lectures. With many aspects of the wo- 
man question agitating the public mind at that 
time Froebel had but little sympathy, but he 
had the great satisfaction of seeing the first 
Burger-kindergarten opened under his foster- 



48 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



ing care, as well as many private kindergar- 
tens." During the Christinas holidays he came 
back to Liebenstein and addressed the parents 
of the kindergarten children, also joining with 
the little ones in the customary celebration. 
While he was there the negotiations for the 
lease of Marienthal were completed and he 
began the return journey to Hamburg New 
Year's eve. Just as he was finishing his lec- 
tures there Louise Levin moved the school 
from the farmhouse, where it had been quar- 
tered for a year, to Marienthal, and Froebel 
himself went directly from Hamburg to Keil- 
hau, to talk with his friends there about his 
intended marriage with Louise Levin. This 
plan met with opposition because he could not 
give the required proof that he had sufficienl 
means to support a widow, in the event of his 
death. lie also visited Blankenburg and was 
presented with the title of honorary citizen, 
but when lie asked that this might be trans- 
ferred to his future wife the people refused 
to grant the request. Fran Froebel says that 
he accepted this rebuff with his customary pa- 
tience under trial and then went to Marienthal 
to resume his place in the school. 

He reached there with the first awakening 
touches of spring, and. to quote once more 
Frau Frcebel,"We gaily decorated every door- 
way with an archway of green leaves to bid 
him welcome. I was painfully aware of the 
expression of weariness on his face. 'Oh ! I 
shall quickly recover in this beautiful place' 
was his cheerful answer, "city life with its ex- 
citements has worn me out, but in the rural 
seclusion of this place and the simplicity of 
life at home I am sure to get well again.' " 

At this point, in order that we may get some 
idea of Marienthal and its surroundings, the 
reader will be interested in a description of that 
section as it appeared to an American kinder- 
gartner two or three summers ago : "We fi- 
nally come out to the light again refreshed by 
our temporary absence from the outside world, 
and drive on to Liebenstein. Here we see the 
place that Madam Von Bulow has made fa- 
mous ; here Fraulein Heevort shows us the 
dining-room of the hotel where she once, as a 
child, met Froebel. The house and hotel bor- 
der the long narrow street, with the baths and 
springs at the upper end. We drink the spark- 
ling water, which is delicious, and think of 
this as another spot in the Thuringian Forest, 



where time might be pleasantly spent. We im- 
agine Froebel walking through this village with 
the children at his heels, and Madam Yon Bil- 
low's account makes us wish we, too, could 
have followed them up to the lawn where they 
played their games. We refresh ourselves with 
some delicious German coffee, and drive to 
Marienthal. The path Frcebel and his friend 
often walked lies across the fields besides us. 
and as we stop in front of the house we feel 
the reality of the life so devoted to an idea that 
the roots were firmly fixed in that lifetime. 
Through the courtesy of the owner of Marien- 
thal we see the house. Two stories ami a. roof 
of tiles, a middle doorway, and rows of win- 
dows face one. A square garden extends to 
the road from the house, and stretches to the 
right and around to the back. To the left is a 
courtyard, surrounded on three sides by barns 
and outhouses, the fourth side being open to 
the house. Many a primitive scene is being 
enacted here. All kinds of beasts and birds 
are within the enclosure. Threshing is going 
on, and the bright dress of the peasants at work 
enlivens the scene. We speak of Froebel's 
'Song of the Barnyard Gate,' and wonder if 
he got his inspiration here. We go inside and 
see the room where Froebel's second marriage 
took place and the room where he passed out 
of the life where 'we behold but darkly,' into 
one of light." 

J n the year 1850, Liebenstein was one of 
the most fashionable resorts of Central Ger- 
many and many noted visitors came to Marien- 
thal, Froebel being the wonder and talk of the 
town. The Baroness gives this description of 
one 'such visit, when she piloted a party of 
which Dr. Gustav, editor of "The Europa," 
was a member : — 

"We had now arrived at the gate of Marien- 
thal and heard the voices of the children sing- 
ing in the kindergarten, whom Froebel himself 
led in the afternoon, in order to give to his 
pupils instruction in the manner of conducting 
the movement plays. He was in the midst of 
the troop of little ones when we entered. 'This 
then, is the house of the prophet,' said some 
one in our party, as we entered the great court- 
yard of the Marienthalhouse, which stood back, 
two stories high, looking more like the dwell- 
ing house of a farm than like a castle, but 
pleasant and homelike in the midst of the old 
green trees that surrounded it. In the large 




MONUMENT NEAR MARIENT1IAL. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



49 



square before the house door, to which stone 
steps led up, was a grass plot upon which was 
planted some shrubbery, and on one side were 
very beautiful old lindens,* which in flowering 
time spread their fragrance far and wide. In 
their shade were some benches and tables on 
which in good summer weather Froebel was 
accustomed to give his morning lessons. 

At the moment when we entered he stood 
in the midst of the courtyard surrounded by 
his pupils and a troop of little children, who 
had wound themselves around him as their cen- 
tral point in the play ; Little thread, little 
thread, like a little wheel,' and were just be- 
ginning to unwind their skein again. With 
glowing face and eyes beaming with happiness 
Froebel greeted the company, immediately ask- 
ing whether they would like to see some of the 
movement plays before going up into the hall. 
The guests were quite willing. With truly 
childish delight he again conducted some of 
those ingenious plays, the first gymnastics of 
the childish limbs. These he copied from the 
traditional plays of children and the people, 
leaving out their rougher features in order to 
make them serve his educational idea ; partly 
to make children represent, somewhat dramati- 
cally, facts out of the life of nature andmau." 

A long discussion relative to the principles 
involved in the play followed, and when it was 
ended and the children had sung their closing 
song they were led to the door by the young 
ladies who were playing with them. Froebel 
then invited the company to follow- him into 
the upper story of the house, where he lived. 
He crossed the great hall, situated in the midst 
of the rooms, the four windows of which com- 
manded a view of delightful landscape extend- 
ing to the distant mountains of the Rhone. In 
the midst of the hall stood a long table cov- 
ered with Froebel's "gifts for play" and many 
specimens of children's work from various 
kindergartens. 

Early in August, 1850, a notable play festi- 
val was held at Marienthal, conducted by Froe- 
bel and Middendorf, in which three hundred 
children from all the surrounding villages par- 
ticipated, with their teachers. The multitude 
of spectators was ranged outside the square, 
in the shadow of the surrounding woods. A 
concluding address was given by Middendorf 
and the whole affair made a profound impres- 
sion on the community. In writing about it 



afterwards Froebel said : "Yes.it was a festi- 
val of the union of nature, man and God, and 
God's blessing rests on such a day, as the old 
peasant expressed it. How easily might such 
child and youth festivals be exalted to a uni- 
versal people's festival ! Should we not do 
everything to call such festivals into life, that 
so we may at last reach what the hearts of all 
desire, an all-sided 'unity of life?' " 

In this way the summer was spent. "Froe- 
bel loved to teach, "says his widow, "even whilst 
in the act of walking; here he drew our atten- 
tion to the stratification of the rocks, there to 
a tuft of moss, or to some other plant strug- 
gling for life upon a barren stone, steadily ex- 
panding by virtue of a principle of life within." 
His first lessons were generally given out of 
doors in the morning, as well as the first les- 
son in the afternoon during the summer months. 
Toward evening groups of children put in an 
appearance in front of the house ; they came 
from the neighboring village of Nehweina." 
The last daylight hours were passed in the 
games with these children and all of Froebel's 
time when he was not teaching was taken up 
with visitors. Consequently he overtaxed his 
strength with the work of the year and doubt- 
less shortened his days. But according to the 
Baroness he was well preserved, for she writes 
that no one who did not know the fact could 
believe that his age was sixty-eight. "The 
youth and freshness of intellect, which was so 
remarkable in him prevented one from think- 
ing of his actual age, whose infirmities had not 
yet appeared." 

The course of training ended in November 
and new pupils were immediately received. 
About this time Dr. Wichard Lange, who after- 
wards married Middendorf's daughter, came 
to Marienthal and a long discussion occurred 
between him and Froebel regarding the carry- 
ing on of the latter's work in the future. Froebel 
maintained that Dr. Lange was the I test fitted 
person living, to take up his work when he 
should leave it and hand it down to coming 
generations. But Lange felt that no man could 
succeed Froebel and that the chief apostles of 
the kindergarten must thereafter be women, 
and that he himself, while in hearty sympathy 
with Froebel and his system, must devote his 
faculties to teaching in the higher grades. 
This decision was a great disappointment to 
Froebel, although in all probability a wise one 



50 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



on the part of Lange, who subsequently did 
the world and the cause a valuable service by 
publishing a book on "The Understanding 
of Friedrich Froebel." 

The winter which followed was a quiet one. 
On Christmas eve the pupils decorated Froe- 
bel's study, making it look as though the whole 
forest had moved in. Each member of the 
family was assigned a separate table covered 
with gifts and "Froebel's fatherly words seemed 
to endow these presents with a higher meaning 
for us all." On New Year's eve the family 
was invited to Liebenstein to enjoy private 
theatricals. 

Fraulein Levin remained at Marienthal for 
two years as Froebel's assistant, and they were 
married July 9th, 1851. The groom was then 
at the height of his popularity as an educator, 
and success as a kindergarten teacher, being 
sixty-nine years old. The Baroness thus de- 
scribes her meeting with him a few days before 
the wedding : "I found Froebel at his writing- 
table in his study. He greeted me with an ex- 
pression of the profoundest satisfaction. It 
was clear how truly happy and pleased he was 
made by the new-found home whichhad already 
formed a cultivated family circle of young, 
bright pupils, in quiet undisturbed domesticity. 
The battle of life lay behind him. he had parted 
from the world which did not understand him, 
and whose applause he had never sought. 
He now found himself in rural surroundings, 
which he had always desired, and he could 
give himself up, unmolested by opposition and 
obstacles, to the further development of his 
idea and the improvement of the practical mean- 
ing of it, and could sow the seeds of his doc- 
trine in the receptive minds of his female pu- 
pils. He was assisted and well taken care of 
by her whom he had chosen to be the com- 
panion of his last days. After a life of labors 
and cares, trouble and combat, he could to all 
appearances, reckon on a beautiful, peaceful 
evening of life, which would allow him to look 
with increasing clearness upon the development 
of his cause and fill up the gaps still existing 
in it." 

The wedding w r as a gay affair, in spite of the 
advanced age of the groom. On the previous 
evening the pupils brought their presents, with 
all kinds of play, songs, original poems and 
allegorical representations. The rooms were 
adorned with flowers, and Froebel himself led 



off in some of the kindergarten plays, all present 
taking part . The next day the bride and groom 
stood at a flower-decked altar while Pastor 
Ruckert, a brother of the poet, united them, 
taking occasion to speak in deep recognition 
of Froebel's blessed work. Middendorf was 
groomsman and the Baroness bridesmaid. 
AVhen the ceremony was over we are told that 
Frcebel met the congratulations of his friends 
with streaming eyes and was as gay and as 
happy as a child, joining in the dancing until 
late in the evening, as did Middendorf, re- 
gardless of their advanced age. As the com- 
pany dispersed he said: "Now we will go to 
work with new power," and the next morn- 
ing he met his classes as usual. 

Frau Froebel speaks of her feelings at this 
time as follows : "I was at rest and happy in 
my work for him and for the object he had in 
view. In childlike veneration I had first of all 
tried to approach him in thought; and in his 
ineffable goodness of heart for the weak Froe- 
bel had drawn out my trust ; at length there was 
on both sides a desire to be legally linked by 
the closest tie. His age did not trouble me at 
all ; in mine eyes he was the greatest and best of 
men, and I only marveled how he could con- 
descend to care for a woman so much beneath 
his level in every respect. My one anxiety 
was to make sure that the rather unusual step 
of marriage at his age would not do harm to 
his work in the world. The wedding day was 
truly a high festival of the soul for me. We 
called together a few friends and in their 
presence and that of our pupils Pastor Ruckert 
asked a blessing on our union. His Avoids 
seemed as though they had been spoken out of 
mine own heart. We did not keep a honey- 
moon, we were so happy every day of our lives 
that we did not wish for anything more." 

The number of pupils was large that sum- 
mer and a gala day was observed, when the kin- 
dergarten children assembled from all the neigh- 
boring villages on the grounds of the castle 
Altenstein, where Frau Froebel gave special in- 
struction to the children of the ducal family. 
But early in August a blow was dealt the kin- 
dergarten cause by the Prussian government 
which ultimately caused the death of its founder. 
This was an edict prohibiting all public kin- 
dergartens throughout the country, occasioned 
by the published utterances of Karl Froebel, 
nephew of Friedrich, which were regarded as 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



51 



socialistic and even atheistic. Strenuous efforts 
were made by Froebel and all bis friends to con- 
vince the minister of state that a mistake had 
been made in confounding uncle and nephew. 
But these efforts were unavailing, although Froe- 
bel sent copies to Berlin of every book and 
pamphlet he had ever written and the Baroness 
gave Froebel's petition to the king personally. 
The government was obdurate and the edict 
wns not revoked until 1860. 

In September a teachers' convention was held 
in the hall of the Liebenstein Baths, which was 
largely attended by the friends of Froebel. It 
began on the morning of the 27th, with Dies- 
terweg in the chair. After he had welcomed 
the company reports were given of the different 
kindergartens in the country, in which Froebel 
and Middendorf joined. In the afternoon 
Froebel presented a statement regarding his 
work "with the most peculiar vividness and 
impressiveness and deepest conviction of its 
value, which made a universal impression and 
called out great unanimity of opinion. This 
statement dealt chiefly with the practical part of 
the kindergarten system — the early use of the 
child's powers for manipulation and productive 
activity." The nest morning Counsellor Peter 
opened the convention as chairman and the 
statement was thoroughly discussed, the debate 
pertaining for the most part to the practical ap- 
plication of Froebel's methods, without enter- 
ing into the fundamental idea of the scheme. 
In the afternoon the company witnessed the 
plays of the Liebenstein children with much 
enthusiasm and frequent applause, much to 
Froebel's delight. The games were also played 
in the evening, under the lead of Frau Froebel, 
many of the visitors participating. On the 
third morning the convention passed a "Dec- 
laration" of its views concerning Froebel's 
ideas which was favorable to the kindergarten. 

It was also proposed by this gathering that 
Froebel should write an essay on his system, 
publish "A Kindergarten Guide" for teachers, 
and also establish a new periodical to further 
the cause. All these things he promised to 
undertake, but he was not spared to do any of 
them. Many discussions followed on this the 
last day of the convention. The Baroness says 
that a warm and lively sympathy prevailed and 
that every individual present was intent upon 
expressing 'recognition of Froebel and making 
him forget the injustice of the government pro- 



hibition of kindergartens. But according to 
Frau Froebel's Reminiscences he was much dis- 
appointed in the failure of the convention to en- 
ter into the real spirit of his plans and to adopt 
measures for their intelligent advancement. 
She puts it in this way : "Froebel himself was 
much more mortified by the refusal of an in- 
vestigation of his work than by the prohibition 
on the part of the Prussian government." 

It was about this time that Froebel exerted 
himself to have Middendorf leave Keilhau and 
live at Marienthal, in the hope that they might 
work together for the rest of their days. But 
the Keilhau community could not spare him, 
much to Froebel's regret. Late in the autumn 
the Baroness left Liebenstein for her winter 
home in Berlin, having first arranged to live 
during the next summer in the upper story of 
the kindergarten building, that she might more 
closely study the kindergarten children. Re- 
garding her departure she writes : "The pic- 
ture of idyllic rural and domestic repose which 
Marienthal afforded at that time and the pro- 
tection and care in which I left Froebel, in view 
of the watchfulness and fidelity of his wife, 
made the parting easy and free from any pre- 
sentiments that it would be for the last time." 
After she reached Berlin Froebel sent her a short 
statement of his theories which was an expla- 
nation of symbolism and which is often referred 
to as "Froebel's last words." She speaks of it 
as a "short and pregnant statement, in spite of 
its abstract subject, written with great clear- 
ness." She did not feel justified, however, in 
publishing it, and now that she is dead there 
is but little prospect of finding any trace of it. 

During the winter which followed, owing to 
the obstacles which stood between him and the 
carrying out of his plans, Froebel seriously en- 
tertained the project of immigrating to this coun- 
try. His wife had a brother living in Philadel- 
phia and a scheme for establishing a kinder- 
garten training school in that city was sent to 
him. Years before Froebel had entertained 
the same idea and even made some arrange- 
ments to immigrate with a friend who finally 
came here without him. It is doubtful, how- 
ever, if Froebel could have made any substan- 
tial progress with his system if he had lived 
to set foot in the United States. Of course 
he might have found an interpreter here who 
would have advanced his cause, but his own 
efforts, it is safe to predict, would have been 



52 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



futile. There is no evidence that he ever paid 
any attention to the English language and his 
personal appearance at that time of life would 
have told heavily against him in a foreign 
land. He would have been regarded us an 
ideal enthusiast, as an intense specimen of the 
"crank," with greater positiveness here than 
he was in Germany. It was better by far that 
Froebel remained at home ; that the Baroness 
became his biographer and representative in 
Europe and that on Elizabeth Peabody was 
laid the burden and the glory of transplanting 
the kindergarten to America. 

During the winter which followed the Baron- 
ess received occasional letters from Froebel and 
his wife expressing great content with their 
surroundings. Occasionally mention was made 
of his being slightly ill and temporarily sus- 
pending work, but for the most part his usual 
duties were uninterrupted. In a letter to a 
friend in America, dated May 2. 1895, Fran 
Froebel writes as follows regarding that time in 
her life : — 

"Faithful labor for the true welfare of others 
is sure to add to our own welfare, to our peace 
of mind. I have experienced this in my pa- 
ternal home as well as by the side of my noble 
husband. With my mind's eye I see him clearly 
now as he used to put down his pen late in the 
evening, after a long day passed in teach- 
ing his disciples and conversing with visitors. 
and to turn to me with an expression of serenest 
jo} 7 in his countenance and to speak in a clear 
and restful voice words showing that he had 
written some educational thesis in order to re- 
cover his own self, his individual consciousness 
from within the maze of foreign impressions 
left behind by the experiences of the day. 
This wonderful power and love of work the 
Almighty had bestowed on him that through it 
vast multitudes should be blessed. And now 
I hope and trust that there are great many ac- 
tively engaged in singleness of purpose to con- 
tinue to erect the edifice of which Froebel laid 
the foundation, the edifice of the natural edu- 
cation of man." 

The idea of observing the seventieth birth- 
day of Froebel with a notable celebration origi- 
nated with Middendorf, who knew that Froebel 
regarded his seventieth year as the most im- 
portant period of life, the time for the com- 
plete survey of one's owm as well as of human 
life in general. At sunrise, on the morning of 



April 21, 1852, Froebel was awakened by the 
festal song of his pupils and he spake to them 
briefly in recognition of the day. The Baron- 
ess could not be present because of sickness, 
but Middendorf told her the full story of the 
day, and she describes it in detail. To her we 
are indebted for this picture: "As Froebel 
stepped out of his chamber into the lecture- 
room he stood still on the threshold, taken by 
surprise, admiring, with his eyes beaming with 
joy, the beautiful decoration of the room, which 
was adorned with flowers in flower-pots, fes- 
toons and wreaths, and the table richly covered 
with presents of all kinds. Again the song 
hurst out from the semicircle of scholars 
dressed in white holiday garments, ornamented 
with green wreaths, which expressed the mean- 
ing of the ornamentation and pointed to the 
blessing which would go forth to the world of 
childhood out of Froebel's work. Then Madam 
Froebel handed out her birthday present and 
the scholars followed with an orange tree bear- 
ing flowers and fruit, which Froebel had often 
pointed out to them as a symbol of the united 
ages of man in leaves, buds, flowers and fruit 
borne at the same time, representing childhood, 
youth, manhood and old age." 

Among the presents was a picture of Pes- 
talozzi, an illustrated Bible and an engraving 
of Raphael's Madonna, together with tokens 
from the neighboring kindergarten children and 
those at Keilhau. In the afternoon the chil- 
dren came from Salzung and Liebenstein to 
sing him a song and play their games, while 
at sunset the postman brought a bag of letters 
"from the Lower Rhine to the Baltic" testify- 
ing to the powerful influence of Froebel's teach- 
ings and the honor and esteem in which he was 
held. In the evening Pastor Ruckert and his 
family were visitors at Marienthal and the pu- 
pils acted a dramatic farce, which was followed 
by kindergarten games. Then the company 
sang a song composed for the occasion and a 
green wreath was placed on Froebel's head by 
one of the pupils. Writing about this day 
Fran Froebel says : "He was in the best of 
spirits, but I noticed that his strength failed 
him occasionally. He was, nevertheless, the 
life and soul of our party and until late in the 
evening he w r as seen distributing trifles as gifts 
to friends." 

According to Middendorf Froebel's life im- 
mediately after the celebration was happier 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



53 



and more tranquil than ever before, and he en- 
joyed his existence like a child. But very soon 
a new cause for disturbance arose because there 
appeared a number of letters in the daily pa- 
pers from the contending religious parties of 
the day with claims from each of them that he 
sympathized with its particular views. His 
own understanding of Christianity was far 
clearer than any opinions held by them and 
he could only regard their assertions concern- 
ing him as false. Therefore he undertook to 
formulate a statement of his religious views 
for publication and sent it to the Baroness at 
Berlin. But his bodily weakness and agitated 
mind prevented him from putting forth an ef- 
fort worthy of himself, and she wrote him that 
it would be better not to print the manuscript 
and he accordingly requested her to return it to 
him. 

Shortly after the birthday celebration, dur- 
ing Whitsuntide, there was a large gathering of 
teachers at Gotha and Froebel was invited to 
be present. He and his wife left Marienthal 
very early in the morning, a carriage drive 
being necessary before taking the trip bv rail. 
When he entered the hall, in the midst of the 
exercises, the whole assembly rose to do him 
honor. At the end of the speech that was in 
progress when he came in the president gave 
him a hearty welcome, which was followed by 
three cheers from the whole company. Froe- 
bel thanked them in a few simple words and 
then took up the discussion of the subject in 
hand, "Instruction in the Natural Sciences," 
and was heard with profound attention. After 
the convention he was made especially happy 
in the garden of a friend who lived in Gotha, 
where he examined almost every group of 
flowers and gratefully acknowledged all the 
good things which were offered him. He also 
visited the local kindergarten and explained 
the intellectual significance of some of his oc- 
cupations and material. 

In the evening he took part in a reunion of 
the friends of his cause, speaking of the im- 
portance of the kindergarten for women and 
the duty of teachers to learn to understand it 
on its own theory, and prepare for its intro- 
duction into the schools. But the strain of 
this effort was too much for him and he urged 
his wife to leave at an early hour. "During 
our drive home," she writes, "•the weather being- 
fine, he stopped the carriage at the crest of the 



hill and we got out and walked up the slope of 
the neighboring summit, 'der Glockli,' as we 
called it. There we had often spent happy 
hours together, but I noticed then the difficulty 
he had in walking and unutterable fears filled 
my mind. Arrived at the top of the hill, he 
said : T should somehow like my name to be 
placed here when I am gone.' On our return 
to Marienthal we found the whole house gar- 
landed with evergreens by the pupils. Visitors 
called and Froebel again became animated by 
their presence, but his strength was ebbing 
fast." 

Up to this time there is no evidence that 
Froebel was ever seriously sick. For seventy 
years he had been a constant worker, devoting 
but little time to recreation save as he found 
it in his daily w T ork with the children, and spar- 
ing himself no physical exertion or privation 
which seemed necessary for the advancement 
of the cause. Although never robust, he must 
have possessed a strong constitution, when we 
consider his record as a soldier and the long 
journeys he took on foot, even in the later years 
of life. His last illness began June 6, and ap- 
pears to have been caused by a general breaking 
down of the system, resulting doubtless more 
from long continued overwork and the deferred 
hope which "maketh the heart sick" than from 
an acute attack of disease. We are told that 
when this sickness began he thought he saw 
in it a crisis which would lead to recovery. 
From day to day he retained his repose and 
cheerfulness and was very grateful for what- 
ever was done for him, especialty when flowers 
were brought him. For the particulars of this 
last sickness and the funeral we are indebted 
to a pamphlet written by Middendorf and pub- 
lished at Liebenstein that same year. To those 
who stood by the bedside of the dying man it 
was evident that "the highest peace, the most 
cheerful resignation were expressed not only in 
his words but in his face. The former anxious 
care to be active in his life-task resolved itself 
into trust in Providence and his spirit looked 
joyfully in advance for the fulfillment of his 
life's idea." 

This is the testimony of the physician who 
attended Froebel, as related to the Baroness a 
few weeks later : "I have seen many men die, 
but never anyone who looked into the face of 
death so cheerfully and so calmly as Froebel. 
One day he asked me what I thought of his con- 



54 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



dition and whether he could live a little longer. 
I thought I ought to speak the real truth and was 
able to do so to him. I advised him not to 
postpone his last directions, since the failing 
of his powers left slight hope of recovery. He 
took my words with the greatest calmness and 
I did not notice the least change in his coun- 
tenance, When I went to him on the follow- 
ing noon they told me that he had added some 
directions to his will that morning. At the 
door of his chamber I heard a low singing, like 
the chirping of the birds which were singing out 
of doors, and when I entered I found Froebel sit- 
ting up in the bed, which was pushed up to the 
open window, looking with glorified joy on the 
landscape before him and singing softly to him- 
self. To my remark, 'You appear to be better 
and more cheerful,' he replied, 'Why should I 
not? I enjoy beautiful nature even in my last 
moments.' I never found him, on my visits, 
impatient, complaining or even discontented." 

On the Sunday before his death a favorite 
child brought him flowers and he received her 
with great delight. With difficulty he reached 
out his hand and drew her hand to his lips. 
In his last hours he asked for flowers and said, 
"Take care of my flowers and spare my weeds ; 
I have learned much from them." He wanted 
the windows open frequently and often re- 
peated the words, "Pure, vigorous nature." To 
Barop who had come from Keilhau to be with 
him, he said, "Remain true to God." And 
then he asked them to read the letter written by 
his godfather when he was baptized and which 
contained the confession of Christian faith. 
During the reading he often exclaimed, "My 
credentials ! My credentials, Barop !" He 
called it his letter of credit for heaven aud re- 
peated again and again the words used in the 
letter, "The Saviour shall henceforth hold im- 
mediate communion with him in justice, grace 
and mercy." He said that he had labored to 
make Christianity a reality and he repeated 
many times with great emphasis that he was 
"A Christian man." 

At midnight, June 21, 1852, the final moment 
approached. He was in a sitting posture and 
his eyes were partially open. Middendorf says 
that his last words were, "God, Father, Son 
and Holy Ghost." His breathing continued to 
grow shorter and "at half-past six in the morn- 
ing he drew two long breaths and all was still." 
To those who were standing about him his de- 



parture seemed like the death of a beloved child. 
At the burial service the bier was adorned 
with flowers and a crown of laurel, made by 
his wife and pupils, and stood in the spot lately 
occupied by his bed. After all present had 
gathered about the body to look for the last 
time on that beloved countenance from which 
all trace of pain had been effaced the casket 
was carried through his study and then through 
the sitting-room and placed in the wide vesti- 
bule, to be strewn with wreaths and flowers by 
maivy children, all of whom, even the smallest, 
tried to show their gratitude for him once 
more. The mourning company included nu- 
merous friends from a distance, with not a 
a few whom he had helped. The teachers 
sang a funeral hymn and then the procession 
started for the churchyard at Schweina. A 
heavy shower fell on the way and the people 
were compelled to stand under shelter for a 
long time, which led the clergyman to remark, 
"Even his last journey is through storm and 
tempest." As the funeral train moved on the 
bells of the village church began to toll and at 
the cemetery the teachers took the bier on their 
shoulders, to carry it to the grave. 

Although the rain still continued a large part 
of the community, young and old, had gath- 
ered to honor him. The hymn, "Jerusalem, 
thou lofty city" was sung and then Pastor 
Ruckert began his remarks, just as the rain 
stopped. When he had finished the teachers 
sang, "Rest softly" and the casket was low- 
ered into the grave, which had been lined with 
flowers. Then Middendorf made a short ad- 
dress, after which a song which he had written, 
beginning "Rise again, thou shalt rise again," 
was sung. As the pastor threw a handful of 
earth into the grave he said, "May God grant 
to each of us such an end as that of this just 
man." Then the scholars threw flowers upon 
flowers into the grave, one of them snatching 
the bouquet from her breast to throw in, and 
Middendorf cast in the manuscript of his song. 

Concerning the surroundings of the grave, 
Middendorf wrote as follows : "The newly laid 
out churchyard, situated outside the village 
upon an eminence, has a singulai-ly beautiful 
location. The town lies half-concealed in ver- 
dure, at the foot of the tower which rises up 
alone, like a finger-post pointing to heaven ; 
the whole glorious country lies spread out be- 
fore the eye like a living picture. At the left 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



55 



Altenstein, with the summer dwellings of the 
ducal family stretches out its high hand with 
noble grace, showing by its act that it truly rev- 
erences the cross which is erected in memory of 
Bonifacius, the earliest promulgator of Christi- 
anity here. Directly in front stands the old 
castle of Liebenstein whose name has a good 
sound near and far for its healing springs ; and 
on the right, shaded with lofty poplars and sur- 
rounded by green meadows and waving fields of 
grain, with the murmur of clear waters stream- 
ing from the rock of Altenstein, the quiet, love- 
ly Marienthal, the seat of peace, of untiring 
work for the worthiness and the unity of life, 
consecrated by him who has now come to this 
spot for undisturbed peace and harmony." 

Thus died Friedrich Froebel. But although 
more than forty summers have passed over his 
grave at Schweina we cannot admit that Froe- 



bel is dead, but must rather remember that he 
said in the course of his last sickness, "I am 
not going away, I shall hover around in the 
midst of you.'' How true was this prophecy ! 
Who of us would care to deny that his loving 
spirit is with us to-day and with the little chil- 
dren who gather about us in the kindergarten 
circle for the morning talk, or nestle in our 
arms at the home fireside when the shadows of 
the night rest upon us, and plead for ' 'one more 
story" before it is time to say the evening- 
prayer? Has there ever been a time when he 
was more truly alive than at the present hour ? 
The world is just beginning to reap the first 
fruits of his life and labors. The fame which 
belongs to him to-day is but a faint rushlight 
compared with the beacon which will shine out 
in the future when generations yet unborn shall 
rise up and call him blessed. 



1852— 1895— SINCE FROEBEL'S DEATH. 



It seems fitting to close this sketch of the 
founder of the kindergarten with a brief review 
of what has been done to advance his ideas 
since the time of his death. The sickness of 
the Baroness and domestic matters kept her in 
Berlin later than usual in the summer of 1852, 
and the notice of the loss of her friend did not 
reach her in time for the funeral. She arrived 
at Liebenstein July 2, and the first question she 
asked on meeting Middendorf was, "What will 
now become of the cause?" His answer was, 
"We will work with all our powers ; truth is not 
lost." This watchword became their motto for 
the rest of their lives. The instruction of the 
training class continued at Marienthal through 
that summer, Middendorf giving all his time to 
teaching the kindergarten theory and Fran Froe- 
bel undertaking the work of teaching the occu- 
pations. Of her the Baroness writes: "Al- 
though deeply afflicted by the sad, irreparable 
loss of her husband after only one year's married 
life, she fulfilled the task, now become so much 
more difficult, with the greatest conscientious- 
ness, firmly resolved todevote her whole strength 
to it in order to preserve and promote the work 
already begun. At the same time she remained 
an affectionate, motherly friend and guardian of 
the pupils." 

The season was a quiet one for the kinder- 
garten community and they mingled but little 



with the summer visitors. The class was con- 
tinued at Marienthal through the autumn, but 
early in 1853 Middendorf and Fran Froebel re- 
moved their work to Keilhau. The former came 
by invitation to Liebenstein in May to represent 
the kindergarten movement at the general con- 
vention of German teachers and the Baroness 
also gave a demonstration in connection with 
a similar gathering held at Gera. She went to 
Keilhau in July to see how the work was pro- 
gressing and gives a glowing account in the 
closing pages of the "Reminiscences" of the 
community as it appeared at that time, using 
these words: "But now one saw, instead of 
Froebel's little farmhouse where he and his pu- 
pils had to struggle at first with the greatest 
privations, several stately buildings which in- 
closed a large courtyard, surrounded by the 
steep mountains and beautiful woods of the 
rather narrow valley. There were beautiful 
spacious apartments and schoolrooms, and a 
large hall in the main building. Exemplary 
order and care for the bodily and mental needs 
of the pupils was evident. The watchful guid- 
ance, the sharp practical oversight and the 
somewhat strict discipline, but at the same time 
loving care of the director, Barop, were every- 
where apparent." 

The Baroness spent some weeks in the neigh- 
borhood and occasionally took Middendorf's 



56 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



place as instructor in the training class, lie- 
cause lie showed increasing signs of failing 
health. She returned to Berlin in the autumn 
and soon received news of his death, which 
occurred from I train troubles, November 20, 
1853, without previous sickness, at the age of 
sixty. The loss of Middendorf compelled Fran 
Froebel to leave Keilhau and she accepted an 
invitation to take charge of a training class in 
a Dresden school. This arrangement was but 
temporary, and in 1854 she went to Hamburg 
to accept the directorship of the free public kin- 
dergarten, and for many years was at the head 
of a training class which has furnished Ger- 
many and other countries with kindergartners. 

In "Froebel Letters" we have this pen pic- 
ture of Frau Froebel, as she appeared while 
visiting a German kindergarten in 1871 : "I 
was charmed with her striking appearance. 
Her figure was tall, erect, and remarkably well- 
proportioned. Her carriage and movements 
were elastic and graceful. Her face had an 
expression of freshness, I would have said of 
youthfulness, but for the grayish tint of the 
hair, indicating her advanced age. and forming 
a striking frame for a countenance beaming 
with a charming vivacity, producing a convic- 
tion that her soul had perserved a youthfulness 
much greater than her gray hair seemed to in- 
dicate for her body. Her beautiful blue eyes 
bespoke an unusual development of loving kind- 
ness. At her request the games and occupa 
tions and the musical exercises were gone 
through with in the usual way. She went to 
and fro, observing everything and every now 
and then actively interfering or directing with 
the hand and word of a thorough master. She 
was greatly pleased with the questions and re- 
marks, and her winning ways proved as power- 
ful an attraction for the little folks as for the 
grown up people." 

In writing about Frau Froebel at a later 
period one of her pupils says : "It was indeed 
a pleasure to see her walking through her kin- 
dergarten department in the morning. This 
stately, erect figure, this noble bearing, this 
kind smile on her lips, all these qualities com- 
bined inspired us who were her students with 
the greatest respect and devotion for her. 
She reproached and blamed us very little ; in 
fact. she was very silent and thoughtful, but she 
observed everything, and the expression of her 
face was enough to both teach and direct us. 



I remember that one morniug I had a little 
talk with her about her kindergarten, and when 
I told her how charmed I was to see her still 
in her old age so loving and child-like, her own 
words to me were : 'I am old, but my heart will 
ever remain young.' She was particularly fond 
of teaching us the 'Mother and Cossett Songs,' 
in her training class, and liked to mention many 
happy hours which she had spent with Froebel. 

When she resigned from her work no other 
town but Hamburg offered her a home to rest, 
and she has always been loyal to that city. In 
summer it has been her habit to travel to those 
places in Thuringen, where she spent so many 
delightful months in eager work with Froebel 
for the welfare of the young." 

In the later years of her life Frau Froebel 
enjoys a serene old age, receiving an allowance 
large enough to satisfy all her legitimate de- 
sires, with something left to give to the numer- 
ous charities and needy kindergarten institutes 
with which her active life of benevolence has 
brought her in contact. In writing about her 
in September. 1895, A. II. Heinmann, editor 
of "Froebel Letters" says : — 

"I could select hundreds from the pile of 
letters written by Frau Froebel to her friend at 
Chicago, all of which prove that her mind is as 
sound and clear as it ever was. At her age, 
eighty years and five months, her strength is 
failing, which is perfectly natural. Her letters 
prove that she is still the same clear-headed 
and public spirited disciple of Friedrich Froe- 
bel that she was when her husband died forty- 
three years ago." 

The Baroness lived to be nearly eighty and 
died at Dresden, January 9, 1893. She was 
born at Burnswick, March 15, 1816, her father 
being president of the ducal chamber in the 
duchy of Burnswick and her mother the Count- 
ess von Wartenslehen, of the Mark of Bran- 
denburg. She was married while yet in her 
teens to Baron Von Marenholtz, a member of 
the privy council and later court marshal of 
Hanover. She had one son and during the 
twenty years of his life she devoted herself to 
his education and the care of the children of her 
husband by a former marriage. Possessed of 
excellent advantages in her youth, she was al- 
ways a student of the best methods of educa- 
tion, and at the time of her first meeting with 
Froebel her mind was well prepared for the re- 
ception and adoption of the kindergarten gos- 




TOMBSTONE AT SCH.WEIKA. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



57 



pel. As we have already seen, she began at 
once to proclaim that gospel from the public 
platform and by using her pen and the printing 
press, while Froebel yet lived. 

In 185-4 she went to England to establish 
the kindergarten system there and published a 
pamphlet on ''Infant Gardens," in English. A 
little later we hear of her performing a similar 
service in France, for in 1857 A. Guyard, a 
French author, wrote her from Paris as follows : 
' 'The more I listen to you in regard to Froebel's 
method, the more my interest increases, and 
the deeper grows my conviction that by this 
means a basis is laid for a new way to educate 
humanity. He is great, perhaps the greatest 
philosopher of our time, and has found in you 
what all philosophers need, that is, a woman who 
understands him, who clothes him with flesh 
and blood and makes him alive." In 1858 the 
Baroness was urged by Abbe Miraud, a learned 
Italian author, to travel through Italy for the 
advancement of kindergarten education and in 
1871 the minister of public instruction invited 
her to come to Florence to found a school for 
the instruction of teachers. 

Notwithstanding her work in foreign lands, 
the service which the Baroness rendered the 
world was mostly performed in her native Ger- 
many. In 1861 she was instrumental in start- 
ing a journal called "The Education of the Fu- 
ture," edited by Dr. Carl Schmidt, in which 
she published the essays on "The Child and 
Child Nature" which have since been revised 
and issued in a book by that name. The trans- 
lation of her "Reminiscences of Friedrich Froe- 
bel" by Mrs. Horace Mann first appeared in 
this country in 1877. An American kinder- 
gartner who visited the Baroness in 1869 says 
that on a certain occasion when the represen- 
tative educators of several nationalities were 
dining together she conversed with each and 
all of them with equal ease and freedom in their 
own language. The account adds : "Her man- 
ners were unaffected, simple yet gracious, and 
her thoughtful attention toward her guests won 
their personal admiration, while her animation 
and earnestness ar'oused the interest of all. 
Wherever the world will hear of Friedrich Fra 1 - 
bel's discovery of the kindergarten philosophy, 
the name of Bertha Von Marenholtz-Bulow will 
arouse an equal amount of love and reverence 
in the hearts of those who love humanity and 
to whom the well beino- of childhood is dear. 



Her quick intuitive interpretation of the hidden 
meaning of his words made her work and in- 
structions of the greatest value to the world." 

Another American kindergartner who visited 
the Baroness ten years later, in 1<S7'.», writes : 
"The value of her work for the kindergarten 
can never be estimated ; her heart and her house 
were always open to those who were in search 
for more knowledge in regard to Froebel and 
the kindergarten. Intellectually she seemed to 
grasp the length and breadth of his science of 
development, and she was devoted to the idea 
that to her was the highest. She cherished 
many things that Froebel had made with his 
knife while developing his gifts. The tablets 
of the Seventh (rift were his latest work and 
much experimented upon ; and these experi- 
mented tablets she kept and showed with deep 
interest. Intellectually we can hardly realize 
how we could have had the kindergarten as at 
present, without the very help which the Baron- 
ess Marenholtz-Bulow gave, and the value of 
her work will be more appreciated as the years 
go on." 

The one connecting link between the present 
and the past, so far as active service in the Ger- 
man kindergarten field is concerned, is Frau 
Henrietta Schrader, who is still at the head of 
the Pestalozzi-Froebel house in Berlin. She is 
a grand-niece of Froebel, studied with him and 
helped him carry on his work in Dresden and 
other places. She also was associated with the 
Baroness in Berlin and has been identified with 
the cause in that city for more than a genera- 
tion. She married a railroad magnate, a man 
of high social and educational standing, and 
they are still leaders in society, in spite of their 
advanced age. Frau Schrader has in her pos- 
session many manuscript papers of Froebel, 
which have never yet been published, a part of 
them having been given her by Frau Froebel. 
Some of them are illustrated with pencil 
sketches. She speaks and writes English with 
ease. 

Regarding the German kindergartens of the 
present day about all that needs to be said here 
is that they are found in all the large cities, with 
occasionally one in the smaller places. The 
leaders there say that they are still hampered 
in their work by the government regulations and 
for that reason the hope for the best develop- 
ment of the kindergarten rests with this country, 
just as it did in Froebel's mind. An American 



58 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



training teacher sums up the differences be- 
tween the two countries as follows, in a recently 
published article : — 

"And now I anticipate the question gener- 
ally asked, how does the work in Germany com- 
pare with the American work? It seems tome 
the two can hardly be compared, because of the 
difference in environments and aim. In the 
work with the children we have much to learn 
from each other. If we could give them a lit- 
tle of the sunshine which emanates from light 
walls with their pictures, from the snowy white 
apron, which is so prominent a feature in the 
American kindergarten, if we could enclose them 
with the lightness of our singing, the grace and 
alertness of our motions, the real play-spirit of 
our games, if we could give them some of the 
sentiment, (of which we could spare a goodly 
amount,) and have breathed upon us in return 
their whole-souled interest, their practical com- 
mon sense, their devotion in meeting all the 
needs of the child, we should both come nearer 
the ideal. 

There is still less ground for comparison 
when we consider the training classes. Our 
requirements for admission to the training class 
are much greater than theirs, our standard 
higher. Many of the girls received there with- 
out detriment to the class as a whole, would be 
a most dangerous element in an American train- 
ing class, because of that sense of 'free and equal' 
in our atmosphere which would lead them to 
expect positions for which they were unfitted. 

Here special classes with special aims are 
needed and I hope the day is not far distant 
when our college and kindergarten settlements 
may open their doors to these girls of fifteen 
or sixteen years whose advantages have been 
few, and give them a special training which 
shall tit them to go out as children's nurses, 
in place of the ignorant women so generally em- 
ployed to-day, who are not only ignorant of 
every law of child nature, of any ueed beyond 
tbose of food and clothing, but also of the Eng- 
lish language." 

Considerable has been done by his fellow 
countrymen to honor the memory of Froebel. 
On the hundreth anniversary of his birth, April 
21, 1882, the monument which stands over the 
grave at Schweina was dedicated. It is a modi- 
fication of the design originally suggested by 
Middendorf of the cube, cylinder and sphere, 
with ornamental additions and a medallion of 



Froebel. On it is inscribed the motto, "Come 
let us live with our children," with the dates 
of the birth and death and the statement that 
this monument has been erected as an expres- 
sion of thankfulness for the great friend of 
childhood and mankind. It is surrounded by an 
iron fence, and mounted on a substantial stone 
base. There is also another monument in the 
grove near Marienthal, which follows Midden- 
dorf's design more strictly and bears the same 
motto and dates, and a third one at Blaken- 
burg, placed there by contributors from dif- 
ferent parts of the world. 

Aside from the institute atKeilhau, presided 
over by the younger Barop, the most elaborate 
memorial of Froebel's life and work is the tower 
located on the hill at Oberweisbach, overlook- 
ing the birthhouse, on the spot where it is said 
he was wont to linger to watch the setting of 
the sun. It is of limestone, about one hundred 
and twenty feet high, and was built in 1889 by 
the Thuringia Verein, at a cost of thirty thou- 
sand marks or about seven thousand dollars. 
There are tablets on the house at Oberweisbach 
and at Blankenburg and there is a kindergarten 
maintained in a building attached to the par- 
sonage property at the former place. The house 
is still occupied by the village pastor, as it was 
in Frcebel's day. He is president of the local 
society, and in a letter written to an American 
counsul living in that vicinity, a few months 
since, he says : "We would be grateful if you 
would kindly tell your trans- Atlantic constitu- 
ents that now, here in Oberweisbach, the room 
where Froebel was born is identified and is 
willingly shown at any time, together with sun- 
dry Froebel relics." And yet travelers who 
have gone ever that whole section on foot tell 
us that there are not a few people, living within 
ten miles of th?t village who have never heard 
of Friedr'cb Froebel. 

The prescribed limits of this book will not 
allow us to devote much space to recounting 
the progress of the kindergarten in European 
countries outside of Germany. We are told 
that the kindergarten system was introduced 
into England in 1854 by Miss Praetorius, 
who opened a kindergarten at Fitzroy Square, 
London, and that about the same time Madam 
Ronge began her work at Manchester, which 
subsequently resulted in the formation of the 
Manchester Kindergarten Association. That 
same yeaiv as has been previously mentioned. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



50 



the Baroness made a lecturing tour to England 
in behalf of the cause. Five years later Frau- 
lein Eleanor Herrwart, a pupil of Frau Froebel 
and Middendorf, and the Baroness Adele Von 
Partugall, pupil of Baroness B.Von Marenholtz- 
Bulow and Frau Schrader, both came to Man- 
chester and were given positions in different 
kindergartens. In 1866 Fraulein Herrwart went 
to Dublin to found a kindergarten of her own. 
In 1874 Emilie Michaelis went to England to 
promote the kindergarten, lecturing before the 
schoolboard teachers at Croydon. The follow- 
ing year she founded the Croydon kindergar- 
ten. It was in 1875 that the Froebel Society of 
London was organized, Miss Dorech being the 
first president, with which many prominent 
English kindergartners have been connected. 

In 1879 the London society founded the 
London Kindergarten Training College, which 
was ma : ntained till 1883. In 1880 Frau Mich- 
aelis became head mistress of the work under- 
taken by the Croyden Kindergarten Company, 
and a similar organization was formed at Bed- 
ford in 1883, with Miss Sims as chief kinder- 
gartner. That same year Fraulein Herrwart 
went to Blankenburg to open a memorial kin- 
dergarten, with funds raised for that purpose 
in London. In 18<S4 an education conference 
was held in connection with the Industrial Ex- 
hibition at South Kensington, the section de- 
voted to Infant Education being largely taken 
up with discussions regarding Froebel's prin- 
ciples, representatives from other nations join- 
ing in the debate. At this time the British 
and Foreign Society organized a complete ex- 
hibition of work and material, all the leading 
kindergartners in London being contributors. 
In this connection most of them gave lessons 
to classes of children to show the practical ap- 
plication of the kindergarten methods. 

In these latter days the cause has advanced 
in England, and there are some kindergartens 
supported at the public expense. Fraulein Herr- 
wart, although her home is at Eisenach, Ger- 
many, has direction of all the examinations in 
the public kindergartens, visiting England for 
two summer months of each year for that pur- 
pose. Frau Michaelis is principal of the new 
Froebel Educational Institute at West Kensing- 
ton. The English kindergarten periodical, a 
monthly magazine, is called "Hand and Eye," 
being edited by G. Brocklehurst, and is pub- 
lished in London by O. Newman & Co. 



At a meeting held in Loudon, June 5, 1895,. 
M. II. C. Bowen. author of a book entitled 
"Froebel and Education Through Self-activi- 
ty" made an address in which he said that the 
people who are interested in the kindergarten 
have been working many years to get Frcebe- 
lian methods rightly understood, and, if possi- 
ble, adopted in England. He closed his re- 
marks as follows : — 

"We are to have a Training College, which 
we hope will be of value not only to those who 
mean to be professional teachers, but also to 
those who need to know more about children 
than they do — I mean parents — to whom the 
Institute will be useful both directly and in- 
directly. We hope that it will give an oppor- 
tunity to those who have the charge of little 
children to learn how to develop and train their 
powers. There is nothing so pathetic, I think, 
as a young mother, who because she loves her 
child very dearly. thinks that this love alone will 
suffice as a guide to action. Something more 
is wanted, some knowleflge, some little expe- 
rience ; and that, we hope, may be gained in our 
Training College. Those who go there will 
not necessarily be those who intend to become 
teachers, but those who have to do with chil- 
dren in any way whatever. In fact, we desire 
to help the public as a whole ; and we think 
one of the best ways of doing so is to show 
them how best to deal with little children." 

A conference of the Froebel Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland was held at the College 
of Perceptors, Bloomsburg Square, London. 
September 12, 1895, when Frau Michaelis 
read a paper on "The Kindergarten Occupa- 
tions in Their Relation to Manual Work." 

Passing beyond Germany and England we 
find the kindergarten in almost every quarter. 
Speaking of the spread of the kindergarten 
movement throughout the world, a writer in 
the "Pratt Institute Monthly" for November, 
1895, says : — 

"If Froebel were to come back to us to-day 
he would be astonished to see the growth of 
the idea that found birth in the little cottage 
at Blankenburg in the Thuringian Forest in 
Germany. That little spark of divine fire has 
spread over all the world, and to-day the word 
kindergarten is familiar in almost every coun- 
try in the world. When not recognized by 
the government of a country kindergartens 
have often been introduced through Christian 



60 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



missions. Missionaries find the kindergarten 
most helpful in reaching the children and 
through them the homes of those whom they 
wish to benefit. In a letter from China we are 
told that Froebel's method must be valuable, as 
it is so entirely the opposite of the artificial 
methods of the Chinese. In Japan, in India, 
iu the Sandwich Islands, in Austria, in Tur- 
key, in Russia, France, Switzerland, Norway 
and Sweden, has the kindergarten found a 
home. In Italy, England and Belgium it is 
recognized by the government, and in the lat- 
ter country is a part of the school system."' 

Coming now to the rise and progress of the 
kindergarten in America we must confine our- 
selves to narrow limits, although there is much 
that it would be a pleasant task to write. "If 
without the Baroness Marenholtz-Bulow, Froe- 
bel lacked a clear interpreter in Europe, cer- 
tainly without Miss Peabody and her sister, 
Mrs. Horace Mann, the kindergarten cause in 
America ^\ould not stand where it does to-day." 
This is the verdict of one of the leading kin- 
dergartners in this country who is thoroughly 
conversant with Miss Peabody's work. Eliza- 
beth Palmer Peabody was born at Billerica, 
Mass., May 16, 1804. Her sister Sophia 
married Nathaniel Hawthorne and her sister 
Mary became the wife of Horace Mann. Miss 
Peabody was a teacher, a lecturer, and an 
author, devoting her life to educational and 
philanthropic matters. Her attention was first 
directed to the kindergarten in 1859, because 
of the peculiar brightness of a little boy of her 
acquaintance, the son of Carl Schurz, whose 
family were then living at Roxbury, Mass., 
and who, she was told, had been taught in a 
( ierman kindergarten. Miss Peabody began at 
once to study the writings of Froebel and in 
1860 she opened a kindergarten at No. 15 
Pinekney street, Boston, in company with Miss 
Margaret I). Corlees. 

This experiment was carried on for several 
years, but was finally given up by Miss Pea- 
body, for reasons which were afterwards ex- 
plained by herself as follows : — 

"I felt that my kindergarten was not the right 
thing, for, although very popular, I found that 
it failed to produce the results promised by 
Froebel, which I had seen exemplified in the 
little Schurz child, and so, after a time, I gave 
it uu to my partner, telling her to go on with it 
till I could go over to Europe and find out about 



it. This I did in 1867, taking eleven hundred 
dollars in gold which I had made by giving 
my course of lectures on the philosophy of his- 
tory. I stayed a year and three months, saw 
the real kindergarten, and came back to devote 
myself to its introduction into America." 

Returning to this country Miss Peabody re- 
solved to leave the practical work of estab- 
lishing kindergartens to others and devote her 
time to lecturing and writing on the subject, 
in the hope of creating a general public senti- 
ment in America favorable to the kindergarten. 
A\ nile she was absent in Europe Madame 31 a- 
tildaH. Kriege, and her daughter, AlmaKriege, 
undertook to carry on the kindergarten depart- 
ment of a German school in New York, but 
after a few months they were persuaded by 
Mrs. Mann, the sister of Miss Peabody, to 
remove their work to Boston. So it happened 
in September, 1868, that the kindergarten 
which Miss Peabody and Miss Corlees had 
maintained for some years was transferred to 
Madame Kriege and her daughter, a new lo- 
cation being secured on Charles Street and a 
training school opened in connection with it. 

Both teachers had received their training 
from the Baroness in Berlin and the elder one 
was a pergonal friend of Froebel. Both of them 
had lived for some years in this country be- 
fore taking their training and were therefore 
thoroughly familiar with English. Madame 
Kriege brought with her from Germany kinder- 
garten material and also a hand machine for 
cutting the weaving mats. While in New 
York she induced Mr. E. Steiger to begin im- 
porting material, and on reaching Boston she 
sold the machine to Mr. J. L. Hammett, a 
dealer in school supplies, and led him to begin 
manufacturing the building gifts in a limited 
way. Thus it was that the kindergarten gained 
a foothold in New England, for although the 
first normal class taught by the Krieges gradu- 
ated but two women, the seed was sown for an 
abundant harvest in the future. 

When Miss Peabody started out to conquer 
the country for the kindergarten she made 
Springfield, Mass., one of her first stopping- 
places, giving an evening lecture on the new 
education in the hall of the Elm Street School 
building. Mr. Milton Bradley was present on 
that occasion, and having heard Miss Peabody's 
presentation of the case, was subsequentlv, 
persuaded by Mr. Edward Wiebe to publish 



PALADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



61 



" The Paradise of Childhood," which first ap- 
peared in 1869, and begin in his factory the 
making of kindergarten material on a larger 
scale than Mr. Hammett had found possible 
as a merchant. 

At this point in the narrative mention should 
be made of Dr. Henry Barnard, for many 
years secretary of the Connecticut Board of 
Education and editor of "The Connecticut Com- 
mon School" and "The American Journal of 
Education." In 1854 the General Assembly of 
Connecticut sent him to the International Edu- 
cational Exposition and Congress, held at St. 
Martin's Hall, London, at which he was the 
sole representative from this country. He was 
then so impressed with Mr. Hoffman's exhibit 
of the apparatus devised by Froebel and the 
kindergarten conducted by Madame Ronge 
that he commended both in his official report 
to the governor of Connecticut and also wrote 
an article on "Froebel' s System of Infant 
Gardens" for "The American Journal of Edu- 
cation" of July, 1 856, which it is said contained 
the first mention of the kindergarten that ever 
appeared in an American periodical. From 
that time for a series of years Dr. Barnard 
continued to explain and agitate the kinder- 
garten system, and in 1868 and 1870, as na- 
tional commissioner of education, he recom- 
mended to Congress that in establishing a 
system of public schools for the District of 
Columbia the kindergarten should be given an 
important place. As soon as Miss Peabody 
took up the cause Dr. Barnard became a co- 
laborer with her, and lias never ceased to do 
what he could for its advancement. In 1881 
he published "Kindergarten and Child Culture 
Papers" in a book of eight hundred pages. 
and at the present time, 1895, he is still living 
in serene old age at Hartford, Conn. 

In 1870 Miss Peabody succeeded in getting 
the city of Boston to establish a public kinder- 
garten, which was maintained for seven years 
with growing interest, and then given up be- 
cause the committee felt that it would cost too 
much to meet the demand which had sprung 
up for kindergartens in other parts of the city, 
and that to continue supporting a single one 
would be unfair. Meanwhile, in 1872, Madam 
Kriege and her daughter had gone back to 
Germany, although they afterwards returned 
to New York and had a kindergarten in con- 
nection with a private school, ultimately set- 



tling once more in the land of Froebel, where 
they still reside. Madame Kriege made a free 
rendering of " The Child, Its Nature and Re- 
lations," by the Baroness, and Miss Kriege 
compiled "Rhymes and Tales for the Kinder- 
garten and the Nursery," both being valuable 
additions to the very limited kindergarten lit- 
erature of that day to be found in this country. 
Miss Mary J. Garland was one of the ear- 
liest graduates from the Kriege school and she 
became the pioneer American training teacher 
for Boston and New England, being for many 
years associated with Miss Rebecca J. Wes- 
ton, who died in 1895. 

In 1877 Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw opened a sum- 
mer kindergarten at Brookline and another at 
Jamaica Plain at her own cost, continuing them 
through the year. Others were soon added, 
Miss L. B. Pingree was made director, and in 
1883 Mrs. Shaw supported thirty-one kinder- 
gartens in Boston and vicinity. Afterwards 
the number was reduced to fourteen and in 
1892 the city assumed the whole responsibility 
of the work, till then so liberally sustained by 
Mrs. Shaw. During the later 3 T ears of her life 
Miss Peabody was obliged to withdraw from 
active service because of failing health, and she 
died at Jamaica Plain, January 8, 1894. 

Before leaving the New England record it 
is well to note that Mrs. Louise Pollock, who 
lived at "Weston, Mass., became interested in 
the kindergarten as early as 1861, through her 
mother in Berlin, who sent her whatever had 
been published in Germany on that subject, 
and begun to write about it in the newspapers. 
In 1862 she carried on a kindergarten at West 
Newton, in connection with the Classical In- 
stitute of which Mr. N. T. Allen was princi- 
pal. In 1873 her daughter, SusanP. Pollock, 
who had meanwhile taken the training in Ber- 
lin, was appointed to teach a public kinder- 
garten at Brighton. Shortly after that mother 
and daughter removed to Washington, D. 
C, the former having previously spent some 
months of study in Germany. 

As has already been indicated, the movement 
in New York began among the Germans. It 
was in 1872 that Miss Maria Boelte opened 
the first English kindergarten in that city, and 
the next year, in connection with Prof. John 
Kraus, whom she married, began a training 
school, which has been continued until now. 
They have also published an elaborate work 



62 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



called "The Kindergarten Guide." In 1878 
Prof. Felix Adler and Rev. Dr. Heber 
Newton undertook to bring the children of 
the working people under the kindergarten in- 
fluence. Prof. Adler established a free kin- 
dergarten in January, which became the founda- 
tion for a full course up to fourteen years, the 
principles of the kindergarten being preserved 
throughout all the grades. In March Dr. New- 
ton opened the first mission kindergarten, 
which was connected with his church on Madi- 
son avenue, and has since been a model for 
similar church work all over the country. 

About this time the city started a public kin- 
dergarten at the Normal College, which soon 
developed into a training department, and the 
Hebrew Free School Association also took up 
the work. Some years later the Teachers 
College was established, and this institution 
from the outset made the kindergarten the 
basis ot its work and in 1890 was influential 
in forming the New York Kindergarten Asso- 
ciation, which maintains several free kinder- 
gartens. The Children's Aid Society has a 
kindergarten attached to each of its schools 
and there are a few supported by the school 
board. The names of Miss Angeline Brooks and 
Miss Caroline T. Haven are always promi- 
nently mentioned in connection with the New 
York work, the former having been for a long 
time connected with the Teachers College and 
the latter with the Workingman's School. The 
same can be said of Miss Alice E. Fitts, and 
Miss Hannah D. Mowry in reference to Brook- 
lyn, because their influence in behalf of the 
kindergarten in Pratt Institute and through 
the city has been potent for years. 

The city of St. Louis was early in the field 
in behalf of the kindergarten. About 1873 
Miss Susan E. Blow petitioned the school 
board for a room in which to make the first 
local experiment, and she very soon opened a 
training school, giving her services without 
salary, which was continued for twelve years. 
Such beginnings stimulated the growth of pub- 
lie kindergartens, which was judiciously fos- 
tered by Dr. William T. Harris, who was then 
superintendent of city schools. Aside from 
the public kindergartens there have been for a 
long time a number connected with private 
schools and some that are free to children 
below the school age, the latter being sup- 
ported by charitable organizations. 



The Chicago Froebel Association grew out 
of a small mother's class that was formed in 
1873, and some months later Mrs. John Ogden 
came there from Columbus, O., spending a 
year in the city conducting a kindergarten and 
training class. Mrs. Alice H. Putnam, Miss 
Sara Eddy and Miss Josephine Jarvis took up 
the work where she left it. The first free kinder- 
garten was opened at the Moody Chapel, on 
Chicago avenue, by Mrs. E. W. Blatchford. 
In 1891 the school board voted to adopt all 
the kindergartens of the association which 
were located in the public school buildings as 
a part of the regular school system. 

A distinctive feature of the Chicago work for 
a long time has been along the lines of the col- 
lege settlement idea, a beginning having been 
made at Hull House, which was opened by two 
young women who knew about the Toynbee 
Hall enterprise in London and who felt "•that 
the mere foothold of a house easily accessible, 
ample in space, hospitable and tolerant in 
spirit, situated in the midst of the large foreign 
colonies which so easily isolate themselves in 
the large American cities, would in itself be a 
serviceable thing for the community." 

The Chicago Free Kindergarten Association, 
with headquarters at Armour Institute and 
Miss Eva B. Whitmore as superintendent and 
Miss Anna E. Bryan principal of the training 
class, supports twenty-five kindergartens and 
the tuition is free. The Chicago Kindergar- 
ten College, of which Miss Elizabeth Harrison 
is principal, and Mrs. J. N. Crouse director, 
is an influential factor in whatever pertains to 
kindergarten interests in the vicinity of Chicago 
and so is the Kindergarten Institute, of which 
Mrs. Mary Boomer Page is the principal. 

Coming to the Pacific coast, the first name 
to be mentioned is that of Miss Emma 
Marwedel. She was one of the German kin- 
dergartners who were persuaded by Miss Pea- 
body to transfer their work to this country. 
She graduated from the normal school at 
Berlin, went to Washington, 1). C, in 1872 
to open a training school, removing to Los 
Angeles, Cal., in 1876 for the same purpose. 
At the latter place Kate Douglas Wiggin was 
her first pupil. Two years later Miss Marwedel 
went to Oakland, where she was instrumental 
in founding the Central kindergarten. She de- 
voted the rest of her life to teaching and lec- 
turing at the Berkeley University, Oakland, 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



63 



and at Palo Alto. She wrote "Conscious 
Motherhood" and an " Illustrated Botany," 
and died at San Francisco, November 17, 1893, 
at the age of seventy-live. 

The kindergarten movement in San Fran- 
cisco begun in the Bible class of Mrs. Sarah 
B. Cooper, in October, 1879, the first one being- 
opened on the " Barbary Coast" which is the 
" Five Points " of that city. Mrs. Cooper was 
able to influence public sentiment powerfully 
in favor of the cause by writing a series of 
articles for the leading newspapers. Subscrip- 
tions poured in, the Golden Gate Association 
was formed, and a wonderful work begun. The 
California record of Kate Douglass Wiggin and 
her sister Nora Archibald Smith, two of the 
most brilliant contributors to kindergarten lit- 
erature that America can boast, in connection 
with the Silver Street kindergarten and train- 
ing class, is too well-known to need extended 
review here. 

The prescribed limits of this book will not 
admit of a more extended notice of the kin- 
dergarten movement in America, outside of 
the centers already mentioned. In Philadel- 
phia the work was begun by the Sub-primary 
School Societ} 7 which was maintaining thirty- 
three kindergartens when they were turned 
over to the school board, Miss Constance 
Mackenzie becoming the first public supervisor. 
Mrs. M. L. Van Kirk has maintained a train- 
ing class there for many years, sending out a 
multitude of graduates throughout the country. 
At Baltimore the Free Association supports a 
number of kindergartens and provides a train- 
ing class for the young women of that vicinity. 

At Washington Mrs. Louise Pollock and her 
daughter,Miss Susan P. Pollock, begun to hold 
up the kindergarten banner in 1873, and many 



others have since joined in the campaign, 
including Mrs. Louisa Mann, who is the wife 
of a nephew of Miss Peabody, and Mrs. 
Eudora L. Hailmann, wife of the national 
superintendent of Indian schools. Favorable 
mention should also be made of Cincinnati, 
Louisville, Albany, Buffalo, Columbus, Indi- 
anapolis, Detroit, Milwaukee and Minneapo- 
lis, because of their associations and training 
classes. The kindergarten is also very influ- 
ential in some parts of Canada, particularly 
in the city of Toronto, under the lead of In- 
spector James L. Hughes, who is ably assisted 
by his wife, Mrs. Ada Mareau Hughes, who 
took her training with Madame Kraus-Boelte 
and Miss Blow. 

There are two well-recognized periodicals in 
this country, "The Kindergarten Magazine," 
established in 1888 and published by the Kin- 
dergarten Literature Company, Chicago, and 
"The Kindergarten News," started in 189] 
and published by Milton Bradley Company, 
Springfield, Mass. 

The kindergarten department of the National 
Educational Association is one of the most pop- 
ular and best attended of all those which are 
connected with the annual duly meetings of 
that body. There is also a very practical organ- 
ization called the International Kindergarten 
Union that meets annually in February and 
has branches in all parts of the country and 
some in other countries. 

Here the record must close, an attempt hav- 
ing been made merely to outline the American 
work. To include the names of all earnest 
workers would require many pages. Only a 
beginning lias yet been made toward establish- 
ing kindergartens throughout the world, but the 
outlook for the future is certainly promising. 




FItAU LOUISE FROEBEL. 



THE PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



WIEBE'S ORIGINAL TEXT 



WITH EDITOR'S NOTES. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



Until a recent period, hut little interest has 
been felt by people in this country, with re- 
gard to the Kindergarten method of instruc- 
tion, for the simple reason that a correct knowl- 
edge of the system has never been fully pro- 
mulgated here. However the lectures of Miss 
E. P. Peabody of Cambridge, Mass., have 
awakened some degree of enthusiasm upon 
the subject in different localities, and the es- 
tablishment of a few Kindergarten schools 
has served to call forth a more general inquiry 
concerning its merits. 

We claim that everyone who believes in 
rational education, will become deeply inter- 
ested in the peculiar features of the work, 
after having become acquainted with Frcebel's 
principles and plan ; and that all that is needed 
t<> enlist the popular sentiment in its favor is 
the establishment of institutions of this kind, 
in this country, upon the right basis. 

With such an object in view, we propose to 
present an outline of the Kindergarten plan as 
developed by its originator in Germany, and 
to a considerable extent by his followers in 
France and England. 

But as Frcebel's is a system which must be 
carried out faithfully in all its important fea- 
tures, to insure success, we must adopt his 
plan as a whole and carry it out with such 
modifications of secondary minutiae only, as 
the individual case may acquire without vio- 
lating its fundamental principles. If this can- 
not be accomplished, it were better not to at- 
tempt the task at all. 

The present work is entitled a Manual for 
Self- Instruction anda Practical Guide for Kin- 
dergartners. Those who design to use it for 
either of these purposes, must not expect to 
find in it all that they ought to know in order 
to instruct the young successfully according 
to Frcebel's principles. No book can ever be 
written which is able to make a perfect Kin- 
dergartner; this requires the training of an 
able teacher actively engaged in the work at 
the moment. "Kindergarten Culture," says 



Miss Peabody, in the preface to her "Moral 
Culture of Infancy," "is the adult mind en- 
tering into the child's world and appreciating 
nature's intention as displayed in every im- 
pulse of spontaneous life, so directing it that 
the joy of success may be ensured at every 
step, and artistic things be actually produced, 
which gives the self-reliance and conscious 
intelligence that ought to discriminate human 
power from blind force." 

With this thought constantly present in his 
mind, the reader will find, in this book, all 
that is indispensably necessary for him to 
know, from the first establishment of the Kin- 
dergarten through all its various degrees of 
development, including the use of the mate- 
rials and the engagement in such occupations 
as are peculiar to the system. There is much 
more, however, that can be learned only by 
individual observation. The fact, that here 
and there, persons, presuming upon the slight 
knowledge which they may have gained of 
Froebel and his educational principles, from 
books, have established schools called Kinder- 
gartens, which in reality had nothing in com- 
mon with the legitimate Kindergarten but the 
name, has caused distrust and even opposi- 
tion, in many minds toward everything that 
pertains to this method of instruction. In dis- 
criminating between the spurious and the real, 
as is the design of this work, the author would 
mention with special commendation, the Edu- 
cational Institute conducted by Mrs. and Miss 
Kriege in Boston. It connects with the Kin- 
dergarten proper, a Training School for ladies, 
and any one who wishes to be instructed in 
the correct method, will there be able to ac- 
quire the desired knowledge. 

Besides the institute just mentioned, there 
is one in Springfield, Mass., under the super- 
vision of the writer, designed not only for the 
instruction of classes of children in accordance 
with these principles, but also for imparting 
information to those who are desirous to be- 
come Kindergartners. From this source, the 



68 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



method has already been acquired in several 
instances, and as one result, it has been in- 
troduced into two of the schools connected 
with the State Institution at Monson, Mass. 

The writer was in early life acquainted with 
Fiu'bel ; and his subsequent experience as a 
teacher has only served to confirm the favor- 
able opinion of the system, which he then de- 
rived from a personal knowledge of its inven- 
tor. A desire to promote the interests of true 
education, has led him to undertake this work 
of interpretation and explanation. 

Without claiming for it perfection, he be- 
lieves that, as a guide, it will stand favorably 
in comparison with any publication upon the 
subject in the English or the French language. 



The German of Marenholtz, Goldammer, 
Morgenstern and Frcebel have been made use 
of in its preparation, and though new features 
have, in rare cases only been added to the 
original plan, several changes have been made 
in minor details, so as to adapt this mode of 
instruction more readily to the American mind. 
This has been done, however, without omitting 
aught of that German thoroughness, which 
characterizes so strongly every feature of Froe- 
bel's system. 

The plates accompanying this work are re- 
prints from "Goldammer's Kindergarten," a 
book recently published in Germany. 

Edward Wiebe. 
Springfield, Mass., 1869. 



KINDERGARTEN CULTURE. 



The fundamental principle of the Kinder- 
garten system of education, so clearly laid 
down in his writings, and so successfully car- 
ried out in practice by Friedrich Froebel, is ex- 
pressed in the axiom, that, before ideas can be 
defined, perceptions must have preceded ; ob- 
jects must have been presented to the senses, 
and by their examination experiences acquired 
of their being, quality and action, of which 
definite ideas are the logical results, with which 
they are therefore inseparably connected. It is 
not claimed that this principle originated with 
the inventor of the Kindergarten; for long be- 
fore him it was said that : "Nihil est in intel- 
lectu, quod antea non fuerit in sensu," but in 
the Kindergarten system, he has furnished all 
material to begin the education of mankind on 
this logical basis. 

Definite ideas are to originate as abstractions 
from perceptions. (Anschauungen, as the Ger- 
mans say, meaning literally the looking at or 
into tilings.) If they do not originate in such 
manner they are not the product of one's own 
mental activity, but simply the consent of the 
understanding to the ideas of others. By far 
the greatest part of all acquired knowledge with 
the mass of the people, is of this kind. Every 
one, however, even the least gifted, may ac- 
quire a stock of fundamental perceptions, which 
shall serve as points of relation in the process of 
thinking. Indefinite or confused fundamental 
or elementary perceptions prevent understand- 
ing words with precision, which is necessary 
to reflecting on the ideas and thoughts of others 
with clearness, and appropriating them to one's 
self. In the fact that a large majority of persons 
are lacking in clear and distinct fundamental 
perceptions, we find cause for the existence of 
so many confused heads, full of the most absurd 
notions. The period of life in which the first 
fundamental perceptions are formed must nec- 
essarily be our earliest childhood. They can 
form only during this state of, as it were, men- 
tal unconsciousness, because the impressions 
on the senses can best be fixed lastingly upon 



the soul, when this process is least disturbed 
by reflection ; and impressions of objects of 
the world without upon our senses, are made 
more or less clearly and distinctly, according 
to the nature of these objects themselves. A 
mere acquisition of perceptions, however, is not 
sufficient. As in the development of all organ- 
ism in nature, a certain, peculiar series of 
events takes place, which always must be the 
same, or at least take place in accordance 
with the same law, to reach the same aim, or 
produce the same form ; so, also, in mental de- 
velopment, a peculiar process, a natural series 
of events must take place without disturbing oc- 
currences, to successfully reach the correspond- 
ing idea in the mind. This series of events 
in the mind and heart, connected with the pro- 
cess of thinking, is in philosophy explained to 
consist of : 1st. A general or total impression. 
2d. A perception or looking on a single thing. 
3d. Observation of qualities and relations. 
4th. Comparison. 5th. Judging. 6th. Conclu- 
sion. Although a right selection of objects, 
and their proper succession, are of the first 
importance, adherence to these two conditions 
is not yet sufficient to prepare and accustom 
the mind to logical thinking; these means 
should be applied or presented in a system- 
atic, methodical way, also. A system of edu- 
cation in perfect accordance with the laws of 
nature is only possible, therefore, when the 
modus opera ndi of the natural functions of the 
soul, during their development, is fully under- 
stood, and the exact means are discovered to 
assist these functions in a corresponding man- 
ner from without. As long as this is not done, 
the education of the human race is left to be 
the result of chance, and at the mercy of mere 
educational instinct. AVe claim that the sig- 
nificance of Fra'bel's educational system con- 
sists mainly in a perfect understanding of the 
natural process of mental development. This 
understanding guided him in preparing certain 
means of education, or play, all following the 
same course as the mental development which 



70 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



they are intended t<> promote. No man has 
ever looked so deeply as Friedrich Froebel into 
the secret workshop of a child's soul, and so 
successfully discovered the means and their 
methodical application for a development of 
the young mind in accordance with nature's 
own laws. To be certain that the natural 
course of development be not interrupted but 
logically assisted, the child's instinct should 
have free choice within appointed limits, and 
still be obliged to receive the objects as they 
are presented to it for the first perceptions. 
The means to obtain this, Froebel has found 
in allowing the child to manipulate the things 
destined for the production of changes accord- 
ing to his own choice. Thereby the child will 
be led to devote attention to the objects formed. 
because he looks upon them as his own work, 
and rejoices in what he is able to do. That free 
unrestricted activity of the child, which Ave call 
play, alone can comply with these conditions; 
anything else forced upon the child, cau never 
be successfully employed for this purpose. A 
desire of acquiring knowledge of things is au 
innate faculty of the soul, hence there is no 
need of forcing the child into making acquaint- 
ance with the things given him to play with. 
We have only to select for his playthings the 
fundamental forms, which, like the typical 
formations in nature, offer, as it were, a fun- 
damental scheme for an acquaintance with the 
large multitude of things. Knowledge of things 
cau be acquired only by acquisition of a knowl- 
edge of their qualities. We then have to pro- 
vide objects in which the general qualities of 
things are shown in perfect distinctness, in or- 
der to produce thereby clear and lasting per- 
ceptions in the mind of the child. These ob- 
jects should be such that they may be easily 
manipulated by the limited strength of the 
child, that he may become acquainted with 
them by their use, and become enabled thereby 
to gather experiences in regard to events and 
facts in the physical world, and may, so to say, 
serye him for the first physical experiments. 
Examining the list of FroebeFs Kindergarten 
occupation material, we find it to consist of 
the following : 

1. .Six soft balls of various colors. 

2. Sphere, cube, and cylinder, made of 
wood. 



3. Large cube, divided into eight small 
cubes. 

4. Large cube, divided into eight oblong 
blocks. 

5. Large cube, consisting of 21 whole, 6 
half and 12 quarter cubes. 

6. Large cube, consisting of 18 whole ob- 
longs with :; divided lengthwise and 6 divided 
breadthwise. 

7. Quadrangular, and various triangular 
tablets for laying figures. 

x. Sticks or wands for laying figures. 
!>. Whole and half wire rings for laying 
figures. 

10. Material for drawing. 

11. Material for perforating. 

12. Material for embroidering. 

13. Material for paper cutting and combin- 
ing the pails into symmetrical figures. 

14. Material for weaving or braiding. 

15. Slats for interlacing. 

16. Slats with 4, II, 8 and 16 links. 

17. Paper strips for lacing. 

18. Materia] for paper folding. 

19. Material for peas work. 

20. Material for modeling. 

The list begins with the ball, an object, com- 
prising in itself, in the simplest manner, the 
general qualities of all things. As the starting 
point of form — the spherical — it gives the first 
impression of form, and being the most easily 
moved of all forms, is symbolical of life. It 
becomes the first knowu object, with which all 
other objects for the child's play are brought 
into relation. Beside teaching form, the balls 
are also intended to teach color, hence their 
number of six, representing three primary and 
three secondary colors. The principle of com- 
bining, uniting, or bringing into the relation 
of opposites, which is a governing law through- 
out all occupations in the Kindergarten, is ap- 
plied here to discriminating primary and sec- 
ondary colors, the latter being produced by a 
combination of two of the former.* 

For the purpose of acquiring clear and dis- 
tinct, correct idea of things around us, it is 
indispensably necessary to become acquainted 
with them in all respects and relations. The 
balls are made the object of a great variety of 
plays or occupations, to make the child be- 
come well acquainted with its uses, and to 



*The old Brewster theory of color here stated is wholly at variance with the modern ideas on th£>* 
subject which are elsewhere outlined in this book. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



71 



enable him to handle it gracefully. Then, for 
the purpose of comparison, the second Gift is 
introduced, consisting of sphere, cube and cyl- 
inder. .We can here, certainly not yet speak 
of a rational comparison on the part of the 
voung child, but simply of an immediate, sen- 
sual perception or observation of the similari- 
ties and differences existing in the things pre- 
sented. The child will find by looking at the 
three new objects exhibited to him that the 
sphere is just like the ball, except in its ma- 
terial. The first impression, that of roundness, 
made upon the child by the many colored, soft 
balls, finds here its further development by the 
fact that this quality is found in this wooden 
ball, or the sphere, as he may be led to name it, 
learning a new word. To facilitate the pro- 
cess of comparison, the objects to be compared 
should first be as different as possible, oppo- 
sites in a certain sense. The opposition be- 
tween sphere and cube relates to their form. 
Together with the oppositional, or difference 
in objects, their similarity should in the mean- 
time be made prominent, for comparison de- 
mands to detect equality and similarity of 
things as well as their distinction by inequal- 
ity and dissimilarity. The cylinder introduced 
as the mediatory between the opposites in form, 
given here, is the simplest and immediately 
suggested mediative form, because it combines 
the qualities of both cube and sphere in itself. 

These three whole bodies, introduced as fun- 
damental or normal forms or shapes, in which 
all qualities of whole bodies in general are 
demonstrated, and which serve to convey the 
idea of an impression of the whole, are fol- 
lowed by the introduction of variously divided 
solid bodies. Without a division of the whole, 
observation and recognition, i. e., knowledge 
of it, is next to impossible. The rational in- 
vestigation, the dissecting and dividing by the 
mind, in short, the analysis should be preceded 
by a like process in real objects, if the mind 
is calculated to reflect upon nature. Division 
performed at random, however, can never give 
clear ideas of the whole or its parts, but a 
regular division, in accordance with certain 
laws, is always needed. Nature gives us also 
here the best instruction. She performs all her 
divisions according to mathematical laws. 

The orders in the vegetable kingdom are 
distinguished according to form and number 
of parts. Froebel here, also, borrowed from 
nature a guide which led him in svstematizino- 



the means of development of the young mind 
in the Kindergarten. 

As the first divided body, a large cube is in- 
troduced, consisting of eight small cubes of 
the same size each, as its parts. The huge 
cube is divided once in each direction of space, 
lengthwise, breadthwise and heightwise. The 
form of the parts is here like the form of the 
whole, and only their relation as to volume is 
different. In shape, alike, they differ in size, 
which fact becomes more apparent by a variety 
of combinations of a different number of the 
parts. Thus the relation of number is here 
introduced to the observation of the child, to- 
gether with that of form and magnitude. A 
clear and distinct idea of these relations could 
hardly be attained unless presented in this 
manner. In the following Gift, diversity of 
form in the whole and its parts, is made ap- 
parent, preceding the introduction of the rela- 
tions of the plane. The logical connection 
with the preceding Gifts consists in the same 
form of the whole, the cube, and the same man- 
ner of division ; the 5th and 6th being divided 
twice, whereas the 3rd and 4th were divided 
only once in all directions of space. The va- 
riety of forms gained, by this division of the 
cube, gives the widest scope to the invention 
and production of combined forms, without 
ever leading to an indefinite, unlimited, unre- 
strained activity. The logical combination of 
parts to a whole, which is required in using 
these blocks, renders it a preparatory occupa- 
tion for succeeding combinations of thought, 
for, also the construction of parts into a whole 
follows certain laws, thereby forming a serial 
connection, which, in nature, is represented 
by the membering or linking of all organisms. 
As nature, in the organic world, begins to form 
by agglomeration, so the child in its first occu- 
pations commences with mere accumulation of 
1 tarts. Order, however, is requisite to lead to 
the beautiful in the visible world, as logic is 
indispensable in the world of thought for the 
formation of clear ideas ; and Froebel's law to 
link opposites, affords the simplest and most 
reliable guide to this end. 

For example, in the building occupation this 
law is applied in relation to the joining of blocks 
according to their form, or the different posi- 
tion of the parts in relation to a common cen- 
ter. If I join sides and sides, or edges and edges 
of the blocks, I have formed opposites ; side and 
edge or edge and side joined, are considered 



72 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



as links or mediation. Thus below and above 
are opposites in relation to which the right 
and left side of form or figure built, serve as 
mediative parts. Carrying out this principle, 
we have established a most admirable order, 
by which even the youngest pupil, frequently 
unknowingly, produces the most charming reg- 
ular forms and figures. This regular and serial 
constructing of the parts to a whole, according 
to a determinate law, is followed by connect- 
ing various wholes with one another, to pro- 
duce orders and series as we find them in all 
the natural kingdoms, just as we are in need of 
categories in the process of thinking. There- 
fore we produce in the Kindergarten, by menus 
of our occupation material, different series of 
forms and figures from common elementary 
forms, which we call either forms of life, forms 
of knowledge, or forms of beauty. The first are 
representations of objects actually existing :ni<l 
coming under our common observation, as tin- 
works of human skill and art. 

The second are such as afford instruction 
relative to number, order, proportion, etc. The 
third are figures representing only ideal forms, 
yet so regularly constructed as to present per- 
fect models of symmetry and order in arrange- 
ment of parts. By occupation with these differ- 
ently, yet always regularly constructed bodies, 
the child will make observations of the greatest 
variety, which, by immediate use of the objects 
by manipulation and experiment, make a real 
experience. The observations, for example, of 
the vertical and horizontal, of the right angled, 
of the directions of up and downward, of under, 
above and next one another; of regularity, 
of equipoise, the relation of circumference and 
center, of multiplication and division, of all 
that produces harmony in construction, etc., 
impress themselves, as it were, indelibly upon 
the child's mind almost at every step. The first 
knowledge, or rather idea of the qualities of 
matter, and the first experiences of its use, are 
obtained thus in the simplest manner and de- 
lightfully. Thus the lawful shaping, logical 
development and methodical application of the 
material, is, as it were, the logic of nature 
imitated, whose representation is found in the 
forms of crystallization. It is natural that the 
works of God should reflect the logic of the 
great Creator's mind, and thereby be made the 
teachers of mankind. What can man do 1 tet- 
ter in educating the human mind, than imitate 
these means, for the purpose of unfolding and 



strengthening the germ of logic, implanted in 
the mind of every human being, created in the 
image of his God. 

A condition of indisputable importance for 
the acquisition of. knowledge of things, is the 
knowledge of the material of which they con- 
sist, aud their qualities, aud this should be in- 
troduced in right succession. From the 2d to 
6th Gifts, the objects consist of wood, and 
they are in the meantime solid bodies. 

The next step in the use of matter as the 
representation of mind, is the transition to 
the plane, Froebel's Tablets for laying figures. 
In them, the simple mathematic fundamental 
forms are given as embodied planes, beginning 
with the square, which is followed successively 
by the right-angled triangle with two equal 
sides (the half square) ; the right-angled tri- 
angle with unequal sides ; the obtuse-angled 
triangle, and the equilateral triangle. 

The slats given for the play of interlacing 
form the transition from the plane to the line, 
resembling the latter, although, owing to their 
width, still occupying space as a plane. They 
represent in one respect a progress beyond the 
sticks, because they may be joined for the pur- 
pose of representing lasting forms. 

The sticks, representing the embodied line, 
facilitate the elements of drawing, serving as 
movable outlines of planes. They are to be 
looked upon as the divided plane in order to 
adhere to their connections and relation with 
the form from which we started. By means 
of the sticks, numerical relation first is made 
more prominent and evident by the introduc- 
tion of figures. The application of the law of 
opposites relates in all previous occupations to 
the form and direct ion of parts. 

In the so-called peas-work the sticks or wires 
are united by points, represented by peas, de- 
monstrating that it is union which produces 
lasting formation of matter. 

Here closes the first section of Froebel's em- 
bodied alphabet, intended to give the elemental 
images for the succeeding recognition of com- 
plex form, magnitude and numerical relations. 
Thus the child has been guided in a logical 
manner from the solid body through its divi- 
sions and through the embodied plane, line and 
point, in matter and by matter, to the borders 
of the abstract, without going over into abstrac- 
tion, which is a later process, to be postponed 
to the school that succeeds to the Kindergar- 
ten. To reduce or '•'•lead back" mathematical 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



73 



perception (abstract thinking ) to appearances 
in the material world, no more appropriate 
means and method could have been devised. 
All abstractions are drawn — abstracted accord- 
ing to the original meaning of the word — from 
manifestations of the visible world. Although 
further final conclusions (which ma}^ be contin- 
ued ad infinitum) shall remove them from their 
origin, elevate them to their loftiest heights 
of thought, their roots are ever to be looked 
for in the material world. The assertion that 
ideas are founded and denned by perceptions 
only, is either entirely erroneous and not to be 
proved, or there must exist such a connection, 
such an analogy, between the things of the ma- 
terial world and the objects of thought, as has 
been indicated here. And if it can be proved 
that such a course of development of the hu- 
man mind necessarily takes place in some de- 
gree without our assistance, as a natural proc- 
ess, then education should not dare to pre- 
scribe any other one ; then this is the only 
true method of developing the mind, because 
it operates with nature's laws, although it does 
not exclude all assistance on our part, but in- 
vokes it. "We have often opportunity to notice 
how easily the mind, without human assistance 
grows in wrong directions, like the young tree 
that never felt the effect of the pruning knife. 

In the following occupations of the Kinder- 
garten we shall notice the progress from the 
solid body or object itself to the representation 
of its image by drawing. Planes and lines, the 
various forms of the triangle and other geo- 
metric figures, occur also here, but they are 
produced by different material. The touching 
or handling of the solid body, the most im- 
portant means of acquiring knowledge during 
the first years of a child's life, during the state 
of its rational unconsciousness, is now entirely 
changed to a looking at objects presented to 
its observation ; and the image of the body, 
so to say, takes the place of the body itself. 
Drawing with pencil is of such paramount im- 
portance because the child is enabled by it to 
reproduce quickly and easily the images im- 
parted to its mind by their own visible repre- 
sentation, whereby they become truly objective 
and are only then fully understood. Instruc- 
tion in writing should never precede instruc- 
tion in drawing. 

In the development of the human race, the 
body unmistakably precedes its image or rep- 
resentation, as the drawn image preceded the 



written sign or letter. In the incipient stages 
of civilization, these signs for things were 
images, as Ave see in all hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions. Our modern letters occupy the highest 
step in the scale of the language of signs 
(which we should not forget). 

Frcebel's method of instruction in drawing is 
as ingenious as it is simple. The same course 
as pursued in the study of things, according to 
their form, size and number, and mathematical 
proportions is also here adhered to. The va- 
rious forms which have previously occupied 
the child in their existence as bodies, appear 
here in drawn pictures, and are multiplied ad 
infinitum. The progression from the simplest 
rudiment to the more complicated, the great 
multiplicity of series, determined by the vari- 
ous directions of the lines and the geometric 
fundamental forms, the logical progression 
from the straight to the curved lines, render 
drawing — not considering here its immediate 
artistic significance — one of the most efficient 
means for disciplining the mind of the young 
pnpil. It is the first step for the child to a 
future careful observation of the- general con- 
nection of things from the smallest to the 
largest, as parts as well as wholes. 

In the following occupations, the material of 
which is a more refined one, color is introduced 
in connection with multiplication of form, and 
the products of the children's work are con- 
stantly approaching real artistic creations. In 
the braiding or weaving the thought of number 
is predominating because the opposites of odd 
and even are combined by alternately employ- 
ing both. In the paper-folding, opposites are 
formed by the oppositional directions of the 
lines, (horizontal or perpendicular) originating 
in the folding of the paper, and these oppo- 
sites are connected by the mediative oblique 
line. In like manner this law is applied to 
angles, acute and obtuse as opposites, the 
right angle serving as a mediatory. This is 
repeated in the occupation of perforating and 
embroidering. The cutting of paper, also, es- 
pecially affords a perfect view of all the mathe- 
matical elements for the purpose of plastic rep- 
resentation. 

Thus we find everywhere the same logical 
chain of perception, and subsequent represen- 
tation and experimental knowledge resulting 
from both, and thus all parts aud sections of 
this system of occupation are logically united 
with one another, serving the child's mind as a 



74 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



faithful reflector of its own internal develop- 
ment at each and every step. And well may the 
matured mind, developed according to these 
principles, in future days retrace with facility 
its conceiving and thinking to the clear and 
sharply defined, as it were, typical images of 
this reflector, as their very origin, for such ex- 
periences surely can never be effaced. 

It has been charged by those who have only 
a superficial knowledge of Froebel's educational 
system, that by it the faculties of the young 
mind are too soon awakened, which should 
not be taxed at so early an age. To this ac- 
cusation we invite the most careful investiga- 
tion, the result of which, we doubt not, will be 
a conviction that just the opposite is the case. 

Manual occupation, performed in connection 
with all means of occupation in the Kindergar- 
ten, continual representation of objects, plas- 
tic formation and production, are all attractive 
to the nature of the child and touch the springs 
of spontaneity in its very core. All observa- 
tions which appeal to the understanding and 
prepare mathematical conceptions occur, as it 
were, as accessories only, and to such an extent 
as the child's desire calls for them. Nothing is 
ever forced upon the pupil's mind. It can- 
not even be said that teaching is prominent, 
but rather practical occupation, individually- 
intended production, on the part of the chil- 
dren ; which give rise to most of the remarks 
required to be made on the part of the Kinder- 
gartner. The element of working, which every 
child's nature craves is predominating. Ac- 
tivity of the hand is the fundamental condition 
of all development in the child, as it is also 
the fundamental condition for the acquisition 
of knowledge, and the subjection of matter. 
Mechanical ability, technical dexterity, educa- 
tion of all human senses require under all cir- 
cumstances manual occupation. However, if 
this side of Froebel's educational system is 
mentioned, another class of opponents is ready 
to object, that the child should not begin with 
work, but that first its mind should be devel- 
oped. We understand these various objections 
to mean that the child's powers should not be 
employed in mechanical occupation exclusive- 
ly, nor be entirely deprived of it, but that 
a harmonious development of body and mind 
should be the task of education. This is in 
perfect accordance with Froebel's principles, 
which, if carried out lightly, will accomplish 
this in the fullest meanino; of the word. No 



occupation in the Kindergarten is merely me- 
chanical, it is one of the most important rules 
that the mere mechanical, as contrary to the 
child's nature, should studiously be avoided. 

Nothing is plainer to the careful observer of 
the child's nature than the desire of the little 
mind to observe and imbibe all its surroundings 
with all its senses simultaneous!)/. It wishes to 
see, to hear, to feel, all beautiful, joyful, and 
pleasant things, and then strives to reproduce 
them as far as its limited faculties will admit. 
To receive and give back, is life, life in all its 
directions, with all its powers. This is what 
the child desires, what it should be led to ac- 
complish with a view to its own development. 
Eyes and ears seek the beautiful, the sense of 
taste and smell enjoy the agreeable, and the 
impression which this beautiful and agreeable 
make upon the child's mind calls forth in the 
child's innermost soul, the desire, nay, the ne- 
cessity of production, representation, or forma- 
tion. If we should neglect providing the means 
to gratify such desire, a full development of 
the heart of the individual, a higher taste for 
the ideal in it, never could be the result. We 
believe that this desire cannot be assisted more 
perfectly and appropriately than by accom- 
plishment in form, color, and tone, each ex- 
pressing and representing in its own manner, 
the feeling of the beautiful and agreeable. The 
earlier such accomplishment is begun, the 
more perfectly the heart or aesthetic sentiment 
in man will be developed, the more surely a 
foundation for the moral development of the 
individual be laid. Aptness in formation and 
production conditions the development of the 
hand, simultaneously with the development of 
the senses. It conditions, also, knowledge and 
subjection of matter and the proper material 
for the yet weak and unskilled hand of chil- 
dren. Formation itself furthermore conditions 
observation of the various relations of form, 
size, and number, as shown in connection with 
the gifts, employed for the preparatory devel- 
opment of the perceptive faculties. Mathe- 
matical forms and figures are, as it were, the 
skeleton of the beautiful in form, which, in 
its perfection always requires the curved line. 
Images of ancient peoples, as we find them, 
in the Egyptian temples, for example, are 
straight-lined, hence are geometrical figures. 
The curved line, the true line of beauty, we find 
subsequently, when the artistic feeling had be- 
come more fully developed. The forms of 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



75 



beauty alternating in all branches of Kinder- 
garten occupation, with those of life and knowl- 
edge, afford the most appropriate means for 
the development of a sense of art as well as 
of aptness in art, in the meantime preventing 
a one-sided prevalence of a mere cold under- 
standing. 

The faculties of the soul are not yet dis- 
tinctly separated in the young child, the un- 
derstanding, feeling and will, act in union 
with one another and every one is developed 
through and with the others. The combina- 
tions of the power of representation in forma- 
tion serve also as the preliminary exercise for 
that combination of thought ; and what the 
hand produces strengthens the will and energy 
of the young mind in the meantime affording 
gratification to the heart. All work of man, 
be it common manual work, or a w r ork of art, 
or purely mental labor is always the uniting 
of parts to a whole, i. e., organizing in the 
highest sense of the word. The more we are 
conscious of aim, means, manner and method 
connected with our work, the more the mind is 
active in it, the higher and nobler the result will 
be. The lowest step of human labor is formed 
by mechanical imitation, the highest is free 
formation or production, according to one's 
own conception. Between these two points we 
find the whole scale by which the crudest kind 
of labor mounts to a free production in art and 
science and on which invention stands upper- 
most as the gradual triumphant result from 



simplest imitation. It is this scale en minia- 
ture through which the child's mind is con- 
ducted by means of Froebel's occupation ma- 
terial. From the first immediate impression, 
received from objects and forms of the visible 
world, it rises to art, or creation according to 
its own idea, which is its own production. a self- 
willed formation. For this purpose nature im- 
planted in the human mind a strong desire to 
produce form, which, if correctly guided, be- 
comes the most useful faculty of the soul. 
Simply by this desire of formation the images 
of perception attain the necessary perfect dis- 
tinctness and clearness, the power of obser- 
vation, its keenness and experience, its proofs, 
all of which are requisite, to afford to the work- 
ing of the human mind a sure foundation. Free 
invention, creating, is the culminating point of 
mental independence. We lead the child to this 
eminence by degrees. Sometimes accident has 
led to invention and production of the new, but 
Froebel has provided a systematically graded 
method by which infancy may at once start 
upon the road to this eminent aim of inventing. 
If the full consciousness, the clear concep- 
tion of its aim is at first wanting, it is pre- 
pared by every step onward. The objects pre- 
sented and the material employed, afford the 
child, under the guidance of a mature mind, 
the alphabet of art, as well as that of knowl- 
edge, and it is worth while here to remark that 
history shows that art comes before science in 
all human development. 



THE PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD 



A GUIDE TO KINDERGARTNERS. 



ESTABLISHMENT OF A KINDERGARTEN. 



The requisites for the establishment of a 
"Kindergarten" are the following: 

1. A house, containing at least one large 
room, spacious enough to allow the children, 
not only to engage in all their occupations, 
both sitting and standing, but also to practice 
their movement plays, which, during inclement 
seasons, must be done indoors. 

2. Adjoining the large room, one or two 
smaller rooms for sundry purposes. 

3. A number of tables, according to the size 
of the school, each table affording a smooth 
surface ten feet long and four feet wide, rest- 
ing on movable frames from eighteen to twenty- 
four inches high. The table should be divided 
into ten equal squares, to accommodate as 
many pupils ; and each square subdivided into 
smaller squares of one inch, to guide the chil- 
dren in many of their occupations. On either 
side of the tables should be settees with fold- 
ing seats, or small chairs ten to lifteen inches 
high. The tables and settees should not be 
fastened to the floor, as they will need to be 
removed at times to make room for occupa- 
tions in which they are not used. 

4. A piano-forte for gymnastic and musical 
exercises — the latter being an important fea- 
ture of the plan, since all the occupations are 
interspersed with, and many of them accom- 
panied by singing. 

5. Various closets for keeping the apparatus 
and work of the children — a wardrobe, wash- 
stand, chairs, teacher's table, etc. 



The house should be pleasantly located, re- 
moved from the bustle of a thoroughfare, and 
its rooms arranged with strict regard to hy- 
gienic principles. A garden should surround 
or, at least adjoin the building, for frequent 
outdoor exercises, and for gardening purposes. 
A small plot is assigned to each child, in which 
he sows the seeds and cultivates the plants, 
receiving, in due time, the flowers or fruits, 
as the result of his industry and care. 

When a Training School is connected with 
the Kindergarten, the children of the "■Garten" 
are divided into groups of five or ten — each 
group being assisted in its occupations by 
one of the lady pupils attending the Training 
School. 

Should there be a greater number of such 
assistants than can lie conveniently occupied 
in the Kindergarten, they may take turns with 
each other. In a Training School of this kind, 
under the charge of a competent director, 
ladies are enabled to acquire a thorough and 
practical knowledge of the system. They 
should bind themselves, however, to remain 
connected with the institution a specified time, 
and to follow out the details of the method 
patiently, if they aim to fit themselves to con- 
duct a Kindergarten with success. 

In any establishment of more than twenty 
children, a nurse should be in constant attend- 
ance. It should be her duty also to preserve 
order and cleanliness in the rooms, and to act 
as janitrix to the institution. 



MEANS AND WAYS OF OCCUPATION 

IN THE KINDERGARTEN. 



Before entering into a description of the va- 
rious means of occupation in the Kindergarten, 
it will be proper to state that Friedrich Froebel, 
the inventor of this system of education, calls 
all occupations in the Kindergarten "plays" and 
the materials for occupation "gifts." In these 
systematically-arranged plays, Frcebel starts 
from the fundamental idea that all education 
should begin with a development of the desire 
for activity in mite in the child : and he has been, 
:is is universally acknowledged, eminently suc- 
cessful in this part of his important work. 
Each step in the course of training is a logical 
sequence of the preceding one ; and the various 
means of occupation are developed, one from 
another, in a perfectly natural order, begin- 
ning Avith the simplest and concluding with 
the most difficult features in all the varieties 
of occupation. Together they satisfy all the 
demands of the child's nature in respect both 
to mental and physical culture, and lay the 
surest foundation for all subsequent educa- 
tion in school and in life. 

The time of occupation in the Kindergarten 
is three or four hours on each week day, usu- 
ally from 1) to 12 or 1 o'clock; and the time 
allotted to each separate occupation, includ- 
ing the changes from one to another, is from 
twenty to thirty minutes. Movement plays, so- 
called, in which the children imitate the flying 
of birds, swimming of fish, the motions of 
sowing, mowing, threshing, etc., in connec- 
tion with light gymnastics and vocal exercises, 
alternate with the plays performed in a sitting 
posture. All occupations that can be engaged 
in out of doors, are carried on in the garden 
whenever the season and weather permit. 

For the reason that the various occupations, 
as previously stated, are so intimately con- 
nected, glowing, as it were, out of each other, 
they are introduced very gradually, so as to 
afford each child ample time to become suffi- 
ciently prepared for the next step, without 
interfering, however, with the rapid progress 



of such as are of a more advanced age, or 
endowed with stronger or better developed 
faculties. 

The following is a list of the gifts or ma- 
terial and means of occupation in the Kinder- 
garten, each of which will be specified and 
described separately hereafter. 

There are altogether twenty gifts, according 
to Froebel's general definition of the term, al- 
though the first six only are usually designated 
by this name. We choose to follow r the classi- 
fication and nomenclature of the great inventor 
of the system. 

LIST OF FRCEBEL'S GIFTS. 

1. Six rubber balls, covered with a net work 
of twine or worsted of various colors. 

2. Sphere, cube and cylinder, made of wood. 

3. Large cube, consisting of eight small 
cubes. 

4. Large cube, consisting of eight oblong 
parts. 

5. Large cube, consisting of whole, half, 
and quarter cubes. 

6. Large cube consisting of doubly divided 
oblongs. 

[The third, fourth, fifth and sixth gifts serve 
for building purposes.] 

7. Square and triangular tablets for laying 
of figures. 

8. Sticks for laying of figures. 

9. Whole and half rings for la} T ing of 
figures. 

10. Material for drawing. 

11. Material for perforating. 

12. Material for embroidering. 

L3. Material for cutting of paper and com- 
bining pieces. 

14. Material for braiding. 

15. Slats for interlacing. 

16. The slat with many links. 

17. Material for intertwining. 

18. Material for paper folding. 

19. Material for peas-work. 

20. Material for modeling. 



THE FIRST GIFT. 



The First Gift, which consists of six rub- 
ber 1 tails, over-wrought with worsted, for the 
purpose of representing the three fundamen- 
tal and three mixed colors, is introduced in 
this manner : — 

The children are made to stand in one or 
two rows, with heads erect, and feet upon a 
given line, or spots marked on the floor. 
The teacher then u'ives directions like the fol- 
lowing : — 

"Lift up your right hands as high as you 
can raise them." 

"Take them down." 

tk Lift up your left hands." "Down." 

"Lift up both your hands." "Down." 

'•Stretch forward your right hands, that I 
may give each of you something that J have in 
my box." 

The teacher then places a ball in the hand 
of each child, and asks: — 

••Who can tell me the name of what you 
have received ?" Questions may follow about 
the color, material, shape, and other qualities 
of the ball, which will call forth the replies, 
blue, yellow, rubber, round, light, soft, etc. 

The children are then required to repeat 
sentences pronounced by the teacher, as — 
kt The ball is round;" "My hall is green ;" "J// 
these balls are made of rubber," etc. They 
are then required to return all, except the blue 
balls, those who give up theirs being allowed 
to select from the box a blue ball in exchange ; 
so that in the end each child has a ball of that 
color. The teacher then says : "Each of you 
has now a blue, rubber ball, which is round, 
soft and light; and these balls will be your 
balls to play with. I will give you another hall 
to-morrow, and the next day another, and so 
on, until you have quite a number of Dulls, 
all of which will be of rubber, but no two of 
the same color." 

The six differently colored halls are to be 
used, one on each day of the week, which as- 
sists the children in recollecting the days of 
the week, and the colors. After distributing 
the balls, the same questions may be asked as 
at the beginning, and the children taught to 
raise and drop their hands with the balls in 
them ; and if there is time, they may make a 
few attempts to throw and catch the balls. 



This is enough for the fust lesson; and it will 
be sure to awaken enthusiasm and delight in 
the children. 

The object of the first occupation is to teach 
the children to distinguish between the right 
and the left hand, and to name the various 
colors. It may serve also to develop their vocal 
organs, and instruct them in the rules of po- 
liteness. How the latter may be accomplished, 
even with such simple occupation as playing 
with balls, may be seen from the following : — 

In presenting the balls, pains should be 
taken to make each child extend the light 
hand, and do it gracefully. The teacher, in 
putting the ball into the little outstretched 
hand, says : — 

"Charles, I place this red, (green, yellow, 
etc.,) ball into your right hand." The child 
is taught to reply: — 

"I thank you, sir." 

After the play is over, and the balls are to 
be replaced, each one says, in returning his 
ball :— 

"I place this red (green, yellow, etc.,) ball, 
with my right hand into the box." 

When the children have acquired some 
knowledge of the different colors, they may he 
asked at the commencement : — 

"With which ball would you like to play 
this morning — the green, red, or blue one?" 
The child will reply : — 

"With the blue one, if you please ;" or one 
of such other color as may be preferred. 

It may appear rather monotonous to some 
to have each child repeat the same phrase; 
but it is only by constant repetition and pa- 
tient drill that anything can be learned accu- 
rately ; and it is certainly important that these 
youthful minds, in their formative state, should 
be taught at once the beauty of on ha- and the 
necessity of rules. So the left hand should 
never be employed when the right hand is re- 
quired ; and all mistakes should be carefully 
noticed and corrected by the teacher. One 
important feature of this system is the incul- 
cation of habits of precision. 

The children's knowledge of color may be 
improved by asking them what other things 
are similar to the different balls, in respect to 
color. After naming several objects, they 



80 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



may be made to repeat sentences like tbe fol- 
lowing : — 

"My ball is green, like a leaf." "My ball 
is yellow, like a lemon." "And mine is red, 
like blood," etc. 

Whatever is pronounced in these conversa- 
tional lessons should be articulated very dis- 
tinctly and accurately, so as to develop the 
organs of speech, and to correct any defect 
of utterance, whether constitutional or the re- 
sult of neglect. ( )pportunities for phonetic and 
elocutionary practice are here afforded. Let 
no one consider the infant period as too early 
for such exercises. If children learn to speak 
well before they learn to read, they never need 
special instruction in the art of reading with 
expression. 

For a second play with the balls, the class 
forms a circle, after the children have received 
the balls in the usual manner. They need to 
stand far enough apart, so that each, with 
arms extended, can just touch his neighbor's 
hand. Standing in this position, aud having 
the balls in their right hands, the children pass 
them into the left hands of their neighbors. 
In this way, each one gives and receives a ball 
at the same time, and the left hands should, 
therefore, be held in such a manner that the 
balls can be readily placed in them. The arms 
are then raised over the head, and the balls 
passed from the left into the right hand, and 
the arms again extended iuto the first position. 
This process is repeated until the balls make 
the complete circuit, and return into the right 
hands of the original owners. The balls are 
then passed to the left in the same way, every- 
thing being done in an opposite direction. This 
exercise should be continued until it can be 
doue rapidly and, at the same time, gracefully. 

Simple as this performance may appeal- to 
those who have never tried it, it is, neverthe- 
less, not easily done by very young children 
without frequent mistakes and interruptions. 



It is better that the children should not turn 
their heads, so as to watch their hands during 
the changes, but be guided solely b} T the sense 
of touch ; and to accomplish this with more 
certainty, they may be required to close their 
eyes. It is advisable not to introduce this 
play or any of the following, until expertness 
is acquired in the first and simpler form. 

In the third play, the children form in two 
rows fronting each other. Those of one row 
only receive balls. These they toss to the 
opposite row : first, one by one ; then two by 
two; finally, the whole row at once, always 
to the counting of the teacher — "one, two, 
throw." 

Again forming four rows, the children in 
the first row toss up and catch, then throw to 
the second row, then to the third, then to the 
fourth, accompanying the exercise Avith count- 
ing as before, or with singing, as soon as this 
can lie done. 

For a further variety, the balls are thrown 
upon the floor, and caught, as they rebound, 
with the right hand or the left hand, or with 
the hand inverted, or they may be sent back 
to the floor several times before catching. 

Throwing the balls against the wall, tossing 
them into the air and many other exercises 
may be introduced whenever the balls are used, 
and will always serve to interest the children. 
Care should be taken to have every movement 
performed in perfect order, and that every 
child take part in all the exercises in its turn. 

At the close of every ball play, the children 
occupy their original places marked on the 
floor, the balls are collected by one or two of 
the older pupils, and after this has been done, 
each child takes the hand of its opposite neigh- 
bor, and bowing, says, "good morning," when 
they march by twos, accompanied by music, 
once or twice through the hall, and then to 
their seats for other occupation. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



Frosbel originally intended this gift for use 
in the nursery when the little one was under 
the direct guidance of his mother, and for such 
use it is admirably adapted. It is probably 
for this reason that so little was made of this 
gift by Prof. Wiebe, who was writing for chil- 
dren of older years, such as were supposed to 



be in the American kindergartens twenty-five 
years ago ; but at the present time very much 
more is made of it, and its possibilities are 
great. As a part of the system it has its place 
in the kindergarten of to-day, being invalua- 
ble, inasmuch as it teaches color, form and 
motion. While from the following series of 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



81 



exercises we can only hint at the endless va- 
riety of games and songs that may be given 
to the children in making relations with this 
gift, the ingenuity of the kindergartner will 
suggest much by which the six soft balls of 
the first gift may be introduced as preliminary 
to the solid forms of the second gift. If the 
child has had no nursery training with the 
balls, only one should be given at a time, red 
being usually chosen. When the red ball has 
been fully introduced and the child has played 
with it in a rhythmical way until perfect sym- 
pathy is established between him and his play- 
thing, another may be given, and so on. 
GENERAL IMPRESSION. 
The kindergartner shows the ball and intro- 
duces her observations with some fitting words, 
as : — 

How pretty is the ball, 
Now please look at it all ! 
While she distributes the balls to the chil- 
dren, who hold both hands to receive one, she 
sings : — 

First open hands and take the ball, 
Then close the little lingers all. 
Then let each child open his hands and place 
the ball before him on the table ; call attention 
to it by saving : — 

This ball of bright and colored wool, 
It looks so very beautiful. 
Examine it, how neat, how clean, 
So should a child be ever seen. 
Ask the children if they can tell you any- 
thing about the ball. Due will answer, "It is 
soft;" "it is rough;" "it is elastic;" "it will 
roll." etc. Then there is something to tell 
them about the rubber tree and an experience 
to gain with every moment during which the 
balls are used. 

Ask the children to rock their balls to sleep, 
making a cradle of the hands, and singing: — 
Our balls are going to Bye-low-land, 
Going to sleep in each child's hand, 
Rock them so gently to and fro, 
Our little balls to sleep must go. 
— or — 
A little ball is lying here 

So quietly asleep, 
And as I rock it to and fro 
A loving watch I'll keep. 
Then, if it is not yet time to put the balls 
away, sing ; — 

It likes now to be moving, 
Moving, roving, moving, roving, 
Moving, roving so. 
Accompany the song by passing the ball 
from one hand to the other, keeping lime to 



the music, which should always be strougly 
marked for } T oung children. Nothing is more 
harmonious or helpful in a kindergarten than 
to get hands and feet accustomed to rhythmi- 
cal motions, hi distributing, if preferred, the 
balls may be called flowers, as :— 

These flowers are so bright and fair, 
Please handle them with tender care: 
And as I pass them to you all, 
Take care they do not break or fall. 
The balls may be flowers that are sleeping, 
and the ehildran's hands the covers ; let some 
child go around to awaken the flowers. Then 
the balls may be leaves on the trees and drop 
quietly down, the children tising their arms 
held above thsir heads for the branches. Again, 
they may be birds, frogs, fishes, fruit, snow- 
balls to be made and thrown up and caught ; al- 
so gifts and decorations for a Christmas tree, 
some child representing the tree. 

These are but a few suggestions as to the 

various purposes for which the balls are used. 

When it is time to put the balls away, sing : — 

My ball lies in its little bed, 
So quiet and so still ; 
I'll gently rock it to and fro, 
And hush it well, I will. 
COLOR. 
Hold up the ball and ask the children what 
color it is, then to find something in the room 
or upon themselves of the same color, and when 
they have found several red things, give the 
name red ; but do not give the name until they 
have watched the color and proved that they 
have experienced the sensation. In teaching 
the other prismatic colors in these exercises, 
observe the same caution — let the sensation 
conic before the name. Children in private 
kindergartens usually know the names of the 
colors. 

"Do you remember what we played in the 
ring? 'Johnny likes to wander.' Now we will 
let the red balls wander just as Johnny did." 
Give a red ball to each child next to you, and 
after it has passed two or three children start 
another, and so on. Sing : — 

The red ball loves to wander 
From one child to another, 
And to each one will say 'Good Day." 
(repeat last line.) 

"When Mr. Red Ball is tired we will gently 
place him on the table and let him rest, while 
we bring from the box one of his brothers. It 
is the color of a round, juicy fruit. Yes, it is 
the color of the orange, and we will let the 



82 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



orange balls wander." Compare real oranges 
with it, and let the children find orange-colored 
objects to match the orange ball. 

After each game let the children do just what 
the ball has done. At the end of any regular 
exercise let the children choose any of the 
games they have played. It is well to let them 
glue red autumn leaves or red kindergarten 
papers on a circular piece of cardboard, either 
white or black, twelve or fourteen inches in 
diameter. A clearer impression of form as well 
as of color will be made if the form is varied 
with the color, using for instance, around chart 
for red, square for orange, oblong for yellow, 
triangular for green, pentagonal for blue, 
hexagonal for violet and octagonal for all the 
colors. These can be fastened upon the wall 
in prismatic order. 

Give each child two round papers of the same 
color. Let the children come one by one and find 
a ball like their papers. Pin the papers on the 
halls for wings, then let the children watch to 
see which bird Hies up from the teacher's lap, 
and direct those who have the same color, to 
let theirs fly at the same time, singing : — 
"Up, up in the sky." 
Down goes the little bird out of sight and a 
new bird Hies into the air. "Now take off the 
wings of your bird and they will be little hulls 
again. Roll them to me, and we will let the 
yellow balls wander. Find other yellow things 
about the room. What have you seen that is 
yellow? Count the yellow halls." 

If in private work the kindergartner finds 
herself with children five years old it may be 
better to use the more mature game of fruit sell- 
ing. A bunch of balls is held up and the chil- 
dren allowed to name each one, as, red cherries, 
3?ellow lemons, green apples, etc., these an- 
swers being drawn from the children. Then 
a child goes down between the tables or around 
the circle to sell the fruit, singing alone or 
with the teacher : — 

Cherries ripe, cherries ripe, 
Who will buy my cherries ripe? 
and is answered by the children singing : — 
Cherries ripe, cherries ripe, 
We will buy your cherries ripe. 
Meanwhile they hold out their hands to re- 
ceive the ball, which the child gives to any one 
he pleases ; the one who receives the ball holds 
it up and then puts it out of sight. An orange 
ball is sold by another child in the same way 
as he sings : — 



Oranges ripe, oranges ripe, 
Who will buy my oranges ripe? 

A yellow ball can represent lemons, with the 
song, "Lemons ripe," etc., a green ball being 
used for apples, while the group is singing "Ap- 
ples green," and so on. Then some child is 
sent to ask for the red ball, another for the 
orange, another for the yellow, etc. This ex- 
ercise trains the attention and memory and 
teaches the children to make comparisons. For 
example : The red ball is like the cherry, the 
orange ball is like an orange, the yellow like a 
bird, the green like the leaves. 

Repeat these games and let each child have 
several counters for money, and come and buy 
a ball of the same color as the money. Or 
for an occupation to develop color, hold the balls 
before the children and let them each select the 
color they like best. After making a choice 
give them a piece of paper of that color, also a 
needle and thread. Ask them to hold the 
bright face of the paper toward them and put 
the needle right through the middle ; then give 
each child a straw and tell them to put their 
needle through the hole, then through another 
piece of paper, and so on until a long chain is 
made. These may be used for necklaces, or 
decorations for the room, etc. 

For the older children the balls ma} 7 be placed 
in a circle on the table and a game of hiding the 
balls played. Let some child close his eyes, 
and when a ball is taken away, have the chil- 
dren sing : — 

Now toll little playmate, 
Who has gone from our ring ; 
And if you guess rightly, 
We'll clap :i< we sing. 

If the child can tell on opening his eyes which 
ball is missing, whether the red, orange, violet, 
etc., the children clap their hands, at the same 
time singing, la-la-la. This game can be in- 
troduced by playing with a group of six chil- 
dren instead of six balls, and is afterward 
played with all the children in the ring. 

The balls may be different flowers and the 
table a garden. Interest the children by show- 
ing them some real flowers, and talking about 
them. Ask the children if the}' can name the 
flowers, then suggest the idea that they use the 
balls for flowers, and the table for a garden 
and have just such pretty flowers growing in 
their beds. 

Gather the balls in a bunch and holding them 
up ask which they will use for geraniums, which 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



83 



for marigolds, which for yellow roses, green 
buds, forget-me-nots and violets, letting each 
child pick out the flower and the ball corre- 
sponding to it in color. 

Give each child the choice of the flower 
which he would like in his garden and if the 
smaller children cannot tell it by the name, 
have them point it out among the real flowers. 
Let their hands lie used as a cover for the 
flowers and when they have placed them on 
the table with the palms downward, suggest 
that they go to sleep, as the little flowers when 
planted in their beds will want to sleep soundly 
until it is warm enough to throw off their covers 
and creep out. The children may then see if 
they have in their garden the kind of flower 
which they have chosen. 

When all eyes are closed place the ball which 
is the color of the flower chosen under their 
hands. While the little plants are kept snug 
and warm have the children make a little rain 
shower with the other hand. Down the rain- 
drops gently patter, whispering to the sleeping 
flowers that it is time to awaken from their long 
nap. "Let us see if the violets in our gar- 
dens have heard the gentle call of the rain drops 
and are going to creep out." Hold up the real 
violet that the sense impression of violet may 
accompany the words. And presently the vio- 
let balls begin to throw off their covers and 
peep out and with the string held close to the 
ball are slowly raised while the teacher sings : — 

Oh, lovely little violet, 
I pray you, tell me, dear, 

Why you appear so early, 
Ere other flowers are here. 

The children with the violet balls answer : — 

Because I am so tiny, 

In early May come I, 
If I conic with the others, 

I fear you'd pass me by. 

(Miss Jenks ''Song and Games.") 

When all the violets are in bloom let them 
bend and nod and whisper to each other, while 
the sunbeams speak to the other flowers. 

Some child is chosen for the sunbeam, and 
flits from flower to flower, touching them softly 
and as they awaken one by one, the real flowers 
are held up that the balls may peep out and 
grow up in the same way as before. If some 
are still sleeping another child is chosen for 
the sunbeam, and when the garden is full of 
flowers ask the children if they would like to 
make them into bouquets. Have one child take 



his violet and find all its little sisters and make 
a bouquet of violets. Another child is chosen 
to secure a bunch of marigolds ; and when the 
roses, buds, geraniums, and forget-me-nots are 
all gathered the game may be repeated. This 
time, however, have all the flowers bloom out 
together, and as they are growing up, sing the 
second verse of ''The Little Plant" from Emilie 
Poulsson's Finger Plays. 

Choose different children to gather the flow- 
ers this time, and make them into a wreath. 
Ask the children for the different flowers and 
as the balls are handed to you one by one, 
open the double string and loop it over the next 
ball and so on until the wreath is complete. 
One advantage of introducing more than one 
game is that of giving the children the favor 
of choosing. This should be done impartially 
and the dull, inactive children should be drawn 
out in the same way. The teacher should gen- 
tly insist on their choosing, and the feeling 
that their choice guides the play of the others 
draws them out of their isolation into the sun- 
shine of companionship. These little things in 
the hands of a skilled kindergartner who is 
working from the standpoint of the child to de- 
velop his whole being, may prevent much that 
is morbid and harmful. The ball is to him a 
bird, a flower, sometimes it tells one story to 
the child and sometimes another ; it is a living, 
cherished playfellow, and gradually its quali- 
ties are mastered and found in other things. 
Thus the ball becomes a starting point for a 
vigorous and wholesome exercise of memory 
and imagination, aud the insight of the child 
is quickened aud extended. 

FOEM. 

Call attention to the roundness of the ball 
by saying : — 

Look at the ball from left to right, 
You'll see the same appearance quite; 

'Tis round, aud turn it as you will 
You'll see the same appearance still. 

Have the children go through the movements 
and then ask them to name other round objects. 
A suitable story or song may be brought in. 
The ball being an unseparated whole, conveys 
the idea of unity, and may represent the world, 
an apple, a wheel, bird's nest, etc. 

Although form is very little emphasized in this 
gift, the child's observation is gained by calling 
attention to its shape and color, and his activity 
called forth by simple exercises, while his moral 



84 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



faculty is 'being developed, and his intelligence 
opened to comprehend the law underlying all 
life as it exists externally, namely, that all 
the diversity of external phenomena returns to 
and rests in that which is itself a complete 
whole. 

MOTION. 

No other quality appeals more strongly to 
young children than motion, which is one of the 
chief characteristics of this gift. While every 
muscle receives exercise and strength, force 
and energy are developed, and with the alum- 
dance of matter which comes under the notice 
of the kindergartner it will he easy for her to 
introduce new observations. Wind the string 
around the ball and roll one to each child and 
let the children tell the color as the ball rolls. 
-What did the 1 »alls do ?" They rolled. "Would 
you like to hear a song about rolling?" 

Roll over, come back here 

So merry and free, 

My playfellow dear 

Who shares in my glee. 
Let the children on one side roll to the chil- 
dren on the other or place the hands a foot and 
a half apart and throw the ball from one to the 
other, singing ; — 

The hall desires to wander, 

To fly across to yonder 

Right, left— right, left. 
Regulate the rolling by the motion of the 
hand or by the rhythm of the song. At the 
end of the exercise let the children play the 
balls are marbles and roll down the length of 
the table, telling the color of the one they hit. 
Roll again, this time at word of command : 
"One, two, three, roll!" Vary the counting in 
order to exercise and develop attention, and 
let each child roll to counting, as this exercise 
results in training the hand and eye, and also 
develops color as well as attention. 

Let the child take the ball in both hands and 
drop it into the hands of the next child, held 
together to receive it. Sing from Miss Jenk's 
book : — 

Little ball, pass along. 
Slyly on your way ; 

While we sing a merry song, 
You must never stay, 

'Till at last the song is done, 
Then we'll try to find 

In what pair of little hands, 
You've been left behind. 

Older children may pass the ball by taking 
it in one hand, passing it to the other and from 
that placing it in the nearest hand of the next 



child, -who repeats the same movements. These 
movements require care and attention and pro- 
vide good exercise, but are too hard for very 
young children ; for if they are attempted they 
should be done exactly right, as indeed should 
every exercise in the kindergarten. Accuracy 
rightly developed does not interfere with the 
spirit of play which should be kept. Children 
love to do things accurately if the requirement 
is suited to their capacity, and the kindergart- 
ner has the right spirit. Tins exactness in little 
things lays the foundation for habits that are 
of great value. 

Let the balls hop from one hand (the nest) 
upon the table and sing, "Hopping Birds." 
Teach direction by showing how we make the 
ball sink and rise. "How does it go?" Ask 
the children to tell something that moves up 
and down, as elevator, window, curtain, etc.,, 
and sing : — 

Ball is sinking downward, 

Rising up again, 

Sinking, rising, 

See how the ball sinks and rises. 
— or — 

My ball comes up to meet me, 

Then down it goes so fleetly 
In the air, oh, hurrah ! 
In the air, oh, hurrah ! 
Hold the ball in one hand, so that the string 
makes a vertical line. Notice things in the 
room whose position is upright, legs of piano, 
edge of door, etc. 

Tell the children about carrier pigeons, how 
they carry letters tied under their wings. Not 
a whole bag full, like the postman, but just one. 
Some one ties it under the wing and then they 
fly up high and go a long way and take it to the 
right place. Before this exercise let the chil- 
dren play "See our pretty birdie fly," in the 
ring and let them now play this with their balls. 
Let the ball fly in the air and then alight on 
the table before them. "What kind of a bird 
is it?" Robin Redbreast, Oriole, Canary, Par- 
rot, Bluebird, according to color. Sing: "Lit- 
tle bird, you are welcome." Let the balls of 
all colors fly up and then come to rest. Make 
a nest with both hands and sing : — 
Up, up in the sky the little birds fly. 
Down, down in the nest, the little birds rest. 
With a wing on the left and a wing on the right, 
These dear little birdies are all safe for the night. 

Recall songs of previous exercises, and let 
the children choose which they like. Notice 
what they choose and develop conversation 
through songs and games. Ask the children 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



85 



how else or in what other direction the balls 
move. Introduce hack and front movement, sing- 
ing "The Pendulum," and let the children play 
it. Ask them to show 3 r ou with their 1 >alls how 
the clock goes. "What does it say?" Tick, 
tack. "Would yon like to sing about theclock ?" 
Teach and sing : '"Come and see" or "To and 
Fro," the children singing "tick, tack," only, if 
they cannot sing words readily . "Can you make 
your arms go like the pendulum ? Let us make 
our arms go to the right, tick — to the left, 
tack, etc. Now make the balls swing right, 
left, tick, tack. Hold the string from left to 
right. How does t he edge of the tal >le go ?" Left 
to right. Froebel says : "Direction should be 
rooted in motion." That is, the vertical move- 
ment should precede the vertical line and the 
horizontal movement the horizontal line. 

Now bring out front and back movement and 
sing : — 

Now ball swing to and fro, 
More gently, soft and slow, 
But far away, you cannot stay 
While swinging to and fro. 
— or — 
Bim bom, bim bom. 
So the bells swing in the steeple, 
Call to church the kind good people. 
Bim bom, bim bom, bim bom. 

Let the children merely sing "Bim, bom." 
* 'Canyon make your arm go like the bell ? What 
kind of bells have you heard ? What do the 
great church bells say ?" Hold the ball in one 
hand and the end of the string in the other. 
"How does the string go?" Back and front. 

Ask the children if they would like their balls 
to go round and round. Sing "Round and 
round it goes," repeating the first line of the 
mill wheel in Mrs. Hubbard's book and swing 
the ball round and round by the string, play- 
ing the balls are mill wheels. If the time has 
come to put the balls away sing : — 
And now 'tis time to rest, 
You've done your very best. 



Go sleep dear ball till next I eall ! 
For now 'tis time to rest. 

As the ball swings round and round it may 
represent the windmill. And in this way the 
kindergartner may bring in the action of the 
wind. Ask the children to show witli the 
balls and their hands the kind of work which 
the wind does. 

Let them represent the trees, with the hands 
raised above the head and a swaying motion 
of arms and hands for the branches, which wave 
and bend as the wind blows. 

Suggest that they show how the wind rocks 
the bird's nest, which may lie built high up in 
the tree- tops where the little birds may come. 

Let them choose which kind of a bird they 
would like in their nest, then with the fingers 
curved upward to form the nest swing the balls 
one by one into their hands ; then let the wind 
gently rock the tree-tops from side to side by 
a swaying movement of the hand from right to 
left, the ball being held in the center of one 
hand while singing from Mrs. Hailmann's 
songs : — 

In the tall branch of the tree-top 
There's a nest snug and warm. 
In it lies a little birdie, 

Safe in sunshine and in storm, etc. 

Let them show how the wind plays with the 
leaves, how it moves the boats across the water 
when the waves are high, how it sails the kites, 
how it blows the clothes on the line, repre- 
senting each movement with the ball held in 
the hand. When acting in unison, the children 
will feel the harmony of a movement more 
strongly, then when acting separately ; then 
they enjoy rolling the ball from one to the 
other, throwing it up in the air, against the 
ground or wall and catching it, or by throwing 
it backward and forward to each other. These 
few hints will suffice to enable one to invent 
new plays and make suitable variations of 
those here given. 



THE SECOND GIFT. 




course, without giving 



The Second Gift consists of a sphere, a 
cube and a cylinder. 
These the teacher 
places upon the 
table, together with 
a rubber ball, and 
asks : — 

'•Which of these 
three objects looks 
most like the ball?" 

The children will \ 
certainly point out 
the sphere, but, of 
its name. 

"Of what is it made?"' the teacher asks, 
placing it in the hand of some pupil or rolling- 
it across the table. 

The answer will doubtless be "Of wood." 
••So we might call the object a wooden hull. 
But we will give it another name. We will 
call it a sphere." 

Each child must here be taught to pronounce 
the word, enunciating each sound very dis- 
tinctly. The ball and sphere are then further 
compared with each other as to material, color, 
weight, etc., to find their similarities and dis- 
similarities. Both are round ; both roll. The 
ball is soft; the sphere is hard. The ball is 
light; the sphere is heavy. The sphere makes 
a louder noise when it falls from the table than 
the ball. The ball rebounds when it is thrown 
upon the floor; the sphere does not. All 
these answers are drawn out from the pupils by 
suitable experiments and questions and every- 
one is required to repeat each sentence when 
fully explained. 

The children then form a circle, and the 
teacher rolls the sphere to one of them, asking 
the child to stop it with both his feet. This 
child then takes his place in the center, and 
rolls the sphere to another one, who again 
stops it with his feet, and so on, until all the 
children have in turn taken their place in the 
center of the circle. At another time, the 
children may sit in two rows upon the floor, 
facing each other. A white and a black sphere 
are then given to the heads of the rows who 
exchange by rolling them across to each other. 
Then the spheres are rolled across obliquely 
to the second individuals in the rows. These 



exchange as before, and then roll the spheres 
to those who sit third, and so on until they 
have passed throughout the lines and back 
again to the head. Both spheres should be 
rolling at the same instant, which can be ef- 
fected only by counting or when time is kept 
to accompanying music. 

Another variety of play in the use of this 
gift consists in placing the rubber ball at a 
distance on the floor, and letting each child, in 
turn, attempt to hit it with the sphere. 

For the purpose of further instruction, the 
sphere, cube, and cylinder are again placed 
upon the table, and the children are asked 
to discover and designate the points of re- 
semblance and difference in the first two. 
They will find, on examination, that both are 
made of wood, and of the same color; but 
the sphere can roll, while the cube cannot. 
Inquire the cause for this difference, and the 
answer will, most likely, be either, "The sphere 
is round," or "The cube has corners." 

"How many coiners has the cube?" The 
children count them, and reply, "Eight." 

"If I put my linger on one of these corners, 
and let it glide down to the corner below it, 
(thus,) my linger has passed along an edge of 
the cube. How many such edges can we count 
on this cube? I will let my finger glide over 
the edges, one after the other, and } t ou may 
count." 

"One, two, three, 12." 

"Our cube, then, has eight corners, and 
twelve edges. I will now show 3 t ou four cor- 
ners and four edges, and say that this part of 
the cube, which is contained between these four 
corners and four edges, is called a side of the 
cube. Count how many sides the cube has." 

"One, two, three, four, five, six." 

"Are these sides all alike, or is one small 
and another large?" "They are all alike." 

"Then we may say that our cube has six 
sides, all alike, and that each side has four 
edges, all alike. Each of these sides of the 
cube is called a square." 

To explain the cylinder, a conversation like 
the following may take place. It will be ob- 
served that instruction is here given mainly by 
comparison, which is, in fact, the only philo- 
sophical method. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



87 



The sphere, cube, and cylinder are placed 
together as before, in the presence of the chil- 
dren. They readily recognize and name the 
first two, but are in doubt about the third, 
whether it is a barrel or a wheel. They may 
be suffered to indulge their fancy for awhile 
in finding a name for it, but are, at last, told 
that it is a cylinder, and are taught to pro- 
nounce the word distinctly and accurately. 

"What do you see on the cylinder which you 
also see on the. cube?" ''The cylinder has two 
sides." "Are the sides square, like those of 
the cube?" "They are not." 

"But the cylinder can stand on these sides 
just as the cube can. Let us see if it cannot 
roll, too, as the sphere does. Yes ! it rolls ; 
but not like the sphere, for it can roll only in 
two ways, while the sphere can roll any way. 
So, you see, the sphere, cube, and cylinder are 
alike in some respects, and different in others. 
Can you tell me in what respects they are just 
alike?" 

"They are made of wood ; are smooth ; are 
of the same color ; are heavy ; make a loud 
noise when they fall on the floor." 

These answers must be drawn out by ex- 
periments with the objects, and by questions, 
logically put, so as to lead to these results as 
natural conclusions. The exercise may be con- 
tinued, if desirable, by asking the children to 
name objects which look like the sphere, cube, 
or cylinder. The edge of a cube may also be 
explained as representing a straight line. The 



point where two or three lines or edges meet 
is called a corner; the inner point of a corner 
is an angle, of which each side, or square, of 
the cube has four. To sum up what has al- 
ready been taught : The cube has six sides, 
or squares, all alike ; eight corners and twelve 
edges ; and each side of the cube has four 
edges, all alike ; four corners, and four angles. 

The sphere, cube, and cylinder, when sus- 
pended by a double thread, can be made to 
rotate around themselves, for the purpose of 
showing that the sphere appeal's the same in 
form in whatever manner we look at it; that 
the cube when rotating, (suspended at the 
center of one of its sides,) shows the form 
of the cylinder; and that the cylinder, when 
rotating, (suspended at the center of its round 
side,) presents the appearance 1 of a sphere. 

Thus, there is, as it were, an inner triunity 
in these three objects — sphere contained in 
cylinder, and cylinder in cube, the cylinder 
forming the mediation between the two others, 
or the transition from one to the other. Al- 
though the child may not be told, the teacher 
may think, in this connection, of the natural 
law, according to which the fruit is contained 
in the fkrwer, the flower is hidden in the bud. 

Suspended at other points, cylinder and cube 
present other forms, all of which are interest- 
ing for the children to look at, and can be 
made instructive to their young minds, if ac- 
companied by apt conversation on the part of 
the teacher. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



The second gift consists of a box containing 
a sphere, a cube with staples, and a cylinder, 
together with sticks and an additional perfectly 
plain cube. It fulfills a varied and valuable 
office in child education and has an individuality 
we did not find in the first gift, since each form 
is distinct from and unlike the others. 

Its strongest educational value consists in 
the fact that it represents the fundamental 
forms of the universe. The ball is the sym- 
bol of the earth, the sun, the moon and all the 
heavenly bodies. The cube symbolizes the min- 
eral kingdom, and connecting these is the cyl- 
inder, which is the prevailing type of animal 
and vegetable life. 

We find the sphere of this gift resembles the 
soft ball in form, and in many things which 



the ball can do, but it has additional powers ; 
it can speak to us and is permanent in form 
and material. 

Of this gift every child should have a full 
set, and as the sphere, cube and cylinder form 
a whole, they should be presented as a whole 
to the child, though in the beginning they 
may be given to him singty. The ball is first 
offered him. The child recognizes his old 
playfellow and his first thought will be that he 
has another ball, because the similar form will 
attract his attention. 

This is right and will be found to be one of 
the principles in Frcebel's system. A similar- 
ity with the previous steps may always be ob- 
served, and this gives each new step the claim 
of an old friend, enlisting feeling as well as 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



thought, while presenting something in advance. 
The child will at once perceive, however, 
that the sphere looks, feels and sounds dif- 
ferently ; that it resists his grasp although the 
woolen ball yielded to it. Immediately he be- 
gins to make comparisons. The new ball will 
be found, unlike the previous one, to be capa- 
ble of making a noise on the table, and this 
should not be repressed too much. Children 
like to hear sounds, as they like to see and 
handle things ; and although we have learned to 
discriminate between noise and music, we must 
remember that children delight in noise for its 
own sake until they are led through it to rhyth- 
mical sounds and later to music ; so a little 
noise on the table with the sphere is legitimate 
if it is not aimless. 

the sphere. 

The gift may be introduced by asking the 
children to close their eyes and placing a sphere 
in each child's hand ask for a description be- 
fore they open their eyes. "What is it like?" 
"How does it feel?" Give them a ball of the 
first gift and let them tell about both without 
opening the eyes. Then ask them to open their 
eyes and tell what they see. "Why ! that is a 
ball, too." True enough, but not like the other 
ball, so let us find out what the difference is. 

Lead the children to experiment with the 
sphere, play with it and tell yon what they dis- 
cover. They will tell you that the sphere will 
roll, toss, swing, and that it does not easily stand 
still. Give them hard and soft spheres, smooth 
and rough spheres, spheres of different sizes 
and colors and draw out their comparisons. 

After the children have made their discoveries 
and comparisons let them look about the room 
for similar forms, and also ask them to bring 
similar forms from home. These lessons on 
solid forms give scope for much general in- 
formation. Little talks about the wood, where 
it comes from, etc., may become a part of the 
work, suggesting many pretty songs. 

If the three forms are brought out at one time 
they may be called three little frieuds who live 
together in a long, brown house, which is just 
large enough for them to get inside, each in his 
own place and close the door. 

Ask questions to develop the children's ideas ; 
who these people are, what they are like, what 
they can do, and so on. Then bring the sphere 
from the box. The first thing the children will 



want to do is to pound or make a noise. Do 
not restrain the action but as one kindergartner 
suggests, play concert, be their bandmaster 
:ui(l count for them. "All lift up the balls, 
one — two — knock ; one — two — three — knock," 
and so on, putting a definite thought into an 
indefinite action. 

Ask the children what they have played with 
the soft balls. Repeat the games as the chil- 
dren name them, until they have thought of 
what the} 7 played, and play these games with 
the sphere. 

Their imagination changes the sphere into 
many new things. It is the carpenter's 
hammer or the blacksmith's sledge. It is a 
swift horse or a capering dog ; not now so 
often the tiny bird, but something with more 
strength and vigor, yet still full of life and 
activity. 

Let a sphere run to Robbie; now one to 
Mary. Bring out the fact that it goes over and 
over and rolls because it is round. After having 
given frequent illustrations of the roundness of 
the ball the name sphere is introduced. Ask 
the children to name something that goes round 
and round, and let them spin, roll and swing 
the sphere. Notice that "in every place, it 
always shows its oue curved face." Let the 
sphere swing from left to right, repeating the 
exercise the children had with the ball of the 
first gift. 

. Give spheres to the children who are sitting of 
one side of the table to roll to those on the 
other side, while they all sing, "Roll over, 
come back here, so merry and free ;" or "One, 
two, three, roll." Repeat the songs, letting 
some have the hard and some have the soft 
balls, exchanging them so that each may have 
both kinds. At the end of the exercise com- 
pare the two, thus bringing out the quality of 
sonorousness. 

They find in this gift something that speaks 
to them, for after the motion of au object the 
sound which it makes is next noticed and it is 
this quality which gives its special charm to the 
sphere. To bring out sound especially, tap the 
soft ball on the table and let some child answer 
good morning to it and guess who it is ; then 
tap the hard ball and let another child answer 
this time, and guess who it is ; knock in dif- 
ferent parts of the room, on different articles. 

To connect the two gifts sing, while hold- 
ing the soft ball by the string : — 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



89 



Here's a little kitty, 

Going round and round : 
She has cushions on her feet, 

And never makes a sound. 
With the hard ball sing : — 

Here's a little pony, 

Trotting round and round ; 
He has hoofs upon his feet, 

And stamps upon the ground. 

Let the children roll in turn a soft ball and 
the sphere to hit another ball at the end of the 
table. It will be enough for very little chil- 
dren to get an experience of the difference in 
the rolling of the two balls. Older children 
should be led to see and tell you that it is be- 
cause the sphere is hard that it rolls better 
than the ball. This will make a foundation 
for the understanding of resistance when they 
study physics. Let the children come to you 
and roll the sphere in a plate. Sing for them 
"Round I roll when in a plate," then let them 
roll it along the length of the table and siug : — 
Now along the table straight, 
When I rest, or roll or fall, 
Always I'm your little ball. 

The spheres can be nuts for the tree and so 
connected with the winter fireside or the Christ- 
mas time. A little skill keeps up the connec- 
tion with the special season of the year and 
with the previous work. 

In playing the "Fruit Game" substitute nuts 
for the fruit, as : — 

"Who will buy, who will buy, 
Who will buy our walnuts ripe?" 

Let the children sell different kinds of nuts, 
and then try to find the buyer, which gives a 
test of memory, with no color to aid, although 
the children seldom fail to find them all. Repeat 
the games with ball and sphere sufficiently often 
to keep the connection. The number of times 
and amount of pleasure given by them will be 
in proportion to the interest and resources of 
the kindergartner. 

THE CUBE. 

After you have taught all you can from 
the sphere give each child the cube. Some 
one asks, "Why not the cylinder, as it is more 
like the ball ?" Because it is similar is just 
the reason it is not presented next. All knowl- 
edge is based on comparison, but a compari- 
son is not possible without differences and 
contrasts. The simplicity and unity which 
characterize the sphere are replaced by variety 
and multiplicity in the cube, and the decided 



contrast between the two will give the child a 
clearer impression, so that when he receives 
the cube he will again make comparisons. 

Call for similarities first, differences after- 
ward. Both an 1 hard, smooth, made of wood, 
and of the same color. Let each child try to 
roll the cube, and he will see it will stand firmly 
but cannot roll, although the sphere readily 
obeyed the slighest impulse to move. The 
cube, standing solidly on one face refusing to 
roll or to yield to anything but force, opens 
a new world to him. It suggests big stones, and 
foundations for ground work. It is the type 
of the mineral world and possesses solidity and 
security. Hence in piling up the forms the 
child almost invariably places the cube at the 
bottom, needing no suggestion as to its proper 
position. 

In comparing the two, the child finds that 
the sphere has one round face, while the cube 
has many faces ; that the cube has edges and 
corners, which the ball has not ; the ball gives 
the idea of motion and the cube of rest ; the 
ball may be placed in a stationary position at 
any point, the cube will only rest on its faces. 

Place a cube before each child near the front 
of the table, and ask the children how many 
faces they see ; of course they can only see the 
one directly under their eyes. Move the cube 
back and ask again. They will see two faces. 
Let them turn their heads a little and hold 
perfectly still. Ask once more and they will 
say three faces. Lead them to realize that 
they can only see three faces at one time. A 
large paper cube suspended in the room with 
opposite faces of different colors will help the 
children to appreciate this fact. Ask them to 
bring things into the kindergarten which are like 
the cube in form. 

Give each child six parquetry papers, two of 
one color ; for instance, two red, two orange, 
two green. Make the face of the cube quite 
wet with a camel's hair brush and water, and 
let each child put on a red paper. Let him 
find the opposite side and put on the other red 
paper. Put on the orange and green in the 
same way, taking the faces in twos ; the upper 
and lower first, then the front and back, then 
the right and left. If the child is too young to 
count the faces he will get an experience of 
many and opposite faces. The older children 
can count the faces without confusion, with the 
help of the opposite color, or they can roll the 



90 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



sphere and mark with chalk each one of the six 
square, flat faces, as they find and count them. 

Let each child roll one sphere in turn and try 
to strike the cube at the other end of the table. 
"On what does the cube stand?" On one of 
its faces. Give the older children the name 
flat face and curved face. "How many faces 
has the cube?" Six. "How many faces has 
the sphere?" One. "What kind of faces 
has the cube?" "What kind of a face has the 
sphere?" Let each child come to you in turn 
and shutting his eyes, tell by feeling whether 
it is a curved or a fiat face he is touching. 

In the games the peculiar characteristics of 
the sphere and cube may be brought out by 
their movableness and steadfastness. The 
directions indicated through motion in the first 
gift are here found to be permanent in the faces 
and edges of the cube, and are easily recognized. 

The cube may be a little house and the 
sphere a little boy who lives in it. Let the 
sphere run to this side of the house and knock, 
and now at this, and then this, and this, (four 
sides). Now we will put him on the top of 
the house. Then take the boy away and lift 
up the house to find one more side. Count the 
sides as you strike them. "What else can we 
find on the cube?" Bring out corners and 
edges by letting each child make a little dent 
on his hand with the corner of the cube, and 
a little crease with the edge. Ask the children 
if they can dent or crease their hands with the 
sphere. Ask them to show you all the corners 
and edges they can without counting. If the 
children are very young or very backward give 
them a clear idea of corners by letting a child 
stand in the corner of the room, and give each 
child a little seed to put in the corner of his 
cube, then one for the opposite corner, and so 
on. The six sides, eight corners and twelve 
edges appear a world of study to the children 
and give the foundation for number work. 

Thus far the child has seen the cube in a 
state of rest. It will cause him more lively 
pleasure to note the peculiarities of its free 
motions. Suspend the cube and ask how many 
faces the cube has. If one child can answer, 
let him come up and spin the cube while the 
others sing to the air of "Be quiet dear cube," 
in Mrs. Hubbard's book : — 
My six, square, flat faces are running away, 
And chasing each other around in their play. 
Come back little faces, come back and stand still. 
And now you may run off again if you will. 



The children call this singing the cube, and 
the desire to come up and spin the cube stim- 
ulates them to make an effort to remember the 
number of faces. If there is time finish with 
a rolling exercise. This dialogue between the 
cube and the child may be sung for many 
exercises until the number and kind of faces 
are firmly fixed. Those children who do not 
spin the cube may roll two spheres along the 
table to hit the cube. 

When the number of faces are fixed, the 
corners may be sung to the same tune : — 
My eight little corners are running away, 
And chasing each other around in their play, 
('nine back little corners, come back and standstill, 
And then you may run off again if you will. 

This rolling may be used for several lessons 
until the children are sure of the number of 
corners, then the edges may be brought out by 
singing, "My twelve little edges are running 
away," etc. 

While the sphere always presents one and 
the same appearance, the cube shows a marked 
difference of form with each movement. If a 
string is fastened to one corner or the middle 
of any edge and the cube is twirled, it has the 
appearance, viewed from the side, of a double, 
cone, or, as the children would call it, a top. 
When looked down upon, its edges and cor- 
ners seem to slip away and we see a point in 
the center surrounded by a circle. When 
whirled from the center of a face the cylin- 
drical form is shown, with a shadowy circle out- 
side. All these peculiarities will be brought 
out under the child's notice while playing with 
the cube. 

THE CYLINDER. 

When the wonder and pleasure of the cube 
have been indulged in long enough, add the 
cylinder, or as the children eallit,the "roller." 
"What can the sphere do?" "What can the 
cube do?" "Did you ever see anything that 
could roll and stand too ?" Bring out the cyl- 
inder. It may be introduced as a cousin. Roll 
one to each child and let him tell wherein the 
cylinder resembles its cousins. This form will 
also make a noise and is in color like the sphere 
and cube. It will roll like the ball because it 
has one round face ; it will stand or rest like 
the cube because it has flat faces. While the 
ball rests on a point, and the cube on a face, 
the cylinder can rest either on a face or a line. 
The cylinder has two curved edges, but no 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



91 



corners. Let the children show faces and 
edges. Roll it and then let it stand. Count 
one, two, three, and let each child roll his cyl- 
inder to you. Notice flat and curved faces. 
Let the children show you a flat face — a curved 
face. ' 'How many flat faces are there ?" ' 'How 
many curved faces?" "Can you put your fin- 
ger along a, liue on the curved face?" The 
outlines of the flat faces form circles. If the 
linger is passed around the curved face a circle 
is made, but by passing it up and down we get 
a straight line. 

Let each child have a sphere to compare with 
the cylinder. "Can you find a straight line on 
the sphere's curved face?" Suggest that he 
close his eyes, and taking his finger see if he 
can tell whether he is touching the sphere's 
curved face, or the cylinder's curved face. 
Let each child in turn roll the cylinder and ball 
to hit the cube. Ask the children to bring things 
from home like the cylinder, and to tell all the 
reasons why it is a cylinder ; also when they 
bring anything like the sphere and cube to tell 
why it is a sphere or a cube. 

Let the children come to you and find things 
among those they have brought, or that you 
have collected, that look like the sphere, the 
cube or the cylinder; also let the older chil- 
dren tell you what they can see from the win- 
dow that is like either of these forms. 

As soon as the child becomes familiar with 
these forms they will become to him types of 
the life around him. He is very quick to ob- 
serve how everything can be classified under 
one of these three forms ; thus the triune law 
of all growth is revealed to him, until gradually 
it dawns upon him that these objects are con- 
nected by having properties in common, and 
out of this feeling develops the perception of 
unity in the midst of diversity. As the cyl- 
inder seems to have been left in a somewhat 
isolated position, it is well to attract as much 
attention as possible to this object, a more ex- 
tensive use of which, will be brought out in 
the fifth gift B. 

The forms of the second gift are provided with 
staples in which strings may be inserted, and 
the object suspended by holding the ends of 
the string between the thumb and fingers. 
Twist the string, and let the child hold it while 
it revolves ; he will be delighted to see one form 
merge into another, and finally come back to 
the first form. By holding an end in each hand, 



and skillfully pulling them apart, revolving the 
form as the string untwists, and then allowing 
the impetus of the form to twist the string as 
it is slackened, so that by repeating the opera- 
tion a rapid rotary motion may be produced, 
first in one direction and then in the other, 
curious semi-transparent shapes may he seen 
which will create an interest in geometrical 
forms. The cube seems to change into a cyl- 
inder, a double cone, or a cylinder and wheel ; 
the cylinder is a sphere within a sphere or a 
double cone in a sphere and wheel, and thus 
the child learns that things in motion seem very 
different from what they really are. Suspend 
a cube from its face with a double string and 
spin it. "How does the cube look now?" Like 
a cylinder or roller. "Now that it stops what 
does it look like?" Like the cube. "Now it 
spins again ; what does it look like?" Sing to 
the tune of "Buy a broom" : — 
()li. say Mr. Cube what now are youhiding, 
What now are you hiding this morning from me? 
I'll let you go flying,and then I'll lie spying, 
What it is you are hiding this morning from me. 
"Tis the roller! 'Tis the roller! 
'Tis the roller youare hiding this morning from me. 

Let two children come up and spin the ball, 
singing, "Round goes the ball, but in every 
place." Let two more come and spin the cube, 
singing, "Oh, say Mr. Cube what are you hid- 
ing?" Let two more come and see what the 
roller hides. Sing : — 

Here the roller comes with its faces three, 
la-la-la-la-la. 

He is just as sober as he can be, 
la-la-la-la-la. 

But when he is whirling, his faces grow thin, 

And show the little hard ball within, 
la-la-la-la-la-la-la-la-la-la-la. 
(Thismay be sung to "Vive la Companee," a col- 
lege song.) 

If the cylinder is twirled from the middle 
of a curved face, a ball is seen with a shadowy 
rim around it. If twirled from the middle of 
a flat face, a double cone appears, when viewed 
from the side ; when looked down upon, a ball 
flattened at the top, accompanied by a shadowy 
rim is seen. If twirled from the edge of a flat 
face a cone appears from the side, a ball from 
above. Thus the ball is seen in the cylinder, 
the cylinder in the tube, and the double cone in 
both cube and cylinder. This finding of one 
form within another brings out the unity of the 
second gift. 

Instead of using the double string a rod may 
be passed through the holes in the cylinder and 



92 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



cube. Have the rod bluntly pointed at both 
ends, and with one end on the table, hold the 
top end with the finger resting on it, and im- 
part a rotary motion to the form by impulses 
from the finger of the other hand. Several of 
these forms are shown in Figs. 1-5. 

Fig. 1, represents the cube with the :ixis 
through the center of opposite faces. 

Fig. 2, the cube with the axis through diag- 
onally opposite corners. 



This gift proves most instructive if the sphere, 
cylinder and cube are given all at once. They 
may be placed side by side, or as in Fig. (i. 
producing a column, which arrangement is em- 
bodied in the two Froebel memorial stones. 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Fig. 3, the cube as rotated on an axis pass- 
ing through the centers of two diagonally op- 
posite edges. 





Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

Fig. 4, shows the cylinder as being rotated 
on a rod perpendicular to the center of its natu- 
ral axis. 

Fig. 5, represents the rotating cylinder with 
the axis diagonally through from edge to edge. 
An interest in form inspired in this way, may 
lead to later investigation into the mysteries of 
the sciences, results of which eternity alone can 
measure. Do not make the child weary with this 
gift. Rolling the ball and cylinder may always 
be brought in to relieve monotony if necessary. 

A sequence of lessons on bread-making may 
be given, after the child has become familiar 
with various seeds and the processes of plough- 
ing, planting, reaping, etc., until finally the 
baker makes the bread ; the sphere, cube and 
cylinder playing their part as raindrops, store- 
house, seeds, plough, mill wheels, flour barrel, 
rolling pin and other well-known forms. 



Fig. 6. 

After the three forms have been enjoyed to- 
gether place them in the box which may be 
given to the children and much pleasure derived 
from its examination. The shape of the box 
will be noticed, and the different ways of plac- 
ing it, so that the length will be from back 
to front, from right to left, and up and down. 
But the height of joy is in the possession of 
such treasures as lie in the box. The friends 
he has known so intimately lie there together, 
the ball alwa3 T s at the "door end," as he calls 
it, of the box, which should always be placed 
at the right hand, the cube at the left and the 
roller in the middle. The other cube with 
"something the matter with its corners" and 
its edges is such a study ; but it does not take 
the average child long to find that the little 
rattan in the box will just fit in the holes 
through the cube, or to notice that if he only 
had a string he could put it through the little 
"rings" that he sees. He makes one discovery 
after another, and when he finds that the two 
round sticks fit into the holes (which were be- 
fore a mystery) in the lid of the box, and that 
the square stick goes on the top of these, a new 
world is surely discovered by each little Col- 
umbus. The box may be fitted up with paper 
sails for a boat, loaded with cylinders for bar- 
rels, cubes for boxes of freight and spheres for 
fruit, or it may be loaded with different things, 
as seeds, plants, vegetables, etc., according 
to the season. 

The boxes may be turned down on the side 
as ovens, and the lids placed on the table as 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



93 



kueading hoards ; the perforated cube can be 
used for a stove, with a stick for the pipe ; the 
plain cube for the kitchen table ; the cylinder 
for a barrel of flour ; or by putting' a round 
stick through the hole it may be used for a 
rolling pin; the sphere may be a turkey or ap- 
ple dumplings; other cubes may be used for 
bread, and cylinders for jelly rolls ; then when 
all are ready, put them in the oven for baking. 
In using the same form to represent different 
things in a play, do not fear that there will be 
any incongruity, provided the suggestion comes 
from the children, and the objects symbolized 
are closely related in thought, for the child's 
imagination is so free that he can clothe and 
re-clothe the same form with new life. The 
sense impressions which come from tracing re- 
semblances and differences, experimenting and 



handling, will give a familiarity with the forms 
and their relation to each other, which no ab- 
stract lesson on surfaces, edges and corners 
could afford. The windmills, water-wheels, 
steamboats, wagons, and engines conceived 
and run by unconscious inventors and master 
workmen — especially when one little fellow 
finds out something new he can do with his 
treasures, and imparts it to the eager group — 
are a marvel and joy to any real kindergartner. 
No such wealth of resources to cultivate imagi- 
nation and inspire confidence is found in any 
other gift as in this, which was an especial 
favorite with Froebel, and is so invaluable that 
no kindergartner who has once shared the de- 
light of the children in this gift for one year 
in the kindergarten course, will ever be willing 
to do without a box for each child. 



THE THIRD GIFT. 



This consists of a cube divided into eight 
smaller one-inch cubes. 

A prominent desire in the mind of every 
child is to divide things, in order to examine 
the parts of which they consist. This natural 
instinct is observable at a very early period. 
The little one tries to change its toy by break- 
ing it, desirous of looking at its inside, and is 
sadly disappointed in finding itself incapable of 
reconstructing the fragments. Frcebel's Third 
G-ifl is founded on this observation. In it the 
child receives a whole, whose parts he can 
easily separate, and put together again at pleas- 
ure. Thus he is able to do that which he 
could not in the case of the toys — restore to its 
original form that which was broken — making 
a perfect whole. And not only this — lie can 
use the parts also for the construction of other 
wholes. 

The child's first plaything, or means of oc- 
cupation, was the ball. Next came the sphere, 
similar to, yet so different from the ball. Then 
followed cube and cylinder, both, in some points 
resembling the sphere, yet each having its 
own peculiarities, which distinguish it from 
the sphere and ball. The pupil, in receiving the 
cube, divisible into eight smaller cubes, meets 
with friends, and is delighted at the multipli- 
city of the gift. Each of the eight parts is 
precisely like the whole, except in point of 
size, and the child is immediately struck with 
this quality of his first toy for building pur- 
poses. By simply looking at this gift, the pu- 
pil receives the ideas of vliole and part — of 
form and comparative size; and by dividing 
the cube, is impressed with the relation of one 
part to another in regard to position and order 
of movements, thus learuiug readily to com- 
prehend the use of such terms as above, below, 
before, behind, right, left, etc, etc. 

With this and all the following gifts, we 
produce what Froebel calls forms of life, forms 
of knowledge, and forms of beauty. 

The first are representations of objects 
which actually exist, and which come under 
our common observation, as the works of hu- 
man skill and art. The second are such as 
afford instruction relative to number, order, 
proportion, etc The third are figures repre- 
senting only ideal forms, yet so regularly con- 



structed as to present perfect models of sym- 
metry and order in the arrangement of the 
parts. Thus in the occupations connected 
with the use of these simple building blocks, 
the child is led into the living world — there 
first to take notice of objects by comparison ; 
then to learn something of their properties by 
induction, and lastly, to gather into his soul 
a love and desire for the beautiful by the con- 
templation of those forms which are regular 
and symmetrical. 

THE PRESENTATION OF THE 
THIRD GIFT. 

The children having taken their usual seats. 
the teacher addresses them as follows : — 

"To-day, we have something new to play 
with." 

Opening the package and displaying the 
box, he does not at once gratify their curi- 
osity by showing them what it contains, but 
commences by asking the question: — 

"Which one of the three objects we played 
with yesterday does this box look like ?" 

They answer readily, "The cube." 

"Describe the box as the cube has been 
described, with regard to its sides, edges, 
eorneis. etc." 

When this has been satisfactorily doue, the 
box is placed inverted upon the table and the 
cover removed by drawing it out, which will 
allow the cubes to stand on the table. Lift- 
ing the box carefully, so that the contents 
may remain entire as in Fig. 1, the teacher 
asks : — 

'•What do you see now?" 

The answer is as before, "A cube." 




Fig. 1. 
One of the scholars is told to push it across 
the table. In so doing, the parts will be likely 
to become separated, and that which was pre- 
viously whole will lie before them in frag- 
ments. The children are permitted to ex- 
amine the small cubes ; and after each one of 
them has had one in his hand, the eight cubes 
are returned to the teacher who remarks : — 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



95 



"Children, as we have broken the thing, we 
must try to mend it. Let us see if we can put 
it together as it was before." 

This having been done, the boxes are then 
distributed among the children, and they are 
practiced in removing the covers, and taking 
out the cube without destroying its unity. 
They will find it difficult at first, and there 
will be many failures. But let them continue 
to try until some, at least, have succeeded, 
and then proceed to another occupation. 
PREPARATION FOR CONSTRUCTING 
FORMS. 

The surface of the tables is covered with a 
net work of lines, forming squares of one-inch. 
A space including a definite number of squares 
is allotted to each pupil. In these iir^t conver- 
sational lessons, the children must be taught 
to point out the right upper corner of their 
table space, the left upper, the right and left 
lower, the upper and lower edges, the right 
and left edges, and the center. With little 
staffs, or sticks cut at convenient lengths, they 
may indicate direction, by laying them upon 
the table in a line from left to right, covering 
the center of the space, or extending them 
from the right upper to the left lower edge 
covering the center; then from the middle of 
the upper edge to the middle of the lower edge, 
and so on. The teacher must be careful to use 
terms that can lie easily comprehended, and 
avoid changing them in such a way as to pro- 
duce any ambiguity in the mind of the child. 

Here, as in the more advanced exercises, 
everything should be done with a great deal 
of precision. The children must understand 
that order and regularity in all the perform- 
ances are of the utmost importance 1 . The 
following will serve as an illustration of the 
method : The children having received the 
boxes, they are required to place them exactly 
in the center of their spaces, so as to cover 
four squares. Then take hold of the box with 
the right hand and inverting it upon the table 
remove the cover with the left hand by draw- 
ing it out from beneath. The right hand is 
used to raise the box carefully from its place 
and eight small cubes will stand in the center 
of the space forming one large cube. Lastly 
the cover is placed in the box and the box 
placed in the upper corner of the space allotted 
to the child. 

At the close of any play, when the materials 
are to be returned to the teacher, the same 



minuteness of detail must be observed as fol- 
lows : — 

Replace the box over the cubes, and draw 
toward the edge of the table; then slip the 
cover beneath, reverse the box and replace 
the cover. 

These are processes which must be repeated 
many times before the scholar can acquire ex- 
pertness. 

FORMS OF LIFE. 

The boxes being opened as directed, and 
the cubes upon the center squares — in each 
space — the question is asked : — 

"How many little cubes are there ?" "Eight." 

••Count them, placing them in a row from 
left to right," (or from right to left). 

"What is that?" "A row of cubes." 



Fig. 2. 
It may bear any appropriate name which 
the children give it — as "a train of cars." "a 
company of soldiers," "a fence." etc. 

"Now count your cubes once more, 
placing them one upon another. What 
have you there ?" 

••An upright row of eight cubes." 
"Have you ever seen anything stand- 
ing like this upright row of cubes?" 
••A chimney." "A steeple." 
"Take down your cubes, and build 
two upright rows of them — one square 
apart. What have you now?" 

••Two little steeples," or "two 
chimneys." 

Thus, with these eight cubes, many 
forms of life can be built under 
the guidance of the teacher. It 
is an important rule in this occu- 
pation, that nothing should be 
rudely destroyed which has been 
constructed, but each new form 
is to be produced by slight 
change of the preceding one. 

A oumber of these forms are given below 
They are designated by Froebel as follows : — 



Fig. 



-! 



Fio-. 



Fig. 5. 
Cube or Kitchen Table. 



96 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 6. 



Fireplace. 




Fig. 7 



Grandpa's Chair, 



Fig. 8. 
Grandpa's and Grandma's Chair; 



Fig. !). 
A Castle with two towers. 



u 



Fig. 10. 



A Stronghold. 



A Wall. 



Fig. 11, 



^ s 



















Fig. 12. 



A High Wall. 








Fig. 13. 



Two Columns. 



, 



Fig. 14. 
A Large Column, with two memorial stones. 




Fig. 15. 



Signpost. 





1 


/ 











Fig. 16. 



Cross. 



Fig. 1' 



Two Crosses. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



97 



Fig. 18. 
Cross, with pedestal. 




Fiff. 19. 





L 


— 1 f 



Fig. 24. 
City (rate, with tower. 













iv 








j 











Fie;. 25. 



Monument. 



Church. 









[ 




- 











Fig. 20. 



Sentry-box. 



.,*ia ,./ 




Fig. 21. 



A Well. 



Fio-. 22. 



City Gate. 





S* S 




/ 













Fiff. 23. 



Triumphal Arch. 



City Hall. 



Castle. 







L 






; 









Fig. 26. 



*fi 



Fio-. 27. 




Fie. 28. 



A Locomotive. 




Fio-. 29. 



Ruin. 



98 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



n 



Fig. 30. 
Bridge with Keeper's House. 




Fig. 31. 
Two Rows of Trees. 





Fig. 32. 
Two Long Logs of Wood. 



/ ,/ 



Fig. 33. 



A Platform 



Fig. 34. 
Two Small Logs of Wood. 



m 



Fig. 35. 
Four Garden Benches. 





1 


1 


3 



Fig. 36. 



Stairs. 



Fig. 37. 



Double Ladder. 



/ 













Fig. 38. 
Two Columns on pedestals. 



Well-trough. 



Fig. 3!). 



■' ■* ! 



^r 



Fig. 40. 



Bath. 




Fig. 41. 



A Tunnel. 



Easy Chair. 



Fig. 42. 



Fig. 43. 



Bench with back. 



Fig. 44. 



Cube. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



99 



Several of the names in this list represent 
objects which, being more specifically German, 
will not be recognized by the children. Ruins, 
castles, sentry-boxes, signposts, perhaps they 
have never seen ; but it is easy to tell them 
something about these objects which Avill in- 
terest them. They will listen with pleasure to 
short stones, narrated by way of explanation, 
and thus associating the story with the form, 
be aide, at another time, to reconstruct the 
latter while they repeat the former in their own 
words. It is not to be expected, however, that 
teachers in this country should adhere closely 
to the list of Froebel. They may, with advan- 
tage, vary the forms, and if they choose, affix 
other names to those given in these pages. It 
is well sometimes to adopt such designations 
as are suggested by the children themselves. 
They will be found to be quite apt in tracing 
resemblances between their structures and the 
objects with which they are familiar. 

In order to make the occupation still more 
useful, they should be required also to point 
out the dissimilarities existing between the 
form and that which it represents. 

It is proper to allow the child, at times, to 
in rent forms, the teacher assisting the fantasy 
of the little builder in the work of construct- 
ing, and in assigning names to the structure. 
"When a figure has been found and named, 
the child should be required to take the blocks 
apart, and build the same several times in 
succession. Older and more advanced scholars 
suggest to younger and less aide ones, and 
the latter will be found to appreciate such help. 

It is a common observation, that the younger 
children in a family develop more rapidly than 
the older ones, since the former are assisted in 
their mental growth by companionship with the 
latter. This benefit of association is seen more 
fully in the Kindergarten, under the judicious 
guidance of a teacher who knows how to en- 
courage what is right, and check what is wrong, 
in the disposition of the children. 

It should be remarked, in connection with 
these directions, that in the use of this and the 
succeeding gift it is essential that a^the blocks 
should be used in the building of each figure, 
in order to accustom the child to look upon 
things as mutually related. There is nothing 
which has not its appointed place, and each 
part is needed to constitute the whole. For ex- 
ample, the well-trough (Fig. 39) may be built 
of six cubes, but the remaining two should rep- 



resent two pails with which the water is con- 
veyed to the trough. 

FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE. 

These do not represent objects, either real 
or ideal. They instruct the pupil concerning 
the properties and relations of numbers, by 
a particular arranging and grouping of the 
blocks. Strictly speaking, the first effort to 
count, by laying them on the table one after 
another, is to be classed under this head. The 
form thus produced, though varied at each 
trial, is one of the forms of knowledge, and 
by it the child receives its first lesson in 
arithmetic. 

Proceeding further, he is taught to add, 
always by using the cubes to illustrate the 
successive steps. Thus, having placed two of 
the blocks at a little distance from each other 
on the table, he is caused to repeat, "One and 
one are two." Then placing another upon the 
table, he repeats, "One and two are three," 
and so on, until all the blocks are added. 

Subtraction is taught in a similar manner. 
Having placed all the cubes upon the table, 
the scholar commences taking them otf, one 
at a time, repeating, as he does this, "One 
from eight leaves seven;" "One from seven 
leaves six," and so on. 

According to circumstances, of which the 
Kindergartner, of course, will be the best 
judge, these exercises may be continued fur- 
ther, by adding and subtracting two. three 
ami so on ; but care should always be taken 
that no new step be made until all that has 
gone before is perfectly understood. 

With the more advanced classes, exercises 
in multiplication and division may be tried, 
by grouping the blocks. 

The division of the large cube, to illustrate 
the principles of proportion, is an interesting 
and instructive occupation ; and we will here 
proceed to give the method in detail. 

The children have their cube of eight be- 
fore them on the table. 




Fig. 45. 

The teacher is also furnished with one and 
lifting the upper half asks : — 



100 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




''Two halves — one whole." 

Again, each half is divided, as shown in 
Figs. 49, 50 and 51. The children are required 
to repeat during these occupations : — 



Fig. 46. 

"Did I take the whole of my cube in my 
hand, or did I leave some of it on the table?" 

"You left some on the table." 

"Do I hold in my hand more of my cube 
than I left on the table, or are both parts 
alike ?" 

"Both are alike-." 

"If things are alike, we call them equal. 
So I divided my cube into two equal parts, 
and each of these equal parts I call a half. 

Where are the two halves of my cube?" 

"One is in 3 7 our hand ; the other is on the 
table." 

"So I have two half cubes. I will now 
place the half which 1 have in my hand upon 
the half standing on the table. What have I 
now?" 

"A whole cube." 
The teacher, then separating the cube again 
into halves, by drawing four of the smaller 
cubes to the right and four to the left asks : — 




Fig. 47. 

"What have I now before me?" 

"Two half cubes." 

"Before, I had an upper and a lower half. 

Now, I have a right and a left half. Uniting 
the halves again I have once more a whole." 

The scholars are taught to repeat as follows, 
while the teacher divides and unites the cubes in 
both ways, also as represented in Fig. 48 : — 




Fig. 48. 
"One whole — two halves." 




Fig. 49. 




Fig. 50. 




Fig. 51. 

"One whole — two halves." 

"One half — two quarters (or fourths)." 

"Two quarters — one half." 

"Two halves — one whole." 

After these processes are fully explained 
and the principles well understood by the 
scholars, they are to try their hand at divid- 
ing of the cube — first, individually then all 
together. If they succeed, they may then be 
taught to separate it into eighths. It is not 
advisable in all cases, to proceed thus far. 




Fig. 52. 

Children under four years of age should be 
restricted, for the most part to the use of the 
cubes for practical building purposes, and for 
simpler forms of knowledge. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



101 



FORMS OF BEAUTY. 

Starting with a few simple arrangements, 
or positions, of the blocks, we are able to de- 
velop the forms contained in this class by 
means of a fixed law, viz., that every change 
of position is to be accompanied by a corre- 
sponding movement on the opposite side. In 
this way symmetrical figures are constructed in 
infinite variety, representing no real objects, 
yet, by their regularity of outline, adapted 
to please the eye,- and minister to a correct 
artistic taste. The love of the beautiful can- 
not fail to be awakened in the youthful mind 
by such an occupation as this, and with this 
emotion will be associated, to some extent, the 
love of the good, for they are inseparable. 

The works of God are characterized by per- 
fect order and symmetry, and his goodness is 
commensurate with the beauty manifest every- 
where in the fruits of his creative power. The 
construction of forms of beauty with the build- 
ing blocks will prepare the child to appreciate, 
by^ and by, the order that rules the universe. 

These forms are of only one block's height, 
and, consequently, represent outlines of sur- 
faces. It is necessary that the children should 
be guided, in their construction, by an easily 
recognizable center. Around this visible point 
all the separate parts of the form to be created 
must be arranged, just as in working out the 
highest destiny of man, all his thoughts and 
acts need to be regulated by an invisible cen- 
ter, around which he is to construct a har- 
monious and beautiful whole. 

In order to produce the varied forms of 
beauty with the simple material placed in the 
hands of the scholar, he must first learn in 
what ways two cubes may be brought in con- 
tact with each other. Four positions are shown 
in Figs. 53 to 56. The blocks may be arranged 
either — side by side, as in Fig. 53 ; edge to 
edge, as in Fig. 54 ; or edge to side, and side 
to edge, as in Figs. 55 and 56. Figs. 53 and 
55 are the opposites to Figs. 54 and 56. Other 
changes of position may be made. For ex- 
ample, in Fig. 53 the block marked a may be 
placed above or to the right or to the left of 
the block marked b. The cubes may also be 
placed in certain relations to each other on the 
table, without being in actual contact. These 
positions should be practiced perseveringly at 
the outset, so as to furnish a foundation for 



the processes of construction which are to fol- 
low. It is one of the important features of 
Fra'bel's system, that it enables the child 
readily to discover, and critically to observe, 
all relations which objects sustain to one 
another. Thoroughness, therefore, is required 
in all the details of these occupations. 

AVe start from any fundamental form that 
may present itself to our mind. Take, for 
illustration, Fig. 57. Four cubes are here 
united side to side, constituting a square sur- 
face, and the outline is completed by placing 
the four remaining cubes, severally side to 
side with this middle square. In Fig. 58, edge 
touches edge ; in Fig. 59, side touches edge, 
and in Fig. 60, edge touches side midway. 
Another mode of development is shown in 
Figs. 61-67. 

The four outside cubes move toward the 
right by a half cube's length, until the original 
form reappears in Fig. 67. 

Now, the four outside cubes occupy the 
opposite position. Fig. 68, edges touch sides. 
They are moved as before by a half cube's 
length, until, in Fig. 74, the form with which 
we started, is regained. 

We now extract the inside cubes (b), Fig. 
7.">, and each of them travels around its neigh- 
bor cube (a), until a standing, hollow square 
is developed, as in Fig. 81. 

Now cube a again is set in motion. (Fig. 
82 ) . It assumes a slanting direction to the 
remaining cubes, and, pursuing its course 
around them, the form reappears in Fig. 88. 

Next b is drawn out, (Fig. 89) and <( 
pushed in, until a standing cross is formed, 
(Fig. 90) b, constantly traveling by a half 
cube's length, until all cubes are united in a 
large square, (Fig. 95) and b again begins 
traveling, by a cube's length, turning side to 
side and edge to edge. In Fig. 100, b per- 
forms as a has done. 

But with more developed children we may 
proceed on other principles, Fig. 101, intro- 
ducing changes only on two instead of four 
sides, and thus arriving successively at the 
forms found in Figs. 102-112. 

After each occupation, the scholars should 
replace their cubes in the boxes, as heretofore 
described, and the material should be re- 
turned to the closet where it is kept, before 
commencing any other play. 



102 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 











































































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Fig. 53. 



Fio-. 54. 



Fig. 55. 



Fio-. 56. 



Fio-. 57 



































































































































































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Fig. 58. 



Fig. 5!) 



Fig. 60. 



Fio-. 61. 



Fig. 62. 



a 



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Fig. 63. 



Fig. 64. Fig. 65. 



Fio-. 66. 



Fig. 67. 



Fig. 6.s. 



Fis;. 69. 























































































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Fig. 70. 



Fio-. 7i, 



Fig. 72. 




Fig. 73. Fig. 74. Fig. 75. 



Fio-. 76. 



Fio-. 77 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



103 






c ;; ;> 




Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. 



Fig. .so. 



Fig. 81. 



Fig. 82. 









































































































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Fig. 83. 



Fig. 81. 



Fig. 85. 



Fig. 86. 



Fig. 87. 




Fig. 88. 



Fig. 89. 



Fig. 90. 



Fig. 91. 



Fig. 92. 















































































































































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Fig. 93. Fig. 94. 



Fig. 95. 



Fig. 96. 



Fig. 97. 



Cj 



Fig. 98. 






Fig. 99. 









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Fig. 100. 



Fig. 101. 



Fig. 102. 



104 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fie. 103. 



Fig. 104. 



Fig. K 



Fig. 106. 



Fio-. 107. 








Fie. 108. 



Fig. 109. Fig. 110. 

EDITOR'S NOTES. 



Fig. in, 



Fio-. 112. 



As the best knowledge cannot be attained 
without division or analysis of a whole, the 
divided solids follow those which give the im- 
pression of wholes. An arbitrary division can- 
not give clear ideas, so a regular division, 
according to certain laws, is necessary. 

Prominent features of this gift are the like- 
ness of each part of the cube to the whole, and 
the contrast of size between the cuhe and its 
parts. The chief object of the gift is to de- 
velop the creative power of the child ; so that 
he is encouraged to follow his instinctive wish 
to see the construction of things, and begins 
his investigation of particular phenomena. He 
divides the cube to find its component parts and 
examines the pieces. He finds that each part 
is like the whole, only smaller, so that the im- 
pression of this particular form is deepened; 
he can create many forms and by re- arranging 
discover new qualities and uses. 

The material allows the child to express out- 
wardly his inner conceptions, which is one of 
the first demands of life. The desire to look 
at the interior of things is the germ of the fullest 
development, the beginning of the formation 
of the scientific mind. 

While this gift is similar to the cube of the 
second in size and material, and interests the 
child because of this likeness, it is the contrast 
between the two cubes that holds his attention. 



Thus he is taken from what he already knows, 
into a wider field of knowledge. 

Let the child compare the two gifts in regard 
to faces, corners, edges, direction and element 
of rest ; in this way test his memory and lead 
him to commence a classification of objects by 
deciding that all bodies of similar proportions 
and qualities must be cubical in form. 

The harmony of the child's development 
through this gift rests chiefly on the method 
with which he begins and ends his play with 
it. If he takes the cube from the box as a 
whole, it stands before him a type of the unity 
he would learn about ; and if after the play 
he reconstructs the typical whole, his inner 
nature is satisfied, for he has proceeded from 
unity, through his play to unity again ; but if 
he takes the parts out one by one all is con- 
fusion, appealing only to the external side of 
his nature. 

In playing, every part should be used, other- 
wise the material is wasted. The child should 
early learn that nothing is isolated and un- 
connected, nothing without its purpose and its 
appointed use. If all the given material is used 
the relation of the part to the whole is kept con- 
stantly before the mind and eye of the child ; 
each part being of value only as it helps to 
make the whole complete. 

Details in small things are of great impor- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



105 



tance, and the kindergartner should carefully 
impress on the child the idea of order and neat- 
ness in the taking out and putting away of the 
cube. As soon as the box containing this gift 
is given out the child recognizes it as another 
cube, and the kindergartner should call atten- 
tion to the paper upon it, compare it with the 
other boxes, and talk about it. Then placing 
the box four inches from the front of the table 
reverse it so that it rests upon the top, draw 
out the cover, lift the box so as not to disturb 
the cubes, place the lid diagonally inside and 
remove the box to give free play for the work. 
This simple operation gives the child an ex- 
ample of order. 

In this first presentation of the divided cube, 
lead the child to see it as a whole that can be 
divided into parts, so that he shall get a defi- 
nite idea of the whole, its parts, of form and 
comparative size and of the relations of num- 
ber and position, learning readily to compre- 
hend the use of such terms as front, back, top, 
bottom, right and left. Review the naming of 
opposites and the directions of the different 
lines. Divide the cube in all its various ways, 
so that it has top and bottom halves, front and 
back halves and right and left halves ; give a 
simple sequence with a short story, thus : Move 
the right half of the cube two inches to the 
right, to make the road which little Mary takes 
on her way to grandma's in the country. Place 
the halves together again, and move the left- 
half two inches to the left ( the brook which 
runs by the foot of the meadow where she sails 
her tiny boat and watches the fishes play). 
Put the parts together again and remove the 
top-half, placing it two inches to the back, 
(two lunch tables in the grove back of the 
house ) . 

As from the whole to the half, so also proceed 
from the half to the quarter-cubes by dividing 
the halves into halves, then to the eighth of the 
whole cube, by dividing the quarters into 
halves. Show that two-fourths and four-eighths 
equal one-half, that two-eighths equal one-quar- 
ter, that eight-eighths equal the whole, etc. Of 
course these progressive steps can only be taken 
slowly and in accordance with the child's com- 
prehension, the kindergartner making sure that 
each point is understood, before another is 
given. For the division of the gift sing the 
following song to the tune of "All for Baby," 
in Miss Poulsson's Finger Plays : — 



(Whole cube). 

Here is mamma's kitchen, 
Built so close and tighl : 

(Place the top half on the table against the 
right of the lower half ). 

Here's the breakfast table, 
Which we'll dress in white. 

( I )ra w right-half one inch to the right ) . 

Now we will divide it, 
See ! we have two more ; 

(Separate these halves right and left). 

Again we will divide it, 
Now we eaeli have four. 

Push back all the back ones, 
Each one from its mate. 
Now if we should count them 
We'll find that we have eight. 

Push them up together 
As they were before. 
< hie and one are two, and 
Two and two are four. 

Lift the right half up, 
And place it on the top : 
Now our cube is whole 
And, it's time to stop. 

The children find pleasure in dividing the 
cube into its parts, examining each separate 
piece, and in arranging and re-arranging the 
eight parts in different ways. 

To bring out the number and position of the 
faces, call the cube a barn ; let a little bird fly 
from the top, another from the front, one from 
the back, from the right side and from the left. 
Show the edges and their directions by build- 
ing walls, platforms and columns of different 
heights and lengths in different directions, 
bringing the square faces of the cube so con- 
stantly before the child that his concept of a 
square becomes a true one. 

In the use of the building material allow 
the little children much freedom. Check from 
the beginning any tendency to knock down any 
of the forms which they make, and lead them 
to change one form into another related to it by 
slight alterations. Keep this up until the child 
acquires the habit of following this plan. Have 
them build neatly and accurately according to 
the measurements of the squared table, as this 
brings the play building of the child under the 
fundamental law of all building and its beauty 
as well as its practicability is soon seen. 

To increase the interest of the child, and draw 
out involuntary freedom, connect the building 
with his own experiences ; connect the forms in 



106 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



his play by a simple story or let a child tell of 
something he has seen, and illustrate by build 
ing the object. Show the different ways cubes 
may touch each other, as face to face ( direction 
front and back, or right and left) ; edge to 
edge, with the corners front, faces front right 
and left, or front and back; edge to face at 
the front, back, right and left. To add in- 
terest let the children invent and tell a story 
about the object. They are delighted to see 



their cube grow into a table, a chair for grandpa, 
a lied, a church, a bridge, a lighthouse to 
guide the sailors. These objects they clothe 
with life, developing their imagination and 
originality. Thus through this gift the forma- 
tive and expressed powers of the child are ex- 
ercised, his judgment and reason are developed 
and he gains a love of all that is beautiful and 
harmonious. 



THE FOURTH GIFT. 



The preceding; gift consisted of cubical 
blocks, all of their three dimensions being the 
same. In the Fourth Gift, we have greater vari- 
ety for purposes of construction, since each of 
the parts of the large cube is an oblong block, 
whose length is twice its width, and four times 
its thickness. The dimensions bear the same 
proportion to each other as those of an ordi- 
nary brick ; and hence these blocks are some- 
times called bricks. They are useful in teach- 
ing the child difference in regard to length, 
breadth, and height. This difference enables 
him to construct a greater variety of forms 
than he could by means of the third gift. By 
these he is made to understand, more dis- 
tinctly, the meaning of the terms vertical 
and horizontal. And if the teacher sees tit to 
pursue the course of experiment sufficiently 
far, many philosophical truths will be devel- 
oped ; as, for instance, the law of equilibrium, 
shown by laying one block across another, or 
the phenomenon of continuous motion, exhibi- 
ted in the movement of a row of the blocks, set 
on end. and gently pushed from one direction. 

PREPARATION FOR CONSTRUCTING 
FORMS. 

This gift is introduced to the children in a 
manner similar to the presentation of the third 
gift. The box is reversed upon the table and 
the cover is removed. Lifting the box care- 
fully, the cube remains entire. The children 
are made to observe that, when whole, its size 
is the same as that of the previous one. Its 
parts, however, are very different in form, 
though their number is the same. There are 
still eight 1 docks. Let the scholars compare one 
of the small cubes of the third gift with one of 
the oblong blocks in this gift ; note the simi- 
larities and the differences ; then, if they can 
comprehend, that notwithstanding, they are so 
unlike inform, their solid contents is the same, 
since it takes just eight of each to make the 
same sized cube, an important lesson will have 
been learned. If told to name objects that re- 
semble the oblong blocks, they will readily 
designate a,brick, table, i)i<in<>, closet etc., and 
if allowed to invent forms of life, will doubt- 
less construct boxes, benches, etc. 



The same precision should be observed in 
all the details of opening and closing the plays 
with this gift as in those previously described. 
FORMS OF LIFE. 

The following is a list of FroebePs forms. 
If the names do not appear quite striking, or 
to the point, the teacher may try to substitute 
better ones : — 




Fig. 1. 



The Cube. 



Fig. 2. 
Part of a Floor, or Top of a Table. 




Fig. 3. 
Two Large Boards. 




Fig. 4. 
Four Small Boards. 




Fig. 5. 
Eight Building Blocks. 



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Fig. 6. 
A Long Garden Wall. 



108 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



€ 



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^ 



A City Gate. 






Fig. 7. 




Fig. 8. 
Another City (rate. 




Fig. 9. 



A Bee Stand. 



— i 



L 

Fig. 10. 



1 1 



A Colonnade. 




Fig. 11. 



A Passage. 




Fig. 12. 



Bell Tower. 




Fig. 13. 
Open Garden House. 




Fig. U. 
Garden House, with doors. 



Fig. 15. 



A Shaft. 




Shaft, 



Fig. 16. 




Fig. 17, 
A Well, with cover. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



109 




Fig. 18. 



A Fountain. 




Fig. 19. 

Closed Garden Wall. 




Fig. 20. 
An Open Garden. 




An Open Garden. 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 22. 
Watering Trough. 




( H.l'f' 



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W\\i\ 



Fig. 23. 



Shooting Stand. 






% 



Village. 



Fig. 24. 




Fig. 25. 



Triumphal Arch. 




Fig. 26. 



Merry-go-round . 




Fig. 27 
Large Garden Settee. 



Fig. 28. 



Seat. 



1MJU 



■ 



— 



Fig. 29. 



Settee. 



Fig. 30. 



Sofa. 





Fig. 31. 



Two Chairs. 



110 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 32. 
Garden Table and Chairs. 




Fio-. 33. 



Children's Table. 




Fig. 34. 



Tombstone. 




Fis;. 35. 



Tombstone. 




Fio-. 36. 



Tombstone. 




Fio-. 37. 



Monument. 




Fio-. 38. 



Monument. 




Fis-. 39. 



Winding Stairs. 




Fio-. 40. 



Broader Stairs. 





Stalls. 



Fis;. 41. 




A Cross Road. 



Fig. 42. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



Ill 




Fig. 43. 



Tunnel. 




Fis. 44. 



Pyramid. 




Fig. 45. 



Shooting Stand. 




Fig. 46. 



Front of a House. 




Fis. 48. 



A Throne. 




Fig. 50. 

Figs. 49 and 50 are illustrations of Contin- 
uous Motion. 

Here as in the use of the previous gift, one 
form is produced from another by slight 
changes, accompanied by explanations on the 
part of the teacher. Thus, Fig. 30 is easily 
changed to Figs. 31, 32, and 33, and Fig. 34 
may be changed to Figs. 35, 36, and 37. In 
every case, all the blocks are to be employed 
in constructing a figure. 

FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE. 

This gift like the preceding, is used to com- 
municate ideas of divisibility. Here, however, 





Fig. 51. Fig 

on account of the particular form of the parts, 
the processes are adapted to illustrate the di- 
vision of a surface, as well as of a solid body. 




Fig. 47. 
Chair, with Footstool. 



Fig. 53. 
The cube is arranged so that one vertical 
and three horizontal cuts appear, (Fig. 51) and 
the child is then requested to separate it into 



112 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Fig. 54. 



halves, (Fig. 52) these halves into quarters, 
(Fig. 53) and these quarters into eighths, 
( Fig. 54 ) . Each of the latter will be found to 
be one of the oblong blocks, and this for the 
time may be made the subject of conversation. 

"Of what material is this block made?" 

"What is the color?" 

"What objects resemble it in form?" 

"How many sides has it?" 

"Which is the largest side?" 

"Which is the smallest side?" 

"Is there a side larger than the smallest 
and smaller than the largest?" 

In this way, the scholars learn that there are 
three kinds of sides, symmetrically arranged 
in pairs. The upper and lower, the right and 
left, the front and back, are respectively equal 
to and like each other. 

By questions, or by direct explanation, facts 
like the following, may be made apparent to 
the minds of children. "The upper and lower 
sides of the block are twice as large as the 
two long sides, or the front and back, as they 
may be called. Again, the front and back are 
twice as large as the right and left, or the two 
short sides of the block. Consequently, the 
two largest sides are four times as large as 
the two smallest sides." This can be demon- 
strated in a very interesting way, by placing 
several of the blocks side by side, in a variety 
of positions, and in all these operations the 
children should be allowed to experiment for 
themselves. The small cubes of the preceding 
gift may also with propriety be brought in 
comparison with the oblong blocks of this gift, 
and the differences observed. 






Fig. 55. 

When the single block has been employed to 
advantage, through several lessons, the whole 
cube may then be made use of, for the repre- 
sentation of forms of knowledge. 

Construct a tablet or plane as in Fig. 55. 
In order to show the relations of dimension, 
divide this plane into halves, either by a ver- 



tical or horizontal cut, (Figs. 56 and 57). 
These two forms will give rise to instructive 

observations and remarks by asking : — 

"What was the form of the original tablet ?" 

"What is the form of its halves?" 

"How many times larger is their breadth 

than their height ?" 

So with regard to the position of the oblong 

halves ; the one may be said to be lying (Fig. 

56) while the other is standing, (Fig. 57). 



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Fig. 56. 


lange 


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lyin 



Fig. 57. 
to a standing oblong 
block." In order to dp this, the child will 
move the first so as to describe a quarter of a 
circle to the right or left. 



Fig. 58. 
Unite two blocks by joining their small sides. 
You then have a large lying oblong block, 
(Fig. 58). 



I I:, 1," 



Fig. 59. 
"Separate again (Fig. 59) and divide each 
part into halves, (Figs. 60 and 61). You have 
now four parts called quarters, and these 
are squares, in their surface form." 





Fig. 60. 
Each of these quarters may be subdivided, 
and the children taught the method of division 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



113 



Fig. 62. 



i ii 



Fie. 61, 




Fig. 63. 



Fig. 64. 




by two. Other 
material may 
also be used in 
counecti on 
with the blocks 
such as apples, 
or a n y small 
objects which 
serve to illus- 
trate the pro- 
perties of num- 
ber. It is evi- 
dent that these 
oper ations 
should be con- 
ducted in the 
most natural 
way, and never 
begun at too 
early a stage of 
development of 
the little ones. 
In Figs. 62-65 
another mode is 
indicated, for 
the purpose of 
illustrating fur- 
ther the condi- 
tionsof form connected 
with this gift. Figs. 
66-81 show the manner 
in which exercises in 
addition and substrac- 
tion may be introduced 
as has already been alluded to in the 
description of the Third Gift. 

FORMS OF BEAUTY. 

We first ascertain, as in the case of 
the cubes, the various modes in which 
the oblong blocks can be brought in 
relation to each other. These are 
much more numerous than in the 



114 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Third Gift, because of the greater variety in 
the dimensions of the parts. In the follow- 
ing designs a number of forms of beauty are 
shown derivable from the original form, (Fig. 
82). Each two blocks form a separate group, 
which four groups touching in the center, form 
a large square. The outside blocks (a) move 
in Figs. 83-90, around the stationary middle. 

The inside blocks (b) are now drawn out 
(Fig. 91) then the blocks (a) united to form 
a hollow square (Fig. 92) around which b 
moves gradually (Figs 93 and 94). 

Now b is combined into a cross with open 
center, a goes out (Fig. 95) and moves in 
an opposite direction until Fig. 98 appears. 

By extricating b the eight-rayed star (Fig. 
99) is formed. In Fig. 100 a revolves, b is 
drawn out until edge touches edge and thus 
the form of a flower appears (Fig. 101). 

Now b is turned (Fig. 102) and in Fig. 103, 
a wreath is shown. In Fig. 103 the inside 
edges touch each other ; in Fig. 104, inside 



and outside ; in Fig. 105 edges with sides, 
and b is united to a large hollow square, around 
which a commences a regular moving. In 
Fig. 110, a is finally united to a lying cross, 
and thereby another starting-point gained for 
a new series of developments. 

Each of these figures can be subjected to a 
variety of changes by simply placing the blocks 
on their long or short sides, or as the children 
will say, by letting them stand up or lie down. 
The network of lines on the table is to be 
the constant guide, in the construction of 
forms. In inventing a new series, place a 
block above, below, at the right or left of the 
center ; and a second opposite and equidis- 
tant. A third and a fourth are placed at the 
right and left of these, but in the same posi- 
tion relative to the center. The remaining 
four are placed symmetrically about those first 
laid. By moving the «'s or b's regularly in 
either direction, a variety of figures may be 
formed. 




Fig. 82. 



Fie. 83. 



Fie. 84. 



Fie. 85. 



Fie. 86. 




Fie. 92. 



Fie. 93. 



Fie. 94. 



Pie. 95. 



Fig. 96. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



115 




Fig. 97 



Fig. 98. 



Fig. 99. 



Fio-. 100. 



Fig-. 101. 









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Fig. 102. 



Fio-. 103. 



Fio-. 104. 



Fig. 105. 




Fig. 106. Fig. 107. Fig. 108. 

EDITOR'S NOTES. 



Fig. 109. 



Fig. 110. 



"While we find that the eight equal parts of 
the third gift are of the same form as the whole, 
this gift shows eight parts in the form of par- 
allelopipeds-solids, with three unequal dimen- 
sions, which constitute the chief characteristic 
of the gift, and adds to both gift and play a 
new and original importance. 

In this as in all the building gifts, every part 
should be used, and when the boxes have been 
distributed they should be opened in such a way 
that the cube stands before the child as a whole, 
so that he may begin his work as a whole. 
Call attention to its being divided according to 
a new plan, and to the form of the component 
parts, which the child easily recognizes as be- 
ing that of a brick. 

Let a cube of the third gift be handed to the 
children so that they may compare it with the ob- 
long brick of this gift ; ask for similarities and 



differences ; the unequal dimensions in these 
bricks make it necessary for the child to pro- 
ceed with more reflection, to compare, and to 
experiment, in order to produce a symmetrical 
result. If two cubes are given, the children 
will readily see that two bricks laid one above 
the other are just as large as two cubes laid 
side by side, and in this way the truth is made 
evident that the solid contents are the same. 

While in the third gift the solid appears 
most prominently, in this gift the idea of sur- 
face is suggested. Every face is an oblong, 
and the variety of size makes more clear the 
form itself, so the child gains as true a con- 
cept of an oblong as of a square. 

To impress on the child the differences of 
position which each brick can occupy, let the 
bricks stand, as soldiers, sit or lie flat, as if 
asleep. Give the child a cube, and ask him to 



116 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



do the same with that. He finds it always re- 
mains the same on whichever of its faces it may 
rest ; thus new lessons are taught him, and 
he is made to understand length and breadth 
more clearly. The different dimensions in the 
bricks make the variety and number of possi- 
ble figures with this gift almost incalculable. 
Many philosophical truths may be illustrated, 
as the law of equilibrium — when a narrow face 
has to support a broader one ; or continuous 
motion — by setting a row of blocks on end. and 
pushing the first one against the other, causing 
the whole row to fall. 

As an exercise in the relation of size, let the 
children separate the cube into halves., which 
may be done by a vertical or horizontal divis- 
ion, and gives rise to suggestive questions and 
instructive observations ; these halves may be 
separated again and divided into quarters, and 
again into eighths ; in this manner the children 
are brought to comprehend successive divi- 
sions by two. These exercises admit of many 
variations. 

Let the pupils find the different ways in which 
two bricks may be placed with regard to each 
other, and build forms while the teacher talks 
with them about the objects represented, so as 
to awaken thought within them. 

Let the children work out for themselves 
with the blocks, a sequence of moves illustrating 
a story, or a sequence of thought given by the 
teacher. In this way they come to know the 
form as regards dimensions, faces and relation 
of parts to the whole. 

A fresh delight conies to the child when he 
discovers how one object may be transformed 
into another, and particularly when there is 
some connection between each new figure and 
the child himself, who must have a clear insight 
into the most simple and natural relations of 
things, that the sight of things more com- 
plicated may not confuse him and hinder his 
development. The following sequences are 
suggestive and render it easy to find such 
connections. 

FUKNITUEE SEQUENCE. 

Bureau. — Cube, with cut running right and 
left. Draw the front half away. Let a brick 
stand at either end of the back half touching 
it by the broad face. Join the two remaining 
bricks by their long narrow faces and place on 
top for a mirror, Fig. 111. 



Washstand. — Let the two bricks which 
formed the mirror stand directly back of the 
lying bricks, touching them by their broad faces. 
Let the top brick sit on the standing back bricks, 
Fig. 112. 



f^l 




Fig. 111. Fig. 112. 

Writing-Desk. — Lift sitting brick in the 
right hand, and the two bricks below it in the 
left hand. Let the two bricks lie on the re- 
maining pile, projecting an inch in front, the 
cut running front and back. Let the remain- 
ing brick sit on them at the back, so its broad 
face coincides with their short faces, Fig. 113. 

Hat-back. — Lift the three bricks just placed. 
Let two stand' at the back as before. Lift the 
top brick, join it to the remaining brick by long 
narrow faces, aud let them sit on the back 
bricks, Fig. 114. 





\s_ 



Fig. 113. Fig. 114. 

Chair and Table. — Join right and left 
bricks by their broad faces. Let them lie, 
right and left, two inches in •front of form. 
Lift the two top bricks and let them lie across 
the two front bricks, the cut running front and 
back, Fig. 115. 

Two Chairs. — Make a chair of the front 
bricks, facing and similar to the chair of the 
four back bricks, Fig. 116. 












F 




T71\ 










h i 





Fig. 115. Fig. 116. 

Bed. — Remove the back of the front chair. 

Place the top brick in the back chair cushion, so 

that it touches the standing bricks by its broad 

face. Place the top front brick so that its 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



11? 



broad face coincides with the narrow front face 
of the brick below it. Fit in the remaining 




Fig. 117. 
bricks for a mattress, the cut running front 
and back, Fig. 117. Then comes the orderly 
building of the cube. 

.BAKER SEQUENCE. 

Shop. — Cube, cut running right and left, 
Fig. 118. 

Eight Drawers. — Remove the front half, 
placing it one inch to the right of the back half, 
in similar position, Fig. 119. 



U. 



Fig. 118. Fig. 119. 

Two Counters. — Let the right and left bricks 
touch b} T their short faces. Place the top half 
two inches in front of the lower half, running- 
right and left, Fig. 120. 

Four Loaves. — Draw the two back right 
bricks one inch to the right. The front bricks 
the same, Fig. 121. 




Fig. 120. Fig. 121. 

Table. — Push the bricks together forming 
aprism 4x1x1, Fig. 122. 

Baking Sheets. — Place the top half two 
inches back of the lower half, Fig. 123. 



-^ ^ A 


^ / 






A > 






s' 




Fig. 122. Fig. 123. 

Molding Board. — Push the front and back 
halves together, Fig. 124. 




Fig. 124. 

Rolling Pin. — Place the two front right 

bricks at the right of and touching the back 

right bricks by their short faces. Place front 

left brick at the right of those just placed, the 



short faces just touching. Place the remaining 
brick at the left in a similar position, Fig. 125. 



Fig. 125. 

Mixing Trough. — Join the two end bricks 
by their short faces and let them sit back of the 
four left hand bricks touching by broad faces. 
Let the two front left 1 tricks sit opposite those 
just placed. Take one of the right hand bricks 
in each hand, and let them sit at either end of 
the trough, closing the opening, Fig. 126. 

Flour Scoops. — Draw the right half, one 
inch to the right, Fig 127. 

<S5_ 



Fig. 126. Fig. 127. 

Wagon'. — Place the left-hand brick directly 
at the left of the right half, so that it shall 
touch it with the broad face. Remove the 
brick lying at the left between the two sitting 
bricks, and place it front and back across the 
middle of the wagon. The two remaining left 
bricks serve as horses, Fig. 128. 







Fig. 128. Fig. 129. 

Money Chest. — Lift one of the left hand 
bricks in each hand, place one right and left 
of the wagon seat, touching it by long narrow 
faces. This lid may be raised or lowered at 
will, Fig. 129. Return to cube. 

HOUSE BUILDING AND FURNISHING 
SEQUENCE. 

House. — Cube with the cutting right and 
left, Fig. 130. 







Fig. 130. Fig. 131. 

Piazza. — Lift the top half, place it directly 
in front of and touching the lower half, cut 
running right and left. Fig. 131. 

Open Door. — Lift the two front bricks, and 
let them stand on the back brick, one inch 
apart, with the long narrow faces in front. 
Lift the top front brick and let it lie across the 
standing bricks, Fig. 132. 



118 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



Four Tables. — Move the five back bricks 
oue inch back, move the front brick one inch 
front. Place the brick which forms the top of 
the door on the front brick, touching it by the 
broad face. Join the standing bricks by broad 
faces and let them lie one inch back of the back 
bricks, Fig. 133. 











2 






■■ 




1 




S" gd 




i M 










Fig. 132. Fig. 133. 

Car-seats. — Let the upper back brick sit 
directly behind the lower back brick. Arrange 
remaining bricks in like manner, Fig. 134. 

Two Long Seats. — Lift the back seat, plac- 
ing it beside the seat directly in front of it, so 
that they will touch by short faces. Join the two 
remaining seats in like manner, Fig. 135. 




Fig. 134. Fig. 135. 

Sofa, with Arms and Table. — Remove the 
front, sitting bricks, and let one sit at either 
end of the back seat touching it by broad faces, 
the short faces being in front. Let two front 
bricks touch one another by broad faces, form- 
ing the table, Fig. 136. 




Fig. 136. 
Two Skats With Arms. — Draw three right 
hand bricks, two inches to the right. Let the 
brick which forms the top of the table, sit at 
the left hand end of the bricks just moved, 
touching them by broad faces. Left hand sec- 
tion the same, Fig. 137. 



Fig. 137. 
Two Marble Basins. — Draw out the brick 
which forms the right-hand seat, and let it sit 
one inch in front of the back brick, similar posi- 



tion. Left hand section the same, Fig. 138. 

Two Windows. — Holding the right-hand 

bricks firmly together, place them in an upright 



Fig. 138. 
position, so that the bricks which were right 
and left, form the top and bottom of a window. 
Same with the left bricks, Fig. 139. 

High Window. — Place the left-hand window 
on top of the right-hand window, Fig. 140. 




Fig. 139. Fig. 140. 

Vestibule — Place the top half of the win- 
dow directly in front of and touching the lower 
half, Fig. 141. 

Band Stand. — Let the two top bricks lie 
directly in front of and touching the lower 
bricks. Remove the standing bricks. Let 
one lie right and left across the cut between 
the two front bricks, another across the cut be- 
tween the two back bricks. Let the two re- 
maining bricks lie across the opening front 
and back, Fig. 142. Return to cube. 





Fig. 141. Fig. 142. 

The children take pleasure in uniting, and 
building with this gift : also, with the third and 
fourth combined, when they have become suffi- 
ciently acquainted with each separately ; com- 
bining the gifts gives them an opportunity of 
comparing the cube and brick more closely, and 
so learn their properties and pecluiarities 1 tet- 
ter, than by the use of each separately. 

One will build a church, another a stove, a 
shop or house, and so a group of children will 
have a unity of purpose which is harmonizing 
in its effects. 



THE FIFTH GIFT. 
CUBE, TWICE DIVIDED IN EACH DIRECTION. 



All gifts used as occupation material in 
the Kindergarten develop, as previously stated, 
one from another. The Fifth Gift, like that 
of the Third and Fourth Gifts, consists of a 
cube again, although larger than the previous 
ones. The cube of the Third Gift was divided 
once in all directions. The natural progress 
from 1 is to 2 ; hence the cube of the Fifth 
Gift is divided twice in all directions ; conse- 
quently, in three equal parts, each consisting 
of nine smaller cubes of equal size. But as 
this division would only have multiplied, not 
diversified, the occupation material, it was 
necessary to introduce a new element, by sub- 
dividing some of the cubes in a slanting di- 
rection. 

We have heretofore introduced only verti- 
cal and horizontal lines. These opposites, 
however, require their mediate element, and 
this mediation was already indicated in the 
forms of life and of beauty of the Third and 
Fourth Gifts, when side and edge, or edge 
and side, were brought to touch each other. 
The slanting direction appearing there transi- 
tionally — occasionally — here, becomes perma- 
nent by introducing the slanting line, sepa- 
rated by the division of the body, as a bodily 
reality. 




Fig. 1. 

Three of the part cubes of the Fifth Gift 
are divided into half cubes, three others into 
quarter cubes, so that there are left twenty- 
one whole cubes of the twenty-seven, produced 
by the division of the cube mentioned before, 
and the whole Gift consists of thirty-nine 
single pieces. 

It is most convenient to pack them in the 
box, so as to have all half and quarter cuius 
and three whole cubes in the bottom row, as 
in Fig. 1, which only admits of separating the 
whole cube in the various ways required here- 



after, as it will also assist in placing the cube 
upon the table, which is done in the same 
manner as described with the previous Gifts. 
The first practice with this Gift is like that 
with others introduced thus far. Led by the 
question of the teacher, the pupils state that 
this cube is larger than their other cubes ; and 
the manner in which it is divided will next at- 
tract their attention. They state how many 
times the cube is divided in each direction, 
how many parts we have if we separate it 
according to these various divisions, and cai'- 
rying out what we say gives them the neces- 
sary assistance for answering these questions 
correctly. In Fig. 2 the three parts of the cube 
have been separated and laid side by side. 




Fig. 2. 

These three squares we can again divide 
in three parts, and these latter again in three, 
so that then we shall have twenty-seven parts, 
which teaches the pupil that 3X3=9, 3X9 
= 27. 

To some, the repetition of the apparently 
simple exercises may appear superfluous ; but 
repetition alone, in this simple manner, will 
assist children to remember, and it is always 
interesting, as they have not to deal with ab- 
stractions, but have real things to look at for 
the formatiou of their conclusions. 

But, again I say, do not continue these oc- 
cupations any longer than you can command 
the attention of your pupils by them. As soon 
as signs of fatigue or lack of interest become 
manifest, drop the subject at once, and leave 
the Gift to the pupils for their own amuse- 
ment. If you act according to this advice, 
your pupils never will overexert themselves, 
and will always come with enlivened interest 
to the same occupation whenever it is again 
taken up. 

After the children have become acquainted 
with the manner of division of their new large 
cube, and have exercised with it in the above- 
mentioned way, their attention is drawn to the 



120 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



shape of the divided half and quarter cubes. 

They are divided by means of slanting lines, 
which should be made particularly prominent, 
and the pupils are then asked to point out, on 
the whole cubes, in what manner they were di- 
vided in order to form half and quarter cubes. 
The pupils also point out horizontal, vertical 
and slanting lines which they observe in things 
in the room or other near objects. 

Take the two halves of your cube apart and 
say, "How many corners and angles can you 
count on the upper and lower sides of these 
two half cubes?" "Three." Three corners and 
three angles, which latter, you recollect, are 
the insides of corners. We call therefore, the 
upper and lower side of the half cube a tri- 
angle, which simply means a side or plane 
with three angles. The child has now enriched 
its knowledge of lines by the introduction of 
the oblique or slanting line, in addition to the 
horizontal and vertical lines, and of si,des or 
planes by the introduction of the triangle, in 
addition to the square and oblong previously 
introduced. With the introduction of the tri- 
angle, a great treasure for the development of 
forms is added, on account of its frequent oc- 
currence as elementary forms in all the many 
formations of regular objects. 

The child is expected to know this Gift now 
sufficiently to employ it for the production of 
the various forms of life and beauty to be in- 
troduced. 

FORMS OF LIFE. 

The main condition here, as alwaj'S, is that 
for each representation the whole of the occu- 
pation material be employed ; not that only 
one object should always be built, but in such 
manner that remaining pieces be always used 
to represent accessory parts, although apart 
from, yet in a certain relation to the main 




Cube. 



Fig. 3. 



position actively and effectively in relation to 
some greater" whole. 

Nor should it be forgotten that nothing 
should be destroyed, but everything produced 
by rebuilding. It is advisable always to start 
with the figure of the cube. 




Fig. 4. 



Flower-stand. 



Fig. 5. 



Large Chair. 




Fig. 6. 
Easy Chair, with Foot Bench. 




Fig. 7. 



figure. The child should, again and again, be A Bed. Lowest row, fifteen whole cubes; 
reminded that nothing belonging to a whole second row, six whole and six half cubes corn- 
is, or could be, allowed to be superfluous, but posed of twelve quarter cubes ; third row, six 
that each individual part is destined to fill its half cubes. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



121 




Sofa. First row, sixteen whole and two 
half cubes. 




Fiir. 9. 



A Well. 




Fig-. 10. 
House, with Yard. First row, twelve whole 
cubes ; second row, nine whole and six half 
cubes ; roof, twelve quarter cubes. 








fr 



Fig. 13. 

Church. Building itself, eighteen whole 
cubes ; roof, twelve quarter cubes ; steeple, 
three whole cubes, and three half cubes ; vestry 
three half cubes. 




Fig. 14. 



Fis;. 15. 



Body of Church. Eight whole, four half and 
eight quarter cubes ; steeples, twice five whole 
and two half cubes ; between steeples, three 
whole and four quarter cubes. Fig. 15, ground 
plan. 



A Peasant's House. First row, ten whole 
cubes ; second row, eight whole and two half 
cubes; roof, three whole, four half aud twelve 
quarter cubes. 




Fig. 1G. 

Pier 1 9 

»' Factory, with Chimney and Boiler-house. 

Schoolhouse. First row, nine whole and six Factory, sixteen whole cubes ; roof, six half 

quarter cubes; second row, nine whole cubes; and four quarter cubes; chimney, live whole 

third row, three whole and six half cubes; and two quarter cubes; boiler-house, four 

fourth row, six quarter cubes. quarter cubes; roof, two quarter cubes. 



122 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 





Fig. 17. 
Chapel, with Hermitage. 



Fig. 21. 
City Gate, with Three Entrances. 


















i icnr c c 






3^ j 





Fis. 22. 



Arsenal. 



Fig. 18. 
Two Garden Houses, with Rows of Trees. 









i 
















-I" 


m 


-i 


1 I 
i 










i 




Fig. 23. 

City (late, with Two Guard-houses. 



Fi£. 19. 



A Castle. 





Fie. 20. 



Cloister in Ruins. 



Fig. 24. 

A Monument. First row, nine whole and 
four half cubes ; second to fourth row, each, 
four whole cubes ; on either side, two quarter 
cubes, united to a square column, and to unite 
the four columns, two half cubes. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



123 




Fig. 25. 

A Monument. First row, nine whole and four 
quarter cubes ; second row, live whole and four 
half cubes ; third row, four whole cubes ; fourth 
row, two half and four quarter cubes. 




Fig. 26. 

A Large Cross. First row, uiue whole and 
four times three quarter cubes ; second row, 
four whole cubes ; third row, four half cubes. 

Tables, chairs, sofas aud beds, are the first 
objects the child builds. They are the objects 
with which he is most familiar. Then the child 
builds a house, iu which he lives, speaking of 
kitchen, sleeping-room, parlor, aud eating- 
room, when representing it. Soon the realm of 
his ideas widens. It roves into garden, street, 
etc., It builds the church, the schoolhouse, 
where the older brothers and sisters are in- 
structed ; the factory, and arsenal, from which, 
at noon and after the days's work is over, so 
many laborers walk out to their homes to eat 
their dinner and supper, to rest from their 



work, and to play with their little children. 
The ideas which the children receive of all 
these objects by this occupation, grow more 
collect by studying them in their details, where 
they meet with them in reality. In all this 
they are, as a matter of course, to be assisted 
by the instructive conversation of the teacher. 
It is not to be forgotten that the teacher may 
influence the minds of the children very favor- 
ably, by relating short stories about things and 
persons in connection with the object repre- 
sented. Not their minds alone are to be dis- 
ciplined ; their hearts are to be developed, and 
each beautiful and noble feeling encouraged 
and strengthened. 

Be it remembered again that it is not neces- 
sary that the teacher should always follow the 
course of development shown in the figures 
on our pages. Every course is acceptable, 
if only destruction is prevented and rebuilding 
adhered to. Some of the figures may not be 
familiar to some of the children. The one has 
never seen a castle or a city gate, a well or a 
monument. Short descriptive stories about 
such objects will introduce the child into a 
new sphere of ideas, and stimulate the desire 
to see and hear more and more, thus adding 
daily and hourly, to the stock of knowledge of 
which he is already possessed. Thus, these 
plays will not only cultivate the manual dex- 
terity of the child, develop his eye. excite his 
fantasy, strengthen his power of invention, 
but the accompanying oral illustrations will 
also instruct him, and create in him a love for 
the good, the noble, the beautiful. 

The Fifth Gift is used with children from 
five to six years old, who are expected to be 
in their third year in the Kindergarten. 

A box, with its contents stands on the table 
before each child. They empty the box as 
heretofore described, so that the bottom row 
of the cube, containing the half and quarter 
cubes, is made the top row. 

"What have you now?"' 

'*A cube." 

"We will build a church. Take oft' all quar- 
ter and half cubes, and place them on the 
table before you in good order. Move the three 
whole cubes of the upper row together, so that 
they are all to the left of the other cubes. Take 
three more whole cubes from the right side, 
and put them beside the three cubes which 
were left of the upper row. Take the three re- 



124 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



maining cubes, which were on the right side, 
and add them to the quarter and half cubes. 
What have you now?" 

"A house without roof, three cubes high, 
three cubes long and two cubes broad." 

"We will now make the roof. Place on each 
of the six upper cubes a quarter cube with its 
largest side. Fill up the space between each 
two quarter cubes with another quarter cube, 
and place another quarter cube on top of it. 
What have you now?" 

"A house with roof." 

"How many cubes are yet remaining?" 

"Three whole and six half cubes." 

"Take the whole cubes, and place them one 
on top of the other, before the house. Add 
another cube, made of two half cubes, and 
cover the top with half a cube for a roof. 
What have you now?" 

"A steeple." 

"We will employ the remaining three half 
cubes to build the entrance. Take two of the 
half cubes, form a whole cube of them, and 
place it on the other side of the house, oppo- 
site the steeple, and lay upon it the last half 
cube as a roof. What have we built now?" 

"A church with steeple and entrance." 
(Fig. 13). 

FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE. 

The representation of the forms of knowl- 
edge, to which the Fifth Gift offers oppor- 
tunity, is of great advantage for the develop- 
ment of the child. To superficial observers, it is 
true, it may appear as if Frcrbel not only as- 
cribed too much importance to the mathemati- 
cal element to the disadvantage of others, but 
that mathematics necessarily require a greater 
maturity of understanding than could be found 
with children of the Kindergarten age. But 
who thinks of introducing mathematics as a 
science? Many a child, five or six years of age, 
has heard that the moon revolves around the 
earth, that a locomotive is propelled by steam, 
and that lightning is the effect of electricity. 
These astronomical, dynamic and physical 
facts have been presented to him as mathe- 
matical facts are presented to his observation 
in FrcebeFs Gifts. Most assuredly it would 
be folly, if one would introduce in the Kinder- 
garten, mathematical problems in the usual 
abstract manner. In the Kindergarten, the 
child beholds the bodily representation of an 
expressed truth, recognizes the same, receives 



it without difficulty, without overtaxing its 
developing mind in any manner whatsoever. 
AVhatever would be difficult for the child to 
derive from the mere word, nay, which might 
under certain circumstances be hurtful to the 
young mind, is taught naturally and in an easy 
manner by the forms of knowledge, which 
thus become the best means of exercising the 
child's power of observation, reasoning, and 
judging. Beware of all problems and abstrac- 
tions. The child builds, forms, sees, observes, 
compares, and then expresses the truth it has 
ascertained. By repetition, these truths, ac- 
quired by the observation of facts, become 
the child's mental property, and this is not to 
be done hurriedly, but during the last two 
years in the Kindergarten and afterwards in 
the Primary Department. 

The first seven forms of knowledge (Figs. 
27-33) show the regular divisions of the cube 
in three, nine and tw T enty-seven parts. In 
either case, a whole cube was employed, and 
yet the forms produced by division are dif- 
ferent. This shows that the contents may be 
equal, when forms are different. (Figs. 28, 
29, 30, 31 and 32). 




Fig. 29. 

< < < ' - ^ < *7?. ^ 




Fie. 30. 




Fig. 31. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



125 




Fig. 32. 




Fig. 33. 

This difference becomes still more obvious if 
the three parts of Fig. 28 are united to a stand- 
ing oblong, or those of Fig. 29 to a lying ob- 
long, or if a siuole long beam is formed of 
Fig. 30. 

"Take a cube children, place it before you, 
and also a cube divided in two halves, and place 
the two halves with their triangular planes or 
sides, one upon another." 

These two halves united are just as large 
as the whole cube. 

But the two halves may be united, also, in 
other ways. They may touch each other with 
their quadratic and right angular planes. 

Represent these different ways of uniting the 
two halves of the cube simultaneously. Not- 
withstanding the difference in the forms, the 
contents of mass of matter remained the same. 

In a still more multiform manner, this fact 
may be illustrated with the cubes divided in 
four parts. Similar exercises follow now with 
the whole Gift, and the children are led to find 
out all possible divisions in two, three, four, 
five, nine and twelve equal parts. (Figs. 34-44). 




Fig. 34. 




Fig. 35. 



Fig. 36. 




Fig. 37. 




Fig. 38. 




Fig. 39. 



^^^ f ^m 



Fig. 40. 




Fig. 41, 




Fiff. 42. 




Fis;. 43. 




After each such division the equal parts are 
to be placed one upon another, for dividing and 
separating are always to be followed by a pro- 
cess of combining and reuniting. The child thus 
receives every time, a transformation of the 
whole cube, representing the same amount of 
matter in various forms. (Figs. 45-48). 



126 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 





- ^--; 


" / / /\ 


/ / / / 




/ / / , 


^mtiifflii 










>>H 












Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 































































X 







Fig. 51. 





■—/ / ; / a 


S^l 


s 










Iff 


s 










a\ 


X 










H 




Fig. 47. 



Fig. 48. 



The child should also be allowed to compare 
with each other the various thirds, quarters, or 
sixths, iuto which whole cubes can be divided, 
as shown in Figs. 35, 36, 37, 38, or 40, 41 
and 42. 

It is understood that all these exercises 
should be accompanied by the living word of 
the teacher ; for thereby, only, will the child 
become perfectly conscious of the ideas re- 
ceived from perception, and the opportunity 
is offered to perfect and multiply them. The 
teacher should, however, be careful not to 
speak too much, for it is only necessary to keep 
the attention of the pupil to the object repre- 
sented, and to render impressions more vivid. 

The divisions introduced heretofore, are fol- 
lowed by representations of regular mathe- 
matical figures, (planes), as shown in Figs. 
49-52. The manner in which one is formed 
from the preceding one is easily seen from the 
figures themselves. 



'-'- 



Fig. 52. 

As mentioned before, part of the occupa- 
tion described in the preceding pages, is to be 
introduced in the Primary Department only, 
where it is combined with other interesting but 
more complicated exercises. Simply to indi- 
cate how advantageously this Gift may be 
used for instruction in geometry in later years, 
we have added Fig. 56, the representation of 
which shows the child the visible proof of the 
well-known Pythagorean axiom, by which the 
theoretical, abstract solution of the same, cer- 
tainly, can alone be facilitated. 




Fig. 53. 




Fig. 54. 




Fig. 49. 



Fig. 55. 






Fig. 50. 




Fig. 56. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



127 



For the continuation of the exercises in 
arithmetic, begun with the previous Gifts, the 
cubes of the present one are of great use. 
Exercises in addition and subtraction are con- 
tinued more extensively, and by the use of 
these means, the child will be enabled to learn, 
what is usually called the multiplication table, 
in a much shorter time and in a much more ra- 
tional way than it could ever be accomplished 
by mere memorizing, without visible objects. 

FORMS OF BEAUTY. 

If we consider that the Fifth Gift is put into 
the hands of pupils when they have reached the 
fifth } T ear, with whom, consequently, if they 
have been treated rationally, the external or- 
gans, the limbs, as well as the senses, and the 
bodily mediators of all mental activity, the 
nerves, and their central organ, the brain, have 
reached a higher degree of development, and 
their physical powers have kept pace with such 
development, we may well expect a somewhat 
more extensive activity of the pupils so pre- 
pared, and be justified in presenting to them 
work requiring more skill and ingenuity than 
that of the previous Gifts. 

And, in fact, the progress with these forms 
is apparently much greater than with the forms 
of life ; because here the importance of each of 
the thirty-nine parts of the cube can be made 
more prominent. He who is not a stranger in 
mathematics knows that the number of com- 
binations and permutations of thirty-nine dif- 
ferent bodies does not count by hundreds, nor 
can be expressed by thousands, but that mill- 
ions hardly suffice to exhaust all possible com- 
binations. 

Limitations are, therefore, necessary here ; 
and these limitations are presented to us in the 
laws of beauty, according to which the whole 
structure is not only to be formed harmoniously 
in itself, but each main part of it must also 
answer the claims of symmetry. In order to 
comply with these conditions, it is sometimes 
necessary, during the process of building a 
Form of Beauty, to perfonn certain move- 
ments with various parts simultaneously. In 
such cases it appears advisable to divide the 
activity in its single parts, and allow the child's 
eye to rest on these transition figures, that it 
may become perfectly conscious of all changes 
and phases during the process of development 
of the form in question. This will render more 



intelligible to the young mind, that real beauty 
can only be produced when one opposite bal- 
ances another, if the proportions of all parts 
are equally regulated by uniting them with one 
common center. 

Another limitation we find in the fact, that 
each fundamental form from which we start 
is divided in two main parts — the internal and 
the external — and that if we begin the changes 
or mutations with one of these opposites, they 
are to be continued with it until a certain aim 
be reached. By this process certain small steps 
are created, which enable the child — and, still 
more, the teacher — to control the method ac- 
cording to which the perfect form is reached. 

"Each definite beginning conditions a cer- 
tain process of its own, and however much 
liberty in regard to changes may be allowed, 
they are always to be introduced within cer- 
tain limits only." 

Thus, the fundamental form conditions all 
the changes of the whole following series. All 
fundamental forms are distinct from each other 
by their different centers, which may be a 
square, (Fig. 65), a triangle, (Fig. 91), a 
hexagon, octagon, or circle. 

Before the real formation of figures com- 
mences, the child should become acquainted 
with the combinations in which the new forms 
of the divided cubes can be brought with each 
other. It takes two half cubes, forms of them 
a whole, and, being guided by the law of op- 
posites, arrives at the forms represented in 
Figs. 57-64, and perhaps at others of less 
significance. 

The following series of Figs. 65-106 are all 
developed one from another, as the careful ob- 
server will easily detect. As it would lead too 
far to show the gradual growing of one from 
another, and all from a common fundamental 
form, we will show only the course of devel- 
opment of Figs. 65-70. 

The fundamental form (Fig. 65) is a stand- 
ing square, formed of nine cubes, and sur- 
rounded by four equilateral triangles. 

The course of development starts from the 
center part. The four cubes a move exter- 
nally, (Fig. 66) , the four cubes b do the same, 
(Fig. 67), cubes a move farther to the cor- 
ner of the triangles, (Fig. 68), cubes & move 
to the places where cubes a were previously, 
(Fig. 69). If all eight cubes continue their 
way in the same manner, we next obtain a 



128 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Fig. 57. Fig. 58. Fig. 59. Fig. 60. Fig. 61. Fig. 62. Fig. 63. Fig. 64. 




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PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



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PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



131 



form in which a and b remain with their cor- 
ners on the half of the catheti ; then follows 
a figure like 69 different only in so far as a and 
b have exchanged positions ; then, in like man- 
ner follow Figs. 68, 67, 66 and 65. 

We therefore, discontinue the course. The 
internal cubes so far occupied positions that 
b and c turned corners, a and c sides toward 
each other. In Fig. 70 b shows the side and 
a the corner. In Fig. 71, we reach anew fun- 
damental form. Here, not the cubes of the 
internal, but those of the external triangles 
furnish the material for changing the form. 

It is not necessary that the teacher, by 
strictly adhering to the law of development, 
return to the adopted fundamental form. She 
may interrupt the course as we have done, 
and continue according to new conditions. 
But however useful it may be to leave free 
scope to the child's own fantasy, we should 
never lose sight of FroebePs principle, to lead 
to lawful action, to accustom to following a 



definite rule. Nor should we ever forget that 
the child can only derive benefit from its oc- 
cupation, if we do not over-tax the measure 
of its strength and ability. The laws of for- 
mation should, therefore, always be as definite 
and distinct as simple. As soon as the child 
cannot trace back the way in which you have 
led him in developing any of the forms of life 
or beauty ; if it can not discover how it arrived 
at a certain point, or how to proceed from it, 
the moment has arrived when the occupation 
not only ceases to be useful, but commences 
to be hurtful, 'and we should always studiously 
avoid that moment. 

In order to facilitate the child's control of 
his activity, it is well to give the cubes, which 
are, so to say, the representatives of the law 
of development, instead of the letters a, &, c, 
names of some children present, or of friends 
of the pupils. This enlivens the interest in 
their movements, and the children follow them 
with much more attention. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



In the previous gifts only the vertical and 
horizontal lines have been introduced, but these 
require their intermediate. The slanting line 
was indicated in the forms of symmetry made 
with the third and fourth gifts, when edge and 
sides were brought to touch each other, but 
what was only indicated there, now becomes 
permanent by the bodily presence of the cube 
divided diagonally. 

By this division of three cubes into halves 
and three into quarters, a new solid is pre- 
sented — the triangular prism — which permits 
of a greater variety of forms, and gives an op- 
portunity for the exercise of judgment in 
choosing the form which is best adapted for a 
certain purpose. This prism and its proper 
use in building constitute the chief character- 
istic of the gift. 

Owing to its many parts this gift is much 
in advance of the previous ones, requiring 
greater dexterity and delicacy of touch, while 
it affords excellent training to the fingers. 
When first placed in the hands of the children, 
its greater quantity of material and variety of 
form is liable to confuse them ; they are apt 
to become bewildered in the dictated exercise, 
and at a loss to know how to manage so much 
material in free play. Therefore the need of 



quantity should be felt that the material may 
not be wasted through misuse. 

There are different ways of introducing this 
gift. Some kindergartners think it is best to 
present the triangular prism before the gift is 
offered to the child as a whole, by removing 
one or two cubes from the boxes of the third 
gift and substituting half cubes. Then, after 
the children have examined the form ask ques- 
tions as to the number, the dimensions and 
shape of the faces, one of which they find is 
oblong, two square and two triangular. When 
they have become familiar with the form, then 
give the name triangular prism. 

Have them place the halves according to dic- 
tation and combine them to form whole cubes. 
After this is done successfully substitute four 
quarters in place of two halves, and let the 
children study them in a similar way. They 
will notice the quarters are one-half as large 
as the half cubes, also that when two quarters 
are joined by their square faces they have a 
new square prism. 

Direct one child to put four quarters together 
to make a cube, another to make a long triangu- 
lar prism, another to make a square prism 
two inches high. It is well to let each child 
experiment for himself in building some form 



132 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



of life, as a locomotive, (Fig. 107), or ahouse 
with a roof, -which helps the rain to run off 
quickly, (Fig. 108). 

This small quantity of material will give the 
children facility in combining the new forms, 
and in placing them according to dictation with- 
out being bewildered and diverted. Having 
used these four small and two large triangular 
prisms successfully, the children will be better 
prepared for the manipulation of the whole gift. 

Another plan is to present the gift as a whole, 
using only one, which stands on the kinder- 
gartner's table, for the first few lessons. Com- 
pare the gift as to size with the third and 



Steps and Boathouse. — (Near the landing 
where Mary took the small steamboat) . Re- 
move the two upper right-hand cubes and the 
top middle cube. Make a roof of the two 
half cubes by joining their square faces, and 
place on top of the two whole cubes, with the 
triangular faces front and back, Fig. 110. 





Fig. 107. Fig. 108. 

fourth, then bring out one of the half cubes, 
teach the different faces, dictate as to placing 
in different directions, give the name, etc. 
Proceed with the quarter cube in the same way, 
until the children are familiar with the form. 

Let them use both half and quarter cubes 
with a single whole cube, combine the halves 
into a whole cube, make the quarters into cubes, 
square and triangular prisms. Then show the 
children the three ways of dividing the gift 
into thirds — right and left, front and back, up 
and down — letting them come forward to di- 
vide and combine it, using also other objects 
in illustration ; afterward give one-third only 
to each child to work with, or give every third 
child the entire gift and assist him to divide 
the cube into thirds, giving one of these thirds 
to the neighbor on each side. 

The top layer of each third should consist 
of one whole cube, one composed of halves and 
one of quarters. Familiarize the children with 
the new form by some play which will tend to 
disclose the relationship existing between the 
parts, and lead the children to find resemblances 
between the prism and familiar life forms. The 
following sequence shows the use of one- third 
of the gift. 

FIRST SEQUENCE. 

Mary's visit to her uncle, who is a light- 
house keeper in one of the small Atlantic towns. 
One-third of the gift with cubes running right 
and left, is placed before each child, Fig. 109. 



Fig. 109. 




Fig. 110. 



Steamboat. — Combine the two halves which 
form the roof of the boathouse, into a cube, 
placing it at the left of the steps. Place one 
of the remaining cubes on top of the right-hand 
cube, and the other at the right. Remove the 
quartered cube, placing one of the quarters on 
top of the lower left-hand cube, with its oblong 
face against the upper left-hand cube, and its 
square face slanting to the left. Take another 
quarter and stand it on a triangular face at the 
left of the lower left-hand cube, touching it 
by its square face. Form the remaining two 
quarters into a square prism, and stand it on 
top of the upper left-hand cube, face front, 
Fig. 111. 

Fort. — (Which is passed on the way). Of 
the two separated quarters, form a square 
prism and stand on top of the upper right-hand 
cube, face front. Lift the upper three cubes 
and prisms, placing them back of, and touch- 
ing those they stand on, Fig. 112. 





Fig. 111. Fig. 112. 

Boat. — (Also passed on the way). Remove 
the two square prisms, and move the back row 
one inch back. Take the right-hand front cube 
and place in the center, connecting the two 
rows. Separate the left-hand front cube, and 
place over the front and back middle cubes, 
with the square faces slanting right and 
left. Stand one of the quarters on its triangular 
face, at each end of the four right and left cubes 
touching them by square faces, Fig. 113. 

Boat Landing. — (Where Mary is met by 
her cousins). Remove the four quarters and 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



133 



combine into two square prisms. Combine the 
two halves into a whole cube and place at the 
right of the front row. Remove the center con- 
necting cube and place at the right of the 
back row. Push the two rows together, and 
stand the two prisms on top of the right and 
left front cubes, faces front, these forming the 
posts to which the steamer is tied, Fig. 114. 





Fig. 114. 

Lighthouse. — (Where she finds her uncle) . 
Remove the square prisms and the divided 
cube. Lift the four back cubes and place in 
a standing position on top of the front left- 
hand cube. Place the right-hand cube on top 
of the cube to its left. Of the two half cubes 
make roofs, with the square faces slanting 
front and back. Lay one of the square prisms 
against the lower right-hand cube, and the 
other in front of the tower, touching by ob- 
long faces, Fig. 115. 

Uncle's House. — Lift the upper two cubes 
and roof of the tower and place against the 
left of the tower. Turn the half cubes with 
their square faces touching the center cube, 
the oblong faces slanting right and left. Re- 
move the prism at the right and combine into 
a half cube, placing it on top of the middle 
cube, with the triangular face front, Fig. 116. 





Fig. 116. 

Barn, Wagon Shed and Well House. — Re- 
move the steps. Lift the center cube and roof, 
and place in front of and against the lower 
left-hand cube, for the shed. Move the right- 
hand half cube over against the other half cube 
to form a roof. Move the two right-hand cubes 
two inches to the front, and one inch to the 
right. Join the quarter cubes which formed 
the steps into a half cube and place on top of 



these cubes with triangular face front, for the 
well house, Fig. 117. 

Church. — (Which they attended on the 
Sabbath ) . Remove the roof of the wagon shed 
and form into a square prism. Place the well 
house on top of the shed and move this tower 
to the left of the barn, roof slanting right and 
left. Lay the prism in front of the tower, 
touching by its oblong face, Fig. 118. 





Fig. 117 



Fig. 118. 



Mary's Home. — (Where she returns after 
spending many happy days). Remove the 
right-hand side of the church, and place it 
against the left of the tower. Turn the half 
cubes on their oblong faces for the roof, the 
square faces slanting front and back, Fig. 119. 




Fig. 119. 

When the sequence is ended each child builds 
up his third of the cube, the three parts are 
pushed together and are ready to go into the 
boxes. 

SECOND SEQUENCE. 

This sequence shows how a third of the gift 
may be combined to produce one form. 

Country Home of a Wealthy Lady. — 
(Who loves little children) . One third of the 
gift is placed before each child , the top layer 
removed and placed two inches in front. Take 
the two right-hand cubes and stand in front of 
the left-hand cubes. Combine the two half 
cubes and place on the back row of cubes for 
a roof, the oblong faces slanting right and left. 
Take the remaining whole cube, place one of 
the quarters on top, triangular face front, and 
stand at the right of the two front cubes. Com- 
bine two quarters into a square prism, with the 
remaining cube on top, triangular face front, 
and stand upon the left front cubes, Fig. 120. 



134 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Barx. — (Standing back of the house, where the sequences shortened or lengthened, accord- 
the cows and horses are kept, and where the ing to the capacity of the children. At the 
children like to climb the haymow to hunt close of the exercise the borrowed parts are 



eggs, and watch Mrs. Puss and her kittens 
frolic and play). Move the back half two 
inches back, Fig. 121. 





Fig. 120. 



Fig. 121. 



Text. — (Where the hostess was obliged to 
shelter a number of "fresh air" children whom 
she entertained). Take the roof off the barn 
and place it one inch back. Take the upper 
two cubes of the barn and place in front of the 
lower two, Fig. 122. 

Cottage. — (At a summer resort not far dis- 
tant, where the daughter is stopping, and to 
which the children are driven behind Grey and 
Dapple for a day's pleasure) . Remove the quar- 
ter cubes from the house, place the remaining 
three cubes in the center of the four back cubes, 
front and back, the two cubes to the front. 
Join the quarter cubes into two long triangular 
prisms, and place on their oblong faces at the 
right and left of the center cubes for a roof, 
the square faces slanting right and left. Place 
the two half-cubes on the front and back mid- 
dle cubes for roofs, triangular faces front and 
back, Fig. 123. 





Fig. 122. 



Fig. 123. 



To combine the thirds : — 

Summer Hotel. — (Near the beach). Re- 
verse the cottages so that the backs will face 
you. Let the child that divided the cube, re- 
move the quarters from his cottage and form 
two square prisms, on which his neighbor on 
each side places the back half cube from his 
cottage, and stands this with triangular face 
front, on the back middle cube. The right and 
left cottages are then moved until they touch 
the middle one, Fig. 124. 

These stories may be enlarged upon, and 



returned, so that the thirds may be built up as 
they were at the beginning. Later on, the 
thirds may be divided by three different ways 
into nine, and those into twenty-seven parts ; 
thus it will be seen that much mathematical 
knowledge may be gained through this gift. 




Fig. 124. 

If the entire gift is presented without any 
preliminary step, it should lie used so simply 
that the child will feel delight in his material. 
Have the blocks arranged so that when taken 
from the box, the cubes will be uniform as to 
position and arrangement, the upper face show- 
ing the vertical, horizontal and slanting line, 
also three squares, six right isosceles triangles 
of one size and twelve smaller ones. 

The children should become thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the number of whole and divided 
cubes, that they may be able to make free and 
full use of the gift, and they will readily learn 
to lift the upper face with its twenty -one pieces, 
and place it unbroken on the table. 

Allow free scope to the childish imagination, 
and as with new material, free play directed 
by the kindergartner affords the best oppor- 
tunity for self-activity, it is well to let the chil- 
dren build each his own form, the teacher 
connecting all their various creations by some 
little improvised story. 

The combination of the cubes to form geo- 
meterical figures is full of interest, and the 
evolution of one form from another, important 
in developing the child. From a rectangular 
prism have the children develop the rhomboidal 
prism, from this the trapezoidal, then the pen- 
tagonal and hexagonal. 

The educating power of this gift is wonder- 
ful, and there seems no limit to its constructive 
power. It gives a huge number of the most 
varied and beautiful forms of symmetry, and 
a strong impression is made, that real beaut} 7 
can only be produced when one opposite bal- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



135 



ances another, if all the parts are equally reg- 
ulated by uniting them with one common cen- 
ter. The directions for forming these transi- 
tion figures should be direct and simple, so 
that the child can return to the original form, 
by reversing the movements without taxing 
him too much. 

The material is particularly adapted to 
architecture, and the forms of life come very 
near to reality on account of the prisms, which 
aid materially with their slanting surfaces to 
represent roofs, chimneys, towers, etc. The 
method followed in the handling of this ma- 
terial gives a sure guide for bringing order out 
of all manifoldness of form. The following 
sequence shows the use of the entire gift. 

THIRD SEQUENCE. 

Entire gift as placed before each child, 
Fig. 125. 

Triumphal Arch. — Move the back row of 
cubes two inches back and to the left. Remove 
the upper layer of half cubes, then separate 
into three columns, covering the right and left 
column with a half cube for a roof, and the 
center column with two halves joined by square 
faces. This forms three towers. Next move 
the front row of cubes to the right and on a 
line with what was the middle row. leaving a 
half-inch space between. Move the right-hand 




Fig. 125. 
column half an inch to the light, and the left- 
hand column one half-inch to the left, and 
over these three openings stand the towers, 
with triangular faces front and back, the tower 
with the double roof being placed over the 
center opening. The two remaining halves 
place right and left of the outside towers, with 
the oblong faces slanting away from the towers, 
Fig. 126. 

Gates of a "Walled City. — Move the right- 
hand tower so it stands on the cubes at its left 



and the left-hand tower so it stands on the 
cubes at its right. Remove the right and left 
columns and of the right column make a base 
of two cubes with the third cube over the cen- 
ter, and on top of this place the half cube with 
triaugular face front. Do the same with the 
left-hand column, then push these against the 
front of the double columns, Fig. 127. 




Fig. 126. 

Cathedral. — Eemove these two front pieces 
and the towers. Place the six left-hand cubes 
at the back of the six right-hand cubes, form- 
ing a square prism, three cubes high. Against 
the right and left of this prism, place the two 
front pieces so that the roofs slant front and 
back. Take the four halves from the towers 
and combine them into a roof for the top of 
the prism, the oblong faces slanting right and 





Pig. 128. 

left. Place the two towers together and stand 
them in front of the square prism. Lay the 
remaining tower directly in front of these, for 
steps, Fig. 128. 

From this form the children may easily re- 
turn to the whole cube. In using the entire 
gift, each child might divide the gift into thirds 
using each third for a different form, making 
different buildings in a town. 



FIFTH GIFT B. 



This gift combines cylindrical with cubical 
forms and is in the line of the further develop- 
ment of tbe series of building blocks which 
Froebel evidently intended to carry out, as it 
is obvious that after the blocks containing 
straight forms derived from the cube have been 
presented., the round forms derived from the 
sphere and cylinder should follow. 

This gift contains twelve whole cubes, three 
quartered cubes, eight hollowed cubes, and 
twelve half-cylinders. Like the fifth gift it is 
separated into three layers, one above the other. 

The first layer consists of nine whole cubes, 
Fig. 1 ; the second layer presents three whole 
cubes, three quartered cubes, and three cylin- 
ders halved lengthwise, Fig. 2 ; the third and 
upper layer has eight hollowed cubes and six 
half-cylinders, Fig. 3. 



Have them combine two half-cylinders with 
the cube and they have the oval, Fig. 6, and 
with four half-cylinders they obtain the double 
oval, Fig. 7. 

Compare the half-cylinder with the triangu- 
lar prism and combine the two by square faces, 
Fig. 8. 

Place a half-cylinder and a triangular prism 



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Fig. 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

In presenting this gift let the children find 
familiar forms first, and when they have be- 
come acquainted with the new elements in the 
gift, they may find the simple combination of 
these forms, one with another. They will rec- 
ognize the cube and the triangular prism of the 
fifth gift, and the kindergartner should then call 
attention to the half-cylinder. Ask how many 
faces they find ? How many are curved ? how 
many are straight ? They will notice that one 
face is a square like the face of the cube, that 
two are the form of a half-circle, Fig, 4, and 
that the fourth is a curved surface. 




Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

Ask how many edges the half cylinder has? 
Out of the six edges how many ai'e straight? 
How many are curved? How many corners 
are there ? 

Let the children combine two half-cylinders 
and they will recognize their old friend the cylin- 
der, Fig. 5. By comparing the cylinder and 
cube the children will find they are of the same 
dimensions. 





Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 
on opposite sides of the cube, joining it by 
square faces, so one end will be rounded and 
the opposite end pointed. 

Bring out the peculiarities of the hollowed 
cube, Fig. it. Call attention to the faces, which 
number seven; two of them are square like the 
face of the cube ; two others are oblongs, just 
one half as large ; one is a hollow curved sur- 
face, and the top and bottom faces are equal, 
being a square with a quarter circle removed 
from one corner, Fig. 10. 

Ask how many edges they find on this form ; 
how many are straight, how many are curved ? 
What is the number of corners? Let the chil- 
dren combine two of these hollowed cubes by 
oblong faces and an arch is obtained, Fig. 11, 





Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 10. 

these forms being especially adapted to that 
purpose. A combination of three hollowed 
cubes, forms three quarters of a circle, Fig. 12, 
and by uniting four an entire circle is made, 
showing a hollow center into which the cylinder 
may be fitted, Fig. 13. By joining the square 
faces instead of the oblong we have Fig. 14, 
and by combining with the half-cylinder, we 
have the undulating curve, as seen in Figs. 15 
and 16. 

After the children have seen the gift as a 
whole and have become acquainted with the 
different forms, it is well to separate it into 
three layers, that the children may find the 
number of parts and the arrangement of each. 
These exercises may be given gradually, the 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



137 



kindergartner being careful that the child ob- style of architecture being prominent in the life 

serves with clearness and decision, advancing forms of which the accompanying illustrations 

him only as he is capable of making intelligent only serve as a hint to the possibilities of this 
nse of his materials. 

FORMS OF LIFE. 




Fig. 

Ruins of a Cloister. 



17. 



J 


11 






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Fig. 21. 



Monument. 



Fig. 18. 
A Portion of a Wall. 



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Fig. 22. 
Gate of a Fortress. 




Fig. 19. 
Ancient City Gate. 



Fig. 23. 
Railroad Train on Bridge. 





Fig. 24. 
Fig. 20. ° 

Royal Archway. Railroad Station. 

The curved line of this gift gives a special gift, which may be brought out under the skill- 
importance to the exercises. Arches and round ful direction of the kindergartner and the full 
columns may now be constructed, the Roman and careful attention of the children. 



138 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 




Fis. 25. 



Monument. 




Portico. 

FORMS OF SYMMETRY. 

The forms of symmetry are treated in the 
same way as those of the previous gifts. Se- 
quences may easily be developed and figures 
constructed which are varied and pleasing in 
design, the rounded forms of the gift giving a 
peculiar characteristic of their own. 





Fie. 28. 




Ficr. 29. 




Fig. 30. 




We give but a few illustrations, leaving the 
teacher free to follow her own ideas. Fig. 31. 

In the forms of knowledge, the child's at- 13, the children of the kindergarten being too 

tention should be directed to those which are young to grasp the special mathematical truths 

the most simple, as Figs. 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 and which may be derived by means of this gift. 



THE SIXTH GIFT. 

LARGE CUBE, CONSISTING OF DOUBLY DIVIDED OBLONG BLOCKS. 



As the Third and Fifth Gifts form an es- 
pecial sequence of development, so the Fourth 
and Sixth are intimately connected with each 
other. The latter is, so to say, a higher po- 
tence of the former, permitting - the observa- 
tion in greater clearness, of the qualities, rela- 
tion, and laws, introduced previously. 

The Gift contains twenty-seven oblong blocks 
of the same dimensions as those of the Fourth 
Gift. Of these twenty-seven blocks, eighteen 
are whole, six are divided breadthwise, each 
in two squares, and three by a lengthwise cut, 
each in two columns ; altogether making thirty- 
six pieces. 

The children soon become acquainted with 
this Gift, as the variety of forms is much less 
than in the preceding one, where by an oblique 
division of the cubes, an entirely new radical 
principle was introduced. 

It is here, therefore, mainly the proportions 
of size of the oblong and square blocks, and 
columns contained in this Gift and the number 
of each kind of these bodies, about which the 
child has to become enlightened, before engag- 
ing in building — playing, creating — with this 
new material. 

The cube is placed upon the table — all parts 
are disjoined— then equal parts collected into 
groups, and the child is then asked, "How 
many blocks have you altogether? How many 
oblong blocks ? how many square blocks? how 
man}' columns ? Compare the sides of the blocks 
with another, take an oblong block, how many 
s< ju are blocks do you need to cover it? how 
many columns? 

Place the oblong block upon its long edge, 
now upon its shortest side — and state how 
many square blocks or columns you need in 
order to reach its height, in either case." Ex- 
ercises of this kind will instruct the child suf- 
ficiently, to allow it to proceed, in a short time 
to the individual creating, or producing occu- 
pation with this new Gift. 

FORMS OF LIFE. 

It is the forms of life, particularly, for which 
this Gift provides material, far better fitted, 
than any previously used. The oblong blocks 
admit of a much larger extension of the plane, 
and allow the enclosure of a much more ex- 



tensive hollow space, than was possible, for 
instance, with the cubes of the Fifth Gift. 
Innumerable forms can therefore be produced 
with this Gift, and the attention and interest 
of the pupil will be constantly increased. 

This very variety, however, should induce 
the careful teacher to prevent the child's purely 
accidental production of forms. It is always 
necessary to act according to certain rules and 
laws, to reach a certain aim. The established 
principle, that one form should always be de- 
rived from another, can be carried out here 
onl}' with great difficulty, owing to the peculi- 
arity of the material. It is therefore frequently 
necessary, particularly with the more compli- 
cated structures, to lay an entirely new foun- 
dation for the building to be erected. 

It is necessary, at all times, to follow the 
child in his operations — his questions should 
always be answered and suggestions made to 
enlarge the circle of ideas. 

It affords an abundance of pleasure to a child 
to observe that we understand him and his 
work, it is, therefore, a great mistake in edu- 
cation to neglect to enter fully into the spirit 
of the pupil's sphere of thinking and acting ; 
and if we ever should allow ourselves to go so 
far as to ridicule his productions instead of 
assisting him to improve on them, we would 
commit a most fatal error. 

The selections of forms of life, nearly all of 
which are in the meantime forms of art and 
knowledge, because of their architectural fun- 
damental forms and the mathematical propor- 
tions of their single parts, can, therefore, not 
fail to give nourishment to various powers of 
the mind. 



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Fig. 1. 

House Without Roof; back wall has no 
door. 



140 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 2. 
Ground Plan for House. 




Fig. 3. 
Colounade. First row, five oblong blocks 
laid lengthwise, and back wall consisting of 
ten standing oblong blocks upon which are ten 
square blocks. 





Fig. 7. 
Monument in Honor of Some Fallen Hero. 
First row, eight oblong blocks ; second, square 
of nine square blocks, partially constructed of 
oblong blocks ; third, four single square blocks ; 
then four columns, four single square blocks, 
square of four square blocks, etc. 



Fig. 4. 
Hall, with Columns. 





Fig. 5. 
Summer House. Vestibule formed by six 
columns. 



Fig. 8. 
Facade of a Large House. 





Fig. 6. 
Memorial Column of the Three Friends. 



Fig. 9. 
The Columns of the Three Heroes. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



141 






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Fig. 10. 

Entrance to Hall of Fame. First row, six 
square and six oblong blocks ; second row, six 
oblong blocks ; third row, six square blocks, etc. 



Fig. 14. 
Front View of a Factory 



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Fig-. 11, 



Two Story House. 



Fio-. 12. 



Facade. 



Fig. 13. 
Covered Summer House. 



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Fig. 15. 
Double Colonnade. 




Fig. 16. 



An Altar. 




Fig. 17. 



Monument. 



142 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



WZJ 




Fig. 18. 
Columns of Concord. 

The fantasy of the child is inexhaustibly 
rich in inventing new forms. It creates gar- 
dens, yards, stables with horses and cattle, 
household furniture of all kinds, beds with 
sleeping brothers and sisters in them, tables, 
chairs, sofas, etc., etc. 

If several children combine their individual 
building they produce large structures, perfect 



barnyards with all outbuildings in them, nay, 
whole villages and towns. The idea that in 
union there is strength, and that by co-opera- 
tion great things may be accomplished, will 
thus early become manifest to the young mind. 
FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE. 

These also appear in much smaller numbers 
compared with the richness and multiplicity of 
the Fifth Gift. By the absence of oblique (ob- 
tuse and acute) angles, they are limited to the 
square and oblong, and exercises introduced 
with these previously, may be repeated here 
with advantage. 

All Frcebel's Gifts are remarkable for the 
peculiar feature that they can be rendered ex- 
ceedingly instructive by frequently introducing 
repetitions under varid conditions and forms, 
by which means we are sure to avoid that dry 
and fatiguing monotony which must needs re- 
sult from repeating the same thing in the same 
manner and form. And still more, the child, 
thereby, becomes accustomed to recognize like 
in unlike, similarity in dissimilarity, oneness 
in multiplicity, and connection in the appar- 
ently disconnected. 

In Figs. 19-25 all squares that can be formed 
with the Sixth Gift are represented. In Fig. 26 
we see a transition from the forms of knowl- 
edge to those of beauty. 





























































Mill 






































































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Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 22. 



Fig. 23. 

































































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Fig. 24. 



Fig. 25. 



Fig. 26. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



143 



FORMS OF BEAUTY. 

The forms of beauty of this Gift offer far 
less diversity than those of Gift No. 5 ; owing, 
however, to the peculiar proportions of the 
plane, they present sufficient opportunity for 
characteristic representations, not to be neg- 
lected. 

We give in Figs. 27-41 a single succession 
of development of such forms. The progres- 
sive changes are easily recognized, as the ob- 
long block , which needs to be moved to pro- 
duce the following figure, is always marked by 
a letter. The center-piece always consists of 



two of the little columns, standing one upon 
another, and important modifications may be 
produced by using the oblong blocks in lying 
or standing positions. By employing the four 
little columns in various ways many pleasant 
changes can be produced by them. 

With the Sixth Gift we reach the end of the 
two series of development given by Froebel in 
the building blocks, whose aim is to acquaint 
the child with the general qualities of the solid 
body by his own observation and occupation 
with the same. 

























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Fig. 27. 



Fijj. 28. 



Fig. 29. 




Fig. 30. 



Fig. 31. 



Fig. 32. 




Fig. 33. 



Fig. 34. 



Fig. 35. 



144 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 














































































































































































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Fig. 39. 



Fig. 40. 
EDITOR'S NOTES. 



Fig. 41. 



"While as a whole, this gift is more like the 
fifth it surpasses that gift in its constructive 
capacity, the forms built being more complete 
and finished, and requiring more delicacy of 
touch, as they are of a lighter and more grace- 
ful style of structure and more easily destroyed. 

The column, which is the chief characteristic 
of the gift, and which was foreshadowed in the 
fifth gift when two quarters were joined by 
square faces, enables the children to build high 
structures resembling Grecian architecture, be- 
side many other pleasing forms which are de- 
pendent upon it. 

In its parts this gift most resembles the 
fourth gift, and the forms like the bricks of 
that gift, can stand, lie or sit ; the different 
parts also serve in measuring length, breadth 
and heiffhth. 



Although not so rich and varied in forms of 
symmetry and knowledge, this gift is more 
suitable for the construction of life forms than 
any of the previous ones, and the number is al- 
most unlimited, the material being especially 
adapted for the forming of apertures. It al- 
lows the use of more forms of comparison than 
the other gifts, and emphasizes the proportion 
of different parts in respect to size, giving a 
clear idea of forms, their number and position. 

In introducing this gift, let the children see if 
they can find any old friends among the forms, 
then count the edges, faces and corners of the 
brick, column and square plinth. Have them 
compare the column and brick, the square plinth 
and brick, and the column and square plinth. 
Lead them to see how the forms may vary in 
size and shape and yet be equal in volume. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



145 



Compare this gift with the fifth and point out 
the different ways of dividing each. By sepa- 
rating this gift into six layers the children may 
learn the number of bricks, columns and square 
plinths contained in it. The gift may be di- 
vided among three children by separating it 
into three groups, each consisting of two layers 
which they will see is one third of the gift. The 
laying out of the gift and the building of one 
form may constitute a lesson. Then these 
forms may be built and joined together ; after- 
ward these steps may all be retraced to the 
layer, or the gift may be built up direct from 
the last form. 

Let the children experiment in finding and 
using the form which is best adapted for a cer- 
tain purpose, and they will soon see how the 
column is fitted to meet certain needs. Give 
simple directions and let them work out the 
rest for themselves, having a definite purpose 
in view. Ask questions as to which form is 
best suited for their purpose, and lead them 
through the ideas of proportion and form to 
reach certain results, never losing sight of the 
idea of unity in any building the children may 
do. As soon as the children are able, let each 
child have a whole gift, then sequences may be 
given and connected by a story. 

A LIFE SEQUENCE. 

Separate the gift, (Fig. 42) into six layers, 
three of which shall each contain three bricks 
and three square plinths ; the other three should 
consist of three bricks, two columns and one 






face, in front and against the center of the base 
and the remaining brick on the one just placed 
so that its narrow face will touch the square 
plinths. These bricks form the steps. Make 
two similar figures with the remaining two 
thirds, as in Fig. 44. 




Fig. 43. 

Place two of these thirds back to back so 
that the steps will face to the right and left ; 
and against the front of this figure, place the 
steps from the remaining third, the upper brick 




Fig. 44. 
touching the square plinths, leaving the under 
brick one half inch from the base. Lift the 
remaining part of the third form with the ex- 
ception of the three bricks which make the base, 
and stand on top of the other two thirds, with 
the columns right and left. On this stand one 
of the remaining three bricks, the narrow face 
front. Form steps of the other two bricks and 
place in the rear, as in Fig. 45. 




Fig. 42. 

square plinth, which are placed one inch back 
of the former three layers, as in Fig. 43. The 
front and hack right-hand layers form one third 
of the gift, with which we first build. 

Take two square plinths and place in the cen- 
ter of the right and left bricks of the front layer. Fig. 45. Fig. 46. 
On each square plinth stand a column, face Remove the standing brick, then lift the 
front, and place a square plinth on top of each upper part of this form down to the square 
column. Then lay a brick from right to left on plinths which are on top of the lower columns, 
its broad face, on top of the two square plinths and put it one side, after having placed the 
just placed. Lay another brick on its broad removed brick between the two lower bricks to 



146 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



form a base of three bricks. Take away the 
steps and place four of the bricks on their 
broad faces, on top of the four square plinths, 
the sides running right and left. On these 
place the remaining four bricks on their broad 
faces, the sides running front and back. Then 
stand the form which was put one side in the 
center of these four bricks, the columns being 
on the right and left, Fig. 46. 

Remove the top, including the base of three 
bricks, and place at the right of the figure, the 
bases touching by edges. Remove the remain- 




Fig. 47. 

ing two layers of bricks down to the square 
plinths on the columns and place two of the 
bricks with edges running front and back, on 
top of the center and left hand square plinths, 
forming a figure similar to that on the right 
hand. Place two bricks on their narrow faces 
above the opening at the right with the edges 
extending over it. Cover these with a brick 
placed on its broad face. Repeat this over the 
opening at the left, as in Fig. 47. 




Fig. 48. 

Remove the six bricks just placed on top, 
and then turn the three sections of the figure 
half-way round, placing them in a line running 
right and left, with an opening one inch wide 
between each section. Stand a brick with 
narrow face front, upon the exposed corners of 
the four center square plinths, and cover with 
the two remaining bricks placed on their broad 
faces, forming two archways, Fig. 48. 



Of the two archways form steps for the three 
sections and we have the three original thirds, 
which the children may easily separate into 
layers, and then build up into the gift, the 
layers alternating. 

A BEAUTY .SEQUENCE. 

The fundamental form is an enclosed hexa- 
gon made with all the bricks, three of them 
forming each oideof the hexagon. Within the 
enclosed space is a hexagon formed with square 
plinths, the face of each plinth being directly 
opposite the central brick of the outer hexagon. 
In the spaces of the large hexagon is a square 
plinth touching adjacent sides by corners, and 
at the outer edge of the plinth is a column touch- 
ing the center of each plinth by its square face, 
Fig. 49. 




Fig. 49. 

Push the center brick of each side of the 
hexagon toward the inner hexagon until their 
small faces meet, Fig. 50. 

Remove the square plinths forming the inner 
hexagon to the space directly opposite on the 
outer hexagon. Form a new inner hexagon 
with the square faces of the columns, Fig. 51. 

Push the bricks back to their original posi- 
tions, Fig. 52. 

Move the square plinths in the spaces out 
until two angles are in line with the angles of 
the adjacent bricks. Remove the columns 
from the center to the outside, and let them 
touch the plinths by their long faces. Fig. 5:>. 

Push the center brick of each side of the hexa- 
gon toward the center of the form, the angles 
meeting and outlining a small hexagon, Fig. 54. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



147 




Fig. 50. 




Fig. 51. 





rr 




Fig. 54. 




Fiff. 52. 



Fig. 55. 



148 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



Turn the square plinths with one angle Move the plinths nearest the hexagon to the 
toward the center of the form, Fig. 55. spaces of the hexagon. Move the center bricks 

Move the columns along until they touch the back to their original positions, Fig. 57. 

Change the columns so that they will touch 






Fig. 56. Fig. 57. 

outer angle of the plinth next to them by the the last plinths moved by their square faces, 

center of their long faces. Move the remain- Place the remaining plinths in the center to 

ing plinths to touch the columns on their outer from a small hexagon, and we have the origi- 

faces by an angle, Fig. 56. nal form. 



THE SEVENTH GIFT. 
SQUARE AND TRIANGULAR TABLETS FOR LAYING OF FIGURES. 



All mental development begins with con- 
crete beings. The material world with its mul- 
tiplicity of manifestations first attracts the 
senses and excites them to activity, thus caus- 
ing the rudimental operations of the mental 
powers. Gradually — only after many proc- 
esses, little defined and explained by any sci- 
ence as yet, have taken place — man becomes 
enabled to proceed to higher mental activity, 
from the original impressions made upon his 
senses by the various surroundings in the ma- 
terial world. 

The earliest impressions, it is true, if often 
repeated, leave behind them a lasting trace 
on the mind. But between this attained pos- 
sibility to recall once-made observations to 
represent the object perceived by our senses, 
by mental image (imagination), and the real 
thinking or reasoning, the real pure abstrac- 
tion, there is a very long step, and nothing in 
our whole system of education is more worthy 
of consideration than the sudden and abrupt 
transition from a life in the concrete, to a life 
of more or less abstract thinking to which our 
children are submitted when entering school 
from the parental house. 

Froebel, by a long series of occupation ma- 
terial, has successfully bridged over this chasm 
which the child has to traverse, and the first 
place among it, the laying tablets of various 
forms occupy. 

The series of tablets is contained in five 
boxes containing : — 

A. Quadrangular square tablets. 

B. Right angular (equal sides). ) rp . 

C. Equilateral. I , D ~ 

> gular 



D. Obtuse angular (equal sides). 



tablets. 



E. Right angular (unequal sides) 
The child was heretofore engaged with solid 
bodies, and in the representation of real things. 
He produced a house, garden, sofa, etc. It is 
true the sofa was not a sofa as it is seen in 
reality ; the one built by the child, was there- 
fore, so to say, an image already, but it was 
a bodily image, so much so that the child 
could place upon it a little something repre- 
senting his doll. The child considered it a 
real sofa, and so it was to the child, fulfilling, 
as it did, in his little world, the purposes of 
a real sofa in real life. 



With the tablets the embodied planes, the 
child cannot represent a sofa, but a form simi- 
lar to it ; an image of the sofa can be produced 
by arranging the squares and triangles iu a 
certain order. 

We shall see, at some future time, how 
Froebel continues on this road, progressing 
from the plane to the line, from the line to 
the point and finally enables the child to draw 
the image of the object, with pencil or pen in 
his own little hand. 

THE QUADRANGULAR LAYING TAB- 
LETS (Squares). 

(See Figs, i — 15). 

In a similar way as was done with the va- 
rious building gifts, the child is led to an ac- 
quaintance with the various qualities of the 
new material, and to compare it, with other 
things, possessing similar qualities. It is ad- 
visable to let the child understand the connec- 
tion existing between this and the previous 
gifts. The laying tablets are nothing but the 
embodied planes, or separated sides of the 
cube. Cover all the sides of a cube with 
square tablets and after the child has recog- 
nized the cube in the body thus formed, let it 
separate the tablets one by one, from the cube 
hidden by them. 

The following, or similar questions are here 
to be introduced : — What is the form of this 
tablet ? How many sides has it ? How many 
angles ? Look carefully at the sides. Are they 
alike or unlike each other? They are all alike. 
Now look at the corners. These also are all 
alike. Where have you seen similar figures ? 

What are such figures called ? Can you show 
me angles somewhere else? Where the two 
walls meet is an angle. Here, there and every- 
where you find angles. 

But all angles are not alike, and they are 
therefore differently named. All these dif- 
ferent names you will learn successively, but 
now let us turn to our tablet. Place it right 
straight before you upon the table. Can you 
tell me now what direction these two sides 
have which form the angle ? The one is hori- 
zontal, the other vertical. An angle which is 
formed if a vertical meets a horizontal line, is 
called a right angle- How many of such 



150 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



angles can you count on your tablet? Four. 
Show me such right angles somewhere else. 

By the acquisition of this knowledge the 
child has made an important step forward. 
Looking for horizontal and vertical lines, and 
for right angles, he is led to investigate more 
deeply the relations of form, which he had 
heretofore observed only in regard to the size 
conditioned by it. 

The child's attention should be drawn to the 
fact that, however the tablet may be placed 
the angles always remain right angles though 
the lines are horizontal and vertical only in 
four positions of the tablet, namely, those 
where the edges of the tablet are placed in the 
same direction with the lines on the table be- 
fore the child. This will give occasion to lead 
the child to a general perception of the stand- 
ing or hanging of objects according to the 
plummet. 

But the tablet will force still another obser- 
vation upon the child. The opposite sides 
have an equal direction ; they are the same 
distance from each other in all their points ; 
they never meet, however many tablets the 
child may add to each other to form the lines. 

The child learns that such lines are called 
parallel lines. He has observed such lines 
frequently before this, but begins just now to 
understand their real being and meaning. He 
looks now with much more interest than ever 
before at surrounding tables, chairs, closets, 



houses, with their straight line ornaments, 
for now the little cosmopolitan does not only 
receive the impressions made by the surround- 
ings upon his senses, but he already looks for 
something in them, an idea of which lives in 
his mind. Although unconscious of the fact 
that with the right angle and the parallel line, 
he received the elements of architecture, it 
will pleasantly incite him to new observations 
whenever he finds them again in another ob- 
ject which attracts his attention. 

The teacher in remembrance of our oft- 
repeated hints, will proceed slowly, and care- 
fully, according to the desire and need of the 
child. She repeats, explains, leads the child 
to make the same observations in the most 
different objects, and changing circumstances, 
or guides the child in laying other forms of 
knowledge, (lying or standing parallelograms 
Fig. 4 and 5), of life, (Steps, Fig. 6 and 8, 
double steps, Fig. 7 and 9, door, Fig. 10, sofa, 
Fig. 1 1. cross, Fig. 12), or forms of beauty, 
(Figs. 13, 14 and 15). 

The number of these fonns is on the whole 
only very limited. It is well now to augment 
the number of tablets in the bauds of the pu- 
pil, by two, when a much larger number of 
forms can be produced. The various series 
of forms of beauty, introduced with the third 
Gift, can be repeated here and enlarged upon, 
according to the change in the material now 
at the disposal of the child. 







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Fig, 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig, 7. 



Fig. 8. 




Fig. 9. 



Fig. K). 



Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 



Fig. 14. Fig. 15. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



151 



RIO HT- ANGLED TRIANGL ES . 

(See Figs. 16 — 59J. 

As from the whole cube, the divided cube 
was produced, so by division the triangle 
springs from the square. By dividing it di- 
agonally in halves, we produce the rectangu- 
lar triangle with two equal sides. 

Although the form of the triangle was pre- 
sented to the child in connection with the Fifth 
Gift, it here appears more independently, and 
it is not only on that account necessary to ac- 
quaint the child with the qualities and being 
of the new addition to his occupation material, 
but still more so because the forms of the tri- 
angles with which as a natural sequence he 
will have to do hereafter, will be entirely un- 
known to the pupil. The child places two tri- 
angles, joined to form a square upon the table. 

What kind of a line divides your four- 
cornered tablet? An oblique or slanting line. 
In what direction does the line cut your square 
in two? From the right upper corner to the left 
lower corner. Such a line we call a diagonal. 

Separate the two parts of the square, and 
look at each one separately. What do you 
call each of these parts ? What did you call 
the whole? A square. How many corners or 
angles had the square? Four. How many 
corners or angles has the half of the square 
you are looking at? Three. This half, there- 
fore, is called a triangle, because, as I have 
explained to you before, it has three angles. 
How many sides has your triangle? etc. 

Looking at the sides more attentively, what 
do you observe? One side is long, the other 
two are shorter, and like each other. These 
latter are as large as the sides of the square, 
all sides of which were alike. 

Now tell me what kind of angle it is, that 
is formed by these two equal sides? It is a 
right angle. Why? and what will you call the 
other two angles? How do the sides run which 
form these two angles ? They run in such a 
way as to form a very sharp point, and these 
angles are, therefore called acute angles, which 
means sharp-pointed angles. Your triangle 
lias then, how many different kinds of angles? 
Two ; one right angle, and two acute angles. 

It is not necessary to mention that the above 
is not to be taught in one lesson. It should 
be presented in various conversations, lest the 
acquired knowledge might not be retained by 
even the briohtest child. The attention of the 



pupil may also be led, in subsequent conver- 
sations to the fact that the largest side is op- 
posite the largest angle, and that the two 
angles are alike, etc. Sufficient opportunity 
for these and additional remarks will offer 
itself during the representations of forms of 
life, of knowledge, and of beauty, for which 
the child will employ his tablets, according to 
his own free will, and which are not neces- 
sarily to be separated, neither here nor in any 
other part of these occupations, although it is 
well to observe a certain order at any time. 

Whenever it can be done, elementary knowl- 
edge ma3 T well be imparted, together with the 
representations of forms of life, and forms of 
beauty. 

In order to invent, the child must have ob- 
served the various positions which a triangle 
may occupy. It will find these acting accord- 
ing to the laws of opposites, already familiar 
to the child. 

The right angle, placed to the right front, 
( Fig. 17) will bring it into the opposite posi- 
tion to the J ^t't back, (Fig. 18) then into the 
mediative positions, to the left front, (Fig. 19 ) 
and to the right hack, (Fig. 20). By turning, 
the right angle comes back of the long side. 
( Fig. 21) and in the opposite position it comes 
to the front of the Hypothenuse, ( Fig. 22 ) then 
to the right, (Fig. 23) and finally to the left of 
it. (Fig. 24). 

The various positions of two triangles are 
easily found by moving one of them around 
the other. Figs. 26-31 are produced from Fig. 
25, by moving the back triangle, in six steps, 
around the other triangle, always keeping it in 
its original position. 

In Figs. 32-37, the changes are produced, 
alternating regularly between a turn and a 
move of the back triangle. In Figs. 3*- 17. 
simply turning takes place. 

After the child has become acquainted with 
the first elements from which its formations 
develop, it receives for a beginning four of 
the triangled tablets. It then places the right 
angles together, and thereby forms a stand- 
ing full square. ( Fig. 48). 

By placing the tablets in an opposite posi- 
tion turning the right angles from within to 
without, it produces a lying square with the 
hollow in the middle, (Fig. 4!>). This hollow 
space has the same shape and dimensions as 
Fig. 4<s. The child will fancy Fig. 48 into the 



152 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



place of this hollow space, and will thereby 
transfer the idea of a full square upon an 
empty or hollow one, and will consequently 
make the first step from the perception of the 
concrete to its idea, the abstraction. 

The child will now easily find mediative 
forms between these two opposites. It places 
two right angles within and two without, ( Figs. 
58 and 59) two front and two back (Fig. 50) 
two to the right, and two to the left (Fig. 51). 

So far, tw r o tablets always remained con- 
nected with one another. By separating them 
we produce the new mediative forms, Figs. 52, 
53, 54 and 55, in which again two and two are 
opposites. But instead of the right, the acute 
angle may meet in a point also, and thus Figs. 
56 and 57 are produced, which are called ro- 
tation forms, because the isolated position of 
the right angle suggests, as it were, an incli- 
nation to fall, or turn, or rotate. 

The mediation between these tw r o opposite 
figures is given in Figs. 50 and 51 — between 



them and Figs. 49 and 50 in Figs. 58 and 59 ; 
and it should be remarked in this connection, 
that these opposites are conditioned by the 
position of the right angle in all these cases. 
All these exercises accustom the pupil to a 
methodic handling of all his material. They 
develop a correct use of his eye, because regu- 
lar figures will only be produced when his tab- 
lets are placed correctly and exactly in their 
places shown by the network on the table. 
The precaution which must be exercised by 
the child not to disturb the easily movable 
tablets, and the care employed to keep each 
in its place, are of the greatest importance for 
future necessary dexterity of hand. In a still 
greater degree than by these simple elemen- 
tary forms just described, this will be the case, 
when the pupil comes into possession of a larger 
number of tablets — up to sixty-four — for the 
formation of more complicated figures, ac- 
cording to the free exercise of his fantasy. 































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Figures 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. 



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Figures 27, 2«, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 



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Figures 38, 39, 40, 41, 



12. 43, 



44, 



45, 



46. 




Figures 48, 49, 50, 51, . 52, 53, 54, 



5, 56, 57, 58, 59. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



153 



FORMS OF LIFE. 

(See Figs. 60— So.) 

All hints given in connection with the build- 
ing blocks, are also to be followed here, with 
this difference only, that we now produce ima- 
ages of objects, whereas, heretofore we united 
the objects themselves. 

With four tablets the child forms Fig. 
60, a flower pot. Fig. 61, a little garden- 
house. Fig. 62, a pigeon-house. 

With eight tablets Fig. 63, a cottage. Fig. 
64, a canoe or boat. Fig. 65, a covered goblet. 
Fig. 66, a lighthouse. Fig. 67, a clock. 

With sixteen tablets Fig. 68, a bridge with 
twospans. Fig. 69, large gate. Fig. 70,achurch. 
Fig. 71, a gate with belfry. Fig. 72, a fruit 
basket. 

With thirty-two tablets Fig. 73, a peasant's 
house. Fig. 74, a forge with high chimney. Fig. 
75, a coffee-mill. Fig. 76, a coffee-pot without 
handle. 

With sixty-four tablets Fig. 77, a two-story 
house. Fig. 78, entrance to a railroad depot. 
Fig. 79, a steamboat. 

In Fig. 80, we see the result of combined 
activity of many children. Although to some 
grown persons it may appear as if the images 
produced do not bear much resemblance to 
Avhat they are intended to represent, it should 
be remembered that in most cases, the chil- 
dren themselves have given the names to 
the representations. Instructive conversatiou 
should also prevent this drawing with planes, 
as it were, from being a mere mechanical pas- 
time ; the entertaining, living word must in- 



fuse soul into the activity of the hand and its 
creations. Each representation, then, will 
speak to the child and each object in the 
world of nature and art will have a story to 
tell to the child in a language for which he 
will be well prepared. 

We need not indicate how these conversa- 
tions should be carried on, or what they should 
contain. Who would not think in connection 
with the pigeon-house, of the beautiful white 
birds themselves, and the nest they build ; the 
white eggs they lay, the tender young pigeons 
coming from them, and the care with which 
the old ones treat the young ones, until they 
are able to take care of themselves? An ap- 
plication of these relations to those between 
parents and children, and, perhaps those be- 
tween God and man, who, as His children en- 
joy His kindness and love every moment of 
their lives, maybe made, according to circum- 
stances — all depending on the development of 
the children. However, care should always be 
taken not to present to them, what might be 
called abstract morals which the young mind 
is unable to grasp, and which, if thus forced 
upon it cannot fail to be injurious to moral de- 
velopment. The aim of all education should 
be love of the good, beautiful, noble, and sub- 
lime ; but nothing is more apt to kill this very 
love, ere it is born, than the monotony of dry, 
dull preaching of morals to young children. 
Words not so much as deeds — actual experi- 
ences in the life of the child, are its most natu- 
ral teachers in this important branch of edu- 
cation. 




^ 




Fig.60. Fig. 61. Fig. 62- Fig. 63. Fig. 64. Fig. 65. Fig. 66. Fig. 67. 




Fisr. 68. 



Fig. 69. Fig. 70 



Fig. 71. Fig. 72. 



154 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



























































































































































































































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Fig. 74. 



Fig. 75. 



Fig. 76. 




Fig. 77. 



Fig. 78. 



Fig. 79. 




Fig. 80. 



FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE. 

(See Figs. Si — 94). 

These tablets are, especially qualified to 
bring to the observation of the child different 
sizes of the same forms and equal sizes in dif- 
ferent forms. 

By joining two, four and eight tablets, we 
become acquainted with the regular figures 
which may be formed with them, as shown in 
Figs. 81-86. These with the exception of Fig. 
81 are made from the four triangles arranged 
in different forms. 

Figs. 87, 88 and 89 show triangles of which 
each is double the size of the previous one. 
In the squares shown in Figs. 90 and 91, the 
latter is double the size of the former. Figs. 



92-94 show two triangles of the same size laid 
to produce different forms. 

That the contemplation of these figures and 
the occupation with them, must tend to facili- 
tate the understanding of geometrical axioms in 
the future, who can doubt? And who can gain- 
say that mathematical instruction, by means of 
Froebel's methods must needs be facilitated, 
and better results obtained? That such in- 
struction, will be rendered more fruitful for 
practical life, is a fact which will be obvious to 
all, who simply glance at our figures, even with- 
out a thorough explanation. They contain 
demonstratively the larger number of the axi- 
oms in elementary geometry, which relate to 
the conditions of the plane in regular figures. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



155 



For the present purpose, it is sufficient if 
the child learns to distinguish the various kinds 
of angles, if he knows that the right angles are 
all equally large, the acute angles smaller, and 
the obtuse angles larger than a right angle, 
which the child will easily understand by put- 
ting oue upon another. A deeper insight in 
the matter must be reserved for the primary 
department of instruction. 



constantly touch one another. The opposite 
— long side touching short — we have in Fig. 
117, and by traveling from right to left of half 
the triangles, Figs. 1 17-122 are obtained. We 
would have secured a much larger number of 
forms, if we had not interrupted progress by 
turning the triangles produced by Fig. 121. 

In the fundamental forms Figs. 105 and 
117, the sides touched one another. Fig. 128 




A 



Fig. 81. Fig. 82. Fig. 83. Fig. 84. 



Fig. 85. 



Fig. 86. 



Fig. 87, 



Fig. 88. 



Fig. 89. Fig. 90. Fig. 91. Fig. 92. Fig. 93. Fig. 94. 



FORMS OF BEAUTY. 

(See Figs. 95 — 151). 

( hving to the multiplicity of elementary forms 
to be made with the triangles, the number of 
Forms of Beauty is very large, and the great di- 
versity and beauty of the forms produced by the 
triangle, square, rhomb, hexagon and octagon, 
lend a lasting charm to the child's occupation. 
His inventive power and desire, led by law, 
will find constant satisfaction, and to give sat- 
isfaction in the fullest measure should be a pro- 
minent feature of all systems of education. 

FORMS BUILT WITH EIGHT TABLETS. 

In working with this number we can illus- 
trate the most varied principles. Figs. 95-104 
are obtained by doubling the forms produced 
by four tablets^ (Figs. 48-5'.)). Figs. 105-116 
start from the fundamental form Fig. 105, 
making one-half of the tablets move from left 
to right, the length of one side, with each 
move. New figures would be produced if we 
moved from right to left in a similar manner. 
In these figures, sides always touch sides, and 
corners touch corners — consequently, parts of 
the same kind. 

The transition or mediation between these 
two opposites, the touching of corners and 
sides, would be produced by shortening the 
movement of the traveling triangle one-hall', 
permitting it to proceed one-half side only. 

But let us return to the fundamental form 
Fig. 105. In it, either long sides or short sides 



shows that they may touch at the corners only. 
In this figure, the right angles are without ; in 
Figs. 124 and 125, they are within. Fig. 125 
is the mediation between Figs. 105 and 124, 
for in Fig. 105 four tablets touch with their 
sides and in Fig. 124 four with the corners. 
Fig. 126 is the opposite of Fig. 125, full cen- 
ter, (empty center), and mediation between 
Figs. 123 and 12-1— (four right angles with- 
out, as in Fig. 123 and four within, as in Fig. 
121). It is already seen, from these indica- 
tions, what a treasure of forms enfolds itself 
here. 

FORMS BUILT WITH SIXTEEN TABLETS. 

It would be impossible to exhaust them. 
Least of all, should it be the task of this work 
to do this, when it is only intended to show 
how the productive self-occupation of the pu- 
pil can fittingly be assisted. We believe, be- 
sides, that we have given a sufficient number 
of ways on which fantasy may travel, perfectly 
sure of finding constantly new, beautiful, eye 
and taste developing formations. We, there- 
fore, add Figs. 127-141 which are produced 
by quadrupling some of the elementary forms 
given in Figs. 48-59, and also Figs. 142-144 
which indicate how new series of forms of 
beauty may be developed from each of these 
forms. It must be evident, even to the casual 
observer, how here also the law of opposites, 
and their junction was observed. Opposites 
are Figs. 127 and 12<S ; mediation Figs. 129 



156 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



and 130 ; opposites, Figs. 131 and 132 ; medi- 
ation Pigs. 133, 134 and 135 ; opposites, Figs. 
136 and 137 ; mediation Fig. 138, etc. 

FORMS BUILT WITH THIRTY-TWO TABLETS. 

As heretofore, we proceed here, also, in the 
same manner, by multiplying the given ele- 
ments, or by means of further development, 
according to the law of opposites. As an ex- 
ample, we give Figs. 145-14<S, the members 
of which are produced by a four-fold junction 
of the elements of Figs. 1 03 and 104. Figs. 
145 and 146 are opposites; Figs. 147 and 148 
arc mediative forms. 

FORMS BUILT WITH SIXTY-FOUR TABLETS. 

Here, also, the combined activity of many 
children will result in forms most interesting. 
There is another feature of this combined ac- 
tivity not to be forgotten. The children are busy 
obeying the same law ; the same aim unites 
them — one helps the other. Thus the condi- 



tions of human society — family, community, 
states, etc., — are already here shown in their 
effects. A system of education which, so to 
speak, by mere play, leads the child to ap- 
preciate those requisites, by compliance with 
which it can successfully occupy its position 
as man in the future, certainly deserves the 
epithet of a natural and rational one. 

Figs. 141), 150 and 151 are enlarged pro- 
ductions from Figs. 131 and 132. They are 
planned in such a way, as to admit of being 
continued in all directions, and thus serve to 
carry out the representation of a very large 
design. 

After having acted so far, according to in- 
dications made here, it is now advisable to 
start from the fundamental forms presented 
in the Fifth Gift and to use them, with the 
necessary modifications, in farther occupying 
the pupils with the tablets. 





Fig. 95. Fig. 96. Fig. 97. Fig. 98. Fig. 99. Fig. 100. Fig. 101. Fig. 102. 







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Fig. 104. Fig, 105. 



Fig. 106. 



Fig. 107. Fie. 108. 








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Fig. 109. Fig. 110. Fig. 111. Fig. 112. Fig. 113. Fig. 114. 



























































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Fig. 115. Fig. 116. Fig. 117. Fig. 118. Fig. 119. Fig, 120. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



157 




Fig. 121. Fig. 122. Fig. 123. Fig. 124. Fig. 125. Fig. 126. 




Fig. 127. Fig. 128. Fig. 129. Fig. 130. Fig. 131. Fig. 132. 



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Fig. 139. Fig. 140. Fig. 141. Fig. 142. Fig. 143. Fig. 144. 




Fig. 145. 



Fig. 146. 



Fig. 147. 



Fig. 148. 



158 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 

























































































































































































































































































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Fig. 149. Fig. 

THE EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE. 

(See Figs. 152 — 227). 

So far the right angle has predominated in 
the occupations with the tablets, and the acute 
angle only appeared in subordinate relations. 
Now it is the latter alone which governs the 
actions of the child in producing forms and 
figures. 

The child will naturally compare the equila- 
teral triangle, which he now receives with the 
isosceles, right-angled tablet already known to 
him. Both have three sides, both three angles, 
but on close observation not only their simi- 
larities, but also their dissimilarities will be- 
come apparent. The three angles of the new 
triangle are all smaller than a right angle, are 
acute angles and the three sides are just alike, 
hence the name — equilateral — meaning ll equal 
sided" triangle. 

Joining two of these equilateral tablets the 
child will discover that it cannot form a tri- 
angle, square or any of the regular figures pre- 
viously produced. To undertake to produce 
forms of life with these tablets would prove 
very unsatisfactory. 

FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE. 

These are of particular interest because they 
present entirely new formations. 

It has been mentioned before, that the previ- 
ously introduced regular mathematical figures 
do not appear here as a whole. However, a 
triangle can be represented by four or nine 
tablets, a rhomboid by four, six or eight tab- 
lets, a trapezium by three, and manifold in- 
stinctive remarks can be made and experi- 
ences gathered in the construction of these 
figures. But above all, it is the rhombus and 
hexagon, with which the pupil is to be made 



150. 



Fig. 151. 



acquainted here. The child unites two tri- 
angles by joining side to side, and thus pro- 
duces a rhombus. 

The child compares the sides — are they 
alike ? What is their direction ? Are they paral- 
lel? Two and two have the same direction, 
and are therefore parallel. 

The child now examines the angles and finds 
that two and two are of equal size. They are 
not right angles. Triangles, smaller than right 
angles, he knows, are called acute angles, and 
he hears now that the larger ones are called 
obtuse angles. The teacher may remark that 
the latter are twice the size of the former ones. 
By these remarks the pupil will gradually re- 
ceive a correct idea of the rhombus and of the 
qualities by which it is distinguished from 
the quadrangle, right angle, trapezeium and 
rhomboid. 

In the same manner, the hexagon gives oc- 
casion for interesting and instructive questions 
and answers. How many sides has it? How 
many are parallel? How many angles does it 
contain? What kind of angles are they? How 
huge are they as compared with the angles of 
the equal sided triangle? Twice as large. 

The power of observation and the reason- 
ing faculties are constantly developed by such 
conversation, and the results of such exercises 
are of more importance than all the knowledge 
that may be acquired in the meantime. 

The greater part of this occupation, how- 
ever, is not within the Kindergarten proper, 
but belongs to the realm of the Primary school 
department. If they are introduced in the 
former they are intended only to swell the 
sum of general experience in regard to the 
qualities of things, whereas in the latter, they 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



159 



serve as a foundation of real knowledge in 
the department of mathematics. 

THE FORMS OF BEAUTY. 

The child first receives three tablets and will 
find the various positions of the same toward 
one another according to the law of opposites 
and their combination. 



Fig.152. Fig.153.Fig.154. Fig.155. Fig.156. 



Fig 157. Fig. 158. Fig. 159. Fig. 160. 

SIX TABLETS. 

The child will unite his tablets around one 
common center (Fig. 161), form the opposite 
(Fig. 162), and then arrive at the forms of 
mediation Figs. 163, 164, 165 and 166, or he 
unites three elementary forms each composed 
of two tablets as done in Fig. 167 and forms 
the opposite Fig. 168 and the mediations Figs. 
169 ami Fig. 170 or he starts from Fig. 161, 
turning first one, then two, then three tablets, 
outwardly. By turning one tablet Figs. 172 
and 173, by turning two tablets Figs. 174, 175, 
176, 177, 178, 179, and ISO are produced from 
Fig. 171. This may be continued with three, 
four and five tablets. All forms thus received 
give us elementary forms which may be em- 
ployed as soon as a larger number of tablets 
are to be used. 





Fig. 161. Fig. 162. 



Fig. 163. 






Fig. 164. 



Fig. 165. 



Fis. 166. 




Fig. 171. 



Fig. 172. 



Fig. 173. 




Fig. 177. Fig. 178. Fig. 179. Fig. 180. 

NIXE TABLETS. 

As with the right-angled triangle, small 
groups of tablets were combined to form 
larger figures, so we also do here. The ele- 
mentary forms, Figs. 152-160 give us in three- 
fold combination the series as shown in Figs. 
181-191 which in course of the occupation 
may be multiplied at will. 




Fig. 181. Fig. 182. Fig. 183. Fig. 184. 




Fig. 185. Fig. 186. Fig. 187. Fig. 188. 





Fig. 189. 



Fig. 190. 




TWELVE TABLETS. 

Half of the tablets are of light wood and 
half dark. By this difference in color, opposites 
are rendered more conspicuous, and these 
twelve tablets thus afford a splendid opportu- 
nity for illustrating more forcibly the law of 
opposites and their combination. Figs. 192- 
227, show how, by combination of opposites 
in the forms a and b< every time the star c is 



160 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



produced. Entirely new series of forms may 
be produced by employing a larger number of 
tablets, eighteen, twenty-four or thirty-six. 
We are, however, obliged to leave these repre- 
sentations to the combined inventive powers of 
teacher and pupil. 




Fig. 213. 



Fig. 214. 




Fig. 215. 





Fig. 192. Fig. 193. Fig. 194. 



Fig. 216. Fig. 217. 




Fig. 218. 





Fig. 195. Fig. 196. Fig. 197. 




Fig. 198. Fig. 199. Fig. 200. 





Fig. 201. Fig. 202. Fig. 203. 





Fig. 204. Fig. 205. Fig. 206. 






Fig. 207. Fig. 208. Fig. 209. 







Fig. 219. 



Fig. 22U. 




Fig. 222. 



Fig. 22:;. 





Fig. 225. Fig 226. 




Fig. 221. 




Fig. 2 24. 




Fig. 227. 



THE OBTUSE-ANGLED TRIANGLE 
WITH TWO SIDES ALIKE. 

(See Figs. 22S — 250). 

The child receives a box with sixty-four 
obtuse-angled tablets. He examines one of 
them and compares it with the right-angled 
triangle, with two sides alike. It has two sides 
alike, has also two acute angles, but the third 
angle is larger than the right angle ; it is an 
obtuse-angle, and the tablet is, therefore, an 
obtuse-angled triangle with two sides alike. 

The pupil then unites two and two tablets by 
laying them so that edges join edges, corners 
touch corners and edges join corners as shown 
in Figs. 228-236. 




Fig. 210. Fig. 211. 



Fig. 212. 



Fig. 228. 



Fig. 229. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



161 



Fig. 230. 



Fig. 231. 



Fig. 232. 



Fig. 233. 



Fig. 234. 



Fig. 235. 




Fig. 236. 

The next preliminary exercise, is the com- 
bination by fours, of the elementary forms thus 
produced. Peculiarly beautiful, mosaic-like 
forms of beauty result from this process, 
such as Figs. 237-243, which are produced by 
the combination of two opposites or by medi- 
ative forms. Figs. 244-250 are samples of 
forms of life. 





Fig. 237. 



Fig. 238. 





Fig. 240. 



Mk&JNM 




Fig. 241. 



h A K A K A K 

m m \X\ \) 




Fig. 242. 



Fig. 243. 



The forms of knowledge which may be pro- 
duced, afford opportunity to repeat what has 
been taught and learned previously about pro- 
portion of form and size. In the Primary 
School the geometrical proportions are further 
introduced, by which means the knowledge of 
the pupils, in regard to angles, as to the po- 
sition they occupy in the triangle, can he suc- 
cessfully developed by practical observation, 
without the necessity of ever dealing in mere 
abstractions. 






Fig. 244. Fig. 245. 



Fig. 246. 




Fig. 239. 



Fig. 247. 



Fig. 248. 



162 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 249. 



A comparison with the right-angled triangle 
with two equal sides will facilitate the matter 
greatly. 

On the whole, however, the process of de- 
velopment may be pursued, as repeatedly in- 
dicated ou previous occasions. 



mJi/ 





- 



I 



m 



-7 



Fig. 250. 

THE RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE WITH 
NO EQUAL SIDES. 

(See Figs. 251—286). 

The little box containing tifty-six tablets 
of the above description, each of which are 
in form like one-half of the obtuse-angled tri- 
angle, enables the child to represent a goodly 
number of forms of life, as shown in Figs. 
251-264. 





Fig. 251. 

In producing them sufficient opportunities 
will present themselves to let the child find out 
the qualities of the new occupation material. 




Fio-. 253. 




Fig. 254. 








Fio\ 255. 




Fio-. 252. 



Fio-. 256. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



163 



^jgi 



,,-t 




Fig. 258. 



^ 




Fig. 257. 




Fig. 262. 




Fio-. 259. 




Fig. 260. 



D* 



Fio-. 261. 



"\ 




Fio-. 263. 



Fig. 264. 

The variety of the forms of beaut}' to be laid 
with these tablets, is especially founded on their 
combination in twos. Figs. 265-270 show the 
forms produced by joining equal sides. 



164 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Fig. 2G5. 



Fig. 266. 



Fig. 267, 



Fig. 268. Fig. 269. Fig. 270. 

In similar manner, the child has to find out 
the forms which will be the result of joining 
unlike edges, like corners, unlike corners, and 
finally corners and edges. 

By a fourfold combination of such elementary 
forms the child receives the material (Figs. 
271-282), to produce a large number of forms 
of beauty similar to those given under Figs. 
283-286. 



For the purpose, also, of presenting to the 
child's observation, in a new shape, propor- 
tions of form and size, in the production of 
forms of knowledge, these tablets are very 
serviceable. 

Like the previous tablets, these also, and a 
following set of similar tablets, are used in 
the Primary Department for enlivening the 
instruction in Geometry. It is believed that 
nothing has ever been invented to so facilitate, 
and render interesting to teacher and pupil, 
the instruction in this so important branch of 
education as the tablets forming the Seventh 
Gift of FroebePs Occupation Material, the use 
of which is commenced with the children when 
they have entered the second year of their Kin- 
dergarten discipline. 





Fig. 271. 



Fig. 272. 



Fig. 273. 



Fig. 274. Fig. 275. 





Fig. 276. 



Fig. 277, 



Fig. 27* 







Fig. 271). 



Fig. 280. 



Fig. 281, 



Fig. 282. 





Fig. 283. 



Fig. 284. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



165 





Fig. 285. 



Fig. 286. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



As the tablets of the seventh gift represent 
surfaces instead of solids they at once become 
more ideal and serve as an introduction to the 
elements of drawing, or to the representation of 
solids by plane surfaces. These tablets, in fact, 
contain in concrete form the principles of plain 
geometry, and illustrate many of the problems 
in elementary industrial drawing. The natural 
foundation for a mathematical and scientific 
education which the kindergarten lays is an 
important element to aid in the production of 
more expert and accurate workmen in any 
manual occupation, and will tend to cultivate a 
more accurate and practical conception of every- 
day experiences. The manual training exhibit 
sent from Russia to Philadelphia in 1876 be- 
gan the evolution of a practical system of 
manual training in this countiy, and the cor- 
responding exhibition of the kindergarten work 
and material, with the first practical kindergar- 
ten guide in the English language, was equally 
a forerunner of the kindergarten in America, 
which to-day stands well in advance of the work 
in all other parts of the world, while its possi- 
bilities can as yet be only imagined. Twenty 
years ago America was at a great industrial dis- 
advantage in comparison with older nations, 
because her artizans lacked the scientific and 
art education which was afforded the work- 
men of other countries. This defect is rapidly 



being overcome in the*" establishment of indus- 
trial schools, through the liberal donations of 
some of our capitalists and the general progress 
of our public school officials along the same 
lines. In laying the foundation of such educa- 
tion in the kindergarten the seventh gift has 
immense capabilities, but much of its force and 
value has been lost from lack of logical se- 
quence in the derivation of the forms of the 
tablet, and the order of their use. In the origi- 
nal seventh gift tablets as imported from Ger- 
man}' there were five forms, namely, the square, 
half square, equilateral triangle, obtuse-angled 
triangle and scalene-triangle made by dividing 
diagonally an oblong of two squares. In this 
gift the absence of the circle and half circle 
seems to have been unfortunate, because the 
ball is the first solid, and correspondingly the 
circle should be the first surface form, and the 
general introduction of the circle and half circle 
by the leading kindergarteners of our day 
seems to particularly indorse this criticism. 

Following the circle based on the sphere, 
should come the square which is one of the six 
equal faces of the cube, and the half square 
formed by a diagonal division of the square 
should follow. Next, we may have the equi- 
lateral triangle which is the type of three sided 
plane figures, as the square is the type of four- 
sided figures. If the equilateral triangle is 



166 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



divided by a line from one corner to the cen- 
ter of the opposite side, this liue will be per- 
pendicular to that side and one of these halves 
of. the equilateral will be a scalene-triangle 
with two acute angles and one right angle. If 
these two triangles formed by dividing the 
equilateral triangle are placed base to base, we 
have an obtuse-angled triangle. These five 
forms are the same as in the original German 
gift, except the scalene triangle, and it is in the 
form and order of introduction of this tablet, 
that the objection to the old seventh gift is 
found. If the sealene-triangle is one-half of 
the equilateral it becomes a typical and valua- 
ble form, instead of a meaningless and useless 
one when it is a half of an oblong of two 
squares. In this new form the angles are 
ninety degrees, sixty degrees and thirty de- 
grees, all of which are typical or in a sense 
standard angles, but if instead of this triangle 
we have the half of the oblong of two squares, 
the two acute angles become fractional and have 






no value as standards and no logical relation 
to the other tablets. Two of them will not 
make an equilateral triangle, neither will they 
make the obtuse-angled triangle with which 
they must be associated, and no number of 
them will exactly fill a circle. In fact, the tri- 
angle is a constant source of error and false 
education to the eye, aud in its use much of the 
practical value of this gift is sacrificed. 

In the accompanying diagrams, A, B, C, D, 
E, the tablets of the seventh gift are shown in 
their proper order. The square A educates 
the eye to correctly estimate a right angle, one 
of the essential qualifications of a skilled 
artizan. The bisection of the square gives the 
forty-five degrees triangle B, thus training the 
eye to measure that universal angle, the miter, 
one-half of a right angle. These two angles are 
so common that the draftsman or the designer 
constantly uses a large "tablet B" in connec- 



tion with the T square in his work. The angle 
of forty-five degrees is one eighth of the circle 
and this triangle is used in a very simple way 
for drawing the octagon, thus : — 

Draw a circle and with the T square draw a 
tangent to the top and bottom of the circle. 
With the triangle sliding on the blade of the T 




n 



Fig. 287. 

square draw the two tangents at opposite sides, 
Fig. 287. Then place the hypothenuse of the 
triangle on the T square and draw four diag- 
onals tangent to the circle to complete the oc- 
tagon, as in Fig. 288. This is but one of the 
many ways in which the forty-five degrees tri- 
angle is used by the draftsman. The equila- 
teral triangle C has three angles of sixty de- 




grees each, six of which form a complete circle. 
The divided equilateral or right-angled scalene 
triangle D has one angle of ninety degrees, 
one of sixty degrees and one of thirty degrees, 
and this tablet is another tool indispensable to 
the draftsman, and a constant companion of 
the forty-five degrees triangle and the T square. 
It is of the same service in drawing the hexa- 
gon that the forty-five degrees triangle is in 



k 



J Fig. 289. 

forming the octagon, as may be seen in Fig. 
289, and Fig. 290, which following Figs. 287 
and 288, will usually give the idea without 
further explanation. In case the matter is not 
perfectly clear these operations can be per- 
formed with the T square and triangles of the 
drawing kit of the elementary school. These 
two triangles represent all the angles which may 
be termed standards, namely, ninety degrees,. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



167 



forty-five degrees, sixty degrees and thirty de- 
grees, and a child in the kindergarten should be- 
come as familiar with them as with the size of 
the squares on the table. The obtuse-angled 
triangle E, as made in the gifts, is in form like 
two of D, joined at the short sides, but for con- 
venience the size is reduced one-half. 




J Fig. 290. 

The only argument for the use of the scalene- 
triangle derived from the oblong of two squares, 
seems to be based ou the fact that such a tri- 
angle is conveniently made on the netted draw- 
ing, but this certainly is not of sufficient im- 
portance to warrant the introduction of a math- 
ematical monstrosity such as this triangle must 
be considered. 

Among the seventh gift tablets for sale and 
in use in the kindergartens both forms of the 
scalene-triangles may be found. One is the 
half of an oblong of two squares and the other 
the half of a equilateral triangle. Some kin- 
dergartners are using either the one or the other 
with well settled convictions as to its superior 
value, while others have given little or no 
thought to the subject. The difference is so 
radical between the two geometrical forms that 
it should become a question of considerable im- 
portance in the mind of an intelligent kinder- 
gartner, which form she selects in her gifts. 
Having decided, she ought to be sure that she 
gets what she wants when ordering material. 
The argument in favor of the half equilat- 
eral has been'briefly expressed above, because 
the experience of the editor in practical geome- 
try and industrial drawing has convinced him 
of the truth of this position, but every kinder- 
partner is entitled to the opposite opinion af- 
ter having given careful thought to the subject. 

In presenting this gift as the circle is the 
first plane to be given, a clay sphere may be 
modeled and by cutting through the center, the 
face of the hemisphere will show the circle thus 
proving to the children that it is derived from 
the ball. 

Call attention to other circular objects and 
give simple lessons in direction and position ; 
follow this by laying forms of symmetry with 
the circle, (Figs. 291-298), and half circle, 



(Figs. 299-304), also border patterns, (Fig. 
305). Sequences may be derived by working 
by opposites, as shown in Figs. 306-310. 





Fig. 2H2. 



Fig. 293. 




Fig. 294. 





Fig. 295. 



Fig. 296. 





Fig. 297. Fig. 298. 

In considering the square let a piece of ap- 
ple or bread be cut just the size and shape of 
the third gift, and then a slice cut from it to 
show how the square tablet is a representative 
of the surface of the cube. Most children 
would understand it, perhaps, without this, 
but something real is better and the fact that 



168 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



taking the slice from the cube has left only a in the tablets of this gift, it often gives him 
part of a cube becomes more of a reality to great pleasure to reproduce that design in per- 
manent form by pasting colored papers cut 




Fig. 299. 





Fig. 303. 



Fig. 304. 




Fig. 305. 





Fig. 306. 



Fig. 307 






Fig. 309. 



Fig. 310. 



308. 
have watched the pro- 



Fig. 
the children after they 
cess than if they had only tried to think it out 

When a child has laid a satisfactory design to the earlier "occupations of the kindergarten. 



in shapes like the tablets on to a piece of card 
or heavy paper, which may be carried home as 
a souvenir. In this occupation which has been 
called "Parquetry," the element of color may 
be introduced while both the form instruction 
and manual training involved are invaluable. 
In some styles of the seventh gift the tablets 
are painted in a variety of colors, and while 
on first thought this feature may be very at- 
tractive, experience has seemed to demonstrate 
to the satisfaction of kindergartners in this 
country, that the tablets in light and dark 
woods, expressing tones rather than color are 
more valuable, educationally, than the colored 
tablets. Before the introduction of Parquetry 
papers the colored tablets were quite popular, 
but with the greatly improved expression of 
color sequences found in the modern educa- 
tional colored paper, this feature seems open to 
many objections. No painted surfaces sub- 
ject to constant use by the children and ex- 
posure to the light, can permanently retain 
their colors so as to have much educational 
value in color perception, and therefore the 
occupations are far better adapted to the 
teaching of color than the gifts. Also the 
consideration of the effects of light and shade 
in the designs as made with the tablets is as 
much as the child's mind is able to grasp at 
first, while increased interest is secured later 
by the addition of colors in the reproduction 
of the designs, by pasting papers selected from 
the great variety of colors in the modern edu- 
cational colored papers. Parquetry not only 
delights the children but teaches accuracy of 
eye and hand in placing the small bits of paper, 
neatness in the gumming, and cultivates taste 
in the selection and combination of colors. It is 
distinctly an American occupation which has 
been generally accepted as a valuable addition 



THE EIGHTH GIFT. 

STICKS FOR LAYING OF FIGURES. 



As the tablets of the Seventh Gift are noth- 
ing but an embodiment of the planes surround- 
ing or limiting the cube, and as these planes, 
limits of the cube, are nothing but the repre- 
sentations of the extension in length, breadth 
and height, already contained in the sphere and 
hall, so also the sticks are derived from the 
cube, forming as they do, and here bodily rep- 
resenting its edges. But they are also contained 
in the tablets, because the plane is thought of, 
as consisting of a continued or repeated line, 
and this may be illustrated by placing a suf- 
ficient number of one inch long sticks side by 
side, and close together, until a square is 
formed. 

The sticks lead us another step farther, 
from the material, bodily, toward the realm 
of abstractions. 

By means of the tablets, we were enabled 
to produce flat images of bodies ; the slats, 
which, as previously mentioned, form a tran- 
sition from plane to line, gave, it is true, the 
outlines of forms, but these outlines still re- 
tained a certain degree of the plane about 
them ; in the sticks, however, we obtain the 
material to draw the outlines of objects, hy 
bodily lines, as perfectly as it can possibly be 
done. 

The laying of sticks is a favorite occupa- 
tion with all children. Their fantasy sees in 
them the most different objects, — stick, yard 
measure, candle ; in short, they are to them 
representatives of everything straight. 

Our sticks are of the thickness of a line 
(one twelfth of an inch), and are cut in vari- 
ous lengths. The child, holding the stick in 
his hand, is asked : What do you hold in your 
hand? How do you hold it ? Vertically. Can 



Fie. 1. 



Fie. 



Fie. 3. 



you hold it in any other way? Yes ! I can hold 
it horizontally. Still in another way ? Slant- 
ing from left above, to right below, or from 
right above to left below. (Figs. 1-3). 



Lay your stick upon the table. How does 
it lie? In what other direction can you place 

it? 

The child receives a second stick. How 
many sticks have you now? Now try to form 
something. The child lays a standing cross, 
(Fig. 4). You certainly can lay many other 
and more beautiful things ; but let us see what 
else we may produce of this cross, by mov- 
ing the horizontal stick, by half its length, 
(Figs. 4 to 14). 



Fio-. 4. Fig. 5. Fis. 6. Fig. 7, 



Fig. 8. Fie. 9. 



Fig. K). Fig. 11, 



Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 
Starting from a lying cross, (Fig. 15) or 
from a pair of open tongs, (where two acute 
and two obtuse angles are formed by the cross- 
ing sticks), and proceeding similarly as with 
Figs. 4-14, we will produce all positions which 
two sticks can occupy, relative to one another, 
except the parallel, and this will give ample 
opportunity to refresh, and more deeply im- 
press upon the pupil's mind, all that has been 
introduced so far, concerning vertical, hori- 
zontal and oblique lines, aud of right, acute 
and obtuse angles, (Figs. 15-23). 




Fig;. 15. Fie. 16. 



Fie. 17 



Fie. 18. 



170 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 19. Fig.20. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. Fig. 23. 

With two sticks, Ave can also form little 
figures, which show some slight resemblance 
with things around us. By them we enliven 
the power of recollection and imagination of 
the child, exercise his ability of comparison, 
increase his treasure of ideas, and develop in 
all these his power of perception and concep- 
tion — the most indispensable requisites for 
disciplining the mind. 

Following are given representations of ob- 
jects made : — 

With two sticks, Fig. 24, A Playing Table. 
Fig. 25, Pick Axe. Fig. 26, An Angle Meas- 
ure. (Carpenter's square). 




Fig. 32. .Fig. 33. 

With live sticks, Fig. 34, Signal Flag of R. 
R. Guard. Fig. 35, A Cottage. Fig. 36, Saw- 
horse. Fig. 37, A Chair. 




Fig. 35. 



Fig. 24. Fig. 

With three sticks, Fig. 

A Small Flag. Fig. 29 



27 

A St a i 



Fig. 26. 
A Flail. Fig. 2s, 




Fig. 27. Fig. 28. Fig. 29. 

With four sticks, Fig. 30, A Wooden Chair. 
Fig. 31, A Wash bench. Fig. 32, A Crib. 
Fig. 33, Flower-pot. 




Fig. 30. 




Fig. 36. Fig. 37. 

With six sticks, Fig. 38, A Flag. Fig. 39, 
A Boat. Fig. 40, A Reel. Fig. 41, A Small 
Tree. 




*^^^ 



Fig. 38. 



Fig. 39. 





Fig. 31. 



Fig. 40. Fig. 41. 

With seven sticks, Fig. 42, A Dwelling 
House. Fig. 43, A Bridge with Three Spans. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



171 



Fig. 44, Tombstone and Cross. Fig. 45, Rail With nine sticks, Fig. 51, Dwelling-house. 
Fence. Fig. 52, Sailboat. Fig. 53, Balance. Fig. 54, 

Coffee-mill. Fig. 55, Students Lamp. 




J 



Fig. 42. 



Fig. 43. 




Fig. 51. 



Fis. 52. 



Fig. 44. 



Fig. 45. 



With eight sticks, Fig. 46, Church, with 
steeple. Fig. 47, Gas Lantern. Fig. 48, Corn- 
crib. Fig. 49, A Flower-pot. Fig. 50, A Piano 
forte. 




\ 


■ 




J 1 

1 



Fig. 54. 



Fig. 49. 



Fig. 50. 



Fig. 55. 



With ten sticks, Fig. 56, Graveyard Wall. 
Fig. 57, A Hall. Fig. 58, A Flower-pot. Fig. 
59, A Bedstead. Fig. 60, A Flag. 



172 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 56. 



Fig. 57. 




Fio-. 58. 



Fio-. 59. 



Fio-. 60. 



With eleven sticks, Fig. 61, A Kitchen 
Lamp. Fig. 62, Cup and Saucer. 




Fio-. 61. 



Fio-. 62. 



With twelve sticks, Fig. 63, A Church. Fig. 
64, Chair and Table. Fig. 65, A Well with 
Sweep. 




Fig. 63. 




These exercises are to he continued with a 
larger number of sticks. The hints given above, 
will enable the teacher to conduct the laying of 
sticks in a manner interesting, as well as use- 
ful, for her pupils. 

It is advisable to guide the activity of the 
child occasionally in another direction. The 
pupils may all becalled upon to lay tables, which 
can be produced from two to ten sticks, or 
houses which can be laid with eighteen sticks. 

Sticks are also employed for representing 
forms of beauty. The previous, or simulta- 
neous occupation with the building blocks, and 
tablets, will assist the child in producing the 
same in great variety. Figs. 66-72 belong to 
this class of representations. 

Combination of the occupation material of 
several, or all children taking part in the ex- 
ercises, will lead to the production of larger 
forms of life, or beauty, which in the Primary 
Department, can even be extended to repre- 
senting whole landscapes, in which the mate- 
rial is augmented by the introduction of saw- 
dust to represent foliage, grass, land, moss, etc. 

By means of combination, the children often 
produce forms which afford them great pleas- 
ure, and repay them for the careful persever- 
ance and skill employed. They often express 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



173 






Fisr. GQ. 



Fig. 67. 



Fig. Q8. 





Fig. 69. 



Fio-. 70. 






Fio-. 71, 



Fio-. 72. 



174 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



the wish that they might be able to show the 
production to father, or mother, or sister, or 
friend. But this they cannot do, as the sticks 
will separate when taken up. 

We should assist the little ones in carrying 
out their desire of giving pleasure to others, 
by showing to, or presenting them with the 
result of their own industry, in portable form. 
By wetting the ends of the sticks with muci- 
lage, or binding them together with needle and 
thread, or placing them on substantial paper, 
we can grant their desire, and make them hap- 
py, and be sure of their thanks for our efforts. 

But we have another means of rendering 
these representations permanent, ami it is by 
drawing, which, on its own account, is to be 
practiced in the most elementary manner. We 
begin the (hawing, as will hereafter be shown, 
as a special branch of occupation, as soon as 
the child has reached its third or fourth year. 

The method of laying sticks is in general the 
same as applied for drawing, the latter, how- 
ever, progresses less rapidly. It is advisable 
to combine sticks in regular figures, triangles 
and squares, and to find out in a small num- 
ber of such figures all possible combinations 
according to the law of opposites. 

All these occupations depend on the larger or 
smaller number of sticks employed ; they there- 
fore afford means for increasing and strength- 
ening the knowledge of the child. The pupil, 
however, is much more decidedly introduced 
into the elements of ciphering, when the sticks 
are placed into his hands for this specific pur- 
pose. We do not hesitate to make the asser- 
tion that there is no material better fitted to 
teach the rudiments in figures, as also the more 
advanced steps in arithmetic, than Fm'bel's 
sticks. A few packages of the sticks in the 
hands of the pupil is all that is needed in the 
Kindergarten proper, and the following De- 
partment of the Primary School. 

The children receive a package with ten 
sticks each. Take one stick and lay it verti- 
cally on the table. Lay another at the side 
of it. How many scicks are uow before you? 
Twice one makes two. 

Lay still another stick upon the table. How 
many are there now? One and one and one — 
two and one are three. 

Still another, etc., etc., until all ten sticks 
are placed in a similar manner upon the table. 
Now take away one stick. How many remain ? 



Ten less nine leaves one. Take away another 
stick from these nine. How many are left? 
Nine less one leaves eight. Take another; this 

leaves seven ? etc., etc., until all the sticks 

are taken one by one from the table, and are 
in the child's hands again. Take two sticks 
and lay them upon the table, and place two 
others at some distance from them. ( || || ) How 
many are now on the table ? Two and two are 
four. Lay two more sticks beside these four 
sticks. How man}' are there now? Four and 
two are six. Two more. How many are there 
now? Six and two are eight . And still another 
two. How many now? Eight and two are ten. 

The child has learned to add sticks by twos. 
If we do the opposite, he will also learn to 
subtract by twos. In similar manner we pro- 
ceed with three, four andjfrye. After that we 
alternate, with addition and subtraction. For 
instance, we lay three times two sticks upon 
the table and take away twice tw r o, adding 
again four times two. Finally we give up the 
equality of the number and alternate, by add- 
ing different numbers. We lay upon the table 
two and three sticks which equal five, adding 
two, which equal seven, adding three, which 
equal ten. This affords opportunity to introduce 
six and nine, as a whole, more frequently than 
was the case in previous exercises. In subtrac- 
tion we observe the same method, and intro- 
duce exercises in which subtraction and addi- 
tion alternate with unequal numbers. Lay six 
sticks upon the table, take two away, add four, 
take away one, add three and ask the child how 
many sticks are on the table, after each of these 
operations. 

In like manner, as the child learned the 
figures from one to ten, and added and sub- 
tracted with them as far as the number of ten 
sticks admitted, it will now learn to use the 
tens up to one hundred. Packages of ten sticks 
are distributed. It treats each package as it 
did before the single stick. One is laid upon 
the table, and the child says, "Once ten ;" add 
a second, "Twice ten;" a third, "Three times 
ten," etc. Subsequently he is told, that it is 
not customary to say twice, or two times ten, 
but twenty ; not three times ten, but thirty, etc. 
This experience will take root so much the 
sooner, in his memory, and become knowledge, 
as all this is the result of his own activity. 

As soon as the child has acquired sufficient 
ability in adding and subtracting by tens, the 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



175 



combination of units and tens is introduced. 
The pupil receives two packages of ten sticks 
— places one of them upon the table, opens 
the second and adds its sticks one by one to 
the ten contained in the whole package. He 
learns ten and one equal eleven, ten and two 
equal twelve, ten and three equal thirteen, until 
ten and ten equal twenty sticks, (lathering the 
ten loose sticks, the child receives another 
package and places it beside the first whole 
package. Ten and ten equal twenty sticks. 
Then he adds one of the loose sticks and says 
twenty and one equal twenty-one, twenty and 
two equal twenty- two, etc. Another package 
of ten brings the number to thirty-one, etc., 
etc., up to ninety-one sticks. In this manner 
he learns twenty-two, thirty-two, up to ninety- 
two, twenty-three to ninety-three and one 
hundred, and to add and subtract within this 
limit. To be taught addition and subtraction 
in this manner, is to acquire sound knowledge, 
founded on self-activity and experience, and 
is far superior to any kind of mind-killing 
memorizing usually employed in this connec- 
tion. 

If addition and subtraction are each other's 
opposites, so addition and multiplication on 
the one hand, and subtraction and division on 
the other, are oppositionally equal, or, rather, 
multiplication and division are shortened addi- 
tion and subtraction. 

In addition, when using equal numbers of 
sticks, the child finds that by adding two and 
two, and two and two sticks he receives eight 
sticks and is told that this may also be ex- 
pressed by saying four times two sticks are 
eight sticks. It will be easy to see how to pro- 
ceed with division, after the hints given above. 

Let none of our readers misunderstand us 
as intimating that all this shoidd be accom- 
plished in the Kindergarten proper. 

Enough has been accomplished if the child in 
the Kindergarten by means of sticks and other 
material of occupation, has been enabled to 
have a clear understanding of figures in general. 

This will be the basis for further develop- 
ment in addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division in the Primary Department. 

It now remains to add the necessary advice 
in regard to the introduction and representa- 
tion with the sticks of the numerals. In order 



to make the children understand what numerals 
are, use the blackboard and show them that if 
we wish to mark down how many sticks, I/locks, 
or other things each of the children have, we 
might make one line for each stick, block, etc. 
Write then one small vertical line on the black- 
board, saying in writing, Charles has one stick ; 
making two lines below the first, continue by 
saying Emma has two blocks; again, making 
three lines, Ernest has three rubber hulls, and 
so on until you have written ten lines, always 
giving the name of the child and stating how 
many objects he has. Then write opposite each 
row of lines to the right, the Arabic figure ex- 
pressing the number of lines, and remark that 
instead of using so many lines, we can also use 
these figures, which we call numerals. 

After the children have learned that the 
figures which we use for marking down the 
number of things are called numerals, exercises 
of the following character may be introduced. 

How many hands have each of you? Two. 
The numeral 2 is written on the board. How 
many fingers on each hand ? Five. This is writ- 
ten also on the board — 5. How many walls 
has this room ? Four. Write this figure also 
on the board. How many days in the week 
are the children in the Kindergarten ? Six days. 
The 6 is also written on the board. 

Then repeat, and let the children repeat af- 
ter von, as an exercise in speaking, and at the 
same time, for the purpose of recollecting the 
numerals : 

Each child has 2 hands, on each hand are 
5 fingers ; this room has 4 walls, — always em- 
phasizing the numerals, and pointing to them 
when they are named. 

The children may then count the objects in 
the room or elsewhere, and then lay with their 
sticks, the numerals expressing the number 
they have found, speaking in the meantime, a 
sentence asserting the fact which they have 
stated. 

As the occupation with laying sticks, is one 
of the earliest in the kindergarten, and is em- 
ployed in teaching numerals, and reading and 
writing, and drawing also, it is evident how 
important a material of occupation was sup- 
plied by Froebel, in introducing the sticks as 
one of his Kindergarten Gifts. 



176 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



As this gift is used to represent the line, it 
takes the child one step farther, into the ab- 
stract world, teaching both direction and out- 
lines. 

It consists of sticks from one to five inches 
in length, which come in bundles or in a com- 
partment box containing fifteen hundred sticks 
of the natural wood or of the six spectrum 
colors, which are more attractive to the chil- 
dren, and are helpful in color lessons and in 
representing familiar objects. In presenting 
this gift first hand one stick to each child, call 
attention to it by asking what it looks like 
and where it came from. Give a talk on trees, 
telling how they spring from the seed and grow, 
and how the wood is used for various purposes. 



formed, 
a quad- 
showing; 



\ 



X 



4 



\ ) V 



H 



/ 






// 



introduced, the teacher being careful to advance 
no faster than the child can follow. 

With four sticks a square may be 
or the sticks may be placed around 
rangular tablet, and then removed, 
the outline. 

The sticks are the foundation for outline 
drawing, and after the children have made sim- 
ple objects with the sticks let them draw what 
they have made, on paper or the blackboard. 

Give simple lessons in dictation, and in or- 
der to cultivate imagination and to draw out 
the inventive powers of the children, let them 
arrange short sequences in forms of life, add- 
ing interest by a story. 

Give sticks of different lengths, as this en- 
ables the children to make a greater va- 
riety of figures. When using the two-inch 
stick lead them to see that it corresponds 
to the edge of the second gift cube. 

This gift is useful in making angles and 
geometrical figures. In the geometrical 
figures the first to be outlined is the square, 
following the face of the second gift cube 
and the square tablet of the seventh gift. 

Direct attention to the right angles and 
let the children point them out. Follow 
this with obtuse and acute angles. When 
the fifth gift and the triangle of the sev- 
enth gift have been used then lay the sticks 
to form triangles, oblongs, pentagons, etc. 



\ 




Fig. 73. 



Ask for different articles that are made from 
wood and give the process by which the sticks 
are prepared for use, how they are dyed, etc. ; 
then let the children place the sticks in different 
directions, the vertical, horizontal, and slant- 
ing. Give a second stick, place them parallel, 
in different directions ; combine them and place 
them in all possible positions to each other. A 
number lesson in addition, subtraction and 
multiplication maybe taught, and a third stick 



Fig. 74. 

A great variety of life forms can be shown 
and to some extent symmetrical forms. It is 
well to let the children unite their sticks or com- 
bine them with rings, especially in the life forms, 
(Figs. 73 and 74). In this way a house with 
intei'ior furnishings may be made, or a house, 
yard and fence. The world of occupation fur- 
nished by this gift is a continual wonder to the 
kindergartner. 



THE NINTH GIFT- 

WHOLE AND HALF RINGS FOR LAYING FIGURES. 



Immediately connected with the sticks, or 
straight lines, Froebel gives the representatives 
of the rounded, curved lines, in a box contain- 
ing twenty-four whole and forty-eight half cir- 
cles of two different sizes made of wire. The 
rings supply the means of representing a curved 
line perfectly, besides enabling us by their dif- 
ferent sizes to show "the one within another." 

This gift is introduced in the same way as 
all other previous gifts were introduced, and 
the rules by which this occupation is carried on 
must be clear to every one who has followed us 
in our "Guide" to this point. 

The child receives one whole ring and two 
half rings of the larger size. Looking at the 
whole ring the children observe that there is 
neither beginning nor end in the ring — that it 
represents the circle, in which there is neither 
beginning nor end. (Fi«-. 1). With the half 

OX 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

ring, they have two ends ; half rings, like half 
circles and all other parts of the circle or curved 
lines, have two ends. Two of the half rings 
form one whole ring or circle, and the children 
are asked to show this by experiment. Various 
observations can be made by the children, ac- 
companied by remarks on the part of the 
teacher. Whenever the child combined two 
cubes, two tablets, sticks or slats with one 
another, in all cases where corners and angles 
and ends were concerned in this combination, 




Fig. 3. _ 
corners and angles were again produced. 



form any angles. Neither could closed space 
be produced by two bodies, planes, nor lines. 
The two half circles, however, close tightly up 
to each other so that no opening remains. 

The child now places the two half circles in 
opposite directions. (Fig. 2). Before, the ends 
touched one another, now the middle of the 
half circles ; previously a closed space was 
formed, now both half circles are open, and 
where they touch one another, angles appear. 

Mediation is formed in Fig. 3, where both 
half circles touch each other at one end and re- 

XX 

Fig. 4. 
main open or as indicated by the dotted line, 
join at end and middle, thereby enclosing a 



H 




Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

small plane and forming angles in the meantime. 
Two more half circles are presented. The 





The 



Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

child forms Fig. I, and develops by moving 
the half circles in the direction from without 
to within. (Figs. 5-8). 

All these forms are, owing to the nature of 
the circular line, forms of beaut)/ or beautiful 
forms of life, and, therefore, the occupation 
with these rings is of such importance. The 



two half rings or half circles, however, do not child produces forms of beauty with other ma- 



178 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



terial, it is true, but the curved line suggests teuder and pliable soul of the child, must needs 
to him in a higher degree than anything else be greater and more lasting. Without believ- 
ideas of the beautiful, and the simplest com- ing in the doctrine of two inimical natures in 

Fig. 11. 
man said to be in constant conflict with each 
other, we do believe that the talents and dis- 
position in human nature are subject to the 
possibility of being developed in two opposite 
directions. It is this possibility which con- 
ditions the necessity of education, the necessity 
of employing every means to give the dormant 
inclinations and tastes in the child, a direction 
toward the true, aud good, and beautiful, — in 
Eig. '••• one word, toward the ideal. Among these 

bmations of a small number of half and whole means stands pre-eminently a rational and 

circles, also bear in themselves the stamp of 

beauty. (Figs. 9-12). 






Fig. 10. 
If the fact cannot be refuted, that merely 
looking at the beautiful favorably impresses 
the mind of the grown person in regard to 
direction of its development, enabling him to 
more fully appreciate the good and true, and 
noble, and sublime, this influence upon the 



Fig. 12. 
timely development of the sense of beauty. 
upon which Froebel lays so much stress. 

Showing the young child objects of art which 
are far beyond the sphere of his appreciation, 
however, willassistthis development, much less 
than to carefully guard that his surroundings 
contain, and show the fundamental requisites 
of beauty, viz. : Order, cleanliness, simplicity 
and harmony of form, and giving assistance 
to the child in the active representation to the 
beautiful in a manner adapted to the state of 
development in the child himself. 

Like forms laid with sticks, those represented 
with rings and half rings also are imitated by 
the children by drawing them on slate or paper. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



This gift now consists of twelve whole, eight- 
een half and twelve quarter wire rings, for lay- 
ing figures which involve circles. It is a con. 
tinuation of the eighth gift and preparatory to 
drawing and designing, being used to represent 
an outline of a surface. 

The rings are made of steel, and come in 
three different sizes of one inch, one and one- 
half inch and two inches in diameter. In in- 



troducing this gift the largest ring should be 
given first, and attention called to its form and 
properties. A talk on iron, its uses, how it is 
dug out of the ground by miners, a description 
of the mines, of the process the ore passes 
through, how it is melted and molded into 
useful machines and articles, how it is changed 
into steel, is both interesting and instructive to 
the children. Ask for different things that are 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



179 



made of iron and steel, and draw from the ehil- tions, the number and size of rings being in- 

dren the reason why steel is valuable for knives, creased gradually. 

axes and other cutting utensils. A second When a third ring is given, let the children 

suggest ways of laying them. If they are of 
the same size, they may be placed side by side, 




Fig. 13. 




Fig. 14. 




in a group, in the form of a triangle, etc. If 
the different sizes are used, they may be placed 





one within the other, so that they are parallel, 
or they may touch at some point. Forms of 




Fig. 18. 



symmetry may be developed by several of these 
ring may be added and an exercise given in grouped together, as in Fig. 9. 
placing the rings in different ways and posi- The exercises with the half-ri 



rings are more 



180 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



interesting and instructive, as the forms are 
more varied and change at every step. Have 
the children place the half-rings in different 
positions. Give each child the same quantity 
of material and let them lay a design. Fig. 10 
shows a combination of the half-rings. Se- 




Fia;. 19. 




Fig. 20. 




quences involving both half and whole rings 
may be given, as shown in Figs. 13-17. 

When the quarter-ring is given, let the chil- 
dren compare it with the half-ring and combine 
the two in different sizes. Figs. 18 and 19 are 
the smallest half and quarter-rings combined, 
and Fig. 20, shows the largest size of each. 



Figs. 21 and 22 give pretty border patterns 
which may be embellished. 

As the curved line is the line of beauty, this 
gift is better adapted for beautiful forms than 
any of the others. Forms of life, especially 
in flower designs, are developed with the quar- 




Fig. 23. 




Fig. 24. 

ter-rings as shown in Fig. 23, while Figs. 21, 
and 25 show a combination of the whole, half 
and quarter-rings. 

Fig. 26, shows a combination of the three 
smallest sizes of each, Fig. 27, of the second 
size, and Fig. 28 of the largest. Fig. 29 is a 
combination of the whole, half and quarter- 
rings in the three different sizes. 

The rings of this Gift and the sticks of the 
eighth may be combined with pleasing and 
profitable results as shown in Figs. 30-38 of 
which Figs. 34-38 are a sequence. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



181 




Fig. 25. 




Fig. 26. 





Fig. 28. 




Fig. 29. 







Fig. 2' 



'A v 



Fig. 30. 



182 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 




Fig. 32. 




Fig. 33. 



<* 



Fig. 34. 



OaO 



If 



0® 



Fig. 35. 




Pig. 36. 




Fig. 37. 





CHHD 



6 

Fig. 38. 



THE TENTH GIFT. 

THE MATERIAL EOR DRAWING. 



One of the earliest occupations of the child 
should he methodical drawing. Froebel's 
opinion and conviction on this subject, de- 
viates from tiiose of other educators, as much 
as in other respects. Froebel, however does 
not advocate drawing, as it is usually prac- 
ticed, which on the whole, is nothing else but 
a more or less thoughtless mechanical copy- 
ing. The method advanced by Froebel, is in- 
Vented by him, and perfected in accordance 
with his general educational principles. 

The pedagogical effect of the customary 
method of instruction in drawing, rests in 
many cases simply in the amount of trouble 
'caused the pupil in surmounting technical 
difliculties. Just for that reason it should be 
abandoned entirely for the 3'oungest pupils, 
for the difficulties in many cases are too great 
for the child to cope with. It is a work of 
Sisyphus, labor without result, naturally tend- 
ing to extirpate the pleasure of the child in his 
occupation, and the unavoidable consequence 
is that the majority of people will never reach 
the point Avhere they can enjoy the fruits of 
their endeavors. 

If we acknowledge that Froebel's education- 
al principles are correct, namely, that all 
manifestations of the child's life are manifes- 
tations of an innate instinctive desire for de- 
velopment, and therefore should be fostered 
and developed by a rational education in ac- . 
cordance with the laws of nature, drawing 
should be commenced with the third year ; 
nay, its preparatory principles should be intro- 
duced at a still earlier period. 

With all the gifts, hitherto introduced, the 
children were able to study and represent forms 
and figures. Thus they have been occupied 
as it were, in drawing with bodies. This de- 
veloped their fantasy and taste, giving them 
in the meantime correct ideas of the solid, 
plane, and the embodied line. 

A desire soon awakes in the child, to repre- 
sent by drawing these lines and planes, these 
forms and objects. He is desirous of rep- 
resentation when he requests the mother to tell 
him a story, explain a picture. He is occu- 
pied in representation when breathing against 
the window-pane, and scrawling on it with 



his finger, or when trying to make figures in 
the saud with, a little stick Each child is de- 
lighted to show what he can make, and should 
be assisted in every way to regulate this desire. 

Drawing not only develops the power of 
representing things the mind has perceived, 
but affords the best means for testing how far 
they have been perceived correctly. 

It was Froebel's task to invent a method 
adapted to the tender age of the child, and his 
slight dexterity of hand, and in the meantime 
to satisfy the claim of all his occupations, ie., 
that the child should not simply imitate, but 
pi'oceed self-actingly, to perform work which 
enables him to reflect, reason, and finally to 
invent himself. 

Both claims have been most ingeniously 
satisfied by Frcebel. He gives the three 
years' old child a slate, one side of which is 
covered by a net-work of engraved lines (one- 
fourth of an inch apart), and he gives him in 
addition, thereto, the law of opposites and 
their mediation as a rule for his activity. 

The lines of the net-work guide the child in 
moving the pencil, they assist him in measuring 
and comparing situation and position, size 
and relative center, and sides of objects. 

This facilitates the work greatly, and in con- 
sequence of this important assistance the 
child's desire for work is materially increased ; 
whereas obstacles in the earliest attempts at 
all kinds of work must necessarily discourage 
the beginner. 

Drawing on the slate, with slate pencil is 
followed by drawing on paper with lead pen- 
cil. The paper of the drawing books is ruled 
like the slates. It is advisable to begin and 
continue the exercises in drawing on paper, 
in like manner as those on the slate were be- 
gun and continued, with this difference only, 
that owing to the progress made and skill ob- 
tained by the child, less repetitions may be 
needed to bring the pupil to perfection here, 
as was necessary in the use of the slate. 

It has been repeatedly suggested, that 
whenever a new material for occupation is in- 
troduced, the teacher should comment upon, 
or enter into conversation with the children, 
about the same ; the difference between draw- 



184 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



ing on the slate and on paper, and the ma- 
terial used for both may give rise to many re- 
marks and instructive conversation. 

It may be mentioned that the slate is first 
used, because the children can easily correct 
mistakes by wiping out what they have made, 
and that they should be much more careful in 
drawing on paper, as their productions can not 
appear perfectly clean and neat if it should 
be necessary to use the rubber often. 

Slate and slate pencil are of the same ma- 
terial ; paper and lead ] »encil are two very differ- 
ent things. On the slate the lines and figures 
drawn, appear white on darker ground. On 
the paper, lines and figures appear black on 
white ground. 

More advanced pupils use colored lead pen- 
cils instead of the common black lead pencils. 
This adds greatly to the appearance of the 
figures, and also enables the child to combine 
colors tastefully and fittingly. For the devel- 
opment of their sense of color, and of taste, 
these colored mosaic like figures are excel- 
lent practice. 

Drawing, as such, requires observation, at- 
tention, conception of the whole and its parts, 
the recollection of all, power of invention and 
combination of thought. Thus, by it, mind 
and fantasy are enriched with clear ideas and 
true and beautiful pictures. For a free and 
active development of the senses, especially 
eye and feeling, drawing can be made of in- 
calculable benefit to the child, when its natu- 
ral instinct for it is correctly guided at its 
very awakening. The child is first occupied by 

THE VERTICAL LINE. 

("See Figs, i — 42). 

The teacher draws on the slate a vertical line 
of a single length (one fourth of an inch) , say- 
ing while so doing, I draw a line of a single 
length downward. She then (leaving the line 
on the slate, or wiping it out) requires the child 
to do the same. (Fig. 1). She should show that 



i 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

the line she made commenced exactly at the 
crossing point of two lines of the net-work, 
and also ended at such a point. 



Care should be exercised that the child hold 
the pencil properly, not press too much or too 
little on the slate, that the lines drawn be as 
equally heavy as possible, and that each single 
line be produced by one single stroke of the 
pencil. The teacher should occasionally ask : 
What are you doing? or, what have you done? 



Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

and the child should always answer in a com- 
plete sentence, showing that he works under- 
standingly. Soon the lines may be drawn up- 



Fig. 5. Fig. (5. 

wards also, and then they may be made al- 
ternately up and down over the entire slates 
until the child has acquired a certain degree of 
ability in handling the pencil. 



Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

The child is then required to draw a vertical 
line of two lengths, and advances slowly to lines 
of three, four and five lengths, (Figs. 2-5). 



Fig. 9. 
With the number five Frcebel stops on this 
step. One to five are know r n, even to the child 
three years old, by the number on his fingers. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



185 



The productions thus far accomplished are 
now combined. The child draws, side by side 



Fig. 10. Fig. 11. 

of one another, lines of one and two lengths 
(Fig. 6), of one, two and three lengths (Fig. 
7), of one two, three and four lengths (Fig. 
8), and finally lines of one, two, three, four 
and five lengths (Fig. 9). It always forms 



Fig 12. Fig. 13. 

by so doing a right-angled triangle. We have 
noticed already, in using the tablets, that 



Fig. 14. 
right-angled triangles may lie in many different 
ways. The triangle (Figs. 9 and 10) can also 
assume various positions. In Fig. 10 the five 
lines stand on the base line — the smallest is 
the first, the largest the last, the right angle is 
to the right below. In Fig. 1 1 the opposite is 
found — the five lines hang on the base-line, the 
largest comes first, the smallest last, and the 
right angle is to the left above. Figs. 12 and 13 
are forms of mediation of Figs. 10 and 11. 
The child should be induced to find Figs. 



11-13 himself. Leading him to understand 
the points of Fig. 10 exactly, he. will have no 
difficulty in representing the opposite. Instead 



Fig. 15. 
of drawing the smallest line first, he will draw 
the longest; instead of drawing it downward, 
he will move his pencil upward, or at least be- 



Fig. 16. 
gin to draw on the line which is bounded above 
and thus reach Fig. 11. By continued reflec- 



Fig. 17. 
tion entirely within the limits of his capabilities 
he will succeed in producing Figs. 12 and 13. 



186 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Thus by a different way of combination of 
five vertical lines, four forms have been pro- 
duced, consisting of equal parts being, how- 
ever, unlike, and therefore oppositionally alike. 
Each of these figures is a whole in itself. 
But as everything is always part of a large 
whole, so also, these figures serve as elements 
for more extensive formations. 



Fig. 18. 
In this feature of FroebeFs drawing method 
in which we progress from the simple to the 
more complicated in the most natural and logi- 
cal manner, unite parts to a whole and recog- 
nize the former as members of the latter, dis- 



Fig. 19. 
cover the like in opposites, and the mediation 
of the latter, unquestionable guarantee is given 
that the delight of the child will be renewed 
and increased, throughout the whole course of 
instruction. Let Figs. 10-13 be so united that 
the right angles connect in the center (Fig. 14), 
and again unite them so that all right angles 
are on the outside (Fig. 15). Figs. 14 and 
15 are opposites. Fig. 14 is a square with 
filled inside and standing on one corner. Fig. 
15 one resting on its base, with hollow middle. 



In Fig. 14 the right angles are just in the 
middle ; in Fig. 15 they are the most outward 
corners. In the forms of mediation (Figs. 16 
and 1 7) , they are, it is true, on the middle line ; 
but in the meantime on the outlines of the 
figures formed. In the other forms of media- 
tion. (Fig. 18, 19, etc.,) they lie together on 
the middle line ; but two in the middle, and 
two in the limits of the figure. 



i 



Fig. 20. 
Thus we have again, in Fig. 18-22, four 
forms consisting of exactly the same parts, 
which therefore are equal and still have qual- 
ties of opposites. In the meantime, they are 
fit to be used as simple elements of following 
formations. In Fig. 22, they are combined 
into a star with filled middle. Numerous forms 
of mediation may be produced, but we will 
work at present with our simple elements. 



i 



Fig. 21. 
Owing to the similarity in the method of 
drawing to that employed in the laying of the 
right angled, isosceles triangle, it is natural 
that we should here also arrive at the so-called 
rotation figures, by grouping our triangles with 
their acute angles toward the middle (Figs. 23 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



187 



and 24), or arrange them around a hollow As previously remarked, the slate is ex- 
square (Figs. 25 and 26). changed for a drawing book as soon as the 
Figs. 27 and 28 are forms of mediation be- progress of the child warrants this change, 
tween Figs. 23 and 24 and at the same time It affords a peculiar charm to the pupil to see 
between Figs. 14 and 15. his productions assume a certain durability and 






Fig. 22. 
All these forms again serve as material for 
new inventions. As an example, we produce 
Fig. 29 composed of Figs. 27 and 28. 





























-s 



















































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 24. 
permanency enabling him to measure, by 
them, the progress of growing strength 
and ability. 

So far the triangles produced by co- 
arrangement of our five lines were right- 
angled. Other triangles, however, can be 
produced also. This however, requires 
more practice and security in handling the 
pencil. 

Figs. 30 and 31 show an arrangement 
of the five lines of acute angled (equi- 
lateral) triangles, and are opposites. Their 



Fig. 23. 

The number of positions in which our orig- Fig. 25. 

inal elements (Figs. 10-13) can be placed by union gives the opposites Figs. 32 and 33 ; fi- 

one another, is herewith not exhausted by far, nally, the combination of these two, Fig 34. 
as the initiated will observe. In the last three figures we also meet now 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 






Fig. 30. 



Fig. 29. 



Fig. 32. 



I l 



- 



Fio-. 31. 






Fis;. 28. 



Fig. 33. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



189 



Fig. 34. 



Fig. 35. 































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a 




































































































































































































































































































































































































































b 





















































































































































































Fisr. 37. 



Fig. 38. 



Fig. 39. 



Fig. 36. 



Fig. 40. 



190 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



the obtuse angle. This finds its separate rep- 
resentation in a of Fig. 35 ; opposition accord- 
to position is given in b ; mediation in c and d 
and the combination of these four elements in 
one rhomboid forming Fig. 35. The four ob- 
tuse angles are turned inwardly. Fig. 37, the 



Fig. 41. 
opposite of Fig. 35, is produced by arranging 
the triangles in such a manner that the obtuse 
angles are turned outwardly. Fig. 36 presents 
the form of mediation. 



Fig. 42. 
It is evident that with obtuse angled trian- 
gles as with right angled triangles, combina- 
tions can be produced. Indeed, the pupil who 
has grown into the systematic plan of develop- 
ment and combination will soon be enabled to 
unite given elements in manifold ways ; he will 
produce stars with filled and hollow middle, 



rotation forms, etc., and his mental and phys- 
ical power and capacity will be developed and 
strengthened by such inventive exercises. 

Side by side with invention of forms of 
beauty and knowledge, the representation of 
forms of life, take place, in free individual ac- 
tivity. The child forms, of lines of one length, 
a plate, (Fig. 38), or a star, (Fig. 39), of 
lines of one and two lengths a cross, (Fig. 40 ) , 
of lines up to four lengths he represents a 
coffee-mill, Fig. 41), and employs the whole 
material of vertical lines at his command in 
the construction of a large building with part 
of wall connected with it. (Fig. 42). Equal 
consideration, however, is to be bestowed upon 
the opposite of the vertical. 

THE HORIZONTAL LINE. 

Fig-s. 43—63. 

The child learns to draw lines of a single 
length below each other, then lines of two, three, 
four and five lengths, (Figs. 43-47). He ar- 
ranges them also beside each other, (Figs. 
48-50) , unites lines of one 
and two lengths, (Fig. 
51), of on e , t w o a n d 
three lengths, (Fig. 52), 
of one to four leng t h s , 
(Fig. 53), finally of one 
to five lengths, th e r e b y 
producing the right angled 
triangle, Fig. 54,itsoppo- 
site^ Fig. 55, and forms of 
mediation, Figs. 56 and 
5 7 . The pupil arr a 11 g e s 
the elements into a square 
with filled middle, (Fig. 
58 ) , with hollow middle, 
(Fig. 59), produces the 
forms of mediation, (Fig. 
60), and continues to 
treat the horizontal line 
just as* he has been taught 
to do with the vertical. 
Rotation forms, larger fig- 
ures, acute and obtuse 
angled triangles can be formed ; forms of 
beauty, knowledge and life are also invented 
here, (Fig. 61, adjustable lamp; Fig. 62, 
key; Fig. 63, pigeon-house); and after the 
child has accomplished all this, he arrives fi- 
nally, in a most natural way, at the combina- 
tion of vertical and horizontal lines. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



191 



Fig. 43. Fig. 44. 











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Fig. 45. 



Fig. 56. 



Fig. 57. 



Fig. 46. 



Fig. 47, 



Figs. 48. Fig. 49. Fig. 50. 



1 — i — I — t 
Fig. 51. 






Fig. 52. 

































































































— 





Fig. 53. 



' Mil 



Fig. 58. 



Fig. 59. 



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Fig. 54. 



Fig. 55. 



Fig. 60. 



192 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 







— I 1 I i — 

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— i If 

1 — | — 



Fig. 61. Fig. 

COMBINATION OF VERTICAL AND 
HORIZONTAL LINES. 

Figs. 64 — 92. 

First, lines of one single length are com- 
bined ; we already have lour forms different as 
to position, (Fig. G4). Then follow the com- 
bination of two, three, four, live-fold lengths, 



62. 



Pie. 63. 



Fig. 69 is produced. Its opposite Fig. 70 and 
the forms of mediation, can be easily found. A 
union of these four elements appears in the 
square, Fig. 71 ; opposite Fig. 72. In Fig. 71, 
the right angles are turned toward the middle, 



Fig. 64. Fig. 65. 

(Figs. 65-68) with each of which f our opposites 
as to position are possible. As previously, 



Fig. C,s. Fig. 69. 

and the middle is full. In Fig. 71 the reverse 
is the case. Forms of mediation easily found. 



Fig. 70. 

Fig. 66. Fig. 67. If vertical and horizontal lines can be united 

lines of one to five-fold lengths are united to only to form right angles, we have previously 
triangles, so now the angles are united and seen that vertical as well as horizontal lines 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



103 



may be combined to obtuse and acute-angled 
triangles. The same is possible, if they are 
united. Fig. 73 gives us an example. 

As in Fig. 73, the vertical lines form an ob- 
tuse-angled triangle, so the horizontal lines, 
and finally both kinds of lines can at the same 
time be arranged into obtuse-angled triangles. 






Fig. 71. 

Thus a series of new elements is produced, 
whose systematic employment the teacher 
should take care to facilitate. 

So far we have only formed angles of lines 
equal in length ; but lines of unequal lengths 



Fig. 72. 
may be combined for this purpose. Exactly 
in the same manner as lines of a single length 
were treated, the child now combines tne line 
of a single length with that of two lengths, 
then, in the same way, the line of two lengths 
with that of four lengths, that of three with 
that of six, that of four with that of eight, and 
finally, the line of five lengths with that of ten. 
The combination of these angles affords new 
elements with which the pupil can continue to 
form interesting figures in the already well- 



known manner. Figs. 73 and 75 are such 
fundamental forms ; the development of Avhich 
to other figures will «ive rise to many instruc- 



Fig. 73. 
tive remarks. These figures show us that for 
such formations the horizontal as well as the 



Fig. 71. 
vertical line may have the double length. Fig. 
74 shows the horizontal lines combined in such 
a way as if to form an acute-angled triangle. 
They, however, form a right-angled triangle, 
only the right angle is not, as heretofore, at 
the end of the longest line, but where? An 
acute-angled triangle would result, if the hor- 
izontal lines were all two net-squares distant 
from each other. Then, however, the vertical 
lines would form an obtuse-angled triangle. 
Important progress is made, when we com- 



194 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 





___ — *;— _ 

_ 



Fig. 



Fig. 7;'). 
bine horizontal and vertical 
lines in such a way that by 
touching in two points they 
form closed figures, squares 
and oblongs. Fig. 78. 

and five lines. These are combined then 
as vertical lines were combined also l 2 
with 2 2 , the l 2 , 2 2 , and 3 2 , etc. These 
combinations can be carried out in a 
vertical direction, when the squares will 
stand over or under each other ; or in a 
horizontal, when the squares will stand 
side by side ; or, finally, these two oppo- 
sites may be combined with one another. 
Fig. 76, shows as an example a combi- 
nation of four squares in a horizontal di- 
rection, its opposite, and forms of me- 
diation 

In Fig. 77, squares of the 
first, second and third sizes 
are combined, vertically and 
horizonta 1 1 y , 1'ormi ng a 
right angle to the right be- 
low ; then comes the oppo- 
site, (angle left above) and 
the forms of med i a t i o n . 
The same rule is f ol 1 o w ed 
Fig. 77. here as with the right angle 

First, the child draws squares of one-length's formed by single lines. The simple elements are 
dimension, then of two-lengths, of three, four, combined with each other into a square with 






PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



195 



Fia:. 79. 



hollow middle, etc. ; and from the new elements tially new element should give rise to a num- 
thus produced larger figures are again created, her of exercises, conditioned only by the indi- 
as the example Fig. 78, illustrates. Squares of vicinal ability of the child. It must be left to 

the faithful teacher, by an earnest ob- 
servation and study of her pupils, to 
find the right extent, here as every 
where in their occupations. Indis- 
criminate skipping is not al 1 o w e d , 
neither to pupil nor teacher ; each fol- 
lowing production must, under all cir- 
cumstances be derived from the pre- 
ceding one. 

As the square was the re suit of 
angles formed of lines of equal length, 
so also with the oblo n g. Here, too, 
the child begins with the simplest. He 
forms oblongs, the base of which is a 
single line, the height of which is a line 
of double length. He reverses the case 
then. Base line two, height single length. 
Retaining the same proportions, he pro- 
gresses to larger oblongs, the height of 
which is double the size of its base, and 
vice versa, until he has reached the num- 
bers five and ten. 

It is but natural that these oblongs, 
standing or lying, should also be united in 
vertical and horizontal directions. Each 
form thus produced again assumes four 
different positions, and the four ele- 
ments are again unit e d to n e w 
formations, according to the rules 
previously explained. Fig. 79 a, 
shows an arangement of standing 
oblongs, in horizontal directions. 
The opposite would contain the 
right angle, at a to the right be- 
low — to the left above ; Fig. 79 c 
would be one form of mediation, 
a second one, (opposite of Fig. 
79 c) would have its right angle to 
the right above. 

Fig. 80, shows a combination of 
lying oblongs, in a vertical direc- 
tion. Fig. 81, shows oblongs in 
vertical and horizontal directions. 
Fig. 82, a combination of standing 
and lying oblongs, the former being 
arranged vertically, the latter, hori- 
zontally. 

In Fig. 83, we find standing ob- 
a Fig. 81. c longs so combined that the form represents an 

from one to five length lines of course admit of acute angled triangle; a and c are the only 
being combined in similar manner. Each essen- possible opposites in the same. 



Fig. 80. 






196 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Fig. 82. 



Fio-. 86. 



Fie;. 83. 



























































































































































































































































































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Fi«'. 87. 



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Fig. 84. 



Fio-. 85. 



Fio-. 89. 



Fie-. 90. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



197 



Fig. 91. 

























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These few examples may suffice to 
indicate the abundance of forms which 
may be constructed with such simple 
material as the horizontal and verti- 
cal lines, from one to five lengths, 
(and double). 

It is the task of the educator to 
lead the learner to detect the elements, 
logically, in order to produce with 

them, new forms in unlimited num- 
" bers, within the boundaries of the 

laws laid down for this purpose. 
But even without using these ele- 
_1 ments, the child will be able, owing 

- to continued practice, to represent 

- manifold forms of life and beauty, 

- partly by his own free invention, 
" partly by imitating the objects he 

has seen before. As samples of 
the former, Fig. 90 shows a cress. 
Fig. 92 a triumphal gate, Fig. 93 a 

_ windmill; of the latter,Figs. 84-86,. 

_ 89 and 91 show samples of borders > 

- Figs. 87 and 88 show other simple 

- embellishments. As the vertical 

- line conditioned its opposite, the 
" horizontal line, both again condi- 
tion their mediation. 



Fig. 93. 



OBLIQUE LINES. 

(Figs. 94—134;. 

Our remarks here can be brief as the opera- 
tions are nothing but a repetition of those in 
connection with the vertical line. 

The child practices the drawing of lines from 
one to five lengths, (Figs 94-98) and combines 
these, receiving thereby four opposition ally 
equal right-angled triangles, (Fig. 99-102), 
of which it produces a square, (Fig. 103), its 
opposite, (Fig. 104), forms of mediation, (Fig. 
105), and finally large figures. 

Then the lines are arranged into obtuse an- 
gles, and the same process gone through with 
them. 

With these, as in Fig. 106, its opposite Fig. 
109, and its forms of mediation, Figs. 107 and 
108, the obtuse angles will be found at the 
vertical middle line, or as in Fig. 110, at the 
horizontal middle line. By a combination of 
Figs. 108 and 110 we produce a star, Fig. 112. 
Finally we have also, reached here the forma- 
tion of the acute angled triangle, (Fig. 111). 
The oblique line presents particular richness 



108 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



in forms, as it may be a line of various degrees In all these cases, the obliques were diag- 
of inclination. It is an oblique of the first de- onals of standing oblongs. They may just as 
gree whenever it appears as the diagonal of a well be diagonals of lying oblongs, y[g. H6, 













/ 


/ 














Fig. 94. Fig. 95. Fig. 96. 

square, as in Figs. 94-112. When it appears 
as the diagonal of an oblong, it is either an 




Fig. 97. Fig. 98. 

oblique of the second, third, fourth or fifth de- 
gree, according to the proportions of the base 
line and height of the oblong, one to two, one 
to three, one to four, one to five. 





































































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Fig. 99. Fig. 100. 

The upper left hand corner of Fig. 113, 
shows obliques of the second degree united to 
a right-angled triangle ; the lower right hand 























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Fig. 103. 
in which obliques from the first to the fifth de- 
gree are united, will illustrate this. The ob- 
liques are here arranged one above the other. 







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Fig. 101. Fig. 102. 

its opposite ; and the remaining two corners 
form mediations. Fig. 105. 

In Fig. 114, the same lines are united in an In Fig. 117, the right and left sides show a simi- 
obtuse angled triangle. In Fig. 115, they finally lar combination ; the obliques, however, are ar- 



form an acute angle. 



ranged beside one another ; the upper and 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



199 





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200 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 
































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PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



201 



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Fig. 122. 



Fig. 121. 



Fig. 123. 





Fig. 126. 




Fig. 12' 




Fig. 124. 



Fig. 128. 



202 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 















t 












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Fig. 12'J. 



Fig. 132. 



Si 



o 



Fig. 130. 



Fig. 131. 




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Fig. 133. 





































































































































































































































































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Fis. 134. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



203 



lower members are formed of diagonals of 
standing oblongs. 

Obliques of various grades can be united 
with one point as in Fig. 118, beside which the 
form of mediation would appear as Fig. 119. 

As in this case, lying figures are produced, 
standing ones can be produced likewise. Each 
two of the elements thus received may be united 
so that all obliques issue from one point, as in 
Fig. 120, and in its opposite, Fig. 121. 

An oppositional combination can also take 
place, so that each two lines of the same grade 
meet, (Fig. 122). The combination of obliques 
with obliques to angles, to squares and oblongs 
now follow, analogous to the method of com- 
bining oblongs, vertical and horizontal lines. 
Finally the combination of vertical and oblique, 
horizontal and oblique lines to angles, rhombus 
and rhomboid is introduced. 

With these, the child tries his skill in pro- 
ducing forms of life : Fig. 133, gate of a for- 
tress ; Fig. 134, church with a schoolhouse 
and cemetery wall, and forms of beauty : Figs. 
123-132. The task of the Kindergarten and 
the teacher has been accomplished, if the child 
has learned to manage oblique lines of the first 
and second degree skillfully. All given in- 
struction which aimed at something beyond 
this was intended for tbe study of the teacher 
and the primary department, which is still more 
the case in regard to the curved line. 

THE CURVED LINE. 

(Figs. i3S— 147-) 

Simply to indicate the progress, and to give 
Frcebel's system of instruction in drawing com- 
plete, we add the following, and Figs. 135-147 
in illustration of it. 

First, the child has to acquire the ability to 
draw a curved line. The simplest curved line 
is the circle, from which all others may be 
derived. 

However, it is difficult to draw a circle, and 
the net on slate and paper do not afford suffi- 
cient help and guide for so doing. But on the 
other hand, the child has been enabled to draw 
squares, straight and oblique lines, and with 
the assistance of these it is not difficult to find 
a number of poiuts which lie on the periphery 
of a circle of given size. 

It is known that all corners of a quadrangle 
(square or oblong) lie in the periphery of a 
circle whose diameter is the diagonal of the 



quadrangle. In the same manner all other right 
angles constructed over the diameter, are pe- 
riphery angles, affording a point of the desired 
circular line. It is therefore necessary to con- 
struct such right angles, and this can be done 
very readily with the assistance of obliques of 
various grades. 















/? 




rV 














h 


i - 








• "S 


_g. 






















, 


<T\ 


p 






















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C> 
































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Fig. 135. 

Suppose we draw from point a (Fig. 135), 
an oblique of the third degree, as the diagonal 
of a standing oblong ; draw then, starting from 
point c, an oblong of the third degree, as diag- 
onal of a lying oblong, and continue both these 
lines. They will meet in point a, and there 
form a right angle. 

All obliques of the same degree, drawn from 
opposite points, will do the same as soon as 
the one approaches the vertical in the same 
proportion in which the other comes near the 
horizontal, or as soon as the one is the diag- 
onal of a standing, the other of a lying oblong. 



/ 



M 



\ 



Fig. 136. 
The lines Aa and Cc are obliques of the 
third, Ab and Cb of the second, Af and Cf of 
the third degree, "etc., etc. In this manner it 
is easy to find a number of points, all of which 
are points in the circular line, intended to be 
drawn. Two or three of them over each side, 



204 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



will suffice to facilitate the drawing of the cir- 
CDMseribing circle (Fig. 136). In like manner 
the iNTERScribing circle, will be obtained by 
drawing the middle transversals of the square, 
(Fig. 137), and constructing from their end- 
points angles in the previously described 
manner. 

After the pupil has obtained a 
correct idea of the size and form 
of the circle, whose radius may 
be of from one to five lengths, he 



*p 


a 


\ 


/ 


w 


(/ 


v 




u' 


vL 


r 


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—\ 


W~ 


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t\ 


1 


v\ 


A 


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- d 


^ 



Fig. 137. Fig. 138. 

will divide the same in half and quarter circles, 
producing thereby the elements for his farther 
activity. 




The course of instruction is here again the 
same as that in connection with the vertical 
line. The pupil begins with quarter circles, 
radius of which is of a single length. Then fol- 
low quarter circles with a radius of from two 
to five lengths. By arrangement of these five 





Eig. 140. Fig. 141. 

quarter circles, four elements are produced, 
which are treated in the same manner as the 
triangles produced by arrangement of five 
straight lines. The segments may be parallel 
and the arrangement may take place in vertical 
and horizontal direction, (Figs. 138 and 139), 
or they may, like the obliques of various de- 
grees, meet in one point, as in Fig. 142, of 
which Figs. 138 and 130 are examples. 

Fig. 140, represents the combination of the 
elements a and cl as a new element ; Fig. 141, 



the combination of d and c. In Fig. 142, the 
arrangement finally takes place in oblique 
direction, and all lines meet in one point. 
The quarter circle is followed by the half 




Fig. 142. 
circle, Figs. 143-145; then the three fourths 
circle, (Fig. 146), and the whole circle, as 
shown in Fig. 147. 





s~ ^ 


+ % -i' ^ 


£ h 1 


-\ t- i */ N- 


v- \ LZ 5 " 


S v 4k^"^^ " 


t- ^— 3vv- 5 


A Z4 A~ 1_ 


^w-^ , j 


t 4 7 ' 


^-^ Z 


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Fig. 143. 
With the introduction of each new line, 
same manner of proceeding is observed. 

Notwithstanding the brevity with which we 



the 









L ^ 


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/ 


C c 






□=ti 




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r 







Fig. 144. 
have treated the subject, we nevertheless be- 
lieve we have presented the course of instruc- 
tion in drawing sufficiently clear and forcible, 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



205 



and hope that by it we have made evident : — drawing for the future life of the pupil — may 

1. That the method described here is per- he be led therein by its significance for indus- 

fectly adapted to the child's abilities, and tit 

to develoo them in the most logical manner. 







Fig. 145. Fig. 146. 

2. That the abundance of mathematical 
perceptions offered with it, and the constant 
necessity for combining according to certain 
laws, cannot fail to surely exert a wholesome 
influence in the mental development of the pupil. 

3. That the child thus prepared for future 
instruction in drawing, will derive from such 
instruction more benefit than a child prepared 
by any other method. 

Whosoever acknowledges the importance of 




Fig. 147. 
trial purposes, or aesthetic enjoyment, which 
latter it may afford even the poorest ! — will be 
unanimous with us in advocating an early com- 
mencement of this branch of instruction with 
the child. 

If there be any skeptics on this point, let 
them try the experiment, and we are sure they 
will be won over to our side of the question. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



The system of drawing based on netted slates 
and paper, as recommended by Froebel has been 
freely criticised in recent years, and by some 
kindergartners entirely discarded. The draw- 
ing exercises which have been already given 
were devised either by Froebel or his early fol- 
lowers in accordance with the principles which 
he is supposed to have held. If Froebel had 
received in his youth the instruction in draw- 
ing which is enjoyed by the children of the 
present time he probably would have developed 
a system of drawing for the kindergarten some- 
what different from that which bears his name, 
and 3 T et it is safe for his followers to hesitate 
before they entirely discard his suggestions on 
this subject. It is well in this connection to 
consider how much of his work has come to be 
recognized as of great value, after having been 
neglected and practically ignored by our best 
educators for a generation, and we should give 
careful attention to the claims made for the 
netted drawing, adopt as much of it as seems 



to be of value and then go on with the more 
modern methods which have been proved to be 
desirable, during the last twenty-five years of 
progress in art and industrial education. In 
free-hand drawing Froebel has practically left 
us no suggestions. He was a surveyor and 
a mathematical draftsman with no training in 
artistic free-hand drawing. Prof. Wiebe seems 
to have quite clearly set forth the principal 
features of value in the system of drawing used 
by Froebel and developed by his followers for 
twenty-five years after his death. The editor 
prefers in this edition of Prof. Wiebe's book to 
treat of netted drawing as it was advocated by 
Froebel, without addition to the original text or 
argument for its valuable qualities. 

In addition to the exercises thus recom- 
mended there is undoubtedly some educational 
profit in copying on netted paper the designs 
laid on the kindergarten table with sticks, and 
whatever of value there is in this work may be 
secured by using sticks from one to four inches 



206 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



long to form the designs on the table, and net- 
ted paper with one qnarter to one half inch 
squares for copying the figures. A habit of 
accuracy is cultivated and some ability in imi- 
tating is developed in such work, which must 
be of value in almost any phase of industrial 
art. The reproduction of this school of netted 
drawing, with such prominence as it here as- 
sumes in comparison with all else that is shown 
of drawing in this book, is not intended to in- 
dicate its relative importance at the present 
time, but to avoid losing sight of FroebePs rec- 
ommendations. Little space is here devoted 
to the modern methods of instruction in draw- 
ing because these are constantly before the 
teachers and are also fully explained by com- 
petent writers in various publications relating 
to the subject. For the use of slates, either in 
the kindergarten or the school, there is no ex- 
cuse at the present day. The one argument 
of economy is offset a hundred fold by hygienic 
and other objections which are patent to all who 
have given thought to the question. 

Before drawing can be intelligently taught 
in any kindergarten the teacher must know so 
much of the subject as to be aide to select from 
the various systems of primary drawing the pe- 
culiar features best adapted to the kindergar- 
ten. A child in his second kindergarten year 
ought to be better prepared to undertake any 
phase of drawing than a pupil in the second 
year of the primary school without any pre- 
vious kindergarten experience, because of the 
superior training inform perception and manual 
dexterity which the kindergarten affords in the 
first ye.ar. 

Drawing is a universal language by which 
communication may be held between all classes 
of the human race. The Hieroglyphics of the 
ancient nations and the rude drawings of the 
American Indians are the means by which ideas 
were transmitted from one age to another and 
by which we are to learn much of life in the 
past. Careful observation must precede dra vy- 
ing, and any drawing which represents in a 
reasonable degree the leading truths regarding 
the form of objects, is legitimate and not with- 
out value. The most progressive methods of 
teaching drawing in our schools to-day are 
founded on form study and model drawing, and 
therefore the children of the kindergarten have 
a great advantage over others in learning to 
draw, because the instruction of the kinder- 



garten includes so much of form study that the 
pupils learn to perceive more clearly than other 
children the fundamental forms in the objects 
around them. 

Educationally, elementary drawing may be 
divided into three general classes : Illustrative 
drawing ; mathematical or instrumental draw- 
ing, which is often termed mechanical drawing ; 
and free-hand objective drawing, or drawing 
from models. In this order illustrative draw- 
ing is placed first because it is the first at- 
tempt of the savage and the child to express 
ideas by pictorial illustration. This must also 
be considered again after all others, because it 
is the highest achievement of the artist to ex- 
press ideals surpassing in beauty all nature. 
If properly encouraged, the child from the 
earliest age at which he can hold a pencil is 
delighted to draw rude representations of his 
pets and toys. He will often see in his draw- 
ing a likeness to an object which does not ap- 
pear to the more mature perceptions, because 
the child grasps the general forms or more 
striking features without observing the minor 
details. In this faculty the infant possesses 
naturally that which the older student must ac- 
quire before he can become an expert artist. 
Therefore the kindergarten child should have 
free access at proper times to the blackboard, 
or be furnished with cheap paper and pencil 
for illustrating in his own way the stories which 
are told to him or which he may be led to tell 
of his oAvn experience. In such drawings it is 
not expected that any of the truths of perspec- 
tive will be very accurately expressed. It may 
be that a cat, a chicken, a house or a tree will 
be drawn, and if the resemblance which is at- 
tempted is approximated in the result it should 
receive such approval as will furnish encourage- 
ment to further effort. This idea was not popu- 
lar fifty years ago and the noontime efforts of 
the district school pupils to decorate the black- 
boards, schoolroom walls and desk tops with 
samples of elementary art and "knife work" 
were frowned upon in such a practical man- 
ner as to destroy all ambition for excellence in 
graphic expression as well as manual training. 
The kindergarten may be the means for de- 
veloping many an artist as well as an artizan 
who would otherwise never show any talent in 
these directions. 

If the teacher has given such attention to the 
simplest elements of illustrative drawing as 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



207 









u:H-J St 








4'k 




Fisf. 152. 










Fig. 150 



#) 
J^^^? 



■-?%-. 



W 







Fig. 151. 



Fig. 154. 



208 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



will enable her to produce such blackboard 
sketches as are suggested by the simple outlines 
shown in Figs. 148-154, the frequent use of 
this faculty will give the children samples that 
may stimulate them to accomplish the same 
results in the expression of their own ideas, 
and if they should merely imitate the work of 
the teacher no harm can result as the work will 
afford the best possible training in finger and 
arm movements. 

Instrumental drawing which is suggested as 
the second division of the general subject, in- 
cludes all drawing made to a scale, such as a 
map which is the plan of a section of countiy, 
or a square which is a drawing of one face of 
a cube. In all such drawings no representa- 
tion of solidity by means of perspective is at- 
tempted, and they are made either the exact 
size of the object or of some definite propor- 
tion as one half size, one quarter size, etc., 
and therefore by the use of a suitable "scale" 
may be measured and the actual size of the ob- 
ject determined so that it can be correctly re- 
produced from the drawing. Such drawings 
are often called "working drawings." In the 
kindergarten only "full size" drawings should 
be attempted and for this purpose the forms 
found in the kindergarten material cannot be 
surpassed as models. Because the ball is a 
circle from whatever position it is viewed, this 
fact regarding its form is easily perceived by 
the child and thus if he lays the round tablet 
of the seventh gift on his paper and marks 
around it, he will have a circle which is an out- 
line of a ball and may be finished to represent 
a first-gift ball by adding a line for the string. 
If the square tablet is used as a pattern to be 
marked around, it will represent the face' of a 
third-gift cube. So also the other tablets may 
serve as patterns for drawing representations 
of the faces of the other gift blocks. 

In the four-inch folding paper we have one 
of the most valuable drawing models for this 
class of work. For example let the pupil lay 
a four-inch square folding paper on a sheet of 
plain drawing paper, make a dot at each cor- 
ner, remove the paper and with a ruler for a 
guide draw the four straight lines connecting 
the dots and forming a square. This square 
is a complete mathematical drawing of the 
folding paper, because the paper practically 
has no thickness and therefore has but two 
dimensions, both of which are shown in the 



drawing. Now fold the paper accurately, one 
edge to the opposite edge, unfold and carefully 
lay the paper on the drawing of the square al- 
ready outlined, and make a dot at each end 
of the crease procured by the fold. Remove 
the paper and with the aid of the ruler draw a 
line connecting the dots and representing the 




Fig. 155< 



Fig. 156. 





Fig. 157. 



Fie. 158. 





Fig. 159. 



Fig. 160. 



creases made by the fold, as in Fig. 155. Fold 
the other two opposite edges together in the 
same way and draw the line representing the 
second ci'ease at right angles to the first, form- 
ing Fig. 156. Now fold the four corners to the 
center, unfold and draw lines representing the 
four new creases as indicated in Fig. 157. An- 
other simple sequence is shown in Figs. 158, 
159, and 160, while many others may be de- 
vised. As geometrical drawing in the higher 
grades develops the power of exact obser- 
vation and manual performance, so the net- 
ted drawiug of Froebel and the previously de- 
scribed practice with the tablets and folding 
papers as models are equally useful in culti- 
vating the same qualities in the kindergarten. 
The teacher must constantly have in mind the 
fact that all exercises with the children which 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



209 



require accuracy and close attention must be 
used for only a very few minutes at one sit- 
ting. But because this restriction is necessary 
it must not be inferred that all exercises requir- 
ing any degree of exactness must be abolished 
or forbidden in the kindergarten. It is not 
necessary to especially impress upon a compe- 
tent kindergartner the necessity for accuracy 
when accuracy is required, as it is a funda- 
mental principle of her profession, but it is 
well for her to know also that it is not ignored 
by the best artists, although too often neg- 
lected by pseudo-artists who pose as authority. 
In these days of practical ideas an artist en- 
hances his commercial value and does not lose 
caste professionally because he can produce a 
design correct in drawing, and, if occasion re- 
quires, within given dimensions. 

It is well to remember that a sharp distinc- 
tion must be made between mechanical or in- 
strumental drawing and free-hand drawing. 
One is as valuable as the other in its own place, 
and it is no more creditable to be an expert in 
free-hand than in mechanical drawing. There 
are occasions when the free-hand drawing must 
be as accurate as the instrumental drawing, 
although the quality of the required lines may 
be quite different in the two classes of work. 
Therefore inasmuch as accuracy must be ob- 
served when it is called for, the pupil should 
be required to know what it means and how to 
secure it if necessary, which is more frequent 
than the practice of some professional artists 
would seem to indicate. 

We now come to our third division of the 
subject, free-hand drawing, which is the 
broadest and most practical for school instruc- 
tion and may be encouraged in the kindergarten 
as an aid to illustrative drawing, the first sec- 
tion in our division of the subject. If the boy 
can draw the cube and cylinder of the second 
gift in perspective approximately correct, he 
has the fundamental experience for many of 
the forms in his future work, and with the 
addition of some of the fifth-gift forms very 
many of the principal outlines of architectural 
construction may be represented. The ac- 
companying sketches suggest some of the ap- 
plications of the gift-block forms to nature 
drawing. 

Figs. 161-165 represent objects embodying 
the spherical form ; Figs. 166-169 embody the 
form of the cube; Figs. 170-177 illustrate 



modifications of the cylinder; Figs. 178-183 
represent the fourth gift, while Figs. 184-186 
embody the triangular prism of the fifth gift ; 
Figs. 178,183 and 184 may be 
considered a combination of the 
fourth and fifth gifts. 

It is neither necessary nor 
desirable to attempt in the brief 
space of a Kindergarten Hand 
Book to make further sugges- 
tions in this line, because so 
many simple and practical 
books on the subject, have been 
published which apply as well 
to the higher grades of the kin- 
dergarten as to the lower school 
grades for which they were writ- 
ten. Form perception and man- 
ual training, which are such 
prominent features in the kin- 
dergarten, are the chief fac- 
tors in correct drawing, and 
correct drawing is absolutely 
necessary to good art, as well as to mechanical 
construction. A well-known teacher and writer 
on the subject of art instruction has said : 
• 'The geometric figures enter into the subject of 




Fie. 161. 




Fig. 162. 





Fig. 164. Fig. 165. 

all forms, natural and artificial, and their ap- 
plication is of absorbing interest when traced 
through object and ornament, through archi- 
tecture and painting, through snow-flake and 
crystal, flower and fruit, shell and insect, and 



210 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 171. 



Fig. 178. 



Fig. 179. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



211 



all higher forms of life. These should be illus- some ability at illustration and free-hand draw- 

trated. . Working drawings of cylinders and ing. One who has not experienced it cannot 

cubes are but the beginning; they have new imagine the pleasure of being able, even though 

meaning when seen as the first types which pre- quite imperfectly,to make a hasty pencil sketch 




mi!::::: 





Fig. ISO. 



Fig. 184. 




Fig. 181. 




Fig. 182. 





Fig. 185. 




Fig. 183. Fig. 186. 

figure the steam-cylinder, the railway car, the for future reference. A series of note sketch 

soldiers' monument and the mausoleum, the books kept for years become a constant source 

Tower of Pisa and the Grand Opera of Paris." of pleasure and there is a personality in the 

No kindcrgartner can do her best until she has sketches which never can pertain to the results 

a good knowledge of elementary geometry and of the snap-shot with the camera. 



THE ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH GIFTS. 

MATERIAL FOR PERFORATING AND EMBROIDERING.. 



It is claimed by us that all occupation ma- 
terial presented by Froebel, in the Gifts of the 
Kindergarten, are, in some respects, related to 
each other, complementing one another. What 
logical connection is there between the occu- 
pation of perforating and embroidering, intro- 
duced with the present and the use of the pre- 
viously introduced Gifts of the Kindergarten? 
This question may be asked by some superficial 
enquirer. Him we answer thus : In the first 
Gifts of the Kindergarten, the solid mass of 
bodies prevailed ; in the following ones the 
plane; then the embodied line was followed by 



Steadiness of the eye and hand are the visible 
results of the occupation which directly pre- 
pares the pupil for various kinds of manual 
labor. The perforating, accompanied by the 
use of the needle and silk, or worsted, in the 
way embroidery is done, it is evident in what 
direction the faculty of the pupil may be 
developed. 

The method pursued with this occupation is 
analogous to that employed in the drawing de- 
partment Starting from the single point, the 
child is gradually led through all the various 
grades of difficulty ; and from step to step his 



: 










j — | — 



Fig. 1. 
the drawn line, and the occupation here intro- 
duced brings us down to the paint. With the 
introduction of the perforating paper and prick- 
ing needle, we have descended to the smallest 
part of the whole — the extreme limit of mathe- 
matical divisibility; and in a playing manner, 



mtrt 



Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

interest in the work will increase, especially as 
the child followed us unwittingly, on this, in an the various colors of the embroidered figures 
abstract sense, difficult journey. add much to their liveliness, as do the colored 

pencils in the drawing department. 



1 


"It 



Fig. 2. 
The material for these occupations is a piece 
of net paper, which is placed upon some layers 
of soft blotting paper. The pricking or per- 
forating tool is a rather strong sewing needle, 



Fig. 6. 
The child first pricks vertical lines of two and 
three lengths, then of four and five lengths, 
(Figs. 2 and 3) . They are united to a ti'iangle, 
opposites and forms of mediation are found, 
and these again are united into squares with 
hollow and filled middle, (Figs. 4 and 5). The 
horizontal line follows, (Figs. 6-8), then the 



Fig. 3. 
fastened in a holder so as to project about one 
fourth of an inch. Aim of the occupation is 
the production of the beautiful, not only by the 
child's own activity, but by his own invention. 



combination of 
right angle in 
positions, (Figs 



Fig. 7. 
vertical and horizontal to a 
its four oppositionally equal 
9-12). The combination of 



the four elements present a vast number of 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



213 



small figures. If the external point of the 
angle of Figs. 9 and 10 touch one another, the 
cross (Fig. 13) is produced ; if the end points 
of the legs of these figures touch, the square 
is made, (Fig. 14). By repeatedly uniting Figs. 
9 and 12, Fig. 15 is produced, and by the com- 
bination of all four angles, Figs. 16 and 17. 
According to the rules followed in laying fig- 



Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9 



Fig. 10. 



In a similar way, the oblique line is now in- 
troduced and employed. The child pricks it 
in various directions, commencing with a one 
length line, (Figs. 32-35), combines it to 
angles, (Figs. 36-39), the combination of 
which will again result in many beautiful forms. 
Then follows the perforating of oblique lines 
of from two to five lengths, (a single length 
containing up to seven points), which are em- 
ployed for the representation of borders, cor- 
ner ornaments, etc., (Figs. 42-45, 61). The 
oblique of the second degree is also introduced, 
as shown in Figs. 46 and 47, and the peculiar 
formations in Figs. 48-51. 

Finally, the combination of the oblique with 
the vertical line, (Figs. 52 and 54), and with 
the horizontal, (Figs. 53 and 55 ) , or with both 
at the same time, (Figs. 56-60), takes place. 



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Fig. 13. 



Fig. 14. 
ures with tablets of Gift Seven, and in draw- 
ing, or by a simple application of the law of 
opposites, the child will produce a large num- 
ber of other figures. 

The combination of lines of one and two 
lengths is then introduced, and standing and 
lying oblongs are formed, (Figs. 18 and 19), 
etc. The school of perforating, per se has to 
consider still simple squares and lying and 
standing oblongs, consisting of lines of from 
two to five lengths. In order not to repeat the 
same form too often, we introduce in Figs. 
21—31 a series less simple ; containing, how- 
ever, the fundamental forms, showing in the 
meantime the combination of lines of various 
dimensions. 



Fig. 17 






Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. Fig. 20. 

All these elements may be combined in the 
most manifold manner, and the inventive ac- 
tivity of the pupil will find a large field in pro- 



214 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



Fig. 21. Fig. 22. Fig. 23. Fig. 24. 



sss 



sss 



Fig. 38. 



Fig. 39. 



Fig. 25. 



Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. Fig. 28. Fig. 2!). 




Fig. 30. Fig. 31. 





















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PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



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Fig. 53. 



Fig. 59. 



216 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



during samples of borders, corner pieces, 
frames, reading marks, etc., etc. 

When it is intended to produce anything of 
a more complicated nature, the pattern should 
be drafted by pupil or teacher upon the net 
paper previous to pricking. In such cases, it 
is advisable and productive of pleasure to the 
pupils, if beneath the perforating paper another 
one doubly folded is laid, to have the pattern 
transferred by perforation upon this paper in 
various copies. Such little productions may 




Fig. 60. 
be used for various purposes, and be presented 
by the children to their friends on many oc- 
casions. To assist the pupils in this respect, 
it is recommended that simple drawings be 
placed in the hands of the pupils, which, owing 
to their little ability, they certainly could not 
yet produce by drawing, but which they can 
well trace with their perforating tool. These 



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Fig. 61. 
drawings should represent objects from the ani- 
mal and vegetable kingdoms, and may thus 
be of great sendee to the mental development 
of the children. The slowly and carefully per- 
forated forms and figures will undoubtedly be 
more lastingly impressed upon the mind and 
longer retained by the memory, than if they 
were only described or hurriedly looked at. It 
should be mentioned that the embroidering 
does not begin simultaneously with the perfo- 
rating, but only after the children have ac- 
quired considerable skill in the last named oc- 
cupation. For purposes of 



EMBROIDERING, 

The same net paper which was used for exer- 
cises in perforating may be employed, by fill- 
ing out the intervals between the holes with 
threads of colored silk or worsted. It will be 
sufficient for this purpose to combine the points 
of one net square only, because otherwise the 
stitches would become too short to be made 
with the embroidery needle in the hands of 
children yet unskilled. For work, to be pre- 
pared for a special purpose, the perforated pat- 
ern should be transferred upon stiff paper or 
bristol-board. 




Fig. 62. Fig. 63. 

Course of instruction just the same as with 
perforating. 

Experience will show that of the figures 
given, some are more fit for perforating, others 
better adapted for embroidering. Either occu- 
pation leads to peculiar results. Figures in 
which strongly rounded lines predominate may 




Fig. 64. 
be easily perforated, but with difficulty, or not 
at all be embroidered. By the process of em- 
broidering, however, plain forms, as stars, and 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



217 



roettes, are easily produced, which could means of education — and in Froebel's insti- 

hardly be represented, or, at best, very imper- tution it occupies a prominent place — it should 

fectly only, by the perforating needle. Figs, approach the child in various ways ; not only 

62-67, are examples of this kind. inform, but in color, and tone also. To insure 

To develop the sense of color in the chil- 
dren, the paper on which they embroider, 
should be of all the various shades and hues, 





Fig. 66. 
the desired result in this direction, we begin in 
the Kindergarten, where we can much more 
readily make impressions upon the blank mind 
of children, than at a later period when other 
influences have polluted their tastes. 



Fig. 65. 
through the whole scale of colors. If the 
paper is gray, blue, black, or green, let the 
worsted or silk be of a rose color, white, or- 
ange or red, and if the pupil is far enough ad- 
vanced to represent objects of nature, as fruit, 
leaves, plants, or animals, it will be very 
proper to use in embroidering, the colors shown 
by these natural objects. Much can thereby be 
accomplished toward an early development of 
appreciation and knowledge of color, in which 
grown people in all countries are often sadly 
deficient. It has appeared to some, as if this 
occupation is less useful than pleasurable. Let 
them consider that the ordinary seeing of ob- 
jects already is a difficult matter, nay, really 
an art, needing long practice. Much more 
difficult and requiring much more careful exer- 
cise, is a true and correct perception of color. 
If the beautiful is introduced at all as a 




Fig. 67. 

For this reason, we go still another step 
further, and give the more developed pupil a 
box of colors, showing him their use, in cover- 
ing the perforated outlines of objects with the 
paint. Children like to occupy themselves in 
this manner, and show an increased interest, if 
they first produce the drawing and are subse- 
quently allowed to use the brush for further 
beautifying their work. 

The perforating and embroidering are begun 
with the children in the Kindergarten when they 
have become sufficiently prepared for the per- 
fection of forms by the use of their building 
blocks and sticks. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 

A portion of the foregoing chapter on per- very close together, some partially and others 

forating and embroidery as originally printed entirely through the card, so as to produce on 

has been omitted from this edition, because it the opposite side a design in relief. This line 

treated of a class of "perforating" which is not of work has been quite generally discarded by 

at present considered desirable. In this occu- the leading kindergartners of this country, be- 

pation a multitude of perforations are made cause they believe that it is neither safe nor 



218 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



profitable. In the same general class may be 
included the perforating of outlines by makiug 
a succession of holes very close together with- 
out the intention of subsequent sewing ; and 
also such designs for sewing as involve intri- 
cate patterns with very short stitches. Neither 
is the pricking of holes with exactness at the 
printed dots or at the crossing of lines on net- 
ted paper believed to be good practice for 
small fingers and young eyes, and when many 
of these are quite near together the whole oc- 
cupation is not to be encouraged. On the 
other hand such condemnation of cardboard 
sewing of all kinds for the children as lias em- 
anated from some sources indicates a reac- 
tion as unreasonable as was the sanction of 
the most extreme practice of the raised sur- 
face perforating. 

But this criticism of fine perforating has been 
of great value, because it has brought into gen- 
eral use for the youngest children a series of 
ready-pricked cards in simple designs with large 
holes, long stitches, and coarse needles and 
thread. For earliest sewing, such designs on 
small cards not more than four by five inches 
in size are most suitable, and in order to se- 
cure holes large enough for the large needles and 
coarse thread required at this stage it seems 
quite desirable that each perforation be made 
by punching out a minute disk of the card, thus 
producing a smooth, round hole of suitable size 
to be easily seen on both sides of the card and 
to receive the thread without wear and unnec- 
essary friction. 

The following figures represent a series of such 
cards, which are technically called "Perfor- 
ated Cards, "in distinction from Pricked Cards, 
which are punctured with pointed needles. 
These cards retain their numbers as found in the 
catalogue of Bradley's kindergarten material. 






ri 




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□ □□□ 



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19 20 21 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, etc., to 21, show the 
principal or first intention of the several ar- 
rangements of holes in these cards, and la, 
lb, lc, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc., represent some of the 
modifications or inventions which may be sewed 
with the cards. 






la 



lb 



lc 






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2a 



2b 



2c 



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11 



12 




PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



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20a 20b 21a 

As perforated holes are alike on both sides 
of the card one arrangement of holes will often 
make right and left-handed designs by revers- 
ing the card. 

Owing to the methods involved in the manu- 
facture of the "-perforated cards" the ordinary 
"pricked cards" can be made in a greater va- 
riety of patterns, and for children other than 
the youngest in the kindergarten they are more 
interesting and can be sewed by them without 
difficulty with the finer needle and thread. 

The following figures illustrate a selection 
from a much greater variety now in the market. 



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-oniinDDDDDDDDD 



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220 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 





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For still older children a moderate amount 
of perforating with the pricking needle at dots 
on a printed outline is not only harmless but 
fascinating in a marked degree. 

In this class of work a much wider range of 
designs extending into life forms can be intro- 
duced, because of the difference in process in 
the manufacture of cards which are for sale 
for this purpose. 








20 



192 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



221 



Also in this work original designs may be of the grade of work to the age and condition 
prepared by the teacher or even by the pupils as of each child must be left to the judgment of 
they may be traced from prints and transferred the trained kindergartner, and fortunately this 



to cards by the use of impression paper 

The foregoing figures show examples of this 
class of designs. 

In cardboard pricking and sewing as in all schools in this country 
other kindergarten occupations the adjustment 

ELEMENTARY COLOR TEACHING. 



may safely be trusted to the corps of compe- 
tent teachers now in the work and to those be- 
ing prepared by the normal kindergarten 



The educational phase of color has assumed 
such importance within the past decade that it 
must receive more than passing notice in any 
treatise on the kindergarten gifts and occupa- 
tions, taken as a whole. As the color ques- 
tion presents itself quite prominently in the 
selection of the threads for embroidering and 
still more in the use of colored papers, the 
editor feels that this is the proper place to 
introduce certain special suggestions on that 
subject. 

There is a fascination about the study of 
color which increases as we become more and 
more familiar with the subject. We meet it at 
every turn in the natural world. It makes the 
loftiest hilltops radiant in early morning and 
paints its hues in wondrous brilliancy on the 
evening sky. 

Art revels in color, and praise as we may 
the chisel of the sculptor and the cunning of 
the engraver, we find only cool comfort in 
colorless art. Consequently we are always 
seeking the best color effects. We want them 
in the arrangement of our lawns, the decora- 
tion of our houses, both within and without, 
in our clothing, in public and private, wher- 
ever we admit color. Indeed a knowledge of 
color and its skillful use in all the affairs of 
life ministers more effectively to our best equip- 
ment and our enjoyment than does a knowl- 
edge of form. Nevertheless all attempts to 
place color study on a practical footing have 
failed until recently, because of the universal 
opinion among artists that art in color would 
be degraded by contact with scientific truths. 

And yet from Euclid down to the present 
generation of students the mathematicians have 
been occupied in discovering and perfecting 
instruments and a language of form by which 
the graceful outlines of architecture and orna- 
ment may be analyzed and recorded. But those 
wdio have labored in the kingdom of color have 
found it as impossible to accurately describe 
any given hue or tone of color in an accepted 



nomenclature as it was when the Queen of 
Sheba brought her royal gifts to Solomon. 
When Frcebel prepared his material for the 
kindergarten, color was for the first time in- 
troduced into a system of elementary instruc- 
tion disconnected from drawing and painting, 
and it is worthy of note that the only system 
by which colors can now be intelligently desig- 
nated without actual samples was originated 
and developed in response to the demands of the 
kindergartners of America for better material. 

In the kindergarten material first imported 
from Germany to the United States the first- 
gift balls were fairly good examples of red, 
orange, yellow, green, blue and purple or vio- 
let. But the colored papers used in the occu- 
pation material of that time were selected with- 
out order, scientific knowledge or fine color 
perceptions. The result was that the Ameri- 
can kindergartners began to complain of the 
colors found in the papers and to suggest 
other colors either in addition to those in 
use or in place of them. While many colors 
already in the market were added and some 
made to order in response to such criticisms 
and requests, no material advance was made 
in producing a logical assortment of colors in 
the papers for a number of years. But the 
difficulties thus early encountered induced the 
editor of these notes to begin a series of 
experiments which has resulted, by the aid and 
cordial co-operation of many of his friends 
among scientists, artists and kindergartners, 
in the scheme of color instruction now known 
as the Bradley System of Color Education. 
As this is quite fully set forth in other publi- 
cations it is unnecessary to use sufficient space 
here to explain it in detail, and therefore only 
a brief outline of the fundamental principles 
on which it is based is presented. 

In form, the constant companion of color 
in material objects, we have the foot or me- 
ter by which we measure lengths and breadths, 
and the divided circle by which the directions 



222 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



of lines may be noted, and with these two ac- 
cepted standards of measurements all surfaces 
and solids can be described. If all material 
forms were destroyed to-day any one of them 
could be reconstructed from suitable records 
preservedin terms of these standards, but this 
has not been true regarding color, because of the 
lack of standards and means for measuring and 
recording color effects. In the solar spectrum 
we have the only known source to which we may 
look for permanent standards of color. In 
music we have certain standards of tones and a 
language accepted by general agreement which 
render it possible to transmit musical composi- 
tions from one country to another and from 
generation to generation. Every tone produced 
b} T a musical instrument is due to a given num- 
ber of vibrations or waves in some substance, 
which vibrations are ordinarily conveyed to the 
ear by waves in the air; and by a record of 
these tones in terms of their vibrations musical 
compositions are transmitted from age to age. 

It is supposed that light and color are trans- 
mitted by vibrations or waves in an unknown 
something which we call ether and that differ- 
ent wave lengths produce various effects in 
the eye which are conveyed to the brain as 
colors. Therefore when we select in the solar 
spectrum certain standards of color and de- 
termine the wave length of each, we have a 
scries of definitely located "Spectrum Stand- 
ards " which are absolutely permanent. If we 
then produce the best possible imitation of 
these colors in pigments or other substances, 
we shall have standard Material Colors. The 
Material Colors will be very inferior to the 
Spectrum Colors in" purity and brilliancy, but 
if they are to be used as standards each must 
be the same kind of color as the Spectrum 
Color which it represents ; for instance, the 
" orange " must be neither more red nor more 
yellow than the location in the spectrum which 
has been accepted as the standard orange. 
The training and habits of a good kindergart- 
ner will especially enable her to appreciate 
this necessity for exact standards in a color 
nomenclature as much as in form study. 

For example, the third-gift cube is a solid 
which has six plane faces, each of which is a 
quadrilateral having four right angles and four 
straight sides, each one inch long. Therefore 
a somewhat similar solid in which the angles 
are not right angles and the sides are unequal 



is not a cube. So it is necessary that there be 
definite terms regarding color in which accu- 
rate statements can be made and recorded 
before there can be any language on which to 
base intelligent discussion regarding the ques- 
tions involved in the consideration of color 
and its best uses. The Bradley Color Scheme 
is based on the determination of these stand- 
ards in the solar spectrum and the best mate- 
rial imitations of them to serve as Pigmentary 
Standards. 

Having selected these pigmentary or mate- 
rial standards there must be secured some 
means by which they can be combined in defi- 
nitely expressed proportions to produce all 
other colors, so that we may have an exact 
but simple and easily-understood nomencla- 
ture. There is but one device known at 
present which fulfills these conditions, and 
that is the " Maxwell Disks." If a live coal 
on the end of a stick is rapidly whirled in a 
circle, a ring of light is seen, because the 
light-impression which is made on the retina 
of the eye remains fixed while the stick is 
moving through an entire circle. On this 
principle, if a disk of cardboard is divided by 
a diameter and one of the semi-circles covered 
with white paper and the other with black 
paper, and the disk rapidly whirled on a pin at 
its center, the two half circles will no longer 
appear as distinctively white and black, but 
the whole surface will assume a uniform gray 
color. If the amount of White surface is in- 
creased to three quarters of the whole the 
gray will be much lighter, and if the black 
is increased the resulting color will be darker. 
So, also, if instead of the white and black 
semi-circles two standard colors, as red and 
orange, are combined in the same way, a 
new color between red and orange will result. 

As it is quite inconvenient to paste up a col- 
ored disk for each experiment, a celebrated 
English scientist named Maxwell conceived 
the idea of slitting each of two disks, from 
circumference to center, so that they could 
be joined, and by a movement on each other 
around the common center made to show any 
required amount of the surface of each. If 
two disks are joined in this way and laid on 
to a slightly-larger disk which is divided at 
the circumference into one hundred parts the 
amount of surface of each color which is ex- 
posed may be measured and recorded. Tims 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



223 



if the red and orange disks are joined so as to 
show three quarters red and one quarter 
orange, the color resulting by rotation would 
be recorded as Red 75, Orange 25, or using 
the initials of the colors, R. 75, O. 25, 
which becomes the definite symbol of that par- 
ticular orange hue of red. This brief expla- 
nation may serve to convey an idea of the 
scope of such a system of color study. 

On this scientific foundation a line of colored 
papers has been prepared for the kindergarten. 
In the spectrum colors of the educational 
papers two hues between each two standards 
are provided, making eighteen of these full 
spectrum colors. If a color is in strong sun- 
light it becomes much lighter and is a tint of 
the color ; if in shadow it is darker and is 
called a shade. These two effects may be 
secured with the rotating disks by using a white 
disk with the color disk for the tints, and a 
black disk with the color for the shades. 

Thus these papers furnish a systematic line 
of scales or families of colors for color instruc- 
tion. A line of grays and another of broken 
or gray colors is added, so that there is no 
reasonable demand in primary education for 
other colors in papers. For class instruction 
the color wheel or color mixer is very valuable, 
but if such apparatus is not available a sim- 
ple modification of the larger apparatus in the 
form of a color-top furnishes much instruction 
and amusement. 

Some educators who have not fully under- 
stood this subject have believed that the color- 
wheel and color top are too advanced in 
scientific principles to be profitable in the 
primary school grades, and necessarily from 
the same standpoint much less useful in the 
kindergarten. But actual test is better than 
theories, and a large number of kindergart- 
ners are already prepared to certify to the 
great value of the color wheel and color tops 
in their work. The following is but a simple 
illustration of many lines in which color in- 
struction can be imparted and color intei'est 
excited. In one of our large public kinder- 
gartens, as the teacher entered the room one 
morning, she saw an admiring group of chil- 
dren gathered around Bessie, whom she noticed 
had on a new dress. As the kindergartner 
approached, one child exclaimed excitedly, 
" See what a pretty dress Bessie has on. 
What color is it?" After various guesses, 



many of which were somewhat wild, as it was 
early in the year, some one made a reasonably 
good guess, and the teacher said, " Let us see 
what the color-wheel says. If Bessie will come 
and stand by it we will see if we can make a 
color like her dress by whirling the color 
disks." 

The children were interested at once, 
and as Bessie stood by the color wheel, they 
were allowed to suggest their objections to 
the color made by the rotating disks. Mary 
said that it was too blue, and after a change 
had been made, Willie thought it was too 
green ; but at last a good result was obtained, 
as the happy exclamations of the little ones 
testified, and as the disks ceased rotating a 
complete chart of the true color was before the 
children. If a color wheel is not available 
the same exercises may be tried with a color 
top. 

In many of the gifts and occupations of the 
kindergarten, color is prominent, but it is 
specially so in all the work in papers. If col- 
ored papers are to be used they should not 
only be selected so as to do no harm, but the 
Modern Educational Colored Papers may be so 
used as to afford much iustruction at the same 
time that manual exercises are being enjoyed. 

With colored papers, in the established 
standards and their modifications in their hues 
and tones, the kindergartners and primary 
school teachers are well equipped for color 
teaching, but with the addition of a color wheel 
or color mixer and a few color charts, which 
can be made from the paper at small cost, 
color teaching becomes simply a recreation to 
both teacher and pupils. The fact that there 
is so much color material used in the kinder- 
garten insures constant attention on the part 
of the children, and where there is interested 
attention there is rapid advance, so a child 
that has had two years in a true kinder- 
garten and one year in a connecting school 
will require very little more of colored papers, 
blocks and sticks of any kind, but will be amply 
able to proceed with the more abstract consid- 
eration of subjects brought to his attention. 
It is not expedient to present the subject of 
color teaching in detail within the reasonable 
limits of this book, and hence the editor ven- 
tures to note the contents of two books which 
he has prepared to explain his system of color 
instruction. 



224 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



"Color in the Kindergarten," is a book 
of about sixty pages in paper covers which 
gives a somewhat detailed statement of the 
subject, under two principal heads : First, 
"The Theory of Color," and second, "Color 
Materials in the Kindergarten." In the first 
of these divisions the following sub-heads 
occur : The Theory of Sir David Brewster ; 
The Young-He lmholtz Theory; The Stand- 
ards must be Chosen from the Solar Spec- 
trum ; The Use of the Color AVheel ; The 
Old Theories Tested by the Wheel ; Concern- 
ing the Complementary Colors ; How to Secure 
a Color Nomenclature ; Tints and Shades ; 
Scales of Color ; Classification of Harmonies ; 
Broken Colors ; The So-called Tertiary Colors ; 
How the Grays are Classified ; Simultaneous 
Contrast ; A Review of the Bradley Color 
Scheme ; Some Color Definitions. The second 
section, Color Material, contains the following 
divisions : The Prismatic Spectrum ; The Col- 
ored Papers ; The Rainy Day Spectrum ; Value 
of the Color Wheel ; Spectrum Hues ; Tints and 
Shades of Hues; The First Gift; Sewing; 
Weaving ; Intertwining ; Parquetry ; Paper 
Cutting ; Paper Folding ; Concerning Water 
Colors ; Color Blindness. 

A book entitled " Elementary Color " con- 
tains one hundred and thirty pages freely illus- 
trated and a miniature color chart in pasted 
papers showing "Pure Spectrum .Scales "and 
"Broken Spectrum Scales." This has an 
introduction by Prof. Henry Lefavour of Wil- 
liams College and completely sets forth the 



Bradley system of color instruction under the 
following principal heads : The Theory of 
Color ; Color Definitions ; Practical Experi- 
ments Illustrating the Theory of Color ; Color 
Teaching in the Schoolroom ; Outline of Course 
in Color Instruction. 

Under this last head the following divisions 
are very briefly treated : The Solar Spectrum ; 
Pigmentary Spectrum Colors ; Study of 
Tones ; Broken Colors ; Complete Chart of 
Pure Spectrum Scales in Five Tones ; Ad- 
vanced Study of Harmonies. 

This sytem of color instruction has been 
criticised as mechanical, scientific and inartistic 
by many artists of reputation who seem to agree 
that because definite formulas cannot be given 
for producing works of the highest rank in art 
all standards and facts regarding color are de- 
basing to the artistic instincts. If this claim 
is admitted to be sound in regard to color may 
we not also urge that the study of geometry 
is to be ignored because of its degrading effect 
on art in form, and that Euglish grammar is 
out of date because it is not especially condu- 
cive to highest flights in poetry ? But it is 
the belief of one who has known the kinder- 
gartners of America intimately for a quarter 
of a century that they will not disparage the 
value of the exact and methodical elements 
that are introduced by this color scheme into 
a most important feature of elementary work, 
in place of the entirely indefinite methods of 
the past. 



THE THIRTEENTH GIFT. 

MATERIAL FOR CUTTING PAPER AND MOUNTING PIECES TO PRODUCE 

FIGURES AND FORMS. 



The labor, or occupation alphabet presented 
by Froebel in his system of education, cannot 
spare the occupation, now introduced — the cut- 
ting of paper — the transmutation of the ma- 
terial by division of its parts, notwithstand- 
ing the many apparently well-founded doubts, 
whether scissors should be placed in the hands 
of the child at such an early age. It will 
be well for such doubters to consider : Firstly, 
that the scissors which the children use 
have no sharp points, but are rounded at 
their ends, by which the possibilities of doing 
harm with them are greatly reduced. Secondly, 
it is expected that the teacher employs all pos- 
sible means to watch and superintend the chil- 
dren with the utmost care during their occu- 
pation with the scissors. Thirdly, as it can 
never be prevented, that, at least, at times 



the child produces, by cuttiug according to 
certain laws, highly interesting and beautiful 
forms, their desire of destroying with the scis- 
sors will soon die out, and they, as well as 
their parents, will be spared many an unpleas- 
ant experience, incident upon this childish in- 
stinct, if it were left entirely unguided. 




Fig. 7. 



Fig. 8. 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




; i 



Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

As material for the cutting, we employ a 
square piece of paper of the size of one-six- 
teenth sheet, similar to the folding sheet. Such 
a sheet is broken diagonally, the right acute 
angle placed upon the left, so as to produce 
four triangles resting one upon another. Re- 
peating the same proceeding, so that by so do- 
ing the two upper triangles will be folded up- 
wards, the lower ones downwards in the halv- 
ing line, eight triangles resting one upon an- 
other, will be produced, which we use as our 




Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

scissors, knives and similar dangerous objects 
may fall into the hands of children, it is of 
great importance to accustom them to such, 
by a regular course of instruction in their use, 
which, it may be expected, will certainly do 
something to prevent them from illegitimately 
applying them for mischievous purposes. 
By placing material before them from which 




Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

first fundamental form. This fundamented 

form is held, in all exercises, so that the open 



226 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



side, where no plane connects with another is al- 
ways turned toward the left. 

In order to accomplish a sufficient exactness 
in cutting, the uppermost triangle contains, 
(or if it does not, is to be provided with) a 
kind of net as a guide in cutting. Dotted 
lines on the figures indicate this net work. 



The following selection presents, almost al- 
ways, two opposites and their combination, or 
leaves out one of the former, as is the case 
with the horizontal cut, wherever it does not 
produce anything essentially new. 




s\ : ^ 


\ 


A \ ■ \ 




\ !\ 




Fig. 25. 



Fig. 26. 



Fig. 15. 



Fig. 16. 





Fig. 17. 



Fig. 18. 




Fig. 27. Fig. 28. 

a. Vertical cuts, Figs. 2, 3, 4-5, 6, 7. 

b. Horizontal cuts, Figs. 8, 9 — (above, 
and below) . 

c. Vertical and horizontal, Figs. 18, 19, 
20—21, 22, 23. 

d. Oblique cuts, Figs. 34, 35—36, 37, 38. 

e. Oblique and vertical, Figs. 51, 52, 53, 
—54, 55, 56,-58, 59, 60. 



Fi. 19. 



Fig. 20 




Fig. 21. Fig. 22. 

The activity itself is regulated according to 
the law of opposites. We commence with the 
vertical cut, come to its opposite, the horizon- 
tal and finally to the mediation of both, the 
oblique. 





Fig. 33. Fig. 34. 

Fig. 23. Fig. 24. /. Oblique and horizontal, Figs. 65, 66, 67. 

Figs. 1-132 indicate the abundance of cuts g. Half oblong cuts, where the diagonals 

which may be developed according to this of standing and lying oblongs, formed of two 

method, and it is advisable to arrange for the net squai-es serve as guides — Figs. 117, 118, 

child a selection of the simpler elements into a 119—121, 122, 123—125, 126, 127. 

school of cutting. rflere ends the school of cutting, per se, for 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



227 



the first fundamental form, the right-angled 
triangle. The given elements may be com- 
bined in the most manifold manner, as this 
has been sufficiently carried out in the forms 
given. 

The fundamental form used for Figs. 133- 
KJ7 is a sixfold equilateral /finagle. It also is 



and patterns from Figs. 133—145, will suffice 
for this purpose. The same fundamental form 
is used for practicing and performing the cir- 
cular cuts, although the right angular funda- 




Fig. 35. 





Fig. 37. Fig. 38. 

produced from the folding sheet, by breaking 
it diagonally, halving the middle of the diag- 
onal, dividing again in three equal parts the jrjo-. 47. 
angle situated on this point of halving. The 
angles thus produced will be angles of sixty 
degrees. The leaf is folded in the legs of these 
angles by bending the one acute angle of the 
original triangle upwards, the other downw r ards. 
By cutting the protruding corners, we shall 
have the desired form of the six fold equilateral Fig. 49. 
triangle, in which the entirely open side serves 



Fig. 48. 




Fig. 50. 




Fig. 39. 



Fig. 40. 




Fig. 41. Fig. 42. 

as basis of the triangle. The net for guidance 
is formed by division of each side in four equal 
parts, uniting the points of division of the base, 
by parallel lines with the sides, and drawing of 
a vertical from the upper point of the triangle 
upon its base. It is the oblique line, particu- 
larly which is introduced here. The designs 



Fig. 51. Fig. 52. 

mental form may be used for the same purpose. 
Both find their application subsequently, in a 
sphere of development only, after the child by 
means of the use of the half and whole rings, 
and drawing, has become more familiar with 
the curved line. These exercises require great 
facility in handling the scissors besides, and 
are, therefore, only to be introduced with chil- 
dren who have been occupied in this depart- 
ment quite a while. For such it is a capital 
employment, and they will find a rich field for 
operation, and produce many an interest- 
ing and beautiful form in connection with it. 
The course of development is indicated in 
Figs. 163-lf>7. 



228 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 53. 



Fig. 54. 



Fig. 55. 



Fie:. 56. 




Fig. 57 



Fig. 58. 



Fig. 59. 



Fig. 60. 




Fig. 61. 



Fig. 62. 



Fig. 63. 



Fig. 64. 




Fig. 65. 



Fig. 66. 



Fig. 67 



Fig. 68. 




Fig. 69. 






Fig. 70. 




Fig. 71, 



Fig. 72. 



/\ V /\. 



Fig. 73. 




Fig. 74. 



Fig. 75. 



Fig. 76. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



229 




Fig. 81. 



Fig. 82. 



Fig. 83. 



Fig. 84. 




Fig. 93. 



Fig. 94. 



Fig. 95. 



Fig. 96. 




Fig. 97 



Fig. 98. 



Fig. [)[). 



Fig. 100. 




Fig. 101. 



Fig. 102. 



Fig. 103. 



Fig. 104. 




Fig. 105. 



Fig. 106. 



Fig. 107. 



Fig. 108. 



230 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 109. 



Fig. 110. 



Fig. 111. 



Fig. 112. 




Fig. 113. 



Fig. 114. 



Fig. 115. 



Fig. 116. 




Fig. 117 



Fig. 118. 



Fig. 119. 



Fig. 120. 




Fig. 121. 



Fig. 122. 



Fig. 123. 



Fig. 124. 




Fig. 125. 



Fig. 126. 



Fig. 127. 



Fig. 128. 




Fig. 129. 



Fig. 130. 



Fig. 131. 



Fig. 132. 




Fig. 133. 



Fig. 134. 



Fig. 135. 



Fig. 136. 



Fig. 137. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



231 




Fig. 138. 



Fig. 139. 



Fig. 140. 



Fie. 141. 



Fig. 142. 




Fig. 143. 



Fig. 144. 



Fig. 145. 



Fig. 146. 



Fig. 147. 




Fig. 148. 



Fig. 149. 



Fig. 150. 



Fig. 151. 



Fig. 152. 




Fig. 153. 



Fig. 154. 



Fig. 155. 



Fig. 156. 



Fig. 157. 




Fig. 158. 



Fig. 159 



Fig. 160. 



Fig. 161. 



Fig. 162. 




Fig. 163. 



Fig. 164. 



Fig. 165 



Fig. 166. 



Fig. 167, 



232 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



After the child has been sufficiently intro- 
duced into the cutting school, in the manner 
indicated, after his fantasy has found a defi- 
nite guidance in the ever-repeated application of 
the law, which protects him against unbounded 
option and choice, it will be an easy task to 
him, and a profitable one to pass over to free 
invention, and to find in it a fountain of enjoy- 
ment, ever new, and inexhaustibly overflowing. 
To let the child, entirely without a guide, be the 
master of his own free will, and to keep all dis- 
cipline out of his way, is one of the most dan- 
gerous and most foolish principles to which a 
misunderstood love of children, alone could 
bring us. This absolute freedom condemns the 
children, too soon, to the most insupportable 
annoyance. All that is in the child should be 
brought out, by means of external influence. 
To limit this influence as much as possible is 
not to suspend it. Frcebel has limited it, in a 
most admirable way by placing this guidance 
into the child as early as possible ; that from 
one single incitement issues a number of 
others, within the child, by accustoming him 
to a lawful and regulated activity from his 
earliest youth. 

With the first vertical cut, which we made 
into the sheet, (Fig. 1), the whole course of 
development, as indicated in the series of fig- 
ures up to Fig. 132 is given, and all subse- 
quent inventions are but simple, natural com- 
binations of the element presented in the 
"school." Thus a logical connection prevails 
in these formations, as among all other means 
of education, hardly any but mathematics 
may afford. 

Whereas, the activity of the cutting itself. 
and the logical progress in it produces a most 
beneficial influence upon the intellect of the 
pupil, the results of it will awaken his sense 
of beauty, his taste for the symmetrical, and 
his appreciation of harmony in no less degree. 
The simplest cut already yields an abundance 
of various figures. If we make as in Fig. 5, 
two vertical cuts, and unfold all single parts 
we shall have a square with hollow middle, a 
small square, and finally the frame of a square. 
If we cut according to Fig. 6, we produce a 
large octagon, four small triangles, four strips 
of paper of a trapezium form, nine figures 
altogether. 

All these parts are now symmetrically ar- 
ranged according to the law : union of opposites 



— here effected by the position or direction of 
the parts relative to the center — and after they 
have been arranged in this manner, the pupils 
will often express the desire to preserve them 
in this arrangement. This natural desire finds 
its gratification by 

MOUNTING THE FIGURES. 

As separation always requires its opposite, 
uniting, so the cutting requires mounting. 
The following figures present examples of the 
manner in which the cutting is mounted : Fig. 
5 a is Fig. 5 cut and mounted ; Fig. 9 a cor- 
responds to Fig. 9, and so on. With the 
simpler cuts, the clippings should be used, but 







Fig. 9 a. 

if a main figure is complete and symmetrical 
in itself, the addition of the clippings would 
not be necessary. 

This occupation also, can be made sub- 
servient to influence the intellectual develop- 
ment of the child by requiring him to point out 
different ways in which these forms may be ar- 
ranged and put together, (Fig. 37 a). 



♦ ♦ 




Fier. 12 a. 



Fig. 20 a. 



In order to increase the interest of the chil- 
dren, to give a larger scope to their inventive 
power, and at the same time, to satisfy their 
taste and sense of color, they may have paper 
of various colors and be allowed to exchange 
their productions among one another. 

Both these occupations, cutting and mount- 
ing, are for the Kindergarten as well as higher 
grades of schools. For older pupils, the cut- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



233 




Fig. 37 a. 



Fig. 56 a. 





Fig. 71 a. 



Fig. 82 a. 




Fig. 100 a. 





Fig. 128 a. 



< ♦ ► < ♦ 

> A V 

•< ♦ ►. 



Fig. 129 a. 





Fig. 132 




Fig 150 a. 



Fig. 147 a. 



« 



Fig. 159 a. 




Fig. 108 a. 



Fig. 124 a. 



Fig. 163 a. 



Fig. 165 a. 



234 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



ting out of animals, plants and other forms of and mounting the parts to figures, as intro- 
life will be of interest, and silhouettes even duced here, are of undeniable benefit, 
may be prepared by the most expert. The main object, however, is here, as in all 
It is evident that not only as a simple means other occupations in the Kindergarten, develop- 
ed occupation for the children, during their ment of the sense of beauty, as a preparation 
early life, but as a preparation for many an for subsequent performance in and enjoyment 
occupation in real life, the cutting of paper of art. 

EDITOR'S NOTES. 



This occupation emphasizes color and de- 
velops the artistic sense of the child by the 
symmetrical forms which he produces in beauti- 
ful colors. For the first series of cuts the six 
spectrum colors should be chosen, as a knowl- 
edge of pure colors and normal tones must pre- 
cede color combinations. 

The cutting may be given as a class exercise, 
the children doing the folding, cutting, arrang- 
ing and pasting all together. 

The square is taken as a basis for all the 
simplest designs, and out of it the child clips a 
house, barn, church, etc., with the conscious- 
ness of possessing a power over this little sheet 
of paper which is really creative and with which 
he is aide to produce a great variety of forms 
and designs. The work requires accuracy and 
delicate handling, being easy or difficult accord- 
ing to the skill of the worker. 

Outlines of objects, animals, leaves, forms 
of beauty and geometric forms may be cut, by 
leading the child in logical succession from the 
vertical cut to the horizontal, and, after com- 
bining these two, proceeding to the oblique cut 
and its combinations, the cuts being made upon 
the square, equilateral triangle, oblong and 
circle. 

Beginning with the straight lines the child 
may gradually advance to intricate circular 
cuts, though the curved line should not be given 
until the child has gained dexterity in handling 
the scissors. 

On the plain, unruled paper the marking or 
folding should be on the upper triangle only ; 
the cutting through them all. At first the line 
may be lightly traced with a pencil before cut- 
ting, but this practice should not continue loug 
enough to make the child dependent upon it. 

For the sake of obtaining sufficient accuracy 
in the cutting, the ruled cutting papers are 
manufactured, which have a network on the up- 
per triangle and are exactly in the line of Froe- 
bel's method, because they assist the child to 



accurately draw from dictation his own patterns 
for cutting. 

The child must be led to free creation by 
first imitating, and when he learns obedience 
through dictation, and also gains in manual 
dexterity, after a few cuts inventions may be 
called for, each child being allowed to choose 
the form and color he prefers for his invention 
from among the forms previously made, thus 
encouraging his will-power in making a selec- 
tion and adding interest and variety to the oc- 
cupation. Sequences should be used in order 
to develop continuity of thought and to illus- 
trate the idea of growth, the value of the se- 
quence depending upon the form produced and 
upon the color used. 

When the forms are made they should be * 
pasted on one side of the mounting sheet and 
the several sheets belonging to each child may 
lie kept loose until the whole number is com- 
pleted and then put in book form. As only 
one design is seen at a time the standard colors 
may be used in succession without unpleasant 
effects. The same cut can be mounted in dif- 
ferent ways and various results produced. A 
house with furnishings may be cut and many 
lessons in good housekeeping taught. Border 
patterns are easily cut. Delicate lace-like pat- 
terns make decorations for sachet bags, lamp 
screens, box covers, needle books or the lining 
for a box or basket. Out upon larger squares 
they furnish pretty designs for outline stitch- 
ing or braiding. 

As this occupation is fully treated in books 
written on the subject, it is inexpedient to give 
in this connection more than a few hints as to 
its possibilities. 

"Paper and Scissors in the Schoolroom," 
by Emily A. Weaver gives a practical and 
systematic course in paper cutting and fold- 
ing, the third chapter being devoted to cut- 
ting the geometric figures and useful and orna' 
mental forms based on them. 



THE FOURTEENTH GIFT. 
MATERIAL FOR BRAIDING OR WEAVING. 



Braiding is a favorite occupation of chil- 
dren. The child instinctively, as it were, likes 
everything contributing to his mental and 
bodily development, and few occupations may 
claim to accomplish both, better than the oc- 
cupation now introduced. It requires great 
care, but the three year old child may already 
see the result of such care, whereas even from 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



twelve to fourteen years old pupils, often have 
to combine all their ingenuity and perseverance 
to perform certain more complicated tasks in 
the braiding or weaving department. It does 
not develop the right hand alone, the left also 
finds itself busy most of the time. It satisfies 
the taste of color, because to each piece of 
braiding, strips of at least two different colors 
belong. It excites the sense of beauty because 
beautiful, i. e., symmetrical, forms are pro- 
duced ; at least their production is the aim of 
this occupation. The sense and appreciation 



of number are constantly nourished, nay it 
may be asserted, that there is hardly a better 
means of affording perceptions of numerical 
conditions, so thorough, founded on individual 
experience and rendered more distinct by di- 
versity in form and color, than ' 'braiding." 
The products of the child's activity, besides, 
are readily made useful in practical life, af- 
fording thereby capital opportunities for ex- 
pression of his love and gratitude, by presents 
prepared by his own hand. 

The material used for this occupation are 
sheets of paper cut into strips which are left 
joined at the ends, as shown in Fig. 1, and 
the braiding needle, as represented in Fig. 2. 



: : ■ i ii i s : i 
:::::::::: i 
:::::::::■ 

1 1 IBS! I 8111 

iiiiiiini 
::::::::::: 
minim 
ii i in i ii :i 

«•■■■■■■■■ 




Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



A braid work is produced by drawing with 
the needle a loose strip (white) through the 
strips of the braiding sheet (green), so that a 
number of the latter will appear over, another 
under the loose strip. These numbers are 
conditioned by the form the work is to assume. 
As there are but two possible ways in which 
to proceed, either lifting up, or pressing down 



1,8,8 8 11,8 8 3 8 8 

1 1 fiVi iVfiY 
1 1 iV i i'iTiYi 
i 1 i"b i i'i iYs'i 
1 1 1 1 r iYiYi i 
i Y:'i 1 1 1 Yi'i i 



■ ■ ■ 

' ■ ■ 

11 


inn; 


■ ■ ' 
■ a ■ 

ii 


!■!■ 


8 1 l"8 1 1 

■ a a ■ ■ • 


in 

■ ■ 


II 


Mill! 


ii 


II 


nun 


a ■ ■ 


■V 






II 


JUL 1 ! ' - 




II 


in in 


8 1 8 



Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



the strips of the braiding sheet, the course to 
be taken by the loose strip is easily expressed 
in a simple formula. All varieties of patterns 
are expressible in such formulas and therefore 
easily pi'eserved and communicated. 

The simplest formula of course, is when one 
strip is raised and the next pressed down. 



236 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



We express this formula by i u (up), i d 
(down) . All such formulas in which only two 
figures occur, are called simple formulas ; com- 
bination formulas, however, are such as con- 
tain a combination of two or more such sim- 
ple formulas. 

But with a single one of such formulas, no 
braid work can yet be constructed. If we 
should, for instance, repeat with a second, 
third, and fourth strip, i w,i(7, the loose strips 
would slip over one another at the slightest 



ViWi'iUiW 
iYiTmTmTi 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 : 



» 

imimimm 



Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

handling, and the strips of the braiding sheet 
and the whole work, drops to pieces if we 
should cut from it the margin. In doing the 
latter, we have, even with the most perfect 



!:MIMMM 

I'lYsmTm 
iYmiYmYm 
fiYiTiiYff: 



■!■ ■■■■■■■ ■"■ 

TlMIIIIII 

1 1 1 "ill 1 1 1 1 



Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

braidwork, to employ great care ; but it is only 
then a braid or weaving work exists — when all 
strips are joined to the whole by other strips, 
and none remain entirely detached. 



"• ■'■■■■■■■ » 

i.ijjmi.i.i.i 

■>■■■■■■■> 

iiiiiiiim 



Fig. 11 



x: mi i ii 1 1 
MiiililMI 

IIIIIIIIM 

IMMNIIII 

MMIIMM 
1 1 i 1 1 1 l.l.l.l I 

Mini mii 



Fig. 12. 



To produce a braid work, we need at least 
two formulas, which are introduced alternately. 
Proceeding according to the same fundamental 
law which has led us thus far in all our work, we 
combine first with i w, i d, its opposite i d, i u. 

Such a combination of braiding formulas by 
which not merely a single strip, but the whole 
braid work, is governed, is a braiding scheme. 



Braiding formulas, according to which the 
single strip moves, are easily invented. Even 
if one would limit one's self to take up or press 
down no more than five strips, (and such a 
limitation is necessary, because otherwise the 
braiding would become too loose), the follow- 
ing thirty formulas would be the result : — 



1, 


lu la- 


9, 


3uld 


17, 


4u2d 


24, 


5d lu 


2, 


id lu 


10, 


3dlu 


18, 


4d2u 


25, 


5u2d 


3, 


2u2d 


11, 


3u 2d 


19, 


4u3d 


26, 


5d2u 


1. 


2d 2u 


12, 


3d2u 


20, 


4d3u 


27, 


5u3d 


"», 


2uld 


13, 


4u4d 


21, 


5u 5d 


2S, 


5d3u 


6, 


2d lu 


14, 


4d4u 


22, 


5d 5u 


29, 


5u4d 


7, 


3u .3d 


15, 


4uld 


23, 


5uld 


30, 


5d 4u 


8, 


3d 3u 


16, 


4dlu 











mm 

Mill I i if i I 
ii ii 1 1 1 ii : 

MMMIMM 

IIIIIIIIM 



MMMIMM 

mYiYmmm 



MMMIMM 
miYiYiiii: 



Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

From these thirty formulas, amoug which are 
always two oppositionally alike, as for instance, 
1 and 2, 9 and 10, 25 and 26, hundreds of 
combined, or combination formulas can be 
formed by simply uniting two of them. In the 
beginning it is advisable to combine such as 



■ ■ ■ 




■ ■ 


Ml 


iiiiii 


II 


Ml 


Mill 


II 


m 


111=11 


M 


Ml 


■ Mill 


Yi 


Ml 


Mill 


ii 


fflC 


OfflS 


ii 


.".V 


■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 


■ ■ 
■ ■ 



i 


■ ■ 

ii 
ii 


■ ■ 

ii 


■ ■ ■ ■ 

IMS 

MM 


■ ■ 
■ ■ 
i ■ 

■ ■ 

■ i 

1 1 

■ ■ 


i 


ii 


si 


Mi! 


: 


Yi 


Yi 


YiYi 


■ ■ 

■ ■ 




i: 


ii 


nil 


ii 


■ 

i 


n 


ii 


:::! 


ii 

■ i 



Fig. 15. 



Fig. 16. 



contain equally named numbers either even 01- 
odd. The following are some examples : — 



Formulas 



and 3, lu Id, 2u 2d. 

and 5, lu Id, 2u Id. 

and 7, lu Id, 3u 3d. 

and 9, lu Id, 3u Id. 

and 11, lu Id, 3u 2d. 

and 13, lu Id, 4u 4d. 
1 and 15, lu Id, 4u Id. 
1 and 17, lu Id, 4u 2d. 
1 and 19, lu Id, 4u 3d. 
1 and 21, lu Id, 5u 5d 
1 and 23, lu Id, 5u Id.* 
1 and 25, lu Id, 5u 2d. 
1 and 27, lu Id, 5u 3d. 
1 and 29, lu Id, 5u 4d. 
If we also add the formulas under the even 
numbers in the given thirty, we have to read 
them inversely. Thus : — 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



237 



Formulas 1 and 6, lu Id, lu 2d. 
" 1 and 10, lu Id, lu 3d. 

" 1 and 12, lu Id, 2u 3d. 

" 1 and 16, lu Id. lu 4d. 

" 1 and 18, lu Id, 2u 4d. 

1 and 20, lu Id, 3u 4d. 
" 1 and 24, lu Id, lu 5d. 

" 1 and 26, lu Id, 2u 5d- 

" 1 and 28, lu Id, 3u 5d. 

" 1 and 30, lu Id, 4u 5d. 

By a combination of one single lormula with 



1 1 1 : 1 1 1 s 1 1 
IMIIIIIi!! 




am :::: :: 

mmM:j g ; 
vrivrriViV 



Fig. 17. 

the twenty-four others, we receive new com- 
bination formulas and see that inventing form- 
ulas is a simple mathematical operation, regu- 
lated by the laws of combination. 

Much more difficult it is to invent braiding 
schemes. Not to dwell too long on this point, 




i ■ ■■ ■■ 

■■ ■■ ■■ 

T.1 



tt&K 



Fig. 19. 
we introduce the reader 



Fig. 20. 



to the course shown 
in the following figures, which are arranged so 
systematically that either as a whole cr with 
some omissions, it may be worked through with 
children from three to six years, as a braiding 
school. It begins with simple formulas and by 




Fig. 21. 



mm 



Fig. 22. 



Figs. 3 and 4 ; Fig. 7 a combination of Figs. 
3 and 5 by combining the simple formulas. If 
we examine Fig. 7 the number three makes it- 
self prominent in the strips running obliquely. 
In Fig. 8 it occurs independently as opposite 



means of the law of opposites is carried out to 
the most beautiful figures. 

Formula i, m id, (Fig. 3), is first intro- 
duced ; opposite in regard to number is 2u 2d, 
(Fig. 4). In Fig. 5 the numbers one and 
two are combined : Fig. 6 is a combination of 





Fig. 23. 



Fig. 24. 



to one and two and then follows in Figs. 
9—17 a series of mediative forms all uniting 
the opposites in regard to number. In all 
these patterns the squares or oblongs produced 
are arranged vertically under, or horizontally 





Fig. 25. 



Fig. 26. 



beside, one another. Except in Fig. 3, the 
oblique line appears already beside the hori- 
zontal and vertical. Thus, this given oppo- 
site of form is prevailing in Figs. 18-32, and 
we apply here the same formulas in Figs. 3-17, 
with the difference, however, that we need only 





Fig. 27 



Fig. 28. 



one formula, which in the second, third strip, 
etc., always begins one strip later or earlier. 
Thus in Fig. 18, the formula 2u 2d (as in Fig. 
4) is carried out. The dark and light strips of 
the pattern run here from right above, to left 
below. Opposite of position to Fig. 18 is shown 
in Fig. 19 where both run the opposite way. 
Fig. 20 shows combination, and Fig. 21 double 
combination. In opposition to the connected 



238 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



oblique lines, the broken line appears in Fig. 22. 
As the formula 2u 2d has furnished us five 
patterns, so the formula of Fig. 5, iu 2d, fur- 
nishes the series, Figs. 23-27. Figs. 23 and 24 
are opposites as to direction. Fig. 25 shows 
the combination of these opposites. Figs. 26 



■iJKiKtf^- 



jr." jr.- jv Jt 



_■■ ■ ■■ ■ ■■ • 
aia Mia n ■ ■ 

■ ■ ■■ ■ aa ■ !■ ■ 
■ aa a «» ■ al ■ 



Fig. 29. 

and 27, opposites to one another, are forms 
of mediation between Figs. 23 and 24. With 
them for the first time a middle presents itself. 
AVhile in Figs. 23-28 the dark color is pre- 
vailing, Figs. 2H-30 show us predominantly, 
the light strip, consequently the opposite in 






Fig. 31. Fig. 32. 

color. In Figs. 31-33, formulas from Figs. 
5-7 are employed. Fig. 31 requires an op- 
posite of direction, a pattern in which the strips 
run from left above to right below. Fig. 32 
gives the combination of " both directions and 
Figs. 33 and 34 are at the same time opposites 
as to direction and color. 




a a a a 

ft m ~a ■ 



Fig. 33. Fig. 34. 

It is obvious that each single formula can 
be used for a whole series of divers patterns, 
and the invention of these patterns is so easy 
that it will suffice if we introduce each new 
formula very briefly. 

Fig. 35 is a form of mediation for the for- 
mula 3u 3d ; Fig. 36 shows a different appli- 



cation of the same formula. In Fig. 37 the 
broken line appears again, but in opposition 
to Fig. 22 it changes its direction with each 
break. In Figs. 38-42 the formulas of Figs. 
9, 10, 12, 13, and 15 are carried out. The 
braiding school,per se,is here concluded. Who- 
ever may think it too extensive may select 
from it Figs. 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 18, 19, 20, 23, 
26, 27, 28, 35 and 36. 



sr -*r V 

» ■ ■ 1 "^ ■ 
■5m mKi 



■ «■■» alla B aa ■■■ 



Fig. 35. 



» ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

r.v.V.V. 

.::..::. .: :. .: 

r i-T_*- 



Fig. 36. 



But if any one would like still to enlarge 
upon it, she may do so by working out, for 
each single formula, the forms or patterns 
18, 19, 20, 21, 1(5 and 27, and continue the 
school to the number 5. The number of pat- 
terns will be made, thereby, ten times larger. 

Another change and enlargement of the 





Fig. 38. 

school may be introduced by cutting the 
braiding strips, as well as those of the braiding- 
sheet of different widths. We can thereby 
represent quite a number of patterns after the 
same formula, which are, however, essentially 
different. This is particularly to be recom- 



"..a. ■ .....'".:: 




Fig. 39. 



sr . •«:■ . ■:.!■ . 

■ «■■ ■ - ■■■ ■ ■■ 

■ ■■M ■■•■• ■■■ 

"■■«■■-■" •■S-2S" 

*T m 555 ■ ■■■ ■ 



Fig. 40. 



mended with very small children, who neces- 
saril} 7 will have to be occupied longer with the 
simple formula iu id. But for more developed 
braiders, such change is of interest, because, 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



239 




Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



Fig. 49. 




Fig. 45. 



p:. a -ps- a .p:- a » 
■ Pi 1 pi r « 



Fig. 46. 






■■ ■■ _■ 


* 1 


MB a «■■■ 

■■■ ■■ 

n. ■ -:■!■ 

■■ ■■- ■ ; 




W-'SA 




a. x .::. 

■ ■■ ■■ ■ 




■■ ■■ - ■ 
■ ■■ ■■ ■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ 




■■■ ■ 

■■■ ■ ■■■■ 

■ ■■ ■■ ■ 




■■ ■■ ■ 
■ ■■ ■■ ■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ 

■■■ 

■■■ ■ ■■■■ 




■ ■■ ■■ ■ 

■■ ■■ ■ 

■ ■■ ■■ ■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ 




■■■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ 

■S. J" ■■ 

:.:■ ■ ■:.:. 

■ ■■■ 

PS. ■ JTT 

■■ ■■ ■ 
■ ■■ ■■ ■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ 




■■■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■■ 

■ ■■ ■■ ■ 

■■ ■■ ■ 

■ ■■ ■■ 5. 

■■■ ■ ■■■■ 




Fig. 47. 



Fig. 48. 



Fig. 50. 



240 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



by it a variety of forms may be produced which the braiding without braiding sheet. This is 
may be rendered still more attractive, by a va- done as follows : Cut two or more long strips 



riety of colors in the loose braiding strips. 
With patterns that have a middle, as Figs. 26 




and 30 it is advisable to let the braiding begin 
with the middle strip, and then to insert always 
one strip above, and one below it. 

It is not unavoidably necessary that the 
school should be finished from 1 >eginning to end, 
as given here. The pupil, having successfully 
produced some patterns, may be afforded an 
opportunity for developing his skill by his own 





Fia;. 53. 



Fig. 54. 



invention, in trying to form, by braiding a 
cross, with hollow middle, ( Fig. 43) , a standing 
oblong, (Fig. 44), a long cross, (Fig. 45), a 
small window, (Fig. 47), etc. 

Figs. 48-51, present some patterns which 
may be used for wall-baskets, lamp tidies, 
bookmarks, etc. 

Finally, Figs. 52-54, obliquely intertwined 
strips, representing the so-called free braiding, 



(Fig. 55), of a quarter sheet of col- 
ored paper, (green) and fold to half 
their length, (Fig. 56) cut then, of 
differently colored paper, (white), 
shorter strips, also fold these to half 
their length. Put the green strips, 
side by side of one another, as shown 
in Fig. 58, so that the closed end of 
one strip lies above and 
that of the other below, 
(Fig. 58cc). Then 
take the white strip 
bend it around strip 
1 , and lead it 
through strip 2, 
(Fig. 59). The 
second str i p is 
app lied in an op- 
posite way, lay i n g 
it around 2, and 



U 



Fig. 55. Fig.56. Fig.57. 




I 



i 


1 < 


2Zi- 




■ 


■ ZX 


hi 






■ 3 


TZW 






■ZX 


> ■*. 




^--1 


i 1 — l 


ZZB. 




, 1 


■ZI 


5=1 





Fig. 58. Fig. 59. Fig. 60. 

leading it through 1. Employing four instead 
of two green strips, the bookmark, Fig. 60, 
will be the result. The protruding ends are 
either cut or scol loped. 
By introducing s t r i p s of 
differ entwidths, a va- 
riety of patterns can be 
produced. 



SB 



h. 



Fig. 61. 






^&X 



Fig. 62. 



Fig. 63. 



Instead of paper, glazed muslin, leather, 
silk or ribbon, straw and the like may be used 
as material for braiding. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 
EDITOR'S NOTES. 



241, 



The occupation of mat weaving is fully ex- 
plained in the foregoing pages, and the variety 
of material now prepared and for sale in the 
market is so great that almost anything which 
a teacher may require can he obtained without 
the "special cutting" which formerly was often- 
times deemed necessary. With the weaving 
material prepared in the modern educational 
colored papers the best possible exercises in 
color combinations are introduced, and by ju- 
dicious selections of mats and fringes on the 
part of the teacher the child may be accus- 
tomed to harmonious combinations of colors, 
and thus never acquire the preference for gaudy 
combinations which is usually attributed to chil- 
dren and savages. Bright pure colors do not 
necessarily make "loud" combinations, and 
muddy colors are not essential to artistic effects. 

For youngest children a mat four inches 



square with a cut surface of three inches is 
very desirable, because little hands can manipu- 
late such mats to better advantage than the 
larger sizes. These small mats are cut with 
various numbers of strips from five to ten, thus 
providing for much practical use of numbers 
and a great variety of designs in the patterns 
of the weaving. The very elaborate and in- 
tricate weaving designs which are possible with 
large mats and narrow strips are not adapted 
to younger children, and those who are ex- 
perienced enough to do this grade of work can 
be profitably employed in more advanced work, 
which may be less intricate and fatiguing and 
more educational. 

Free braiding is developed quite extensively 
by some teachers, while others make compara- 
tively little of it, but it is capable of varied 
and beautiful results. 



THE FIFTEENTH GIFT. 

THE INTERLACING SLATS. 



Frcebel in his Gifts of the Kindergarten, 

does not present anything perfectly new. All 
his means of occupation are the result of care- 
ful observation of the playful child. But he 
has united them in one corresponding whole ; 
he has invented a method, and by this method 
presented the possibility of producing an ex- 
haustless treasure of formations which, each 
influencing the mind of the pupil in its pecu- 
liar way, effect a development most harmoni- 
ous and thorough of all the mental faculties. 
The use of slats for interlacing is an occupa- 
tion already known to our ancestors, and who 
has not practiced it to some extent in the days 
of childhood? But who has ever succeeded 
in producing more than five or six figures with 
them? AVho has ever derived, from such 
occupation, the least degree of that manual 
dexterity and mental development, inventive 
power and talent of combination, which it af- 
fords the pupils of the Kindergarten since 
Froebel's method has been applied to the 
material ? 

Our slats, ten inches long, one-fourth of an 
inch broad and one-sixteenth of an inch thick, 




Fig. 1 



are made of birch or any tough wood, and a 
dozen of them are sufficient to produce quite a 
variety of figures. They form, as it were the 
transition from the plane of the tablet to the 
line of the sticks, (Ninth Gift) differing, how- 
ever, from both, in the fact that forms pro- 
duced by them are not bound to the plane, 
but contain in themselves a sufficient hold to 
be separated from it. 

The child first receives one single slat. Ex- 



amining, it he perceives that it is flexible, that 
its length surpasses its breadth many times 
and again that its thickness is many times 
less than its breadth. 

Can the pupil name some objects between 
which and the slat, there is any similarity ? 

The rafters under the roof of a house, and 
in the arms of a wind mill, and the laths of 
which fences, and certain kinds of gates and 
lattice work are made, are similar to the slat. 

The child ascertains that the slat has two 
long plane sides and two ends. He finds its 




Fig. 3. 

middle or center point, can indicate the upper 
and lower side of the slat, its upper and lower 
end, and its right and left side. After these 
preliminaries, a second slat is given the child. 
On comparison the child finds them perfectly 
alike, and he is then led to find the positions 
which the two slats may occupy to each other. 
They can be laid parallel with each other, so 
as to touch one another with the whole length 
of their sides, or they may not touch at all. 

They can be placed in such positions that 
their ends touch in various ways, and can be 
laid crosswise, over or under one another. 

With an additional slat, the child now con- 
tinues these experiments. He can lay various 
figures with them, but there is no binding or 
connecting hold. Therefore, as soon as he at- 
tempts to lift his work from the table, it falls 
to pieces. 

By the use of /o»r slats, he becomes enabled 
to produce something of a connected whole, 
but this only is done, when each single slat 
comes in contact with at least three other slats. 
Two of these should be on one side, the third 
or middle one should rest on the other side of 
the connecting slat, so that here again the law 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



243 



of opposites and their mediation is followed 
and practically demonstrated in every figure. 

It is not easy to apply this law constantly 
in the most appropriate manner. But this 
very necessity of painstaking, and the reason- 
ing, without which little success will be at- 
tained, is productive of rich fruit in the de- 
velopment of the pupil. 

The child now places the slat aa, horizontally 
upon the table. Bb, is placed across it in a 
vertical direction ; cc, in a slanting direction 
under a and b, and (hi, is shoved under aa, and 
over bb, and under cc, as shown in Fig. 1. 

This gives a connected form, which will not 





Fig. 5. 

easily drop apart. The child investigates how 
each single slat is held and supported — he in- 
dicates the angles, which were created, and 
the figures which are bounded by the various 
parts of the slats. 

To show how rich and manifold the material 
for observation and instruction given in this 
one figure is, we will mention that it contains 
twenty-four angles, of which eight are right, 





Fig. 6. Fig. 7. 

eight acute, and eight obtuse — formed by one 
vertical slat, bb, one horizontal aa, one slant- 
ing from left above to right below, cc, and 
another slanting from right above to left be- 
low, dd. 

Each single slat touches each other slat 
once ; two of them, aa and bb, pass over two 
and under one, and the others, cc andcfaZ, pass 
under two and over one of the other slats, by 
which interlacing, three small figures are 



formed within the large figure, one of which is 
a figure with two right, one obtuse and one 
acute angle, and four unequal sides, and two 
others, one of which is a right-angled triangle 
with two equal sides, and the other is a right 
angled triangle with no equal sides. 

By drawing the slats of Fig. 1 apart, Fig. 2, 
an acute-angled triangle is produced — by draw- 
ing them together, Fig. 3 results, from which 





Fis. 8. 



Fig:. 9. 



the acute-angled triangle, Fig. 4, can again be 
easily formed. Each of these figures presents 
abundant matter for investigation and instruc- 
tive conversation, as shown in connection with 
Fig. 1. 

The child now receives a fifth slat. Sup- 
pose we have Fig. 2, consisting of four slats 
— ready before us — we can, by adding the 
fifth slat, easily produce Fig. 8. 





Fist. 10. 



Fig. 11. 



If the five slats are disconnected, the child 
may lay two, vertically at some distance from 
each other, a third in a slanting position over 
them from right above to left below, and a 
fourth in an opposite direction, when the two 
latter will cross each other in their middle. By 
means of the fifth slat the interlacing then is 
carried out, by sliding it from right to left 
under the vertical over the crossing two, aud 
again under the other vertical slat, and thereby 
the Pig. 5 made firm. 

By bending the vertical slats together, Fig. 
C) is produced ; when the horizontal slat as- 
sumes a higher position, a five-angled figure 
appears — one of the slanting slats, however, 



244 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 22. 




Fig. 23. 





Fig. 14. 



Fig. 15. 



Fig. 24. 




Fig. 25. 




Fig. 16. 




Fig. 17. 





Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 




Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 



Fig. 28. 



Fig. 29. 




Fig. 20. 



Fig. 21. 





Fig. 30. 



Fig. 31. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



245 



has to change its position also, as shown in The Figs. 17 and 18, (triangles) and Figs. 19 
Fig. 7. In Fig. 8, the horizontal slat is moved and 23, (hexagons), deserve particular atten- 
downward. In Fig. 9, the original position tion, because they afford valuable means for 
of the crossing slats is changed ; in the triangle, mathematical observations. 
Fig. 10, still more, and in Figs. 11 and 12, 
other changes of these slats are introduced. 
The addition of a sixth slat enables us still 






further to form other figures from the previous 
ones — Fig. 17 can be produced from P'ig. 9, 
Fig. 18 from Figs. 10 or 11, Fig. 22 "from 
Fig. 12, and then a following series can be 
obtained by drawing apart and shoving to- 
gether as heretofore. 

Let us begin thus : The child lays (Fig. 13) 



Fig. 39. 

We find some few examples of seven inter- 
twined slats, in (Figs. 25-28), of eight slats, 
(Figs. 29-36), of nine slats, (Figst 37-40), 
and of ten slats, (Figs. 41-43). 

All we have given in the above are mere 
hints to enable the teacher and pupil to find 





Fisr. 




two slats horizontally upon the table — two ^S- 40. 

slats vertically over them ; a large square is m0 re readily by individual application, the 

produced. A fifth slat horizontally across the richness of figures to be formed with this oc- 

middle of the two vertical slats, gives two paral- cupation material . 

lelograms, and by connecting the sixth slat It is particularly mathematical forms, reg- 






Fig. 41 



from above to below with the three horizontal ular polygons, (Figs. 28, 31, 40, 42), contem- 

slats so that the middle one is under and the plation of divisions, produced by diagonals, 

two outside shits over it, the child will have etc. , planes and proportions of form, which, 

formed four small squares, of equal size. informs of knowledge, are brought before the 



246 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



eye of the pupil, with great clearness and dis- 
tinctness, by the interlacing slats. 

In the meantime, it will afford pleasure to 
behold the forms of beauty, as given in Figs. 
30, 33, 37 ; nor should the forms of life be 
forgotten, as they are easily produced by a 
larger number of slats, (Fig. 39 — a fan ; Figs. 
35 and 36 — fences) , by combining the work of 
several pupils. 




The figures are not simply to be constructed 
and to be changed to others, but each of them 
is to be submitted to a careful investigation 
by the child, as to its angles, its constituent 
parts, and their qualities, and the service each 
individual slat performs in the figure, as indi- 
cated with Fisf. 1. 



The occupation with this material will fre- 
quently prove perplexing and troublesome to 
the pupil ; oftentimes he will try in vain to 
represent the object in his mind. 

Having almost successfully accomplished 
the task, one of the slats will glide out from 
his structure, and the whole will be a mass of 
ruins. It was the one slat, which, owing to 
its dereliction in performing its duty, destroyed 
the figure, and prevented all the others from 
performing theirs. 




Fig. 43. 

It will not be difficult for the thinking 
teacher to derive from such an occurrence, the 
opportunity to make an application to other 
conditions in life, even within the sphere of the 
young child, and his companions in and out of 
school. The character of this occupation does 
not admit of its introduction before the pupils 
have sjient a considerable time in the Kinder- 
garten, in which it is only begun, and con- 
tinued in the primary department. 



THE SIXTEENTH GIFT. 



THE SLAT WITH MANY LINKS. 

»♦» 



This occupation material, which may be 
used at almost auy grade of development in 
the Kindergarten, the primary and higher 
school departments, is rich in its application, 
and may be employed in representing various 
kinds of lines and angles. 

In making simple geometrical figures the 
gift is invaluable and the forms of life and 
beauty which may be produced with it offer 
profitable exercise for the inventive powers of 
the child. A few figures here given may sug- 
gest the possibilities of this gift in the several 
classes of outlines to which it is adapted. 





Fig 



We have slats with four, six, eight and six- 
teen links, which are introduced one after the 
other when opportunities offer. In putting the 
first in the hand of the child we would ask 
him to unfold all the links of the slat, and to 
place it upon the table so as to represent a 
vertical, horizontal and then an oblique line. 




By bending two of the links vertically and 
the two others horizontally we form a right 
angle. Bending one of the links of the angle 
toward or from the other, we receive the acute 
and obtuse angles, which grow smaller or 
larger, the nearer or farther the links are 



brought to, or from each other, until we re- 
duce the angles to either a vertical line of two 
links' length, or a horizontal line of the length 
of four links. 

We may then form a square, Fig. 1. Push- 
ing two opposite corners of it toward each 
other, and bending the first link so as to cover 




Fig. 



Fig. 6. 



with it the second, and, then joining the end 
of the fourth link to where the first and second 
are united, we shall form an equilateral tri- 
angle, Fig. 2. (Which other triangle can be 
formed with this slat, and how?) 

The capital letters V, W, N, M, Z, and the 




figure four can be easily produced by the chil- 
dren, and many figures constructed by the 
teacher in which the pupils may designate the 
number and kinds of angles, which they con- 
tain, as is done with the movable slats on other 
occasions. 

Fig. 1-8 are examples given with the four 



248 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 10. 





Fig. 14. 




Fig. 15. 




Fig. 16. 



Fig. 1 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 



Fig. 18. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



249 



links. The slats with six links are introduced 
next, from which the oblong may be made. 
Figs. 9-21 furnish examples of the six links. 




Fig. 19. 




Fig. 22. 
Then come the eight and sixteen links, which if 
used in the manner here indicated can be ren- 
dered exceedingly interesting and instructive 



to the pupils. A combination of the different 
forms of knowledge may be made, as two equi- 
laterals, Fig. 15 ; a square and triangle, Fig. 
21 ; a square and pentagon, Fig 35 ; oblong 




Fig. 23. 
and rhombus, Fig. 36, etc. Figs. 22-35 are 
figures made with the eight links and Figs. 36- 
45 with the sixteen links. 

The ingenuity and inventive power of the 
children will find a large field in the occupation 




Fig. 24. 
with this material, if, at times, they are allowed 
to produce figures themselves, of which the 
more advanced pupils may make drawings and 
give a description of each orally. 




Fig. 25. 
It would be needless to enlarge here upon the 
richness of material afforded by this gift, as half 
an hour's study of and practice with it will con- 
vince eacli thinking teacher fully of the treasure 
in her hand and certainly make her admire it on 
account of the simplicity of its application for 
educational purposes in school and family. 



250 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 26. 





Fig. 29. 




Fig. 30. 



Fig. 27. 





Fig. 28. 



Fig. 31. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



251 




Fig. 32. 




Fig. 35. 





Fig. 36. 



Fig. 33. 





Fig. 34. 



Fio-. 37. 



252 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 





Fig. 38. 



Fig. 40. 




Fig. 39. 



Fig. 41. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



253 




Fie. 42. 



Fie. 44. 




Fig. 43. 



Fi2\ 45 o 



THE SEVENTEENTH GIFT. 

MATERIAL FOR INTERTWINING. 



Intertwining is an occupation similar to 
that of interlacing. Aim of both is represen- 
tation of plane — outlines. In the occupation 
with the interlacing slats we produced forms, 
whose peculiarities, at least, had to be changed 
to produce something new ; here, w r e produce 
permanent results. There, the material was 
in every respect a ready one; here, the pupil 
has to prepare it himself. There, hard slats 
of little flexibility ; here, soft paper, easily 
changed. There, production of purely math- 
ematical forms by carefully employing a given 
material ; here, production of similar forms by 
changing the material, which forms, however, 
are forms of beauty. 



First, a right-angled isosceles triangle is used 
for laying around it one of these strips so as 
to enclose it entirely. We begin with the left 
cathetus, put the tablet upon the strip, folding 
it toward the right over the right angle. The 





Fig. 1. 



The paper strips, not used when preparing 
the folding sheets, are used as material; adapted 
for the present occupation. They are strips 
of white or colored paper, twenty inches long 
and varying in breadth. Each strip is sub 



break of the paper is well to be pressed down, 
and then the strip is again folded around the 
acute angle toward the left. Where the hy- 
potenuse (large side) touches the left cathetus 



zn 4\ 




Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. 



Fig. 10. 



divided in smaller strips, which by folding (small side), the strip is cut and the ends of 

their long sides are transformed to threefold the figure there closed by gluing them together 

strips of eight to ten inches long and one- by some clean adhesive matter. Care should 
quarter of an inch wide. 




Fig. 3. 

The children will not succeed well, in form- 
ing regular figures from these strips at first. 
As the main object of this occupation is to ac- 
custom the child to a clean, neat and correct 



V 



\ 



Fig. 11. 

betaken that the one end of each side be under, 
performance of his task, some of the tablets of the other over, that of the other. 
Gift Seven are given him as patterns to assist Thus the various kinds of triangles, (Figs, 
him; or the child is led to draw three, four, 1-3), squares, rhombus, rhomboids, etc., are 
or many cornered forms, and to intertwine his produced, 
paper strips according to these. Two like figures are combined, as shown in 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



255 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 




rt> 



M/ 



Fie. 14. 



Fig. 15. 




Fig. 16. 






Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 




Fig. 20. 




Fig. 17. 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 22. 



256 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



Figs. 4-6. If strips prove to l>e too short 
the child is shown how to glue them together, 
to procure material for larger and more com- 
plicated forms. Thus, it produces with one 
long strip, Figs. 16, 18, 10, 20 ; with two long 
strips, Figs. 17, 21. Fig. 22 shows the natu- 
ral size ; all others are drawn on a somewhat 
reduced scale. It cannot be difficult to pro- 
duce a great variety of similar figures, if one 
will act according to the motives obtained with 
and derived from the occupation with the in- 
terlacing slats. 




Fig. 23. 

This occupation admits of still another and 
A'ery beautiful modification, by not only pinch- 
ing and pressing the strip where it forms 
angles, but by folding it to a rosette. This 
process is illustrated in Figs. 7-9. The strip 
is first pinched toward the right, (Fig. 7), then 
follows the second pinch downwards, (Fig. 8). 
then a third toward the left, when the one end 
of the strip is pushed through under the other. 
(Fig. 9). 

Here, also, simple triangles, squares, pen- 
tagons and hexagons are to be formed, then 

EDITOR' 

Preface the work of intertwining by a divi- 
sion of the strip, which may be folded to dif- 
ferent widths according to the design required. 
Exercises in position are interesting. Any ob- 
ject that can be represented by a fiat outline 
can be made with the strips, in forms of life, 
knowledge and beauty, and then mounted on 
sheets of bristol board for safe keeping. In 
the geometrical forms the square, oblong, right 
isosceles and equilateral triangles, and the hex- 
agon and octagon, give fundamental forms for 
a large number of designs. 

This gift, however, is better adapted for older 
children than are found in the kindergarten, 



two like figures combined, and finally more 
complicated figures produced. (Compare ex- 
amples given in Figs. 10-15). 

Whatever issues from the child's hand suffi- 
ciently neat and clean and carefully wrought, 
may be mounted on stiff paper or bristol board 
and disposed of in many ways. 

The occupation of intertwining shows plainly 
how by combination of simple mathematical 
forms, forms of beauty may be produced. 
These latter should predominate in the Kinder- 




Fig. 24. 

garten, and the mathematical are of impor- 
tance as they present the elements for their 
construction. The mathematical element of 
all our occupations is in so far of significance, 
as the child receives from it impressions of 
form ; but of much more importance is the de- 
velopment of the child's taste for the beautiful, 
because with it, the idea of the good is de- 
veloped in the meantime. 

As the various performances of this occu- 
pation, cutting, folding and mounting, require 
a somewhat skilled hand, it is introduced in 
the upper section of the Kindergarten only. 

S NOTES. 

as it requires gi"eater dexterity and accuracy 
than the little ones have at their command. The 
simplest work for them is the making of paper 
chains from strips about three inches long. 
Make a chain by joining the ends and fastening 
them with paste. Put a new strip of paper 
through the last ring made, each time before 
joining the ends. Alternate rings of two har- 
monizing colors may be used with a pretty effect. 
The two colors may be mixed and given to the 
children to sort, before beginning to paste. 
Rings, bracelets, necklaces, and long chains 
make a pleasant variety and teach the children 
neatness in pasting and harmony in color. 



THE EIGHTEENTH GIFT. 

MATERIAL FOR PAPER FOLDING. 



Frcebel's sheet of paper for folding, the 
simplest and cheapest of all materials of occu- 
pation, contains within it a great multitude of 
instructive and interesting forms. Almost 
every feature of mathematical perceptions, 
obtained by means of previous occupations, 
we again find in the occupation of paper fold- 
ing. It is indeed a compendium of elemen- 



pany the work of the children with necessary 
conversation and pleasant entertainment, for 
the relief of their young minds. 

The child should be accustomed to the 
strictest care and cleanliness in the folding. . 

This is necessary, because paper carelessly 





Fig. 1 



folded and cut, will not only render more 
difficult every following task, nay, make im- 
possible every satisfactory result ; especially 
should this be the case, because, we do not 



tary mathematics, and has, therefore, very 

justly and judiciously been recommended as a intend simply to while away our own and the 

useful help in the teaching of this science in 

public schools. 




\ 








y 


\ 














V i 

\ / 

V 

/ \ 


y 




/' 








\ 


■' 








\, 



Fig. 2. 

Lines, angles, figures and forms of all Fig. 4. 

varieties appear before us, after a few mo- child's precious time, but are engaged in an 

ments' occupation with this material. The occupation whose final aim is acquisition of 

multitude of impressions, however, should not ability to work, and to work well— one of the 

misguide us ; and we should always, and more most important claims human society is en- 

particularly in this work, be careful to accom- titled to make upon each individual. 



258 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



The fundamental forms are produced by a 
series of regular changes of folding and creas- 
ing, from which sequels of forms of life and 
beauty are subsequently developed, by means 
of the law of opposites. 




Fig. 5. 

On the road to this goal, a surprising num- 
ber of forms of knowledge present themselves. 

In beginning lessons in paper folding give 
each child a piece of paper four inches square, 
(Fig. 1), and have him place it on the table 



Fig. 6. 
with the corner toward him. Fold the upper 
corner over to meet the lower corner, as shown 
in Fig. 2. This when unfolded will show the 
division of the square in two right-angled isos- 
celes triangles, (Fig. 3). 



Fold again on the other diagonal, and when 
unfolded we find a square divided by two diago- 
nals into four right-angled isosceles triangles, 
(Fig. 4). Now the lower and right hand cor- 
ners are folded over to the left, making two 
oblong halves by a transversal as in Fig. 5. 





Fig. 7. 
The same is done to the opposite transversal 
and when unfolded we have Fig. 6, which af- 
fords a multitude of mathematical object per- 
ceptions. With the square placed cornerwise, 
fold the lower corner to the center of the paper 
and the pentagon, Fig. 7, will be the result. 
We fold the opposite corner in like manner 
and produce the hexagon, (Fig. 8), and fi- 
nally with the two remaining corners, Fig. 9 
is formed, containing four triangles, touching 
one another with their free sides, each of them 
again showing a line halving them in two equal 
triangles. 



Fig. 8. 

If we invert Fig. 9, we have Fig. 10, a con- 
nected square in which the outlines of eight 
congruent triangles appear. If Fig. 9 is un- 
folded we shall see beside a multiplication of 
previous forms, parallelograms also. If we 
start from Fig. 9, and fold the corners toward 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



259 



the middle as in Fig. 11, we shall receive a basket, Fig. 16. Cup and saucer, Fig. l7. 

form consisting of four thickness of paper, Crown, Fig. 18. Still richer become the forms 

and showing four triangles, under which again, of life, if we bend the corners of the described 

four separate squares are found, (Fig. 12). fundamental form, once more toward the mid- 

This is the fundamental form for a series of die. In connection with this, the manual 



forms of life. 




Fig. 9. 
It is utterly impossible to give a minute de- 
scription how forms of life may be produced 
from this fundamental form. Practical at- 
tempts and occasional observation in the Kin- 




Fig. 10. 
dergarten will be of more assistance than the 
most detailed illustrations and descriptions. 
Froebel's Manual mentions, among others, the 




Fig. 11. 
following objects : A table-cloth with 
hanging corners, Fig. 13. A sailboat. 



four 
Fig. 



mentions the following forms : The knitting- 
pouch, the chest of drawers, the boots, the hat, 
the cross, the pantaloons, the frame, the gon- 
dola, etc. But the simple fundamental form 




Fig. 12. 
for the forms of life, (Fig. 12), is also the 
fundamental form for the forms of beaut} 7 . 
Unfold the fundamental form and press the 
middle of the upper and lower sides, then the 




Fig. 13. 

remaining two sides to the center of the square, 
as in Fig. 19. Fold each of the overreaching 
triangles to the left, Fig. 20, then back to the 
center of the square, Fig. 21. 




14. A double canoe, Fig. 15. A little work- 



Fig. 14. 

Once more fold back to the outer corner, 

Fig. 22. This forms a small triangle, which 

when pressed open will form a small square, 

Fig. 23. Turning each corner of this square 



260 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 




Fig. 20. 




j>\ 


v- 


A 


N 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 22. 




Fig. 23. 




Fig. 25. 




Fig. 27 




Fig. 29. 






Fig. 31. 






Fig. 24. 




Fig. 26. 




Fig. 28. 




Fig. 30. 




Fig. 32. 



back half way to its opposite corner we have this form take the paper as in Fig. 19, open 
Fig. 24. From a similar fundamental form and press each corner to the center making 
the series of Figs. 26-34 originate To make four small squares as in Fig. 25. From this 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



26L 



form the sequence is easily produced. If we 
finally take the paper as represented in Fig. 
10, fold the lower right corner toward the mid- 
dle, also the left upper, then the two remain- 
ing corners, we shall have four triangles con- 





Fig. 33. Fig. 34. 

sisting of a double layer of paper, Fig. 35, 
which may lie lifted up from the square ground 
and the upper layer again divided in triangles. 




L 



Fig. 36. Fig. 30. 

Invert this figure and you will have four 
single squares, as shown in Fig. 36, which is 
the fundamental form of a series of forms of 





Fig. 61. Fig. 

beauty, shown in Figs. 37—46, the latter easily 
derived from this former under the guidance 
of the well-known law of opposites. 





Fig. 39. Fig. 40. 

The hints given in the above might be aug- 
mented to a considerable extent and still not 
exhaust the matter. They are given especially 



to stimulate teacher and child to individual, 
practical attempts in producing forms by fold- 





Fig. 41. Fig. 42. 

ing. The best results of their activity can be 
improved by cutting out or coloring, which 
adds a new and interesting change to this oc- 
cupation. A change of the fundamental form 
in three directions yields various series of forms 
of beauty, which may be multiplied ad iwfini- 





Fig. 43. Fig. 44. 

turn. Thereby, not only the idea of sequel in 
representations is given, but also the under- 
standing unlocked for the various orders in 
nature. 

Furthermore, this occupation gives the pupil 
such manual dexterity as scarcely any other 
does, and prepares the way to various female 
occupations, besides being immediately pre- 
paratory to all plastic work. Early training 





Fig. 45. Fig. 16. 

in cleanliness and care is also one of the re- 
sults of a protracted use of the folding paper. 
It is evident that only those children who have 
been a good while in the Kindergarten, can be 
employed in this department of occupation. 
The peculiar fitness of the folding paper for 
mathematical instruction beyond the Kinder- 
garten, must be apparent after we have shown 
how useful it can be made in this institution. 



262 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



The material for paper folding consists of 
square, rectangular, triangular and circular 
pieces of various colors. Begin the lessons 
with a talk ou the material, telling the process 
by which paper is made, and asking the chil- 
dren to name different articles which are made 
from it, and different things for which it is 
used. When the papers are given to the chil- 
dren and placed in the position directed, have 
them quietly wait until all are ready to begin 
work. See that they thoroughly understand 
the different positions, as front, back, right, 
left, front-right, back-left, front-left, and back- 
right. Bring out the ideas of edge, corner, 
vertical, horizontal aud diagonal lines. In giv- 
ing dictations see that the children work by op- 
posites, and that they do not lift or turn the 
paper, as they should learn to fold in all direc- 
tions equally well. Let them name and use 



try can be evolved and this fact is pleasingly 
brought out in this occupation. For these ex- 
ercises the four-inch paper is most convenient 
and a single fold on a diameter gives the semi- 
circle shown in Fig. 47. Fold again bringing 
the two ends of the diameter together, and the 
quarter circle shown in Fig. 48 is the result. 
Unfold and Fig. 4 ( J shows the circle divided into 
four equal parts by two creases perpendicular to 
each other. Fold the edge of the circle over 
towards the center so as to make a crease join- 
ing the ends of two diameters, and repeat four 
times to produce Fig. 50. Unfold, and Fig. 51 





Fig. 47. Fig. 48. 

the forms they make, taking a fresh square for 
each object. The folds are repeated every time, 
but each additional fold makes a new object, 
which, if named, helps the children to remem- 
ber the order of succession, especially if a story 
is added, and they can use the object. Arrange 
the folding according to the season of the year 
and the special subject of the week, and yet 
follow a sequence that the children may see 
the development of one form from another. 





Fig. 49. Fig. 50. 

By the means of paper folding we are able to 
trace the evolution of the seventh gift tablets 
from the circular folding paper. As the ball 
is the most elementary form among solids, so the 
circle is the primary form in surfaces with its 
single dimension, the diameter. From the circle 
the several elementary forms in plain geome- 





Fio-. 51. 



Fig. 52. 



is the result, showing by the creases a complete 
square with two diagonals. In these we have 
the square and half square, which is again di- 
vided into two other similar forms each one half 
the size of the first. Take another paper circle 
and again fold on one diameter,as in Fig. 47. 
The next operation is somewhat more difficult 
than any which have preceded it and is shown 
in Fig. 52. This operation consists in folding 
the semi-circumference of the once folded circle 
into three equal parts, Fig. 52, and then, while 





holding the circumference edges together closely 
making the folds to the center of the circle. 
In this operation accuracy may be facilitated 
by first foldiug the semi-circumference into 
halves as though the paper were to be folded 
into quarters as in Fig. 48 and then, instead of 
completing the radial fold, just pinch the fold 
at the center of the circle and thus indicate the 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



203 



common point of meeting for the two folds in 
completing Fig. 52. Having completed Fig. 52, 
unfold, and Fig. 5 3 is the result. Now fold the 




Fig. 55. 
segments of the circle towards the center as 
was done in making the square but instead of 
having the fold subtend ninety degrees let it 
subtend one hundred and twenty degrees so 



that three folds will form a triangle as in 
Fig. 54. Unfold, and Fig. 55 is is result. In 
this we have the equilateral triangle a, b, c. 
The obtuse angle a, h, x, the scalene-triangle 
a, b, d, or the smaller one b, x, d. 

The above evolution of the seventh gift 
forms from the circle, is the result of thought 
along this line by kindergarteners in America, 
and has been extended to the evolution of solid 
forms from the sphere, which it is not in the 
province of these notes to discuss. This oc- 
cupation is one of the best for busy work in 
the primary department because of its practical 
application to form and number. Modern sug- 
gestions may be found in Paper and Scissors 
in the Schoolroom by Emily A. Weaver, and 
also in other books. 



THE NINETEENTH GIFT. 
MATERIAL FOR PEAS- WORK. 



"We have already tried, in connection with 

the Eighth Gift, (the laying sticks), to ren- 
der permanent the productions of the pupils 
hy stitching or pasting them to stiff paper. 
We satisfied by so doing a desire of the child, 



To satisfy the claims of the pupils in this 
direction in a high degree, the working with 
peas is eminently fitted, although considerable 






© 



',-> 



W 



K^ 



@ 



38* 



Fig 1. Fig. 2. 

which grows stronger as the child grows older, 
the desire to produce by his own activity cer- 
tain lasting results, it is no longer the in- 



Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

manual skill is required for it, not to be ex- 
pected in any child before the fifth year. The 
material consists of pieces of wire of the thick- 



cipient instinct of activity which governs the ness of a hair-pin, of various sizes in length. 





Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

child, the instinct which prompted him ap- 
parently without aim, to destroy everything 
and to reconstruct in order to again destroy. 







Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

and pointed at the ends. They again repre- 
sent lines. As means of combination, as em- 
bodied points of junction, peas are used, 
soaked about twelve hours in water and dried 



Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

A higher pleasure of production has taken its 
place; not satisfied by mere doing, but requir- 
ing for his satisfaction also, delight in the 
created object — if even unconsciously — the de- 
light of progress, which manifests itself in the 
production, and which can lie observed only 
in and by the permanency of the object which 
enables us to compare it with objects previous- 
ly produced. 




Fig. 11. Fig. 12. 

one hour previous to being used. They are 
then just soft enough to allow the child to in- 
troduce the points of the wires into them and 
also hard enough to afford a sufficient hold to 
the latter. 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



2(35 



The first exercise is to combine two wires, 
by means of one pea, into a straight line, an 
obtuse, right and acute angle. What has been 
said in regard to laving of sticks in connection 
with Figs. 1-23 sticks of that gift will serve 
here also. 




duce six triangles of equal size, and repeat 
with them all the exercises, gone through with 
the tablets, and may enlarge upon them. 

Or the child may prepare four, eight, sixteen 
right-angled triangles, or obtuse-angled, or acute- 
angled triangles and lay with them Figs. 1-12 
for the course of drawing, and carry them out 
still further. 



Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

Of three wires, a longer line is formed; 
angles, with one long, and one short side. 
The three wires are introduced into one pea, 





Fig. 15. Fig. 16. 

so that they meet in one point : two parallel 
lines may he continued by a third; finally the 
equilateral triangle is produced. 



Fig. 18. 

After these hints it seems impossible not to 
occupy the child in an interesting and instruc- 
tive manner ; for the condition attached to 
each new gift of the Kindergarten is some 
special progress in its course. 

We produced outlines of many objects with 
the sticks; all formations, however, remained 
planes, whose sides were represented by sticks. 




Fig. 17. 

Then follows the square, parallelogram, 
rhomboid ; diagonals may be drawn and the 
forms shown in Figs. 1-10 be produced. 
The possibility of representing the most mani- 
fold forms of knowledge, of life and of beauty 
is reached, and the forms produced may be 
used for other purposes. The child may pro- 



Fig. 19. Fig. 20. 

In the working with peas, the wires represent 
edges, the peas serve as corners, and these 
skeleton bodies are so much more instructive, 
as they allow the observation of the outer 
forms in their outlines and the inner structure 
and being of the body, at the same time. 
The child unites two equilateral triangles by 



266 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



three equally long wires, and forms thereby a 
prism, (Fig. 13) ; four equilateral triangles, 
give the three-sided pyramid ; eight of them, 
the octahedron. (Figs. 14 and 15). 

From two equal squares, united by four 
wires of the length of the sides, the skeleton 
cube, Fig. 16, is formed; if the uniting wires 
are longer than the sides of the square, the 
four-sided column (Fig. 17); if one of the 
squares is larger than the other, a topless pyra- 
mid will be produced, etc. Fig. 18, shows a 
combination of cubes. 

It is hardly possible that pupils of the 
Kindergarten should make any further prog- 




Fig. 21. 
ress in the formation of these mathematical 
forms of crystallization, as the representation 
of the many-sided bodies, and especially this 
development of one from another, requires 
greater care and skill than should be expected 
at such an early period of life. It will be re- 
served for the primary, and even a higher 
grade of school, to proceed farther on the road 
indicated, and in this manner prepare the 
pupil for a clear understanding of regular 
bodies. 

This, however, does not exclude the con- 
struction by the more advanced pupils of the 
kindergarten, of simple objects, in their sur- 
roundings, such as benches, (Fig. 19), chairs, 
(Fig. 20), baskets, etc., or to try to invent 
other objects. 



"Whoever has himself tried peas- work, will be 
convinced of its utility. Great care, and much 
patience, are needed to produce a somewhat 
complicated object ; but a successful structure 
repays the child for all painstaking and per- 
severance. By this exercise, the pupils im- 
prove in readiness of construction, and this is 
an important preparation for organization. 

More advanced pupils try also, successfully, 
to construct letters and numerals, with the 
material of this gift. 




Fig. 22. 
The bodies produced by peas work may be 
used as models in the modeling department. 
The one occupation is the complement of the 
other. The skeleton cube allows the observa- 
tion of the qualities of the solid cube, in 
greater distinctness. The image of the body 
becomes in this manner more perfect and clear, 
and above all, the child is led upon the road, 
on which alone he is enabled to come into 
possession of a true knowledge and correct 
estimate of tilings ; the road on which he learns, 
not only to observe the external appearance 
of things, but in the meantime, and always 
to look at their internal being. 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



The outline solids made in the peas work 
are merely the forerunners of the wire models 
now so highly prized by all teachers of draw- 
ing, in illustrating the elementary principles of 
perception. As the more elaborate forms can 
only be made by the more advanced pupils of 
the kindergarten, they may be rendered valu- 
able in imparting these same principles to the 



kindergarten pupils in their drawing exercises, 
even though these pupils are not able to very 
correctly represent the forms in their drawing. 

Various substitutes for soaked peas have 
been suggested and tried, as cork cubes and 
clay pellets used while soft, but still good peas 
are visually preferred. 

Instead of wire, thin, round sticks are used, 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



267 



which, when sharpened at the ends, are not so 
liable to split the peas. 

In the first lesson give one dry pea and ask 
the children to tell you of other tilings which are 
of the same shape. Lead them back to the 
ball and develop various exercises which will 
recall the Ideas of movability, smoothness, hard- 
ness, roundness and dryness, then give each 
child a pea which has been soaked in water, 
and lead the class to a comparison of size and 
hardness. 

Call attention to the crease which divides 
the pea into halves, and show how readily the 
outer covering may be taken off. Give a talk 
on peas, how they are planted, how they sleep, 
are fed and watered, how they are awakened, 
drawing out the ideas of the children by va- 
rious questions. Have them lay designs with 
peas in the sand or on the peg boards. Let 



them outline walks and flower beds, with stars 
crosses and crescents in them. 

After the pea has been carefully studied give 
the children a stick and let them put a pea on 
one end of it, telling what they have made, 
then one on the other end, letting them always 
name and use what they make. 

When the children are ready add more sticks 
and peas, and as nearly all things made are 
built on geometric forms it is well that the 
pupils should first learn to make the square, 
oblong and triangle, then they will be able to 
construct many objects. 

Numberless life forms may be built from 
this gift, as a garden with the various imple- 
ments, or a house and many pieces of furni- 
ture, the children feeling amply rewarded in 
the results for the care and patience needed 
to construct these articles. 



THE TWENTIETH GIFT. 

MATERIAL FOR MODELING. 



Modeling, or working in clay, held in high 
estimation by Froebel, as an essential part of 
the whole of his means of education is, strange 
to say, much neglected in the Kindergarten. 
As the main objection to it named is that the 
children even with the greatest care, cannot 
prevent occasionally soiling their hands and 
their clothes. Others, again believe that an 
occupation, directly preparing for art, very 
rarely can be continued in life. They call it 
therefore, aimless pastime without favorable 
consequences, either for internal development 
or external happiness. 

If it must be admitted, that the soiling of 
the hands and clothing cannot always be 
avoided, we hold that for this very reason, 
this occupation is a capital one, foritwill give 
an opportunity to accustom the children to 
care, order and cleanliness, provided the 
teacher herself takes care to develop the sense 
of the pupils, for these virtues, in connection 
with this occupation ; as on all other oc- 
casions, she should strive to excite the sense 
of cleanliness as well as purity. Certainly, 
parts of the adhesive clay will stick to the little 
lingers and nails of the children, and their 
wooden knives, but, pray, what harm can 
grow out of this? The child may learn even 
from this fact. It may be remarked in con- 
nection with it, that the callous hand of the 
husbandman, the dirty blouse of the mechanic, 
only show the occupation, and cannot take 
aught from the inner worth of a man. As re- 
gards the objection to this occupation as aim- 
less and without result, it should be considered 
that occupation with the beautiful, even in its 
crudest beginnings, always bears good fruit, 
because it prepares the individual for a true 
appreciation and noble enjoyment of the same. 
Jus1 in this the significance of Frcebel's educa- 
tional idea partly rests, that it strives to open 
every human heart for the beautiful and good 
— that it particularly is intended to elevate the 
social position of the laboring classes, by meaus 
of education not only in regard to knowledge 
and skill, but also, in regard to development 
of refinement and feeling. 

Representing, imitating, creating, or trans- 
forming in general, is the child's greatest en- 



joyment. Bread-crumbs are modeled by him 
into balls, or objects of more complicated form, 
and even when biting bits from his cooky, it 
is the child's desire to produce form. If a 
piece of wax, putty or other pliable matter, 
falls into his hands, it is kneaded until it as- 
sumes a form, of which they may assert that 
it I'epresents a baby, — the dog Roamer, or 
what not ! Wet sand, they press into their 
little cooking utensils, when playing "■house- 
keeping," and pass off the forms as puddings, 
tarts, etc ; in one word most children are born 
sculptors. Could this fact have escaped Froe- 
bel's keen observation? He has provided the 
means to satisfy this desire of the child, to de- 
velop also this talent in its very awakening. 

According to Froebel's principle, the first 
exercises in modeling are representation of the 
fourteen stereometric fundamental forms of 
crystallization, which he presents in a box, by 
themselves, as models. Starting from the cube 
the cylinder follows — then the sphere, pyramid 
with three, four and six sides, the prism in its 
various formations of planes, the octahedron 
or decahedron and cosahedron, or bodies with 
eight, twelve and twenty equal sides or faces, 
etc. However interesting and instructive this 
course may be, we prefer to begin with some- 
what simpler performances, leaving this branch 
of this department for future time. 

The child receives a small quantity of clay, 
(wax may also be used), a wooden knife, a 
small board, and a piece of oiled paper, on 
which he performs the work. If clay is used, 
this material should be kept in wet rags, in a 
cool place, and the object formed of it, dried 
in the sun, or in a mildly- heated stove, and 
then coated with gum arable, or varnish, which 
gives them the appearance of crockery. 

First the child forms a sphere, from which 
he may produce many objects. If he attaches 
a stem to it, it is a cherry ; if he adds depres- 
sions and elevations, which represent the dried 
calyx, it will look like an apple ; from it the 
pear, nut, potato, a head, may be molded, 
etc. Many small balls made to adhere to 
one another, may produce a bunch of grapes, 
(Figs. 1-5). 

From the ball or sphere, a cylindrical body 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



269 



may be formed, (Fig. 6), by rolling on the resents it easily, if perhaps not exactly true. 



board, usually called by the children a loaf of 
bread, a caudle, loaf of sugar, etc. 

A bottle, (Fig. 8), a bag, (Fig. 9), filled 
with flour or something else, can also easily be 
produced. 




Fig. 1. II Fig. 2. 

Very soon the child will present the 

cube, (Fig. 11 ), an old acquaintance and Pa- 
rnate. From it, he produces a house, a box, a 
coffee mill and similar things. Soon other fonns 
of life will grow intoexistence,as plates, dishes, 





Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

animals and human beings, houses, churches, 
birds' nests, etc. If this occupation is intended 
to be more than mere entertainment, it is neces- 
sary to guide the activity of the child in a de- 
finite direction. 






Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

The best direction to be followed in Free- 
bel's occupations is that for the development 
of regular forms of bodies. The fundamental 
form, of course, is the sphere. The child rep- 



By pressing and assisted by his knife, the 
one plane of the sphere is changed to several 
planes, corners, and edges, which produces the 
cube. If the child chauges its corners to 
planes (indicated in Fig. 12), a form of four- 
teen sides is produced. If this process is con- 
tinued so that the .planes of the cube are 





Fis. 9. 



Fis. 



changed to corners, the octahedren is the result, 
(Fig. 13). By continued change of edges to 
planes aud of planes to corners, the most im- 
portant regular forms of crystallization will be 
produced, which occupation, however, as men- 
tioned before, belougs rather to a higher grade 
of school, and is, therefore, better postponed 
until after the Kindergarten training. 

Some regular bodies are more easily formed 
from the cylinder, the mediation between the 




Fig. 11. 

sphere and cube. By a pressure of the hand? 
or by means of his knife, the child changes the 
one round plane to three or four planes, and 
as many edges, producing thereby the prism 
and the four-sided column. 

If Ave reduce the circular surface of one end 
of the cylinder to a point at its center, and 
connect this point with the circumference of the 
other end with a curved surface, we have a 
cone. If we change this new conical surface 



270 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



to a number of plane triangles we shall have 
for a base a polygon and the curved surface 
reduced to several triaugles. If we act in the 
same manner with the other end of the cylin- 
der, we may form a double cone, and from it 
we may produce a double pyramid. If again 
we take the cylinder and change its circular 
edges to a definite number of planes, we again 
have the sphere. 



n^\ 



,A 



V 




Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 

Well formed specimens may, to acquire 
greater durability, be treated as indicated pre- 
viously. The production of forms and figures 
from soft and pliable material belongs, un- 
doubtedly, to the earliest and most natural 
occupations of the human race, and has served 
all plastic arts as a starting-point. The occu- 
pation of modeling, then, is eminently fit to 
carry into practice FroebePs idea that children, 
in their occupations, have to pass through all 
the general grades of development of human 
culture in a diminished scale. The natural 
talent of the future architect or sculptor, lying- 
dormant in the child, must needs be called forth 
and developed by this occupation, as by a self- 
acting and inventing construction and forma- 
tion, all innate talents of the child are made 
to grow into visible reality. 



If we now cast a retrospective look upon 
the means of occupation in the Kindergarten 
we find that the material progresses from the 
solid and whole, in gradual steps to its parte, 
until it arrives at the image upon the plane, 
and its conditions as to line and point. For 
the heavy material, fit only to be placed upon 
the table in unchanged form (the building- 
blocks), a more flexible one is substituted in 
the following occupations : Wood is replaced 
by paper. The paper plane of the folding occu- 
pation, is replaced by the paper strip of the 
weaving occupation, as line. The wooden 
stick, or very thin wire, is then introduced for 



the purpose of executing permanent figures in 
connection with peas, representing the point. 
In place of this material the drawn line then 
appears, to which colors are added. Perforat- 
ing and embroidering introduces another 
addition to the material to create the images 
of fantasy, which, in the paper cutting and 
mounting, again receive new elements. 

The modeling in clay, or wax, affords the 
immediate plastic artistic occupation, with the 
most pliable material for the hand of the child. 
Song introduces into the realm of sound, when 
movement plays, gymnastics and dancing, help 
to educate the body, and insure a harmonious 
development of all its parts. In practicing 
the technical manual performances of the 
mechanic, such as boring, piercing, cutting, 
measuring, uniting, forming, drawing, paint- 
ing and modeling, a foundation of all future 
occupation of artisan and artist — synonymous 
in past centuries — is laid. For ornamentation 
especially, all elements are found in the occu- 
pations of the Kindergarten. The forms of 
beauty in the paper-folding, serve as series 
of rosettes and ornaments in relief, as archi- 
tecture might employ them, without change. 
The productions in the braiding department 
contain all conditions of artistic weaving, nor 
does the cutting of figures fail to afford richest 
material for ornamentation of various kinds. 

For every talent in man means of develop- 
ment are provided in the Kindergarten ma- 
terial, opportunity for practice is constantly 
given, and each direction of the mind finds its 
starting-point in concrete things. No more 
complete satisfaction, therefore can be given 
to the claim of modem pedagogism, that all 
ideas should be founded on previous percep- 
tion derived from real objects, than is done in 
the genuine Kindergarten. 

Whosoever has acquired even a superficial 
idea only of the significance of FroebePs 
means of occupation in the Kindergarten, 
will be ready to admit that the ordinary play- 
things of children cannot, by any means, as 
regards their usefulness, be compared with 
the occupation material in the Kindergarten. 
That the former may, in a certain degree, be 
made helpful in the development of children, 
is not denied ; occasional good results with 
them, however, most always will be found to 
be owing to the child's owu instinct rather 
thau to the nature of the toy. Planless play- 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



271 



ing, without guidance and supervision, cannot 
prepare a child for the earnest side of life as 
well as for the enjoyment of its harmless 
amusements and pleasures. Like the plant, 
which, in the wilderness even, draws from the 
soil its nutrition, so the child's mind draws 
from its surroundings and the means, placed 
at its command, its educational food. But 
the rosebush, nursed and cared for in the 
garden by the skillful horticulturist produces 
flowers, far more perfect and beautiful than 
the wild growing sweet briar. Without care 
neither mind nor body of the child can be ex- 
pected to prosper. As the latter cannot, for 
a healthful development, use all kinds of food 
without careful selection, so the mind for its 
higher cultivation requires a still more careful 
choice of the means for its development. The 
child's free choice is limited only in so far as 
it is necessary to limit the amount of oc- 
cupation material in order to fit him for sys- 
tematic application. The child will find instinc- 
tively all that is requisite for his mental 
growth. if the proper material only be presented 
and a guiding mind indicate its most appro- 



priate use in accordance with a certain law. 

Froebel's genius has admirably succeeded in 
inventing the proper material as well as in 
pointing out its most successful application to 
prepare the child for all situations in future 
life, for all branches of occupation in the use- 
ful pursuits of mankind. 

When the Kindergarten was first established 
by him, it was prohibited in its original form 
and its inventor driven from place to place in 
his fatherland on account of his liberal educa- 
tional principles, which he wanted to have car- 
ried out in the Kindergarten. The keen eye of 
monarchial government officials quickly saw 
that such institutions could not turn out will- 
ing subjects to tyrannical oppression, and the 
rulers "by the grace of God" tolerated the Kin- 
dergarten, only when public opinion declared 
too strongly in its favor. 

In pleading the cause of the Kindergarten 
on the soil of republican America, is it asking 
too much that all may help in extending to 
the future generation the benefits which may 
be derived from an institution so eminently 
fit to educate free citizens of a free country? 



EDITOR'S NOTES. 



Iu accordance with the general scheme of 
this book the few simple illustrations accom- 
panying the text of the origiual edition are 
reproduced. Owing to the influence of the kin- 
dergarten the advance in educational thought 
in America during the past thirty-five years, 
has been so great that no argument is now nec- 
essary to convince progressive teachers that 
clay modeling should have a prominent place 
in primary instruction, and with the promotion 
of this occupation to the high place which it holds 
in the modern kindergarten, has come the pub- 
lication of suggestions and instructions for this 
work which are of great value, and are given 
more in detail than the space in this book will 
allow. Among these excellent hand-books 
perhaps none holds a higher place than "Clay 
Modeling in the Schoolroom" by Ellen Stephen 
Hildreth, who is a practical kindergartner and 
therefore handles her subject strictly according 
to kindergarten principles, although the work is 
carried somewhat further than may be possible 
during the kindergarten years. The methods 
of this author, as shown in an exhibit of kin- 
dergarten work sent from St. Louis to the Paris 



Exposition and afterward presented to Madam 
Marenholtz Von Bulow, received her unquali- 
fied endorsement which was expressed in a letter 
to Mrs. Hildreth at the time. In the opening 
sentences of the first chapter of "Clay Model- 
ing in the Schoolroom" the author says : — 

"Modeling in clay is valuable educationally 
because it enables us to comprehend and re- 




Fig. 14. 
produce ideas of form. With such knowledge 
we convert raw material to our use. It is also 
valuable as a stimulus to observation, develop- 
ing through reproduction the faculties of class- 



272 



QUARTER CENTURY EDITION 



ification and generalization. 

ing deals with universal type 
fied, blended and combined, 
the curved solids, and in the 
a definite method is given by 
may utilize modeling in the 
mind, at an age when sense 
strongest." 



The art of model- 

s of form, modi- 

These types are 

following pages 

which educators 

discipline of the 

impressions are 




Fig. 15. 
In accordance with a definite scheme the 
lessons are based on seven geometrical forms, 
the Sphere, Oblate Spheroid, Prolate Spheroid, 




Ovoid, Cone, Cylinder, and Cube in the order 

named, which are designated as Normal Types. 

This general classification is subdivided into 




The second Normal Type in this series is the 
Hemisphere. Typical objects, toadstool, Fig. 
17, Nelly Bly cap, Fig. 18. 

The third Normal Type, is a Circle. Typi- 
cal objects, sewing-basket, Fig. 19, bird's- 
nest, Fig. 20. 

A similar series is based on each of the 
above-named seven geometrical forms, and ex- 
plicit instructions given for the treatment of 




Fig. 18. 

each subject, with illustrations so that other 
forms and other typical objects can be handled 
intelligently from the directions furnished. For 
material the best artist's clay is most desirable 
and can be obtained from all dealers in kin- 
dergarten material or from potteries, if near at 




Fig. 19. 

hand. In such case ask for unmixed, washed 
clay. Clay prepared for firing is usually unfit 
for modeling. Mrs. Hildreth's instructions for 
preparing the clay are as follows : — 

"If the clay is dry, in lumps or powder, tie 
it up in a large cloth, as if it were a pudding. 
Place the cloth full of clay in a vessel, and pour 




Fig. 20. 
in water enough to cover the clay. After one or 
two hour's immersion take out the cloth full of 
Fig. 17. clay, and, without untying, knead thoroughly 

several series, one for each Normal Type. In the until the mass seems plastic, and perfectly free 
first series, the first Normal Type is the Sphere, from lumps. Open the cloth and examine it 
and the typical objects are sugar-bowl, F\g. 14, from time to time while kneading it. If too 
lunch-basket Fig. 15, and globe fish, Fig. 10. wet allow it to dry off, if too dry return to the 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



273 



water. When properly kneaded it will have a 
springy feeling under the lingers, and when 
rubbed smooth will glisten as if oily. It must 
not be wet enough to be sticky, or dry enough 
to feel hard to the touch. A little practice will 
enable the teacher to tell when it is just right. 
When worked into an elastic mass, replace in 
the empty pail the clay which is still in the 
cloth, and cover with several other folds of wet 



C 



Fig. 21. 

cloth. This keeps it in good condition. After 
each exercise any remnants or broken objects 
from previous exercises may be thoroughly wet 
and replaced in the cloth, at one side, in order 
that they may be softened and re-kneaded. In 
this way no clay is wasted." 

The clay as sold is usually in five pound, dry 
or six pound moist bricks, or in a powder. 
The most convenient form is dust-tight paper 
boxes of powder containing five pounds each. 

Artists in plastic materials use a great variety 



of fine box-wood modeling tools, but these are 
not necessary for elementary work, although a 
few simple tools or knives are quite desirable, 
and Figs. 21 and 22 illustrate two which 
seem to cover in very simple forms the princi- 
pal requisites. 



\ 



Fig. 22. 

Fig. 21 is a spatula or knife with a blade 
sharpened on both edges and rounded on the 
end, and a handle terminating in a point which 
is very useful in many operations. 

Fig. 22 is somewhat similar in shape but 
provided at the blade-end with a serrated edge 
for leveling down a flat surface of clay when 
it is required for a base or other purpose. 

In this tool the end of the handle is formed 
to a blunt rounded point which is very useful in 
many cases. Each of these tools is about six 
inches long and with them a very large variety of 
work can be done successfully 



THE KINDERGATEX GAMES. 



In the whole world of nature nothing de- 
velops without activity, consequently play or 
the exercising of the child's activity is the first 
means of development of the human mind, the 
means by which the child is to become ac- 
quainted with the outer world and his own pow- 
ers of body and mind. Watching the play of 
children Froebel found it was a spontaneous 
God-given activity, by which they were surely 
but unconsciously educating themselves, getting 
their first knowledge of duty and the truths of 
life through play. The games which are the 
organized plays, and the very life of the kin- 
dergarten,give the child the means of expression 
through the activities of the body, so that he 
can reproduce his individual life, for while in 
the occupations and gifts the children reproduce 
witli their hands, in the games they enter into 
the life and act out what they wish to repre- 
sent and for the time being are really these 
things, whether it be birds, trees, flowers, stars 
or water, thus developing and cultivating the 
imagination. 

, Every way which exists of expressing the 
inner life through the outer enriches us, and 



in the games the child gives forth freely all 
which he has taken in, and having thus made the 
unity which he sees and comprehends he be- 
comes fully conscious of it, and his whole life, 
inner and outer, is lifted to a higher plane. By 
means of the directed games the surplus energy 
of the child may be guided, the basis for study 
laid and the foundation principles in chemistry, 
physics, geometry, construction and design fur- 
nished, thus utilizing his activities for an 
educational purpose. 

The community spirit is fostered as the child 
finds he is only one of many, aud that each one 
has his part to do to make the many happy aud 
useful. It is also an aid to self-government, 
for through play he learns that certain effects 
follow certain causes, and in all that he does 
the child feels constant freedom under law and 
soon finds the closer he follows the law the 
more freedom he has. Thus the will of the child 
is guided and strengthened, and principles of 
justice, honesty and kindness are inculcated. 

The games representing the trades show 
ideas of labor and trade and our dependence 
upon them. The child is in turn a shoemaker, 



274 



PARADISE OF CHILDHOOD. 



a farmer, a baker, a blacksmith, and is thus 
brought into relations with the universal ac- 
tivities of the race and gains a respect for 
those who do in reality what he does in play. 
Such play broadens a child's view of life and 
creates an intelligent interest in the lives of 
many classes of workers, as he sees the skill, 
patience, and perseverance required on the 
part of these workers. Thus the intellectual 
nature is strengthened and developed and also 
the physical, as the games exercise and give 
more perfect control of the body, as well as 
grace and directness of movement. The physi- 
cal being is brought into activity, different sets 
of muscles being constantly used, until all 
parts of the body are engaged in active play. 
Children need to be free in thought and action, 
and as the child imitates the activities about 
him his environment cannot be overrated. We 
should gain the same freedom in our bodies to 
express clearly and simply the more mature 
ideas in our minds, so that we may always 
meet the little child on his own plane and from 
there lead him step by step to clearer sight and 
appreciation of the laws we wish to teach. 

Through the dramatic representation of sun, 
moon and stars and all plant and animal life 
the child is brought into sympathy and acquaint- 
ance with nature, and what he imitates he learns 
to understand and love. Thus nature grows 
dearer and the child's conception of all these 
newly-made friends more beautiful and vivid, 
awakening in him a spiritual truth which leads 
him to trace all life back to its source, making 
this the means of spiritual culture. There is 
nothing that cannot be made real to the child 
through games, and any truth may be impressed 
upon him that is a vital and necessary one. 

When the time for the games arrives the chil- 
dren sit with folded hands listening for a chord 
from the piano, which is a signal to stand. 
Another chord is struck and the children see 
how quietly they can put their chairs up to the 
table. Still another chord, and they turn and 
form in marching line, singing a simple melody, 
as : — 

"We'll march and march and march around. 
And marching gaily sing," etc., 

until they are in good line, then joining hands 
sing :— 

" This Is the way that we form our ring, 

Tra la la la tra la la la. 
Working together we gaily sing, 
Tra la la la la la. 



Each little pair of children's feet 
May help us to make our ring complete. 
So this is the way that we form our ring, 
Tra la la la la la." 

— Song Storiesi)i the Kindergarten. 

Thus au unbroken circle is formed which has 
its ethical significance in the fact that no indi 
vidual is more prominent than another, is but a 
part of a perfect whole, yet is responsible in 
himself for that whole. This song may be 
followed by another, as : — 

" See the children on our ring. 
Joining in our song ; 
They together form our ring, 
Standing straight and strong." 

— Song Stories in the Kindergarten. 

Then the kindergartner advances to the cen- 
ter of the circle, or bows to some child to do so, 
while all sing : — 

" Let us look at 



Si. happy and gay. 
Let us look at 



What does'she now play?" 

The child in the center then imitates by ges- 
ture the game she desires to play, and at the 
close of the play she chooses another child to 
take her place in the center of the circle, and 
so on, each new leader upon her entrance to the 
center being greeted with the above song. 

This is but a simple illustration of one way of 
opening the games and should not be followed 
literally, but be subject to the individu- 
ality of the teacher. The games should re- 
flect the prevailing thought of the day or week 
or season of the year, and the children should 
be made familiar with the life and work of the 
things they represent by means of pictures and 
talks and they will readily give spontaneous ex- 
pression to their conceptions of the subject. 
At the indication of the slightest disturbing 
element, a chord from the piano will instantly 
change the children into animals, birds, or a 
running stream, thus expressing nature and 
restoring harmony at once. 

Let the games be spontaneous, merely allow 
and guide the play spirit, keeping the child un- 
conscious by making the thing he does promi- 
nent and not the child. If the child does not 
choose wisely, by questioning and careful sug- 
gestions the kindergartner can usually get 
him to select a more suitable game, and all 
the games played can be woven into a whole 
which gives afeeling of unity and completeness. 



D 1137 01177bD 3 

Wheelock College Library 



41 












Wiebe. 
Paradise of 
childhood . 



Wiebe . 
Paradise of 
childhood . 



Stack Collect 

372.21 
W63p 

1896 



Stack Collection 

372.21 

W63p 
1896 



Wheelock College Library 

Boston, Mass. 





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